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with Introduction and Notes by 


" Every Englishman should take an interest 
in this the oldest poem in our ow^n tongue. 
...With its excellent notes and glossary, 
the present fine edition provides all that is 
required by the student, armed with an 
Anglo-Saxon grammar, who wishes to read 
for himself this interesting relic of old 
English poetry.'' the educational times 


829.3 Beowulf 



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3 3333 01729 1978 





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11 ^n^l UI^G:i|i^ ba^U2«\ IfeqS cynnf^ 
Wftxcijni mone:^ m<^pum nl€D^o j'ec:!^ 

^l^i lijLow, rui^e-^ feyn^Ji fcci^ 2;i>n)]?an' 
.rcc^t cerinei ><*?m5 iii^aap^utti pone ;ov^ 


MS. Cott. Vit. A. XV. (reduced) fol. 129^ (132^) 


na injear dajum. J^eod cyninja 
|7rym je frunon huSa aej^elinjas elle[n] 
fremedon. Oft scyld scefinj scea)7e[na] 
5 )7reatum monejum maejl^um meodo setla 
of teah ejsode eorl sySSan arrest wear[S] 
fea sceaft funden he l^aes frofre 5eba[d] 
weox under wolcnum weorS rayndum |;ah, 

o?S ]>£et him gejhwylc j^ara ymb sifctendra 
[o ofer hron rade hyran scolde joinban 

jyldan ]>iet waes jod cyninj. 5aem eafera wcbs 
aefter cenned jeonj injearduni )7one god 
sende folce tofrofre fyren Searfe on 
jeat ]>£et hie aer drujon aldor [lejase. lanje 
[5 hwile him )?aes lif frea wuldres wealdend 
worold are for jeaf beowulf wses breme 
blaed wide sprang scyldes eafera scede 
landiim in. Swa sceal [jeonj jjuma jode 
je wyrcean fromum feoh jiftum. on foeder 

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Published by the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press 

Bentley House, 200 Euston Road, London N.W.I 
American Branch: 32 East 57th Street, New York, N.Y. 10022 

Standard Book Number: 521 06882 7 

First Edition 1914 
Reprinted 1920 

First printed in Cheat Britain at The University Press, Cambridge 
Reprinted in Qreat Britain by Lowe db Brydone (Printers) Ltd., London 





Ix — xxxviii 

Text of Bjowulf, with notes 


The Fight at Finnsburq 


Genealogical Tables .... 


Index of Persons and Places 


Glossary .... . . 


Additional Notes 


Facsimiles of MS. 

Folio 129a 


Folio 176 b, with the corresponding 
transcripts of Thorkelin 

XV — xviii 


The editors of Beowulf have, with rare exceptions, 
concentrated their attention upon the problem of fixing 
and interpreting the text, and have avoided discussing the 
literary history of the poem. Theories as to the origin and 
structure of Beowulf have been developed, not /in editions, 
but in monographs such as those of ten Brink, Mullenhoff, 
and Boer. 

This practice is probably sound : and in accordance with 
it I have made no pretence here to deal with questions of the 
"higher criticism." I hope to attempt this in an Intro- 
duction to the Study of Beowulf which is to be issued 
separately. But an editor ought to give an account of the 
principles upon which he has worked, and the relation of his 
text to the MS. This duty is particularly incumbent upon 
him, when he is revising a standard text. 

The Manuscript 

The Beowulf has been preserved in one manuscript only 
written about the year 1000 : a feature which it shares with 
most extant Old English poetry. As to the history of this 
manuscript we have no information, till we find it in the 
collection formed by Sir Robert Cotton, which is now in the 
British Museum. From its position in the of this 
collection the MS. containing Beowulf received the name and 
number {Cotton VitelUus A. 15) by which it is stiU known. 
Our first record of it dates from 1705, when Wanley in his 
.Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts described our poem 
as telling of the wars which a Dane, Beowulf, waged against 
the Kings of Sweden. 

X ' On the Text of Beowulf 

Twenty-six years later occurred the disastrous fire in 
which so many of the Cottonian MSS. were either destroyed 
or, like the Beowulf MS., damaged. 

It was not till the eighteenth century was drawing to 
a close that any serious attempt was made to master the poem. 
Thorkelin, an Icelander by birth, inspired by that revival of 
historical studies which marked the close of the eighteenth 
century in Denmark, and doubtless led by Wanley's mis- 
description of the MS., came to England, made a transcript 
of the MS., and caused a second transcript to be made. 
After twenty years of labour his edition was nearing com- 
pletion, when in 1807 "the Englishman came, the damned 
thief\" bombarded Copenhagen, and incidentally destroyed 
Thorkelin's translation and notes. The much more valuable 
transcripts of the MS. fortunately escaped. But the work 
had all to be done again, and it was not till 1815 that the first 
edition of the Beowulf appeared, under the title of De Dano- 
rum rebus gestis.,.poema Banicum, dialecto Anglo-saxonica. 

Thorkelin's ignorance has been harshly censured by later 
students, who have often forgotten that, by his two transcripts, 
made more than forty years before any Englishman cared to 
study the poem, the Scandinavian scholar had done a service, 
the value of which cannot be exaggerated. For after Thor- 
kelin's time the MS. continued to deteriorate steadily, by 
the dropping away of its charred edges'. Thorkelin's mis- 
translations simply do not matter to us. What does matter 
is that he recorded what was to be read in the MS. at the 
time he saw it. He, and, to a greater extent, the transcriber 
whom he employed, made many mistakes: but the two 
transcripts correct each other: and the mistakes are of a 
type easily detected and explained. Indeed Thorkelin's 
ignorance of Anglo-Saxon, and the ignorance of his scribe, 
add immensely to the value of their transcripts. Had they 

' Aa det var Aaret atten hundrede aa syv 

Da Engelsmanden kom, den forbandede Tyv^ 

■ More than thirty years ago, further destruction was prevented by the 
MS. being rebound, and the parchment inset: but the paper which now 
surrounds each parchment leaf necessarily covers letters or portions of letters, 
especially on the back. 

The Manuscript xi 

known more, they would have been tempted to fill in from 
conjecture such gaps as they did find, and this would have 
deprived their testimony of its value. 

Thorkelin's transcripts are generally referred to as A 
(the copy made by Thorkelin's order) and B (the copy which 
he made personally). Both belong to the year 1787 : they 
are preserved in the Royal Library at Copenhagen. 

In 1830 the MS. was again copied by Thorpe, who how- 
ever did not publish till a quarter of a century later. In 
1833 (and more correctly in a second edition, in 1835) Kemble 
published the results of his inspection. In 1861 N. F. S, 
Grundtvig published a text based upon an examination both 
of the MS. and of Thorkelin's transcripts. In 1876 Kolbing 
published collations in Herrigs Archiv (lvi.), and both 
Wulker (1881) and Holder (1881: fi-om his notes made in 
1876) prefixed to their texts a transcription of the MS., 
letter by letter. 

Finally, in 1882, a facsimile of the MS. was published by 
the Early English Text Society, with a transcription by 
Prof Zupitza (quoted in the notes below as "Zupitza"). This 
transcription embodies more than Zupitza's personal reading 
of the MS.; for he endeavoured "to give the text as far 
as possible in that condition in which it stood in the MS. 
a century ago." He weighed the evidence of all the scholars, 
enumerated above, who had examined the MS. before him, 
and he had the advantage of comparing the MS. itself with 
Thorkelin's two transcripts, which were sent to the British 
Museum for the purpose. 

The MS. having thus been collated and recollated by 
eight scholars, each in his day peculiarly competent, it might 
well seem that nothing farther remained to be done. And 
in fact most recent students have been content to take the 
facsimile, and Zupitza's transliteration, as final. But in the 
study of a MS. which has suffered as the Beowulf MS. has, 
finality is indeed hardly to be reached; and Dr Sedgefield 
has shown in his recent edition what good results may yet 
be produced by an editor who will look at the MS. for him- 
sel£ Cotton Vitellius -4.. 15 is still a field in which a student, 

xii On the Text of Beowulf 

particularly if armed with much patience and a strong lens, 
may have, "on the whole, not a bad day's sport." 

The facsimile is indeed an excellent one: but when it is 
remembered that the MS. has often to be turned many ways, 
and examined under many lights, before the stroke of a 
letter can be distinguished from some accidental crease, it is 
clear that no fixcsimile can be an adequate substitute for 
examination of the MS. itself. One example of this will 
suffica An American scholar observed from the facsimile 
that the word heatSo in an admittedly defective passage 
(11. 62-3) was apparently written over an erasure. Since 
the necessity for an erasure pointed to some kind of confusion 
in the mind of the scribe, he concluded that consequently 
it was here, and not, as generally supposed, at an earlier 
point, that the corruption had crept into the text, and 
that therefore the generally accepted emendations must be 
given up, and an attempt made to solve the crux by starting 
from the point where the "erasure" occurs. 

Having made up his mind from the autotype that there 
was an erasure, he subsequently examined the MS. at the 
British Museum, and whilst thinking that the erasure was 
not as manifest in the MS. as in some copies of the autotype, 
he adhered to his position. The appearance of an erasure 
is indeed so strong in the facsimile that no one has dis- 
puted it: and I was therefore greatly surprised, when con- 
sulting the MS. itself, to find that it showed no trace of that 
roughening of the surface which was to be expected On 
the parchment being held up to the light, all the dim marks, 
which in the facsimile (and at first sight in the MS. also) 
look like fragments of an erased word, turned out to be 
nothing more than strokes of the word on the other side of 
the leaf, which (as so often in the Beowulf MS.) shine 
through the parchment. Yet over the reading of these 
"erased letters" there has been considerable, and heated, 
controversy: and the discussion of the "erased word" and 
of the theories built upon it has been the subject of 
seven contributions to a philological periodical^ consisting 

» See M,L.N. xix. 121, 122 : xx. 9 : xxi. 143, 255 : xxii. 96, 160. 

The Manuscript xiii 

altogether of about ten thousand printed words. It is painful 
to think that the time of skilled compositors should have 
been thus wasted. 

A facsimile is given of two pages of the MS., and of the 
pages in Thorkelin's transcripts A and B corresponding to 
the second of these. 

The facsimiles of the MS. should be compared with the 
corresponding passage in the text. Such a comparison will 
show the student what are the main difficulties which beset 
the editor, and how he is helped by Thorkelin's transcripts. 
Several things will at once be obvious: 

(1) The lines of the MS. do not correspond to the 
verse lines of the poem. This does not, however, cause any 
serious trouble, for so uniform is Old English metre that 
cases where there can be any real doubt as to the division 
of the lines very seldom occur. Holthausen would put 
geaf at the end of 1. 2430 : Schiicking at the beginning of 
1. 2431. 

(2) The punctuation of the MS. is meagre and unre- 
liable. The full stop is, indeed, sometimes used as we should 
use it: e.g. after the word cynirig in 1. 11 of p. 1; but it is 
often placed in the middle of a sentence, as after aldorlease, 
three lines below. 

(3) Though the first word after a full stop is not 
infrequently written with a capital, proper names are not 
written with capital letters. Hence, for instance, the dispute 
whether hondsdo (1. 2076) is, or is not, a personal name. 

(4) Yowel length is only rarely marked. Hence diffi- 
culties like that of determining whether g^st stands for g£st 
'stranger' or g^t, 'spirit^.' 

(5) One word is sometimes written as two or even three 
words, and two words are often written as one. Hyphens are 
unknown to the scribes. Hence eofor lie scionon (1. 303) 
has been read both as eo/or-lic scionon and eofor llc-scionon. 
And in addition to the difficulty of interpreting such gaps 
as the scribe did undoubtedly leave, we have the further 

' A list is given below of the vowels marked long in the MS. 

xiv On the Text of Beowulf 

diflBculty of deciding when he did, and when he did not, intend 
the vague and indeterminate space which he left between 
letters to be regarded as a gap separating two words. 

(6) Though there are no glaring examples on the pages 
reproduced, it appears that the scribes worked mechanically, 
sometimes altering the entire meaning of a sentence by 
omitting little words, like ne, 'not.' The painfully slow care 
with which the Old English letters were traced would tend to 
make the scribe lose the general drift of what he was writing. 

(7) The spelling is inconsistent: moncynn appears as 
mancynne (dat.) in 1. 110, as moncynnes (gen.) in 1. 196, and 
as mon cynnes (gen.) in 1. 1955. Yet, compared with that 
of many a Middle English MS. or Tudor printed book, the 
spelling might almost be called uniform. 

(8) It will be seen that both pages of the MS., but more 
particularly the second, are badly damaged at the edges 
and corners. With the facsimile of the second page should 
be compared the facsimile of the corresponding passage from 
Thorkelin's transcripts. When these transcripts were made 
the damage cannot have extended beyond the margins, and the 
written page must have been, like the transcript, complete \ 
At the present day, out of 108 words, 26 are either quite 
gone or damaged. This will give some measure of the value 
of Thorkelin's transcripts. Of course even without them we 
should still be able to get much information from the texts 
of Kemble and Thorpe as to what the MS. was like in its 
less damaged state: but, as it is, we depend mainly upon 
Thorkelin. As explained above, the mechanical nature of 
these transcripts is their greatest merit. It is quite clear 
that the transcriber of A had no knowledge whatsoever of 
Old English. This is proved by spellings like relite for rehte, 
riga for wiga, cri^an for cwi^an. How slight Thorkelin's own 
knowledge must have been at the time he made his transcript 
is shown by similar misspellings, e.g. glogutSe for geoguffe. 

The handwriting of the second page reproduced from the 
Beowulf MS. differs from that of the first. The second hand 

^ Thorkelin ooald not read the first word of 1. 8, bat the transoriber got 
it right 

<X^^^^Lr-^£. ^iiAc^^t.t.'r**^^^^^!*^ ^^~e.jZ. ^o--C^^ dL^^Ct^^ 
nk.-r^ Jf^xT-JL^^tu J^^f^'^ At^^o^au,^, J^.^;^-r^ <.<2 


Beowulf: Thorkelin's Transcript B. {reduced)^ 11. 2105—2127. 


^f^ii z^\\fczi^ ]iyAu 5y> ap|ttVc,|i^^ 
'lie lipln ^(lic ijidl itt^m^it^^ 

\ k?i^orflinit7>e?7 cornel ru'iS VI rcT 
||P^^ iHiman ^r^^tft- ntlir Uvf^«Ttti 

fa pi*' ini|iv|i^ ^yiif l%^Ti^^q;|ue£ 
I ^^^\im i^iiii piznii p#itli ii'Jk 

MS. Cott. Vit. A. XV. (reduced) fol. 176^ (179^) (=11. 2105—2127) 

Translitei^ation, 11. 2105—2127. 
[scildinj f]ela fric5[ende feorran] r[ehte] Fol. 176'. 

[hwilum h]ilde deor hearpan wynne 50 
[meljwudu jrette hwilum gyd awraec. soS 
[ond sar]lic hwilum syllic spell, rehte aefter 
[ri]hte rum heort cyninj. hwilum eft 
[onjajn eldo jebunden jomel juS wija 
[5io5]uCe cwiSan hilde strenjo hreSer 
[inn]e weoU \oiine he wintrum frod worn 
[jemjunde swa we j^aer inne anc^Ianjne 
[daej] niode naman oSCset niht becwom. 
[o5er] to yldum J^a waes eft hraSe jearo 
[jym] wraece. jrendeles modor. SiSode 

[sor]h full suDU deaS fornam wij hete 
[wed]ra wif unhyre hyre beam jewraec 
[beo]rn acwealde ellenlice )?aer wses sbsc 
[her]e frodan fyrn-witan feorh uS 
[jenjje. noSer hy hine nemoston sytJtJan 
[m]er5en cwom dea5 werij ne denia 
[leo]de. bronde for baernan 

[n]e on b§l hladan. leofue raannan 

Letters now entirely lost, or so far lost as to be very 
diflScuit to read, are placed within squaie brackets. 

pCjaft io-ie. kcirvS on ViiOKX^ liie kcar^ ^onoirv moi>CS "VCOmOp m C|\C "L |vv4-nk — 

\e,reoU »iAeborAc hctl hoeir hint fciliiin^o- . iTfltc-rcitx To(i>c j-cIol leoir>o hcy .. 
tnanCTtc moaTvyAtt v-vOOaM. rncft-iCM co»*x . "7 ^>fc r/>K^ tn blc ^efcce*^ hcEp6on., 

Wh week* 7 rOO "I -^^^leo Corrieloc Tcilbinx^ tdliX rjiiCTvCnisc treoKhoux ji€J»-J^ 

Hjrilii ^iilbe 6eop heoLhJ7a.»i h^nne ^o mei pubu, x ptrcte lipiUi x^sj b abjioif . (VJT 

-jfotjldc Upilu. r^lijC rpcU.WcUx^ <E|fX,«jt. KlUte HuKn II COM V C^U Mxx . ll H 1 1 Tt • . 
^^ "'^Ti^*^ cAbo xebu-tA^ven xomcl xuVhixoi xiov«^<^c ch r^<xn Inlbc ._ 
(^j^^^^\° "|ie^e[i mne-p'eoU. kort lie bint^'u, }^t^^^ bojii-i 'tCmiA.nbe fboi J7c[7ae|, 
p^ne, n I art -L we. otx.. nioOe *\oi.rr\cxy\ or©dcex- rvvU-c- v<kho\r\ . o^eh x.o \i\6i.\,rr\ 
hancei' eirz. lihctS'e -zitcirxo ly^h*^ whOKC-.-iLHeK^clcs vrvoboK . J^fOooe ... 
SohiH ru-li I'utiu/ bexicb tohnam hijAxczjC hebHoL pte i.Ly\U<4He, "^he ue^Kn .. 
■TJtphoai teohii acjitoLlbe cl(e«lica l/cEh hcty (B-Cc^ hehc k-^iobarv |>yj^»^ px^»% 

i!eofiA u^-4c-nxe. no^eK n^lnne r\e>tryorz/>n f>!ri^cx.y^ mey -rtti Cpovn Oecr&. 

behixrie ieviic*. (eo^c OH o vibe £•<> h DiEh I iai>t >acoM^ oe/ hladom . Icoii^te . 

♦na.«^>xcxn h I o p 1 1 c dc.ri»aa|i peonies iroeo 

keleoi irhu. hna.n lcxn-i.e. oeTeocxc . pAsej^Teooerv imc "^Me lit^e lieialrobe 

rrxctki'o -r |te»^»ieAc/ Neme ^nei>c -rei^ex, icdoi^ct^ boeiKrieS hei© pie cu^ 

Beowulf: Thorkelin's Transcript A. {reduced), 11. 2098— 2i:iG. 


The Manuscript xix 

begins with moste in 1. 1939. Judith, which follows Beowulf 
in the composite MS. Cotton Vitellius A. 15, is asserted on 
good authority to be also in this second hand. This is 
important, for with the second hand many variations in 
spelling are introduced into Beowulf. Our first instinct 
would be to attribute these altered spellings to the new 
copyist: but since they do not occur in the Judith, this can 
hardly be the correct explanation, if he also transcribed that 
poem. In that case it would seem rather that the second 
scribe copied his original more exactly, and therefore re- 
tained features which the first scribe was prone to obliterate. 
The peculiarities of spelling which meet us in the later 
portion of Beowulf seem, then, to be derived from the MS. 
from which our existing copy was transcribed ^ 

The abbreviations used by the scribes are neither numerous 
nor difficult. Instead of and, which occurs only three times 
(11. 600, 1148, 2040), the symbol 7 is almost invariably used. 
For J?£ety f is similarly found. It has been disputed whether 
f can also stand for J?d (see note to 1. 15): if it cannot there 
are certainly instances in Beowulf where f and J?a have 
been confused by a natural scribal blunder. Sense is much 
improved by reading ^ as >a in 11. 15, 1833, 3134 (cf. 2701) 
and J>a sisf in 1. 2629. 

To signify m, especially final m, the scribe drew a heavy 
hooked line over the preceding vowel. 

From the times of the earliest O.E. glosses this symbol 
is also used occasionally to signify n. The Beowulf scribe, 
like the scribe of the almost contemporary Exeter Book, does 
not normally use the mark for n\ But the older MS. which 
he was copying perhaps did so, and this would account for 
such a blunder as hrusam for hrusan (2279) and for the 
frequent omission of an n in our manuscript'. 

> See Davidson, and MacClumpha, Difference* between the scribet of 
Beowulf, in M.L.N., v. 87—89, 245, 378. 

3 In 11. 2645, 2741, read /or dam rather than /or iTan. In ]>dn{=}onne) the 
mark is used for n«, and for en on the abnormally contracted last page of the MS. 

» LI. 60, 70, 255, 418, 591, 673, 1176, 1510, 1697, 1883, 2259, 2307, 2545, 
2996, 3121, 3155. When final, this may be due to the original having been 
in a Northern dialect [Sievers^, § 188. 2J. 

XX On the Text of Beowulf 

Textual Emendation 

It is most important that the student should study the 
two facsimile pages of the Beowulf MS. sufficiently to fami- 
liarize himself with the forms of the Anglo-Saxon script, 
for it is only by this means that he will be able to weigh 
the value of the different conjectural emendations. A con- 
jecture which seems a very violent one when expressed in 
modem type may yet appear very reasonable when we 
picture the form of the Old English letters. From this 
point of view it is a pity that we have abandoned the custom, 
so generally followed at the beginning of Old English studies, 
of printing Old English texts in type which was a con- 
ventionalized facsimile of the Old English hand. The letters 
are picturesque, and can be learnt in five minutes. 

Much work was done in the emendation and elucidation 
of the text by Grundtvig, Kemble, Thorpe and Ettmtiller. 
The constant occurrence of the name of Grundtvig in the 
textual notes bears witness to the frequency with which 
he cleared up some desperate place in the MS. But these 
emendations only represent a portion of Grundtvig's achieve- 
ment. Working from Thorkelin's inaccurate text, he made 
many conjectures which, on a more careful examination, were 
found to be actually the readings of the MS. Such success 
naturally aroused confidence in his conjectural restorations. 

The great bulk of Grundtvig's emendations were appended 
to the translation which he published in 1820. Other emen- 
dations were made in his edition^ published in 1861. These 
two books have not been sufficiently distinguished by editors 
of Beowulf. Yet in discussing the priority of an emendation 
it is obviously important to know in which of two books, 
separated by more than forty years, a scholar may have 
made his conjectures. In this edition, therefore, the word 
'Grundtvig,' followed by the number of a page, refers in- 
variably to the translation of 1820; references to the edition 
of 1861 are specified as such. 

Grundtvig had contributed a large number of these 

Textual Emenulation xxi 

eDiendations to a Copenhagen paper during the year 1815\ 
The perfect editor would no doubt go through these articles, 
and note exactly where each emendation first appeared. 
But life is short and there is much to do: I have therefore 
only referred to these periodical articles of Grundtvig where 
it appeared that there was some useful purpose to be gained 
by so doing. Generally speaking I have taken Grundtvig's 
publication of 1820 as summing up the results of his early 
work, and have not striven to go behind it. 

The student must not be surprised if he finds the same 
emendation attributed by different scholars sometimes to 
Kemble and sometimes to Thorpe, since frequently Kemble's 
emendations were only suggested in the notes of his second 
volume, but were first given in ike text by Thorpe; and 
there was so much intercommunication between the two 
scholars that it is not easy to say to whom belongs the credit 
of some particular emendations. 

Much confusion has also resulted from the differences 
between the first edition of Kemble's ^eoi/zw// (1833: limited 
to 100 copies) and the second revised edition of 1835. For 
instance, Zupitza — than whom no one knew more of the 
history of Beowulf criticism, and whose premature death was 
a loss to ^eot^^wZy scholarship from which we are still suffer- 
ing — charged other editors with inaccuracy in their quotations 
of Kemble'; the explanation is that they were using the 
one edition, and he was using the other, and that the two 
editions differ very widely. I have therefore thought it 
better to differentiate. 'Kemble d)' refers to the edition 
of 1833; 'Kemble ,2,' to that of 1835; 'Kemble o,' to the list 
of emendations which Kemble appended to his translation 
in 1837. 'Thorpe' refers, of course, to Thorpe's edition 
of 1855. 

The labours of Ettmiiller covered a period little shorter 
than those of Grundtvig. In my notes, 'Ettmiiller (d' refers 
to the translation of 1840: 'Ettmiiller (a)' to the abbreviated 
Beowulf which appeared in the book of extracts entitled 

I Some eight articles in the Nyeste Skilderie of Kjobenhavn. 
« Archiv, xciv. 328. 

xxii On the Text of Beowulf 

Engla and Secuma Scopas and Bdceras, 1850: *Ettmiiller «' 
to the edition (still abbreviated) of 1875. 

A new era begins with the publication of Grein's com- 
plete corpus of Anglo-Saxon poetry, between 1857 and 1864 
(4 vols.). Grein's actual text of Beowulf, both in the first 
volume of this Bihliothek, and in his subsequent separate 
edition, is not without its faults : but the great lexicon given 
in the last two volumes of the Bihliothek brought to bear 
upon the interpretation of Beowulf the whole store of know- 
ledge of Old English poetic speech. The student who has 
made some progress, and hopes to make more, will still find 
his best course to be the looking up in Grein's Sprachschatz 
of parallels for the usage of any words puzzling him. In 
quoting I difi'erentiate 'Grein a,' (1857); 'Grein (^' (1867); 
'Grein (^' (Grein's hand -copy, corrected, as used by Wulker). 

Since Grein's day the edition of Heyne (1863, etc.), con- 
stantly revised, has continued 6o hold its own (English 
translation, Harrison and Sharp, 1882, etc.), rivalled for 
two decades by that of Holder (1881, etc.: last edit., 1899). 
Kluge added valuable conjectures to Holder's edition: to 
these 'Kluge' if quoted in my notes, without details, refers^ 
Wiilker's revision of Grein's Bihliothek (1883, etc.) by giving 
scrupulously accurate texts, with full collations, remedied 
the one fault of Grein's great work. In recent years four 
editions have been published: (1) Trautmann's (1904), dis- 
tinguished by bold alterations of the text ; (2) Holthausen's 
(third edit. 1912-13), invaluable for its closely packed 
references and bibliographies : Holthausen's treatment of the 
text represents a middle course between the violent altera- 
tions of Trautmann and the conservative text of (3) Schiicking, 
whose revision of Heyne (nominally the eighth edit., 1908: 
tenth, 1913: but amounting in fact almost to a new work) 
has restored its place of honour to that classic text ; whilst 
(4) Dr Sedgefield's text (second edit., 1913) has gone far to 
remove from English scholarship the reproach of neglect of 
the earliest monuments of our literature. 

* But 'Kluge ' followed by a figure refers to P.B.D. ix. See p. xxzli. 

Aim of the Present Edition xxiii 

Aim of the Present Edition 

Text. In revising the text 1 have made it my aim to 
retain that conservatism which characterised Mr Wyatt's 
edition. In fifty places I have, however, felt compelled, 
mainly on metrical grounds, to desert the MS., where 
Mr Wyatt adhered to it. But this is balanced by the fact 
that in fifty-one places I undertake the defence of the MS., 
even where Mr Wyatt had abandoned it. 

When Mr Wyatt's edition was first issued in 1894 it was 
necessary for him to protest against wanton alterations of the 
MS. such 8kS fdmigheals for fdmiheals. Such alterations are 
now no longer tolerated : and even to argue against them 
would be an anachronism: Mr Wyatt has the greatest 
reward that can befall a controversialist, that of finding his 
protest so generally accepted as to be out of date. 

But with the increased knowledge of Old English metre 
which we owe to the genius of Sievers, a new reason for 
deserting the MS. has been approved, to some extent at 
least, by most recent editors. In places where the metre 
shows that the original poet must have used a form dififerent 
from that in our extant MS., it is now usual to put that form 
back : to write e.g.frega for frea, gdan for gdn, doitf for do^. 

To the present editor there seems to be no middle course 
between, on the one hand, leaving the language of the poem 
in the form given to it by its last transcribers, and, on the 
other hand, attempting to rewrite the whole poem in the 
language of the eighth century. The rule "to emend the 
text where the metre shows the form given in the MS. to be 
wrong " sounds simple, but is, in practice, not possible. For 
the suspected form may occur in a line which is absolutely 
unmetrical, in one which is merely hard to parallel, or in one 
which is of a type usually avoided, but undoubtedly to be 
found. Are we to alter in all three cases, or only in the first? 
And having altered a form in a place where it is unmetrical, 
what are we to do when we meet the identical form in a 
place where it is possible ? 

xxiv On the Text of Beowulf 

Unless we make changes right through, we merely pro- 
duce a text which is an inconsistent mixture of eighth and 
tenth century forms. 

But, it may be said, the MS. itself is not consistent, for 
the last transcribers here and there retained earlier forms. 
They did, and these forms may be of the greatest value in 
enabling us to trace the history of the poem. For that very 
reason the issues should not be confused by inserting into 
the text a number of ancient forms which are not in the MS. 
If we scatter these over the page, the student is led to 
believe that he has come across forms like frega, gaan, ddi& 
in his reading of Beowulf. All the typographical devices of 
italics and brackets cannot prevent this : in a poem of over 
three thousand lines no student can be expected to remember 
for very long exactly what letters are printed in italic, and 
exactly what in roman type. 

Besides, though we may be certain, on metrical grounds, 
that the word gdn in hat in gan (1. 386) represents an earlier 
word of two syllables, we cannot be certain whether that 
word was gdan or gangan. 

The difficulty that monosyllables in the text have to do 
duty as disyllables can be met quite simply. Where the 
metre shows that a long vowel or diphthong, such as gdn, 
frea was originally disyllabic, I write it with the circumflex : 
gdn,frea\ in other cases the makron is used: hu, (Sd. This 
method suffices to draw the student's attention to the metri- 
cal fact : at the same time he is not misled by seeing in the 
text a form for which there is no- MS. authority, and which 
the original author may, after all, not have used. 

To attempt to reinsert these earlier forms is indeed to 
carry into text editing the mistake of the architects of half a 
century ago, who, finding a fourteenth century church which 
showed traces of having been remodelled out of a twelfth 
century one, proceeded to knock out the Decorated tracery in 
order to insert their conjectural restoration of the original 
Norman lights. By so doing they merely falsified the history 
of the building, and left us with windows which are neither 
* Decorated ' nor ' Norman * but architectural liea 

Text Restoration xxv 

Experience has now taught our church restorers that, 
however much we may regret the work of the fourteenth 
century remodeller, we cannot escape from it. And the 
same is true of the text-restoration of Beowulf. To put back 
into the text a few sporadic ancient forms is merely to 
increase confusion. To put back the whole poem into the 
language of about the year 700 is impossible ^ How im- 
possible can best be shown by means of a comparison. In 
the case of Piers Plowman (A text) we have fifteen MSS., 
some belonging to a period but little later than the author's 
lifetime. Most of these MSS. are excellent ones, and by a 
comparison of them it is possible to reconstruct a text 
immensely better than even the best of these MSS. Yet, 
whilst the wording of this text can be fixed with considerable 
certainty, it is impossible to reconstruct the exact dialectical 
colouring in a form which would command any measure of 
general consent. How can we hope to do so, then, in the 
case of a text extant in one MS., transcribed nearly three 
centuries after the poem was first composed ? 

It does not follow that we need print the text exactly as 
it stands, relegating all attempts at emendation to the notes. 
It seems possible to distinguish between those changes in 
spelling and grammatical form which the scribes deliber- 
ately made with fair consistency, and those rarer cases where 
they have, generally owing to carelessness or misunderstand- 
ing, altered the wording of a passage. If the critic thinks 
he can emend such passages, he has every right to do so. To 
correct blunders which the scribes made inadvertently, and 
which they themselves corrected when they noticed them, 
is quite a different thing firom putting back the language 
which the scribes deliberately adopted into that which they 
deliberately rejected. 

The degree of faithfulness at which the scribe aimed of 
course varied greatly with individual cases. It may be ad- 
mitted that some ancient scribes had almost as little respect 
for the MS. before them as some modern editors. But an 

1 Holthausen's specimen of a restored text should be compared by all 
students. In 25 lines over 100 alterations are needed. 

xxvi On the Text of Beowulf 

accurate scribe did not as a rule depart from the wording 
of his original except as a result of oversight. On the other 
hand, even an accurate scribe did not hesitate to alter the 
spelling and form of words. 

Accordingly, whilst it is often possible from MS. evidence 
to aim at reconstructing the exact words of a text, it is an 
immeasurably more difficult task, unless we have some 
external help, to aim at reconstructing the original dialect. 

The rule which I have followed is therefore this. Where 
there is reason to think that the spelling or the dialectal form 
has been tampered with, I do not try to restore the original, 
such a task being at once too uncertain and too far-reaching. 
But where there is reason to think that the scribe has de- 
parted from the wording and grammatical construction of 
his original, and that this can be restored with tolerable 
certainty, I do so. 

And here again the study of metre is of the greatest 
help. There can be no possible doubt that a half-line like 
secg betsta (1. 947) is unmetrical : that the half-line originally 
ran secga betsta. No device of circumflex accents can help 
us here, and it appears to me that the editor has no choice 
but to write the words as they originally stood. Yet caution 
is advisable : where there is even a sporting chance of the 
MS. reading being correct I retain it : in some instances 
I retain the MS. reading, though firmly believing that it 
is wrong; because none of the emendations suggested is 

"I have indulged but sparingly," Mr Wyatt wrote, "in 
the luxury of personal emendations, because they are ob- 
viously the greatest disqualification for discharging duly the 
functions of an editor." This view was strongly disputed at 
the time, notably by Zupitza, who urged, quite truly, that 
it is the duty of an editor to bring all his powers to bear 
upon the construction of a correct text; that, for instance, 
one of the greatest merits of Lachmann as an editor lay 
precisely in his personal emendations. Yet here discrimina- 
tion is desirable. We do not all possess the genius of 
Tjachmann, and if we did, we have not the advantage he 

Text Restoration xxvii 

had in being early in the field. On the contrary, we find 
the study of Beowulf littered with hundreds of conjectural 
emendations. All these the unfortunate editor must judge, 
admitting some few to a place in his text, according more 
a cursory reference in his notes, but of necessity dismissing 
the majority without mention. It will be easier for the 
magistrate, if he has to sit in judgment upon none of his 
own offspring. True, there are editors, inflexible as Lucius 
Junius Brutus, who have filled many pages of periodicals 
with conjectural emendations, but who yet, when they ac- 
cept the responsibility of editorship, admit that few or none 
of their own conjectures -are worthy of serious consideration. 
But such integrity is rare ; and where an editor has to judge 
between the emendations of so many capable scholars, he 
may do well for his own part to adopt a self-denying ordin- 
ance. Especially is this desirable when he is editing a text 
on strictly conservative lines : it would be impertinent for 
me, whilst excluding from the text a number of the really 
brilliant conjectures of recent students, to allow a place to 
my own very inferior efforts. I have therefore followed, and 
indeed bettered, Mr Wyatt's example: he made few personal 
emendations : I have made none. 

For, indeed, conjectural emendation has been allowed to 
run riot. Advocates of a conservative text are often taunted 
with credulous belief in the letter of the manuscript — "Buch- 
staben-glauben." But, in fact, the charge of superstitious 
credulity might more justly be brought against those who 
believe that, with the miserably inadequate means at our 
disposal, we can exactly restore the original text. Prof 
Trautmann assures us that the extant manuscript is grossly 
faulty, and on the strength of this belief puts forth an 
edition full of the most drastic and daring alterations. But, 
if we grant (for the sake of argument) that the manuscript 
is as grossly erroneous as Prof. Trautmann's emendations 
postulate, then it follows that it is too bad to afford a sound 
basis for conjectural emendation at all. If Prof. Traut- 
mann's premises were correct, the only course open to the 
editor would be to remove merely those obvious and surface 

ixviii On the Text of Beowulf 

blemishes of the manuscript as to which there can be little or 
no doubt, and then to say: " This is the best that can be done 
with a text so peculiarly corrupt. I therefore leave it at 
that, and if I must work at text-criticism, I will choose some 
other text, where there is better material at my disposal, 
and where I can consequently proceed by critical methods 
rather than by guess-work." 

And, without going as far as this, we may reasonably 
regret that much of the scholarship and acumen squandered 
on the conjectural emendation of Beowulf has not been 
devoted to certain Middle English texts. There the evidence 
is often abundant, and of a kind which, if properly investi- 
gated and utilized, would enable us to make indisputable 
corrections of important texts in hundreds of places. 

Type. The chief innovation, and one which will, I 
expect, be generally disapproved, is the introduction into 
the text of the Old Eng. symbol ^. Against this ^ most 
teachers seem to cherish an unreasoning antipathy. Now, 
in itself, it surely matters little whether we reproduce an 
Old Eng. consonant by the Mod. Eng. form, or by a facsimile 
of the Old Eng. form. By general consent p and 5 are 
used : yet it would not matter if we were to write th instead. 
But it does matter if the symbol misleads the student. 
Now, whilst most consonants have much the same value in 
Old as in Mod. Eng., Mod. Eng. g fulfils one only of the three 
functions of Old Eng. ^. To the elementary student it is 
really helpful to have a constant reminder of this fact. He 
should not be misled by the spellings hi^ or wi^^e, as he is 
only too likely to be by the spellings hig or wigge. 

Besides, as has been pointed out by Sievers, with the end 
of the Anglo-Saxon period both ^ and g came into use : ^ to 
signify the spirant, g the stop. To write g in Anglo-Saxon 
texts conveys the idea that the symbol ^ was added in 
Middle English to signify the spirant; when in reality it 
was the ^ which was used all along and the g which was 
added later to denote the stopped sound. 

In the text I have therefore followed the Old English 
usage, and have written the ^ wherever it occurs in the MS. 

Hyphens and Punctuation xxix 

But where the scribe actually used (r, as a capital, I have 
retained it. In the Introduction, Notes and Glossary I 
write g, as a matter of convenience. 

Hyphens and Punctuation. As to the use of hyphens 
and the general principles of punctuation there is no change 
from the practice advocated by Mr Wyatt in the first edition : 

It will have been seen that the MS. gives no help in one of the 
most diflScult problems that beset the editor of 0. E. poems, the 
question of the use of hyphens. Grein and Sweet discard them 
altogether. I cannot but question whether this is not to shirk one's 
duty. At least it is a method that I have not been able at present to 
bring myself to adopt, tempting as it is. The difficulty of course is as 
to " where to draw the line " — where to use a hyphen or to write as 
one word, where to use a hyphen or write as two words. The former 
is the chief difficulty, and here as elsewhere I have endeavoured to 
find the path " of least resistance." Prepositional prefixes in my text 
are not marked ofi" by a hyphen from the following word ; on the other 
hand, adverbial prefixes, such as up in up-lang, ut in ut-weard, are so 
marked off. This then is where I have, not without misgivings, 
"drawn the line." Where the two parts of a compound seem to 
preserve their full notional force I have used a hyphen ; where the 
force of one part seems to be quite subordinate to that of the other, 
I have written them as one word. It is the familiar distinction of 
compoimds and derivatives over again, but at a stage of the language 
when some compounds were in course of becoming derivatives. Doubt- 
less there are mistakes and inconsistencies. I need hardly say I shall 
be glad to have them pointed out. 

The punctuation of Beowulf has hitherto been largely traditional, 
as it were, and largely German, and German punctuation of course 
differs in some respects from English. Some editors have shown daring 
originality in the substitution of colons for the semi-colons, and marks 
of exclamation for the full-stops, of previous editors. Periods have 
usually been held too sfcred to question. I may say at once that, 
although I have been extremely conservative in my handling of the text, 
I have felt and have shown scant courtesy for much of the traditional 
punctuation. Let me state here the principles, right or wrong, upon 
which I have acted. First, I have made the punctuation as simple as 
possible. I have therefore done away with the somewhat fine distinction 
between the colon and the semicolon, and have restricted the use of the 
former to marking the opening of an oratio recta, and to a very few similar 
lody such as 11. 801, 1392, 1476. In the same way, I have, wherever 
possible, done away with parentheses, and with our modern meretricious 
marks of exclamation. If the reader's sense or emotions do not tell him 

XXX On the Text of Beowulf 

where he ought to feel exclamatory, he must suffer the consequences. 
Secondly, I have attempted to make the punctuation logical^ especially 
by the use oi pairs of covimas wherever the sequence of a sentence is 
interrupted by parallelisms. This may be made clearer by a reference 
to 11. 1235-7, 1283-4, 3051-2. But, on the other hand, I have as far as 
possible avoided breaking up the metrical unit of the half line with a 

Notes. The chief difference between this edition and 
its predecessor will be found in the greater diffuseness of 
the notes, which have been almost entirely rewritten. " The 
infelicity of our times " has compelled me, as revising editor, 
to depart from Mr Wyatt's practice of quoting but sparsely 
the emendations which he did not accept. In the last 
eighteen years the number of emendations and interpre- 
tations has multiplied enormously, and many of these it 
is impossible to neglect. 

To discuss at length the pros and cons of these disputed 
points is impossible in a text-book : such task must be left 
to the lecturer: bub if no information on the subject is given 
in the text-book, the task both of lecturer and student is made 
unnecessarily heavy. Authorities are therefore quoted rather 
freely : and in the manner of quoting them a difficulty arose. 
To quote arguments at any length would have been to swell this 
book unduly ; but to quote the name of the scholar who has 
originated any conjecture without further particulars, is to 
encourage the student in the pestilent superstition that he 
is expected to know which scholar holds which particular 
view : whereas in reality all that concerns him is the ground 
upon which a particular view is held. 

The student who reads the seventeen pages in which 
Sievers defends the reading egsode eorlas (1. 6) will have had a 
lesson which should be of permanent value to him : a lesson 
in Old English metre, in Old English syntax, in critical 
methods, and above all in the truth that a man should do 
with his might that which his hand findeth to do, even 
though it be nothing better than the emending of a doubtful 
line. The student who understands, if only in broadest out- 
line, the grounds upon which Kock defends the MS. reading 
eorl, and Sievers declares eorl impossible, has acquired a 

Names of Commentators xxxi 

piece of grammatical and metrical knowledge which should 
be of constant use to him, as he works through his 
Beowulf. The student who, hoping to get marks in an 
examination, commits to memory the fact that Kock supports 
eorl, Sievers eorlas, has done nothing save degrade his in- 
telligence to the level of that of a dog, learning tricks for 
a lump of sugar. 

For this reason, in quoting the names of the proposers 
or defenders of emendations or interpretations, I have in- 
dicated (as briefly as possible) the place where further 
particulars can be found.. Not that I wish to add to the 
already heavy yoke of the student by expecting him to look 
up all, or indeed any great proportion, of such references. 
Even if he looks up none, a constant reminder that these 
are references, not formulae to be learnt by heart, is worth 
giving. For even the most exacting teacher will hardly 
demand that the student should commit to memory the year, 
periodical and page in which each emendation appeared. 
All such references are placed between square brackets, and 
elementary students should skip these portions of the notes. 
To the advanced student it is hoped that the references 
may be useful : and in small classes where the lecturer uses 
the "Seminar" method, and expects each member of the 
class in turn to study specially some section or aspect of the 
poem, they may be worked profitably. If a student is led 
by these references to turn only to Klaeber's articles in 
Modem Philology, or Sievers' monographs in the Beitrdge, 
they will not have been given in vain. 

In references to editions and translations, where the 
comment will be found under the appropriate line, no 
further details are given. The modem editions quoted in 
the notes are 
Grein-Wulker=Bibliothek der angelsachsischen Poesie, begriindet von 

C. W. M. Qrein, neu bearbeitet von R. P. WUlker. Bd. L 

Beowulf, etc., 1883 (1 Halfte, 1881). 
Holthausen=» Beowulf, herausgegeben von F. Holthausen. Dritte 

Auflage, 1912-13. 
Trautmann = Das Beowulflied. Bearbeitefcer Text u. deutsche Deber- 

setzung von M. Trautmann. Bonn, 1904. 

xxxii On the Text of Beowulf 

Heyne-Schucking = Beowulf, herausgegeben von M. Heyne. Zehnte 

Auflage bearbeitet von L. L. Schiicking, 1913. 
Sedgefield = Beowulf, edited by W. J. Sedgefield. Second edit., 1913. 

The following translations into English, with commen- 
taries, need special mention: 

Earle = The Deeds of Beowulf... done into modem prose... by John 

Earle, 1892. 
Morris and Wyatt = The tale of Beowulf translated by William Morris 

and A. J. Wyatt, 1895. 
Gumraere = The Oldest English Epic. Beowulf, etc., translated in the 

original metres... by Francis B. Guramere, 1909. 
Clark Hall = Beowulf... a translation into Modem English prose by 

J. R Clark HalL New edition, 1911. 

But the most important contributions to the study of the 
text of Beowulf have appeared of recent years not so much 
in editions, as in monographs, and chiefly in periodicals. 

Eleven of these, which have to be referred to with special 
frequency, are quoted by the author's name and the page 
alone. Such abbreviations are to be interpreted thus* : 

Bugge\ etc.= Studien iiber das Beowulfepos, in P.B.B. xii. 1 — 112, 

Cosijn*, etc. = Aanteekeningen op den Beowulf, 1892. 
Holthausen"^, etc. = Beitrage zur Erklarung des alteng. Epos, in 

Z.f.d.Ph., xxxvil 113—1252. 
Klaeber23«, etc. = Studies in the Textual Interpretation of Beowulf y in 

Mod. Phil, iii. 235—265, 445—465. 
Klugeisr, etc. = Zum Beowulf, in P.B.B., ix. 187—192. 
Moller, r^. ^ etc. = Das altenglische Volksepos. 1883. 
Miilleiihofi', etc. = Beovulf. Untersuchungen. 1889. 
Rieger38i, etc. = Zum Beowulf, in Z.f.d.Ph., iii. 381—416. 
Sedgefield 28«, etc. = Notes on Beowulf, in M.L.R., v. 286—288. 
ten Brink », etc. = Beowulf Untersuchungen. 1888. {Q.F, Q2.) 
Trautmann*2i, etc. = Berichtigungen, Vermutungen und Erklarungen 

zum Beowulf, in the Bonner Beitrage^ il. 121—192. 

'Sievers,' when quoted without further details than the 
section, refers to the Grammatik (third edition, German, 1898; 

* No attempt is made here to give a bibliography of Beovoulf oriticism, 
which I hope to essay in the separately published Introduction to Beowulf. 

2 Note that ' Holthausen ' without fuller particulars refers to the edition : 
' Holthausen"" to the article in the Z.f.d.Ph, 

Names of Commentators xxxiii 

English, 1903): 'Biilbring' to Biilbring's Elementarhuch, 
1902 : * Brandl ' to the monograph on Englische Literatur 
in the second edition of Paul's Grundriss (1908). 

Any further articles are quoted according to the periodical 
in which they are to be found. The title of the periodical 
or series is, however, given in an abbreviated form. 

i4./c?.i4.«=Anzeiger fur deutsches Altertum, 1876, etc 
Anglia= Ang\i&, Zeitschrift fiir Euglische Philologie, 1878, etc. 
Archiv== (Herngs) Archiv fiir das Studium der iieueren Sprachen und 

Litteraturen, 1846, etc. 
Engl. iS'^wc?. = Englische Studien, 1877, etc. 
6'crwa7iia = Germania, Vierteljahrsschrift fiir deutsche Altertums- 

kuude, 1856-92. 
/.F. = Indogermanische Forschungen, 1891, etc. 

{/.G^. PA. = Journal of Germanic Philology, 1897-1902 : subsequently, 
/.^.G'.PA. = Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 1903, etc. 
M.L.N. = 'Modern Language Notes, 1886, etc. 
M.L.R. — The Modem Language Review, 1906, etc. 
Mod. PAi7. = Modem Philology, 1903, etc. 
P.B.B. = BeitTd^^e zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Litteratur 

herausgeg. v. H. Paul u. W. Braune, 1874, etc. 
Pub. Mod. Lang. Assoc. i4mer. = Publications of the Modem Language 

Association of America, 1889, etc. 
Q.F. = Quel\en und Forschungen. ..1874, etc. 
Tidssh:=Tidaaknft for Philologi og Paedagogik, 1860, etc. 
Z./.c?.i4. = Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Altertum, 1841, etc 
Z.f.d.Ph. = {Z&cher8) Zeitschrift fiir deutsche Philologie, 1869, etc 
Z./.o.6'. = Zeitschrift fiir die osteiTeichischen Gymnasien, 1850, etc. 
ir./.v.«S'. = Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung, 1852, etc. 

Glossary. Here I have tried to depart as little as 
possible from the plan laid down by Mr Wyatt. The 
glossary makes no attempt at being a complete verbal and 
grammatical index to the poem. It is desirable that such 
an index should exist : that there should be a place where 
a scholar who wishes to know exactly in what places even 
the commonest word is used in Beowulf, should be able to 
j&nd the information he seeks. Such an index is supplied 
in Holder's edition, where all the instances in which even 
ond occurs will be found recorded : it is also supplied, on 
a slightly different plan, in the editions of Holthausen, 

C B. 

xxxiv On the Text of Beowulf 

He}Tie-Schucking, and Sedgcfield. Finally Mr A. S. Cook 
has produced a Concordance to Beoruulf (Halle, 1911). The 
work having been done so often and so well, it would have 
been useless to attempt to convert the glossary to this 
edition into yet another complete index to the poem ; and 
the space saved can be utilized in explaining matters more 
necessary perhaps to the elementary student. Indeed, as 
Mr Wyatt remarked, a too elaborate glossary may "rob 
the work of much of its educative value": it is better to 
" furnish the requisite amount of help and no more." 

One of the chief difficulties which beset English students 
of Anglo-Saxon is that of preventing their knowledge of 
modem English from leading them astray. When we meet 
with the word after, we must remember that 'after* only 
gives one specialized meaning of the O.E. word : f^r would 
seldom be correctly translated by * fear.* Another difficulty 
is the wide range of meanings possessed by the O.E. poetic 
vocabulary, and the ease with which a highly abstract passes 
into a very concrete idea. Thus duguj? signifies doughtiness, 
excellence: again, it signifies that body of tried veterans 
from whom the quality of duguj? is particularly to be ex- 
pected. But we can hardly translate duguj? simply as 
' warriors * : for the abstract meaning reacts upon the con- 
crete : they must be doughty warriors. A very close parallel 
is supplied by the English word * chivalry,' though here the 
original sense is concrete. Starting with the signification of 
a body of horsemen, the word comes to signify the quality 
which should distinguish a knight. Then the abstract 
meaning reflects upon the concrete. When Milton speaks 
of '^paynim chivalry,' or Byron of the * chivalry * gathered 
in Brussels before the field of Waterloo, the word means 
more than merely * warriors.' So with dugufi. I have 
elsewhere suggested translating it by 'chivalry/ to which, 
in both its meanings, it closely approximates : cuj?e he dugu^e 
peaw " he knew the rule of chivalry ^** 

* I cannot agree with M. Haohon (on Widsith, 1. 98) •• rendre dugu/>e par 
* chivalry ' au lieu de • grown up men ' ou de ' warriors ' parait peu exact." 
D\iguj> ig much more than 'grown up men.' Thralls and churls half trained 

Acknowledgements xxxv 

To avoid dogmatism, and steadily to compare one passage 
with another, is the only way of safety. It is by the com- 
parative method that Klaeber has been able to throw so 
much light upon many dark places in the text. Many 
alterations have been made in the glossary in view of the 
arguments produced by Klaeber : but in the main the 
glossary remains Mr Wyatt's work, though of course I take 
full responsibility for it in its present form. 

The MS. has been carefully examined for the purposes of 
this edition. Whenever Zupitza's opinion as to the reading 
of the MS. is quoted, it may be taken, unless the contrary is 
indicated, that I read the MS. in the same way, though 
Zupitza is quoted for authority. With regard to Thorkelin's 
transcripts, however, although I have examined these at 
Copenhagen, I have trusted mainly to Zupitza, since they 
are too clear to leave much room for dispute. 

I have to thank many scholars for their generous co- 

The proofs of the Introduction, Text and Notes have 
been read by my former teacher Prof W. P. Ker, and 
by my colleague, Mr J. H. G. Grattan. To both of them, for 
performing this friendly oflSce amid great pressure of work, 
my most grateful thanks are due. I am indebted to them 
for a large number of corrections and suggestions. 

Mr Wyatt most kindly placed in my hands all the 
material he had collected for a new edition, including a 
copy of Heyne's edition of 1879, with copious MS. notes by 
Dr T. Miller, the editor of the O.E. Bede. These MS. notes 
would well repay a careful investigation, and to publish 
gleanings from them would be an act of piety to the memory 
of a good scholar. I regret that through lack of time I have 
not been able to make as much use of them for this edition 
as I had hoped. Mr Wyatt has further read the proofs 
throughout, with scrupulous care, and I am deeply indebted 
to him in many ways. 

in war may be grown up, and may on occasion even be warriors, but they 
are not duguj?. 

XXX vi On the Text of Beowulf 

If the text should be found to be typographically accurate, 
thanks are hirgely due to two old pupils of mine, Miss E. V. 
Hitchcock and Mr E. Emson, and also to the Cambridge 
Press reader. Prof Sedgetield kindly placed at my disposal a 
set of the proofs of his second edition, which has enabled me 
to bring up to date my references to his most valuable work. 

Like every student of Beowulf^ I have been particularly 
indebted to the bibliographical notes of Holthausen, the 
Heyne-Schiicking glossary, the metrical researches of Sievers, 
and the syntactical studies of Klaeber. The footnotes give 
the names of the originators of emendations adopted in the 
text : and I have tried to give fairly exhaustive information 
of all readings adopted in any recent standard edition: for 
a student ought so to study Beowulf as to be able to trans- 
late not one particular text, but any. 

Lkistly, I regret that I have not been in a position to take 
the excellent advice recently given by one editor of Beowulf 
to another: that he should let his edition mature for the 
nine years recommended by Horace. Had I been permitted 
to spend so long in revising my proofs, the result would, I 
hope, have been a better edition : the printer's bill for 
corrections would certainly have been enormous. But it is 
well to stop weighing pros and cons, as Mosca de' Lamberti 
said, since " a thing done hath an end." 

For giving which evil counsel, Dante saw the mutilated 
form of Mosca in the ninth pit of the eighth circle of Hell. 
If I have closured any discussion by a too hasty application 
of the principle * cosa fatta capo ha ' I hope my punishment 
may be more lenient. And so, in the pious words of an 
editor of four centuries ago, " If any faute be, I remyt the 
correctyon thereof to them that discretly shall fynde any 
reasonable delaute ; and in their so doynge I shall pray god 
to sende them the blysse of heven." 

R. W. Chambers. 

University College, London, 
Au(/. 8, 1914. 


The following vowels are the only ones certainly marked 
long in the MS. : 

dt-, 33 ; dn, 100; -wdt, 123 ; w6p, 128 ; -wdt, 210; Mt, 211 ; Md, 264 
h&\, 300 ; bid, 301 ; dr, 336 ; -hdr, 357 ; hdt, gdn, 386 ; mot, 442 
dn-, 449 ; see, 507 ; gdr-, 537 ; S2e(-), 544, 564, 579 ; m6t, 603 ; gdd, 660 
ndt, 681 ; sse-, 690 ; -st6d, 759 ; dbeag, 775 ; bdn-, 780 ; wfc, 821 ; seb-, 895 
-f6n, 911; sdr, 975; fdh, 1038; d6n, 1116; see-, 1149; m6d, 1167 
bnic, 1177 ; aer, 1187 ; rcud, 1201 ; Sce, 1223 ; win, 1233; -wdt, 1274 
-wfc, 1275 ; hdd, 1297 ; hdr, 1307 ; bdd, 1313 ; riin-, 1325 ; wdt, 1331 
^r, 1371, 1388 ; dris, 1390 ; gd, 1394 ; hdm, 1407 ; bdn-, 1445 ; d6ra 
1491, 1528 ; briin-, 1546; g6d, 1562 ; ^r, 1587 ; -bdd, 1720 ; Idc, 1863 
god, 1870; see-, 1882 ; rdd, 1883; scfr-, 1895; sie-, 1896, 1924; gdr-, 1962 
scdn, 1965 ; fus, 1966 ; -hwfl, 2002 ; lie, 2080 ; r6f, 2084 ; sfd, 2086 
-d6n, 2090; c6m, 2103 ; sarlfc, 2109 ; d6m, 2147 ; Hroflgdr, 2155 ; -st61 
2196 ; dn, 2210 (see note) ; fser, 2230 (see note) ; -pdd, -bdd, 2258 ; dn, 
2280 ; -woe, 2287 ; -bdd, 2302 ; f6r, 2308 ; -g6d, 2342 ; wfd-, 2346 ; -ddm 
2376 ; sdr, 2468 ; mdn-, 2514 ; hame stdn, 2553 ; -swdt, 2558 ; -swdf, 
2559 ; bdd, 2568 ; -wde, 2577 ; -swdc, 2584 ; -gdd, 2586 ; wfc-, 2607 
Wigldf, 2631 ; gdr-, 2641 ; fdne, 2655 ; -rec, 2661 ; st6d, 2679 ; fyr-, 2689 
2701 ; wfs-, 2716 ; bdd, 2736 ; Iff, 2743, 2751 ; stod, 2769 ; d6m, 2820 
2858; -rdd, 2898; {-)c6m, 2944, 2992; dd-, 3010; fus, 3025; -nSf, 3063 
Wigldf, 3076; -bdd, 3116; fiis, 3119; dd, 3138; -r^c, 3144; bdn-, 3147. 

The following are probably to be included, but there is 
some doubt : 

bdt, 742 ; bdn-, 1116; bl6d, 1121 ; gdn, 1163 ; dr-, 1163 ; b3S-, 1652 ; 
see-, 1850 (now either gone or covered bj the paper) ; wdt, 1863; gdr-, 
2043 ; hrdn, 2270 ; gdr-, 2674 ; -swdc, 2681 ; -hrof, 3123 ; -hiis, 3147. 

On the other hand, the supposed mark over the following 
is possibly quite accidental : the scribes scattered little dots 
of ink not infrequently over the page : 

brim-, 222 . fus-, 232 ; me, 472; win, 1162; woe, 1960; dom, 2666, 

xxxviii On the Text of Beowulf 

With even more certainty the following supposed cases 
of marking may be dismissed : 

we, 270 ; ancrc, 303 ; hat, 897 ; al-walda, 955 ; eenig, 1099 ; K 
1151 ; foonda, 1152 (the supposed mark ia that of dr-, 1168, shining 
through the page) ; ac, 2477 ; he, 2704. 

Schiicking adds to the list of vowels marked long till, 2721 and 
mi{riht), 2739. But the mark over these vowels is quite unlike the 
mark of length : it occurs again over up, 2893. 

The latest and most careful scrutiny of the MS. is that of Dr 
Sedgefield, and I have collated my results with his. 

Of the vowels which I have classed as UTidouhtedly marked long, 
Sedgefield regards many as doubtful, and others as too uncertain to be 
mentioned at all. 

(a) Marked doubtful by Sedgefield: fdh, 1038 ; d6n, 1116; hdr, 
1307 ; fier, 1371 ; 4n, 2280 ; -bdd, 2302 ; d(^ra, 2376 ; wis-, 2716. 

(6) Entirely omitted by Sedgefield: dn, 100; mot, 442; sse-, 544; 
-f6n, 911 ; d6m, 1*528; gar-, 1962 ; sfd, 2086; dom, 2147; -8t61, 2196; 
-p4d, 2258 ; -w6c, 2287 ; -rec, 2661. 

After careful and repeated scrutiny under a strong lens, I have no 
doubt as to the vowels in both these classes (a) and (6) being in every 
case marked long. Many of them appear to me even more clearly so 
marked than do some of those wliich Sedgefield agrees to be certainly 
marked long, such as sdr, 975 ; stod, 2679 ; bdn, 3147. 

Of the vowels which I have classed as probable, bdt, 742 ; bdn-, 1116 
bl6d, 1121 ; 4r-, 1168 ; -swdc, 2681 are classed as doubtful by Sedgefield 
but gdn, 1163 ; sae-, 1652, 1850 ; wdt, 1863 ; gdr-, 2043 ; hrdn, 2270 
gdr-, 2674 ; -hrof, 3123 ; -bus, 3147, are regarded by him as too doubtful 
to be recorded at all. 

The mark of length consists of a heavy dot, with a stroke sloping 
from it over the vowel. This stroke is very faint, and has often faded : 
in which case the mark of length can only be distinguished from an 
accidental blot by noting the position and shape of the dot, or by a 
microscopic search for traces of the stroke. 

Complete certainty cannot be arrived at, since a stroke is sometimes 
perceptible only in certain lights. For example, after repeated scrutiny 
I had classed gar- (L 2674) as one of the supposed cases of marking 
which might be dismissed. On a final examination I had to alter this, 
as I could make out the stroke fairly clearly. 


HWiET, WE GiR-DEna in Sear-dajum Fol. 
jjeod-cyninja )?rym jefrunon, ^^^^' 

hu Ca aej^elinjas ellen fremedon. 
Oft Scyld Scefinj scea)?ena j^reatum, 
5 monejum msejjjurn meodo-setla ofteah, 
ejsode eorl[as], sySSan serest wearS 

Letters supplied in the text, but found neither in the MS. nor in Thor- 
keliu's transcripts, are printed within square brackets. When it is clear 
that the absence of these letters from the manuscript is not due to the 
damage which the MS. has sustained, and that the letters can never have 
stood there, both square brackets and italics are used. Other deviations 
from the MS. are indicated in the text by italics alone, and the reading of 
the MS. is given in a footnote. The term * MS. reading ' must not how.ever 
be taken to imply that the letters can all be read in the MS. in its present 
condition ; but only that there is satisfactory evidence that they once stood 

Certain letters and words which, though found in the MS., were pre- 
sumably not in the original, but were added by the scribes, have been placed 
between brackets thus : <J>ara). 

Long syllables which can be proved on metrical grounds to represent an 
earlier disy liable are marked by the circumflex: gdn representing an older 
gdan or perbaps having been substituted for the cognate gangan. 

2. The original text presumably had gefrugnon, the combination of 
consonants making the syllable long, as, in conformity with metrical law, 
it should be. 

5. Two distinct verbs seem to be confused in ofteon: (1) *oftihan, • to 
deny ' (cf. Goth, teihan) construed with gen. of thing and dat. of person, as 
here ; (2) *oftiohan, ♦ to tug, draw away ' (cf . Goth, tiuhan) taking an ace. of 
the thing, as in 1. 2489. [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxix. 306.] 

Whether ofteah mean 'denied' or 'drew away' the mead-benches, it 
equally indicates a reduction to servitude. Cf. 1. 11 below, and the state- 
ment of Saxo Grammaticus concerning Scioldus that *he subdued the whole 
race of the Allemanni and compelled them to pay tribute.' [Ed. Holder, 
p. 12.] 

6. eorl[as], Kemble i : MS. eorl. This correction seems desirable (1) 
metrically, because the type -^ -^ x ■^, though found in the second half-line 
(cf. 11. 463, 623, tffc), is not elsewhere found in the first; and (2) syntacti- 
cally, because egsian is elsewhere transitive, and to take eorl here as = ' many 
an earl ' seems rather forced : 1. 795 is not quite parallel [cf. Sievers in 
P.B.B. xxix. 560-576]. Yet eorl may be defensible [of. Kock in Anglia 
xxvii. 219, etc.\ xxviii. 140, etc.\ Klaeber2«J. 

2 Beowulf 

fea-sceaft funden ; he )73es frofre jebad, 

weox under wolciium, weortS-myndum J;ah, 

o5 \^t him aejliwylc (J^ara) ymb-sittendia 
lo ofcT hron-rade by ran scolde, 

jomban jyldan ; }?a3t waes jod cyninj. 

i)iurn eafera wiES aefter cenned 

jeonj in jeardum, )7one 7od sende 

Iblce to fVofre; fyien-?5eaile onjeat, 
IS )7aet hie a^r drujon aldor-[le]ase 

lanje hwile. Him J^aes Lif-frea, 

wuldres Wealdend, worold-are forjeaf; 

Beowulf wa?s bieme — bleed wide sprang— 

Scyldes eafera Scede-landum in. 
20 Swa sceal [jeonj jjuma jode jewyrcean, 

fromum feob-jiftum, on faeder |[bea]rme, Fol. 129''. 

7. fea-sceaft, 'as a helpless child.* See Index of Persons: Scyld; and 
cf. umbor-weseiide below. 

pmsfrufre, 'consolation for that,' i.e. for his helplessness. 

9. fdra is presumably the addition of a scribe, being opposed to the 
usage of Beowulf both (1), metrically, since ^mbsitt^ndra makes a complete 
half-line, and the preceding /?dra is not only otiose, but irregular [see 
Sievers in P.B.B. x. 256] ; and (2), syntactically, since se, seo, J?sst is in 
Beoiculf a demonstrative, and is very seldom used as a mere article. [See 
Introduction to Beowulf.'] 

16. pat: MS. -ji, which is normally used as an abbreviation for }>at. 
Since the antecedent fyren-Searf is fem., some would take ^ here as an 
abbreviation for pa : ♦ the dire need which they had suffered.' Zupitza 
supports this interpretation of f , although dubiously. 

aldor-\le\ase. MS. defective; but there is no reason to doubt that the 
missing letters were le. Holthausen, to avoid the syntactical difficulty of 
j?8et (see above), reads aldor-\le]as{t'\e, and takes pat as a conjunction: 'He 
[God] knew their cruel need : how that, before, they long had suffered want 
of a lord.' But we can take pset as a conj. without this change: 'that, 
being without a lord, they had before experienced a long time of sorrow': 
for drugon lange hwile cf. 1. 87, prdge gepolode. 

For the explanation of aldor-lease see Index of Persons : Heremod. 

16. if 1771, pi. ; pssSy ' in compensation for that,' i.e. the evil days. 

frea. The metre demands a disyllabic form, such as frega [Sievers]; 
&nd most recent editors insert this form in the text. 

18. Beowulf. Not the hero of the poem. 

18, 19. eafera is in apposition with Beowulf. Trautmann, Heyne- 
Schiioking and Holthausen follow the emendation of KemblCi 
Beowulf was breme, blad wide sprang 
Scyldes eaferaln] Scede-landum in. 

= *the glory of the son of Scyid spread far and wide.* The alteration is 
not necessary [cf. Klaeber in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 428]. 

20. MS. defective. Grein's reading adopted in text. 

21. MS. defective at corner. The respective merits of the restorations 
attempted by the earlier editors have been zealously canvassed ever since. 
These restorations are : 

feormCt 'while yet in his father's support* [KembleJ; 

Beowulf S 

|?set hine on ylde eft jewunijen 

wil-jesij^as, ]?onne wij cume, 

leode gelsesten; lof-dsedum sceal 
25 in msegj^a ^ehwsere man jej^eon. 

Him 5a Scyld jewat to jescaep-hwile 

fela-hror feran on Frean wsere; 

hi hyne )?a setbseron to brimes faroSe, 

swiese jesifas, swa he selfa baed, 
30 )7enden wordum weold wine Scyldinja; 

leof land-fruma lanje ahte. 

6«arme, 'bosom' [Bouterwek, Thorpe: so Holthausen2,3]; 

wine, 'to bis father's friends' [Grundtvig, 1861, p. 1]; 

Brne, 'in his father's house' [Greinj: so Sedgefield, Schiicking]; 

leofne, ' sustenance ' [Trautmann]. 

We are dealing here, not with conjectural emendation, but with attempts 
to decipher a MS. reading which has been partially lost. The data which 
can still be ascertained are : 

First a space (/, iu.) for two or three letters; 

Then a fragment of a letter involving a long down stroke (i.e. either/, r, 
i, Jj, or u>; this letter was seen fully only by the five earliest transcribers or 
collators, who unanimously describe it as r; the fact that Thorkelin in his 
edition chose to read J?ina, and altered the r of his transcript to /» in con- 
formity with his theory, in no way invalidates this evidence) ; 

Then something which can now be read either as w, in, or blank space 
followed by n (the earliest transcribers support only the readings m or in) ; 

Then e. 

Wine, and arne are, then, opposed to the evidence of the earliest tran- 
scribers, and cannot be read into the MS. even in its present condition, for 
they fail to make the line come up to the margin, which the scribe (with 
only the rarest exceptions, e,g, L 1753) keeps precisely. 

leofne fills the space, but is syntactically faulty [cf. Sievers in P.B.B. 
xiix. 306] and the / is inconsistent with the early transcriptions. 

feorme gives unsatisfactory sense and is metrically impossible as in- 
volving double alliteration in the second half -line; 

bearme fits exactly (the bea, for instance, of 1. 40 just fills the necessary 
T^in.), and gives satisfactory sense, especially if, with Klaeber [J.E.G.Fh. 
vi. 190], we render 'in his father's possession': the young prince gives 
treasures from his father's store — which, as Klaeber (following Sievers) 
remarks, would agree excellently with Saxo's description of Scioldus: * pro- 
ceres .. AomeatiGis stipendiis colebat...,* 

25. Here and elsewhere, as Sievers points out [P.B.B. x. 485], metre 
demands, instead of the fem. gehwsere, the form gehwdm, which in the older 
language is used with feminines as well as with masculines and neuters. 
Cf. Sieverss § 841, N. 4. 

31. dhte needs an object, expressed or understood. We may either 
supply mentally swase gesipas or hi [Klaeber*^**] or we may insert Id in the 
text: lange hi dhte, 'long he ruled them' [Holthausen]. Many emendations 
have been suggested in order to supply an object to dhte : lif in place of 
leof, 'the chief long possessed his life' [Rieger^^^]; landagas dhte, 'possessed 
these transitory days' [Kluge^^; Idn [or Imn] gedhte 'possessed the grant, 
the land lent by God' [Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 223. For many other emen- 
dations and interpretations see Cosijn'; Bright va. M.L.N, x. 43 (geweald 
for wtold); Child in M.L.N, xxi. 175; Sievers in F.B.B. xxix. 308]. 

4 Beowulf 

pier aet hySe stod hrinjed stefna 

isij ond ut-fus, aej^elin^es faer ; 

aledofa )7a leofae )?eoden, 
35 beaja brybtan on bearm scipes, 

m^rne be maeste. p^r waes mad ma fela 

of feor-wejum fraetwa jel^ded. 

Ne hyrde ic cymlicor ceol je^yrwan 

hilde-wi^pnum ond heaSo-wsedum, 
40 billum ond byrnum ; him on bearme laej 

madma msenijo, \a. him mid scoldon 

on flodes seht feor jewitan. 

Nalaes hi hine Itussan lacum teodan, 

feod-jestreonum, )7on[ne] \a, dydon, 
45 \q hine aet frum-sceafte forS onsendon 

^nne ofer ySe umbor-we|sende. Fol. 130». 

pa 5yt hie him asetton sejen ^[yljdenne 

heah ofer heafod, leton holm beran, 

jeafon on jar-secg ; him waes ^eomor sefa, 
50 murnende mod. Men ne cunnon 

secjan to so5e, sele-rsedencZe, 

haeleS under heofenum, hwa ]7gem hlaeste onfeng. 
I DA waes on bur^um Beowulf Scyldinja, 

leof leod-cyninj lonje j^raje 
55 folcum gefr^je — faeder ellor hwearf, 

33. isig, * covered with ice ' [cf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxxvi. 422]. 
38. gegyrwan. In modern English the passive inf. would be used. 
44. j>oiL{ne]. Thorkelin's emendation: MS. ^on. 

46. umbor-wesende, Uninflected. Cf. SieverSg § 305, N. 1. Cf. 1. 372. 

47. MS. defective at corner; missing letters supplied by Kemble,. 
48-9. Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxviii. 271. 

51. sele-reedende, KemblCg following 1. 1346: MS. sele radenne. 

52. The nearest parallel to the burial of Scyld is that of Baldr in the 
Prose Edda (chap. 48) : ' But the gods took the body of Baldr, and carried 
it to the seashore. Baldr's ship was named Hringhorni: it was the greatest 
of all ships, and the gods sought to launch it, and to build the pyre of 
Baldr on it... Then was the body of Baldr borne out onto the ship... Odin 
laid on the pyre the gold ring named Draupnir...and Baldr's horse with all 
his trappings was placed on the pyre.' 

In historic times the chiefs were still burnt or buried in ships. 

For the voyage of the dead, cf. the stories of Sinfj^tli (O.E. Fitela), 
whose body is wafted away by a mysterious ferryman (see Index of Persons) ; 
of Elaine (the lady of Shalott); and of Arthur himself, who, like Scyld, 
goes " from the great deep to the great deep." 

63. Beowulf. Still the prince of 1. 18: to be distinguished from the 
hero of the poem. 

Beowulf 5 

aldor of earde — 0)7 )7aet him eft onwOc 

heah Healfdene; heold )?enden lifde, 

jamol ond jtiS-reouw, jlaide Scyldinjas. 

Diem feower beam forS jerimed 
60 in worold wocun, weoroda r8es\va[7i], 

Heorojar ond HroSjar ond Halja til; 

hyrde ic, )7aet [ w8rs Owjelan cwen 

Hea«5o-Scilfin5as heals-jebedda. 

pa waes HroSjare here-sped jyfen, 
65 wijes weorS-mynd, |>3et him his wine-majas 

jeorne hyrdon, o55 j^ajt seo jeojoS jeweox, 

majo-driht micel. Him on mod be-arn, 

57-8. heah and gamol are both conventional epithets for Healfdene, 
found also in O.N. {Halfdan gamle — Skdldskaparmdl, 73: Hal/dan hmtr 
Skjolldunga — Hyndluljdif, 14). 

guS-reouw shows the w on the way to becoming a vowel and causing the 
triphthong eou [cf. Zupitza in Z.f.d.A. xxi. 10]. 

gJmde may be an adverb 'gladly,' but is more probably an adjective 
agreeing with Scyldingas^ *the gracious, lordly Scyldings' [cf. Klaejjer in 
Anglia, xxix. 378-9]. 

60. rsBswa[n]t Kemblejt MS. rmwa. Kemble's emendation has been 
widely accepted. The change is exceedingly slight, cf. note to 1. 1176. 
Indeed in the Anglian original of Beowulf the final n of the oblique cases 
of weak nouns may already have been lost, and the scribe who put the 
poem into W.S. would not in that case recognize the form as a plural 
[Co8ijn26]. Cf. note to 1. 1543. 

62. ...[On]elan, Grundtvig [Brage, rr. 500]; Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 43] 
supported this and supplied wees : the name of the lady and part of that of 
her consort were omitted by the scribe, who wrote hyrde ic f elan cwen, 
without anything to indicate at what point in the sentence the omission 
may have occurred. 

As the husband is a Swede (HeaSoscilfing, cf. 1. 2205) the coincidence 
between elan and the name of the Swedish king Onela is too remarkable to 
be overlooked, especially .as it relieves us from having to postulate a 
Germanic princess with the extraordinary name of Elan. The reading of 
the text, which leaves the lady's name unknown, is therefore preferable to 
the theory [of Greiuj, Ettmiillerj, Sedgefieldi, etc."] which makes Elan the 
name of the queen, and supplies Ongentheow, father of Onela, as the 
husband : 

hyrde ic })B&t Elan cwSn [Ongen/>eowes wm] 
Heaffo-Scilfingas heals-gehedda. 
There is no external evidence for either alliance : chronologically either is 

Klage [Engl. Stud. xxii. 144], following the Saga of Rolf Kraki, where 
Halfdan has a daughter Signy, who weds earl Saevil, suggested : 

hyrde ic pxt [Sigeneow wbrs Saw]elan cwen. 
So Sedgefield2and Schiicking. But Saevil was not a king of Sweden. [For 
a full discussion of the passage see Trautmann in Anglia ^ Beiblatt, x. 259.] 

63. For gen. eg. in as, cf. 11. 2453, 2921; Sieversg § 237, N. 1. For 
gebedda, maso. in form, but here fem. in meaning (as foregenga^ applied 
to Judith's female attendant, Judith, 127), cf. SieverSg § 278, N. 4. 

67. he-am from be-iernaUy q.v. 

6 Beowulf 

J^aet heal-reced hatan wolde, 

|medo-9ern micel, men jewyrcean, Fol. 1S0^ 

70 )7on[n]e yldo beam il3fre jefrunon, 
ond \^v on innan eall ^ediSlan 
jeonjum ond ealdum, swylc him 7<^d sealdo, 
buton folc-scare ond feorum juraeua. 
Da ic wide jefraejn weorc jebannan 

75 manijre mn};5)7e jeond {^isne middan-jcard, 
folc-stede fraetwan. Him on fyrste jelomp 
sedre mid yldum, J^set hit wearS eal jearo, 
heal-aerna maist; scop him Heort naman, 
se \e his wordes jeweald wide haefde. 

80 He beot ne aleh, beajas dielde, 
sine ast symle. Sele hlifade 
heah ond horn-jeap; heaSo-wylma bad 
laSan lijes. Ne wses hit lenje )7a gen, 

68. Bask [Angelsahsish Sproglare, 1817] and Kemblei, followed by raost 
of the older editors, read /asf [he] heal-reced. But he need not be ex- 
pressed : it is understood from him in the preceding line. 

70. /?on[n]e is an emendation of Grein^ and Grundtvig (1861, p. 3). If 
in other respects we retain the MS. reading, 'greater' must be uuderstood 
from micel in the preceding line. Parallels have often been adduced for 
this usage of the positive where we should expect the comparative. But 
Bright has shown [M.L.N, xxvii. 181-3] that the clearest of these parallels 
[Psalms, 117, 8-9: Ps. 118 in our reckoning] is due simply to a literal 
translation of a biblical idiom, and that in other cases [e.g. Elene, 647] 
the text is very probably corrupt. Bright would alter the text here to 
medo-am micle mare gewyrcean J>onne.,. • a hall much greater than'.... See 
also Cosijn*. 

yldo beam, 'the children of men.* Such gen. pis. in are rare, but 
undoubted. See SieverSg § 237, N. 4. [For a collection of instances, of. 
Klaeber in M.L.N, xvi. 17-18.] 

73. Cf. Tacitus [Germ, vn.]: * The kings have not despotic or unlimited 

77. Sdre mid yldum, 'presently amid men.' Earle's rendering ♦ with a 
quickness surprising to men ' is forced. 

78. Heorot is probably so named from the horns on the gable, cf . horn- 
geap, 1- 82. But possibly horn simply means 'corner,' 'gable,' and horri' 
geap 'wide-gabled' [cf. Miller in Anglia, xii. 396]. 

83. Two interpretations of lenge are offered: 

(1) *the time was not yet at hand that...,' lenge being an adj. meaning 
'pertaining to'; gelenge in this sense is not uncommon, but there is no 
certain instance of lenge, and to take ♦ pertaining to ' in the sense of • at 
hand ' is forced. However this interpretation [Rieger^ has been followed 
widely, and recently by Schiicking, Sedgefield and Holthauseus. 

Or (2) lenge may be another form of the comparative adv. leng (Grein). 
The comparative here (where Mod. Eng. would use a positive) would be 
paralleled by 11. 134, 2555. The meaning would then be 'the time was 
not very distant.' [So Klaeber^-ie.] 

Holthauseng reads longe* 

Beowulf 7 

|73et se ecj'hete a}>um-sweriaii 

85 sefter wael-niSe waecnan scolde. 
Da se ellen-j^est earfoSlice 
J^raje 5e)7olode, se \>e in )7ystrum bad, 
J^aet he dojora jehwam dream jehyrde 
hludne in healle; )72er waes hearpan swej, 

90 swutol sanj scopes. Saejde se )7e cuj^e 
frumsceaft fira feorran reccan, 

|cwaeS 'psdt se ^Imihtija eorSan worh[te], Fol. 132v 
wlite-beorhtne wanj, swa waeter bebujecS; 
jesette sije-href^ij sunnan ond monan 

95 leoman to leohte land-buendum, 
ond jefraetwade foldan sceatas 
leomum ond leafum; lif eac jesceop 
cynna jehwylcum, J^ara Se cwice hvvyrfaf. 
Swa t5a driht-juman dreamum lifdon 
100 eadijlice, oS Saet an onjan 

fyrene fre[m]man, feond on helle ; 

84. eeg-hete, Greinj: MS. secghete. Cf. 1. 1738, and Seafarer, 70. 

dpum-swerian: a/»um = ' son-in-law,' «M?eor=' father-in-law.' It is clear 
that we have to do with a compound, meaning 'son- and father-in-law,' 
comparable to suhtergef seder an (1. 1164), suhtorfsedran {Widsith, 46), 'nephew 
and uncle.' All recent editors follow Trautmann in altering dpum-swerian 
to dbum-sweorum\ and it may well be that this was the original reading, 
and that the scribe misunderstood dpxim as 'oaths' and so came tomiswrite 
sweorum as swerian *to swear.' Yet swerian may perhaps be defended as 
=z8werigum from *sweriga 'father-in-law,' a form not elsewhere recorded, 
but standing to sweor much as suhtriga to suhtor, both meaning 'nephew' 
(cf. Genesis, 1775, his suhtrian wif). [Bugge, Tidsskr. viii. 45-6 defended 
swerian, comparing Goth, broprahans and Icel. /ed</ar.] 

The reference is to the contest between Hrothgar and his son-in-law 
Ingeld (cf. 11. 2020-69). Possibly the hall was burnt in this contest, which 
took place, as we know from Widsith, * m Heorote.' But more probably 
1. 82 refers to the later struggle among the kin of Hrothgar, when the hail 
was burnt over Hrothulf 's head. See Index of Persons : Hrothulf. 

86. ellengxst. Greini and Kieger^ss emend to the more usual ellor- 
gmt, which is also adopted by Earle and Sedgefield; cf. 11. 807, 1617, etc. 
See note to 1. 102. 

87. prdge, 'a hard time' (Klaeber^M, comparing Juliana, 464, i$ peos 
/>rdg fill strong). See also Beowulf, 1. 2883 [cf. Cosijn*]. 

92. worh[te], Kemble^ : MS. defective at corner. 

93. 8wd, relative : see Glossary. 

101. frem[m]an, Kemhle-i: MS, defective at edge. 

Earle adopts the emendation [of Bugge^], healle for helle, because it 
is ' so simple, and gives so much relief.' On the other hand, in 1. 142 he 
adopts hel-Segnes for heal-degnes [as suggested tentatively by Ettmiillerj but 
not adopted by him]. Both changes are needless. 

feond on helle is simply • hell-fiend ' [Cosijn^]. Cf. helle hsBfton, 1. 788. 

] Beowulf 

waes se jrimma jsest 7ren(lel haten, 

msere mearc-stapa, se )?e moras heold, 

fen ond faesten ; fifel-cynnes eard 
105 won-s2eli wer weardode hwile, 

si)7San him Scyppend forscrifen haefde. 

In Caines cynne J?one cwealm jewraeo 

ece Drihten, |>aes )?e he Abel sloj. 

Ne jefeah he J^iere fsehSe, ac he hine feor forwraec, 
no Metod for \y mane, man-cynne fram. 

panon untydras ealle onwocon, 

eotenas ond ylfe ond orcneas, 

swylce gij^antas, J^a wiS 7ode wunnon Fol. l32^ 

102, gsRst. This ambiguous word may stand for (jast * spirit,' or giest^ 
gist, gyst, 'stranger'; giest is, of course, akin to the Latin hostis, and some- 
times acquires the sense of 'hostile stranger,' 'foe' (e.g. IL 1441, 1522, 1545 
sele-gyst, 2560 gryre-giest). 

In U. 1800, 1893 there can be no doubt that gmst stands for giest^ 
* stranger.' In 1. 2073 and in inwit-gast (2670) the word is connected with 
neoii[i\an *to visit,' which makes it highly probable that it means giest and 
is used with grim irony. In the last instance we have confirmation from 
the fact ihQ.i gryre-giest is applied to the dragon in 1. 2660; and I should 
be inclined also to take gast (2312), niif-gast (2699) a.8 = giest, niff-giest. 
The dragon is not regarded as a spirit of hell, but as a strange phenomenon. 
Grendel and his mother, on the contrary, are regarded as diabolic spirits 
(cf. 1266); and when applied to them I take gmst = gdst 'spirit' (102: wal- 
gmt, 1331, 1995: ellor-gmt, 1349, 1617). This is confirmed by the faci 
that 11. 807, 1621 give {ellor)-gdst, which can only mean 'spirit.' 

In 1. 1123 gasta = gdsta. 

104. Moor and fen were the appropriate dwelling-places of misbegotten 
beings. Jordanes, recording Gothic traditions, mentions the offspring of 
witches and evil spirits : a race 'which was of old amid the fens.' Cf. note 
to 1. 426. 

106-8. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 137] : 

...forscrifen hsefde 
in Gaines cynne {Jjone cwealm gewrsBC 

ece Drihten)... 
' Had proscribed him amid the race of Gain (the eternal Lord avenged that 
death) for that he slew Abel.' 

109. ^e...7i« Wne = Cain,.. God, Cain. 

112. orcneas. The meaning * sea-monster' is often attributed to this 
word (e.g. by Heyne and Schiicking), on the theory that it is a compound, the 
first element connected with Icel. ^rkn 'a kind of seal' [cf. Lat. orca 'a kind 
of whale'], and the second with O.E. eohf 'horse.' [Kluge in P.B.B. ix. 
188, in part following Heyne.] 

But the context seems to demand 'evil spirit,' rather than 'sea-horse.* 
From the Lat. Orcm 'Hell, Death' was derived the O.E. ore 'giant' or 
' devil,' as is proved by the gloss ' orcus : ore, />yrs oSSe hel-deofoL' Orc-nias 
may be a compound of ore with ne 'corpse' (cf. ne-fugol, 'carrion-bird,' 
Gen. 2158; dryht-neum, 'host of corpses,' Exod. 163; and Goth. nat«, *a 
corpse'). [See Bnpge80-82 and in Z.J.d.Ph., iv. 193; and cf. ten Brinki"; 
Sievers in P.B.B. xxxvi. 428.] 

Beowulf 9 

latige J^raje ; he him Cges lean forjeald. 
II 115 Gewat Sa neosian, sy)?5an niht becom, 

hean htises, hu hit Hrinj-Dene 

sefter beor-J^eje jebtia haefdon. 

Fand J?a Sser inne aoj^elinja jedriht 

swefan aefter symble; sorje ne cuSon, 
120 wonsceaft wera. Wiht unhselo, 

jrim ond ^rsedij, jearo sona wses, 

reoc ond rej^e, ond on raeste jenam 

)7ritig J^ejna; J^anon eft ^evvat 

huSe hremij to ham faran, 
125 mid )7sere wael-fylle wica neosan. 

Da waes on uhtan mid ser-daeje 

trendies ^uS-crseft jumum undyrne; 

)?a waes aefter wiste wop tip ahafen, 

micel morjen-swej. M^re J^eoden, 
130 ae)7eling jer-jod, unbliSe saet, 

)?olode ?5ryS-swy?5, J^e^u-sorje dreah, 

sy5]?an hie J^aes laSan last sceavvedon, 

115. neosian. Sievers reads neosan, for metrical reasons. Cf. 1. 125. See 
Introduction to Beowulf . 

116. hean. The weak adj. without definite art. is a feature of early 
O.E. poetry. See Introduction to Beowulf. 

120. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 137] reads W7era[«], 'the men knew not 
sorrow.' Some edd. put the stop after unhselo, ' they knew not sorrow, aught 
of evil.' But with this punctuation Grim ond grsedig makes a very abrupt 
beginning of the next sentence ; and I see no reason Jo doubt that wiht 
unhmlo can mean 'the creature of evil, Grendel'; cf. halo-beam, 'Saviour- 
child' in Crist, 686, 754. [See also Klaeber, Christ. Elementen, in Anglia, 
XXXV. 252.] 

128. setfter wiste, * after their weal,' or * after their feasting,' followed 
lameutation. This seems a more likely interpretation than that there was 
lamentation concerning Grendel's feasting upon the thirty thanes. [Cf. 
Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 223.] 

131. ffryd-swyf. Earle takes this as a noun, 'mighty pain,' 'majestic 
rage,' comparing Icel. sviifi, * a smart from burning.' Surely this is seeking 
trouble, for there is no evidence for any O.E. noun swyd, 'pain, smart,' 
whilst the adj. swyif, ' strong,' is common. It seems, then, natural to take 
ffryS'SwyS as an adj., 'strong in might,' parallel to earm-swid, mod-swid, 
which are indisputably adjs., meaning 'strong in arm,' 'strong in mind,' 
not nouns meaning 'arm-pain,' 'mind-pain.' Context too supports the 
adjectival rendering 'strong in might'; for it is at least as satisfactory here 
as 'mighty pain,' and more so in 1. 736, the only other passage where Jfryif- 
swyi occurs. If we thus make J^ryif-swyHf an adj., we have to take polian as 
intransitive. But there is no difiBculty about this : cf. 1. 2499, and Maldon, 
307. [Earle quotes Grein in support of his interpretation : yet Greiuj renders 
'atark an Kraft.'] 

10 Beowulf 

werjan pastes; wses |7aet jewin tO stranj, 

laS ond lonjsum. Naes hit lenjra |fyrst, Fol. 133*. 

'35 a-c ymb ane niht eft jefremede 

morS-beala mare ond no mearn fore, 

fsehSe ond fyrene ; waes tO faest on J?am. 

pa waes 6aS-fynde, \q him elles hwser 

jerumlicor ra^ste \so]iie\y 
140 bed aefter burum, Sa him jebeacnod waes, 

jesaejd soSlice, sweotolan tacne 

beal-Sejnes hete ; heold hyne sy5)7an 

fyr ond faestor, se )?iem feonde aetwand. 

Swa rixode ond wiS rihte wan 
14s ana wi5 eallura, oS ]7aet idel stod 

husa selest. Waes seo hwil micel ; 

twelf wintra tid torn jej^olode 

wine Scyldin^^a, weana jehwelcne, 

sidra sorga; fortSam \syV^(m\ wear3 
150 ylda bearnum undyrne cuS, 

jyddum jeomore, J^aette irendel wan 

hwile wis HroJ^jar, hete-niSas waej, 

fyrene ond fsehSe fela missera, 

133. It is not easy to be certain whether wergan, here and in 1. 1747, is 
the weak form of werig, ' weary,' or is to be read short, werga,, ' accursed.* 
The latter seems to be the more probable. Cf. wergan, wyrgan, 'to curse' 
[and see Hart in M.L.N, xxii. 220, etc.; and Earle, 168]. 

136. mare ♦ further,' 'additional ' murder — does not of course imply that 
the second attack was more murderous than the first. [Cf. Klaeber**".] 

mord-beala for morS-healu. Some edd. alter, but see note to 1. 1914. 
[Cf. Bugge in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 194 and Sievers in P.B.B. xxix. 312.] 

138. The typical understatement of O.E. verse: ' It was easy to find one 
who sought rest outside the hall,' amounts to saying that all deserted it. 

139. [sohte] Greini; no gap in MS. 

140. after burum. The bowers lie outside the hall, as in the • Cynewulf 
and Cyneheard ' episode in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The retainers, who 
would normally sleep in the hall, prefer a bed by the bowprs, which are 
free from Grendel's attack. 

142-3. The survivors held themselves 'the safer the further away,» 
146-7. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 137] : 

hasa selest (icses »eo hwil micel) 

twelf wintra tid... 

147. twelf: MS. .xn. 

148. Scyldinga, Grundtvig26»^ Kemblez: MS. scyldenda. 

149. No gap in MS.: [syfj^an] supplied by Kemble2, following private 
communication from Thorpe. Cf. 11. 1453, 2175. Some stop-gap is required 
for the alliteration. Klaeber [J.E.G.Ph. vi. 191] supplies secgum, so too 
Schucking; Holthauseu2,3 sdna; Bugge^^^^ tdrcwidum; Sievers [P.B.B. 

Beowulf 11 

sin.'^ale saece; sibbe ne wolde 
155 wis manna hwone ma^jenes Denija, 

feorh-bealo feorran, fea ]?ingian ; 

ne )>«r neenij witena wenan ]7orfte 

beorhtre bote tO banan folmum. 

I [ Atol] se^ljeca ehtende waes, FoU 183«>. 

160 deorc dea)7-scua, dujuj^e ond jeojoj^e, 

seomade ond syrede, sin-nihte heold 

mistime moras ; men ne cunnon, 

hwyder hel-runan hwyrftum scrij^aS. 

Swa fela fyrena feond raan-cynnes, 
165 atol an-jenjea, oft jefremede, 

heardra hyntJa; Heorot eardode, 

sinc-faje sel sweartum nihtiim; 

no he )?one jif-stol jretan moste, 

ma)75um for Metode, ne his myne wisse. 

xxix. 313], for }?dm socmim: cf. 1. 1777. Klaeber, following Sievera' ang- 
geation, substitutes /ordan, the form usual in Beowulf. 

154-5. sibbe and feorh-bealo feorran are possibly parallel, *he wished not 
for peace, or to remove the life-bale,' the verbal phrase explaining the noun 
more fully, as in 11. 185-6, frdfre...wihte gewendan [cf. Bugge^; Klaeber238]. 
We can, however, construe sibbe as an instrumental, in which case there 
should be no comma after Deniga : 'he would not out of compassion to any 
man remove the life-bale.' [Cf. Grein; Sievers, P.B.B. xxix. 317.] 

156. fea. Kemble, normalized to feo, and has been followed by all the 
editors. Yet ea for eo is a common Anglian (especially Northumbrian) 
peculiarity. See Sievers 3 § 150. 3. 

157-8. wenan to, 'to expect from.' See Glossary: wenan, and cf. 
1. 1396. 

158. beorhtre is, of course, not comparative, as taken by many editors 
and translators, but gen. fem., agreeing with bote, after wenan. 

banan, Kemble,: miswritten in MS. baml. Tlie error possibly arose 
through the influence offolmu (cf. 1. 2901) ; or possibly band { = banan) in an 
older I\IS. was written with an open a and this, as so often, was wrongly 
transcribed as u (cf. 11. 581, 2821, 2961). 

159. MS. defective. [Atol] Thorpe; [ac »?"', without a period, Rieger^W. 
163. hel-rHnan. The fem. hel-rvne. ' witch,' occurs in several glosses: 

the Gothic equivalent is recorded by Jordanes: Filimer, King of the Goths, 
found among his people certain witches, ^ qnas patrio sennone Haliiinmnas is 
ipse cognominat' [Geticn, cap. xiiv.]. It is not clear wliether in this passage 
in Beowulf we have the fem., or a corresponding masc, hel-runa, not elsewhere 

167-9. for Metode is generally taken ' on account of the Lord ': cf. 1. 706, 
J)dMetod nolde. Holtzmann [Gerntania, viii. 489] makes //e refer to Hrothgar : 
'he could not touch his throne, his treasure, by reason of God's prohibition, 
nor have joy in it.' But this seems very difficult, since Grendel has been 
the subject for the last fifteen lines. Most probably, then, he refers to 
Grendel, who ♦ was not suffered to outrage Hrothgar's throne by reason of 
God's prohibition: he knew not His mind' (i.e. the fate in store for him). 

But the phrase may mean simply that Grendel is a fiend rejected by God, 

12 Beowulf 

170 poet W8BS wrjec micel wine Scyldinja, 

modes brecSa. Monij oft jesaet 

rice t6 rune, reed eahtedon, 

hwaet swiC-ferhCum selest waere 

wis faer-jryrum to jefremmanne. 
175 Hwilum hie jeheton aet hser^-tn\h\m 

wig-weorJ^Linja, wordum bsedon, 

faet him jast-bona jeoce jefremede 

wis )7^od-)?reaum. Swylc waes J^eaw hyra, 

bsej^enra hyht; helle jemundon 
180 in mod-sefan, Metod hie ne cuj^on, 

dseda Demend, ne wiston hie Drihten 7od, 

|ne hie huru heofena Helm herian ne cuj^on, Foi. 

wuldres Waldend. Wa biS y^m Se sceal ^^**' 

}>urh sliSne niS sawle bescCifan 
185 in fyres fsej^m, frofre ne wenan, 

wihte jewendan; wel biS j^sem J^e mot 

aefter deaS-daege Drihten secean, 

ond to Faeder fsej7mum freotSo wilnian. 

Ill Swa 5a msel-ceare maja Heal fd ones 

and hence cannot approach God's throne or receive a gift in the presence 
of his Creator. In this case, it is suggested by Klaeber [J. E.G. Ph. viii, 254] 
that ne his myne wisse means 'nor did He (God) take thought of him 
(Grendel).' [Parallels for this are given by Klaeber, Christ. Elementen, in 
Anglia, xxxv. 254, e.g. Exeter Gnomic Verses^ 162, wserleas mon ond wonhydig 
J}8BS ne gymeS God.'] Anyway the contrast is between the loyal thane who 
approaches the throne to do homage and receive gifts, and such a * hall- 
thane' (cf. 1. 142) as Grendel. 

[Cf. also Cosijn'; Eock in Anglia^ xxvii, 225 ; Pogatscher in P.B.B. xix. 
544, who suggests /ormg«od« as a verb from *formetian: 'he despised the 
giving of treasure'; Sievers in P.B.B. xxix. 319. Kolbing in Engl. Stud. 
iii. 92.] 

175. hsBrg: MS. hrmrg: Kemble, corrected to hearg: Grundtvig (1861, 
p. 6) kept nearer to the MS. by retaining the spelling harg. This heathen 
term had perhaps become less intelligible when our MS. was transcribed, 
whence the scribe's error. 

It has often been objected that these lines are not consistent with the 
Christian sentiments uttered by leading characters elsewhere in the poem : 
that Hrothgar, for instance, does not talk like a pagan (cf. e.g. 11, 1724, seq.). 
Attempts have been made to harmonize the discrepancy by supposing that 
the Lanes are regarded as Christians, but as having in time of stress 
relapsed, hke the East Angles in the seventh century. [Klaeber, Christ. 
Elementen, in Anglia, xxxv. 134 : Bright in Routh's Ballad Theory, 1905, 
54, footnote.] But this supposition is unnecessary, for such Christian 
sentiments as Hrothgar or Beowulf do utter are vague and nndogmatic, 
not unlike the godly expressions that Chaucer puts into the mouth of his 
pions heathen. [See Introduction to Beowulf.] 

189. msel-ceare, ' the sorrow of this time ' (i.e. the time spoken of above) : 

Beowulf 13 

190 sinjala seaS; ne mihte snotor haelcS 

wean onweudan; waes j^aet jewin to s\vy?5, 
la)> ond lonjsum, \fe on Sa leode becom, 
nyd-wracu nij^-jrim, niht-bealwa mcest. 

paet fram ham jefraejn Hijelaces J'ejn, 
195 jod mid 7eatum, trendies dg^da; 

se wges mon-cynnes maejenes strenjest 

on ]?2em dgeje fysses lifes, 

ae)?ele ond eacen. Het him yS-lidan 

jodne jejyrwan; cwseS, he jutS-cyninj 
200 ofer swan-rade secean wolde, 

mseme )7eoden, J^a him waes manna pearf. 

Done si5-faet him snotere ceorlas 

lyt-hwon lojon, |]7eah he him leof wsere ; Fol. 134*'. 

hwetton hi5e-[r]6fne, hsel sceawedon. 
^05 Hsefde se joda veata leoda 

cempan jecorone, J?ara J^e he cenoste 

findan mihte; fiftena sum 

sund-wudu sohte; secj wisade, 

laju-craBftij mon, land-jemyrcu. J 

m^d-ceare, the emendation of Trautmann^^?^ ig unnecessary [cf. Sievers in 
P.B.B. xxix. 321]: msel-ceare is probably ace. after seud, 'brooded over the 
care'; but might be instrumental, 'seethed with care' [Earle]. 

194. fram ham : *from ' indicates that Beowulf's home is different from 
the scene of Grendel's deeds: Earle rightly renders 'in his distant home.' 
Cf. 1. 410. 

197. Jfsem can bear the alliteration because emphatic. 

203. This, by the customary understatement (cf. 11. 2738, 3029), means 
that they heartily approved of his enterprise, as is shown by 1. 415. [Cf. 
Klaeber in M.L.N, xvii. 323, and Cosijn*.] 

204. [r]dfne is the conjecture of Rask [Grundtvig'^^'] and is certain. 
The MS. is defective : only the lower part of the first letter is left, and this 
may have been r, /, /, s, or w. The letter must have been only half legible 
even in Thorkelin's time; transcript A has J^ofne, Bfome. 

hsel sceawedon, 'watched the omens.* Tacitus notes the attention paid 
to auspices and the methods of divination by the ancient Germans. [Germ* 
X. : Auspicia aortesque, ut qui maxime, observant.] 

The conjecture of Sedgefield^ss hSl geeaicedon^ 'gave him a farewell 
greeting,' seems unnecessary. [Cf. Klaeber, Engl. Stud. xliv. 123.] 

207. fiftena-.MS.xv. ' With fourteen companions.' Cf. 1. 3123. 

209. lagu-crmftig mon. This is often taken to refer to a pilot, but more 
probably it relates to Beowulf himself. Seamanship is a characteristic of 
the perfect hero, as of Sifrit in the Niheltingen Lied. 

wisade... land-gemyrcu has been rendered 'pointed out the land-marks* 
[Earle, Clark-Hall]; but the travellers do not appear to be as yet afloat. 

14 Beowulf 

2IO Fyrst forS jewat ; flota waes on ySum, 

bat under beorje. Beornas jearwe 

on stefn stijon ; streamas wundon, 

sund wis sande ; secjas bc^ron 

on bearm nacan beorhte fr«twe, 
215 juS-searo jeatolic ; 511 man ut scufon, 

weras on wil-si5, wudu buudenne. 

7e\vat )7a ofer waej-hohn winde jefyscd 

flota fami-heals fujle jelicost, 

o5 }?aet ymb an-tid oj^res dojores 
220 wunden-stefna jewaden haefde, 

)7set Sa liSende land jesawon, 

brim-clifu blican, beorjas steape, 

side sse-naessas; fa waes sund liden 

eoletes aet ende. panon tip hraSe 
225 Wedera leode on wanj stijon, 

sS-wudu saeldon ; syrcan hrysedon, 

juG-jewiedo; 'rode ]?ancedon, 

{Sund-wudu sohte, 1. 208, means • he proceeded to the ship,' not necessarily 
'went on board.') We must therefore either translate *led them to the 
land-boundary' (the shore) [cf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxix. 322; Klaeber*^!], 
or we must [as has been suggested to me by Mr Grattan] take the phrase 
wisade land-gemyrcu quite generally: Beowulf 'was their pilot on this 

Cf. 1. 2409. 

210. Fyrst forS^ gewdt, 'the time' between the arrival at the shore, and 
the embarkation ' had passed ' : or, quite generally, ' time passed on.' 

216. hundenne, 'well- braced.' 

218. fdmi-heals. See Sieverss §214, 5. 

219. an-tid: MS. an tid. Gvein, dn-tid {.=hora prima, 'evste Stnnde,' 
comparing 'non-tid' hora nona. Cosijn [P.B.B. viii. 668, following 
Ettmiiller] contends for an-tid = and- tid or ond-tid, 'corresponding time,' 
'the same time,' so that the phrase would mean 'about the same hour of the 
second day.' 

Sievers [P.B.B. xxix. 322, etc.] regards dntid as 'due time,' comparing 
O.N. eindagi, 'agreed time, term,' and points out that ymb, when used to 
mark time, means rather 'after' tban 'about'; hence: 'after the lapse of 
due time, on the next day.* Earle arrives at the same rendering, though on 
different grounds, which to me are not clear. 

224. eoletes. The word occurs here only. The sense seems to demand 
•sea'; 'then was the sound traversed at the far side of the sea.' Yet this 
passive use of liden is difficult — a difficulty which Thorpe sought to avoid 
by reading sund-lida ea-ldde at ende, 'the sea-sailer (i.e. boat) at the end of 
its watery way.' Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 47] interpreted 'stormy sea' (O.N. 
ely 'storm'). But the first element, eo, in eolet may, by the Anglian con- 
fusion of lo and ea, be the same as ea, 'river' (Lat. aqua, Goth. ahwa). Others 
suppose the word to mean 'labour' (cognate with Greek iXauvu)), or else to 
he a mere 'ghost-word,' the result of a scribe's blunder. [Sedgefield^] 

Beowulf 15 

)>8e8 ]fQ him y)>-lade eaSe wurdon. 

Ipa of wealle geseah weard Scildinja, Fol. 135\ 

230 se )>e holm-clifu healdan scolde, 
beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas, 
fyrd-searu fuslicu ; hine fyrwyt braec 
mod-jehyjdum, hwaet )?a men \vi5roru 
7ewat him )7a to waroSe wicje ridan 

235 t^ejQ HroSjares, j^rymmum cwehte 

maggen-wudu mundum, mefel-wordum fraijn : 
"Hwaet sytidon je searo-haebbendra 
byrnum werede, fe )?us brontne ceol 
ofer laju-str^te l^dan cwomon, 

240 hider ofer hoi mas ? [HwsBt, ic liwi^e waes 
ende-s«ta, iuj-wearde heold, 
)7e on land Dena laSra nsenij 
mid scip-herje sce5);an ne meahte. 
No her cuSlicor cuman onjimnon 

245 lind-haebbende ; ne je leafnes-word 
5u5-fiemmendra jearvve ne wisson, 
maja jemedu. NiJ9fre ic maran jeseah 
eorla ofer eorj^an, Sonne is eower sum, 
secj on searwum ; nis j^aet seld-juma 

250 wiupnum jeweorSad, n-Tefyie him his wlite leoje, 

230. scolde, 'whose office it was'; cf. 1. 251. 
232. See note to 1. 142G. 

240. [Hwxt, ic hwi]U was, the reading of Sievers [Anglia, xiv. 146], 
following in part that of Bugp;e^: 

hider ofer holmasf [Hwlle ic on weal]le 
was ende-sata. 
MS. hider ofer holinas le wees, etc., without any gap. Tliorkelin read the 
le as Ic, Kemble as le, but tliere can be no doubt that it is le, and this makes 
Wiiiker's conjecture unlikely : 

hider ofer holmat [hringed-stefnan]f 
Ic wms ende-sscta.... 
The same applies to that of Ettmiiller,: 

iiider ofer holmas [helmas hxroii]* 
hwlle, *& long time.* 

244. cuvian is possibly a noun (cf. I. 1806). 'Never have stranprera, 
warriors, made themselves more at home.' [Bugt^e in Tidaskr. viii. 'A\iO.\ 
For this use of onf7uman, = 'behave,' Klaebcr [Anglia, xxviii. 439] compares 
eadmddlice onginriad, Cura Pastoralis, 421, 26; and advocates the old read- 
ing g el eaf ties -word for ge leafnes-word, taking wisson (1. 2i6) as 3rd pers. r 
245-6. Note that in O.E. syntax two negatives do not make 
an affirmative. 

249-50. *Yon weapon-decked man is no mere retainer,' Seld-guma, 
'hall-man/ ie. house-carl, retainer. Other suggestions are that it means 

16 Beowulf 

fienlic an-syn. Nu ic eower scea! 

frum-cyn witan, ser je fyr |heoiian, Fol. las'". 

leas-sceaweras, on land Dena 

fur)7ur feran. Nu 56 feor-buend, 
255 mere-liSende, min[n]e jehyraS 

an-fealdne jej^oht; ofost is selest 

to jecySanne, hwanan eowre cyme syndon." 
IV Him se yldesta ondswarode, 

werodes wisa, word-hord onleac: 
260 " We synt jura-cyones 7eata leode 

ond Hijelaces heorS-jeneatas. 

Waes min fseder folcum gecyj^ed, 

ae)7ele ord-fruma Ecjj^eow haten ; 

jebad wintra worn, ser he on wej hwurfe 
265 jamol of jeardum; hine gearwe geman 

witena wel-hwylc wide jeond eor)?an. 

We \\xxh holdne hije hlaford J^inne, 

sunu Healfdenes, secean cwomon, 

leod-jebyrjean ; wes \\i us larena god. 
270 Habba?5 we to J^^em m^ran micel serende 

Deniga frean; ne sceal )?8er dyrne sum 

wesan, )?aes ic wene. u wast gif hit is, 

• one who remains within the ««?d,' •stay-at-home,' * carpet-knight,' or that it 
indicates a peasant, one who possesses only a seld. But the seld was a hall 
or palace, occupied by warriors and owned by kings, so that these explana- 
tions are less satisfactory. [Cf. Bugge in Tidsskr. viii. 290-1.] 

250. nafne, Kemblej: MS. nafre. 

253. leas-sceaweras, the MS. reading, meaning *evil spies,* has been 
emended to lease sceaweras [Ettmiillera, Thorpe, followed by all the older 
editors]. But this gives a type of line (Expanded D*) which, unless with 
double alliteration, is unparalleled. It seems therefore better to keep the 
MS. reading. 

So abusive a word is surprising in the middle of an otherwise courteous 
conversation. But, perhaps, the drift is, as Sievers suggests: ' It is my duty 
to {ie sceal) enquire: tell me, rather than (»r), by going further, bring 
yourselves under suspicion of being false spies.' IP.B.B, xxix. 329 : cf. also 
Klaeber in Anglia, xxix. 379-80.] 

255. minln^ef KemblCj: MS. mine. 

258. yldesta, 'chief; cf. 1. 363. 

262. Holthausen2 reads Was min [frod] fader: Holthausenj, Was 
min fader folcum [feor] gecyped. This improves the alliteration. From 
the point of view of scansion alteration is not essential, since a personal 
pronoun can take the stress : cf. 11. 345, 346, 353, 1934, 1984, 2160. This is 
not a merelicence, but usually corresponds to a fine shade of meaning. 

269. larena god, 'good to as in guidance.' 

Beowulf 17 

8wa w§ so|?lice Isecjan hyrdon, Fol. 136* 

fset mid Scyldinjum sceaSona ic nat hwylc, 
275 deojol dsed-hata, deorcum nihtum 

eaweS )7urh ejsan uncu?5ne ni?S, 

hynSu ond hra-fyl. Ic )7ses HrotJjar maeg 

)7urh rumne sefan rsed jel^ran, 

hti he frdd ond jod feond oferswySe}?, 
280 jyf him ed-wendan sefre scolde 

bealuwa bisiju, bot eft cuman, 

Olid )?a cear-wylmas colran wurSaJ?; 

oS(5e a syJ^San earfotS-j^raje, 

}?rea-nyd j7ola3, J^enden )?£er wunaS 
285 on heah-stede htisa selest." 

Weard maj^elode, 5«r on wicje saet, 

ombeht unforht : " ^jhwaej^res sceal 

scearp scyld-wija jescad witan, 

worda ond worca, se \e wel )7enceS. 
290 Ic )7aet jehyre, )?aet ['is is hold weorod 

frean Scyldinja. Tewita)? for5 beran 

wsepen ond jewSdu, ic eow wisije; 

swylce ic maju-J^ejnas mine hate 

wis feonda jehwone flotan eowerne, 

274. sceaffona, in Thorkelin's transcript A only : now only scea left. 

275. dBd-hata. Grein hesitated whether to regard tliis word as dad- 
hata, 'one who hates or persecutes by deeds' [so Greinj] or dmd-hdta, *one 
who promises deeds.' Earle adopts the latter reading, and translates 
•author of deeds.' The former is, however, the more probable: hatian 
means not merely 'to hate' but 'to pursue with hatred, persecute'; cf. 
I. 2466 [see Klaeber^W]. 

276. />urh egsan, 'in dread wise': for Jmrh marking attendant circum- 
stances, cf. L 1335, and perhaps 1. 184. [Cf. Klaeber^^^ and in Archiv, cxv. 
178.] Above, 1. 267, and below, 1. 278, Jmrh retains more clearly its meaning 
of cause or instrument. And Jmrh egsan may mean 'by reason of the awe 
he inspires.' Cf. Seafarer, 103 [and see Cosijn^J. 

280. edwendan MS. Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 291] suggested the noun 
edwenden, in which case we must take bisigu as gen. dependent upon it: 
♦ a change of his trouble. * [So Holthausen and Sedgefield : already in 1861 
Grundtvig (p. 117) took the passage in this way, though retaining the 
spelling edwendan, which he interpreted as a noun = edwniden.] The emen- 
dation edwenden is exceedinj^dy probable, since the verb edwendan occurs 
nowhere else : for in 1. 1774, where the MS. gives edwendan, it is necessary 
to read this as edwenden; him edwenden... bealuwa bisigum has been sug- 
gested: cf. 1. 318, sida gesunde, and 1. 2170, ni<fa hcardum. 

286. Sievers [P.B.B. ix, 137], followed by Holthausen and Sedgefield, 
would supply [/ie] after J?mr. But this seems unnecessary: cf. 1. 1923. 
[See Pogatscher, in Anglia, xxiii. 265.] 

18 Beowulf 

295 niw-tyrwydne nacan on sande, 

arum healdan, o)? faet eft byreS 

ofer laju-strealmas leofne maiinan Fol. 136\ 

wudii wunden-hals to Weder-mearce, 

god-fremmendra swylcum jifej^e biS 
300 )7aet ]?one hilde-r^es hal jedijeS." 

qewiton him \q, feran ; flota stille bad, 

seomode on sale sid-faej^med scip, 

on ancre faest. Eofor-lic scionon 

ofer hleor-ber[^^]an, jehroden 50) de ; 
305 fah ond fyr-heard ferh-wearde heold 

juj^modjwm men. 7uman onetton, 

297-9. Uofne mannan and iwylcum may refer to the whole band, *to 
whomsoever it shall be granted' [Kemble, Thorpe]. For a full defence of 
this rendering see Klaeber^^O; leofne mannan would be a singular used 
collectively: cf. eorl (1. 795), apelinge (1. 1244). Most recent translators 
make of 11. 299, 300, an assertion relating to Beowulf: 'to such a valiant 
man it will be granted....' It has been objected that this is to attribute to 
the coast-guard a statement which is absurd — a view refuted 'by all the 
brave men who have ever fallen in battle' [Rieger'^o]. Yet he may reason- 
ably say * Valiant men like your captain are destined to win.' 

299. god-fremmendra. Grundtvig's emendation guff-fremmendra [1861, 
p. 10] is needless. 

300. Here, too, Sievers, followed by Sedgefield, would supply [he] after 

302. sale, Ettmiillerj; cf. II. 226, 1906, and 1917, and modern 'riding 
on a hawser.' It has been suggested that the MS. reading sole is not im- 
possible, and that it might be interpreted as from sol, mod. Kent, sole, 'a 
muddy pool.' But surely this is a libel upon the Cattegat. 

303, etc. tcionon = 8cinon, 'they shone,' by u-umlaut, just as riodan 
(L 3169) =ridon, 'they rode' (Sievers 3 § 376): there seems no sufiBcient 
reason to reject this explanation, and, with Grein, to invent a verb scdnan, 
tceon, or with Sedgefield to take scioiwn as an adj. { = 8cienan, 'bright'), 
agreeing with eofor-lic. 

hleor-ber[g]an, 'cheek-guards,' Ettmiillera, Gering [Z.fd.Ph. xii. 123 : he 
compares cinherg, Exod. 175]: MS. hleor beran. If we retain the MS. 
reading we must either take beran = bEeron, 'they bore over tiieir faces,' or 
else, with Grein, assume a noun hleor-bera^ 'visor'; Sedgefield2 reads ofer 
hUoJ?u beran, ' they bore, over the hill-sides,...' 

The latter part of 1. 305 has been widely read ferh wearde heold, *the 
pig' {ferh for /ear /i, parallel to eofor-lic) 'held guard': but the expression 
ferh, 'pig' for eofor, 'boar' is strange [Cosijn^]. The reading of the text 
ferhwearde heold {ferh for feorh) involves a rapid change from pi. to sg. : 
but in O.E. poetry this is no insuperable difficulty. Translate • the gleaming 
and tempered [helm] held guard of life over the valiant man {gupmodgum men).* 

The MS. reading, gufmwd grummon, hardly admits of interpretation. 
If a verb, grummon must be from grimman, 'to rage, roar,' which gives 
no satisfactory sense; the meaning 'hasten' is generally applied to it here, 
but this is forced ; why should ' to roar ' mean ' to hasten ' ? And gubmod as 
subject { = gubmod{i)ge 'the valiant ones') is almost equally unsatisfactory, 
even if we follow Kemble 2 and alter to ^u/-wo(/[e]. 

Sedgefield suggests grimmon (Dat. pi.), 'over the fierce ones': Bright 

Beowulf 19 

sijon aetsomne, o]> )?aBt hy [sJbbI timbred, 

jeatolic ond jold-fah, onjyton mihton; 

)?8et wses fore-mserost fold-btiendum 
310 receda under roderum, on )7S5m se rica bad ; 

lixte se leoma ofer landa fela. 

Him J7a hilde-deor [/i,]of modi^ra 

torht jetaehte, )?aet hie him to mihton 

jejnum jan^an; juS-beorna sum 
315 wicj jewende, word aefter cwaeS: 

" M^el is me to feran ; Fasder al-walda 

mid ar-stafum eowic jehealde 

siSa jesunde ! Ic to sse wille 

wis |wra5 werod wearde healdan." Fol. 137\ 

V 320 Street W8B8 stan-fah, stij wisode 

jumum aetjaedere. 7u5-byrne scan 

heard hond-locen, hrinj-iren scir 

sonj in searwum, )7a hie to sele furSum 

in hyra jryre-jeatwura janjan c women. 
325 Setton S8e-mej7e side scyldas, 

rondas rejn-hearde, wiS faes recedes weal, 

bujon )7a to bence ; byrnan hrinjdoo, 

[M.L.N. X. 43] had made the same emendation, but with adverbial meaning, 

Tacitus notes these boar-helmets : but as a characteristic, not of the 
Germans proper, but of the ^stii [Germ. xlv. : Insigm supers titionis formas 
aprorum gestant]. 

The straightening out of this passage, so far as it admits of explanation, 
is mainly due to Buggers [and in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 195, etc.], who proposed; 

eofor lic-sclonon 
ofer hleorberan gehroden golde 
fdh ond fyrheard ferh-wearde heold 
gu]y-jn5dgum men. 
•The boar, over the visor, adorned with gold, gleaming and tempered, 
held guard of life over the valiant man, fair of body {Uc-sclonon).' Bugge's 
interpretation, at least of 11. 305, 306, seems likely, and has been adopted by 
Schiicking and Holthausenj; cf, Klaeber*'^ 

307. [s]sd timbredy Kembleg: MS. mltimhred. 

308. For infinitives in on cf. 11. 2167, 2842, and Sieversa §363, N. 1. 
312. [A]o/, Kemblej: MS. of. Both sense and alliteration demand the 


315. mfter, 'thereupon.' 

326. regn-hearde. Regn (Goth, ragin, 'counsel,' raginon, *to rule*) 
comes in O.N. {regin) to be a synonym for the goda Here it is used simply 
to intensify. Cf. the proper name Reginhart (Reynard), appropriately 
applied to that 'thoroughly hardened sinner,' the fox. 

20 Beowulf 

juS-searo jumena; jaras stodon, 

sse-manna searo, samod aetjoedere, 
330 aesc-holt ufan jraej; waes se iren-j^reat 

waepnum 5ewur)7ad. pa Sser wlonc haeleS 

Oret-mecjas aefter wpelnvo. fraejD : 

" Hwanon ferijeaS ^e fStte scyldas, 

jrseje syrcan ond jrim-helmas, 
335 here-sceafta heap ? Ic eom HrotSjares 

ar ond ombiht. Ne seah ic el-j^eodije 

)7U8 manije men mOdijlicran. 

Wen ic J^aet je for wlenco, nalles for wrsec-siSum 

ac for hi5e-|)7ryramum, HroSjar sohton." Fol. 137". 
340 Him \q, ellen-rof andswarode, 

wlanc Wedera leod word sefter sprgec, 

heard under helme: "We synt Hijelaces 

beod-jeneatas ; Beowulf is min nama. 

Wille ic asecjan sunu Healfdenes, 
345 mcerum J^eodne, min serende, 

aldre J^inum, jif he us geunnan wile, 

)?aet we hine swa godne jretan moton." 

Wulfjar maj^elode — )?set waes Wendla leod, 

waes his mod-sefa manejum jecySed, 
350 wij ond wis-dom — "Ic );8es wine Denija, 

frean Scildinja, frinan wille, 

beaja bryttan, swa )>u bena eart, 

]7eoden mserne, ymb )7inne siS, 

ond \q \a, ondsware sedre jecySan, 
355 t5e me se joda ajifan J^enceS." 

Hwearf f>a hraedlice, )?8er HroGjar saet 

eald ond anhar mid his eorla jedriht; 

332. mj>elum, Greini (cf. 1. 392, and for the sense IL 251-2): MS. 
hale^um — evidently a scribal blunder due to the hmled of the previous line. 
For oret', see Sieversa §43, N. 4. 

338. Wen. Some editors write this wen* {=wene). Cf. U. 442 and 

344. 8unu. The editors from Kemble, downwards have adopted the 
more usual form of the dat., tuna; but see Sievers, §§270 and 271, N. 2. 

357. anhdr: MS. unhar. Bugge [Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 197] suggests that the 
un intensifies: 'very hoary'; so Cosijn^^ and Schiicking: but the parallels 
quoted in support are not satisfactory. Sedgefieldj retains unhdr, but trans* 
lates * with hair not yet white. ' But the emendation anhdr [Bijgge in Tidaskr, 

Beowulf 21 

gode ellen-rof, )>aet he for eaxlum jestod 

Denija frean; cuj^e he dujuSe J^eaw. 
360 Wulfjar matJelode |to his wine-drihtne : Fol. 138». 

"Her syndon jeferede, feorran cumene 

ofer jeofenes bejanj, 'jeata leode; 

)?one yldestan oret-mecjas 

Beowulf nemnatJ. Hy benan synt, 
365 l>aet hie, J^eoden min, wi5 )7e moton 

wordum wrixlan; no 5u him wearne jeteoh 

Sinra jejn-cwida, jlaedman HroSjar. 

Hy on wij-jetawum wyrSe J?incea5 

eoria jeaehtlan; huru se aldor deah, 
370 se )?8em heatJo-rincum hider wisade." 
VI HroSjar maj^elode, helm Scyldinja: 

"Ic hine cuSe cniht-wesende ; 

waes his eald faeder Ec^j^eo haten, 

tJaem to ham forjeaf Hrej^el 7eata 
375 anjan dohtor; is his eafora nu 

viii. 71 ; Trautmann : adopted by Holthausen] is simple and final. A similar 
bad spelling occurs in the Dream of the Rood, 117: the MS. has unforht^ 
which is nonsense, and has been emended to anforht * timid.* Such scribal 
mistakes were easily made at a period when, the top of the a being left open, 
it was hardly distinguishable from u : another example is tcudu for wadu, 
below (L 681). For anhavt of. ansund (1. 1000). 

367. gladman, indisputably the MS. reading: Thorkelin's transcript B 
reads gladnian [cf. Rieger38«]. 

BuggeS* defends gladman, quoting the gloss 'Hilarig: glssdman.* The best 
interpretation of the word seems, then, to be • cheerful' Other suggestions 
have been that it is the oblique case of a noun gladma, * gladness,' or that it 
should be read as two words, glsBd man. Glmd^ 'gracious,' is a stock epithet 
of princes. Grundtvig's emendation [1861, p. 13] glssd-mod is followed by 
Holthauseni,2 and Sedgefield. 

368. wig-getdwum. Note the spelling here, and in 11. 395, 2636: the 
editors generally alter into the more usual form wig-geatwum, ete.^ and this 
emendation is supported here by metrical considerations. Oeatwe is generally 
supposed to be a corruption (Sieversa § 43, N. 4) of getdwe. It would seem, 
then, that the more primitive form, getdwum, has been, by a scribal error, 
inserted here, although the metre shows that the form actually used was the 
corrupt geatwe. Yet it has been maintained that the two words, geatwe wid 
getdwe^ are from distinct roots (geatwe cognate with frmtwe; getdwe with 
tdunan, 'to prepare'). If so, they were certainly confused and interchanged 
by the scribes. [Cf. von Grienberger in Z.f.o.G. 1905, 753.] 

372. cniht-wesende, uninflected ; see note to 1. 46, above. 

373. eald f seder : MS. ealdfssder. This compound, meaning 'grandfather, 
ancestor,* occurs in the forms ealdfseder, ealdefseder; but its use here is 
a strain to the meaning of the passage, and we may safely assume that tlie 
scribe has run two words into one, as in numerous other instances. Eald 
feeder makes excellent sense. 

375. eafora, Grundtvig272, Kemblei : MS. eaforan. 

22 Beowulf 

heard her cumen, sohte holdne wine, 

Donne saejdon )^3et 82e-li)>ende, 

)7a Se jif-sceattas leata fyredon 

);yder to )?ance, )>aet he J^riltijes Fol. 188^ 

380 manna niaejen-craeft. on his mund-jripe 
heaj70-rof haebbe. Hi no halij 7od 
for ar-stafum us onyende, 
t5 West-Denum, \dds, ic wen haebbe, 
wis trendies ^ryre; ic J^sem jodan sceal 

385 for his mod-)7raece madmas beodan. 
Beo Cu on ofeste, hat in jan 
seon sibbe-jedriht samod setjaedere ; 
jesaja him eac wordum, )7aet hie sint wil-cuman 
Denija leodum." [^pa witS duru healle 

390 Wulf^dr eode,] word inne ahead; 
" Eow het secjan sije-drihten min, 
aldor East-Dena, yset he eower se]>e\n can, 
ond je him syndon ofer sse-wylmas, 
heard-hicjende, hider wil-cuman. 

395 Nu je moton janjan in eowrum juS-jeatawum, 

378-9. Thorpe, Geatum, adopted by Bugge^* and Earle. The change is 
not necessary, because the genitive can be objective: 'presents for the 
Geatas.' [So Klaeber«2.] 

pyder. Cosijn"^ would alter to hyder, and make the Danes the recipients 
of the treasure: but this weakens the alliteration. We need not assume 
that either nation was tributary to the other. Tacitus records similar 
interchange of gifts between neighbouring tribes: Gaudent praecipue finiti- 
marum gentium donis, quae non modo a sinfjulis sed puhlice mittuntur, electi 
equi, magna arma, phalerae torquesque. [Germ, xv.] Cf. too 1. 472, below. 

379. prxtiges: MS. "xxx- tiges. 

386-7. The demands of the metre show that gdn stands for some di- 
syllabic form, gdan or gang an. 

sibbe-gedriht may refer to Beowulf 's men, 'bid this company come into 
my presence' (cf. 1. 729), but this compels us to give a forced rendering to 
seon : more probably therefore sibbe-gedriht refers to the Danes, and is the 
object of $eon, ' bid them come in and see our company. ' We must supply 
hi mentally after in gdn. 

Bright [M.L.N, x. 44] suggests hat [pxt] in gd seo sibbegedriht 'bid that 
company (Beowulf's) to go in.* This emendation is supported by Exodus, 
214, but is not necessary. 

389-90. [J>d...eode], Grein^ : no gap in MS., though the lack of allitera- 
tion seems conclusive as to a defect in the text. 

inne, 'speaking from inside.' 

395. gUS-geatawmn. See note to 1. 368 and Sievers, § 260, Notes 1, 2. 
The emendation of Ettmiillero guff-getaioum has the advantage of avoiding 
the abnormal double alliteration in the second half line: for ge- of course 
does not alliterate. 

Beowulf 23 

under here-jriman, HroSjar jeseon; 
IsetaS hilde-bord her onbidao, 
wudu, wsel-sceaftas, worda jefinjes.** 
Aras )?a se rica, ymb hine rinc manij, 

400 )7rySlic jjejna heap ; sume j^ser bidon, 

heaSo-reaf heoldon, swa him se |hearda bebead. FoI. 
Snyredon aetsomne, )?a secj wisode, 139». 

under Heorotes hrof ; [hy^e-rof eode,] 
heard under helme, fset he on heotJe jestod. 

405 Beowulf maSelode — on him byrne scan, 
searo-net seowed smij^es or-J^ancum — 
" Waes )?u, HroSgar, hal 1 Ic eom Hijelaces 
msej end majo-Sejn; hsebbe ic mserSa fela 
onjunnen on ;^eo^o]>e. Me wearS trendies J^inj 

410 on minre e)?el-tyrf undyrne cu3 ; 

sec^aS 8£e-liSend, )?aet ]?3es sele stande, 
reced selesta, rinca jehwylcum 
idel ond unnyt, siStJan aefen-leoht 
under heofenes hador beholen weorJ?e?5. 

397. onbidan. The scribe seems to have written onhidman, and to have 
erased the m very carelessly, so that one stroke, resembling an i, remains. 
Some editors read onbidian. 

402. /a is metrically excessive [Sievers in P.B.B. x. 256], the only 
parallel being {pdra)ymbsittendra, where we can be certain that }fdra was 
not original (see note to 1, 9). Holthausen omits J?d here also. 

403. [hyge-rof code], Greini : no gap in MS. 

404. heofe. The emendation heo[r]d'e [Kemblej, suggested by Thorpe] 
is adopted by Holthausen and Sedgefield2. Holtzmann [Germ. viii. 490] 
showed, by a parallel passage from the Egils saga, how the hearth was in 
front of the high seat in a Germanic hall. Beowulf, before the throne 
of Hrothgar, would then be on or near the hearth. 

On heoSe has been taken to mean 'in the interior' (cf. hel-hiofo), or *on 
the dais' (from heah). This last interpretation is difficult to demon- 

407. WsBs; a for e: cf. sprsec (1. 1171). See Sievers, §427, N. 10; 
BiUbring § 92. 1. 

411. Most editors have followed Thorkehn and Kemble, in normalizing 
to J>e8. But /?ses is a possible Northern form of the nom. maso. [Sievers, 
§ 338, N. 4]. 

As in the HildebrandLay, news is brought by seafaring folk (seolidante). 

414. hador. If we retain the MS. reading we must take hador as either 
(1) 'brightness,' which is unprecedented {hador being elsewhere an adj.) 
and does not give good sense, or (2) 'vault of heaven,' connecting with a 
word twice recorded in the Riddles, which seems to mean 'receptacle' or 
'confinement' (Ixv. [Ixvi.] 3, on headre; xx. [xxi.] 13, on heuJ?ore; cf. Goth. 
hlpjo, * chamber' : some editors emend to hafor here in Beowulf). Cf. 11. 860, 
1773, under swegles begong. 

Sedgefieldi transposes the words and reads hador under heo/ene^ trans- 

24 Beowulf 

415 pa me j^aet jel^rdon leode mine, 

]7a selestan, snotere ceorlas, 

J^eoden HroSjar, j^aet ic \q sohte, 

foi|?an hie maejenes craeft min[7i]e cu)7on; 

selfe ofersawon, 5a ic of searwum cwom, 
420 fah from feondum, |?«r ic fife jeband, 

ySde eotena cyn, ond on ySum sloj 

niceras nihtes, nearo-J^earfe dreah, 

wraec |Wedera niS — wean ahsodon — Fol. 139^ 

forgrand jramum ; ond nu wi5 Tiendel sceal, 
425 wis J>am ajl^can, ana gehejan 

Sinj wis )7yrse. Ic |?e nu 3a, 

brejo Beorht-Dena, biddan wille, 

eodor Scyldinja, anre bene, 

)?aet Sti me ne forwyrne, wijendra hleo, 
430 freo-wine folca, nti ic J^us feorran com, 

)73et ic mote ana [ond] minra eorla jedryht, 

)7es hearda heap, Heorot f«lsian. 

Hsebbe ic eac jeahsod, \dd\, se sejlseca 

for his won-hydum wsepna ne recceS; 
435 ic faet j7onne forhicge, swa me Higelac sie, 

lating 'after the bright evening light is hidden under the sky.' [But cf. 
Klaeber in Engl. Stud. xliv. 124.] Sedgefield2 under heofene hddor. 

418. min[n]e, Greini: MS. mine. Cf. 1. 255. 

420. J>sr ic fife geband. The emendation fisera for />mr [Rieger^^^] is 
unnecessary: J>EBr can mean 'when'; Klaeber*^'* compares 11. 513, 550. 

Unless 'eotens' and 'nicers' are different beasts, there is a discrepancy, 
since later Beowulf claims to have slain nine nickers (1. 675). It seems 
possible that fife is either a form (as Grein thought), or, more probably, a 
corruption, of fifel, • sea-monster.' There are several conjectures based 
upon this, the oldest of which is Bugge's pSr ic on fifel-geban. Bugge'*' 
supposes this to have been the reading of a very early MS., which was 
later misunderstood and corrupted: geban would be the older form of 
geofottt and the phrase would be parallel to ofer fifel-wag {Elene, 237), 

422. niceras. The word seems to have been used by the different 
Germanic peoples for any strange water-being they might meet, from a 
mermaid to a hippopotamus. 

423. Cf. note to 1. 1206. 

426. J?yrse. Cf. the Gottonian Gnomic Verses, 1. 42 : 
** J?yrs sceal on fenne gewunian 
ana innan lande." 
431-2. ana U>nd'\.../>e8 : MS. ana minra eorla gedryht 7 /«», etc. Kemble, 
transposed the 7 ( = ond ). 

434. Cf. 11. 681, etc., 801, etc. 

435. sie. In O.E. poetry the metre sometimes demands that sie, s^ 

Beowulf 25 

min mon-drihten, modes bliSe, 

]fadt ic sweord bere o]>^e sidne scyld, 

jeolo-rand t6 juj^e ; ac ic mid grape sceal 

fon wis feonde, ond ymb feorh sacan 
440 laS wis la)?um; Sger jelyfan sceal 

Dryhtnes dome se J^e hine deaS nimeS. 

Wen ic )7aet he wille, jif hS wealdan mot, 

in f^sem jtiS-sele ^eotena leode 

etan unforhte, swa he |oft dyde Fol. 140». 

445 maegen HreS-manna. Na Jni minne j^earft 

hafalan hydan, ac he me habban wile 

d[r]eore fahne, jif mec deaS nimeS; 

byreS blodij wael, byrjean )?enceS, 

eteS an-jenja unmurnlice, 
450 mearcaS mor-hopu; no Sti ymb mines ne j^earft 

lices feorme lenj sorjian. 

should be monosyllabic, sometimes disyllabic : the spelling is no guide. 
Here it is monosyllabic ; the verse is of the B type, with resolution of first 
accented syllable (x x -^ x | x -'). For cases where sie is disyllabic, see 
11. 1831, 2649 [cf. Siever^n P.B.B. x. 477]. 

Hygelac is brought in because, as Beowulf's chief, he shares the credit 
of his achievements. [Cf. Tacitus, Germ, xv., and note to 1. 1968, below.] 

440-1. gely fan... Dryhtnes dome. Earle renders 'resign himself to': 
for similar sentiment, cf. 11. 685, etc. 

pe hine, 'whom.' 

443. Geotena. Many editors alter to the normal form Glata. But 
(1) the dialectal confusion of eo and ea [Sieversj § 160. 3] is pecuharly apt 
to survive in proper names, and (2) weak and strong forms of proper names 
alternate; ^eaw? compared with 5eou;a exemplifies both changes. Geotena 
is, then, a conceivable form, and the MS. reading should be retained. 

Those who hold that the Geatas are Jutes have seen in this form a 
confirmation of their theory; and (though I do not share that view) this is 
an additional reason for not tampering with the MS. reading. 

445. To avoid the difficulty of the alliteration falling on the second ele- 
ment in the compound, Schiicking reads mmgen-hrM ma,nna,^ihe pride of men.' 

HrSdas is an ancient epic title of the Goths : it became HreSas by false 
analogy with hreS, 'glory'; but the term HrM-menn here cannot signify 
' Goths.' It may possibly refer to the Geatas, whose king is HreSel, in which 
case a comma must be inserted after dyde. But I rather take it to mean the 
Danes, part of whose kingdom is in Icelandic called Reid-Gotaland; this 
gives a more satisfactory sense: 'he thinks to treat the Geatas as he did 
the Danes.' Cf. 1. 601. 

446. hafalan hydan, referring to the rites of burial. It does not 
necessarily follow, as has been argued, that there is any reference to the 
custom, once prevalent, at any rate in Scandinavian countries, of covering 
with a cloth the face of the dead [Konrath in Archiv, xcix. 417]. 

That Beowulf is declining a guard of honour (hiafod-weard), as Schiicking 
supposes, seems very improbable. 

447. d[r]eore, Grundtvig^^^ . j^g^ deore. 

450-1. 'Thou needst care no more about my body's sustenance.' 

26 Beowulf 

Onsend Hijelace, jif mec hild nime, 

beadu-scruda betst, }?aet mine breo3t were^J, 

hraejla selest; J7aBt is Hrsedlan laf, 
455 Welandes jeweorc. vieS a wyrd swa hio sceL" 
VII HroSjar maj^elode, helm Scyldinja : 

For [^^]ei^;y[r]htum j^u, wine min Beowulf, 

ond for ar-stafum usic sohtest. 

7esloh )?in faeder fsehSe mseste, 
460 wear)? be HeaJ?olafe to hand-bonan 

raid Wilfinjum ; 5a bine Wedevo. cyn 

for here-bro^an habban ne mihte. 

panon he jesohte SuS-Dena folc 

ofer ySa jewealc, Ar-IScyldinja; Fol. 140^ 

465 Sa ic fur)?um weold folce Deni^^a, 

ond on jeojoSe heold jimme-rice 

hord-burh haele)?a. £)a wa3S Here^ar dead, 

454. Hradlan. There is no need to alter HrSdlan iuto HreSlet. For 
ad alternating with ed", cf. note to 1. 445 above. The alternation of weak 
and strong forms [llort and Horta) is common, especially in the names of 
ancestral heroes. See note to 1. 443 above. 

457. F[or gewyr]htum: MS. fere fyhtum. Grundtvig (1861) suggested 
F[or ip]ere-fyhtum, ' for defensive fighting.' More than a dozen emendations 
have been proposed : that in the text is by Trautmann [in his edition : 
otherwise Trautmann^^^]^ and ^e must render, with Klaeber [J.E.O.Ph. vi. 
191], 'because of deeds done,' i.e. owing to the ancestral ties mentioned 
below. [Cf. also Sievers in P.B.B. xxxvi. 401; Klaeber***]. Thorpe, fol- 
lowed by Schucking, reads fore fyhtum, and emended wine to freond, so as 
to alliterate. But the error obviously lies in fere fyhtum, which should be, 
and is not, parallel to ond for dr-stafum [Sievers, P.B.B, ix. 138]. 

459. Holthausen, followed by recent editors, reads for metrical reasons, 
Jyin fftder gesloh. 

Klaeber-^*' translates *thy father brought about by fight the greatest 
of feuds.* Schiicking, following Klaeber, similarly renders geslean, 'durch 
Schlagen verursachen.' But (1) geslean conveys an idea of finality, and 
means 'to achieve' rather than *to cause' by blows; and (2) since Ecgtheow 
escapes safely, and the Wylfingas have to be content with a money payment 
from a third party, such ineffective vengeance could not be described as 
' the greatest of feuds ' ; for the honours go to the side which last slays 
its man. I take the fsehf to be a blood-feud preceding and culminating 
in the slaying of Heatholaf, by which slaying Ecgtheow 'achieves' the 
feud : cf. Widsith, 38, Offa geslog cynerica mast, ' won, achieved by blows, 
the greatest of kingdoms.' [For geslean cf. Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 226-7.] 

4r,l. Wedera, Grundtvig (1861, p. 16): MS. gara: see 11. 225, 423, ete. 

462. for here-hrogan, ' because of the terror of war.' 

465. Deniga, Kemble,: MS. deninga: see 11. 155, 271, etc. 

466. ginne rice, 'my ample kingdom,' and gumena rice have been pro- 

467. Heregdr. Heorogdr is of course meant. Many editors alter the 
name accordingly. When names are confused, it is frequently found, as 

Beowulf 27 

min yldra rasej unlifijende, 

beam Healfdeoes ; se wses betera Sonne ic. 
470 SiSSan }7a fiehSe feo j^injode ; 

sende ic Wylfinjum ofer waeteres hrycj 

ealde madmas ; he me a)7as swor. 

Sorh is me to secjanne on sefan minum 

juraena senium, hwaet me 7rendel hafaS 
475 hynSo on Heorote mid his hete-)?ancum, 

faer-ni)?a jefremed ; is min flet-werod, 

wij-heap, jewanod; hie wyrd forsweop 

on Trendies jryre. 7od eaj^e maej 

)7one dol-sceaSan dseda jetwtefan. 
480 Ful oft jebeotedon beore druncne 

ofer ealo-wseje oret-mecjas, 

}?aet hie in beor-sele bidan woldon 

trendies juj^e mid jryrum ec^a. 

£)onne waes )7eos medo-heal on morjen-tid, 
485 driht-sele dreor-fah, )70iine daej lixte, 

eal |benc-)?elu blode bestymed, Fol. 141». 

heall heoru-dreore ; ahte ic holdra \f Iges, 

deorre dujuSe, \e, }?a deaS fornam. 

Site nu to symle ond ons^l meoto, 
490 sije-hreS sec^am, swa )7in sefa hwette." 

here, that the first (alliterating) letter, and the second element, are kept 
intact. Cf. Sigeferff and Sa/erHf, Ordldf and Osldf, etc. 

470. fio instrumental. The ic of 1. 471 is to be understood also with 
pingode [cf. Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 227]. 

473. The metre demands to secgan [so Holthausen, Schiicking, and 
Sedgefield] : similarly in II. 1724, 1941, 2093, 2562. The uninflected form 
is preserved in 11. 316, 2556. 

479. -sceadan: MS. sc'aifan, the « in a different hand. 

488. /?€... fornam, * since death had taken them away.* [Klaeber*^', 
comparing Riddles, ix. [x.] 11.] 

489-90. onssBl...secgum: MS. on sal meoto sige href secgu. The MS. 
reading has in the past been very generally defended [e.g. by Leo, Heyne, 
Bugge in Tidsskr. viii. 292, Greinj, Dietrich, Wiilker, Kluge^®], and ia 
retained by Trautmann^^: onsxl has been taken as the imperative of the 
verb, and meoto as fern. sg. (Grein, Sprachschatz) or neut. pi. (Greinj, 
Bugge) of some word not elsewhere recorded, meaning either 'measure,' 
•thought,' or 'speech': so onssel m«o<o = ' relax the ties of etiquette' or 
•unknit thy thoughts.' The diflQculty is that a verb, unless emphatic, 
should not take the alliteration. Those who retain the MS. reading 
generally take sigehref as an &d}.=8ige-hTeS'ig, 'victory famed' (so Heyne, 
Trautmann: but it is surely a noun), or make sigehreSsecgum one word. 

Holthausen suggested [Z./.d. PA. xxxvii. 114] on mlum weota sigehreifguin 

28 Beowulf 

pa waes 'jeat-maecjum jeador aetsomne 
on beor-sele bene jerymed ; 
)7yer swiS-ferhJ^e sittan eodon, 
)n"y5um dealle. pejn nytte beheold, 
495 se J7e on handa baer hroden ealo-wit'je, 
scencte scir wered. Scop hwilum sanj 
hador on Heorote ; J^ser waes haeleOa drgam, 
dujuS unlytel Dena ond Wedera. 

VIII (H)vNfer5 maj^elode, Ecjlafes beam, 
5cx> J7e aet fotum saet frean Scyldinja, 

onband beadu-rune — waes him Beowulfes siS, 

modjes mere-faran, micel aef-)7unca, 

forJ7on )7e he ne u)7e, )?aet senij o3er man 

aefre |m£er5a \on ma middan-jeardes Fol. l4l^ 

505 ^ehedde under heofenum fonne he sylfa — 

"Eart )7u se Beowulf, se \q wis Brecan wunne, 

on sidne see ymb sund flite, 

C^er jit for wlence wada cunnedon, 

ond for dol-jilpe on deop waeter 
510 aldrum nej^don? Ne inc jenij mon, 

ne leof ne laS, belean mihte 

sorh-fuUne si5, )?a git on sund r^on; 

tecgiim..., weota being from witian: *m happiness ordain to these victorious 
men as thy soul bids thee.' 

The reading on sml meota sige-hreif secga [Klaeber in J.E.G.Ph. vi. 192] 
is an improvement upon Holthausen's, being much nearer to the MS., and 
giving better sense: 'in joyful time think upon victory of men.' This has 
since been adopted by Holthausen2. The verb *Tnetian is not elsewhere 
recorded, but may be inferred from the Goth, miton, • consider.' 

Sedgefieldi suggests on sal mota sigehre(f[ig] secgum: 'when time suits 
speak, victorious one, to the men ' : Sedgefield2 on salum tio (award) sigehrlS 

Cosijn^° would read Sigehre6'secgum = HreiJ'monnum=* unto the Danes.' 

499. Unferif : always written with &nhin the MS. , although alliterating 
with vowels. 

505. gehedde. This is usually interpreted 'obtain* op 'achieve,' and 
is explained either as a compound of hydan, 'to hide' (Bosworth-ToUer ; 
cf. 11. 2235, 3059), or of hedan, 'to heed' (so Sedgefield). But it may be, as 
Holthausen (who reads gehegde) and Schiicking suppose [cf. Sievers, P.B.B. 
ix. 293], from gehegan (1. 425), 'to carry out,' in which case marda=' deeds 
of glory.' Grein adopted all three interpretations in turn. 

507. sund Jiite. The older editors took this as one word, 'swimming 
contest.' It is better, however, to render 'didst strive in swimming.* 
[Cf. Bugge in Tidsskr. viii. 48.] 

612. reon. The metre demands a disyllable, here and in 1. 539. 

Beowulf 29 

J?8er jit gajor-stream earmum J^ehton, 
m£eton mere-strseta, mundum brnjdon, 

515 jlidon ofer jar-secj; jeofon y)?um weol, 
wintrys wylm[e]. 7it on waeteres seht 
seofoD niht swuncon ; he \e set sunde oferflat, 
haefde mare maejen. pa bine on morjen-tid 
on Hea)70-E,8emas holm up aetbaer; 

520 Sonon he jesohte svv^sne eSel, 
leof his leodum lond Brondinja, 
freoSo-burh fsejere, ]>^v he folc ahte, 
burh ond beajas. |Beot eal wis J^e Fol. 142*. 

sunu Beanstanes soSe jelsbste. 

525 Donne wene ic to \q wyrsan 5e)7in5ea, 
Seah ]7u heatSo-rsesa jehwser dohte, 
jrimre juSe, jif l?u Trendies dearst 
niht-lonjne fyrst nean bid an." 
Beowulf ma)7elode, beam Ecjj^eowes: 

530 " Hwset ! )?u worn fela, wine min (H)unfert5, 
beore druncen ymb Brecan spnece, 
ssejdest from his siSe. SoS ic talije, 
)73et ic mere-strenjo maran ahte, 
earfe)70 on y)?um, Sonne seDig oJ?er man. 

516. wylm{e\ Thorpe: ^^. wyhn. The alteration is demanded by the 
metre, and betters the sense; wylm[ujn\ or {jmrh] wintry s wylm have also 
been suggested. 

For the gen. sg. wintrys see SieverSg § 44, N. 2 : winter properly belongs 
to the w-declension, Sieversg § 273. 

517. Tacitus [Germ, xi.] notes this reckoning by nights instead of days: 
Nee dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium computant. Cf. 'a sennight, fort- 

519. Heapo-Reemas, Grein^: MS. Ueaporsavies. The most correct form 
of the name, Heapo-Reamas, occurs in Widsith (1. 63) and some editors 
would substitute it here. 

520. effel: MS. 5^. The O.E. name of this runic character 5^ was 
edel; hence the character is used here and in 1. 913 for the word e&l. 

525. Either we must take wyrsan as gen. pi. for icyrsena, a form which 
would be extraordinary, but not quite unprecedented {ci.jlotan and sceotta, 
Brunanburh, 32), or we must alter gejdngea into gepinges [Rieger^**]. 

The meaning is 'I expect from thee a worse issue.' Cf. 1. 1396 [and 
see Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 224]. 

528. nean: a disyllable. Note the characteristic syntax, 'to await 
from near at hand.' So Beowulf hears of Grendel's deeds, not at ham, 
hut from ham.; see 1. 194. 

530. C/n/erd": see note to 1. 499. 

534. earfepo, 'stress,' is not a good parallel to mere-strengo, so that 
many editors have altered to eafepo, • strength.' 

30 Beowulf 

535 ^^'i< I'set jecwiedon cniht-wesende 

Olid jebeotedoQ — wjeron bejeii )>a ;;Iti 

on jeojoS-feore — I'aet wit on jtir-secj ut 

aldrum neSdon ; ond )?aet jea^fndon swa. 

Hnefdon swurd nacod, )>a wit on sund reon, 
540 heard on handa ; wit unc wiC hron-fixas 

werian [^ohton. No he wiht fram me 

flod-y}7um feor fleotan meahte, 

hra|>or on holme ; no ic fram him wolde. 

Da wit 3et|somne on siS waeron Fol, 142\ 

545 fif nihta fyrst, o\ \ddt unc flod todraf, 

wado wealiende ; wedera cealdost, 

nipende niht ond nor)7an wind, 

heaSo-jrira ondhwearf; hreo wgeron yj;a. 

Waes mere-fixa mod onhrered ; 
550 ]>ddT me wis laSura lic-syrce min, 

heard hond-locen, helpe jefremede; 

beado-hraejl broden on breostum la^j, 

jolde jejyrwed. Me to jrunde teah 

fah feond-scaSa, faeste hoefde 
555 jrim on ^rape; hwae)7re me 5yfe)?e wearS, 

j?aet ic ajliScan orde jeraehte, 

hilde-bille ; hea]7o-riBS iornam 

mihtij mere-deor )?urh mine hand, 
vim Swa mec jelome laS-jeteouan 
560 J^reatedon J^earle. Ic him )?enode 

deoran sweorde, swa hit jedefe waes; 

nses hie tSaere fylle jefean haefdon, 

man-fordaedlan, }?aet hie me f'ejon, 

symbel ymb-sieton sae-jrunde neah ; 
565 ac on mer^eune mecum |wunde Fol. 143*. 

543. him can take the alliteration because emphatic. Cf. 1. 197. 

548. ondhwearf: MS. jhwearf; for the use of this symbol with com- 
pouud verbs, cf. -jswarode, 1. 258. Grein takes hwearf to be an adj., which 
he glosses 'versatilis, volubilis,' and compares Icel. hverfr, 'shifty.' 

565. Some grammarians have seen in mecum (1. 565), sweordum (1. 567), 
mSgum (L 2353), perhaps mdgum (1. 2614), heafdum (Rood, 63), etc., a 
survival of an old instrumental ginaular. This, however, is exceedingly 
doubtful [cf. Osthoff, I.F. xx. 163-218]. 

The use of pi. for sg. is to be found in Latin, Greek and O.E.: of. 

Beowulf 31 

be y5-lafe uppe Isegon, 

8weo[r]dum aswefede, )7aet sy5{?an na 

ymb brontne ford brim-liSende 

lade ne letton. Leoht eastan com, 
570 beorht beacen Todes ; brimu s\vaJ?redon, 

)73et ic sie-naessas jeseon mihte, 

windije weallas. Wyrd oft nereS 

unfsejne eorl, )7onne his ellen deab. 

H\vse)7ere me jesaelde, ]7aet ic mid sweorde ofsloh 
575 niceras nijene. No ic on niht jefraejn 

under heofones hwealf heardran feohtan, 

ne on ej-streamum earmran mannon ; 

\i\\x\erQ ic fara feng feore jedijde, 

sij^es werij. Da mec S£e oj^baer, 
580 flod aefter farotJe, on Fiona land, 

wadu weallendu. No ic wiht fram jje 

swylcra searo-ni(5a secjan hyrde, 

billa bro^an ; Breca naefre jit 

set heat5o-iace, ne gehwaef^er incer, 

1. 1074, beamum ond broSrum. Similarly here the plural has become almost 
an epic formula, which is used, although logically inaccurate, since Breca's 
sword had no share in this slaughter. [Cf. Cosijn^^ This seems better 
than to suppose with Heinzel that Breca and Beowulf together slaughter the 
monsters, and that the apparent inconsistency with the preceding lines, 
544, ete.f where the separation of Beowulf and Breca is told, is due to that 
O.E. *harking back,' which he justly emphasizes. See A.f.d.A. x. 220.] 

567. 8weo[r]dum, Kemblei : MS. defective at corner, having only swe 
and part of o. Thorkelin's transcript A has sweodum. 

568. brontne. Similarly Icel. brattr is used of 'lofty' waves. No 
alteration of the text is necessary. 

572-3. 'Fate often saves a man if he is not doomed, and if his courage 
holds.' The paradox is a favourite one in Germanic literature. Cf. 11. 670, 
1056, 1652, where Beowulf is saved by God and his mail; Laxdala saga, 
XV., where two fugitives, crossing a swollen river in winter, are saved 
' because they were brave and because longer life was pranted to them.' 
[Cf. Klaeber in Archiv, cxv. 179.] Cook [M.L.N, viii. 118] quotes many 
parallels for the dogma that *hap helpeth hardy man,' including Andreas, 
459, etc. (which may be imitated from this passage). 

674. Hwapere. Some critics [e.g. Bugge in Tidsskr. viii. 48] have 
objected that there is no need for any contrast here. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 
138] justifies the text, comparing the Mod. Eng. use of 'however,' resuming 
after a digression, without, necessarily, any idea of contrast. 

677. mannon for niannan, cf. 11. 788, 849. 

578. hwmpere, Thorpe; MS. hw a J?ere. 

580. Finna land may be Lapland; but at this date there were still 
* Finns* in the South, and localities in Southern Sweden have been sug- 
gested which harmonize better with Heapo-Bseinas than Lapland does. 

581. wadu, Grundtvig27» and Kenible,: MS. wudu. See L 546. 

32 Beowulf 

585 swa dgorlice daed jefremede 

fa^um sweordum — no ic }>cTS [^eflites] jylpe — 

J^eah 5u )7inura bro5rum 16 ban an wurde, 

heafod-msejum ; )?2es J>u in |helle scealt Fol. 143^ 

werhSo dreojan, |7eah }7in wit duje. 
590 Secje ic \q to s65e, sunu Ecjiafes, 

J^aet D^efre 7re[r?]del swa fela jryra jefremede, 

atol ^jlieca, ealdre l7inum, 

hynSo on Heorote, jif J?in hije wsere, 

sefa swa searo-jrim, swa \\x self talast; 
595 ac he hafaS onfunden, )7a^t he )?a faihtSe ne )?earf, 

atole ec5-)n'aece, eower leode 

swiSe onsittan, Sige-Scyldinja ; 

nymeS nyd-bade, nsenejum arat5 

leode Denija, ac he lust wi^eS, 
600 swefeS ond sende)?, secce ne wene)? 

to '7ar-Denum. Ac ic him -reata sceal 

586. {gefiites] Kluge: Greinj suggested [fela]. Heyne assumed the 
loss of two half lines after tweordum, with the unpleasant consequence that 
the numbers of his Hues were one too many throughout the rest of the 
poem. This has been corrected in the latest revision of Heyne: but 
students must be prepared to find most references to Beowulf in monographs 
following Heyne's old numbering. 

687. The same taunt is hurled by Gothmund against SinfJ9tli (Fitela) : 
Helga kvipa Hundingshana, i. 38. There it is an instance of •• flyting," 
mere irresponsible abuse. That it is not to be so taken here appears 
from 11, 1107, etc. It is quoted by Beowulf with serious and bitter irony 
a.s Unferth's greatest achievement. [Cf. Cosijn^^ -j 

591. Gre\ii\del, Thorkelin's emendation : MS. gre del. 

596. If we retain lower, we must take it as gen. of ge ' ye ' dependent 
upon leode. Trautmann, Holthauseni^2 ^.nd Sedgefield alter to eowre. 

599. Kemblcj suggested he [on] lust wiged, ' he warreth as it pleaseth 
him,' which is supported by L 618, he on lust ge/?eah. Bugge [Tidsskr. 
viiL 49] would read pigeff here likewise, • he helps himself at will.' 

But the MS. can be defended : * Grendel feels pleasure ' : wigeS is then 
from wegan, 'to bear' ; cf. 11. 1777, 1931, 2464. 

600. sendep is the MS. reading, but the meaning is not clear. Leo 
translated 'feasteth*: but though »and often means *a course,' 'mess,' or 
'dish,' there is no authority for sendan = * to feast.' Schiicking [in his 
edition : also in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 103 : so Holthauseua] renders sendej> 
'sends to destruction ' =/orscnde/ (cf. 1. 904), but this is not satisfactory. 

Yet the emendations proposed are equally inconclusive : Bosworth- 
ToUer, scendep, 'puts to shame,' which fails to alliterate; Trautmann^^, 
swelgel), 'swallows'; Holthau8eni,2, swencep, 'torments'; Sedgefield, 
serwep, 'lies in wait' {sierwan), cf. 1. 161. 

secce, a dialectal form ; see Sieversg § 151 : Thorkelin and Thorpe 
normalized to ssBcce, followed by older editors. 

601. Thorpe and Heyne2 etc. suppress ic. Thorpe (followed by Earle) then 
makes Geata (weak form) the subject, and eafoS ond ellen the object. Heyne 

Beowulf 33 

eafoS ond ellen imjeara nu 

juj^e jebeodan. Tse)? eft se )>e mot 

to medo modij, si)7)7an morjen-leoht 
605 ofer ylda beam ojres dojores, 

sunne swejl-wered, suj^an scineS." 

pa wses on salum sinces brytta, 

jamol-feax ond jtiS-rof; jeoce jelyfde 

Ibrejo Beorht-Dena ; jehyrde on Beowulfe Fol. 144*. 
610 folces hyrde faest-rsedne 5e]76ht. 

Dser waes h8ele)7a hleahtor, hlyn swynsode, 

word wseron wynsume. Eode Wealh)7eow forS, 

cwen HroS^ares, cynna jemyndij, 

^rette jold-hroden juman on healle; 
615 ond )?a freolic wif ful gesealde 

©rest East-Dena e)7el-wearde, 

baed bine bliSne aet j^sere beor-)7e5e, 

leodum leofne; he on lust jej^eah 

symbel ond sele-ful, sije-rof kyninj. 
620 Ymb-eode J^a ides Helminja 

dujuj^e ond jeojoj^e dsel sejhwylcne, 

sinc-fato sealde, 0)? \ddt ssel alamp, 

fast bio Beowulfe, beaj-hroden cwen, 

mode jej^unjen, medo-ful aetbaer; 
625 jrette 'zeata leod, 7ode )?ancode 

wis-faest wordum, J?aes Se hire se willa jelamp, 

)7aet heo on aenijne eorl jelyfde 

fyrena frofre. He J^aet ful 5e)7eah, 

wael-reow wija, |aet Wealh)7^on, Fol. 144*. 

630 ond J^a jyddode Jtij^e jefysed; 

Beowulf ma)7elode, beam Ecjj^eowes: 

takes eafoS ond ellen Geata as subject, guiJe as object, and gives as his 
reason for suppressing ie, that we can hardly construe ic Geata as ♦ I of the 
Geatas,' or •! among the Geatas.' This is true, but, as a previous editor 
has remarked, it ' is what Coleridge calls the " wilful ingenuity of blundering." 
What is to prevent ie being taken as the subject, and eafod ond elien Geata 
as the object ? ' 

603. gu/>e may be parallel to eafolf ond ellen, or may mean 'in battle.' 

605. o/yres dogores, adverbial, 'on the next day,' as in 1. 219. 

612. Compare the picture of the gracious lady in the Exeter Book 
Gnomic Verses, 85, etc. 

617. The verb 'to be' is understood after bliSne, as frequently. 

629. The metre demands the uncontracted Wealhplowan. 

34 Beowulf 

" Ic )?a3t hojode, \>a. ic on holm jestah, 

siu-bat jesaet mid minra secja jedriht, 

]fdit ic anunja eowra leoda 
635 willan jevvorhte, o]>^e on wael crunje 

feoiid-jiapum ficst. Ic jefremmau sceal 

eorlic ellen, oj^tie ende-daej 

on j^isse meodu-bealle minne jebidan." 

Dam wife )^a word wel licodou, 
640 jilp-cwide qeates; eode jold-hroden 

fieolicu folc-cwen to hire frean siLtan. 

pa waes eft swa aer inne on healie 

j7iy3-word sprecen, ?5eod on sselum,- 

sije-folca swej, oj^ )?aet semninja 
645 sunu Healfdenes secean wolde 

aefen-rseste ; wiste )7aem ahliJecan 

to y-Jdm heah-sele hilde jej^injed, 

si5(5an hie sunnan leoht jeseon [ne] meahton, 

o)?(5e nipende niht ofer ealle, 
650 scadu-helma jesceapu scriSan cwoman, 

wan under wolcnum. Werod eall aras; 

[^ejjrette )?a juma oj^erne, 

HioSjar Beowulf, ond l^im hsel ahead 

win-a3rnes [jeweald, ond \>set word acwaeS : Fol. 145«. 
655 "Kiefre ic senejum men ser alyfde, 

644. Semninga must not be taken, as it is by several translators, to 
imply a hurried retreat. Precisely as in Mod. Eng. 'presently' (which 
indeed well renders semninga), the strict force of 'immediately' must not be 
pressed, either here or in 11. 1640 and 1767. 

648. [ne], Thorpe's simple emendation, now generally adopted. Bugge 
[Tidsskr. viii. 67] proposed, in addition, to regard oJ?de (1. 649) as equivalent 
to ond, as in 1. 2475, and the suggestion was adopted by Heyne : * and the 
darkness of night [••was" understood, Bugge®] over all.' This is more satis- 
factory than Earle's defence of the usual meaning *or': 'There is something 
of alternative between twilight and the dead of night.* Trautmann^" and 
Holthausen regard geseon {ne\ meahton as metrically incorrect. It is unusual, 
but not quite without precedent. [Cf. Sievers, P.B.B. x. 234, and 1. 1504.] 
Holthausen2 emends seen [ne] nuahton; Holthausens geseon [ne] magon. 

651. wan has changed its meaning from 'dark' to 'pale.' The modem 
meaning is inappropriate here. In other phrases, such as * waters wan,' the 
appropriateness of the adjective has been rather increased by the change in 

652. [ge]grette. The half line is metrically defective, and the addition 
of ge [Grundtvig276] is the simplest and now the generally accepted remedy 
(cf. 1. 2516). GreiD2 supplied [glmdmod], Heyneg, etc. [giddum]. 

655, etc. The alleged inconsistency between these lines and U. 480-8 was 

Beowulf 35 

si]?c5an ic hond ond rond hebban mihte, 

Cryj^-aern Dena buton J^e iiu t5a. 

Hafa nu ond jeheald husa seiest, 

jemyne m8er|70, maejen-ellen cyS, 
660 waca wis wra)?um. Ne biS )?e wilna jad, 

jif ]7U faet ellen-weorc aldre jedijest." 
X ©A him Hro[?5ar ^ewat mid his h8ele}?a jedryht, 

eodur Scyldinja, ut of healle; 

wolde wij-fruma Wealhfeo secan, 
665 cwen to jebeddan. Haefde Kyninj-wuldor 

'Trendle to-jeanes, swa ^uman jefrunjon, 

sele-weard aseted ; sundor-nytte beheold 

ymb aldor Dena, eoton-weard ahead. 

Huru 7eata leod jeorne truwode 
670 modjan maejnes, Metodes hyldo. 

©a he him of dyde isern-byrDan, 

helm of hafelan, sealde his hyrsted sweord, 

irena cyst, ombiht-j^e^ne, 

ond jehealdan het hilde-jeatwe. 
675 vespraec )?a se joda jylp-worda sum, 

Beowulf keata, ser he on bed stije : Fol. l45^ 

"No ic me an here-wsesmun hnajran tali^e 

one of the arguments of Miillenhofif"* against unity of authorship. The 
discrepancy is only apparent. The Danish hall had never before been 
entrusted by its king to a stranger. [For the explanation of this, and 
similar 'inconsistencies,' of. Jellinek and Kraus in Z.f.d.A. xXv. 265, etc.] 
665. MS. kyning, at end of line : there is room for an a, but no trace of 
one. Most editors, however, follow Kembles and read kyning[a] wuldor. 
Bugge3«8, Klaeber*^, and Schiicking argue for the MS. reading. In any case 
we must follow Miillenhoff"' in interpreting Kyning -wuldor, etc., as 'God' : 
see Elene, 6; Judith, 155. [Cf. Holthausen, Anglia, Beiblatt, xiii. 204.] 

668. Thorpe eoton (ace.) weard (nom.) ahead; Heyne eoton (dat.) weard 
(ace.) ahead. The difficulty of the uninflected ace, eoton-weard, seems less 
than the difficulties presented by these readings. The e of weard[e] is elided 
before the vowel: cf. 1. 1932. [See Klaeber*^^.] 

Beowulf is the subject of beheold, ahead. 

Sedgefield reads dbdd and takes eoton-weard as referring to Beowulf: 
'the watcher against the monster stayed behind.' 

669. truwode. The metre demands treowde instead of the Southern form 
truwode, here and in 11. 1533, 1993, 2322, 2370, 2540, 2953. In 1. 1166 treowde 
has been retained by the scribe. [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. x. 233.] 

670. modgan may refer to God, or to Beowulf, or may agree with magnes. 
673. irena. Metre demands that the second syllable should be long 

[cf. note to 1. 6] ; hence here and in 1. 1697 Sievers corrects to irenna (cf . 
11. 802, 2259) [P.B.B. x. 308; xxix. 568]. 

677. wmmun; Grundtvig^^?, KemblCj, etc. normalize to wmtmum. 

36 Beowulf 

juf-jeweorca )?onne 7rendel hine ; 
for)7an ic hine sweorde swebban nelle, 

680 aldre bengotan, f^eah ic eal maeje. 

Nat h§ )?ara joda, j^aet he me onjean slea, 
rand jeheawe, j^eah 5e he rof sie 
nij7-5eweorca ; ac wit on niht sculon 
secje ofersittan, jif he jesecean dear 

685 wij ofer wsepen, ond si}>5an witij 7od 
on swa hwaB)7ere bond, halij Dryhten, 
mserSo deme, swa him jemet )?ince." 
Hylde hine )7a hea)?o-deor, hleor-bolster onf^nj 
eorles andwlitan, ond hine ymb monij 

690 snellic sae-rinc sele-reste jebeah. 

Nsenij heora J^ohte, J^aet he )?anon scolde 

eft eard-lufan sefre jesecean, 

folc o)7Se freo-burh, )?ser he afeded waes: 

ac hie haefdon jefrunen, \ddt hie ser to fela micles 

695 in l^sem win-sele wael-deaS fornam, 

Denijea leode. Ac him Dryhten forjeaf 
wij-speda jewiofu, |Wedera leodum Fol. 14G*. 

frofor ond fultum, ]7aet hie feond heora 
Curb anes crseft ealle ofercomon, 

700 selfes mihtum; soS is jecyj^ed, 
faet mihtij Tod manna cynnes 
weold i/ade-ferhS. Com on wanre niht 
scriSan sceadu-jenja. Sceotend sw^fon, 
)?§, )7aet horn-reced healdan scoldon, 

705 ealle btiton anum. paet waes yldum cu)?, 

Grein to wmmum. But the spelling, though unusual, is not unprecedented. 
For tin in place of um cf. wicun, 1. 1804. 

681. para goda, • of those gentle practices,' i.e. ' swordmanship,* Earle. 

J>at, 'to enable him to.' 

The text has been doubted, but its syntax is confirmed by a parallel 
quoted by Klaeber"^ from ^Ifric, who, after referring to the Redemption, 
continues *}>atfole ne cupe para goda, pat hi cwadon pat he God ware.' 

slea. Subjunctive. The metre demands a disyllable, side, which many 
editors [Holthausen, Sohiicking, following Ealuza] substitute in the text. 

684. secge, from secg, 'sword.' 

he, Kemblcj : MS. het. 

694. hie ar. Thorpe, hyra ar : Kluge^®, followed by Sedgefield, reads hiera : 
an unnecessary change ; since hie and jela are coordinate. [Cf . Klaeber*".] 

702. wide, Grundtvig277. Thorkelin's transcripts, ridei now nothing 
left but part of the perpendicular stroke of the first letter. 

Beowulf 37 

J>aet hie ne moste, )?a Metod nolde, 

se s[c]yn-sca)7a under sceadu brejdan; 

ac he wseccende wraj^um on andan 

bad boljen-mod beadwa ^el^injes. 
XI 710 -Da com of more under mist-hleofum 

7rendel' ^onjan, prodes yrre baer; 

Diynte se man-scaSa manna cynnes 

sumne besyrwan in sele J^am hean. 

Wod under wolcnum, to )73es )?e he win-reced, 
715 jold-sele jumena, jearwost wisse, 

f^ettum fahne; ne waes J^aet forma si5, 

J?aet he Hroj^jares ham jesohte. 

Nsefre h§ on aldor-dajum ^r |ne siJ^San Fol.l46^ 

heardran hsele heal-Sejnas fand. 
720 Com )?a t5 recede rinc siSian 

dreamum bedseled; duru sona onarn, 

fyr-bendum fsest, sy|7?5an he hire folmum [aethr]an ; 

onbrsed )7a bealo-hydi^, tJa [he jejboljen waes, 

707. «[e}yn-scaj>a, Grein : MS. tynscapa. If we keep the MS. reading, 
the parallel of nidn-scaS'a (1. 712) favours the derivation of the first element 
from gynn, * crime,' rather than (as in sin-here, synsnMd) from sin-, 'in- 
cessant.' But the alliteration is incorrect [cf. Schroder in Z.f.d.A. xliii. 
365-6]. The second element in a compound noun is the less important, and 
therefore should not take the alliteration when the first does not, and 
accordingly Grein, followed by Holthausen, Trautmann^**, Sohiicking, 
emended to scinscapa, or scyn-sceaj>a, 'spectral foe.' 

708. h£j Beowulf. 

719. heardran hsele we may render 'with worse omen* [Holthausen in 
Anglia, xxiv. 267], or 'with sterner greeting.' If we read heardran hale, 
'braver men,' we have an exceptional type of line [cf. Sievers in P.B.B. x. 
275]. Holthausena , after numerous earlier attempts, finally (ii. 170) reads 
heardran hale[scipes\ 'more doughty valour,' Schiicking heardran h8sle[pas], 
'more doughty champions.' [For other conjectures of. Bugge^^^ Traut- 

722. MS. defective at edge. Zupitza's transliteration of the MS. has 
l^ehr^an ; hr can be made out, though with much difficulty and some un- 
certainty. The preceding letters have been lost, but as there mmt have been 
two preceding letters we can hardly, with Schiicking and Sedgefield, read 

The contention that the simple form is preferable, because whilst hrman 
usually governs the dat., gehrinan more commonly takes the ace, can be 
met by reading [mthr]dn {athrinan takes the gen. and would therefore suit 
the context). This excellent suggestion was made by Grundtvig^?? in 1820, 
but has been generally overlooked. 

723. MS. faded, ffd he gebolgen was was conjectured by Grundtvig^T^ 
in 1820 and is adopted by recent edd. Kemble and the older edd. read da 
Ke dbolgenwas. Zupitzasays: • Now 6oZ^«n is still distinct, and before it I 
think I see traces of two letters of which the first seems to have been y' 
[I can see nothing of this]: 'but what preceded this is entirely faded. 

38 Beowulf 

recedes mu]?an. Ra)>e itfur |7on 
725 on fa^ne flor feoud treddode, 

eode yrre-mod; him of eajum stod 

lijje jelicust leoht unfiSjer. 

7eseah he in recede rinca manije, 

swefan sibbe-^edriht samod aetjsedere, 
730 majo-rinca heap. pa his mod ahloj; 

mynte j^aet he jedcBlde, £9r )7on daej cw6me, 

atol ajlaeca, anra jehwylces 

lif wis lice, \h him alumpen wges 

wist-fylle wen. Ne waes j^set wyrd )7a jen, 
735 )73et he ma moste manna cynnes 

eicjean ofer j^a niht. pryS-swyS beheold 

msej Hijelaces, hu se man-scat5a 

under fser-jripum jefaran wolde. 

Ne )7aet se ajlseca yldan )?6hte, 
740 ac he jelfenj hraSe forman siSe FoL 131*. 

slsependne rinc, slat unwearnum, 

bat ban-locan, blod edruni (hanc, 

syn-snsedum swealh ; sona hsefde 

unlyfijendes eal ^efeormod, 
745 fet ond folma. ForS near aetstSp, 

nam )7a mid handa hi5e-)7ihti5ne 

rinc on rseste, r^ehte td'^2cci\es\ 

feond mid folme; he onfenj lira)7e 

inwit-j^ancum ond wiS earm jesaet. 

726. Note the rhyme. 

727. ligge = Uge. Cf. note to 1. 1085. 
736. JyrylS-swyS. See note to 1. 131. 

738. under fesr-gripum, 'during' or *in his attack.' Compare the use of 
under pam, 'during that,' in the Orosius. [See Cosijn, P.B.B. xix. 455.] 

739. Ne. Grundtvig (1861) altered Ne pmt to No par, and Holthauseni, j 
adopts n5, on the ground that ne should immediately precede its verb. But, 
as Klaeber [Engl. Stud, xxxix. 430] points out, we have here the emphatic 
ne, *nor,' which, in Old as in Mod. Eng., is not necessarily preceded by 
a negative sentence. Cf. 11. 510, 1071. 

741. slSpendne rinc = Hondscioh: see 11. 2076, etc. 

742. 'feet, hands, and all.' Cf. 1. 2080. [See Cosiju^*.] 

747. t5geanes,SieweTs: MS. ongean. The change is metrically essential, 
and has been adopted by all recent editors. 

748. feond is nom. and refers to Grendel, Beowulf is never so called : 
he must then refer to Beowulf, not to Grendel, since the situation of 11. 750- 
754 would be impossible if Beowulf up to that had romaiued passive. 

748-9. onjeng . . .inwit-pancum. Klaeber"*'^^ would understand 'him': 'He 

Beowulf 39 

750 Sona |?aet onfunde fyrena hyrde, 
l^aet he ne mette middan-jeardes, 
eor)7an sceatta, on elran men 
mund-jripe maran; he on mOde wear?5 
forht on ferhSe; no \y ser fram meahte. 

755 HyS® '^^^ ^^^ hin-fus, wolde on heolster fleon, 
secan deofla jedraej; ne waes his drohtoS )7^r, 
swylce he on ealder-dajum ser jemette. 
'remunde )7a se wod[^]a mcej Hijelaces 
gelen-spriece, up-lanj astod 

760 ond him faeste witJfenj; finjras burston; 
eoten wass ut-weard; eorl furj?ur stop. 
Mynte se m^ra, [[User he meahte swa, FoL 13P. 
widre jewindan ond on wej J^anon 
fleon on fen-hopu; wiste his finjra jeweald 

(Beowulf) received him (Grendel) with hostile intent,' i.e. he did not flinch 
or try to avoid the attack but came to grips with Grendel whilst still lying 
down. This is the best rendering of onfeng, and is the situation implied in 
11. 750 ff. Against this it is objected (Schiicking) that inwit has a significa- 
tion of malice and treachery which makes it unsuitable to Beowulf, and that 
we should render: 'Beowulf took, perceived, his (Grendel's) treacherous 
hostility.' Cosijn^* conjectures inwit-panculum (dat, of adj. inwit- />ancul, 
'hostile in intent,' referring to Grendel). Grein took inwit-Jjanc as an adj. 
agreeing with 'Grendel' understood: but in the five other passages where 
the word occurs in O.E. poetry it is a substantive. 

749. wilf earm gesat has been taken to mean (1) that Beowulf settled 
npon Grendel's arm [so, e.g. , Clark-Hall] ; (2) that he propped himself on his 
ovm arm [so, e.g., Grein, Gummere]. The second meaning is supported by 
Tlie Harrowing of Hell, 67 {Christ and Satan, 432). Mr Grattan writes to 
me : • Have you never tried to throw off a bigger man than yourself who has 
got you down ? Beowulf is at a disadvantage, having been attacked while 
supine. He, with great difficulty, of course, gets one shoulder up, supported 
on one arm ; and later, wlien his grip has alarmed the aggressor and caused 
him to pull away, he succeeds in getting on to his legs (1. 759). When once 
he has done this, Grendel's chance is up. Beowulf gets a clean grip on him 
(I. 760). All this is the language of wrestling, which is employed again later 
in the struggle with Grendel's mother.' 

752. sceatta. Many editors normalise to sceata. But see Sieversj § 230. 

756. gedrssg, 'tumult' : the word can be used both in an abstract and in 
a concrete sense, * noisy bearing ' or * a noisy assembly.' 

758. mdd[g]a, Bieger: MS. goda. The emendation is necessary for the 
sake of the alliteration, and is followed by recent editors: Holthausen, 
Schiicking, Sedgefield. 

762. mara, 'notorious': cf. 1. 103. For other instances see Bosworth- 

/)SBr. MS. defective at corner : only the lower part of the r is now left : 
but Thorkelin's transcripts agree upon the last two letters, ar. As to the 
preceding letters, A has a blank, B records hw, but with another ink, and 
crossed out in pencil. With evidence so confused, the parallel of 1. 797 tells 
in favour of /ar, which is read by most editors. 

40 Beowulf 

765 on jrames jrapum ; )>oet woes jeocor 8i?5, 
]>ddt se hearm-sca)>a tO Heorute ateah. 
Dryht-sele dynede ; Denum eallum wear3, 
ceaster-buendum, cenra jehwylcum, 
eorlum ealu-scerwen. Yrre waeron bejen 

770 rej^e ren-weardas. Reced hlynsode ; 

)?a waes wundor micel, fset se win-sele 
wiShaefde hea)?o-deorum, J^aet he on hrusan ne feci, 
f^jer fold-bold; ac he )?aes faeste waes 
innan ond titan iren-bendum 

775 searo-J^oncum besmi)7od. pser fram sylle abeaj 
medu-benc monij, mine jefrieje, 
jolde jerejnad, fser )>a jraman wunnon; 
]78es ne wendon ser witan Scyldinja, 
J^aet hit a mid jemete manna aenij, 

780 6etlic ond ban-fa5, tobrecan meahte, 
listum tolucan, nymj^e lijes faej^m 

765. pat was, Greinj : MS. pat he was. The emendation is generally 

765-6. Since siS is masc, dteah is probably intransitive, and the 
second pat a conj. , not a pronoun, as in 1. 717, etc. Translate ' that was a 
hard journey, when the ravager betook himself to Heorot.* 

769. ealu-scerwen. A similar word, meodu-scerwen, occurs in the 
Andreas (1626). The meaning apparently is 'terror as at the loss of 
ale,' 'mortal panic* Confusion has ensued because (through an early and 
remarkably long-lived error) the word in the Andreas has been read meodxir 
scerpen. On the theory that this was the right spelling, a derivation from 
scearp, with the meaning of • sharpening, ferment, bitterness,' has been 
advocated [by Sedgefield; von Grienberger in P.B.B. xxxvi. 84; and 
BaskerviU in his Andreas'^. Wulker*8 facsimile of the Vercelli Book 
shows clearly that the right reading in the Andreas (as in Beowulf) is 
scerwen [cf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxxvi. 410; Klaeber in Engl. Stud. xliv. 

Apparently we must connect the word with bescerwan=hescerian, 'to 
deprive,' a ' deprivation of mead ' being synonymous with the greatest 
distress. Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 294:-6] connects with scirian, • to dispense ' 
(taken ironically, ' they were given to drink of a deadly wine '). 

770. ren-weardas. This has usually been read ren { = regn) weardas, 
'mighty guardians': of. regn-heard in 1. 326. Holthausen and Klaeber 
[J.E.O.Ph. vi. 193] have independently suggested that ren = em = mm, 
'house,* by the common metathesis of r (Sievers, § 179, 1); rendegn 
[ren-pegn] = aedis minister occurs in the Erfurt Glossary. ' The guardians 
of the house * gives the more satisfactory sense. 

779. mid gemete. Klaeber*" argues for the meaning 'in any wise,' 
rather than 'with strength,* comparing Bede, 86. 8, ealle gemete =omni- 
mcdo, etc. 

780. betlic, Grundtvig^^S: MS. hetlic. Cf. 1. 1925. 

781. Cf. 11. 82-5, and the note there. 

Beowulf 41 

swulje on swa]?ule. Swej |up astaj FoL 147\ 

niwe jeneabhe; NorS-Denum stod 

atelic ejesa, anra jehwylcum, 
78s |7ara )7e of wealle wop jehyrdon, 

jryre-leoS jalan 'Todes ondsacan, 

sije-leasne sanj, sar wanijean 

helle haefton. Heold hine fseste, 

s§ \q manna waes maejene strongest 
790 on )78em daeje )?ysses lifes. 
XII Nolde eorla hleo aenije j^inja 

)7one cwealm-cuman cwicne forlsetan, 

no his lif-dagas leoda senigum 

nytte tealde. paer jenehost brasjd 
795 eorl Beowulfes ealde lafe, 

wolde frea-drihtnes feorh ealjian, 

mseres J^eodnes, Sser hie meahton swa. 

Hie }?aet ne wiston, J^a hie jewin drujon, 

heard-hicjende hilde-mecjas, 
800 ond on healfa jehwone heawan )7ohton, 

sawle secan: )7one syn-sca5an 

senij ofer eorj^an irenna cyst, 

juS-billa nan, jretan nolde; 

782. twajmle. Form and meaning seem alike to connect this word 
with tweoloSe (]. 1115) and swiod'ole (MS. swicSole, 1. 3145). Context 
demands the meaning ' flame ' and this is supported by the forms swolof 
[see Bosworth-Toller] and $woJjel [Anglia, viii. 452], both of which are given 
in glosses as equivalent to cauma [' burning '] vel aestus. The meaning 
♦ smoke ' often attributed to these words [Dietrich Z.f.d.A. v. 216] is possibly 
due to an attempt to connect the word with sweqpol, *band, swaddling 
cloth,' through the meaning of ' enveloping smoke.' Bat context and the 
evidence of the glosses seems conclusive in favour of 'flame': of. O.E. 
swelan, swalan 'burn'; O.H.G. suilizo, 'ardor, cauma.* 

788. Zupitza and others helle-hm/ton ; but nothing is gained by making 
the words a compound. For -an of the weak declension -on is not un- 
common (cf. 1. 849). Holthausen, following a parallel passage in the 
Andreas (1342), reads helle haftling. 

Almost all editors insert [to] before fmte ; and indeed the word may once 
have stood at the end of the line in the MS., though there is now no trace 
of it, and neither of Thorkelin's transcripts records it. 

801. sdwle secan. Gering and Klaeber [Christ. Elementen, in Anglia, 
XXXV. 465] point out that this looks like a learned phrase: a translation 
of the biblical animam quaerere ; yet it may have been a native idiom also 
(cf. 1. 2422). 

^mt understood before Jjone ; cf. 1. 199. 

syn-scaSan. See note to 1. 707. 

42 Beotvulf 

ac h§ sije-wiepnum |forsworen haefde, Fol. l47^ 

805 ec^a jehwylcre. Scolde his aldor-jedal 

on Sajm daeje J^ysscs lifes 

earmlic wurSan, ond se ellor-jast 

OD f^onda ^eweald feor siSian. 

Da )?aet onfunde, se )>e fela seror 
810 modes myrSe manna cynne 

fyrene jefremede, he faj wi5 7od, 

)>aet him se lic-homa Isestan nolde, 

ac hine se modeja m^j Hyjelaces 

haefde be honda; wses jehwaej^er oSrum 
815 lifijende la5. Lic-sar jebad 

atol ^ejlseca; him on eaxle wearS 

syn-dolh sweotol ; seonowe onsprunjon, 

burston ban-locan. Beowulfe wearS 

juS-hreS ^yfej^e ; scolde ^rendel f>onan 
820 feorh-seoc fleon under fen-hleoSu, 

secean wyn-leas wic ; wiste )?e jeornor, 

|?3Et his aldres waes ende jejonjen, 

dojera daej-rim. Denum eallum wearS 

after )7am wael-rsese willa ^elumpen. 
825 Haefde )?a jeflelsod, se fe ser feorran c5ra, 

snotor ond swyS-ferht5 sele Hro^jares, 

jenered wit5 |ni5e ; niht-weorce jefeh, Fol. 148*. 

ellen-mjer)7um. Haefde East-Denum 

'reat-mecja leod jilp jelaested, 
830 swylce oncyJ^Se ealle jebette, 

804. forsworen, not that Grendel had 'foraworn,* 'renounced' the nse 
of swords, but that he had 'laid a spell' on the swords of his foes. If we 
translate /or«i£'or«n as 'forsworn' then he must be Beowulf: others tried to 
slay Grendel with the sword, but he, knowing better, had forsworn weapons 
[and trusted to his grip]. This is quite a possible rendering, for although 
below (1. 805) hit must again refer to Grendel, such rapid transitions can 
easily be paralleled in O.E. syntax. 

For the blunting of swords by the glance, see Saxo, Bk. vi. (ed. Holder, 
p. 187). 

810. Holthausen would connect myrffe with mierran (Goth, marzjan), 
and interpret 'destructiveness,' but it is unnecessary to assume this word, 
since ' light-heartedly ' gives satisfactory sense. 

811. Kemblej first inserted wbzs after he, and was followed by almost 
all editors except Wiilker. This appears to be a distinct enfeeblement of 
the MS. reading. Fag comes at the beginning of a line in the MS., and 
Heyne says it cannot be settled whether or no icas stood before it. But 
the facsimile shows * there was no room for ws&s before fag ' (Zupitza). 

Beowulf 43 

inwid-sorje, )7e hie fer drujon 

ond for );rea-nydura )?olian scoldon, 

torn unlytel. paet wses tacen sweotol, 

sy)75an hilde-deor bond alejde, 
835 earm ond eaxle — j^ser waes eal jeador 

7rendles jrape — under jeapne hr[of]. 
XIII DA wa3s on moreen, mine jefr^je, 

ymb )7a jif-healle juS-rinc monij; 

ferdon folc-tojan feorran ond nean 
840 ^eond wid-we$as wundor sceavvian, 

la{?es lastas. No his lif-jedal 

sarlic j^tihte secja iienejum, 

)7ara J^e tir-leases trode sceawode, 

hu he werij-mod on wej |7anon, 
845 niSa ofercumen on nicera mere, 

fseje ond jeflymed, feorh -lastas bser. 

Dier waes on blode brim weallende, 

atol ySa jeswinj eal jemenjed 

baton heoltre, |heoro-dreore weol Fol. 148''. 

850 deaS-fseje deoj , si55an dream a leas 

836. MS. defective: hr[of], Grundtvig^^ [an emendation often at- 
tributed to Rask, but Grundtvij^ does not say so]. The reading hr[df] is 
confirmed by 1. 926. There is no contradiction with 1. 983, if we sup- 
pose that the arm is placed outside the hall, reaches over the door, and 
towers to the roof. For such a use of under, not necessarily implying that 
the hand is within the house, cf. 1. 211. [See T. Miller, 'The position of 
Grendel's arm in Heorot,' Ariglia, xii. 396, etc.; and cf. Cosijn^^] 

845. iiida ofercumen. Unmetrical: cf. 11. 954, 2150. Holthausen 
emends nidfa genxged. 

846. feorh-ldstas, ' tracks of failing life.' [Heyne : cf. Klaeber, Anglia, 
xxviii. 445.] 

849. hdton. MS. hat on heolfre, and so Grein,, Wiilker. Grcinj 
rightly read iiat on as one word, hdtan (unnecessarily altering on to an, for 
which see 1. 788). The reading Jtdton is much easier than hat on, and 
1. 1423 turns the probability in its favour. No weight can be attached to 
the spacing of words in the MS. 

850. The MS. reading deog has been explained as ' dyed ' (Grcin) or 
'concealed himself (Heyne after Leo), but no verb deagan with either 
meaning is recorded in O.E. 

Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 138] heoro-dreore weol deaff-fSge deop 'the deadly 
abyss welled with gore'; Bugge^, deaS-fivgcs deop 'the abyss of the death- 
doomed one.' Cosijn^', whilst supporting Sievers. suggests tentatively that 
the MS. may be right, and that deog is a no\Jin = de<ig, 'dye.' Kemble, had 
already suggested deag. Considerations of O.E. style favour our taking dea6- 
fxge deog or deop as parallel to brim weallende, etc. 

However deaf, the Northern form for dmf, from dufan, 'dive,' an 
emendation of Zupitza [Archiv, Ixxxiv. 124-5] and, independently, of 
Trautmann >■", has been accepted by all recent add. 

44 Beowulf 

in fen-freo5o feorh alejde, 

ha3)?ene sawle; ]f^v him hel onfenj, 

panon efb jewiton eald-jesiSas, 

swylce jeonj manij of jomen-waj^e, 
85s frain mere modje mearum ridan, 

beornas on blaucum. Daer waes Beowulfes 

mierSo m^ned; monij oft jecwaeS, 

)73ette su5 ne norS be siem tweonum 

ofer eormen-jrund oj^er nienij 
860 under swejles bejonj selra nsere 

rond-haebbendra, rices wyrSra. 

Ne hie huru wine-drihten wiht ne lojon, 

jlaedne HroSjar, ac j^aet waes jod cyninj. 

Hwilum hea)7o-r6fe hleapan leton, 
865 on jeflit faran, fealwe mearas, 

Cser him fold-wejas fsejere J^uhton, 

cystum cu5e. Hwilum cyninjes J'ejn, 

juma jilp-hlseden, ^idda jemyndij, 

se Ce eal-fela eald-jesejena 
870 worn jemunde, word oj^er fand 

8o5e jebunden. Secj eft onjan 

8i?5 Beowulfes snyttrum jstyrian, Fol. 149». 

ond on sped wrecan spel jerade, 

wordum wrixlan; wel-hwylc jecwaeS, 
875 )7aet he fram Sijemunde secjan hyrde 

868. guma gilp-hlsBden. Certainly not 'bombastic groom,* as Earle: 
gilp has not necessarily in O.E. any such evil signification : cf. 11. 640, 1749. 
Translate Maden with glorious words'; or perhaps simply 'proud' or 
• covered with glory ' (as Klaeber*^, who compares gylp-geornest [Bede i. 34], 
translating gloriae cvpidissimtis). 

870-1. word oper fand toffe gebunden^ 'framed a new story founded 
upon fact ' [Clark-Hall]. But it is possible, as Rieger ^ and Bugge [Z.f.d.Ph. 
iv. 203] thought, that II. 867-874 are all one sentence, and that these words 
form a parenthesis (' word followed word by the bond of truth,' Earle). Cf. 
Hdvamdl: ord mir af orSi ords leitadi, ' word from word found me word.' 

Yet, though we may delete the stop in 1. 871, we need not therefore, 
with Rieger and Bugge, alter secg to secgan : for cyninges J)egn, guma gilp- 
hlssden, and secg would all be parallel, subject of ongan styrian : eft (1. 871) 
would go with hwilum (1. 867), echoing the hwilum of 1. 864, just as in 
11. 2107-11 hwilum hwilum... hwilum eft. [Klaeber*^*.] 

For styrian in the sense of ' treat of,' a parallel has been quoted from 
Byrhtferth's Handboc : Ne gelyst us f?ds ping leng styrian. 

875. * Concerning Sigemund, concerning his deeds of valour.' Grein's 
emendation Sigemunde[s^ is the more probable in that the next word begins 
with < ; but, since it is not absolutely necessary, I refrain. 

Beowvlf 45 

ellen-diedum, uncuj^es fela, 

Waelsinjes ^ewin, wide siSas, 

para J7e juraena beam jearwe ne wiston, 

f«h5e ODd fyrena, buton Fitela mid hine, 
880 j7onue he swulces hwaet secjan wolde, 

earn his nefan, swa hie a wseron 

aBt niSa jehwam nyd-jesteallan; 

hsefdon eal-fela eotena cynnes 

sweordum jessejed. Sijemunde jespronj 
885 aefter deaS-dseje dom unlytel, 

sy)7San wi^es heard wyrm ac weald e, 

hordes hyrde; he under harne stan, 

aefelinjes bearo, ana jeneSde 

frecne dsede ; ne wses him Fitela mid ; 
890 hw3e|?re him jesselde, Sset )?aet swurd )?urhwod 

wrsetlicne wyrm, faet hit on wealle aetstod, 

dryhtlic iren; draca morSre swealt. 

Haefde ajlseca elne jejonjen, 

\dd\j he beah-hordes brucan moste 
895 selfes dome ; |sse-bat jehleod, Fol. 149^ 

bser on bearm scipes beorbte fraetwa 

Waelses eafera; wyrm hat jemealt. 

Se waes wreccena wide mserost 

ofer wer-)?eode, wijendra hleo, 
900 ellen-dsedum, — he faes ser onSah — 

879. fyrena : MS. /yrene. 

Does fyrena relate to deeds of violence similar to those told of Sigemund 
in the Volsunga Saga, §§ 6-8? 

Concerning Fitela, Sigemund's nephew, and companion in his outlawry, 
we learn much in the Old Norse sources. See Index of Persons. 

881. The line is metrically deficient unless we take earn as a disyllabic. 
Cf. Germ. Oheim from a presumed Prim. Germ. *auhaimoz. 

895. selfes dome, i.e., he was free to take as much as he liked; an old 
Germanic legal phrase, used when one party in a case is allowed to fix the 
amount due to him from the other. Cf. II. 2147 (where see note), 2776. 

gehleod. Many editors normalise to gehlod ; gehleod for gehlod may be 
parallel to weox for wox; see Sievers, § 392, N. 5. 

The loading of the boat with the plunder also follows the dragon fight of 
Frotho, in Saxo Grammaticns, Bk. n. 

897. See Index of Persons : Waels. 

Earle adopts Scherer's emendation hdt[e], * with heat.' [So Trautmann "*.] 
The alteration is unnecessary. 

900. Cosijn's emendation dron ffdh, • with honours throve,' is adopted 
by Holthausen, Trautmann, and Earle [cf. Sarrazin in Engl. Stud., xxviii. 
408J. For dron = drum cf. scypon, 1. 1154, and heafdon, 1. 1242, and, for th« 

46 Beowulf 

siSSan Herem5des hild sweCrode, 

eafoS ond ellen ; he mid eotennm wearS 

on feonda jeweald forS forlaceu, 

SDude forsended. Hine sorh-wylmas 
905 lemede to lanje ; he his leodum wear3, 

eallum asj^ellinjum, to aldor-ceare. 

Swylce oft bemearn serran mielum 

8wiG-ferh)7es si5 snotor ceorl monij, 

86 )7e him bealwa to bote jelyfde, 
910 )7aet faet Seodnes beam 5e)7eon scolde, 

faeder-iej^elum onfon, folc jehealdan, 

hord ond hieo-burh, haelej^a rice, 

eSel Scyldinja. He J^ser eallum wearS, 

msej Hijelaces manna cynne, 
915 freondum jefaejra ; hine fyren onwod. 

phrase dron ffdh, cf. weorS-myndum Jfdh, 1. 8. Nevertheless I cannot bring 
myself to abandon the clear reading of the MS., which makes at least as 
good sense as in many another passage. 

901. It has been nsual to begin a new paragraph with siS'S'an: 'After 

Heremod's warring time had slackened oS, he' (Clark-Hall, Earle, etc.). 

The punctuation given above is strongly advocated by Klaeber**'. So 
Gummere, who comments : * Heremod, one is told, might have rivalled and 
surpassed Sigmund, but the former fell from grace, turned tyrant, and in 
fact was precisely what the aspiring hero should not be — quite the opposite, 
say, of this glorious Beowulf.' Sigemund is the greatest wrecca since 

In 1. 902 he must refer to Heremod [not to Sigemund, as Miillenhoft"', 
Rieger^^ and others have taken it]. Heremod's story is continued; just as 
in the parallel passage, 1. 1197, etc., sypcfan Hdma atwxg, the story of 
Hama is continued in 11. 1200-1. In each case the poet drags in allusions 
rather forcibly. But that the connection between Heremod and Sigemund 
is not fortuitous, or the work of our poet, is shown by their being also 
mentioned together in the Old Norse. See Index of Persons : Heremod. 

902. eaJoS, Grimm {Andreas u. Elene, 101]: MS. earfoS, retained by 
Wiilker; cf. 1. 534. On the other hand see 11. 602, 2349. 

eotenum. The word eoten has occurred several times in contexts where 
'monster,' 'giant' was applicable. Here for the first "time such meaning 
seems very doubtful, and we must assume either (1) that from 'giant' the 
generalized sense of • enemy ' has come into force [Rieger^^: Holthausen] or 
(2) that the word here is a personal name distinct from the common noun, 
perhaps signifying ' Jutes.' [See Schiicking for references.] 

905. Note the false concord. Many edd. unnecessarily alter. 

908, etc. The sif (perhaps = ♦ going into exile') of Heremod is a dis- 
appointment to the wise, who had hoped that he would be a credit to his 

909. * Put their hope in him (Heremod) as a remedy against their evils ' 
(bealwa to). For other instances of to following the uoun it gcverns, see 

913, 915. He, 1. 913, is Beowulf, 'the kinsman of Higelac': but hine, 
I. 915, is Heremod. 

915. ge/segra, 'more pleasing,' comparative of an otherwise unrecorded 

Beowulf 47 

Hwilum flitende fealwe striate 

mearum m^ton. Da waes morjen-leoht 

scofeii ond scynded. |Eode scealc monij FoL 150». 

swiS-hicjende to sele fam hean 

920 searo-wundor seon ; swylce self cyniuj 
of bryd-btire, beah-horda weard, 
tryddode tir-faest jetrume micle, 
cystum jecyj^ed, ond his cwen mid him 
medo-stigje mast mse5)7a hose. 
XIV 925 HrotSjar ma)?elode; he to healle ^eonj, 
stod on stapole, jeseah steapne hrof 
golde fahne ond 7rendles bond: 
"Disse ansyne Al-wealdan ))anc 
lunjre jelimpe. Fela ic laj^es jobad, 

930 jrynna aet 7i"eudle ; a mu}^ 7od wyrcan 

O.E. gefmg or gefaga^ which can be postulated with gome likelihood from 
the analogy of O.H.G. gifag{o): M.H.G. gevage. [Cf. Sievers in Z.f.d.Ph. 
xxi. 356: Klaeber in Anglia, xxviii. 440.] 

916. The story is resumed, with a repetition of incidents which, to the 

older critics, seemed the result of interpolation, Miillenhoff'^o compares 

11. 916, etc. with 864, etc.; 917-8 with 837 ; 918 with 838 ; and 920 with 840. 

'Fallow* seems more appropriate to horses than roads (cf. 1. 865), and 

Cosijn^" would accordingly emend to fealwum. 

924. tnedo-stigge, see note to 1. 1085. 

926. ttapoU. The obvious meaning is • column ' (cf. 1. 2718), and ao 
Heyne took the word here : • he stood beside the central (wooden) pillar of 
Heorot.' Heyne was thinking no doubt of the 'Branstock,' the central oak 
which plays its part in the story of the Volsung hall. Schiicking and others 
still adhere to this iuterpretatiou, or to a parallel one which would make the 
ttapol correspond to the * high seat pillars * of Icelandic halls [Sarraziu, 
Anglia, xix. 370]. 

But (1) ' beside,' though possible (cf. 1. 1117), is not the most obvious 
meaning of on, (2) we have no evidence for any great middle pillar or high 
seat pillars in Heorot, and, above all, (3) this would necessitate our supposing 
that Grendel's hand had been placed among the ralters, but it seems from 
1. 983 to have been outside the hall. 

Miller [Anglia, xii. 398] therefore interpreted stapol as the steps leading 
up to the door or the lantling at the top of them, his authorities being an 
O.E. gloss, and the Mid. Eng. use of the word: /e steire of Jiftene atopics. 
In his annotated hand-copy of Beowulf, Miller further quotes instances from 
the O.E. translation of Bede of fito/}oZ = ' footstep,' 'step,' and notes the 
parallel of the Odyssey [iii. 404]: Nestor seated on the 'smooth stones' 
before his door. The same interpretation has been arrived at independently 
by Eailei39. 

llask's emendation on sfa/oZess' foundation,' 'base,' has been revived by 
Bugge^ and Trautmann,_but is unnecessary: and unsatisfactory too, for 'he 
stood on the floor or ground ' seems bulLa feeble remark, 

930. grynna has been variously interpreted as ' snares ' ( = 0.E. grin) or 
'sorrows' ( = 0.E. gym). The latter interpretation is probably correct, for 

48 Beowulf 

wunder sefter wundre, wulHres Hyrda 
Daet waes unjeara, )?aet ic senijra m6 
w^ana ne wende t6 widan feore 
bote jebidan, )?onne blode fah 

935 husa selest heoro-dreorij stOd; 

wea wid-scofen witena jehwylczfT/i, 

Cara j^e ne wendon, )?aet hie wide-ferhU 

leoda land-jeweorc la)?uin beweredon 

|scuccum ond scinnum. Nu scealc hafaS Fol. 150*>. 

940 )>urh Drihtnes miht deed jefremede, 
5e we ealle ser ne meahton 
snyttrum besyrwan. Hwaet! )7aet secjan maej 
efne swa hwylc mgejj^a, swa ?5one majan cende 
aefter jum-cynnum, jyf heo jyt lyfatS, 

945 )78et hyre eald Metod este wsere 
bearn-jebyrdo. Nu ic, Beowulf, J^ec, 
sec5[a] betsta, me for sunu wylle 
freo^an on ferh)7e; heald forS tela 
niwe sibbe. Ne biS )7e [njsenijra jad 

950 worolde wilna, \q ic jew eald hflebbe. 
Ful oft ic for Isessan lean teohhode, 
hord-weorj^unje, hnahran rince, 

grin, 'snare,' is concrete, meaning 'halter' or *net': the abstract sense, 
•capturing,' given to it here by Earle, can hardly be demonstrated. 

936. gehwylcum. This very slight change [KembleJ from MS. f?«^tcyZcn«, 
though necessary, has been overlooked by most commentators. Klaeber 
[Engl. Stud. xlii. 326] argues strongly in its favour: 'a far-reaching woe 
unto every councillor* is supported by the comparison of 1. 170, etc. 
Schxicking in his last edition [1913] also adopts gehwylcum; so Holthausens. 

If we retain the MS. reading we must interpret it to mean that the court 
had been scattered by Grendel's attacks, which is clearly not the case (cf. 
1. 171, and passim). And apart from this the passage presents serious 

Unless wea wid-scofen is construed as a nominative absolute, * fear having 
driven far and wide' [Grein, Schiicking, 1910], hafde must be understood 
[Bugge"**] or supplied [Trautmann and Holthausen2 — text], *woe (had) 
scattered each councillor." Trautmann and Holthau8en2 further adopt the 
emendation [of Grein2], wiffscofen, which they interpret 'driven away.' 

Holthausen2, in a note, suggested wean wide scufon^ 'woes scattered each 
of the councillors': so Sedgefield2: already in 1820 Grundtvig^si came very 
near this : wean widscufon. Similarly Sedgefieldj , wea wide sceaf. 

942, etc. Perhaps a biblical reminiscence. 

947. secg[a]. The alteration is necessary here, and in 1. 1759, Tor 
metrical reasons. [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. x. 312.] 

949. [n]senigra, Greiuj : MS. anigre. Grein afterwards abandoned this 
emendation; Qiein^ nSnigre, [Cf. Bugge in Z./.d.Ph. iv. 203.] 

Beowulf 49 

ssemran set saecce. pii \q self hafast 

[mid] dsedum jefremed, faet )?in [c?om] lyfaS 
955 awa tO aldre. Al-walda )7ec 

jode forjylde, swa he nu jyt dydel" 

Beowulf majjelode, beam EcJ^eowes : 

"We l^aet ellen-weorc §stuin miclum, 

feohtan fremedon, frecne jeneSdon 
960 eafoS unctij^es; \1l\q ic swi)7or, 

)7aet 6u hine selfne jeseon moste, 

feond on freetewum fyl-werijne. 

Ic hine hraedlice Iheardan clammum PoL 161*. 

on wael-bedde wri)?an )7ohte, 
965 J7aet he for mwnd-jripe minum scolde 

licjean lif-bysij, butan his lie swice ; 

ic hine ne mihte, )7a Metod nolde, 

jan^es jetwseraan ; no ic him )?aes jeome setfealh, 

feorh-jeniSlan ; wses to fore-mihtij 
970 feond on fe)?e. Hw8e)?ere he his folme forlet 

to lif-wra)7e last weardian, 

earm ond eaxle; no J^ser senile swa )?eah 

fea-sceaft juma frofre jebohte; 

no \y lenj leofatS laS-^eteona 
975 synnum jeswenced ; ac h3nie sar hafa^ 

in n^d-jripe nearwe befonjen, 

balvvon bendum ; Sser abidan sceal 

maja mane fah miclan domes, 

hu him scir Metod scrifan wille." 
980 Da waes swijra secj sunu Eclafes 

on jylp-sprsece juS-jeweorca, 

sifSan sej^elinjas eorles craefte 

954. No gap in MS. The metre demands [witd] before dsSdum, and this is 
supplied by Holthausenj: so Sedgefieldj. Holthausen,, dsedum ge/remedlne]. 
[doni] is supplied by Kemblej. 

962. fratewum. Grendel bore no armour; but the familiar formula, 
• the foe in his trappings,' is used, probably not with any such grimly ironical 
reference as Trautmann^^' sees, to some fetters with which Beowulf hoped to 
deck him. 

963. hine, Thorpe: MS. him. 

965. mund-gripe, Kemblej, : MS. hand gripe. The emendation is de- 
manded by the alliteration. 

976. nyd-gripe, Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 49] : MS. mid gripe ; Thorpe, niS 
gripe, followed by Sedgefield ; Schiicking, mid nyd-gripe. 

50 Beowulf 

ofer heanne hr5f hand sceawedoD, 

feondes fin^ras — foran ^jhwylc waes, 
985 steda naejla jehwylc style jelicost — 

hai)>ene8 hand-sporu, |hilde-rinces Fol. 151*>. 

ejl unheoru ; iejliwylc jecwaeS, 

\^X, him heardra nan hrinan wolde 

iren ser-jod, )?3Bt Sses ahUecan 
990 blodje beadu-folme onberan wolde. 
XV DA waes haten hre)?e, Heort innan-weard 

fol mum jefraetwod ; fela )72era waes, 

wera ond wifa, )?e )?aet win-reced, 

jest-sele, jyredon. 7old-fa5 scinon 
995 web aefter wajum, wundor-siona fela 

secja jehwylcum, )?ara \q on swylc staraS. 

Waes J^aet beorhte bold tobrocen switSe, 

983. 'Looked up over' or *in the direction of the high roof, and saw....' 
[Cf. Klaebei25«.] See 1. 836, note. 

985. This line was first correctly divided from the preceding line by 
Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 138], who further proposed the emendation: 

stiSra nmgla style gelicost. 
The details of Sievers' reading had been anticipated by earlier editors 
[Ettmiillerj, Thorpe]. His reccnstniction is satisfactory, and is now generally 
adopted [e.g. by Holthausen, Trautmann, and with modification, stid-nmgla 
gehwylc, ' each of his sharp nails,' by Sedgefield]. But as the reading of the 
MS. seems possible, it is here retained in the text [as also by Schiicking]. 

986. hilde-rinces: MS. hilde hilde rinces, the first hilde being the last 
word on the page, the second the first word overleaf. In such cases it seems 
needless to call attention to the alteration by italics in the text. 

$pora is elsewhere a weak masc; Eieger^^o would read speru, 'spears'; so 
Holthausen, spelling hand-speoru (u-umlaut). 

987. egl (more usually egle) is well authenticated in the sense of ' awn,' 
'beard of barley': but nowhere else do we find it in the derived sense of 
♦talon,' 'claw.' Accordingly many take the word here as the adj. egle, 
•hateful,' 'grievous' (Goth, a^;?*, 'shameful,' a^Z»s, 'ditlicult'), agreeing with 
speru or spoi-u, and either suppose the u of eglu to be elided, or else restore 
it: e^r, ti?i/ieoru, Rieger^^, Schiicking, Holthausen : eyZu, Trautmann. For 
both words cf. ail in New English Dictionary. 

988. him must refer to Grendel, whom everyone said no sword might 
injure — unless [with Sievers, P.B.B. ix. 139, Holthausen, and Sedgefield] 
we read /e for }>mt (MS. ji) in 1. 989. In that case it refers to Beowulf, who, 
having torn off Grendel's claw, might be expected to be proof against 

Sievers and Holthausen further alter onberan wolde (1. 990) to dberan 

991. Many emendations have been made to avoid the awkward con- 
struction hdten hrej^e; Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 50, following Grundtvig^e-^], 
heatimbred, referring to Heort ; Trautmann, handum hrepe ; Sedgefield, 
hdton hrejyre, 'with fervid zeal' or hat on hrejyrey 'zeal in hearts'; [cf. also 
Trautmann^^^ Kluge^^]. Holthauseui^ j assumed a gap in the MS. 

Beowulf 51 

eal inne-weard iren-bendum faest, 

heorras tohlidene ; hrof ana jenaes 
looo ealles ansund, J^e se ajlseca 

fyren-dsedum faj on fleam jewand, 

aldres orwena. No \ddt ytJe by?5 

to befleonne, fremme se j^e wille; 

ac jesecan sceal sawl-berendra, 
loos nyde jenydde, niJ^Sa bearna, 

jrund-buendra, jearwe stowe, 

)?ier his lic-homa lejer-bedde fsest 

swefe)? aefter symle. pa woes sael ond msel, 

)?8et to healle l^anj Healfdenes sunu ; Fol. 152*. 

loio wolde self cyninj symbel J^icjan. 

Ne jefrsejen ic fa m^5)?e maran weorode 

ymb hyra sinc-jyfan sel jebseran. 

Bujon )7a to bence blsed-ajande, 

fylle jefsejon, f^jere jej^iejon 
1015 medo-ful manij; majas i^ara[n] 

switS-hicjende on sele )?am hean, 

1000. MS. pe : emended by Ettmullerj and almost all editors to pa. It 
does not seem clear that this is necessary: for /e without antecedent can 
mean 'where,' 'when,' of. 1. 2468. [Cf. Schiicking, Satzverknilpfung, 1904, 
pp. 7, 57-8.] 

1004. gesec{e)an, KemblCj : MS. gesacan. If we keep the MS. reading we 
must render either 'gain by strife,..' (cf. geslean), or, with Schiicking and 
Bosworth-ToUer, • strive against the inevitable prepared place of the chUdren 
of men.' Neither of these meanings gives very satisfactory sense : getacan 
seems otherwise unrecorded, and is unmetrical [Sievers in P.B.B. x. 291]. 

Kemble's gesecean has accordingly been generally accepted. 'Though 
a man would flee it, he must seek the grave ' is one of those truisms which 
lend themselves to the hypothesis of a didactic interpolator. [Cf. Mullen- 

sdwl-berendra, bearna and grund-buendra are all parallel [Klaeber^^] and 
depend upon gearwe stowe [Bugge^^]. 

For another interpretation see Sedgefield. 

Trautmann, in part following Ettmiillerj, reads, seghwylc secan sceal sdwl- 
berendra nlde genyded..., 'each of living souls compelled by distress must 

1008. swefeUr after symle. Cf. 1. 119. Cook [M.L.N, ix. 474] quotes 
many parallels for the metaphor of 'life's feast.' 

1009. gang. This form, which occurs here, in 1. 1295 and in 1. 1316, 
for the normal geong, giong may perhaps be a dialectal peculiarity of a 
former copyist of this section of the poem. [Cf. BrandP^'.] 

1013. Thorkelin's transcripts, A ' bimd agande,' B * blsedagande.* The 
MS. now has only bleed left, and de on the next line. 

1015. wdran. Ten Brink'^ and Klaeber [Anglia, xxviii. 442] suggested 
waron : MS. para. All recent editors have adopted this emendation, except 
Trautmann^****, who reads mdgas pwme^ 'the gentle kinsmen,' Earlier 

52 Beowulf 

HrSSjar ond IIroJ>ulf. Heorot innan waes 

freondum afylled ; nalles facen-stafas 

peod-Scy Minnas J^enden fremedon. 
I020 Forjeaf \a. Beowulfe beam Healfdenes 

sejen jyldenne sijores to leane, 

hroden hilte-cumbor, helm ond byrnan ; 

m^re ma5)?um-sweord manije jesawon 

beforan beorn beran. Beowulf jef^ah 
1025 ful on flette. No h§ )?aere feoh-jyfte 

for sc[e]oten[(i]um scamijan Corfte; 

ne jefrsejn ic freondlicor feower madraas 

jolde jejyrede jum-manna fela 

in ealo-bence otJrum jesellan. 

editors retained the MS. reading, and attempted to remedy the obscurity by 
devices of punctuation. Wyatt in 1894 read: 

Bugon |>a to bence blffid-agende, 
fylle gefiegon; feigere gejjsegon 
medo-ful manig magas }>ara... 
and commented ••What is to hinder the antecedent of para being implied in 
bladdgende, in speaking of a court where everyone was doubtless related to 
everyone else, as in a Scotch clan?" With this interpretation the blad- 
dgende, who take their places on the mead-bench, are the Danish nobility 
generally : their kinsmen, who empty many a cup, are Hrothgar and Hrothulf. 
But it may be objected (1) that the task of emptying the cups would not be 
confined to Hrothgar and Hrothulf ; (2) that the point of the allusion is not 
that Hrothgar and Hrothulf are akin to the Danish nobility (blmd-agande), 
but that they are akin to each other, and are, as yet, true to the ties which 
kinship imposes (cf. II. 1164-5). 

The alteration is a very slight one, • papa' (i.e. wdran) might easily be mis- 
read • |>apa' (i.e. para), and the gain in sense is very great. The poet has been 
speaking of rejoicing : then, with the tragic irony which he loves, he con- 
tinues, beginning a new period, * The kinsmen too were in the hall — not yet 
was wrong being plotted.' See Index of Persons : Hrothulf. 

1020. beam, Grundtvigssa ; MS. brand. 

1022. hilte-cumbor. Ettmiillerj hilde-, followed by Rieger^S Holthausen, 
Trautmann and Schiicking (1913) : hilte-cumbor perhaps gives satisfactory 
sense, • banner with a handle ' [cf. Cosijn^^], but it is very difificult to account 
for hilte instead of hilt. [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxxvi. 420.] 

Cosijn^^ justifies the punctuation, as given above. There is something of 
a pause before mMre mdSpum-sweord, the final gift, is mentioned. We might 
almost render * and finally a glorious sword.' 

1026. sceotendum, KemblCg: MS. scotenum, Eemble's emendation has 
been generally followed, especially by recent editors. Grein^, scoterum. 
Heynei_3 retained the MS. reading, and, when he abandoned it, Kluge 
[P.B.B. viii. 633] took up the defence, deriving from scota, 'shooter,' and 
quoting oxenum, nefenum, as examples of similar weak dat. pis. But the 
alteration is necessary on metrical grounds [cf . Sievers in P.B.B. x. 312] : 
and see, too, 11. 703, 1154. 

1028. fela. Kolbing would read frean, on the ground tliat such costly 
gifts are naturally not given by 'many men/ but by * kings of men' {EngL 
Stud. xxii. 325). 

Beowulf 53 

1030 Ymb )73es helmes hrof heafod-beorje 

wirum bewunden wala utan heold, 

)7set bim fela |laf frecne ne meahtoti FoL 152^ 

scur-beard sceJ^tSan, )7onne scyld-freca 

onjean jraraum ganjan scolde. 
1035 Heht 5a eorla bleo eahta mearas 

faeted-hleore on flet t^on, 

in under eoderas; J^ara anum stod 

sadol searwum fab, since jewurj^ad; 

\ddt wges hilde-setl beab-cyninjes, 
1040 Sonne sweorda jelac sunu Healfdenes 

efnan wolde; naefre on ore laej 

wid-cuj7es wij, ?5onne walu feollon. 

Ond 55a Beowulfe beja jebwaej^res 

eodor Injwina onweald jeteab, 
1045 wicja ond wsepna; bet bine wel brucan. 

Swa manlice msere J^eoden, 

1030-1. wala^ emendation of Ettmiillerj adopted by Grein : MS. heafod 
beorge wirum be wunden walan utan heold. If we leave the MS. reading un- 
altered there is a choice of difficulties. Either we must take walan as subject 
and heafod-beorge as object, with a striking violation of grammatical concord 
in the verb heold ; or we must (with Heyne and Socin) take heafod-beorge as 
a weak fern, noun in the nom. and walan as object, with considerable loss to 
the sense. The nom. pi. scur-beorge (Butn, 5) also tells against the latter 
view, which has no support from analogy. The emendation has accordingly 
of late been generally adopted. Sievers, Bugge^^, Trautmann and Sedgefield 
prefer the more archaic form walu (Goth, wains, • staff '). The change is 
slight, as in many scripts u and a can hardly be distinguished. 

1032. fela. Holthausenj, 2 aiid Sedgefield [following Rieger, Letehuch} 
normalize to feola : unnecessarily. See Biilbring, 199 b. 

ldf...meahton. So the MS. Since fa/ is collective, it may quite conceiv- 
ably be the subject of a plural verb meahton. But almost all editors feel 
bound to correct what they regard as a false concord. Earlier editors chose 
to emend Idf to Idfe, because idf is not now in the MS. : our authorities for 
it being merely Thorkelin's two transcripts. Bat, from the position of the 
word, it must have been perfectly clear, when these transcripts were made, 
whether the reading was Idf or Idfe. Therefore to write Idfe to agree with 
meahton is practically as violent a departure from MS. authority as to write 
meahte to agree with Idf : and since the former change lands us in metrical 
difficulties [cf. Sievers in P.B.B. x. 273-4], it is best, if we make any alteration, 
to write Idf ...meahte [following Thorpe], 

1033. scur -heard. Cf. Judith, 79 : tcUrum heardne. Various interpreta- 
tions are offered : ' tempered in water ' (of. • the ice-brook's temper,' Othello, 
V. ii. 253); 'hard or sharp in the storm of battle,' 'cutting like a storm.' 
[Cf. M.L.N, vii. 193 ; viii. 61 ; xix. 234.] But I doubt if scur does more 
than intensify: 'mighty hard.' Cf. Minot, x. 43: Full swith redy teruis 
fand pai pare a tchowre, i.e. 'a great quantity, abundance.' 

1037. under eoderas. The same expression is used in the Eeliand (of 
the court of the High Priest, into which the * earls ' led Christ : thar leddun 
ina...erlo8 undar ederos^ 4913). 

54 Beowulf 

hord-weard haele)>a, heaj^o-riusas jeald 

mearum ond madmum, swa hy iiiefre man lyhS, 

86 }>e secjan wile soS aefter rilite. 

XVI 1050 DA jyt sejhwylcum eorla drihten, 
)?aia )7e mid Beowulfe brim-lade teah, 
on )78ere medu-bence maj^Sum jesealde, 
yr|fe-lafe; ond }?one ^nne hebt Fol. I53v 

jolde forjyldan, f^one 5e 'jrendel 2er 

1055 mane acwealde, swa he hyra ma wolde, 
nefne him witij 7od wyrd forstode, 
ond Saes mannes mod. Metod eallum weold 
jumena cynnes, swa he nu jit de3; 
for)7an biS andjit ^^hwiJer selest, 

1060 fci'liOes fore-]7anc. Fela sceal jebidan 
leofes ond la)?es, se \e lonje her 
on tJyssum win-dajum worolde brucet5. 
p£er waes sanj ond swej samod setjaedere 
fore Healfdenes hilde-wisan, 

1065 jomen-wudu jreted, jid oft wrecen, 
Sonne heal-jamen Hioj^jares scop 
aefter medo-bence mjSnan scolder 
"Finnes eaferum, Sa hie se faer bejeat, 

1048. lyhif. Metre demands two syllables : either ne lyhS or the older 
form /eAid". 

1051. .lade, Kemblei : MS. leade. 

1056. Ettmiiller takes wyrd as in apposition with God: so Sedgefieldj, 
who objects to the usual construction of wyrd as object of forstode (see 
Glossary), because wyrd cannot be hindered or averted. But this seems 
open to dispute, both grammatically (since if, with Sedgefield, we render 
forstode 'help, defend,' we should exi>ect hie not him) and theologically 
(since God is wyrda waldend, Exodus, 4H2; Andreas, 1056 ; Elene, 80). 

1064. fore, 'in the presence of: cf. I. 1215, and Widsith, 55, 140, 
where the phrase is used, as here also, in connection with a minstrel's song. 
• Healfdene's war-leader,' in whose presence the song is sung, should then be 
Hrothgar. Or possibly we may take hildewisan as dat. pL, referring to 
the old captains who had fought under Healfdene. The phrase would 
then be equivalent to for dugupe, ' before the veterans ' (1. 2020). Trautmann 
suggests Healfdena. [Cf. also Klaeber in Anglia^ xxviii. 449, note ; Traut- 
mann'^; Cosijn^8-i»j 

To interpret fore as 'concerning' [Grein, Jahrbuch f. rom. u. engl. 
Literatur, 1862, p. 269, note ; Earle] is exceedingly forced, if not im- 
possible : the hildewisa would then be Hneef. Grein cites as a parallel 
Panther, 34, f>e ic ar fore sa<jde, which he takes as * concerning which 
I spoke before.' But this is extremely doubtful. [Cf. tooLiibke in A.f.d.A. 
xix. 342.] 

1068. Recent editors make the lay begin with 1. 1069 : Schiicking 
\Engl. Stud, xxxix. 106] even with 1. 1071. In both cases we must adopt 

Beowulf 55 

hseletS Healf-Dena, Hnaef Scyldinja, 
1070 in Fres-waele feallan scolde. 

Ne huru Hildeburh herian forfte 

Eotena treowe ; unsynnum wearS 

beloren leofum set )?am ^znd-plejan, 

bearnum ond broSrum; hie on jebyrd hruron 
1075 S^^® |wunde ; J?set waes jeomuru ides. Fol. 153^. 

Nalles holinja Hoces dohtor 

meotod-sceaft bemearn, syj^San moreen com, 

Ca heo under swejle jeseon meahte 

mor)7or-bealo maja. peer he ser mseste heold 
1080 worolde wynne, wig ealle fornam 

Finnes j^ejnas, nemne feaum anum, 

)78eb he ne mehte on )7£em meSel-stedo 

wij Henjeste wiht jefeohtan, 

ne J?a wea-lafe wije forj^rinjan 

the emendation of Trautmann^^s gaferan for eaferum: rendering 'made 
mention of the children of Finn, when the sudden attack fell upon them, 
a tale which was a hall-joy adown the mead-bench.'... It is less satisfactory 
from the point of view of style to make the lay begin, as in the text, 
with 1. 1068 ; but it enables us to keep eaferum, which we must take as 
instrumental: 'At the hands of the children of Finn. ..the hero of the 
Healfdene, Hnaef, was doomed to fall.' [See Klaeber in Anglia, xxviii. 

The emendation Healfdenes [Gruudtvig^®, Kemblej], usual in editions 
up to and including "Wiilker, is unnecessary and misleading, since Healfdene 
is presumably a tribal name. [See Buggers and Index of Persojis.] 

1070. MS. infr es wsBle : *r altered from some other letter' [perhaps], 
' after it a letter erased, then es on an erasure : that fres is all that the 
scribe intended to write, is shown by a line connecting r and «.' [Zupitza.] 

1072. Eotena. Most of the problems of the Finusburh story depend 
upon one another, and therefore must be considered together. See Index of 
Persons, and Introduction to Beowulf. Only the more isolated problems are 
dealt with in the notes which follow. 

1073. lind-^Kemhle ^ for the alliteration : MS. hild. 

1074. Apparently Hildeburh lost only one brother. It seems un- 
necessary to see, with Holier, a survival in brodrum of an ancient dual 
construction, parallel to wit Scilling, ' Scilling and I' [V.E. 59]. Cf. note 
to 1. 565. 

1079. All editors follow Ettmiiller^ in altering he to h^, making /Sr 
h^o] Br vmste heold worolde wynne refer to Hildeburh. This is not 
necessary. Finn lost his thanes where he had had the greatest joy in the 
world, i.e. in and around his mead hall. 

1081. feaum. The original form must have been feam ; the u has been 
inserted on the analogy of other datives. 

1083. gefeohtan. Klaeber [Anglia, xxviii. 443], followed by Holthausenj, 
suggests geheodan, 'offer fight' (cf. 1. 603), on the ground that wiht gefeohtan, 
with a dat. of the hostile person, is not a permisssible construction. Eieger 
[Lesehuch), Holthauseui, 3, wip gefeohtan. See also Introduction to Beowulf: 

66 Beowulf 

1085 )7godnes Cejne; ac hij him jej^injo budon, 

)>a3t hie him o5er flet eal jorymdon, 

healle ond heah-setl, j^aet hie healfre jeweald 

wis Eotena beam ajan moston, 

ond set feoh-jyftum Folcwaldan sunu 
1090 dOjra jehwylce Dene weor)7ode, 

Henjestes heap hrinjum wenede, 

efne swa swiSe sinc-jestreonum 

fsettan joldes, swa he Fresena cyn 

on beor-sele byldan wolde. 
1095 Da hie jetruwedon on twa heal fa 

fseste frio(5u-wsere ; Fin Henjeste 

elne unflitme aSum |benemde, Fol. 154* 

)7aet he )?a wea-lafe weotena dome 

arum heolde, )?aet Sser senij mon 
iicxj wordum ne worcum wsere ne br^ece, 

ne \\ixh. inwit-searo sefre jemsenden, 

1085. hig, the Frisians : hirriy Hengest's men. 

The g of hig simply marks that the i is long, precisely as in M.E. 
and other scripts xj = \. Other examples are hig, 11. 1596, 1770; wigge — 
tpige, 1656, 1770, 1783; iig = 8i, 1778-f medostigge=zmedostige, 924; wigtig 
= xvitig, 1841 (wrongly 'corrected' by many editors into wittig); ligge — 
lige, 121 \ Scedenigge= Scedenige, 1686. See Sievers, § 24, N., and for 
pronunciation of g, § 211, etc. ; [also Cosijn in P.B.B. viii. 571]. 

1087. healfre. Unless, with Ettmiillerj and Thorpe (followed by Traut- 
mann, Holthausen, Sedgefield), we read healfne, we must take this as a gen. 
dependent upon geweald, ♦ control of half the hall.' 

1097. With elne unflitme^ Guthlac, 923, elne unsldwe, has been com* 
pared: unjiitme or unhlitme (1. 1129) is obviously an adv., but its form, 
meaning, and derivation are doubtful. It may mean 'indisputably,* from 
fiitan, 'dispute,' or 'immovably,' from ^eo fan, 'float'; or, if unhlitme be 
the correct form, it may mean • by evil lot ' and be connected with hlytm 
(I. 3126). It is, of course, conceivable that both forms, unhlitme here and 
unflitme below, are correct, and represent different words. [Of. Bugge*', 
Trautmanni85, von Grienberger in Z.f.o.G. 1905, 748-9.] 

1101. gemsenden. This may mean ' nor should they ever break the 
treaty,' and be parallel in meaning to wEre ne breece. No such verb 
gemMnan ' to violate an oath ' is recorded, but the phrase msene dp ' a per- 
jured oath ' (cf. man, wickedness, and ' mansworn ' in the Heart of 
Midlothian) is very common. (So Grein, Bosworth-ToUer, etc.) 

More probably, however, this is either the verb mmnan 'to mention* or 
manan 'to bemoan,' and we may render (1) 'they (i.e. people in general, 
and particularly the Frisians) should not mention it although the Danes 
were following the slayer of their lord,' i.e. the Danes are not to be taunted 
[Heinzel in A.f.d.A. xv. 192], or (2) 'they (the Danes) should not bemoan, 
although....' If we adopt (2) we must (since it is Finn's oath we are 
considering) render /at 'upon condition that,' and />onne 'then on the 
other hand.* [Cf. Klaeber in Anglia, xxviii. 444.] 

Beowulf 57 

5eah hie hira beaj-jyfan banan foljedon 

Seoden-lease, )?§, him swa jej^earfod waes; 

jyf J7onne Frysna hwylc frecnan sprsece 
iios Saes mor)7or-hetes myndjiend wsere, 

foiine hit sweordes ecj sySSan scolde. 

AS wges jesefned, ond icje gold 

ahgefen of horde. Here-Scyldinja 

betst beado-rinca waes on bsel jearu; 
I no aet J^aem ade waes e)7-5esyne 

swat-fah syrce, swyn eal-jylden, 

eofer iren-heard, ae]7elin5 manig 

wundum awyrded; sume on waele crunjon. 

Het 5a Hildebnrh aet Hnaefes ade 
II 15 hire selfre sunu sweolotJe befaestan, 

ban-fatu baernan ond on bsel d6n; 

earme on eaxle ides jnornode, 

1102. hana must mean * slayer,' not merely *foe,' as Heinzel tates it 
[A.f.d.A. XV. 192]. It does not follow that Finn slew Hnaef with his own 
hand. The achievements of the retainers are attributed to the chief, as 
Tacitus tells us. 

1104. /recnan, Thorpe : MS. /rgcn«n. 

1106. Unless we are to understand some word like * decide' — a rather 
violent proceeding — something must, as Sievers supposes, be missing here ; 
or perhaps the necessary infinitive to scolde is concealed in the word »y9San. 
Holthausen suggests snyifdaw, 'restrain,' or si^^dan, 'confirm': Trautmann, 
and, independently, Sedgefield, sehtcm, 'settle' : Klaeber [J.E.G.Ph. viii. 255] 
seman, * reconcile,' or siSan, * declare the truth,' * prove,' ' settle.' 

1107. AS. The emendation dd, 'the pyre' [Grundtvig^ss], has had its 
supporters in recent times. As Klaeber points out [J.E.O.Ph. vilL 256], it 
is more natural that the gold should be fetched from the hoard in order to 
deck the funeral pile of Hneef than for any other purpose. 

icge. The meaning • costly ' or • massive ' which has been suggested for 
this word is, of course, pure guess-work. It has been proposed to emend 
i[n]cge-gold, on the analogy of incge-ldfe, 1. 2577, where see note [Singer in 
P.B.B. xii. 213 ; so already Rieger, LesebucK] ; or itge, 'bright,' not found in 
O.E., but cf. Icel. tfr, 'glorious' [Holthauseng ; butcf. also Anglia, Beiblatt, 
xiii. 364] ; or ace (a word found once on a runic inscription and supposed 
to mean 'one's own,' hence, ' domestic wealth ') [Klaeber in J.E.G.Ph. viii, 
256] ; or to write ondicge as one word= ' exciting envy ' [von Grienberger in 
Anglia, xxvii. 331 : butcf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxxvi. 421]; oxondiege 'openly,' 
not elsewhere recorded, but cf. and&ges, 1. 1935, and Goth, anddugjo, 
'openly* [Bugge'®, SedgefieldJ. HolthauseUg takes %cge = idge ' eager.' 

1114-7. The emendations here, mostly quite uncertain, are too 
numerous to record. Holthausen's eame on eaxle is very probable: 
Hildeburh commanded her sons to be placed on the pyre ' by their uncle's 
(Hnaers) side.' The tragedy of Finnsburh lies in the slaughter among 
kinsfolk. The relation of uncle to sister's son was the most sacred of 
Germanic ties (see below, 1. 1186, note), and that the poet should emphasize 
this is natural, sunu is probably an Anglian pi. which the W.S. transcriber 
has omitted to alter. [Cf. Cosijn in P.B.B. viii. 569.] 

68 Beowulf 

jeomrode jiddiim. 7U(5-rinc astah. 

Wand |tO wolcnum wael-fyra initist, Fol. 164^ 

II20 hlynode for hlawe ; hafelan mnlton, 

bcn-jeato burston, Coiine bl6d aBtspranc 

la^-bite lices. Lij ealle forswealj, 

jjesta jifiost, )?ara 5e )?2er juS fornara 

beja folces ; waes hira blied scacen. 
XVII 1 125 GEwiton him Sa wijend wica neosian 

freondum befcallen, Frysland jeseon, 

bamas ond hea-burh. Henjest ?5a jyt 

wa^l-fajne winter wunode mid Finne 

[e]I[r2e] unhlitme; eard jemunde, 
1130 |?eah )>e he [ne] meahte on mere drifan 

hrinjed-stefnan ; holm storme weol, 

won wis wiude; winter y)7e beleac 

is-jebinde, 0)7 5aet oj^er com 

jear in jeardas, swa nu jyt de5, 
1 135 }?a Se synjales sele bewitiaS, 

wuldor-torhtan weder. Da waes winter scacen, 

fggjer foldan bearm ; fundode wrccca, 

1118. Grundtvig28* and Rieger^s" emend to guS-rlc. Skeat supports 
this reading by 1. 3144, and Elent 795, rlc dstigan, and compares gud-rec 
with the compound weel-fyr in the next line. But there is no necessity for 
any change. dstdh=* ascended ' (i.e. * was placed on ') the pyre. The same 
expression is found in O.N. (dSr d bdl stigi, of Balder's funeral). [Cf. Bugge 
in Tidstkr. viii. 51.] 

1120. for hldwe, *in front of the mound,' It has been objected that 
this would not yet have been raised, and emendations have been suggested. 
[Cf. Klaeber iu Engl. Stud, xxxix. 463.] But no change is necessary. 
Bodies were frequently burnt at the burial place, beside mounds which 
had been previously raised. See Introduction to Beowulf: Archaeology: 

1125. Finn's army breaks up and his warriors return home [cf. Klaeber 
in J.E.G.Ph. vi. 193]. 

neosian. Metre favours n£osan, which is the more usual form in Beovmlf : 
cf. 1. 115 (note), 11. 125, 1786, 1791, etc. [and Sievers, P.B.B. x. 233]. 

1128-9. The reading in the text is that of KemblCj, j. MS. midfinnel 
unhlitme; Heyne, mid Finne [ealle s] unhlitme {=z' unitedly ') ; [cf. Rieger"' 
and Trautmann^*^]. 

1130. [n«] added by Grundtvig ^s^. Grein read ne in place of he. Cf. 
1. 648. 

1134-6. Cosijn^o emends def to doaf, followed by Schiicking, who with 
Boer [Z.f.d.A. xlvii. 138] interprets 'as men do at the present day,' alluding 
to Hengest's waiting for the return of spring. Much the same meaning is 
produced by Sedgefield's emendation, }>dm for J?d: 'until a second year 
came to dwellings (i.e. to men) as it (the year) still does come to those who 
are continually watching the seasons.' But see Glossary: weotian. That 
sele means • time ' * season ' is pointed out by Cosijn ^». 

Beowulf 59 

jist of jeardum ; he to jyrn-wrasce 

swi(5or |)?6lite, }7onne to sse-lade, Fol. 155\ 

1 140 gif he torn-jemot )?urhteon milite, 

|7set he Eotena beam inne jemuiide. 

Swa he ne forwyrnde worold-rSdenne, 

]7onne him Hunlafinj hilde-leoman, 

billa selest, on bearm dyde ; 
1 145 )7aes w^ron mid Eotenum ecje cuSe. 

Swylce ferhS-frecan Fin eft bejeat 

sweord-bealo sliSen aet his selfes ham, 

8i)?(5an jrimne jripe '7uSlaf ond Oslaf 

aefter s£e-siSe sorje mitindon, 
1150 aetwiton weana diel ; ne meahte w^fre mod 

forhabban in hrefre. Da waes heal (h)rodea 

feonda feorum, swilce Fin slaejen, 

cyninj on cor]7re, ond seo cwen numen. 

1141. Apparently /ajf inne must be taken together ( = /«.. .tnne), 'in which 
he would show his remembrance of the children of the Eotenas' (cf. Kock, 
Eng. Rel. Pron., § 102). Sievers [P.B.B. xii. 193] would read /«r...nin^ 
* where, he knew, the heroes were.' Cf. Holthausen's note. 

1142. worold-rssdenne. How does Hengest 'not refuse the way of the 
world'? The current explanation has been that it means 'he died' [e.g. 
Grein: cf. Heinzel in A.f.d.A. x. 226]. 

Clark-Hall [M.L.N, xxv. 113] suggests 'he did not run counter to the 
way of the world,' i.e. he fell into temptation, and broke his oath to Finn. 
[Cf. Klaeber, Christ. Elementen, in Anylia, xxxv. 136.] 

Those who suppose that Hengest entered Finn's service with treacherous 
intent (Bugge, Earle, etc.) favour the emendation worod-rsedenne (not else- 
where found: taken as signifying 'allegiance' from weorod, 'retinue'). 

Schiicking puts comma after gemunde, and renders swd... 'in such wise 
that,...' i.e., without breaking his allegiance. 

1143. hilde-leoma is probably the name of the sword which Hunlafing 
places in Hengest's bosom. See Introduction to Beowulf: Finnsburh. 

1150. weana dMl, 'their manifold woes'; daZ signifying 'a large part,' 
as in Mod. Eng. ' a deal of trouble.' [Cf. Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 228.] 

ne meahte... hrepre. This is generally interpreted as referring to Finn: 
e.g. by Clark-Hall : * His flickering spirit could not keep its footing in his 
breast ' ; that is * he died.' For wEfre of a spirit about to depart, cf. 1. 2420. 
But it is more in accordance with O.E, style that 11. 1150-1 should be 
parallel to 11. 1149-50. Hence Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 295], following 
Ettmiiller, ' the spirit (of the attacking party, Guthlaf and Oslaf) could no 
longer restrain itself.' 

1151. roden, 'reddened,' 'stained by the life-blood of foes,' Bugge 
[Tidsskr. viii. 64, 295]: MS. hroden 'covered.' Bugge's emendation 
[supported by Sievers, in P.B.B. ix. 139, xxxvi. 407 and Klaeber, in 
Anglia, xxviii. 445] is made for metrical reasons (cf. 1. 2916), to prevent 
the superfluous double alliteration in the second half line, and is almost 
certainly correct : he compares Andreas, 1005, deud-wang rudon, 

1162. feorum, ' bodies' : cf. note to 1. 1210. 

60 Beoivulf 

Sc?otend Scyldinja tO scypoQ feredon 
1 1 55 eal in-jesteald eortS-cyninjes 

swylce hie aet Finnes ham findan meahton 

sijla, searo-jimma. Hie on sie-lade 

drihtlice wif to Denum feredon, 

lieddon |t6 leodum." Leo5 waes asunjen, Fol. iss**. 
1160 jleo-mannes 5yd. 7amen eft astah, 

beorhtode benc-swej; byrelas sealdon 

win of wunder-fatum. pa cwom WealhJ^eo forS 

jan under jyldnura beaje, J^sGr ]>& jodan twejen 

sseton suhter-jefsederan ; J^a jyt waes hiera sib 
1 165 S^hwylc 6Srum try we. Swylce ]>^r (H)unfer)? ]>y\e 

aet fotum saet frean Scyldinja; jehwylc hiora his 
ferlife treowde, 

)78et he haefde mod micel, J^eah )?e he his majum 

ar-faest aet ecja jelacum. Spraec ?Ja ides Scyldinja : 

"Onfoh J^issum fuUe, freo-drihten min, 
1 170 sinces brytta; )7u on sselum wes, 

jold-wine jiimena, ond to 7eatum spraec 

mildum wordura, swa sceal man don. 

Beo wis 7eatas jlaed, jeofena jemyndij, 

nean ond feorran )?u nu hafast. 
1175 Me man saejde, J^aet \]>xl Se for sunu wolde Fol. 156*. 

here-ri[7i]c habban. Heorot is jefaelsod, 

1158. tri/=Hildeburh. 

1161. For beorhtian, *to brighten/ used of sound, cf. heaS'otorht, of a 
dear loud sound, 1. 2553. Sedgefield reads heorhlmode {beorhtm • sound '). 

1163. etc. Note the expanded lines. Cf. U. 2173 a, 2995. 

1164. suhtergefsederan. See Index of Persons : Hrothulf, Unferth, and 
cf. note to 1. 84, dpum-swerian. 

1165. UnferJ>: MS. hunfer/>. 

1174. We must either understand (with Holthausen) or read (with 
Sedgefield) [J>e] /ni nu hafast: 'Be mindful of gifts; you have plenty of 

Ettmullerj suggested /ru nu [frifu] hafast, and the reading frOFu or 
freodo has been widely accepted. But metrically it is unsatisfactory [cf. 
Sievers in P.B.B. x. 248 ; but see also xii. 196]. Also the alliteration should 
run on n not /. 

[See also Bugge<»; Klaeber in J. E.G. Ph. viii. 256-7.] 

1176. here-rinc, Kemble2: MS. here ric. The omission of the n (written 
as a mure stroke aboye the vowel) is a not uncommon scribal error. Cf. 

Beowulf 61 

b§ah-sele beorhta; bruc Jjenden J>u m5te 
manijra medo, ond )?inum majum laef 
folc ond rice, J^onne Su forS scyle 

1180 metod-sceaft seon. Ic minne can 

jlaedne Hro)7ulf, )73et he )?a jeojotJe wile 
arum healdan, jyf )7u ser J^onne he, 
wine Scildinja, worold oflsetest; 
wene ic, ]?aBt he mid jode Jyldan wille 

1 185 uncran eaferan, gif he j^aet eal ^emon, 

hwaet wit to willan ond to worS-myndum 
umbor-wesendum »r arna jefreraedon." 
Hwearf j^a bi bence, )>ser hyre byre wseron, 
HretSric ond HroSmund, ond haele)?a beam, 

1 1 90 jiojoS aetjaedere; J^aer se joda saet, 

Beowulf 7eata, be J^gem ^ebroSriim twsem. 

XVIII Him waes ful boren, ond freond-la)7u 
wordum bewaejned, ond wunden gold 
estum jeeawed, earm-reade twa, 

1 195 hraejl ond hrinl^as, heals-beaja msest, FoL 156^ 

j?ara )7e ic on foldan jefraejen haebbe. 

Nsenijne ic under swejle selran hyrde 

hord-madm haelej^a, sy)?5an Hama aetwaej 

11. 60, 1510, 1883, 2307. Beowulf ia meant, who has been adopted by 
Hrothgar (11. 946 etc.) [cf. KlaeberS^*].^ The letter should be compared in 
which Theodoric the Great adopts a king of the Eruli as his son in arms, 
sending him gifts of horses, swords, shields, and other war-trappings, and 
instructing him in the duties of his new relationship. [Cassiodorus, Variae 
iv. 2.] 

1178. medo. Both Thorkelin's transcripts, A and B, read medo : MS. 
defective at edge. Editors have usually normalized to m^da, but we have 
already had a gen. pi. in (see 1. 70). Such gen. pis. are most usually found 
in masc. and neut. nouns : but cf. para minra ondswaro in Epist. Alexand, 
423 [Anglia, iv. 155] ; hynd'o in 1. 475 is perhaps also a gen. pi. 

1186-7. Holthausen compares Tacitus [Germania, xx.] : sororum filiis 
idem apud avunculum qui apud patrem honor : and this close tie between the 
maternal uncle and his sister's sons is of course a feature of many primitive 
tribes (see note to 11. 1114-7, above). But Hrothulf is son, not of a sister, 
but of the brother Halga, himself a mighty sea-king : he has claims to the 
succession which the queen justly fears. See Index of Persons : Hrothulf. 

1194. earm-reade: so MS.; Greini earm-[h]reade. For the occasional 
absence of initial h, especially in the second element of compounds, see 
Sieversj § 217, Biilbring § 526. 

1198. hord-mddm : MS. hord madmum. Almost all editors have emended 
to macTdum [Grein i] or mdSm [Grundtvig, 1861]. The emendation is here 
adopted (though the spelling mddm is retained) because (1) a dat. madmum 
can only be construed with difficulty, (2) mdiSm is metrically superior, and 
(3) a scribe, having in his original the archaic form maifm or madm^ and 

62 Beowulf 

lA /?^re byrlitan byrij BrosiDja mene, 
1200 sijle ond sinc-fiet ; searo-niSas Utah. 

Eoriiienrices, jeceas ecne rS5d. 

pone hrinj haefde Hijelac leata, 

nefa Swertinjes, oyhstan siSe, 

si^ipau he under sejne sine ealjode, 
1205 wa^l-reaf werede; hyne wyrd fornam, 

sy[^r)tin he for wlenco wean ahsode, 

faihSe to Fry sum. He )7a fraetvve waej, 

eorclan-stanas, ofer ytJa ful, 

rice )?eoden ; he under rande jecranc. 
1210 7ehwearf );a in Francna faej^m feorh cyninjes, 

breost-jewiedu ond se beah somod ; 

wyrsan wi§-frecan wael reafedon 

intending to modernize this to maS'fum, might very easily have miswritten 
madinum. fCf. also Trautmann^^.] 

1199. psere, EttmuUerz: MS. here. Apart from diflBculties of meaning, 
a compound here-beorhtan would be impossible here for the alliteration ; cf. 
note to 1. 707. 

1200. sine-fat. On the analogy of gold-fat (Phcenix, 302) the meaning 
'precious setting' has been proposed [Klaeber, J.E.G.Ph. vi. 104]. 

fieah, Leo, Grundtvig (1861), Coeijn [P.B.B. viii. 509], I]ugge«» : MS. 
fealh. '^Fleah gives an easier construction and is confirmed by the fact that, 
according to the saga, Hama in reality 'fled from the enmity of Eormenric.'" 
The emendation is accepted by recent editors. See Index of Persons : Hama. 

1201. Two explanations of 'he chose the eternal counsel, welfare' have 
been suggested. (1) 'He went into the cloister,' as Hama does in the 
Thidreks saga. This, it is objected, is hardly a likely interpretation in so 
early a poem as Beowulf. The retirement of the hero to a monastery seems 
indeed to be a motive found most frequently in French Romance. Yet, since 
we know of early Anglo-Saxon chiefs, e.g. King Ethelred of Mercia and 
Eadberht of Northumbria, who did end their days in the cloister, it may 
have been a motive also in O.E. poetry. (2) The meaning ' he died ' is 
suggested : similar euphemisms for death are common. Bugge'*' and Klaeber 
[Christ. Elevienten, in Anglia, xxxv. 456] combine both meanings: *he 
went into the monastery, and there ended piously.' 

But in 1. 1760, and in Exodus, 515, the phrase ece radas seems rather to 
mean 'counsel such as will lead to eternal benefit,' without any connotation 
of either the monastery or the grave. Professor Priebsch suggests to me 
that the pious ecne rad, ece radas has in both places in Beowulf been sub- 
stituted by a monkish copyist for some other phrase. This seems very possible. 

1206. wean ahsode, 'he went in search of trouble.' [Cf. Klaeber in 
M.L.N, xvi. 30.] 

1210. feorh, 'the body' : of. 1. 1152. That Hygelac's body passed into 
the possession of his foes is confirmed by the fact that his bones were shown, 
much later, near the mouth of the Rhine, presumably in the neighbourhood 
of this last fight. There seems no necessity to alter, with Sievers, to feoh 
[P.B.B. ix. 139 ; cf. Bugge»2]. 

1212. reafedon, Ettmiillerj: MS. reafeden; the pi. indie, in en does 
occur in O.E. dialects, but so rarely as to make it probable that here it is 
only the late scribe's error. 

Beowulf 63 

aefter juS-sceare; Teata leode 

hrea-wic heoldon. Heal sweje onfenj. 
12 1 5 WealhSeo ma)7elode, heo fore )>8em werede spraec: 

" Bruc Sisses beajes, Beowulf leofa, 

hyse, mid hsele, |ond J?isses hraejles neot, Fol. I57v 

)7eo[^]-5estreona, ond 5e)7eoh tela; 

cen J?ec mid craefte, ond )?yssum cnyhtum wes 
I220 lara liSe ; ic \q )?3es lean jeman. 

Hafast \u jefered, J^aet 5e feor ond neah 

ealne wide-ferh)? weras ehtijaS, 

efne swa side swa sge bebujeS 

windjeard, weallas. Wes, J^enden )>u lifije, 
1225 aej^elinj eadij; ic ]fQ an tela 

sinc-jestreona. Beo \vi suna minum 

dsedum jedefe, dream healdende. 

Her is sejhwylc eorl o)?rum jetrywe, 

modes milde, man-drihtne hol[c?] ; 
1230 J^ejnas syndon 5e)7W£ere, f^eod eal jearo, 

druncne dryht-juman, doS swa ic bidde." 

Eode \s, to setle. piier waes symbla cyst, 

druncon win weras; wyrd ne cu)>on, 

jeo-sceaft 5rim?/ie, swa hit ajanjen wearS 

1213. gud-sceare. On the analogy of inwitscear (1. 2478) it seems that 
the 'cutting' or 'shearing' implied by $cear is that of the sword of the foe, 
not the metaphorical dividing of Fate. Translate then 'after the carnage' 
rather than [with Earle, Clark-Hall] 'by the fortune of war.' 

1214. Cos,iin^^ yfoxiXdi xe&A Halsbege onfeng Wealhffeo mapelode^ 'Wealh- 
theow took the necklet and spake': he objects that 'noise' is out of place 
here : we should expect silence for the speech of Wealhtheow (cf. 11. 1698-9). 

1218. peo[d\ Grundtvig286, Kemblej : MS. peo ge streona. 

1223. MS. side corrected from wide. 

1224. windgeard, weallas : MS. wind geard weallas. The suggestion of 
Kemblej, windge eardweallas, has been very generally adopted, and is still 
retained by Sedgefield. But such an instance of the alliteration being borne 
by the second element in a compound seems unprecedented. [Cf. Krackow 
in Archiv, cxi. 171.] So it is best either, with Schiicking and Holthauseus, 
to retain the MS. reading, interpreting ' the home of the winds, the cliffs ' 
(cf. 1. 229), or to emend with Holthauseni^2. following Ettmiillerg, windge 
weallas, on the analogy of 1. 672. 

1225. Most recent editors put a comma after apeling, making it a 
vocative. It seems to me that such breaks in the half-line are to be avoided 
wherever possible. Cf. 11. 130, 2188, 2342. But see Klaeber^'. 

1229. hol[d'], Thorkelin, Kemblci : MS. hoi. 

1234. geo-sceaft seems to be written for geas^ceaft — *gmceaft, another form 
of gesceafty 'that which is shaped, creation, fate.' [Cf. Kluge in P.B.B. viii. 

64 Beowulf 

1235 eorla mancpim. SyJ^i'ian sefen cwOm, 

ond him HroJ^jar jewat tO bofe sinum, 

rice to raiste, rcced weardode 

unrim eorla, swa hie oft ajr dydon. 

Beiic-)>elu beredon ; hit jeond-briDded wer\r5 
1240 beddum ond bolstrum. Beur-scealca sum 

fus ond fS^e flet-raeste jelbgaj. Fol. l57^ 

Setton him tO heafdon hilde-randas, 

bord-wudu beorhtan ; )?ier on bence waea 

ofer aej^elinje yj^-jesene 
1245 heafo-steapa helm, hrinjed byrne, 

)7rec-wudu frymlic. Waes }>eaw hyra, 

]7aet hie oft waeron anwij-jearwe 

je aet ham je on herje, je jehwaej^er fara 

efne swylce miela, swylce hira man-dryhtne 
1250 j?earf jesaelde ; waes seo )7eod tilu. 
XIX Sijon )7a to sliSpe. Sum sare anjeald 

aefen-raeste, swa him ful oft jelamp, 

si)?5an jold-sele 'irendel warode, 

unriht aefnde, o)? )7aet ende becwom, 
1255 swylt aefter synnum. paet jesyne wear]>, 

wid-cu)? werum, )>3ette wrecend )?§, jyt 

lifde aefter la)?um, lanje J^raje 

aefter juS-ceare; Trendies modor, 

ides, ajlsec-wif, yrmj?e ^emunde, 
1260 s§ j^e waeter-ejesan wunian scolde, 

533.] This eo for ea may be Anglian ; yet it is also possible that geH Ib 
correct as the first element: * fate ordained of old.' 

grimme, Ettmiillera: MS. grimne. 

1212. heafdon : on for um in dat. pi. Cf. 1, 1154, and note to 1. 900. 

1247. The older edd. followed the MS., an wig gearwe : but dnwig-geanoe, 
* prepared for single combat,' or a7i[d]wig- gearwe, ' prepared for attack,' in- 
volve the alliteration running on the vowel instead of on the to of wig, and so 
make it easier to scan />BBt hie oft waron. [But cf. Klaeber'*** and Schiicking.] 

1250. The manners depicted are those of Tacitus' Germania [cf. 
especially cap. xxii.]. 

1253. warode : MS., as well as Thorkelin's transcripts, A and B ; *• the 
parchment under wa is rather thin, and besides there is a blot on the two 
letters " (Zupitza). Hence the word has several times been misread farode. 

1257. lange /jrdge. The 'higher critics' point out that there is a dis- 
crepancy between this ' long time ' and the shortness of the time which does, 
in fact, elapse before Grendel's mother executes her vengeance. 

1260. »e might here refer to Grendel : but there is no reason for so 
interpreting it, since below (11. 1392, 1394, 1497) the masc. pronoun ia used of 

Beowulf 65 

cealde streamas, si}>San Qkin wearS 

to ec^-banan anjan bref^er, 

faederen-m^je ; he )?a faj jewat, 

mor)7re jemearcod, Iman-dream fleon, Fol. 168». 

1265 westen warode. panon woe fela 

jeo-sceaft-jasta ; waes )7sera 7rendel sum, 

heoro-wearh hetelic, se aet Heorote fand 

waeccendne wer wijes bidan. 

p£er him asl^eca setgrgepe wearS; 
1270 hwae)7re he jemunde msejenes strenje, 

jim-faeste jife, tie him 7od sealde, 

ond him to Anwaldan are jelyfde, 

frofre ond fultum ; Sy he )7one feond ofercwOm, 

gehnsejde helle-jast. pa he hean ^ewat, 
1275 dreame bedseled, dea)?-wic seon, 

man-cynnes feond. Ond his modor Jia gyt 

jifre ond jalj-mod jejan wolde 

sorh-fulne siS, sunu deatS wrecan; 

com )>a to Heorote, Sser Hrinj-Dene 
1280 jeond )79et saeld swsefun. pa Sser sona wear3 

ed-hwyrfb eorlum, sij^San inne fealh 

trendies modor. Waes se jryre laessa 

efne swa micle, swa biS maejj^a craefb, 

wig-jryre wifes, be waepned-men, 
1285 )7onne heoru bunden, hamere jej^men 

Grendel's mother: and even should we, with Thorpe, Grein, and Holt- 
hausen, emend to h.^p\ s^p], there remain passages like 1. 1379, where 
Grendel's mother is called fela-sinnigne secg. The poet is inconsistent, 
thinking sometimes of the female sex, sometimes of the daemonic power, of 
the monster. Ten Brink"'*"* saw in this confusion traces of an earlier 
version in which Beowulf fought under the water with two monsters, one 
female, and one male — Grendel's mother and Grendel. 

1261. Gain, Grundtvig286, Kemblej, etc.: MS. camp. 

1266. See note to L 1234. 

1271. Kembleg, etc., gin-fseste: an unnecessary emendation. For the 
change of n to m before labials, cf. hlimhed, 1. 3084, and see SieverSj § 188. 

1278. 8unudea&:MS.sunuJ}eod. Ettmiillerj conjectured suna deaif; deaif, 
written deoff by a Northern scribe, might easily be confused with deod ; probably 
the mistake originally arose through the wrong d being crossed by a scribe. 

Gen. sunu for W.S. suna is also Northern, cf. 1. 344. 

1280. sona. Holthausen reads 8dlc]na, 'a recurrence of attacks.' 

1285. gepruen, Greini : MS. gejjuren. This isolated past part., meaning 
apparently 'pressed,' 'compact,' occurs in Boethius, Metra, xx. 134. Metre 
demands its restoration here, and in Riddles, Ixxxix. [xci.] 1, though the MS. 
has homere, hamere, gepuren, [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. ix. 282, 294 ; x. 458.] 

66 Beowulf 

swcord swate fah, swin ofcr helme 

ecjiini Idyhtij andweard scireS. Fol. 158*. 

©a waes on healle heard-ecj tojen 

sweord ofer setlum, sid-rand nianij 
1290 hafon haiida foBst ; helm De jemunde, 

byrnau side, J?a hine se broja anjeat. 

Heo waes on ofste, wolde ut J^auon 

feore beorjan, pa heo onfiinden waes; 

hraSe heo a^J^elinja anne huefde 
1295 fopste befanjen; )?a heo to fenne janj. 

Se waes HroJ^jare h<Tele)7a leofost 

on jesiSes had be si5m tweonum, 

rice rand-wija, \one 5e heo on laeste abrgat, 

bliOd-faestne beorn. Na^s Beowulf 5iSr, 
1300 ac waes oj'er in aer jeteohhod 

aefter ma)?5um-5ife mserum qeate. 

Hream wearS in Heorote ; heo under heolfre jenam 

cuj^e fohne ; cearu waes jeniwod, 

jeworden in wicun. Ne waes )7a3t jewrixle til, 
1305 \dd\, hie on ba healfa bicjan scoldon 

freonda feorum. pa wa3s frod cyninj, 

har hilde-rinc, on hreon |m5de, Fol. 169*. 

sy?5)7an he aldor-J^ejn unlyfijendne, 

)?one deorestan deadne wisse. 
1 3 10 HraJ^e waes to bure Beowulf fetod, 

sijor-eadij secj; samod aer-daeje 

eode eorla sum, ae)?ele cempa 

self mid jesiSum, J^aer se snotera bad, 

hwaej^re him A^-walda sefre wille 

1290-1. We must understand 'any one' as subject to gemunde. 

/c hine, * whom,' for /a hiyie, was suggested by Grein, (followed by Heyne, 
Sweet, etc.) and is ingenious but not necessary. [Cf. Pogatscher, Unausge- 
driicktes Subjekt im Altenglischen, Anglia, xxiii. 296.] 

1302. under heolfre, 'amid the gore,' 'blood-stained.' 

1304-6. • The exchange was not a good one which they had to boy, to 
pay for, with the lives of their friends.' A typical description of a blood- 
feud, where, as in the Icelandic sagas, the lives on each side are set off, one 
against the other. On hd healfa, not, as often taken, the Danes and the 
Geatas, but the monster brood on the one side, and the Danes and Geatas 
on the other. 

1314. Alwealda, Thorkelin ; Al-walda, Thorpe: MS. alf walda. Cf. 
U. 316, 955. 

wilU. For the tenaewille, not wolde, Klaeber^eo compares 11. 381, 1928, 2495. 

Beowulf 67 

131 5 aefter wea-spelle wyrpe jefremman. 
7an5 Sa sefter flore fyrd-wyrSe man 
mid his hand-scale — heal-wudu dynede— 
)7aet he J?one wisan wordum nsejde 
frean Injwina, frsejn jif him wsere 

1320 sefter neod-laSu niht jetiiese. 

XX HroSjar maj^elode, helm Scyldin^a: 

"Ne frin )7U aefter scelum; sorh is jeniwod 
Denijea leodum. Dead is ^schere, 
Yrmenlafes yldra bro)?or, 

1325 min run-wita ond min rsed-bora, 
eaxl-jestealla, Sonne we on orleje 
hafelan weredon, }>onne hniton fe]?an, 
eoferas cnysedan. lSwy[lc] scolde eorl wesan, Fol. ISQ^ 
\sR}>elw^^ ser-jod, swylc -^schere waes. 

1330 Wears him on Heorote to hand-banan 
wael-jsest waefre; ic ne wat hwsec^er 

1317. Some editors alter to the normal form hand-scole, ct 1. 1963. 
There is no other certain instance of the spelling scale {sceal = scolu in the 
Lament of the Fallen Angels, 268, is doubtful). The interchange of a and o 
is, however, not unprecedented [of. parallels quoted by Kluge in Kuhn's 
Z.f.v.S. xxvi. 101, note: rador and rodor, etc.']. 

1318. imgde, Grein; Thorkelin's transcripts A and B, hnagde ; now de 
gone. The fe is a mere parasitic prefix. Wordum nagan {negan) occurs in 
Elene, 287, 659; Exodus, 23, etc. 

1320. neod-ladu. Sweet, neod-la9'e, Ettmiillerj, etc., Holthausen, neod- 
lai!^u[m]; but see Sieversj § 253, N. 2. Since word-laHfu {Crist, 664; Andreas, 
635) = not 'invitation,' but 'eloquence,' and /reondiaifM above (1. 1192) would 
be better suited by * friendship' than 'friendly invitation,' it seems possible 
that neod-laffu here = ' desire ' (n^d), rather than ' pressing invitation ' {niod= 
nied, 'necessity'). [Cf. Klaeber in Archiv, cxv. 179.] 

1328. swy[lc], Thorkelin's emendation : MS. defective at corner. Thorke- 
lin's transcripts A and B, swy scolde. 

1329. No gap in MS. Grundfcvig's emendation [1861, adeling}. 
1331. wal-gmt. See note to 1. 102. 

hwader : MS. hwa^per. Ten Brink^* [cf. Moller, V.E., 136] saw in liwaper, 
• which of the two,' a confirmation of his view that there had been a version 
representing Beowulf fighting under the water with both Grendel and his 
mother, and that what Hrothgar here states is that he does not know which of 
the two is the assailant [cf. Schiickingi]. But unless we are prepared, with 
ten Brink, to regard 11. 1330-1 as an isolated fragment of such a version, out 
of harmony with its present context, we must read not *I know not which* 
but 'whither ' : since it appears from the context that Hrothgar has no doubt 
as to the personality of the assailant, but does not know her exact retreat (cf. 
11. 1333, 1339). 

We may therefore (1) retain hwaper, attributing to it the meaning of 
hwider [Heynej, Holthausen], for which no precedent can be found ; (2) emend 
to hwseder, a form of hwider, of which examples are elsewhere found, see 
Bosworth-Toller [GreiUj, Heyneg, Cosijn2--3, Sedgefield, Schucking2, etc.]; 
or (3) emend to hwider [Sweetj, Grein-Wiilker, etc.}. The via media (2) 
seems preferable. 

68 Beowulf 

atol sese wlanc eft-siCas t6ah, 

fylle jefnujiiod. Hgo ]?a fiehSe wrsec, 

)>e J?u 5)'stran niht 7rendel cwealdest 

1335 }>urh haJstne had heardum clammuiii, \ 
forj^an he t5 lanje leode mine 
wanode oud wyrde. He aet wije jecranj 
ealdres scyldij, ond nu o)>er cwora 
mihtij man-scaSa, wolde hyre msej wrecan, 

1340 5e feor hafaS fSehSe jestailed, 

)7aes )7e )?incean maej J^ejne monejum, 
se )>e aefter sinc-jyfan on sefan jreote)?, 
hre)7er-bealo hearde ; nu seo hand lijeS, 
se )7e eow wel-hwylcra wilna dohte. 

1345 Ic ]>ddt lond-buend, leode mine, 
sele-rsedende, secjan hyrde, 
)?aet hie jesawon swylce twejen 
micle mearc-stapan moras healdan, 
ellor-j^stas ; 6sera oSer waes, 

1350 )7aes )7e hie jewislicost jewitan meahton, 
idese onlicnes; oSer earm-sceapen 
on weres waestmum wrsec-lastas |traed, Fol. 160*. 

naefne he waes mara )7onne senij man 63er, 
)?one on jear-dajum ^rendel nemdon 

1355 fold-buende; no hie faeder cunnon, 
hwae)7er him aenij waes aer acenned 
dyrnra jasta. Hie dyjel lond 
warijeaS, wulf-hleo)?u, windije naessas, 
frecne fen-jelad, Saer fyrjen-stream 

1360 under naessa ^enipu nij^er jewiteS, 

1333. The emendation of Kembleg, gefagnod, 'made glad,' has been 
widely accepted: fylle would be from fyllo, 'feast,' rather than /yW, 'fall/ 
•death' [of iEschere] : cf. U. 562, 1014. 

1342. tinc-gyfa should signify 'a ruling (not necessarily independent) 
chief: ^schere may have been, like Wulfgar, a tributary prince. Or 
perhaps, with Holthausen, we can take the word as a fern, abstract noun : 
• after the giving of treasure ' by Hrothgar : joyful occasions when the absence 
of ^schere would be remembered. 

1344. Ettmiillerj, etc., teo pe\ but cf. 11. 1887, 2685. 

1351. onlicnes, Kemblej : MS. onlic nms; Sweet, onZtc, was...; Holt- 
hausen, following Grundtvig p^ but cf. his edit, of 1861], omits nms. 

1354. MS. defective ; Thorkelin's transcripts A and B, nemdod ; Eemblci, 
nemlnodon] ; Kemble, , nemldon]. 

Beowulf 69 

flod under foldan. Nis J^aet feor heonon 
mil-jemearces, )?aet se mere stanc?eS, 
ofer \^m honjiaS hrinde bear was, 
wudu wyrtum faest waeter oferhelmaS. 

1365 peer maej nihta jehw^ra niS-wundor seon, 
fyr on flode. No jjses frod leofatJ 
jumena bearna, j^aet ]7one jrund wite. 
Deah J7e h^S-stapa hundum jeswenced, 
heorot hornum trura, holt-wudu sece, 

1370 feorran jeflympd, ser he feorh seleS, 
aldor on ofre, ser he in wille, 
hafelan {hydari]. Nis |7aet heoru stow; 
)7onon yS-jeblond up astijeS 
won to wolcnum, )7onne wind styre)? 

1375 laS jewidru, o5 ?Sjet lyfb drysma]?, 

roderas reotaS. Nu is se rsed jelanj ^ 

eft set |)?e anum. lEard jit ne const, Fol. 160^ 

frecne stowe, Seer \u findan miht 
(fela)-sinni5ne secj; sec jif )?u dyrre. 
1380 Ic )7e ]?a fseh^e feo leanije, 

eald-jestreonum, swa ic ser dyde, 
wundini jolde, jyf )?u on wej cymest." 

1362. itandeff, Thorkelin's correction : MS. stance ff. 

1363. Many unsuccessful attempts were onade to explain hrinde till 
Morris, editing the Blickling Homilies, found there, in a passage (p. 209) 
which he supposed to be imitated from these lines in Beowulf^ the expression 
hrimige bearwas, ' trees covered with frost.* The restoration of hrimige in 
the text here was generally accepted. 

But the English Dialect Dictionary drew attention to the fact that the 
word rind, meaning • hoar-frost,' was still current in the North of England; 
hrinde is then presumably correct, and is a shortened form of *hrindede, 
meaning 'covered with frost,' as was pointed out independently by 
Mrs Wright [Engl. Stud. xxx. 841] and by Skeat. Hrinde would be con- 
nected with hrim, 'hoar-frost,' as sund with swimman: a new example for 
the transition from md to nd [cf. Holtbausen in I.F. xiv. 339]. 

1372. hydan, supplied by KemblCg. No gap in MS., but a mark like 
a colon shows that the scribe realized that something had been omitted. 

1379. MS. fela sinnigne : fela is best omitted, as otherwise it should 
take the alliteration. 

1380. fee, instrumental. 

1382. It is strange that whilst recent editors frequently restore into the 
text ancient forms which the later scribes refused to admit, yet here, when 
the scribe, by a curious oversight, seems to have copied the early 8th century 
form toundini, ' with twisted gold,' most editors refuse to accept it, and 
modernize to xcundnum. 

Wundini is instrumental, parallel to binumini and similar forms in the 


70 Beowulf 

XXI Beowulf maJ>elode, bearn EcjJ^eowes: 

"Ne sorja, snotor ^nma; s§lre bi(5 aijhw^ra, 

1385 )?aet h6 his freond wrece, J^onne he fela murne. 
Ure Sjhwylc sceal ende jebidan 
worolde lifes; wyrce se ]>e m5te 
domes Sr deaj?e; j^aet biS driht-juman 
unlifjendum aefter selest. 

1390 Aris, rices weard ; uton bra]?e feran 
trendies ma^an ^an^ sceawijan. 
Ic hit fe jehate: no he on helm losa)?, 
ne on foldan fae)?m, ne on fyrjen-holt, 
ne on jyfenes jrund, 5a )?£er he wille. 

i395 ^\vs dojor ]>n 5e)7yld hafa 
— wean a jehwylces, swa ic ]>e wene t5." 
Ahleop 5a se jomela, 7ode J^ancode, 
mihti^an Drihtne, \>dds se man 5e|spraec. Fol. 16lv 
pa waes HroSjare hors jebseted, ^^^^ 

1400 wicj wunden-feax; wisa fenjel 
jeatolic jende ; jum-fej^a stop 

early Glosses. [Cf. Sievers, Der ags. Imtrumental, in P.B.B. viii. 324, etc.] 
That a 10th or 11th century scribe should have written an 8th century form 
here is strange, bnt that he did so must be clear to anyone who will look at 
the MS. : the d is now covered , but the next letters are either mi or ini, certainly 
not um. (This was noted by Zupitza, and before him by Holder ; Thorkelin's 
transcript A has rundmi ; B, umndini.) The scribe in any case would hardly 
have copied the old form cscept through momentary inadvertence. But 
surely to suppose, with Bugge^^ that he wrote this mi or ini by error for 
num is less reasonable than to suppose that he wrote it because ini (often not 
distinguishable from mi) was in the MS. which he was copying. 

In that case Beowulf must have been already written down in the 8th 
century and our MS. must be derived (no doubt with many intermediate 
stages) from this early MS. In any case it is surely no duty of an editor 
to remove from the text an interesting old form, from which important 
conclusions can possibly be drawn. 

1390. Sweet, rape^ for the sake of the alliteration ; but see Sievers, 
§ 217, N. 1. 

1391. gang : the second g has been added above the line in the MS. 

1392. See note to 1. 1260, above. 

helm can mean 'protection,' 'refuge,' 'covering' [cf. Schrder in Anglia, 
xiii. 335], but is in that case usually followed by a gen., as in helm Scyldinga, 
etc. Hence the old emendation holm, 'sea,' is defended by Cosiju-^. An 
example of helm without the gen. dependent on it appears in one of the 
Hymns [Greinj , ii. 294 ; Grein-Wiilker, ii. 280] helme gedygled. 

1395. Heyne, f^ya dogor, ace. of duration ; so also Schiicking. But it 
seems better to read ifys dogor, 'on this day* (instrumental). [See Sievers, 
§ 289, and P.B.B. x. 312.] 

1401. gende. Ettmiiller, emended to gen[g]de, and has been followed 
by the editors. The emendation is probably correct (cl. L 1412), but gende 

Beowulf 71 

lind-haebbendra. Lastas wseron 

sefter wald-swa)7um wide jesyne, 

jan^ ofer jrundas ; [peer heo] Sejnum for 
1405 ofer myrcan mor, ma^o-J^ejna baer 

J?one selestan sawol-leasne, 

)7ara )?e mid HroSjare ham eahtode, 

Ofereode )?a aej^elinja beam 

steap stan-hliSo, stije nearwe, 
1 4 10 enje an-paSas, uncuS jelad, 

neowle naessas, nicor-husa fela; 

he feara sum beforan jenjde 

wisra monna wonj sceawian, 

o)? )7set he fserinja fyrjen-beamas 
141 5 ofer harne stan hleonian funde, 

wyn-leasne wudu ; waeter under stOd 

dreorij ond jedrefed. Denum eallum waes, 

winum Scyldinja, weorce on mOde 

t5 jej^olianne, Sejne monejum, 
1420 oncyS eorla jehwsem, syS)?an iEscheres 

on )7am holm-clife hafelan metton. 

Flod blode weol — folc to saejon — 

jhatan heolfre. Horn stundum sonj Fol. 16l*». 

fiislic f[yrd]-leoS. FeJ^a eal jesaet; 
1425 jesawon 6a sefter waetere wyrm-cynnes fela, 

is retained in the text, as it is a oonoeivable Kentish form [cf. Sievers, § 215, 
N. 1]. 

1404. \J>ar heo] was suggested by Sievers [P.B.B, ix. 140] to supply the 
metrical deficiency. It has been generally adopted. [Other possible stop- 
gaps are enumerated by Ellaeber, J. E.G. Ph. vi. 195.] 

1405-6. mago-J>egna...J>one selestan: iEschere. 

1408. beam presumably refers to Hrothgar or Beowulf. Yet it may be 
pi.; for sg. verb with pi. noun, Klaeber^^* compares 11. 904, 21G4, 2718. 

Some classical parallels for the scenery of the episode of Grendel's mother 
are discussed by Cook {M.L.N, xvii. 418). 

1410. This line occurs also in Exodus, 58. 

1414. faringa. As with semninga (1. 644, q.v.) the meaning mast not 
be pressed. 

1418. ufinum Scyldinga. The expression is more usual in the sg,, re- 
ferring to the king alone (11. 30, 148, 170, etc.), but that it can also be used 
of the more distinguished retainers seems to follow from 1. 2567. See also 
note to 1. 1342 [and cf. Klaeber in J.E.O.Ph. vi. 195]. 

1423. hdtan. Cf. 1. 849. 

1424. MS. defective at edge. Thorkelin's transcript B gives /... ; f[yrd]- 
is an emendj.tion of Bouterwek [1859: Z.f.d.A., xi. 92]. 

72 Beowulf 

selUce 8^-dracan, sund ciinnian, 

swylce on naes-hleo5um nicras licjean, 

Ca on uuderu-m«l oft bewitijaS 

sorh-fulne siS on sejl-rade, 
1430 wyrmas ond wil-d6or ; hie on wej hruron 

bitere ond jeboljne, bearhtm onjeaton, 

juS-horn jalan. Sumne 7Sata leod 

of flan-bojan f^ores jetwiefde, 

yS-jewinnes, )?aet him on aldre stod 
1435 here-strsel hearda; he on holme wses 

sundes \q s«nra, Ce hyne swylt fornam. 

Hraej^e wearS on ySum mid eofer-spreotum 

heoro-hOcyhtum hearde jenearwod, 

niSa jenaejed ond on naes tojen, 
1440 wundorlic wsej-bora; weras sceawedon 

jryrelicne jist. 7yTede hine Beowulf 

eorl-jewsedum, nalles for ealdre meamj 

scolde here-byrne hondum jebroden, 

sid ond searo-fah, sund cunnian, 
1445 seo 5e ban-cofan beorjan cuj^e, 

)?aet him hilde-jrap hrej^re ne mihte, 

eorres inwit-fenj aldre jescej^San; 

ac se hwita helm |hafelan werede, Fol. 162*. 

s6 )7e mere-jrundas menjan scolde, 

1426. The syllable lie in words like sellic is probably Bometimes long, 
Bometimes short. Metrical considerations make it likely that it is here 
short. Cf. 11. 232, 641 [and Sievers in P.B.B. x. 504 ; xxix. 568]. 

1428. It seems more reasonable to suppose that the nickers 'look after,' 
or • undertake,* journeys of their own fraught with trouble, than that they 
* look at ' those of others. See Glossary : {be)weotian. 

1439. genaged : Sweet, ge[h]neeged. But see 1. 2206. 

1440. wag-bora has been variously interpreted: 'bearer of the waves' 
[Grein, «fc.], 'wave tosser' [cf. Holth>iUsen in Anglia, Beiblatt xiv. 49], 
'traveller through the waves' [Cosijn^'*; also in M.L.N, ii. 7, 1887], 'oft- 
spring of the waves' [von Grienberger, P.B.B. xxxvi.99: cf. Sievers in P.B.B. 
xxxvi. 431], or 'piercer of the waves,' from borian^ 'to bore' [an old inter- 
pretation adopted recently by Sedgefieldj : but cf. Sievers, Anglia, xiv. 135]. 

The emendation wmg-fara, 'the wave-farer,' has been suggested [Traut- 
mann, followed by Holthausenj.J '• wmg-fara is not recorded, but wag-faru 
is. The word u?ap-deor, tentatively suggested by Klaeber [Engl. Stud, xxxix. 
463], occurs in Crist, 988. 

1447. eorres. Non-W.S. form, corresponding to W.S. terr«», yrr««. 

1449. mengan may possibly mean 'tmingle with, visit,' as usually inter- 
preted : but ' mingle together, stir up ' seems a more likely rendering, in view 
of the common use of gemenged = ' disturbed ' (cf. 11. 848, 1593). (Cf. Klaeber 
in M.L.N, xvi. 16.] 

Beowulf 73 

f45o s5can sund-^ebland since jeweorcJad, 

befonjen frea-wrasnum, swa hine fyrn-dajum 
worhte wsepna smiS, wundrum teode, 
besette swin-licum, f^set hine sySj^an no 
brond ne beado-mecas bitan ne meahton, 

1 455 Naes J^set )7onne mgetost maejen-fiiltuma, 
)?8et him on Searfe lab ?Jyle HroSjares; 
waes )7sem haefb-mece Hruntinj nama; 
)?set waes an foran eald-jestreona ; 
ecj waes iren, ater-tanum fah, 

1460 ahyrded hea)7o-swate ; naefre hit aet hilde ne swac 
manna senium, }?ara )7e hit mid muiidum be wand, 
se 5e jryre-siSas jejan dorste, 
folc-stede fara; naes )?aet forma si5, 
)7aet hit ellen-weorc aefnan scolde. 

1465 Hum ne jemunde majo Ecjlafes 
eafo]7es craeftij, J^aet he £er jespraec 
wine druncen, )?a he faes w^epnes onlah 
selran sweord-frecan ; selfa ne dorste 
under ySa jewin aldre jenej^an, 

1470 driht-scype dreojan; faer he dome forleas, 

ellen-|m£er5um. Ne waes )?8em oSrum swa, Fol. 162^. 
sySj^an he hine to juSe S^Sy^^^ haefde. 

1454. hrond in the sense of 'sword' is found, though rarely, in O.E.: 
hrandr with this meaning is common in O.N. Critics who object to the 
parallelism of brond and beado-mecas have suggested brogdne beado-mecas, 
•brandished battle-knives' [cf. Cosijn^*; so, too, Trautmann, Holthausen, 

1456. ffyU Hroffgdres : Unferth. 

1457. haft-mece. The weapon used by Grettir's adversary in the Grettis 
iaga is called a hepti-sax. See Introduction to Beoxoulf. 

1459. dter-tdnum, 'twigs of venom,' referring to the wavy damasked 
pattern produced on the sword by the use of some corrosive. The term 
* treed,* applied in Mod. Eng. to the pattern similarly produced on calf- 
bound books, might be compared. Some have taken the words literally, and 
supposed the sword to have been actually poisoned. 

The emendation of Cosijn [P.B.B. viii. 571], dter-tarum for dter-tearum, 
•poison drops,' has been supported by Andreas, 1333, earh dttre gemal, ' the 
poison-stained arrow' [Cosijn'^], and by a close O.N. parallel often instanced 
[first by Bugge, Tidsskr. viii. 66], eldi vdro eggjar titan g^rvar, enn eitrdropom 
innan fdpar : ♦ the edges were tempered with fire and the blade between was 
painted vnth drops of venom,' Brot af Sig. 20, 8. But see note to 1. 1489. 

1471. marSum: Thorkelin's transcripts A and B, mserdam; Thorpe, 
marifum; Zupitza: *mseri!fum: urn at the end of the word is still distinct, and 
before urn I think I see a considerable part of rS' : um is still clear, but rff 
is not now visible, to me. 

74 Beowulf 

XXII BEOWVLF ina)>f'lode, boarn Ecjjj^owea : 

" 7t')7oiic nil, se nuura maja Healfdeues, 
1475 snottra fenjcl, nu ic eom siSes fus, 

jold-wine jumena, hwaet wit 506 Kprajoon : 

jif ic aet J^earfe )?inre scolde 

aldre linnan, )7aet 5u mS a waere 

forS jewitenura on faeder stiele. 
1480 Wes )7u mund-bora minum ma5o-|7e5nura, 

hond-jesellum, jif mec hild nime ; 

swylce )7u 5a madmas, jje )?u me sealdest, 

HroSjar l6ofa, Hijelace onsend. 

Maej )?onne on )?iem jolde onjitan 7eata dryhten, 
1485 jeseon sunu Hrsedles, )7onne he on J^x^t hiuc staraS, 

)?aet ic jum-cystum jodne funde 

beaja bryttan, breac )7onne moste. 

Ond )ru (H)unfer5 Iset ealde lafe, 

wrietlic wje^-sweord, wid-cuSne man 
1490 heard-ecj habban; ic me mid Hruntinje 

dom jewyrce, |o)73e mec deaS nimeS." Fol. 163». 

iEfter \^m wordum Weder- 'reata leod 

efste mid elne, nalas ondsware 

bidan wolde ; brim-wylm onfenj 
1495 hilde-rince. Da waas hwil daejes, 

£er he )?one jrund-wonj onjytan mehte. 

Sona )?aet onfunde, se Se floda bejonj 

heoro-jifre beheold hund missera, 

jrim ond jrsedij, )73et j^ser jumena sum 

1474. For this use of te with the vocative, which does not occur else- 
where in Beowulf, cf. hah}) mln se leofa, Rood, 72. 

1481. hond-geselluvi. As this word does not occur elsewhere, Holthausen 
follows Grundtvig (1861, p. 51) in readinj^ hond-gesteallum. 

1485. HrSdles. Many editors normalize to iZre(fie5 : unnecessarily ; see 
notes to 11. 445 and 454. 

1488. Unferf'.US.hunferd. 

1489. wag-sweord. The many emendations suf^gested are not satis- 
factory, nor necessary, for 'sword with wavy pattern' seems to explain the 
word adequately, although an exact parallel is nowhere found. [Reproduc- 
tions of weapons, with wavy (and also twig-like — cf. 1. 1459 — ) patterns will 
be found in Gustafson, Norges Oldtid, pp. 102-3.] 

1495. hwil dmges, ' a main while of the day ' (Earle) : not, as sometimes 
interpreted, ' a day.' [Cf. Earle's note and Miillenhoff^^.] For hwil, 'a long 
time,'cf. 11. 105, 152. 

1497. se, of Grendel's mother : contrast heo in 1. 1504. Cf. note to 
1. 1260. 

Beoioulf 75 

1500 ael-wihta eard ufan cunnode. 

7iap ]?a tojeanes, juS-rinc jefenj 
atolan clommum ; no f»y ier in jescod 
halan lice; lirinj utan ymbbearh, 
):>3et heo )7one fyrd-hom Surhfon ne mihte, 

1505 locene leoSo-syrcan, la)7an fin^ium. 

Baer )?§, seo brim-wyl[/], fa heo to botme com, 
hrinja )7en5el to hofe sinum, 
swa he ne mihte no (he \eah modij wses) 
wsepna jewealdan ; ac hine wundra )7ces fela 

1 5 10 swe[r?]cte on sunde, s^-deor monij 
hilde-tuxum here-syrcan bisec, 
eh ton ajlaecan. Da se eorl on^eat, 
)73et he [in] niS-sele nat-hwylciim waes, 
\ddv him niSnij wseter wihte ne sce]'ede, 

1 515 ne him for hrof-sele hrinan ne mehte 

f^r-jripe flodes; |fyr-leoht jeseah, Fol. 163^ 

blacne leoman beorhte scinan. 
Onjeat ]?a se joda jrund-wyrjenne, 

1502-3. *No whit the sooner did she harm his body, but it remained 

1506. hrim'WyJ[f^, Kerablpj: MS. brim wyl. 

1508. /^eah, Grain: MS. /a3»n. Grein's emendation makes good sense. 
The majority of editors follow Grundtvip (1861, p. 52), reading J?szs, but are 
not agreed whether to take no with he J?8Bs viodig wxs or not : and neither 
rendering, 'he was,' or *he was not, bravo enough to wield his weapons,' 
gives a very satisfactory sense. Schiicking and Sedgefield, read /«r. 

1510. swe[n]cte, Kemble, : MS. swecte : the n, which probably in au older 
MS. was signified simply by a stroke over the e, has been omitted : of. 1. 1176. 

1511. hrxc, probably 'sought to pierce,' hke wehte, * tried to awake,' 
1. 2854. [Cf. Klaeber^'^i.] 

1512. It is not clear whether aglmcan is nom. pi., 'the adversaries 
annoyed him,' or sg. (gen. or ace), 'they annoyed their adversary.' 

1513. [in], Thorpe. 

niffsele, 'hostile hall.' Grein, followed by Heyne and Bugge'^^ reads 
nilf-sele, ' hall in the deep.' 

1518. Ongeat. Here the discrepancy is a more real one than usual. 
The monster has seized Beowulf at the bottom of the sea, and carried him to 
her hall, powerless to use his weapons. Yet 11. 1518-22 give the impression 
that Beowulf enters the hall, able to fight, and there, by the light of the fire, 
sees Grendel's mother for the first time. 

Gummere, following Jellinek and Kraus [Z.f.d.A. xxxv. 273], denies that 
the course of the action is hopelessly confused: 'Beowulf, overwhelmed by 
the first onset of Grendel's mother, is dragged to her lair, and on the way is 
beset by monsters of every kind. Managing to extricate himself from the 
coil, he finds he is in a great arched hall, free of the water, and has only the 
mother of Grendel before him. He takes good heed of her, and prepares his 

But the difficulty of this explanation is that nothing is said in Beoioulf 

76 Beowulf 

mere-wif mibtij; maejen-rses forjeaf 
1520 hilde-bille, homl swenje ne ofieah, 

}>aet hire on hafelan hrinj-m^l ajol 

jnedij juO-lfioS. £)a se jist onfand, 

}?cet se beado-leoma biban nolde, 

aid re sceJ^CaD, ac seo ecj jeswac 
1525 Cgodne aet J>earfe ; Solode «r fela 

hond-jemOta, helm oft jescaT, 

faeces fyrd-hraejl ; 6a waes forma si?J 

d^orum madme, )7aet his dOm alaej. 

Eft waBS an-raed, nalas elnes laet, 
1530 maerSa jemyndij, nisej Hy laces. 

Wearp 6a wunden-msel wriettum jebimden 

yrre Oretta, }>8et hit on eorCan laej, 

8ti5 ond styl-ecj; etrenje jetruwode, 

mund-jripe maejenea Swa sceal man don, 
1535 l^onne he aet juCe jejan )7ence5 

lonjsumne lof, na ymb his lif cearaS. 

Tefenj f^ be [/]eaxe — nalas for faehSe meam — 

7u5-7eata leod trendies modor, 

braejd \k beadwe heard, fa he jeboljen wae^, 

about the hero 'extricating himself from the coil.' The language of 1. 1518 
would rather lead us to suppose that the hero meets his adversary for the 
first time within the cave. Thi? is certainly the case in the Grettis saga, 
and is probably the original form of the story, 

1520. hond, Bouterwek [Z.f.d.A. xi. 92], Grein, : MS. hord. Sweet, 
iwenge hond, without explanation. The dat. swenge seems strange: we 
shoold expect the ace, and many editors accordingly alter to sweng here. 

1522. gut. The ' stranger ' is Beowulf . 

1529. dn-rSd. Here, and in 1. 1575, it does not seem certain whether we 
should read dnrSd, 'resolute,' or (with Holthausen and Schiicking) anrsed 
= onrad, 'brave.' 

1530. Hyldces. On metrical grounds it is to be presumed that the 
original Beowulf had the Northern form of the name, Hygldc [cf. Sievers in 
P.B.B. X. 463]. This has nearly everywhere been altered by the scribes to 
Hygilde. We have here a survival of the older spelling : Hyldc standing for 
Hygldc as Wilaf for Wiglaf (1. 2852). [Cf. Klaeber^*8.] 

1531. wunden-mSl, Kemble,: MS. wundel m&l. Cf. note to 1. 1616. 
1534. don for diian, disyllabic. Cf. gdn ( = gdan or gangan) below, 

L 1644. 

1537. [f]eaxe, Rieger : MS. eaxle. Rieger's emendation betters the 
alUteration, and has been adopted by Sweet, and by recent editors. Those 
who retain the reading gdda in 1. 758 would however be justified in quoting 
that line as a parallel to gefeng pa be eaxle. To me feaxe appears also to 
give better sense: but this may be disputed. Mr Wyatt writes: 'William 
Morris agreed with me that it debased Beowulf's character, turning a wrestle 
into an Old Bailey brawl. Hair-puliiug is a hag's weapon.' 

Beowulf 77 

1540 feorh-jeniSlan, )>8et heo on flet jebeah. 

Heo him eft hra)?e (h)and-lean forjeald 

5rim|man jrapum, ond him tojeanes fenj; Fol. 164*. 

oferwearp )?§, werij-mod wijena strenjest, 

fe)?e-cempa, )7set he on fylle wearS. 
1545 Ofsset )7a )7one sele-jyst, ond hyre seao; jeteah 

brad [ond] brun-ecj, wolde hire beam wrecan, 

anjan eaferan. Him on eaxle laej 

breost-net broden; j^aet jebearh feore, 

wis ord ond wiS ecje injanj forstod. 
1550 Haefde Sa forsiSod sunu Ecjl^eowes 

under Jynne jrund, 7eata cempa, 

nemne him heaSo-byrne helpe jefremede, 

here-net hearde, ond halij 7od 

jeweold wij-sijor, witij Drib ten, 
1555 rodera Rsedend hit on ryht jesced 

ySelice, syj?3an he eft astod. 
XXIII GEseah 5a on searwum sije-eadij bil, 

1541. and-lean, Rieger*^* : MS. hand lean. Rieger's emendation has been 
accepted by recent editors, to allow of the word alliterating with eft. 

The same scribal blunder appears in 1. 2094, where again the alliteration 
demands the vowel : ondlean. Cf. also II. 2929, 2972, 

1543. oferwearp: if we retain the MS. reading, with the nominatives 
Btrengest and fepe-cempa referring to Beowulf, we must translate oferwearp, 
• stumbled.' But no other instance is to be found of this intransitive use of 
oferwecyrpan. Hence the emendation of Ettmiillerj, fefje-cempan'. and of 
Cosijn'", wigena strengel : ' she overthrew the prince of warriors, the champion' 
(cf. 1. 3115). The added n is the slightest of alterations (see note to rmswan, 
1. 60), but even this is not essential, since fepe-cenvpa might refer to 
Grendel's mother. 

[For a defence of o/«ru?«arp = * stumbled,' see Schiicking in Engl. Stud. 
xxxix. 98.] 

1545, seax, EttmuUerg, followed by all recent editors except Schiicking: 
MS. seaxe. The emendation is not absolutely necessitated by the accusatives 
brad, brun-ecg, which follow, for such a false concurd as an apposition in 
the ace. following a noun in the dat. can be paralleled. Cf. 1. 2703 [and 
Klaeber '*'*]. It is more conclusive that geteon seems elsewhere always to take 
an aco. 

1546. brad [ond] brun-ecg, Heyne, on metrical and syntactical grounds : 
cf. Maldon, 163. Schiicking shows that, whereas the conj. may be omitted 
when the two adjs. are synonymous, or nearly so (e.g. 1. 1874), it cannot be 
omitted when the adjs., as here, signify distinct and independent qualities. 

1550. i/a/d«, optative: 'would have.' 

1551. under gynne grund, 'under the earth.' 

1556. Whether ySellce should be taken with gesced or with dstoil has 
been much disputed, and does not seem to admit of final decision. The 
comparison of 1. 478, God eaj^e mag, favours the punctuation of the text. 

[Cf. Klaeber in Eng. Stud, xxxix. 431.] 

1567. on searwum, * among other arms' rather than 'during the struggle. 

78 Beowulf 

eald sweord eotenisc, ecjura l^ybtlj, 

wi^cna weorb-mynd ; )?oet [wxs] wSpna cyst, 
1560 baton hit wa3s mare Sonne senij mon oSer 

to beadu-lace aetberan mcahte, 

jod ond jcatolic, jijanta ^eweorc. 

He ^efenj J^a fetel-hilt, freca Scyldinja 

hreoh ond heoro-jrira hrinj-mail jebraejd, 
1565 aldres orwena yrrin^a |sl5h, Fol. IGi**. 

]7a?t hire wi5 balse heard jrapode, 

ban-hrinjas brasc ; bil eal Surhwod 

f^jne flaesc-homan ; heo on flet jecronj. 

Sweord waes swatij; secj weorce jefeh. 
1570 Lixte se leoma, leoht inne stod, 

efne swa of hefene hadre scineS 

rod ores candel. He sefter recede wlat, 

hvvearf }>a be wealle ; wyepen hafenade 

heard be hiltum Hijelaces Sejn 
1575 yrre ond an-raed — naes seo ecj fracod 

hilde-rince, ac he hraj7e wolde 

7rendle forjyldan juS-rsesa fela, 

Sara J^e he jeworhte to West-Denum 

oftor micle Sonne on £enne si5, 
1580 )7onne he HroSjares heorS-jeneatas 

sloh on sweofote, slaepende fraet 

folces Denijea fyf-tyne men, 

ond o5er swylc ut offerede, 

lablicu lac; he him J?aes lean forjeald, 
1585 re)7e cempa — to 5aes \e he on raeste jeseah 

jiiS-werijne 7rendel licjan, 

1559. [teas] supplied by Grundtvig^ao and Kemblei. 

1570. The light, mentioned in 11. 1516-17 (as also in the Grettis saga), 
flashes up when Beowulf slays the monster. But leoma has been taken as 
•the flashing sword' [cf. Meissner, Z.f.d.A. xlvii. 407], and, since the * sword 
of light' is common in story, this seems not unlikely. 

1575. dn-rad. Holthausen, Schiicking and Sievers [Z.f.d.Ph. xxi 362] 
read an-r&d, 'with forward thought,' 'pushing,' 'brave.' Cf. note to 1. 1529. 

1585. We may take to pas pe as 'until,' referring back to II. 1572, etc. ; 
or we may take it with forgeald, though in the latter case the exact force of 
to pas pe is difl&cult to define: 'he had paid him recompense for that;... 
insomuch that he now beheld him...' [Earle]; 'he paid him back... to that 
degree that...' [Clark-Hall]; 'paid him back. ..where he saw him Ijring' 
[Schiicking : of. Satzverkniip/ung, 58]. 

Beowulf 79 

aldor-leasne, swa him ser jescOd 

hild set Heorote. Hra wide spronj, 

sy)75aii he aefter deaSe drepe j^rowade, 
1590 heoro-swenj heardne ; ond hine )>a heafde becearf. 

Sona )7aet jesawon snottre |ceorlas, Fol. 165». 

l;a Se mid HroSjare on holm wliton, 

)?aet waes yS-^eblond eal jemenjed, 

brim blode fah. Blonden-feaxe 
1595 joraele ymb jodne on jeador spraecon, 

J^a.^ hij )73es oeSelinjes eft ne wendon, 

)73et he sije-hreSij secean come 

mseme j^eoden, )?a Saes monije jewearS, 

]7aet hine seo brim-wylf abroten haefde. 
1600 Da com non daejes; naes ofjeafon 

hwate Scyldinjas; jewat him ham J^onon 

jold-wine jumena. ^istas se^an 

modes seoce, ond on mere staredon ; 

wiston ond ne wendon, ]7aet hie heora wine-drihten 
1605 selfne jesawon. pa )?aet sweord onjan 

1589. he refers to Grendel. 

1590. The subject of 6ec«ar/ is Beowulf : /ane refers to Grendel. Though 
Grendel, according to 11. 801-3, 987-90, cannot be wounded by the sword of 
Beowulf or his companions, there is no inconsistency here, since this is a 
magic sword. [Cf. Jellinek and Kraus in Z.f.d.A. xxxv. 278, etc.] The 
decapitation of a corpse is frequent in the Icelandic sagas: it prevents the 
ghost from 'walking' and doing mischief; and such a motive may, as Qering 
supposes, be present here also. 

1591. etc. An attempt has been made to make the story run better by 
postulating a misplaced leaf, and suggesting that 11. 1591-1605 originally 
followed 1. 1622. [See F. A. Blackburn in Mod. Phil. ix. 555-566.] But the 
story really runs quite well, and the order is the same as in the Grettit saga. 

1599. abroten, Kemble,: MS. abreoten. 

1602. setan, Grein,, following Grundtvig^^ «a«on: MS. eecan. A very 
slight and quite certain correction. 

1604. Cosijn [P.B.B. viii. 671] praises the ' common sense ' of the 
English editors for having taken wiston a.a = wyscton, 'wished.' So Kemble, 
wiscton ; Sweet wyscton. Recent editors make no alteration in the text, but 
regard iciston &B = wyscton. Cf. Sieverss §405, N. 8. [Some parallel cases 
for the disappearance of the c are quoted in Engl. Stud, xxvii. 218: cf. also 
A.f.d.A. xxiv. 21.] That wiston is to be interpreted 'wished' is confirmed 
by the fact, pointed out by Klaeber**^, that wyscaS ond wenaS is a formula 
found in Guthlac, 47. 

To interpret wiston as 'knew' would necessitate a blending of two 
constructions: wiston would require ne gesdwon: ne wendon requires gesdwon 
only. Of course we might assume that the two constructions had been 
confused — confused syntax is common in Beowulf: or we might assume that 
ne had dropped out after the ne of selfne — 'they knew, and did not merely 
expect, that they should not see their lord himself again.' But this gives, 
after all, only a feeble sense. For why, in that case, did they wait ? 

80 Beowulf 

aefter heaj^o-swate hilde-jicelum, 
wij-bil wanian; J^aet wses wundra sum, 
]fxt hit eal jemealt ise jelicost, 
SoDne forstes bend Faeder onlieteS, 

1610 on winded wSl-rapas, sS jeweald hafa5 
silbla ond miela; j^aet is so5 Metod. 
Ne n5m h§ in )?sem wicum, Weder-'^eata leod, 
maSm-iehta ma, J^eh he J^aer monije jeseah, 
buton )?one hafelan ond )7a hilt somod 

161 5 since fa^e ; sweord ser jemealt, 

forbarn broden msel ; waes faet blod |to )?aes hat, 

Fol. 165b. 

settren ellor-^sest, se \^v inne swealt. 

Sona waes on sunde, se }?o ser set saecce jebad 

wij-hryre wraSra, waeter up )?urhdeaf; 

1620 waeron yS-jebland eal jefyelsod, 
eacne eardas, )?a se ellor-jast 
oflet lif-dajas ond )7as Isenan jesceaft. 
Com ]?a to lande lid-manna helm 
swiS-mod swymman, s^e-lace ^efeah, 

1625 maejen-byrj^enne fara \e he him mid haefda 
Eodon him fa tojeanes, 7ode )7ancodon, 
SrySlic j^ejna heap, )7eodnes jefejon, 
)?aes J7e hi hyne jesundne jeseon moston. 
£)a waes of fsem hroran helm ond byrne 

1610. ual-rdpas. Grundtvig^ai, not understanding toSl, conjectured 
wag-idpaa, which would have the same meaning: •wave-ropes, ice, icicles.' 
This was followed by many of the older editors, and was even adopted by 
Sweet {Reader). It is unnecessary, for wal^ *& deep pool,' occurs not 
infrequently, the best-known instance being in the Cottonian Gnomic Verses, 
39: leax sceal on wUle mid sceote tcriSan, 'the salmon must go darting in 
the pool.* The word is also found in other Germanic dialects, in Scotch 
('whyles in a wiel it dimpl't,' Bums, Halloween)^ and in the North of 

161C. broden for brogden. The application of this term to a coat of 
mail (IL 552, 1548) shows that the meaning must be 'woven,' 'intertwined': 
and the analogy of wunden-mal (1. 1531) or hring-mal (11. 1521, 1564, 2037) 
shows that this is applicable to a sword. It must refer to the damasked, 
intertwined patterns on the blade, or possibly to the adornment of the hilt. 
[Cf. Sievers, in Anglia, i. 680.] 

1616-17. to pas goes with both hat and attren: 'so hot was that blood, 
and so venomous the strange goblin' (Earle). 

1622. /)ds ISnan gesceaft, 'this transitory world.* 

1624-5. To avoid a harsh construction, Bugge"* would alter /^dra to 
J?arei Holthausen sS-ldce to sa-ldca. 

Beowulf 81 

1630 lunjre alysed. Laju drusade, 

wseter under wolcnum, wael-dreore faj. 

Ferdon forS J^onon fej^e-lastum 

ferb)7um fae^ne, fold-weg m^ton, 

cu)7e straete, cynin^-balde men ; 
1635 froDfi \^m. holm-clife hafelan biSron 

earfoGlice heora sejhwaej^rum 

fela-modi§ra ; feower scoldon 

on )7aem wsel-sten^e weorcum jeferian 

to )7£em jold-sele Trendies heafod, 
1640 0)7 Saet Isemninja to sele comon Fol. 166». 

frome, fyrd-hwate, feower-tyne 

^eata ^onjan; jum-dryhten mid, 

modij on jemonje, meodo-wonjas traed. 

Da com in jan ealdor Sejna, 
1645 dsed-cene mon dome jewurj^ad, 

hsele, hilde-deor, HroSjar jretan. 

pa wses be feaxe on flet boren 

Trendies heafod, )?2er ^uman druncon, 

ejeslic for eorlum ond |?^re idese mid, 
1650 wlite-seon wr^tlic; weras on sawon. 
XXIV BEOwulf ma|7elode, beam EcjJ^eowes: 

"Hwaet! we J?e )7as sae-lac, sunu Healfdenes, 

leod Scyldinga, lustum brohton 

tires to tacne, }>e J?u her to locast. 
1655 Ic \ddt unsofte ealdre gedi^de, 

wi^je under wa^tere weorc genej^de 

earfoSlice; setrihte waes 

guS jetwsefed, nymSe mec 7od scylde. 

1634. For cyning-balde Greinj , followed by Holthausenpa and Sedgefield 
[so Cosijn^s], reads cyne-balde; the meaning is the same, •royally bold': but 
the form is more easy to parallel: cf. cire- [obviously miswritten for cine-] 
bald, Andreas, 171. 

1637. All recent editors seem agreed on the punctuation: yet fela- 
modigra might well go with feower. 

1640. semninga: cf. 1. 644. 

1649. J?SBre idese, Wealhtheow. 

1650. Some editors read onsdwon, and make it govern wlite-seon. 

1656. Cosijn'^ [partly following Thorpe] suggests wig under wmtere 
weorce genebde, 'with difl&culty did I endure the warfare under the water.' 
Klaeber {Engl. Stud, xxxix. 463] tentatively supports wig, retaining weorc. 

1657-8. Grundtvig [1861, p. 152], followed by Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 52] 
and Sedgefield, takes wxs as Ist pers. and reads gUd'e, *I was almost 

82 Beowulf 

Ne meahte ic aet hilJe mid Hnmtinje 
1660 wiht jowyrcau, [;eali )?aet wabpcn duje ; 

ac nie jeuSe ylda Waldeud, 

faet ic on waje jeseah wlitij llianjiaa Fol. 166^. 

eald sweord eaccn — oftosfc wisode 

winijea leasum — , )?aet ic Sy w;upne jebnT-d. 
1665 or^loh Ca aet pyere saecce, |>a me sluI ajeald, 

buses hyrdas. pa J?aet hilde-bil 

forbarn, brojden miSl, swa )?aet blod jespranj, 

hatost hea)7o-swata. Ic J^aet hilt j^anan 

feondum aetferede, fyren-diSda wraec, 
1670 deaS-cwealm Denijea, swa hit jedefe wa3S. 

Ic hit )?e J^onne jehate, J^aet )?Q on Heorote most 

sorh-leas swefan mid )7mra secja jedryht, 

end J^ejna jehwylc J^Inra leoda, 

dujuSe ond iojoj^e; )?cet )?u him ondr«dan ne )?earft, 
1675 )?eoden Scyldinja, on )7a healfe 

aldor-bealu eorlum, swa }?u aer dydest." 

Da waes jylden hilt jamelum rince, 

harum hild-fruman, on hand ^yfen, 

enta aer-jeweorc; hit on aeht jehwearf, 
1680 aefter deofla hryre, Deni^ea frean, 

wundor-smi)?a jeweorc; ond )?a )?as worold ofjeaf 

jrom-heort juma, 7odes ondsaca, 

deprived of my fighting power.' But the change is unnecessary: the words 
mean 'almost was my power of fighting ended.' [See Cosijn'*', who 
compares Genesis, 63.] 

1663. The subject of wisode is, of course, he understood, referring to 
Waldend, 1661. Holthausen and Sedgefield, following Sievers, read oft 

1666. hyrdas. PI, for sg.: cf. note to 1. 565. Those who hold that in 
the earliest version of the story both Grendel and his mother were slain in 
the cave under the water may possibly derive some small support from this 
pi. form here. 

1675. on pa healfe, 'from that quarter' (from Grendel and his mother). 

1677. gylden hilt. It has been suggested tentatively [Kluge in Engl. 
Stud. xxii. 145] that this is a proper uoun — the name of the sword: the 
same name is borne by Rolf's sword Gxillinhjalti in the Saga of Rolf Kraki. 
But there is no question here of a complete sword, but only of the hilt : 
cf. 11. 1614, 1668. [See also Sarrazin in Engl. Stud. xxxv. 19: Lawrence in 
Pub. Mod. Lang. Assoc. Amer. xxiv. 2, 242-4.] 

1681. ^ Miillenhofii3o ^nd Bugge reject ond as superfluous [so Schroer, 
Anglia, xiii. 336; Holthausen and Sedgefield]. It is certainly very unusual 
at the beginning of a sentence which is only a parallel expansion of what 
precedes [cf. Schiicking in Satzverk. p. 83]. 

Beowulf 83 

morSres acyldij, ond his modor eac, 

on je weald jehwearf worold-cyninja 
1685 Saem selestan be |s8em tweonum, Fol. 167». 

Sara )?e on Sceden-igje sceattas dgelde. 

HroSjar maSelode, hylt sceawode, 

ealde lafe, on Saem waes or writen 

fyrn-jewinnes, sySj^an flod ofsloh, 
1690 jifen jeotende, jijanta cyn ; 

frecne jeferdon ; )?aet wses fremde )7eod 

ecean Dryhtne; him )7aes ende-lean 

)>urh wseteres wylm Waldend sealde. 

Swa waes on Sgem scennum sciran joldes 
1695 )?urh run-stafas rihte jemearcod, 

jeseted ond jessed, hwam J73et sweord jeworht, 

irena cyst, serest wsere, 

wreo)?en-hilt ond wyrm-fah. Da se wisa spraec 

1686. Sceden-igge : MS. scedenigge in one word. It refers to Schonen 
(Skane), now the southernmost province of Sweden, but at this date, and 
indeed much later, an integral part of Denmark: Sconia est pulcherrima visu 
Dani(u provincia — Adam of Bremen. It seems to be used here as a name 
for the whole Danish realm. 

1688, etc. Miillenhoff 130 ^^s doubtless right in seeing in these lines a 
reference to the flood, in which the race of giants and descendants of Cain 
was destroyed. Cf. Wisdom, xiv. 6, 'For in the old time also, when the 
proud giants perished, the hope of the world, governed by thy hand, escaped 
in a weak vessel.' Cf. 11. 113, etc., 1562. It is rather fanciful to suppose 
(as is often done) that there is any reference to that struggle between Gods 
and Giants which we find in Teutonic mythology. 

How Grendel's kin lived through the deluge we need not enquire : surely 
they were sufficiently aquatic in their habits. Likewise it is too rationalistic 
to see any discrepancy (as does MiilleuhofE^^") between U. 1688-9 and 
11. 1696-8. The sword bears the names of ancient giants, Grendel's fore- 
runners, of the time of the flood. Swords bearing inscriptions on hilt or 
blade, either in runic or Roman characters, are not uncommon. A good 
example is depicted in Clark-Hall (p. 231). Such writing of spells on 
swords is mentioned in Salomon and Saturn, 161, etc. and in the Elder Edda. 
Names may also betoken sometimes the owner, sometimes apparently the 
smith. The name of one smith, XJlfbern^ is thus known from his swords. 
[For a representation of two of these, see Gustafson, Nurges Oldtid, p. 102; 
cf. too Gering in Z.f.d.Ph. xxxviii. 138.] 

1691. frecne geferdon might mean ' they bore themselves overweeningly,' 
or 'they suffered direly.' 

1694. No final explanation of scennum is forthcoming. We do not even 
know whether we should read on Sam, scennum, • on it (the sword) by means 
of wire- work, filigree work,' or on S aim scennum, *on the sword guard,' or 
•on the metal plates' (with which the hilt was often covered). [This last 
suggestion is that of Cosijn, Taalkundige Bijdragen, 1, 286, 1877. He com- 
pares Dutch scheen, • an iron band.'] 

1697. irena. See note to 1. 673. 

1698. wyrm-fdh. Intertwined serpent figures were a favourite form of 
Germanic ornament. 

84 Beowulf 

sunu Healfdenes : — swijodon ealle — 
1700 "piet, la! mjfcj secjan, se )?e sn3 ond riht 

frenicS on folce, feor eal jeiiion, 

eald eSel-weard, )7i?et 5es eorl wiSre 

jeboren betera. lihud is araJred 

jeond wid-wejas, wine min Beowulf, 
1705 Cin ofer j^eoda jehw^'lce. Eal )?u hit jej^yldum 

ma35en mid modes snybtrum. Ic J^e sceal mine 

freode, s'va wit furSum spr^con ; (5u scealt to frofre 

eal lanj-twidij leodum finum, 

|haele5ura to helpe. Ne weartS HeremOd swa Fol. IC?*'. 
1710 eafoium Ec^welan, Ar-Scyldinjum ; 

ne jeweox he him to willan, ac to wael-fealle 

ond to deaS-cwalum Denija leodum; 

breat boljen-mod beod-^eneatas, 

eaxl-jesteallan, oj? f^aet he ana hwearf, 
1 7 15 maere j^eoden, mon-dreamum from. 

Deah )7e hine mihti^ 7od maegenes wynnum, 

eafe)7um stepte ofer ealle men, 

1700. This 'sermon' of Hrothgar (11. 1700-1768), in which the Christian 
influence is exceptionally clear (cf. 11, 1745-7 with Ephesians vi. 16), was 
naturally attributed by Miillenhoff ^^ to his Interpolator B, whom he regarded 
as a person at once theologically minded, and yet learned in tradition. [For 
an eloquent defence of the passage, see Earle, pp. 166-7.] 

1702. Bugge [Tidsskr, viii. 53] suggests /at d"e eorl nSre. But the 
change is unnecessary. In OE. the comparative sometimes appears in a 
context where, according to our ideas, no real comparison takes place. Cf. 
U. 134, 2555 [and see Klaeber25i]. 

1707. freodfe, 'protection,' is supposed to be the reading of the MS. here. 
All recent editors Te&d freode, 'friendship' [Grundtvig^^^], which betters the 
sense. But I think there is no doubt that Thorkelin, Thorpe, and Wiilker 
were right in reading the MS. itself as freode. That the contrary view has 
latterly prevailed is due to Zupitza, who says; 'I think the MS. has freoife, 
not freode', although the left half of the stroke in if has entirely faded, yet 
the place where it was is discernible, and the right half of it is left.' But 
the alleged trace of the left half is due only to a crease in the parchment, 
and of the right half to a mere dot, apparently accidental. 

1710. Ecgwela is unknown. He is presumably an ancient king of the 
Danes (Ar-Scyldingas), who are thus named the children, or perhaps 
retainers (cf. 1. 1068), of their national hero. Miillenhoff " wished to alter 
to eafora, and thus to make Heremod the son of Ecgwela: a change which, 
after all, leaves us little wiser about either. Cf. 1. 901, etc, 

1714-15. May refer, as Bugge ^ thought, to Heremod's lonely death. 

Beowulf 85 

forS jefremede, hwie)7ere him on ferhj>e jreow 

breost-hord blod-reow ; nallas bea^as jeaf 
1720 Denum sefter dome; dream-leas jebad, 

)>8et he )7aes jewinnes weorc j^rowade, 

leod-bealo lonjsum. Du )7e Iser be )7on, 

jum-cyste onjit; ic )?is jid be )?e 

awraec wintrum frod. Wundor is to secjanne 
1725 hti mihtij 7od manna cynne 

)7urh sidne sefan snyttru bryttaS, 

eard end eorl-scipe; • he ah ealra jeweald. 

Hwilum he on lufan IseteS hworfan 

monnes mod-jej^onc mseran cynnes, 
1730 seleS him on ej?le eorj^an wynne, 

to healdanne hleo-burh wera, 

IgedeS him swa jewealdene worolde daelas, Fol. 168». 

side rice, ]?8et he his selfa ne rasej 

his iinsQyttrum ende jej^encean. 
1735 WunaS he on wiste; no hine wiht dweleS 

adl ne yldo, ne him inwit-sorh 

on sefa[n] sweorceS, ne jesacu ohwser, 

ecg-hete, eoweS, ac him eal worold 

1722. Buggers [following MiillenhofiE in A.f.d.A. iii. 182] interpreted 
leod-bealo longmm as the 'eternal pain' which Heremod had to suffer for 
his evil deeds. But a comparison of 1. 1946, where the word is used to 
signify the 'national evils' of a wicked queen, favours Clark-Hall's trans- 
lation: *he suffered misery for his violence, the long-continued trouble of 
his folk.' 

1724. secganne. See note to 1. 473. 

1726. ^rh sidne sefan, * God in his wisdom.' 

1728. on lufan, apparently 'allows to wander in delight,' but there are 
difficulties both as to this interpretation and also as to the alliteration. 
Holthausen, conjectures on hyhte, Holthausenj, on luston with much the 
same meaning; Sedgefieldj adopts the conjecture on heahlufan (cf. 1. 1964), 
Sedgefieldj, on hlisan, 'in glory.' Grundtvig [1861, p. 59] had suggested on 

1733. Klaeber [Archive oxv. 180] takes his as referring to rice: 'the 
proud ruler can conceive no end to his rule.' The same result is achieved by 
Trautmann's conjecture selj^a, 'prosperity,' for the rather otiose selfa. 

1734. Thorkelin reads for his unsnyttrum, but for is not in his transcripts. 
Kemble omits, Thorpe retains, /or. There would perhaps have been room 
for the word in the MS., but in view of the conflicting evidence it seems 
impossible to decide whether it ever stood there or no. Cf. Elene^ 947. 

1737. MS. defective at edge: «c/a[n], Grundtvig2», Kemble,. 

GreiUj , ne gesaca ohwar ecg-hete eowed, ' nor doth the Eidversary anywhere 
manifest deadly hate.' So Sedgeiield, and, with slight variation, Holt- 

B6 Beoiimlf 

wcnde?5 on willan. He J>[et wyrse ne con, 

XXV 1740 o5 I^Kt him on inuan ofer-hyjda rl?el 
weaxcS end wridaS, )>onne se weard sweicS, 
sawele hyrde — bi3 se sleep tO feest — 
bis;v;iim jebunden, bona swiSe neah, 
s6 )?e of flan-bo^an fyrenum sceoteS. 

1745 ponne biS on hre(?re under helm drepen 
biteran strsGle — him bebeorjan ne con — 
worn wundor-bebodum werjan pastes; 
)7ince5 him tO lytel, }?a?t he lanje heold; 
jytsaS jrom-hydij, nallas on ^ylp seleS 

1750 i^ttQ beojas, ond he ]?a for?5-5esceaft 

Forsytes ond forjymeS, )7U3s \q him aer 7od sealde, 
wuldres |Waldend, weorS-mynda diel. Foi. l68^ 

Hit on ende-staef efb jelimpeS, 
)?aet se lic-homa hene jedreoseS, 

1755 fteje jefealleS; fehS 6)?er to, 

se \q unmurnlice madmas diele)?, 
eorles ser-jestreon, ejesan ne jymeS. 
Bebeorh \q 5one bealo-niS, Beowulf leofa, 
sec5[a] betsta, ond ]?e )?oet selre jeceos, 

1760 ece raedas; oferhyda ne jym, 

msere cempa. Nu is j^ines mae"^nes blged 

1739. The MS. has a stop after con, the usual Bpace with the number 
jcxv, and then a large capital 0. But it seems impossible to begin a fresh 
sentence with oS }}SRt, 'until,' as Earle does. Grundtvig [1861, p. 60] and 
Greioj make the break in the middle of 1. 1739, Heyne after 1. 1744. 

1740. ofer-hygda dal, 'a deal of presumption, excessive pride.' Cf. 
1. 1150, note; and 1. 1752 below. 

1741. weard is apparently 'the conscience' [cf. Schiicking, Satzverk. 
121], hardly, as Sarrazin^^^ suggests, 'the guardian angel.' 

1746. him hebeorgan ne con is apparently a parenthesis and worn 
wundor-bebodum parallel to biteran strxle. [Cf. Klaeber in Archiv, cviiL 369, 
and Holthausen in Anglia, Beiblatt, xiii. 364.] 

1747. wdm = wdum. 

1748. Zupitza: *fo imperfectly erased between he and lange.' 
1750. fStte,ThoTip6: US.fadde. 

1756. So in the O.N. Bjarkamdl, as preserved by Saxo, the nir::gardly 
spirit of RoricuB (HrMric) is contrasted with the generosity of Roluo 
{Hrdifulf) who succeeded to his throne, and distributed to his followers all 
the hoarded treasures of Eoricus. 

unmurnlice. It is exceptional for un not to take the alliteration (in 
Beowulf only here and in 1. 2000). [Cf. Schroder in Z.f.d.A. xliii. 377.] 

1757. egesan ne gymeS echoes the idea of recklessness implied in 
unmumUce. There is no necessity for emendation. 

1759. MC<7[a], Sievers [P.B.B. x. 312] : MS. secg, cf. 1. 947. 

Beowulf 87 

ane hwile; eft sona biS, 

faet )?ec adl oSSe ecj eafo)7es jetwsefetJ, 

o5Se fyres fenj, oSSe flodes wylm, 

1765 o5(5e jripe meces, oSSe jares fliht, 
oSSe atol yldo; oSSe eajena bearhtm 
forsiteS ond forsworceS; semninja biS, 
)7aet Sec, dryht-juma, deaS oferswySeS. 
Swa ic Hrinj-Dena hund raissera 

1770 weold under wolcnum, ond hij wijje beleac 
manijum maeg]?a jeond j^ysne middan-jeard 
sescum ond ecjum, j^aet ic me senijne 
under swejles bejonj jesacan ne tealde. 
Hwaet! me )?aes on ej^le edwend^n cwom, 

1775 jyrn aefter jomene, seoj^San 7rendel wearS, 
eald jewinna, injenja min; 

|ic )78ere socne sinjales waej Fol. 169\ 

mOd-ceare micle. pass sij Metode )7anc, 
ecean Dryhtne, )7aes Se ic on aldre jebad, 

1780 )7aet ic on fone hafelan heoro-dreorijne 
ofer eald gewin eajum starije. 
7a nu to setle, symbel-wynne dreoh, 
wijje weor)?ad; unc sceal worn fela 
ma)?ma jemsenra, siJ^San morjen bi9." 

1785 7eat wses jlaed-mOd, jeonj sona tO, 

1766-7. Earle and Clark-Hall translate 'glance of eyes will mar and 
darken all ' : an allusion to the evil eye. But the verbs seem to be intransi- 
tive: translate then 'the light of thine eyes shall fail.' 

1767. semninga. Cf. L 644. 

1770. wigge beleac. It is not clear whether this means that Hrothgar 
protected his people 'from war' [Klaeber in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 464] or 'in 
war,' 'by his warlike valour.' 

The spelling t^ = l is particularly frequent in this part of the poem: 
hig = hi (1596); toigge^wige (1656, 1783); Scedenigge = Scedenige (1686); 
sig = si (1778); wigtig = witig (1841). See note to 1. 1085. 

1774. edwenden, Grein: MS. ed wendan. Cf. 11. 280, 2188. 

1776. Most editors read eald-gewinna. I have avoided such compounds 
except where clearly indicated by the absence of inflection in the adj. Cf. 
11. 373, 945, 1781 (where no editor makes a compound of eald getoin) with 
11. 853, 1381, 2778. 

1781. ofer, ' after ' (cf. 1. 2394, note), or possibly ' in spite of ' (cf. 1. 2409). 
It seems unnecessary, with Holthausen, to alter to eald-gewinnany on the 
analogy of 1. 1776. 

1783. Wiilker, wig-geu>eorJ>ad ; Holthausen and Sedgefield, partly fol- 
lowing Cosijn [P.B.B. viii. 571], who compares Elene, 150, wige [jge]weorJ)ad. 
I have followed the MS., for which cf. Elene, 1195. 

88 Beowulf 

Betles ngosan, swa se snottra heht. 

pa waes eft swa ier ellen-rofum 

flet-sittendum faejere jereorded 

niowan stefne. Niht-helm jeswearc 
1790 deorc ofer dryht-jumum. DujuS eal aras; 

wolde blonden-feax beddes neosan, 

jamela Scyldinj. 76at unijmetes wel, 

rOfne rand-wijan, restan lyste ; 

s5na him sele-J^ejQ siSes werjum, 
1795 feorran-cundum, forS wisade, 

se for andrysnum ealle beweotec^e 

l^ejnes J^earfe, swylce )?y do^ore 

hea)70-li5ende habban scoldon. 

Reste hine )?§, rum-heort; reced hliuade 
1800 jeap ond jold-fah ; jsest inne swa3f, 

o\ \ddt hrefn blaca heofones wynne 

bliS-heort bodode ; |Sa c5m beorht scacan Fol. 169^ 

[sclma mfter sceadwe]. ScaJ^an onetton, 

wseron aefelinjas eft to leodum 
1805 fuse to farenne; wolde feor j^anon 

cuma coUen-ferhS ceoles neosan, 

Heht )?a se hearda Hruntinj beran 

sunu Ecjlafes, heht his sweord niman, 

1792. unigmetes. Most edd. have followed Grundtvig®> in normalizing 
ig to ge. But for the spelling see SieverSj § 212, N. 1. It shows the 
beginning of the development of ge to i, which is commonest after un : cf. 
unilic = ungelic. Holthausen, on the other hand, wishes to write unigmete 
in U. 2420, 2721, 2728. 

1796. beweotede, Grundtvig^os, Kerablej : MS. beweotene. 

1798. hea]x)-liSende. See note to U 1862. 

1799. For hliuade = hlifade, see SieverSj § 194. 

1803. There is no gap in the MS., but metre and sense both demand 
some supplement: scima mfter $ceadwe was suggested by Sievers [Anglia, xiv. 
137]. It is satisfactory, and has been generally adopted. 

Sedgefield proposes : acima scyndaUf * the gleam hastening.' 

' ' ffd com beorht [leoma] 

icacan [ofer $cadu]. 

^ * ffa cSm beorht [tunne] 

teaean [ofer grundas"]. 
The objection to both these last emendations is that they suppose two 
lacunae instead of one. 

1805. farenne : MS. farene ne, 

1808, etc. Grundtvig [1861, p. 62] suggested the change of aunu to 
iuna, and the addition of hine after heht : MiillenhofiE^^ the substitution of 
lSne$ for leanet. With these alterations the meaning would be : u hearda 

Beowulf 89 

ISoflic iren; saejde him )7ses leanes )7anc, 
1810 cwaeS, he )7one juS-wine jodne tealde, 

wij-craeftijne ; nales wordum I55 

meces ecje. paet wses modij secj. 

Ond fa siS-frome, searwum jearwe, 

wijend wseron, eode weor?S Denum 
181 5 ae)7eliD5 to yppan, )?ser se 6)?er waes, 

hoele hilde-deor HroSjar jrette. 
XXVI Bgowulf ma]7elode, beam Ec5)7euwes: 

"Nil w5 ese-liSend secjan wyllaS 

feorran cumene, \ddi we fundia)? 
1820 Hijelac s6can; w^ron her tela 

willum bewenede; )?u us wel dohtest. 

7if ic )?onne on eorj^an owihte maej 

)7inre mod-lufan maran tilian, 

jumena dryhten, Sonne ic jyt dyde, 
1825 jutS-jeweorca ic beo jearo sona. 

7 if ic )>8et jelfricje ofer floda bejanj, Fol. 170». 

)7aet J^ec ymb-sittend ejesan )?ywaS, 

swa )7ec hetende hwihim dydon, 

ic Se )7usenda Jjejna brinje 
1830 haele)7a t5 helpe. Ic on Hijelace wai, 

Teata dryhten, feah Se he Jeonj s^, 

(Beowulf) orders Hrunting to be borne to Unferth, bids him take his sword, 
thanks him for the loan, and courteously speaks well of it. 

But the text can be interpreted as it stands. We may render : ' Then 
the brave one (Beowulf) bade the son of Ecglaf bear Hrunting, bade him 
take his sword.* Or we may suppose that Beowulf has already returned the 
sword lent by Unferth. Then se hear da (Unferth) presents the sword to 
Beowulf, who courteously thanks him for the gift. The adj. hearda can 
well be applied to Unferth, whose spirit no one doubts (11. 1166-7), though 
admittedly he is inferior to Beowulf, to whom the term hearda is even 
more appropriate (11. 401, 1963). The change of subject (Unferth subject of 
heht, Beowulf of stegde) though harsh, can also be paralleled. That a parting 
gift should be given to Beowulf by so important an ofificial as Unferth seems 
quite natural. The relations of Beowulf and Unferth would, with this inter- 
pretation, be curiously like those of Odysseus and Euryaius {Odyssey, viii. 
408, etc.). [See Klaeber4«>. Other interpretations have been suggested by 
Jellinek and Kraus, Z.f.d.A. xxxv. 280.] 

1816. hmUy Kemble , : MS. helle. 

1828. Most editors follow Grein in normalizing to hettende. 

dydon. Metre demands dsBdon [Sievers] or dedon [Holthausen]. 

1830. wdt, Kembl^ : MS. wac. 

1831. dryhten. We might expect dryhtne, in apposition with HigeUtce. 
Is this inexact spelling or inexact syntax? 

sy. See note to 1. 435. 

90 Beowulf 

folces hyrdc, })a3t h6 mec fremman wile 
wordum ond weorcum, )7aet ic J^e wel herije, 
ond |?e to jeoce jar-holt here, 

1835 maejones fultum, Ya'.y 6e biS manna }?earf. 
7if him )7onne Hrefric t(5 hofum 7eata 
jej^injecT, )?eodnes beam, he maej |>ier fela 
freonda findan ; feor-cy)^J5e beo5 
s§lran jesohte, \ddvn J^e him selfa deah." 

1840 Hro5jar maf^elode him on ondsware : 
"pe J?a word-cwydas wijtij Drihten 
on sefan sende ; ne hyrde ic snotorlicor 
on swa jeonjum feore juman }7in5iaii ; 
\\\ eart mjBjenes Strang ond on mode frOd, 

1845 wis word-cwida. Wen ic talige, 

jif f^aet jejanjeS, )7aet ?5e jar nymeS, 
hild heoru-jrimme, Hre)7les eaferan, 
adl o)75e iren ealdor Sinne, 
folces hyrde, ond ]>u. ]fm feorh hafast, 

1850 )7aet }>e |S^-7eatas selran naebben Fol. 170*. 

to jeceosenne cyninj genijne, 
hord-weard haelej^a, jyf )7u healdan wylt 
maja rice. Me j^in mod-sefa 
licaS Icnj swa wel, leofa Beowulf. 

1833, wordum ond weorcum^ Thorpe : MS. weordum 7 worcum. Such 
interchange of eo and was encouraged by the fact that in L.W.S. weore 
often became wore cf. SieverSj § 72. 

herige, apparently from herian, • praise ' : ' I will honour thee ' : but this 
sense of herian is hard to parallel : the comparison of weorSode in 1. 2096 is 
hardly sufficient. The difficulty is, however, even greater if we take the 
verb as hergian, 'harry,' and interpret, with Leo and Schiickinf;, 'supply 
with an army,' or, with CosijnS', 'snatch away.' If the symbol -^ is some- 
times used for /a (see note to 1. 15) it might be so interpreted here : hd 
ie pe wel herige, i.e. ' when I have so much to report in thy praise,' Hygclac 
will gladly send help. 

1836. Hriprxc, Grundtvig»* : MS. hrej^rinc. Cf. 1. 1189. 

1837. ge/>inge<f, Greinj, partially following Kemblej: MS. gej^inped. 

1840. Since him seems hardly sufficient to bear a full stress, Holtbausen 
supposes a lacuna, which he fills thus : 

Ilrddgdr ma^elode, [helm Scyldinga^ 
eorl seSelum gdd] him on ondsware. 

1841. wigtig. Kembie, , following Thorpe and followed by most editors, 
altered to wittig. But no change is necessary: wigtig = w\tig. See notes to 
11. 1085 and 1770. 

1854. Grein {Sprachschatz, under swa) and Bugge**, followed by most 
subsequent editors, leng swa sel, 'the longer the better' — a tempting emen- 
dation. But if one finds gross anomalies in accidence in the Beowulf, why 
should one look for a flawless syntax? 

Beowulf 91 

1855 Hafast )7u jefered, faet j^am folcum sceal, 
Teata leodam ond 7ar-Denum, 
sib jemsene, ond sacu restan, 
inwit-m)7as, }?e hie ser drujon; 
wesan, )7enden ic wealde widan rices, 

i860 ma)?ma8 jemiene; manij o)7erne 

jodum jejrettan ofer janotes baeS; 

sceal hrinj-naca ofer hea/ii brinjaa 

lac ond luf-tacen. Ic j^a leode wat 

ge wis feond je wis freond faeste jeworhte, 

1865 fejhwaes untsele ealde wisan." 

Da Jit him eorla hleo inne jesealde, 
majo Healfdenes, maf'mas twelfe, 
het [A]ine mid J^sem lacum leode swsese 
secean on jesyntum, sniide eft cuman. 

1870 'recyste j^a cyninj ae)7elum jod, 

|?eoden Scyldinja, Se5n[a] betstan, 

ond be healse jenam ; hruron him tearas 

blonden-feaxum. Him waes beja wen, 

ealdum, in-|frodum, 6}>res swiSor, Fol. I7lv 

1875 r'set h[i:]e seoSSa[n na] jeseon moston, 

1857. gemane, Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 140] : MS. ge mmnum. The Bcribal 
error arises naturally from the three preceding datives. 

1859-61. Holthausen regards wesan and gegrettan as optatives for 
weten, etc., • let there be '... . This compels us to take a pi. gegretten with the 
sg. manig. Such syntax is possible, but it is surely simpler to take wesan 
and gegrettan as infinitives depending on sceal, sculon, supplied from 1. 1855. 

1862, heafuy Kluge^^: MS. heajm. Heapu was retained by the older 
editors, who attributed to it the meaning ' sea ' [from heah : altum, mare, 
Grein ; cf. Eilso Cosijn, P.B.B. xxi. 10]. This would necessitate long ea : 
which would give us a line, not indeed quite unprecedented, but of an 
exceedingly unusual type [cf, Sievers in P.B.B. x. 235^ 245]. In view of 
this difficulty, and of the fact that no certain instance of ^ea/>w='sea' is 
forthcoming, it seems best to adopt the conjecture of Kluge^^, ofer heafu ; 
especially as that phrase occurs later (1. 2477). 

If we could substantiate a word fmijfu meaning • sea,' it would certainly 
help to explain the compounds hea/yo-lidtende {Beowvlf, 1798, 2955 ; Andreas, 
426) and heapo-sigel {Riddles, Ixxii. [Ixxiii.] 19). We can explain these as 
♦warlike traveUers,* etc., but it would be easier if we could take the first 
element in the compound as meaning ' sea.' For this, however, there seems 
insufficient evidence. 

Sarrazin would retain ofer heajyu^ ' after the fight ' (cf. 11. 1857-8). 

1867. twelfe : MS. xii. 

1868. hine, Thorpe : MS. inne. 
1871. ifegn[a], Kemblej : MS. ifegn. 
1875. h[ile, Grundtvig2« : MS. he. 

5eodi!fa[n 71a]. Bugge* supplied [no] in order to give Hrothgar cause for 

92 Beowulf 

m^i\'\yi on me)>le. Waes liiin se man t6 |7on l6of, 

\>ddt he \fox\e. breost-wylm forberan ne mehte, 

ac him on hrej^re hyje-bendum fest 

aifter deoruin men dyrne lanjaS 
1880 beam wi5 blode. Him Beowulf )>anan, 

juS-rinc jold-wlanc, jnes-moldan traed 

since hrgmij; sS-jenja bad 

a5e[w]d-frean, se j^e on ancre rad. 

pa waes on ^anje jifu HroSjares 
1885 oft jeaehted. paet waes an cyninj 

ai^hwaes orleahtre, 0)7 )?aet hine yldo benam 

maejenes wynnum, se j^e oft mane^um scod. 
XXVII CWOM )7a to flode fela-modijra 

hae^-stealdra \}ieap'\\ hrinj-net bieron, 

his tears, Tbe corner of the parcliment is here broken away, and, on paleao- 
graphical grounds alone, it is likely that a short word has been lost, though, 
when Thorkehn's transcripts were made, only seotfifa was to be seen, as now. 
Bugge's conjecture is therefore almost certain, and has been supported by 
Sievers [Anglia, xiv. 141] and adopted by Trautmann, Holthausen and 

geseon, 'see each other.' For a parallel usage of geseon see Andreas, 
1012: also gedalan in the sense of 'parting from each other' is found in 
Wulfstan. [Cf. Klugei» ; Pogatscher in Anglia, xxiii. 273, 299.] 

1879-80. beam, Grein : MS. beorn. The meaning must be * a secret 
longing burnt.' Beorn is an unexampled form of the pret. of beornan [cf. 
Sieversg § 38G, N. 2], so that it is necessary to make the slight change to 
either born [Thorpe and recent edd,], or beam [Grein], with identical mean- 
ing : * the longing burnt to his blood,' i.e. right into him. So Cosijn", 
comparing, for similar use of wiS', I. 2673. [Cf. also Sievers, Z.f.d.Ph. xxi 
363.] Heinzel [A.f.d.A. xv. 190] would interpret beam as in 1. 67 (from 
he-ieman, ' to run, occur ') : but the alliteration is against this. 

To avoid the unusual construction in the second half of this line Sedge- 
field would read Gewdt him Beowulf panan. Cf. 1. 1601. 

1883. dge[n]d-frean, KemblSg : MS. agedfrean. 

1885. A colon is usually placed after gemhted, and Earle remarks that 
what follows is 'the gist of their talk as they went.' I take it to be a 
reflection of the scop, 

1887. For se, Greinj [followed by Holthausen] reads seo, * old age which 
has marred so many.' Cf. 11. 1344, 2685. 

1889. We should expect hssg-stealda, not hag-steuldra, and the reading 
of the text may well be only a misspelling resulting from the preceding 
modigra. It is conceivable, however, that the form is here used adjectivally. 

The addition of [heap], a conjecture of Greiui and Grundtvig [1861, 
p. 65], is metrically essential. 

baron. In this type of half-line (A) the second accented syllable is 
almost always short if preceded by a compound (e.g. 1. 838, gud-rinc monig). 
Sievers [P.B.B. x. 224] would accordingly alter to the intinitive here, and in 
this he is followed by Trautmann [heran) and Holthausen {beron = beran). 
As Sievers points out, it is possible that the MS. should be read beron, as 
there is, a dot under the first part of the diphthong », which perhaps is 
intended to cancel it. 

Beowulf 93 

1890 locene leoSo-syrcan. Land-weard onfand 

eft-siS eorla, swa he ser dyde; 

no he mid hearrae of hliSes nOsan 

|5aes[tas] ^rette, ac him tojeanes rad, Fol. m\ 

cwseS J^aBt wilcuman Wedera leodum 
1895 sca)7an scir-hame tO scipe foron. 

pa waes on sande sse-^eap naca 

hladen here-wsedura, hrin^ed-stefna 

mearum ond maSmum; maest hlifade 

ofer HrotSjares hord-jestreonum. 
1900 He J?2em bat-wearde bunden golde 

swurd ^esealde, J^aet he sySfan waes 

on meodu-bence maj^me }?y weor)7ra, 

yrfe-lafe. 7ewat him on naca 

drefan deop waeter, Den a land ofjeaf. 
1905 pa waes be mseste mere-hrsejla sum, 

sejl sale faest; sund-wudu ]7iinede; 

no faer wej-flotan wind ofer y?5um 

sitJes 5etw£efde; sje-jenja for, 

fleat famij-heals forS ofer ySe, 
1910 bunden-stefiia ofer brim-streamas, 

)?aet hie 7eata clifu onjitan meahton, 

cuj7e naessas; ceol tip jej^ranj 

lyfb-jeswenced, on lande stod. 

Hra)7e waes aet |holme hyS-weard jeara, Fol. 172». 
191 5 se fe ser lange tid leofra manna 

fus aet faroSe feor wlatode ; 

1893. MS. defective. Thorkelin's transcript A gm (followed by a blank 
space) ; Grundtvig^®*, gais[ta8]. 

1895. MS. defective. Thorkelin's transcripts, A scawan ; B scapan, 

1902. mdpme py weorpra, Thorpe : MS. mapma py weorpre. 

1903. naca : MS. nacan. Grain suggested [yS]-nacan for the allitera- 
tion. Rieger*''^ suggested gewdt him on naca, ' the ship went on ' : ow being 
then an adv., emphatic, and therefore capable of alliterating, as in 1. 2523. 
The alteration is very slight, for elsewhere (11. 375, 2769) the scribe adds a 
similar superfluous n. 

Bugge*' supposed two half-lines to have been lost. 

1913. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 141] would supply Ipm he] on lande »tddy 
comparing 1. 404. [So Holthausen and Sedgefield.] 

1914. geara for gearu is probably not a scribal error : o for u in final 
unaccented syllables can be paralleled. [Cf. Bugge in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 194; 
Klaeber, Anglia, xxvii. 419.] 

1915. leofra manna may depend upon fu* or upon wlatode, perhaps 
upon both; 'looked for the beloved men, longing for them.' 

94 Beowulf 

SiT'Me t6 sande 6id-faeJ?me scip 

omtT-bcnduin f.ust, |^y hes iiyrn yj^a 5rym 

wudu wynsuman forwrocan meahte. 
i«;2o Het )^a up beran aej^elinja jestreon, 

fnutwe ond fitit-jold ; niKS him feor ));iiioQ 

to jesecanne sinces biyttau, 

Hijelac HreJ^linj, \\bv aet ham wunaS 

sella* mid jesiGum siX'-wealle neah. 
1925 Bold wses betlic, brojo rof cyninj, 

hea healle, Hy^d swiSe jeonj, 

wis, wel Ininjen, j^eah 5e wintra lyt 

under burh-locan jebiden haibbe 

Ha'iej^es dohtor; naes hio hnah swa ))eah, 
1930 ne to jneaS jifa 7eata leodum, 

maj^in-jestreona. Mod prySe [ne] wsej, 

fiemu folces cwen, firen ondrysne ; 

1918. oncer-bendu?n, Grundtvig«5 . 1,1'Q, oneear-hendum. 

1923. Trautmann and lloltbausenj, wunade, following Thorpe and 
Grein. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 141] regards this and the next line as oratio 
recta. But cf. the present tenses in 11. 1314, 1928, 2495. 

Sievers would add he after par. [So Holthausen.] 

19*iiD. Kemble, brego-ruf, * the king was a famous chieftain ' [so Grundtvig 
18G1, p. 66], but the hyphen is unnecessary. Holthausen2 suggests: brec 
rof cyning hean healle, 'the brave king enjoyed his high hall': hrec being 
an Anglian form for W.S. breac. 

1926. Either we must interpret ' high were the halls ' (an unusual use 
of the plural), or (as an instrumental-locative sg.) 'in the high hall'; 
von Grienberger and Schiicking, heahealle, ' in the royal hall ' ; Sedgefield, 
on Jiealiealle, with the same meaning; on hean healle has also been sug- 
gested [Kluge, Holthausen3]. 

1928. habbe. See note to 1. 1923, above. 

1931. Mod pnj&e [ne] ivxg, Schiicking : ' She [Hygd], brave queen of the 
folk, had not the mood, the pride of Thryth ' : MS. pry^o wxg. The altera- 
tion is essential, for pryd'o is hardly a possible form, whether we take it as 
a common or a proper noun : the u would be dropped after the long syllable, 
as in OsJ^ryp, Cyne}ryp{ci. J. M. Hart in M.L.N, xviii. 118; Holthausen^^S]. 
Yet pry J>o is perhaps conceivable as a diminutive of some form like pryp- 
gifUf as Eadu for Eadgifu [cf, Klaeber in Anglia, xxviii. 452]. Both scribes 
frequently omit ne : cf. 11. 44, 1129, 1130, 2006, 2911. 

Moreover the emendation explains fremu folces cwen, which seems not 
very applicaMe to Thryth: also it explains the otherwise uninteUigibly 
abrupt transition from Hygd to Thryth. Schiicking's emendation has been 
adopted by Holthausen, and is much the best explanation of a difficult 

Hygd and Thryth are contrasted, like Sigmund and Heremod. 

The violent introduction of this episode from the OflEa-cycle points 
probably to an Anglian origin for our poem. See Introduction to Beowulf 
and Index of Persons : Thryth. 

1932. Suchier [P.B.B. iv. 501] firen-ondrysne. We have elision of final 

Beowulf 95 

naenij ]7set dorste deor jenefan 

swsesra jesiSa, nefne sin frea," 
1935 ]7aet hire an daejes eajum starede; 

ac him wsel-bende |weotode tealde Fol. l72^ 

hand-jewril^ene ; hraj^e seo)7?5an waes 

asfter mund-jripe mece jepinjed, 

)?9et hit sceaden-mael scyran moste, 
1940 cwealra-bealu cySan. Ne biS swylc cwenlic j^eaw 

idese to efnanne, J7eah 5e hio aenlicu sy, 

l^aette freoSu-webbe feores onsaece 

« before a vowel in 11. 338 and 442. But perhaps the true explanation of 
the forms fro for in 1. 098 and firen here will be found in Sievers„ 
§ 251, N. 

1933. pat anticipates the clause /}Xt... starede (1. 1935). 

1934. The MS. may be read either as sinfrea, 'the great lord,' or as 
slnj'rea, ' her lord.' It has been urged that metrically the first is preferable : 
yet instances enough can be found of the possessive bearing the alliteration. 
Cf. note to 1. 262. 

Thryth is the perilous maiden of legend, who slays her wooers, till the 
destined husband arrives. Her cruel acts are prior to her marriage, and 
therefore sinfrea, ' the great lord,' i.e. her father, gives good sense. Yet sin 
frea is possible — none save Offa, her destined husband, could gaze upon her 
as a wooer without paying the penalty. [See Cosijn in P.B.B. xix. 454; 
Klaeber in Anglia, xxviii. 449; and Introduction to Beowulf-. Thryth.] 

1935. hire an dmges eagum starede. (1) This has been interpreted 
•gazed on her by the eyes of day' [Grein, etc.]. But hire an, ' upon her,' 
i_s difficult, for stanan on takes the ace. (cf. 11. 996, 1485). (2) If we read 
dn-desges, the rendering • gazed upon her by day,' or ♦ the whole day,' has 
been proposed [Leo] : but here again the construction, starian hire, ' to 
gaze upon her,' is inexplicable. The substitution of hie for hire has there- 
fore been proposed. (3) The MS. certainly divides an dseges. But, since 
little importance can be attached to this spacing, Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 296], 
following a suggestion of P. A. Munch, supposed and-s£ges=:andeges=' in 
the presence of ' (cf. Goth, and-dugjo), governing hire, * that gazed with his 
eyes in her presence.' Suchier [P.B.B. iv. 502] rendered ' eye to eye,' • into 
her face,' apparently following Bugge's etymology. 

1938. after mund-gripe, 'after the arrest' of the presumptuous gesiS. 
[So Bugge in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 207; Suchier in P.B.B. iv. 502.] Sedgefield 
interprets mund-gripe as ' strangling,' but this surely would have rendered 
the subsequent use of the sword (1. 1939) superfluous. 

1939. 'That the adorned sword might make it clear,' or 'decide it' 
[cf. Holthausen in Anglia, Beiblatt, x. 273] 'and make the death known*: 
scedden-msel is undoubtedly a compound, ' a sword adorned with diverse or 
distinct patterns ' (sceddan, ' to divide ' or ' decide '). [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. 
X. 313 : in xxxvi. 429 he compares wunden-viEl, 1. 1531.] The older critics 
took scedden as a distinct word, qualifying hit: 'might make manifest 
(scyran) the matter when it had been decided,' or 'that it should be de- 
cided.' [So Suchier in P.B.B. iv. 502, and (with unnecessary emendation, 
scyrian, after Thorpe's glossary) Bugge in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 207.] But these 
renderings are forced and unnecessary. 

The second hand in the MS. begins with moste. 

1941. efnanne. Cf. note to 1. 473. 

1942. Kemblea, onsece [so Rieger^^^, Schucking and Holthausen], The 
emendation is supported by Juliana, 679, feures onuuhte, 'deprived of life.' 

96 Beowulf 

a?rter lije-torne leofno mannan. 

Huru }>aet onh6hsnod[e] Henn/iinjes maCj. 
1945 Ealo-drinceiide o5er siT-dan, 

)>aet hio leod-bealewa laes jefremede. 

inwit-niSa, sySSan ttrest wearS 

5}fen jold-hroden jeonjum cempan, 

aeSelum diore, sySSan hio Offan flet 
1950 ofer fealone flod be faider lare 

siJ5e jesohte ; 5i5r hio sy55an well 

in jum -stole, jode miiere, 

lif-jesceafta lifijende breac, 

hiold heah-lufan wiS haelej^a brejo, 
1955 ealles mon-cynnes, mine jefraeje, 

]>one selestan bi saem tweonum, 

eorraen-cynnes. ForSam Offa |waes, FoL 178». 

jeofiim ond juSum jar-cene man, 

wide jeweorSod ; wisdome heold 
i960 eSel sinne. ponon Eomcer woe 

haeleSum t5 helpe, Hem[m]in5es msej, 

nefa ^armundes, niSa craeftij. 
XXVIII GEwat him Sa se hearda mid his hond-scole 

sylf sefber sande s^-wonj tredan, 

1914. onlwhsnod[e], Thorpe: MS. on hohsnod: onhdhsnian does not 
occur elBewhere. Dietrich [Z.f.d.A. xi. 413-5] proposed a derivation from 
h6sc = husc, 'contempt ' : ' Hemming's kinsman scorned this.' But the best 
suggestion is that of Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 302] who took onhdhsnian as 
'hamstring' [of. O.E. hohsinu: Mod. Eng. hock, hough: M.H.G. Unt) 
hdhsenen]. Bugge interpreted the word in a figurative sense, 'stop' 'hinder.' 

Hemminges, Kemblej : MS. hem ninges ; in 1. 1961 the name is written 
heminget. A comparison of the many passages where this name (or its 
cognates) appears seems to show that the correct form is Hemming [cf. 
Mullenhofii59; Sievers in P.B.B. x. 501; Binz in P.B.B. xx. 172]. The 
'kinsman of Hemming' who 'put a stop to' Thryth's cruel dealings is 
presumably Offa. 

1946. oSer sadan, 'saidyet another thing,' i.e. 'said further'; not 'said 
otherwise.' The words do not imply contradiction with what was said 
before. [Cf. Cosijn^S; K\a,eher in Aug lia, xxviii. 448.] 

1956. If we retained the MS. reading /)8es, we should have to take brego 
also as a gen., which is unparalleled, the word being elsewhere extant only 
in nom. voc. and ace. Hence almost all editors follow Thorpe in altering to 
/?one. _ 

1960. For the MS. geomor, which fails to alliterate, Thorpe read Eomer; 
so, simultaneously and independently, Bachlechner [Germ. i. 298] Eomar. 
Eomaer, in the Mercian genealogies, is grandson of Offa (see Index of 
Persons). The emendation seems fairly certain, though a skilful attempt to 
defend geomor, as referring to Offa's dulness in his youth, has been made by 
Miss Rickert [Mod. Phil. ii. 64-8J. 

Beowulf 97 

1965 wide waroSas; woruld-candel scan, 

sijel suSan fus; hi siS drujon, 

elne jeeodon, to Saes 5e eorla hleo, 

bonan On5enJ>eoes burjum in innan, 

jeongne jtiJS-cyninj jodne jefrunon 
1970 hrinjas dselan. Hijelace waes 

siS Beowulfes sntide jecySed, 

)?aet Sser on worSij wijendra hleo, 

lind-jestealla, lifijende cwom, 

heaSo-laces hal to hofe jonjan. 
1975 HraSe waes jerymed, swa se rica behead, 

feSe-jestum flet innan-weard. 

7esaet J^a wis sylfne, se Sa saecce jenaes, 

maej wis mseje, |sySSan man-dryhten Fol. 178^ 

J^urh hleoSor-cwyde holdne jejrette 
1980 meajlum wordum. Meodu-scencum hwearf 

jeond, )7aet ^ea^-rgced HaereSes dohtor, 

lufode 5a leode, liS-wsege baer 

Hseuum to handa. Hijelac on^an 

1968. The actual 'slayer of Ongentheow' was Eofor: but, according to 
Germanic custom, the retainer's achievement is attributed to the chief. 

1975. HraSe alliterates here with r. [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B, x. 272.] 

1978-80. Ambiguous. [Cf. Klaeber^^.] DoesBeowulf greet his 'gracious 
lord,' or the lord his 'faithful [thane]'? 

1981. heal-reced^ Kemblej: MS. J>at side r^ced. Zupitza : *side added 
over the line in the same hand I think, but with another ink. ' Unless two 
half lines have been omitted [as Holthausen supposes] the emendation is 
necessary for the alliteration. 

The meaning of the mark in the MS. under the first e of r^ced is un- 
certain. Zupitza thinks it may be a mere flourish here, whilst it is used to 
convert e into a in b^l (1. 2126). In fmSmi^ (1. 2652) also it is ambiguous; 
the older form of the optative would have been fxSmis& [cf. Sievers, § 361]. 
Under the a of sxcce (1. 1989) it seems to be meaningless. 

1983. Hsenum: MS. ha nu. Zupitza writes : 'between a and n a letter 
(I think &) erased.' There seems to me no doubt as to the erased letter 
having been <f. 

H&{cf)num may be a proper name signifying the Geatas, or some tribe 
associated with them. So Bugge^°, who interprets 'dwellers of the heath' 
(of Jutland) in accordance with his theory of the Geatas being Jutes. But 
the evidence for any name corresponding to EsB{d')nas in Jutland is not 
satisfactory. The Hm{S)na8 would rather be identical with the O.N. 
Hei{6)nir, the dwellers in HeiiJ'mgrk, Hedemarken, in central Scandinavia. 
Warriors from this district might well have been in the service of Hygelac ; 
or the poet may be using loosely a familiar epic name. That those Hs&nas 
were known in O.E. tradition seems clear from Widsith, 81. The last 
transcriber of Beowulf, not understanding the name, and taking it for the 
adj. 'heathen,' may then (as Bugge supposes) have deleted the d, not liking 
to apply such an epithet as 'heathen' to Hygelac's men. 

1)8 Beowulf 

sinne ;^oseld;in in sole )^rlm h$an 
1985 tVT'jre fricjceau, hyne fyrwet bricc, 

hwylce SS-'ieata siSas wyeron : 

"Hu lomp eow on lade, l6ofa Biowulf, 

\q. Su fturinja feorr jehojodest 

sipcce secean ofer sealt waeter, 
1990 hilde t5 Hiorote ? Ac Cii HroSjare 

\\ic^-cu5ne wean wihte jebettest, 

miOruni Ceodue ? Ic 5a3S mod-ceare 

Borh-wylmum seaS, siSe ne truwode 

leofes mannes. Ic Ce lanje baed, 
1995 j'itt 5u )?one wael-^aist wihte ne jrette, 

lete SuS-Dene eylfe jeweorSan 

juSe wis 7rendel. 7ode ic J^anc secje, 

)7ces 5e ic Oe jesundne jeseon moste." 

Biowulf maSelode, beam EcjSioes : 
2000 |"paet is undyrne, dryhten Hijelac, Fol. 174«. 

[m^re] jemetinj, monejum fira, 

hwylc [orlej-Jhwil uncer grendles 

wears on Sam wanje, j^ier he worua fela 

Si^e-Scyldin^um sorje jefremede, 
2005 yrmSe to aldre ; ic Saet eall jewrsec, 

swa [be]$ylpan \\ie\ )7earf ^rendeles maja 

Greini, followed by Sedgefield, conjectured hselum, i.e. dat, pi. of }mU{J>), 
•man, hero.' But although the d" is often dropped in the nom. h&le for 
hmlep, a dat. pi. hsBlum is not paralleled, and if we wish to interpret the 
passage so, it is probably best, with Holthausen, to alter to hmlefum, the 
only recognised form (cf. L 2024). 

1985. Greina puts into parenthesis (hyne fyrwet brae)', but 11. 232, 2784, 
show that these words form a satisfactory parallel to fricgcean, and can 
govern a following interrogative clause. 

1989. MS. sacce. See note to 1. 1981. 

1991. wid; Thorkelin, Thorpe: MS. wif. 

1994, etc. The 'discrepancy' with 11. 415, etc., 435, etc., is not one 
which need trouble us much. 

1995. wml-gmt. See note to 1. 102. 

2001. MS. defective (more than usually) here, and in L 2002: [mare], 
G rein J. 

2002. [orleg-], Thorpe. 

2006. MS. defective, here and in 11. 2007, 2009. Many editors (including 
recently Sedgefield) follow the reading of Grundtvig 29« .- swd [ne] gylpan 
pearf: ne certainly is demanded by the sense, but that ne was not the word 
missing before gylpan is implied by Thorkelin's transcripts: A has swabe, B 
swal, which seems to show that a portion of a letter involving a long upright 
stroke could be read. 

Against the reading of the text it may be mged that begielpan is other- 

Beowulf 99 

[ffinij] ofer eor?5an uht-hlem }>one, 

se l^e lenjest leofaS laSan cynnes 

f[acne] bifonjen. Ic Sier furSum cwom 
20I0 to Sam hrinj-sele HroSjar jretan; 

sona' me se msera majo Healfdenes, 

syStSan he mod-sefan minne cu5e, 

wis his sylfes sunu setl jetsehte. 

Weorod waes on wynne ; ne seah ic widan feorh 
2015 under heofones hwealf heal-sittendra 

medu-dream maran. Hwilum mseru cwen, 

friSu-sibb folca, flet eall jeond-hwearf, 

bsedde byre ^eonje ; oft hio beah-wriSan 

secje |[8ealde], ser hie to setle ^eonj. Fol. l74^ 

2020 HwTlum for [dJujuSe dohtor HroSjares 

eorlum on ende ealu-wseje basr, 

fa ic Freaware flet-sittende 

wise unknown, and that it assumes an omission of ne where there is no gap 
in the MS. But the reading ne gylpan J>earf involves difficulties at least as 
serious: for gielpan with an ace. can hardly be paralleled, and we should 
expect gylpan ne pearf {ne gylpan pearf would mean 'nor need he boast'). 
With difficulties thus on both sides there seems no justification for deserting 
the reading of Thorkelin's transcripts [cf. Klaeber in Engl. Stud, zxxix. 

2007. [ffi/i/^r], Kemblei. 

uht-hlem refers to the crash between Beowulf and Grendel rather than 
(as Gummere thinks) to the lamentation caused of old by Grendel (11. 128-9) 
which is now no longer to be a cause of boasting to his kin : hlem signifies 
•crash' rather than 'lamentation.' 

2009. f[dcne] hifongen [so Schiicking and Sedgefield] was first suggested 
by Bugge^, and is supported by Juliana, 350, where the devil is so described. 

Thorkelin's transcripts read: A/» and a blank; B/er... ; Kemblej^j reads 
fSr-bifongen [so Wiilker]; Kemhle^, fen-b if ong en; Grundtvig [1861, p. 69] 
fenne hifongen\ fisesce hifongen, 'enveloped in flesh' [Trautmann, Holthausen] 
is good in itself, but seems incompatible with the (certainly very conflicting) 
evidence of Thorkelin's transcripts. These leave us in doubt what was the 
letter following /, but make it clear that it was not I. 

2018. The MS. reading, bmdde, must mean ' constrained, urged them to 
be merry.' But the conjecture of Klaeber*^^ seems likely : b^lde from bieldan^ 
•encouraged, cheered' [so Holtbausen2,3, Schiicking]. Cf. 1. 1094. 

2019. MS. defective at corner: Thorpe, [sealde]. Many editors have 
normalized to hio : but the spelling hie = heo can be paralleled. See 
Sievers, § 334. 

geong. Note the exceptional indicative here, after Sr. 

2020. MS. defective : ld]ugud'e, Grundtvig^*. 

2021. eorlum on ende. This is often interpreted 'to the earls at the 
end of the high table,' i.e. 'the nobles.' But the noblest did not sit at the 
end, but in the middle of the table. [Cf. Clark-Hall.] So the meaning 
must rather be ' from one end to the other.' Cosijn'® would alter to on 

100 Beowulf 

nemnan hyrde, [?i6r hio [najjjled sine 

haele5iim sealde. Sio jehaten [is], 
2025 ^eonj, jold-hroden, jladiira suna FrOdan; 

[hJafaS )?ijes jeworden wine Scyldinja, 

rices hyrde, ond J^aet ri5d talaS, 

Yddt he mid 5y wife wael-fShSa dfibl, 

saecca jesette. Oft seldan hwaer 
2030 sefter leod-hryre lytle hwile 

bon-jar biijeS, )?eah seo bryd duje. 

Maej )>aes )?onne ofJ?yncan Seoden HeaSobeardna 

ond J^ejna jehwam J^ara leoda, 

J^onne he mid fsemnan on flett 5^5, 

2023. MS. defective at edge. \nm]gled, Grein's emendation, is confirmed 
by the naglede beagas of the Htuband's Message, 1. 34. 

2024. MS. defective at edge, here and in 1. 2026: [is] supplied by Kluge. 
So all recent editors. That some such short word has been lost at the edge 
of the page is clear from the present condition of the MS. and also from 
Thorkelin's transcripts. 

2026. [h]afaf. MS. defective at edge : emendation of Kemble,. 

2028. wml-fShfa dml, 'the manifold murderous feuds.' Cf. 11. 1160, 
1740, etc., and 2068 below. 

2029. Oft ends a line in the MS., which is defective at the beginning of 
the next line, the « of seldan being gone. In this gap Heyne proposed to 
insert the negative : oft [no] seldan hwser. For the tautology of • often, not 
seldom ' cf. 1. 3019, and Psalm Ixxiv. 4. [Other parallels quoted by Bugge, 
Tidsskr. viii. 54.] 

Zupitza's view, however, with which I agree, is that there is not room 
enough for no to have stood before seldan, though Kolbing and Wiilker 
think there is. Oft seldan has been defended by Kock [Angliay xxvn. 233] 
as meaning * as a rule there is seldom a place where the spear rests, when 
some time has elapsed....' Kock compares L 3062. [See also Klaeber in 
Engl. Stud. xliv. 125: he would interpret, 'As a rule it is only in rare 
instances and for a short time that the spear rests....'] 

Sedgefield suggests Oft selff { = sEl6) onhwearf after leodhryre, 'often has 
fortune changed after the fall of a prince.' But this hardly gives a satisfactory 
sense. Fortune did not change. Ingeld was defeated, like his father before 
him. Better is the conjecture of Holthausen,, Oft [bi&] sil and war, • often 
is there prosperity and peace....' 

2032. Kemblej, etc., read ffeodne. In favour of this it can be urged 
that ofdyncan always takes a dat. of the person, and that Seoden is not 
a defensible dat. form. But ffeoden is the clear reading of the MS., and he 
would be a bold man who should correct all its grammatical anomalies. 
[Cf. Klaeber 259.] 

2033. para is emphatic, and hence can take the alliteration. 

2034. etc. The general drift of what follows is perfectly clear. The 
Danish warriors, who escort Freawaru into the hall of the Heathobeard king, 
Ingeld (see Index of Persons: Heathobeardan, Ingeld), carry weapons which 
have been taken from slaughtered Heathobeard champions during the war 
now ended. Aji old Heathobeard warrior urges on a younger man (ap- 
parently not, in this version, Ingeld himself) to revenge, and in the end 
this Heathobeard youth slays the Dane, the fmmnan j>egn of 1. 2059, who 
wears his father's sword ; the slayer (se offer ^ 1. 2061) takes to flight. Thus 
the fead breaks out again. 

Beowulf 101 

203s dryht-bearn Dena dujuSa bi werede; 

on him jladiaS ^omelra lafe 

beard ODd hrinj-mgel, HeaSabearna jestreon, 

)?enden hie Sara wsepnum wealdan moston, 
[xxix] oS Sset hie forlseddan to Sara lind-plejan 
2040 swsese jesiSas end hyra sylfra feorh. 

ponne cwiS aet beore, se Se beah IjesyhS, Fol. 175». 

2035. hi werede, Greinj : MS. biwenede. The alteration is exceedingly 
Blight, since the difference between n and r in O.E. script is often im- 
perceptible, and may well have been so here in the original from which 
our Beowulf MS. was copied ; cf. urder for under, 1. 2755. 

Several interpretations of this passage are possible, (1) he refers, not to 
Ingeld, but proleptically to the dryht-bearn Dena: 'when he [viz. the noble 
scion of the Danes] moves in the hall amid the chivalry [of the Heatho- 
beardan] then doth it displease Ingeld and all his men.' 

The repeated ponne seems to demand this interpretation. The Heatho- 
beardan have consented to bury the feud, but when they see, then they can 
no longer control their fury. 

But in spite of this, and of the slightness of the emendation hi werede, 
which it almost necessitates, most critics retain bitoenede. We may then 
suppose that (2) he refers to Ingeld, the Seoden Eeaffobeardna, and that 
the conjunction ptBt has to be understood before dryht-bearn : it displeases 
Ingeld, 'when he goes with his lady into hall, that his high lords should 
entertain a noble scion of the Danes* [Clark-Hall, following Wyatt]. This 
interpretation compels us to assume a pi. subject with a sg. verb {dnguffa 
biwenede), but in subordinate clauses such false concords can be paralleled: 
cf. 11. 1051, 2130, 2164, 2251, etc. For the omission of pat cf. L 801 and 
note to 1. 2206. 

In both (1) and (2) the dryht-bearn Dena is a young Danish warrior 
escorting the queen. Some editors alter to dryht-beorn, * noble warrior.' 

(3) Sedgefield takes dryht-bearn Dena to mean the young queen herself: 
*it displeases Ingeld when he treads the floor with his wife, that noble 
child of the Danes, attended by her chivalry.' With this interpretation it is, 
of course, to the duguSy and not to the dryht-bearn^ that the mischief-causing 
weapons belong. 

(4) Klaeber [Engl. Stud, xxxix. 465] would take dugnSa biwenede as 
a parenthesis: 'the heroes are being feasted.' (For the omission of the 
verb 'to be' Ellaeber compares 11. 811, 1559.) 

2037. Head'abeama. Thorpe normalized to Heaffobeardna, and has 
been followed by most editors. It is not easy to say whether the omission 
of the d is an error of the scribe, due to confusion with beam, 'child,' or 
whether it represents the omission of the middle consonant, which frequently 
occurs when three consonants come together. [Cf. Biilbring, § 533.] The d 
is omitted also below (1. 2067) and was likewise omitted by the scribe of the 
Exeter Book {Widsith, 49) who, however, corrected himselt 

2038-9. hie... hie : the Heathobeard warriors. 

2039. The MS. has a large capital O at the beginning of this line, such 
as one finds elsewhere only at the beginning of a new section (cf. 1. 1740). 
But the number xxix [xxviin] is wanting, and the next break is at 1. 2144, 
where the number is xxxi. There are signs of confusion and erasure in the 
numbering from the twenty-fourth section (1. 1651) up to this point. 

2041. beah is strange, for it is a sword, not an armlet, which is the 
cause of strife. If beah can mean simply ' treasure,' it may he applied to a 
sword, like indpffum (11. 2055, 1528). [Cf. Klaeber462.] 

Bugge^ would read hd: the old warrior gazes upon both Freawaru and 
her escort. 

102 Beoimdf 

eaM aesc-wija, sS 5e eall 5em[an], 

jar-cweahn jumena — him biS jrim sefa 

onjinneJS jeOmor-mod 5eon5[um] cempaa 
2045 )7iirh lireSm ^ehyjd hijes cuniiian, 

wij-bealu weccean, ond j^oet word acwyS. 

• Meaht 5u, min wine, mece jecnawaa, 

J?one )7in faeder tO jefeohte haer 

under here-jriman hindeman sii5e, 
20J0 dyre iren, \\^t hyne Dene slojon, 

weoldon wael-stowe, sy55an WiSerjyld laej, 

aefter haele)7a hryre, hwate Scyldunjas? 

Nu her )?ara banena byre nat-hwylcea 

fraetwum hremij on flet j^S, 
2055 morSres 5ylpe[5], ond )?one maSJ^um byreS, 

)?one ]>Q 6u mid rihte rsedan sceoldest.' 

ManaS swa ond myndjaS msela jehwylce 

sarum wordum, otS Saet ssel cymeS, 

)7aet se f^mnan j^ejn fore faeder dSdum 
2060 ap.fter billes bite blod-faj swefeS, 

ealdres scyldij; him se o5er )7onan 

losaS [[lijfijende, con him land jeare. Fol. 175^ 

ponne bioS [a]brocene on ba healfe 

Holthausen's conjecture, beorn, referring to the Danish warrior who 
carries the sword (the fxmnan pegn of 1. 2059), has been adopted by 
Sedgefield, but abandoned by Holthausen himself. 

2042. MS. defective at corner and edge: gem[on], Grundtvig'®'. 

2044. MS. defective: Kemblei and Greini supply p^on^[u7n]. Schiicking 
follows Kemble2, geonglne], 

2048. The alliteration is improved by the addition of frod before fmder 
[Holthausen 2, so Sedgefield g] or oifsege after [Holthausen 5]. 

2051. Widergyld. Some of the older editors take the word as a common 
noun: soHeynes, sylfifan wiSer-gyld Img, 'when vengeance failed.' But a 
hero of this name is mentioned in Widsith, 124, although not in a context 
which would connect him with this story. 

2052. Scyldungas, in apposition with Dene, 

2055. MS. defective at edge: yylped, Kemblci. For mdfj^um referring 
to a sword, cf. 1. 1528 and jtid6pum-sweord, 1. 1023. 

2062. MS. defective at corner and edge here and in two following lines. 
Thorkelin's transcripts, kfigende, B eigende] Thorkelin's edition, wigende 
(bo older editors) ; Heyne, [li]Jigendef followed by all recent editors. 

him is a kind of 'ethic dative' or 'dative of advantage,' which cannot be 
rendered in modern English. 

2063. Thorkelin's transcripts A and B orocene (B with a stop before it) ; 
Kemblci, [o]6rocen^ [so Zupitza, Holthausen, Sedgefield]; Schiicking, hrocene. 
The space indisputably tits dbrocene best. 

Beowulf 103 

a5-sweord eorla, [sySjSan Injelde 
2065 weallaS wsel-nit5as, ond him wif-lufan 

aefter cear-woelmum colran weorSaS. 

py ic HeaSobearna hyido ne telje, 

dryht-sibbe dsel, Denum unfiecne, 

freood-scipe fsestne. Ic sceal forS sprecan 
2070 Jen ymbe 7rende], J^aet ?5u jeare cunne, 

sinces brytta, to hwan sySSan wearS 

hond-rges haeleSa. SySSan heofones jim 

jlad ofer jrnndas, joest yrre cwom, 

eatol Egfen-jrom, user neosan, 
2075 Saer we jesunde ssel weardodon. 

p«r waes Hondscio hi\d ons^je, 

feorh-bealu fiejum ; he fyrmest laej, 

jyrded cempa; him 7rendel wearS, 

m^rum maji^-J^ejne, to muS-bonan, 
2080 leofes mannes lie eall forswealj. 

No Cy ^r ut Sa jen idel-hende 

bona blodij-toS, beaiewa jemyndij, 

of Sam jold-sele jonjan wolde ; 

ac he ma^jnes rof mln costode, 
2085 l^rapode jearo-folm. 7lof hanjode JFoL 176». 

sid ond syllic, searo-bendum faest; 

sio waes ortSoncum eall jejyrwed 

deofles craeftum ond dracan fellum. 

2064. dS-sweord, Thorkelin's correction : MS. aS-sweorif. 

[sj/d"]<fan, Kemblej: MS. defective at edge. 

2067. Headobearna. Cf. note to 1. 2037. 

2076. Hondscio = Hondscide (dat.): presumably the name of the Geat 
slain by Grendel (11. 740, etc.). Hondscio is naturally first mentioned by 
name to the people who know him. Cf. the delay in mentioning the name 
of Beowulf (1. 343). 

Some editors have been unwilling to follow Grundtvig and Holtzmann 
[Germ. viii. 496] in taking this as a proper name, and have seen in it a 
reference to Grendel's 'glove' (cf. 1. 2085). But a comparison of 11. 2482-3 
(Hmdcynne tDearS.,.guS onsEge), and the fact that place names postulating 
a proper name Hondscio are found in both English and German charters 
{Andscoheshdm, Handschuchsheim) seems to place the matter beyond doubt. 

It is necessary, with Holtzmann and Eieger'*''^, to alter the hilde of the 
MS. to hiU. [Cf. also Bugge, in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 209.] 

2079. magu, Kemblej: MS. mseru magu (i.e. magum) pegne. But see 
11. 293, 408, etc. The mistake is due to 'repetition,' vuxgH being written, 
incorrectly, through the influence of mseru. In 1. 158 we have the opposite 
error of 'anticipation.* 

2085. gearo^ Thorkelin's correction: MS. geareo. 

104 Beoivulf 

Hg mec \f^T on iDnan unsynnijne, 
2090 dior dSd-fruma, jedOn wolde 

manijra sumne ; hyt ne mihte swa, 

sytJSan ic on yrre upp-riht astod. 

To lanj ys t6 reccenne, hti i[c 5]am leod-sceaSan 

yfla jehwylces (h)ond-lean forjeald ; 
2095 )?a}r ic, J^eoden min, J^ine leode 

weor?5ode weorcum. He on wej losade, 

lytle hwile lif-wynna br[ea]c ; 

hwaej^re him sio swiSre swaSe weardade 

hand on Hiorte, ond he hean Conan, 
2100 modes jeomor, mere-jrund jefeoU. 

Me )?one wael-rses wine Scildunja 

fsettan jolde fela leanode, 

manejum maSmum, sySSan merjen cOm, 

ond w§ to symble jeseten haefdon. 
2105 p«r waes jidd ond 5I60. Tomela [Scildinj, Fol. 176", 

fela fric^ende, feorran rehte ; 

hwilum hilde-deor hearpan wjmne, 

jomen-wudu jrette, hwilum 5yd awraec 

2093. reeeenne. See note to 1. 473. 

MS. defective at edge here and in 1. 2097. Thorkelin's transcript A has 
huiedam ; hu i\c S'^m is a conjecture of Grundtvig297. 

2094. ond-lean, Greinj : MS. hond lean. The alliteration demands ond- 
lean, since in the first half-line the alliterating word is certainly yfla, not 
gehipylces. See note to 1. 1541, where hand-lean has been similarly mis- 

2097. bi^eay;. The evidence of Thorkelin's transcripts is confused 
(hrsec A; brene altered to brec B). Probably the MS. had breac ; it was so 
read, conjecturally, by Kemblej. 

2100. Cf. eorSan gefeoll, 1. 2834, and nms gerdd, 1. 2898. 

2107. Since it is Hrothgar who speaks in 11. 2105-6, and again in 
11. 2109-10, it seems natural to assume that he is the hilde-deor who plays 
the harp in 1. 2107; rather than [with Earle, Clark-Hall and others] to 
assume an abrupt transition from Hrothgar to some anonymous warrior, 
and back to Hrothgar again. 'The poem gives us no ground,' says 
Clark-Hall, for attributing to Hrothgar 'the versatility of some modern 
monarchs.' But surely the burden of proof must lie with those who adopt 
a confused syntax in order to deny musical talent to Hrothgar. The ideal 
Germanic monarch was a skilled harper ; Gunnar could even play with his 
toes [Volsunga saga, cap. 37]. And, as a matter of history, the last king of 
the Vandals, driven to the mountains, craved three boons from his con- 
querors : one was a harp, with which he might bewail his lot. [Procopius, 
Bell. Vand. n. 6.] 

2108. gomen, Grundtvig®': Thorkelin's transcripts A and B gomel : mel 
not now visible in MS. 

Beowulf 105 

s6?5 ond sarlic ; hwilum syllic spell 
2IIO rehte aefter rihte rum-heort cyninj ; 

hwilum eft onjan eldo jebunden, 

50m el juS-wija jiojuSe cwiSan 

hilde-strenjo ; hreSer inne weoll, 

)?onDe he wintrum frod worn jemunde. 
21 15 Swa we )78er inne ondlanjne daej 

Qiode naman, oS Saet niht becwom 

65er to yldura. pa waes eft hraSe 

jearo jyrn-wraece 7rendeles modor, 

sISode sorh-full ; sunu deaS fornam, 
2120 wij-hete Wedra. Wif unhyre 

hyre beam jewraec, beorn acwealde 

ellenlice; J^ser waes iEschere, 

frodan fyrn-witan, feorh uS-jenje. 

NoSer hy hine ne moston, sySSan mermen cwOm, 
2125 deaS-werijne Denia leode, 

bronde forbaernan, ne on bgl hladan 
_ leofne mannan ; |hio )?aet lie aetbaer Fol. 177». 

feondes f8e5[mura unjder firjen-stream. 

paet waes HroSjare hreowa tornost, 
2130 )7ara )?e leod-fruraan lanje bejeate. 

pa se Seoden mec Sine life 

healsode hreoh-mod, }>aet ic on holma jefrin^ 

eorl-scipe efnde, ealdre jeneSde, 

nic^rSo fremede; he me mede jehet. 
2135 Ic Sa Saes waelmes, )?e is wide cuS, 

jrimne, ^ryrelicne jrund-hyrde fond. 

2109. iarlle. Greioj, followed by Holtbauserij.j, searoUc, 'cunning.' 
But note that the song is of an elegiac type. [Cf. Schucking in Engl. Stud. 
xxxix, 12.] 

2126. MS. b§l (= bsel). See note to 1. 1981. 

2128. fsBiSlmum], Greinj: MS. torn. Grein's emendation probably 
represents what was actually written in the MS. Zupitza gives the MS. 
reading as faSrunga, but unga rests only upon a conjecture of Thorkelin, 
and the torn letter, which Thorkelin read as r, may well have been part of 
an m. 

\un\deT. Kemblej conjectured {psar wilder . 

2131. Hflne lifCj 'conjured me by thy life': certainly not, as Earle 
translates it, ' with thy leave.' For 'leave' is leaf; also, how could Hygelac's 
leave be obtained? 

2136. grimne, Thorpe: MS. grimme. 

106 Beowulf 

p^r unc hwile waes band-jemjene ; 

holm heolfre weoll, ond ic heafde bccearf 

in 5am [^ru/id-Jsele irendeles modor 
2140 eacuum ecjum ; unsdfte j^onan 

feorh oSferede ; naes ic fseje \ii jy t ; 

ac me eorla hleo eft jesealde 

maSma menijeo, raaja Healfdencs. 
XXXI Swa se (5eod-kynin5 )7eawum lyfde ; 
2145 nealles ic 5am leanum forloren haefde, 

maejnes mede, ac he me |[ma5ma]s jeaf, Fol. 177*. 

sunu Healfdenes, on [min]ne sylfes dom, 

5a ic 6e, beorn-cyninj, brinjan wylle, 

estum jeywan. 7eQ is eall set 5e 
2150 \mlnra] lissa jelonj; ic lyt hafo 

heafod-maja nefne, Hyjelac, Sec." 

Het 5a in beran eafor, heafod-sejn, 

heaSo-steapne helm, hare byrnan, 

2137. All recent editors read hand gemmne, but cf. German handgemein 
werden, 'to fight hand to hand.' 

2139. No gap in MS. [gntnd-] was conjectured independently by 
Grundtvig'*^ and Bouterwek {Z.f.d.A. xi. 97]; [gud-]sele, Thorpe [followed 
by Holthausen and Sedgefield]. 

2146. MS. defective in corner here and in next line. Thorkelin's 
transcripts A and B give Grundtvig^^ and Kemblei conjecture 

2147. [min'lne, Kemblei: [«in]n«, the emendation of Grundtvig [1861, 
p. 73], gives inferior sense. With on [mln]7ie sylfes dom cf. on hyra syl/ra 
dom {Maldon, 38), 'at my, their own choice.' Exactly parallel is the old 
Icelandic legal expression sjalfdosmi, 'self-doom,' the right of one party to 
settle for himself the extent of the compensation he shall receive from the 
other. So, too, in the 'Cynewulf and Cyneheard' episode in the A. S. 
Chronicle, the pretender oSers to the retainers of the fallen king hiera 
dgenne dom, 'as much as they wished' : and in Beowulf, 29G4, Ongentheow 
had to abide Eafores dnne dom, 'Eofor did as he chose with him.' [See 
Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 235.] Cf. the Old Saxon phrase an is settes dom 
[IJeliand, 4488, where Sievers' note should be compared]. 

2149-50. Does this mean 'From now on I look to you only for my 
reward: I have done with foreign service'? 

2150. MS. lissa gelong is unmetrical [Sievers] : emendations suggested 
are lissa gelenge or gelongra : but a simpler remedy is to transpose the words 
[Holthausen, Litteraturblatt, xxi. 61] or to supply viinra before lissa gelong 
[Klaeber, in J. E.G. Ph. viii. 257: so Holthausen 3]. 

hafo. For this old form of the 1st pers. sg. cf. 11. 2668, 3000. 

2152. Most editors read eafor -heafod-segn. For the triple compound 
Cosijn^' compares wulf-heafod-treo. But, as compounds of three words 
are as rare in O.E. poetry as compounds of two words are common, it 
seems better to make two parallels, like wudu, wxl-sceaftas (1. 398). 

But what is this boar ensign? A helmet, or an ensign with a boar-figure 
upon it? The last alternative is supported by 1. 1021 [Klaeber •*62]. The 
eoforcumbul of Elene, 259, hardly helps us, being similarly ambiguous. 

Beowvlf 107 

juC-sweord jeatolic, jyd aefter wrsec: 
2155 "Me Sis hilde-sceorp HroSjar sealde, 

suotra fenjel ; sume worde het, 

)?3et ic his ^rest Se est jesaejde ; 

cwaeS \ddt hyt haefde Hiorojar cyninj, 

leod Scyldunja, lanje hwile; 
2160 no 5y ser suna sinum syllan wolHe, 

hwatum Heorowearde, j^eah he him hold w?ere, 

breost-jewfedu. Bruc ealles well." 

Hyrde ic, )?3et j^am fraetwuni feowcr mearas 

lunjre jelice last weardode, 
2165 aeppel-fealuwe ; he him est jeteah 

meara ond maSma. Swa sceal Ima}^ d6ii, Fol. 178». 

nealles inwit-net 65rum brejdon, 

dyrnum cra?fte dea3 ren[iaD] 

hond-jesteallan. Hyjelace waes 
2170 niSa heardum nefa swySe hold, 

ond jehwaetJer oSrum hroJ?ra jemyndij. 

Hyrde ic, ^adi he 5one heals-beah Hyjde jesealde, 

wr^tlicne wundur-maSSum, Cone \e him WealhSeo 

5eod[nes] dohtor, |7rio wicj somod 
2175 swancor ond sadol-beorht ; hyre sySSan waes, 

aefter beah-Seje, br[e]ost jeweorSod. 

2157. The obvious interpretation is : ♦ that I should first give thee his 
(Hrothgar's) good wishes.' So Schroer [Anr)Ua, xiii. 342], Clark-Hall, 
Scdgofieid. Yet, according to the general rules of O.E. style, we should 
expect 1. 2157 to be parallel to 11. 2158-9. Hence Klaeber'"'^ [followed by 
Holthausen] suggests that est may mean 'bequest,' 'transmission,' "so that 
the meaning would ultimately come near to Grein's old rendering ' that I 
the pedigree thereof should report to thee ' [Earle]." Note, however, that 
this old rendering, if right, was so by accident. For the older editors mis- 
read est as eft; and having thus turned a noun into an adv., they were 
compelled to find a new object by turning the adv. arest into- a noun, 
to which they gave the quite unprecedented meaning of 'origin,' 'pedigree.' 
The separation of his from the noun est witli which it goes is unusual. 

2164. Sg. verb with pi. noun. Cf. 1. 1408 (note). Kemble, etc., wear- 

lungre gelice. It is not very clear here which is the adv. and which the 
adj.; are the horses 'quite alike ' ('quite' is a rather forced use of lungre), or 
•alike swift'? 

2167. bregdon = bregdan. 

2168. MS. defective at edge: re/j[ian], Kemblea. 

2174. MS. defective at edge: 6'eod[nes], Kemble 1. 

2175. sadol-beorht. Cf. 1. 1038. 

2176. br[r]ost, Thorpe, Grundtvig [1861, p. 74]: MS. brost 

108 Beowulf 

Swa bealdode beam EcjSeowes, 

juma juSum cu5, jodum djediim, 

dreah aefter dOme, nealles druncne sIOj 
2180 heorS-jeneatas ; naes him hreoh sefa, 

ac he man-cynnes mieste craefte 

jin-faestan jife, )?e him nod sealde, 

hgold hilde-deor. Hean waes lanje, 

8wa hyoe 7eata beam jodne ne tealdon, 
2185 ne hyne on medo-bence micles wyrSoe 

[drihten Wec^era jedon wolde ; Fol. n9>. 

swySe [wenjdon, \ddi he sleac wsere, 

aeSelinj unfrom. Edwenden cwom 

tir-eadijum menn toma jehwylces. 
2190 Het 5a eorla hleo in jefetian, 

heaSo-rof cyninj, HreSles lafe 

jolde jejyrede; naes mid 7eatura 5a 

8inc-ma5}>um selra on sweordes had 

)7aet he on Biowulfes bearm alejde, 
2195 ond him jesealde seofan J^tisendo, 

bold ond bre^o-stol. Him waes bam samod 

on Cam leod-scipe lond jecynde, 

eard, eSel-riht, oSnim swiSor 

side rice, ]7am Sser selra waes. 

2200 Eft }7aet jeiode ufaran dOjrum 

hilde-hlaemmum, sySSan Hyjelac laej, 

ond Hear[c?r]ede hilde-meceas 

under bord-hreoSan to bonan wurdon, 

2186. The MS. has drihten toereda, which means • Lord of Hosts ' [cf. 
Rankin in J. E.G. Ph. viii. 405]. Drihten Wedera, 'lord of the Weder- 
Geatas,' the emendation of Cosijn", seems exceedingly probable [so Holt- 
hausen and Sedgefield]. 

2187. MS. defective at edge : [wen]don is Grein's emendation. Cf. Crist, 

2195. Probably ♦ seven thousand hides of land,' which would be an earl- 
dom of the size of an English county. [Cf. Kluge in P^.B. ix. 191 and 

2198. oifrum, Hygelac, as being higher in rank {selra). [Cf. Cosijn".] 
2202. Hear[dr]ede, Grundtvig^sB; MS. hearede. Seel. 2375. 

Beowulf 109 

5a hyne jesohtan on sije-j^eode 
2205 hearde hilde-frecan, HeaSo-Scilfinjas, 

niSa jensejdan nefan Hererices — 

sj^an |Beowulfe brade rice Fol. 179». 

on hand jehwearf. He jeheold tela 

fiftij wintra — waes 6a frod cyniiij, 
2210 eald e)?el-weard — , oS Sait an onjan 

deorcum nihtum draca rics[i]an, 

se Se on hea[um h8e}»e] hord beweotode, 

2205. hilde-frecan. Ma.nj editors follow Grundtvig [1861, p. 75] io 
altering to hildfrecan. 

2206. Most editors put a full stop or semicolon at the close of this line, 
leaving the sense of Jjmt gelode, etc. very lame or very obscure. I take the 
construction of the passage to be as follows: J^SBt (1. 2200), as in many other 
passages in the poem (cf. 11. 1846, 1591), has a forward reference like modern 
'this,' aud is anticipatory of a substantive clause, which usually begins 
with a correlative J>sst; this substantive clause is contained in 11. 2207-8 
(first half), but the conjunction pmt is omitted here, as in L 2035, perhaps 
because syffSan (1. 2207) is correlative with syd&an (1. 2201). 

2207. The folio that begins here (179»), with the word heowulfe, is the 
most defective and illegible in the MS. Moreover, it has been freshened up 
by a later hand, often inaccurately, so that most of what can be read cannot 
be depended upon (e.g. in 1. 2209 the later hand seems to have changed 
wintra to wintru). Zupitza transliterates the readings of the later hand, and 
gives in footnotes what he can decipher of the original. I reproduce the 
more important of these notes: but in many cases I have not been able 
to make out as much of the first hand as Zupitza thought could be seen. 
All such cases I have noted : whenever Zupitza is quoted without comment it 
may be taken that I agree. 

2209. Many editors follow Thorpe in altering ffd to pat. 

2210. dn altered to 6n by later hand. Cf. 1. 100. 

2211. rlcslilan, Kemblci: Thorkelin's transcripts A and B ricsan: now 
gone in MS. 

2212. MS. very indistinct; nothing in Thorkelin's transcripts A and B 
between hea and hord. Zupitza, hea[6oyhl&we, and in a foot-note : * what is 
left of the two letters after hea justifies us in reading them d"o.' Zupitza 'b 
reading is followed by Holthausen and Schiicking. But it gives unsatis- 
factory sense: what is a * war-mound'? 'A burial mound about which a 
fight is going to take place,' says Schiicking: this however seems at best 
a far-fetched explanation. 

Further, there is no evidence that the two missing letters were ffo : they 
look much more like um. And it is clear that the following word was not 
hlmwe, for the second letter of the word was not I. The word might be hajye 
or hope. Sedgefield reads heaum hmpc, 'on the high heath.' Indeed hmpe 
was also read by Sievers in 1870-1 [P.B.B. xxxvi. 418], so this is probably 
to be taken as the MS. reading. However to me it looks more like heaum 
hope, 'on the high hollow.' The word hop survives in Northern English 
Iwpe, *a hollow among the hills,' as, for example, in Forsyth, Beauties of 
Scotland : ' The hills are everywhere intersected by small streams called 
bums. These, flowing in a deep bed, form glens or hollows, provincially 
called hopes.* 

Although by the sea, the mound may have stood in suoh a hollow or 

no Beowulf 

stan-beorh st^aprie ; stij under laej 
eldum uncus. piur on innan Jionj 

2215 niSa nat-hwylc :::::: h ^efeuj 
h^Snuin horde bond :::::::::; 
since fahne he )?iL't sy55an : : : ; : 
)7[eah] 5[e he] slaepende besyre[d wurjde 
)?eofes craifte ; J^ait sio Siod [onfaud] 

2213. Later hand ttearne. 

2214-222U. Grein's attempt, in his Beowulf, to reconstruct the passage 
is too remote from the extant indications to need recording. That of 
Bugge*"^"* is important: 

/ffr on innan giong 

2216 nifda ndt-hwylc, neode to gefeng 
h&Smim horde; hond eetgenam 

sele-ful since fdh; ne lie J?mt gyddan dgeaf, 
peah Se he tlsepende besyrede hyrde 
J?eofe8 crmfte: pxt se fioden on/and, 
2220 hy-folc beorna, /af tie gebolgen was. 

2214. /«r on innan giong niSa ndt-hwylc can be made out fairly 
clearly from the MS. and Thorkelin, and there can be little doubt of the 
correctness of the emendation to nidda, made by Kluge. 

But what follows forms one of the severest crucea in Beowulf. Holt- 
hausen, in part folloTving earlier editors, reads: 

[neadbys'jge feng 
hMffnum horde; hond [dfeorde 
seleful] sincfdh: ne he JjsbI syddanlddreg]... 
•In dire need he (the fugitive^ received the heathen hoard ; his band removed 
the jewelled goblet; nor did ne (the dragon) endure it patiently.'... 

This may be accepted as giving the general sense correctly, and the words 
supplied by Holthausen fit exactly into the gaps indicated in Zupitza's 
transliteration. But a glance at the MS. shows Holthausen's restoration to 
be impossible : (1) immediately preceding gefeng was a letter involving a long 
upright stroke; i.e. either b, h, I, or f> : (2) there is not room for [dfeorde 
seleful] ; the space allows, according to Sedgefield's reckoning, only 8 or 9 
letters, according to mine 10 or 11, but certainly not 13 (as Zapitza thought) 
or 14: (3) [ddreg] cannot be right, for here again the first letter was b, h, i, 
or />. 

The suggestion of KlaeLer [Anglia, xxviii. 446], ne he f>at sydfan 
bemdf>, seems likely, *nor did he (the dragon) afterwards conceal it,' i.e. he 
showed evident tokens of his anger. 

Sedgefield reads se [J>e] n[e]h gej^[ra]ng in 1. 2215, and does not attempt to 
fill the gap in 1. 2216 : se f>e neh is probably right, but the space does not 
allow of gejyrang. 

2217. Zupitza: ' fah originally fae, but h written over c' Heyne- 
Schiicking, fdcne (cf. 1. 2009). 

2218. Grein and Heyne make two lines of this, and have been un- 
accountably followed by their modern editors, Wiilker and Schiicking. In 
compensation, however, they make one line of 11. 2228, 2229, so that their 
reckoning comes right again. 

fi{eah] 6\e he] was made out with fair probability by Zupitza. 
besyre[d icur](le partly read, partly conjectured, by Kluge. 

2219. sio, Kluge. According to Thorkelin's transcripts, the MS. had iie. 
The e has now gone; sie is a possible dialectical form for sio (Sieverss 
§ 337, N. 4), but, as the e was almost certainly in the later hand, which 
has here freshened everything up, we need not hesitate to alter it to 0. 

onfand, Grein,. 

Beowulf 111 

2220 [bu-]folc beorna J^aet he 5ebol5e[n] waes. 
XXXII Nealles raid jewealdum wyrm-hord a6raec 

sylfes willum, se 5e him sare ^esceod ; 

ac for ]7rea-Qedlan j7[eow] nat-hwylces 

hseleGa bearna hete-swenjeas fleah, 
2225 [asrnes] J^earfa, ond 5ger inne feal/i, 

secj syn-bysij. Sona inwr/Jatode 

)7aet : : : : : Sam 5yst[e gryre-Jbroja stod ; 

hwaeSre [earm-]sceapen 

I [earm-]sceapea Fol. Yjy^. 

2230 [)7a hyne] se fser bejeat, 

2220. hu-folc or hy-folc seems to be the MS. reading, and has been 
adopted by Bugge and Sedgefield. Holthausen follows Kluge, burh-folc: but 
the faint traces of letters in the MS. certainly favour by or 6m, not burh: 
and there is not room for the longer word. Bugge ^^o compares the prose 
bifylc, 'neighbouring people, provincQ': Sedgefield renders bu-folc^ 'nation, 

gebolge[n], GreiUj. 

2221. 'weoldum the later hand instead of wealdum, the a being still 
recognisable.' (Zupitza.) 

The later hand reads wyrm horda crxft, which makes no sense. Kaluza's 
toyrmhord abreec, 'broke into the dragon's hoard,' has been adopted by Holt- 
hausen (q.v.), Schiicking, and Sedgefield. 

2223. Zupitza, J>[eg7i], and in a foot-note: 'the traces of three letters 
between'/ and nat justify us in reading egn {pegn, Kemble.)' [So Holthausen 
and Schucking.] But the last three letters are now quite illegible, and even 
Thorpe, who made a careful collation of the MS. in 1830, three years before 
Kemble's first edition, leaves a blank. As pegn seems from the whole con- 
text to be an unlikely terra for the fed-sceaftum men (1. 2285), I read J>eow, 
following Grundtvig [1861, p. 76]. [So Sedgefield.] 

2224. Later h&nd fleoh. 

2225. semes is not clear, but *to judge from what is left' (Zupitza), and 
that is exceedingly little, it seems to be correct. 

fealh, Greiuj : Thorkelin's transcripts A and B weall. 'Now only weal 
left, but w stands on an original /, which is still recognisable ' [perhaps] ; 
'and what seemed to be another I in Thorkelin's time may have been the 
remnant of an original h/ (Zupitza.) 

2226. The second hand has traced over the obscured letters $ona 
tnwatide, which, of course, is nonsense. But what does it misrepresent? 
Thorpe [followed by Schiicking: cf. Bugge ^^^^J, sojia inwidtode, 'soon he gazed 
in': Holthausen, soiia he wagode, 'soon he (the dragon) bestirred himself: 
Sedgefield, sona lie pd eode. 

2227. Grein2 [followed by Holthausen] suggests pxr to fill the gap. But 
probably more than 3 letters are missing: Sedgefield thinks 4, Zupitza 5; it 
is difficult to say exactly, as the gap comes at the end of a line in the MS. 

♦ The indistinct letter after gj/st seems to have been e. The traces of the 
third word allow us to read [with Grein] gryre.' (Zupitza.) 

2228. 'According to the traces left, the first word [i.e. in the MS. line] 
may have been earin.' (Zupitza.) Kemble gives it as earm. 

2230. Zupitza reads, with some doubt, '/a hine before se.* The extant 
traces seem to me to bear this out with fair certainty. 

Jar; Wiilker reads this as fas; Zupitza : 'fas freshened up, but s seems 
to stand on an original r.' There can be little doubt that this is so. 

112 Beowulf 

sinc-faet [jeseah]. piyr waes swylcra fela 
in Sara eur5-[hii]se ier-jestreona, 
8wa hy on jear-dajum jumena nat-hwylo, 
eormen-lafe aej^elan cynnes, 

2235 J^anc-hyc^ende {^ier jehydde, 

deore maOinas. Ealle hie deaS fornam 
^rran miSlum, ond se an Sa jen 
leoda dujuSe, s6 Cier lenjest hwearf, 
weard wine-jeomor, wende j^aes ylcaa, 

2240 }>aet he lytel faec lonj-jestreona 
brucan moste. Beorh eall jearo 
wunode on wonje waeter-ytSum neah, 
niwe be naesse, nearo-craeftum faest; 
)7aer on innan baer eorl-jestreona 

2245 hrinja hyrde hord-wyrSne dsel, 
fgettan joldes, fea worda cwaeS: 
" Heald )?u uu, hi use, nu haeleS ne mostan, 

2231. After the first line of the new folio, the illegibility is confined to 
the edges of the next three lines. 

geseah is Heyne's emendation, but I doubt if there is room either for 
that or for genom, Holthausena,,. Yet the metre demands two syllables: 
funde might fit in. 

2232. [hu]se, Zupitza's conjecture. 

2237. *Si the later hand, but t seems to stand on an original «.' 
(Zupitza.) I cannot see this. 

2239. wearS or weard x both make sense. 'The last letter of the first 
word was originally tf, although the later hand has not freshened up the 
stroke through the d.' (Zupitza.) I cannot detect traces of this stroke: and 
weard gives the better sense. [Schiicking reads weard as an emendation.] 

*rihde the later hand, but wende the first.' (Zupitza.) Here again I 
cannot share this certainty as to the first hand. 

Sedgefield was the first to note that the MS. reading yldan has been 
clumsily altered from ylcan. Both readings seem to be the work of the 
second hand. This is 'a genuine little find to rejoice at' [Klaeber in Engl. 
Stud. xliv. 122], as it gives us a simple and intelligible t€flct: — the survivor 
•expected the same fate as his friends,' viz. that his tenure of the hoard 
would be a transitory one. 

2244. 'innon the later hand, but stands on an original a.' (Zupitza.) 
Not 'clear to me. 

2245. Zupitza, hard-wyr^ne^ and in a foot-note: ^w (or /?) and the 
stroke through d in wyr6ne not freshened up.' The form hard occurs 
nowhere else in Beowulf. Klaeber {Engl. Stud, xxxix. 431] suggested hord- 
wyrffne, 'worthy of being hoarded,' and this was independently adopted by 
Sedgefield (both adapting Schiicking's hord, wyrffne dal). The emendation 
to hord had already been made by Bouterwek [Z.f.d.A. xi. 98]. 

2246. '/ec later hand, but originally /ea.' (Zupitza.) 

2247. 'meestan later hand, but I think I see an original under the m; 
a also seems to stand on another vowel, u or o't (Zupitza.) All very 

Beowulf 113 

eorla sehte. Hwaet, hyt ser on 5S 

jOde bejeaton ; gtiS-deaS forDam, 
2250 feorh-bealo frecne, fyra jehwylcne 

leoda minra, )7ara Se {^is [Zi/] ofjeaf; 

jesawon sele-dream. |[Ic] nah hwa svveord we^e, 

oS5e fe[o]r[inie] faeted wseje, [Fol. 180*. 

drync-faet deore ; du5[u3] ellor scoc. 
2255 Sceal se hearda helm [hyrjsted jolde 

fsetum befeallen; feormynd swefaS, 

)?a Se beado-jriman bywan sceoldon; 

je swylce seo here-pad, sio aet hilde jebad 

ofer borda jebraec bite irena, 
2260 brosnaS aefter beorne; ne maej byrnan hrinj 

sefter wig-fruman wide feran 

2250. ^reorh bealc later hand, but the first r stands on an original/, and 
c on an original 0.' (Zupitza.) Not clear to me. 

fyra^ Komhle 3 \Jira]: MS. fyrena. 

2251. para : the later hand has pana ; * nor do I see any sign of the 
third letter having originally been r.' (Zupitza.) 

[Zi/] supplied by Kembleji [leoht], Holthausen. 

2252. ges'ipa sele-dream, a conjecture of Bieger**^^ ig adopted by Holt- 
hausen. Similar in meaning is {ge)secga sele-dream [Trautmann : and 
independently Klaeber, in J. E.G. Ph. vi. 193, Engl. Stud, xxxix. 465]. This 
is supported by Andreas, 1656, secga sele-dream; a support which is all the 
more weighty because the writer of the Andreas seems to have imitated the 
Beowulf. The change from gesdwon to gesecga is not as violent as it looks : 
for gesdwon in the Anglian original of Beowulf may have been written 
gesega{n), which might easily have been miswritten for gesecga or secga. 
In support of the text, however, can be quoted Exod. 36, geswmfon sele- 

Holthausen supplies ic, as there is a gap in the MS. sufficient for two 

2253. MS. defective here and in 11. 2254, 2255, and 2268 ; fe[o]r[mie], 
the emendation of Greiuj, is supported by Zupitza, who shows that the 
remaining traces of the word in the XIS. make fetige impossible. A trace of 
the tail of an r certainly seems to be visible. Cf. I. 2256. 

A C-line: scan od'Se feormle, 

2254. dug[udl Kembles. 
scoc, Greinj: MS. seoc. 

2255. hyr in [hyr]sted comes at the end of the line and is now lost. It 
is recorded by Kemble, after having been conjectured by Grundtvig^^. 

2256. Many editors have normalized to feormiend or feormend (cf. 1. #701) 
but the change is unnecessary. 

2259. irena: Sievers would emend to iren[n]a [P. £.B. X. 253]. Cf. note 
to 1. 673. 

2260. after beorne : after is here certainly temporal : • after the death of 
the warrior.' The same interpretation is often given to mfter wig-fruman in 
the next line. But the two phrases are, in spite of appearances, not parallel : 
and it is very likely that sefter wig-fruman means 'behind,' 'following,' 
•along with,' the warrior. [Cf. Klaeber in J.E.G.PIi. vi. 197.] This is 
certainly the meaning of ha&le^uin be healfe, 'by the heroes' side.' 

114 Beowulf 

ha^leSum be ho.alfe. Nis henrpan wyn, 

jomen jleo-beames, ne jod haloc 

jeond sael swinjeS, ne se swifta mearh 
2265 biirh-stede beateS. Bealo-cwealm hafaS 

fela feorh-cyniia forS onsended." 

Swa jioraor-mod jiohSo msende 

an aefter ealliim, unbliSe hwe[arf] 

daejes ond nihtes, o5 5aet deaSes wylm 
2270 hran set heortan. Hord-wynne fond 

eald uht-scea5a opene standan, 

se Se byrnende biorjas sece^S, 

nacod niS-draca, nihtes fleojeS 

fyre befanjen ; hyne fold-buend 
2275 |[s\vi5e ondne]da[S]. He jesecean sceall Fol. ISC'. 

[ho]i[d on] hrusan, )7«r he hseSen jold 

waraS wintrum frod; ne byS him wihte 5y sel. 

Swa se 6eod-scea5a j^reo hund wintra 

heold on hrusaM hord-aerna sum 
2280 eacen-craeftij, o3 Saet hyne an abealch 

mon on mode ; man-dryhtne bser 

2262. Nis, Thorpe's correction. [Cf. Bugge, Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 212.] The 
MS. has nm. Cf. 11. 1923, 2486, where I have kept the MS. reading. But 
here the change of tense is too harsh. 

2266. ford: Thorkelin's transcripts A and B,feorff; Zupitza reads it 
as ford. He says : ' There is a dot under «, which is besides very indistinct.' 
Underdotting is equivalent to erasure. 

2268. hwe[arf]. Kemble gives the MS. reading as hweop, but the con- 
fusion of Thorkelin and the evidence of Thorpe make it very doubtful 
whether the last two letters were clear in Kemble's time; and hweop, which 
can only mean 'threatened,' makes no sense. It is possible either that 
hweop was miswritten for weop, ' wept,' or that we should read hwearf, 
* wandered.' Both suggestions were made by Grein : the first is followed by 
Holthausenj and Schiicking, the second by Holthauseuj and Sedgefield. It 
seems on the whole less violent to alter the op, which may be a mere guess of 
Kemble's, than the h, which ntands clearly in the MS. 

2275. MS. defective and illegible. Zupitza's emendation. Cf. Cottonian 
Gnomic Verses, 26 : draca sceal on hlSwe \ frod, frsetwum wlanc. 

2276. [ho]r[d on] hrusan was coujectured by Zupitza. on had been 
conjectured by Ettmiiller,, hrusan read by Kemblei. 

2279. hrUsan, Thorkelin's correction: so Kemble, etc. MS. hrusam. 

2280. Most editors follow Grundtvig^oo^ and alter to the normal form 
dbealh. Sftch normalizations would not be tolerated in a Middle English 
text: why should they be allowed in an Old English one? The spelling ch 
is interesting here; see Sieversa § 223, N. 1. 

2281. Mullenhoffi« thinks that the lord (man-dryhten) to whom the 
treasure was carried, suad who in return gave the fugitive his protection, 
must be Beowulf. This does not however seem certain. All we know is that 
the treasure ultimately came to Beowulf (1. 2404). 

Beowulf 115 

fseted wseje, frioSo-wsere baed 

hlaford sinne. Da wses hord rasod, 

onboren beaja hord ; bene jetiSad 
2285 fea-sceaftum men. Frea sceawode 

fira fym-jeweorc formaa si(5e. 

pa se wyrra onwoc, wroht wses jeniwad ; 

stone Sa aefter stane, stearc-heort onfand 

feondes fot-last ; he to forS jestop 
2290 dyrnan craefte dracan heafde neah. 

Swa maej unfgeje eaSe jedijan 

wean ond wryec-si5, se 5e Waldendes 

hyldo jehealde)?. Hord-weard sohte 

jeorne aefter jrunde, wolde juman findan, 
2295 )7one )7e him on sweofote sare jeteode ; 

hat ond hreoh-mod |hlgew; oft ymbehwearf Fol. 181*. 

ealne utan-weardne ; n«s Sser senij mon 

on )7sere westenne. HwaetJre wl^es jefeh, 

2283-4. The repetition of hord may perhaps be an error of the scribe. 
Holthausenj [followed by Sedgefield] suggests that the first hord is mis- 
written for hlmw, Bagge {Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 212] that the second hord is miswritten 
for dal. 

2287. wroht wms geniwad, 'a new, unheard of, strife arose.' Cf. use of 
niwe in 1. 783. [See Klaeber<«3.] 

2295. Cosijn33, followed by recent editors, reads sdr. But cf. 1. 2526. 

2296. hlaw, Kemble2. Thorkelin's transcripts A and B have hlsewum. 
Grundtvig (ed. 1861, p. 79) hlmw nu. 

ymbehwearf. The e of ymbe has probably been inserted by a scribe. [Cf. 
Sievers in P.B.B. x. 258, and 11. 2618, 2691, 2734, Finnsburg, 35.] 

2297. ealne utan-weardne is unmetrical. Holthausen and Klaeber [Engl. 
Stud, xxxix. 465], following Sievers [P.B.B. j.. 306; Metrik, §85], propose eal 
utanweard ; Schuekiug, ealne utweardne. Cf. 1. 2803. 

2297-8. The MS. has : ne ffmr anig mon on pxre westenne hwsedre hilde 
gefeh. This gives a sentence without a verb, and a line which fails to 
alliterate. The reading of the text is that of Schiicking's edition [adopted 
by Holthauseuj, vol. 11. p. 170]: nm is a conjecture of Cosijn**. It makes 
sense and gives a metrical line with the least possible disturbance of the 
text. Grein reads n« [ujffis] /»r...; Reyne [webs] on ^sere westeruie. Rieger-^ 
and Sedgefield assume two half-lines to be lost. Sedgefield 3 reconstructs 
the passage thus : 

ealne utan ne wear[ir\ Ss^r mnig mon 

on psRre westenne [wiht gesyne], 

Hwa6re hilde gefeh [ ] 

bea[du]-weorces [jgeorn] ; 
/>«r«, Thorkeliw's transcript B. A has a blank: in the MS, itself nothing 
is now left but the lower part of the perpendicular stroke of p._ Normally 
westen is masc. or neut., and many editors accordingly alter pare to peem. 
Considering how corrupt the passage is, little weight can be attached to 
westen being treated here as fem. 

Grain has haffe, for the alliteration. 

116 Beowulf 

bea[dut^e] weorces; hwllum on boorh aethwearf, 
2300 siiic-fa3t sohte ; he I'Oit sona oufand, 

5ait haefde jumena sum joldes jefandod, 

heah-jestreona. Hord-weard onbad 

earfoSlice, o5 6aet iefen cwom 

waes ?5a jeboljen beorjes hyrde, 
2305 wolde 56 laSa lije forjyldan 

drinc-faet dyre. pa waes daej eceacen 

wyrme on willan ; no on wealle l3e[n]5 

bidan wolde, ac mid bsele for, 

fyre jefysed. Waes se fruma ejesllc 
2310 leodum on lande, swa hyt lunjre wearS 

on hyra sinc-jifan sare jeendod. 
XXXIII DA se jaest onjan jledam spiwan, 

beoiht hofu baernan; bryne-leoma stod 

eldum on andan ; no Cser aht cwices 
2315 laS lyft-floja Isefan |wolde. Fol. 181^ 

Waas )?a38 wyrmes wij wide jesyne, 

nearo-fujes niS nean ond feorran, 

hti se juS-sceaSa 7eata leode 

hatode ond hynde. Hord eft jesceat, 
2320 dryht-sele dyrnne, ser dicjes hwile; 

haefde land-wara lije befanjen, 

bsle ond bronde; beorjes jetruwode, 

wijes ond wealles; him seo wen jeleah. 

pa waes Biowulfe broja jecySed 
2325 snude to soSe, J^aet his sylfes ham, 

bolda selest, bryne-wylmum mealt, 

2299. MS. mutilated: hea{du\-weorce3, which was probably the MS. 
reading, gives a defective line. Holthausen [Anglia, xxi. 366] suggests 
bea[du-]weorces [georn]: Klaeber [J.E.G.Ph. viii. 257] beaduwe xpeorces^ 
comparing 1. 2626 {gu^e rm for gufrm) and for the form fealuwe, 1. 2165, 
bealuwa, 1. 281, bealewa, II, 1946, 2082. The we might easily, as Klaeber 
points out, have been written once only instead of twice (haplography). [So 
Schiicking and Holthausen ,.] 

2305. se Idda, Bugge [Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 212], etc. : MS. fela fa. 

2307. lBB[n]g: MS. lag. Grundtvig^o" [and Kemble,, following Thorpe's 
BUggestion], leng. But by adopting the old form lang we can keep nearer to 
the MS. See Sievers, § 89, N. 5. 

2312. gmst. See note to 1. 102. 

2325. Iidm. The MS., by an obvious scribal error, has him. Curiously 
enough Conybeare (p. 150) read the MS. as }idm, but the credit of making 
the emendation goes to Grundtvig^^ and Kemble j. 

Beowulf 117 

jif-stOl 7gata. paet 5am jodan waes 

hreow on hreSre, hyje-sorja msest; 

wende se wisa, )7set he Wealdende 
2330 ofer ealde riht, ecean Dryhtne, 

bitre jebulje; breost innan weoll 

)7eostrum jejjoncum, swa him Jej^ywe ne waes. 

Haefde lij-draca leoda faesten, 

ea-lond titan, eorC-weard Sone, 
2335 ^ledum forgrunden; him ?Jaes juS-kyninj, 

Wedera J?ioden, wraece leornode. 

Heht him )?§, jewyrcean wijendra hleo 

eall-irenne, eorla dryhten, 

wij-bord wraetlic ; |wisse he jearwe, Pol. 182*. 

2340 )7aet him holt-wudu he[lpan] ne meahte, 

lind wis lije. Sceolde Z^/i-da^a 

aefelinj aer-jod ende jebidan, 

worulde lifes, ond se wyrm somod, 

2332. The ♦ dark thoughts ' are presumably a foreboding of evil, rather 
than any rebellion against divine decree, and their unwonted character [swd 
him gefywe ne wm) represents rather a lapse from Beowulf s customary 
optimism [Cosijn'^] than from his 'high standard of piety' [Earle]. 

2334. Arguments as to the home of the Geatas have been based upon 
interpretations of ea-lond as 'island.' But it seems clear that ea-lond need 
mean no more than 'water-land,' 'land that is bordered (not of necessity 
completely) by water,' as first interpreted by Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 68. For 
other examples, cf. Krapp in Mod. Phil. ii. 403 and N.E.D. : * Norway is a 
great Hond compassed abowt almost wyth the See ']. 

titan, 'from without,' marks the direction of the dragon's attack. 

eorff-weard is parallel to Uoda fsesten and ea-lond. 

Sedgefielda reads dwi[n]e, comparing for position of ffonne, 1. 3062 ; and 
for ffone written for Sonne, 1. 70. 

2336. leornode, 'studied, gave his mind to vengeance.' Cf. Cura 
Pastoralis, p. 435, 1. 23, geleornaS ff&t he deS Ss&t yfel, ' gives his mind to 

2338. eall-irenne (masc.) forms, of course, a false concord with wig-bord 
(neut.). Hence many editors [Holthausen j, 5. Schiicking, 1910] have adopted 
the emendation irenne scyld proposed by Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 56]. Bugge 
subsequently withdrew his suggestion, in favour of the less probable ex- 
planation that there was a form irenne standing to iren as atteme to atren 
[Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 213]. But syntax is often confused in Beowulf: $cyld may 
have been in the author's mind when he wrote eall-irenne [cf. Klaeber in 
Engl. Stud, xxxix. 465]. Holthausen j reads : 

Heht him pa gewyrcean wigena hleo [scyld] 

Mr Grattan suggests that irenne is the weak neuter ; * that thing all of 

This shield all of iron is, of course, as fictitious as the shield with which 
Achilles was equipped for his greatest struggle. 

2340. MS. defective at comer: helpan is Thorkelin's emendation. 

2341. «»n, Grundtvig=»oi,Kemble,: MS. /end. Cf. 1. 2591. 

118 Beowulf 

)?6ah Ce hord-welan heolJe lanje. 
2345 Oferhojode Sa hrinja fenjel, 

)?aet he J?one wid-flojan weorode jesohte, 

sidan herje ; dO h6 him )?« syecce oiidred, 

ne him j^aes wyrmes wlj for wiht dyde, 

eafo?5 ond ellen, fortJon he ser fela, 
2350 nearo ueCende, niSa jedijde, 

hilde-hlemma, sySSan he Hro^jares, 

sijor-gadij secj, sele faelsode, 

ond aet juSe forjrap 'rrendeles msejum 

laCan cynnes. N5 )?8et Isesest waes 
2355 hond-5emot[a], J^ier mon Hyjelac sloh, 

sySSan 7eata cyninj juSe riSsum, 

frea-wine folca Fres-londum on, 

HreSles eafora, hioro-dryncum swealb 

bille jebeaten; )7onan Biowulf com 
2360 sylfes crsefte, sund-nytte dreah ; 

haifde him on earme |[ana] )7ritti5 Fol. l82^ 

hilde ^eatwa, \^. he to holme [stjaj. 

Nealles Hetvvare hremje )7orf[t]on 

feSe-wijes, J?e him foran onjean 
2365 linde b^ron; lyt eft becwom 

fram j^am hild-frecan haraes niosan. 

Oferswam Sa sioletJa bijonj sunu EcjSeowes, 

2347. /5, Kemblej: MS. }>a (=z J?am). Smcc is £em. (Sievers 3 § 258, 1). 
The scribe, by a natural error, has repeated the stroke (signifying m) over 
the a, which he rightly wrote over the i in the preceding hi ( = /iim). 

2353. msBgum. See note to 1. 565. 

2355. hond-gemdt[a], Kemhlei: MS. Jiond gemot. 

2358. 'Died by the thirsty sword' [Earle, Cosijn^]. The metaphor is 
an obvious one. But it is not so easy to say which, of many interpre- 
tations, was in the poet's mind. [Cf. Kriiger in P.B.B. ix. 574: Rickert in 
Mod. Phil. ii. 67.] 

2361. MS. defective at comer, here and in two following lines. Before 
prittig, written xxx in the MS., there seems to be space for some three 
letters. Greini supplied \joLna\, 

2362. {st^g, Kemblej. 

2363. ^or/[f]on, Kemblej. hremge porfton, 'needed to be exultant.' 

2366. Holthausen and Sedgefield take hild-frecan as a dat. pi. = Hef- 
iDarujn. But surely it refers to Beowulf : ' few got them back again from 
that war-wolf to see their homes' [Clark-Hall: so also Earle]. 

2367. siolefa 6ipon^ = ' expanse of still waters,' if the conjecture of 
Bupge [Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 214] be correct, and siolod is to be connected with the 
Goth, anasilan, ' to sink to rest.' [Dietrich in Z./.d.A. xi. 416 would connect 
with $oL But we have seen that the apparent occurrence of this word 

Beowulf 119 

earm an-haja, eft to leodum, 

)7«r him Hy^d jebead hord ond rice, 
2370 beajas ond bre^o-stol; bearne ne truwode, 

)7aet he wiS ael-fylcum e)?el-stolas 

healdan cu5e, 5a wges Hyjelac dead. 

No 5y ser fea-sceafte find an meahton 

aet Sam aeSelinje ienije Sinja, 
2375 I'aet he Heardrede hlaford wsere, 

o55e J?one cynedom ciosan wolde; 

hwaeSre he hine on folce freond-larum heold, 

estum mid are, oS 5aet he yldra wearS, 

Weder-7eatum weold. Hyne wrsec-ma^c^as 
2380 ofer sae sohtan, suna Ohteres; 

haefdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinja, 

]7one selestan sle-cyninja, 

J^ara Ce in Swio-rice sine brytnade, 

mseme |]7eoden. Him j^get to mearce wearS ; FoL 183*. 
2385 he )?3er [/]or feorme feorh-wunde hleat 

sweordes swenjum, sunu Hyjelaces. 

Ond him eft jewat OnjenSioes beam 

hames niosan, sy?55an Heardred laej, 

let Sone brejo-stol Biowulf healdan, 
2390 7eatum wealdan; )7aet waes jOd cyninj. 
XXXIV SE Sses leod-hryres lean jemunde 

uferan dojrum; Eadjilse wearS 

in 1. 302 with the meaning of 'sea' is due to a scribal error: and the mean- 
ing of 'muddy pool' is equally unsatisfactory here.] 

2370-3. beam, he refer to Heardred : fea-sceafte to the Geatas. 

2377. hijie, Thorpe: MS. hi ( = him). 

2379. See Index of Persons : Onela, Eadgils. 

2383. MS. d£ ffe, the first ffe at the end of a line, the second at the 
beginning of the next. 

2384. With the punctuation given above, Him refers, of course, to 
Hygelac's son Heardred : 'that was his life's limit.' (For mearc in temporal 
sense cf. Genesis, 1719.) Sedgefield takes hi7n f>mt to mearce wearif with the 
preceding lines, interprets him as referring to Onela, the helm Scylfinga, and 
mearc as meaning 'territory': 'Sweden had become his land,' i.e. Onela had 
succeeded Ohthere. 

2385. for feorme. The MS. has orfeorme, 'forsaken,' which does not 
give very satisfactory sense. Grein's on feorme, 'at a banquet,' is an 
improvement. Better still is for feorme, 'on account of his hospitality.' 
This was suggested by Moller IV. E. Ill], and has been adopted by most 
recent editors and translators. 

2387. Ongendfioes beam, i.e. Onela. 

120 Beowulf 

fea-sceafbiim freond, folce jestSpte 

ofer S2e side sunu Ohteres, 
2395 wijura ond wSpnum ; he jewraec 8y?55an 

cealdura cear-siSum, cyninj ealdre bioeat. 

Swa he niSa jehwane jenesen haefde, 

sliSra jeslyhta, sunu Ecj^^owes, 

ellen-weorca, oS Cone anne daej, 
2400 )7e he wis )7am wyrme jewejan sceolde. 

lewat J7a twelfa sum, tome jeboljen, 

dryhten qeata dracan sceawian ; 

haefde (?a jefrunen, hwanan sio fseliS aras, 

bealo-niS biorna ; him to bearrae |cw6m Fol. 183»>. 
2405 maS)7um-f3et msere )7urh Caes meldan bond. 

Se waes on Bam Create )7reotteol?a sec^, 

se Caes orlejes Or onstealde; 

haeft hyje-jiomor sceolde bean Conon 

wonj wisian. He ofer willan 51005, 
2410 to Caes Ce hS eorS-sele anne wisse, 

hlaew under hrusan holm-wylme neh, 

yC-jewinne, se waes innan full 

wraetta ond wira. Weard unhiore, 

jearo juS-freca, jold-maSmas heold, 
2415 eald under eorCan ; nses J^aet ySe ceap 

to jejanjenne jumena aenijum. 

Tesaet Sa on naesse niS-heard cyninj, 

)7enden haelo ahead heorS-jengatum, 

jold-wine 7eata. Him waes jeomor sefa, 
2420 waefre ond wael-fus, wyrd un^emete neah, 

2393. By supporting the exiled Eadgils against Onela, Beowulf obtains 
his revenge on the Swedes. [Cf. Bugge^^^ gj^.] See note to 1. 2603 and 
Index of Persons : Eadgils. 

2394. Schiicking adopts the emendation of Schroder [Z.f.d.A. xliiL 
366-7] ofer sa-aiife, 'after a journey by water.' Sm side means the same as 
the wld water of 1. 2473 : the lakes whioh separate Swedes and Geatas. 

2395. he, Beowulf : cyning, Onela. 

2396. cealdum : the battle between Eadgils and Onela took place on the 
ice of Lake Wener; nevertheless, ceald may mean nothing more than 
•bitter, hostile.' 

2401. twelfa : MS. xii. 

2409. wong toisian. Not merely 'to show,' but 'to lead the way.* 
Cf. 1. 208. 

Beowulf 121 

Be 5one jomelan jretan sceolde, 

secean sawle hord, sundur jed^laa 

lif wis lice; no )7on lanje wses 

feorh ge)7elin5es flsesce bewunden. 
2425 Biowulf maj^elade, beam EcjSeowes: 

"Fela ic on giojoSe gtiS-rsesa jenaes, 

orlej-hwila; ic )?aet eall jemon. 

|Tc wses syfan-wintre, )?a mec sinca baldor, Fol. 184». 

frea-wine folca, set minum fseder jenam; 
2430 heold mec ond hsefde HieSel cyning, 

jeaf me sine ond symbel, sibbe jemunde; 

nses ic him to life laSra owihte 

beom in burjum )7onne his bearna hwylc, 

Herebeald ond Hse5cyn, oSSe Hyjelac min, 
2435 Wses )7am yldestan un5edefe(lice> 

mgejes dsedum mor)7or-bed stred, 

sytJSan hyne HseScyn of horn-bojan, 

his frea-wine, flane jeswencte, 

miste mercelses ond his msej ofscet, 
2440 broSor oSerne, blodi^an gare. 

pset wses feoh-leas jefeoht, fyrenum jesynjad, 

hreSre hyge-meSe; sceolde hwseSre swa )?eah 

2421. Many editors follow Grundtvig (ed. 1861, p. 83) and read seo. 
Wyrd is fern, elsewhere, but cf. 11. 1344, 1887, 2685. 

2423. /fon lange, Sedgefield suggests that J?on may be miswritten for 
/>on {=J>onne), which would then be interpreted, as in 1. 435, etc. * therefore, 
and so.' Keeping />on, we must interpret * it was not long from that time.' 

2430. Holthausen ^ and Sedgefield read 

geaf me HreSel eyning 
tine ond symbel... 

Hre9el caning alone is certainly a light line. Holthausen,, j avoids the 
diflBculty by reading HreSel eyning geaf as the half -line. 

2432. owihte. Sievers [P.B.B. x. 256] would read wihte for metrical 
reasons [so Schiicking and Holthausen]. 

2435. ungedefelice is hypermetrical, and is probably miswritten for 
ungedefe. [So Holthausen and Schiicking: of. Sievers, P.B.B. x. 234: 
Metrik, % 85.] 

2438. Bugge^**', thinking frea-wine 'lord* inapplicable, conjectured 
freo-wine (=• noble brother,' Earle), comparing Genesis 98S,freomMg ofsloh, 
brdf)or sinne. Keeping frea-wine : * emote him who should have been his 

2439. ofscet = of sceat. 

2441. fyrenujn in I. 1744 perhaps means 'maliciously,' •treacherously': 
but here it has only an intensifying force, 'exceedingly': no malicious 
intent is attributed to HeBthcyn. [Cf. Klaeber«».] 

2442. Holthausen, in part following Greiuj, reads HreSle hygemedo, ' a 
heart sorrow for Hrethel.' 

It22 Beowulf 

aeCelinj unwrocen ealdres linnan. 

Swa bii5 jeoinorlic jomelum ceorle 
2445 to jebldanue, \dit his byre ride 

jionj on jaljan ; [7onne he jyd wrece, 

sarijne sanj, (70nne his suau hanjaS 

hrefne 16 hroSre, ond he him helpan ne maej, 

eald ond in-frod, senile jefremman. 
2450 Symble biS jemyndjad morna jehwylce 

|eaforan ellor-siS; oCres ne jyrncS FoL 184^ 

to jebidanne burjura in innan 

yrfe-weardas, )?onne se an hafaS 

\\iih. deaSes nyd dseda jefondad. 
2455 7e8yh5 sorh-cearij on his suna bure 

win-sele westne, wind-jereste 

reote berofene; rideiid swefaS, 

haeleS in hoSman ; nis j^aer hearpan swej, 

jomen in jeardum, swylce 5^r iu wienjn. 
XXXV 2460 GEwiteS Jjonne on sealman, sorh-leoS jaeleS 

2444. Swd, *in such wise,* a comparison of Hrethel's woe to that which 
an old man might feel, if his son were hanged. Gering has seen in the grief 
of this man a reference to Ermanaric, who (in legend) hanged his son : but 
the likeness seems remote. Ermanaric was not credited with taking the 
death of his kin so much to heart. 

2445. Cf. galgan ridan in the Fates of Men, 33, and the Scandinavian 
'kenning' for the gallows, 'Odin's horse.' 

2446. MS. wrece. Grein wreced, followed by many editors, including 
Holthausen and Sedgefield. But the change is unnecessary. [Cf. Bugge in 
Tidsskr. viii. 56.] 

2448. helpan. Kemble2 emended to helpe. There is no other certain 
instance of the weak noun. Possibly the scribe wrote helpan for helpe, 
thinking of the infinitive. [Cf. Sievers in Z.f.d.Ph. xxi. 357.] Indeed it 
would be possible to take helpan and fremman as two parallel infinitives, 
' cannot help him, or in any wise support him ' (understanding hine), as sug- 
gested by Kock [Anglia, xxvii. 2'20-l]. But anige = *\xi any wise' lacks 
analogy. [Cf. Klaeber**^ and Sedgefield's note.] 

2453. For gen. sg. in -as see Sieversj § 237, N. 1. Cf. 11. 63, 2921. 

2454. The alteration of Grundtvig (ed. 1861, p. 84) and Miillenhoff>*», 
who transposed dxda aud decides, is not necessary. 

2456. Holthausen's windge reste, ' windy resting place,' alters the form, 
but not the meaning. 

2457. reote. The best explanation seems to be that of Holthausen, that 
this is a mistranscription for rOete or r(ite (see Sievers, §27, N.), the old 
spelling of rete (dat. of *relu, 'joy,* from rot, 'cheerful'; cf. retnn, 'cheer'). 
Holthausen's conjecture is supported by such spellings as btoc lor 65c in 
the Codex Aureus Inscription. An earlier explanation was that of Bug^e 
[Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 215], who interpreted reot as 'rest.' 

swefad. Klaeber [Anglia, xxviii. 446] adopts Grein'a emendation swefed, 
and interprets ndfud as 'the rider on the gallows' (cf. 1. 2445); twefad 
might be a Northern singular: see Sieverss §358, N. 2. 

Beowulf 123 

an aefter Snum ; )7uhte him eall to rum, 

wonjas ond wic-stede. Swa Wedra helm 

aefter Herebealde heortau sorje 

weallinde waej; ^. wihte ne meahte 
2465 on 5am feorh-bonan fiBjhSe jebetan ; 

no 5y £er he )7one hea5orinc hatian ne meahte 

laSum djedum, )>eah him leof ne waes. 

He 5a mid jjsere sorhje, J^e him slo sar belamp, 

jum-dream ofjeaf, -jodes leoht jeceas; 
2470 eaferum liiefde, swa deS eadij mon, 

lond ond leod-byrij, )>a he of life jewat. 

pa I waes synn ond sacu Sweona ond veata, Fol. 185V 

ofer [w]Id waeter wroht jemsene, 

here-ni5 hearda, sy66an HreSel swealt, 
2475 <^^^*^ tim OnjenSeowes eaferan waeran 

frome, fyrd-hwate, frgode ne woldon 

ofer heafo healdan, ac ymb Hreosnabeorh 

eatolne inwit-scear oft jefremedon. 

paet msej-wine mine jewrfecan, 
2480 f«h5e ond fyrene, swa hyt jefrseje waes, 

)?eah 5e o5er his ealdre jebohte, 

2466. ^«airon'7i<; = HaBthcyn. 

hatian, 'pursue with hatred' [Cf. Klaeber in Archiv, cix. 305.] 

2468. Holthausen ,, , adopts the reading of Rieger {Lesebuch), /« him swa 
tar belamp, 'which befel him so sorely': Schiicking omits sio, on the ground 
that an article beginning with « is avoided before a substantive so beginning. 
Holthauseug accordingly reads /« him gio sdr belamp. 

2473. MS. defective at corner: [ro]id, Grundtvig 3°'. Thorkelin's tran- 
script B has a blank, but A has rid: a mutilated O.E. w might easily be 
mistaken for r. 

2475. For off^e = ond, see note to 11. 648-9. 

Sedgefield's conjectures, seodde (=6jd'cfa?i)t or 0^ dffi[«], do not seem 
necessary. War broke out after Hrethel died, and after Ongentheow's sons 
had grown to be valiant warriors. 

him may be an 'ethic dative' referring to Ongentheow's sons [Bugge in 
Tidsskr. viii. 57], in which case it need not be translated, or it might refer 
to the Geatas: 'valiant against them.' 

Holthausen, following Sievers, spells Ongenfeos. 

2477. Hreosnabeorh is unknown. Sedgefield, following Bugge, reads 
Erefna beorh (cf. 11. 2925, 2935). But the engagements and the localities 
seem to have been distinct; Hreosnabeorh in the land of the Geatas, 
Hrefna wudu in the land of the Swedes, as Bugge ^^ admits. 

2478. MS. ge ge fremedon. Cf. 11. 98G (see note), 2383. 

2479. mag-wine mine, i.e. Haathcyn and Hygelac. 

2481. his. hit, the emendation of Greiuj [adopted by Schiicking and 
Sedgefield], is certainly an improvement. 

124 Beowulf 

heardan c^ape ; HrvScynne wcarS, 

7eata dryhtne, JuS oiisjeje. 

pa ic on morjne jefriejn miej oSerne 

2485 billes ecjum on bonan staelai), 
)>t^r Onjenl^eow Eofores niosaS ; 
juS-hclm lojlad, jomela Scylfinj 
hreas {hilde-]h\^c\ bond jemunde 
fiehSo jenoje, feorb-swenj ne olteah. 

2490 Ic bim )>a magmas, }7e be me sealde, 
jeald aet ^uSe, swa me jifeSe wtes, 
leobtan sweorde ; be me lend forjeaf, 
eard, eSel-wyn. Noes bim tenij j^earf, 
j7aot be to 'rlt^ium, o55e to 7ar-Denum, 

2495 o^^e in Swio-rice, secean )>urfe 

|wyrsan wij-fiecan, weorSe jecypan ; Fol. 185^ 

symle ic bim on feSan beforan wolde, 
ana on orde, ond swa to aldre sceall 
saecce fremman, J^enden )?is sweord j^olaS, 

2500 |73et mec aer ond siS oft jelseste, 

sy5t5an ic for dujeSum D^jbrefne wear5 
to hand-bonan, Huja cempan. 

2484-5. Kightly rendered by Bos worth- Toller : * One kinsman with the 
edge of the sword brought home to the slayer the death of the other' : bat 
the kinsmen are not Eofor and Wulf, as there explained (since Wulf is not 
slain), but Hygelac and Hsethcyn. [See Kock mAnglia, xxvii. 232 : Cosijn^s.] 

The episode is narrated more fully later (11. 2949-2998). 

2486. Grein, niosade; but cf. 11. 1923, 1928, etc. 

2488. No gap in MS: {hilde-']hldc, Holthausen's conjecture [Anglia, 
xxi. 366], is followed by recent editors. The word is not extant, but cf. wig- 
hide, Exodus, 204. 

Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 297] suggested hrea-bldc, 'corpse-pale,' since the 
repetition hreas hrea- would have accounted for the scribal blunder; and 
Grein heoro-bldc ; but both these stop-gaps are metrically objectionable [the 
first obviously; for the second cf. Sievers in P.B.B. x. 300]. 

2489. feorh-sweng. We should expect the gen. with ofteon (see 1. 5). 
We also find the dat. (see 1. 1520), and accordingly Holthausen, followed by 
Sedgefieldj, would vrrite feorh-sweng e here. [Cf. Sievers in P.B.B. xxix. 307.] 
Yet the change is unnecessary, for the ace. construction is also found. 

2490. The episode is ended : him refers to Beowulf's lord, Hygelac. 
2495. For the present J>urfe, cf. hmbbe (1. 1928). 

2500. Sr ond sid, ' early and late.' 

2501. It is not clear whether for dugeffum means *by reason of my 
valour* (cf. L 1206 for wlenco), or whether it means 'in the presence of the 
doughty' (cf. 1. 2020 /or dugude). 

2501-2. Beowulf praises his sword, which has done him good service, 
early and late, since the time when he slew Daeghrefn. But the following 
lines show that io this feat Beowulf did not use his sword. Uence some 

Beowulf 125 

Nalles h5 ?5a fraetwe Fres-cynin5[e], 
breost-weorGunje. brinjan moste, 

2505 ac in campe jecronj cumbles hyrde, 
se)?eliD5 on elne; ne waes ecj bona, 
ac him hilde-jrap heortan wylmas, 
ban-hus jebraec. Nu sceall billes ec^, 
bond ond heard sweord, ymb hord wijan/' 

2510 Beowulf maSelode, beot-wordum sprsec, 
niehstan siSe : " Ic jeneSde fela 
5u?5a on jeojoSe; jyt ic wylle, 
frod folces weard, fsehSe secan, 
mserSum fremman, jif mec se man-sceaSa 

2515 of eorS-sele iit jeseceS." 

7e5rette Sa jumena jebwylcne, 

hwate helm-berend, hindeman si?5e, 

swsese jesiSas : " Nolde ic sweord beran, 

weepen t5 wyrme, Ijif ic wiste hu Fol. ise^ 

editors [e.g. Schiicking and Sedgefieldj] separate the two sentences by a 
full stop after gel&)>te, and take sySiSan, not as a conj., but as an adv. 

Yet the sword may have been taken by Beowulf from the dead Daeghrefn : 
in which case the connection is close enough between 11. 2499 and 2501. 
[So Rieger*!*; Klaeber in Archiv, cxv. 181,] 

2503. d"a frsRtwe, ♦ those famous spoils,' clearly the necklet of 11. 1195, 
etc., won by Beowulf at Heorot. This had naturally passed to his liege lord. 
(But note that in 11. 2172, etc., this necklet is said to have been given, not 
to Hygelac, but to Hygd.) Dasghrefn must be the slayer of Hygelac: as 
such he would, had he lived, have presented the spoils he had won to his 
chief. But Beowulf avenged his lord, though the body of Hygelac {Lib. 
Monst.) and his arms (1. 1211) remained with the Frankish foe. 

Fres-cyning[e], Grundtvig^°*, Kemblej: MS.frescyning. 

Who is the Frisian king ? Does it refer to some tributary prince, or is it 

0, title of the Frankish overlord ? Since Daeghrefn is presumably a Frank 
(Huga cempa) he would present the spoils to his own king, Theodoric the 
Frank, or to his son Theodobert, who was actually in command. LI. 1210, 
2921 also support the interpretation of Fres-cyning as a reference to the 
Frankish overlord. But the writer of Beowulf may well have been using 
traditional names which he himself did not clearly understand. 

2505. Compe (campe), Kemblei: MS. cempan. If we keep the MS. 
reading, we shall have to interpret cempan = ceTnpum, and render 'among 
the warriors ' [von Grienberger, Schiicking, 1908 : cf. Engl. Stud. xlii. 110]. 
But in in this sense of 'among' seems unprecedented [Sievers in P.B.B. 
xxxvi. 409-10, as Schiicking now admits]. 

2505-6. cumbles hyrde, apeling, refer to Deaghrefn. 

2509. Morgan {P.B.B. xxxiii. 105] and Holthausen suggest heard- 
sweord, for the metre. 

2514. Kemble 2, wifflrd*o, supported by Bugge^'**, and all recent editors, 
on the analogy of 11. 2134, 2645. But the argument from analogy may be 
pushed too far, and it is even possible that fremman is iutrans., as in 

1. 1003. 

126 Beowulf 

2520 wiO rfain ajliucean elles meahte 

;^yl|)e wi^jripan, swa ic jio wi5 7reiidle dyde ; 
ac ic S;Tt heaCti-fyres hates wene, 
[c»]re5es ond dttres ; tur^on ic me on hafu 
bord ond byrnan. Nelle ic beorjes weard 

2525 oferfleon fotes trem, ac unc \furtSiir\ sceal 
weorCan ait wealle, swa unc wyrd jeteoB, 
metod manna jehwaes. Ic eora on mode from, 
}?aet ic wis )7one juS-flojan jylp ofersitte. 
7ebide jg on beorje bymum werede, 

2530 secjas on searwum, hwaeSer sel maije 
aefter wael-riUso wunde jedyjan 
uncer twe^a. Mis )7aet eower si5, 
ne jemet mannes nefn[e] min anes, 
})8r\, he wis ajlyecean eofo5o dgele, 

2535 eorl-scype efne. Ic mid elne sceall 
jold jpjanjan, oSt5e juS nimeS, 
feorh-bealu frecne, frean eowerne." 
Aras 5a bi ronde rof oretta, 
heard under helme, hioro-sercean baer 

2540 under stan-cleofu, strenjo ^etruwode 
anes mannes; ne biS swylc earjes si5. 

2520-1. Sievers \F.B.B. ix. 141] BuggeBta /^ms dgl sec ran gylpe, 'against 
the boast of the adversary.' Schroer [Anglia, xiii. 345] suggests gu))e for 
gylpe, 'come to grips with the adversary in war.' I take gylpe = ' with 
boast,' i.e. ' in such a manner as to fulfil my boast.' 

2523. [oyeSes, Greinj, dttres Kemble,: MS. redes 7 hattres. Cf. 11. 2557, 
2839. There is a dot over the h of hattres, which Sievers [Z.f.d.Ph. xxi. 
355] regards as intended by the scribe to signify that h is cancelled. I should 
rather regard the dot as accidental. 

2525. The second half-line is metrically deficient : furffor is Klaeber's 
emendation {Archiv^ cxv. 181] adopted by Holthausen. Holthausen's earlier 
suggestion, feohte [Litteraturblatt filr germ. u. rom. Fhilologie, 1900, p. 61], 
is adopted by Schiicking. Bugge^** had also suggested feohte. 

In view of the rarity of a ' prelude' of two syllables with this type of line 
[cf. Sievers in P.B.B. x. 302] Bugge^^ would omit ofer, comparing Maldon, 
2i7 , fleon fotes trym. [So Sedgetield^ss.] 

Holthausen, reskda ferfleon {=forfieon). 

2528. J?at = ' so that,' Sievers' emendation [P.B.B. ix. 141] /««, 
•therefore,' is unnecessary. [Cf. Klaeber*^^ Schiicking, Satzverk., 25.] 
*The conj. /at is found to denote the relation between two facts in the 
vaguest possible manner' (Klaeber). 

2529. Note that, where the pronoun follows the imperative of the verb, 
the normal inflection of the verb is dropped. 

2533. MS. defective at edge: nefn[e], Grundtvig«>*. 

2534. /«f, GrundtvigSoS Kemblei : MS. teat. 

Beowidf 127 

7eseah Sa be wealle, [se 5e worna fela, Foi. 186^. 

jum-cystum jod, juSa jedijde, 

hilde-hlemma, J;onne hnitan fe5an, 
2545 sto[n]dan stan-bo^an, stream tit |7onaii 

brecan of beorje; waes )78ere burnan waelm 

heaSo-fyrum hat; ne meahte horde neah 

unbyrnende senije hwile 

deep jedyjan for dracan le^e. 
2550 Let 6a of breostura, Sa he jeboljen waes, 

Weder-preata leod word ut faran, 

stearc-heort styrmde; stefn in becom 

hea5o-torht hlynnan under harne stan ; 

hete waes onhrered, hord-weard oncniow 
2555 mannes reorde; naes Saer mara fyrst 

freode to friclan. From aerest cwom 

orutS ajlaecean ut of stane, 

hat hilde-swat; hruse dynede. 

Biorn under beorje bord-rand onswaf 
2560 wis 5am jryre-jieste, 7eata dryhten ; 

5a waes hrinj-bogan heorte jefysed 

saecce to seceanne. Sweord aer jebried 

god juS-cyninj, 50m ele lafe, 

ecgum unslaw; aejhwaeSrum waes 
2565 bealo-hycjendra [broja fram oSrum. Fol. 187». 

2545. ttolrildan, Thorpe: MS. stodan. Thorpe's emendation is con- 
firmed by a passage in the Andreas, 1492, etc., where these lines seem to be 

2547. ne meahte.., deop gedygan, * could not endure the depths of the 
cave.' Grundtvig^ reads deor; so Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 297], but this was 
with the belief that the MS. could bo be read, whereas the reading is clearly 
deop, not deor. Deor has, however, been adopted by Earle and Sedgefield : 
* nigh to the hoard could not the hero unscorched any while survive.' 

2556. freode. Sedgefield reads /r«odb. 

2559. Biorn refers to Beowulf. Sedgefield reads 60m, and puts the 
stop after beorge, making 1. 2559* a continuation of 11. 2556-8: ' the earth 
resounded and burned under the hilL' For dtom, beom=born, beam he 
compares L 1880. 

2562. seceanne. See note to 1. 473. 

ser gebreed, *had already drawn his sword.' 

2564. MS. un \ glaw. * A letter erased between I and a in glaw : that it 
was e is not quite certain * (Zupitza). As there is all the appearance of an 
uncompleted alteration, I have adopted the emendation of Bugge^"^ (following 
Thorpe). Klaeber [Analia, xxix. 380] defends ungleaw, which he takes to 
mean 'very sharp,' with un intensifying, as in unhdr (1. 357). But this use 
of un appears to be very problematical. 

128 Beowulf 

Sti?^-Tn5d jcstod witS steapne rond 

winia bealdor, 5a se wyrm jebeah 

SDude tdsomne ; ho on searwum bad. 

7ewrit 5a byrnendc jebojen scriSan, 
-570 to jescipe scyudau. Scyld wel jebearj 

life oud lice liussan hwile 

mierum )>eodne, J^onne his myne sohte; 

5iDr he ]>y fyrste forman dojore 

weaklaii moste, swa him wyrd ne jescraf 
2575 hreS aet hilde. Hond up abraed 

7eata dryhten, jryre-fahne sloh 

incje lafe, j^aet sio ecj jewac 

brQn on bane, bat unswISor, 

J>onne his Oiod-cyninj )7earfe haefde, 
2580 bysijum jebaeded. pa waes beorjes weard 

aefter heaSu-swenje on hreoum mode, 

wearp wael-fyre ; wide sprun^on 

hilde-leoman. HieS-si^ora ne jealp 

^old-wine 7eata; juS-bill jeswac 
2585 nacod aet niSe, swa hyt n5 sceolde, 

iren ser-jod. Ne waes j^ast eSe siS, 

)?£et se m^ra ma^a EcjSeowes 

2567. winia. Cf. note to 1. 1418. 

2570. MS. gscipe. Heyue emended gcscife, ' headlong,' basing his con- 
jecture upon an O.E. gloss in a MS. of Aldhelm's de Virginitate, now at 
Brussels, in which per preceps is rendered niderscife, with the further ex- 
planation nifersceotende in the margin. [Cf, Z.f.d.A. ix. 468 and scyfe in 
Bosworth-Toller.] Heyne's emendation has been adopted by Holthausen 
and Sedgefield. 

2573. do gore: Sievers, followed by Holthausen, would read dogor (un- 
inflected instrumental, cf. Sievers 3 § 289) which improves the metre. 

2573, etc. ' For the first time (literally, the first day) he had to spend 
his time in a struggle devoid of victory.' [But cf. Klaeber*^^.] 

2577. MS. incgelafe. The word incge is otherwise unrecorded (but ot 
note to 1. 1107). It has been conjectured that it means 'valuable' or 
* weighty.' Thorpe conjectured Incget Idfe [so Holthausen 1, 2. abandoning 
an earher conjecture, Anglia, Beiblatt, xiii. 78, and Sedgefield], believing the 
word * to be a corruption of some proper name.' If Thorpe's reading is 
correct, Ing would presumably be identical with the primaeval hero from 
whom the sea-tribes, the Ingaevones, were said to derive their name (see 
Index of Persons: Ingwine). Ing is recorded in the O.E. Runic Song, 67, 
as a hero of the East Danes. Some have identified Ing and Sceaf. 

Holthausen,, Ing[win]e[8] Idfe, a tempting conjecture, 'with the sword 
which Hrothgar had given him.' 

2579. his Jyearfe, probably ♦ need of it.' 

2581. hreoum. See note to feaunit 1. 1081. 

Beowulf 129 

jrund-wonj )70De ofgyfan wolde ; 

sceolde \pfer'] willan wic eardian 
2590 elles hwergen, swa |sceal ^e^hwylc mon Fol. 187''. 

alsetan Isen-dajas. Naes Sa lonj to Son, 

)78et 5a ajlsecean hy eft jemetton. 

Hyrte hyne hord-weard, hreSer aeSme weoU, 

niwan stefne; nearo Srowode 
2595 fyre befonjen, se Se ser folce weold. 

Nealles him on heape hand-jesteallan, 

seSelinja beam, ymbe jestodon 

hilde-cystum, ac hy on holt bujon, 

ealdre burjan. Hiora in anum weoll 
2600 sefa wis sorjum ; sibb sefre ne msej 

wiht onwendan, J^am Se wel l?enceS. 
XXXVI Wijlaf wses haten, Weoxstanes sunu, 

leoflic lind-wiga, leod Scylfinja, 

2588. grund-wong was taken by the older editors to mean * the earth ' : 
hence grund-wong ofgyfan^ * to die ' [so Clark-Hall]. This interpretation of 
grund-wong has recently been defended by Klaeber [Engl. Stud, xxxix. 466]. 

Since Bugge [Tidsskr. viii 298], it has been more usual to interpret 
grund-wong as the ground in front of the barrow [so Cosijn^^] or the floor of 
the dragon's den. Beowulf has hardly got so far as the floor : but a con- 
crete, local interpretation is supported by 1. 2770 (cf. too 1. 1496). 

Beowulf has to retreat (11. 2586-8) : the poet alludes to the issue of the 
combat (11. 2589-91) : then returns to his description again. 

2589. No gap in MS. Bieger^o emends [ofer] willan (cf. 1. 2409) ; 
Greiuj, [wyrmes] willan (cf. L 3077); Cosijnss, [wyrine fo] willan. 

2595. »e Se m folce weold : Beowulf, ' who had long ruled over his folk.' 
[Cf. Cosijn3«; Bugge in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 216.] 

2596. hand, Kemble2 : MS. heand. 

2603. Wiglaf is called leod Scylfinga because his father, Weoxstan 
(though apparently by origin a Geat), had once been a chief in the service 
of the Swedish (Scylfing) king Onela. Weoxstan may well have married 
into the family of his king, like Ecgtheow, Eofor, or Bothvar Bjarki : such 
a supposition would make the title leod Scylfinga more appropriate to 
Wiglaf, and might perhaps explain his mdgum (1. 2614, but see note there). 
^Ifhere, whose name begins with a vowel, would then be a member of the 
Swedish royal family (since in Germanic heroic tradition princes of the same 
family commonly have names which alliterate together) rather than one of 
the Waegmundingas (whose names run on W). 

When Eadgils and Eanmund rebel against their uncle Onela, and take 
refuge among the Geatas, Onela smites them (see 11. 2379-90). Weoxstan, 
serving under Onela, slays Eanmund, and, according to Germanic custom, 
presents the spoils of his slain foe to his king. But, contrary to custom, 
Onela does not accept them (for to do so would be publicly to approve the 
slaying of his own nephew) ; yet he rewards the slayer with the spoils, and 
hushes up the matter: * Onela spake not of the feud, though Weoxstan had 
slain his (Onela's) brother's son' (i.e. Eanmund, son of Ohthere), 11. 2618-9. 

Yet Weoxstan belongs to the Waegmundingas (1. 2607), a family of the 
Geatas to which Beowulf is related (1. 2814). Why he was serving with 

130 Beoivulf 

nijT'j iElfheres; jescah his mon-dryhten 

2605 under here-jriman hat J^rowian ; 

^emunde 5a 5a are, ]>q he him air forjcaf, 
wic-stede welijne Wa-jmundinja, 
folc-rihta jehwylc, swa his faeder ahte ; 
ne mihte 5a forhabban, bond rond jeiGnj, 

2610 jeolwe liude, ^omel swyrd jeteah. 

paet wffis mid eldum Eanmundes laf, 

jsuna Ohtere[5], )^am aet ssecce wear5, Fol. 188* 

wraecca[n] wine-leasura, Weohstan bana 

meces ecjum, ond his majum a^tbaer 

2615 brun-fajne helm, hrinjde byrnan, 

eald Bweord etonisc, J)aet him Onela forjeaf, 
his ja^delinjes juS-jewiedu, 
fyrd-searo fuslic ; no ymbe 5a faihSe sprsec, 
l^eah 5e he his bro5or beam abredwade. 

2620 He frajtwe jeheold fela missera, 

bill Olid byrnan, o5 5aet his byre mihte 
eorl-scipe efnan swa his air-faeder ; 
jeaf him 5a mid 'reatum juS-^ewjBda 
^jhwa^s unrim, )?a he of ealdre jewat 

2625 frod on forS-wej. pa wses forma si5 
jeonjan cempan, ]?8et he 5u5e ri5s 

the national enemy, or why, in spite of this, his own people ultimately 
received bim back, we do not know, [Cf. Chadwick, Origin of the English 
Nation, p. 173.] The re-grant (1. 2606) of Weoxstan's fief to Wiglaf must not 
be taken as signifying that the fief had been forfeited by Weoxstan : a formal 
re-grant is in every case necessitated by the death of the father. [See Widsith, 
95-6, and cf. Chadwick, p. 169.] 

[The difficulties are well explained by MiillenhofE in A.f.d.A. iii. 176-8. J 

2612. dhtere[8], Grundtvig3°^, Kemblei : MS. ohtere (partially corrected 
by Thorkelin). 

2613. MS. defective at corner: wrecca[Ti], Ettmiillerj: Weohstan, 
Grundtvig **^, Kemblci: MS. weohstanes. 

2614. mdgum probably means Onela: pi. for eg., as in 1. 2353: cf. note 
to 1. 565. 

his may refer to Weoxstan (see 1. 2603, above) or, more probably, to 

2615. The alliteration is improved if, with Rieger, followed by Holt- 
hausen, we read byrnan hringde. 

2620. He, i.e. Weoxstan. 

Grundtvig [1861, p. 89], followed by Holthausen, supplies /d before 

2623. We must understand Weoxstan as subject to gec^f. 

Beowulf 131 

mid his freo-dryhtne fremman sceolde; 

ne jemealt him se m5d-sefa, ne his meeje^ laf 

jewac aet wije; \sd se wyrm onfand, 
2630 sySSan hie tojaedre Jejan haefdon. 

Wijlaf maSelode, word-rihta fela, 

ssejde jesiSum — him waes sefa jeomor — 

" Ic 5aet |m«l jeman, ]?8er we medu j^ejun, Fol. 188^. 

)7onne we jeheton ussum hlaforde 
2635 in bior-sele. Se us Cas beajas geaf, 

)?3et we him 5a guS-getawa jyldan woldon, 

jif him J7yslicu J^earf jelumpe, 

helmas ond heard sweord. De he usic on her^e 

to Syssum siS-fate sylfes willum, 
2640 onmunde tisic mserSa, ond me )?as maSmas geaf, 

J?e he usic jar-wijend gode tealde, 

hwate helm-berend, J>eah Se hlaford us 

l^is ellen-weorc ana aSohte 

to jefremmanne, folces hyrde, 
2645 forSam he manna mgest miurSa ^efremede. 

dseda dollicra. Nu is se daej cumen, 

)?aet tire man-dryhten msejenes behofaS 

jodra juS-rinca; wutun JoDjan to, 

helpan hild-fruman, J^enden hyt s^, 
2650 jled-egesa grim. ^od wat on mec, 

J^aet me is micle leofre, J^aet minne lic-haman 

2628. mSges, Ettraullera : MS. mssgenes. 
his mages Idf, * his father's sword.' 

2629. /at, Thorpe: MS. J?a. 

2633. To this appeal to the gesidfds to make good their boast there are 
two close parallels: Maldon (212-15) and the Bjarka mdl, as recorded in 
the Latin paraphrase of Saxo Grammaticus {Hist. Dan., Bk 11.). It is 
a commonplace of Old Germanic poetry : and indeed of heroic poetry 

2636. See note to 1. 368. 

2642. Bugge [Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 216] suggested hlaford User instead of hlaford 
us: Cosiin^, hlaford ur. 

2645. fordam: MS. forffd; Zupitza transliterates forSan. So also 
I. 2741. 

2649. penden hit hat sy or Jyendtn hat sy are alternative suggestions of 
Kemblea: hat is supported by Bugge ^06, who compares 1. 2605, and is adopted 
by JQarle and Sedgefield, 

132 Beowulf 

mid minne jold-jyfan jled faeSmig. 

Ne l^ynceS me jerysne, j^aet we rondas beren 

eft to earde, nemne we seror maejen 
2655 fane jefyllan, feorh ealjian Fol. 197*. 

Wedra Seodnes. Ic wat jeare, 

)?aet nseron eald jewyrht, j^aet he ana scyle 

7eata dujuSe jnorn J^rowian, 

jesijan set saecce ; urum sceal sweord ond helm, 
2660 byrne ond beadu-scrud, bam jemsene." 

Wod }?a )?urh )7one wael-rec, wij-heafolan baer 

frean on fultum, fea worda cwaeS : 

'*Leofa Biowulf, Isest eall tela, 

swa Su on jeojutS-feore jeara jecwsede, 
2665 yjdt Su ne alsete be Se lifijendum 

dom jedreosan ; scealt nti dsedum r5f, 

aeSelinj an-hydij, ealle maejene 

feoih ealjian; ic ?Se ful-laestu." 

2652. MS. /ffidmig, optative sing. I take { here to signify «, which is 
the oldest form ol the optative ending. [Cf. Sievers, § 361.] See note to 
1. 1981. 

2657. Most editors make a compound eald-gewyrht, which they generally 
[Holthausen, Sedgefield, Earle] render • ancient custom,' etc. 

eald-gewyrhtum occurs in the Dream 0/ the Rood, 100, where it means 
* deeds done of old,' with thought of the deserts therefrom resulting. • Ties 
through deeds done ' seems to be the meaning of gewyrht here. 

2659. In the MS. a colon, a comma, and a if are placed after urum, 

thus : uru ; . The colon signifies that something has been omitted, and 
the f [signifying 'it is wanting*: Lat. deest] corresponds to another d in 
the margin, which is followed by the word sceal, between dots, thus : "5 • sceal • . 
This device, to signify that the word sceal has been omitted after urum, has 
often been misunderstood, and the line misread in consequence. 

urum bam seems a strange way of expressing unc bam. Bugge [Tidsskr. 
viii. 58; Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 216] supposes a gap. So Rieger"° and Earle. Parallels 
can, however, be found : Cosijn quotes examples of nmniges ures, urea ndnes, 
etc., for naniges ure, ure ndnes [P.B.B. viii. 573] and totcra »elfra is found 
in Orosius [ed. Sweet, 48, 21] for iower selfra. 

Sedgefield 288 conjectures huru for urum : 'surely sword and helmet... must 
be common to both.' 

2660. beadu-scrud, Ettmiillerj (so Thorpe) ; MS. byrdu scrud. The word 
byrdu, which is unknown, is defended by von Grienberger [P.B.B. xxxvi. 83] 
and byrdu-scrud interpreted to mean ' coat of mail.' Yet it is possible that 
beadu has (not unnaturally) been written byrdu through the influence of 
the preceding byrne. Holthausen's further alteration [following Cosijn**], 
bord ond beadu-sciHd, does not seem essential, though it certainly improves 
the reading of the text, in which the shield is not mentioned, and the coat 
of mail enumerated twice. 

Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 55 etc.] suggested bywdu scrud, * adorned vestment'; 
bywarit to adorn, occurs in 1. 2257. 

Beowulf 133 

^fter 5am wordum wyrm yrre cwom, 

2670 atol inwit-jsest, 65re si5e 

fyr-wylmum fah fionda nios[i]an, 
laSra manna. Lij-ySum forborn 
bord wis rond[e]; byrne ne meahte 
jeonjum jar-wijan jeoce jefremman; 

2675 ac se maja jeonga under his msejes scyld 
elne jeeode, )?§, his ajen \v[aes] 
jledum forjrunden. pa Jen jtiS-cyninj 
m[8er5a] jemunde, mgejen-strenjo sloh 
hilde-bille, )?3et hyt on heafolan stod 

2680 ni)7e jenyded ; Naejlinj forbserst, 

jeswac set saecce sweord Biowulfes,| Fol. l97^ 

50m ol ond jrsej-mael. Him |7aet jifeSe ne waes, 
)7aet him irenna ecje mihton 
helpan set hilde — waes sio bond t6 strong — 

2685 se 5e meca jehwane, mine jefrseje, 

swenje ofersohte, J?onne he to saecce baer 
waepen wund[r]um heard; naes him wihte Se sel. 
pa w3es.)?eod-scea?5a )?riddan siSe, 
frecne fyr-draca, fsehSa jemyndij, 

2690 riesde on Sone rofan, J^a him rum ajeald, 
hat ond heaSo-jrim, heals ealne ymbefeDj 

2671. MS. defective, here and in 11. 2676, 2678. Though evidence 
points to niosian having stood in the MS. hers, it must have been a mere 
scribal variant of the form niosan, which the metre supports, and which is 
also found in Beowulf. See note to 11. 115, 1125. 

2673. rond[e], Eemblei : MS. rond. The emendation is metrically 
necessary; cf. 1. 3027. Wiif ronde=i*&a far as to the rond.* [Of. Klaeber in 
M.L.N. XX. 86.] 

2675. In the Iliad (vm. 267, etc.) Teucer fights under the shield of 
Ajax. For other remarkable coincidences with Homer cf. 11. 2806, 3169. 

2676. MS. defective at edge: tc[«a], Grundtvig^oe, Kemblei. 
2678. MS. defective at edge: m[ffircfa], Grundtvig^os, Kemblei. 

2682. That a warrior should have been too strong for his sword seems 
to have been quite possible in the Germanic heroic age. It is told of Offa that 
he broke the swords offered him for his duel by simply brandishing them in 
the air [Saxo, Hist. Dan., Bk n: ed. Holder, p. 115]. The Icelandic sagas, 
with their greater sobriety, tell of a hero, who, in his last fight, had to keep 
straightening out his sword under his foot [Laxdsla Saga, cap. 49]. 

2686. ponne. Bugge^^^, followed by Holthausen, reads pone. 

2687. M7und[r]Mm, Thorpe : MS. wundii. A convincing emendation ; cf. 
wundrum wratlice, Phanix, 63 ; wundrum heah, Wanderer, 98. 

2691. ymbefeng. The e is probably a scribal insertion [of. Sievers in 
P.B.B. z. 260]: the line runs better when it is deleted. 

134 Beowulf 

biteran banura; be jeblodejod wearS 
sawul-driore ; swat ySum weoU. 

XXXVII DA ic aet J^earfe [^e/rse^n] J^eod-cyninjes 

2695 andlonjne eorl ellen cySan, 

craeft ond cenSu, swa bim jecynde waes ; 
ne bedde be j^aes beafolan — ac sio band jebarn 
mOdijes mannes, J^aer be bis msejes bealp — , 
J?aet be )7one niS-jaest nioSor bwene slob, 

2700 secj on searwum, J^aet Saet sweord jedeaf 
fab ond feeted, ]>set Saet fyr onjon 
sweSrian sySSan. pa jen sylf cyninj 
jeweold his jewitte, waell-seaxe jebrsed 
biter ond beadu-scearp, ]>3dt be on byrnan waej; 

2705 forwrat Wedra |belm wyrm on middan. Fol. 189*. 
Feond jefyldan — ferb ellen wrgec — , 
ond bi hyne J^a bejen abroten haefdon, 
sib-aeSelinjas ; swylc sceolde secj wesan, 
fejn aet Searfe. paet Sam |7eodne waes 

2710 si5as[^] sije-hvvi^ sylfes daedum, 

2694. No gap in MS. : [jgefragnl Kemblei. See 11. 2484, 2752, etc. 

2697. It is not clear whether it was his own head or the dragon's which 
Wiglaf did not heed. [For the former interpretation see Cosijn'^; for the 
latter Bugge^^*, who compares 1. 2679.] 

Wiglaf attacks what he knows to be the more vulnerable part of the 
dragon; both Frotho and Fridlevus in Saxo [Bk 11., ed. Holder, p. 39; 
Bk VI., p. 181] learn a similar discrimination : the parallels between these 
dragon fights in Saxo and those in our text are close. Sigurd also attacked 
Fafnir from below, but in a more practical and less heroic manner. 

2698. mMges, Kembleg: MS. magenes (so Grein-Wiilker) ; cf. L 2628, 
and foot-note. See also 1. 2879. 

2699. See note to 1. 102. 

2701. J>8st ffxt. Sievers, objecting to this awkward collocation of /fBf, 
proposed /a ffmt [P.B.B. ix. 141]. But Grundtvig had already suggested 
that the first />set (which is written -ji) should be read /a. See note to 1. 15, 
where this problem of the interpretation of ^ first meets us. Sedgefield 
reads pa; />at can, however, be defended here. [Cf. Schiicking, Satz- 
verk., 25.] 

2704. It seems best, in spite of strict grammatical concord, to take hiter 
ond beadu-scearp as referring to wmll-seaxe. 

2706. gefyldan. Ettmiillerj and Thorpe proposed to read gefylde, 
parallel to forwrat: Sievers [P.B.B, ix. 141] argues for this reading, which 
has been adopted by Sedgefield. 

ellen. Cosijn'^ suggested ellor [so HolthauseUj^j: but Holthausen,, 
ellen] : cf. 11. 55, 2254. The meaning would be ' drove his life elsewhere,* 
i.e. to Hell. With much the same meaning Kluge^*" reads feorh ealne 
torsBc, * drove out all his life,' comparing Genesis, 1385. 

2710. «iefa«[ t], Grein, : MS. s?d"as. Grundtvig 307 gngpested «i^esf. Yet 
it is possible to defend sidas here as gen. of «id^, parallel to worlde geweorces; 

Beowulf 135 

worlde jeweorces. Da sio wund onjon, 
\e him se eorS-draca ser jeworhte, 
swelan ond swellan; he J^aet sona onfand, 
)7aet him on breostum bealo-ni5[e] weoU, 

2715 attor on innan. Da se aeSelinj ^ionj, 
)7aet he hi wealle wis-hycjende 
jesaet on sesse, seah on enta jeweorc, 
hu 5a stan-bojan stapulum fseste 
ece eorS-reced innan healde. 

2720 Hyne )7a mid handa heoro-dreorijne, 
)7eoden mserne, l^eS^ unjemete till, 
wine-dryhten his, wsetere jelafede 
hilde-saedne, ond his hel[m] onspeon. 
Biowulf ma)7elode : he ofer benne sprasc, 

2725 wunde wael-bleate; wisse he jearwe, 
)73et he dsej-hwila jedrojen haefde, 
eorSan wynn[e]; Sa W3es eall sceacen 
dojor-jerimes, deaS unjemete neah: 
"Nu ic suna minum syllan wolde 

2730 juS-jewsedu, fser me ^ifeSe swa 

* That was to the chieftain a victorious moment of his allotted span, of his 

sige-hwil, Kembleg: MS. sigehwile. After sige, hwile might easily be 
written in error for hwil. Greini, sige-hwila. 

2714. The older editors read bealo-nlf, so also Sedgefieldj: but the word 
comes at the end of the line, and evidence points to a letter having been 
lost. (Thorkelin's transcripts: A healomif, B bealo nidi : now only beal left.) 
Bealo-nide is essential on metrical grounds [cf. Sievers in P.B.B. x. 269], 
and is probably to be regarded as the MS. reading. 

2715. giong, *went.' 

2719. ece. Holthausen would read ecne = eacne, * mighty.* 
Ettmiillera, Ilieger*ii [in an excellent note], Heyne, Holthausen, etc., 
read heoldon. But no change is necessary. For the tense cf. 11. 1923, 
1928, 2486 ; and for the sg. verb with pi. subject in a subordinate clause cf. 
1. 2164, and see the note to 11. 1408 and 2035. Further I do not see why 
eorif-reced should not be the subject : * How the earth-hall contained within 
itself the arches....' 

2723. MS. defective: hel[Tn], Greiuj, etc., following Grimm. 

2724. Beowulf speaks ofer benne, ' over his wound,' ' wounded as he 
was,' just as the warriors boast ofer ealowage, • over their cups ' (1. 481). 
[Cf. Cosijn", and Klaeber, Archiv, civ. 287, where the passage is elaborately 
discussed. Corson's rendering, 'beyond (i.e. concerning other things than) 
his wound,' M.L.N., iii. 193, seems impossible.] 

2725. wsBl-bleate. Holthausen, following Grein [SpracJuchatz], reads 
wal-bldte, 'deadly pale.' Cf. Crist, 771, bldtast benna. 

2727. wynn[e], Thorkelin's correction: MS. defective. 

136 Beowulf 

jenij yrfe-|weard a3fter wurde Fol. 189*. 

lice jelenje. Ic Sas leode heold 

fiftij wintra ; nses se folc-cyninj 

ymbe-sittendra ^enij Sara, 
2735 J7e mec juS-winum jretan dorste, 

ejesan Seon. Ic on earde bad 

m^l-jesceafta, heold min tela, 

ne sohte searo-niSas, ne me swor fela 

aSa on unriht. Ic Saes ealles maej 
2740 feorh-bennura seoc jefean habban; 

forSam me witan ne Searf Waldend fira 

morSor-bealo maja, )7onne min sceaceS 

lif of lice. Nu 6u lunjre jeonj 

hord sceawian under harne stan, 
2745 Wi^laf leofa, nu se wyrm lijeS, 

swefe?5 sare wund, since bereafod. 

Bio nu on ofoste, j^oet ic ger-welan, 

jold-seht onjite, jearo sceawije 

swejle searo-gimmas, J>3et ic 5y seft maeje 
2750 gefter maSSum-welan min alsetan 

lif ond leod-scipe, pone ic lonje heold." 
XXXVIII DA ic sniide gefraegn sunu Wihstanes 

sefter word-cwydum wundum dryhtne 

hyran heaSo-siocum, • hrinj-net beran, 
2755 brojdne beadu-sercean, ur?der beorjes hrof. 

7eseah 5a sije-hreSij, )7a he bi sesse jeonj, 

ma5o-)7e5n Imodij maSSum-sijla fealo, Fol. 190*. 

gold jlitinian jrunde jetenje, 

wundur on wealle, ond )?aes wyrmes denn, 

2738. fela. A typical example of that understatement so common in 
O.E. poetry. We must not, of course, suppose (as some have done) that 
Beowulf admits to having sworn some false oaths, but not many. Cf. 
1. 203. 

2749. Rieger*!!-' saw in swegle a corruption of sigle, 'brooch,' com- 
paring the parallel passage, 1. 1157. Holthausen and Sedgefieldj read pi. 
siglu; Klaeber'"^ defends the sg. form sigle, quoting parallels for such 
collocation of eg. and pi. 

2755. under, Thorkelin's correction : MS. urder. 

2767. Most editors normalise to fela or feola. But see Sievers, 
§ 276, and cf. § 150, 3 ; Bulbring § 236. 

2759. ond. Trautmann, followed by Holthausen and Sedgefield, reads 

Beowulf 137 

2760 ealdes tiht-flojan, orcas stondan, 

fyrn-manna fatu, feormend-lease, 

hyrstum behrorene. pser wses helm monij 

eald ond omij, earm-beaja fela 

searwum jesseled. Sine eatJe maej, 
2765 jold on 5rund[e], jum-cynnes jehwone 

oferhijian, hyde se 5e wylle. 

Swylce he siomian jeseah sejn eall-jylden 

heah ofer horde, hond-wundra msest, 

jelocen leoSo-craeftum ; of 6am leoma stod, 
2770 )7aet he )7one jrund-wonj onjitan meahte, 

wrgefe jiondwlitan. Naes ?Jses wyrmes )72er 

onsyn ^nij, ac hyne ecg fornam. 

Da ic on hlsevve jefraejn hord reafian, 

eald enta jeweorc, anne mannan, 
2775 him on bearm hladon bunan ond discas 

sylfes dome; sejn eac jenom, 

beacna beorhtost. Bill ser jescod 

— ec^ waes iren — eald-hlafordes 

2760. stondan : Holthausen, following Ettmullerg , reads stddan. 

2765. MS. defective at edge. girund[e], Grundtvig*"', Kemblei. 

2766. No satisfactory explanation of oferhlgian is forthcoming. The 
general drift is that gold gets the better of man, 'hide the gold whoso will.' 
But how? Because, in spite of all, the gold is discovered again? Or 
because, when found, it carries a curse with it ? Ofer-hlgian may possibly 
be a compound of higian, 'to strive' (Mod. Eng. 'hie'), and so mean *to 
over-reach.' An interpretation very widely accepted is *to make proud, 
vain ': hence ' deceive.' In this connection it has been proposed to connect 
oferhlgian with heah, 'high,' and with Goth, ufarhduhids, 'puffed up, vain' 
[Bugge, in Tidsskr. viii. 60, 298; Klaeber in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 466]; or with 
oferhyd (oferhygd), oferhydig, 'proud' [Kluge^^^ followed by Schiicking, 
who spells oferhidgian, and others]. Against the last it is objected [Holt- 
hausen] that a derivative from the adj. oferhydig must preserve the accent 
on the first syllable, and so cannot alliterate with h. Sedgefield^ss suggests 
oferhiwian (not elsewhere recorded, but assumed to mean 'deceive': hiwian 
means 'to assume a false appearance,' 'to feign'): Sedgefieldj, ofer hig[e 
h]ean, 'raise him above his (usual) mind, render presumptuous,' 

2769. Earle follows Thorpe in reading leoifo-crmftum (with eo), ' locked 
by spells of song, ' This seems forced and unnecessary. 

leoma, Kemblej: MS. leoman. For the opposite mistake cf. 1, 60, 

2771. wrmte, Thorpe, here and in 1, 3060: MS. wrsece in both places. 

2775. hladon: MS, hlodon. Grundtvigsoa emended to hladan, but it is 
not necessary to alter the second a. For infin. in -on cf. 11. 308, etc., and 
see Sieverss § 363, N, 1. 

2777. «r gescod : MS. serge scod. Kemble mr-gescod^ ' sheathed in 
brass.' This has the support of Thorpe and Grein, but lacks analogy; for 
the reading in the text cf. 1. 1587, and 11. 1615, 2562, and 2973, 

2778. Bill...eald-hldforde8, the MS. reading, is understood by Bugge 

138 Beowulf 

l^am Ciira maTSma mund-bora wsbs 
2780 lonje hwile, lij-ejesan waej 

hatne for horde, hioro-weallende 

middel-nihtum, |o5 |7aet he morSre swealt. Fol. 190^ 

Ar waes on ofoste,- eft-siSes jeorn, 

fraetwiim jefyrSred ; hyne fyrwet bnec, 
2785 hwaeSer collen-ferS cwicne jemette 

in Cam wonj-stede Wedra J^eoden, 

ellen-siocne, \^v he hine ser forlet. 

He 5a mid )7am maSmum mserne )7ioden, 

dryhten sinne, driorijne fand 
2790 ealdres aet ende ; he hine eft onjon 

waeteres weorpan, oS \dd\> wordes ord 

breost-hord J^urhbraec. [Biowulf reordode,] 

jomel on jio/iSe gold sceawode: 

"Ic Sara frajtwa Frean ealles Sane, 
2795 Wuldur-cyninje, wordum secje, 

ecura Dryhtne, ]>e ic her on starie, 

)?aes Se ic moste minum leodum 

ser swylt-daeje swylc jestrynan. 

Nu ic on maSma hord mine bebohte 

[Tidsskr. viii. 800], Holthausen, and Schiicking to mean the sword of 
Beowulf, by MullenhofE"^ the sword of the former possessor of the hoard. 

It is obvious that 11. 2779-2782 refer to the dragon. Whether eald- 
hldfordes be taken to mean Beowulf or the former owner will probably 
depend on the interpretation of 1. 2777. If we read ar gescod, we shall 
interpret • the sword of the lord of old time [Beowulf] with iron edge had 
slain the guardian of the treasure.' If, with Kemble, we read bill ar-gescod, 
this will be object of genom in 1. 2776, and we must accordingly delete 
the full stop. 

Rieger*^* and Cosijn'' read eald-hldforde ( = the dragon) in apposition 
with />dm. [This is adopted by Earle and Sedgefield.] 

2791. wateres. Kemblea, etc. emended to watere : but the instrumental 
gen. seems possible enough [Bugge in Z.f.d.Ph. iv. 218; Cosijn^]. Cf. 
guif-geweorca, 1. 1825. 

2792. No gap in MS. Beowulf maffelode was suggested by Grundtvig'*'^ 
and Kemblej [so Sedgefield]. But since maSelode is never found in the 
second half-Une, other suggestions have been made : Biowulf reordode 
[Holthausen] or /a se beorn gesprsBC [Schiicking : the repetition of the 
letters rae would account for the scribe's omission]. 

2793. giohUfe, Thorpe (following Kemble,, gehffo) : MS. giogoffe. Cf. 
1. 3095. 

2799. Instances of iUt on— 'in exchange for,' are quoted by Klaeber 
[Anglia, xxvii. 258] : hi bebohte beam wealdendes on seolfres sinCf Crist and 
Satan, 577. 

minet Ettmiiller, : MS. minne. 

Beoividf 139 

2800 frOde feorh-leje, fremmaS ^ena 

leoda jjearfe ; ne maej ic her leDj wesan, 
HataS heatJo-maere hl^w jewyrcean 
beorhtne aefter bsele aet brimes nosan 
86 seel to jemyndum minum leodum 

2805 heah hlifian on Hrones-naesse, 
j^aet hit sse-liSend sySSan batan 
Biowulfes biorh, 5a 5e brentinjas 
ofer |fl6da jenipu feorran drifaS." Fol. 191». 

Dyde him of healse hrinj jyldenne 

2810 )7ioden j^rist-hydij ; J^ejne jesealde, 
jeonjum jar-wijan, jold-fahne helm, 
beah ond byrnan, het hyne brucan welL 
" pu eart ende-laf tisses cynnes, 
Wiejmundinja ; ealle wyrd ioT^WQop 

2815 mine majas to metod-sceafte, 

eorlas on elne; ic him aefter sceal." 
paet waes )7am jomelan jinjaeste word 
breost-jehyjdum, ^r he b^el cure, 
hate heatJo-wylmas ; him of hrseSrc jewab 

2820 sawol secean so5-faestra dom. 

[xxxix] Da waes je^onjen juman unfrodum 
earfo3lice, l^aet he on eorSan jeseah 
)?one leofestan lifes aet ende 

2800. ghia. Thorpe, ge nu ; and this emendation has been adopted by 
most recent editors. It does not appear necessary. 

2803. Holthausen and Klaeber [Engl. Stud, xxxix. 465], following 
Sievers, read beorht (see note to 1. 2297), and similarly J^mt for se in the 
next line. 

2806. Cf. Odyssey, xxiv. 80, etc.: 'Then around them [the bones of 
Achilles] did we, the ^oly host of Argive warriors, pile a great and glorious 
tomb, on a jutting headland above the broad Hellespont, that it might be 
seen afar from ofiE the sea by men, both by those who now are, and by 
those who shall be hereafter.' 

2814. forsweop, Kemblej: MS. for speof {speof at the beginning of the 
next line). 

2819. hrseSre : MS. hwfffre, which mi^ht very easily have been mis- 
written for hrsefre. Kemblci emended hre6re. 

2820. There is no number in the MS. after this hne to indicate the 
beginning of a new section, but there is a space, and 1. 2821 begins with a 
large capital. The next ' fitte-'number (1. 2892) is xl. 

2821. guman, Grein2: MS. gumu unfrodil, doubtless another instance 
of ' anticipation.* Cf. 1. 158, where the MS. has banu folmu, and see 

140 Beowulf 

bl^ate jebfprnn. Bona swylce Isej, 
2825 ejeslic eorC-draca ealdre bereafod, 

bealwe jebaeded. Beah-hordum lenj 

wyrm woh-bojen wealdan ne moste, 

ac him irenna ecja fornamon, 

hearde, heaSo-scearde, homera lafe, 
2830 )?aet se wid-floja wundum stille 

hreas on hrusan hord-aerne neah; 

nalles |aefter lyfte lacende hwearf FoL 191V 

middel-nihtum, maSm-^Lta wlonc 

ansyn ywde, ac he eorSan jefeoll 
2835 for Saes hild-fruman hond-jeweorce. 

Hum )7?et on lande lyt manna 5ah 

mse^en-ajendra, mine jefrseje, 

)7eah 5e he dseda jehwaes dyrstij wsere, 

)7aet he wiS attor-sceaSan oreSe jeraesde, 
2840 oSSe hrinj-sele hondum styrede, 

jif he waeccende weard onfunde 

buon on beorje. Biowulfe wearS 

dryht-maSma d«l deaSe forjolden; 

hsefde aejhwaeSer ende jefered 
2845 l^nan lifes. Naes Sa lan^ to Son, 

2828. Greini emended to hint: so Schiicking and Sedgefield, on the 
ground that in other instances fomiman governs the ace. But see Klaeber 
[Engl. Stud. xlii. 323] who instances /or^/tpan with the dat., Beowulf, 2353; 
Genesis, 1275. 

2829. Thorpe's emendation heaHfo-scearpe, 'battle sharp,' has been 
followed by many editors, and, indeed, it seems very probable that scearpe 
might have been miswritten scearde, through the influence of the preceding 
hearde. Yet scearde can be defended [Schiicking in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 

2834. eorifan gefeoll, «fell to the earth.' Cf. 11. 2100, and 2898, nm 

2836. on lande, 'in the world.* 

lyt is probably dat. after ffdh, 'has prospered with few.' Klaeber *«" 
takes lyt as nom., translating ' few have attained or achieved ' : for this 
meaning of deon he compares Cottonian Gnomic Verses, 44, gif fieo nelle on 
folce gepeon, • if she will not attain among the people that... ' and a number 
of examples from the O.E. version of Bede's History, etc. [cf. Anglia, xxvii. 

2841. wsBccende. Thorpe altered to wmccendne. But wteccende as ace. 
sing. masc. can be paralleled : cf. 1. 46, umbor-wesende. 

2842. buon = buan. 

2844. seghwa^er, Kembleg: MS. mghwmifre. Grein,, seghwrnfre (ace. 
pi.), ende (nom.). But cf. 1. 3063 ; besides, aghwseder is found nowhere else 
in the pi. 

Beowulf 141 

)?aet Sa hild-latan holt ofjefan, 

tydre treow-lojan tyne aetsorane, 

5a ne dorston aer dareSum lacan 

on byra man-dryhtDes miolan )7earfe; 
2850 ac hy scamiende scyldas b^ran, 

5uS-5ew£edu, )?8er se jomela Isej; 

wlitan on Wilaf. He ^ewerjad saet, 

feSe-cempa, frean eaxlum neah, 

wehte byne wsetre; bim wibt ne speow. 
2855 Ne meahte he on eorSan, 6eab be u5e wel, 

on 5am frum-jare feorb jebealdan, 

ne Caes Wealdendes wiht oncirran. 

Wolde dom Kodes dsedum rsedan Fol. 192*. 

jumena jebwylcum, swa be nu jen deS. 
2860 pa wses aet Sam jeonjum jrim ondswaru 

eS-bejete, l^am Se ser bis elne forleas. 

Wijlaf maSelode, Weobstanes sunu, 

sec[^5'] sarij-ferS seah on unleofe : 

" paet la ! maej secjan, se Se wyle soS specan, 
2865 )7set se mon-drybten, se eow Sa maSmas $eaf, 

eored-^eatwe, \q je ]?8er on standaS, 

— )?onne be on ealu-bence oft jesealde 

heal-sittendum helm ond byrnan, 

feoden his J^ejnum, swylce be J^rydlicost 

2852. It is possible that wlitan = wlitan (infin.), in which case only a 
comma should be placed after Img. [So Sedgefield.] Most editors have 
followed Thorkelin in normalizing to Wiglaf. See note to 11. 218 and 1630. 

2854. wehte, ' tried to aw^ke him ' [Klaeber^ei]. Cf. hrsx (1. 1611). 
Sedgetield^ss suggests wette = watte, 'wetted.* 

speow, Thorkelin : MS. speop. 

2857. The reading of the text would mean ' change aught ordained of 
God.* Most editors follow Thorpe in substituting willan for wiht [so 
Holthausen and Schiicking]. Klaeber suggests weorold-endes wiht, ' any- 
thing of the end of his life ' ; i.e. ' he could not avert his death at all ' 
[J.E.G.Ph. viii. 258]. 

2860. The strong form geongum after ifdm is, of course, exceptional, 
and is probably only a scribal error for geongan. Holthausen and Schiicking 
alter to geongan. See note to 1. 158. 

2863. sec{g'], Thorkelin's correction : MS. sec. 

2869. Jrrydlicost. From J>ryjj. Thorkelin 2i» corrected to />ry/}licott 
here, and this spelling with df has been retained down to the present day. 
The scribe is sometimes careless in crossing his d's, but in the only other 
passage I know where the word occurs [Byrhtferth's Handboc, ed. Kluge 
in Anglia, viii. 302, 1. 14] the same spelling with d occurs. Under the 
circumstances d for f is quite a normal phonetic development (of. Sievers, 
§ 201, 3) and this spelling should surely be retained in the text. 

142 Beowulf 

2870 Ow6r feor o55e neah findan meahte — , 

\ddi he jenunja juS-jewaedu 

wraSe forwurpe, Ca hyne wij bejet. 

Nealles folc-cyninj fyrd-jesteallum 

jylpan J^orfte ; hvvseSre him 7od u5e, 
287s sijora Waldeiid, J?aet he hyne sylfne jewrsKO 

ana mid ecje, )?a him waes elnes peart 

Ic him lif-\viac5e lytle meahte 

aet^ifan aet juSe, ond onjan swa j^eah 

ofer min jemet msejes helpan. 
2880 Syrale waes )?y ssemra, j^onne ic sweorde drep 

ferhS-jeniSlan ; fyr unswiSor 

weoll of jewitte. Tferjendra to lyt 

J^ronj ymbe )?eoden, )?a hyne sio Ipraj becwom. Fol. I92i>. 

Hu sceal sinc-J^ejo ond swyrd-gifu, 
2885 eall eSel-wyn, eowrum cynne 

lufen alicjean ! Lond-rihtes mOt, 

j^JBre msej-bur^e monna se^hwylc 

id el hweorfan, sySSan aeSelinjas 

feorran jefricjean fleam eowerne, 
3890 dom-leasan dsed DeaS biS sella 

eorla jehwylcum )?onne edwit-lif." 

2881. fyr unswidor. This was defended by Rieger"' as a conjectural 
emendation, and an exact scrutiny of the MS. shows it to be the actual 
reading, except for the negligible discrepancy in the division of the letters : 
/j/run (u altered from a) stridor. Grein conjectured /^r ran «u;idbr. Since 
this is inconsistent with wms py ammra (1. 2880) we should then have to 
make Beowulf, instead of the dragon, the subject of wbm. Some [e.g. 
Cosijn* and Sedgefield] take Beowulf, in any case, as the subject of wat: 
but it seems better to make the dragon the subject. This is clearer if, with 
Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 142] and Holthausen, we alter /er/id"-pcnld"ian ioferhS- 
geniSla, putting a comma after drep. 

2882. Wergendra, Grundtvig 309, Kemblej : MS. fergendra, which is 
nnmeaning, and does not alliterate, p and p are easily confused. 

2883. )>rdg, ' time of terror.' Cf. note to 1. 87. 

2884. Hu. This was altered by Kemble, to nu, and almost all editors 
have followed. Yet, as Holthausen tentatively suggests, hu makes good 
seuse as introducing an exclamatory clause, Cf. Wanderer^ 95 : Hu seo 
J>rdg gewdt... I 

2886. If lufen means • love,' it certainly forms an unsatisfactory parallel 
to eSelwyn. [Cf . Sievers in P.B.B. xxxvi. 427.] 

2890. MS. dad corrected from dml. 

2890-1. Does Wiglaf mean ' you had better go and hang yourselves ' ? 
Tacitus [Germ, vi] mentions suicide as the last refuge from such disgrace : 
multique superstites bellorum infamiam laqueo finierunt. [Cf. Scherer, 
Kleirure Schriften, i. 490, for a comparison of this passage with other 

Beowulf 143 

XL Heht 5a j^aet heaSo-weorc t5 hajan biodan 

up ofer e^^-clif, )>aer j^aet eorl-weorod 

morjen-lonjne daej mod-^iomor saet 
2895 bord-hsebbende, beja on wenum, 

ende-dojores ond eft-cymes 

leofes mo ones. Lyt swijode 

niwra spella, se 5e naes jerad, 

ac he soSlice saejde ofer ealle: 
2900 "Nu is wil-jeofa Wedra leoda, 

dryhten 7eata, deaS-bedde faest, 

wunaS wael-reste wyrmes dsedura. 

Him on efn lijeS ealdor-jcwinna 

siex-bennuni seoc ; sweorde ne meahte 
2905 on 6am ajlsecean aenije J^inja 

wunde jewyrcean. Wijlaf siteC 

ofer Biowulfe, byre Wihstanes, 

eorl ofer OtSrum unlifijendum, 

healdeS hije-mseSum |heafod-wearde Fol. 193*. 

2910 leofes ond laCes. Nu ys leodum wen 

orlej-hwile, sySSan under[?ie] 

Froncum ond Frysum fyll cyninjes 

wide weorSeS. Woes sio wroht scepen 

documents showing the punishment of the unfaithful retainer, and 
Bouterwek in Z.f.d.A. xi. 108 for a comparison with other formulas of 
solemn denunciation.] 

2893. eg-clif, Kemblegt MS. ecg clif. Kemble's emendation is supported 
by 1. 577, and has been adopted by almost all later editors, it being urged 
that * ecg is used only of weapons in O.E.' This however is far from being 
the case : ecg, * verge, brink of high ground,' occurs very frequently in the 
charters. Nevertheless, since nms in 1. 28ii8 makes it probable that the 
army was stationed on a sea-cliff, I adopt Kemble's emendation, though 
with hesitation. 

2898. See note to 1. 2834, 

2904. siex-hennum. Holthausen and Sedgefield spell sex-bennum [from 
seax]. Cf. Sieversa § 108, 2. 

2909. Kemblej and Rieger*^' read hige-metfum, 'holds watch over the 
spirit-wearied, i.e. the dead.' This is not, in reality, a textual alteration, 
since in the AngHan original me&um and maSum would have coincided in 
form ; but we should rather have expected hige-viedra, agreeing with leo/es 
ond IdilTes. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 142; but cf. P.B.B. xxxvi. 419] and, tenta- 
tively, Bugge^<* would read hige-niedc, 'weary of soul,' qualifying Wiglaf, 
to whom similar epithets are applied, 11. 2852, 2863 : hyge-mede occurs in 
1. 2442, where, however, it seems to mean ' wearying the mind.' Bugge 
also suggests hige-niedum, from a presumed hige-ineifu, * weariness of spirit ' 
[so Holthausen]. 

2911. underlne], Greinj: MS. under. Cf. 1. 127, and, for omission ol 
n«, 1. 1931. 

144 Beowulf 

heard wiC Hujas, sySSan Hijelftc cw5m 
2915 faran flot-herje on Fresna land, 

\ddv hyne Hetware hilde 5e(h)n8e5dou, 

elne jeeodon mid ofer-maejene, 

)7ait se byrn-wija bujan sceolde, 

feoU on feGan ; nalles fraetwe jeaf 
2920 ealdor dujoSe. Us waes a sy3San 

Merewioiujas milts unjyfeSe. 

Ne ic te Sweo-5eode sibbe oS5e tr6ow© 

wihte ne wene ; ac waes wide cu5, 

)73ette OnjenSio ealdre besnytJede 
2925 HaeScen Hrej^linj wiS Hrefna-wudu, 

)?a for onmedlan serest jesohton 

7eata leode guS-Scilfin^as. 

Sona'him se froda feeder Ohtheres, 

eald ond ejes-full, (h)ondslyht ajeaf, 
2930 abreot brim-wisan, bryd aheorde, 

jomela io-meowlan jolde berofene, 

Onelan modor ond Ohtheres, 

ond Sa foljode feorh-geniSlan, 

2916. MS. gehnsBgdon: genmgdon, ♦ assailed,' Greinj and Bugge [Tidstkr. 
viii. 64] followed by Holthausen and Sedgsfield : cf. L 2206. This has the 
advantage of avoiding double alliteration in the second half-line: cf. 1. 1151 
and note. 

2919. 'The prince gave no treasures to his retainers' (as he would 
have done had he been victorious). [So Bugge 1^.] 

2921. Greiuj, etc., Merewloingay following Thorpe (Grundtvig*®* had 
suggested mere-wicinga). But correction is unnecessary : Merewloingas is 
gen. sg., 'of the Merovingian king.' See note to 1. 2453. [So Bugge in 
Tidsskr. viii. 300.] 

2922. te is the unaccented subsidiary form of to. Instances occur both 
in E.W.S. {Cura Pastoralis) and in early glosses. Cf. O.S. ti-, te- ; O.H.G. 
zif ze. See Bosworth- Toller, and Napier's O.E. Glosses. 

2929. ondslyht, a correction of Grein^ : MS. hond slyht, here and in 
1. 2972. The change is necessary for the alliteration. CI L 1541 (and 
note), and see Sieversg § 217, N. 1. 

2930. abreot. Some editors follow Kemble, in normalizing to dbreat. 
But confusion of eo and ea is common in the non-W. S. dialects, and traces 
of it are abundant in Beowulf. Further, in this type of strong verb, eo is 
found in place of ea, even in W.S. See SieverSj § 384, N. 2. 

brim-wisan refers to Hsethcyn, who must have carried off the wife of 

bryd aheorde. The MS. has bryda heorde. No importance can be 
attached to the spacing of the MS. : yet the verb dheordan, ' to release 
from guardianship ' {heord) is not elsewhere recorded, and is doubtful. 
Holthausen 1, 2 dfeorde, ' removed ' : so Sedgefeld ; Holthauseos follows 
Buggei<^, ahreddet ' saved.' 

Beowulf 145 

o5 5aet hi oSeodon earfoSlIce 
2935 in Hrefnes-holt hlaford- lease. 

Besaet Sa sin-her^e sweorda lafe 

wundum werge; |wean oft jehet Pol. 193^ 

earmre teohhe ondlonje niht ; 

cwaeS, he on merjenne meces ec^um 
2940 jetan wolde, sum[e] on 5al5-treowu[m] 

[fu^luni] to jamene. Frofor eft jelamp 

sari^-modum somod ser-daeje, 

sySSan hie Hygelaces horn ond by man, 

jealdor onjeaton, ]?a se ^oda com 
2945 leoda dujoSe on last faran. 
XLi Waes sio swat-swaSu Sw[e]ona ond 7eata, 

wsel-raes weora, wide ^esyne, 

hu 5a folc mid him fsehSe towehton. 

Tewat him Sa se joda mid his 5aBdelin;;;um, 
2950 frod, fela-jeomor, faesten secean, 

eorl OnjenJ^io ufor oncirde ; 

haefde Hijelaces hilde jefrunen, 

wlonces wij-crseft; wiSres ne truwode, 

)?aet he s^e-mannum onsacan mihte, 
2955 heaSo-liSendum, hord forstandan, 

beam ond bryde; beah eft )7onan 

2940-1. Sedgefield, following Thorpe, reads grltan : but the change is 
unnecessary ; getan^ * to destroy, ' is not uncommon in the compound dgetan. 
[For the etymology cf. I.F. xx. 327, where Holthausen adduces Lithuanian 
and Lettish cognates.] 

The MS. has sum on galg treowu to gamene : Thorpe corrected 8um[e] and 
supplied [fuglum], comparing Judith^ 297, fuglum to fro/re : Kemblej had 
emended to treoivu[m]. 

Buggei" [cf. Tidsskr. viii. 60], Holthausen, and Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 143] 
suppose a gap here of a line or more, and this is borne out by the fact that, 
even after making the three corrections in the text in IL 2940-1, the con- 
struction is not very satisfactory. 

2943. horn ond hyman are to be taken together in apposition with 
gealdor [with Holthausen], rather than hyman construed as a gen. dependent 
on gealdor [with Schiicking, etc.]. 

2946. Sw{e]ona, Thorkelin's correction : MS. swona. 

2949. se goda is Ongentheow. Bugge^'^^ proposed gomela (cf. 1, 2968), 
because he thought so complimentary a word inapplicable to the Swedish 
king in the mouth of the Geat who is here speaking. An unnecessary 
scruple ; cf. 1. 2382 for praise of a Swedish king. 

2951. It is difficult to say whether ufor means * on higher ground ' or 
• further away.' [Cf. Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 236.] 

2955. heailfo-lid'endum. See note to 1. 1862. 

146 Btowidf 

eald under eorB-weall. pa waes seht boden 

Sweona leodum, sejn Hijelace ; 

freoSo-wonj )7one ford" ofereodon, 
2960 sy?J?5an HreSlinjas to hajan f^runjon. 

pier weai-S OnjenSiow ecjum svveorda. 

blonden-fexa, on bid wrecen, 

)7aet se J^eod-cyr.inj Safian sceolde 

Eafores |anne doin. Hyne yrrin^a FoL 194«. 

2965 Wulf Wonredinj wiBpne jer^hte, 

)?3et him for swen^e swat aedrum spronj 

forS under fexe. Naes he forht swa 5eb, 

jomela Scilfin^, ac forjeald hraSe 

wyrsan wrixle weel-hlem )7one, 
2970 sy5?5an Seod-cyninj J^yder oncirde. 

Ne meahte se snella sunu Wonredes 

ealdum ceorle (h)ondslyht jiofan, 

ac he him on heafde helm ser jescer, 

)?set he blode fah btijan sceolde, 
2975 feoll on foldan; naes he f^je J?a ^It, 

2957-9. If we retain the MS. reading, we must interpret : * Pursuit was 
offered to the Swedes and a captured banner [was] offered to Hygelac' 
Thus many editors, and lately Schiicking, who quotes parallels for the 
importance attached in Germanic times to the capture of the enemy's 
banner. [Cf. Cosijn*'.] This reading compels us to take hoden with two 
widely different nouns, but 1. 653 may be quoted as a parallel to this 
[Klaeber*"*] ; and, though the construction is harsh, none of the emenda- 
tions are sufficiently convincing to justify our deserting the MS. 

SchrSer \^Anglia^ xiii. 347] takes aht as 'treasure,' and alters leodum to 
Vioda : ' the treasure of the Swedes and a banner were offered [as ransom] to 
Hygelac' So, too, Sedgefield, but without altering the text : ' were offered 
by the people of the Swedes to Hygelac' Bugge^*" [and in Tidsskr. viiL 61], 
following Kembleg and Thorpe, read Hygeldces, and explained : ' the banner 
of Hygelac was raised as a sign of pursuit.' But this also involves a forced 
construction: therefore if we read Hygeldces it is better to delete the semi- 
colon, and construe with Holthausen : • the banners of Hygelac overran the 
fastness ' [so Clark-Hall]. Sievers, seecc Hygeldces, • the battle of Hygelac,' 
parallel to aht. 

Holthausen, oht, 'pursuit,* for Sht. 

2959. ford, Thorkelin's correction : MS. ford. 

2960. Is the ^a^/a ('enclosure') equivalent here to the wi-haga ('phalanx') 
of Maldon, 102 ? [Cf. Cosijn».] 

2961. sweorday Kemble,: MS. sweordu. Cf. 1. 158. 

2964. Grundtvig3^o, Eofores. But see 1. 2757 (note), and cf. eafor, 
1. 2152. 

dnne d5m. See note to 1. 2147. 

2972. See note on 1. 2929. 

2973. he, Ongentheow ; him, Wulf. 
2974-6. hi, Wult 

Beowulf 147 

ac he hyne jewyrpte, j^eah 5e him wund hrine. 

Let se hearda Hijelaces J^ejn 

brad[7i]e mece, )?a his broSor laej, 

eald sweord eotonisc, entiscne helm 
2980 brecan ofer bord-weal ; 5a jebeah cyninj, 

folces hyrde, waBs in feorh dropen. 

J)a wseron monije, )?e his m^j wriSon, 

ricone argerdon, 5a him jerymed wearS, 

)7Get hie wael-stowe wealdan moston. 
2985 penden rgafode rinc 55erne, 

nam on OnjenSio iren-byrnan, 

heard swyrd hilted ond his helm somod ; 

hares hyrste Hijelace baer. 

He 5[am] frsetwum fenj, ond him fgejre jehet 
2990 leana [mid] |leodum, ond jelseste swa ; Fol. l94^ 

jeald )7one juS-rses 7eata dryhten, 

Hre5les eafora, \& he to ham becom, 

lofore ond Wulfe mid ofer-ma5mum, 

sealde hiora jehwseSrum hund )7usenda 
2995 landes ond locenra beaja; ne Sorfte him 5a lean 

mon on middan-jearde, sy65a[?i] hie 6a m^r5a 
jeslojon ; 

2977. Holtbansen and Sedgefield, following Sievers, insert pa after let. 
J?egn, Eofor. 

2978. hrdd[n\e, Thorpe : MS. hrade. 
2982. his mag, Eofor's brother, Wulf. 
2985. rinc, Eofor : d6'eme, Ongentheow. 

2989. MS. defective at corner : &[dm], GrundtvigSio. 

2990. MS. defective at corner : room for either two or three letters. 
Kemble j , [on] ; Grundtvig (1861, p. 102), [mid]. Bugge ^os compares 11. 2611, 
2623. _ 

gelsBste, Kemble, : MS. gelmsta. 

2994. /msenda. According to Plummer [Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, n, 23] 
and Kluge [P.B.B. ix. 191], ' hides ' must be understood. But an earldom 
of 100,000 hides would have been about the size of the whole land of the 
Geataa : Sussex contained only 7,000 : see 1. 2195. Again, how, in this 
case, are we to construe locenra heagal I should rather, with Rieger'*^^ and 
Schiicking, understand some money denomination : ' the value of 100,000 
sceattas in land and rings ' : a great, but not inconceivable, reward. 

2995. The typical O.E. figure of understatement. It is not clear, 
however, whether him is sg. or pi., whether it is the generosity of Hygelac 
which is being celebrated (in which case ne ^orjte . . .middan-gearde must be 
taken as a parenthesis), or the valour of Eofor and Wulf. 

2996. 8yif6a[n], Grundtvig=*^o : MS. sytfda, Cf. note to 1. 60. 

148 Beowulf 

ond 5a lofore forjeaf anjan dohtor, 

ham-weorSunje, hyldo to wedde. 

paet ys sio liiehSo ond se feond-scipe, 
3000 wuil-niS vvera, Saes Se ic \_wen\ haib, 

)7e U3 SvkioaS tO Sweona leoda, 

syS3an hie jefriojeaS frean usurne 

ealdor-leasne, )7one Se iier jeheold 

wis hettendum hord ond rice 
3005 aefter haileSa hryre, hwate Scildinjas, 

folc-red freraede, oSSe furSur jen 

eorl-scipe efnde. Nu is ofost betost, 

J7aet we j^eod-cyninj J7ier sceawian, 

ond )7one jebrinjan, j^e us beajas jeaf, 
3010 on ad-faere. Ne seel anes hwaet 

meltan mid )7am modijan, ac )?8er is maSma Lord, 

jold unrime, jrimme 5ecea[po]d, 

ond nu set siSestan syifes feore 

3000. No gap in MS. : \wln\ Kemblei. Cf. 1. 383. 

3001. For the pi. leoda see Wulfstan (ed. Napier), p. 106, 1. 23 and Psalmt 
Ixxi. 10. [Cf. Sievers § 264 and Royster in M.L.N, xxiii. 122.] 

3005. MiillenhofE 1" considered this line a careless repetition of I. 2062, 
and this is the easiest way out of the difficulty. Thorpe explained : • It would 
appear that Beowulf, in consequence of the fall of Hrothgar's race [Jialepa 
hryre] was called to rule also over the Danes (Scyldings).' Klaeber calls 
this an 'extraordinary assumption,' but we may note that, according to 
Saxo (Book in), the throne of Denmark was thus left vacant after the fall 
of Hrothulf, and was taken by a Swedish prince, who ruled jointly over 
both kingdoms. Since Saxo does not recognise any kingdom of the Geatae 
apart from the Swedes, this might reasonably be interpreted as a reminis- 
cence of such a tradition as Thorpe assumes. The Geatio kingdom was at 
this date nearing its fall. It is accordingly exceedingly improbable that 
any such rule existed as a historic fact : for its existence in tradition cf. the 
empire attributed to king Arthur. 

Most editors follow Grein, and alter to Scylfingas, and this can be 
taken (1) in apposition with hie in 1. 3002, which is intolerably forced; 
(2) parallel with hord ond rice in 1. 3004, in which case we can only suppose 
that the term Scylfingas could be applied equally, on the ground of common 
ancestry, to both Swedes and Geatas ; compare 1. 2603, where Wiglaf is 
called lead Scylfinga ; (3) 1. 3005 might be taken as a parenthesis : * After 
the fall of the heroes, the Scylfingas were bold'; or (4) it can be transposed 
to follow 1. 3001 [Ettmiiller, : so Holthausen and Sedgefield]. 

But, since so little relief is gained by altering the text to Scylfingas, it is 
better to let Scildingas stand, unless we have the courage to make the 
satisfactory alteration to See- Geatas [with Klaeber, whose discussion of the 
subject in J.E.G.Ph. viii. 258-9 should be consulted]. 

3007. Ni is, Kemble2: MS. meis. Me is is a possible reading : 'As for 
me,' ' as it seems to me.' 

3012. MS. defective at corner : gecea[po]d, Kemble,. 

Beowulf 149 

beajas [^ebohjte; )?§, sceall brond fretan, 
3015 geled )7eccean, |nalles eorl wejan Fol. 195\ 

raaSSum to jemyndum, ne maegS scyne 

habban on healse hrinj-weorSunje, 

ac sceal ^eomor-mod, jolde bereafod, 

oft, nalles sene, el-land tredan, 
3020 nil se here-wisa hleahtor alejde, 

jamen ond jleo-dream. ForSon sceall jar wesan, 

monij morgen-ceald, mundum bewunden, 

hsefen on handa, nalles hearpan swej 

wijend weccean, ac se wonna hrefn 
3025 fus ofer fsegum fela reordian, 

earne secjan hu him set sete speow, 

J^enden he wiS wulf[e] wsel reafode." 

Swa se secj hwata sec^jende wae3 

laSra spella; he ne leaj fela 
3030 wyrda ne worda. Weorod eall aras; 

eodon unbliSe under Earna-naes, 

woUen-teare, wundar sceawian. 

Fundon Sa on sande sawul-leasne 

hlim-bed healdan, )7one \q him hrinjas jeaf 
3035 serran mselum; )?§, waes ende-dae^ 

jodum jejongen, )7aet se juS-cyninj, 

Wedra )7eoden, wundor-deaSe swealt. 

^r hi ]78er gesejan syllicran wiht, 

3014. {gehoKlte : MS. defective, Grundtvig'" suggested hehohte. We 
may interpret gebohte as a pret. sing., with Biowulf understood as subject : 
or as pi. of the past part., agreeing with beagas. [Cf. Lawrence in J.E.G.Ph, 
X. 638.] 

3027. wulf[e], Qrundtvig^ii : MS. wulf. Correction metrically necessary. 
Cf. 1. 2673. [See Martin in Engl. Stud. xx. 295.] 

3028. Greing, secg-hwata (i.e. 'sword-brave '), a quite unnecessary com- 
pound : se secg hwata is paralleled by se maga geonga (1. 2675). [Cf. Bugge, 
Tidsskr. viii. 61.] 

For secggende see Sievers, § 216, N. 1. 

3034. See note on 1. 1271. 

3035. According to Zupitza the MS. has arrun (♦ u altered from a by 
erasure*). But I should read this as arran, and attribute the partial oblitera- 
tion to accident. 

See Sieversj § 304, N. 8. 

3038. ' But first they saw a stranger being there ' [Clark-Hall]. Many 
attempts have been made to improve this sentence : \J>]ar hi J?d gesegan, 
Sievers' emendation, is followed by Holthausen and Sedgefield. But, though 
somewhat awkwardly phrased, the meaning seems clear. [Cf. Klaeber in 

150 Beowulf 

wyrm on wonje wiSer-raehtes }?£or 
3040 laSne licjean ; wees se lej-draca, 

jrimlic 5ry[re-fah], Ijledum beswseled. Fol. 195V 

Se waes fiftijes fot-jemearces 

lanj on lejere ; lyft-wynne heold 

nihtes hwilum, nySer eft jewat 
3045 dennes niosian ; waes 5a dSaSe faest, 

haefde eorS-scrafa ende jenyttod. 

Him bij stodan bunan ond orcas, 

discas lajon ond dyre swyrd, 

omije, )7urhetone, swa hie wi5 eorSan faeSm 
3050 Jjusend wintra j^aer eardodon ; 

)>onne waes J^aet yrfe eacen-craeftij, 

iu-raonna jold, jaldre bewunden, 

)?aet 5am hrinj-sele hrinan ne moste 

jumena senij, nefne 7od sylfa, 
3055 sijora SoS-cyninj, sealde J^am Se he wolde 

— he is manna jehyld — hord openian, 

Engl. Stud, xxxix. 427.] The fifty- foot-long dragon would naturally be the 
first thing to attract the gaze of those approaching. 

3041. MS. defective at corner : gry[re], Thorkelin ; Heyne'g gryre-gsMt 
(of. L 2560) was based on Kolbing's statement that there is room for from 
four to six letters on the missing corner. [So Holthausen and Schiicking.] 
Zupitza, on the other hand, reads gryrle] simply. Yet an examination of 
the other side of the leaf, where several letters have been lost, makes it 
probable that more than one letter has been lost on this side also. On the 
other hand, there is hardly room for gry[re-gsB8t] : but gry[re-fdh] [Bugge 
in Tidsskr. viii. 52] fills the gap well, and has the support of 1. 2576. 

3043-4. It is not clear whether lyft-wynne means 'joy in the air, pleasure 
of flying,' or is equivalent to wynsumne lyft, ' the joyous air,' abstract for 
concrete, like eard-lufan (1. 692). [For this last rendering of. Cosijn*.] 

Equally it is uncertain whether we should construe nihtes hwilum as 
• by night, at times ' [cf. Bugge*^ or ' in the time of night' [Copijn3»]. 

3045. niosian. See note to 1. 115. 

3049. It is unnecessary to follow KemblCj and normalize Jmrhetone to 

The emendation ome J>urhetone, • eaten through with rust ' [Scheinert in 
P.B.B. XXX. 377], is one of those improvements of the MS. which are hardly 

3050. pu$end wintra. Miillenhofif draws attention to the discrepancy 
with 1. 2278, according to which the time was 300 years. Kriiger [P.B.B. ix. 
577] tries to reconcile the passages by interpreting awd here ♦ as if,' * as 
though.' But the discrepancy is immaterial. [Cf. Cosiju*".] 

3051. ponne, i.e. when the gold was laid in the earth [Bugge '^■']. 
3056. Bugge ^^ [followed by Holthausen and Schiicking] would read 

hMU)>a for manna [so Morgan in P.B.B. xxxiii. 110], so as to get the 
alliterating syllable in the right place. The same improvement can be made 
more simply by transposing the words : Ke is gehyld manna [Sedgefield2]. 

Grein, reads helsmanna gehyld in apposition to hord; so Earle: 'to open 
the hoard, the sorcerers' hold.' 

Beowulf 151 

efne swa hwylcum manna, swa him jemet Suhte, 
XLii pa waes jesyne, j^aet se siS ne Sah 

)?am Ce unrihte inne jehydde 
3060 wrgefe under wealle. Weard S5r ofsloh 

feara sumne; \a, sio fsehS jewearS 

jewrecen wraSlice. Wundur hwar )7onne 

eorl ellen-r5f ende gefere 

lif-jesceafta, J^onne lenj ne msej 
3065 mon mid his [majjum medu-seld biian. 

Swa waes Biowulfe, |j7a he biorjes weard Fol. 196». 

sohte, searo-niSas; seolfa ne cuSe, 

]7urh hwaet his worulde jedal weorSan sceolde. 

Swa hit oS domes daej diope benemdon 
3070 )?eodnas msere, )7a 5aet j^ser dydon, 

}>3et se secj wsere synnum scildij, 

herjum geheatSerod, hell-bendum faest, 

3058, etc., mean, apparently, that the issue was a bad one for the 
dragon. Bugge^**^' '^' attempts a re-arrangement of 11. 3051-76, and makes 
U. 3058-60 refer to the fugitive who originally stole the treasure. 

3060. wrate, Thorpe: MS. wrme. Of. 1. 2771. 

3061. feara sumne means Beowulf, being 'one of a few' (cf. 1. 1412), 
i.e. Beowulf with few companions. But, by the usual understatement, 
*few' here probably means 'none.' Cosijn*" compares Rood, 69, mate 
weorode, interpreting ' with a small company,' as meaning 'quite alone.' 

3062 ff. The meaning seems to be 'It is a subject for wonder [i.e. it is 
uncertain] where a man will end his life, when he may no longer dwell on 
this earth. Even so was it with Beowulf — he knew not...'; Jxmne in 
1. 3062 is parallel with fionne in 1. 3064. [See Kock in Anglia, xxvii. 233 ; 
Sievers in P.B.B. ix. 143 ; Nader in Anglia, x. 644-5 ; Cosijn^®, who com- 
pares Alfred's Gura Pastoralis, Preface (ed. Sweet, p. 8), uncuS hu longe, ' it 
is uncertain how long.'] 

On the other hand we might take the swa in 1. 3066 and Bwd in 1. 3069 
as correlative, with seolfa.,. sceolde forming a parenthesis. The meaning 
would then be: 'It happened unto Beowulf in such wise as the peodnas 
mare had laid the spell.' 

3065. MS. defective at corner: [mu]gum, Kemblei. 

8067. sohte governs both biorges weard and searo-niffas. 

Sedgefield reads searo-niSa, comparing for the adverbial gen. pi. 11. 845, 

3068. fyurh hwat, ' by what.' This is explained in the following lines 
(3069-3073) ; Beowulf s death is really caused by the curse which, unknown 
to him, had been placed upon the gold by the great chiefs {J>eodnas masre) 
who had it in olden time. [Cf. Klaeber in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 432.] So 
feared were these curses that forms of prayer are extant for purifying 
va^a reperta in locis antiquis. [See Rituale Eccl. Dunelmensis, Surtees 
Society, 97, etc., and Bouterwek in Z.f.d.A. xi. 109.] The curse on the 
Niblung hoard may be compared. 

3069. diope. Holthauseui , dior« : so Sedgefield. 

3072. hergum. Holthauseui,, conjectures hefgum, ' confined by cares. ' 
The change (ji to p) is a slight one, but hardly for the better: hergum 
makeS a good parallel to hellhendum. 

152 Beoivulf 

wommum ^ewitnad, se 5one wonj stride; 

nres he jold-hwaBte jearwor hsefde 
3075 Ajendes est £er jesceawod. 

Wijlaf maSelode, Wihstanes sunu : 

" Oft sceall eorl monij anes willan 

wrac adreojaTi, swa us jeworden is. 

Ne raeahton we jelseran leofne j^eodea, 
3080 rices hyrde, r^ed senijne, 

]>dd\j he ne ^rette jold-weard J^one, 

lete hyne licjean, )?3er he lonje waes, 

wicum wunian oS woruld-ende; 

heold on heah jesceap. Hord ys jesceawod, 

3073. «trud«, Grtindtvig«u : MS. »trad«. [Cf. Bugge'^l] See 11. 581 
and 3126 : a and u are in many scripts hardly distinguishable. 

3074-5. The MS. reading is difficult, but admits of interpretation, if we 
take n«B» as the adv. of negation (of. 1. 562) : * Not before had he (Beowulf) 
beheld more fully the gold-abounding grace of the Lord ' : i.e. this was the 
biggest prize of gold which God had ever granted to him. [So Bugge in 
Tidsskr. viii. 62, etc.] The MS. is also tentatively defended by Cosijn*^ 
but with A different explanation : ♦ he (Beowulf) had by no means in gold- 
greedy wise igold-hwme) accurately surveyed {gearwor gesceawod, of. L 2748) 
the owner's inheritance (the dragon's hoard).' [For e«t = * inheritance,' of. also 
Klaeber^] This would mean that, although Wiglaf had shown him some 
of the spoils, Beowulf had not been able to survey the hoard closely. 
Miillenhoff [Z.f.d.A. xiv. 241] also retains the MS. reading. 

Holthausen's objection that gold-hwsete must be wrong, because hwat 
is only compounded with abstract nouns, seems invalid: blid-hwat, 'flower 
or fruit abounding ' {Riddles^ i. [n.] 9), is an exact parallel, and Holthausen, 
returns to gold-hwmte as an adv. 

Neither Bugge's rendering nor Cosijn's gives very good sense, but neither 
are any of the suggested emendations satisfactory. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 143] 
reads nsss he goldhwates gearwor hmfde, etc., * Beowulf had not experienced 
the favour of the gold-greedy owner (the dragon)'; Eieger"^ and Cosijn*', 
nSBs he gold hwm^re gearwor hsefde [ofer] dgendes est ar gesceawod, ' Beowulf 
had never looked more eagerly upon gold which he had gained against the 
will of its owner' ; ten Brink 1** and Wyatt, nm [i.e. ne wms] he gold-hwat ; 
gearwor h&fde...* BeovfuU was not avaricious; rather he had experienced 
the grace of the Lord' (and therefore was endowed with the virtues); 
Hclthausenj, Schiicking, and Sedgefield read goldsehte or gold/rsstwe, * never 
before had Beowulf gazed more eagerly upon gold adornments, the delight 
[or inheritance] of their owner'; or we might interpret the same reading, 
with Schiicking [Engl. Stud, xxxix. Ill], partly following Trautmann, 'rather 
would he [se secg of 1. 3071] not have gazed upon the gold adornments...' 

If the text is to be altered at all it would probably be best to read 
hie...hBfdon for he...h8efde: 'in no wise had these avaricious lords known 
the grace of the Creator,' i.e. the authors of the spell were heathen, Cf. 
note to 1. 3068 and IL 175-188. 

3078. ddreogan, Kemblci: MS. a dreoged". 

3084. 'We could not dissuade him; he held (on)to his high fate,* or 
*he held on (adv.) his high fate.' Grein and Toller give several instances 
of the intrans. use of healdan, and of on used adverbially. See also 
Matzner's O.E. Diet., p. 405, col. 1; among other passages there quoted 
is: hald hardiliche o pat tu haues bigunneut St. Kath., 676, 

Beowulf 153 

3085 jrimme jejonjen; waes )?aet ^ifeSe to swi3, 
J7e Sone [J?eod-ci/ning] )7yder ontyhte. 
Ic W8BS )7ser inne ond )?oet eall jeondseh, 
recedes jeatwa, J7a me jerymed waes 
nealles swseslice, si5 alyfed 

3090 inn under eorS-weall. Ic on ofoste ^efenj 
micle mid mundum maejen-byrSenne 
hord-gestreona, hider |ut aetbaer FoL 196^ 

cyninje minum; cwico waes )7a ^ena, 
wis ond jewittij. Worn eall ^espraec 

3095 jomol on ^ehSo, ond eowic jretan het, 

baed J^aet je jeworhton aefter wines dsedum 
in bsel-stede beorh )7one hean, 
micelne ond mserne, swa he manna waes 
wi^end weorSfullost wide geond eorSan, 

3100 ]7enden he burh-welan brtican moste. 
Uton nu efstan oSre [Sid's] 
seon ond secean sesiTo[-^imma] jej^raec, 
wundur under wealle ; ic eow wisije, 
)?aet je genome neon sceawiaS 

Reading heoldon [Heyne-Schucking, Holder], we must render 'we have 
gotten a hard destiny,' or, perhaps, ' fate appointed from on high' ; reading 
healdan [Kemble, etc.'\, 'leave him (the dragon) to fulfil his high destiny' 
[Earle, Sedgefield]; or we might read heoldon = healdan [Bugge in Z.f.d.Ph. 
iv. 220-2, q.v. for further suggestions]. 

gesceawod. Sarrazin [Engl. Stud, xxviii. 410] suggests geceapod, 
' purchased.' 

3085. gifelfe, 'Fate,' rather than, with Bugge^^^ 'that which enticed 
the king (i. e. the treasure) was granted (gifede) in manner too overpowering, 
i.e. at too great a price, bought too dear.' 

3086. No gap in MS.: {Jeod-cyning], Greinj; Grundtvig'" had sug- 
gested Jyeoden. 

3094. wis ond gewittig, either *the prudent and wise king' [Scheinert 
in P.B.B. XXX. 381, footnote] or 'still alert and conscious' [Klaeber in 
Anglia, xxix. 382]. This last interpretation is supported by the use of 
gewittig in .Sllfric's Homilies, e.g. il p. 24, 1. 12: heo Jys&rrihte wear9 
gewittig, 'she forthwith became of sound mind.* 

3096. after wines dEdum, 'in memory of the deeds of our king,' is 
defended by Cosijn^^ against the conjecture of Bugge [Tidsskr. viii. 300], 
after wine deadum, • in memory of your dead king. ' 

3101. No gap in MS. : [si&], Grundtvig^ia, Kemblej. 

3102. Line defective both in sense and metre. Bugge 1*'' supplied 
[pimma], comparing 11. 1157, 2749. 

3103-4. Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 144] suggests /»r for fiat, with ic eow wisige 
in parentheses ; so too Holthausen. [But see Schiicking, Satzverk. 26.] 

Grundtvig^" normalized neon to nean, but unnecessarily. [See Sievers, 
§ 150, 8, and Bugge in Tidsskr. viii. 63.] 

1 54 Beowulf 

3105 be<a5as ood brad jold. Sie sio bil^r jearo 

^re jeaifned, J^onne wS ut cymen, 

ond }>onne jeferian frean useme, 

ISofne mannan, )?ier he lonje sceal 

on Sips Waldendes w<^re jej^olian." 
31 10 Het 5a jebSodan byre Wihstanes, 

haele hilde-dior, haelcSa monejum, 

bold-ajendra, )7aet hie b?el-wiidu 

feorran feredon, folc-ajende, 

jOduin tojenes : "Nu sceal jled fretan 
31 15 — weaxan worina lej — wijena streujel, 

)>ODe 5e oft jebad isern-scure, 

J^onne straela storm strenjum jebseded 

sc5c ofer scild-weall, sceft nytte heold, 

fe^er-jearwum fas flane full-eode." 
3120 Hum se snotra sunu Wihstanes 

acijde of corSre Icynijes J^ejnas Fol. 198». 

syfone [aetjsomne, )?a selestan, 

gode eahta sum under inwit-hr5f 

hilde-rinc[a] ; sum on handa baer 
3125 seled-leoman, se 5e on orde jeonj. 

Naes 5a on hlytme, hwa J^aet hord strude, 

8113. folc-dgende may be nom. pi. [Cosijn*^] or dat. sg. [Bugge^°^ 
3115. The introduction of a parenthesis between the verb /r^fan and its 
object strengel is certainly strange. Consequently many editors take weaxan, 
not as the intrans. verb *to grow,' but as a trans, verb, meaning *to devour,' 
parallel to fretan and, with it, governing strengel. Various cognates and 
derivations have been suggested. Cosijn connects with Lat. vesci, Earle 
and Sedgefield with wascan 'to bathe, envelope,' Holthausen with Goth. 
fra-wisan, * to spend, exhaust.' 

3119. feder-gearwum, Kemble^, partly following an emendation of 
Thorkelin : MS. fasder gearwu. 

3121. This folio, the last, is very badly mutilated. 

eyniges. Thorkelin corrected to cynilnlges. But cynig is a recognized 
form in the late 10th and 11th centuries. 

3122. All recent editors read [toYsomne, following Zupitza, who however 
admits : * now to entirely gone.' But there seems to be no evidence that it 
existed even in Thorkelin's time: its occurrence in Kemblcj seems to be due 
to conjecture. In the absence of evidence in its favour, I read [at'^omne 
with Greina; cf. 1. 2847. 

3124. hilde-rinc{a]. Style and metre necessitate this emendation, made 
independently by Ettmiillerj and Sievers [P.B.B. ix. 144]: cf. 1. 1412. 
[For a defence of the MS. reading, see Cosijn *^] 

3126. * It was not decided by lot who should...' means, by the usual 
under-statement, that all pressed to take part. [Klaeber in Engl, Stud. 
xxxix. 432.] 

Beowulf 155 

sySSan orwearde senijne dsel 

secjas jesejon on sele wiinian, 

Isene licjan; lyt ^nij mearn, 
3130 l^aet hi ofostlic[e] ut jeferedon 

dyre maSmas. Dracan ec scufun, 

wyrm ofer weall-clif, leton we^ niman, 

flod faeSmian, fraetwa hyrde. 

p(X wges wunden jold on wsen hladen, 
3135 seshwaes unrim ; aej^elin^ boren, 

bar hilde[-riwc], t5 Hrones-naesse. 
XLiii Him Ca jejiredan 7eata leode 

ad on eorSan unwaclicne, 

helm[u772] behonjen, hilde-bordum, 
3140 beorhtum byrnum, swa he bena waes; 

alejdon 5a tOmiddes mserne )7eoden 

haeleS hiofende, hlaford leofne. 

Onjunnon \h on beor^e bael-fyra maest 

wijend weccan; wud[u]-rec astah 
3145 sweart ofer swioSole, swojende le^^ 

wope bewunden — wind-blond jelaej — , 

o5 faet h§ Sa ban-hus jebrocen haefde, 

hat on hreSre. Hi^ura unrote 

mod-ceare msendon mon-dryhtnes cw[e]alm ; 
3150 swylce jiomor 5yd |[s]ia ^[eo-Jmeowle Fol. 198^. 

3130. ofoitl\c\e\ : MS. defective at edge, emended by Ettmiillerj. 

3134. MS. f , which should stand for }>at (but see note to l.il5) : J?d, 
Thorkelin's emendation, bo Kemblej : /5r, Kemble, . 

3135. mpeling, Kemblej: MS. apelinge. Probably the original MS. had 
mpelingc [Buggei<»]. See Sievers., § 215. 

3136. MS. hilde to. * I am unable to decide whether there is an 
erasure of one letter after hilde or an original blank ' (Zupitza) : \rine] is 
an emendation of Ettmuller2: of. 11. 1307 and 3124. 

3139. helTn[um\ Grain: MS. helm. 

Sedgefield reads helmum behengon, to avoid the discrepancy between 
unwaclicne (inflected) and behongen (uninflected). 

3144. Hole in MS. : wud[ul Kemblej . 

3145. MS. swicdole; swiofole is Thorpe's conjecture, though he gave 
an impossible interpretation of it. See note to 1. 782. 

leg, Thorpe: MS. let. 

3147. he refers to leg (1. 3145). 

3149. MS. torn at foot: cic[e]al7n, Kemblci. 

3150, etc. All that can either be made out at present, or for which we 
have adequate evidence in Thorkelin's transcripts or elsewhere, is given in 
the text. It seems clear that the mutilated passage occupies six lines (not 
seven, as was unaccountably supposed by Heyne and Wiilker, and still is 
by Schiicking). 

156 Beowulf 


, . . sorj-cearij s;T'l5e jeneahhe, 
|73et hio hyre ::::.:: jas hearde on : : ede 
wjpl-fylla wonn : : : : des ejesan 
3155 hySo : h : : : : : d. Hcofon rece 8we[a]l5. 
Teworhton Sa Wedra leode 
hl[a3w] on [/?]li5e, se waes beah ond brad, 
[wseJj-liSendura wide ^[ejsyne, 

It must be remembered that this page has been almost entirely freshened 
np in a later hand, and, in part, erroneously. Thus in 11. 3150, 3155, though 
only [»lia, hy9o can now be read, no doubt «io, hynffo were the original 
readings. Bugge's restoration is therefore not to be discredited merely 
because a letter does not agree with what is now visible in the MS. 

The reconstruction of 11. 3150-55 made by Bugge"®"" is, apart from the 
last half-line, not to be improved upon: 

3150 twylce giomor-gyd sio geo-vieowle 
after Beowulf e bunden-heorde 
song sorg-cearig, tade geneahhe, 
f>mt hio hyre hearm-dagas hearde ondrede 
w&l-fylla worn wigendes egesan 
3155 hyndo ond hmft-nyd heof on rice wealg. 

geS (1. 3150) had been conjectured by Ettmiiller, and sio geo-meowle, 
partly conjectured, partly deciphered, by Zupitza, who pointed out that this 
reading was confirmed by the Latin gloss anus written above. Under an 
exceptionally good light, Zupitza had also read, or ' thought he had been 
able to read,' first metodes, and later [w]igendes (1. 3154). The 6 of hunden- 
heorde (I. 3151) was conjectured by Grein^. All the remainder of this 
excellent restoration is due to Bugge. 

But Bugge's last half-line, h^of on rice wealg ^ * lamentation in a strange 
land,' is a wanton departure from the MS., and is certainly wrong. The 
MS. reading is clearly heofon rece swealg, 'heaven swallowed the smoke* 
[swealg was conjectured by Ettmiiller2: on further examination it proved to 
be the MS. reading]. 

Bugge comments upon his reconstruction: *For the whole passage cf. 
IL 3016-20. Beowulf's aged widow {geo-meowle) was perhaps Hygd; cf. 
U. 2369 ff.' 

A close parallel is provided by the Fates of Men, 46-7, * the lady laments, 
seeing the flames consume her son.' [For the O.E. song of lament over the 
dead, cf. Schiicking in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 1, etc.] Compare too the lament of 
Andromache over Hector [Iliad xxiv. 725-45], which has the same governing 
motive: the fear that, now the tribal hero is dead, nothing but captivity 
awaits the defenceless folk. See also 11. 2999, etc., 3016, etc. 

3153. * The first two letters after hearde look like on or an, the letter 
before de may have been e, as the stroke that generally connects e with a 
following letter is preserved ' (Zupitza), 

3157. Zupitza, leode hi : : on liSe, and in a foot-note: *I am unable to 
make out hl&w after leode : the two last letters seem to me to be rather eo ' 
[certainly]; hlsew is recorded by Kemblei as the MS. reading. See 1. 3169. 
Thorpe, hlilSe. 

Holthansen [followed by Schiicking] reads, for the sake of the metre, 
fcZ[»ir] on \li]li&e{s nosan]. 

3158. The remainder of this page of the MS. is frequently illegible or 
defective, both at the edges and elsewhere. 

vxg is Kemble's conjecture. 

Beowulf 157 

ond betimbredon on tyn da^um 
3160 beadu-rofes been; bronda lafe 

wealle beworhton, swa hyt weorSlicost 

fore-snotre men findan mihton. 

Hi on beorj dydon be^ ond sijlu, 

eall swylce hyrsta, swylce on horde ser 
3165 niS-hedije men jenumen haefdon ; 

forleton eorla jestreon eortSan healdan, 

jold on ^reote, )78er hit nil jen lifaS 

eldum swa unnyt, swa hi[t ^ro]r wses. 

pa ymbe hlsew riodan hilde-deore 
3170 gej^elinja beam ealra twelfa, 

woldon [ceare] cwiSan, kyning msenan, 

word-jyd wrecan, ond ymb w[er] sprecan; 

eahtodan eorl-scipe, ond his ellen-weoic 

dujuSum demdon, swa hit 5ede[fe] biS, 
3175 )7a3b mon his wine-dryhten wordum herje, 

ferhSum freoje, )7onne he forS scile 

of l-ic-haman [Iseded] weorSan. 

Swa bejnornodon veata leode 

hlafordes [hryjre, heorS-jeneatas; 
3180 cwsedon )?8et he w^ere wyruld-cyninj, 

manna mildust ond mon-pwjserust, 

leodum liSost, ond lof-jeornost. 

3163. heg. Thorpe, heagas [so Holthausen, hegas]. 

3168. Zupitza, hi •.::'.r\ h\it aro}r, Kemblea- 

8169. So when Attila was buried (doubtless according to Gothic rites) 
mounted horsemen rode round the body as it lay in state. The account of 
the burial of Achilles {Odyssey, xxiv. 68-70) may also be compared: 'And 
many heroes of the Achaeans moved in armour around thy pyre as thou 
wast burning, both foot and horse.* 

3170. twelfa may be a gen., attracted to ealra, but more probably it is 
miswritten for twelfe, 'twelve of the entire body' [Ettmiiller2. So Klaeber 
in M.L.N, xvi. 17, Holthausen, Schiicking, Sedgefield. Cf. also Einenkel in 
Anglia, xxvii. 5, 51]. 

3171. Zupitza, : : : : ; ceare, Grein; hie, Sedgefield. 

3172. Zupitza, w : : ; wer, Grein. 
3174. Hole in MS. : gede[fe], Kemble2. 

3177. Zupitza : ' lachaman MS., but there can be little doubt that lae 
Instead of lie is owing only to the late hand.' 

Zupitza, : : : : ; Kemble, Isene, so Schiicking. Kluge, Trautmann, Sedge, 
field, lysed. But the reading IMed is supported by a comparison of the Speech 
0/ the Soul, 21, gy&ffan of lichoman laded ware [Jacobsen, so Holthausen]. 

3179. Zupitza, : : : re ; Thorpe, hryre. 

3180. wyruld-cyning. Kemble, etc., cyning[a]. 
8181. MS. torn at foot: [ffwlartist, Grundtvig^^*. 



George Hickes first printed the fragment of the Fight at Finnshurg in hia 
Thetaurus (1705: vol. i. p. 192). He mentions that he had found it written 
on a single leaf in a MS. of 'Semi-Saxon' Homilies in the Lambeth Library. 
Kepeated search has failed to discover this leaf, and we have nothing to 
depend on but Hickes' very inaccurate transcript [quoted as 'Hickes' in the 
notes below]. 

* * * [hor]nas bvmaS niBfre ? ' 
iileofrode Ca hea/>o-5eon5 cyninj : 
" Ne Sis ne dajaS eastan, ne her draca ne fleojeS, 
ne her Sisse healle hornas ne byrnaS, 

5 ac her for)? beraS, 

fujelas siujaCi, 

1. The first three words belong to a watcher (possibly Hengest), who is 
answered by the ' war-young king ' (Hnaef). 

\hor\na$y supplied by Rieger, Lesebuch. 

2. Trautmann and Holthausen would write, for the sake of the metre, 
6d hleo/yrode. 

heapo-geong, Grundtvig's correction; Hickes, hearo geong. 

3. ffis, 'this light': eastan^ Grundtvig: Hickes, eastuw, a and u are 
easily and often confused, cf. 1. 27 below and Beowulf, 158, 581, etc. 

5-6. The two half-lines make sense individually, but do not combine. 
Hence it has been generally supposed that between them two half-lines 
have been lost, though there is no gap indicated by Hickes. Bugge [Tidsskr. 
viii. 305, P.B.B. xii. 23], following in part a suggestion of Rieger ILetehuch, 
of. Z.f.d.A. xlviii. 9], proposed : 

ac her forp beralf [fyrd-searu rincat, 
fiacre fidnbogan] fugelas tingad, 
' But here champions bear forward their battle array : the flickering birds 
of the bow [i.e. arrows] sing.* 

Another suggestion is to make the two recorded half-lines fit each other 
either by altering her to fer[= far], 'they bring forward the sudden assault' 
[Grein, so Heyne, and, though abandoned by Grein, the conjecture was long- 
lived], or beraf to feraif, ' they, i.e. the foes, press forward ' [Grundtvig, 
followed by Holthausen]. In this oase the fugela$ will be birds : either 
carrion birds [ten Brink, Paulg Grdr. n. i. 545] or the birds of the morning 
[Klaeber in Anglia, xxviii. 447] ; this last interpretation is supported by a 
parallel in the Bjarkamdl, the opening call to arms of which has struck 
many students as resembling Finnsburh. 

The Fight at Finnsburg 159 

jylleS jrsej-hama, juS-wudu hlynneS, 
scyld scefte oncwyS. Nti scyneS )?es mOna 
waSol under wolcnum; nu arisaS wea-daeda 
lo Se Cisne folces niS fremman willaS. 
Ac onwacnijeaS nu, wijend mine, 
habbaS eowre [/i]lenca[n], hicjea)? on ellen, 
winnaS on orde, wesaS onmode." 
14, 15 Da aras maenij jold-hladen Sejn, ^yrde hine his 
swurde ; 
Da to dura eodon drihtlice cempan, 
SijeferS and Eaha, hyra sword jetujon, 
and aet oj^rum durum Ordlaf and 7u)7laf, 
and Henjest sylf hwearf him on laste. 

7. grag-hamay * the grey coat,* may refer equally well to the wolf or to 
a coat of mail. 

8. J^es mdiuif *the moon,* is quite idiomatic. [Cf. Klaeber in Archiv, 
cxv. 181.] 

9. waffol. Exact meaning unknown. Suggestions, 'full (moon)' [so 
Holthausen and Schiicking]; •inconstant' [Boer, Z.fA.A. xlvii. 143]; 'half 
covered' [von Grienberger, P.B.B. xxxvi. 100]. The M.H.G. 'wadel' has 
often been quoted in illustration ; but as this term is ambiguous, denoting 
sometimes the full, sometimes the new moon, it does not help much. Cf. 
Grimm's Mythology, trans. Stallybrass, m. 711. 

12. [hllencalnl : landa, which Hickes gives, is unintelligible. The 
obvious correction hahbaS eowre linda [Bugge in Tidsskr. viii. 305], ' seize 
your shields,' is unsatisfactory from the point of view of alliteration, and 
hahhaS or hehhaS 'eowre handa [Ettmiiller, Grein, Heyne, Sedgefield], 'raise 
your hands,' does not give very satisfactory sense ; hlencan was suggested, but 
not adopted, by Bugge [P.B.B. xii. 23], and has been adopted by Holthausen 
and Trautmann. Exodus, 215, etc., Moyses bebead eorlat.^.habban heora 
hlencan, hycgan on ellen, seems to be connected with the Finnsburg passage, 
and it seems probable therefore that hlencan should be restored here. 

hicgeaS is Grundtvig's obviously successful correction of Hickes' hie 

13. winnaS on orde. Hickes reads windaiT, 'fly, spring.* Sedgefield 
retains this, but most editors alter to winnaHf. The old characters used by 
Hickes have been read by Trautmann [B.B. vii. 41] and others as pindaS, 

* show your temper ' : but, as Mr Diokins has shown, this ia an error. 

14. Metrically this line seems rather overweighted, and it is likely 
enough that two lines have here been telescoped into one. Holthausen [in 
part following Trautmann] reads 

f)a drcu [of rmte rum-heort] manig 
goldhladen [gujn-]degn gyrde hine hit twurde. 

* Then arose from his couch many a valiant and gold-bedecked thane. 

17. Sigeferth, prince of the Secgan (1. 25), is clearly identical with the 
Sseferth, prince of the Sycgan, mentioned in Widsith, 31. 

Eaha. Most editors emend to Eawa, a form for which there is more 
authority, as it occurs in the Mercian Genealogy. 

18. durum. PI. for sg. , , ^ t., , . 
Ordlaf : Ordlaf and Guthlaf are no doubt identical with the Guthlaf and 

Oslaf of Beowulf, 1148. 

160 2'he FigJit at Finnshurg 

20 Da jyt 7aruir[e] 7ri^'ere sty id 0, 

Sa3t lie swa lieDlic feorh foiman sl)>e 
to Si^re healle durum hyrsta ne biere, 
nu hyt ni)?a heard aii} man wolde ; 
ac he fraejn ofer eal undearninja, 

25 deor-mod haele)?, hwa 5a duru heolde. 

"Sijefer)? is min uama (ewe)? he), ic com Sec^ena 

wreccea wide cuS. Faela ic weana jebad, 
heardra hilda; Se is jyt her witod, 
swa^)7er Su sylf to me secean wylle." 

30 Da waes on -M/ealle wael-slihta jehlyn, 
sceolde ceXlod hord cenum on handa, 

20. /a gyt, as in Maldon, 273, serves to introJuce a new incident in 
the chain of events. [Klaeber in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 307.] 

styrde, Ettmiiller's emendation. Hickes, styrode ; but the sense demands 
• restrained ' rather than * incited.' 

Suthere is apparently the speaker and Garulf the person who is being 
restrained. For it is Garulf who, neglecting the advice, falls. 

Gdrulfe, Trautmann: Garulf, Hickes, followed by most recent editors. 
But styran should take a dat. of the person and the metre of the line 
is improved by reading Gdrulfe. [Cf. Klaeber in Engl. Stud, xxxix. 307.] 

21-22. Hickes has he...hmran. We must alter either to hie baran 
[Grein, Heyne] or to he... hare [Kemble]. The context emphatically favours 
the sg. because the advice to hold back from the attack can obviously be 
given to a special person for a special reason, but cannot be recommended 
generally. [Rieger in Z.f.d.A. xlviii. 11.] 

forrnan sipe, ' in the first brunt,' or perhaps • in his first battle.' Guthere 
is probably, as Klaeber points out [Engl. Stud, xxxix. 307], the uncle of 
Garulf. It is essentially the part of the uncle, in heroic poetry, to watch 
over and advise the nephew. Guthlaf and Guthere would then be brothers. 

The parallel examples quoted by Klaeber from the Waltariui and the 
Nibelungen Lied, where the uncle restrains the nephew, are not quite 
apposite, as in those cases the uncle has personal reasons for not wishing 
the nephew to join in the fight. Hygelac restraining Beowulf (11. 1994, etc.) 
is more appropriate. 

23, etc. nipa heard refers to Sigeferth; he... deor-mod hselep to Garulf. 

2-i. eal : Trautmann, ealle, for metrical reasons, followed by Holthausen. 

26. cwep He is hypermetrical, and doubtless the insertion of some 

27. wreccea. Hickes, wrecten. Grundtvig emended t to c. 

Fsela. There is no necessity, either here or in 1. 35, to normalize, as 
many editors have done, to fela. 

weana. Couybeare's emendation. Hickes, weuna. 

28. heardra, Kemble's emendation. Hickes, heordra. 

29. sxcmper, probably • thou canst have from me what thou wilt, good or 
evil,' rather than, as ten Brink thinks [Pauls Grdr. 11. i. 546], a bitter jest, 
• thou canst have from me which thou wilt, either " woes " or •• sharp 
contests." * 

30. on wealle, Ettmiiller : Hickes, on healle. The alliteration demands 
the change. 

31. cellod, Grein; bard, Kemble: Hickes, Celses borS. A comparison 

The Fight at Finnshurg 161 

ban-helm berstan. Buruh-Selu dynede, 

0(5 set 5^re juSe 7arulf ^ecranj, 

ealra serest eorS-btiendra, 
35 7u5lafes sunu, ymbe hyne jodra faela. 

Hwearf [/jlacra hr^w hraefen, wandrode 

sweart and sealo-brtin ; swurd-leoma stod 

svvylce eal Finns-buruh fyrenu wsere. 

Ne jefejn ic nsefre wur)?licor set wera hilde 
40 sixtij sije-beorna sel jebserann, 

ne nt^fre swanas swetne medo sel for^yldan, 

Sonne Hnaefe juldan his hae^-stealdas. 

Hij fuhton fif dajas, swa hyra nan ne feol 

with Maldon, 283, leaves little doubt as to the correctness of the restoration; 
the meaning of cellod is a more difficult matter. Suggestions are : ' keel- 
shaped ' [Grein] : * vaulted ' [Lat celatus, Kluge] ; * chilled, cold ' [ Jellinek 
in P.B.B. XV. 431]; ' leather-covered = cyZZod ' [Trautmann in B.B. 
vii. 46]: * having a boss or beak, cele^ [Bosworth-Toller]. 

Holthauseua proposed ce[or'\lses, *the man's, warrior's, shield,' the sg. 
used collectively : Holthauseug , cl&ne. 

32. ban-helm means either (1) 'bone-protector,' 'shield,' parallel to 
bord, or (2) bdn-hus, 'body,' object to brecan, the shield being used in the 
last resort as a weapon of offence, as it was by Hereward the Wake. 

34. eorSbuendra, perhaps 'first of aU the dwellers in that land,' i.e. of 
the natives, Eotenas or Frisians, who are attacking Hnsef and his men. 

35. The Guthlaf here, father of one of the assailants, can hardly be 
identical with the Guthlaf of 1. 18, who is one of the besieged. It is 
probably not a case of the tragic meeting of father and son on opposite 
sides, for, if so, more would surely have been made of it. It is possible that 
we are dealing with two heroes of the same name [Klaeber in Engl. Stud. 
xxxix. 308] or that GuSlaf here is a corrupt reading [Trautmann, B.B. 
vii. 48]. 

36. Hwearf l^fllacra hrxw hrsefen, ' the quickly moving raven hovered 
over the corpses,' an emendation hazarded by Bugge [P.B.B. xii. 27: 
Conybeare had already conjectured hreew], for Hickes' Hwearjlacra hrar. 
But, as Bugge recognized, the sense does not fit the metre. Grundtvig, 
followed by GreiUj, had suggested hwearflicra hrsew, 'the corpses of the 
swift,' a phrase explaining godra f&la above. [So Sedgefield.] Jellinek 
suggests hwearf Iddra hreas, 'a crowd of foemen fell' [P.B.B. xv. 431]; 
Holthausen, hwearf [b]ldcra hreas, 'a company of pale [corpses] fell'; 
Trautmann, hrsewbldcra hwearf [noun] hrmfen wundrode, * the raven gazed 
in astonishment at the mass of the corpse-pale [slain]. * 

40, etc. Cf . Beowulf, 2633 ff. 

41. nsefre, Grundtvig : Hickes, nefre. 

swdnas swetne medo, Grein, partly following Ettmiiller: Hickes, swa 
noc hwitne medo. 

43. This line, with the alliteration on the fourth accented syllable, is 
unraetrical. Hence Kieger and Grein postulated a gap of two half-lines, 
and suggested various stop-gaps which Moller finally improved into 
hig fuhton fxf dagas [for^gerimed 
and nihta oSer swylc] swd hyra..., 
and Trautmann 

hig fuhton fif dagas [ferh&grimme haleif 
ond niht eal-}swd: hyra.^. 

1G2 The Fight at Finnsburg 

driht-jesiSa, ac hij 5a duru heoldon. 
45 J)a jewat him wund lia?le5 on waij janjan, 

sakie paet his byrne abrocen wi]ere, 

here-sceorp u/?hr6r, and eac waes his helm 5yrl. 

J)a hine sona fraejn folces hyrde, 

hu Sa wijend hyra wunda jenceson, 
50 o55e hw3e]?er CaBra hyssa ♦ ♦ ♦ 

44. diLTU must be pi., and is very probably an error for dura. Simflar 
miswritings of u for a occur in 11. 3 and 27. 

46. etc. It seems impossible to decide who is the wounded champion or 
whether the king who enquires is Hnaef or Finn. Is it possible that the 
speaker is Hnaef, who enquires why the wTgend, the opposing warriors, seem 
to recover miraculously from the blows which his men give them? The 
position would then be identical with that in Heimskringla [ed. J6nsson, i. 
449J, when King Olaf Tryggvason 'looked forward on the ship and saw his 
men swinging their swords and smiting fast, but that the swords bit ill, 
and he shouted, "Is it because ye raise your swords so dully that I see 
they bito not?" A man answered, "Our swords are blunted and 

47. Hickes has here-sceorpum hrvr, ' the brave one in his battle array/ 
which can be construed as in apposition to wund halef. Thorpe, followed 
by Bugge and Schucking, here-sceorp unhrdr, in apposition with byrne, an 
exceedingly tempting emendation. The interpretation of unhror is, however, 
not clear. Is it • not stirring' in the sense of 'firm,* 'trusty,' 'his byrnie 
was broken, his trusty war gear,' or is it ' not stirring,' 'inactive,' * useless,* 
' his byrnie was broken and his war gear useless ' ? So Hialto ezclaimf 
in the BJarka mdl, as translated by Saxo [Bk. 11, p. 65], 

lam dure acies et spicula scutum 
Frustratim secuere meum, partesque minutim 
Avuhas absumpsit edax per prelia ferrum... 
Rupti etenim clypei retinactda tola supersunt. 

48. Holthausen, transposes, for the metre ; pa, fragn hine sSna. 

50. Rieger [Z./.d.A. xlviii. 12] suggests that the struggle probably ended 
by the hall being fired, Hnaef and his sixty men being driven into the open, 
and Hnsef there slain by Finn. This is improbable, for in that case we may 
presume that they would have all been overwhelmed, whilst we gather from 
Beowulf, 1082-5, that after Hnaef's death they were able, under Hengest's 
leadership, to hold out against Finn successfully to the end. 


The narnc3 of the corresponding characters in Scandinavian legend are added in 
italics ; first the Icelandic forms, then the Latinized names as recorded by 
iHaxo Grammaticus. 


[no Scandinavian 


[Hj^arilfr, Hiar- 
teams : but not 
recognized a* he- 
longing to this 


Scyld Scefing [Skjgldr, Scioldm] 
Beownlf [not the hero of the poem] 
Healfdene [Halfdan, Haldanw] 

Hro'Sgar [Hroarr, Roe], 
mar, WealhJ>eow 



R^ricns: not 


as a son of 



Halga [Helgi, 

Freawara Hr6"Sulf 

mar. [Hrolfr 

Ingeld Kraki, 


a daugnter 



Herebeald HfEtScyn Hygelac, mar. Hygd 

a daughter, 
mar. Eofor 


a daughter mar. Ecgheow 




_ Onela 
[A li, not recognized 
as belonging to this 

Ohthere {Ottarr] 


[ASilSf Athislus] 


The student will find particulars of many of the persona and places 
mentioned in Beowulf in the following books (among others) : 
Chadwick, Origin of the English Nation, 1907. 

Clark, Sidelights on Teutonic History during the Migration Period, 1911. 
Chadwick, The Heroic Age, 1912. 
The Introduction to the study of Beowulf, supplementary to the present 
volume, will include a discussion of the origin of the legends most prominent 
in Beowulf. 

Many of the characters mentioned in Beowulf are also referred to in 
IVidsith, The references are to my edition (Cambridge Press, 1912). 

Abel, slain by Cain (q.v.), 108. 

AUfhere. Wiglaf is called • kinsman of ^Ifhere,' 2604. 

jEschere, Hrothgar's counsellor and comrade in arms, slain and carried off 
by Grendel's dam in revenge for her son, 1288-1344, 2120-2130. 

Ar-Scyldingas, 464, Honour-Scyldings, a name of the Danes; see Scyl- 

Beanstan, Breca's father, 524. Miillenhofif^ has suggested that the first 
element in the name may be connected with O.N. bauni, ' dog-fish,' 
thus echoing the aquatic names of Breca (q.v.) and the Brondingas. 

Beorht-Dene, 427, 609, Bright-Danes; see Dene. 

Beowulf the Dane (not the hero of the poem), 18, 53, an ancestor of the 
Danish king Hrothgar. Cf. Chadwick, Origin, 273, 291. 

Beowulf the Geat (the second scribe, who begins in the MS. in 1. 1939, 
preserves the spelling 'Biowulf,' 1987, 1999, etc.), the hero of the 
poem, first mentioned as * Hygelac's thane ' in 1. 194, first named in 
1. 343. He is the son of Ecgtheow (263, etc.) ; his mother's name ie 
not given, but she was the daughter of Hrethel, king of the Geatas, and 
therefore sister of Hygelac (371-5). After his seventh year Beowulf was 
brought up at the court of his grandfather, Hrethel (2428-34). In his 
youth (like many other heroes of legend) he was despised as slothful 
(2183-9), but when he grew up his hand had the strength of thirty 
other men's (379, cf. 2361). He gained glory in a swimming match 
with Breca (506-581), voyaged to Heorot, the hall of Hrothgar, king 
of the Danes, and purged it from the ravages of Grendel and 
Grendel's mother (q.v.), with both of whom he wrestled successfully. 
It is as a 'hand-slayer' (2502) that he attains his chiefest fame (2684 ff.). 

Persons and Places 165 

He accompanied Hygelao in his fatal expedition against the Hetware, 
and saved his own life, after the fall of his king, by swimming (2359 ff.)- 
He refused the throne, offered him by Hygelao's widow (2369 ff.) ; acted 
as guardian and protector to Hygelac's son Heardred (2377), and on the 
death of the latter became king of the Geatas, whom he ruled for fifty 
years (2209). Finally he slew, and was slain by, a fiery dragon 
(2210, etc.). 

The setting against which Beowulf s exploits are depicted is historic : 
Eygelac was undoubtedly ruling the Geatas in the years following 
500 A.D., and there is no reason to doubt that the other sovereigns 
mentioned are equally authentic. The contrast in tone between this 
historic setting and the fanciful character of Beowulf's chief "exploits 
is obvious, and has led to the widely prevalent theory that our hero is 
a compound of a historic prince (Beowulf of the Geatas) and a mythical 
monster-quelling Beowa, who would be identical with the Beow, son of 
Sceldwea (Scyld), found in the Anglo-Saxon genealogies. The theory of 
double origin derives some support from the fact that our poem recog- 
nizes two Beowulfs, one the son of Scyld and the other the prince of 
the Geatas. Presumably the monster-slaying exploits have been trans- 
ferred from the one to the other; but this theory does not admit of 
proof. For further details see Introduction to Beowulf', and for theories 
as to the etymology of the name Beowulf see {inter alia) Cosijn*^; Bugge 
in Tidsskr. viii. 287; Binz in P.B.B. xx. 153, 159; Sanazin in Engl. 
Stud. xlii. 19. 

Breca, son of Beanstan (524), and a chief ■of the Brondingas (521). Unferth 
taunts Beowulf with his unsuccessful swimming-match with Breca. 
Beowulf asserts that he was the better swimmer, and could have out- 
paced Breca, but did not wish to do so (543). 

Breca probably had a place in Old English legend, quite independently 
of Beowulf: he is mentioned as prince of the Brondingas, and a famous 
ruler, in Widsith, 1. 25. The names are suggestive of a sea-story: 
brecan is used in O.E. of a ship dashing over the waves {Elene^ 244, 
Andreas, 223, 513), and branding has for centuries been in use among 
the sailors of the North Sea to signify 'breakers,' 'surge.' But we 
need not therefore regard Breca as a mythological abstraction of the 
sea, which Beowulf conquers. A swimming contest between young men 
is a favourite episode in Germanic story. Cf. Bugge". 

Brondingas, 521, see Breca. 

Brosinga mene (Icel. Brisinga men), the famous Brising necklace. The 
collar given to Beowulf is compared with it (1. 1197 ff.). Incidentally we 
are told that Hama carried off the Brosinga mene from Eormenrio. In 
Scandinavian poetry the Brisinga men is the adornment of the goddess 
Freyja; but although Eormenric (q.v.) is a well-known figure in this 
Old Norse poetry, he is there in no way connected with the necklet. 
Elaborate theories have been invented, especially by Miillenhoff, to 
connect the Scandinavian references to the necklet with the English 
and German references to Eormenric, but these theories are necessarily 
hazardous. See Widsith, Introduction, p. 30, etc. 

166 Beowulf 

C&ln is the ancestor of Grendel (107 fF., 1261 £f.), as of monsters and giants 
generally : see Emerson, "Legends of Cain, especially in Old and Middle 
English," in Pub. Mud. Lang. Atsoc. Amer. 1906, iii. 831, particularly 
§ vi., on " Cain's descendants." Such a theological view of Grendel is 
not an isolated one, limited to the two passages where Cain's name 
occurs, but runs through the whole earlier portion of the poem. Con- 
trast the dread (but not hellish) fire drake. For further notes on Cain's 
kin, of. Bugge8^->; Kittredge, P.B.B. xiii. 210. 

Daghrefii {dat. 2501), a warrior of the Hugas, seems to have killed Hygelao 
(cf. 1207-14 with 2503-4). Beowulf was his ' hand-slayer ' (2501-8). 

Dene {gen. Dena 242, Deniga 271, Denia 2125), the Danes, the subjects of 
Hrothgar. Their head-place is Heorot (q.v.), and their territory in- 
cludes what is now the southern extremity of Sweden (Skaane), which 
i», indeed, the only portion of their kingdom specifically mentioned by 
name in our poem (Scede-landum, 19 ; Sceden-ig, 1686). They are 
called by various names : Beorht-Dene^ Gar-Dene, Hring-Dene, in 
allusion to their warlike character ; East-Dene, NorS-Dene, SuS-Dene^ 
West-Dene, in allusion to their wide distribution ; Scyldingat, Ingwine, 
and Hredtnen, all of which see. 

EadgUs, son of Ohthere. 

What is told of the brothers Eadgils and Eanmund in the poem, a^ 
in the case of the other allusions and episodes, must have been originally 
intended for hearers who were supposed to know all about them. For 
us, the order and nature of the events referred to are often by no means 
clear. In this particular instance, however, it is not difficult to put 
together a complete story, as we have the Scandinavian accounts to 
help as. 

Eanmund and Eadgils are banished horn Sweden for rebellion against 
their uncle, king Onela (2379 ff.), and take refuge at the court of the Geat 
king, Heardred. The fact of their finding an asylum with his hereditary 
foes (see Ongentheow) causes Onela to invade the land of the Geatas 
(2202 fl.) and to slay Heardred (2384 ff.) ; but Beowulf succeeds to the 
throne (2389-90). Beowulf at a later time (2392) balances the feud by 
supporting Eadgils in the invasion of Sweden, in which Eadgils slays 
the king, his uncle Onela (2391 ff.), and takes the throne. This version 
of the story is confirmed by reference to the Norse accounts, in which 
A-gils ( = Eadgils) slays Ui (= Onela) on the ice of Lake Wener (see 
1. 2396). Cf. Clark, Sidelights, 149, etc. ; and Introduction to Beowulf. 

Eafor (gen. 2964). See Eofor. 

Eanmund, 2611, son of Ohthere ; see Eadgils. Fighting, together with his 
brother Eadgils, against his uncle Onela, he was slain by Weohstan, 
who was at that time obviously a retainer of Onela. See note to 
1. 2603. 

Eama-naes, 3031, Eagles'-ness, near the scene of Beowulfs fight with the 

£ast-Dene, 392, 616, East-Danes; see Dene. 

Ecgiaf, 499, father of Unferth. 

Ecg>«ow (EcgJ>eo, 373 ; gen, EcgJ>ioe8, 1999), father of Beowulf the Geat ; 

Persons and Places 167 

married the only daughter of Hrethel, king of the Geatas and father of 
Hygelao (373-5). Having slain Heatholaf, the Wylfing, Ecgtheow seeks 
protection at the court of Hrothgar in the early days of his kingship ; 
Hrothgar accepts his fealty, and settles the feud by a money-payment 
(459 ff.). 

Ecffwela, 1710 (see note), apparently an ancient king of the Danes. 

Eofor {dat. lofore, 2993, 2997), a warrior of the Geatas, son of Wonred and 
brother of Wulf. He comes to the aid of "Wulf in his combat with 
Ongentheow, whom he slays. Hygelao liberally rewards both the 
brothers, and gives his only daughter to Eofor (2484 fit., 2961 ff.). 
[Weyhe, in Engl. Stud, xxxiz. 14, etc., seeks to connect this episode 
with several Scandinavian tales presenting similar features.] 

Eomar (MS. geomor), 1960, son of OfEa and Thryth (q.v.). 

Eormenric, 1201 ; see Brosinga mene. The existence of Eormenric, king 
of the Goths, is certified by the contemporary evidence of Ammianus 
MarcellinuB (xxxi. 3, 1), who records how Ermenrichus (=0.E. Eor- 
menric) warred victoriously against his neighbours, till the Huns broke 
in upon his extensive empire, after which he slew himself (about the 
year 875 a.d.). Eormenric was remembered in the traditions of all the 
Germanic peoples as the type of a tyrant: he was supposed to have 
slain his wife Swanhild and his nephews the Harlungen (O.E. Here- 
lingas), and to have persecuted and exiled a third nephew, Theodoric 
of Verona. This last evil deed is chronologically impossible, the sup- 
posed nephew not having been born till eighty years after the death of 
the supposed uncle. The story of the i^urder of Swanhild is based on 
a cruel vengeance which the king is stated to have executed upon the 
wife of a traitor who had escaped him (Jordanes, xxiv.). Of the origin 
of the tale of the murder of the Harlungen we know nothing. By a 
series of most hazardous conjectures it has been argued that it was 
through this murder that Eormenric became possessed of the Brosinga 
meney which Hama in turn stole from him. 

How well-known Eormenric was in Old English tradition is proved 
from the references to him in Widiith and Beor. See Clark, Sidelights, 
232, etc, Widsith, Introduction, pp. 16-86. 

Eotenas, 1072, 1088, 1141, 1145; see Finn. 

Finn (Fin, 1096, 1146, 1152; gen. Finnes, 1068, etc.), king of the Frisians, 
in some way comes to blows with Hnaef, the brother of his wife Hilde- 
burh. Hnaef is the son of Hoc and lord of the Hooingas {Widsith, 
1.29), who are a Danish, or at least half-Danish, clan (and are therefore 
called Healf-Dene, q.v.). Hnaef is slain, but ultimately vengeance for 
his death is taken upon Finn. 

The story has to be pieced together from the short fragment of the 
Lay of Finnsburg, and from the references in the Finn-Episode in 
Beowulf (1068-1159), which are allusive and obviously intended for 
people who knew the story quite well. Agreement has not been reached 
as to the relation of these two versions. According to M6Uer, Hnaef 
attacks Finn, in vengeance for an old quarrel, in which Finn had carried 
ofi his sister Hildeburh by force and slain his father Hoc. [For all 

168 Beowulf 

thiR there is no evidence whatever.] Hncef is slain, and peace made 
between Finn and Hengest, the successor of Hneof and captain of the 
Danish survivors. But the Frisians, Mdller assumes, break the truce 
and attack Hengest. This, according to him, is the night attack 
described in the Fragment. 

Moller's view is open to at least half a dozen objections, of which the 
most serious are (1) that it forces ns to suppose that the 'war-young 
king ' who is attacked by night in the Fragment is Hengest, whilst the 
evidence would lead us to suppose it to be HneGf ; and (2) that it forces 
ns to assume a stirring night attack to have taken place between 
U. 1145 and 1146 of the Episode, although there is no mention of it there. 

This theory is, therefore, now generally discredited, and most recent 
scholars follow in the main the view of Bugge: that Finn attacked Hnaef 
by night, and that this is the night attack narrated in the Fragment ; 
and that it is also the struggle which is alluded to in the Episode as 
preceding those further events which the Episode then narrates more at 

Bugge's theory, though mnch more satisfactory than that of Moller, 
involves a very serious diflBculty : it forces us to suppose that the Danish 
survivors ultimately entered the service of the Frisian king, in spite 
of the fact that he had slain their lord by treachery. Such conduct 
would be contrary to all the ties of Germanic honour, and cannot be 
reconciled with the praise which, in the Fragment^ is given to the 
bearing of the Danish thanes. 

The responsibility for the attack is placed, in Beowulf, upon a people 
called the Eotenas, whom critics have identified either with the Frisians 
[so Bugge, etc.] or with the Danes [so Moller] according to the view 
taken as to the beginning of the fight. Neither identification is very 
satisfactory, and a better solution is, I think, to be found by supposing 
the Eotenas to be a distinct tribe, possibly identical with the Eote or 
Yte, whom modern historians know as Jutes. 

Archaeological and historic evidence points to the Frisians having 
been a great nation, whilst the other tribes mentioned as taking part in 
the struggle— the Hocingas or Heal/dene, the Secgan, and ihe Eotenas— 
are small and obscure clans. For it is clear that i\iQ Hocingas or Healf- 
dene, though Danish, are not identical with the Danish nation proper, 
which was never ruled by kings named Hoc or Hnmf. 

Finn, king of the Frisians, probably called a meeting of chieftains of 
subordinate clans subject to or allied with him, such as we read of in 
the Norse sagas. At this meeting a night attack was made upon Hnaef 
and the Hocingas by Gamlf, presumably prince of the Eotenas. It 
may be assumed that the supreme chief, Finn, had no share in this 
treachery, though he had to interfere in order to end the conflict, and 
to avenge his son, who had fallen in the struggle. It is quite possible 
that Finn slew Hnsaf with his own hands, but this does not necessarily 
follow from his being called the ' slayer of Hnaef (1. 1102) since the chief 
is responsible for the acts of his followers. So Hygelao is called * slayer 
pf Ongentheow ' (1. 1968). 

Persons and Places 169 

Such a succession of events would explain allusions in the poem not 
explicable on other hypotheses, and the action of the Danish survivors, 
in making peace with Finn, becomes less unintelligible if Finn had no 
hand in the original treachery, and interfered only to avenge a slain 
son. That, nevertheless, this peace should have been broken, and Finn 
in the end slain, is quite in accordance with the usual development of 
a Germanic feud. Compare the story of Ingeld, and other tales where 
the tragic interest lies not merely in the actual fighting, but in the 
struggle in the minds of the heroes, who have to harmonize the 
duty of revenge with other conflicting claims. 

Cf. Clark, Sidelights, 111, etc.; Moller, V.E., 46-99; Bugge^o, etc.; 
Boer in Z.f.d.A. xlvii. 125, etc. ; Introduction to Beowulf. 

Finnas, 580, the Finns. The sea washed Beowulf up on their land at the 
end of his swimming-match with Breca. 

Fltela, 879, 889, nephew and comrade of the outlaw Sigemund (q.v.). Their 
adventures are told at length in the Icelandic Vglsunga Saga. V^lsung 
{=0.E. Waels), the father of Sigmund and Signy, is treacherously slain, 
with his retinue, by the husband of Signy, on a visit. Sigmund alone 
escapes, and becomes an outlaw. Signy sends him as helper her son 
Sinfjgtli (=Fitela), who is also Sigmund's own son. They take their 
vengeance, and Sigmund regains his father's throne. But SinfJQtli is 
at last slain through the wiles of Sigmund's wife, whose kin he has 
slain. Sigmund takes the corpse of Sinfjgtli to the sea, and places it 
in a small boat to be ferried across a fiord : whereupon both the boat 
and the boatman, who is doubtless Odin, vanish. 

Folcwalda, 1089, the father of Finn. 

Francan, 1210, see Froncan. 

Freawaru {ace. Freaware 2022), daughter of Hrothgar and Wealhtheow, and 
wife of Ingeld. See Ingeld. 

Fresan, 1093, 2915, see Fr^san. 

Fres-cynlng, 2503, the king of the [West] Frisians; see Frysan. 

Fres-lond (pL), 2357, the land of the [West] Frisians; see Frysan. 

Fres-wal, 1070, the Frisian field or place of battle, where Hncef fell ; see 

FrSda, 2025, father of Ingeld (q.v.). 

Froncan {gen. Francna 1210), the Franks. Hygelao was defeated and slain,^ 
in his historic invasion of the Netherlands, by a combined army of 
Frisians and Franks (1202 ff., 2910 ff.). 

Prysan {gen. Fresena 1093, Frysna 1104, Fresna 2915), the Frisians. The 
Frisians are alluded to in two connections, (1) as the people of Finn 
(q.v.; 1068 ff.), who are apparently the main body of the Frisians, 
dwelling east and north of what is now the Zuyder Zee; (2) as the 
[West] Frisians, who combined with the Franks against Hygelac 
(1202 ff., 2912 ff.). The land of the former is called 'Frys-land' in 
1. 1126, that of the latter 'Fres-lond' (pi.) in 1. 2357, 'Fresna land' in 
1. 2915 ; but that this is a purely accidental distinction is dear from 
Widsith, where the e and y are reversed (11. 27, 68). 

Frys-land, 1126, the land of the Frisians. See Frysan. 

170 Beowulf 

aar Dene, 1, GOl, 1856, 2494, Spear-DaneB; see Dene. 

Garmund, 1962. Eoraaer is said to be ' nefa Garmundes.' Garmund is 
presumably the Waarmund of the Mercian genealogy of the Anglo-Saxon 
Cbronicle, in which Offa and Eomaer also appear. 

G6at, 640, 1301, 1785, 1792, the Geat (i.e. Beowulf). Used in the gen. pi., 
Beowulf Glata, 'Beowulf of the Geatas,' 374, 1191, 1202, ttc. [Cf. 
Sievers in P.B.B. xxix. 309-11.] 

GSataa {gen. Geotena 443), the people to whom Beowulf belonged. They 
are also called Gud-Geatas, Hredlingas, See-Glatas, Weder-Geatas, and 
Wedera*. Evidence both etymological and historical is in favour of 
the identification of the Geatas with the inhabitants of what is now 
Southern Sweden, south of the great lakes (the Swedish Gdtar, O.N. 
Gautar). We have references in Greek writers to these Gautoi as an 
independent nation in the second century, and again in the sixth ; and 
though at a later date they were absorbed in Sweden, the title of the 
king of Sweden, rex Sveorum Gothorumque, commemorates to the 
present day the old distinction. 

Another theory (the warmest advocates of which have been Fahlbeck, 
Bugge, and Schiitte) identifies the Geatas with the Jutes. But the 
aiguments in favour of this view are not conclusive. 

Cf. Bugge \ etc.; ten Brink ^9*, etc.; Schiick, Folknamnet Geatas, 
Upsala, 1907; Schiitte in J.E.G.Ph. xi. 674, etc.\ Introduction to 

G€at-mecgas (dat. Geat-maBCgum 491, gen. Geat-meoga 829), Geat men, 
referring to the fourteen Geatas (207) who accompanied Beowulf to 

GiftJas (2494), probably the Gepidae, a people closely akin to the Goths, and 
originally their neighbours, dwelling near the mouth of the Vistula. 
They migrated south in the third century, and founded a kingdom in 
what is now S.E. Hungary, which was overthrown by the Langobardi 
in the sixth century. After this the Gepidae disappear from history, 
though their mention here and in Widsith (1. 60) points to the name 
having survived in tradition. 

Qrendel [gen. Grendles 127, 195, 2002, etc., Grendeles 2006, 2118, 2139, 
2353; dat. Grendle 6G6, 930, 1577, 2521, etc.), the famous monster, 
slain by Beowulf. He is of the kindred of Cain (1265 ff.). His father is 
unknown (1355). 

Grendles mOdor (Grendeles mOdor 2118, 2139), Grendel's dam, the slaying of 
whom is Beowulf's second great exploit. She is sometimes spoken of as 
a male, sometimes as a female; cf. U. 1260, 1379, 1392, 1394, 1497, 
2136 with 1292 ff., 1339, 1504 ff., 1541 fl. 

Gfl^-Geatas, 1538, War-Geatas ; see GSatas. 

GlltSiax, 1148, a Danish warrior under Hnesf and Hengest. Since it was 
customary to give brothers names in which the same element occurred, 
it is probable, on a priori grounds alone, that the Ordlaf who is asso- 
ciated with Guthlaf (F. 18) is his brother, and that Hunlaf, who would 
be the father of Hunlafing, is a third brother. This is confirmed by 
the discovery of Chadwick, that, in the Latin summary of the Skjgl- 

Persons and Places 171 

dunga Saga, a Danish king named Lei/us is mentioned, who had seven 
sons, three of whom were called Hunleiftis, Oddleifm, and Gunnleifut, 
names which correspond exactly to Hunlaf, Ordlaf, and Guthlaf. 

Ga«-Scilflnga8, 2927, War-Scylfings; see Scylfingas. 

Hsere«, 1929, 1981, the father of Hygd, Hygelac's wife. [Cf. Binz, P.B.B. 
XX. 162.] 

HaetJcyn (Hae^cen 2925, daU Hre^cynne 2482), second son of Hrethel, king 
of the Geatas. He accidentally kills his elder brother Herebeald with 
an arrow during his father's lifetime (2435 ff.) ; succeeds to the throne 
at his father's death, but falls in battle at Ravenswood fighting against 
the Swedish king Ongentheow (2923 fif.). 

Ha(t$)nas. See note to 1. 1983. 

Haiga, 61, ' the good' {til), younger brother of Hrothgar. He is the father 
of Hrothulf (1017, etc.), for he corresponds to the Scandinavian Helgi, 
the father of Rolf Kraki ( = Hrothulf). 

Hama, 1198; see Brosinga mene. Hama is the Heime of continental 
German tradition, the comrade of Wittich (O.E. Wudga, Widia), with 
whom he is also associated in Old English etory {Widsith, 11. 124, 130). 
In German, just as in Old English legend, Hama harries and robs the 
tyrant Eormenrio (Ermrich, Erminrek). 

Cf. Bugge'», Widsith, Introduction, pp. 48-57. 

Healfdene, 57, king of the Danes, son of Beowulf the Scylding. As father 
of Hrothgar and Halga ( = Hroarr and Helgi), he is known to us from 
Scandinavian sources. 

Healf-Dene, Half-Danes, the tribe to which Hnaf belongs; see 1. 1069. 
The name may perhaps signify a tribe akin to the Danes, but inde- 
pendent, or half independent, of the central Danish power at Leire 

Heardred, son of Hygelac and Hygd. While still under age (2370) he 
succeeds his father as king of the Geatas, so that Beowulf for a time 
acts as his counsellor and protector (2377). He is slain by the Swedes 
under Onela (2200 ff., 2379 ff.). 

HealJo-Beardan (2032, etc.), the tribe to which Ingeld (q.v.) belongs. They 
have been identified with the Langobardi, the tribe from whom the 
Lombards are descended; and with the Heruli, who are known to have 
been at feud with the Danes. But evidence for either identification is 
insufficient, though early kinship with the Langobardi is probable 
enough. Cf. WidHth, ed. Chambers, pp. 205-6. 

HeatJoiaf, 460, a warrior of the Wylfings, slain by Ecgtheow, the father of 

HeatJo-Rremas, 519, the people on whose shores Breca is cast after his 
swimming-match with Beowulf. The name is given more correctly in 
Widsith (1. 63) as Healfo-Reamas: they are the Old Norse Raumar, and 
have given their name to Romerike in Southern Norway, near the 
modern Christiania. 

HeaBo-Scilflngas (gen. sg. HeatSo-Scilfingas 63), 2205, Battle-Scylfings; see 

Helmingas, 620. Hrotlit;ar'8 queen, Wealhtheow, is 'a woman of the 

172 Beowulf 

HelmingB,' but we have no satisfactory information as to the clan. 
[Cf. Binz, P.B.B. XX. 177.] 

Hemming, 1944*, 1961*. 'Kinsman of Hemming' describes both Offa 
(q.v.) and his son Eomaer. 

Hengest, 1083, 1091, 1096, 1127, took command of the Danes after Ilnffifs 
fall ; see Finn. 

Heorogir (Heregar 467, Hiorogar 2158), 61, eldest son of Healfdenc, and 
elder brother of Hrothgar (468). His arms are given by Hrothgar to 
Beowulf, and Beowulf gives them to Hygelao (2155 ff.). 

Hsorot (Heort 78, dat. Heorute 766, Hiorte 2099), the hall Heorot or Hart, 
which Hrothgar built (67 ff.). The site of Heorot can almost certainly 
be identified with Leire in Seeland, which, according to Scandinavian 
tradition, was the capital of the kings whose names correspond to 
Hrothgar and Hrothulf. 

Heoroweard, 2161, son of Heorogar; see Hrothulf. 

Herebeald, 2434, 2463, eldest son of the Geat king Hrethel, accidentally 
killed with an arrow by his brother Haethcyn (2435 ff.). 

HeremSd, 901, 1709, a Danish kitig, is twice introduced as a kind of stock 
example of a bad and cruel king. In the end he is betrayed into the 
hands of his foes (903). He would seem to have preceded Scyld, and it 
must have been after his fall that the Danes suffered owing to lack of 
a lord (cf. 1. 15). See Chadwiok, Origin, 148 ff., 272 f., 291 ff.; 
Bugge^, etc. 

Hererlc, 2206. Heardred is called • Hererices nefa.' Probably Hereric was 
the brother of Hygd; the tie with the uncle on the mother's side was 
always peculiarly close. 

Here-Scyldingas, 1108, the Army-Scyldings ; see Scyldlngas. 

netware, 2363, 2916, the Hattuarii, the tribe against whom Hygelao made 
the raid in which he met his death. They were a Prankish people, and 
seem, in classical times, when they are first mentioned as submitting to 
Tiberius, to have been dwelling between the Rhine and the present 
Zuyder Zee. Subsequently they spread higher up the Rhine, to the 
neighbourhood of the modern Cleves, and it was no doubt here that 
Hygelao attacked the ' Attoarios,' as they are called in the account of 
this attack given in the Liber Historia Francorum (see Hygelac). 

HUdeburh, 1071, 1114, daughter of Hoc (1076), and wife of Finn ; see Finn. 

Hnaef, 1069, 1114, fell in the fight with Finn on the 'Fres-weel ' (1070) ; see 

H6c, father of Hildeburh (1076) ; see Rnn. 

Hondscio, 2076, the one of Beowulf's fourteen comrades, in his expedition 
to the Danish kingdom, whom Grendel devoured before attacking 
Beowulf (740 fif., 2076 flf.). 

Hrefna-wudu, 2925, Kavenswood, where Ongentheow slew Htethc} n. Also 

Hrefnes-holt, 2935. See above. 

Hreosna-beorh, 2477, the scene of the marauding invasions of Geatland 
made by Onela and Ohthere after the death of Hrethel. 

HretSel (gen. weak form Hradlan 454, gen. Hriedles 1485), king of the 

Persons and Places 173 

Geatas; he was 'nefa' to Swerting (1203), father of Hygelao, and 
grandfather of Beowulf (373 ff.), to whom he left his coat of mail (454). 
He died of grief at the loss of his eldest son Herebeald (2435 ff.), who 
was aooidentaUy shot by his own brother Haethcyn. 

HreSling, son of Hrethel; applied in 1. 1923 to Hygelao, and in 1. 2925 to 

HrelJlingas, 2960, the people of Hrethel, the Geatas ; see GSatas. 

HreV-men, 445, a name of the Danes ; see Dene. 

Hre«rlc, 1189, 1836*, son of Hrothgar. 

Hring-Dene, 116, 1279, Riug-Danes; see Dene. 

Hrones-naes, 2805, 3136, 'Whale's Ness.' Beowulf, in his dying speech, 
names this place as the site of the barrow which is to hold his ashes 
and perpetuate his name. 

HrotJgar, 61, etc., king of the Danes, and builder of Heorot. The Scandi- 
navian records {Saga of Rolf Kraki, Saxo Grammaticus) know him as 
•Hroarr' or 'Koe.' 

Hro'Smund, 1189, son of Hrothgar. 

Hr6«ulf, 1017, 1181, the son of Hrothgar'e younger brother Halga (q.v.). 
He lived at the Danish court. Wealhtheow expresses the hope that he 
will be good to their children in return for their kindness to him, if he 
survives Hrothgar (1180 ff.). It would seem that this hope was not 
destined to be fulfilled (1164-5). "We know from Scandinavian sources 
that Koluo (Hrothulf) deposed and slew lUricus (Hrethric) and that 
finally his hall was burnt over his head and he himself slain by 
Hiarwarus (Heoroweard). 

CI Chadwick, Origin, 146, etc, Widsith, Introduction, pp. 81, etc.; 
Introduction to Beowulf; Clark, Sidelights, 63, etc. 

Hrunting, 1457, 1490, 1659, 1807, the sword of Unferth (q.v.), which he 
lends to Beowulf for his fight with Grendel's mother. 

HQgas, 2502, 2914. A name for the Franks current in Germanic epic 

Of. the Quedlinburg Annals, " olim omnes Franoi Hugones vocabantur 
a suo quodam duce Hugone " {Monumenta Germ,, folio, SS. in. 31). 

HunferU, see Unferfl. 

Htlnlafing, 1143, the son of Hunlaf. Hunlaf is almost certainly a brother of 
Guthlaf and Ordlaf, and therefore a warrior on the Danish side. When 
the son of Hunlaf places a sword in Hengest's bosom, this signifies that 
Hengest enters his service. It may be that Hunlaf was slain by Finn's 
men in the fighting at Finnsburg, and that, by doing allegiance to his 
son, Hengest undertakes to help to avenge him, and thus to break his 
oath to Finn and the Eotenas. 

Hygd, 1926, 2172, 2369, daughter of Haereth (1929), wife of Hygelac (q.v.), 
and mother of Heardred; see 1926 5., and Hygelfic. 

Hygelac {usually spelt Higelac, 435, etc.; Hygelac 2151, etc.; gen. Hygehvcea 
2386, 2943, Higelaces 194, etc., Hylaces 1530; dat. Hygelace 21G9, 
Higelace 452, etc.), the reigning king of the Geatas during the greater 
part of the action of the poem. He is the third sou of Hrethel, and 
ancle to Beowulf ; see genealogical tables. 

174 Beowulf 

When HIb brother IltDthcyn was defeated and elain by Onj^entheow 
at Ravenswood (2924), flygelao came quickly in pursuit (2943) and put 
Ougentheow to flight (2949); but though, as the leader of the attack, 
he is called ' Ongentheow's banesman ' (1968), the actual slayer was 
Eofor (q.v.), whom Hygelac rewards with the hand of his only daughter 
(2977 ff.). At the later time of Beowulfs return from his expedition 
against Grendel, Hygelac, who is still young (1831), is married to Hygd, 
who is herself 'very young' and has not long been queen (1926-8); she 
would seem then to have been his second wife. 

Hygelac came by his death in his historical invasion of the Nether- 
lands, which is four times referred to in the poem (1202 ff., 2354 fif., 
2501 ff., 2913 ff.), and occurred between 512 and 620 a.d. We have an 
account of this raid of * Chlochilaicus ' {$ic) in the History of Gregory of 
Tours, who wrote in the same century in which it took place ; and in 
the anonymous Liber Historim Francorum, which, though much later, 
preserves original features which are wanting in the earlier account. 

Cf. Clark, Sidelights, 42, etc. ; and Introduction to Beowulf. 
Ingeld, 2064, son of Froda (2025), and prince of the Heathobeardan. 
Beowulf tells Hygelac that Hrothgar's daughter Freawaru is promised 
in marriage to Ingeld, and that the Danish king hopes thereby to 
terminate the feud between the two peoples (2024 ff.). Beowulf goes on 
to foretell that these hopes will prove vain (2067-9). That this was 
actually the case we learn from Widsith, 11. 45-49, which tells how 
Ingeld made an unsuccessful attack upon Hrothwulf and Hrothgar at 
Heorot : 

" Hr6)>wulf and Hro'Sgar heoldon lengest 
Bibbe aetsomne suhtorfasdran, 
sij>)jan hy forwr«econ Wicinga cynn 
and Ingeldes ord forbigdan, 
forheowan cet Heorote HealSobeardna }?rym.'* 

The story of Ingeld (Ingellus) is also told by Saxo Grammaticus, 
though with some essential variations. 

Cf . Clark, Sidelights, 103, etc. ; Widsith, Introduction, pp. 79-81. 

Ingwine is used in Beowulf, 1044, 1319, as synonymous with ' Danes.' It is 
obviously connected with the term ♦ Ingaevones,' which, according to 
Tacitus, was the name of those Germanic peoples who dwelt proximi 
Oceano. Ing, the eponymous hero from whom the Ingwine claimed 
to derive their name, is referred to in the Runic Poem, 67-8 : • Ing was 
first seen among the East Danish folk.' 
Cf. Chadwick, Origin, 209, 287-90, 295-6. 

lofor, 2993, 2997 ; see Eofor. 

Merewloing {gen. Merewioingas 2921), the Merwing or Merovingian king of 
the Franks. 

Njegling, 2680, the name of the sword which Beowulf used in his encounter 
with the dragon. 

Nort5-Dene, 783, North-Danes; see Dene. 

Offa, 1949, 1957, king of the Angles (' Offa weold Ongle,' Widsith, 1. 35). The 

Persons and Places 175 

reference to Offa as a descendant of Garmund and ancestor of EomeBr 
[MS. geomor^ identifies him with Offa son of Wsermund, whose name 
occurs in the Mercian pedigree twelve generations above that of Offa II, 
the historic king of Mercia. Offa the First must, if this pedigree is 
accurate, have ruled over the Angles towards the end of the fourth century, 
whilst they were still dwelling on the Continent ; and there is very little 
doubt that he actually did so. His warlike exploits are alluded to in 
Widsith (11. 35-44), and much later we have a detailed account of 
them in the Danish History of Saxo Grammatious, and in the Life of 
Offa I, written at St Albans (both documents belonging to about the 
year 1200). 

The Beowulf poet gives no details of these warlike exploits, but 
speaks at some length of Thryth, the fierce queen of Offa. In the 
Lives of the Two Offas, Thryth has been confused with Cynethryth, 
the historic wife of Offa II, and the story of the fierce wife is attributed 
in an altered form to the later king. There is little doubt, however, 
that the tale really belongs to Offa I, and that Thryth is a type of the 
perilous maiden, known to Germanic and classical story, who causes 
her wooers to be slain, till at length she meets with her destined lover. 

See Suchier in P.B.B. iv. 600; Chadwick, Origin, 118-145; Widsith, 
Introduction, pp. 84-92 ; Introduction to Beowulf \ and especially 
Rickert in Mod. Phil. ii. 29-76, 321-376. 

Ohthere {gen. Ohteres 2380, 2394, 2612, Ohtberes 2928, 2932), son of the 
Swedish king Ongentheow, and father of Eanmund and Eadgils. 

Onela, 2616, 2932, brother of Ohthere, and king of Sweden at the time of 
the rebellion of Eanmund and Eadgils. He invades the land of the' 
Geatas, and slays Heardred (2387). At a later time Beowulf avenges 
his late king by supporting Eadgils in an invasion of Sweden, in which 
Onela is slain (2391 ff.). See £adgUs. 

Ongen))eow {mm. OngenJ>eow 2486, Ongenj^io 2924, 2951, OngenHow 2961; 
gen. Ongen|>eowes 2476, OngenjjSoes 1968, Ongen)jIoes 2387; dat. On- 
genjjio 2986), king of the Swedes, and father of Onela and Ohthere. 
The early strife between the Swedes and the Geatas, in which he plays 
the leading part, is told in 11. 2472 ff., and more fully in 11. 2910-98. 
In retaliation for the marauding invasions of Onela and Ohthere (2475), 
Hsethcyn invades Sweden, and captures Ongentheow's queen. Ongen- 
theow then invades the land of her captor, whom he slays, and rescues 
his wife; but in his hour of triumph he is attacked in his turn by 
Hygelac near Ravcnswood, and falls by the hand of Eofor (q.v.). 

Ordiaf, a Danish warrior engaged against the Frisians {Finnthurg, 18). In 
the Finnesburh episode in Beowulf (1148) he is called Oslaf, but that 
Ordiaf is the more correct form is clear from the Danish form of the 
name in the Skj^ldunga 5aya— Oddleif. See QutJlaf. 

Osiar, 1148; see Ordl&f. 

Sffl-GSatas, 1850, 1986, Sea-Geatas; see G6atai. 

Scede-land (pi.), 19, = Sceden-Ig (q.v.). 

Sceden-Ig {dat. Sceden-igge 1686; O. Norse Skaney), the most southern 
portion of the Scandinavian peninsula. See note to L 1686. 

176 Beowulf 

Sc5flng, 4 ; pce Scyld. 

Scyld Scgflng, 4, 19, 2G, the mythical founder of the Danish SoyUling 
dynasty. He comes as a child across the sea, and, after a glorious 
reign, his body is sent back in a funeral ship over the ocean. His 
mysterious advent rather precludes the idea of his parentage being 
known. We may then interpret Scyld Scr-fuig not as 'son of Sceaf 
but as 'Scyld with the sheaf,' for according to one version the child 
was found in the boat with his head resting on a sheaf of corn. Or we 
may suppose that the story was originally told of Sceaf, and has 
been transferred to Scyld. The names of both Scyld and Sceaf occur 
in the West Saxon genealogy, and two Anglo-Latin historians, Ethel- 
werd and William of Malmesbury, tell the tale, but make the hero 
Sceaf, not Scyld. 

See Chadwick, Origin, 274-285; Widsith, Introduction, pp. 117- 
121 ; Introduction to Beoiculf. 
Scyldlng (Scilding 2105), 1792, the Scylding, i.e. Hrothgar. 
Scyldingas (Scyldungas 2052; gen. Scildunga 2101, Scyldunga 2159, Scyl- 
dinga 30, etc.), 58, etc, the Scyldings, descendants of Scyld (q.v.), the 
name of the reigning Danish dynasty, commonly extended to include 
the Danish people. They are also called Ar-Scyldingas, Here- Scylding as, 
Sige-Scyldingas, and peod-Scyldingas (q.v.). Cf. Chadwick, Origin, 
284, and see Dene. 
Scylflng: (Scilfing 2968), 2187, the Scylfing, i.e. Ongentheow. 
Scylflngas, 2381, the Soylfings, the name of the reigning Swedish dynasty, 
extended to the Swedish people in the same way as ' Scyldings ' to the 
Danes. They are also called Gfid-Scylfingas, Heado-Scyljingas (q.v.). 
Cf. Chadwick, Origin, 250. 

If the MS. reading of 1. 2603 is correct, Beowulf's kinsman Wiglaf 
belongs to the family of the Scylfings as well as to that of the Waeg- 
mundings (2814). Wiglaf may have been related to the Swedish house 
through his mother; Wiglaf 's father Weohstan had been in the service 
of the Swedish king, and may well have wedded a Swedish princess. 
Slgemund, 875, 884, son of Waels, and uncle of Fitela. In our poem 
Sigemund slays the dragon ; in the Vglsunga Saga and the Nibelungen- 
lied, it is Sigemund's son, Sigurd or Siegfried, who does the deed. 
See 11. 874-900. Cf. Chadwick, Origin, 148, 299; Biuz in P.B.B. 
XX. 191. 
Slge Scyldingas, 597, 2004, Victory-Scyldings, a name of the Danes; see 

Sfl«-Dene, 463, 1996, South-Danes ; see Dene. 

Sweon, 2472, 2946*, 2958, 3001, the Swedes, called also *Sweo-}>eod,' and 
their country *Swio-rice.' They are ruled by the Scylfing dynasty. 
Their home was in Sweden, north of the Geatas. 
Sweo->eod, 2922, = Sweon (q.v.). 
Swerting, 1203. Hygelac is called his ' nefa.' 

Swio-rlce, 2383, 2495, the land of the Swedes, modern Svea Rike ; see SwSon. 
pSod-Scyldingas, 1019, 'the mighty nation of the Scyldings,' a name of 
the Danes ; see Scyldlngas. 

Persons and Places 177 

pry^J, 1931, wife of the Angle king Offa (q.v.), is introdnced in contrast to 
Hygd, in much the same way as Heremod is a foil to Beowulf. She is 
at first the type of cruelty. But by her marriage with Offa she is 
subdued and changed. See II. 1931-62. 

UnfertJ, 499, 530, 1165, 1488 (his name is always 'Hunfer^' in the MS., 
but alliterates with vowels), son of Ecglaf, and spokesman (1165, 1456) 
of Hrothgar, at whose feet he sits (500, 1166). He is of a jealous dis- 
position (503-5), and is twice spoken of as the murderer of his own 
brothers (587, 1167). For his 'flyting' with Beowulf see 11. 506-606. 
He afterwards lends his sword Hrunting for Beowulf's encounter with 
Grendel's mother (1455), but it fails the hero at need (1522, 1659). 
The sword is returned to Unferth, and according to one interpretation 
finally given by Unferth to Beowulf (1807). 

It has been conjectured that Unferth is the evil counsellor, through 
whose advice trouble arose between Hrothgar and Hrothulf (q.v.). 

Wagmundlngas, 2607, 2814, Weegmundings, the family to which both Beo- 
wulf and Wiglaf belong ; see Scylfingas. 

Wfflls, 897, father of Sigemund ; see also Fitela. 

Wselsing, 877, son of Wasls, i.e. Sigemund. 

Wealh^eow, 612 (WealhJ^eo, 664, 1162, 1215; dat. Wealbj^eon, 629), of the 
family of the Helmings (620), Hrothgar's queen. Mention is made of 
her queenly hospitality to Beowulf (612 ff., 1188 ff., 1215 ff.). 

Wederas {gen. Wedera 225, etc. ; but the second scribe uses the contracted 
gen. • Wedra' everywhere but in 1. 2336; see 11. 2120, 2462, «fc.), = Weder- 
Geatas, a name of the Geatas (q.v.). 

Weder Ggataa, 1492, 1612, 2379, 2551 ; see Wederas. 

Weder-mearc, 298, Wederraark, apparently a name for the land of the 
Wederas or Weder- Geatas, i.e. the Geatas. 

WSland, 455 (the Vglundr of the Edda), the famous smith of Germanic 
legend, the maker of Beowulf's coat of mail. (See the Franks casket 
in the British Museum, and of. Wayland Smith's forge in Berkshire.) 
The best account of Weland will be found in Jiriczek, Die Deutsche 
Eeldensage, 1898, pp. 1-54. 

Wendlas, 348. Wulfgar (q.v.) is a * chief of the Wendlas.' They are 
probably the inhabitants of Veudill, the modern Vendsyssel in the 
north of Jutland. We have evidence that the northern portion of 
Jutland was, at the time of Hrothgar, inhabited by a Danish folk : the 
Wendlas are therefore probably to be regarded as a Danish clan, subject 
to Hrothgar. 

It is just possible, however, that the Wendlas are the Vandals of 
history, whose name was long remembered, though at this date they 
had migrated far south. If so, Wulfgar would be a wandering champion 
who has settled at the court of Hrothgar. , [So Miillenhoff ^a-w Bugge^.] 
There was also a famous Vendil, north of Upsala, but it is not very 
probable that the Wendlas here referred to are connected with it. See 
Widsith, 1. 59, ano she note there given. 

WSohstan, 2613 {gen. Weohstanes 2b62, Weoxstanes 2602, Wihstanes 2752, 
etc.), father of Wiglaf, and slayer of Eanmund (q.v.). 

178 Beowulf 

West-Dene, 383, 1578, West-Danes ; see Dene. 

Wlgiaf, son of Weobstan. He is a kinsman of Beownlf (2813), a Weeg- 
munding (2814), and a 'chief of the Scylfings ' (2603). He was cho^rn 
with ten others (2401, 2847) to accompany Beowulf on his expedition 
against the dragon (2G38ff.), and he alone justified the choice. Taking 
shelter under Beowulf's shield (2675), he showed the utmost valour, 
and was the first to wound the dragon (2694 fif.). To him alone Beowulf 
made his dying speech, and gave his dying bequests (2809 fif.). He up- 
braids the coward thanes (2886), and gives orders for the burial of the 
hero in accordance with his dying instructions (2802, 3091 ad fin.). 

WHJergyld, 2051 (see note), the name of a Heathobeard warrior. 

WonrSd, 2971, father of Wulf and Eofor (q.v.). 

Wonrgding, 2965, son of Wonred, i.e. Wulf (q.v.). 

Wulf, 2965, 2993, son of Wonred and brother of Eofor (q.v.). Wulf attacks 
Ongentheow and is disabled by him, but his brother Eofor comes to his 
aid and slays Ongentheow single-handed (2964 ff.). 

Wulfgar, 348, 360, 390*, a chief of the Wendlas (q.v.); an official of 
Hrothgar's court, who is the first to greet the Geatas (331 ff.), and 
introduces them to Hrothgar. 

Wylflngas {dat. Wilfingum 461, Wylfingum 471). Heatholaf, who was slain 
by Beowulf's father, was a warrior of this tribe. They are probably 
identical with the Wulfinga$ mentioned in Widsith, 29, and with the 
WUlfinge who in High German story are the faithful retainers of 
Theodoric of Verona (Dietrich von Bern). This last identification 
derives some support from the fact that in both cases members of the 
family form their names by compounds in heado i e.g. Heatholaf, 

Yrmenmf, 1324, younger brother of iE^sohere (q.v.). 


The order of words is strictly alphabetical, except in the case of 
compound verbs, which will be found under their simple verbs. 

Past participles compounded with ge- are usually glossed under the 
simple verb (Sieversg § 366), but occasionally an infinitive also compounded 
With ge- is assumed. 

S9 comes between ad and af. 

% and ► are treated as identical, and come after t. 

Numerous cross references are given, especially for unusual forms, but 
not as a rule for mere flexional forms, such as parts of verbs, which a know- 
ledge of grammar should suffice to trace. 

All words are glossed under forms which actually occur in the poem, not 
under normalised forms. When divergent forms of the same word occur and 
cross references are not given, 

io (both initial and medial) should be sought under eo, 

y .. 1, 

a (before nasals) „ o. 

Dative and Instrumental are not distinguished, except when they have 
different forms, as in the singular of adjectives and of some pronouns. 

Where the Modem English word is directly connected with the given 
Old English equivalent it is printed in small capitals. But tlie student 
must remember that In 'Beowulf we normally find the word in its West 
Saxon form, which often differs from that Anglian form from which the 
modem word is derived. Where the Modern English word is descended from a 
related word, whether in O.E. or belonging to some other Germanic dialect, 
it is printed in small Italic capitals. Such related words may nattirally 
show umlaut changes or a different ablaut-grade. 

Of course the Modem English etymological equivalent Is often quite 
unsatisfactory as a translation. See Preface, p. xxxiv. 

Gothic cognates have been given in cases where it appeared that they 
would be helpful, but not in cases where the Gothic parallel, without further 
details, might mislead a student (e.g. Goth, cxoens, O.E. cwen). When 
doubtful whether or not to insert a Gothic cognate, I have quoted it if it 
occurs in parts of the Gothic Bible usually read by students, but have avoided 
exceptional words. 

An Asterisk is placed after the reference in cases where the word is not 
found in the MS., but is conjecturally restored. 

The following abbreviations alone require explanation : 
















past participle 
















N,B, All compound yerbs must be sought under their simple verbs. 

&, adv., AT, ever, always, 283, etc. 

[Cf. Goth, aiw.] 
ac, ccmj., but, 109, etc. [Cf. Goth. 


ac, adv., «nf err. , = Lat. nonne, used 
to mark a question, 1990. 

ad, St. m. , funeral pile, pyre, 1110, etc. 
ad-faru, St. /., [pyre-FARing] way 

on to the funeral pile, 3010. 

adl, st.f., burning-fever, hsnce sick- 
ness, 1736, etc. 

aeder, st.f., stream, channel, vein; 
dat. pi. blod edrum dranc, ' drank 
blood in streams,' or 'from his 

_ veins,' 742; cf. 2966. 

SBdre, adv., quickly, 77, etc. 

sefen, st. m. and neut., even, evening, 

_ 1235, 2303. 

sefen-grom, adj., [EVENing-angry] 
fierce in the evening, 2074. 

»fen-l§oht, St. neut., EVENing-uoHT, 


sBfen-rasst, it.f., KVENing-REST, 646, 


SBfen-sprsBC, »t. /., BVENing-sPBECH, 

sefnan, see efnan. 

sB£re, adv., ever, at any time, 70, etc. 

softer, prep., after (1) time; 85, 117, 
etc. (2) relation : concerning, ac- 
cording to, 332, 944, etc. (3) posi- 
tion: along, on the side of, 140, 
995, etc. iEfter beome, 'after 
(the death of) the warrior,' 2260; 
eefter malStSum-welan, • after ob- 
taining wealth of treasure,' 2750; 
BBfter faro-5e, 'with the tide,' 580, 
3096 (see note). [Cf. Goth, aftra.] 

softer, adv., after, afterwards, 1389, 
315 (thereupon), etc. ; eafera aefter 
cenned, 'a son bom coming after 
bim,' 12; so 2731. 

88f->imca,_W7. m., vexation, 502. 

8Bg-hwa, sBg-hwaet, pron., each, every 
one, every man, etc., 1384. 

ffig-hwaes, gen. neut. used ad- 
verbially, in every respect, alto- 

_gether, 1865, 1886, 2624, 3135. 

jeg-hwser, adv., everywHERE, 1059. 

fflg-hwae^Jer,pron., either, each {usu. 
of two), 2564, 2844: JEghwee^res 
sceal scearp scyldwiga gescad 
witan, worda ond worca, ' a sharp 
shield-warrior must know the dif- 
ference between words and works,' 
287; earfo'Sliceheoraffighwae'Srum, 
• with difficulty for each one of 

_them,' 1636. 


(1) pron., each, everyone, 984, 
etc.; with gen., 9, 1050, etc.; 
(2)^ adj., each^every, 621, etc. 

SglsBca, see aglaeca. 

8Bg-weard, st. f., sea-wARD, watch 
by the sea-coast, 241. 

SBlit, it. /., owning, possession, 
power, 42, 616, etc. {Cf. Goth. 
aihts and O.E. agan.] 

sht, St. /., pursuit, chase, 2957 (see 

-SBhted, see eahtlan. 

»led, St. m., fire, 3015. 

sled-lSoma, w. m., fire-gleam, torch, 

2Bl-fylce, St. neut., alien folk, 
foreign nation, 2371. [eel, cf. 
Goth, aljis: fylce, cf. folc] 

ael-mihtig, adj. [cf. eaU], almighty; 
weak, se ^Imihtiga, 92. 

sel-wlht, St. /., [alien-wiGHT] strange 

_ monster, 1500. 

sene, adv., ONce, once only, 3019. 

iinig, adj. -pron., any, anyone, 474, 
503, etc. ; nom. nros se folc-cyning 
ymbe-sittendra anig t>ara \>e, 
'among neighbouring folk- kings 



there was not one that,' 2734. 

_For ienige jjinga see Jjing. 

sen -lie, adj., ([oj/js-like] unique, 

_ peerless, 251, 1941. 

88nne, see dji. 

aeppel-fealu, adj. , apple-pallow, 

_ apple or reddish yellow, 2165. 

aer, adv., ere, erst, before, formerly, 
15, etc.j earlier, 2500 ; first, 3038. 
no J>yjer, 'none the sooner,' 754, 
etc. ; ear he feorh seletS..,ffir he..., 
'he will sooner give up life than 
he^.,' 1370. {Cf. Goth, airis.] 

ser is often used simply to mark 
that the verb is pluperfect: eweord 
ffir gemealt, ' the sword had melted, ' 
161_5. Cf. 2562, 2777, 3060. 

seror, compar., before, formerly, 
first, 809, etc. 
serest, superl., [best] first, 6, 


ser, prep., with dat., erb, before, 

__1388, etc. 

ser, conj., ere, before: usu. with 
subj. 252, etc. ; with indie. 2019. 
Correl. with ear adv. (q. v.), 1371. 

_ ser K)n, conj., ere, 731. 

jor-dseg, st. m., [erb-day] morning 
twilight, day-break, 126, etc. 

srende, st. neut., errand, 270, 345. 

Srest, see »r. 

88r-f88der, st. m., [erb-fatheb] father, 

_ 2622. 

aer-gestreon, st. neut. , [sRE-treasure] 
ancient treasure, former gain, 1757, 

_ 2232. 

aer-geweorc, »t. neut., [ere-work] 
ancient work, 1679. 

8Br-g5d, adj., [ere-oood] good before 
others, very good, 130, 989, etc. 

»m, St. neut., house, 2225*. [Cf. 
Goth, razn, and O.E. renweardas, 

_ 1.770.] 

nrra, compar. adj. {formed from adv. 
§ir), earlier, former: serr&n 
mielum, 'in former times,' 907, 

_2237, 3035. 

ser-wela, w. m., [erb-weal] ancient 

_ wealth, 2747. 

sss, St. n«Mf., carrion, carcase, corpse: 
dat. atol ffise wlanc, 'the dire 
creature carrion-proud ' (Grendel's 
mother exulting over ^schere's 
corpse), 1332. 

aesc, St. m., [ash] spear, 1772. 

aasc-holt, st. neut., [ASH-wood] spear, 

38sc-wiga, w. m. , [ASH-warrior] spear- 
warrior, 2042. 

at, prep, with dat., at, in, of time^ 
place and circumstance^ 32, etc. ; 

at the hands of, from, 629, etc. : nu 
is se rffid gelang eft set >e anum, 
' now is the rede again along of 

_thee alone,' 1377. 

set, St. n., Bering, meal, 3026. 

fflt-g»dere, adv., tooETHER, 321, 
etc. ; after samod, ' all together,' 

set-graepe, adj., at grips with, 

set-rihte, adv., almost, 1657. 

»t-sonme, adv., together, 307, etc. 

JBttren, adj., poisonous, 1617. 

3eJ>ele, adj., noble, 198, etc. 

se|>eling, st. m., atheling, noble, 
prince, 3, etc. 

»)>elu, St. neut. {always pi. in 'Beo- 
wulf'), noble descent, lineage, 
332*, 392: sejjelum god, diore, 
'good, dear, by' virtue of lineage,' 

_ 1870, 1949. 

8B«m, St. TO., breath, 2593. 

agan, pret. pres. v., pres. ah, pret. 
ahte (ought) : own, possess, have, 
487, etc.; absolutely, 31 (but see 
note). Neg. form nah = ne-f ah, 
2252. [Cf. Goth, aigan.] 

agen, adj. {pp. of agan), own, 2676. 

Agend, st. m. (pres. part.), ownqt, 
perhaps = God, 3075 (see note to 
11. 3074-5). 

agend-firea, w. m,, owmng lord, 
owner, _188_3*. 

aglseca, sBglsBca, w. m. : adversary 
hence: (1) monster, 159, 425, 433, 
656, 592, 732, 739, 816, 1000, 
1269, 2520, 2534, 2557, 2905, 
ahleecan, 646, 989 ; (2) champion, 
893, perhaps 1512 (see note) ; 
both meanings combined, 2592. 

aglfflc-wlf, St. neut., monster-wiFS ; 
nom. Grendles modor, ides, aglao- 
wif, 1259. 

ah, ahte, see agan. 

ahsian, (aacian), w. v., learn by 
ASKing, 423, 433, 1206. [Sieversj 
§204. 3.] 

aht (=:a-wiht), St. neut., aught; 
with gen. aht cwices, 'aught liv- 
ing,' 2314; see also 6-wiht. 

aider, see ealdor. 

Al-walda, Alwealda, w. m., the 
Ahh- wzELDBT, God, 316, 928, 955, 

an, 1225, pres. sg. 1st of unnan, q. v. 

an, prep., see on. 

an, num. {adj. and pron.), ace. sg. 
m. anne and eenne: 
(1) ONE, AN, A, 46, 100, 135, etc. ; 
with the def. art. 1053, 2237; 
mnphatic, sometimes perhaps de- 



monstrative, 1458, 1885, 2410, 
2774 : weak mate, ana, onIj, 
aloNB, 145, etc. : on eenne sitS, 
'once,' 1579; gen. pi. anra geh- 
wylces, gehwylcum, 'of, to, each 
one,' 732, 784; ( = Lat. alter) an 
BBfter anum, • the one for the 
other,' 2461. 

(2) oNly, aloNE, 46, 1377, 2964 
(sole) ; (jen. anes hwaet, * a part 
only,' 3010. [C/. Goth, kins.] 

ancor, st. m., anchor, 303, 1883. 
[From Lat. ancora.] 

and, see end. 

anda, w. m., indignation, evil intent, 
mischief, 2314 ; dat. wia}>um on 
andan, 'meaning mischief to the 
foe,' 708. [Cf. Goth, us-anan, 
' breathe out.'] 

and-git, st. neut., understanding, in- 
telligence, 1059. 

and-lean, see ond-lSan. 

and-long-, see ond-long. 

and-rysno, ««./., etiquette, courtesy, 
attention due, 1796. 

and-weard, adj.: ace. neut., sweord 
swate fah swin ofer helme... and- 
weard scire-S, • the blood-stained 
sword cuts the opposed boar,* 
i.e. the boar standing on the op- 
posed (foe's) helmet, 1287. 

and-wlita, w, m., face, countenance, 

&n-feald, adj., onefold, plain, frank, 
256. [Cf. Goth. 4infal|j8.] 

anga, w. adj., oNly, sole, 375, 1262, 
1547, 2997. [Cf. Goth. 4inaha.] 

angeng(e)a, w. m., [oNB-ooer] one 
who goes alone (of Grendel), 165, 

ftn-haga, w. m., a solitary, 2368. 

an-h§T, adj., hoaby, 357* (see note). 

an-hydig, adj., resolute, 2667. 

an-mSd, adj., resolute, F. 13. 

an-paeU, tt. m., [one-path] lonesome 
pa£h, or single track, 1410, 

an-rsed, adj., resolute, 1529 (see 
note), 1575. 

an-sund, adj., sound, 1000. 

ans^, see on•8]^n. 

an-tid, St. /., 219 (see note). 

Jlnunga, adv., oNce for all, utterly, 

An-walda, to. m., [om-wjELi>eT] God, 

&nwlg-gearu, adj., prepared for 
single combat, 1247 (see note). 

&r, St. m., messenger, 336, 2783. 
[Cf. Goth, aims.] 

ir, St. /., honour, kindness, benefit, 
favour, grace, 2378, 1272 ; in con- 

crete sense, estate, 2606; gen. pi. 
arna, 1187 ; dat. pi. arum healdan, 
' hold in (with) honour, hold safe,' 
296, 1099, 1182. 

Ir-faest, adj., [kindness-FAST] merci- 
ful [cf. Klaeber'^*»J 1168. 

fixian, W.V., with dat. , respect, spare, 

-am, see -leman. 

&r-8tafas, st. m. pi. only, favour, 
mercy, kindness, 317, 382, 458. 

atellc, adj., horrible, dire, 784. 

ater-tan, st. m., poison-twig, 1459 
(see note). [Cf. Goth, tains, and 
Mod. Eng. toe in mistletoe.] 

atol, eatol, adj., dire, horrible, 159*, 
etc. ; dat. pi. atolan, 1502. 

attor, St. neut., poison, venom, 2715; 
gen. sg. attres, 2523*. 

attor-sceaVa, w. m., [poison- 
scATRex'] poisonous foe, 2839. 

atJ, St. m., OATH, 472, etc. [Cf. 
Goth. &ij>3.] 

alJ-sweord, st. n., oATH-swEARing, 
oath, 2064. 

atJum-swerlan, to. m. pi., father- 
in-law and son-in-law ; dat. atJum- 
swerian, 84 (but see note). 

awa, adv., aye, ever; in awa to 
aldre, 'for ever and ever,' 955; 
see also a. 


ba, bam, see bSgen. 

baedan, w. v., constrain, oppress, 

urge, encourage, 2018 (see note); 

pp. gebffided, 2580, 2826, 3117. 

_[C/. Goth, baidjan.] 

bael, St. neut., fire, burning, 2308, 

2322; b§l, 2126 (see note); the fire 

of the funeral pile, pyre, 1109, etc. 

bffll-fyr, St. neut., fire of the funeral 

j)ile, 3143. 
baBl-stede, st. m., pyre-sTEAD, place 

_of the funeral pile, 3097. 
bael-wudu, st. m., pyre-wooD, wood 
_for the funeral pile, 3112. 

bSBT, St. /., BIER, 3105. 

-baeran, w. v. 

ge-baeran, to. v., bear oneself, 
behave, fare, 2824; with two com. 
paratives, ne gefraegen ic \>n msegpe 
maran weorode...sel gebSran, 'I 
heard not that that people in 
greater numbers ever bore them- 
selves better,' 1012; cf. F. 40. 

baeman, w. v., trans., burn, 1116, 
2313. [Cf. Goth, -gabrannjan.] 

forbaaman, w. »., trans., bum 
up, 2126. 



bsetan, w. r., bridle, bit; pp. gebated, 

bsetJ, tt. neut.y bath, 1861. 

baldor, see bealdor. 

balu, adj.t BALEful;, balwon, 

ban, St. neut., bone, 2578 (of the 
dragon's teeth), 2692. 

bana, see bona. 

ban-cofa, w, m., [bone-cove] body, 

ban-fset, st. neut., [bone-vat] body; ban-fatu, 1116. 

ban-fag, adj., BONE-dight, adorned 
with antlers, 780. 

ban-helm, $t. m., F. 32 (see note). 

ban-hrlng, st. m., bone-ring, verte- 
bra, 1567. 

ban-htls, St. neut., bone-house, body, 
2508, 3147. 

ban-loca, to. m., boke-lock, joint, 
818; BONE-LOCE-er, body, 742. 

bannan, st. v. [cf. ban in sense of 
• summon ']. 

ge-bannan, st. v., order; inf. 
^a ic wide gefreegn weorc geban- 
nan manigre msegl^e, ' then I learnt 
that orders for the work were given 
widely to many a tribe,* 74. 

bat, St. m., BOAT, 211. 

bat-weard, st. m., boat-ward, 1900. 

be, bl, prep., with dat., by in its 
various meanings, originally and 
usu. local, more rarely instru- 
mental {nearer in meaning to 
German bei than Eng. by) : BEside, 
near, by, 36, 814, 1191, 1537, 
1722, 1872, 1905, 1950, 2243, 
2538, 2716, 2756; by, along, 566 
(rest), 1188 (motion), 1573; by 
(in 'I'll do my duty hy you'), in 
connexion with, 1723. Following 
its case, him big, 3047. Waepen 
hafeuade heard be hiltum, • raised 
the sharp weapon by the hilt,' 
1574; be "Se lifigendum, 'during 
thy life,' 2665 ; wees se gryre laessa 
efne swa micle, swa bi"5 meegj^a 
crseft., .be wapned-men, • the terror 
was less even by so much, as is 
women's power beside (in com- 
parison with)jk man,' 1284. 

be (bl) saem tweonum = be- 
tweonum sam, 'between the 
seas,' 858, 1297, 1685, 1956. 

beacen, st. neut., beacon, 570, 2777; 
now. been, 3160. 

beacnian, w. v., [beckon] indicate; 
pp. gebeacnod, 140. 

beado, beadu, st. f. , battle, war, 709 ; 
gen. beaduwe, 2299*,beadwe, 1539. 

beado-grlma, w. m., battle-mask, 

helmet, 2257. 
beado -hraegl, st. neut., [battle-RAiL] 

coat of mail, 552, 
beado-leoma^ w. to., [battle-ray] 

sword, 1523. 
beado-mece, st. m. ,battle-sword, 1454. 
beado-rinc, st. to., [battle-]warrior, 

beadu-folm, st.f., battle-hand, 990. 
beadu-lac, st. neut., battle-play, 

battle, war, 1561. 
beadu-rof, adj., battle-strong, 3160. 
beadu-rtln, st. /., [battle-jRi7WJB] 

quarrel, 501. 
beadu-scearp, adj., battle-SHARP, 

beadu-scrtld, st. neut., [battle- 

shroud] coat of mail, 453, 2660* 

(see note). 
beadu-serce, w. /., battle-SARK, coat 

of mail; ace. sg. beadu-sercean, 

2755. [Sieversg § 159, 1, 2.] 
beadu- weorc, st. neut., battle- work, 

battle, 2299* (but see note). 
bSag, beah, st. to., ring, circlet 

(armlet, necklace, etc.), money, 

treasure, 35, 80, etc. ; ace. sing. 

used collectively, beg, 3163. [Cf. 

O.E. biigan.] 
bSag-gyfa, w. m., ring-oiver, 1102. 
beag-hroden ,[O.JS.* hjreo^an, 'adorn'] 

adj. (pp.), ring-adorned, 623. 
biah-hord, st, neut., ring-HOARn, 

894, etc. 
beah-sele, st. to., ring-hall, hall in 

which rings were given, 1177. 
bSab-^egu, st.f., ring-receiving, 2176 

(referring to Hygd's receiving 

from Beowulf the necklace which 

Wealhtheow gave him). 
beab-wriSa, w. to., ting-wREATH, 

circlet, 2018. 
bealdian, w. v., bear oneself BOLcly, 

bealdor, baldor, st. to., prince, lord, 

2428, 2567. [Cf O.N. Baldr.] 
bealo, bealu, st. neut., bale, evil, 

ruin, 2826; gen. pi. bealwa, 909, 

bealuwa, 281, bealewa, 2082. 
bealo, bealu, adj., see balu. 
bealo-cwealm, st. to., BALEful or 

violent death, 2265. 
bealo-bycgende, adj. (pres. part.), 

[BALE-thinking] intending evil, 

bealo-hydig, adj., [BALE-minded] 

intending evil, 723. 
bealo-nlU, st. to., [BALK-envy, -hate, 

-mischief) baleful envy, malicious 

hatred, 1758, 2404, 2714. 



bearhtm, *t. m. 

(1) brightness, 1766 (see note). 

(2) sound, 1431. 

beann, »t. m., [haum] lap, bosom, 

35, etc., 21*, 2404 (possession). 

[Cf. Goth, barms.] 
beam, it. mut., bairn, child, son, 

59, etc. ; pi. ylda beam, 605, 

Rumenabearn, 878,ni(S^abearn(a), 

1005, ' the children of men.' [Cf. 

Goth, bam.] 
beam-gebyrdo, it. /., BAiBN-BJBth, 

child-bearing ; gen. 946. 
beam, st. m., grove, wood, 1863. 
beatan, it. v., beat, smite, paw, 

2265; pp. gebeaten, 2359. 
bScn, see beacen. 
bed(d). It. neut., bed, 140, etc. [Cf. 

Goth, badi.] 
be-foran, adv., before ; of place, 

1412, of time, 2497. 
be-foran, prep., with ace., before, 

b§g, see b§ag. 
bSgen, m., ba, /. and neut., num. 

and adj.-pron., both, 536, etc. ; 

gen. bcga folces, ' of the folk of 

both [peoples],' 1124; bega wen, 

• expectation of both things,' 1873. 
be-gong, be-gang, tt. m., extent, 

expanse, compass, circuit, 362, 

860, etc.; ace. bigong, 2367. 
belgan, tt. v., swell with anger, 

anger oneself; pp. gebolgen 

'swollen,' 2401, 'swollen with 

anger, enraged,' 723* (see note), 

1639, 2220 ♦,etc.;i)Z.gebolgne, 1431. 
ft-belgan, st. v., anger; pret. 

abealch, 2280. 
ge-belgan, it. v., with dat., 

anger; pret. suhj. gebulge, 2331. 
ben, 8t. /., [bene] boon, request, 

428, 2284. 
bena, w. m., suppliant, 352, 364; 

nom. Bwa he bena wees, 'as he 

had begged,' 3140. 
bene, it.f., bench, 327, etc. 
benc-Bweg, it. m., BENCH-sound, 

noise from the benches, 1161. 
benc-^el, it. neut., [bench-theal] 

bench-board, bench, 486, 1239. 
bend. It. m. /., band, bond, 977, 

1609. [Cf. Goth, bandi.] 
ben-geat, it. neut., wound-aATE, 

opening of a wound, 1121. 
benn, it. /., wound, 2724. [Cf. 

Goth, banja.] 
bSodan, b!odan, it. v, 

(1) announce, 2892. 

(2) offer, give, 385, 1086, 2957. 
[Cf. Goth, -biudan.] 

a bSodan, it. v., announce, 

890; offer, 668; pret. him Iitel 
ahead, 'bade hira hail, wished 
him health,' 653; h»lo ahead, 
•bade farewell,' 2418. 

be-beodan, st. v., bid, com- 
mand, order, 401, 1975. 

ge-bgodan, tt. v., proclaim, 
offer, give, 603, 2369; iiif. hC-t \>k 
gebeodan byre Wih3tane8...ha3- 
le^a monegum, 'then the son of 
Weohstan ordered that it should 
be proclaimed to many heroes,' 

beod-genSat, tt. m., board-comrade, 
table-companion, 343, 1713. 

bgon, irreg. v., be, pres. ig. 3rd bi^, 
183, etc., bylS, 1002, 2277; pi. 
beoS, 1838, bio-S, 2063; imperat. 
sg. beo, 386, etc., bio, 2747. 

bSor, St. mut., beer, beer-drinking, 
480, 531, 2041. 

beorgan, it. v., with dat., defend, 
protect, save, 1293, 1445; pret. 
pi. burgan, 2599. [Cf. Goth. 

be-beorgan, it. v., ward (a 
danger) from oneself: construed 
(1) with refl. dat. of the person, 
him bebeorgan ne con, 'he cannot 
save himself,' 1746; (2) with dat. 
of the person and ace. of tJie thing, 

ge-beorgan, it. v., with dat., 
protect, save; pret. gebearg, 2570, 
gebearh, 1548. 

ymb-beorgan, tt. v., [about- 
protect] surround and protect, 1503. 

beorh, biorh, beorg, st. m., barrow, 
hill, mountain, grave-mound, 211, 

beorht, adj., bright, light, shining, 
splendid, 158, 231, etc.; weak 
forms, beorhte, 997, byrhtan, 
1199, etc. [Cf. Goth, bairhts.] 

beorhtost, superl., BiaonTEST, 

beorhte, adv., BRioHTly, 1517. 

beorhtian, w. v., intran.t., BRioHTen, 
sound clearly, 1161 (see note). 

beom, blom, st. m., hero, warrior, 
211, 856, 1024, etc. 

beoman, see byrnan. 

beom-cynlng, st. m., warrior-KiNG, 

bgor-scealc, it.m., [BEER-senescH^i,] 
drinker, comrade, 1240. 

beor-sele, blor-sele, st. m., beer- 
hall, 482, 2635, etc. 

b5or-J»egu, st. f. , [nEER-taking] beer- 
drinking, 117, 617. 



b6ot, tt. neut., vow, boast, 80, 523. 

[C/. Goth, bihait, 'strife.'] 
bgotian, w. v. 

ge-beotian, w. t;., vow, boast, 

480, 536. 
beot-word, st. neut., [boast- word] 

boastful word, 2510. 
beran, st. v. 

(1) BEAR, carry, wear, 48, 437, 
2055, 2281, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd, 
byre's, 296, etc.; pret. pi. baron, 
213, etc., beeran, 2850. 

(2) BEAR, give birth to; pp. gebo- 
ren, born, 1703. 

©t-beran, st. v., bear to, carry 
to, bear, 28, 619, etc. 

for-beran, U. v., forbear, re- 
strain, 1877. 

on-beran, st. v., bear off, rifle, 
impair, diminish, 990, 2284. 

o^-beran, st. v., bear to, bear, 
berian, w. v., barb, clear, 1239. 
berstan, st. v., intrans., burst, 760 
(crack), 818, 1121, F. 32. 

for- berstan, st. r., tntrarw., 
BURST, break in pieces, snap, 2680. 
betan, xo. v. [Cf. Goth, botjan.] 
ge-betan, w. v., amend, make 
good, requite, 1991, 2465; pp. 
pi. gebette, 830. 
betera, adj. compar. {of g6d), better, 
469, 1703. [Cf. Goth, batiza.] 

betost, betst, superl., best, 453, 
3007, etc.; weak forms betsta, 947, 
betstan, 1871. 
betllc, adj., excellent, splendid, 

780*, 1926. 
bl, see be. 
bl-, see be-.' 
bicgan, see bycgan. 
bid, St. neut., Bicing; on bid wrecen, 

'brought to bay,' 2962. 
bidan, st. v., with gen. or absolutely, 
bide, abide, wait for, 82, 87, etc. 

a-bldan, st. v., with gen., abidk, 
await, 977. 

ge-bldan, st. v. 
(1) usu. with ace. or governed 
clause, BIDE, abide, endure, ex- 
perience, 7, 264, 638, etc.; pp. 
gebiden, 1928 ; imperat. absolutely, 
gebide ge, 2529. (2) with gen., 
wait for; dat. inf. 6' ge- 
bidanne. . .yrfeweardas, ' to wait for 
another heir,' 2452. 

on-bldan, st. v., with gen. , aBiDE, 
await; 2302, inf. leeta-S hildebord 
her onbIdan...worda geHnges, 'let 
your battle-boards here abide the 
issue of words,' 397. 

biddan, st. v., [bid] ask, beg, pray, 
29, 176, 1994, etc.; pret. sg. baed 
hine blrSne, 'begged him to be 
blithe,' 617; with ace. pers. and 
gen. rei, ic >e... biddan wille... 
anre bene, 'I wHl ask of thee one 
boon,' 427; frio'So-weere bsed 
hlaford sinne, 'asked peace of his 
lord,' 2282. [Cf. Goth, bidjan.] 

big, see bL 

bigong, see begong. 

bil(l), St. neut., bill, sword, 40, etc. 

bindan, st. v., bend: pp. bunden, 
216 (see note), 1285, 1900; ge- 
bunden, 871, 1631, 1743, 2111. 
ge-bindan, st. v., bind, 420. 
on-bindan, st. v., unbind; pret. 
sg. onband beadu-riine, 'opened a 
quarrel,' 501. 

bisgu, blsigu, see bysigu. 

bitan, st. v., bite, cut, 742, 1454, etc. 

bite, St. m., bite, 2060, 2259. 

biter, adj., bitter, cutting, sharp, 
furious, 1431, 1746, 2704; dat. 
pi. biteran, 2692. 

bitre, adv., BiTTERly, 2331. 

blac, adj., BLEAK, bright, brilliant, 

blsec, adj., black, 1801. 

bleed, st. m., breath, life, prosperity, 
renown, 18, 1124, 1703, 1761. 

blsed-agande, adj. (pres. part.), 
success-OTTJring, prosperous, 1013. 

blffid-fSBst, adj., prosperous, re- 
nowned, 1299. 

blanca, w.m., o, white horse, 856. 

bleate, adv., miserably, pitifully, 

bllcan, St. v., shine, gleam, 222. 

bUtJe, adj., BLITHE, joyous, 617; 
gracious, with gen,, 436. [Cf. 
Goth, bleijjs.] 

bins heort, adj., BLiTHB-HBARTed, 

blod, St. neut., blood, 486, 742, etc. 

blodegian, w. v., make bloody; 
pp. geblodegod, 2692. 

bl6d-fag, adj., BLOOD-stained, 2060. 

blodig, adj., bloody, 2440, etc. 

blodig-totJ, adj., BLooDY-TooTHed, 

blSd-reow, adj., BLOOD-fierce, blood- 
thirsty, 1719. 

blonden-feaz, adj., [Bi,£.vi>ed- 
haired] gray-haired, 1594, 1791, 
1873; weak nom. sg. blonden-fexa, 

bodian, w. v., [bode] announce, 1802. 

bolca, w. m., gangway, 231. 

bold, St. neut.f BWXDing, 997, 
1925, etc. 



bold-JLgend, tt. m. {pret. part.), 

house -OH'.ver, 3112. 
bolgen-m5d, adj., swollen In mood, 

enraged, 709, 1713. 
bolster, st. m., bolstkh, 1210. 
bona, bana, ir. m., bane, banesman, 

slayer, 158 *, 587, etc. 
bon-gir, $t. m., BANE-spear, deadly 

spear, 2031. 
bord, St. nent., [board] shield, 2259, 

2524, 2673, F. 31*. 
bord-hfflbbend, adj. (pret. part.), 

[BOARD-HAving] sbieldbearing, 

bord-hrgotSa, w. m., [soARD-cover] 

shield, 2203. [Cf. O.E. hreo-San.] 
bord-rand, st. m., [BOARD-]shield, 

bord-weal, tt. m., board-wall, 

shield, 2980. 
bord-wTidu, st. m., [board-wood] 

shield; ace. pi. 1243. 
bOt, St. /., boot, remedy, help, com- 
pensation, 158, 281, etc. [C/. 

Goth, buta.] 
botm, St. m., bottom, 1506. 
br3.d, adj., broad, wide, ample, 

1546, 2207, 2978*, 3105, etc. 

[Cf. Goth. brai>s.] 
brsedan, to. \v., BROADen. [Cf. 

Goth, braidjan.] 

geond brffldan, to. v., over- 
spread, 1239. 
brecan, st. v. 

(1) trans., break, 1100, 1511 (see 
note), 2980; bine fyrwyt bifec, 
'curiosity tormented him (as to),* 
232, 1985, 2784. 

(2) intrans. , break, 2546. 
a-brecan. «t. v., break into, spoil, 

2063*, 2221% F. 46. 

ge-brecan, st. v., break, crush, 
shatter, 2508, 3147. 

tS-brecan, st. v., break to 
pieces, knock about, 780, 997. 

►urh-brecan, st. v., break 
THROUGH, 2792. 
brecVa,t/?.Tn., grief, 171. [Cf. brecan.] 
-bredwian, w. v. 

S.-bredwian, ir. v., prostrate, 
slay, 2619. 
bregdam, st. v., xoith ace. or dat. 

(1) brandish, whirl, pull, draw, 
707, 794, 1539 (throw); pret. pi. 
mundum brugdon, ' brandished 
your hand^,' 514; pp. brOden, 
brogden raeel, 'sword,' 1616 (see 
note), 1667. 

(2) BRAID, weave; inf. bregdon, 
2167; pp. broden, 652, 1548; ace. 
sg. /. brogdne, 2755. 

ft-bregdan, st. v., swing, lift: 
pret. sg. abrffid, 2575. 

ge-bregdan, st. v., with ace 
or dat. 

(1) draw; pret. gebraegd, gebroed 
1564, 1664, 2562, 2703. 

(2) DUAID, weave; pp. gcbroden 

on bregdan, st. v., burst open 

pret. sg. onbrted, 723. 
brego, St. m., prince, lord, king 

427, 1954 (see note to 1. 1956), etc. 

nam. brego rof cyning, ' the prince 

[was] a brave king,' 1925. 
brego-stOl, st. m., [prince-STooL] 

throne, dominion, 2196, 2370 

breme, adj., [breme, brim] re 

nowned, 18. 
brenting, st. m. , high ship, 2807 

[Cf. O.E. bront.] 
breost, st. f. and neut., breast 

2176*, etc.; pi. 453, etc. 
brS0Bt-gehygd,«£./. and nef/t., breast 

thought, thought of the heart 

brSost-gewsedu, st., [breast 

weeds] coat of mail, 1211, 2162. 
breost-hord, st. neut., [breast 

hoard] breast's treasure, mind, 

thought, 1719, 2792. 
brgost-net, st. neut., breast-net 

coat of chain-mail, 1548. 
breost- weortSung, st. f., breast 

adornment, 2504 {see 11. 1202 ff.). 
breost- wylm, st. m., [breast- jf£xl 

ing] heaving of the breast, grief 

brgotan, st. v., break, kill, 1713. 
a-breotan, st. v., break up 

destroy, kill, 1298, 1599*, 2707 

2930 (see note), 
brim, st. neut., [brim] surge, billow 

sea, mere, 28, 570, 847, 1594, 

brim-cllf, St. neut., [brim-cliff] 

sea-cliff, 222. 
brim-lad, st.f., ocean-way, 1051*. 
brim-liCend, st. m. {pres. part.), 

sea-farer, 568. 
brim-stream, st. m., sea-STREAM, 

brim-wlsa, w. m., [sea-wisa] sea- 
leader, sea-king, 2930. 
brim-wylf, st. /., she mere-froi..F, 

1506*, 1599. 
brim-wylm, st. m., mere- ir££i,ing, 

surge, 1494. 
bringan, st.andw. v., brino, 1829, etc. 
ge-bringan, st.and w. v., bring; 

tubj.pres. pi. gebringan, 3009. 



2>r6A«n, see bregdan. 

brSga, w. w., terror, 1291, etc.; 

gen. sg. 583. 
brond, tt. m., brand, burning, fire, 

sword, 1454, 2126, 2322, 3014, 

bront, adj., high, steep, towering, 

238, 568 (see note). 
brosnian, w. v., crumble, perish, 

bro^or, st. m., brother, 587, 1074, 

etc.; gen. bro^or, 2619. 
brflcan, st. v., with gen., brook, use, 

enjoy, 894, etc.; without expressed 

object, 1045, 1487, etc. 
brtln, adj., brown, 2578. [For 

•brown' applied to metal objects 

cf. Mod. Eng. 'BURNish.'] 
brtln-ecgr, adj., BROwN-EDoed, 1546. 
brtlu-fag, adj., BROWN-coloured, of 

brown hue, 2615. 
br^d, St. /., BRroE, wife, 2031; ace. 

sg. bryd, 2930, bryde, 2956. [Cf. 

Goth. bru>3.] 
br^d-bilr, $t. neut., bride-bowbb, 

woman's room, 921. 
bryne-leoma, w. m., BURNing-ray 

(the dragon's vomit of fire), 2313. 
bryne-wylm, tt. m., [BUBNing- 

wELung] surge of fire, 2326. 
brytnlan, w. v., distribute; pret. sg, 

brytnade, 2383. 
brytta, w. m., distributer, giver, 

35, 352, etc. [0/. O.E. breotan.] 
bryttian, w. v., distribute, bestow, 

bllan, V. [both strong and weak]. 

(1) intrans., dwell; inf. buon, 

(2) trans., dwell in, inhabit, 
occupy, 3065; pp. gebun, 117. 

bfl-folc, St. n., nation, 2220* (see 

bflgan, St. v., bow, bend, stoop, 327, 
2031, 2598, 2918, etc.; pret. sg. 
beah, 2956; pp. gebogen, 2569. 

a-btlgan, St. v., [bow away] give 
way, start, 775. 

be-bdgan, st. v., [bow about] 
encompass, 93, 1223. 

ge-bQgan, st. v., pret. gebeag, 
gebeah : 

(1) intrans., BOW, bend, fall, 1540, 
2567, 2980. 

(2) trans., bow to; pret. sg. sele- 
reste gebeah, 'lay down on his 
bed in the hall,' 690; so 1241. 

bunden-heord, adj., with tresses 
bound, 3151* (see note). 

bunden-steftia, w. m., bound-stem, 
bound-prow, ship, 1910. 

bune, to. /., cup, drinking- vessel, 

2775, 3047. 
btlr, St. neut., bower, room, 140, 

burg, burh, st. /., burgh, borough, 

fortified place, castle, city, 53, 

523, 1968, 2433, 2452; dat. byrig, 

burh-loca, to. m., BURGE-rocir, 

castle-lock, town-precincts, 1928. 
burh-stede, st. m., buroh-stead, 

courtyard, 2265. 
burli-|>elu, st. /., castle floor, buruh- 

belu, F. 32. 
burh-wela, w. m., [buroh-weal] 

wealth of a castle or city, 

bume, w. /., burn, stream, 2546. 

[Cf. Goth, brunna.] 
buruh, see burh. 
bttton, prep., with dat., but, except, 

73, 657, 705. 
bllton, btttan, conj. [=be-utan]. 

(1) with subj., unless, 966. 

(2) with indie. , withouT, but that, 
except, 1560; in elliptical sen- 
tences, 879, 1614. 

bycgan, bicgan, w. v., buy, 1305. 

[Cf. Goth, bugjan.] 
be-bycgan, 7v. v., sell, 2799. 
ge-bycgan, w. v., buy, obtain, 

973; pret. his ealdre gebohte, 

•paid for [it] with his life,' 

2481; pp. pi. 3014*. 
byldan, w. v., encourage, 1094. 

[From beald.] 
b^me, w.f., trumpet, 2943. [From 

byrdu-scrttd, st. neut., 2660 (see 

byre, st. m., son, boy, youth, 1188, 

byrele, st. m., cup-BSJKer, 1161. 
byreU, see beran. 
byrgean, w. v., taste, 448. 
byrht, see beorht. 
byrig, see burg, 
byrnan, st. v., intrans., burn, 1880 

(see note) ; jires. part, bymende, 

2272, 2569. [Cf Goth, brin- 

for-byrnan, st. v., intrans., 

pret. forbarn, forbom: burn up, 

1616, 1667, 2672. 

ge-byman, st. v., intrans., 

BURN, be burnt, 2697. 
byme, w. /., BrRsr, coat of mail, 

40, 238, 405, etc. [Cf. Goth. 

byrn-wiga, w. m., jsruwr- warrior, 

mailed warrior, 2918. 



byBlgn, It. /., [BrRmesB] trouble, 
atlliction; nam. bit;igu, "281; dat. 
pi. hi^Rum, 1743, bysigum, 2580. 

ojIS, see b6on. 

bywan, w. v., prepare, adorn, 2257. 

camp, St. m., or neut., battle, 2505*. 

cam, see cunnan. 

candel, at. /., candije, 1572 (of the 
sun). [From Lat. candela.] 

ceald, (ulj., COLD, 1261, 2396 (see 
noto). [Cf. Goth, kalds.] 

cealdost, snperl., coldest, 546. 

c6ap, it. in., [cheap] bargain, pur- 
chase, 2415, 2482. 

cSaplan, tr. v., [cHEAPen] purchase; 
pp. geceapod, 3012*. [C/, Goth. 

cearian, w. v., oare, take oare, 
1536. [Cf. Goth, karon.] 

cear-sHJ, st. m., [care- journey] ex- 
pedition bringing sorrow, 2396. 

cearu, $t. /., care, sorrow, 1303, 
3171*. [Cf. Goth, kara.] 

cear-wylm, -waelm, st. m., [care- 
WELLing] surge of care, wave of 
sorrow, extreme grief, 282, 2066. 
[Sievers.j § 159, 3.] 

cea8ter-b(lend,<f.m.(jjre«.jjarf.), deni- 
zen of a city, 768. [Lat. castra.] 

celled, adj., F. 31* (see note). 

cempa, w. m., champion, fighter, 
206, 1312, etc. [Frcm camp.] 

c6ne, adj., keen, bold, brave, 768, 
F. 31. 

c5noat, superl., keenest, bold- 
est, 206. 

cennan, w. v. [Cf. Goth, kannjan.] 

(1) beget, bear, bring forth, 12, 

(2) declare; imperat. »g. rejl. cen 
>ec, 1219. 

icennan.wj. v., beget, bear, 1356. 

c8ntJu, it. /., KEENness, boldness, 

c5ol, St. m., ship, 38, etc. [ceol 
survives in Northern dialectal form 
KEEL, 'a flat bottomed vessel, a 
lighter,' but is distinct from Mod. 
Eng. 'keel,' which is from the 

ceorfan, st. v., carve. 

l}e-ceorfan, st. v., toith ace. 
pers. and dat. ret, cut off, 1590, 

ceorl, St. m., churl, man, 202, etc. 

cSosan, closan, st. v., choose, ac- 
cept, 2376, 2818; pp. pi. geco- 
rone, 206. [Cf. Goth, kiusan.] 

ge cSoaan, st. v., choose, 1201 
(see note), 17r;9, 2169, 2638; dat. 
inf. geceosenne, 1851. 
clgSn. w. V. 

a elgan, to. v., call, summon, 


clrran, w. v. 

on cirran, w. v. 

(1) trans., turn, change, 2857 (see 

(2) intrans., turn, return, 2951, 

clif, St. neut., cliff, 1911. 

cloram, clamm, st. m., clasp, grip, 
963, 1335, 1502. 

cnawan, st. v. 

ge-cnawan, st. v., know, recog- 
nise, 2047. 

on-cn5.wan, st. v., know, recog- 
nise, 2554. 

cniM, St. m., [knight] boy, 1219. 

cniht-wesende, adj. {pres. part.), 
being a boy or youth, 372, 535. 

cnyssan, w. v., crash, clash; prct. 
pi. cnysedan, 1328. [Cf. Goth. 

c61, adj., COOL. 

c51ra, compar., cooler, 282, 

coUen-ferhtJ, -fertJ, adj., [swollen 
minded] of excited spirit, bold- 
minded, 1806, 2785. 

con, const, see cunnan. 

corlSer, st. neut., troop, guard, 
crowd, 1153, 3121. 

costian, to. v., with gen., try, prove, 

crseft, St. m., might, strength; skill, 
craft; 418, 699, etc.; dat. pi. 
deofles creeftum, 'with devil's 
devices,' 2088. 

crseftig, adj., [crafty] strong, 
powerful, 1466, 1962. 

cringan, st. t?., cbinoe, fall, 635, 

ge-cringan, st. v., crinob, fall; 
pret. sg. gecrong, 1568, 2505, 
gecrang, 1337, gecranc, 1209, 
F. 33. 

cuma, w. m., coMer, 1806 (see also 
note to 1. 244). 

cuman, st. v., pret. c(w)om; come, 
23, etc.; suhj. pres. pi. cymen, 
3106; pret. pi. cwomon, 239, etc., 
cwoman, 650; pp. pi. cumene, 
361. Often with foil. inf. {which 
is sometimes best translated by a 
pres. part.), 268, 710, etc. [Cf. 
Goth, quiman.] 

be-cuman, st. v., pret. bec(w)om: 
(1) come, 115, 192, etc. 



(2) with ace. pert., befall, 2883. 
ofer-cuman, ««. v. overcome ; pret. 

sg. oferowom, 1273; pret. pi. 

ofercomon, 699; pp. 845. 
cumbol, St. m.f standard, banner, 

cunnan, pret.-pres. r., prea. sg. 1st, 

3rd, con, can, 2nd, const: 

(1) with ace. or clause, know, be 
acquainted with, 359, 372, 392, 
418, 1180, 1377, 1739, etc.; with 
ace. and clause, 1355. 

(2) with inf., know how to, be 
able to, 50, 90, 182, etc. 

cunnian, w. v., with ace. or gen., 

try, make trial of, explore, 508, 

1426, 1444, 1500, 2045. 
clltJ, adj. {pp. of cunnan, ef. Goth. 

kunjjs), known, well known, 

famous, 150, etc. 
cUtJ-lIce, adv., openly. 

ctltJ-lIcor, co/npar., more openly, 

cwealm, st. m., [QUELLing] murder, 

death, 107,3149*. 
cwealm-bealu, st. neut., death-BALB, 

deadly evil, 1940. 
cwealm-cuma, w. m., murderous 

coMer, 792. 
cweccaji, w. v., [cause to quake] 

brandish, 235. 
cwellan, w. v., quell, kill, 1334. 
a-cwellan, w. v., quell, kill, 

886, 1055, 2121. 
cwen, st.f, QUEEN, wife, 62, etc. 
cwen-llc, adj., queenly, womanly, 

cwetJan, tt. v., say, speak, 2041; 

pret. cwee'S, 'quoth,' 92, etc.; 

cwe«, F. 26. [Of. Goth. qi)>an.] 
a-cwetJan, st. v., say, speak; 

pres. sg. aowy^, 2046; pret. sg. 

acwsB^, 'quoth,' 654. 
ge-cwelJan, st. v., say, agree, 

535, 2664; pret. sg. gecwas"S, 

'quoth,' 857, etc. 
on-cwetJan, st. v., answer, 

F. 8. 
cwic, cwico, adj., quick, living, 

alive, 98, etc. 
cwItJan, w. v., with ace, lament, 

mourn, 2112, 3171. 
-cwytJ, see -cweTJan. 
cyme, st. m., coifing; pi. 257. 
cymen, see cuman. 
cym-llce, adv. 

cym-llcor, compar.. In more 

comely fashion, more fitly, 38. 
cyn(n), sU neut., kin, race, 98, 107, 

421, etc. [Cf. Goth, kuni.] 
oyn(n), adj. and noun, (*aKiN, suit- 

able'), customs, oonrtesies, eti- 
quette, 613. 

cyne-dom, st. m., KiNgnoM, 2376. 

cynlng, kyning, st. m., king, 11, 
619, 3171, etc. 

cyning-bald, adj., [king-bold] roy- 
ally bold, 1634. 

Kyning-wuldor, st. m., KiNoly 
glory. King of glory, God, 665. 

cypan, w. v., sell. [Cf. ceap.] 

ge-cypan, w. v., buy, purchase, 
hire, 2496. 

cyssan, w. v. 

ge-cyssan, w. v., kiss, 1870. 

cyst, St. /., [cHoosring] choice, 
choice quality, excellence, pick, 
673, 802, 867, 923, etc.: wapna 
cyst, • choicest of weapons,' 1559. 
[Cf. ceosan.] 

cy^an, w. v., make known, show, 
659, etc. ; pp. gecytSed, • made 
known, famed,' 262, etc. [From 
cutJ, cf. Goth, kunjjjan.] 

ge-cySan, w, v., make known, 
257, 354. 

dsed, it.f., DEED, act, 181, etc.; ace. 

dffld, 585,_etc., dSde, 889; 

haf alS . . . daade gef ondad , ' has experi - 

_enced deeds (of violence),' 2454. 

dsed-cene, adj., [deed-keen] bold 

Jn act, 1645. 
dsed-fruma, w. m., [DEsn-chief] doer 

_of deeds, 2090. 
dsBd-hata, w. m., [DEED-HATer] one 
who shows his hatred in deeds, 
persecutor, 275 (see note), 
dseg, St. m., day, 197, 485, etc. [Cf. 
Goth, dags.] 

dseges, gen. of deeg used ad- 
verbially, by day, 2269. 
dseg-hwn, St. /., day-whilb, day; 

ace. pi., 2726. 
dseg-rim, st. neut., [DAY-Rnre] num- 
ber of days ; nam. dogera dasgrim, 
• the number of his days,' 828. 
dsel, St. m., deal, part, portion, 
share, 621, etc.; a large part, 
great deal, 1150, 1740, 1752, 2028, 
_2068, 2245, 2843. 
dSBlan, w. v., DEAL, divide, distribute, 
share, 80, 2534, etc. [Cf. Goth. 

be-dselan, w. v., with dat. ret, 
deprive, bereave, 721, 1275. 

ge-dffllan, w. v., deal out, 71 ; 
divide, part, 731, 2422. 
dagian, w. v., dawn, F. 3. 
darotS, st. m., dabt, javelin, 2848. 



dead, adj. , DEAD, 467, etc. [C/. Goth. 

•dfiagan, tt. v., dyb\ buk see note 

to 1. 850. 
dSah, see dagan. 
deall, adj., proud of, adorned by, 

desLT, deanrt, see durran. 
deatJ, It. m., death, 441, etc. 
d§aC-bedd, tt. neut., dbath-bed, 


dgaU-CWalU. $t. /., [LEkTB-QUELL- 

incl violf-nt death, slaughter, 1712. 
dgatJ-cwealm, it. m., [dektb-qvell- 

ing] violent death, slaughter, 1670. 
d6at5 dseg, st. m., death-day, 187, 

dSaU-frege, adj., [death-fxt] doomed 

to death, 850. 
dSa? sella, w. m., DEATH-shadow, 

deadly sprite, 160. 
dSatJ-weiig, adj., death-weary, dead, 

deat5-wlc, tt. neut., [death-wick] 

dwelling of the dead, 1275. 
dSman, w. v., deem; adjudge, 687; 

extol, 3174. IFrom dom, c/. Goth. 

dlmend, St. m.{pre8.part.),iu6ge, 181. 
denn, tt. neut., den, 2759, 3045. 
deofol, tt. m. and neut., devil, 756, 

1680, 2088. [From Greek, through 

Lat. diabolus.] 
deogol, see d^gel. 

dSop, it. neut., deep, 2549 (see note). 
dSop, adj., DEEP, 609, 1904. [C/. 

Goth, diups.] 
d5or, dior, adj., bold, brave, fierce, 

1933, 2090. [C/. Goth, dius.] 
deorc, adj., dark, 160, 275, etc. 
deore, see djTe. 
deor-Uc, adj., bold, 585. 
dSor-mod, adj., valiant, F. 25. 
deV, see ddn. 
-dlgatn, see -dygan. 
diope, adv., DEEPly, 3069. 
diore, see dyre. 
disc, tt. m., DISH, 2775, 3048. IFrom 

Greek through Lat. discus.] 
dOgor, tt. neut., day, 219, 2573 (see 

note), etc.; intt. sg. dogore, 1797, 

dogor, 1395 (see note) ; gen. pi. 

dogora, 88, dogera, 823, dogra, 

dSgor-gerim, tt. neut,, number of 

days, 2728. 
dolitor, tt. /., DAUGHTER, 375, etc. 
dol-gllp, tt. m. and neut., [cortish 

yelp] foolhardiness, 509. 
dol-llc, adj., rash, desperate, auda- 
cious, 2646. 

dol sceatJa, to. m., DOLtish 
scATHer, foolish or rash foe, 479. 

d6m, tt. m., DOOM, judgment, 441, 
etc. ; free-will, choice, 895, 2147, 
etc. ; glory, 885, 2666, etc. : eefter 
dome, 'according to right custom,' 
1720; dreah eefter dome, 'lived, 
employed himself, according to 
right, or honour,' 2179. 

dflm-lfiaa, adj., [glory-UESs] inglo- 
rious, 2390. 

dOn, irreg. v., do, make, take, esteem, 
put, lay, 444, etc. ; prtt. sq. de"5, 
1058; pref. «f^.dyde,etc.,44, 1676, 
2809, etc.: him Hunlafing hilde- 
leoman...on bearm dyde, 'the son 
of Hunlaf gave the sword into his 
[Hengest's] bosom,' 1144; ne him 
]?BB8 Wynnes wig for wiht dyde, 
eafot5 ond ellen, ' he esteemed the 
worm's warfare as naught, its 
strength and courage,' 2348. 

gS-d6n, tt. v., DO, make, put, 
esteem, 2090, 2186; pret. tg. 
gedG«, 1732. 

dorste, pret. of durran. 

draca, w. m., drake, dragon, 892, 
2088, 2211, etc., F. 3. [From Lat. 

-dr»dan, tt. v. 

on-drsedan, tt. v., dread, 1674, 
2275*. pret. ondred, 2347. 

The alliteration of 1. 1674 thowt 
that this wot regarded as a com- 
pound of a verb dr»dan : whether 
thit it to, or whether it it from 
ond-rSdan it disputed. [See 
Pogatscher in Anglia, Beiblatt, 
XIV. 182.] 

dreah, see drgogan. 

dream, tt. m., joy, mirth, 88, 99, 

dream -16as, adj., joyLESS, 1720. 

dr§fan, w. v., trouble, stir, 1904; 
pp. gedrefed, 1417. [Cf. Goth. 

dreogan, tt. v., [dree] go through, 
experience, suffer, enjoy, 589, 
1470, 2179 (see dom), etc.; tm- 
perat. tg. dreoh, 1782 ; pret. sg. 
dreah, 131; pret. pi. drugon, 798, 
1966 ; pp. gedrogen, ' spent,' 2726 : 
Bund-nytte dreah, ' did a feat of 
swimming,' 2360. [Cf. Goth. 
a-dreogan, tt. r., endure, 3078*. 

drSor, St. TO. or neut., blood, 447*. 
[Cf. O.E. dreosan.] 

dreor-fah, adj., blood-stained, 485. 

dreorig, drlorlg, adj., [dbbabyJ 
bloody, 1417, 2789. 



drSosan, »t. v. [Cf. Goth, driusan.] 
ge-drSosan, tt. v., fall, sink, 
fail, decline, 1754, 2666. 

drepan, st. v., strike, hit; pret. sg. 
drep, 2880; pp. drepen, 1745, 
dropen, 2981. 

drepe, tt. m., stroke, blow, 1689. 

drlfan, st. v., drive, 1130, 2808. 
to-drlfan, st. v., drivb asunder, 

driht-, see dryht-. 

drlliten, see dryhten. 

drlncan, st. v., drink, 742, 1233, 
etc. ; pp. druncen, • drunk, having 
drunk (not necessarily to intoxica- 
tion),' 531, etc. ; pi. druncne, 
480, etc. 

drinc-faet, see drync-fset. 

drolitotJ, St. m., way of life, faring, 
756. [Cf. O.E. dreogan.] 

dropen, see drepan. 

drUsian, w. v., subside, 1630 [perhaps 

dryht-beam, st. neut., [noble bairn] 
noble youth, noble scion ; ace. 

dryhten, diihten, st. m. 

(1) lord, chieftain, 1050, 1484, 
etc. ; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc., 
dryhten, 1831 (see note). 

(2) Lord (of the Deity), 108, etc. 
dryht-geslV, st. m., man at arms, 

F. 44. 
dryht-guma, drlht-groma, w. m., 

warrior, noble warrior, 99, 1790, 

dryht-llc, drlht-llc, adj., lordly, 

courtly, royal, noble, excellent, 

892, F. 16; weak neut. drihtllce 

wif, 1158. 
dryht-matJum, st. m., lordly treasure, 

dryht-scype, driht-scype, st. m. , [war- 

rior-sHip] heroic deed, bravery, 

dryht-sele, driht-sele, st. m., lordly 

hall, warrior-hall, 485, etc. 
dryht-sibb, st.f., troop-peace, peace 

between bands of warriors, 2068. 
drync-f89t, drinc-fset, st. n., [drink- 
vat] drinking vessel, 2254, 2306. 
drysmian, to. v., darken, grow dark, 

dflfan, St. r., dive (see note to 1. 850). 
ge-dflfan, st. v., dive into, sink 

into ; pret. sg. gedeaf , 2700. 
►urh-dtlfan, st. v., DirjexHRouon, 

swim through ; pret. sg. burhdCaf, 

dugan, pret.-pres. v.,pres. sg. indie. 

deah, 369, etc. ; pres. sg. suhj. dugo, 

689, etc.; pret. sg. dohte, 526, 
1344, etc. : be Douanty, avail, 369, 
573, etc., with gen. 526; treat well 
(with dat.), 1821. 

dugutJ, St./., (1) Doi7GBtiness ; (2) the 
DOUOHty, tried warriors, often con- 
trasted with geogo'5, • the youthful,' 
160, etc. In 'Beowulf the meaning 
is usually concrete, the abstract 
meaning ' doughtiness ' is rare ; it 
occurs in dugutSum, 'doughtily,' 
3174, and {perhaps) for dugu"Sum, 
2501 (see note). [Cf. Germ. 

•durran, pret.-pres. v., dare; pres. 
sg. dear, dearst, 684, 527 ; pres. 
tuhj. dyrre, 1379; pret. sg. dorste, 
1462, etc. [Cf. Goth, gadafirsan.] 

duru, st.f. , DOOR, 389* , 721 , F. 14, etc. 

dwellan, w. v., [dwell] mislead, 
deceive, hinder; pres. sg. dwelelJ, 
1735. [Cf.Goth. dwals, 'foolish.'] 

dyde, dydon, see d5n. 

dygan, w. V. 

ge-d^gan, ge-dlgan, w. v., sur- 
vive, escape, endure, 300, 578, 
661, etc. 

dygel, dgogol, adj., secret, hidden, 
275, 1357. 

dyhtig, adj., doughty, 1287. 

dynnan, w. v., din, resound; pret, 
sg. dynede, 767, etc. 

dyre, dgore, adj., dear, in both 

senses, costly and beloved, 561, 

1528, 1879, etc.; nom. diore, 

1949 ; gen. sg, f. deorre, 488. 

deorest, superl., dearest, 1309. 

dyrne, adj., secret, hidden, 271, 
1879, etc. 

dyrre, see durran. 

dyrstig, adj., daring, bold; with gen. 
2838. [Cf. Murran.] 


6ac, adv., eke, also, 97, etc. ; once 

ec, 3131. [Cf. Goth, auk.] 
Sacen, adj [pp. of *eacan : cf. Goth. 

aukan], [EKEd] great, extensive, 

mighty, powerful, 198, 1621, 1663, 

6acen-cr»ftig, adj. , enormously 

strong, immense, 2280, 3051. 
Sadig, adj., rich, prosperous, 1225, 

2470. [Cf. Goth, dudags.] 
6adig-llce, adv., happily, 100. 
eafor, see eofor. 
eafora, eafera, w.m., child, son, 12, 

etc. ; dat. pi. eaferan, 1185. 
eafotJ, St. neut., strength, might, 

902*, etc.; ace. pi. eofoSo, 2534; 



diit. pi. eafeffum. 1717: io him 
Geatu sceiU eafoiS ond^e 
gebC'odan, • I shall proclaim to him 
the strength, courajTe and warfare 
of the Geatas,' 602 (see note to 
1. 601). 

caige, w. neut., ktk, 726, eto. [Cf. 
Goth, dugo.] 

Sagor-stream, it. m., water-STREXM, 

eatita, num. , eioht, 1035 ; gen. eahta 
sum, * one of eight, with seven 
others,' 3123. [Cf. Goth, ahtau.] 

eahtlan, w. v., consider, deliberate 
about, esteem, praise, watch over: 
pres. pi. ehtiga'5, 1222; pret. 
tg. eahtode, 1407 ; pret. pi. eabte- 
don, 172, eahtodan, 3173; pp. 
gesBhted, 'esteemed, praised,' 1885. 

eal(l), adj., all, 71, eto. ; nom. sg.f. 
eal, 1738; neut. pi. eal, 486. In 
iome instances it is impossible to 
say certainly whether the word is 
an adj. or an adv. : 77, 1230, 
1667, 1620, 2241. Substantively, 
sg. and pi. : 145, 649, 2162, 2794, 
1727 (all things), 2461 (everything) ; 
gen. pi. ealra, ' in all,' 3170 ; with 
gen. 744, 835, 1057, 1122, 2149, 
2727. [Cf. Goth, alls.] 

eal, adv., all, 680, 1708, 3164 
{see Kah). 

eallea, adv. (gen. of eall), all, 
altogether, 1000. 

eald, adj., old, 72, etc.; ace. pi. 
neut. ealde, 2330: eald Metod, 
•our God of old,' 945; gold- 
magmas heold eald under eod5an, 
• the old [dragon] held gold-trea- 
sures under the earth,' 2415. [Cf. 
Goth, alj^eis.] 

yldra, compar.f elder, older, 
468, eto. 

yldesta, weak superl., eldest, 
senior, chief, 258, etc. 

ealder-, see under ealdor-. 

eald-gesegen, st. /., old baqa, old 
tradition, 869. 

eaJLd-geslS, st. m., old comrade, 853. 

eald-gestreon, st. neut.t old treasure, 
1381, 1458. 

eald-hiaford, st. m., old lord (Beo- 
wulf), 2778 (but see note). 

ealdor, aldor, st. m., [alder- in 
alderman] chief, lord, prince, 
sovereign, 56, eto. 

aldor-leas, adj., princeLEsa, 
without a chief, 15*. 

aldor-^egn, «f. m., [prince- 
thane] chief thane, 1308. 

ealdor, aldor, st. neut., life, 510, 

etc.; vitals, 1434: t5 aldre, 'for 
life, for ever, always.' 200o, 2498; 
awa to aldre, * for ever and ever,' 

aldor-bealu, st. neut., life-BALE, 
death, 1G7G. 

aldor-cearu, st, /., life-CARK, 

aldor-dseg, ealder-dseg, st. m., 
life-DAY, day of life, 718, 757. 

aldor-gedal, st. neut., life-part- 
ing, death, 805. 
ealdor-gewimia, w. m. , [life-wiNNer] 

life-adversary, 2903. 
caldor-leas, aldor-leas, adj., lifcLESs, 

15, 1587, 3004. 
eal-fela, adj., [ALL-many] very many, 
with gen., 883 ; ace. ealfela...worn, 

• a very great number,' 869. 
ealgian, w. v., defend, protect, 796, 

1204, eto. [Cf. Goth, alhs, 

• temple.'] 
eall, see eal. 

eal(l)-gylden, (idj-, lll-qolden, 
nil, 2767. 

eall-Iren, adj., all-iron, 2338 (see 

ealo-benc, ealu-benc, st. /., ale- 
bench, 1029, 2867. 

ealo-drincend, st. m. {jpres. part.), 

ALE-DRINKer, 1945. 

ea-lond, st. neut., water-LAND; ace. 

2334 (see note). [Withea,, cf. Goth. 

ealo-wage, ealu-wffige, st. neut., 

ALE-stoup, tankard of ale, 481, 

495, 2021. 
ealu-scerwen, «t./., great terror, 769 

(see note). 
Sam, St. m., [eme] uncle, mother's 

brother, 881. 
eard, st. m., country, estate, home, 

dwelling, 56, 104, 1621 (expanses), 

1727, 2198, 2493, 2736. eto. 
eardian, w. v. 

(1) intrans., dwell, rest, 3050. 

(2) trans., inhabit, 166; inf. wio 
eardian, • take up his abode,' 2589. 

eard-lufu, w. /. , home-LovE, dear 
home, 692. [Sieversg § 278, N. 1.] 

earfoS, st. neut., hardship, stress; 
ace. pi. earfe'So, 534. [Cf. Goth. 
arb4i|>s, ' work,'] 

earfotJ-lIce, adv., hardly, with diffi- 
culty, 86, etc.; with trouble, 
sorrowfully, 2822. 

earfo1S-J>rag, st. /., time of stress, 
time of tribulation, 283. [See 
Sievers, P.B.B., xvm. 406.] 

earg, adj., cowardly; gen. absolutely, 
earges silS, ' coward's way,' 2541. 



earm, st. m., aem, 513, eto. [Cf. 
Goth, arms.] 

earm, adj., wretched, 2368, 2938; 
weak fern, earme, 1117. [Cf. 
Goth, arms.] 

earmra, compar., more wretched, 

earm-beag, st. m., ABM-ring, armlet, 

earm-[h]read, st. /„ ARM-ornament, 
1194 (see note). 

earm-llc, adj., wretched, miserable, 

earm-sceapen, adj. (pp.), wretched- 
SHAPEN, miscreated, miserable, 
1351, 2228*, 2229*. 

earn, st. m., ebne, eagle, 3026. 

eart, art, 352, 506, etc., 27idsg. pres. 
indie, of wesan (q, v.). 

Sastan, adv., from the east, 569, 
F. 3*. 

eatol, see atol. 

gatSe, ytJe, adj., easy, pleasant, 228, 
1002, etc. ; once e«e, 2586. 

gatJe, adv., easily, 478, etc. 

eatJ-fynde, adj., easy to find, 138. 

eawan, see ywan. 

eaxl, St. /., [axle] shoulder, 816, 
835, etc. 

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., shoulder- 
comrade, bosom friend, 1326, 1714. 

ec, see eac. 

ece, adj., eternal, 108, etc. 

ecg, St. /., EDGE (of a weapon), 
sword, 1106, etc. ; gen. pi. ecga, 
483, etc. 

ecg-bana, w. m., [edge-bane] sword- 
slayer, 1262. 

ecg-hete, st. m., edge-hate, sword- 
hate, 84*, 1738. 

ecg-J»racu, st. /., EDOE-onset, sword- 
onset, armed attack, 596. 

ed-hwyrft, st. m., return, change, 
reverse, _1281. [Cf. hweorfan.] 

gdre, see sadre. 

ed-wenden, st. /., return, change, 
1774*, 2188. 

edwit-llf, St. neut. , lite of reproach, 
life of infamy, 2891. 

efa, adj., even. 

on efn, with dat., even with, 
beside, 2903. 

efnan, sefnan, w. v., achieve, accom- 
plish, make, 1041, 1254, etc. ; pp. 
geeefned, 3106 ; at$ wsbs geeefned, 
•the oath was sworn,' 1107. 

ge-aefnan, w. v., perform, etc., 

efne, adv., even, 943, etc. 

efstan, w. v., hasten, 1493, 3101. 
[P.B.B. X. 606: from ofost.] 

eft, adv., AFTer, afterwards, again, 
back, 22, etc. 

eft-cyme, st. m., back-comng, re- 
turn, 2896. 

eft-sH5, St. m., back-journey, return, 
1332, eto. 

6g-cllf, St. neut., sea-CLiFF, 2893*. 

egesa, w. m., fear, terror, 784, etc.; 
ace. egsan, 276 (see note). [Cf. 
Goth, agis.] 

eges-fuU, adj., terrible, 2929. 

eges-Uc, adj., terrible, 1649, etc. 

egl, St. /., [AiL=a spike or awn of 
barley] claw, 987 (see note). 

egsa, see egesa. 

egsian, w. v., terrify; pret. 6 (see 

eg-stream, st. m., water-STREAM, 
ocean current, 577. 

6htan, w. v , with gen., pursue, per- 
secute, 159, 1512. 

ehtigaV, see eahtian. 

elde, see ylde. 

eldo, see yldo. 

el-land, st. neut. , alien land, strange 
land, 3019. 

ellen, st. neut., strength, courage, 
bravery, 3, 573, etc.; dat. sg. elne, 
sometimes best rendered by an adv.^ 
♦courageously,' 2676; sometimes 
with strictly adverbial force, 
♦quicldy,' 1967, 'absolutely,' 'al- 
together,' 1097, 1129. [Cf. Goth. 

ellen-dffld, st. /., [strength -deed] 
deed of strength or courage, 876, 

ellen-gasst, st. m., [strength-GHosT] 
powerful sprite, 86 (see note to 
1. 102). 

ellen-Uce, adv., mightily, courage- 

ellen-maBrCu, st. /., [might-renown] 
fame for strength or courage, feat 
of strength, 828, 1471. 

ellen-rof, adj. , courage-strong, famed 
for strength or courage, 340, 358, 
1787, 3063. 

ellen-sloc, adj., [strength-siCK] 
strengthless, 2787. 

ellen-weorc, st. neut., strength -work, 
deed of might or courage, 661, etc. 

elles, adv., else, otherwise, 138, etc. 

ellor, adv., ELsewhithER, 55, 2254. 

ellor-gast, ellor-g»st, st. m., [elsc- 
whithER-GHosT] sprite living else- 
where, alien sprite, 807, 1349, 
1617, 1621. (See note to 1. 102.) 

ellor-sIt$, St. m., journey elsewhither, 
death, 2451. 

elne, see eUen. 



elra, adj., another, 752 {comjpar. of 
•el(l), Got/t. oljis — root found in 
ellcs and ellor]. 

el>§odlg, adj., of alien nation, 
foreign, 33G. 

ende, tt. m., kxd, 224, etc.; ace. 
haafde eorS-scrafa ende genyttod, 
• hiul bad the last of his earth- 
caves,' 3046; dat. eorlum on 
ende, 2021 (see note). [Cf. Ooth. 

ende-dag, st. m. , end-day, day of 
death, 637, 3035. 

ende-dOgor, st. neut., end-d^t, day of 
death, 2896. 

ende-iaf, st. /., [KND-ujring] last 
remnant, 2813. 

ende-lean, st. neut., BND-reward, final 
rewa_rd, 1692. 

ende-sseta, w. m., [BND-sirter] coast- 
guard, 241. 

ende-stsef, st. m., [end-staff] end; 
ace. on ende-st89f , • towards, in, 
the end,' 1753. 

endian, w. v. 

ge-endian, tr. v., end; pp. 
geendod, 2311. 

enge, adj., narrow, 1410. 

ent, St. 7n., giant, 1679, 2717, 

entisc, adj., gigantic, 2979. 

code, eodon, see gan. 

eodor, st. m. 

(1) fence, barrier; aec. pi. under 
eoderas, ' within the barriers, into 
the house,' 1037, 

(2) protector, lord, prince, 428, 
1044; nam. eodur, 663. 

eofer, eofor, st. m., boar, figure of a 
boar upon a helmet, 1112, 1328; 
ace. eafor, 2152. 

eofer-spreot, st. m., boar-spear, 1437. 

eofor-Uc, st. neut., boar-LiKEuess, 
figure of a boar upon a helmet ; 
pi. 303. 

eofotJ, see eafotJ. 

eolet, St. m. or neut.; gen. 224 (see 

eom, AM, see wesan. 

eorclan-std,n, st. m., precious stone, 
1208. [Gf. O.N. jarkna-steinn, 
and QotK -airkns, 'good, holy.'] 

Sored-geatwe, st. f. pi., troop-trap- 
pings, military equipments, 2866. 
[eored from * eoh-rad.] 

eorl, St. m., eabl, noble, warrior, 
6, 248, etc. 

eorl-gestreon, st. neut., sasls' 
treasury, 2244. 

eorl-gewsede, st. neut., [sabl-weeds] 
armour, 1443. 

eorllc ( = eorl-lio), adj., earl-like, 

noble, 637. 
eorl-Bcipe, st. m., EAULsnip, courage, 

heroic deeds, 1727, 2133, etc. 
ecrl-weorod, st. neut., [EARL-host] 

warrior-band, 2893. 
eormen-cynn, st. neut., [vast kin] 

mankind, 1957. 
eormen-grund, st. m., [vast obodnd] 

the whole broad earth, 859. 
eormen-iaf, st.f., [vast LSAring] im- 
mense legacy, 2234. 
eorre, see yrre. 
eortJ-bflend, st. m. {pres. part.), 

dweller in the land, F. 34. 
eorU-cyning, st. rn., earth-king, 

earthly king, 1155. 
eorU-draca, w. m. , earth-drake, 

earth-dragon, 2712, 2825.- 
eorfle, w. /., earth, world, 92, 2834 

(see note), etc. 
eortS-hfla, st. neut., earth-house, 

eorU-reced, st. neut., EARTn-house, 

earth-hall, 2719 (see note). 
eorC-scraef, st. neut., EARTH-cave; 

gen. pi. eorS-scrafa, 3046. 
eoi-*-sele, st. m., EARTH-hall, 2410, 

eortJ-weall, st. m., earth-wall, 

2957, 3090. 
eorB-weard, st. m., EARTn-possession, 

land-property, locality, 2334. 
eoten, eoton, st. m., ettin, giant, 

monster, 112, 421, 761, 883, 902 

(see note), etc. 
eotenisc, eotonisc, adj., gigantic, of 

a giant, 1558, 2979; ace. etonisc, 

eoten-weard, st. /., [ettin-ward] 

ward or watch against a monster ; 

ace. eoten-weard ahead, • offered 

watch against Grendel,' 668 (see 

§ow, pcrs. pron., ace. and dat. pi. 

{of \}\i), YOU, 391, 2865, etc. 
6owan, see ywan. 
Sower, pers. pron., gen. pi. {of \>vl), 

of YOU, 248, etc. 
lower, poss. adj., youb, 251, etc. 
Sowlc, pers. pron., ace. pi. {of bu), 

YOU, 317, 3095. 
fist, St. /., favour, grace, 958, 2165, 

etc.; cwc. 2157 (see note), 3075; dat. 

pi. estum, with adverbial force, 

•graciously, gladly, kindly,' 1194, 

2149, 2378. [Cf. Goth, ansts.] 
fiste, adj., gracious; with gen. hyre 

...este wffire beam-gebyrdo, 'was 

gracious to her in her child- 
bearing,' 945. 



etan, tt. v., eat, 444, 449. 

>iirli etan, *i. v., eat through; 

W- pi' I'urbetone, 3049. 
etonlsc, see eotenisc. 
SU-beggte, adj., [easy-BEOorten] 

easily got, 2861. 
St$e, see SaVe. 
SUel, $t. m., native land, fatherland, 

land, estate, 520, etc. 
6«el-rllit, St. neut., land-RioHT, 2198. 
etJel-sWl, »t. m., [fatherland-sxooL] 

native seat; pi. country, 2371. 
6tJel-turf, tt. /., native turf, native 

soil; dat. e'Sel-tyrf, 410, 
StJel-weard, tt. m., fatherland- ward, 

guardian of his country, 616, 

1702, 2210. 
6tJel-wyn, tt. /., home joy, joyful 

home, 2885 ; ace. e>Sel-wyn, 2493. 
eB-gesyne, ytJ-gesene, adj., [easy-] 

manifest, easily visible {not seen, 

pp.), 1110, 1244. 

ficen, tt. neut., treachery, crime, 

facen-stSBf, tt. m. , treachery, 1018. 
fsec, St. neut. , period of time, 2240. 
feeder, st. m., father, 55, 316 (of 

God), etc.; gen. feeder, 21, etc. 
f8Bder-SBj»elu, st. neut. pi., ancestral 

virtue, dat. pi. 911. 
fsedereu-mseg, tt. m., kinsman on 

the father's side, 1263. [C/. 

Goth, fadrein, 'paternity.'] 
fSge, adj., FEY, doomed, 846, etc. 
fsegen, adj., fain, glad, 1633. 
fseger, adj., fair, beautiful, 522, etc. 

[Cf. Goth, fagrs.] 
fagere, fsegre, adv., FAiRly, be- 
comingly, courteously, 1014, 1788, 

f»gh15, see fsSbX. 
-f8egon,_8ee -fSozL 
fShtJ, fsehtJo, tt. /., FEUD, hostility, 

2403, 2999; ace. ffflhtSe, 137, etc., 

ffflgh«e, 2465, fshtSo, 2489. 
fsela, see fela. 
fislsian, w. v., cleanse, 432, etc.; 

pp. gefffllsod, 825, etc. 
fSnme, w. /., maid, lady, 2034, 

faer, st. neut., craft, vessel, 33. 
far, St. TO., [fear] sudden attack or 

danger, 1068, 2230*. 
far-gripe, st. in., fear-grip, sudden 
_grip, 738, 1516. 
far-gryre, st. m., [fear- ten or] 

sudden terror, terror of sudden 

danger, 174. 

faringa, adv., suddenly, 1414 (see 
_note), 1988. 

far-nliS, st. to., [FEAB-malice] sudden 
mischief, 476. 

fast, adj., FAST, 137, etc.; often with 
dat. 1290, 1878, etc. 

fastan, w. v., FASien. 

he-fastan, to. v., commit to, 

laste, adv., fast, 654, etc. 

faster, compar., faster, 143. 

fasten, st. neut., fastucss, strong- 
hold^ 104, 2333, 2950. 

fast-rad, adj., [fast-rede] firm- 
purposed, steadfast, 610. 

fat, St. n«wt., VAT, vessel, flagon, 2761. 

fat, tt. neut., plating, gold-plate, 
716, 2256. 

fated, adj. {pp.), plated, gold-plated, 
2253, etc.; contracted formt fatte, 
ffflttan, 333, 1093, 1750 •. 

fated-hleor, adj., with bridle 
covered with plates of gold, 1036. 

fat-gold, tt, neut., plated gold, 

fatte, fattan, see fated. 

faUm, St. TO., [fathom] embrace, 
bosom, lap, 185, 188, 1393, etc.; 
power, 1210. 

fatJmian, w. v., embrace, 2652, 3133. 

fag, fah, adj., stained, coloured, 
variegated, bright, shining, 305, 
1615, 1631, 2701, 420 (blood- 
stained), 1038 (bedecked); ace. 
sg. TO. fagne, fahne, 725, 447, 2217, 

fah, f^g, adj.: 

(1) hostile, 654; nom. he fag witS 
God, 'he a foe to God,' 811. 
Substantively, foe; ace. sg. m. 
fane, 2655; gen. pi. fara, 578, 

(2) guUty, outlawed, 978, 1001, 

fahne, see fag, fah. 

famig-heals, adj. , FOAMT-necked, 
1909; f ami-heals, 218. 

fandian, see fondian. 

fane, see fah, fag. 

-fangen, see -fSn. 

fara, see fah, fag. 

faran, st. v., fare, go, 124, etc.; 
pret. sg. for, 1404, etc.; pi. foron, 
1895, dat. inf. farenne, 1805*. 
ge-faran, st. v., fare, 738. 

faroS, St. TO., tide, stream, flood, 
28, etc. 

fea, pi. adj., few; ace. {with gen.) 
fea worda, 2246, 2662; gen. feara, 
1412, 3061 (see note) ; dat. feaum, 
1081. [Cf. Goth. pi. fawai.] 



-feah, see -fSon. 
fealh, see fSolan. 

feallan, st. v., fall, 1070, etc. pret. 
$g. feol(l), 772, 2919, etc. 

be-feallan; pp. befeallen, 'de- 
prived, bereft,' 1126, 2256. 
ge-feaUan, tt. v. 

(1) intrans., fall, 1755. 

(2) trans., fall to, fall on to, 2100, 
2834 (see note). 

fealo, see fela. 

fealu, adj., fallow, yellow, dun; 

ace. $g. m. fealone, 1950; /, 

fealwe, 916; ace. pi. fealwe, 865. 
fSa-Bceaft, adj., wretched, destitute, 

7, 973, 2285, 2373, 2393. 
feax, tt. neut., hair, hair of the 

head, dat. feaxe, 1537*, 1647, 

feie, 2967. 
fSdan, w. v., feed. [Cf. Ooth. 

a-fedan, w. v. , bring up, 693. 
-fegon, see -feon. 
-feh, see -f^on. 
fShB, see fon. 
f51 (-fSol), st.f., file; fela laf, 

'leaving of files, i.e. sword,' 1032. 
fela, tt. neut., indecl., much, many, 

36, etc. [Cf. Goth, filu, dat. 


Vsu. with gen. sg. or pl.\ fealo, 

2757; see also worn. 

Used a$ an adj. qualifying worn 

(q. v.), 630, etc. 
fela, adv., much, greatly, 1385, etc.; 

faela, F. 27, 35 {see micel). 
fela-geomor, adj., very sad, 2950. 
fela-liror, adj., very vigorous, 27. 
fela-modig, adj., [very moody] very 

brave, 1637, 1888. 
fela-syimlg, adj., very siNful, 1379 

(but see note). 
fell, St. neut., fell, skin, 2088. 
fen(n), st. neut., fen, moor, 104, 

1295. [Cf. Goth, fani, 'clay.'] 
fen-freotSo, st.f., FEN-refuge, 851. 
feng, St. w., clutch, grasp, 678, 

feng, see f5n. 
fengel, st. m., prince, 1400, 1475, 

2156, 2345. 
fen-gelad, st. neut., FEN-path, 1359. 
fen-hliB, st. neut., FEN-slope; pi. 

fen-hleo-5u, 820. 
fen-hop, St. neut., FEN-retreat, 

' sloping hollow with a fenny 

bottom' (Skeat), 764. 
feoh, St. neut., fee, property, money; 

dat. sg., feo (fea), 166 (see note), 

etc. [Cf. Goth, faihu.] 
feoh-gift, -gyft, tt. /., fbk-qift, gift 

of money, valuable gift, 21, 1025, 

feoh-lfiaa, adj., fee-lesr, not to be 
atoned for with money, 2441. 

feohtan, tt. v., fioht, F. 43. 

ge-feohtan, st. v., fight out, 
achieve, 1U83. 

feohte, w. /., fioht, 576, 959. 

foolan, St. v., penetrate; pret. sg. 
fealh, 1281, 2225'. [Cf. Goth. 

8Bt-feolan, st. v., cleave, stick; 
pret. eetfealh, 968. 

-feon, St. V. 

ge-feon, st. v., rejoice; pret. 
sg. gefeah, 109, etc., gefeh, 827, 
etc.; pret. pi. gefffigon, 1014, 
gefCgon, 1627. 

f5ond, St. m., fiend, foe, 101, 164, 
etc. [Cf. Goth, fijands.] 

feond-grap, st. f., vizmy-GRip, 
foe's grasp, 636. 

f6ond-sca9a, w. m., [FiEND-sc^rHer] 
dire foe, 554. 

feond-scipe, st. m., fiendship, en- 
mity, 2999. 

feor, adj., far, 1361, 1921. 

feor, adv., far, afar, 42, 109, 542, 808, 
1221, 1340, etc.; once feorr, 1988; 
of time, 'far back,' 1701. [Cf. 
Goth, fairra, 'far.'] 

fyr, eompar., farther, 143, 252. 

feor-bHend, st. m. {pres. part.), far 
dweller, dweller afar; pi. 254. 

feor-cytSU, St. /., far country; pi. 
feor-cy|)5e beo'5 selran gesohte psem 
\>e him self a deah, 'distant lands 
are better sought by one who is 
himself a good man,' 1838. 

feorh, St. m. neut., life, 73, 439, 
1152 (bodies), 1210 (see note), 
2040, etc.; gen. feores, 1433, etc.; 
dat. feore, 1843, etc.; ace. ferh (see 
wrecan), 2706; wass in feorh 
dropen, 'was mortally wounded,' 
2981; widan feorh, 'ever,' 2014; 
dat. to widan feore, 'ever,' 933. 
[Cf. Goth, fairhwus, 'world.'] 

feorh-bealu, -bealo, strong neut., 
life-BALE, deadly evil, 156, 2077, 
2250, 2537. 

feorh-benn, st. /., life-wound, deadly 
wound, 2740. 

feorh-bona, w. m., [life-BANE] mur- 
derer, 2465. 

feorh-cynn, st. neut., life-KiN, gene- 
ration or race of men, 2266. 

feorh-genltSla, w. m., life-foe, deadly 
foe, 969, 1540, 2933. 

feorh-last, st. m., life-step, 846 (see 



feorli-le^, it. /., decreed term of 
life, hence conclusion of life, ace. 
nu ic on matJma herd mine be- 
bohte frode feorh-lege, 'now that 
in exchange for the hoard of 
treasures I have sold my old life,' 

feorh-seoc, adj.^ life-siCK, mortally 
wounded, 820. 

feorh-sweng-, tt. m., [Mfe-swiNo] 
deadly blow, 2489. 

feorh-wund, st. /., life-wouND, 
deadly wound, 2385. 

feorh-weard, st. /., guard over life, 
305 (see note). 

feorm, st. f. , food, sustenance, 451 
(see note), 2385* (see note). 

feormend-leas, adj., polisher-LBSS, 
wanting the furbisher, 2761. 

feonnian, w. v. 

(1) polish; subj. pres. 2253*. 

(2) eat, devour; pp. gefeormod, 

feonnynd, st. m. {pres. part.), 

polisher; pi. 2256. 
feorran, w. v., banish, 156. 
feorran, adv., from afar, 

(1) of space, 361, etc. 

(2) of time, 91, 2106 (of old 

feorran-cund, adj., come from aFAS, 

feor-weg, st. m., fab wat, distant 

land, 37. 
fSower, num., four, 59, 1027, 1637, 

fSower-tyne, num. , fourteen, 1641. 
feran, w. v., fare, go, 27, etc.; 

pret. pi. ferdon, 839, 1632 ; subj. 

pres. pi., feran, 254. 
ge-feran, w. v. 

(1) trans., go to, reach, gain, 
bring about, 1221, 1855, 2844, 

(2) intrans., fare; pret. pi., 1691 
(see note). 

ferh, 2706, see feorli. 

ferh, St. m., [farrow] pig, 305 (see 

ferh-weard, see feorh-weard. 
feihX, St. m.ornewf., heart, mind, 754, 

etc. [connected with feorh, 'life']. 
ferhtJ-frec, adj., bold-minded, 1146. 
ferhtS-genl^la, w. m., life-foe, deadly 

foe, 2881. 
ferian, w. v., [ferry] bear, carry, 

bring; pres. pi. ferigea'S, 333; 

pret. pi. feredon, 1154, etc., fy- 

redon, 378; pp. pi. geferede, 361. 

[Cf. Goth, farjan.] 
set-ferian, w. v., bear off, 1669. 

ge-ferian, w. v., bear, bring, 
1638, 3130; imperat. pi. lst,'ge- 
ferian, 'let us bear,' 3107. 
of- ferian, w. v., bear off, 1583. 
oU-ferian, w. v., bear away, 
save, 2141. 

fetel-hllt, St. neut., belted hilt, 

fetian, w. v., fetch; pp. fetod, 1310. 
ge-fetian, w. v., fetch, bring, 

fetJa, w. m., troop on foot, troop, 
1327, 1424, 2497, 2544, 2919. 

feUe, St. neut., movement, pace, 

fetJe-cempa, w. m., foot-champion, 
foot-warrior, 1544, 2853. 

fetJe-gest, st. m., foot-ouEST, 1976. 

fetJe-iast, St. m., [movement-track] 
foot-track, 1632. 

fe^Jer-gearwa, st. f. pi., feather- 
gear, 3119*. 

feUe-wIg, St. m., foot-war, battle on 
foot, 2364. 

fex, see feax. 

fif, num., FIVE, 545, F. 43; inflected, 
fife, 420. {Of. Goth, fimf.] 

llfel-cynn, st. neut., monster-KiN, 
race of monsters, 104. 

flf-tene, num., fifteen; a^e. tjt- 
tyne, 1582; inflected gen., fif- 
tina sum, 'with fourteen others,' 

flftig, num., fifty; as adj. 2209; 
with gen. 2733; inflected gen. sg. 
fiftiges, 3042. 

findan, st. v., find, 7, 207, etc.; 
obtain, prevail, 2373: pret. fand, 
118, etc.; funde, 1415, etc.; inf. 
Bwa hyt weorSlicost fore-snotre 
men findan mihton, 'as very wise 
men could most worthily devise 
it,' 3162. 

on- findan, st. v., find out, per- 
ceive, 750, 1293, 1890, etc. 

finger, st. m., finger, 760, etc. 

firas, St. m. pi., men, 91, etc.; gen. 
pi. fyra, 2250*. [P. B. B. x. 

flren, fyren, st. /., crime, violence, 
915, etc.; ace. fyrene, 101, 137, 
153, etc., firen, 1932: dat. pi. 
fyrenum, ' by crimes, maliciously,' 
1744. For 2441 see note. [Gf. 
Goth, fairina, 'accusation.'] 

fyren-dffld, st. /., crime-DEED, 
deed of violence, 1001, 1669. 

fyren-tSearf, st. /., [crime-need] 
dire distress, 14. 

flrgen-, see fyrgen-. 

flssc, St. neut., flesh, 2424. 



flsBsc-homa, v. m., riiBSH-oovering, 

body, 1568. 
flacor, adj., flickering, quickly 

moving, F. 36 •. 
flftn, tt. m., arrow, barb, 2438, 3119. 
flan-boga, to. m. , arrow-now, 1433, 

flSsLh, see flSon. 

flgam, tt. m., flight, 1001, 2889. 
flSogan, St. v., fly, 2273, F. 3. 
flSon, tt. v., FLEE, 755, etc.; pret. 

ig., with ace, fleah, 1200* (see 

note), 2224. 

be-flSon, it. v., with ace, flee, 

escape from ; dat. inf. no \^tei 

y"5e byS to befleonne, ' that (fate 

or death) will not be easy to 

escape from,' 1003. 

ofer-flSon, tt. v., flee from; inf. 

nelle ic beorges weard oferfleon 

fotea trem, 'I will not flee from 

the barrow's warden a foot's 

space,' 2525. 
flSotan, St. v., [fleet] float, swim, 

542, 1909. 
flet, St. neut., floor, floor of a hall, 

hall, 1025, 1036, 1086, etc. 
flet-rsBst, St. /., floor-REST, bed in a 

hall, 1241. 
flet-slttend, st. m. {pres. part.), 

floor-siTxing, hall-sitter, 1788, 

flet-werod, st. neut., [floor-host] 

hall -troop, 476. 
fliht, tt. m., FLIGHT, 1765. 
flitan, St. v., [Sc. elite] contend, 

strive, 916; pret. sg. 2nd, 507. 
ofer -flitan, tt. v., ovERcome, 

Add, tt. m., FLOOD, 42, 545, etc. 

[Cf. Goth, flodus.] 
fl6d-y8, tt.f., FLooD-wave, 542. 
flOr, St. m., FLOOR, 725, 1316. 
flota, w. m., [FLOATer] bark, ship, 

210, etc. 
flot-here, it. m., [FLOAx-army] fleet, 

flyman, to. v., put to flight; pp. 

geflymed, 846, 1370. [Cf. fleam.] 
-f6ti, see -fon. 
folc, tt. neut.t FOLK, nation, people, 

warriors, army, 14, 55, 262, etc. 

The plural it sometimet used with 

the tame meaning as tlie tingular^ 

1422, etc.; cf. leod, leode. 
folc-agend, tt. m. {pres. part.), 

[FoLK-oH'2^er] folk-leader, 3113 (see 


fOlC-CWgn, tt.f, FOLK-QUEEN, 641. 

folc-cyning, st. m., folk-kino, 2733, 

folc-rSd, tt. m., jolk-rede; aee. 

folc-red fremede, * did what was 
for the public good,' 3006. 

folc-rlht, tt. neut., roLK-RionT, 
public right, 2608. 

folc-scaru, st.f., folk-share, (public) 
land, 73. 

folc-stede, st. m., folk-stead, 76 
(Heorot) ; ace. folc-stede fara, 
•the field of battle,' 1463. 

folc-toga, w. m., FOLK-Ieader, 839. 

fold-bold, St. neut., earth-BWLDing, 
hall on the earth, 773. 

fold-bflend, st. m. {pres. part.)^ 
earth-dweller, 309; pi. fold-buend, 
2274, fold-buende, 1355. 

folde, w. /., earth, ground, world, 
96, 1137, 1196, etc. 

fold-weg, St. m., earth-WAY, 866, 

folgian, w. v., follow, pursue, 
1102, 2933. 

folm, St. /., hand, 158, etc. 

fOn, St. v., seize, take, receive, 
grapple, clutch, 439; pres. Srd, 
fehtS o'Ser to, 'another inherits 
(the treasure),' 1755; pret. feng, 
1542, with dat. 2989. [Cf. Goth. 
f ahan. ] 

be-f5n, bi-f5n, tt. v., seize, 
seize on, embrace; pp. befongen, 
976, 1451, 2274, etc., bifongen, 
2009, befangen, 1295, etc. 

ge-f6n, St. v., with ace, seize; 
pret. gefeng, 740, 1501, 1537, 1563, 
2215, 2609, 3090. 

on-f5n, St. v., uiu. with dat., 
receive, take, seize, 911; imperat. 
tg. onfoh, 1169; pret. onfeng, 62, 
1214, etc.; 748 (see note). 

^urh-fon, st. v., with ace, 
[seize through] penetrate, 1504. 
wi^-fon, St. v., with dat., 
grapple with; pret. witS-fCng, 760. 
ymbe-fon, tt. v., with ace, 
[seize about] encircle, enclose; 
pret. ymbefeng, 2691. 

fondian, fandian, w. v., with gen., 
search out, prove, experience; 
pp. gefandod, 2301, hafa^ daeda 
gefondad, 'has experienced deeds 
(of violence),' 2454. 

for, prep. 

(1) with dat., before, 358, 1026, 
1120, 1649, 2020, 2990; before or 
because of, 169, 2781 ; for, out of, 
from, through, because of, on 
account of, about, 110, 338-9, 
385, 508, 832, 951, 965, 1442, 
1515, 2501 (see note), 2549, 2926, 
2966, etc.; for (purpose), 382, 458. 



(2) with ace, tor, instead of, as, 

947, 1175, 2348. 

foran, adv., beroRE, to the fore, 

forwards, 984, 1458 ; J>e him foran 

ongean linde bSron, 'who bare 

their linden-shields forwards a- 

gainst him,' 2364. 
ford, St. m., ford, 568. 
fore, prep.f with dat., beroRE, 1215, 

1064 (see note) ; in the presence of, 

for, through, because of, 2059. 
fore, adv. , therefore, for it, 136. 
fore-msare, adj. , [FORE-great], 

fore-msBFOSt, tuperl. , most 

famous of all, 309. 
fore-mihtig, adj., [fobe-mightt] 

over-powerful, 969. 
fore-snotor, adj. [roRB-prudent] 

very wise, 3162. 
fore J>anc, st.m., ron^THOuant, 1060. 
forht, adj.t fearful, afraid, 754, 

forma, adj. superl. {of fore), first, 

716, etc. 
forst, St. m., FROST, 1609. 
forU, adv., forth, forward(s), away, 

on, 45, 210, 2289 {see to, adv.), 


of time, henceforth, from now, 

948, 2069. 

for Cam, for-tJan, for-tJon, adv., 

FOR THAT, therefore, 149, 418, etc. 
for-J»on ^e, conj., because, 503. 
for^J-gesceaft, st.f., [FORTH-creation] 

future world or destiny, 1750. 
for-W)n, see for-tJam. 
forS-weg, St. m., forth-way, way 

forth, 2625. 
f5t, St. m., foot, 600, 745, etc. 
fot-gemearc, st. neut., foot-mark, 

foot-length, foot; gen. sg. fiftiges 

fot-gemearces lang, 'fifty feet 

long,' 3042. 
fot-last, St. m., FooT-track, 2289. 
ftracod, adj., worthless, 1575. [C/. 

Goth, frakunnan, 'despise.'] 
frsegn, see frignan. 
fr8Bgnlan,jr. v. 

ge-frsBgnian, tr. v., make 

famous; pp. gefragnod, 1333. 
frsetwa, ftsetwe, st. f. pi., adorn- 

ments, jewels, decortited armour, 

37, etc.; dat. froetwum, 2054, etc., 

fraetewum, 962. 
fi:»tw{i)an, w. v., adorn, 76; pp. 

gefrsetwod, 992. [Cf. Goth, 

ge-flra8tw(i)an, w. v., adorn; 

pret. sg. gefraetwade, 96. 
fram, see from. 
frSa, w. m., lord, 271, etc., 1934 (see 

note); of the Deity, the Lord, 27, 

2794. [Cf. Goth, frduja.] 
frea-drlliten, st. m. , lord and master, 

frea-wlne, st. m., lord-friend, friend- 
ly ruler, 2357, 2429 ; ace. 2438. 
frea-wrSLsn, st. /., lordly chain 

(diadem surrounding the helmet), 

trecsL, w. m., [freck], bold man, 

warrior, 1563. [Cf. Mod. Oerm. 

frech, 'audacious.'] 
fricne, adj., daring, audacious, 889, 

1104, 2689; dangerous, dread, 

fearful, 1359, 1378, 2250, 2537. 

(See Forster in Engl. Stxid. xxxix. 

frgcne, adv., daringly, fiercely, ter- 

ribly, 959, 1032, 1691 (see note), 
ftemde, adj., foreign, 1691. 
freme, adj., bra^e^exjcellent, 1932. 
ftemman, w. v., frame, do, accom- 
plish, bring about, try, 3, 101*, 

1003, 2514 (see note), etc. ; further, 

support, 1832 ; pret. fremede, 3006, 

etc.; pp. gefremed, 954, etc., ace. 

f. gefremede, 940. 

ge-ftemman, w. r., frame, do, 

work, etc., 174, etc.; pret. hine 

mihtig God . . . f orS gefremede , 

• him mighty God advanced,' 1718. 
frSo-burli, st. /., fbeb bttroh, free 

city, noble city, 693. 
flrSod, St. /., friendship, 1707 (see 

note), 2476, 2556. 
freo-dryhten, st. m., noble lord, 1169, 

freogan, w. v., love, show love, treat 

kindly, 948, 8176. [Cf. Goth. 

freo-llc, adj., [free-like] noble, 615, 

F. 21; fern, freoliou, 641. 
fr§ond, St. m., FRIEND, 915, etc. [Cf. 

Goth, frijonds.] 
CrSond-iar, st. /., [friend-lore], 

friendly counsel, 2377. 
fi:eond-laJ>u, st. /., friendly cheer, 

1192 (see note to L 1320, neod- 

frgond-Uce, adv. 

frSondllcor, compar.t In a more 

FRIENDLY Way, 1027. 
freond-scipe, st. m., friendship, 

freo-wine, st. m., noble lord, 430. 
freotJo, st, /., protection, peace, 

freolJo-burh, st. /., protecting buroh, 

peaceful city, 522. 
freotJo-wong, st. m., peace-plain, place 

of refuge, 2959. 



freolSu-webbe, is. /., poace-irB^Fer, 
lady. 194'2._ 

frioCo-wfier, frlotJu waer, »t. /., 
peace-compact, treaty of peace, 
1096, 2282. 

frifu-Bibb, $t. /., peace-kin, 
peace -bringer, 2017. 

fretan, tt. v., [fret] devour, con- 
sume, 1581, 3014, 3114. [C/. 
Goth, fra-itan.] 

fricgean, tt. v., ask, learn; inf. 
fricgcean, 1985 ; pre$. part, fela 
fricgende, ' learning much, experi- 
enced,' 2106. 

ge-fricgean, tr. r., learn, 3002; 
fres. tubj. 1826, 2889. 

friclan, w. v., seek for, 2556. 

frignan, frlnan, tt. v., ask, inquire, 
351; imperat. sg. frin, 1322; pret. 
tg. freegn, 236, etc. [Cf. Goth. 

ge-frignan, »t. v., learn, hear 
of; jpr^f. <i?.,gefr8Bgn,74,194,etc., 
gefreegen, 1011; gefrunon, 
2, etc., gefrungon, 666; pp. gefru- 
nen, 694, etc., gefreegen, 1196. 
Often followed by ace. and inf. 
74, 1969, etc. 

frinan, see frignan. 

friotJo-, frlotJu-, fritJu-, see freolJo-. 

£r6d, adj., old, wise, 279, 1306, etc. 
[Cf. Goth. fr6>s.] 

frofor, tt. /., solace, comfort, 14, 
etc.; ace. frofre, 7, etc., frofor, 

from, adj., forward, keen, bold, 
1641, 2476, 2527; splendid, 21. 

from, fram, prep., with dat., from, 
away from, 194 (see note), 420, 
541, 1635, 2565, etc. ; of, con- 
cerning, 632, 581, etc. Following 
its case, 110, etc. 

from, fram, adv., away, forth, 764, 

fnima, to. m., beginning, 2309. 

frum-cyn, tt. neut., [first kin] lin- 
eage, origin, 252. 

frum-g5,r, tt. m., [first-spear, cf. 
Lat. primipilus] chieftain, 2856. 

frum-sceaft, tt. /., first creation, 
beginning, 45, 91. 

-fnmen, -frungon, -fininon, see 

fugol, St. m. , FOWL, bird ; dat. sg. fugle, 
218; nom. pi. fugelas, F. 6; dat. 
pi. 2941*. [Cf. Goth, fugls.] 

ful, adv., FULL, very, 480, 951, 1252. 

ful(l), tt. neut., cup, beaker, 615, 
etc. ; ace. j%a, ful, ' the cup of 
the waves, i.e. the sea,' 1208, 

foU, adj., FULL, 2412. 

fullsestan, see under lasstan. 

fultum, St. m., help, aid, 698, 1273, 
lH;i5, 2662. 

funde, pret., see findan. 

fundian, w. v., hasten, intend, strive 
to go, 1137, 1819. 

fur«um, adv., first, 323, 465, 2009; 
at first, formerly, 1707. 

furtJur, adv., further, further for- 
ward, 254, 761, 2525', 3006. 

fUs, adj., ready, eager, longing, 1241, 
1475, etc. ; hastening, inclined, 
1916 (see note to 1. 1915), 1966. 

ftts-llc, adj., ready, prepared, 1424, 
2618 ; neut. pi. fuslicu, 232. 

fyf-tyne, see fif-tene. 

fyu, tt. m., FALL, 1544, 2912. 

fyUan, w. v. [From full, cf. Goth. 

a-fyllan, tr. v.,FiLLup, fiD,1018. 

fyllan, w. v. [From feall.j 

ge-fyilan, w. v., fell, 2655; 
pret. pi. gefyldan, 2706. 

fyUo, tt. /., FILL, 562, 1014, 1333. 

fyl-werlg, adj., j-^ii-wEARY, weary 
to the point of falling, 962. 

fyr, see feor, adv. 

f^T, St. neut., FIRE, 185, etc. 

fyras, see firas. 

fyr-bend, st. m.f., fire-b^nd, band 
forged with fire, 722. 

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., army-com- 
rade, 2873. 

fyrd-hom, st. m. , army-coat, coat of 
mail, 1504. 

fyrd-hrsegl, st. neut., [army-RAiL] 
armour, 1527. 

fjTd-hwset, adj., [army-active] war- 
like, brave ; pi. fyrd-hwate, 1641, 

fyrd-liotJ, st. neut., army-lay, war 
song, 1424*. 

fyr-draca, w. m., fire-drakb, fire- 
dragon, 2689. 

fyrd-seam, st. neut., [army-] armour, 
2618; pZ. 232. 

fyrd-wyrtJe, adj., [army- tfoj? ray] 
war- worthy, distinguished in war, 

fyren, see flren. 

fS^ren, adj., ariRE, F. 38. 

fjTgen-beam, st. m., [mountain -beam] 
mountain-tree, 1414. [Cf. Goth. 

fyrgen-holt, st. neut. , mountain-HOLT, 
mountain-wood, 1393. 

fyrgen-stream, flrgen-strSam, st. m., 
mountain-STREAM, 1359, 2128. 

fyr-heard, adj., firb-hard, fire 
hardened, 305. 

fyrian, see ferian. 



fyr-lgoht, *t. neut., firelight, 1516. 
fyrmest, adv. tuperl. [of fore), 

FOREMOST, first, 2077. 
fyrn-dagas, $t. m. pi., former days, 

days of old, 1451. [C/. Goth. 

fairneis, 'old,'] 
fym-g-eweorc, tt. vmt., former work, 

ancient work, 2286. 
fyrn-gewinn, tt. neut., former strife, 

ancient strife, 1689. 
fyrn-mann, st. m., former man, man 

of old, 2761. 
fyrn-wita, w. m., former counsellor, 

old counsellor, 2123. 
fyrst, it. m., time, space of time, 76, 

545, etc. 
fyrUran, w. v., further; pp. freat- 

wum gefyrSred, ' furthered by, 

urged on by, the jewels ' (hasten- 
ing to show them to Beowulf), 

2784. [From fur^or.] 
fyr-wet, -wyt, tt. neut., curiosity, 

232, etc. 
fyr-wylm, tt. m., fire- iFELLing, 

surge of fire, 2671. 
fysan, w. v., make ready, incite ; 

pp. gefysed, 630, 2309, 2561; 

winde gefysed, ' impelled by the 

wind,' 217. {From fus.] 

gad, tt. neut., lack, 660, etc. [C/. 

Goth, gaidw.] 
gsedeling, st. m., relative, comrade, 

2617, 2949. 
gsest, gaest, see note to 1. 102. 
gaeB, see gan. 
galan, st. v., sing, sound, 786, 1432; 

pret. sg., geBletS, 2460. 

a-galan, tt. v., sing, ring; pret. 

agol, 1521. 
galdor, see gealdor. 
galga, w. m., gallows, 2446. 
galg-mOd, adj., [sad-Moon] sad in 

mind, gloomy, 1277. 
galg-treow, st. neut., gallows-tree, 

gamen, gamol, see gomeii^ goznoL 
gan, irreg. v., go; pres. indie. 3rd, 

gas's, 455; pret. tubj. ga, 1394; 

pret. eode, 358, 493, etc. ; imperat. 

ga, 1782 ; pp. sy^^an hie togeedre 

gegan heefdon, • after they had 

closed in strife,' 2630. (See also 


full-gan, tt. v., with dat., follow 

and aid; pret. sceft...flane full- 

eode, * the shaft followed and 

aided the barb,' 3119. 

ge-gan, tt. r., pret. geeode, 
geiode (2200): 

(1) GO {intrant.), 1967, 2676. 

(2) GO (trails.), make, venture, 
1277, 1462. 

(3) gain (by going), obtain, 1535; 
vith dependent clause, 2917. 

(4) happen, 2200. 

ofer-gan, st. v., with ace., oo 
OVER, 1408, 2959. 

o«-gan, tt. v., GO (to), 2934. 
ymb-gan, tt. v., with ace., go 
about, go around, 620. 

gang, St. m.. Going, journey, 1884 ; 
power of going, 968; track, 1391, 

gang, gangan, see gongan. 

ganot, tt. m., gannet. Solan goose, 

gar, tt. m., spear, javelin, 328, etc. 

gar-cene, adj., spear- keen, spear- 
bold, 1958. 

gar-cwealm, st. m., [spear-ousLL- 
ing] death by the spear, 2043. 

gar-holt, St. neut., spear-HOLT, spear- 
shaft, spear, 1834. 

gar-secg, st. m., ocean, 49, 515, 637. 

gar-wiga, w. m., spear- warrior, 2674, 

gar-wlgend, st. m. {pret. part.), 
spear-warrior, 2641. 

gast, g»st, St. m., ghost, sprite, 
devil, 102 (see note), 133, etc.; 
gen. pi. gasta, 1357, gasta, 

gast- bona, w. m., [ghost-banb] soul- 
slayer, the devil, 177. 

ge, conj., and, 1340; with swylce, 
2258; corrgi., • both. ..and,' 
1248, 1864. 

ge, pers. pron. (pi. of ]>u), ye, you, 
237, etc. 

geador, adv., tooETHEB, 835; with 
astsomne, 491. 
on geador, toGETHEB, 1595. 

ge-sehtle, w. /., high esteem, 369. 

geald, see gyldan. 

gealdor, st. neut. : 

(1) sound, blast, 2944. 

(2) incantation; dat. galdre, 3052. 
gealp, see gllpan. 

geap, adj., spacious, extensive, 

roomy, 836, 1800. 
gear, st. neut., year, 1134. [Cf. 

Goth, jer.] 
geara, gen. pi. (in adverbial 

sense), of yore, formerly, 2664. 
geard, st. m., yard; always pi. in 

• Beowulf,' courts, dwelling-place, 

13, 265, 1134, 1138, 2459. [Cf 

Goth, gards, 'house.'] 



gSar-dagas, tl. m. jjZ., tore-datb, 

days of yore, 1, 1354, 2233. 
geare, see gearwe, 
gearo, geam, once geara, adj.^ tark, 

ready, prepared, 77, 1109, 1914, 

etc. ; with gen. 1825 ; ace. tg. f. 

gearwe, 1006; jpl. gearwe, 211, 

gearo, adv., well, 2748. See also 

irearo-folm, o^/** ready-handed, 

gearwe, geare, adv., well, 265, 2656, 

etc. ; with ne, ' not at all,' 246. 
gearwor, compar. , more readily, 

gearwoBt, tuperl.t mosk surely, 

-geat, see -gitan. 
geato-Uc, adj., stately, splendid, 

215, 308, 1401, 1562, 2154. 
geatwa, st. f. pL, garniture, 3088. 
ge-'bedda, w. m. or f., BED-fellow, 

665. [Cf. heals-gebedda.] 
ge-brsec, st. neut., crash, 2259. [Cf. 

ge-brotJor, ge-br5tJru, it. m. pi., 

BROTHERS, 1191. 

ge-byrd, st. f. or ncut., order, 
established order, fate, 1074. 

ge-cynde, adj., [kind] natural, he- 
reditary, 2197, 2696. 

ge-dSl, St. neut., severance, parting, 
3068. [Cf. Goth. dails, • division.'] 

ge-defe, adj., meet, fitting, 561, 
1670, 3174*; friendly, 1227. 

ge-draeg, st. neut., tumult, 756 (see 

ge-dryht, ge-drilit, st. /., band, 
troop, 118, 431, etc. 

ge-faegra, compar. adj., more pleas- 
ing; nom. he...wear^...freondum 
gefasgra; hine fyren onwod, 'he 
(Beowulf) became more dear to 
his friends ; him (Heremod) crime 
assailed,' 915 (see note). 

-gefan, see -gifan. 

ge-fea, w. m., joy, 562, 2740. 

ge-feoht, St. neut., fight, 2048, 

ge-flit, St. neut., • jxiring,' contest, 
ma_tch, 686*, 865. 

ge-frsege, adj., renowned, notorious, 

ge-frsege, st. neut., hearsay; dat. 
(instr.) sg. mine gefrage, ' as I 
have heard or learned,' 776, 837, 
1955, 2685, 2837. 

ge-frsBgnian, w. v., make famous; 
pp. gefr»gnod, 1333. 

gegn-cwlde, st. m., reply, 367. 

gegnum, adv., forwards, straight, 
direct, 314, 1404. 

gehlyn, st. n. , noise, din, F. 30. 

gehtJo, see giohtJo. 

ge-hwa, pron., with gen., each, each 
one; ace. gehwone, pohwane, 294, 
2397, etc.; dat. m. ^'ehwam, geh- 
wara, 88, 1420, etc. ; dat. f. 
gehware, 25. Mate, form with 
dependent gen. of fern, or neut. n. 
800,J365, 2838, 2765. 

ge-hwaer, adv., everywHERE, 526. 

ge-hwaetJer, pron., eixHER, 584, etc. ; 
nom. neut., an wig gearwe ge eet 
hara ge on herge, ge gehweeher 
t>ara efne swylce mala, * ready for 
war both at home and in the field, 
and either (i.e. both) of them even 
at such times,' 1248. 

ge-hwylc, ge-hwelc, adj. -pron., with 
gen. each, 98, 148, etc. 

ge-hygd, st. /. and neut., thought, 

ge-hyld, st. neut., protection, 8056. 
[From healdan.] 

ge-iac, St. neut., play, 1040, 1168. 

ge-iad, St. neut., [lode] path, 1410. 

ge-lang, see ge-long. 

ge-lenge, adj. , beiOxVoing to, 2732. 

ge-llc, adj., LIKE, 2164 (but see note), 
ge-llcost, Buperl., likest, most 
like, 218, 727, 985, 1608. 

ge-16me, adv., frequently, 559. 

ge-long, ge-lang, adj. ; gelong (ge- 
lang) 8Bt be, * aLONQ of, dependent 
on,_thee,' 1376, 2150. 

ge-msene, adj., common, in common, 
1784, etc. [Cf. Goth, gamains.] 

ge-m§de, st. neut., consent, 247. 

ge-met, st. neut., measure, power, 
ability, 2533, 2879; mid gemete, 
• in any wise,' 779 (see note). 

ge-met, adj., mbet, 687, 3057. 

ge-meting, st.f., meeting, 2001. 

ge-mong, st. neut., troop, 1643. 

ge-mynd, st. f. and neut., rewiNner, 
memorial, 2804, 3016. [Cf. Goth. 

ge-myndlg, adj., MiNnful, 613, etc. 

gen, adv., aoAiN, yet, still, 734, 2070, 
3006, etc. ; often with \>&, nu, 83, 
2859, etc. 

gena, adv., still, 2800, 3093. 

ge-neahhe, adv., enough, 783; fre- 
quently, 3152. 

genehost, superl., very often: 
genehost braegd eorl Beowulfes 
ealde lafe, • very abundantly did 
an earl of Beowulf draw... i.e. 
many an earl of Beowuli drew,' 



gengran, gengde, see gongan. 

ge-nip, »t. neut., mist, 13G0, 2S08. 
ge-nog, adj., enough, 2489, 3104. 
genunga, adv., wholly, utterly, 2871. 
geo, glo, lu, adv., formerly, 1476, 

2459, 2521. [Cf. Goth, ju.] 
geoc, ««./., help, 177, 608, 18o4, 2674. 
geocor, adj., dire, sad, 765. 
geofon, glfen, gyfen, st. neut., ocean, 

362, 515, 1394, 1690. 
geofu, see glfti. 
geogotJ, giogo^J, St. /., YOUTH, both 

abstract and concrete ( = younger 

warriors), 66, etc.; gen. iogoSe, 

geogotJ-feorh, tt. m. and nguf., touth- 

life, days of youth, 537, 2664. 
geolo, adj., YELLOW, 2610. 
geolo-rand, $t. m., yellow buckler, 

yellow shield, 438. 
gSo-mann, see iu-monn. 
geo-meowle, w. /., former maiden, 

spouse, 3150*; ace. io-mCowlan, 

2931. [Cf. Goth, mawilo.] 
geomor, ^omor, adj., sad, 49, 3150, 

etc. ; /. geomuru, 1075. 
gcomore, adv., sadly, 151. 
geomor-llc, adj., [sad-LiKE] sad, 

geomor-mod, giomor-mod, adj., 

[sad-MooD] sad-minded, sorrowful, 

2044, 2267, 3018. 
geomrian, w. v., lament, 1118. 
geomuru, see gSomor. 
geond, prep., with ace., [tqnd] 

throughout, 75, etc. 
geong, giong, adj., youkc^ 13, etc.; 

dat. sg., geongum, 2044*, etc., 

geongan, 2628. 

gingaest, superl., tounoest, last ; 

weak, 2817. 
geong, 2743, see gongan. 
geong, see gongan. 
geom, adj., vEARNing, eager, 2783. 

[Cf. Germ, gern.] 
geome, adv., eagerly, gladly, 66, 

etc.; well, 968. 

geomor, compar., more surely, 

geo-sceaft, tt. /., fate, 1234 (see 

geosceaft-gast, tt. m., fated spirit, 

geotan, tt. v., pour, rush, 1690. 

[Cf. Goth, giutan.] 
ge-rad. adj., skilful, 873. [Cf. Goth. 

garaihs, ' due.'] 
ge-rHm-lice, adv., roomily. 

ge-rdmlicor, compar., more 

roomily, further away, 139. 
ge-iysne, adj., befitting, 2653. 

ge-saca, w. m., adversary, 1773. 

ge-sacu, tt.f., strife, 1737. 

ge-scid, St. neut., difference, 288. 

gescaep-hwil, st. /., [suAPed while] 
fated hour, 26. 

ge-sceaft, st. /., [what is shaped] 
creation, world, 1622. [Cf. scyppan 
and Goth, gaskafts.] 

ge-sceap, tt. neut., shape, 650; 
destiny, 3084 (see note). 

ge scipe, st. neut., fate, 2570 (see 

ge-selda, to. m., hall-fellow, comrade, 

ge-siU, tt. m., retainer {originally 
comrade in a journey), 29, etc. 

ge-slyht, St. neut., slaying, encoun- 
ter, 2398. [Cf O.E. slean.] 

gestarSon, tt. neut., possession, trea- 
sure, 1920, 2037, 3166. 

gest-sele, tt. m., ouEST-hall, 994. 

ge-sund, adj., sound, safe and sound, 
1628,1988; with gen. sifiagesunde, 

• safe and sound on your journeys,' 

ge-swing, tt. neiit., swing, eddy, 848. 

ge-syne, adj., evident, visible, 1255, 

ge synto, tt. /., souNDuesa, health, 

-getj_8ee -gitan. 

go-tsese, adj., quiet, pleasant, 1320. 

getan, w. v., slay, destroy, inf. 
cw8B^, he on mergenne meces ec- 
gum getan wolde, sume on galg- 
trC'Owum fuglum to gamene, 

• quoth, he would destroy [them] 
in the mom with the edges of the 
sword, [hang] some on gallows- 
trees for a sport for birds,' 2940 
(see note). 

ge-teng:e, adj., lying on, 2758. 
ge-trum, st. neut., troop, 922, 
ge-trywe, adj., true, faithful, 1228. 
ge-l>iiige, St. neut. : 

(1) tevms, pi. 1085. 

(2) issue, 398, 709; gen. pi. ge- 
l>ingea, 525 (see note). 

ge-boht, St. m., thought, resolution, 

2.36, 610. 
ge-J>onc, St. m. and neut., Tuououi, 

ge->raec, st. neut. , heap, 3102. 
ge-J>ring, st. neut., throng, eddy, 

ge-t)W3ere, adj., gentle, 1230. 
ge-t'yld, St. /,, patience, 1395, etc: 

gel-yldum, adverbially, 'patiently, 

steadily,' 1705. 
ge-^ywe, adj., [THE}f'j] wonted, 

customary, 2332. 




ffe-wade, u. neut., weeds, armour 

j^e-wealc, st. ncut., [walk] rolling, 

ge-weald, st. neut., wiELDWg, power, 

control, 79, 808, 2221 {tee mid), 

ge-wealden, adj. (pp.), subject, 1732. 
ge-weorc, tt. neut., wouk, 455, etc. 
ge-wider, it. neut., jyEATUER, storm, 

tempest; pi. 1375. 
ge-wif, St. neut., web, of destiny, 

fortune; pi. gewiofu, 697. [C/. 

O.E. wefan.] 
ge-win(n), st. neut., strife, struggle, 

133, eto. 
ge-winna, tr. m., striver, foe, 1776 

(see note), 
ge-wlofu, see ge-wif. 
gewls-lice, adv. 

gewis-licost, superl., most cer- 
tainly, 1350. 
ge-witt, St. neut., wrr, senses, 2703; 

head, 2882. 
ge-wittig, adj., [witty] 3094 (see 

note) . 
ge-worht, see wyrcan. 
ge-wrixle, st. neut., exchange., 1304. 
ge-wyrht, st. neut., desert, 457* 

(see note); pi. 2657. 
gid(d), gyd(d), tt. neut., formal 

speech, song, dirge, 151, eto. 
glest, g^ist, gyst, gsest, quest, 

stranger (often = hostile stranger), 

1138, 1441, 1522, 2227: gsest, 

1800, 1893; probably also, 2312 

(see note to 1. 102). [C/. Goth. 

ffif, gyf. conj., XT', 442, 944, eto. ; if 

= whether, 272, etc. 
grifan, glofan, st, v., pret. geaf, 

geafon, pp. gyfen: give, 49, 64, 

1719, etc. 
ft-gifan, tt. v., oivB back, 355, 


88t-gifan, St. v., aiva (to), ren- 
der, 2878. 

for-gifan, tt. v., give, 17, eto. 
of-gifan, of-gyfan tt. v., give 

up, leave, 1600, 2251, 2588, etc.; 

pret. pi. ofgefan, 2846. 
glfen, see geofon. 
glfefle, gyfetJe, adj., Given, granted, 

299, 555, etc. 
gifetJe, neut. used a* a noun, 

thing granted, fate, 3085 (see 

glf-heall, St. /., QiFt-HAXL, 838. 
gifre, adj., greedy, 1277. 

g^frost, tuperl., greediest, 1123. 
glf-iceatt, tt. m., gift of treasure, 378. 

gif-stdl, St. m. , ont-.sTOOL, throne, 

16H, 2327. 
gifu, St. /., GiFt, 1173, 1271, etc.; 

gen. pi. gifa, 1930. p;eofena, 1173 ; 

dat. pi. goofura, 1958. 
gigant, St. m., giant, 113, 1562, 1690. 

[P.B.B. X. 501. From Greek, 

through Lat. gigantem.] 
gilp, gylp. St. m. and neut., [yelp] 

boast, 829, 1749, 2521 (see note 

to 11. 2520-1), etc.; on gylp, 

'proudly,' 1749. 
gilpan, gylpan, st. v. , [yelp] boast, 

536, 2583, etc. 
be-gilpan, tt. v., boast of, 2006* 

(see note). 
gilp-cwide, tt. m., [YELP-speech] 

boasting speech, 640. 
gilp-hlaeden, adj. {pp.), [yelp-laden] 

glory-laden, 868 (see note). 
gylp-sprac, st./., [yelp-speech] 

boasting-speech, 981. 

gylp-word, st. neut., [yelp-word] 

boastful word, 675. 
glm. It. m., gem, 2072. {From Lat. 

gerama, whence * gem.'] 
gim-faest, see gin-fsest. 
grimme-iice, adj., gem-RicH, rich in 

jewels, 466 (see note). 
gin-f888t, gim-fsest, adj., [wide-FAST] 

ample, 1271 (see note), 2182. 
glngaest, see geong. 
-ginnan, tt. v. 

on-giiman, tt. v., beoiN, under- 
take, attempt, 244 (see note), 409, 

2878, etc.; pret. tg. ongan, 100, 

etc.; ongon, 2790. 
gio, see gSo. 
glofan, see gifan. 
giogoTJ, see geogoU. 
glohtJo, tt. /., sorrow, care; dat. 

gioh«o, 2267, gioh«e, 2793*, 

geh«o, 3095. 
giomor, see ggomor. 
giong, see geong. 
-glredan, see -gyrwaa. 
gist, see glest. 
git, pert. pron. {dual of )>u), ye two, 

608, etc. 
git, gyt, adv. , yet, still, 47, 536, 944, 

956, etc. 
-gltan, St. v., pret. -geat, -geaton. 
an-gltan, see on-gitan. 
be-gitan, tt. v., get, obtain, 

seize, befall, 1068, 2249, etc.; 

pret. $g. beget, 2872 ; pret. tubj. 

{sg. for pi.) begeate, 2130: ferh-S- 

frecan Fin eft begeat sweord-bealo 

sli'Sen, ' dire sword-bale afterwards 

befell the bold-minded Finn,' 1146 

{cf. 2230). 



fcrgytan, tt. v., forget, 1751. 
on-gitan, on-gytan, st. v. 

(1) GET hold of, seize ; pret. sg. 
angeat, 1291. 

(2) get hold of with the mind, 
perceive, 14, 1431, 1723, 2748, 
etc.; inf. ongyton, 308. 

gladian, to. v., shine triumphantly, 

glad, adj., [glad] gracious, 58 (see 

note), etc. 
gl»d-man, adj., cheerful, courteous, 

367 (see note). 
glsBd-mod, adj., glad of mood, 1785. 
gled, St./., GLEED, ember, fire, 2312, 

gled-egesa, w. m., OLEED-terror, 

terror of fire, 2650. 
gleo, St. neut., glee, 2105. 
gleo-beam, st. m., [glee-beam], glee- 
wood, harp, 2263. 
gleo- dream, $t. m., [oLEB-joy] mirth, 

gleo-mann, st. to., gleeman, min- 
strel, 1160. 
gUdan, St. v., glide, 515, etc. 

to-glldan, St. v., [glide asunder] 

fall to pieces, 2487. 
glitinian, w. v., Giirter, glisten, 

gleam, 2758. 
glof, St./., glove; pouch, bag, 2086 

(see ten Brink, 123, footnote). 
gneatJ, adj., niggardly, 1930. 
gnom, St. m. or neut., sorrow, 2658. 
gnomian, w. v., mourn, 1117. 

be-gnomian, w. v., with ace, 

bemoan, 3178. 
God, tt. m., God, 13, etc. 
gQd, adj., GOOD, 11, etc.; pi. gode, 

'good men,' 2249. 
g6d, St. neut., good, goodness, good 

thing, good gift, 20, 1952, etc.; 

dat. pi. manig ojjerne godum ge- 

grettan, ' many a one [shall] greet 

another with good things,* 1861; 

gen. pi, goda, 681 (see note), 
god-fremmend, st. m. {pres. part.), 

[GOOD-FJj^aring] framer of good, 

one who acts well or bravely, 299. 
gold, tt. neut., gold, 304, etc. 
gold-siht, tt. /., treasure in gold, 

gold-fag, -fah, adj., GOLDen-hued, 

adorned with gold, gold-brocaded, 

308, 994, 1800, 2811. 
gold-gyfa, IT. m. , gold-giver, 

gold-hladen, adj. {pp.) , GOLD-adomed, 

F. 15. 
gold-hroden, adj. (jpp.), gold- 

adorned, 614, etc. 

gold-hwaet, adj., [ooLD-active] 
greedy for gold, 3074 (see note). 

gold-ma?5um, st. m. , GOLD-treasure, 

gold-sele, st. m., GOLD-hall, 715, 
1253, 1639, 2083. 

gold-weard, st. m., [gold-ward] 
guardian of gold, 3081, 

gold-wine, st. in., GOLD-friend, 
prince, 1171, etc. 

gold-wlanc, adj., gold proud, 1881. 

gomban, w. ace, tribute, 11. [Only 
twice recorded: gender and exact 
form of nam. uncertain.^ 

gomen, gamen, st. neut., game, 

. mirth, joy, 1160, 2459, etc. 

gomen- watJ, tt. /., [oAME-path] 
joyous journey, 854. 

gomen- wudu, st. m., [game- wood] 
harp, 1065, etc. 

gomol, gomel, gamol, adj., old, 
gray, aged, ancient, 58, 2112, 
3095, etc.; weak gomeia, gamela, 
1792, 2105, etc.; gen. pi. gomelra 
lafe, 'the heirlooms of their 
fathers before them,' 2036. 

gamol-feax, adj., gray-haired, 

gongan, gangan, gengan, st. v. , ao, 
314, 395, etc.; imperat. geong, 
2743; pret. geong, 925, etc., giong, 
2214, etc.; gang, 1009 (see note) 
1295, 1316 ; gende, 1401 (see note) ; 
gengde, 1412; pp. gegongen, 822, 
3036; inf. gangan cwomon, 'came 
going, marching,' 324; to 711, 
1642, 1974. (See also gin.) 

a-gangan, st. v., go forth, be- 
fall, 1234. 
ge-gangan, ge-gongan, tt. v.: 

(1) gain (by Going), obtain, 2536; 
pp. gegongen, 3085, with depend- 
ent clause, 893 ; dat. inf. gegan- 
nenne, 2416. 

(2) come to pass, happen, 1846; 
pp. gegongen, 2821. 

gr»dig, adj., greedy, 121, etc. [C/. 

Goth, gredags, 'hungry.'] 
g^»g, adj., GRAY, 330, etc. 
g^sg-hama, w. m., the GRAY-coated 

one, F. 7. 
grsBg-mffll, adj., marked, or coloured 

GRAY, 2682. 
grses molde, w. /., grass-mould, 

grass-plain, 1881. 
gram, adj.. angry, hostile, 424, 765, 

777, 1034. 
grap, tt. /., GRIP, dutch, 438, 836, 

grapian, w. v., grope, gripe, grasp, 

1566, 2083. 



grgot, tt. neut., orit, earth, 3167. 
grgotan, $t. v. [Scotch guekt] weep, 

grgtau, to. v., pret. grette: greet: 

(1) salute, 347, etc. 

(2) approach, seek out, attack, 
touch, 168, 803, 1995, 2735, 3081, 

ge-gretan, w. v., greet, 652*, 

1979, 2516; inf. gegrcttan, 1861. 
gYlin(m), adj., grim, 121, etc.; dat. 

pi. grimman, 1542. 
gfrim-helm, it. m., visored HELMet, 

gTim-lIc, adj., ORiM[-iiiKE], 3041. 
grimman, st. v., rage; prtt. pi. 

grummon, 306 (but see note to 

II. 303, etc.). 
grimme, adv., OBiMly, terribly, 

3012, 3085. 
grlndan, st. v, 

for-grindan, tt. v., grind down, 

grind to pieces, ruin, destroy; 

with dat., 42^] witliacc. 2335,2677. 
gxlpan, St. v., gripe, grasp, seize, 

for-grlpan, st. v., with dat., 

grip[e] to death, 2353. 
witJ-gxIpan, st. v., gripe at, 

grapple with, 2521. 
gripe, St. m., grip, 1148, etc. 
grrom-heort, adj., tierce-HEARTed, 

hostile-hearted, 1682. 
grom-hydig, adj., angry-minded, 

hostile-minded, 1749. 
growan, st. v., grow; pret. sg. 

greow, 1718. 
grund, St. m. , ground, earth, bot- 
tom, floor, 553, 1367, 1404, etc. 
grund-btlend, st. m. (pres. part.), 

[GROUND-dweller] inhabitant of 

earth, 1006. 
gnmd-hjnrde, st. m., [ground-herd] 

guardian of the bottom (of the 

mere), 2136. 
gnmd-sele, st. m., GRouND-hall, 

hall or cave at the bottom (of the 

mere), 2139* (see note). 
grund-wong, st. m., GROUND-plain, 

plain, floor (of a cave), bottom 

(of a mere), 1496, 2588 (see note), 

gnind-wyrgen, st. /., [oRouND-hag] 

of Grendel's dam at the bottom 

of the mere, 1518. [Cf. wearg, 

gryn, see gym. 
gryre, st. m., terror, terrible deed, 

384, 478, 483, 591. 
gryre-brSga, w. r»., Grisly terror, 

horror, 2227*. 

gryxe-fah, adj., [o/fiBly-stained] 
horribly bright, 2576, 3041*. 

gryre geatwa, st. f. pi., am ly 
trappings, warlike trappings, 324. 

g^ryre-giest, st. m., ghjsIj guest, 
terrible stranger, 2560. 

grjrre-leoU, st. neut., qbisIj lay, 
terrible song, 786. 

gTyre-lIc, adj., grisly, terrible, 
1441, 2136. 

gryre-slU, st. m., orisIj journey, 
terrible expedition, 1462. 

guma, w. m., man, 20*, etc. 

gum-cyim, st. neut., [man-KiN] race, 
tribe, or nation of men, 260, 944, 

gum-cyst, St. /., manly virtue, 1723, 
etc.; dat. pi, ;gum-cystum god, 
•excellently good,' 1486, 2543. 

gum-dream, st. 7»., joy of men, 

gum dryhten, st. m., lord of men, 

gum-fetSa, w. m., troop of warriora 
on foot, 1401. 

g^um-mann, st. m., man, 1028. 

gum-8t61, St. m., [man-sTooL] throne, 

gfltJ, St. /., war, battle, fighting- 
power, 438, etc. 

gtltJ-beom, St. m., warrior, 314. 

gdtJ-bm, St. neut., war-BiLL, 803, 

gUfl-byme, w. f., wbli-btrnt, coat 
of mail, 321. 

g^lltS-cearu, st. /., war-CARE, war- 
sorrow, 1258. 

gatJ-crsBft, St. m., war-CRATT, war- 
might, 127. 

gtltJ-cyning, -kyning, st, m., war- 
KiNG, 199, 1969, etc. 

gtHJ-deatJ, St. m., war-DEAXH, death 
in battle, 2249. 

gfl-B-floga, w. m., wax-FLier, 2528. 

gilU-freca, w. to., bold fighter, 2414. 

gUtJ-fremmend, st. m. {pres. part.), 
war-FRAMer, warrior, 246. 

gUtJ geatwa, -getawa, st.f. pi., war- 
raiment, war-gear, war-equip- 
ments; ace. gutJ-getawa, 2636; 
dat. gu^-geatawum, 395. [See 
note to 1. 368 {wig-getdwum) and 
Sieversg § 43, N. 4.] 

gQtJ-gewsede, st. neut., war- weed, 
armour; nom. pi. gu-g-gewffidu, 
-gewjedo, 227, 2730, etc.; gQiS- 
gewffida, 2623, either gen. pi. or 
= gu?>-gewtedu. 

gtllJ-geweorc, st. neut., war-woRK, 
warlike deed, 678, 981, 1825. 

gUtJ-helm, St. m., war-HELM, 2487. 



gflB-liorn, ti, m., war-HoRN, 1432. 
gfltJ-hretJ, St. m. or neut., war-fame, 

g1lt$-kymiig, see gtltJ-cyning. 
gfltS-leoC, tt. neut., war-lay, battle- 
song, 1522. 
gHK-modig, adj. , [war-MooDY] of war- 
like mind, 306* (see note to 11. 303, 
gtlB-ras, St. m., [w&t-race] attack 
in war, storm of battle, 1577, 
2426, 2991. 
gtl15-reo(u)w, adj., war-fierce, 58. 
grtlUrinc, St. m., warrior, 838, 1501, 

1881, 2648. 
gtH$-r6f, adj., war-famed, 608. 
g:tlt5-8cear, st. m., [war-sHS^sing] 

slaughter in battle, 1213. 
g^tJ-sceatJa, w. m., war-sc^rner, 

battle-foe, 2318. 
giltJ-searo, st. neut,, war-armour, 

215, 328. 
g^tJ-sele, St. m., war-hall, 443. 
gUtJ-sweord, st. neut., war-swoRD, 

fifllU-werig, adj., war-WEARY, dead, 

gtlU-wiga, w. in., warrior, 2112. 
g^-B-wlne, St. m., war-friend, sword, 

1810, 2735. 
ga«-wudu, St. m., war-wooD, spear, 

F. 7. 
gyd(d), see gid(d). 
gyddian, w. v., speak, 630.^ 
gyf, see gif . 
gryfan, see gifan. 
gyfen, n., see geofon. 
ejfen,pp., see gifan. 
gyfetJe, see glfetJe. 

gyldan, st. v., pret. geald : yield, 
pay, repay, 11, 1184, 2636, etc. 

a-gyldan, st. v., offer (oueself, 
itself); pret. ]>& me sal ageald, 
•when the opportunity offered 
itself to me,' 1665; so 2690. 
an-gyldan, st. v., pay for, 1251. 
for-gyldan, st. v., repay, re- 
quite, atone for, 114, 956, 1054, etc. 
gulden, adj., qoldes, 47*, etc. [C/. 

Goth. guli>eins.] 
gyllan, st. v., yell, F. 7. 
gylp, see gilp. 
gylpan, see gilpan. 
g^man, w. v., with gen., heed, care, 
incline to, 1757, 1700, 24ol. [Cf. 
Goth. g:'iumjan.] 

for-gyman, w. v., with ace, 
neglect, despise, 1751. 
gyii(n), adj., wide, spacious; ace. 

in. sg. gynne, 1551. 
gyrdan, w. v., gird, 2078, F. 15. 

gyrede, etc. , see gyrwan. 

gyrn, grjm, st. mnt>c. or fern., sorrow, 
1775; gryn, 930 (see note). 

gyrn-wracu, st. /., revenge for 
harm, 1138, 2118. 

gyrwan, w. v., pret. gyrede, pp. 
gegyr(w)ed: gb^k, prepare, equip, 
adorn, 994, 1472, 2087, etc.; pp. 
pi. gegyrede, 1028, etc. [Front, 
gearo. ] 

ge-gyrwan, w. v., gear, pre- 
pare, 38, 199; pret. pi. gegiredan, 

gyst, see giest. 

gystra, adj., tester, 1334. 

gyt, see git. 

gytsian, w. v., be greedy, covet, 


habban, w. v., pret. haefde: have, 
383, etc.; often as auxiliary, 
106, etc. Pres. 1st, hafu, 2523, 
hafo, 2150, 3000; 2nd, hafast, 
953, etc.; 3rd, hafa«, 474, etc. 
Negative form of subj. pres. pi. 
neebbeu, 1850. 

for-habban, w. v., keep back, 
retain, refrain, 1151 (see note to 
1. 1150), 2609. 

witJ-habban, w. v., wixHstand, 
resist, 772. 

had, St. m., [-hood] condition, 
quality, manner, wise, 1297, 1335, 
2193. [Cf. Goth, haidus, 'man- 

hador, St. m., receptacle, 414 (see 

hador, adj., clear- voiced, 497. 

hadre, adv., clearly, brightly, 1571. 

hfflf, St. neut., sea, mere; pi. beafo, 
1862*, 2177. 

hsefen, see hebban. 

haft, St. m., captive, 2408. [Cf. 
Goth, hafts.] 

hsefta, re. m. , captive; ace. haafton, 
788 (see note). 

hseft-mece, st. m., [HAJT-sword] 
hilted sword, 1457. 

hseft-nyd, st.f., captivity, 3155*. 

haeg-steald, st. m. , bachelor, liege- 
man, young warrior, 1889, F. 42. 

hffll, st.f. and neut. : 

(1) HEALth, good luck, greeting, 
653, 1217. 

(2) omen, 204 (see note), 719. 
haele(15), st. m., man, hero, warrior, 

noni. sing. hoeleiS, 190, etc.; hoele, 
1646, etc.; 7iam. pi. hteleS, 52, 
etc.; gen. hailel^a, 467, etc. (Ct 
note to 1. 1983.) 



hffllo. ft. /., HEALth, HAiL^ farewell, 

hserg-traef, tt. neut., idol-tent, 

heathen fane, 175*. 
hffiste, adj., violent, 1335. 
h»?en, adj., heathen, 179, 852, etc. 
hffltJen, $t. m., heathen, 986. [Cf. 

Goth, hui^no.] 
hffiC-stapa, w. m., heath -sTEpper, 

Btag, 1368. 
liafa, imperat. sg. of habban. 
hafela, hafala, heafola, u>. m., 

head, 446, 672, eto. 
liafen, see hebban. 
hafenlan, w. v., heave, uplift; pret, 

hafenade, 1573. 
hafo, hafu, see habban. 
hafoc, «t. m., hawk, 2263. 
liaga, w. m., [haw] hedge, enclosure, 

entrenchment, 2892, 2960. 
hai, adj., WHOLB, HALE, Safe and 

sound, 300, 1503: woes. ..hoi, 

•hail,' 407; with gen. healSo-laces 

hal, 'safe and sound from the 

strife,' 1974. [Cf. Goth, hails.] 
hailg, adj., HOLY, 381, 686, 1553. 
hals, see heals, 
ham, St. m., home; ham, uninflected 

dat. used with preps., 124, etc. 

[Cf. Goth, h^ms, 'village.'] 
hamer, see homer. 
ham-weortJung, »t. /., HoME-adorn- 

ing, that which graces a home, 

hand, see bond, 
hangian, see honglan. 
hSj, adj., HOAR, hoary, gray, 887, 

etc.; gen. hares hyrste, 'the old 

man's (Ongentheow's) harness,' 

hat, adj., HOT, 1616, etc.; dat. sg. 

haton (see note), 849; nom. wyrm 

hat gemealt, 'the dragon melted 

in its heat,' 897. 
hatost, superl., hottest, 1668. 
hat, St. neut., heat, 2605. 
hatan, st. v.: 

(1) order, command, bid, 293, 
386, etc.; pret. sg. heht, 1035, 
etc., bet, 198, etc.; pp. "Sa wees 
haten hret)e Heort innan-weard 
folmum gefrsBtwod, ' then was the 
order quickly given, and Heorot 
within was adorned by hands,' 

(2) name, call, 102, etc.; snhj. 
pres. pi. hatan, 2806. 

ge-hatan, st. v., usu. with ace, 
promise, vow, 1392, 2024, etc.; 
with gen. 2989; pret. gehet, 175, 
2937, etc. 

hatian, w. v., with ace., hate, 
pursue with hatred, 2319, 2466. 

he, heo, hit, pers. proji., he, she, it, 
7, etc.; sing. nojn. m., he, /. heo, 
627, etc.; hio, 455, etc.; n. hit, 
77, etc.; hyt, 2091, etc.; ace. m., 
hine, 22, etc., hyne, 28, etc., /. 
hie, n. hit, 116, etc., hyt, 20yi, 
etc.; gen. m. n., his, /. hire, 641, 
etc., hyre, 1188, etc.; dat. m. n., 
him, /. hire, 626, etc., hyre, 945, 
etc. Plur. m. f. n., nom. ace, hie, 
15, etc., hy, 307, etc., hi, 28, etc., 
hig, 1085, etc., gen., hira, 1102, 
etc., hyra, 178, etc., hiera, 1164, 
heora, 691, etc., hiora, 1166, etc.; 
dat. him, 49, etc. Used refiexively, 
26, 301, 2949, 2976, etc. Alliter- 
ating, he, 505. Possessive dat. 40, 

hea, see heah. 

hea-burh, st. /., high buegh, chief 
city, 1127. 

heafo, see hsef. 

heafod, St. neut., head, 48, etc.; 
dat. pi. heafdon, 1242. [Cf. Goth. 

heafod-beorg, st.f., he ad -protection; 
ace. sg. 1030 {see wala). 

heafod-mSg, st. m., HEAD-kinsman, 
near relative, 588 ; gen. pi. heafod- 
maga, 2151. 

heafod-segn, st. m. neut., HEAD-sign, 
2152 (see note). 

heafod-weard, st. /., head-wakd, 
guard over the head, 2909. 

heafola, see hafela. 

heah, adj., high, 57, etc.; ace. sg. 
m. heanne, 983; gen. dat. hean, 
116, 713; dat. sg. m. heaum, 
2212*; pi. hea, 1926. Denoting 
position, heah ofer horde, 'high 
above the hoard,' 2768. [Cf. 
Goth, hauhs.] 

heah-cyning, st. m., high etng, 

heah-gestreon, st. neut., high trea- 
sure, splendid treasure, 2302. 

heah-lufu, w.f., high love, 1954. 

heah-sele, st. m., high hall, 647. 

heah-setl, st. neut., high settle, 
high seat, throne, 1087. 

heah-stede, st. m., high stead, 
high place, 285. 

heal(l), St. /., hall, 89, etc.; pi, 
healle, 1926. 

heal-sern, st. neut., HALL-house, 78. 

healdan, tt. v., with ace, pret. 
heold, 2183, etc., hiold, 1954.- 
HOLD, keep, protect, have, possess, 
inhabit, 230, etc.; rule, 67, 1852; 



tuhj. tg. for pi. 2719, hold up 
(but see note). Geata leode 
hrea-wic heoldon, 'the corpses of 
the Geatas covered the field,' 
1214 ; 3084 (see note) ; sceft nytte 
heold, ' the shaft did its duty,' 
3118. [Cf. Goth, haldan.] 

toe-healdan, st. v., with ace, 
11) HOLD, guard, (2) behold, 1498: 
(sundor-) nytte beheold, 'minded, 
attended to, the (special) service,' 
494, 667; brytS-swylS beheold mreg 
Higelaces, • Hygelac's mighty 
kinsman beheld," 736. 

for-healdan, st. v., with ace, 
come short in duty towards, set 
at nought, 2381. 

ge-healdan, st. v., with ace, 
HOLD, have, keep, guard, rule, 
317, 658, 674, 911, 2293, etc.; 
pret. he geheold tela, *he ruled 
[it] well,' 2208. 
healf, St. /., HALP, side, 800, 1675 
(see note), etc. {[Cf. Goth. 
healf, adj., half; gen. sg.f. healf re 

[healle], 1087. 
heal-gamen, st. neut., hall-game, 

mirth in hall, 1066. 
heal-reced, st. neut., HALL-house, 

palace, 68, 1981* (see note), 
heals, St. m., neck, 1872, etc.; dat. 
sg. halse, 1566. [Cf. Goth. 
heals-beag, -beah, st. m., neck-ring, 

carcanet, 1195, 2172. 
heals-gebedda, w. m. /., beloved 

BED-fellow, wife, 63. 
healsian, w. v., entreat, 2132. 
heal-sittend, st. m. {pres. part.), 

HALL-siTTer, 2015, 2868. 
heal->>egn, st. m., hall-thane, 142, 

heal-wudu, st. m., hall- wood, 1317. 
hean, adj., abject, ignominious, 

despised, 1274, 2099, 2183, 2408. 
hean, heanne, see heah. 
heap, St. m., heap, band, company, 

335, 400, etc. 
heard, adj., hard, hardy, strong, 
brave, cruel, severe, 166, 322, 
342, 432, 540, 1574, 1807, etc.; 
wk. hearda, 401, etc.; dat. pi. 
heardan, 963. With gen. 'brave 
in,' 886, 1539, etc. Adverbial 
usage: \>tQt hire wi^ halse heard 
grapode, 'so that [the sword] 
smote her sharply on the neck,' 
1566. [Cf. Goth, hardus.] 

heardra, compar., harder, 576, 

hearde, adv., hard, 1438, 3153. 
heard-ecg, adj., HARD-EDOEd, 1288, 

heard-hicgende, adj. {pres. part.), 

[HARD-thinking] brave-minded, 

bold of purpose, 394, 799. 
heann, st. m., harm, insult, 1892. 
hearm-dseg, st. m., day of sorrow, 

hearm-sca^Ja, w. m., [harm-sc^th- 

er] harmful foe, 766. 
hearpe, w.f., harp, 89, etc. 
heatJerlan, w. v., restrain, confine; 
pp. hergum gehea'Serod, • confined 

in idol-fanes (-groves), i.e. ac- 
cursed,' 3072. 
heatJo-byme, w, /., battle-Bruwr, 

coat of mail, 1552. 
heatJo-deor, adj., battle-brave, bold 

in fight, 688, 772. 
heatJo-fyr, heatJu-fyr, st. neut., 

battle-FiRE, 2522, 2547. 
heatJo-geong, adj., battle-YouNo, F.2*. 
heatJo-grim, adj., battle-oRiM, 548, 

heaUo-iac, st. neat., battle-play, 584, 

heatJo-llUend, st.m. (pres. part.) , war- 

like-farers, warrior-sailors, 1798, 

2955. _See note to L 1862. 
heatJo-msere, adj. , battle-great, 

famous in war, 2802. 
heatJo-r»s, st. m., [battle- j?.<cje] 

rush of battle, 526, 557, 1047. 
heatJo-reaf, st. neut., battle-dress, 

armour, 401. 
heat$o-rinc, st. m., warrior, 370, 2466. 
heat$o-r6f, adj., battle-strong, war- 
renowned, 381, 864, 2191. 
hea'Ko-sceard, adj., battle-notched, 

battle-gashed, 2829 (see note). 
heaSo-seoc, adj., battle-siCK, wound- 
ed in battle, 2754. 
heatJo-steap, adj., [battle-sxEEP] 

towering or bright in battle, 1245, 

heatSo-swat, st. m., h&ttie-swEAT, 

blood shed in battle, 1460, 1606, 

hea^So-torht, adj., battle-bright, 

clear in battle, 2553. 
hea^o-Wfflde, st. neut., [battle-wEED] 

armour, 39. 
hea?$o-weorc, st. neut., battle-woRK, 

heatJo-wylm, st. m., [h&ttle-wELL- 

ing] flame-surge, surging of fire, 

82, 2819. 
healSu-sweng, st. m., [battle-sjKij^o] 

battle-stroke, 2581. 
heawan, st. v., hew, 800. 



ge-hSawan, »t. v., H£W, cleave, 

hebban, $t. v., pp. hafen, heefen : 
HKAVE, raise, lift. 656, 1290, 3023. 
[Cf. Goth, hafjan.] 

ft-hebban, st. v., upHSAVE, up- 
lift, 128, 1108. 

ligdan, w. v., with gen., heed; pret. 
2697 (see note), 
ge-hedan, w. v., 505 (see note). 

hefen, see heofon. 

-began, w. V. 

ge-bggan, tr, c, carry out, hold 
(a meeting, etc.); >ing gehegan, 
• to hold a meeting,' 425: see also 
505, note. [Cf. 0. N. heyja, 
•conduct a meeting, duel, etc.'] 

liBht, see hS.tan. 

liel(l), st.f., HELL, 101, etc. 

helan, $t. v. 

be-helan, «t. v., hide; pp. be- 
holen, 414. 

hell-bend, it. m. and f. , hell-jsond, 

helle-g&st, tt. m., HELL-anosx, 1274. 

helm, $t. m. , [helm] : 

(1) helmet, 672, eto. 

(2) covert, protection, 1392 (see 

(3) protector, king, 371, etc.; 
God, 182. 

helm-berend, tt. m. {pre*, part.), 

[HELM-BEARing] helmet-wearei, 

2517, 2642.i 
helmian, w. v. 

ofer-helmian, to. v., toith ace, 

ovERhang, overshadow, 1364. 
help, tt.f., HELP, 551, etc. 
helpan, tt. v., help, 2340*, etc. 
helpe, tc. /. , HELP, 2448 (an exceed- 
ingly doubtful form: see note). 
hel-rflna, w. m., (but see note), 

sorcerer, 163. 
heofon, tt. m., heaven, 62, etc.; 

dat. hefene, 1571. 
heolfor, tt. m. or neut., gore, 849, 

1302, 1423, 2138. 
heolster, tt. m. or neut., place of 

concealment, darkness, 755. [Cf. 

Mod. Eng. holsteb of a pistol, 

and 0. E. helan, 'hide.'] 
heonan, heonon, adv., HENce, 252, 

heora, gen. pi. of he (q. v.). 
-heordan, w. v. 

*ft-heordan, te. v., liberate, 

2930 (see note), 
heorde, see bunden-heorde. 
heore, adj., canny, pleasant, 1372. 
heoro, heoru, tt. m., sword, 1285. 

[Cf. Goth, hairofl.] 

heoro bia,c, adj., [sword-BZ-^Jx] 

swoid-pale, 2188* (see note). 
heoro-drgor, heoru-dreor, it. m. or 

neut., sword-blood, 487, 819. 
heoro-dreorlg-, adj., [sword -dreabi] 

Bword-gory, 935, 1780, 2720. 
hioro-drync, tt. m., sword- 

DRiNK, 2358 (see note), 
heoro-glfre, adj. , [sword-greedy] 

fiercely greedy, 1498. 
heoro grim, heoni-grlm, adj., 

[sword-GRiM] fiercely grim, 1564, 

heoro-hficyhte, adj., [sword-HooKed] 

savagely barbed, 1438. 
hloro-serce, to. /., [sword-sARK] 

shirt of mail; ace. hioro-sercean, 

2539. [Sieversa § 159. 1, 2.] 
heoro-Bweng, tt. m., [sword-sinwo] 

sword-stroke, 1590. 
heorot, tt. m., hart, 1369. 

hioro-weallende, adj. {pret. 

part.), [sword-] fiercely wELLiug; 

ace. tg. m. -weallende, 2781. 
heoro-wearh, tt. m., [sword-felon] 

fierce monster, 1267. 
heorr, tt. m., hinge, 999. [Cf. 

Chaucerian harre.] 
heorte, to. /., heart, 2270, 2463, 

2507, 2561. [Cf. Goth, hairto.] 
heom, see heoro. 
heortS-geneat, tt. m., HEABTH-com- 

rade, 261, etc. 
h§otJ, tt.f., 404 (see note). 
hSr, adv., here, hither, 244, eto. 
here, tt. m., army; dat. tg. herge, 

2347, 2638; on herge, 'in the 

field,' 1248. [Cf. Goth, harjis.] 
here-br6ga, w. to., army-terror, fear 

of war, 462. 
here-byme, u>. /., bxtoj-byrny, coat 

of mail, 1443. 
here-grlma, w. m., army-mask, 

visored helmet, 396, 2049, 2605. 
here-net, tt. neut., army-NET, coat 

of ring-mail, 1553. 
here-nlU, tt. to., army-hate, hosti- 
lity, 2474. 
here-pad, tt. /., army-coat, coat of 

mail, 2258. 
here-rinc, tt. m., army-man, war- 

rior, 1176*. 
here-sceaft, tt. to., [army-SHATx] 

spear, 335. 
here-Bceorp, tt. n., war-dress, F. 47. 
here-sped, tt. /., [army-sPEEn] suc- 
cess in war, 64. 
here-strffll, tt. to., army-arraw, 

war-arrow, 1435. 
here-syrce, w. /., army-SABK, ehirt 

of mail, 1511. 



bere-wade, tt. neut., [army-wESD] 
armour, 1897. 

here-wSstm, st. m., army-might, 
prowess in war; dat. pi. here- 
Wffismun, 677. [See BiUbring in 
Anglia, Beiblatt, xv, 160, note.] 

here-wlsa, w. m., [army-wiSE] army- 
leader, 3020. 

herg, St. m., idol-grove, idol-fane, 
3072 (see hea-Serian), 

herge, n., see here. 

herge, t?., see herian. 

herian, w. v., with ace., praise, 182, 
1071; pres. $uhj. herige, herge, 
1833 (see note), 3176. [C/. Goth. 

hete, tt. m., hatb, 142, 2654. [Cf. 
Goth, hatis.] 

hete-Uc, adj., full of hatred, hats- 
ful, 1267. 

hete-nlS, st. m., HATK-enmity, bitter 
enmity, 152. 

hete-sweng, $t. m., HAXE-blow; pi. 
hete-swengeas, 2224. 

hete-^anc, st. m., HAXE-rHoc/GHt, 
malice, 476. 

hettend, st. m., HAxer, foe, 1828 
(he tend), 3004. 

hicgan, see hycgan. 

hlder, adv., hithbb, 240, 870, 394, 

hlge, see hyge. 

-Mglan, tr. v. 

ofer-Mglan, to, v,, 2766 (see 

hild, St. /., battle, war, 452, etc.; 
prowess in battle, 901, 2952. 

hllde-l>il(l), St. neut., battle-BiLL, 
sword, 557, etc. 

hilde-blac, adj., [war-BLBAK} war- 
pale, 2488* (see note). 

hilde-bord, st. neut., [battle-BOARD] 
shield, 397, 3139. 

hllde-cyst, st. f., [battle- virtue] bra- 
very in battle, 2598. 

hilde-deor, -dior, adj., battle-brave, 
bold in battle, 312, etc. 

hilde-freca, hild-freca, w. m., battle- 
hero, 2205, 2366. 

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pi., battle-trap- 
pings, equipments for war, armour, 
674, 2362. 

Lilde-gicel, st. m., battle- iciCLE ; dat. 
pi. "Sa >8et sweord ongan esfter 
heaJ>o-swate hilde-gicelum...wan- 
ian, 'then the sword began to 
dwindle in icicles of gore in con- 
sequence of the blood (of the 
monster),' 1606. 

hilde-grap, st. /., battle-grasp, war- 
clutch, 1446, 2507. 

hilde-hlemm, -hlamm, st. m., battle- 
crash, crash of battle, 2201, 2351, 

hilde-leoma, w. m., battle-ray: 

(1) battle-flame (of the dragon), 

(2) flashing sword, 1143 (see note). 
hilde-mece, st. m., battle-sword; pi. 

hilde-meceas, 2202. 
hilde-mecg, st. m., battle-man, war- 
rior, J799. 
hilde-raes, st. m., [battle-B^cje] rash 

of battle, 300. 
hilde-rand, st. m., battle-shield, 1242. 
hilde-rinc, st. m., battle-man, war- 
rior, 986, etc. 
hilde-s98d, adj., [sas] battle-sated, 

hilde-Bceorp, st. neut., battle-dress, 

armour, 2155. 
hllde-setl, [battle-SETTLB] st. neut. 

battle-seati, saddle, 1039. 
bilde-strengo, st.f., battle-sxBENoth, 

Wide-swat, St. m., [battle-siPBiir] 

war-breath (of the dragon), 2558. 
hilde-tUx (hilde-tdsc) , st. m. battle- 

IU8K,_1511. [Sievers, § 204, 3.] 
liilde-wsapen, st. neut. , battle- weapon, 

bUde-wIsa, w. m,, [battle- wise] battle- 
leader, 1064. 
hild freca, see hilde-fireca. 
hild-fnima, w. m., battle-chief, 1678, 

2649, 2835. 
hlld-lata, w. m., [battle-LAiE] laggard 

in battle, 2846. 
hilt, St. m. neut., etlt, sword-hilt, 

1668, 1677 (see note), 1687; pi. 

(of a single weapon; cf. 'Julius 

Caesar' V. 3. 43) 1574, 1614. 
hilte-cumbor, st. neut., [niLX-banner] 

staff-banner, 1022 (but see note), 
hilted, adj., hilted, 2987. 
liindema, superl. adj., HiNDMost, last, 

2049, 2517. 
hin-ffls, adj., [HBNce-ready] eager to 

be gone, 755. 
bio = heo, fern, of he (q. v.). 
Wofan, w. and st. v., lament; pres. 

part. 3142. [Cf. Goth, hiufan and 

Sievers, P. B. B. ix. 278.] 
hlold, see healdan. 
hiora, gen. pi. of he (q. v.). 
hioro-, seeheoro-. 
hladan, st. v., lade, load, lay, 1897, 

2126, 3134; inf. hladon, 2775 •. 
ge-hladan, st. v., lade, load; 

pret. gehleod, 895. 
lilnst, St. masc, [lasx] load, freight, 




hlaw, hUw. »t. m., [low, in place- 
names] mound, burial mound, 

1120, '2411, 3157*, etc. {Cf.Guth 

hiaford, St. m., lord, 267, etc. 
hiaford-leas, adj., lord-less, 2935. 
hiaw, see hl»w. 
hleahtor, »t. m,, ladohteb, 611, 

hlSapan, tt. v., leap, gallop, 864. 

JL-hleapan, st. v., leap up, 1397. 
lilenca, hlence, w. m. and /., link, 

coat of mail, F. 12*. 
I1I60, tt. m., [lee] refuge, protection, 

protector (used of a chieftain or 

king), 429, 791, etc. 
hlSo-burh, st. f., protecting burgh or 

city, 912, 1731. 
-hlSod, see -hladan. 
hleonlan, w. v., lean, slope, 1415. 
hleor-berge,!^./., cheek-guard, 304* 

(see note to 11. 303, etc.). 
lilgor-bolster, st. m., [cheek-] bolster, 

hlgotan, tt. v., with ace, get by lot, 

lileo?Jor-cwyde, st. m., [sound-speech] 

courtly speech , ceremonious speech, 

bleoVrian, w. v., speak, F. 2. 
hlldan, st. v. 

to-hlldan, st. v., spring apart; 

pp. pi. tshlidene, 999. 
hllehhan, st. v. [Cf. Goth, hi ah Jan.] 
ft-hllehhan, st. v., lauoh aloud; 

pret. sg., ahlog, 780. 
hllflan, w. v., tower, 2805; pret. 

hlifade, 81, 1898, hliuade, 1799. 

[P. B. B. X. 502.] 
hlim-bed, st. neut., LBANing bed, 

(last) resting-place, 3034. [See 

note and cf . O.E. hlinian, hleonian, 

•to recline.'] 
hli^, tt. neut., cliff, slope, 1892, 

hltld, adj,, LOUD, 89. 
hlyn, St. m., din, noise, 611. 
hlynnan, hljmian, w. v., resound, 

roar, crackle, 2553, F. 7; pret. hlj- 

node, 1120. 
hljmsian, to. v., resound, 770. 
hlytm, St. w., lot, 3126. 
hnwgan, w. v. 

ge-hn»gan, to. v., with ace., fell, 

vanquish, 1274, 2916 (but see note). 
hnim, adj., mean, base, illiberal, 

hnagra, hnSJira, compar., lower, 

inferior, 677, 952. 
hnltan, st. v., encounter, clash, 1327; 

pret. pi. hnitan, 2544. 

hof, tt. neiit., court, dwelling, man- 
sion, 312*, 1236, etc. 

hOflan, w. V. 

be-hOfian, w. v., with gen., [be- 
hove] need, 2647. 

hogode, see hycgan. 

-hOhsnian, w. v. 

* on-hOhsnlan, w. v., check 1944 
(but see note). 

hold, adj. , friendly, gracious, 267, 290, 
376, etc.; faithful, loyal, 487, 
1229*, etc. 

hOlinga, adv., without reason, 1076. 

holm, tt. m., ocean, sea, mere, 48, 

holm-clif, tt. neut., sea-CLiFF, 230, 
1421, 1635. 

holm-wylm, st. m., [Bea,-WELL\ng] 
sea-surge, 2411. 

holt, St. neut., holt, wood, 2598, 
2846, 2935. 

holt-wudu, st.m., holt-wood; wood, 
forest, 1369; wood (material), 2340. 

homer, hamer, «t. m., hammer, 1285; 
gen. pi. homera lafe, 'leavings of 
hammers, i.e. swords,' 2829. 

hon, St. V. [Cf. Goth, hahan.] 

be-hon, it. v., trant., hanq 
with; pp. behongen, 3139. 

hond, hand, tt. /., hand, 558, 666, 

hand-hona, -bana, w. m., [hand- 
bane] hand-sk-yer, 460, 1330, 2502. 
hand-gemsene, adj. , [hand-mean] 
hand to hand; nom. neut. >£Br unc 
hwile W8B8 hand-gem«ne, 'there 
we two engaged a while hand to 
hand,' 2137 (see note). [Ger. 

hand-gewiUJen, adj. (pp.), hand- 
WREATHed, hand-twisted; pi. 1937. 
hand-sporu, tt. /., hand-spub, 
claw, 986 (see note). 

hond-gemOt, tt. neut., HAND-ifEsr- 
ing, hand to hand fight, 1626, 

hond-gesella, w. to., HAND-comrade, 

houd-gestealla, hand-gestealla, w. 
VI., HAND-to-hand-comrade, 2169, 

hond-geweorc, tt. neut., handiwork, 

hond-lean, hand-lean, see ondlean. 

hond-locen, adj. (pp.), HAND-LOCKed, 

hond-raes, st. m., [hand-b^c«] hand 
to hand fight, 2072. 

hond-scolu, hand-scalu, st. /., [hand- 
shoal] hand-troop, followers, 1317 
(see note), 1963. 



hond-slyht, see ondslyht. 
hond-wundor, st. neut., [hand-won- 

deb] wonderful handiwork, 2768. 
•hongen, see -hon. 
hongian, hangian, w. v., hang, 1363, 

1662, etc. 
hop, St. n., glen, 2212* (see note). 
herd, St. neut., hoard, treasure, 887, 

912, etc. [Cf. Goth, huzd.] 
hord-aem, st. neut., HOARD-hall, trea- 
sure-cave, 2279, 2831. 
hord-burh, st. /., hoard-burqh, 

wealthy city, 467. 
hord-gestreon, st. neut., HOARD-trea- 

sure, 1899, 3092. 
hord-mSdm, st. m., hoard- treasure, 

hoarded jewel, 1198* (see note). 
hord-weard, st. m., [hoard- ward] 

guardian of a hoard or treasure, 

1047 (of the king), 2293 (of the 

dragon), etc. 
hord-wela, w. m. , hoard-weal, wealth 

of treasure, 2344. 
hord-weortJung, st. /., [noARD-hon- 

ouring] honouring by gifts, valu- 
able reward, 952. 
hord-wynn, st. /., HOARD-joy, joy- 
giving hoard, 2270. 
hord-wyrU, adj., worthj of being 

hoarded, 2245 *. 
horn, St. m., horn, 1369, etc., gable 

of a hall, F. 1*,F. 4. 
hom-boga, w. m., horn-bow, 2437. 
hom-geap, adj., with wide interval 

between (the horns on) the gables, 

82 (see note to 1. 78). 
hom-reced, st. neut., [noRN-house, 

i.e.] a house with horns on the 

gables, or a house with gables, 704. 
hers, St. neut., horse, 1399. 
Ii6s, St. /., bevy, 924. {Cf. Goth. 

hansa, 'company': atuL 'Han- 

seatic League.') 
hcSma, tr.m., darkness, concealment, 

hra, hrsBW, st. neut., corpse, 1588, 

F. 36*. [C/. Goth, hraiwa-.] 
hrsedllce, adv., hastily, quickly, 356, 

963. [Cf. hra-5e.] 
hrsefen, see hrefn. 
lirsegl, St. neut., [rail] dress, armour, 

454, 1195, 1217. 
hrsetJre, see hretJer. 
hrsBw, see hra. 
lira-fyl, tt. m., fall of corpses, 

slaughter, havoc, 277. 
liratJe, hrffl^e, adv., [rathe] quickly, 

hastily, 224, 740, etc.; hretSe, 991 ; 

ra«e, 724. 
hrat$or, compar., [rather] more 

quickly, 543. 

hrgam, st. m., noise, clamour, 1302. 
hrea-wlc, st. neut., [corpse-wicK] 

abode of corpses, 1214 {see heal- 

hrefn, hrsefen, st. m., raven, 1801, 

etc. , F. 36. 
hremig, adj., exultant, 124, etc.; pi. 

hremge, 2363. 
*hr§odan, st. v., cover, clothe, adorn; 

pp. hroden, gehroden, 304, 495, 

hreoh, hreow, adj., rough, fierce, 

cruel, sad, 1564, 2180; dat. sg. 

hreon, 1307, hreoum, 2581; pi. 

hreo, 548. 
hxeoh-mod, adj., of fierce mood, of 

sad mood, 2132, 2296. 
hreosan, st. v., fall, 1074, 1430, etc. 
be-hreosau, st. v., deprive; pp. 

pi. behrorene, 2762. 
hreow, st. /., distress, grief, 2129, 

hreran, w. v. 

on-hr§ran, w. v., rouse, arouse, 

stir up, 549, 2554. {Cf. hror.] 
lire's, St. m. or neut., glory, renown; 

ace. 2575 (see note to 11. 2573, etc.). 
hretJe, see hralJe. 
liretJer, st. neut., breast, h^art, 1151, 

1446, etc.; dat. sing. hrsB'Sre, 

brewer -bealo, st. neut., heart-BALB; 

now. J58es >e Jjincean meeg >egne 

monegum . . . hrel>er-bealo hearde, 

'as it may seem, heavy heart- woe 

to many a thane,' 1343. 
hretJ-slgor, st. m. or neut., trium- 
phant victory, 2583. 
hrlmig, adj., rimy, covered with hoar- 
frost (see note to 1. 1363). 
hrlnan, tt. v., usu. w. dat,, touch, 

lay hold of, 988, 2270, etc.; suhj. 

pret. sg. Jjeah tSe him wund hrine, 

'though the wound touched him 

close,' 2976. 

set-hrlnan, st. v., tr. gen., touch, 

lay hold of, 722*. 
hrinde, adj. (2>j?.), =lirindede, covered 

with RIND, frosty, 1363 (see note), 
hring, st. m., ring, ring-mail, 1202, 

1503, etc.; nom. byrnan bring, 

•ring-mail of the bymy, ringed 

bymy,' 2260. 
hringan, w. v., ring, rattle, 327. 
hring-boga, t^. m., [ring-bow] one 

that bends himself in the shape of 

a ring (the dragon), 2561. 
hringed, adj. {pp.), binqed, 1245; 

inflected 2615. 
hringed-stefna, w. m., jihip with 

ringed stem, 32, etc. 



hring-Iren, %t. mut., rino-iron; nom. 
hring-Iren scir song in Bearwum, 
•the bright iron rings rang in the 
armour,' 322. 

hring-mSl, adj., BiNO-adomed, 2037, 
used at tubst., RiNO-sword, 1521, 

hring-naca, t^. m,, [RiNo-bark] ship 
with a ringed prow, 1862. 

hring-net, st. neut., [iuno-net] phirt 
of mail made of rings, 1889, 27">4. 

hring-sele, $t. m., RiNO-hall, 2010, 
2840, 3053, etc. 

bring- weortJimg, st. /., BiNO-adorn- 
ment, 3017. 

hroden, see hreotJan. 

hrOf, St. m. , roof, 403, 836*, 926, 983, 

hrOf-sele, st. m., RooFsd hall, 1515. 

liron-flx (hron fisc), tt. m., whale- 
risH, whale, 540. [See Sievers, 

hron-rad, st./., whale-ROAD, sea, 10. 

lirSr, adj., stirring, valorous, strong, 
1629, F. 47 (but see note). 

lirOtJor, tt. VI. or neut., benefit, 
joy, 2171, 2448. [Cf. hretS.] 

hrase, to. /., earth, 2247, etc. 

hrycg, si. m., rldoe, back, 471. 

hryre, tt. m., fall, destruction, 1680, 
etc. {Cf. O.E. hreosan.] 

hryssaji, w. v., shake, 226. [Cf. 
Goth, -hrisjan.] 

htl, adv., HOW, 3, etc. In exclama- 
tion, 2884. 

hund, St. m., hound, 1368. 

hund, num.^ with gen,, HUNDred, 
1498, etc. 

htlru, adv., Indeed, especially, at 
least, verily, 182, etc. 

tills, St. neiit., house, 116, etc. 

ha*, st.f., booty, plunder, 124. [Cf, 
Goth, faunas, 'captivity.'] 

hwa, m. and f., hwaet, neut., interr. 
and indef. pron., who, what, any 
(one), Bomewhat, 52, 3126, etc. 
With gen. hw8Bt...hyntSo, 'what 
humiliation,' 474; swulces hwtet, 
'somewhat of such (matter),' 880; 
anes hwaet, ' somewhat only, a 
part only,' 3010. Nah hwa sweord 
wege, 'I have no one who may 
wear sword,' 2252; dat. hwam, 
•for whom,' 1696; instr. to hwan 
sySflan wearS hond-riBS heele'Sa, 
•to what issue tJae hand-fight of 
heroes afterwards came,' 2071. 
[Cf. Goth, hwas.] 

hwsBder, see hwyder. 

hwSr, adv., where, anywhere, 2029, 
elles hw»r, 'elsewhere,' 138. 

hwset, adj., active, keen, bold; weak 
hwata, 3028; dat. hwatum, 2161; 
pi. hwate, 1601, etc. 

hwaet, pron., see hwi. 

hwset, interj., wuat, lo, 1, 240*, 
530, etc. 

hwaetJer, adj. -pron., whether, which 
of two; nom. geblde ge...hwBQ^er 
Btl m89ge...uncer twega, 'await ye 
whether of us twain may the 
better,' 2530; ace. f. on swa hwaa- 
"Kere hond...swa him gemet bince, 
• on whichsoever hand it may seem 
to him meet,' 686. [Cf. Goth. 

hwae15er, hwsetJre, conj., whether, 
1314, 1356, 2785. 

hW89W(e)re, adv., however, yet, 555, 
578*, etc.; anyway, however that 
may be, 574 (see note); with swa 
bcah, 2442. 

hwan, see liw3,. 

hwanan, hwanon, adv., WHENce, 
257, 333, etic. 

hwlr, see hwser. 

hwata, hwate, hwatum, see hwaet, 

hwealf, St. /., vault, 576, eto. 

hwene, adv., a little, a trifle, 

liweorfan, tt. v., turn, wander, go, 

356, etc.; ellor hwearf, 'departed 

elsewhere, died,' 55. 

ot-hweorfan, st. v., return, 2299. 

ge-hweorfan, tt. v., pass, go, 

1210, 1679, 1684, 2208. 

geond-hweorfan, st. v., traverse, 

ond-hweorfan, st. v., turn 
against; pret. nor^an wind...ond- 
hwearf, 'a wind from the north 
blew against [us],' 548. 

yTnb(e)-hweorfan, st. v., with 
ace., turn about, go round, 2296 
(see note). 

hwergen, adv., in ellea hwergon, 

' EhSEWHERE,' 2590. 

hwettan, w. v., whet, urge, en- 
courage, 204, 490. [Frojn hweet, 
' keen,' cf. Goth, -hwatjan.] 

hwn, St. /., WHILE, space of time, 
146, 1495, etc.; dat. pi., used ad- 
verbially, hwilum, ' at whiles, 
sometimes, whilom, of old,' 175, 
864, 867, etc.; 'at one time... at 
another,' 2107-8-9-11. 

hwit, adj., white, flashing, 1448. 

hwOpan, st. v., see note to 2268. 

hworfan, see hweorfan. 

hwyder, hwaeder, adv., whither, 163, 
1331 * (see note). 



hwylc, adj.-pron., which, what, any, 

274 {see witan), 1986, 2002, etc.; 

with gen., 1104, 2433. [Cf. Ooth. 


\ swa hwylc swa, see swa. 

hwyrfan, w. v., move, 98. [Cf. 

hwyrft, St. m., going, turn; 
'in their goings, or to and fro,' 
hycgun, hicgan, w. t>., think, resolve 
(upon) ; pret. hogode, 632, F. 12 *. 
[Cf. Goth, hugjan.] 

for-hlcgan, w. v., roRgo, reject, 
despise, 435. 
ge -hycgan, w. r., purpose, 1988. 
ofer-hycgan, w. v., scorn, 2345. 
hydan, w. »., hide, 1372*, 2766; 
bury, 446. 
ge-hydan, w.v. , hide, 2235, 3059. 
hyge, liige, st. m., mind, soul, tem- 
per, purpose, 267, etc. [Cf. Goth. 

hige-mStJ, st. j., mind-honour, 
heart-reverence, 2909 (but see 

lilge-meUe, adj., wearying the 
soul or mind, 2442. 

hlge -^ihtig, adj., great-hearted, 

hige-^rymm, st. m., [mind- 
strength] magnanimity, 339. 
hyge-bend, st. m. /., mind-BOWD; 
dat. pi., hyge-bendum f8Bst...dyrne 
langat5, 'a secret longing... fast in 
the bonds of his mind,' 1878. 
hyge-glomor, adj., sad at heart, 

hyge-rof, hige-rSf, adj., strong of 
mind or heart, valiant, 204*, 403*. 
hyge-sorg, st. f. , sorrow of mind or 

heart, 2328. 
hyht, St. m., hope, 179. [Cf. hyo- 

hyldan, w. v., heel(d) over, mclme 
(oneself), lie down; pret. 688. 

hyldo, St. /., favour, friendliness, 
670, 2293, 2998; _acc. hyldo ne 
telgc.Denum unfaBcne, • I reckon 
not their favour sincere towards 
the Danes,' 2067. [Cf. hold.] 

hym, of he (q. v.). 

hynan, to. v., humiliate, oppress, 
2319. [From hean.] 

hyne, ace. sg. m. of he (q. v.). 

LynBo, hyntSu, st. /., humiliation, 
166, 277, 475, 593, 3155*. 

hyra, gen. pi. of he (q. v.). 

hyran, w. v., hear, learn, 38, 62, 
273, 1197, etc. ; with dat. pers., 
obey, 10, etc. [Cf. Goth, hausjan.] 

ge-hyran, w. v., hear, learn, 
255, 290, 785, etc. 

hyrdan, w. v. [From heard, cf. Goth. 
hard Jan.] 
a-hyrdan, w. v., nARnen, 1460. 

hyrde, st. m., [herd] keeper, guard- 
ian, etc., 610, etc. ; nom. wuldres 
Hyrde, 'the King of glory,' 931, 
fyrena hyrde, 'lord in the king- 
dom of crime,' 750. [Cf. Goth. 

hjrre, gen. and dat. sg. /. o/ he (q. v.). 

hyrst, St. /., harness, accoutrement, 
adornment, 2988, 3164, F. 22. 

hyrstan, w. v., adorn; pp. 'dight, 
jewelled,' 672, 2255*. 

hyrtan, w. v., HEARTen, embolden; 
with refi. pron., 2593. [From 

hyse, hysse, st. m., youth, 1217, F. 

hyt, (hitt) St. /., HEAT, 2649. 

hyt, neut. of he (q. v.). 

hyS, st.f., HYTHE, haven, 32. 

hytJo, see note on 11. 3150, etc. 

hyS-weard, st. m., [hythe-wabd] 
guard of the haven, 1914. 

lepers, pron., I, 38, etc.; aee. me, 
415, etc., mec, 447; gen. min, 
2084, etc. ; dat. me, 316, etc. ; dual 
nom. wit, 535, etc.; ace. unc, 540, 
etc. ; gen. uncer, 2002, etc. ; dat. 
unc, 1783, etc. ; pi. nom. we, 1, 
etc.; ace. usic, 458, etc.; gen. ure, 
1386, user, 2074; dat. us, 269. 

lege, adj., 1107 (see note). 

Idel, adj., idlb, empty, 145, 413; 
deprived; nom. lond-rihte8...idel, 
•deprived of land-right,' 2888. 

Idel-hende, adj.,iDhK-HANDed, empty- 
handed, 2081. 

Ides, St. /., woman, lady, 620, etc. 

leman, st. v. [Cf. Goth, rinnan.] 
be-ieman, st. v., run, occur; 
pret. him on mod beam, 'it occur- 
red to him,' 67. 

on-ieman, st. v., spring open; 
pret. onam, 721. 

In, prep., in, with dat. (of rest) and 
ace. (of motion) : 

(1) with, dat., in, on, 13, 25, 87, 
89, 324, 443, 1029, 1952, 2505, 
2599, 2635, 2786, 3097, etc. ; after 
its case, 19; of time, 1. 

(2) with ace, into, 60, 186, 1210, 

in Innan, see innan. 



in, adv., in, 886, 1037, etc.; once 

inn, 3090. 
In, tt. neut., inn, dwelling, 1300. 
inc, pers. pron. {dat. dtuil. of \>u), to 

you two, 610. 
Incer, pers. pron. (gen. dual, of ]^n), 

of you two, 584. 
Incg-e, adj., 2577 (see note), 
in frSd, Oiij., very old, 1874, 2449. 
In-gang, st. m., entrance, 1549. 
In-genga, to. m., iN-ooer, invader, 

in-gesteald, st. neut., house-property, 

Inn, see in, adv. 

innan, adv., withiN, inside, 774, etc. 
in innan, within ; with pre- 
ceding dat. 1968, 2452. 

on innan, within, 2715; with 
preceding dat. 1740. 

►fflr on innan, therein, there- 
within, in there, 71, 2089, etc. 
Innan- weard, adj., inward, inside, 

interior, 991, 1976. 
Inne, adv., iNside, within, 390 (see 
note), 642, 1866, etc.; therein, 
J»a9r inne, therein, 118, etc. 
Inne-weard, adj., inward, interior, 

inwid-Borg, see inwit-sorh. 
inwit-feng, $t. m., malicious grasp, 

inwlt-gasst, tt. m.. malicious quest, 

foe, 2670 (see note to 1. 102). 
inwit-hrof, it. m., malicious roof, 

in wit-net, tt. neut., treacherous net, 

malicious snare, 2167. 
inwit-nltJ, tt. m., treacherous hate, 

malicious enmity, 1858, 1947. 
Inwit-Bcear, st. m., malicious slaugh- 
ter, inroad, 2478. 
Inwit-searo, st. neut., malicious cun- 
ning, 1101. 
inwit-sorh, inwid-aorg, tt. /., [hostile 
or malicious sorrow] sorrow caused 
by a foe, 831, 1736. 
inwit-Banc, tt. m., hostile or mali- 
cious THouoHt, 749 (see note). 
-iode, see -ga,n. 
iogoU, see geogolJ. 
io-meowle, see ggo-mgowle. 
iren, st. neut., iron, sword, 892, etc.;,iiena,, irenna, 673, 802, etc. 
iren, adj., of iron, 1459, 2778. [Cf. 

O.E. isem.] 
iren-bend, tt. m. /., iron-bjnd, 

774, 998. 
iren-byme, w. /., troh-btbny, coat 
of iron mail, 2986. 

iren -heard, adj., iron -hard, 1112. 
iren-J»r6at, tt. m., moN-band, troop 

of armed men, 330. 
is, St. neut., ice, 1608. 
iBern-byme, w. /., hyrnt of iron, 

coat of iron mail, 671. [Cf. 

O.E. iren,] 
Isem-scllr, st. /., iron-shower, 

3116. [scur is elsewJiere masc, 

hut for use here cf. Goth, skura.] 
is-gebind, st. neut., ice-bond, 1133. 
isig, adj., icy, covered with ice, 33. 
iu, see geo. 
iu-monn, st. m., former man, man of 

olden times, 3052. 


kynlng, 619, 3171; Kyning-wuldor, 
665, see cyning. 

la, inter j., lo, 1700, 2864. 

lac, St. neut., gift, offering, booty, 

prey, 43, 1584, etc. 
lacan, St. v., play, 2832, 2848. {Cf. 
Goth, iaikan, *to leap.'] 

for-iacan, tt. v., decoy, betray, 
lad, St. f., [lode] way, faring, jour- 
_ney, 569, 1987. 

IfiBdan, w. v., lead, bring, 239, 1159, 

3177* ; pp. gelfflded, 87. [C/. li«an, 

lad, 'go.'] 

for-lsedan, w. v., w. ace, mis- 

__lead; pret. pi., forlSddan, 2039. 

Isefan, w. v., leave, 1178, 2315, etc. 

[-From laf: cf. Goth, laibjan.] 
IcBU, tt. neut., LOAN (see note to 
_11. 1808, etc.) 

Isen-dagas, tt. m., i,o^n-dats, fleet- 
_ing days, 2341», 2591. 
laene, adj., fleeting, transitory, 1622, 

Iseng, see longe. 

IsBran, w. v., teach, 1722. [Cf. Goth, 
Mis Jan.] 
ge-lfflran, w.v., teach, persuade, 
__give (advice), 278, 415, 3079. 
IsBS, compar. adv., less, 487, 1946 
{see se) . 
)>y l»s, cenj., LEst, 1918. 
Issssa, compar. adj., less, lesser, 
fewer, 1282, 2571 ; dat. pi. lassan, 
43. Absolutely, for liessan, ' for 
less^' 951. 
Isssest, superl. adj. , least, 2354. 
Isastan, w. v. : 

(1) with dat., LAST, hold out, 812. 



(2) with ace, do, perform, 2663. 

ful-l»stan, w. v., with dat., 
help ; pre$. tg. Itt ful-lsestu, 
2668. __ 

ge-lsBstan, w. v. : 

(1) with ace. or dat., help, serve, 
24, 2500. 

(2) U8U. with ace, do, perform, 
fulfil, _etc., 1706, 2990*, etc. 

ge-la9sted, pp. of laestan or ge- 
Iffistan, 'performed,' 829. 

Iset, adj., [late] slow; with gen. 

_1529. [Cf. Goth, lats, ' slothful.'] 

lietan, st. v., let, allow, 48, etc. 
a-lsitan, st. v., let, 2665; let 
go, leave, 2591, 2750. 

for-l88tan, st. v., let, leave 
behind, 970, 2787, 3166 ; let go, 

oM»tan, st, v., leave, 1183, 
on-lietan, st. v., loosen, 1609. 

laf, St. /., LEAving, heirloom, be- 
quest (often a sword), 454, etc. 
[Cf. Goth, laiba, 'remnant.'] 

laflan, w. v. 

ge-lafian, v>. v., lave, refresh, 

lagu, St. m., lake, water, sea, 1630. 

lagu-craeftig, adj., [sea-CRAFTY] skil- 
ful as a sailor, 209. 

lagu-strat, st. /., [sea-STREEi] way 
over the sea, 239. 

lagu-stream, st. m., sea-STBBAM, 
current, tide, 297. 

lS,h, see leon. 

land, see lond. 

lang, see long. 

langaS, st. m., LONoing, 1879. 

lange, see longe. 

lang-twidlg, see long-twidig. 

lar, St. /., LORE, instruction, guid- 
ance, 1950; gen. pi. lara, 1220, 
larena, 269. 

last, St. m., track, trace, 132, etc. 
[Cf. Goth, laists.] 
on last(e), xoith preceding dat., 
in the tracks of, behind, 2945, 
F. 19. 

VSX, adj., [loth], loathIj, loath- 
some, hated, hostile, 134, 511, 
2315, 2467, etc. ; dat. pi. la«an, 

Often used absolutely, foe, loathed 
foe, 550, 841, 1061 ; gen. pi. 242 ; 
weak, se laiSa, 2305* ; latS wi« 
la>um, 'foe with foe,' 440; eefter 
la'Sum, 'after the loathed foe,' 
1257; neut. fela io latSes gebad, 
• much hostility or evil I endured,' 

latJra, eompar., more LOAxnly, 

more hateful, 2432. 
iat$-Wte, St. m., foe-BiTB, wound, 

latJ-geteona, w. m., evil-doer, 

monster, 559, 974. 
latS-lIc, adj., loathly, 1584. 
ISaf, St. neut., leaf, 97. 
Igafnes-word, st. neut., leave-word, 

permission, pass-word, 245. 
-leah, see -ISogan. 
lean, st. neut., reward, 114, 951, 

1021, etc. [Cf. Goth, laun.] 
Igan, St. v., w. ace, blame; pres. 

sg. 3rd lyh^, 1048; pret. log, 203, 

be-lean, st. v., with ace. rei and 

dat. pers., dissuade from, prohibit, 

ISanian, w. v., with ace. rei and dat. 

pers., pay for, repay, reward for, 

1380, 2102. 
15as, adj., [-less] with gen., lacking, 

deprived of, 850, 1664. [Cf. Goth. 

laus, ' empty.'] 
leas-sceawere, st. m., spy, 253 (see 

lecgan, w. v. [Cf. Goth, lagjan.] 
a-lecgan, w. v., lay, lay down, 

lay aside, 34, 834, etc. 
16g, see Hg. 
leger, st. neut., [lair] lying, 3043. 

[Cf. Goth, ligrs, 'bed, couch.'] 
legerbedd, st. newt., death-BEO, grave, 

-ISh, see l§ogan. 
lemian, lemman, w. v., lams, 

trouble; pret. sg. with pi. nom., 

lemede, 905. 
leng, see longe. 
lenge, 83 (see note), 
longest, see longe. 
lengra, see long, 
leod, St. m., prince, chief, 341, 

15od, st.f., people, nation, 596, 599, 

etc. ; pi. leoda, 3001. [See leode.] 
leod-bealo, st. neut., [nation-BALB] 

national evil, 1722 (see note) ; gen. 

pi. -bealewa, 1946. 
leod-burg, st. /., [nation-BURon] 

chief city; ace. pi. -byrig, 2471. 
Igod-cyning, st. m., nation-KiNG, 

king of a people, 64. 
Igode, St. m. pi., people, 24, 362, etc. 

[See leod, st. f. and cf. Germ. 

Igod-fruma, w. m., nation-chief, 

prince of a people, 2130. 
Igod-gebyrgea, w. m., protector of 

a people, 269. [Cf. beorgan.] 



ISod hryre. t.t. m., fall of a prince or 

people, 2030, 2391. 
15od-8ceatJa, [w. m., scATner of a 

people, national foe, 2093. 
16od-BClpe, St. m., [people-snip] 

nation, 2197, 2751. 
18of, (idj., LIEF, dear, 81, eto. 
leofaC, see libban. 
ISof-lic, adj., dear, beloved, precious, 

1809, 2603. 
ISoffan, It. v., LIE, belie, 250, 3029. 

[Cf. Goth, liugan.] 

ft-lgo^an, St. r., with ace. m, 

beLEE, falsify; pret. aleh, 80. 
ge-lSogran, tt. v., with dat.pers.^ 

deceive; pret. geleah, 2323. 
leoht, St. neut., light, brilliance, 

569, 727, etc. [Cf. Goth, liuhab.] 
ISolit, adj.t LIGHT, bright, flashing, 

ISoma, tr. m., gleam, ray, 311, 1670 

(see note), eto. 
leomum, see Itm. 
leon, St. v., LEni; pret. lah, 1456. 

[Cf. Goth, leihwan.] 

on-leon, st. v., with gen. ret and 

diit.pers.y Lsnd; pret. onlah, 1467. 
leomian, w. v., learn, study, devise, 

2336 (see note). 
Igosan, St. v., loss. [Cf. Goth. 

be-leosan, st. v., deprive; pp. 

beloren, 1073. 
for-leosan, st. v., with dat.^ 

lose, 1470, etc. 
leotJ, St. neut., lay, 1159. 
leoUo-crseft, st. m., [limb-CRAFT] 

hand-craft ; dat. pi. segn...gelocen 

leotJo-crseftura, • a banner woven 

by skill of hand,' 2769 (see note). 
leotJo-syrce, w. /., limb-SAjiK, shirt of 

maU, 1505, 1890. 
lettan, w. v., with ace. pen. and gen. 

rei, let, hinder, 669. [Cf. Goth. 

libban, w. v., pres. sg. lifatS, lyfa'S, 

leofa'S; suhj. lifige; pret. lifde, 

lyfde; pres. part, lifigende: live, 

57, eto. 
lie, St. n., [lych] body, 451, etc.; 

corpse, 1122, etc. [Cf. Goth, leik.] 
licg(e)an, st. v., lie, lie down, lie 

low, lie dead, 40, etc.; fail, 1041. 
S.-licg(e)an, st. v., fail, cease, 

1528, 2886. 
ge-licg(e)an, st. v., sink to rest, 

lic-homa, lic-hama, w. m., [lych- 

covering] body, 812, 1007, etc. 
lician, w. v., with dat., [ukb] please, 

639, 1854. 

lic-sar, *t. neut., body-soRB, wound 

in the body, 815. 
lic-syrce, w. f., body-SABK, shirt of 

mail, 550. 
Ud-mann, st. m., sea-MAN, 1623. 
lif, St. neut., life, 97, etc. 
UfatJ, etc., see libban. 
lif-bysig, adj., [life-busy] in the 

throes of death, 966. 
lif-dagas, St. m. pi., lite-days, 793, 

Llf-frSa, w. m., LiFE-lord, Lord of 

life, 16. 
lif-gedai, St. neut., LiTE-parting, 

death, 841. 
lif-gesceaft, it. /., destiny, 1953, 

lif-wratSu, St. /., LrFE-protection, 

971, 2877. 
lif-wynn, st. f. , LiTE-joy, 2097. 
lig, Igg, St. m., flame, 83, 2549, 

eto.; dat. ligge, 727. 
lig-draca, Igg-draca, w. m., flame- 
DRAKE, flaming dragon, 2333, 3040. 
lig-egesa, w. m., flame-terror, 2780. 
lige-tom, St. neut., [LYing-anger] 
pretended insult, 1943. (See 
Bugge, Z.f.d. Ph., ly. 208.) 
ligge, see lig. 

lig-yU, St. /., flame- wave, 2672. 
lim, St. neut., limb, branch; dat. pi, 

leomum, 97. 
limpan, st. v., happen, befall; pret, 
lomp, 1987. 
ft-limpan, st. v., befall, 622, 733. 
be-limpan, st. v., befall, 2468. 
ge-limpan, st. v. , befall, happen, 
76, 626 (be fulfilled) , 929 (be given), 

ge-lumpen, pp. of limpan or 
gelimpan, 'fulfilled,' 824. 
lind, St. /., LiNcen, shield (made of 

linden), 2341, 2365, 2610. 
lind-gestealla, w. m., shield-com- 
rade, comrade in arms, 1973. 
lind-haebbende, st. m. {pres. part.), 
[LiNDen-HAving] shield-warriors, 
245, 1402. 
Und-plega, lo. m., LiNcen-PLAY, 

battle, 1073*, 2039. 
lind-wlga, w. m., LiNnen-warrior, 

shield-warrior, 2603. 
linnan, it. v., with gen. or dat., 
cease, depart, be deprived, 1478, 
liss, It. /., favour, 2150. [From 

*\\1Sb, cf. iTSe, 'gentle.'] 
list, St. m. andf., cunning; 

adverbially, 781. 
litJan, St. v., go; pp. liden, •tra- 
versed,' 223 (see note to L 224). 



iHSe, adj., gentle, mild, 1220. 

li^Jost, tuperl.y gentlest, 3182. 
litJend, st. m. (pre*, part,), [going] 

sailor, 221. 
liU-wSge, St. neut., stoup of drink, 

1982. [Gf. Ooth. leij>u, 'strong 

lixan, w, v., gleam, glisten; prct. 

lixte, 311, 485, 1570. 
locen, see Iflcan. 
16ciaii, w. v., LOOK, 1654. 
lof, St. m., praise, 1536. 
lof-dsd, it. /., praise-DEED, deed 

worthy of praise, 24. 
lof-geom, adj., TEARNing for praise, 
lof-geomost, superl. , most eager 

for praise, 3182. 
I6g, see lean, 
lomp, see limpan. 
lend, land, st. neut., land, 221, 2197, 

2836 (see note), etc. 
land-fnuna, w. m., LAND-chief, 

ruler of a land, 31. 
land-gemyxcu, st. neut. pi., 

LAND-MARKS, boundaries, shore, 

209. [Cf. O.E. mearc] 

land-geweorc, st. neut., land- 
work, stronghold, 938. 
land-warn, st. /., LAND-people; 

pi. land-wara, 'people of the 

land,' 2321. 
land-weard, tt. m., [land-ward] 

guardian of a country, 1890. 
lond-bflend, land-bQend, st. in. {pres. 

part.), LAND-dweller, 95, 1345. 
lond-riht, st. neut., land-rioht, right 

of a citizen or freeholder, 2886. 
long, lang, adj., lono, 16, 54, etc. 
lang-twidig, adj., LONG-granted, 

lasting, 1708. 
lengra, compar., longer, 134. 
longe, lange, adv., long, 31, etc. 
leng, Iseng, compar., LONcer, 

leng, 451, 974, etc. ; laeng, 2307. 
lengest, superl., longest, 2008, 

long-gesta:gon, st. neut., [long pos- 
session] treasure of long ago, 

long-sum, adj., [long-some] lasting 

long, 134, etc. 
losian, w. v., [lose oneself] escape, 

1392, etc. 
Iftcan, St. v., LOCK, interlock, 

weave ; 2??. locen, gelocen, 'locked, 

of interlocked rings,' 1505, 1890, 

2769, 2995. 
be-lClcan, st. v., lock, secure; 

pret. beleac, 1132, 1770. 

on-ltlcan, st. v., unlock; pret. 

onleac, 259. 

t5-mcan, St. »., shatter, destroy, 

lufen, St. /,, hope, comfort, 2886 

[occurs here only; cf. Goth. 

lubains, ' hope,' but see note], 
lufian, w. v., LOVE, hence, show love, 

treat kindly, 1982. 
luf-tacen, St. neut., love-token, 

lufu, w. /., LOVE, 1728 (see note), 
lungre, adv. : 

(1) quickly, hastily, 929, 1630, etc. 

(2) quite, 2164 (but see note), 
lust, St. m., [lust] pleasure, joy; ace. 

on lust, lustum, • with joy, 
with pleasure,' 618, 1653. 

lyfan, w. V. 

a-iyfan, w. v., entrust, permit, 
655, 3089. 

ge-iyfan, w. v., beLiEVE in, trust 
for, rely on; with dat. pers. 909; 
with dat. rei, 440, 608; J>8Bt heo 
on fflnigne eorl gelyfde fyrena 
frofre (ace), • that she believed in 
any earl for comfort from crime,' 
627; him to Anwaldan are (ace.) 
gelyfde, ' believed in favour from 
the Almighty for himself,' 1272. 
[Cf. Goth. gal4ubjan.] 

lyfa^, lyfde, see libban. 

lyft, St. m. f. neut., [lift] air, 1375, 

lyft-floga, w. m., [Liri-ra-ier] flier 
in the air, 2315. 

lyft-geswenced, adj. (pp.), wind- 
urged, driven by the wind, 1913. 

lyft-wynn, st. /., [LiTT-joy] air-joy, 
3043 (see note). 

lyhtJ, see lean. 

lysan, w. v. [From leas, cf. Goth. 

a-lfsan, w. v., LOOSE, loosen, 

lystan, w. v., impers.,with ace. pers., 
LIST, please ; pret. 1793. [From 

lyt, neut. adj. or n., indecl., few, 
2365 ; with gen. 1927, 2150, 2882, 
2836 {dat.) (see note). 

lyt, adv., LiTTle, but little, 2897, 

Urtel, adj., LITTLE, 1748, 2097, etc. ; 
ace. f. lytle hwile, ' but a little 
while,' 2030. 

lyt-hwon, adv., littIc, but little (see 
note), 203. 


mi, compar. adv., with gen., mo, 
More, 504, etc. [Cf. Goth, mais.] 



ma.dmaB, etc., see maVit5)uni. 

mseg, see magan. 

mag, St. in., kinsman, blood-relative, 

408, etc. ; pi. mJigas, etc., 1015, 

etc.; maga, 2006; 

magum, 1178, etc., 2614 (see 

note), rafflgum, 2353. 
m»g-burg, St. /., [kin-BURon] 

family; gen. mneg-burge, 2887. 
maege, msegen, 2654, see magan. 
msegen, st. neut., main, strength, 

force, army, 155, 445, etc. 
maegen-agende, adj. (pres. part.), 

[MAiN-oH'iVing] mighty, 2837. 
msegen-byiiJeii, it./., main-burthen, 

great burden, 1625, etc. 
maegen-craBft, st. m., main-craft, 

mighty strength, 380. 
msegen-ellen.sf. n^i<f.,MAiN-strength, 

great courage, 659. 
msegen -ful turn, st. m., MAiN-aid, 

strong help, 1455. 
maegen-rffls, »t. m., [matn-r^cb] 

mighty impetus, onset, 1519. 
msegen -strengo, st. /., main- 

STRENoth; dat. 2678. 
msegen-wudu, it. m., [main-wood] 

spear, 236. 
mseg-IJ, St. /., MAID, woman, 924, 

etc. [Cf. Goth, maga^s.] 
msdgV, St. /., tribe, people, 5, etc. 
mseg-wine, st. m., kinsman-friend; 

pi. 2479. 
msel, St. neut., [meal, cf. Goth, mel, 

• time.'] 

(1) time, occasion, 316, 1008, etc. 

j2) sword with marks, 1616, 1667. 
msel-ceam, st.f., time-cARB, 189 (see 

m»l-gesceaft, st./., time appointed, 

msenan, w. v., [arEAN] with ace, 

declare, proclaim, 857, 1067 (see 

note to 1. 1101). 
m»nan, to. v., trans, and intrans., 

MOAN, bemoan, mourn, lament, 

1149, 2267, 3149, 3171. 
msenig, see monlg. 
msenigo, see menigeo. 
m»re, adj., famous, notorious, 103, 

762,J.301, etc. [Cf. Goth, -mereis.] 
mserost, sxiperl., 898. 
m»r?o, miertJu, st. /., glory, fame, 

504, 659, etc.; deed of glory, 

exploit, 408, 2134, 2645; dat. pi. 

as adv., gloriously, 2514. [C/. 

Goth. meri>a.] 
msest, it. m., mast, 36, eto. 
m»st, see mJlra. 
msite, adj., small. 

msetost, superl., smallest, 1455. 

maga, w. m. , son, man, 189, eto. 

maga, see msg. 

magan, pret. pres. v., may, can, be 
able; pres. sg. \st and 'ird meeg, 
277, etc., Ind meaht, 2047, miht, 
1378; pres. suhj. sg. moege, 2530, 
etc., pi. ma)gen, 2654; pret. 
meahte, 542, 648, etc., mihte, 
190, 308, etc., mehte, 1082, etc. 
With gan omitted, 754. 

m3,ge, w. /., kinswoman, 1391. 

mago,««.7n.,kinsman,son,man, 1465, 
etc. [Cf. Goth, magus, ' boy.'] 

mago-driht, st. /., kindred-troop, 
band of warriors, 67. 

mago-rinc, tt. m., retainer, warrior, 

mago-^egn, magu-J>egn, st. m., 
THANE, 293, 408, 1405, eto. 

man(n), see mon(n). 

manna, see mon(n). 

ma,n, St. neut., wickedness, crime, 
110, 97J, 1055. 

mJLn-fordsBdla, w. m. , wiokea de- 
stroyer, 563. 

manian, w. v., exhort, 2057. 

manig, see monlg. 

man-lice, adv., in a manly way, 

man-sc(e)aBa, w. m., wicked sca- 
THer, deadly foe, 712, 737, etc. 

mara, compar., adj. (of micel), 
greater, mightier, 247, 518, 533, 
etc. ; neut., xoith gen., mare, more, 
136.__ [Cf. Goth, maiza.] 

msDSt, superl., [most] greatest, 
78, etc. ; neut. , with gen. , 2645, etc. 

matJellan, w.v., harangue, discourse, 
speak, 286, etc. [Cf. Goth. 

maWm-fflht, *t. /., valuable posses- 
sion, 1613, 2833. [Cf. agan.] 

ma^Sm-gestreon, st. neut., jewel- 
treasure, 1931. 

mat5(tJ)um, $t. m., thing of value, 
treasure, jewel, 169, etc. ; madme, 
1528; pi. ma'Smas, maximas, etc., 
36, 41, 385, etc. [Cf. Goth. 

matJtJum-fset, st. neut., treasure- vat, 
costly vessel, 2405. 

matJSum-gifu, st. /., treasure- oiFt, 

m5,158um-8igle, st. neut., treasure- 
jewel, costly sun-shaped ornament, 

mat5tSum-sweord, st. neut., treasure- 
swoRD, sword inlaid with jewels, 

matJ^um-wela, w. m., [treasure-WBAL] 
wealth of treasure, 2750. 



mS, pen. pron., ace. and dat. of ic, 

ME, to me, 316, 415, etc. ; dat. for 

myself, 2738. 
meagol, adj., forceful, earnest, 

solemn, 1980. 
meahte, meahton, see magan. 
mearas, etc., see mearh. 
mearc, st.f., mark, limit; dat. 2384 

(see note). [C/. Goth, marka.] 
mearcian, w. v., mabe, stain, en- 
grave, 450; pp. gemearcod, 1264, 

mearc-stapa, to, m., MARK-srEpper, 

march-stalker, 103, 1348. 
mearh, st. m., [mare] horse; pi. 

mearas, etc., 865, etc. 
meam, see muman. 
mec, pert, pron., ace. of ic, mb, 447, 

mece, st. m., sword, 565, etc. [Cf. 

Goth, mekeis.] 
med, St. /., MEED, reward, 2134, etc. ; 

oen. pi. medo, 1178. 
medo, medu, st. m., mead, 2633 ; 

F. 41, dat. 604. 
medo-sem, st. neut.^ MEAD-hall, 

medo-benc, medu-benc, meodu-benc, 

st.f., MEAD-BENCH, 776, 1052, 1067, 

1902, 2185. 
medo-ful, st. neut., mead-cup, 624, 

medo-heal, meodu-heall, st.f., mead- 
hall, 484, 638. 
medo-stig, st.f., MEAD-path, path to 

the mead-hall, 924. 
medu-dream, st. m., mead-joj, 2016. 
medu-seld, st. neut., MEAD-hall, 3065. 
meodo-setl, st. neut., mead- 
settle, 5. 
meodo-wong, st. m., MEAD-pIain, 

field where the mead-hall stood, 

meodu-scenc, st. m., mead- 

draught, mead-cup, 1980. 
mehte, see magan. 
melda, w. m., informer, finder, 2405. 
meltan, st. v., intrans., melt, 1120, 

ge-meltan, st. v., melt, 897, etc. 
mene, st. m., collar, necklace, 1199. 
mengan, w. v. : mingIc ; pp. gemenged, 

848, 1449 (see note), 1593. 
menigeo, msenigo, st. /., many, 

multitude, 41, 2143. 
meodo-, meodu-, see under medo-. 
meoto, see met, metian. 
meotod-, see metod-. 
mercels, st. m., mark, aim, 2439. 

[Sieversa § 159, 1, 2: cf. O.E. 


mere, st. m., mere, sea, 845, etc. 
[Cf. Goth, marei.] 

mere-deor, st. neut., mere-deer, 
sea-monster, 558. 

mere-fara, w. m., MERE-FARer, sea- 
farer, 502. 

mere-fix (mere-flsc), st. m., mere- 
fish, sea-fish, 549. [Sieversa 
§ 204, 3.] 

mere-gnmd, st. m., [mere-ground] 
bottom of a mere or sea, 1449, 

mere-hraegl, st. neut., [mere-bail] 
sea-garment, sail, 1905. 

mere-litJend, st. m. {pres. part.), 
[MERE-going] sailor, 255. 

mere-str»t, st. /., [mere-street] 
way over the sea, 514. 

mere-strengo, st.f., [MERE-sTRENGth] 
strength in swimming, 533. 

mere-wif, st. neut., [mere- wife] mere- 
woman, 1519. 

mergen, see morgen. 

met, St. neut., thought; pi. meoto, 
489 (see note). 

metan, st. v., mete, measure, 
over, 514, 917, 924, 1633. 

metan, w. v., meet, find, 751, 1421. 

ge-metan, w. v., meet, find, 

757, 2785 ; pret. pi. hy (ace.) ge- 

metton, 'met each other,' 2592. 

[Cf. Goth, gamotjan.] 

•metian, w. v., think ; imp. meota 
(ms. meoto) 489 (see note). 

Metod, St. m.. Creator, God, 110, 
etc. ; fate, 2527. 

metod-sceaft, meotod-sceaft, st. /., 
appointed doom, 1077, 2815, 1180 
(Creator's glory). [Cf. Klaeber 
in Anglia, xxxv., 465.] 

metJel, st. neut., council, 1876. [Cf. 
Goth. maH, 'market-place.'] 

me1$el-stede, st. m., meeting-place, 

metJel-word, st. neut., councii-woRD, 
formal word, 236. 

micel, adj., mickle, great, 67, etc. ; 
gen. micles wyrSne, ' worthy of 
much,' 2185. [Cf. Goth, mikils.] 
micles, gen. used adverbially; 
to fela micles, 'far too much,' 

micle, instr. used adverbially, 
by MUCH, much, 1579, 2651 ; so 
swa micle, • by so much,' 1283. 

mid, prep., with dat. and ace. 

(1) with dat., with, among, 77, 
195, 274, etc.; following its case, 
41, 889, 1625; of time, 126; with, 
by means of, through, 317, 438, 
etc.: mid rihte, 'by right,' 2056; 



mid gewe&ldum, 'of his own 
accord,' 2221; mid him, 'among 
themselves,' 2948. 
(2) with ace, with, among, 357, 
879, 2652, etc. [Cf. Goth, mi^.] 

mid, adv., with them, withal, there- 
with, 1642, 1649. 

mlddan-geard, tt. tn., [ihd-yard] 
world, earth, 75, etc.; gen. 'in 
the world,' 504, etc. [C/. Goth. 

mldde, w. /., MiDDle, 2705. 

mlddel-nlht, it. /., middlk of the 
NIGHT, 2782, 2833. 

mlht, $t. /., MioHT, 700, 940. [Cf. 
Goth, mahta.] 

mlhte, see magan. 

mlhtig, adj., mighty, 558, etc. 

milde, adj., mild, kind, 1172, 1229. 
mildust, superl., mildest, kind- 
est, 3181. 

mii-geniearc, tt. neut., mile-mark, 
measure by miles; gen. nis ^set 
feor heonon mil-gemearces, ' that 
is not many miles away,' 1362. 
[Fruin Lat. milia, millia.] 

milts, tt. /., ifZLDness, kindness, 

min, pert. pron. {gen. tg. of io), of 
me, 2084, 2533. 

min, pots. adj. {gen. tg. of io), mink, 
my, 255, etc. 

miasan, w. v., w. gen., miss, 2439. 

missere, tt. neut., half-year, 153, 
1498, 1769, 2620. 

mist-hliU, tt. neut., MisT-slope, misty 
hill-side; dat. pi. misthleo)>um, 

mistig, adj., misty, 162. 

mod, tt. neut. : 

(1) MOOD, mind, etc., 50, eto. 

(2) courage, 1057, etc. 
mod-cearu, $t. /., mood-cake, sor- 
row of mind or heart, 1778, 1992, 

mSdega, m6dgan, etc., see modig. 
mod-gehygd, tt. f. and neut., mind- 
thought, 233. 
mod-getJonc, st. m. and neut.t mind- 

THOUOHt, 1729. 

mod-g^iomor, adj., sad in mind or 

heart, 2894. 
mSdig, adj., weak m6d(i)ga, modega; 

gen. m. m6d(i)ges; pi. m6d(i)ge: 

[moody] brave, proud, 312, 502, etc. 
modig-lic, adj., [moody- like], 

modig-licra, compar., braver, 

prouder, 337. 
mod-lufu, w. /., [mood-love] heart's 

love, 1823. 
modor, tt.f., motheb, 1258, eto. 

mOd-sefa, ir. tn., [MooD-mind] mind, 
courage, 180, 349, 1853, 2012, 
m5d->>racu, tt.f., [mood-] daring, 385. 

mon(n), man(n), tt. m., weak manna; 
dat. tg. men(n); pi. men: man, 25, 
etc.; weak ace. tg. mannan, 297 
(see note), 1943, 2127, 2774, 3108; 
mannon, 577. 

mon, man, indef. pron., one, they, 
people, 1172, 1175, 2355. 

mona, w. m., moon, 94, F. 8. [Cf. 
Goth, mena.] 

mon-cynn, man cynn, st. neut., 
MANKiNd, 110, 164, 196, 1276, 
1955, 2181. 

mon drgam, man-drSam, st. m., 
[man-dream] human joy, 1264, 

mon-dryhten, -drlhten, man dryh- 
ten, -diihten, tt. m., [MAN-jlord, 
etc., 436, 1229, 1978, 2865, etc. 

monig (moneg-), manig (mane'j ), 
adj., MANY, 5, 75, etc.; msenig, 
F. 14; nom. monig oft geseet rice 
to riine, 'many a mighty one oft 
sat in council,' 171. Often abso- 
lutely, 857, etc.; and with de- 
pendent gen. pi. 728, etc. [Cf. 
Goth, manags.] 

mon-J>w©re, adj., [MAN-]gentle, kind 
to men, 3181*. 

mQr, tt. VI., MOOR, 103, eto. 

morgen, mergen, st. m. , dat. morgne, 
mergenne: morn, MORNing, mob- 
Eow, 565, 837, 2484, etc.; gen. 
pi. moma, 2450. 

morgen-ceald, adj. , MORNing-cou), 
cold in the morning, 3022. 

morgen-leoht, tt. neut., MORNing 
LIGHT, morning sun, 604, 917. 

morgen-long, adj., MouNing-LONO, 

morgen-swgg, tt. m., [morn-sough] 
morning-clamour, 129. 

morgen-tid, st. /., MORNing-xiDE, 
484, 518. 

mor-hop, st.neut. , MOOB-hollow, ' slop- 
ing hollow on a moorside ' (Skeat), 

moma, see morgen. 

morB-bealu, st. neut., MUBDer-BALB, 
murder, 136. 

morSor, tt. neut., murder, 892, etc. 
[Cf. Goth. maurj?r.] 

mor^or-bealo, tt. neut., murder. 
BALE, murder, 1079, 2742. 

moi"Bor-bed, tt. neut., murder-bed, 

morSor-hete, tt. m., mubdsbous 
HATE, 1105. 



mOste, see mOtan. 

•motan, pnt. pres. v., may, be to, 
MUST, 186, 2886, etc.; pret. moste, 
168, 2574, etc.; pret. pi. mostan, 

munan, pret. pres. v. 

ge-miman, {pret. pres.) v., have 
in MiKd, remember; pres. gemon, 
geman, 265, 1185, etc.; pret. ge- 
mundon, 179, etc.; imp. eg. ga- 
my ne, 659. 

on-munan, pret. pret. v., reMiNd ; 
pret. onmunde usio marSa, 're- 
minded us of glory, urged us on 
to great deeds,' 2640. 

mund, st.f., hand, 236, etc. 

mund-bora, w. m., protector, 1480, 
2779. [Cf. beran.] 

mund-gripe, st. m., hand-ORip, 380, 
etc., 1938 (see note). 

murnan, st. v., moubn, be anxious, 
reck, care, 60, 136, etc. 

be-muman, st. v., with ace, 
BEMOUBN, mourn over, 907, 1077. 

matJa, w. m., mouth, 724. {Cf. 
Goth. mun>s.] 

mllU-bona, w. m., mouth-banb, one 
who slays by biting, 2079. 

myndglan, to. v., call to mind: 

(1) with gen., remember, 1105. 

(2) teMiND, 2057. 
ge-myndgian, w. v., bring to 

uiND, remember; pp. gemyndgad, 
myne, st. m.: [Cf. Goth, muns.] 

(1) wish, hope, 2572. 

(2) love: ace. ne his myne wisse, 
•nor did he know his mind,' 169 
(see note). 

-myne, see munsm. 

myntan, w. v., be ar/wded, intend, 

712, 731, 762. 
myrce, adj., jiuRKy, 1405. 
myrU, st. /., mirth; dat. modes 

myrSe, 810 (see note). 


na, neg. adv., Never, Not at all, not, 

4i5, 667, 1536, 1875*. 
naca, w. vi., bark, craft, 214, 295, 

1896, 1903. 
nacod, adj., naked, 639, 2585; bare, 

smooth, 2273. 
nsebben, 1850, =ne heebben, see 

nsefne, see nefae. 
nafre, adv., never, 247, etc. 
nsgan, w. v., greet, accost, 1818*. 
ge-nagan, w. v., assail; pret. 

pi. gensBgdan, 2206, 2916* (see 
note) ; pp. geneeged, 1439. 

naegl, st. m. , nail, 985. 

nsBglian, tr. v., nail; pp. neegled, 
_^nailed, riveted, studded,' 2023*. 

nanig ( = ne anig), adj.-pron., not 
ANY, none, no, 859, etc.; with 
jen. pi. 157, etc. 

nare, naron, = ne ware, ne waron, 
see wesan. 

nas,=ne was, see wesan. 

nas, neg. adv., not, not at all, 562, etc. 

nas(8), St. m., ness, headland, 1358, 

nas-hlHJ, st. neut., NESs-slope, head- 
land-slope ; dat. pi. nas-hleo'Sum, 

n3,h,=ne ah, see S,gau. 

nalas, nalas, nales, naUas, nalles, 
see nealles. 

nam, see niman. 

nama, w. m., name, 78, 343, 1457, 
F. 26. 

nS,man, -n&mon, see niman. 

nan, (=ne an), adj.-pron., nonb, no, 
988; with gen. pi. 803, F. 43. 

nat,=ne wat, see wltan. 

nat-hwylc ( = ne wat hwylc; cf. 1. 
274), adj.-pron., [wot Not which] 
some, some one, a certain (one), 
1513; with gen. pi. 2215, 2223, 
2233, etc. 

ne, n§, neg. particle, Not, 38, 1384, 
etc.; doubled,, 182, 245-6, 
etc.; n6^, 2124;, 
1508. Often found in composition 
with verbs, e.g. nah, nabben, nas, 
nolde, nat, etc., /or which see agan, 
habban, wesan, willan, witan; in 
composition with a, anig, etc., it 
form* the words na, nanig, etc. 
(q. v.). 

Correlated with ne or anotlier 
negative, not... nor, neither... nor, 
etc., 511, 1082-4, etc.;, 1100-1;, 168-9, 
575-1, etc.;, 
1392-4, 1735-7;, 583- 
4, 718; nalles... ne, 3015-6. 
ne, not preceded by another nega- 
tive, 'nor,' 610, 739 (see note), 

Correlated with a doubled negative: 
ne.. .nanig. ..nare, 858-60. 

ngah, adj., nigh, near, 1743, 2728, 
2420. [Cf. Goth, nehw.] 

niehst, nfhst, tuperl., [next] 
last, 1203, 2511. 

n6ah, adv., nigh, near, 1221, 2870; 

with dat. 564, 1924, 2242, eto. 

near, compar., NBARer, 745. 



nealles, etc. ( = ne ealles), adv., wot 

at ALL, by no means, 2145, etc.; 

nalles, 338, etc.; nallas, 1719, 

etc.; nales, 1811; nalas, 1493, 

etc.; nalaes, 43. 
nSan, n6on, adv., from near, near, 

528 (at close quarters), 839, 3104, 

etc. [C/. ncah,] 
nearo, »t. neut., [narrow] straits, 

distress, 2350, 2594. 
nearo, adj., narrow, 1409, 
nearo-crseft, tt. m., [narrow-craft] 

inaccessibility, 2243, 
nearo fall, st. m., [narrow-foe] foe 

causing distress ; gen. nearo-fages, 

nearo->9arf, $t. /., [NARRow-need] 

dire distress, 422. 
nearwe, adv., NARROwly, 976. 
nearwian, w. v., [narrow] straiten, 

press; pp. genearwod, 1438. 
nefa, w. m., nephew, 881, etc.; 

grandson, descendant, 1203, 1962. 
nefne, nsefne, nenine, conj.: 

(1) unless, 250 ♦, 1056, 1552, etc.; 
except that, 1353. 

(2) In elliptical sentences, nnth 
quau-prepositional forces unless, 
save, 1934, 2151, 2533. 

neh, see neah, adj. 

nelle, = ne wille, see willan. 

nemnan, w. v., name, call, 364, 

etc. [Cf. Goth, namnjan.] 
be-nemnan, w. v., declare 

solemnly, 1097, 3069. 
nemne, prep., with dat., except, 

nemne, conj., see nefne. 
neod-laflu, st.f., pressing invitation, 

or desire, 1320 (see note), 
neon, see nean. 
neos(i)an, nl08(i)an, w. v., with gen., 

visit, revisit, attack, 115, 125, 

2388, 2671, etc.; pres. 3rd mosa«, 

neotan, st. v., use, enjoy, 1217. 

be-neotan, bi-neotan, st. v., 

with ace. pets, and dat. ret, de- 
prive, 680, 2396. 
necSor, see nitJer. 
neowol, adj., steep; pi. neowle, 

nerian, tc. v., save, preserve, 572; 

pp. genered, 827. [Cf. Goth. 

nesan, st. v. 

ge-nesan, st. v.: 

(1) intrans. survive, escape, 999. 

(2) trans, survive, escape (from), 
1977, 2426, F. 49; pp. genesen, 

netSan, w. v.: [Cf. Goth. nanj>jan.] 

(1) with ace, dare, encounter, 

(2) with dat., risk, 510, 538. 
ge-neiJan, w. v.: 

(1) with ace. hazard, dare, ven- 
ture on, brave, 888, 959, 1656, 
1933, 2511. 

(2) with dat. risk, 1469, 2133. 
nicor, St. m., nicker (sea-monster), 

422, etc. 
nlcor-htls, st. neut., nicker-hocse, 

cavern of a sea-monster, 1411. 
niehst, see neah, adj. 
nlgen, num., nine; inflected, 675. 

[Cf. Goth, niun.] 
niht, St. /., NIGHT, 115, etc. [Cf. 

Goth, nahts.] 

nihtes, gen. (m.) used adverb- 
ially, of a NIGHT, by night, 422, 

2269, etc. 
nlht-bealu, st. neut., night-balb, 

evil at night, 193. 
niht-helm, st. m. , night-helm, night, 

niht-long, adj., night-long, 528. 
niht-weorc, st. neut., night-work, 

niman, st. v., take, seize; pres. 3rd, 

nimelS, nyme^, 441, 598, etc.; 

pret. sg., nam, nom, 746, 1612, 

etc.; pret. pi. naman, 2116; pp. 

(ge)numen, 1153, 3165. 
a-niman, st. v., take away, 

F. 23. 

be niman, «t. v., deprive; pret. 

benam, 1886. 

for-niman, st. v., carry off; 

pret. fornam, -namon, 488, 2828, 


ge-niman, st. v., take, seize, 

take away, clasp; pret. genam, 

genom, 122, 2776, etc. 
niod, st.f., desire, pleasure, 2116. 
nlo8(i)an, see neo3(i)an. 
niotJor, see nHJer. 
niowe, see nlwe. 
nipan, st. v., darken, 547, 649. 
ni3, = ne is, see wesan. 
nitJ, St. m., envy, hate, violence, war, 

struggle, 184, 827, etc.; affliction, 


Gen. pi. used instrumentally , in 

fight, in war, by force, 845, 1439, 

1962, 2170, 2206. 
ni<5as, see nitJ'Saa. 
nrtJ-draca, w. m., [envy-DRAKE] 

malicious dragon, 2273. 
ni)>er, nyUer, adv., [nether] down, 

downwards, 1360, 3044; covipar. 

nioUor, further down, 2699. 



nlU-gsest, it. m., [envy-auEsx] mali- 
cious guest, 2699. (See note to 

1. 102.) 
nlC-g-eweorc, st. neut., [envy-woRK] 

worli of enmity, deed of violence, 

niB-grim, adj., [envy-oRiM] mali- 
ciously grim or terrible, 193. 
nlB-heard, adj., war-HARD, hardy 

in war, 2417. 
nltS-hedig, adj., war-minded, 3165. 
nH$-sele, st. m., hostile hall, 1513 

(see note). 
nilSiJas, niBas, st. m. pi., men, 1005, 

2215. [Gf. Goth. ni>j6s, 'kins- 
niB-wundor, st. neut. , dread wondeb, 

nlwe, adj., new, 783 (startling), 949, 

etc.; dat. weak nlwan, niowan, 

stefne, 'anew,' 1789, 2594. [Gf. 

Goth, niujis.] 
nlwlan, w. v., rexEw; pp. geniwod, 

geniwad, 1303, 1322, 2287 (see 

nlw-tyrwed, adj. {pp.)t new-tarred, 

n6, adv.. Not at all, not, 136, 168 

{seeuQ), 541, 543, 1508 (seene), etc. 
nolde, =ne wolde, see willan. 
nSm, see niman. 
n5n, St. /., [noon] ninth hour, 

3 p.m., 1600. [From Lat. nona.] 
nor?, adv., north, 858. 
norSan, adv., from the north, 547. 
nose, w. /., [nose] naze, cape, 1892, 

notJer (=ne o hwsetJer), adv.., nob, 

nH, adv., now, 251, etc. 
nCl, conj,, now, now that, seeing 

that, 430, etc.; correlative with 

nu, adv., 2743-5. 
nyd, st, /., NEED, compulsion, 1005, 

2454 (pangs). [Gf. Goth. nau>s.] 
n^dan, w. v., force, compel; pp. 

genyded, 2680; inflected, genydde, 

1005 {see gesacan). 
n^d-bad, St. f. , [NEED-pledge] forced 

toll, 598. 
nyd-gestealla, w. m., NEED-comrade, 

comrade in or at need, 882. 
nyd-gripe, st. m., [need-grip] dire 

grip, 976*. 
nyd-wracu, st./., [m^ED-WBACE] dire 

ruin, 193. 
nyhst, see iieah, adj. 
nyman, see niman. 
nymtSe, conj., unless, 781, 1658. 
nyt, adj., useful, of use, 794. [Gf. 

Goth, -nuts.] 

nytt, St. /., duty, ofiBce, service, 

494, 3118. 
nyttian, w. v., with gen. 

ge-njrttian, w. v., with acc.^ 

use, enjoy; pp. genyttod, 3046. 
nytJer, see nitJer. 

of, prep., with dat., from, 37, etc.; 
OF {after ut), 663, 2557; out of, 
419; oiT, 672. Following case: 
"Sa he him of dyde, 'then he 
doFTed,' 671. [Gf. Goth, af.] 

ofer, prep., over, with ace. (of 
motion, etc.) and dat. (of rest): 

(1) with ace, over, 10, 46, etc.; 
against, 2330, 2409, 2589*, 2724 
(see note); above, beyond, 2879; 
without, 685; of time, after, 736, 
1781 (but see note). Ofer eorSan, 
•on earth,' 248, etc.; ofer wer- 
)>eode, ' throughout the nations of 
men,' 899; ofer ealle, 'so that all 
could hear,' 2899; ofer eal, F. 24. 

(2) with dat., over, 481, etc. 
[Gf. Goth, ufar.] 

ofer, St. m., bank, shore, 1371. 

ofer hygd, -hyd, st, f. neut., con- 
tempt, pride, 1740, 1760. 

ofer-msegen, st. neut., over-maiK, 
superior force, 2917. 

ofer-matJum, st. m., [over- treasure] 
very rich treasure, 2993. 

ofost, St. /., haste, 256, 3007; dat. 
ofoste, ofeste, ofste, 386, 1292, 
2747, etc. [P. B. B. x. 505.] 

ofost-llce, adv., hastily, 3130*. 

oft, adv., OFT, often, 4, etc. 

oftor, compar., oftciier, 1579. 
oftost, superl., oFTenEST, 1663. 

6-hwfflr, 6-wer, adv., anywHERE, 
1737, 2870. 

ombeht, ombiht, st. m., servant, 
officer, messenger, 287, 336. [Gf. 
Goth, andbahts.] 

ombiht-Jjegn, st. m., atfeendant- 

THANE, 673. 

6mlg, adj., rusty, 2763, etc. 

on, an (677, 1247, 1935), prep., on; 
with dat. and ace, usu. dat. of 
rest and ace. of motion, hut in- 
stances of the ace. are common, 
as will be seen, in which there is 
no suggestion, or the merest sug- 
gestion, of m/)tion: 
(1) with dat., of place and tim^, 
on, in, 40, 53, 76, 409, 607, 609, 
677, 702, 782, 847, 891, 936, 
1041, 1292, 1352, 1544, 1581, 1618 



(A-8wimming), 1643. 1662. 1830 
(with respect to), 1884. 2197, 2248, 
2276, 2311 (upon), 2705, 3157, etc.; 
after it$ case, 1935 (but see note), 
2357, 28G6 ; in, among, 1557 ; at, 
126, 303,575,683, 3148; by, 1484. 
(2) with ace, onto, into, 35, 67, 
etc.; on, in, 507, 516, 627, 635, 
708, 996. 1095. 1109, 1297, 1456, 
1675, 2132, 2193, 2690, 2650 (with 
regiird to; cf. 1830-1), eto.; of 
tinie, 484, 837, 1428, etc.; to, 2662, 
1739 (according to) ; 
873 {see spOd), 1579 {$ee an), 1763 
{tee endesteef), 2799 {see feorh-legu), 
2903 {see efn), 2962 {tee wrecan); 
on geDyr<i. *by fate," 1074; an 
wig, 'for war,' 1247 (see note); on 
ryht, 'rightly,' 1555; on unriht, 
' falsely, ' 2739 ; on gylp, ' proudly, ' 
1749; on minne sylfes dom, 'at 
my own disposal, choice,' 2147; 
>e ic her on starie, 'on which 
I am here gazing,' 2796. 
[Cf. Goth, ana.] 
on innan, see innan. 
on wejj, AWAY, 763, eto. 

on, adv., on, 1650, 3084 (see note). 

oncer-bend, tt. m. /., anchor-bjw;), 
anchor-chain, 1918*. 

on-cf5(8), tt. /., distress, suffering, 
830, 1420. 

ond, conj., and, 39, etc.; usually tlie 
symbol 7 it used in * Beowulf : ond 
occurs in 11. 600, 1148, 2040. In 
Hickes^ transcript of ^ Finnsburh* 
and t« used exclusively. 

ondlean, st. m., requital, 1541*, 
2094* (see notes: in both cases 
miswritten in lis hondlean). 

end long, and-long, adj., (1) live- 
LONO, 2115, 2938; (2) stretching 
or standing up to; andlongne 
eorl, 'the earl upstanding,' 2695. 

on-drysne, adj., terrible, 1932. 

ond saca, w. m., adversary, 786, 

ond-slyht, tt. m., back-stroke, re- 
turn blow, 2929, 2972. 

ond-swaru, tt.f., answer, 354, 1493, 
1840, 2860. 

finettan, w. v., hasten; pret. "pl, 
306, 1803. [P. B. B. x. 487.] 

on-gean, prep., with dat., AOAiNst, 
towards, at, 1034; after itt case, 
681, 2364 {tee foran). 

onllc-nes, tt.f., likeness, 1351*. 

on-mOd, see an-m5d. 

on-medla, w. m., arrogance, 2926. 

on-siige, adj.^ impending, attacking, 
fatal, 2483; nom. ^sr wees Hond- 

BCio hild onsroge, ' there warfitre 
assailed Hondscio,' 2076. 

on B^n, an-syn, tt.f., sight, appear- 
ance, form, 251, 928, 2772, 2834. 

on- weald, tt. m., [wiELDing] con- 
trol, possession, 1044. 

open, adj., open, 2271. 

openian, w. v., 01 kn, 3056. 

Or, tt. neut., beginning, origin, van, 
1041, 1688, 2407. 

ore, St. m., flagon, 2760, etc. \_Cf. 
Gof/i. aiirkeis. i«Vom Lai. urceus.] 

orcneas, st. m. pl.^ monsters, 112 
(see note). 

ord, tt. m., point, front, van, 556, 

ord-fruma, w. m., chief, prince, 263. 

Oret-mecg, tt. m., warrior, 332, 363, 

Oretta, w. m., warrior, 1532, 2538. 
[Cf. oret, from orhat, 'a calling 
out, challenge,' and see Sieverss 
§ 43, N. 4.] 

oretJ-, see oruB. 

or-feonne, adj., devoid of, destitute, 
wretched (see note to 1. 2385). 

or-leahtre, adj., blameless, 1886. 

or-lege, tt. neut., battle, war, 1326, 

orleg-hwn, st. /., battle-wHiLE, time 
of battle or war, 2002*, 2427, 2911. 

or-J>onc, or-J>anc, tt. m., [original 
TiiovGHt] skill, 406; dat. pi. 
adverbially, skilfully, 2087. 

oru^, tt. neut., breath, 2557; gen. 
ore'Ses, 2523*; dat. oretSe, 2839. 
[From or, 'out of,' and utS = 6'5= 
*anK cf. Goth, us-anan, 'to breathe 

or-wearde, adj.^ wardIcss, un- 
guarded, 3127. 

or-wena, adj. {weak form), with gen. ^ 
[wEENless] hopeless, despairing, 
1002, 1565. [Cf. Goth, us-wena.] 

oV, prep., w. ace, until, 2399, etc. 
ot$ ►set, conj., tUl, until, 9, etc.; 
0-^ l^aet, 66. 

otJer, nwn. adj.-pron., other, (the) 
one, (the) other, the second, 
another, 219 (see note), 503, 1583, 
(fi» swylc), etc.; correl. otSer... 
6«er, '_one...the other,' 1349-51; 
o-Ser SEedan, 'said further,' 1945 
(see note). [0/. Goth. an>ar.] 

oW, see oU. 

oUtJe, conj.: 

(1) or, 283, etc. 

(2) and, 649 (s_ee note to 1. 648), 2475. 
ower, see ohwaer. 

o-wlht, pron., aught; dat. a whit, 
1822, 2432. See also &ht. 




racan, w. v., tntraiis., reach; pret. 
rffihte, 747. 
ge-racan, w. v., trans., bbaoh; 
j>ret. gerfflhte, 556, 2965. 
rod, St, m., [rede] advice, counsel, 

help, benefit, gain, 172, etc. 
radan, st. and w. v. [read] : 

(1) intrans.y redb, decide, decree, 

(2) trans., possess, 2056. 
rsd-bora, w. m., counsellor, 1325. 

[Cf. beran.] 
Radend, st. m. {pres. part.), Ruler 
JGod), 1555. 

raran, w. v. [Cf. Goth. {ur)raisjan.] 
a-raran, w. v., bear, raise, 
_exalt, extol, 1703, 2983. 
ras, St. m,, bace, rush, storm, 
^onslaught, 2356, 2626. 
rasan, w. v., race, rush, 2690. 

fee rasan, w. v., race, rush, 

rast, St. /., REST, resting-place, bed, 
_122, etc. 

raswa, w. m., leader, 60. 
rand, see rend, 
rasian, w. v., explore; pp. raaod, 

ra9e, see liraVe. 
reafian, w. v., reave, rob, plunder; 

pret. reafode, rgafedon, 1212, 

2985, etc. [Of. Goth, r^ubon.] 
be-rSaflan, w. v., bereave; pp., 

with dat., bereft, 2746, etc. 
rec, St. m., reek, smoke, 3155. 
reccan, w. v., with gen., reck, care; 

pres. 3rd, recce's, 434. 
reccan, w. v., relate, tell, 91; dat. 

inf. reccenne, 2093; pret. rehte, 

2106, 2110. 
reced, st. neut., house, building, 

hall, 310, 412, etc. 
re^-heard, adj.^ [mighty-HARo] 

wondrous hard, 326 (see note). 
regnian, renian, w. v., prepare, 

adorn, 2168*; pp. geregnad, 777. 
ren-weard, st. m., 770 (see note). 
reoc, fierce, 122. 
reodan, st. v., make bed, 1151*. 
reofan, st. v. 

be-reofan, st. v., bereave, 

deprive; pp., ace. sg. /., berofene, 

2457, 2931. 
rSon, see r5wan. 
reord, st. /., speech, 2555. {Cf. 

Goth, razda.] 
reordian, w. v., speak, 2792*, 3025. 
ge-reordlan, w. v., prepare a 

feast; pp. gereorded, 1788. 

rSot, 2457 (see note), 
reotan, st. v., weep, 1376. 
restaii, w. v., rest, cease, 1793, etc. 
rej>e, adj., fierce, furious, 122, etc. 
rice, St. neut., realm, 861, etc. 
rice, adj., rich, powerful, mighty, 

172, etc. 
rlcone, adv., quickly, 2983. 
rlcsian, rlzian, w. v., reign, rule, 

domineer, 144, 2211*. 
ridan, st. v., ride, 234, 1883, etc.; 

pret. pi. riodan, 3169. 

ge-rldan, st. v., with ace, bide 

over, 2898. 
ridend, st. m. {pres. part.), BiDer; 

pi. ridend, 2457. 
riht, St. neut., right, 144, 1700, etc.; 

ace. on riht, 'rightly,' 1555; dat. 

after rihte, 'in accordance with 

right,' 1049, etc.; ace. pi. ofer 

ealde riht, 'contrary to the ancient 

law' {sing., ealde being the weak 

form), 2330. 
rihte, adv., RioHTly, 1695. 
riman, w. v., count, number; pp, 

gerimed, 59. 
rlnc, St. m., man, wight, warrior, 

399, etc. 
riodan, see rIdan. 
risan, st. v. 

a-rlsan, st. v., arise, 399, etc. 
rlxian, see ricsian. 
rodor, st. m., sky, heaven, 810, 

1376, 1555, 1572. 
rof, adj., strong, brave, renowned, 

1793, 1925, 2538, 2666, 2690; 

with gen. 682, 2084. 
rend, rand, st. m., shield, 231, 656, 

2538, 2673 (boss), etc. 

rand-wlga, w. m., shield- 
warrior, 1298, etc. 
rond-habbend, st. m. {pres. part.), 

[shield-HAving] shield- warrior, 861. 
r6wan, st. v., row, swim; pret. pi. 

reon = reowon, 512, 539. 
iHm, St. m., ROOM, space, 2690. 
rflm, adj., RooMy, spacious, ample, 

great, 2461; >urh rumne sefan, 

•gladly and freely and with all 

good will,' 278. 
rtlm-heort, adj., [room-hbabt] great- 
hearted, 1799, 2110. 
rtln, st.f., RUNE, council, 172. 
rfln-staf, st. m., rune-st^ye, runio 

letter, 1695. 
rtln-wlta, w. m., [rune-] wise man, 

councillor, 1325. 
ryht, see riht. 
r^man, w. v. \Jrom rum]: 

(1) make roomj, prepare; pp, 

gerjmed, 492, 1975. 



(2) make room, clear a way; 
pp. "Sii him gcrymed wear's, I'aet 
hie woel-stowe wealdan moston, 
'when the way was made clear 
for them so that they were 
masters of the field,' 2983; to 

ge-ryman, w. v., make uooiiy, 
prepare, 1086. 


sactin, $t. v., strive, 439. [Cf. Ooth. 

sakan, 'rebuke, dispute.'] 
on-sacan, st. v.: 

(1) rcith ace. pers. and gen. rei, 
attack: pres. suhj. J>8Btte freo'Su- 
webbe feores ons8ece...leofne man- 
nan, 'that a peaceweaver should 
assail the life of a beloved man,' 

(2) with ace. rei and dat, pars., 
refuse, dispute, 2954, 

sacu, St. /., strife, 1857, 2472; ace. 

seece, 154. [Cf. seecc] 
sadol, St. m., saddle, 1038. 
sadol-beorlit, adj., saddle-bright, 
sae, St. m.f., sea, 318, etc.; dat. pi. 

sffim, 858, etc. [Cf. Goth, saiws.] 
sa-bat, $t. m., sea-boat, 633, 895. 
saecc, it. /., strife, fight, contest, 

953, 1977, 2029, etc.; gen. sg. 

secce, 600. [Cf. sacu, and Goth. 

saece, see sacu. 

sffl-cyning, st. m., sea-kino, 2382. 
Biedan, see secgan. 
Bffl-deor, St. neut., sea-deer, sea- 
monster, 1510. 
ss-draca, w. m., sea-drake, sea- 
jdragon, 1426. 
ssBgan, w. v., cause to sink, lay 

low; pp. gesffiged, 884. [Cf. 

sigan, sag.] 
Sffl-geap, adj., SEA-wide, spacious, 

B8B-genga, w. m., SEA-ooer, ship, 
_1882, 1908. 
Baegon, see seen. 
s»-gnmd, St. m., sea-ground, bottom 

of the sea, 564. 
ssel, St. neut., hall, 307*, etc.; ace. 

sel, 167. 
sal, St. m.f. [Cf. Goth, sels.] 

(1) time, season, occasion, oppor- 
tunity, 489 (see note), 622, 1008, 
etc. ; ace. sq. sele, 1135 (see note 
to 11. 1134-6). 

(2) happiness, joyance, bliss, 643, 
etc. ; dat. pi. salum, 607. 

Sffl-lftc, St. neut., SEA-booty, 1624; 

ace. pi. soo-lac, 'sea-spoils,' 1652. 
8»-ia,d, »t. /., sEA-path, sea-voyage, 
_1139, 1157. 
saelan, w. v., bind, tie, secure, 226, 

1917; pp. gesffiled, • bound, twisted, 

interwoven,' 2764. [From sal, 

cf. Goth, sailjan.] 

ou-sffilan, w. v., unbind; see 
jiote to 1. 489. 

ssBlan, w. v., happen. [From ssel.] 
ge-Sffllan, w. v., often impers., 

befall, chance, happen, 574, 890, 

saeld, St. neut., hall, 1280. 
Ba-IitJend, st. m. {pres. part.), sea- 

farer; nom. pi. sJelitSend, 411, 

1818, 2806 ; Sffl-h-«ende, 377. 
8»l«e, 3152 (see note to 11. 3150, etc.) . 
ssB-mann, st. m., sea-man, 329, 2954. 
Bffl-metJe, adj., SEA-weary, 325. 
ssimra, compar. adj. {ivithout pos.). 

worse, weaker, 953, 2880. 
ss-naess, st. m., sea-ness, headland, 
_223, 571. 
ssane, adj. 

sanra, compar., slower, 1436. 
B88-rinc, St. m., sEA-warrior, 690. 
sie-sHJ, St. m., SEA-journey, 1149. 
Sffl-weaU, St. m., sea-wall, 1924. 
Bae-wong, st. m., SEA-plain, shore, 

S89-wudu, St. m., SEA-WOOD, ship, 226. 
s»-wylm, St. m., [sea- fF£i,i,ing] 

sea-surge, 393. 
-saga, see -secgan. 
sal, St. TO., rope, 302*, 1906. 
B3,lum, see ssl. 
samod, see somod. 
sand, St. neut., sand, 213, eto. 
sang, St. m., song, 90, etc. 
sar, St. neut., sore, pain, wound, 

787, 975 ; nom. slo sar, 2468 {gender 

extraordinary; see note); ace. sare, 

• harm,' 2295. [Cf. Goth, sair.] 
bSx, adj. , SORE, 2058. 
sare, adv., soreIj, 1251, 2222, 2311, 

sarig, adj., sorry, sad, 2447. 
sarig-ferU, adj., [soRRY-heart] sore 

at heart, 2863. 
sarig-m6d, adj., [sorry-mood] in 

mournful mood, 2942. 
sar-llc, adj., [sore-like] painful, sad, 

812, 2109. 
aawl-berend, st. to. {pres. part.), 

[souL-BEARiug] being endowed with 

a soul, 1004. 
sawol, St. /., SOUL, 2820, etc.; ace., 

gen. sawle, 184, 2422, etc. ; gen. 

sawele, 1742. [Cf. Goth, saiwala.] 



82lwol-leas, sSlwul-lgas, soulless, life- 
less, 1406, 3033. 

sawnl-drlor, st. m. or neut., [soul- 
gore] life's blood, 2693. 

Bcacan, st. v.,pres. sg. sceace'5, 2742, 
pp. scacen, sceacen, 1124, 2306, 
etc. : SHAKE, go, depart, hasten, 
1136, 2254*, etc., 1802; pret. 
strfflla storm strengum gebSded 
scoc ofer scild-weall, 'the storm 
of arrows, sent by the strings, flew 
over the shield- wall,' 3118. 

sccldan, st. v. 

ge-scadan, st. v., decide; pret. 
gesced, 1555. 

scadu-helm, st. m., [shade-helm] 
shadow-covering, cover of night; 
gen. pi. scadu-helma gesceapu, 
'shapes of the shadows,' 650. 

scami(g)an, w. v., be asHAMEd, 1026, 

scaj>a, see scea|>a. 

sceacen, sceacetJ, see scacan. 

scead, st. neut., shade: ace. pi. 
under sceadu bregdan, ' draw under 
the shades, i.e. kill,' 707: see also 
note to 1. 1803. [Cf. Goth, ska- 
dus.] _ 

sceaden-msel, adj., curiously inlaid 
sword, 1933. 

sceadu-genga, w. m., SHADE-Goer, 
prowler by night, 703. 

sceal, etc., see sculan. 

scealc, St. m., marsHJi, retainer, 
918, 939. [Cf. Goth, skalks.] 

scearp, adj., sharp, 288. 

sceat, St. m., [sheet] comer, re- 
^gion, quarter, 96; sceatta, 
752. [Cf. Goth, skauts, 'hem of 
a garment.'] 

Bceatt, St. m., money, 1686. [Cf, 
Goth, skatts.] 

Bcea))a, scaba, w. m., scATner, foe, 
warrior: nom. pi. scaj'an, 1803, 
1895; gen. pi. scea)>ena, 4, scea- 
"Sona, 274. 

sceawi(g)aii, ^' V' with occ. ,[8How, 
shew] espy, see, view, observe, 
840, 843, 1391, etc. ; pres. pi. suhj. 
sceawian, 3008; pret. pi. sceawe- 
don, 132, etc.; pp. gesceawod, 
3075, 3084. 

-seed, see -scadan. 

sceft, St. m., SHAFT, 3118, P. 8. 

seel, see sculan. 

scencan, ao. v., brink, pour out; 
pret. sg. scencte, 496. 

scennum, dat. pi., 1694 (see note). 

-sceod, see -sceBtJan. 

sceolde, see sculan. 

-sceop, see -scyppau. 

scSotan, st. v., shoot, 1744. 

ge-sceotan, st. v., with ace, 

SHOOT or dart into, hurry to; pret. 

tg. hord eft gesceat, 2319. 

of-sceotan, st. v., with ace, 

SHOOT OFF, lay low, kill ; pret. sg. , 

ofscet, 2439. 
sceotend, st. m. {pres. part.), sHooTcr, 

warrior; pi. 703, 1026* (see note), 

Bcepen, see scyppan. 
Bceran, st. v., shear, cut, 1287. 

ge-sceran, st. v. , shear, cut in 

two, 1526; pret. sg. gescer, 2973. 
-scet, see -sceotan. 
8ce'8'5an, st. and w. v., usu. with dat., 

SCATHE, injure, 1514, 1524, 1887, 

etc.; absolutely, 243. [Cf. Goth. 

ge-sce<5iJan, w. v., with dat., 

SCATHE, injure, 1447, 1502, 1587. 

Pret. sg. se "Se him sare gesceod, 

' who injured himself sorely,' 2222, 

2777 (see note). 
Bcild-, see scyld-. 
scile, see sculan. 
Bclma, w. m., brightness, gleam, 

1803* (see note). 
Bclnan, sc^nan, st. v., shine, 1517, 

etc., F. 6; pret. pi. scinon, 994, 

scionon, 303 (see note). 
Bcinna, w. m., apparition, 939. 
Bcionon, see sclnan. 
scip, St. neut., ship, 302, etc.; dat, 

pi. scypon, 1154. 
BCip-here, st. m., sHip-army, naval 

force; dat. scip-herge, 243. 
sclr, adj., sheer, bright, 322, 496, 

979 ; weak gen. 1694. 
sclr-ham, od;., bright-coated, with 

shining mail, 1895. 
Bcod, see scetJBan. 
scolde, etc., see sculan. 
Bcop, St. m., [sHAPer] maker, bard, 

etc., 90, 496, 1066. 
Bc5p, see scyppau. 
Bcota, w. m., SHOoTer, warrior. 

See note to 1. 1026. 
Bcrlfan, st. v., [shrive] prescribe, 

pass sentence, 979. [From Lat. 

for-scrlfan, st. v., with dat. pers., 

proscribe, 106. 
ge-scrlfan, st. v., prescribe : pret. 

sg. swa him wyrd ne gescraf hrc'5 

86t hilde, 'in such wise that weird 

did not assign to him triumph in 

battle,' 2574. 
scrltSan, st. v., stride, stalk, glide, 

wander, move, 163, 650, 703, 2569. 
Bcucca, w, m., devil ; dat. pi. 939. 



Bcllfan, it. v., with ace, bhove, 
launch, 215, 918; pret. pi. scufun, 
3131. [Cf. Goth, -skiuban.] 

be-flcflfan, St. v.,irif/iacc., shove, 
cast, 184. 

wid-scflfan, st. v., [wide-shovb] 
scatter, 936 (see note). 

scolaji, prct. pret. v., pre$. sg. Ist, 
3rd sceal, 20, etc., seel, 455, etc., 
Bceall, 1862, etc. ; pres.subj. scyle, 
1179, 2657, scUe, 3176; pret. 
Bcolde, 10, etc., sceolde, 2341, etc., 
2nd $g. sceoldest, 2056; pi. scol- 
don , 41 , etc. , sceoldon, 2257: shall, 
must, have as a duty, be obliged, 
ought, pret. should, was to, etc., 
230, etc.; sometimes expressing m^re 
futurity, 384, etc. He gesecea'j 
Bceall hord on hrusan, 'it is his to 
seek the hoard in the earth,' 2275. 
With foil. inf. omitted : unc sceal 
worn f ela ma>ma gemfflnra [ wesan ] , 
1783; urum sceal sweord ond helm 
...bam gemffine, 'to us both shall 
one sword and helmet [be] in com- 
mon,' 2659; sceal se hearda helm 
...fffitum befeallen, 2255; >onne 
«u forS scyle, 1179; so, 2816. 

Bctlr-heard, adj., [showeb-hard] 1033 
(see note). 

Bcyld, St. m., shield, 325, etc. 

Bcild-weall, »t. m., shield-wall, 

scyldan, w. v., shield', pret. nym'Se 
mec God scylde, ' unless God had 
shielded me,' 1658. 

Bcyld-freca, w. m., shield- warrior, 

Bcyldig, adj., guilty; with dat., syn- 
num scildig, 3071 ; with gen. 1683; 
ealdres scyldig, 'having forfeited 
his life,' 1338, 2061. 

Bcyld-wiga, w. m., shxeld- warrior, 

scyle, see sculan. 

sc^nan, see sclnan. 

8C3nidan, w. v., hasten, 918, 2570. 

Bc^e, adj., SHEEN, beauteous, 3016. 
[Cf. Goth, skauns, 'beautiful.'] 

8cyn-8ca>a, w. m., spectral-foe, 707* 
(see note). 

Bcyp, see scip. 

Bcyppan, st. v., shape, create, make, 
78; W8BS sio wroht scepen heard 
wi'S Hugas, ' the strife was made 
hard against the Hugas,' 2913. 
[Cf. Goth, -skapjan.] 

ge-sc3rppan, st. v., shape, create, 

Scyppend, ««. m. (pres.part.), Shapei, 
Creator, 106. 

Bc^ran, w. v., bring to light, henes 
decide, 1939. [Cf. sclr.] 

86, sec, ►aat, demontt. adj., the, that. 
Sing.: nom. m. se; /. sro, 66, 
etc. ; sio, 2098, etc. ; n. ha5t ; ace. 
m. hone; /. ha; n. brot ; gen. m. 
n. boss; /. hare; dat. m. n. \>bbiii, 
52, etc., ^am, 425, eto.; in$tr. m. 
n. hy; /. hare. 

PL: nom. ace, m. f. n., t>a; gen. 
m. f. n. J>ara; dat. m. f. n. \>Bdm, 
370, etc., bam, 1855, etc. Follow- 
ing its noun : ace. m. pone, 2007, 
etc.; gen. pi. i5ara, 2734. Allitera- 
ting, dat. m. b©m, in the phrase 
'on bfflm doege, pisses llfes ' 197, 
790, 806; ace.f. sg. >a, 736, 1675; 
instr. neut. \>j, 1797; gen. pi. para, 
2033. Correl. with se used as a 
relative pr on.:, 2865, 3071- 
8; seo...sio, 2258. See also pe. 
[Cf. Goth, sa, so, pata.] 

Be, m., b5o, bIo,/., J>3et, neut.,pron. 
I. Demonst. pron., that, that 
one, he, etc.: sing. nom. m. se,/. 
seo, sio, n. peet; ace. m. pone, /. 
pa, n. pset ; gen. m. n. pees, /. pare; 
dat. m. n. pam, 183, etc., pam 
1957, /. pare; instrum. m. n. py, 
87, etc., pe, 821, etc., pon, 504, 
etc. Immediately followed by the 
rcl. particle pe (q. v.): nom. se pe, 
90, etc. ; ace. pone pe, dat. pam pe ; 
gen. pi. para pe, 98, etc., 1625 ('of 
those things which'). With pe 
omitted: pam = pam pe, 2199, 2779. 
Correl. with se used as a rel. pron.: 
8e...8e, 2406-7. 
Special usages : 

(1) gen. neut. paes, of that, of this, 
thereof, for that, for this, therefor, 
7, etc. Correl. with paet, conj., 
2026-8, etc. See also pas, adv. 

(2) instr. neut. py, pe, by that, 
therefore, 1273, 2067. Correl. with 
pe, conj. (q. v.), 487, 1436, 2638. 
Often with comparatives, the : 821, 
etc., 2880; no pj ar, 'none the 
sooner,' 754, eto. 

(8) instr. neut. pon, 2423 (see note); 
pon ma, '(the) more,' 504; after 
pon, 'after that,' 724; ar pon, 
'ere,' 731; be Pon, 'by that,' 1722; 
to pon, pat, 'until,' 2591, 2845; 
to pon, *to that degree, so,* 1876. 
See also under to. 

U. Bel. pron., that, who, 
which, what; m. se, 143, etc.; se 
for seo, 2421 {see also Pe); neut. 
pat = 'what,' 15 (but eee note), 
1466, 1748, m. ace. pone, 13, etc.; 



/. ace. \>a,, 2022 ; gen. neut. Gode 
Hncode . . , l>8e3 se man gespreeo, 
'thanked God for what the man 
spake,' 1398; >se3 io wene, 'ac- 
cording to what I expect, as I 
ween,' 272; so, 383; dat. sing. 
m. and neut. J^iem, >am, 137, etc., 
exclusively l^am in portion of poem 
written hy second scribe ; pi. \>a., 
41, etc. See also ^ses, adv. 
j»3e3 ►e, see under ^S8B. 

sealde, etc., see sellaji. 

sealma, w. m., sleeping-place, couch, 
chamber, 2460. 

sealo-brfln, o^?., sallow-brown, dark- 
brown, F. 37. 

sealt, adj., salt, 1989. 

searo, st. neut. 

(1) skill, device, cunning, dat. pi. 
adverbially, searwum, * cunningly, 
curiously,' 1038, 2764; 
(9) [cunningly devised] armour, 249, 
323^", 329, etc., 1557 (see note); 
(3) ambush, straits, 419 (but the 
meaning may be : ' when I did off 
my armour'). 

searo-bend, st. m. /., cunning BANDf 

searo-fah, adj., cunningly coloured, 
variegated, 1444. 

Bearo-gimin, st. m., cunning gem, 
jewel of artistic workmanship, 
1157, 2749, 3102*. 

searo-grim, adj., [cunning-ORm] cun- 
ningly fierce, or fierce in battle, 

searo-hfflbbend, st. m. {pres. part.), 
[armour-HAving] warrior, 237. 

searo-net, st. neut., [cunning- or 
armour-NET] coat of mail, 406. 

searo-nitJ, st. m., armour-strife, hos- 
tility, 582, 3067; cunning-hatred, 
wile, plot, 1200, 2738. 

searo-^onc, st. m., cunning 

THOUQH^, 775. 

seajo-wTindor, st. neut., [cunning- 
wonder] rare wonder, 920. 

seax, St. neat., hip-sword, dagger, 

Becan, secean, w. v., 664, 187, etc.; 
dat. inf. to scceanne, 2562; pres. 
pL (fut.) secea-S, 3001; pret. pi. 
Bohton, 339, sohtan, 2380: seek tn 
its various meanings; visit, go to, 
strive after, 139*, 208, etc., 2380 
(of a friendly visit). Sawle secan, 
•kill,' 801; so, secean sawle hord, 
2422. Intrans. 2293, 3001 (of a 
hostile attack); ^onne his myne 
Bohte, 'than his wish (hope) 
BOUGHT,' 2572. [Cf. Goth, sokjan.] 

ge-s5c(e)an, w. v., 684, 1004* 
(see note), etc.; dat. inf. to gese- 
canne, 1922 ; pret. pi. gesohton, 
2926, gesohtan, 2204: seek, in its 
various meanings as above, 463, etc.; 
often of hostile attack, 2515, etc. 

ofer-8ec(e)an, w. v., ovERtax, 
test too severely; pret. sg. se "Se 
meca gehwane...swenge ofersohte, 
'which with its swing overtaxed 
every sword,' 2686. 

secc, see ssecc. 

secg, St. m., man, etc., 208, 213, etc.; 
of GrendeVs mother, 1379. 

secg, st.f., sword, 684. 

secgan, w. v., 51, etc.; say, speak, 
dat. inf. to secganne, 473, 1724; 
pret. sg. saegde, 90, etc., siede, F. 
46; pret. pi. seegdon, 377, etc., 
Bffidan, 1945; pp. gesaegd, gescid, 
♦published, made manifest,' 141, 
1696. Imperf. with partitive gen. 
secggende waes la'Sra spella, 'was 
telling dire tales,' 3028. 

S,-secgaii, w. v., say out, declare^ 

ge-secgan, w. v., say, 2157; 
imperat. sg. gesaga, 388. 

sefa, w. m., mind, soul, heart, 49, etc. 

seft, compar. adv. (o/softe), softqi, 
more easily, 2749. 

-segan, see -seon. 

segen, see segn. 

segl, St. neut., sail, 1906. 

segl-rad, st.f., SAIL-ROAD, sea, 1429. 

segn, St. m. neut., banner, 1204; ace. 
segn, 2767, 2776, segen, 47, 1021, 
2958 (see note to 11. 2957-9). 
[Fromh. signum, whence 'sign.'] 

•sSgon, see -s3on. 

-seh, see -sgon. 

sel, see ssel. 

sel, compar. adv. {no positive, of. 
selra), better, 1012, 2277, 2530, 
2687, F. 40, 41. 

seldan, adv., seldom, 2029 (see note). 

seld-gimia, w. m. , hall-man : nom. 
sg., 249 (see note). 

sele, St. m., hall, 81, etc.; of the 
dragon's lair, 3128. 

sele, see sal. 

sele-drSajn, st. m., hall-joy, 2252 
(see note). 

sele-ful, St. neut., hall-beaker, hall- 
cup, 619. 

sele-gyst, st. m., hall-GUEST, 1546. 

sele-radend, st. m. {pres. part.), 
[hall-counsellor] hall-ruler, 51 *, 

sele-rest, st. /., hall-BEST, bed in a 
haU, 690. 



aglest, etc., see under gglra. 

sele-^egu, it. m., hall-xHANE, cham- 
berlain. 1794. 

sele-weard, st. m,, [hall-WAKD] guard- 
ian of a hall, 667. 

self, rejlex. cuij.; nom. tg. self, 594, 
920, etc., sylf, 1964; weak self a, 
29, 1924, etc., seolfa, 3067, sylfa, 
605, etc.; ace. sg. m. selfne, 961, 
etc., sylfne, 1977, 2875 ; gen. sg. m. 
selfes, 700, etc., sylfes, 2013, etc.; 
/. selfre, 1115; nom. pi. selfe, 419, 
sylfe, 1996; gen. pi. sylfra, 2040: 
SELF, etc. Often absolutely 419, 
2222, etc.; on minne sylfes dom, 
2147. Sometimes agreeing with 
the nom. instead of with the oblique 
ease next to widch it stands : Jju 
\>e (dat.) self, 953; >ffim >e him 
selfa deah, 1839. 

seUa, see selra. 

sellan, syllain, w. v., [sell] give, 
give up, 72, etc. [Of. Goth, saljan, 
•to bring an offering.'] 

ge-sellan, to. v., [sell] give, 615, 

sel-lic, syl-llc ( = seld-lic), adj., rare, 
strange, 2086, 2109 ; sellice, 
1426. [Cf. Goth, silda-leiks.] 
syl-Ucra, coTnpar., 8tranger,3038. 

Bglra, covipar. adj. [no positive, but 
cf. Goth, sels], better, 860, etc., 
2198 (see note), Twm. sg. m. sella, 
2890. Absolutely, t^aat seke, 1759. 
selest, superl., best, 146, etc. 
Weak form, reced selesta, 412; 
and often after the def. art. se, 
1406, etc. 

Bemninga, adv., forthwith, presently, 
644 (see note), 1640, 1767. 

aendan, w. v., send, 13, 471, 1842. 
[Cf. Goth, sandjan.] 

for-sendan, to. v., send away, 

on-sendan, io. v., send away, 
send off, 382, 452, 1483; with 
forS, 45, 2266. 

aendan, w. v., 600 (see note). 

sec, see se, &§. 

seoc, adj., sick, 'sick unto death,' 
1603, 2740, 2904. [Cf. Goth. 

aeofon, seven, 517; ace. seofan, 
2195 ; inflected syfone, 3122. [Cf. 
Goth, sibun.] 

aeolfa, see self. 

seomlan, siomian, tr. v. : 

(1) rest, ride, lie, stand, 302, 2767. 
seomade ond syrede, ' he held him- 
self in ambush, and entrapped 
them,' 161. 

agon, St. v., SEE, look, 387, etc.; inf. 
\mT mmg...80on, 'there it is pos- 
sible to see, there may one see,' 
1365; prct. pi., ssegon, 1422. [Cf. 
Goth, saihwan.] 

ge-flgon, St. v., SEE, 229, etc. ; 
see one another, 1875; pret. pi. 
gesawon, 221, etc., gesCgon, 3128, 
gesegan, 3038; subj. gesa- 
won, 1605. 

geond-seon, st. v., see through- 
out, see over; pret. sg. geondseh, 

ofer-sgon, st. v., oversee, sur- 
vey, look on, 419. 

on-seon, st. v., look on, look at, 
1650 (but see note). 

aeonu, st. /., sinew; nom. pi. seon- 
owe, 817. 

aeoHJan, st. v., with ace., seethe, 
brood over; pret. sg. mal-ceare, 
mod -ceare. sea's, 190 (see note to 
1. 189), 1993. 

aeoWSan, see siUIJan. 

aeowian, w. v., sew, link; pp. seowed 
(of a bymy), 406. 

aess, St. m., seat, 2717, 2756. 

aetan, see sittan. 

setl, St. neut., settle, seat, 1232, 
1289, etc. 

aettan, w. v., set, set down, 325, 
1242; pp. geseted, 1696. [Cf. 
Goth, satjan.] 

a-settan, w. r., set, set up, 47; 
pp. aseted, 667. 

be-settan, w. v., beset, set about, 

ge-settan, w. v, : 
(!) set, 94. 
(2) set at rest, 2029. 

ait)(b), St. f., peace, kinship, friend- 
ship, 949, etc. ; uninflected ace. 
sibb, 154, 2600 (see note). [Cf. 
Goth, sibja.] 

slb-3etJeling, st. m., kindred -athel- 
iNo, 2708. 

aibbe-gedriht, st. /., kindred-band, 
band of kindred-warriors, 387 (see 
note), 729. 

aid, adj., broad, ample, great, 149, 
1291, 1726 (see note), etc.; weak 
forms 1733, 2199, 2347. 

aide, adv., widely, 1223. 

ald-fse^me, adj., [wide-FATHOMed] 
broad-bosomed, 1917. 

ald-fse^med, adj. (pp.), [wide-FATHOM- 
ed] broad-bosomed, 302. 

Bid-rand, st. m., broad shield, 1289. 

ale, see wesan. 

aiex-benji, st. /., hipknife- wound, 
2904. [Fro7n seax.] 



Big-, see wesan. 

sigan, St. v., sink, march down, 
307, 1251. 

ge-slgan, st. v., sink, fall, 2659. 

slge-beom, st. m., victorious warrior, 
F. 40. 

sige-drihten, st. m., victory-lord, 
victorious prince, 391. 

sige-eadig, adj., rich in victories, 
victorious, 1557. 

sige-folc, St. neut., victory-FOLK, vic- 
torious people, 644. 

sige-hretJ, st. m. neut., victory-fame, 
presage of victory, confidence or 
exultation in victory, 490. 

Bige-hre'Sig, adj., victory exultant, 
exulting in victory, 94, 1597, 2756. 

sige-hwn, St. /., victory-wHiLE, 2710 
(see note). 

sigel, St. neut., sun, 1966. 

sige-leas, adj., victory-LEss, of de- 
feat, 787. 

sige-rof, adj., victory -famed, victor- 
ious, 619. 

sige-|»eod, st. /., victory-nation, vic- 
torious people, 2204. 

slge-w»pen, st. nguf., victory- weapon, 

sigle, St. neut., sun-shaped orna- 
ment, jewel, 1157, 1200; 
siglu, 3163. 

sigor, St. m. or neut., victory, 1021, 
2875, 3055. 

sigor-eadig, adj., rich in victories, 
victorious, 1311, 2352. 

sin, pass, adj., his, her, 1236, etc. 

sine, St. neut., treasure, jewelry, 
gold, silver, prize, 81, etc. 

sinc-fset, st. neut., treasure-vAT, 
costly vessel, casket, 1200 (but 
see note), 2231, 2300; ace. pi. 
Binc-fato sealde, 'passed the 
jewelled cup,' 622. 

Binc-fUg, adj., treasure-variegated, 
bedecked with treasure ; weak ace. 
sg. neut. sinc-fage, 167. 

stnc-gestreon, st. neut., treasure- 
possession, costly treasure, 1092, 

sinc-glfa, slnc-gyfa, w. m., treasure- 
Givex, 1012, 1342 (see note), 2311. 

sinc-maW5um, st. m., treasure- jewel 
(sword), 2193. 

8inc-|>ego, St. /., treasure-taking, 
receiving of treasure, 2884. 

sin-frea, st. m., great lord, 1934. 

sin-gal, adj., continuous, 154. 

sin-gala, adv., continually, 190. 

sin-gales, syn-gaies, adv., continu- 
ally, always, 1135, 1777. 

slngan, st. v.,pret. song, sang : sino, 

sound, 496, 1423, F. 6; pret. sg. 
hring-iren scir song in searwum, 

• the bright iron rings rang in the 
armour,' 323. 

a,-singan, st. v., sing, sing out, 

Bin-here, st. m., [continuous army] 

army drawn out, very strong, 

immense; dat. sin-herge, 2936. 
sln-niht, st. /., long night; sin- 

nihte, ' duringthe longnights,' 161. 
sin-snsed, see syn-sn»d. 
sint, see wesan. 
sio, see se, se. 
sioloU, St., still water, 2367 (see 

siomian, see seomian. 
Bittan, St. V. ; pret. pi. saton, 1164, 

setan, 1602*; pp. geseten, 2104: 

SIT, 130, etc. ; inf. eodon sittan, 

• went and sat,' 493. 

be-sittan, st. v., [sit by] besiege, 

for-sittan, st. v., fail; pres. sg. 
Srd, 1767 (see note to 11. 1766-7). 

ge-sittan, st. v. : 

(1) intrans. sit, sit together, 171, 
749 (see note), etc. 

(2) trans, sit down in, 633. 
ofer-sittan, st. v., with ace, 

abstain from, refrain from, 684, 

of-sittan, st. v., with ace, sit 
upon, 1545. 

on-sittan, st. v., with ace, 
dread, 597. 

ymb-sittan, st. v., with ace, 
sit about, sit round, 564. 
sitJ, St. m.: [Cf. Goth. sin}>s.] 

(1) way, journey, adventure, 765, 
etc., 872 (exploit), 908 (way of 
life or exile — see note), 1971 
(return), 2686 (course), 3089 (pas- 
sage), etc. 

(2) time, repetition, 716, 1579, 
2049, etc. 

SI'S, compar. adv. (pos. srS) ; aar end 

sr5, 'earlier and later,' 2500. 
BitJest, siUast, superl. adj. [no pos., 

except the adv., but cf. Goth. 

Bei>us, 'late'], latest, last, 2710*, 

absolutely, eet sfSestan, 'at latest, 

at the last,' 3013. 
siU-fsBt, St. m., expedition, 202; dat. 

sI-5-fate, 2639. 
si'K-from, adj., [journey-forward] 

ready for a journey, 1813. 
siSian, w. v., journey, 720, 808, 


for-si'Sian, w. v., [journey 

amiss] perish, 1550. 



alWan, syCtJan, BeoUIJan, adv., 
[siTHENce] siNce, after, afterwards, 
142, etc. For 1106, see note: aer 
ne siS^San, 'before nor since,' 718. 
Correl. with sylvan, conj., 2201-7. 

BiWan, syl^Van, seoWan, covj., 
[siTHENce] siNce, after, when, 106, 
etc. With pret.=pluperf. 1978, 
eto. With pret. and pluperf. 
8yi5^an mergen com, ond we t5 
symble geseted haefdon, 2103-4. 

Bixtig, with gen., sixty, F. 40. 

fllap, tt. m., SLEEP, 1251, 1742. 

Blsipaii, tt. v., sleep; pres. part., 
ace. $g. m. slapendne, 741, unin- 
Jiected, 2218 ; ace. pi. 1581. 

Bleac, adj., slack, 2187. 

slSan, St. v., pret. tg. sloh, slog. [C/. 
Goth, slahan.] 

I. intrans. strike, 681, 1565, 

II. trans. : 

(1) strike, 2699. 

(2) SLAY, 108, eto. 

ge-Bl5an, st. v., with aee. : gain, 
achieve by fighting, 459 (see 
note) ; pret. pi. hie "Sa mier'Sa ge- 
Blogon, ♦ they gained glory by 
fighting,' 2996. 

of-slean, st. v., slat, 574, 1665, 
1689, 3060. 

Blitan, St. v., slit, tear to pieces, 

BlilJe, adj., savage, hurtful, danger- 
ous, 184, 2398. 

slltJen, adj., dire, deadly, 1147. 

Bmii5, tt. m., smith, 406; vom, 
wffipna smi"5, * weapon-smith,' 

gmitJian, w. v. 

be-smit$ian, w. v., make firm 
by smith's work, 775. 

enell, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, 
bold ; weak nom. tg. m. snella, 

snel-llc, adj., brisk, prompt, keen, 
bold, 690. 

snotor, snottor, adj., wise, prudent, 
190, etc. ; pi. snotere, 202, snottre, 
1591 ; weak nom. sg. m. snottra, 
1313, etc., snotra, 2156, etc. ; ah- 
tolutely, 1786, etc. [C/. Goth. 

snotor-lice, adv. 

Bnotor-licor, compar., more 
wisely, more prudently, 1842. 

BnClde, adv., quickly, 904, etc. [C/. 
Goth, sniwan, 'hasten.'] 

snyrian, w. v., hasten, 402. 

snyttru, ft. /., wisdom, prudence, 
942, 1706, 1726. [Cf. snotor.] 

Bnyttnun, dat. pi. uicd adver- 
bially, wisely, 872. 

BnyUIJan, w. v. 

be-BnjrKtJan, w. v., deprive, 

BOcn, tt. f., persecution; dat. l-aere 
socne, ' from that persecution,' 
1777. [Cf. Goth, sokns, ' search, 

Bomod, samod, adv., together, 1211, 
2196, etc. ; with aetgaedere, 329, 
387, etc. 

Bomod, Bamod, prep.^^ 7rith dat. ; 
somod (samod) ser-doDge, * at 
dawn,' 1311, 2942. 

BOna, adv., soon, 121, etc. 

song, see slngan. 

Borg-, see Borh-. 

Borglan, w. v., sorrow, care, 451, 

Borh, St. /., sorrow, 473, etc. ; ohl. 
tg. sorge, 119, 2004, etc. ; dat. 
Borhge, 2468. 

Borh-cearig, Borg-cearlg, adj., [sor- 
Row-cAREful] sorrowful, heart- 
broken, 2455, 3152. 

8orh-ful(l), adj., sorrowful, 512, 
1278, 1429, 2119. 

Borh-lgas, adj., sorrowless, free 
from sorrow, 1672. 

Borh-leotJ, tt. neut., SORROW-Iay, 
lamentation, 2460. 

Borh-wylm, tt. m., [sonnovf- well- 
ing] surge of sorrow or care, 904, 

85'K, St. neut., sooth, truth, 532, 
etc. ; dat. to so'Se, ' for sooth,' 
51, eto. ; inst. so^e, used adver- 
bially, 'truly, with truth,' 524, 

b6«, adj., [sooth] true, 1611, 2109. 

SolS-cynlng, st. m., [Sooth-kikg] 
God, 3055. 

sCK-faest, adj., soothfast, just, 2820. 

Bo'K-lice, adv., [sooihly] truly, 141, 
273, 2899. 

specan, speak, 2864, see sprecan. 

sped, tt. f., SPEED, success; ace. on 
sped, * with good speed, success- 
fully,' 873. 

Bpel(l), tt. neut., spell, story, tale, 
tidings, 2109, 2898, 3029 ; ace. pi. 
spel gerade, 'skilful tales,' 873. 

Bpiwan, tt. v., spew; inf. gledum 
spiwan, * to vomit forth gleeds,' 

Bponnan, tt. v. 

on-sponnan, st. v., unspan, 
loosen ; pret. onspeon, 2723. 

Bpowan, St. v., impers., with dat. 
pert., speed, succeed; pret. tg. 



him wiht ne speow, • he had no 
success,' 2854* ; hu him est ate 
speow, * how he sped at the eating,' 

sprsec, St. f., speech, 1104. 

sprecan, specan, st. v., speak, say, 
341, 531, etc.; imperat. sing., 
spraec, 1171 ; with foil, clause, 
gomele ymb godne on geador 
spreecon, ]>mt hig. . . , ' old men spake 
together about the hero, [saying] 
that they...,' 1595. 

ge-sprecan, st. v., speak, 675, 
1398, etc. 

springan, st. v.,pret. sprong, sprang; 
SPRING, 18 (spread), 1588 (gape), 
2582 (shoot), 2966 (spurt). 

set-springan, st. v., bprinq 
forth; pret. sg. eetspranc, 1121. 

ge-springan, st. v., pret. ge- 
sprong, gesprang: bpbino forth, 
arise, 884, 1667. 

on-springan, st. v., sprtng a- 
part, 817. 

BtSl, St. m., place, stead, 1479. 
[Sieversg § 201, N. 2.] 

stwlan, w. V. : to impute to, avenge 
upon, 2485 (see note) ; feor hafa'5 
fieh-Se gestaled, • she has gone far 
in avenging the feud,' 1340. 

Stan, St. m., stone, rock, 887, etc. 
[Cf. Goth, stains.] 

stan-beorh, st. m., stone-barrow, 
barrow or cave of rock, 2213. 

stan-boga, w. m., [stone-bow] stone- 
arch, arch of rock; ace. sg. 2545, 
2718 (see note to 1. 2719). 

Btan-clif, St. neut., stone-cliff, clifE 
of rock; ace. pi. stan-cleofu, 2540. 

standan, see stondan. 

8tan-f§.h, adj., [sTONE-variegated] 
paved or inlaid with stones, 320. 

8ta,n-hlit5, St. neut., sTONE-slope, 
rocky slope ; ace. pi. stan-hli^o, 

stapol, St. m., [staple]: 

(1) column; ^a stanbogan 
stapulum fseste, • the stone-arches 
firm on columns,' 2718. 

(2) step, 926 (see note), 
starian, w. v., pres. sg. 1st starige, 

starie, 3rd staratS, pret. starede, 

staredon: stare, gaze, 996, 1485, 

steap, adj., steep, towermg, tall, 

222, etc. 
stearc-heort, adj. , [stark-heart] 

stout-hearted, 2288, 2552. 
stede, St. m., stead, place; gen. pi. 

W8BS steda nsegla gehwylo style 

gehcost, 'each of the places of 

the nails was most like to steel,' 

985 (see note), 
stefn, St. m., stem (of a ship), 212. 
stefn, St. m., time, repetition; dot. 

sg. niwan (niowan) stefne, ' anew,' 

1789, 2594. 
Btefn, St./., voice, 2552. 
Btellan, to. v. 

on-stellan, w. v., institute, set 

on foot, 2407. 
stepan, w. v., exalt, 1717. [From 


ge-stepan, w. v., exalt ; pret. 

tg. folce gesteptc.sunu Ohteres, 

♦ he advanced the son of Ohthere 
with an army,' 2393. 

steppan, st. v., step, march; pret. 

stop, 761, 1401. 
set-steppan, st. v., step forward ; 

pret. for'S near sestop, 745. 

ge-steppan, st. v., step; pret. 

=pluperf. gestop, 2289. 
stig, St. /., path, 320, 2218; ace, 

pi. stige, 1409. 
stigan, St. v., ['to sty' — Spenser] 

go, ascend, descend, 212, 225, 

676 ; pret. >a he to holme stag, 

• when he went down to the sea 
(to swim),' 2362*. 

3,-stigan, st. v., ascend, arise, 
1373; pret. astag, 782, astah, 
1160, 3144; gu'5-rinc astah, 1118 
(see note). 

ge-stigan, st. v., [sty] go; pret. 
))§, ic on holm gestah, ' when I 
went onto the sea (into the ship),' 

BtiUe, adj., still, 2830; adv., 301. 

stincan, st. v., [stink] snifif, snuff; 
pret. stone "Sa eefter stane, ' he 
sniffed the scent along the rock,' 
2288. [Yet this may very possibly 
be a distinct word stincan, • to 
circle round,' cognate with Goth. 
stigquan and Icel. st£(kkva.] 

sti«, adj., stout, 1533, 985* (see 

BtitJ-mod, adj., stout of mood, 2566. 

stondan, standan, st. v., stand, 32, 
etc.; 726 (come), 783 (arise), 1037 
(lie), etc. ; pret. pi. stodon, 328, 
Btodan, 3047 : hxte se leoma, leoht 
inne stod, 'the beam shone forth, 
light filled the place,' 1570 (see 
note) ; stodeldumonandan, 'shone 
forth for a trouble to men,' 2313. 

a-stondan, tt. v., stand, stand 
up, 759, 1556, 2092. 

8Bt-8tondan, st. v., stand (in), 
strike into, 891. 
for-stondan, for-standan, st. v.. 



withsTAND, avert, defend, 1549; 
ci.rn$trued either with ace. of tiling 
averted : him wyrd foi stode, 
•averted fate from them,' 1056; 
ingang forstod, ' prevented entry,' 
1519 ; or ace. of person or thing 
defended : heacJolrSendum hord 
forstandan, ' defend his board 
against the ocean-farers,' 2955. 

ge-8tondan, $t. v., stand, take 
up one's stand, 358, 404, 2566, 

8t5p, see Bteppan. 

storm, tt. m., storm, 1131, 3117. 

BtCw, St. /., place, 1006, 1372, 1378. 

Btr»l, St. m. /., arrow, shaft, 1746, 

strsBt, it. /"., STREET, foad, 320, 916, 
1634. [From Lat. strata.] 

Strang, see strong. 

stream, tt. m., stream, flood, 212, 
1261, 2545. 

stregan, w. v., strew; pp. stred, 
2436. [Cf. Goth, straujan.] 

Strang, $t. m., string, 3117. 

strengel, st. m., strono chiet, 8115. 

strangest, see strong. 

Btrango, $t. f., sTRENoth; ace. dat. 
strenge, 1270, 1533, dat. strengo, 

Btrong, Strang, adj., strong, 133, 
2684; with gen. msegenes Strang, 
•strong in might,' 1844. 

strangest, tuperl., strongest, 
1543 ; with gen. or dat. meegenes, 
meegene, strengest, 196, 789. 

BtrCldan, tt. v., spoil, plunder; subj. 
pret. strude, 3073*, 3126. 

Btrynan, w. v. [From streon.] 

ge-strynan, w. v., obtain, ac- 
quire, 2798. 

Btund, $t. /., time, hour; dat. pi. 
adverbially f stundum, ' from time 
to time,' 1423. 

style, tt. neut., steel; dat. 985. 

styi-ecg, adj., STEEL-EDoed, 1533. 

Btyman, w. v. 

be-styman, w. v., wet, 486. 

styran, w. v., steer, guide, restrain, 
F. 19*. [Cf. Goth, stiurjan, 
' establish.'] 

Btyrian, w. v., stir, disturb, 1374, 
2840; handle, treat, 872 (see 

8t3nmian, w. v., storm, 2552. 

Buhter-gefaderan, w. m. pi., uncle 
and nephew, 1164. 

sum, adj., some, one, a certain, 
2156. Although sum always ha* 
the inflections of an adj. (see 
1. 1432), it is more often used 

substantively, or at an indef. 
pron., 400, 1251, 1432, etc.; neut. 
ne sceal b»er dyrne sum wesan, 
• there shall be naught secret,' 
271. Often with partitive gen. 
675, 713, 1499, etc.; esp. with 
gen. of numerals and adjs. oj 
quantity: fiftena sum, 'one of 
fifteen, i.e. with fourteen others,' 
207; so 3123, 1412, 2091; sumne 
feara, ' one of a few, i.e. some 
few,' 3061 (see note). In a few 
cases sum appears to Jiave a certain 
demonst. force, 248, 314, 1312, 2279. 

Bund, St. neut., swiMm'mg, 507, 517, 
1436, 1618; sound, channel, sea, 
213, etc. 

Bund-gebland, st. neut., [sound- 
blend], tumult of the waves, 1450. 

Bund-nytt, st. /., [snT^miing-use]; 
ace. sund-nytte dreah, 'achieved 
a feat of swimming,' 2360. 

Bundor-nytt, st. /., special service, 

Bundur, adv., asuNDER, 2422. 

sund-wudu, st. m., [sound-wood] 
ship, 208, 1906. 

Bunne, w.f., bun, 94, 606, 648. 

Bunu,«£.m.,soN,268,etc. ; dat. suna, 
1226, etc., sunu, 344. 

stlfl, adv., south, southwards, 858. 

sfl^an, adv., from the south, 606, 


I. adv. of manner and degree, 
80, thus, 20, etc. : leng swa wel, 
'the longer the 'better,' 1854. 

II. conjunctive adv., as in its 
various meanings, 29, 1667 (so 
soon as), 2184 (since), etc.; in 
elliptical sentences, 2622; eft swa 
fflr, 642; correl. with swa I., 594, 
1092-3, etc. : swa me Higelao 
sie.. .modes h\tSe, 'so may H. be 
gracious to me,' 435 ; swa hyra 
nan ne feol, ' in such wise that 
none of them fell,' F. 43. 

III. = rel. pron. ; wlite-beorhtne 
wang, swa weeter bebugetJ, ' the 
beauteous-bright plain, which 
water encompasses,' 93. 

IV. covj., so that, 1508, 2006. 
swa beah, swa t5eh, however, 

972, 2967, etc.; redundant after 
hwoe-Sre, 2442. 

swa liwse?ere...swa, whichso- 
ever, 686-7. 

swa hwylc.Bwa, with gen.^ 
wnicHsoever, 943, 3057. 
BWffllan, u\ v. [sweal] 

be-swnlan, w. v., scorch, 3041. 



swSs, adj., dear, own dear, 29, 520, 

swfflsllce, adv., gently, 3089. 
Bwse)»er, pron., whichever of two 

[ = swa-hw8e>er], F. 29. 
swan, $t. m., young warrior, F. 41*. 

[C/. SWAIN from. O.N. sveinn.] 
swancor, adj., [swajstk] slender, 

swan-rad, it. /., swan-road, sea, 

Bwapan, st. v. [swoop] 

for-swapan, st. v., sweep away, 

sweep ofif, 477, 2814*. 
swarian, w. v. 

ond-swarian, and-swarian, w. 

v., ANSWER, 258, 340. 
swat, St. m., [sweat] blood, 1286, 

2693, 2966. 
swat-fah, adj., blood-stained, 1111. 
swatig, adj., bloody, 1569. 
swat-swatJu, st. /., [srrjs^r-swATn] 

blood-track, 2946. 
BwatJrian, w. v., subside; pret. pi. 

swa'Sredon , 570. See also swetJrian. 
swatJu, [swath] St. f., track, 2098; 

ace. him sio swi^re swatSe weard-^ 

ade hand, ' his right hand showed 

where he had been,' 2098. 
swa^ul, St. m. or neut., fiame, 782 (see 

sweart, adj., swart, black, dark, 167, 

3145, F. 37. [C/. Goth, swarts.] 
swebban, w. v., send to sleep, kiU, 

679 ; pres. sg. 3rd, swefe-g, 600. 
a-swebban, w. v., put to sleep, 

kill; pret. part. pi. aswefede, 567. 
swefan, st. v., sleep, sleep the sleep 

of death, 119, 1008, etc.; pret. pL 

swffifon, 703, swfflfun, 1280. 
-swefede, see -swebban. 
swefeU, see swebban. 
sweg, St. m., sound, noise, 89, 644, 

Bwegel, St. neut., sky, 860, 1078, etc. 
swegel, adj., bright, clear, 2749. 
swegl- wared, adj., ether-clad, rad- 
iant, 606. 
swelan, st. v., burn, 2713. 
swelgan, st. v., swallow; pret., 

with dat., swealh, 743, swealg, 

3155*; pret. subj., absolutely, 

Bwulge, 782. 
for-swelgan, st. v., swallow 

up, 1122, 2080. 
Bwellau, St. v., swell, 2713. 
sweltan, st. v., [swelter] die, 

1617, etc. ; with cognate dat. 

mor«re, -dea«e, 892, 2782, 3037. 
swencau, w. v., molest, oppress, 

1510*. [Cf. swincan.] 

ge-swencan, tt. v., strike, bring 

low, 2438. 
ge-swenced, pp. (of swencan or 

geswencan), made to toil, harassed, 

harried, pressed, 975, 1368. 
sweng, St. m., swing, stroke, 1520 

(see note), etc. 
sweofot, St. m. or neut., sleep, 1581, 

sweolo*, tt. m. or neut., flam.e, 1115 

(see note to 1. 782). 
-sweep, see -swapan. 
Bweorcan, st. v., grow dark, 1737. 
for-sw(e)orcan, st. v., grow dim, 

1767 (see note to 11. 1766-7). 
ge-8weorcan, st. v., lour, 1789. 
Bweord, swurd, swyrd, sword, st. 

neut., SWORD, 437, etc. ; pi. sweord, 

2638, swyrd, 3048, sword, F. 17. 
Bweord-bealo, st. neut., sword-bale, 

death by the sword, 1147. 
sweord-freca, w. m., swoRD-warrior, 

Bwurd-leoma, w. in., sword -light, 

F. 37. 
swyrd-gifa, st.f., swoRD-oiving, 

sweotol, adj., clear, 833; nom. 

Bwutol, 90; weak dat. sweotolan, 

141 ; wear^ sweotol, ' became 

visible,* 817. 
swerian, st. v., swear, 472, 2738. 
for-swerlan, st. v., with dat., 

forswear, lay a spell upon, 804 

(see note), 
swgte, adj. sweet, F. 41. 
BwetJrian, w. v., wane, lessen, 901, 

swican, St. v., fail, disappear, escape, 

966, 1460. 
ge-swican, st. v., weaken, fail, 

1524, 2584, 2681. 
swifan, st. v. 

on-swifan, st. v., swing forward, 

raise, 2559. 
swift, adj., swift; weak, 2264. 
swige, adj., silent. 

swigra, compar., more silent, 

swigian, w. v., be silent; pret. sg. 

swigode, 2897, pi. swigedon, 1699. 
swilce, see swylce. 
swimman, Bwymman, st. v., swim, 


ofer-swimman, st. v., over-swim, 

swim over; pret. oferswam, 2367. 
Bwin, swyn, st. neut., swine, image 

of a boar on a hehnet, 1111, 

swincan, st. v., swink, toil, 517. 
Bwingan, st. v., swing, 2264. 



Bwln-llc, »t. neitt., awiNB-shape, 

image of a boar, 1453. 
swIoVol, St. m. or neut., flame, 3145* 

(see note to 1. 782) . 
8wlt5, BwylJ, atlj., strong, severe, 

191, 30S5. [Cf. Goth, swiubs.] 
swiBra, compar., stronger; nom. 

fern, sio swrSre hand, * the right 

hand,' 2098. 
BwlUan, St. and u\ v. 

ofer-sw;^an, H. and w. v., ovKn- 

power, overcome, 279, 1768. 
8wlt$e, swyUe, adv., strongly, greatly, 

very, 597, etc. 

swilJor, compar., more greatly, 

more, more especially, rather, 960, 

1139, 1874, 2iys. 
BwitS-ferhU, swyU-ferh*, adj., strong- 

souled, stout-hearted, 173, 493, 

826, 908. 
Bwi^-hicgende, adj. (pres. part.), 

[strong-thinking] stout-hearted, 

919, 1016. 
BwitJ-mod, adj. , [strong-MOOc] stout- 
hearted, 1624. 
swogan, St. v., sound; pres. part. 

3145. [Cf. Goth, ga-swogjan, ' to 

sigh,' and O.E. swegan.] 
Bwor, see swerian. 
-sworcan, see -sweorcan. 
Bword, see sweord. 
swulces, see swylc. 
Bwurd, see sweord. 
Ewutol, see sweotol. 
Bwylc, adj.-pron., such, such as, as. 

[Cf. Goth, swa-leiks.] 

I. ( = L. talis) such: 

(1) adj. 582, 1347, etc. 

(2) pron. 299 {with gen.), 996; 
gen. swulces, 880 {see hwa) ; ace. 
otSer swylc ut offerede, ♦ carried out 
and off another such [number],' 

II. ( = L. qualis) such as, 1156 
{with gen.), 1797, 2869; ace. eall 
gedffllan... swylc him God sealde, 
' deal out all that God gave him,' 

III. (=L. talis... qualis) swylc... 
swylc, 'such.,' 1249 {with 
gen.), 1328-9, 3164. 

swylce : 

I. adv., as well as, likewise, 113, 
293, etc. ; once swilce, 1152. 

II. conjunctive adv., as, 757; as 
if, F. 38. 

swylt, St. m., death, 1255, 1436. 

[Cf. Goth, swulta-.] 
swylt-dseg, st. m., death -day, 2798. 

[Cf. sweltan.] 
awymman, see swimman. 

swj'u, SPG swill. 

swyTisian, ic. v., resound, 611. 

swyrd, see sweord. 

swy5, see switJ. 

-swytSan, see -swit5an. 

swyUe, see swlSe. 

Bf, see wesan. 

ayfan-wintre, adj., sevkn winters 

old, 2428. 
syfone, see seofon. 
-syhtJ, see -seen. 
Bylf(a), see self. 

syll, st.f., SILL, base, floor, 775. 
syllan, see sellan. 
syllic, see sellic. 
symbel, st. neut., feast, banquet, 564, 

etc. ; dat. symble, 119, 2104, symle, 

81, 489, 1008. [From Greek through 

Lat. symbola, ' a share ' ; cf. Holt- 

hausen, Anglia, Beiblatt xni. 226.] 
symbel -wynn, st. /., feast-joy, joy 

in feasting, 1782. 
8ym(b)le, adv., always, 2450, 2497, 

2880. [Cf. Goth, simle, 'once.'] 
symle, n., see symbel. 
syn-bysig, adj., [sin-busy] guilt- 
haunted, troubled by guilt, 2226. 
syn-dolli, st. neut., ceaseless wound, 

incurable wound, 817. 
Byndon, see wesan. 
Byngales, see singales. 
syngian, w. v., sin; pp. gesyngad, 

synn, st. /., bin, crime, injury, 

hatred, struggle, 975, 1255, 2472, 

Byn-scat5a, w. m., cruel bcatrqi, 

701 £see note), 801. 
Byn-snsed, st. /., [ceaseless piece] 

huge gulp, 743. 
synt, see wesan. 
syrce, w. /., sark, shirt of mail, 

226, 334, 1111. 
Byrwan, w. v., ensnare, 161. [From 

be-syrwan, w. v., ensnare, 713, 

etc.; contrive, 942; besyred, 2218*. 
sytJtJan, see sitJIJan. 

tacen, st. neut., token, 833; dat. 

tacne, 141, 1654. [Cf. Goth. 

tacan, w. V. 

ge-t»can, w. v., teach, indicate, 

assign, 313, 2013. 
talian, w. v., reckon, claim, 532, 

594, 677, 2027; pres. sg. 1st wen 

ic talige, ' I reckon it a thing to be 

expected,' 1845. 



te, 'prep. with dat., to, from, 2922 

(see note), 
tear, st. m., tear, 1872. [Cf. Goth. 

tela, adv. J well, 948, etc. 
telge, see tellan. 
tellan, w. v., tell, reckon, deem, 

794, etc.; pres. sg.lst telge, 2067: 

EC him wEBl-bende weotode tealde, 

•but [if he did] he might reckon 

death-bands prepared for himself,' 

teoh, St. /., band, troop; dat. sg. 

teohhe, 2938. 
teohhiau, w. v., assign, 951; pp. 

geteohhod, 1300. 
teon, St. v.. [tow] tug, draw, 553, 

1036, 1288 (of a sword), 1439; 

pret. sg. brim-lade teah, ' took the 

ocean-way,' 1051 ; so eft-srSas teah, 

1332. [Cf. Goth, tiuhan.] 
a-teon, st. v., [tuq] take; pret. 

sg. ateah, 766 (see note to 

U. 765-6). 
ge-teon, st. v., tug, draw, 1545, 

2610, F. 17; deliver, 1044: im- 

perat. sg. no ^u him wearne geteoh 

•Sinra gegn-cwida, 'do not thou 

give them a refusal of thy replies,' 

366; pret. sg. he him est geteah 

meara ond malSma, 'he presented 

to him the horses and treasures,' 

of-teon, St. v., tug off or away, 

withhold; with gen. rei and dat. 

pers., 5; with dat. rei, 1520; with 

ace. rei, 2489. See of-teon, below 

and note to 1. 5. 
|j{lrli-teon, st. v., [tug through] 

bring about, 1140. 
teon, St. v., accuse. [Cf. Goth. 

teihan, 'show.'] 

of-teon, deny, 5 (see note) and 

cf. of-teon, above. 
teon, w. v., with ace, make, adorn, 

provide, 1452; pret. pi. teodan, 

ge-teon, w. v., appoint, arrange, 

prepare, 2295, 2526. 
tid, st.f., TIDE, time, 147, 1915. 
tU(l), adj., good, 61, 1250, 1304, 

tilian, w. v., with gen., [tell] gain, 

tlmbran, w. v., timber, build, 307. 
be-timbran, w. v., [betimber] 

build; pret. pi., betimbredon, 

tir, St. m., glory, 1654. 
tir-eadig, adj., [glory-blessed] 

glorious, happy in fame, 2189. 

tir-fsest, adj., [glory -fast] glorious, 

tir-leas, adj., glory-LESs; gen. sg. 
absolutely, 843. 

tiUian, w. v., impers., with gen., 
grant; pp. W8es...bene getitSad, 
'(of) the boon (it) was granted,' 

to, prep., with dat., to, towards, 28, 
etc.: for, as, esp. in predicative 
dats., 14, to sotSe, 'as a fact,' 51, 
etc.: with verbs of asking, etc. at 
the hands of, from, 158, 625, 601, 
etc.; at (time), 26. 
Special usages : 

(1) for, in adverbial phrases of 
time: to aldre, 'for ever,' 955, 
2005, 2498; to life, 'm his life- 
time, ever,' 2432; to widan feore, 
•ever,' 933. 

/2) to, with gerundial infin., 316, 
473 (see note), etc. 

(3) weorSan to, 'to become,' 460, 
587, etc. 

(4) Following its case: him to, 
'to it,' 313; 909 (see note); 1396 
{see wenan) ; >e \>n her to locast, 
•on which thou lookest here,' 
1654; us secea"S to Sweona leoda, 
•the peoples of the Swedes will 
come against us,' 3001. 

to hwan, see hwa, hwaet. 

t6 |>ses, adv., so, 1616. 

to |»aBS |>e, conjunctive phrase, 
TO (the point) where, thither 
whence, 714, 1967, 2410; to the 
point (degree) that, until, 1585 
(see note). 

to J>on, adv., to that degree, so, 

to J>on, J>set, until, 2591, 2845; 
see se. 
t5, adv.: 

{1)= preposition without expressed 
object {cf. the particles of separable 
verbs in German) : thercTo, to him, 
to it, 1422, 1755, 1785, 2648. 

(2) TOO, before adjs. and advs., 
133, 137, 191, etc.: to fela micles, 
•far too much,' 694; he t6 forS 
gestop, 'he had stepped too far 
forward,' 2289. 

td-gaedre, adv., together, 2630. 

to-geanes, to-genes, prep., with dat., 
following its case, Towards, aoAiNst, 
666, 747*, 1542, 1626 (to meet), 
1893 : godum togenes, ' to where 
the good man lay,' 3114. 

tC-geanes, adv.: grap \>a. togeanes, 
'then she clutched at [him],' 



to-middes, adv., in the Mipst, 3141. 

torht, adj., bright, clear, 313. 

torn, $t. neut., anger, rage, 2401; 

insult, distress, 147, 833, 2189. 
torn, adj. 

tomost, superL, bitterest, 2129. 
tom-gemOt, st. neut., [wrath- A/E£;r- 

ing] angry meeting, encounter, 

to-somne, adv., together, 2568. 
tredan, st. v., with ace, tuead, 

1352, 1964, etc. 
treddlan, tryddian, w. v., intrans., 

TREAD, go, 725, 922. 
trem, st. m. or neut.: ace. tg. 

adverbially, fotes trem, 'a foot's 

breadth or space,' 2525. 
treow, St. /., TRoth, TRuth, good 

faith, 1072, 2922. {Cf. Goth. 

treowan, w. v., with dat., trow, 

trust: pret. sg. gehwylc hiora his 

ferh))e treowde, 'each of them 

trusted Unferth's mind,' 1166. 

(See also truwian.) 
treow-loga, w. m., TRoth-Liar, troth- 
breaker, 2847. 
trodu, st.f., track, 843. 
trum, adj., strong, 1369. 
tiHwian, w. v., with gen. or dat., 

TROW, trust, believe, 669, 1993, etc. 
ge-trawian, w. v.: 

(1) with gen. or dat., trow, trust; 
with gen., 2322, 2540; with dat., 

(2) with ace, confirm; pret. pi. 
getruwedon, 1095. 

tryddian, see treddian. 

tr^we, adj., true, 1165. [Cf. Goth. 

twa, see twegen. 

twiifan, w. v. 

ge-twSfan, w. v., usu. with 
ace. pers. and gen. rei, divide, 
sever, separate, restrain, 479, 
etc.; pp. getwEifed, 'ended,* 1658. 

twfflman, w. v. 

ge-twaman, w. v., with ace. 
pers. and gen. rei, sever, cut oft, 

twegen, m., twS,, /. and neut., num., 
TWAIN, TWO, 1095, 1163, etc.; gen. 
twega, 2532; dat. twaem, 1191. 
[Cf. Goth.tvfki.] 

twelf, num., twelve; 147; twelfa, 
3170 (see note). [Cf. Goth. 

tweonum, dat. pi. of distrib. nu- 
meral: be (bi) saem tweonum, 
•by the two seas, i.e. beT^^'EEN the 
seas,' 858, 1297, 1685, 1956. 

tydre, adj., feeble, unwarlike, 2847. 
tyhtan, u\ v. 

on-tyhtan, tr. v., entice, 3086. 
tyn, ten, 3159; injlected tyne, 2847. 
[Cf. Goth, taihuu.] 

P. D 


I. adv., then, 26, etc. 

II. rei. adv. or conj., with indie., 
when, as, since, seeing, 201, etc.; 
correl. with )>& above, 140, etc. 

Hi adj.-pron., see se, se. 
)>Em, THEM, see se, se. 
►Jer : [Cf. Goth. H*.] 

I. adv., THERE, 32, etc.; un- 
emphatic {like mod. there with 
impers. verbs) 271, 440, etc. For 
"Sfflr on iiman, 71, 2089, etc., see 

II. rei. adv., where, 286, etc.; (to) 
where, 356, etc.; if, 1835. With 
Bvrsk following : ^8er...swa, 'if so 
be that,' 797, 2730. (Cf. note to 

J. 762.) 

)>88ra, ^sere, see se, sa. 
►aes, adj.-pron., see se, s§. 
►aes, adv.: 

(1) therefore, 900, 1992, etc.; see 

(2) so, 773, 968, etc. 
►ses J>e, conj.: 

(1) as, 1341, 1350, 3000. 

(2) because, 108, 228, 626, 1628, 
1751, 1998, 2797, etc.; correl. with 
preceding bass, 1779. 

to bses )>e, see to. 

►set, adj.-pron., see se, s§. 

►set, conj., THAT, so that, 62, etc.; 
until, 84, 1911; in that, 3036; 
often correl. with the demonst. neut. 
pron. >8Bt or })8BS {see se), 778-9, 
1591-3, 159a-9, etc.; repeated, 
2864-5-71. See note to 1. 765. 
►set )>e, conj., that, 1846. 

\>2ette{ = ^sbt\>e),conj., that, 151, etc. 

^afian, w. v., with ace., consent to, 
submit to, 2963. 

-ball, see -Megan. 

)>am, see se, se. 

)>anan, see ^onan. 

^anc, St. m.: 

(1) with gen. rei, thanks, 928, 
1997, etc. 

(2) content, pleasure; dat. sg. J^a 
"Se gif-sceattas Geata fyredon 
)>yder to |>ance, 379. 

)>anc-hycgende, adj. {pres. part.), 
[THot/GHt- thinking], TMOuostivd, 



►anclan, w. »., thank, 625, 1397; 

pret. pi., |?ancodon, 1626, >an- 

cedon, 227. 
|)aiion, see ^nan. 
>ara, see se, sS. 
>S,s, see >es. 
)>6. Tel. particle, indecl., who, that, 

which, etc. 

(1) Alone, 192, 500, etc.; ace. sg. 
355, 2182; dat. sg, 2-iOO, 3001; 
rum. pi. 45, etc.; ace. pi. 2490, 
2796 ; gen. pi. 950 ; da«. pi. \>e ge 
J>8er on standa^, * in which ye stand 
there,' 2866; to 1654: heo \>a. 
fffih-Se wreec, he J>u gystran niht 
Grendel cwealdest, 'she avenged 
the feud, in which thou kiliedst 
Grendel yesternight,' 1334; mid 
hare sorhge, )>e him sio sar belamp, 
♦ with the sorrow, wherewith that 
blow befell him (see sar),' 2468. 

(2) Immediately preceded by se, seo, 
\>sdt, etc.; se J>e, 103, 1260, 1342, 
1449, 1462 {antec. aengum) ; se he 
for seo >e, 1344, 1887, 2685; seo 
he, 1445; "Sone >e, 1054, 1298, 
2056, 2173; pi. ha he, 1592. Cor- 
relatives: he, 506 (followed 
by verb in 2nd pers.) ; seo hand he, 1343-4; sio hond...Be he, 

N.B. After hara he the verb is 
often in the sg.: 843, 996, 1051, 
1461, 2130, 2251, 2383. 

(3) Followed by redundant he : ace. 
sg. m. he hine deatJ nime"5, * whom 
death wiU take,' 441, of. 1436, etc. 

haes he, see has, adv. 

haet he, see haet, conj. 

heah he. see heah. 

forlSon he, see forham. 

td hses he, see td. 
^, pers. pron. {ace. and dat. of hu), 
THEE, to thee, etc., 417, etc. With 
a comparative, than thou, 1850. 
hS, demonst. pron., see sS. 
he, conj.: 

(1) because, correl. with a pre- 
ceding hy. he {see se), 488, 1436. 
De he u8io..,geceas...he, 'on this 
account he chose us, because,' 

(2) that, 80 that, 242. 
-heali, see -hicgan. 

hSali, conj., usu. with tubj., rarely 
indie. (1102) : thouoh, although, 
203, etc.; once, heh, 1613; heah io 
eal maege, * although I may, ' 680. 
[Cf. Goth, h&uh.] 

h^ah he, conj., usu. with subj., 
THOUOH, although, 682, etc. 

hSah, adv., thouoh, yet, however, 
swS. h^ah, see 8w3.. 

hearf, st. /., need, 201, etc.; ace. 
fremma'5 gena leoda hearf e, 'fulfil 
still the people's need,' 2801. [Cf. 
Ooth. harba.] 

hearf, v., see hurfan. 

hearfa, w. m., eernes hearf a, ♦shelter- 
less,' 2225. 

(pe-)hearflan, w. »., necessitate, 
render necessary; pp. gehearfod, 

hearle, adv., severely, hard, 560. 

heaw, St. m., [thew] custom, 178, 
etc.; dat. pi. 'in good customs,' 

hec, pers. pron. {archaic ace. of hu), 
thee, 946, etc. 

heccean, w. v., [thatch] cover, 
enfold, 8015; pret. pi. hehton, 

hegn, St. m., thane; used of Beo- 
wulf, 194, etc., Hengest, 1085, 
Wiglaf, 2721, etc. 

hegn-sorg, tt. /., thane-sorrow, 
sorrow for one's thanes, 131. 

hegon, h^gun, see hicgan. 

heh, see h§ali. 

hehton, see heccean. 

henc(e)an, w. v., think, intend: 
usu. with following inf., 355, 448 
(fut.), 739, etc.; with dependent 
clause, 691; absolutely, 289, 2601 
{see onwendan). 

a.-henc(e)an, w. v., think out, 
intend, 2643. 

ge-henc(e)an, w. v., with ace, 
think, think of, 1474, 1734. 

henden, adv., then, 1019, 2985. 

henden, conj., with indie, or subj., 
while, whilst, 30, etc. 

hengel, st. m., prince, king, 1507. 

henian (=rhegnian), w. v., with dat., 
serve, 560. 

heod, St. /., people, nation, 643, etc. 
[Cf. Goth, hiuda.] 

heod-cyning, -kjming, Mod-cyning, 
St. m., nation-KiNO, king of a 
people, 2, 2144 (Hrothgar), 2579 
(Beowulf), 2963 (Ongentheow), 

hSoden, hioden, st. m., prince, king, 
34, etc.; dat. heodne, 345, etc., 
heoden, 2032; pi. heodnas, 8070. 
[Cf. Goth, hiudans.] 

h6oden-15a8, adj., prince-LBSS, with- 
out one's chief, 1103. 

hSod-gestreon, st. neut., nation- 
treasure, national possession, 44, 



^odkynlag, see ^od-cynlng. 

►eod sceatJa, w. m., nation-ffCjr//er, 
national foe, 2278, 2688. 

►6od Ma, tt.f. and w. m., national 
misery, 178. 

►6of, tt. m., THIEF, 2219. 

►eon, tt. v., thrive, succeed, 8; pret. 
ig. 2836 (see note). [Cf. Goth. 

ge ►Son, tt. v., thrive, 25, 910; 
imperat. tg., 1218. 

on>Son, tt. v., thrive; pret. tg. 
he \>sdB BBT on}>ah, 'he therefore 
throve erewhile,' 900 (bot see 
note) . 

►Son ( = bywan), to. v., oppress, 2736. 

►eoa, see i»e3. 

►eostre, adj., dark, 2332. 

►eow, tt. m., slave, 2223 •. 

►es, ►eos, ►la, demomt. adj., this, 
ting. noyn. m. \>es, f. t>eo8, n. I^is; 
ace. m. )>isne, 76, j^ysne, 1771, 
/. >as, n. >is; gen. m. n. Jjisses, 
1216, ^ysses, 197, etc., /. Usse; 
dat. m. n. hissum, 1169, "Syssum, 
2639, /. >i8se ; imtrum. m. n. ISya, 
Plur. m. f. n. nom. ace, t)as; gen, 
J>is3a, dat. ^yssum, 1062, etc. 

►lcg(e)an, tt. v., with ace, seize, 
take, partake of, eat, 736, 1010; 
pret. pi. indie, begun, 2633, tubj. 
begon, 563. 

ge-Mogan, tt. v., with ace, 
take, receive, 1014; pret. sg. ge- 
>eah, 618, 628; geHh, 1024. 

►in, pott, adj., thine, thy, 267, etc. 

►inc(e)an, see ►yncan. 

►indan, tt. v., swell with pride, 
anger, etc., see note to F. 13 

►ing, St. neut., thing, matter, affair, 
409, 426; gen. pi. eenige ^inga, 
'by any means, in any way, on 
any condition, at all,' 791, 2374, 

>ingan, to. v., determine, appoint, 
1938; pp. wiste )>sem ahlsecan... 
hilde ge>inged, 'knew that battle 
was in store for the monster,' 647. 
ge-)»ingan, w. v., toith reji. dat., 
determine (to .come, go, etc.); 
pre*, gif him bonne Hre)>ric to 
hofum Geata gebingetS, *if then 
Hrethrio betakes him to the 
Geats' court,' 1836. 

►ingian, w. v.: 

(1) address, speak, 1843. 

(2) compound, settle, allay, 156, 

►iod-, see Hod-. 

►ioden, see beoden. 

►is, deviontt. adj., see ►ei. 

►olian, w. v., [tholk] endure: [Cf, 
Goth, bulan.] 

(1) tram. 832, 1525, eto. 

(2) intrans. 2499. 

ge ►olian, w. v., [thole]: 

(1) trant., endure, 87, 147; dat. 
inf. to ge^olianne, 1419. 

(2) intrant., wait patiently, 8109. 
►on, pron., see se. 

t6 ►on, adv., to that degree, so, 
1876; see se. 

t6 ►on, ►at, until, 2591, 2845; 
see Bd. 

►onan, ►onon, ►anan, banon, adv., 
THENce, 819, 520, 1668, 111, etc.; 
tometimet of personal origin, 1960, 

►one, see se, b6. 

►onne, adv., then, 377, etc.; re- 
peated, 1104-6. See |>onne, conj. 

►onne, conj.: 

(1) when, while, with indie, and 
tubj., 23, 573, etc.; in elliptical 
tentence, breac bonne moste, 'en- 
joyed [him or them] while I 
might,' 1487. Correl. with ^onne, 
adv.: 484-6, 2032-4; bonne he 
gyd wrece... bonne his sunu han- 
galS, '[that] he should then utter 
a dirge, when his son is hanging,' 

(2) than, after compart.: 44*, 
etc. With eompar . omitted : medo- 
8Bm micel... bonne yldo beam 
sefre gefrunon, 'a great mead- 
hall, [greater] than the children 
of men ever heard of,' 70* (but 
see note). 

►onon, see bonan. 

borfte, see ►urfan. 

brag, tt. /., time; ace. tg. of dura- 
tion of time, 54, 114, 1257; nom. 
tg. ba hyne sio brag becwom, 
'when the time (of stress) came 
upon him,' 2883; of. 87 (see note). 
[Cf. Goth, bragjan, 'to run.'] 

brea-nSdla, w. m., dire need, 2223. 
[Cf. 0. E. nyd.] 

brea-nyd, tt. /., dire need, oppres- 
sion, misery, 284; dat. pi. be hie 
...for brea-nydum bolian scoldon, 
'which they through dire com- 
pulsion had to endure,' 832. 

►rgat, St. m., troop, band, 4, 2406. 

►reatlan, w. v., THREATen, press; 
pret. pi. mec.breatedon bearie. 
'pressed me hard,' 560. 

►rec-wudu, tt. m., [might-woon] 
spear, 1246. 

►reo, ►no, num. neut. (of brie), 
THREE, 2278, 2174. [C/.Go<7i.breis.] 



Kreotteo^a, ord. num., THiBTEEnTH, 

►ridda, ord. num., third, 2688. 
►ringan, tt. v., intrant., throno, 

2960; pret. tg. >rong, 2883. 
for-J>ringan, st. v., snatch, 

rescue, 1084. 
ge-J>ring-an, it. v., throno, 

bound, 1912. 
►rio, see J>reo. 

►rist-hydig, adj., bold-minded, 2810. 
►ritig, |>rittig, tt. neut., with gen., 

THIRTY, 123, 2361; gm. tg. 379. 
►rong, see ^>ringaii. 
►rowian, w. v., suffer, 2605, etc.; 

pret, sg. |)rowode, 2594, )>r6wade, 

1589, 1721. 
ge-^i^en, pp. (isolated: Sieversg 

§ 385, N. 1), forged, 1285 (see 

►ryin(m), tt. m., might, force, 1918; 

glory, 2; dat. pi. adverbially, 

brymmum, 'powerfully,' 235. 
►rym-lic, adj., mighty, glorious, 

►rytJ, tt. /., strength; dat. pi. 

jjry-Sum dealle, 'proud in their 

stren{.rth,' 494. 
^TfZ-asrn, tt. neut., mighty house, 

noble hall, 657. 
►ry«-Uc, adj., excellent, 400, 1627. 
►ryd-licost, superl., most excel- 
lent; ace. pi. 2869 (see note). 
►rytJ-swyU, adj., strong in might, 

131 (see note), 736. 
►ry"C-word, tt. neut., choice or 

mighty word, excellent talk, 643. 
►tl, pert, pron., thou, 269, etc.; ace. 

xg. >ec, be (q. v.). 
►ungen, ge-bungen, adj. (pp.), 

[thriven] mature, distinguished, 

excellent, 624, 1927. [Cf. K'on 

and see Sievers, §§ 383, N. 3, 

386, N. 2.] 
►unian, w. v., THONder, resound, 

groan, hum; pret. bunede, 1906. 
ge-)>nTen, see gc-)>TVien. 
^urfan, pret. pret. v., need: pret. 

K'arf. bearft, 445, 595, etc.; srihj. 

>urfe, 2495; pret. borfte, 157, etc.; 

pret. pi. 2363* (see note). [C/. 

Goth, baurban.] 
►urh, prep., with ace., through, 

local, causal, instrumental or 

markijig attendant circumstances 

(see note to 1. 276), 267, etc. 
►uB, adv., THUS, 238, 337, 430. 
))Qsend, It. neut., tuousand, 3050; 

pi. |>usenda, 1829. IVithout fol- 
lowing noun of measure: gen. jd. 

bund busenda landea oud locema 

beapja, 2994 (see note). Even 

without a dependent gen.: ace. pi. 

ond him gesealde seofan >usendo, 

>y, see se, s5. 

►y Iffls, eonj., LEst, 1918. 
)>yder, adv., thither, 379, 2970, 

►yhtig, adj., doughty, strong, 1558. 

[Cf. beon.] 
)>j\Q, tt. m., spokesman, 1165, 1456. 
►yncan, Mncean, w. v., with dat. 

pert., seem, 368, 687, etc.; some- 
times impers., 2653. 
of-|>yTican, w. v., displease, 

►7rl, adj., pierced, F. 47. 
KvTS, St. m., giant, 426. 
)>/s, see \>ea. 
bys-lic, adj., [THUshiK^] such; nam. 

^9- /•. byslicu, 2637. 
>/sne, lyases, J)yssum, see ^es. 
►jrstni, tt. /., darkness, 87. [Cf. 

►ywan, w. v., oppress, 1827, see J)eon. 

[Cf. >eow.] 

ufan, adv., from above, above, 

330, 1500. 
ufera, compar. adj., later; dat, pi. 

uferan, 2392, ufaran, 2200. 
ufor, eompar. adv., higher, up- 
wards, on to higher ground, 2951 

(but see note). 
tUite, w. /., dawn, twilight, 126. 

[Cf. Goth, uhtwo.] 
Hht-floga, w. m., dawn-Fzrer, 2760. 
fllit-hlem, tt. m., din or crash 

in the dawn, 2007. 
Hht-scealSa, w. m., dawn-sc^r//er, 

dawn-foe, 2271. 
umbor-wesende, adj. {pret. part.), 

being a child, 46, 1187. 
un-bli'Be, adj., unblithb, joyless, 

130, 2268, 3031. 
un-byrnende, adj. {pret. part.), 

UNBURNing, without being burnt; 

nom. tg. absolutely, 2548. 
unc, pert. pron. {dat. and ace. dual 

of ic), to us two, us two, 540, 

545, 2137, etc. 
uncer, pert. pron. {gen. dual of ic), 

of us two, 2532 ; coupled with the 

gen. of a proper name, uncer 

Grendlea, 'of Gvcndel and me,' 

uncer, post. adj. (see above), our 

{dual); dat. pi. uncran, 1185. 



un-cdB, adj., rNCorxn, unknown, 
evil, 276, 1410, 2214; (]fn. tg. 
absolutebj , 9Q0 (Grendel); uncul'cs 
fela, 'many a thing unknown,' 

under, prep., under: 

(1) with dat. (of rest), 8, etc.; 
amid, 1302, 1928; (temporal) 
during, 738 (see note). 

(2) with ace. (of motion, expressed 
or implied), 403, etc.; within, 
underneath, 1037. To denote ex- 
tent: under Bweglesbegong, 'under 
the sky's expanse,' 860, 1773; 
under heofones hwealf, 2015. 

under, adv., under, beneath, 1416, 

undem-m»l, st. neut., [undern-meal] 

morning-time, 1428. 
un-deamlnga, adv., openly, F. 24. 

[Cj. dyrne.] 
un-dyme, un-derne, adj., UNsecret, 

manifest, 127, 2000, 2911*. 
un-dyrne, adv.y UNsecretly, openly, 

150, 410. 
un-ffficne, adj., uNguileful, sincere, 

un-ffflge, adj., [unfby] undoomed, 

not fated to die, 573, 2291. 
un-faiger, adj., unfair, 727. 
un-flitme, adv., incontestably, 1097 

(see note). 
un-forht, adj., uNafraid, 287. 
un-forhte, adv., fearlessly, 444. 
un-frod, adj., not old, young, 2821. 
un-from, adj., inert, not bold, UN- 

warlike, 2188. 
un-geara, adv., not of torb: 

(1) but now, 932. 

(2) erelong, 602. 
un-g-edefelice, adv., unfittingly, 

unnaturally, 2435. 

un-gemete, adv., [vtfMBETly] im- 
measurably, 2420, 2721, 2728. 

Tin-gemetes, adv. {gen. of adj. un- 
gemet, vsmeet), immeasurably, 
unigmetes, 1792 (see note). 

un-gyfetJe, adj., not granted, 2921. 

un-h»lo, 8t. /., [uNHEALth] destruc- 
tion; gen, tg. wiht unhalo, 120 
(see note). 

un-heore, un-hiore, im-liyre, adj., 
UNcanny, monstrous, 2120, 2413; 
nom. sg. f. unheoru, 987. 

nnhlltme, adv. 1129 (see note to 
1. 1097). 

unliror, adj., not stirring, P. 47 (see 

unigmetes, adv., see ungemetes. 

un-leof, adj., [unlief] not dear, 
unloved; absolutely, 2863. 

un-lifigende, un-lyflgende, adj. {pres, 
put.), LM.iviiig, lifeless, dead, 
468, 744, 1308, 2908; dat. tg. m. 
\>iBt bi"S driht-guman unlifgendura 
tofter sGlcst, 'that will afterwards 
be best for the noble warrior when 
dead.' 1389. 

un-lytel, adj., [unlittle] no little, 
498, 833, 885. 

un-murnlice, adv., UNMouRNfulLv. 
without hesitation, recklessly, 449, 

unnan, pret.-pres. v., grant, will, 
wish, OWN, 503, 2874; pres. sg. 
Ist, an, 1225; suhj. pret. 1st, u>e 
ic swl^or, bsBt'Sri hine selfne geseon 
moste, 'I would rather that thou 
mightst have seen himself,' 960; 
3rd, >eah he utSe wel, 'how much 
soever he wished,' 2855. 

ge-unnan, pret.-pres. v., grant, 
346, 1661. 

un-nyt, adj., useless, 413, 3168. 

un-rilit, St. neut., unright, wrong, 
1254, 2739. 

un-rihte, adv., UNRiGHTly, wrongly, 

un-rim, st. neut., countless number, 
1238, 2624, 3135. 

un-rime, adj., countless, 3012. 

un-rot, adj., [uNglad] sad, 3148. 

un-slaw, adj., [unslow] not slow; 
nom. sg. ecgum unslaw, 'not slow 
of edge,' 2564* (see note). 

un-snyttro, st. /., uNwisdom; dat. 
pi. his unsnyttrum, 'in his folly,' 

un-softe, adv., [uNsoFxly] with diffi- 
culty, 1655, 2140. 

un-swItJe, adv. 

un-swrSor, compar. , less strongly, 
2578, 2881. 

un-synnig, adj., UNSiNning, guiltless, 

un-sjmnum, adv. {dat. pi. of *un- 
synn), 'siNlessly,' 1072. 

un-tsale, adj., blameless, 1865. 

un-tydre, st. m., evil progeny; nom. 
pi. untydras, 111. 

un-wacllc, adj., [unitejzlike] firm, 
strong, 8138. 

un-weamum, adv., without hind- 
rance, 741. 

un-wrecen, adj. {pp.), xmwREAEQdi, 
unavenged, 2443. 

tip, adv., UP, 128, 224, etc. 

flp-lang, adj., [uplong] upright, 750. 

uppe, adv., up, 566. 

upp-riht, adj., upright, 2092. 

tire, pers. pron. {gen. pi. of ic), of us, 



Ore, jJO«s. adj. (see above), our, 2647. 
flrum, _per8. pron. {anom. form of the 

dat. pi. o/ic, used here for unc), to 

us, 2659 (see note). 
lis, pers. pron. {dat. pi. of ic), to us, 

346, 382, etc.; for us, 2642. 
ilser, pers. pron. (=ure, gen. pi. of 

ic); user neosan, 'to visit us,' 

ttser, poss. adj. (see above), our ; ace. 

sg. m. userne, 3002 ; gen. sg. neut. 

usses, 2813; dat. sg. m. ussum, 

(Ilsic, pers. pron. {ace. pi. of ic), us, 

458, 2638, etc. 
usses, ussum, see User, poss. adj. 
tit, adv., OUT, 215, etc. 
Utan, adv., from withoux, without, 

774, etc. [Cf. Goth. Qtana.] 
tltan-weard, adj., outward, the out- 
side of, 2297. 
tlt-ftts, adj., ouTward bound, ready 

to start, 33. 
uton, see wutun. 
flt-weard, adj., [outward] wsbs ut- 

weard, 'was outward bound,' 761. 
aXe, see unnan. 
tllS-genge, adj., escaping, transitory; 

nom. sg. wtes ^schere...feorh uS- 

genge, 'life departed from Ms- 

chere,' 2123. 


wa, interj., woe: wa bitJ >aBm...wel 

bi« b»m..., 183, 186. [Cf. Goth. 

waclan, w. v., wjtch; imperat. sg. 

waca, 660. See wseccan. 

on-wacnigean, w. v., intrans. 

[awaken], F. 10. 
wadan, st. v., wade, go; pret. sg. 

wod, 714, 2661 ; pp. gewaden, 220. 
on-wadan, st. v., assail; pret. sg. 

hine fyren onwod, 'him (Heremod) 

crime assailed,' 915. 
>urh-wadan, tt. v., wade 

THROUGH, pierce, penetrate, 890, 

wado, etc., see wad. 
wseccan, w. v., participle only found, 

except in North: for other parts 

wacian used : cf. Sieverss § 416, 5 ; 

WATCH, keep &waks, pres. part., 

nom. sg. m. wseccende, 708, ace. 

sg. m. wBBCcendne 1268, wasccende, 

waecnan, st. v., intrans. [waken], 

arise, spring, come, be born, 85, 

1265, 1960; pret. pi. wocun, 60. 

See Sieversj § 392, 2. [Cf. Goth. 


on-waecnan, [awaken] 2287; be 

bom, arise, spring, 56, 111. 
wsed, St. n., flood, sea, wave; nom. 

pi. wado, 546; wadu, 581*: gen. 

pi. wada, 508. 
wafre, adj., WAVERing, about to 

die, expiring, 1150 (but see note), 

2420; wandering, 1331. 
wseg, see weg. 

Wfflg-bora, w. m., 1440 (see note), 
wiege, St. neut., stoup, flagon, tank- 

_ard, 2253, 2282. 
wsBg-liolm, St. m., the billowy sea, 

Wfflg-liUend, st. m. {pres. part.), 

wave-farer, sea-farer, 3158*. 
wsegnan, w. v. 

_ be-wagnan, w. v., offer, 1193. 
wsig-sweord, st. neut., wave-swoRo, 

sword with a wavy pattern, 1489. 
wael, St. neut., slaughter, the slain, 

corpse, 448, etc.; nom. pi. walu, 

wsel-bedd, st. neut., slaughter-BED, 

wsel-bend, st. m. /., slaughter-Bo.vD, 

death-B^ND, 1936. 
W89l-bleat, adj., [slaughter-wretched]; 

ace. f. wunde wael-blcate, 'his 

deathly pitiful wound,' 2725. 
wsel-dea'5, st. m., slaughter-DEATH, 

death by violence, 695. 
wael-dreor, st. m. or neut., slaughter- 
gore, 1631. 
wsel-fiihtJ, st. /., slaughter-r£t/D, 

deadly feud, 2028. 
wsel-fag, adj., slaughter-stained, 

cruel, bitter, 1128. 
wael-feall, -fyil, st. m., slaughter- 

FALi., violent death, 3154; dat. sg. 

gewcox he... to w£El-fealle...Deniga 

leodum, 'he waxed great for a 

slaughter to the Danish people,' 

wsel-flls, adj. [slaughter-ready] ex- 
pecting death, 2420. 
wsel-fyll, see wael-feall. 
wffil-fyllo, St. f. , slaughter-FiLL, fill 

of slaughter, 125. 
wsBl-fyx, St. neut., slaughter-FiRE, 

death-bringing fire, 2582; corpse- 
fire, pyre, 1119. 
wael-g»3t, St. m., slaughter-onosT, 

1331, 1995 (see note to 1. 102). 
wael-hlem, st. m., slaughter-crash, 

terrible blow, 2969. 
wsell-seax, st. neut., slaughter-knife, 

deadly short-sword ; dat. sg. {iritli 

uninfiected adjs.) weall-seaxe ge- 



brasd biter ond beadu-scoarp, ' drew 
his keen and battle-sharp knife,' 

waelm, see wylm. 

wael-nllJ, it. m., deadly enmity, 85, 
2065, 3000. 

wsel-ries, st. m., [alaughter-BJCs] 
deadly strife, mortal combat, 824, 
2531, 2947. 

Wffil-rap, tt. m., [pool-ROPE] icicle, 
1610 (see note). 

W8el-rgaf, st. neut., slaughter-spoil, 
battle-booty, plunder, 1205. 

wsel-rec, st. m., slaughter-wcEK, 
deadly fumes, 2661. 

wael-reow, adj., slaughter-fierce, 
fierce in strife, 629. 

wasl-rest, st./., [slaughter-RKSi] bed 
of (violent) death, 2902. 

waal-sceaft, st. m., slaughter-SHAFT, 
deadly spear, 398. 

weel-slylit, st. m., deadly slaughter, 
F. 30. [C/. O.E. slean.] 

wael-steng, st. m., slaughter-pole, 
spear, 1638. 

wsel-stow, St. /., slaughter-place, 
battle-field, 2051, 2984. 

wsen, St. m., wain, wagon; ace. »g. 

w»pen, St. neut., weapon, 250, etc.; 
a<:c. pi. wffipen, 292. 

w»pned-mon(n), st. m., weaponed 
MAN, man, 1284. 

Wfflr, St. /., compact, treaty, 1100; 
keeping, protection, 27, 3109. 
[P.B.B. X. oil.] 

wssran, etc., see wesan. 

wsBstm, St. m., growth, form; dat. 
pi. on weres weestmum, • in man's 
form,' 1352. 

waeter, st. neut., water, the sea, 93, 
etc.; dat. wsetere, 1425, 1656, 
2722, waetre, 2854; instrumental 
gen. he hine eft ongon weeterea 
weorpan, 'he began again to 
sprinkle him with water,' 2791. 

Wfflter-egesa, to. m., WAXER-terror, 
the terrible mere, 1260. 

waeter-yU, st.f., WATER-wave, 2242. 

wag, St. m., wall, 995, 1662. 

wala, w. m., wale, 'wreath' (in 
heraldry), a protecting rim or roll 
on the outside of the helmet 
(Skeat) ; nom. sg. ymb \>e&s helmes 
hrof heafod-beorge wirum bewun- 
den wala utan heold, 'round the 
helmet's crown the "wreath," 
wound about with wires, gave pro- 
tection for the head from the out- 
side,' 1031 (see note). [C/. Gotk. 

Waldend, see Wealdend. 
wald-swaetJ, st. neut., or 
wald-8wat5u, st. /., [wold-swath] 

forest-track, forest-path; dat. pi. 

wald-swa^Sum, 1403. 
walu, see wael. 
wan, v., see win nan, 
wan, adj., see won. 
wandrlan, w. v., wander, F. 36. 
wang, see wong. 
wanlan, w. v.: 

(1) intrans., wane, diminish, 1607. 

(2) traTis., diminish, curtail, de- 
crease, 1337; pp. gewanod, 477. 

wanigean, w. v., bewail, lament; 
inf. gehyrdon gryre-leo-S galan 
Godes ondsacan, sige-leasne sang. 
Bar wanigean belle heefton, ' heard 
God's adversary singing his terror- 
lay, his song without victory hell's 
captive bewailing his sore,' 787. 

waran, see wesan. 

warian, to. v., quard, inhabit, 1253, 
1265, 2277 (guards); pres. pi. 
warigeatS, 1358. 

waroU, St. m., [warth] shore, 234, 

wat, etc., wot, see witan. 

waUol, adj., F. 9 (see note). 

we, pers. pron. {pi. of ic), we, 1, 260, 
etc. "^ 

wea, to.m., woe, 191, etc.; 
weana, 148, etc. 

wea-dffld, st.f., deed of wob, deed of 
evil, F. 9. 

weal(l), St. m., gen. wealles, dat. 
wealle, ace. weal, 826: wall in itt 
various meanings ; rampart, burgh - 
wall, 785, etc. ; wall of a building, 
326, 1573; natural wall of rock, 
sometimes the side of a barrow or 
den, 2307, 2759, 3060, etc. ; wall 
of cliff, 229, etc. [From Lat. 

wea-iaf, st.f., [tfoe-lbj ring] wretch- 
ed remnant (of either army after 
the fight in which Hnaaf fell), 1084, 

wealdan, st. v., with dat., gen., or 
absolutely, wisld, rule, rule over, 
govern, possess, control ; pre- 
vail; 442, etc. penden wordum 
weold wine Scyldinga, 'while the 
friend of the Scyldings still had 
power of speech,' or 'ruled with 
his word,' 30; 2574 (see note to 
11. 2573, etc.), wselstowe wealdan, 
« to be masters of the field,' 2984. 
ge-wealdan, st. v., with gen., 
dat., or ace, wield, control, pos- 
sess, bring about, 1509, 1554, 2703. 



Wealdend, Waldend, »t. m. (pre*, 
part.), the wiELDer, God, 1693, 
etc.; often with dependent gen., 17, 
etc. ; gen. Wealdendes, 2857, Wal- 
dendes, 2292, 3109; dat. Weal- 
dende, 2329. 

weall, see weal. 

weallan, $t. v., well, boil, be agi- 
tated, literally and figuratively; 
pret. weoU, 2113, 2138, etc.; weol, 
615, etc.; pres. part, weallende, 
847, weallinde, 2464; nom. pi. 
neut. weallende, 546, weallendu, 
581. Ingelde wealla"S W8el-nl'5a3, 
* in Ingeld's breast deadly hatred 
wells up,' 2065; hre'Ser aSme 
weoll, 'his breast swelled with 
breath,' 2593. 

weall-clif, st. neut., wall-cliff, sea- 
clilf, 3132. 

weard, $t. m., [ward], Gt/jBDian, 
owner, 229, 1741 (see note), etc. 

weard, tt. /., ward, watch, 305, 


weardian, w. v.. ward, guard, in- 
dwell, 105, 1237, 2075. Especially 
in the phrase last or 8wa"5e weard- 
ian: inf. he his folme forlet...last 
weardian, ' he left his hand behind 
to mark his track,' 971; so pret. 
weardade, 2098; pret. sg. for pi. 
in subordinate clause, \>0&t bani 
dode, 'that four horses followed 
the armour,' 2164. 

weam, st. /., refusal, 366. 

wea-spell, it. vent., froE-sPELL, 
tidings of woe, 1315. 

weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, 8, 1741; 
3115 (see note). 

ge-weaxan, st. v., wax, grow, 
become, 66, 1711. 

web, St. neut., web, tapestry; nom. 
pi. 995. 

wecc(e)an, tr. v., wake, rouse, stir 
up, 2046, 3024 ; pret. wehte, 2854. 
Bx'1-fyranifflst...weccan, 'to kindle 
the greatest of funeral piles,' 3144. 
[Cf. Goth, (us)-wakjan.] 

t5-weccan, w. v., wake up, stir 
up; pret. pi. to-wehton, 2948. 

wedd, St. neut., pledge, 2998. 

weder, st. neut., weather, 546; nom. 
pi. weder, 1136. 

weg, St. m., WAY ; in on weg, ' away,* 
264, etc., on weeg, F. 45. _ 

weg, St. m., wave, 3132. [Cf. wteg- 

wegan, st. v., bear, wear, wage, 3015, 
pres. sg. 3rd wigei5, 599; pret. weeg, 
152, etc.!; subj. pres. wege, 2252. 

»t- wegan, tt. v., bear away, 
carry off, 1198. 
wegan, st. v. 

ge-wegan, st. v., engage, fight, 

wSg flota, tr. m., wave-FLOAier, ship, 

wehte, see weccan. 
wel(l), adv., well, rightly, much, 

186, 289, etc.; usual form wel, but 

well, 2162, 2812. 
wel-hwylc, indef. adj. and pron. 

I. Pron. : with gen. wel-bwylc 
witena, 'every councillor,' 266; 
neut. absolutely, everything, 874. 

II. Adj. every, 1344. 
welig, adj., WEALtby, rich, 2607. 
wen, St. /., wEENing, expectation, 

383, 734, etc.: wen io talige, 'I 
reckon it a thing to be expected,' 
1845; dat. pi. bega on wenum, 
ende-dogores ond eft-cymes l5ofes 
monnes, 'in expectation of both, 
the day of death and the return of 
the dear man' {i.e. expecting one 
or the other), 2895. 

wenan, w. v., with gen., infin., clause, 
or absolutely: wees, expect, hope, 
157, etc.; pres. sg. 1st wen, 338, 
442: bees io wene, 'as I hope,' 
272; swa io be wene to, 'as I 
expect from thee,' 1396; similarly 
with 157-8 (see note), 525 (see 
note), 1272-3 ; with inf. io ienigra 
mT; wganane wende...bote gebldan, 
' I expected not to abide the remedy 
of any of my woes,' 933; with gen. 
and clause, hig bses a9"5elinge8 eft 
ne wendon, bset he. ..come, 'they 
expected not the atheling again, 
that he would come,' 1596. 

wendan, w. v., intrans., wend, turn, 
1739. [Cf. Goth, wandjan.] 

ed-wendan, w. v., intrans., turn 
back, desist, cease, 280 (but see 

ge-wendan, w. v., trans, and 
intrans., turn, change, 186, 315. 

on- wendan, w. v., trans., turn 
aside, set aside, avert, 191 : sibb 
ffifre ne maeg wiht onwendan, ^^m. 
•Ke wel bence"5, 'naught can ever 
Bet aside kinship, to a right-minded 
man,' 2601. 

wenian, w. v., honour, 1091. 

be-wenian, bi-wenian, w. v., 
entertain, attend on; pp. pi. be- 
wencde, 1821 ; see also note to 
1. 2035. 

weorc, St. neut., work, deed, trouble, 
74, etc. ; gen. pi. worda ond worca, 



289; wordum ne worcum, 
1100: he ^ma gewinnes weorc 
J)r5wade, 'he suffered trouble for 
that iBtrife/ 1721; dat. pi. ad- 
verbially, weorcum, ' with diffi- 
culty,' 1638; d<it. (imtr.) sg. 
weorce, used adverbially, 'griev- 
ously,' 1418. 

weorod. see werod. 

weorpan. st. v., [warp]: [Cf. Goth. 
wairpan. | 

(1) with ace. rei, throw, 1531. 

(2) with ace. pen. and geii. rei, 
sprinkle, 2791. 

(3) with dat., cast forth, 2582. 
for-weorpan, it. v., throw away; 

pret. suhj. forwurpe, 2872. 

ofer- weorpan, st. v., stumble, 
1543 (but see note). 

weor*, St. neut., worth, price, pay, 

weorS, adj., wortht, honoured, dear; 
nom. sg.m. weoiiJ Denum ee\>eling, 
'the atheling dear to the Danes,' 
1814. See also wyrKe. [Cf. Goth. 
weor>ra,co7npar., worthier, 1902*. 

weorSan, st. v., become, be, befall, 
happen, come, 6, etc.; inf. wurSan, 
807 ; pre$. pi. wurSatS, 282 ; pret. 
»g. he on fylle wearS, 'he fell,' 
1644; pp. geworden, 'happened, 
arisen,' 1304, 3078. Often with 
predicative dat. governed by t5, 
and dat. pers. ; "Su scealt to frofre 
weorSan. . .leodum^inum, hseletSum 
to helpe, *thou shalt be for a 
comfort to thy people, a help to 
the heroes,' 1707; to also 460, 
etc. [Cf. Goth, wairpan.] 
ge-weorflan, st. v.: 

(1) intrans., become, be, happen, 

(2) trans., agree about, settle; inf. 
>8Bt '5u..,lete SutS-Dene sylfe ge- 
weorSan gulSe witJ Grendel, ' that 
thou wouldst let the South Danes 
themselves settle their war with 
Grendel,' 1996. 

(3) impers., with gen., and follow- 
ing clause in apposition, appear, 
seem, seem good; pret. ^a "Sees 
monige gewearS, >8Bt..., 'then it 
appeared to many that. . . , ' 1598; pp. 
hafatS )>8Bs geworden wine Scyld- 
inga. . .>8et. . . , 'this had seemed good 
to the friend of the Scyldings, 
that,' 2026. 

vreortJ-full, adj. 

weortJ-fullost, superl., [woeth- 
foujest], woRTHiest, 3099. 

weor^ian, w. v., wortht ('Lear,' U, 
2. 12b), honour, adorn, 2096, 1090, 
etc.; pp. geweorSod, 2176; ge- 
weorSad, 250, 1450, 1969; gewur- 
•5ad, 331, 1038, 1645; weor6'ad, 

weorB-lIce, adv. 

wurtJUcor, co/npar. , more worth 
iLY, F. 39. 

weorfl-Ucost, superl., most 
WORTHiLY, 3161. 

weortJ-mynd, st. m. /. and neut., 
woRship, honour, glory, 8, 65, 1559, 
1752 ; dat. pi. to worS-myndum, 
•for (his) honour,' 1186. 

weotena, see wita. 

weotian, w. v., prepare, etc.: pp. ace. 
pi. weelbende weotode, • death- 
bands prepared, appointed, destin- 
ed,' 1936; witod, F. 28. [C/. 
Goth. wit6|), 'law.'] 

be-weotian, be-wltlan, w. v., 
observe, etc. : pres. pi. ]>& tSe syn- 
gales sele bewitia"S, 'those [wea- 
thers, days] which continually 
observe the season,' 1135; bewiti- 
gatS sorhfulne srS, 'make a journey 
full of woe,' 1428 (see note) ; pret. 
sg. ealle beweotode >egnes >earfe, 
* attended to all the thane's needs,' 
1796*; hord beweotode, 'watched 
over a hoard,' 2212. 

wer, St. m., man, 105 (used of Gren- 
del), etc.; wera, 120, etc.; 
weora, 2947. [Cf. Goth, wair.] 

wered, st. neut., beer, mead, 496. 

werede, etc., see werod. 

werga, adj., cursed; gen. sg. wergan 
gastes, 133 (Grendel: see note), 
1747 (the devil). 

werge, etc., see werlg. 

wergend, st. m. [pres. part, o/werian), 
defender, 2882*. 

wergian, w. v., weaby; pp. gewergad, 

werhtJo, st.f., curse, damnation; aee. 
sg. werh'So, 589. [Cf. Goth, war- 

werlan, w.v., guajd, defend, protect, 
453, 1205, etc.; rejiex., 541; pp. 
nom. pi. 238, 2529. [Cf. Goth. 

be-werian, w. v., defend ; pret. 
subj. beweredon, 938. 

werlg, adj., with gen. or dat., weary, 
579; dat. sg. wergum, 1794; ace. 
f. sg. or pi. werge, 2937. 

werlg-m6d, adj., weary of mood, 
844, 1543. 

werod, weorod, st. neut., troop, band, 
290, 319, 651, etc.; dat. werede, 



1215, 2035 •; weorode, 1011, 2346; 
gm. pi. wereda, 2186; weoroda, 
60. [C/. O.E. wer.] 

wer-t)eod, st.f., [man-nation] people; 
ace. pi. ofer wer-Jjeode, 'through- 
out the nations of men,' 899. 

wesan, irreg. v., be, 272, etc.; pres. 
$g. 3rd is, 256, 1761, etc. ; ys, 2093, 
2910, 2999, 3084; pres. pi. smt, 
388; synt, 260, 342, 364; syndon, 
237, 257, etc. ; pres. subj. sg. sie, 
435, etc.; sj, 1831, etc.; sig, 1778, 
etc.; pret. pi. waaron, 233, etc.; 
weeran, 2475, waran, 1015*; im- 
perat. sg. wes, 269, etc., wees, 407. 
Negative forms: pres. sg. 3rd nis, 
249, etc. ; pret. sg. 1st and 3rd 
nees, 134, etc.; pret. pi. naron, 
2657 ; pret. subj. sg. nme, 860, etc. 
Special usages : 

(1) Omission of injin. 617, 1857, 
2363, 2497, 2659; also 992, 2256. 

(2) Forming, with a pres. part., an 
imperf. tense: secgende weas, 'was 
saying,' 3028. 

weste, ad;'., WASTE; ace. sg. m. westne, 

westen, st. m. and neut., waste, 
1265; dat. westenne, 2298 (see 

wic, St. neut., [wick] dwelling, 821, 
etc.; often in pi., 125, etc.; dat. 
pi. wicun, 1304. [Lat. vicus.] 

wican, St. V. 

ge-wlcan, st. v., intrans., weak- 
en, give way, 2577, 2629. 

wlcg, St. neut., horse, steed, 234, 
286, 1400, etc.; pi. wicg, 2174. 
[Cf. O.E. wegan, 'carry.'] 

wic-stede, st. m., [wick-stead] dwel- 
ling-place, 2462, 2607. 

wid, adj., WIDE, extended, long, of 
space and time, 877, 933, 1859, etc. 

wid-cfltJ, adj., [wide-couth] widely 
known, 1256, etc.; gen. absolutely, 
wld-cut5es (i.e. Hrothgar), 1042. 

wide, adv., widely, 18, etc. ; quali- 
fying a superlative, wide mfflrost, 
•the most famous far and wide,' 

widre, eompar.; widre gewin- 
dan, 'to flee away more widely, 
escape further,' 763. 

wlde-ferhiJ, st. m., [wiDE-life], only 
used as ace. of time, for a long time, 
from generation to generation, 
702 ♦, 937, 1222. 

wid-floga, w. m., WTDK-Fuer (the 
dragon), 2346, 2830. 

widre, see wide. 

wld-scofen, see under scOfaix. 

w!d-weg, St. m., wide-wat, way lead- 
ing afar, highway ; ace. pi. geond 
wid-wegas, 'along distant ways,' 
' far and wide,' 840, 1704. 

wif, st.neut., wife, woman, 615, etc. 

Wif-lufU, Wif-lUfe, W. f., WD E- LOVE, 

love for one's wife, 2065. [See 
Siever8s§218, N. 1.] 
wig, St. m. or neut. 

(1) war, battle, 23, 65, etc. ; dat. 
and instr. wigge, 1656, 1770 (see 
note), 1783. 

(2) war-prowess, valour, might, 
350, 1042, 2323, 2348. 

wiga, w. m., warrior, 629, etc. 
[P.B.B. X. 611.] 

wigan, St. v., war, fight, 2509. 

wig-bealu, st. neut., war-BALE, the 
evils of war, 2046. 

wig-bil, St. neut., war-BiLL, war- 
sword, 1607. 

wig-bord, St. neut., [war-BOAiiD] war- 
shield, 2339. 

wIg-crsBft, St. m., war-CBAFT, war- 
might, 2953. 

wig-crseftig, adj., war -crafty, 
mighty in battle, 1811. 

wigend, St. m. {pres. part.), warrior, 
3099; ace. sing, or pi, wigend, 
3024, nom. pi. wigend, 1125, 
1814, 3144, gen. pi. wigendra, 
429, etc. 

wig-freca, w. m., war-wolf, warrior, 
1212, 2496. 

wlg-fruma,t^.m., war-chief, 664, 2261. 

wigge, see wig. 

wig-getawa, st. f. pi., war-equip- 
ments, 368. [See g^tJ-geatwa.] 

wig-giyre, st. m., war- terror, 1284. 

wig-heafola, w. m., [war-head] war- 
hehnet, 2661. 

wig-heap, st. m., war-HEAP, band of 
warriors, 477. 

wig-hete, st. m., weu-hate, 2120. 

wig-hryre, st. m., [war-falling] 
slaughter, 1619. 

\ng-8igor, St. m. or neut., war- 
victory, 1554. 

wig-sped, St. f, war-sPEED, success 
in war, 697. 

wigtlg, see witig. 

wig-weorSimg, st. /., idol-woRship, 
sacrifice, 176. [P.B.B. %. 511. 
Cf. Goth, weihs, 'holy.'] 


I. St. /., WIGHT, being, crea- 
ture, 120 (see note), 3038. 

II. St. f. neut., WHIT, auoHT, 
2601 {see onwendan), 1660, 2857 
(see note) ; ace. for wiht, ' for 
aught,' 2348; with gen., 581. 



III. Adverbial use, aucnx, at 
all ; almost always negative {with 
ne), naught, nox at all, no wnix. 

(1) Ace, with ne or no: 641, 862, 
etc. ; no bine wiht dwelelJ adl ne 
yldo, ' sickness or age hinders 
him not a whit,* 1735. 

(2) Dat.; with ne, 186, 1514, etc.; 
affirmatively , 1991. 

wll-cuma, w. m., [wxLL-coMer] wel- 
come guest, 388, 394, 1894. 

wll-d6or (= wild deor), »t. neut., 
[wild deer] wild beast, 1430. 

wile, see willan. 

wll-geofa, w. m., wiLL-oiFer, joy- 
giver, 2900. 

wil-gesiU, St. m., [wiLL-companion] 
willing or loved companion, 23. 

wllla, ID. m., WILL, wish, desire, 
desirable thing ; joy, pleasure ; 
sake: 626, etc.; dat. tg. to wil- 
lan, 'for his pleasure,' 1186; anes 
willan, * for the sake of one,' 3077 ; 
gen. pi. wilna, 660, 950, 1344; 
dat. pi. willum, * according to our 
wishes,' 1821; so sylfes willum, 
2222, 2639. [Cf. Goth, wilja.] 

willan, irreg. v., will: pres. sg. 1st 
wille,318,344,etc.; wylle,947,etc.; 
2nd wylt, 1852; Srd wile, 346; 
wyle, 2864; wille, 442, 1371, etc.; 
wylle, 2766; pi. wyUa«, 1818. 
Negative forms : nelle = ne -I- wille, 
679,2524; nolde=ne-hwolde, 706, 
791, 2518, etc. With omission of 
inf. no ic fram him wolde, 543. 

wilnian, w. v., desire, 188. 

wil-sitJ, st.m., [wiLL-joumey] willing 
journey, 216. 

win, St. neut., winb, 1162, 1233, 
14G7. [From Lat. vinum,] 

win-aem, st. neut., wiNE-hall, 654. 

wind, St. m., wind, 217, etc. 

win-daeg, st. m., strife-DAY, day of 
strife, 1062. 

windan, st. v., intrans., wind, twist, 
212, 1119, 1193, etc. ; pp. dat. sg. 
wundini golde, * with twisted gold,' 
1382 (see note). 

set- windan, st. v., with dat. 
pers., WIND away, escape, 143. 

be-wlndan, st. v., wind about, 
brandish, enclose, grasp, mingle, 
1031, 1461, etc.; pp. galdre be- 
wunden, 'wound about with in- 
cantation, encompassed with a 
spell,' 3052. 

ge-windan, st. v., intrans., 
WIND, turn, flee away, 768, 1001. 
on-windan, st. v., uhy^ind, 

wind blond, st. neut., [wind .BZ,«wi)] 
tumult of winds, 3146. 

wind geard, st. m., dwelling of the 
winds, 1224. 

wind-gerest, st. /. , [wind-resx] wind- 
swept resting-place, 2456 (see 

windig, adj., windy; pi. windige, 
572, 1358. 

wine, St. m., friend, esp. friend and 
lord, friendly ruler, 30, 148, 170; 
gen. pi. winigea, 1664 ; winia, 

wine-dryhten, wlne-drUiten, st. m., 
friend-lord, friend and lord, friend- 
ly ruler, 360, 862, 1604, etc. 

wln«j-geomor, adj. , friend-sad, 
mourning for the loss of friends, 

wtne-lgas, adj., friendLass, 2613. 

wine-mag, st. m., friend-kinsman, 
relative and friend, loyal subject; 
pi. wine-magas, 65. 

winia, winigea, see wine. 

winnan, st. v., [win] strive, fight, 
113, 506; pret. sg. Srd wan, 144, 
151, won, 1132; pi. wunnon, 777. 

win-reced, st. neut., wiNE-house, 
wine-hall, 714, 993. 

win-sele, st. m., wiNE-haU, 695, 771, 

wl^iter, St. m., winter, year, 1128, 
etc. ; gen. sg. wintrys, 616 ; pi. 
wintra, 147, etc. 

wir, St. m., wibe, wire- work, filagree, 
1031, 2413. 

wis, adj., wise, 1413, 1845, 3094 
(see note), etc. Weak forms: nom. 
m. wisa, 1400, 1698, 2329; ace, 
sg. wisan, 1318. 

wisa, w. m., wise one, guide, 259. 

wis-dOm, St. m., wisdom, 350, 1959. 

wise, w. /., WISE, fashion; instru- 
mental ace. (Grein), ealde wisan. 
♦in the old fashion,' 1865. 

wis-faest, adj., [wise-fast] wise, 626. 

wis-hycgende, adj. {pres. part.), 
wisE-thinking, 2716. 

wisiaji, to. v., with ace. ret, dat. 
pers., or absolutely, [make wise] 
point out, show; direct, guide, 
lead ; 2409, etc. ; pres. sg. 1st 
wisige, 292, etc. ; pret. sg. wlsode, 
320, 402, etc.; wisade, 208 (see 
note to 1. 209), etc. 

wisse, see witaji. . 

wlBt, St. f. {from wesan) : 

(1) weal, 128, 1735. 

(2) meal; possibly 128, but see 

wiste, WIST, see witan. 



wist-fyllo, 9t. /., food-riLL, abund- 
ant meal ; gen. sg. wist-fylle, 734. 

wit, St. neut., wit, 589. 

wit, pers.pron. {dual of io), we two, 
535, etc. 

wlta, w. m., wise man, councillor, 
pi. the wiTAN, 778 ', witena, 
157, etc., weotena, 1098. 

witan, pret. pres. v., [wit] know, 
764, 1863, 2519, etc.; pres. sg. 1st 
and 3rd wat, 1331, etc. ; negative, 
nat, 681, etc.; 2nd wast, 272; 
pret. sg. 1st and 3rd wiste, 646, 
etc.; wisse, 169, etc.; pret. pL, 
wiston, 181, etc.; wisson, 246: 
to ■Sees "Se he eor^-sele anne 
wisse, ' to where he knew that 
earth-hall to be, knew of that 
earth-hall,' 2410; so, 715; pres. 
$g. 1st, io on Higelace wat...)>SBt 
he, *I know concerning Hygelac, 
that he,' 1830*; negative, scea- 
tJona ic nat hwilc, ' I know not 
which of scathers, some foe,' 274; 
3rd, God wat on meo (ace), t>8Bt 
me is miole leofre, • God knows 
concerning me that I would much 
rather,' 2650. 

ge- witan, pret.-pra. v., know, 

witan, St. v., with ace. rex and dat. 
pers.f [wite] reproach, blame, 

set- witan, st. v., with ace. rei, 
TWIT, blame, charge ; pret. pi. 
letwiton weana dal, ' charged [him] 
with their many woes,' 1150. 

otJ- witan, tt. v., with ace. rei 
and dat. per*., reproach ; inf. ne 
tSorfte him tSa lean otSwitan mon 
on middan-gearde, • no man on 
earth needed to reproach hun (or 
them: see note) with those re- 
wards,' 2995. 

gewitan, st. v., depart, go, 42, 115, 
123, 210 (see note), etc.; often 
with reflex dat. 26, 662, 1125, etc. ; 
often followed by inf. {in many 
cases best rendered by a pres. part.) 
234, 291, 853, 2387, etc. ; pp., dat. 
sg. m., i>8Bt ^u me ft waere forS 
gewitenum on feeder stale, ' that 
thou wouldst aye be to me when 
dead in a father's place,' 1479. 

witian, see weotian. 

witig, adj., WITTY, wise (applied to 
the Deity), 685, etc. ; wigtig, 1841. 
[P.B.B. X. 511.] 

witnian, tr. v., punish, torment; pp. 
wommum gewitnad, * tormented 
with plagues,' 3073. 

wl4$, prep, with dat. and ace., with 
{with ace. 152, etc., with dat. 113, 
etc.), can often be rendered by Mod. 
Eng. ^with,' especially with verbs 
denoting strife, such as winnan, 
152 ; but ' against ' is a rendering 
more generally satisfactory, 326, 
etc. ; sometimes towards {ace.) 155, 
1864; by (ace), 2013, 2566; from 
{dat.), 827, 2423. With ace. and 
dat. in the same sentence: 424-6; 
gesaet )>a witS sylfne...m£eg wi'S 
m«8ge, ♦ he sat then by [the king] 
himself, kinsman with kinsman,' 
1977-8 : wi« dura heaUe, ' to the 
door of the hall,' 389*; witJ earm 
gesBBt {see note to 1. 749) ; forbom 
bord wilJ rond[e], ' the shield was 
burnt up to the boss,' 2673; witS 
Hrefnawudu, • by (over against) 
Bavenswood,' 2925. 

wiUer-ralites, adv., opposite, 3039. 

wi'Sre, st. neut., resistance, 2953. 

wlanc, see wlonc. 

wl&tian, w. v., look, look for, 1916. 
[C/. Goth, wlaiton, 'to look round ']. 
in-wlfttlan, w. v., to gaze in, 

wlenco, st.f., pride, bravado, darmg; 
dat. wlenco, 338, 1206, wlence, 

wlitan, St. v., gaze, look, 1572, 1592; 
pret. pi. wlitan, 2852. 

giond-wlitan, «f.v. , look through, 
view thoroughly, 2771. 

wllte, St. m., countenance, 250. [Cf. 
Goth, wlits.] 

wlite-beorht, adj., of bright aspect, 

wllte-s6on, st.f., sight, 1650. 

wlitlg, adj., beautiful, 1662. 

wlonc, wlajxc, adj., proud, 331, 341, 
2833, 2953 ; with dat. »se wlanc, 
♦carrion-proud,' 1332. 

woe, see wsecnan. 

w6h, adj., crooked, wrong; dat. pi. 
him bebeorgan ne con wom wun- 
dor-bebodum wergan gastes, ' he 
knows not how to protect himself 
against the crooked wondrous com- 
mands of the cursed spirit,' 1747 
(if so punctuated, but see note). 

wSh-bogen, adj. {pp.), crooked- 
Bowed, coiled, 2827. 

wolcen, St. neut., wELKm, cloud; 
dat. pi. wolcnum, 8, etc. 

wolde, pret. of willan. 

woUen-tgaje, adj., with WELLmg 

TEARS, 3032. 
w6m, see w61i. 
womm, St. m., spot, plague, 3073. 



won, v., see wlnnan. 

won, wan, adj., [wan] dark, 702, 
1374; rixim. pi. neut., wan, 651; 
weak form wonna, 3024, 3115. 

wong, wang, »t. m., plain, meadow, 
93, etc. 

wong-stede, »t. m., [plain-sxEAD] 
champaign spot, 2786. 

won-hyd, it.f. , [wan-, i.e. unthought] 
carelessness, rashness, 434. 

wonn, 3154 (see note to 11. 3150, etc.). 

won-sffllig, adj., unhappy; won-sfflli, 

won-sceaft, tt. /., [wAN-SHJping] 
misery, 120. 

w6p, tt. m., WEEp'mg, 128, 785, 
3146. [Cf. O.E. wepan.] 

wore, see weorc. 

word, tt. neut., word, 30, eto. The 
dat. pi. it common with verht of 
taying: 176, 388, 1193, 2795, 

word-cwide, -cwyde, it. m., word- 
saying, speech, 1841, 1845, 2753. 

word-gyd, tt. neut., woRD-lay, dirge, 

word-herd, st. neut., word-hoard, 

word-rilit, tt. neut., [word-right] 
right or befitting word, 2631. 

worhte, see wjnrcan. 

worn, 8t. m., multitude, number, 
264 ; ace. tg. >onne he wintrum 
frod worn gemunde, 'when he, 
old in years, remembered the num- 
ber [of them],' or 'remembered 
many a thing,' 2114. Qualified 
by fela or eall : nom. sg. worn fela, 
•a great number,' 1783; ace. tg. 
J)u worn fela...ymb Brecan sprace, 
♦ thou hast said a great deal about 
Breca,' 530; eal-fela eald-gesegena 
worn, ' a very great number of old 
tales,' 870; worn eall gespreec 
gomol, ' the aged one spake very 
many things,' 3094. Similarly in 
gen. pi. governed by fela : with gen. 
tg. woma fela..,sorge, 'very much 
sorrow,' 2003 ; with gen. pi. woma 
fela..,gii"5a, 'very many wars,' 

worold, tt. /., WORLD, 60, etc.; gen. 
tg. worulde, 2343, worlde, 2711; 
his worulde gedal, * his severance 
from the world,' 3068. 

worold-Sx, tt. /., woRLD-honour, 17. 

worold -cynlng-, wyruld-cyning, tt. 
m., WORLD-KING, mighty king, 
1684, 3180. 

worold-rsaden, st. /., the way of the 
WORLD (riSden, • condition,' used to 

make abstract nouns) ; ace. tg,^ 
1142 (see note). 

worfig, tt. m., homestead, court, 
precincts, street, 1972. 

worS-mynd, see weorU-mynd. 

woruld-candel, tt. /., world-candle, 
the sun, 1965. 

wonild-ende, st,m., world-bnd, the 
end of the world, 3083. 

wracu, St. /., revenge ; ace, sg. 
wro9ce, 2336. [Cf. Goth, wraka.] 

wrsBC, tt. neut., wrack, misery, 
exile, 170, 3078. 

wrsBCca, see wrecca. 

wraace, see wracu. 

wrSc-iast, St. m., exile-track, path 
of exiles, 1352. 

wrsBC-msecg, tt. m., banished man, 
ejile, 2379. 

wrsBC-sitJ, tt. m., itbjcz- journey, 
exile, 2292 ; dat. pi. nalles for 
wroec-sitJum ao for hige->rymmum, 
• by no means because of banish- 
ment, but out of magnanimity,' 

wrsBt, tt. f., ornament, jewel; ace, 
pi. wr^te, 2771*, 3060* ; gjn. pi. 
wraetta, 2413 ; dat. pi. wrattum, 

WTfflt-lic, adj., ornamental, curiously 
wrought, splendid, wondrous, 891, 
1489, etc. 

wra^, adj., wroth, hostile, abso- 
lutely, foe; 319, 660, etc. 

wra'Se, adv., amiss, 2872. 

wratJ-lice, adv., wrothlt, wrath- 
fully, 3062. 

wrecan, st. v., with ace., wreak, 
drive, drive out, utter, avenge, 
423, 1278, etc. ; often wrecan gid, 
spel, etc., 'utter, rehearse a lay, 
legend, or tale,' 873, etc.: tubj. 
pret. J>onne he gyd wrece, ' [that] 
then he should utter a dirge,' 
2446; pret. tg. ferh ellen wrsec, 
'strength drove out life,' 2706 
(see note); pp. wear^...on bid 
wrecen, ' was driven to bay,' 2962. 
a-wrecan, tt. v., tell ; with ace, 
gid, 1724, 2108. 

for- wrecan, tt. v., with ace., 
drive away, banish, 109, 1919. 

ge-wrecan, tt. v., utu. with ace, 
wreak, avenge, 107, 3062, etc. ; 
pret. pi. gewrfflcan, 2479 ; with 
reflex, ace. 2875 ; absolutely, hs 
gewroBC syS^an, • he took ven- 
geance afterwards,' 2395. 

wrecca, w. m., wretch, exile, wan- 
derer, adventurer, 898, 1137, F. 
27*; dat. wrseccan, 2613*. 



wrecend, st.m. (pres.part.), WREAKer, 

avenger, 1256. 
WTeoUen-bilt, adj.y with wREATHsd 

or twisted hilt, 1693. 
wridian, w. v., grow, 1741. [P.B.B. 

X. 511.] 
writan, st. v., write, engrave, 1688. 
for-wntan, $t. v., out asunder, 

writJan, st. v., with ace, [writhe] 

bind, 964; bind up, 2982. 
wrixl, St./. orneut., exchange, 2969. 
wrixlan, w. v., with dat. wordum, 

♦ exchange, interchange, words, ' 

366, 874. 
wroht, it. m. and f.^ strife, contest, 

2287, 2473, 2913. [C/. Goth. 

wrohs, •accusation.'] 
wudu, St. m., wood: 

(1) a wood, 1364, 1416. 

(2) a spear ; ace. pi. wudu, 398. 

(3) a ship, 216, 298, 1919 ; nom. 
sg. wudu wunden-hals. 

wudu-rec, st. m., wood-rese, smoke, 

wuldor, St. neut.y glory; gen. sg. 

wuldres, 17, etc. [C/. Goth. 

wuldor- torht, adj., glory-bright; pi. 

Wuldur-cyning, st. m., Glory-KiNG, 

the King of glory, 2795. 
wulf, St. m., woLT, 3027. 
wulf-hlilS, St. neut., wou-slope; ace. 

pi. wulf-hleo'Su, 1358. 
wund, St./., WOUND, 2711, etc.; ace. 

sg. wunde, 2725, etc. 
wund, adj., wouNDed, 565, etc. 
wnnden-feaz, adj., with wound, i.e. 

twisted, hair, 1400. 
wunden-hals, adj. , [wouND-neck] with 

twisted or curved prow, 298. 
wunden-mffll, st. neut., [wound- 

sword] sword with winding, curv- 
ing, ornaments, 1531*. 
wunden-stefna, w. m., [wound-stem] 

ship with twisted or curved stem, 

wimder-fSBt, st. neut., wonder- vat, 

wondrous vessel; dat. pi. 1162. 
wundini, see windan. 
wimdor, st. neut., wonder, 771, etc. ; 

monster, 1509 : nom. ace. wundur, 

3032, 3062, etc.; ace. wunder, 

931 ; dat. wundre, 931 ; gen. pi. 

wundra, 1607 ; dat. pi. adverbially, 

wundrum, ' wondrous(ly),' 1452, 

wundor-bebod, st. neut., wonder- 

command, wondrous command, 


wundor-dea'8, st. m., wonder-death, 
wondrous death, 3037. 

wundor-lic, adj., [wonderuke] won- 
drous, 1440. 

wondor-sion, st. f., woNDER-sight, 
wondrous sight, 995. 

wundor-smi'B, st. m., wondkb-smith, 
mystic-smith, 1681. 

wundur-maStJum, st. m., wonder- 
jewel, wondrous jewel, 2173. 

wunian, w. v., [won]: 

(1) intrans. dwell, remain, 284, 
1128, etc. ; with dat. wicum wu- 
nian, 3083. 

(2) trans, indwell, inhabit, 1260, 

ge-wimlsLn, w. v., with ace., 

dwell with, remain with; subj. 

pres. pi. gewunigen, 22. 
-wurUad, see weortJian. 
wTirSan, see weortSan. 
wurKlic, see weorlJlic. 
wutun, uton, = let us, with foil, inf., 

1390, 2648, 3101. [Cf. O.E. ge- 

witan. ] 
wyle, wyllaU, wylle, wylt, see 

wylm, wselm, st. m., surge, flood, 

516, etc. [See Sievers,, § 159, 

1 and 2.] 
wyn-lgas, adj., joyLEss, 821, 1416. 
wynn, st.f., joy, 1080, etc. 
wyn-sum, adj., winsome, joyous, 

1919 ; neut. pi. wynsume, 612. 
wyrcan, w. v., work; 'pret. worhte, 

WROUGHT [Cf. Goth, waurkjan] : 

(1) with ace. work, make, 92, 930, 
1452 ; pret. part. pi. {as adj.) ' dis- 
posed,' feeste ge worhte, ' steadfast,' 

(2) with gen. achieve ; subj. pret. 
wyrce se J'e mote domes, • achieve 
glory he who may,' 1387. 

be-wyrcan, w. »., surround, 

ge-wyrc(e)an,tr. v., trans. ,vio^k, 
accomplish, achieve, 635, 1491, 
1660; subj. pret. pi. geworhton, 
3096 ; gewyrcean >£Bt, * bring it 
about that,' 20. 

wyrd, St. /., weird, fate, 455, 477, 

W3n:dan, w. v., destroy ; pret. sg. 
wyrde, 1337. 

a-wyrdan, w. v. destroy, 1113. 

wyrm, st. m., worm, dragon, 886, 

wjTm-cynn, st. neut., worm-kin, 
serpent kind, 1425. 

wyrm-fah, adj., worm -adorned, snake- 
adorned, 1698. 



wyrmhord, tt. ncut., wobm-hoard, 

draf;on'8 hoard, 2221. 
wyman, w. v. [from weam]. 

for-wyman, w. »., refuse, 429, 

wyrp, Mt.f., change, 1315. 
wyrpan, ir. v. [from weorpan], 

ge-wyrpan, to. v., recover; with 

reji. ace. 2976. 
wyrsa, adj. eompar. {of yfel), worsb, 

1212, etc.; gen. pi. wyrsan, 525; 

neut. ace. ig. absolutely, ^aat wyrse, 

1739. [Cf. Goth, walrsiza.] 
wyrt, »«./., [wort] root, 1364. 
wyr«e, aWj., worthy, 368, 2185. 

wyrBra, eompar., worthier, 861. 

See also woorK. 
wyruld-, see worold-. 
wyscan, tr. v., wish ; pret. pi. wiston, 

1604 (see note). 

yfel, tt. neut., evil; gen. pi. yfla, 
2094. [Cf. Goth, ubils.] 

ylca, pron., the same, ilk, 2239. 

yldan, to. v., delay, put off, tarry; 
inf. 739 [from eald]. 

ylde, elde, it. m. pi., men, 70, 77, 
150, etc. ; dat. eldum, 2214, 2314, 
2611, 3168. 

yldesta, see eald. 

yldo, tt.f., [eld] age, old age, 1736, 
etc. ; dat. ylde, 22, eldo, 2111. 

yldra, see eald. 

ylfe, tt, m. pi., elves, 112. 

ymb, ymbe, prep., with ace., about, 
around, concerning, local, tern- 
poral, denoting object, etc., 399, 
etc. ; following its case, 689 ; ymb 
ane niht, 'alter one night,' 135, 
and cf. note to 1. 219. 

ymbe, adv., about, around, 2597. 

ymbe-flittend, ymb-slttend, tt. m. 
{prM.par«.),[about-siTTing] neigh- 
bour; nom. j)Z. ymbe-sittend, 1827; 

gen. pi. ymb-sittendra, 9 ; ymbe- 

pittendra, 2734. 
yppe, w.f., high seat, throne, 1815. 

[From up.] 
yrfe, st. neut., heritage, 3051. [Cf. 

Goth, arbi.] 
yrfe-iaf, it.f., heirloom, 1053, 1903. 
yrfe-weard, tt. m., heir, 2731; gen. 

tg. yrfe-weardas, 2453 (see note). 
ynnCo, it. /. , misery; ace. yrmtJe, 

1259, 2005. [From earm.] 
yrre, tt. neut., anger, 711, 2092. 
yrre, eorre, adj., angry, 769, 1532, 

etc- ; gen. tg. used tubtantively, 

eorres, 'of the angry one,' 1447. 

[Cf. Goth, airzeis.] 
yrre-mOd, adj., angry in mood, angry- 
minded, 726. 
yrrlnga, adv., angrily, 1565, 2964. 
ys, see wesan. 
yU, St. /., wave, 548, etc. ; ace. tg, 

or pi. y«e, 46, 1132, 1909. 
yUan, w. v., destroy, 421. [Cf. Goth. 

au^s, 'desert.'] 
yUe, 1002, 2415, see ga«e. 
ylJe-lice, adv., easily, 1556 (see 

ytJ-geblond, -gebland, tt. neut., 

BLBNDing of waves, surge, 1373, 

1593; pi. 1620. 
yU-gesene, see Sfl-gesyne. 
yU-gewiim, tt. neut., wave-strife, 

1434, 2412. 
yU-iad, tt. /., [wave-LODE] wave-path; 

way over the sea ; pi. 228. 
yU-13,f, tt. /., [wave-z,E.4ring] what 

is left or thrown up by the waves, 

the foreshore, 566. 
yU-lida, w. m., wave-sailer, ship, 

198. [Cf. IrSan, 'to go.'] 
ywan, Sawan, eowan, w. v. : 

(1) trans, show; pres. sg. eawe."^, 
276; pret. ywde, 2834. 

(2) intrant, appear; pres. tg. 
eowet;, 1738. 

ge-^wan, ge-eawan, w. v., pre- 
sent, proffer, 2149 ; pp. ge-eawed, 


I have to thank many friends and correspondents for drawing my atten- 
tion to misprints, or for generous help as to difficult passages in Beowulf : 
Mr J. H. G. Grattan, Mr Cyril Brett, Prof. 0. F. Emerson and especially 
Mr Ritchie Girvan. 

During the past five years there has been comparatively little discussion 
of the grammatical problems oi Beowulf : but special mention must be made 
of the Interpretations and Emendations of Early English Texts by Prof. 
Ernst Kock, in Anglia, xlii. 99 etc. (1918). 

1. 24. leode gelBsten. In support of the interpretation * may help their 
lord,' Kock quotes: gelmtan hldforde at hilde, An. 411, gelmtan frean to 
gefeohte, Maiden, 11. 

33. hringed-stefna, Isig ond Ht-fus. Hollander {M.L.N, xxxii. 246] 
suggests *itig^ ' splendid,' O.N. Ur. 

86. Kock takes earfofflice as an adj. : 'endured an irksome time'; ear- 
fo9lxce Jyrdge^earfof-prdge (1. 283). 

133. Sievers shows that werig, applied to the evil spirit, is simply werig, 
' weary.' If it were, as Hart thinks, a distinct word, akin to dwyrged, 
• accursed, ' we should expect to find it more often in Late West Saxon in 
the form wyrig. [See Anglia, i. 577; I.F. xxvi. 225-35.] 

249. Bright suggests is for nis, and would interpret seld-guma as * a rare 
man,' comparing »eW-cMd", 'seldom known'; seld-cyme, 'a rare visit'; seld- 
slene, ' seldom seen ' [M.L.N, xxxi. 84]. 

489. onsal meoto. When finite verb and noun occur in one half-line, the 
verb is, in Beowulf, normally less stressed than the noun; and hence, in 
the second half-line, it is the noun which comes first and takes the alliteration, 
except in cases where the verb, bringing some vivid picture before our eyes, 
is emphatic [Sievers, Altgerm. Metrik, 1893, § 24]. 

Bright [M.L.N, xxxi. 217- 23] has a full and interesting discussion of the 
metrical stress of the imperative : he would read here omal metto, translating 
' disclose what thou hast iu mind.' But the verb in such a position must, in 
Beowulf, be emphatic; and Hrothgar cannot be adjuring Beowulf to break 
his stubborn silence, for taciturnity is not Beowulf's weakness. 

The examples given by Bright himself show how alien to the technique of 
Beowulf (thovigh. not of some other O.E. poems) would be the subordination 
of the noun to the verb here. Bright quotes 37 half-lines, containing im- 
perative -f- noun, in Beowulf, and in every instance the noun takes the al- 
literation: in the first half-line the verb may, or may not, also have 
alliteration, but in the second half-line it cannot. The overwhelming pro- 
bability is therefore that not 07isaBl (which takes the alliteration) but meoto, 
represents the verb, as Holthausen, Klaeber and Sedgefield have held. Kock 
[Anglia, ihi. 105] reads on sml meota ' think on joy,' comparing ic on lagu 
J>enee, Hy. 4, 95, hicgeaif on ellen, Finn, 12 ; and he takes [on] sigehred as 
parallel to on sal, ' think on joy, on conquest's glory for the men.' 

765-6. But Kock quotes satisfactory parallels for J^at as a relative, in 
similar circumstances : swe hwylc nion swd d^t sio, p^t Ses londes hru.ce. 
Oldest Eng. Texts, 451 ; that war Krist, that thar stuod, Heliand, 5433. 

1008. Schiicking interprets both after and symle as adverbs, • ever after,' 
comparing d symle, Hy. 4, 114 [Archiv, cxv. 421]. ' 

1068. Finnes eaferum. The question is whether the ' dative of personal 
agency,' or * instrumental, ' without a preposition, is possible. Klaeber and 
Lawrence doubt [see J. E.G. Ph. xiv. 548; Proc. Mod. Lang. Assoc. Amer. 
XXX. 398]. Green defends it at length, but the parallels he quotes are hardly 
conclusive [see Puh. Mod. Lang. Assoc. Amer. xxxi. 759-97] ; Kock quotes a 

256 Beowulf 

good parallel from Otfrid : $unton, then wir fallen, * sins by which we fall ' 
(iii. 21. 12). 

1083. Klaeber [J.E.G.Ph. xiv. 548] would now retain ge/eohtan. For 
the redundancy wig gefeohtan he compares the Chronicle, anno 871, rdde 

1106. syS'dan. Kock suggests that this means ' atone,' and is connected 
with seoifan: "logically, the ideas 'seethe,' 'sacrifice' and 'atone' go to- 

1107. icge. Brett {M.L.R. xiv. 2) compares incge (1. 2577) and inge 
{Exod. 190) "In all three passages the root meaning 'mighty' would do 
very well." 

1440. wag-bora. Sedgefield2 renders 'wave raiser,' 'wave causer,' and 
compares rmd-bora (1. 1325). 

1543. For oferwearp, ' stumbled,' Brett compares Mid. Eng. intransitive 
' overthrow ': * gerte him in the nekke that he overthrew ' [see M.L.R. xiv. 7]. 
But strengest can perhaps be defended as uninflected accusative : of. Rood, 6, 
/af ic gesdwe...heama beorhtost. 

1598. For geweordan ' agree ' cf . J?as J?e hie has geworden hmfde, Chronicle, 
anno 918: gewearj? pa senates (Orosius): pa gewearf usic {Satan, 256) 
[Hubbard in J.E.O.Ph. xvii. 120]. 

1757. Kock construes egesan as dat.-instrumental, and ne gyme9 as 
parallel with dalep : * spends the treasures, not keeping anxiously the ancient 

1770. wigge. Against Klaeber, Kock argues strongly for the interpreta- 
tion 'by fighting,' quoting Ps. 84, 3, me...wige beluc wrdfum feondum, where 
the Vulgate context certainly favours the interpretation of wige as ' by fight- 
ing.' Kock further instances Met. 1, 22, Beow. 1084 and Widsith, 120, etc. 
And Hrothgar had not kept his people out of war : he had often been on ore 
ffonne walu feollon (1041-2). 

1861. I take the tt of gegrettan as merely a scribe's double writing, like 
apellingum (1. 906) or gebmrann {Finn. 40). 

1925. Kock reads bregorof: "words meaning 'king,' 'lord' are used as 
intensives, as we amuse ourselves ' royally.' " 

1926. Kock reads hea[h on] healle, comparing brun on bane, 2678 ; giong 
on galgan, 2446 ; eadig on eorffan. Gen. 2147. 

1934. sinfre^g^a can mean simply 'husband.' 

2051. That Withergyld is the name of the father of the young Heatho- 
bard warrior who is stirred to revenge has been suggested with probability 
by Meed {M.L.N, xxxii. 435]. 

2164. Kock takes both words, lungre and gelice, as adjectives : ' swift 
and all alike'; comT^axing frome, fyrd-hwate, 2476; hearde, heaSo-scearde, 
2829 ; omige, J?urhetone, 3049 ; ealdum, infrddum, 1874. Mr Grattan suggests 
that lungre should be interpreted in its usual sense of ' straightway*: ' straight- 
way four horses all alike followed the other gifts.' 

2212. My former statement, ' hSj? is feminine,' was an error, the ultimate 
origin of which is probably to be traced to the misreading heaure haj>e in 
this passage (e.g. in Holder's edition). HS&f> however is masc. or neut. [see 
Piatt in Anglia, vi. 173; Sievers, P.B.B. ix. 239; xx. 553]. 

2223. plow. Lawrence argues powerfully in favour of pegn [Pub, Mod. 
Lang. Assoc. Amer. xxxiii. 554-7]. 

2252. gesdwon sele-dream. Kock, translating 'had seen [the last of] 
the joy in Hall,' compares 11. 2725-7, and Vergil's fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium, 
' done are we Trojans, done is Ilion.' 

2338. Kock suggests eall-iren ne[r], ' a protection all of iron.' 

2385. Brett defends orfeorme, 'without support,' i.e. 'in the absence of 
Beowulf.' But the /-alliteration of the second half-line is surely against this. 

2852. The punctuation in the text is probably correct, for, if wlitan 
were inf., it would depend upon Is^g, which is impossible, as Beowulf is dead. 

3005. Brett urges that Thorpe's interpretation gives a meaning to the 
otherwise meaningless /urd"ur gen, ' did deeds of valour beyond the Scyldings' 
realm ' [M.L.R. xiv. 1]. We may also note that Beowulf had been adopted 
by Hrothgar as his son (11. 947, 1176), and is even called freca Scyldinga 
(1. 1563). 

Additional Notes 257 

8072. Brett interprets geheafferod as ' fenced out /rom' [M.L.B. xiv. 5]. 
3146. gelag. Pluperfect in sense, like hwearf (1. 55), crungon (1. 1113) 


Two good editions of the Finnsburg Fragment have recently appeared: 
one by Mr Bruce Dickins in his Runic and Heroic Poems (1915), and one by 
Mr W. L. Mackie, with an excellent discussion of the text, in the J.E.G.PK 
xvi. 250-73. But we must not forget that the text of the Fragment has coir.e 
down to us in a very corrupt form. Mr Mackie protests against my descrip- 
tion of Hickes' transcript as 'inaccurate': since the original is no longer 
extant, Mr Mackie urges that we cannot tell how far any errors are due to 

But there are other transcripts by Hickes, of MSS. which are still extant, 
and from these we can estimate his accuracy. It is no disrespect to the 
memory of Hickes, a scholar to whom we are all indebted, to recognize 
frankly that his transcripts are not such as to render them at all a satisfactory 
substitute for the original MS. Hickes' transcript of the Cottonian Gnomic . 
Verses {Thesaurus i. 208) shows an average of one error in every four lines, 
about half being mere matters of spelling, whilst the others are serious. 
Hickes' transcript of the Calendar (Thesaurus i. 207) shows an average of 
one error in every six lines. 

And we find in the Finnsburg Fragment inaccuracies of exactly the type 
which Hickes so often commits. For example, Mr Mackie doubts the legiti- 
macy of emending Garulf to Garulf[e] : but Hickes (or his printer) was very 
careless as to the final e; compare Gal. 15, 23, 41, 141, 144, 171, 210; Gn. 
Verses, 45. 

I. 9. Mackie, following Bosworth-Toller, would make the a of wMol long, 
and connect with wdp, * wandering.' 

30. Mackie retains healle, thus making the alliteration fall upon gehlyn, 
the second accented syllable of the second half-line. He appositely cites 
1. 43 in justification. 

36. The emendation hwearfllcra hrs&w was made by Grundtvig (1820), 
but his interpretation (1861) ' piled up corpses ' is hardly satisfactory ; nor 
is that of Grein2 * corpses of the swift.' Mackie points out that hioerfiic 
occurs in Alfred's Boethius, xi. 1, hu hwerjilce das woruldsselpa sint, ' how 
fleeting are these earthly blessings.' The meaning here should then be 
'corpses of the mortal,' *of the dead.' 

41. swdnas. "In Old English swan (Modern Eng. swain) elsewhere 
always means * swineherd,' 'herd.' There is no other example of its use in 
the general sense of 'men' or even of 'servants.' This first appears in 
Middle English. If swdnas, ' men,' is accepted here, one is almost bound to 
regard it as late Old English, the meaning influenced by Scandinavian sveinn, 
which had already widened its significance" — Mackie. Mackie also defends 
hwitne medo, instancing an eighteenth century recipe ' for making white mead.' 

Persons and Places. 

For the etymology of Grendel see E. G. T. Booth in Anglia, Beiblatt, 
xxviii. 335. Booth connects with grand, 'sand,' and interprets 'creature of 
the sand, or of the deep,' comparing grund-wyrgenne (1. 1518),. Bjorkman's 
discussion of Breca, the Brondings and Wealhtheowin Beiblatt, xxx. 177 etc., 
and of Beow and Beowulf in Engl. Stud. lii. 145 etc., should also be consulted. 


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