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JERSEY CITY. FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY 
3er?en arr^ Jer?ey City 




BERGEN 1 JERSEY CITY 



An Historical Souvenir of the 250th 
Anniversary of the Founding of Bergen 



Prepared for the Free Public Library of Jersey City by 
EDMUND W. MILLER. Assistant Librarian 




Published by 

THE FREE PUBLIC LIIIRARY 

JERSEY CITY 

1910 



BERGEN m JERSEY CITY 



An Historical Souvenir of the 250th 
Anniversary of the Founding of Bergen 



Prepared for the Free Public Library of Jersey City by 
EDMUND W. MILLER, Assistant Librarian 




Published by 

THE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY 

JERSEY CITY 

1910 



COPYRIGHT 1910 
By Free Public Library, Jersey City, N. J, 



PRESS OF A. J. DOAN 



FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY 

JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

HON. H. OTTO WITTPENN, Mayor, 

Ex-officio. 
HENRY SNYDER, D. Sc, Supt. of Schools, ' 

NELSON J. H. EDGE DAVID R. DALY 

BENJAMIN L. STOWE DAVID W. LAWRENCE 

GORDON K. DICKINSON, M. D. 



OFFICERS 

BENJAMIN L. STOWE President 

DAVID R. DALY Treasurer 

ESTHER E. BURDICK Librarian 

EDMUND W. MILLER Secretary 



PREI^ACE 



The present monograph is pubHshed by the Trustees of 
the Free PubHc I^ibrar>^ of Jersey City as a contribution to the 
most important celebration ever held on New Jersey soil. 
The 250th anniversary of the founding of Bergen which is to be 
observ'ed during the week of October 16 to 23, 1910, commem- 
orates the establishment of the first municipal government, 
the first church and the first school in the State of New Jersey. 

Two hundred and fifty years ago a small band of hardy 
pioneers braved the dangers and hardships of the wilderness 
and planted the little village from which has grown the present 
Jersey City. In the following pages an effort has been made 
to tell the story of this wonderful growth and record some of 
the many interesting incidents connected with it. The facts 
have been gathered from records and documents owned by 
the Library and great care has been taken to make it accurate. 
Owing to the necessarily limited size of this publication it has 
only been possible to give a brief outline of the city's history 
and many important events had to be omitted entirely. The 
Library, however, has in course of preparation a more com- 
plete history of the City and County, in which these facts will 
be given in fuller detail. It is hoped, however, that the 
present publication will serve to stimulate interest in the 
history of our city and call the attention of the public to the 
fine collection of historical data contained in the Public Li- 
brary. 



BERGEN AND JERSEY CITY 



I. Discovery and Early Settlements 

Before the white race came to America the land included in the 
present County of Hudson was covered by dense forests and dreary 
marshes tenanted only by wild beasts and scattered bands of savages. 

The original inhabitants of this territory were a branch of the 
Lenni Lenape nation of Indians. The Lenni Lenape, or Delawares 
as they were afterward named by the Europeans, occupied all the 
present New Jersey, which they called Sheyichbi. They belonged to 
the great Algonquin family of Indian nations which occupied nearly 
all the country from Hudson's Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. 

The Lenape were of medium stature, well built and strong, 
with dark eyes and coarse black hair, of which the men wore only a 
single tuft or scalp-lock. They dressed in the skins 
The Indians '^^ wild animals and painted and stained their bodies. 
They lived in villages, each family occupying a sin- 
gle hut or wigwam. These dwellings were only temporary struc- 
tures and the villages were continually moved from place to place. 
They lived principally by hunting and fishing, though maize and prob- 
ably some vegetables were cultivated and eaten. 

They had a rude kind of tribal government and their religion 
was a form of fire or sun worship. Though hospitable and friendly, 
they rarely forgot or forgave an injury and were cruel and relentless 
in seeking vengeance on their foes. They were, however, much more 
peaceable than most of the neighboring tribes. 

It is not known who was the first white man to view the shores 
of what is now New Jersey. In 1497 and 1498 John and Sebastian 

Cabot sailed along the coast of North America and 
First Discoverers claimed for the King of England the entire country. 

Whether the Cabots ever saw the coast of New 
Jersey is not known, but it was included in the land they claimed 
and it was by virtue of their discoveries that England afterward 
asserted her title to all the North American continent. 

In 1524 Verrazano, an Italian sailing in the service of the King 
of France, visited the Bay of New York. He evidently discovered 

and sailed some distance up the Hudson River. 
Verrazano, 1 524 He must, therefore, have seen the shores of New 

Jersey and was probably the first white man to 
view the land upon which Jersey City now stands. The following 



year Estevan Gomez, employed in the service of Charles V. of 
Spain, sailed up New York Bay. It is probable that other explorers 
also visited these waters, but the honor of their discovery has been 
justly given to Henry Hudson. It was Hudson who first made these 
regions known to the world, and his explorations lead directly to 
the colonization of New Netherland. 

On April 4, 1609, Hudson sailed from Amsterdam under a com- 
mission from the Dutch East India Company to explore ' ' a passage 
to China." The little vessel he commanded was a shallow, almost 
flat-bottomed, sail boat of about sixty tons burden. After vain 
eiforts to find the northwest passage he reached Greenland, and sail- 
ing south along the coast, arrived at Chesapeake Bay on August 28. 

He then turned back, and on September 2 anchored 
Hudson, J 609 off the Highlands of Navesink. After spending 

several days in exploring the lower bay and the 
adjacent islands, Hudson sailed up through the Narrows, and on 
September 12 the "Half Moon" anchored near Communipaw. Struck 
with the beauty of the country, the mate, Robert Juet, makes the 
following note in his journal of the voyage : "This is as pleasant a 
land as one may tread upon." This entry is of interest as being the 
first recorded reference to the land included in the present Jersey 
City. The next day they continued up the river, reaching Albany on 
September 19. After stopping there for several days they started 
on their return voyage, and on October 4, 1609, Hudson passed Sandy 
Hook and put out to sea. 

The glowing description which Hudson gave of the newly dis- 
covered country on his return to Europe aroused great interest 
among the merchants of Holland. A vessel was at once fitted out 
from Amsterdam to trade with the Indians. This venture was suc- 
cessful and was soon followed by others. In 1613 a trading post con- 
sisting of four small houses was established on the lower end of 
Manhattan Island. 

In 1621 the Dutch West India Company was chartered. This 
charter gave the company exclusive jurisdiction over the newly dis- 
covered country for a term of twenty-one years, 
The DutchWest with power to make contracts, build forts, admin- 
India Company ister justice and appoint governors. In 1623 the 
new country was made a province under the name 
New Netherland. In the same year another expedition was sent out 
with thirty families to start a permanent settlement. 

Shortly after this it was decided to establish the headquarters 
of the colony on Manhattan Island. In 1626 Peter Minuit, who had 
been appointed Director of New Netherlands, purchased the island of 
Manhattan from the Indians for the sum of $24.00. 

Notwithstanding the success of these early ventures the 

8 



BEP°GEN 

OUT GARDEN PLOTS. 
T.tFicy)80Ci,KoFT„c 

ni6^ioner0 




BERGEN AND BUYTEN TUYN 

iroduced from the original map of 1764, by Mr. John NN' Heck. I'sed here through the 
courtesy of the Historical Society of Hudson County. 

No copy of the original map of Bergen, as laid out by Jacques Cortelyou. exists. The original of the map 
here shown was made in 1764, and without doubt, correctly shows the town plot, .-as originally laid 
out. the shape of the lots and the general features of the ''Out Garden Plots." 



province did not develop as was anticipated. Little had been done 
toward improving the settlements. The only inhabitants were a few 
employees of the company connected with the trading posts and 
forts. None of the land was cultivated except the little that was 
necessary to supply the wants of those who were attached to the 
forts. 

In 1629 the officers of the company devised plans to improve 
the conditions of the colony and offered special "freedoms and exemp- 
tions" to those who would plant settlements in New Netherland. 
Any private individual who wished to settle in the new country was 
offered absolute ownership of as much land as they 
The^PatfOons^ could properly improve. Any member of the com- 
pany who should within four years establish a col- 
ony of fifty adult persons was to be acknowledged as a "patroon" or 
feudal chief of the territory thus colonized. Each of these colonies 
might extend sixteen miles along one side of the river, or eight miles 
on each side, and might extend back to a practically unlimited dis- 
tance. Each patroon was to have full title to the land, provided he 
satisfied the claims of the Indians by purchase. 

The history of New Jersey may be said to have begun in 1630, 
when Michael Pauw, a burgomaster of Amsterdam, bought from the 
Indians the greater part of the territory now included in Hudson 
County. This purchase was made through the Director and Council 

of New Netherland. The compensation given the 
PatJw's Indians is not named, but is described as a " quan- 

Purchase, J630 tity of merchandise." There are two deeds, the 

first dated July 12, 1630, and the second, covering a 
much larger territory, dated November 22, of the same year. These 
deeds seem to have included most of the land lying along the Hudson 
River from Communipaw to Weehawken. In the deed of November 
22 the territory is described as "Ahasimus and Aressick. extending 
along the river Mauritius and the Island of the Manahatas on the 
east side, and the Island Hoboken Hackingh on the north side, sur- 
rounded by swamps, which are sufficiently distinct boundaries." 

Ahasimus was the name given to that part of Jersey City 
which lay east of the hill and was separated from Paulus Hook by a 
salt marsh, and was afterwards the town of Van Vorst. Aressick 
was an Indian name, meaning burying-ground, and was applied to the 
circular piece of upland lying south of York street and east of War- 
ren street, afterward known as Paulus Hook. Hoboken was an 
Indian word, said to signify tobacco-pipe. With the suffix Hackingh, 
which means land, this would give the expression "the land of the 
tobacco-pipe." This was the tract of land now occupied by the city 
of Hoboken. 

Pauw named the district he purchased, Pavonia, after the Latin 
form of his own name. 



It is not known when the first settlement was made in Hud- 
F' ■»• ^ f tT f ^^^ County. Some writers have asserted that the 

Tj J Dutch landed on the Jersey shore and made a set- 

m Hudson tlement as early as 1610. A number of other 

V-.ounty writers state that settlements were made in 1618, 

but there is no evidence to uphold these assertions. 

According to the terms of Pauw's contract with the Company 
he was to plant a colony of at least fifty persons within four years, 
one fourth of which number was to be brought over within the first 
year after his purchase. It is known that Pauw did not comply 
with these conditions, but it is probable that some sort of settlement 
was made before 1633. All that is known with certainty, however, 
is that in 1633 an officer of the Company named Michael Paulusen, or 
Poulaz, was living at Aressick and was probably engaged in trade 
with the Indians. He was, without doubt, the first white resident of 
Jersey City. Apparently he did not stay here very long, but the 
point of land where he lived was named after him : Paulus Hook. 
Hook, or Hoeck, as it was originally spelt, is the Dutch for cape 
or point of land. 

In the latter part of 1633 two houses were built by order of the 
Company, one at Communipaw, afterwards owned by Jan Evertse 
Bout, and the other at Ahasimus, near what is now the corner of 
Fourth and Henderson street, and afterward occupied by Cornells 
Van Vorst. These were probably the first regular buildings in Hud- 
son County. 

Paulusen was succeeded by Jan Evertse Bout, who was 
appointed by Pauw as his representative. He arrived in New Neth- 
erland June 17, 1634, and established his headquarters at Communi- 
paw, or Gemoenepa, as it was called by the Indians. Bout was prob- 
ably the first white resident at Communipaw. In June, 1636, Bout 
was succeeded by Cornells Van Vorst, who made his residence at 
Ahasimus. 

In the meantime Pauw's ownership had caused much dissatisfac- 
tion and jealousy among the other members of the Company. After 
a long dispute he was compelled to relinquish his claim to Pavonia, and 
in return the Company paid him 26,000 guilders, or about $10,400.00. 
The exact date of this settlement is not known, but it must have 
been prior to July, 1638, for under that date a lease of a farm in 
Pavonia is recorded in the name of the Company. 

In making the settlement with Pauw the Company announced 
that it would "reserve the property unto itself," and in accordance 
with this notice Ahasimus was held by the Company and became 
known as the West India Company's Farm, and afterwards as the 
Duke's Farm. The rest of the territory, however, was soon disposed 
of without regard to the reservation. In 1638 Abraham Isaacsen 
Planck bought the tract of land known as Paulus Hook for the sum 
of 250 guilders. 

10 



The first white occupant of Hoboken was Hendrick Comelissen 
Van Vorst, who obtained a lease of the place in 1639. In the lease 
the land is spoken of as having been "heretofore occupied by him," 

but as Van Vorst was unmarried it was probable 
First Settlement that he lived with his father at Ahasimus. He 
of Hoboken soon afterward returned to Holland, where he died. 

In 1640 Governor Kieft leased the land at Hoboken 
to Aert Teunissen Van Putten, and the Governor agreed to build a 
small house on the place. This was without doubt the first house in 
Hoboken. Van Putten cleared the land and soon had a flourishing 
farm. He also erected a brew-house, the first brewery in Hudson 
County. 

Early in 1638 William Kieft arrived at Manhattan as Director 
General of New Netherland. The afltairs of the province were in a 
very bad state and he did much to improve its condition. Kieft, how- 
ever, did not know how to deal with the natives, and it was princi- 
pally his want of judgment which caused the long and bloody Indian 
wars. In 1641 one of the colonists was murdered by the Indians. 
Kieft demanded the surrender of the murderer, but the Indians 
refused. He then wished to attack them, but the majority of the 
settlers advised against such a step at that time. 

In February, 1643, a party of Indians numbering about one 
thousand, fled from the Mohawks, who had made war upon them, and 
came to the Dutch for protection. While they were encamped near 

what is now the corner of Pine street and Johnston 
First Indian avenue, a party of Dutch soldiers under orders 

War, 1643 from Kieft, crossed the river from Manhattan, and 

falling on the unsuspecting savages, massacred a 
large number of them. The Indians at once made war on the Dutch 
and destroyed every house in Pavonia. The settlers blamed Kieft 
for their misfortunes and he made every effort to bring the war to a 
close. In April, 1643, a treaty was made with some of the tribes, 
but it was soon broken, and in a few months the war was raging as 
fiercely as ever, and continued until 1645. On the 30th of August of 
that year a treaty of peace was made and the first Indian war was 
ended. The settlers returned to Pavonia, rebuilt their houses and 
resumed their former occupations. 

Settlements were soon made in other parts of the future Hud- 
son County. In 1646 Jacob Jacobsen Roy received a grant of land at 
Constable Hook, where the works of the Standard Oil Company are 
now located. Roy was the first gunner of the New Amsterdam forts, 
and this was the origin of the name Constable Hook or Gunner's 
Point, the Dutch word for gunner being "konstapel. " 

In 1647 Claas Carstensen was granted a strip of land extending 
from New York Bay to Newark Bay, which included a large part of 
what was afterward known as Greenville. This section was called 

11 



by the Indians "Minkakwa," meaning the "place of good crossing," 
probably because it was the most convenient pass between the 
two bays. 

At "Awiehaken," as the Indians called the present Wee- 
hawken, Maryn Adriaensen in 1647 was given a tract of farm land. 
He was the first settler at Weehawken, which still preserves its 
Indian name, probably meaning "the land of the end," so called 
because the Palisades end at this spot. 

In 1654 a number of families were granted tracts of land 
within the limits of the present city of Bayonne. In the deeds they 
are described as situated between Communipaw and the Kill Van KuU. 

For ten years the Indians faithfully observed the treaty made 
in 1645. Peter Stuyvesant had succeeded Kieft as Director General 
in July, 1646, and his conciliatory treatment of the Indians did much 
to preserve peace. Unfortunately in 1655 an Indian girl was shot 
while stealing some peaches from a farmer in Man- 
Second Indian hattan. War at once broke out, and on the night 
War t655 of September 15th a party of Indians attacked New 
Amsterdam. They were soon repulsed, but they 
immediately crossed the river, and falling on the settlements at Pa- 
vonia destroyed every house and farm. One hundred of the settlers 
were killed, one hundred and fifty taken prisoners and more than 
three hundred lost their homes. All those who could escape took refuge 
in New Amsterdam. The savages having spent their fury soon found 
that their prisoners were an encumbrance and made proposals for 
ransoming them. After considerable negotiations the captives were 
returned and peace finally established. 

Wishing to avoid any trouble with the Indians regarding the 
ownership of the land at Pavonia Governor Stuyvesant decided to re- 
purchase it. On January 30, 1658, a new deed 
Hudson Cottnty was made by which the Indians transferred to 
Reoufchased 1658 ^^^ Dutch all that part of the present Hudson 
County which li'es east of the Hackensack River 
and Newark Bay. The compensation given the Indians consisted of 
"eighty fathoms of wampum, twenty fathoms of cloth, twelve kettles, 
six guns, two blankets, one double kettle, one half barrel of strong 
beer." 

IL Bergen 

The settlers who had been driven from their homes wished to 
return as soon as the war was over, but on January 18, 1656, the 
Council issued an order commanding them to concentrate in villages 
for better protection against the savages. In 1658 some of 
them obtained permission to go back to their farms on this con- 
dition. They returned, but for nearly two years they made no effort 
to form a village or make any provision against the attacks of the 

12 




a 



Indians. This called forth another edict ordering all isolated farmers 
to move to the nearest village or to form a fortified village at some 
favorably situated spot. 

On March 1, 1660, Tielman Van Vleck and some others asked 
permission "to settle on the maize land behind Gemoenepaen. " 
These requests were refused, but on the 16th of August several in- 
habitants, whose names have not been preserved, asked for permission 
to cultivate the land "behind Communipaw and to make there a 
village or concentration." This petition was at once granted on con- 
dition that the village must be formed on a spot that could be easily 
defended ; and while the lots were to be given free, each settler was 
obliged to build his house within six weeks after he had drawn his 
lot ; and from each house there must be furnished at least one person 
able to bear arms. 

The exact date of the founding of Bergen is not known, but 
from the few documents which have come dovsTi to us the time can 
be fixed quite closely, and there is no doubt that the site was selected, 

the village surveyed, laid out and given a name. 
The Founding' between the 16th of August, the date of the above 
of Berp-cn petition and some time in November, 1660. In a 

letter written by Governor Stuyvesant dated 
October 6th, 1660, he calls attention to several villages needing 
preachers and among them mentions "a newly planted village of 
about thirty families across the North River. " It is evident from 
this that the town had been formed but not yet named. 

The earliest document in which the name appears is a survey 
of a lot made in November, 1660, the day of the month not being given. 
In this document the lot is described as being "near to the village 
of Bergen in the new maize land." The "maize land" alluded to 
was a small clearing probably made by the Indians for the cultivation 
of maize. It was located near what is now the corner of Montgomery 
street and Bergen avenue. 

The origin of the name Bergen has been a matter of much dis- 
pute. Some historians have claimed that it was called after the city 
of Norway of the same name; others that it was named after the lit- 
tle town of Bergen-Op-Zoom in Holland. The explanation which is 
now generally accepted by the best authorities is that the name was 
derived from the Dutch word "berg," meaning mountain or hill, in 
allusion to the high ground on which the village was built. 

The first settlers appear to have been from the Netherlands, 
with perhaps a few Danes, Swedes and Norwegians. 

The village was laid out in the form of a square, each side 800 
feet long, with two streets, now known as Academy street and Ber- 
gen avenue, crossing each other at right angles in the centre. These 
streets cut the town into four quarters and each quarter was divided 

13 



into eight building lots. A street ran along each of the four exterior 
sides of the plot. The boundaries of the town, giv- 
DesCfiption of ^^S the streets their present names, were Newkirk 
g street on the north, Tuers avenue on the east, 

Vroom street on the south, and Van Reypen street 
on the west. Around the outer sides of the streets which surrounded 
the village, palisades, probably built of logs and about six or seven 
feet high, were erected as a protection from the Indians. On each 
side of the town where the cross streets ended, gates were placed, 
through which roads led into the woods and fields beyond. 

In the centre of the village, where the streets intersected, an 
open space about 160 by 225 feet was left as a public square. This 
open space is the present Bergen Square. 

The buildings first erected were probably built of logs. The 
land within the town was laid out in lots by Jacques Cortelyou, the 
official surveyor of New Netherlands. The land immediately sur- 
rounding the town was laid out in farms and was 
'^Bwytcn Tuyn^ known as the "Buy ten Tuyn" or outside gardens. 
This land was owned and cultivated by the settlers 
who had their homes inside the village because of the danger from 
Indians. During the day the settlers worked on the farms, but at 
nightfall they retired within the walls of the town bringing with them 
their cattle, which they tethered in the public square. 

In February, 1662, a well was dug in the centre of the square 
so that the cattle could be watered without taking them outside the 
gates. Troughs were placed around it for the cattle and a long sweep 
was used for raising the water. This well was in use until some time 
in the 19th century, when it was filled up and a liberty pole placed on 
the spot. In the latter part of 1870 this pole was taken down, the 
square was paved, and all traces of the well were destroyed. 

The beauty of its situation and the many advantages of the new 
settlement caused it to grow so rapidly that by May, 1661, every lot 
within the palisades was occupied. The village soon became so im- 
portant that it was given a local government. On 
First Local Septembers, 1661, a court was installed consisting of 

Government ^ "Schout" or Sheriff, whose functions were some- 
what like those of a bailiff or country sheriff; and 
three "Schepens" or magistrates, somewhat like justices or aldermen. 
This was the first court and the first municipal government estabhshed 
within the limits of the present state of New Jersey. Previous to 
this the Court of Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam 
had exercised legal jurisdiction on this side of the river. But thence- 
forth legal questions were decided by the local court, subject to the 
right of appeal to the Director General and Council of New Nether- 
land. 

The inhabitants of the village were allowed to choose their own 
magistrates. Tielman Van Vleck was the first Schout. The first 

14 



Schepens appointed were Harman Smeeman, Casper Steinmets and 
Michiel Jansen, who was the ancestor and founder of the Vreeland 
family of Hudson County. 

Almost as soon as Bergen was founded, provision was made for 
the religious and educational needs of the people. A lot fronting on 

the square was set apart to be used as a site for 
First School ^ school-house. Engelbert Steenhuysen was the 

first schoolmaster, and was also the "Voorleezer" 
or clerk, who in the absence of a minister conducted the religious 
services and performed most of the functions of a regular clergyman. 
He probably began his duties very soon after the founding of the 
village. His license is dated October 6, 1662. A school-house was 
not erected immediately and it is probable that school was at first held 
in the house of the schoolmaster. 

When and where the first school-house was erected is not known, 
but it was probably built about 1664. According to tradition, which 
has been accepted by some of the best authorities, the first school- 
house was located on the high ground just outside the palisade, near 
what is now the corner of Tuers avenue and Vroom street. This 
building was also used for religious purposes until the erection of the 
octagonal church in 1680. 

Many authorities, however, believe that a school building was 
erected at an early date on the plot of land facing Bergen Square, 
which had been set aside for that purpose when the village was first 
laid out, and which is now occupied by Public School No. 11. This is 
Very probable, for it seems unlikely that this lot would have been left 
idle until 1708 when the second school was built. As the school-house 
was the first in New Jersey, and the first public building within the 
limits of the present Jersey City, it would be of great interest if we 
knew its exact location and something of its appearance. But un- 
fortunately few records regarding it have come down to us. Most 
of the historians believe it was built of logs, though even this has 
been questioned by some. All that is known with certainty is that 
there was a school-building, for in the old church records are found 
a number of items of expense for repairs and work done on "the 
school-house." 

The second school building was erected on the site now occu- 
pied by Public School No. 11. It was begun in 1708, and was probably 

completed about 1710. According to the old records 
Second School the total cost was 1193 guilders and 10 stuivers, or 
and Colombia $477.40. This building was probably in use until 
Academv ^^^^ when the Columbia Academy was erected on 

the same site. This was a large stone building, 
two stories high surmounted by a cupola. For many years the Co- 
lumbia Academy had a high reputation andmanj' of the city's prom- 
inent men were educated within its walls. 

15 



In 1857 the Columbia Academy was torn down to make way for 
the school-house known as "Columbia District School No. 1, Town of 
Bergen" and afterwards as Public School No. 11, 
Public School Jersey City. The corner stone of this building was 
p^o. 1 1 l^i^i J^^y 28, 1858. This structure was in turn torn 

down in 19U3 and the present handsome building 
erected in its place. 

The first church, now known as the Bergen Reformed Church, 
was organized almost as soon as the village was founded. In 1662 the 
sum of 417 guilders ($166.80) was subscribed by the inhabitants of the 
town for the support of a minister, and a petition was made to 
the Governor General and Council of Netherland for a pastor. Until 
1680 the religious services were held in the school-house erected about 
1664 near Tuers avenue and Vroom street. 

In 1680 the first building exclusively for church purposes was 
erected near the comer of Bergen avenue and Vroom street. It was 
an octagonal stone building with the roof sloping to a point and sur- 
mounted by a weather-vane. The windows were 
The First placed high above the ground. In 1683 a bell was 

Church placed in the roof. When ringing the bell the sex- 

ton stood in the centre of the building. The pews 
were placed around the wall and were occupied by the men, the rest 
of the floor being used by the women who sat on chairs. The minis- 
ter preached from a pulpit placed high above the congregation. In 
front, and just below the pulpit was a small pew with a book rest. 
This was occupied by the Voorleezer who conducted the services when 
the minister was absent and led the singing at the regular services. 
The contributions were taken up in little black velvet bags attached 
to long poles which were passed around by the deacons. At the bot- 
tom of each bag was a small bell to arouse the congregation at col- 
lection time. This custom was followed for many years. The ser- 
mons and the church records were in the Dutch language until the be- 
ginning of the 19th century. 

Until 1750 Bergen was without a regular local pastor, the ser- 
vices being either conducted by the Voorleezer or by ministers from 
New York or other places. These visiting preachers were paid twen- 
ty-five to seventy-two guilders ($10.00 to $28.80) for their services in 
addition to their expenses and board. In 1750 the congregation decided 
to engage a stated pastor, and obtained a supply in the person of Pe- 
trus De Wint, who served for nearly two years. The first permanent 
minister was William Jackson who was called in 1753, but was not in- 
stalled until 1757, having been sent to Holland in the meantime to 
complete his studies. 

In 1773 a new and larger building was erected on the spot where 
the octagonal church stood. This building was of stone and was 
45 feet wide and 60 feet long. It was in use until 1841, when it was 

16 




THE OCTAGONAL CHURCH 

(.Trom an Old Print.* 




^■*>.!ir*s^ 



COLUMHIAX AC.\1)I-;MV 
(Vroiu an Old I'ritit.) 



torn down to make way for the present church, the corner-stone of 
which was laid August 26, 1841. The building was completed the fol- 
lowing year, and was dedicated July 14, 1842. 

Shortly after the laying out of the town of Bergen had been 
commenced, steps were taken to establish a village at Communipaw. 

A settlement had been made at that spot as early 
Communipaw ^^ 1634, and at the outbreak of the Indian war in 

1655 several flourishing farms were located near 
there, but they were destroyed by the savages, and the inhabitants 
who escaped sought refuge in New Amsterdam. On September 8, 
1660, Jacques Cortelyou was ordered to make a survey of the land at 
Communipaw and lay it out into town lots. The site of the new vil- 
lage fronted on New York Bay and comprised a strip of land about 
200 feet wide, extending south from the present < ommunipaw avenue 
for about 600 feet. Within this small space the village was built and 
settled. Orders were given that a palisade be erected as a protection 
from the Indians. These fortifications were begun but apparently 
were never completed. 

Although Bergen had been founded and settled by the Dutch, 
it did not long remain under the Dutch rule. By virtue of the dis- 
coveries made by the Cabots in 1497 and 1498, Eng- 
Bergen Becomes land claimed ownership of all of North America. 
an E.ng'Iish Col- 0" March 12, 1664, Charles II, granted the prov- 
ince of New Netherland to his brother, the Duke 
of York. Soon after the Duke sold to Lord Berk- 
eley and Sir George Carteret the tract of land lying between the Hud- 
son and Delaware Rivers, and this tract was given the name of "New 
Jersey" in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was born on the island 
of Jersey in the English channel. 

On May 25, 1664, an expedition sailed from England to seize 
New Netherland and on September 8, captured and took possession of 
New Amsterdam. The following February, Philip Carteret, a brother 
of Sir George, was appointed Governor of New Jersey and in the 
latter part of July, 1665, he arrived and assumed control of the province. 

In 1668 Governor Carteret granted a new charter to the town 
of Bergen. This charter was largely a confirmation of the rights and 
privileges which the inhabitants enjoyed under the Dutch govern- 
ment. The boundaries of the town are described 
Carteret's in the charter and included nearly all the present 

Charter, 1668 Jersey City and Bayonne; "the whole both of up- 
land and meadows and waste land containing ac- 
cording to the survey 11,520 acres English measure." Among other 
things the charter empowers the freeholders to choose their own 
minister and provides that all shall contribute towards his support 
and towards the support of a "free school for the education of 
youth". It also provides that in religious matters there shall be full 

17 



liberty of conscience. Provision is also made for the establishment 
of a court of justice and the appointment of magistrates. 

In 1672 war again broke out between England and Holland. On 
July 30, 1673, the Dutch recaptured New York and a few days later 
took possession of Bergen. This second occupation, however, was of 
short duration. Peace was established on February 9, 1674, by the 
Treaty of Westminster, and under this treaty New Jersey was re- 
stored to the English. In the latter part of the same year Carteret 
resumed the governorship of New Jersey and the Dutch rule passed 
away forever. The final establishment of the English government 
meet with no opposition. Carteret had treated the people with great 
consideration and a strong and liberal administration that would in- 
sure peace and prosperity was welcome to all. 

From this time until the outbreak of the American Revolution 
the history of Bergen presents few incidents worthy of record. The 
settlement grew slowly but steadily. The inhabitants were mostly 
quiet industrious farmers and, while little material progress was 
made, the people were happy and prosperous. 

What few troubles they had arose over the "Common lands" 
which comprised about two thirds of the township. These lands were 
held in common and were used by the farmers for 
*^Common pasture and forage. To avoid confusion and dis- 

lands " putes which might arise from cattle running to- 

gether on these tracts, the Legislature had passed 
a law in 1668 providing for the branding of cattle and directing that 
the marks be recorded. In spite of these precautions, however, the 
common lands were a source of dissension. Some of the farmers en- 
croached upon the clearings and fenced them in with their own prop- 
erty. Others would unnecessarily cut and waste the timber. 

With the hope of remedying these difficulties a new charter, 
commonly known as "Queen Anne's charter," was granted on Jan- 
uary 14, 1714, which gave the town greater powers 
^*Qween Anne's and privileges. The abuses, however, continued to 
Ch.2itte.t/* J7J4 increase until on December 7, 1763, the Legisla- 
ture passed an act providing for a survey of the 
lands held under patents, and an allotment of the common lands 
among the inhabitants. Commissioners were appointed and they sur- 
veyed and allotted the land and prepared two field books and maps 
showing the boundaries and titles of the various tracts. This work, 
which was completed in March, 1765, was one of the most important 
events in the history of the town. It put an end to all disputes, and 
these field books are recognized as the final authority in all questions 
relating to land titles. • 



18 



III. Manners and Customs 

We who are living in the 20th century and are familiar with 
the present Hudson County, with its half million inhabitants, its 
crowded cities and immense business interests, find it hard to realize 
the appearance of this territory and the conditions of the people dur- 
ing the century following the founding of Bergen. Great as have 
been the changes in the manners and customs of the people they are 
not more striking than the changes that have taken place in the topog- 
raphy and physical appearance of the country. 

Until after the Revolution all the section east of the hill was 
marshland, similar to the marshes now lying between Jersey City and 
Newark, with the exception of a few sandy hills 
Appearance of which at high tide were almost entirely surrounded 
the Cowntry by water. The northernmost of these hills was 
that on which the city of Hoboken is now situated. 
This was occupied as the summer residence of the Bayard family 
whose mansion was on the high point of land projecting into the 
Hudson River. Their magnificent farm included all of the present 
Hoboken and part of Weehawken. 

The upland lying nearest to Hoboken was Ahasimus, afterwards 
the township of Van Vorst. T'his was occupied by the Van Vorst 
family, and the family homestead was located near the present 
Fourth and Henderson streets and was surrounded by a prosperous 
farm. 

Lying to the south of Ahasimus but nearer to Manhattan was 
the elevation known as Paulus Hook. This nearly corresponded to 
the section now bounded by Montgomery, Hudson, Essex and Warren 
streets. This was owned by the Van Vorst family and consisted 
mostly of farm land. 

Further south was the circular piece of upland known as "Jan 
de Lacher's Hook," or Mill Creek Point. Here was a flourishing 
farm. Nearby was Communipaw where was located a small village, 
and a number of prosperous farms. 

On the ridge of high ground lying west of these marshes and 
islands was the town of Bergen. For a long tim.e this was the most 
flourishing of the settlements. Because of the danger from the 
Indians, when the settlement at Bergen was first made, the dwellings 
were all inside the walls of the village, and the farms just outside. 
All the rest of the hill was unbroken woodland. As the danger from 
the Indians decreased, clearings were made and farmhouses built in 
various sections. But for many years much of the hill was covered 
by dense forest and as late as 1831 fox hunts were held in the Bergen 
woods. 

19 



Through the marshes lying east of the heights flowed a number 
of streams. The largest of these was Mill Creek which was of con- 
siderable size. This ran from New York Bay, 
Mill Creek near Johnston avenue and Philip street in a north- 

erly direction, crossing Grand street near Pacific 
avenue and thence through the marshes and along the foot of the hill 
to Ahasimus Cove. This stream was deep enough for the passage of 
good sized sail-boats and was used by the farmers to carry their pro- 
duce to the market in New York. Landings were made near Prior's 
Mill, which stood near Railroad avenue and Fremont street, and at 
Newark avenue, where the West Shore freight station is now located. 
These streams have now entirely disappeared and nearly all of the 
marshes have been filled in and built upon. 

Along the Hudson shore front the changes made since the "Old 
Bergen days" have been equally remarkable. Practically all the 

original landmarks have disappeared. From Hobo- 
Chang^es Alongf ken to Bergen Point the shore line has been ex- 
the Shore Front tended into the river to a distance varying from 

six hundred to six thousand feet. Between the 
Hoboken ferry and Montgomery street, what was formerly Ahasimus 
Cove, has been filled in until now the present shore front is on an 
average three thousand two hundred feet beyond the original line. 

Some idea of the population of the early settlements may be 
obtained from a little book published in Edinburgh in 1685 entitled 
"The Model of the Government of East New Jersey." This book 

describes the various villages, and states that in 
Population ^680 there were seventy families living in Bergen, 

forty at Communipaw, five or six at Ahasimus, two 
or three at Hoboken and several others scattered through the terri- 
tory. Some authorities, however, believe these figures were much 
exaggerated. This publication was issued to encourage emigration 
to the new province, and of course the description was made as invit- 
ing as possible. 

There is no doubt, however, that the colony steadily grew and 
attracted many settlers. The soil was fertile and the proximity of 
New York insured a ready market for the products of the farms. 
Most of these farms were large and flourishing and the owners pros- 
perous and well to do. 

The homes of the early inhabitants were comfortable and hospit- 
able in appearance and were generally surrounded by pretty gardens. 
The houses were usually one-story structures, built of stone or wood, 

and sometimes of both. The steep roof curved 
Homes of the slightly toward the lower part and was often car- 
Early Settlers ^i^d beyond the side walls to form a piazza, the 

edge being supported by pillars. The roof was 
generally pierced by dormer windows. Through the middle of the 

20 




BERGEN 1841 

Reproduced from tlie "Douglass Map" of ISll, In- Mr. John W. Heck. 

Used here through the courtesy of the Historical Society 

of Hudson County. 



house ran a wide hall with rooms opening on each side. There was a 
finished attic which contain<7-d a store room, and sometimes a few 
sleeping apartments and a spinning and loom room. One of these 
early houses is still standing in almost its original form and gives an 
excellent idea of the appearance of the homes of the first settlers. 
This is the old Sip homestead, at the corner of Bergen avenue and 
Newkirk street, which was built about 1664. 

Bergen had been founded and settled by the Dutch, and though 
after a few years it passed under English rule, the people still con- 
tinued to follow the Dutch customs and manners, many of which 
were preserved until long after the Revolutionary War. The Dutch 
language was used in the schools for many years and the church 
records and church services were in that language until the beginning 
of the 19th century. Dutch was spoken by many of the people until 
a much later period. 

The children attended the little school in the village of Bergen. 
Here they were taught the catechism, reading, writing and spelling ; 
and arithmetic when sufficiently advanced. The schoolmaster was 
also the " Voorleezer, " or minister's assistant, who 
Children l^d the singing in church and took the minister's 

place when he was absent. The school hours were 
usually from eight to eleven o'clock In the morning, and from one to 
four o'clock in the afternoon, and school was maintained for nine 
months, beginning in September and lasting till June. 

Children were brought up to be very respectful to their elders 
and poHteness and good behavior were strongly insisted on. The 
girls were taught domestic duties and sewing and fancy work at a 
very early age. Elaborate samplers were worked by little girls 
only nine or ten years old. 

The chief hoHday was New Year's day, which was celebrated 
as an occasion of great festivity. This was the day for family 
reunions and the interchange of gifts. Christmas was generally 
observed only by church services. 

For business transactions wampum or "seawant, " as it was 
called by the Dutch, was for a long time used in place of money. 
Wampum was the Indian name for beads made from the clam, peri- 
winkle or other shells. Owing to the difficulty in 
Wampum making these beads they were highly prized by the 

Indians and were used by them, and consequently 
by the colonists, as a medium of exchange. These beads were of two 
kinds — black and white— the black being worth twice as much as the 
white. The value of wampum varied at different times and according 
to its smoothness and polish, but usually three black or six white 
beads equalled one stuiver or about two cents of our money. 

The dress of the people was probably not as extravagant as 

21 



that worn by their rich neighbors in New York, but was gayer in 
color and style than the Puritan costumes of New England. The 
women usually wore a jacket of cloth or silk and 
Dyess ^ short quilted petticoat or skirt. The petticoat 

was one of the chief articles of a woman's apparel 
and was made of various materials and in various colors, according 
to the means and taste of the wearer. The wardrobe of a fashionable 
lady would often contain a dozen or more of these garments. High 
starched collars or ruffs were much worn, and among the rich were 
very large and made of expensive materials. Worsted stockings of 
various colors and high-heeled leather shoes were usually worn. The 
hair was generally brushed back from the forehead and covered with 
a cap of muslin, calico or lace, and sometimes with a silk hood. The 
jewelry most commonly used consisted of rings and brooches. 

The men wore long-waisted coats, with skirts reaching nearly 
to the ankles, vests with large flaps and baggy knee breeches. These 
garments were made of cloth, velvet or silk, and were usually of 
bright colors, though black was also worn. The coats and vests were 
ornamented with silver buttons and trimmed with lace. The breeches 
were also elaborately ornamented with buttons. Black silk stock- 
ings, low shoes with big silver buckles and a low-crowned hat, made 
of beaver or other fur, completed the costume. 

The children were dressed like miniature grown people. Among 
the well to do, the little girls wore long dresses, caps and even jew- 
elry like their mothers, and the boys were dressed almost exactly 
like their fathers. 

The dress of the poorer people was of course not as elaborate 
and expensive as that described, but in general character was prob- 
ably much the same. 

Marriages were often preceded by formal betrothal cere- 
monies, and it was also customary to publish the bans for a cer- 
tain number of Sundays before the wedding took 
Weddings place. The marriage was performed by the min- 

ister or the Voorleezer in the church or meeting 
house. After the ceremony was over a collection was taken up for 
the poor, and the newly married couple returned to the home of the 
bride. Here an elaborate wedding dinner was served, which was fol- 
lowed by dancing and general merry-making. Festivities, consisting 
of parties and excursions, were often continued for several days after 
the wedding. 

Funerals were elaborate and expensive ceremonies. They were 
conducted by the "Aanspreker" or funeral inviter. This official, 
attired in gloomy black with a three-cornered hat from which fluttered 

a long streamer of crape, visited all the friends of 
Funerals ^^e deceased, notified them of the death, and of the 

time of the funeral, and invited them to attend. 
This invitation was a matter of strict etiquette as it was not con- 

22 



sidered good form to attend a funeral unbidden. When the mourners 
were all gathered the Aanspreker would make a few remarks, offer 
a prayer, and then head the funeral procession to the cemetery, where 
another prayer was made before the coffin was lowered into the grave. 
Sometimes the dead were interred on the farms of the family, 
and occasionally in the church, but usually the burial was in the cem- 
etery. The first cemetery was near what is now the comer of Vroom 
Street and Tuers Avenue, where the first church and schoolhouse was 
located. This was used for over seventy years. In 1738 a second 
burial ground was opened on the south west corner of Vroom street 
and Bergen avenue. About 1831 another cemetery was laid out on 
Bergen avenue between Vroom and Mercer streets and about the 
same time the Jersey City Cemetery on the side of the hill near 
Newark avenue was opened. 

Slavery was common and existed till long after the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. In 1800 Bergen County, 

Slavery which then included the present Hudson County, 

had two thousand three hundred slaves out of a 

total population of fifteen thousand persons. 

Communication between the various settlements was difficult 
and slow. The roads were rough and dangerous. The first settlers 
probably used the old Indian trails. The first reg- 
Early Roads "1^^ road was built about 1660 and ran from Com- 
munipaw to Bergen, following the present Commun- 
ipaw avenue to Summit avenue, thence to Academy street and 
through that street to the eastern gate of the town of Bergen. In 
1679 it was described as "a fine broad wagon road." Another road 
ran from Ahasimus to Bergen, past Prior's Mill. 

Paulus Hook was connected with Bergen by what is now Newark 
avenue and a log road was laid over the marshes at the foot of the 
hill. In 1718 the road now known as the Hackensack Turnpike was 
opened. A road between Paulus Hook and Newark was begun in 
1765. For some distance this followed the line of the present Newark 
Plankroad. 

In 1790 the Legislature provided for the building of a road from 
the Court House at Newark to Paulus Hook. This was finished sev- 
eral years later and is now known as the Newark Turnpike. There 
were several other roads of less importance and as the settlements 
grew new ones were opened connecting the various villages and towns. 

The early modes of travel were either by private conveyance or 

horseback. The first stage line was started in 1764 and ran from 

Paulus Hook to Philadelphia, going by way of 

Modes of Travel Bergen Point and Staten Island. The journey 

took three days and the vehicle was a clumsy 

covered wagon without springs, which was named in all seriousness 

23 



the "Flying Machine." Other lines were soon started and the time 
of the trip to Philadelphia was reduced to a day and a half. 

In 1767 a stage line between Paulus Hook and Newark was 
started. As travel increased new lines were opened between Paulus 
Hook and various places until just before the advent of the railroads 
there were twenty regular stages leaving daily from Jersey City. 

The first ferry was established in 1661 and ran from Communi- 
paw to Manhattan. The ferry between Paulus Hook and New York 
was opened in 1764. The boats used on these early ferries were either 
row boats or small sail boats called periaugers. These boats were 
slow and uncertain, and in bad weather the trip was often dangerous. 
They were, however, the only means of transportation between Jer- 
sey City and New York until 1812, when the steam ferry boats de- 
signed by Fulton were put in operation. 

IV. The Revolution 

The peaceful existence of the Bergen farmers was rudely inter- 
rupted by the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. The great military 
importance of Bergen as a thoroughfare between 
The British New York City and the interior of New Jersey was 

take Possession recognized almost as soon as the war began. When 
of Berg'en it became known in the early part of 1776 that the 

British were planning to attack New York, Lord 
Sterling, who was in command of the American troops in this vicinity, 
immediately prepared to defend Bergen. 

Fortifications were erected at Paulus Hook consisting of earth- 
works surrounded by a battery of cannon. Fortifications were also 
constructed at Bergen Neck to prevent attacks from Staten Island. 
These works were situated near what is now 45th street and Avenue 
B, Bayonne. 

In June, 1776, General Mercer was placed in command of New 
Jersey, and he strengthened the defences at Bergen and Paulus Hook 
and increased the garrisons. The enemy, however, were arriving in 
overwhelming numbers and the impossibility of holding the fortifica- 
tions was apparent. On September 15th, the British captured New 
York City, and a few days later the Americans evacuated Paulus Hook, 
after destroying or removing all the stores and arms except a few 
guns which were unfit for use. The Americans withdrew to the 
heights of Bergen and threw up intrenchments along the brow of the 
hill north of Academy street, and on a line with what is now Baldwin 
avenue. Here they remained until Washington began preparations 
for his retreat to the Delaware. On October 5, 1776, Bergen was 
abandoned to the enemy. The British stationed a large force of 
troops at Paulus Hook and also took possession of the works at Bergen 
Neck, which they named Fort Delancey. 

24 



X 




rt 3 






o 



rt J •- 



W = 
O I 

n 



From the capture of Paulus Hook until the close of the war, 
Bergen remained under the control of the British. A large number 
of the inhabitants were loyalists, or tories as the patriots called them, 
and they favored and assisted the British as much as possible. The 
large forces of the enemy in New York City and the surrounding 
country made it useless for the American troops to attempt to regain 
any of this territory. But though the British were in full control they 
were not permitted to have undisturbed possession. Raids and incur- 
sions were frequently made by small bands of patriots. Parties of 
horsemen would swoop down on the farms and carry off cattle, pro- 
visions and supplies, bringing them to the American troops who were 
stationed at Hackensack. 

In the summer of 1779, Major Henry Lee, often called "Light 
Horse Harry," discovered that the fort at Paulus Hook was not care- 
fully guarded and conceived the idea of surprising and capturing it. 
Washington at first did not favor the plan, considering the risk too 
great, but after a personal interview Lee finally obtained his consent. 

The position of Paulus Hook was naturally of great strength. 
On the north was Harsimus Cove, on the east was the Hudson River 

and on the south was Communipaw Cove. On the 
Fortifications of west was a salt marsh, so low that at flood tide 
Paulus Hook boats could cross over it from cove to cove, and to 

further protect the approach from the land side a 
ditch twenty feet wide had been dug. Over this ditch, near what is 
now the comer of Newark avenue and Warren street, was a draw- 
bridge with a barred gate. This was the only entrance by land. In- 
side the ditch was a row of abattis or sharpened stakes pointing out- 
ward. The fortifications had been greatly strengthened by the British. 
The main works were on the line of what is now Sussex street ex- 
tending from a point between Washington and Warren streets, east- 
ward to Greene street. The barracks were at the intersection of 
Essex and Warren streets. From the main fort a redoubt extended 
along Washington street to another fort at Essex street. There was 
also a fort on the northwest corner of Washington and Grand streets 
and some block houses north of the main works. 

Early in the evening of August 18, 1779, Major Lee left New 
Bridge or Hackensack, where he had been stationed. His force num- 
bered about 450 men when he started, but owing to 
Capture of some misunderstanding of orders, his troops became 

Paulus Hook separated and only 150 men were with him when he 
reached Paulus Hook. The intention was to attack 
the forts about midnight, but owing to the difficult road he did not 
reach the ditch which separated Paulus Hook from the mainland until 
three o'clock in the morning. The troops had to wade through the 
swamp and ford the ditch and creek with the water sometimes up to 
their necks. This of course rendered their ammunition and firearms 

25 



useless, and they were compelled to attack with bayonets. Fortunately 
they were mistaken for a foraging party which the British had sent 
out, and they gained the fort before the garrison was fully awakened. 
The British commander with a few soldiers retreated to a small block- 
house near the fort and opened fire on the Americans. Lee had no 
time to dislodge them, or to carry off or destroy any property. Day- 
light was approaching and the noise of the firing had aroused the 
enemy across the river, who could in a few minutes send over a force 
of troops which would overwhelm the small body of patriots. He 
therefore made a hasty retreat taking with him 159 prisoners. Hie 
own loss was two killed and three wounded. 

Lee intended to retreat to Dow's ferry at the foot of St. Paul's 
avenue, where it was arranged to have boats ready to take his troops 
across the Hackensack River. When he reached there he found the 
boats had been removed; the delay having led those in charge to be- 
lieve that the attempt had been postponed. Lee was therefore com- 
pelled to change his route and retreat through Summit avenue toward 
Fort Lee and thence to Englewood. This was extremely dangerous as 
he was liable to be intercepted by the superior forces of the enemy. 
However, he succeeded in getting through in safety and reached 
Hackensack about one o'clock in the afternoon. 

The capture of Paulus Hook was one of the most brilliant and 
daring exploits of the war, and aroused the greatest enthusiasm among 
the Americans. Congress passed resolutions of approval and pre- 
sented Major Lee with a gold medal, a distinction which no other officer 
below the rank of general received during the Revolution. Congress 
also appropriated $15,000.00 to be distributed among the soldiers who 
took part in the action. A monument has been erected at the inter- 
section of Washington and Grand streets to commemorate the battle 

Paulus Hook remained in the possession of the British until the 
close of the war. About the first of September, 1782, Fort Delancey 
at Bergen Neck was abandoned. On November 22, 1783, the British 
retired from Paulus Hook and on the 25th, New York City was evacua- 
ted. The war was now ended, and a few days later Washington passed 
through Paulus Hook on his way to Mount Vernon. 

V. Jersey City 

The section known as Paulus Hook had been settled as early as 
1633, but up to the beginning of the last century it had made scarcely 
any progress. In 1638 the West India Company sold Paulus Hook to 
Abraham Planck, and it remained in the Planck family until August 
2, 1699, when it was bought by Cornells Van Vorst for £300. From 
that time until 1804 the greater part of it was used as farm land. 

In 1764 the ferry between Paulus Hook and New York was 
established, and a low frame house was erected near what is now the 

26 



comer of Grand and Hudson streets. This was used as a ferry house 
and tavern. About 1801 a small shanty was built near the ferry and 
used as a restaurant and oyster house. In 1802 these two houses, 
some barns and stables, and a storehouse were the only buildings on 
Paulus Hook. The only inhabitants were Major Hunt, who kept the 
tavern, and his family ; John Murphy and his wife, and Joseph 
Bryant, making a total population of thirteen. 

Paulus Hook at this time consisted of a number of sand hills, 
around which a race track had been built by Cornells Van Vorst in 
1769. The track was a mile long and horse races were run on it 
until 1804. 

The beginning of Jersey City as a city may by said to date 
from 1804. On March 26th of that year Anthony Dey of New York 
purchased Paulus Hook from the Van Vorst family for an annual 
payment of six thousand "Spanish milled dollars," 
Founoingf of which was secured by an irredeemable mortgage. 
Jersey City On the 18th of April, Dey conveyed the property to 

Abraham Varick, and on April 20th it was trans- 
ferred to Richard Varick, Jacob Radcliff and Anthony Dey. These 
three men, who were prominent New York lawyers, were the founders 
of Jersey City. They divided their purchase into one thousand shares 
and with a number of other persons formed a company and adver- 
tised a sale of lots. The property was mapped out by Joseph W. 
Mangin, a New York surveyor. This map is dated April 15, 1804, 
and is entitled "A map of that part of the Town of Jersey commonly 
called Powles Hook." The streets were laid at right angles. The 
eastern boundary was Hudson street, which was shown to be 
under water except near the foot of Morris street. The northern 
boundary was Harsimus (now First) street, and the southern bound- 
ary was South street, afterward called Mason street. The western 
boundary was a line drawn from South street to a point near the 
corner of First and Washington streets. More than half of the land 
was marsh and land under water. On the map the property was 
divided into 1,344 lots. 

On November 10, 1804, the New Jersey Legislature passed an 
act incorporating the "Associates of the Jersey Company," and all 
those persons having an interest in the ownership of Paulus Hook 
were constituted a corporate body under that title. The act was 
drawn by Alexander Hamilton and conferred extensive and varied 
rights and powers. 

The sale of lots which had been advertised met with little suc- 
cess, and though many inducements were offered to attract buyers, 
the city made but little progress. There were sev- 
SIow Growth eral reasons for this. New York claimed ownership 
of the City ^^id control over all lands under the water of the 

Hudson up to the Jersey shore. This claim inter- 
fered with the improvement of the most valuable part of the city. 

27 



The dispute regarding the boundary line was substantially remedied 
by an agreement between the two cities in 1834, though it was not 
finally settled until 1889. All the land in the new city was subject 
to a mortgage, so that no lots could be sold free and clear. Very few 
would buy lots on these conditions, and those who did were not will- 
ing to improve their property. This trouble was overcome in 1824, 
when Colonel Varick purchased the Van Vorst mortgage, and it was 
arranged to sell the lots free from encumbrance. 

In addition to these obstacles there were clauses in the charter 
of the Associates which gave them certain powers of government 
and control, which the inhabitants and lot owners could not alter or 
remove. The inhabitants were thus compelled to submit to laws 
which they had no voice in making. 

The Associates being unsuccessful in their efforts to govern 
the town, the New Jersey Legislature granted several new charters 
increasing the powers of the municipality. In 1820 the city was 

incorporated under the title "City of Jersey in the 
Charter of J 820 County of Bergen," though in the text of the act 

it was called Jersey City. Under this law the 
inhabitants were empowered to elect annually five freeholders to 
conduct the affairs of the town, who were to be known as "The 
Board of Selectmen of Jersey City." This body was given consid- 
erable powers in the government of the city, but there was a number 
of restrictions in the exercise of these powers which made them of 
slight value, and the government under the Selectmen was little 
more satisfactory than before. 

To remedy the defects of this government a new and more 
liberal charter was obtained in 1829. The governing body under this 

act was called "The Board of Selectmen and Inhab- 
Charter of J829 itants of Jersey City." While this body had 

greater powers than its predecessor it was soon 
found that they were not sufficient for the proper management of 
the town. 

On February 22, 1838, a new charter was granted and the 
city, which up to this time had been part of the township of Bergen, 

became a separate municipality. The governing 
Charter of 1838 Pow^^" was vested in "The Mayor and Common 

Council of Jersey City," and they were entrusted 
with sufficient powers to enable them to control the destinies of the 
city. Under this act Dudley S. Gregory was elected the first Mayor 
of Jersey City. Mr. Gregory was one of the city's most public- 
spirited men, and much of Jersey City's early development was due 
to his labors. 

In March, 1839, the western boundary of the city was extended 
to the centre of Grove street. 

28 




Q 



On February 22, 1840, the County of Hudson, which had up to 
that time been a part of Bergen County, was incorporated as a 
separate county. It comprised Jersey City and the 
Hudson County townships of Bergen and Harrison. East of the 
Incorporated Hackensack its boundaries were the same as those 
of the old township of Bergen. West of the Hack- 
ensack it included the present townships of Harrison and Kearney, 
and also the township of Union, in Bergen County. Union township 
was at that time included in Harrison, but in 1852 it was set off into 
Bergen County. 

On March 18, 1851, the township of Van Vorst was added to Jer- 
sey City and a new charter was granted. Van Vorst township included 
the greater part of what was originally known as Ahasimus and was 

named in honor of the Van Vorst family, who had 
Van Vorst settled there in 1636. It comprised what was called 

Township the "Duke's Farm," the Van Vorst patent, and a 

few other small grants of land. For many years 
there had been bitter disputes as to the ownership of the Duke's Farm, 
but in 1804 John B. Coles of New York bought the interests of the 
rival claimants. His purchase included a large part of the land 
north of Newark avenue, which he laid out in lots and advertised for 
sale. Van Vorst was part of the township of Bergen until 1841, 
when it was formed into a separate town. 

The growth of Jersey City during the early years of its history 
was very slow. There were, however many indications of the im- 
portance which it has since attained. Its great 
Growth of natural advantages and its convenient location for 

Jersey City commercial and industrial purposes were early rec- 

ognized and attracted many business enterprises. 

In 1804 Robert Fulton obtained a block of land in Jersey City 
and soon after established his shipyards at Greene and Morgan streets. 
These works were managed by Fulton until his death in 1815 and it 
was here that much of the machinery for his early steamboats was 
made. In 1812 steam ferry boats designed by Fulton were put in 
operation on the ferry between Jersey City and New York. 

One of the earliest commercial enterprises in Jersey City was 
the milling business estabhshed by Isaac Edge in 1815. The windmill 
was located about seventy-five feet north of Montgomery street, and 
fifty feet east of Greene street, where the western portion of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Station is now situated. For many years the 
Edge windmill was one of the most prominent landmarks on the Jer- 
sey shore. It was taken down in 1839 to make room for the tracks of 
the New Jersey Railroad. 

In 1824 Dummer's glass works were established on the spot now 
occupied by the Sugar house. The following year the "Jersey Porce- 
lain and Earthenware Company," afterward known as the "Jersey 

28 



City Pottery," was established. It was located at Warren and Essex 
streets. This was for a long time one of the most important potteries 
in the United States, and many of the best potters learned their trade 
here. The business continued until 1892, when the property was sold 
and the old buildings destroyed. 

Jersey City's prominence as a railroad centre began in 1834 
when the New Jersey Railroad was opened from Jersey City to New- 
ark. For some time the cars were drawn by horses, the first engine 
being put in operation in 1835. Other railroads were soon built and 
obtained terminal facilities here, and in a few years Jersey City be- 
came one of the most important railroad centres in the country. 

The first street railway was opened July 4, 1860. The cars were 
drawn by horses and ran from the Jersey City ferry to the Bergen 
Hill. Previous to that time the usual mode of travel was by private 
conveyance, or by stages, a number of which left the ferry for vari- 
ous places. 

The Morris Canal was opened from the Delaware River to the 
Passaic River in 1831, and in 1836 it was extended into Jersey City. 

About 1847 the Cunard Steamship line built its docks in Jersey 
City, and some time after the White Star line established its termi- 
nal here. For many years the ships of these lines sailed from Jersey 
City, but they have since moved to New York City. 

The construction of works for a water supply from the Passaic 
River was begun in 1852, and two years later the works were com- 
pleted and the water distributed through the city. Previous to that 
time the only supply was from wells, and as this water was of a very 
poor quality, large quantities of water were carted from the hill and 
sold by the pail to the residents of Jersey City. 

When the Civil War broke out in 1861 Jersey City contained a 
little over29,00U inhabitants, or including the towns of Bergen, Green- 
ville and Hudson City, which are now a part of the city, the total 
population numbered 43,884. When President Lin- 
Jersey City in coin issued the call for troops on April 15, 1861, 
the Civil War it was responded to in this locality with loyalty and 
enthusiasm, and throughout the war Jersey City 
was well represented at the front, both in numbers and in patriotism. 
According to the State records the volunteers from this city num- 
bered about one in every eight of the population, but this does not 
represent the total, for many men enlisted in regiments from other 
states which were of course not included in the roster of New Jersey 
troops. Taking this into consideration, it is estimated that the total 
enlistment from Jersey City was nearly one in every five of the 
population. 

In 1870 Bergen and Hudson City were consolidated with Jersey 
City. Hudson City was originally a part of Bergen and up to the 
time of the Revolution, consisted of dense forests known as the 

30 



"Bergen Woods." It had been formed into a separate municipality 
in 1852 under the name of "The Town of Hudson 
Hudson City jn the County of Hudson." On April 11, 1855, it 
and Dergfen was incorporated as the "City of Hudson" with 

Consolidated a separate government vested in a Mayor and Com- 
with Jersey City mon Council. Hudson City included the territory 
situated on the hill and bounded on the west by the 
Hackensaek River, on the north by the Paterson plankroad and 
on the south by the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Bergen, which originally included nearly all of the present 
Hudson County, had by the erection of cities and townships from 
its territory, been greatly reduced in size. In 1855 it was incorpor- 
ated as the "Town of Bergen," with a governing body composed of 
five Councilmen. On March 11, 1868, it was chartered as "The City 
of Bergen" and included the land bounded by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road on the north, Mill Creek and New York Bay on the east, Green- 
ville on the south, and the Hackensaek River on the west. Under 
this act the town was divided into four wards and the government 
vested in a body known as "The Mayor and Board of Aldermen of 
the City of Bergen." 

In 1873 the township of Greenville was annexed to Jex'sey City. 
Greenville included the territory between Bergen 
Greenville Added and Bayonne, and New York Bay and the Hack- 
to Jersey City ensack River and Newark Bay. This secton had 
been set off from Bergen and incorporated as a 
separate township in 1863. 

With the addition of Greenville, Jersey City attained its pres- 
ent limits. It now includes all of the old township of Bergen, with 
the exception of the cities of Bayonne and Hoboken, and the section 
lying north of the city up to the Bergen County line. 

Bayonne comprises all that part of old Bergen lying south of 
the Morris Canal. It was set off as a separate township in 1861 and 
incorporated as a city in 1869. 

Hoboken was first settled about 1639, and for several years was 
cultivated as a farm under leases from the Governor of New Nether- 
land. Some years later a grant of the land was made to Nicholas Var- 
lett. In 1711 it was purchased by the Bayard fam- 
Hoboken i^y> who used it for a summer residence. William 

Bayard, who owned the estate during the Revolu- 
tion, was a staunch loyalist, and when the war was over the Amer- 
icans confiscated the property. In 1784 the territory was sold 
to Colonel John Stevens, who was the founder of the present city of 
Hoboken. In 1804 he had the land laid out and mapped, and adver- 
tised a sale of lots. The Hoboken Land and Improvement Company 
was organized in 1838, and the following year purchased the property 
which remained unsold. Hoboken was set off as a separate township 
in 1849, and was incorporated as a city on March 28, 1855. 

31 



That part of Hudson County lying north of Jersey City com- 
prises the townships of North Bergen and Weehawken; the towns of 
Guttenberg, Union, West Hoboken and West New York, and the Bo- 
rough of Secaucus. These were all formerly included in the old town- 
ship of Bergen, and were at various times set off and organized as 
separate municipalities. 

The section west of the Hackensack River was in former times 
the township of Harrison, and was included in Hudson County when 
that county was established in 1840. This locality has since been di- 
vided into several separate municipalities and now embraces the towns 
of Harrison and Kearney and the Borough of East Newark. 

Beside the places already mentioned certain localities in Hud- 
son County have been known by various names at different times in 
their history. Most of these names, however, were merely popular or 
local designations, and the places bearing them had no separate exist- 
ence or government. Thus that part of Jersey City which lay south 
of the Morris Canal, near Communipaw and Pacific avenues, was 
known for many years as Lafayette, which was the name given to it 
by a company that mapped out the land and advertised the sale of 
lots about 1856. It was never a separate municipality. Claremont 
was the name similarly given to a tract of land on the hill near the 
Newark and New York Railroad. Among other names may be men- 
tioned Centerville and Pamrapo which were small villages in what is 
now Bayonne; and Washington village in Hudson City. 

After the consolidation with Bergen, Jersey City grew rapidly, 
and what not many years ago consisted of a few small hamlets and 
farms surrounded by dense woods and swamps has now become one of 
the most important cities in the country. This remarkable growth was 
accompanied by many important changes and many events of great in- 
terest, but there is no space to record them in the present publication. 

In educational matters, Jersey City has always been prominent. 
The first school in lower Jersey City was established about 1806. In 
that year the Jersey Associates made a grant of land on York street, 
between Washington and Warren streets, extending through to Grand 
street and from Grand street through to Sussex street, to be used for 
school and church purposes. About 1807 a building was erected on 
this land at Sussex street, which was used as a school and also for re- 
ligious services. The school was known as the "Mechanic's Insti- 
tute" and was supported by private subscriptions. Some time after 
another school called the "Columbian Public 
Early Schools m School" was started. For some yeai's these schools 
Jersey City received a partial support from the public funds, 

but in 1834 they failed for lack of money. Soon 
after this the Board of Selectmen took charge of the school building 
and about 1838 it was removed to the rear of the lots on which it stood 
and was repaired and used as a public school, jail and Town Hall. This 
building was used for school purposes for about ten years, when it 

32 




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was sold and the proceeds used in the purchase of the plot of ground 
®n York street on whieh Pnblic School No. 1 was erected. The new 
school was opened on February 9, 1848. Dr. Albert T. Smith was 
principal and George H. Linsley assistant. In September, 1851, Mr. 
Linsley was appointed principal, which position he held for over fifty 
years, resigning in 1905. 

One of the pioneer schools in this city was the Lyceum School 
on Grand street, founded in 1839 by William L. Dickinson. This was 
a classical academy for boys and was a prominent institution for many 
years. William L. Dickinson afterwards became Superintendent of 
Schools, which office he held for a number of years. He was an edu- 
cator of marked ability and was instrumental in laying the foundation 
of our present admirable public school system. 

Among the higher institutions of learning should be mentioned 
Hasbrouck's Institute founded in 1856 by Dr. Washington Hasbrouck; 
and St. Peter's College founded in 1878 and conducted by the Society 
of Jesus. These institutions are still flourishing and have always 
been important factors in the educational life of the city. 

The Jersey City High School was organized in 1872 and occupied 
the upper floors of Public School No. 5 on Bay street until 1906 when 
the present handsome building was completed. 

There is no room to speak of the many other schools which have 
been erected in the past few years. The educational growth of the 
city is shown by the fact that there are now thirty-five public schools, 
most of which are new buildings and include some of the finest and 
best] equipped schools in the state. In the public school system of 
Jersey City there are nearly 35,000 pupils and a teaching force num- 
bering over eight hundred. In addition, there are more than twenty- 
five private and parochial schools and a number of business colleges. 

Though the great educational value of a public library was gen- 
erally recognized, no attempt was made to establish a free library 
until a comparatively recent date. In 1866 the Beigen Library Asso- 
ciation was formed. This was supported by subscription and about 
1,000 volumes were gotten together, but after a short time the inter- 
est died out and the books were sold. In 1873 the Board of Education 
established a free library with an appropriation of $1,000.00 per year. 
This was continued for about ten years and about 5,000 volumes were 
collected. The library was kept in the High School and was open on 
Saturdays only. It was little used, except by the teachers and pupils 
of the High School. 

In 1884 the New Jersey Legislature passed an act for the estab- 
lishment of free public libraries. Under this law the Free Public 

Library of Jersey City was founded in 1889, largely 
The Public through the efforts of Dr. Leonard J. Gordon. The 

Library Library was opened to the public on July 6, 1891, 

in temporary quarters on the corner of Washington 
and York streets, with a collection numbering 15,000 volumes. In 

83 



1900 the erection of the present handsome building on Jersey avenue 
was begun and on January 16, 1901, it was completed and opened 
to the public. The Public Library has grown steadily and rapidly 
ever since its foundation. It now contains 120,881 volumes, main- 
tains three branches and twenty delivery stations and the reports 
for the year just closed show a total use of books amounting to 
754,745, and a total attendance in the various rooms and branches 
of 137,581. 

This brief allusion to the educational progress of Jersey City 
brings the story of the city's growth to a fitting conclusion. The 
educational facilities of a city are the surest index to its condition 
and standing, and Jersey City may well be proud of its library and 
schools, which in point of excellence and efficiency are second to none. 
The rise of these splendid institutions of learning from the little log 
schoolhouse at Bergen is typical of the progress Jersey City has 
made, and is still making in other fields, and gives promise of the 
still greater importance the city will attain in the near future. 



84 



INDEIX 



Ahasimds. 9, 19, 20, 29. 

Aressick, 9, 10. 

Associates of the Jersey Company, 27, 28. 

Bayonne, 12, 31. 

Bergen, 19, 20; founding of, 13; first set- 
tlers, 13; name, 13; description of, 13, 
14; first court, 14; first school, 15; sec- 
ond school, 15; captured by English, 
17. 18; recaptured by the Dutch, 18; 
consolidated with Jersey City, 30. 

Bergen, City of, 31. 

Bergen Library Association, 33. 

Bergen Square, 14. 

Boundary dispute, 27. 

Buyten Tuyn, 14. 

Cabot, John and Sebastian, 7. 

Carteret, Philip, 17. 

Cemeteries, 23. 

Centerville, 32. 

Charters, Carteret's. 17; Queen Anne's, 18; 

of Jersey City, 28. 
Children, 21. 22. 
Churches in Bergen, 16. 
Civil War, 30. 
Claremont, 32. 
Coles, J. B.. 29. 
Columbia Academy, 15. 
"Common Lands," 18. 
Communipaw, 10, 17, 19, 20. 
Constable Hook, 11. 
Cortelyou, Jacques, 14, 17. 
Court, first at Bergen, 14. 

Delancey, Fort, 24, 26. 
Dickinson. W. L., 33. 
Dey, Anthony, 27. 
Dress. 22. 

*'Duke's Farm," 29. 
Dummer's Glass Works, 29. 
Dutch West India Company, 8. 

Edge Windmill. 29. 

Ferries, 24, 29. 

Field book and map of Bergen, 18. 
Free Public Library, 33. 
Fulton's shipyards, 29. 
Funerals, 22. 



Gomez, Estevan. 8. 
Government, first local, 14. 
Gordon, L. J., 33. 
Glass works, 29. 
Greenville, 11, 31. 
Gregory, D. S., 28. 

Hasbrouck Institute, 33. 

High School, 33. 

Hoboken, 9, 19, 20, 31; first settlement, 11. 

Holidays, 21. 

Houses, first in Hudson County, 10; first in 
Hoboken, 11; of first settlers, 20. • 

Hudson, Henry, 8. 

Hudson City, 30, 31. 

Hudson County, incorporated, 29; first set- 
tlement, 10; first houses in, 10; repur- 
chased, 12. 

Indians, 7; first war with, 11; second war 
with, 12. 

Jan de Lacher's Hook, 19. 

Jansen, Michael, 15. 

Jersey City, founding of, 27; first map of, 
27; obstacles to'growth, 27,28; charters, 
28; extended to Grove street, 28; first 
mayor, 28; growth of, 29; Van Vorst 
added to, 29; Bergen and Hudson City 
added, 30; Greenville added, 31; schools 
in, 32, 33; libraries in, 33. 

Jersey City Pottery. 29. 

KiEFT, William, 11. 

Lafayette, 32. 
Language of the people, 21. 
Lee, Henry, 25, 26. 
Libraries, 33. 
Linsley, G. H., 33. 
Lyceum School, 33. 

Manhattan Island, purchase of. 8. 

Mangin map, 27. 

Mill Creek, 20. 

Minister, first, 16. 

Minkakwa, 12. 

Minuit, Peter, 8. 

Morris Canal. 30. 



INDEX 



Pamrapo, 32. 

Patroons, 9. 

Paulus Hook, 9, 10, 19; first settlement at, 

10, 26. 
Paulus Hook Forts, 24, 25; captured by the 

British, 24; captured by the Americans, 

25. 
Pauw, Michael, buys Pavonia, 9; sells Pa" 

vonia, 10. 
Pavonia, 9, 10. 

Population of early settlements, 20. 
Pottery, Jersey City, 29. 
Prior's Mill, 20. 

Radcliff, Jacob, 27. 
Railroads, 30. 
Revolution, 24. 
Roads, 23. 

St. Peter's College, 33. 
Schools, in Jersey City, 32, 33; in Bergen, 
15. 16, 21. 



Shore front of Hudson County, 20. 
Slavery, 23. 
Stage lines, 23. 
Steamship lines, 30. 
Street railways, 30. 
Steenhuysen, Engelbert, 15. 
Stevens, John, 31. 
Stuyvesant, Peter, 12, 13. 

Travel, 23. 

Van Vorst, township, 29. 
Varick, Richard, 27. 
Verrazano, 7. 
"Voorleezer," 15, 21. 

Wampum, 21. 
Washington village, 32. 
Water works, 30. 
Weddings, 22. 
Weehawken, 12. 
Well at Bergen Square, 14. 



Y^ O^ TOW^ OF E)EK5E]N[ 




BERGEN OF TO-DAY 
Prepared by Mr. John W. Heck. Used here through the courtesy of the Historical Society of Hudson County. 



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