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Of the California Academy of Sciences, Author of the 
Flora in the Rocky Mountain Edition 








Of the California Academy of S<ien(ks, Aithor of the 
Flora ix the Rocky Mountain Eoitiox 




Copyright, 1897. 19(H, by 



This Flora of the Pacific States has been made to enable 
pupils to obtain a clear idea of the method of classifying 
plants through practical experience in identifying the most 
common genera and species of the coast. It is to serve as a 
guide in understanding the characteristics and relationships 
of large and important orders and genera, and, to some 
extent, in identifying species. 

The species included have been those most widely dis- 
tributed or those most abundant near large centers of popula- 
f^^on, so that sufficient material might easily be obtained for 
^ class study. Species not clearly and easily defined have been 
^ omitted even when abundant, so as to render the possibility 
t of error as little as possible. Where a difference of opinion 
? exists among botanists in regard to generic names, both have 
fe<r^ generally been given, one in parentheses, 
f Teachers will find, in whatever part of the Pacific States 
^ they may be, that they can collect a sufficient number of the 
'^ plants here included to afford their pupils all the drill neces- 
iPsary. It is advised that the teachers furnish the plants for 
H? class study, being careful to select only from those here 
^ included rather than to allow the pupils themselves to select 
at random from the flora of the neighborhood ; otherwise, the 
^ pupil is likely to become discouraged by failure in identifying 
plants not described in the book. 


Teachers who are in doubt about any plants are earnestly 
requested to send specimens to the Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco, where they will be compared with herbarium speci- 
mens and identified. The specimens should have both flower 
and fruit when possible, and in the case of herbs the entire 
plant should be sent, root and all. 

It requires quite a library of botanical books to identify 
Pacific Coast species, since there is no book published that 
contains even all the known species, and there are many 
species still undiscovered. It is neither possible nor desirable 
to attempt to include all in a school flora. The chief books 
needed for a more complete study are the two large and 
expensive volumes of the State Geological Survey ; the fol- 
lowing botanical works of Prof. E. L. Greene : Plttonia, Flora 
Frcuiciscana, and The Botany of the Bay Region ; Western 
Cone-hearers, by J. G. Lemmon ; and, for Com2)ositcB and 
Ganioiyetake, Gray's Synoxjtical Flora. 

The plan of arrangement in preparing this Flora has been 
that of Professor Bergen's Key and Flora to the Spring- 
hlooming Flants of the Northern and Middle States, which 
replaces this in the Eastern edition of his book. It seemed 
that a plan which he had tried and found successful was 
better to adopt than one that was new and untried. When- 
ever possible, his descriptions have been used, the aim 
throughout having been to follow as he led. 

The botany of the Geological Survey, Professor Greene's 
botanical works, and Dr. Behr's Botany of the Vicinity of San 
Francisco have all been used in compiling the descriptions 
and making the Key. 


The figures referred to are to be found in the text of this 
Key, unless the reference is preceded by/, or e. The former 
refers to Bergen's Foundations of Botany, the latter to his 
Elements of Botany. 

The pronunciation is indicated by accent marks and the 
division of the accented syllable. A vowel ending this 
syllable has a long sound ; but when the accented syllable 
ends in a consonant, the vowel has a short sound. It 
matters little whether the English or Continental sounds 
for the vowels are used ; the former are more generally 
authorized, though the latter are becoming more and more 

In this revised edition I am indebted to Prof. C. ^ . Piper, 
of the Agricultural College, at Pullman, Washington, for 
additions to the Flora from Washington and Oregon, and 
to Mr. Louis A. Greata, of Los Angeles, for additions from 
the country adjacent to Los Angeles. 

Alice Eastwood 

Academy of Sciences 

San Francisco 


GYMNOSPERMS. Ovules not enclosed in an ovary. 

Trees or shrubs, usually with needle-shaped or scale-like evergreen leaves and 
monoecious or dioecious flowers in catkins, the pistillate ones usually ripening 
into cones (Coniferse), Fine Family, p. 13 

ANGIOSPERMS. Ovules in an ovary. 

MONOCOTYLEDONS. Flowers generally on plan of 3, never of 5 ; leaves 
usually parallel-veined. 

Glumaceocs division. Flowers rudimentary, enclosed in husk-like 
Bracts for each flower 2 ; stems jointed, hollow, cylindrical or nearly 

so (Gramineae), Grass Family, p. 21 

Bracts for each flower 1; stems not jointed, solid, triangular 

(Cyperacese), Sedge Family, p. 22 

Petaloideods division. Flowers havmg a true perianth ; not on a spadix. 
Ovary free from the perianth. Stamens 6 

(Liliacese), Lily Family, p. 23 
Ovary adnate to the perianth. 

Stamens 6 . (Amaryllldacese), Century Plant Family, p. 36 

Stamens 3 (Iridacese), Lis Family, p. 37 

Stamens 1 or (rarely) 2 . . (Orchidaceae), Orchis Family, p. 39 

DICOTYLEDONS. Flowers generally on the plan of 4 or 5. In woody 
plants the woody fiber forms concentric rings. 
Division I. Apetal^. With but one set of floral envelopes or none. 
Flowers in catkins. Trees or shrubs. 

Dioecious, 1 flower to each scale of the catkin; fruit a many-seeded pod, 
each seed furnished with a tuft of cotton 

(Salicacese), Willow Family, p. 40 

Monoecious ; sterile catkins drooping ; fertile, erect, cone-like, with 1 or 
2 flowers under each stiff, shield-shaped scale 

(Betulaceae), Alder Family, p. 42 


Monoecious, androgynous ; catkins short, erect, with 1 flower under 
each scale of the fertile catkin ; fruit a round nutlet 

(Myricaceae), Wax-myrtle Family, p. 40 

Monoecious, sterile flowers only in catkins ; fruit a nut in a cup or bur, 
or a leaf-like cylindrical sheath 

(Cupuliferse), Oak Family, p. 44 

Dioecious, sterile flowers with calyx -i-parted, stamens 4 ; fertile flowers 
Avith calyx 2-lobed or wanting, ovary 1-celled, 2-ovuled, styles 2 ; 
fruit a berry (Garryacese), Silk-tassel Bush Family, p. 120 

Flowers not in catkins. 
Ovary inferior, 
6-celled, perianth regular and 3-lobed or irregular, stamens 6-12 
(Aristolochiacese), Dutchman's Pipe Family, p. 40 

l-celled, sunk in the axis of the conical spike, which has numerous 
flowers, and a persistent petal-like involucre ; flowers naked, of 
6-8 stamens and 3-6 pistils, each subtended by a white bract. 
Aromatic hei-bs of wet alkaline places 

(Houttuynia), Yerba Mansa, p. 40 

Ovary superior, 
3-celled, 3-ovuled, stigmas 3-6. Monoecious or dioecious. Staminate 
flowers with 1 to many stamens. Plants with milky juice 

(Euphorbiacese), Spurge Family, p. 99 

l-celled, forming a 3-sided akene, stamens 9, perianth of 6 divisions 
usually colored like a corolla 

(Polygonacese), Buckwheat Family, p. 47 

l-celled, forming a flat akene with embryo coiled, stamens 5 opposite 
the divisions of the green perianth ; plants often fleshy and covered 
with scurf . . (Clienopodiacese), Pigweed Family, p. 49 

Similar to Chenopodiacese, but the divisions of the perianth are 
papery and persistent with similar bracts 

(Amarantaceae), Amaranth Family, p. 51 

l-celled, l-seeded, calyx corolla-like, monosepalous, the persistent 
herbaceous base hardening around the akene, style 1 ; flowers in 
calyx-like involucres 

(Nyctaginacefe), Four-o'clock Family, p. 51 

Stamens 9 in 3 rows, anthers 4-celled, opening by uplifted valves ; 
sepals 6, petaloid, pistil simple ; flowers in umbels ; trees with 
aromatic foliage . . . (Lauracese), Laurel Family, p. 63 

Division II. Polypetal^e. Petals distinct (in some genera wanting). 
Stamens hypogynous (on the receptacle below the superior ovary). 


Stamens Numerous 

Separate, and the other floral organs distinct, petals sometimes want- 
ing, flowers with the sepals 5 or irregular 

(Ranunculacese), Buttercup Family, p. 58 

Separate, flowers regular, sepals (generally 2) half as many as the 
petals and falling as the petals expand 

(Papaveracese), Poppy Family, p. 64 

Monadelphous , attached to the bases of the petals. 
Anthers 1-celled, kidney-shaped 

(Malvaceae), Mallow Family, p. 105 

Anthers 2-celled, petals wanting, sepals petal-like 

(Fremontia), p. 107 

United into 3-5 bunches, sepals and petals 5, leaves opposite, punctate 
(Hypericacese), St. John's-wort Family, p. 107 

About 20, sepals 5 (.2 scale-like), petals 5, soon falling 

(Cistacese), Rockrose Family, p. 108 

Stamens 10 or less 

10 (rarely fewer), petals 5 (sometimes wanting), capsule splitting into 
twice as many valves as styles. Seeds on axillary placenta 

(Gary ophyllacese). Pink Family, p. 55 

10 or 5, sepals and petals 5, carpels 5 on a spike-like axis, distinct at 
base but cohering by their stigmas and separating from the axis at 
the base first, 1-seeded (Geraniacese), p. 95 

10, sepals and petals 5, carpels distinct, 1-seeded, globose, at the base of 
a common style ; juice pungent . . . (Limnanthes), p. 97 

10, sepals and petals 5, carpels united into a 5-celled ovary with 5 styles ; 
leaves compound with 3 leaflets ; juice acid . . (Oxalis), p. 97 

10 or 5, equal to or double the number of petals ; herbs with fleshy 
- leaves .... (Crassulacese), Stonecrop Family, p. 74 

6 or 9, anthers 2-celled, opening by uplifted valves (/. Fig. 160, II ; 
e. Fig. 138, II) ; bracts, sepals, petals, and stamens opposite each 
other; pistil simple (Berberidacese), Barberry Family, p. 62 

6 (4 long and 2 short), petals and sepals 4 (petals sometimes wanting) ; 
fruit 2-celled with a papery partition, or sometimes 1-celled and 
indehiscent ; herbs with pungent juice 

(Cruciferse), Mustard Family, p. 67 

6, or sometimes more, nearly equal, sepals and petals 4 ; pod 1-celled, on 
a long slender stalk (Capparidacese), Caper Family, p. 73 


6, united by the filaments to form 2 equal sets ; flowers irregular 

(Fumariaceae), Bleeding Heart Family, p. 66 

5, sometimes united over the pistil ; petals 5, one of them with a spur 

(Violacese), Violet Family, p. 109 

1 to many, sepals 2-8, petals 5-16, styles 3-8-cleft, ovary 1-celled with 

placenta axillary ; plants with fleshy leaves and mostly showy 
flowers that open only in bright sunshine 

(Portulacaceae), Portulaca Family, p. 52 

Stamens 4-7, petals 4-5 with long claws, ovary 1-celled, with as many 
parietal placentae as divisions of the style 

(Frankeniacese), Yerba Reuma Family, p. 108 

6-8, the filaments united into a split sheath ; flowers irregular, super- 
ficially resembling the Papilionacese, sepals 5, petals 2; pod 
2-celled, flattened contrary to the partition 

(Polygalaceae), Polygala Family, p. 98 

5, monadelphous at base, petals soon falling, capsule splitting into 
twice as many divisions as stigmas 

(Linace8e),.Flax Family, p. 98 

2 (rarely 3 or 4), petals 4, 2, or wanting, calyx 4-toothed ; fruit winged 

from the summit, 1-seeded ; polygamous or dioecious trees or shrubs 
with opposite compound leaves . . (Fraxinus), Ash, p, 128 

Ovary superior or nearly so. 

stamens distinctly on the calyx or on a disk simulating 
a calyx tube 

Numerous ; ovary simple or compound, free from or partly united to 
the disk ; leaves alternate, with stipules that sometimes fall early ; 
seeds without endosperm (Rosaceae), Rose Family, p. 80 

Stamens indefinite, petals merging into the sepals, carpels numerous, 
becoming akenes within a hollow disk; aromatic shrubs, having 
opposite leaves and no stipules 

(Calycanthacese), Sweet Shrub Family, p. 80 

Variable in number (5, 10, 20), carpels 2-5, completely or partially 
united to the calyx, styles distinct ; leaves without stipules ; seed 
with endosperm (Saxifragacese), Saxifrage Family, p. 75 

10, distinct, monadelphous or diadelphous ; flowers papilionaceous ; 
fruit a legume . . . (Papilionacese), Pea Family, p. 89 

Numerous, distinct ; flowers regular of 4 or 5 sepals and petals ; fruit 
a legume (Mimoseae). Acacia Family, p. 95 

5 or fewer, petals minute and scale-like (or none) ; fruit a loosely 
covered 1-seeded indehiscent pod enclosed in the persistent calyx ; 
stipules papery (Illecebraceae), Sand Mat Family, p. 57 


Stamens on a disk, not simulating a calyx tube 

Inserted on the inner margin of the disk, as many or twice as many as 
the petals and alternate Avith them (usually 5) ; ovary 1-celled, 
1-ovuled ; fruit a herry 

" (Auacardiaceae), Poison Oak Family, p. 101 

Inserted on the outer margin of the disk, as many as the petals and 
opposite them (petals sometimes wanting) ; style or stigma 2- 
4-lobed ; fruit a berry or dry pod with 2-4 hard seeds 

(Rhamnacese), Buckthorn Family, p. 103 

5-8, corolla irregular with 4 or 5 unequal petals ; ovary 3-celled, ovules 
6, only 1 maturing .... (^sculus), Buckeye, p. 102 

3-12 (usually 8) ; flowers perfect with petals, or dioecious and apetalous ; 
fruit of 2 parts, each winged (/. Fig. 169, II ; e. Fig. 172, II) 

(Acer), Maple, p. 102 

Ovary distinctly inferior. 

stamens perig;3riious (on the calyx) 

Stamens 4-8, sepals and petals 4 ; ovary 4-celled 

(Onagraceai), Evening Primrose Family, p. Ill 

Stamens numerous, usually some petaloid, petals and sepals 5 ; herbage 
adhesive with barbed hairs 

(Loasacese), Blazing Star Family, p. 115 

Stamens, petals, and sepals numerous; fruit fleshy, 1-celled; spiny, 
leafless plants . . . (Cactacese), Cactus Family, p. 115 

Stamens and petals numerous, sepals 5, capsules 3-5-celled ; leaves and 
stems fleshy . . (Ficoidese) , Fig Marigold Family, p. 116 

Stamens numerous ; ovary 3-5-celled, opening at the top ; calyx falling 
off like a lid, setting free the stamens and producing a tassel-like 
blossom (Eucalyptus), Gum Tree, p. 110 

Stamens epigyuous (on tlie ovary) 

Stamens, petals, and sepals 5 (the last very small), styles 2 ; fruit a pair 
of seed-like carpels ; flowers small in umbels ; leaves alternate, 
compound . . . (Umbellif erse) , Parsley Family, p. 117 

Similar to Umhelliferse , except the styles and carpels 4 or 5 ; fruit a 
berry, and umbels panicled 

(Araliaceae), Ginseng Family, p. 116 

Stamens, sepals, and petals 4 ; fruit a 1-seeded berry ; flowers in cymes 
or heads ; leaves simple, opposite 

(Cornacese), Dogwood Family, p. 119 


Division III. Gamopetal^e. Petals united into a cup or tube. 

Ovary free from the calyx {superior). 
Corolla regular. 

Ovary deeply 4-lobed, in fruit forming 4 nutlets 

(Borraginaceae), Borage Family, p. 137 

Ovary 2-celled, ovules numerous ; fruit often a berry 

(Solanacese), Nightshade Family, p. 145 

Ovary 2-celled (generally 4-ovuled) ; twining plants 

(Convolvulacese), Morning-glory Family, p. 132 

Ovary 1-celled or imperfectly 2-celled, styles 2-cleft or entire 

(Hydrophyllaceae), Baby-eyes Family, p. 133 

Ovary 3-celled with axillary placenta, style 3-lobed 

(Polemoniacese), Phlox Family, p. 130 

Ovary 1-celled with 2 parietal placentfe, style 1, stigmas 2 

(Gentianacese), Gentian Family, p. 128 

Ovary cells as many as petals, style 1, anthers 2-celled, opening by 
holes at the top . . (Ericacese), Heather Family, p. 120 

Ovary 1-celled with axillary placenta, stamens opposite the petals 
(Primulacea;), Primrose Family, p. 125 

Ovary 5-angled, 1-celled, 1-seeded, styles 5 

(Plumbagiiiacese) , Sea Pink Family, p. 127 

Ovary 2-celled (sometimes 3-4-celled) with 1 seed in each cell (some- 
times more in Plantago major) 

(Plantaginacese), Plantain Family, p. 153 

Ovaries 2, distinct, with a stigma common to both and united with a 
crown-like column of stamens ; flowers in umbels ; seeds with a 
tuft of silky hairs ; plants with milky juice 
(Asclepiadacese), Silkweed or Milkweed Family, p. 129 

Similar to Asclepiadacese , except that the stamens are distinct and 

free from the stigma, but the anthers are disposed to cohere Avithit 

(Apocynaceae), Dogbane Family, p. 130 

Corolla irregular. Fertile stamens fewer than the divisions of the 


Ovary deeply 4-lobed, becoming 4 nutlets ; corolla 2-lipped ; aromatic 

herbs or shrubs . . . (Labiatae), Mint Family, p. 139 

Ovary 2-celled, seeds many on a central placenta, style and stigma 1 

(Scrophulariacese), Figwort Family, p. 146 

Ovary 2-celled with 2 or more parietal placentae, seeds many ; root- 
parasites without leaves or green color 

(Orobanchaceae), Broom Rape Family, p. 153 


Ovary ad note to the calyx {inferior). 

Ovary with as many cells as petals, anthers 2-celled, opening by holes 
at the top (/. Fig. 160, III ; e. Fig. 138, III) ; fruit a berry 

(Vaccinium), Huckleberry, p. 120 

Ovary 2-5-celled (sometimes becoming 1-celled); fruit a berry; leaves 
opposite, without stipules 

(Caprifoliacese), Honeysuckle Family, p. 156 

Ovary 2-5-celled ; leaves opposite with stipules, or whorled and 
without stipules . . (Rublacese). Madder Family, p. 154 

Ovary 1-3-celled ; flowers monoecious or dioecious ; trailing or 
climbing tendril-bearing herbs ; fruit fleshy, indehiscent 

(Cucurbitacese), Gourd Family, p. 158 

Ovary 2-5-celled, with axillary placenta, style 2-5-cleft 

(Campanulacese), Harebell Family, p. 159 

Ovary 2-celled with axillary placenta, or 1-celled with parietal 
placentas ; stamens united by both filaments and anthers 

(Lobeliacese), Lobelia Family, p. 160 

Ovary 3-celled, 2 cells empty, fruit 1-seeded ; stamens 3, corolla 

tubular, slightly irregular, border of the calyx plumose or wanting 

(Valerianacese), Valerian Family, p. 158 

Ovary 1-celled, becoming an akene, stamens united by their anthers 
(/. Fig. 153; e. Fig. 131); flowers many, combined in heads and 
appearing like a single flower (/. Fig. 133 ; e. Fig. 110) 

(Compositae), Sunflower Family, p. 161 


Plants destitute of a closed ovary, style, or stigma ; ovules 
generally borne naked on a carpellary scale, which forms part 
of a cone. Cotyledons often several. 

CONIF'ER^. Pine Family 

Trees or shrubs with wood of peculiar structure, destitute 
of ducts, with resinous and aromatic juice. Leaves generally 
evergreen and needle-shaped or scale-shaped. Flowers desti- 
tute of floral envelopes, monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers 
consisting of stamens arranged in a spike, and ■ resembling a 
catkin, with pollen sacs at the base of scales, subtended by a 
cluster of bracts like an involucre. Female flowers consisting 
of naked ovules at the base of scales arranged in a spike with 
a cluster of bracts below, in fruit forming a cone with the 
seeds under the scales or becoming a one- to few-seeded berry. 

I. JUNIP'ERUS, Jumper, Cedar 

Flowers dioecious, axillary or terminal. Staminate clusters 
numerous, with scales whoiied or opposite, on a central axis, 
and 2-6 anther cells to each scale. Pistillate clusters of 
3-6 fleshy scales, each bearing 1-2 erect ovules. Fruit a 
herry. Seeds bony. Shrubs or low trees, usually branching 
irregularly, with aromatic wood and thin, shreddy bark. 
Leaves either triangular, scale-like, folding over each other, 
or linear, rigid, pointed, and free from each other. 

II. CUPRES'SUS, Cypress 

Monoecious. Staminate clusters small, very numerous, and 
at the tips of tiny branchlets ; pollen sacs 3-5 at the base 
of each scale. Fertile clusters erect on short lateral branchlets, 



forming, when ripe, roundish or oblong woody cones, con- 
sisting of 6-10 very thick, shield-shaped scales, fitting closely 
together ; cones maturing in two years in all except the last ; 
ovLiles numerous, in several rows at the base of the scales, 
forming acutely angled seeds. Leaves evergreen, scale- 
shaped, imbricated. When the tree is allowed to grow 
naturally, it is pyramidal, or roundish, with rather loose, 
straggling branches and pointed or rounded at the top. In 
bloom in winter or early spring. 

a. C. macrocarpa Hartweg. Monterey Cypress. This has 

dense foliage and oblong cones clustered on short stems. It is 
extensively cultivated throughout CaHfornia for wind breaks and 
hedges; also trimmed into the most fantastic shapes, which are 
supposed to be ornamental. 

b. C. Govenia'na Gordon. Mountain Cypress. This is a more 
loosely branched and smaller tree, with the upper branches slender 
and drooping. The cones are an inch or less long, and are globose, 
rarely oblong. This, too, is cultivated. In its native state it grows 
throughout the Coast Mountains. 

c. C. Macnabia'na Murr. Tliis is a small tree with fine foliage very 
fragrant, sprinkled all orer ivith irhite glands, so that the tree is pale 
green. The cones are small, ic'th horn-like projections on the scales. 
This also is cultivated, but rarely. It is a native of the mountains 
of Lake County. 

d. C. Lawsonia'na Murr (Chamaecy'paris). Port Orford Cedar. 
This differs from the other species of Cupressus in having flattened, 
2-ranked branches, and the cones ripening in one year. Cones very 
small, ^ of an inch in diameter, globose, with 8 or 10 flat scales which 
are bluish green when j^oung. Seeds 2-4 to each scale, somewhat 
winged. This is a tall, symmetrical tree with slender branches, 
often drooping. It is frequently cultivated and is a very valuable 
timber tree. The wood is very fragrant and is used in making chests 
and cupboards where it is desirable to keep out insects. It is also 
known as Oregon Cedar and Ginger I^ine. It is found chiefly in the 
Coast Mountains of Oregon. 

III. THU'YA, Arbor-vitae 

Monoecious. Staminate flowers numerous, very small, with 
3 or 4 pollen sacs at the base of the 4-6 pointed scales. 
Fertile clusters at the ends of branchlets. Cones very small, 
■^ inch long, soon reflexed, ripening in one year, with 8-12 erect 


scales in ^^airs, having a pair of ivinged seeds under all except 
the top and bottom pair. These are tall, symmetrical trees, with 
horizontally flattened branches and scale-shaped, evergreen 
leaves adnate and decurrent in 4 rows, with the tips free. 

T. gigante'a Nutt. This is a very tall tree found in the Coast 
Mountains of Oregon, in Washington, northern Idaho, and British 
Columbia. The cones are densely clustered at the ends of the droop- 
ing branchlets, and the foliage is a bright, shining green. The bark 
is thin and fibrous, the wood soft but durable. 

IV. LIBOCE'DRUS, Incense Cedar 

Similar to Thuya, but with 12 or more scales on tfie stami- 
nate cluster and tvith the cones not reflexed. These consist of 
Jf.-6 thick scales in pairs, the two largest only bearing seeds. 
Seeds with unequal wings. 

L. decur'rens Torrey. This becomes a large tree in the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains and has a trunk resembling that of the giant 
Sequoia. It is also found on almost all the higher hills of the 
Coast Mountains. 

V. SEQUOrA, Redwood 

Monoecious. Staminate flowers small, very numerous near 
the ends of young shoots, with 3-5 pollen sacs under each 
scale. Fertile flowers at the ends of branchlets, consisting of 
several scales with longpointed tips which become bristles on 
the shield-shaped scales of the cone. Each scale is diamond- 
shaped tvith lines running to the center, giving the cone a 
quilted appearance. The Sequoias are the largest trees on 
earth. Their leaves are flattened or triangular scale-shaped ; 
the bark very thick, fibrous, and spongy ; the wood red and 
soft, easily split longitudinally, and the bark also cleaving 
longitudinally. Both species are cultivated in different parts 
of California. 


S. semper'virens Endl. Redwood. Cones small, oblong, of 
about 20 scales, maturing in one season ; lower leaves flat, 2-ranked ; 
upper leaves, on tall trees, scale-shaped. This forms immense forests 
in northern Cahfornia and extends, along the coast, from southern 
Oregon to Point Gorda in Monterey County. The specific name 


arises from its tenacity of life. It sends up new trees in a circle 
around where a tree has been cut down. In bloom in winter. 

b. S. gigante'a Decaisne. Mammoth Sequoia, Big Tree. 
Upper and lower leaves alike, scale-shaped, ivith long-pointed tips ; 
cones about 2 in. long of 25-30 scales, requiring two seasons to 
ripen. This is found in groves in moist, protected valleys in the 
higher Sierras, from Placer County through Tulare County. 

VI. A'BIES, Fix 

Tall trees tapering from a rather broad base to a pointed 
top, with horizontal branches and brittle wood that soon 
decays. Leaves apparently in 2 ranks, generally erect, 
twisted at base. Cones erect, near the top of the tree, the scales 
and seeds falling away from the axes, which remain like 
candles on a Christmas tree. The cones are therefore never 
found under the trees, only the fallen scales. 

a. A. con'color Lindl. White Fir. Large trees with old bark 
rough, gray, and furrowed. Leaves pale green, obtuse. Cones 3-5 
in. long, green or purple when ripe. This is the common fir 
of middle elevations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. It also 
extends into Oregon. 

b. A. gran'dis Lindl. Tall and large trees with smooth, brownish 
bark. Leaves dark green and glossy on the upper surface, with 2 
white lines on the lower, obtuse or notched at apex. Cones 2-4 in. 
long. This is probably the tallest fir in the world. It is found 
near the coast from northern California to British Columbia and is 
one of the most important sources of lumber. 

Vn. PrCEA, Spruce 

Tall trees, shaped as the firs, and with soft but strong 
wood. Leaves sessile, spirally arranged, falling from the 
branchlets as soon as dry and leaving the stems covered with 
numerous tiny projections, sometimes appearing in 2 ranks. 
Cones drooping, growing on the upper branches, falling to the 
ground when ripe and always to he found under the hearing trees 
with the scales spirally arranged on the axes. 

a. P. Sitchen'sis Carr. Tideland Spruce. Very tall and large 
trees with thin, scaly, brownish red bark. Leaves slender, sessile, 
with short points at the apex. Cones 1^-3 in. long, yellowish. 


This is one of the most important trees of the northern Pacific 
coast and is probably the largest spruce in the world. It extends 
from northern California to Alaska. 

h. P. Engelman'ni Engelm. Engelmann Spruce, White Spruce. 
Bark light cinnamon-red, broken into thin loose scales. Young 
trees of pp-amidal outline ; old trees in forests with long straight 
trunks and pyramidal at top. Leaves stiff, ending in a sharp tip. 
Branchlets pubescent. Cones cylindrical, about 2 in. long. Wood 
white, valuable as timber. This replaces the preceding species east 
of the Cascade Mountains. 

Vm. TSU'GA, Hemlock Spruce 

Similar to the true spruces but with flatter leaves, having 
short petioles joined to a hard, woody, persistent base. Seeds 
resinous on the surface and cones smaller. Tall trees of 
pyramidal outline and slender, drooping branchlets. 

a. T. heterophylla Sargent. Bark thick, reddish brown. Cones 
less than an inch long, ovate. This is found along the coast from 
northern California to Alaska and is one of the most important 
timber trees. 

h. T. Mertensia'na Sargent (T. Pattonia'na). Patton's Spruce, 
Hemlock Spruce. Trees with thick, cracked bark, reddish gray 
and apt to be scaly. Cones long and slender, 2-3 inches in length. 
Seeds with wings almost twice their length. This is shrubby at 
great elevations, but when favorably situated becomes a tree more 
than a hundred feet high. The apex is slender and pendent and the 
trunk generally slopes at base. It is found in the higher Sierra 
Nevada Mountains and northw^ard to Alaska, wdiere it grows along 
the coast. 

IX. PSEUDOTSU'GA, Douglas Spruce 

Flowers monoecious, from the axils of last year's leaves. 
Staminate clusters subtended by conspicuous involucres of 
bud scales ; pollen scales with 2 oblong pollen sacs tipped 
by an awl-shaped spur. Fertile clusters near the ends of 
branchlets, dark red or yellowish green, with scales concealed 
by 2-lobed, long, pointed bracts. Cones oblong, drooping, 
maturing in one year, but remaining on the trees after the 
seeds have fallen out. The leaves are flat and 2-ranked, on short 
petioles. This can easily be distinguished from other conifers 
by the fringe-like bracts over the scales of the drooping cone. 


P. mucrona'ta Sudw. (P. Douglas'ii Carr), (incorrectly called 
Oregon Pine and Red Fir). This is found in California and 
Oregon, and usually grows near streams. It becomes a very tall 
tree. The wood is yellow or reddish and rather coarse, and the bark 
is fissured. 

X. PFNUS, Pine 

Monoecious. Staminate clusters crowded at the base of the 
young shoots of the season ; pollen scales spirally arranged, 
forming an elongated, cylindrical cluster, with 2 pollen sacs 
to each scale (Fig. 1, 2). Fertile flowers of spirally arranged 
carpel scales on an axis, each scale bearing 2 ovules at base 
(Fig. \, 3). Fruit a cone ripening the second year, but often 
remaining unopened on the tree several years. Leaves ever- 
green, needle-shaped, in bundles of from 2-5, enclosed in a 
sheath of membranous scales (Fig. 1, d). Seeds generally 
winged (Fig. 1, 4). 

a. P. Lambertia'na Dougl. Sugar Pine. Leaves 5 in a sheath, 
3-4 in. long. Cones long, narrow, cylindrical, from a foot to more 
than 2 ft. long when fully grown, pendent at the ends of the branches 
the second year, the scales ivithout knobs or prickles. This is a very tall 
and large pine, with the upper branches widely spreading and with 
irregular and picturesque outlines. It is common in the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains at moderately high elevations and on most of 
the high peaks of the Coast Mountains, extending into Washington 
and Oregon. 

b. P. montic'ola Dougl. Small Sugar Pine. This is a smaller 
tree than the preceding but similar, with leaves 5 in a sheath, about 
2 in. long. Cones 3-8 in. long, with the scales without knobs or 
prickles, reflexed when the seeds are ripe. This is common in the 
higher Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially northward, and extends 
into Oregon and Washington at lower elevations. 

c. P. pondero'sa Dougl. Yellow Pine, Leaves 3 in a sheath, 
5-11 in. long, rather thick. Cones oval, 3-5 in. long, sessile, spread- 
ing or recurved, generally several together ; scales with stout prickles. 
Wings on the seeds not quite an inch long, widest above the middle. 
This is one of the largest pines of the coast. It is found in the 
mountains in the same region as the Sugar Pine but more widely 
distributed. The variety Jeffrey! is found generally at higher eleva- 
tions and has longer, coarser leaves, and much larger cones.. This 
is the most widely distributed species and one of the most prized 
timber trees. 



d. P. contor'ta Dougl. Leaves 2 in a sheath, short. Cones small 
and slender, 1-3 in. long, whorled, oblique, often remaining closed 
for many years ; scales with strong knobs and delicate prickles. This is 
a small tree. It is found along the coast from California to Alaska. 


Fig. 1. — Scotch Pine (P. sylvestris). 
1, a twig showing : a, staminate catkins ; b, pistillate catkins ; c, a cone ; d, needles. 
2, an anther : a, side view ; b, outer surface. 3, a carpel scale : a, inner surface ; 
b, outer surface. 4, a cone scale, a seed wing, and a seed. 5, section of a seed, 
showing the emhryo. 1 is natural size ; the other parts of the figure are magni- 
fied by the amount indicated by comparison with the vertical line alongside each. 

The variety Murrayana is a tall, straight tree, growing in the moun- 
tains and known as Lodge-pole Pine, from the use made of the 
slender, straight stems by the Indians. It is w^idely distributed and 


e. P. radia'ta Don (P. insig'nis Dougl.). Monterey Pine. Leaves 
3 in a sheath, 4-6 in. long, slender, lax, closely serrate, bright green, 
densely clustered. Cones encircling the stein, dejiexed on short stems, 
pointed, curved inwards, owing to the difference beticeen the inner and 
outer scales. The cones remain on the tree two or more years without 
opening. This pine is most extensively cultivated in California for 
wind-breaks. It grows nearly 100 ft. in height. 

/. P. attenua'ta Lemmon (P. tubercula'ta Gord.). Knob-cone Pine. 
Leaves 3 in a sheath, 4-7 in. long. Cones in ichorls, often with several 
whorls in a hunch, strongly refiexed on short stems, oblique, tapering to 
a very narrow base, with the apex pointed ; the outer scales are 
enlarged and conical, the inner flatter, both tipped with stout prickles. 
The cones persist on the stems and branches many years without 
opening. This is a small tree and often begins to bear cones when 
a foot or two high. It is found in the Coast Mountains and in the 
foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

g. P. Sabinia'na Dougl. Xut Pine, Bull Pine, Digger Pine. 
Leaves 3 in a sheath, 8-12 in. long, light glaucous green, slender, droop- 
ing : cones massive, short-oval, 6-10 in. long, 5-7 in. in diameter 
near the base, deflexed on short, stout stems ; scales with stout, claw-like 
projections. The nuts are edible and have a stony shell, and formed 
an important part of the food of the Digger Indians. This tree 
generally has loose spreading branches and is very graceful. The 
long light-green foliage easily distinguishes it from other pines. The 
cones often remain on the branches several years after the seeds have 
fallen out. This pine is the most common in the foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains and in the valleys of the Coast Mountains. 


Plants with a closed ovary, in which the seeds are matured. 
Cotyledons 1-2. 


Stems with the fibro-vascular bundles scattered amid the 
parenchyma cells (/. Pig. 52 ; e. Fig. 54) ; in perennial plants 
no annual rings of wood. Leaves usually parallel-veined, 
alternate, nearly entire. Parts of the flower generally in 
threes (never in fives). Cotyledon 1. 



GRAMIN'E^. Grass Family 

Mostly herbs, with usually hollow stems, closed and enlarged 
at the nodes. Alternate leaves, in 2 ranks, with sheathing 
bases, which are split open on the side opposite the blade. 
The flowers are nearly or quite 
destitute of floral envelopes, 
solitary, and borne in the axils 
of scaly bracts called glumes, 
which are arranged in 2 ranks 
overlapping each other on 

Fig. 2. — Diagram 
of Inflorescence 
of a Grass. 

g, sterile glumes ; 
^j,a flowering 
glume; />2> a scaly 
bract (palea) ; e, 
scales (lodicules) 
at the base of the 
flower; B, the 

Fig. 3. — Fescue-grass (Festuca 
A, spikelet (compare Fig. 2) ; B, & 
flower, the lodicules in front and 
the palea behind ; C, a lodicule ; 
D, ovary. 

1-many-flowered spikelets ; these are variously grouped in 
spikes, panicles (/. Figs. 136, A, B, C \ e. Fig. 183), and so on. 
The fruit is a grain. 



(The family is too difficult for the beginner, but the struc- 
ture and grouping of the flowers may be gathered from a 
careful study of Figs. 2, 3.) 

Fi(i. 4. — Inflorescence, Flower, and Seed of a Sedge. 
(Great Bulrush, Scirpus lacustris.) 
A, magnified flower, surrounded by a perianth of hypogynous bristles ; B, the 
seed ; C, section of the seed, showing the small embryo enclosed in the 
base of the endosperm. 

CYPERA'CE^. Sp:dge Family 

Grass-like or rush-like herbs, with solid, usually triangular 
stems, growing in tufts. The sheathing base of the generally 
3-ranked leaves, when present, is not slit as in grasses. The 


flowers are usually somewhat less enclosed by bracts than 
those of grasses ; the perianth is absent or rudimentary ; 
stamens generally 3 ; style 2-cleft or 3-cleft. 

The flower cluster and the flower may be understood from 
an inspection of Fig. 4. 

The species are even more difficult to determine than those 
of grasses. 

ARA'CE^. Arum Family 

Smooth, perennial herbs, generally growing in wet places. 
Leaves large, radical or alternate. Flowers sessile, crowded 
on a spadix which is surrounded by a broad sheathing spathe. 
Perianth in our representative with 4 divisions. Ovary 
2-celled and 2-ovuled. Fruit consisting of berries which 
coalesce on the spadix. 

LYSICHFTON, Skunk Cabbage 

Leaves large, 1-3 ft. long and often a foot broad, growing 
from a thick rootstock. Spadix at first covered by a yellow- 
ish green spathe, later extending beyond it on a stout 
peduncle. Flowers covering the spadix. Stamens 4, oppo- 
site the segments of the perianth, with 2-celled anthers 
opening upwards. 

L. Kamtschatcen'sis Schott. This is found in swamps from 
northern California to Alaska. It blooms in May and June. It is 
a beautiful plant with large, broad leaves, covering the swamps, but 
it has a strong and disagreeable odor, from which the common 
name is derived. 

LILIA'CE^. Lily Family 

Herbs. Flowers regular and symmetrical, with their parts 
3 or some multiple of 3. Ovary 3-celled, free from the 
perianth. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds with endosperm 
(/.Fig. 5; 6. Fig. 8,1). 


I. AL'LroM, Wild Onion 

Plants with the odor and taste of onion. Scape from a coated 
bulb. Involucre with papery bracts. Pedicels not jointed 
under the flowers. Perianth rose-color or white. Stamens 6, 
with filaments broadening towards the base, attached to the 
perianth. Ovules 2 in each cell of the ovary, rarely all ripen- 
ing. (There are many species, difficult to determine. The 
most common are given.) 

a. A. serra'tum Watson. Scape nearly a foot high. Perianth 
dark rose-color, with divisions in 2 sets, dissimilar. Ovary with 
wart-like crests at summit. Outer bulb coats marked with a horizontally 
zigzag reining ivhich tears readily along the veins. This is common 
and abundant wherever found. 

b. A. unifo'lium Kellogg. Scape usually 2 ft. or more high. 
Flowers pale rose-color or white, from 10 to 30 in the umbels. Ovary 
smooth at summit. Bulb propagating by a side offshoot, the white outer 
coats marked by a delicate, complicated veining. This grows in wet 
places and generally has more than one leaf. 

c. A. acumina'tum Hook. Crimson-flowered Oniox. Scapes 
4-6 in. high, from a bulb with outer coats, not fibrous, but marked 
with hexagonal or quadrangular venation. Leaves narrowly linear. 
Bracts of the involucre 2. Flowers crimson, on pedicels nearly an 
inch long, in erect umbels. Segments of the perianth recurved, icith long, 
pointed tips, the inner ones wavy and minutely serrate. Generally grow- 
ing in adobe soil, blooming in spring and early summer. It is found 
chiefly on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and 
north to British Columbia. 

d. A. attenuifolium Kellogg. Scape slender, from 6 in. to more 
than a foot high. Leaves narrow, becoming thread-like at tip. 
Bracts of the umbel 2, short, acute. L^mbel with many white flowers. 
Segments of the perianth pointed, longer than the stamens. Ovary 
with 6 crests at summit. Bulb coats often reddish, with a fine, wavy 
veining. This is found in wet places in the Coast Mountains, in 
the Sierra Xevada Mountains, and it extends into Oregon. 

e. A. falcifo'lium H. and A. Scape low, flat, 2-edged. Leaves 2, 
flat, broad, sickle-shaped. Bracts 2. Flowers deep crimson, the seg- 

. ments of the perianth edged with minute, glandular teeth. Capsule 
pointed with short, narrow crests. Bulb large and globular, the mark- 
ings on the coats not distinctive. This is found in sandy or gravelly 
places on the hills of the Coast Mountains, especially northward, 
extending to Oregon, 



Similar to Allium, but without the odor and taste. Flowers 
greenish yellow. Bracts of the umbels from 4 to 6, linear- 
lanceolate. Ovules 8-10 in each cell of the ovary. 

M. marit'ima Watson. This is found in the interior of the state 
and along the coast, frequently growing in alkaline soil. The 
flowers have a delicate perfume. 

m. BLOOME'RIA, Golden Stars 

Perianth of 6 nearly equal, spreading divisions ; light 
orange, with a dark midnerve of 2 closely parallel lines. 
Pedicels jointed under the perianth. Stamens 6, with slender 
filaments nearly as long as the perianth, — each, at base, at- 
tached to a short 2-toothed, hairy appendage ; these uniting to 
form a cup at the base of the perianth. Ovules several in each 
cell of the ovary. 

B. au'rea Kellogg. Golden Bloomeria, Golden StXrs. Bulb 
small, densely covered with brownish fibers. Flowers usually nu- 
merous in the umbel. Capsule beaked with the persistent style. 
From Monterey to San Diego, and abundant wherever found. 



Corm coated with brownish fibers (sometimes tissue-like), 
flat on the bottom when the old part is removed. Leaves 
generally withering soon. Pedicels of various lengths, jointed 
under the perianth. Flowers withering and persisting, white, 
blue-purple, rose-color, yellow, or scarlet ; in shape tubular, 
rotate, or funnel-form. Stamens in 2 sets, 3 or 6, attached to 
the tube of the perianth, often with wing-like appendages on 
the filaments ; when 3, alternating with petal-like staminodia. 
(Staminodia are filaments, usually broadened, without anthers.) 

(There are 5 subgenera which Professor Greene regards 
as genera; so, to avoid confusion, the species are arranged 
under the subgenera.) 

26 kp:y and flora 

SUBGENUS DICHELOSTEM'MA. Perianth tubular, 3 stamens with 
erect anthers and wing-like appendages on each side of the filaments, the 
other 3 free or reduced to staminodia. 

a. B. capita'ta Benth. Grass Nuts, Brodi^a, Wild Hya- 
cinth (often incorrectly Wild Onions). Flowers blue-purple 
(rarely white), in a close umbel, like a head. Bracts of the invo- 
lucre membranous, dark purple. Stamens with anthers 6, the inner 
anthers nearly sessile with wing-like appendages, the outer free, on short 
filaments: the appendages of the inner anthers form a crown in the 
throat of the perianth. This is abundant and widely distributed. The 
children eat the bulbs and call them " grass nuts." 

h. B. volu'bilis Baker (Strophilir'ion). Twining Hyacinth. 
Perianth rose-color, with a 6-angied tube nearly as long as the 
divisions. Three stamens tvith anthers and wing-like appendages, 3 
emarginate staminodia. Scape long, tivining snake-like around other 
stems. The color of the flowers and shape of the umbel might lead 
one to suppose this a wild onion. It is common in the foothills of 
the Sierras and is found also in the Coast Mountains. 

c. B. coccin'ea Gray (Brevoor'tia) . Firecracker Flower. 
Perianth with a scarlet tube nearly an inch long, and 6 short and 
broad green divisions. Three stamens with wing-like appendages, 
3 staminodia. The staminodia and appendages are yellow. The 
scape is long and wavy, but not twining. These brilliant flowers 
hang, as if too heavy to stand erect on their slender pedicels. 
Northern California. 

SUBGENUS HOOK'ERA. Perianth tubular-funnel-shaped with a 
spreading border. Flowers purplish blue, lighter colored at base, thick 
in texture. Pedicels unequal. Stamens 3, with erect anthers alternating 
with 3 petal-like staminodia. 

d. B. grandiflo'ra Smith. Scape from a few inches to a foot in 
height. Pedicels 3-10, curved outwards and upwards, from 1 to 4 in. 
long. Anthers twice as long as the slender filaments. Staminodia 
white, tongue-shaped, as long as the anthers. The flowers of this are 
sometimes nearly an inch long. This blooms in summer later than 
other species growing in the same localities. Quite common. 

e. B. terres'tris Kellogg. Ground Lily. Scape scarcely appear- 
ing above the surface of the ground. Flowers smaller than the 
last. Staminodia yellowish, emarginate, folded backwards. Common 
in central California and extending northwards. 

SUBGENUS CALLIPRO'RA. Stamens 6, with versatile anthers. 
Filaments attached to the throat of the perianth, winged their entire length, 
3-forked at top, with the anther on the middle prong. 


/. B. ixioi'des Watson. Goldex Brodi.ea. Perianth funnel- 
form, with short tube and spreading divisions which are yellow with 
a brown midvein. Capsule on a stipe. 

SUBGENUS TRITELEIA. Stamens 6, 3 on the throat, 3 below on 
the tube, with no appendages on the filaments. Anthers versatile. Capsule 
on a stipe. 

g. B. lax'a Watson. Grass Lilies, Ithuriel's Spear, Blue 
MiLLA. Scape erect from 1 to 2 ft. high. Flowers usually many, on 
pedicels 2-4 in. long, blue to violet (sometimes white). Perianth 
funnel-form, narrow at base. Capsule on a prominent stipe. This is 
common and very lovely. The flowers are sometimes an inch or 
more long. From Kern County to northern Oregon. 

h. B. Douglas'ii. Scape stout, erect, a foot or two high. Leaves 
keeled. Flowers blue, on short pedicels. Perianth broadly tubular, 
with lobes about as long as the tube. Oregon and Washington. 

SUBGENUS HESPEROCOR'DUM. Stamens 6, filaments without ap- 
pendages, equal, dilated, and united at base. 

i. B. lac'tea Watson. Scape slender, from 1 to 2 ft. high. Flowers 
numerous, on pedicels from 1 to 2 in. long. Perianth funnel-form, thin 
in texture, white with a green midvein on each division. Anthers 
yellow or purple, erect. Capsule almost round, beaked by the pointed 
style, stipitate. In northern California and north to Washington. 

V. LILIUM, True Lilies 

Flowers in racemes or whorls on tall, leafy stems. Bulbs 
formed of thick, lanceolate scales. Perianth deciduous, funnel- 
form, with 6 nearly equal, spreading divisions. Anthers linear, 
versatile, on long filaments. Ovary sessile. Fruit a pod, with 
2 rows of flat seeds in each cell. Leaves often in whorls, 
net-veined. Bracts leaf -like. Nectary a narrow groove. 

a. L. Washingtonia'num Kellogg. Washington Lily. Stems 
simple, from 2 to 5 ft. high. Leaves in whorls of from 6 to 10, 
oblanceolate. Flowers large, pure white, or dotted with purple, fading 
purplish, from 2 to 20, hanging on ascending pedicels in a simple or 
compound raceme. Perianth divisions not recurved. The flowers are 
fragrant, from 3 to 4 in. long and spreading nearly as wide. This 
fine lily generally grows in the shade, in the higher Sierra Nevada 
Mountains and in Oregon. 


b. L. pardali'num Kellogg. Tiger Lily, Leopard Lily. Stems 
simple, 3-7 ft. high, from a bulb like a thick rootstock, forming 
clumps. Leaves acuminate in whorls of from 9 to 15, lanceolate, 
pointed, S-nerved, varying in width. Flowers in racemes, the lowest 
often whorled, nodding at the ends of long spreading pedicels. 
Perianth orange below, spotted with reddish purple ; segments curled 
backwards. Anthers red. This is frequent along streams under 
the trees, in the Coast and Sierra Xevada Mountains. 

c. L. Humbold'tii Roezl. and Leicht. Humboldt's Lily, Tiger 
Lily. Stems stout, purplish, 4-8 ft. high, from bulbs 2-6 in. in 
diameter composed of fleshy, ovate-lanceolate scales 2-3 in. long. 
Leaves large, with undulate, rough margins, in 4-6 whorls and with 
10-20 in each whorl. Flowers large, drooping, on stout widely 
spreading pedicels which are from a few inches to nearly a foot long. 
Segments of the perianth 3-^ in. long, reddish orange, spotted ivith 
purple, curled back. Stamens about equaling the style, anthers red. 
Capsule large, sharply 6-angled. This blooms in summer and is 
frequent in the foothills of the Sierra Kevada Mountains and south 
to near San Diego. 

d. L. par'vum Kellogg. Small Tiger Lily. Stems slender, 1 to 
more than 6 ft. high, from a small bulb composed of short, thick, 
jointed scales. Leaves scattered or in whorls, 2-5 in. long. Flowers 
small, erect, or nearly so, on slender, almost erect pedicels. Segments of 
the perianth about an inch long, orange, spotted icith purple, reddish at 
the recurved spreading tips. Stamens almost as long as the style. 
Capsule roundish, less than an inch long. This is frequent in the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains and north to Oregon. 

e. L. Columbia'num Hanson. Bulb small, with fleshy white scales 
closely folded over each other. Stems slender, 2-3 ft. high. Upper 
and lower leaves scattered, the others in whorls of 5-several, oblanceo- 
late. Flowers nodding, few or many, on scattered, slender, curving 
pedicels. Perianth bright orange spotted with purple, the segments 
1-2 in. long, revolute. Anthers yellow. Capsule an inch long, 
6-angled. This beautiful lily is common in Washington and Oregon 
and is found in northern California. 

VI. FRITILLA'RIA, Mission Bells, Rice Roots 

Stems simple, leafy. Bulb with round, thick scales, often 
like grains of rice. Flowers in racemes, nodding on rather 
short pedicels. Perianth bell-shaped with separate divisions, 
nectary a shallow pit. 

a. F. lanceola'ta Pursh. Checkered Lily. Leaves in from 
1 to 3 whorls, lanceolate, 2-5 in. long. Flowers on slender pedicels. 


checkered variously in dark purple and greenish yellow. Pods with 
winged angles. Bulh solid, not dividing into scales, hut with rice-like 
grains over the whole upper surface. In the Coast Mountains extend- 
ing to British Columbia. 

b. F. biflo'ra Lindl. Chocolate Lily. Leaves scattered or some- 
times whorled. Flowers 1-3, brownish red or sometimes greenish 
purple. Pod angled but not winged. Bulb composed of thick, separable 
scales and without rice-like grains. More common southward. 

c. F. recur'va Benth. Stem rather stout and tall, generally more 
than a foot high. Leaves linear-lanceolate, in 2 whorls near the 
middle of the stem. Flowers 1-9, scarlet spotted with yellow, obtuse at 
base. This is found in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and it extends 
northward into Oregon. 

d. F. coccin'ea Greene. This is similar to the above, but the flowers 
are acute at the base. It is found in the Coast Mountains. 

e. F. atropurpu'rea Nutt. Stem 6 in. to a foot high. Leaves scat- 
tered or ichorled. Flowers dull purplish or greenish, often imperfect, 
less than an inch across when expanded. Pod with 3 short angles, broad- 
est at the top. From northeastern California to the Columbia River. 

/. F. pu'dica Sprang. Stems 3-8 in. high. Leaves few, scattered 
or whorled. Flowers generally solitary, yellow or orange and tinged 
icith crimson. Pod oblong, with angles obtuse. From east of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains to British Columbia. 

VII. ERYTHRO'NIUM, Dog-tooth Violet, Adder's Tongue 

Scapes from an oblong, deep-seated corm, generally with a 
tooth-like offshoot. Leaves hroad, often miottled with brownish 
red, generallg 2 at the base, spreading in oj^posite directions. 
Flowers one or several in an umbel. Perianth nodding, open 
hell-shaped, of 6 recurved divisions. Stamens 6, with erect 
anthers and slender filaments. Pods 3-sided. 

a. E. gigante'um Lindl. Scape from 10 to 15 in. high. Flowers 1-6 
in an umbel. Leaves often mottled, 6-10 in. long. Flowers cream- 
color, often tinged wdth pink or brown, yellow in the center. Seg- 
ments 1-2 in. long, much recurved. In the Coast Mountains from 
Sonoma County to Washington. 

b. E. Hartwe'gi Watson. Scape shorter. Leaves genercdly mottled, 
sometimes 3. Flowers pale yellow, orange at the center, with segments 
1-1^ in. long, recurved but little. Flowers on slender stems, from 1 to 5, 
in a sessile umbel. This is found in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

c. E. grandiflo'rum Pursh. Leaves not mottled. Flowers 1-6, yellow 
or cream color, with the base of the perianth white. Anthers purple. 

30 kp:y and flora 

Pods oblong, narrowed at base. This is common in Washington 
and Oregon. 

VIII. YUCCA, Spanish Bayonet, Soapweed 

Leaves stiff and pointed like daggers, growing in a hunch. 
Mowers in a raceme or panicle. Perianth of 6 thick divisions, 
bell-shaped, nodding. Stamens with thick filaments attached 
to the base of the perianth. Ovary sessile. Stigmas 3, united. 
Fruit with cells incompletely divided. Seeds black, fiat, 2 rows 
in each cell. 

a. Y. Whip'plei Ton. Scape 4-12 ft. high and about 2 in. in 
diameter, clothed with sharp-pointed bracts close to the stem, rising 
from amidst a thick bunch of narrow, dagger-like leaves. Flowers 
in a panicle. Segments of the perianth cream-color, 1-2 in. long. 
The plant from which the scape springs dies after fruiting ; but the 
dead scapes often remain standing like slender white posts on the 

h. Y. arbores'cens Torr. This is the tree Yucca of the Mojave 
Desert. /: Part I, Plate VII. 

IX. CALOCHOR'TUS, Butterfly Tulip, Mariposa Lily 

Perianth with 3 outer segments sepal-like, the S inner petal- 
like, each with a large horiey-gland near the base, densely covered 
with hairs. Flowers erect or drooping, solitary, in racemes 
or in umbels, beautifully and variously colored. Stamens 6, 
with erect anthers. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell of the ovary. 

a. C. alb'us Dougl. Satin Bell, Hairy Bell, Alabaster 
Tulip. Flowers white, or pinkish with a satiny texture. Segments 
of the perianth curved inwards, forming a close roundish hell in shape 
something like a sleigh hell, very hairy ivithin. Gland crescent-shaped, 
almost concealed by the long hairs of the perianth. Anthers linear- 
oblong, tipped by a blunt point. Capsule winged. The stems are 
rather tall, leafy and branching, bearing numerous flowers. This 
grows on shady banks in the Coast Mountains. 

h. C. pulchellus Dougl. Golden Bells. Flowers shaped as the 
preceding, yellow, hairy ivithin and on the margins ; flowers rather few. 
This has been mistaken for the next, which is much commoner. 

c. C. amab'ilis Purdy. Diogenes' Lantern. Similar to the 
above, but the flowers are more numerous, smaller, and the segments 
of the perianth curve inwards so inuch that they overlap, hairy on the 
margin only. This is common in northern California. 


d. C. amoe'nus Greene. Rosy Bells. This is similar to C. amahilis 
in form, but is deep rose-color. It grows in the foothills of the 
southern Sierra Xevada Mountains. 

e. C. Ben'thami Baker. Yellow Star Tulips. Flowers bell- 
shaped with incurved petals, erect when open. Petals yellow, densely 
covered with yellow hairs, the gland shallow and crescent-shaped 
above the brown claw. Capsules nodding on slender recurved pedi- 
cels. Low slender plants with from 2 to 6 flowers. Common in the 
Sierra Nevada ^Mountains from Mariposa to Siskiyou County. 

/. C. Mawea'nus Leicht. Mouse-ears. Flowers less than an inch 
in diameter, with spreading divisions, erect in full bloom, white or 
bluish. Inner divisions of the perianth densely covered with long 
white or purplish hairs. Honey-gland semicircular. Anthers 
pointed. Capsule wdnged, nodding. Stems low, branched, with 
from 3 to 6 flowers. Common in northern California. Spring. 

g. C. el'egans Pursh. Scape 2-3-flowered, generally shorter than 
the single grass-like leaf. Flowers on short thread-like pedicels 
which are not much longer than the bracts. Petals about ^ inch 
long, white, with a smooth purple spot at base, covered on the inside with 
purple down. Pods nodding. The roots are eaten by the Indians. 
It is found from Oregon and Idaho to British Columbia. Spring. 

h. C. uniflo'rus H. & A. Scapes erect with 1-3 flowers. Petals 
lilac, an inch long, with the upper margin denticulate ; gland purple, 
densely hairy, with a few scattered hairs on the petal above. Pods 
nodding. This is found in middle California near the coast. Spring. 

{. C. umbella'tus Wood. Scapes low and often decumbent. 
Flow^ers generally many in 1-3 umbels or corymbs on long slender 
pedicels. Petals white or tinged with pink about ^ inch long, with 
some hairs on the lower half ; gland covered with a narrow scale. 
Pods obtuse at each end, nodding. This is found on slopes of hills in 
the Coast Mountains of middle California. Spring. 

j. C. nu'dus Watson. Low and slender with one leaf. Flowers 
1-6 in one umbel. Petals white or pale lilac, fan-shaped, denticu- 
late on the upper margin, ivholly ivithout hairs ; gland shallow, divided 
by a transverse, denticulate scale. Pod acute at each end, nodding. 
This is found in the Sierra Nevada Mountains from the Y^osemite 
northward. Early summer. 

I: C. clava'tus Watson. Erect stems a foot or two high. Flowers 
tulip-shaped, erect. Sepals yellow on the inner side, with a brownish 
spot at base, greenish on the outer side. Petals yellow, with a deep, 
round gland surrounded by yellow, club-shaped hai)^s. Anthers purple, 
obtuse. Pod erect, narrowly oblong, with thick, obtusely angled 
cells. Southern California. Early summer. 

/. C. Weedli Wood. Stem branching, leafy, a foot or more high. 
Sepals as long as the petals, orange on the inner side with a brown 


spot at base. Petals 1-1| in. long, fan-shaped, deep yellow, dotted and 
often margined with brownish purple, covered with slender yellow or 
purple hairs : gland small, round, densely hairy. Pod erect, narrowed 
to the top, 1| in. long. The variety purpuras'cens Watson has the 
petals wholly purple or blotched loith purple. These are common in 
southern California. Early summer. 

m. C. lu'teus Dougl. Golden Tulip. Flowers erect, tulip-shaped, 
greenish yellow, and variously marked with brownish purple, slightly 
hairy within. Honey-gland round or crescent-shaped, densely covered 
with yellow haii's. Anthers yellow, linear-oblong, obtuse. Capsule 
erect, narrowed towards the top. This is the most widely distributed 
species and is quite variable. Early summer. 

n. C. lu'teus var. ocula'tus Watson. This is similar to C. luteus, 
except in the color and markings of the petals. They are white, 
cream, or purple, with a central brownish spot which is usually bordered 
with yellow. The claw is yellow or purplish, and the gland is narrowly 
crescent-shaped and covered with brownish or yellowish hairs. This 
includes a great variety of color forms, and has a wide range. It is 
the commonest species in the northern Californian valleys, and is 
found in both the Sierra Nevada and Coast Mountains from Fresno 
County to Oregon. Early summer. 

o. C. Nuttallii Ton. & Gray. Stem always bearing a small bulb 
at base. Flowers erect, tulip-shaped, 1-several in umbel-like clusters. 
Sepals ovate lanceolate with papery margins, generally yellowish 
within. Petals ivhite or tinged loith lilac, with a purplish spot 
above the yellow base. Gland round or oblong, densely hairy, and 
surrounded by long, scattered hairs. Anthers obtuse, sagittate at base. 
Capsule erect, narrowed upwards. This is found in the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, especially northward, to Oregon. Early 

p. C. venus'tus Benth. Butterfly Tulip. Flowers erect, tulip- 
shaped, white, often tinged with lilac, or purplish throughout, generally 
marked with a red spot near the top of the petals, like a drop of blood. 
Honey-gland narrowly oblong, hairy. The markings above the glands 
are beautiful and exceedingly variable. Pods erect. This is widely 
distributed in various forms. Early summer. 

q. C. splen'dens Dougl. Lilac Tulip. Flowers erect, tulip-shaped, 
lilac above with scattered white hairs, paler beneath. Gland round, 
densely hairy, sometimes wanting. Anthers purple, obtuse or acute. 
Pods erect. This is common in the southern parts of California. 
Early summer. 

r. C. macrocar'pus Dougl. Stems stout, erect, 1-2 ft. high, with 
1-2 tulip-shaped flowers. Leaves 3-5, narrow, convolute. Sepals 
about as long as the petals, narrowly pointed, lilac on the inner side. 
Petals obovate ivith pointed apex, lj-2 inches long, dark lilac, paler at 


base and icith a greenish line down the middle ; gland oblong, densely 
hairy, and with some scattered glandular hairs above. Pods erect, 
narrowed upwards, about 2 inches long. This is found from north- 
ern California to Washington and Idaho. Summer. 

X. CAMAS'SIA, Camass 

Flowers usually dee}) blue in a swij^le raceme with papery 
bracts. Perianth of 6 oblanceolate segments, spreading open. 
Stamens 6, on the base of the perianth. Style slender, with 
3 divisions. This has a coated bulb and grows in swampy 
places. The flowers are rarely white. 

C. esculen'ta Lindl. Scape from 1 to 2 ft. high. Leaves many, near 
the base, keeled. Style as long as the perianth. Stamens shorter, 
with awl-shaped filaments and linear, versatile anthers. The bulbs 
are eaten by the Indians. This grows through middle California 
and north to Washington. Early summer. 

XI. CHLOROG'ALUM, Soap Plant, Amole 

Stems almost leafless from a bulb, either fibrous or mem- 
branous-coated. Leaves mostly radical, linear, until very wavy 
margins. Flowering branches widely spreading, with the 
flowers scattered on short pedicels. Ferianth of 6 oblong 
spreading segments which persist and become twisted over the 
ovary. Stamens 6, shorter than the segments, to which they 
are adnate at base. Capsule 3-lobed, broadest at top, with 
1 or 2 black seeds in each cell. 

C. pomeridia'num Kunth. Soap Plant, Amole. Bulb large, 
covered with coarse brown fibers. Leaves 6-18 in. long, and nearly 
an inch wide. Flowers with the white segments veined with piu'ple, 
spreading widely from the very base. Pedicels nearly as long as the 
flowers. The flowers open suddenly in the afternoon, and are con- 
spicuous on the leafless stems. The bulb is used as a substitute for 
soap. It is widely distributed and blooms in summer. 


Stems stout from a deep bulb. Leaves linear, chiefly near 
the base of the stem. Flowers in racemes or panicled racemes. 
Ferianth greenish white, spreading star-like, with a greenish 


yellow gland at the base of the segments. Stamens nearly free, 
with filaments at first recurved. 

a. Z. Fremon'ti Torr. Bulb with outer coats almost black. Stems 
from a few inches to about 4 ft. high. Racemes simple or compound, 
with few or many flowers. Bracts leaf -like. Flowers from less than 
a half inch to nearly an inch in diameter. Perianth entirely free from 
the ovary ; outer segments without a claw, inner with claws. Glands 
wavy. Stamens shorter than the perianth. Styles short. Capsule 
oblong, 3-lobed, septicidally dehiscent. Spring. 

b. Z. veneno'sus Watson. Death Camass, Hog's Potato. 
Flowers smaller than the preceding, generally in a simple raceme, 
the low^er sometimes staminate. Segments of the perianth from 
triangular-ovate to elliptical, with blades rounded or slightly cordate 
at base, all wath claws. Capsule oblong-ovate with 2 seeds in each 
cell. This grows in wet meadow^s or along streams. The bulb is 
said to be poisonous, except to hogs. Spring. 

XIII. SMILACI'NA, False Solomon's Seal 

Stems from a horizontal rootstock, simple, leafy. Flowers 
white, very small, in a simple or compound terminal raceme. 
Anthers versatile on awl-shaped filaments. Fruit a berry. 

a. S. amplexicau'lis Nutt. Stems from 1 to 3 ft. high. Leaves 
broad, half clasping the stem. Flowers very smcdl, in an oblong or 
pyramidal panicle. Filaments equaling or even surpassing the divi- 
sions of the perianth in length and breadth. Fruit a light-red berry 
with darker dots. This is common in rich, shady woods. Spring. 

b. S. sessilifolia Nutt. Stems not so tall. Leaves narrower and 
lighter green. Raceme simple, with star-like flowers on spreading pedicels. 
Stems half as long as the divisions of the perianth. Berry green 
with red lines, becoming dark red when fully ripe. This is common 
in shady woods. Spring. 

XIV. DIS'PORUM (PROS ARETES), Fairy Bells, Drops of Gold 

Stems from a spreading rootstock, widely branching, leafy. 
Leaves alternate, sessile or clasping. F'loivers greenish white, 
bell-shaped, hanging under the leaves from the upper axils. 
Fruit an orange or salmon-color berry. 

a. D, Menzie'sii Benth. & Hook. Perianth broad at base, with 
divisions somewhat swollen. Stamens shorter than the perianth. 


Style 3-cleft. Leaves ovate, pointed, often cordate at base. Fruit a 
pear-shaped, salmon-color herrij. This grows along the banks of 
streams in shady woods of the Coast Mountains. Spring. 

h. D. Hook'eri Benth. & Hook. Perianth narrow at base, w^ith 
spreading segments. Stamens equaling or sm-passing the perianth. 
Leaves ovate, deeply cordate at base, rough to the touch. Fruit an 
orange, ohovate berry, somewhat pubescent. This grows in shady 
woods, but not close to the water. Spring. 

c. D. trachyan'drum Benth. & Hook. This is similar to the last, 
with the stamens shorter than the perianth. Fruit smooth, icith a 
stout beak. This grows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Spring. 


Stems very short from a rootstock. Leaves all from the 
base, large, oblanceolate, sheathing, with many veins and the 
veinlets transverse. Flowers solitary or on a scape-like 
peduncle, in umbels or whorls. Perianth of 6 oblanceolate 
divisions, soon falling to jjieces. Stamens on the segments of 
the perianth Avith thread-like filaments and versatile anthers. 
Ovary sessile, 2-3-celled. Fruit a beautiful blue berry, smooth 
and glossy. Seeds few to many. 

a. C. uniflo'ra Kunth. Covered more or less with woolly hairs. 
Stem above ground scarcely any. Leaves 4-8 in. long, 1-2 in. 
broad, narrowed at base. Peduncle shorter than the leaves, bearing 1, or 
rarely 2, tvhite Jioivers, erect, nearly an inch across. This beautiful and 
delicate flower gTows in the woods and is found from northern 
California to British Columbia. It blooms in late spring or summer. 

b. C. Andrewsia'na Torr. Almost smooth. Stem 2-6 in. long, 
bearing 5 or 6 large leaves nearly a foot long and 2-4 in. wide, bright 
green and very luxuriant, forming a circular bunch around the tall 
scape, which is a foot or two high. Flowers generally many, in umbels 
or whorled fascicles, deep rose-color, pendent. Perianth broad at base, 
^-^ in. long. This is found in the redwood groves and is in bloom 
in early summer. It is one of tlie most conspicuous plants, whether 
in fruit or flower or with only its tropical-looking leaves. 

XVI. STREP'TOPUS, Twisted Stalk 

Stems from slender, creeping rootstocks, leafy, glaucous, 
branching in pairs. Leaves alternate, sessile, lance-shaped, 
veinlets transverse. Flowers usually solitary frow, the leaf 


axils, on slender, simple or forked peduncles, bell-shaped, greenish 
white, with the divisions recurved at tip. Fruit a round berry 
with 3 cells and many seeds. 

S. amplexifolius DC. Stems 2-3 ft. high. Leaves heart-shaped 
at base, 2-5 in. long, rough on the margins. Perianth about lialf 
an inch long. This is found in damp, shady places from northern 
California to Washington. It blooms in the spring. 

XVII. TRIL'LIUM, Wake Robin 

Stems erect, naked up to the three leaves which are in a 
whorl under the flower. Leaves netted-veined, large and 
broad. Perianth withering, but not falling. Outer divisions 
(sepals) greenish, inner (petals) colored. Filaments short. 
Anthers long, erect. Stigmas sessile on the sessile ovary. 

a. T. ses'sile L. Leaves broad, round-ovate, often mottled with 
reddish brown, crowded. Flowers and leaves sessile. Petals white, 
rose-color, deep wine-color, or greenish yellow. This is common in 
woods near the coast. It is exceedingly variable in the size and 
shape of the leaves and parts and color of the flowers. 

h. T. ova'tum Pursh. Leaves on short petioles, ovate, acute or 
pointed. Flowers on a peduncle from 1 to 3 in. long. Petals white, 
turning rose-color as they fade. This has the same range as the 
preceding, but is usually earlier and less common. 

c. T. petiola'tum Pursh. Stem short. Leaves ovate to kidney - 
shaped, ivitk petioles equaling or longer than the blade. Flowers sessile. 
Petals narrowly oblanceolate, a little longer than the sepals, dull 
purple. This is found through Oregon and Washington. 

AMARYLLIDA'CE^. Century Plant Family 

Mostly smooth perennial herbs, sending up from the root a 
scape and leaves which show no distinction between petiole 
and blade. Stamens 6. Tube of the 6-parted perianth adnate 
to the 3-celled ovary. Capsule 3-celled, several or many seeded. 
The Chinese Sacred Lily, the Narcissus, Jonquil, and Daffodils 
belong to this family. 


I. AGA'VE, Century Plant, American Aloe 

Plants with large, thick, spiny-pointed and spiny-toothed 
leaves. The flowers are numerous on short bracted pedicels, 
in spikes or panicles, at the summit of a tall woody scape 
clothed with bracts. The perianth is thick and fleshy, tubular 
or bell-shaped, with the 6 divisions nearly equal. Filaments 
bent in the bud, but becoming straight and extending beyond 
the perianth. Capsule leathery, with numerous flattened black 
seeds. Different species of Century Plants are common in 
cultivation, and several species are native in desert regions. 
It blooms in California when 10 to 20 years old. "Pulque," 
a Mexican drink, is made from the sap of some species. 

II. NARCIS'SUS, Narcissus, Jonquil 

Floivers with a cup-shaped crown at the throat of the perianth. 
Tube of the perianth somewhat cylindrical, the 6 divisions 
of the border widely spreading. Stamens 6, inserted in the 
tube. Scapes with 1 to several flowers from a thin, dry 

N. Tazet'ta. Chinese Sacred Lily. Flowers white, with yellow 
cup ; fragi-ant. Leaves and scapes from a large bulb, like an onion. 
This is cultivated especially by the Chinese and usually grows in 
water. It is in bloom dm-ing the winter, about the time of the 
Chinese Xew Year, and can readily be obtained for class study. 

IRIDA'CE^. Iris Family 

Herbs with equitant 2-ranked leaves. Flowers showy, 
perfect. Tube of the perianth attached to the ovary, ivhich 
is enclosed by spathe-like bracts. Stamens 3, ivith anthers 
turned outwards. Style 1, stigmas 3, often petal-like. Capsule 
3-celled and many-seeded. 

I. TRIS, Blue Flag, Fleur de Lis, Flower de Luce 

Sepals 3, turned backwards., larger than the 3 erect petals. 
Stamens 3, distinct, borne on the sepals. Anthers long, and 


covered by the petal-like branches of the style. Perennials 
with dagger-shaped leaves and large rootstocks. 

a. I. macrosi'phon Torr. Stems low, forming mats of bright green, 
narrow, erect leaves, amid which the flowers arise, overtopped by the 
leaves. Perianth with a slender tube from 1 to 4 in. long, easily break- 
ing. Flowers dark blue, rarely cream-color. 

h. I. Douglasia'na Herbert. Taller than the last, but also growing 
in mats. Leaves dark green, rose-color at base, laxly spreading. 
Stems bent about the middle. Tube of the perianth slender, an inch 
or more long. Flowers variable in color ; cream, rose-color, violet, 
and purplish blue. This is the most widely distributed species. 

c. I. longipet'ala Herbert. Stems stout, more than a foot high. 
Leaves glaucous. Flowers larger than the preceding. Perianth 
funnel-form at base, sessile on the ovary. Sepals from 2 to 3 in. long, 
beautifully veined with yellow and violet. Petals shorter. Petal-like 
branches of the style with broad crests. This Iris covers acres of 
ground in low places near San Francisco. 

d. I. Missourien'sis. Stems slender, the few leaves shorter than 
the stem. Bracts papery, dilated. Flowers V)lue, generally 2 in a 
spathe. Sepals and petals 2 or 3 in. long, M^ith narrow claws. This 
grows in moist or wet places and is widely distributed. It blooms 
in spring. 

II. SISYRIN'CHIUM, Blue-eyed Grass, Star-eyed Grass 

Perianth 6-parted, with the spreading divisions all alike. 
Stamens monadelphous. Stigmas 3-cleft, very slender, usually 
•twisted together. These are small grass-like perennials, with 
pretty flowers that soon wither, borne on slender scapes. 

a. S. barium Watson. Blue-eyed Grass. Stems usually about 
a foot high. Leaves shorter. Spathes 2, nearly equal, enveloping 
the flowers in bud. Flowers 4-7, purjdish blue, yellow at the center. 
Divisions 3-toothed or tipped with a point. Stamens icith the filaments 
united to the anthers. Stigmas short, hardly apparent. Capsule 
globular. This is common in damp places. 

b. S. grandiflo'rum Dougl. Scapes about a foot high. Spathe with 
1-4 flowers, flattened but not winged, surpassing the leaves. Bracts 
broad, unequal, the larger exceeding the flowers. Perianth an inch 
and a half across, reddish purple, occasionally white. Filaments 
united only at the broad base. Style merely cleft at apex. This most 
beautiful species ranges from northern California to British Columbia. 

c. S. Calif or'nicum Ait. Star-eyed Grass, Golden-eyed Grass. 
Scape winged, a foot or more high, longer than the leaves. Flowers 


from 3 to 7, yellow, nearly an inch in diameter. Spathe 1. Filaments 
united at base only. Style divided to the middle. Capsule oblong. 
This stains the paper purple ichen it is pressed. It grows in swampy 
places near the ocean. 

ORCHIDA'CE^. Orchis Family 

Perennials, with perfect flowers of peculiar shapes, perianth 
of 6 divisions adnate to the 1-celled ovary, which contains an 
immense number of ovules. The stamens are 1 or 2, united 
with the pistil. The pollen is of a few waxy grains, held 
together by cobweb-like threads. The family is difficult, and 
the specimens are so rare that they should not be collected in 
large numbers for class study. The most familiar genera are 
Ct/pripe'dium, Lady's Slipper ; Spiran'thes, Ladies' Tresses ; 
Hahena'ria ; and EpipacHis. 


Stems composed of bark, wood, and pith ; in woody stems 
which live over from year to year, the wood is generally in 
annual rings, traversed at right angles by medullary rays. 
Leaves netted-veined. Cotyledons 2 (rarely more). 

Division I 


PIPERA'CE^. Yerba Mansa Family 

Perennial herbs with jointed or scape-like stems. Leaves 
entire, with petioles dilated at base, and without stipules. 
Flowers perfect, without perianth, in dense terminal spikes, 
with a bract under each flower. Stigmas 1-5, stamens 3-6 
or more. 



Herbs with aromatic, creeping rootstocks, and most of the 
leaves radical. Flowers in spikes, subtended by a corolla-like 
involucre on a few-leaved stem. Sepals and petals none, a 
petal-like bract under each flower. Stamens on the base of 
the ovary. Ovaries, sunk in the fleshy axis of the spike, each 
consisting of several follicles, which open and appear to form 
a 1-celled pod with several parietal placentae ; when ripe, 
opening at the apex, leaving the old spikes full of regularly 
arranged holes. 

H. Califor'nica Benth. & Hook. Yerba Mansa. This grows in 
saline or alkaline swamps, and has reputed medicinal value. 

MYRICA'CE^. Wax-myrtle Family 

Monoecious or dioecious trees or shrubs. Leaves fragrant, 
alternate. Flowers in short sessile catkins with one naked 
flower under each scale. Staminate flowers of about 10 
stamens with united filaments. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled, 
with 2 sessile thread-like stigmas. Fruit a small, round, 
dark purple nut, unevenly coated on the rough surface with 
grayish white wax. 

Myri'ca Califor'nica Cham. Flowers usually androgynous. Leaves 
evergreen, leathery, oblanceolate, dark green and glossy above, some- 
what whitened below, serrate above the base, and narrowed to a 
short petiole. Catkins solitary or in thick clusters. From Monterey 
to Washington in moist places. 

SALICA'CE^. Willow Family 

Dioecious trees or shrubs. Flowers in catkins (/. Fig. 131 ; 
e. Figs. 108, 121), destitute of perianth. Fruit a 1-celled pod 
with numerous seeds, provided with rather long and silky 
down (usually called cotton), by means of which they are 
transported by the wind. 


I. SA'LIX, WiUow 

Trees or shrubs, growing near water. Leaves generally 
long and pointed ; with stipules generally present on young 
shoots, disappearing from the older leaves. Stamens 1-6 to 
each scale of the staminate catkin. On the pistillate catkin 
the pods are small, ovate, pointed, splitting from the top into 
two pieces. In bud the catkins are covered with scales that 
fall oif. (The following species generally occur as trees, 
sometimes also as shrubs.) 

a. S.. ni'gra Marsh. Black Willow. Trunk nearly black, gen- 
erally leaning over the ivater. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, long-pointed, 
closely serrate, smooth and light green on both sides. Catkins on 
leafy branchlets. Pods brownish on short pedicels. Stamens 3-5 to 
each scale. Along the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers. 

h. S. Iseviga'ta Bebb. Trunk straight, with dark brown bark. Leaves 
rather thick, glossy green above, glaucous beneath. Scales of the 
catkin toothed. Otherwise much like the preceding, but with broader 
leaves. Widely distributed. 

c. S. lasiorepis Benth. Trunk generally straight, with grayish 
brown bark, almost smooth. Leaves thick, oblanceolate, unequally 
serrate, glaucous and brown-hairy beneath. The young leaves are 
closely covered icith silky hairs. Catkins on very short peduncles ; 
scales dark brown, densely covered with white hairs. Stamens 2 to 
each scale, icith the Jilaments united at the base. Pods on short pedicels. 
This is the most common wallow and varies considerably. Widely 

d. S. Scouleria'na Barratt (S. flaves'cens Nutt.). Small tree or shrub. 
Leaves silky tomentose on the underside when young, obovate or 
oblanceolate. Catkins short, sessile, appearing before the leaves, densely 
flowered. Stamens 2 to each scale of the catkin ; scales covered with 
long silky hairs. Capsules tomentose on short pedicels. Styles 
wanting ; stigmas long, entire or deeply parted. The freshly broken 
twigs of this species have a strong and disagreeable odor. It is one 
of the earliest willows in bloom and is very lovely and conspicuous 
when in bloom. It is found from Santa Barbara to Alaska. 

e. S. Sitchen'sis Sanson. Similar to the above but with leaves 
much more tomentose, with permanent and shining tomentum. 
Catkins long, appearing before the leaves but often in the axils of the 
previous season's persistent leaves. Stamens 1-2 to each scale of the 
catkin; scales villous and catkins tomentose. This is a beautiful 
willow with large broad leaves. It is found from Santa Barbara to 


/. S. corda'ta Muhl. Small tree or shrub. Leaves oblong lanceo- 
late, heart-shaped or acute at base, pointed at apex, serrate, smooth 
except when young. Catkins leafy at base, cylindrical, lengthening in 
fruit. Stamens 2 to each scale of the catkin. Scales dark but villous 
with long white hairs. Capsule smooth. Style short, stigma bifid. 
This is found on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada ISIountains. 

g. S. fluvia'tilis (S. longifolia). Narrow-leaved Willow. 
A shrub forming dense clumps. Leaves linear to lanceolate, tapering 
at apex and base, sessile, 2-Jf, in. long and \ in. or less icide ; margin 
entire or with scattered teeth. Catkins on leafy branchlets. Stamens 
2 to each scale. Capsules downy or smooth, on short pedicels, with 
large, sessile stigmas. Sometimes the leaves are smooth, sometimes 
white downy. This is widely distributed and variable. 

n. POP'ULUS, Cottonwood, Poplar, Aspen 

Trees with broad ovate or deltoid leaves, and buds covered 
with scales full of aromatic balsam. Staminate catkins 
appearing before the leaves, with many stamens to each scale, 
on a cup-shaped disk ; anthers purple, staining the ground 
where they fall. Fertile catkins of round or ovate jjods on 
slender pedicels. 

a. P. trichocar'pa Torr. Balm of Gilead, Balsam Cotton- 
wood. Leaves ovate, pointed, cordate or rounded at base, crenate, dark 
green above, greenish brown beneath, on terete petioles. Buds full of 
balsam, and very fragrant. Tree with cracked bark and open growth. 
Widely distributed. 

b. P. Fremon'ti Watson. Leaves broadly deltoid, with few rounded 
teeth on the margins, bright green on both sides; petioles flattened. 
Large tree, with gray, cracked bark. Widely distributed. 

c. P. tremuloi'des Michx. Aspen, Quaking Asp. Trunk straight, 
slender, with smooth grayish w^hite bark. Leaves round-ovate, thin, 
on slender petioles flattened at right angles to the broad surfaces of the 
leaf, causing it to sway edgewise tcith the least perceptible breeze. In the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains and far northward. 

BETULA'CE^. Birch and Alder Family 

Monoecious trees or shrubs, growing along streams. Leaves 
toothed. Staminate catkins drooping ; when young covered 
with resin, but without bud-scales. Stamens 2-4 in a 4-lobed 


or scale-like perianth under the bracts of the catkin. Pistil- 
late flowers in short, erect cones. Pistil with a 2-celled ovary 
and 2 stigmas. 

L AL'NUS, Alder 

Trees or shrubs with broad, toothed leaves. Staminate 
catkins long and drooping, appearing in early spring. Pistil- 
late catkins erect, becoming dark brown and woody, persisting 
on the trees for' some time after the seeds have fallen. Stamens 
generally 4 in each perianth. 

a. A. rhombifo'lia Nutt. Trees icith dark hrown harl\ Leaves 
ovate or oval, paler beneath, irregularly glandular-toothed. This 
blooms very early, the staminate catkins falling in January or 
February, and the fruit ripe at the same time. Widely distributed. 

h. A. rub'ra Bong (A. Orego'na Nutt). Bark pale gray, mottled 
with darker gray. Leaves ovate or elliptical, rusty-pubescent on 
the lower surface, doubly serrate, with revolute margins to the teeth. 
Twigs smooth, winter buds glutinous, nearly |- in. long. Catkins 
open in the spring before the leaves. From San Francisco to Alaska. 

c. A. tenuifo'lia Nutt. A small tree with red-brown bark, often 
forming thickets. Twigs pubescent. Leaves ovate rounded or cor- 
date at base, doubly serrate icith teeth acute, veins prominent, winter 
buds short, obtuse, pubescent, about ^ in. long. In the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains and northward, especially on the eastern slope of 
the mountains. 

n. BET'ULA, Birch 

Trees or shrubs with smooth bark often coming off in 
sheets, dotted on the branches. Catkins similar to those of 
Alxus, but the fertile ones do not persist on the trees after the 
seeds are ripe. The scales and seeds fall away from the axis. 
Each scale of the staminate catkins bears 3 flowers, each of 
which consists mainly of two 2-parted filaments with an 
anther cell on each. On every scale of the pistillate catkins 
are borne 2-3 flowers, each of which consists simply of a 
naked ovary with 2 diverging stigmas. 

B. occidentalis. Black Birch. A tree 20-30 ft. high with 
smooth dark brown or reddish bark, with conspicuous whitish hori- 
zontal lenticels, becoming lighter in color with age ; the branchlets 
dotted with resinous spots. Leaves thin, broadly ovate, serrate with 


glandular teeth. Seeds with wings as broad as the body. Bracts of 
the catkin 3-lobed. Most common on the western side of the Rocky 

CUPULIF'ER^. Oak Family 

Monoecious trees or shrubs. Staminate flowers in catkins ; 
pistillate forming, in fruit, a nut in a cup-like or bur-like 


Staminate flowers in slender, fringe-like catkins, with a 
6-lobed perianth ; pistillate usually single, consisting of a 
3-celled ovary enclosed in a bud-like involucre which becomes 
a cup. Stigmas 3. Only 1 of the ovules ripens to form an 
acorn ; the other 5 can be seen as rudiments. 

a. Q. loba'ta Nee. Valley Oak, Roble, AVhite Oak, Weeping 
Oak. Leaves large, deciduous, deeply lobed with obtuse divisions, 
3-4 in. long on stout petioles. Cup deep, with a rough warty sur- 
face, acorns 1-3 in. long, usually pointed. These trees grow to a 
great size, and are generally isolated in fertile valleys. They have 
graceful, drooping branches. Throughout California. 

h. Q. Garrya'na Dougl. A large tree, often 10-12 ft. in circumfer- 
ence, with bark only 1 or, at most, 2 in. thick. Leaves thick, strongly 
veined, 4-6 in. long, 2-5 in. wide, with coarse lobes, obtuse or acute, 
entire or again lobed, dull green on the upper side, pale green or 
yellowish on the lower, turning brown or red in the fall. Acorns 
sessile or on short peduncles, with the nut oval and obtuse, about 1 ^ 
in. long, in small, shallow cups. The winter buds of this oak are 
nearly half an inch long and are densely tomentose. It is found in the 
valleys and hills north of San Francisco Bay and extends to British 
Columbia. It is common in OregOH and Washington. 

c. Q. Douglas'ii Hook. & Arn. Blue Oak, White Oak. Leaves 
an inch or two long, deciduous, oblong, with shallow lobes, bluish 
green, veiny. Cup usually shallow, with flat scales ; acorns oblong, 
often swollen in the middle. Baj^k usually light gray, causing the 
trunks to be very noticeable on hillsides. From Tehachapi to the 
Sacramento Valley. 

d. Q. oblongifo'lia Ton. Evergreen Live Oak or White Oak 
of southern California. Leaves evergreen, oblong, often entire, or with 
a few blunt teeth, thick, with the reining almost concealed. Cup with 
warty surface, acorns oblong. Not found north of Tehachapi. 


e. Q. chrysorepis Liebm. Drooping Live Oak, Golden Cup 
Oak. Leaves evergreen, oblong, entire or spinosely toothed, often 
both kinds on the same branch, dark green on the upper surface, cov- 
ered with a golden powder on the lower surface of young leaves ; the old 
leaves becoming smooth and paler beneath. Cnp either bowl or saucer 
shaped, more or less covered with yellow powder, sometimes so dense 
as to conceal the scales of the cup. Acorns large and thick. This 
is a shrub or an immense tree growing usually in canons. It is 
extremely variable in leaves and fruit. Throughout California. 

/. Q. agrifolia Nee. Live Oak, Encino. Leaves evergreen, 
spiny-toothed on the margin, which is curled under. Pubescence stellate. 
Staminate flowers veiy numerous. Cup bowl-shaped, glossy, of flat 
scales ; acorns slender, tapering, maturing in one year. This is a 
round, compact tree, or it sprawls over the ground with low branches, 
widely spreading. This never grows far from the sea, but keeps 
within the fog-line. 

g. Q. Wislize'ni A. DC. Post Oak, Live Oak. Leaves ever- 
green, dark, glossy, spiny-toothed, but not curled back, very stiff, 
smooth on both sides when old. Acorns maturing in 2 years. Cup deep, 
very rough-scaly. Acorns variable, often almost covered by the cup. 
This is usually a tree, but is often shrubby and is found throughout 

h. Q. Califor'nica Cooper (Q. Kelloggii). Kellogg's Oak, Black 
Oak. Leaves deciduous, large, deeply lohed icith pointed divisions, 
smooth and glossy green when old. Fruit on short stems. Cups 
deep with smooth scales ; acorns large, oblong, obtuse. Bark black 
and rough. The young shoots are rose-color and densely tomentose. 
Through the mountains of California. 

i. Q. densiflo'ra Hook & Arn. Chestnut Oak, Tanbark Oak. 
Leaves evergreen, oblong, ribbed with thick veins, toothed, covered more or 
less with ivhite tomentum. Cups saucer-shaped, densely covered with 
long, linear, cui-ved scales that give the cup a bristly appearance ; 
acorns large, with a thick shell. This is in flower and fruit at the 
same time, generally blooms in summer, and has large panicled spikes 
of androgynous flowers. From the Tehachapi Range northward. 

n. CASTANOP'SIS, Western Chinquapin 

Flowers androgynous in erect axillary or terininal panicled 
spikes. Staminate flowers with perianth 5-6-lobed, and 
stamens twice as many ; sessile on the upper part of the 
spikes. Pistillate flowers below, in a scaly involucre. Ovary 
3-celled, ivith 2 ovules in each cell, Tnaturing only 1-3 nuts in 
a roundish involucre, densely covered with brown, intricately 


branched prickles. This blooms chiefly in the summer and 
fall, and is generally fruiting at the same time. 

a. C. chrysophyl'la A. DC. Golden-leaved Chinquapin. Leaves 
lanceolate, pointed, dark green above, golden below. This is generally 
a shrub, but becomes a large beautiful tree in Mendocino County. 

h. C. semper'virens Dudley. Leaves ohovate-ohlong, obtuse at apex. 
This is the species of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

m. COR'YLUS, Hazelnut 

Staminate flowers in slender, droojnng catkms, each flower 
consisting of 8 stamens with 1-celled anthers. Pistillate 
flowers several, grouped in a scaly bud, each consisting of a 
single ovary in the axil of a bract, and with a smaller bract 
on each side. Ovary 2-celled, 2-ovuled (one seed only matur- 
ing). Stigmas 2, bright red, long and slender. Nut roundish, 
enclosed in a fringed cup. 

C. rostra'ta Ait. var. Califor'nica A. DC. Shrubby. Leaves slightly 
heart-shaped. Staminate flowers drooping, very numerous; con- 
spicuous on the leafless stems of winter. Involucre completely 
covering the nut, and prolonged into a beak above it. This is 
common in the woods along the coast. It blooms very early. 

ARISTOLOCHIA'CE^. Dutchman's Pipe Family 

Shrubs or perennial herbs. Leaves heart or kidney shaped, 
palmately veined. Perianth adnate to the 6-celled ovary, 
greenish brown, regular or irregular. Stamens 6-12, attached 
to the style, with anthers opening outwards. Styles 6, united 
at base. 

I. AS' ARUM, Wild Ginger 

Low herbs. Leaves and flowers springing from creeping root- 
stocks which have the odor of ginger. Leaves large, kidney- 
shaped, on long petioles. Flowers erect, hell-shaped, with 3 
divisions hearing long tails. Stamens 12, almost free from the 
style. Capsule round. Seeds large, 2 rows in each cell. 

a. A. cauda'tum LindL Flowers on slender pedicels. Divisions 
of the perianth with tails from 1 to 3 in. long. This grows in damp, 
shady places under the trees in the Coast Mountains. 


h. A. Hartwe'gi. Flowers on stout peduncles, from a woody base. 
Divisions of the perianth narrowed to a linear apex. Leaves marked 
with lighter-colored veins, often white-veined. This grows in the 
higher parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains under the trees. 

II. ARISTOLO'CHIA, Dutchman's Pipe 

Perianth something like a inpe in shajje, inflated, soon 
deciduous from the inferior ovary. Anthers 6, sessile, adnate 
to the short style. Stigmas 3-6-lobed. Pod club-shaped. 

A. Califor'nica Torr. A shrubby vine with twining stems. Flowers 
greenish brown with purplish brown stripes and markings, appearing 
before or with the leaves, in the leaf axils. Peduncles slender, wdth 
a leaf-like bract in the middle. Leaves soft, pubescent, ovate-cordate 
on short petioles. This climbs amid the brush, from which it is not 
readily distinguishable, as the colors of the flower are so similar to 
its surroundings, and usually there are no leaves when the flowers 
are in bloom. 

POLYGONACE^. Buckwheat Family 

Shrubs or herbs. Perianth small, generally corolla-like, of 
3-6 distinct or united divisions. Stamens 4-9 on the perianth. 
Ovary a 3-sided or lens-shaped akene, generally dark brown 
or black. Styles 2-4. 

I. ERIOG'ONUM, California Buckwheat 

Flowers small, perfect, on hair-like pedicels from hell-shaped 
or top-shaped involucres. Perianth of 6 petal-like divisions, 
thin in texture, 3'ello^v, white, or rose-color. Stamens 9. 
Styles 3, generally deflexed or curled, with cap-like stigmas. 
Akenes 3-sided (rarely lens-shaped or winged). Leaves without 
sheaths or stipules, often more or less white-woolly, generally 
in a spreading cluster at the base of the stem. The small 
involucres full of flowers are variously clustered in umbels, 
panicles, racemes, etc. 

These plants inhabit dry places. The species are very 
numerous, and difficult to distinguish. The majority of the 
species are annuals, much branched, with slender stems. The 
perennial species are stouter, and one, E. fasciculaHum, is an 


evergreen shrub, with small, short leaves in clusters along the 
stems, and the flowers in terminal cymose panicles. 

11. CHORIZAN'THE, Turkish Rugging 

Involucres sessile, tubular, thick in texture, 3-6-ribbed, with 
as many teeth or divisions, tipped with stiff bristles. Flowers 
small, 1-3, included in the involucres, often nearly sessile. 
Stamens generally 9. Ovary smooth and akene triangular. 
Low, much branched annual herbs with slender branches, very 
brittle when dry. The leaves are all in a cluster at the base, 
and the bracts are ternate and usually small. They grow in 
dry, sandy places, where they often cover the ground as with 
a veil. The species are numerous, generally local and difficult 
to distinguish. 

III. RUMEX, Dock, Sorrel 

Coarse herbs, generally perennial, with acid or bitter juice. 
Perianth with 3 outer divisions green, the 3 inner generally 
larger, reddish or yellowish .green, becoming large and veiny, 
often with a ivhite grain on the hack of one or all of the inner 
divisions, which closely cover the 3-sided akene. Styles 3. 
Stigmas with a tuft of hairs at the top. Leaves with papery 
stipules sheathing the stem. 

a. R. acetosella L. Sorrel, Sour Grass. Flowers dioecious, 
small, in a narrow panicle, becoming reddish. The inner divisions 
of the perianth do not enlarge over the akene. Leaves thick, hastate. 
This is very common, spreading by slender rootstocks. The male 
plants greatly exceed the female in number. Common everywhere. 

h. R. salicifolius Wein. Willow-leaved Dock. Stems several, 
generally spreading and ascending or erect. Leaves light green, 3-6 
in. long, lanceolate, narrowed to a short petiole. Flowers in a leafy 
panicle, which becomes dark red as it grows old. Each of the inner 
divisions of the perianth has a large grain on the outside. Common in 
moist places everywhere. 

c. R. cris'pus L. Curly Dock. Leaves on long stalks with a 
crisped or curled margin. Flowers in a leafy panicle. The grains 
are present on all the inner divisions of the perianth. Common. 

d. R. purcher L. Branches widely spreading, leafy, reddish when 
young, becoming brown and stiff when old. Leaves rough on 
the lower surface, generally lanceolate and acute. Flowers in 


numerous whorls at short intervals along the branches. Perianth 
ivith the inner divisions all grain-hearing and with J^-G stiff bristly teeth 
on each side. This is an introduced weed, becoming very common. 

e. R. occidentalis Watson. Tall, 3-6 ft. in height. Lowest leaves 
with blade often a foot long and petiole almost as long, ovate to 
oblong-lanceolate, with the base heart-shaped. Panicle large, almost 
destitute of leaves. Perianth with large reddish divisions, finely- 
toothed near the cordate base, without grains on the hack. This grows 
in wet places throughout the Pacific coast and blooms in summer. 

/. R. persicarioi'des L. Annual, generally with many stems, 
low, erect, or spreading. Leaves linear-lanceolate, on short petioles. 
Flowers in dense whorls at nearly all the leaf axils. Divisions of the 
perianth all bearing grains and with 2-3 long., slender, aivn-like teeth 
on each. This is found in wet places, generally along the edges of 
ponds and lakes. It is widely distributed and iDlooms in summer. 

IV. POLYG'ONUM, Jointweed, Smartweed 

Mowers perfect in axillary or panicled spikes. Perianth 
of 5-6 petal-like divisions, often rose-color, not enlarging in 
fruit. Stamens 4-9. Styles 2-3, with cap-like stigmas. At 
the base of the petiole there are papery sheaths around the stem. 
The species are difficult to determine. They generally grow 
in swampy places. 

CHENOPODIAXE^. Pigweed Family 

Shrubs or herbs, often with fleshy stems and leaves, usually 
found near the ocean or in alkaline soil, often covered with 
white scurf. Leaves generally salty or bitterish. Flowers 
perfect, monoecious or dioecious. Perianth small, of 5 greenish 
sepals. Stamens as many as the sepals, and opposite them. 
Ovary 1-celled, with the embryo coiled in a ring or spiral 
around the endosperm. 


Flowers perfect in axillary or terminal clusters. Perianth 
nearly covering the fruit, which is round and flattened. Leaves 
alternate on petioles, often covered with scurf or down. 


a. C. arbum L. Lamb's-quauteu, Pigweed. Annual, erect, 
simple or branched. Leaves cold to the touch, covered with a flour- 
like powder, from lanceolate to ovate, wavy and toothed. Flowers 
in spikes, eitlier simple or panicled, and axillary or terminal. This 
is common in cultivated ground. 

b. C. Califor'nicum Watson. Soap Plant. Perennial, from a 
spindle-shaped root. Stems smooth, usually several from the root, 
spreading and ascending. Leaves triangular, 2-3 in. long, sharply 
and irregularbi toothed. Flowers densely clustered in long, slender, 
terminal spikes. Seed large, vertical, only partly covered by the 
5-toothed, bell-shaped perianth. This blooms in spring, often under 
bushes. Xear the coast, from San Diego to San Francisco Bay. 

c. C. mura'le L. Stems generally reddish, with some flour-like 
powder, branching rather closely, forming a compact plant, a foot or 
two high. Leaves broadly triangular to lanceolate, coarsely and deeply 
sinuate-toothed. Flowers generally in small clusters in the leaf axils, 
shorter than the leaves. Sometimes the clusters are panicled at the 
top of the stems. Seeds black with sharp edges. Common every- 

d. C. ambrosioi'des L. Wormseed. Stems annual, stout, and 
branching, 2-3 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped, 2-5 in. long, sinuate- 
dentate, on short petioles. Flowers in axillary spikes, or in panicled 
leafless spikes. The entire plant has a strong, persistent, aromatic 
odor. It is common in salt and alkaline marshes. 

II. AT'RIPLEX, Salty Sage 

Herbs or shrubs, mealy, scurfy or pubescent. Flowers in 
simple or panicled spikes, or clustered in the axils. Staminate 
flowers with the divisions of the perianth 3-5, and stamens 
opposite the divisions. Pistillate flowers enclosed by 2 bracts^ 
which are distinct or united^ variously toothed, or with wart- 
like 'protuberances or ivinged, often thickened. Seed vertical, 
generally falling with the bracts which enclose it. 

a. A. Califor'nica Moquin. Stems many from the base, spreading 
on the ground a foot or more, densely mealy. L^eaves sessile, small, 
lanceolate, the lower opposite. Flowers monoecious in small, axillary 
clusters, the staminate ones mostly near the top of the cluster. 
Fruiting bracts small, round, spongy, not toothed, and without wart-like 
protuberances. This is found along the coast. 

b. C. canes'cens James. Buckwheat Sage, Salty Sage. 
Shrubby, dioecious. Leaves grayish green, linear or oblanceolate. 
Flowers in panicled spikes. Fruiting bracts with Jf, distinct dilated 


icings. This is found in the interior, in alkaline valleys. It is a 
valuable forage plant. 

(The species of Atriplex are numerous and difficult, also 
somewhat local, so the rest will be omitted.) 

AMARANTA'CE^. Amaranth Family 

Herbs, with small papery flowers surrounded with persist- 
ent papery bracts. Perianth persistent of from 1 to 5 papery 
divisions. Stamens as many as the divisions of the perianth, 
sometimes fewer. Ovary 1-celled and 1-seeded, forming a 
fruit, w^hich opens like the lid of a box. Seed always ver- 
tical. Stigmas 2-3, sessile. 

AMARAN'TUS. Amaranth 

Flowers generally monoecious. Perianth of from 3 to 5 
divisions. Bracts 3 to each flower. Stamens with filaments 
spreading at base. Stigmas generally 3, forming 3 beaks on 
the fruit. Seeds brown or black, dropping readily when ripe. 

a. A. retroflex'us L. Pigweed. Stems stout, erect. Leaves ovate, 
1-3 in. long, on petioles almost as long. Flowers green, in thick, 
erect, crowded spikes, either terminal or axillary. Divisions of the 
perianth 5. A common weed. 

h. A. al'bus L. Tumbleweed. Stems light green, hrancJiing 
diffusely from the hase, forming a mound-like plant. Leaves spatulate 
or obovate, often wavy-margined, on slender petioles. Divisions of 
the perianth 3, pointed, shorter than the fruit. Bracts awl-shaped 
with stiff points. This forms a tumbleweed, and will often be found 
caught in fences and bushes. Common everywhere. 

NYCTAGINA'CE^. Four-o'clock Family 

Herbs with fragile stems and swollen joints. Leaves 
opposite, entire, unequal at base. Flowers perfect, several 
in an involucre resembling a calyx. Perianth corolla-like, 
showy, the base hardening around the 1-seeded ovary. 


I. MIRAB'ILIS, Four-o'clock 

Involucre 5-lobecl. Flowers nearly sessile. Stamens 5. 
Fruit scarcely ribbed. Herbs with showy, reddish purple 
flowers, opening in the afternoon. 

a. M. multiflo'ra Gray. Stems often glandular ; stout and spread- 
ing. Leaves broad, an inch or two long, ovate, on petioles a half- 
inch long. Flowers 6 in the involucre. Perianth open-fun nel-form, 
with border an inch in diameter, and tube from 1 to 2 in. long. 
Southern California. 

h. M. Califor'nica Gray. Stems several from a woody root, sup- 
ported on bushes, as if climbing. Leaves ovate, cordate, on short 
petioles. Involucre small, 1-3-flowered. Perianth open-bell-shaped. 
Fruit small. This is common in southern California. 

II. ABRO'NIA, Sea Verbena 

Involucre of from 5 to 15 distinct papery bracts. Flowers 
sessile, with salver-shaped perianth, having a long tube, and 
the border with notched segments. Stamens 5, within the 
tube. Annual or perennial, fleshy herbs, with thick, opposite 
leaves. Flowers in umbels on long peduncles, fragrant, showy, 
rose-color, yellow, or white. 

a. A. umbella'ta Lam. Stems prostrate, viscid. Leaves ovate or 
oblong, narrowed at base to a petiole. Perianth rose-color. Fruit 
winged. This grows on the seacoast. 

b. A. latifolia Esch. Stems similar to above. Leaves broadly 
ovate, with kidney-shaped base. Perianth yellow. The flowers have 
the odor of orange blossoms. This is found on the coast from Van- 
couver to Monterey. 

PORTULACA'CE^. Portulaca Family 

Fleshy herbs. Flowers with 2 sepals (except in Lewisid) 
and 2-5 or more petals. Stamens opposite the petals when 
of the same number. Ovary 1-celled, style 2-8 cleft. The 
flowers open only in the sunshine or bright daylight. 


I. PORTULA'CA, Purslane 

Low herbs with alternate or opposite leaves. Flowers ter- 
minal and sessile. Petals 4-6. Stamens 7-30, inserted 
where the calyx joins the ovary. Pistils with 3-8 styles. 
Fruit like a box oj^ening with a' lid, full of black seeds. 

P. olera'cea. Purslane, Pusley. Prostrate. Flowers small. 
Calyx lobes keeled. Petals yellow, spreading, notched. Common 

II. LEWIS'IA, Bitter-root 

Low herbs, withont stems, from thick, perpendicular roots. 
Leaves forming a rosette at the apex of the root. Flowers 
large, solitary, on low scapes, conspicuous when open, white or 
rose-color. Sepals 2-8. Petals 3-16. Stamens numerous. 
Style branches 3-8. Pod globose, luith thin walls that split 
from the base upwards. 

L. redivi'va. Bitter-root, Leaves numerous, shorter than the 
scapes. Scapes jointed above the middle, bearing an involucre of 
5-7 papery bracts. The flower when expanded is an inch in diam- 
eter, resembling a small cactus blossom. The sepals resemble the 
petals. The Bitter Root Mountains receive their name from this 
plant. It is the state flower of Montana. 


Sepals green and persistent. Petals and stamens usually 5, 
the former sometimes 3-10, the latter often indefinite. Oxmry 
3-valved. Seeds black and shining or rough, numerous. 

a. C. Menzie'sii Torr. & Gray. Flowers crimson or magenta in 
racemes. Petals a little longer than the sepals. Stamens 3-10. Seeds 
shining. Widely distributed. 

h. C. el'egans Spach. Stems rather stout, smooth, w ith ascending 
branches. Flowers numerous, rose-color. Petals twice as long as the 
sepals. Stamens 10-15. Usually found most abundant in cultivated 

IV. MON'TIA, Miner's Lettuce 

Petals and stamens 5. Pod 3-valved and 3-seeded. Flowers 
white or rose-color, in racemes or panicles. When the seeds 


are ripe they are shot out of the pod by the elastic closing 
of the valves. 

a. M. perfolia'ta Howell. Miner's Lettuce. Root leaves on long 
petioles, ste^n leaves forming a round perfoliate leaf below the flowering 
stems. Flowers small, white, often growing on but one side of 
the stem. This is very common and widely distributed. It grows 
in the shade and blooms in spring and early summer. 

h. M. Sibir'ica Howell. Stems brittle, often climbing over other 
vegetation and growing in swampy places. Leaves sessile but not 
united. Flowers pink or white, a half inch in diameter, on long 
pedicels, in long, loose racemes. From Marin County to Alaska, 
blooming in spring and summer. 

c. M. gypsophiloi'des Howell. Annual, pale green, with many 
slender stems from the root, 3-10 in. high. Root leaves linear or 
linear-spatulate, shorter than the stems. Stem leaves at the base of 
the panicle partbj united on one side. Flowers numerous, pink, sweet- 
scented. This blooms in early spring and grows on rocky banks and 
hills. It is very variable in size and shape of leaves. In the coast 
mountains of central California. 

d. M. linea'ris Greene. Annual, 6 in. to a foot high, branching. 
Leaves almost thread-like, fleshy, an inch or so long, becoming 
slightly wider toward the apex. Flowers in racemes on one side of 
the stem on pedicels that recurve in fruit. Petals white, tinged with 
pink, unequal, narrowed at base, separate or somewhat united. 
Moist places through California and northward, blooming in spring. 

e. M. Chamisso'nis Greene. Stems erect or procumbent, projpa- 
gating by r^tnners that have a round bulblet at the tip. Leaves oblong- 
spatulate, in several pairs. Flowers in racemes, the bracts present only 
with the lower flowers, on pedicels that recurve in fruit. Petals rose- 
color, longer than the calyx. Seeds kidney-shaped, covered all over 
with tubercles. This is widely distributed and grows in wet places, 
blooming in spring and summer. 

V. SPRA'GUEA, Pussy-paws 

Sepals thin and papery. Petals 4. Stamens 3. Style with 
2 lobes at the apex. Pod 2-valved. Floivers densely clustered 
in umbellate spikes curling in at the tips. 

S. umbella'ta Torr. Stems several, usually from a thick root. 
Root leaves oblanceolate or spatulate, forming a rosette at the base, 
stem leaves becoming mere bracts. Flowers light rose-color. Common 
in the Sierra Xevada Mountains. 



Herbs with regular flowers, sepals as many as the petals 
(generally 5, the latter sometimes wanting), stamens as 
many or twice as many, ovary 1-celled with central placenta, 
styles 2-5. 

I. SILE'NE, Pink 

Sepals united into a 5-toothed calyx. Petals with both blade 
and claw, together with the 10 stamens, attached to the stipe 
of the ovary. Styles 3. Capsule dehiscent froin the top by 
6 teeth. Leaves opposite, without stipules. Flowers gener- 
ally showy. 

a. S. Gallica L. Stems generally several. Leaves hairy, spat- 
ulate. Flowers small, on sliort pedicels in one-sided racemes. Petals 
pale rose-color, not much longer than the sepals. This is a common 
introduced weed. 

h. S. Califor'nica Durand. Low, glandular herbs, with lax, leafy 
stems, generally branching above. Flowers few, nearly an inch in 
diameter, on short pedicels, the lowest of which are deflexed in fruit. 
Petals 5, bright scarlet, the blades cut into 2 dicisions, which are gener- 
ally toothed. Widely distributed in shady places where the ground 
does not become very dry. 

c. S. lacinia'ta Cav. Stems ascending, 1-2 ft. high. Leaves 
narrow, 2-3 in. long. Flowers few on the long branches. Blades 
of the petals Ji,-cleft into linear lobes, scarlet, smaller than the preced- 
ing. Pedicels not deflexed in fruit. This is common in southern 

d. S. verecun'da Watson. Stems several from the rootstocks, 
branching, leafy, glandular-viscid, especially on the upper part. 
Leaves lanceolate, spatulate or linear. Flowers 1-3 at the ends of 
short branchlets. . Petals with blades shorter than the claws, rose-color ; 
blades 2-cleft and with the appendages in the throat oblong, entire or 
toothed. This is common in San Francisco near the cemeteries. It 
is widely distributed in California. 

II. CERAS'TIUM, Mouse-ear Chickweed 

Septals separate. Petals 5, white, notched. Stamens 10. 
Stigmas 5. Capsule dehiscent from the top by 10 teeth. 


a. C. arven'se L. Perennial, with spreading stems. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, clasx^ing the stem. Flowers ^ in. in diameter, on 
long pedicels, in feiv-Jlowered cymes. Capsule extending but little 
beyond the calyx. Common around San Francisco and northward. 

h. C. visco'sum L. Annual, somewhat clammy, branched from 
the base. Leaves small, generally ovate. Flowers on short pedicels 
in rather close cymes. Petals shorter than the calyx. Capsule nearly 
straight, much longer than the calyx. The flowers open only in sun- 
shine. This is an introduced weed. 

III. STELLA'RIA, Chickweed 

This is similar to Cerastium, but the petals are 2-lobed, and 
the capsule is globose, dehiscent to below the middle. 

a. S. me'dia L. Chickweed. Annual, spreading and rooting 
at the lower joints. Leaves ovate, petioled. Flotoers small, on slen- 
der pedicels, which are dejlexed in fruit, in the axils of leafy bracts. 
Stamens 3-10. Pod equaling or surpassing the calyx. This is 
introduced, and is very common in shady, damp places. 

h. S. ni'tens Nutt. Annual, low, with slender, shining stems. 
Flowers small, erect, on short pedicels. Sepals shilling, 3-nerved, 
twice as long as the petals, which are sometimes loanting. Pod shorter 
than the calyx. This is a delicate little plant, with inconspicuous 
flowers blooming in early spring and soon disappearing. 

c. S. cris'pa Ch. & Schl. Smooth, with long, weak, trailing stems. 
Leaves thin, ovate, about an inch long, ivith crisped margins. Flowers 
axillary, on slender pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, 3-nerved. Petals 
small, or wanting, white. Capsule when ripe longer than the sepals. 
Northern California to Alaska, growing in wet, shady places and 
blooming in spring and summer. 

d. S. borea'lis Bigel. Generally smooth and erect, 6-10 in. in 
height. Leaves lanceolate, narroived to a long point, ^-Ij in. long, 
with one prominent nerve. Pedicels often deflexed, scattered. Sepals 
ovate-lanceolate with papery margins, acute or obtuse. Petals 
shorter than sepals or wanting. Pods narrow, acute, nearly twice as 
long as the sepals. Seeds smooth. Northern California to Wash- 
ington. Blooming in summer. 

IV. ARENA'RIA, Sandwort 

Sepals separate. Petals 5, ivhite, entire or notched. Sta- 
mens 10. Styles 3. Pod splitting into 3 valves, each with 
2 parts. 


a. A. Douglasli Torr. & Gray. Slender, low, much-branched 
annuals. Leaves very narrow, thread-like. Flowers \ in. in 
diameter, on long, slender pedicels. Pod globose, equaling the 
calyx. Seeds flat, smooth. Throughout California. 

b. A. Califor'nica Brewer. Similar to the preceding, but wdth 
lanceolate, very short, obtuse leaves, flowers half as large, capsule 
oblong, seeds small and rough, with minute points. Throughout Cali- 

V. SPER'GULA, Com Spurry 

Sepals separate. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10. Styles 5, 
alternating with the sepals. Capsule 5-valved, with valves 
opposite the sepals. 

S. arven'sis L. Annual, branching herbs, with fleshy, thread- 
like leaves in whorls. Flowers small, white, on long pedicels that 
become reflexed. Sepals as long as the petals and a little shorter 
than the capsule. This is a common weed, blooming more or less 
throughout the year. 


Sepals separate. Petals 5. Stamens 10. Styles 3-5. Cap- 
sule 3-valved. Leaves usually fleshy, with papery stipules. 
Flowers white or rose-color. Low herbs, usually growing near 
the coast or on alkaline soil. 

S. macrothe'ca Robinson. Perennial, much branched from the 
base, rather stout. Flowers white or rose-color, nearly ^ in. in 
diameter, on pedicels that become nodding. Capsule slightly sur- 
passing the calyx. Seeds smooth with a narrow wing. The large 
ovate stipules are quite noticeable. In salt marshes from Marin 
County to San Diego. 


This family is similar to CaryophyllacecB, and is included 
under the latter by some botanists. It has an undivided or 
2-cleft style, a 1-seeded fruit (like an akene), and the petals 
wanting or minute. 


PENTACiE'NA, Sand Mat 

Sepals 5, hooded, terminating in a spine. Petals scale-like. 
Stamens 3-5 at the base of the sepals. Calyx becoming 
closed over the fruit. 

P. polycnemoi'des Bartl. Perennial herbs, forming mats of densely 
flowered lax stems. Leaves very small, tipped with sharp awns that 
become recm-ved. Stipules papery, shorter than the leaves, but very 
noticeable. Flowers small, greenish, sessile, clustered in the axils. 
This grows in sandy soil and is common along the seacoast. 

RANUNCULA'CE^, Buttercup Family 

Herbs (Clematis shrubby) with a colorless, acrid juice, 
distasteful to animals. Parts of the flower all separate and 
distinct, inserted on the receptacle. Petals often wanting 
or peculiar in form. Stamens numerous ; fruit consisting of 
numerous akenes (/. Fig. 166 ; e. Fig. 169), of several follicles 
(/. Fig. 168 ; e. Fig. 171), or sometimes of berries. Leaves 
without stipules, often clasping at base (/. Fig. 97 ; e. Fig. 70), 
generally much cut or divided. 

I. CLEM'ATIS, Virgin's Bower 

Climbing over bushes or rocks by the leafstalks of the com- 
pound, opposite leaves, or sometimes erect and not climbing. 
Sepals Jf., petal-like. Petals none or very small. Pistils numer- 
ous, forming a round bunch of akenes with styles developing 
into long feathery tails. 

a. C. ligusticifo'lia Nutt. Flowers cUmcious, in panicles. Sepals 
thick, dull white, less than i in. long. Akenes with tails from 1-2 
in. long. Widely distributed. 

b. C. lasian'tha Nutt. Flowers dioecious, solitary, on stout peduncles 
with one or two bracts. Sepals thick, dull white, sometimes nearly an 
inch long. Fruit similar to above. In the Coast and Sierra Nevada 

c. C. Douglas'ii Hook. Bushy Clematis. Stems erect, a foot or 
two high, not climbinf/. Leaves once, twice, or thrice pinnately com- 
pound, with linear or lanceolate leaflets, axils woolly. Flowers per- 
fect, usually solitary and terminal, nodding. Sepals leathery, dark 


blue, forming a hell-sluiped Jiower^ more than an inch long, with 
spreading tips. Tails to the akenes conspicuous. This is found 
from Oregon to British Columbia. 

n. ANEMO'NE, Windflower, Anem'ony 

Calyx of few or many petal-like sepals. Petals wanting. 
Akenes pointed or with long feathery tails. Perennial herbs 
with stem leaves ivhorled, forming a kind of involucre some 
distance beloiv the flower. 

m. THALIC'TRUM, Meadow-rue 

Flowers dioecious in panicles. Sepals 4-7, greenish. Petals 
• none. Akenes in a head, terminated by long, naked styles. 
Leaves twice or thrice palmately compound, leaflets 3-toothed 
or lobed, on short petioles. Generally tall, perennial herbs, 
often with a strong disagreeable odor. The species are diffi- 
cult to determine. 

IV. RANUNXULUS, Buttercups 

Sepals 5. Petals S-15, each with a little nectar-secreting 
scale or gland at the inside of the base. Akenes in a head, 
numerous, usually flattish. Stem leaves alternate. Flowers 
generally yellow. (There are some that grow in the water 
with thread-like divisions to the leaves and small white 

a. R. Californicus Benth. Stems branching from a cluster of 
thickened fibrous roots, erect, hairy. Root leaves of 3 leaflets with 
3-7 linear divisions, or 3-lobed, with the lobes toothed. Sepals 
turned back. Petals 10-15, glossy, yellow, nearly |- in. long. Akenes 
very flat, in a round head beaked with the stout, recurved styles. 
This is variable in size, leaves, and amount of pubescence. Through- 
out California. 

h. R. murica'tus L. Stems stout, smooth, hollow. Flowers small. 
Akenes large with stout beaks, and the sides covered ivith coarse 
prickles. This grows in wet places and has been introduced. 

c. R. glaber'rimus Hook. Perennial, with fleshy fibrous roots. 
Stems 3-6 in. high. Root-leaves spatulate or wedge-shaped, entire or 
with 2-4 blunt teeth or lobes : stem leaves 3-cleft, with narrow divisio7is or 


entire. Petals obovate, nearly ^ in. long. Akenes in a globose head, 
generally smooth, each tipped with a short beak. In the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains and northward to British Columbia. It blooms 
in the spring. 

d. R. tenellus Nutt. Perennial, a foot or two high. Stems erect, 
hairy, or smooth. Leaves deeply lobed, 3-5 cleft, with the divisions 
more or less wedge-shaped, the margin with a few sharp teeth. 
Petals 5, small, yellow. Akenes in a globose head, each tipped with a 
coiled style. Receptacle smooth. This is widely distributed and 
variable. It blooms in the spring. 

e. R. occidentalis Nutt. Perennial, a foot or two high. Stems 
widely branching, covered with widely spreading hairs. Leaves 
deeply cleft into 3-5 wedge-shaped divisions, these again cut ; some- 
times the leaves are compound with 3 leaflets on petioles. Upper 
leaves simpler and smaller. Petals 5, twice as long as the reflexed 
sepals. Akenes tipped with flattened, hooked beaks on a smooth recep- 
tacle. This is variable and widely distributed. It blooms in the 

/. R. alismaefolius Geyer. Perennial from thick fibrous roots. 
Stems in bunches, short and erect, about 6 in. high. Leaves lance- 
shaped, tapering to margined petioles that widen at base; upper leaves 
thickish, 2-4 in. long, nearly sessile. Corolla showy, yellow, nearly 
1 in. across, with broad obovate petals. Akenes in a globose head, 
smooth with a short beak. This grows in marshy places in the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains and northward. It blooms in the spring. 

V. AQUILE'GIA, Columbine (also mistakenly called Honeysuckle) 

Sepals 5, petal-like, all similar. Petals 5, each co7isisting of 
a tubular or expanded hovder terminating in a long hollow sjncr 
projecting below the sepals. Pistils 5, forming many-seeded 
follicles. Perennial herbs with leaves twice or thrice pal- 
mately compound. Mowers usually nodding at the ends of 
the branchlets. 

a. A. trunca'ta Fisch & Meyer, Red Columbine. Flowers red, 
tinged with yellow. Sepals spreading. Petals icith scarcely any 
border, and thick, blunt spurs. Throughout California growing in 
shady, moist places. 

b. A. formo'sa Fisch. This resembles the preceding, except that 
the border of the petals is prolonged, especially on the outer side. This 
is found in Oregon. 



Sepals 5, petal-like, the upper one prolonged backwards at 
the base into a spur. Petals ^, two running into the calyx spur, 
the others partly covering the pistils and stamens. Flowers in 
racemes. Fruit of 1-5 many-seeded follicles. Some of the 
species are poisonous to cattle. The blue Larkspurs are the 
most common, but they are difficult to distinguish. 

a. D. nudicaule Torr. & Gray. Flowers scarlet, few, on long pedicels. 
Sepals close together, spur long. Stems almost leafless, except at 
bas.e, slender and delicate. This grows on moist, shady banks in 
the Coast Mountains. 

b. D. cardina'le Hook. Flowers bright scarlet with yellow centers, in 
a rather dense raceme. Stems tall and stout. This grows in the 
mountains of southern California. 

c. D. Califor'nicum Torr. & Gray. Floicers in dense racemes, bluish 
gray, woolly on the outside, spur horizontal, equaling the sepals. 
Stems 2-8 ft. high. Lower leaves 4-7 in. in diameter, deeply cleft, 
with wedge-shaped divisions. This generally grows on dry hills 
amid the brush along the coast. 

VII. ACONI'TUM, Aconite, Monkshood 

Septals 5, petal-like, the upper one like a hood or helmet. 
The two upper petals have long claws and sp)ur-like blades 
concealed ivithin the hood ; the S lower are much smaller or 
wanting. Fruit of 3-5 many-seeded follicles. 

A. Columbia'num Nutt. Stems simple, leafy, 2-5 ft. high. 
Flowers in a loose raceme. Leaves palmately 3-5 cleft, with wedge- 
shaped, toothed, or cleft divisions. This is found at higher eleva- 
tions in the Sierra Xevada Mountains in moist, shady places. In 
the northern part of the state it is found at much lower altitudes. 

VIII. ACT^'A, Baneberry 

Perennial from short, branched rootstocks, about a foot or 
two in height. Leaves 1 or 2, w4th broad triangular outline, 
3-5 times compound ; the leaflets ovate, irregularly cut and 
with the teeth on the margins unequal. Flowers white, small, 
in a corymb lengthening to a raceme and terminating the stem, 
blooming in spring. Fruit consisting of red or luhite ber'ries 
on sj)reading p)edicels. 


A. spica'ta L. var. argu'ta Torr. Berries generally bright red, 
oblong or roundish, not quite so large as green peas, falling off 
soon when ripe. This grows in shady woods and the fruit ripens in 
late summer. It is considered poisonous. Widely distributed, on 
the coast and in the mountains. 

IX. P^O'NIA, Paeony 

Stems several, from fleshy roots, erect at first, bending over 
in fruit. Leaves thrice-compound, leaflets cut into several seg- 
ments. Flowers solitary at the ends of the stems. Sepals 5. 
Petals 5, concave, hroivnish red. Stamens many on a disk. 
Fruit of 2-5 leathery follicles cojitaining several large seeds. 

a. P. Califor'nica Nutt. Leaves of pedate outline, scarcely glaucous. 
Southern California. 

h. P. Brow'nii Dougl. Leaves cordate-ovate in outline, very glaucous. 
From the higher Sierra Nevada Mountains to Oregon. 

BERBERIDAXE^. Barberry Family 

Herbs or shrubs with pinnately compound leaves ; bracts, 
sepals, petals, and stamens opposite each other instead of 
alternating. Anthers opening by little valves hinged at the 
top. Pistil simple. 

I. BER'BERIS, Barberry, Oregon Grape 

Flowers yellow, in clustered racemes with bracts. Sepals 6, 
petal-like. Petals and stamens 6. Leaves odd-pinnate, ivith 
stiff spiny-toothed leaflets. Fruit, in our species, a dark blue 
berry. Wood yellow. 

a. B. re'pens Lindl. Oregon Grape. Less than a foot high, 
from slender woody rootstocks. Leaflets 3-7, not shining, somewhat 
glaucous, racemes iew, terminal. Northern California to Alaska. 

b. B. aquifo'lium Pursh. Often 5 or 6 ft. high ; lea/lets 7-9, bright 
green and glossy, sinuate-dentate. Racemes terminal. Fruit nearly 
round. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains from Kern County north- 


c. B. pinna'ta Lag. From less than a foot to about 2 ft. high. 
Leaflets prominently spiny, the lowest pair near the base of the petiole. 
Racemes both axillary and terminal. Hills of the Coast Moun- 

d. B. nervo'sa Pursh. Mahonia, Water Holly. Stem simple, 
bearing a crown of large leaves at summit, mixed icith many dry, 
chaff y , persistent bracts. Leaves 1-2 ft. long, leaflets 11-17, somewhat 
palmately nerved. Racemes long. In deep M^oods from Monterey 

n. ACH'LYS, Oregon Sweet Clover and Deer's-foot, Sweet-in-death 

Flowers on a scajpe forming a spike, without sepals or petals. 
Stamens 9, in 3 sets, with slender filaments and short anthers. 
Pistil with a broad, sessile stigma and a simple ovary. Fruit 
dry and indehiscent, kidney-shaped, thick and rounded on the 
back, thin and concave on the other side, wath a fleshy ridge 
down the center. Leaves large, of S leaflets, having the odor 
of new-mown hay, or vanilla, when they become dry. 

A. triphyl'la DC. Leaves and flowering stems from a creeping 
rootstock. Leaves with stalks a foot or more long and with the 
leaflets broadly wedge-shaped, 3-5 in. long, palmately veined and 
coarsely and irregularly wavy-margined. 

This is found in northern California and northward to British 
Columbia. It grows in shady woods and is much prized on account 
of the lasting and sweet perfume of the dried leaves. It blooms in 

LAURAXE^. Laurel Family 

Aromatic trees or shrubs. Perianth oi 6 petal-like divi- 
sions. Stamens 9, in 3 rows, the inner with 3 glands at base 
alternating with tongue-shaped staminodia. Anthers opening 
as in Berberidacece. Ovary free, l-celled, forming a fruit like 
an olive. 

UMBELLULA'RIA, California Laurel or Bay 

Flowers perfect in umbels w^hich before opening are in- 
cluded in involucres that are soon deciduous. 


U. Califor'nica Nutt. Spice Wood. A large, handsome tree 
(sometimes shrubby), with smooth bark. Leaves evergreen, glossy, 
lanceolate-oblong, on short petioles. Flowers yellow^, soon falling. 
Fruit green at first, dark purple or yellow when ripe, about 1 in. 
long, solitary, or 2 or 3 in a cluster, on a stout peduncle. This grows 
near or not far from water. Oregon to San Diego. It blooms often 
in December or even in November. 

PAPAVERAXE^. Poppy Family 

Herbs or shrubs. Parts of the flower all separate (except 
the sepals of Eschscholtzia, which are united), and distinct 
on a top-shaped receptacle. Sepals falling off as the petals 
expand in the bud. Petals twice as many as the sepals, 
generally 4. Stamens numerous and conspicuous. Fruit a 
capsule with parietal placentae. (In Flatystemon the seeds 
are imbedded in the walls of the capsule in rows, each row 
forming a linear necklace-like follicle.) 

I. ESCHSCHOLT'ZIA, California Poppy 

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves bluish green, succu- 
lent, usually cut into fine divisions. Sepals united into a 
pointed cap, often seen on the opening fiower. Petals J/., orange 
or yellow. Stamens numerous, wath long anthers. Stigmas 
2-6. Pods long and narrow, ribbed, usually dehiscent from 
the apex, the valves frequently remaining attached at the 
sides. Eeceptacle often surrounded with a rim. 

E. Calif or'nica Cham. Annual or perennial, with succulent leafy 
stems. Flowers with a funnel-form receptacle and a broad or 
narrow rim. Petals broad, yellow or orange, often the two colors 
in the same flower. This is the commonest species and is widely 

n. DENDROME'CON, Tree Poppy 

Shrubs with erect branches. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, 
entire, stiff. Sepals 2, large. Petals ^, generally large, light 
yellow. Stigmas 2. Pod similar to that of the preceding, 
except that the valves are generally dehiscent from the base. 


D. rig'ida Benth. This shrub is generally found on gravelly or 
clayey hills, growing to a height of from 2 to 8 ft. It is conspicuous 
on account of its numerous large yellow flowers, which may be found 
at aU seasons. The bark is whitish. It is wddely distributed. 

m. PLATYSTE'MON, Cream Cups 

Low, branching herbs. Stem leaves opposite or whorled, 
entire. Sepals S-6, cream-color, often with a yellowish spot 
near the base. Stamens numerous, with flat filaments. 
Stigmas linear, separate, one to each of the necklace-like pods, 
which at first are soineivhat united ; but luhen ripe they sepa- 
rate and break apart betiveen the seeds. 

P. Califor'nicus Benth. Stems branching from the base, from 6 in. 
to 1 ft. high. Leaves light green, hairy, broad-linear. Flowers not 
quite 1 in. in diameter. ' Pods from 6-25, forming an oblong cluster. 
This is common in early spring throughout California. 


Stamens few or many, with narrow filaments. Pod with 
S angles, splitting into 3 parts luhen ripe. 

a. P. linea're Benth. This resembles Platystemon, but can be 
distinguished by the 3 stigmas and the 3-angled pods. 

b. P. Califor'nicum Benth. & Hook. Stems long and slender, with 
branches 2-forked, smooth. Flowers small, ichite. Stamens about 
12 in 2 circles. Pod about 1 in. long, narrowly linear. This is less 
common, and generally growls in the shade. Santa Barbara County 
to Oregon. 

V. ARGEMO'NE, Prickly Poppy, Mexican Poppy, Thistle Poppy, 

Herbs with stout pale-green stems, and foliage more or less 
covered with spines or prickles. Sap yellow. Leaves thistle- 
like. Flowers large, white. Sepals 3, each with a sp)ine- 
like beak, forming a 3-horned bud. Petals 4-6. Stamens 
numerous, on slender filaments. Pods 1-celled, opening at 
the top into 3-6 parts, the ribs remaining fastened to the 
united stigmas. 


A. platy'ceras Link. & Otto. Stems smooth under the dense white 
prickles. Flowers 3-4 in. broad. Ovary densely covered with erect 
prickles. Central and southern California. 

VL ROMNE'YA, Matihja (Matil'iha) Poppy 

Smooth, stout, perennial herbs, several feet high, with 
colorless sap. Leaves alternate, pinnately cut or divided, 
not spiny. Sepals S, each with a broad wing on the hack. 
Petals 6, large, ivhite. Stamens many, with filaments dimin- 
ishing towards the base. Ovary covered ivith h^istles. Pod 
7-11-celled, the sides separating from the placenta. 

a. R. Courteri Harv. This beautiful plant is native in the south- 
ern part of the state. It is now widely cultivated. The flowers are 
sometimes 6 in. in diameter. The buds are smooth. This gi'ows in 
southern California and is extensively cultivated. 

b. R. trichoca'lyx Eastwood. This is similar to the above, but the 
buds are hairy and the stems are not so robust. The dissected leaves 
are close under the flowers. This is the true Matilija poppy, since 
it is the species found in the canon of that name. 


Annual herbs with yellow sap. Leaves variously cut into 
linear divisions. Sepals 2. Petals red or orange. Stamens 
numerous. Stigma 4—8-lohed, on a distinct, stout style. Pod 
1-celled, with the valves separating as in Romneya. 

M. heterophyl'la Benth. Flaming Poppy. Smooth and slender 
herbs with succulent stems and pale-green leaves. Flowers on long 
slender peduncles, exceedingly variable, from less than 1 in. to 2 in. 
in diameter, with pale-red petals becoming darker and more glow- 
ing at the center. Throughout California. 

FUMARIA'CE^. Bleeding Heart Family 

Perennial herbs. Leaves compound, cut into many narrow 
divisions. Flowers of peculiar shape. Sepals 2, petals 4, 
stamens 6 in 2 sets, with the filaments of each set somewhat 
united, the middle anthers 2-celled, the others 1-celled. Pod 
1-celled, with the valves separating from the placenta. 


I. DICEN'TRA, Bleeding Heart 

Sepals 2, like scales. Corolla heart-shaped, the 2 outer 
petals swollen at the base, and with spreading tips ; the 2 
inner narrow, spoon-shaped, with a crest or keel on the back, 
united at the tips and covering the anthers and stigma. 
Style slender. Stigma 2-lobed, each lobe 2-crested, and so ■ 
appearing 4-lobed. 

a. D. formo'sa DC. Bleeding Heart. Leaves and flowering 
stems springing from creeping rootstocks, succulent and pale green, 
1 or 2 ft. high. Flowers rose-color, in compound racemes. This 
grows in rich soil in the shade. From the Sierra Nevada IVIountains 
to British Columbia. 

b. D. chrysan'tha Hook. & Arn. Goldex Eardrops. Flowers 
golden yellow, in compound racemes. Stems leafy, stout, 2-4 ft. 
high. Leaves twice pinnately compounded, often more than 1 ft. 
long. Sepals soon falling. Flowers more than ^ in. long. 
This showy plant grows in sunny places, usually on dry hills, 
throuohout California. It is not common. 

CRUCIF'ER-S:. Mustard Family 

Herbs with pungent, watery juice. Leaves alternate with- 
out stipules. Flowers in racemes, spikes, or corymbs. Sepals 
usually 4, often falling early. Petals 4, with the blades in 
the form of a cross. Stamens 6, the 2 outer ones shorter than 
the 2 inner. Fruit a pod divided into 2 parts (except in the 
iirst 2 genera) by a transparent partition which stretches 
from one placenta to the other. The flowers of this family 
are so alike that genera and species cannot be determined 
without examining tolerably mature fruit. 

*Pod not elongated, flowers usually very small. 


Flowers inconspicuous, white. Fruit roundish, indehiscent, 
1-seeded, surrounded by a prominent iving, tvhich is crenate, 
filled with small, regular holes like embroidery, or with lines 


radiating from the seed to the mayym. Erect, branching, 
annual herbs, with leaves sessile and generally auriculate- 

a. T. cur'vipes Hook. This is the commonest species.^ It has the 
fruit with crenate margin, often perforated. Widely distributed. 

b. T. ra'dians Benth. This has much larger fruit than the preced- 
ing, with lines radiating from the center to the outside of the wing. 
This is found from California to Oregon. 


Flowers very small. Fruit roundish, not winged, generally 
covered with hooked pinckles, indehisce^it and 1-seeded. Low, 
spreading, slender, delicate, hairy herbs, fruiting in spring. 

A. pusirius Greene. This is the only species. It is widely 

III. LEPID'IUM, Peppergrass 

Elowers small, white or greenish, with petals often want- 
ing. Fruit roundish, usually notched at the apex, 2-celled, 
flattened contrary to the partition. 

a. L. nitldum Wutt. Low annuals. Pods shining, reddish, very 
numerous. Leaves compound, with narrow, linear leaflets. This is 
one of the earliest plants of spring. Widely distributed. 

h. L. bipinnatif idum Desv. Low, almost prostrate herbs, with 
the lowest leaves twice divided, and divisions usually roundish. 
Petals wanting. Pods round, on stout spreading pedicels. Introduced. 
Common on roads and streets. 

c. L. apet'alum Willd. Stems slender, a foot or so high, branch- 
ing. Lower leaves toothed or more deeply divided, acute at apex. 
Flowers without petals, on erect pedicels that spread widely in fruit. 
Pods smooth, round, notched at apex. This is a weed which has been 
introduced and is now widely distributed. 

IV. SENEBIE'RA, Wart Cress 

Flowers greenish. Pod of 2 globose, equal paHs united, form- 
ing a twin pod. Leaves pinnately parted. Low, spreading, 
introduced plants with a disagreeable odor. 


S. pinnatiflda DC. This is found along the coast, growing near 
flumes, drains, roads, etc. 

V. CAPSEL'LA, Shepherd's Purse 

Flowers small, white. Pods elliptical or ohcordate, 2-celled, 
flattened contrarij to the partition. Erect branching herbs 
with the leaves clustered at the base. 

C. Bursa-pasto'ris Medic. Shepherd's Purse. This is the com- 
mon dooryard weed, with obcordate pods in loose raceme. 

** Pod elongated. Flowers generally conspicuous. 

VI. RAPH'ANUS, Radish 

Pod beaked, compressed between the seeds. Flowers large, 
orange, white or rose-purple, veined. These are coarse, hairy, 
erect, branching herbs with fleshy roots. Leaves cut into 
several divisions, the upper one much the largest. 

R. sati'vus L. This is the common radish which grows wild 
throughout the settled parts of California. The petals are purplish, 
and the fruit is not strongly compressed between the seeds. 

Vn. BRAS'SICA, Mustard 

Pod slender, terete, 2-celled, with a flattened beak. Flowers 
yellow. All probably introduced weeds. 

a. B. campes'tris L. White Mustard. Flowers in a loose 
raceme. Leaves bluish green, smooth, clasping. Pods large, spread- 
ing. This is very common and is in bloom earlier than the other 

b. B. ni'gra Koch. Black Mustard. Flowers in close racemes 
at the ends of long stems, fragrant. Petals twice as long as the 
sepals. Pods rather small, erect as if clinging to the stem. Stems often 
very tall. This is common throughout California. 

VIII. ERYS'IMUM, Wallflower 

Pods spreading or erect, 1-5 in. long, 2-^-sided, ivith thick 
walls. Flowers fragrant, yellow or orange, at first in a 


corymb, which lengthens to a raceme. Petals with blade 
^ in. long. Erect rough herbs, with leaves linear or lanceo- 

a. E. as'penim, DC. Stems generally simple, often tall. Flowers 
generally orange. Pods Jf,-sided. Widely distributed and variable, 
especially in the color of the flowers. 

h. E. grandiflo'rum Nutt. Stems 1 or 2 ft. high, simple or 
branched from the base. Flowers in a corymb, yellow, becoming 
paler after pollination. Pod 2-sided, flattened contrary to the partition. 
From Oregon to Los Angeles, not far from the coast. This includes 
many forms. 


Pods short, oblong or linear, with thin lualls. Flowers small, 
yellow or white. Leaves usually pinnately divided. 

N. officinale L. Water Cress. This is common in all the 

X. BARBARE'A, Wintercress, Yellow Rocket 

Pods somewhat j^-sided, flattened parallel to the partition, 
about 1 in. lo7ig, spreading upwards. Seeds in 1 row in 
each cell. Flowers yellow, with petals twice as long as the 
sepals, in a short, dense raceme. Lower leaves compound, with 
the terminal leaflet rounded and larger than the others ; upper 
leaves generally simple. 

B. vulga'ris R. Br. This is the only species. It grows in damp 
places and blooms in early spring. Widely distributed. 


Flowers very small, solitary, on naked scapes. Sepals broad, 
erect, equaling the white, linear-spatulate petals. Pods almost 
orbicular, with broadly winged, veiny seeds in 2 rows. Leaves 
lyrate, with few lobes or almost none. 

P. scapig'erum Hook. Scapes 1-6 in. in height in fruit. Flowers 
about yL in. long. Pod \-\ in. long, containing 8-12 seeds. This 
is found on the eastern slope of the Sierra N'evada Mountains from 
California north to Washington. It blooms in early spring. 


Xn. DENTA'RIA, Toothwort, Pepper-root 

Pods linear, flattened parallel with the partition, walls 
firm, without nerves, stigma short. Seeds in 1 row, wingless. 
Flowers large, jpale rose-color or niilkij ivhite. 

D. Califor'nica Nutt. Milkmaids. Rootstocks bearing tubers 
which easily break off. Root leaves simple and round-kidney-shaped 
or with 3 leaflets (usually not found on the blooming plant) ; stem 
leaves with from 3 to 5 pinnate leaflets on petioles. This is one of 
the loveliest and most common of the early spring flowers, usually 
found in damp places. Widely distributed in the Coast Mountains. 


Pods linear, flat, with the seeds in 1 row, wingless. This 
is similar to Dentaria, hut has smaller flowers^ narroiver 2)ocls, 
and smaller seeds. The chief differences lie in the cotyledons, 
which in Cardamine are flattened, while in Dentaria they are 
thick, unequal, and oblique. 

C. oligosper'ma Nutt. Annual, slender, hairy or smooth. Leaves 
pinnately divided, with small 3-5 lobed or toothed divisions which 
are on small petioles. Flowers small, \ in. long, white, in few- 
flowered racemes, on short peduncles. Pods erect, on short stipes 
and containing 8-20 seeds. This grows in shady, damp places ; it 
blooms in the spring and is widely distributed along the Pacific 

XrV. AR'ABIS, Rock-cress 

This is similar to the preceding, except that the walls of the 
pods are nerved, roots tvoody, and seeds usually luith a border 
or iving. Plowers white or rose-color, often conspicuous. 

a. A. perfolia'ta Lam. Tower Mustard. Biennial herbs with 
stems bluish green, erect, 1 or 2 ft. high. Stem leaves arrow-sliaped 
and clasping. Root leaves hairy, soon withering. Flowers small, 
white. Pods numerous, slender, erect, parallel, and close to the stem. 
Seeds generally narrowly winged. Widely distributed. 

h. A. blepharophylTa Hook. & Am. Stems low, from a tuft of 
broadly spatulate, dark-green leaves, with long hairs on the margins. 
Flowers large, fragrant, reddish purple. Pods beaked, flat, loosely 
spreading. Seeds with a narrow wing, in 1 row. This is perennial and 
is found on rocky hills near the coast from San Francisco to ]Monterey. 


c. A. hirsu'ta Scop. Biennial, hirsute especially at base, with 
spreading hairs which are simple or forked. Stems erect, simple 
or branched, 1-3 ft. high. Leaves at base oblanceolate, coarsely 
toothed or entire, 1-2 in. long, on winged petioles; stem leaves cor- 
date or auricled at base. Flowers very small. Petals greenish white. 
Pods erect on slender 23edicels, very narrow, 1-2 in. long; stigmas 
nearly sessile. Seeds with a narrow margin. This blooms in 
spring and is found from northern California to Alaska. 

d. A. Holboellii Hornem. Biennial, clothed with fine stellate 
pubescence. Stems 1-several, simple or branched. Leaves at base 
oblanceolate, narrow, entire. Stem leaves arrow-shaped. Flowers 
becoming deflexed and generally growing on one side of the pedun- 
cle. Petals white or pink, \ in. long. Pods flat, reflexed ; stigmas 
sessile. Seeds in 1 row, orbicular, ivinged. This blooms in the spring 
and is very widely distributed. 

XV. STREPTANTHUS, Jewel-flowers 

Pods linear-oblong, flattened parallel with the partition, 
on a broad receptacle. Seeds flat, with a margin or wing. 
Sepals iisually bright jntrple or white, uniting somewhat to 
form a closed calyx. Petals narrow, with spreading blades. 
Anthers long, arrow-shaped ; filaments of the larger stamens 
often united into 2 pairs. The species are numerous and 
difficult to distinguish. 

XVI. STANFOR'DIA (named for Hon. Leland Stanford). 

Pods linear oblong, flattened contrary to the partition. 
Stigma 2-lobed, on well-developed pods. Otherwise similar 
to Streptanthus. 

S. Califor'nica Watson. This is the only species. It is found in 
the southern San Joaquin Valley, where it is very abundant in some 
parts in early spring. 

XVII. CAULAN'THUS, Wild Cabbage 

Pods terete, or somewhat flattened, parallel with the par- 
tition. Flowers similar to the two preceding, except that the 
petals have broad claws, and the blades are scarcely evident. 
Tall herbs, often with inflated stems. The species are mostly 
local and not readily distinguished. 



Pods slender, terete, or 4-sided, and often twisted, on a 
slender stipe. Flowers white or purplish. Stamens long, 
conspicuous, with very narrow, arrow-shaped anthers. Sepals 
at first united to form a tube, afterwards spreading. 

T. lasiophy-rium Greene. Erect, smooth below, haiiy above. 
Leaves toothed or pinnately lobed or divided, with spreading seg- 
ments. Flowers small, yellowish white. Pods slender, narrowed to 
the apex, deflexed on curved pedicels. (One variety has erect pods.) 
This is common, especially in cultivated ground. 


Pods long and terete on a 7'aised recep)tacle, tuith 1 row of 
seeds in each cell. Flowers bright yellow or cream-color, with 
long, narrow, spatulate petals with slender claws ; anthers 
linear, spirally coiled, on long filaments. 

S. pinnatifida Nutt. Golden Prixce's Plume. This is the 
only known Californian species. The long conspicuous stamens 
and the long, loosely and thickly flowered plume-like clusters of 
golden-yellow flowers suggested the common name to Helen Hunt 
Jackson. Southern California, common in arid districts. 

CAP? ARID A'CEiE. Caper Family 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate palmately compound leaves 
of 3 leaflets. Flowers as in Cruciferoe, except that the 
stamens are all equal. Pods on long stipes, 1-celled, with 
2 parietal placentae. Many flowers have the pistil rudimen- 
tary and never produce fruit. 

ISO'MERIS, Bladderpod 

Shrubby, with hard, yellow wood. Leaflets as long as the 
petiole. Flowers in racemes with bracts, generally simple. 
Corolla yellow, ^ in. in diameter. Pods inflated, pear-shaped, 
drooping, on long slender stipes. 

I. arbo'rea Nutt. This is the only species. It is found in south- 
ern California, where it is quite common. 


CRASSULAXE^. Stonecrop Family 

Thick, fleshy herbs. Sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils 
all of the same number, or stamens twice that number. The 
pistils become follicles in fruit. 

I. SE'DUM, Stonecrop 

Se]pal8 Jf. or 5, united at base. Petals distinct, spreading, 
star-like. Flowers in cymes, generally on one side of the 
flowering axis, deep purple, yellow, or white. No one species 
is widely distributed in California. 

a. S. spathuhfo'lium Hook. Perennial. Stems spreading by run- 
ners and rooting at the rose-like bunches of fleshy leaves. Leaves 
glaucous, obovate or spatulate, flat, ^-3 in. long. Flowering stems 
erect, capped by a cyme of yelloiv flowers, which are almost sessile, and 
disposed to he on one side of the peduncles. Petals twice as long as 
the ovate sepals, a little longer than the stamens and style. This 
blooms in summer. It grows on rocks that are clothed with moss 
and are wet during the rainy season, but later become dry. It is 
common from middle California to Washington. 

h. S. Orega'num Nutt. This is similar to the above but is not 
glaucous. Flowers larger. Petals pale rose-color, narrowly lanceolate, 
with pointed apex, nearly twice as long as the stamens. This is 
found from northern California to Washington. 

c. S. pu'milum Benth. Annual, slender, with stems simple or 
branched, 1-6 in. high. Leaves ^ in. long, ovate-oblong. Flowers 
yellow, sessile, in cymes. Calyx lobes very small, triangular, 
acute. Petals linear, acute, exceeding the calyx, stamens, and 
styles. Pollicles 1-seeded, with the seed filling the cavity. This is 
widely distributed in the Coast and Sierra Nevada Mountains. 
It blooms in summer and generally grows on northward slopes or 
on shady rocks. 


Calyx 5-iKirted. Petals united into a cylindrical corolla. 
Stamens 10, on the tube of the corolla. Leaves entire, thick, 
and fleshy, forming large clusters at the base of the flowering 
stem. Flowers red or yellow, in long racemes or cymes, 
coiled somewhat at the tip. The species are difficult to 
distinguish and mostly local. 


SAXIFRAGA'CE^. Saxifrage Family 

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate without 
stipules. Calyx either free from or partially united to the 
ovary. Petals and stamens inserted on the calyx. Stamens 
not more than twice the number of calyx lobes. Carpels 
2-5, partially or completely united into a compound ovary. 
Styles distinct. Seeds with endosperm. In the currants and 
gooseberries the fruit forms a berry. 

I. SAXIF'RAGA, Saxifrage 

Herbs with simple or palmately lobed leaves and cymose 
or panicled flowers. (Flowers rarely solitary.) Calyx 5-lobed, 
either free from the ovary or with the lower part of the 
tube coherent. Petals 5, entire, inserted on the calyx tube. 
Stamens 10. Capsule consistiyig of 2 carpels united at the 
base, the styles soon diverging and becoming beaks on the 
akenes. Placenta axillary. Leaves often in radical clusters 
and flowers on a scape. 

S. Calif or'nica Greene. Leaves few, rather thick, somewhat 
clothed with glandular haii's, oval to elliptical, on broad petioles ; 
margin crenate or dentate. Scape 6-18 in. high; flowers in a loose 
panicle. Calyx nearly free from the ovary, with reflexed sepals. 
Petals oblong, white, thrice as long as the sepals. Stamens with 
filaments inserted under the edge of a disk which equals the summit 
of the ovary. Blooming in early spring and found on cool slopes 
throughout California. 


Perennial herbs with creeping rootstocks, leafy stems, and 
paniculate corymbs or cymes of small white flowers. Leaves 
alternate, round-kidney-shaped, palmately lobed or toothed, 
the teeth glandular at tip ; petioles with stipule-like dilations 
at base. Calyx 5-lohed, with globular tube, adherent to the 
ovary. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 5, with short filaments. 
Pod splitting doiun the beaks, 2-celled. 

B. occidentaTis T. & G. Diifusely branched, with slender stems 
1 or 2 ft. high. Leaves somewhat scattered, thin, 5-7-lobed, 1-3 in. 


broad ; petioles with brown bristles at base. Calyx with urn- 
shaped tube and triangular lobes. Petals recurved in age, wedge- 
shaped. This grows along rocky streams from middle California to 
British Columbia. It blooms in the summer. 


Perennial herbs from rootstocks or tubers. Leaves mostly 
radical, round-cordate, toothed or palmately divided, with 
petioles dilated at base. Flowers in a simple raceme. Calyx 
hell-shaped or urn-sliaped^ ivith the base attached to the lower 
half of the ovary. Petals 5, fringed, lobed, or entire, white 
or rose-color. Stamens 10. Styles 2 or 3, short, with round 
stigmas. Capsule slightly beaked by the pjersistent styles, and 
opening between the beaks. 

a. T. grandiflo'ra Dougl. Fringed Cups. Stems rather stout, 
1-2 ft. high, from a woody rootstock. Radical leaves 2-4 in. broad. 
Flowers ivith inflated calyx and petals rose-color, fringed. This grows 
in moist, shady places. From Santa Cruz to Alaska. 

b. T. af finis Bolander. Stems slender, about a foot high, from 
a tuber-bearing rootstock. Radical leaves round-kidney-shaped, 
slightly lobed; stem leaves 3-lobed to the middle, with coarsely 
toothed lobes. Calyx narrowed at base, with its tube adhering to the 
ovary. Petals white, the lower 3-toothed, the upper narrower, 
shorter, and entire. In shady places almost throughout the state. 

c. T. heterophyria Hook. & Arn. Similar to the preceding in 
stem and general appearance. Radical leaves with 5 shallow, 
rounded lobes, stem leaves more deeply 3-lobed or parted. Calyx 
bell-shaped, the base adhering to the ovary. Petals 3-lobed. Common 
in the Coast Mountains, in shady places. 

d. T. parviflo'ra Hook. Stems slender, about a foot in height, 
clothed with rough pubescence. Leaves 3-5-parted, with the divi- 
sions wedge-shaped and cleft into narrow lobes. Calyx ivedge-shaped, 
half adhering to the ovary. Petals 3-cleft, with the divisions linear or 
oblong. Besides the bulb lets on the slender rootstocks, there are 
generally some on the few-flowered raceme. Blooming in spring 
and found from northern California to British Columbia. 

e. T. tenella Watson. Stems slender, 2-9 in. high, rough with 
glandular pubescence. Leaves similar to the preceding but smaller. 
Calyx bell-shaped, with the base roundish or acute, adherent only at base. 
Petals 3-7 -parted into linear divisions. This also has bulblets on 
the rootstock and racemes. Blooming in spring and found from 
northern California to Washington. 



Perennial herbs with slender, creeping rootstocks and some- 
times runners. Leaves mostly from the root. Flowers 
small, in a loose raceme. Calyx funnel-form, free from the 
ovary, thin and swollen at base, ivlth unequal lobes. Petals J^-5, 
thread-like, recurved, persistent. Stamens 3, inserted in the 
throat of the calyx ; filaments short, and anthers with the 
2 cells running into one. Pod oblong, with the base tapering 
to a short stem, splitting between the diverging equal beaks. 

T. Menzie'sii T. & G. Stems 1-2 ft. high, hairy with stiff hairs. 
Leaves round, heart-shaped, crenately toothed ; petioles slender ; stem 
leaves few. Raceme nearly a foot long, flowers greenish or purplish, 
nearly ^ in. long, including the capsule. Blooming in spring and 
summer and found from northern California to Washinoton. 

V. HEUXHERA, Alum Root 

Perennial herbs from stout rootstocks. Leaves all radical, 
cordate, lobed and toothed, the veins often colored red. 
Flowers small in a panicle. Calyx generally campanulate, 
luith base attached to the lower half of the ovary. Petals 5, 
entire, small, soon falling. Ovary and capside 1-celled, with 
2 parietal placentae and 2 styles which become beaks on the 

a. H. micran'tha DougL This is the commonest species. It is con- 
spicuous on moist, shady banks because of its beautiful red-veined 
leaves. The flowers are quite small, and the panicle is loosely and 
numerously flowered. Common in shady places in the Coast and 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

h. H. cylin'drica Dougl. Leaves all from the root, round-kidney- 
shaped, lobed or crenately toothed, 1-2 in. broad. Flowers, greenish, 
in spikes, terminating leafless scapes, 1-2 ft. high. Calyx lobes erect, 
oblong, and elongated. Petals very small or w^anting. Stamens and 
style short. Blooming in spring. Washington and Oregon. 


Perennial herbs with simple or compound leaves with 
stipules. Flowers small, white, in a panicle or raceme. 
Calyx 5-parted, with valvate lobes. Petals 5, entire, with 


claws. Stamens 10, inserted with the petals at the base of 
the calyx. Anthers 2-celled. Ovary l-celled, of 2 valves, which 
soon separate and become unequal^ one elongating, the other 
remaining short. Seeds few at the base of the placentae. 
Blooming in summer and found from northern California to 
British Columbia. 

T. unifolia'ta Hook. Stems slender, ^-1^ ft. high. Leaves 
ovate-cordate, 3-5-lobed; those from the root on long petioles; 
stem leaves few, on short petioles. Panicle narrow. This is found 
in shady woods from northern California to British Columbia. It 
blooms in the summer. 

Vn. RFBES, Currant, Gooseberry 

Shrubs with alternate, palmately veined and lobed leaves. 
Flowers solitary or in racemes at the ends of leafy branchlets, 
sometimes blooming before the leaves. Calyx with tube 
attached to the globose ovary and extending beyond it, the 
border 4 or 5 cleft, usually colored. Petals erect, smaller 
than the calyx lobes. Stamens alternating with the petals. 
Fruit a herry, smooth or prickly, containing rnany seeds, and 
generally surmounted by the withered remains of the flower. 

a. R. specio'sum Pursh. Fuchsia-flowered Gooseberry. Tall, 
with prickly branches armed with 3 large thorns under each cluster 
of leaves. Leaves thick, small, smooth, nearly evergreen. Flowers 
2-5, on a glandular-bristly peduncle, bright red, with the parts four, 
almost 1 in. long, drooping. Stamens protruding from the corolla. 
Berry dry, densely glandular-bristly. Common in southern Cal- 

b. R. divarica'tum DougL Gooseberry. Stems destitute of 
prickles except on young shoots, with 1-3 thorns under each cluster 
of leaves. Calyx greenish white or purple. Petals white, fan-shaped, 
much shorter than the filaments and 2-cleft style. Berry dark red, 
smooth. Widely distributed. 

c. R. sanguin'eum Pursh. Flowering Currant. Stems with- 
out prickles or thorns, usually glandular. Racemes numerous, many- 
flowered, drooping. Flowers rose-color. Berries black or covered 
with a bloom. This is one of the earliest-blooming plants, some- 
times flowering in November. The flowers appear before or with 
the leaves, and the whole plant is very fragrant. Some botanists con- 
sider that several species are included in this. Widely distributed. 


d. R. bracteo'sum Dougl. Tall shrub, without prickles or thorns, 
smooth. Leaves sprinkled with resinous dots, 3-9 in. broad, 5-7- 
cleft, with pointed lobes and doubly serrate margins ; petioles long. 
Racemes mcmy-Jloicered, becoming 1 ft. long, with persistent bracts which 
are thread-like above and become leaf-like beloiv. Flowers greenish white. 
Calyx saucer-shaped. Fruit a black berry, sprinkled with resinous 
dots. Blooming in spring and found from northern California to 

e. R. ce'reum Dougl. Shrub with many short, stout branches, 
which are glutinous and sprinkled with resinous dots. Leaves 1 in. 
broad, kidney-shaped, 5-lc5bed, crenately toothed. Racemes with 
3-5 flowers on short peduncles. Calyx white, with a greenish or 
pinkish cylindrical tube ^ in. long, the lobes recurved. Petals 
orbicular. Fruit a scarlet berry with a sweet, resinous taste.- Blooming 
in the spring and found from northern California to Washington. 

/. R. lacus'tre Poir. Low shrub with prickly stems and thorns 
under the leaf axils. Leaves 3-5-parted, their lobes deeply cut. 
Calyx saucer-shaped, petals small, stamens and style short. Fruit 
a reddish berry more or less covered with prickles. From northern 
California to Washington. The variety molle Gray is the form com- 
mon in the mountains of California. This species has the fruit and 
the prickly stems of the gooseberry but the racemed flowers of the 

Vm. PHILADELTHUS, Mock Orange, Syringa 

Shrubs with diffuse branches, several feet in height. Leaves 
opposite, entire or toothed, ovate or oblong, without stipules. 
Flowers showy, white, in paniculate cymes. Calyx with tube 
adnate to the ovarij almost to its top, ivith Jf-5 divisions which 
are valcate in hud. Petals 4 or 5, large, obovate, convolute in 
hud. Stamens many, with slender filaments. Styles 3-5, 
united at base or almost to the top. Pod 3-5-celled, splitting 
from the apex when ripe, each valve 2-parted. Seeds many, 
pendent on placentse projecting from the axis. 

a. P. Lewis'ii Pursh. Nearly smooth. Leaves ovate, 1-2 in. 
long, nearly entire. Panicle on a naked peduncle. Styles distinct at 
apex only, stigmas narrow. Blooming in spring and found in the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains from California to British Columbia. 

b. P. Gordonia'nus Lindl. Almost smooth. Leaves ovate to 
oblong, 2-4 in. long, coarsely serrate with scattered teeth. Flowers 
in loose clusters with the peduncles leafy at base. Styles distinct to the 
middle. Blooming in spring, in the Coast Mountains, from northern 
California to Washington. 



Low shrubs, with trailing stems and branches. Leaves 
opposite, 3-ribbed, toothed. Flowers in small cymes on slender, 
naked stems. Calyx 5-cleft, with white divisions, the tube 
attached to the lower part of the ovary. Petals 5, very small. 
Ovary 3-5-celled, ivitlt 1 seed in each cell. Styles as many as 
the cells. 

W. modes'ta Torr. This is always found in woods of the Coast 
Mountains, particularly in the redwoods. 

CALYCANTHA'CE^. Sweet Shrub Family 

Aromatic shrubs with opposite leaves and no stipules ; 
sepals, petals, and stamens passing into each other, and all 
uniting below into a closed cup which is lined by a hollow 
receptacle bearing numerous simple pistils. 

Calycan'thus occidentalis Hook. & Arn. Sweet Shrub. Sepals 
numerous, imbricated, their bases united in many ranks into a 
cup-shaped tube, the outer bract-like, the inner linear-oblong ; petals 
similar. Flowers terminal, reddish purple, fragrant, with an odor like 
benzoin. This grows near streams and is more frequent in northern 

ROSA'CE^. Rose Family 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees with alternate stipulate leaves. 
Stamens numerous, inserted on the persistent calyx or on a 
calyx-like receptacle. Ovaries from one to several. Seeds few, 
without endosperm. This family contains some of our most 
valuable fruits, such as the apple, pear, quince, almond, peach, 
plum, apricot, cherry, raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry. 
There are three great subdivisions or suborders. 

Suborder I. — AMYGDA'LE^ 

Trees or shrubs. Fruits with a fleshy exocarp enclosing a 
hard endocarp, called a drupe or stone fruit (/. Fig. 170 ; 
e. Fig. 180), as the plum, peach, almond, etc. 



Shrubby, dioecious. Flowers white, in drooping racemes. 
Carpels 5, usually only 1 or 2 ri2^ening. The stipules soon 
fall. The leaves when crushed have the odor of bitter 

N. cerasifor'mis Torr. & Gray. Oso Berry. Stems erect, generally 
growing in clumps, the male plants being much more numerous 
than the female. Racemes shorter than the leaves, with conspicuous 
bracts. Calyx broadly funnel-shajDed, with a 5-toothed border. Petals 
5, spatulate. Stamens 1.5, 10 erect in a line on the calyx, 5 below 
deflexed. Carpels on the disk at the base of the calyx. Fruit black- 
purple, with bitter pulp, furrowed slightly on the inner side. This 
often blooms in January in the Coast Mountains, but is much later 
in the Sierra Nevada. Widelv distributed. 

II. PRU'NUS, Plum, Cherry 

Trees or shrubs. Flowers perfect, white. Pistil only i, 
forming a stone fruit. 

a. P. demis'sa Walp. Chokecherry. Trees or shrubs with 
serrate leaves. Flowers in many-foicered drooping racemes. Fruit 
globose, red, or dark purple, astringent. Widely distributed. 

h. P. ilicifolia Walp., Islay. Tree or shrub with glossy evergreen, 
spiny, holly-Uke leaves. Racemes from ^ to 2 in. long. Fruit somewhat 
flattened, ^ in. thick, sweetish, the stone large and the pulp thin. 
From San Francisco to San Diego. 

c. P. emargina'ta Walp. Small tree with slender, reddish twigs, 
which are generally smooth. Leaves obovate or oblanceolate, obtuse 
or acute, serrate with fine teeth, with 2 glands near the summit of the 
petiole. Corymbs shorter than the leaves, ivith few, white flowers. Fruit 
a dark red cherry, which is bitter and astringent. 

d. P. Califor'nica Greene. Shrub with the branches from the root, 
smooth and shining. Leaves obovate to oblanceolate, obtuse, emar- 
ginate, or even acute, serrate with fine teeth and with 1 gland on the 
lower part of the blade. Flowers few in a short corymb. Fruit a red 
cherry, which is very bitter. In the mountains throughout middle 
and northern California. 

e. P. subcorda'ta Benth. Tree or shrub with thorny branches. 
Leaves ovate, 1 in. long, with the base wedge-shaped or heart-shaped, 
the margin finely and sharply serrate. Flowers ichite, in few-flow- 
ered umbels. Fruit a red plum, |- in. long, not palatable. This is 


common in the Coast Mountains of California. The variety Kelloggii 
Lemmon has yellow fruit, which is sweet and palatable. It is found 
in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

Suborder II. — RO'SE^ 

Pistils few or many (sometimes only one) separate from 
each other and free from the persistent calyx ; sometimes, as 
in the rose, enclosed and concealed in the hollow receptacle. 
Stipules united to the bottom of the petiole. Many are armed 
with spines or prickles, and some are valuable fruits, as the 
strawberry, raspberry, blackberry. 

I. NEIL'LIA (PHYSOCAR'PUS), Ninebark, Bridal Wreath 

Shrubs without thorns or prickles, the bark becoming 
shreddy. Leaves roundish, lobed and toothed, with large 
stipules. Flowers in corymbs resembling umbels, on short leafy 
branclilets disposed along the stems. Petals white. Calyx 
5-lobed. Stamens numerous. Pistils 1-5, becoming inflated, 
shining, 2-seeded pods. 

N. opulifolia Benth. & Hook. 3-10 ft. high, the slender stems 
often apparently climbing over the bushes. Pods becoming reddish 
when ripe. Widely distributed. 

II. SPIR^'A, Hardback 

Similar to the above, except that the flowers are in com.- 
pound corymbs or panicles terminating the stems or branches, the 
pods are membranous and not inflated, and the leaves generally 
without stipules. Pistils 5, becoming several-seeded follicles. 

a. S. densiflora Nutt. A shrub with reddish bark, leaves almost 
smooth. Flowers rose-j^urple, in comjDOund corymbs. In the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains. 

h. S. Douglasli Hook. Hardhack. A shrub with reddish brown 
bark, leaves wJiite on the lower surface, flowers rose-purple, in panicles, 
stamens numerous, giving the cluster a woolly appearance. Northern 
California to British Columbia. 


IIL HOLODIS'CUS, Meadow-sweet 

Generally taller and with small white flowers in spreading 
panicles. Stamens 20, inserted on a disk like a ring. Pistils 
5, becoming 1-seeded carpels ivhich are dehiscent by one side or 
not at all. 

a. S. ariaefoTius. Shrub with dark brown, smootli bark, leaves 
silky-whitish beneath, flowers white, turning brownish, in loosely 
flowered plumose panicles, somewhat drooping in flower, erect in 
fruit. Blooming in early summer and growing along the woods of 
the Coast Mountains, 

b. H. dis'color Maxim. Shrub with short, rigid branches, clothed 
with gTay-brown, shreddy bark. Leaves deep gTeen and ahnost 
smooth above, clothed with white tomentum on the lower surface. 
Panicles erect on short, erect branches. This is found on the eastern 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and north to Oregon and 

IV. CERCOCARTUS, Mountain Mahogany 

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves simple, entire or toothed, 
evergreen. Flowers axillary, small. Calyx with a long tube 
and a saucer-shaped border. Petals absent. Caiyels included 
in the calyx tube, usually 1, tipped by a long, feathery stijle. - 

a. C. ledifo'lius Nutt. Leaves lanceolate with revolute margins, thick 
and resinous, white-downy on the lower surface, smooth above. 
Flowers sessile, downy. Tail of fruit 2 or 3 in. long. Chiefly found 
on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, north to 
Oregon and Washington. Spring. 

b. C. parvifo'lius Nutt. Shrubby, though sometimes 15 or 20 ft. 
high. Leaves obovate, loedge-shnped at base, thinner than the preceding, 
with silky hairs above and w^hite down beneath. Flowers on short, 
slender pedicels. Tail of fruit 3 or 4 in. long. Common, widely 
distributed, and variable. Spring. 

V. PURSH'IA (KUN'ZIA), Buckbush 

Low, diffusely branched shrubs. Leaves in bunches on 
the stem, wedge-shaped. Flowers small, at the ends of short 
branchlets. Calyx funnel-shaped. Petals 5, yellow, longer 
than the calyx lobes. Stamens many, in 1 row. Carpels 1 


or 2, narrowed at each end, jxrojecting from the calyx, bat the 
style not becoming longer in fruit. 

P. tridenta'ta. Leaves 3-lobed at apex, covered with white down 
on the under surface. Calyx also downy. This is common in the 
lower mountains, especially on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. Late spring. 

VI. ADENOS'TOMA, Chemisal, Greasewood 

Evergreen shrub with linear, resinous leaves. Flowers 
small, white, in panicles. Calyx with a 10-ribbed tube and 
broad, membranous lobes. Petals 5, round. Stamens gen- 
erally from 10 to 15 m clusters between the petals. Fruit 
1-seeded, included in the calyx tid)e. 

a. A. fascicula'tum Hook. & Arn. Chemisal, Greasew^ood. 

Stems many, the slender, reddish branches covered with close clus- 
ters of very small, heather-like leaves ; stipules small, acute. Flowers 
crowded, nearly sessile. This often exclusively covers acres, usually 
growing on dry hills. 

b. A. sparsifo'lium Torr. Yerba del pasmo. Tree or shrub 
tvith narroioly linear, scattered leaves, loithout stipules. Flowers larger 
than the preceding, on distinct pedicels. This is found in southern 
California. It is very fragrant, and much used as a remedy for 
colds by the Indians. 

VII. GE'UM, Avens. 

Perennial herbs. Leaves chiefly radical, pinnately divided, 
with petioles sheathing the stem and stipules attached. 
Flowers about as large as a nickel, solitary or generally in 
corymbs. Calyx open-bell-shaped, valvate in bud, with bract- 
lets between the lobes. Petals 5, purplish or yellow. Cai^- 
pels very numerous, on a dry receptacle^ the style becoming long ; 
in fruit either bent in the middle or feathery. 

a. G. macrophyrium VAlld. Stems 1-3 ft. high, hairy. Leaves with 
the largest division at the tip. Corolla yellow, with broad lobes 
longer than the sepals. Receptacle of the fruit smooth. Styles hent 
near the middle, the upper part falling, leaving the lower part hooked. 
In the mountains. Summer. 

b. G. stric'tum Ait. Similar to the preceding but less hairy. Recep- 
tacle of fruit downy instead of smooth. In the mountains. 


c. G. rivale L. Somewhat similar to the preceding in habit of 
growth. Calyx brownish purple. Petals purplish, broad, with a 
short claw. Style hent in the middle, hut the upper part feathery. In 
the mountains. Summer. 

d. G. triflo'rum Pursh (G. cilia'tum). About a foot high. Leaves all 
radical, except for a few bract-like leaves on the scapes, pinnate, 
with leaflets crowded and irregular in size. Flowers usually 3, on 
long peduncles, large, reddish pm-ple. Calyx with bractlets longer 
than its lobes, equaling the petals. Styles straight, long, and feathery. 
Widelv distributed. Summer. 

Vm. CHAM^BA'TIA, Mountain Misery, Tarweed 

Low, evergreen, glandular-aromatic shrub. Leaves tri- 
pinnately dissected with the ultimate segments minute; stipules 
small, linear, entire. Flowers about as large as a dime, in 
terminal cymes. Calyx with top-shaped tube and 5-lobed 
border. Petals white, 5, obovate. Stamens many. Pistil 
one becoming a large akene. 

C. foliolo'sa Benth. This is the only species. It covers the 
ground under the pines in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Its fern- 
like foliage, strong odor, and abundant viscidity cause it to be well 

IX. POTENTIL'LA, Cinquefoil, Five-finger 

Herbs (one species shrubby) with compound leaves, toothed 
leaflets, and stipules attached to the petiole. Calyx saucer- 
shajjecl or hell-shapjed, 5-cleft and with 5 smaller bractlets. 
Petals 5, yellow (rarely white). Akenes on the recei^tacle, 
tvhich is dry and smooth or hairy. 

a. P. Anseri'na L. Silvery Cinquefoil. Stems j)rostrate, with 
runners like a straicherry . Leaves pinnately compound with from 
7 to 21 leaflets (smaller ones interposed), sharply serrate and sil- 
very white on the lower sm-face. Flowers yellow, nearly an inch 
in diameter, petals falling easily. Receptacle very woolly. This 
is common in wet places every^vhere. 

h. P. glandulo'sa Lindl. Erect, a foot or two high, covered with 
glandular hairs. Leaves pinnately compound witli from 5 to 7 
leaflets. Flowers in cymes that become open and spreading in fruit. 
Petals yellow or yellowish white. Stamens 25 in one row. This 
usually grows in rather shady places. Widely distributed. 


c. P. gra'cilis Pougl. Stems 1-3 ft. high, clothed with woolly 
hairs. Leaves palniately or piimately compound, with 7 or more 
deeph) lohed or coarsebj serrate leciflets which are whiie-tomentose on the 
lower surface. Flowers yellow, in loose, ample cymes. Akenes 40 
or more, smooth. This blooms in the spring and is widely dis- 
tributed in the mountains. There are many species very difficult 
to distinguish. 

X. FRAGA'RIA, Strawberry 

Calyx 5-lobed and with 5 alternate bractlets. Petals 5, 
white, spreading. Stamens many in one row. Carpels 
nwnerous, on a fleshy receptacle which becomes red when ripe, 
and is called the fruit. Leaves palmately compound with 3 
toothed leaflets. Low plants, sending out running stems 
that root and form new plants. 

a. F. Chilen'sis Ehr. Coast Strawberry. Leaves thick, deep 
green, glossy above, hairy beneath. Flowers white, an inch in diam- 
eter. The fruit is delicious, and the akenes are in depressions on 
the fleshy receptacle. This usually grows on sandy hills near the 
sea from Sau Francisco to Alaska. 

b. F. Califor'nica Cham. & ScM. Wood Strawberry. Leaves 
thin, light green, slightly hairy on both sides. Flowers half an inch 
in diameter. Fruit small, with the akenes on the surface of the 
receptacle, not in depressions. This is generally found on wooded 
slopes of the Coast Mountains. 

XL RU'BUS, Raspberry 

Calyx persistent, 5-lohed, without bractlets. Petals 5, gen- 
erally conspicuous. Stamens numerous, carpels numerous on 
a conical receptacle, each becoming a tiny, round stone fruit. 
Leaves simple or compound, with stipules adnate to the 

a. R. Nutka'nus Moc. Thimble-berry, Scotch Caps. Erect 
shrub with large, 5-lobed leaves, which have gland-tipped hairs on 
the veins beneath and on the leafstalks. Flowers white or pale rose- 
color, an inch or more in diameter. Fruit red, shaped like an inverted 
saucer, sweet and rather dry. From middle California to Alaska. 

h. R. specta'bilis Pursh. Salmon-berry. Erect shrubs with 
leaves generally compound with 3 leaflets, the veins and leafstalks 
somewhat woolly. Flowers solitary, crimson, less than an inch in 
diameter. Fruit red or salmon-color, thimble-shaped, pleasant to the 
taste. From near San Francisco to Alaska. 


c. R. vitifolius Cham. & Schl. Blackberry. Stems trailing, 
very prickly. Leaves compound with 3-5 leaflets ; the veins beneath, 
the leafstalks, peduncles, and sepals prickly. Flowers white, a 
half inch in diameter. Fruit black iclien ripe, oblong, sweet. Widely 

d. R. leucoder'mis DougL* Shrub with ascending and recurved 
stems, 3-5 ft. long, pale green, prickly. Leaves with S-Jf, leajiets, 
ivhich are ovate-lanceolate, pointed and doubly serrate, pale green on the 
lower surface. Flowers few. Sepals narrowed to a long point, sur- 
passing the white petals. Fruit black, generally covered with a bloom. 
This is found from northern California to Washington. 

XII. RO'SA, Wild Rose 

Prickly and thorny shrubs. Leaves pinnately compound, 
leaflets serrate, stipules adnate to the petiole. Recej^tacle 
globose, contracted at the throat. Calyx of 5 divisions, with- 
out bractlets. Petals 5, rose-color. Stamens many, near the 
mouth of the receptacle. 

a. R. Califor'nica Cham. & Schl. Stems with stout recurved thorns. 
Leaflets 2-3 pairs. Flowers in corymbs or rarely solitary. Fruit 
generally with a distinct neck beneath the spreading calyx lobes. 
This is widely spread throughout California, usually growing near 

b. R. gymnocar'pa Nutt. Redwood Rose. Slender shrub cov- 
ered with numerous straight prickles. Flowers generally solitary, 
less than an inch in diameter. Calyx lobes genercdly falling from 
the fruit. Pedicels, petioles, and stipules glandular. This dainty 
rose grows in the shade of trees or bushes, usually under the 

Suborder III. — POME^ 

Trees or shrubs with stipules not attached to the petiole. 
Carpels 2-5, enclosed in and attached to the fleshy recep- 
tacle, becoming a fruit like an apple, of which the core is the 
ovary, and the fleshy part the receptacle (pome). Ovules 
2 in each cell. 

I. AMELAN'CHIER, Service Berry, June Berry 

Shrub or small tree with deciduous leaves. Flowers large, 
white, in racemes. Ovary 5-celled, becoming a part of the 


herry-like calyx, each cell partially divided by a partition 
from the hach, 1-seeded. 

A. alnifolia Nutt. Leaves rounded, serrate towards the apex. 
Petals narrowly oblong, nearly an inch in length. Fruit, when 
ripe, purplish, edible. Rather widely distributed and variable. 

n. CRAT^'GUS, Thorn Apple 

Trees or shrubs, with thorny branches. Leaves simple, 
toothed or lobed. Flowers white, in corymbs. Calyx tube 
urn-shaped, with a 5-parted border. Corolla of 5 white, 
spreading petals, about half an inch long. Stamens 5-20. 
Ovary 2-5-celled. Fruit containing 2 or 3 bony seeds, either 
separated or united. 

C. Douglas'ii Lindl. Tree 10-25 ft. high, with thorns on the 
stems 1 in. long. Leaves broadly ovate, 1^-3 in. long, lobed or 
cleft and finely serrate. Corymb with many flowers. Fruit sweet 
and insipid, black. This blooms in the spring and is found from 
northern California to AVashington. 

m. HETEROME'LES (PHOTIN'IA), Toyon', Christmas Berry 

Shrub with evergreen, oblong, serrate leaves and minute 
stipules. Flowers w^hite in close panicles at the ends of the 
branchlets, fragrant with a sweet, sickening odor. Receptacle 
adnate to the ovary, becoming fleshy in fruit and nearly cover- 
ing the 2 carpels, luhich are generally 1-seeded. 

H. arbutifolia Roemer. Berries scarlet with mealy pulp, slightly 
astringent, but edible. In bloom chiefly in July and August; in 
fruit in November and December. Common in the Coast Moun- 

IV. PY'RUS (MAXUS), Pear, Apple 

Trees or shrubs, with deciduous leaves which are simple 
or pinnately compound, serrate. Flowers in corymbs, white 
or pink. Calyx top-shaped with the border 5-cleft. Petals 
5, spreading. Stamens 20. Styles 5, more or less united at 
base. Fruit a povie, the 5 cartilaginoiis carptels forming the 
core, and the calyx tube becoming a fleshy covering. 


P. rivula'ris DougL Tree 15-25 ft. high. Leaves simple, ovate- 
lanceolate, acute or pointed, 1-3 in. long, sometimes lobed or with 
sharp teeth on the margins. Corymb somewhat like a raceme. 
Pedicels slender, 1 in. long. Petals orbicular, white, } in. long. 
Fruit reddish or yellowish, ^ in. long. This is found from northern 
California to Washington. 

V. SOR'BUS, Mountain Ash, Rowan 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves large, innnatehj compound, with 
oblong, serrate leaflets. Flowers small, white, in terminal, 
compound cymes. Styles distinct, as many as the cells of 
the ovary. Fruit about the size of a pea, red when ripe, 
usually containing one seed. 

S. occidenta'lis Greene. Shrub 2-6 ft. high, smooth. Leaflets 
3-5 pairs. Cyme small, with few flowers. Fruit pear-shaped. 
This grows in the Sierra iS"evada Mountains, chiefly northward. 

LEGUMINO'SJE. Pulse Family 

Ovary 1-celled ; fruit a legume (/. Fig. 271, II ; e. Fig. 176). 
Leaves alternate, compound, with stipules (with a few excep- 
tions). There are three subdivisions, of which two are well 
represented in California. 

Suborder I. — PAPILIONACE-S:, Pea Family 

Calyx of 5 sepals, more or less united, often somewhat 
irregular. Corolla of 5 petals, papilionaceous (/. Fig. 141 ; 
e. Fig. 119). Stamens 10, either monadelphous, diadelphous, 
or distinct. Seeds 1 or several, without endosperm. 

I. THERMOP'SIS, Golden Pea 

Herb with spreading underground stems. Leaflets 3, 
palmate, ivith stijmles almost as large. Flowers large, yel- 
low, in terminal many-flowered, racemes on short pedicels 
with bracts. Stamens distinct from each other. Legumes 
linear, compressed. 


a. T. Califor'nica Wats. Silky-tomentose, Leaflets an inch or 
turn long, ohocate ; stipules ovate or lanceolate, often longer than 
the petioles. Pods 1-2 in. long, erect and slightly spreading, with 
but few seeds maturing. This is the common species in Cali- 
fornia. It grows among the hills of the Coast Mountains where 
the ground is wet but not marshy, and blooms in spring. 

h. T. monta'na Nutt. Silky-hairy. Leaflets oUong, 1-3 in. long ; 
stipules ovate or lanceolate, generally longer than the petioles. Pods 
strictly erect, 2-3 in. long. This is found in the mountains of 
NVashingtoii and Oregon. It blooms in the spring. 

II. PICKERIN'GIA (XYLOTHER'MIA), Spiny Chaparral, Chaparral 
Pea, Needle Bush 

A very spiny glaucous shrub ivith small evergreen leaves. 
Leaflets from 1 to 3, without stipules. Flovwrs large, soli- 
tary, nearly sessile in the axils of the leaves, of a rich crimson 
color. It fruits very rarely. 

P. monta'na Nutt. This is the only species. It is the most diffi- 
cult chaparral of all to penetrate because of its stout spines. It is 
found on dry hills in the Coast Mountains. 

m. LUPFNUS, Lupine, Sun Dial 

Calyx generally 2-lipped. Corolla with broad standard 
and wings united above, enclosing the incurved, pointed keel. 
Stamens monadelphous in 2 sets. In the hud one set has long 
anthers, the others are shorter and tipped with a yellow hall. 
As the flower develops, the ball-tipped filaments grow longer 
and push the pollen up to the top of the keel, from which 
the pistil projects. Leaves pjalmately compound, with the 
leaflets folding at mid-day. Stipules adnate to the petiole. 
Flowers in terminal racemes, sometimes arranged in whorls 
on the peduncles. The flowers are generally blue ; but white 
and yellow-flowered species exist, also one combining yellow 
and rose-color. 

a. L. Chamisso'nis Esch. Shrubby, pale green from the close 
white pubescence. Leaflets 7-9, silky on both sides. Flowers 
somewhat whorled, blue, violet, rarely white. This is variable, and 
several species have been included under this name ; but they are 
not easily defined. Throughout California. 


h. L. arbo'reus Sims. Shrubby, 4-10 ft. high. Leaflets 7-11, 
generally 9. Flowers generally yellow, in whorls, fragrant. This 
grows on sand-hills along the coast, where it is abundant and very 
showy in summer. 

c. L. trunca'tus Nutt. Annual, erect, simple or branching above, 
finely pubescent, becoming smoothish. LeaJieAs 5-7, Unear-wedge- 
sJiaped, idth the apex obtuse, truncate, 3-toothed or entire. Flowers small, 
deep purple, rather scattered on the elongating raceme. Pods more 
than an inch long. Com.mon in southern California. Spring. 

d. L. latifo'lius Agardh. Perennial, stout, branching, 2-4 ft. 
high, leafy, dark green. Leaflets 5-7, oblanceolate, 1-2 in. long. 
Racemes long on slender peduncles. Flowers rarely ivhorled, violet- 
blue, turning brownish in fading. This is a common species in shady 
places of the Coast Mountains. Spring. 

e. L. microcar'pus Sims. Annual, with many spreading branches 
from near the base, woolly throughout. Leaflets 9, 1 in. long or 
more, narrowly obovate. Racemes containing many whorls of pur- 
plish flowers and persistent bracts. Peduncles short, stout, some- 
what succulent, often horizontal, and with the whorls turned to the 
upper side. Flowers rather large, on short pedicels. Pods thick, 
2-seeded. This is common throughout California. 

/. L. densiflo'rus Benth. This is very similar to the preceding, 
but is stouter and more spreading, less hairy, with the racemes on 
long peduncles and the jiowers ichite or yellowish, rarely rose-color. 
This also is common and widely distributed. 

(There are many other species not so readily recognized 
from descriptions, and many of them are quite local.) 


Low herbs with palmately compo^ind leaves of 3 leaflets, 
stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers in close head-like 
clusters on axillary jjeduncles. Calyx with 5, nearly equal 
teeth. Petals with claws attached to the tube of the fila- 
ments. Stamens usually diadelphous (9 and 1). Legumes 
small, from 1 to 6 seeded, usually enclosed in the calyx. The 
species are numerous and difiicult. 

V. MELILO'TUS, Sweet Clover 

Leaves pinnately compound of 3 toothed leaflets. Flowers 
small, in slender racemes. Legumes roundish, 1 or 2 seeded. 


The entire plant is very fragrant. The two species are 

a. M. Ind'ica AUioni. Flowers yellow, common. 

b. M. al'ba Lam. Flowers white. Less common. 

VI. MEDICA'GO, Bur Clover, Alfalfa 

Leaves pinnately compound, of 3 leaflets. Floicers in small 
clusters or racemss in the axils of the leaves. Legumes curved 
or curled like a screw. The species are introduced and are 
valuable as fodder. 

a. M. denticula'ta Willd. Bur Clover. Annual, low, with stems 
spreading on the ground, smooth throughout. Flowers small, 
yellow. Pod coiled, armed with a double row of prickles. Common. 

b. M. sati'va L. Alfalfa, Lucerne. Perennial, erect, smooth. 
Flowers violet in a close raceme. Pod spiralli/ coiled, without 
prickles. F'sually escaped from cultivation. 

c. M. apicula'ta Willd. This is similar in appearance to Af. den- 
ticiilata, but the pods hare the margins rough with fne tubercles instead 
of with hooked prickles, and the whole surface veiny. In some places 
this is more common than M. denticulata. 


Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1). Petals ivith long claws, 
free from the stamens. Leaves pinnately compound with 
from 2 to many leaflets. Flowers solitary or in umbels, ses- 
sile or on peduncles from the axils of the leaves. Legumes 
linear, sessile, somewhat compressed between the seeds. 

a. H. Purshia'na Benth. Annual, erect or spreading loosely over 
the ground, with numerous slender branches, soft woolly through- 
out. Leaflets generally 3 on a linear rhachis. Flowers solitary, 
salmon-color, axillary on slender peduncles lohich are longer than the 
leaves, with a single leaflet below the flower. Legumes from 1 to 1^ 
in. long. This is common, blooming in the summer and autumn. 
Widely distrilmted, 

b. H. subpinna'ta T. & G. Stems low, spreading or erect, smooth 
or woolly. Leaflets small, 3-5, on a dilated rhachis; stipules gland- 
like. Flowers small, nearly or quite sessile in the leaf axils, without 
bracts. Pod ^ in. or more in length with about 5 seeds. From 
Santa Barbara to Washington, common. 


c. H. parviflo'ra Benth. Animal, with slender, smooth stems. 
Leaflets 3-5. Flowers very small, yellow, hut becoming red with age : 
pechmcles thread-like, each ivith a 1-3-leaved bract. Pods linear, 
contracted between the seeds ; these 5-7. This is common from 
middle California to British Columbia. Spring. 

d. H. gra'cilis Benth. Perennial with slender stems, generally 
spreading over the ground and growing in wet places. Leaflets 
5-7 ; stij)ules thin. Umbels with 8-10 flowers about as long as 
the leaves, with a 3-leaved bract. Calyx teeth shorter than the 
tube. Corolla with yellow banner, rose-red wings and keel. Pods long 
and straight. This is the most beautiful species, and it is found 
from Monterey to Washington. 

e. H. bi'color Dougl. Perennial with smooth, erect, rather stout 
stems. Leaflets 5-7, obovate or oblong ; stipules papery, rather large. 
Peduncles longer than the leaves ; umbel of 3-7 flowers, with or 
without a bract. Flowers nearly sessile, yellow, or with white wings. 
Calyx teeth half as long as the tube. This grows in wet ground 
and is found from near San Francisco to Washington. 

/. H. gla'bra Torr. Someichat shrubby, icith many nearly smooth, 
erect, or decumbent stems from the root. Leaves few, with 3 small 
leaflets. Umbels numerous, sessile along the stem, consisting of many 
yellow floirers that become reddish. Legumes curved and tipped with 
the long style. This is common all over the state, and in bloom at all 
seasons. There are many other species more difficult to distinguish. 


Ill-scented herbs covered icith dcirk, glandular dots. Leaves 
with 3-5 leaflets and stipules free from the petiole. Flowers 
ivhite or purplish in axillary spikes or racemes, ivith thin 
bracts that soon wither and fall. Legumes sessile, 1-seeded, 

a. P. orbicula'ris Lindl. Stems running along the ground in swampy 
places, bearing leaves and spikes of flowers on petioles and peduncles a 
foot or more long. Leaflets large, round. Flowers large, purple, in 
close, woolly spikes. Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1). Throughout 

b. P. macrosta'chya DC. Stems usually very tall, 6 ft. or even* 
more. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Peduncles much longer than the leaves. 
Spikes silky-woolly, with blackish hairs on the calyx. Bracts 
broad. Coi'olla purple. The tenth stamen almost free. Legumes 
woolly. Throughout California, along streams. 

c. P. physo'des DougL Genercdly a foot or two high, with several 
stems spreading from the base. Flowers in short; close racemes. 


Calyx becoming slightly inflated in fruit. Corolla yellowish white, 
tinged with purple. Stamens monadelphous. In the Coast Moun- 
tains from Monterey County to Puget Sound. 

IX. ASTRAG'ALUS, Rattleweed, Loco-weed 

Herbs 'with odd-pinnate leaves and numerous leaflets. 
Flowers in racemes or spikes, on axillary peduncles. Stamens 
diadelphous (9 and 1). Keel of the corolla blunt at tip. 
Legumes mmierous, more or less 2-celled by one or both sutures 
projecting inwards, often inflated like a bladder so as to secure 
disjjersion of the seed by the luhid. Several species are poison- 
ous to cattle and sheep. Almost all are perennials. The 
species are numerous and too difficult for beginners. 

X. VICIA, Vetch 

Vines, with the leaves terminating in tendrils. Stipules semi- 
sagittate. Flowers solitary or in loose axillary racemes. Sta- 
mens diadelphous. Stigma a round hairy ball at the tip of the 
slender style. Legumes similar to those of the common pea. 

a. V. gigante'a Hook. Perennials, stout, climbing high over the 
bushes. Leaflets from 10 to 15 pairs. Corollas reddish or dirty white, 
turning brown. Pods becoming black ivhen ripe, each seed encircled by its 
stalk. This is common in moist places from San Francisco northward. 

b. V. America'na Muhl. Pea Vine. Perennial, generally low. 
Leaflets from 4 to 8 pairs, linear, genei-ally truncate or toothed at 
apex. Flowers bluish, in few-fowered racemes. Legumes smooth. 
Seeds 3-6, dark purple. Widely distributed. 


This is similar to Vicia, except that the tendrils are absent 
in some species, the flowers are larger, the leaflets broader, 
and, most important, the style is hairy not only at the tip, 
but also down the inner side. 

The species are difficult to distinguish. 

Suborder II. — C^SALPIN'E-ffi 

Flowers more or less irregular. Corolla not truly papilio- 
naceous, with the petal that answers to the standard folded 


within those on the side. Stamens 10 or fewer, distinct. 
Seeds sometimes with endosperm. 

CERXIS, Red-bud, Judas-tree 

A small tree or shrub, blooming before the leaves appear. 
Leaves cordate to kidney-shaped, entire, palmately veined. 
Flowers bright rose-color, in axillary clusters, numerous 07i the 
leafless stems. Petals 5, the standard enclosed by the wings. 
Fod large, flat and thin, turning purplish. 

C. occidentaTis Torr. This is the only native species on the 
Pacific Coast. It is most beautiful along mountain streams through- 
out California, but not near the seacoast. 

Suborder III. — MIMO'SEiE 

Plowers regular, small, and numerous in spikes or heads. 

Calyx and corolla of 4 or 5 divisions. Stamens as many or 

twice as many as the petals, or numerous, inserted on the 



Flowers small, numerous in spikes or heads. Stamens very 
numerous. Flowers usually yellow (rarely rose-color). 

Leaves various, naturally pinnately compound, but in many 
Australian species reduced to a petiole flattened and broad- 
ened like a leaf (phyllodia). On young plants the gradations 
between the compound leaf and the simple phyllodia can 
often be seen. 

GERANIA'CE^. Geranium Family 

Herbs with pungent, acid, or aromatic juice. Sepals and 
petals 5. Stamens 5 or 10. 

The fruit consists of 5 distinct carpels around a central 

column, or is a 5-10-valved capsule splitting so as to shoot 

out the seeds. 

I. GERA'NIUM, Crane's Bill 

Annual or perennial herbs with large joints and palmately 
lobed leaves, stipules papery. Style o-lobed at the summit. 


Fruit of 5 carpels, which separate when ripe from the axis, 
each one with a long, beardless tail, which curls from the bot- 
tom of the axis to the summit. Most of the plants cultivated 
as geraniums belong to the genus Pelargonium. 

a. G. inci'sum Nutt. Perennial, with branching, leafy stems, with 
glandular and hairy pubescence. Flowers large, axillary, on pedicels 
that are spreading or reflexed in fruit. Petals jmrple, tvoolly on the 
inner surface. Filaments woolly. Fruit icith the beak glandular. 
Common in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and extending to Wash- 
ington and Oregon. It blooms in spring and summer. 

b. G. Richardson'ii F. & M. This is somewhat similar to the 
preceding, and like it, is perennial. The stems are taller, more 
slender, and weaker. The flowers are smaller, and always white, 
though there may be pink veins on the petals. It grows in wet 
places in the mountains at rather high elevations. 

c. G. Carolinia'num L. Annual, with spreading stems, and gray, 
somewhat glandular pubescence. Floivers and leaves closely clus- 
tered at the ends of branchlets, the former small, rose-color, the latter 
orbicular in outline, but cut into several divisions. Carpels covered 
with black hairs, beak woolly or glandular. Common and widely 

d. G. dissec'tum L. Greener than the preceding, and with the 
leaves cut into narrower and more numerous divisions. Stems weak, 
often supported on other plants, and frequently growing in wet 
places. Common, introduced. 

n. ERO'DIUM, Alfilerilla, Filaree' 

This is similar to Geranium; but the filaments are broader, 
and those opposite the petals are without anthers, the tails 
of the carpels are bearded on the inner side, and when they 
break away from the axis they form a spiral. The flowers 
are usually in umbels with an involucre of 4 bracts, and the 
petals are small and fall easily. 

a. E. cicuta'rium L'Her. Red-stemmed Filaree. Leaves form- 
ing a rosette at the base of the stem, compound with many leaflets, 
which are cut into numerous, narrow, acute lobes ; the stem leaves 
are small, and shorter than the peduncles. Flowers rose-purple, 
4-8 in an umbel. The axis on which the carpels are arranged is 
from 1 to 2 in. long. This is the commonest and most valued 
" filaree." 


h. E. moscha'tum L'Her. Green-stemmed Filaree. This has 
a faint odor of rnusk. The root leaves form a cluster, but are larger 
and coarser than the preceding-, and erect, often a foot long. The 
leaflets are doubly serrate. This always has a greener and more 
luxuriant appearance than the preceding. Widely distributed. 

c. E. Bo'trys Bert. Stems short, depressed. Leaves in a rosette, 
reddish and shining, oblong in outline with coarsely-toothed seg- 
ments. Petals lilac-purple, longer than the calyx, forming a bell- 
shaped corolla. Carpels with beaks 2-4 in. long. This gives a 
reddish color to the hills along the seaboard in early spring. The 
long beaks of the akenes are conspicuous later. It is introduced, 
and likely to be found everywhere along the coast. 

d. E. macrophyrium H. & A. Stems very short, glandular-hairy 
above. Leaves kidney-shaped, crenate-serrate . Petals white, as long 
as the sepals. This is found chiefly in clayey soil, and is widely 

m. LIMNAN'THES, Meadow Foam 

Smooth, succulent annuals icith pungent juice. Leaves 
alternate, without stipules, pinnately cleft. Flowers showy, 
solitary, on axillary peduncles, white, yellowish, or rose- 
color. Petals convolute in the bud. Stamens 10. Carpels 
at first fleshy, becoming hard and lurinkled, separating from 
the short axis. This grows always in wet j)laces. 

a. L. Douglas'ii R. Brown. Stems very smooth, brittle, much 
branched. Peduncles 2-4 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, petals twice 
as long, yellow, white, or of both colors, obovate, emarginate. This 
beautiful plant sometimes covers large areas in wet meadows. 
Throughout California. 

h. L. ro'sea Hartw. Leaves with narrow linear lobes ; flowers 
white, turning rose-color. This is found in the great valleys of 

c. L. al'ba Hartw. Short and stout, with the leaf segments 
broad, short, 3-lobed. Petals white, not much longer than the 
densely woolly sepals. Northern California. 

IV. OX'ALIS, Wood Sorrel 

Low herbs with acid juice, often without a stem. Leaves 
compound with S obcordate leaflets, like clover. Stamens 10, 
with filaments dilated and united at the base. Capsule 
beaked with the short style, 6-celled with the valves remain- 
ing attached to the axis by the partitions. 


a. 0. Orega'na Nutt. Wood Sorrel. Perennial herbs forming 
mats, with slender rootstocks from which arise the leaves and flow- 
ering stems. Leaflets broadly obcordate, rusty underneath. Scapes 
usually 1 -flowered, with 2 bracts near the flower. Petals nearly an 
inch long, pink, tcJiite, or rose-color with darker veins. This is common 
in the redwood forests of the coast, north to Washington. 

b. 0. cornicula'ta L. Yellow Sorrel. This also often forms mats 
with slender prostrate stems. Leaflets deeply obcordate. Peduncles 
bearing 2 or more flowers with yellow petals. The reddish-leaved, yel- 
low-flowered sorrel, which is a common weed in the streets and 
gardens, is a variety of this s^jecies. 

LINA'CEiE. Flax Family 

Flowers with all parts 5, except the pistil. Sepals per- 
sistent, imbricated. Petals convolute in the bud, falling 
soon. Each division of the ovary contains a pair of seeds. 

LFNUM, Flax 

Herbs with, tough fibers in the bark. Leaves sessile, entire. 
Styles 2-5. Ovary globose, with as many true cells as styles, 
each cell partially separated into two false cells. The cap- 
sule splits through the false and true partitions, each half 
cell containing one seed. The species are rather local and 
with one exception small-flowered. 

L. Lewis'ii Pursh. Perennial, with erect, leafy stems, smooth 
and bluish green. Leaves generally linear, an inch or less long, 
without stipules. Flowers azure blue, nearly an inch in diameter, 
in racemes or corymbs on elongating pedicels. Pod longer than 
the calyx, 10-celled and 10-valved, with the valves widely spreading 
when ripe. Common and widely distributed, blooming in spring 
and summer. 

The introduced flax, L. usitatis'simum L., is somewhat similar, 
but is an annual. There are numy small-flowered, annual species 
in California, but they are difficult to distinguish and are more or 
less local. 

POLYGALA'CE.a:. Polygala Family 

Herbs or shrubs with simple, entire leaves without stipules. 
Flowers superficially resembling a pea blossom. Stamens 


united into one or two sets, adnate to the petals; anthers 
1-celled, opening at the top. 


Sepals 5, two of them large and spreading like wings. 
Petals 3, united to each other and to the stamen tube, the 
middle one forming a hood. Stamens 6-8, with filaments 
united into a tube, split down one side. Pod notched, flat- 
tened contrary to the partition, 2-celled, with one seed in 
each cell. , 

a. P. cornu'ta Kellogg. Low shrub with slender stems and 
branches, 1-6 ft. high. Leaves oval, obtuse, on very short peti- 
oles. Flowers greenish ichite tinged with rose-color, in short racemes- 
Outer sepals usually finely tomentose. Petals shorter than the keel, 
which is tipped with a straight beak. Pod orbicular with the apex 
notched. This grows in the pine woods through the Sierra Xevada. 

b. P. Califor'nica Nutt. Low perennial with slender, woody stems 
rising 2-8 ft. from creeping rootstocks. Flowers in terminal racemes. 
Sepals nearly smooth. Petals purple, with the wings longer than 
the keel, which has a recurved beak. The fruit is chiefly from flowers 
without petals near the root. The pod is smooth and almost orbicular. 
This is common in the Coast Mountains of California and extends 
to Oregon. 

EUPHORBIA'CE^. Spurge Family 

Herbs with milky juice which is sometimes poisonous. 
Leaves simple with stipules. Flowers monoecious or dioe- 
cious, naked or apetalous. Stamens 1 to many. Pistil 1, 
with a 3-lobed ovary and G styles or stigmas. Pod dehiscing 
with an elastic movement that scatters the seeds, leaving 
the axis. 

L EUPHOR'BIA, Spurge, Milkweed 

Flowers monoecious, both the staminate and the pistillate 
included in a ciqj-shaped involucre which might he mistalxen 
for a calyx. Staminate flowers numerous, each of a single 
stamen on a short, jointed pedicel with a tiny bract at base. 
Pistillate flowers solitary, hanging on a long pedicel from the 
center of the involucre. Ovary with one ovule in each cell; 


styles 3, each with 2 stigmas. Involucre 4-5-lobed, the lobes 
alternating with crescent-shaped or colored and petal-like 

a. E. albomargina'ta Torr. & Gray. Stems numerous, forming a 
prostrate mat. Leaves small, almost round, cordate with a narrow 
whitish edge. Stipules united into a triangular, white, membranous 
scale. Glands of the involucre 4, brownish orange with white or rose- 
color, petal-like appendages with entire margins. Seeds 4-angled. 
This grows in southern California. 

h. E. serpyllifolia Pers. Annual with prostrate or ascending 
stems, smooth. Leaves ivith the base unequal, oblong, 1-6|^ in. long, 
the margins with some very fine teeth. Stipules bristle-like or 
ragged. Involucres generally solitary. Seeds 4-angled, somewhat 
pitted. The glands are small and the margins narrow, whitish, cre- 
nate. This is widely distributed and is often found along roads 
and railroad tracks. It blooms in summer and turns reddish 
towards fall. 

c. E. crenula'ta Engelm. Annual or biennial, erect with one or 
several leafy stems from the root, generally branching above with 
2-forked branches. Leaves about an inch long, spatulate. Lnvo- 
lucres with crescent-shaped glands and no petal-like appendages. Seeds 
gray, covered with dark-colored pits. This blooms early and is 
widely spread. 

II. EREMOCAR'PUS, Turkey Mullein, Yerba del Pescado 

Stems branched from the base, prostrate, forming a mat. 
Flowers monoecious, clustered in the axils of the leaves 
without an involucre. Staminate flowers with a 5 or 
6 parted perianth ; pistillate flowers, naked. Capsule 1-celled 
and 1-seeded. 

E. setig'erus Benth. Grayish green, covered with white hairs 
and a stellate pubescence. Leaves 3-nerved, ovate, obtuse, round 
at base, on long petioles. Flowers inconspicuous. This is called 
" turkey mullein " because turkeys are fond of the seeds. The 
name given by the early settlers is "yerba del pescado" because 
it was used by the Indians in catching fish. The effect of the 
leaves thrown into a fish stream is to stupefy the fish so that they 
can be caught by hand. Common in middle California and inclined 
to cover waste places. Summer and fall. 


ANACARDIA'CE^. Poison Oak Family 

Shrubs or trees with leaves alternate, without stipules, 

either simple or compound. Mowers small, regular. Stamens 

inserted on the inner margin of the disk. Ovary 1-celled, 
1-ovuled. Styles often 3. Fruit a small drupe. 

RHUS, Sumac, Poison Oak 

Sepals and petals (4-9) generally 5. Stamens as many 
or twice as many. Sterile and fertile flowers often mixed in 
the clusters. Only the first species is poisonous. 

a. R. diversilo'ba T. & G. Poison Oak. Stems shrubby or 
climbing by rootlets. Leaves compound with 3 leaflets, tvhich are 
3-lohed and coarsely toothed or entire. Flowers yellowish white, fra- 
grant, in loose panicles in the axils of the leaves. Fruit a round, 
white, nerved, smooth berr3\ This is most poisonous in the spring. 
It generally forms thickets. The foliage turns red in the fall. 

h. R. triloba'ta Nutt. Squaw Bush, Indian Lemonade. An 
aromatic shrub with numerous, spreading branches. Leaves some- 
what variable, with 3 leaflets, the middle one o-lobed and toothed, 
much larger than the 2 side leaflets, which are generally simple 
and crenate. Flowers greenish, in short spikes, which precede the 
leaves. Fruit a red herry, pleasantly acid. Seeds white and smooth. 
Widely distributed, but not especially common. 

c. R. integrifo'lia Benth. & Hook. Shrub or small tree. Leaves 
many, evergreen, thick, oval, entire or with spiny teeth, dark green 
and glossy above, sometimes compound. Flowers rose-color, in clus- 
tered spikes. Fruit covered ivith an acid, viscid coat; the herry about 
I in. long. This is found in southern California near the sea. 

d. R. ova'ta Wats. Similar to the above, but with larger, thin- 
ner leaves, which are ovate or almost heart-shaped ; fruit having the 
viscid coat crusted ivith a white powder. This is found in the moun- 
tains of southern California. 

e. R. lauri'na Nutt. Shrub with oblong-lanceolate, entire leaves 
on rather long petioles. Flowers many in a terminal panicle, small, 
white. Fruit smooth, rvhitish, beaked by a stout style. This grows in 
southern California near the coast. 

Schi'nus molle L. Pepper Tree. This is extensively cultivated. 
It is an evergreen tree, with graceful, drooping branches and com- 
pound leaves, with 20 or more pairs of narrow leaflets. The flowers 


are small, dioecious, in large panicles, with 5 greenish petals and 10 
stamens. The fruit consists of numerous pungent rose-color drupes 
as large as dry peas. 

SAPINDAXE^ (including Buckeye and Maple) 

Trees or shrubs with deciduous simple or compound leaves 
without stipules. Sepals 5, often irregular, and more or less 
united. Petals alternate with the sepals or wanting. Stamens 
more than 5. Ovary with 2 ovules in each cell, often only 
one maturing. 

I. iESXULUS, Buckeye 

Leaves opposite, pahnately compound, of 5-9 leaflets. 
Flowers white or pale rose-color, in a panicle nearly a foot 
long ; very few are fertile, the majority being staminate. 
Calyx tubular. Petals 4 or 5, with long claws. Ovules 6, 
2 in each cell of the ovary ; but generally only one ripening, 
hecoming a large chestnut-like seed which is covered with the 
three leathery valves of the capsule. The abortive seeds can 
all be seen within the capsule. 

M. Califor'nica Nutt. This is a low-spreading tree or, rarely, a shrub. 
The leaves fall very early, leaving the pods hanging on long, naked 
peduncles. Rather widely distributed through middle California. 

n. ACER, Maple 

Trees or shrubs with deciduous pjalmately lohed leaves. 
Petals as many as the sepals, and inserted with the sta- 
mens on the margin of the disk. Fruit of 2, winged carpjels. 

a. A. macrophynum Pursh. Large-leaved Maple. This grows 
to be a large tree with leaves from 6 in. to nearly a foot broad. 
Floioers yelloivish, fragrant, in drooping racemes. Fruit densely 
hairy, with wings obliquely spreading. This grows along streams. 
From Santa Barbara to British Columbia. 

h. A. circina'tum Pursh. Vine Maple. Shrubs or small trees with 
trailing stems that strike root where they touch the ground, forming 
thickets. Flowers in loose, umbel-like corymbs. Fruit smooth, with wings 
horizontally spreading. Northern California to British Columbia. 


m. NEGUN'DO, Box Elder 

A small tree, tvith leaves pinnately compound with S leaf- 
lets. Flowers dioecious, apetalous. Staminate flowers in 
umbels with very slender pedicels. Fertile flowers in droop- 
ing racemes. Fruit of 2, winged carpels with wings almost 

N. Califor'nicum Torr. & Gray. This grows along streams in the 
Coast Mountains, but is not very abundant. 

RHAMNAXE^. Buckthorn Family 

Shrubs or trees with simple leaves and small flowers. 
Calyx valvate in the bud. Stamens opposite the petals. 
Ovary with from 2 to 4 cells. Stigmas with as many lobes 
as there are cells to the ovary. Seed solitary in each cell. 

I. RHAM'NUS, Coffee Berry, Cascara Sagrada 

Leaves alternate, with stipules that soon fall. Calyx tube 
urn-shaped with a 4 or 5 cleft margin. Petals very small or 
none. Ovary a drupe containing 2 or 3 stones. 

a. R. cro'cea Nutt. Leaves evergreen, almost orbicular, small, shin- 
ing above, inclined to be yellow beneath, sharply toothed. Flowers with 
the parts in fonrs. Berries red. Throughout California. 

b. R. Califor'nica Esch. Leaves evergreen, 1-4 in. long, ^-2 in. 
wide, ellii^tical, denticulate, or nearly entire. Fridt black-purple, 
2-seeded. Throughout Cahfornia. 

c. R. Purshia'na DC. This sometimes becomes a tree. Leaves 
deciduous, elliiDtical, pubescent beneath, 2-7 in. long, 1-3 in. wide. 
Petals cleft at the apex. Fruit black, 3-seeded. This is more com- 
mon in northern California and extends to British Columbia. 

II. CEANO'THUS, California Lilac 

Trees, or more often shrubs, with small, simple leaves. 
Flowers small, blue or white, in cymes or panicles. Calyx 
bell-shaped, with colored margin. Petals with a small claw, 
the blade forming a hood. Ovary half immersed in the disk, 


style 3-cleft. Fruit a 3-seeded capsule embraced at the base 
by the calyx tube, dehiscent from the junction of the 3 cells 
with elasticity sufficient to scatter the hard nutlets. 

a. C. thyrsiflo'rus Esch. Blue-blossoms. A tall shrub or tree 
with small alternate leavesj 3-nerved from the base. Flowers dense 
in numerous, compound racemes, often forming a thyrse, light blue, very 
fragrant. This is one of the most beautiful plants when in bloom. 
It frequently covers places where the redwoods have been cut and 
burned. From jNIontere}^ County northward. 

b. C. veluti'nus Dougl. This is a stout, diffusely branched shrub. 
Leaves alternate, large, tliick, resinous, and shining on the upper surface, 
aromatic, strongly ribbed from the base. Floivers ichite, in loose clusters 
on short peduncles. Common in northern California and Oregon. 

c. C. integer'rimus H. & A. Tall, erect shrub without spines. 
Leaves alternate, 3-nerved, ovate, soft-hairy on both surfaces, on 
short petioles. Flowers white or blue in slender panicles. Pods nearly 
smooth with the crests on the sides. Through California in the moun- 
tains, to Washington. In some places it is known as red-root. 

d. C. divarica'tus Nutt. Tall shrub with olive or bluish-green 
branchlets. Leaves alternate, ovate, 3-nerved, colored like the twigs 
but with the upper sm'face darker. Flowers pale blue, in ample pani- 
cles. Pods smooth, scarcely crested. The stems are rigid and fre- 
quently spiny. This is common in southern California. 

e. C. inca'nus T. & G. Shrub with stiff, spiny, diffusely branched 
stems. Leaves alternate, large, elliptical to ovate, pale green, 1-2^ in. 
long. Flow-ers in short, dense, axillary clusters, frequently forming 
a thyrse. Pod very resinous, lobed at top. This is found in the 
Coast Mountains of middle California. 

/ C. cordula'tus Kellogg. SnoW'-bush. Low shrubs, generally 
• w ith flat tops ; stems with spreading branches gray or glaucous. 
Leaves alternate, elliptical to orbicular, generally obtuse at base, den- 
ticulate at apex, pale gray-green on the low^er side, darker above. 
Flowers white, small, in numerous small clusters all over the stems. 
Capsules smooth, slightly crested. This forms thickets in the moun- 
tains of California and Oregon. 

g. C. folio'sus Parry. Low^ shrub with declined or trailing 
branches. Leaves alternate, small, ivith glandular, revolute margins. 
Flow-ers dark blue or rarely w^hite, in small, numerous clusters all 
over the stems. This blooms profusely soon after the rains and is 
in bloom almost continually. Common in the Coast Mountains. 

h. C. soredia'tus H. & A. Erect shrub, becoming tree-like, with 
spreading, rigid l>ranches, somew-hat thorny. Leaves alternate, ellip- 
tical, glandular on the margins, gray-green on the lorver surface, darker 
above. Flowers deep blue, small, in very numerous, small, oblong 


clusters. This is found in the Coast Mountains, and is a most 
beautiful sight in full bloom. 

i. C. cunea'tus Nutt. Widely branched with rigid branchlets. Leaves 
opposite, spatulate or wedge-shaped, on very short petioles, paler on the 
lower surface in lines. Flowers in small umbels which are close 
together on the branches, white or lavender. Pods with S erect 
horns or crests. This is common throughout California to Oregon. 

J. C. crassifo'lius Ton. Erect shrub with rigid branches, the 
young twigs clothed with white down. Leaves opposite, thick, white- 
downy on the lower surface, obtuse or refuse at apex. Flowers in numer- 
ous clusters on short peduncles, light blue or white, very densely 
clustered. Capsule icith 3 horn-like crests below the summit. This is 
found in the Coast Mountains, especially in southern California. 

k. C. pineto'nim Coville. Low shrubs with flat tops and many 
stiff, spreading branches. Leaves opposite, thick, glossy on the upper 
surface, coarsely toothed. Flowers blue or white, rather large, in 
many small clusters. Capsules large, red, with large, erect horns near 
the apex and icith crests between. On dry hills in the Sierra Nevada 
and Coast Mountains. 

/. C. prostra'tus Benth. Squaw-carpets, Mahala Mats. Stems 
forming mats, rooting. Leaves opposite, thick, with sharp teeth on 
the margins, spatulate or w^edge-shaped. Flowers blue, rather large. 
Pods large, red, with 3 large, wrinkled horns at the apex and crests 
between. Common in the mountains of California and extending 
to Washington. 

MALVA'CE^. Mallow Family 

Herbs or shrubs with flowers generally showy. Calyx wdth 
lobes valvate in the bud, often with an outer row of bracts 
below, resembling another calyx. Petals 5, united at the base 
of the stamen tube. Stamens numerous, united into a column 
by their filaments, enclosing the pistils. Anthers kidney- 
shaped, 1-celled, except in Fremontia. Fruit a 3-10-celled 
pod or a cluster of one- to several-seeded carpels, at the base 
of the united styles, commonly called '' cheeses.' 


I. LAVA'TERA, Tree Mallow 

Stout shrubs, frequently planted as wind-breaks. Leaves 
large, evergreen, 5-7-lobed. Flowers axillary, on long pedun- 
cles. Calyx with an outer row of 3-6 leaflets. Carpels 1-seeded. 


L. assurgentiflo'ra Kellogg. This grows to a height of several feet, 
and has large reddish purj)le flowers, veined with darker lines. 

n. SIDAL'CEA, Rose Mallow 

Perennial or annual herbs. Leaves round in outline, lobed 
or parted. Flowers rose-color, in a terminal raceme or spike. 
Calyx ivith outer bracts wanting. Column of stamens double. 
Carpels 1-seeded, indehiscent. 

a. S. malvaeflo'ra Gray. Perennial with several stems from the 
root 1-2 ft. high, erect or ascending, hairy. Root leaves rounded, 
deeply crenate ; stem leaves 7-parted, with the divisions 3-lobed. 
Flowers in spike-like racemes, rose-color. Carpels hecoming some- 
■what lorinkled and veiny ivhen ripe. There are two kinds of flowers. 
Those with rudimentary anthers are smaller and generally of a 
deeper color ; the perfect flowers are an inch or more across. The 
pistils ripen after the pollen is discharged. This is variable and 
common near the coast. 

h. S. Orega'na Gray. Perennial. Stems solitary or few from 
the root, 2-6 ft. in height, branching into panicles which are stel- 
late pubescent. Leaves chiefly at the base, orbicular in outline, 
7-9-lobed, the lobes cleft. Flowers ^-\ in. long in spicate 
racemes. Carpels slightly beaked, smooth. From northern Califor- 
nia to Oregon. 

c. S. diploscy'pha Gray. Annual, ivith hairy stems 1-2 ft. high ; 
branches spreading. Leaves round-kidney-shaped, the earliest 
crenate, the others with 5-7 lobed divisions. Petals pink, an inch 
long. Carpels veiny and wrinkled, depressed, heakless. This is com- 
mon in middle California in fields, growing like a weed. It is one 
of the most beautiful species. 


Erect shrubs or herbs. Calyx with S outer bracts. Stamen 
tube simple. Stigmas capitate. Carpels 1-seeded, usually 
splitting from the top. 

a. M. Par'ryi Greene. Annual. Stems pj^ostrate or ascending. 
Leaves deeply 5-parted, with toothed or lobed segments. Flowers 
axillary, on long, slender peduncles. Carpels 15-20. This is sim- 
ilar to Sidalcea malvceflora in the dioecious character of its flowers. 
The perfect flowers are often more than an inch in diameter. 
This is found in middle California in dry places. 


h. M. fascicula'tum Greene. A shrub 6-8 ft. high, with long, slen- 
der branches. Leaves toiiientose, o-lobed, coarsely toothed. Flowers 
in racemes or panicles. Corolla rose-purple, | in. long. Carpels 
smooth below, tomentose above. This is a beautiful shrub, or 
sometimes a tree, common in southern California. 

IV. FREMON'TIA, Slippery Elm 

A shrub or small tree, with small 3-7-lobed leaves, rusty- 
stellate pubescent. Calyx 1-3 in. in diameter, 5-cleft almost 
to the base, witli bright yellow, leathery divisions, imbri- 
cated in the bud; persistent bractlets under the calyx 3-5, 
small. Corolla wanting. Stamens 5, with filaments united 
to the middle. Anthers linear, 2-celled. Capsule 4 or 5 
celled, dehiscent from the top. This is, by some authorities, 
put into SterculiacecB. 

F. Califor'nica Torr. False Slippery Elm. This is a fine 
sight when in bloom. The large yellow flowers are numerous on 
the long stems. The fruit is densely hairy and woolly on the 
inside, and the dry open pods persist. The bark is used as slip- 
pery elm. From middle California to San Diego. 

HYPERICA'CE^, St. Johx's-wort Family 

Herbs with opposite leaves, covered with transparent or 
dark dots or with both kinds. Flowers with 4 or 5 sepals, 
and as many petals. Stamens numerous in 3-5 clusters, 
on the receptacle. Styles 3-5, more or less united. Pod 
splitting at the partitions into 3 valves. 

HYPERrCUM, St. John's-wort 

Flowers yellows Stamens in several sets, stigmas capitate. 

a. H. ScouTeri Hook. Erect, with simple stems from running root- 
stocks. Leaves oblong, obtuse, clasping, about an inch long. Flowers 
nearly an inch in diameter, in panicled cymes. This grows in moist 
places, chiefly in the mountains. 

b. H. concin'num Benth. Stems low, numerous, from a ivoody base. 
Leaves not clasping, usually folded, growing in four distinct ranks up 


the stem. Stamens very numerous, in 3 sets. Corollas nearly an 
inch in diameter. This grows on dry hills in central California. 

c. H. anagalloi'des Cham. & Schl. Stems weak, low, spreading, 
rooting at the joints, growing in v:et places and forming mats. Leaves 
small, clasping. Flowers small, in cymes. Pod 1-celled. Widely 

FRANKENIA'CE^, Yerba Reuma Family 

Low, spreading, perennial herbs or shrubs, with opposite, 
entire leaves and no stipules. Calyx tubular, 4 or 5 lobed, 
ribbed. Petals with long claws inserted on the receptacle. 
Stamens 4-7. Ovary 1-celled. Fruit a 2-4-valved pod 
included in the calyx tube. 

a. Franke'nia grandiflo'ra Cham. & Schl. Y'erba Reuma. Stems 
very numerous, slender. Leaves numerous, small and narrow, with 
the margins rolled under. Petals small, pink. On account of the 
great amount of salt contained in this plant it is almost impossible 
to dry it. It is common in salt marshes on the coast. 

b. F. grandiflo'ra var. campes'tris. This is the form found in the 
interior alkaline marshes. 


Calyx in 2 series ; the outer sepals 2, smaller than the 3 
inner, turned to the left in the bud, while the 5 petals are 
turned to the right. Stamens many, style 1. Fruit a cap- 
sule, with the parietal placentae protruding towards the center. 


Perennials, with many slender stems about a foot high 
from a woody root. Flowers small, yellow, open only in sun- 
shine, Avith petals soon falling. Ovary opening into 3 valves. 

H. scopa'rium Nutt. This grows on dry hills throughout Cali- 
fornia, in the Coast Mountains. 


VIOLA'CE^, Violet Family 

Low perennial herbs having alternate leaves with leaf-like 
stipules. Flowers on axillary peduncles. Sepals 5, persist- 
ent. Petals o, one with a spur at base. Stamens 5, short, 
with the filaments cohering around the pistil. Style club- 
shaped, with a one-sided stigma. Pod 1-celled, splitting into 
3 parts, each bearing seeds on the middle nerve. The seeds 
are often scattered by the bursting of the elastic valves. 

VrOLA, Violet 

Sepals ear-like at the base. Petals somewhat bearded 
within, thus affording a foothold for bees, the lowest one 
with a spur at base. Stamens not cohering very much, the 
lowest with spurs which reach down into the spur of the 
lowest petal. 

a. V. palus'tris L. Stemless, low, from thread-like creeping root- 
stocks. Leaves romid-cordate, 1-2 in. in diameter, faintly crenate. 
Flowers pale lilac to white, with short, rounded, sac-like spurs. Northern 
California to Alaska, growing in swampy places in the mountains. 

b. V. cani'na var. adun'ca Gray. Blue Violet. Stems leafy, 
several from the rootstock. Leaves simple, ovate-cordate, with 
leaf-Hke stipules. Flowers blue, tvith the spur as long as the sepals. 
The side- petals are bearded. Widely distributed in the Coast 

c. V. ocella'ta T. & G. Heart's-ease. Stems leafy. Leaves 
heart-shaped, crenate, with small papery stipules. Upper petals 
tchite within, dark on the outside; the others pale yelloio, veined loith 
purple; those on the sides tvith a purple spot near the base. In woods 
from Monterey County northward. 

d. V. peduncula'ta T. & G. Paxsy. Stems leafy, with ovate 
leaves wedge-shaped at the base. Stipules narrowly lance-shaped. 
Flowers large, on long peduncles, deep yellow. Upper petals tinged 
with brown on the outside, the others veined with purple, those on 
the sides bearded. Common from southern to middle California. 

e. V. sarmento'sa DougL Creeping Violet. Stems creeping 
by leafy stolons. Leaves finely crenate, round, with heart-shaped 
base. Floivers light yellov). This grows in the woods of the Coast 


/. V. praemor'sa Dougl. Stems short, frequently underground, 
gray pubescent or smooth. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, with the margin 
sinuate to dentate, tapering to the petiole. Sej^als papery, entire or 
slashed. Petals yellow, generally tinged with brown on the outside. 
Ovary globular, pubescent. Variable and widely distributed. 

g. V. loba'ta Benth. Stems leafy. Leaves palmately cut into 5-9 nar- 
row lobes, the central one the longest. (The root leaves are sometimes 
simple with crenate margins.) Stipules large, leaf-like. Flowers yel- 
low. Upper petals brownish purple on the outside, the others veined 
or tinged with purple, the side petals slightly bearded. Throughout 

h. V. chrysan'tha Hook. Apparently stemless. Leaves round in 
outline, twice divided into linear segments. Stipules lance-shaped. 
Flowers on peduncles as long as or longer than the leaves, bright 
yellow. Lower petals veined, yellow ; the upper brownish purpAe on 
the outside ; the side petals not bearded. On low hills from Monte- 
rey County northward. 

i. V. trinerva'ta Howell. Stemless, smooth. Leaves palmately 3-5- 
parted with lanceolate, acute divisions; stipules small, entire, almost 
free. Upper petals deep blue or violet : lower yellow. Washington. 

j. V. Beckwithli T. & G. Stemless, hairy or almost smooth. 
Leaves orbicular, palmately 3-parted into linear, obtuse divisions. Upper 
petals deep blue or violet, lower light blue or white, with the base yellow- 
ish. This is found from northern California in the Sierra Nevada 
to Oregon, generally on the eastern slope. 

MYRTAXE^, Myrtle Family 

Eucalyp'tus. There are many different species of this 
genus cultivated in California. The young shoots have oppo- 
site leaves much broader than the older leaves, which are 
alternate. The calyx never opens. It is like a lid and falls 
off. Under this is another very thin lid which answers to 
the corolla. Then the numerous stamens rise and expand, 
producing a tassel-like blossom. The fruit is a 3-5-celled 
capsule imbedded in the receptacle and opening by chinks at 
the top. The commonest species in cultivation is the Blue 
Gum, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. 


ONAGRA'CEiE, Evening Primrose Family 

Herbs with the calyx tube inserted on the ovary. Parts 
of the flower 4, except the stamens, which are generally 8. 
Capsule 4-celled, and stigma 4-lobed or capitate. Leaves 
simple, without stipules. Flowers usually showy. 

I. ZAUSCHNE'RIA, Wild Fuchsia 

Perennial herbs with many low ascending stems from 
woody rootstocks. Leaves opposite, except the upper ones. 
Flowers large, scarlet, in racemes. Calyx ivith tube globose 
just above the ovary, the funnel-formed border Jf.-lobed, with 8 ' 
scales ivithin, Jf erect and Jf. deflexed. Petals 4, obcordate and 
deeply cleft, a little longer than the calyx lobes. Stamens 8 
in 2 sets, one shorter than the other. Anthers versatile. 
Stigma 4-lobed or shield-shaped. Pod 4-angled. Seeds ivith 
a tuft of down at the end. 

Z. Califor'nica PresL All the forms of Zauschneria are considered 
by many botanists to belong to this species. It is extremely vari- 
able, and found through California; blooming from summer until 
late in the fall. 

II. EPILO'BIUM, Willow Herb 

Perennial herbs often growing near water. Calyx ivith 
tube short or none, border with Jf spreading, deciduous lobes. 
Petals spreading or erect, purplish or white, often notched at 
the apex. Stamens 8 in 2 sets, one shorter; anthers versa- 
tile. Stigma with 4 spreading lobes or somewhat club- 
shaped. Pod 4-sided. Seeds with a tuft of long white hai7's. 

a. E. spica'tum Lam. Fireweed. Perennial, with tall, erect, 
simple, leafy stems. Leaves sessile, lance-shaped, entire. Flowers 
reddish purple, large, in a long spike tcith noticeable bracts. (The 
spike resembles a raceme because of the long, linear ovaries, which 
look like pedicels.) Style yellow, hairy at the base, with 4 linear 
stigma lobes. This is common in the Sierra Xevada Mountains 
wherever the timber has been burned, and also in the northern 
part of the Coast Mountains. 


h. E. panicula'tum Nutt. Annual, with slender stems branching 
widely above, low or 10 ft. high. Leaves small, often in clusters on 
the main stem, almost wanting on the branches. Flowers small, 
rose-color, veined with darker lines, terminating the slender thread- 
like branches. Petals deeply notched, nearly twice as long as the 
calyx lobes. This is common, and blooms in the fall. Widely 

c. E. adenocaulon Hausskn. Stems ascending, tall, with the 
inflorescence branched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, with rounded base, 
finely toothed margins, and short-winged petioles. Flowers small, 
rose-color, nodding at first. Inflorescence and seed-])ods glandular 
pubescent. This is common and widely distributed. It grows near 
wet places. Little rosettes of leaves appear late in the season at the 
base of the stem. 

m. CENOTHE'RA, Evening Primrose 

Herbs with alternate leaves. Flowers various, with calyx 
tube prolonged above the ovary, and the lobes reflexed, often 
remaining somewhat united. Petals 4, white or yellow, turn- 
ing reddish or, in some yellow-flowered species, greenish. 
Stamens 8, with anthers versatile. Stigma either with 4 
linear divisions or capitate. The following are the most 
widely distributed species. 

a. (E. Califor'nica Watson. White Evening Primrose. Peren- 
nials, with low, rather stout stems covered with white, shining 
epidermis. Flowers axillary, with petals white, obcordate, more than 
an inch long. Style 4-cleft. Capsules 2 in. long, slightly tapering. 
Central and southern California. 

b. (E. bien'nis L. Yellow Evening Primrose. Stem erect, 
often 3 ft. high, leafy. Flowers large (often more than 2 in. in diam- 
eter), yellow, in a leafy spike. Stigmas with 4 linear lobes. This 
is generally found in moist places. There are several varieties, 
differing chiefly in the amount of pubescence and the size of. the 
flowers. Widely distributed. 

c. (E. gauraeflo'ra T. & G. Xodding Evening Primrose. Stems 
leafy, simple or branched from the base. Flowers rather small {not 
^ in. in diameter), very numerous, ivhite, turning rose-color, in a noddi7ig 
spike. Capsules slender, linear, much contorted. This is common 
in the San Joaquin Valley on the sides of hills or gulches. 

d. (E. ova'ta Nutt. Sun Cups (incorrectly called Cowslips). 
Low, tcith leaves and flowers from a feshy 7'oot forming rosettes on the 
ground. Leaves broadly lance-shaped, with the margins generally 
toothed or wavy, 3-8 in. long, often the midvein red. Calyx tube 


like a long stem, 1-4 in. long, extending down to the capsule, which 
is underground. Corolla bright yellow, ivith petals ^ in. or more long. 
Stigma capitate. This grows in moist places not far from the coast, 
and blooms early. 

e. CE. campes'tris Greene. Annual, icith many slender branches 
from the root, 6 in. to nearly a foot high. Leaves narrow, linear, den- 
tate. Calj^x tube short, funnel-form, attached to the long linear 
capsule, which often becomes somewhat contorted. Petals ^ in', or 
less long, bright yellow, sometimes spotted at base. Anthers versatile, 
stigma capitate. This is generally many-flowered, and is quite com- 
mon south of San Francisco. 

/. (E. cheiranthifoTia Hornemann. Stems decumbent, often 2 ft. or 
more long, ichite, with a close pubescence, especially on the younger parts. 
Leaves oblanceolate to ovate, the upper sessile. Ovary and calyx 
woolly. Petals yellow, generally turning greenish when witheinng. Pods 
angled, becoming contorted. This is common on the sands along 
the coast, chiefly south of San Francisco, and is quite variable. 

IV. GODE'TIA, "Farewell to Spring" 

Calyx tube prolonged beyond the ovary, funnel-shaped, 
with reflexed lobes somewhat united, deciduous. Petals 4^ 
generally rose-color, often marked with spots of deeper color. 
Stamens 8 in 2 sets, one shorter than the other, and ripen- 
ing earlier ; anthers attached at the base. Stigmas 4, gen- 
erally purple. Capsule 4-celled. The following species are 
the most easily distinguished and most common. 

a. G. lep'ida Lindl. Annual, erect herbs wdth white, shining 
stems. Flowers in spikes. Tips of the calyx lobes free in the bud. 
Petals rose-color, with a darker spot near the top. Capsule with a 
single row of seeds in each cell, sessile, narrowed towards the apex, 
ribbed, white-hairy. Monterey County to Oregon. 

b. G. amoe'na Lilja. Stems loosely branching below, with widely 
spreading branches. Flowers nodding in the bud, large and showy 
(an inch or more in diameter). Petals white, rose-color, or purple, 
with a darker spot at the center. Capsules narrowed at both ends, 
on short pedicels. From Monterey County northward. 

c. G. quadrivul'nera Spach. Stems slender, a foot or two high. 
Leaves narrow, entire or slightly denticulate, an inch or two long. 
Tips of the calyx lobes slightly free in the bud. Petals purplish, about 
half an inch long. Stigma lobes short, purplish. Capsule narrowed 
to the top, ribbed and hairy. Seeds in one row in each cell. This 
species is widely distributed. 


d. G. purpu'rea Watson. Stems leafy, a foot or two high. Leaves 
oblong, entire, an inch or two long. Flowers in a leafy terminal 
spike. Tips of the calyx lobes not at all free in the bud. Petals deep 
purple, half an inch long. Stigina lobes pm-ple, short. Capsule 
ovate to linear-oblong, sessile, not ribbed. Seeds in 2 rows in each cell. 
From Oregon to Los Angeles. 

e. G. Bot'tae Spach. Erect, with few branches, 1-2 ft. high, 
almost smooth. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 1-2 in. long, entire or 
with a few teeth on the margin. Petals light purple, about an inch 
long. Pod narrowed at each end, about an inch long, on pedicels ^-| 
in. long. This is common in southern California. 

/. G. epilobioi'des Wats. Stems erect, slender, one foot or less 
high, slightly clothed with white down or smooth. Leaves linear. 
Petals pale rose or white, a half inch or less long. Pod narrowed at 
each end, an inch or less long. Common in southern California. 


Calyx tube prolonged beyond the ovary, funnel-shaped, 
with reflexed, united, deciduous lobes. Petals J/., with long 
claws. Stamens 8 in 2 sets, those opposite the petals often 
sterile. Anthers attached by the base. Pods linear. 

The chief difference between Clarkia and Godetia consists 
in the clawed petals of the former. 

a. C. eregans Dougl. Stems simple or branched, from 6 in. to 
6 ft. high. Divisions of the calyx united except on one side, deep 
wine-color on the inner surface. Petals reddish purple, with long, 
slender claws and rhomboidal blades. Anthers all perfect. Capsule 
nearly sessile, often woolly. Widely distributed. 

b. C. concin'na Greene (Eucharidium). Stems slender, with spread- 
ing branches. Calyx tube very slender, an inch long. Petals dark 
rose-color, 3-lobed. Stamens only 4- Stigma lobes unequal. Cap- 
sules about an inch long, sessile. This is a very showy plant, bloom- 
ing in summer. In the Coast Mountains. 

c. C. pulcheria Pursh. Stems branching, about a foot high. 
Leaves linear-lanceolate, 1-3 in. long, entire, smooth. Petals rose- 
color, with 3 broad-spjreading lobes, the claw with a pair of recurved 
teeth. Perfect stamens Jf, each with a scale on each side of the base. 
There are \ stamens that are rudimentary. Stigma lobes dilated. Pod 
1 in. long, 8-angled, on spreading pedicels. From northern Cali- 
fornia to British America. 


LOASA'CE^. Blazing Star Family 

Herbs covered with rougli barbed hairs. Calyx tube attached 
to the 1-celled ovary with parietal placentse. Stamens numer- 
ous, merging into the petals. 

MENTZE'LIA, Blazing Star 

Tall and erect, or loosely branching herbs, with stems white 
and shining. Flowers showy, yellow, orange or cream-color ; 
from very small to 3 or 4 in. in diameter. The barbed hairs 
cause the plant to adhere to whatever it happens to touch. 
The numerous stamens and spreading petals give this plant a 
radiant appearance like a star. The species are local. 

M. laevicau'lis T. & G. Biennial, with stout branching stems, 
2-3 ft. high. Leaves lanceolate, 2-8 in. long. Flowers sessile on 
short branches, 3-4 in. broad, light yellow, blooming in the morn- 
ing. Calyx tube naked. Petals 5-10. Stamens numerous. This 
is generally found growing in the beds of streams in the mountains 
through California to Washington. 

CACTAXE^. Cactus Family 

Peculiar green fleshy perennial plants, armed with bundles 
of spines, and rarely possessing leaves. Flowers with numer- 
ous sepals, petals, and stamens, in several series, forming a 
cup above the 1-celled, many-ovuled ovary. Style 1, with 
several stigmas. Fruit a pulpy or, rarely, a dry 1-celled 
berry with numerous seeds. The following are the common 

I. MAMILLA'RIA, Bird's-nest Cactus 

Round or oval j^lci^ts, covered ivith spine-hearing tubercles. 
Flowers small, arising between the tubercles. Ovary naked. 
Seeds without endosperm. 

n. ECHmOCAC'TUS, Indian Melon 

Round or oval pla.nts^ usually ribbed, ivitli bundles of spines 
on the ribs. Flowers from the youngest part of the ribs close 


above the growing bunches of spines. Ovary covered ivith 
sepals. Seeds with endosperm. 

III. CE'REUS, Column Cactus 

Oval or columnar plants, sometimes tall, ribbed, or angled, 
with bundles of spnnes on the ribs. Flowers larger than the 
two preceding, close above the bundles of full-grown spines. 
Ovary covered ivith sej^als. Seeds without endosperm. 

IV. OPUN'TIA, Jointed Cactus 

Branching or jointed plants, ivith joints either flattened or 
cylindrical. Spines barbed, and accompanied by numerous 
short bristles that easily become detached. Ovary bearing 
bristles in the axils of small terete deciduous sepals. Seeds 
with the embryo coiled around the endosperm. 

FICOFDE^. Fig Marigold Family 

Fleshy, succulent plants, with opposite leaves without stip- 
ules. Petals and stamens numerous, inserted on the tube of 
the calyx, which is adnate to the capsule. 

MESEMBRYAN'THEMUM, Fig Marigold, Ice Plant 

Calyx lobes 5, unequal. Petals numerous, linear. Stamens 
indefinitely numerous. Capsule with as many cells as styles 
(4-20), usually 5, dehiscent at the top. 

M. aequilatera'le Haworth. Fig Marigold. Perennial, with 
stout, usually prostrate stems. Leaves thick, 3-sided, smooth, 1-3 
in. long. Flowers crimson, nearly sessile. Fruit edible. This is 
common on the coast. 

ARALIAXE^. Ginseng Family 

Perennial herbs or shrubs, generally with woody stems. 
Umbels not regularly compound. Styles and carpels more 
than 2. Fruit fleshy, forming a berry or drupe. 


I. ARA'LIA, Ginseng, Spikenard 

Calyx 5-toothed or enllre. Petals 5, ovate. Stamens 5. 
Pistil with the ovary 2-5-celled, and the styles free or slightly 
united at base. Leaves alternate, compound. Umbels simple, 
either in racemes or panicles. Pedicels not jointed. 

A. Calif or'nica Watson. Herbs, 8-10 ft. high, from a thick aro- 
matic root. Leaves large, bipiiinate, with ovate-lanceolate leaflets, 
simply or doubly serrate. Umbels globular, generally in panicles. 
Fruit when ripe forming a purple berry. This is frequent along 
shaded streams. 

II. FAT'SIA, Devil's Club 

Densely prickly shrubs with large palmately lobed leaves 
and greenish white flowers in dense paniculate umbels. 
Calyx teeth icanting. Petals 5, valvate in bud. Stamens 5, 
alternate with the petals. Ovary 2-3-celled ; styles 2. Fruit 
a drupe. Fedicels jointed. 

F. hor'rida Benth. & Hook. Stems stout, woody, creeping at base, 
leafy at summit, very prickly. Leaves roundish, heart-shaped in out- 
line, prickly on both sides. Styles united to the middle. This is 
common in shady woods from Oregon northwards. It forms thickets 
which; on account of the thorny stems, are almost impassable. 

UMBELLIF'ER^. Parsley Family 

Herbs with hollow, grooved stems and small flowers in 
umbels. Calyx usually a 5-toothed rim around the top of 
the ovary. Petals 5, small. Stamens 5, inserted on a disk 
on the top of the ovary. Ovary 2-celled and 2-ovuled, ripen- 
ing into 2 carpel-like akenes, which readily separate from 
each other. Each carpel bears longitudinal ribs, in the fur- 
rows of which secondary ribs often occur. On a cross-section 
of the fruit the oil tubes are seen as dots. They traverse the 
spaces between the ribs, and are pretty near the surface of 
the fruit. The seeds contain a small embryo enclosed in 
considerable endosperm. The family is difiicult, and the 


flowers are so much alike that the different genera and 
species are to be distinguished from each other chiefly by 
the characteristics of the fruit. 

I. SANIC'ULA, Snakeroot, Sanicle 

Leaves palmately lobed or pinnately divided. Umbels 
simple or imperfectly compound, with flowers sessile or on 
short pedicels. Bracts of the involucre leafy, toothed ; those 
of the involucels small, entire. Fruit covered ivith hooked 
prickles or Ud)ercles. Seeds round, with oil tubes more or less 

a. S. arctopoi'des H. & A. Yellow Mats, Footsteps of Spring. 
Stems prostrate, branching from the base. Leaves deeply 3-lobed, 
with the divisions raggedly cleft. Fruit on short pedicels. This 
is very conspicuous in early spring, dotting the ground with its small 
mat of yellowish green fiowers and leaves, during the rainy season. It 
is generally in bloom early in January. Throughout California. 

b. S. bipinnatifida Dougl. Purple Sanicle, Nigger-babies. 
Erect, with lower leaves opposite, upper alternate, pinnately 
3-5-parted, with the divisions toothed or lobed (generally the 
teeth are tipped with bristles). Flowers purplish, in umbels ivith 3 
or Jf, elongated rays. Throughout California. 

c. S. tubero'sa Torr. Stems low from a small tuberous root. Leaves 
finely dissected. Involucre with 1-4 rays, leafy ; involucels small, 
unequally lobed. Heads small. Flowers yellow. Fruit covered 
with tubercles instead of prickles. Widely distributed, often growing 
on stony hills. There is a disagreeable odor about the plant. 

II. HERACLE'UM, Cow Parsnip 

This is a stout, tall herb with large thrice-compound leaves. 
Leaflets broad, deeply and irregularly toothed. Umbels large, 
compound, with many-leaved involucels. Calyx teeth small 
or none. Petals white, conspicuous, the outer ones 2-cleft and 
larger than the imier. Fruit tipped with a thick conical 
enlargement of the style, with 3 blunt ribs on the outside of 
each carpel, and a large oil tube in each interval between the 
ribs. Seeds flat. 

H. lana'tum Michx. This is the only species. The stem is gen- 
erally woolly. It grows everywhere not far from water. 


III. DAU'CUS, Carrot, Rattlesnake Weed 

Calyx 5-toothed, fruit oblong, with the primary ribs bristly, 
and the secondary ones winged with a row of barbed prickles 
more or less united. Oil tubes under the wings. Leaves 
much dissected with very small segments. Involucres like 
the leaves, but smaller. Outer rays of the umhel longest and 
folding over the others in fruit. Flowers greenish. 

D. pusil'lus Michx. Yerba de la Yibora, Rattlesnake AYeed. 

Annual, erect, simiDle or branched, with the umbels terminating the 
stems. The fruit tastes something like lemon peel. This is the 
most widely accepted antidote for the bite of the rattlesnake. 
Widely distributed. 

CORNA'CE.®. Dogwood Family 

Generally trees or shrubs, with opposite simple and entire 
leaves without stipules. Flowers in heads or cymes. Sepals, 
petals, and stamens 4. Calyx adnate to the 1 or 2 celled 
ovary, which becomes a 1 or 2 seeded drupe or berry in fruit. 
The seeds have hard endosperm and a minute embryo. 

COR'NUS, Dogwood 

Calyx minutely 4-toothed. Petals white or yellowish green. 

a. C. Nuttal'lii Audubon. Lakge-flowered Dogwood. This 
is usually a small tree with smooth bark. Flowers numerous in a 
head surrounded hy a conspicuous involucre of large ivhite or yellowish 
bracts often tinged ivith red and resendAing petals. Berries bright red 
in clusters. This grows along streams, chiefly in the northern part 
of California. 

b. C. pubes'cens var. Califor'nica C. & R. Common Dogwood. 
Shrubby, with smooth, reddish branches. Leaves ovate to oval, 
acute at base, acute or pointed at top. Flowers white in cymes, 
flowering almost throughout the year. Fruit dull white, rounded, 
with stone somewhat flattened, ridged on the sides and fm-rowed on 
the edge. This is common throughout the state, growing along 

c. C. stolonif'era Michx. Shrub 3-9 ft. high, bearing stolons. 
Stems bright red-purple and smooth. Leaves lanceolate to oblong, 


pointed at top, obtuse at base, white on the lower surface from the 
close pubescence. Flowers in small cymes. Calyx teeth minute, 
petals white, fruit white or lead-color. Oregon to British Columbia. 

GARRYA'CE^. Silk-tassel Bush Family 

GAR'RYA, Silk-tassel Bush, Quinine Bush 

Evergreen shrubs with opposite leathery leaves. Flowers 
grayish green, apetalous, dioecious, in pendent axillary cat- 
kins, which are solitary or several. Sterile flowers with 
4-parted calyx, and 4 conspicuous stamens on distinct fila- 
ments. Fertile flowers with a 2-lobed calyx or none, styles 2, 
ovary 1-celled, containing 2 ovules. Fruit a berry with a 
brittle outer covering, pulpy within, and containing 1 or 2 
seeds. This is the only genus. 

a. G. Fremon'tii Ton. Leaves becoming glabrous, not wavy- 
margined. Fruit very bitter, purple. Sterile catkins 2-3 in. long. 
Middle California. 

b. G. ellip'tica Dougl. Leaves white-woolly on the lower surface, 
wavy-margined. Fruit, when ripe, red-purple, pleasantly acid, with 
a hint of bitterness. The sterile catkins are from 2 to 5 in. long, 
and look like fringe. From Monterey County to Oregon and 

ERICAXE^. Heather Family 

Herbs or woody plants. Leaves simple, evergreen or 
deciduous, without stipules. Stamens as many or twice as 
many as the parts of the corolla ; anthers 2-celled, opening 
by little holes at the top. Ovary generally with as many 
cells as there are parts to the corolla, inferior in Vaccinium 
but superior in the other genera. Style simple. Fruit a 
berry or a pod with axillary placentae. 

I. VACCIN'IUM, Huckleberry 

Shrubby. Calyx and corolla apparently on the summit of 
the ovary, the calyx tube being adnate to the ovary. Stamens 


8-10, with separate cells to the anthers, which taper upwards. 
Fruit a berry crowned luith the 5-toothed calyx. 

a. V. ova'tum Pursh. Leaves evergreen, glossy, serrate, acute. 
Flowers crowded in short clusters in the axils of the leaves and at 
the ends of the branches. Corolla bell-shaped, pink. Stamens 10. 
Berries dark blue or purple^ edible. This is common in the Coast 
Mountains from Monterey County to Oregon. 

b. V. parvifolium Smith. Stems much branched, with the 
branches sharply angled. Leaves deciduous, oblong, entire, dull 
green above, pale beneath. Corolla globular. Stamens 10. Anthers 
with long tail-like appendages on the back. Berries pale red, edible. 
Xorthern California to Alaska. 

II. AR'BUTUS, Madrono, Madrone 

Trees with thick, evergreen, alternate leaves. Flowers 
white, in terminal panicles. Calyx small, 5-lobed. Corolla 
urn-shaped, with 5 recurved teeth, and large honey-glands 
near the base. Stamens 10 ; anthers flattened, with a pair of 
horns on the back below the summit. Ovary raised on a disk, 
5-celled. Fruit, tuhen ri^ye, a round red berry ivith a rough, 
tubercled surface, edible but rather dry. 

A. Menzie'sii Pursh. This is a beautiful tree or sometimes a 
shrub, with smooth, brownish red bark, which peels off in the sum- 
mer. The leaves are large, oblong, serrate, bright green above, pale 
beneath. The tree is beautiful at aU times ; when in bloom fra- 
grant and adorned with large panicles of flowers like lilies of the 
valley ; in autumn gorgeous with the large clusters of fruit, varying 
in color from greenish yellow to bright scarlet, as large as green 
peas. In the Coast Mountains and Sierra foothills to Puget Sound. 

III. ARCTOSTAPH'YLOS, Kinnikinick, Manzanita 

Shrubs with alternate, evergreen leaves and smooth bark 
that peels off in summer. Flowers white or pink, variously 
clustered. Calyx small, 5-lobed. Corolla urn-shaped, with 
5 recurved teeth and large honey-glands near the base. 
Stamens 10, anthers flattened, ivith a pair of horns on the back 
at the summit. Ovary raised on a disk, 5-celled. Fruit a 
berry, containing stony seeds that are separable or cohere 
into one. 


a. A. Manzani'ta Parry. Common Manzanit a. Erect and branch- 
ing, becoming tree-like, with smooth, polished dark-red stems and 
branches. The young shoots and the leaves are ashy gray, becoming 
smooth with age. The leaves are generally vertical by a twist in 
the petiole. Flowers crowded in short racemes on smooth pedicels 
with short, pointed bracts. Fruit smooth, about the size of a 
pea. This sometimes becomes a tree. In valleys of the Coast 

h. A. Stanfordia'na Parry. A delicately branched shrub, either 
erect or spreading, with slender peduncles and pedicels, small scale- 
like bracts and dark-green, smooth leaves, round and small. The 
flowers are smaller than in other species, and are deep rose-color, rarely 
ichite. The berries are smooth, rather small, and the seeds coalesce 
more or less. This is common in the northern Coast Mountains, 
and is perhaps the most beautiful species. 

c. A. tomento'sa Dougl. Shrub with hairy stems and leaves, more 
or less clothed wath a close pubescence. Floivers in short panicles 
with leafy bracts which are most conspicuous in the buds. Flowers 
white, rather large. Berries with the seeds coalescing more or less. 
This is one of the most widely distributed species, and embraces a 
great many forms chiefly distinguished by the amount of pubes- 
cence. It is never destroyed by brush fires, and the old roots 
become chunks of solid wood. 

d. A. canes'cens Eastwood. This is somewhat similar to the 
preceding, but the entire plant is ichite-downy. The flowers are more 
often pink than white, and the habit of the plant is more spreading. 
The bracts are large and leaf-like. This is widely distributed in 
northern California. 

e. A. Anderso'nii Gray. This is similar to A. tomento'sa. The 
leaves are thin, bright green, smooth or slightly pubescent, with 
the base arrow-shaped or heart-shaped, either sessile or short-petioled. 
It is found in the Coast Mountains of California, in San Mateo, 
Santa Cruz, and Alameda Counties. 

/ A. vis'cida Parry. Shrub 3-.5 ft. high, with smooth, pale-gray 
or glaucous leaves. Panicles erect in bud, becoming pendent later. 
Flowers pink or white, rather small, on slender, very viscid pedicels. 
Fruit a berry containing vseeds that coalesce more or less. The 
bracts are small and scale-like. This species is very abundant in 
the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and in the hills of Lake and 
Mendocino Counties. 

g. A. glau'ca Lindl. Big-berried Manzanita. The foliage 
of this is always glaucous and smooth. It is distinguished from 
all other species by the large berries, often f in. in diameter, with 
the stones consolidated into a thick, solid mass. Most common south- 


h. A. bi'color Gray. Shrub 3 or 4 ft. high. Leaves oblong to 
oval, 1-2 in. long, leathery, clothed with white down on the lower 
surface, green and glabrous on the upper. Corolla rose-color, small. 
Fruit a smooth hemj with a solid seed. Southern California, espe- 
cially in San Diego County. 

/. A. U'va-Ur'si. Kinnikinick. Stems forming a mat on the 
ground. Leaves small, very glossy. Flowers in short, simple 
racemes. Fruit bright red and smooth when ripe. Northern Cali- 
fornia to British Columbia. 

There are many other species more local and difficult to 


Stems shrubby but slender, ascending or spreading, creep- 
ing under ground. Leaves alternate, broad, evergreen, 
glossy. Flowers nodding, solitary or in racemes, in the 
axils of the leaves. Calyx 5-cleft, becommff fleshy in fruit 
and enclosing the capsule. Corolla 5-toothed. Stamens 10 
ivlthin the corolla, the anthers tipped ivith bristles. Ovary 
5-celled, with many ovules, in fruit forming a sweet aromatic 
berry which is edible. 

G. Shallon Pursh. Salal. Stems sometimes 3-4 ft. high, 
almost climbing among trees and bushes. Racemes glandular. 
Corolla pink, urn-shaped. Fruit black ichen ripe, with dark-purple 
pulp. From Santa Barbara to British Columbia. 


Calyx very small. Corolla large, funnel-form, 5-lohed. 
Stamens 5—10, v:ith long, slender filaments reclining along the 
lower side of the flower. Capsule woody, dehiscent from the 
summit, at the partitions, by 5 valves. Flowers showy, in 
umbels, the bracts falling as the flower opens. 

a. R. Califor'nicum Hook. Rose Bay. Shrub with smooth ever- 
green leaves. Flowers rose-color., numerous, in a terminal umbel. 
Upper lobes of the corolla yellowish and spotted within. This 
is a beautiful shrub of northern California, Oregon and Wash- 
ington, often growing in patches covering acres. It is the State 
-Flower of Washington. 


h. R. occidenta'le Gray. Azalea. Shrub with bright-green decid- 
uous leaves. Flowers large, fragrant, appearing after the leaves, in 
numerous umbels. Corolla viscid, white or rose-color, the upper 
lobes blotched with yellow within. Stamens and styles very long. 
This is found along streams in both the Coast and Sierra Nevada 

VI. LE'DUM, Labrador Tea 

Shrub ivith alternate, eiwrgreen leaves more or less covered 
luith resinous dots. Flowers white, in corymbs or umbels. 
Calyx 5-lobed, small. Corolla of 5 obovate, widely spread- 
ing petals. Stamens 5-10, as long as the petals. Pod 
5-celled, with 5 valves opening from the base upwards. 

a. L. glandulo'sum Nutt. Leaves smooth on both sides, but paler 
and more glandular beneath. Flower clusters often crowded, terminal 
or axillary. This is common at high elevations in the Sierra Nevada 
and on the coast from northern California to British Columbia. 

b. L. latifolium Ait. Leaves densely white-woolly beneath, becoming 
brownish, margins with the edges turned back, oblong, obtuse, 1-2 in. 
long, ^ in. wide. Flower clusters all terminal. Northern Cali- 
fornia to British Columbia. 

VII. CHIMAPH'ILA, Prince's Pine 

Herbs with low stems from slender rootstocks. Leaves 
evergreen, alternate or sometimes opposite, toothed. Flowers 
few, fragrant, waxy-looking, in terminal corymbs. Petals 5, 
widely spreading, regular, orbicular, concave. Stamens 10, 
on short filaments which are dilated and hairy in the middle. 
Stigma rou7id-shield-shaped, concealing the short style, 5-rayed. 
Pod splitting from the top doiumvards, not woolly on the edges 
of the valves. 

a. C. umbella'ta Nutt. Stems about 6 in. to a foot high, with 
the leaves often in whorls, not spotted. Peduncle 4-7-flowered, 
with the bracts narrow and deciduous ; filaments hairy on the margins 
only. California to British Columbia. 

b. C. Menzie'sii vSpreng. Stems about 6 in. high, with a few 
branches from the base. Leaves sometimes mottled with white. 
Peduncles 1-3-flowered. Filaments slender, with a woolly dilated cen- 
tral part. California to British Columbia. 


Vm. PYR'OLA, Wintergreen 

Herbs with radical leaves and flowers nodding in racemes, 
on scajjes. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla with 5 incurved petals. 
Stamens 10, usually declined. Anthej^s erect in hud, 2-horned 
at base, but becoming inverted when the flowers expand. Style 
declined or straight. Fruit a capsule opening down the 
middle of the cell walls on the back. 

a. P. rotundifo'lia L. Leaves round, shining or dull, on long peti- 
oles. Scapes from 6 in. to a foot high. Flowers white, pink or 
rose-color, almost ^ in. in diameter. Anthers narrowed at top. 
Style declined, with a collar at base of the stigma. In wet places 
in the mountains, widely distributed. 

h. P. pic'ta Smith. Leaves orbicular, thick, veined or blotched ivith 
white, oflen purplish beneath. Scapes about 6 in. high, 7-15-flowered. 
Petals greenish white, longer than the sepals. Northern California 
to Alaska. 

c. P. aphylla Smith. Leafless or icith a few small, poorly formed 
leaves. Scapes reddish, 6 in. high. Flowers similar to the above, 
rose-color. In deep woods from California to Washington. 

PRIMULAXE^. Primrose Family 

Herbs with perfect, regular flowers, parts of the calyx and 
corolla 5 (sometimes 4, 6, or 8). Stamens equaling the lobes 
of the corolla and opposite them, inserted on the tube of the 
corolla. Pistil with a single style and stigma, the ovary 
1-celled, with a globular central placenta. 

I. DODECA'THEON, Twelve Gods, Shooting Stars, Prairie Pointers, 

Herbs with leaves clustered at the base of the scape. 
Flowers showy, in simple, terminal umbels. Calyx 5-cleft, 
ivith the divisio7is reflexed in flower, erect in fruit. Corolla 
with an extremely short tube, an open throat, and 5 reflexed 
narrow divisions, ivhich are ivhite, rose-color or purple. Sta- 
mens inserted 07i the throat of the corolla, ivith short monadel- 
phous fllaments, and long yellow or violet anthers conniving 
around the long style and forming the pjoint of the flower. 


a. D. Henderso'ni Gray. Roots becoming small tubers and each 
forming a new plant. Leaves ovate or obovate, smooth, on broad 
petioles. Scape 6-12 in. high. Divisions of corolla 4 or 5, rose- 
purple ; tube darker, with a ring of yellow. Anthers erect. Pod 
twice as long as the calyx, opening by a lid below the summit. 
This is the commonest species in early spring on hillsides of the 
Coast Mountains, and extends from middle California to Oregon. 

b. D. Clevelan'di Greene. Roots somewhat fleshy, but not forming 
tubers. Stems and leaves pale green and glandular. Leaves ascend- 
ing, spatulate or obovate. Divisions of corolla bright purple, yellow 
at base; tube dark purple with yellow lines. Pods opening by a 
lid at top. Southern California. 

There are several other species, chiefly growing in the 
higher mountains. 

II. TRIENTA'LIS, Star-flower 

Low perennial herbs from tuber-bearing, slender rootstocks. 
Steins simple, with the leaves in a whorl below the flowers. 
Flowers small, star-sha2:)ecl, on slender pedicels. Calyx and 
corolla 7-parted (sometimes 6-9-parted), with divisions widely 
spreading. Stamens with slender filaments united into a ring 
at the base. Capsule splitting into five parts, with few seeds. 

T. Europae'a var. latifo'lia Torr. This grows in the woods and 
blooms in the spring. The petals are white or rose-color. 


Stems erect, leafy. Leaves entire, opposite or whorled. 
Flowers yellow, axillary, nodding on slender pedicels. Corolla 
wheel-shaped, apparently with petals distinct, each division 
wrapped around its stamen in the bud. Filaments united 
around the base of the corolla i7i a riiig, every alternate one 
being sterile. Capsule many-seeded. 

S. cilia'tum Raf. Stem simple. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 2-4 in. 
long, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at base, with long ciliate 
petioles. In moist thickets. Washington. Summer. 

IV. ANAGAL'LIS, Pim'pemel, Poor Man's Barometer 

Spreading or prostrate annuals, with stem leaves opposite 
or w^horled. Flowers on axillary peduncles, salmon-color, with 


a darker spot in the center (rarely bine or white) ; calyx and 
corolla tvheel-shaped. Filaments bearded. Capsule globose, 
the top falling off as a lid. 

A. arven'sis L. This is common everywhere, and has been intro- 
duced from Europe. 

PLUMBAGINA'CE^, Sea Pink Family 

Ours are maritime herbs, with all parts of the flower 5, 
except the 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary. Leaves alternate, entire, 
clasping the stem. Calyx tubular or funnel-form, 5-toothed. 
Corolla with 5 petals, united at base into a ring. Stamens 
5, opposite the petals, and inserted at their base. Ovary 
5-angled at summit, with 1 ovule ; styles 5. 

I. ARME'RIA, Thrift 

Stemless perennials, luith narrow, linear, persistent leaves 
in close tufts. Flowers in a head subtended by an involucre, 
on a long scape. Corolla 5-parted, of 5 distinct petals. 

A. vulga'ris Willd. Sea Pink. Corolla rose-color. This is com- 
mon along the coast, blooming in spring. 

II. STAT'ICE, Sea Lavender 

Flowers in small one-sided spikes crowded at the ends of the 
numerous widely spreading branches. Leaves with a broad, 
tough blade tapering to a petiole. 

S. Limo'nium L. var. Califor'nica Watson. Sea Lavender. 

Corolla violet. This is common in salt marshes, blooming in 

OLEAXE^. Ash Family 

Trees or shrubs having opposite leaves without stipules. 
Corolla 2 or 4 lobed. Stamens 2. Ovary 2-celled, with 2 
ovules hanging from the top of each cell. Fruit often 1-celled 


and 1-seeded, either a stone fruit, as the olive ; a pod, as the 
lilac ; or a winged fruit, as the ash. 


Trees or shrubs with compound leaves and dioecious or 
polygamous flowers. Calyx small, 4-cleft. Petals 2 or none. 
Stamens 2, with large anthers. Fruit winged from the top. 

a. F. dipet'ala Hook. & Am. Flowering Ash. A small tree 
or shrub with 5-7 separate leaflets on petioles. Flowers showy, in 
panicles. Calj-x 4-toothed. Petals 2, white, as long as the anthers. 
This grows along streams in the Coast Momitains. 

h. F. Orega'na Nutt. Oregon Ash. A large tree with dark- 
colored bark. Leaflets 5-7, entire, sessile, usually tomentose when 
young, becoming smooth with age. Flowers without petals. From 
Fresno County, in the mountains, to Oregon and Washington. 

GENTIANA'CE^. Gentian Family 

Glabrous herbs with entire opposite leaves without stipules. 
Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla, inserted on its 
tube, and alternating with the lobes. Stigmas 2, sessile or 
on one style. Ovary 1-celled. Fruit with 2 parietal placentae 
dehiscent at the partitions. Seeds with abundant endosperm 
around the minute embryo. 

ERYTHR^'A, Canchalagua 

Low, much-branched herbs, with numerous showy flowers 
in cymes. Corolla rose-color, salver-form, with lobes con- 
volute in the bud. Anthers twisting spirally after the pollen 
is shed. Stigmas at first united, wedge-shaped or fan-shaped, 
afterwards spreading. 

E. venus'ta Gray. Corolla deep pink, with yellow center ; divi- 
sions half as long as the tube. This is the handsomest and most 
widely distributed species. 

(True gentians are rare in California, and are mostly con- 
fined to the high mountains.) 


ASCLEPIADA'CE^. Milkweed Family 

Herbs with a milky juice and a tough inner bark having a 
fiber like flax. Leaves opposite, entire. Flowers peculiar in 
shape, in umbels. Sepals and petals each o, reflexed. Anthers 
forming a crown united to the solid stigma, and with peculiar 
hood-like appendages surrounding it. The anther cells are 
orange in color, and are concealed in the crown, and have 
the outline of a pair of scales. Fruit a pod, opening at one 
side. Seeds arranged symmetrically on a thick axis, each 
provided with a tuft of silky down. 

I. ASCLETIAS, Silkweed, Milkweed 

The five hoods of the stamens are each provided with a 
protruding horn. 

a. A. specio'sa Torr. Covered with white down. Stems stout, 
erect, with large, thick, oblong leaves, opposite or whorled. Umbels 
on peduncles shorter than the leaves, many-flowered. Flowers large, 
pm'ple ; the hoods nearly half an inch long, spreading, with a horn- 
like prolongation from the summit ; besides the short, injiexed true horn. 
Follicles rough with soft spinous processes. California to AVashington. 
This is inclined to become a troublesome weed. 

h. A. Mexica'na Cav. Stems rather slender, 3-6 ft. high. Leaves 
in whorls of 3-6, hnear, sessile, smooth, 3-6 in. long. Umbels 
clustered to form a corymb, densely flowered on peduncles longer 
than the petioles. Flowers rather small, greenish white or tinged 
with purple. Hoods broadly ovate, shorter than the beak-like, incurved 
horn. Follicles slender, tapering to the top. California to Oregon, 
spreading as if introduced, along highways. 


The five hoods are without horns. 

G. cordifolius Benth. Smooth, with ascending stems, 2-3 ft. high. 
Leaves ovate, clasphig by a heart-shaped base, opposite or some- 
times in threes. Umbels 1-4, with the flowers loose, on thread-hke 
pedicels. Corolla dark red-purple. Horns tipped with a point 
where the open edges come together. Follicles smooth, inclined 


to be erect, on deflexed pedicels. This is common in California, 
blooming in late summer, and growing in dry ground in the valleys 
and foothills. 

APOCYNA'CE^. Dogbane Family 

Perennial herbs with milky juice and opposite entire leaves 
without stipules. Flowers in cymes or corymbs, regular, all 
the parts 5, except the pistil, which consists of 2 ovaries, with 
the styles and stigmas united. Fruit a pair of slender folli- 
cles. Seeds with a tuft of silky down. 

APOC'YNUM, Indian Hemp, Dogbane 

Corolla bell-shaped, 5-cleft, with 5 scales opposite the lobes 
and near their base. Stamens inserted on the base of the 
corolla, with short filaments and arrow-shaped, anthers, 
uniting into a ring. 

a. A. androsaemifo'lium L. Corolla rose-color, with revolute lobes 
and a bell-shaped tube longer than the calyx. This is generally 
much branched, and the flowers are numerous in loose cymes. 
Widely distributed. 

b. A. cannab'inum L. Corolla white, with erect lobes, and the 
tube not longer than the calyx. Flowers small, in dense cymes. 
This grows in marshy places. Widely distributed. 

POLEMONIA'CE^. Phlox Family 

Herbs or rarely shrubs. Leaves simple or divided, with- 
out stipules. All parts of the flower 5, except the pistil, 
which has a 3-lobed style and a 3-celled ovary with axillary 
placenta. Stamens on the tube of the corolla, alternate with 
its lobes. Embryo with endosperm. 


Herbs or rarely shrubs. Leaves various, alternate or oppo- 
site. Calyx partly herbaceous, generally papery below the 
folds, with lobes narrow and acute. Corolla from funnel-form 


and salver-shaped to bell-shaped and wheel-shaped. The 
seeds generally become mucilaginous when wet. The flowers 
are showy, and among our most characteristic spring annuals ; 
the species are numerous, and are not always easily distin- 
guished. Only the most distinct and common are given. 

a. G. grandiflo'ra Dougl. Salmon-color Gilia (Collo'mia). 

Flowers crowded at the summit of an erect stem ; corolla pale 
salmon-color, with the tube nearly an inch long and the border 
almost as broad. Widely distributed, 

h. G. squarro'sa Esch. Skunk weed (Navarre'tia) . Stems low, 
branching diffusely, viscid. Leaves and bracts pinnately parted, 
with spiny divisions. Flowers small, deep blue. This blooms late 
in the summer. The icliole plant has the odor of the skunk. Widely 

c. G. tricolor Benth. Bird's Eyes. Stems slender, branching. 
Corolla ^ in. long, with a yellow tube, the funnel-form throat marked 
icith deep violet-purple, and the limb ivhite or lilac. It is sweet-scented 
and very pretty. Throughout western California. 

d. G. dicho'toma Benth. Evening Snow (Linan'thus). Erect 
and branching herbs with very slender stems. The leaves are few, 
small, and far apart. Flowers large, terminating the peduncles, salver- 
form, icith the divisions convolute in the bud, showing only the dull-pink 
outer edges, opening about 4 o'clock. Where they are abundant they 
look like snow on the ground. The white flowers are often more 
than an inch in diameter, and have a sweet, heavy perfume. 
Throughout western California. 

e. G. androsa'ceus Benth. (Linan'thus). Stems leafy, with 
palmately parted leaves, apparently whorled, with thread-like divi- 
sions. Flowers crow^ded in a terminal cluster. Corolla salver- 
form, with a long, slender tube, rose-color, lilac or white. This is a 
handsome and widely distributed species, but variable and difiicult 
to distinguish from allied species. 

/. G. micran'tha Steud. Smaller in all its parts than the pre- 
ceding, with the tube of the corolla long and thread-like, 1-1^ in. 
long. Flowers small, rose-color, white, or lilac. Common through 

g. G. cilia'ta Benth. Stems slender, erect, clothed with white 
hairs. Flowers and bracts in a dense, capitate cluster, very hispid 
and ciliate. Corolla small, pink or white, extending beyond the 
bracts but little. This is widely distributed through California, 
and common. 

h. G. dianthoi'des EndL Fringed Gilia. Stems from an inch 
to less than a foot high, simple or branching from the base. Leaves 
thread-like. Corolla pink, with yellowish throat and very short tube. 


The corolla lobes are fringe-toothed. This is common in southern 
California, and is one of the prettiest spring annuals. 

i. G. Califor'nica Benth. Shrubby, 2 or 3 ft. high, with rigid 
branches. Leaves icith spiny divisions, widely spreading, clustered. 
Corolla rose-color, fading to lilac, salver-form, with the border an 
inch or more in diameter, the lobes often shortly fringed on the 
margin. This is common in southern California, chiefly on dry 
hills. It is very showy, w4th its numerous flowers, like those of 
phlox, in dense clusters terminating the branches. 

j. G. aggrega'ta Spreng. Scarlet Gilia, Wild Cypress. 
Stems erect, simple or branched, viscid. Leaves compound, with 
narrow, linear leaflets. Flowers in a close panicle. Corolla salver- 
form, nearly 1 in. long, scarlet, pink or white, extremely variable in 
color. This grows in the mountains or near streams on the plains 

CONVOLVULA'CE^. Morning-glory Family 

Twining or trailing herbs, with alternate leaves, and flower, 
solitary or few, on peduncles in the axils of the leaves. Caly? 
of distinct sepals. Stamens alternating with the parts of tb 
corolla. Ovary 2 or 3 celled, with a pair of ovules in eacJ 
cell. Capsule globular, containing 1-4 seeds. 

I. CONVOL'VULUS, Morning-glory 

Corolla open funnel-form, w4th the border 5-angled. Sta- 
mens inserted within the tube. Style slender. Stigmas 2. 
Capsule 2-celled and generally 4-seeded, with dehiscent septi- 
fragal dehiscence (the valves separate from the partition). 
Cotyledons folded and crumpled in the seed with some 

a. C. Soldanella L. Seaside Morning-glory'. Low and trail- 
ing herbs, with stem and leaves fleshy. Leaves kidney-shaped, on long 
petioles. Bracts of the peduncle close to the calyx, thin in texture. 
Corolla pink or purple, an inch or more in length. Pod becoming 
1-celled. This grows on sandy beaches. 

b. C. villo'sus Gray. Stems trailing. Leaves hastate. Bracts 
narrow, close under the calyx. Corolla cream-color, an inch long. 
The entire plant is covered with a close, soft, velvety, lohite doivn. 
Throughout California, but not very common. 


c. C. lute'olus Gray. Stems often twining over high bushes, 
smooth, blooming at all seasons. Peduncles as long as the leaves, 
ivith a pair of linear or lanceolate bracts a little below the flower (no 
bracts directly nnder the calyx). Corolla pale cream-color, or 
(when growing near the coast) light or deep rose-color. Through- 
out California. 

n. CUS'CUTA, Dodder, Love Vine 

Parasitic plants with yellow or orange stems, scales in place of 
leaves, and densely clustered small white flowers. Calyx 5-cleft 
or parted. Corolla bell-shaped or tubular. Stamens inserted 
on the throat of the corolla, with fringed scales below. Ovary 
2-celled, containing 4 ovules. Styles 2, distinct. Embryo with- 
out cotyledons, thread-like, spirally coiled in hard endosperm. 
The seeds germinate in the soil, but do not form roots there. 
Instead, they attach themselves to the other plants by means of 
little roots, and take all their nourishment from their hosts. 

a. C. sali'na Engelm. Salt-marsh Dodder. Corolla having a 
shallow bell-shaped tid)e. Capsule pointed. This grows in salt 
marshes on plants belonging to the Chenopodiacece. 

b. C. subinclu'sa Durand & Hilgard. Corolla ivith a rather long, 
urn-shaped tube. Capsule conical. This grows on shrubs or coarse 

HYDROPHYLLA'CE^. Baby-eyes Family 

Herbs, or rarely shrubs, Avith alternate leaves without stip- 
ules (rarely opposite). Flowers in coiled spikes or racemes, 
usually showy. Calyx 5-parted, or of 5 separate sepals. 
Corolla 5-lobed. Stamens on the corolla tube, and alternate 
with its lobes and shorter. Styles 2 or 2-cleft. Capsule 1 or 
2 celled, with 2 parietal placentae, splitting along the back of 
each valve. 

I. HYDROPHYL'LUM, Waterleaf 

Herbs from fleshy, running rootstocks. Leaves large, alter- 
nate, pinnately compound. Flowers white or blue, in close or 
open cymes, on long peduncles. Corolla bell-shaped, with a 
honey-gland at the base of each lobe. Stamens and style 
longer than the corolla. Filaments bearded at the iniddle. 
Styles 2-cleft. Ovary 1-celled. 


a. H. occidenta'le Gray. Stems perennial, 1-2 ft. high, hairy. 
Leaves broad, pinnately divided ; divisions 7-15, oblong, 1-2 in. 
long, the apex cut into long, uneven teeth, obtuse. Cymes on long 
peduncles, densely flowered. Calyx with erect, narrow, lanceolate, 
obtuse divisions. Corolla pale violet or white. California to 

b. H. capita'tum Dougl. Bear's Cabbage. Low, from many 
fleshy roots. Leaves pinnately 5-7-parted or divided, with the 
divisions 2— 3-lobed or cleft into oblong, mucronate lobes, soft-hairy, 
broadly ovate in outline, 2-3 in. long. Flow^ers densely clustered 
in close cymes like heads, on peduncles shorter than the petioles. 
Calyx clothed with stiff hairs. Corolla dull white or violet. From 
California, in the mountains at rather high elevations, to Washing- 
ton. It comes up and blooms very soon after the snow melts. 


Annual herbs, flowering very early, with the leaves pin- 
nately lobed or divided, the lowest leaves opposite. Flowers 
solitary, on long peduncles in the axils of the leaves. Calyx 
5-i3arted, with a reflexed lobe at each sinus, enlarging and 
covering the fruit. Corolla generally saucer-shaped, the throat 
within having 10 scales. Style 2-cleft. Capsule 1-celled. 

a. N. auri'ta Lindl. Climbing Nemophila. Stems succulent, 
long and weak, clinging for support to other plants by means of 
stiff reflexed bristles. Leaves deeply cut into 5-9 lobes, curved down- 
wards, dilated at base, and auriculate. Corolla violet, the throat 
purplish. Southward from San Francisco. 

b. N. macula'ta Benth. Low annuals, growing in the higher 
Sierras. Corolla ichiie, with a violet spot on each lobe. 

c. N. insig'nis Dougl. Baby-blue-eyes. Low, spreading, grow- 
ing in sandy places. Corolla clear blue, nearly an inch in diameter. 
This is the commonest species. 

d. N. atoma'ria Fisch. & Meyer. Low, spreading, growing in w^et 
places. Corolla white, dotted ivith dark purple. 

e. N. interme'dia Bioletti. Taller than the last two, growing 
amid the brush. Corolla light blue, with lines and dots radiating to 
the center. 


Leaves once or twice divided. Flowers small and white. 
Calyx without the reflexed lobes. Corolla generally shorter, 


or but little longer than the calyx, which enlarges under the 
fruit. Style 2-cleft. Capsule 1-celled. 

a. E. membrana'cea Benth. Stems succulent, light-green, smooth 
except for some stijf bristly hairs that sometimes help support the weak 
stems. Leaves pinnately divided into 3-9 obtuse, linear divisions 
with margined petioles. This generally grows in shady and damp 
places. From middle California to San Diego. 

h. E. chrysanthemifolia Benth. Stems much branched. Leaves 
2 or 3 times divided into small and short divisions. Flowers in loose 
racemes on short, slender pedicels. From middle California to San 


Herbs with simple or compound leaves, and flowers in 
loosely or closely coiled spikes or racemes. Calyx deeply 
5-2Kirted, without refiexed lobes. Corolla readily falling, 
blue, white, or purple (rarely rose-color), from wheel- 
shaped to funnel-form, with vertical scales attached between 
the bases of the filaments, sometimes attached to the fila- 
ments. Pistil with 2-cleft style and 2-celled ovary. Seeds 4 
to many. 

a. P. circina'ta Jacq. Perennial from a stout root, a foot or 
two high. Leaves grayish green, hairy, simple, or the lowest compound 
with 1 .or 2 pairs of leaflets. Spikes crowded, conspicuously coiled. 
Corolla small, whitish or lilac. Stamens conspicuous. This is 
found in many forms and is widely distributed. 

b. P. divarica'ta Gray. Annual, low, with spreading branches 
inclined to be prostrate. Leaves oblong on petioles shorter than the 
blades, simple or with 1 or 2 teeth or lobes at the base. Flowers in 
loose racemes, corolla bluish purple, | in. in diameter. 

c. P. Menzie'sii Torr. Stems 6-10 in. high, branching above, 
gray with a close pubescence and rough with stiff hairs. Leaves 
linear, entire or cleft into linear lobes. Flowers in spikes or spike- 
like racemes which are clustered to form close panicles. Corolla 
violet or white, half inch or more in diameter, with long, narrow 
appendages at base, free from the filaments. Pod shorter than the 
calyx, with several seeds. From California, in the Sierra N'evada 
to British Columbia. 

The species are numerous, and many are local ; nearly all 
are beautiful, with conspicuous flowers. 


V. EMMENAN'THE, Whispering Bells 

This chiefly differs from Phacelia in the corolla, which is 
hell-shajoed, tvithe7dng-2)ers{stent, and hecoining papery, yellow 
or yellowish white, sometimes tinged with pink. 

E. penduliflo'ra Benth. Annual, simple up to the inflorescence 
or branched diffusely from the base, from a few inches to a foot high. 
The leaves are divided into numerous short, toothed or sharply cut 
lobes. The racemes are panicled, with the bell-shaped flowers on 
slender pedicels that are at first erect, but afterwards droop. This 
grows in dry places from Lake County to San Diego. 

VI. ERIODIC'TYON, Yerba Santa 

Low-branching erect shrubs. Leaves alternate, dentate, 
petioled, with the chief nerves pinnate, and the others form- 
ing a network. Floivers in cymes, coiled at the tips, and 
generally collected in terminal clusters. Corolla funnel-form, 
violet, purple, or white, without internal scales. Stamens 
with fdaments adnate to the tube of the corolla. Styles 2, 
distinct at the base. Capsule pointed, 2-celled, spjlitting on the 
back and at the sides into Jf hard, thick half-valves. 

a, E. tomento'sum Benth. The entire plant is white or rusty, 
with a dense coat of short woolly down. Southern California. 

h. E. glutino'sum Benth. This is rather smooth and viscid, with 
a balsamic exudation. Throughout the Coast Mountains. 


Dwarf, stemless perennials with e7itire, spatulate, or ohlong 
leaves. Flowers on .naked, slender peduncles, shorter than 
the leaves, from the leaf axils. Calyx and corolla with the 
parts 5-7, the former with linear-lanceolate lobes which are 
sometimes unequal, the latter rotate or campanulate, white 
or purplish, with hairy base. Stamens inserted at the base 
of the corolla with hairy filaments. Ovary cone-shaped, some- 
what adnate to the calyx, tapering to the rather stout style which 
is 2-cleft at apex, with small stigmas. Ovary 1-celled. Seeds 


a. H. Califor'nicus Watson. Leaves many in a cluster at base. 
Corolla oblong-campanulate, with the lobes longer than the tube, about 
half an inch long. From California in the Sierra Nevada to AVasli- 
ington ; blooming as soon as the snow melts. 

b. H. pu'milus Porter. Leaves fewer. Corolla nearly rotate, its 
lobes longer than the tube tvhich is densely bearded loithin, about half an 
inch across. Same range and time of blooming as the preceding. 

Herbs usually with stems and leaves, rough-hairy. Leaves 
alternate, entire, without stipules. Flowers in panicles, 
cymes, or racemes, coiled at the tips, usually on one side of 
the peduncles. Calyx 5-parted or cleft. Corolla salver-form. 
Stamens inserted on the tube of the corolla, alternating with 
its lobes. Ovules 4, solitary, at the base of the simple style, 
usually all ripening into 4 nutlets. The coiled flower clusters 
become straight as the flowers open. 

I. HELIOTRO'PIUM, Heliotrope 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla funnel-form. Stamens with short 
filaments or none, and anthers sometimes cohering by their 
pointed tips. Style simple or none, ivith an unibrella-shaped 
stigma. Seeds with endosperm. 

H. Curassa'vicum L. Smooth, glaucous, succulent, prostrate 
herbs, growing in moist, salty or alkaline places. Flowers white or 
pale violet in dense spikes, which are generally 2-forked. Widely 

II. AMSINCK'IA, Fiddle-neck, Woolly Breeches 

Hairy annuals, with conspicuous yellow or orange flowers in 
curved spikes or racemes ivithout bracts. Many are covered with 
bristly hairs that have a pustulate base. Calyx 5-parted. 
Corolla funnel-form, with the tube longer than the calyx. 
Stamens with short filaments included in the corolla. Stigmas 
2-lobed, capitate. Nutlets ovate-triangular, attached above 
the base to a narrow pyramidal column called the gynobase. 
The species are difficult to distinguish. 


III. CYNOGLOS'SUM, Hound's Tongue, Forget-me-not 

Calyx 5-parted, open in fruit. Corolla tubular or salver-^form, 
with conspicuous crests in the throat. Nutlets Jf., covered over 
the hack with shoi-t, stout prickles with barbed tipjs, forming burs. 
These are rather coarse perennials, with large leaves and 
thick roots. 

C. gran'de Dougl. Stems a foot or two high, branching above. 
Leaves mostly at the base on long petioles, oblong-ovate. Flowers in 
panicied racemes on a long naked peduncle. Corolla similar to 
the forget-me-not, but larger, at first pinkish, with white crests in 
the tUroat, turning blue after pollination. Monterey County to 

IV. MERTEN'SIA, Bluebells 

Stems erect, leafy, not hispid, sometimes smooth. Leaves 
broad, the upper ones sessile, the lower petioled. Flowers 
nodding, in cymes or panicied racemes. Corolla blue, often 
turning pink after pollination, trumpet-shaped or bell-shaped, 
with folds in the throat. Nutlets sessile, on aflat or slightly 
convex recepAacle. 

a. M. oblongifolia Don. Stems about a foot high, almost smooth. 
Leaves oblong or somewhat spatulate, rather succulent and with 
veins scarcely evident. Corolla blue, imtli tube tivice as long as the 
border, together about half an inch long. Flowers in a close, terminal 
cluster. Stamens with the filaments as broad as the anthers and 
about the same length, inserted in the throat of the corolla. Bloom- 
ing in early spring, growing on moist banks. Oregon to British 

b. M. panicula'ta Don. Stems 1-5 ft. high, more or less rough 
with pubescence. Leaves broad, veiny, ovate to oblong-lanceolate. 
Flowers blue, in loosely panicied racemes. Corolla tube but little 
longer than the border, about as long as the hairy, linear, calyx divisions, 
together a half inch or more in length. From Washington to the 
Arctic regions. 

(Most of the other genera are in a state of confusion, because 
of the differences of opinion among botanists. The differ- 
ences between them lie chiefly in the seeds, and they are 
difficult to distinguish.) 


LABIA'TiE, Mint Family 

Herbs or shrubs with 4-angled stems and opposite leaves. 
Flowers generally in whorls, or solitary in the axils of the 
leaves. Calyx ribbed, with many nerves. Corolla 2-lipped. 
Stamens 4 in two sets, 2 often sterile. Fruit of 4 nutlets 
around a simple style. These plants are generally aromatic. 

I. MENTHA, Mint 

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla with short tube, naked within, 
and 4-cleft border, scarcely 2-lipped, but with the upper lobe 
broadest. Stamens 4, nearly equal, erect, distant. Flowers 
small, tchite or j^i'^T^^sh, in whorls. Aromatic and sweet- 
scented herbs. (There are several cultivated species.) 

a. M. Canaden'sis L. Flowers all in axillary whorls, the summit 
of the stein being flowerless. Calyx hairy. Common in damp places. 

h. M. Pule'gium L. Covered with a white-woolly pubescence. 
Calyx slightly 2-lipped, 10-ribbed, the throat closed with hairs. 
Recently introduced, but spreading rapidly. 


Calyx tubular, with 5 short, nearly equal teeth, and the 
throat naked within. Corolla with the tube longer than the 
calyx, smooth within ; upper lip 2-cleft, lower one 3-parted, 
with flat, oblong-linear lobes. Stameiis ^, projecting beyond 
the corolla. Flowers in terminal heads having conspicuous 

a. M. villo'sa Benth. Perennial herbs with many stems from a 
woody base, soft-hairy. Leaves ovate, strongly veined. Bracts of the 
involucre similar to the leaves. Flowers flesh-color, white, or most 
frequently purple. Widely distributed, and blooming at all seasons. 

h. M. odoratis'sima Benth. Perennial with several stems from 
a woody root, 6-12 in. high, pale green or gray with a minute 
pubescence. Leaves ohlong to lanceolate, entire, on short petioles, ivith 
veins inconspicuous. Bracts thin and membranous, veiny, white or 
purple. Calyx teeth hairy. Common in the mountains of Cali- 
fornia and extending to AVashington. 


c. M. lanceola'ta Gray. Annual, with stems loosely branching, a 
foot or more high, green and almost smootho Leaves oblong or 
lanceolate, tapering into a slender petiole. Bracts ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, with cross veinlets between the principal veins. Corolla 
purple ; calyx teeth acnte, densely hirsute within, almost smooth 
without. Throughout California in the valleys and plains. 

d. M. can'dicans Benth. Annual, gray, Avith soft pubescence. 
Leaves lanceolate to narrowly oblong, obtuse, tapering to a petiole. 
Bracts ovate, somewhat papery, white with greenish nerves ; cross veinlets 
between the principal nerves. Corolla white, small and short; calyx 
teeth short, obtuse, tipped with white wool on both sides. Through 
middle and southern California. 

III. MICROME'RIA, Yerba Buena 

Calyx tubular, equally 5-toothed. Corolla short, naked 
wdthin ; upper lip) erect, entire or notched, lower spreading, 
3-parted. Stamens Jf.. These are sweet-scented plants, with 
small lavender flowers in the axils of the leaves. 

M. Douglas'ii Benth. Perennial herbs, spreading by trailing 
stems. Leaves round-ovate, sparingly toothed. This usually grows 
in the shade of bushes and trees in the Coast Mountains. 


Calyx hell-shaped, 5-cleft, thin, membranous, enlarged in fruit 
and pjersistent. Corolla oblong, bell-shaped, with 5 broad and 
roundish, erect lobes, and a hairy ring at the base of the tube 
within. Stamens Jf, distant, one pair shorter. 

S. calyci'na Benth. Shrubby at base, with many leafy stems. 
Flowers an inch long, solitary in the upper axils, forming a raceme. 
Corolla white or tinged with purple. The entire plant has a sweet 
aromatic perfume. From middle California southward. 

V. SAL'VIA, Sage 

Ours are all herbs. Calyx 2-lipped, with the upper lip 2 or 
3 toothed, lower 2-cleft. Corolla deeply 2-lipped, with the 
upper lip erect, entire, notched, or rarely 2-lobed. Stamens 2, 
with filaments apparently forked, one end hearing a linear 


anther cell, the other end a mere rudiment of an anther cell. 
The nutlets when wet become mucilaginous and send out spiral 

a. S. cardua'cea Benth. Thistle Sage. Leaves clustered at the 
root, ichite-woolly y thistle-like. Flowers in whorls. Corollas large, 
bright blue. This is a very showy plant of the interior vaUeys of 

b. S. Columba'riae Benth. Chia. Leaves wrinkled loith numerous 
reins, once or twice parted into oblong, crenate or toothed divisions. 
Flowers in one or more rather distant whorls on the naked stems. 
Corolla rather small, dark blue. Involucre of entire leaves, like 
bracts. Widely distributed. 

VI. AUDIBER'TIA, California Sage, Bee Sage 

Shrubby plants with leaves wrinkled and veiny, finely 
crenate. Flowers similar to those of Salvia, except that the 
filament has hut one Vuiear anther cell, and shows the remains 
of the connective as a sort of spur. The various kinds of sage, 
so well known as honey plants, all belong to this genus. 
They are most abundant in southern California, where they 
sometimes clothe the hillsides. 

* Flowers in dense lohorls at intervals along the stem. Bracts crowded 
and conspicuous. Shrubs. 

a. A. niv'ea Benth. White Sage. Stems and leaves covered 
with a snow-white down. Whorls an inch across, usually 2-4. 
Corolla lavender or lilac, with the tube scarcely longer than the lips. 
Stamens and style conspicuously extending beyond the corolla. The 
bracts and the calyx teeth are blunt. 

b. A. stachyoi'des Benth. Black Sage. Stems and leaves ashy 
gray, becoming greener and smoother with age. Clusters of flowers 
3-5 at long intervals, on slender stems. Corolla lavender, half an 
inch long. Calyx teeth and bracts bristle-tipped. 

** Floivers in a close panicle. Floral leaves and bracts of the small and 
numerous clusters lance-shaped or awl-shaped. Shrubs. 

c. A. polystach'ya Benth. White Sage, Grease Wood. Stems 
many, erect, covered with a fine white down ; inflorescence a foot or 
so in length ; flowers nearly sessile. Calyx with the upper lip broad. 


the lower with 3 long teeth. Corolla half an inch or more long, 
white or lavender, with a short tube and broad lower lip. Stamens 
and styles long, conspicuously exserted. This is said to be the best 
honey sage. 

*** Flowers large, in dense whorls. Woody only at base. 

d. A. grandiflo'ra Benth. Stem stout, 2-3 ft. high, woolly and 
glandular. Leaves wrinkled, white tomentose on the lower surface, 
sinuate-crenate. The lower ones are broadly lanceolate, with the 
base somewhat arrow-shaped, 3-8 in. long on margined petioles ; the 
upper are oblong and sessile. Corolla 1^ in. long, bright red, with 
tube longer than the limb. Bracts broad and membranaceous. 
Stamens extending beyond the corolla. This is common from 
near San Francisco southward. It generally grows in the hills. 


Low perennial herbs, with flowers in the axils of the leaves 
on short peduncles. Calyx helmet-shaped. Corolla ivith an 
arched ujpjjer Up and dilated throat. Stamens J/., the lower pair 
with 1-celled anthers, the iqjper with 2-celled bearded anthers. 

a. S. tubero'sa Benth. Low from slender underground stems ter- 
minating in small tubers. Leaves ovate, toothed, on slender petioles. 
Flowers dark blue, over half an inch long. From Santa Barbara 
County northward. 

b. S. Calif or'nica Gray. Stems several, from slender rootstocks. 
Leaves entire, narrowed at base. Flowers yellowish white, about two- 
thirds of an inch long. Northern California to Oregon. 

c. S. angustifo'lia Pursh. Stems erect, leafy. Leaves oblong to 
linear, mostly sessile, entire, except for a few teeth on the lower ones. 
Pedicels as long as the calyx. Corolla nearly an inch long with 
slender tube and dilated throat ; lower lip woolly within. Through- 
out California to British Columbia. 

d. S. galericula'ta L. Stems slender, 1-3 ft. high, simple or 
branched above. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, almost sessile, serrate, except 
at the top. Corolla dark blue, less than 1 in. long. Widely dis- 
tributed. Summer. 

VIII. BRUNEL'LA, Self-heal 

Perennial herbs with usually simple stems and sessile, 
3-flowered flower-clusters in the axils of kidney-shaped bracts, 


the whole forming a spike or head. Calyx tubular, bell-shaped, 
somewhat 10-ribbed, upper lip broad, 3-toothed, the teeth 
-short ; lower lip with 2 longer teeth. Upper lip of the corolla 
upright, arched, and entire, the lower spreading, reflexed, 
fringed, and 3-cleft. Stamens 4, reaching up under the upper 
lip, with the tips of the filaments 2-toothed, only one tooth anther- 

B. vulga'ris L. Self-heal, Heal-all, Carpenter Weed. 

Leaves with petioles, ovate-oblong, either entire or toothed, often 
somewhat hairy ; corolla usually dark-blue or purplish, somewhat 
longer than the broMai-purj)le calyx. This is often abundant in 
damp places, and is widely distributed. 

IX. MARRU'BIUM, Horehound 

Perennial herbs with many stems, forming a clump a foot 
or two high, white-woolly. Calyx ivith usually 10 nerves and 
teeth, the alternate ones spiny-tipped and incurved. Corolla 
with upper lip narrow, arched and 2-lobed ; lower spreading 
and 3-cleft. Stamens Jf, having anthers with the 2 cells not dis- 
tinct. Mowers in dense whorls, in the axils of the upper 
leaves. This is a widely spread, introduced plant. 

M. vulga're L. Leaves roundish, wrinkled, crenate. Corolla 
small and white. The bitter aromatic juice is used as a remedy for 

X. STA'CHYS, Hedge Nettle 

Perennial herbs with a disagreeable odor, — some species 
growing near water becoming very tall. Flowers nearly ses- 
sile, in scattered whorls, purplish or white. Calyx 5-toothed, 
5-10-nerved. Corolla with tube not dilated at the throat, the 
upper lip erect, arched, entire or notched, lower spreading, 3-lobed, 
the "middle lobe longest. Stamens If., with 2-celled anthers. 

a. S. bulla 'ta Benth. Stems one or several, loosely branching, 
rough with dow'n ward-pointing hairs. Leaves ovate, cordate, cre- 
nate, obtuse, wdth petioles an inch or two long. Floweis red-purple, 
in whorls, forming an intei'rupted spike. This grows everywhere in 
California, and blooms almost throughout the year. 

h. S. al'bens Gray. Stems erect, 1-5 ft. high, clothed through- 
out w'ith soft white wool. Leaves oblong, cordate at base, crenate, 


2-3 in. long ; upper sessile ; lower with short petioles. Flowers white 
on a ivand-like spike in dense interrupted close clusters. Calyx with 
spine-tipped teeth nearly equaling the tube of the corolla. California 
in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and hills of southern California. 

c. S. Chamisso'nis Benth. Stems erect, 2-6 ft. high, with stiff 
hairs pointing downwards, on the angles. Leaves oblong-ovate, 
3-5 in. long, crenate, wrinkled with the veins, whitish, with woolly 
hairs on the lower surface, stiffer ones on the upper. Spike 6-12 in. 
long. Calyx with spine-tipped teeth, densely hairy. Corolla pur- 
plish, I in. long, hairy; loAver lip half as long. A very showy 
species along the Californian coast from San Francisco northward. 

d. S. cilia'ta Dougl. Similar to the above, but with the leaves 
greener and thinner ; corolla smaller, with the tube smooth. Along 
the coast of Oregon and Washington. 

XI. TRICHOSTE'MA, Blue-curls, Camphor Weed 

Shrubs or herbs with flowers in dense, usually one-sided 
axillary cymes, stamens and corolla blue or purple (rarely 
white). Calyx bell-shaped, almost equally 5-cleft. Corolla 
with a slender tube, 5-parted, the divisions forming in bud 
a roundish ball "svhich encloses the coiled stamens. Stamens 
spiralis/ coiled in the bud, conspicuously protrudi^ig from, the open 
corolla. In bloom in summer and fall. 

a. T. lanceola'tum Benth. Camphor Weed. Annual herbs with 
several branches, erect from the base. Leaves croicded, sessile, lance- 
shaped. Cymes almost sessile, conspicuously one-sided, densely 
flowered. Corolla and calyx somewhat hairy or woolly. This 
plant is called camphor weed, because it has a strong odor some- 
what like camphor, but very disagreeable, sometimes causing head- 
ache. AVidely distributed in the interior valleys. 

b. T. lax'um Gray. Annual, diffusely branched, soft, pubescent. 
Leaves few, lanceolate-oblong, narrowed to an obtuse apex, 2S in. long, 
on slender petioles. Cymes loosely flowered, on 2:)eduncles. Common 
from middle to northern California, growing in dry places. 

c. T. lana'tum Benth. Romero. Shrubby, 3 or 4 ft. high. 
Leaves numerous, narrowly linear, with margins turned under, 
smooth and shiny above, wdiite-w^oolly on the under surface. 
Flowers in numerous cymes in a close terminal cluster, destitute of 
bracts. The whole inflorescence, even to the calyx and corolla, is covered 
with dense violet wool. The filaments extend an inch or more beyond 
the corolla. Southern California, in rocky places. It is very con- 
spicuous and beautiful. 


SOLANA'CE^, Nightshade Family 

Herbs or shrubs with leaves alternate and without stipules. 
Flowers regular, with the parts in fives, except the single style 
and 2-celled ovary. Fruit a many-seeded berry or capsule. 
Seeds with curved embryo and endosperm. This family con- 
tains Tobacco, Tomato, Nightshade, Egg-plant, Potato, and 

I. SOLA'NUM, Nightshade, Potato 

Corolla ivheel-shcqjed, 5-parted or cleft. Stamens ivith short 
filaments and distinct anthers, which often apparently unite 
around the style. Fruit usually a berry. 

a. S. Douglas'ii Dunal. Somewhat shrubby, widely branching or 
even climbing by the rough angles of the branchlets. Leaves 
ovate, entire, or with large teeth, 1-2 in. long. Corolla white or 
bluish, small. Berries black. Common throughout California, near 
the coast. 

b. S. ni'grum L. Common Nightshade. Annual, with stems 
branching diffusely. Corolla small, ichite. Berries black when ripe, 
as large as peas, in numerous umbels on axillary peduncles. This is 
common ever^^vhere in waste ground. 

c. S. umbellif'erum Esch. Shrubby at base, much branched, 
with leaves and stems hoary. Flowers in umbels, the corolla bluish 
purple, I in. in diameter. The leaves vary extremely. Widely 

d. S. Xan'ti Gray. Similar to the above, but either smooth or 
glandular-hairy ; leaves thin. Corolla generally larger. This is more 
common in southern California. 

II. DATU'RA, Thorn-apple 

Stout, widely branching herbs with rank odor and narcotic- 
poisonous qualities. Flowers large, on short stems from the 
axils of the leaves. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, deciduous, 
leaving a circular disk under the fruit. Corolla broadly 
funnel-form, convolute in the hud. Pistils with long style 
and 2-lipped stigma. Capsule prickly all over. Seeds large, 


D. meteloi'des DC. Perennial, spreading, and often tall, hoary. 
Leaves unequally ovate, wavy on the margin, or entire. Corolla 
white or pale violet, with the border broadly expanded, the 5 angles 
terminating in long, slender awns. Pods large on recurved peduncles. 
Southern California. 


Herbs (one a tree) with rank odor and narcotic poisonous 
properties. Calyx bell-shaped, 5-toothed or lobed, closely 
surrounding the capsule. Corolla salver-form or funnel-form, 
with a very long tube. Stamens with slender filaments and 
broad anthers included in the tube of the corolla. Pistil with 
long, slender style and 2-celled ovary, stigma 2-lobed or cap- 
like. Cajysule splitting generally at the junction of the valves 
and on the hack, appearing Jfrcelled. 

a. N. glau'ca Graham. Tree Tobacco. This has been intro- 
duced from South America, and is now widely distributed in southern 
California. It is a shrub or small tree with pale-green foliage. 
Flowers in loose terminal panicles ; corolla 2 in. long, greenish 
yellow, with a long tube, narrowed at the throat; border erect, 

h. N. attenua'ta Ton. Stems simple or branching, very viscid. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, pointed at both ends. Flowers in loose, 
terminal racemes. Calyx teeth short, triangular, acute. Corolla 
white, narrow, salver-form, the tube an inch long and the border ^ in. 
across. Pod exceeding the calyx. This is widely distributed and is 
frequently found along highways. 

c. N. Bigelo'vii Wats. Similar to the preceding but with sessile 
leaves. Calyx with unequal lobes, corolla tubular, funnel-form, 'with 
tube an inch or more long and the border an inch across ; pod shorter 
than the calyx. This is also found along highways. 

SCROPHULARIA'CE^, Figwort Family 

Herbs and shrubs with corolla 2-lipped or otherwise more 
or less irregular (2 lobes belong to the upper lip of the corolla ; 
3 to the lower). Stamens 2 or 4 (2 long and 2 short), or 5, 
with one lacking the anther. Pistil with a simple style and 
2-celled ovary. Fruit a 2-celled pod, with the seeds on an 
axillary placenta, splitting from the top. 


I. VERON'ICA, Speedwell 

Low herbs with opposite leaves, and flowers in axillary 
racemes or solitary. Calyx and corolla 4-parted, with the lobes 
more or less unequal. Stamens 2. Pod inversely heart-shaped. 

a. V. America'na Schweinitz. Smooth herbs g■ro^Ying in wet 
places, with the stems rooting* at the joints. Leaves Ovate or oblong, 
oil petioles. Flowers numerous, small, bright blue with darker stripes. 
Widely distributed. 

b. V. peregri'na L. Annual, 3-10 in. high, erect, with few 
branches. Lower leaves opposite, upper alternate, linear-oblong, 
obtuse, entire or toothed. Flowers on short pedicels in the leaf 
axils. Corolla very small, white. Capsule many-seeded. Common, 
apparently an introduced weed. 

n. SCROPHULA'RIA, Figwort, Bee-plant 

Perennial herbs with opposite leaves, and small flowers in 
loose cymes arranged in a terminal panicle. Calyx 5-cleft, 
with broad, rounded lobes. Corolla with a {/lobular tube and 
5 lobes ; four are erect and the fifth turned down or spreading. 
Stamens ^ in 2 pjairs, shorter than the lobes of the corolla and 
inserted low on the tube. A rudiment of a fifth stamen 
appears in the form of a scale on the upper side of the 
throat of the corolla. 

S. Califor'nica Cham. Californiax Bee-plant. Stems 2-5 ft. 
high, nearly smooth. Leaves oblong-ovate, usually cordate at base, 
coarsely doubly toothed or incised. Flowers brownish purple, less 
than half an inch long, the rudimentary stamen narrowly wedge- 
shaped or spatulate. The honey-glands produce a large quantity 
of honey which can usually be seen within the corolla tube. This 
is widelv distributed and common. 


Low annual herbs with opposite leaves, and flowers some- 
what resembling pea blossoms. Corolla 2-lipped, until the 
lower lipj 3-lobed and the middle lobe compressed at the sides, 
including the style and stamens ; tube short, with a protuber- 
ance at the base 07i the tipper side, the mouth closed by an 


inward jirojection of the lower lip like a palate. Stamens 4 ; 
a small gland at the base of the corolla on the upper side 
answers to the fifth stamen. 

a. C. bi'color Benth. A foot or so high ; leaves raore or less 
toothed, the upper ovate-lanceolate, and sessile by a broad base. 
Flowers on short pedicels, in racemes at the summit of the stem ; 
corolla with the upper lip nearly white, the lower rose-color. 
Widely distributed in California. 

b. C. Francisca'na Bioletti. Similar to the last, but the flowers 
are on longer pedicels, more numerous in the whorls ; and the 
throat of the corolla is entirely closed by the palate. This grows around 
San Francisco and is very common. 

c. C. tincto'ria Hartweg. Flowers almost sessile. Corolla yellow- 
ish or white, marked with purple dots or lines, the upper lip and 
its lobes very short. 77^6 plant is covered with a yellowish or brownish 
glandidar pubescence that stains the hands. This is common in the 
foothills of the Sierras. 

d. C. bartsiaefolia Benth. Leaves thickish in texture, linear to 
ovate-oblong, crenate. Flowers on short pedicels, crowded in the 
axils of the leaves or bracts. Corolla nearly white, with the throat 
bearded, and longer than broad, upper lip about the length of the 
curved throat. This grows in sandy soil in the central and w^estern 
parts of California. 

e. C. parviflo'ra Dougl. Stems slender, branching, 2-6 in. high, 
leaves lanceolate or oblong, narrowed at base and entire, sometimes 
whorled. Flowers on slender pedicels, solitary or several in a whorl. 
Flowers small, less than \ in. long. Corolla blue and white, a little 
longer than the narrow, triangular calj'x lobes. Common in the 
Sierra Nevada range and north to British Columbia. In bloom 


Perennial herbs with opposite leaves, the upper sessile or 
partly clasping. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla red, purple, blue, 
white (rarely yellow), 2-lipped, with a more or less inflated 
tube ; upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-cleft or spreading. Stamens 
Jf., the fifth a conspncuous filameiit without an anther. Pod 
usually pointed, splitting from the top into two parts. 

a. P. cordifo'lius Benth. Stems very leafy, climbing over bushes 
by long branches. Leaves cordate, serrate, or toothed. Flowers in 
a leafy panicle. Corolla scarlet, ivith a long narrow tube. Sterile f la- 
ment bearded. Common in southern California. 


h. P. heterophyl'lus Lindl. Stems many from a woody base, 
pale-green. Leaves lance-shaped or linear. Corolla rose-purple, an 
inch long. Anthers shaped like a horseshoe, with the base of each 
cell remaining closed, and forming a sac, ciliate on the opened 
edges. Sterile flament smooth. Throughout California in dry 

c. P. centranthifo'lius Benth. Light bluish green and perfectly 
smooth. Tapper leaves heart-shaped, clasping. Corolla fully an inch 
long, bright red, tubular, hardly bilabiate, tcith the lobes spreading but 
little. Sterile flament slender and smooth. Most common in southern 

d. P. gla'ber Pursh. Stems 1-2 ft. high, smooth, glaucous. 
Upper leaves ovate-lanceolate, clasping the stem. Flowers in a 
long, close panicle. Sepals ovate, pointed. Corolla violet, w^ith 
swelling throat, 1-1 j in. long. Sterile flament loitli a few hairs at 
top. Anthers opening from the base of each cell to the apex, smooth 
or slightly hairy. Along streams. Summer. 

e. P. confer'tus var. caeruleo-purpureus Gray. Stems slender, erect, 
smooth, except for the viscid pubescence about the flowers. Leaves 
linear to lanceolate. Flowers rather small, in 2-5 whorls, 1 in. or 
more apart. Sepals with papery, fringed margins and pointed tips. 
Corolla purplish blue, 2-lipped, the lower lip bearded. Anthers 
opening from base to apex, the two valves spreading out fat, after the 
pollen has been discharged. Sterile filament bearded. In the moun- 
tains. Summer. 

V. CASTILLE'JA, Indian Paint-brush 

Perennial herbs generally with several stems from woody 
roots. Leaves sessile. Flowers in siinple sjnkes, ivith the 
bracts large and colored red, white, or yellowish. Calyx colored 
like the bracts, tubular, more or less cleft either in front or 
behind or on both sides. Corolla tubular, with a long-pointed 
upper lip, lower lip very small, 3-toothed, with 3 folds or 
small sacs below the short teeth (the tube is usually enclosed 
in the calyx). Stamens Jf, enclosed in the iqjper lip. Style 
long, with stigma cap-shaped or 2-lobed. 

a. C. af&'nis Hook & Arn. Stems often tall, branched from the 
base. Leaves simple, linear-lanceolate, entire. Flowers somewhat 
distant below but crowded above, curved. Upper leaves, bracts, and 
calyx more or less colored red. Corolla yellowish or reddish, an inch 
or more long, curved, surpassing the red calyx, the lower lip very 
short. Middle to southern California. 


h. C. foliolo'sa Hook & Arn. Stems generally in a hunch, tchite- 
woolly. Leaves short but numerous, lowest entire, upper floral 
leaves cleft, vv^ith the tips dilated, yellowish or red. This is common 
only on dry hills of the Coast Mountains. 

c. C. latifo'lia Hook & Arn. Stems leafy, 1 to several from the 
root, viscid-pubescent. Leaves short and hroad, the upper ones 3-5- 
lobed, tinged with red. Calyx lobes longer than the tube of the 
corolla. Near the coast, from Monterey County northward. 


Low annual herbs, similar to Castilleia in having spikes of 
flowers with the cleft bracts and calyx divisions colored. 
Calyx short, tubular, 4-cleft. Corolla tubular, with the 
upper lip hardly longer than the lower, small in coTnjjarison 
with the lower, luhich is inflated and m several species has 3 
round sacs. 

* Bracts ivith tips colored like a corolla. 

a. 0. purpuras'cens Benth. Escobita. Simple and erect, or 
branched at the base, hairy. Spike dense, oblong, the lobed bracts 
and the calyx divisions crimson. Upper lip of the corolla densely 
bearded with crimson hairs, hooked at the apex, the lower lip vnth 3 
very small sacs. Stigma large, globose, densely covered with purple 
hairs. Very common in spring. Widely distributed. 

h. 0. densiflo'rus Benth. Owl's-clover. This is similar to 
the above, except that the upper Up of the corolla is straight and the 
lobes of the bracts and of the calyx ivhite and crimson ; the leaves are 
soft, pubescent, with few lobes, or entire at the base. Along the 

** Bracts not colored like a corolla. 

c. 0. erian'thus Benth. Slender, with many branches ; stems and 
bracts dark red. Corolla deep yellow, the upper lip slender, pointed, 
dai'k-purple, the sacs on the lower lip large, round, and deep, the tube 
very slender. Monterey County northward. 

d. 0. versi'color Greene. Pop-corn Flower. Similar to the 
last, hut the flowers are pure white, fading pinkish. In one variety 
the flowers are rose-color from, the first. This species is very fra- 
grant. Around San Francisco. 

e. 0. lithospermoi'des Benth. Stems rather stout, generally 
simple, 1-1^ ft. high, very leafy. Flowers in a dense spike. Calyx 


lobes linear. Corolla deep yellow, fading ichitish, an inch or more long^ 
with 3 large sacs. This blooms later than the others. Throughout 

There are many species besides these. 


Perennials with one to several stems from a thick root. 
Leaves pinnately divided or lobed, the divisions often toothed, 
cleft, or divided. Calyx 2-5-toothed, irregular. Corolla 
^-lijyped, the upj^er arched and comjjressed on the sides, some- 
times with a heak ; the lower erect at base, 3-lobed, and with 
2 crests above. Stainens 4, in the long upper lip. - 

P. densiflo'ra Benth. Indian AYakrior. Leaves twice pinnately 
divided, with the divisions sharply and irregularly incised. Stem 
and leaves dark-red w^hen young, becoming greener with age. 
Flowers an inch long, crimson, in a dense spike that lengthens in 
fruit. Common in western and middle California. 

VIII. MIM'ULUS, Monkey Flower 

Herbs, or one species shrubby, with opposite, simple leaves 
and showy flowers on axillary peduncles. Calyx bell-shaped, 
5-toothed, and with as many folds and angles, often oblique. 
Corolla with the tube included in the calyx and the border icith 
5 round, spreading lobes arranged so that 2 form the upper lip 
and 3 the lower. Within the tube are two ridges flattened on 
top, running down the lower side of the throat. Stamens 4, 
with the anther cells diverging. Stigma 2-lobecl, with spread- 
ing parts, often someivhat shield-shaped. When an insect 
alights it touches the stigma, which immediately closes, the 
2 lips folding together ; the anthers are thus exposed, so that 
the insect becomes dusted with pollen. This can be observed 
by touching the stigma with a pencil. 

a. M. cardinalis DougL Ked Monkey Flower. Stout, 2-4 ft. 
high, viscid-pubescent. Leaves sessile, ovate, dentate, 2 in. long. 
Corolla scarlet, 2 in. long, with all the lobes except the upper one reflexed. 
Stamens projecting from the corolla. This grows along streams. 
Widely distributed. 


h. M. Lewis'ii Pursh. Perennial, with erect, rather slender stems, 
1-2 ft. high, or more. Leaves lanceolate-ovate, with the margin 
finely toothed. Corolla rose-red, 2 in. long, the border of roundish, 
spreading lobes. Stamens included within the corolla. This is one 
of the handsomest species. It grows in shady, moist places from 
British Columbia through California, in the mountains. 

c. M. brev'ipes Benth. Annual, 1-2 ft. high, viscid-pubescent. 
Leaves lanceolate to linear, 1-4 in. long. Calyx teeth unequal, 
pointed. Corolla yellotv, 1^ in. long, the border campanulate, an inch 
across, ivith rounded lobes. From Monterey southward. 

d. M. Bolan'deri Gray. A nnual, with stems about a foot high, viscid- 
pubescent. Leaves oblong, 1-2 in. long. Corolla crimson, an inch 
long, tubidar, with the border slightly spreading. ' This is common in 
the foothill region of the Sierra Nevada through California. 

e. M. moscha'tus Dougl. Musk-plant. Perennial, with low, 
spreading stems, soft-hairy, musk-scented. Corolla light yelloiv, h in. 
long. This grows in wet place and roots at the joints of the 
stem. Widely distributed. 

/. M. Langsdor'ffii Don. Annual or perennial, the former slen- 
der, the latter stout, growing in wet places and rooting at the 
joints of the lower parts of the stem. Stem leaves round, clasp- 
ing ; root leaves on petioles, with a roundish blade at the top and 
a few small leaflets below. Corolla yellow, with brown or red spots, 
decidedly 2-lipped, large, from 1 to Ih in. long. Widely distributed 
and extremely variable. 

g. M. tri'color Lindl. (Euna'nus Benth.). Low, with spreading, 
leafy branches. Corolla 2 in. long, with a short, slender tube and wide 
border of almost equal lobes, rose-purple, marked icith deep crimson, and 
with yellow throat. This is a very beautiful plant, and grows in low, 
damp places. From middle California northward. 

h. M. Douglas'ii Gray (Euna'nus Benth.). Erect, with stems 
beginning to flower when an inch or so high. Corolla crimson, 
decidedly 2-lipped, the lower lip wanting, or much shorter than the 
upper lip ; tube from 1 to 1 ^ in. long ; throat funnel-form, dilated. 
Throughout California, in bloom usually very early. 

i. M. glutino'sus Wendland (Dip^lacus Nutt.). Shrubby, 3-6 ft. 
high, with glutinous, evergreen foliage. Leaves opposite, serrate, 
veiny. Flowers yellow or reddish, large and showy, solitary, on pedicels 
in the leaf axils. This is common throughout California, and has 
many forms regarded as species by good botanists. 

j. M. exi'lis Dur. Annual, erect, with branched stems about a 
foot high, leafy and soft-hairy, somewhat viscid, flowering from the 
first. Leaves lanceolate, sessile, entire, the lower longer than the 
upper and shorter than the pedicels. Calyx 5-cleft, bell-shaped, 
the tube without angles and almost without nerves. Corolla a little 


longer than the calyx, yellow, with nearly equal lobes and sometimes some 
brown spots in the throat. Common throughout California in the dry 
beds of streams. 

OROBANCHA'CE^. Broom Rape Family 

Eoot parasites, tuberous, pale or brownislx in color, with 
scales in place of leaves. Corolla 2-lipped. Stamens 4, in 2 
sets. Ovary 1-celled, with parietal placentae. Seeds many, 
very small. Style long, with stigma 2-lobed. Pod splitting 
into 2 valves when ripe, each valve with 1 or 2 placentae. 

APHYLXON, Cancer Root 

Flowers yellowish or purplish, usually on peduncles. Sta- 
mens included in the somewhat 2-lipped corolla. Calyx with 
5, nearly equal, pointed lobes. Stigma shield-shaped or with 
2 broad, flat lobes. Placentae, a pair to each valve. Anther 
cells deeply separated from below, awned at the base. 

a. A. uniflo'rum Gray. Stem very short, bearing one or a few 
slender scapes a few inches high. Flowers violet and violet scented, 
terminating the scapes. Frequent in California and north to British 

b. A. fascicula'tum Gray. Stems rather slender, nearly as long as 
the numerous fascicled peduncles. Floicers brownish or yellowish. 
Widely distributed. 

PLANTAGINA'CEiE. Plantain Family 

Herbs with the leaves and peduncled spikes all from the 
root. Corollas papery, 4-cleft. 

PLANTA'GO, Plantain 

Flowers perfect, each with a bract below. Calyx of 4 per- 
sistent sepals free from the ovary. Corolla greenish or dull 
white. Stamens 2-4, with long filaments. Fruit a capsule 
opening by a lid which falls off, carrying with it the placenta 
with the shield-shaped seeds attached. 


a. P. ma'jor L. Common Plantain. Leaves large, ovate, 5-7- 
r'lhhed, the petioles channeled on the upper side. A wayside weed, 

b. P. lanceola'ta L. Hairy.- Leaves long, lanceolate, S-7-rihhed. 
Flowers icith conspicuous stamens ; at first in a head, lengthening to a 
spike. Introduced, 

c. P. marit'ima L. Smooth, leaves linear, Jleshy. Spike oblong. 
This is found along the seashore. 

d. P. Patago'nica Jacq. A small annual covered with white silky 
u'ool. Scape 2-3 in. high. Flowers in dense oblong spikes, except 
in very small plants, where they form a head. Widely distributed. 
This has been made to include many species which are difficult to 

RUBIA'CE^. Madder Family 

Herbs or shrubs with opposite, entire leaves with stipules ; 
or whorled leaves without stipules. Calyx and corolla 4-lobed, 
adnate to the ovary. Stamens distinct, alternate with the 
lobes of the corolla and borne on its tube. Ovary 2-5-celled. 
Seeds with endosperm. The plants yielding coffee and quinine 
belong to this family. 

I. CEPHALAN'THUS, Button Willow 

Shrub growing near water, with willow-lihe leaves, op'posite 
or whorled ; and scale like sti])ules within the petioles. Flowers 
in a dense, round head. Calyx pointed at base, 4-toothed. 
Corolla with a long, slender tube and a small, 4-cleft border. 
Stamens short. Style long, conspicuous, with a cap-like stigma. 
Capsule, when ripe, splitting from the base upward into 2-4, 
closed, 1-seeded parts. 

C. occidenta'lis L. Leaves lanceolate, 3-5 in. long. Heads 
an inch in diameter, flowers cream-color. Common along streams 
throughout California, except near the coast. 


Low, slender, viuch-hranched herbs. Leaves opposite, with 
stipules between the petioles. Flowers small, dull purple, in 
loose cymes. Calyx tube somewhat flattened, covered with 


stiff, short bristles. Corolla funnel-form with, narrow lobes. 
Stamens 4, on the throat of the corolla. Style slender ; stig- 
mas 2, thread-like. Fruit covered with hooked bristles, split- 
ting into 2 parts, to the walls of which the seeds adhere. 

K. galioi'des Torr. This grows in damp, shady places in the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, chiefly northward. 

m. GA'LIUM, Bedstraw, Cleavers 

Herbs ivith slender stems, tvhorlecl leaves, and no stijndes. 
Flowers small, white or greenish. Calyx without a border. 
Corolla wheel-shaped, 4-parted. Stamens short ; styles 2, 
short, with cap-like stigmas. Fruit dry or fleshy, of 2 
similar rounded parts with 1 seed in each. 

* Fruit a berry. Perennials. 

a. G. Califor'nicum Hook. & Am. Stems low, generally growing in 
bunches. Leaves thin, oral, with a bristle-tipped apex; margin and mid- 
rib icith stijf hairs. Fruit pearly white when ripe, turning black when 
dried, smooth, on recm-ved pedicels. Common from San Francisco 

b. G. Nuttal'lii Gray. Shrubby, climbing over the bushes, ivith a tangled 
mass of slender stems which are minutely spiny on the angles. Com- 
mon throughout California near the coast. 

c. G. Andrews'ii Gray. Low, densely matted, nearly smooth, 
with leaves bright, shilling green, crowded, somewhat spine-tipped. 
Flowers dioecious, the sterile in few-flowered cymes, the fertile 
solitary. The dead stems and leaves are persistent and usually 
become white. 

** Fruit di 

d. G. Apari'ne L. Annual, climbing by the reflexed prickles of 
the stem and leaves. Fruit on straight pedicels, densely covered with 
hooked prickles forming a bur. Common. 

e. G. triflo'nim Michx. Waldmeister. Stems with the odor of 
vanilla when dry, weak, spreading on the ground. Leaves 6 in a 
whorl, elliptical, acute at both ends, having a few short, reflexed 
prickles on the margins and midribs. Peduncles few, 3-forked ; 
flowers greenish white, on spreading pedicels. Fruit covered with 
slender, hooked bristles. This grows in the woods from San Fran- 
cisco northward. 


/. G. borea'le L. Erect, smooth, leafy, branched. Leaves in 
fours, linear to lanceolate, obtuse, 3-nerved. Flowers icJiite, perfect, 
in a terminal panicle. Fruit small, hispid at first, smooth when ripe. 
In the mountains northward. Summer. 

CAPRIFOLIAXE^. Honeysuckle Family 

Shrubs or shrubby vines (rarely herbs) with opposite leaves 
without stipules. Flowers perfect, regular or irregular. Calyx 
5-toothed, adnate to the inferior ovary. Corolla 4 or 5 cleft. 
Stamens distinct, as many as the corolla lobes and alternat- 
ing with them. Ovary 2-5-celled. Fruit a berry, drupe or 


Low, branching shrubs, with leaves usually entire (some- 
times on young shoots lobed at the base). Flowers in axil- 
lary or terminal spikes or clusters with 2 bracts under each 
flower. Calyx 5-toothed, persisting on the fruit. Corolla 
bell-shaped, 5 or 4 lobed. Fruit a roundish, white berry con- 
iaininrj 2 bony nutlets. The berries are usually densely clus- 
tered at the ends of the branchlets. 

a. S. racemo'sus Michx. Erect shrubs, smooth or ivith the lower 
face of the leaves pubescent. Flowers in terminal, short and inter- 
rupted spike-like racemes, or some solitary in the upper axils. 
Corolla very hairy within at the base of the lobes. Style and 
stamens short. Widely distributed. 

b. S. mollis Nutt. Low, diffusely spreading, softly and densely 
pubescent. Leaves oval, small. Flowers few in terminal clusters 
or in the upper axils. Corolla short and broad, but little bearded 
inside. Throughout California. 

IL LONIC'ERA, Honeysuckle, Twin-berry 

Twining or erect shrubs with entire leaves (sometimes 
lobed on short shoots), the upper united around the stem in 
some species. Flowers many in interrupted spikes, or axillary 
in pairs which are sessile in an involucre. Calyx minutely 
5-toothed. Corolla tubular, funnel-form, or oblong bell-shaped, 
with the border 5-lobed ; or 2-Upped, with Jf. lobes forming the 


upper and 1 the lower Up. Ovary 2 or 3 celled, with numer- 
ous ovules in each cell. Style slender, tipped by a cap-like 

a. L. hispid'ula DougL Twining, with the broad floral leaves, 
uniting around the steni, the others elliptical, all except the lowest 
with broad stipule-like appendages, all bluish green and pale. Spikes 
of 3-6 whorls of pink flowers ivifh the corollas 2-lipped. Fruit a red 
herrji, somewhat viscid. Along the coast. 

h. L. interrup'ta Benth. Stoutish, erect and bushy, less disposed 
to twine, branches covered with shining white bark. Leaves 
pale-green, nearly round, all without stipules, several of the upper 
pairs uniting. Spikes of several interrupted whorls. Flowers 
yellow, smooth. Inner Coast Mountains and foothills of the Sierra 

c. L. involucra'ta Banks. Shi'ubs with stems erect, never twining, 
and leaves never united. Flowers in pairs on an axillary peduncle, 
each pair contained in a leafy involucre of 2 bracts. Corolla 
yellowish, funnel-form, swollen at the base. Berries close together, 
black icheti ripe, the involucre becoming dark red, ivith the lobes reflexed. 
Widely distributed, 

d. L. cilio'sa Poir. Stems low, or climbing. Leaves broadly ovate, 
glaucous beneath, generally smooth except for the ciliate margin ; 
the uppermost one or two pairs united to form a disk. Whorls 
of flowers 1-3, generally terminal .but sometimes from the lower 
leaf axils. Corolla smooth, annnch or more long, trumpet-shaped, scarlet 
without, yelloio ivithin ; the tube swollen on one side near the base; the 
border slightly 2-lipped. From the Sierra Nevada Mountains of 
middle California to British Columbia. 

m. SAMBU'CUS, Elder 

Shrubs or small trees with pinnately compound leaves of 
5-11 serrate leaflets. Flowers small, white, in compound 
cymes. Corolla wheel-shaped or urn-shaped, with 5 lobes. 
Stigmas and cells of the ovary 3-5. Fruit consisting of 
'^ berries," which are really drupes. 

a. S. glau'ca Nutt. Cymes large and flat. Berries dark-blue, 
with a dense bloom. This blooms in summer and is common in 
middle and southern California. 

b. S. callicar'pa Greene. Cymes ovate. Berries red; rarely yellow. 
This blooms in spring and is found only in ravines or along streams. 


CUCURBIT A'CE^. Gourd Family 

Herbs, Avith succulent stems, climbing by tendrils. Leaves 
palmately lobed, without stipules. Flowers monoecious or 
dioecious. Calyx adnate to the ovary, with 5 lobes or teeth. 
Corolla with petals more or less united. Ovary 3-5-celled, 
stigmas 3-5-lobed. Fruit dry or fleshy. This family con- 
tains the Squash, Melon, Cucumber, Pumpkin, and Gourd. 


The California species are rapidly growing vines, springing 
from enormous fleshy roots. Flowers small, white, monoe- 
cious. Sterile flowers in racemes, at the base of which are 
the solitary fertile flowers (often they are wanting). Corolla 
wheel-shaped or bell-shaped. Fruit round or oblong, spiny, 
the cells within with fibrous walls. Seeds round, flattened. 
Cotyledons thick, not coming above the ground in germi- 

a. E. faba'cea Naudin. Flowers yellowish white, numerous; 
fruit round, densely covered icith long, stout spines. Seeds 4. This is 
the commonest species. 

b. E. ma'ra Cogn. Flowers larger and purer white than the 
above, less numerous ; fruit pointed at both ends, sparingly covered 
with spines. This is a more luxuriant plant than the preceding, and 
is less common, found chiefly around San Francisco. 

c. E. Orego'na Torr. Fruit ovate-oblong, 1-2 inches long, sparingly 
clothed with soft spines, with 3-4 cells, each 3-seeded. Fertile 
flowers with abortive stamens. This is common in Washington. 

d. E. macrocar'pa Greene. Fruit oblong, densely covered with long, 
rather soft, stout spines. Seeds several, more than Jf,. Central and 
southern California. 

VALERIANAXEiE. Valerian Family 

Herbs with a disagreeable odor, opposite leaves without 
stipules, and flowers in cymes. Calyx tube adnate to the 
ovary, teeth none, or becoming feathery. Corolla with a tube 
and a 2-lipped border. Stamens 1-3 on the corolla. Style 


and filaments slender. Stigma entire or minutely 3-cleft. 
Fruit an akene with the seed hanging. 


Low annuals with, stems generally simple, and flowers in 
cymes forming whorls at intervals along the stem. Corolla 
rose-color, small, with tube swollen at base, or with a spur 
and a 2-lipped border. Calyx without a border. The species 
are few but somewhat difficult to distinguish. 

VALERIA'NA, Valerian 

Perennials, with simple stems. Flowers small, in terminal 
panicles or cymes. Corolla white or pale pink. Calyx limb of 
5-15 bristle-like lobes, whicJi are curled up ivhen the Jiower is in 
bloom, but spread out, becoming feathery in fruit. Stamens 3. 

a. V. sylvatlca Richardson. Stems erect, a foot or two high, 
from nmniiig rootstocks. Root leaves simple, on long, slender 
petioles, or compound. Stem leaves pinnately divided into 3-11 
leaflets, which are entire or sparingly toothed. Cymes closely flow- 
ered, more open in fruit. Flowers light-pink or white, \ in. long. 
In the mountains, from middle to great elevations. Summer. 

CAMPANULAXE^. Harebell Family 

Herbs with milky juice. Leaves alternate, without stipules. 
Calyx adnate to the ovary, persistent. Corolla usually blue, 
withering and persisting. Stamens generally 5, inserted at 
the base of the corolla and alternate with its lobes, ripening 
before the pistil. Stigma with 2-o lobes, which do not 
expand until some time after the flower opens. Style hairy, 
so as to collect the pollen. Capsule 2-5-celled, with axillary 
placenta, opening by holes at the top or on the sides. 


Low, simple or branched annuals, with small blue flowers. 
Calyx with a 10-ribbed tube and 5 long, narrow, leaf-like lobes. 


Corolla tubular bell-shaped, 5-lobed.. Stamens with short fila- 
ments dilated at the base. Pistil with three stigmas and a 
3-celled ovary. Capsule long and narrow, firm in texture and 
stronghj ribbed, crowned by the persistent calyx lobes, opening by 
a hole at the top left by the falling away of the base of the style. 

G. specularioi'des Nutt. Leaves linear, sessile, coarsely toothed. 
Corolla deep blue with a white center. Flowers on short peduncles 
at the ends of the stems and branches. This is widely distributed, 
but not conspicuous. 

n. CAMPAN'ULA, Harebell 

Perennial herbs with determinate inflorescence. Calyx 
lobes narrow. Corolla blue, bell-shaped, 5-lobed. Stamens 
5, with the filaments dilated at base. Capsule short and 
roundish, S-5-celled, opening on the sides or near the base by 
3—5 small, upAifted valves, leaving round perforations. 

a. C. prenanthoi'des Durand. Stems clustered, slender, a foot or 
two high. Leaves ovate-oblong, coarsely serrate, those on the stem 
mostly sessile, the lower ones on short petioles. Pedicels shorter 
than the flowers. Calyx lobes much shorter than the corolla. Style 
conspicuously extending beyond the corolla. This is found in moist, 
shady places in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and 
in redwood forests along the coast. 

h. C. Scou'leri Hook. Stems slender, branching, a foot or so 
high, smooth or slightly pubescent. Leaves ovate, pointed, sharply 
serrate, tapering to a petiole. Flowers on long pedicels, somewhat 
panicled. Corolla oblong in bud, exceeding the slender calyx lobes, 
deeply 5-cleft, with ovate-oblong lobes. In shady woods from middle 
California north to British Columbia. 

LOBELIA'CE^. Lobelia Family 

Low herbs with milky juice. Leaves simple, alternate. 
Flowers scattered or in racemes. Calyx 5-lobed, adnate to the 
ovary or only to its lower half. Corolla irregular, apparently 
2-lipped, inserted, with the free part of the calyx, on the 
ovary. Stamens 5, alternate with the lobes of the corolla. 
Filaments united into a tube at the base and usually even to 
the top. Style 1, stigma 2-lobed. Ovary 2-celled with an 


axillary placenta, or l-celled witli parietal placentge. Capsule 
many-seeded, the seeds with endosperm. 


Low and spreading smooth annuals, growing in low, wet 
places that gradually dry (" hog wallows "). Leaves small, 
sessile, entire, becoming bracts above. Calyx tube and ovary 
very long and slender, becoming twisted, the divisions of the 
calyx linear and leaf-like. Corolla 2-lipped, the smaller lip 
of 2 narrow, recurved, or spreading divisions ; the other broad, 
3-lobed, deep blue, with a white or yellow center. Filaments 
and anthers united into a curved tube. Capsule long and 
slender, becoming l-celled, splitting along the sides but closed 
at the top. 

a. D. el'egans Torr. Low, with ovate to lanceolate leaves, acute. 
The smaller lip of tlie corolla of 2 lanceolate divisions; the other 3-lobed, 
blue with a white center. Xorthern California to Washington and 

b. D. pulchella Torr. Stems 3-6 in. high. Leaves lanceolate, 
obtuse. The smaller lip of the corolla icith 2 oblong divisions; the 
other broad, 3-lobed, azure blue, with a large white or yellow spot in 
the center. Through middle California to Oregon. 

COMPOSITE. Composite Family 

Flowers in a dense head, on a common receptacle, sur- 
rounded by an involucre composed of many bracts (/. Fig. 133 ; 
e. Fig. 110), with usually 5 stamens inserted on the corolla ; 
the anthers united into a tube which surrounds the style 
(/. Fig. 153 ; e. Fig. 131). Calyx with its tube adnate to the 
ovary, the limb sometimes wanting, when present taking the 
form of scales, bristles, etc., known as pappus. Corolla either 
strap-shaped, 2-lipped, or tubular (/. Fig. 147 ; e. Fig. 110), in 
the first case often 5-toothed, in the last usually 5-lobed. Style 
2-cleft above. Fruit an akene, often provided with means of 
transportation (/. Fig. 267; e. Figs. 174, 178, 179). The largest 
family of flowering plants and among the most specialized for 
insect fertilization. The genera here included belong to the 


three suborders : I, Liguliflor^, the corollas all strap-shaped 
and flowers all perfect ; II, Labiatiflor.e, corollas of all or 
only the perfect flowers 2-lipped ; III, Tubulifer^, corolla 
of the perfect flowers tubular and 5-lobed. To the latter 
belong nine tribes, eight of which are represented by the 
plants included. The figures refer to illustrations in Part I. 

Key to the Suborders axd Tribes of Composite 

Suborder I. — Liguliflo'r.^. All flowers ray flowers. 
Herbs with milky juice. 

Suborder II. — Labiatiflo'r^. Corollas of all or only 
the perfect flowers 2-lipped. Keceptacle naked ; anthers with 
conspicuous tails ; style branches short, smooth, without 

Suborder III. — Tubuliflo'r.e. Flowers tubular, the 
outer ones only with rays, or the ray flowers entirely wanting. 
The accompanying figures are to illustrate the descriptions of 
the several tribes. They represent the style branches and 
anthers as seen when magnified. 

Tribe 1. Eupatoria'ceje. Heads without rays. Flowers 
all perfect, never yellow. Anthers without tails. Style 
branches club-shaped. 

Tribe 2. Asteroi'de^. Heads with or without rays. 
Anthers without tails. Style branches of disk flowers flat, 
tipped with an appendage. Leaves all alternate. 

Tribe 3. Ixuloi'de.e. Heads usually without ray flowers. 
Anthers with tails. Style branches of perfect flowers neither 
truncate nor tipped with an appendage. 

Tribe 4- Ambro'si^. Heads without ray flowers. Anthers 
distinct, not united. Style abortive, truncate. Corolla of 
female flowers rudimentary or wanting. Pappus none. 

Tribe 5. Heliaxthoi'de.e. Anthers without tails. Style 
branches of perfect flowers truncate or tipped with an append- 
age. Bracts of the involucre not papery. Pappus never 
capillary. Receptacle with chaffy scales mixed among the 
flowers or only near those on the outside. 



Tribe 6. Helexioi'de.^. Similar to Helianthoidece, but 
there are no chaffy scales on the receptacle. 

Tribe 7. Anthemoi'de^. Similar to Helianthoidece, but 
the involucre consists of papery bracts in regular rows, the 
pappus is a short crown or wanting, and the receptacle rarely 
has chaffy scales mixed with the flowers. 



Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 10. 

Fig. 11. 

Fig. 5. Anthers with tails (c, tails). — Fig. 6. Anthers without tails {d, base of 
anthers). — Fig. 7. Style and stigma of Triftfi 9. — Figs. 8, 9. Flat style branches 
tipped Avitli an appendage (a, appendages). — Fig. 10. Style branches of Tribe 
3. — Fig. 11. Truncate style branches. — e, the part of the anthers containing 
the pollen; b, the stigmatic part of the style. 

Tribe 8. Sexecioxi'de.e. Similar to Helianthoidece, but 
the pappus is abundant and capillary and the receptacle is 
destitute of chaffy scales. The bracts of the involucre are 
generally in a single series. 


Tribe 9. Cynaroi'de.e. Anthers either with tails or arrow- 
shaped. Style branches without tips or appendages, often 
united at the apex. Corollas all tubular, with long, narrow, 
linear divisions. Eeceptacle densely bristly. 

Suborder I. — LIGULIFLO'R^ 

All the flowers ray flowers. Herbs with milky juice. The 
flowers are generally closed in the afternoon. 

I. CICHO'RIUM, Chicory 

Perennial herbs with long, spreading branches. Leaves 
radical and alternate, toothed or pinnatifid. Heads an inch 
or more m diameter, bright blue, in the axils of the leaves. 
Bracts of the involucre in 2 series, firmly enclosing the ripe 
akenes. Fapjjus 1 or 2 series of short, obtuse scales. 

C. In'tybus L. This is very beautiful in the summer and fall. 
The stems become garlands of bright blue flowers. It has escaped 
from cultivation. 

II. HYPOCH^'RIS, Cat's Ear 

Annual or perennial herbs, with the leaves all radical, and 
forming a rosette at the base of the stem. Stems 7iaked, 
branching, terminated by heads of yelloiv flowers. Bracts of 
the involucre in rows ; receptacle with chaffy scales that 
fall soon. Pajypus consisting of 1 row of feathery hairs and 
an outer row of short, stiff bristles. The two species are 

a. H. gla'bra L. Annual. Stems several, slender, erect. Heads 
rather small, with the involucres as long as the flowers. Widely 

h. H. radica'ta L. Perennial. Stems many. Heads much larger, 
the involucres shorter than the flowers. Not quite so common as 
the preceding. 

m. TRAGOPO'GON, Oyster Plant, Salsafy 

Smooth herbs from fleshy tap-roots. Leaves thin, lax, 
sessile, tapering to a long point. Heads large, with purple 


flowers, bracts of the involucre in one series, united at the 
base and generally longer than the flowers. Akenes with long 
beaks and 'plentiful brownish pappus hairs, that are feathery, 
with naked tips, and so numei'ous that they i7iterlace. 

T. porrifo'lius L. This is common, having escaped from culti- 
vation. The large pm-j^le heads are on thick, hollow stems. The 
flowers soon fade. 


Low herbs, with leaves chiefly radical and heads of yel- 
low flowers on naked stems, mostly nodding before opening. 
Akenes ribbed, truncate at apex ; papjpus of several papery 
scales that spread in fruit. The species are rather difficult to 


Herbs with smooth, almost leafless branches. Heads qI pnnk 
floivers,_ numerous, sessile, scattered along the naked stems, 
in bloom only in the morning. Akenes 5-rlbbed, truncate at 
both ends, with plumose bristles. 

S. virga'ta Benth. This is simple or widely branched, and often 
grows to a height of several feet. The bracts of the involucre are 
in a single row, with a few loose oues at base. This is in bloom 
through the summer and faU. Widely distributed. 


Annual, smooth herbs, with leafy, branching stems, and 
heads of white or flesh-colored flotvers an inch in diameter, 
terminating the branches. Akenes terete, gradually nar- 
rowed to a slender beak. Fappus white, ^cobwebby. 

R. Califor'nica Nutt. This is the common species; which is widely 
distributed but seldom abundant. 


Generally annual, with leafy or scape-like stems. Flowers 
various. The akenes have the apex developed into a crown, and 
the silky pjappms bristles falling in a ring. 


. a. M. Courteri Gray. Erect, with glaucous stems and leaves. 
The bracts of the involucre are broad, blunt, shining, and papery, tvith a 
green midrib, loosely arranged in several rows ; the flowers are white, 
turning pink in drying or fading. This is one of the most notice- 
able annuals of the San Joaquin Valley. 

b. M. Califor'nica DC. Annual, with the heads large, solitary at the 
ends of scape-like stems, the leaves all radical and pinnately parted 
into narrow, linear divisions. Flowers yellow. The scales of the 
involucre are linear and loosely ranked. Pappus of 2 persistent 
bristles and minute-pointed teeth between. This generally grows 
in sandy soil, and is most common in southern California. 

c. M. saxa'tilis T. & G. Perennial, with leafy, branching stems, 
1-4 ft. high. Leaves entire or cut into slender divisions from lan- 
ceolate to thread-like, in some varieties quite fleshy. Heads many- 
flowered, an inch or less in diameter, terminating the branchlets, 
white turning to rose-color. Involucres of numerous, narrow bracts 
extending down onto the peduncle. Akenes ribbed, the summit 
with a border of minute white teeth. This is common in southern 
California, blooming in summer and fall, and in several varieties 
from the seacoast to the higher hills. 

Vm. TROX'IMON, Western Dandelion 

Perennial herbs, with radical leaves and heads of yellow 
^flowers 071 hollow scapes. Akenes with smooth ribs and a long 
beak ; the bristles of the capillary p>apjp)us falling singly. The 
involucre consists of bracts in several series. 

IX. TARAX'ACUM, Dandelion 

Similar to Troximon. The akenes have a long beak aiul the 
bristles of the pappjus persist 07i the akene. The only species 
is not native. 

X. SON'CHUS, Sow Thistle 

Herbs with spiny leaves, and erect, branching stems. Heads 
with the bracts in several series, and flowers yellow. Akenes 
fiat, with soft, silky-white, capillary ptappus. 

a. S. olera'ceus L. Leaves pinnatifid, tipped with soft spiny 
teeth, tapering from an auricled base to a long point, the auricles 
acute, akenes rough. This is a very common introduced weed. 


h. S. as'per Vill. Erect, more robust than the preceding, with 
leaves decidedly spiny ; the auricles of the leaves are rounded. The 
akenes are smooth ivith sharp edges. This is less common than the 


Corollas of all or only the perfect flowers 2-lipped. Kecep- 
tacle naked ; anthers with conspicuous tails ; style branches 
short, smooth, without appendages. 


Herbs with alternate, rigid leaves. Flowers solitary or in 
panicles, purple or white, all perfect. Involucre with leathery 
scales in several ranks. Corolla with slender tube ; the outer, 
longer lip 3-toothed ; the inner 2-toothed or 2-cleft. Anthers 
with long, naked tails at base and a lanceolate appendage at 
apex. Akenes usually glandular. Pappus of rough, hair-like 

P. microceph^ala Gray. Stems 2-3 ft. high, branching, glandular 
at the upper part, leafy to the top. Leaves thin, veiny, oblong to 
ovate, clasping by a heart-shaped base ; margin with minute spine- 
tipped teeth. Heads numerous in corymbs at the ends of the 
panicled branches. Flowers rose-purple. This is common in south- 
ern California, blooming in the summer and fall. 

Suborder HI. — TUBULIFLO'R^ 

Flowers tubular, the outer ones only with rays, or the ray 
flowers entirely wanting. 

Ti-ihe 1. Eupatokia'ce^. Heads without rays. Flowers 
all perfect, never yellow. Anthers Avithout tails. Style 
branches club-shaped. 


Herbs or low shrubs, with opposite or alternate, veiny 
leaves. Heads few- to many-flowered ; bracts of the involucre 
somewhat papery, in regular rows, nerved with parallel rows 
or veins. Keceptacle naked. Corollas slender, o-toothed at 


summit, with the teeth glandular on the outside. Pappus a 
single row of feathery or rough bristles. Flowers white, 
greenish or pinkish. 

B. Calif or'nica Gray. Stems 2-3 ft. high, with wand-like branches, 
usually growing in bunches. Leaves ovate, obtuse, crenate-dentate, 
about an inch long. Heads in axillary clusters, together forming 
an interrupted, erect panicle. Common through California, often 
growing in the gravelly beds of streams. Blooming in the summer 
and fall. 

Tribe 2. Asteroi'de.?5. Anthers without tails. Style 
branches of disk flowers flat, tipped with an appendage. 
Leaves all alternate. 

II. GRINDE'LIA, Gum Plant 

Coa7'se, resinous herbs, with toothed leaves, large heads with 
yellow rays and disk, in bud covered with a drop of milky-look- 
ing resin. Scales of the broad involucre in several series, with 
green, spreading tips. Akenes compressed. Pappus of a feiv 
bristles that fall off easily. This is the most recommended 
cure for the poisoning from Poison Oak. There are several 
species difficult to determine. 


Much-branched, slender-stemmed plants, with numerous 
small rayless heads of yellow, purple, or white flowers on slender 
peduncles, the corollas of the outside flowers having the lobes 
usually elongated and unequal. Involucre silky-hairy. Fappas 
a single row of stiff rough bristles. They bloom in the sum- 
mer, and the flowers deck the stems like small rosettes. 

a. L. Germano'rum Cham. Yellow Lessingia. Low and 

spreading, with heads of yellow flowers. Outer corollas with lobes 

b. L. lepto'clada Gray. Stems from a few inches to 2 ft. high, 
much branched, ivith numerous, very slender, smooth branchlets, termi- 
nated by the heads of lilac or ivhite flowers. Lobes of the corolla 
equal, the tube as long as the pappus. This is widely spread and 
very variable. The lower leaves are frequently dry when the plant 


is in bloom. They are spatnlate, toothed, white-woolly; the upper 
are triangular-ovate and closely sessile. Western and central Cali- 
fornia. Variable. 

IV. CHRYSOP'SIS, Golden Aster 

Perennial herbs with many stems from the root, very leafy, 
with alternate, sessile leaves. Heads either tvith or ivithout 
rays, solitary or in corymbs. Bracts of the involucre in 
several series, either with or without papery margins, and 
without green tips. Flowers yellow. Akenes compressed, 
hairy. Papj^us usually double ; the inner a roic of long^ rough, 
rusty bristles ; the outer a row of short, narrow, chaffy scales 
or bristles. 

a. C. sessiliflo'ra Nutt. Hairy or soft-woolly, with stems a foot 
or so high. Heads about an inch in diameter, with rays. There 
are several varieties of this which are considered species by some 
botanists. Common, and in bloom all the year. 

h. C. Orega'na Gray. Stems spreading, branched above, rough- 
hairy. Heads numerous without rays, the involucre almost equal- 
ing the flowers. The outer pappus consists of slender bristles 
rather than chaffy scales. This is found in dry stream-beds through 
middle California to Washington. 


Herbs or shrubs, with numerous heads of yellow flowers, 
the outer ojies having rays (with one or two exceptions). 
Bracts of the iiivolucre in several series. Akenes narrow, with 
pappus in one row. E-eceptacle honeycombed. 

a. A. linearifo'lius DC. Shrubby, much branched, forming a 
bushy plant. Leaves an inch or less long, sometimes in clusters, viscid, 
and covered ivith resinous dots. Heads solitary at the ends of the 
numerous branchlets, an inch or more in diameter, with the ray 
flowers irregularly placed, so that the head has an untidy appear- 
ance ; the bracts of the involucre are also less regular than in other 
species. Akenes silvery- hairy, with white pappus that falls readily. 
On dry hills in the Coast Mountains. 

h. A, ericoi'des Hook. & Arn. Shrubby, much branched, with low, 
spreading branches. Heads small, numerous, with few yellow flowers 
and but few rays. Leaves very numerous, small, terete, closely clus- 
tered into small, somewhat fan-shaped bunches, which rather densely clothe 


the stem. This is common on sand-hills along the coast. (There are 
many other species quite dissimilar in general appearance.) 

VI. BIGELO'VIA, Rabbit-brush 

Herbs or shrubs with numerous small heads of yellow 
flowers, without rays. Involucres narrow, with bracts 
arranged one above the other in rows not always distinct, 
without green tips. Akenes narrow, usually nerved. Pappus 
of almost equal bristles. The heads are generally in close com- 
pound cymes, terminating the stems. 

B. arbores'cens Gray. Shrubby, several feet high, with many erect 
branches from a woody stem. Leaves linear, almost thread-like, 
thickly clothing the stems, covered with resinous dots. On dry hills 
of the Coast Mountains, rarely in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

Vn. SOLIDA'GO, Golden-rod 

Perennial herbs with erect stems and small heads numerous 
in panicles. Bracts of the narrow involucre not spreading, 
in several rows, the outer ones regularly diminishing. Outer 
flowers with small rays. Pappus in one row, dull white, rough 
and capillary. 

a. S. Califor'nica Nutt. Stems and leaves hoary and rough to the 
touch, covered with a flne, close pubescence. Stems from 1 to 3 ft. 
tall, terminated by the numerous heads of pale-yellow flowers in a 
close panicle, sometimes pyramidal and more branched. This grows 
on dry ground, throughout California. 

h. S. spathula'ta DC. Stems and leaves glutinous (sticking to the 
paper when pressed), dark-green. Stems 1-2 ft. tall, terminated by 
a spike-like panicle of rather few heads, which are larger than those 
of the other species. Lower leaves spatulate, rounded at the apex and 
serrate, 2-4 in. long. This grows near the coast. 

c. S. elonga'ta Nutt. Stems leafy, with thin, lanceolate, serrate 
leaves, 2-3 in. long. Heads small, in more open panicles than the 
two preceding. Involucre with linear bracts. This is widely dis- 
tributed, growing along streams and in gulches. 


Perennial herbs with solitary or clustered heads of flowers 
with rays which are never yellow. The bracts of the involucre 


are in several rows, and have green and often leafy tips. 
Akenes compressed, 4 or 5 nerved. Pappus dull white or 
tawnv, of numerous rough, capillary bristles, in a single row. 
The dish flowers are yellow^ often turning 2^ uvple, and the rays 
are white, blue, innh^ or jntrjdish. 

a. A. raduli'nus Gray. Stem simple below, from a few inches 
to 1 or 2 ft. high, leaf}^, branching above to an ojoen corymb of medium- 
sized heads. Leaves diminishing towards the top, stiff and rough, 
oblong or broadly spatulate, sharply serrate near the top, tapering 
below. Bracts of the involucre stiff, appressed, with green tips 
often glandular. Rays ivhite, the disk corollas becoming reddish. 
Pappus rigid. Monterey County to Washington. 

b. A. Chamisso'nis Gray. Stems 2—5 ft. high, leafy and branch- 
ing, terminated by numerous medium-sized heads in long- racemes or in 
icidely branching panicles. Leaves lanceolate, 2-5 in. long, entire or 
slightly serrate, sessile. Bracts of the involucre in several ranks, 
with short and rounded tips. Rays white, purple, or violet, 20-25, 
nearly half an inch long. This is the most widely distributed 
species. It is somewhat variable in the size and color of the rays 
and also the inflorescence. Throughout California to Oregon. 


This is similar to Aster, but the bracts of the involucre are 
in a single row, or if there is more than one the ranks are not 
distinctly apparent. The pappus is often in two rows, and 
the rays are generally more numerous and narrower. 

a. E. glau'cus Ker. Seaside Daisy. Generally, low, perennial 
herbs, growing in mats near the seacoast. Leaves and stem covered 
with soft, spreading hairs. Leaves broad, entire ; the upper ones 
sessile, the lowest narrowed to a margined petiole. Heads an inch 
or two in diameter, with numerous violet or white rays, and the invo- 
lucres soft-hairy and somewhat viscid. The stems are terminated 
usually by solitary heads ; sometimes there are 3 or 4 in a cluster. 
This is common on the coast, and in bloom throughout the year. 

b. E. Philaderphicus L. Perennial herbs, with stems from 1 to 
3 ft. tall, hairy. Root leaves spatulate or obovate, those on the 
stem oblong, sessile by a broad, clasping base, irregularly toothed. 
Heads in a loose corymb, loith numerous very narrow pinkish rays. 
This is common in wet places. 

c. E. folio'sus Nutt. Perennials, with several stems from a 
woody root, simple, very brittle, and leafy up to the corymb, with 


a rough, grayish pubescence. Leaves narroiv, an inch or two long, 
entire, diminishing upwards. Heads with unequal bracts to the invo- 
hicre and about 30 bluish rays. Inner pappus capillary, outer of a 
few short bristles. Throughout California. Extremely variable. 

d. E. Canaden'sis L. Fleabane. Annual with stems irom 1 
to 6 ft. tall. Heads very small, numerous in a loosely 'and much- 
branched panicle. Leaves mostly linear, numerous. Rays white, 
inconspicuous. This grows everywhere and is a common weed. 


Dioecious shrubs having numerous heads icithout rays and 
with the scales of the involucre in several rows. Pappus 
capillary in one row, very abundant on the female flowers. 

a. B. pilula'ris DC. Stems much branched, erect, several feet 
high, in bunches often forming thickets, or (on the coast hills) low and 
spreading. Leaves sessile, tcedge-shaped, dark-green, coarsely toothed. 
Heads either solitary or two or three in a cluster in the leaf axils, 
very numerous. Male heads yellowish white, the stamens conspicu- 
ous, slightly surpassing the involucre. Female flowers noticeable, 
because of the long snow-white pappus, which is much longer than 
the involucre. This is very common along the entire coast in sandy 
soil. It blooms in autumn and is often covered with small gall-nuts. 

b. B. Douglas'ii DC. Shrubby at base, glutinous, the herbaceous 
branches terminated by compound corymbs. Leaves lance-shaped, 
acute, 3-nerved. Scales of the involucre broader in the male heads than 
in the female, hairy on the margin. Receptacle conical. Flowers 
whitish. Common from San Francisco southward, along streams. 

c. B. vimin'ea DC. Flowering Willow. Shrubby, resembling 
a vnlloiv, with woody branches. Stems 4-20 ft. tall. Leaves lance- 
shaped, acute at both ends, entire or with a few teeth. Heads numer- 
ous in corymbs terminating the branches. Scales of the involucre 
very thin, with hairy, papery margins. Receptacle flat. This is 
found along streams from Monterey southward. 

Tribe 3. Inuloi'de^. Anthers with tails. Style branches 
of perfect flowers neither truncate nor tipped with an append- 
age. Ray flowers wanting in the Californian species. 

XL PLUXHEA, Marsh Fleabane 

Annual herbs growing in salt or alkaline marshes, glan- 
dular, a foot or two high. Heads numerous in dense corymbose 


cymes. Bracts of the involucre xnivplish, thin and dry, in 
several ranks. Most of the flowers are fertile, the sterile 
ones in the center are purplish or sometimes white. Pappus 
of fine, capillary bristles, in a single row. 

P. camphora'ta DC. Leaves oblong-ovate to broadly lance-shaped, 
nearly sessile, irregularly toothed. The entire plant has a heavy, 
aromatic odor. In salt or alkaline marshes. 

Xn. ANAPH'ALIS, Pearly Everlasting 

Dioecious, perennial herbs, with white-woolly foliage. 
Involucre of many rows of snow-ivhite, papery scales. Style 
2-cleft, only at the apex. Pappus a single series of capillary 
bristles falling separately. 

A. margarita'cea Benth. & Hook. Stems 1-3 ft. high, leafy up 
to the broad compound corymb. Leaves narrow, lance-shaped, 
1-nerved, becoming green and smooth above. Scales of the invo- 
lucre pearly white, not longer than the flowers. Widely distributed. 

Xm. GNAPHAXIUM, Everlasting, Cotton-batting Plant 

Annual or perennial white-woolly herbs, with whitish or 
yellowish flowers. Heads with both staminate and pistillate 
floiuers, the latter fewer and in the center. Involucre of several 
ranks of papery or papery-tipjped scales. Styles in perfect 
flowers, 2-cleft. Pappus of capillary bristles in a single row. 

a. G. decur'rens Ives. Stems usually several from the woody root, 
1-3 ft. high and rather stout, glandular under the dense wool. Leaves 
lance-shaped, icith the blade extending down the stein. Heads many in 
dense corymbs terminating the stems. Involucre bell-shaped, of 
many papery scales in several ranks. The plant has a peculiar odor, 
something like licorice. It is common and widely distributed along 
the coast. 

b. G. microceph'alum Nutt. Perennial herbs, with slender, erect 
stems 2 ft. or more high, loosely branched above, white, with a close 
wool. Leaves linear, the lowest spatulate. Involucre small, loith 
bright, white, obtuse bracts. The herbage is odorless, not glandular. 

c. G. ramosis'simum Nutt. Perennial herbs with erect stems, 
3-6 ft. high, viscid, green, with woolly covering not abundant. 
Heads in loose panicles, small, often with jnnk involucres. Leaves 


lance-shaped, with the blade extending down the stem. The entire 
plant has a pleasant aromatic odor. Common on hills near the coast, 
blooming in summer. 

There are several species besides these that are quite 

Tribe 4- Ambro'si.^. Anthers distinct or slightly united. 
Style abortive, truncate. Corolla of female flowers rudi- 
mentary or none. Staminate heads generally in a cluster 
above the pistillate ones. Keceptacle with chaffy scales. 


Monoecious. Staminate heads in many-flowered racemes. 
Scales of the involucre united into a cup ; receptacle with 
thread-like scales among the flowers. Female flowei's usu- 
ally one or few in the leaf axils, each surrounded with a sjpiny 
involucre. Akenes enclosed in the persistent involucres, w^hich 
form burs. 

a. F. bipinnatif ida Less. Low spreading, perennial herbs, with 
grayish pubescent stems and leaves. Leaves twice or thrice f)innately 
divided into roundish divisions. On the coast from Washington to 
San Diego. 

I). F. Chamisso'nis Less. Similar to the above, with which it 
seems to mix. The leaves are ovate or wedge-shaped, with obtuse 
teeth. These two species grow on the sand dunes of the coast and 
are frequently associated. 

XV. XAN'THIUM, Cocklebur 

Monoecious. Male heads many-flowered, with the scales of 
the involucre distinct in one series ; receptacle cylindrical. 
Female heads united and e^iveloping the akene, armed with 
hooked spines. These are stout annual herbs, with an abun- 
dance of large burs in the fall. 

a. X. struma'rium L. Leaves broadly ovate, cordate, green on 
both sides, on long petioles, rough, irregularly toothed. Burs | in. 
long, ovate, tipped with two stout beaks. Common, introduced. 

b. X. spino'sum L. Stems much branched, very spiny, with long- 
triple yellow spines by the sides of the leaves. Leaves lanceolate, 
white beneath, twice or thrice lobed or cut, tapering into short 


petioles. Burs flat, less prickly and with weaker prickles than the 
preceding, and inconspicuous beak^. Common, introduced, 

T^'ibe 5. Heliaxthoi'de.^. Anthers without tails. Style 
branches of perfect flowers, truncate or tipped with an append- 
age. Bracts of the involucre not papery. Pappus never 
capillary, Eeceptacle with chaffy scales mixed among the 
flowers or only near those on the outside, 

XVI. WYE'THIA, California Compass Plants 

Perennial herbs with simple stems from a stout rootstock. 
Leaves alternate, large, the same on both sides, erect, the 
edges pointing north and south. Heads usually solitary, large, 
with long broad, yellow rays. Bracts of the involucre in 2 or 
3 rows, the outer leaf-like, the inner thinner and somewhat 
membranous. Eeceptacle flat, with the chaffy scales partially 
folded around the akenes. Fappus forming a cup on top of 
the akene, or of from 1 to 4- '^igid chaffy aivns. These plants 
bloom early in the flowering season, 

a. W, helenioi'des Nutt. Stems and hares tchite-woolly when young. 
Leaves all on short petioles, the lowest a foot or two long, 4-8 in. wide. 
Heads large, 4 in, or more in diameter, leafy at base, Akenes pubes- 
cent towards the apex. Pappus scales more or less united into a 
cup. In bloom early. Around San Francisco Bay on hillsides. 

h. W. gla'bra Gray. Similar to the preceding, hut the ivhole plant 
is smooth and somewhat glutinous, the leaves are leathery and dark-green. 
Akenes smooth. In bloom in April and May. In the Coast j\Ioun- 
tains, from Marin County southward. 

c. W. angustifo'lia Nutt. Radical leaves long-lanceolate, pointed at 
both ends. Heads smaller than the two preceding, on long peduncles, 
leafy only at base. Bracts of the involucre numerous, lanceolate, 
hairy on the margin, loose and leafy. Pappus of 1-4 stout hirsute 
awns, with short intervening scales. This is in bloom the latest. 
It is common and widely distributed. 

d. W. amplexicau'lis Nutt. Smooth. Upper leaves sessile. Invo- 
lucre broad, bell-shaped, of many loose scales. Pappus without 
bristles. Eastern Oregon to Washington. 

XVn. BALSAMORRHrZA, Balsam-root 

Perennial herbs with thick aromatic roots and large leaves 
chiefly from the root. Heads large, usually solitary and 


terminating almost leafless stems, containing many floicers. 
Involucre of many loose leaf-like scales in several ranks. 
Eay and disk jBlowers fertile, yellow. Pappus none. Akene 
of the ray flowers flattened 2^cifaUel with the scales ; those of the 
disk with Jf angles. 

a. B. sagitta'ta Nutt. Densely covered with white wool. Leaves 
entire, heart-sliaped or mTow-shaped, 4-8 in. long, on long petioles. 
Scapes a foot or two high, Rays yellow, 1-2 in. long. In the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains to British Columbia, blooming in early 

b. B. deltoi'dea Nutt. Green and cdmost smooth. Leaves bi'oadly 
heart-shaped to V-shaped, irregularly serrate or entire, 4-10 in. long. 
Scapes with small lauceolate or cordate leaves bearing 1-3 heads. 
Rays an inch or more long. Southern California to British Colum- 
bia, blooming in early spring. 


Annual or perennial herbs with the lowest leaves opposite, 
the upper alternate, all simple. Heads large, with conspicu- 
ous yellow rays. Bracts of the involucre in several series, 
green, but not leaf-like. Receptacle flat, with the chaffy 
scales numerous. Akenes slightly flattened, 4-sided. Pap- 
pus of 2 marginal scales that fall soon, and more persistent 
minute bristles between. 

H. Calif or'nicus DC. Stems tall, 2-5 ft. high, branching above. 
Leaves long, lanceolate, or broader at base. Bracts of the involucre 
narrow, linear-lanceolate, tapering to a long-spreading point. Recep- 
tacle convex, with the chaffy scales blunt. Akenes flat, with a 
smooth paj^pus of 2 or 3 chaffy scales. This grows along streams. 
The flowers are quite numerous on the branches at the top of the 
stem. Common from around San Francisco southward. Summer 
and fall. 


Perennial, shrubby at base, branching. Leaves opposite or 
alternate, generally simple. Heads containing many flowers ; 
disk flowers perfect ; ray flowers generally present and 
neutral. Involucre bell-shaped with the scales in several 
rows one above the other. Akenes flat, with a thin edge hut 


without icings, ohovate, 2-toothed at suTumit or notched, with 
long hairs or ivithout. Pappus none or a pair of bristles. 

E. Califor'nica Nutt. Gray pubescent at first but becoming 
smoother and greener. Leaves alternate, ovate to lanceolate, 1-2 
in. long. Involucre covered with white hairs. Rays an inch long, 


Smooth succulent herbs, with leaves twice or thrice pin- 
nately parted into narrow, linear lobes. Heads on long 
peduncles, with a double involucre, the outer of 5-8 narrow, 
leaf-like scales, the inner of 8-12 thinner and broader erect 
scales. Rays yellow, conspicuous, oblong, 3-toothed, 10-nerved. 
Receptacle nearly flat, with thin papery chaff that falls with 
the fruit. Corollas of the disk flowers with a slender tube 
having a ring around the summit below the funnel-form 
border. Akenes flat, more or less margined with a iving. 
Fappus none, or a minute cup. 

a. L. Douglas'ii DC. Annual. Stems leafy only at base. Heads 
on long, naked peduncles. Rings on the corolla tube hairy. Common 
in southern California. 

h. L. Stiirmani Gray. Stems leafy below. Involucre hairy at 
base. Ring on the corolla tube smooth. This is the commonest species. 

c. L. marit'ima and L. gigante'a are shrubby, perennial species 
with thick fleshy stems. The former grows near San Diego on the 
coast ; and the latter, which has a strong odor of turpentine, near 
the coast in Ventura and San Luis Obispo Counties, and on the 
islands off the coast of Santa Barbara. 

XXL BI'DENS, Bur Marigold 

Annual herbs, usually growing near water. Leaves opposite. 
Involucre double, as in LejDtosyne. Receptacle flat or convex, 
the thin, narrow, chaffy scales falling with the fruit. Akenes 
with a pappus of 2-4 aw7is, barbed downivards. The species 
are somewhat uncertain. 

XXII. MA'DIA, Tarweed 

Annuals with glandular, aromatic foliage and flowers that 
wilt during the heat of the day. Bracts of the involucre in 


one series, boat-shaped, and emhracing the black or brown 
flattened akenes. Eeceptacle without chaffy scales in the 
center, but with one or two rows between the disk and the 
ray. Ray flowers and usually disk flowers without pappus. 
Kays yellow, sometimes with a brown spot at base. 

a. M. el'egans Don. Stems branching. Heads in loose panicles 
an inch in diameter, icitli conspicuous yellow rays, often luith a brown 
spot at base. Foliage lemon-scented. Widely distributed. 

b. M. sati'va Molina. Stems simple or branching. Heads 
usually densely clustered, with inconspicuous yellow rays. The bracts 
enclosing the akenes persist around the akenes and adhere to other 
substances by means of their viscidity, thus accomplishing the dis- 
tribution of the seed. Widely distributed. 

XXm. HEMIZO'NIA, Tarweed 

This is similar to Madia, the chief difference being the 
bracts enclosing the akenes, which in Madia almost entirely 
surround the individual akenes, while in Hemizonia they 07ily 
half enclose them. (" Hemizonia " means half zone.) The 
disk flowers generally have 2^<^PI>us and the rays are either 
yellow or white. Anthers brown. 

a. H. luzulaefo'lia DC. Annual, widely branching. Lower leaves 
long, linear, silvery, with shining white hairs, the ripper leaves very glan- 
dular. Heads numerous, with white or yellow 3-lobed rays less than 
i in. long, the dark-brown anthers conspicuous. This is one of the 
commonest Tanceeds, blooming in summer and fall. 

b. H. pun'gens (Centroma'dia) . Stems much branched, hirsute. 
Lower leaves twice pinnatifid, with short spiny lobes, those on the 
branchlets entire, crowded, spine-tipped. Bracts of the involucre spiny, 
and also the narrow chaff of the receptacle. Rays about as long as the 
disk, 2 or 3 toothed. Pappus none. This is common, blooming in 
summer and fall, 

c. H. multiglandulo'sa Gray (Calycade'nia) . Annuals, with erect 
stems and branches ; covered, especially above, with black tack- 
shaped glands; lemon-scented. Leaves narrowly linear. Heads 
crowded in the axils of the upper leaves or sometimes solitary. 
Flowers white or tinged ivith rose-color, the rays 1-7, broad, deeply 
3-lobed. Receptacle fiat, with chaffy scales only between the ray 
and the disk flowers. Common in California. The species are 
very numerous and difficult. 



Annual herbs with alternate leaves. Heads many-flowered, 
with wedge-shaped, 3-toothed rays. Bracts of the involucre 
in one series, with papery margins and pointed tips, com- 
pletely enclosing the ray akenes. Receptacle flat, with a row 
of chaffy scales between the ray and the disk, or chaffy through- 
out. Kay akenes linear, often purplish, narrowed to the base, 
flat on top, without pappus. They bloom in the spring. 

a. L. glandulo'sa Hook. & Arn. Loosely branching, about a foot 
high, hairy, and sprinkled above with stipitate, dark-colored glands. 
Pappus of disk floivers, of 10-20 stout bristles, that are densely lohite- 
woolly below the middle. Heads medium-sized, with 8-13, 3-lobed, 
conspicuous white or rose-purple rays and yellow disk. Widely 

h. L. platyglos'sa Gray. Tidy-tips. Loosely branching or often 
simple-stemmed, hairy, and glandular. Lower leaves pinnately 
lobed, with narrow divisions. Heads with large rays, bright yelloiv, 
edged with ivhite. Pappus of 15-25 stout, rough brittles, that are not 
woolly. Ray akenes smooth, those of the disk silky-hairy. Through- 
out California. (There are several other species not so easily 

Tribe 6. Helenioi'deje. Similar to Helianthoidem, but 
without chaffy scales on the receptacle. 

XXV. BAE'RIA, Golden Fields (LASTHENIA) 

Low annuals with opposite leaves, entire or irregularly pin- 
natifid into linear lobes. Heads small, on slender peduncles, 
terminating the branches or stems. Involucre formed of a 
single series of flat, oblong scales. Rays entire or 3-toothed, 
oval or oblong. Receptacle conical, rough, ivith projecting 
points that bear the akenes. Akenes angled or nerved. Pap- 
pus either scales or bristles, or none. These little plants 
cover the ground for acres, and look like a golden carpet 
spread over the earth. Some species have a sweet, rather 
heavy perfume. 

B. gra'cilis Gray. Sunshine. This is the most widely spread spe- 
cies, but it is not easily distinguished from the others. Fragrant. 



Annuals, low, slender, much branched, smooth. Leaves 
pinnately parted into many, narrow, linear divisions. Heads 
small, terminating the branchlets. Flowers many, light 
yellow. Involucre with bracts in a single series, generally 
tipped with dark red. Receptacle flat. Ray flowers pistillate, 
without papjnis ; disk flowers sterile, except the row next to the 
ray flowers. Akenes covered with white dots which become jelly- 
like when wet. 

B. Calif ornicum T. & G. This is the only species. It grows in 
wet places in early spring and often covers the ground for miles 
along highways. 


Shrubs or herbs with entire or divided leaves clothed with 
cottony wool, especially on the under surface. Flowers yellow. 
Bracts of the involucre lance-shaped, united at base. Pappus 
of mennbranaceous scales. 

a. E. staBchadifo'lium Lag. Lizard-leaf. Shrubby, with many 
stems rising from a woody base, terminated by loo^e cymes of rather 
small heads. Leaves cut into linear, pinnate divisions somewhat 
resembling a lizard in outline, green above, white below. Common 
in the Coast Mountains. 

b. E. confertiflo'rum Gray. Similar to the above, but smaller, 
with leaves reduced and scattered, white on both sides. Heads almost 
destitute of rays in a dense corymb. Extending to the Sierras, as well 
as in the Coast Mountains. 

c. E. caespito'sum DougL Perennial herbs, with many stems 
from the root. Heads nearly an inch in diameter, with conspicuous 
rays, solitary or few, on long peduncles. This is extremely variable 
and widely distributed. 


Annual herbs with woolly pubescence and sessile leaves 
alternate above, sometimes opposite below. Heads large, 
terminating the stems ; scales of the involucre united into a 
toothed cup. Receptacle conical, pctpillose. Pappus none. 
Flowers yellow, with conspicuous rays. 


M. ma'jor DC. Ray corollas, with a broad 3 or 4 toothed or 
lobed ray, and bearing on the opposite side of the style a roundish, 
toothed appendage. Leaves simple, partly clasping. Heads nearly 
2 in. in diameter, very showy. Throughout western California, in 
low ground. 


Herbs with pinnately compound leaves, more or less wMte- 
wooUy, and heads of yellow, white, or flesh-colored flowers 
without rays ; the outer corollas often have an enlarged 
border simulating a ray. Involucre with green, linear, erect 
bracts, generally in a single row. Receptacle flat. Pajypus 
of chaffy scales. Akenes slender. The heads are solitary, 
or in loose clusters on peduncles. The species are not easily 

XXX. HELE'NIUM, Sneezeweed 

Annual or perennial herbs with alternate leaves, and heads 
on peduncles terminating the branchlets. Bracts of the 
involucre in 2 series, the external scales narrow, leaf-like, 
spreading, and at length reflexed, the internal scales few and 
chaffy. Receptacle globular. Paptpus of 5-12 thin, chaffy 
scales. Eay flowers yellow, disk flowers often purplish. 

a. H. puber'ulum DC. Widely branched, the stems winged with 
the decurrent leaves. Disk forming a round ball, ray flowers incon- 
spicuous. This is common in wet places. 

h. H. Bolan'deri Gray. Perennial, with stems a foot or two 
high. Heads on long, naked peduncles which are thickened at 
top. Leaves obovate or lanceolate. Heads large, wdth wedge- 
shaped rays an inch long; disk an inch across. From northern 
California to Washington. 

c. H. Bigelo'vii Gray. Stems tall and simple. Leaves lanceolate 
to oblong or linear, entire. Heads on long, slender peduncles, with 
rays half an inch long and disk as broad, somew^hat depressed. 
Common in wet places in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. 

Tribe 7. Anthemoi'de^. Similar to Helianthoidece, but 
the involucre consists of papery bracts in regular rows, the 
pappus is a short crown or wanting, and the receptacle rarely 
has chaffy scales mixed with the flowers. 


XXXI. AN'THEMIS, Dog Fennel 

Herbs with pinnately dissected leaves and numerous heads, 
terminating the branchlets. Scales of the involucre in several 
series, one above the other. Eeceptacle convex or conical, 
having chaffy scales among the flowers. Ray flowers white, 
those of the disk yellow. Pappus none. Akenes ribbed. 

A. Cot'ula L. Whiteweed, Mayweed. This is a common intro- 
duced weed, and blooms in summer and fall. It has a strong, acrid 
taste disagreeable to animals. 

XXXn. ACHILLE'A, Yarrow, Milfoil 

Perennial herbs, strong-scented, with pinnately dissected 
leaves. Stems usually simple, terminated by dense corymbs of 
small heads of tvhite or innkish flowers. Involucres with 
small scales in several rows. Pappus none, akenes flattened, 
margined. Bracts of the receptacle thin and transparent. 

A. millefolium L. This is common and widely distributed. The 
leaves are disposed to form rosettes at the base of the stem, and are 
delicate and fern-like. 


Erect simple or branching herbs, with pinnately dissected 
leaves. Heads terminating the branches, on short peduncles. 
Bracts of the involucre in several series. Disk greenish 
yelloio, conical. Rays white when present. Pappus in a crown 
or wanting. 

M. discoi'dea DC. Manzaxilla. Annual, erect, branching. 
Heads with a high conical disk and no rays. Involucre with white, 
papery margins to the broadly ovate scales. Akenes with a crown- 
like margin in place of pappus. This plant has the odor of ripe 
apples. Widely distributed. 

XXXrV. ARTEMISIA, Wormwood, Sagebrush 

Herbs or shrubs with bitter taste and alternate leaves. 
Heads greenish, small, tvithout rays, numerous in racemes or 
panicles. Scales of the involucre dry, with papery margins. 


Keceptacle naked or hairy. Akenes ohovate, ivith a small disk 
at top, hut luithout paj^pus. These have inconspicuous flowers, 
often an aromatic odor, and they bloom in the falL 

a. A. vulga'ris var. Californica Besser. Mugwort. Stems simple 
and taU. Upper leaves toothed or entire, lower 3-5-parted, green on 
the upper surface, ichite-woolly below. This grows in gulches and 
along streams, and is widely distributed. 

b. A. Califor'nica Less. Fleabane. Shrubby, w ith many branches 
from a woody base, 3-4 ft. high, forming a clump. Entire plant 
white-pubescent. Leaves pinnately divided into thread-like divisions. 
This grows on dry hills and is pleasantly aromatic. Common from 
San Francisco southward. 

XXXV. COT'ULA, Brass-buttons 

Small introduced annual herbs, having heads without rays. 
Bracts of the involucre nearly equal, papery on the margins, 
in 2 ranks. Receptacle flat, naked, papnllose. Akenes flat- 
tened, with spongy margins. Pappus none. Flowers yellow. 

a. C. coronopifo'lia L. Smooth, wdth creeping stems and rather 
fleshy leaves, which are lanceolate, irregularly pinnatifid, toothed or 
entire, with broad, clasping base. Heads ^ in. in diameter, flat on 
top, the bright-yellow disk floivers very numerous. This grows in w^et 
places, and is very common near the coast. 

b. C. Australis L. Smaller than the preceding, hairy. Leaves 
twice pinnately parted into linear divisions. Heads very small, with 
flowers greenish. This grows along the streets and in waste places. 

Tribe 8. Sexecioxid'e^. Similar to Helianthoidece, but 
the pappus is abundant and capillary, and the receptacle is 
without chaffy scales. 


Perennial herbs with creeping rootstocks, and simple stems 
bearing a few rather large heads of yellow flowers on long 
peduncles and usually a few opposite, entire or toothed leaves. 
Involucre bell-shaped, of linear or lance-shaped equal scales in 
one or two series. Rays elongated or sometimes wanting. 
Pappus a single row of stiff, bearded, capillary bristles. 
Akenes linear, 5-angled, or ribbed. 


a. A. discoi'dea Benth. Heads without rays in a hractless panicle. 
Involucre hairy and glandular. Leaves ovate or oblong, irregularly 
toothed, the upper sessile and often alternate. Akenes becoming 
smooth, not glandular. In the Coast Mountains. 

h. A. cordifo'lia Hook. Heads icith conspicuous rays, usually about 
^ in. long (rarely rayless). Leaves opposite, 2 pjairs on the stem; 
root leaves roundish and deeply cordate, coarsely toothed. In the 
Sierra Xevada Mountains. 

c. A. folio'sa Nutt. Perennial, from rootstocks. Stems erect, 
leafy, clothed with white wool. Leaves lanceolate, with small blunt 
teeth on the maryin and with 5 parallel lonyitudinal nerves. Heads 
rather small, in corymbs, on short peduncles. Rays short, yellow. 
Common in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, north to Oregon, bloom- 
ing in summer. 

XXXVn. SENE'CIO, Groundsel 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves and heads of yellow 
flowers either solitary or in corymbs. Bracts of the involucre 
in a single series, somewhat united, often with a few loose 
bracts at the base. Akenes slender, with fine and soft copious 

a. S. vulga'ris L. Old Man of Spring. Annual, from a few 
inches to a foot high. Leaves rather thick, pinnately cut into 
toothed lobes. Scales at the base of the involucre tipped with 
black. Heads sjnall, rayless. This is common in fields and along 
roads. An introduced weed. 

b. S. Douglas' 11 DC. Perennial, sometimes shrubby, leafy to the top, 
usually white, with cottony wool more or less persisting. Leaves 
linear, etitire, acute, or pinnately painted into linear lobes. Heads in 
corymbs at the ends of the branches, about an inch in diameter. 
Involucre with a few loose scales at the base. Rays elongated. 
Widely distributed. 

c. S. aronicoi'des DC. Stems stout, erect, leafy at base, with 
leaves irregularly and coarsely toothed, 3-6 in. long. Heads rather 
small, in compound cymes terminating the stems, without rays or 
with only one or two. Bracts of the involucre without black tips. 
Common throughout California in low grounds. 

d. S. euryceph'alus Ton. & Gray. Stems stout, erect, leafy, some- 
what white-woolly when young, becoming smoother with age. Leaves 
unequally pinnately parted, ivith ivedge-shaped, acutely incised lobes. 
Heads many in an ample corymb, with 10-12 long and showy rays. 

e. S. Caiifornicus DC. Annual, a foot or two high, with smooth, 
slender stems. Leaves linear to oblong ; those on the stem clasping at base ; 


those near the base toothed or lohed. Heads in corymbs, with rays half 
an inch long. Common in southern California, blooming in spring. 
/. S. triangula'ris Hook. Stems simple, smooth, leafy, 2-5 ft. 
high. Leaves triangular, sharply toothed, pointed at top. Heads many, 
in corymbs terminating the stem. Involucre bell-shaped, with a 
few loose, narrow bracts at base. Rays 6-12, haK an inch long. 
In the Sierra Nevada Mountains to Washington. Summer. 

Ti'ibe 9. Cynaroi'de.e. Anthers either with tails or 
arrow-shaped. Style branches without tips or appendages, 
often united near the apex. Corollas all tubular, with long, 
narrow, linear divisions. Receptacle densely bristly. 


Stout herbs, usually biennial, with alternate prickly leaves 
and large or medium-sized heads of purple, red, white, or 
yellowish flowers. Scales of the involucre bristle-tipped, 
arranged in many series, the lower successively shorter. 
Receptacle flat, densely clothed with bristles. Akenes smooth, 
obovate or oblong. Pappus of numerous, long, plumose bristles 
that are deciduous, united in a ring. The style is usually 
thickened by a knee-like swelling immediately below the stig- 
matic portion, which consists of two slender divisions united 
nearly or quite to the top. The species are not easily 

XXXIX. SIL'YBUM, Milk Thistle 

Stout annuals, nearly smooth, with large root leaves 
blotched with white, and prickly on the margins. Heads 
many-flowered and often solitary. Involucre with leaf-like 
closely appressed bracts, tipped with stout spines. Flowers 
magenta-purple. Pappus of stiff, chaffy bristles in several 
rows, not spiny. 

S. Maria'num Gaertn. This has been introduced from the Medi- 
terranean region, and is spreading more and more. 

XL. CENTAURE'A, Star Thistle 

Herbs with small heads of yellow, rose-color, or blue flowers. 
Involucre globular, the scales spine-tipped or papery at 


the apex, generally contracted under the flowers. Keceptacle 
very bristly. Akenes compressed, with pappus of numerous 
chaffy bristles that fall separately. The outer flowers are 
often funnel-shaped, with broad conspicuous divisions simu- 
lating a ray flower. All the species are introduced weeds 
from Europe. 

a. C. Meliten'sis L. Tocalote. Annital, with spreading branches. 
Radical leaves pinnatifid, with rather broad lobes, the stem leaves 
barely toothed, decurreut. Corollas yellow, inconspicuous. Scales of 
the involucre spine-tipped, and with a few prickles at the base. 
Common in fields and waste places. 

b. C. solstitia'lis L. Annual, much branched. Stem leaves 
linear. Flowers conspicuous yellow. Outer bracts of the involucre 
with 3-5 small prickles, palmately spreading ; middle bracts with a 
stout spine besides. This is less common than the preceding. 


Abies, 16. 
Abronia, 52. 
Acacia, 95. 
Acer, 102. 
Achillea, 182. 
Achlys, 63. 
Aconite, 61. 
Aconitum, 61. 
Actsea, 61. 
Adder's Tongue, 29. 
Adeiiostoma, 84. 
^sculus, 102. 
Agave, 37. 
Alabaster Tulip, 30. 
Alder, 43. 
Alder Family, 42. 
Alfalfa, 92. 
Amierilla, 96. 
Allium, 24. 
Alnus, 43. 
Alum Root, 77. 
Amarantacese, 51. 
Amaranth Family, 51. 
Amarantus, 51. 
Amaryllidacese, 36. 
Ambrosise, 162, 174. 
Amelanchier, 87. 
American Aloe, 37. 
Amole, 33. 
Amsinckia, 137. 
Amygdalese, 80. 
Anacardiacese, 101. 
Anagallis, 126. 

Anaphalis, 173. 
Anemone, 59. 
Anemopsis, 40. 
Angiosperms, 20. 
Anthemis, 182. 
Anthemoideffi, 163, 181, 
Apetalous Plants, 39. 
Aphyllon, 153. 
Aplopappus, 169. 
Apocynacea3, 130. 
Apocynum, 130. 
Apple, 88. 
Aquilegia, 60. 
Arabis, 71. 
Aracese, 23. 
Aralia, 117. 
Araliacese, 116. 
Arbor-vitse, 14. 
Arbutus, 121. 
Arctostaphylos, 121. 
Arenaria, 56. 
Argemone, 65. 
Aristolochia, 47. 
Aristolochiaceae, 46. 
Armeria, 127. 
Arnica, 183. 
Artemisia, 182. 
Arum Family, 23. 
Asarum, 46. 
Asclepiadacese, 129. 
Asclepias, 129. 
Ash, 128. 
Ash Family, 127. 




Aspen, 42. 
Aster, 170. 
Asteroideae, 162, 168. 
Astragalus, 94. 
Athysanus, 68. 
Atriplex, 50. 
Audibertia, 141. 
Avens, 84. 
Azalea, 123. 

Baby-blue-eyes, 134. 
Baby-eyes Family, 133. 
Baccbaris, 172. 
Baeria, 179. 
Balm of Gilead, 42. 
Balsam Cottonwood, 42. 
Balsamorrhiza, 175. 
Balsam Root, 175. 
Baneberry, 61. 
Barbarea, 70. 
Barberry Family, 62. 
Bay, 63. 

Bear's Cabbage, 134. 
Bedstraw, 155. 
Bee-plant, 147. 
Bee Sage, 141. 
Berberidacese, 62. 
Berberis, 62. 
Betula, 43. 
Betulacese, 42. 
Bidens, 177. 
Bigelovia, 170. 
Big Root, 158. 
Big Tree, 16. 
Birch, 43. 
Birch Family, 42. 
Bird's Eyes, 131. 
Bird's Nest Cactus, 115. 
Bitter-root, 53. 
Blackberry, 87. 
Black Birch, 43. 

Black Mustard, 69. 
Black Oak, 45. 
Black Sage, 141. 
Black Willow, 41. 
Bladderpod, 73. 
Blazing Star Family, 115. 
Bleeding Heart, 67. 
Bleeding Heart Family, 6Q. 
Blennosperma, 179. 
Blepharipappus, 179. 
Bloomeria, 25. 
Blue-bells, 138. 
Blue-blossoms, 104. 

Blue-curls, 144. 

Blue-eyed Grass, 38. 

Blue Flag, 37. 

Blue Milla, 27. 

Blue Oak, 44. 

Borage Family, 137. 

Borraginacese, 137. 

Box Elder, 103. 

Boykinia, 75. 

Brass-buttons, 183. 

Brassica, 69. 

Brevoortia, 26. 

Brickellia, 167. 

Bridal Wreath, 82. 

Brodiaea, 25. 

Broom Rape Family, 153. 

Brunella, 142. 

Buckbush, 83. 

Buckeye, 102. 

Buckthorn Family, 103. 

Buckwheat Family, 47. 

Buckwheat Sage, 50. 

Buda, 57. 

Bull Pine, 20. 

Bur Clover, 92. 

Bur Marigold, 177. 

Bushy Clematis, 59. 

Buttercup Family, 58. 



Buttercups, 59. 
Butterfly Tulip, 32. 
Button Willow, 154. 

Cactacese, 115. 
Cactus Family, 115. 
Csesalpinese, 94. 
Calandrinia, 53. 
California Buckwheat. 47. 
California Compass Plant, 175. 
California Laurel, 63. 
California Lilac, 103. 
Californian Bee-plant, 147. 
California Poppy, 64. 
California Sage, 141. 
Calliprora, 26. 
Calochortus, 30. 
Calycadenia, 178. 
Calycantliaceae, 80. 
Camassia, 33. 
Campanula, 160. 
Campanulacese, 159. 
Camphor Weed, 144. 
Cancer Eoot, 153. 
Canchalagua, 128. 
Caper Family, 73. 
Capparidacese, 73. 
Caprifoliacese, 156. 
Capsella, 69. 
Cardamine, 71. 
Carduus, 185. 
Carpenter Weed, 143. 
Carrot, 119. 
Caryophyllacese, 55. 
Cascara Sagrada, 103. 
Castanopsis, 45. 
Castilleja, 149. 
Cat's Ear, 164. 
Caulanthus, 72. 
Ceanothus, 103. 
Cedar, 13. 

Centaurea, 185. 
Century Plant, 37. 
Century Plant Family, 36. 
Cephalanthus, 154. 
Cerastium, 55. 
Cercis, 95. 
Cercocarpus, 83. 
Cereus, 116. 
Chaenactis, 181. 
Chamsebatia, 85. 
Chamaecyparis, 14. 
Chamomile, 182. 
Chaparral Pea, 90. 
Checkered Lily, 28. 
Chemisal, 84. 
Chenopodiaccce, 49. 
Chenopodium, 49. 
Cherry, 81. 
Chestnut Oak, 45. 
Chia, 141. 
Chicalote, 65. 
Chickweed, 56. 
Chicory, 164. 
Chilicothe, 158. 
Chimaphila, 124. 
Chinese Sacred Lily, 37. 
Chlorogalum, 33. 
Chocolate Lily, 29. 
Chokecherry, 81. 
Chorizanthe, 48. 
Christmas Berry, 88. 
Chrysopsis, 169. 
Cichorium, 164. 
Cinquefoil, 85. 
Cirsium, 185. 
Cistacese, 108. 
Clarkia, 114. 
Cleavers, 155. 
Clematis, 58. 
Climbing Nemophila, 134. 
Clintonia, 35. 



Clover, 91. 
Cnicus, 185, 
Cocklebur, 174. 
Coffee Berry, 103. 
Collinsia, 147. 
Collomia, 131. 
Columbine, 60. 
Column Cactus, 116. 
Compositge, 161. 
Composite Family, 161. 
Coniferse, 13. 
Convolvulacese, 132. 
Convolvulus, 132. 
Cornaceae, 119. 
Corn Spurry, 57. 
Cornus, 119. 
Corylus, 46. 

Cotton-batting Plant, 173. 
Cottonwood, 42. 
Cotula, 183. 
Cotyledon, 74. 
Cow Parsnip, 118. 
Crane's Bill, 95. 
Crassulacese, 74. 
Crataegus, 88. 
Cream Cups, 65. 
Creeping Violet, 109. 
Cress, 70. 
Cruciferae, 67. 
Cucurbitacese, 158. 
Cupressus, 13. 
Cupuliferse, 44. 
Curly Dock, 48. 
Currant, 78. 
Cuscuta, 133. 
Cyclamen, 125. 
Cynaroidese, 164, 185. 
Cynoglossum, 138. 
Cyperaceae, 22. 
Cypress, 13. 
Cypripedium, 39. 

Daffodil, 36. 
Dandelion, 166. 
Datura, 145. 
Daucus, 119-. 
Death Camass, 34. 
Deer's Foot,. 63. 
Delphinium, 61. 
Dendromecon, 64. 
Dentaria, 71. 
Devil's Club, 117. 
Dicentra, 67. 
Dichelostemma, 26. 
Dicotyledonous Plants, 39. 
Digger Pine, 20. 
Diogenes' Lantern, 30. 
Diplacus, 152. 
Disporum, 34. 
Dock, 48. 
Dodder, 133. 
Dodecatheon, 125. 
Dogbane Family, 130. 
Dog Fennel, 182. 
Dog-tooth Violet, 29. 
Dogwood Family, 119. 
Douglas vSpruce, 17. 
Downingia, 161. 
Drooping Live Oak, 45. 
Drops of Gold, 34. 
Dutchman's Pipe, 47. 
Dutchman's Pipe Family, 46. 

Echeveria, 74. 
Echinocactus, 115. 
Echinocystis, 158. 
Elder, 157. 
Ellisia, 134. 
Emmenanthe, 136. 
Encelia, 170. 
Encino, 45. 

Engelmann Spruce, 17. 
Epilobium, 111. 



Epipactis, 39. 
Eremocarpus, 100. 
Ericaceae, 120. 
Erigeron, 171. 
Eriodictyon, 136. 
Eriogonum, 47. 
Eriophyllum, 180. 
Erodium, 96. 
Erysimum, 69. 
Erythrsea, 128. 
Erythronium, 29. 
Eschscholtzia, 64. 
Escobita, 150. 
Eucalyptus, 110. 
Eucharidium, 114. 
Eunanus, 152. 
EupatoriaceEe, 162, 167. 
Euphorbia, 99. 
Euphorbiaceae, 99. 
Evening Primrose, 112. 
Evening Primrose Family, 110. 
Evening Snow, 131. 
Evergreen White Oak, 44. 
Everlasting, 173. 

Fairy Bells, 34. 

False Solomon's Seal, 34. 

Farewell to Spring, 113. 

Fatsia, 117. 

Ficoideae, 116. 

Fiddle-neck, 137. 

Fig Marigold Family, 116. 

Figwort Family, 146. 

Filaree, 96. 

Fir, 16. 

Firecracker Flower, 26. 

Fireweed, 111. 

Five-finger, 85. 

Flaming Poppy, 66. 

Flax Family, 98. 

Fleabane, 172, 183. 

Fleur de Lis, 37. 
Flower de Luce, 37. 
Flowering Ash, 128. 
Flowering Currant, 78. 
Flowering Willow, 172. 
Footsteps of Spring, 112. 
Forget-me-not, 138. 
Four-o'clock, 52. 
Four-o'clock Family, 51. 
Fragaria, 86. 
Frankeniaceae, 108. 
Franseria, 174. 
Fraxinus, 128, 
Fremontia, 107. 
Fringed Cups, 76. 
Fringed GUia, 131. 
Fritillaria, 28. 

Fuchsia-flowered Gooseberry, 78. 
Fumariaceae, 66. 

Galium, 155. 
Garrya, 120. 
Garryaceae, 120. 
Gaultheria, 123. 
Gentianaceae, 128. 
Gentian Family, 128. 
Geraniaceae, 95. 
Geranium Family, 95. 
Geum, 84. 
Gilia, 130. 
Ginger Pine, 14. 
Ginseng, 117. 
Ginseng Family, 116. 
Githopsis, 159. 
Gnaphalium, 173. 
Godetia, 113. 
Golden Aster, 169. 
Golden Bells, 30. 
Golden Bloomeria, 25. 
Golden Cup Oak, 45. 
Golden Ear-drops, 67. 



Golden-eyed Grass, 38. 
Golden Fields, 1 79. 
Golden-leaved Chinquapin, 46. 
Golden Pea, 89. 
Golden Prince's Plume, 73. 
Golden-rod, 170. 
Golden Stars, 25. 
Golden Tulips, 32. 
Gomphocarpus, 129. 
Gooseberry, 78. 
Gourd Family, 158. 
Graminese, 21. 
Grass Family, 21. 
Grass Lilies, 27. - 
Grass Nuts, 26. 
Greasewood, 84, 141. 
Green-stemmed Filaree, 97. 
Grindelia, 168. 
Ground Lily, 26. 
Groundsel, 184. 
Gum Plant, 168. 
Gymnosperms, 13. 

Habenaria, 39. 
Hairy Bell, 30. 
Hardback, 82. 
Harebell, 160. 
Harebell Family, 159. 
Hazelnut, 46. 
Heal-all, 143. 
Heart's-ease, 109, 
Heather Family, 120. 
Hedge Nettle, 143. 
Helenioidese, 163, 179. 
Helenium, 181. 
Helianthemum, 108. 
Helianthoidese, 162, 175. 
Helianthus, 176. 
Heliotrope, 137. 
Heliotropium, 137. 
Hemizonia, 178. 

Hemlock Spruce, 17. 
Heracleum, 118. 
Hesperochiron, 136. 
Hesperocordum, 27. 
Heteromeles, 88. 
Heuchera, 77. 
Hog's Potato, 34. 
Holodiscus, 83. 
Hookera, 26. 

Honeysuckle Family, 156. 
Horehound, 143. 
Hosackia, 92. 
Hound's Tongue, 138. 
Houttuynia, 40. 
Huckleberry, 120. 
Humboldt's Lily, 28. 
Hydrophyllacese, 133. 
Hydrophyllum, 133. 
Hypericacese, 107. 
Hypericum, 107. 
Hypochaeris, 164. 

Ice Plant, 116. 
Illecebracese, 57. 
Incense Cedar, 15. 
Indian Hemp, 130. 
Indian Lemonade, 101. 
Indian Melon, 115. 
Indian Paint-brush, 149. 
Lidian Warrior, 151. 
Inuloidese, 162, 172. 
Iridaceee, 37. 
Iris Family, 37. 
Isomeris, 73. 
Islay, 81. 
Ithuriel's Spear, 27. 

Jewel-flowers, 72. 
Jointed Cactus, 116. 
Joint weed, 49. 
Jonquil, 36-37. 



Judas-tree, 95. 
June Berry, 87. 
Juniper, 13. 
Juniperus, 13. 

Kelloggia, 154. 
Kellogg's Oak, 45. 
Kinnikinick, 121. 
Knob-cone Pine, 20. 
Kunzia, 83. 

Labiate, 139. 
Labiatiflorse, 162, 167. 
Labrador Tea, 124. 
Lace Pod, 67. 
Ladies' Tresses, 39. 
Lady's Slipper, 39. 
Lamb's Quarter, 50. 
Large-leaved Maple, 102. 
Larkspur, 61. 
Lasthenia, 179. 
Lathyrus, 94. 
Lauracese, 63. 
Laurel Family, 63. 
Lavatera, 105. 
Layia, 179. 
Ledum, 124. 
Leguminosse, 89. 
Leopard Lily, 28. 
Lepidium, 68. 
Lepigonum, 57. 
Leptosyne, 177. 
Lessingia, 168. 
Lewisia, 53. 
Libocedrus, 15. 
Liguliflorse, 162, 164. 
Lilac Tulip, 32. 
Liliaceae, 23. 
Lilium, 27. 
Lily Family, 23. 
Limnanthes, 97. 

Linacese, 98. 
Linanthus, 131. 
Linum, 98. 
Live Oak, 45. 
Lizard-leaf, 180. 
Loasaceae, 115. 
Lobeliacese, 160. 
Lobelia Family, 160. 
Loco-weed, 94, 
Lodge-pole Pine, 19. 
Lonicera, 156. 
Lotus, 92. 
Love Vine, 133. 
Lucerne, 92. 
Lupine, 90. 
Lupinus, 90. 
Lysichiton, 23. 

Madder Family, 154. 
Madia, 177. 
Madrone, 121. 
Madrono, 121. 
Mahala Mats, 105. 
Mahonia, 63. 
Malacothrix, 165. 
Mallow Family, 105. 
Malus, 88. 
Malvaceae, 105. 
Malvastrum, 106. 
Mamillaria, 115. 
Mammoth Sequoia, 1( 
Manzanilla, 182. 
Manzanita, 121. 
Maple, 102. 
Mariposa Lily, 30. 
Marrubium, 143. 
Marsh Fleabane, 172. 
Matilija Poppy, 66. 
Matricaria, 182. 
Mayweed, 182. 
Meadow Foam, 97. 



Meadow-rue, 59. 
Meadow-sweet, 83. 
Meconopsis, 66. 
Medicago, 92. 
Megarrhiza, 158. 
Melilotus, 91. 
Mentha, 139. 
Mentzelia, 115. 
Mertensia, 138. 
Mesembryanthemum, 116. 
Mexican Poppy, 65. 
Micrampelis, 158. 
Micromeria, 140. 
Microseris, 165. 
Milfoil, 182. 
Milkmaids, 71. 
Milk Thistle, 185. 
Milkweed, 99. 
Milkweed Family, 129. 
Mimosese, 95. 
Mimulus, 151. 
Miner's Lettuce, 53. 
Mint Family, 139. 
Mirabilis, 52. 
Mission Bells, 28. 
Mock Orange, 79. 
Monardella, 139. 
Monkey Flower, 151. 
Monkshood, 61. 
Monocotyledonous Plants, 20. 
Monolopia, 180. 
Monterey Cypress, 14. 
Monterey Pine, 20. 
Montia, 53. 

Morning-glory Family, 132. 
Mountain Ash, 89. 
Mountain Cypress, 14. 
Mountain Mahogany, 83. 
Mountain Misery, 85. 
Mouse-ear Chickweed, 55. 
Mouse-ears, 31. 

Mugwort, 183. 
Muilla, 25. 
Musk Plant, 152. 
Mustard, 69. 
Mustard Family, 67. 
Myricacese, 40. 
Myrtacese, 110. 
Myrtle Family, 110. 

Narcissus, 37. 

Nasturtium, 70. 

Navarretia, 131. 

Needle Bush, 90. 

Negundo, 103.. 

Neillia, 82. 

Nemophila, 134. 

Nicotiana, 146. 

Nigger Babies, 118. 

Nightshade Family, 145. 

Ninebark, 82. 

Nodding Evening Primrose, 112. 

Nut Pine, 20. 

Nuttallia, 81. 

Nyctaginaceae, 51. 

Oak Family, 44. 
(Enothera, 112. 
Old Man of Spring, 184. 
Oleacese, 127. 
Onagracese, 111. 
Opuntia, 116. 
Orchidaceae, 39. 
Orchis Family, 39. 
Oregon Ash, 128. 
Oregon Cedar, 14. 
Oregon Grape, 62. 
Oregon Pine, 18. 
Oregon Sweet Clover, 63. 
Orobanchacese, 153. 
Orthocarpus, 150. 



Osmaronia, 81. 
Oso Berry, 81. 
Owl's Clover, 150. 
Oxalis, 97. 
Oyster Plant, 164. 

Pteonia, 62. 
Pseony, 62. 
Pansy, 109. 
Papaveraceae, 64. 
Papilionacese, 89. 
Parsley Family, 117. 
Patton's Spruce, 17. 
Pea Family ,.89. 
Pear, 88. 

Pearly Everlasting, 173. 
Pea Vine, 94. 
Pedicularis, 151. 
Pentacsena, 58. 
Pentstemon, 148. 
Pepper Grass, 68. 
Pepper-root, 71. 
Pepper Tree, 101. 
Perezia, 167. 
Phacelia, 135. 
Philadelphus, 79. 
Phlox Family, 130. 
Photinia, 88. 
Physocarpus, 82. 
Picea, 16. 
Pickeringia, 90. 
Pigweed, 51. 
Pigweed Family, 49. 
Pimpernel, 126. 
Pine, 18. 
Pine Family, 13. 
Pink Family, 55. 
Piims, 18. 
Piperacese, 39. 
Plantaginacese, 153. 
Plantago, 153. 

Plantain Family, 153. 
Platyspermum, 70. 
Platystemon, 65. 
Platystigma, 65. 
Pluchea, 172. 
Plum, 81. 

Plumbaginacese, 127. 
Poison Oak Family, 101. 
Polemoniaceee, 130. 
Polygalacese, 98. 
Polygala Family, 98. 
Polygonaceae, 47. 
Polygonum, 49. 
Pomese, 87. 

Poor Man's Barometer, 126. 
Popcorn Flower, 150. 
Poplar, 42. 
Poppy Family, 64. 
Populus, 42. 
Port Orford Cedar, 14. 
Portulaca, 53. 
Portulacacese, 52. 
Portulaca Family, 52. 
Post Oak, 45. 
Potato, 145. 
Potentilla, 85. 
Prairie Pointers, 125. 
Prickly Poppy, 65. 
Primrose Family, 125. 
Primulacese, 125. 
Prince's Pine, 124. 
Prosartes, 34. 
Prunus, 81. 
Pseudotsuga, 17. 
Psoralea, 93. 
Pulse Family, 89. 
Purple Sanicle, 118. 
Purshia, 83. 
Purslane, 53. 
Pusley, 53. 
Pussy-paws, 54. 



Pyrola, 125. 
Pyrus, 88. 

Quaking Asp, 42. 
Quercus, 44. 
Quinine Bush, 120. 

Rabbit-brush, 170. 
Radish, 69. 
Rafinesquia, 165. 
Ranunculacese, 58. 
Ranunculus, 59. 
Raphanus, 69. 
Raspberry, 86. 
Rattlesnake Weed, 119. 
Rattleweed, 94. 
Red-bud, 95. 
Red Columbine, 60. 
Red Fir, 18. 

Red Monkey Flower, 151. 
Red-stemmed Filaree, 96. 
Redwood, 15. 
Redwood Rose, 87. 
Rhamnacese, 103. 
Rhamnus, 103. 
Rhododendron, 123. 
Rhus, 101. 
Ribes, 78. 
Rice Roots, 28. 
Roble, 44. 
Rock Cress, 71. 
Rockrose Family, 108. 
Romero, 144. 
Romneya, 66. 
Rosa, 87. 
Rosacese, 80. 
Rose, 87. 
Rose«, 82. 
Rose-bay, 123. 
Rose Family, 80. 
Rose Mallow, 106. 

Rosy Bells, 31. 
Rowan, 89. 
Rubiacese, 154. 
Rubus, 86. 
Rumex, 48. 

Sage, 140. 

Sagebrush, 182. 

St. John's-wort Family, 107. 

Salal, 123. 

Salicacese, 40. 

Salix, 41. 

Salmon-berry, 86. 

Salmon-color Gilia, 131. 

Salsafy, 164. 

Salt-marsh Dodder, 133. 

Salty Sage, 50. 

Salvia, 140. 

Sambucus, 157. 

Sand Mat, 58. 

Sandwort, 56. 

Sanicle, 118. 

Sanicula, 118. 

Sapindaceae, 102. 

Satin Bell, 30. 

Saxifraga, 75. 

Saxifragaceae, 75. 

Saxifrage Family,, 75. 

Scarlet Gilia, 132. 

Scotch Caps, 86, 

Scrophularia, 147. 

Scrophulariacese, 146. 

Scutellaria, 142. 

Sea Lavender, 127. 

Sea Pink Family, 127. 

Seaside Daisy, 171. 

Seaside Morning-glory, 132. 

Sea Verbena, 52. 

Sedge Family, 22. 

Sedum, 74. 

Self-heal, 142. 



Senebiera, 68. 
Senecio, 184. 
Senecionideae, 163, 183. 
Sequoia, 15. 
Service Berry, 87. 
Shepherd's Purse, 69. 
Shooting Stars, 125. 
Sidalcea, 106. 
Silene, 55. 

Silk-tassel Bush Family, 120. 
Silkweed, 129. 
Silvery Cinquefoil, 85. 
Silybum, 185. 
Sisyrinchium, 38. 
Skullcap, 142. 
Skunk Cabbage, 23. 
Skunkweed, 131. 
Slippery Elm, 107. 
Small Sugar Pine, 18. 
Small Tiger Lily, 28. 
Smartweed, 49. 
Smilacina, 34. 
Snakeroot, 118. 
Sneezeweed, 181. 
Snowberry, 156. 
Snow-bush, 104. 
Soap Plant, 33, 50. 
Soap weed, 30. 
Solanacese, 145. 
Solanum, 145. 
Solidago, 170. 
Solichus, 166. 
Sorbus, 89. 
Sorrel, 48. 
Sour Grass, 48. 
Sow Thistle, 166. 
Spanish Bayonet, 30. 
Speedwell, 147. 
Spergula, 57. 
Spergularia, 57. 
Sphacele, 140. 

Spice Wood, 64. 
Spikenard, 117. 
Spiny Chaparral, 90. 
Spiraea, 82. 
Spiranthes, 39. 
Spraguea, 54. 
Spruce, 16. 
Spurge, 99. 
Spurge Family, 99. 
Squaw Bush, 101. 
Squaw-carpets, 105. 
Stachys, 143. 
Stanfordia, 72. 
Stanleya, 73. 
Star-eyed Grass, 38. 
Star-flower, 126. 
Star Thistle, 185. 
Statice, 127. 
Steironema, 126. 
Stellaria, 56. 
Stephanomeria, 165. 
Stonecrop, 74. 
Stonecrop Family, 74. 
Strawberry, 86. 
Streptanthus, 72. 
Streptopus, 35. 
Strophilirion, 26. 
Sugar Pine, 18. 
Sumac, 100. 
Sun Cups, 112. 
Sun Dial, 90. 
Sunflower, 176. 
Sunshine, 179. 
Sweet Clover, 91. 
Sweet-in-death, 63. 
Sweet Shrub Family, 80. 
Symphoricarpos, 156. 
Syringa, 79. 

Tanbark Oak, 45. 
Taraxacum, 166. 



Tarweed, 85, 177. 
Tellima, 76. 
Thalictrum, 59. 
Thelypodium, 73. 
Thermopsis, 89. 
Thimbleberry, 86. ' 
Thistle, 185. 
Thistle Poppy, 65, 
Thistle Sage, 141. 
Thorn-apple, 88, 145. 
Thrift, 127. 
Thuya, 14. 
Thysanocarpus, 67. 
Tiarella, 77. 
Tideland Spruce, 16. 
Tidy-tips, 179. 
Tiger Lily, 28. 
Tissa, 57. 
Tobacco, 146. 
Tocalote, 186. 
Tolmiea, 77. 
Tooth wort, 71. 
Tower Mustard, 71. 
Toyon, 88. 
Tragopogon, 164. 
Tree Mallow, 105. 
Tree Poppy, 64. 
Tree Tobacco, 146. 
Trichostema, 144. 
Trientalis, 126. 
Trifolium, 91. 
Trillium, 36. 
Triteleia, 27. 
Troximon, 166. 
Tsuga, 17. 

Tubuliflorse, 162, 167. 
Tumbleweed, 51. 
Turkey Mullein, 100. 
Turkish Rugging, 48. 
Twelve Gods, 125. 
Twin-berry, 156. 

Twining Hyacinth, 26. 
Twisted Stalk, 35. 

Umbelliferae, 117. 
Umbellularia, 63. 

Vaccinium, 120. 
Valeriana, 159. 
Valerianacese, 158. 
Valerianella, 159, 
Valerian Family, 158. 
Valley Oak, 44. 
Veronica, 147. 
Vetch, 94. 
Vicia, 94. 
Vine Maple, 102. 
Viola, 109. 
Violacese, 109. 
Violet Family, 109. 
Virgin's Bower, 58. 

Wake Robin, 36. 
Waldmeister, 155. 
Wallflower, 69. 
Wart Cress, 68. 
Washington Lily, 27. 
Water Cress, 70. 
Water Holly, 63. 
Waterleaf, 133. 
Wax-myrtle Family, 40. 
Weeping Oak, 44. 
Western Chinquapin, 45. 
Western Dandelion, 166. 
Whipplea, 80. 
Whispering Bells, 136. 
White Evening Primrose, 112. 
White Fir, 16. 
White Mustard, 69. 
White Oak, 44. 
White Sage, 141. 



White Spruce, 17. 
Whiteweed, 182. 
Wild Cabbage, 72. 
Wild Cypress, 1.32. 
Wild Fuchsia, 111. 
Wild Ginger, 46. 
Wild Hyacinth, 25, 26. 
Wild Onion, 24. 
Wild Pea, 94. 
Willow, 41. 
Willow Family, 40. 
Willow Herb, 111. 
Willow-leaved Dock, 48. 
Windflower, 59. 
Wintercress, 70. 
Wintergreen, 125. 
Wood Sorrel, 97. 
Wood Strawberry, 86. 
Woolly Breeches, 137. 
Wormseed, 50. 
Wormwood, 182. 
Wyethia, 175. 

Xanthium, 174. 
Xylothermia, 90. 

Yarrow, 182. 

Yellow Evening Primrose, 112. 

Yellow Lessingia, 168. 

Yellow Mats, 118. 

Yellow Pine, 18. 

Yellow Rocket, 70. 

Yellow Sorrel, 98. 

Yellow Star Tulips, 31. 

Yerba Buena, 140. 

Yerba de la Vibora, 119. 

Yerba del Pasmo, 84. 

Yerba del Pescado, 100. 

Yerba Mansa, 40. 

Yerba Mansa Family, 39. 

Yerba Rheuma Family, 108. 

Yerba Santa, 136. 

Yucca, 30. 

Zauschneria, 111. 
Zygadenus, 33. 


Text-Books and Supplementary Readers 

Atkinson, Professor of Botany in Cornell University. For intro- 
duction, 60 cents. 

BEAL'S SEED DISPERSAL. By W. J. Beal of the Michigan State Agricul- 
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BERGEN'S ELEMENTS OF BOTANY. By Joseph Y. Bergen, Instructor in 
Biology in the English High School, Boston. For introduction, ^ 

introduction, ;5i.5o. 

For introduction, 30 cents. 

For high schools and elementary college courses. By Douglas H. 
Campbell, Professor of Botany in the Leland Stanford Junior Uni- 
versity. 253 pages. For introduction, $1.12. 

For introduction, ^1.25. 

HALE'S LITTLE FLOWER-PEOPLE. By Gertrude E. Hale. For intro- 
duction, 40 cents. 

introduction, 60 cents. 

For introduction, 50 cents. 

MORLEY'S LITTLE WANDERERS. By Margaret \Y. Morley. For intro- 
duction, 30 cents. 

MORLEY'S SEED-BABIES. By Margaret W. Morley. For introduction, 
25 cents. 

or mothers studying with their children. By Jane H. Newell. 
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i2mo. Cloth. 332 pages. Fully illustrated. 
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Mr. Bergen's book differs from most other botanies of 
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