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Jo Oyv^ o^ <^ (?006^ 




c/l^v^^O //y/ 





A Millionaire of To-morrow. 



'♦Philosophy consists not 
In airy schemes, or idle speculations; 
The rule and conduct of all social life 
Is her great province. Not in lonely cells 
Obscure she lurks, but holds her heavenly light 
To Senates and to Kings, to guide their counsels, 
And teach them to reform and bless mankmd." 

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: : :^/cN-.Fi5ANj>poo,:CAL.%. 

BETTER i3aV§ •pljfiLlSHlRG CO. 



'Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1891, 


In the oflice of the Librarian of Concjress at Washington, I>. C 


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Eight Thousand Millionaires of America 

THIS book is dedicated. 

IF, through a perusal of its contents, one among 



"The earth trembled underneath their feet." 

"Chicago," said Professor John Thornton, " ChM 

t c^o, my dear doctor, is the typical American citjr3 

L New York and San Francisco may be classed as metro^ 

I'pohtan. Philadelphia, St. Louis, and New Orleanj 

are local to their surroundings; Boston is — Boston, bun 

(.Chicago is sui gejieris. Notwithstanding its larg« 

t^rmanent foreign population, and the presence ofthq 

Jirongs of strangers attracted by the Columbian E* 

jsition. Chicago remains intensely and distinctively 

n American city." 

"I quite believe you, professor," said Dr. Eustace 

•'Certainly in all the world elsewhere there is no r 

rack for locomotives, no place where iron horses art 

ind purses of gold and diamond 1 

Ittwarded to the winners." 

" It is an innovation certainly, doctor, but just sud 
1 one as might have been expected in Chicago. Thri^ 
Kople of this city have not yet passed the nobUssem 
iblige period. You know that in al! large cities there* 
9 liable to come a time when the citizens divide intoM 
^parate communities, usually with separate interests,! 
ind without any general public spirit. In New York, J 
r instance, Madison Square takes no pride in the] 
iist River bridge; Avenue A does not care whetlu 


the Grant monument shall ever be completed, and the 
Statue of Liberty on Bedloe's Island is as strange to 
many a resident of Harlem as if she were jjlanted on 
tlie banks of the Neva. But the people of Chicago, 
though locally divided into Northsidcrs, and South- 
siders, and Westsiders, are joined in interest for Chi- 
cago against the world. Any project that promises 
glory or profit for the Lake City will cause her citizens 
to open their pocket books. These Illinois Don 
Quixotes never tire of sounding the praises of their 
Dulcinea, and are ever ready to break a lance in her 

" Is not this race," said Dr. Eustace, "under the 
auspices of the National Exposition? " 

"Not at all," replied the professor. "As I am in- 
formed, a party of speculators leased a thousand acres 
of land here, ten miles from the city limits. They 
have, as you see, inclosed it and provided it with the 
usual buildings, including seats for one hundred thou- 
sand spectators. The race course is circular in form, 
four miles in length, and seven railroad tracks are 
laid around it. The officers of the leading railroad 
corporations of the country readily consented to send 
locomotives and engineers here to compete for the 
prizes offered, and — you witness the result. This is 
the third day of the races, and still the interest seems 

It was late in the month of July, 1892, and although 
the World's Exposition was not yet formally opened, 
tens of thousands of strangers thronged the hotels of 
Chicago and added to the gayety of her streets. The 
great attraction of the day was the locomotive railroad 


race, and about twenty acres of people, representinj 
all nations, filled the beiiclies and spread over ' 
outer circle of the great four-mile track. 

Seven of the largest locomotives in America, 
lected or constructed for this race, were steaming i 
and down the tracks, waiting for the e 
themselves under a white cable, which was stretche< 
diagonally across the race course at such an ang'e 
to equalize the difference of length of inner and oute^ 
tracks. Each locomotive was draped with its dis^ 
tinguishing colors, worn also by its attendant engineer 
and fireman. The favorite engine in the pool rooi 
wastheChauncey M. Depew, entered by the New V 
Central Railroad Company. 

The furnishings of this engine were of polishec 
silver, with draperies of blue silk, and the engineejl 
and fireman wore shirts and caps of the same color. 

The engine which most attracted the admiration a 
the throng was the CoUis P. Huntington, entered I 
the Southern Pacific Company. All the furnishings ai 
well as the wheels of this locomotive were gilded an( 
burnished for the occasion. The attendants ^ 
shirts and caps of crimson, and the drapery consisted 
of ropes of crimson roses, the freshness of whicli,J 
while coiled around smoke stack and boiler, wi 
counted for by the fact that they were cut from a 
tos cloth made and tinted for the purpose. 

The directors of the railroad corporations centa 
ing in Chicago had readily extended aid and i 
operation to the company organized in that city for tl 
construction and conduct of a locomotive race tl 
for it was conceded that no more instructive schoo] 


for engineers and firemen could have been devised, 
and that there was no better field in which to make 
experiments in machinery, tests of fijel consumption, 
and economical creation and application of dynamic 
force. Almost every railroad company in the United 
States and Canada entered one or more locomotives 
for the races, which were advertised for the last week 
of July, 1S92, and, notwithstanding the large sums of- 
fered for premiums, and the great expense of building 
and maintaining the race course, the enterprise proved 
exceedingly profitable to its projectors. 

Among the one hundred and fifty thousand specta- 
tors of the contest was Professor John Thornton, of 
Boston, who, ten years before, had been the hard- ' 
working principal of the Denver public schools, but 
who, til rough the death of an uncle, inherited a fortune 
of five millions of dollars, and was now one of the solid ' 
men and social magnates of the Hub. 

During the years of poverty and struggle which 
antedated Professor Thornton's introduction to tlie 
ranks of wealth, he had grown to regard very rich 
men with aversion and contempt. He was fond of 
quoting the aphorism that the Lord expressed his 
opinion of money by the kind of men he bestowed 
it upon, and he was stout in the beUef that any man 
who, in this world of human misery, could make and 
keep five millions of dollars, was too selfish, if not too 
dishonest, for an associate. He did not carry his 
opinions so far as to refuse the estate which fell to him, 
but he was exceedingly generous with his income, and 
he never ceased to criticise the millionaires. 

Professor Thornton was generally regarded by his 


friends as a Crcesus with the instincts of a Boliemian, 
a sort of gilded sans-cu/o/ie, with very radical opinions 
and a very conservative bank account. 

The professor was accompanied to the race course 
by his family physician and old friend, Dr. Eustace, 
This gentleman, unlike the professor, was optimistic in 
his views of life. Pessimism, according to his be- 
lief, might be sometimes necessary for ballast, but as 
a rule he preferred to throw the sand and rocks over- 
board, and load up with the silks and spices of Cathay. 

"What a country!" ejaculated the doctor, as, amid 
the cheers of the multitude, one of the locomotives 
dashed up the track to try her speed. 

"It is a great country," said Professor Thornton, 
"but will its peace and prosperity endure?" 

"Why not?" sententiously interposed Doctor 

"Are we," replied the professor, " so much wiser 
than the people of the republics which once encircled 
the Mediterranean, that we can afford to disregard 
the lesson imparted by their history?" 

"Do you pretend to compare the ancient civiliza- 
•tions with ours?" queried the doctor. 

"It may not be gainsaid," rejoined Thornton, 
"that our civilization is superior to that of the an- , 
dents in control and utilization of the forces of nature, ■ 
and it is also true that in the relations of the individual 
to his government the former has gained in freedom 
and in security of personal rights. But otherwise we 
seem to be traveling the same round of national life 
from infancy to decay, which marked the course of i 
Assyria, of Egypt, of Greece, and of Rome-" 



'"But conditions were different with them," remon*^ 
strated the doctor. "Rome, even when a republic, 
was such only in name. There was never any basis 
of universal suffrage. The government of Rome was 
always a military des]>otism, and her praetorian guard 
K>Id the imperial purple, and rich men bought it, and 
Kshe fell because of her corruption-" 

' 'And we have legislators and bosses who sell ofSces, 

■.flDd ambitious incapables who buy them," answered 

the professor. "And we are having now the same 

ist accumulations of fortune in individual hands that 

iave ever proven the forerunners of national destruc- 

^on elsewhere. Wealth, corruption, weakness, de- 

Ecay, the mob, and the despot have been the six stages 

Jof national life with other republics, and I doubt 

whether by harnessing steam and electricity to our 

diariot we shall do more than expedite the journey." 

"Professor, you should go out as a missionary to 

^millionaires," interposed the doctor, "and preach to 

^em the doctrines of nationalism." 

"Doctor, you are satirical," replied the professor, 

"but I am not so sure that events are not fast making 

§ missionaries of some such doctrine. Certainly the 

Bssing problem of the hour is that of dealing wisely 

^nd jusUy with the new and unparalleled conditions 

jffhich vast wealth has created throughout the world, 

■jRnd especially in these Uaited States." 

"Weshall prove equal to the problem," said the 

r cheerfully. "A people who, North and South, 

Ewere adequate to the achievements and sacrifices of 

air Civil War, will never allow their government to be 

fovertumed by a mob, or their politics to be always 


I by a few thousand wealth owners. And then ' 
Slepersonnelsof the pauper and the capitalist are ever ] 
changing. We have no law of entail by which the i 
founder of a fortune can perpetuate it in his descend- 
ants. The vices and the brainlessness of the sons of | 
rich men will come to our aid, and in the third or 
fourth generation the boatman's oar and the peddler's 
pack will be resumed. Let the millionaires add to \ 
their millions without molestation, say I. They ca 
not take their gold away witb them. It must rema 
here, where it will again be distributed." 

' ' Doctor, ' ' said the professor solemnly. 

"Now, John," interrupted the doctor, laying } 
hand familiarly on his friend's shoulder, "possibly | 
the country may be going to ruin, but we shall have , 
time to see the race out. They are bringing the lo- ' 
comotives in line ready to start. If they should come 
out close together at the end, how are they going to 
tell which wins?" 

"The judge oi this race, doctor," explained the 
professor, "is electrical and automatic and cannot ' 
make a mistake. As soon as the engines are arranged 
in line for starting, a wire will be stretched across the i 
track behind them, This wire will connect with a 
registering apparatus, dial, and clock in front of the 
grand stand, and each track is numbered. At the sig- 
nal bell for starting, the clockwork will be put in mo- 
tion. The first locomotive that crosses this wire will, 
in the act of crossing, telegraph the number of its 
track, close the circuit, and stop the clock, thus reg- 
istering the number of minutes, seconds, and quarter 1 
seconds consumed in the run." 


"How clever!" said the doctor. "Well, there 
sounds the signal bell— they are off!" 

With a shrill shriek of challenge from their throats 
of steel, like unleashed hoLinds the giants bounded 
itway, gaining speed as they ran. In thirty-eight 
seconds they rounded the curve by the half-mile post 
without much change in their relative positions The 
next mile was made in fifty-five seconds, with the 
Chauncey M. Depew, which had the inside tr-ax^k, 
fifty yards ahead of the Cotlis P. Huntington, and the 
others all the way from fifty to one hundred yards be- 
hind. At the third mile post the Huntington and the 
Depew rounded the curve almost side by side, with 
trails of fire streaming fi-om their smoke stacks, and 
mingling in a luminous cloud, which hovered above 
their distanced competitors. 

Then, with thunderous leaps and bounds, they came 
down the home stretch, the one a streak of blue and 
silver, the other a streak of gold and crimson, and the 
roar of the multitude fairly drowned the shrieking of 
the whistles as engineer James Flanagan, of the South- 
ern Pacific Company— his crimson cap gone, his black 
hair streaming in the wind, and his red flannel shirt 
open at the breast and almost blown from his massive 
while shoulders — rode across the signal wire five feet 
ahead of his competitor, winning the first prize of for his company and the diamond badge for 
himself, making the run of four miles in three minutes 
nine and one-quarter seconds, or at a rate of over 
eighty miles an hour. 

"It was nothing, sor," said Flanagan to the vice 
president of the Southern Pacific Company, who 

1. there ^^ 



climbed upon the cab of the locomotive to shake 
hands with his engineer " If it wasn't for the time 
lost in getting under way I'd engage to sind the CoUia 
P. around the four-mile track in two minutes and a 
half. Sure, the machine was never built that could 
catch her on a straight run. She's a dandy and a 
darlin' and a glory to old California," and he patted 
the throttle valve affectionately. 

"Flanagan," said Vice President Crocker, "the 
owners of this race track have made one mistake 
They give the diamond badge, worth $1,000, to the 
engineer, and the purse of iro,ooo to the company. 
Suppose we trade and let the company take ihe 
badge and you take the purse." 

"Oh, more power to you, Misther Crocker," said 
the delighted engineer. "It's thrade I will, and may 
you live until I offer to thrade back, and whin you 
die may you go straight up, wid never a hot box to 
delay you on your run to glory. I'll give twinty-five 
hundred dollars of the money to Dan Nilson, that 
shoveled the coais unther the boiler, like the good 
man he is, and wid the balance I'll buy a chicken 
ranch in Alameda that will be the makin' of Missis 
Flanagan and the kids." 

On the bench behind the professor and the doctor 
two men were seated engaged in earnest conversation. 

"lam not asserting," said one, " that the ore is so 
very rich. It will average fifteen per cent in copper 
carbonates, and that is good enough for anybody. 
But I do say that the lode is an immense one." 

" How long do you suppose it would last. Bob, with 
a dozen forty-ton furnaces at work on it?" 


"Last? why, if you had Niagara for a water-powef, 
i and the State of Colorado for a dumping-ground, ; 
f hades for a smehing fumace, you couldn't work that "J 
I ledge out in a milUon years." 

"Well, Bob," laughed the other man, "1 will go 
[ and look at your mine. Can you start to-night?" 

"Your time is mine," was the response. 

"Very good; shall we go by the Iron Mountain 
I route, or by Kansas Cityi"" 

"I will have to go by some other route than either," 
Lwas the reply. "I cannot cross the State of Missouri; 
I 2 am honorably dead there." 

' ' Honorably dead ? ' ' 

"Yes, sir. It was this way; I lived at Atchison for 
I a while when I was a young fellow, and Abe Simmon.'; 

I and me were always at outs about something, and at 
E quarreled in dead earnest about a girl, and he 

•sent me a challenge to fight a due!. I always held 
■ Aat dueling was a fool way to settle things, but I 
pwasn't going to take water for no Missourian, and so 

II placed myself in the hands of my second, as they 
Kcall it among the chivs. 

"Well, Abe's second and my second were good 
I friends of both of us, and they were in for a sort of a 
I'lark, and they fixed it up to paint two Ufe-sized pic- 
l.tures, one of Abe and one of me, on the door of an 
f old stable, and we was each to fire at the picture of 
I the other at the word. They had three doctors to ex- 
Kamine the wounds on the paintings, and if they decided 
[' that the wound was mortal, then the fellow whose pic- 
I ture was kilSed had to consider himself honorably dead, 
I mid was to leave Missouri and never return. If the 



(bund was not mortal, he had to lay up and keep his 
1 for such time as the doctors ^reed would be i 


"Well, sir, they made a circus of us, that's a &cL 

tfe both signed a paper agreeing on honor to carry 

nt the arrangement, and we went out one broiling 

gemoon in August in pursuit of each other's gore, 

e boys had passed the word, and we played to a 

Iger audience than was ever at a Democratic barbe- 

I was the best shot, but I was getting ashamed 

Iftbe whole business, and I fired in a hurry, and only 

[ged Abe's picture through its gam brel joint. He 

a dead sight and shot my picture plumb through 

e heart. I wanted three days to settle my business, 

JBt the doctors decided that the weather was so hot I 

DDiildn't keep more than twelve hours, and accord- 

Kly I lit out for Pike's Peak — as it was then called — 

lie next morning, and I have never touched the soil 

f Missouri since-" 

" How about Abe ? ' ' 
[ *' The doctors agreed that he had to go on crutches 
t three months, and the boys laughed at him — so I 
3 much that at the end of the second week he 
Ibped out to his father's ranch, and stayed there until 
»time was up, when he went to St. Louis." 
"And the girl?" 

"Well, of course I was a corpse, and she had no 
and Abe had, before the duel, invited her 
b a dance, and, naturally, being a cripple, he couldn't 
Rj, and she allowed that she would neither go to a 
pnce or tie herself for life to a man with a lame leg, 
i she married another fellow altogether. But you 


e 1 cannot honorably go into Missouri unless I i 
Kitravel on a corpse ticket." 

"Well, Bob, your remains shall not violate your 1 
■[pledge. We will keep out of Missouri this trip." 
"All right, Mr. Morning." 
The professor turned at thesound of the name, and, 
)oking his neighbor in the face, exclaimed: — 
"David Morning, have you altogether forgotten an J 
old friend? True, it is nearly ten years since I saw 
, in Denver, but surely I have not changed so J 
■very much since then?" 

" Forgotten you, Professor Thornton?" replied the 
jarty addressed, as he shook hands warmly, "for- 
gotten you? no, indeed. I do not need to ask if you ! 
ewell — and yourwife and daughter? Aretheybotb 1 
ffith you?" 
" Both are in Boston, and well, thank you. Do you '. 

n long in Chicago?" 
"I leave to-night for the West. Pray convey to 

r family my remembrances and regards.*' 
" I will not fail to do so." ' 

"The crowd seems to be going, professor; I suppose 
We must say good-by." 

"Good-by, then, and a pleasant journey to you." 


: light tliat shone when hope was bom." 
rly dawn of an August day in the year of 
grace eighteen hundred and ninety-two, David Morn- 
ing stepped through the French window of his bed- 
room out upon the broad and sheltered piazza of the ; 
railroad station hotel at Tucson, Arizona. 

A mass of straight brown hair crowned rather than j 
shaded a broad, high brow, over the surface of which 
thought and time had indented a few lines which gave , 
strength and meaning to the face. Eyes of sea gray 
hue, as candid and as translucent as the deeps which 
they resembled, were divided by a nose somewhat loo 
thick at the base for perfect features but running to 
an aquiline point, witli the thin and flexible nostrils 
of the racer. A short upper lip was covered with a 
luxuriant chestnut brown mustache, shading a chin 
which, tliough long and resolute and firmly upheld 
against the upper lip, was yet divided by a deep dim - 
pie which quivered with sensitiveness. A thick-set 
but graceful and erect figure, clothed in a suit of dark 
blue flannel, completed the fou/ ensemble of the sub- 
ject of our sketch, who, with thirty-two years of hu- 
man experience behind him, had stepped five hours 
before from the West-bound Pullman sleeper. 

David Morning — the only child of a Connecticut 



F'£lther and a Knickerbocker mother — was born and 
passed the days of his boyhood in the city of New 
York, where he was a pupi! of the pubHc schools, 
and where he was making preparation for entering 
I Upon a course at Yale, when, at sixteen years of age, 
Ae sudden death of his father, followed within a fort- 
night by that of his mother, compelled him to surren- 
der his studies and seek a means of livelihood. 

A distant relative offered him a place as clerk in a 
ft^eneral merchandise store in Southern Colorado, 
■ whither the lad journeyed. For two years he faith- 
fully served his employer. Always of an exploring 
and adventurous disposition, he had, while "geologiz- 
-as he called it — in the neighboring hills, in 
»mpany with a prospector who had taken a fancy to 
"the kid," di.scovered a quart2 lode, which his com- 
inion located on joint account, David being under 
This location was soon afterwards sold to an 
em company for the sum of $20,000, of which 
e lad received one-half. Declining several friendly 
(ffers to invest the money in promising mines, he 
determined to return East and resume the 
tudies which had been interrupted by the death of 
s parents; but. guided by his Colorado experience, 
1 having a strong inclination for the vocation of a 
mining engineer, he determined to study in special 
lines which were outside of the usual collegiate 
course. He had not deemed it necessary to leave his 
own country to obtain the necessary instruction, and, 
four years later, he found himself with $5,000 left of 
his capital, with no knowledge of the Greek alphabet 
and but small acquaintance with Latin, yet able to 



speak and write fluently French, Spanish, and ( 
man, and possessed of a good knowledge of geology, ] 
metallurgy, chemistry, and both civil and mechanical .1 
engineering, and with a cultivated as well as a natural J 
taste for politico-economic science. 

At twenty-two years of age, having completed his 3 
studies, David Morning located in Denver, adopted j 
the profession of a civil and mining engineer, 
promptly proceeded to fall in love with the i 
daughter of Professor John Thornton, the principal'] 
of the Denver public schools. 

Ellen Thornton at seventeen gave abundant prom- 
ise of the splendid womanhood that was to follow. 
Above the middle height, slender in form, and grace- 1 
ful in carriage, with a broad, low brow crowned with | 
silky, lustrous, dark hair, and eyes of chestnut brown, 
that, in moments of inspiration, grew radiant as stars, 
she captivated the young engineer and was readily - 
captivated by him in turn. An engagement of mar- ] 
riage followed, to be fulfilled as soon as the clientage j 
of Morning should be sufficient to warrant the union. ■ 

But business comes slowly to young men of two, I 
and twenty, and Ellen's mother grew impatient of thefl 
fetters which she deemed kept her charming daughter f 
from more advantageous arrangements. Ellen was I 
proud-spirited and ambitious, and, although she was I 
earnest and conscientious, she was not so stable of | 
purpose as to be unaffected by the arguments and ap- 
peals of her mother. At times she was sure that she 1 
loved David Morning, and at other times she was not 1 
so sure that her love was of that enduring and devoted 1 
character which a wife should feel for her husband. J 


Her reading had created in her mind a conception of 
n ideal passion which she could not feel had as yet 
come into her life. She believed that her affianced 
had undeveloped powers that would some day bring 
him fame and fortune, and again she was not so sure 
that he possessed the lact and persistence to utilize 
his powers to the best advantage,^ This doubt would 
not have deterred her from fulfilling her engagement 
of marriage if she had been entirely certain of her love 
for him. But she was divided by doubts as to whether 
the affection she felt was really the ideal and exalted 
passion of her dreams, or only a strong desire for a 
companionship which she found to be exceedingly 

She was not quite certain in all things of her affi- 
anced, not quite certain of herself, not quite certain of 
anything, and one day, yielding to an irresistible 
impulse of doubt and hesitancy, she asked to be re- 
leased from her engagement. 

Morning was amazed, indignant, and almost heart- 
broken at her request. Had he been of riper age and 
experience he would have known how to allow for the 
doubts and self- questionings of a young girl in her 
first love affair, but he was as unsophisticated as she, 
and more secure in his own possession of himself. 
Frank and proud, he took her at the word, which she 
regretted almost as soon as it was uttered. He neither 
sued nor remonstrated, but with only a "God bless 
you" and a "good-by," and without even a request 
for a parting kiss, which, if given, might have opened 
the way to a better understanding, he hurriedly left 
the house. 


The next day he was on his way to Leadville, i 
fiilfillraenC of a professional engagement, and when h 
returned two weeks later he found that his former j 
affianced had accompanied her parents to Boston, 1 
where Professor Thornton had been suddenly called J 
by the death of a relative, to whose lat^e fortune he I 

Our hero did not despair, and, having no natural in- 
clination for dissipation, did not make his rejection an 
excuse and an opportunity for self-indulgence. He 
was of an intense and earnest nature, and he was really ] 
in love with the girl who had discarded hiiji, but life 
was not dead of duty or achievement to him because i 
of her loss, which he looked upon as final, for her , 
newly- acquired position as a wealthy heiress made it , 
impossible to his self-respect to seek a reconciliation. 
He applied himself with assiduity and industry to hia ' 
profession, and soon became an exceedingly skillful and 
reliable mining expert. 

Ability to comprehend the story written upon the i 
rocks cannot always be gained by study or experience. 
At last it is a "faculty," rather than the result of read- 
ing or training. Fire and flood, oxygen and electric- 
ity, the tempests of the air and the volcanic throbbings j 
of the earth, have been busy for ages with the quartz I 
lode, and have left their marks upon it. It is possible 1 
sometimes to decipher these hieroglyphics s 
answer w ith a degree of accuracy the ever -recurring I 
question, "Will it pay to work?" Yet such possibil- 
ity cannot be reduced to a science. Professors of I 
geology and metallurgy are often wrong in their con- 
clusions, and even old prospectors are frequently at J 


Go across a piece of marsh land on a spring morn- 
ing accompanied by a bull-dog and a Gordon setter. 
The former will flush no snipe save those he may 
fairly run over as he trots along. But the fine nose 
of the dog with the silky auburn coat will catch the 
scent of the wary bird, and follow it here and there 
around tufts of marsh grass and across strips of meadow, 
until the sagacious canine shall be seen outlined against 
earth and sky. It is difficult to be certain of anything 
in this world of human deceptions, but one may be 
absolutely sure under such circumstances that the dog 
will not lie, and that he cannot be mistaken. There 
is a snipe within a few yards of that dog in the direc- 
tion in which his nose is pointed. If the sportsman 
fails to secure the bird, the fault will be with his aim or 
his fowling-piece — the dog has done his part. 

Some men — «ven among experienced miners — have 
the bull-dog's obtuseness, and some have an eye for 
quartz equal to the nose of a pointer for snipe. David 
Morning was of this latter class, and to the thorough 
training which he had received during his four years' 
studies he speedily added that practical knowledge of 
the rocks which, guided by natural aptitudes and in- 
tuitions, will enable the wooer of the hills to gain 
their golden favors. His honesty, good judgment, 
and fidelity caused his services to be eagerly sought 
by the mining companies, which — after the Leadville 
discoveries — abounded in Colorado, and at the date 
at which our narrative opens he had acquired a fortune 
of about $300,000, which was invested mainly in 
mortgages upon business property in Denver. But 
he made no attempt at further attendance on Cu- 



pid's court, and, indeed, gave but little attention 

Yet. while the physical Eilen Thornton thus passed 
out of the young man's life, there came into his soul 
instead an ideal, whose influence was e\'er an inspira- 
tion lo higher thinking, purer life, gentler judgmeiitSi 
and loftier deeds. Well has the poet said, "'Tis. 
better to have loved and lost than never to have loved 
at all." No man can be possessed by love for a good, 
woman without being thereby moved upward on all 
the lines of existence. Damps cannot dim the dia- 
mond; its facets and angles of fire will never pemiitr 
the fog to abide w ith them. From the hour that his 
heart is touched with the electric passion, the lovef] 
is in harmony with all delights- 

The waters tinkle and the lark sings for him with 
sweeter notes, while the sunlight is more radiant, and. 
the hills are robed with a softer purple. The wc 
who has evoked the one passion of a man's life may 
become as dead to him as tiie occupant of an Etruscan 
tomb, but the love itself will abide with him to enrich- 
his life, and journey with him into the other country, 

David Morning found in books the most pleasant 
and absorbing companionship, and those who gained 
admittance to his library were surprised to learn thai 
there was a dreamy, speculative, poetical side to the' 
busy, practical mining engineer. All the great authors.' 
on mental, moral, and political economy were well- 
thumbed comrades, and the covers of the leading 
English and German poets and essayists were fre6 
from dust. Especially was he a close and interested 
student of social science, and he had his theories 
concerning changes of various natures in societY a^ 


>ul ] 

The Santa Catalina Mountains, although com- 
monly designated as a part of the Sierra Madres, are, 
in truth, a small, isolated range, towering to a height 
of seven or eight thousand feet above the surround- 
ing plains. They are steep, rugged, and practically - 
inaccessible, except at the eastern end, where they may 
be entered through a long, narrow, crooked canyon, 
which runs from the plain or mesa to within a sliort 
distance of the summit. This canyon widens at in- 
tervals into small valleys, few of which exceed a dozen 
acres in extent, and through it the Rillito, a moun- 
tain stream, carrying, ordinarily, about five hundred 
miner's inches of water, tumbles and splashes. Alon.,' 
and above the bed of this stream, at a height of fifty 
feet or more, in order to avoid the freshets created by 
the summer rains, runs a very primitive wagon road, 
which was constructed for the purpose of allowing 
supplies to be transported to the miners, who, during 
the era of high prices for copper, were engaged in 
taking ore from the carbonate lodes which exist in 
abundance in a range of hills half way to the sum- 
mit and ten miles from the mouth of the canyon. 

The lower hills of the Santa Calalinas are covered 


with a scant growth of niesquiteand paloverde, along ' 
the Rillito there is a fringe of willows iind cottonwoods, 
and near the surajnit is a large body of pine timber, 
but its practical inaccessibility and distance from any i 
available market have protected it froin the woodm 
ax. The absence of any extent of agricultural or 
grazing land in the Santa Catalinas has proven a. , 
bar to their occupation by settlers, and their isolation, 
rugged nature, and uil|jromising geological formation, i 
have deterred prospectors from thoroughly exploring 
them- Such searchers for treasure as visited them 
always returned with a verdict of "no good," until a 
ywoj/ understanding was reached by the miners and 
prospectors of Arizona that it was useless to waste 
time looking for gold or silver in llieir fastnesses. 

Above the copper belt no prospector was ever able 
to find trace or color of any metal, and the low price 
of copper and the high charges for railroad freight 
which prevailed in 1883 and succeeding years, caused 
abandonment of the rude workings for that metal, and 
at the date of the opening of our narrative it might 
have been truly said that the entire Santa Catalina 
Range was without an occupant. 

At the western and southern end of the range its 
summit and rim consist of a huge basaltic formation, 
towering perpendicularly one thousand feet, upon tlie 
apex of which probably no human footstep was ever , 
placed, for its character exchided all probability of 
quartz being found there, even by the Arizona pros- 
pector, who will climb to any [ilace that can be reached 
by a goat or an eagle, if so be silver and not scenery 
entice h 

Setter daVs, or 

In the spring of 1893 Robert Steel, who, in years 

i, had acted as superintendent of a copper com- 

iny operating in the Santa Catalinas, and was faniil- 

r with the ground, had been inspired by a consider- 

Eable advance in the price of copper to visit the scene 

Bpf his former labors and relocate the abandoned claims, 

KKt was at his solicitation and representations that 

R'Pavid Morning, who had known him well in Colorado, 

Was induced to take a trip to Arizona to examine the 


Robert Steel was designated by those who knew 
him best as " a true fissure vein. ' ' With hair that was 
unmistakably red, and eyes that were blue as the sky, 
with the upper part of his face covered witli tan and 
freckles, and the lower ^part disguised by a heavy 
brick-red beard, his personal appearance was not en- 
tirely prepossessing to the casual observer. But under 
the husk of roughness was a heart both tender and 
true, a loyalty that would never tire, a thorough 
knowledge of hU busitiess as a miner, and a tried and 
dauntless courage that, in the performance of duty, 
would, toquotethe vernacularof the Arizonian, "have 
fought a rattlesnake, and given the snake the first 
bite, ' ' 

He carried his forty years with the vigor of a boy, 
and his occasional impecuniosity, which he accounted 
for incorrectly by saying that he "had been agin faro," 
was in fact the result of continued investments in giv- 
ing an education to his two young brothers, and fur- 
I- nishing a comfortable home and support for his par- 
" " s in Wisconsin. 
There are many Robert Steels to be found among 



Sie prospectors of the far West. They are the bright- J 

St, bravest, most generous, enterprising, and ener-- 

itic men on earth. They are the Knij^hts Paladin, 

fcrho challenge the brute forces of nature to combat, ■ 

; soldiers who, inspired by the aura sacra fames, 

e the storm and the savage, the desert and d 

fhey crawl like huge flies upon the bald skulls of lofty \ 

Biountains; they plod across alkaline deserts, which f 

ulse with deluding mirages under the throbbing light; 

Biey smite with pick and hammer the adamantine 

tals of the earth's treasure chambers, and at their i 
"open sesame" the doors roll back and reveal their j 
tores of wealth. 

They are readier with rifle or revolver than witb^ 
criptural quotation, and readier yet with "coin sack" 
it the call of distress, and they are not always unac- , 
istomed to the usages of polite society, though they I 
Mrn other than their occasional exercise. Undw 1 
J gray shirts may be found sometimes graduates ,] 
rom Yale, and sometimes fugitives from Texas, but! 
iways hearts that pulse to the appeals of friendship 1 
X the cries of distress, even ' ' as deeps answer to the | 
MAcxin.' ' 

Among' these pioneers no one man assumes to be \ 
tter than another, and no man concedes his inferi- 
rity to anybody. In the last forty years they have ' 
Tied the civilization, the progress, and the power ] 
rf the nineteenth century to countries which were be- 
retime unexplored. In tlieir efforts some have found 1 
rtune and some have found unmarked graves upon \ 
die hillside. Some with whitened locks but spirits ■ 
•X aflame continue the search for wealth, and some, 

wearied of the search, paliemly await the summons to 
cross the ridge. Wherever they roam, and whether 
they spill the woof of rainbows upon this or upon the 
other side, they will be happy, for they will be busy 
and hopeful, and labor and hope carry their heaven 
with them evermore. 

Two days after the arrival of David Morning at 
Tucson he left for the Santa Catalinas. The party 
consisted of Morning and Steel and two miners who 
were employed for the expedition. A wagon drawn 
by four serviceable mules was loaded with tools, tents, 
camp equipages, saddles and bridles, provisions, and 
grain for the animals sufficient for a week's use. Late 
in the afternoon of the second day the site of the 
copper locations was reached, and a camp made upon 
the mesa a few hundred feet from and above the bed 
of the stream. 

A cursory examination of the copper locations 
made before nightfall satisfied Morning that before 
he could form any judgment upon which he would be 
willing to act in making a purchase, it would be nec- 
essary to clean out one of the old shafts, which had, 
since the mines were abandoned, been partially filled 
with loose rock and earth. This work it was esti- 
mated could be performed by Robert Steel and his 
two miners in about three days, and while it was be- 
ing done Morning proposed to explore, or at least 
visit, the source of the stream, near the summit of the 
range ten miles away. Assuring Steel that he was 
an old mountaineer, and that no apprehensions need 
be felt for his safety if he did not return until the end 
of two or three days, Morning saddled one animal, 


, loading another with blankets, camp equipage, I 
ck, a fowling-piece, and three days' provisions, he . 
parted nest morning, after an early breakfast, for 
Jie trip up the canon. 

^ Above the old copper camp the wagon road c 
& an end, and only a rough trail running along and | 
the creek took its place. Following the t 
1, Horning proceeded, driving his pack mule ahead, 
mtil, at a point about sis miles from where he had left i 

i companions, further progress with animals 
|>iuid to be impossible. 

; hundred feet above the bed of the stream, 
rtiich here emerged with a rush from a narrow gorge, 
3 a plateau of probably ten acres in extent, on 
fchich were a number of large oak trees, and f 
round of which was at this season covered with 
Svy growth of alfilaria, or native clover. Here j 
bming unloaded and tethered his mules, and madel 
I himself a temporary camp under a huge live oakS 

I After eating his luncheon, he buckled a pistol about.] 
S waist, that he might not be altogether unprepared I 

1 possible deer, and, using a po!e-pick for a walk- 
J staff, he climbed out of the canon and commenced j 

me ascent of the mountain to the southward. It ap- 
ired to be about a thousand feet in height, and upon j 
3 summit towered, one thousand feet higher 
altic wall which Morning recognized as that which 

^S visible from Tucson, and which formed the south- 
a and western rim of the Santa Catalina Mountains. ^ 

His purpose was to reach at least the base of this wall, 

Ipd ascertain if there were any means of ascending J 


i it to its summit, from which it might be possible to 
I obtain an extended view of the country. 

After half an hour's hard cHmbing, our adventurer 

f gained tliis wall and found along its base a natural 

I road, with an ascent of probably three hundred feet 

I to the mile. Slowly plodding his way among the 

e rock and debris, which had, during many ages, 

scaled and fallen from the basalt, he soon reached an 

opening about sixty feet in width. 

Supposing that this might be a canon or gorge 
that would furnish a means of ascending the wall, he 
turned into it. In a little more than a quarter of a mile 
it came to an abrupt termination. It was a cu/ de sac, 
a rift in the wall made in some convulsion of nature. 
It ascended very slightly , being almost level, and at 
both sides and at the end the basalt towered for a 
thousand feet sheer to the summit, without leaving 
a break upon which even a bird could set its foot. 
It was now midday, but the rays of the sun did not 
penetrate to the bottom of this rift, and the atmos- 
phere and light were those of an autumn twilight. 

After ascertaining the natureand extent of the gorge, 
Morning turned, and, plodding through the sand 
and loose rock to its entrance, resumed his journey 
along the base of the great wall. The ascent of the 
little ridge or natural road grew steeper and steeper, 
until at length the top was reached, and our explorer 
stood upon the summit of the great basaltic formation, 
a mile in width and ten miles in length, which forms 
the southwestern rim or table of the Santa Catalinas. 
From near the outer edge spread as grand a prospect 
as was ever vouschafed to the eye of mortal. Tucson, 



seven thousand feet below and fifteen miles away, 
seemed almost at the foot of the mountain. To the i 
southeast stretched a narrow, winding ribbon of green, 
the homes of the Mexicans, -who, with their ancestors, 
have for more than two centuries occupied the valley 
of the Santa Cruz. Farther yet to the southward the 
lofty Huachucas towered. Nortiiward a hig^her peak 
of the Catalinas cut off the view, but to the southwest 
broad mesas and billowy hills stretched for more than 
a hundred and fifty miles, until at the horizon the eye 
rested upon the blue of the Gulf of California, penciled 
against an ashen strip of sky. 

As Morning gazed in awe and delight, there ap- 
peared in the sky, scudding from the south, flecks of 
cloud, chasing each otlier like gulls upon an ocean, 
and remembering that this was the rainy season, and 
feeling rather than knowing that a storm was about to 
gather, Morning retraced his steps. He had pro- 
ceeded on his return to a point about five hundred 
yards above the mouth of the rift which he had visited 
on his upward journey, when the rapidly -darkening 
clouds and big plashes of rain drops warned him that 
one of the showers customary in that section in August 
was about to fall. 

Such storms are usually of brief duration, but are 
liable to be exceedingly violent, the water often de- 
scending literally in sheets. It would have been im- 
possible for Morning to reach the camp where he 
had left the animab in time to avoid the storm, and 
a hollow in the basalt wall— a hollow which almost 
amounted to a cave — offering just here a complete 
shelter from the rain, which was approaching from 


; south, over the top of the walJ, he sought the 

' opening, and was soon seated upon a convenient rock, 

while liis vision swept the slope to the caBon a mile 

below, and thence followed the meanderings of the 

Rillito until it vanished from sight. 

And the clouds grew and darkened. Like black 
battalions of Afrites summoned by the "thunder drum 
of heaven," they trooped from distant mountains and 
nearer plains to gather upon the summit of the Cata- 
linas. The soutli wind — now risen to a gale — swooped 
up the fogs from the distant gulf, and hurried them 
upon its mighty pinions, shrieking with delight at the 
burden it bore up to the summit of the basalt, above 
which it massed them. 

Then the demons of the upper ether reached their 
electric -tipped fingers into the dense black watery 
masses, and whirled them into a denser circle, whirled 
them into an hour glass, whose tip was in the heavens 
and whose base was carried by the giant force thus 
generated slowly along and just above the top of the 
great wall. 

Whirled in a demon waltz to the music of the shaking 
crags, yet touching not those peaks, for to touch them 
would have been destruction, the circling ocean in the 
air sailed, roaring and shrieking, to the eastward, grow- 
ing denser and more powerful, and black with the 
blackness of the nethermost pit, as it journeyed on. 
At last it reached the blind canon so lately visited by 
our explorer. The air — imprisoned between the earth 
and the clouds — rushed with a tortured yell down the 
rift in the mountain. The wall of water sank as its 
support tumbled from beneath it; Its base touched 


the ragged rocky edges of the cleft; the compactness'^ 
of the fluid mass was broken, and the forces fled and f 
left to its fate the watery monster they had engeni. 

Then^ with a roar louder than a thousand peals of fl 
thunder, with throbs and gaspings like the death ] 
ratde of a giant, the waterspout burst, and its \ 
volume descended into the gorge, down which it § 
seethed with the power of a cataclysm. 

Out of the mouth of the cul de sac a torrent issued, 
or rather a wall of water hundreds of feet in height. | 
Down the mountain side it sped, tearing a channel ^ 
deep and wide, and crumbling into a thousand cata- ] 
racts of foam, which spread and submerged tlie slope. i 
A deep depression or basin on the side of the moun- 
tain just southward of the bed of the Rillito deflected I 
the torrent for a few hundred yards, and it rushed intoj 
this basin and filled it, and, leaving a small lake 
souvenir of its visit, went roaring down the caEon,^ 
which it entered again about a quarter of a mile belowij 
the spot where Morning had tethered his mules. 

Not more than fifteen minutes had elapsed since thefl 
bursting of the waterspout when the storm was over, T 
the sun was shining, the water had departed down the'J 
cafion, and our awe-stricken witness to this might)! 
sport of elemental forces started to retrace his steps,! 
He had witnessed the deflection of the water wall, andl 
knew that his animals were safe, and he also knew thatj 
no harm would come to his companions down the-B 
cafion, for their camp was hundreds of feet above thej 
bed of the ravine. 

A few minutes' walk brought Morning to the moudi 
of the gor^e which he had visited an hour or 

36 ' 


before. From it a small stream of water — the n 
of the waterspout — was yet running, and, being curious 
to observe the effects produced upon the spot wliich 
first received the fury of the waters, he descended into 
the channel wiiich had been torn by the torrent, and 
again entered the rift. 

The tremendous force of the vast body of water 
precipitated into the gorge had excavated and swept 
through its opening the fallen and decomposed rock 
and sand and bowlders which had been accumulating 
for centuries. The channel rent by the waters as they 
emerged was quite twenty feet in depth and sixty feet 
in width, and Morning found that the floor of the box 
canon had been torn away to a similar depth. 

The waterspout had accomplished in one minute a 
work that would have required the industrious labor 
of one thousand men for a month. The gorge was 
swept clean to the bed rock, which showed blue lime- 
stone, and in the center of this limestone bed there 
now stood erect, to a height of twelve feet, a ledge of 
white and rose-colored quartz of regular and unbroken 
formation, forty feet in width, running from near the 
entrance of the rift to the end of it, where it disap- 
peared under the basalt wall. 

The experienced eye of Morning taught him at a 
glance thatthiswasa true fissure vein of quartz, and a 
brief examination of some pieces which he knocked 
off with his pole-pick convinced him that it was rich 
in gold. But for the waterspout which had swept away 
the sand, gravel, and loose cocks which ages of disin- 
tegration of the face of the wall had deposited over 
this lode, its existence must ever have remained un- 


icovered, for there \ 
: of quartz, i 

ere no exterior evidences of the 
) tempt a prospector to sink, a 


The primal instinct of the miner is to locate his 

■ 'find," and Morning proceeded forthwith to acquire 

"the unoccupied mineral lands of the United 

' so marvelously brought to light. His note- 

Kiok furnished paper for location notices, and an hour's 

^"work enabled him to b«i!d location monuments of 

oose stone, in which his notices were deposited. 

It was now more than two hours since the water- 

l-spout had expended its force. Morning conjectured 

[that Steel and his miners, after the flood had passed 

f tiiem, would probably set out in search of him, and he 

I did not wish his location to be discovered until he 

tflhould have perfected it by recording at Tucson, and 

I Jmssibly not then. But he knew that it would require 

Vat least three hours for the men at the copper-camp to 

I reach him, and, though the light in the cation was be- 

E .ginning to grow dim, he determined not to leave there 

If-without further examination of the ledge. 

Accordingly, he walked around it and climbed over 
t. From its summit and its sides at twenty different 
Iplaces he broke off specimens, which he deposited in 
fhis pockets until they were full to bursting. It was 
I beginning to grow dark when he emerged from the 
I lift and started along the base of the basalt. He had 
I toot proceeded a hundred yards from the mouth of the 
trift, when he beheld three figures a quarter of a mile 
listant, rapidly picking their way along the channel 
h had been worn by the torrent in its descent of 

^e mountain. 



Five minutes more ia the gor^e and his secret 
would have been discovered. 

He shouted to his friends, who responded to his hail, 
and in a few minutes they met and descended the 
mountain together to the plateau under the trees, 
where the tethered animals, surfeited with alfilii-ea, were j 
whinnying loudly for human companionship. 

It was too late to attempt to return to the copper- 
camp that night, and, indeed, daylight was needed for j 
the journey, for the trail had been in many places I 
washed away by the flood. 

After a supper, which made havoc with the three j 
days' rations, a large fire was built, more for cheerful- 
ness than for warmth, blankets were divided, and all j 

Morning slept less soundly than his fellows, for his | 
quick and accurate brain was filled with an idea of the 
colossal fortune and the mighty trust that the events 
of that day had placed in his hands. 


" Gold is the strength of the world." 
Morning concluded it would be unwise to makeaa<l 
► other trip to his location, lest suspicion might be ex-M 
fated and discovery follow, so, breaking camp earljM 
I -the next day, he returned with his comrades to thcj 
^copper-lodes, which they reached before n 

Work was resumed by Steel and his two miners illj 
^clearing the old shaft, and Morning, taking a fowlingf-J 
ipiece, avowed his purpose to look for quail down th$a 

Having reached a point where he felt secluded 
S^from observation, he began a critical examination ( 
I the quartz specimens, which until now he had i 
C dared to withdraw from his pockets. 

As with his microscope he scrutinized piece aft^ 
piece, he grew pale with excitement and astonishmentl 
l^ith the habit of a mining expert, he had sampled thfl 
I ledge as for an average, and the average value of thd 
^twenty diiferent specimens of quartz, taken {rootl 
ftwenty different localities, enabled him to deterniin«~ 
fthe true value of the property with great accaracy.J 
fHe discovered that the amount of gold in each one ofa 
frtbe twenty specimens would not vary materially froniB 
|tiie amount of gold in proportion to the quartz in eachj 
land all of the others. In other words, the entire bod^T 
■of quartz was uniformly impregnated with gold, and,H 
llierefore, of uniform richness and value, 



There was no better judge of quartz in all Colorado 
^than David Morning. He had been accustomed, after 
careful inspection, to estimate within ten or twenty per 
cent of the value per ton of free milling gold quartz, 
and his accuracy had often been the subject of amica- 
ble wagers among his friends. He was able in this 
instance to say that each one of the ore specimens 
carried not less than five hundred ounces of gold to 
the ton of quartz, or that the entire lode would yield, 
under the stamps, an average of $ro,ooo per ton. 

This was marvelous! unprecedented! phenomenal! 
No such deposit for richness and extent had ever been 
found in the history of the world. 

Ten thousand dollars in gold, distributed through 
two thousand pounds of quartz, may not make much 
of a showing in the quartz, for in bulk there is fifty 
times as much quartz as gold; but one hundred tons 
of such quartz would yield a million dollars, and the 
ledge uncovered by the waterspout was forty feet in 
width and thirteen hundred and sixty feet in length 
to where it ran under the basalt wall. It cropped 
twelve feet above the ground, and extended to un- 
known depths below the surface. Thirteen feet of rock 
in place will weigh a ton. In that rift in the mountain 
there was now in sight above the surface, all ready to 
be broken down and sent to the stamps, si.\ hundred 
and fifty thousand cubic feet, or fifty thousand tons, of 
quartz, containing gold of the value of $500,000,000. 

What was to be done with the vast amount of gold 
which might be extracted from the Morning mine? 
How was it to be placed in circulation without unset- 
tling values, reducing the worth of all bonds, inaugu- 


rating wild speculation, and revolutionizing the com- ^ 
tnerce and the finances of the world? 

Would not the nations, so soon as they should I: 
made aware of the existence of this deposit, hasten ti 
demonetize gold, make of it a commodity, change thai 
world's standard money to silver exclusively, and a 
lessen the value of the Morning mine to a comparaH 
lively small amount? 

Under the plea that increased production of silver* 
necessitated a change in relative values, that metal'S 
was demonetized in 1S73 in Europe and in the United J 
States, and its value reduced one-third. Might not J 
gold now be similarly dealt with, and, with such a vastfl 
deposit known to be in existence, be diminished by J 
demonetization to the value of silver or less? 

The entire production of gold in the world for theJ 
last forty years, or since the California and AuslraliaJ 
mines began to yield, had been but {Ss, 000, coo ,000,. 
and as much might be extracted from ihe first oneJ 
hundred and twenty feet in depth of the Morning 1 
mine. All the gold money of the world w; 
$7,600,000,000, or less than might be e.fcavated from I 
the first two hundred feet in depth of this marvelous 1 
deposit. The total money of the world — gold, silver, J 
and paper — was but $11,500,000,000, and a similar-fl 
sum might be extracted from the first three hundred 
feet in depth of the mine. 

If the ledge extended downward a thousand feet, it \ 
contained as much gold as three limes the sum total -\ 
of all the gold, silver, and paper currency of the world, 
and its value was equal to the value, in the year eight- 
een hundred and ninety, of one-half of all the real. I 
and personal property in the United States. 


How much of this gold could be added to the cir- 
culation of the world with safety ? and how could the 
existence of the vast quantity held in reserve be kept 
secret ? 

His studies in political economy had taught David 
Morning that gold, like water, if fed to the land 
proper proportions, would stimulate its fertility a 
add to its power of beneficent production, but if pre- 
cipitated in an unregulat<.'d and miglity torrent, wouli 
like the waterspout, prove a destructive power. 

Knowledge of the existence of the gold, if gener- 
ally diffused, would be nearly as injurious to the work 
as to extract it and place it in the channels of finance, | 
Yet how could the secret be kept? The ledge 
stood could not be worked without half a hundred 
men knowing its extent and value. No guards or 
bonds of secrecy would be adequate. The birds of 
the air would carry the tale. Even now a vagrant 
prospector or wandering mountain tourist might re- 
veal the secret to the world. 

Not in any spirit of self-seeking did David Morning 
ask himself these questions. All his personal wants, 
and tastes, and aspirations might be gratified with a 
few millions, which could easily be mined and invested 
before knowledge of his discovery could destroy or 
lessen the value of gold. But the purpose now be- 
ginning to take possession of him was to use, not 
merely millions, but tens and hundreds and thousands 
of millions, to bring peace, and progress, and pros- 
perity to the nations, to ameliorate the conditions un- 
der which humanity suffers, to raise the fallen, to aid 
the struggling, to curb the power of oppressors, to 





remedy public and private ivrongs, to solve social p rob- ' 

lems, to uplift humanity, and comfort the bodies and 1 
souls of men. To accomplish this work it was necea- 1 
sary that he should have vast sums at his command, , 
and it was also necessary that his possession of vaster 1 
reserves should not be known. 

The discoveries in California and Australia by which £ 
in ten years fourteen hundred millions of gold <'.ollars J 
were added to Uie world's stock of the precious metals 1 
was a beneficent discovery. It liftea half tne weight j 
from the shoulders of every debtor; it made possible*! 
the payment of every farm mortgage; it delivered J 
manhood from the evil embrace of Apathv, and I 
wedded him to fair young Hope; it invigorated c 
merce, it inspired enterprise, it led the armies of peace | 
to the conquest of forest and prairie; it caused furnaces f 
to flame and spindles to hum; it brought plenty and I 
progress to a people. 

But this addition to the gold money of civilization j^ 
was gradually made, and the product of forty years of I 
all the gold mines in the world was not equal to the T 
sum which in less than four years might be taken from J 
the Morning mine. 

If, as a consequence of Morning's find, gold should ] 
not be demonetized, if it should be permitted to re- , 
main as a measurer of all values, and the extent of I 
the deposit should be made known to the world, the I 
inevitable result would be to quadruple the prices of J 
land, labor, and goods, and to reduce to one-fourth f 
of their present proportions the value to the creditor . 
of all existing indebtedness. The farmer whose land 1 
was worth Jio,ooo would find it worth $40,000, and 1 

bett::r days, or 

Ihe man who had loaned $5,000 upon it would find 
his loan worth but $1,350 practically, because the pur- 
chasing power of his $5,000 would be reduced to one- 
f jurth of its present capacity. 

All government bonds of the nations, all county, 
city, and railroad bonds, and all the mortgages and 
promissory notes and book accounts in the world, 
would, if all of Morning's gold should be poured at 
once into circulation, without preparation or warning, 
be reduced at one blow to one-fourth of their present 
value, and all the owners of land, and implements, 
and horses, and cattle, and merchandise would find 
their value at once increased fourfold. The laborer 
who had only his hands or his brains would remain 
unaffected. His wages would be quadrupled, and so 
would the cost of his living. 

Knowledge of the extent of the Morning mine 
would immediately enrich the debtors and ruin the 
creditorsof the world, unless the governments of earth 
should demonetize gold, deny it access to the mints, 
refuse to coin it, and so degrade it to a commodity. 

An illustration in a small way of the operations of 
this immutable law of finance may be found in the 
history of San Francisco. The foundations of some 
of the great fortunes of that city may be traced to the 
days of the Civil War, when San Francisco wholesale 
merchants paid their Eastein creditors in legal tender 
currency, the while they diligently fostered a public 
sentiment which made it discreditable to the honesty 
and ruinous to the credit of any California retailer 
who should attempt lo pay his debt to them in 
the despised greenbacks. The interior storekeeper 




glowed with pride wlien Epliraim Smooth & Com- 
pany gathered in his golden twenties, and commended 
his honesty for " paying his debts like a man, in goid, 
and not availing himself of the dishonest legal tender 
law." But Smooth & Company paid their New 
York creditors in greenbacks, and pocketed the dif- 

Inflation of the currency, or an increase of the 
money of a nation, if it can be gradually made, need 
not prove disastrous to the creditors, and must prove 
a benefaction to the debtors of the world. The rela- 
tion of wages to the cost of living, whether the volume 
of money in a country be contracted or inflated, prac- 
tically remains the same. It may be claimed that the 
workman who receives an increase of wages, and 
whose cost of living is correspondingly increased, is 
no better off at the end of the year, yet economy- 
brings to him larger apparent accumulations, and he 
is thereby encouraged to practice frugality. 

The American mechanic who wandered to the Ca- 
nary Islands, where he received $400 a day in the lo- 
cal currency for his wages, was enabled to save $100 a 
day by denying himself brandy and tobacco, and but 
for this dazzling inducement he might have surrendered 
to temptations that would have made him a proper 
subject for the ministrations of the W. C. T. U. 

But though an inflation of values which should be 
beneficent might follow the discovery and working of 
the Morning mine, clearly the first thing for the discov- 
erer to do was to take effectual measures to conceal 
from human knowledge the extent of his discovery. 

David Morning remained for some time in deep 


t' thought, and then, rising frora^his seat upon a bowlder 
f tiehind the manzanita bushes, he tore into fragments 
I lie paper upon which he had been making calculations, 
I and, excavating with his foot a hole in the sand, be 
I dropped into it and covered the specimens of gold 
I quartz which he had taken from the ledge, and, retrac- 
f ing his steps, was soon at the copper-camp, where, in 
' EUiswer to the queries of his companions, he replied 
[ truthfully that during his absence he had not seen 
B single quail. 

Two days elapsed, and, the shaft having been cleaned 
out anjl the copper lode thoroughly exposed. Morning 
took samples of it, and also of croppings of the other 
lodes included in the ground located by Steel, and the 
party broke camp and started for Tucson, where they 
arrived early in the afternoon of the second day. 

Making an appointment with Steel for that evening, 
Morning deposited his copper samples with an assa 
and, walking to the Court House, he filed the notice cdM 
location of the Morning mine with the county recorder. " 
Two hours later he had the report of the assayer upon 
the copper samples, showing an average of twelve per 
cent of carbonate copper in the ore. This was not so 
rich as had been predicted by Steel, but was of suffi- 
cieiit value to warrant the purchase of the copper! 
prospects at the low price which had been fixed upon / 
them, provided that arrangements could be made for 1 
economically working them, and Morning had already I 
formulated in his own mind a plan of action by which 
the working of the copper lodes could be made to ad- 
vance his project of working the gold lode so as to 
conceal the extent of its yield. 

A MILI.IO^fArRe of to-horkow. 47^ 

Morning calculated that the amount of money needed 
for labor, supplies, machinery, and buildings, to work 
the mines in accordance with his plans, would be about 
$300,000, and his first thought was to obtain this 
money by breaking down, and shipping to reduction 
works in California or Colorado, about thirty tons of 
the quartz before he should commence the work which 
he projected for the concealment of tlie ledge. 

With his own hands he could mine and sack such 
an amount of ore in a fortnight, and with the aid of 1 
half a dozen pack animals, managed by himself, trans- 
port it a mile or two from the rift, where it might be 
thrown into the channel cut by the waterspout, and, 
with a blast or two, be covered witii rocks and dirt un- 
til teams should be brought from Tucson for it. 

With this idea uppermost, he sought the freight 
agent of the railroad company of Tucson. 

Then he came in contact with the system in vog^e 
on the Pacific Coast — and possibly elsewhere — that of 
a one-sided railroad partnership with the producer, on 
the basis that the producer furnish all the capital and 
suffer all the losses, the railroad company providing 
neither capital, experience, nor services, but taking 
the lion's share of the profits. 

"What," said Morning, "will your freight charj;es 
be for three car loads of ore to Pueblo or San Fran- 

' ' What kind of ore ? ' ' 
" Gold-bearing quartz in sacks." 
"What does your ore assay?" inquired the agent. 
"What has that got to do with it?" questioned 
Morning sharply. 


"Everything." answered the official. We chargsl 

' in car-load lots $12 per ton to San Francisco, or $24.% 

per ton to Pueblo, and $2.00 per ton in addition for| 

' each $100 per ton of the assay value of the ore." 

"Very well," said Morning, "! believe I willshipj 
thirty tons to San Francisco." 

" Have you it here? " said the agent. 

" It will not be ready for some weeks yet," replied J 

"You did not mention its value," said the agent. 

' ' I will state its value at $100 per ton, ' ' said Mom- 1 

' 'All right, ' ' said the agent, " we will lake it at that, | 
subject, of course, to assay according to our rules byl 
the assayer of the company at your expense." 

"Well, I don't know that I care to trouble the as- 1 
sayer of your company," replied Morning. "Infact^ | 
the ore is a good deal richer than $100 per ton. But ] 
I will ship it at that valuation, and release the com- 
pany from all liability for loss or damage beyond that . 
In brief, I will take all the chances, and if the ore shall | 
be lost, or stolen, or tumbled offa bridge, or overturned j 
into a river, the company will only account to me for j 
it at $100 per ton. I suppose that will be satisfactory?" | 

The agent shook his head. 

" It looks as if it ought to be satisfactory," said he, 
"but my orders are imperative- The ore must be 
assayed, and you will have to pay two per cent of its 

"But this," replied Morning, with some heat, "is 
unreasonable and outrageous. If the £a.\ of two per 
cent is to be regarded in the liglit of a charge for in- 


ranee, I am sure there is not a marine or fire insur- 
; company in the world that would charge one- 
rarth of one per cent for such a risk." 

" Company's orders," said the agent. 

"Supposeyou wire headquarters at my cost, and say 
that David Morning wishes to ship thirty tons of gold- 
bearing quartz from Tucson to San Francisco, at a val- 
uation of $100 per ton. Say that he will prepay the 
freight, and load and unload the cars himself if permit- 
ted. Say that he does- not wish the railroad company 
to take any of the risks of mining, transporting, or re- 
ducing the ore, nor to share any of the profits of the 
, business. Say that he will release the company from ' 
all liability even for gross negligence or ihefl, beyond 
$100 per ton. Say that he does not wish to acquaint . 
the company's assayer or the company's freight agent 
with the value of the ore, or permit either of them to 
form any accurate judgment for speculative or other 
purposes as to the value of the mine from which the 
ore was taken. Say that he wishes the privilege of 
conducting his own business in his own way. Say* 
that if the railroad company will kindly fix a rate at 
which it will consent to carry the fi-eight he offers, 
without sticking its meddlesome, corporate nose into 
his business, he will then consider whether he will pay 
that rate or refrain irom shipping the ore at all," 

"Mr. Morning," said the agent, "if I were to send 
such a telegram as that, it would cost me my place, and, 
indeed, my orders are not to communicate remon- 
strances made by shippers at the company's rules, ex- 
cept by mail. Of course you can send any message 
you like over your own name to the head office, but 


I can inform you now that they will only refer you to 
me for an answer, and I can only refer to my general 
instructions, and there the matter will end." 

"Weil, replied Morning, "I will ship the ore by 
ox teams or not shi]> it at all before I will submit to 
the injustice of your general instructions. I suppose 
I am without remedy in the premises?" 

"You might build another road, Mr. Morning," 
said the agent, with a slight tinge of sarcasm in his 

Morning answered slowly, as he turned away; — 

" I may conclude to do so, or to buy up this road, 
and if I do 1 will run it on business principles that 
shall give the shipper some little chance." 

" When will that halcyon hour for the public arrive, 
Mr. Morning?" 

" By and by," rejoined our hero, "and then you 
may look for better days. ' ' 



"The rich man's joys increase the poor's decay. 

"FoRTY-FrvE years ago. doctor," said Professor 
John Thornton to his friend, Dr. Eustace, "do you 
remember tliat, as barefooted boys, we fished for pick- 
erel together in this very pond, and from this very 
spot ? ' ' 

"And caught more fish with our bamboo poles and 
angleworm bait than we appear likely to capture to- 
day with this fancy tackle," remarked the doctor. 

"Everything about this lovely little lake seems un- 
changed," resumed the professor, "but elsewhere the 
great world has indeed rolled on. Then there were 
less than one hundred millionaires in this republic: — 
now, doctor, there are more than eight thousand." 

"And then," said the doctor, "we came here in a 
rickety old stage wagon, and we were ten hours in 
making the same journey which to-day we achieved 
in an hour while seated in a parlor car. Then the 
telegraph was in its infancy, the electric light was un- 
known, the great manufacturing cities were uncon- 
structed, the petroleum of Pennsylvania and the gold 
of California and Australia were undiscovered, the 
great Western railroad lines were unbuilt, and the web 
of complex industries with which the land is now 
laced was unspun. The victim of a raging tooth or a 





crushed limb was com^ielled to suffer without rell 
from chloroform or etlicr, and it was a crime punish- 
able with social ostracism to question the righteous- 
iieas of human slavery, ihc curative virtues of calomel, 
or the beneficence of infant damnation. I never cuukl 
think, John, chat tJie >rood old times, whose loss you 
are always lienioaning, were nearly so comfortable 
times to live in as those amid wliicli we now dwell." 

"Dr. Eustace," said the professor, "you attach 
undue importance to a few physical comforts and 
conveniences. If our lathers Jacked the advantages 
of our later civilization, they were also without its 
vices. In the good old times which you deride, 
wrecking railroads, stealing railroads, and watering 
stocks were unknown. Senatorshipa and subsidies 
were not procured by bribery; ihe legislator who sold 
his vote made arrangements to leave the country, and 
bank burglars and bank defaulters kept, in the public 
estimation, the lock step of fellow-criminals." 

"And what, in your opinion was the cause of 
our descent from this high estate of public virtue 
and whale-oil lamps.*" ' 

"The main cause. Dr., of the corruption of the 
human race everywhere, — gold. It was the gold 
of California that revolutionized the finances, the 
business methods, and the morals of the nation. 
After the year 1849 the advance of values, the aggre- 
gation of wealth, the increase of population, and the 
magical growth of the West, made additional facilities 
for inland travel and transportadon a necessity. This 
necessity caused the rapid construction of new lines of 
railroad. The differences and difficulties of local 


management suggested the advantages of ronsolida- 
tion — and then tlie reign of the centripetal forces com- 

'■But all the millionaires of the country are not 
railroad men, John." 

"Concentration of capital began with them, doctor, 
and their example was soon followed by others. The 
Civil Warbroke down local prejudices, made East and 
West homogeneous, introduced communities to each 
other on the battle-field, obliterated State lines, and 
made individual effort in business, in finance, in man- 
ufactures, and even in politics, less advantageous to 
the individual than participation in aggregated effort, 
where his gains were increased, though his personality 
was submerged." 

"I have always thought that our civil war was a 
moral education to this people and to the world," re- 
marked the doctor. 

"War was an educator," conceded the professor, 
"yet the tree of knowledge with its crimson leaves 
yielded evil fruit as well as good. The moral nature 
of the American people has, 1 fear, reacted from the 
tension of generous and patriotic sacrifice which war 
evolved. Some of the very men who helped to strike 
shackles from black slaves have been busy ever since 
forging other shackles for white slaves, and in twenty- 
five years from the days when we freely paid lives and 
treasure to preserve the existence of the nation, and 
free itfromthewrongof slavery and the rule of a slave- 
holding oligarchy, we have passed under the sway of 
other despots, more selfish, more sordid, more relent- 
less, and more rapacious of dominion. The dusk- 


browed tyrant of Egypt has been overthrown, but in 
I his place Plutus reigns." 

I "I grant you,'' interposed Dr, Eustace, " that the 

I weahh owners are the rulers of our later civiliza- 

[ tion, but, so far as I have observed, instead of endeav- 

oring to curb or overthrow them, we are all doing our 
best to join their ranks and participate in their power. 
You appear to be the only living millionaire who de- 
claims against his class. I know of no other man who 
is brave enough to defy the power of money, great 
enough to ignore it, or strong enough to resist its in- 
fluence, and I dare say you would change your views 
if you were to lose your millions. We all defer to the 
plutocrats. The Spanish nobleman who, for his an- 
cestor's services, waspermittedto remain with his head 
covered in the presence of his sovereign, would have 
been sure to take off his hat if he had entered the of- 
fice of the president of a country bank, with a view of 
negotiating a small loan on doubtful security. There 
was a great truth inadvertently given to the world in 
the programme of a Fourth of July procession, wherein 
it was announced that the line would end with bank- 
ers in carriages, followed by citizens on foot." 

" This subservience to King Gold, and pursuit of his 
favors, must cease. Dr. Eustace, or this republic will 
be tost. The people must be taught to assume a more 
independent and manly attitude toward the owners of 
money. ' ' 

"Ah, John, money is so necessary, and^t is so hard 

to turn one's back upon it! This way lies comfort, 

I ease, luxury— that way deprivation and sacrifice. 

^ This way 'the primrose path of dalliance trends' — 

t wife 


t men 


that way 'the steep and thorny road.' This way the 
wife and children beckon and sue for safety and peace 

■that way only rocks, and, bruises, and hunger, and 
loneliness summon. What wonder that the Christ, 
voicing the cry of the human to the infinite Father, 
placed as the central thought of the Lord's prayer the 
words, ' Lead us not into temptation ' ! But, John, 
honestly now, do you think the eight thousand mil- 
lionaires you rave about are such an utterly bad lot as 
you make them out to be?" 

"Individually I dare say they are good husbands, 
fathers, and neighbors," replied the professor, "but 
they conceal their seltishnnss and rapacity, and exercise 
their despotism from behind the shields of corporations 
which they create and govern, and tyranny is none the 
less tyranny because it is decreed not by kings, but 
by entities which fear neither the assassination of man 
nor the judgment of God." 

"Professor, pardon me, but you generalize a good 
deal, and 1 fear somewhat loosely. It would make a 
difference to me, in my feelings, at least, whether I 
was knocked down by a rutlian, or by an electrical 
machine-' ' 

" Doctor, your simile was not considered as carefully 
as are your prescriptions. If the machine be guided 
by the ruffian, what matters it whether you be struck 
by his hand, or with an electric current directed by 
his hand? If our great ne-wspapers, which are influ- 
ential, which claim to be independent, and which 
ought to be free, are restrained from publishing articles 
advocating postal telegraphy, or criticising the manage- 
ment of a news corporation, what matters it that the 




freedom of the press is choked by a board of directors 
rather than a government censor? If the citizen dare 
not give voice to his \'iews on public affairs, what 
matters it whether his utterances be choked by the 
knuckles of a king, or the polite menaces of an em- 
ployer ? If the voter cast his ballot against his own 
convictiorts, and in accordance with the will of another, 
what matters it whether he be coerced by a soldier 
with a musket or a station agent with a freight bill? 
If the settler lose his land, what matter whether the 
despoiler be a personal bandit armed with a rifle, or a 
corporate robber equipped with a land-office decision? 
If capital exempt itself from taxation, and place the 
burden of sustaining government upon the broad 
back of labor, will it alleviate the pain of the load to 
know that it is not the law of feudal vassalage but of 
modern politics which accomplishes the exaction? 

"Hallo! I have a bite! Ah! ha! my boy, your 
eagerness to swallow that minnow has brought you to 

And the speaker lifted a twenty-ounce pickerel from 
the placid waters of Nine Mile Pond, and deposited it, 
struggling and shining, upon the green turf at his 

"Well, John," inquired the doctor, "what are you 
going to do about it all?" 

"We will have him split down the back and broiled 
for luncheon," replied the professor absently. 

"Broil who?" queried the doctor, "Jay Gould?" 

"Eh? No; the pickerel I mean, though I am not 
sure that similar treatment might not be accorded to 
Gould, with advantage to the country." 


"You ask," continued the professor, "what shall beJ 
'^one about it all? The wealth owners themselves 
should be able to see that existing conditions must 
sooner or later find cessation either in relief or in rev- 
olution. Monopolies in transportation, intelligence, 
land, light, fuel, water, and food — all concealed in the 
impersonality of private corporations — now sit like 
vampires upon the body of American labor, and suck 
its life blood, and they have grown so bold and so 
rapacious that they even neglect to fan their victims 
to continued slumber." 

"Why, John, you seem to have an attack of anti- 
corporation rabies. You talk like a sand-lot politician 
who is trying to sell out to a railroad company. 
What is the matter with you? What have these 
much berated entities done?" said the doctor. 

" Done?" replied Professor Thornton. "What have 
they not done ? They have torn the bandages from 
the eyes of American justice and fastened false weights 
upon her scales. They have turned our legislative 
halls into shambles where men are bought and honor 
is butchered. They have written the word 'lie' 
across the Declaration of our fathers. They have 
struck the genius of American liberty in her fair 
mouth, until, with face suffused with the blushes and 
bedewed with the hot tears of shame, she turns pit- 
eously to her children to hide if they cannot defend 

"John Thornton," ejaculated the doctor, "your 
remarks would be admirable in substance and style 
for an address before some gathering of work shirkers, 
organized to procure lessened hours of labor and 




larger schooners of beer, but to me you are taDcing 
what our transatlantic couslas call 'beastly rot.' 
deny that a majority, or even any considerable num- 
ber, of the capitalists of this countrj- are dishonest, or 
unpatriotic, or indiiferent to the rights and needs of 
their fellow-men." 

"I have not said that they were^ doctor," replied the 
professor- "Indeed, if such were the case, we might 
cry in despair, ' God save the commonwealth ! ' for only 
Omniscience could work its salvation. What I claim 
is ihat it is full time for the conscientious millionaires 
who love their country and their kind, to seriously 
consider a situation the perils of which they are e\'ery 
day augmenting by their indifference." 

"What perils do you mean, professor? How, for 
instance, would anybody be hurt or periled if I were 
to become a millionaire?" 

"A great fortune is a great power, doctor, and not 
every man is fit lo be intrusted with great power. 
To-day no second-class power in Europe can nego- 
tiate a treaty or make even a defensive war without 
the con-ient of the Rothschilds, while in America the 
owner of fifty millions is more powerful than the 
prcudent of the United States, and the owner of len 
jBtOioM more influential than the governor of a State. 

"And W he ought to be," interposed the doctor. 
"The man who can by iair means make $10,000,000 
111 fnofc (ueful to the community in which he lives than 
« 4f/»m j{<rt'emors of Stales." 

"(*•« liik Ht the danger to the people, doctor, trf" 
»**•«■ ^iutt forlunen. There are ten men iii the United 
jMhm *rtk*e afoiregaU wealth amounts to ?5oo,ooo,- 




ooo, and who represent, and control, and wield the in- 
fluence of property amounting to $3,000,000,000. If 
these men should choose to settle their rivalries and 
combine their interests and etTorts, they could ab-aut 
fix the prices of every acre of land, every barrel of 
flour, every ton of coal, and every day's wages of 
labor between Bangor and San Francisco. They 
could name every senator, governor, judge, congress- 
man, and legislator in twenty States. They could rule 
a greater empire than any possessed by crowned kings. 
They could promulgate ukases more absolute, more 
despotic, and more certain of being enforced, than any 
which ever went forth from St. Petersburg to carry 
desolation to a race. They could say to the laborer 
in the grain-fields, 'Henceforth you shall be reduced 
to the condition of your brother in England or Scot- 
land, and eat meat but once a week.' They could 
say to the toiler in the humming factory or over the 
red forge, 'Henceforth you must toil twelve hours in 
each twenty-four.' They could say to every wage- 
worker in the Ir.nd, ' Henceforth we will take all the re- 
sults of your labor, and give you only the slave's 
share — existence and subsistence.' " 

"All you need. Professor John Thornton," said 
Dr. Eustace, "is a long beard, a woman with green 
goggles and a tamborine, a fat boy with a snare drum, 
and a pair of bellows in your chest, to be a Salvation 
Army seeking recruits for the church of Anarch. You 
know just as well as I do that you are talking non- 
sense, and that the capitalists of our country would be 
neither so inhuman nor so unwise as to push their 
power as you indicate." 



"Maybe not, doctor, maybe not. but tbeir ability J 
to so use their power if they choose is a menace to a 
free people, and a standing; inducement to disorder,, 
and unless the plutocrats cease their ajtgressions the ■ 
people may invoke the motto, ' Saiva republica. svr ■ 
prcTtta lex' and tax all great fortunes out of ej 
ence. ' ' 

"What aggressions do you refer to, professor? For \ 
the life of me I cannot see that this country or this I 
people have any just cause of complaint. The cen- -j 
sus returns of 1S90 show that in the preceding ten ^ 
years. there was added to our national wealth, values \ 
amounting to nearly $20,000,000,000." 

"The census returns tell only a part of the story, 1 
doctor. The cottages of the land will teli you that ] 
while as a nation we may have grown of late years I 
very rich and prosperous, yet among the individuals J 
composing the nation its wealth is possessed anc 
prosperity enjoyed within a very narrow circle. The ] 
value of all the property in the United States in the { 
year 1890 was $66,000,000,000. Do you know that 
$40,000,000,000, or sixty per cent of the wealth of j 
America, is owned by less than forty thousand people ? 
Do you know that in the last twenty years the labor- 
ers of the United States have added to the general . 
wealth of the nation, values amounting to $30,000.- 

' ' Well, what is there to complain of in that fact ? " . 
questioned the doctor. 

"The complaint is that the money has not been 
divided among the ten million workers who earned it. 
The complaint is that it has not furnished each often 


million households with a $3,ooo-shield against the 
assaults of poverty. The complaint is that as fast as 
created it has been seized by the centripetal tendency 
which now dominates our civilization and hurried into 
the strong boxes of ten thousand Past-Masters of the 
art of accumulating the earnings of other people." 

"The complete answer, professor, to your diatribe 
is that the accumulations of which you speak are not 
the earnings of other people. The greater portion 
of this weahh has been developed from the bounty of 
nature in ways which could not have been pursued 
without large combinations of capital." 

"That is a mere assumption, doctor," 

"Not at all, professor. The money taken from 
gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, and coal mines, has 
come from the treasure vaults of nature, and has not 
been filched from the earnings of anybody," 

" Mining is the one exception to the rule, doctor," 

' ' I beg your pardon, professor, but it is not. An- 
other avenue to wealth has been the organization and 
reorganization of great industries on unwasteflii and 
remunerative principles. For instance, the beef and 
pork packing establishments of the West supply the 
retail butchers of the land with meat at a leas price 
than is paid for the live cattle." 

"Where, then, doctor, do these philanthropists of 
whom you speak make their money? " 

' ' They make it, professor, by scientific utilization of 
the hoofs and horns, hones and blood, which in small 
butcher shops are necessarily wasted." 

"You believe, then, in the rightfulness of monopo- 
lies and trusts, do you, doctor? " 

Bettkr days, or 

"John, there are no monopolies. No restrictions i 

are placed by law on any man who chooses to embark 
in any reputable business. As for the much-abused 
'trusts,' they have all resulted in higher wages and 
more constant employment to the workman, and 
lower prices and better g-oods to the consumer. I 
suppose you will not claim that the capitalists alone 
are responsible for all the crime and pauperism of the i 

land?" J 

"No," replied the professor, "for the ignorant and \ 

vicious poor play into the hands of the selfish and . 

vicious rich, and between the two the honest and in- ' 

dustrious body of the people is being ground as be- I 

tween the upper and nether millstone. Indeed, I do ' 

not know which is the greater curse to the country, 
the stock thieves, whose dens are under the shadow 
of Trinity Church spire, and who combine to corrupt 
courts, juries, and legislators, or the dynamiters and 
anarchists who would involve the innocent and the , 

guilty in one common wreck of social order. I hope I ', 

am no senseless alarmist, Dr. Eustace, but I am sure J 

we must have relief, or there will be national ruin." | 

"From whatsource, professor, do you expect relief i 

to come?" inquired the doctor. 

"Frankly, I don't know," was the reply. 

"Maybe your next National Convention will relieve 
the situation," insinuated the doctor, slyly. 
\ "I am sure that relief will not come," said the pro- 

fessor, "from existing political parties, whose ora- 
tors grow earnest and belligerent over the ghosts of ' 
dead issues, and travel around and around over the 
1 same patli, like an old horse on an arrastra, forever 

L J 


going somewhere and never getting anywhere, neither 
knowing or caring wliether he is grinding pay rock 
or waste rock, conscious only of the whip of his driver, 
and hopeful only of his allowance of barley." 

"Why, John, 1 thought you were a devoted par- 
tisan," said the doctor. 

"Did you?" was the retort. "Well, you were 
mistaken. What can be hoped from political parties 
when legislators who are not free from suspicion of 
venality are voted for and elected year after year, be- 
cause Grant captured Vicksburg, or Lincoln issued a 
proclamation of emancipation, or Stonewall Jackson 
was killed more than twenty-five years ago? Must 
the people forever submit to the rule of brawlers, and 
vote sellers, and trust betrayers, because such men 
hurrah for some flag which other men once carried 
into battle? Must the masses lie down in the path of 
Juggernaut and invite him to crush them, because the 
evil-visaged god parades his devotion to party issues 
which were long ago remitted to the limbo of things 
lost on earth?" 

"The people will right all the evils of which you 
complain, professor, so soon as they see that it is to 
their interest to do so." 

"How can they doubt that it is their interest to 
right them? It is they who suffer both in purse and 
pride for every unjust exaction and every dishonest 
evasion. The poorest do not escape the conse- 
quences; it all comes out of their toil in the end. It 
depletes their pockets in a hundred unobserved ways. 
They pay for it in enhanced taxation of their homes, 
in the fuel which cooks their food, in a greater cost of 


i of life, in a higher rent, in the nails 

' which hold their houses together, and in the increased 
cost of the blows of the hammer which drives them. 
I do not need to tell you, doctor, that labor must bear 

I the burdens of the State. Labor at last pays all and 
apital pays nothing — all burdens of government, all 
atpenses of courts and juries, and prisons and police, 

^■all cost of armies and navies. The diamonds which 
glitter upon the shirt front of the purchased legislator, 
the wine which hisses down the throat of the lobbyist, 
the steel doors and locks which guard watered stock 
and stolen bonds, the very powder and bullets which 
shoot out the life of maddened and insurgent labor, are 
all paid for out of the toil of the laborer." 

"While there is much truth in what you say, profes- 
sor," observed the doctor, "yet where is the immedi- 
ate necessity for you to work yourself into such a 
state of mind about it?" 

"Your remark, doctor, is a representative one," 
repUed Professor Thornton, "and the general indif- 
ference which it expresses is the most discouraging 
feature of the existing situation. Like the villagers 
who cultivate their vineyards at the base of Vesuvius, 
we heed not the rumblings of the volcano. Like the 
citizens long resident in Cologne, we scent the tainted 
air without discomfort. We cry with the French 
ting, 'After us the deluge,' and we seem to care 

j. very little what may happen so long as it shall not 

[.happen to us." 

"There is the mate to your pickerel," said the doc- 

[i.tor, as he landed a fish upon the grass at his feet. 
"Two of the millionaires of Nine Mile Pond have 



succumbed to their own greed and the paticnct 
cunning of intelligent labor." 

'■Many of our millionaires," resumed the professor, 1 
not to be driven from his theme, "and some of thefl 
most active and powerful of them ail, are as selfish, i 
rapacious, as arrogant, as ignorant, as corrupt, and a 
despotic as Russian Boyars or Turkish Bashans. AtJ 
the same time they are unaware of their danger, are 
utterly obtuse to their social and moral responsibili-J 
ties, and conceited with the invulnerable conceit of] 
self-made men. They do not seem to recognized 
that they are unprotected by an army, or a strong 
government, or spies, or the machinery of despot- 
ism, or any traditions or practices of rule, and they 
appear to take no thought of the infinite possibil- 
ities of disaster which line the path of every to~9 
morrow. ' ' 

"You really fear, then, the fulfillment of Macau ley 'q^ 
prophecy, professor?" 

"What thoughtful man does not? There is i 
every large city of our land a multitude unindus*3 
trious, unfrugal of life, uncurbed of spirit, undisci-l 
plined, uneducated, fretlul of small gains, accustomedl 
to freedom of speech and action, jealous of anythingffl 
which looks like oppression or class rule, un 
tomed to restrictions of any kind, irrreligious, materi-l 
alistic, discontented, idle, envious, and often drunken." 

"In brief, a powder magazine," said the doctor. I 
' ' Great cities have always presented the same problem J 
to rulers, yet civilization lives, nevertheless." 

"Because," rejoined the professor, " in monarchialJ 
Europe the magazine is guarded by trained armieff,! 


and watchful sentinels, while in our country it is left 
open and unguarded, and anarchists with lighted 
torches pass to and fro. In Europe the train of gov- 
ernment is built of carefully-selected materials, it is 
officered by experienced eng^ineers, and at every sta- 
tion the tesdng hammer rings against the wheels. 
Here we put in any piece of crystallized iron for wheel 
or axle, and give the control of the engine to any 
loud-voiced braggart who can climb into the cab, or 
any ambitious dotard who chooses to hire the trick- 
sters of the caucus to hoist him there. Then we 
throw the brakes off, the throttle- valves open, and 
go screaming down the grade." 

"And how do you propose, John, to avoid J smash- 
up?" queried the doctor, 

"We shall have passed the darker point," replied 
the professor, "and entered upon an era of safer and 
better life for the republic, only when the great mil- 
lionaires of America shall elect to consider themselves 
not merely as conquerers on the field of finance, en- 
tided to the spoils of victory, but as trustees for hu- 
manity, as suns whose mission it is to draw the waters 
of affluence from overflowing lake and stream, not to 
hold those waters above the earth forever, but to dis- 
tribute them in bounteous and fertilizing showera." 

"And do you suppose, John Thornton, that the 
people would either appreciate or respond to such se- 
raphic unselfishness on the part of your regenerated 
and beatified millionaires ? ' ' 

"Dr. Eustace, let me tell you that when the great, 
industrious, intelligent, patriotic body of workers shall 
be made to feel that there is no necessary conflict be- 


tween labor and capital, — when they shall be made to i 
know that any considerable number of our iiiillionairea 1 
are seeking further wealth not merely to add to their | 
personal luxury and power, but in order that labor 
may be helped in turn to higher planes of life, whea 1 
it can be said trulhtulli' — 

'' 'Then none was for a party, 
Then all were for the State ; 
Then the great man helped the poor 
And the poor man loved the great '- 

In that day professional labor agitators will lose their 4 
vocations, the workingman who never works will J 
be without influence among his fellows, and the ] 
brotherhoods of beer and brawling which infest the l 
purlieus of our larger cities, and clamor for bread c 
blood — meaning always somebody else's bread or | 
somebody else's blood — will find occasion to disband. 
I do not despair of relief, I know that it must come. 
Whether it shall come through 'a preserving or a 
destroying revolution,' whether it shall come in 
wrath or in peace, is a question which the capitalists I 
of this country must answer and answer speedily." 

"John, you dear old dreamer," said the doctor, 
"I know of one millionaire whose gold hat 
roded his humanity. I hope there are many such, but ^ 
I fear that if the world looks to its wealth owners to J 
lead it in a crusade of unselfishness, it will wait a long, 
long time. But I do not diagnose the disease as you ] 
do. You resemble a boy who has stubbed his toe. 
To him there is no world and hardly any boy outside I 
of that sore toe. Yet if the cure be left to nature, in ] 
time the pain will abate and the toe recover. I do J 


it believe that any law framed by man can make a 
i of flour out of half a pound of wheat, or that 
[ any scheme of government can equalize the inevitable 
' inequalities of human life." 

"Then you do not believe in the wisdom and be- 
neficence of compelling the rapacious rich to aid the 
deserving poor?" 

"No; I believe in the wisdom and beneficence of 
exact justice. I believe that the skillful and rapid 
bricklayer is entitled to higher wages and greater op- 
portunities of employment than his stupid and slothful 
associate, and that to deny the former his rightful ad' 
vantage is an outrage upon justice, whether such out- 
rage be perpetrated by an employer or a trades union, 
I believe that every man is fairly entitled to all the 
fruits of his labor, his skill, his good judgment, and his 
good luck. The pickerel at your feet came by chance 
to your hook and not mine, and therefore it is your 
fish and not my fish." 

"But by the law of nature, doctor, there is no dif- 
ference between a beggar and a king." 

"There is where you are wrong, professor. The 
law of nature is a universal statute of equality of op- 
portunity and inequality of result, and man distorts 
her purposes and violates her statutes when he places 
an unearned crown on the head of a king, or an un- 
earned crust in the mouth of a beggar." 

"Do you think, then, that man has no excuse for 
his shortcomings, doctor?" 

"He has many. He is controlled by the occult 
power of race transmissions, by laws which he di 
not help to make, by customs which he did not 

alt I 


,ot J 


help to form, by org's nizations and environments be- 
yond his power to change or combat. But because 
of these he should have no license to plunder hia 
wealthier neighbor, for, in this republic, it is within 
the power of the people to change laws, and alter cus- 
toms, and secure to every man the result of his own 
toil and skill — and that is all any man is entitled to." 

" But the wealth owners, doctor, have monopolized 
nearly all the resources of nature." 

"Nonsense. There is not a hungry idler in the pur- 
lieus of New York City but might catch fish enough 
at the nearest wharf to keep him from starvation, or 
find within a day's walk a piece of land he could 
cultivate on 'shares.' The resources of nature are 
inexhaustible. If every adult male in the land were 
to build for himself a marble palace, there would 
be no perceptible diminution in nature's supply of 
marble. If every farmer were to devote his energies 
and his acres to the production of wheat, until enough 
wheat should have been harvested to feed the world 
for five years, yet the capacity of soil and sun, water 
and air to produce more wheat would be neither ex- 
hausted nor impaired. For thousands of years the 
men of every civilization have been hewing forests, 
and smelting iron, yet the forests which are untouched 
and the mines which are unopened are practically 
limitless. ' ' 

"Doctor, a man cannot stir the earth without a 
spade, or cut down a tree without an ax, or mine iron 
ore without a pick, and the owners of the spades, and 
picks, and iixes, exact from the laborer an undue share 

L of his I: 

of his labor tor theu- u 


"Who is to determine whether the share exacted 
[ be an undue one? My own opinion is that the labor- 
s share of results has grrown larger, and the capi- 
I talist's share smaller, during the last twenty years. At 
f least, the rate of interest on money is not much more 
L than half what it was before the war. But whether 
[ this be so or not it is not nature's fault. Nature is 
not only implacably just, she is impartfally generous. 
No suitor is denied the chance to gain her favors, and 
none is refused any favor lie may have earned. There 
are floods and tornadoes, frosts and fevers, burning 
suns and chilling winds. Yet these, as well as the 
fruitage and the harvests, are the offspring of inexor- 
able law, and science now interprets the law. It warns 
us of cyclones ten thousand miles away; it predicts 
the date of arrival, speed, and duration of hurri- 
canes; it brings the ladybug from Australia to com- 
bat and destroy the scalebug in California; it prom- 
ises to conquer drought by exploding dynamite bombs 
in the air or by chemical production of rain; it restrains 
floods by diverting rivers; it destroys malarial germs 
by planting groves of eucalyptus ; it analyzes soils; it 
selects seeds ; it fertilizes with electric wires, and it 
ploughs and plants and harvests fields with iron-limbed 
and steam-lunged servants. A hundred years ago 
one man with spade and sickle slowly wrested from 
the earth the sustenance for his little household, with 
only sufficient surplus to scantily compensate the 
weaver, who, with hand loom, constructed a few yards 
of cloth between daylight and dark. Now a girl 
guides the spindles and shuttles and makes thousands 
of yards of clotli in a day, and the labor of one man 




industriously applied to so much land as be can a 
vaiitageously cultivate with the aid of improved m 
chinery, will in one year produce one thousand bush-j 
els of wheat, or their equivalent in agricultural prod-9 
ucts — enough to feed fifty men for a year," 

"I grant you, doctor, that the production of wealths 
has gready increased. The problem of the hour i: 
how to provide for a more equal and just distribution J 
of it." 

"John, the solution of the problem is not difficult. I 
Allow every man to have that which he earns, andl 
compel every man to earn that which he has. Aol 
cord every man the opportunity to work or starve, f 
with the assurance that for his work he will receive 1 
full value, and for his idleness a hunger that no public J 
or private charity will alleviate. Hard labor and hard -I 
fare for the criminal, generous diet and tender care 1 
for the sick, an ax or a pump handle for the tramp, 
and allow no healthy man to eat his supper until he I 
has earned it. Consider sporadic and indiscriminate f 
charity as great an evil as injustice. Accord every J 
man his dollar and demand from every man your dot 1 
lar, and give and exact shilling for shilling. Emu* J 
late and copy the inexorable justice of nature." 

"Doctor," said the professor, "I am silenced btitl 
not convinced. The sun is getting too high for furthei 
fishing. Come, let us go to luncheon." 

' said Morning, "as they lighted their ci- 
gars, and seated themselves after supper upon the 
piazza of the railroad hotel at Tucson, "the copper as- 
says arc not up to your expectations, still I am in- 
clined to buy the property if I can arrange to employ 
men at rates that will enable me to work it. What are 
miners' wages, hereabouts? " 

"Three dollars and a half a day for ten hours," 
replied Steel. 

"And how much for unskilled laborers for road 
building, wheeling, and aboveground work?'' said 

"Two dollars and a half; but for work of that kind 
you can get Chinamen at 5^1.50 a day, Mexicans at 
$1.25, and Papago Indians for $1.00, if you wish to 
employ them, tliough I reckon you would have 
trouble about getting white men to work with either." 

"I don't wish to cut wages on miners, Bob, for 
they earn all they get, but if I buy that property, there 
will be a lot of road building, and grading for furnace 
sites, and wheeling, and other work of the same na- 
ture, and unless such work can be done cheaply, it will 
not pay lo hire miners for underground work, or, in- 
deed, to work the copper mines at all. 1 shall want 


these unskilled laborers for only a short time, and I 
have especial reasons for not hiriny either white men < 
or Mexicans, neither do I care to employ Chinamen if J 
I can avoid iL Could I, think you, obtain enough In> I 
dians for this preliminary work?" 

"Plenty of them at the San Xavter reservation, 
nine miles from here. I patter their lingo a little and \ 
can get you a gang if you want them." 

" I may want to drill and blast down a lot of basalt 1 
rock to build the foundations of furnaces and ballast 1 
the road with," said Morning. "Will they do that i 
kind of work?" 

"Yes, until it comes to firing the blasts. You will j 
need a white man for that. You will also need a I 
white man for blacksmith work — sharpening picks and ^ 
drills. The Indians cannot work at a forge, and tliey , 
are nervous about 'big shoots,' as they call then 

"Bob, if I take those copper prospects of you at 
your price, will you hire a gang of Papagoes for me, 
and lake them up there and work them for two or [ 
three months under my direction, you and I sharpen- 
ing the tools and preparing and firing the blasts, I ' 
paying you say $io a day for your services?" 

"Well, Mr. Morning, I don't quite hke such a job 
as that, but I am anxious to sell those copper pros- 
pects, and I will do it. But if you are going to hire I 
Indian labor, I advise you to do first all the work [ 
that you intend to do with it I mean, it will be best j 
to get through with the Papagoes before you take any 1 
white men in there, or else there may be a row, and ' 
the white men will drive away the Indians." 

"All right. Bob, I will take your advice, You may 


|eonstder the trade made. I will take your deed for 
the copper iuciitions and give you a check to-morrow 
■for $10,000 on the First National Bank at Denver, or 
Kl will arrange to get you the coin from the bank here 
uf you desire it." 

"Your check is good enough for me, Mr. Morn- 

" Very well. Then you can go to the San Xavier 

iervation early in the morning and make a bargain 

th the Papagoes for three months. ' Obtain forty 

]gOod men and agree to furnish them with rations and 

y thera a day. They have ponies, I suppose, 

d can take their squaws along if they choose. It 

II make them more contented to stay. You might 

»ntract with them also to furnish enough cattle to 

' themselves with fresh meat. They can drive 

ilong, and there is now plenty of grass in the ra- 

Klrines. Don't let them come to Tuscon, for I don't 

rwish tlie people here to knflw what I am doing. The 

I Indians can strike across from San Xavier by Fort 

KLowell and meet us, or wait for us at the mouth of the 

■ Rillito. Yon can return here as soon as you start 

Eithem, and we will buy teams and load them with sup- 

Eplies, and drive them out ourselves. We will do all 

■'die blacksmith work and blasting ourselves. And, 

rBob, keep your own counsel strictly about everything. 

I have reasons for secrecy which I will explain to you 


"All right, Mr. Morning. I don't clearly aeewhat 

I you are driving at. It's a queer way to open a cop- 

tperraine, but you are the captain, and I've known 

Lyou a long time, and whatever you say goes with Bob 



It was three o'clock the next afternoon before Stedl 
I returned from San Xavier. He was well known toj 
I the Papagoes, having often purchased grain and anK 
I mals from them for mining companies with which hed 
had been connected as superintendent. His missioml 
was successful, and Manuel Pacheco, a leader amongf 
the Indians, had agreed to have the necessary forct 
at the place designated on the tliird "sun up." 

Tuscon, ahhough not a mining town, is a commer-J 
cial center for a dozen mining camps, and there waam 
nothing in the outfitting of a partyof miners calculated! 
to attract especial notice. Two wagons and twelvei 
mules were purchased, with all needed supplies, and! 
Morning and Steel drove away to their destination,.! 
where they met the Indians and proceeded to thej 
old copper-camp. After supper Morning opened the J 
conversation which he had determined to havewithf 

"Bob," said he, "to tell the truth, I do not intent 
to work this copper property at present, though, i 
shall need it by and by for a purpose I will not now:1 
explain. I bought it mainly because I knew yoi 
intended to sell it to somebody, and I wished to keep I 
others away from this vicinity. I have another use fora 
the powder and the Indians, and, if you will accept^ 
the offer I am about to make, I have another 5ervico.J 
for you. I selected you because I know you are a 
true and as bright as your name. If you will worl 
with me and for me in this cafion as I require, I wiUl 
give you a salary of $i,ooo a month for three years, J 
and at the end of that time I wilipay you— don't thini;! 
I am crazy — I will pay you $1,000,000. What d*; 
you say to my proposition?" 

"You take away my breath," rejoined Steel. "If 
I did not know you so well, 1 should say that you had 
been boozing on mescal, or were otherwise off your 
nut. But you don't talk usually without meaning 
what you say, and I reckon you are in earnest. But 
there is nothing that I can do to earn $1,000,000, 
or $1,000 a month either." 

"Oh, yes, there is," said Morning, "as you will 
agree when you know all, or at least all that I intend 
to tell you! Listen: When I was up the cafion while 
we were here last week, I discovered and located a 
rich gold quartz lode that was uncovered by the water- 
spout. It is very rich and extensive^indeed, there 
are many millions in sight in the croppings. It was 
through my coming here to look at your copper lodes 
that I was led to its discovery, and in a certain way 
I consider you have a right to some profit from it, and 
1 can well afford to giveyoTi a million dollars for your 
services and your silence, or several milhons, if you 
want that much. The ledge is so rich that the first 
thing to do is to conceal it. No person but myself 
knows its extent or value, and 1 shall not disclose 
these even to you. When I commence working it 
and turning out bullion, people will be curious, and 
they will badger you to tell tliem all about. The elder 
Rothschild is credited with the aphorism that no man 
can tell what he does not know, and if you really don" t 
know the extentof the Morning mine, it will be a good 
deal easier for you to baffle the curious. I propose 
that you shall not look at the ledge or go into the 
box cafion where it is. Will you agree to that?" 

"Oh, 1 am agreeable!" said Steel. "I appreciate 
your reasons, and, anyway, it's none of my business." 


Morning then explained to Steel the situatiuii'ol 
Ijlfae cafion where he had found the lode, and the man?-] 

Boer of its discovery, but was silent as to its diraensionsjl 

r the quantity of gold contained in the rock, i 

nbformed him as to his plan of operations, which v 

pack all the supplies and tools on the backs of the I 

s far up the cafion as it was possible thus to J 

p, and there make a permanent camp. The Indians I 

e then to carry the tools, powder, and a supply otA 

upon their backs up to the summit of the I 

ialt wall near the rift, where another camp would J 

e made. 

t Two Indians were to be left at the copper-campi 
((ith directions if anyone appeared there to run i 

e canon and inform Steel or Morning. Two Indians'^ 

^ere to be placed in charge of the permanent camp J 

ind the animals, four Indians were to carry water id I 

Regs to the top of the wall for the use of the main 1 

rty there, two Indians to procure firewood and pre* I 

e food and attend to the camp at the summit, and 1 

Ebirty Indians to work at drilling holes in the t 

t the summit on both sides of the rift, and at a dia-J 

e of about ten feet from the edge of it. 

The squaws were to be suffered to make such dia*] 

K)sition of their lime as their social and domestuij 

Duties and inclinations might suggest. Steel aaS 

Idorning would keep the drills sharpened at the port-j 

ible forge, which, with a supply of charcoal, would beV 

ransported to the summit camp, and as often as the; 

Irill holes were ready they would place and explode! 

B^e blasts. 

It was intended thus to throw rocks from the sum- ' 


it down into the gorge, and this was to be repeated 

til its bottom should be covered to a depth of many 

xt, and all signs of the existence of the quartz lode 

Obliterated. From the height of one thousandfeetthe 

»de could not be seen at all, unless one were to crawl 

and look over ihe edge of the precipice, and then its 

Enature could not — except by an experienced miner or 

^[eoiogist— be discerned from that of the neighboring 

c. The Indians below would not be apt to dis- 

Y orders, leave their posts, and go into the caBon 

d tumbling rocks, and the general stolidity and 

Vkck of interest of the Papagoes would lead them to 

§ftttribute the entire work to the eccentricity of their 

iwhite employer. 

le plan formed by Morning was carried into effect 

s of different length had been provided, and the 

rork was systematized. At six o'clock each morn- 

[■ the Indians commenced work; from eleven to 

welve they were allowed for dinner and rest. At five 

o'clock drilling was suspended, and the work of pre- 

Ijiaring the blasts was performed. The Indians then 

to a distance, and Morning and Steel would 

J«xplode the blasts. 

At the end of two months' hard labor the rift was 
d with rock and ddbris to a depth of thirty feet, and 
lode completely covered from view. Morning 
' then made a relocation of the mine on the basalt wall 
above and on the mountain side below. He located 
extensions, side locations, and tunnel locations in every 
I direction for a mile or more, so as to completely 
L-appropriate all approaches to the original location, 
I and prevent others from obtaining any vantage-ground 


from which drifts might be run under his property. 
He also located the necessary mill sites, the waters of | 
Rillito Creek, and the limber upon the mountains. 

The plateau where he had tethered his horses on 
his first visit was, with the available adjacent slopes, 
chosen as a site for buildings he intended to have con- 
structed for the use of the miners and their iamilies, 
and a rock and earth dam was built in the Rillito sev- 
eral hundred feet above, from ivhence the water should 
be piped to the buildings. The Indians were then set 
to work constructing a wagon road to the mouth of 
the Rillito. 

The work being completed, the entire party now 
journeyed to Tucson, and the Indians were paid off 
and returned to the reservation, where they doubtless 
regaled their tribe with an account of the work they 
had performed at the instance of the white lunatic who 
had paid them over four thousand "pesos" in silver 
to tumble rock into a hole. Vet it is doubtful if such 
information ever extended beyond members of their 
tribe, for, on parting with them, Morning presented 
each worker with a high silk hat, anil each squaw with 
red calico for a gown, and Bob Stee! made a speech 
to them in the Papago tongue, and asked them to 
agree not to tell the Indian agent, or any white man, 
where they had been working or what doing, beyond 
the statement that they had been "building wagon 
road." The Indians — naturally secretive — readily 
gave the required promise. 

Having recorded his new location notices. Morning 
telegraphed to San Francisco for a portable sawmill. 
He loaded the wagons with a fresh supply of provis- 


f ions and tools and sent tliem wi[h a gang of wood-1 
choppers in charge of Steel to the upper camp on the! 
Rillito, with directions to get out logs and haul themg 
to the site of the proposed sawmill. 

While awaiting the arrival of the sawmill, MorningJ 

visited the neighboring mining camps of Tombstone,! 

Globe, and Bisbee, and selected with great car 

after watching them at work and informing hin 

s to their habits and antecedents — one hundred i 

y ers, to whom he agreed to give a steady job for sever 

^. years, working in eight-hour shifts, at ;f4.oo per day,1 

j He preferred and obtained married men, each mani 

I being promised a comfortable cabin, with transporta-r 

I tion for his family and effects from Tucson, 

In ten days the portable sawmill arrived, and v 

t and a full outfit of building material, tools, and'l 

I pipe. Morning, accompanied by a gang of carpenters* .1 

was again en route for the m 

It was busy times at Waterspout, for such was thel 
■ name given to the new camp, for the next six weeks„4' 
By that time the sawmill and shingle machine hac^l 
turned out sufficient material, and with the carpenteryj 
I and a number of the wood-choppers who were drafted^ 
> for the purpose, eighty comfortable board houses hadi 
been constructed, with large buildings for shops and'J 
I offices, and a suitable edifice for a schoolhouse.T 
L Water was piped to the little plaza about which the 
( buildings were gathered, and all was ready for the 
) miners. 

The sawmill was now set to work getting out tim- 
bers for a mill, and for timbering tunnels. The men 
, were all alive with curiosity to know where was the 


mine for the working of which ail these preparations 
were made, but both Morning and Steel were reticent, 
and those who were too pressing in their inquiries 
were quietly given to understand that a continuation 
of questioning might cause their services to be dis- 
pensed with. 

All being ready, the teams were sent to Tucson at 
the appointed time and returned with the miners and 
their household effects, a number of wagons chartered 
for the purpose bringing the women and children. 
Twenty or more adventurers on horseback and in 
wagons accompanied the party, as by this time curi- 
osity was all ablaze at the proceedings of Morning, 
whose location notices had been read by hundreds, 
and been made the subject of frequent comment in the 
Tucson papers. 

Numerous prospecting parties were dispatched to 
the Santa Catalinas during the next few months, and 
their members climbed all over the mountains, ex- 
amined Morning's location monuments, and returned 
to Tucson with the report that the Colorado man 
was clean crazy, that there was not a sign of quartz, 
or any place where quartz could exist, and that 
Morning's friends — if he had any — would do well to 
appoint a guardian for him. 

The plan of production upon which Morning had 
settled was to extract sufficient gold to gradually sub- 
stitute that metal for paper, or to make it instead of 
bonds or credits the basis for paper money in all the 
civilized world, and to increase the circulation of all 
countries to the volume per capita of the country 
having the largest amount. 



He learned from the statistics with which he had* 
isupplied himself that the money circulation of France, ' 
■ the most prosperous and the most commercially ac- 
Itive nation in Europe, was $42.15 per capita, of the 
\ United States SI24. 10, of Great Britain {620.40, of Italy 
rj[i6.3i, of Spain $14.44, and of Germany, $14.23. In \ 
I the Asiatic, semi-Asiatic and South American coun- • 
I tries the money circularion was stitl, being but 1 
f %<,. 20 per capita in Russia, $3.18 in Turkey, $4.0 
I British India, $4.90 in Mexico, $4-29 in Peru, $1.79 \ 
in Central America, and $1.29 in Venezuela. 

Morning noticed that the greater the money circu- 
lation of a country, the greater the civilization, pros- 
, perity, and refinement of the people; and metallic | 
I money, or paper currency calling for metallic money, ■ 
[ being the best money, it would be sure wherever ob- J 
I tainable to drive out all other currency. He pro- 
posed, therefore, to increase, as rapidly as was poss 
I the metallic money of the United States and Europe | 
Lto the standard /.f>'ira/;te of France, beginning with I 
L&e United States, following with England, and then | 
fc proceeding to the Continent. 

The process of accomplishing this was to be ex- 1 
ceedingly simple. He would ship gold bars to the I 
mints of the country whose currency he proposed to 
increase, and ask that they be coined into the money ' 
of the country. The coin received he proposed to ] 
deposit in the banks of that country for investment J 
or use therein. 

The one danger against which he had to provide 
was demonetization of gold by the nations. He could 
only effectually guard against this by withholding all 1 


knowledge of the extent of his mine until he should 
have accumulated a vast deposit of gold bars— say 
$2,000,000,000 worth — and then deposit these for 
coinage suddenly and simultaneously at the mints of ' 
the world before any law could be enacted depriving 
gold of its quality as a money metal. Vet it would 
take several years for the mints to coin so large a sunt, 
and in the meantime gold might be demonetized- In 
order for Morning to place his gold beyond the reach 
of such legislation, it was essential to have it coined, 
or put in form of money having a legal tender value. 
A slight change in the currency and coinage laws 
would effect this. In the United States it might be 
accomplished by an act of Congress requiring the 
government to receive gold bars, and to issue legal 
tender gold notes thereon, without actually coining 
the gold at all. The mints of the United States, 
working to their full capacity on gold alone, could 
not turn out more than $50,000,000 in coin per month, 
while a government printing press could issue $500,- 
000.000 in a day. 

Morning concluded that one of his earliest duties 
would be to visit Washington while Congress was in 
session, and promote the necessary legislation. 

Of the gold which he produced he could ship to 
the mints openly about one bar in twenty-five. The 
other twenty-four bars he could keep at the mine un- 
til he could build a smelting furnace and manufacture 
pigs of copper, which should be hollow, and in which 
gold bars should be concealed, and thus shipped to 
financial centers, where they could be stored ready 
for any c 


Morning estimated that the production of $ioo,- 
000,000 per month would require the activity of two 
hundred stamps, and that with the aid of improved 
machinery he could reach the ledge and commence 
the production of gold in about three months. He 
had now expended for labor, machinery, and supplies 
about $25,000, and as much more would be required 
to meet the labor expenses of the next sixty days, 
while the quartz mills he proposed erecting would re- 
quire nearly $200,000 more. As the business methods 
of the railroad company prevented him from keeping 
his secret, and at the same time realizing any money 
by shipping ore, he determined to obtain the neces- 
sary Tunds by a sale of his mortage securities, and, 
leaving Robert Steel in charge of the work, David 
Morning departed for Denver, 


"Sick to the soul." 
r his return to Denver, Morning found no tliffi- 
Iculty in speedily closing up his business and convert- 
ing his mortgages into money. In about ten days he J 
■ was ready to depart for San Francisco, where hefl 
■intended purchasing the necessary machinery for fivej 
linills of forty stamps each. His sole remaining busi-J 
s in Denver was the execution and delivery to tl 
lurchaser of a conveyance of some city propert 
prhich he had sold. 

While breakfasting at the Windsor that momtng, ] 
i appetite was not increased by reading from the! 
ssociated Press telegrams the following: — 


"Boston, February 13, 1893. 
"There was celebrated this morning at the residence ] 
F the bride's father, Professor John Thornton, in ' 
itoxbury, the nuptials of one of Boston's greatest | 
.leiresses and acknowledged belles, the beautiful and 
u:comp]ished Miss Ellen Thornton, to the Baron Von 
Pulaw. The happy couple will sail on the Servia \ 
to-morrow, and will proceed directly to Berlin. 
(Dtimated that our fair countrywoman may be restored 1 
to us after a season by the appointment of the Baron. ] 
Bon Eulaw as envoy at Washington from the German \ 

f Forgotten? Ah, nol there are experiences in life J 

86 Better days, or 

that may never be forgotten. Time rolls by, and 
against the door of the mausoleum where we buried 
our dead out of sight the years have piled events and 
emotions and distractions, and the passion which we 
once thought immortal becomes now an episode, and 
by and by a dream, and at last a vague and shadowy 
remembrance, and one day some new and mighty 
iact stalks forward, and sweeps away all obstructions, 
and the doors of the tomb are reopened, and the dead 
of our heart come forth, bringing to us sometimes the 
joys of life's morning, and sometimes the bitterness 
of a new death. 

David Morning walked from the hotel to his oiEce 
without noticing many of the friendly greetings be- 
stowed upon him, for his thoughts were busy with the 
past, and there was a dull, dead pain tugging at his 
heart strings. 

The notary who had taken Morning's acknowledg- 
ment to the deed whose delivery would complete his 
business in Denver, brought the instrument to Morn- 
ing's office, and, not finding him in, slipped the paper 
in the top of a desk with a circular cover. This desk 
was one of Morning's first possessions in the way of 
office furniture, and, finding it convenient and com- 
modious, he had caused it to accompany every 
change of quarters which his increasing business had 
from time to time rendered necessary. 

Entering his office. Morning hurriedly threw back 
the cover of the desk, not noticing the deed in the 
top of it until it was too late to prevent the paper from 
being carried by the revolving cover into the interior 
of the desk, where it could only be reached by re- 


Etioving a portion of the back. The services of a 
tnechanic from a neighboring furniture store \ 
Procured, the back of the desk was removed, andj 
Hornbg recovered the deed. 

He also recovered another paper. It wasanun-' 
jiopened letter addressed to himself, which had doubt- 

s reached its resting-place in the old desk through 3 

iie same process as that which carried the deed therd J 

(The envelope was covered with dust; it was post- 

larked "Boston, Mass., February, 18H3"— ten years J 

—and the supenscription was in the handwriting .1 

F Ellen Thornton, now the Baroness Von Eulaw. 

Dispatching the recovered deed to its destination, J 

Horning closed the door of his private office, and, | 

h breath coming thick and fast, proceeded to open I 

Wd peruse the missive. It read as follows: — 

RoxBURY, Mass., Feb. 13, 1; 

My Dear Mr. Morning: This letter may bring I 

a moment of surprise; if it be not a surprise n 

lirith chagrin, I am less justly repaid than perhaps I- ] 

serve for that which may seem myinstability of pur- 4 

But I have heard you say that you scarcely I 

Snew which was the weaker, the man who changed! 

s mind too often or who never changed it at all, andj 

a this recollection I find reiiige. 

With men as intuitive as yourself, explanations arw 1 
[dm ost superfluous. Nevertheless, you will bear with ■ 
tne while I pass under review a few of the causes'.J 
;afhich have led to this action. 

After the change in my father's fortunes and our J 
iibsequ en t removal to Boston, life began to open up^ 
lew possibilities, and what with the increased de-J 


(afBicted a man. He had taken her girlish doubts a 

He had thought to exhibit his manly pride- 

which was, after all, only conceit of self— as an offset ti 

liier presuming to question the possibility of her bein*^ 

i by a great love for him. Coward that 1)^ 

j to surrender tliis glorious creature without an e 

vibrt. Dolt that he was to so mistake her maidenlj^ 

■ iiesitancy. 

And she — dear heart — had loved him after all. SheJ 
B'liad condescended to summon him, ami he had neverjl 
received the message. What had she thought of hi»1 
K^dhire to respond ? What must she have thought o 
e that he was a cruel, conceited creature un-ij 
worthy of her love ? What humiliation his 
{ilained silence must for a time have brought to hei 
mtle spirit ! What wreck and misery had not ll 
ntscarriage of her missive brought to his hfe! 

If he could have identified the clerk or postm 
whose carelessness had misplaced her letter, he woul<£fl 
have beaten him in his fury, and he wished for an a 
that he might hew and batter to splinters the inani-J 
mate desk whose machinery had been instrumental ii 
wrecking two Hves. 

Were they hopelessly wrecked? He caught hisfl 
breath at the thought. He at least was free, andl 
whatever else might come never would he be other- -J 
wise. Never should wile of woman enchant '. 
never should desire for home and love and perpetua- J 
tion of race and name beguile him. He would walk I 
lonely to the gates of the eternal morning, and wait I 
for her beyond the portal, and carry her soul upon I 
the pinions of his immortal love to the uttermost con-J 



fines of ether, where no entrapments or environments -i 
of earth could follow or molest them, and in the glo); 
of the astral light he would claim her as his own, and \ 
give himself to her forever and ever. 

Ellen's letter released the passion which had beeo 1 
locked for ten years in the silent chambers of David 
Morning's soul, and it possessed the man, and mas- 
tered him with throes of bitter agony and throbs of 
ecstatic delight. His cheeks were wet with the tears of , 
disappointment, and again to the very center of him 
he laughed with joy as he covered the letter with 

"She loved me, my darling, my own, she loved 
me!" he cried. "Maybe she loves me yet!" and 
again his heart beat wildly. "For ten years she n 
mained unmated. But yesterday she married this j 
German nobleman, this Baron Von Eulaw. Surely 
love could not have moved her to the union. Surely 
with her nature she could not have forgotten her first 
love. She was outraged and humiliated and in- 
censed at the silence and seeming indifference of the 
man she really loved, and so she married, for reasons 
common enough in society." 

Was this tie irrevocable? Could it not be severed? 
Might it not be possible that happiness should yet be 
in store on this earth for his darling and himself? 
He was now in possession of the lever that moves the 
world. Should he not use this power for her and for 
himself, as well as for the benefit of mankind ? 

Who was this German baron that he should stand i 
against him? There were hundreds of barons, bull 
only one owner of the Morning mine. He would \ 


millions plltd upon millions to bring his Ellen to 
I his arms. 

Napoleon divorced Josephine and married Maria 
[' Louisa. Cssar put away one wife and married 
I another. David placed Uriah in the (ront of the hut- 
Many kings had used their power to readjust to 
f their liking their own domestic relations and those of 
I their subjects. 

He was a mightier king than Darius. He ruled 
f greater armies than any ever commanded by Bona- 
parte. Not the Kaiser or the Romanoff upon their 
tnperial thrones could exercise so great a power as 
David Morning. 

He would bid his golden armies serve their master. 

I Walpolehad truthfully said that "every man has his 

I price," and the Baron Von Eulaw probably had his. 

How many millions would this titled Dutchman take 

I for his wife ? ten ? fifty ? a hundred ? a thousand ? — 

le should have them multiplied again and again. 

Morning sniiied grimly at the grotesque fancy. 

[ Von Eulaw aspired to the American embassy. May- 

I hap he was not covetous but ambitious. Very well, 

. he would ask the HohenzoUern to name his figures 

I for offices and ribbons and rank to be accorded to the 

baron in exchange for a surrender of his American 

wife. He would pay off the national debt of Ger- 

- many if necessary. Or he would buy the baron a 

kingdom. There were always thrones for sale for 

cash or approved credit in the Danubian country. 

That of Servia was just now in the market, and even 

that of Spain or Portugal might be purchased. 

Maybe the baron loved his wife. How could he 


help loving her? Curse him, what right had he to | 
love her? What if Morning emulated the example 
of the Psalmist and caused the Baroness Von Eulaw I 
to be made a widow? Money would accomplish this, , 
and none be the wiser. 

None? Ah, what of the God that rules worlds and 
directs the eternities, the God that was in and a part 
of David Morning, the God that punishes and pities, 
the God that smote David, that struck down CiEsar, 
that gave Napoleon to an exile's death, and Henry 
Tudor to centuries of infamy? 

If Morning gained his Ellen's arms through wrong ' 
to another, through wrong to his own imperial and 
impartial conscience, there would be bitterness in her 
kisses, and misery in his aoul; they would go maimed 
and chained to the gates of death, and in the other 
land they should meet not again. 

And, inch by inch and minute by minute, Ohromadea 
and Ahriman fought for the soul of David Morning. 
The ebon-plumed spirit of darkness and the silver- 
armored essence of light battled along the lines of 
heaven and heU, and the light triumphed, and dark- 
ness was hurled from the battlements, and peace and 
strength came to the aching soul. 

He would wait. He would not even jeopardize her 
peace by righting himself in her esteem. He would 1 
offer no explanation. He would wait, wait for the 
decree of the Father, wait for the hour of meeting in 
honor. If it came on earth, well; if it came only 
through the help of death, still well, for "life is short 
but love immortal." In the other land there would 
be readjustments, and each soul not mated truly here ' 


E would find its true mate there, in a mating that should 

I be prevented by no power, and limited by no death. 

I but should endure so long as the planets circle in their 

I orbits. 

How did he know this? Not through any evidence 
presented to the material senses, nor through any 
logic of the schools. It is the spiritual sense of man 

I that perceives his spiritual life. No priest can give 
him his intuitions, no scoffer can take them from him, 

I and the querulous questionings of science are but as 

I the babblings of infancy in the august presence of the 

I soul. 

And for full five minutes David Morning sat with 
lis face between his hands, then rose and went forth 

I a conqueror. 


" CoLiceal wliat wc impart." 

Before leaving Colorado Morning employed a force 
of skilled workmen, necessary for the successful con- ' 
duct of both quartz mills and copper-smelting furnaces. 
It was his design to make Waterspout a little world 
in itself, the members of which should consent to r 
main in the caBon for three years, communicating ' 
with the world outside only by mail. To this end , 
physicians, school-teachers, and a clergyman were se- ' 
cured, and a library, musical instruments, and the- 
atrical scenery purchased, with the confident expecta- 
tion that local histrionic talent would be developed ; for ' 
where is the American community of five hundred 
souls which does not contain the material both for 
Hamlet and burnt- cork opera? 

From Denver Morning proceeded directly to San 
Francisco, where the leading iron works were soon 
busy constructing quartz -crushing machinery. By the 
15th of April everything was on the ground, and in 
one month thereafter the stamps were ready to drop. 
This result was achieved by working nights by electric 
light, the Riilito furnishing power for the dynamos. 

In ordering Che mining work Morning had ar- 
ranged for a double-track tunnel, which would reach 
the lode at a depth of about one hundred and fifty 


I feet from thesuriace, and there was now a broad, well-: 
■ ventilated and well-lighted underground road to and 
[ along the entire length of the quartz lode, at a point 
\ five feet from it. From this tunnel Morning could 
■. cause to be run as many crosscuts into the lode as he 
[ desired, and thus control the amount of quartz ex- 
tracted, and keep within his exclusive knowledge the 
[ true dimensions of the mineral deposit. 

Conjecture was rife, and the general opinion ques- 
f tioned the sanity of a man who made such costly and 
► elaborate preparations for extracting and reducing 
V quartz in a place where no quartz or sign or promise 
[ of quartz was visible. But Superintendent Robert 
L Steel kept his own counsel, the wages of the men 
e paid promptly, all bills were cashed on presen- 
I tation, and the prevailing sentiment was voiced by big 
I Jim Stebbins, the boss of shift No. 3, who interrupted 
I and terminated a discussion among his men as to 
I Morning's movements by saying: — 

"Dave Morning is no mining shark or stock-board 
'/Stiff. His money is clean money; he dug it out of the 
I ground ; and if he chooses to buck it off agin a syenite 
' dike, a payin' you fellers 5^4.00 for eight hours' work, 
[. which is a sight more than some of you is worth, why, 
' I reckon it's nobody's business but his own. It's only 
five minutes to shift time; put out your pipes, and get 
i a move on you." 

The mills were built on the side of the mountain be- 
I low the tunnel, and were inclosed — as was the entrance 
I to the tunnel — with a high fence, within which none 
vere permitted except workmen on duty. 

A light narrow-gauge road was built from the mill 



ord at Waterspout down the cafion, past the copperl 
melters, to the mouth of the Rillito. The wagon 1 
road was destroyed, and the stream dammed in sev- , 
places, so that the only means of re; 
I Waterspout was by rail; and, without a pass fromj 
Superintendent Steel, no person was permitted to J 
ride on the cars. Tourists, prospectors, and seekers l 
for information who should overcome these difficulties, 
and walk, climb, or swim to Waterspout, would d 
to carry also their -own provisions and bedding, for 1 
they would find neither shelter, food, nor welcome, i 
and could not gain access to mine or mill. 

These discouragements stained the reputation oS-m 
Morning for hospitality, but they helped to keep his^ 
secret, and proved eifective against everybody except J 
a special reporter of a San Francisco journal, who, dis- J 
guised as a Papago Indian, journeyed to Waterspout, J 
and remained there several days. He might have I 
made a longer stay, but a Papago squaw, hearing of I 
his presence, sought him with a view to connubial fe- f 
licity. The reporter would have faced death for his I 
journal, but he drew the hne at matrimony and fled, i 
He did not gain access to mine or mill while there, 1 
but he picked up considerable information, the publi- 
cation of which might have proved damaging to Mom- , 
ing's plans. 

It happened that the sagacious manager of the great J] 
daily, before ordering publication, frankly communi- 
cated with Morning — who happened to be in San Fran- 
cisco — and, being persuaded by that gentleman that ] 
the public interest would be subserved by silence d 
cerning the great gold mine in the Santa Catalinas, ] 



the notes of the reporter were not sent to the compos* I 
ing; room. 

At last all was in readiness. The men whose dutieaS 
ended wi'h the construction of mills, furnaces, railroad, 3 
and buildings, were sent with the teams to Tucsonandl 
paid off. All idle, dissatisfied, and unsatisfactory men I 
were discharged, and their places supplied with others. / 
The best mining and milling machinery obtainable J 
was in place and ready to run. Supplies of all kinds, ■ 
sufficient for months, were in the storehouses, five'^ 
crosscuts, twenty feet apart, had been run to within ' 
one foot of the ledge, and the doors of the treasure 
caverns were ready to open, when the owner of the 
mine directed that all the men assemble on the little 
plaza at Waterspout in front of the company's offices. 

"My friends," said David Morning, "I have called 
you together that we may have a more perfect under- 
standing before entering upon the most important part 
of the labor that lies before us. You have doubtless 
felt surprised at the extent of the work which has been 
done in this caflon without there being any ore, or in- 
dications of ore, insight. But your surprise will change 
to astonishment when you know, as you soon must 
know, how extensive and rich a body of gold quartz 
is here. It has been and still is my desire to withhold i 
frora the world any knowledge, or, at least, any accu- 
rate knowledge, of the amount of gold that will be pro- 
duced. I conclude that the best method for securing I 
secrecy is to make it in the interest of all concerned to 
keep the secret, and I desire to say now that each one j 
of you, whether miner, millman, mechanic, laborer, 
teacher, clerk, clergyman, or physician, every man who I 


is or who may be on the pay-rolls, who shall faithfully 
discharge the duties for which he wa« employed, and 
shall remain in such employment for one year, with- 
out in the meantime leaving this canon, and who shall 1 
not by letter, or otherwise, communicate any inforraa- , 
tion concerning the working or yield of the mine, will ■, 
be presented by me at the end of the year with the 
sum of S5.000 i" addition to his pay. Those who re- 
main until the end of the second year will receive a 
further present of $10,000, and those who remain un- 
til the end of the third year will receive a still further 
present of $15,000. Those who choose to go, or who 
may be compelled to leave here because of either mis- 
conduct or misfortune, will receive nothing but their 
pay. Should any die, the present for that year will, 
at the expiration of the year, be paid to his family — 
if here. If strangers visit this canon, I shall expect 
you not to entertain them or converse with them. 
Those of you who correspond with friends will please 1 
say nothing whatever as to any facts concerning this 
property, or any opinions you may have about it o 
about me. It is only with your co-operation and good 
faith that the secrets of this mine can be kept. Anyone 
of you may, to a certain extent, betray those secrets- 
Should he do so, he will not only defeat my plans but 
deprive himself of the fortune which I e."cpect to pay 
each of you as the price of three years of work and 

The proposition of Morning was agreed to, with I 
unanimity, and with an enthusiasm and gratitude , 
which can be comprehended when it is understood 
that even the sum of $5,000 represented to the most 1 


industrious and frugal workman the savings of from 
five to twenty j^ars. 

Three days afterwards tlie crosscuts were in ore, 
cars loaded with the yellow -seamed quartz began to 
discharge into the chutes and feeders, and the music 
of two hundred stamps resounded in the Santa 

Morning's estimate of the value of the ore, which 
he made from the specimens taken by him at the time 
of tlie discovery, proved singularly accurate. The 
quartz contained in gold per ton, of which 
amount ninety-five per cent was saved in the mill. 
The reduction power was two tons to each stamp per 
dkm, and the yield of the mine was quite $4,000,000, 
or eight tons of gold, each day. The necessity of 
resting one day in seven was observed at Waterspout, 
both as a sanitary measure and because of the sug- 
gestions of the race germs that Morning had received 
from his Connecticut ancestors. 

The disposition of the gold bars produced was 
made in accordance ivith Morning's plans previously 
made. Each day the product of the copper furnaces, 
cast in hollow moulds, was brought upon the railroad 
to the lower part of the mill yard, where were situated 
the gold-melting furnaces. Under the personal su- 
pervision of Steel, assisted by a few men specially 
selected for the work, a gold bar was placed inside 
each copper mould, the slight spaces filled with dry 
sand, a half inch of dry sand placed upon the end of 
the gold bar, and the mould then filled with melted 

When completed there was to all appearance a pig 




of black copper or copper matte worth commercially 
$iS or S20. In truth there was a gold bar worth 
$40,000, which a few minutes' work with a cold chisel 
would release. 

The gold bars intended for open shipment were 
cast one-half the size of those intended for iniprieon- 
ment in the copper pigs. Of these small bars Morn- 
ing hati eight prepared each day, making the ostensi- 
ble yield of the mill and mine $160,000 per day, or 
about $4,000,000 per month. Of the large bars he 
had eighty prepared each day, which were shipped as 
copper pigs. Their real value was about $4,000,000 
per dli'in, or $100,000,000 per month. These were 
allowed to accumulate in the warehouse at Rillito 
Station until Morning should procure suitable places 
for their deposit in Eastern cities. 

On the ist of August, 1S93, everything had been 
running smoothly for' several weeks, and gold ship- 
ments amounting to millions had been made. Morn- 
ing concluded that the running of the mill and mine 
no longer required his personal attention, while his 
projects demanded his presence at the great financial 
centers. Robert Steel was in full possession of the 
plans of his friend and employer, who, leaving e\'ery- 
thing in his charge, bade good-by to all and departed 
for Tucson to take the train for the East 


[ Mrs. Perces Thornton lo the Baroness Ion 
, Eulaw. 

RoxaURV, Mass., April 2, 1893. 
► My Dear Daughter: I have your first letter writ- 
^teifrom Berlin, buthowsad! That dreadful sea must | 
have made you bilious. It has always just such an 
effect on your father; he sees the whole earth through 
smoked glasses. 

But I can only imagine you as in a constant suc- 
cession of raptures. Such a marriage for an Ameri- 
can girl! A baron with such deportment, and such a 
delightful accent! I have no doubt, too, he is much 
richer than he represented. 1 assure you, the young 
ladies of Boston's high circles have turned all hues of 
the rainbow with envy, and you ought to find great 
pleasure in that recollection atone. Besides, such op- 
portunities as you are having to meet crowned heads, 
and feel yourself as one among the titled people of Eu- 
rope! What elevation! What distinction! You 
must not forget to make the most copious notes, so 
that you will be able to impress your superiority upon 
the world of society when you return. 

Really, you should be, as I know you are, very 
happy. Of course "scenes" are unpleasant to one 
like yourself, not foreign bred. But I am told that 
such experiences are the real thing with nobility, es- 
pecially if there is an American wife. And it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that high blood should feel intol- 
erant toward all forms of assertiveness on the part of 
women, especially American women. 

Therefore, be a little discreet, my dear, and remem- 
ber what an English woman said to you, that it is not 


good form to be t-ither clever or artistic, and above 
all patriotic. 

You speak of shadows in your life. It was only the 
other day I read from one of your own books on the 
Newtonian theory of color, that dark objects were 
such as absorbed the light and reflected only somber 
tints, and I am sure it is so with your life; it is hold- 
ing the light within itself. 

I will not write more to-day, for your correspond- 
ence will be large, and time precious with you. 
How radiant you must look with your graceful gowns 
and your classic face; almost equal to a bom princess! 
Beheve nie, my dear child, I am very proud of your 
noble marriage and of your dutiful conduct in making 
such an one largely, let me confess, to please me. 
And of all things, do not trouble yourself too much 
about the love business— that will all come about in 
good time, and if it does not — well, I can only say 
you will have a majority with you. 

Greet your noble husband with the pride and joy 
that I feel in him, and present your loving father, who 
so seldom writes. Send fresh photos of your dear self, 
the baroness, and the baron, and do not permit them 
to exaggerate his nose, which is quite full enough at 
best, though a true sign of the blood. 
Your devoted mother, 

Perces Thornton. 

From the Baroness Von Eulaw lo Mrs. Perces Thorn- 

Berlin-. April 20, 1893, 
V Dear Mother: So far from the monopolizing- 



effect of minor matters of which I complained in my 

last, I seem to be losing my individuaHty altogether. 
Have you ever possessed your mind of one subject or 
object to the absolute exclusion of even yourself? 
What an unpleasant condition of mind it is! The 
baron I find to be a man most peculiarly constituted. 
The somewhat dominant manner which you suppose 
to be foreign breeding, as you expressed it, seems to 
have developed into an engrossing self-consequence, 
which appears to draw its vitality, if I may be pardoned 
for saying so, largely from his new marital connection. 

For instance, at the opening of the season we at- 
tended the Emperor's Easter ball. According to our 
customs, after concluding the first dance with the baron, 
I accepted a waltz with an English nobleman, whom 
I had met on some previous occasion. We were 
resting for a moment after a round of the spacious 
ballroom when I felt my arm seized from behind, and 
with a muttered oath the baron commanded my in- 
stant release and return home. 

What should I have done? Disregard him and 
precipitate a scandal? Impossible. I made excuse in 
some hypothetical disarrangement of my dress and 
retired. I am only able to write because it is my left 
arm which suffered the accident. The subsequent ex- 
planations of the baron were, of course, frivolous, but I 
was too relieved by any form of apology to add words, 
which, without reference to their significance, always 
irritate him. I mention this little incident in order to 
show you how it is that my visible life is subordinated, 
aibeit my spirit is in no way depressed though severely 



As I write I ain doubtful if I ought to speak of these | 
things at ail. I do not ask myself what is due to my j 
rank here, for that was conferred by him, but is it | 
womanly to stand before the world an intelligent J 
and willing indorser of his character and conduct, 
having given my public vows for better or worse, and ] 
then, cowering behind his faults, denounce such acts ai 
only, at worst, affect me? Indeed, I must exercise ] 
more courage and less candor. One thing is certain, 
I am constantly looking for the better traits in hia 
nature, and am making every effort to call them forth. 
Thus I escape self-reproach at least But I am self- 
abashed at my attitude, for I abhor dissembling. The i 
baron loves to taunt me with this trait, which he calls j 
rudeness, and declares it to be the result of my "Yan- 
kee training. " I only smile at this, for, as I have said, ] 
he cannot brook discussion. 

But, my dear mamma, enough of this, for you will ' 
think my marriage a failure, and contribute my expe- 
riences to the building up of Mona Caird's theories. 
By the way, how shocked I fell at reading them, al- 
though I now divine some meanings that I had over- 
looked! But never can I tolerate the thought that 
there are not people — ideal, if you please — whose mar- ' 
riages might be too sublimated for earthly contract, 
and are, therefore — according to the proverb — made 
in heaven. Dear mother, pardon me, there is some- 
thing wanting in your letters. You promised me to 
mention everybody we ever knew, or something to 
that effect. I am absolutely famishing for news of our 
old friends. By the way, how peculiar it is, I seem , 
to remember with singular pertinacity the people we 


knew before we came to Boston, and dear, beautiful 
Denver is ever before my eyes. Please remember 
everything, and above all your affectionate 

From ike Baroness Von Euiaw to Miss Fanny Field- 
ing, Denver, Colorado, 

Berlin, May i, 1S93. 
Mv Dear Old Schoolmate: Your kind letter 
makes me homesick. Can you imagine a homesick 
bride ? Even before fruitage appears from the orange 
bloom, dismated for the decking of my nuptial robes, 
or even the fragrance departed from the yellowing; 
buds on the garniture laid away to rest and rust, I 
am sitting with an unwilling face to the open door of 
the future, and groping with a blind but eager hand 
among the rustling leaves of a near past, for some fa- 
miliar touch or sound to summon back the half-tasted 
joys which I so ruthlessly flung away. 

You ask rae for some advice concerning marriage, 
illumined, as you tersely put it, by experience. My 
sweet friend, what a useless task you impose upon me. 
Whenever was woman directed by the experiences 
of others, however wise or however bitter such expe- 
riences may have been? Always some suggesUon or 
exception to change the verdict. ''Mine has black 
eyes, yours has blue, which makes all the difference." 
Or, "one is fat, the other lean." Or, "thisonewalks, 
the other rides" — ho infinite the variety of excuses, 
so single the faith of woman. 

What else, then, shall we call marriage but destiny ? 
The heart knows its wants and we know its plaintive 


109 1 

cry, as a mother knows the wail of her famishing; balie; 
yet for some frivolous fancy or conceit, some wound ■ 
to our vanity, some plethoric ambition, or some glit- 
tering paste or bauble, we stifle the natural cry of the I 
human heart, and wait for the mystic note upon which I 
is to be constructed the music of our future. Alas! 
the metaphor you understand so well, we too often 
touch only the diminished seventh, and the sure, com- 
plete, resolving chord is never sounded. 

Somewhat, too, our institutions of marriage are at , 
feult, or at least the laws and customs which control 
them. With a nation of men, free, rational, and lib- 
eral, we have a nation of women enslaved, dishonest, 
and miserable, and it is among her noblest and most 
common phases of fate that she goes mutely to her 
grave, a victim of such weak social prejudices as have 
grown to be even a subject of satire among Europeans. 

Conscientiousness is a boasted virtue among Boston 
people of certain high cult, yet howmany of her beau- 
tiful women go to the altar with a lie upon their maid- 
enly lips? Why? — For the reason that there is some 
man whom she loves and dares not declare it. For the 
reason that society sets a seal upon her lips and turns 
her life into a drain-channel for misbegotten vows. 
For the reason that she cannot break the frost-bound 
usages of cowardly error with one stroke of her puny 
fist, and openly propose to Join fortunes with the man 
after her own heart and her own high convictions. 
And so she rakes over the coid, unfruitful soil in her 
own soul, and plants the germ of a falsehood or a folly, 
and waits for the accident of some quickening power, 
in slavish and unheroic patience. 

no BETTER Bays, or 

Witness the result: Some masculine hand, more o 
less clumsy or more or less cunning, little matter if it 
bring a wedding ring, sheds ephemeral warmth upon 
the unsanctified ground, and the victim starts upon 
her lonely, loveless journey toward race building and 

As I indicated, dear Fanny, I have not drawn for my 1 
picture largely upon individual experiences, neither | 
are my opinions stimulated by any observations taken J 
from this side the water. Indeed, I even prefer, of I 
kindred evils, the insipid method which leaves tho I 
marriage question in the bands of the parents. But i 
let me leave this for subsequent discussion, for my let- 
ter is already too long, and I have not gossiped at 
all, and I remember, dear girl, how you do love inno- 
cent gossip. 

Write to me often and I will fill my letters with the 
sweetest of nothings if you will. Love and adieu and 
think of me as your devoted friend, Ellen. 

J^rom the Baroness Ve»t Eulaw io Mrs. Perces Thorn- 

Berlin, May lo, 1893. 
Dearest Mother; "Let fate do her worst, there I 
are moments of joy," and such moments I owe to my I 
fondness for music. What would have been all these I 
dreary weeks and months of shallow acting, if the J 
depths of my soul had not been stirred by the genius j 
of that creative force which, mocking at our own 1 
crude disguises, rehabilitates pain with the fair seem- 
ing of pleasure, which relegates near sorrows to the 1 
realms of tradition, and illusionises common care? 
Art, in any form, I conceive to be the beneiactor J 

of the human race. If truth, shorn of its infinitude 
of possibilities, constitutes tlie religion of the civilized 
world, if the deux et mackina, as ^tschylus some- 
where has it, unlyrical and unleavened by beauty of 
device, by rhetoric or action and climax, be persuasive 
and instructive and inspiring, then how ineffably shall 
truth have gained by the development of its powers 
through visible forms of dramatic conceit, through as- 
sociation with the elements of art, througli character- 
ization, through skillful adaptation, through harmon- 
ized medise of appeal to the sense or the sentiment, 
the sympathies or the imagination? 

I am reminded here of an incident which occurred 
in our box at the Grand Opera House, during a late 
performance of Die Meistersinger, which resulted — as 
is not unusual in these days — unpleasandy. My hus- 
band, as you may remember, affects music solely for the 
paraphernalia of the stage, for the glitter and show of 
boxes and stalls, for the exposed shoulders of the dia- 
monded dames of fashion, for the numbers of men with 
eyeglasses and uniforms — anything, in fact, but the 
music, which rather bores him. 

Therefore it is I apprehend that he discusses music 
so incomprehensibly — to say the least — I would not 
say irrationally. Somewhere during the development 
of the plot I was struck with the similarity of the dra- 
matic motive with that of the Greek tragedies, espe- 
cially the choral odes, where occurs the element of 
transition which some scholars call the evolutionary or 
perhaps the re- incarnating period of the ancient 
drama. This similarity— in some ways identical — I 
inadvertently alluded to in a more or less critical re- 


fview of the opera and its construction, which I ven*5 

Eured between acts, in the presence of a party i 
P Atnericans who were our guests for the occasion. 

Suddenly as thought, the baron's face was aflame. I 
I But "what it were unwise to do 'twere weaker to re^l 
I gret," and I prepared to defend my position as bestj 
I becaine me. ' ' You call my divine countryman a pla- m 
[ giarist," he hissed between his teeth. Our male guest 
I "glowered, and the ladies with heightened color lookec 
} at the orchestra. 

; your pardon, sir," said I, with an a 
[ smile, "I did not say so, though I admit that raj| 
I suggestion was unfortunate in its inference," 

The baron sprang to his feet and stood over me, 

lis arms akimbo and the well-known look of sup- 

1 rage upon his (ace- 

' You called my divine countryman a plagiarist," 

I he repeated, gazing out over the audience, and feeling 

\ for my slippered foot with his heel, which he settled 

I firmly upon my silken-clad instep. The hurt made 

'ince, but I could not remove my foot from the 

r vise. Then, in order to mollify his temper, which I 

I had grown to know too well how to deal with, I added 

t laughingly, though half wild with pain as he deadened 

Is weight upon my poor instep; — 

" If your countryman were amenable to the charge 

f plagiarism, so also is our Shakespeare, for in the 

I comedy of Trinummus, Megaronides says, 'The evil 

, that we know is best. To venture on an untried ill,* 

I etc., and Shakespeare, two thousand years later, said, 

' Rather bear the ills we have than fly to others that we 

, know not of. ' " 


You call my divine countryman a plagiarist," Ualf- 
childishly, half-in sanely repeated my noble lord, grind- 
ing my foot beneath his heel. A cry of pain escaped 
me, which a timely crash of cvnibals in the orchestra i 
had the effect to drown. 

"Well, what of it?" blurted the American, throw- I 
ing his full weight, as if by accident, against the"! 
baron's shoulder, and then turning to me with ; 
apolog}- resumed his place. Now while I never take "J 
refuge in my sex for at least a verbal retaliation of the J 
wrongs 1 receive from mv husband, it goes without '1 
saying that the man who visits brutality in any form f 
upon a woman is a coward. But I had never seen the I 
baron insulted, and was therefore wholly unprepared ] 
for the profuseness with which he apologized to o 
guests, and the blandness with which he offered 1 
hand as he bade them good-night. But the most I 
humiliating part of this humiliating affair was the fact j 
that I was forced to repeat an apology fashioned by * 
himself, the entire length of our journey home, even i 
until the carriage stopped at the door. 

It is not clear to me, my dear mother, that I i 
justilied in rehearsing to you, or to anyone, details of ] 
my life, which may seem trivial, but for which I i 
able to offer no other excuse than your own solicitous ' 
insistence. I am always promising myself Oiat every 
next letter shall be dictated in more cheerful spirit. 
Till then adieu- Present me with kindest love and beg 
papa to write me. 1 do so long for a sight of his let- 
ters. Love to those who love me. 

Ah ei'pr. devotedly yours, Ellkn. 


From the Baroness Von Unlaw to Mrs. Perces Tkorit- 

Berlin, June 2i, 1893. 

My Dearest Mother: How shall we account for 
our various moods? Yesterday 1 was miserable; to- 
day I am joyful ; to-morrow I may be hopeful or heart- 
broken, according as — oh! I forgot to say I am all 
alone; the baron has gone to St. Petersburg. I am 
supposed to have accompanied him, and so nobody 
comes. But I am not lonely; now that I am left to 
myself I see how beautiful is the world about me. 

This morning I looked from my windows upon 
the river. The sharp lights I had watched so often 
swiftly changing to shadows, the warring glances sug- 
gestive only of inner strife, with all its complexity of 
passion, were lost in the soft peaceful flow of the wa- 
ters as they hurried on to the ultimate sea. And I 
thought how much of this mood is due to fancy, that 
untenable, mercurial, and sublimated quality of the 
mind, half trickery, half truth, and altogether elusive 
as vapor. But how profligate of that precious sense 
of pleasure so steadily withheld from ray heart these 
later months t Too precious, indeed, for the operations 
and experiments of the mental laboratory to which I 
seemingly so recklessly submitted it, and so I dis- 
missed analysis and clung to my fancies, which at least 
made me happy in the present. 

After my breakfast I prepared myself for a walk, 
with only ray little fox-terrier for a cwnpanion. Poor 
little Boston, how grateful he seemed! I could see 
him laugh with joy as his little brown lips quivered 
with flexible feeling. Notwithstanding his many years^ 


he could scarcely find footing for his bounding 31 
for looking back at me to search my laughing eyes. 
You remember who gave me my terrier, away out 
in Denver? how he was brought to me in two strong, 
guardful arms, a little loose-skinned, wise-eyed puppy, 
so quiet and serenely happy in the warm embrace — 
where was 1? oh. yes! talking about Boston — so we 
pulled some roses, Boston and I. But never looked 
roses so red, or green so tender or so vivid, and I 
!onged to find the secret of their voluptuous bloom 
and half-suifocating fragrance, but that I guessed all 
was again fancy; only an easy, translatable pinch of 
dust and a resolvable stain ; a simple stroke of creative 
power and a dash of ether — only a rose. 

How easy seem the processes of nature with har- 
monized material for working out the thought ! Nature 
never experiments; gravitation is her law, deflection 
is anarchy, and defiance a destroyer. Love, I deem, is 
only obedience to this law- Obscure as are its oper- 
ations and subtle as its teachings are, any smallest 
portion of scholarship, leveled at the finding out, di- 
vested of preconceived ideas and personal bearings, 
but persistently and conscientiously agitated by scien- 
tific and organized effort, might revolutionize a world 
of error, and establish a sure basis for sentiment and 
social reform. 

For I believe that unhappy marriages are a direct 
result of ignorance. Passions called by various names 
go to make up the system. Sordidness, vanity, in- 
terdejiendence, weak abeyance to custom, contribute 
to the sum of human misery. But ignorance is the 
s of the organized error. For what manner of 

Tl6 ftfcTTKR DAVfi, OR 

men or women would deliberately enlail upon them- 
selves the sh^ickjed conditions of a loveless marriage, 
which has no alternative but subordination or rebel- 
lion? For only in love — another name for harmony — 
■ may be found that unity which leaves no room for sac- 
rifice or misconceit. 

But, dearest mother, what can you think of my let- 
ters? I began to tell you of my one happy day and 
have spread my speculations over the whole human 
race. I started to take you for a promenade along 
Unter den Linden, and to rest by the cool fountain 
in the Lustgarten, and have ended with a few feeble 
remarks upon the possible sources of sentiment and 

But Boston is waiting for his dinner, for he dines 
with me to-night. What a jolly day we've had, eh, 
Boston? and we will sleep and dream of you, dear 
mamma, and many more, for none but bidden guests 
must fill my room to-night By the way, I do wonder if 
the poor, weak brain of my little terrier is in any de-, 
gree susceptible of being stirred by memories of his 
old friends? In any event, I envy him, for he is not 
amenable to the necessities of a false life, "a liar of 
unspoken lies." 

Dear mamma, a sweet good-night. I am sending 
you a few pictures picked up at Lepkes. The group I 
am sure you will enjoy, though I like better the por- 
trait by Van Dyck. There is a haunting sort of look 
about it, reminding me of someone I have known 
somewhere. I wonder if you will discern it? Prob- 
ably it was only a passing fancy, one of such as have 
filled my brain all day long. 

Again love and good-by. Ellen. 


From the Baroness Von Eulaw to Airs. Perces Thorw 


MentonE, Italy, August lo, 1S93. 

Dearest Mother: How rebellious my heart and 
impatient my pen as 1 take it up to write words which 
only your mother's ear should catch from my lips! 

Where shall I begin to tell you the history of the 
past month? Really, my memory seems loo sur- 
charged with a sense of bitterness and wrong to do me 
service. But I must lead you step by step, rcluclant 
as I know you are to follow me behind the gilded 

After his return from St. Petersburg, the baron 
developed more pronounced signs of jealousy than 
had ever appeared hitherto. Perhaps this feeling was 
to you, which I inadvert- 
hich he opened and read, 
know are as jealous of 
o be miserable "when the 
indeed a crime. I believe 
hu bands who are themselves 
guiltless. I do not think, however, that this test ap- 
plies to my own sex, ali}eit I do not take refuge in the 
exception — Heaven save the mark! 

But tlie baron came home, as 1 said, quite con- 1 
firmed in many unpleasant ways I had remarked be- 
fore. Without any apparent cause he stole about my 
room in unslippered feet, and listened furtively at the 
keyholes. He locked the doors whenever he passed 
through, and spoke to the servants through a crevice. 
Instead of his usual violence he whined his complaints 
of my demeanor toward hira in the weakest and most 

stimul d b> 

^jla. 1 

ently 1 f 

u n 

1 d and 

Susp o 


b nd > 

mood a 

of IT 

n ndn 

Sultan g 

I p h 



J 1 h 


supme fashion. Bui that which exasperated me 

was, and is still, his unaccountable pertinacity, 
would place his chair close by me and hold his knee 
against mine, or his elbow, or his foot, w hile, with pur- 
pling face and hanging mouth, he entreated me not to 
leave him, until, in half insane protest, I would break 
clear of him and throw open a window, or bathe my 
hands and face in utter exhaustion, or — I had almost 
said — sense of contamination. In his fits of rage there 
is something genuine from an animal, if not from a 
manly, point of view. But how shall I deal with this 
new phase? Ah, well! let me get on with my letter, 
for I have much to say, and that is why I am dallying. 

I consented to come to Mentone on account of my 
health- Finding myself growing weak and failing, the 
physicians ordered an immediate change, and 
mended the old cure virtually — to take myself out of 
their hands. The baron loves to play, and I suspect 
is a little too well known in gaming circles in Berlin. 

Therefore when he proposed Mentone so early in 
the season, or, indeed, altogether out of season, I — - 
quite knowing that it meant Monte Carlo — accepted, 
and with valet and maid and dear old Boston we canie. 

Result, financial ruin! The baron played reck- 
lessly. Each time when I saw him he was feverish 
and abstracted. I did not ask the cause, whether he 
were winner or loser, for, like most women, I believe 
that everybody finally loses, but I was not prepared 
for the denouement, for he has absolutely lost not only 
all his ready money, but is heavily in debt, and 
need to resort to further mortgage of his landed es- 



A M. 



Weak and foolhardy as he was, I pity him, for what , 
must have been his feelings as, driving down the Cor- • 
niche road overhanging the old sea, he reflected how 
many men had sought forgetfulness for just such acts • 
of folly in the tideless waters. Only that the bar 
has other ideaa about reparation, for he came home 
and first proposed that I write my father for money 
to make good his losses. Taking courage from my 
silence, he suggested that I cable my message at once. 

This latter I proposed not to do, as I informed him > 
in very few words. He has left the hotel in a terrible 1 
fit of rage, vowing revenge with his last accents. And | 
I am writing this letter while I wait, meanwhile won- 
dering how much I ought to blame myself for my un- 
happy life, or if I ought not to lock the secret in my 
own breast, even from you, my mother. But a secret 
is a dumb devil, and so long as there is another hand 
to glance the dart, it rarely wounds to death. I will 
mail this at once in order that it shall not fall into his ; 

Dearest mamma, are these letters never to cease? ' 
I think [ notice that your replies are more reserved, ' 
and I have thought full of pain and discouragement. 
But do not feel discouraged. I realize the resources > 
within me, and I have a fund of reserved power which 
I may summon in an exigency. I have not fairly con- 
templated anything in the future; to deal with the 
present has been my purpose. Each joy and each 
sorrow in its turn, so shall no preconceived action 
operate to the ends of injustice or unfairness. I close 
this in haste but lasting love. 

As always your daughter, Ellen, 

iJ^nwi the BaroHfss I on Eiilaw to Mrs. Peras Thoni- 

Menton'e, Italy. September i, 1893. 

My Beloved Mother: Wliile I feel always 
ksure of your earnest sympathies, how shall 1 expect 

you to appreciate the sentiment of horror which thig 
new and fiendish device for torturing my feelings visits 
upon me! How can I write it?— my poor little Bos- 
ton is dead. 

That fact, with a few Mlent tears, and a day or two of 
depression, 1 could have borne as theend of all things 
mortal. But he was as foully murdered as ever was 
the victim of the most infernal plot, for he was given 
no poorest or niost unequal chance to fight for his life, 
which was as dear to him as mine to me — and that is 
the least possible to be said. 1 am in no condition of 
mind to discuss ethics, or to philosophize upon the 
events which led to this tragical termination of differ- 
ences, of which poor little Boston's life paid the forfeit. 

It may be that I was wrong, certainly I would have 
made any terms to have saved my poor terrier from 
his terrible fate, few as were the years he would have 
lived at most. 

1 am not unaware that there are certain conces- 
sions, and certain acts of graciousness, which, in a 
limited sense, may properly be expected of every 
wife toward a reasonable husband. Not his boasted 
superiority by any means, but the feet Uiat she is 
measurably relieved from financial stress or responsi- 
bility, constitutes an unwritten law among well-think- 
ing wives everywhere, I believe, and makes the demand 
upon her. But I considered nothing but the enormity 


Y husband's exactions, and erred in my estimate 

^of the possibility of my husband's brutality. I wish 

Atere were a stronger word which I might politely use. 

Shall I give you briefly the harrowing details of 

s ruffianly act of cowardice? I think I told you in 

t my last how the baron had left the house, filled with 

vindiiictive rage at my refusal to demand of my father 

large sums of money for his gambling losses. In 

tout an hour he returned and renewed his proposi- 

n with increased violence, at the same time seizing 

11 and writing a cablegrani, which he commanded 

e to sign. 

Remembering that I had given him considerable 

s of money Irom time to time, amounting to many 

iiousands of dollars, I entreated him to wait for a 

/, while he should make me understand the condi- 

n of his financial affairs. This proposition he re- 

tceived wi:h the most frightful oaths. He declared 

(that he would take my life, and would begin by killing 

Ltny pet dog. No sooner said than done. He rushed 

the veranda, where poor little Boston lay stretched 

^pon his cushion asleep in the sun, and, seizing him 

J>y the neck, he dashed him violently to the ground 

A few minutes later my little friend was 

■ought to me still feebly conscious, but mangled, 

•'bleeding, dying. 

How can I ever forget, who ever did who has 

;r witnessed it forget that last questioning, beseech- 

[ look of afTection and dumb fright which a dying 

mimal turns upon the face of someone he has loved? 

i than human or more? Not till the mists 

jathered across his pretty brown eyes was that last 


eloquent appeal swept awaj'. "What have I done?" 
'■ What have I done? " was the question he was asking 
of me. WIio shall say whether he received his answer 
in some later and easier translatable speech than mine, 
in some new and disenthralled state of being? Who 
shall say that he did not carry away with him a love 
which was all love, with no taintofselfishnessor ulterior 
thought, quickened by no new speculation, or tradi- 
tion, or sanction, or human edict? Who shall say 
that tlie attributes of faith, and self surrender, and 
charily, and forgiveness, and loyalty are lost because 
in one incarnation they were tongue-tied? For my- 
self I want to see my dogs again. They were my 
loved companions, as are my books or my works of 
art. And if the fire destroy them, are their contents 
naught or worthless because an unlettered man could 
not read them ? At best an after life is a problem, 
but let us put the problems together and one may 
help to solve the other, for half a truth is oftenest a 

I have sought distraction in these comments, but 
my sorrow returns to me, dear mother, and my eyes 
are too full of tears to be able to see the lines. Va/e, 
poor Boston, and a grateful throb of gladness that I 
have a dear mother to whom I can tell my grief 

Your loving but unhappy Ellen. 


" Lo! the poor Indian." 

Imperfect tlefinition and classification, followed byl 
■basty, inaccurate, and unwarranted generalization, i 
(fruitful sources of popular error. To the misinforraeda 
•or uninformed mind the Indian is a noble savage, I 
[(whose hunting-grounds and corn-fields have been I 
Btaken from him by the ruthless palefece, and who^ 
Ipasses his time pensively leaning upon his rifle, with J 
I his face to the setting sun, the while he makes touch- 
I ing appeals to the Great Spirit, and mourns the disap- i 
I pearance of his race. 

In the country west of the Rocky Mountains and J 
fsouth of Green River,the sentimental Indian with whom I 

■ Cooper doped American literature, has absolutely no "I 

■ existence. Uncas and Chingacook never joumeyed.l 
Wso far westward as the Rio Grande, and prosy old J 
■Leather Stocking, with his Sunday-schoo! soliloquie 
pand his alleged marvelous marksmanship on knife j 

■ blades at three hundred yards, would have been j 

■ elected president of the Arizona Lying Club by 1 

Many tribes of Indians in that section of the coud' J 
r have scarcely any belief in a future state of exisi 
(nee, and no words in their jargons to represent the^ 
s of gratitude, of female chastity, or of hospitality.-f 

Their opportunities of obtaining food have been in 
nowise lessened by white occupation of the land. 
There never were any buffalo there, they never hunted 
bears or any combative animal, the fish and small 
game and pine-nuts are nearly as plentiful as ever, 
and the bacon-rinds and decayed vegetables to be 
found near every mining camp furnish the noble reds 
with a food supply more agreeable to their indolent 
habits than the hard-won trophies of the chase- 
Yet there are Indians and Indians, as there are 
Christian bank presidents and unsanctified bank rob- 
bers, and it is as incorrect to class the devilish Chiri- 
cua Apache with the dirty but gentle Yuma as it 
would be to similarly couple a hook-nosed vender of 
Louisiana lottery tickets with a blonde-haired solicitor 
for a church raffle. 

In tho mountains of Eastern Arizona and Western 
New Mexico, occupying a country hundreds of miles 
in area, a country which, for their benefit, has been 
reserved from miner, settler, and grazier, live the 
White Mountain Apaches during the winter months, 
when they are not "on the war path," as their pil- 
laging and murdering expeditions are somewhat 
bombastically designated. 

Whatever may be said of other savages in other 
localities, the Arizona Apaches are without a single 
just cause of complaint against the government, or 
against any of the Caucasian race. No cruel white 
men have ever invaded their hunting-grounds, or 
given tJiem high-priced whisky in exchange for low- 
priced peltry. Red-handed and tangie-haired have 
these marauders and their ancestors lived for centuries 
in their mountain lair. 


Since the United States of America became, fort 
years ago, the nominal suzerain of the territofl 
occupied by these peripatetic "vermin ranches," 
have been unprovoked invaders, thieves, andassa; 
and their summer raids upon the miners, teamstei 
and cattle rancliers of Arizonaand New Mexico, hai3 
been as regular as their winter acceptance of I 
bacon and blankets with which a generous b 
taken policy feeds and warms them, at a cost equal fl 
that ol providing; each savage with a suite of roi 
at a fashionable hotel. 

It is but a few years since a small party of the n 
vicious and untamable of these bandits, who w 
captured with the scalps of their victims at their b( 
were declared by the authorities at Washington to ti 
not answerable to trial or punishment by the courts d 
the Territory whose people they have robbed and n 
dered with impunity for many years. But, partly q 
deference to outraged public sentiment, and partly & 
apprehension of the acts of a possible committee ^ 
vigilance, these Indians were condemned for th(^ 
crimes to imprisonment in a government fortress | 

Unlike white prisoners who were condemned i 
labor and isolation, these tawny murderers were allowi 
to he accompanied in their journey across the countt 
by their wives and concubines, who were transported 
fed, clothed, and made comfortable, at government com 
Arrived at their destination, it was found, after a 
months' sojourn, that the humid air, lower altitude," 
and uncongenial surroundings of Florida, and, later, of 
North Carolina, disagreed with the digestion and 



disgruntled the disposition of the noble reds, and, 
upon a proper showing that their heahh demanded a . 
return to their former homes, lest confirmed nostalgia 
should set in, and possibly remove them permanently 
from the scene of human activities, they were surrep- 
titiously returned by the government to their old res- 
ervation, where they promptly expressed their appre- 
ciation of the clemency accorded them by breaking 
out once more and heading for the Mexican Sierras, 
marking their track with burning ranch houses and 
murdered settlers. 

In the summer of 1893 a party of about forty of 
these Apaches, headed by the most cruel, malignant, 
and treacherous of savages— the thrice- pardoned and 
faith- break iiig Geroiiimo — left the reservation for their 
annual raid. The military post at Fort Lowell having 
been abandoned and the troops removed in the inter- 
est of government parsimony, the savages found it 
convenient to make a detour by the valley of the Santa 
Cruz, so as to cross the railroad track in the vicinity 
of Tucson, and reach their mountain fastnesses in 
Sonora by the Arivaca Pass- 
It chanced that David Morning, on his departure 
from Waterspout for New York, while riding from the 
Rillito station into Tucson, Euid riding by night, to 
avoid the heat of an Arizona sun, was seen by the In- 
dians, who, having emerged from a defile in which 
they had been concealed during the day, were now 
stealthily and swiftly journeying in the same direction. 
The opportunity to murder a white man was one not 
to be neglected, but the report of a rifle might attract 
attention and instigate speedy pursuit, so two of Ge- 


I tonimo's followers were detailed, armed only with bow 
I and arrows, to follow tlie wayfarer through the dusk, 
• and bring back a scalp, that might be obtained without 
■r and without noise. 
If Morning had been riding a horse, this tale mi] 
[have had sudden ending, b ut he had found for his r 
ssarily frequent journeys between the mine and Tuc4 
o such convenient and comfortable mode of trans*^ 
V-portation as a seat upon the back of Julia. Thel 
■«quine in question was a large jet black saddle mule] 
^Mred at the ranch of Seflor Don Pedro Gonzalea,!! 
twhich was situated at the foot of the mountain, on th^ 
[opposite side of the Rillito Valley, about three milew 
f from the road. 

The mule, as an animal, is often both misrepre- 
leented and misunderstood. No creature tamed by 
man has keener instincts or greater sagacity, 
governed to so great an extent by intelligent self- inter-iJ 
est. A mule is always logical. His ordinary reasoaO 
ing is a syllogism without a flaw. A horse impellec 
by high spirit, and patient even unto death, will trave^fl 
until he drops from exhaustion, and will pull or 
without complaint a load that causes his every musclej 
to pulse with the pain of weariness. 

But where lives the man who was ever able to im- 
pose upon a mule? Strap an unaccustomed or unjust J 
load upon the back of this animal of unillustrious pa.-1 
temity, and he will not move except in the direction a 
' lying down. Attempt to ride or drive him past hi^ 
rightful and usual resting-place, and there may I 
retrogression, and there may be a circus, but ther^il 
will be no advance. 


In addition to his other virtues a mule has an ex- 

^dingly keen scenL He seeks no close acquaintance 

urith either grizzly bears or Indians. He will gel the 

^wind of either of his aversions as quickly as a hound 

will whiff a deer, and, hke the hound, he will give 

Ijiis knowledge to the world, in a voice that is resonant, 

■ oiagnetic, and — on the whole — musical. The bray of 
ikn earnest mule is not after the Italian but tlie Wag- 
V-nerian school. It is not the sweet, tender tenor of 
■lilanrico, it is Lohengrin sounding his note of power. 

[It is not, perhaps, equal to an orchestra of nightingales, 
Ibut it has a rhythm, and passion, and power, and sweet- 
, nevertheless. 
The quick instinct of Julia caught the scent of the 
BApache assassins, and as they crept up she was en- 
gaged in a struggle with her rider, who, with voice and 
IS vainly endeavoring to induce and compel 
iier to proceed along the usual road. 

"Why, Julia," soliloquized Morning, "you must 
L-liave been browsing on ratde-weed! What is the 
latter with you?" — and he tugged vainly at her 

Whizz! whizz! went the arrows. With one shaft 

^quivering in her flank, the mule fairly sprang intothe 

B^ir, while the other transfixed the left arm of David 

Morning, and pinned it to his side. 

And then his question was answered, and he knew 

Jwhat was the matter with J ulia. 

The frenzied animal leaped the Rillito at a boUnd, 

■ and swept across the valley to the corral adjoining the 
l.'Gonzales ranch house. Once within the inclosure, 

e stopped and uttered her most melodious notes of 


129 . 

delight. With a crescendo of welcome a dozen ofl 

her, kindred greeted Julia, and the swarthy major-! 
domo of the ranch, accompanied by half a dozen 1 
vaqueros with lights, rushed out, and Morning, weak 
from pain and loss of blood, was half-led and half- 
carried into the ranch house- 

The SeSor Don Pedro Gonzales a year before had'l 
journeyed into Paradise, from the effects of an attack I 
of mountain fever, aggravated by too copious use of 1 
mescal, and left his ranch houses and corral, his two | 
hundred mules and horses, his two thousand cattle, 
his brand of G on a triangle, and his rancho Santa ' 
Ysbel to his sefiora, the Donna Maria, who, with her j 
family, continued to occupy the place. 

Messengers dispatched to Tucson returned with ] 
physicians, who cut out the arrow and found that the 
wound was severe, and its result might be fatal. They \ 
agreed thatfor Morning to endeavor to travel with such 
a wound would be simply suicide, and that he must 
not attempt to leave the shelter and care which the 
hospitable Gonzales iamily were glad to accord him. 


" It is only mirage." 

A LONG, low, adobe building, roored with tiles of 
rettery clay, situated near the banks of the river 
l&nta Cruz. Long rows of cotton wood- trees spread 
rtlieir branches nearly over the litde stream, and the 
tljraceful masses of pepper, combed to a fringe, drop 
r courtesied obeisance to every passing breeze, 
kand throw theiruneasy shadows well over the walls, 
EPeatly stuccoed with cobblestones. 

The air curdles with the heat rising from the arid 
■iplain, and hangs, a shimmering sheet of translucent 
K, vapor, between the eye and the ever- lengthening dis- 
Ftance, which softly melts into the Santa Rita Moun- 

Is that a lake out of which rises the well-outlined 
I'jrange of nearer hills? or a sea, throwing up billows of 
Ijibara and shadow, with islands of green glimpsing 
I their shapes in the placid waters that encircle their 
»ieet? And ships, with well -fashioned hulls and wide- 
lapreading saUs, and pictured rocks, and beating 
ifbreakers, and lifeboats with men tugging at the oars, 
I No! it is only mirage, a pretty picture written with 
I the electric pen of nature upon the parchment hot 
r from the press of her untongued fancies. In her lur- 
I ing tale strong men have trusted themselves to fatal 


deception, and beasta, with lapping tongues, and 
knotted witii water greed, have gnashed their teeth at 
her beautiful garments of fateful film, and lain down 
to die. Art has been outvied in pictorial effects, for 
she filters her shadows from daintiest clouds, and 
borrows her bath of oscurial glints from the unfath- 
omed deeps of heaven Even austere science hides 
his forged shackles shamedly away, and turns with 
unsatisfied scorn from the flitting gleam of her mock- 
I jng brow. 

"It is only mirage, one of nature's cleverest tricks; 

L and what more is life? " comes once and again 

from parched lips and longing eyes. For, although 

f water, sweet and cool, drips from an olla near at 

I hand, yet, stretched upon a bed carefully prepared of 

[ finely-stripped rawhide, placed upon the well-beaten 

' and smooth earth, under the sheltering roof of a 

ramada connecting two sections of the Gonzales casa, 

lies David Morning, hot with fever, and still unable to 

leave his couch. 

A little apart, and softly swaying in her hammock 
[■of scarlet and gold, one foot lightly touching the 
ground, half reclines the small, undulating figure of 
1 Murella Gonzales, 

The ancient blood of Castile had never been suffered 
by the Gonzales family to mingle, with the sanction of 
the church, with ignobler currents. The late Senor 
Don Pedro, although only possessed of the estate of 
a prosperous Mexican cattle rancher, was yet a 
Hidalgo of Hidalgoes, who could have covered the 
t- walls of his casa with his quarterings. As for his 
liwife,was she not an Alvarado ? and — Santa Marial — 

what more would you have in the way of blood ? 
Certainly, iVom her arched instep to her wealth of 
blue-black hair, the Senorita Murella was a wondrously 
beautiful maiden. 

"Murella," spoke the sick man, turning his ema- 
ciated face toward the girl, "during the early days of 
my illness, I gave you a letter to itiail, do vou remem- 

"Si, seftor." 

"Do you remember how many days ago, Murella?" 

"Si, sefior, seventeen day," and the small ears 
deepened red behind the creamy oval face. 

"Did you give Jose the 'letter to post?" 

"Si, seiior." 

"You are very kind, senorita, and I thank you." 

The girl glanced swiftly across the court at an open 
door wherein stood the madrona, the customary 
shawl of black Spanish lace drawn tightly across her 
mouth, leaving two shining black eyes fixed steadily 
upon her. 

"A few days more, and I shall be leaving your 
hospitable roof," continued Morning. 

"Why will you not take a me with you?" said 
Murella, with imperturbable gravity, and with no 
change of expression. 

The man illy concealed his look of surprise, as he 
tucked the richly embroidered pillow more firmly be- 
neath his head, and replied kindly; — 

" Such a thing could not possibly be, little girl, for 
more reasons than your pretty head could contain." 

"Then you do not a lof me, and you told a me a 
lie," and the dark eyes lit with a flame of Vesuvian 
^res like the red light in those of a tiger. 


"What do you mean, senorita?" and a fame flush 
overspread his own pale face, 

"I mean you call me your beloved Ella, such name 
as Americans give a me, and you hold me close in your 
arms, and say you will never part from me, not for 
one hour — only ten day ago— and now you leave a 

This was an awkward situation, and Mr. Morning 
recognized its full signiticance upon the moment. In 
his delirium he had used the too familiar name, and 
liad coupled with its use endearments which had been 
com promisingly misappropriated. He reflected a 
moment There was nothing left but to tell the truth 
and accept the consequences. Another girl would 
laugh. What would Murella do ? 

"Senorita," he began slowly, "I have, as you 
know, been very ill, and on several occasions have 
lost my way in delirium, and have been \vandering 
over scenes belonging to other days. Can you not 
forgive me if I have called you by a name which you 
mistook for your own prettier one? Can you not 
pardon me if in my fevered imagination I gave you 
for the moment a place long ago sanctified and dedi- 
cated to forgetfulness?" 

"Then why cannot you lof a me? Am I not a 
lofely as she?" 

" You are very beautiful, Murella." 

"Machacha!" shrieked the duenna from the i 
trance to the ramada, "what are you saying?" 
then followed invective in every key, and words Q 
scorn in every cadence, until, pale with anger a 
chagrin, the girl sprang from her hammock and i 
swiftly away. 

For a long time our liero lay lost in speculation. 
After all, it was only a misunderstanding, and not lia- 
ble to be remembered overnight. In any event, he 
had not compromised the maiden, and finally he con- 
cluded — as was indeed the truth — that the cunning 
scnorita was all the while cognizant of the situation, 
and not at all deceived, and so he dismissed the sub- 
ject from his mind. 

And what was the first move of the panic-stricken 
maiden? Speeding swiftly over the ground, she sank 
in the shadow of the ocotilla hedge inclosure, which 
formed die corral, and drew cautiously from her 
pocket the letter committed to her care by Morning. 
Reopening it, for the envelope, sealed only with mu- 
cilage, had been carefully broken, she drew forth a 
picture of the Baroness Von Eulaw, older by many 
years than the name she now bore, and much thumbed 
and worn beside. 

This unconscious incendiary Murella first regarded 
disdainfully for an instant, and then deliberately spat 
upon it. She then proceeded to possessherself of the 
contents of the letter, which was brief, and, regarded 
as a wholesome irritant for a recent wound, rather in- 
effectual. She spelled it out laboriously, and it read 
as follows: — 
To the Baroness Von Eulaw, Berlin. 

You may have forgotten that several years ago, and 
through wholly legitimate means, let me say in self- 
defense, a specimen of art, of inestimable value to me, 
came into my possession. I have hitherto deemed it 
no breach of honor to retain it. Finding myself very 
ill, however, and warned by my physicians of the prob- 



able fatal termination of my malady, I esteem it pru- 
dent and not less just to return to you the last token 
of a mutual recognition which I have the faith to be- ; 
lieve is among the things that are undying- 
It is, perhaps, unwillingness to pass the veil which 1 
enshrouds the great mystery, without first vindicating J 
myself in your esteem, that impels me to tell you that J 
which I have heretofore thought to keep secret — that | 
your letter, written in February, 18S5, was accidentally \ 
mislaid in an old desk, and was never opened or pe- ■ 
fused by me until the day after you became the Bar- 
oness Von Eulaw. Always yours sincerely, 
David Mornikg. 
Murella spread the letter upon the ground and pon- j 
dered. Plainly it was not a love letter, as she had ex- 
pected — almost hoped! for she missed the ecstasy and ( 
exhilaration of that desire for vengeance which is the ' 
stimulus to passion in the breast of any true scion of 1 
the Spanish race, and devoid of which life has little 

It might have been written to his grandmother for •] 
all she could gather from its contents, and the thought i 
suggested the duenna, with her cruel eyes and hard, , 
wrinkled mouth, whose duty it was to watch her from ] 
all points of the compass. So she folded the letter, J 
andjtakingup the picture, again scrutinized it. "Devil! | 
devil! devil!" she broke out, as she smote the paste- 
board with her tiny soft fist. Then, folding it away ' 
with the letter, she slipped them into her pocket, and, 
gliding around the ocolilla palings, she entered her i 
apartment through an outer door, where she resealed J 
the missive, and, summoning the messenger Jose, badej 

bettSr days, or 

him forthwith Jouraey to Tucson, and deposit it in 
the post office there. 

The suji was sinking behind Tehachape Mountains, 
and its parting rays, full of the colorof leaf and bougli, 
fell brightly upon the prostrate form of the invalid, 
and as Murella dropped softly to the ground before a 
low window, which opened upon the ramada, she 
parted her muslin curtains and gazed devourinfjly 
upon the well-knit, shapely form, and the broad, 
browed, tinted face, while the light faded, and soft 
voices grew higher as the family supper hour ap- 
proached, and tinkling sounds from mandolin and 
guitar filled the night with music. Then, taking a 
last look, she arose, and, stamping her foot upon the 
ground, impatiently she ejaculated: — 

"Oh, bah! He too good for anyting." 

She joined the family group at supper with a look 
of high disdain on her beautiful (ace, but otherwise un- 
dismayed, and ate her frijoks and tortillas, and 
scrambled for the whitest tamales among her younger 
brothers, very much as if David Morning had overruled 
his physicians, and departed for Tucson in an ambu- 
lance the day after he was wounded, as he had once 
determined to do, instead of having lain there for a 
month, drawing first upon her pity, and then upon 
her &ncy, and stirring things in her imagination gen- 

Late in the moon-lit night, the soft summer winds 
still busy among the boughs, a sweet girlish voice, 
melodiously attuned to the notes of the mandolin, ran 
through the dreams of David Morning, carrying the 
passionful refrain, "Oh, illustrissimo mia," and he 



awoke, and still the sweet refrain, " Oli, iUustrissimo J 

Several days went by, summer days full of work anclfl 
I- growth and promise outside, and still Morning wa»V 
unable to leave the Gonzales ranch. His pulse, which! 
the doctors declared had never regained its normal I 
beat, was low and intermittent, and the hectic flusllB 
left his cheek. At lei;gth typhoid fever was! 
developed, and for weeks he lay at the verge of death, ' 
and for as many weeks Murella Gonzales sat a 
head by day, and made her bed at the foot of hial 
couch by night. The sefiora, the niadrofia, even the ] 
cocoanut brown viachacha of all work, each brought I 
fruit and drink and delicacies to dissuade him from hia I 
delirium and tempt him back to health, but Murella f 
sat always with her graceful head resting hghtly against J 
his pillow, silent, languid, and lovely. 

Sometimes the doctors remonstrated and begged her I 
to leave hira, but she only said, '' Mariana., maiiana," 
and to-morrow never came. But it proved to be only I 
a question of time, and before the gray linings of the I 
poplar had slid into umber, or the pomegranate had I 
gained its full meed of sweet juices, David Morning "j 
was brought a picturesque basket of Indian workman- 
ship, quite filled with letters which had found him out, I 
calling him back with the imperative voices of business j 
demands, to take his place again with the rank and file ' 
of affairs. 

So the last day came, and Murella, abandoning her 
customary hammock, sat all the morning upon a thick 
rug spread upon the ground, exhibiting her irritable 1 
feeling by nervously tossing the clinging folds of her f 


: mantilla back over her shoulder, or Iracbg the 
^res of the rug absently. Morning seemed lost in 
reverie for a long time; finally he spoke, evidently a 
little doubtful where to begin. 

' I do not need to tell you, senorita," said he, 
■ "that I feel the greatest gratitude toward the inmates 
l:of this household, and I ask you to tell me, not what 
lyou would wish me to ilo foryou, but what is the wish 
K-jnost dear to you if I were not in the world? " 
"Oh, if Senor Morning die, I shall die too." 
"Oh, no! if some lairy should wave its wand, or 
I some Fortunatus should drop uncounted gold at your 
rfeet, what would you do first?" 

The soft eyes of Seflorita Gonzales flamed as never 

^■eyes of Saxon maiden burned, and she quickly re- 

Iplied, rising and drawing nearer: — 

' ' I would have a casa grande. ' ' 

"And where would you have a grand casa, here?" 

"No, no!" giving her hand a truly Delsarte sweep 

Eirf motion. "Long time ago my mother take a me to 

Yuma, and there I hearmuch talk about Castle Dome; 

rat is twenty, thirty miles up tlie great river Colorado. 

E time we sail up there in steam a boat, and such 

El ranch eria — beautiful! Great trees, and rocks, and 

t'the Indians have been show how by the padres long 

iliine ago, and they have beautiful trees of figs, and 

poranges, and lemon, and great vines. And I have 

I'tink about it always. When I am rich a I shall drive 

fthe Indians away, and give money for make a ther 

Wot hungry, and make a casa all like a slme in pic- 

' We all have our castles in Spain. Why not you, 

Murella?" and he drew forth^a pencil, and, spreading 
paper upon the table, asked her to sit down. 

"Now," said he, "we will build this fine house 
upon paper. What shall we do first?" 

"Weshall have a dance- house." 

Morning smiled grimly; the mining camps enjoy a 
monopoly of literary phrasing, and the compound 
word was familiar, so he only said, "All right, a 
salon for dancing." 

"Si, sefior, saloon," repeated Murella gravely, 
"and a grande saloon for beautifiil flowers." 

"A conservatory, of course, though that will be su- 
perfluous," he added, "in a country itself a hotbed 
for tropic bloom. Why not hanging gardens like 
those of Babylon ? " 

"Oh, beautiful!" clasping her little fingers in ec- 

"Very well," looking into her face, pencil sus- 

' ' And a beautiful room for a you, ' ' and she paused 
for a moment, "with, with what you call, wall like 
the sky before the sun a come, and morning glory 
flower go all around the top," pointing to the 
frieze, "a like a your name, Sefior Mia." 

Morning suddenly discovered something upon the 
toe of his boot, and the girl struggled on in very bad 
English, but with charming enthusiasm. She planned 
and he interpreted. They first laid out the grounds, 
availing themselves of the groves already planted by 
the Indians. They covered acres of ground with 
rare exotics, studding them with statuary in creamiest 
marble, chiseled from designs of their own, with a 



Psyche and Cupid to guard the main entrance to the 

"What is that ting she a hold in her hand?" 

"That is a torch," explained Morning. "Psyche 
' i the soul, and Cupid is love, and she is going in 
I search of him." 

" And did she find a him?" archly questioned the 
' -girl. 

"I think not," said Morning, gloomily drawing 
I forth a fresh sheet of paper. 

"And about the casa grande ^ continued Morning, 
"of what shall it be built?" 

The sefiorita rested her pretty chin between her 
two palms and meditated. Finally she decided it 
should be like the cupids, of shining marble, with agate 
or onyx for columns, and garnets — found in quanti- 
ties in Arizona — for smaller decorations. This most 
elaborate plan having been at length crudely com- 
pleted, Mr. Morning folded it, quietly saying he 
would submit it to an architect, 

"Not truly?" said the girl, springing to her feet 
' with shining eyes and hands crossed upon her breast. 
' ' Yes, really and truly, for your own sweet self, and 
for your hospitable family; and with my kindest re- 
gards and deepest gratitude." 

Murella turned very pale. Dreams were not dreamed 
to be so realized. Was he teasing her? 

Hitherto her self-love had made her the central 

figure in her own mind. All things about her had 

been dwarfed and become inconsequent in her egotis- 

I tic life, because she was wholly ignorant of any possi- 

1 bilities outside of the power she wielded through her 

I beauty and her grace. 


But a new element had been added to her limited 
experience, and it had developed into a magician, 
or had it done so really? The doubt took momen- 
tary possession of her, and she arose in an atti- 
tude of defiance, her flashing eyes resting upon the 
amused but open countenance of David Morning. 

Then she knew that she looked into the face of her 
god, and she fled to her room, and, sinking upon the 
floor, she covered her face with her mantilla, and 
sobbed convulsively. 


''Secrecy is the sou) of all great designs.' 

It was October when Morning arrived in New York! 
Cily. Steel had been prompt in shipping the goI(| 
not covered with copper, and Morning's bank a 
in New York now amounted to sixteen millions of dol'^ 
lars, whUe the fame of the Morning mine as a proiS 
ducer of four millions of gold bars per month hat' 
already created a marked sensation in financial : 
business circles, and in the newspaper world, but noi 
suspected the immense actual production. 

Morning visited Washington, and bought s 
warehouse near the foot of Sixth Street. He pufs 
chased a similar building in Philadelphia, n 
Pennsylvania Railroad freight depot, and he bought i 
third warehouse alongside the track of the New Jerse] 
Central at Hoboken. He caused swiitches to be con-l 
structed into each of these warehousea, and provid 
each of them with heavy iron shutters and doors.] 
He employed four watchmen for each building, dividedl 
into day and night-watches of six hours each. HeT 
arranged that the copper-pigs containing gold shouldM 
be loaded on the cars at Tucson by his own men,.] 
who were themselves unaware that they were handling i 
anything but copper, and the cars locked and sent in 
train-load lots through, without change or rehandling, 



to New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, where 
they were run into his warehouses and there unloaded. 
It was given out that he was at the head of a copper 
syndicate, and was storing the surplus product of the 
mines for higher prices. His plans worked with per- 
fect smoothness, and his wealth accumulated openly 
at the rate of four miUionj per month, and secretly at 
the rate of one hundred millions per month, with a 
vast amount of newspaper comment concerning the 
four millions, and no suspicion anywhere as to the 
real s 

The advocates of free coinage of silver, who were 
defeated in the Congress of 1889-go, renewed their 
contest in the Congress of 1891-92, and in Febmary, 
1892, a free coinage law passed, but it was vetoed 
by President Harrison. The silver men carried the 
fight into the presidential election of 1 892, and were so 
far successful that Congress, in February, 1894, enacted 
a law the text of which was as follows: — 

"From and after July 1, 1894, ^"Y person may de- 
posit at the treasury of the United States in Washing- 
ton, or at either of the sub treasuries in Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, Chicago, St Louis, New Orleans, 
Denver, or San Francisco, gold or silver bars of stand- 
ard fineness, and receive the coined value thereof in 
United States treasury notes. The secretary of the 
treasury is authorized and directed to prepare and 
keep on hand a sufficient amount of treasury notes to 
comply with the provisions of this act.' ' 

The influence of Morning as the largest single pro- 
ducer of gold in the world, as the owner already of 
thirty millions of dollars, and, if his mine should hold 


I out for five years, of a sum that would cause him to 
I outrank any millionaire in the world, was very great, 
I and that influence, legitimately exercised in behalf of 
I free coinage, proved very potent with senators and 
L representatives, and did much to reconcile the adher- 
s of a single gold standard to the overthrow of 
[ their system. 

as argued that if the gold supply of the world 
1 was to be increased forty per cent per annum by the 
I yield of the Morning mine, that would diminish rela- 
I lively the production of silver, and the ancient parity 
^ of the metals might be restored "without danger to 

)ur financial interests, Mr. Speaker." 
Thus reasoned the Honorable Senile Jumbo, who 
I represented a New England district in the House. 
■ ■■Jumbo was a banker at home, and because he was 
fa banker was supposed to know something about 
■£nance, and was, in consequence, accorded a leading 

nsition on the House Committee on Banking and 
f Currency. 

In fact, Jumbo only knew a good discount from a 
L poor one. His definition of a banker would have been 
[ that of the Indiana editor, who described such a func- 
[ tionary as "a gentleman who takes the money of one 
I man without interest, and loans it to another upon in- 
[ terest, and places both depositor and borrower under 
} obligations." 

By his small shrewdness Jumbo had gained a large 
t fortune, and secured a seat in Congress; but of the 
J laws which govern finance in its politico-economic re- 
s' lations he had no more knowledge than has a locomo- 
[ tive fireman about the law of dynamics, or a dry- 




^oods clerk about the culture of the silkworm. Yet 

die Honorable Senile Jumbo looked wise, and talked 

Lfrom the pit of his stomach, and respected the views 

fof other rich men, and as a congressman he averaged 

I with his colleagues. 

What strange distortion of brain is it that causes 
^men conspicuously unfit for public life, to seek eleva- 
I lions which can only expose their intellectual poverty! 
I One who does not comprehend the French tongue 
I know anything about science, would be laughed at I 
■seeking to be elected a member of the French Acad- 
B«my of Sciences, yet senatorial togas and congres- 
«ional seats are constantly sought by gentlemen whose 
previous pursuits have unfitted them to "shine in the 
frballs of high debate, ' ' and who, indeed, would be puz- 
KtiJed to put together, while on their feet, ten sentences 
Eof grammatical English. 

The great and growing wealth of Morning caused 
Kliia society to be courted, and many a managing 
mamma was not unmindful 0/ the fact that the "Ari- 
Izona Gold King," as he began to be called, was a 
■4>achelor. This man did not "wear his heart upon 
" "s sleeve," and did not proclaim that his bachelor- 
H flood was confirmed, or had any special reason for its 
^existence, but all plotting against him was in vain, for 
K'fte Ellen lost to him was the constant companion of 
Bliis thoughts, and toal! movements and plans and pur- 
s of life he applied instinctively the test, "What 
fcvould she think of it?" 


"Hopeless grief is passionless," 

It was tlie anniversary of one of the great victories 

I. achieved by Germany in the war of 1S70, and Berhn 

i.had scarcely known a day so filled with noise, and 

l.glitter, and color, and esprit as this day had been. 

The Baroness Von Eulaw, the beautifiil American, 

vas more sought for than ever, and the too arduous 

■ound of social duties and engagements were begin- 

[ ning to tell upon her delicate constitution. Cards 

1 been received by the baron and his wife for a re- 

tception at the palace, and such an invitation couM 

rirely be overlooked, especially as no entertainment 

r seemed acknowledged by her friends to be complete 

I without the presence of the baroness. Therefore, re- 

(■tiring a little earlier this evening than was usual from 

ftlier own drawing n3oms, the baroness was well ad- 

I vanced with her toilette when she discovered letters 

I which the footman had left upon her table during her 

r absence, and among them one bearing the postmark of 

^ Tucson, Arizona, and addressed in a well-known hand. 

She felt too excited to trust herself farther, and, be- 

I fore tearing the envelope, she sent her maid with a 

I message of her sudden indisposition, which she begged 

[the baron to deliver in pcrsun to the emperor, and 

:ed, furthermore, not to be disturbed- 




It was all one to the baron at this hour, and though 
he speedily departed for the imperial palace, it is 
doubtful whether the hig;h officials in waiting deemed 
it advisable to admit him to the imperial presence. 

Dismissing her servants, the baroness was left alone 
for the night. Then she turned to her dressing-table 
and stood while opening the letters, glancing hurriedly 
at their contents, ail but one, and this she tumeti over 
many times. What was llie burden of its mission, 
and what did it contain? Finally her trembUng fin- 
gers picked absently at the envelope, as if she had 
! forgotton how to proceed. She might be unafraid, 
'for there was his own handwriting before her. 

With this thought a ihriU went through her heart, 
and with a sudden motion she tore the envelope quite 
apart, and her own photograph fell to the floor. She 
did not stoop for it, for her eyes were fixed upon the 
page. Slowly slie read word by word, lingering over 
the last, and cutting it away from its conte.xt, as if 
fearfiil that another word should overwhelm her rea- 

She finished, and an awful silence fell upon her. 
* She could hear her heart beat against her rich corsage, 
and her breath crackled as it came through her dry 
lips. What was the purport of that letter? She had 
already forgotten. Something surely had left a heavy 
f pain at her heart. Just as slowly she read it throiK 

Then he was not dead — or, stay, he might be, I 
did he not say ' ' probably, ' ' not ' ' possibly ' ' ? Then 
still standing before the dressing-table, she leaned fo* 
\ ward, and, putting her dice close to the mir 



muttered, looking into her own deep eyes the while, 
"Great God! what did I do?" For a full luonient , 
she s.ood thus, then, lifting' the powder-puff from the ' 
jeweled case, she mechanically swept her cheeks and 
brow and sat down. Then she caught the letter and , 
read It again, this time more clearly and calmly, ' ' the j 
probable fatal termination," and again, "until the 
day after you became the Baroness Von Eulaw." 

She looked at her toilette. What was she doing 
bejeweled and brocaded that night ? Where were the 
sackcloth and ashes she had earned? She arose and 
pulled the diamonds from their places, and the beau- 
tiful robe from her lovely shoulders, and put on a 
gown of creamy plush, bordered with some dark, rich 
llir, and, slowly tying the cords, her eyes fell upon the 
picture at her feet. 

She took it between her fingers as if it were a dead 
thing, and thought at the moment that it weighed a 
pound at the least. And this was Ellen Thornton! 
Then she thought how old-fashioned her dress looked, 
and for a moment she felt glad that she had gotten 
the picture back. Another revulsion of feeling as she 
looked upon the torn envelope. What would she'not 
suffer for the hope, the uncertainty, she had dung to 
when she tore that paper half an hour ago? 

If only the doctors could have said " possibly," not 
" probably ;" perhaps that was what they meant, and 
not "probably," sherepeated. Doctors aresoclumsy 
— especially some — and they do so exaggerate in 
order to magnify the importance of their case, and 
for a moment she took unction in such logic. 

Suddenly a new thought took possession. The 


[t>aron — "inhere did he come in?" as he himselfjl 
|Would have expressed it, and she half smiled at thfrl 
frotesqueness of the thought, Was she not niarriedBJ 
bid did she not owe him allegiance as a woman 
If she had told him ail that her soul held ii 
reeping for another, would he have made her thai 
^-'on Eulaw? — Very likely, but she v 
brepared to believe it. She had no right. to hold hintl 
ESponsible for offenses against her while she was'fl 
feolding perfidy to her heart, and she marveled that! 
; had failed to make this argument a shield againstj 
3ie shafts of her great sorrow and her almost greata 

She would destroy both the letter and the picture 
md put away all thought of the unhappy occurrenceTl 
But, examining the picture again, she discovered twO'1 
e punctures just through the pupils of the shadowy! 
s, and she thought and queried for the a 
mch an accident. 
Finally she concluded that her old lover had madi 
1 inadvertently in fastening the picture to his v 
lirror frame, and so, pressing her lips warmly to ■ 
[he tiny wounds on the unconscious paper, where she I 
incied his fingers had rested, she locked both the J 
) and letter in her desl:, and, just as daylightj^ 
broke, long after the clanging of the locks had c 
ind the brightness was withdrawn, she braided herl 
2 had worn it so many years ago when the I 
1 made, and, with a long look in the rairrorj 
"to find a trace of her old self, she turned away to hefffl 
couch, and disposed herself for an hour of sleep. 

But the last among her sea of speculations was this^l 
"I wonder who made those pin-holes in my eyes!" 


'.In the name of God, tiike heeil." 

Thk Hod-Carriers' Union and Mortar- Mixers' Pro* 
tective Association, of San Francisco, adopted a reso- 
lution in February, 1S94, to fix the rate of wages of 
its members at $3,00 per day, and admitting no new 
rnembers for a period of one year. The immediate 
cause of this resolution was the ietting, by certain cap- 
italists, of contracts for the construction of several 
blocks of buildings on Market Street, including the , 
new post-office Duilding. 

Phelim Rafferty, in proposing the resolution, said; 

"The owners and the contractors, Mr. Prisident 
and gentlemen, are min of large means, sor, yit they 
propose to pay us, the sons of honest toil, sor, widout 
whose brawny muscles they could not build at all, sor. 
they propose to pay us a beggarly $2.00 a day, sor. 
Why, the min in the public schools who taich the pi- 
anny to our gfurls, sor, recaive more nor that ! Now, 
sor, if we pass this risolution we put our wages to 
$3.00 a day, and hould them there. We have the 
mortal cinch on the contractors, sor, for if any num- 
ber of our union works for less than $3.00 we'll expel 
him; and by passin' this risolution we'll keep min 
from the East away, and keep the mimbersliip in San 
Francisco shmall, and we'll be sure of a job. 


"Faith! the bosses will have to be mighty civil U 
to git us at all, sor. And if they thry lo put to w 
mill who are not mimbers of the union, their buildinM 
will niver rise out of their cellars, sor, for the othef 
thrades are compilled to sthand by uk, sor." 

Mr. Lorin French, the millionaire contractor anj 
owner of the great San Francisco Iron Works, i 
in the journSl next morning an account of the action^ 
taken by the Hod-Carriers Union and Mortar-Mix 
Protective Association, and he smiled a grim sn 
That day he sent invitations to a number of capitalis 
and contractors to attend a. meeting at his offices, anu 
the result of the conference was the formation of ^ 
Manufacturers' and Builders' League, of which ! 
Lorin French was chosen permanent presideni 

The daily papers the next morning contained t 
following advertisement: — 


On the first day of next month, two hundred hod-carrier 
and mortar-mixers to work on the new post-office 1 
Three dollars per day will be paid unlil further n 
Men who have applied for and been refused admittance t 
membership in the Hod-Carriers' Union will be preferred 
Lorin French, 

iopif Market SIree/. 

This base attemjjt of capital to coerce or bribe th^ 
worker into allowing another worker an equal chanc< 
of obtaining employment, was denounced by Raffert 
the next night in a ringing speech at a special n 
ing of the Hod-Carriers' Union, which meeting i 
suited in a convention of the Federated Trades bein^ 

At this convention it was resolved by a three-fourths 
majority, after a hot debate, that no member of any 
trade organization would, on penalty of expulsion, be 
permitted to work in or upon or in aid of the construc- 
tion of any building, or in any shop, mill, foundry, or 
factory, or in or upon any work where any person 
not a member of some trade-organization was em- 
ployed, or where any material was used which had 
been manufactured by non-union labor. 

"Myfrent from the Plumbers' Association speaks 
of this resolution, Mr. President, as a poomerang." 
said Gustave Blather, a labor lecturer, who on this 
occasion represented the Dishwashers' Lagerbund. 
"I don't know as such languitch is quite broper 
coming from him, for a goot many beople haf their 
doubts whether plumbing is really a trate or only a 
larceny. But, my fellow pret-winners, if the resolu- 
tion is a poomerang, it is one that will knock the ar- 
rogance out of the ploated wealth-owners, and teach 
them that in this republic — established by the ploot of 
our fathers [Blather's great-grandfether was a Hessian 
soldier in the British army, and returned to Darmstadt 
after the surrender of Cornwallis] — -in this republic 
the time is close at hand when supphant wealth will 
be compelt to enture the colt and hunger it has gifen 
to labor for many years." Ami, amid a storm of ap- 
plause, Blather sank to his seat. 

The post office block was begun on the day ap- 
pointed, with a force of men, all of whom were mem- 
bers of the trade organizations, and the work pro- 
gressed steadily for a week. At the Saturday- night 
meetings of the several trade organizations, the mem- 



bers congratulated themselves that ' ' old Frencli " ' li;id J 
concluded not to carry out his programme, and i 
several lodges it was proposed to signalize the mag- 1 
nificent victory of labor over capital by demanding a | 
general advance of twenty per cent in the wages of ] 
all mechanics; but some of the wiser heads discour- 
aged the movement as premature, and one pessimistic | 
house carpenter observed, amid expressions of dissent I 
fromJiis colleagues, that if all the mechanics followed ^ 
the example of the hod carriers, it would "bust wide 
open every builder and contractor in Frisco, or else , 
put a stop to all building." 

On the next Monday morning there appeared o 
the scene ten men clad in blouses and overalls. Three 
of them worked at mixing mortar, three of them car- 
ried hods, three of them commenced laying brick, , 
while the tenth man directed the labors of the other ] 
nine. Each had buckled about his waist in plain 
sight a cartridge belt from which hung a dragoon re* . 

As soon as their presence and labors became known, ' 
word was sent to labor headquarters, and Delegate 
Brown was deputed to interview the strangers and ' 
ascertain the situation. 

Pap Brown was a journeyman stone cutter on the ' 
other side of the sixties, who did not often work at 
his trade. The salary he received from the trade 
unions was sufficient for his support, and he fully 
earned his salary. He was shrewd, suave, and per- 
sistent, and his fatherly way with "the boys," and 3 
deferential manner to employers, often secured 1 
the former favorable adjustments of contests thatj 


Better days, or 

^.would have been'denied to tlie "silvcr-tongfued" 
I Raffertys and Blathers. 

Pap Brown approached one of the men who was 
mgaged in mLxing mortar, iuid inquired whom he wlis 
workmg for. The man addressed made no reply. 
but signaled the foreman, who came forward aiid 
curtly answered: — 

"We are all working for Mr. Lorin French." 
' ' What wages do you get ? ' ' asked Brown. 
"Weil," replied the foreman after a pause, "strictly 
I speaking, I don't know as that concerns you, but I 
have no objection to telling you. The mortar-mi.\- 
era and hod-carriers get $3.00 a day, the bricklayers 
$4.00, and I get $5.00." 

"Them's union wages," said Brown, approvingly, 
"You are strangers in Frisco, I jedge?" 

"We arrived last Friday night from Milwaukee," 
[ replied the foreman. 

' ' Have you got your cards as members of the un* 
) ion?" said Brown. 

"No," replied the party addressed, "webelongto 

"Hum! I suppose you are calkilatin' to jine theun- 

is here?" inquired Brown in a persuasive accent, 

"I am told," replied the foreman, " that so far as 

' the Hod-Carriers' Union is concerned, we cannot join if 

we wish to; that they have resolved to admit no new 


Pap Brown slowly revolved his tobacco quid in 
his mouth, and rapidly revolved the situation in his 
wiseold brain. "Hum!" said heat length, " I reckon 
that can be arranged for ye, so that ye can all jine." 

"Well," replieil the man from Milwiiukc-c, " I miiy 
as well tell ye that we don't nilciilntc to jiiic imyli'iH'. 
We don't much believe in unions nohow — loo ii^tny 
fellers a settm' around drinUin' l)ecr, which ihe li-llem 
that work have to pay for. ' ' 

"Mebbe you don't know," said Piiji Urown, "ilint 
only union men will be allowed to work ht^re. " 

"Who will stop us?" said the strunj;er. 

"There are a jjood many thousiind of the hrotlicr- 
hood in this city," said DelcKUle Brown, still prrMm- 
sively, "and there are only ten of yon." 

"Well, we ten are fixetl to stay," said liie foreman, 
glancing significantly at his cartridge belt. 

"Hum!" remarked Pap Urown. aa he walked 

That night there was a conference at thi; l.ilior 
headquarters of the Executive Committee of ihc l'"cti- 
erated Trades, and Delegate Brown was called upon 
to report. 

"I find," said he, "that these ten men havi- iill 
worked at their trades somewhere, and our walchent 
say that they are good workmen; but dearly they 
have been hired more as fighters than as hod carriers 
or masons. I jedge, from what T hear, that iherc is 
an organized force behind them. They sleep and 
take their meals in old French's building on Market 
Street, and don't go out to the saloons, and wc can't 
very well get at them. Old French b as cunning aa 
Satan, and he has fixed the job upon us, and put these 
men to work to bring things to a point. There is a big 
forceof Pinkerton'smen in the city all ready to be sworn 
in as deputy sherifis in case of a row, and I reckon it 


s put up to call in the soldiers at the Presidio and from 
Alcatraz in case of trouble, for the post-office building, 
where the men are working, is government property." 

" What action do you suggest we should take, Mr. 
Brown? " said the chairinan. 

Pap Brown rolled his quid from one cheek to the 
' other, and then solemnly deposited it in the cuspidor. 
It won't do," he replied, "to monkey with Uncle 
' Sam; my jedgment is to jist let them ten men alone." 

"But," interposed a member of the committee, 
"old French will never stop there. Those ten men 
are merely the small end of a wedge with which he in- 
tends to split our labor unions to pieces. He will not 
give us the sympathy of the people by lowering wages, 
but he will put on scabs, a dozen at a time, and dis- 
charge our members, until the city is filled with new 
workmen, the unions broken up, and we can all emi- 
grate to Massachusetts or China." 

"I shouldn't wonder," said Pap Brown, "but vio- 
lence to them ten men would simply be pia3'in' into 
old French's hand. He has figgered for a fight, but 
We mustn't give it to him." 

"We will carry out," said the Chairman, "in a 
peaceful way, the resolution adopted by the Congress 
of Federated Trades. ' ' 

"That," said Pap Brown, "means a gineral strike 
and an all-around tie-up, that's what it means, jest at 
the beginnin' of the buildin' season, with our union 
treasuries mostly empty, and our brethren East in no 
fi.t to help us, for the coke strikes and the shettin' 
down of the cotton factories and iron foundries this 
winter have dreened them all. I was agin that reso- 


lutlon of the Federated Trades at the time, and I'm 
mighty doubtful about it's workin' any good to us 
now. It was well enough for a bluff, but if we are 
called down we haven't got a thing in ourhandji, that's 
a fact." 

"Well, what can we do, Mr. Brown?" 

"I believe that the best thing all around would be 
to give in to old French now, repeal that fool resolu- 
tion, and wait for a better time to strike." 

"What! surrender without a blow? That, Mr. 
Brown, we can never do." 

"Well, then," rejoined Pap Brown, "I reckon 
we've got a long siege ahead." 

The Executive Committee appointed a delegation 
to wait on Mr. Lorin French and inform him that un- 
less the employment of the ten non-union men was 
discontinued, the resolution of the Federated Trades 
would be enforced, and all Trade Union members work- 
ing: for him, or for any member of the Manuiacturers' 
and Builders' Union, would quit work, 

Mr. French received the committee very curtly. 

"Those ten men," said he, "will continue their la- 
bors though they shall be the only ten men at work in 
the city of San Francisco. If one, or one thousand, or 
ten thousand of you are fools enough to quit work at 
the high wages you have yourselves fixed, simply be- 
cause I have given work at the same wages to men 
who don't choose to join one of your bullying unions, 
why, you can quit. You can't hurt me by quitting as 
much as you will hurt yourselves. My money wih 
keep and your work won't. But take notice that 
every man who does quit work will be blacklisted, 


and he can never get another job in this city from U 
or any of the gentlemen who are members of the ai 
sociation of which I am prcHident, and we incltu 
about alt the large employers of labor in this city." 

"You know, Mr. French," said the Chairman i< 
the committee, that if you insist on keeping these t« 
non-union men at work we can order a general strike,] 

"Yes, I know it," replied French. "I know t 
you can bite off your own noses to spite your ow 
faces. I feel sorry for you workingnien at times, yM 
are such unreasonijig and unreasonable and everlafl 
ing fools. When you order a strike, you order t 
absolute destruction of the only property you 1 
your labor — and you do this in order to prevent a 
men from selling their labor; a few men whose ( 
offense is that they don't believe with you in the \i 
dom of harassing and plundering capitalists." 

"Weli. I suppose we have a right to strike, have! 
we?" said the Chairman angrily. 

"'No," said French, "youhavenot. The worfc 
who joins a strike faces at least the possibility of a 
tal closing its works and retiring from the field, j 
the men who have been extravagant, idle, unthrift 
or unfortunate, and most of you have been o 
other, have no moral right to bring upon themselw 
or those dependent upon them, either suffering i 

"Mr. French," said the Chairman, "you know- 
good many things, but you don't know the powei"S 
the labor organizations of the land. If we willed i 
we could in one day stop production and transport 
tion all over the United States." 


"You would do well to think three or four times," 
tplied French, ' ' before e-terirising any such power as • 
that. You workingmen are overstepping the bounds * 
not only of moderation, but of common justice and 1 
common sense. Suppose you should do what you j 
threaten, what do you suppose the capitalists would 1 
do in turn? You don't know? Well, I can tell you. 
We would say that we were weary of your exactions, 
your interference, and your airs. We would say to I 
you; 'You have stopped the wheels; very well, we 
will not start them. You have exting;uished the fur- 
nace fires, we will not rekindle them. You have dia. J 
abJed the engines, we will not repair them. With the | 
downward stab of your vicious knife you have cu 
surface veins, but you have received the force of the 1 
blow in your own vitals — bleed to death at your leisure, f 
We will retire for a while and nurse our scratches.' 

"You don't know what you are talking about,' 
continued the old man. "You don't conceive the ■^ 
misery and ruin that would result from sixty days' 
stoppage of labor in the fields and foundries and facto- 
ries and furnaces, and sixty days' suspension of traffic I 
over the railroads of our land. With the disabled 
engines in the roundhouses, and the cars covered with 
dust in the deserted yards; with ships and steamers 
lying idle at the wharves or sailed away to trade between 
the ports of other lands, whose governments, wiser or 
more powerful than ours, would not suffer the moral 
law to be violated by either individuals or societies; 
with moss gathered upon the turbines; with chimneys , 
towering smokeless to the skie^; \ii'.h ihe music of | 
forge and anvil hushed; with almshouses crowded, 


f asylums filled, and jails overflowing; with men suf'l 
I fering and women growing gaunt from hunger, ; 
•" little children sobbing themselves to the fevered sl« 
of famine; with the fumiWre in the auction room^ 
trinkets and clothing in the pawn shop, and familiea 
once comfortable wandering shelterless under I 
Stars; with even disease welcomed as a friend whoshoi 
pilot the sufferer to the deliverance of death, woul 
you find consolation for it all in the reflection that yottj 
had, maybe, carried your point and prevented non«l 
I men, who are as good as yourselves i 
I way, from working alongside you at the sam 
f you demanded for yourselves?" 

"Mr. French," said the Chairman, "what do yoU 
* wish us to do? " 

"I don't care what you do," was the respons 
" but if you have any sense, you will go home and n 
peal your fool resolution to strike if non-union worlc^ 
era are employed." 

"That, Mr. French," said the spokesman, "we c 
' not and will not do.' 

" No?" replied the millionaire. "^Well, you n 
; go to destruction then in your own way. Goodrj 
f morning." 

At noon the next day the hod-carriers dropp« 
heir hods, not only at the post-office block, but at al 
buildings in process of construction by any capitalist 
or contractor belonging to the Builders' and ManufaC"! 
turers' Union. The brick-masons stopped work beS'l 
cause they would not lay brick with mortar mbced o 
carried by a non-union laborer. The house carpenJ 
ters declined to drive a nail in aid of the erection g 



any building in which a brick should be laid by one^A 
not belonging to the Bricklayers' Union. No plumber J 
or gasfitter would carry his tools to a building whoseJ 
timbers had been put in place by a scab carpenter. T 
The teamsters would not haul sand, brick, lime, OF' ] 
lumber for use in any building to be erected by a 
member of the association of which Lorin French was^ 
president. The iron-moulders abandoned in a body I 
the great shops, rather than work on columns or fronts \ 
which had been ordered tor the tabooed buildings. 
Engineers and firemen struck, rather than attend to I 
the running of machinery in factories where non-union 1 
men were employed, and all workers engaged in any A 
factory, foundry, mill, shop, or business owned, 
whole or in part, by any member of the Builders' and 1 
Manufacturers' Union, joined the general strike, while 1 
the railroads were compelled, in self-protection, to re- j 
fuse freight offered by any member of the organiza- 
tion of which Lorin French was president. 
No attempt was made by French or his 
to supply the places of the strikers with 
workers, although every mail from the East brought A 
hundreds of applications for employment, but each i 
factory, foundry, and shop was closed, one after the I 
other, as the workers joineci the strike. The ten n 
whose labors on the post-office building had begotten j 
all this commotion, continued steadily at work. They 1 
were surrounded each day, while at their labors, by J 
hooting thousands, who gathered in the vicinity, but | 
any near approach to them was prevented by a com- 
pany of Pinkerton's men, armed with Winchesters, 1 
who had been sworn in as deputy sheriffs, and who] 

Better days, or 

Escorted Uieni to and from their labors, to French's 
Kiilding, No. 1099 Market Street, where they, as well 
t their guards, were accorded quarters, and in the 
[upper story of wliich Mr, Lorin French had, under 
■existing circumstances, deemed it expedient to estab- 
ish his residence as well as his offices. 
After a fortnight had elapsed these ten men were 
'withdrawn from their labors, in deference to the re- 
quest of the Mayor of San Francisco and the gover- 
nor of California. 

A committee from the Federated Trades then waited 

Lupon Lorin French, and informed him that, as the 

:a belli had been removed by the withdrawal of the 

obnoxious non-union laborers, the strikers were 

fcirilling to resume work. His reply was that when- 

r work should be resumed generally, the ten ' ' ob- 

' men, as well as all other non-union men he 

might see fit to employ, would resume work; and 

so negotiations came suddenly to an end. 

At the close of the third week of the strike the Con- 
gress of Federated Trades assembled and declared a 
boycott against all members of the Builders' and 
Manufacturers' Union, and against all who should vi- 
olate the boycott; the boycott to run also against any 
railway or steamship line that should accord them or 
their famihes transportation out of San Francisco. 

!t was expected that this last and most drastic meas- 
ure would bring the capitalists to terms, for its enforce- 
ment would deprive them and their famihes of the 
necessities of life. Their employes left them under 
the pressure, and their offices and places of business 
were closed. Their house servants departed, and 


they were unable to obtain substitutes even amon^'l 
the Chinese, for the Celestial who should labor for a J 
boycotted household was given his choice t 
exile and death. Hotel proprietors were compelled'] 
to refuse a boycotted person as a guesl, or lose theii^j 
own waiters, cooks, and chambermaids. The res^ 
taurant proprietor who sliould serve one of them wi 
a meal would be compelled to close his doors for tl 
want of help ; and the grocer, fruiterer, butcher, bakef, I 
or provision dealer who sold supplies for their use,! 
would be posted, and lose his other customers, for thtiM 
boycott was declared against all who violated I 

Mr. French was equal to the exigency. He cause 
representations to be made, and influence exerted a 
Washington, and the United States steamer C/iar/es'^ 
/rni was detailed for special service. The members o 
the Builders' and Manufacturers' Association, will 
their families, were taken on board of the war-ship, J 
guarded by the Pinkerton men, and carried to Van-1 
couver, where they were dispatched East over the Ca-J 
nadian Pacific Railroad. Lorin French, with a few o 
his fellow-members, refused to go, but, establishing,'! 
themselves comfortably on the upper floor of t 
building No. 1099 Market Street, tliey mans 
provision themselves and their guards, despite 1 
boycott, and announced their determination to ! 
the contest out. 

It was the last week in April, 1894, and the t 
week of the great strike. Business was almost stu 
pended in San Francisco. Thousands of the strikei 
had wandered out into the country, and every £ 


house within a hundred miles of San Francisco was 
besieged by men glad to work for food and shelter, 
while the highways were crowded with tramps. In the 
city the streets were filled with idle thousands, and at 
the daily meeting at the sand lots twenty or thirty 
thousand auditors were addressed by favorite speakers. 

The orators made no appeals which were calculated 
to incite violence, and there was no police interference 
with the meetings. Indeed, thereseemed logically no 
place or opportunity for violence. The offending 
employers had done absolutely nothing that the 
workers could even denounce. They had discharged 
nobody, and they had not attempted to fill the places 
of those who reluctantly left. They had simply sus- 
pended operations. They had accepted the refusal of 
tlic workers to work, apparently, as final- They had 
locked up their factories and places ol business, and, 
with their families, had left the State. 

The strikers generally regarded Lorin French as the 
prime mover against them, but his property they could 
not reach for the purposes of destruction if they had 
been so inclined. It consisted of mines in Nevada and 
Utah and Montana, of sheep and cattle in New Me.x- 
ico and Arizona, of vineyards and orchards and grain- 
fields in California, of mortgages and bonds, and of 
unimproved real estate in San Francisco. On this 
latter he was now preparing to erect business blocks. 
But the buildings were in embryo. The mob could 
neither burn nor dynamite an unbuilded structure, 
and there was no visible property upon which to 
wreak vengeance. 

Yet the most ample provisionshad been niacleagainst 



' any mob uprising. Two batteries of artillery, with 

] guns shotted with grape and canister, two companies 
of cavalry, and four companies of Infantry of the Cali- 
fornia National Guard, were in readiness, a portion be- 

' ing under arms, and signals were arranged for calling 
the entire force together at the armories, ready for 

I action, on less than half an hour's notice. 

On Saturday night, Jate in April, 1894, the Con- 

' gress of Federated Trades again met, and, after a 
short debate, it was sullenly resolved to accept the 

', situation. The strike was declared at an end, and all 
the resolutions adopted since the preceding February, 
including the original resolution of indorsement of 
the action of the Hod-Carriera' Union, were rescinded, 

' and it was enacted that hereafter the employment of 
n-union workers should not he a cause of strike 

' except by workers associated in the same work, and 

I against the same employer. 

A committee of three, to consist of the President of 

I the Congress of Federated Trades, the Mayor of San 
Francisco, and the Chief of Police, was appointed to 
wait, early next morning', upon Mr. Lorin French, 

I communicate to him the action taken by the Feder- 

[ ated Trades, and receive liis reply. 

iurrender on the part of the workers— abso- 

I lute and unconditional. It was a blow to their pride, 

f andareJinquishmentof that which, with many of them, 
I cherished principle; it was brought about by 

I hunger and suffering, and they gave up the contest 
Utterly, and placed themselves at the mercy of the 

r conqueror. Only a brute could have misused the 

tv^nquished, but Lorin French had worked himself 

1 66 


into a relentless fury during the progress of the strike, 
and, unfortunately, he had been left in full charge and 
invested with plenary power by the departed members 
of the Builders' and Manufacturers' Association. 

At nine o'clock the next morning, in the sunshine 
of an April Sabbath, the committee appointed by the 
Federated Trades was permitted to pass tlie Pinker- 
ton guard, and mount the five flights of stairs — for the 
elevator service had long been discontinued — which 
led to the top story of the building No. 1099 
Market Street, where they were received by Lorin 
French, who arose from his breakfast table to greet 
them. He listened without changing his countenance 
while the Mayor, as Chairman of the committee, com- 
municated to him the substance of the resolution 
adopted the night before by the Congress of Federated 

"I expected exacdy such a result," said French; 
"it would have saved a great deal of money and a 
great deal of suffering to these Federated foots if they 
had adopted a similar course t\vo months ago." 

"Well, Mr. French," said the Mayor, "these mis- 
guided men, with their families, have been the greatest 
losers and the severest sufferers by it all. I will not 
discuss the rights and wrongs of it with you. There 
is more than one side to it, and we might not agree, 
I am rejoiced, for their sake and yours, and for the 
sake of the city and State, that it is all over, and that 
the workers can now return, to their work, and busi- 
ness resume its usual cliannels." 

"These misguided men, as you call them, Mr. 
Mayor," said French, "will be compelled to transfer 



their opportunities for future misguidance to some j 
other localily. They are all blacklisted here. Their I 
own signatures to receipts for wages when they quit, I 
constitute the blacklist Not one of them shall ever 
earn another day's wages in this cily in any enter- 
prise owned, controlled, or influenced by me." 

"But, Mr. French," remonstrated the Mayor, "this 
is unworthy of you. These men have homes here; 
they have famihes to support ; the long strike haa 
left many of them utterly without resources, either to 
go away with or to establish themselves elsewhere. 
The industries of San Francisco need them. Why 
bring in others to take their places? They have aban- 
doned their strike. They have already been sutfi- , 
ciently punished for that which was, after all, only an 1 
error of judgment. If work be refiised them, they will 4 
starve-" I 

"Let them starve," savagely replied the millionaire; ' 
"not one of them shall ever get a job of work from 

The President of the Congress of Federated Trades, 
who was one of the committee, had hitherto been 
silent. He was an iron worker by trade, who, in 
twenty years of residence in San Francisco, had almost 
lost the Scotch burr which, as a lad, he had brought 
with him from Glasgow. In moments of feeling or 
excitement it returned to him. He addressed himself - 
to French: — I 

"Oh nion," said he, "but thou art hard; and thou I 
art a fool as well ! 'Tis a mad wolf that cooms oot of I 
the mountain shingle to make a trail through the 
heather for the hoonds. Gin ye hae no mercy for i 


God's poor, hae ye no fear frae the divil's dogs that 
your words may loosen on ye ? Dinna ye ken tliere 
be ten, aye, twenty thousand men on the sand lots this 
blessed Sabbath morn, who Jove ye not, and who, if 
they get your words just spoken, and get them they 
maun, unless ye recall them, would, if they but reach 
ye, and reach ye they will, for a' your guards and 
guns, would send ye to God's throne wi' your bad 
heart a' reekin' ?" 

"Go and tell the loafers and brawlers of the sand 
lots exactly what I have said," shrieked French. "It 
is what I mean to say, and mean for them to hear. 
If you don't take the message I will send it through 
the press. Let them do their worst- I do not fear 
the blackguards, and I am ready for any who choose 
to visit me," and the old man snapped his fingers as 
the members of the committee sorrowfully departed. 

Half an hour later a speaker who was addressing 
an audience of thirty thousand people from the cen- 
tral stand at the sand lots, paused as he saw the 
President of the Congress of Federated Trades making 
his way through the crowd. The orator had been 
commenting on the resolutions adopted by the 
Workers' Congress the previous night, and had been 
congratulating the people upon the approaching end 
of the distress occasioned by the long strike, and on 
the days of peace and plenty which were in store for 
them, and it was with beaming faces and glad shouts 
that the multitude welcomed the man who was to an- 
nounce to them a resumption of their labors in factory 
and shop. 

"My friends," said the tall Scotchman, "I have 


just come from an interview with Lorin French, and I 
am vara vara sorry to bear you the message with wh 
I am charged. He bids me tell you that the notice h^ 
gave to us all before t!ie strike begun shaU be car 
out, and that no man who quit work then shall everj 
again have work in this city, if he can help it." 

The temper of the vast multitude changed in i 
instant. Shrieks and yells of anger filled the air, and i 
for many minutes the crowd gave way to demonstra* ^ 
tions of rage and indignation- All at once there walked I 
to the front of the central platform a tall, angular / 
woman dressed in a gown of plain black stuff. Her] 
features were unprepossessing, to the verge of ugliness, - 
but a wealth of white hair crowned a low brow, sur-^ 
mounting eyes of fierce blue. As she stretched forth \ 
a long arm, the multitude hushed to silence, for theyl 
recognized the renowned female agitator, Lucy J 
Pass more. 

"Friends, brethren, men," said she, in a voicej 
whose magnetic quality vibrated to the iarthest edges! 
of the crowd, "it seems that it is the malignant wiUfl 
of one man which savagely condemns thousands toi 
suffering and starvation. If the rattlesnake is coiled J 
for ye, will ye strike first or wait for him to strike? J_ 
If the wolf is waiting upon your doorstep, will you feed.B 
to him the babe he is seeking or will ye give him the if 
knife to the hilt in his hot throat? TJie death of Lorin 1 
French would end this strug;gle, and your wives would | 
cease to weep and your children to cry with hunger. 
Men, since God has so far forgotten you as to suffer J 
this devil to live so long, why do you not remedy I 
God's forgetfulness ? Are you ready to march nowj 
. or do you want an old woman to lead you?" 


A yell arose from the surging ctowJ, as, with one 
mind, thousands comprehended and were ready to 
act upon the suggestions of Lucy Passmore. 

Most of the men had long before furnished them- 
selves with arms of some sort, and their lodge organ- 
izations had provided them with elected leaders, who 
usually attended the sand-lot meetings. As if by 
magic they fonmetl themselves into companies and 
battalions and marched, an orderly and almost an or- 
ganized army, forth from the sand lots, and down to the 
building No. logg Market Street, which they speedily 

The iron shutters of the upper story were at once 
closed, and the muzzles of rifles pushed through loop- 
holes previously prepared for such purpose. An 
attempt was made from the inside to close the iron gate 
in front of the main staircase, but the mob surged past 
the guard, took possession of the lower hall, and 
started up the stairs. They were met at the top, just 
below the first landing.' by twenty Pinkerton men 
standing upon the top five steps — four on each step — 
who, after vainly warning the ascending crowd to de- 
sist, at last lowered the muzzles of their Winchesters, 
and opened a murderous fusillade, which covered the 
stairs with dead and dying. 

The mob hesitated for an instant, but only for an 
instant, for those below pushed forward those who 
were above. A hundred revolvers were fired at the 
Pinkerton men, half of whom fell, and the other half 
were borne down, shot, clubbed, and slabbed as the 
mob rushed past and over them, and gained the first 
landing. The crowd continued to push from below. 


and in the same way, with great loss of life on each ] 
side, they gained successively the third and fourth 1 
stories. By this time, however, the forces on the fifth 
floor had opened fire on the mob outside. Two rifle- 
men at each of the eighteen windows commanded the ' 
main entrance to the building, and such a rapid and 
accurate fire was maintained that Market Street for a 
hundred feet on each side of the entrance was piled 
with bodies, and further re-inforcements prevented 
from reaching those within the building. 

At this juncture Battery X came galloping into , 
Market Street from Fourth. Two gnns were placed in 
position, and one, loaded witli grapeshot, was fired 
just above the heads of the crowd. The whisding of 
the shot in the air above them gave notice to the mob 
of what was coming, and, with cries of terror, they fled, 
panic-stricken, into the adjacent streets. The assail- 
ants inside the building, hearing the noise of the can- 
non, followed by the triumphant shouts of the Pinker- 
ton men in the upper story, and finding no further 
pressure or re-inforcements from below, desisted from ' 
further assault, and, turning from the fourth landing, 
fled down the stairs. 

Lorin French, from a loophole in an iron shutter, 
watched the firing, and the dispersion of the mob out- 
side, and in a few minutes he was informed by a Pin- 
kerton sergeant that the contest was over. 

"It's a sorry day's work, sir, said the officer; "we 
have lost over thirty of our best men, and there must 
be two hundred rioters dead and wounded on the 
stairs and in the halls, beside those killed in the street. " 

"I will help you with the wounded," said French, 
starting for the passage, 



"Better remain here, sir," said the officer. "In 
may not be quite safe for you yet in the lower hailst'j^ 

■' Nonsense, "rephed French, "the fight is over, '■ 
and so saying, he walked out into the hall, and d^ 
scended the stairs to the fourth story. He paused ij 
horror at the sight which met his eyes. The floor wolj 
wet and slippery with blood, and the cries of t 
wounded pierced his ears. He stood for a momentaj 
if dazed, and then, turning his back upon the 
prepared to ascend the staircase and gain his room. ^ 

And as he turned, a man who was sitting propp* 
up against the wall twenty feet away, raised a revolvf 
which had been lying in his lap, and, clearing with h 
left hand the blood which obscured his eyes, toc4 
rapid yet careful aim and fired. 

The bullet struck Lorin French in his backbow 
which it shattered, and, with a cry of agony and fea 
the owner of $20,000,000 fell forward upon his face o 
the stairway. 


" la this law? Aye, marry ia it * " 

"In the matter of the estate of Loriii French de- 
ceased, the application of Louis Browning for letters 
executory is before the court- Who represents the 

"The firm of Bruff & Baldwin, your honor," re- 
plied a tall gentleman with spectacled nose and a 
beardless face. 

"Are there contestants?" said the Court. 

Then from their seats within the bar of the court 
room there arose a decorous multitude of lawyers, 
short and tall, old and young, fat and lean, the white- 
bearded Nestors, and the coinpiacent, chirping chip- 
munks of the bar, and in various forms of expression 
it clearly appeared that there were contestants, 

"I think," said his Honor with a weary smile, 
"that my associates might have sent this case to 
another department, for I have had a surfeit of con- 
tested will cases. Proceed, Mr. BrufT." 

" In behalf of the Society of Bug Hunters, who are 
legatees under a former will," said a sepulchral voice. 
proceeding from the rotund diaphragm of a bald- 
headed and full-bearded gentleman, " I have twenty- 
three objections to offer to the admission to probate 
of the alleged will of Lorin French, und — " 

" Will my learned brother Lester permit me to in- 

f' >74 

bettek. days, oa 

terrupt him for a moment," twanged a catarrhal toni 
"while I state that I wish my appearance entei 
here on behalf of the recognized natural son of titj 
deceased, and I protest — " 

"On the part of the Australian cousins of LonJ 
French." shriekodalean man with redhair, "I have:j| 
preliminary objection to offer to the will being read ^ 
court at all, and — " 

" I object!" 

"I except!" 

"Will your honor please note the exception of thd 
Nevada heirs?" 

"I demand to be heard!" 

Then from the entire front of the bar came cries d 
excited counsel, learned in all law save that of d(g 
coram, while the Court rapped for order. 

"Gentlemen," said he, "you will all please 1 
seated. The Court itself would Uke to be hes 
The will of our deceased fellow -citizen, Lorin Frencffl 
who was never more regretted by me tha 
moment, or " — and the Court smiled deprecatingly— 
"tbe paper which purports to be his will, is presented . 
here by our Brother Bruff. Now, unless some gentle- j 
man denies the death of Lorin French, it occurs to i 
me that the reading of the paper offered as his will 1 
can but tend to our common enlightenment— 

The deep-voiced Lester, with his twenty-three ob- I 
jections, sustained by a " brief' ' which covered ninety 1 
pages of manuscript, arose. 

"1 have not yet finished," said the Court. 
apparent that many of the objections urged i 
against the reading of the will. Sudi objections ma^ 


•73 , 

be discussed more inleUigeiitly if the Court can be I 
suffered to gain some knowledge of the contents of i 
the paper offered, and 1 shall ask, gentlemen, that you ' 
suspend argument or motions while the clerk reads ' 
the will. It will then delight the Court to devote the 
remainder of the term to hearing arguments why the 
will ought never to have been read. Mr. Clerk, pro- 
ceed, and I will send to jail for contempt any member i 
of this bar who shall interrupt you until the reading 
shall be completed." 

There was silence in the crowded court room as the ^ 
clerk opened and read the document: — 

In the name of God, Amen, I, Lorin French, of ■ 
San Francisco, California, being of sound and dis- 
posing mind and memory, but being assured by my ■ 
physicians that the wound received by me must within 
a few days prove fatal, do make, publish, and declare 1 
this my last will and testament, revoking all wills pre- 
viously made by me. 

The free use of my hand enables me to make i 
this will holographic, and this labor I undertake in 
order to more completely demonstrate to the court 
where it may be ofl'ered for probate, that it is alto- 
gether my own act, and that 1 am sane, clear of mind, 
and fully possessed of my own memory and judgment. 

The near approach of the world into which my 
spirit is about to journey, 'brings, possibly, a clearer 
judgment, and I think now that if my decision to em- 
ploy no strikers had not been communicated to the 
mob, I should have reconsidered such decision- 
However, my approaching death, which will incident- 
ally result from that decision, afflicts me less than the 

fate of those who fell in the affray, for my own 
was drawing to a close. 

If the example I shall offer in attempting to adjui 
the relations of capital and labor shall be followed b 
otJiers, it will result in advantage to the workers o 
this land, and great permanent good may thus g 
from the bitter struggle which ended with the wo 
which will terminate my life on earth. 

I am unmarried and childless, and my nearea 
living relatives are cousins of remote degrees, v ' " 
whose names and places of residence I am scan 
acquainted. No relation of mine has any moral c 
rightful claim upon my estate, and the disposition | 
am about to make of my property will work injustice 
to no living creature. 

I appoint as executor of this my last will am 
ment, my friend Louis Browning, to serve * 
bonds, and I direct that for his services as executCH 
and in lieu of all commissions, he receive the sum ^ 
$50,000 out of my estate. 

I direct my said executor to forthwith pay t 
widows, or next of kin, of each man slain in th 
riot, the sum of $10,000, to each man permar 
disabled by wounds received therein, the sum of $ 
000, and to each man wounded but not permanent^ 
disabled, the sum of $1,000. 

I direct my said executor to proceed as speedily a 
possible to prudently dispose of all my estate, i 
convert the same into money, to be paid over by hint 
to the corporation hereinafter named. 

I request that my said executor, Louis Browning 
shall, in co-operation with the Governor of Califora 


J 77 

Ihe Mayor of San Francisco, and my friends David 
Bhelbum, Lawrence Slayter, George Morrow, and 
is Dalton, proceed forthwith to form a corpora- 
B'tion under the laws of this State, to be entitled the 
'Lorin French Labor Aid Company,' to which cor- 
poration, when oi^nized, I direct that the proceeds 
of my estate be transferred, to be used by it in provid- 
ing capital for the use of such co-operative and profit- 
sharing corporations as may, from time to time, be or- 
ganized to avail themselves of its aid. 

The Lorin French Labor Aid Company will not 
itself engage in any industrial enterprise, but will con- 
fine itself strictly to loaning money at three per cent 
per annum to such organizations of mechanics as may 
seek its assistance and comply with its rules. Those 
rules must require that one-fourth of the wages and 
all the profits of the members of the borrowing cor- 
poration shall be paid to the Lorin French Labor Aid 
Company, until the debt due the latter is discharged, 
and that the borrowing corporation shall be organized 
and conducted in accordance with certain conditions 
and rules. 

My meaning may be made more clear by the fol- 
lowing illustration i — 

Suppose that five hundred men shall desire to es- 
tablish a co-operative foundry. They will make a 
preliminary organization and apply to the officers of 
the Lorin French Labor Aid Company for the capital 
necessary to conduct the enterprise. Those oflicers 
will — after careful inquiry — ascertain that theliuildings, 
land, machinery, and plant of such a foundry will 
cost $900,000, and that it will require a cash capital of 


I to carry the current business. They will [nir 
I- chase such a foundrj-, taking title in the Lorin French 
w Labor Aid Company in trust, and will select a general 
I manager, who will employ and discharge men, fix the 
I xate of wages and hours of labor, and have full charge 
y of the works. After the indebtedness of the Foundry 
[ .Company to the Aid Company shall have been fully 
paid with interest, the members of the Foundry Com- 
pany may elect their own general manager, but, u:,til 
then, that officer shall be chosen by, and be subject to 
the control of, the directors of the Aid Company, 

Each man employed in the works, from the general 
manager to the lowest-paid helper in the yard, must 
be a shareholder, the number of shares to be held by 
each being regulated by his wages. If a workman 
should die, or leave employment, either on his own 
motion or because of his being discharged, his shares 
would be turned over to his successor, who would 
be required to make good to the outgoing man or his 
widow or heirs whatever amount had been paid upon 
the shares, and the money for such payment might 
be advanced when necessary out of a fund for such 
purpose provided by the Foundry Company, the 
shares standing as security for the advance. No 
shares could be transferred except to a successor — 
employed in the foundry. 

A portion, say one-fourth, of the shares of the cor- 
poration should be reserved for allotment to workmen 
whose employment might be required by the growth 
of the works, though it will be the object of the direc- 
tors of the Lorin French Labor Aid Company to en- 
courage the continued organization of new co-opera- 




tive labor corporations rath er than the enlargement of j 
old ones. Yet such encouragement must be prudently 
granted, having reference to the natural growth of '! 
business and the demands of a healthy trade, and o 
production must not be stimulated, for it is my main . 
purpose to help the laborer to rid himself of the pay- •! 
ment of high interest and large commissions, to bring 1 
him as nearly as possible in direct communication J 
with the consumer, to save him the waste of strikes, i 
and the salaries of the brawlers who foment difficultira ( 
between laborers and their employers, to make him I 
his own employer and his own capitalist, to encourage 3 
him ill sobriety and thrift and the possession of such T 
high manhood as of right belongs to citizenship of our 

The capital stock of such an iron-workers' co-opera- 
tion might be fixed at the sum borrowed from' the 
Lorin French Labor Aid Company, say $1,000,000, 
divided into shares of the par value of $10 each. 

Thus, five hundred men properly managed, work- 
ing industriously, and allowing one-fourth of their 'I 
wages and their entire profits to accumulate, might be J 
able in fne years to own a plant of the actual value of 9 
$1,000,000, with the good-will of a business worth as I 
much more, and thereafter the worker might receive 1 
fijli wages and an additional income from dividends, 
which, if placed in endowment insurance, or in similar | 
safe investments, would enable him to retire, if he wish, 
in fifteen years with an assured competence. 

The $20,000,000 which will be received from the j 
sale of my property, all of wJiich I liereby give, devise, ,J 
and bequeath to the Lorin French Labor Aid Com- . 


[ pany, ought to, and I doubt not will, be sufficient to 
I establish co-operative iroit foundries, sawmills, woolen 
I'fectories, glass works, brick yards, and other indus- 
I ' trial enterprises, in San Francisco, sufficient to provide 
L remunerative employment for fifteen thousand men. 
t The fiind will be invested safely, for it will be based 
\ upon the security which is the creator and conserva- 
r tor of all property and property rights, industrious and 
T inteliigent labor. The accretions to the fund, even at 
I the moderate rate of interest of three per cent per 
L annum, will add, probably, a thousand workers each 
I year to the number of its beneficiaries, while the re- 
I- payment and re-investment in similar ways of the 
t original fund, will add several thousand more each year. 

The practical operation of the plans I have endeav- 
[■ ored to outline will work no injustice to the owners of 
P existing manufacturing establishments, for it will be in 
\ the interest of the workmen to purchase such plants 
I, and business at their value, rather than to build up 
and rival establishments- It is true that some 
r persons now making a profit off the labors of others 
I will be compelled to enlist their capital and energies 
I in other lines; but this, if a hardship, will not bean in- 
f justice, and individual convenience must be subser- 
' vient to the general good. 

■'I think I have made clear the purposes to which I 
I hereby devote the fortune I have accumulated by fifty 
[ years of toil and care — yet in the accumulation of 
c- which I have found great enjoyment. The details of 
t. my plans I must leave to those who now are, or who 
f hereafter may be. charged with the execution of this 
t trust- In the life upon which I am about to enter — for 


i8i ' 

I have never so questioned the wisdom of the Origina- I 
ting and Ultimate Force of the Universe as to suppose ] 
that the death of this body of flesh will be the end of i 
all conscious individual existence — in the life upon 
which I am about to enter, I hope to derive satisfaction i 
from the fulfillment of the objects of this my last will jj 
and testament, to which I hereby affix my signature! 
and seal, this thirtieth day of April, eighteen hundred 1 
and ninety-four. LoRiN Frknch [seal]. 

We, William Jelly and Thompson Blakesly, declare 1 
that Lorin French, in our presence and on the thirti- 1 
eth day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-four, | 
in the city of San Francisco, California, signed the i 
foregoing document, whicb he then declared to each 1 
of us was his last will and testament, and we then, at *l 
his request and in his presence, and in the presence of, V 
each other, sign our names hereto as witnesses. 
William Jelly, 
Thompson Blakesly. 

The voice of the clerk ceased, and for a few sec- 
onds there was a hush in the court room, which was 
broken by the harsh, cold tones of Counselor Joha 1 

"I submit to your Honor," said he, "in behalf ofT 
tlie Public Administrator for whom I appear, and who 1 
asks that he be accorded administration of the estate, -J 
of Lorin Frencii. I submit that this so-called will, 
although rhetorically and otherwise a very interesting J 
attempt at unpractical philanthropy, is— as a will- 
simply waste paper. In spirit and in letter it is an \ 
utter violation of two sections of tlie civil code of Cal- 
ifornia. Section 1275 of that code provides that '1 


lorations — except those formed for scientific, literary, 

Bor educational purposes — cannot take under a will, 

inless expressly authorized by statute.' The proposed 

Lorin French Labor Aid Company is, in its plan, a 

»rporation, neither scientiiic, h'terary, nor educa- 

Etional, Considered as a benevolent corporation, it is 

dliot now in existence, and Lsi of course, not authorized 

my statute to receive this, or any bequest — " 

"How is it," interrupted Mr. Brutf, "that the Soci- 

' for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the 
■ Sisters' Hospital, and other corporations, have re- 
ceived bequests?" 

"Simply because they have been expressly author- 
ized by act of the Legislature to do so," was the reply. 

"Then if I wish to leave a sum of money to found 
and support an asylum for one-lunged lawyers, or 
one-eyed baseball umpires, I am unable to do so, am 
I?" saidBruff. 

"You can go to Sacramento and have a law passed- 
to enable your one-eyed and one-lunged corporations 
to take your bequest," said Lyman. 

"How much," said Bruff, sarcastically, "would I 
probably be obliged to pay the statesmen for passing 
such a law? " 

" My party is not in power," rejoined Lyman. "I 
do not know the latest market quotations for votes in 
your caucus." 

" Order, gentlemen, order," said his Honor, grimly. 

"And suppose," said Bruff, "the Legislature were 
not in session, would it be necessary that I wait a year 
or two before I could make a valid will, with the 
e of dying in the meantime?" 


"Possibly," replied Lyman, "you might make a 
bequest to a corporation not empowered at the time 
t-of such bequest, to receive it, but which might subse- 
Iquently be expressly authorized by statute to do so." 
led my learned friend to the very point 
tdesired," said Bruff. "Why, then, I ask him, can the 
tcorporation which the will of Lorin French propose:; 
Lshall be created, not be authorized by the Californi.i 
T, Legislature, at its next session, to receive Kis bequest ? 
I.I do not apprehend that the most docile Democratic 
I'lamb, or the most fearless Republican boodle hunter, 
Jwould dare to refuse his vote for such a law." 

"But the corporation proposed by the late Lorin 
'■French," said Lyman, "is not only unempowcred to 
receive, it is not yet in existence as a corporation. It 
may never be created, and a bequest to either a natural 
or an artificial being, not even quickened with incipient 
life, not even conceived at the time of the bequest, 
may be questioned as of doubtful validity. But it is 
profitless to discuss these questions, because there is 
another section of the civil code which disposes com- 
pletely of this so-called will. I refer to section num- 
. ber 1313. Thirteen is certainly an unlucky number 
ribr the workers of San Francisco. By that section it 
wis provided that no will devising property for charitable 
■or benevolent uses, shall be valid unless made at least 
Wthirty days before the death of the testator, and that 
can a man bequeatli more than one-third 
B«f his estate for such purpose, if he have- natural 
[heirs. It is also provided that all dispositions of 
property made contrary to the statute shall be void, 
ird the property go to the residuary legatee, next of 
in, or heir, according to law." 


"That was one of the wise laws thai the sand-lot 

' statesmen gave u 

aid Bruff, ! 


"Deed, and it wasn't a sand-lot law at all," inter- 
rupted a stalwart, red bearded attorney with a slight 
Milesian accent. "It was passed away back in the 
seventies. Old Moriarty was down with typhoid fever, I 
and Fatlier Gallagher was pressin' him every day to , 
save his soul by lavin' his millions to the Jesuit College 
and Hospital. But before the priest could get the old ' 
man in condition, Mike Moriarty slipped Nat Bronton 
— the king of the lobby^up to Sacramento with $20,- 
000 rint money that Mike collected while his father 1 
was ill, and the bill was rushed through under suspin- 
sion of the rules. Two days after the bill became a 
law, Father Gallagher coaxed and dhrove old Moriarty 
into signing a will that cut Mike off wid $50,000, and 
left $3,000,000 to the church, and the next week they , 
buried the old man, with masses enough to put him 
through purgatory in an express train. They say 
that there was a scrappin' match between Father Galla- 
gher and Mike when the priest found that he had been 1 
outgeneraled, and Mike lost the top of his left ear, 
but he saved his lather's estate. Sure, the whole case, 
is reported in the fortieth California, under the title of 1 
the Society of Jesus against Moriarty, and it decides [ 
this will of French's sure enough." 

When the ripple of laughter which this interrup- 
tion provoked had subsided, Mr. Lyman resumed: — 

"My learned friend Casey is right, your Honor; the 1 
case he quoted docs decide this one. If this will had ' 
been made more than thirty days before the death of I 
Mr. French, it could almost have disposed of but one^ i 


third of his property. But it was made only.two days 
before his death, and, under section 1313 of the code, 
is utterly void," and the spealter resumed his seat. 

The Court turned to the attorney who had offered 
the will for probate. 

"What have you to say to this, Mr. Bruff?" he in 
quired. "All the claimants for the estate will doubtless 
agree with the position taken by the attorney for the 
public administrator. They are joined in interest m 
overturning the will You alone defend the beneficent 
purposes of the dead man. What have you to say ? ' ' 

' ' What can I say, your Honor ? ' ' said Bruff, bitterly. 
"It is another in.stance of a man conceited and obsti- 
nate enough to attempt making his own will. If my 
old friend French had called me in, I would have told 
him that courts aud juries in California seldom allow a 
man to dispose of his own estate, if it be a large one, 
and he must give his savings away in his lifetime it 
he wishes to prevent his sixth cousins from rioting on 
them. I would have had Lorin French convey his 
vast property to trustees to carry out his plans, and 
have affected the transfer completely while he was yet 
alive. But he, great and simple soul, supposed, nat- 
urally enough, that he had a right to do as he pleased 
with his own, and that, being without near kindred, 
and no person having any claim upon him, he could 
help the poor with the money it had taken him half a 
century to accumulate. He was originally educated 
to the law, and, although he had been out of practice 
for thirty years, he knew how to formulate a will. 
But he was not aware of the ravages committed by a 
California Legislature among the time-honored princi- 

■ t86 


pies of the common law. Mark the result of legisla- 
2 folly and individual inadvertence. Twenty mil- 
is of dollars, which their owner proposed to devote 
a grand and comprehensive experiment for adjust- 
j the vexed relations of labor and capital, will now 
Jw consumed in court costs and witness fees, divided 
mong a horde of attorneys, and finally scattered in 
selfish enjoyment, and in ways unuseful to man, all 
r the world from Australia to Elko. It's the law, 
I suppose, and neither your Honor nor I can help it, 
s an accursed shame, nevertheless." 
I Mr. Bruff, pale with excitement, resumed his 

"The Court can not only pardon your emphatic 
■re, Brother Bruff," said his Honor, "but in- 
-dorses it. If I could discover any loophole which 
might be crawled through, or any way by which I 
B'could break down or climb over the legislative barrier, 
land validate the bequest of Lorin French, I would 
I'certainly do bo. I will reserve for further considera- 
Ption the question of the validity of the legacies to the 
I wounded, and the famihes of those killed in the riot. 
r I am inclined to think that portion of the will may be 
I good, and so carry with it the right of Louis Brown- 
I Jug to letters testamentary. For the present, however, 
\ I am reluctantly compelled to sustain the objection of 
[■ the attorney for the public administrator, and wfuse 
I, the will admission to probate. It is ordered accord- 
ingly. Mr. Clerk, note the exception of Mr. BnifTto 
L my ruling. I will take my summer vacation now, and 
f go fishing. I shall adjourn court for one month, and 
) the further hearing of this case for two months. In 


the meantime, if the gentlemen who represent Che vari- 
ous applicants for letters of administration, will leave! 
their papers with the clerk, I will, upon my return, ' 
give them careful attention," 

"Does your Honor desire that I leave all my pa- i 
pers?" queried the sepulchral -voiced Lester. 

"AH," replied his Honor, and he paused for a mo- ■ 
ment, and glanced at the ninety pages of manuscript J 
lying in front of counsel learned in the law, " all ex-j 
cept your brief, Mr. Lester." 

The proceedings of the day in the superior courts 
were reported fully, and commented upon freely, by I 
the newspapers throughout the country, and a'fort- J 
night afterwards the proposed executor of the rejected J 
will received the following letter: — 

Offices of David Morning, 39 Broadway, 1 
New York City, June 10, 1894. J 
Mr. Louis Browning, San Francisco, Cal. — j*^J 
Dear Sir; Such a wise and noble plan as that of the j 
late Lorin French ought not to lack accomplishment J 
for want of money to execute it- If you, and the gen- \ 
tlemen named by him as your associates in the trust i 
which he vainly endeavored to create, will organize-J 
such a corporation as he proposed, I will devote to ita 
a sum equal to the value of his estate, which 1 under-- 
stand to be, in round numbers, twenty millions of do!-' 
lars. Very truly yours, David Mokni. 


?he cunscicQCe of well doing ia in ample reWBid." 
I rrom th* ,v™ )'»■* JCarMJuly ij, .855.] 

Manhattan Island, west of Broadway and south of I 
Trinity Church, was, during the last century, occupied f 
by the substantia] mansions of the ancient Knicker- 
boclrers, and as late as the first third of the present ' 
century was not relinquished as a place of residence | 
by people of aristocratic pretensions. Before the civil \ 
war, the annual fairs of the American Institute w 
held in Castle Garden, within whose walls Grisi and , 
Mario and Jenny Lind sang, and on summer after* 
noons children, accompanied by nursemaids, romped | 
upon the grass under the grand old trees on the Bat- 
tery. Then the Bowling Green Fountain, with ita 
picturesque pile of rocks, was still an ancient land- 
mark; and the goat pastures above Fifty-ninth Street 1 
were being cleared for the planting of Central Park, 

After the war the few remaining occupants of pre- 
tentious residences fled to the northward of Madison | 
Square, and the sightliest and most picturesque por- 
tion of New York City was abandoned to saloons, 
emigrant boarding houses, warehouses, and shops, for, 
unlike the down-town section east of Broadway, it 
was not invaded and colonized by bankers, brokers, 
and importing houses. 


Mr. David Morning, now widely known as the Ari-l 
zona Gold King, selected this portion of New YorkJ 
City for the experiment of organizing pleasant and-l 
economical home lives for a class of dwellers in cities:! 
not ordinarily the subject of elemosynary effort. 

The poverty of the very poor, who sometimes lack.l 
even for food or shelter, is hardly more distressing! 
to the sufferers than the poverty of men who struggle I 
to maintain a respectable position upon incomes inad- T 
equate, even with the most economical management, ' 
to meet their expenses. How is a married man, hav- 1 
ing an income of one, two, or even three thousand 1 
dollars per annum, derived from work which must be 1 
performed by him, as derk, journalist, physician, orl 
lawyer, upon Manhattan Island, to hve there withfl 
such surroundings as are befitting his education and! 
position ? 

He will be compelled to pay one-third or one-halfj 
of his income for a flat; an entire house is out of the! 
question, unless he betake himself to such a locality-J 
in the city as will exile his family from social con- J 
sideration. If he live in the suburbs, he must arise at ■ 
daylight and stumble along unlighted lanes to the. J 
railroad station, and pass two or three hours of his 
time each day standing in a crowded ferryboat, or 
hanging to the straps of a jammed car, alternately I 
frozen and roasted, and always stifled with the reek-i 
ing perfume of unventilated vehicles and unsavory 1 
fellow -travelers, for while it may be true that all men I 
are politically equal, they are not always equally well I 

The alternative is to bring up his family in the J 


[ brawl and small scandal of a boarding house. His 

I wife requires always a certain amount of dresses and 

I bonnets to maintain herself in a respectable position 

n the estimation of her friends, and dresses and bon- 

[ nets entai! an uncertain amount of expenditure. A 

[ man's tailor will inform him in advance exacdy how 

f much his garment will cost, and one can contract 

for a bridge across the Mississippi at an agreed sum, 

but there is no force known in nature, that will induce 

or drive a dressmaker into foregoing an opportunity 

for advantage taking, or persuade her to fix in advance 

a price for the making and trimming of a gown. 

The married bookkeeper or salesman on a salary 
in New York City, is forever upon the ragged edge 
of embarrassment, unable to save the amount of the 
payments necessary for adequate life insurance, or to 
provide a fund fdr a rainy day. The laborer or 
mechanic who earns six hundred to nine hundred dol- 
lars per annum is, in comparatively easy circum- 
stances, for he can live in a tenement house in a cheap 
neighborhood without loss of caste, and caste is of 
almost as much consequence in free America as in the 

After some thought, Mr. David Morning devised a 
trial scheme for the relief of married men of small in- 
comes, whose duties required their daily presence in 
New York City, below Canal Street, and in the autumn 
of 1894 his agents began to quietly purchase the real 
estate between Rector Street and the Battery, and 
bounded by Greenwich Street and the Hudson River. 
Some months were con(=iumed in the acquisition of 
title to the realty, and in a few inalances long prices 


were exacted by sagacious and selfish owners, who 
held out until the others had sold, but the bulk of the 
property was purchased at about its value, and the 
brokers were finally instructed to close with all per- 
sons willing to sell, without haggling as to price. 

It required about $15,000,000 to complete the pur- 
chase, and for this sum sixteen hundred lots were 
secured of the orthodox dimensions of twenty-five by 
one hundred feet each. Electric lights turned night 
into day, and several thousands of men and hundreds 
of vehicles, divided into three armies of eight-hour 
workers, were at once employed in the work of de- 
molition. Temporary railroad tracks were laid from 
the land to the North River piers, and the material 
and debris not needed to fill cellars and vaults was 
carried on cars to barges, which were towed to the 
Jersey flats, where their contents were dumped upon 
ground previously acquired by Mr, Morning for that 
purpose, and by the first of February, 1895, the tower 
part of Manhattan Island west of Greenwich Street 
was as bare as a picked bird. 

The work, although generally prosaic, was not 
without its romantic and interesting incidents. In a 
stone house on Greenwich Street, which was once the 
colonial mansion of Diedrich Von Wallendorf, a 
walled chamber was opened. The rugs and hang- 
ings it had contained were fallen to shreds, but the 
Queen Anne cabinets, tables, and bedstead were in as 
good condition as when the room was closed with solid 
atone masonry, two centuries ago, without any reason 
now apparent for the strange proceeding. 

Under the cellar floor of another house an earthern 


"crock" was found filled with sovereigns, coined in the 1 
E'last century, and through the destruction of an old I 
I wall cabinet, there came to light a package of letters 1 
t'from Lord North to Sir Henry Clinton, letters which 1 
Jindicated that the British Ministry of that day had^ 
I in negotiation with other patriot leaders thanl 
p Benedict Arnold for a surrender of the revolutionary J 
[ cause. 

The consent of the city authorities to a resurveyj 
|iand remodeling of the streets and avenues of the de- -I 
I Stroyed section of New York, was obtained without J 
L difficulty since Mr. Morning was now the sole owner I 
I of the land affected thereby, and the rearrangements ^ 
I' proposed by him were made at liis own cost, and in— I 
f sured greater uniformity and greater convenience toj 
[ the public than those which were superseded. 

The land was platted into blocks four hundred feet J 
[in length and eighty feet in width, running north J 
I and south, thus giving to the occupants of the new I 
I buildings either the morning or the afternoon sun.' 
) These blocks are divided by streets of a uniform width 1 
( of one hundred feet, having a park thirty feet wide in | 
f the center of each street, with lawn, shrubs, i 
i mental trees, and a fountain in the center of each J 
I block. Gas, water, and sewer pipes, and electric I 
[ light and pneumatic tubes, have been laid in the new 1 
I etreets, and by means of a powerful pumping engine, I 
\ erected on the Battery, the sewers are flushed every 1 

y with sea water. The new streets are paved with T 
f asphalt, with sidewalks of cement. The city received I 
I from Morning land at the foot of Canal Street pur- J 
V diased by him, in exchange for Castle Garden and] 


193 I 

vicin^e, and the Battery — filled with fbuntains, stat- . 
ues, and increased acreage of lawn and garden — 
restored to its ancient functions, and more than its an- 
cient glory. 

The buildings erected upon each of the one hun- 
dred blocks thus created, are of uniform size and | 
style. Each building — occupying an entire block — 
four hundred feet long, eighty feet wide, and seven- 
teen stories high. The roofs are covered with glass, 1 
making' the structures eighteen stories aboveground. I 
One-half of the area of the eighteenth story in each J 
block is laid out in plots filled with ten feet of rich soil 1 
in beds of perforated cement, the other half in broad i 
walks of plate glass — guarded by copper netting — so 1 
as to admit liglit to the seventeenth story and to the 1 
large air .shafts. 

In each of the buildings are one hundred and fifty J 
suites of five rooms, each suite having a floor area c 
sixteen hundred square feet, and every room having 1 
an outlook upon the street. A broad hall runs ] 
through the center of the building on every floor, 
lighted by means of plate-gflass windows at each end, 
and also by three shafts, one hundred feet apart, run- 
ning from cellar to roof. Every room is provided 
with steam, dry, and g-as heat, and with gas and incan- J 
descent lights. Each suite has a household pneumatic ] 
tube service connecting with the store rooms in 
basement, and with the kitchen and dining rooms in j 
the seventeenth story. Each suite has also a cooking 1 
closet, with gas range, hot water, and steam pipes, 
porceiain-lined sinks, and pneumatic tubes for carry- 
ing away garbage. 


Six hydraulic elevators furnish ample accommoda- 
( tions for reaching every floor at any hour of the day 
I or night. A network of perforated steel pipes is con- 
[ cealed in the walls and floors, with separate connec- 
I tions for each room with the great tanks on the roof, 
L which are in turn connected both with the Croton water 
I system, and with the great steel water main bringing 
r water from Rockland Lake. In case of fire the walls 
and floors of one room, or of any number of rooms, 
instantly be saturated with water, and twice in 
I each week, at an appointed hour, a warm, gentle rain 
s made to descend for a sufficient length of time upon 
[ the trees and shrubs ih the roof garden. 

Each suite has separate sewer connections, and each 
[ room is provided with registers in the wall, from which 
I either hot air or cold air can be turned on or off at 
rill, the hot air ascending from the furnaces, and the 
cold air being forced by a pumping engine from the 
[ refrigerating room in the basement. Those whose 
1 fete it has been to swelter on Manhattan Island in the 
■ days can appreciate the latter luxury. The for- 
tunate occupant of a room in one of the Morning 
Blocks commands his temperature. Whether the 
thermometer registers thirty degrees below or one 
hundred degrees above zero outside, he can arrange 
the climate in his own room to suit himself, and pater 
familias can connect a wire with the register in the 
parlor, and, if ' ' ChoUy ' ' protracts his visits to Gladys 
to an improper hour, he can shut off the hot air, turn 
on a current from the refrigerator, and in ten minutes 
make the young man choose between departure and 


These buLdings were planned for the relief i 
women. The great source of waste and care in ( 
American domestic life is in the kitchen, and it is im- 
possible to organize a more advantageous trust for 
both producer and consumer than a "kitchen trust." 
The daily history of every American family is one of 
almost unavoidable waste. In food, in fuel, in the 
labor of cooking, and in many other details of house- 
keeping, there is uneconomic use of both labor and 
materials. Probably one-fourth of the expenditure 
of every American householder who is able to keep 
one or more servants is unnecessary and wasteful, 
and where only one servajit, or none at all, is em- 
ployed, the health and beauty and life of the wife are 
expended in kitchen drudgery, and her opportunities 
of growth and culture are lost. 

The Morning Blocks were designed as theaters of 
experiment, which, if successful, will be copied else- 
where, for freeing the household from the waste and 
vexation and tyranny of the kitchen. Mr. Morning's 
plan for bringing about this beneficent result is both 
simple and effective. The kitchen, or general cooking 
room for the block, is situated in the seventeenth 
story, where there is one large, and one hundred 
and fifty small dining rooms. Each dining room is 
lighted either from the street or the roofi is perfectly 
ventilated, and has an electric bell and pneumatic 
tube service connecting it with the kitchen, with the 
market house in the basement, and with the suite of 
apartments below, of which it is an adjunct. 

The happy householder in one of the Morning 
Blocks will have his choice of methods. I le and family 


ni:iy take llieir meals at the restaurant or general din- 
ing room in the seventeenth story, either by the carte, 
meal, orweek. He may use the general diningroom, 
or his private dining room, or dine in his apartments 
below — the pneumatic tube service extending to all, and 
a private waiter will be furnished at a fixed price per 
hour. He can purchase cooked provisions by weight, 
delivered at either place, or purchase his own supplies 
at the market house in the basement and have them 
cooked in the general kitchen, or use his own cooking 
closet, where, without waste of fuel — gas being used — 
his selections may be prepared for the table and served 
either there or sent by pneumatic tube to his dining 
room above. 

Prices for everything furnished, whether of mate- 
rials or labor, are fixed fi-om time to time by the man- 
ager, and all bills are required to be paid every Mon- 
day, on penalty of the tenant losing his privilege of 
occupancy. The prices charged are Jess than those 
demanded for similar service or material elsewhere. 
An account will be kept of each householder's dis- 
bursements, and his proportion of tlie profits made 
will be returned to him at the end cf the year, accord- 
ing to the usual co-operative process, the object being 
to furnish each occupant of the block with whatever he 
needs of food or service at actual cost. 

The rent asked for the apartments in the Morning 
Blocks has been adjusted upon the basis of paying 
taxes, insurance, repairs, and three per cent per an- 
num upon the capital invested in the enterprise. 

Mr. Morning has conveyed the one hundred blocks 
to tlie governor of New York, the mayor of New 




York City, and the president of the New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce, who, with their official successors, 
are made perpetual trustees of this munificent gift. 
In the trust deed it is provided that the three per cent 
interest on cost, received from tenants, shall be invested 
in an endowment fund, payable, with its accumulations, 
to the tenant whenever he leaves the building, or to faiS'l 
widow or legal representative in the event of his death 1 
while a tenant. 

The tenant in a Morning Block will be supplied with, | 
hot and cold air, hot and cold water, steam, gas, elec- 
tric light, food, and service at actual cost. His rooms 
will be provided him at the cost of taxes, insurance, 
and repairs, and he and his family will be made the 
beneficiaries of a fund, which he will be required to \ 
create for the contingency of his death or departure 1 
from the building. To guard against overcrowding, 1 
no one suite of apartments will be rented to any I 
family of more than five adults, and no subletting or 1 
hiring of apartments will be permitted. 

The cost of the land is estimated at $16,000,000, 
and of clearing it and erecting the new buildings at * 
$30,000,000. The ta.\cs, with insurance, repairs, 
ployes, and such other expenses as are in their 
nature incapable of apportionment among the ten- 
ants, will amount to $Sio,ooo per annum. This sum 
divided by fifteen thousand, the number of suites of 
apartments in the one hundred Morning Blocks, will 
give $54 as the annual sum to be paid by each ten- 
ant for his apartments, and he will pay $108 addi- 
tional annually toward a fund for his own benefit. In 
all he will pay about $14 a month for accommoda- 


tions that it would be difficult to obtain elsewhi 
five times the amount. 

The manager of each block will receive a salary ol 
?3,ooo per annum, and will, in the first insta; 
lected by the Board of Trustees, but on the first Mon- 
day of January, 1897, and each year thereafter, the 
occupants of each block, by a majority vote, can elect 
a manager, who will, however, in the discharge of his 
duties, and in the employment of assistants, be sub- 
ject to the direction and supervision of the trustees. 

Mr. Morning in the trust deed conveying the Morn- 
ing Blocks has named the qualifications of tenants as 
follows: The applicant must be of good moral charac- 
ter, married, over the age of twenty-five and under 
sixty. He must have been at the time of his applica- 
tion for more than one year previously in the employ- 
ment of some person, firm , or corporation engaged 
in a reputable business in the city of New York south 
of Canal Street, and be in receipt of a salary of not 
less than $1,000 or more than $3,000 per annum. If 
a lawyer, physician, dentist, architect, or civil engi- 
neer, author, clergyman, or journalist, his net income 
must be of a similar amount. 

Applicants for suites of apartments must file their 
applications and references at the office of the Morn- 
ing Blocks prior to 12 o'clock noon on the fifteenth 
day of August, 1895, The credentials of all applicants 
will be examined and careful inquiry made as to their 
habits, characters, and antecedents, and only those will 
be accepted as eligible for tenancy who can strictly 
comply with the requirements. 

Should there be, as is most likely, approved appli- 




cations ill excess of the suites to be rented, the iifteen 
thousand who can be accommodated will be selectod 
by lot, and the others registered, and whenever va- 
cancies occur a tenant to fill such vacancy will be se- 
lected by lot from the list. Apartments will be 
apportioned by lot among the successful applicants. 
Tenants will be permitted to exchange apartments by 
amicable arrangement, but no transfer of apartments 
from a tenant to one who is not a tenant will be per- 
mitted. The tenant can surrender his right to occupy 
his apartments at pleasure, but he cannot assign it, or 
sublet the whole or any part of the premises accorded 

Should six tenants who are heads of families on 
any floor make complaint against one of the other 
four tenants on that floor that he is obno.itious, and 
that in the general interest his tenancy ought to he 
terminated, a jury of fifteen tenants of that building, 
selected by lot, one from each of the other floors, shall 
be made up to try the accused, who shall have oppor- 

[tunity to cross-examine the witnesses against him, and 
to present hia defense. The manager shall preside 
and preserve order, and if twelve of the fifteen jurors 
shall concur in finding that the tenancy of the accused 
ought to terminate, he may appeal to the Board of 
Trustees, and unless they unanimously exonerate him, 
his tenancy must cease. 
Our reporter interviewed Mr. Morning, who was 
found at his offices in lower Broadway, and inquired 
of that gentleman if it were true, as rumored, that he 
intended to erect similar buildings on another part of 
Manhattan Island, 


"I have secured," replied that gentleman, "all the 
land for a hundred blocks in and about the locality 
known as 'the Hook,' and I propose the erection of 
buildings there that will accommodate forty thousand 
families of mechanics and laborers. There will, of 
course, be less room for each occupant than in the 
blocks just completed, and less expensive arrange- 
ments in many particulars, but the rent and cost of 
living will be less, and the premises will be rented and 
conducted substantially on the same plan, with only 
such difference in rules as may be necessary." 

"What will be the cost of these latter buildings, Mr. 
Morning?" said our reporter. 

"With the land, about $30,000,000," was the reply. 

"It is a pity," commented our reporter, " that every 
city in the land cannot count a David Morning among 
its citizens, with a gold mine at his command," 

"The mine is not necessary," said Morning. 
"There area dozen men in every large city of our land 
who, without any gold mine, could do what I have 
done. I hope," continued the speaker, "not to be 
alone in the work of helping the people both to em- 
ployment and homes." 

"None of our millionaires," said the reporter, 
"have thus used their money." 

"It must be remembered," rejoined Morning, 
"that the very great fortu.nes of this country have 
mainly been created during the last twenty-five years, 
and in the eager and necessarily selfish strife incident 
to their acquisition, their owners have not always con- 
sidered that their possession is a great trust which 
brings with it duties as well as rights." 



"But I see the dawn of a better day and a better I 
feeling," continued Mr. Morning. "I hear of many 1 
gentlemen in ditiferent parts of the country who are ^ 
jjroposing to use millions for the erection of homes, 
and the secure establishment of co-operative industries ', 
for the benefit of the workers of the land. My idea J 
is that no man should be accorded an unearned din- 
ner who has refused a chance to earn it, but that it is J 
the duty of society to provide every man with an op- 
portunity of earning. Of what value at last is wealth ■' 
unless one can use it for the benefit of his fellow-men? | 
Charon will not transport grold across the Styx at any 
rate of ferriage. Of what use is money here except 
in one form and another to give it away? No man ! 
can expend on his own le^timate and proper com- 
forts and pleasures the interest on $1,000,000 at five 1 
per cent per annum. ' ' 

"There are many men, Mr. Morning, who expend •] 
a good deal more than ^50.000 a year.' ' 

" Not in the sense of personal expenditures. Man- 
sions, laces, diamonds, furniture, horses, carriages,,! 
and the like are investments rather than expenditures. ] 
Receptions and banquets may be classed with gifts, i 
He must be an industrious man who can, with his I 
family, eat, drink, and wear out $50,000 worth each I 

" But is there not the pleasure of accumulation it'-J 
self, Mr. Morning?" 

"I suppose so," replied that gentleman, "or men"! 
would not pursue it; but it is a cultivated and not a 
natural taste. Every man. for instance, requires a] 
pair of trousers and a hat, but after he has acquired.! 


iiiough of such articles for the use of himself and hig 
mily for life, and a generous supply for his descend- 
ts, why work the balance of his days to fill ware- 
s with trousers and hats ? Idonoiknow," con- 
inued Mr. Morning — and our reporter thought that 
Rfiiere was a deeper shade in his sea-gray eyes — "I do 
Fpot know that I shall ever marry, but if I had boys I 
twould leave them no fortunes larger than would suffice 
■^r a generous support." 

"Will you, then," queried our reporter, " expend 
1 your own lifetime all the great revenues of the 
B-Moming mine ? " 

"All that I can find time, strength, and opportu- 
fcnity to expend in ways that will help the world," re- 
■^oined the Arizona Gold King. 

[From the New York Times, July 17, 1895.] 

Mr. David Morning is engaged in works of appar- 

Lent charity, which to many thoughtful men will seem 

■ ^an injury rather than a benefit to the world. Capi- 

T talists are entitled to receive interest upon their invest- 

r.ments, and if inducement to accumulation be taken 

I away by the competition of such Utopians as Mr. 

Morning, then frugality may cease to be accounted a 


On the whole, wouldn't it be better for the business 
world, and the stability of property and property 
rights, if the tenants of the Morning Blocks were com- 
pelled to pay the full rental value of their apartments? 
[From the New York Socialist, July 19, 1895.] 
Dave Morning is endeavoring to throw dust in the 
eyes of the working masses of the country, by erect- 


ing seventeen- story palaces for boodle bookkeepers,' J 
and twenty-story tenement houses for mechanics. 1 
He has filled San Francisco, Chicago, and several I 
other cities with his humbug Co-operative Labor Aid 1 
Societies, He is evidently plotting for the presidency J 
in i8g6, and expects to reach the White House by a J 
golden path. 

' ' The poor of this country should accept no employ- J 
ment as a boon, nor consent to engage in any wage-'^ | 
saving and profit-sharing corporation that will force J 
them to accumulate, and they should take no such | 
favors from the rich as cheap rents or free homes. 
Let the unnatural accumulations of rich scoundrels De 1 
distributed among the people. No man is honestly I 
entitled to have or hold anything except the truits of I 
his own labor. It would be better for the world, and' I 
for the great cause of socialism which the pseudo 1 
philanthropy of Morning delays and obstructs, if this J 
Arizona Gold King could be tumbled head first down J 
one of his own shafts, and his seventeen-storj' marble- 
paved Edeus be dynamited out of existence. 




n gang aft aglee 

Morning's business offices were on the west side 
f Broadway, below Trinity Church, but lie gave at- 
intion to his large and increasing correspondence in 

S rooms at the Hoffman House, where he had a suite 
if apartments fronting on Broadway. 

The largest room of the suite had always been re- 
served by the proprietors for a private dining room, 
but Morning insisted upon its constituting a part of 
his suite, and as he permitted the hotel keepers to 
name their own price, it was reluctandy surrendered 
to him. In this room Morning had a large-sized 
phonograph receiver fitted into the wall opposite his 
desk, the instrument itself being placed upon a long 
table against the pardtion in the adjacent room. A 
cord which swung over the desk was fastened to a 
jcver connected with an electric motor, also in the 
next room. 

It was Morning's habit each day afier breakfast to 
seat himself at his desk, open his letters, pull the cord 
which started the electric motor, and " talk " his re- 
plies to the phonograph receiver. The instrument 
in the next room was arranged to hold a cylinder of 
sufficient length to receive a communication an hour 

length. After Morning had completed this portion 



of his daily labors, it was tlie duty of his secretary to ^ 
remove the cylinders, and place them in other pho- 
nographs, where two and sometimes three clerks r 
ceived their contents, and reduced the same to type- 
writer manuscript. 

This simple contrivance had still another use. 
Morning knew that there was no such fruitful source 
of business difficulties and consequent Utigation as 
that which emanated from misunderstanding or mia- 
. representation of verbal communications. Heendeav- 
ored, therefore, to conduct all important business con- 
versations in this room, and all the utterances of either I 
party were recorded by the faithful and unerring ' 
phonograph, and the cylinders upon which they were ' 
reported were properly labeled, dated, and stored i 
away. He did not fail in any instance to inform the 
person with whom he was conversing that all their 1 
words were thus finding accurate record. 

One day in October, 1895. while Moming»was ia ] 
Chicago— where he had gone to perfect the organiza- | 
lion of a Labor Aid Corporation — the great finnacier, 
Mr. Arnold Claybank, stopped at the Hoffman House 
on his way down town, and ordered a choice dinner , 
for three to be served at seven o'clock that day. 

"And have it ser\'ed in the room fronting upon 
Broadway, where we always dine," said the miUion- 

"Very sorry, Mr. Claybank," answered the clerk, , 
"but that room is at present rented to Mr. David ^ 
Morning, as a part of his suite, and when he is in 
town he uses it as a room in which to receive and 
answer his correspondence; at pres'ent he is in Chi- 
cago. ' ' 


"If he is ill Chicago," replied the Wall Street 
Lgnate, "you- can have our dinner ser\'ed in the 
im as usual. It will not disturb him, certainly, even 
le should know of it, and he is not likely to know of 
It unless you tell him, I have dined in that room 
I my friends at least once a week during the last 
"twenty years, and, not supposing you would ever rent 
it for other purposes, I have already invited them to 
meet me there this evening. I don't like to change, 
in feet, I won't change, and if you will not accommo- ' 
date me I will take my patronage elsewhere." 

After some hesitation, the clerk agreed to have din- 
ner served in the room desired, and at se\'en o'clock 
that evening Mr. Arnold Claybank, with his guests, 
Mr. Isaiah Wolf and Mr. John Gray, assembled to 
discuss both the menu and the subject of their gather- 

Not until the last course was removed, the Bur- 
gundy on the table, the cigars lighted, and the waiter 
excused from further attendance, did the great capital- 
ists approach the real object of their meeting. Mr. 
Claybank observed that they might need writing 
materials, and, stepping to Morning's desk, he seated 
himself thereat, and pulled i^'iat he supposed to be a 
bell cord that would summon a waiter. No waiter 
appeared in answer to the supposed summons, and 
Claybank, taking a notebook and pencil from his 
pocket, remarked that they would serve his purpose. 
These three gentlemen had dined well, and should 
have been in a pleasant frame of mind toward the 
world, for good dinners are, or ought to be, humaniz- 
ing in their tendencies. Yet there are natures which 



will remain unaffected even by terrapins, Maryland! 
style, and roasted canvas-back duck, assimilated with 1 
the aid of Lafitte and Pommery Sec, and no tigers 1 
crouching in the jungle were ever more merciless and ■ 
conscienceless in theirrapacity than these tiiree black- J 
coated capitalists. 

Mr- Arnold Claybank was the leading spirit of the i 
conclave. His wealth was popularly estimated at i 
Jti 00,000,000. He had inherited none of it. 
thirty-five years of age he was a dry goods merchant ^ 
in an interior city in Ohio, possessed of less than I 
$100,000. During his frequent visits to New York to I 
purchase goods he was in the habit of "taking a flyer" 
in the stock market. These flyers proved so continu- 
ously successful, and added so largely to his capital, 
that in a few years he closed out his dry goods busi- 
ness, removed permanently to the metropolis, bought 1 
a seat in the stock board, and soon became known as ' 
one of the boldest and shrewdest operators in the 

He was rapid and usually accurate in judgment, 
and always possessed of the courage of his convictions. ■ 
He was as cunning as the gray fox. to which he was 
often likened. He was suave in manner but merciless 
in the execution of his plans. He was identified in 
the public mind with several of the boldest and most 
unscrupulous operations in the history of Wall Street, 
and his millions had steadily and rapidly increased, 
until now, at sixty years of age, he was one of the , 
acknowledged kings of New York finance. 

Isaiah Wolf was, as liis name indicated, of Hebrew i 
origin. He was about the same age as Claybank, 



band had many of the qualities of that gentleman, , 
flacking, however, his courage and his quickness of J 
■-comprehension and movement. He was a gambler 1 
[by birth, education, and instinct, and a gambler who! 
(ffiever felled to use all advantages possible. 

Thirty years before he had been a clothing t 
^ chant and dealer in city, county, and legislative war- J 
cants at Portland, Oregon. He furnished the 

^unious legislators, when they came down from the I 
mountain counties, with an outfit of clothing; he dis- 1 
inted their salaries at three per cent per month; he 
s usually the custodian of the lobby funds, and he 
B-Eould always introduce senator or assemblyman to a 
Fquiet game of "draw," where, whenever a huge 
f "pot" was in dispute, Isaiah could usually be found 
Isafely entrenched behind the winning hand. 

When the Comstock mines began to yield their 
|;|preat output of silver in 1875-77, the Wolf Broth- 
I crs located in San Francisco, made their homes on 
Ipineand California Streets, and gambled in mining 
Blocks from the vantage-ground of secret knowledge, 
■ripr in every mine were one or more miners under pay, 
rnot only from the mining company, but from Isaiah 
fWolf. In 1879, when the transactions in the stock 
l:board of San Francisco had dwindled to a lithe of 
I'their former magnitude, and when the sand-lot agi- 
ttators succeeded in grafting their ideas of finance 
p and taxation upon the organic law of California, 
li Wolf and his brother Emanuel gathered their 
ssets together and joined the exodus of millionaires. 
jin New York City they opened a bankers' and brok- 
fters' office, and were now accounted as joindy the 


possessors of $80,000,000, the management of which 
was left ahnost exclusively to Isaiah, 

John Gray was an insignificant- looking old man of 
seventy. From his unkempt beard, watery eyes, 
shrinking manner, and small stature, he might have 
been taken for a congressional doorkeeper who had 
seen better days. In truth, there was, under his ignoble 
exterior, one of the broadest, wiliest, and best-informed 
minds in America. He was the acknowledged leader 
of Wall Street in ability and resources. His wealth 
was estimated at quite $150,000,000, and it had been 
created by himself in about forty-five years. 

He began life as a Vermont peddler, but at the age 
of twenty-five carried his New England education, his 
capacity for calculation, his retentive memory, his 
frugal habits, and his tireless energy into New York 
City, where he began as porter and messenger in the 
office of a broker. He soon learned the history and 
methods of the principal operators of the Wall Street 
of that day, and his savings were shrewdly, quietly, 
and boldly invested on "points" which he picked up 
while delivering messages or awaiting replies. He 
soon accumulated a large sum of money, yet he kept 
his humble place, and his employer never suspected 
when he paid the faithful porter his $40 at the end of 
each month, that the quiet and deferential young man 
could have purchased not only his employer's busi- 
ness, but the building in which it was conducted. 

Gray remained as porter and messenger for five 
years, declining all offers which were made to him of 
promotion to a desk and a higher salary. The place he 
held gave him opportunities which could be obtained 


in no other way. None suspected the quiet and stolid- J 
looking man, who seemed so dull of comprehension J 
when any verbal message was in:rusted to him; andl 
words were dropped and conversations held in his^ 
presence which, when fitted by his quick and com--( 
prehensive brain into other words and conversational 
held in other offices, often enabled him to forecast J 
events. The man who by any means is acciuatelyl 
advised of the real intentions of the leaders of Walll 
Street a day or even an hour before their execution, . 
has a key to wealth, and Gray used this key, conduct-J 
ing all his operations through one broker, who \ 
pledged to secrecy. 

At the time of the great deal in Harlem, so success- 
fully engineered before the war by Commodore Van- 
derbilt, Gray was still occupying his place as mes- 
senger. He overheard a conversation held in the 
commodore's private office between that gentleman 
and his confidential clerk, and, comprehending the 
magnitude of the opportunity, he directed that all his 
resources, which then amounted to nearly $200,000, be 
placed in Harlem stock. He was enabled, under the 
system of margins which prevailed in Wall Street, 
to purchase 562,000,000 worth of the stock, which he 
\ sold at an average advance of fifty per cent, clearing 
r $1,000,000 by the operation. 

The old commodore, who had himself made ^,- 
t 000,000 by the deal, found that somebody had been 
I sharing profits with him to the extent of $1,000,000, 
[■ and, not supposing that this was the result of giiess- 
f work, he used means to discover who was the cunning 
k ■operator and what were the sources of his information. 



Without much difficulty he traced the transactions to J 
John Gray, and, remembering the presence of that J 
I young man in the anteroom at the time of giving^! 
[directions to his confidential clerk, he was not at af 
iS to determine how it came about. 
The commodore considered that Gray had gained'! 
61,000,000 which should have come to his owi 
md he determined to ' ' give the young fellow a lesson,. J 
s he said to his confidential clerk- That mom 
ling Gray's employer received^to his great surprise— 
l>call from Vanderbilt, who, to liLs greater surprise, in^ 
f formed him of the true status of his messenger, whoF 
[had become a millionaire. Gray's employer readiljrj 
||>romised to assist in the scheme which Vanderbilta 
I formed for punishing Gray and "stripping him of hia 
[ill-gotten gains, sir." Vanderbilt required only that 
I Gray's employer should next day send Gray to Van-J 
fderbilt's office, with a verbal message, inquiringyj 
"What is to be done about Erie?" 
The next day Gray called and delivered his mes 
P to the commodore in his private office. 

' ' Take a seat, young man, until I can write a reply, "j 

vas the direction, and Gray deferentially seated him~V 

f self upon the edge of a chair, and gazed at tl 

['Stolidly, while the commodore penned the followingfS 

' ' Buy all the Erie offered at market rates up to fifty-J 

f three. C. V." Thisnote the commodore plac 

I envelope, which he directed, but apparently forgot toil 

' seal, and handed it to Gray, who thereupon departed.! 

As the door closed behind the messenger, the Vetera 

bull smote himself upon the sides, and threw his hea 

back and laughed. 


.Gray noticed that the envelope was uot sealed, and 
liiefore he reached the bottom of the stairs, he pos- 
sessed himself of its contents. 

Then he fell into a train of thoug^ht. Erie was sell- 
ing at $37, and Gray Was thoroughly posted as to 
the resources, liabilities, and Business of the road, 
and knew very nearly who were the principal stock- 
holders. He knew that the commodore held fully 
one-third of the capital stock of Erie, which had cost 
him not more than $30 a share, and he also knew that 
the old gentleman had been for some time selling his 
stock at $37 as fast as he could do so without break- 
ing the market. Thirty-seven was really a nursed 
price for the stock; it was more than the condition 
and prospects of the road warranted, and Gray did 
not believe that Vanderbilt intended to purchase any 
great quantity, even at $37, or that it would be possi- 
ble for him to run the stock to $53 without purchasing 
the entire amount. 

Gray delivered the note to his employer, and asked 
that gendeman if he might be excused for half an hour 
to attend to some matters of business of his own. 
Leave of absence was graciously granted, and Gray 
was watched to the door of the office of the broker 
who had bought and sold his Harlem stock. Then 
Gray's employer walked to the office of the expectant 
commodore and informed him that the young man 
had swallowed the bait, for he had gone to the office 
of his broker, probably to order large purchases of 

Vanderbilt thanked the broker, assured him that in 
the division of the spoils he should not be forgotten, 


and authorized him in furtherance of thoir project to 
pnrchase all the Erie offered up to $42, to which fig- 
ure Vanderbilt proposed lo run the stock before letting 
it drop. 

Gray directed his broker to purchase Erie in one- 
hundred-share lots, beginning at $37, and to follow the 
market up to $53 if it reached that figure, but not to 
purchiise more than five thousand shares in all. May- 
ing given this direction, he walked into the back office 
of a firm of brokers, who, although leaders in the mar- 
ket, had never succeeded in obtaining any business 
from Vanderbilt, and between them and that gentleman 
there was a business feud ol long standing. The quiet 
messenger was well known lo the head of the firm, 
who greeted him pleasantly. 

"What can I do foryou, Gray," said he. 

"I would like to take your time for not more than 

e minutes," said Gray, 
f »"I am pretty busy," said the gentleman, "but I 
will try and oblige you," and he led the way to an 
iner office. 

The broker's eyes distended with astonishment as 
Gray rapidly told how he had made such use of his 
opportunities as porter and messenger as to accumu- 
late, by speculation, a large sum of money, and that 
e desired now to employ their firm in an operation 
which, tor reasons ot his own, he did not care to in- 
trust to his regular broker. 

The gentleman smilingly agreed to accept Mr, 
Gray's business, and opened his eyes still wider when 
Gray took from his pockets large packages contain- 
ing bonds and securities to the amount of half a mil- 



lion dollars, and, depositing them as collateral, di- 
rected the broker to sell all the Erie for which he 
could find buyers at forty and over, and lo buy it when- 
ever it went below thirty-three, 

That day Erie mounted, under the pressure of Van- 
derbilt's purchases, and the flurry created thereby, to 
|i43, at which figure an immense quantity chanEi^ed 
hands. Then it fell rapidly, point by point, back to 
J37, and, under the influence of a temporary panic, 
went down to $32, at which figure it rallied and 
mounted to $25, where it stood at the close of the day. 

Mr. Gray's regular broker reported to him pur- 
chases of five thousand shares Erie at prices ranging 
from $37 to $42, and averaging about $39. He re- 
gretted that Mr. Gray had not authorized a sale at 
443.25, which was the highest point reached, and at 
closing figures Mr, Gray must lose about $20,000. 

And Mr. Gray's new brokers reported to him sales 
of eighty thousand shares of Erie, at an average of 
841.50, which had been repurchased at an average 
of $34. 50, with a profit to Mr. Gray of $540,000, 
which they held, subject to his check. 

And when the returns were all in at the office of the 
old commodore, and that -white- whiskered, choleric, 
kind-hearted, and courageous old bull found that he 
owned more Erie than ever, at higher prices than 
those for which he had sold a small part of his hold- 
ings, and that the rattan which he had prepared for 
Gray had fallen upon his own shoulders, he stormed 
for a while and clothed himself with cursing as with a 
garment, and then he cooled off and laughed. Then 
he sent a note, this time not to John Gray's employer. 



but to John Gray himself, which read as follows: 

"Young fellow, you are a genius. Come and dine 

with me atsixo' clock to-day, at Delmonico's. C. V." 

The friendship cemented at that dinner, between 

■the great capitalist and the ex -messenger^ for Gray 

Iretumed no more to his duties as a porter — continued 

jnnlil the day of the commodore's deatli- 

Gray continued to operate in Wall Street, both in 

small and large ways, and seldom made a loss. When 

the first loud mutterings of the civil conflict began to 

shake the land, he became a heavy purchaser of tar, 

h.resin, and cotton, and, later, of gold. When the 

(Union armies were defeated and the day looked dark- 

and gold mounted to two hundred and eighty 

Cpremium, he never faltered in his belief in the ulti- 

Lniate triumph of the nation, and lie sold gold and 

■ bought government bonds, and margined one against 

• the other, and risked little and gained much. 

A year after the sun went down upon Appomattox, 
^ihe Yankee peddler was worth |!ao,ooo,ooo, and ten 
^ears later he was worth $50,000,000. He aban- 
taoned such stock operations as were dependent for 
btheir success upon other men's movements and plans, 
Band only engaged in such as he could absolutely con- 
■itrol. He gambled only with marked cards and 
l^oaded dice. He bought a control of the stocks and 
lends of badly- man aged and bankrupt railroads- He 
■£onsoiidaled them, re-equipped them, built feeders, 
l;qpened new sources of traffic, and so doubled, trebled, 
ind quadrupled his investments. He sold short the 
Kick of a prosperous railroad, and obtained, by pur- 
eof proxies, the control of its management. He 



cut rates, diminished tr^iflic, enlarged expenses, and 
passed dividends until he depreciated the value of the ■ 
stock to a point where he could gain millions by cov- 
ering his shorts, and other millions by again restor- 
ing the road to prosperity. In one instance, by hia 
paid emissaries, he promoted a general strike, until, 
through riot and fires and suspension of traffic, the i 
stock of the afflicted corporation was depreciated to , 
the price at which he desired to purchase a controlling I 

John Gray was an exemplary father and husband, a 
good neighbor, and, in a small way, generous and 
charitable; but in his larger dealings with mankind 
he was a moral idiot, without conscience or percep- 
tion. The world is no better for his life; the youth of 
the land are the worse for his example of successful 
scoundrelism, and those who wish well to their coun- 
try and their kind, will have a right to stand beside 
his coffin and thank God that he is dead. 

"I suppose," said Mr. Arnold Clay bank, "that we 
all understand the general outlines of our project, and 
that this meeting is for the purpose of talking over 
details. ' ' 

"Our purpose," said Mr. Wolf, "of I gomprehent 
it, is to use the bower dot we haf in our hants, to 
make for ourselves about fifty millions of tollars 
apiece. Is not dot apout vot it vas, eh ? " 

"We need not, I think, discuss that question," said 
Gray suavely. 

"Exactly," said Claybaiik. "Now I propose that 
we list the securities which we shall place in our pool, 
at the closing quotations of the Stock Exchange to- 



day, each one of us being credited with his contribu- 
tions. The stocks contributed will aggregate in value 
about $150,000,000, at present market prices, and, as 
nearly as possible, will be contributed by us equally. 
It is also understood that the stocks and bonds placed 
in the pool will constitute the entire holdings of each 
and all of us, in that class of property. Am I cor- 

"Quite so," said Mr. Gray. 
"Dot is also my unterstanting, " said Wolf. 
"Verywell," resumed Claybank, " these securities 
e to be placed in the offices of different brokers, and 
irned into cash as rapidly as possible without break- 
5 the market. The public will, I think, take them 
isily in a week, for the market is rising, and perma- 
s well as speculative investment is in order." 
" Ont then we lock up the gash for which we sells 
' the stock, ain't it? " said Wolf 

"Not immediately," rejoined Claybank, "it must 

be left in the banks in the usual channels for a time, or 

e will be no money for them to loan to the buyers 

rfstocks. Having sold our own securities, we will next 

iceed to sell short at ruling prices to as large an ex- 

t as possible. " 

"Your plan is admirable," said Mr. Gray. " We 

[ next arrange at the banks for borrowing all the 

Y that they can spare without suspending pay- 

Vment, and we will compel them to withdraw all loans 

[. Through our joint and separate control of, 

ind influence with, the officers and directors, we ought 

> be able to borrow in this city, and in Boston and 

Philadelphia, as much as {^150,000,000, which, added 



to $150,000,000 received from sale of our stocks, will 
give us control of $350,000,000 in cash." 

" Will dey loan so much as $150,000,000 even 
upon the persona! security of such men as we? " said 

"They will no.t be asked to do so," said Gray, 
"The money borrowed can be sealed up and left as 
special deposits in their vaults as security for itself, 
with a small margin of one or two per cent to cover ] 

" Dot inderest, of we borrow for thirty days at six 
per cent, on $150,000,000 will amount to three kevaw- 
ters of a million of toUars; ont that amount we lose out 
of our bockets; onC the interest on our own $150,000, - 
000 which will be itle for a month will be another three 
kevawters of a million. It makes us $500,000 each to 
lose. It is a great teal of money to lose," said Wolf. 

"That," said Claybank, "is all we lose, and is 
practically all we risk. It is essential to the success 
of our plans that for a brief period we shall withdraw 
from the channels of commerce a large portion of the 
money of the country. We cannot withdraw it unless 
we control it; we cannot control it unless we borrow 
it; and we cannot borrow it without paying bank rates 
of interest upon it." 

"How," said Gray, "do you propose to supply 
the necessary margins for the stock which we sell 
short? When you borrow stock on a rapidly- falling 
market, the loaner expects at some time a reaction, 
and an equally rapid advance, and you will have to 
give him a pretty big margin beyond the money which 
you receive from a sale of the borrowed stock." 



" We shall have for that purpose," replied Clay- 
bank, "the $150,000,000 received from the sale of 
our own stock- This, at fifty per cent fal! in prices, 
will margin borrowings of three hundred millions of 
stock, and this money we can arrange to have locked 
up in special deposits as well as the money we bor- 

"Ont to how low a point shall we put brices before 
we commence to cover?" said Wolf 

"That," replied Claybank, "will be a matter for 
future consideration. My present impression is that 
we can by thus locking up the currency bear the mar- 
ket one-half. We must not proceed so far as we 
might go, or we will ruin everybody, so that there will 
be no investors to purchase stocks when we wish to 
sell them again after we have loaded up for a rise," 

" Ont how much we makes by bearing fifty per 
cent ? '■ asked Wolf 

"It is easily calculated,' ' 
our plans succeed, we sell o 
lions of our own holdings a 
to bear the market fifty per c 

we must continue to sell down, diminishing the quan- 
tity we sell as prices recede, and when we begin to 
cover, we must buy all we can at the lowest point, 
diminishing our purchases as prices advance. Those 
not familiar with such things would be surprised to 
know that the ebb and flow of values in the stock 
market is almost as regular, and clui be almost as cer- 
tainly predicted, as the movement of the tides. Such 
a movement as we propose is artificial, yet, to an ex- 
tent, it will be similarly controlled by the influences of 

' replied Claybank. "If 

ine hundred and lifty mil- 

t present prices. In order 

t below present prices, 

human nature. If we sell one hundred and fifty mil-^ 

lions of stock at an average of say one hundred, andT 

I three hundred millions at an average say of eighty, | 

and buy it all back at an average of sixty, we will gain J 

t one hundred and twenty millions, and that, I thinkj ." 

^is about all we can calculate upon." 

"But have you considered, gendemen, the otherl 
[. wde of the question? " said Gray. " Have you fullyl 
L considered whedier there may not e.xist influencesB 
I that will defeat us ? Depend upon it, once we inaug- 1 
I'urate this raid, our rivals in business will plot to o 
1. throw us. Such great newspapers as are not in ourJ 
L control will denounce us. The Treasury Department •■ 
■at Washington, which is under the control of the 
T Fanners' Alliance party, will use every effort to break 
I down our combination, and we shall be howled at 
■-generally as ghouls and villains. I do not care much 
L about the public or the newspapers, but we must take 
[-every possible precaution against failure." 

"That is right," said Claybank. "1 have consid- 

■ ered all these things and 1 do not see how our plan 
[> can be defeated. The newspapers may denounce us 
f but cannot overthrow our plan, which, at last, is very 

■ simple. We produce a panic and depression of prices 
[ by locking up the circulating medium, and prices can 
f only be advanced by unlocking the money and restor- it, or other money in its place, to the channels of 
f commerce. The money which we lock up in special 
I deposits must remain in the bank vaults until we 
L release it. No bank officer would for any reason or 
[■under any pressure dare to touch a special deposit. 

■Jt would be a penitentiary offense to tamper with it." 


"Are }'ou sure." said Gray, "that otber capitalists 
may not combine, and provide other money to take 
the place of that which we lock up? " 

"The only other very large sum of money in the 
country within the control of anybody," replied Clay- 
bank, ' ■ is $300,000,000 in the treasury vaults at Wash- 
ington. ' The laws authorizing government deposits in 
banks, as well as the law authorizing bond purchases 
in the discretion of the secretary of the treasury, have, 
as you know, been repealed. There are absolutely 
but two ways to get that $300,000,000 out of the 
treasuryvaults. One is by the ordinary disbursements 
of government, which would take a year or more, and 
the other is by somebody depositing, under the law of 
1894, gold of silver bars to that amount, and nobody 
in the world is able to command three hundred, or 
one hundred, or even fifty millions of dollars in gold 
or silver bullion." 

"The new mining capitalist, David Morning, might 
supply the bars from his mine in Arizona if we gave 
him a few years' time," said Gray. 

" Yes, and if we gave him time he would be crank 
enough to do it," replied Claybank. "'But we won't 
give him time. How much does his mine yield, any- 
how ? ' ' 

" Four millions a month in solit golt," said Wolf. 
"Ithas yieltet that sum now for teventy months. I 
hear that it is nearly worked out, but nopoty can gel 
into it, and' you can't tel! anything apout it. If it con- 
tinues to yielt at that rate for a few years, dot fellow is 
going to make us all some trupple. He is crazy as a 
loon, though he has taken out of his mine over 
eighty millons of tollars. " 


"Even his $80,000,000, if he has thi'm in money, 
i might disarrange our plans," said Gray. 

"He has piown them all in, puilding plocks for 
I glerks ont poor people, ont he disgriminates against 

■ Hebrews, or his trustees do. A Jew knows a goot 
:' thing when he fints it, ont there were eighteen thou- 

aant applications from Jew glerks for the prifilege of 
I xenting apartments in tlie Morning Blocks, ont the 
t -committee made up a mean drick to get rit of them. 
I They require! every man who applied for rooms lo 
[ answer whether it was easier to fill to a bob-tail fiush 
1 sequence, ont those who answered the question 

■ they refused to pass, on the grount that they knew 
* too much apout draw poker to haf goot moral char- 

"I do not see," said Claybank, after the laughter 
I at Woli's indignation had subsided, "that we need 

■ take Mr. Morning into consideration as a disturbing 
I element in our present plans. If the present output 

of his mine shall continue, it must, by and by, greatly 
I advance prices of stocks and all other property, but 
f that is in the future." 

"Have we anything further to consider?" said 
[ Gray. 

"I think," replied Claybank, rising, "that we 
f understand each other perfectly. ' I will have tripU- 
^ cate memorandums made of our agreement, which we 
' can execute in my office to-morrow morning at nine 
o'clock, where we will have ourstocks brought at the 
same time. This Burgundy is the genuine article, 
Clos Voguet, vintage of 1875. I propose as a part- 
ing toast, ' Success to our enterprise.' " 


And the phonograph needle in the adjoining room 
wrote in mystic scratches upon the wax, * * Success to 
our enterprise.** Then came the shuffling of feet, the 
sound of a closing door, and the faint buzz of the 
electric motor until it ceased, and silence reigned. 


David Morning returned to New York threel 
I days after the dinner party described in the last chap-T 
His typewriters were in attendance as usual, J 
■i^and he began opening his accumulated correspond- 
^ ance, when his secretary knocked at the door com- 
r municating- with the next room, and, entering', said to 
I his employer: — 

"Mr. Morning, pardon me lor disturbing you, but 
I will you please step into the phonograph room. 
I There is a good deal of matter on the cylinders which 
I has been placed there by others in your absence, and, 
1 I judge, placed there inadvertently. I think you had 
I better hear it yourself before it is transcribed." 

Morning walked into the other room and was for hall 
an hour an interested auditor of the revelations of the 
k wonderful phonograph. He directed his secretary 
[ to remove, label, and lock up the cylinders contain- 
I ing the dinner-party conversation, and said in con- 
|: elusion :— 

■'Mr. Stephens, somebody has evidently been hav- 

; a dinner party in this room during my absence. 
I It was not a nice thing' for the proprietors to do, but 
I I shall not notice it. Try to find out who dined 
f here, without disclosing that I am aware thatthe room 



/i MlLl.IONAlRiC l)F TO-MORROW. 22^ 

was occupied. I think I r-ecognize tlie voices of the 
occupants, but I wish to be sure." 

By inquiring among the waiters, the secretary ascer- 
tained, and reported to Mr. Morning, that the guests ■^ 
were Cla)'bank, Wolf, and Gray. 

That night our hero departed for Washington, and 
early next morning he was closeted with the secretary 
of the treasury, to whom he revealed the knowledge 
gathered from the phonograph cylinders. 

"It is an infamous piece of business," said the 
secretary warmly, "but what, Mr. Morning, can I do 
about it?" 

"Mr- Secretary," said Morning, "will you pardoa 
me for saying frankly that it is your duty to bafHe 
these conspirators and restore values to their normal 
condition. It is the business of tlie government to 
provide a supply of money for the needs and ilses of 
commerce. These scoundrels will bring about a panic 
by locking up in the vaults of New York, Philadel- 
phia, and Boston banks, 3^300,000.000, which ought to 
be in circulation among the people. You have three 
hundred millions of coin and paper money in the 
treasury. Why not pour this money into Wall Street, 
break the back of this conspiracy, and relieve the peo- 1 

"But I have no authority, Mr. Morning, ^ you 
must know, to use one dollar of this money for any 
other purposes than those designated by law. If I 
had the power, believe me, 1 would be only too glad 
to exercise it as you desire." 

"Does not the Act ofCongress of February, 1894, 
known as the free coinage law, permit yoy, Mr, Secre- 


■, to substitute gold or silver bars of standard fine- 
B^ess, for the coined money and paper money in t!ie 
X treasury vaults ? ' ' 

''Yes," replied the secretary, ''but I do not see how 
lat law can be invoked to relieve the situation. 
There are not three hundred millions of gold and sil- 
kver ingots in private ownership in the country, or, 
liprobably, in the world. The very large output of 
1^1,000,000 in gold per week from the Morning mine 
J will not serve us in this exigency. It would require 
I six years' yield of your mine, Mr. Morning, to furnish 
enough gold to release the- money now in the treas- 
ury, and baffle Messrs. Gray, Claybank, and Wolf. 
Three hundred millions of dollars is a good deal of 
money, Mr. Morning — a good deal of money." 

"Relatively it is, Mr. Secretary, but I have five 
limes that sum in gold bars here, in Philadelphia, and 
New York." 

The secretary glanced at the Arizona Gold King, 
and looked uneasily at the bell cord which hung 
above his desk. 

"No, I am not crazy," said Morning with a laugh, 
"though 1 do not blame you for thinking so. The 
time has come somewhat sooner than I expected for 
intrusting you with my secret. The Morning mine 
is a phenomenal deposit of gold. It is so large that, 
fearing any general knowledge of its extent might 
cause demoneti2ation of gold by the nations, I took 
measures to conceal its true yield, and for every 
ounce of gold which I shipped to New York or Lon- 
don as the ostensible product of the mine, I shipped 
twenty-iive other ounces disguised as pig-copper to 



this city, or New York, or Philadelpliia, or LiverpooL ' 
In tlie latter place $1,000,000,000 are stored, and there 1 
are $500,000,000 in each of the American cities I have I 
named. A month ago I sent lour of my trusted men I 
from the mine Co this city, wliere they have si 
been busy with cold chisels, releasing the gold bars i 
from their copper moulds. They will go from here i 
to Philadelphia and New York, and thence to Liver- ■ 
pool, for similar labors. I did not intend, Mr, Secre- 
tary, to offer any of this gold for coinage or sale un- 
til able to present it simultaneously at European and J 
American mints. But the present exigency induces J 
me to turn over to the United States for coinage, the 1 
five hundred millions of gold bars now ready for de- J 
livery in this city. I may add, Mr. Secretary, to I 
quiet the apprehensions which your deep interest in ] 
the commercial prosperity of the country might lead ] 
you to entertain, that I have not intended, and do not i 
now intend, to throw $2,500,000,000 of new money , 
immediately into the channels of commerce. I shall J 
change the gold bars into money at once, in order | 
that the present value may not, by demonetization, 
be taken away from gold; but, once transformed into J 
money, it will be fed gradually to the world, and not 1 
precipitated upon it" 

"But, Mr. Morning, it will require the constant J 
labor for a long time of the mint and all its branches to 1 
coin this large sum, and you require the money at I 

"I propose, Mr. Secretary, to avail myself of the! 
law of February, 1S94, and claim treasury notes for J 
my ingots. That Act of Congress will enable you to J 

print in two or three days enough bills of large de- 
nomination to cover the whole sum." 

" You astound me, Mr. Morning, but I suppose I 
must believe you." 

"If you will ride with me to thefootof Sixth Street, 
Mr. Secretary, I will exhibit to you $500,000,000 in 
gold bars." 

"But, Mr. Morning, even $500,000,000 suddenly 
poured into Wall Street will create a wilder panic J 
and precipitate worse results, than those which may 
come from the pending conspiracy." 

"I do not think so," said Morning quietly. "It 
is contraction and not inflation that hurts. A flood 
may be disastrous to the crops in places, but a gen- 
eral drought will surely kill them all." 

"If Congress were in session, Mr. Morning, it 
would be likely to demonetize gold. It would never 
suffer fifteen hundred millions of money to be thus 
added to the present currency. Why, such an 
amount will double at once the eurire paper and me- 
tallic money of the country!" 

■'But Congress is not in session, Mr. Secretary, 
and you will pardon me for saying that, whatever 
may be >y)ur individual opinion as to consequences, 
you have no power to refuse to issue gold notes as 
fast as you can cause them to be engraved, for any 
amount of gold bars that I may offer." 

"True," replied the secretary. 

"But I repeat, Mr. Secretary, that I hope to guard 
against the evils you apprehend. I should be an un- 
worthy custodian of the great trust which lias come 
into my hands, if I could misuse it to harm either my 
country or my fellow-men." 


"I believe you, Mr. Morning'." 

"For the present I can only use the ingots wtiicA4 
are here in Washington, The New York and Phila-j^ 
delphia hoards will be ready in about a month, whet 
I shall require treasury notes for them, but before li 
offer them to you, and before their existence shall t 
known generally, I shall endeavor to place in ' 
mints at London, Paris, Berlin, Madrid, Milan, Vw 
enna, and St. Petersburg;, and in the banks of th^ 
principal cities of Europe simultaneously, in exchanged 
for metallic and paper money of those countries, 1 " 
one thousand millions now in Liverpool." 

The secretary bowed, 

"Will you order thrt-c. hundred millions of gold! 
notes, of the denomination of $i,ooo each, printed at9 
once, and arrange to weigh, test, and receive the five^ 
hundred millions of bars in my warehouse at the foot J 
of Sixth Street? If it be not irregular, you might re-1 
ceive the ingots where they are, deli\'er to me at once-J 
the two hundred millions of paper money now in the J 
treasury vaults, and the remaining three hui 
millions when printed. The gold bars can be re-.l 
moved to the treasury vaults at your convenience. 1.1 
ask that this method be followed because, if I am tftj 
relieve the situation in New York, I must be on han^. 
there with the actual currency. Ordinarily treasury^ 
drafts would answer the purpose, but, under presentj 
circumstances, they would be useless, as no banltj 
could cash them, and they are not a legal tender. 1 
These bandits will have locked up all the money in J 
special deposits, and their wcll-devii^eil sche. 
gnly be baffled by one who has — outside of any chai 


1 within their control, and outside of their knowU 
' edge— a vast sum in actual money." 

" How, may I ask, do you propose to defeat their 
plans, Mr. Morning?" 

"My brokers will purchase for cash all the stocks 
they offer, and, on deposit of sufficient margin, loan 
them the stocks back again, to be again sold to me. 
In brief, I will take all their 'shorts," and all the 
stocks sold by others which their conspiracy will force ■ 
upon the market. When, they have forced prices 
down to a point where they are ready to cover their i 
shorts and buy for an advance, I will suddenly jump | 
prices to the level they occupied before the c 
tors commenced their operations, and thus commend 
to their own lips the hitter draught they have pre- 
pared for others. I shall know — for I have many 
sources of information, Mr. Secretary— 1 shall know 
what portion of my purchases of stock will come from 
the conspirators, and what portion from men who 
will be forced by the panic to part with their holdings. 
I shall subsequently make good to those others all 
their losses. The one or two hundred millions which 
I may by this process extract from Mr. Gray, Mr. 
Claybank, and Mr. Wolf, I shall not "—and Morn- 
ing smiled — "restore to them. I shall devote it to 
founding and maintaining industrial schools." 

" Vour plan, Mr. Morning, is a brave and gigantic 
one. Is there no chance of its feilure?" 

"Not if I can have your co-operation, Mr. Secre- 
tary, in keeping secret for a week or ten days the fact 
that you have, under the law of February, 1894, re- 
ceived five hundred millions of ingot gold, and issued 


treasury notes therefor. These scoundrels will hav^ 
locked up all the available money in the great finf 
cial centers. They know that, under the present Iaw,fl 
the three hundred millions of paper and coin money! 
in the government vaults cannot be released so as ti 
. flow into the cliaiinels of commerce except by depos-^ 
its of gold or silver bulUon to take its place. My'd 
secret has been carefully kept, and they do not drear 
of the existence in private ownership of five hundredj 
millions, or even fifty millions, in gold bars. If I c 
keep this secret from them until the hour to strik*, 
arrives, I will give them a lesson that will cur 
for the future of any disposition to lock up money I 
and constrict the arterial blood of commerce for th(^ 
purposes of private gain." 

"But will not their losses be largely on paper, Mr. 1 
Morning? What if they refuse to pay ?" 

"I shall not go into court with them, Mr. Secr&^J 
tary, and it will not be necessary. Let me furthei 
illustrate. They sell one thousand shares say < 
Northwestern at $iio, and I buy it. They take ti 
$110,000 received by them from my broker and addq 
to it ten or twenty thousand dollars for margin, anqj 
borrow from me the one thousand shares of North 
western just sold me, depositing the one hundredj 
and twenty or one hundred and thirty thousand dol-F 
lars as security for the return of the borrowed stock.fl 
When Northwestern, under the pressure of their si 
descends to $100, they put up additional margin fof 
the stock borrowed, and borrow more stock on thej 
same terms. If they continue this process 
they have forced Northwestern down to $80 or $70* 


Ramd could then buy enough to replace the borrowed I 
stock and call in the money they had deposited e 
'margin,' they would make as profit the difference be- 
tween the low price at which they purchased and the I 
average of their sales. But if Northwestern should j 
suddenly jump in price to a point higher than the 
value to which they had margined it, then my brokers 
would purchase, at this high rate, enough Northwestern ] 
to make good the stock loaned to them, usmg for i 
that purpose the money deposited by the conspirators I 
as 'margin.' I propose to let these gentlemen have 
all the rope they want, and when they attempt to turn 
and become buyers,- I will spring stocks at once to 
their original price, and confiscate all their margins." 
' ' I will aid you, Mr. Morning, as you request, by 
keeping our transactions secret as far as possible, 
though 1 can't promise you success in that. At least 
a dozen men will be required to print the gold notes 
in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and those 
men will know of the issuance of so vast a sum as $300,- 
000,000. Half a dozen more must know of the re- 
moval of the two hundred millions of paper money 
now in the treasury vaults, and at least a dozen men 
will be needed to weigh and remove the gold bars from 
your warehouse. What is known to thirty men will 
soon, I fear, be known to the world. I will detail 
only discreet men, who shall work under pledges of 
secrecy, the violation of wliich shall coat them their 
places, but, after every precaution shall have been 
taken, who shall baffle the ubiquitous newspaper re- 
porter in search of a 'scoop'? He will crawl through 
the coal hole or the area railings. He will walk with 


e cats on the top of spikes and broken bottles, He 
11 act as a car-driver, a barber, or a purchaser of old 
clothing. I veriiy believe that if he had lived in the 
E&Iden days he would have coaxed C^sar to reveal 
' the plan of his next campaign, and wrested from the 
Egyptian Sphinx her secret. I fear, Mr. Morning, 
that the reporters will prove too much for us." 

"I have had some experience in keeping secrets, 
Mr. Secretary, and if you will permit me to direct the 
details of the movement, I will undertake that no ink- 
ling of it shall reach the ears of the reporters," 
"How will you avoid it, Mr. Morning?" 
"Anticipating your con&ert and co-operation, Mr. 
Secretary, I directed the captain of my steam yacht, 
the Oro, to come here from New York without 
deJay, and by to-night she will be moored in the 
Potomac, opposite the warehouse at the foot of Sixth 
t. I propose that, with the officials and men 
e duty it will be to test and weigh the gold bars, 
Fyou shall examine them where they are iu the ware- 
house. You will take the keys and take possession, 
and, if you desire, will detail guards for the warehouse 
who will not know what they are guarding. As soon 
as satisfied of the quality and quantity of the gold, you 
will direct the printing of three hundred millions of 
treasury notes, and will deliver me the two hun- 
dred millions of paper money now in the treasury 
vaults. The three hundred millions can be printed 
in bills of tlie denomination of $1,000, and may be 
packed in five good-sized trunks. The $200,000,000 
now in tlie treasury, being iu bills of smaller denomi- 
nations, will require fifteen trunks for their accommo- 




E dation. My four trusted men, who have been busy I 
a here for the past month cutting the gold bars out ofl 
y their copper jackets, will procure fifteen trunks ol dif-#^ 
f ibrcnt makes and marks, and after they have been filledj 
I -with currency at tlie treasury vaults, will carry tl 

■ in an express wagon, which I will purchase, to th^ 
I Tailroad depot, and check them for New York in fou( 
J, different lots, purchasing two or three passage ticket 

■ ;Ebr New York for each lot of trunks. They will g^l 
w.fs ordinary baggage to New York, and there bi 
Wto my office on Broadway, without exciting suspicioMM 

tor comment. Two of the men will return from Nei 

York here, and a similar plan can be pursued witllS 
P,lQie $300,000,000, which will be printed in the meaO'^ 

Idme. ' ' 

• " I do not yet see, Mr. Morning, how you propoa^ 
tto close the mouths of the treasury officials engaged 
I'in the business here." 

"I ask, Mr. Secretary, that for all this work yo! 
[1 will select reliable men, unmarried, and who can 
I sent from their places of abode for a fortnight without 

comment- Inform each man selected that he will b 
L employed in a matter requiring secrecy, and that i 
k will involve an ocean trip. I propose that every maaj 
I connected with the transaction, except yourself, Mr.J 
t* Secretary, every man, from the official who tests the! 

gold, to the official who packs the currency into thft- 
f trunks, shall, from the time he enters upon the per-1 
I formance of his duty, until it is completed, rer 
F place. I will have food, and, if need be, cots for sleep-j^ 
' ing at Uie warehouse, and the placing of tlie currencyj 
t in the trunks will not require more than an hour o 


WO of time. Each man, as he compietes his duty, will 
1 board the Oro, and when all are on board, the 
(Steamer will put to sea, with oiflers to cruise for two 
ind then return here. Eacli of tlie gentlemen 
taking this voyage will be presented by me with the 
Bim of $i,ooo for his services. The examination and 
;hing of ihegold bars in the warehouse, and the , 
ing and shipment of the two hundred milhons of 
paper money now in the treasury, can, I think, be 
completed by to-morrow, and the Oro steam out to- 
morrow night, with a passenger list including the 
names of all those who have any knowledge of the 
fact that two hundred inilLions of treasury notes are 
on their way to New York, and that the government 
has $500,000,000 worth of gold bars in its vaults." 

"And how about the three hundred milhons of 
notes ordered printed ? ' ' 

"Those engaged in the printing can be similarly 
detailed, similarly instructed, and similarly dealt with. 
I have chartered the New Dominion, now lying at 
Norfolk, for a vojrage to Port au Prince, on the island 
of Santa Domingo. She has steam up, awaiting or- 
ders. She will be here in time, and all those who 
have knowledge of the printing or shipment of the 
other three hundred millions, will, on the completion 
of their duties, go on board of her for a trip to Hayti, 
and, on their return a fortnight afterwards, receive 
the same gift of )5i,ooo each for his services." 

" Your plan is ingenious, yet simple, Mr. Morning, 
and seems Ukely to be effective. So far as this de- 
partment is concerned, its execution will involve a 
departure from all rules and precedents, and I shall 


not escape hot criticism if 1 order it, especially from I 

I th - New York papers controlled by the conspiratorsB 

But I see nothing really wrong or objectionable in it,! 

I and 'nice customs cuurtesy to great kings,' and yoal 

ire a great king, Mr. Morning." 

"Say rather that the exigency is a great kingfsl 

rtr. Secretary. Vou will then aid me as I ask you."j 


"Thank you, Mr. Secretary. In the future an* 
l&vor you may ask of me, personal or official, vdm 
I not be denied." 



IS are fair when Ijornc witli ju 

vas blue Monday in Wall Street. It was the be- 
ginning of the second week of the most disastrous 
panic ever known in the history of finance. Capital 
fled, affrighted, to its strong boxes, and refused to 
come forth at any rate of interest, or upon any secu- i 
rity. Values had been going downward without re- 
action for six days. The yellings and shoutings in ' 
the stock board were such as might have been in- 
dulged in by escapes from an asylum for violent luna- 
tics. Fortune after fortune had been swept into the 
vortex in a vain attempt to stay the current. Stocks 
which had ranked for years as among the most reli- 
able of investments, descended the grade as rapidly as 
the "fancies." Northwestern had fallen from $112 to 
$60; Western Union from $80 to $45, and Lackawana 
from $138 to $70, and even at these prices more stock 
was apparently offered than found purchasers. 

The conspirators were, apparently, successful. 
Three men whose combined wealth already aggre- 
gated $300,000,000, had produced this storm of dis- 
aster merely to increase their millions, regardless of ■ 
ruined homes. They sold their own stock as they had 
plotted, seventy-five millions of it at full rates, and sev- 
enty-five millions at an average reduction of fifteen 


r cent, early the preceding week, and before Morn- 
had perfected his arrangements, or appeared 
1 the scene. Their subsequent short sales were 
e at lower prices than they had estimated, for 
rs came in competition with them, as vendors, 
ey locked up both the currency received from their 
;s, and the currency they had borrowed, so effec- 
lly that merchants, brokers, and others, who were 
tble to obtain the usual banking accommodations, 
:e compelled to throw upon the market their hold- 
3 of bank, railroad, and telegraph stock. 
Wolf, who personally led the bear raid in the board, 
Eollowed prices down with fresh lines of shorts, to an 
mount beyond that originally intended, and at the 
e of the previous week, the short sales of tlie con- 
ipirators amounted to $400,000,000. In one particu- 
,r they had miscalculated, for, after stocks had fallen 
Btwenty per cent, the brokers who purchased them re- 
ised to loan them again for resale on the customary 
I but believing, or affecting to believe, that 
prices would advance with greater celerity than they 
had receded, they demanded an amount of money as 
margin equal to the difference between the existing 
market price of the stock loaned and the market 
price that ruled before the break. 

This demand was mad e under the direction of 
Morning, who did not appear in public, but, from his 
private office on Broadway, sent orders to a dozen dif- 
ferent brokers whose services had not been engaged 
by the Gray-Clay bank -Wolf syndicate. After the 
first break, Morning was tbe purchaser of nine-tenths 
of the stock sold, and after each purchase the money 




paiti for the stock, with the margin added, was locked 
up ill the vaults of one of his brokers, or in hi 
not under the control of the conspirators. In this 
way the syndicate had been compelled to add $60,- 
000,000 to the $140,000,000 they had received from 
the sale of their own stock. 

On the morning; of the second Monday of Novem- 
ber, 1895, the " Gold King" was the owner, by pur- 
chase, of stocks which had cost him ^00,000,000, 
but which were worth, at the prices which prevailed 
before the raid, $600,000,000. 

These stocks had been loaned to the conspiratof^ 
by Morning, repurchased by him, loaned and repur- 
chased again, until he now held in his control two hun- 
dred millions of money, put up by the syndicate as 
margin, or security, for the delivery to him of stocks 
which needed only to be restored to their former I 
value to cause the conspirators to lose $200,000, 
and Morning to gain that sum. If, however, prices i 
could be kept at panic figures until the conspirators ' 
could turn buyers, and cover their shorts, they would 
gain $200,000,000, which would be filched from whom- 
soever had been compelled to sell. 

There were $400,000,000 at stake on the game. 
The bear syndicate thought they were playing with 
loaded dice, and so they were, but the load was against 
them, instead of being in their favor. 

On Sunday night a private conference was held at 
Mr. Claybank's residence, on Fifth Avenue. 

"To-morrow," said Gray, "let us stop selling and 
begin buying, and cover as rapidly as possible. There 
are some features of the situation which fill me with ' 


"Ontso I thinks, Misder Gray," said Wolf. "I 
ton't gomprehent where the money comes from on 
ind Saturtay with which our sales were met. 
si figure it, we hat everj' toHar locked up on Thiirs- 
r that was anywhere available, but so much as a 
miret, or, maby, a huntret and fifty millions of new 
I into the street on yesterday and Fri- 

" It probably came from Chicago," said Clay bank. 
' ' No," replied Wolf. ' ' Chicago sent only fifty 
Dillions, ont it vas all here by Wednesday. It buz- 
s me, ont I ton't like it, ont I believe it is fiill time 
D commence closing the deal." 

t was, accordingly, agreed to close it, and on Mon- 
W^y morning these three worthies appeared in their 
I seats in the Stock Exchange, for they were all mem- 
I bers of that body, although they seldom or never 
Iparticipaled in its proceedings, preferring to transact 
I ^eir business through other brokers. 

Morning was also a mem ber of the Stock E.tchange, 
having purchased a seat a year previously, but he 
did not often appear there, and had never bought 
or sold a share of stock himself in open board. Even 
amid the excitement of the panic, his presence gave 
interest to the occasion, for his sobriquet of the 
"Gold King" attached legitimately to his ownership 
of a mine that was yielding $4,000,000 per month, 
with the probability of making its owner in a few 
years the greatest billionaire in the world. 

There were probably few among the active mem- 
bers of the Stock Exchange who did not, at this time, 
know nearly as much about the causes of the panic as 



reven the three men who produced it, and among all 
the brokers, except those in the employment of the 
syndicate, only indignation was expressed at the oper- 
ations of Wolf, Claybank, and Gray. The New York 
stockbroker is neither a Shylock nor a miser. He b 
usually a genial, generous sort of fellow, who pre- 
I fers a bull market to a bear raid. He likes to make 

I money himself and have everybody else make it. A 

boom is his delight, and a panic his abhorrence. If a 
majority of the board of brokers could have had their 
way, they would have hung the members of the syn- 
dicate to the gallery railings, and the question of 
reaching them in some lawful way, and relieving the 
board from the effects of their conspiracy, had been 
informally discussed. 

But nothing was attempted, because nothing seemed 
really practicable. It was well known that the existing 
condition of things had been produced by locking up 
the currency. So long as it remained locked up, 
prices must remain at whatever figures the conspirators 
might choose to place them. Only the power that 
withdrew the money from circulation, could restore 
it to the channels of commerce. There was absolutely 
nothing for those not already ruined to do e.xcept to 
hide in the jungle until the three tigers should have 
fully gorged themselves. When Claybank, Gray, 
and Wolf should graciously permit the money to be 
unlocked, then stocks would advance to their real 
value, business would resume its proper channels, and 
the panic would be over — and not until then. 

In the Exchange, stocks were called alphabetically, 
and the first upon the list of railroad securities was 



e Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe. This was not 
ta dividend-paying or fevorite investment stoclt, and, 
I probably, three- fourtiis of it had been held in the street 
L for years, in speculative and marginal holdings. Morn- 
f ing had special reasons for securing control of this road 
. addition to his general purpose of thwarting the 
I conspirators. Prior to the panic, Atchison, Topeka, 
band Santa Fe had vibrated for months between $ij 
I and $33, and on the Saturday previous to the Mon- 
fi'day which saw the beginning of the bear raid, it had 
rclosed at 1S30. Under the operations of the conspira- 
f tora, it had been hammered down to $15, at which 
I figure it closed on the previous Saturday. 

; of the syndicate brokers who sat by Wolf, 
f opened the ball by offering two hundred shares of 
f Atchison at $15. 

"Taken," cried Morning, from his seat. 

' ' Five hundred Atchison at $15;^ , " said the broker. 

"Taken," replied Morning. 

A shade of uneasiness covered the features of the 
I broker, but, in response to a gesture from Wolf, he 
r called again: — 

"One thousand Atchison offered at $16." 

■'Taken," said Morning. 

The broker dropped into his seat and mopped his 
)' fiice with his handkerchief. 

"Any further offers of Atchison for sale?" cried 
} the caller. 

And there was no rqsly, 

"Two hundred Atchison, Brown to Morning, at 
I $15; five hundred Atchison, Brown to Morning, at 
(■ tf'5.''3i one thousand Atchison, Brown to Mominp, at 



5i6. Are there further bids for Atchison?" said the 

Wolf arose and cried, ' ' Fifteen dollars is offered for 
one thousand Atchison." 

There was no higher offer, but the caller did not 
proceed to cry the next stock on the list. Some- 
how everybody seemed to feel that a crisis had been 
reached; it was in the air, and, amidst a hushed and 
expectant silence unprecedented in the history of the 
New York Stock and Exchange Board, the voice of 
David Morning rang out like a trumpet. 

"Iwillgive," said he, " 530 per share for the whole 
or any portion of the capital stock of the Atchison, 
^Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad Company." 

1 pandemonium reigned. The quick wit of the 

x;kbrokers comprehended the situation in an instant. 

s all as clear to them as if it had been written 

md printed. They knew that Claybank, Wolf, and 

■ had joined forces, locked up the currency, 

Srought about a panic, broken down the market, and 

ruined half the street. They knew that the country 

s prosperous, the mines prolific, and the crops good. 

JrThey knew that the depression in prices was wholly 

- artificial, and that it must, sooner or later, be followed 

by a reaction and restoration of values, and they had 

90 advised their customers, but they supposed that the 

>eriod of such reaction was wholly within the control 

f Gray, Claybank, and Wolf 

They had no reason to expect that reUef would 

come from any other source, and the appearance and 

action of Morning burst upon them like a revelation. 

Here was a man who was a new-comer to fortune and 



finance, a man who had devoted the i 
^revenues of his mine to beneficent rather than busi- 
i purposes, and who was above the necessity or 
temptation of increasing his wealth by speculation. 
His presence in the Board, and his bid of $30 a share 
for Atchison, demonstrated that he knew of the Clay- 
bank -Gray-Wolf conspiracy, and that he proposed 
to baflle it. He must have measured the forces of the 
members of the syndicate and be advised as to the 
amount of money necessary to meet them. Possibly 
he had found a way to unlock the federal treasury, or 
had from some source obtained the necessary millions. 
Certainly he had obtained them or he would never 
have thus challenged the magnates of Wall Street to 
combat. Clearly, the panic was at an end, the man 
from Arizona was about to lead them out of the wil- 

And they shouted, and roared, and cried, and 
hugged each other, and mashed each others' hats, and 
inarched up and down and around the floor, and 
joined hands and danced around Morning, and disre- 
garded all calls to order, and were finally quieted only 
when Morning, escorted by the President of the Stock 
Exchange, ascended the stand. 

The President, as soon as silence was secured, 
said: — 

"Gentlemen, it seems to be the general wish that 
the regular call shall be temporarily suspended, and 
that we shall hear from Mr. David Morning." 

That gentleman, after the roar of greeting had sub- 
sided, said: — 

"Gentlemen: 1 think you will agree with me in 


believing thai the prices of securities listed on this 
exchange have, during the past week, ruled altogether 
too low. I propose to put an end to this condition of 
things, which ought never to have been brought about, 
and I have authorized my^brokers here to offer, during 
to-day and to-morrow, and for the rest of this week, 
to purchase, to the e.xtent of $700,000,000, any and 
all railroad stocks listed on thin E.xchange, at the 
prices which ruled at the close ol the board on Satur- 
day week, before the panic began." 

A great cheer went up from the throats of the 
multitude, and, after it subsided, Isaiah Wolf, livid 
with rage and excitement, arose and e.xclaimed: — 

"Does this lunatic then e.xpect to make fools of us 
all? Is it to be beliefed dot this crazy man has got 
seven huntret millions of tollars in cash to buy stocks 
mit? His golt mine has turned his prain- It vos 
better dot we don't all pe too fresh apout this piznesa." 

Morning quietly continued: — 

"Anticipating that my purchases of stock might 
possibly be large to-day and during the week, I have 
made arrangements to dispense with the customary 
methods, and so will avoid the usual delays in receiv- 
ing and paying for stock. I have quadrupled my 
usual force of clerks, and my offices on Broadway will 
be open every day this week from nine o'clock in the 
morning until nine o'clock at night. No checks, 
certified or otherwise, will be issued by me, but the 
stocks bought by my brokers will be paid for on 
delivery at my offices at any time during the hours 
, named, and paid for in treasury and national bank 

246 Better days, 

"Where," roared Wolf, "did you get such a sum 
of money as seven huntret millions of tollars? You 
are either a liar, a lunatic, or a counterfeiter." 

"Two hundred millions of dollars of the money 
which I hold," replied Morning, "was deposited by 
you and your colleagues inlhe conspiracy, as security 
for the return of stocks which I bought of you, and 
then loaned to you to sell to me again and again. 
Under the rules of the stock board these S!^oo,ooo,ooo 
will be forfeited to me unless you restore the borrowed 
slocks on the usual notice. The notices will be served 
on you to-day, and when you begin to buy in to cover 
your shorts, you will be compelled to pay full value. 
I think I can count upon your $200,000,000 to aid in 
paying for to-day's purchases, Mr. Wolf" And. amid 
continued cheers and laughter, Morning descended 
from the caller's stand, and started for his seat. 

Claybank and Gray had left the hall, but Wolf 
remained, and as Morning passed along the aisle, the 
Jew, with face white and twitching, and with foam on 
his mustache, stepped out and confronted him, 

" You have made a beggar of me," said he with a 
curse, "but I will have your heart's blood for this," 
and he reached for Morning's throat. 

But the man from Arizona stepped backward and 
then forward, and at the same moment his right arm 
went swifdy forth from his shoulder. 

"Smack! smack! smack!" and the nose of Wolf 
was spread over his face, and the crazed man was 
hustled and hurried by the crowd, and greeted with 
oaths and blows as he went, until, with torn clothing 
and battered (ace, he was literally kicked into the 


■'These are things which might be done." 
[From the New York Times, November ao, i8( 


Holders of stock and bonds in the Atchisc 
^peka, and Santa Fe, Denver and Gulf, Kansas Ciqj 
I and Chicago, Lakeshore and Michigan Soi 
l:New York and Erie, and New York and New En^fl 
r.gtand Railroads, who desire to dispose of their holdiil 
I Uigs, will find a purchaser in me at the rates prevailing; the close of the Stock Exchange yesterday. I 
ralready own a majority of the capital stock of thel 
^ roads named, and intend to consolidate them in omn 
company without any bonded indebtedness, with the™ 
intention of providing the public with a double-tracl™ 
road between Portland, Maine, and San FranciscOiM 
California, via Boston, New York, Buffalo, Detroily 
Chicago, Kansas City, and Denver, with a branch t 
Galveston- This consolidated road will not be ruB^ 
with a view to profit beyond four or five per cent p^B 
L annum above operating expenses. In making i^VtfT 
\ experiment I deem it only right to relieve the presenM 
I "holders of stock and bonds from loss, and this offer 
(•purchase will remain open for one month. 

David Morning, 
_?9 Broadway, N. Y. City. 
2 sq. 1 m., November t^. 

We copy from our advertising column the foreg^ 
ng, which presages the most important event of thii 
^ (H7) 


^ century. Whatever may be thought of the wisdom J 

F of Mr. Morning's plans in any direction, there can nowi 

^ be no question as to his ability to carry them for- J 

ward. The brilliant strategelical movement by which"! 

he bagged two hundred milhons of piratical money 1 

from Gray, Claybank, and Wolf, and, while defeating! 

I them, restored values and prosperity, is aiill fresh ii 

I the public mind, and his subsequent course in search- ] 

J out all other persons who lost by the panic, and 1 

imbursing them the amount of their losses, will not | 
r soon be forgotten. 

The brave and sagacious action of the Secretary ofl 
I the Treasury in going outside of the channels marked J 
1 by red tape in order to promote Mr. Morning's plans, 1 
3 generally commended by the public, and meets! 
[■ with no criticism except from the baffled syndicate of 1 
[ scoundrels. 

Whatever action, if any. Congress may take next I 
[ month when it assembles with regard to the deraoneti-r 
[ aation of gold, and whatever may be the course pur-( 
[- sued by the German Reichstag, the French Chamber! 
[- of Deputies, and the British Parliament, all of which I 
[ are now wrestling with the great economic problem I 
I which the vast gold yield of the Morning mine pre- T 
[ sents, yet one thing is certain, David Morning has 1 
I quietly and shrewdly placed two thousand five hun- i 
F dred millions of gold in the mints and treasuries crf.l 
Europe and America, and obtained therefor money, . 
[ the legal tender quality and value of which, no future I 
h legislation can impair. 

s fortunate for the world that this vast sum is 
\ the hands of a man who seems to comprehend the n; 



ture of the problems which its existence, its introduc- 
tion to circulation, and its subsequent use, will create, 
and who also seems disposed to treat his great treasure- 
trove as a public trust rather than a personal possession. 
I It is a curious fact that some statesmen who have, 
f -without much reflection, been characterized as vision- 
lary, urged vainly for years upon the public attention 
I the wisdom and feasibility of creating vast sums of 
■ fiat money, which were to be loaned upon land and 
pcrop values. It will not escape notice that the Coii- 
Lgress of the United States might, at any time within 
E the past few years, by passing a land and property 
I loan law, have created the same conditions, whether 
Fithey prove to be conditions of prosperity or disaster, 
f Tvhich are now upon the world by reason of Mr. 
1 Morning's gold discovery. But it is not our purpose 
D attempt discussion of the situation generally. We 
intend only to give to the public a reliable account of 
the railroad projects of Mr. Morning. On reading 
bis advertisement, we dispatched a reporter, who found 
IWm, as usual, frank and communicative. No com- 
I jnent of ours would add force or importance to the 
I utterances of the Arizona Gold King, and we will let 
I ilim tell his story in his own way. 

"My plan," said Morning, "is not complicated, 

B^tnd not original with me. 1 only supply the means 

f to try an experiment which it has often been suggested 

I should be tried by the United States Government. 

[ If successful it will be of incalculable benefit to the 

people of this country. It will require not more than 

$250,ocx),ooo to carry it out, and its failure would not 

involve a loss of more than $50,000,000. 



"I marvel," continued the gentleman, "that pub-1 
c opinion did not years ago act upon Congress so a 
o cause it to deal with ihe transportation question iai 

e interest of the people. I marv&I that some of oi 
jreat capitalists have not Joined efforts, and devoted j 
a portion of their possessions to providing the people | 
with cheap transportation. Suppose that a dozen of I 
f them should have together made a pool of ;B200,ooo,- f 
ooo, and undertaken a work— not of charity, but of a 
helping the toilers to help themselves. It would not J 
have taken one-third of their possessions; it would I 
lave deprived neither them nor their children of a J 
gle luxury, and yet it would have allayed the dia- ] 
|uiet and antagonism of multitudes, and, more than i 
marble shafts, it would have Hnked their ] 
mes to immortality." 
"Will not Messrs. Gray, Claybank, and Wolf have J 
iupplied the funds for your experiment?" queriedl 
the reporter. 

Morning laughed as he answered: "Well, in away,. I 
yes; and if I had not already devoted their contribu- 
tions to founding and maintaining industrial schools, 
there would be a sort of poetical justice in making J 
such application of that fund." 

"Will you give me, for the Times, the details of 
your plans, Mr. Morning? " 

"Certainly," replied that gentlemen. "I have 
nothing to conceal. The railroad lines of this country, 
especially the transcontinental lines, were built when 
material and labor were much higher than now, and \ 
.some of them when gold was at a high premium. 
Stock and bonds of many roads have been watered. 




md in paying present market prices for them I shall 

' probably pay much more than the sum for which the 

roads could be duplicated if constructed honestly and 

economically at present cost of labor and materials, 

and allowing nothing for subsidies, bounties, steal- 

fctegs, and profits of speculators, contractors, and leg- 

Rislators, But it would not, I think, be right to punish 

i|iresent holders of stocks and bonds for the sins o( 

Kl^eir predecessors in interest, anjJ I therefore propose 

Mto pay the present inflated value of these securities. 

■] shall not, however, attempt to make the reorgan- 

pized road carry the burden of paying interest and 

[dividends upon the sums which I shall pay." 

"What do you estimate to be the present market 
alue of the roads you propose to purchase, Mr. 

"At present market rates, and I shall pay no more, 

file total amount that will be required to buy in both 

Atocks and bonds, will be, in round numbers, $150,- 

0,000. I am advised by experts that the cost ol 

Baldening roadbed and bridges, and laying additional 

|ijron, so as to make four tracks from New York to 

5 City, and a double track from the Missouri 

ERiver to the Pacific, will, with the necessary buildings 

land shops, be about $70,000,000." 

"Then the proposed line, when completed, will 
have cost you about $220,000,000? ' ' 

"Exactly, less the sum which may be received 

. for rolling stock, which I propose to sell. But I am 

Hinformed by my engineers that a similar line might 

■ built now for $150,000,000, and 1 therefore take 

1150,000,000 as the actual value of the roadbed, sta- 



"And how would that switch be again opened, ] 
Lafter being closed?" 

"Automatically, by the passage of the train over J 
^tiie rails ahead of it." 

"That is a very ingenious and original idea,*Mri.i 

" Ingenious and simple, but it is not my own. AJ 
similar contrivance was in use on the Italian roadsfl 
twenty years ago, although the idea was suggested t6l 
me by an Arizona rancher, who was averse to having 4 
cattle straying in his alfalla fields, through which sev-1^ 
eral public roads ran. In order to avoid the cost of I 
fencing the roads, he put up automatic gates. The ■ 
weight of the horses and vehicle upon a platform a 1 
few yards from the gate, on either side, operated upon i 
a lever, and swung open the gate, which was released ,1 
automatically by the passage of the wagon, and so I 
swung shut." 

"You seem, by these arrangements, to have se*' 
cured the safety of passengers and train hands, but 1 
how about the speed? Will the traveling public be I 
content with twenty miles an hour between Kans^.^ 
City and San Francisco ? ' ' 

"I do not know. If they shall not be, still the 1 
speed would be satisfactory to the freighters. My 1 
own belief is that the greater safety and lower rates I 
of passage that will prevail on this road will attract 1 
to it a large share of the passenger traffic. Those I 
who are in haste can travel over one of the other | 

"Your object seems to be to give to the public t 
cheaper railroad service. ' ' 


"It is partly that and partly to give the railroad 
mployes better pay and greater regularity and per- 
lanency of employment. I will try to divide the 
jenefits equitably. ' ' 

"Will not those who run trains upon your road 
defeat your object by combinations among themselves, 
to put up the price of freight and passage, and put 
down the wages of railroad hands?" 

" It will be practicable, I think, to guard against 
both these things. If the Brotherhoods of Locomo- 
tive Firemen, and Locomotive Engineers, and Train 
Hands, will establish and maintain reasonable rates of 
compensation and hours of labor, and will enable all 
qualified workers to become members at will, then the 
directors of the company owning the roadbed will 
only allow its use to trains managed by Brotherhood 
members. If persons or companies owning rolling 
stock shall advance freight or passenger rates beyond 
maximum, or reduce them below minimum, rates, fixed 
by the directors of the Railway Company, they will 
lose their right to run trains, and if a combination 
should be made to diminish facilities to shippers or 
travelers, then the Roadbed Company will itself place" 
a freight and passenger service on the track. ' ' 

"Will you expect to personally superintend this 
great work, Mr, Morning?" 

"No, I must leave it to others. Once it shall be 
well started I have other projects which will require 
my attention." 

"Who will run it, Mr. Morning?" 

"The Board of Directors will, in the first instance, 
consist of the governor of each Slate through which 


I'&e roadbed shall be constructed, from Maine to Cali- 
fornia. To these fifteen or sixteen governors will be 
added thirty experienced railway managers, who will 
be selected by me. Each governor will serve as 
.director only during his term as governor, and will be 
succeeded as director by his official successor as 
gfovernor. The thirty directors appointed by me will 
•receive liberal salaries, will not be permitted to be 
interested in any other railroad, and will serve until 
they resign, or die, or are removed for cause by a two- 
thirds vote of the other directors. Vacancies thus 
occurring will be filled by a similar vote. Subject to 
the principles of management I have endeavored to 
outline, the control of the affairs of the company will 
be with the Board of Directors." 

' ' Will not the vast sums of money which the yield of 
the Morning mine must add to the standard currency 
of the world so inflate values as to make diihcult any 
equitable adjustment of freight or passenger rates, or 
of the wages of railroad workers?" 

"Freight and passenger rates, and wages, will 
necessarily advance with the increase of all values. 
It will be like the tide at the Dardanelles, which never 
ebbs. No man who has any knowledge, or exercises 
r any care, need be overwhelmed or hurt by it, and all 

L men who try can guide their barks to prosperity upon 

L its swell." 

I "Would yon consider it really a healthful state of 

I affairs if, by an inflated currency, prices were so 

I increased that a dinner which one can now buy for 

I fifty cents should cost $5.00, and a $20 coat sell for 



"Why not it prices were Himilariy advanced over 
all the world? People indulg;e in a good deal of loose 
talk about inflated currency, debased currency, ; 
fiat money. In truth, all nioney is fiat money, for s 
bar of gold U not a leg-al tender, and illation. < 
values is the law of commercial growth. In the mid- 1 
die ages a penny was the price of a day's wages or« 
of a bushel of wheat. Money which has for its b 
either precious metals or substantial property in lands j 
tor merchandise is good money, while money lacking J 
E.such basis is bad money. Clipped shillings, Frenchj 
issignats, and Continental and Confederate currency,J 
00 more fiat money tlian are American doublfj^ 
or five-pound Bank of England notes. 
K.the stamp of the government, the fiat of its poweTjl 
^that turns die metal or the paper into money," 

ut do not all financiers consider inflation a| 
Idisaster, Mr. Morning?" 

"Inflation," rephed the gentleman, "whether t^M 

f metallic or paper currency that is accepted by thfcj 

I world or by a great commercial nation as a legal tender, i" 

L'can do no harm except to those who loan money. A.I 

■ dollar is a mere term. You pay now five dimes, or J 

fc^nfty cents, or five hundred mills, for your dinner, I 

■^Suppose by large continued increase in the production J 

»bf gold and silver, the money of all countries shall] 

be inflated so that you must pay fifty dollars instead J 

of fifty cents, or five hundred dimes in pl^ce of five I 

hundred mills, for your dinner. What of it ? You ] 

could carry as much paper money as now. It would | 

need only to increase the denomination of the bills. I 

All property and services would advance proportion- 

F ately. Only the loancra of money would be left, : 

I they would soon find it to their interest to put thri 

money into property, which would necessarily advanoj 

in value, rather than in loans, which would, in th^| 

I relation to property, necessarily decrease in vala 

Under such conditions interest would not compensa 

the money owner for the depreciation of his principjjJ 

and the loaning of money, except for brief period^ 

[■ would cease, while property of all kinds would alwayt 

L be saleable for cash, because always sure to increa 

1 value, while idle money would not so increase," 

"What will be the effect of your project on t 

^ other railroads, Mr. Morning?" 

"My hope and expectation is that the successful^ 
working of my project will induce large aggregations 
' of capital to acquire and conduct all the railroads iftV 

the country under one management, which shouldi 

I itself be under the direction and control of the Fed-j 

ral Government. Four thousand millions of doUai 

would purchase and free from bonded indebtednes 

I all the interstate railroad and telegraph lines in thra 

t United States, and $1,000,000,000 more would improvM 

' such property to the highest point of efficiency. 

company with a capital of $5,000,000,000, having ntjl 

bonded debt and economically and honestly managec' 

could pay dividends of five per cent per annum oqj 

its stock, which stock might be increased in amounW 

as other values increased. Present railroad bondJ 

holders would be transformed into railroad stockhold-J 

ers, and the stock of the United States Consolidatet 

Railroad Company, guaranteed by the United StatesJ 

Government to pay five per cent per annum, and so] 

conducted as to earn that dividend, above cost of re- 
pairs and construction of new lines, would be a favorite 
investment. Such stock might be made the basis of 
currency issued thereon to national banks. It could 
be held by benevolent and educational institutions, 
p.and trust funds could be invested in it. It would take 
I the place of the present United States bonds as a lazy 
f ftuid, and it would not be a lazy fiind, for it would be 
an investment in earning property. It would substi- 
tute the earned increment of labor for the unearned 
increment of interest. Interest on money at best 
belongs to conditions which are passing away. It 
ia an attribute of a former civilization, and I predict 
that during the next century it will come to an end 
L altogether.' ' 

"How would the United States Consolidated Rail- 
ftroad Company affect railway patrons and railroad 
■ employes?" 

"By adjusting freight and passenger charges, and 
irages of employes, so as to produce an income of 
e per cent on the investment, and by discontinuing 
lion-paying lines, building new ones, and developing 
profitable connections — in brief, by running all the 
railroads in the land as one company under one man- 
fement, in such manner as to produce from earnings 
I net income of five per cent, on a capitalization of 
all existing stocks and bonds at their market value 
O-day — the prices of freight and passage would be 
Kluced, and the wages of railroad workers increased. ' ' 
"I think," continued the Arizona Gold King, 
"■that the entire system should be under government 
nipervision, or even under government direction, and, 


(Impend upon it, nobody would be harmed, 
I about forty thousand people, who now own sixty p 

cent of all the real property in America, and even t 
I damage to them would be slight, for they could pui 
I chase stock in the Consolidated Company, and lea 
I to be satisfied with five per cent and no stealings," 

"You spoke of a provision being made in 
, company for the futiire of railroad employes. I 

would that be done?" 

'■In the company which I propose each employl 
[ will be required to agree that not less than fifteen p 
'' cent of his wages shall be withheld from him and £ 
' nually invested in the stock of the company, whicj 
J stock shall be non- transferable. It will be delivere 
I with its dividends, likewise invested, at his death t 
I whomsoever he may designate, or, if he hve to the a 
I of sLcty, it will be paid to him." 

" Do you think that the worker needs this sort d 
I compulsory guardianship, Mr. Morning?" 

"I certainly do. For one of them who lays up (i 

3 rainy day, nine are possessed by the very genius q 
t unthrift. I have known, miners to work for monthi 
I and mining is the hardest work in the work!, and thei 
1 draw their wages and expend hundreds of dollars it 

one spree. Where the worker uses liquor — as n 
, of them do — he lives from hand to mouth, and e 
} among the temperate, it will be the rare exceptioi 
} find one who has enough savings to support his fami^ 
I for six months." 

"Is it only the workers who are imprudent. MrS 
I Morning?" 

"No, the habit of careless unthrift is common to a 



men. It is not confined to the worker. It ajjpeara ' 
more frequently In him only because his necessi 
are more urgent and apparent, and, in this respect, 
he lives more in pubhc. But extravagance is a part J 
of the original savage man, the leaven which has s 
vived all civilization. I have known lawyers, and J 
doctors, and divines, and journalists who, with their j 
families, might have been saved from embarrassment I 
and suffering if there had been some power every 1 
month to seize a portion of their earnings or income 
and make a compulsory investment of it for their fu- 
ture benefit." 

"But," said the speaker, " to return to my subject 
There is yet another advantage to be considered. If 
the United States operated, or even supervised, all the 
railroads, it would not be difficult — by requiring each 
railroad hand to report for drill and practice one day 
in each month — it would not be difficult to provide 
the nucleus and material for a great army, if such 
should ever again be necessary." 

" Will the time ever come when armies can be dis- 
pensed with, Mr. Morning? " 

"I think it has come. I am about to have made 
some experiments with the new explosive ' potemite,' 
which, if successful, will, I think, demonstrate to the 
world that hereafter war will mean simply mutual anni- 
hilation, and that in conflict there will be small odds 
between the weakest and the most powerful of nations. 
But I wander into the domain of specubtion, and you 
newspaper men require only facts." 

" Do you propose any reform or changes in the 
present methods of railroad management, Mr. Morn- 



" For instance? " 

' ' There will be a uniform rate per mile for passage, , 
all tickets will be transferable, no inducements will be \ 
offered to travelers to perpetrate falsehood and forg- 
ery, and freighters will not be required to expose their 
business secrets to the officers of the railroad c 

"Do you know," said Mr. Morning, " that a de- ' 
mand has actually been made upon me by the rail- I 
road companies for freight at regular express gold i 
bullion rates on $2,500,000,000 worth of gold 1 
which they carried from Arizona to the East disguised 
as copper? For freight on the supposed copper I , 
paid their regular rates of charges, amounting to 
about $200,000. They say that if I had shipped it as 
gold their charges would have been six and one-quar- 
ter millions, and they claim, the difference." 

"But you shipped it as copper at your own risk,' 
did you not, Mr. Morning? " 

"Of course I shipped it as copper at my own risk, 
and on ten bars, worth really $400,000, which were ■ 
lost from the ferryboat in transporting freight dur- 
ing the flood at Yuma, I collected from the company 
only their supposed copper value of $320, and I had 
no end of trouble and delay in making the collection. 
But they assert that in covering the gold bars with 
copper sheaths, I worked a ' gold brick swindle ' on i 
them, and they want the difference. " 

"Will you pay the $6, ocx),ooo claimed, Mr. Morn- 

"Not if I can help it," smiled the gentleman. "I 


lave other uses for the money. ( have in view sev- 
il other reforms in railroad management. Railroad 
tnployers who, through no fault of their own, are 
1 railroad accidents caused by the negligence of 
a fellow employe, shall have the same right of recov- 
ery at law against the company as an injured passen- 
ger would have. Train men, in stopping at country 
. stations, shall consult the convenience of passengers 
B'ather than their own, and shall not halt the baggage 
a sheltered spot, while they compel disembark- 
' ing passengers to wade through the mud. Brass- 
mounted conductors shall not glower at question- 
asking passengers, and, to all requests for information, 
answer flippantly, ' Damfino, ' and small dogs shall not 
J be torn from their friends and suffered to wail their 
trength away in mute despair in a strange and com- 
: baggage car, without bones to beguile or 
K'friendly faces to encourage them; but every reputable 
tlapdog who pays his fare, and abides noiseless and 
■i<»ntented in the same seat with his mistress, shall be 
lleft in peace." 


" Thuir country's wealth, 

It was a bright, warm day in December, 1S95, 
when a tall man, with iron gray hair surmounting a 
wrinkled and careworn face, paused for a moment 
before the plate-glass front of the Tenth National 
Bank of Birmingham, Alabama. 

Making his way into the building, he walked to the 
cashier's office in the rear, which he entered without 
knocking. A short, stout gentleman of forty years 
looked up from the desk at which he was writing, and 
inquired of the stranger who it was that he wished to 

' ' I kem in, suh, to see the Kashyea, ' ' was the reply, 

" 1 am the cashier of this bank, sir. What can I 

"Well, I allowed to bowwow some money fob to 
stock my fahm fob a cotton crap, and to cahy me 
ovah the season, suh, and I heard as how the money 
might be had heab." 

' ' Take a seat, sir. What is the name ? ' ' 

"John Turpin is my name, suh." 

"And what amount do you wish to obtain, Mr. 
Turpin ?" 

" I reckon about $3,000 would answer the puppus, 



"Where is your property, Mr. Turpin, unci wliat 
does it consist of?" 

"It is on the While Creek, in Madison County. 
There are foh hundred acres of cotton land. There 
is a house, bahn, and outbuildings in faih condirion, 
suh, but t don't count iheai as much, in a money 
way. ' ' 

"What do you estimate to be the value of the 
land ? ' " 

" Befo the wah it sold for fohty dollahs an acre. 
Land went very low aftahwuds, but the land has not 
been crapped, and of late yeahs, business has picked 
up mightily in old Alabama, and it ought to be wuth 
as much now as it ever wor." 

" How long have you been farming it there? " 

"Well, not at all, suh. The place was owned by 
my uncle, and he jest lived there since the wah, and 
never tried to make a crap. He was Captain of Com- 
pany K of the Ninety-third Alabama. He was 
wounded at Chickamauga. Both of his sons were 
killed at the second battle of the Wilderness; his wife 
died while they were all away, and when he kem back 
he seemed to lose ail interest like. He couldn't abide 
free niggahs ever, and there were no othahs, and foh 
twenty-seven yeahs he jest moped around the old 
place, raisin' only a little cohn, and a few hogs and 
some geyahden truck. Last spring he died, and the 
piace has fallen to me. There is no debt on it, and 
it's prime cotton land, but it will take right smaht 
of money to clean off the land and put in a crap." 

" Are you farming elsewhere, Mr. Turpin?" 

" No, suh, I have been wuking for several yeahs for 



the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, as i 
their station agent at Coosa, but I was raised on a 
ton plantation, and I know all about the wuk. I I 
liave two likely boys; one is twenty and the othah 
eighteen. My wife is a wohkah, and so is our daugh- 
tah. We all want to go on the old plantation and 
live thar." 

"Will $3,000 clear the land and stock it? " 
"Yes, suh. It will buy us mules and fehm imple- 1 
ments, and seed, and supply us with provisions and 
foddah, and pay the wages of such niggahs as we will | 
hiah to help us," 

"How soon could you repay the $3,000." 
"Well, in the old times we could moh than pay it 
with one crap, but thar ain't the money in cotton that 
thar used to be. Cotton is powerful low, I do al- 

' ' And it costs more to raise it now than it did when J 
you had slaves to work for von, does it not, Mr. Tur- 

" Well, I allow that don't make much diffahence, 

suh. I can hiah niggahs now for Ji6a month, and 1 

they find their own keep, while befoh the wah we had \ 
to pay that much and moah, and feed them faeaide. 
The interest on the value of a good niggah then was 

nigh onto as much as we pay him now foh wages. , 

The niggah don't get much moah now than he did J 

when he was in slavery. He just gets his keep and a i 

few clothes; No, suh, I can raise cotton now cheaper 1 

than I could befoh the wah, but cotton kain't be sold J 
foh no such prices- Still, thar is some money in 

ton, and my boys and I can pay off the $3,000 with ] 


interest, out of the profits on the craps, in three 
ind if we hve powerful close mebbe we can do 
['■it in two yeahs. " 

"Why do you not get the money vou want from 
t the bank at Huntsville?" 

"Well, suh, I went thar before I kem yeah, and the 
f kashyea thar tole me that they wah not fixed to make 
f smy but shote loans. He said as how they wah a 
■iHayshunal bank, and couldn't loan money on land 
Tl nohow, and he advised me to come heah, suh." 

"But this is also a national bank, and subject to 
be same restriction, Mr. Turpin." 

"Yes, suh, I know; so he tole me, suh. But he 
said as how you wah also loan agents for Northern 
L capitalists, who had money to invest in long loans, on 
f good security." 

"We are such agents, but our instructions do not 
permit us to loan on anything but improved city 
property. Our clients do not like to put their money 
in plantations." 

"But, suh, what will become of the cities if the peo- 

I pie do not help those in the country? My place is 

* wuth easily fob times the money I want to bowwow, 

and every dollah of the money bowwowed will go 

into the place." 

"It does look, Mr. Turpin, as if money ought to 
be had for such purposes. But all of our local capi- 
talists have their money tied up in the city, and out- 
. Elders won't loan on farms ." 

"Then I kain't bowwow the money, suh? " 
' ' I am afraid not, Mr. Turpin, You might try else- 
t where, but, to be candid with you, I do not believe 
'ou will succeed," 


' ' Well, suh, then I will have to go back to my wuk 
al the railroad station, and let the land lie idle. Why 
kain't the govuhment loan us on our fahms the money 
needed to cultivate them? 'Pears like I heam tell 
thar was a man out in Calafohnea what wanted the 
govuhment to do that likes." 

"Yes," replied the cashier, "there is such a scheme, 
but it is totally impracticable. Of course the govern- 
ment cannot embark in the business of loaning money 
on landed security." 

"But ain't the govuhment in the loamn' business 
now, suh? Whar do you g'et the circulatin' rotes of 
youah bank? Don't you bowwow them of the gov- 
uhment, without interest, byputtin' up United States 
bonds as security?" 

"Oh, that, you know, is quite a different thing," 
answered the cashier, smilingly. 

'' Whar's the difference in. principle?" persisted the 
man from Coosa. "If a govuhment bond foh $1,000 
air good secuhity foh $900, what is the reason that a 
piece of land wuth kain't be good secuhity foh 

"The bond," said the cashier, "could always be 
sold at par. It is not so easy to find a purchaser for 
land, even at half its value; it might be worthless, you 
know. ' ' 

"I am not supposin', suh, that the govuhment 
would loan money on wuthless land any moah than 
on counterfeit bonds. I'm talkin' about sich land as 
ain't wuthless, and kain't evah be wuthless. I'm talkin' 
about land that has an airnin' capacity, when human 
labor is applied to it. I allow that sich land, when 

valooed honestly, and not countin' any buildings ( 
improvements, or anything that can be burned tip 
carried away — I allow that sich land is just as g 
security foh a loan of half its value, as any govi 
ment bond is security foh a loan of nine-tenths £ 
valoo. If the land ain't wuth nolhin', I'd like to knoi 
what the bond is wuth ? As I argefy, all the valoo^ 
on the yearth, suh, bonds and banks and govuhmentf 
theyselves rest upon the land and the labah that d"" 

' ' But the amount of national bank notes that can fa 
issued on government bonds is limited by law,' 
monstrated the cashier. 

" Suppose they be. Kain't thegovuhment limit ti 
a&iount of greenbacks it would loan on the fahmw 
Kain't it allotjest so much to each State or to each ci 
or to each numbah of folks? I don't see no use of ^ 
limit nohow, Govuhment don't hmit the bales of d 

1 or bushels of cohn, or numbah of hogs a i 
raise, noh the tons of ihon he shall smelt, noh t 
' numbah of days' wuk he shall do in a yeah. Whai 
I foh do they want to limit the numbah of dollahs that 
f shall be made? Why not leave that to be settled oum 
I side of papah laws? If you raise cohn for which thei 
, is no demand you kain't sell it, and if you print doW 
lahs for which there is no demand you kain't lei 

:m. A dollah ain't got no nateral valoo nohoW 
Ye kain't eat it, noh drink it, nohweah it. Ye kain*^ 
' sleep on it, noh ride it, noh drive it around. A dol 

lah is just a yahdstick foh the doth, a scale foh t 
' sugah. a quart measure foh the vinegah. Suppos^ 
I govuhment went to limitin' the numbah of weighi 



scales and yahdsticks and gallon cans ihar should b 
in the land, and then didn' t allow enough to be mad 
foh to go around !— A nice fix the country stohs would 1 
be in wouldn't they? You city folks would corral aSa 
the yahdsticks, and all the scales, and all the pint.l 
pots that the govuhment allowed to be made. You'd J 
organize nieasurin' companies and bowwow all theJ 
scales that the govuhment made, and pay nothin' to J 
the govuhment for the use of them; and then you'dl 
hiah them out to folks at a big rent, and make the 3 
folks as hiad them leave half the measures on deposit J 
with you, and you'd hiah that half again to other! 
folks, and you'd squeeze the people, and squeeze 
and squeeze 'em, until you turned every man who I 
wasn't an ownah of measurin' tools into a puffeckl 
slave to them as was ownahs. That's what you hev I 
been a doin' with us right along. I mean no i 
speck to you, suh, puhsojially, for you have treated 1 
me moh politely than a bankah usually treats his bow- 
wowin' customahs; but you bankahs and capitalists I 
have jest been a monkeyin' with the currency until J 
you have got every fahmah, and wukin' man, and J 
stoahkeepah in the country tied hand and foot, with I 
no chance to wuk at all unless they wuk foh you. 
have been a lot of everlastin' fools, suh, to stand it, I 
and we aint a goin' to stand it much long'ah." 

" What will you do about it, Mr.Turpin?" said the J 
cashier, quietly, but with a shade of satire in his tone. • 

"I allow, suh, that we'll tell the yawpers who run j 
political conventions to get along without our votes, 
and we'll elect men to the Legislatoorand-to Congress, 1 
and mebbe a President, who'll take their ideahs from ] 



the fehmas and wukalis of the Sooth and West, and 
who won't go to Wall Street fob ohdahs; and we'll 
give all the old questions a rest, and we' 11 make it lone- 
some for the politicians who fight us, and we'll kind o' 
resolute that so long as this govuhment won't let any- 
State or any puhson go into the business of manufac- 
turing money to supply the necessary wants of the peo- 
ple, it is Hkely that the govuhment itself ought to do 
it, and we'll fix it so that no man who iswillin' to 
wuk as I am, and knows how to wuk as I do, and has 
land to plow as I have, will have to see his land lie 
fellow, and his boys loafin' around, just bekase he 
kaint bowwow from nobody, even at ten per cent a 
yeah, one-fifth of the valoo of his land, to buy a few 
i mules, and a plow or two, and aome seed cohn." 
"You will compel the government to go into the 
business of printing and loaning all the money that 
anybody wants, will you? " said the cashier. 

" Well,suh, I'm no bankah, and nolawyah, but I 
take it that it is the business of govuhment to provide 
all the money necessary foh the use of the people, and 
if the govuhment itself won't do it, then let it untie 
cohds it has put around States and people, and 
f Buffah them to do it foh theyselves." 

"You would go back to the days of State banks 
[ and unlimited currency, Mr. Turpin, with a wild-cat 
['bank at every crossroads, when the man who traveled 
I never knew whether the bank bill he got in change, 
f when purchasing his breakfast in Alabama, would buy 
^ him a supper in Tennessee," said the cashier. 

"Well, sub, I remembah those days, and while they 
I may not have been so agreeable foh those that trav- 

eled, they war a heap better fob folks as stayed at 
home. A wild-cat bank at the crossroads on White 
Creek, that would let me have $3,000 of its missuble 
money, which my neighbors would take in exchange 
foh mules, and the stohkeepah would take for goods, 
so that I could put in a crap 011 foh hundred akahs of 
the puttiest cotton land in Noth Alabama, would be a 
heap bettah foh me just now, sub, than a national 
bank with a plate-glass front, in Buhmingham, that 
won't even look at the security I offah foh a loan. 
Good-day, suh." 

AndMr. John Turpin, ofWhite Creek, arose, and, 
with a heavy and sorrowful step, walked out of the 
Tenth National Bank of Bh-mingham, Alabama, and 
the rotund cashier smUed at the episode, and adjusted 
his gold-rimnied eyeglasses, and resumed his inter- 
rupted labors. 

Yet relief was in store for Mr. John Turpin, for on 
that very day the mail from New York to Washing- 
ton carried the following communication:^ 

Offices of David Morning, ) 
39 Broadway, N. Y., Dec. 15, 1895.3 
To the President of the United Stales — 

Sir: Under certain conditions I will donate to the 
Government of the United States the sum of ^2,400,- 
cxx),ooo in gold bars, which I will deliver to the 
treasury department at the rate of $100,000,000 per 
month, during the ensuing two years. 

The money coined from, or issued upon, lliese gold 
bars, shall constitute a perpetual fund, to be loaned 
at two per cent per annum to the farmers of the coun- 
try, the fund never to be diminished or appropriated 



for any other purpose, although the interest received 
. from it may be used to aid in defraying the ordinary 
f expenses of government. 

The amounts to be loaned may be apportioned 
' among the several States and Territories, according 
to their populations as given by the last census, but 
the loaning must proceed from, and be under the 
control of a department of the Federal government, 
to be created by Congress for that purpose. Loans 
may be made payable at any time, at the option of the 
borrower, and may remain indefinitely, so long as the 
interest is paid, and must be secured by pledge of pro- 
ductive land. 

Not more than one-half the actual cash value of 
the land, without estimating improvements, must be 
loaned, or more than $10,000 to any one borrower, or 
more than $20 per acre in any case. 

The celerity with which Congress, during the War 
of the Rebellion, created an effective system of rev- 
enue and finance, leads me to the conclusion that it 
will be equally apt in the creation of the necessary 
legal machinery to speedily effectuate a permanent 
and safe system for making loans to the people. I 
shall trust implicitly to the wisdom and patriotism of 
Congress to carry out details if my gift is accepted, 
as I think I may assume it will be, and I shall attempt 
no interference with its action, even by suggestion, 
beyond stating the conditions upon which the fund of 
$2,400,000,000 will be provided. 

It will, possibly, not be out of place for me to assign 
here a few of the reasons why I require that loans be 
limited to the owners of productive land, and why I 


do not permit dwellers in towns and cities, and those 
engaged in commerce and manutactures, to share in 
the opportunity for procuring cheap money. 

To this very natural inquiry I might answer that I 
have already arranged in San Francisco, in Chicago, 
and in New York, for aiding co-operative labor cor- 
porations to procure, at a low rate of interest, the 
money necessary for their use; that I design extend- 
ing similar aid in other localities, and that I hear ol 
several instances of other gentlemen conveying large 
sums in trust for such purposes. 

But the duty of aiding the farmers to cheap money 
is so great, and so pressing, and extends to so many, 
persons, and over so large an area, that any concerted 
effort in such direction is not only beyond the capac- 
ity of individual wealth owners, but requires ihe ma- 
chinery and power of government for its adequate 

The farmers, of all men, most need the aid of capi- 
tal, and of all men they find it most difficult to se- 
cure such aid. For years before the accidental, or, 
rather, providential, discovery of an immense deposit 
of gold-bearing quartz in the Santa Catalina Mountains 
in Arizona enabled me to attempt alleviation of some 
of the evils under which die world suffers, I had 
observed that even when the manu&cturing and com- 
mercial interests of the land were in a fairly prosper- 
ous condition, the farmers did not share in the gen- 
eral bounty, and I observed that usually the produce 
of the farmers' land could only be sold at such low 
prices as left them, at the close of the season, a httle 
more in debt, and much more discouraged. 



The official report of the Illinois State Board of 

Agriculture for 1889 exhibited die distressing fact 

that the com crop of that State for that year actually 

sold for $10,000,000 less than it cost to produce it, 

ind conditions since then have only slightly improved. 

Even as I write, there are thousands of families all 

[ over the land, not merely in a few localities where the 

I crops have failed, but on the virgin prairies of Dakota, 

the rich soil of the Mississippi bottoms, and in the 

[ fertile valleys of Virginia, who are in distress, not be- 

[ cause they have been idle or dissolute, but because 

r their last crops did not sell for enough to pay the cost 

I of their production and transportation to market, in- 

I -eluding interest at six, eight, and ten per cent per 

[ annum on the value of the land. 

Low prices, according, to all standard writers on 
\ political economy, are the direct results of a contract- 
, ing currency, and a consequent increasing scarcity of 
' money, and the cost of production is not only greatly 
increased by inability of the producer to obtain money 
I except at high rates of interest, but the terms upon 
1 which money can be had at all are often so exact- 
I . ing as to discourage permanent improvement. The 
[ firmer will not cultivate except for immediate crops 
I .if he sees no hopeful outlook for the future, and not 
[ only fears but expects that the mortgage he has given 
[ will, in the end, cause his home to be transferred to 
f a purchaser at sheriffs sale. 

The yield of the Morning mine has already largely 
[ increased the volume of standard money all over the 
t. ■world, and this may do much toward removing 
L some of the unfortunate conditions to which I have 


referred; but such yield may also have a tendency 
to discourage the loaning of money on long loans, for 
men who have means to invest may prefer to place 
them in property, the value of which must advance 
with the increase of the volume of money, rather than 
in loans, ihe value of which must remain stationary 
absolutely, and cannot but diminish relatively. 

It has been and will continue to be my purpose to 
use the gold produced at the Morning mine, either in 
the purchase of existing loans, or the making of new 
loans, so that whatever of loss may come from dim- 
inution of the purchasing power of a dollar may fall 
not altogether upon those who have loaned money, 
but in part upon those who have deliberately or acci- 
dentally caused such increase- I suggest that if such 
increase in the currency be caused by the govern- 
ment, a similar moral obligation would rest upon it. 

The addition of $2,400,000,000 to the currency of 
the country will unquestionably largely increase all 
values. It will at the same tin;e encourage — nay, 
almost compel— capital to seek investment in active 
industries rather than in dormant funds- For the pres- 
ent it will supply those who can use money to advan- 
tage with a sure and convenient method of obtaining 
it at a cheap rate of interest, while its uhimate tend- 
ency must be to ehminate interest on money from the 
world's transactions, and bring money to what I con- 
ceive to be its true function — a measurer of values 

When no interest can be obtained for the use of 
money, then money will cease to be the most valuable 
and become the least valuable form of property, and 


the investor will be required to share the risk, if not 
the labor, of producing values, instead of leaving this 
to others, while he absorbs the profits to himself 

I believe that civiHzation is ready for this forward 
step- The discovery of gold enough to compel it may 
have precipitated the movement, but the movement 
would have come all the same if the Morning mine 
had never been discovered. 

There is not a single benefit which the donation of 
twenty-four hundred milhons of gold will confer upon 
the people of the United States that might not equally 
be conferred by an act of Congress providing for the 
issuance and loaning of the same number of paper 
dollars, not based upon gold at all. 

The credit of this great government used for the 
purpose of accommodating the business, increasing 
the resources, and stimulating the industrial activity of 
this great people, and, supported by the indestructible 
and undepreciable security of land, would be quite as 
soHd a basis for twenty hundred millions of paper 
dollars as five thousand tons of yellow metal, 
I am, Mr. President, your obedient servant, 

David Morning. 


"The product of ill-mated marriages." 

From Ike Barotiess Von Eulaw to Mrs. Perces Thorn- 

Berlin, November i, 1895. 
Dearest Mother: What an insufferable egotist 
I must appear to yoii. A life made up of local col- 
oring — a central figure with no accessories — a record 
of ways and means unwisely, perhaps, submitted to 
you, since they may only pain you. Better a gray 
and monotonous sea, without sail or sound, if so I 
could spare yon the burden of apprehension which 
every anxious mother must feel for a destiny she 
has helped to direct. Following the train of argu- 
ment, think you the loving Father acquits himself of 
responsibility when a helpless soul is launched for 
eternity? Truly no ! and this conviction sustains my 
courage, and makes me unafraid to do my heart's 

It has been an observation that the thing we most 
condemn in others, we shall find in ourselves. Many 
years ago I conceived a prejudice against the popular 
cry concerning the wrongs of woman, a movement 
affirmatively named "woman's rights," for while it 
undoubtedly aided some women in obtaining justice, 
its aim was largely the gratification of some hysteri- 
cal ambition or some love of conspicuousness. 


Thus I am broiight to question if, in my individlU 
case. I am not exaggerating evils and magnifyin^^ 
wrongs by placing them under the strong light, if 
not of worldly criticism, at least of self-love and se- 
cret pride; if, instead of dealing soberly and wisely 
with flesh and blood, I am not following an ideal, or 
whether my matrimonial point of view is not inter- 
rupted by such inappreciable angles as seldom vex 
the eye of faith and perfect love. 

All these questions, and many more, I wish to 
make clear to my own conscience and your mind, 
that you may be able to advise me when, if ever, the 
time shall come for me to ask your loving counsel. 

To speak more personally, I conclude, after men- 
tally reviewing the characteristics peculiar to my hus- 
band, the baron, that his faults are less of malice 
than of temperament, and that, he would not really 
sacrifice any actual interest of his wife, not even her 
permanent peace of mind, any more than I would 
compromise those of the baron. If it were not so, I 
could less well afford the many hours of thought I 
give toward the fashioning of apologies for him, lest 
in my own mind I do him an injustice. 

But, so believing, I must take many things on trust, 
and, after all, I am full of faults myself, no doubt of it. 
You know it is a popular theory over here that 
American girls must be broken like bronco horses 
before they are fit for wives, and I must say that my 
own mouth is a little tender to the foreign bit already. 

We have invitations to a grand ball, although I 
have not yet .seen them. Kindest love to papa, and a 
heart full of devotion for you, as always. When will 


write to tell me you are coming to your affec- 
daughter Ei.len- 

From Mrs, Perces Thornton to the Baroness Von 

Boston, November lo, 1895. 
WTo my daughter, the Baroness Von Eulaw. 

Dearly Beloved Child: In these revolutionary 
times, the air thick with maledictions and curses, "the 
putrid breath of poverty, and the beetling brow of la- 
bor," to quote the press, hot with greed for the 
ground they are slowly but surely losing — in these 
times I say, I am thankful that you, my child, are 
resting in the security of strong and wise rule- 
There seems to be no end to the vindinctiveness 
of the common people here. Your father, as you 
are aware, is president of the new Aerial Navigation 
Company, and, although, as he says, his policy is un- 
aggressive, and his weight of counsel unswervingly 
in the direction of the interests of the poor and the 
laboring classes, they seem determined to make the 
breach as wide as possible, and go so far as even to de- 
mand a division of the proceeds of every enterprise, 
based upon the labor of either brawn or brain, and 
insolently propose to tax the companies to the extent 
of what they call their "labor investment." 
L What nonsense! It makes me so mad I don't 

I know what to do. Papa says— he is always so con- 

I servative, you know — that the poor fellow who effected 

L the invention of air navigation, really ought to have 

B been paid better for it, but that he was a genius, with 

H no common sense — none of them have, you know — 


and nearly Starved, at that; that there is a man out 
West, whose name I have not heard, who is going to 
make it very warm for men concerned in such trans- 
actions as this, which he denounces as highway rob- 
bery, and in a short speech, wherein he maintained 
,t labor was as much a factor and an investment as 
lapital, in all successful enterprise, he called one Jack 
[..Spratt, and the other Jack Spratt's wife, which simile 
[■ pleased me immensely. We don't know where it is 
C going to end, but hope for the best. 

Now, my darling, I want to say how gratified I 
1 am at the contents of your last letter. In it I dis- 
1 spirit of what Christians call humility, very 
consistent and very encouraging, considering the no- 
ble personage whom you are so lucky as to have 
captured by your charms and graces alone, for oi 
course your fortune had nothing whatever to do 
with it. 

If your husband were an American, I would advise 
you to stand up for your rights, American husbands, 
uxorious though they are, and they have earned the 
name, bring you no title, have no legitimate entree to 
foreign courts, and even the most stupendous fortunes 
only inoculate and leave a scar. Really, the only 
I clean business is an out and out marriage, love or 
' no love, though, for the matter of that, one must feel 
toward the dear baron as the hero-worshiping woman 
said concerning the wife of Henry Ward Beecher, 
that she ought to be proud to bow her head and al- 
low the great divine to pluck every individual hair out 
by the roots. "A most touching lest of devotion," 
I hear you say. 


Do write, my dear, and tell me all the court gossip. 
Since the California practice of shooting obnoxious 
editors has been introduced in Boston, there has 
grown up a virtual censorship of the press hereabouts, 
and the newspapers are as dull as death. Every 
woman's character is kept in a glass case, and one 
would suppose the men graduated from a meeting- 
house. In fact, the reading public who lived upon 
scandals are dying of ennui, hence, I have no news 
to write you to-day. Present me with continued 
assurance of high respect to the baron, and receive, 
'ourse¥, my undying love. As ever, 

Perces Thornton. 
^prom the Baroness Von Eulaw to Mrs. Perces Thoni- 

Berlin, November 20, 1895. 

My Dear Mother: The grand ball, the mention 
of which seems to catch your fancy, is to be given at 
the Chateau d' Or, a magnificent edifice on the heights 
overlooking the river. Its turrets, and domes, and 
roofe, and arches, and balustrades, glitter against the 
background of bluest skies hke shining gold — hence 
its name. Indeed, its architectural device is so cun- 
ningly conceived as to catch and fill the eye with 
radiant color like the fasces of a diamond, while its 
proportions suggest all the beauties of form to be 
found in the scale of harmonized effects. 

It is Just completed, and is a wonder. Its occu- 
pants are not much talked about; indeed, I do not 
even know who they are, though I fancy the baron 
does, for I recall that he replied curtly to my question 
concerning them, that I should not wish to know 
them, by which I fancied they might be Americans. 


Neither can I give you any idea of the bidden-] 
guests, although, of course, it promises to be a m^- ' 
nificent affair. As you know, in compliance i 
custom, I could, in no event, make excuse for r 
appearance with my husband. Such women as ac- 
cept their titles and position from their lords, ar 
pected to follow, unquestioning, his leadership through J 
all social labyrinths, and 1 am no exception to ttci 

Dear mother, forgive me, if I say I feel very disin*^ 
clined to these gayeties. Since our experiences a 
Mentone, I decided to give over all control of the ex 
chequer into the hands of the baron, accepting only a 1 
regular stipend. I find this the only means of secur- , 
ing harmony, and altercations weary and depress d 
overmuch. Wherefore it is I have lost interest i 
handsome toilets, and therefor it is I shall have noth- j 
ing new for the occasion. 

Did papa receive my letter acknowledging andi 
thanking him for his munificent gift? and does it oc-. j 
cur to you that it is a good deal of money to invest in J 
methods tif pacification? But what is tlie remedy? | 
This is a question I am puzzling my head about to J 
a much larger extent, let me say, than about what I 
shall wear to the ball. 

The baron dines at home to-day, so I will close, i 
order not to be a moment late. You see I am grow-i 
ing to be a model wife, if not a heroic woman, I seej 
the baron from my window beating a poor dwarf, at 1 
the entrance of the alley. He has lost at play. Ir 
haste and love, dear ones, adieu. 

Faithfijlly your own, Ellen. 


'I £ulav! to Mrs. Perces Tkom 

From the Baroness I 

Berlin, December a, 1895. 
Dear Mother: Is there but one depth for 3 
I creature like him I call husband? What mockery ii 
[ a name! What have I suffered for him, and what^ 
concealed in my pride ! And this is my reward ! — TQ-' 
I have been made the dupe of a dastardly plot to enJJ 
I snare cowardly victims ! to have sullied my skirt 

with the dustof a usurer'sandgambler's den! to h 
I my name blazoned side by side with the modera 
Cora Pearls in every court journal in Europe! 
have been led into the lair blindly, fay one who id 
sworn to be my protector ! to have followed i 

a who could load the dice of his self-imposed 

, with a wife's dishonor ! 

But I must remember that all this is a riddle t 

you, and must read like the ravings of a maddenec 

brain, so I will g;ive you the story of my shame ana 

I rage, albeit it has probably already been telegraphoi 

r two continents. Verily, it is too sweet a 

to escape the newspapers. 

As I believe I mentioned to you, invitations wm 
issued for a ball, to be given at the Chateau d'Or. 
noticed that the occurrence was making rather a 
and especially that the baron was unwontedly n 
ous over the event, insomuch that when I proposeaB 
I sending regrets, he fell into a violent rage, and de^l 
Glared that I would ruin him, past and future. Nat-f 
urally, I did not comprehend liis meaning, but, s 
ing to take it so much to heart, 1 readily consente 
to accompany him, asking no further questions- 


Arrived at the place of what later proved to be a 
scene of the most disgraceful orgies, we entered the 
salon, and instantly my heart misgave me. There 
was present a mixed assemblage of people, among 
them a. few whom I had met in the best circles— a few 
who seemed equally out of place with myself — and 
many of that nondescript quality found in every so- 
ciety, who defy comment. But not until we were pre- 
sented to the receiving party, was my amazement at 
its climax. I am not yet sufficiently in possession of 
myself to describe the magnificent apartments of the 
interior of this most superb mansion. All that wealth 
could bring from the uttermost ends of the earth, con- 
tributed to the sumptuousn ess of these most artistic 
apartments. No smallest detail had been forgotten 
in the programme for this entertainment, even to the 
grottoes with singing birds, aud floes of ice in seas of 

But the recollection is hateful, and I hurry on. The 
host was a tall, sinewy, middle-aged man, with a 
strongly -marked Hebraic cast of face, and an oily, ob- 
sequious manner, quite at variance with his promi- 
nent features. He greeted us with an air of the ;nost 
profuse cordiality, and passed us along to a bevy of 
much-painted and overdressed, or, rather, under- 
dressed women, who vied with each other in chatter- 
ing society phrases. 

From the first moment, an undeniable air of disso- 
luteness pervaded the entire place, and I looked to the 
baron for an explanation. He pressed my arm nerv- 
ously, and politely warned me to hold my tongue. 
There was no mistaking the animus of this party. It 


was revelry, riot, unrestraint. Answering a sign fron^I 

the host, the baron soon left my side, and joined t 

I convivial is ts, I being politely led to the main saloajl 

' where there was dancing. 

Pleading indisposition, I declined to take part, aw 
remained aside observing the dancers. I noticed tl 
many of the women were singularly lovely and eX^ 
quisitely attired, but generally lacking in grace t 
movement and aplomb, I observed, also, groups g 
women, some of them deathly pale, others Hushed 
with indignation, evidently discussing the situatioq^ 
and the truth slowly dawned upon me that the) 
were women of the demi-monde, and that I had h 
tricked into an attendance upon this reception. 

After two or three attempts I succeeded in bringi 
the baron to my side, much the worse for wine but 
quite docile. I demanded to be led to my dressing- 
. room, and at first he temporized. Finding r 
sistent, he begged me to remain, promising to I 
among the first to depart at the proper hour. Hi»j 
1 conduct was unusually conciliatory, and when I i 
I ferred to the character of the entertainment, his maa^J 
I ner was full of conscious guilt, while he ass 
1 that he would explain everything later, but that he] 
dared not precipitate a scene by taking me home. 

At this juncture Count Volenfeldt, whom we knew^ J 
\ accompained by the Prince of Waldeck, came c 
I way, and, saluting, faced as, and, remarking somewhi 
satirically upon the unexpected numbers in attendanc* 
' gave me an opportunity to ask if his wife were presents 
"The countess is not here to-night," replied tb/ci 
count, a little dryly. " She is not well." 


"And my wife zj here," put in the prince bluffly, 
"but she will not be longer than till I shall have made 
my way through this crush. ' ' 

"Let us join the prince's party and leave this place 
at once," said I. 

Meanwhile the music had for the moment ceased, and'' 
loud laughing and shrill voices, mingled with smoother 
tonesandwordsof entreaty, were heard, andtherewas , 
a simultaneous movement toward the dressing-rooms 
and places of exit. Suddenly word came back that ' 
the doors were locked, and the frightened lackeys had 
fled from their posts, witli orders that no one sho-ild 
be allowed to leave the house. Then followed a scene 
of consternation and confusion, — wives demanding 
redress from their husbands, and husbands denouncing 
the violation of hospitahty by their host, and through 
all the din the gutteral tones and the piping taunts 
of the un sain ted. 

Presently the tall form of Herr Rosenblatt showed, 
a head above the crowd, adding to his length the 
height of a fauteuil, upon which he balanced, with a ' 
drunken man's nicety of poise, for he was drunk but 1 

' ' Gentlemen, ' ' said he, ' ' we have met togetlier, as w 
have met before, for the purpose of proving which man 
among us has the staying qualhies, and who is wilUng 
to risk his money in this little game. You come to 
me and say, ' Open your doors, my lady wishes to go, ' 
but how many of you dare to go when I say to those 
who will go, 'To-morrow I shall expose you, to-morrow 
you will sign over your estates to me, to-morrow you 
shall be ruined and I shall be winner, ' I did not make 


s party for your money — nor that you shall play, at 
mytables and lose, for that you have already done, 
but onethmgl want which money will not buy, — social 
recognition, — and thai you shall give me. You will 
not leave my house, gentlemen, till morning. The 
ladiea wiii not talk about this entertainment It is too 
beautiful; they will not attempt to describe it. Now, 
gentlemen, I bid you to stay and I shall make myself 
sure that you enjoy yourselC These remarks make 
it long for the champagne to wait, and the ladies, 
poor things, will be wanting refreshments. And such 
refreshments! Oh, mon Dieu, that the gods could sup 
with us," and the speaker was helped caressingly to 
the floor. 

My dear scandalized mother, what did I do? I, an 
American girl, with the blood of heroes in my veins? 
Why, I remained and supped and smiled with the 
others, for not a man even tried the doors. There- 
after there was no restraint. It was, as I have said, 
a night of orgies. Each man felt that he was no more 
deeply involved than his neighbor, and that Herr 
Rosenblatt had told the truth when he said to all, that 
he held their fates in his fist, otherwise they would 
not have been there. 

He was right, the affair was not talked about except 
among themselves. But some mischievous astral — 
some ubiquitous spirit of a reporter, — was floating 
about, and before twenty-four hours had elapsed, the 
court journals had published an account of the whole 
affair, comments included. 

Dearest mother, this letter is long, and I can write 
e to-night. I have decided upon nothing so 


far. So soon as I have done so, I will write, but I must ] 
have time for reflection. In tears and love adieu. 
As ever yours, Ellen. 

From the Baroness I 'on Eulaw to Professor John i 


Berlin, Decembers, '895. 

My dear, darling Papa: 1 have your telegram \ 
telling me to come home without delay, also message 
for the American Minister in case I should need it, 
as well as that to my banker. Wise and loving pro- 
visions all, for my fortune is squandered, my home 
dishonored, and my heart more than broken, in that I ' 
perfidiously assumed to give a love which was not 
mine to give, and if I had obeyed my first impulse I 
should have been on the way to your arms, and to the 
dear old hearth I so thoughtlessly deserted. But can 
you understand me when I say that all this I have | 
brought upon myself? I was not a child; I had a fit- " 
ting experience and was of sound judgment. I knew 
I did not love this man as it was in me to love, indeed, 
I felt for him neither the admiration nor esteem which 
must form the basis of genuine passion. I respected, 
aye, coveted his position, his title, and I brought my- 
self feebly to hope that some day I should be a de- 
voted wife. I staked my future, as he staked my for- 
tune, and lost. If the money was not his own to lose, 
neither was my heart mine to lose. 

One other test I have applied, and the result is in 
his favor. If I did love the baron as I-have- might 
love another, would I be so ready with my revenge? 
— Verily, no; I would wear my liie out in the effort 


to cancel or correct the wrong against myself. Sac- 
rifice is the residue found in love's crucible; passion 
is the flux which passes off in the process of retorting. 
In iny crucible, alas! I find nothing but dross — the 
more the pity- 

And so I have decided to remain in Berlin for the 
present. I am sketching out my plans for the future, 
but they are crude and unformed, and are of a sort of 
lighthouse quality, meant to warn people of the rocky 
places. But more of this anon. Tell my mother, 
dearest papa, how condemned 1 feel to give her so 
much agony on my account. Don't worry; I will 
be quite happy now that my mind is settled. Possi- 
bly we shall come over in a few weeks, but only pos- 
sibly, I am sorry I wrote my last to mamma with so 
much feeling. Good-night, and good-by. 

Your devoted, Ellen. 


" Happy peace and g'oodly government." 

"Shut that door!" thundered the baron from ' 
over the washbowl in a Pullman car, as he stood half- 
dressed in a small apartment, taking his morning bath. 

' ' Who are you addressin' ? ' ' answered a pale-faced ] 
young man^who was passing — from under a broad, 
stiff- brimmed hat, the crown of which was encircled ' 
with the skin of a huge rattlesnake. "I reckon you 
want your nose set back about an inch anyhow, and , 
I'm the man that can perform that litde blacksmithin' 
job righthere." 

The baron glanced at the gray-clad figure, with its I 
gleaming silk 'kerchief knotted carelessly, and s 
akimbo, then down at the high boots with their fair- ' 
leather tops, behind which gleamed the ebony and 
silver handle of a bowie knife, and then, meeting , 
the steady, mild blue eyes of the Arizona cowboy, said 
apologetically : — 

" Beg pardon. I thought it was the madam. 
She just left the compartment." 

"You did, did you?" said the youth. "That's j 
what I allowed, en that's why I tuk an interest in ye. 
Look a yer. That woman ain't no slouch, and Gila 
monsters like you ain't popular nohow, yearabouts, 
so you jest keep a civil tongue in your mutton head, 


an' it'll be all right." And wilh the movement of a 
leopard, he glided quietly away, while the baron, af- 
ter softly closing the door, sank iino ihe nearest sofa, 
and awaited the return of his wife. 

" Benson," shouled the keen-eyed brakeman, 
" Change eirs for Tombstone, Nogales, Hennosillo, 
Gu'.iymas, and all points on the Gulf of California. 
Passengers for Tucson, Phceni.\, Yuma, San Diego, 
Los Angeles, and San Francisco remain in the car." 
The baron's party conaisted of the baroness and 
her maid, Professor and Mrs. Thornton, Doctor Eus- 
tace, who had accompanied the Von Eulaws from 
Europe, and Miss Winters, an old friend of the bar- 
s and a graduate of a woman's law school, who 
■jiad left a thriving practice in Denver rather than sac- 
rifice her life in the pursuit of a profession for which 
^o woman is really fitted either mentally or physically. 
■ party was en route to Coronado Beach — the 
in as one of a score of representatives selected by 
Wihe emperor of Germany to attend the " dynamic ex- 
fcposition," as it was generally designated. 

Six weeks or less before the Prime Minister of ev- 
lery recognized civilized power had received a letter 
I couched in the following phrase. 

Offices of David Morning, I 
39 Broadway, N. Y., January i, 1896. ) 

I To 

I respectfully invite your government to appoint so 
• many representatives, not exceeding twenty in num- 
s it may desire, to be present in San Diego, 
ICahfornia, during the first week of April proximo, 
tto observe and report upon experiments which will 



then be made in aerial and submarine navigation, and 
use of the new explosive "potentite." It is my hope i 
to demonstrate that hereafter international differences ' 
should be submitted for adjustment to a Congress , 
or Court of Nations, and that land and naval wariare ( 
— as at present conducted- — must come to an end. 

The gentlemen who may be credentialed by you '' 
will bo my guests upon their arrival in San Diego— 
they wilt so honor me — and I beg to be informed at ' 
your early convenience, by cable, of the names of those 1 
who may be expected. 

I take the liberty of inclosing exchange on London 
for twenty thousand pounds, to defray such expenses ' 
as your government may incur in complying with my 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, 

David Morning. 

The feme of Morning, as the greatest wealth owner 
in the world, was now coextensive with civilization, 
and his invitation had been promptly and generally 
accepted. The Emperor WilHelm II. chose for the 
German delegation, five of his most distinguished 
field marshals, five high officials of the German navy, - 
five great civil engineers, and five members of the di- 
plomatic corps. Among the latter was the Baron 
Von Eulaw. who was indebted for his appointment — 
although he did not know it — to an urgent unofiicial 
representation made by the American envoy to tlie 
German Chancellor, to the effect that, for certain per- 
sonal reasons, Mr. David Morning gready desired the 
attendance of the Baron and Baroness Von Eulaw. 


Such a request from such a source was favorably con- ' 
sidered, and the baron — g^reatlyto his astonishment, i 
for he had not been in favor at court since the a 
at the Chateau d'Or — received the appointment. 

Professor Thornton and Doctor Eustace had re- ■ 
t'Cdved invitations to attend, and the baron, finding it J 
Iwjnvenient to leave Berlin in advance of the i 
Binembers of the German delegation, sailed from Ham- , 
Kburg late in January, and, after a brief visit with hia 1 
T'Wife's parents at Roxbury, the party journeyed to the I 
fcPacific Coast, to enjoy its climate and scenery for a J 
tiinonth or more in advance of the " dynamic exposi- 

"I feel," said the baroness, as the train rolled out J 

mvf Benson, "as if 1 had a renewed lease of life ; these i 

idelicious airs stir the blood like wine, and, entranced I 

I with the perfume of almond and oleander and jasmine I 

rbloom, I forget that it is still midwinter in the East." 

' Vou are drugged, itiadarae," said the doctor, i 
I-alowly passing his finger scrutinizingly over the softa 
Pflesh upon his hand. " You could be lured to your i 
J death in a few houre by — I wonder what ails my / 
liand?" he broke off meditatively, still feeling for J 
f. the insidious and evasive little hair. 

" Cactus, sir," put in an "old-timer" across the] 
-, "and you ain't got no use to look for it, if it 1 
l-does feel like an oxgad. 1 could hev tole you when I 
rl see you foolin' around them fine flowers at the I 

, but you fellers hev all got to try it once; 
banother time you'll know better." 

"This is Mr. Morning's state, 1 believe," observed I 
\pK doctor, after the laugh at his expense had sub- i 



sided, and al] sat dreamily looking away to the dimly- 
outlined mountains in the distance, "and we must be 
nearing the place of the wonderful gold deposit, witli 
the results of which he is rapidly revolutionizing the 

"You are right, 'sir," said a bright-eyed, smooth- . 
L fihaven, portly gendeman, of forty years of age, who 
I occupied an adjoining seat. "It is Morning's stale 

■ jn every sense of the word. He has made it — indus- 
l itrially, politically, and socially. His enterprise and 

■ money have constructed great reservoirs, and laced 
r the land with irrigating canals, and changed its wastes 
L into orchards, and its deserts into lawns. He is the 
Lidol of its people, as he ought to be, and his ideas 

embodied in our constitution and laws. They are 
F.allthe product of his thought, from marriage contract- 
L laws to abolition of trial by jury." 

"Abolition of trial by jury," said Doctor Eustace. 

' ' Yes, sir; at least the jury is composed of judges, 
I instead of men who don't know the plaintiff from the 
rdefendant, and we have no Supreme Court." 

' No jury, and no Supreme Court! " observed MissI 
fc Winters. ' ' What a capital idea. I shall come here tofl 

' ' Well, miss, if you practice law here, and wish ta 1 

■ patronize the twelve men in a box, or enjoy the lu: 
[■liry of an appeal, you must bring your case in tl 

I United States Court, or take it there. In our State j 
i courts we have dispensed with all that ancient rub- 
' bish." 

"Rubbish!" exclaimed the doctor. 

"Even so," rejoined the stranger. The judicialj 


system in vogue elsewhere than in Arizona is as much 
a relic of b.irbarism as slavery or pfllygamy. It is no 
more fitted to the wants and enlightenment of the age 
than the canal boat for traveling, or the flint lock 
musket for shooting pigeons. Suppose you wish to 
recover a piece of land from a jumper in California or 
Maine, and one side or the other demands a jury trial. 
Every good citizeri who is busy shirks duty as a jurj'- 
man. Every intelligent citizen who reads the news- 
papers forms an opinion and is excused. From the 
residue — which is sure to contain both fools and 
knaves — you get twelve clerks, mechanics, laborers, 
merchants, farmers, and idlers— none of whom have 
any training in untangling complicated propositions, 
weighing evidence, remennbering principles of law 
and logic, and according to each iact its just and rel- 
ative importance. 

After these twelve men have listened to a muddle 
of testimony, objections, law papers, and speeches, 
coficluding with bewildering instructions, which half of 
them fail to remember, and the other half fail to un- 
derstand, they retire to the jury room and guess out 
a verdict. The losing party appeals, and, after weari- 
some delay, tlie Supreme Court decides that ' some- 
one has blundered,' and, without attempting to correct 
the error by a proper judgment, sends the case back 
for another trial, another batch of blunders, and 
another appeal." 

"And how does your Arizona system correct the 
evils you depict? " queried the doctor. 

" We commence at the other end of the puzzle," 
said the stranger. " We place the Supreme Court ia 

the jury box. We have a preliminary court of three 
judges in each judicial district. Every plaintiff must 
first present his case informally to this court. He 
states on oath the facts he expects to prove, and gives 
the names of his witnesses. Any willful mis-statement 
of a material fact, is perjury. If the evidence would, 
if uncontradicted, entitle liim to recover, an order 
is issued giving him leave to sue. In practice, not 
one-half of the proposed suits survive the ordeal. 
The saving of time and money is great. Under the 
old system, after a jury had been impaneled, and 
days consumed, the pjainliff might, after all, be non- 
suited. Now it is all disposed of in an hour or two. 
The preliminary court practically puts an end to all 
blackmailing litigation." 

" And when leave to sue is granted, what is the 
next step? " inquired the doctor. 

"The case is brought under the same rules of pro- 
cedure as of old," replied the stranger, "with only 
such changes as were necessary to adapt litigation to 
the new conditions. We have three judicial districts 
in the State, and nine judges for each district Upon 
questions of law arising during the trial, the judges 
pass by a majority vote, and in making the final de- 
cision, from which there is no appeal, seven judges 
must concur." 

"Does this system satisfy litigants?" asked the 

"Much better than the old method," replied the 
stranger. "What honest litigant would not prefer 
to have his rights determined by nine men, who were 
trained to sift trudi from error, who were honest and 


just, and without other duties to distract them, rather 1 
than by twelve men such as ordinarily find their way I 
into the jury box ? The judgment of seven out of | 
nine judges will be as nearly right as human cc 
elusions can well be, and people affected by it : 
better satisfied^even when they lose — than by the j 
guess of a stupid and sleepy jury." 

"Can the courts you have organized attend to all J 
the business?" asked the doctor. 

" Easily," was the rejoinder. "No time is consumed 3 
in procuring juries, and much less in objections to 1 
testimony. Arguments are abbreviated, and instnic- I 
tions eliminated. In practice, four cases out of five I 
are decided from the bench." 

"Are not the salaries of so many judges aheavyj 
tax upon you?" asked the doctor. 

"The system costs the public treasury less than the'] 
old one," was the reply. " Many court expenses are-S 
dispensed with, and the expense to litigants is re- T 
duced, although the loser is now compelled to pay | 
the fee of his opponent's attorney, which is fixed by-J 
the court." 

"As you have no court of appeals, I suppose tiO-m 
record is made of court proceedings," remarked thftT 

' ' Oh, yes, each court room is provided with one o 
the new automatic noiseless receiving and printing I 

' ' And how about lawyers who have bad cases ? ' ' 

"They endeavor to take them into the Unit 
States Court, where the old practice prevails." 

"Beg pardon, ma'am," said the Pullman conduo- 


tor. approaching Mrs. Thornton, "but we are pass-' 
ing over the new line, which runs north of Gila River, 
and a view may be had of the sleeping Montezuma 
now, and the passengers generally Uke to see it." 

"The sleeping Montezuma! What is that?" asked \ 
the lady addressed. 

" It is the giant figure of an Indian resting on hisi 
back on the top of the mountain. You can see i 
now quite plainly from the right-hand windows of j 
the car." • 

And across the plain — in centuries gone densely 1 
peopled by some prehistoric race, and then for c 
turies a waste, and, since the completion of the Gila 1 
Canal, a checker-board of orchard, vineyard, and j 
meadow, the eye looked upon the la vender- tinted J 
mountains to the northward, and it required no aid 1 
from the imagination to behold, upon the summits of 1 
those mountains, the profile of a stately figure and I 
majestic face, with a crown of feathers upon the brow, • 
lying upon its back. 

Once there lived, in the shadow of this giant, a 
of which traces may still be found in mounds 
taining pottery, and in the ruins of great aqueducts, J 
and in stone houses seven stories in height, a portion S 
of the walls of which are still standing. 

"The Indians hereabouts have a story," said the I 
conductor, "to the effect that Montezuma went to | 
sleep, when the sun dried up the waters, and his peo- 
ple died, and they say now that Morning's canal isl 
making the country green again, the old chief wiljij 
awaken, ' ' 

" You were saying," said Doctor Eustace, by wajn 

of suggestion to tlie stranger, "that there are sc 
peculiar marriage contract laws here." 

"It is aJl expressed, sir, in the preamble to the law, 
and in the law itself] a copy of which I happen to 
have with me, as I am on the way to attend court at I 
Yuma. Here it is," and he offered the book to Pro- J 
fessor Thornton. 

"Read it aloud, professor," said the doctor, and.] 
the professor read: — 

' ' The Senate and Assembly of the State of Arizona I 
recognizes the truth that not easy divorce laws, but 'i 
easy marriage laws, are at the root of the conjugal -] 
evil; that men and women have been accustomed to f 
marry, disagree, and divorce in less time than should ; 
have been allowed for a proper peried of betrothal; 
that the loose system now prevailing often results ia 
children destitute of the inherent virility of virtue and j 
affection; that no adequate defenses have hitherto ] 
been builded for the protection of young females too | 
unthoughtful and too trusting; that the laws und?r- ] 
lying the physical as well as the mental constitution, 
with their multiple of subtile, gravitating, and repel- 
lant forces, have hitherto been wholly unstudied, or 
disregarded; that the arbitrary conditions of society i 
compel woman to accept marriage, in violation of her 
higher aims ; that in certain human organizations the j 
conditions created by propinquity are altogether false 
and ephemeral; that certain other human organ- 
izations are, by nature, filled with inordinate vanity i 
and self-love, which qualities, beguiling the j udgment, 
constitute fickleness and instability of purpose, and i 
that the true solution of the great social problet 



likely to be found in preventive rather than in reme- 
dial laws. Therefore, be it enacted "— 

"Hold up, John," said Dr. Eustace. "That is al! 
my mentality can assimilate without a rest. Are you 
not reading from an essay by Mona Caird, or a novel 
by Tolstoi? Is that really and truly the preamble of a 
law enacted by a Western Legislature? Have all the 
cranks, and all the theorists, and all the moonstruck, 
long-haired, green-goggled reformers on earth, been 
turned loose in Arizona?" 

"Doctor," said the professor solemnly, "the Iruth 
is a persistent dy, that cannot be brushed away with 
the wisps of ridicule. The Arizona legislators have 
fearlessly attempted to deal with conditions which 
every close observer of our social life knows to be 

"Papa," said the baroness, interestedly, "in what 
way is it proposed to deal with the problem ? Please 
read further." 

" The law is too lengthy," said the professor, after 
glancing over a few pages, "to be read in detail, but 
I will summarize it for you. Marriages are declared 
void unless the parties procure a license, which can 
only be issued by an. examining board of men and 
women, composed in part of physicians, and in part 
of graduates of some reputable school, dedicated to 
physiological observations and esoteric thought and 

"Anything about ability to boil a potato or sew on 
a button?" interrupted the doctor. 

"Peace, scoffer," said the professor. "It seems 
to be required that all applicants for license shall 


have had an acquainiiincc of at least one year, and be 
under marriage engagement for six months, and shall 
pass examination by the board upon their mutual elig- 
ibility, as expressed through temperament, complex- 
ion, tastes, education, traits of character, and general 
conditions of fitness." 

" Is red hair, ora habit of snoring, or a fondness 
for raw onions, considered a disqualification?" queried 
the doctor. 

The professor, ignoring the interruption, continued: 
" It is required that one or both of the applicants 
shall possess property of sufficient value, to support 
both of them for one year, in the manner of life to 
which the proposed wife has been accustomed." 

"A gleam of common sense at last in a glamour of 
moonshine," said the doctor. "But how can such 
a marriage law be enforced?" 

"The act provides," said the professor, "that 
children born to parties who have no license, shall be 
deemed born out of wedlock, and all such children, 
as well as all children born to extreme poverty or 
degrading influences, may be taken from their parents 
and educated at the public expense." 

"How does this experiment of turning the State 
into a moral kindergarten for adults, and wet-nursery 
for infants, succeed?" said Doctor Eustace to the 

"The law was enacted only a few weeks since," 
replied the gentleman, "and it is too soon to answer 

your question." 

"Humph! haveyouany more of such revolutionary 
i^islation ? " 


"Nothing so important as the marriage contract 3 
act, but on page 72 you will find some provisions of I 
law which may interest you.' 

The doctor read; — 

"Women who perlbrm equal service with men 
shall be entitled to recover an equal sum for their j 
tabor, and all contracts made in derogation of this J 
right shall be void." . 

"Good!" applauded Miss Winters. 

Again the doctor read: — 

" The men who represent the State of Arizona i) 
the United States Senate shall be chosen by a majority J 
of the voters, and not by the Legislature, as in other ] 
States of the Union, and no man, however favored, 
shall be eligible for the position whose property in- 
terests, justly estimated, exceed in value the sum of J 
j! 100, 000." 

"That will exclude Mr. Morning from the million- 
aires' club, will it not?" queried Dr. Eustace. 

"Yes, sir," answered the stranger, " but he favored 
the law. Of couree, under the United States Consti- 
tution, this section is not legally operative : but it ia 
morally binding, and the Legislature has always 
elected to the Senate gentlemen who were previously 
designated by the people at the polls, and thus far 
no man suspected of solvency has ventured to be a 
candidate. Arizona is friendly to progressive legis- 
lation. You will find our law for the prevention of 
cruelty to animals on page 56; it may interest you." 

The professor read: — 

"Any person or persons convicted of having 
beaten, abused, underfed, overworked, or otherwise 


{maltreated any horse, mule, dog, or other animal of 

whatever kind, may thereafter be assaulted and beaten 

W,i>y any person who may desire to undertake such 

■ task, without the assailant being responsible civilly or 
■criminally for such assault. " 

"That," said the doctor, "to quote a Boston girl 
B.On Niagara Falls, 'is neat, simple, and sufficient.' 
"-Have you any further novelties in the way of legis- 
lation to offer ? ' ' 

"Our law oi libel is in advance of all other states," 
said the stranger; "you will find it on page 163." 

The professor read:^ 

"Any man or woman or newspaper firm lending 
jAemselves to the dissemination of scandal, or defama- 
I tion of private character, to the moral detriment of 
linnocent parties, shall, on conviction, be adjudged 
f outlaws, and may be lawfully beaten or killed at the 

■ pleasure of the party injured." 

" Lord," said the doctor, piously raising his eyes, 
"now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for 
J«nine eyes have beheld thy glory." 

" We take a great deal of pride in that libel law," 
■..said the stranger. "It has inspired a degree of cour- 
Esy on the part of Arizona editors that would have 

■ made Lord Chesterfield ashamed of himself. The 
llYuma Sentinel, which was accustomed to personal 

journalism, lately alluded to a convicted highwayman 
a gentleman whose ideas on the subject of prop- 
Jerty differ from those of a majority of his fellow- 
Icitizens;' and the Tucson Star, which used to be the 
[chief of skngwh angers, reviewed a sermon and spoke 
I of Judas Iscariot as 'that disciple whose conduct in 



receiving compensalion in money from the Romans I 
for liis services as a guide, has caused his memory to j 
be visited by all religious denominations with great, i 
and probably not altogether undeserved, criticism,' 
But we are at Yuma, sir, and I must hid you good-by. 
Boats run up the river from here to Castle Dome, 
There is an excellent hotel here. Tourists usually , 
stop over to visit the Gonzales place, and I suppose ' 
you will not neglect the opportunity. The house is 1 
a marvel of beauty. It was built by direction of Mr. .1 

" Does he live there when at home?" queried the 

"Oh, no, madame! The Gonzales family nursed 
Morning through an attack, of fever, after he was shot 
by the Apaciies near the old Gonzales hacienda sev- 
eral years ago. The Sefiorita Murella never left his i 
bedside for weeks. Really, the doctors say the girl 
saved his life. He was, naturally, very grateful, and; 
when he recovered, he bought the Castle Dome 
rancheria from the Indians, and had a rock tunnel 
run into the Colorado River, and took out the water 
and carried it in irrigating canals over a thousand 
acres of land, which he had planted in oranges, lemons, 
vines, olives, and other fruit. It will pay a princely ■ 
revenue to the Gonzales people in a few years. 

" Morning ordered built upon the dome overlook- 
ing the river the most beautiful marble palace on the 
coast, and they say it is not surpassed anywhere on 
earth. The whole busmess must have cost hin 
eral millions, but money is nothing to him. The i 
place is kept up in princely style by the Sefiora Gon- 

3p6 M TT Ea DAYS. 

zaies and her daughter. They entertain a great dea 
of company, and are always delighted to welcom 
strangers who may \'isit the plac 

" And I suppose that Aladdin is a constant visitoi 
at his palace?" sneered the baron. 

"Morning? Oh, no; strangely enough, he 1 
never been near the place since its completion, 
years ago! Too busy, I suppose, helping the wi 
out of the mud. But he is on the coast now, j 
paring for his 'dvnamite exposition,' and may put il 
an appearance here." 


"A hospitable gate unbarred to all," 

"All aboard for Castle Dome," and the baronV ^ 
party filed up the t:arpeted j^ang plank, and looked 
smilingly about them. 

■' I have often heard of the sumptuouaness of '. 
the Mississippi steamers, now grown traditional, but 1 
this exceeds even iheitweputation," commented Miss 1 

"This is the Morning line, madame," answered \ 
the gaudily -dressed steward boastfully, "and they 
do nothing by halves, you know," and he pompously ] 
led the way to the ladies' saloon. 

"Except by half millions," returned the doctor | 

"These steamers were built for the accommodation ' 
of the people who came to the World's Fair at I 
Chicago," explained the steward. "Morning's a 
queer sort of fellow"— and he grew confidential. 
' ' He could have brought his air ships and new-fangled 
things, such as he had on exhibition at the fair, but 
he wouldn't. He said it was kind o' throwing off on 
nature, that God never made but one Colorado River, 
and he for one hadn't the brass to discount it." 

" Do you have many visitors belonging to the no- 
bility?" asked Mrs. Thornton, evidently inclined to 1 
change the conversation from its personal trend. 


BETTER Days, or 

"Oh, lots of 'em! There's a Spanish count and anV 
■Italian prince stopping up at the Gonzales place now-f 
FThe Italian has been there some time, making him-i 
I self solid with the seilorita, I reckon. And we a 
E expecting a party this week, Baron Von Boodle, or 1 
1. some such name, with his friends" — here the baron 4 
I- rose abruptly and walked out of the saloon— 
I'.least Mr. Morning telegraphed the captain from San. j 
• Diego that when this party arrived he meant to run 1 
; and make his first visit to Castle Dome,.! 
r*i*hich will be an event, for, after all the millio 
Imoney he has spent on the place, he has never beoi J 
Knear it, and everybody is wondering at it." 

After a night's rest at the great Rio Colorado J 
jHotel, built upon the bluif at Vuma, tiie party had | 
I' made an early start, and had been on board the Un- \ 
*dine for some time before the line was thrown in and | 
I the steamer began to move. 

The steward bustled away, rmd the baroness rose, 1 
I with a deep breath of rehef, and walked ti 
rit may have been observed of many women that any I 
ftsew or sudden sensation or condition or emotion sug- I 
f gests a looking-glass. Not that they see or are think- 1 
Fing of themselves, but they seem thus best able to ] 
■collect their thoughts. So it was with this woman, 
tonly that now she did observe two very bright eyea 1 
Land a radiant face, with the swift blood coursing back J 
V from her cheeks, across the smooth white surface of 1 
[ her neck, to the closely -defined growth of hair — that \ 
r oracle of beauty which no ugly woman ever wore, 
r whatever her features. She turned quickly away, 
\ and, following the doctor and her father, the three \ 
f ladies went out to view the scenery. 

"You observe this bend in the river," a voice was 
r saying, ' ' where many a poor fellow has gone to his 
^tieath, for there swoops the most fatal pool of eddies, 
fcperhaps, to be found in the whole channel of these 
I'whimsical waters." 

The baroness turned to look for the speaker, whose 
K Voice seemed familiar, and there, under the shade of 
Bthe awning-, in full silhouette, looking in the face of 
Eber husband, with whom he was pleasantly convers- 
Blng, stood David Morning, 

Her first thought was to retreat to the saloon and 

wait for him to present himself, but as his swift eye 

swept the deck, he caught sight of her face, and came 

^ quickly over, followed by the baron, saying, as he 

tcordially took her hand, and held it closely for a long 

[-time, "I enjoy one advantage over you, baron, my 

■ acquaintance with the baroness dates back of yours. 
ftl hope she has not forgotten me." 

The woman made no reply to this remark; she 
mmply said, " How do you do, Mr. Morning," and 

■ presented him to her friends. 

The brief trip up the river among the cliffs and cas- 

ftcades and whirlpools and caves and canons and 

towering cathedral rocks, furnished prolific and au- 

micious topics for conversation, but it need not be 

that neither the baroness nor Mr. Morning 

Kknew altogether what they were talking about. She 

|could not fail to see the pupils of his sea-grey eyes 

Jrow very large when he looked at her, and he in 

turn observed that she scarcely looked at him at all. 

The professor talked a litde dryly at first, and Mrs. 
fhoniton sat apart, evidently nursing her chagrin, 



r Mr, Morning was at this moment not only the I 
f wealthiest but tlie most famous and powerful man in I 
Kail the world, and, had he sought it, could have ob- I 
fitained orders of high nobility from every crowned I 
[head in Europe. The baron, who would have seen j 
"Helen's beauty in a brow of Egypt," if that brow ^ 
Ipossessed the attribute of Midas, looked at tJie si 
|tion from an altogether different standpoint, and was j 
r thinking al what period of the new-formed acquaint- 
I ance it would be prudent to ask the loan of a few, I 
lor, possibly, more than a few, thousand pounds. 

Presently the boat rounded into a little cove andj 

pstopped. The brief but eventful journey was over, J 

Fand the party stepped from the boat to a flight of fl 

|. marble-flagged steps, leading up to shining floors, out J 

which arose columns supporting a light roof In ] 

Ifoda style. Easy swinging seats, with hammocks ] 

and tables, with a few racks and stands, completed I 

the pretty " Rest" for the landing, and the party be- 1 

gan to look about for the path of ascent. 

Suddenly a tinklin_g sound was heard, and, softly a 
if it fell from the clouds, a car, sumptuously carpeted, 
cushioned, and canopied, appeared before them, 
was, evidently, meant for the accommodation of the j 
party, and one by one they stepped in. Momin 
was the last to follow, and as he came aboard and ] 
closed the plate-glass door, it shut with a tinkle, and I 
the car arose, moving proportionately aslant as the \ 
grade of the terrace — which had been feshioned and ] 
grown in the short space of two years — inclined. 

"My invention works like a charm," Morning vi 
heard to mutter to the outer air, as they neared the ] 


summit and surveyed the height. The awe-fiU 
overhanging crags, thousands of centuries old, I 
been blasted and chiseled and coaxed into shelves,! 
and steps, and nooks, and resting-places, softly car-< 
peted with moss, and decorated with growing fem^fl 
and lichens. The wind came down the river andT 
shook the leaves above their heads, and stirred the J 
birds intoa,fiood of song, and larks sat upon the twig^s^ 
and warbled with joy. 

"Only two years," said Miss Winters, as thty 
stepped from the car; " 'tis not so long in which t 
make a beautiful world." 

"It is much more difficult to people it with the 
right sort," mused Morning. 

"The first builders had to try that two or thre^4 
times, if my memory serves me," remarked the doc-T 

"Are these people of the right sort?" asked Mrs.'] 
Thornton significantly. 

The baroness shot a quick glance at Morning, audi 
looked over at her rather too loquacious maternal. 

"I am too much of an ingrate to answer for them," 
said Morning, undismayed. " I only know that! owea 
them my life, and that I have never had the grace ti 
come and than k them. ' ' 

They had now arrived at the main entrance to ti 
grounds, and the scene presented was one of ind 
acribable beauty and splendor. The dazzling propor- M 
tions of the structure rose into the air with such e 
ceeding lightness and grace of outline, melting awayT 
against the silvery softness of the clouds, that it 1 
seemed swinging in the ambient air, and only for the 1 

cornices and columns and spires and turrets of onyJ^ 
and agate which defined the outlines against the sky;4 
one would look to see it float away like dissolving"! 
views of the Celestial City. The magnificent dome' 1 
was rounded with bent and many-colored glasses, the i 
eloquent figures storying events of history both classic 1 
and local, in pigments not known since the days ofr| 
Donatello, who went mad because his figure could f 
not speak. And there, upon its pedestal of purest "I 
alabaster, stood the chaste statue of Psyche, just as :■ 
Morning had hewn it out of his captious fancy so long F 
ago, and Cupid opposite, half eager, half evasive, and | 
restless. Ah, well! and he looked into the deep, ap- 
preciative eyes of the woman by his side, and said not \ 
a word. 

Having selected the most thoroughly skilled archi- 
tects, artists, and artisans, and no limit having been 1 
placed to expenditure, it was evident that every detail [ 
of Morning's plan had been faithfully executed. But 1 
beyond this his power, or, rather, his supervision or j 
direction, had ceased. At last it was the estate and | 
home of the Gonzales family and not his own, and i 
concerning its management, or the manner in which ' 
they should enjoy it, he did not offer even a sugges- 
tion. Morning's instructions, left with the Bank of 
California more than two years before, were to pay all 
checks signed by the Senora or the Seiiorita Gonzales, 
no matter what amount, and charge them to his ac- 

The Gonzales femily had taken their good fortune 
with great equanimity. Their inclinations led them 
to a generous and exceedingly promiscuous hospitality, 




and they had not hesitated to arrange the manage 
their household without regard to conventionalities. 
Instead of the solemn and ubiquitous functionary at 
the open door, there was vacancy, while the party 1 
stood upon the tessellated floor of the broad vestibule i 
for several minutes. 

Presently a young Spaniard in boots and clanking, ] 
spurs, with silver-laced 'sombrero and flaming tie, 
threw wide the door, and simultaneously Morning 
caught a glimpse through an open court of a female 
figure leaning upon the rosewood balustrade, mounted 
with a cable of silver, which surrounded a corridor, , 
and idly tossing with her fan the light, half-curling 
locks of a man who sat upon a low seat, resting his ' 
head against her knee. 

It was only a glance as the sun strikes against the 
steel, sharply cutting its way upon the eye, or like the 
incisive impress of some exceptional face in passing, 
whereby one seizes every detail of color and form, 
void of conscious effort. It was easy to recognize the 
graceful outline of the swaying figure as she sat poised , 
under the sunlight, and swift and unbidden even aa 
the coufi dml was, the senses of David Morning 
thrilled with gladness. Was it the sight of Murella 
again that sent that shaft of ecstasy through his soul? 
or was it the all up-building, all-leveling lesson that 
the Sefiorita Gonzales was being amused? 

The arrival of the party had been manifestly unex- 
pected, and no formal announcement was made, but j 
no sooner had they entered the magnificent reception ' 
hall at one extremity than Senorita Gonzales appeared 
at the other She entered with a movement of the 


most exquisite grace, robed, rather than dressed, in a^' 
gown of acanthus green satin, flowing in the back from 
the half-bared neck to the gold- embroidered border of 
the derai-train. The front was gathered at the shoul- 
der and fell with lengths of creamy lisse to the perfect 
foot, with its slippers of gold. A corselet of rich em- 
broideries rounded the waist. The sleeves were 
loosely puffed and draped with softest lace to the white 
and fle.\ible wrist, while the web-like lace of her man- 
tilla re.sted lightly upon the shining coils of her abun- 
dant hair. 

As Mr, Morning advanced toward the center of the 
room to greet his beautifijl hostess, she drew an audi- 
ble breath, and lifted her finely-arched brows, but no 
sign betrayed other emotion. Mr. Morning presented 
his friends in the most casual and easy manner, but 
when the Baroness Von Eulaw came forward, taller 
by some inches than the Senorita Gonzales, and with 
an exquisite manner was about to speak, the little 
hostess, with an air of special affabihty and simplicity, 
asked, showing her small white teeth the while: — 

' ' To who owe I a the honor of this visite of a noble 
baroness? " 

It was a bombshell in satin and lace which fell at 
the feet of Morning, and for an instant he saw no way 
to the rescue of the baroness. Then, rallying, he 
quickly replied; — 

"To the reputation for hospitality of the fair owner 
of this house, and that of her charming family." 

"I no know if my name travel so long time a," 
she rejoined, looking at Morning. 

The baron then came forward, and, politely hold- 



ing her fingers, said in Spanish, "1 hope that the-V 
J Seflorita and Sefiora Gonzales are quite well, as who-] 
pshould not be in this Italy of rare delights? " 

"Oh, Italy! that is the home of my parteeklep J 
Wend. He paint Italia, he sing Italia, and he make I 
■ine promise for go many times." 

' ' That settles it, ' ' Morning muttered sententiously, 
lut no one heard. 
Then the conversation became general, the baroness J 
commenting kindly upon the encroachments upon I 
e time of the senorita in receiving curious visitors. I 
"Oh," retorted Murella with pretty nonchalance, I 
''I no care! I lofe amuse myself," leading the way J 
a the main saloon. "I haf always parteekler frent, , 
lame as baroness, ess it not?" and she sank indo- 
mtly into the cushioned depths of a primrose sofa, 
raving the baroness to a place beside her, and leav- 
ing the party to make choice of seats. 

ice at the original design and superb appoint- I 
ments of this interior suggested the incongruity of 1 
airaocks and o^/as, yet here they were many times I 
fcpeated, for " ice is the devil's nectar," runs a Span- 
1 proverb, and the o/ia has no rival save the mescal ^ 

i Every well-to-do Mexican lamily keeps beneath its \ 
mia. corps of female retainers, who are neither serv- 
BOts nor guests, but something between the two. ' 
y dine — except on occasions — at the family board, 1 
ind mingle always at the family gathering, but they I 
st in the household labors, and sometimes, though ! 
often, receive a stated money compensation, 
"hey are usually relatives, more or less distant, of the j 



mistress of the household. The beautiful £asa and 
great wealth of the Gonzales family had nearly de- 
populated the neighboring Mexican State of Sonora 
of all the needy Alvarados who could claim kinship 
with the Donna Maria, and a dozen of these senoritas 
now appeared shyly at the doors, their inantilbs 
closely drawn, though the day was warm, and many 
voices and excellent music were heard from all quar- 
ters of the house and grounds. 

After a few moments the Sefiora Gonzales, with her 
brother, Don Manuel Alvarado, who acted as major- 
domo of the estate, were presented, but the seiiora 
soon glided away unobserved, leaving her brother to 
the honors of guide over the mansion. 

"You are very beautiful," spoke Murella with ap- 
parent naivete, as they arose to follow the party who 
had preceded them. 

The smile of the baroness was tinged with bitterness 
as she turned to look into the Madonna face beside 
her, and ventured to reply. 

"AndSefior Morning lofes you like heaven and the 
angels," she continued unctuously. 

" Sefiorita, you forget that I have a husband." 

" Is he jealous ? " 

"Surely no," replied the baroness sincerely. 

"Then I no know what you mean a." 

" I mean that I owe a wife's duty to the baron," 
slowly, with rising color. 

"And what you owe a to the other fellow? " mean- 
ing Morning, 

The baroness was too much confused to speak. 

"You know him a long time? " 

"Before I married the baron and went abroad." 



"And you lofe him all these a year ? Oh thunner!" 

Murella's English must be taken with many grains I 
of allowance. The strongest words in a foreign 1 
unfamiliar tongue seem ineffectual and weak. 

" I must plead the indulgence of a guest," laughed ' 
the baroness, "and withdraw myself from the search- 
ing operations of your cunning catechism, or turn the 
lights upon you. How long have you known — " 

But the sefiorita had softly glided away, standing 1 
apart and giving hurried orders for lundieon. 

Morning was in a dilemma. It will have been ob- ' 
served that, after the first moment of greeting, Mu- 
rella had given him no farther thought. Gratitude is ' 
not with the Spaniard one of the cardinal virtues, : 
he was aware, so that was an unvexed question. If 1 
his name had not been so prominently before the I 
world, doubtless they would — the entire family ill- 
eluded — liave forgotten it ere this, But was it pique, | 
was it pride, or was it embarrassment, that led MurellA ' 
to thus overlook him ? 

Certainly she had recognized the baroness at the I 
first glance, to his amazement and bewilderment, for 1 
the episode of her examination and temporary cus- 
tody of the photograph was unknown to him, and 
just so surely her first impulse had been to render 
that lady as uncomfortable as possible. But, with her 
usual swift sagacity, she had, with an eye single to 
her own cunning tactics, quite changed her base of 
action, and, with adinirable finesse, proceeded at once J 
to make a friend of the baroness, through her charm- | 
ing frankness and unsophisticated confidences. The 
steady, unflinching eye of Morning, therefore, while J 

trained as the eagle's to catch the fiercest rays of tl 
noonday sun, could no more follow the erratic anid| 
elusive movements of tlie eifish fcincy of this ii 
natiug woman than the eye of his horse could folloi 
the flash of a meteor. 

"Come, sefiora," said Murella to the baroness 1 
moment later. " I know the ting you was ask a ni^l 
how long' lime I know Sefior Morning lofe a you." 

The baroness knew that she had not meant to a 
any such question, but rather how long the seQoritq 
had known Mr. Morning. But she had scarccljlj 
opened her lips when Murella talked on. 
C"You link I no know lof when a I see 
what that on his face when he a tak a your hand i&tM 
make a me know you Baroness Von Euiaw ? Eh?^ 
what you call proud, courage, lof, beautiful life!'** 
and her flashing eyes burned like stars in heaven's 

Strange capricel the track was cold over which sht 
had set out to run the race for a life, and many a pri 
had been won and thrown away since then, and noi 
she was burning with the wish that her rival should.^ 
gain that which she had lost. Was it magnanimity, J 
or was it a natural-born desire to defraud some maicl 
of his marital rights, and give some woman a victory?fl 

' ' Now we wiil go to the Morning room so I c 
a;" and together they walked over the exquisite: J 
mosaic floors, and halls of parquetry, and stairwayv 
glittering as the sun, and figures of classic art lookedj 
down, and fold on fold of hues of soft-blent shadowi 
dropped from tinted panes and fell around them, 
apparently the most casual way they passed a sti: 


^lled with light and color, where, in violet velvet 
Pblouse, and cap upon his poetic locks, worked and 
f fcnoked the master of Italian art. 

"This is my parteekler freii — the Baroness Von 
lEulaw, Seuor Fillipo," and they hurried on. 

Arrived at the suite, they first entered the dressing 
It was plainly finished In French gray, with 
Rgold and blue enamel, the same colors repeated in 
Tdrapery and cushions. But one piece attracted par- 
Jticular attention. It was an alabaster fountain, the 
laborate accessories half concealing a full-sized bust 
iijOf Morning, the identity of which could not be mis- 
Btaken. It was exquisitely chiseled, and falhng jets, 
rand icy foam, and cascades like cobwebs, built up 
I masses of soft, misty whiteness, shutting back all 
laave an incidental glimpse of outline, and thickening 
3>y contrast the boldness of the water plants at the 

"A very pretty conceit," said the baroness, ap- 

ivingly. "Who is the designer? " 

"Me," said the seiiorita, coldly, leading the way 
E'to the main chamber, to which apartment Murella 
■ carried the key. Unlocking the door, tlie baroness 
kbad scarcely time to take in the mute, indescribable 
fefFects of the aurora! tints on the walls, stippled and 
tfeded into thinnest ether, with its golden sky over- 
v'Spread with winged cherubs in high relief, laid in 
I tints such as are only painted on angels, when the 
jliaron's party were heard approaching. One thing, 
•"llowever, had struck the baroness, even at a cursory 
1 glance. The dust lay thick and undisturbed over 
lisU the furniture of the room. A superb curtain of 

B wii 

corn-colored brocade hung over one end of th 
;h also showed signs of not havir 
disturbed at least for a term of many months, 
gesture of impatience was made by Murella as s 
spoke, in an irascible tone of voice, " What for a h 
bring a they here ? ' ' 

However, the party, following their guide, enteret 
expressing surprise at finding the ladies had precf 

The baron at once walked over and engaged i 
pretty hostess in conversation, laughing genuinely a 
her piquant expressions and unworldly- wise ways 
while Morning talked about some irrelevant tl 
with Miss Winters, and the rest of the company s; 
tered to the remoter quartersoftheapartments, Mrs 
Thornton, however, coveted a view behind the matzof 
curtain, and to this end plied tlie major-doi 
such blandishmentsas were at her command, andusinj^ 
vigorously the little Spanish she possessed 
Spaniard turned to look for the seliorita — she ha^ 
momentarily disappeared with the baron — and I 
flung aside the fatal curtain. 

There, in a regal frame, in a painting by the famoi^ 
hand of Prince Fillipo Colonna, master of arts in t' 
Royal Academy at Rome, appeared two full-sizec 
figures. They were those of David Morning ; 
Seiiorita Gonzales, It was an interior of an adobe| 
house- The saints upon the mud walk, with rosaries 
suspended beneath them, and the crude decoratiotu 
about the fireplace, with the hammocks in the shadoils 

dimly visible. Light came in through : 
window, and fell upon the white face of Morning, jus^ 



tinged with returning health. One hand held sus- 
pended a pencil, while with the other, just discernible 1 
from out the shadows, he clasped the girlish figure of I 
Murella Gonzales. 

It was a master work of art, and more than con- 
doned all malicious or vain intent on the part of the 1 
author. The expression upon Morning's face was 
one of placid amusement, while that upon the girl's 
was anxious and arch, questioning and trusting, open, 
yet elusive, like the mimosa gr^ing sturdily from . 
the potted earth in the rude casement, which receded i 
at a sound of the human \'oice. The noble artist had j 
evidently caught an inspiration from the local color- 
filtrated through the hot brain of the lovely seflorita— 
and had touched the face of Morning with the light of 1 
his lovely companion. 

Mr. Morning had just crossed over to catch a word ] 
with the baroness when the tableau was unveiled. 
Her whitening face frightened him, and he looked 1 
quickly over her shoulder at the picture. At the ] 
same moment a piercing shriek, and Seflorita Murella J 
rushed wildly down the room. 

" Madre de Dios,'" she yelled. " What a you do 1 
that a for?" and she menaced the poor Spaniard with | 
her small fist. 

"It was I, it was I," pleaded Mrs. Thornton. I 
" Don't blame him." But Murella turned from her ] 
with high scorn. 

' ' Fool, I will kill a him, ' ' she shrieked, again turn- 
ing to the place where the man had stood. 

But Seflor Don Manuel Jose Maria Ignacio Cer- 
vantes Alvarado, knowing something of the temper of j 



his niece, had attended not upon the order of his go-A 
ing, but slipped away, and in his place stood MorD~J 
ing. For one brief moment MureSla looked at 1; 
then, drawing a pearl-handled stiletto from beneatB 
her girdle, she gashed and stabbed the unconscious 
canvas in twice a dozen places, crying all the t 
' ' Take a that, and a that, and a that ! ' ' 

Morning thought that his lime had come, but he!i 
manfully stood his ground, secretly smiling at 1 
bloodless assassination, until, exhausted, Murella f 
upon the carpet in a genuine hysterical rage. Afh 
a moment he lifted her tf> her feet, placed her haiKJ 
within his arm, and led her unresistingly from tb< 

An hour later she stood at the boathouse, leaning 
upon the arm of Prince Fillipo. and gayly waving a 
adieu to the party. Morning among them; then, 
the artist's arm about her waist, they slowly r 
up the terrace steps, while the decorated steamenj 
went out of sight around the cove. 

And the Baroness Von Eulaw guessed now who i 
was that had made the pin holes in her eyes- 


The Congress of 1S92 builded even better thaa | 
knew, when it dropped partisan prejudices, and a 
superior to local fetterings, and. in a truly nationi 


:ured for the United States of Americjj 


minion of the seas and control of the 

The Act of Congress which guaranteed the pajfl 
ment of five per cent bonds of the Nicaragua Cai 
Company to the extent of $100,000,000, and whl<J 
provided that the canal tolls upon Americar 
should never be more than two-thirds the b 
charged the vessels of oclier nations, enabled the coM 
pany to construct the canal with unexpected rapidiqi 
without calling upon the United States for a dollar ^ 
the guaranty, while, more than any subsidy or fsvot 
able mail contract, it aided to place the Stars ; 
Stripes at the mastheads of the vast fleet of ships a. 
steamers which, upon the completion of the canal i 
the autumn of 1S95, began to pass between the Atli 
tic and the Pacific. 

The local traffic developed by the canal provy 
something phenomenal. Early in the history of its o 
struction it became generally known that the countr 
for hundreds of miles about Lake Nicaragua, was nq 




an unhealthy tropical jungle, but an elevated, breezy 
lable-iand, environed and divided by snow-clad mour 
tains, with an average temperature only a few degrees 
warrner than that of California, and with a much more 
even distribution of rainfall. 

A knowledge of tJiese advantages was followed by 
a large incursion of American settlers. There is per- 
haps no product of field or forest more profitable 
than the coffee plant. Steadily the demand for the 
fragrant berry is upon the increase, while, beside hav* 
ing few enemies in ihe insect world, the area within 
which coffee can be advantageously grown is very 
limited. While the coffee plant does not require 
an exceptionally hot climate, it will not thrive where 
frost is a possibiUty. The hill slopes.and table-lands of 
Nicaragua were found to be peculiarly adapted for its 
growth, and thousands of acres of young plantations 
were already thriving where for centuries only wild 
grasses had waved. Short lines of railroad, centering 
on Lake Nicaragua, and running in every .direction, 
had made accessible a large extent of country. The 
scream of the gang saw was heard amid forests of dye- 
woods, rosewood, and mahogany. Mines of gold, sil- 
ver, copper, iron, and coal were opened. Cotton, 
sugar, and indigo plantations were developed, and 
Millerville, on Lake Nicaragua, when the war ships 
passed through the canal to attend David Morning's 
dynamic exposition, was already a city of fifty thou- 
sand people, provided with electric lights and cable 

The advantages to the people of the United States 
of the completed Nicaragua Ship Canal were almost 

incalculable. The freight-carrying business of the 
world between the east coast of Asia and Europe 
was rapidly transferred to American bottoms. The " 
iron manufacturers of Tennessee, Alabama, and 
Georgia were given an opportunity, previously denied 
them, of marketing the product of their furnaces and 
foundries on the Pacific Coast of North America. The 
dwellers in the Mississippi Valley could now send tlieir 
cotton, meats, and manufactures to trans-Pacific and 
Antipodean markets, and California redwood and 
Puget Sound fir and cedar lumber could be sent over 
all the Northwest. 

On the Pacific Coast the canai added twenty-five 
per cent to the productive value of every acre of grain 
and timber land. The co.-t of sacking, and half the 
cost of transporting wheat was saved to the farmer, 
and the freight upon all machinery and heavy goods 
brought from the East was greatly lessened, 

On Puget Sound the construction of a ship canal, 
costing less than $2,oco,ooo, connecting the fresh 
waters of Lake Washington with the salt water in 
Elliott Bay, gave to Seattle such facilities for ware- 
housing, loading, and dry-docking, and such inde- 
■ pendence of tides and teredos, that a commercial 
rival of San Francisco was spreading over the hiils of 
the fir-fringed Queen of the New Mediterranean, while 
at the extreme southwestern corner of the republic^ 
the city of bay and climate — San Diego — was rapidly 
regaining the population and prestige which tempo- 
rarily slipped from her grasp at the subsiding of the 
boom which, during 1886 and 18S7, enkindled the 
imagination, and beguiled the judgment, and encrazed 


with the fever of speculation, the people of Southern 

Even during the dull times which annihilated so 
many promising fortunes in Southern Calilbrnia, the 
attractions of Coronado Beach were sufficient to secure > 
for it exemption from the dire distress which overtook 
other localities. 

The company owning this enterprise successfully 
defied not only abursted boom but the very forces of 
nature, for they riprapjjpd the beach in front of their 
hotel, and baffled the Pacific Ocean, which, after 
gnawing up the lawn and shrubbery which fronted its 
restless waters, had set its foam-capped legions at work 
to undermine the foundations of the great ballroom. 

Parks, avenues, and streets were improved, mu- 
seums and gardens developed, and races and hops 
and fishing and boating parties encouraged. Excur- 
sions from neighboring cities were organized, the East 
was flooded with pamphlets praising Coronado, and 
the pleasure-loving and health -see king world was in 
every way reminded that in this land of rare delights 
it could pick ripe oranges and enjoy surf bathing in 
midwinter, while Boston was shivering and New York 
swept with blizzards. 

The band at the hotel was kept playing every day 
at luncheon and dinner, and it discoursed sweet music 
in the ballroom regularly upon hop nights to auditors, 
who found— T^is all people can hnd — more of the phys- 
ical comforts and delights of life at Coronado Beach 
than anywhere else in the world, for nowhere ebe is 
there such music in the sea, such balm in the air, 
such sunshine, and fragrance, and healiag, and rest 



The faith and patience of the owner of tlie greatfl 

I hotel were, in the end, rewarded. Month by nionthj 

L and year by year did the numbers of bis guests in-J 

rcrease, until, in 1S95, the capacity of the house 1 

I more than doubled, by the addition of a building; 

something over a quarter of a mile in length, and l] 

great hotel could now accommodate quite two thoii<J 

sand guests. 

David Morning selected Coronado Beach for hia^^ 
I'dynamic experiments, and, with some difficulty, char-1 
l^lered the entire hotel for one month, during whic^fl 
Llime it was reserved exclusively for his guests. 
[ also leased the northerly end of the Coronado Beachr 
f peninsula for the construction and equipment of h^l 
air ship, and for a laboratory for the manufacture o 

The real Coronado Islands are within the territoriaj 

h 'jurisdiction of Mexico, situated about sixteen mUea 

^:South and west from San Diego Bay, and were, excepEl 

I cloudy weather, distinctly visible from CoronadOiJ 

Ifieach. Irregular and ragged masses of red sandstonWl 

a few thousand acres in extent towered to a height o(9 
f^several hundred feet above the ocean, faintly staininjp 
the horizon with patches of blue, resembling a 
finished sky in water color. • 

These islands were destitute of water and vegetaJ 

K.tion, and never inhabited save by a few laborers whm 

tirere engaged in quarrying rock there, and MorningjJ 

mnd nodifficultyin purchasing them from theiro 

fs, and removing all the occupants. 

On the northern end of the Coronado Beach penin-J 

tula, Morning caused to be erected a laboratory fofa 



the manufacture of polentite, with which to load t 
steel shells to be carried by the air ship. This n 
dynamic force, or. rather, storehouse of force, con-' 
sisted of a combination of explosive gelatine with ful- I 
miiiale of mercury, and possessed a power equal to 3 
thirteen hundred tons to the square inch, or sixty i 
times that of common blasting gunpowder, and nine I 
times that of dynamite, and fifty pounds of it properly 1 
directed would sink any ironclad afloat. It is quite j 
safe for manipulation, because it is unexplosive, ex- 
cept when brought in contact with a chemical sub- 1 
stance — also non-explosive except by contact — which ] 
is only added immediately before using, 

The Petrel, the air ship used at the dynamic expo- 1 
sition, was built by the Mount Carme! Aeronautic I 
Company at their works in Chicago, and sent by rail ' 
in sections to Coronado Beach, where she was put to- 
gether. She was cigar-shajied, one hundred feet in J 
length and twenty feet in diameter, and was built of J 
butternut — the toughest of the light woods. Her.l 
engines, with tlielr fens and propellers, as well as the | 
gas generator and tank for benzine, were all con- 
structed of tempered aluminum, made by the new Ken- 
tucky process, at a cost of only eight cents per pound, I 
Being stronger and tougher than the finest steel, and_ J 
only one-third the weight of that metal, aluminum was ' 
especially adapted for the construction of air ships. 

The machinery of the Petrel was propelled by a ' 
gas generated from benzine. The fluid was carried \ 
in an air-tight aluminum tank, from which it p 
drop by drop, to the generator. This gas, almost as I 
powerful as the vibratory ether discovered by Mr, , 


inly con- 

Keely, was much safer because mc 

The Petrel, with all her machinery in place, wi' 

{two tons of benzine in her tanks, and ten men ( 

joard of her supplied with sufficient water and foodj 

(or use for fifteen days, weighed but ten tons, and theT 

e generated from two tons of benzine was suffi- ' 
pent to lift her, with a freight of ten tons more, to a>l 
ffjieight of five thousand or even ten thousand feet,, I 
ftand, without any aid from her folding aluminum para-. J 
y:hutc, was able to maintain her tliere for a fortnight,"1^ 
J speed— in a still atmosphere — of fifty miles per J 
No balloon was attached to the Petrel, as shw 
died entirely upon lier paddles and wings both fort 
repulsion and as a means of maintaining herself ii 

She was constructed upon the principle of i 

Wvigation furnished by the wild goose. That bird^ 

Waintains himself in the ether during a flight of hunJ~ 

reds of miles without a rest, simply because hi^l 

■■Strength, or muscular power, is greater, in proportioiH 

3 his weight, than that of creatures who walk upoiu 

E<:the ground. Man could always have constructed! 

jwings of silk and bamboo which would have enable4fl 

fcim to f]y if he had only possessed the strength tofl 

lap his wings. 

Aerial navigation never presented any other prob-j 
|em than that of procuring power without weight.J 
Once able to obtain the power of a len-horse engine, I 
^ith a weight, including machinery, of less than o 

., one might fly all over the world, and, by takingf 
idvantage of the air currents, a knowledge of whidul 



will soon be gained, fly at a speed ol fifty or even out 
hundred miles an hour. The recent discovery of d 
immense power of a gas which it is possible to g 
ate from benzine without the use of fuel, has made t] 
air as available for the purposes of rapid transit I 
man as the ocean or the land. The great i 
locomotion by this means will doubtless prevent i 
use for the transportation of freight, or, indeed, of p 
sengers, except for those who can afford the luxury 
and for them it will supplant all other methods. 

The Pelrel was provided ivith the new patent c 
densed fuel, one pound of which for cooking s 
heating purposes is equal to ten pounds of coal. Sl« 
was furnished with parachutes made of thin sheets 
aluminum closely folded one above the other. The 
when not in use, formed an awning or canopy o* 
her deck, while, in case of accident, they could, I 
pulling a convenient lever, be instantly spre 
an area lai^e enough to insure her a gradual and sai 
descent, and should such descent be into the water 
she was so constructed as to float as buoyantly a 
cork upon its surface, while, by lessening the n 
of revolutions per minute of her aluminum prOf 
they could be used as paddles for her propulsioi 
through the water. 

The freight of the Petrel consisted of two hundre 
shells of potentite, weighing one hundred pounc^ 
each, and the result to the Coronodo Islands of t 
falUng upon it from a height of a mile or more, v 
predicted long in advance of the experiment, 
, it was said, "fiftypounds of this explosive will destn 

1 ironclad, what will twenty thousand pounds o 

do to an island of rock ? What would a dozen Petrels 
accomplish, hurling; two hundred and forty thousand 
pounds of it upon an army, a city, or an enemy's 

They could level Gibraltar with the sea; they could 
extirpate an army of a^ million men; they could oblit- 
erate London or Berlin or New York from the face of 
the earth. A fleet of a hundred Petrels could ascend 
from New York, cross the Atlantic in three days, de- 
stroy every city in the United Kingdom in six hours, 
and, leaving England a mass of ruins, with two-thirds 
of her people slain, return in three days to New York, 
with unused power enough to go to. San Francisco 
and back without descending. 

England, or any other nation, could likewise de- 
stroy America, for neither aerial navigation nor the 
manufacture of potentite are secrets locked in any 
one man's brain. 

"If Mr. Morning's dynamic exposition," it was 
said, "shall fulfill its promise, he can, if he chooses, 
as the possessor of so complete an air ship and so 
powerful an explosive, be the ruler of the world. 
Emperors and Parliaments must, for the time, be the 
subjects of the man who can destroy cities and camps, 
and who can make such changes in the map of the 
world as he may choose." 

" If the experiment this day to be made at Coro- 
nado," said the President of the United States, "shall 
be successful, armies may as well be disbanded, for 
there can be no more war, and governments all over 
the world must, henceforth, rest upon the consent of 
the governed. ' ' 



Before sending the Petrel upon her mission, an ex- 
amination of the territory to be devastated was in 
order, and the Hotel del Coronado was nearly emptied 
of its guests, for the Charleston, the Warspite, and 
the Wilhelm 11., steamed away to the Coronado Is- 
lands, where the American, British, German, French, 
Russian, Italian, Mexican, and Brazilian engineers, 
with their assistants, landed, took measurements and 

I altitudes, and a number of photographic views, and 
examined the islands thoroughly, verifying the accu- 
racy of the topographical maps and profile models 
in clay previously made by engineers employed by 
Morning. It was projected to make another survey 
and set of maps after the potentite had done its work, 
so as to preserve an accurate and unimpeachable 
record of the result of what our hero modestly called 
his "experiment." 
The vessels returned to their moorings about three 
o'clock in the afternoon of the first day of the e.xpo- 
sition, in ample time for their passengers and officers 
to attend the dinner given by Morning that evening 
to his royal and imperial majesty Edward the Seventh, 
king of Great Britain and emperor of India. This 
sagacious prince, rightly conceiving that the dynamic 
exposition of citizen David Morning was likely to be 
the preliminary of an entire change in the methods of 
government, if not in the governments themselves, 
of the civilized world, determined to head in person 
the British delegation, which was brought on the War- 
spite from Vancouver to San Diego. 
The manner in which King Edward has impressed 


made at the dinner by a shrewd observer and leading 
citizen of San Diego. 

"That king," said he, "is a dandy. He is credited 
with being the cleverest and most adroit politician in 
England, and I believe it, or he could never have 
steered his canoe out of tliat baccarat whirlpool. If 
Dave Morning's dynamics should sort of blow him 
out of a job at home, kt him come over here, and in 
one year I will back him at long odds to get llie nom- 
ination for the best office in the county from either the 
Democratic or Republican convention, and, maybe, 
from both. What a roaring team he and Jack Dodge 
and Sam Davis would make for a county canvass! 
Jack to do the fiddling and dancing, Sam th« all-a- 
round lying, and Edward the hand shaking and the 
setting 'em up for the boys! ' ' 

The ample gardens of San Diego, San Bernardino, 
Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara were stripped for the 
decoration of the banquet hall. All day flowers were 
arriving by the train load, and several hundred floral 
artists were at work in the great dining room. The 
effect was surpassingly beautiful. Suspended from 
the great dome by ropes of smilax was a gigantic 
figure of Peace, wrought in wliite calla lilies, bearing 
in her right hand a branch from an olive tree, wliile 
her left held to her lips a trumpet of yellow jasmine. 
On the walls the arms of all nations were wrought in 
camellias, carnations, fleur-de-lis, and roses of every 
hue. The music and the menu were both incompar- 
able, and, in accordance with the later and Better 
practice ol great dinners, formal speech making was 
altogether dispensed with. 



The next iiiorniiig the shores of Cdronado 1 
were black with people, and in the great hotel e 
piazza and window facing southward or westward K 
occupied. There was a light breeze blowing frtj 
the north as the Petrel \eii her berth and rapid! 
mounted in the air to a height of seven thousand feet, 
which altitude she achieved with her fans in seven 
minutes' time. She then put her propellers in motion 
and was soon a mere speck against the cloudless sky, 
scarcely discernible by the most powerful glasses. 

But though out of sight she soon made her exist- 
ence and her work known to the multitude. In 
thirty-live minutes from the time she left her berth, 
she h«d compassed a mile and a half in height and 
sixteen miles of distance and was hovering over Coro- 
nado Islands. In twenty minutes more six men on 
board of her had thrown over the two hundred po- 
tentite shells, and in haLf an hour thereafter the 
wonder was again resting quietly on the peninsula. 

It was a clear day, and the islands were distinctly 
visible. Sight travels more swiftly than sound, and 
before any noise was heard, the immense mass of 
rock, crown shaped, from which the islands take their 
name, was seen by the gazers on the beach to leap 
from its place and fall into the sea. Other masses in 
swift succession followed; then came roars of sound, 
as if heaven and earth were coming together; roare 
of sound which ratded the doors and casements of the 
hotel as if shaken with a high wind. For twenty 
minutes this awe-inspiring exhibition continued, and 
when the tremendous cannonading ceased, the Cor- 
onada Islands^in the form in which they had pre- 
viously existed — were no more. 



The work of resurveying and making new topo- I 

bical maps was subsequently performed, as a j 

t of the duty of those connected with the dynamic I 

otposition, but it needed no measurements to demon- 1 

-ate tlie awful power of the potentite. An area of J 

(olid rock a mile square was rent into fragments for I 

a depth of one hundred feet. 

Many improvements in machinery and manage- 1 
Dient were suggested to the officers of the Petrel, but 1 

; experiment was conceded by all the great engi- 

leers who witnessed it, to be so completely successful J 

peis to practically eliminate land warfare from the future | 

if nations. . 

"It is fortunate," said the Marquis of Salisbury, 

ID was one of the British delegation — " it is fortu- J 

Bnate that the manufacture of even a small quantity of 1 

kOtendte requires months of time, great skill, and a A 

' costly and extensive laboratory, so that it will be not J 

, impracticable to prevent its preparation by private^ 

[.persons. But given a piece of land anywhere in the I 

civilized world large enough to permit of the build- 
Ring of air ships and the manufacture of potentite, and i 
lUfSciently defended to afford to its garrison tliree j 
Iconths' time in which to perfect the making of thatl 
atplosive, and any power, however insignificant, could, f 
:h a hundred air ships, destroy in three days all the:J 
sat cities in Europe." 

"As it now appears," continued the Marquis, "thisl 
method of warfare would not be so available against a I 
moving object on the sea, such as a ^ar ship. But i£.| 

iubmarine torpedo boat, whose operations w 
o witness to-morrow, shall be anything nearly as effect- I 

i Mr. Morning's air ship, it seems to me that i 
^convention of civilized powers to adjust intematiooi 
relations and provide for a Congress and Court c 
iNations, to which all international differences must b 
[submitted, will be an absolute necessity in the future." 
"And how would the decrees of such a court b 
^enforced, your lordship," inquired Prince Bismarc 
I'trho was listening. 

" By the only aerial war vessels equipped with pOrri 

[tcnlite which the allied nations would suffer to exist,*] 

highness, and which vessels would be subject toM 

llie orders of the Court of Nations. If any ns 

KEiised to obey such decree, it could be disciplined, arftf 

pif any nation attempted to put a potentite air ship un4 

Ider way, it would be necessary, in self-defense, for tl 

illied powers, after adequate warning, to extirpate tl 

Bbffending parties." 

"Might not a potentite air ship be secretly fitC 
ut, your lordship?" asked the prince. 
" Hardly," replied the Marquis, " for, with the a 
K.Of a corps of observation airships, and of internalionalW 
tdetectives in every center of population, the world, ^ 
l^th savage and civilized, could be adequately police* 
a very small cost." 

"And what, in your Lordship's opinion, will 
the condition in or before the Congress ol Nations, ou 
a people who desire separate government and whQj 
have been unable to obtain it?" said Mr. Michi 
Davitt, who was standing by. 

The Marquis iSoked the Irishman squarely in t 
eye and repUed slowly: " I think it will be quite oui 
of the power of any government to retain by fordi 



under its rule any considerable number of people, 
who, with or without a grievance, are practically i 
unanimous for a separate government. The Congress I 
of Nations will, or at least ought to, require that any j 
people seeking separation shall be nearly unanimous. 
But do you think, Mr. Davitt, to be candid, that the ] 
people of Ulster and the people of Galway would ever 
be brought to agree to any proposition on earth ? ' ' 

"Begorra, your lordship, if you don't mind me 
takin' the answer to your question out of the mouth 
(if Misther Davitt," said tlie Honorable Bellew Mc- 
Cafferty, Home Rule member from Mayo — "begorra, , 
there's one great principle upon which Oireland is,- 
and ever will be, united. Catholic and Protestant, Far- 
downer and Corkonian, Priest and Peeler are all 
heart and soui agreed"— 

"Todo what?" queried his lordship. 

"Never," replied the McCafferty, "never to pay 


The Siva steamed out of San Diego harbor at niil 
o'clock on an April morning in the year 1896, cart^ 
ing as passengers the naval and ordnance office 
commissioned by the various European and Ama 
can governments to examine and report upoi 
result of the dynamic exposition. The civil 
diplomatic representatives were apportioned among t^ 
different members of the fieet, which had gathei '" 
from the Pacific squadrons of every naval power 3 
the world, and was now -lying in San Diego Bay. TM 
success of the air ship the day before in almost obli^ 
crating the Coronado Islands, filled every mind \ 
eag^er anticipation of the results likely to be achieve 
by the torpedo boats, and there was an especial pr^ 
sure for places on board the Siva, which carried ti 
novel engines of destruction. 

The Siva had been built at the Union Iron Worft) 
in San Francisco, from plans and models furnished b 
engineers employed by Morning, and no expense h 
been spared to make her the largest, swiftest, 1 
best-appointed war vessel afloat. Indeed, every otbej 
consideration had been sacrificed to speed, a 
result, a ship was constructed often thousand tons' but 
den, drawing but twenty-one feet of water when fiilfa 



loaded, and able, when under a full head of steam, to 
muke twenty-six knots an hour. Relying upon her 
speed to keep out of range of the guns of an enemy, 
and intended rather for a carrier of torpedo boats than 
a war vessel, she was, for her size, neither heavily 
armed nor heavily armored, yet she was covered with 
steel plates of sufficient thickness to resist the largest 
ordnance, and she was equipped witli rifled cannon 
and pneumatic dynamite guns, equal in size and range 
to any constructed. Her cost was $8,000,000, and 
it was Morning's avowed intention to present her to 
the alliance of nations which he expected would re- 
sult from the dynamic exposition. The Siva rode the 
seas like a gull, and was as graceful and beautiful as 

Forward of her engines the hull of the vessel was 
devoted to accommodations for housing, launching, 
and rehousing the two torpedo boats, the Etna and 
StromboH. Each of these was cigar-shaped, one hun- 
dred feet in length and twenty feet in diameter. They 
werebuiltof steel, with an inner and outer shell. The 
admission of water between these shells would cause 
the submersion of the boat to any depth required for 
the purposes of destroying' an enemyi while by the 
expulsion of water they were enabled to ascend to the 
surface. In the inner shell was an electric engine, 
with sufficient power stored in its dynamos to propel 
the boat under water at a speed of twenty- five miles 
an hour for a period of five hours. Enough com- 
pressed air was stored in steel tanks to supply the 
needs of ten men for eight hours, and the Etna had, 
on several occasions, as a test, remained submerged 

f'with her crew for four hours without coming to theM 
' surface. 

The construction of torpedo boats for harbor dor] 

fense was no longer a novelty, but this was the firatj 

attempt made to demonstrate tliat a submarine toi^ 

Lpedo vessel could be used on the high seas to over-1 

I take and destroy a flying enemy. The £ina and thcj 

^^^omdo/i each carried one hundred shells, each she 

teing loaded with five hundred pounds of potentitcj 
I Chain cradles for holding these shells were suspendedlW 
[' to huge fans of finely -tempered steel, shaped I 
tpineers, and the machinery for fastening one or mor^| 
I of these cradles to the bottom of the vessel it was ii 
f tended to destroy was both simple and ingenious, i 
were the arrangements for exploding them whei{>| 
fastened. A fuse or wire attached to a steamer r 
ning away at the rate of a mile in three minutes would'j 
I. have been impracticable, and the inventor had ther&* 
Kfore arranged a time or clockwork cap, which coui^' 
I be set to explode at any given number of minute 
I from the time the shell should be fastened. 

The Siva, containing Mr. Morning, the foreign! 
|,engineers, and' the ordnance officers of the AmericawB 
■ Navy detailed for the service, left her moorings atl 
; o'clock and steamed down the bay, followed bjr 
I the Wars/life, flying the British flag, the French cor*1 
I Vette Garronne, the Russian frigate Tsar, the ItaliaA 

ironclad Victor Emanuel, the Spanish ship Pizarr^^M^ 
Ij-the Chilean man-of-war Cero del Pasco, the Swedish] 
f doop-of-war Berdanotte, the American iron batten^ 
1 Charleston and San Francisco, and the great Germaj 
f iSteel war ship Wilkelm If. It was intended that thi^ 


btter vessel should follow the Warspile, but there w 

e delay in getting her under way, and she was the:*J 

in the naval procession, being followed only by J 

Sie Esmeralda — the vessel to be destroyed. 

At the termination of the Chilean insurrection it J 

IS found that the Esmeralda — the war ship controlled'! 

isurgents — was, though not unseaworthy, yetJ 

loo badly damaged by a contest with gunboats to be-| 

viceable for the purposes for wliich she w 
Stnicted, and she was, therefore, sold by the Chilean I 
Government to Mr. Morning for Ji, 000,000— some*. '1 
fliing less than one-third her cost. 

e purchased her for use as a transport in connec-i 
l^on with the construction of the Nicaragua Canal, ] 
a which he was interested, and he now devoted her j 
destruction, as a test of the power of the new ex- 
>sive, and the efficiency of the submarine torpedo 1 
1 I 

\ The Esmeralda was an ironclad steamer of the^ 
■gest size, capable of a speed of twenty miles anfl 
* hour. She was armored with steel plates, and in every K 

way staunch. On this occasion she carried only suf- 

[■ficient force to navigate fier, and she towed a large J 

1 launch, into which her crew would be trans- J 

fierred and conveyed to a place of safety so soon as J 

Aie torpedoes should be fastened to her. Two life- I 

)ats were also swung, ready for launching in case of \ 


* Baron Von Eulaw had been indulging the previous I 

"mght in deep potations, and was, consequently, so be- I 

lated that the carriage containing the baroness and J 

himself did not reach the Coroiiado wharf until the ■' 

Siva had steamed away, and was being followed Igrj 
the other vessels in the order described. The launches i 
and small steamers, with the guests apportioned among 
the different vessels of the fleet, had also left the wharf, 
and two-thirds of the vessels which were to accom- 
pany the Siva, with their steam up and whistles blow- 
ing, were impatiently awai:ing the signal to move, 
and were uneasily churning into a foam the placid 
waters of the harbor. 

Hastily summoning a boat lying at the wharf, the 
baron escorted the baroness on board, and, seating 
himself beside her, directed the crew to row for "that 
ship," pointing to the Esmeralda, It will never be 
known whether this direction was the result of acci- 
dent or design, for the Esmeralda, in size and general 
appearance, stronglyresembledthe Ut//ie/m//.,\vh\ch 
was anchored just ahead of her in the stream, and Jt 
was the IViihflm II. to which the Baron Von Eulaw, 
as one of the representatives of the German Empire, 
had been assigned. 

Arrived at the Esmeralda, however, the anchor of 
which was then being hoisted, the baron was pohtely 
informed by the officer in charge of the deck that no 
arrangements had been made to receive guests on 
board the vessel, as she was destined to destruction. 
The baron, with real or aifected dismay, remarked 
that the Wilhelm II. was already under way ; that it 
would be impossible for him now to gain her deck, 
and, unless permitted to board the Esmeralda, and re- 
main upon her, they would lose altogether the great 
spectacle they had, by designation of his imperial 
maiesty Wilhelm II., come all the way from Berlin 
to San Diego to attend. 


He would be in lasting disgrace at home if cora-1 

pelled to admit that, through his 

legligeace and ' 

jr, he had not witnessed the destruction of the 

Esmeralda at all. Might not the baroness and himself, 

under the circumstances, be suffered to trespass upon 

the hospitalities of the officers of the Esmeralda until 

the time came for abandoning the vessel, when they 

luld join the officers and crew on the steam launch, 

ind be placed on board the Wilhdm II., or one of the 

ler vessels of the fleet, or return on the launch to 

1 Diego, as might be most convenient ? 

With some hesitation, the deck officer of the £1- 

K-meralda, after brief consultation with his superior, 

■consented to the request of Von Eulaw, and, apologiz- 

gfor the condition of the cabin, which, in anticipa- 

m of the destruction of the vessel, had been stripped 

everything save the standing furniture and a few 

lairs, he invited them to make themselves as com- 

Ji^fcrtable as circumstances would permit. 

With salvos of cannon and music of bands, the 
gaily-decked fleet sped out to sea. Through the' 
narrow channel they steamed, past Point Loma, with 
brow of purple and feet of foam. When they reached 
' e open sea, they spread out in line abreast, the Siva 
king a position on the extreme north, and slacken- 
bg her speed a little so as to accommodate it to that 
f her companions. 
Arrived at the scene of the proposed experiment, 
ixteen miles west of San Diego bar, the speed of all 
e vessels was slackened so as to afford only steerage 
, and the Esmeralda was signaled to leave her 
jsition next the Siva, and steam away at full speed 



to the north. Simultaneously with this order, 
hatches on the Siva were opened, chains and ropea 
tightened, the vast power of the engines applied, and*] 
the Stromboli, with her crew and cargo in place, wasn 
lifted from the hold of the Siva, swung over the side, '] 
and launched in the ocean. 

It was four minutes from the time the whistl&'l 
sounded until the launch of tiie Stromboli, and in the J 
meantime the Esmera/da steamed quite one milelj 
away. The Siva was a few hundred yards ahead ofil 
the other vessels, and the Stromboii was launchatj 
form her port side, so that the launch was witnes 
by those who thronged the starboard side of t 
other vessels. The entire fleet then resumed i 
former rate of speed, and the distance between it a 
the Esmeralda was soon placed at one mile, a 
it was subsequently maintained. 

The Stromboli glided away for a minute on the sur-^ 
face of the sea, and then, admitting water to the space '1 
between her steel shells, rapidlysank to a depth of I 
forty feet. The Esmeralda was stiC at full speed, and^J 
making twenty knots an hour, but the Stromboli was C 
pushing her way under the sea, propelled by herJ 
powerful electric engines, at the rate of tweuty-flvefj 
knots an hour, and in fifteen minutes had overt 
the doomed vessel, and was preparing to make f 
the torpedo which should destroy her. 

One pair of great steel claws, holding a chain ba 
ket containing five hundred pounds of potentite s 
by clockwork to explode in sixty minutes, was, t 
the power of the electric engine, raised above tl 
cigar-shaped steel monster gliding through the cool^ 

quiet waters, and driven ihrough tlie plates of thci 
Esmeralda, just forward of the stern of that vessel, \ 
i second was placed amidship, and a third near thflK 

\ , The upper deck of the ^romboli had a dozen platfts 

Vlass openings, through which a number of powerful'J 

blectric lights illuminated the depths of the c 

ind enabled the men in charge of the machinery to 1 

Birect with accuracy the work of fastening the tor^ I 

If it had been necessary, men in submarine j 

fastened to steel arms projected from the I 

^romboli, and supplied with air through rubber tubes, ■[ 

:ould have been placed at work on the bottom of the I 

Esmeralda, and maintained there for hours, evea \ 

j*hile she was coursing through the seas. But it a 

jot necessary to invoke this process, for, by the aid ( 

f the ordinary machinery of the StromboH. the three I 

jgreat shells were fastened in twenty minutes' time, and I 

£ Esnieralda was proceeding on her journey with fif- ■ 

a hundred pounds of potentite fastened to her keel. 

^e officers and crew of the Esmeralda all subse-' ,1 

nuently testilied that this work was performed noise* | 

sly and without jar, or any evidence that it i 

loing forward. 

But had they possessed all knowledge, they could 1 

mot have prevented it. No rate of speed, possible to J 

Sie doomed vessel would have enabled her to outrun \ 

l^e speedier submarine torpedo boat, and no machin- 

<f or appliance could have reached her under the ll 

^1 of the Esnieralda. or prevented her work, and J 

nice the potentite shells were in place, it was beyond. f 

^e power of man to remove them, and no human' J 


skill could prevent the explosion taking place at the 
appointed time. 

The introduction of this deadly force into naval 
warfare was not intended to be unaccompanied with 
some merciful provisions for preventing unnecessary 
destruction of human life, and a code of signals had 
been prepared for all naval powers, to be used when- 
ever a vessel was to be destroyed. 

The Slromboli, having performed her duty, glided 
from under the keel of the Esmeralda, and, at a dis- 
tance of a few hundred yards, shot up a signal pipe 
above the surface of the ocean, and with her electric 
whistle shrieked through it a succession of signals that 
were heard by the multitude upon the fleet a mile 

"Submarine torpedo boat has been underneath 
your keel," said one short shriek, and one more pro- 

"Fifteen hundred pounds of the most powerful ex- 
plosive known to science are fastened to you," said 
fifteen short shrieks. 

"Make ready to count your minutes of life," said 
one long and two short shrieks, 

" In thirty-six minutes your ship will be hurled in 

L fragments into the air," said thirty-six short shrieks, 
" Leave your ship to her inevitable fate. Launch 
your boats and save your lives. Your enemy will pick 
you up and receive your honorable surrender," said 
one shriek, continued for five minutes. 
Standing on the deck of the Warspite, King Ed- 
ward the Seventh looked at his watch. If in thirty-six 
minutes the Esmeralda should sink beneath the waves, 


es of England, with those of all other powera,-J 

would be as obsolete for the purposes of attack on' J 

defense upon the high seas as the galleys of C 

■'pr the barge of Cleopatra. Another Trafalgar would 1 

(be as impossible as another Actium. The littlej 

m£trcimdt>/i and Ehia, carried in the hold of the LSioa^l 

»uld destroy every ironclnd afloat. The latter ves- I 

jel, with her immense speed, could keep out of range! 

fqf tlie enemy's guns, and she could send forth the j 

torpedo boats and destroy ship after ship. She could'l 

Spick up the torpedo boats, recharge their storage bat- < 

, refit their magazines with potentite shells, s 

jBieir tanks with compressed air, and send them 

n and proceed with such work of destruction undl^ 

a ship should live on any sea, except by license 

tbf the Siva, and subject to her rule. 

What revolutions and what changes would thi»-l 
fdynamic exposition not precipitate upon the : 

s of the seas? India would give her new emperotl 
Sie choice between walking out and being potentited ■ 
kOut, and Canada, and Australia, and every other C(J4^ 
f ony, would be taking leave. And Irelan*! — well, herdi 
§«ras a state of things! Ireland would have whalevef J 
Davitt, and McCarthy, antj Dillon should agree upoirl 
fftsking, or else every British war ship would be biowitj 
|jip, and every Irishman who could raise the money,J^ 
would try the effect of a balloon loaded with poten»] 
!tite, upon his friends across the channel. Of course, 1 
f k was a game in which one could give blows as welf'Q 
» take them, but that is a very unequal game betweci 
I anarchist and a king. It looked as if King Ed/l 
Etrard might be compelled to "rustle" to keep thftt 


British crown on his royal brow. It might be well ti 
look up a good cattle range in Colorado where 1 
and nephew William, witli the Hapsburgs, the Bour'J 
bons, and the RotnanolTs might retire, should it be9 

Among the stores of the Fismeralda which had not 1 
been sent ashore was a decanter of brandy, which the J 
baron found in the cabin, and to which he devoted- i 
himself so assiduously that when tiiewhistfes sounded] ' 
announcing that the torpedoes were fastened to thej 
ship, he was, from the combined effects of past i 
present potations, in a condition closely bordering^ 
upon dehrium tremens. 

The first officer proceeded to the cabin, where Vol 
Eulawand the baroness had withdrawn, and, attempt- I 
ing to open the door, found it locked. The voice of ■ 
the baroness in a pleading tone was heard, followed \ 
by oaths and maniacal laughter from the baron. 

"The torpedoes are fastened to us, and in thirty- 
four minutes this ship will be in the air," said the offi-' 
cer through the closed door. ' ' Our orders j 
leave the vessel ten minutes before the explosion. .J 
You had better go on board of the launch at once." 

"Is that so?" yelled tlie baron. "Well, we will J 
go into the air along with the ship, my American wifi*'| 
and myself! My estates are all gone. The Queen 
Diamonds has seized them and given them to the J 
Jack of Spades. This earth has nothing more for me, -fl 
and we will take now a trip to the stars above." 

The officer comprehended the situation in an in-' 
stant. " He has the jimjams, sure enough," he mut- 
tered, "Best way is to humor him. "All right, J 


baron," said he, in a conciliatory tone. " 

don't want your wife to go with you, you know. OpenJ 

the door and Set her come with us." 

"Ah, no!" said the maniac. "The Baroness VonI 
Eulaw will go to heaven along with her dear husband,'] 
that she loves so much, so much!" 

"Madam," said the officer, "canyon not unlod 
the door? If not, I will have it broken down." 

"No," shrieked the baron, "she cannot unlock theq 
door, for I have thrown the key into the sea throughj 
the window, and if anybody makes any trouble with'l 
the door, I have a little pistol, and I will shoot firstl 
my beloved American wife, and then the man at theia 
door, and at last myself, and we will all go to the akiegiC 
in one trip." 

' ' Madame, ' ' said the officer, " is he armed ? ' ' 

"He is, and will, 1 fear, do as he threatens," 
nlied Ellen, with trembling voice. 

" The situation is serious," said the officer. "The^ 
torpedoes won't wait for us, and the crew will be get-J 

^ nervous. In fact, I am nervous myself," added! 
the officer, soiiovoce. "Suppose one of those infernal'! 
Bmachines should go off ahead of time?" 

"Leave us, sir," said the baroness. "Ifl can get! 
9ie pistol from him by persuasion, I will discharge it:J 
s a signal, and you can then break down the door. J 
■.If I cannot do this, you must save yourselves with-J 
It would be useless for you to jeopardized 
■our lives for us, for he will surely kill me, and wtltl 
robably shoot you if you attempt to force the door] 

"What is the matter there aft, Mr. Morton?" 
rtiouted the captain. 

■'Dutch baron crazy drunk, sir. Has locked thti 
door, and swears he will be blown up with the ship^ 
L-Uas a pistol, and will kill his wife if we try to fore 
Jthedoor, sir." . 

a rifle, Mr. Morton, and aland ready to shot 

him through the skylight. But I will first signal tl 

Siva for orders." 

J' Aye, aye, sir," said the first officer cheerily. 

"Something wrong on board the Esvteralda, sif'jl 
e is signaling us," said the first officer of I 
iSiva to the captain. 

Morning, who was conversing with a Russian admir^ 
V'tal, overheard the speaker and came forward to wher 
ibe signal officer — the code spread before him— 
ist answered, "Ready to receive signal." 
The little scarlet flag in the hand of the signal offi- j 
r on the foretop gallant yard of the Esmeralda rap^jl 
Badly spelled out the message. 

" Baron Von Eulaw and wife came on board as n 
sre starting. He has delirium tremens, and is-'j 
jcked in cabin with her. Refuses to board launch* I 
Lnd threatens to shoot her if we break down door. J 
1 kill him with a rifle through the skylightij 
^We wait orders." 

The face of David Morning was white with I 
whiteness of death, but, with a voice in which thet 

i scarcely a tremor, he addressed himself to thfiB 
»mmander of the Siva. 
"Captain, how far are we from the Esmeraidaf" 
" About a mile, sir." 

"How long will it be before the explosion?" 
"Twenty-two minutes, sir." 


"Is there any way by which the torpedoes n 
tened to her can be removed, or their explosic 
[ vented, captain?" 

" None whatever, sir." 

"Captain, signal the Esvuralda to have riflemen iitll 
I place, but not to shoot the baron unless he offers v 
\ lence to his wife. Signal her also to slacken spet 

■ while we run down to her. Signal the fleet to slacken 
speed, and fall behind. Get out a boat with crew b 
put me on board the Esmeralda.^' 

There was a rapid fluttering of scarlet flags froi 
nain and foretops, and the orders were obeyed. 

" I ffill go with you, Mr. Morning,'' said the capii 
^'tain of the Siva. 

"And so will 1, and I, and I," came in chort 
\ from a dozen officers and guests who had remain« 
[ breathless auditors of the conversation. 

" No," said Morning quietly, "I will go alone. 
I do not propose to risk a single one of these valuabi 
I lives, or this ship." 

Morning picked up a coil of light rope from wherej 
I it hung on a belaying pin, and descended into tlw 
■'boat, which, with crew in place,^'as now suspended a 
|few feet from the water, "Captain," said he, 

ti as we are launched you will steam away with thel 
I .StVfl, and rejoin the fleet. The steam launch towec' 
f by the Esmeralda will be sufficient to provide for th«B 
B.^afety of all. Run us as close to the Esmeralda s 

■ you can, captain, before you drop us," and Monuiig>V 
rapidly knotted a slip noose in the rope. 

Clang! clang! clang! sounded the signal to reverseii 
Jdie engines; the Siva glided alongside and withioJ 



three liuiidred feet of tlie Esmeralda, and the boatJ 
containing David Morning dropped gently into the^ 
foaming water. Clang! again went the gong, and by* 
the time David Morning sprang up the ladder at th«J 
com pan ion- wa^ of the Esmeralda, the Siva was half a 
mile away. 

As the foot of Morning- touched the deck of t 
doomed vessel, it lacked thirteen minutes of the tim^^ 
set for the explosion. 

"What is the situation? " said Morning to the cap- I 
tain of the Esmeralda. 

"Through the skylight we can see that the bafj^ 
oness has evidently abandoned all effort to mfive thai 
baron, and is on her knees in the comer, apparently^ 
in prayer. The baron is walking up and down the] 
cabin floor flourishing a cocked revolver, and miit*J 
tering to himself The first ofl^cerwith three gun.*] 
ners, each with a Winchester rifle, are at the skylighM 
with sites drawn on the baron, anxious to fire a 
as they get the order, and six men with a piece < 
timber are in place, ready to burst open the cabi 
door. It is only twelve minutes to the blow-up, &vc^^ 
and the men are getting uneasy. Shall we shoot ati^.] 
rescue the lady, sir?" 

"Not yet, captain. Can you open the skylight 1 
from above noiselessly ? ' ' 


"Do so at once." 

With his noosed rope coiled in hand. Morning ap- I 
proached the skylight. Often in Colorado he hadi.I 
from love of sport, attended rodeos and learned the J 
trick of tlie lasso. His skill with it was the admira 


jion of the cowboys. "Kin Dave Morning handloB 
^a riata?" said one of his enthusiastic admirers to a¥ 
correspondent of an Eastern newspaper. "Well, 
stranger, I should smile! Kin he? He kin throw 1 
his lariat a matter of forty feet around any part of zM 
jumping steer, hoof or horn. He kin throw a buUB 
buffalo at the head of the herd. He kin make afl 
buckin' broncho turn two somersaults, and land himj 
on head or heels, just as he likes. He kin stop aJ 
jacksnipe on the wing if he don't fly too high. Oh, f 
I'm talkin' to ye, stranger! Often I've seen hint,! 
when he felt right well, throw his little lasso across'J 
the room of the big hotel at Trinidad, and smash a 
on a window pane without breaking the glass. Oh, I 
you can laff, of course! I ain't got nothin' agin yourj 
hilarity, but if any gentleman feels inchned to doubt ff 
the entire truth of anything; I've been a sayin', i 
anything to say agin Dave Morning, either as 
(juero or a man, he kin g:et his gun ready, for my J 
name is Buttermilk Bill from the San Juan Range." 

Poising his improvised riata, Morning looked down.fl 
through the open skylight. The baron, attracted byl 
the shadow, stopped in his nervous walk and looked J 
up. As he did so the noose dropped over his head I 
and shoulders, and pinioned his arms to his side, and I 
he was tlirown to the floor, while the cocked pistol he. I 
held in his hand was harmlessly discharged. Like a | 
cat, Morning dropped from ijie skylight upon the! 
floor of the cabin, followed by the first officer and the I 
gunners, all of whom proceeded — none too tenderly — ■ 
to wrap and tie the rope around the arms and legs a{3 
the baron. 



" Now, then," sounded the voice of the second o 
cer outside tlie cabin door; "now, then, my hearties 
once, twice, thrice, and away!" and, with a crash, I 
door flew from its hinges nearly across the cabin. 

Morning half supported and half carried the \ 
oness to the launch, which was now lying alongsith 
with steam up, and tliey descended to the deck, folu 
lowed by the crew and officers of the Esmeralda ancf 
the crew of the boat from the Siva. 

"Where is the baron," said the baroness faintlyj 

The captain looked at the first officer, who madq 
f reply, " He is in the cabin, sir." 

"We have still five minutes if anybody choc 
I bring him aboard," said the captain. 

And after a pause of a few seconds nobody stirre 

Ellen looked at Morning. 

And Morning leaped upon the deck of the I 
valda, followed by the captain, first officer, and o 
\ the men. 

In less than a minute the Baron Von Eulaw, writl^ 
I ing, cursing, and foaming at the mouth, was deposited 
I on the deck of the launch, which steamed aiyay rap id! W 
in a direction opposite lo that taken by the doonie< 

There were just two minutes to spare. The wh« 
of the Esmeralda had been lashed so as to head h« 
away from the fleet. Her chief engineer was the las 
man to leave the engine room, and just before lie lef 
he pulled the lever to increase her speed, so that iffl 
the two minutes which passed after the steam launi^ 
and the Esmeralda separated, they were quite a n 


Suddenly a dull sound like the throb of a great 
muffled drum was heard. An immense arch of water 
arose in air. Upon its summit was the Esmeralda^ 
broken into a dozen fragments, which writhed like 
a python twisting in the agonies of death. For a 
moment the cloven mail of the giant flashed and scin- 
tillated in the sun, and then, with a sound of sucking 
water — the death gurgle of those engulfed by the sea 
— each fragment went out of sight forever, and great 
billows of foam rolled over the spot where the mighty 
ship went down. 


"As a j,'u[cle my umpire 

Morning accompanied as far as Chicago the B 
cial trains containing those of the European guests i 
whose official duties required their immediate depar- 
ture, but very many, including the Baron Von Eulaw 4 
and his party, remained at Coronado. 

WiLh a good deal of effort, the epi.iode of the baron's J 
conduct, and the circumstances of the rescue of his * 
wife and himself, were kept out of the press reports, 
yet the affair was, nevertheless, one of those open se- 
crets with which many people enliven conversation. 

Mrs. Thornton was, for once, disinclined to suffer 
her admiration fcr a title to induce her to overlook 
the homicidal freak of her son-in-law, and she urged ■ 
Ellen in vain to formally separate her life from that | 
of her husband- Possibly her appreciation of the fact 
that Morning was now more renowed than any Euro- 
pean potentate, and outranked any king on earth, and i 
her comprehension of the further fact that he was still i 
deeply in love with her daughter, may have influenced J 
her counsel. 

Moved by some impulse, which perhaps she cou!d J 
not have explained to herself, she took occasion wh^ J 
thanking Morning for saving her daughter's life, tofl 
confide to him the history of how Ellen's marri^e 1 


had been brought about, to which she added the story 
of her married life, and concluded by pressing upon 
him for perusal, a package of her daughter's letters. 
These Morning carried with him to Chicago, and iheir 
reading induced him, after parting with his distin- 
guished guests, to hasten his return to Coronado, 
where he was advised that the Von Eulaw party would 
remain for some weeks. 

On a delicious afternoon the baroness, with Mrs. 
Thornton and Miss Winters, sat in the gallery over- 
hanging the old music hall on the sea. Although a 
new and costlier edifice liad been built, with improved 
acoustics and elaborate design, the little gem at the 
corner of the hotel, long washed by the waves and 
threatened by the breakers, seemed still a favorite re- 
sort for concert and afternoon recitals, and thither 
came many who sought for a restful hour under the 
eloquent discourse of the old white-haired professor's 

"It is a pity for the world," said Miss Winters, 
during a pause in the performance," that so few are 
able to look into the soul of Tolstoi's labors. In one 
of his chapters he expresses the epitome of all musical 
sensations in half a dozen lines." 

"I hope you are not referring to the 'Kreutzer 
Sonata,' Miss Winters," broke in Mrs. Thornton. 

Miss Winters smiled rather than spoke reply- But 
the baroness took greater liberty and rejoined rather 
saucily, " The regular tiling, dear mother, is to ask for 
some palliative to remove the taste from your mouth 
after the mention of tlie much-abused ' Kreutzer 
Sonata.' " 


Mrs. Thornton replied with a look of liig;li disdai 
and much fluttering of ribbons. 

" I am not punctilious, but I could not sit and liste 
to a defense of that man." ^ 

"I am not defending him, though I might, espe- J 
cially if he were my client," laughed Miss Winters. \ 
" I am only deploring that the world will not forgive i 
his truths nor forget his feults in the universal power 
of his genius." 

It was well that the next on the programme was Bee- I 
thoven's seventh symphony, and that the men strolled I 
in soon afterwards, for nothing is so prolific of enmities 
as the subject of Tolstoi, unless it be that of tariff! 

The enchanting numbers were ended, and the la-t 
dies left the hall, the men taking another direction. 
At the foot of the stairway they were accosted by 
David Morning, who, after a greeting, turned- and 
joined the baroness. 

"When did you return?" said she, looking full i 
into his bronzed fitce, and again at his traveling 

" Only this -moment- And how are you? and has 
the baron entirely recovered ? " i 

"Completely, I believe, and for me, one could not , 
be so ungrateful as to be ill in this place." 

" I trust not," replied Morning absently. 

There was silence for a moment, then, turning 4 
shortly, and looking into the handsome lace of the- 
baroness, he said, without calling her by name, but 
earnestly, and it may be added a little peremptorily, 
"I wish to have a few moments' conversation with', 
you after dinner, if you will be good enough to conr 


" For what purpose ? When? Aione?" 
"Your first question let me answer later. 
I under the palms, on the beach, anywhere, but aloat|| 
k certainly." 

Each question was superfluous, of course, but ai^ 
was gaining time. At length she answered slowly 
"I could wish you had not asked me for this meetinj 
Mr. Morning." 

1 going away. Will you, knowing thiu 
still refuse ?" 

' I will come," she said after a pause. " We b 
sit here upon the veranda, after eight. The 
are going, 1 believe, to look at the dancers." 

And, thanking her, he hfted his hat and withdrei^ 

The halls were not ablaze on this night, for thercS 

I not light enough in the world to coax the sullet. 

shadows from their lurking-places in a modem i 

terior- But the arches of heaven, albeit moonles 

ore obedient, and the electric scintillatioof 
searched and filled every rood of ground with th^ 
' unwarm but willing light, or chased with exact pend 
I. the willful outlines of orange and oleander, or : 
t more tender ways of acanthus, pepper, and palm. 

Morning had wheeled a luxuric us easy-chair alonj 

L aide of his veranda "shaker," and sat with hia hai 

upon the upholstered back, waiting for the o 

I the world to him, while the promenaders, in i 
evening toilet, filed in pairs along the thronged corr 
dors, and the soft strains of "La Paloma" 
' down from the balcony and mingled with the pjaa 

' of the 

"Engaged," spoke Mo 

1 youthj 


riord, accompanying the British delegation. attemptetfJ 
^'to move the fanteuil aside. 

' Beg pardon, I wish I were," retorted the scioifj 
|kof a noble house, striding away with the fair one upi 
If his arm. 

"There is hope for that fellow," Morning multered.,1 

"I left the baron to be taken to his room by hiS J 

■valet," explained the baroness approaching. " H^^ 

3 a little tired and nervous, " and she loosened tht^ 

Klace about her throat impatiently- 

"Yes," dryly, was the only c 

"He said he might get around here before he n 

I hope you would not mind, he i 

^capricious, you don't know." 

"Oh, no, I don't mind, but if he comes I am going^jl 
'don't mind' saying also I've had enough C 
iat fellow!" 

The baroness looked up with surprise, but Mora 
nton excitedly:— 

" Oh, I know I ought not to say this to you. but^ 
1st say it, and a great deal more, unless you stQf 
:! I say you are in deadly terror of that man, anw 
grou hate him beside, as you ougliL" 
"How can you — who told you th 
e assuming — " 

"No, pardon rae, I am assuming r 
four letters. ' ' 

" Who gave you my letters ? " asked the barones 
in amazement. 

"Your mother urged them upon me, and I i 
lialoyal enough to read them, every line," a litd 
aiumphandy. He arose hastily and walked aw! 

is ? Surely yot*^ 
lothing. I read ' 


.16 1 

for a few paces, drying and fanning his face with his 
handkerchief, then, returning, he leaned upon the 
back of her chair, and, dropping his voice, said hus- 
kily, and with quite uncontrollable emotion; — 

"Ellen — let me call you so this once, it remains 
with you whether I ever utter the name again — dear 
Ellen, answer this from your own sweet lips, have you 
a spark of love for that beas — man ? " correcting him- 
self too late. " I know how capricious the heart of a 
woman is, and perhaps — but no! take your time to 
answer, only give me your word," and he walked 
swiftly away, and looked out on the sea, and saw the 
waves beat their soft white arms upon the sands, then 

The woman had turned to ashen paleness. The 
I ever- repeating and distributing electric light had for- 
1 gotten the delicate tints of her dainty gown, and the 
[•■color of her hair and brows, with the roses upon her 
am, and only the waxen face, with its dark eyes 
I filled with glistening tears, uprose whiter than the 
) beams. 

"Poor heart!" said he, noting the quiver of the 
Isensitive mouth. " It ought not to be so difficult to 
■ speak the truth." 

At length the tortured woman found voice:^ — 
"David Morning," she said, in tremulous tones, 
"I am not meaning to question your right to give 
Ichallenge to my despair, though, for reasons you can 
erstand, it is from you, more than from all the 
Pworld, I would have disguised it. You ask me If I 
■love that man ? I answer. No, no, a thousand times 
■jlo! But my sense of obligation as his wife is as much 


Stronger than my hate as misery is stronger than 6 
social bars which contain it, and I deem it neili 
noble nor just to utter complaints against one who J 
whatever may be said, my Segal protector before if 
world. 1 do not deny that I have suffered untc 
agonies, but I may as well bear them in one caused 
another. ' ' 

' ' I confess, ' ' said Morning, with a manner sudd^ 
grown cold, '' I do not fully understand you. Yifl 
speak of 'obligations,' and 'social bars;' you i 
not mean that you would deliberately sacrifice yW 
woman's soul, with all its honor and its aims, to a ^ 
of dishonor and deceit — for so I dare to name it — |^ 
dread of tlie idle dictum of a malicious social sea 

The baroness winced, but quickly rallied, and, lea 
ing forward in her chair, so near that he caught ti 
perfume of the roses on her corsage, she replied;— jl 

" No! though I will say in passing that, whatever 
might do, no woman, be she termagant or angel, J 
ever lived long enough to escape the opprobrii^ 
arising from the poisonous effluvia of the div 
courts! However, that is not the subject under d 
cussiou, and my unhappy feet are placed upon mt^ 
tenable ground. I confess myself, then, not str 
enough to defy the convictions of a life given muchrS 
the maturer portion, at least — to an examination of tf 
ethics of the question. And I resolutely affirm t] 
in my own mind, I am convinced that to seek f 
the results of my own deliberate action, would be a 
ful. and in violation of my own conscientious ] 
ceptions — 'a grieving of the Spirit,' in thelangi 



a very old author, and, therefore, a sin against t!ie 
Holy Ghost," 

Is it possible, thouglit Morning, forgetful for the j 
moment of the purpose that had brought him there, 
that in this evening of the nineteenth century a culti- 1 
vated woman, herself tlie victim of a system fiendish. J 
ill its power to forge public opinion, and cruel as the ■] 
Inquisition, should have the courage thus to look her' J 
awful destiny in the face tranquilly, and smilingly set I 
upon it the cold white seal of conscience? ' And for a f 
brief moment he wondered if she were a saint or a j 

Then he thought of the many shafts of argument 1 
that might be let loose to pierce the diseased cuticle of '4 
her morbid philosophy, but he had not the heart, or, 
rather, he lacked entire faith in their efficacy, so he , 
sat silently counting his heart beats. Finally, taking 
alarm at his protracted silence, she resumed;- 

"Do not misunderstand me; I am not 
enough to convict, or egotist enough to try to convert, 
others to my way of thinking; I only speak for J 

"Your missionary seed would fall upon stony grounrll 
if you were so disposed," he answered quickly, 
almost rudely. "Ellen Thornton," he continued, 
ignoring the hateful title that seemed to have engulfed 1 
her body and soul for all of him, "for thirteen years.! 
fate has been circumventing our lives, i have heard ] 
your name over seas as you have heard mine, familiar J 
to all but each other. I have loved you with hope! 
and without it. Great wealth has been my portion, 
yet I would be a begj^ar tT night if you would but n 
share my crust with me, with love like mine." 

Into the eyes of the woman, fierce with resolun 
ind despair, there came tears, half of pity, hall 
joy — pity for his fate and hers, joy for that the li 
she had deemed lost and gone from their lives ' 
here, tireless and strong as the sea, immortal -i 
sweet as the morning, and the voice of the man vid 
head was bent near her own thrilled her with | 

' ' During all the years of parting, ' ' continued Mo) 
ing, ' 'I have been neither despairing nor misanthrofl 
but I knew that the passion of my life had glowed i 
burned, and — as I thought— died to ashes upon £ 
altar whose goddess was the dark-eyed maiden v 
my young manhood adored. When, less than a fi 
night ago, I was able to deliver you from the 
death that madman would have inflicted upon ; 
my exultation had but one sting, that I had saved y 
for another, and for such a fate; and then, in i 
insane rage, I cursed myself that I had not let ; 
die under my dizzy eyes, and so have rounded I 

' ' But 1 have come near to you now, our paths b 
crossed. O God, how I have waited for the I; 
and how can I let you go? If I do, our ways ( 
again diverge, and every remove will bring u 
apart- Do you know what this means to me? It i9( 
dividingof my soulfrommy body, of my heartfromn 
brain; it means a galvanized life, a career of evisi 
motives, a gibbering, masquerading existence, em 
late of manly and fruitful purpose, a hopeless !ove"J 
and his voice trembled aaid sank — "ashes and < 
and nothing more," 


Tlie baroness listened with passion tearing at her 
ht-art, while her white lips were fashioning words of 
wise restraint. Could she trust herself to speak ? She 
envied in her soul the women she had known abroad, 
women of convictions, ;vith uiicoddled consciences, 
charming, virtuous women too, but without the monitor 
to guide the wayward thought, a sky without a polar 
star, a ship without a rudder, and then she recalled 
the burning words of the man beside her. 

"I know," said she at length, "that I owe you my 
life, and, in the logic of natural sequence, I should give 
back that which you won. But it is love's sophistry, 
and, in truth, perhaps for no better reason than 
because I so much desire it, I dare not. One phase 
of your argument pricks my conscience in turn. You 
tell me that your usefulness must pay the penalty of 
my decision. Unsay those words, I entreat you" — 
and she leaned far toward him. "God has singled 
you out for a great destiny. Fulfill it- You have the 
world at your feet; let that suffice you for the present. 
I do not ask you to forget me!" — and her lips grew 
tremulous. "I should die if I thought you could. 
But work on, as you have been doing, for the sake of 
humanity, and wait heroically, as you have done." 

"Wait for what? for somebody to die?" broke in 
Morning hotly. "For somebody to die, that is the 
English of it. Most lives are made what they are by 
some woman. She may be a mother, a sister not 
likely. Since I received that long-lost letter — anath- 
emas upon that circular desk," and he pounded 
the "shaker" arm with his fist — "I have had but 
one inspiration in my projects, one question always 


ringing in my ears, — 'What willBhethink ofit?' Na|| 
1 have found you only to hear from your own lips tl 
my life is a failure, anJ yours a moral suicide, ■ 
I seem as helpless to prevent as I am to put a sCa 
Upon yonder waves that lash themselves to spray upa 
the rocks." 

"David Morning," and her voice was firm aat 
I think I owe it to you as well as myself to tell yOtJ 
even with the marriage ring upon my finger, that J 
wish I were free from the yoke of this fateful r 
riage; that if I could be delivered from the body jt 
this death, then could I mount with glad wings t 
great height to which your love would raise me. 
I could have no weight of a crying conscience upd 
my feet, no wail of wounded justice behind me, i 
3 I will bear it to the end," 
"You say, even with that marriage ring upon yoi 
I finger. What care I," said he, rising and standifi 
\ before her, "for that circlet of gold upon your beatfl 
I, tifulhaud? I know it is a mockery, so do you, i 
L but for it that hand mighl have been mine, and 1 
r these years have been saved to love and the hear 
'gladness. What signifies the sanction of the taw^s 
, you have not the sanction of your own soul? I s 
I not seek to dissuade you more, but one quesrion)! 
will ask of you, and if wealth could buy words e 
quent enough to couch it in, I would surrender i 
ons and delve for it again, if need be, in ti 
, depths of the earth. But truth is simple, and so I b 
' of you to answer from your soul, and thereafter I y 
. do as you bid me. Do you love me, darling? i 
f,you?" and he bent over her chair. 


■ lifted a face radiant with beautiful light. 
"Dearest, ' ' said she softly, and David Morning thrilled 1 
(rith delight — "dearest, I am glad that tliis meeting I 
lod this understanding have come to us just here, T 
Srhere hundreds of eyes are upon us, for, if it were' I 
otherwise, I should forget all else except my desire to J 
iomfort you, and should place my arms about your 3 
" neck, and ask you to seal upon my lips your forgive- J 
ness of me for all that I have made you suffer. God \ 
help me, I do love you, and I never loved any other. 
You are my hero, my darling, and my heart's-delight j 
All these years I have loved you, until the hour of J 
ileatli I shall love you, and beyond the gates I shall j 
love you forever, and forever more. ' ' 

Only a great sob came from the breast of David '] 

"Noble man," she continued, "you have accom- 
plished a great work in the world. God has selected 
and armed you for the deliverance of his nations. 
You have other and greater work to do. In the do- ] 
ing it the luster of your shield shall never be tar- j 
nished, as it would be were we to wrong another now. ] 
Go forth, my hero, my life, and my darling; go forth I 
panophed in your high manhood to your duty. In 1 
spirit I shall be wirti you ever. I shall rejoice in your j 
mighty deeds. I shall live in your nobler thoughts. . 
Day and night, my beloved, will my soul dwell with j 
yours. Only in perfect honor and faith can I join you. I 
If the hour for such union shall ever be given to us on 
earth, come to me and you will find me waiting. If | 
it come only in the other land, I shall still be waiting. 
But here, my darling, my own, my heart's solace, J 
here we must meet not again." 


And she placed her ungloved fingers in his. 

The man and llie woman sat silendy hand in hant^ 

The music floated out from the liglited ballroom 

where "the dancers were dancing in tune;" the s 

curled its beryl depths to crests of foam, and sounded 

in musical monotones upon the beach which lay i 

white line upon the edge of the dusk, and the old, olj 

world, the sorrowful, disappointing world, the we: 

I world, was as sweet and young as when the first dawni 

I were filtrated from chaotic n 

She broke the silence and withdrew her hant^ 
"Yonder comes the baron." 

" Good-by." said he, and he walked away into tl 
I" night, and as he reached the edge of the balcony 
I 'hanging the beach, and felt the sting of the salt spra 
1 in his eyes, he muttered something. It might hav^ 
I been a good-night prayer, but it sounded like, ' ' Damra 
f the baron. ' ' 

[From the San Diego Union, May 15, 1896.] 
We regret to announce the death yesterday, at thi 
I Coronado Hotel, of Baron Frederick Augustus EulaM 
[ Von Eulaw, eleventh Count of Walderberg, eightt 
k Baron of Weinerstrath, and Knight Commander c 
I the order of the Golden Tulip. 

The immediate cause of the baron's death was hjH 
Iperemia of the brain, but he never recovered from tl 
I nervous prostration induced by heat and long expos 
I tire to the sun, while in the performance of his dutj 
I'as one of the representatives of the German Empin 
i:<Hl the occasion of the dynamic exposition. 


This distin^ished nobleman, during his brief b 
journ among us, had endeared iiimself to all \ 
whom he came in contact, by the gentleness and 
grace of his manner, his kindly sympathies, and un- 
selfish courtesy. The Wiihelm II. has been detailed 
to receive his remaine, which will be embalmed for 
transportation in state to Berlin, where they will be 
interred with fitting pomp. 

The baroness, who to the last was devoted in her 
attentions to the late baron, will, it is understood, re- 
main in this country in the home of her parents, Pro- 
fessor and Mrs. John Thornton. 


"All's well that ends well." 

It was a lovely morning in June, in the year of our ] 
Lord eighteen hundred and ni.iety-seven, when a car- ' 
riage containing a red-headed and red-bearded t 
drove rapidly down upon Pier No. 2, North River, 
where the occupant emerged from the equipage, and, , 
elbowing his way through the throng, approached the i 
gangway of an immense steamer gaily decorated with. J 
flags of all nations. 

He was stopped by two officials in uniform, one of J 
them saying civilly that no strangers were allowed on J 

"Is not this Mr. Morning's steam yacht the Pa', 
Hence?" said the stranger. 

"Yes, sir, if the largest and finest vessel in thtf | 
world can be called a yacht. Certainly this ii 
Morning's ship." 

' 'I was told at the hotel that he would sail to-day for^ 
Europe. ' ' 

"Your information is quite correct; he goes as o 
of the three delegates appointed by the President to 1 
represent the United States at the Congress of Nations^ | 
which will meet in Paris next month." 

"Well, I want to see hi^m before he sails," replied ] 
the stranger. 

" It is too late, sir, even if you had a card of admis- 
sion. His friends are now bidding g;ood-by to the 
bridal party, and in a few minutes the order will be 
issued of 'all ashore.' " 

" Bridal party? Whose? Not Morning's ?" 

"Haven't you heard of it? Why, the papers have 
been full of it for days. He was married yesterday, 
in Boston, to the Baroness Von Eulaw." 

"Well," said the stranger, "I only arrived this 
morning from Arizona. I am the super in tend^it of 
his mine there, and am here on business of importance. 
He will be mightily disappointed if I don't see him. 
Suppose you send word to him that Bob Steel is here 
and wants to see him before he sails. I reckon he'll 
give orders to admit me." 

The requestofSteel was complied with, and directions 
given for his admittance. After exchanging greetings 
with Morning and being presented to the bride, Steel 
stated that he had business of importance to commu- 
nicate. The whistle had sounded "all ashore," and 
the guests were rapidly departing. Mcwning quietly 
instructed the captain not to have the lines cast off 
until he should have finished his interview with Steei, 
and then, summoning the latter to follow him into a 
private salon, said: — 

' ' Well, Bob, what is it ? " 

"Mr. Morning," replied Steel, "the news ain't 
good, but it is so important I did not dare to trust 
to mail or wire, so I left the mine in charge of Mr. 
Fabian, and came on myself. We didn't find no ore 
last month on the new level at two hundred feet, and 
I set three shifts to work at every station, and — I'm 
afraid to tell you the result." 



■' Out with it, Bob. I was married yesterday, ■■ 
you can't tell me any news bad enough to hurt me J 
much." t 

■'-■ "Well, Mr. Morning, there ain't no ore in the! 
mine below the one hundred and fifty feet level. Them 
quarts has come to an eiid. We are at the bed rock, i 
and the syenite is as solid and close-grained as theJ 
basalt wall where we did our first work, you and 1,-J 
blasting with the Papago Indians." 

Morning whistled. "How much do we lack, Bob»| 
of the $2,400,000,000 1 donated to the United States ? " 

"About eight hundred millions, sir; but there is 
more than enough ore not sloped out in the upper 
levels to pay that twice over. We have seventeen 
hundred millions at least." 

"That," said Morning, "will finish the payment 
to the government, complete all tlie enterprises I have 
projected, give you ten millions, and all the men who 
have stood by us from the start half a million each. 
It will serve also to make some donations I have in 
mind, and will leave over six hundred millions for the 
Morning family. It is not so much money now as it 
was when I made the discovery, but it will keep the 
wolf from the door. Bob, the whistles are sounding 
and I shall have to bid you good-by and send you 
ashore. There is no possibility, I suppose, of this be- 
ing only a break, or a horse ? No chance of the ore 
coming in again lower down ? " 

"None in the world, Mr. Morning. In that forma- 
tion it is impossible. The Morning mine, as a mine, 
has petered! 

"Bob," said our hero, extending his hand with a 
smile, ".put it there! " 



And Robert Steel and David Morning clasped hands 
with the clasp of men. 

''Bob," said Morning, **on my soul I am glad of 
it. The problem of overproduction of gold will no 
longer vex the world, and now I shall have a chance 
to pass a few hours in quiet with my wife." / 

3 blDS DIG tSl SIS 




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