NiEW YORK AND
BALTIMORE AND PJTTSBURG
ON TRAINS NOS. 5 AND 6,
NEW YORK AND CHICAGO LIMITED"
THE MOST HISTORICAL AND PICTURESQUE
RAILWAY IN AMERICA.
POINTS OF INTEREST
BALTIMORE & OHIO R. R.
VIEWED FROM THE
T is the purpose of this pamphlet to point
out to the traveller the interesting features
of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad seen
from the Observation Car, running between
Baltimore and Pittsburg, en route to and from
New York and Chicago, on Trains Nos. 5
Part of the road between Baltimore and
Washington was the first railroad built in
America. The line from Washington to Pitts-
burg is along the old National Road, laid out
by George Washington, Civil Engineer, in
1753. The line between Cumberland and
Pittsburg was the arena of the fourth and last
French and Indian War. The entire line be-
tween Washington and Pittsburg figured prom-
inently in the Civil War, and is dotted with
historical points. Not only is the Baltimore
& Ohio the most historical road in America,
but is the most picturesque route through
the Alleghenies, and the scenery is unparal-
The interest commences at the start.
CAMDEN STATION, is one of the oldest
Baltimore, Md. railway Stations in
America. It figured prominently in the Civil
War, and twice in its history it was in a state
of siege and partially burned. The first time
in 1861 during the riot on April 19, and the
second time in 1878 in the great strike.
RELAY, MD. i^,,^ ^f ^i^g fjj-st American rail-
9 miles from Baltiinure. j t-» -i j
333 n.iies from Pittsburg, road. Railroad crosses im-
mense stone arch bridge over the Patapsco
river. The oldest bridge of its kind in the
ANNAPOLIS JCT., MD. Branch line to An-
18 miles from Baltimore. ^ .-^ ^ ^:*„i ^c
324 miles from Pittsburg. napOllS, Capital Of
COLLEGE, MD. Maryland State Agricultural
32 miles from Baltimore. y-> -.^
310 miles from Pittsburg. <^01lege.
HYATTSVILLE, MD. pord across which
(Biadensburg) gj,jjjgj^ charged in
33 miles froui Baltiuiore. ^
309 miles from Pittsburg. 1814. Thc railway
passing over ground where fighting was most
severe. Nearby is the notorious dueling
ground of Revolutionary times.
WASHINGTON. D. C. Capital of the United
40 miles from Baltimore. o, .„„ tu^ ^^.^^^
302 miles from Pittsburg. btatCS. 1 he dOmCS
of the Capitol and Library Building are seen to
the left, and the Washington Monument to the
right of the train.
ROCKVILLE, MD. County-seat of Montgom-
56 miles from Baltimore. ^^ ^ n« i j
286 miles from Pittsburg. cry County, Maryland.
One of the oldest towns in the State.
DICKERSON, MD. Crossing famous Monoc-
76 miles from lialtiinore. . i • i
269 miles from Pittsburir. HCy rtVCF, WhlCH CniptlCS
into the Potomac to the southward. Beautiful
TUSCARORA, MD. Tuscarora creek empty-
79 miles from l?altimore. . • , ^i r-. ^
26:^ miles from I'ittsln.rg. Hlg lUtO thC PotOmaC tO
WASHINGTON JCT., MD. Junction of old
83 miles from Ballimore. n/i • i • j
259 miles from Pittsburg. MaiU LUie and
Frederick Branch. Through trains formerly
left Washington Junction direct to Baltimore
via old line, but now all through trains run via
Washington. Fourteen miles north, on Fred-
erick Branch, is Frederick, of "Barbara
Fritchie" fame, near which place the battle of
Monocacy was fought between Generals Lew
Wallace and Jubal Early.
POINT OF ROCKS, MD. The beautiful Poto-
84 miles from Baltimore. • ,
258 miles from pittsi.urjj. mac rivcr bcgins
its companionship with the railway, which con-
tinues for one hundred and fifty miles. One
of the most picturesque sections of Maryland.
The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal parallels the
railway to the left, with the Potomac river skirt-
ing the canal. The elevation to the mountain
region commences at this point, and first views
of the mountains are obtained. During the Civil
War this section of the country was contin-
uously occupied by both armies, which crossed
and recrossed the Potomac at this point, occa-
sioning many skirmishes.
BRUNSWICK, MD. Terminals and railroad
253;"iI::I^Zp;;'s,';:;;^- yards of Baltimore &
Ohio Railroad. It was here that General
Meade's army recrossed the Potomac on their
return from the battle of Gettysburg to Wash-
WEVERTON, MD. Junction of Hagerstown
92 miles from Ballimoie. i> _ „ », „ i. D« l*.:^,, ^..o. S,
250 n.iles from Pittsburg. B T 3 U C ll , BaltmiOrC &
Ohio Railroad. It is here that General Burn-
side, with his command, crossed the railroad
en route to Washington from the battle of An-
tietam. Famous bass fishing grounds of the
HARPER'S FERRY, W.VA. The most pic-
2i1 mi'les from Pittsburg; tUrCSqUe, bCaU-
tiful, and historical spot in America. Ap-
proaching the town from the east the train
passes through a tunnel cut through the
base of Maryland Heights, crosses the steel
bridge over the Potomac, and stops at the
station and John Brown's Monument. To the
left is the Shenandoah river, emptying into the
Potomac. Across the Shenandoah is the big
mountain known as Louden Heights, on the
Virginia side. Back of the town to the west-
ward is Bolivar Heights. Back of the little
Catholic church on the hill is Jefferson's Rock,
from which the grandest scene of mountain,
river and valley can be obtained. It was
named after Thomas Jefferson, who said the
view was "worthy a trip across the Atlantic."
At Harper's Ferry the Civil War had its birth.
John Brown, of Ossawatomie, with his hand-
ful of brave but fanatical followers, shed the
first blood; and the monument to him, a
simple shaft, stands on the spot where his im-
provised "fort" stood forty years ago. The
story of the invasion of Harper's Ferry is told
by the Government tablets alongside of the
monument. The batteries of both armies were
lined up on the tops of the different mountains,
pouring shot and shell into and across the little
village. The old U. S. Arsenal, of which
nothing can be seen but the old foundation,
was located below the present railway track to
the right, along the Potomac. The battle of
Antietam was fought ten miles from Harper's
Ferry, at Sharpsburg.
From Harper's Ferry the Valley Branch of
the B. & O. leaves Main Line to Staunton and
SHENANDOAH JCT., W. VA. Junction of
103 miles from Baltimore. tvt c ii o
•239 miles from I'ittshurij. iNOrrOlK &
Western Ry. Many skirmishes of the Civil
War took place at this point.
DUFFIELDS, W. VA. General Darke, of Rev-
105 miles from Baltimore. ... «
237 miles from pittsi.urjr. olutiouary f a m C , IS
buried a short distance west of station.
KEARNEYSVILLE, W. VA. Famous during
107 miles from Baltimore. ^, r> i ^•
235 miles from PittsluirK. thC ReVOlUtlOU-
ary War. The homes of Generals Gates and
Charles Lee of the Revolution are still stand-
ing. General Robt. E. Lee and command
passed through on way to Antietam. Stage to
MARTINSBURG, W. VA. This historic city
114 miles from Baltimore. i j •
228 miles from Pittsburg. played 30 import-
ant part in the Civil War. It was here the
wholesale destruction of railroad property of
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad by Stonewall
Jackson took place. His army carried away
eight B. & O. engines, hauling them by men
and horses thirty miles, to be placed on
Southern roads and used by his army.
NORTH MOUNTAIN, W.VA. The site of
121 miles from Baltimore. ,, r> i^i e
221 miles from Pittslnirg. tCC tJattlC Ot
North Mountain, between General Averill and
a portion of General Lee's forces, one mile
south of track at town of Hedgesville. The
mountain in full view to the left. Delightful
CHERRY RUN, W. VA. Junction of Western
135 miles from Baltimore. >« , j r-w -i j
207 miles from Pittsburg. Maryland Railroad.
Ruins of Fort Frederick on north side of
HANCOCK, W. VA. Junction of Berkeley
136 miles from Baltimore. o • r> i. t> i.
206 miles from Pittsburg. Spnugs Branch. The
station is in West Virginia, but the town is
across the river in Maryland, A long sweep
of the Old National Road can be seen. Berk-
eley Springs, a famous summer resort, is a
few miles to the south.
SIR JOHN'S RUN, W.VA. This town was
141 miles from Baltimore. o j j i
201 miles from Pittsburg. rOUndCd 1 O n g
before the Revolution. So named because it
was once the headquarters of Sir John Sin-
clair, who was General Braddock's Quarter-
master. Here also was built the first steam-
boat by Ramsay that was run on the Potomac.
It was formerly the old stage station to Berk-
GREAT CACAPON, W. VA. Excellent hunt-
145 miles from Raltiinore. . j c> u •
197 miles fron, PittsburK'. ingand fishlttg.
Club house in view to the north across the
Potomac. One of Ex-President Cleveland's
favorite fishing resorts.
MAGNOLIA, W. VA. Good hunting and fish-
162 miles from Baltimore. . .-^, ,-,, ,
ISO miles frr.m Pittsburg. lug. Thc Chcsapcake
& Ohio Canal passes through tunnel in moun-
tain short distance to north. Said to be the
best mason work in the country.
PAW PAW, W. VA. Troops located here dur-
167 miles from lialtimore. . ,. y-^- ., ..r, »-. i i
175 miles from Pittsburg. lUg thC ClVll War. BlOCk
house was captured by Captain Height, Con-
federate, of Imboden's command. General
Sanders, of Union Army, died here.
GREEN SPRING, W. VA. Junction of Rom-
177 miles from Baltimore. »-> u e n
165 miles from Pittsburg. UCy BraUCh 0\ B.
& O. Generals McCausland and Johnson re-
crossed the Potomac from Pennsylvania and
Maryland into West Virginia, after burning
Chambersburg, Pa., and captured a company
of Ohio soldiers, who were in block house,
the old foundations of whieh are standing.
This is one of the most famous fishing resorts
in the mountains.
PATTERSON'S CREEK, W. VA. Nearby
184 miles from Baltimore. y-. , .
158 miles from Pittsburg. ^O 1 O n C I
Richard Ashby was killed in the Civil War in
hand-to-hand fight with Corporal David Hays,
CUMBERLAND, MD. Elevation 1,000 feet
192 miles from Haldinore. , i i /->
150 miles from pittsin,rt.r. abovc SCR level. Cum-
berland, with a population of 18,000, is the
second city of the State and the largest city in
the mountains. It is devoted principally to
manufacturing and coal mining. It is the
western terminus of the Chesapeake & Ohio
Canal. The site of Fort Cumberland, where
General Braddock and George Washington
made their headquarters during the French
and Indian War, on a bluff at the junction of
Wills creek with the Potomac river (the Indian
Cohongoronta river), is now occupied by the
Episcopal church, an exceptionally picturesque
stone structure on the south side of Washing-
ton street, and directly fronting Baltimore
Leaving Cumberland the railway follows
Wills creek, which flows through a natural
pass in Wills mountain, called "The Nar-
rows." On either side of the narrow pass the
mountain sides are steep and precipitous.
Thackeray in the "Virginians," at the close
of the 52d chapter, describing the return of
George Washington, says :
*'So we passed over the two ranges of the
Laurel Hills and the Alleghenies. The last
day's march of my trusty guide and myself
took us down that wild, magnificent pass of
Wills creek, a valley lying between cliffs near
a thousand feet high, bold, white, and broken
into towers like huge fortifications, with eagles
wheeling around the summits of the rocks and
watching their nests among the crags."
The great stone bridge, which is seen to the
left, at the eastern entrance of the gorge, is
the old National Bridge of the Cumberland or
National Road, built by the Government dur-
ing the "Twenties" through the influence of
Henry Clay and other Western statesmen of
the "Public Improvement" school of politics.
The bed of the railroad had to be cut through
solid rock in many places. Going west, Behr's
Heights is on the right and Mount Nebo on
the left. Wills creek, flowing between this
range of mountains, known as Wills Moun-
tain, takes its name from an old Shawnee
Chief, Will, and extends from twelve miles
west of Cumberland to the Juniata river, north
of Bedford, Pa., with but this one complete
The almost perpendicular side of Behr's
Heights is known as "Lover's Leap," and a
legend exists that an Indian maiden cast her-
self from its summit to the rocks below in her
grief at her lover's death. Two miles further
west to the right is seen "Devil's Backbone,"
a narrow ledge of rock imbedded in the moun-
tain, whose peculiar shape gives it its name.
The railway west of Cumberland is along the
route originally selected by George Washing-
ton as the best avenue for commerce to Pitts-
burg, which is said to have been founded by
him in 1753.
In the next thirty miles the railway passes
consecutively through the towns of Cook's
Mills, Hyndman, Fairhope, Foley, Glencoe and
Philson ; all in Pennsylvania. The towns are
devoted to brick and flour industries. The
scenery is inexpressibly grand on both sides
of the track. The railway follows the Potomac
river for sixty-five miles.
BOWMAN, PA. This town was established by
222 miles from Baltimore. <. ., n .1
120 miles from pittsimrg. a family of thc samc name
in the latter part of the last century. At this
point is the famous horse-shoe curve of the
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The heel prints
of the horse shoe are not more than two hun-
dred yards apart.
SAND PATCH, PA. Elevation 2,286 feet.
225 miles from Baltimore. f> i t-> , i
117 miles from Pittslnirg. Saud PatCh WaS SO
named because early in the century two broth-
ers, named Gibber, quarreled, and one was
fatally shot by the other. The tragedy occur-
red near a large deposit of sand, and was re-
ferred to by witnesses during the trial as the
"sand patch." When the railroad was built
the name was given to the tunnel, and later to
the station. At this point is the Atlantic-
Mississippi watershed. Here the railroad at-
tains the greatest altitude on this division.
The summit of the mountain over the tunnel
is 2,467 feet above tidewater.
KEYSTONE, PA. Keystone was formerly the
227 miles from Baltimore. • ,. p
115 miles fron. Pittsburg. juuctiou of a uarrow-gaugc
railroad, which conveyed the product of the
Keystone Coal Company to this point for trans-
fer to the B. & O. Fine fire-brick works, the
property of the Savage Fire-Brick Company,
are located here.
MEYERSDALE. PA. Founded at the close of
229 miles from Baltimore. au t> i i* wr
113 miles from Pittsburg. the Rcvolutionary War
by Jacob Meyers, who owned large tracts of
land at this place. The old mill built by him
being in a good state of preservation, and is
still used for its original purpose.
Meyersdale is also the metropolis of Somer-
set county, and the largest town between Con-
nellsville and Cumberland. It is the centre of
the Meyersdale coal region, which extends
from here for a dozen miles up the Cassell-
man river. Large quantities of coal and coke,
both of excellent quality, are shipped from
here, the most going to Baltimore. This is
the fuel used by the B. & O. Royal Blue trains
between Washington and New York, insuring
absolute freedom from smoke and cinders.
Mining and manufacturing are the principal
SALISBURY JCT., PA. Junction of Main
•230 miles from Baltimore. t • nf R /^ O nnH
112 miles from Pittsburg. LinC Of tS. K U. aUQ
Salisbury Branch. From this point to Conflu-
ence the B. &0. follows the Cassellman river,
so named after Heinrick Cassellman, a Ger-
man trader, who had a stockade on the banks
of the river immediately below this place. The
bluff or elevation on the opposite side of the
river was in early times an Indian burying
ground, the whole expanse being covered with
graves of Indians. Said to be the oldest set-
tlement in Western Pennsylvania.
GARRETT, PA. Garrett was named after
•238 miles from Baltimore. ]^u„ VV/ HarrPtf former
108 miles from Pittsburg. JOnU W. ^jarrCll, lOIIUCl
President of the B. & O., and is the junction
point with the Berlin Branch. About one and
a half miles below Garrett the railroad skirts
ROCKWOOD, PA. Junction of Main Line and
227 iiiilesf rum Halliiiiure. o ^ o /^ l • -r-k
101 miles frumPittsiung. Somcrset & Cambria R.
R., which passes through the famous Scalp
Level Timber country and gives B. & O. en-
trance into Johnstown.
CASSELLMAN, PA. This place is named for
245 miles from Baltimore. ^i, /^ ii
97 miles from pittsinirjr. thc Cassellmau river,
which, at this point, is of surpassing beauty,
rivaling that of the famous Shenandoah.
MARKLETON, PA. The famous Markleton
248 miles from Hnltiiiiore. o -^ •
94 miles from pittsiiur^. Sanitarmm, an institu-
tion which has acquired great prominence as a
health resort, is located here.
FORT HILL, PA. A few miles below Pinker-
251 miles from Haltimore. , j • c ii • c
91 miles from Pittsburg'. tOU, and m full VlCW Of
passing trains, is Fort Hill, a high hill covered
with earthworks, erected during the French
and Indian War. The Fort, which measures
ten acres in enclosure, is perfect in every way,
the entry being visible from the cars. The en-
closure is as level as a floor, and all banks,
floor, etc., are covered with luxuriant sod.
When discovered, though all the surroundings
were primeval forest, not a tree was within or
on any part of the enclosure of this fort. The
work is ascribed to Mound Builders, but as yet
no investigations have been made.
CONFLUENCE, PA. So named being the
257 miles from Baltimore. ri n . •
85 miles from Pittsburg. COnflUCnCC Of thrCC
Streams: the Cassellman, Laurel Hill Creek,
and Youghiogheny. The township was named
Turkey Foot by General George Washington
during Braddock's march to Fort Duquesne,
the old Braddock road being less than five
miles from this point. Called Turkey Foot be-
cause the confluence is formed in the shape of
a turkey foot. A trading post was established
here at the beginning of the eighteenth century,
and nearby was one of the earliest settlements
in Western Pennsylvania.
OHIO PYLE, PA. Youghiogheny river. Beau-
'Tslnil'^onllSu"^" tiful sccucry, wild and
mountainous. Favorite mountain resort of
Pittsburg. Fort Necessity, three miles away,
where Washington surrendered to the French,
July 4th, 1754. Cucumber Falls. First bat-
tle of the French and Indian Seven Years' War.
INDIAN CREEK, PA. Magnificent mountain
•277 miles from Baltimore. cpf^nprv One of the
65 miles from Pittsburg. SCCUCry. WUC OF TIlC
most celebrated views of the Alleghenies. Fine
CONNELLSVILLE, PA. Greatest coke region
'tl mll^: ^m pS:;^- in the world. _ Coke
ovens appearing on both sides of the railway.
BROADFORD, PA. Coke ovens and the old
^87 miles from Baltimore
55 miles from Pittsburg
287 miles from Baltimore. ^^^ far-faUlCd OvCrholt
McKEESPORT, PA. Confluence of Youghio-
'^^milSl^ompiSr^- ghcuy and Mononga-
hela rivers. Important manufacturing centre.
Here are the largest tube works in the world.
Bessemer Steel Works, Armor Piercing Pro-
jectile Works, etc.
BRADDOCK, PA. ^^^^^ after General Brad-
333 miles from Baltimore. j i t_ i •«! j i
10 miles from Pittsburg. dock, who WES killed hcrc
in the French and Indian War at the end of
the fatal sixty days' march of Washington and
Braddock from Cumberland in July, 1755.
Braddock's grave near the old National Road.
Near here are the great Edgar Thompson Rail
Mills of the Carnegie Steel Company.
PITTSBURG, PA. Founded by George Wash-
342 miles from Baltimore. ington in 1753. Captured
by the French and called Fort Duquesne, re-
captured by the British and called Fort Pitt,
after the distinguished statesman ; afterwards
called Pittsburg. Centre of the great iron in-
dustries of the United States.
INTEKIOR OF OBSEKVATION ENU.