Q dP-^ NiEW YORK AND Chicago Limited. ^ BETWEEN BALTIMORE AND PJTTSBURG ON TRAINS NOS. 5 AND 6, NEW YORK AND CHICAGO LIMITED" THE MOST HISTORICAL AND PICTURESQUE RAILWAY IN AMERICA. JULY, 1901. PASSENGER DEPARTMENT, BALTIMORE. POINTS OF INTEREST ALONG THE BALTIMORE & OHIO R. R. VIEWED FROM THE OBSERVATION CARS. T is the purpose of this pamphlet to point out to the traveller the interesting features of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad seen from the Observation Car, running between Baltimore and Pittsburg, en route to and from New York and Chicago, on Trains Nos. 5 and 6. Part of the road between Baltimore and Washington was the first railroad built in America. The line from Washington to Pitts- burg is along the old National Road, laid out by George Washington, Civil Engineer, in 1753. The line between Cumberland and Pittsburg was the arena of the fourth and last French and Indian War. The entire line be- tween Washington and Pittsburg figured prom- inently in the Civil War, and is dotted with historical points. Not only is the Baltimore & Ohio the most historical road in America, but is the most picturesque route through the Alleghenies, and the scenery is unparal- leled. The interest commences at the start. CAMDEN STATION, is one of the oldest Baltimore, Md. railway Stations in America. It figured prominently in the Civil War, and twice in its history it was in a state of siege and partially burned. The first time in 1861 during the riot on April 19, and the second time in 1878 in the great strike. RELAY, MD. i^,,^ ^f ^i^g fjj-st American rail- 9 miles from Baltiinure. j t-» -i j 333 n.iies from Pittsburg, road. Railroad crosses im- mense stone arch bridge over the Patapsco river. The oldest bridge of its kind in the world. ANNAPOLIS JCT., MD. Branch line to An- 18 miles from Baltimore. ^ .-^ ^ ^:*„i ^c 324 miles from Pittsburg. napOllS, Capital Of Maryland. COLLEGE, MD. Maryland State Agricultural 32 miles from Baltimore. y-> -.^ 310 miles from Pittsburg. <^01lege. HYATTSVILLE, MD. pord across which (Biadensburg) gj,jjjgj^ charged in 33 miles froui Baltiuiore. ^ 309 miles from Pittsburg. 1814. Thc railway passing over ground where fighting was most severe. Nearby is the notorious dueling ground of Revolutionary times. WASHINGTON. D. C. Capital of the United 40 miles from Baltimore. o, .„„ tu^ ^^.^^^ 302 miles from Pittsburg. btatCS. 1 he dOmCS of the Capitol and Library Building are seen to the left, and the Washington Monument to the right of the train. ROCKVILLE, MD. County-seat of Montgom- 56 miles from Baltimore. ^^ ^ n« i j 286 miles from Pittsburg. cry County, Maryland. One of the oldest towns in the State. DICKERSON, MD. Crossing famous Monoc- 76 miles from lialtiinore. . i • i 269 miles from Pittsburir. HCy rtVCF, WhlCH CniptlCS into the Potomac to the southward. Beautiful landscape scenery. TUSCARORA, MD. Tuscarora creek empty- 79 miles from l?altimore. . • , ^i r-. ^ 26:^ miles from I'ittsln.rg. Hlg lUtO thC PotOmaC tO the southward. WASHINGTON JCT., MD. Junction of old 83 miles from Ballimore. n/i • i • j 259 miles from Pittsburg. MaiU LUie and Frederick Branch. Through trains formerly left Washington Junction direct to Baltimore via old line, but now all through trains run via Washington. Fourteen miles north, on Fred- erick Branch, is Frederick, of "Barbara Fritchie" fame, near which place the battle of Monocacy was fought between Generals Lew Wallace and Jubal Early. POINT OF ROCKS, MD. The beautiful Poto- 84 miles from Baltimore. • , 258 miles from pittsi.urjj. mac rivcr bcgins its companionship with the railway, which con- tinues for one hundred and fifty miles. One of the most picturesque sections of Maryland. The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal parallels the railway to the left, with the Potomac river skirt- ing the canal. The elevation to the mountain region commences at this point, and first views of the mountains are obtained. During the Civil War this section of the country was contin- uously occupied by both armies, which crossed and recrossed the Potomac at this point, occa- sioning many skirmishes. BRUNSWICK, MD. Terminals and railroad 253;"iI::I^Zp;;'s,';:;;^- yards of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. It was here that General Meade's army recrossed the Potomac on their return from the battle of Gettysburg to Wash- ington. WEVERTON, MD. Junction of Hagerstown 92 miles from Ballimoie. i> _ „ », „ i. D« l*.:^,, ^..o. S, 250 n.iles from Pittsburg. B T 3 U C ll , BaltmiOrC & Ohio Railroad. It is here that General Burn- side, with his command, crossed the railroad en route to Washington from the battle of An- tietam. Famous bass fishing grounds of the Potomac. HARPER'S FERRY, W.VA. The most pic- 2i1 mi'les from Pittsburg; tUrCSqUe, bCaU- tiful, and historical spot in America. Ap- proaching the town from the east the train passes through a tunnel cut through the base of Maryland Heights, crosses the steel bridge over the Potomac, and stops at the station and John Brown's Monument. To the left is the Shenandoah river, emptying into the Potomac. Across the Shenandoah is the big mountain known as Louden Heights, on the Virginia side. Back of the town to the west- ward is Bolivar Heights. Back of the little Catholic church on the hill is Jefferson's Rock, from which the grandest scene of mountain, river and valley can be obtained. It was named after Thomas Jefferson, who said the view was "worthy a trip across the Atlantic." At Harper's Ferry the Civil War had its birth. John Brown, of Ossawatomie, with his hand- ful of brave but fanatical followers, shed the first blood; and the monument to him, a simple shaft, stands on the spot where his im- provised "fort" stood forty years ago. The story of the invasion of Harper's Ferry is told by the Government tablets alongside of the monument. The batteries of both armies were lined up on the tops of the different mountains, pouring shot and shell into and across the little village. The old U. S. Arsenal, of which nothing can be seen but the old foundation, was located below the present railway track to the right, along the Potomac. The battle of Antietam was fought ten miles from Harper's Ferry, at Sharpsburg. From Harper's Ferry the Valley Branch of the B. & O. leaves Main Line to Staunton and Lexington, Va. SHENANDOAH JCT., W. VA. Junction of 103 miles from Baltimore. tvt c ii o •239 miles from I'ittshurij. iNOrrOlK & Western Ry. Many skirmishes of the Civil War took place at this point. DUFFIELDS, W. VA. General Darke, of Rev- 105 miles from Baltimore. ... « 237 miles from pittsi.urjr. olutiouary f a m C , IS buried a short distance west of station. KEARNEYSVILLE, W. VA. Famous during 107 miles from Baltimore. ^, r> i ^• 235 miles from PittsluirK. thC ReVOlUtlOU- ary War. The homes of Generals Gates and Charles Lee of the Revolution are still stand- ing. General Robt. E. Lee and command passed through on way to Antietam. Stage to Leetown. MARTINSBURG, W. VA. This historic city 114 miles from Baltimore. i j • 228 miles from Pittsburg. played 30 import- ant part in the Civil War. It was here the wholesale destruction of railroad property of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad by Stonewall Jackson took place. His army carried away eight B. & O. engines, hauling them by men and horses thirty miles, to be placed on Southern roads and used by his army. NORTH MOUNTAIN, W.VA. The site of 121 miles from Baltimore. ,, r> i^i e 221 miles from Pittslnirg. tCC tJattlC Ot North Mountain, between General Averill and a portion of General Lee's forces, one mile south of track at town of Hedgesville. The mountain in full view to the left. Delightful hotel accommodations. CHERRY RUN, W. VA. Junction of Western 135 miles from Baltimore. >« , j r-w -i j 207 miles from Pittsburg. Maryland Railroad. Ruins of Fort Frederick on north side of Potomac. HANCOCK, W. VA. Junction of Berkeley 136 miles from Baltimore. o • r> i. t> i. 206 miles from Pittsburg. Spnugs Branch. The station is in West Virginia, but the town is across the river in Maryland, A long sweep of the Old National Road can be seen. Berk- eley Springs, a famous summer resort, is a few miles to the south. SIR JOHN'S RUN, W.VA. This town was 141 miles from Baltimore. o j j i 201 miles from Pittsburg. rOUndCd 1 O n g before the Revolution. So named because it was once the headquarters of Sir John Sin- clair, who was General Braddock's Quarter- master. Here also was built the first steam- boat by Ramsay that was run on the Potomac. It was formerly the old stage station to Berk- eley Springs. GREAT CACAPON, W. VA. Excellent hunt- 145 miles from Raltiinore. . j c> u • 197 miles fron, PittsburK'. ingand fishlttg. Club house in view to the north across the Potomac. One of Ex-President Cleveland's favorite fishing resorts. MAGNOLIA, W. VA. Good hunting and fish- 162 miles from Baltimore. . .-^, ,-,, , ISO miles frr.m Pittsburg. lug. Thc Chcsapcake & Ohio Canal passes through tunnel in moun- tain short distance to north. Said to be the best mason work in the country. PAW PAW, W. VA. Troops located here dur- 167 miles from lialtimore. . ,. y-^- ., ..r, »-. i i 175 miles from Pittsburg. lUg thC ClVll War. BlOCk house was captured by Captain Height, Con- federate, of Imboden's command. General Sanders, of Union Army, died here. GREEN SPRING, W. VA. Junction of Rom- 177 miles from Baltimore. »-> u e n 165 miles from Pittsburg. UCy BraUCh 0\ B. & O. Generals McCausland and Johnson re- crossed the Potomac from Pennsylvania and Maryland into West Virginia, after burning Chambersburg, Pa., and captured a company of Ohio soldiers, who were in block house, the old foundations of whieh are standing. This is one of the most famous fishing resorts in the mountains. PATTERSON'S CREEK, W. VA. Nearby 184 miles from Baltimore. y-. , . 158 miles from Pittsburg. ^O 1 O n C I Richard Ashby was killed in the Civil War in hand-to-hand fight with Corporal David Hays, of Indiana. CUMBERLAND, MD. Elevation 1,000 feet 192 miles from Haldinore. , i i /-> 150 miles from pittsin,rt.r. abovc SCR level. Cum- berland, with a population of 18,000, is the second city of the State and the largest city in the mountains. It is devoted principally to manufacturing and coal mining. It is the western terminus of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. The site of Fort Cumberland, where General Braddock and George Washington made their headquarters during the French and Indian War, on a bluff at the junction of Wills creek with the Potomac river (the Indian Cohongoronta river), is now occupied by the Episcopal church, an exceptionally picturesque stone structure on the south side of Washing- ton street, and directly fronting Baltimore street. Leaving Cumberland the railway follows Wills creek, which flows through a natural pass in Wills mountain, called "The Nar- rows." On either side of the narrow pass the mountain sides are steep and precipitous. Thackeray in the "Virginians," at the close of the 52d chapter, describing the return of George Washington, says : *'So we passed over the two ranges of the Laurel Hills and the Alleghenies. The last day's march of my trusty guide and myself took us down that wild, magnificent pass of Wills creek, a valley lying between cliffs near a thousand feet high, bold, white, and broken into towers like huge fortifications, with eagles wheeling around the summits of the rocks and watching their nests among the crags." The great stone bridge, which is seen to the left, at the eastern entrance of the gorge, is the old National Bridge of the Cumberland or National Road, built by the Government dur- ing the "Twenties" through the influence of Henry Clay and other Western statesmen of the "Public Improvement" school of politics. The bed of the railroad had to be cut through solid rock in many places. Going west, Behr's Heights is on the right and Mount Nebo on the left. Wills creek, flowing between this range of mountains, known as Wills Moun- tain, takes its name from an old Shawnee Chief, Will, and extends from twelve miles west of Cumberland to the Juniata river, north of Bedford, Pa., with but this one complete break. The almost perpendicular side of Behr's Heights is known as "Lover's Leap," and a legend exists that an Indian maiden cast her- self from its summit to the rocks below in her grief at her lover's death. Two miles further west to the right is seen "Devil's Backbone," a narrow ledge of rock imbedded in the moun- tain, whose peculiar shape gives it its name. The railway west of Cumberland is along the route originally selected by George Washing- ton as the best avenue for commerce to Pitts- burg, which is said to have been founded by him in 1753. In the next thirty miles the railway passes consecutively through the towns of Cook's Mills, Hyndman, Fairhope, Foley, Glencoe and Philson ; all in Pennsylvania. The towns are devoted to brick and flour industries. The scenery is inexpressibly grand on both sides of the track. The railway follows the Potomac river for sixty-five miles. BOWMAN, PA. This town was established by 222 miles from Baltimore. <. ., n .1 120 miles from pittsimrg. a family of thc samc name in the latter part of the last century. At this point is the famous horse-shoe curve of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The heel prints of the horse shoe are not more than two hun- dred yards apart. SAND PATCH, PA. Elevation 2,286 feet. 225 miles from Baltimore. f> i t-> , i 117 miles from Pittslnirg. Saud PatCh WaS SO named because early in the century two broth- ers, named Gibber, quarreled, and one was fatally shot by the other. The tragedy occur- red near a large deposit of sand, and was re- ferred to by witnesses during the trial as the "sand patch." When the railroad was built the name was given to the tunnel, and later to the station. At this point is the Atlantic- Mississippi watershed. Here the railroad at- tains the greatest altitude on this division. The summit of the mountain over the tunnel is 2,467 feet above tidewater. KEYSTONE, PA. Keystone was formerly the 227 miles from Baltimore. • ,. p 115 miles fron. Pittsburg. juuctiou of a uarrow-gaugc railroad, which conveyed the product of the Keystone Coal Company to this point for trans- fer to the B. & O. Fine fire-brick works, the property of the Savage Fire-Brick Company, are located here. MEYERSDALE. PA. Founded at the close of 229 miles from Baltimore. au t> i i* wr 113 miles from Pittsburg. the Rcvolutionary War by Jacob Meyers, who owned large tracts of land at this place. The old mill built by him being in a good state of preservation, and is still used for its original purpose. Meyersdale is also the metropolis of Somer- set county, and the largest town between Con- nellsville and Cumberland. It is the centre of the Meyersdale coal region, which extends from here for a dozen miles up the Cassell- man river. Large quantities of coal and coke, both of excellent quality, are shipped from here, the most going to Baltimore. This is the fuel used by the B. & O. Royal Blue trains between Washington and New York, insuring absolute freedom from smoke and cinders. Mining and manufacturing are the principal industries. SALISBURY JCT., PA. Junction of Main •230 miles from Baltimore. t • nf R /^ O nnH 112 miles from Pittsburg. LinC Of tS. K U. aUQ Salisbury Branch. From this point to Conflu- ence the B. &0. follows the Cassellman river, so named after Heinrick Cassellman, a Ger- man trader, who had a stockade on the banks of the river immediately below this place. The bluff or elevation on the opposite side of the river was in early times an Indian burying ground, the whole expanse being covered with graves of Indians. Said to be the oldest set- tlement in Western Pennsylvania. GARRETT, PA. Garrett was named after •238 miles from Baltimore. ]^u„ VV/ HarrPtf former 108 miles from Pittsburg. JOnU W. ^jarrCll, lOIIUCl President of the B. & O., and is the junction point with the Berlin Branch. About one and a half miles below Garrett the railroad skirts Negro mountain. ROCKWOOD, PA. Junction of Main Line and 227 iiiilesf rum Halliiiiure. o ^ o /^ l • -r-k 101 miles frumPittsiung. Somcrset & Cambria R. R., which passes through the famous Scalp Level Timber country and gives B. & O. en- trance into Johnstown. CASSELLMAN, PA. This place is named for 245 miles from Baltimore. ^i, /^ ii 97 miles from pittsinirjr. thc Cassellmau river, which, at this point, is of surpassing beauty, rivaling that of the famous Shenandoah. MARKLETON, PA. The famous Markleton 248 miles from Hnltiiiiore. o -^ • 94 miles from pittsiiur^. Sanitarmm, an institu- tion which has acquired great prominence as a health resort, is located here. FORT HILL, PA. A few miles below Pinker- 251 miles from Haltimore. , j • c ii • c 91 miles from Pittsburg'. tOU, and m full VlCW Of passing trains, is Fort Hill, a high hill covered with earthworks, erected during the French and Indian War. The Fort, which measures ten acres in enclosure, is perfect in every way, the entry being visible from the cars. The en- closure is as level as a floor, and all banks, floor, etc., are covered with luxuriant sod. When discovered, though all the surroundings were primeval forest, not a tree was within or on any part of the enclosure of this fort. The work is ascribed to Mound Builders, but as yet no investigations have been made. CONFLUENCE, PA. So named being the 257 miles from Baltimore. ri n . • 85 miles from Pittsburg. COnflUCnCC Of thrCC Streams: the Cassellman, Laurel Hill Creek, and Youghiogheny. The township was named Turkey Foot by General George Washington during Braddock's march to Fort Duquesne, the old Braddock road being less than five miles from this point. Called Turkey Foot be- cause the confluence is formed in the shape of a turkey foot. A trading post was established here at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and nearby was one of the earliest settlements in Western Pennsylvania. OHIO PYLE, PA. Youghiogheny river. Beau- 'Tslnil'^onllSu"^" tiful sccucry, wild and mountainous. Favorite mountain resort of Pittsburg. Fort Necessity, three miles away, where Washington surrendered to the French, July 4th, 1754. Cucumber Falls. First bat- tle of the French and Indian Seven Years' War. INDIAN CREEK, PA. Magnificent mountain •277 miles from Baltimore. cpf^nprv One of the 65 miles from Pittsburg. SCCUCry. WUC OF TIlC most celebrated views of the Alleghenies. Fine bass fishing, CONNELLSVILLE, PA. Greatest coke region 'tl mll^: ^m pS:;^- in the world. _ Coke ovens appearing on both sides of the railway. BROADFORD, PA. Coke ovens and the old ^87 miles from Baltimore 55 miles from Pittsburg 287 miles from Baltimore. ^^^ far-faUlCd OvCrholt distilleries. McKEESPORT, PA. Confluence of Youghio- '^^milSl^ompiSr^- ghcuy and Mononga- hela rivers. Important manufacturing centre. Here are the largest tube works in the world. Bessemer Steel Works, Armor Piercing Pro- jectile Works, etc. BRADDOCK, PA. ^^^^^ after General Brad- 333 miles from Baltimore. j i t_ i •«! j i 10 miles from Pittsburg. dock, who WES killed hcrc in the French and Indian War at the end of the fatal sixty days' march of Washington and Braddock from Cumberland in July, 1755. Braddock's grave near the old National Road. Near here are the great Edgar Thompson Rail Mills of the Carnegie Steel Company. PITTSBURG, PA. Founded by George Wash- 342 miles from Baltimore. ington in 1753. Captured by the French and called Fort Duquesne, re- captured by the British and called Fort Pitt, after the distinguished statesman ; afterwards called Pittsburg. Centre of the great iron in- dustries of the United States. ^ ^ INTEKIOR OF OBSEKVATION ENU.