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illllliii III I IJ' liMlSllMlilM 

HN 3AJH 3 




V^ ^oi:^\ 

U 6"./ 

?^artiarlJ College librarg 






/>., ' *-. 

Beverages, Past and Present 

An Historical Sketch of their Productiont 

together with a Study of the 

Customs Connected with 

their Use 

Edward R. Emerson 

Andwr of " Tbe Story ol die VmeT ** A Ly Them on Bible Wb^** 

In Two Volumes 
Volume IL 

G. P. Putnam's Sons 
New York and London 
Sbe fcnfclierbocket pteee 
. 1908 

br 3cs^ 







Vbc milckctbockef prcM, Hew Bodk 



I. Transylvania and Austria-Hungary . i 

II. Germany . . . . . .31 

III. Holland and Belgium .... 65 

IV. Russia, Poland, and Finland . . .76 
V. Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, and Denmark 97 

VI. France . 

VII. Spain 

VIII. Portugal 

IX. Switzerland . 

X. England and Scotland 

XI. Ireland . 

XII. Wales and the Hebrides 

XIII. South America 







Central America . 

. 393 


The West Indies 

. 407 


Mexico .... 

. 417 


North America 

. 432 

Index .... 

. . . 481 





IP it were possible that an unbounded faith in 
one's country and its products could make that 
nation, or land, supreme, then that part of Hun- 
gary known as Transylvania and occupied by Saxons 
should be the greatest of all countries. The Saxon 
has an everlasting and all-pervading belief in the 
superiority of anything that emanates from his do- 
mains, as witness the following: 

Draaser wheaten bread, 
Heltau's cabbage red, 
Streitford's bacon fine, 
Bolkatsch pearly wine, 
Schassburg's maidens fair. 
Goodly things and rare. 

Of course to argue against these assertions would 
be useless and therefore it is best at first to acquiesce, 
for perhaps later on you may almost believe as does 
the Saxon. It was Mr. Charles Boner who in speaking 
of wine in his Transylvania said : 

We are often astonished, when a discovery is made, 

VOL- II— 1 I 

Beverages, Past and Present 

that the appliance we have at last learned to use was never 
so used before: it seems to us quite inconceivable. But 
still more extraordinary must it appear that a thing which 
men seek, and enjoy, should exist in abundance within 
our reach, and no one, beyond a certain narrow limit» 
know even of its existence. Yet this is the case with a 
product valued too as an article of commerce, and held 
in still higher esteem as a source of joy, as an exhilarating 
power, as a restorer of energy and a mighty gladdener of 
the human heart. Who can read these words and not 
know that it is of wine that I speak? 

Ancient wine! Brave old wine! 
How it around the heart doth twine! 

Poets may love 

The stars above; 
But / love — ^wine! 

And who shall taste Transylvanian wine without doing 
so? The very recollection of its noble qualities, and the 
pleasurable emotions its presence always brought me, 
carry me away; and were I to follow my bent I should 
write of it in dithyrambics, as the more natural form for 
so excellent, for so inspiring a theme. But I make an 
effort and return to steady prose. As the waters of Tran- 
sylvania nearly all flow westward, the mountains and 
hills lie also in this direction; and one side being exposed 
to the vertical rays of the noontide sun, no better sites could 
be found for the cultivation of the grape. How the vine 
thrives in this country is proved by the superlative ex- 
cellence of its products. The inhabitants are proud of 
their wine: and whoever has had an opportunity of test- 
ing it knows how delicious it is — how palatable and 
delicate, how refreshing and exhilarating, how abounding 
in all the generous qualities we look for in wine. On 
tasting, for the first time, good Transylvanian wine, I was 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 3 

astonished at its rich flavour, its peculiariy pleasant fresh- 
ness, and at the fire lurking within such liquid gold. Later, 
I learned still better to appreciate its virtues. I can only 
say that, as is the case with all true excellence, a nearer 
intimacy tended to strengthen my regard; and I never 
once had reason to repent of the judgment formed, or of 
the friendly footing to which that estimation led. On 
returning from Transylvania, I was telling Baron Liebig 
of the wines it produced, when he at once broke forth 
in praise of them. " But what do you know of Transyl- 
vanian wines?" said I. "Not know!" he answered. "I 
know that they are of rare excellence. Some were sent 
there to the exhibition; and as I was on the jury, I tasted 
them. They were delicious, and possessed all the best 
qualities looked for in wine. We accorded the first prize — 
the great gold medal — to wine from Transylvania." With 
this single exception, I have found no one out of the coun- 
try who knew anything, or had ever heard of Transyl- 
vanian wine. 

The vine in Transylvania is by no means of recent 
introduction. History proves conclusively that it was in 
a flourishing condition early in the thirteenth century, 
and it is the supposition that vines were planted by the 
Germans who were brought to cultivate and repeople this 
territory by Geisa II. between the years 1141 and 1161. 
What is still more wonderful about these wines is the 
fact that in the crudity of manufacture and the utter 
indifference as to the condition of the grapes at the time 
of picking and the facilities for storage — ^the casks seldom 
being thoroughly purified and the presses being left, to say 
the least, in an indifferent state — ^no other country can 
excel Transylvania in primitive methods. And yet, despite 
these environments, the jury at Munich had to award these 
wines the highest prize and honour in their power simply 
upon their merits. When the wines were sent to this 
exhibition they were not enclosed in fine bottles prettily 

Beverages, Past and Present 

labelled and tastefully adorned with leaden capsules and 
other little embellishments to attract the eye. Far from it. 
Any old bottle — medicine and ink ones predominated — 
would have answered the purpose, and second-hand corks 
were almost a luxury, for pieces of corn-stalk and wads of 
paper were mainly used for this purpose. 

The vintage is a most indifferent affair in this 
country : no care is taken to separate the various kinds 
of grapes, and as for sorting the ripe from the unripe 
and the good from the bad, such a thing was never 
thought of, for they say the fermentation will rectify 
all these conditions and what is the use of doing a 
lot of unnecessary work? In other coimtries this 
contention has been proven to be wrong, but in Tran- 
sylvania the results seem to prove the assertion and 
bear the practice out. In fact, everything about 
the vintage is imperfectly manipulated, and yet the 
result is almost perfection ; perhaps it is the element 
of climate that has much to do towards this condition 
of affairs. There may be, and tmdoubtedly is, some- 
thing in the atmosphere that has a corrective tendency 
and makes the fermentation period a most powerful 
agency. The soil on these mountain-sides too is almost 
ideal for the grape, being composed of sand and marl, 
and consequently any variety quickly becomes ac- 
climated or established. There are fourteen species of 
grape indigenous to the coimtry; that is to say, which 
have been for centuries acclimatised here. Amongst 
them are five sorts of muscadine grape; but these, 
though most highly valued for the table, produce 
inferior wine. The most prized by the wine-growers 
is one with a small berry, called Maiden Grape (avi- 
cella nitida), which produces an incomparable wine. 

Transylvania and Austria- Hungary s 

A commission, deputed by the Klausenburg Agri- 
cidtural Society to report on the different vines, thus 
speaks of it: "The wine which this grape yields is, 
it may be aflSrmed, approached by none in the coimtry 
with the exception of the unique bacca d'oro. In 
taste, lightness, and delicacy of flavour, it reminds 
one at once of riessling; only that it has more fire 
and strength than that wine." 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Bistritz, in the 
north of the province, is the village of Heidendorf. 
Here grows one of the choicest vines in the country. 
The grapes of this vineyard are the true riesslingy — 
the same of which the celebrated johannisberger is 
made. (The soil here is marl, stony d6bris, and shelly 
limestone.) The Saxons, fond of thinking everything 
in the country indigenous to their land, believed that 
the riessling vine was a native of Transylvania. A 
naturalist visiting there examined the plant, and 
made the discovery that the vine was of the cherished 
sort foimd on the banks of the Rhine, — the only dif- 
ference being that the reverse side of the leaf was 
more hairy, owing to the greater roughness of the 
climate. **What do you call these grapes?" he 
asked. **F6snische Trauben," was the answer, — a, 
name by which all vines of this sort were known 
throughout the land. This word proved their origin, 
and showed they were not indigenous. **F6snische" 
is a corruption of **Venetianisch" (Venetian), they 
having been originally imported from the south. 

Among the different articles of the farm which the 
Saxons stipulate to give their clergymen, instead of 
money, is wine, and in conjunction with this practice 
a story is told. A certain Saxon had a disagreement 

Beverages, Past and Present 

with his minister and at first refused to give him his 
tithe of wine, but in the end was compelled to do so. 
Infuriated for the time beyond reconciliation, he left 
the country and went to live in Germany on the Rhine. 
While there he learned the cultivation of the vine and 
the management of the cellar, and returning to his 
home he destroyed the old vines, planted the vine- 
yard afresh, racked his wine properly and in a few 
years his vineyard (Heidendorf) was celebrated. 

The vintages most prized in Transylvania are those 
growing beside the Little Kokel River and near Karls- 
burg; also near the Great Kokel River, Hxmyard 
Valley, the upper valley of the Maros, Nyarad near 
Maros, and in the Mezoseg. The grapes grown in 
these last-named vineyards are most aromatic, but 
the yield is small. The Karlsburg wines have all a 
golden tinge, except those growing in the vineyard 
of the bishop, which are of superlative quality and 
called roszamaler. This wine is a most excellent keeper 
and Mr. Boner says that he was presented with sev- 
eral bottles that was thirty years old. In fact all the 
wines of Transylvania can be said to be fine keepers, 
and those between fifteen and twenty years of age 
are common. When the wine is young, that is to say, 
one or two years old — ^and it is during this period that 
most of it is consumed — ^it imparts an agreeable prick- 
ling sensation to the tongue, which these people call 
**tschirpsen." Were it not for this the wines would 
be quite apt to cloy, as at this age they are somewhat 
sweet, but the *'tschirpsen" renders them much like 
a champagne. Mr. Boner writing on this subject says : 

The purity of the wine is undoubtedly one cause of its 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 7 

salubrity. I never was better than while I enjoyed it; and 
as far as my own experience goes I should be inclined to 
change the proverb, and say, "In vino sanitas." You 
get the juice of the grape without any admixture of brandy; 
all the spirit that is in it is entirely its own. The strongest 
vintage never gave me a headache or deranged the stomach, 
and were any generous-minded man inclined to make me 
a present of whatever wine I might select, I would at 
once ask for a pipe of good Transylvania. [Further on he 
adds]: A man who suffers from headache or indigestion 
after a bottle of wine is a positive loser from such circum- 
stances, for he is not fit to do anything. On the other hand 
the gain is equally positive if he drinks a wine which, 
besides being most palatable, leaves him clear-headed, 
cheerful, refreshed, and fit for work. And that this is a 
characteristic of Transylvanian wines I can attest. 

In one respect Transylvania strongly resembles other 
wine coimtries, in reference to the quality of the wines 
served at the different inns and hotels. Here as in 
other lands the traveller will only be able to get 
the most inferior qualities and will be charged the 
highest prices. It is only among the private citizens 
and the land-owners that one can look for really good 
wine, and until a person has been able to meet these 
people and partake of their hospitality he can form 
no idea or judgment as to the excellent wine made 
in the land. Any attempt to explain this condition 
would be a speculation, but that it is universal one 
has only to travel and visit these countries to prove. 
In rare cases the stranger will happen upon an inn 
where good wine is dispensed, but this is the exception 
and when he is fortunate enough to have found such 
a place he should at once, if he is fond of good wine, 

Beverages, Past and Present 

endeavottr to become acquainted with the people and 
seek the privilege of tasting what they have reserved 
for themselves. Then and only then can he speak 
authoritatively upon the subject. 

But wine is not the only inebriating beverage of 
Transylvania. Brantewein, otherwise brandy, is made 
in large quantities; the product, though, most tmiver- 
sally used is slivovitz, distilled from plums. This is 
the national drink of the whole of this part of Europe, 
including Austria-Hungary, and as far south as the 
Turkish empire, where, by the way, it can also be 
obtained in almost unlimited quantities. Maize, our 
own Indian com, is, as with us, also converted into 
an ardent beverage and next to the plum slivovitz 
it is the most popular, much to the detriment of the 
people. Neither of these beverages is carefully made 
and therefore they are most harmful in their action, 
being both fiery and raw, and will soon produce intox- 
ication. Naturally there is a great quantity of wine 
consumed in a country so well favoured and many of 
the different transactions are sealed and consummated 
with it. For instance there is a custom in Transyl- 
vania that when a neighbour built a house, or bam, 
or dug a well, his friends were expected to assist and 
he, in return, gave them an '*Ehrentrunk," or draught 
of wine. On the other hand a neighbour * * who came 
slowly" to lend his aid had to pay a measure of wine; 
he **who came not at all" forfeited two. Should 
there be a widow in the community and she being 
possessed of a vineyard, it was the duty of the men to 
see that her wine was made first, for if it were deferred 
she, poor soul, would get no one to help her. The 
clergyman too has much use for wine and from the 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 9 

beginning to the end of his career in the neighbour- 
hood wine plays an important part. 

Madame E. Gerard in The Land Beyond the Forest 
gives a very interesting account of a pastor's life and 
duties in Transylvania. She writes: 

An early day is fixed for the presentation of the new 
shepherd to his flock, and at a still earlier date the new 
Frau Pastorin precedes him thither, where she is soon deep 
in the mjrsteries of cake-baking, fowl-killing, etc., etc., in 
view of the many official banquets which are to accompany 
the presentation. In this employment she has ample 
assistance from the village matrons, as well as contribu- 
tions of eggs, cream, butter, and bacon. The day before 
the presentation the pastor has been fetched in a carriage 
drawn by six white horses. The first step of his instal- 
lation is the making out and signing of the agreement or 
treaty between pastor and people, — all the said pastor's 
duties, obligations, and privileges, from the exact quantity 
and quality of Holy Gospel to the congregation, down to 
his share of wild crab-apples for brewing the household 
vinegars, and the precise amount of acorns his pigs are at 
liberty to consume. After this treaty has been duly 
signed and read aloud, the keys of the church are solemnly 
given over and accepted with appropriate speeches. The 
banquet which succeeds this ceremony is called the " Key- 
drinking.'' Then follows the solemn installation in the 
church, where the new pastor, for the first time, pronoimces 
aloud the blessing over his congregation, who strain their 
ears with critical attention to catch the sound and pass 
sentence thereon. The Saxon peasant thinks much of a 
full sonorous voice; therefore woe to the man who is cursed 
with a thin squeaky organ, for he will assuredly fall at 
least fifty per cent, in the estimation of his audience. Then 
follows another banquet, at which each of the church 

lo Beverages, Past and Present 

officials has his place at table marked by a silver thaler 
piece (about 3s.) lying at the bottom of his large tankard, 
and visible through the clear golden wine with which the 
bumper is filled. Etiquette demands that the drinker 
should taste of the wine but sparingly at first, merely 
wetting the lips and aflfecting not to perceive the silver 
coin; but when the health of the new pastor is drunk, each 
man must empty his tankard at one draught, skilfully 
catching the thaler between the teeth, as he drains it 
dry. This coin is then supposed to be treasured up in 
memory of the event. This has been but a flying visit 
to his new parish, and only some weeks later does the new 
pastor hold his solemn entry into the parish, the prepara- 
tions for the flitting naturally occupying some few weeks. 
The village is boimd to convey the new pastor, his family, 
as well as all their goods and chattels, to the new home, 
and it is considered a distinction when many carts are 
required for the purpose, even though the distance be 
great and the roads bad; for the people would have no 
opinion at all of a pastor who arrived in light marching 
order, but seem rather to value him in proportion to the 
trouble he gives them. As many as eighteen to twenty 
carts are sometimes pressed into service for this patri- 
archal procession. The six white horses which are to be 
harnessed to the carriage for the clergyman and his wife 
have been carefully fattened up during the last few weeks, 
their manes plaited with bright ribbons, and the carriage 
itself decorated with flowers and garlands. At the parish 
boundary all the young men of the village have come out on 
horseback to meet them and with tiying banners they ride 
alongside of the carriage. By this way the village is reached, 
where sometimes a straw rope is stretched across the road 
to bar his entrance. This is removed on the pastor pa3dng 
a ransom, and, entering the village, the driver is expected 
to conduct his horses at full gallop thrice around the for- 
tified walls of the church before entering the parson- 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary u 

age court-yard. The village pastor who lives among his 
people must adopt their habits and their hours. It 
would not do for him to lie abed till seven or eight o'clock, 
like a town gentleman: five o'clock, and even sooner, 
must find him dressed and ready to attend to the htmdred 
and one reqtiirements of his parishioners, who, even at that 
early hour, come pouring in upon him from all sides. 
Perhaps it is a petition for some particularly fine sort of 
turnip-seed which only the Herr Vater has got, or else he 
is required to look into his wise book to see if he can find 
a remedy for the stubborn cough of a favourite horse, 
or the distressing state of the calf's digestion. Another 
will bring him a dish of golden honeycomb, with some 
question regarding the smoking of the hives; while a fourth 
has come to transform his new-bom son from a pagan 
into a Christian child. Various deputations of villagers, 
inviting the pastor to two different funerals and to six 
weddings, have successively been disposed of; then will 
come a peasant with some Hungarian legal document 
which he wotdd like to have deciphered. Has he won the 
lawsuit which has been pending these two years and more? 
or has he lost it, and will he be obliged to pay the damages 
as well? This is a riddle which the Herr Vater can read 
him aright, by consulting the big Hungarian dictionary 
on the shelf. The next visitor is perchance an old white- 
bearded man, bent double with the weight of years, and 
carrying a well-worn Bible under his arm. He wants to 
know his age, which used to be entered somewhere in the 
book; but he cannot find the place, or else the bookbinder 
in mending the volume last year pasted paper over it. 
Perhaps the Herr Vater can make it out for him; and 
further, to facilitate the search, he mentions that there 
was com in the upper fields and maize in the low meadows 
the year he was bom, and that since then the com has 
been sown twenty-four times on the same spot and sown 
there again next year if God pleases to spare him. The 

12 Beverages, Past and Present 

pastor, who must of course be well versed in this sort of 
rural arithmetic, has no difficulty in pronouncing the 
man to be exactly seventy-three years and three months 
old, and sends him away well pleased to discover that 
he is a whole year younger than he had believed himself 
to be. Often, too, a couple appear on the scene for the 
purpose of being reconciled. The man has beaten his 
wife, and she has come to complain — ^not of the beating 
in the abstract, but of the manner in which this particular 
castigation has been administered. It was really too 
bad this time, as, sobbing, she explains to the Herr Vater 
that he has belaboured her with a thick leather thong in 
a truly heathenish fashion, instead of taking the broom- 
stick, as does every respectable man, to beat his wife. 

There are other duties besides these, too, but the 
above will suffice to give the reader an insight into 
the life of a minister. In this rocky country while 
many conditions tend to make it seem harsh and 
monotonous, the Herr Vater is almost an absolute 
ruler in his own parish, and when it is comprehended 
there is much to envy. Years ago, when the churches 
had to be fortified by a wall, owing to the many wars, 
there was a law compelling each bridegroom to roll 
up the incline and within the indosiu-e a large round 
stone weighing about two himdred pounds, in order 
that they could be used to roll down on the approaching 
enemy, and furthermore it was ordained in order to 
exclude from matrimony all sick or weakly subjects. 
The task was not an easy one and the performance 
of it showed that the subject was in good physical 
condition, and able to wield the broomstick if occasion 
required it. Among the many peculiar customs which 
these people have, and especially during the wedding 

Transylvaniii and Austria-Hungary 13 

festivities, is one thoroughly unique to that part of 
Europe. On the morning after the wedding, brides- 
men and brideswomen early repair to the room of 
the newly married couple, presenting them with a 
cake in which hairs of cows and buffaloes, swine's 
bristles, feathers, and egg-shells are baked. Both hus- 
band and wife must at least swallow a piece of this 
unsavoury compound to ensure the welfare of the 
cattle and poultry during married life. 

Elsewhere, in another part called the Altmark they 
serve to the newly married couple a soup composed 
of cattle-fodder, hay, beans, oats, straw, and every- 
thing that is fed to the creatures of the farmyard so 
that the farm animals may thrive. In order that the 
couple may have a proper understanding between 
themselves, they must lick with their tongues a stone 
of salt together. Wine is a great agent for the pre- 
vention of witchcraft, and to free a child that has 
been bewitched all that is necessary is to heat a plough- 
share red-hot and then pour some wine upon it. and 
hold the child above it in the steam. This is almost 
an infallible method of absolution and should be 

One of the most popular of the non-intoxicating 
beverages made in Transylvania is that called krauU 
suppe. It is made of a specie of pickled cabbage and 
has a sharp acid flavour. No ball is thought to be 
complete without its cups of steaming hot kraut-suppey 
and it must be admitted that it is most grateful to a 
jaded palate and is very refreshing. The use of worm- 
wood (Artemisia absinthium) ^ in conjunction with wine, 
making a specie of absinthe, is also common in Tran- 
sylvania and the adjacent territory. The combination 

14 Beverages, Past and Present 

makes a bitter, but neverthdess a most palatable, 
beverage, and when used with discretion is quite 

If there can be any credence given to the theory 
that climate and climatic conditions are often respon- 
sible for causing men to drink inebriating beverages, 
it should be extended to that part of Europe known 
as Austria-Htmgary, for here, no matter where one 
goes in town or hamlet, valley or hill, some kind of 
ardent potation will be offered, and the refusal to 
partake will tend much to the traveller's future dis- 
comfort, for these people are of a very hospitable 
nature, and to refuse to drink or eat with them is, 
in their eyes, a serious offence. In illustration of this 

trait there is a story told of Baron , one of the 

nearly extinct old-fashioned people, who regularly, 
an hour or so before the dinner-time, rides along the 
nearest highroad to try and catch a guest. It has been 
whispered that on one occasion a couple of intelligent- 
lookhig travellers, who declined to be ** retained" for 
dinner, were severely beaten for their recalcitrant 
behaviour, by order of the hospitable Baron. 

Things, you know, remarked another traveller, are 
done differently here, and it is better when in Hungary 
to do as the Htmgarians do. The introduction of the 
grape into this part of the world was at a remote 
period, but how early none can exactly tell. The most 
plausible of the many theories is that the Emperor 
Probus had the vine planted in this extensive portion 
of his domains in the third century. That he did do 
so cannot be doubted, but that they were the first 
vines to be grown here is somewhat uncertain. Tradi- 
tions make the period much earlier, but, as they cannot 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary X5 

be substantiated by any other source, the question 
must still remain tmsolved. In the fifth century wine 
was a common article. Gibbori in his Decline and 
Fall describes quite minutely the amount of wine 
that was used at the feasts given to Attila. From the 
fifth to the thirteenth century the account of the vine 
is meagre; but about the middle of this last-named 
period, the Tartars devastated the whole land and 
the then reigning monarch, Bela IV., found it necessary 
to send to Italy for cuttings and stock to replenish 
the vineyards which the Tartar invaders had destroyed 
and it was this action that gave to the Huns the 
necessary stimulus for the future cultivation of the 
grape. In some respects the progress has not been 
rapid, and primitive methods are still to be found, 
but if Hungary never gives the world another boon 
she can forever rest upon her laiu'els in having produced 
Tokay. It is not Hungary that has made Tokay 
famous but Tokay which has made Hungary celebrated. 
To say that tokay wine is universally liked would 
be erroneous, but it may be said in truth that it has 
its admirers in almost every part of the world. Doctor 
Edward Daniel Clark, writing in the first decade of 
the nineteenth century, in his Clark* s Travels says: 

The opinions of difiEerent individuals are so opposite 
that one traveller will probably condenm what another 
has extolled; perhaps, therefore, the best judgment 
may be afforded by comparisons. The finest wine of 
Tokay is very like that of Cyprus; it has the same sweetness 
and it is also characterised by that slight effervescence from 
which the commandaria of Cyprus is never exempt. To 
compare it with other preparations brewed by English 
housewives, it is something like mead, or very luscious 

i6 Beverages, Past and Present 

old raisin wine; and we therefore pronounce it bad. The 
wines of Buda we thought were better, because they 
have more of a resinous flavour. But nothing is more 
likely than that the very reasons we have now urged, in 
affirming the bad quality of Tokay, may be considered 
by others as proofs of its excellence. 

Thus it is with everything upon which man has 
to decide, and especially is this most true in the mat- 
ter of wine; some like what others dislike, and again 
many are indifferent. It is a wise provision of nature, 
and ultimately the scales assume an even balance; 
for with the appreciation of one, there is at the same 
time a depreciation of another and while, for a time, 
there is a wavering of the balances, they soon settle 
evenly. Although Tokay derives its name from a 
village situated in the Hegyalia (mountain-slopes) 
of Hungary, it is a matter of fact that the best wines 
are not produced there, and the Tokay from other 
localities is more esteemed. 

Andrew F. Crosse in Round About the Carpathians 

Tallya, for example, situated a few miles east of Szanto, 
has long been renowned. As early as the sixteenth cen- 
tury the excellence of the wine from this district was 
acknowledged by infallible authority. It appears that 
during the settUng of the Council of Trent wines were 
produced from all parts for the delectation of the holy 
fathers. George Draskovics, the bishop of Funfkirchen, 
brought some of his celebrated vintage, and, presenting a 
glass of it to the Pope, observed that it was Tallya wine. 
Whereupon his Holiness pronounced it to be nectar, sur- 
passing all other wines, exclaiming with ready wit, " Sum- 
mum Pontificum Talia vina decent." This place, so 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 17 

happDy distinguished by papal wit, is pleasantly situated 
on the side of the hill ; it possesses about twenty-one hun- 
dred acres of vineyards. The places in the Hegyalia are 
called towns, though in reality they are not much more 
than large villages. Tokay has four thousand inhabitants. 
It is at the foot of the hill close to the jtmction of the 
Theiss and the Bodrog; a ruined castle forms a picturesque 
object in the foreground, and beyond is the far-stretching 
plain. Professor Judd says (Ancient Volcanoes of Hungary) 
that at one period of their history the volcanic islands of 
Hungary must have been very similar in appearance to 
those of the Grecian Archipelago. 

Looking at the conical-shaped hills of Tokay, and the 
other configurations of the range, it is quite easy to take 
in the idea, and under certain atmospheric conditions 
the great plain very closely resembles an inland sea. At 
Tokay the Theiss becomes navigable for steamers, but 
the circuitous course of the river prevents much traffic, 
more especially since the extension of railways. The 
next place is Tarczal, and here the Emperor of Austria 
has some fine vineyards. Some people have an idea that 
all the wine grown in the whole district is Imperial Tokay 
and that the vineyards themselves, one and all, are im- 
perial property. This is very far from being the case. 
In fact since 1848 the peasant proprietors hold more 
largely than any other class. The easy transfer of land 
facilitates the purchase of small lots, and the result is that 
every peasant in the Hegyalia tries to possess himself of 
an acre or two, or even half an acre, of vineyard. The 
cultivation seems to pay them well; but a succession of 
bad seasons must be very trying, for the vineyards can- 
not be neglected be the year good or bad. 

In Hungary it is said that **the weather seems to 
have no control over itself" and the vineyardist here 

VOL. u. — a 

i8 Beverages, Past and Present 

has a most uncertain time of it indeed. Late frosts 
in the spring of the year, wet summers, and heavy 
hail-storms all lend their aid in relieving the monotony 
of always having successful seasons, and heavy taxes 
make the raising of grapes anything but an absolute 
pleasure. While the method of making Tokay is 
somewhat peculiar, speaking moderately, it is only 
the outcome of some very ancient practices, partic- 
ularly among the Romans. It is not tmtil the last 
two weeks in October, when the air is frosty and cold, 
that the vintage can be said to have begim. And 
neither is it the abundance of grapes that makes the 
season a success; the test is the amotmt, and quality, 
of dried grapes, for it is to these brown, withered- 
looking berries that the peculiar character of the wine 
is due. If the season has been favourable, and the 
hail-storms have not been too severe, the over-ripe 
grapes will burst their skins in September, when the 
water will evaporate, leaving the raisin-like grape 
with its undissipated saccharine matter. 

Mr. John Paget in his Hungary and Transylvania 
describes the making of Tokay in the following: 

Three kinds of wine are made at Tokay — ^the essentz, 
the aushruch, and the tnaslas, so called from the different 
modes of preparing them. Prom the length of time the 
grapes hang, a great number of them lose part of their 
juice, begin to wither, and become exceedingly sweet. 
These grapes, when gathered, are placed on wooden trajrs, 
and sorted one by one with the greatest care, only the 
j&nest being selected; those which are too much withered, 
and those which are unripe, being alike rejected. When 
it is wished to obtain the esseniz, these grapes are placed 
in a barrel with holes at the bottom, through which all the 

Transylvania and Austria- Hungary 19 

juice that flows, without any other pressure being applied 
than their own weight, is allowed to pass off; and this it 
is that constitutes the essentz. After the essentz is ex- 
tracted, or — as happens most frequently — ^when none has 
been taken, the grapes are at once placed in a vat and 
gently pressed with the hand, a small quantity of good 
must, or new wine, obtained in the ordinary manner, 
being poured over them to increase the quantity and 
facilitate its flow; and the restdt of this process is the 
ausbruch. To produce the maslas, a large quantity of 
less choice must is poured over the same berries, which 
are now pressed as in making common wine. The essentz 
can only be obtained in the very best years; and indeed 
it is only in favourable years that ausbruch of a good 
quality is produced. The wine ought to have a bright 
topaz colour. The essentz is sweet and luscious to the 
highest degree, and is esteemed rather as a curiosity than 
as pleasing to the palate; but it is the ausbruch on which 
the reputation of Tokay depends. It is a sweet, rich, 
but not clojring wine; strong, full-bodied, but mild, bright, 
and clear, and has a peculiar flavour of most exquisite 
delicacy. I have never tasted it in perfection but at 
private tables, and that only twice; I could then have 
willingly confessed it the finest wine in the world. The 
maslas is a much thinner wine, rather sweet, with a pre- 
ponderating flavour of the dried grape. The product 
of the whole Hegyalia vintage, in an ordinary favourable 
season, may amount to about two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand eimers, of which not more than one quarter, and prob- 
ably much less, is ausbruch. Tokay should not be drunk 
until it is some years old: and it is none the worse for 
twenty years' keeping in a good cellar. Even in Hun- 
gary I have known a ducat (ten shillings) given for a pint 
bottle of good old Tokay. 

Since Mr. Paget wrote the above, — ^and the reader 

20 Beverages, Past and Present 

will notice that he says that he was able to get good 
Tokay but twice, even right in the heart of the Heg- 
yalia, where one wotild naturally think it would be 
more or less plentiful — ^the thought arises, do we or 
can we ever get the genuine? **But now they have 
another wine called szamarodni — ^a dry Tokay. This 
dry wine preserves the bouquet and strength of the 
ordinary Tokay, but it is absolutely without any 
appreciable 'sweetness.' In order to produce szamr 
arodni the dry grapes must not be separated from 
the others." 

In another part of his book Mr. Paget gives the 
reason why good wine in Hungary was hard to procure. 
He writes: 

We were put sadly out of temper to-night by the hor- 
ribly sour wine they gave us to wash down a bad supper. 
In vain we begged, in vain we offered money for better; 
the landlady said that the wine was seigniorial, and no 
better dare she sell. As the reader will learn more fully 
hereafter, the sale of wine and the sale of flesh are rights 
of the lord of the manor, and here we have a striking 
proof of the annoyance of this custom. In some cases 
the inn-keeper pays an annual rent for the exclusive priv- 
ilege of selling wine in a certain town or village, and of 
course can then poison the poor traveller with as bad 
wine and as costly as he chooses; in other cases, as at 
Szalna, the lord provides the wine and obliges the inn- 
keeper to sell it at a certain price which he fixes, and for 
which the other is accountable after the deduction of 
one tenth for spillage, and a certain percentage for profit. 
In most instances this is done to obtain a ready and cer- 
tain sale for an inferior quality of wine of their own growth, 
but in some cases also from a desire of protecting the 
peasant against the extortion of the inn-keeper, and to 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 21 

provide him with a wholesome article at a moderate cost. 
In either case the wine is generally very little to be com- 
mended; its consumers are principally the peasants and 
what they desire is something cheap and intoxicating: 
they cannot see the use of drinking what will not make 
them drunk. The whole blame must not, therefore, be 
thrown on the privileged order. 

Besides Tokay, which is made in this district, they 
also make rust, erlan, menesch, schonUau, and a number 
of other kinds, but these are the principal ones. In 
aU parts of Austria-Hungary vines are grown and 
the output of wine is enormous, reaching far into the 
millions of gallons every year. As a rule the true 
Hungarian wines are strong and heady, especially 
when yoimg, and should be kept a number of years 
before tising. In former years the wines of this coxmtry , 
especially those made in the Tokay district, were much 
in demand at the court of Russia, and in order that 
a sufficient quantity should be procured Russia sta- 
tioned a regiment of soldiers in this district to buy 
the wine. 

In Hungary they do not in general allow the plant 
to grow to any considerable height, but cut oflf the 
shoots of the previous year dose to the groxmd. In 
consequence, the stem swells to a thick knotty growth 
from which, in spring, new shoots burst forth. These 
trtmks naturally assume various and sometimes ex- 
traordinary forms. They also figure occasionally 
among the emblems of the vintage feast. Pieces of 
these strangely distorted stems are carried home with 
the vine-wreath and preserved as memorials, like the 
antlers of stags. Frequently they are fashioned into 

22 Beverages, Past and Present 

There are two customs in this country which will 
be of benefit to the traveller if he observes carefully. 
One is called stehwein and the other johannissegen. 
The first means ''standing wine " and is what a person 
takes at a friend's house without sitting down, and 
it is asserted that there are people who swallow so 
many drops of stehwein that they lose the power of 
standing altogether. The second, johannissegen^ is a 
drop offered at parting. "Well, you must drink the 
St. John's blessing with me," says a man to his friend 
when he sees him preparing to depart. "The origin 
of the expression," said a Stuhlweissenburger to me, 
**is derived from a custom which prevails of taking 
some bottles to a priest [on St. John's day?] to be 
blessed; a portion is then poured into the various 
casks, and from these the segen, or blessing, is oflfered 
to the guests." 

Thus says Mr. J. G. Kohl in Austria, who also de- 
scribes the vintage among the Wallachians: 

It rained the whole day; but this to the Wallachians 
was a matter of rejoicing, for they say the skins of the 
grapes are softer, and that more wine is obtained, after 
a rainy vintage than when the fruit has been gathered 
in fine weather. The vineyard lay in the open fields, 
and round them were drawn up numbers of small waggons, 
near which oxen were grazing. Upon these waggons 
were placed vessels for receiving the fruit of the grapes 
trodden out in the fields, an operation usually performed 
with the feet, but for which there is also a wooden imple- 
ment divided at the bottom like fingers of a hand. With 
this they crush the grapes, and then dip in a pot to take 
out the juice. This gives the best kind of wine; the grapes 
are afterwards pressed a second time, and from this second 
pressing an inferior sort of wine is made. At one place 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 23 

I saw the vintage carried home. The master and owner 
of the vineyard walked in front of his waggon, drawn by 
four oxen, who followed, almost without any other guid- 
ance, precisely at the pace he adopted. On the top was 
seated a lad, his son, acting as driver; and the whole waggon 
load consisted of three barrels of must, or first juice of the 
grapes trodden out in the field, and these were covered 
with large branches of vines bearing the most magnificent 
bunches of grapes that could be found. These were in- 
tended to be carried home for a feast and to make the 
vintage garlands; nevertheless, some of them were readily 
bestowed upon us wanderers. Behind the waggon came 
a row of gossiping spinning women, the wife, mother, 
and daughters of the lord of the harvest, and near them 
the servants and assistants in the work. 

These people, like the Hungarians, also make great 
use of the plum, but they call the result raki instead 
of slivovitZj and they are in nowise behind their neigh- 
bours in the amotint of the ''fatal and pernicious" 
spirit they use. Among the many vessels that the 
people of all this part use for drinking purposes there 
are two which are, it could almost be said, indigenous 
to the country. The first is an earthenware pitcher 
with a narrow neck, containing a sort of sieve to pre- 
vent impurities from passing into the vessel. The 
hole out of which the people drink is in the handle, 
which is hollow, and through this hollow tube the 
Hm^arian sucks up the water, and praises the whole 
arrangement as calculated to keep his liquor cool and 
pure ; but how such a pitcher is ever to be cleaned inside 
is a mystery. The second is a sort of bottle called 
tshuUora, in use everywhere in Hungary among Magyars, 
Germans, Wallachians, and Slavonians, to carry with 

24 Beverages, Past and Present 

them on a journey, or into the fields, when they are 
keeping their flocks and herds, or doing farming work. 
The tshuttora is a round wooden vessel, of a corpulent 
shape, with a small narrow neck. It is generally 
turned out of one piece of wood, and has a hole at the 
top and another at the bottom, the latter closed with 
a spigot, and decorated with a rosette of coloured 
leather. It is also furnished with thongs by which it can 
be hung around the neck, and has four little feet 
so ill proportioned to its portly dimensions, that it 
hardly stands steadier on them than its owner does on 
his legs when he has been too frequent in his applica- 
tion to it. 

There is no Hungarian house that does not contain 
tshtUtoras of all sizes, some of them as big as a small 
cask. The Hungarian magnates are equally enamoured 
of the tshuttora, and take them with them on hunting 
parties or journeys, and all similar occasions, and they 
are filled with every kind of liquid, from the wine of 
Tokay to the dirty or brackish water of the marsh. 
In all songs in which the praises of the sparkling goblet 
or the jovial bowl would be heard among us, those of the 
tskuitora resound in Hxingary. These vessels were 
made in the earliest times exactly as they are now, and 
there is little doubt that the nomadic tribes who 
wandered first into Htmgary came with the tshuttora 
rotmd their necks. 

In speaking of the brackish water of the marsh 
Mr. Kohl gives elsewhere in his book an account of how 
this is obtained in the huts of the Magyar herdsmen. 

We accompanied some of them to their dwellings in the 
marsh. These were huts of a conical shape, built of reeds, 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 25 

with the floors also covered with reeds and straw. In the 
midst were some planks nailed together and covered with 
beaten clay, which served for a hearth. Round this were 
laid straw beds, with pillows made of blocks of wood covered 
with sheepskins. The inhabitants caimot even turn in 
their beds without feeling the ground shake under them, 
yet they occupy them all through the winter, and have a 
perfectly healthy appearance. Their principal nourishment 
consists of small pieces of beef, rubbed with onions and pep- 
per and roasted; but the pepper — sl Hungarian sort called 
paprika — ^is used in enormous quantities. I swallowed 
a piece of the meat and felt as if I had eaten a burning 
coal. With this piquant dish they drink the muddy 
marsh water. When they wish to drink, they lie down 
on their stomachs, and draw the water up by means of a 
reed. One of them showed me exactly how the operation 
was performed. He cut a reed, placed it upright and then 
stuck it about an ell down into the ground. He then 
sucked up the water and spit it out, as the first that came 
was thick, brown, and dirty. The more he sucked the 
clearer it became, till, at length finding it drinkable, he 
drew out the reed and wrapped a piece of rag around the 
lower end to serve as a filter. He then plunged it again 
into the hole and called on me to drink, saying it was 
delicious. I found one of these reeds sticking in the ground 
before every bed, and I was told that in the morning when 
they got up the first thing they do is to take a drink. 
On stooping to take a draught of this cool beverage I 
chanced to take hold rather carelessly of the reed, and they 
begged me to mind what I was about, as I might easily 
trouble the water beneath. 

In some ways this method of having water in the 
house has its advantages. It saves plumbers' bills. 
Mr. Kohl also gives a most graphic account of the 

26 Beverages, Past and Present 

Hungarian cuisine, the information for which he says 
he received from a friend. 

The chief dish of all Hungarians, at least in this part of 
the country [he said], was dumplings with curdled milk. 
This dish made its appearance every day at every man's 
table, even on the nobleman's, and if not served up at din- 
ner it never failed to l&gure at supper. Roast or boiled meat, 
roasted horseflesh, pork, or bacon almost every one ate 
everyday; even the poor had their bacon and white bread. 
The vegetable part of the meal varied every day according 
to old-established custom. On Sundays, generally sour- 
krout (toltett kaposzta); Mondays, sweet cabbage (oloaz 
kaposzia); Tuesdays, another kind of sour-krout called 
savangu kaposzia; Wednesdays, yellow turnip, cabbage, or 
lentils; Thursdays, savangu repa, or white turnips preserved 
in vinegar; Fridays, yellow turnips, and Saturdays spinach, 
and so on. 

The two national dishes of Hungary, however, are 
gulyas, beef stewed and seasoned with paprika, and 
paprika handl, chicken prepared with paprika. In 
the upper part of Austria the vine is almost entirely 
neglected and very little wine is made there. The 
need of wine is thoroughly compensated for in the 
quantity of apfel-wein, or cider, that is made there 
every year. There scarcely exists a land-owner who 
does not possess and operate at least one press and 
it is common to find ten or twelve of them under one 
roof. The apples are first crushed under a large 
stone, put in motion by a horse. This pulp is then 
placed in the presses and the operation is complete. 
Apfel'Wein is a most popular beverage in this part of 
Austria, and so necessary has it become that tin- 
less a farmer has plenty of it in his cellars it is im- 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 27 

possible for him to hire labour. Pears are also used 
in making a beverage, but good '*hard cider" has the 
lead, and when it becomes too hard, or perchance if 
more than necessary has been made, it is readily- 
turned into brandy. 

Another of the highly intoxicating drinks made in 
Hungary is fenuviz, distilled from the jtmiper berries 
and closely allied to our gin. A near relation to 
fenuviz is troster, which is distilled from the pumice 
of grapes previously mixed with ground barley or rye 
and allowed to ferment in the usual way. This bever- 
age is considered wholesome and a large amount of 
it is made in both upper and lower Austria. 

Beers of all kinds are brewed and used in enormous 
quantities in all parts of the kingdom and a great deal 
is exported to other countries. No one can tell when 
beer was first made here, but there is an authentic 
accotmt of the first brewery, erected in Vienna in 
1384. At a later period, in 1564, the historical brewery 
with a htmdred towers was completed and put into 
operation. Perhaps in all the annals of the vine there 
is no more central figure than the Esterhazy family of 
Austria-Hungary. For more than five hundred years 
has this family's history been closely interwoven 
with wine. In all of Christendom is not to be found 
their parallel in the making and disposing of 
vineyard products. On the banks of the Danube in 
a curious little town called Dotis is one of the 
many palaces of Prince Esterhazy, in the cellar of 
which is the celebrated Esterhazy vat made to 
hold thirty-five thousand gallons of wine. For years 
this vat has been filled regularly from the family's own 

28 Beverages, Past and Present 

In the older section of the city of Vienna is another of 
Prince Esterhazy's wine cellars, which in all probabilities 
is the oldest of its kind in existence. For five centuries this 
vault beneath the palace has been in constant use, and the 
practices that prevailed at its original opening to the 
public are in vogue to-day. Five centuries of a changeless 
attitude, continued by generation after generation of the 
same family — a genealogical record that few people to-day 
can boast of. The vault was chiselled out of the rock, is 
windowless, no natural light entering except that which 
comes down the narrow shaft of the long stairs. On the 
walls are a number of large, old-fashioned oil lamps. There 
is a narrow bench all around the wall, with a shelf above 
the head where the visitor can place his hat and bundles 
and luncheon, or rest his glass. The walls are covered 
by the mould of these many years and in the dim light af- 
forded by the lamps the cavern looks much larger than 
it really is. Twice a day the place is open, from eleven to 
two o'clock in the middle of the day and from five to seven 
o'clock in the afternoon and evening. The vast majority 
of the patrons are working men and their families, and 
the wine that is served them is the same that is served on 
the Emperor's table and at all the best hotels and restau- 
rants, where it costs ten or even twenty times as much. 
All of the wine comes from the vineyards of the Esterhazy 
family in Hungary and it is sold at the same prices that 
were charged when the cellar was originally opened over 
five hundred years ago. There are four qualities and 
every customer has to buy a litre, which is a little more 
than a quart. The best quality costs 1.28 kroner — ^that 
is, about twenty-five cents a quart; the second quality,. 
.90 kroner, or about eighteen cents; the third quality, 
.80 kroner, or sixteen cents; and the fourth, .70 kroner, or 
about fourteen cents. Every customer has to deposit two 
cents extra for his glass, which is refunded when the glass 

Transylvania and Austria-Hungary 29 

IS returned in good order. Most of the customers bring 
their own luncheon in baskets or wrapped up in paper, 
which they lay down on the seat to hold their place and 
then go over to the counter and get a big glass of wine. 
They pass the glass around from lip to lip among the family 
while they munch their black bread and sausage. There 
is a lunch stand over in the comer where those who pre- 
fer can buy a loaf of bread, a piece of meat, and other 
simple viands at nominal prices. The wine cannot be 
taken from the cellar. It must be consumed on the 
premises. Formerly there was quite a revenue from the 
cellar, but of late years, owing to the increase of wages 
among the vinedressers and others connected with the vine- 
yards, it is contended that there is a deficiency of several 
thousand florins annually. The patronage is great and 
many of the families residing in the immediate vicinity 
take their meals there regularly. The castle above the 
cellars is not at present occupied by the Esterhazy family, 
it being rented, the Esterhazys having built a palace in a 
more fashionable part of the city. A number of years 
ago the celebrated English author Miss Jtdia Pardoe, 
while passing through this dual kingdom, overheard some 
of the peasants singing their vintage song. It appealed 
to her with such force that she translated and printed it 
in her book The City of the Sultan. The words are as 


Around the oak the wild vine weaves 
Its glittering wreath of blood-red leaves; 
But it pays not back the peasant's cares — 
No gold it wins, and no fruit it bears. 
It may flaunt its glories to the breeze; 
We have no time to waste in these. 
Ours is the vine near whose goodly root 
We seek and find the jewelled fruit! 

30 Beverages, Past and Present 

The wild vine springs on the mountain's crest ; 
By every wind are its leaves caressed; 
But it sickens soon in the garish ray 
That rests on its beauty all the day. 
Let it joy while in the breeze and sun, 
A lovely trifler to look upon; 
Ours is the Vine with worthier pride 
Gems with its fruit the fair hillside I 

Ours is the Vine I Ours is the Vine! 
Ours is the source of the rich red wine! 
Flowers may be fair on the maiden's brow — 
Streams may be bright in the sunny flow — 
But dearer to us is the joyous spell 
Which our clustering grapes call up so well; 
Of purple and gold our wreaths we twine — 
Ours is the Vine! Ours is the Vine! 



WHILE the Germans do not daim they were 
the discoverers of beer, to them is due the 
development and perfection of this ahnost 
universal beverage. The Egyptians, as shown else- 
where, five thousand years ago understood the manu- 
facture of an intoxicating liquor from grain. At 
first they called it Aefe; then as their language progressed 
it was known as hemki and finally to-day as bousa. 
It was, too, this same beer, hek, that was the first cause 
of **a temperance movement, " as the papyri of only a 
little later period tell. But the beer question in 
Egypt is of little importance to-day, while in Germany 
it is not only vital but it is also most interesting. 
Of aU the inebriating beverages there are none so popu- 
lar, and in a certain sense so wholesome, as good honest 
beer used with discretion and judgment. The small 
amount of alcohol it contains would, if separated from 
the water and organic matter, be hardly appreciable 
even if extracted from as much as a pint of the fluid. 
Technically a piu*e beer should possess, in round figures, 
about ninety per cent, of water, one half per cent, of 
nitrogeneous matter, almost six per cent, of carbo- 
hydrates, a fraction of a per cent, of material matter, 
and about three and a half per cent, of alcohol, and 


32 Beverages, Past and Present 

when a beer will analyse in such proportions its use in 
moderation will prove invigorating and beneficial. 

Unlike wine, beer is distinctively a manufactured 
beverage and the ingredients which enter into its 
composition are as variable and extensive as the 
opportunity and natural products of the locality will 
admit. Perhaps it would be allowable to say that 
beer is an environmental beverage, for wherever it is 
made — ^in China, the heart of Africa, in Europe, and in 
America — ^it is manufactured almost solely of the grains 
and plants that are fotmd near at hand, and it is these 
circumstances that render the question of what is 
a pure beer very difficult of solution. What wotild be 
considered an adtilterant in one place is foimd to be 
the chief ingredient in another locality, and while one 
may prefer the malt of barley to that of maize the 
question of purity cannot be argued; in both cases the 
product is pure, and the differences are resolved into 
like and dislike, which never has or ever will prove 
anything but the personal preference on the part of 
the individual. 

In the early history of beer-making, the use of hops 
was tmknown and their introduction into the beverage 
was looked at askance by almost every one. Of the 
time when hops were introduced there is no authentic 
accotmt, but many of the German authorities on the 
question ascribe it to the eleventh century and some 
seem to be able to trace their use to a much earlier 
period. Pliny in his Natural History says that hops 
were commonly used in, and prior to, his time. But 
whatever the contentions are the fact is that during 
the first ten centuries of our present era hops were not in 
general use among the makers of beer and, as has been 

Germany 33 

said before, when brewers did begin to use them the 
people for a considerable length of time were suspicious 
of the product and often refused to drink it. In England 
Parliament was applied to, and there is an act of that 
body in existence which inlfiicts a severe penalty upon 
any brewer caught using hops. At present, however, it 
is just the reverse and every one wants to punish 
the brewer caught not using them. The use or nonuse 
of hops therefore does not constitute either a pure or 
impure beer, for they only impart a different flavour to 
the beverage. 

Who first made beer is not known, but in an old book 
entitled History of the Discovery of Beer, written by 
Abraham A. Santa Clara of Vienna and published in 
17 10, is to be found this plausable theory: 

Noah planted the first vineyard and the culture of the 
vine afterwards spread over the world, but as some climates 
are too harsh for the grape and prevent its ripening, human 
ingenuity was forced to discover another drink which 
should not merely quench thirst, but like wine excite the 
brain. Among the Germans it is called beer, and its brewing 
requires a special experience, so that men of this craft are 
not counted least among workmen. 

In the very early days of beer-making, and especially 
in Germany, the duty was left to the women, as it was 
considered degrading for a man to have anything to do 
with beer except drink it, in large quantities; but when 
it became of monetary value then the dignity, as well 
as the women, was pushed aside, with the result that it 
was generally conceded the old idea of dignity was 
entirely wrong. While the German of to-day, especially 
on his native soil, has the reputation of drinking very 

VOL. IX— 3 

34 Beverages, Past and Present 

freely of this favourite beverage, his ancestors did more 
than partake of it freely — they simply stored it away, 
and where they put such quantities is almost beyond 
comprehension. At their beer-conventionals, prior 
to the Renaissance, whoever acted in violation of any 
of their many rules had to empty the penal-horn in 
one draught. These horns were of various sizes from 
three to four and even five quarts, and a man was con- 
sidered a weakling who required three draughts to 
atone for his offence. It was at these affairs that blood 
friendships were formed and consummated. The friends 
would inflict a slight wound upon each other from 
which the blood trickled into a goblet full of beer, which 
then was emptied by them together. When they took 
the dram of love (minnetrank) the men met in front 
of the altar of the gods drinking love (minne) to each 
other, which was supposed to receive the blessing of 
the gods. In order to prevent intoxication or injury 
when they drank to each other, or an assurance that 
the goblet did not contain a poisonous drink, beer- 
runes were scratched into the drinking-horn, also on 
the back of the hand or on the finger-nails, which were 
supposed to protect the drinker against such dangers. 
It was also thought that if rune-sticks were thrown 
into the drinking-horn they would give to the drinker 
magical powers, strength, and great glory. These rune- 
sticks were many and varied; every tribe and locality 
had a distinctive sort and even individuals possessed 
some of their own making and carving which they 
claimed exerted more than ordinary power and in- 
fluence. Generally they were made of small twigs, 
the bark removed and then some letter or character 
scratched or engraved upon them, after which they 

Germany 35 

were polished until they shone. In size they ranged 
from a small half-inch cube to any extent that 
suited the fancy or fulfilled the requirements. 

To the philologist the word beer has proven quite a 
sttunbling-block and many ingenious and plausible 
etymological explanations have been advanced as to its 
origin. By a process of elimination it is said to be 
derived from the Latin bibere, to drink, thus: bibere, 
biber, and (by removing the second letter b) bier. 
Another authority says that it comes from pear, because 
he claims that it was first made from this fruit. Again 
some assert that the Hebrew word bar, meaning com, 
is the true root of the word; but the most plausible 
and undoubtedly the correct derivation is that it comes 
from the old Saxon word bere, which meant barley, 
for originally beer not only meant the beverage but 
also the plant from which it was brewed. In the old 
German it was written pior and also bior; by the 
Saxons baer and alod, oel in Danish, hell in Scottish, and 
olo in Sclavonish. The Poles and Bohemians called it 
zyto and at times pivo; in Wales it was called kwviv 
and in Belgium kuyt. 

The various convents and monasteries of early days 
did a great deal towards the perfecting and develop- 
ment of the art of brewing. In many of these institu- 
tions they paid as much attention to making their 
** cloister" beer as their fellow-religionists did else- 
where in caring for and increasing their vineyards. 
They made brewing an art the same as they did 
wine-making; the question was carefully studied 
from all points, in order that the element of im- 
certainty might be lessened or if possible entirely 
removed, and the result of their labour is evident 

36 Beverages, Past and Present 

to-day, for the methods they discovered and practised 
in those times are in use at the present. 

German legends are replete with references to beer, 
but they are so far from the truth in almost every 
particular that they become useless as a source of 
correct information. For example take the story of 
Gambrinus, who the legends say was the discoverer 
of beer; and it is only necessary to state that according 
to our best authorities Gambrinus was Jan Primus, 
Duke of Flanders, and lived in the thirteenth century, 
and therefore to trace the story to its origin would be 
futile, for there is a superfluity of evidence to prove 
that beer was made in his own country long before he 
was bom. But the tale has had its effect and "Saint " 
Gambrinus is undoubtedly held in high esteem by a 
greater multitude of adherents, not only in Germany 
but wherever beer is brewed. 

The beers of Germany are many and varied and as 
distinct in character as are the different wines. Like 
wine some are weak and others strong, some are sweet 
and others bitter, some will keep for a long time 
while others will sour quickly. Of one of the strong 
beers there is a story told of Eling Frederick William 
IV. of Prussia. This beer is made at Dortmund and is 
known by the appellation of adam. The story is told 
by Corvin, in An Autobiography^ who relates that 

when King Frederick William IV. of Prussia visited 
Dortmund a deputation of the magistrates waited upon 
him, one of them bearing a salver with a large tankard 
filled with adam. When the King asked what it was, and 
heard that it was the celebrated beer, he said, " Very wel- 
come, for it is extremely warm '* and drained off the contents 
of the tankard at a draught. The members of the deputa- 

Germany 37 

tion, who were better acquainted with old adam than the 
unsuspecting King, smiled at each other, for they knew 
what THOuld be the result. His Majesty was unconscious 
for more than twenty-four hours. 

It is said of this beer that it will easily keep ten 
or fifteen years and grow in strength every year, and 
when it is old only a very small quantity can be dnmk 
at a time without the drinker becoming intoxicated. 
The Germans have great faith in the efficacy of their 
beer and they have a favourite proverb which says 
that '*He who does not become handsome before 
twenty years of age, strong before thirty, wise before 
forty, rich before fifty, on such a man malt and hops 
is altogether lost." In consequence beer is drunk 
by all classes of the community, and why should it not 
be used if it can accomplish these things? The purity 
of the beverage is something of which the government 
is very jealous and careful, and even the amount of 
froth or foam that a glass of beer should contain is a 
matter of governmental regulation. For the testing 
of beer there are many methods, but the one which was 
practised by the burgomasters and town councillors of 
Munich is undoubtedly the most original and unique of 
all tests devised : 

Once a year, when the new beer is ready to be sold, 
these gentlemen attired in their strong leathern breeches 
repair to the Salvatorkeller. After greeting the host, a long 
heavy wooden bench is brought out into the centre of the 
room and a goodly quantity of the new beer is poured over 
it ; then these dignitaries in all their civic pride sit themselves 
upon the wet bench. According to an unwritten law it is 
their duty to remain motionless upon this seat for a full 
hour and in order to make the time pass pleasantly they 

38 Beverages, Past and Present 

sing a song, the same which their ancestors sung when 
performing the same office three hundred years and more 
ago. It takes twenty minutes to sing this song properly, 
so they repeat it three times and then on a given signal 
they all rise at once and in unison ; or perhaps it would be 
more accurate to say that they essay to arise, for it is ex- 
pected by all present that they should not assume an erect 
attitude without some trouble, and the greater that trouble 
is the more it is appreciated, especially by the brewer, for 
the faster the beer makes the leathern breeches adhere to 
the bench the better the beer is considered to be, and 
when the structure is lifted free of the floor the rejoicing is 

The kind of beer that a person obtains in Germany 
is dependent upon two things, locality and season. 
In respect to season there are several of these beverages 
which are brewed especially for a stated period, which 
seldom or never exceeds three or four weeks and more 
often terminates at the end of the second week. The 
chief among these season-beers, if such they may be 
called, is the famous bock. It was originally made in 
Munich but now is manufactured in almost every 
place, but no matter where made, its season is short. 
Properly it should be brewed in December and January 
and be ready for use in the beginning of May. Bock 
beer is a savoury, seductive beverage and will soon 
overpower the drinker if he attempts to use it as he 
does his common beer. How this bock come to have 
its peculiar name no one seems to know positively. 
Some of the more modem of our dictionaries ascribe 
it to einibeck, aimbock, bock being a shortening of 
the word, but this theory is not sustained by the facts. 
Both aimpecker and eimbecker beer are mentioned 

Germany 39 

as early as 1553 and there seems to have been no 
contraction of the words either then or for more 
than two himdred years later, while bock beer is at 
least three hundred years old. Another story is of 
a legendary character, but as it carries with it a goodly 
semblance of probability it is appended : 

It was three hundred years ago in Germany that two 
rival brewers met in a beer-drinking place and each praised 
his own brew as being superior to the other's. The argu- 
ment resulted in a wager. Each man was to make a special 
brew for the other to drink. They were to have the contest 
in the same place at the same table, as soon as the two 
brews were ready, and each was to drink the beer made by 
the other. The winner was to be the man who held out 
the longest, as that would indicate of course that his beer 
was the stronger. The contest came off in good time and 
it was carefully conducted. Neither brewer dared to get 
up and risk a walk across the room. But one of them did 
venture finally to start to walk to the door for air. Just 
then a goat, a buck, sauntered into the place; brushed 
against the contestant who was trying to keep his feet and 
who promptly fell sprawling on the floor. *' I win," muttered 
the other brewer, who could just about see what had 
happened to the other fellow. " It's the buck" growled the 
man on the floor, not even trying to get up. And so after 
that the dark beer such as both contestants had been drink- 
ing was called buck or bock beer. Bock is the German 
word for goat. 

In support of the above story perhaps it may not be 
amiss to mention that there is a much lighter beer 
brewed in Germany that bears the appellation gats, 
which means she-goat. Another of these ** season- 
beers " is one known as salvaior beer, a forerunner or 

40 Beverages^ Past and Present 

preceder of bock. It is also called zacherUoel or 
godfather's beer. The time of sale is the first two 
weeks in April and in many localities it is a popxalar 
beverage. It was first brewed by the Paxalinian monks 
in the reign of the Elector Maximilian I. and from 
them it has spread over the whole of Germany. The 
proper dispensing of salvator beer is stirrounded with 
a nimiber of very ancient ceremonies. The first glass 
should be drunk by the burgomaster, and he in accord- 
ance with an old well-established precept should be 
gorgeously arrayed and be on horseback. Another 
feature is the closing of the tap at a certain hour 
after which time no one can get another drop. The 
people, knowing that this will occur, provide against it 
by purchasing a number of glasses with which they 
regale themselves after the prescribed time. 

Another ancient institution was the beer-bell. This 
however was not confined to any special brew, as it was 
more of a city ordinance which compelled the various 
beer shops and places wherein beer wa^ sold to cease 
business whenever it was rung. The law was rigidly 
enforced and to neglect the warning of the beer-bell 
was a serious matter. 

At one time the most popular beverage in certain 
localities in Germany was M/m^-beer, made from 
wheat malt, very light and extremely frothy, which is 
produced by rapid fermentation. Unless taken in 
very large quantities weiss-heex cannot properly be 
termed intoxicating. In fact it has been known 
to have a sobering effect and for that reason has been 
called Montag beer, or Monday beer, being a favourite 
beverage with those Germans who devoted their 
Sundays to merrymaking. There is a saying in Ger- 

Germany 41 

many that it takes three days hard drinking to become 
drunk on weiss-beer and it takes three weeks to sober 
up. Another saw is that only four swallows of the beer 
is possible, for the fifth will meet the other f otir coming 
up. In Berlin it is called by its adherents and ad- 
mirers kMle blonde ' ' — a cool fair maiden. Owing to the 
large quantity of carbonic acid gas which it contains the 
real genuine Berlin weiss-heer is served in stone bottles 
containing nearly a pint, which are emptied into a 
tumbler holding at least a half a gallon. These glasses 
are in shape like our common tumblers, being fiat- 
bottomed and perfectly rotmd ; and large as they are 
the contents of the bottle will often more than fill them 
to overflowing, there being so much froth or foam 
on the beer. The management of these glasses is a fine 
art and only a true bom and bred Berliner can ever 
expect to acquire it in its perfection. He tips his glass 
slightly and pushes his little finger under it ; then spread- 
ing his hand he draws the glass towards him and raises 
it to his lips. It looks very simple and easy, but the 
novice after several trials finds it far more convenient 
to use both hands. Of late years they have a glass of 
the same capacity but with a foot attached to it, in 
fact a huge ungainly goblet. Large bottles of weiss- 
beer can also be purchased, and it is no unusual sight 
to see a whole family gathered around one of these 
and all drinking out of the same glass, father, mother, 
sons, and daughters. At first, the sight of a stylishly 
attired young lady holding one of these huge goblets, 
with both hands, to her lips is most surprising and 
startling. If she is opposite you, her face is entirely 
hidden from your view, while if en profile only her ear 
is visible. The strangeness of the sight, however, soon 

42 Beverages, Past and Present 

passes away and in a short pericxl of time you find 
yourself doing likewise witii the same gusto and 

If while in Berlin, the traveller should be fortunate 
enough to have a friend who is acquainted with the 
proprietor of a place where Penarth beer is kept he 
should by all means accept the invitation and procure 
a glass or two of the beverage. It is a most ancient 
drink. It is of this beer that the King of Bohemia, af- 
ter having drained off two silver tankards at Heinrich 
von Kniprode's court, exclaimed enthusiastically, 
"Your beer is so good that it almost glues one's mouth 
up." The beer derives its name from being made at 
Penarth, near Konigsberg and, while there are several 
places where it can be purchased, the patron must be 
known to mine host, or another and cheaper article 
will be substituted. 

There is in Germany a malady which is known locally 
as eier-dursty or beer fever. A burning thirst gradually 
dries up all the available moisture, and a craving for 
beer ensues. Says Henry Vizetelly in Berlin Under 
the New Empire: 

One symptom of the disorder is that the patient passes 
into a state of great irritation if the beer proffered to 
him be drawn with too much head. The first mug is 
swallowed without any perceptible effect, and the second is 
ordered with the injuction to the doctor — ^that is the beer- 
maiden — "Liebes Madchen, nur nicht zu viel Schaum." 
Should a second dose not give immediate relief a third 
win be found an unfailing remedy, so that the ailment is 
after all no very serious one, if but promptly treated in the 
proper way. 

The Bayerisch or Bavarian beer, true lager or stored 

Germany 43 

beer — lager meaning stored — is another beer that has 
a great following all through the Fatherland and for 
that naatter wherever any of his children may dwell. 
Lager, as we are more apt to call it in America, al- 
ways follows in the footsteps of the Germans. In 
Berlin it is the most popular of all the beverages 
consumed, superseding te;m5-beer by a great quantity. 
The chief characteristic of lager beer is produced by 
its fermentation, which is induced in an extremely 
low temperature all through the process, the result 
being that the development is delayed over several 
days. This method is now in use in every country 
where beer is made, though of course at one time it 
was solely confined to Germany. Perhaps the chief 
inducement to make lager at first was tiie desire to 
send it abroad and have it keep dining transit. The 
Germans began very early to export their beer. Rob- 
erts in his Map of Commerce (1638) says of Lubeck: 
"The place is famous for the beers made, and hence 
transported into other regions, and by some used 
medicinally for bruises of the body . . . though 
by them in use commonly for their own drink and 
food and rayment." 

While the allusion to drink and food is entirely rea- 
sonable the use of beer as a **rayment" does not agree 
with our present-day conception of the use of beer, and 
we ponder as to what article of dress these ancient peo- 
ple made from it. In the very early days the making 
of beer was indeed a haphazard affair; in fact the term 
**hit or miss" is very descriptive of the operation. In 
the matter of ingredients also there was little regularity ; 
even the celebrated ** cloister beer" in those days was 
made quite as frequently of oats as of wheat, rye, or 

44 Beverages, Past and Present 

barley. Herbs of all kinds were used indiscriminately 
and spiced beers were common indeed. For this pur- 
pose a decoction of oak-bark or of ash-leaves and of 
the leaves and branches of the German tamarisk was 
used. In the sixteenth century amber, coriander, 
and raspberry juice were frequently mixed with beer. 
Grains of all kinds were turned into malt and Saxo 
Grammaticus tells of a famine which was said to have 
been produced by the transformation of all available 
grain into beer. In 1433 the Common Council of 
Augsburg went so far even as to forbid the use, in 
brewing, of any grain but oats; while two hundred 
years earlier, says Dr. J. G. Th. Grasse in his Beer 

the authorities of the city of Nuremberg [probably for the 
same reason, i.e., abundance of one kind of grain and 
scarcity of another] forbade the use of oats, rye, and wheat, 
permitting only that of barley. 

In reference to the use of hops it may not be amiss here 
to mention that the producers and sellers of these flowers 
were accused of adulterating them with cocculus indicus 
as early as 1620. The amount of knowledge that these 
early brewers possessed of their duties was deplorable. 
As to any acquaintance with the scientific principles under- 
lying the chemical transformations incident to steeping, 
couching, flooring, sweating, and kiln-drying, to mashing, 
cooling, fermenting, and cleansing — ^it was entirely out of 
the question ; if the brew turned out good the brewer was 
to be congratulated, if bad it was confiscated and distrib- 
uted among the poor of the community, the brewer also 
being fined and otherwise punished. 

This was decreed by the Common Council of Augs- 
burg away back in 1155. Five hundred years later the 

Germany 45 

people began nick-naming the different beers and such 
names as Dishwater, Sick Henry, Sour Maid, Hale and 
Hearty, Cheerful, and Laughing Mouth were common. 
Spiced or flavoured beer was at one time the universal 
beverage in Germany, and that it was held in great 
esteem is evident from the fact that the Ecumenical 
Cotmcils of Worms and Treves (a.d. 868 and 895 
respectively) decreed that persons doing penance 
should not partake of spiced beer except on Sundays, 
conunon beer only being allowed them on work 

Delving still earlier into the beer-lore of Germany 
we find that Tacitus, the Roman historian, in his 
Treatise on the Situation, Manners, and Inhabitants of 
Germany makes special reference to the beer made 
in the first century. In chapter xxiii he says, 
''Their drink is a liquor prepared from barley or wheat 
brought by fermentation to a certain resemblance of 

Pliny in book xiv., chapter xxii, also says: "The 
western nations have their intoxicating liquor, made 
of steeped grain. Thus dnmkenness is a stranger 
in no part of the world; for these liquors are taken 
pure, and not diluted as wine is. Oh, the wonderful 
sagacity of our vices! we have discovered how to 
render even water intoxicating." It was Tacitus 
who ascribed the defeat of the Roman general Varius 
(who had been sent by Augustus to conquer the country 
and subdue the inhabitants) to the Teutons' free use of 
hior (beer). At one time, in the tourth century, the 
making of beer must have been practised even on the 
field of battle. Mr. Frederick William Salem in his 
book called Beer writes of the incident as follows: 

46 Beverages, Past and Present 

The AUemanni, a large German tribe who were first 
mentioned by Dion Cassius 213 a.d., and who occupied 
the country between the river Main and the Danube, were 
formidable enemies both to the Romans and the Gauls. 
They attached great importance to their beer, which was 
brewed under the supervision of the priests, and before use 
was blessed with many solemn rites. In an old code we 
find that every member of a church (gotheshaus) had to con- 
tribute for its maintenance fifteen seidel of beer or some 
equivalent. The Emperor Julian who defeated them in the 
year 557 a.d. near Strasburg, where all their forces were 
assembled under seven chiefs, found on the field of battle 
numerous utensils designed to be employed in brewing. 
The old Saxons in the seventh and eighth centuries when 
sitting in council to consider questions of high importance 
would only deliberate after drinking beer, which they took 
in common out of large humhen (stone mugs) . Charlemagne 
(742-814 A.D.) himself gave directions how to brew the 
beer for his court, and was as careful in selecting his brew- 
masters as in choosing his councillors and leaders. A single 
circumstance, attendant on his defeat of the Saxons at 
Paderbom 777 a.d., illustrates the high respect in which 
brewing was then held, and in this particular is suggest- 
ive of its semi-sacred character among the AUemanni as 
mentioned above. On that occasion it is related that the 
Emperor, surrounded by his chief leaders and councillors and 
by the ambassadors of distant nations, received the homage 
of the heathen Saxon warriors, caused many thousands of 
them to be baptised, and then celebrated the double triumph 
of his arms and the Christian faith at a great feast, at which 
were seated with him Eginhard, Paul Warnefried, and Al- 
cuin the Emperor's friends and advisers, and all drank of 
beer brewed by Charlemagne himself, while they discussed 
the great events that had just occurred. The drinking ves- 
sels were large mugs of a peculiar form which are still to be 
seen among a collection of relics presented to the Emperor 

Germany 47 

by Eastern potentates and now kept in a tower at the west 
end of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, and exposed to 
public view once in every seven years. Within a few years 
numerous relics have been found in the vicinity of Pader- 
bom which indicate that beer-brewing must have been as 
common and necessary in both parties as the cooking of 

In the beginning of the eighteenth century coffee 
became a common beverage in Germany. All who 
could afford it were addicted to its use, and at last 
Frederick the Great in order to restrain its increasing 
popularity erected large coffee-roasting establishments. 
These establishments monopolised the business and 
consequently charged an enormous price for the berry. 
** Coffee-smellers" or spies were appointed everywhere 
to search out and detect people using the beverage; 
but while they were the means of slightly decreasing 
its consumption the scheme was fotmd to be impractica- 
ble, and accordingly on the 13th day of September, 
1777, Frederick issued his celebrated ** coffee and beer 
manifesto." It reads: 

It is disgusting to notice the increase in the quantity of 
coffee used by my subjects and the amount of money that 
goes out of the country in consequence. Everybody is 
using coffee. If possible this must be prevented. My 
people must drink beer. His Majesty was brought up 
on beer and so were his ancestors and his officers. Many 
battles have been fought and won by soldiers nourished 
on beer, and the ICing does not believe that coffee-drinking 
soldiers can be depended on to endure hardship or to beat his 
enemies in case of the occurrence of another war. 

The proclamation had the desired effect and beer 

48 Beverages, Past and Present 

was restored to its accustomed place and use, while 
coffee became a luxury. 

There is, besides the Berlin weiss-beer another beer 
of like nature called lichtenhainer and which is a great 
favourite among the students of the Jena University. 
It is a white beer made from wheat, and like its com- 
patriot of Berlin, is low in alcohol and in order to become 
intoxicated upon it one must perforce not only drink 
a large amount but must continue drinking for some 
time. According to Mr. Henry Mayhew in German 
Life and Manners, 

the flavour of it [lichtenhainer] is far from pleasant at first, 
for it tastes not unlike the smallest English small-beer, that 
has turned slightly sour and gone somewhat flat. Indeed 
the only thing to which we can compare it is a mixture 
of cider and water with a dash of camomile-tea added to it. 
The students, however, assure you that the taste for it is a 
growing one, and ultimately becomes so strong that per- 
sons who are accustomed to drink lichtenhainer prefer it to 
beer of any other kind. . . . On ordinary occasions, 
however, lichtenhainer is assuredly the usual drink of the 
Jena students ; and the reason of this is, we are of opinion, 
because quantity is desired rather than quality; for the 
lichtenhainer beer is of so exceedingly mild a character as 
to admit some score or more of pints of it being swallowed 
at one sitting, with scarcely any intoxicating effect. 

Mr. Mayhew gave the beer question in Germany 
considerable thought and attention and on another 
page writes as follows: 

The greater part of the German beers, indeed, approxi- 
mate in character to what we call "table ale" or "inter- 
mediate," as such kind of dilute malt Uquor used, some time 

Germany 49 

ago, to be styled. They are by no means unpleasant, and, 
so far as our experience goes, they contribute, when taken 
in moderation, to an improved action of the vital functions. 
Indeed, in America, where the naturalised Germans have 
begtm to brew such beers for the enjoyment of their country- 
men on the other side of the Atlantic, they are often pre- 
scribed by the physicians, as the best of medicine for those 
who are in a weakly condition. That they are by no 
means so heady as our ales the English reader can well 
understand, after having been assured that it is not unusual 
for a youth of not yet twenty years of age to drink some 
thirty pint glasses in the cotirse of an evening. 

Lichtenhainer beer is always served in stoops, that 
is, wooden cans, and for a very good reason. The beer 
is not apt to be dear — in fact it is always more or less 
cloudy and therefore is unpleasant to the eye; the 
stoop prevents all sight except the foam or froth on 
the top. These cans are invariably coated with resin 
on the inside and are fitted with a handle of wood. 
Every student is presented with a stoop on the lid of 
which are engraved his friend's nick-name and his own 
soubriquet; between the names are the letters s m I 
standing for **seinem lieben" — ** to his beloved " so and 
so. On the front of the can is the word Jena and the 
date annexed, and the letters filled, in all cases, with 
red sealing-wax. On the inside of the lid the character 
§ 1 1 is sure to be found and refers to section 1 1 of the 
handbook of beer-etiquette, which says, *'Es wird fort- 
gesossen." This book is for the students of Jena and 
it gives in detail all the laws, regulations, and observa- 
tions of the time-honoured beer-customs. 

The ** Boys'* and ** Foxes" are by no means confined 
to the lichtenhainer beer, in fact they have an extensive 

VOL. II.— 4. 

50 Beverages, Past and Present 

choice in Ziegenhain, and Woellnitz weiss-heer and a 
lager beer called rosenbeer; then they have koesteritz 
either black or white. The black koesteritz beer is in 
great demand among the students as an early morning 
drink in the place of coffee ; it is very much like English 

Another beverage among the students is the light 
very acid red wine called creo or kreo, which is grown 
and made around Jena, and also krallo, a white and 
less acid wine. For their mixed drinks such as punches, 
etc. , they have a vocabulary of their own, and which has 
in many cases gone through the country. A mixture 
of two liquetxrs and the yolk of an egg all carefully 
put into a glass with the yolk between, making a three- 
coloured drink, is called knickerbein, meaning a spasm 
or sudden giving away of the knee. A punch made of 
claret and other ingredients of a fiery nature is named 
schlummer — ^to sleep or doze. Quite a popular drink 
is bierbeer, made of beaten eggs and sugar upon which 
hot beer is poured, but the greatest of all the beverages 
is cranibaffibtdi. A goodly pyramid of loaf sugar is 
erected and then thoroughly saturated with schnapps, 
a lighted match is applied, and that which drops off 
forms the drink. A very little of this will suffice, even 
for the hardened toper, and an overdose will affect the 
victim for almost a week. In Berlin they have a peculiar 
drink called kaltschale. It is composed of beer, sugar, 
lemon, biscuit, rum, and currants, which as the name 
implies is iced ; the initiated are very fond of this hetero- 
geneous mixture, but the stranger in the land generally 
finds one taste enough and a glassful far beyond his 

In the spring of the year, when the sun has started 

Germany 51 

the low-growing plants, there appears on the edge of 
the woods and elsewhere a little herb-like plant which 
is most dear to every German man or woman. They 
call it waldmeister. Our name for it is woodruff and 
its scientific appellation is asperula odorata. It is a 
most fragrant little plant and the German housewife 
makes the same use of it as the English and Americans 
do of lavender. Little bxmches are placed here and 
there among the clothing, imparting to them its sweet 
new-mown-hay fragrance, and driving away that most 
troublesome of insects, moths. The Herr German 
finds a more poetical use for it by infusing it in 
wine and making his celebrated maitrank, which while 
it is most pleasant to the taste is decidedly deceiving, 
and the unwary soon ceases to manifest any interest in 
things terrestial. 

During the summer season another beverage is made 
by steeping strawberries in Moselle wine. It is known 
as erdbeereubowle and is a pleasant and refreshing 
beverage. Bischof and cardinal are also among the 
names applied to mixed drinks which are usually made 
of wine. Warm beer with honey in it is called honig" 
bier, being another "season" beverage and used during 
the winter in many parts of the Fatherland. Honey 
in Germany from the remotest period has been always 
used in making an intoxicating beverage. There are 
some authorities that ascribe the origin of mead, 
metheglin or hydromel to this part of Europe, and 
their contentions seem to be well founded. Others, 
too, there are who assert that honey and water mixed 
and fermented was the first intoxicant that mankind 
drank, and possibly it may be so, for to make the bever- 
age in its simplicity reqtdres no art or training, and 

52 Beverages, Past and Present 

we can very easfly pictiire autochthonal man diluting 
his honey with water; and after having dnuik what he 
then needed, putting the rest aside, which, on a warm 
day, would soon ferment and on again requiring to 
quench his thirst, he finds something very different, 
both in taste and effect. His curiosity would be excited 
and he would repeat the experiment and, step by step, 
he would gradually arrive at a certain stage of perfec- 
tion in its manufacture. A variation of hydromel is 
oxymel, where vinegar instead of water is used and 
which diuing the summer and early fall is a common 
beverage in rural Germany, even to the present 

Simplicity of parts in the making of drinks cannot be 
said to have ever been a national trait of the Germans. 
A multiplicity of ingredients have always f otmd favour 
with them, and a close secretiveness as to what and how 
were used rigidly maintained. An ancient author, writ- 
ing about the beer called mum, and sometimes mum of 
Brunswick, says that the makers of this beverage, 
in order to keep their secret inviolate, hired their men 
for life. Whether this was true or not we cannot say, 
but Robert Harley in the Harleian Miscellany, 1682, 
says that General Monk procured the f oUowinjg receipt 
for brewing Brunswick mum: 

To make vessel of sixty-three gallons, the water must be 
boiled to the consumption of a third part. Let it then be 
brewed, according to art, with seven bushels of wheat- 
malt, one bushel of oat-malt, and one bushel of ground 
beans; and when it is tunned, let not the hogshead be too 
full at first; when it begins to work, put to it of the inner 
rind of the fir three pounds, of the tops of fir and birch, 
each one pound, of carduus benedictus dried, three handfuls; 

Germany 53 

flowers of rosa soils, two haadfuls; or bumet, betony, 
marjoram, awens, pemiy-royal, flowers of elder, wild- 
thyme of each one handful and half; seeds of cardamum 
bruised, three ounces; bayberries bruised one ounce; put 
the seeds into the vessel: when the liquor hath wrought 
awhile with the herbs, and after they are added, let the 
liquor work over the vessel as little as may be, fill it up at 
last, and when it is stopped, put into the hogshead ten 
new-laid eggs not cracked or broken; stop all close and 
drink it at two years old; if carried by water it is better. 

Not satisfied with this combination another party, 
Doctor Aegidius Hoffmann, added water-cresses, brook- 
lime, and wild parsley, of each six handfuls, with six 
handfuls of horseradish, rasped, in every hogshead; it 
was observed that the horseradish made the mum more 
quick than that which had none. 

A hundred years or so afterwards the process was 
greatly simplified. The malt was mixed with a larger 
proportion of water than was used in brewing beer 
or ale; after reniaining saturated in the mash-tun 
for about two hours, it was drawn off and reboiled. 
This liquor was again introduced into the kieve, on 
a qttantity of fresh malt merely wet, and which had 
stood there soaking for about an hour in water; after 
this the worts were drained off and pumped into 
coolers, from which they were sent to the coppers, and 
boiled with a quantity of hops for some hours. The 
produce was of a rich glutinous nature, and after 
undergoing a partial fermentation it was put into 
casks for sale, tmder the title of mum. Prom the 
materials left in the kieve, two other brewings were 
effected, the first making a strong kind of beer, and 
the second an inferior sort, or table drink. 

54 Beverages, Past and Present 

Mum, it is hardly necessary to add, had a fine repu- 
tation not only in Germany but in other parts of 
Europe, especially England, and there is an old book, 
England's Improvement by Sea and Land, published in 
1677 that contains a remarkable proposition for the 
bringing over the mum trade of Bnmswick, and es- 
tablishing it at Stratford-on-Avon. The fact that 
Brunswick was the original home of mums seems to be 
well established for, in an old book printed in 1515 
and entitled De generibus ebriosorum et ebrietate vi- 
tanda we find the passage "mommon sine mommum 
Brunsvigen" as being very popular even at that 

There has existed for many years a great deal 
of speculation in reference to the origin of this word 
mum. Our earlier dictionaries simply say of it, 
" Mum — ^a strong liquor brought from Brunswick, Ger- 
many." Other writers, however, ascribe it as coming 
from mumme, a strong German ale, which from its in- 
toxicating qualities produces silence, by rendering 
its votaries incapable of utterance. Others assign to 
the word an origin from mummeln, to mutter, and 
perhaps Pope had this idea when he wrote, 

The clamorous crowd is hushed with mugs of mum 
Till all, turned equal, send a general hum. 

Our later dictionaries, however, ascribe it as being de- 
rived from Christian Mummer, the man who invented 
the beverage in 1492, and this is most probably correct. 
Other cities, seeing how popular Brunswick mum had 
become, tried to imitate it, and named their beverage 
after their own town. None of these, however, made 
much progress, though at one time (but only for a 

Germany 55 

short period) Hamburgh mum, had some reputation 
outside of its birthplace. 

At the present writing the Brunswick beers known 
as Israel Brewer and Stader, of Lubeck, are among 
the best known beers of Germany. The Germans, 
however, consider Dantzic beer, more often called 
joppenhier and doppeUbier, the queen of the red or 
brown beers. It is very strong and has almost the 
consistency of syrup in thickness. Dantzic also makes 
another beer called junkerbier or beer of nobility which 
many claim is the best beer of its kind made. 

In that part of Germany known as the Black Forest 
there are grown thousands of cherry trees and from 
their fruit is distilled that celebrated ardent beverage 
known the world over as kirschwasser, or cherry water. 
It is from the Black Forest that the best grade of this 
liquor comes and to the peasants of the place its 
manufacture is most essential and important, as it 
is a chief source of revenue to them. At one time, 
the word schnapp in Germany meant gin, and espe- 
cially Holland gin, but it is now applied to any ardent 
liquor in much the same manner as we formerly used 
the word **rum." 

What Germany has done for the advancement and 
perfection of beer she has also done for wine. For 
nearly two thousand years her people have been 
making wine and what they have accomplished in 
that time would take volumes to relate. Only a 
nation with the stem determination of the Germans 
could make grape-growing a source of profit in the 
Fatherland, and only a people of indomitable will and 
untiring energy would undertake the task. Miss 
Anna C. Johnson in Peasant Life in Germany draws 

56 Beverages, Past and Present 

a fine pen-picture of what the care of a vineyard 
means. She says: 

What patient, persevering labour is required during all 
the process of cultivation from the first day of spring to 
the last day of autumn. The snow is scarcely off the ground 
when the women may be seen toiling up the steeps with 
baskets of manure upon their heads, and little hand- 
spades, with which to dig about the roots and between the 
rows, to fill and spread the manure. Often upon rocky 
eminences a soil is entirely made in this way and every 
particle of nourishment that is needed for the plants carried 
on the heads of the women. Often a long row may be seen 
ascending a narrow pathway, with their burdens, slowly, 
wearily, and then descending to replenish their baskets. 
Neither horse nor plough is employed in vine-culture, but 
all is accomplished by the patient labour of the hand. 
How early and how late must be their industry, to be in 
season with every department. 

And yet it is from these steep hillside vineyards, so 
laboriously tilled, that wine of such a superb quality 
comes that it challenges the world to reproduce. There 
are nearly one hundred different kinds of grapes grown 
in the many parts of Germany and the list of wines 
made is almost as numerous. The better known wines 
of the country, those which have a foreign market, 
nimiber in the neighbourhood of fifty. The majority 
of them are white, but there are some red wines that 
are most excellent. Who is there that drinks wine 
that has not drunk Rhine wine? and they who have 
been so f ortimate as to get it in its purity and properly 
aged are the ones who never cease singing its praises, 
for when thus obtained the palate of man requires no 

Germany S7 

At Hochheim on the Main, 
At Wurzburg on the Stein, 
At Bachara^h on the Rhine, 
There grows the best of wine. 

In most places the vintage commences about the 
1 2th of October, and in the districts where the grapes 
ripen about the same time, the day for commencing 
is designated by government, as on that day the 
watch must cease. Owing to the smallness of the 
vineyards and also to their number fences are dis- 
pensed with and in order to protect the growing and 
ripening crops the government appoints certain men, 
fully armed, to patrol these districts. 

Just before the grapes are ready to pick the watch is very 
alert and the owner of a vineyard must obtain permission 
to enter it, and let his desires be known, or otherwise he is 
apt to be fired at, but when the watch has been withdrawn 
then the jollity commences. The announcement is made 
by the ringing of bells a week previous, accompanied by 
a formal notice from the police. The evening previous, 
the bells are again nmg, and early in the morning they give 
out a merrier peal at the hotir the vintagers are to com- 
mence, and soon they may be seen issuing forth, not in their 
best, but in holiday costume, singing as they go, with 
baskets upon their heads and in their hands, till the streets 
are thronged, and the hillsides and valleys covered with 
happy people, whose hearts one would not think had ever 
been burdened by care or sorrow. And this is a sight 
upon which more than eighteen centuries have looked, and 
the only one, perhaps, which has not varied through all the 
changing d}masties, from the bright autumn da3rs when 
Caesar sat in his palace at Spire, and contemplated it, 
through all the years of devastation by barbarian hordes, 
in the dark ages, when bishops, and monks, and priests 

5 8 Beverages, Past and Present 

exercised a stem rule, yet milder and better than those of 
savage chiefs, inasmuch as it substituted for brute force 
the curbing of the spirit ; during the dawning of still brighter 
days, when Charlemagne brought order out of confusion, 
and erected a still higher standard of law and honour; 
through the m3rsteries of the Vehmgericht^ or Secret Tribu- 
nal, which filled the land with terror, and made the dtmgeons 
of a hundred cities echo with the groans of innocent and 
guilty victims; until the Reformation stirred all the nations 
to strife, and for a century deluged a whole continent with 
blood, and, popes and princes and people learning to respect 
the opinion of each other, a peace for once filled the earth 
which did not every moment fear the fierce war-whoop and 
the tramp of armies. Whether Roman or Gallic legions 
revelled in your castle-halls, whether pope or prince 
or prelate waved the sceptre from its proud turrets, 
whether imperial or republican armies marched through 
the land, the vineyards lay ever smiling and peaceful upon 
the hillsides, and the mountains enclosed the laugh of 
happy vintagers, for the time indifferent alike to the 
fortunes of friend or foe. Bread and wine were the food 
upon which all depended, and though palaces were de- 
molished, and cities and villages destroyed, the harvest 
must remain untouched, for when it failed famine and 
pestilence overtook the victor and vanqmshed and made 
more fearful havoc than the sword. 

Thus writes Miss Anna C. Johnson. She further says : 

We are looking upon a sight which has varied little 
through all these changing times, and the mode of gathering 
the purple clusters must be nearly the same as when the 
daughters of Judea were admitted to the grapes and 
pomegranates on Canaan's shore. 

Wine in Germany has never been considered a 

Germany 59 

luxury; in fact it is always deemed a necessity and 
to be deprived of it was a hardship few could com- 
placently endure, and it was this mutual need that 
restrained the warring factions from destroying the 
vineyards during their periods of invasions and re- 
ptilse. Other countries were not so fortunate, and 
history is replete in accotmts of sanguinary battles 
being fought by opposing armies right in the midst 
of flourishing vineyards. The drinking capacity of 
the German has always been a matter of comment to 
every visitor and traveller in that land. Whether 
it is beer or wine the amount they consume in twenty- 
four hours is much beyond the ability of the average 
American or Englishman, and yet withal such a spec- 
tacle as a drunken person upon the streets is rarely 
witnessed. They have the faculty of imbibing to a 
great extent without its apparently overcoming them, 
and therefore what to us would be injurious to them 
only becomes a pleasure, and if they are so constituted 
as to be able to stand more, then their drinking only 
becomes a question of a proper amount. A few years 
ago Mr. William Howitt spent some time in Germany 
and like many others who had gone this way before 
him he eventually put his experience into a book, 
which he called The Rural and Domestic Life of Germany ^ 
and among the many incidents that he records we cull 

We sent out empty jugs to the tapster, who prayed us 
to have a little patience, till the fourth barrel was begun. 
The third, early in the forenoon, was already drawn low. 
No one here feels ashamed of the love of wine ; they even 
to a certain degree boast of their drinking. Lovely ladies 
declare that their children, while at the breast, also were 

6o Beverages, Past and Present 

nourished with wine. We asked them whether it was 
really true that clergymen, aye Electors, prided themselves 
on drinking within f our-and-twenty hours their eight Rhine 
measures — ^that is, sixteen of our bottles. One apparently 
serious guest remarked that, in answer to this question, 
one need only to mind the last sermon of their consecrating 
bishop; who, after he had represented the drunkenness of 
his flock in the strongest colotirs, thus closed his sermon: 
"Hence, my pious and-to-confession-and-repentance- 
already-disposed hearer, you must be convinced that he per- 
petrates the greatest sin who in such a manner abuses the 
noble gifts of God. The abuse, however, excludes not the 
use. It stands written 'Wine rejoices the heart of man.' 
By this it is clearly made manifest that, to rejoice ourselves 
and others, we may and should enjoy our wine. But now 
there is probably no one among my male hearers who 
cannot take to himself two measures of wine [four bottles] 
without finding the slightest trace of confusion in his 
senses; but he who on the third or fourth measure falls 
so far into f orgetfulness of himself that he does not recog- 
nise his own wife and children, but abuses them with 
scolding, striking, and kicking and treats his best friends 
as his worst enemies — ^let him retreat into himself, and 
meddle no more with this over-quantity, which renders 
him displeasing to God and man, and a scomer of his 

" But he who, in the enjoyment of four measures, aye, 
of five or six, only feels himself in such a mood that he can 
take his fellow-Christian under the arm, can rule his own 
household, yes, is in a condition to follow out the com- 
mands of his temporal and spiritual rulers — ^let him enjoy 
his modest portion, and take it with thankfulness away. 
But let him take heed that, without sufficient probation, 
he goes no further, since here the goal is generally set to 
weak man; for the case is rare in the extreme in which 
the fundamentally munificent God has bestowed on any 

Germany 6i 

one the especial grace to be able to drink eight measures 
[sixteen bottles], as he has vouchsafed to me, his servant. 
As, however, it cannot be charged to me that I have 
fallen into unjust wrath against any one, that I have mis- 
taken my relatives or the inmates of my house, or that 
I have neglected or put off the spiritual duties and business 
which are incumbent upon me, but rather that you are all 
become my witnesses how I am ever in readiness, to the 
praise and honour of God, and how active I show myself 
for the good and benefit of my neighbours — so may I yet 
further rejoice myself with a good conscience, and with 
gratitude for this gift that has been conferred upon me; 
and you, my pious hearers, that he may be in body and 
in soul refreshed, and rejoice according to the will of the 
Giver, take each one his modest portion away with him. 
And that this may be the happy experience, let all super- 
fluity be banished, and let every one conduct himself 
according to the precept of the holy apostle who says, 
' Prove all things and hold fast that which is good.' " 

The venerable bishop undoubtedly was proud of 
his capacity, but in a few words he told what should 
be considered the world over, and what if adhered 
to would prove the most powerftd of temperance pleas. 
If a person cannot even drink a glass of wine without 
injury then he should let it alone, but he should not 
attempt, from his experience, to restrict his neighbour 
who finds pleasure and profit in drinking even if the 
neighbour should, like the bishop, drink sixteen bottles 
per day; as the bishop says, *'The abuse, however, 
excludes not its use," and the degree wherein abuse 
is to be found, rests in the drinker himself. 

While, as was said before, the list of wines made 
in Gehnany is large, there are some to neglect mention 
of which would almost amount to treason; among these, 

62 Beverages, Past and Present 

and being perhaps the oldest, is the wine bacharach. 
This wine is very ancient indeed. In fact its origin 
is lost in antiquity and all eflEorts to trace its beginning 
have thus far proven futile. The Romans called the 
place Bacchi ara (the altar of Bacchus) on account 
of the excellence of the wine they found there and this 
fact alone is sufficient to establish the early origin 
of the wine. At a later period, during the reign of 
Eneas Sylvio Piccolomini — Pope Pius II., — a tun of it 
was imported to Rome every year for his individual 
use. The Emperor Vinceslus was also another ad- 
mirer of this wine and in order to obtain it he stipulated 
with the citizens of Nuremberg for four casks annually 
and in return granted them their freedom. 

From a hill of only fifty-five acres in extent comes 
the celebrated Johannisberger wine. This vineyard 
while not as old as many of its neighbours has gained 
an enviable reputation for its produce both at home 
and abroad, and to obtain the genuine Johannisberger 
wine in the open market is almost an impossibility. 
In Granville's Journey to St. Petersburgh there is a 
good accotmt of the prices paid for some of the leading 
Rhine wines of his time. It reads, in part, as follows: 

Riidesheim wine of 1825 was sold at Frankfort in 1827 
for 1,000 rix-dollars the ohm, or 15 dozen bottles, nearly 
$8.50 per bottle. The schlossenberger (Johannisberg), 
for 700 rix-dollars; the steinberger, for 300 rix-dollars; 
while in 1822 the same three kinds of wine brought re- 
spectively 1400, 750, and 980 rix-dollars. The same 
growth in 1 81 8 produced: Johannisberg, 3,000 rix-dollars 
for 15 dozen; Riidesheim, Bergwein, 910 rix-dollars. 

It will be observed that the above list of prices is 

Germany 63 

not for old wine but for wine only two years of age, 
something which would require several more years 
to mature. Whenever any really old Johannisberger 
comes upon the market the prices begin to assume 
most alarming proportions, and it is a matter of rec- 
ord that fifteen dozen pint bottles have brought $3,320. 
The connoisseurs of Europe are always on the alert 
for this wine and the competition to secure a goodly 
quantity is always great. 

Frankfort is the great mart for the sale of Rhenish wine, 
which consists of two sorts, red and white; the former 
the stronger of the two. The white wines are distinguished 
by their particular properties, or by the places where 
they grow. According to the former classification, those 
of Nierstein, Markobuenner, Steinberg, Rudesheim, Bingen, 
and Bacharach are the strongest and have more body. 
Those of Schlossberg (Johannisberger), Steinberg, Geissen- 
heim, Rothenberger, and Hochheim are the most en- 
dowed with aroma and perfume, and of moderate strength. 
Lastly, those of Laubenheim, Aamannshausen, (red) Bisch- 
teim, are the most agreeable, possess a most delightful 
flavour, with a requisite degree of perfume, and are the 
most wholesome of all the Rhenish wines. 

During the fifteenth century a drink came into 
vogue that had many adherents. It was called 
stumwein, and while its chief ingredient was wine it 
was made in such a manner that it soon intoxicated 
the drinker. Its fermentation was checked at a certain 
stage and it was then subjected to boiling. Various 
herbs were added; the principal one was mustard, 
which imparted to it a pungent and warming taste. 
Its use soon spread all over (iermany, but in 1472 its 
manufacture was prohibited on the ground that **it 

64 Beverages, Past and Present 

was a bad liquor and prejudicial to health.'' The 
Germans have always been great believers in the use 
of large casks for the storage of their wines and many 
of their vessels have assumed a historical value. 

The tun of Heidelberg is noted the world over for its 
immense size and numbers of other places have also 
received much notice on account of their great vats. 
In like manner were the cellars — some so large that a 
coach and four could easily be driven round and turned 
without touching the large number of casks, ranging 
from fifteen to eighteen feet in height. 



ACCORDING to history there lived in Leyden, a 
smaU town in the south of Holland, a man 
called by the name of Sylvius; he was bom in 
1614 and died in 1672. His proper name was Francis 
de le Boe and our readers of the medical fraternity 
will best recall him as being the f oimder of the iatro- 
chemical school. He was a learned man and for 
fourteen years was professor of medicines at Leyden, 
and it was during this incumbency of office that in his 
many experiments in the laboratory he discovered how 
to make the beverage called geneva, but which is better 
known in the English tongue as gin. The name geneva 
was long thought to be derived from a town of that 
name in Switzerland, but this is a corruption by con- 
fusion, to make use of a lexicographical term, and is 
far from the fact. The word is taken from the French 
genieve, meaning juniper, the plant from which the 
berries are derived that impart to gin its flavour. 

Perhaps while on this subject of names it may be 
appropriate to state that shortly after the drink was 
introduced into England the people began to bestow 
upon it such names as Tityre-white-tape, and Royal 
Poverty: double geneva, royal geneva, and celestial 
geneva. In reference to Royal Poverty, Bailey's dic- 

voL. n. — s. 65 

66 Beverages, Past and Present 

tionary (1720) says, **A modem nickname for the 
liquor called geneva or genevre; because when beggars 
are dnmk they are as great as kings.** The same 
authority defines tityre as **a nickname for the liquor 
called geneva, probably so called because it makes 
persons merry, laugh, and titter. " 

The word gin as applied to geneva, however, does not 
appear to have been in use at this period, for Mr. Bai- 
ley does not record it and the contraction must have oc- 
curred much later. Another very common name for the 
liquor is Hollands from the fact of its origin in Holland 
and also that that country leads in the manufacture 
of the beverage. In the outset Professor Sylvius's 
idea of the liquor was more as a medicine than a 
beverage and accordingly the apothecaries in and 
aroimd Leyden were the first to dispense it ; but the 
people soon felt that **if a little was good more was 
better," and instead of being a medicine it quickly 
became a most popular beverage and its manufacture 
grew apace. There is another story, given by More- 
wood, as to how geneva came to be made. He says: 

It was the custom in the distilling of spirits from worts, 
or other fermented liquors, to add in the working some 
aromatic ingredients, such as ginger, cortex winteranus, or 
grains of paradise, to rake off the bad Savour, and to give 
a pungent taste to the spirit. Among other things used 
with that intent some tried the juniper-berry (genevre, as 
it is called in French), and finding that it gave not only an 
agreeable flavour, but a very valuable quality to the 
spirit, the distillers adopted it generally, and the liquor 
has since been sold under the French name genevre, or, 
as it is rendered in English, geneva. It is highly probable 
that this spirit, now so esteemed throughout Europe, owes 

Holland and Belgium 67 

its name to the juniper wine, invented or brought to 
perfection by Count De Morret, son of Henry IV. of France, 
to the use of which he attributed his good health and long 
life. This liquor was considered so wholesome, and made 
with so little expense, that it was called the wine of the 

While this story has a good deal of plausibility about 
it and perhaps may be the true one, yet the ascrib- 
ing of the discovery to Professor Sylvius seems more 
natural. He was, as we have shown, a man of an 
investigative turn of mind and was constantly ex- 
perimenting and the evidence all points in his favour. 
In reference to the manufacture of gin the same author- 
ity writes: 

The berries remain two years on the trees before they 
are ripe. In the mode formerly practised, the juniper 
was added to the malt in the grinding; a proper proportion 
was allowed, and the whole was reduced to meal and 
worked in the common way. The spirit thus obtained 
was flavoured ab origine with the berry, and exceeded all 
that could be made by any other method. The two prin- 
cipal modes observed in the preparation of wash for geneva 
are thus described: A quantity of rye-flour, coarsely ground, 
is mixed with a third or fourth part of barley-malt, pro- 
portioned to the size of the tub in which the vinous fer- 
mentation is to be effected. This they mix with cold 
water, and then stir it with the hands to prevent the flour 
from gathering into lumps, and to facilitate its dissolution ; 
when this point is attained, water is added of the heat of 
human blood. The whole is well stirred, after which the 
ferment is mixed with the wort, having been previously 
diluted with a little of the liquor. The fermentation 
generally begins six hours afterwards; if it commences 
earlier, there is reason to apprehend that it will be too 

68 Beverages, Past and Present 

strong, and means are employed to check it. If the fer- 
mentation be well conducted, it generally terminates on 
the third day, when the liquor becomes transparent and 
assumes an acid taste, hot and iSery on the tongue. Having 
attained this point, the wash is well roused or stirred, and 
the mash with all the com is put into the still, and then 
commences the first distillation, which is conducted very 
slowly. This is a matter of the utmost importance, as it 
is considered that when the first distillation proceeds 
rapidly, the essential oil goes over with the spirit, and mixes 
with it so intimately that an unpalatable taste of the 
grain is imparted, which no subsequent process can neutral- 
ise without emplojdng ingredients hurtful to the health. 
This liquor is then rectified over juniper-berries once or 
twice, according to the sort of spirit which it is intended 
to produce. For common use, one rectification is deemed 
sufficient, though it is not considered so fine or pleasant 
as that which has undergone several rectifications, and 
which is called double geneva. Some distillers mix the 
juniper-berries with the wort, and ferment them together; 
but in that case they only draw a spirit from it for the 
use of the interior, or for exportation to England; the 
juniper, however, is most commonly used at the rectifi- 
cation and not before. . . . Gin is a spirit supposed to 
be produced only in its greatest purity by the Dutch, from 
the unconmion care taken in its manufacture, and its 
perfection is greatly attributable to the manner in which 
the wash is prepared, and the extraordinary pains be- 
stowed on the fermentation in the course of alterations. 
Certainly if care is not taken at this stage of the process, 
it would be difficult to produce a fine spirit free from any 
peculiar flavour, which is the great characteristic of good 
Holland gin, the spirit only discovering in any mixture 
merely the aroma of the juniper. No grain is used in the 
Dutch distilleries but the most perfect kind, after it has 
undergone the process of malting. Wheat is considered 

Holland and Belgium 69 

the best for producing the choicest spirit; but barley is 
more productive. Rye, however, chiefly of Russian 
growth, is the principle article used, as it produces one 
third more spirit than wheat or barley. The fermentation 
of the wash is completed in about three days, and in the 
distillation the first operation is conducted very slowly 
and with great caution; in the second process, or redis- 
tillation, the juniper-berries are introduced, which give it 
the peculiar flavour by which it is distinguished. Modern 
ingenuity, however, has artfully substituted oil of tur- 
pentine for the juniper, as less expensive and answering 
the purpose of giving it the peculiar flavour of this spirit. 
The cleanliness of the Dutch is proverbial, and this is 
nowhere more rigidly observed than in their distilleries, 
which contributes not a little to the excellence of the 
spirits. Lime-water is chiefly used in cleaning the vessels, 
and the practice of plastering the staves of their fermenting 
tuns with lime is thus obviated; a practice much more 
commendable than that in common use, and less liable 
to produce acidity. 

Apropos of the matters used for the adulteration of 
gin perhaps it would be best to say they are legion. 
Corianders, crushed almond cakes, angelica root 
powdered, licorice, cardamons, cassia, cinnamon, 
grains of paradise, and cayenne pepper are only a few 
of the great hosts of substances that are found to be 
cheaper and easier to use than the juniper-berry. 
Sometimes these spurious ingredients will produce a 
doudy appearance and consequently the liquor has to 
be refined by other adtdterants, such as alum, sulphate 
of zinc, and acetate of lead. Many people have often 
specxalated as to why the gin made in England came to 
be called Old Tom, and while the following story may 
not be the true one yet it has a plausible sotmd. It is 

^o Beverages, Past and Present 

taken from The Life and Uncommon Adventures of 
Captain Dudley Bradstreet, published in Dublin in 1755. 
After the Captain had told of the act forbidding the 
selling of gin in less than two gallons quantity, and in 
consequence the different goals were full, many being 
sent there by his eflEorts, he being a government spy, 
he says: 

Most of the gaols were full, on account of this Act, and 
it occurred to me to venture upon the trade. I got an 
acquaintance to rent a house in Blue Anchor Alley, in 
St. Luke's parish, who privately conveyed his bargain 
to me: I then got it well secured, and laid out in a bed and 
other fumittire five poimds, in provision and drink that 
would keep, about two pounds, and purchased in Moor- 
fields the sign of a cat and had it nailed to a street window. 
I then caused a leaden pipe, the small end out about an 
inch, to be placed under the paw of the cat; the end that 
was within had a funnel to it. When my house was ready 
for business I inquired what distiller in London was most 
famous for good gin, and was assured by several that it was 
Mr. L — dale in Holbom. To him I went, and laid out 
thirteen pounds. The cargo was sent to my house, at the 
back of which there was a way to go in or out. When the 
liquor was properly disposed, I got a person to inform a 
few of the mob that gin would be sold by the cat at my 
window next day provided they put the money in his 
mouth, from whence there was a hole which conveyed it 
to me. At night I took possession of my den, and got up 
early next morning to be ready for custom. It was over 
three hours before anybody called, which made me almost 
despair of the project; at last I heard the chink of money 
and a comfortable voice say, "Puss! give me two penny- 
worth of gin!" I instantly put my mouth to the tube 
and bid them receive from the pipe under her paw, and 

Holland and Belgium 71 

then measured and poured it into the funnel, from whence 
they soon received it. Before night I took six shillings, 
the next day about thirty shillings, and afterwards three 
or four pounds a day. From all parts of London people 
used to resort to me in such numbers that my neighbours 
could scarcely get in and out of their houses. After this 
manner I went on for a month, in which time I cleared 
upwards of two-and-twenty pounds. 

Although gin is made in many places in Holland the 
principal city of manufacture is Schiedam, which, while 
having a population of only about thirty thousand 
people, has more than two hundred distilleries. As 
one writer aptly puts it, ''Schiedam is the Mecca of 
the Dutchman, the birthplace of his beloved Schnapps. 
This drink is always acceptable and fifty good reasons 
exist for drinking it. " Unfortimately he fails to give 
the reasons and the reader is left in the dark as to 
what they are. 

The present-day nomenclature of gin in the trade 
has resolved itself into geneva, hollands, and schiedam. 
These names, in conjunction with the private brands 
of the makers, thoroughly describe the kinds made in 
Holland and therefore are sufficient. 

Gin, however, is not the only beverage the Dutch 
make — far from it ; in the making of beer they are as 
adept as the Germans, and as regards individual con- 
sumption there is an old saw which says '*It 's hard to 
beat the Dutch, " and perhaps the matter had better 
rest there. 

In their private lives the Dutch always have on 
hand a quantity of good stuff to drink and also with 
plenty to eat, but tho drink is the most important, 
especially on festive occasions. Wedding invitations 

72 Beverages, Past and Present 

are made in poetry which must be repeated, not written, 
to every guest by two yotmg men relatives of the bride 
and groom as they go from friend to friend delivering 
the pleasant fact that they are requested to attend the 
affair. Mr. P. M. Hough, B.C., has translated one of 
these poems in his book Dutch Life, which is given 
below. It is entitled: 


I rest here on my stick, 

I don't know what to say; 

Now I have thought of it 

And I know what I may say: 

Here sent us Gart van Vente, the bridegroom, 

And Mientje Elschob, the bride, 

To invite you 

To-morrow morning at ten o'clock 

To empty ten or twelve barrels of beer, 

Five or six hogshead of wine. 

And a basketful of dried grapes. 

You will come to the house of Venterboer 

With all your inmates 

And forget nobody. 

Come early and remain late. 

Else we can't swallow it all down. 

Then sing cheerfully, leap joyfully, 

Leap with both your legs. 

And, what I have yet forgotten. 

Think of the bridegroom and the bride. 

If you have understood me well 

Let pass the bottle round the table. 

Naturally one would think that after ten or twelve 
barrels of beer and five or six hogsheads of wine had 
been consumed there would be very little leaping done> 

Holland and Belgium 73 

but the Dutch, you know, are always moderate — ^from 
their point of view. These people have many prepared 
drinks of which the whole family partake ad libitum. 
Brandy and sugar, called by them bratidewyn met suiker^ 
is a favourite and is always served in the afternoons of 
Sunday along with boerenjongens (brandied raisins); 
and while even the children can use considerable 
quantities of these two intoxicants without ill effect, 
it behooves the visitor to partake sparingly if he is at 
all desirous of retaining his mental faculties. 

Another mixture that is commonly used is called 
advokal borrel, composed of brandy and eggs and served 
in large glasses, of which each guest is expected to 
drink at least two. Katideel, prepared with Rhine or 
Hock wine and eggs, is a milder variation of the advokaJt, 
but it is, nevertheless, sufficiently ardent to call for a 
certain amount of circumspection, although its general 
use is on the first day the young mother receives her 
friends and neighbours. The gentlemen on these occa- 
sions generally meet the father in another part of the 
house and drink to the life of the newly arrived, in 
klare^ the Dutchman's appellation for schiedam. At 
the weddings of the working people the great drink is 
bruidstranen (bride's tears). It is a liqueur in which 
little flakes of gold are floating, and to omit this bev- 
erage would be a breach of etiquette that none would 
forgive. Another liqueur for which Holland is famous 
is curacoa, made from the dried peel of the curacoa 
orange. It is a simple liqueur. That is, it contains 
only the one ingredient, which is partly incorporated 
with the spirit by distillation and later a certain 
quantity of the expressed juice added. 

On New Year's eve the high and the lowly, the poor 

74 Beverages, Past and Present 

and the rich always eat bolussen and appelboUen and 
drink bisschop. The bolussen is a syrupy cake called 
after a man named Bolus. AppelboUen are covered 
apples and bisschop is hot spiced claret. 

If there is any reliance to be placed upon statistics, 
official and otherwise, then to Belgium and the Belgians 
must be given the credit of being the greatest coii- 
sumers, per capita, of alcholic beverages, in all Europe. 
Recent figures place the consumption of strong alco- 
holic driinks at fifty quarts per head a year, while the 
amount of beer consumed per capita is almost beyond 
belief. The principal drink among the working classes, 
more particulariy the miners, is called schnicky but 
what it really is would be difficult to state. At first 
taste there is a slight indication of gin, but this quickly 
disappears and the final impression is that of paraffin 
oil and corrosive sublimate. The best that can be said 
of it is that it does not kill instantly, but that it draws 
out all the evil there is in man cannot be doubted, for 
it is, according to many writers who have tasted it, one 
of the most vicious compounds ever manufactured by 
man. It is made for the production of immediate 
intoxication and it most assuredly fulfils its mission, 
and being excessively cheap is within the means of the 

Beer is also responsible for much of the drunkenness 
to be seen in this historical region, not because of its 
potency but on account of the great amotmt every 
drinker feels it incumbent upon himself to consume. 
Moderation is most certainly not a characteristic of the 
Belgian when he feels disposed to drink. They have a 
nimiber of beers, several of which are very ancient. For 
instance the piertennan and its close relative the wibeer. 

Holland and Belgium 75 

and the faro and Iambic, also gueuse Iambic, brune, orge, 
and uitzet. The gueuse Iambic is a beer which is greatly 
improved by age ; in fact during its first year of life it is 
not considered fit to drink, being thick and cloudy, but 
iwrhen it grows older these conditions disappear and 
"when ten or fifteen years of age it is thought to be in 
its prime, though there are many who keep it as long 
as twenty years before using. 

Early in the fifteenth century there were two beers 
brewed in Brussels, called happe and walgbaert. They 
^were composed of a mixture of oats and wheat and were 
^white beers, very low in alcoholic strength and conse- 
quently quickly spoiled. Later on a beer called cuyte 
came into fashion. This was, as one writer describes 
it, an aristocratic drink, but its reign was not for long 
and eventually it was driven from the market by the 
beers of Lourain. Another very popular beverage of 
an inebriating quality is called pecque. This is also 
very cheap, a half-measure being sold for a penny, and 
on holidays it is the custom to stroll from place to 
place buying and drinking pecque. 

The only vineyards in Belgium are on the road to 
Huy at Jehay, but, while they are extensive and a 
goodly quantity of wine. is made there, it cannot be 
said it ranks very high in quality, being sharp and 



IN all the category of liquors there is scarcely an- 
other that people have disagreed so much about 
as the national drink of the Russians which bears 
the name of vodka, vodki, votki, and sometimes votky. 
Seldom indeed is it that two travellers in the land of 
the Czar agree as to vodka when they first taste it. One 
says it is mild and insipid, while the other claims it to 
be liquid fire and only one remove from carbolic acid 
in its full strength. In one particular, however, they 
generally agree,, viz. that none likes his first taste of the 
spirit; but this dislike soon passes away and vodka can 
be as easily and plentifully drunk as any other liquor. 
The Russians themselves say it is much milder than 
our whiskey, and it is a truth that when one of them 
tastes whiskey for the first time he is nearly strangled, 
especially if the weakening of it by water has been 
omitted. The better grades of vodka are prepared from 
barley and rye and it is therefore dosely allied to 
whiskey. The inferior sorts, though, are more often 
made from potato spirits, which in a degree accounts 
for its fiery qualities. Before the Russians acquired 
the art of distillation which, by the way, it is said — ^they 
were taught by the Genoese early in the fourteenth 
century — ^their chief intoxicating drinks were made from 


Russia, Poland, and Finland 77 

honey. Mead is a very ancient drink in this part of 
the world. As far back as the tenth centiiry and in a 
chronicle of Novgorod of the year 989 it is stated that 
**a great festival took place, at which a hundred and 
twenty thousand pounds of honey were consumed," 
and the liking for mead is still strongly manifested by 
the people. Naturally after so many hundreds of 
years in making this liquor the manufacturers have 
arrived at a degree of excellence that can seldom be 
surpassed in any part of the world. They long ago 
solved the mystery of preparing it so that it would keep 
indefinitely and Doctor Qarke in his Travels tells us 
that he met with some thirty years old that tasted 
very much like the finest Madeira wine. Generally the 
makers confine themselves to brewing only two kinds, 
white and red, though when necessity demands they 
readily manufacture a number of variations. To make 
the white, two poods of white honey are mixed in five 
ankers of dear river or soft water, and boiled and 
skimmed till nearly an anker is boiled away. The 
liquor is then strained through a fine sieve or piece of 
linen into a broad open vessel, and mixed with a couple 
of spoonfuls of beer lees, and a pound of white bread, 
kalatsch. After it has stood in the vessel, in a moder- 
ately warm place, and fermented for thirty-six hours, 
it is poured through another sieve or piece of linen into 
a cask, in which has been previously put a pound of 
small shred isinglass for clarifying it, and in a few days 
it is ready for use. 

The operation for making red mead is quite different, 
as the following receipe will show: To every pood 
of honey add eight vedros of water, and reduce them by 
slow boiling to six vedros. When cold, the juice of 

78 Beverages, Past and Present 

about half a chetvert of pressed or bruised cranberries, 
strained through a sieve, is mixed with it. A small 
portion of yeast is then applied, and a roll of dean sand 
with about four ringlets of isinglass or the albttmen of 
eggs is thrown into the vessel to dear or fine the 
liquor. Cinnamon, doves, ginger, mace, and other 
spices are infused. It is placed in a cool cellar, and, 
after standing there for some weeks, it is either bottled 
for use or drawn from the cask direct. It is this mead, 
the red mead, that will keep for years, and when 
properly made and preserved it is a most ddicious and 
wholesome beverage, comparing very favourably with 
some of the finest wines. The different variations are 
due to the addition of other fruits such as strawberries, 
raspberries, and particularly cherries, the stones or 
seeds of which are bruised and put in along with the 

The honey [to quote from Morewood] of which the 
metheglin is made in such abundance is of the best kind, 
and forms a considerable article in the trade of the empire. 
The great bulk of it is drawn from the beehives reared in 
the oka, on the Don, in Little and White Russia, in the 
Polish provinces, and in the western tracts of the south- 
em Ural. Independent of the internal consumption, the 
export to foreign countries is considerable, and amounts 
in value, on an average, to from 6 to 10,000 rubles in the 
year. There are many tribes in Russia who scarcely 
follow any other employment than that of rearing bees. 
Pallas and Tooke tell us that among the Bashldrs are 
individuals who possess, besides their bee-gardens, some 
hundreds, nay, thousands of wild beehives in the forests, 
and obtain annually from 40 to 100 poods of honey. The 
hives are formed in the hardest and strongest trees, up- 
wards of five fathoms from the ground, by excavating the 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 79 

trunk, and closing the aperture with a board perforated 
with small holes for the bees to enter. The greatest 
enemies to their labours are bears, who frequently make 
terrible havoc among the hives. To defeat the purposes 
of this animal, the peasant is often obliged to have recourse 
to some curious contrivances, of which the following appear 
the most singular: knives are placed in such parts of the 
tree where the bees are situated, where the bear in climbing 
or coming down may encounter death almost at every 
step; some, however, have been cunning enough to elude 
this contrivance altogether, by removing the knives with 
their paws. A block of wood is sometimes suspended 
before the entrance of the hive, which, as often as the 
bear attempts to remove it, falls back and hits him on the 
head, when he becomes so enraged that he is frequently 
precipitated to the bottom on spikes prepared to receive 
him. Boards are often suspended from a neighbouring 
branch, like scales, and so fastened to the tree where the 
animal climbs that, when he gets upon the platform and 
attempts to rifle the hive, he finds himself in a moment 
separated from the object of his search, and swinging in the 
air, with the prospect of a descent upon spikes below, 
threatening instant death. Others, again, cut the trunks 
into blocks, which they hollow out and close at both ends, 
leaving an opening on the side for the bees: this plan is 
generally found to prove more than a match for the in- 
genuity of the luxurious brute. Another method of de- 
stroying this formidable enemy to honey is by putting 
strong spirits into the honey-combs in the trees, and the 
bear, ravenous of the honey, and unmindful of the flavour 
of the spirits, takes so much that he soon becomes in- 
toxicated, and falls an easy prey to his destroyers. 

In a very ancient book, written in the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries, and entitled The Book of Ranks, 
there occurs a passage in which a kind of beer called 

8o Beverages, Past and Present 

oloul is mentioned. How this beer was made it does 
not say and present-day literattire and even legends 
make no mention of it. 

Witiiout doiibt the most popular drink in all Russia 
is kvasSy sometimes written quass. It is to be had every- 
where and at any time, and while it is a fermented 
beverage it contains so little alcohol that it is almost 
impossible to become intoxicated by drinking it. His- 
torically it is a very ancient beverage : according to 
the chronicle of Nestor it was a popular drink among 
the Sclavonians two thousand years ago and, there- 
fore, it must of necessity have been in vogue for some 
considerable time prior to the period which is men- 
tioned. While kvcLss can be made in a most simple 
way it is also susceptible of considerable elaboration 
and the more careful the maker is of the details of 
the operation the better his liquor will be. The 
method most generally pursued is something after 
the following: 

To one chetvert (about thirty-five pounds) of barley-malt, 
two or three handf uls of rye-malt and the same proportion 
of unbolted rye-meal are added, and the whole mass is 
thrown into iron pans, where it is stirred with a quantity 
of warm or boiling water until it resembles thin porridge. 
About two inches deep of oat husks are then thrown over 
it, when the pans are placed in the oven, where they remain 
for twenty-four hours. Boiling water is again poured 
upon it, till it is full to the brim. It is then poured into 
wooden vessels, the bottoms of which are covered inside 
with straw, having a plug or cock to let out the liquid. 
Lukewarm water is now added, and the whole is suffered 
to stand for some time. When it has stood as long as 
necessary, it is drawn off into casks, in each of which a 
piece of coarse rye-bread is put to acidulate the kvass. 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 8x 

The casks are placed in a cellar, and in twenty-four hours 
it is fit for drinking. 

This recipe is the one generally followed where the liquor 
is for domestic use only. The commercial method of 
making the beverage is more accurate and prolonged, but 
the result warrants the labour. The proportions are twenty 
pounds of rye, ten pounds of rye-malt, and three pounds 
of barley-malt, the two species of malt being mixed to- 
gether with tepid water in an earthen vessel till it forms 
a sort of liquid paste. It is then covered for an hour, after 
which more water is poured over it, and the rye-meal is 
gradually added, stirring it all the time so as to form a 
paste-like dough. The vessel is then covered and made 
air-tight with bread-paste, when it is placed in an oven 
of a temperature equal to that when bread may be con- 
sidered to be half-baked, where it remains till the following 
day. The oven is then heated again, and the vessel placed in 
it, and on the third day it is removed, and the paste diluted 
with river water, during which operation it is stirred con- 
tinually with a large wooden spoon. The whole fluid is 
next put into a barrel with a sufficient quantity of leaven, 
where it is stirred well for some minutes and set aside in a 
place of moderate temperature. As soon as froth appears 
on its surface, the barrel is carefully closed and carried to 
an ice-house or cold cellar, and at the end of two or three 
days it is fit for use. 

To the ingredients mentioned above, sometimes there 
is added half a pound of mint and two pounds of wheaten 
and buckwheat flour, which are said to improve its 
effervescence. When kvass is made as above and is 
properly iced it is a most refreshing and wholesome summer 

Kvass made of different fruits is also very common. 
That in which apples are used is called yablochni kvass 
and it has caused many travellers to confound it with 

VOL. n.— 6. 

82 Beverages, Past and Present 

cider, for it greatly resembles it both in taste and looks, 
but it is not cider at all. The apples are cut into small 
pieces and put into a barrel along with the malt and 
flour and allowed to stand for fifteen days, when it is 
ready for use, fermentation having ceased and it be- 
coming clear in the meantime. 

Kislya shchee is another kind of kvass, made of two 
kinds of malt, three kinds of flour, and dried apples. 
This species can be made in the winter time and it is 
often drtmk hot. Grushevoi kvass is made from pears 
and malinovoi kvass from raspberries and so on through 
an almost inexhaustible list. 

In Barrow's Excursions to the North of Europe there 
is an account of how the keepers of kvass shops pro- 
ceeded to obtain customers when he was there. He 

At the outside of the door are invariably stationed two 
or three young men, each dressed in a pink-coloured coat, 
which folds over the breast, and is tied in with a sash at 
the waist, with loose blue trousers tucked into a clumsy 
pair of boots. They wear their hair very long and divided 
in the centre. When any one passes near a shop, these 
decoy lads plant themselves directly in his way and com- 
mence a series of salutations, bowing almost to the ground 
with their hair hanging dishevelled about the face, rendering 
their appearance ludicrous, and in this posture they ear- 
nestly entreat his entrance, and in such a manner that it 
is scarcely possible to pass without purchasing a draught. 

The sale of the beverage is not confined solely to 
shops; pedlers are met with in almost every busy street 
of the different towns selling it, though being generally 
of a very indifferent sort it is no criterion by which the 
stranger can judge. In the year 1568 George Turber- 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 83 

ville was secretary to the English embassy to Moscow. 
He was something of a poet and among his writings is 
the following, which gives us a fair idea of the Russians 
as he saw them. 

Polks fit to be of Bacchus' train, so quafiing is their land; 
Drink is their whole desire, the pot is all their pride; 
The soberest head doth once a day stand needful of a guide. 
If he to banquet bid his friends, he will not shrink 
On them at dimier to bestow a dozen kinds of drink, 
Such liquor as they have, and as the country gives; 
But chiefly two, one called kwas, whereby the Moujike lives. 
Small ware and water-like, but somewhat tart in taste; 
The rest is mead, of honey made, wherewith their lips 
they baste. 

Kisslyschischy is the name of another beverage which 
is closely related to kuass and by many thought to be the 
same only bottled, but properly speaking kisslyschischy 
is not kuass at all. To make it only rye-meal and boiling 
water is used. The mixture is violently and frequently 
stirred, keeping the water hot ; when this has been done 
enough cold water is added and then set aside to ferment, 
after which it is bottled. It foams almost as much as 
weiss'hetr, but its gas is more lively and consequently it 
subsides more quickly. Some people add a little honey 
to it while others flavour it with the preserves of different 
fruits, which is done, of course, during the stirring period. 

The common ancient name for all beverages prepared 
from fruit is nalivki and at one time every family, poor 
or wealthy, large or small, had their store of nalivki always 
on hand; but, it is said, with the introduction of wine into 
aU parts of the empire the art of preparing it has declined 
until now very little is made. 

A refreshing drink prepared from syrup, water, and 
spirits, and bottled, is called voditsa. It is purely a summer 

84 Beverages, Past and Present 

drink, there being only enough of spirit in it to give it a 
flavour. Among the more popular of the winter drinks 
that are sold upon the streets by pedlers is izbiten or 
sbitena. It is a very old Russian beverage and was for- 
merly used by all classes. Now its use is restricted to the 
common people almost entirely. It consists of pot-herbs, 
ginger, pepper, and honey boiled together and drunk like 
tea, either with or without milk. The izbitenchiji, or 
pedlers of isibUen carry it about with them boiling hot and 
serve it to their customers upon the streets, who stay and 
drink it there, returning him the cup when finished. It 
is a wholesome warm drink, and is most appropriate on 
a cold, freezing, or stormy day. 

Beer such as the Germans make is called pivo, and, while 
it is not exactly as popular as kuass among the people, it 
is steadily growing and will imdoubtedly in the futiu-e 
supersede it. A number of years ago a party by the name 
of Krouskji made and introduced a beverage that for 
lack of a better name was called after him — Krouskji 
porter. He was the first maker of porter in Russia and 
all dark ales that are made there generally bear his name, 
not because he made them or had anything to do with 
them but in order to distinguish them from the English 

Near the banks of the Volga there grows a dwarf 
tree that bears a walnut which the Russians call 
babovnick and also from which they distill a liquor 
known by the same name. This tree belongs to the 
almond family and is exceedingly plentiful in the 
vicinity. An oil, somewhat bitter to the taste but 
much used by them in salads, is also extracted from 
these nuts. The one beverage of Russia that has 
found almost universal favour is kummeL This liqueur 
the Russians make to great perfection and they use it 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 85 

in large quantities. There is no secret in reference 
to its ingredients or their quantities and any one is 
privileged to manufacture it who feels so disposed. 
To make twenty gallons there should be placed in a 
simple still, with ten gallons of spirit and eight of water, 
four pounds of caraway seeds, one quarter of a potmd 
of fennel, and two ounces of Florentine iris root. This 
mixture after maceration is distilled, the first portion 
of the distillate on accoimt of its rough aroma, after 
which about eight gallons of fine kummel spirit is 
obtainable. There still may be procured, by forcing 
the heat, from three to four gallons of inferior spirit. 
To the eight gallons of fine spirit is added a syrup con- 
sisting of sixty pounds of refined sugar dissolved in ten 
gallons of water, the two compounds being thoroughly 
incorporated with heat in an open vessel. On cooling, 
the amoimt of water necessary to make up twenty gal- 
lons is added. The liqueur is fined with isinglass, and 
stored to mature and mellow. There is another variety 
of kummel which is called allasch, a much richer and 
finer drink. It differs from the parent by having bitter 
almonds, star-anise, angelica root, and orange peel 
added to it. 

There is one trait of the Russian's character that is 
worthy of emulation. Everything that can be made 
or grown in his own coimtry he considers it his duty 
to use. Perhaps it may not be the equal of what he 
could import, but if by any effort it can be brought to 
this standard every encouragement will be given to 
advance the industry. The raising of grapes and the 
making of wine was for a long period an art in which the 
Russians could not seem to become proficient. They 
did make considerable wine, but it was of such a nature 

86 Beverages, Past and Present 

it would not bear transportation. At last several 
noblemen in the southern part of the empire induced a 
Frenchman by the name of Winzer to settle there and 
to teach the people the art of raising grapes and making 
wines. His instructions were thorough and the wines 
of his region are now to be had in every part of the 

Along the river Don they make a wine called tsem- 
linskoi which is a very good champagne. It is, how- 
ever, better known throughout the empire as donskoe 
champanskoe and by many authorities it is deemed a 
most worthy article. Gumbrinskoe is a sweet wine 
grown in the Gtimbri district. Kahetia is of two kinds, 
white and red, both being of fair quality. The most 
common wine is called tscheheer. It is of light quality 
and is drunk by many in lieu of beer. The wines of the 
Crimea rank so highly that they are in demand even 
in the most remote parts of the coimtry; and at St. 
Petersburgh they are in such repute that there is a 
chartered company for the management of the sale 
of these wines, supported by the emperor and other 
high dignitaries. The valleys of Soudak and Koos 
are considered to yield the best. Upwards of thirty 
thousand eimers are annually produced, nearly one 
third of which is sent to Cherson. The imperial vine- 
yards at Soudak, a name which signifies the valley of 
grapes, are of great extent and afford many varieties, 
not only of the native vine, but of others introduced at 
different periods. Soudak grapes are considered the 
best in the whole Taurida, particularly one kind of an 
oblong shape, and of the finnness of a small plum, the 
bimches of which are sometimes of four or five poimds 
weight. The wines made here are distinguished by the 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 87 

names of the places from which the vines were brought, 
such as white wine of Corfu, red French wine, white 
Hungarian wine and so forth. It is this peculiar method 
of nomenclature that has led many visitors in the land 
of the Czar to beUeve that the Russians drink only- 
imported wines whereas in fact it was only the name 
and not the wine that was imported. Some of the 
cellars in this vicinity are noted for their size, one in 
particular belonging to Admiral Mondizinoff being 
able to hold more than three thousand pipes of one 
hundred and twenty gallons each. 

Kayavodka, or brandy, is another important liquor 
in Russia and its manufacture is carried on all through 
the southern portions. The ancient Slavonians had 
their Bacchus imder the name of Hors and in the spring 
they held their Semika, which in many wajrs resembled 
the Bacchanalia of the Romans. They have always 
been exceedingly partial to family festivals, the two 
most important of which are the name's-day and birth- 
day. These are scrupulously observed by all classes, 
and never fail to bring together the relatives and 
friends of the family to partake of the feast, which is 
the necessary attendant on such an occasion. Thus 
every individual in a family, young and old, has his two 
days in the year which bring the festivity into the 
domestic drde. Of the two f6tes, the name's-day, or 
anniversary of the saint after whom the person is 
named, is considered the most important. On both 
occasions, it is the custom to make presents to the 
individual, to drink his health at table, to show him 
marked attention, and to use every possible means of 
gratifying him. 

Among the Russian merchants in the interior, it is 

88 Beverages, Past and Present 

still common, before the commencement of the feast, in 
the presence of tiie guests, to take a large pie made of 
buckwheat and eggs and break it in pieces over the 
head of the imieninnik; and if its contents remain 
richly upon his head and shoulders, this is taken as a 
sign that he is to be blessed with health and plenty 
during the succeeding year. There is a Russian popu- 
lar tale that says: **When God created the world He 
made different nations and gave them all sorts of good 
things — ^land, com, and fruit. Then He asked tiiem if 
they were satisfied, and they all said * Yes' except the 
Russians, who had got as much as the rest, but sim- 
pered 'Please, Lord, some vodki' " 

On the other hand they have a proverb the observa- 
tion of which needs by no means to be confined to 
Russia. It reads, * * When thy neighbour's cheek begins 
to flush, leave off drinking." On the wall of the 
common dining-room of a restaurant in Moscow is the 
following inscription: **I ate twelve herrings to one 
glass of vodka.'' Beneath is a second which reads: 
**The more fool you! I drank twelve glasses of vodka 
to one herring." And it is the second writing that 
has the true genuine Russian ring. 

Of all the cotmtries where the produce of the bee is 
manufetctured into intoxicating beverages perhaps none 
excel Poland in variety and excellence. The bees in 
Poland seem (if that could be possible) more industrious 
than those of other countries and while their season for 
labour is comparatively short the amount of stores that 
they lay by is most astounding. There are many thou- 
sands of hives, but the size of these dwellings far exceeds 
anything we have here. Birch logs six feet and more 
in length are hollowed out, then covered with boards, 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 89 

leaving only a small aperture for the bees to enter and 
leave; and these hives, it is said on good authority, 
are often filled twice before the winter sets in and 
stops these busy little fellows from working. Naturally, 
the supposition would be that where such a large amount 
of honey was made the quality would suffer, but this is 
not the case, for some of the honey, particularly that 
called lipice wiU sell for as much as two ducats per 
pound at the hives. This honey is gathered from the 
flowers or bloom of a tree called stone-lime and is 
white as chalk and almost devoid of wax. Although it 
is costly yet it is plentiful enough to nciake an intoxicat- 
ing beverage, called lipiecniak, which takes three years 
to produce, but the beverage is worthy of the time it 

In the process of manufacture three parts of water are 
mixed with one of honey, and to one hundred and sixty- 
three gallons of this mixture about fifty pounds of hops 
are added. This amalgamation is termed waar or brewing. 
While the water is in a boiling state, the honey and hops 
are stirred in it, till they become milk- warm; it is then 
put into a cask where it ferments for some days. The 
liquid is then racked into another barrel in which vodka 
had been kept, is bunged closely, and put into a cool cellar, 
and after lying three years in this state it is considered to 
have arrived at a stage of excellence, but it will continue 
to improve for many years and the older it is the more 
valuable it becomes. Another mead-like beverage is 
prepared from a more common honey and wild cherries; 
this is called wisniak and is very intoxicating. Dereniak 
is made by the addition of cornelian cherries, and the red 
berries of a species of dog-wood tree, and maleniak is com- 
posed of raspberries. They are all very spirituous and are 
excellent keepers. According to ancient Polish writers. 

90 Beverages, Past and Present 

bees were so superabundant in their time that they not 
only filled the hollows of trees but even the ground was 
' covered with their cells- The Poles at one period brewed 
hydromel to such an extent that the workmen were some- 
times drowned in the huge vats employed in the manu- 

It was at one time a mark of Polish gallantry to take 
off a lady's shoe and pass it round the table, filled 
with wine or hydromel, as a bumper to her health. 
One variety of honey which is of an intoxicating nature 
is collected in some parts of Poland. This honey is 
gathered by the bees from the azalea potUica, chiefly 
at Oczakow and Potesia, and is solely used for medici- 
nal purposes, no mead being manufactured from it, nor 
can it be eaten like other honey, as it produces nausea 
as well as inebriation. The manufacture or distilling 
of vodka, as it is called by the Poles, from potatoes and 
grain is an important industry in Poland, as is also 
the brewing of pivo. 

A perusal of the books written a hundred years 
ago will lead the reader to think the Finns would part 
with their most cherished possessions to obtain a 
drink of brandy. The following taken from Von 
Buch's Travels trough Norway and Lappland is a fair 
sample of what was written: 

Neither Finn nor Norwegian drinks brandy to keep him 
warm, to promote digestion, or to lighten labour; all is 
consumed before the door of the merchant with whom he 
trafficks, and the infatuated being would be surprised at 
himself were he to rettun home without becoming raving 
mad with brandy. Edicts have been issued to prevent 
the merchants supplying him with liquor to excess, but 
to no effect. The poor creatures, when reproved for 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 91 

such irregularity, exert all the little intellect and ingenuity 
they possess to defend the practice. With the greatest 
self-complacency, they urge as an unanswerable argument 
that " brandy is as equally strong, and as equally nourish- 
ing as bread, because Uke bread it is prepared from grain 
[the word brandy at times was used to designate all spirits], 
and bread being the staff of life, brandy which is prepared 
from it must be equally nourishing as it is exhilarating. 
Thus this unfortunate propensity enervates every spring 
of activity, every incentive of improvement, and every 
moral sentiment. By the influence of this beverage, the 
imaginations are carried to the heights of frenzy and en- 
thusiasm. In their moments of merriment, they boast 
of an intercourse with fairies at banquets and dances; 
they talk with triumph of the feasts which they have 
shared in the elfin-caverns, where wine, brandy, and to- 
bacco, the productions of the fairy regions, have flowed in 
abundance. With these and similar notions, many of the 
gloomy da,ys of life are enlivened; while poverty is for- 
gotten amidst the reveries of intemperance and folly. 

Other writers were just as absurd and as far from 
the truth, and why they wrote such nonsense none but 
themselves can tell. There undoubtedly were and 
are hard drinkers in Finland, and what country is free 
of them? But to judge a whole nation by a few and 
then publish the conclusion in books is the privilege of 
the traveller — similis simili gaudei. 

Finland, on the whole, is a country few visit and, 
comparatively speaking, but little is known of it, 
though when everything is taken into consideration 
it is a most progressive land. At Helsingfors, the 
capital, the buildings will vie with those of any city 
of its size on the continent and surpass many. All 
the streets are spacious, well paved, and lined with 

92 Beverages, Past and Present 

fine stone buildings of the most modem architecture. 
The outlying thoroughfares are also laid out with 
regularity and kept as spotless as those of the most 
fashionable localities. It is a self-supporting country, 
exporting large amotmts of minerals, grain, paper pulp, 
tar, and cattle, and it is only in case of a bad season 
when the crops have been a failure that grain of any 
kind has to be imported. They make their own obuUa, 
beer, and like the Germans they make a number of 
different kinds, running the gamut from lager beer to 
the dark heavy ales and porters. 

Their breweries are planned according to the most 
modem ideas and are as complete in equipment as any 
to be found elsewhere. On the other hand there 
are nearly one hundred factories where non-alcoholic 
beverages are made. Every popular, so-called "soft" 
drink of other cotmtries is made and imitated in 
these establishments. All the natural mineral spring 
waters are closely counterfeited, but the label on the 
bottle plainly states that it is not the genuine article. 
All classes use these harmless beverages during the 
sunmier, and if nothing else could be advanced to show 
that the Finns are a sober people, this one fact would 
be enough. To the stranger in the land the Finn is 
always hospitable, in fact at times so much so that 
it becomes embarrassing. They like the good things 
of this life and when they are so situated that they can 
afford them they use them plentifully. 

Mrs. Alec Tweedie in her book Through Finland in 
Carts says: 

One of the greatest features of a high-class Finnish meal 
is the smorgasbord. On a side-table in every dining-room 
rows of little appetising dishes are ranged, and in the 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 93 

middle stands a large silver um» brannuinn, containing at 
least a couple of liqueurs or schnapps, each of which comes 
out of a different tap. Every man takes a small glass of 
brandy, which is made in Finland from com and is very 
strong. No brandy is allowed to be imported from Russia 
or vice versa, a rule very strictly adhered to in both coun- 
tries. Having had their drink, and probably skalad (" I 
drink your health") to their respective friends, each takes 
a small plate, knife, and fork from the pile placed close 
at hand, and helps himself to such odds and ends as he 
fancies before returning to the dining-table to enjoy them. 
Generally four or five of these are heaped upon each plate, 
but as they are only small delicacies they do not materi* 
ally interfere with the appetite. Usually in summer the 
smorgasbord contains salt, graf lax, raw or smoked salmon; 
radiser, radishes; ost, cheese of various kinds shaved very 
thin and eaten with black bread and butter, bondost and 
baueruk being two favourite kinds among the peasantry; 
rensiek, smoked reindeer, which is not nearly so good as 
it is when eaten fresh in the winter in Norway; agg, cold 
hard-boiled eggs cut in slices and arranged with sardines 
or anchovies; ost omelette, a delicious sort of custard 
or omelette, made with cheese and served hot, although 
everything else on the side-table is cold. Mushrooms 
cooked in cream is another favourite dish. Then small 
glass plates with slices of cold eel in jelly, salmon in jelly, 
tongue, ham, potted meat, etc., complete the smorgasbord, 
which was often composed of fifteen or twenty dishes. 

The great drink among the better classes is mjod. 
It is effervescent and sparkling like champagne though 
not quite as strong. It is made at the breweries and 
commands a good price, ranging between seventy-five 
cents and a dollar the bottle. The drink of the peas- 
antry is kcdja and belongs to the genus kvass. It is a 
free drink, inasmuch as any one is at liberty to make it. 

94 Beverages, Past and Present 

the government deriving no benefit by taxation. Al- 
most every farmer raises his own hops, so virtually 
there is no expense incurred in the manufacture of 
kalja. As regards its palatableness — ^well, the Finns 
like it, and as they are the people who drink the most 
of it foreign criticism is entirely imnecessary. However^ 
it is very light in alcohol and therefore not to be classed 
among inebriating beverages. 

From a low-growing shrub, called in Latin tubus 
saxaiilis they gather inunense quantities of berries 
which after a process of distillation with spirit they 
make into a liqueur called mesikka. From milk the 
Finnish peasants and others as well sometimes make 
two drinks which (after one has become accustomed 
to their taste) are decidedly wholesome and nourishing. 
The first and best is filbunke. This is made of sour un- 
skimmed milk and when sweetened and cold is very 
reviving on a hot sunmier day. The other is pumea^ 
which is made of sour skimmed milk curdled. Both 
of these drinks must be fresh in order to be good, but, 
as cattle-raising is among the chief industries of the 
country, milk, of course, is plentiful and consequently 
it is easy to procure either one of them at any place, 
especially in the interior among the farming classes. 

A popular beverage which is made on the place and 
sold at restaurants is called mansikka from the fact 
that it contains a large quantity of mousikka or wild 
strawberries, which grow almost everywhere in the 
greatest of abundance and form an important part of 
the summer dietary of the people. The drink mansikka 
is made with mjod and various liqueurs and the berries, 
some whole and others crushed, and is put into a bowl 
containing a large piece of ice. Three or four glasses 

Russia, Poland, and Finland 95 

of this punch will not injure any one on a hot summer's 
day — ^and a summer in Finland is much hotter than 
here ; but more than this number is not advisable im- 
less one has become accustomed to it. 

The chief winter drink is vunaa, which is nothing less 
than a whiskey, though from the maimer in which it is 
distilled in Finland it would perhaps be allowable to 
say that it is a little more than whiskey, for it is stronger 
than that to which we are accustomed, being what is 
termed, in the trade, as over-proof, or in other words it 
contains more than fifty per cent, of alcohol, and vunaa 
when new and raw is an exceedingly fiery drink ; time, 
however, will mellow it to a palatable degree, but 
never robs it of its inebriating qualities. Owing to its 
strength very little of it is drunk at a time, except 
by those who are hardened, and as a general rule it is 
freely diluted with water. The number of distilleries 
making vunaa has decreased wonderfully in the last 
few years. In fact with the introduction of brewing on 
a scientific basis, and the making of obuUa at an ex- 
ceedingly low price — a quart bottle costing but five or 
six cents — the use of a more ardent beverage is rapidly 
disappearing even during the long cold winters. To 
quote from the journal of a traveller: 

To the stranger thinking of visiting the "Strawberry 
Land, " or again as it is often called " The Land of a Thou- 
sand Lakes," three things are necessary: The lightest and 
coolest clothing, if the trip is to be taken in the summer 
time, and every known mosquito remedy that can be 
purchased. Do not be afraid to take a double or even 
a triple supply, for every drop will be needed as soon as 
you enter the more rural districts. These pests abound 
the further north one goes and their bite or sting seems 

96 Beverages, Past and Present 

to grow worse in direct ratio to the distance travelled. 
The last thing in the equipment is a full supply of good 
nature, to answer very personal questions, for, while the 
Finn is one of the most hospitable people that one can 
ever hope to meet, he is at the same time most inquisitive; 
or, perhaps, it would be better to say that according to our 
accepted standard of etiquette he is inquisitive, for from 
his point of view it seems to emanate from a feeling of 
bonhomie and everyday matter-of-fact incidents. For 
instance, one question that no traveller will ever escape 
is the amount of his or her income. How much money 
have you? This is getting into personalities with a ven- 
geance, and until the stranger learns that once a year every 
one's income is published in the official paper of the govern- 
ment he is very apt to resent this seeming impertinence, 
but with knowledge comes complacency and afterwards he 
answers it without resentment. Every conceivable question 
is asked by every new acquaintance one makes, because 
it is the custom of the people and they will, in like manner, 
answer freely every question of the same nature that the 
traveller will put to them, and in fact sometimes seeni to 
resent it if personal queries are not made of him or her. 

Our agricultural reader will appreciate the difficulties 
of the Finnish farmer when he learns that, in order to be 
able to milk the cows, fires of green wood that give forth 
a large quantity of smoke have to be made in different 
parts of the field in order to drive away the mosquitoes. 
The cows know why these fires are made and will quickly 
place themselves so that the smoke will hang about them, 
for it is only at these intervals that they are free from the 
vicious insects; and yet with only three months of summer 
infested with fiies and mosquitoes, and the balance of the 
year so cold that despite every precaution cattle are some- 
times frozen to death in the stable, the export of dairy pro- 
ducts amounts annually to nearly ten millions of dollars. 



TO the north of Finland there lies another cotintry 
which for severity of climate far exceeds its 
neighbour, yet Lapland is populated and people 
live and thrive almost as well as farther south. The 
Lapp has a taste for almost any beverage that con- 
tains alcohol, and the more the better, but perhaps 
he of all people has some excuse for the use of ardent 
spirits. A sparsely settled country, a short season of 
intense heat, vicious flies, mosquitoes, and other insects, 
then for the balance of the year snow and cold, a diet 
most uncertain and lacking in variety, and if perchance 
he can procure a few drinks of liquid fire can he be 
censured for availing himself of the opporttanity? His 
is a hard life and what little pleasure may enter into 
it to change for a time the course of events should 
not be grudged him. His favourite drinks are vedvi 
and puolemvin vow, liquors crudely distilled from com. 
Sometimes they may smuggle in a few gallons of vodka, 
but this drink is as a rule much too mild for their 

When intoxicated the Lapp becomes one of the most 
jolly fellows to be met with, perhaps a little boisterous 
but never ugly or quarrelsome. When he drinks he 
always moistens the tip of his fimger with the spirit, 

VOL. 11. — 7. 97 

98 Beverages, Past and Present 

then rubs a little on his forehead, then on his breast, and 
with the celerity of lightning empties the contents of 
the glass into his stomach. This ritual is observed 
from the belief that by so doing he prevents the ardour 
of the liquor from injuring either head or heart. 

At marriages, brandy is freely circulated, and when 
the bridegroom demands the reindeer, the promised 
portion of his wife, if he neglects to bring brandy with 
him, he is generally disappointed of the expected dowry. 
It is a prevailing custom in Lapland to make love through 
the medium of brandy, and a marriage is never concluded 
without drinking several bottles of spirits; the warmth 
of a lover's attachment is estimated by the quantity of 
spirits he distributes; a particular name is given to the 
spirituous liquor thus brought by a lover to the habitation 
of his mistress, and that is subbouvin, or the lovers' wine. 
At the funerals of the Laplanders spirits are sprinkled 
over the place of interment ; all the mourners drink of it ; 
the reindeer employed in canying the deceased to the 
grave are, three days after, slaughtered to make a feast 
for the mourners, at which repast the paligavin, or fortune 
liquor, is drunk in honour of the deceased. 

The food of the Lapp is of necessity limited in 
reference to variety and oftentimes sadly so in regards 
quantity. Their women are not what can be termed 
first-class cooks, and as for baking bread we will let 
Mr. Cutliff e Hyne tell the story as it appears in his book 
entitled Through Arctic Lapland. 

Looked back at from a distance [he says] those rye-cakes 
of Lapland do not carry pleasant memories. The grain 
from which they are baked grows with little tending. It 
is sown, and it is suffered to come up as the weather and 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark 99 

the weeds permit. When it is as near ripe as it chooses 
to get, it is reaped, and with husks, the bran, a larger part 
of the stalk, and a fair percentage of the companionable 
weed, it is chopped into meal. It is not grotmd; it is more 
hay and bran than an3rthing else. Baking days come sel- 
dom, and a large supply is made at once. The dough 
is pawed out into discs a foot in diameter and some five 
eighths to three-quarters of an inch thick. Each disc has 
a hole in the middle, and when they are baked, the cakes 
are strung on a stick and hung up on the rafters for use 
as required. Age neither softens nor hardens their texture; 
years could not deteriorate them. There are two varieties 
of the delectable cakes. One sort was like india-rubber, 
and on this we could make no impression whatever. But 
with the other kind, which was the consistency of concrete, 
we could, as a rule, get on quite well, if we were given time. 
It was more or less flavourless, unless it had been packed 
with stale fish, and it was not stuflE to hurry over. It was 
not strengthening either, as the system could assimilate 
but very little of it. In fact, of all the food that ever 
got past my teeth (and in rambling about the back comers 
of this world I have come across some tincanny morsels) 
the bread of Arctic Lapland carries the palm for general 
unsatisfactoriness. But still there is no den3ring that the 
cakes did fiU the stomach, and for this purpose we em- 
ployed them ravenously whenever they came in our way. 

Why is it that the people who dwell in these regions 
of almost perpetual frost, where the climate is the 
coldest and where the summers are the shortest, are 
most always of a kindly and hospitable nature? 
Their environments, if from them we can deduce, are 
certainly not of a nature to teach kindliness, and in 
their vocations, limited in every way, there is nothing 
which we can find that imparts to them the spirit of 

loo Beverages, Past and Present 

gentleness and succour to the stranger within their gates. 
Yet wherever one may go in these countries of cold and 
snow he is more, far more, sure of receiving a hearty 
welcome from the people than he would be if travelling 
in a warmer dime. Hospitality is one of the character- 
istics of the Scandinavian, be he Swede or Norwegian, 
poor or wealthy. They are a hardy race, are these 
descendants of the Norsemen and the Vikings, who 
in the days long past, when Europe was bound by the 
chains of slavery, were the only people who were free, 
and were governed by the laws they themselves made. 

In their habits the Scandinavians are what we in 
ready language would call good livers, and their love 
for ardent beverages is intense, yet withal excessive 
drinking is not as common, especially among the 
better classes, as one would naturally think when 
climatic conditions are considered. This perhaps may 
be accounted for by the fact that they never drink any 
kind of branvin — ^the common and collective name for 
all spirituous liquors — ^without eating. In fact only a 
few years ago a law was enacted making it compulsory 
upon the part of saloon-keepers and managers of other 
places where liquor was sold to be drunk on the prem- 
ises to also sell food of some kind, and branvin was 
not allowed to be sold separate. 

In the olden times the popular drink of all these 
people, Norwegian and Swede, was that which they 
called bjorkvin or birch-wine. It was made from the 
sap of the birch tree, procured much in the same 
manner as our farmers gather the sap of the maple. A 
hole is bored into the tree, then a cork, in which is a 
quill open at both ends, is inserted. A pail is placed 
beneath to catch the drippings and when full is 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark loi 

collected by girls and boys who carry it to the house, 
where it is turned into wine. This is accomplished 
by adding to every gallon of juice about two potands of 
common sugar, after which it is boiled together until 
all the impurities have risen to the top, when they are 
quickly and carefully skimmed off. After the boiling 
and skimming has been completed the remainder is 
allowed to cool, and when it has reached a proper stage 
a little yeast is added, in order to promote fermenta- 
tion. The period of fermentation lasts generally three 
or four days, after which a few raisins and a small 
quantity of isinglass are added, and if all feculency has 
disappeared it is bunged up and laid aside for use. 

Sprossenbier, or spruce-beer, is another beverage 
much in use on the peninsula and a most wholesome 
drink it is. The invention or discovery of spruce-beer 
in Sweden was caused by dire necessity, or at least 
that is what the story says: 

A great many years ago the Swedes were fighting the 
Russians, and during one of these wars that dreadful 
disease scurvy, that at one time was so common in most 
parts of Burope, made its appearance in both armies; but 
the Swedes by some chance, which the story does not tell, 
began boiling the tips of the fir-tree and gave the liquor 
to the soldiers to drink. The effect was almost marvellous, 
and the men became so healthy that in a very short time 
they conquered their enemy and drove him from the field. 
In commemoration of the event the fir from that time 
has been known as the scorbutic tree. It was only a step 
to change the liquor into beer, which made it more palatable 
and at the same time retained the virtues for which it 
was celebrated. The fame of this beverage soon spread 
and wherever the fir grew the beer was made. In England 

I02 Beverages, Past and Present 

it was known not only as spruce-beer but sprutz-beer and 
also damig-beer, and an old dictionary of the early part 
of the eighteenth century defines it as " a sort of physical 
drink, good for inward bruises, etc." 

According to Consett's Remarks in a Tour through 
Sweden, the distillers at that time made considerable 
use of a species of ant in order to impart a peculiar 
distinctive flavour to their produce. 

It is [he says] less a matter of surprise that they should 
use these insects in their distilleries than that they should 
eat them, and consider them highly palatable and pleasant. 
As I was walking with a young gentleman in a wood near 
Gottenburg, I observed him sit down upon one of these 
living hills, which from the nature of its inhabitants I 
should rather have avoided, and begin with some degree 
of keenness to devour those insects, first nipping off their 
heads and wings; the flavour he declared was of the finest 
acid, rather resembling that of a lemon. My young friend 
entreated me much to follow his example, but I could not 
overcome the antipathy which I felt to such kind of food. 

Many customs that are very ancient are still 
retained both in Norway and Sweden, and that of 
skal is perhaps among the oldest. Skal means **to 
your health" and a refusal to respond and drink 
accordingly is to offend at once and thereby lose 
caste. Skal is derived from the ancient name for their 
drinking-horns and cups, all of which were collectively 
known as skal. They were of great capacity, many 
holding more than two quarts, and it was expected 
that their contents should be drained to the last drop 
before they were relinquished. Some of them are of 
solid silver and weigh several pounds. The horns 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark 103 

were from the ure-ox, now extinct, and were beaut- 
iful specimens of craftsmanship. Like the tahkards 
they held a goodly quantity, but unlike them it re- 
quired considerable experience to drink from them 
without spilling the contents over the bosom. 

Home brewing of ol — a native ale — has always been 
a practice in Scandinavia and every farmer raises his 
own hops for the purpose. Usually ol is an indifferent 
beverage, but at times one will meet with some in his 
travels that is really excellent. This is more apt to 
occur around the holidays, for at that time jule ol, or 
Christmas ale, is made and this, it is deemed, should be 
stronger and better than the ordinary beverage. They 
also make a different ale-like liquor which in many 
parts is called bior. There is no standard for its man- 
ufacture, and therefore like ol it is entirely dependent 
upon accident as regards quality; though quantity, 
on the other hand, is always assured and certain. 

Bayersk is also beer, but this is generally naanufac- 
tured by established breweries and in consequence a 
more reliable and trustworthy beverage. One of the 
peculiar traits of the people in serving or drinking 
ol is to heat it, not simply warm but decidedly hot, for 
it keeps "one's body much better, " they say, when out 
of doors. 

Milk of course enters into the daily life of these people, 
but like their neighbours the Finns and Laplanders they 
do not consider it worthy of drinking until it has passed 
through a certain course of treatment. In making 
syr-mjelk the process is more tedious than particular, 
as they simply stir the milk each day for a period that 
may extend six months. When syr-mjelk is only a 
couple of months old it is not so bad, that is after one 

I04 Beverages, Past and Present 

becomes accustomed to it, but iriien it has reached 
the dignity of a half-year's existence familiarity with 
it breeds contempt of the most vicdent order. The 
drinker has afterwards a contempt for himself that 
lasts for hours and his abhorence for fine dd syr-mjelk 
is, when expressed, hardly printable. In looks it 
closely resembles its original state freshly drawn from 
the cow, but in taste strong vinegar mixed with some- 
thing bitterer than aloes is as close a description as 
can be conveyed in type. The vinegar part is very 
correct, for syr is often used as a substitute for it and it 
answers the purpose, the people say, just as well. 

A second preparation is called rumme-bunke, though 
generally shortened to bunke. In the making of this the 
milk is simply put away and left to itself for a month, 
when it is ready for use. The common drink of the 
people is finkel; this is a kind of whiskey distilled from 
oats, and aside from its quality as a beverage it is also a 
panacea for all earthly ills. If finkel does not give 
relief, then the person is sick indeed, and if more 
finkel has no effect it is best to call the doctor, who 
very often will prescribe finkel. 

They have a brandy called chaloquin of which they 
are fond, but to an impartial visitor it has a strong 
taste of castor-oil. Aquavit is a refined finkel, and is 
a most agreeable alcoholic beverage, somewhat strong 
but very smooth and pleasant to the taste. Renadt^ 
made from rye or potatoes, is another alcoholic drink 
that is much used by all classes. To make renadt the 
potatoes are first steamed, and afterwards bruised 
between two cylinders ; the pulp is then run into vats, 
with a small proportion of ground malt — ^to every eight 
barrels of potatoes, seventy-two pounds of malt are 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark 105 

used ; the fermentation, prcxiuced by a mixture of yeast, 
is generally finished in three days, after which dis- 
tillation is carried on in the usual manner. The 
produce varies in proportion to the quality of the pota- 
toes. Every farmer is entitled to distil the produce of 
his own farm, but pays a trifling license if he buys the 
potatoes and works as a trader. A still is commonly 
kept on every farm, not only on account of the spirits, 
the consumption of which in every family is very great, 
but for the refuse or wash for the support of the cattle. 
The spirit is generally flavoured, like the com brandy, 
with anise-seed. It is strong and fiery, but neither 
harsh nor ill-tasted. There is commonly one brewing 
and distillation every week, or at least every fortnight, 
the operations of which are conducted by the women. 
The process of steaming the potatoes is effected by 
putting them into a barrel with iron hoops, having a 
small door in the side at its bottom, which is bored 
with holes to let out the water; the barrel is usually 
placed on a stand with rollers for the purpose of con- 
veying it from one part of the concern to another; 
the steam is conveyed into this barrel by a pipe con- 
nected with the head of the stiU or boiler, and enters 
the barrel near the bottom through a grating; the 
condensed steam falls through the holes in the bottom. 
The operation of steaming is commonly finished in an 
hour and a half, and the potatoes are considered suf- 
ficiently prepared for the purpose required when they 
are fit to be eaten. By boiling the potatoes in steam 
the flavour is said to be improved, and it prevents the 
spirits from partaking of the flavour of the potatoes. 
It is thought to be more profitable to distil them with 
a mixture of ground wheat and malt, rye, or any other 

io6 Beverages, Past and Present 

kind of grain, than to distil the potatoes by themselves. 
The best proportions for this mixture are said to be, 
to six heaped barrels of potatoes about one hundred 
and fifty pounds of wheat or other grain ; and seventy 
pounds of malt, from here or bigg, are to be added. If 
other proportions be taken the wort or wash is apt to 
become so heavy as to be liable to bum or singe in the 
still and by observing these ratios any quantity, great 
or small, may be made with certain and good effect. 

Pomerans is made from renadt with the addition of 
the oil of bitter orange and sugar. It is somewhat 
sweet but by no means cloying, and is quite popular. 
Of late years there has been added to their catalog 
another beverage called spiritus. This is a whiskey 
almost similar to Scotch, light in colour and having a 
decidedly smoky taste; in fact it is thought by many 
on first tasting to be that noted beverage, but one good- 
sized drink is enough to dispel the illusion, for it is more 
ardent than its neighbour and it takes much less to 
accomplish its purpose. 

Among the Swedish peasantry svagdricka is a most 
common beverage. It belongs to the genus kvass and 
is seldom made so as to be palatable to visitors and 
travellers, but the people themselves seem to be very 
fond of it and great quantities are made and consumed, 
particularly during the summer. In the winter it is 
often heated almost to the boiling point and drunk by 
every member of the family, from the youngest to the 
eldest, in place of tea. Svagdricka is intoxicating if 
enough of it is drunk, but few are they that can con- 
sume a sufficient quantity; the amotmt being placed, 
by most conservative people, at three gallons. In 
fact the only fault to be found with svagdricka is its 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark 107 

unpleasant taste. Otherwise it is a wholesome beverage 
and when warm only a litle more stimulating than an 
inferior tea. 

Far away in the north Atlantic Ocean and bordering 
on the Arctic Circle, six hundred miles from Norway, is 
the island called Iceland. In the beginning or about 
the year 870 a.d. this most interesting island was 
settled by people from the Western Isles and Norway. 
It is by no means what would be termed a large island, 
being only about four fifths the size of the State of 
New York and with a total population of less than one 
hundred thousand people. Yet the home of the Sages, 
as it is sometimes called, has played a most important 
part in history and the place that it occupies in litera- 
ture is enviable indeed. 

Iceland from our point of view is not an ideal place 
for a residence, but notwithstanding this we are in- 
formed by the best of authority that there are few coun- 
tries where it is possible to live with less labour than in 
Iceland. The people are hospitable to a fatilt and are 
ever ready to extend a helping hand even to the un- 
deserving. Agriculture is of course a most indifferent 
pursuit; haymaking, from the middle of Jtily to the 
twentieth day of September, is the principal industry in 
this branch, and even that is often carried on under 
difficulties of which we know little. In former years 
the Icelanders were accustomed to make a beer which 
they called bjor, but the practice has become obsolete 
and now they barter their fish, train ofl, wool, eider 
down, and feathers for whatever kind of ardent spirits 
they most crave. Iceland is under the domination of 
the Danes and consequently most of her exports go 
to Copenhagen, and it is from the same market she 

io8 Beverages, Past and Present 

obtains her commcxlities. Milk, as in the other por- 
tions of the far North, is an important article of diet, 
but unless it still has the animal heat (spenvolg nymjolk) 
it is never drunk sweet or fresh. 

Syra is the great winter beverage and is nothing 
more or less than sour whey that has been stored so 
that it may arrive at a proper consistency. It is 
exceedingly wholesome and is an ideal beverage for 
such a severe climate. Blanda is the universal drink 
and is used at all seasons and by all classes. To manu- 
facture it a proper amount of hot whey and water are 
blended and it is ready for consimiption. Skyr is a pre- 
paration of ctirdled milk, which can be enjoyed by any- 
one having a cow, goat, or sheep. The milk is placed 
in a warm spot near the fire, but not allowed to boil. 
After it has become lukewarm, rennet is put in to 
curdle the milk. It is still left upon the hearth until 
the whey has completely separated from the curd, after 
which it is strained off and set aside. 

The drink par excellence y in the idea of the Icelander, 
is abyrstur, which can be had only at a certain period 
and for a very limited time. It is made from the milk 
of a cow that has calved only a week before. The 
milk has been curdled by some means which is more or 
less secretive and is served warm, and it is not only the 
Icelander that appreciates abyrstur, but every traveller 
who has been fortunate enough to have the opportimity 
of drinking it is equally pleased and will never hesitate 
to partake of it whenever proffered. 

The great substitute for common beer is afir and 
it is only our common everyday buttermilk stored 
away for a considerable time. Another milk beverage 
is valle; this, it is claimed, is slightly intoxicating hav- 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark 109 

ing been fermented, but it is by no means common and 
is only to be procured at rare intervals. Sur mjolk is 
always in evidence, in town or country, for it is sour 
milk pure and simple. The use of milk preparations 
is of ancient origin among Teutonic people. Tacitus 
mentions it as ioc concreium and f otmd it to be a com- 
mon beverage even in his time — ^the first century of the 
Christian era; and the people, recognising its value, 
have continued its use. Oftentimes the traveller will 
be given a bowl of syra or whey that has an altogether 
different flavour and is quite piquant, owing to the 
addition of native plants, leaves, and sometimes roots. 

Among the comparatively few plants that grow 
upon this island is one that is known to us as the black 
crow-berry and from this shrub, or more properly 
speaking its berries, the natives formerly manufactured 
a wine which was known at krakabervin. It was some- 
what inferior and had poor keeping qualities; in some 
communities, however, it was quite popular as a 
sacramental wine, but with the advent of free trade 
krakabervin- and ftybr-making became lost arts. 

Brennevin, corn-brandy, is the most poptdar of the 
ardent drinks and is to be had in all degrees of excellence 
from the recently made, raw and fiery, to the really 
fine article, aged and matured. In the front of all the 
more ancient houses, and also of some of the modem 
ones, there was to be found a large flat stone, and the 
custom was to always have upon this stone glasses 
filled to the brim with brennevin and each guest upon 
departing would bend down from his horse's back and 
take one. These were the heste-skar or stirrup-cup 
and were given for the purpose of cheering the guest 
upon his way. 

no Beverages, Past and Present 

Iceland has always been noted for its many geysers 
and mineral springs. In fact it is these natural won- 
ders that are often the means of inducing people to 
visit this far-away land. The geysers are magnificent 
and awe-inspiring, some of them throwing jets of boil- 
ing water over two hundred feet into the air and rocks 
and stones to a much greater altitude. The mineral 
springs too are remarkable. In fact their waters are 
impregnated with such an amount of minerals that it 
is not safe to imbibe them unless there is some compe- 
tent authority to prescribe. Ebenezer Henderson in 
his book entitled Iceland gives the following in refer- 
ence to these peculiar streams: 

In the Royal Mirror \he writes], a curious Norwegian 
work supposed to have been written before the close of 
the twelfth century, express mention is made of a celebrated 
mineral spring in this valley [Stadarhraum]; but whether 
it was situated at this spot, or higher up, cannot now be 
determined. The author mentions three things about 
the water. When drunk in considerable quantity it in- 
ebriates; if the well be covered by a roof, the water leaves 
the place, and springs up somewhere else in the vicinity; 
and lastly, though it possesses the above quality when 
drunk at the well, on being carried away it loses its 
efficacy, and becomes like other water. Many such 
springs exist on both sides of the promontory. They 
are called by the natives olkelldar or ale wells, from 
their taste, and the efEects of the water when taken 
fasting. The most remarkable are those of Raudamel, 
Stararstad, Budum, Prodar-heide, Olufsnik, Hrisakot, and 
Eydum. It will be noticed that it is not one spring or 
olkelldar but numbers that have this peculiar faculty of 
inducing inebriation; but the natives do not avail them- 
selves of the opportunity, for the water aside from its 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark m 

inebriating quality has other efEects that are often severe 
and disagreeable. 

Speaking of another spring the same writer says : 

The Sydstr, or most southerly spring, lies two hundred 
yards to the south of Axa-hver, in a direct line with Nor- 
durhver, and is much smaller than either of them. It 
consists of three apertures, one of which is always per- 
fectly quiet, though at the boiling point, and is used for 
the bending of hoops; the other two, situate at the dis- 
tance of fifteen feet from one another, regularly alternate, 
which circumstance compensates for their diminutive size 
and renders them scarcely less interesting than the Axa- 
hver. The largest can only be measured to the depth of 
five feet, is about half as much in diameter, and jets for 
about two minutes to the height of six feet, when all re- 
mains quiet nearly five minutes; after which the smaller one 
throws up three curious oblique jets, through three holes 
in the thin crust with which the pipe is arched. Having 
acted its part, the water instantly subsides, and in the 
course of two or three minutes the larger one again com- 
mences. This was the only instance of alternation I 
observed about these springs; though I have since found 
that Horrobow remarked a regular rotation of the three. 
I am sorry I did not then know of the circumstance alleged 
by the same author, otherwise I might have made the 
experiment, viz., that when the water of the largest is 
put into a bottle it continues to jet twice or thrice with 
the fountain, and if the bottle be corked immediately, it 
bursts in pieces, on the commencement of the following 
eruption of the spring. 

The reader will observe that the Icelanders put these 
springs to some practical use and they are the means 
<rf saving much fuel. Toast and health-drinking is a 

112 Beverages, Past and Present 

very ancient custom and many are the stories advanced 
as to the origin. The Icelanders have their legendary 
tale as told in Sava Haconar Goda, cap. xvi., and printed 
by Mr. Henderson : 

Sigurd, Earl of Lada, was the greatest idolater, as his 
father Hacon had been before him, and strenuously kept 
up all the sacrificial feasts in Throendalag, in the capacity 
of the king's vicegerent. It was an ancient custom, when 
sacrifice was to be offered, that the whole community 
assembled at the temple and brought with them whatever 
they needed during the feast. It was also particularly 
ordained that every man should have ale in his possession. 
On such occasions they not only killed all kinds of small 
cattle, but also horses, and all the blood obtained by this 
means was called hlaut; the vessels containing it were called 
hlauibollar and the instruments of aspersion hlaut-leinar. 
With these they sprinkled all the supporters of the idols, 
and the walls of the temple both externally and internally, 
as also the people that were assembled, with the blood of 
the sacrifice; but the flesh was boiled and used for food. 
In the middle of the floor of the temple was a fire, over which 
the kettles were suspended, and full cups were borne round 
the fire to the guests. It was the office of the pontiff, 
or the master of the feast, to bless the cup and all the meat 
offered in sacrifice. The first bumper (Icel. full, a full cup) 
was drunk to Odin, for victory in battle, and the pros- 
perity of his government; the second and third were drunk 
to Niora and Frey for peace and good seasons; after which 
many drank Braga-fuU, or the toast of the mighty heroes 
who had fallen in battle. They also drank a bumper in 
memory of such of their deceased relations as had dis- 
tinguished themselves by some great action; to this toast 
they gave the name of minne. On the introduction of 
Christianity into the north, the names of Odin, Frey, etc.. 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark 113 

were laid aside, and the health of Christ and the saints 
was drunk by the new converts — ^a custom which was 
long kept up in these parts of Europe. We are told 
by Snorro that when King Svein gave a splendid feast 
to the Jomsvikinga chiefs, previous to his ascension to 
the throne, he first of all drank a cup to the memory of 
his father; after which he proposed the health of Christ 
(Christminni), which they all drank; then the health of 
St. Michael, etc. 

The Icelandic method of determining whether a 
month has thirty-one days or less is so curious and 
withal so simple and easy that we append it for the 
benefit of those who often want to know the same 
thing. Shut the fist; let the first knuckle represent 
January, with thirty-one days, and the depression 
between that and the next, February, with its lesser 
number; thus every month which corresponds to a 
knuckle will have thirty-one days, and every one 
corresponding to a depression thirty days or less ; the 
little finger knuckle represents July, and begining again 
w^ith the fore-finger, that knuckle stands for August, 
and so to December. 

Land of volcano and of fire. 

Of icy mountains, deserts hoar. 
Of roaring floods, and earthquakes dire, 

And legendary lore ! 
Land of a thousand sea-kings' graves, — 

Those tameless spirits of the past, 
Fierce as their subject arctic waves, 

Or hyperborean blast, — 
The polar billows round thee foam, 

O Iceland! long the Norsemen's home. 

VOL. II — 8 

114 Beverages, Past and Present 

While Iceland is said to have an area of nearly forty 
thousand square miles, Denmark, to which it belongs, 
has less than fifteen thousand square miles, consider- 
ably less than half the size. Denmark, however, was 
not always as small as she is at present and her former 
prowess was, if not the admiration, the envy of many 
of her neighbours. Her lands are very fertile and her 
people are good farmers, merchants, and manufac- 
turers. Grain is one of the great staples of her soil and 
accordingly large quantities of beer and spirits are 
made within her borders. 

The Danes from time remote have always had a great 
liking for beer. In their ancient language this beverage 
was called braga and the drinking of it was one of the 
principal enjoyments of the heroes admitted to the 
hall of Odin. To-day Odin and his followers are a 
thing of the past, but the beer remains, as well as the 
fondness, and in addition there are many more ardent 
beverages added to the list. Aquavit, a species of 
whiskey, is exceedingly popular, especially just before 
meals as an appetiser, and when used in this manner 
it is quite beneficial. Snaps, however, is the great 
drink of the people and is the chief product of the many 
distilleries, thousands of gallons being made every 
year ; but, to tell the truth, a large proportion of this 
article is exported, some to her colonies and more to 
other nations. Danish kirsebaervin, too, is another 
preparation that is to be found in all parts of Europe, 
for the Danes have the secret of making this popular 
beverage in a most excellent manner. 

What may be termed the two peculiar drinks of 
Denmark are smaa sorte and Tee knegt, both of which 
are species of punch. Every saloon or restaurant 

Lapland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark 115 

has them ready prepared and nearly all families; 
many, especially among the peasantry, will proffer the 
guest a glass of the one whidi they may have at that 
moment. Smaa sorte is a proper admixture of coffee and 
aquavit and sweetened to taste; the other, Tee knegt, 
is, as its name implies, a tea ptmch. They are exceed- 
ingly popular and the call for en lille sari is heard all 
through the land. While the Danish name for beer is 
hajer^ the traveller wiU find that if he simply tells the 
waiter hajer, he will invariably have it served to him 
in a small bottle, for hajer also means a bottle of beer, 
or bottled beer. There are two beers in Denmark that, 
while they are stimulating, are not at all intoxicating. 
The first is called hvidtol and is a very dark compoimd, 
not at all unpleasant to the taste and is considered quite 
nourishing. The second, called dohheUol is also almost 
black, but in consistency is twice as thick as hvidtdl. 
The working men and also others, in order to impart a 
strength to their beverage, will call for snaps og en 61, 
or in other words they want whiskey added to their ale. 
This is all right when the two above-mentioned beers 
are used, but the effect is quite different when sktbsol 
or light beer happens to be the kind used ; then intoxica- 
tion quickly follows. 

Mjor or mead is also made in goodly quantities and 
much of it is sent to Russia, for the Danes themselves 
seem to prefer snaps. Many bitters have also a place 
in the catalogue of Danish likings and their consump- 
tion is prevalent among all classes. Their composition 
is of course a trade secret, but they, like other prepara- 
tions of similar nature, contain a sufficient amount of 
spirits to render them popular and palatable. 



THE supremacy of Prance as a wme-producing 
country is beyond questioning. No other 
country has yet been able to compete with her 
in either quality or quantity. Her position is absolute 
and, while she has been long at the head, there are no 
indications of any abatement of the idea of maintain- 
ing her exalted place. In fact, Prance is justly proud 
of her position and she is ever on the alert to improve 
and advance her vineyards. Wine-making in Prance 
is of great importance and the Prench Government is 
ever watchful for the interest of those who depend so 
largely upon the grape for their subsistence. The 
attitude of the government is paternal and it is there- 
fore very solicitous for success. Where both the 
climate and soil are so admirably adapted to viti- 
culture, it would be natural to suppose the vine would 
be found to have been indigenous, but this was not the 
case ; for we have excellent authority to substantiate 
the claim that the vine was introduced into Prance by 
the Phocaeans, during the sixth century B.C., although 
it must be admitted that cultivation and improve- 
ment did not assume any great degree of excellence 
until the Romans became possessed of the soil, and 
even they eventually allowed the industry to waver. 


France 117 

At first the ancient Gauls preferred zythus to wine 
and their liking for their beer lasted many centuries. 
During the fourth century a.d. the Gauls became 
very troublesome and it was necessary to subjugate 
them. Accordingly Julian the Apostate, with an 
army, crossed the river and subdued them. While 
residing in Paris he became aware of the great popu- 
larity of zythus, and in order to controvert it and also 
to assail and ridicule the habit, being an ardent ad- 
vocate of the use of wine and wishing the people to 
consume it more freely, wrote a number of epigrams, 
the translation of one of which follows : 

Whence art thou, thou false Bacchus, fierce and hot? 

By the true Bacchus, I know thee not! 

He smells of nectar; — ^thy brain-burning smell 

Is not of flowers of heaven, but weed of hell. 

The lack-vine Celts, impoverish'd, breech'd, and rude. 

From prickly barley-spikes they beverage brew'd: 

Whence I should style thee, to approve thee right, 

Not the rich blood of Bacchus, bounding bright. 

But the thin ichor of old Ceres' veins 

Expressed by flames from hungry barley grains, 

Childbom of Vulcan's fire to bum up human brains. 

It is said by some of the ancient writers that this 
ridicule had considerable effect and did, for a time, 
induce the people to use wine; but, no matter how 
cheap it might be, wine was of necessity more costly 
than beer and its manufacture was more intricate 
and uncertain. These were elements with which the 
Gauls were not willing to contend, the consequences 
being that it was only a short time until they returned 
to their first love. 

ii8 Beverages, Past and Present 

One of the many reasons advanced for the drinking 
of beer by the French was quite ingenious. Speaking 
of the good wines produced in the south of Prance it 
was said: "People in the south do not drink the good 
wine which they produce; they export it. Money 
is more valuable to them than good wine. Inferior 
wine, however, remains, and is consumed to a great ex- 
tent. '* This is always the argument of every one who 
derives his living from the soil — sell the best and use 
the worst J and while it reveals the ingenuousness of 
the farmer the world over it also tells a tale of priva- 
tion to which none but a lover of the country and soil 
will submit. 

Perhaps it was the introduction of distillation in 13 13 
that turned the French mind to the vineyard and made 
wine from henceforth the national beverage, for at 
about this time we find the juice of the grape assum- 
ing more and greater importance. When brandy was 
first made, there was considerable difficulty experienced 
in bestowing upon it a proper name. On the strength 
of using a fire to extract it from wine it was called 
vinum adustum, meaning burnt wine. This the Ger- 
mans resolved or absorbed into their language as 
brantewein and subsequently the French assumed it 
as brandevin. The English in a literal translation 
of the French word called the liquor brandywine and 
in the course of time shortened the word to brandy, 
its present English appellation. The French, however, 
were not quite satisfied with the name of brandevin, 
for it failed to convey the proper idea and real worth 
of this wonderful discovery. It was, and is, a most 
crude word, imparting a wrong conclusion and devoid 
of true meaning, and consequently they strove for 

France 119 

a better term. The scholarly men of the period 
undertook the task and naturally they looked to 
Latin as the proper language for the name ; and now 
the reader must allow a little transgression from 
the subject in order that we may return to it better 
qualified to continue. 

The introduction of distillation into Eiuxype was at 
a time when almost every one who possessed any 
competency were striving their utmost to discover 
the philosopher's stone and its adjunct, eternal youth ; 
and when the art of deriving or concentrating the 
alcohol in wine was discovered they naturally thought 
they were on the high road of success. The most 
extravagant panegyrics were bestowed upon this 
wonderful liquor. It was considered a sovereign 
remedy for every ill or pain that human flesh was 
heir to. The wonders that it would perform could 
not be enumerated. It was extremely efficacious 
in comforting the memory, and for the logician who 
had to have a bright and quick mind there was nothing 
to equal it. For the ladies it was the ne plus ultra 
of beautifying remedies — nothing else could even ap- 
proach it in its superlative excellence; in short, it 
was the elixir of life and to designate it aqua vOcb, on 
account of its strong resemblance in appearance to 
water and its supposed life-giving or retaining qualities, 
was a most natural proceeding. 

And now to return to the subject of nomenclature 
and resume the thread of the discourse from the Latin 
aqua vitcs, which these much admiring people so flatter- 
ingly and graciously christened the beverage, to eau 
de vie can hardly be termed progression, for they are 
identical in meaning, and convey the same thought 

I20 Beverages, Past and Present 

though in different language. On the other hand 
perhaps that old story of the English wine merchant 
who was everlastingly making mistakes in spelling 
eau de vie and was being continually laughed at for 
his errors, and who at last bethought him of rendering 
it phonetically in English, and so taking his marking 
pot and brush he printed a sign that read *'0. D. V., 
3s. the pint, " can be termed a step in advance and 
incidentally a plea for simplified spelling. 

Later on, the French, more as a means of identifi- 
cation, began applying the name of the place of manu- 
facture and also the name of the species of the grape to 
the liquor. There are quite a number of what can 
be called local names, but the one which is best known 
is cognac. This appellation has survived all others 
and is to-day the accepted name for French brandy, 
especially in America. In Europe it is the name 
of any good brandy, no matter where made, cognac 
having superseded the original terms, eau de vie, 
brantwein, etc. The city of Cognac is in the depart- 
ment of Charente and a part of this district is called 
Champagne, where the brandy is distilled. This 
similarity of names has been and is still the source 
of much confusion to those not acquainted with the 
facts. Many people believe that champagne brandy 
is a brandy extracted from the mosseux wine of the 
champagne proper, but this is erroneous, for in the 
sense that the word is used here it means a flat open 
country or plain and the grapes are grown there, so 
champagne eau de vie means simply the brandy that 
comes from this portion of the department of Charente. 

While almost any grape will produce a wine from 
which brandy can be distilled, the French people deem 

France 121 

only six kinds worthy of the labour and expense in 
order to obtain the finest cognac. 

These varieties are all white and bear the names of 
folle-blanche, the boillot, the blanc doux, colontbar, sauvignon, 
and St. Pierre; the first named — folle-blanche — ^makes a 
most indifferent wine but produces the finest brandy. 
Cognac when freshly distilled is about the most disagree- 
able liquor conceivable. It is rough, very burning, and 
entirely devoid of flavour — ^in fact it is undrinkable ; but 
after it has been in barriques for a period extending from 
one to four years, according to the variety of the grape 
used, it ameliorates and becomes sweet and tasty. It also 
extracts from the wood the light amber color which it 
retains thereafter. If the season has been propitious the 
yield of brandy will be one quart to six or seven quarts of 
wine, but on the other hand when the weather and insects 
have decreased the crops, more wine, eight or ten quarts, will 
be necessary to manufacture one quart of cognac brandy. 
A characteristic of the grape-vines that grow the fruit 
from which brandy is eventually derived is their great 
strength, they being so strong that they will easily support 
the weight of children who often climb about their branches. 
In the classification of cognac brandy there are five stages 
or degrees of excellence : the best is called fine champagne 
brandy, the second is termed little champagne brandy, the 
next ires bon bois, bon bois ordinaires, and finally troisieme 
bon bois. Some writers use the word borderies instead of 
bois, but borderies is more confusing as it is the ancient 
name for common wines grown in this district. The 
department of Gers is also noteworthy for the amount of 
brandy (called armagnac, after the old district of Arm- 
agnac) which it distills, and often amounts to twenty- 
five millions of gallons per annum. The other principal 
centres are Bordeaux, Rochelle, Orleans, Isle de Rh6, 
Augoulfime, Nantes, Pointon, Touraine, and Anjou, but 

122 Beverages, Past and Present 

none of them have succeeded in gaining the popularity 
of Cognac. 

Distillation is carried on in the Qiarente under 
somewhat different auspices from tht«e which are 
pursued in America. In the district there are three 
recognised degrees of manufacture; the first by the 
bouilleur de crue, a vineyard -owner who distils his 
own product and sells it to the manufacturer. He 
generally possesses only one still but in some cases 
he may have two, which is the maximum. 

The second is the proprietaire, who distils his own 
product and that of his neighbours, from whom he may 
buy the wine, or for whom he may distil for remuneration 
in kind. The proprietaire may possess four to eight stills. 
The third is the merchant, who owns many important dis- 
tilleries, wherein are reduced to brandy the wines from 
his own vineyards and purchased wines. The merchant 
may have sixteen or even twenty stills with a capacity of 
reducing 40,000 or 50,000 hectolitres (880,000 to 1,100,000 
quarts) of wine into brandy during the season. The 
younger the wine is the better brandy it will produce and 
all wine is bought in accordance with the amount of alcohol 
that it contains. The modus operandi of turning wine 
into brandy by the larger manufacturer is about as follows: 
The boilers were filled twice in twenty-four hours. In 
the morning, half of the sixteen stills were filled with wine, 
and had produced by evening the impure alcohol known 
as the brouillis or flegme. In the evening all the boilers 
were filled with wine, and the next morning they had 
produced the brouillis. All the brouillis collected the 
evening before and the following morning from twenty- 
four different stills is divided and placed in eight of the 
sixteen stills, and is submitted to a redistillation or recti- 

France 123 

fication called "doubling." The other stills are filled 
with wine, as on the morning of the day before, in order 
to combine the process regularly and without interruption 
in the same manner during the entire season. 

By this system each man is charged in the morning 
with the filling of one boiler with brouillis, and one with 
wine, in the evening two boilers with wine. This idea 
is the direct result of the quantity of brotUUis produced 
by the distillation of the wine, i. e, one third, so that these 
boilers must be filled with wine and distilled by each man 
in order to have sufficient brouillis to fill a single boiler 
and conmience its rectification. Each time a still is 
filled and each time its product is obtained, whether brouiU 
lis or brandy, a declaration is made upon a register which 
is kept continually at the disposition of the government 
regie. Each barrel of wine before it goes to the still is 
numbered, and the still in which it goes must be known; 
its degree of alcohol is also inscribed on a register, one copy 
of which is placed in a box of which only the officials of 
the regie have the key; the other copy remains on the 
register. The amotmt of brandy produced from that 
particular barrel of wine must be in proportion to its 
alcoholic strength, and a register of the quantity ob- 
tained in brouillis is kept in the same manner as for the 
wine. When the brouillis in its turn is distilled, a cor- 
responding record is kept of it, and of the brandy which 
it produces. The products are placed in casks, each of 
which is numbered, and the quantity and strength of 
alcohol therein is also indicated on the barrel. This alcohol 
can not be removed from the premises, neither can any 
alcohol be brought to the premises or carried from one 
portion of the town or city to another, without a permit 
from the regie, of which permits careful records are kept. 
The permits indicate by their colour, white or pink, whether 
the alcohol represented by them is wine or some other 
source than wine. It can be readily understood that this 

124 Beverages, Past and Present 

system renders the manipulation of alcohol exceedingly 
difficult to persons who desire to use it and conceal the 
fact. The residues of the wine which is left in the still 
after the brouillis has been produced may be used for the 
manufacture of fraudulent liquors, but at Cognac it has 
been found recently that it is more profitable to denature 
these residues with lime in order to produce tartar salts 
which contain from 48% to 52% of pure tartaric acid. 

Formerly when the vintages were very small, owing to 
the ravages of the phylloxera, many irresponsible people 
added to the wine they distilled rectified spirits produced 
from beets. The large quantities of wine produced in the 
last four years make this proceeding practically useless 
from a financial view. It is further rendered exceedingly 
difficult by the new regulations of the French Government 
represented by the regie. The operation of converting 
the brouillis into brandy is called la bonne chauffe and this 
is divided into three or four sections as follows: Five per 
cent of the liquor which leaves the still possesses a highly 
disagreeable odour, due to excessive quantities of con- 
centrated aldehydes and acetic ethers, of a colour often 
greenish or white, called la tete, or heading, which is taken 
into a receptacle and kept apart from that which follows. 
The quantity may exceed 5%, depending on the nature 
or quality of the wine. These headings are later mixed 
with another brouillis^ or with what is called "seconds." 
This alcoholic heading in condensing has washed the 
interior of the serpentine and has removed some oily 
matters which remained in the spiral from the preceding 
distillation. The part of the distillate which follows, 
known as the cceur or heart of the bonne chauffe, is clear, 
and consists of from 80% to 85% of alcohol. The ccmr 
continues to run into the same receptacle until the alcoholo- 
meter indicates that the liquor leaving the still contains 
50%, or perhaps 55% of alcohol, according to the wine. 
When properly carried on, this process lasts about eight 

France 125 

hours, and the liquid contains from 66% to 70% of alcohol. 
This product is brandy. The distillation, however, is 
continued until the alcoholometer registers o alcohol. 
The product of the third part of distillation is called queue, 
or tailings, and is generally added to the next lot of wine 
placed in the still. It contains from 20% to 24% of alcohol. 
Sometimes, however, when the wine is very rich in alco- 
hol, a fourth is produced, which is known as "seconds" 
and consists of that part of the operation wherein the 
distillate reduces its strength from sixty degrees to twenty 
degrees. These "seconds" are usually added to the next 
brouillis, while the remainder of the alcohol obtained — 
that is from twenty d^rees to nothing, which in this case 
is the tailings — ^is mixed with the next batch of wine. The 
seconds require about four hours of distillation, which 
makes the entire process last about twelve hours. This 
length of time of course applies to the bonne chauffe. 

The quality of the brandy produced may depend very 
largely on the purity of the copper of which the boiler, chapi- 
teau and serpentine are composed, as it has been often re- 
marked that the oily acids attack the metal and bring away 
in the distillate very perceptible quantities of copper com- 
pounds, which are disagreeable to the taste, and are prob- 
ably dangerous to the health. Length of time taken may 
also mean much. Wine distilled too rapidly may force 
its fumes too quickly through the serpentine to be con- 
densed, and consequently some of the elements most 
volatile may escape. Again, where the heart is separated 
from the tailings during the bonne chauffe may influence 
the taste and quality of the distillate. Certain of the 
superior alcohols pass earlier in the evaporation and the 
others later. 

There were many of those early savants who with 
their simple alembic extracted their wonderful elixir 
and thus paved the way for future triumphs in the 

126 Beverages, Past and Present 

art, and could their souls be revived, and were they 
to visit the scene of a modem distillery with its com- 
plicated machinery and exacting methods, would 
they, do you think, recognise in any manner the part 
they once played ? Undoubtedly they would, for they 
could readily discern that the same result was gained 
as in the original method, only the modem require- 
ments call for a larger quantity and therefore the 
instruments have to be made with this idea in view, 
but the principle remains the same. 

It was Ambrose Pare, who was physician toQiarles 
IX. and Henry III., that gave a receipt for making 
pure aqua vit(B. It could be obtained, he says, by 
a seven-fold rectification. In 1639 the making of 
brandy had assumed such proportions and its value 
had so increased that it came under governmental 
supervision, and laws very similar to those which were 
passed on beer were promulgated and enforced. The 
early history of the vine in France is one full of changes 
from prosperity to utter destruction and from peace to 
war. To tell the full story in detail would be giving 
the history of Prance of that period, so closely inter- 
woven was wine with the social and political policies of 
the times. 

When the Romans appeared upon the borders of 
Prance the Gauls, though acquainted with wine, 
stimulated themselves, according to Diodorus, with 
beer, and mead, but the making of these beverages 
did not long continue. The Gauls were people of 
great adaptability and assimilation and it was but 
a short period before they had acquired the finer tastes 
of the Romans and also their extravagance. Rheims 
was among the first of the cities to submit to Roman 

France 127 

dominion, and while it is to-day the centre of a wine- 
producing country, and the records show that the 
people of that era had wine without limit, is it never- 
theless certain that they procured it from extraneous 

The reign of Titus Flavius Domitianus, better 
known as Domitian, had a most serious effect upon 
the vineyardists of France. The industry at the time 
was beginning to assume a profitable aspect; the 
southern portion of the country had already come 
into prominence as a wine-growing locality and the 
area of vineyards was increasing and being extended 
further north every year. The Roman writers of 
the day, notably Pliny and Columella, were free in 
their praise of the wines from this part of the empire, 
and goodly quantities were being sent abroad to those 
whose interests it were well to consider, and through 
these various means a market was being estabUshed 
that warranted further outlay and efforts. But 
Domitian, '*the fly-catching madman," as he is often 
(ailed, in order to show his despotic power, and on 
the pretense that not enough grain was being raised, 
issued an edict in which he forbade the withdrawal 
of the plough from any arable land, and in conse- 
quence reduced existing vineyards by one half. This 
was the death-knell to grape-raising in Prance at that 
time, for every vineyard was destroyed and the people 
returned to their beer for a stimulating beverage. 

The power of this edict remained in force for about 
two hundred years and almost all knowledge of viti- 
culture was lost in tradition. The taste for wine, 
however, instead of abating kept steadily increasing 
and we are told by some of the ancient writers that the 

128 Beverages, Past and Present 

Gauls would readily part with a slave for a gallon of 
wine, especially if the wine came from Italy. The 
restriction naturally benefited other countries and of 
course the merchants trading with the Gauls did not 
encourage them to resume the planting of vineyards. 
When Marcus Aurelius, or, as some prefer to call him, 
Probus, assumed the purple at Rome and became 
Emperor, he at once proceeded to drive the Germans 
out of Gaul, and having accomplished this and es- 
tablished peace he then turned his attention to his 
soldiers. One of his principles was never to allow 
his men to be idle, for any length of time, and, in 
furtherance of a liking for grapes and wines, among 
the tasks given the soldiers was the planting of vine- 
yards. It was by this method and under the orders 
of Probus that vine-culture was resumed in France. 
The soldiers, however, did not take kindly to this extra 
labor and one day there was a sudden mutiny among 
them, and during the frenzy Marcus Aurelius was 
attacked and slain. His death was mourned by the 
Senate and the people, and even the soldiers pres- 
ently repented and raised a monument in honour of 
** Probus imperator vere probus." 

It did not take the Gauls long to realise the ad- 
vantages that would accrue to them by having their 
own vineyards, and soon the dark gloomy forests 
gave way to cheerful clearings with the vine everywhere 
bearing its clustered fruit. By the year 300, thou- 
sands of acres had been planted and the banks of the 
Matrona and Mosdla (now the rivers Mame and 
Moselle) were vine-clad for many miles. Again we 
find the yellow-haired tribes of Germany casting long- 
ing and envious looks upon these promising vineyards 

France 129 

and little by little gathering courage to make maraud- 
ing expeditions in order to obtain this delicious 
juice of the grape which so strongly appealed to 
their palates. And again we find the Romans com- 
ing to their succour, and according to Gibbon's Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire Consul Jovinus sur- 
prises the enemy right in the act of ** swallowing huge 
draughts of rich and delicious wine," on the banks of 
the Moselle, and after a hard day's fighting succeeds 
in driving them from the territory. It was just a 
little prior to this historical event that the planting 
of vineyards became universal in France, and perhaps 
none had more to do with the movement than St. 
Martin of Tours, who, wherever he preached, planted 
a vineyard. The Christian church also began to 
manifest an interest in the vine, and it may be said 
with all sincerity that it was from this epoch that 
the real history of the vine begins in France. From 
the Moselle to the Mediterranean, from the Rhine 
to the Atlantic, the fruit was to be found growing and 
the former barren hillsides were made to give forth 
plentifully of the juice of the grape, and their fame 
was to be sung in every comer of the world. 

This peculiarity of the vine, which is enabled to 
grow upon what may be termed worthless soil, is no- 
where better portrayed than in the Gironde. Here is 
to be found land where, according to the most eminent 
authority, the soil is unfit for even weeds, and yet 
some of the finest wines come from this vicinity and 
the vines are to be f otmd growing in luxuriance. Some 
of the vineyards are more than two hundred years of 
age, and until the appearance of the phylloxera, vines 
of that age and more were common. It is from this 

VOL. II — 9 

130 Beverages, Past and Present 

neighborhood that we get, first, the medoc wines, or as 
the English long ago named them, clarets. The list of 
wines grown here, in this poor soil, is extensive, but 
the reader will appreciate the quality produced when 
he leams that it is the home of such famous vintages 
as Chateau Lafitte, Chateau Margaux, Chateau Latour, 
and Chateau Haut-Brion ; wines of such a quality that 
it has been said of them, particularly Chateau I^tte: 

They may have rivals, but no superiors, and the prices 
have on several occasions reached the tidy sum of twenty 
dollars a pint bottle. The bouquet of Lafitte wine is some- 
thing that connoisseurs the world over never cease praising 
and it is thoroughly unique to the vineyard. At first 
there is a slight trace of the violet, followed closely by the 
aroma of the ripe raspberry; to the palate it is characterised 
by a silky softness; in fact, as an old gentleman of our 
acquaintance used to remark, "it is a regrettable wine 
inasmuch I regret swallowing it, for then it is gone forever." 

The other wines of this district with which we are 
more or less acquainted are the Larose, Leoville, St. 
Julien, St. Estephe, Cautenac, Beatme, Mouton, and 
St. Emilion, but these are only a few of the many. 
The people of this vicinity are ever on the outlook 
for improvements, and the extent to which they will 
venture in their search for knowledge is best illus- 
trated by citing the case of M. Boucherot, who resided 
some distance from Haut-Brion ; on his estate he had 
a collection of vines from every part of the world, 
more than six htmdred varieties, and was endeavour- 
ing to find some new kinds that would prosper in this 
peculiar soil, but none of them proved of any use. 
The wines they produced were in every case inferior 

France 131 

to the vines that had become, as it were, natives of 
the soil ; but his failure did not discourage them — ^far 
from it, for they simply resolved to try again. 

Another portion, the department of Gironde and 
part of Medoc is the district called The Graves, from 
the territory, which consists of sand and gravel mixed 
here and there with more or less day and marl. Any- 
thing but a promising combination, we hear our agri- 
cultural friend exclaim; but nevertheless it is here 
in this soil that the incomparable Chateau Yquem 
wine is produced. This district is better known as 
Sauteme and the wines coming from here, particularly 
the white ones, bear this name. There are more than 
twenty different kinds of sauiernes which have a for 
eign market, but the one great wine is the Chateau 
Yquera. Of this wine stories have been written that 
wotdd fill a goodly sized book, some of them true and 
some only partly so. Sauteme wine is made in three 
ways, each of which produces a wine totally different 
from the other. The first method is called tete and the 
wine is made from grapes that have almost assumed 
the appearance of rottenness; for it must be under- 
stood that the vintage season here is delayed until 
the last of October, and often in some vineyards does 
not begin until November. The grapes by this time 
have matured to such a d^ree that it may be said 
fermentation had begun before they were picked. 
They are all white, of medium size, and yield a must 
that retains a large percentage of its natural stigar 
during fermentation, and therefore remains sweet 
without the addition of spirits. Each grape is handled 
separately by women, who with scissors cut off the 
ripe ones in every cluster. This of necessity is a 

132 Beverages, Past and Present 

tedious operation and prolongs the vintage season 
into December. The grapes are not put into vats, 
but are carefully pressed and the juice poured into 
hogsheads at once. Each day's picking and the wine 
thereof is kept separate, every barrique being marked 
and set aside, and apart from the others of the next 
day's pressing. The wine ferments in the hogshead 
and the ** yeast" instead of being removed is allowed 
to sink back into the wine, thereby obtaining a maxi- 
mum of alcohol and preventing a second fermentation. 
The result is a very sweet luscious wine and one that 
rarely comes to America, for the Russians are great 
admirers of this vin de tite and the prices that they 
are willing to pay make it a most profitable crop, 
fully warranting the expensive methods of manufacture. 

The second mode of making is termed milieu. This 
wine is made from grapes that are not as far advanced 
in mattirity as those used in making tite ; they contain 
therefore much less saccharine matter and the wine 
is not nearly so sweet and luscious. It is to this class 
that the name of sauteme is most generally applied 
in other countries aside from Russia, and it is the one 
that is drunk most in America and England. 

The third series of sauteme wine is called queues 
and, as the name implies, it is made from the last 
picking of the grapes, be they fully ripe, partly ripe, 
or unripe; but the vast majority are just ripening and 
therefore they make a very dry wine, which also finds 
a ready market in England. The other wines of this 
immediate district are Barsacs and Bommes, or per- 
haps it would be better to say that these are among 
the wines that leave Bordeaux for America and Eng- 
land. Chateau Coutet and Chateau Climeus are the 

France 133 

leading growths of Barsac, with Chateaux Mjrrat, 
Doisy, Broustet-Nerac, Caillou, and Suau classified 
among the second growths about in the order given. 
Barsac wines have much body, containing a fair per- 
centage of alcohol and having an exquisite bouquet. 
Their taste, too, differs in being more piquant and 
their colour is of a more decided amber tint. They 
are also, as the French people describe it, capiteuXy or 
more heady than the sautemes proper, but withal 
Barsac wines rate very highly among wine judges and 
even second growths command a good price. 

Among the first growths of the Bommes wines are 
such celebrated vintages as La Tour Blanche, Peyra- 
guey, Virueau and Rabaut. They are made in the 
three degrees of sauteme and it is only the milieu 
and queue that find favour among us, but continental 
Europe is a most ready market for the tHe wines of 
Bomme and the output is always large, while the 
prices are sure to be remunerative. 

On the right bank of the Garonne is a chain of hills 
extending from Amberez to Sainte-Croix-du-Mont. 
These hills are almost one contintial vineyard from 
foot to sunmiit, and from mid-summer to the vintage 
season they form a picture of which one never tires. 
The wines that are produced here are known as vin de 
cote. They are very dark and when new, or young, are 
hard and rough, but this all disappears in the course 
of a few years and the matured article is soft and 
pleasant. In the southern portion white wine is made 
which is quite dry. The traders in Bordeaux import 
these wines imder a general term, the first being called 
*'the wines of the good hillside " and the second **wine 
of the little hillside." 

134 Beverages, Past and Present 

The most noted of these wines is St. EmiKon, de- 
riving its name from that quaint old historic town 
of Emilion which at one time was a stronghold of 
the Knights Templars. The wine has many of the 
characteristics of a fine old port in its original state 
before brandy had been put into it. To have this 
wine in perfection, though, it is necessary to bottle it 
in about five years ; for after that period it will have 
lost much of its quality, and while it does not exactly 
spoil it becomes almost ordinary. 

A vineyard in full leaf and bearing is always a most 
pleasant spectacle and poets and writers have filled 
hundreds of pages in their efforts to describe the ever 
changing view. France of course is a most fertile 
spot for these people of the pen, and in the department 
of the Pyrenees Orientales the poet will find themes 
to keep his muse in pleasant mood for many days ; the 
vineyards and the scenery are ever different, from the 
level lands to the hills — ^and such strange weird-looking 
hills, — more like gigantic mounds raised by the termites 
of Africa ; a cluster of pyramids with rounded tops, so 
different from our conception of hills and mountains 
that one involuntarily searches for evidence of man's 
labour rather than to accept at first the idea that 
they are nature's handiwork. On their steep sides in 
regular rows and sections are thousands of vines aU 
carefully cultivated and trained, all of which must 
be done by the slow, tedious method of manual labor. 
The sides are too precipitous for horses and therefore 
only men, women, and children are able to accomplish 
this back-breaking task. 

The grapes that are grown here are called Grenache 
noir, and while their clusters are not large and uniform, 

France 135 

the berries themselves are most delicious, sweet, with 
a perfume peculiar to themselves. It is from these 
grapes that Grenache wine is made, but the word 
wine in this case is more or less of a misnomer. After 
the juice has been expressed, by any of the various 
methods, it is prevented from fermentation by the 
addition of spirits and sulphurous acid, and also 
by frequent raddngs from any deposit, including any 
yeast which may spor. The vapours of burning sulphur 
are also much used to check and retard all fermentation. 
The process is simple, but it requires a great deal of 
attention and an exact knowledge of the right moment 
of performance. 

After all danger of change is over the liqueur, for 
such it is, is laid away in cellars and store-rooms for 
fifteen years, when it is said to be really fit for use. 
Years are of little moment in the making of Grenache, 
but who was the originator that had the patience and 
faith to wait this long for realisation, and did he in the 
succeeding fourteen years continue his venture? To- 
day we realise what is before us and can govern our- 
selves accordingly, but the man who blazed the way, 
who lived in an atmosphere of uncertainty all this 
time — what of him? The versatility of France as a 
wine-produdng country needs no better illustration 
than this. In the department of the Pyrenees Orien- 
tales, the two extremes of wine are made side by side, 
the driest and the sweetest — ^wines that are so dry 
that it is only the consoling information printed on the 
label that disabuses your mind of doubt, and it is 
far more soothing to your feelings if it is printed in 
French and you can only read English. The un- 
certainty of the printed matter removes that assured- 

136 Beverages, Past and Present 

ness which the palate has conveyed to the brain — you 
leave the balance of the wine for the waiter. 

But all the dry wines made here are not of this 
character; this special brand is only a rare exotic, 
fit for the most discriminating palate, and is priced 
accordingly by the boniface, who at once seems to 
know a man that appreciates spending his money and 
leaving his purchase behind. From this neighbourhood 
comes the Muscat wine, so sweet that it often takes 
the place of a liqueur. In order to make this wine 
properly, the grapes are shrunk on the vine until their 
skins have become wrinkled, like that of a raisin, but 
the grape is not dry. If the season is not propitious 
the grapes are gathered and placed on shallow trays 
in the sun until they have shrivelled sufficiently, when 
they are crushed and subjected to pressure. The 
must is very dense and it is put into casks at once 
and allowed to ferment; after the fermentation is 
completed it is racked off into other barrels. For 
the first year the wine is of the consistency of syrup 
and, what is most strange, almost devoid of bouquet. 
At the second year, however, it becomes clear, ac- 
quires finesse and fire, and that peculiar bouquet to 
which it owes its reputation. 

Experts in this wine declare that now is the time 
to drink it, for it has reached its full maturity and 
can not possibly improve. There are others, though, 
who maintain that the wine is still yoimg and will 
mellow greatly if it is given a few years more. 

Two other liqueur wines of great note, the Maccabeo 
and Malvoisie, are also made in this vicinity, but the 
method of manufacture is entirely different from that 
pursued in the making of Muscat. With the Maccabeo 

France 137 

the expressed juice is concentrated in a pan over a 
very slow fire, and when the scum has risen and been 
skimmed off, the must is allowed to cool, and then 
after a small amotint of proof spirits have been added 
it is put into a barrel. At the termination of thirty 
days it is changed into another barrel, and this opera- 
tion is continued at these intervals for six months when 
all danger of fermentation is over and it is allowed to 
age. The great care and attention required to make 
Malvoisie begins right in the vineyard, for the grapes 
are very susceptible to outside influence and there- 
fore it is necessary that each and every berry should 
reach the press in a perfect condition. This naturally 
requires a vast amount of labour, that while not diffi- 
cult or severe is tedious. After the grapes have been 
pressed and the juice concentrated in the same manner 
as with Maccabeo, proof spirits are added and it is 
set aside to ferment, which is continued until it is 
naturally completed, when it is stored away to mature. 
The vineyardists, though, in this part of France do 
not confine themselves to these wines alone, for on 
the whole they are not what could be considered very 
profitable owing to the long time they have to be 
kept before reaching that stage which the consumer 
demands. There are more than a score of other 
wines grown about the department, many of which 
have excellent reputations. They are classified tinder 
the name of Rousillion wines, deriving the title from 
the province in which they are grown, though now 
it is merged into the department of the Pyrenees 
Orientales. This part of France borders on the 
Mediterranean Sea and all wines are shipped right 
from the point of production, as it were ; but the har- 

138 Beverages, Past and Present 

botirs here are very shallow and ships of any consider- 
able size are compelled to anchor two miles or more from 
the shore — ^in some favourable spots the distance may 
be less — so in order to get the wine to the boat they 
have to float it. The barrels are first rolled upon the 
beach ; then each man taking a barrel pushes it into 
the water, where he keeps shoving it tmtil it floats ; then 
he in turn begins to swim, keeping the barrel meantime 
in front of him. When the ship is reached it is lifted 
aboard by means of a crane and the man swims back 
for another barrel. 

Apropos of these strongly scented wines or liqueurs 
it may be admissible to say that at the period just 
prior to and during the reign of Lrouis XIV. the rage 
for perfumes reached its zenith. All wines had to 
contain an enormous amount of either musk, amber, 
or roses. The use of hippocras, an ancient concoction 
of wine, spices, grains of paradise, and various other 
aromatic substances in proportions to suit the fancy 
of the compounder or his patrons, was renewed, and 
it can readily be imagined that its odoriferous qualities 
were well developed. 

History tells us that it was through the influence 
of Catherine de* Medici that these highly aromatic 
beverages were introduced into France, and it did 
not take them long to become exceedingly popular. 
In fact the fashion became so intense that it was ex- 
tended to foods of all kinds. Pastry was steeped in 
musk, roast meats were almost hidden from view in 
scented powders. Fish and especially mackerel were 
cooked in feimel. Walnuts were eaten with rose- 
water and fowls of all kinds were '^greased'* with 

France 139 

They were prodigious eaters, too, were the French 
at the time of Catherine de* Medici, and the Queen 
herself bears an enviable reputation in this line. At 
the banquet given to her in June, 1549, by the town 
of Paris, there were served amid other delicacies 
thirty peacocks, thirty-three pheasants, twenty-one 
swans, nine cranes, thirty-three ^[rets, sixty-six 
turkeys, thirty kids, six hogs, thirty capons, ninety- 
nine pullets, thirty-three hares, ninety-nine pigeons, 
ninety-nine turtle doves, and thirteen geese. These 
were only the delicacies; the substantials were in 
proportion and after a few mom^its of speculation we 
may arrive at a faint idea of the size of the banquet; 
and the fact that fingers instead of knives and forks 
were the mediums used to prepare and convey the 
food from the platter to the mouth must be overlooked. 

But if Catherine de' Medici had a good appetite 
the ** Grand Monarque'' was blessed with a better 
one. It was his boast that he never, under any con- 
sideration, took anything between meals, but if re- 
liance can be placed in the letters of the Princess 
Palatine there was the very best of reasons why he 
did not. The Princess writes that she **has often 
seen him eat four platefuls of different soups, a whole 
pheasant, a partridge, a great plate of salad, two 
great slices of ham, a plate of mutton seasoned with 
garlic, and after that fruit and hard-boiled eggs." 
If this is not a good reason for abstemiousness between 
meals it will be rather difficult to advance a better one ; 
but would not the old king be a fine fellow at our 
modem beef -steak dinners? It was during his reign 
that the use of the fork was introduced into Prance, 
but we are assured by good authority that he would 

I40 Beverages, Past and Present 

have none of it and preferred feeding himsdf with 
his fingers. 

The use of individual glasses for drinking wine was 
something never thought of until the middle of the 
sixteenth century. Prior to this time one glass or 
goblet served for the whole table. The wine was 
drawn from a fountain or carved barrel by a servant, 
if the affair was held in the house of a member of 
the better class, and was handed to the guest who had 
called for a drink. The correct manner of drinking 
was to hold the glass with the thumb and first three 
fingers, extending the little finger in a graceful curve. 
It was also expected that the glass should be emptied 
at one draught and without * 'gurgling." It was 
through this custom that the host's charge of **No 
hed taps! " arose, for it was not considered nice to 
leave a residue in the glass for which a neighbour was 
anxiously awaiting. 

The question of intoxication seems to have held the 
attention of the people from a very remote period 
and it was discussed warmly on all sides. Francis I. 
took a decided stand in the matter and his modes 
of punishment were almost inquisitorial in their 
severity. He starved, whipped, and mutilated the 
oflfenders, but all in vain ; France wanted to drink to 
excess and France did it. Doctors of medicine were 
brought into the argument and we have the oft-quoted 
saying of Amauld de Villeneuve that "there is un- 
doubtedly something to be said for intoxication, 
inasmuch as the restdts which usually follow do cer- 
tainly purge the body of noxious hxmiours." He fur- 
ther advised that his patients should show a modicum 
of discretion in the matter and not to have too close 

France 141 

and too often a communion with the bottle. To get 
drunk once in two months he considered was the 
proper thing for a man in normal condition. 

Except for a very short -period the ladies of Prance 
have always been allowed to enjoy their glass in public 
as well as in private life, and that some of them tmder- 
stood the art of drinking and could withstand the 
influence of the beverage as well, if not better than 
thdr husbands or brothers. We have only to turn 
again to the letters of the Princess Palatine for con- 
firmation. In one she says: ''Madame de Montespan 
and her eldest daughter can drink remarkably without 
ttiming a hair. I saw them one day drinking oflE 
btmiper after bumper of stiff Italian wine and thought 
they would fall under the table, but they might as well 
have been drinking water." In another she says, 
"Madame de Berri drinks the strongest brandy she 
can get." Again she writes, "The Duchesse de Bour- 
bon can drink to excess without intoxicating herself; 
her daughters try to follow her example, but are soon 
under the table." 

The Princess had the faculty of describing people 
and events in a very terse manner, but she was also 
comprehensive in her language and left nothing to 
the imagination of her correspondent. At an earlier 
period when a lady diner called for a glass of wine, 
two servants bearing a large napkin between them 
would advance and hold it beneath her chin, while she, 
like her male friends at the board, would empty the 
glass at a draught. 

Conditions, though, were not always propitious for 
the viticulturist and wine crops would sometimes 
be an absolute failure. It was so in 919, when the 

142 Beverages, Past and Present 

vineyards about Rheims failed to furnish enough grapes 
to pay for their harvesting ; but these were strenuous 
times, and says Stendal, **Not to be killed and to have 
a good sheepskin coat in winter was for many people 
in the tenth century the height of felicity." Might 
made right in those days and the question of destro3nng 
a vineyard belonging to another so as to erect a castle 
upon the site was only a matter of strength. 

The Hungarians also at about this time were very 
troublesome and the peaceful duties of the vine- 
dresser were often terminated by an arrow stealthily 
sent on its murderous mission by a hidden invader. 
But to chronicle all these events woiald take more 
space than is allowable. Suffice it to say they are most 
interesting and reveal a trait of character in which 
persistency is the predominating element and in which 
no people but the French would so consistently and 
successfully withstand the great and many discours^e- 
ments. War has always made sad havoc of the vine- 
yards, and when war was not raging in the land the 
weather and insects played their parts. Politics and 
religion too had their r^e, and a more hazardous and 
uncertain imdertaking than the raising of grapes 
would be difficult to find. 

We will, therefore, not attempt to enter further 
into the historical details, but pass to the time when 
was first introduced that incomparable of wines vin 
mousseux as the French term it, champagne as it is 
known to the rest of the world. The exact date cannot 
be given and doubtless never will be, but we do know 
that champagne was discovered during the last two 
or three decades of the seventeenth century. Of late 
years there has arisen a faction that endeavours to 

France 143 

make the time much earlier, but there are numerous 
circumstances which preclude this from becoming a 
possibility. Again there are those who have very 
plausibly shown that the ancients had sparkling wine, 
and perhaps they did, for many wines will give forth 
a slight effervescence when first poured into a glass, 
but it quickly subsides, and it is impossible to say 
that these old wines were analogous to our present-day 

Tradition and history both ascribe the invention of 
champagne to a Benedictine monk of the famous 
monastery of Saint Peter's in Hautvillers; the name by 
which he was known to his brother monks was Dom 
Perignon. He was chosen the procureur of the great 
abbey for three qualifications in which he excelled — 
for the purity of his taste, the soundness of his head, 
and his uilremitting devotion to Bacchus — ^not so much 
in a convivial way as in a business spirit. Pew 
indeed were they who possessed the ability of the 
Dom, for he had enhanced the reputation of his wines 
many fold. In fact, we are told that the wines of 
the abbey during the reign of Dom Perignon had 
reached first place in the estimation of many 
judges. His chief duty was to control and take 
charge of the vineyards, and nattirally the establish- 
ment possessed the broadest and sunniest vineyards of 
the whole country. Added to this duty was also the 
receiving of every eleventh barrel of wine made by the 
people who resided within the jurisdiction of the abbey. 
Furthermore he had to supervise the pressing of the 
grapes and to make the wine of the establishment, 
and to store it away in its cellars, together with 
that which had been forced from its oppressed vassals. 

144 Beverages, Past and Present 

For a number of years prior to his death the Dom 
was totally blind, but if the stories that have been 
handed down to us can be believed — ^and there is no 
reason why they should not — ^his blindness did not 
affect his taste and judgment. We are told that he 
was put to many a test but never did he fail, and there 
was not one among his many brethren who could 
compete with him. Grapes of different vineyards 
were brought, those of his own establishment, and 
many more from the vineyards surrounding it, and 
without hesitation he would name them accurately 
and inform his people which to marry (mix) . Through 
the course of his multifarious wine-mixings he dis- 
covered how to produce an effervescing wine, but 
at what time in his career this happened none but 
himself could tell and he failed to do so. The theory 
has been advanced by some writers upon the subject 
that the discovery of champagne was purely acci- 
dental, but the facts do not sustain the idea, for the 
old monk was not one given to loose methods. In 
truth it was just the reverse — his duties demanded 
the utmost exactness in every detail. Therefore it 
is not in accord with the testimony to believe that 
his discovery was the outcome of careless practices. 
On the contrary, knowing what we do of his labours 
it is more probable to think that he arrived at the 
conclusion by a long series of experiments carried 
on in secret, as for instance we find him trying other 
modes besides the prevailing one of a pledget of wool 
dipped in wax to act as a stopper to the bottle, and it 
was he who first made use of cork-wood for that purpose. 
Again he is at work devising a glass suitable from 
which to drink the wine, one that not only would 

France 145 

hold the sparkling liquid but one that would best 
show it, so that the sense of seeing as well as the senses 
of smell and tasting could be gratified. All of his 
efforts were bent towards the perfecting of wine in 
every one of its branches, the making, the keeping, 
and the drinking, and with these facts before us it 
becomes very difficult to believe the theory of accident. 
For a long time the wine was only allowed to be used 
by those belonging to the order ; then, when some mem- 
ber of royalty or some faithful one had done something 
worthy of rewarding, an occasional bottle would be 
given. It was a favourite beverage of Louis XIV. in 
his later days and it was through him and his great- 
grandson Lotiis XV. that the wine became so popular. 
When the wine was, as it were, first placed on the 
market the reception accorded to it was one of spon- 
taneous liking. It was known under many names: 
at first it was called vin de Perignon, in honour of its 
maker, then through different periods flacon mousseux, 
flacon petulant, vin sautant^ saute bouchou, and vin 
mousseux. But the names made little difference, for, 
no matter what it was called, people seemed at once 
to understand that the reference was to champagne. 
This popularity continued to increase and wine- 
making in the district was being revolutionized 
when, without warning, there arose a strong de- 
cided sentiment against champagne. Who started it 
or for what cause is unknown, but the records show 
that people who formerly, were strong advocates 
of its use, without explanation turned about and 
condemned it most strongly. Whether it was done 
through jealousy and malice no one can tell ; at any 
rate this ban was for a time effective and the future 

vou n — 10 

146 Beverages, Past and Present 

of champagne looked dark and gloomy. All kinds 
of stories became rife and scarcely anything was too 
strong or evil to say against it. At this time it re- 
ceived the name vin du diable — ^wine of the devil — 
and had it not been for the younger members of the 
cotirt and society, who only laughed at these malicious 
stories and then insisted upon having the wine served 
to them at their banquets and other affairs, the history 
of this beverage might have been different. 

The chief contention was on the question of foam — 
what made the wine foam? We of to-day can answer 
the question very readily, but even Dom Perignon 
with all his knowledge of vinification could not make 
a suitable reply to the question. Many ideas were 
advanced and many were the horrible substances, it 
was said, that were added to the wine in order to give 
it its sparkle and foam. The question at the time 
was a most serious one, for superstition was common 
even among the better educated and this heretofore 
unknown quantity was something that needed a full 
and comprehensive explanation, and who was there 
that could answer it properly? Frederick William II. 
of Prussia was much interested in the subject and 
he proposed to the Academy of Arts and Sciences the 
question, "Why does champagne foam?" The ac- 
ademicians at once told the King it would be necessary 
for them to have a supply of the liquor in order to carry 
out a most elaborate series of investigations. The 
King sent them only a dozen bottles; whether this 
was enough for the experiment the story does not say. 
The doud did not last long, however, and in a few 
years the sentiment against the wine was almost a 
forgotten incident, and while here and there may 

France 147 

arise a faint movement against its use, it qtiiekly 
subsides, for champagne is the "king of wines and 
wine of kings." 

While the vine is cultivated in five arrondissements 
of the department, namely Chalons sur Mame, Epemay, 
Rheims, Sainte-Menehould and Vitry-le-Frangois, it is 
from the grapes of Rheims and Epemay that the 
genuine champagne of France is made. 

The still wines of Champagne have for centuries 
enjoyed an enviable reputation and there are many 
who daim that they are by far the best made in France. 
The French people are great lovers of home, and any- 
thing coming from their place of birth is thought by 
them to possess merits far beyond that which may 
come from the next town. This trait is very neatly 
shown in the controversy which occurred many years 
ago over the relative value of Burgundy wine and 
the wines from Champagne. The controversy was 
begtm in 1652 by Daniel Arbinet and was continued 
with varying successes by each side until it was officially 
decided in favour of Champagne in the year 1778. For 
the first forty years or so the fight was principally 
local, yet it was vigorous enough to keep it alive. In 
Tallemant des Reaux's Historiettes is an accoimt of 
how Doctor Pena, an eminent physician of Paris, took 
the side of champagne, a gentieman went to consult 
him and the following dialogue ensued: ** Where do 
you come from?" inquired the doctor. **I am," 
replied the gentleman, **a native and resident of 
Saxmiur." **A native of Saumur — what bread do 
you eat?" * 'Bread from the Belle Cave." "A 
native of Saumur and you eat bread from the Belle 
Cave; what meat do you eat?" ** Mutton fed at 

148 Beverages, Past and Present 

Chardomet." **A native of Saumur, eating bread 
from the Belle Cave and mutton fed at Chardomet. 
What wine do you drink?" * *Wine from the Coteaux." 
**What! you are a native of Saumur; you eat bread 
from the Belle Cave and mutton fed at Chaidomet 
and drink the wine of the Coteaux, and you come here 
to consult me? Go about your business; there can 
be nothing the matter with you." 

Others besides the doctor had been fanning the 
flames just enough, though, to keep a fire going when 
in 1696 Mathieu Poumier, a medical student, in his 
inaugural thesis advanced the theory that the wines 
of Rheims were conducive of catarrh, gout, and other 
disorders besides playing havoc with the nervotis 
system. The telegraph was not in vogue in those 
days, neither was the telephone; but the news reached 
Rheims in some manner almost as quickly as if 
conveyed by electricity. Perhaps some one from 
Rheims or Epemay was at the exercises and heard 
the student make his rash assertion. At any rate war 
was dedared in Rheims in short order. Patience had 
ceased to be a virtue and now it was necessary to 
teach these people a lesson. Accordingly Giles Cu- 
lotteau came out with a pamphlet entitled An vinum 
Remeuse Burgundico sauvious et salubrius. It was a con- 
sensus of opinion, and if there were any laudatory ad- 
jectives that he forgot to use in proclaiming the virtues, 
purity, healthfulness, and superiority of the wines of 
Champagne, it was because his dictionary did not 
contain them. To M. Salins, the doyen, or dean, of 
the Faculty of Medicine of Beaune, was given the task 
of replying and he did it in good style. What he left 
unsaid of the wines of his enemies would not amount 

France 149 

to much, and the fight was on and printer's ink began 
to run in rivulets. Prose writers by the score issued 
pamphlets and contributed articles to their respective 
papers, while the poets, no less backward, filled pages 
upon pages with their efforts, some of which make 
most excellent reading, to wit the following by Dr. 
Charles Coffini, bom in Buzancy not very far from 

As the vine, although lowly in aspect, outshines 
The stateliest trees by the produce it bears, 

So midst all the earth's list of rich generous wines 
Our Rheims the bright crown of pre-eminence wears. 

The Massica, erst sung by Horace of old, 
To Sillery now must abandon the field; 

Falemian, Chian, could ne'er be so bold 
To rival the nectar Ay's sunny slopes yield. 

As bright as the goblet it sparklingly fills 
With diamonds in fusion, it foaming exhales 

An odour ambrosial, the nostril that thrills. 
Foretelling the flavour delicious it veils. 

At first with false fury the foam-bells arise 
And creamily bubbling spread over the brim. 

Till equally swiftly their petulance dies 

In a purity that makes e'en cr3rstal seem dim. 

What brought this forth was the following, written 
by Professor Benign6 Grenan of the college at Har- 

Lift to the skies thy foaming wine. 
That cheers the heart, that charms the eye; 

Exalt its fragrance, gift divine, 

Champagne, from thee the wise must fly I 

ISO Beverages, Past and Present 

A poison lurks those charms below. 
An asp beneath the flowers is hid; 

In vain thy sparkling fountains flow 
When wisdom has their lymph forbid* 

'Tis but when cloyed with purer fair 
We can with such a traitress flirt; 

So, following Beaune with reverent air. 
Let Rbeims appear but at dessert. 

These are given to show the reader what was done 
in the way of poetry and are selected, mainly on 
account of their shortness, from a most extended list. 
The prose writers were as gcxxl, while the advocates 
on both sides had sharp tongues and ready wit. 

It will be noticed that, while the fight started long 
before vin mousseux was discovered, the wily Bur- 
gundians tried in many ways to centre it upon this 
one wine. At this time the odium mentioned pre- 
viously was placed on champagne, and naturally 
the people of Burgundy took advantage of it to aid 
themselves in the controversy, but without avail. In 
Rheims and Epemay champagne wines are classi- 
fied under four headings, which ultimately comprise 
the completed beverage. 

The first is champagne non mousseux (still cham- 
pagne). This is wine that has been fully fermented, 
fined, drawn into bottles, stoppered in the usual 
manner, tied, and allowed to rest a long time. This 
is the ancient method of making bottled wine in the 
Champagne and it was from this practice, it is thought, 
that Dom Perignon first conceived the idea of the 
sparkling wine or mousseux. The varieties of this 
wine are many and some of them command fancy 

France 151 

prices, for when properly matured they possess striking 
peciiliarities of taste and flavour. The second kind 
is called cretnant and, as its name denotes, it has the 
faculty of fonning a slight cream of effervescent bub- 
bles upon its surface when it is poured into a glass. 
Cretnant has a good market among those people who 
while enjoying a little sparkle in their wine do not 
care for as much as is to be found in mousseux or the 
third variety. 

The old test for mousseux was the noise the cork 
made when it was projected from the bottle. It was 
not expected to make too much of a report and the 
wine should only rise gently to the margin of the 
container. The fourth and last variety is grand 
mousseux the kind that projects the cork with a loud 
report and the wine jumps from the bottle with a sud- 
denness bom of its anxiety to be free — 

The bubbles that swim at the beaker's brim 
And break at the lips when meeting. 

It was this characteristic that gave it the name 
Hacon petulant, which rendered into English means 
* 'stopper- or cork-jumper." Grand mousseux is the 
wine that throws its corks into every part of the world 
and for its market it has the imiverse. 

Of the red wines grown at Rheims, the two finest are 
the rilly and bouzy. They are costly wines, and ex- 
tremely delicate. It is claimed for them that when 
fully matured and ready for drinking a trip from the 
cellar to the table is aU they can stand. They have 
therefore to be sold before this stage is reached, and 
owing to their superb qualities bring fancy prices 

152 Beverages, Past and Present 

and are much sought for by the wealthy dasses and 
royalty. The history of rilly as told by a French 
chronicler is something as follows: 

Monsieur Werl6 received one day an order to send 
three hundred cases of champagne to New York. Profiting 
by the occasion of the long voyage to be made by this 
wine, he sent with it for company a dozen of red wine 
of the vintage of 1802, with a request to his correspondent 
in New York to keep them in his cellars for three months, 
and then send them back. When the case returned the 
sides of each bottle were covered with a kind of sediment 
and the wine clouded. Mayor Werl6 let it repose for six 
weeks, and then poured it into fresh bottles. It was 
perfectly clear and of a delicious quality. The wine in 
becoming exquisite had changed colour. It had been sent 
red to America and it came back with a beautiful shade 
of onion-peel. 

In external appearance these wines resemble in 
many respects those of Bordeaux and Burgundy, 
but beyond this the likeness ceases, for their intrinsic 
qualities are peculiar to themselves. With an aroma 
and bouquet that is unique, they have the animation 
of cos-vonglot without its headiness, and the smooth- 
ness of Chateau-Lafitte with more unctuousness. 

At one time they made a wine in Champagne called 
to-cane. It was sweet and was manufactured from 
very ripe grapes submitted only to a gentle pressure, 
but it would not keep more than six or seven months 
without spoiling and at last the practice of making 
it ceased altogether ; but for a time it was popular and 
the wine of Ay, in particular, enjoyed a high reputation 
as to-cane. 

France 153 

Should the reader have a penchant for controversy 
and enjoy revelling in the differences of opinions as 
given and expressed by experts on the subject, he will 
find much that is suited to his taste if he will but 
gather the sentiments of these people on the subject 
of Burgundy wine. One eminent authority openly 
promulgated his views as follows : 

About a mile south-west of Dijon begins the chain of 
hills which form the celebrated Cdte d'Or, averaging from 
eight hundred to a thousand feet in height. It is covered 
with vineyards, which ascend in terraces, and then spread 
along the table-land on the summit. The colour of the 
soil is of yellowish red, from which the name of the district 
is probably derived. Here the best Burgundy wines are 
produced. In richness of flavour and in perfume and all 
the more delicate qualities of the grape, they unquestionably 
rank as the finest in the world; and it was not without 
reason that the Dukes of Burgundy were designated as 
the " princes des bon vins." 

Another gentleman fully as well versed on the 
question as the above writes, "Next to those of 
Medoc the wines of Burgundy are the best French 
red wines," etc. Still another eminent authority 
writes that 

along the C6te there is made not only the best wine 
in the world but also the worst; that in not a single hotel 
or inn along the C6te a single bottle of Burgundian wine 
fit to be drunk by any traveller accustomed to fair wine 
is to be obtained, as we testify from personal experience; 
what is set before the traveller is cheap vin du Mide, and 
the growth of the vineyard in sight is as good as unknown. 

154 Beverages, Past and Present 

Almost every writer on the subject feds it incumbent 
upon himself to assume a partisan attitude, and this 
is especially true of English authors and travellers. 
What induces this contentious spirit is hard to say, 
but it exists even in Germany and our American 
writers have also participated in it. As regards age, 
Burgundy is probably the oldest viticultural country, 
if so we may term it, in central Europe. It was from 
here that the art of wine-making migrated to Germany 
and many parts of France. The Germans came in 
order to acquire a knowledge of the methods pursued 
and also to obtain cuttings, which were subsequently 
planted in Saxony, Bohemia, Moravia, along the 
Rhine, and up the Main. The wine also was carried 
into these countries and much farther, for it was 
exceedingly popular. Little did St. Robert de Molesme 
think in 1098 when he founded the abbey at Citeaux, 
or Sisteaux that long after the influence of the Cister- 
cian order — of which this abbey came to be the head- 
quarters and the most powerful in Europe, governing 
both in temporal and spiritual almost all of the civilised 
world — ^its wines would still call the attention of man 
to those periods when all that was connected with the 
church was prosperous beyond avarice. Such, how- 
ever, is the case, and their memory is perpetuated in 
the wines known the world over as Clos de Vougeot. 
It was the Cistercian monks who selected this beauti- 
ful site and first planted the vineyards within the 
walled fields; and it was they who studied the best 
methods of cultivation and vinification, and in turn, 
after finding the better way, instructed the people 
around them in the secrets they had acquired, not by 
magic, but by long years of hard, diflficult labour and 

France 155 

experiments. They never sold their wines, but be- 
stowed as presents upon the worthy what was not 
needed for themselves. It was never a very large 
vineyard, at present being, after considerable en- 
largement by purchase, only about one hundred and 
twenty acres in area and producing in the neighbotir- 
hood of two hundred hogdieads a year of wine. The 
abbey is now used as a penal institution for juvenile 
offenders and also as an orphanage. 

The C6te d'Or or "golden hillside" are a series of 
hills nearly thirty-six miles in length and for thirty 
miles of their extent they are one continuous vineyard. 
They begin at the upper third of the hills, never as- 
cending to the brow, and then stretch down the in- 
clination into the plain, and frequently extend for a 
mile or two in the plain itself. The better vineyards 
are all situated about the lower third of the inclines, 
and an idea of the numba: of proprietors may be had 
when it is stated that a single vineyard of fifteen acres 
is sddom met with. Even the celebrated Romanee- 
Conti and the Chambertin have less than this number. 
At one time the vines were planted to the very sum- 
mit, but they did not prove profitable and accordingly 
were allowed to decay. 

In some of the conununes the "vintage ban'* is still 
in existence, but it is not as rigidly enforced now as 
formerly and where the vineyards are enclosed it 
does not apply at all. The object of the ban was a 
protection enforced and maintained by the local 
government over the grapes from the time they com- 
menced to ripen until the beginning of vintage. The 
owner himself, except by special permit, could not 
enter his vineyard at this time, and until the inspec- 

156 Beverages, Past and Present 

tors had assembled and surveyed the diflferent fidds 
the grapes could not be gathered. It was a foolish pro- 
vision and worked more injustice than it did good. 
The vineyard that was a little more favourably situated 
and whose grapes ripened quicker had to wait for 
the slower ones, with the result that in the first vine- 
yard the grapes were often too ripe while in the others, 
owing to the close of the ban, only part of the grapes 
were available. During the revolution the Gironde 
succeeded in having this law abolished eflFectually. 
Burgundy tried the same, but was only partly suc- 
cessful, as it was restored during the restoration. 

The vintage season in this part of France, it can 
readily be surmised, is one of great importance and 
much downright hard labour. As soon as the grapes are 
collected they are put into a large vat, called haUonge^ 
placed on a waggon ; in this they are trodden down by a 
man as fast and firmly as possible. When the vat is 
full the carter dismounts, rubs his feet on the nearest 
piece of grass, puts on his boots, drives the waggon 
home, and sees the grapes put into the vat. The 
carter then returns with his ballonge until the whole 
of the harvest is at home. In this manner the great 
bulk of the Burgxmdy grapes are carried to the wine- 
house. A few, however, of the more progressive and 
particular vineyardists insist upon having their grapes 
cut and cleaned, their stalks removed, and the murk 
fermented by itself. 

The making of Burgimdy wine is often fraught with 
fatal results and is seldom devoid of serious conse- 
quences to some one connected with its manufacture. 
It is this murk, that we have mentioned, that imparts 
the colour to the wine, and during the period of fer- 

France 157 

mentation it rises to the top and forms what the French 
call the chapeau and if, upon testing, it is found that 
the wine is deficient in colour this chapeau must be 
precipitated into the vat and thoroughly mixed again 
with the wine ; and in order to accompUsh this in the 
easiest manner possible men in a state of nudity jump 
into the vats and by keeping up a steady movement 
the work is accomplished. Owing to the presence, 
though, of so much carbonic-acid gas, evolved by the 
fermentation, the men soon become deadly pale, then 
blue, their breathing fails them, and if they are not 
removed at once they are asphyxiated beyond re- 
suscitation. That this method is not necessary has 
been shown every year. The chapeau if it is kept 
submerged by wicker-work and loaded with weights 
will not spoil, and will accomplish its mission fully 
as well as by the more primitive mode. 

After the fermentation has ceased and the wine 
been drawn oflF from the larger vats the murk is sub- 
jected to another squeezing in the presses, thereby 
obtaining a second wine called piquette. This wine 
is very seldom sold, but is reserved for the working 
vignerons who, strange to say, relish it very highly, 
even though it is a most decidedly inferior article; 
but then, to reiterate, the good things must be sold 
while the poor, bad, and indifferent ones are reserved 
for home consumption. 

While we are all more or less prone to look upon 
the raising of grapes and the making of wine as a very 
happy vocation, and we picture to oursdves men, 
women, and children laughing and playing at their 
labours, and almost envy them the pleasures our im- 
agination has built for us, they are, nevertheless, far 

158 Beverages, Pist and Present 

more ideal than real and no people but the French 
would tolerate the hardships that they have had to 
endure. At one time the taxes became so excessive 
that in order to avoid them the people poured their 
wines into the rivers, for the amount levied was far 
beyond the value of the product and so excessive that 
only a few of the wealthier could aflFord to have wine 
in their possession. The pre-revolutionary days of 
France were most assuredly tr3nng times for all those 
whose interests were in any way aflFected by wine. 
Taxation and privilege amounted almost to confisca- 
tion, and espionage of the lowest order was always on 
foot. No one was safe and every possible tactic was 
resorted to in order to extort money. A partial list 
of the taxes in vogue during this epoch will read 
something as follows: tailless aides, corvies, gabellaSy 
octroi, carpot, droit de detail, le billot, le cinquhne en 
sus Vimpdt, jaugeage, courtage, gourntettage, afforage, 
potage, etc., every one of which was applied either 
directly or indirectly upon the vineyardist, and some 
of them, as for instance the corv6es, upon his labourers. 
Another feature that these people had to contend 
with was the banvin. The seigneurs had large estates^ 
upon which were one, two, or five or six vineyards. 
When the vintage season arrived and the wine was 
made the banvin was declared and no one in the 
vicinity could sell their wines for thirty or forty days. 
It did not matter to the seigneurs how many might 
be on the verge of starvation or were dependent upon 
the moneys received from their wines for sustenance 
and support. The rich man, the powerful man, must 
sell his wines first. The ecclesiastical tithes too had 
to be reckoned with and they were no small matter, 

France 159 

ranging as they did from one-twentieth to a tenth, and 
the wonder is not that the people submitted but that 
they had any vigour or manhood left in them at the 
end of a season. In The Ancient Regime, by Hippolyte 
AdolpheTaine and translated by John Durand, is this 

Meanwhile, other officials, those of the excise, descend 
into the cellar. None are more formidable, nor who 
eagerly seize on pretexts for delinquency. Let a citizen 
charitably bestow a bottle of wine on a poor fellow-creature 
and he is liable to prosecution and excessive penalties. 
. . . The poor invalid that may interest his ctirate in the 
begging of a bottle of wine for him will undergo a trial 
ruining, not alone the unfortunate man that obtains it, 
but again the benefactor who gave it to him. This is 
not a fancied story. 

By virtue of the right of deficient revenue the clerks 
may at any hour take an inventory of wine on hand, 
even the stores of a vineyard proprietor, indicate 
what he may consume, tax him for the rest and for 
the surplus quantity already drunk, the ferme thus 
associating itself with the wine-producer and claiming 
its portion of his production. In a vineyard at Epemay 
on four casks of wine, the average product of one 
arpent, and worth six hundred francs, it levies at 
first thirty francs, and then, after the sale of the four 
casks, seventy-five francs additionally. Naturally, 
** the inhabitants resort to the shrewdest and best 
planned artifices to escape " such potent rights. But 
the clerks are alert, watchful, and well-informed, 
and they pounce down unexpectedly on every sus- 
pected domicile; their instructions prescribe frequent 

i6o Beverages, Past and Present 

inspections and exact registries "enabling them to 
see at a glance the conditions of the cellar of each 

The manufacturer having paid up, the merchant 
now has his turn. The latter, on sending the four 
casks to the consumer, again pays seventy-five francs 
to the ferme. The wine is despatched and the ferine 
prescribes the roads by which it must go — should 
others be taken it is confiscated ; and at every step on 
the way some payment must be made. **A boat 
laden with wine from Languedoc, Dauphiny, or 
Roussillon, ascending the Rhone and descending the 
Loire to reach Paris, through the Briare canal, pays 
on the way, leaving out charges on the Rhone, from 
thirty-five to forty kinds of duty, not comprising the 
charges on entering Paris. It pays these at fifteen 
or sixteen places, the multiplied payments obliging 
the carriers to devote twelve or fifteen days more to 
the passage than they otherwise would if their duties 
could be paid at one bureau." The charges on the 
routes by water are particularly heavy. " From Pon- 
tarlier to Lyons there are twenty-five or thirty tolls; 
from Lyons to Aigues-Mortes there are others, so 
that whatever costs ten sous in Burgxmdy amounts 
to fifteen and eighteen sous at Lyons and over twenty- 
five sous at Aigues-Mortes." 

The wine at last reaches the barriers of the city 
where it is to be drunk. Here it pays an octroi of 
forty-seven francs per hogshead. Entering Paris it 
goes into the tapster's or innkeeper's cellar, where 
it again pays from thirty to forty francs for the duty 
on selling it at retail. At Rethel the duty is from 
fifty to sixty francs per puncheon, Rheims gauge. The 

France i6i 

total is exorbitant. **At Rennes, the dues and duties 
on a barrel of Bordeaux wine, together with a fifth 
over and above the tax, local charges, eight sous per 
pound, and the octroi, amount to more than seventy- 
two francs exclusive of the purchase money, to which 
must be added the expenses and duties advanced 
by the Rennes merchant and which he recovers from 
the purchaser, Bordeaux drayage, freight, tolls, of 
the floodgate, entrance duty into the town, hospital 
dues, fees of gangers, brokers, and inspectors. The 
total outlay for the tapster who sells a barrel of wine 
amounts to two hundred livres." We may imagine 
whether, at this price, the people of Rennes drank it, 
while these charges fall on the wine-grower, since if 
consumers do not purchase, he was unable to sell. 
Accordingly, among the small growers he was most 
to be pitied; according to the testimony of Arthur 
Young, wine-grower and misery are two synonymous 
terms. The crop often fails, ** every doubtful crop 
ruining the man without capital.*' 

" In Burgundy, in Berry, in Soissons, in the Trois- 
Eveches, in Champagne, I find in every report that 
he lacks bread and lives on alms. In Champagne, the 
syndics of Bar-sur-Ambe write that the inhabitants, 
to escape duties, have more than once emptied their 
wine into the river, the provincial assembly declaring 
that * in the greater portion of the province the slightest 
augmentation of duties wotild cause the cultivators 
to desert the soil.' Such is the history of wine under 
the ancient regime. From the producer who grows to 
the tapster who sells, what extortions, what vexations! " 

The innkeeper or tapster seems always to have had 
his share of troubles, for as early as the thirteenth 


i62 Beverages, Past and Present 

century we find him beset by a number of laws that 
would drive a man of any other nationality out of 
the business. It was Philippe-Auguste who issued 
an edict to the effect that any member of the cor- 
poration of criers could enter an inn, select his sample, 
have it poured into a lai^e wooden mug, then hie 
himself to the streets and cry, '*This is the rare wine 
they sell so cheaply at the 'Clover Leaf; come and 
taste, come and prove it." And whether it was 
agreeable to mine host or not the crier could cry his 
wines and exact his wages. At first glance this prac- 
tice seems to be rather favourable to the landlord as 
a sort of advertisement, but the crier had another 
prerogative to which the innkeeper objected most 
rigidly — ^he could fix the price at which the wine was 
to be sold and the dealer had to submit. The crier 
was compelled to visit his inn every morning and 
demand of the customers the price they were paying 
for the wine they were consuming, and if the figures 
did not agree with his public proclamation then the 
tapster began to realise something of the strong arm 
of the law. 

The landlords were simply at the crier's mercy and 
if they would not submit to the extortions imposed 
upon them they had to go out of business. Another 
feature of the traffic that was both annoying and 
exasperating was the ban le toy. This was similar 
to the banvin, previously mentioned, but in this case 
it was the king and the innkeeper who were at odds 
and the innkeeper was always the loser. When the 
king's wines were ready for the market the taverns 
had to cease selling until every drop of the royal 
beverage was disposed of either at wholesale or retail. 

France . 163 

The criers, too, for once in a year were deprived of 
their prey and they had to cry his Majesty's wines 
at a figure to suit the king's steward and not them- 
selves. These wines, of course, were sold in the most 
favourable locality for the business and it was from 
this practice that the Rue Vin-le-Roy (King's- Wine- 
Street) derived its name. The wine merchants con- 
gregated there and made it the mart and centre of the 
industry. The street was narrow and none too dean, 
but it was centrally located and abutted Rue des 
Lombards and accordingly was of easy access. After 
the king had disposed of his wine then came the 
seigneur, then the abb6. The monastery, however, had 
the best of it — ^they could sell their wines at auction 
in their cloisters, thereby avoiding all charges. 

While the poorer people were being taxed almost 
to the limit of starvation, and many were compelled to 
flee the country in order to gain a livelihood, there 
was another class, the tax-gatherers, who waxed rich 
and powerful. They amassed immense fortunes and 
lived in the utmost luxury; they rivalled the nobility 
and the court in their entertainments. They built 
princely hotds and had residences that were the 
admiration of every one. At Rheims they built the 
Hotel des Fermes, the most handsome civil edifice, 
except the town-hall, in the city. It was erected in 
1756 from designs by Legendre and it occupies to-day 
the principal site of Place Royal. 

In the year 1225, so the story goes, a courtier of 
Queen Blanche of Castile, known by the name of 
Gaspard de Sterimberg, wishing to retire from active 
life and not having a fancy for religious isolation, 
built for himself a retreat. He selected a site on the 

i64 Beverages, Past and Present 

left border of the Rhone in the commtine of Tain. 
The place was a hill composed of granitic soil and the 
aspect was most drear. Neighbours there were none 
and vegetation was meagre and scant. The place 
was a veritable hermitage and so the people termed it. 
Gaspard, however, it seems was pleased with his 
abode, and its solitude, and spent the balance of his 
life there. At first he amused himself by breaking 
the rocks to pieces and then as a matter of experiment 
he planted a few grape-vines, and these much to his 
astonishment prospered far beyond his expectation; 
so he broke more rocks and planted more vines imtil 
at last he had enough for wine-making, and the bal- 
ance of the story has now become history, for it is 
from this humble beginning that the celebrated Her- 
mitage wines were started. 

The vineyard, even to-day, does not exceed three 
himdred acres and is subdivided into many holdings, 
yet small as it is its fame has reached every com- 
munity where wine is drunk. Two kinds of wine are 
made here, red and white, but it is the white wine 
which has made the vineyard famous. This wine 
will keep indefinitdy — ^fifty years is as two or three to 
it — and so popular has it become it is bought up years 
ahead of its making. The grape from which this 
wine is made bears the name Sirrah or Ceras and it 
is claimed that the cuttings were brought from Shiraz, 
Persia, many hundred years ago, but whether this is 
true or not is difficult to say. 

The red wines have by no means the value of the 
white and their chief use, owing to their strength, is 
in blending with other wines of a weaker nature. Be- 
sides the main vineyard there are quite a number of 

France 165 

others in dose proximity, and in order to distinguish 
them they are called crozes. Their output, however, 
is almost entirely composed of red wine which is 
exceedingly fiery and heady, but h^ great finesse 
and a grand bouquet. When the wine is five years 
old it is bottled and in a year or two is ready, but it 
will keep for a much longer period. The arrondisse- 
ment of Beaujolais is another important wine centre 
of France as is also Chalon-sur-Saone ; it was from the 
latter place that the wine of Mercury came. This 
wine had for many years a great reputation, but to-day 
it is very seldom heard of. 

Although France has for many years led the world 
in its production of wine, and wine is an exceedingly 
common beverage, it is by no means the only drink 
of the French people. There is another very agree- 
able liquor for which the country is celebrated and 
of which millions of gallons are made every year. The 
French call this beverage cidre; we transpose the final 
letters and call it cider, but, although we in America 
make a large quantity of it, we do not begin to manu- 
facture or consume it as extensivdy as do the people 
of France. 

During that period of history when the kings of 
Navarre made Normandy their place of residence the 
apple-tree, it is thought, was introduced into France 
from Spain, and the art of cider-making was taught 
the people. The similarity of the Spanish cidra to 
the French cidre gives a touch of credence to this 
story which renders it quite plausible. 

The Norman, however, gives very little attention to 
the introduction of the apple-tree into his country. 
What interests him most is the fact that it is there 

1 66 Beverages, Past and Present 

and has become an essential part of his existence. 
He is very fond of it and speaks affectionately of it as 
"C'arbre de mon pays" and why should he not? for 
whether in its spring or summer, autumn or winter 
dress, it is an ornament to the cotmtry, can readily 
be conceived, and its fruit fills storeroom, cellar, and 
kitchen; it feeds man and beast, and finally serves 
for manure ; and in short is a tree particularly import- 
ant to Normandy. 

The apples that are not consumed as table fruit or 
exported are pressed and yield cider, the wine of the 
province. Such as are not fit for cider serve for 
making eau de pomme (brandy) or vinegar. The 
pomace, or pulp from which the juice has been pressed, 
supplies fodder for cattle; mixed with vegetable mould 
it forms a capital manure for poor lands; and in dis- 
tricts where wood is scarce, this substance is dried 
and used in the following year for fuel. Surdy with 
all these useful attributes, and the final end of the 
tree itsdf in fuel, furniture, pipes, and various im- 
plements, the Norman is justified in calling it **the 
tree of his country." 

Some idea of the quantity of cider made and the 
part it plays as a beverage can be had from an account 
given of a visit to the H6pital du bon Sauveur at 
Caen by Mr. George M. Musgrave, M.A., and described 
in his Rambles through Normandy. He writes : 

I have mentioned the cider, however. The whole of 
this beverage is made on the premises, in a press of great 
power, from the tanks of which it is pumped into narrow 
wooden conduits, or shoots, leading into the reservoir. 
This reservoir is a large, massive stone building, detached 
from the press by an interval of about six feet, and com- 

France 167 

prises two enormous chambers, the granite walls of which 
are a yard in thickness, and surmounted by a covered 
roof in which is a " man-hole, " covered with a slab, for the 
purpose of enabling the masons to enter at any time for 
repairs, or of sounding the depth of the liquor remaining 
in the reservoir. Very fortunately for my object, a dis- 
covery had been made towards the end of July which 
required that all the cider still remaining in one of these 
chambers shotdd be drawn off into pipes, to enable the 
bricklayers to take down part of the roof, which, from 
some defect in the cement (arising possibly from the 
action of malic acid) , had begun to sink downward. Hence 
on my arrival the vast retort was dry; the rcbinet, or tap, 
had been removed from the extremity where it opened 
into the hall of entrance, or vestibule, together with the 
ponderous mass of iron panel and its ten huge rivets, in 
which the said tap was inserted. The orifice thus left was 
large enough to enable me to creep through; which, after 
taking off my coat, and giving it into the hands of my 
conductress and a servant who had come to draw the 
cider from the second reservoir, I immediately did; to the 
great astonishment and delight of the two beholders. I 
thought of Belzoni in the Pyramids 1 I found myself 
in an apartment thirty-two feet long, eighteen feet wide, 
and eighteen in height, paved with granite, and exhibiting 
all the strength and solidity of a casemate rather than a 
tank for liquor. The great Tun of Heidelberg measures, 
I believe, thirty feet in length, and twenty in depth. But 
it is made of wood, and its inside measure cannot, in this 
case, exceed twenty-eight in length, and eighteen in height. 
It is twelve feet wide in its extreme diameter. It is stated 
to contain 800 hogsheads of wine, but some accounts 
mention 283,000 bottles. Allowing a pint and a half to 
each bottle and fifty-four gallons to the hogshead, the 
latter estimate would make a total of 983 hogsheads. This 
is too large a quantity for the dimensions of the Tun which 

i68 Beverages, Past and Present 

I saw in 1849. I conceive 800 is the correct figure. Each 
of the two mighty reservoirs above mentioned contains 
190,000 French litres, which amount to somewhat more 
than 878 hogsheads; and a dozen youths might be taught 
to swim in this " peerless pool " of apple-juice. I noticed 
seven iron bars extending like "ties" from side to side, 
at about eight feet from the dome, and the same number at 
about six feet from the level of the pavement; but I sur- 
mise these have nothing to do with the security of the 
building; they are, in all probability, to enable workmen 
to lay boards on when entering at any time for repairs, 
or to remove the deposits of feculent matter from the 
bottom. These vast depots are insignificant in comparison 
with those at great public works — ^with the vats, for 
instance, standing like castles at Whitbread's or Barclay's 
breweries — ^but, for an establishment of twelve hundred 
and fifty consumers, the two reservoirs I saw on this oc- 
casion are a handsome provision, giving to each person 
upwards of a pint and a half daily throughout the year, 
and reserving more than ninety-six pipes in store. On 
my reappearance, heels foremost, through the narrow 
aperture, and after a shake or two to get rid of lime and 
rubble dust, I tasted the cider drawn from the vast bulk 
suppljdng the "robinet" in action. As I expected, there 
was considerable "body" in it; but, though disciplined by 
six years' residence in Somerest and Devon, I thought the 
roughness excessive. The nun said those who were fond 
of cider liked this kind very much, and found it very 
wholesome. "Things sweet to taste prove in digestion 
sour, " only too often; and I dare say the fair tapster was 

This rough cider the French call cidre piquant and 
it is almost superfluous to add the Americans know it 
better by the term "hard cider." Cidre doux is new 
cider which is often bottled for a short journey. Cidre 

France 169 

dHui is made from a second pressing of the pomace 
after it has been soaked in water, and is better known 
as le boisson, though this term — boisson — ^answers for 
almost any style of beverage that has been weakened 
by water, as for instance grape-water — ^weak wine — 
weak cider, and in the navy it is applied to a mixture 
of vinegar and water. Petit cidre is another and per- 
haps the better name for it, meaning the same, 
while it is also analogous to the English ciderkin. 

Clairette perhaps may make the English reader 
think somewhat of claret, but it has very little wine 
about it. It is a home-made champagne and its 
principal ingredient is cidre, being a great holiday 
drink among the peasantry, and no Christmas dinner 
is complete without it. In rank it is almost as im- 
portant as vin cue in the more southern portions of the 
country. This vin cue is a very old beverage, dating 
to the time of the Romans, and is often referred to 
by their writers. Martial in particular mentions it as 
"Cocta fumis musta Massiliensis." 

The unfermented juice of the grape is boiled for 
fifteen minutes, skimming all the time, after which it 
is poured into earthen pans and allowed to stand 
twenty-four hours, when it is again poured into a 
caldron and boiled down one-half — or less, or more, 
according to the sweetness desired. It is then cooled 
in earthen pans and when thoroughly cold is bottled 
and sealed. 

In many parts of France the cherry-tree forms an 
important feature of the landscape and also enters 
into the economy of the household in many ways, 
one being in the form of vin de cerise. When properly 
and carefully made and then given a proper time to 

I70 Beverages, Past and Present 

mature vin de cerise or cherry wine makes a most 
pleasant and wholesome beverage. The making of it, 
however, is tiresome owing to the labour of extracting 
the pits or stones ; for if these are allowed to remain 
and a few become broken during the process they 
impart a bitter taste to the liquor. When cherries are 
very plentiful and can be procured easily people who 
have stills turn them into ratafia de cerise or cherry 
brandy. This is quite an industry in many parts of 
the cotmtry and there is always enough to supply 
foreign markets. 

With more than two thousand different varieties 
of wine, and with vineyards almost beyond enumera- 
tion and the art of the distiller brought to an exactness 
that removes all doubt and questions, it would be 
natural to suppose that the people within the gates 
of this favoured land would be satisfied with the bever- 
ages so plentifully furnished them. But no! there 
are many to whom wine is repugnant and by whom 
the stronger drinks cannot be tolerated, and in order 
to supply the demands of these people, beverages of 
a non-intoxicating nature must be furnished; and it 
is not only they who make a steady use of these light 
drinks, but the wine and brandy consumers too like 
occasionally to turn to them as a change, and a havar- 
oise often proves most acceptable. There are three 
ways of making havaroise, or perhaps it would be more 
correct to say there are three kinds of this beverage, 
the ingredients consisting either of tea, or chocolate 
in small proportions, a liberal supply of water sweetened 
with a syrup, such as raspberry, strawberry, pineapple 
or in fact any kind that may be convenient. 

Another refreshing beverage is mazagran, made of 

France 171 

cold coffee and seltzer water and served in a glass. 
This drink when prepared in right proportions and at 
the proper degree of coldness has a wonderful effect 
on a warm day. It quenches the thirst and is also 
invigorating. Limondes gazeuses is another whole- 
some summer drink, as all who have ever drunk lem- 
onade and seltzer can testify. These are all pleasant 
drinks of which one can partake without a strange 
sensation; but when it comes to coco, then the adult 
palate needs a course of training, that is rarely suc- 
cessful, for while children may have a strong liking 
for it man seldom cares for it. Coco is a snare and 
a deception; from its name it would be supposed to 
have some relation to cocoa or chocolate, but such is 
not the case, for coco is manufactured from Spanish 
licorice and American sassafras steeped in water. 
"A most hilarious concoction," a noted Englishman 
said after he had been beguiled into drinking a glass 
of it. The reverse of coco is vin de gingembre, or 
ginger wine. This is a fine beverage and when served 
cold is very palatable. In the same category is eau- 
de-groseille, but to obtain this in its perfection it is 
necessary to go into the cotintry, where gooseberries 
grow and where the people will make it for their own 
use. The beverage that bears this name and is sold 
in the cities is most inferior to the home-made article. 
There are still another class of beverages that are 
made in France and which as an item of trade are 
only second to that of wine. 

These are the liqueurs, those cordials so made that 
even their sweetness appeals to every palate; their 
ingredients so subtilely blended that to distinguish 
one from another even the tongue of the epicure proves 

172 Beverages, Past and Present 

at fault. While these liqueurs have had a very im- 
portant part in making France famous as a country 
of beverages, it must not be forgotten that if the 
country did not furnish the fine wines and brandies, 
the manufacture of the cordials would be almost im- 
possible, and instead of having the reputation which 
they have at present they could never have arisen 
above the mediocre. The making of liqueurs is of a 
very ancient origin but, as with wine, the bringing of 
them to perfection is due to the efforts of the various 
religious orders. As a rule this can be explained on 
the basis of cost, for were wages paid to the monks, the 
same as would be done in any commercial house, 
the progress of betterment of wares would prove slow 
indeed. The monks in their frugality require but 
little, and time to them is of small value. 

Again generally they are men of brains and educa- 
tion, trained to think and study deeply, and, while 
they no doubt appreciate success in their efforts as 
much as their lay brothers, a failure complete or 
partial does not mean as much to them as it would to 
their brothers outside the walls. Others are not 
directly dependent upon them for an existence and 
they can proceed along their chosen path tintil at last 
they have arrived at the goal of perfection; then they 
can teach others the secret knowledge they have 
gained. In respect to wine-growing and wine-making 
this they have done, perhaps not always cheerfully 
and more often through necessity, but the fact remains 
that they have done so, and comment needs go no 
further. In the matter of liqueurs and cordials, 
however, the tale is different: their manufacture can 
be carried on within closed doors, and while the outside 

France 173 

world may gamer a little knowledge as to the herbs 
and plants that enter into these liquors they can go 
no further. The cunning of the chemist, too, fails him ; 
for, though he may ascertain every ingredient used 
and may also arrive closely at their quantities, this 
is not all, for there still remains the blending, the 
curing of the herbs and plants, the age of the brandy, 
the time to rest in bulk, the temperature, and many 
other details, small, perhaps, in themselves but to 
neglect even one means failure. The secret of manu- 
facture, therefore, is easy to maintain and to wrest 
it from an unwilling maker is impossible. This fact 
the government of France fully realises, and, while 
there are many monasteries within her borders 
making liqueurs, she no longer tries either by art or 
force to gain an insight into the mysteries of the 

Of all the famous liqueurs made in France none can 
approach those made by the Carthusian monks in 
their monastery near Grenoble, for it is these people 
who make the Chartreuse liqueurs, those world-famous 
green, white, and yellow cordials to be found wherever 
civilisation has placed its advancing feet. It was in 
the year 1600 that Marshall d'Esress gave the then 
poor Carthusians the formula and full directions for 
making the liqueurs that bear their name, and little 
did he think that in four hundred years the order would 
be offered and would accept the enormous sum of 
three million dollars for his little piece of paper. Yet 
this is what they did receive only a few years ago, 
— not exactly for d'Esress's receipt, for it was not until 
1775 ^^* ^ brother of the order, Gerome Maubec, 
who in civil life had been an apothecary, prepared it to 

174 Beverages, Past and Present 

stdt the more modem methods, and it is his recipe» 
which has been followed exactly to the letter ever 
since, that was sold. 

The sale of Chartreuse has always been an important 
feature in the budget of France and the revenue that 
the government has derived from it amotmts to many 
thousands of dollars every year. It was the Car- 
thusian order which for more than twenty-five years 
practically supported the French national college 
of Santa Chiara at Rome, for the education of the 
French clergy, and* it was through the sale of these 
liqueurs that they were enabled so to do. It is stated 
by good authority that the profit derived from Char- 
treuse was over two million dollars per anntun, and 
if this is true — and there is no reason to doubt it — the 
price paid by the English syndicate of three million 
dollars was from a commercial standpoint a very small 
figure indeed. The reason for the sale of the recipe 
was a misunderstanding between the order and the 
government and covers a period of many years. At 
last the monks, tired and discouraged, parted with 
their secret and went to a place near Tarragona in 
Spain. There they tried to make their liqueurs, 
but there was something lacking. The finished 
product did not maintain the standard established 
more than a hundred years ago. On the other hand 
the people at Le Grand Chartreuse were having 
trouble, what they made being also inferior; finally 
the government, not liking the loss to its revenue, 
and the monks, having the same feelings, came to 
an understanding by which they could return 
in a lay capacity and restmie the manufacture. 
They did so some three years ago (1905) and 

France 175 

resumed charge, much to the satisfaction of all 

There is one feature in the wine trade of France that 
gives the local governments considerable trouble and 
is a constant source of warfare between the authorities 
and a certain class of people who for the want of a 
better name may be called smugglers. These are the 
people who try to evade paying the octroi, and the 
expedients to which they resort and the devices they 
use for this purpose are numerous and in many cases 
ingenious. The records are full of accounts of the 
tricks successful and otherwise that have been played 
to outwit the watchers. One very clever device, that 
was successful for how long a period none can tell, is 
here given : 

A number of men clad as carpenters and carrying a 
large beam upon their shoulders would approach, and 
owing to their umocent appearance were not halted. They 
then proceeded quietly on their way. One day, after 
having made several trips past the guard and equipped 
as described, one of the fellows tripped; this caused the 
beam to fall, whereupon the whole lot of them took to their 
heels and disappeared around the comer. The watchers 
in astonishment hurried to the huge stick, and their chagrin 
can be imagined when upon approaching it they saw a 
goodly sized stream of wine flowing from a hole near the 
end. The beam was hollow almost its full length and held 
quite a number of gallons, in fact more than enough to 
pay the smugglers for the risk, and as they made several 
trips each day and had been doing so for an indefinite 
period their cleverness had been well rewarded. 

The stout man with a very large stomach was also suc- 
cessful for a time, and when he was caught every man 
above the normal had to undergo a very close scrutiny in 

1 76 Beverages, Past and Present 

order to pass the guards. The covered waggon with a false 
roof made many a journey before its lining began to leak 
and thereby betray its owner. 

Pages could be filled with the exploits of these 
daring people, but sufficient has been written to show 
that sometimes these alert watchers meet their equals, 
and when they do the revenue is injured. During 
the Algerian war which lasted from 1844 to 1847, the 
French soldiers were advised to mix absinthe with 
their wine as a febrifuge. The mixture proved to be 
most successful and enabled the troops to withstand 
the hot African stm far better than their predecessors. 
But when the war was over and the necessity for the 
use of absinthe had ceased the soldiers refused to 
recognize this fact, and on their return to the home 
country brought with them the habit and use of the 
beverage. At this time, however, absinthe was in its 
purity and as an apero or apertif it could not be ex- 
celled. According to the best authorities it was made 
of artemisia absenthium, archangelica officinalis, acorns^ 
calamus, origanum dictamnus, illicium anistaum, and 
other aromatics which were macerated in alcohol. 
After soaking for eight days the compound was dis- 
tilled, yielding an emerald-coloured liqueur, to which 
was added a small proportion of an essential oil, 
usually that of anise. 

This formula constitutes the genuine French extraii 
(Tahsenthe and when used in moderation and tmder 
advice is a most valuable liquor. At first its use was 
confined to a very smaH proportion of the population, 
the soldiers and a few others, and it was not until the 
late seventies that the drinking of absinthe began to 

France 177 

attract the attention of the government, but it was 
then too late ; the evil was thoroughly established and 
its remedy is yet to be found. With the ever-in- 
creasing demand for the beverage came also adult- 
erations, some of which were extremely poisonous. 
Tumeric and indigo and even cupric sulphate (blue 
vitriol) have been used to give the colour, and as for 
herbs, only the long list of adulterators can furnish 
any information as to what they used as substitutes. 
The drinking of absinthe in France has become almost 
tmiversal; no class or condition is exempt from the 
habit ; the rich man in his dub and the poor man at 
some other place imbibe it freely and, sad to say, too 
often in excess. The current literature of France is re- 
plete with accounts of the havoc it has caused, and is 
causing, and societies are forming in order to effect the 
total abolishment of the liquor by prohibiting its man- 
ufacture and restricting its importation. Had the bev- 
erage remained in its purity, perhaps the result would 
have been different but it was so easfly adulterated 
successfully, the wonder is that the genuine article is 
still in existence. 

VOL. II— X a 



ALTHOUGH it is but a motmtain range that 
separates France from Spain, yet when the 
Pyrenees have been crossed the traveller finds 
that, while the distance has been short and the line of 
boundary imaginary, the change is great. He quickly 
realises that he is in an «itirely different country: 
the people have changed, the language has taken a 
different soimd, the climate too seems softer, and he 
is in the land of Don and Cid, of bull-fights and wine. 
According to Herodotus it was the Phocaeans, a branch 
of the Ionian Greeks settled in Asia Minor, who first 
opened to the Greek world this remote region of the 
extreme West. The Greeks called this land Iberia | 
later on the Romans spoke of it as Hispania. To the 
Greeks it had hitherto been a land of mystery and 
enchantment, imagined to be the home of the setting 
sun, and known only by the reports of the hardy, 
adventurous Phoenician mariners. The hero-god Her- 
cules, it was fabled, had left traces of his presence and 
mighty workings here, and the twin rocks at the en- 
trance of the Mediterranean were called by his name, 
"The Pillars of Hercules "—the ** world's end to the 
Greeks, nothing but the aU-encircling ocean-river 
lying beyond." 


Spain 179 

The Greeks if they attempted anything toward 
the settlement of Spain accomplished very little, and 
the Romans until the third century B.C. had but a 
vague idea of the land. It was about the time of the 
first war between Rome and Carthage, which occurred 
between the years 264-241 B.C., that the Iberian 
peninsula became prominent historically. Of course 
Spain is a much older cotmtry than this epoch. We can 
find many scattering allusions to it in ancient writings 
and we know that the Iberians sent an embassy to 
Alexander the Great, nearly a himdred years before, 
but the war was really the beginning of Spanish annals. 

Almost from the beginning, it may be said, Spain 
had a good reputation for her wines. The olden 
authors and chroniclers refer to them very often, but 
as was their habit one and all neglected to give any 
reliable information as to where the vines came from. 
As with France their introduction into Spain is ascribed 
to the Phocaeans, based upon the fact that they were 
the first people, after the autochthones, there ; but in 
the Histiria de Espatuiy written by Juan de Mariana 
and published in 1601-9, the claim is made that the 
vine was brought into Spain by Tubal, the son of 
Japheth, who, according to Mariana, was the first 
man to settle within this territory after the flood. 
Should this be true then the claims for the Phocaeans 
are of little worth. 

More recently, though, and since viticulture has be- 
come of greater value, attracting the attention of leamed 
men and scholars, the assertion has been made that the 
grape-vine was and is indigenous to Spain. Simon 
Roxas Clemente, director of the Royal Botanical 
Gardens at Madrid, in his work on the vines of Anda- 

i8o Beverages, Past and Present 

lusia describes how in the lower parts of the district, 
where there are sources of sweet water not far from 
the surface of the earth, the wild vine forms impene- 
trable thickets, grottoes, covered walks, winding 
footpaths, walls, arches, pillars, and by means of other 
plants, particularly trees, other original shapes, which 
it is impossible to describe. He further says that in 
the neighbourhood of Algoida, near Sanbucas de Bar- 
rameda, there grow in the wild state different kinds 
of vines which are perfectly characterised. He refers 
to their varying ages, and points out that the young 
plants have the same characteristics as the older ones. 
From this he further argues that they have probably 
preserved these same hereditary traits through an in- 
conceivable series of centuries, during which countless 
generations have been propagated by seed. Again he 
states that it is impossible to prove by any document 
that a vine had ever been planted in this neighbour- 
hood — ^the southern part of the district — ^in former 
times. He made a very exhaustive study of the ques- 
tion in all its varying phases and, while his contentions 
cannot be proven absolutely, he nevertheless has made 
them very plausible and difficult of refutation. 

While, in respect to age, the wines of Catalonia 
and Valencia are undoubtedly the most ancient and 
were held in high esteem by the old writers of both 
Roman and Grecian history, the great wine of Spain 
for several centuries and unto liie present time is 
sherry, which, properly speaking, should be called jV- 
rez, having derived its name from the city Jerez de la 
Frontera. When this wine was first made it was of a 
red colour and possessed many fine qualities of which 
the people were justly proud. There are numerous 

Spain i8i 

mentions in the old writings of this wine, almost every 
one of which plainly states its colour and all agree as to 
its excellence. 

The sherry of to-day, dark brown, light brown, am- 
ber, and pale amber, is in a sense a modem wine, for 
it was not tmtil the sixteenth century the wines so 
called were made and marketed. In fact, it may be 
said that even the red jerez is quite modem, for it 
antedates the regular wine a few htmdred years, as its 
installation, according to historical facts, occurred in 
the early part of the thirteenth century ; though far 
beyond this epoch, and dating as far back as the time 
of King Solomon, we find mention of grapes growing 
in this vicinity, but no reference is made as to their 
having produced wine. 

Andalusia at this time was known to the Phoenicians 
and Hebrews as Tarshish, and the fact that Hiram, 
King of Tyre, who built David's palace and furnished 
the cedars and firs for the temple and also the workmen 
as well as the gold used to decorate it, was willing to 
accept a large annual payment of wine and oil, proves 
almost beyond question that the colony of Tarshish 
did not make wine. Or if it was manufactured the 
quantity was so small it did not deserve notice. Prior 
to the advent of the Moors this town bore the name 
of Asido, which Pliny mentions on several occasions. 
The change of name, so it is said, came* about 
through a misunderstanding or poor articulation. 
When the Moors had conquered the town one of 
them asked a native its name and he in reply said 
Caesaris Ashido. The invader caught the sound 
sherish and told his companions that this was the 
name, which was immediately adopted and has been 

i82 Beverages, Past and Present 

in effect ever since, whether the incident happened 
or not. 

This part of Spain is full of romance and history 
and the vineyards of Jerez have played many a r61e. 
It was on a little hill, on the ground now occupied by 
these celebrated vineyards, that Don Roderick and 
his valiant army of Christian soldiers were overcome 
by the Moors, but the vineyards were not there at the 
time. But when Alfonso el Sabio more than five 
hundred years later succeeded in wresting the town 
from its Moorish inhabitants, vineyards in fine order 
abounded, and he gave, as a reward to his caballeros 
del feudo, six acres of ground already planted and 
bearing grapes and six acres more, so that they could, 
if they wished, double their holdings. 

Twenty years afterwards, during the reign of Al- 
fonso's rebellious son Sancho el Bravo, Jerez was 
besieged by a Moorish army, the king of Granada 
making a desperate attempt to recover the city which 
had been taken from him. The record of the opera- 
tions of the besiegers has been translated from the 
Arabic and published by the Spanish Royal Academy 
of History, and this throws a side-light on the situa- 
tion of the vineyards at the period of the siege. 

The document relates that Yussuf crossed the river 
Guaddete and encamped his army between "the vine- 
yards and the gardens." This would be on the oppo- 
site side of the river to where the grand and beautiful 
monastery was subsequently erected. The encamp- 
ment was a mistake, as no impression could be made 
on the city from this side, and therefore the whole 
army had to move to the waste lands lying between 
the city and San Lucar. These topographical remarks 

Spain 183 

certainly carry with them the inference that viti- 
culture, in the latter part of the thirteenth century, 
was confined to the south and south-east of Jerez and 
the vineyards to which this locality now owes its 
renown were not then in existence. After the restora- 
tion of peace, however, the feudal knights or their 
descendants began the development of this waste land, 
availing themselves of Alfonso's grant, and it is readily 
surmised that it was then the famous pagos to the north 
and westward were planned and planted, completing 
the circle of vineyards arotmd the city. 

From this small beginning there has been an almost 
constant and steady growth. About the year 1825 
it was estimated that there were seven hundred acres 
devoted to vineyards, and fifty years later these had 
been increased to twenty-five hundred. The area 
now includes San Lucar in the north, Port St. Mary 
in the south, and Jerez in the east. One of the pe- 
culiar features of this region is the great difference 
that exists in the soil. 

Through a complete chemical analysis four varieties, 
each distinct, have been found that are suitable for grape- 
growing, but each kind develops an entirely different wine, 
though the grape originally may have been of the same 
species. On the river banks, the border of streams, and 
the lower slopes of acclivities, the soil consists of dark 
brown loamy sand known in this region as bugeo. Vines 
planted in bugeo jdeld an abundant crop and a correspond- 
ing quantity of wine which, on the whole, is coarse and 

Over a large extent of territory which includes the im- 
mediate vicinity of Jerez, all the plains surrounding San 
Lucar and Rota, and the ground on the far side of Arcos» 

1 84 Beverages, Past and Present 

the soil is little better than sand, as is denoted by its name 
arenas. All this soil is very productive of fruit, but the 
wine is generally very thin and serves principally for local 
consumption. On the other hand the manzaniUa, which 
is also a product of this sandy soil, although somewhat 
deficient in body, develops an exquisite bouquet and, when 
once the palate has become accustomed to its slight harsh 
and bitter taste, is preferred by many even to the roxmder 
and fuller ^n^5 of Jerez. Much more restricted in extent is 
the barras, which consists of sandy quartz mixed with 
lime and oxide of iron. Vines planted in the barras yield 
wine of good, sound, useful quality, which steadily im- 
proves with age, and is inferior only to the product of the 
vineyards which are planted in the albariza. This whitish 
soil consists of carbonate of lime and silex, and the most 
favoured vineyards are those planted in it. Directly north 
of the city and visible from the numerous miradores is an 
amphitheatre of low hills and it is on the slopes and ridges 
of this small range that the albariza soil is to be found, and 
in this soil grow the vines which produce amoniiUado 
and olorosos, to which sherry principally owes its great 

The luscious pajarete is also another of the grand 
wines of this soil, but owing to this quality pajarete 
is more of a ladies' wine, being too rich for gouty men. 
This wine is the product of the Pedro Jimmenez grape, 
cuttings of which, so the story tells, were carried 
from Cyprus to Madeira in order to protect them from 
the Moors when they were exterminating the vine- 
yards in the Mediterranean island. Later on shoots 
of the plant from Madeira were transplanted to the 
banks of the Rhine and from thence into southern 
Spain by the way of Malaga. 

The period of the vintage is one of care, anxiety, and 

Spain 185 

hard labour and differs in many ways from that fol- 
lowed elsewhere. After the grapes have been gathered 
they are spread out on matting for several days, during 
which they are repeatedly turned so as to allow the 
immature ones to ripen. After this they are carefully 
picked, removing all the over-ripe and imperfect ones 
and, as they are selected, they are lightly sprinkled 
over with gypsum, by which the watery and acetous 
particles are absorbed and corrected. After sundown 
the treading is begun. This is necessary for two 
reasons, the first of which is that the air becomes much 
cooler and the men can stand the exertion much better. 
The second reason is told in one word — ^wasps! The 
grapes attract these little though mighty pests by the 
thousands, and it is not imtil the sun has set, when 
they too go to rest, that the men can safely work. The 
treaders are only half clad and on their feet have heavy 
shoes with projecting iron nails. Round and round 
they go in the press and as they tread the juice runs 
down through a little channel into barrels. 

After these barrels are nearly full a large funnel is 
inserted into the bunghole ; fermentation quickly en- 
sues and the ftmnel is soon filled with a dense bubbling 
fluid having the consistency and much the appearance 
of coffee-grounds. When this has been completed 
the musto is put into clean casks, which are loaded 
on to waggons drawn by oxen and conveyed into Jerez. 
The residue of skins, stems, and pips are put into 
another trough and after adding water are subjected 
to pressure, making a second wine, which naturally is 
very inferior. It always happens that different kinds 
of wine are obtained from the same grapes grown in 
the same vineyard and subject to the same treatment. 

i86 Beverages, Past and Present 

From the same grapes come the mellow (hechos), light 
(finos), and bouquet {ploroso). 

Some of the wines are so bad they are sold as vinegar 
or burned for alcohol. After the wine has reached the 
bodega every btmg is slackened for slow fermentation, 
which is allowed to continue for four and sometimes 
five years, during which period a layer of fiores or 
mycoderma vini forms on the surface, the greater the 
thickness of which, the more finesse will the wine 
develop. Young sherry, or perhaps, as it might be 
said, sherry in its youth is liable to constant perturba- 
tion and is therefore a most unwholesome beverage ; 
but when it has reached maturity without the aid of 
the "doctor," it becomes a beverage that, as Shake- 
speare says, is — *'the warming of the blood." 

Until one has visited the great bodegas of Jerez he 
can never form a full idea of their immensity. The 
bodega takes the place of a wine cellar in other coun- 
tries but, instead of being beneath the surface of the 
soil, they are built upon it and are, in a sense, only 
enclosed sheds. In size they naturally vary, but as a 
general rule they are much larger than one would 
expect. In fact a building with a capacity of a thou- 
sand barrels is very small. To inspect a bodega of five 
thousand barrels' capacity and to mingle among casks ' 
and butts holding wine that was made from fifty to a 
hundred years ago is a most interesting experience, 
provided the weather is cool. It is owing to this 
custom of keeping the wine for many years that com- 
pels the proprietors to build such immense structures. 
The largest bodegas have a capacity of from eight to 
twelve thousand butts of wine and, as every butt con- 
tains three ordinary barrds of forty-two gallons each. 

Spain 187 

the amount of wine under pne roof is something enor- 
mous and represents htmdreds of thousands of dollars. 
In round figures a large bodega is about one hundred 
and fifty feet wide and seven hundred feet deep, and a 
journey up and down their numerous aisles makes a 
good morning's walk. 

Next in the point of estimation come the wines 
from the province of Granada, particularly that of 
Malaga, termed Axaquia. This district is very moun- 
tainous, and the climate being exceedingly warm and 
moist enables the vines to produce three crops of 
grapes every year. The first harvest occurs in June 
and is used for raisins exclusively. In September the 
second vintage takes place and jridds a dry wine 
somewhat resembling sherry. The third and last 
vintage comes during the latter part of October and 
extends into November. This is the vintage that 
yields the wines known as Malagas, which are classified 
as follows: i Pedro Ximenes^ made from the wine of 
the same name; they are delicate wines, with much 
bouquet, but less body than that of jerez. 2. Coloured 
wines. These while young have a dark amber colour 
and much saccharine. With age they lose the sweet- 
ness in part, become fine and spirituous, and acquire 
an extraordinary and characteristic bouquet. They 
are the true Malaga wines of trade, to which the place 
owes its reputation. They keep above a century 
and do not deteriorate in bottles or casks which are 
only partially filled. Their price begins with thirty 
dollars a butt and rises to a thousand dollars and more 
according to age. 3. Muscatel ; of these two varieties 
are distinguished, namely Malaga-muscatel and **drip" 
or tear muscat. 4. Cherry wines, being liqueur wines, 

1 88 Beverages, Past and Present 

in which acid cherries or morellas have been steeped. 
5. Dry white wines resembling sherries. 6. Malvasie, 
resembling Madeiras. 7. Coloured, mostly very dark, 
sweet and strong wines. 

In olden times they used to make a wine, here, 
which was called "bastard." It was an exceedingly 
sweet wine and was probably made from the bastardo 
grape, thus deriving its name. There was also an 
ancient practice of putting roasted peas into wine, 
which gave rise to the saw **E1 vino de las pesas dalo 
a quien bein quieras" — **give the wine of peas to 
him you regard." This addition was considered to 
impart a better flavour and also to make the wine 

A wine that is much used by all classes in Spain is 
that called val-de-penas, tinto y bianco, — red and white. 
Unfortunately where this wine is grown wood is ex- 
tremely scarce, and in order to transport the wine the 
odre has to be used and these skins, whether pitched 
or not, impart a flavour to their contents which at 
first is very disagreeable to those unaccustomed to it. 

To store the wine immense jars, made of day and 
called in Spanish tinejas, are used. They vary in 
size from eight himdred gallons up, and in order to 
reach their mouths steps have to be built; at their 
bottom cocks are introduced so as to facilitate the 
drawing off of the wine. Sometimes these tinejas are 
built or placed in caves and cellars which, while they 
have the appearance and would lead to the belief that 
they were formed by natural means, are nevertheless 
the handiwork of the people. Some of these grottoes 
are very large and contain a large number of clay 
vessels all filled with vino moro, or in other words wine 

Spain 189 

that has never been baptised, and it is only here that 
the wine can be had in this condition. 

In transporting it in the skins, the drivers or niide- 
teers invariably lay tribute upon their freight and in 
order to conceal the depredation put in the place of 
the wine an equal amount of water, thereby in their 
vernacular baptising it. Oftentimes the wine is stored 
in these skins, and in some of the bodegas there it is 
no unusual sight to behold from five thousand to ten 
thousands of these gruesome objects all under one 
roof ; and, aside from the unpleasant sight, the odour 
arising often proves too much for, the uninitiated 
nostrils — ^particularly so upon a hot day. 

In and around the vicinity of Benicarlo they make 
a kind of wine which has been known for many years 
as "black strap." As one authority on the question 
put it, **it is when new as thick as ink and its chief 
use is to make what the trade calls Curious old port" 
Dtiring the vintage season the mud in these towns 
is absolutely red with grape-husks and the legs of the 
inhabitants dyed to every shade of red and purple, 
from being so long in the torcular or press. It is 
purely an agricultural district and almost every one 
is directly or indirectly interested in the manufacture 
of wine. 

Perhaps in all Spain there is no other spot where 
the people show such a penchant for grape-raising 
and wine-making as in Catalonia. The industry is 
very ancient and the wines from this locality were 
held in high esteem by the Romans and Greeks for 
many centtaries. Grape-growing here has become a 
question of space and every available piece of land, 
no matter how small, will have its vine for wines. 

igo Beverages, Past and Present 

The soil is propitious and cultivation is carried on in 
a very thorough manner indeed. There are many 
cliffs of a goodly height in this part of the peninsula 
and every part of them that can be reached by any 
means will have vines planted upon them. The 
traveller often looks and wonders at the vineyards 
on the Rhine, placed far above the river, and thinks 
of the immense amount of hard manual labour that 
must be performed in order to render these places at 
all profitable. But what they do in France and Ger- 
many in no wise equals the work of the people of 
Catalonia, who grow their grapes on the cliffs. Here 
and there among these hills, if so we may call them, 
there is to be found a slip or fall leaving a few feet of 
surface, in fact, an insignificant ledge. To climb to 
these places is impossible, yet experience has shown 
that in these breaks the vine will prosper much better 
than on the plains and therefore it behooves the people 
to take advantage of them, which they do by ascending 
the cliffs, then letting down a man by means of ropes 
who plants as many vines as the spot will accommodate. 
Sometimes it may be that there is only space for one 
or two vines, but no place is too small for the Cata- 
lonian and his vine, and the risk and amount of labour 
that must be performed in order to raise the grapes 
and then gather them never deters him in his efforts 
to gain a livelihood. 

The two principal wines, grown here, are the Mal- 
voisies and henicarlos, though of the latter there are 
several grades used for various purposes. Next to 
these comes the xarello, a white wine that has to be 
four or five years old before it becomes suitable for 
any palate, otherwise than Spanish. They also make 

Spain 191 

an immense quantity of vino negro or black wine, which 
finds a ready market among the poorer classes, for in 
Spain, **debajo de una capa rota hay buen debidor" 
(many a ragged coat enjoys his wine). 

Wine is within the reach of every one in this sunny 
land— even the beggars can afford to purchase enough 
for their daily consumption; the quality and taste 
may be somewhat inferior and the wine may be very 
young, yet it acts as a mild stimulant and also serves 
as a food. Where wine is so plentiful and cheap, 
and oftentimes so strong and fiery, one would think 
drunkenness would be a common condition, but this 
is not so in any dass of society. Spain with its vino 
de pasto — ^wine for daily use — ^preaches imconsciously 
a most powerful and realistic temperance sermon. 
Her people begin the use of wine while in the cradle 
and never cease until death puts his all-powerful 
hands upon the pendulum and stops its swing, and 
yet intoxication, as statistics will show, is so rare that 
its occurrence is always remarked ; and this too in a 
country where the sun sends its scorching rays re- 
lentlessly upon the people and drives them within the 
shade long before mid-day, and then in direct defiance 
to all our rules of living these same people proceed to 
drink wine while enjoying the coolness of their retreat. 
Their temperament too, quick, hasty, and passionate, 
is in total opposition to all our conceived ideas as to 
who should and should not use wine; but perhaps we 
are the ones at fault and not they, for they are truly 
temperate while we, so it seems, must be made so by 

Not only the people in Spain use wine but the horses 
are fed, when on a long, hard, tedious journey with 

192 Beverages, Past and Present 

com bread dipped in wine, and while this diet does not 
seem to quicken their speed they are at the end of their 
travels much fresher than those who were compelled 
to subsist on the ordinary fare. 

In the province of Biscay and to a large extent in 
that of Santander there is a wine made which seldom 
if ever leaves its own immediate neighbourhood. The 
people call this wine chacoli from the Arabic chacateU 
meaning thinness or weakness though this is to a 
certain degree misleading, for while the wine may be 
thin it is not weak and its taste is generally austere 
and harsh. The remarkable feature about this wine, 
however, is the way it is grown ; this is said advisedly, 
as the making does not differ from the general methods 
pursued all over Spain, but the growing is entirely 
unique to the locality. A vineyard may not consist 
of more than a few hundred vines, yet there may be 
thrice and even five times that number of varieties of 
grapes growing in it, for these people will graft four 
or five different kinds upon one trunk. This practice 
they daim assures them of an abimdant jridd no 
matter what the growing season may have been, hot 
or cold, wet or dry, and as quantity is the desideratum, 
it would be absurd, from their point of view, to risk 
all their time, capital, and labour on one variety that 
might be more prone to failure than success, when they 
can have an almost absolute assurance of a good crop 
by following in the footsteps of their ancestors, who 
practised this method many years ago. 

Although the making of beer — cerveza — ^is carried 
on to some extent in several parts of Spain the Span- 
iards as a people do not seem to like it much, and ac- 
cordingly little of it is used. The native cerveza is 

Spain 193 

thin and insipid and carries with it none of the char- 
acteristics of German, English, or American beers. In 
the cities during the summer season cerveza into which 
the juice of a lemon has been squeezed is becoming 
quite a popular beverage, and owing to the exceeding 
lightness of the beer the mixture is not at all unplea- 
sant to the taste. The advocates of this drink claim 
for it three virtues — ^non-intoxicating, palatable, and 
very wholesome — and being at the same time mildly 

Where so many grapes are grown and such large 
quantities of wine made the manufacture of brandy 
should be a natural sequence, and the Spaniards have 
almost from the beginning maintained the order. Ac- 
cording to the writers of olden times it was Albuecasis, 
who lived in the twelfth century, who was the first to 
teach the art of distillation, as applied to the prepara- 
tion of spirits, in western Europe, and he being a 
Spaniard it is only natural to infer that he taught the 
art to his own countrymen. The final result of his 
work — the strongest substance that he could obtain — 
was given the name al-koh'l, an Arabic term, with which 
language he was well acquainted. Whether the Arabs 
themselves first called it al-koKl cannot be certainly 
determined. The name, however, is purely Arabic 
and means the fine powder of antimony used to paint 
the eyebrows, and its application to a purely liquid 
substance scarcely seems possible, yet through a series 
of constructive deduction we may arrive at a very 
plausible solution. Al in Arabian means **the" and 
when prefixed to another word places it at once in the 
superlative ; koVl is the powder of antimony, and when 
the ladies had applied this to their eyebrows they 

VOL. XZ — 13 

194 Beverages, Past and Present 

had reached that stage of fascination and perfection 
which the Arab in his infatuation termed al-koh'l; and 
in like manner when through his crude instruments he 
developed a substance much improved beyond that 
from which it was derived he, in poetic fancy, may have 
applied the name which, when his sweetheart had so 
adorned herself, made her beautiful and was therefore 
ever present in his mind. Again it is observed that 
the word is a compound of the Arabic article al and 
either the Hebrew word kaal or Chaldaic cohal, both of 
which signify to subtilise, or make light, or thin ; this 
combination would mean the lightest or thinnest, 
and in conjimction with the Chaldaic our present word 
alcohol becomes apparent at once. On the other 
hand there are those who claim that the Arabs ac- 
quired not only the word but also the art of distilla- 
tion from the far East and point to arrack as being the 
root from which it is derived. The Spaniards them- 
selves use the word in both ways — ^that is, as meaning 
spirits of wine and also antimony ; an alcoholador is 
either a rectifier of spirits or a painter with antimony, 
while an alcoholera is a vessel for either alcohol or 
antimony, and our own lexicographers agree in giving 
the word an Arabic origin. At fust, however, outside 
of Spain the word was not accepted in Etirope, and 
as with brandy it ran through considerable changes 
before it finally became the appellation for the spirit 
of wine. Raymond Lully, in the thirteenth century, 
called it aqua ardens; later on it was confounded with 
brandy and both bore the same name, aqua viUe; then 
came aqua viUB ardens^ aqua viniy spiritus vini, vinum 
ardens, mercurius vegetabilis, then in our early English 
first alcohole, then alkohol and now alcohol. 

Spain 195 

The growth of alcohol as a beverage was extremdy 
slow and except in one period during the latter part of 
the fifteenth century there was never much preference 
shown it, for owing to the potency very few indeed 
could drink it without a liberal dilution. Alcohol 
therefore was too ardent for the general dass of drinkers 
and in order to obtain something stronger than wine, 
and yet considerably milder than the pure spirit, they 
soon decided upon aguardiente de uva or brandy. At 
first they proceeded carefully, with the result that 
they produced an admirable artide, only second to 
the cdebrated Cognac. 

Soon the art of distillation spread and to-day it is 
practised in almost every province of Spain. At first 
it was confined soldy to the production of brandy, 
but as time advanced and the people became better 
acquainted with the process they gradually began 
experimenting upon other materials. From the West 
Indies they learned the possibilities of the sugar-cane 
and soon their distilleries began to manufacture 
aguardiente de cana in large quantities. The venture, 
though, was not considered a success except when it 
could be exported, for the native Castilians have 
very little liking for rum. On the other hand, however, 
they have a beverage made from the sugar-cane — ^but 
which is only subjected to a process of fermentation — 
that is very popular in certain parts. This drink is 
called gurapo and on the whole may be termed a very 
inferior one. 

In the far north among the mountains there is a 
liquor called cana that greatly resembles our own com 
whiskey, but whether made from com or not is hard 
to say, as it is generally flavoured. Another beverage 

196 Beverages, Past and Present 

of a gurapo nature but made of Indian com is aztia. 
There is little to recommend about this drink and 
comparativdy speaking it is seldom met with. But 
of all the drinks that one meets with in Spain, that 
which is known as menjunji or menjurje is the most 
disagreeable, and even the people themselves do not 
hesitate to admit its vicious taste. It is what they 
term a composed beverage, but its composition is so 
vile that one never, after tasting of it, inquires into 
the secrets of its manufacture — ^what knowledge he 
has acquired is forever sufficient. 

The beverage next to wine in the estimation of the 
people is aguardiente made of spirits, anise-seed, and 
mint; the spirits are low and tiie drink is absurdly 
cheap, a good-sized glass costing only the equivalent 
of one cent our money. The working people generally 
begin the day with a glass of it and as a stomachic 
it is invaluable. That which is known as aguardiente 
valenciano is the most in demand. It is pure white, 
being rather like milk-and-water in colour. Sidra or 
cider, in the north through the provinces of Asttarias 
and Santander especially, is made of a very excellent 
quality ; the greater part, though, being exported and 
only the aguapie or ciderkin being retained for home 

It is from Santander that the wine known as tos- 
tadillo comes. This wine is made in three different 
qualities, but it is only the first, made from the care- 
fully selected grapes which are suspended for several 
weeks in a well ventilated room and then pressed, that 
commands a foreign market. The second quality, called 
vino de yema, the stalks only being separated from 
the grapes, has a large local sale among the more 

Spain 197 

well-to-do; while the third quality, called vino de 
lagar, is the pressings of what remained in the vats 
from making the first two and is dark and acid. 

It is in tihtis part of Spain that the bota or small 
wineskin becomes an article of everyday use and, 
owing to its size, the wine is drunk directly from it. 
This feat at first glance looks easy of accomplishment, 
but the stranger within the land should ponder long 
and deep before he attempts it. Hdding the bota in 
the right hand, the left squeezing the opening and 
the rapid small flowing stream entering the mouth, 
is simple to relate, but the novice if he does not get 
wine in his eyes will invariably direct it too low, and 
what does not flow beneath his collar will spread 
itself over his shirt front, leaving a stain to remind 
him, as long as the garment lasts, of the easy, graceful 
way the Spaniards have of drinking wine. 

Here, too, in this vicinity the traveller will meet 
with another beverage which has a most familiar ap- 
pearance but a very queer name, mozizu, which is only 
a mixture of milk and whey. Mozizu, however, is only 
to be met with among the shepherds and cattle-raisers 
and only then when the aldran has missed his regular 
visit. The aldran is a person who makes his living 
by selling wine only to shepherds and it is a recognised 
profession. He travels from pasture to pasture with 
his wares, never seeking to sell others than shepherds, 
and as they have to lead a roaming life the aldran 
must keep posted as to where they will be when he 

Sooner or later every traveller in Spain will be in- 
vited to partake of an azucarillo, and then when he or 
she write their book there will be as many definitions 

198 Beverages, Past and Present 

as to what an azucarillo is as there are books. One 
writer defines it as a very small portion of wine in a 
very large glass of water. Another says it is a con- 
fection to put into water and stir, when it dissolves 
and the water becomes flavoured with vanila, lemon, 
etc. Another writer states with equal assurance that 
it is the white of an egg mixed with sugar and water ; 
while still another writes, "Peasants and porters and 
petty traders will sit down contentedly for a whole 
evening to a glass of water in which is dissolved a 
long meringue (called a2fMcan//o, literally *sugarette').'* 
Last of all comes the assurance that it is a cake of 
rose-sugar, and if the reader has ever been in Spain 
he too may furnish additional testimony. 

From the pounded root of the cypress the people 
make a very delicious and wholesome drink called 
horchata de chufas. It is purely a summer beverage 
and when about half frozen is certainly very refreshing. 
These people, like the Turks, have a very sweet tooth 
and many of their beverages are so luscious that only 
they can drink them. A good example of this quality 
is roeie, which is made from rob. Rob is the inspissated 
juice of ripe fruit mixed with honey, after which it 
is distilled, producing roete. Another sweet drink is 
mistela, made of sweet wine, sugar, cinnamon, and 
water. This is sometimes chilled, and if enough water 
has been used mistela is not so cloying. Carraspada^ 
made of red wine and honey is a great favourite and, 
like candiel, another sweet beverage, is most popular 
in Andalusia. Meloja is honey boiled with water 
and then allowed to ferment. This was a great drink 
many centuries ago but is rarely to be had nowadajrs. 
Apomeli is honey-comb placed in vinegar for a certain 

Spain 199 

period and is said to be very cooling. Aguamiel is 
our hydromel, but it is now as rare in Spain as it is 
in America. 

The use of beverages in a climate such as Spain 
possesses becomes a matter of more than ordinary 
requirement, it being almost if not of equal importance 
with food. One must drink often and plentifully in 
order to withstand the heat and, while wine is cheap 
and to be had in almost every home, there are times 
when the system craves something else ; and the Span- 
iards recognising this fact have made use of many of 
the fruits, with which they are so bountifully supplied, 
to alleviate their thirst. Naranjada or orange water 
is a most refreshing drink on a hot day, and cerasina^ 
a beverage made from cherries and rice, imparts al- 
most new life to the weary and heated. A very simple 
drink yet withal quite nourishing is horiate, a plain 
unpretentious barley-water, but when cool this liquid 
answers both for food and drink. The great drink^ 
however, of the Spanish poor is orchataz, a sort of milk 
extracted from the almond and then mixed with 
water. Sarsaparilla and water is another common 
beverage among this class, while zutno de orozuz — ^juice 
of licorice — ^and water is for all classes a favourite 

At the season when the grapes are green and full of 
acid many people make and sell a drink from them 
which is known as agrazada. It is claimed for this 
beverage that it is exceedingly beneficial, coming as it 
does in the heat of summer, and perhaps it proves 
so to the Spaniard, but a full-fledged American has 
never as yet expressed any desire for a second taste 
of agrazada. It is so sharp and acid that it almost 

200 Beverages, Past and Present 

bums, and the effect of it is felt for hours if it has been 
drunk full strength ; if on the other hand only a few 
drops have been put into a large glassful of water the 
result is not so severe, but that is not the way the 
people drink it to receive the benefit that it is sup- 
posed and believed to impart. 

In the more rural districts and among the peasantry 
there is found a beverage that is always served warm ; 
it is called casina and is a kind of tea, the plants of 
which furnish the leaves, growing abundantly. From 
the raspberry the people make vino de frambuesa 
or raspberry wine, and this when properly made is 
most palatable and refreshing. In the same category 
is vino de grosella or currant wine, but this is more 
plentiful and is often made too sharp. With all classes 
merar or wine and water is always acceptable. In 
fact this is the prevailing method of drinking, not 
because the wine is costly or strong, but simply from 
the fact that the people are very temperate in its use, 
and while they have no rooted objection to water 
experience has taught them that of itself water is not 

A very ancient beverage and one that was known 
to the early Romans is still plentifully prepared in 
the southern part. This is nturinna, a wine with 
spices and aromatics. To most people the taste is 
pleasant and a draught of it when one is exhausted 
and chilly proves warming and invigorating. Mu- 
rinna, though, is too potent and heating for general 
use and properly belongs to that class of wines termed 
by many as medicinal. Clarea on the contrary is a 
summer beverage made of white wine, water, juices, 
etc., and is certainly very pleasant. Apio is, as the 



word signifies, a celery liqueur, while mentha, like the 
French cr^me de menth, is a mint liqueur. The Spanish 
are very fond of all these cordials and to enumerate 
them would fill pages. 

There are many terms in the Spanish language 
which, in connection with wine, are very expressive 
and explanatory, as for example : adelantadillo is red 
wine, wine of the first grapes; albillo is the wine of a 
white grape; caldos is a comprehensive word including 
in its meaning wine, oil, and all spirituous liquors; 
casca is bad wine ; aloque is somewhat misleading, as the 
context must be considered before its meaning becomes 
apparent. In one sense it is a clear white wine and in 
another a mixture of white and red. Repiso is weak 
wine and vineza is the last wine from the lees; but 
venazo is very strong wine, while vinico is light wine 
and vino de agujas is a sharp wine ; also vino de lagrima 
is mother-drop or virgin wine and zupia is wine which 
is turned. These are not technical or trade terms, 
but words of the language in everyday use by the 
people of all classes and conditions. 

While we here in America take pleasure, in a jocular 
sense, in handing a man a lemon, the Spanish maiden 
is more liberal in her donations and gives her admirer 
a calavaso (pumpkin). Both the lemon and pumpkin 
are objectionable, the pumpkin a little more so as it 
signifies that his attentions are no longer acceptable. 



FRONTING on the Atlantic Ocean and depriving 
Spain of a most valuable seaboard is the 
kingdom of Portugal. Much smaller in geo- 
graphical area than our own State of New York, yet 
what the Portuguese have accomplished fills many 
pages of history with glowing accounts. Her people 
have always been imbued with an adventurous spirit 
and the love of exploration, with this trait, has put 
Portugal among the foremost nations of Europe in 
the discovery of new lands and countries. 

Historically Portugal is a very yotmg nation, as her 
history really begins with the gift of the fief of the Terra 
Portucalensis or the coimty of Porto Cale to Count 
Henry of Burgundy in 1094. Prior to this, and in 
common with the rest of the peninsula, it was overrun 
by the Vandals, Alans and Visigoths, who in turn 
were eventually conquered by the Arabs in the eighth 
century. The Moors* occupancy of the cotmtry, how- 
ever, was anything but peaceful and during their 
period of power they succeeded in destroying many 
of the industries and customs of their conquered 
subjects. Vineyard after vineyard was uprooted and 
vinification would soon have been a lost art in Portu- 
gal had these people continued to rule much longer. 


Portugal 203 

In many ways Portugal is much like Spain and the 
products of the vineyards in both countries have a 
strong resemblance. 

It has never been as yet contended that the vine 
was indigenous to the coast line of the peninsula, and 
perhaps it is not, but that there are many wild vines 
to be found has been proven numbers of times. One 
species of these vines, the velorios, bears a grape that 
approaches closely the cultivated kinds, and is often 
used by the peasantry to make their wine. 

While Portugal is a great wine-making country and 
produces innumerable varieties and brands, her greater 
product in the minds of the English and Americans 
is what is known the world over as port. The repu- 
tation of port wine overshadows her other wines to 
such an extent that a great many people think this 
is the only wine the Portuguese people have. It 
is an error easily accoimted for and is readily ex- 
plained. The similarity of the name with the first 
syllable of Portugal has led many to believe that it 
is a contraction of the coimtry's name, which of course 
is not the case ; for although port is a diminution it is 
made so by dropping the first and last letters of the 
name Oporto, the city from which the wine is shipped. 
Again, another factor in the case is the amount of 
literature that has been written upon the matter, the 
vast majority of which treats the subject in such a 
manner that the other wines of the coimtry are in- 
variably ignored. Could a compilation of all the 
writings that have been issued upon port in the last 
three hundred years be made, it would form a library 
so large that an ordinary room would not hold it. 

Port wine has always, for some reason imknown, 

204 Beverages, Past and Present 

been a most prolific source of discussion, not only in 
America and England but in France and Germany. 
English writers, especially, have given the wine much 
thought and study, both mentally and practically; 
and could a wine to-day receive the columns of notices 
in the papers that port wine has received in the past 
the fortunate owner of the vineyard would never need 
to give attention to any other method of acquiring 
wealth. For many years the writers of English kept 
the wine before the public and a perusal of these many 
articles opens to the reader an interesting portion of 
English history, legislative as well as social. It must 
not be supposed, though, that all that was written 
was laudatory — far from it. Port had its enemies 
as well as friends and both were always ready with 
their quills. The Scotch people were among those 
who could not find much virtue in the wine, and the 
following tells as plainly how they felt in regard to it 
as a large volume could : 

Firm and erect the Caledonian stood, 

Old was his mutton, and his claret good. 

''Let him drink port!" the English statesman cries: 

He drank the poison, and his spirit dies. 

Originally port wine was grown on the banks of the 
Lima and, strange as it may seem, the first few im- 
portations of it into England were not as a beverage 
but entirely for medicinal purposes. There is no 
exact date given as to when this occurred and for what 
length of time it continued; we find, however, that in 
the year 1678 the wine was in good demand and quite a 
few writers date its introduction into England in that 
year. After a little it was discovered that the vines 

Portugal 205 

on the banks of the Douro produced a richer and far 
more generous wine than that made from the grapes 
growing on the Lima, and the British merchants 
who had establishments there moved their business 
to Oporto, whence they shipped off such wines 
as they could buy, pajong but little attention to 
quality. • 

The district, Alto Douro, in which the wine is made 
is about twenty-five miles long and thirteen miles 
wide, and the capital is the town of Peso da Rega. Of 
this town it can be said that less than two hundred 
years ago the only habitation on the site was a fisher- 
man's hut, with but a single tenant. To-day Peso 
da Rega has a population of nearly five thousand, all 
brought about by the wine business. In the year 
1756 the Marquis of Pombal, in conjunction with 
the English, incorporated the Chartered Royal Wine 
Company of Oporto. The establishment of this com- 
pany was very impopular and the people rose in re- 
bellion, but the mutiny was crushed with the most 
sanguinary tyranny. The company was a monopoly 
from the beginning, and so great were the fortimes 
made by the men who held offices that positions in it 
were more eagerly sought for than any honorable office 
in the state. Every vineyard in the district and those 
outside too were subject to their domination, and the 
owners could not export their wines except they ob- 
tained permission, having as little to say about the 
wines they made as an abject stranger. 

The following taken from Dr. Henderson's History 
of Ancient and Modern Wines will give the reader a 
fair idea as to what was thought of the Company in 
England : 

2o6 Beverages, Past and Present 

The quality of the wine shipped from Oporto has been 
materially injured by the monopoly so long enjoyed by 
the Oporto Wine Company. This company was founded 
in 1756, during the administration of the Marquis Pombal. 
A certain extent of territory is marked out by its charter 
as the only district on the Douro in which wine is to be 
raised for exportation: the entire and absolute disposal 
of the wines raised in this district is placed in the hands 
of the Company; who are further authorized to fix the 
prices to be paid for them to the cultivators, to prepare 
them for exportation, and to fix the prices at which they 
shall be sold to foreigners! It is obvious that a company 
with such powers cannot be anything else than an intoler- 
able nuisance. What could be more arbitrary and unjust 
than to interdict the export of all wines raised out of the 
limit of the Company's territory? But even in its own 
district its proceedings have been most oppressive and 
injurious. The Company annually fix, by a fiat of their 
own, two rates of prices — one for the vinho de feitoria, or 
wine for exportation, and the other for vinho de ramo, 
or wine for home consumption — at which the cultivators 
are to be paid, whatever may be the quality of their wines! 
They have, therefore, no motive to exert superior skill 
and ingenuity; but content themselves with the endeavour- 
ing to make, at the least possible expense, the greatest sup- 
ply of vinho de feitoria, for which the Company allows the 
highest price. 

All emulation is thus eflEectually extinguished, and the 
proprietors who possess vineyards of a superior quality 
invariably adulterate their wines with inferior growths, 
so as to reduce them to the average standard. In this 
way the finer products of the Douro vintages have re- 
mained in a great measure unknown to us, and port wine 
has come to be considered as a single liquor, if I may use 
the expression, of nearly uniform flavour and strength; 
varying it is true, to a certain extent in quality, but still 

Portugal 207 

always approaching to a definite standard, and admitting 
of few degrees of excellence. The manipulations, the 
admixtures — ^in one word, the adulteration — ^to which the 
best wines of the Cimo do Duro are subjected, have much 
the same effect as if all the growths of Burgundy were 
to be mingled in one immense vat, and sent into the world 
as the only true Burgundian wine. The delicious pro- 
duce of Romance, Chambretin, and the Clos Vougeot 
would disappear, and in their places we should find nothing 
better than a second-rate Beaune or Macon wine. 

Apropos of the adtdteration of port wine there is a 
story told of which, however, the author cannot at 
this late date be fotmd and of its truth the reader 
must be the judge. William H. G. Kingston, Esq., 
in his Lusitanian Sketches repeats it but refuses to 
vouch for it: 

Formerly [so the story goes] , the grapes of the Douro 
having a thin skin, the wine was of a fine dark ruby, which 
was then much admired by all consumers; but once, some 
dark tasteless dye having by accident fallen into a tonel, 
the wine was pronounced so much superior to anything 
that had before been seen, that no other than dark wine 
would suit the taste of the day. What was to be done? 
The grapes were pressed to the utmost, but the skins 
refused to give forth any further colouring matter. The 
wine was of a beautiful ruby colour, but it was not black 
enough. It was considered that through the ignorance of 
the farmers the best qualities were left behind. Nothing 
would please them. At last it occurred to an intelligent 
farmer, who was always ready to adopt any novelty which 
he thought might be advantageous, that he had seen the 
. fermenting juice of the grape have a very wonderful eflEect 
on the human skin. In truth, he had observed that the 
Gallegos employed in dancing in the wine-presses went 

2o8 Beverages, Past and Present 

in with very dark brown legs, and came out, though stained 
with wine, very white and clean when washed in water. 
He reasoned that if brown becomes white, so probably will 
the wine extract a black colour. He forthwith despatched 
a vessel to the kingdom of Ashantee, on the coast of 
Africa, where the natives are the blackest, and she returned 
freighted with a cargo of blacks. 

The inhabitants of Oporto wondered when they saw 
so many black men landed from the ship; but the farmer 
kept his counsel — ^he merely observed that he thought they 
would work more cheaply in his vineyards than would 
Gallegos. During the vintage he closed the gates of his 
estate against everybody. People wondered what he was 
about; they suspected he was adulterating his wine. Now 
it is well known that the darkness of the negro race is caused 
by a black substance in the epidermis or the outer skin 
of the body. The same is the case with the grape, as I 
have before observed. It is also well known that the 
violent fermentation of a vinous fluid will extract the 
colour from any substance steeped in it, as it does from 
the skin of the dark grape. I say no more. The fair took 
place, the farmer's tonels were approved by the Company, 
and he sold his dark-coloured wine at a very high price. 
His Ashantees wore trousers and socks till the next vintage. 
Nobody guessed the fact. How should they? The follow- 
ing year the wine was of an equally good colour, and, as the 
competition for its purchase consequently was great, it 
sold for an enormous sum. The Ashantees, to the surprise 
of every one, afterwards wore gloves, which met the sleeves 
of their coats. On the third year the wine was even better 
than it was before, for it had more flavour and body. On 
the fourth the blacks had disappeared, no one knew whither, 
though in their stead a very fine set of perfectly white 
men were seen, who could not speak Portuguese. Still 
everybody was in the dark, till the farmer sent for a fresh 
supply of negroes, when the truth transpired, and the 

Portugal 209 

Royal Wine Company strictly forbade the nefarious 
practice, under pain of forfeiture of the estate. They, 
however, applied for and obtained the monopoly them* 
selves, offering as an excuse that the negroes thus washed 
white made better Christians. Of course on this plea no 
Christian monarch could refuse their request. Now and 
then dreadful surmises were whispered about, but in a 
despotic country, as Portugal then was, no one dared 
utter them aloud — only a dead black man was never seen! 
Such, I am informed, is the port wine the deceived British 
public have had palmed off on them for a long course of 
years, according to some of the writers on the subject. 
With few exceptions the British merchants are strongly 
suspected of encouraging so gross an infringement of all 
laws human and divine, if they do not actually import 
cargoes of living blacks themselves. Indeed, now that 
most of the very necessary restrictions are abolished, we 
have strong reasons for supposing that this is not the most 
reprehensible method they have for adulterating their 

Of cotirse the above story is all nonsense, but it 
shows, in a way, what the Company had to contend 
with and to what extremes its enemies would go in 
order to injure it. Another traveller and writer- — 
John Latouche — ^has this to say on the subject: 

Port wine has a literature of its own; and the controversy 
that a few years ago raged on the subject was almost as 
serious as the famous polemical dispute in the last century, 
between the rival admirers of champagne and burgundy. 
In the French controversy, odes, sonnets, and epigrams, 
as well as heavy prose, were bandied from side to side; 
in the port wine discussion, nothing lighter than a double 
pamphlet or an octavo volume was discharged. A great 
deal of ignorant nonsense and a great deal of interested 

TOL. n — 14 

2IO Beverages, Past and Present 

nonsense was written on both sides; and the end of it 
all is that more and better wine is now made and shipped 
from this district than ever was known before. Lest I 
should be supposed, however, to wish to contribute to 
either of the above categories of literature, I wiQ say no 
more upon the subject. 

In the northern part of Portugal and especially in 
the province of Minho the farmers make for themselves 
and their labourers a wine which they call vinho verde — 
or green wine. This wine never leaves the confines of 
the country, and the reason perhaps is best explained 
by quoting again from Mr. Latouche. He says : 

Any one therefore who has tasted the famous vinho verde 
of northern Portugal — ^the thick, red, sour, and astringent 
wine which the Minhotes delight in — may satisfy himself 
that he has drunk a liquid identical in every way with that 
wherewith the Latian farmer quenched his thirst two 
thousand years ago. He may even please himself by 
thinking that Horace himself on his Tuscalan farm, in 
daily life, when the jars of carecuban, Alban, and Falemian 
were left undisturbed in the cellar, drank such wine as 
this. The scholar or the antiquarian, who is too dry- 
souled to amuse himself with such a mere sentiment, may 
yet drink a glass of the vinho verde and understand forever 
after that which has always been a puzzle to students of 
antiquity, namely, how it was that the Greeks and Romans 
could bring themselves to dilute their wines with sea- 
water, to mix them with honey or spices, or even to grate 
goat's-milk cheese into the wine-cup. No stranger who 
has drunk a full draught of this really awful Minho wine 
but might sigh for even such adulterations as these. 

It is curious, too, as further evidence of the long and 
faithful tradition of farm economy, that these northern 
Portuguese farmers deal with the drinking of the wine 

Portugal 211 

(they mostly keep it for farm use) just as their first masters 
in agriculture did before them. "Let the labourers," 
says the frugal Cato, "drink up the hra/* the thin stuff 
made by adding water to the already pressed grapes and 
treading out a thin and makeshift kind of wine therefrom. 
" Let them drink up the lora, " he says, " in the three months 
that follow the vintage. " The Portuguese call this stuff 
agua pe — ^foot water — ^and likewise consume it in early 
winter. After Christmas, Portuguese farmers follow Cato's 
precept, and let their men have a small measure of real 
wine daily. In the spring the quantity was doubled in 
ancient Italy and is doubled in modem Portugal. In the 
long summer days, the portion is trebled for the Minhotes, 
as Cato prescribes; and, calculating the ancient measure 
as well as we are able, the allowance would reach three 
or four gallons a month the year through. It is quite as 
great on a well managed Portuguese farm to this day. 
Let the fact be observed, and let the reader draw from it 
what deduction he pleases, that this Portuguese wine is 
probably about three times as strong as ordinary English 
beer, and yet that drunkenness is very rare. To our 
nice palates it is a terrible- drink, one that rasps a man's 
throat, fills his eyes with tears, and almost takes his breath 
away; but to the Minhote labourer, in the heat and burden 
of his long day's work, it is clearly delicious. It is meat 
and drink to him. He finds refreshment in its acidity, 
he is fortified by its austerity, revived by its strength, and 
finds in its cenanthic, etherous essences — beyond the reach 
of chemists and professors — some subtile distillation of 
Nature's laboratory kindly to life. 

The Minhote farmer still grows his grapes on trees 
and makes his wine in the manner so accurately de- 
scribed by Pliny and it is in the month of April that 
he draws from his casks the first glass of wine. Vinho 
verde is not made to keep more than a few months 

212 Beverages, Past and Present 

over a year, and by April that which was made some 
eighteen months ago has reached the dregs and is hard 
and poor, but that which was made in the previous 
September has, during the winter, become dear and 
with the opening of spring is ready for use. Naturally 
in the peasant's simple life such an event calls for 
rejoicing and feasting and right royally do they enjoy 
the occasion. 

In the province of Estremadura such excellent wines 
as bticellas, collares, lavradio, chamusca, carcavellos, and 
barra a barra are grown, as are also the Arinto and the 
sparkling estremadura. It has been said by a number 
of oeneological experts who have visited and inspected 
this part of Portugal that if the people, especially those 
living in the vicinity of Torres Vedras, coiald be induced 
to change their methods of cultivation and vinification 
some of the finest wines in the world could be grown 
there. Every essential factor necessary for such an 
achievement is present and it would only require a few 
years to accomplish the result, but the people seem 
indifferent to these flattering possibilities and are 
satisfied with the result of their efforts. 

Along the banks of the rivers Tau and Saboj: in the 
province of Traz-os-Montes are vineyards which many 
a connoisseur has claimed raise wine fully the equal 
of the celebrated clos vougeot and one wine is particular, 
the cornifestOj is much sought for by the people who 
understand the nature of wines. The white wines, 
too, of Areas, Bragance, Moraes, Moncorvo, and Nosedo 
are above ordinary quality and woiald command a 
good foreign market if more enterprise could be in- 
stilled in the growers and makers. IntheAltoDouro, 
where, as has been mentioned, port wine is made, there 

Portugal 213 

are to be had many other wines of really excellent 

Among the white varieties of this vicinity that 
which is known as the muscatel de Jesus is the prince 
of them all ; then in proper rotation come the dedo de 
dana (the lady's finger), the ferral hranco, malvazia, 
abelhal, agudelhoy alvaraca, donzellinhoy folgozas, gouveio, 
white mouriscOy rabo da ovelha (sheep's tail), and 
promissao. These wines are what are known as white 
ports and their quality is such that they commend 
themselves to every lover of fine wines. Of the black 
wines the most noted are tourigo, the finest, bastardoy 
the sweetest, bacca de mina, which has the general 
preference, souzaOy the darkest natural wine, and 

The list of Tintas is very extensive, the best of which 
is alvarilhao and is considered to be as fine a claret as 
any that comes from France. So it is all through 
Portugal ; wine is made almost everywhere, much of it 
of a superior quality, and its use is universal. Europe 
buys a large quantity, England of course the most, 
and the Americas coming next. 

Besides her natural wines Portugal consumes a great 
deal of passasy o, wine made from dried grapes and which 
by many is preferred above the ordinarily made 
article. Cassis^ a brandy made from raspberries, is 
also a common beverage in the more northern portions 
and when it is properly and carefully made is a pleasant 
as well as a wholesome beverage. A peculiar drink 
and one seldom met with outside of Portugal is garapa. 
This is a wine, or species of wine, extracted from the 
dregs of sugar and when cooled is not so very unpleasant 
to the taste. 

214 Beverages, Past and Present 

From rice the Portuguese have succeeded in dis- 
tilling an exceedingly strong spirituous liquor which 
they call fula; it is very intoxicating and is seldom used 
except during the winter. Geropiga is another strong 
beverage, especially when first made. The ingredients 
are fresh must and brandy and any one at all con- 
versant with the two materials knows that while the 
taste is almost fascinating the effect is quick and 
decided. Our ordinary common everyday rum, but 
called in many parts to^, has many admirers among 
these people and some of a fine quality is made by 
them. Closely allied to to/ia, is cachaca made from 
the sugar-cane, and when stored and aged properly 
is an excellent spirit. From the pitay a species of 
agavey is extracted by distillation Piieriay a drink 
which only those accustomed to it can use with im- 
punity. One of the queerest mixtures to be used 
as a beverage and to be found anywhere is zythogala^ 
SL mixture of milk and beer; further conunent on the 
decoction is imnecessary, but a close relation is tabefe 
concocted from sheep's milk sweetened and heated, 
into which eggs are stirred. If cow's milk is used and 
a little spice is added the beverage is then known as 

The Portuguese have the same liking for aromatics 
as their neighbours, and as with them anise-seed is 
the favourite. The correct Portuguese name for this 
beverage is aguardent de herva doce^ but the stranger 
will obtain it just as readily if he will but call for 
aniseita. There is only one drink is Portgual where 
the proper full name should be given if the drinker 
or customer really wants the finest and that is aguar- 
dent de cabeca, which means the very best brandy. 

Portugal 215 

Whfle bees are quite plentiftil and honey is cheap, 
little of it, in a comparative sense, is used for drinking 
purposes. Oxdmely produced from vinegar and honey 
boiled, is made to some extent, and another mead-like 
preparation called mtdsa is also to be had among the 
farmers. Amendoada, prepared from sweet almonds, 
is a very common beverage in the southern parts, 
particularly during the warm weather. 



Drinking Song of the Men of Basle 

Drink! drink! — the blood -red wine, 

That in the goblet glows, 
Is hallowed by the blood that stain'd 

The ground whereon it grows. 

Drink! drink! — there 's health and joy 

In its foam to the free and brave; 
But 't would blister up like the elf-king's cup 

The pale lips of the slave! 

Drink! drink! — ^and as your hearts 

Are wanned by its ruby tide, 
Swear to live as free as your fathers liv'd 

Or die as your fathers died ! 

Planchb's Lays and Legends of the Rhine. 

While Switzerland, in a geographical sense, is among 
the smaller coimtries of Europe her output of wine 
is such that she is only surpassed by her larger neigh- 
bours. According to recent statistics, it is estimated 
that there are one himdred and thirty-three square 
miles of territory entirely devoted to viticulture. 
These figures may have a small soimd when expressed 
in square miles, but changed to the acre they read 


Switzerland 217 

eighty-five thousand one hundred and twenty acres, 
which imparts to the mind a better imderstanding 
as to the extent of the vineyards among the Alps. 

When and how the vines were introduced into this 
territory we cannot tell, for history in this respect is 
sadly deficient. It is known, however, that they were 
installed at a very early date and the surmise is that 
it was by the Romans, who, following their natural 
tendency and general methods, were the people that 
first planted the vines in this vicinity. The Hel- 
vetians, we are told, paid peculiar veneration to the 
god of wine and it is credited to them that they were 
the first people to make wooden casks for storing wine. 
The Swiss are very proud of their coimtry and, like 
mountain-dwellers the world over, almost revere the 
hills which surround them on every hand. There 
seems to be a certain spirit in rugged peaks and snow- 
dad hills that develops man's love far stronger than 
the level plain. The barren hill-tops speak more ap- 
pealingly than the fertile levels and every jagged 
rough-edged rock has associated with it some memory 
or tradition that the mountaineer holds most dear. 
Every gully with its trickling summer stream, so 
quickly turned into a raging torrent when the rains 
and thaw melt the winter snow, tells to its lover the 
tale of moimtain life, and the vivid eye-blinding light- 
ning, followed by the loud reverberant thunder echoing 
from crag to crag, peal upon peal and flash after flash, 
carry no terror with them to the people whose lot 
it is to dwell among the hills. 

The seasons too are different ; in the mountains the 
air is clearer, bringing out in bolder outline each loved 
spot, and when the summer's green has taken the place 

2i8 Beverages, Past and Present 

of the winter's snow the children of the mountain 
forget the many days of cold and hardship and their 
heart overflows with love for the land of their birth. 
With love of country naturally comes patriotism and 
the Swiss from the beginning have been noted for both 
these traits. Their manly struggle for independence 
makes many a glowing page in history. It was no 
easy task for this handful of people to keep their far 
more powerfial neighbours from annihilating them, 
but they did it and many of their songs and stories 
tell of their wonderful exploits to preserve the integrity 
of their country and their homes. 

The couplets that head this chapter are, as the title 
states, a drinking song of the men of Basle, but the 
story they tell is of one of the most sanguinary battles 
ever fought. Sixteen hundred Swiss soldiers engaged 
thirty thousand French and, while all but sixteen of 
the Swiss were killed, more than six thousand of the 
French suffered the same fate. The scene of this 
battle has been for many years a vineyard and the 
wine made from there, being red, is in commemoration 
of the event called * Hhe blood of the Swiss." 

A number of years ago some explorers, on the 
margin of a little lake between Vevay and Lausanne, 
and in a small village now called Cully, found a stone 
inscribed **Libero Patri Colliensi," which proves that 
the Romans had erected here, at CoUium — ^the ancient 
name of Cully — a, temple to Father Bacchus, and adds 
considerably to the theory of Roman initiative in 
viticulture in this part of the world. It is at Vevay 
that the society or guild called ** TAbbaye des Vigne- 
rons" exists. As its name implies it is devoted to the 
CTiltivation of the grape, but what makes this society 

Switzerland 219 

famous is its age. Of its first installation we have 
very little authentic information, but as one authority 
aptly puts it, it is of ** high antiquity." Twice every 
year, in the spring and fall, the society sends out its 
men to inspect the numerous vineyards, and upon 
their reports awards of medals and pruning-hooks are 
made to the most skilful and industrious vinedressers. 
The society also, in accordance with a very ancient 
custom, most probably derived from a pagan super- 
stition, holds at varying intervals of fifteen to twenty 
years a festival called la FUe des Vignerons. It is a 
grand affair and often nearly a thousand people will 
participate in the various parts. Dancing is naturally 
one of the chief features, and in order to have this done 
in a proper manner they send to Paris and hire the 
best master of the art to instruct them. The affair, 
while peculiarly of a local nature, is of such a character 
that it attracts all Europe and the multitude that 
assembles to witness it is often so great that people 
are compelled to sleep out of doors. 

While the wines of Switzerland, as a rule, vary little 
from wines of like character grown elsewhere there 
are one or two that are decidedly peculiar to the 
country. A wine is grown in that part of Switzerland 
called the Upper Valais and bears the name ' * hell 
wine" from the fact, so it is said, that the vines from 
which the wine is made will only grow in hot places. 
The wine itself is as black as ink, yet withal is a very 
pleasant beverage. The supply of course is limited 
and to procure a drink of it one most have a personal 
acquaintance with some of the more wealthy people 
of the neighbourhood. 

Another wine of almost equal rarity and of a dedd- 

220 Beverages, Past and Present 

edly more pectdiar nature is that which is known as 
"glacier-wine," more often called simply "glacier." 
The grapes from which this wine is made are quite 
common and are known as reze. The wine is allowed 
to undergo its first fermentation in the cellars at 
Sierre and then it is taken to the mountain villages, 
where it is carefully stored away. For ten years it 
remains tmdisturbed, but at the expiration of the 
decade another fermentation ensues. It is this second 
upheaval, if so we may term it, that imparts to the 
wine its exquisite flavour and makes ** glacier" unique 
among wines. The wine is never bottled and after 
its second fermentation will keep for any length of 
time, fifty or sixty years being considered rather short. 
The question of transportation of wine is a very 
serious one in Switzerland and few who have never 
witnessed the proceeding can form any adequate 
idea of the difficulties and dangers. One cask of 
about fifty or sixty gallons capacity, and placed upon 
a sledge, is all that a horse can draw. Each driver 
attends to two horses and consequently two sledges 
and two casks, driving his animals more by voice and 
gesture than by reins. They endeavour to travel in 
gangs lest bad weather or some accident overtake them 
if travelling singly. At night their rest is often limited 
to three hours and sometimes this period is passed in 
drinking and conversation. Frequently the casks have 
to be shifted from runners to wheels and back again 
before the journey is accomplished; the horses too, 
as well as the men, have little chance for rest. In fair 
weather, while the journey is most arduous it is not 
dangerous, but woe to man and beast if they encounter 
a storm. Not a few perish in the passes and it fre- 

Switzerland 221 

quently happens that their only chance of escape is 
to unharness the horses and leave the sledges in a 
snow wreath, man and beast seeking such shelter as 
may be gained. The wine is frozen into one mass 
of rosy ice, but if it is new or young wine it is not 
injured; more matured wine, however, is damaged 
beyond recovery. 

Another factor that adds to the perils of the trip 
is the savage temper of the drivers. Jealousies be- 
tween the natives of rival towns and districts soon 
come to the surface, and there are men alive to-day 
who have fought the whole way with knives and stones, 
hatchets and hammers, wooden staves and cart- 
rungs. These encounters are never of a trivial nature, 
as the weapons used demonstrate, and the bringing 
home of maimed and unconscious comrades follows 
almost every trip. 

According to the verdict of experts the best wine 
grown in Switzerland is that which is known by the 
name le moulart. This wine is grown on the hills 
sloping down towards the lake La Cote between Au- 
bonne and Nyon. When the seasons have been pro- 
pitious and the grapes ripened evenly le moulart is 
most assuredly an excellent wine, and if larger quan- 
tities could be made it would command an enviable 
place in the wine markets of the world. At Martigny, 
where the Rhone makes an abrupt bend, forming nearly 
a right angle, a very fair wine called coquempin is made. 
The vines are grown upon the hills as the plains are too 
low and swampy, caused by the overflowing of the 
Rhone and its tributaries. This part of Switzerland 
is noted for its unhealthfulness, malaria being present 
at all times in the valleys, and the oft-repeated assertion 

222 Beverages, Past and Present 

that the grape-vine will not flourish in an impure 
atmosphere is amply proven in this case. 

In order to procure a crop the vines have to be 
planted at an elevation beyond the reach and in- 
fluence of the miasmatic efliuvia that is generated in 
the lowlands. This of course adds materially to the 
cost of cultivation, and subsequent manufacture, but 
it is the only thing these people can do in order to 
obtain wine at a price within their means. On the 
road to Vevay along the slope of the Jorat the hills 
are covered with vineyards. Terrace after terrace like 
broad steps have been built so that the vine may find 
a proper foothold. They mainly face true south and 
in the summer, when the straight burning rays of the 
sun are sending their heat direct, a mountain vineyard 
becomes almost tmbearable, and the toilers find their 
task anything but easy and pleasant. These vine- 
yards, extending from Vevay to Lavaux, it is claimed 
produce some of the best wines in Switzerland, and of 
a surety if labour should be compensated no people 
are more entitled to its rewards than these who toil 
so long and hard. 

In the year 1584 Switzerland was visited by an 
earthquake and the top of a mountain, above Yvome, 
was thrown down. To-day this slope is covered by 
vineyards from which a most excellent wine is pro- 
duced. Completer is the rather strange name of a 
wine that is grown in the Orisons near Malans, but if 
the name is somewhat strange the wine is by no means 
so, for it ranks among the best. It is, however, the 
canton of Neuchatel that produces the largest quan- 
tity of wine and perhaps also the greatest variety. 
The white wines grown between Auverquier and St. 

Switzerland 223 

Blaise have long enjoyed a good reputation and when 
made into sparkling wines they are most excellent. 
The red wines of Cortaillod and Derriere Motdins bear 
a strong likeness to Burgxmdy and when aged properly 
are qtiite superior. 

The Swiss have a rather peculiar method of making 
brandy, which they do from the refuse of grapes after 
the must is pressed. Casks are filled with skins, 
which are squeezed as compactly as possible, and are 
covered closely to prevent the ingress of air: fermen- 
tation generally sets in in about three days, and when 
it has subsided, which occupies a considerable time, 
it is then deemed ready for the still. When the pro- 
cess of distillation is about to take place, the fermented 
mass is mixed with a due proportion of water, that 
preserves it in a proper consistency for the action of 
the fire, which is moderately applied to prevent em- 
pyreuma or burnt flavour. The resultant liquor is by 
no means inferior and when it has been aged it makes 
not only a pleasant but also wholesome beverage. 



LONG before the arrival of the Romans on Albion's 
sofl, the people thereof had discovered an 
easy and almost ever-ready means of becoming 
intoxicated. How and when the art of making mead 
was introduced into what we now term England it 
would be difficult to say. The Romans, on their 
taking possession, foimd mead a very common beverage. 
They also discovered that in the courtly circles the 
mead-maker was a person of more than ordinary impor- 
tance, and in a list left us giving the rank and standing 
of the officers we find the mead-maker the eleventh on 
the roll, outclassing even the physician. The king, 
too, exercised a rigid control of its manufacture, for 
every cask that was made had to be reported to him. 

Cider, presumably expressed from the wild apple, 
was another common and plentiful drink, and sad to 
relate was also of a very ardent nature, for we have 
ample authority that dnmkenness and intemperance 
were among the prevailing vices of the early Britons. 
How long mead and cider were the principal beverages 
cannot, with exactness, be determined, neither can the 
time of the introduction of ale into the island be posi- 
tively established. Eumenes tells how in the year 
296 Britain produced enough com not only to make 


England and Scotland 225 

the required amount of bread but also a drink which 
was comparable to wine. This remark proves that 
the art of brewing was well known in England even 
at this early date, and that ale had already gained 
a foothold which as the years grew into centuries 
was to increase imtil it became the great national 
beverage of the people. 

English literature has almost from the beginning 
been replete with stories of ale and ale-drinking, while 
ale-making and selling have furnished the legislators 
so much material for their statutes that could the 
books be compiled and bound they would fill many 
a library. As early as 694 King Ina of the West 
Saxons directed **that possessors of a farm of ten 
hides of land, or, as much as required ten ploughs, 
should, among other articles, pay him twelve ambres 
of Welsh ale, each containing above seven gallons of 
English wine measure." 

In the year 1637 there appeared in London a small 
book having for its title Drinke and Welcome; it was 
written by one John Taylor and his chapter on ale is 
well worth the perusal; he writes: 

Ale is rightly called nappy, for it will set a nap up- 
on a man's threed-bare eyes when he is sleepy. It is called 
merry-goe-down for it slides down merrily ; it is fragrant to 
the Sent, it is most pleasing to the taste. The flowring 
and mantling of it (like chequer worke) with the verdant 
smiling of it, is delightefuU to the sight, it is touching or 
feeling to the Braine and Heart; and (to please the senses 
all) it provokes men to singing and mirth, which is con- 
tenting to the Hearing. The speedy taking of it dothe 
comfort a heavy and troubled minde; it will make a weep-» 
ing widow laugh and forget sorrow for her deceased hus- 


226 Beverages, Past and Present 

band. It will set a Bashful Stiitor a wooing; It heats the 
chilled blood of the aged; It will cause a man to speake past 
his owne or any other man's capacity, or understanding; 
It sets an Edge upon Logick and Rhetorick; It is a friend 
to the Muses; It inspires the poore Poet that cannot com- 
passe the price of Canarie or Gascoign; It mounts the 
Musician 'bove Eccla. It makes the Balladmaker Rime 
beyond reason; It is a Repairer of a decaied colour in the 
face; It puts Eloquence into the Oratour; It will make the 
Philosopher talke profoundly, the SchoUer learnedly, and 
the lawyer acute and feelingly. Ale at Whitsontide, or a 
Whitson Church ale, is a repairer of decayed Countrey 
Churches; It is a great friend to Truth; so they that drinke 
of it (to the purpose) will reveal all they know, be it never 
so secret to be kept; It is an emblem of justice, for it allows 
and yeelds measure; It will put courage into a Coward, and 
make him swagger and fight; It is a scale to many a good 
bargaine. The Physittian will comend it; the Lawyer will 
defend it. It neither hurts or kils any but thos who abuse 
it unmeasurably and beyond bearing; It doth good to as 
many as take it rightly ; It is as good as a Paire of Spectacles 
to cleare the Eyesight of an old Parish Clarke, and in 
Conclusion, it is such a notirisher of Mankinde, that if my 
Mouth were as bigge as Bishopgate, my Pen as long as a 
Maypole, and my Inke a flowing Spring, or a standing 
fishpond, yet I could not with Mouth Pen or Inke, speake 
or write the true worth and worthiness of Ale. 

The old-time writers seldom allowed anything but 
their own fancy to control or curb their efforts, and 
while to-day such a course would be hardly allowable 
it must be admitted that in their case circumstances and 
conditions were vastly different from the present day, 
and as a rule it was these flighty writers that depicted 
their times and events more faithftdly than their 

England and Scotland 227 

sedater brothers. For, reading between their lines, we 
often can see most plainly the subjects that were on 
the tapis at the time of writing and how their neigh- 
bours considered the various questions they dealt with. 
For example take the following passage from the above 
article: "It neither hurts or kils any but those that 
abuse it unmeasurably and beyond bearing; It doth 
good to as many as take it rightly." From praising he 
becomes at once on the defensive, not because he thinks 
it necessary but because some of his friends and neigh- 
bours are more or less opposed to its use and in his 
vigorous style he tells them the cause in a very few words. 

According to Doctor Henry, the historian, the casks 
in which mead was made at that time had to be nine 
palms in height and so capacious as to serve the king 
and one of his counsellors for a bathing tub ; and there- 
fore when King Ethdstan and his followers ** drained 
the vessel to the depth of a hand's breadth at the 
first onset " a consumption of several gallons, at least, 
must have been the consequence. 

Leaving the subject of mead and returning to that 
of ale, the following lines, written in the early part of 
the fourteenth century by William of Shoreham may 
prove of interest. They are entitled De Baptismo: 
that **kende water" — pure water — ^is the only sub- 
stance that mankind should be baptised with. 

Therefore ine wine me ne may, 
Inne sithere ne inne pereye, 
Ne inne thing that neuere water nes 
Thory cristing man may reneye, 

Ne inne ale; 
For thei hight were water ferst, 
Of water neth hit tale. 

228 Beverages, Past and Present 

This, as the reader has undoubtedly discovered, is 
very primitive English and has a sound very sin^lar 
to that which children use in some of their games; 
as for instance **eeny meeny miney moe," etc., etc., and 
perhaps the subjoined translation into prose may be 
of assistance: ** Therefore man cannot or may not 
renounce his sins through christening in wine, in cider, 
or perry, nor in anything that never was water, nor yet 
in ale, for though this was water first, it cannot be 
said to be water any longer." An application of the 
art of deduction shows very plainly that these people 
had very little use for water even for purposes other- 
wise than drinking, and it also reveals that mead had 
ceased to be a common beverage. Dining the same 
century William Longland wrote the following, which 
can be found in its entirety in his Piers the Plowman: 

I boughte hire Barly heo breuh hit to sulle 
Peni-ale and piriwhit heo pourede to-gedere 
For labourers and louh folk that liuen be hem-selven. 
The Beste in the Bed-chambre lay bi the wowe, 
Hose Bumede thereof Boughte hit ther-after, 
A galoun for a grote, God wot, no lasse, 
Whon hit com in Cuppemel ; such craf tes me usede. 

This being rendered into present-day English reads 
somewhat as follows: 

I bought her barley they brew it to sell; Penny-ale [ale 
at a penny a gallon] and small perry she poured together 
for labourers and poor folk that live by themselves. The 
best lie in the bed chamber by the wall ; whoso drank thereof 
bought it by the sample [i. e., of the best] a gallon for a 
groat, God knows no less, when it came by cupfuls, such 
craft I used. 

England and Scotland 229 

How often we sigh for the "good old days of our 
forefathers," when adtilterations were not known and 
pure food laws were not necessary ; but here we have 
exceedingly strong evidence that not only was it known 
but it was practised almost openly, and with very in- 
ferior stuff at that, and this it must be remembered was 
nearly six hundred years ago. The small perry that 
the poet writes about was made from the pomace of 
pears, from which the beverage called perry had been 
previously extracted or expressed. The pomace was 
placed in open casks or tubs and water was then poured 
over it ; this was allowed to stand for a certain length 
of time, when it was drawn off. It was of necessity 
a very inferior substance, almost tasteless, and there- 
fore could be used as an adulterant in ale with con- 
siderable profit even when ale was only bringing a 
penny a gallon. The poet also reveals another trick 
that for certain reasons is retained unto this day, 
short measure and plenty of foam or froth, thereby 
enabling the seller to derive from five to six times 
the real worth of the drink. Perhaps one of the 
greatest factors in the popularising of ale in Britain 
was the fact that it could be made of as fine a quality 
at home as at the regular brewers* and in most cases 
much better and purer. For many years the making 
of ale was in the hands of the women-folks and as late 
as 1610 the justices of Rutland decided that a chief 
woman who could brew and make malt should have 
the sum of 24s. 8i by the year; while a second best 
who could only Drew was to have 23s. 4d. In 
HoUinshed's Chronicler published in 1587 there is a 
preface in which Harrison, the writer, gives a capital 
description of home-brewing : 

230 Beverages, Past and Present 

Nevertheless [he says] sith I have taken occasion to 
speake of bruing, I will exemplifie in such a proportion as 
I am best skilled in, bicause it is the usuall rate for mine 
own familie, and once in a moneth practised by my wife 
and hir maid servants, who proceed withall after this 
maner, as she hath oft informed me. Having therefore 
grooned eight bushels of good ja^^t upon our queme, where 
the toll is saved, she addeth unto it half a bushel of wheat e 
meal, and so much of oats small groond, and so tempereth 
or mixeth them with the malt, that they cannot easily 
duscem the one from the other, otherwise these later would 
clunter, fall into lumps, and thereby become unprofitable. 
The first liquor which is full eightie gallons according to 
the proportion of our furnace, she maketh boiling hot, 
and then poureth it softlie into the malt, where it resteth 
(but without stirring) until hir secind liquor be almost 
ready to boile. This doone she letteth hir mash run till 
the malt be left without liquor, or at the leastwise the 
greater part of the moisture, which she perceiveth by the 
staie and soft issue thereof, and by this time hir secind 
liquor in the furnace is ready to seeth, which is put also 
to the malt as the first also again into the furnace, where- 
unto she addeth two pounds of the l^esjLEllgliskJifips, so 
letteth them seeth together by the space of two hours in 
summer, or an hour and a halfe in winter, whereby it geteth 
an excellent colour and continuance without impeachment, 
or anie superfluous tartnesse. But before she putteth hir 
first woort into the furnace, or mingleth it with the hops, 
she taketh out a vessel full, of eight or nine gallons, which 
she shutteth up close, and suffereth no aire to come into 
it till it becomes yellow, and this sh^ reserveth by itself 
unto further use, as shall appear herSifter, call it Brack- 
woort or Charwoort, and as she saith it addeth also to the 
colour of the drinke, wherby it yeildeth not unto amber 
or fine gold in hew unto the eie. By this time also hir 
secind woort is let runne and the first being taken out of 

England and Scotland 231 

the furnace and placed to coole, she retumeth the middle 
woort into the furnace, where it is stricken over, or from 
whence it is taken againe. When she hath mashed also 
the last liquor (and let the second to coole by the first) 
she letteth it runne and then seetheth it againe with a 
pound and an half of new hops or peradventure two pounds 
as she seeth cause by the goodness or baseness of the hops ; 
and when it hath sodden in summer two hours and in 
winter an hour and an halfe, she striketh it also and re- 
serveth it unto mixture when time dooth serve therfore. 
Finalle when she setteth hir drinke together, she addeth to 
hir brackwoort or charwoort halfe an ounce o f arra s and 
halfe a quarteme of an ounce of baiberri es finelie powdered 
and then putteth the same into her woort with an handftil 
of wheate floure, she proceedeth in such usual order as 
common bruing requireth. Some in steed of arras and 
bales add so much long pepper onely but in her opinion 
and my liking it is not so good as the first and hereof we 
make three hoggesheads of good beere, such (I meane) as is 
meet for poore men as I to live withall whose small main- 
tenance (for what great thing is fortie pounds a yeare 
computatis computandis able to perform) may indure no 
deeper cut, the charges whereof groweth in this manner, 
I value my malt at ten shillings, my wood at foure shullings 
which I buie, my hops at twenty pence, the spice at two 
pence, servants wages two shillings sixpence, both meat 
and drinke, and the wearing of my vessels at twentie 
pence so that for my twentie shillings I have ten score 
gallons of ale or more notwithstanding the loss in 
seething. . . . The continuance of the drinke is always 
determined after the quantie of the hops, so that being 
well hopped it lasteth longer. For it feedeth upon 
the hop and holdeth out so long as the force of the 
same endureth which being extinguished the drinke 
must be spent or else it dieth and becometh of no 

232 Beverages, Past and Present 

If the old author was correct in his figures and also 
stated his income exactly, nearly a third of it was dis- 
posed of in ale alone. But perhaps he knew just about 
as much on the subject as Thomas Tusser, and while 
the apparent outlay was as he stated it, there was a 
further profit which owing to its nature could not be 
said to be derived entirely from the making of ale. 
Mr. Tusser's remarks on the subject are to be found 
in the Pointers of Good Huswiferie, but we take the 
liberty of culling the following: 

Brew somewhat for thine, 

Else bring up no swine. 
Where brewing is needful be brewer thyself, 
What fiUeth the roof will help furnish the shelf e; 
In buying of drinke by the firkin or pot 
The tallie ariseth, but hog amends not. 

Well brewed, worth cost, 

111 used, half lost. 
One bushel well brewed out lasteth some twaine, 
And saveth both matdt and expenses in vaine, 
Too new is no profit too stale is as bad, 
Drinke dead or else sower makes labourer sad. 

Remember, good Gill, 

Take paine with thy swill. 
Seeth graines in more water, while graines be yet hot. 
And stirre them in copper as poredge in pot. 
Serch heating with straw, to make offall good store. 
Both pleseth and eseth what would you have more. 

OjfaU was the old English word for small beer, or in 
other words weak beer. The reader will readily see 
that the raising of swine in conjtmction with ale brew- 
ing was most profitable, for the animals could dispose 
of the spent grain not only to advantage to themselves 

England and Scotland 233 

but with gain to their owners. Another great and 
powerftd element that had considerable influence in 
keeping ale before the English people was the clergy. 
The old-time monks and priests thought it no sin to 
make and use the beverage and, furthermore, they 
took especial pride in producing something superior 
and above the general run. The brewer and cellarer, 
whether in mitred abbey or in the less distinguished 
religious houses, were officials of considerable import- 
ance. It is on record that in the priory of St. Swithin 
at Winchester special prayers were offered up for 
the cellarer and his charges, and the records also men- 
tion the sad tales of the poor monks being deprived of 
their beer and ale by reason of the malt failing. 

This offering of prayer for the success of their brew 
may at first seem strange, but why should it? Our 
earliest writers, and more especially those who wrote 
of sacred subjects, often make mention of prayers 
offered for the success of the vine and the wine to be 
made therefrom. And to-day all through the Latin 
countries, wherever the vine grows religious rites 
are observed, not only by the people but by the 
priests. Some of these ceremonies are most solemn 
and their observation carries with them a memory 
of sacredness that no other subject could. So why 
should it be deemed strange for the monks of old 
England to pray for the success of their favourite 
beverage? They could not make wine from the grape, 
but they could make a most satisfying substitute from 
grain and they of all men knew that while water was 
the natural thirst-quencher it did not and never would 
supply the craving that exists in mankind for some- 
thing that will impart a vigour and energy beyond 

234 Beverages, Past and Present 

his natural state or condition. Recognising this the 
monks by their example strove to teach their people 
the use of the least harmful of beverages and one also 
that owing to its small cost could be had or made by 
even the poorest in the land. 

In the registry of the priory of Worcester, dated 
1240, there are many curious entries relating to their 
ale-brewing, a few of which are given below. **At 
each brewing VIII. cronn: de greu and X. quarteria de 
meis " were used, which probably means eight cronns 
or four quarters of growte (meaning ground malt) and 
ten quarters of mixed barley and oat malt. A long 
list then follows of the allowances of ale amongst the 
different officials of the house. The ale was of three 
different kinds — prima or tnelior, secunda, and tertia. 
The rule was to have one measure of prime and one of 
second. In the brewhouse four measures of the prime 
were to be distributed, and two measures on the day 
in which the ale was to be moved. The servant of the 
church was to have the holy-water bucket full of 
mixta, in other words part prime and part second, or 
perhaps a mixture of all three sorts. This mixta is 
undoubtedly the forerunner or ancestor of the half- 
and-half and three threads of our modem times, and 
should the student of customs be interested in tracing 
these habits to their origin he may find in the old 
annals some clue of more than ordinary value. Every 
one whose duty it was to aid in carrying the ale was 
to have two measures of the first and second mixed, 
and so the list proceeds through all the officers and 
servants of the priory. 

The office of cellarer was often a stepping-stone 
to some better or more exalted position. John of 

England and Scotland 235 

Brokehampton, who became abbot of Evesham in 1282, 
had himsedf filled the office of cellarer, and amongst 
many other benefits conferred by him upon the house 
during his abbacy he built a bakehouse and a brew- 
house **not only strongly but sumptuously." Natu- 
rally on holidays, or as they facetiously put it "doing 
the great O," which meant days upon which nothing 
was done, an extra supply of ale was dispensed to all, 
and on the occasion of the election of a canon for St. 
Paul's the records show that foreign wines and other 
delicacies were added to the feast. In an old Latin- 
English vocabulary of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries there is the following list of the requisites 
of a brewhouse: 

Brasiatrix, a brewster (a female brewer). 

CiMA, a kymnelle (a mash tub). 

FoRMAX, a fumasse (furnace). 

Alvbum, a trough. Brasium, malte. 

Baizissa, wortte (wort). 

Dragium, draf (grains). Calderium, a caldron. 

Taratantarum, a temse (sieve). 

CuvELLA, a kunlion (small tub). 

Ydromellium, growte. Mola, a quern (handmill). 

Pruerb, ling (a broom made of ling). 

A long number of years ago — and how long none 
can tell — they had a jingle in Durham which like others 
of its sort tells in a very few words a rather lengthy 
story. It ran as follows: 

I '11 no more be a nun, nun, nun, 

I '11 no more be a ntm! 

But I '11 be a wife, 

And lead a merry life, 

And brew good ale by the tun, tun, tun. 

236 Beverages, Past and Present 

As ale grew in popularity many customs arose 
connected with its drinking and use, some of which 
have survived in one form or another to the present 
time, but many through the changes of the centuries 
have passed away never to be restored. Perhaps the 
most ancient of all these usages was that of the wassail 
or, as some of the olden writers were wont to call it, 
the wassail bowl. When and where and how this 
custom originated none of the writers either ancient 
or modem have the temerity to say. Of the fact that 
it is a very ancient one there is not the sUghtest doubt, 
as it is mentioned by many of the old-time authors. 
Milner in ArcJuBologia informs us that 

the introduction of Christianity amongst otu* ancestors 
did not at all contribute to the abolition of the practice of 
wasselling. On the contrary, it began to assume a kind 
of religious aspect; and the wassell bowl itself, which in 
the great monasteries was placed on the Abbot's table, at 
the upper end of the Refectory or Eating Hall, to be cir- 
culated among the community at his discretion, received 
the honorable appellation of " Poculum Charitatis. ** This 
in our Universities is called the Grace Cup. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine of 1784 a writer tells 
us that 

The drinking the wassail bowl or cup was, in all proba- 
bility, owing to keeping Christmas in the same manner 
they had before the Feast of Ytile. There was nothing 
the Northern nations so much delighted in as carousing 
ale, especially at this season when fighting was over. It 
was likewise the custom at their feasts for the master of 
the house to fill a large bowl or pitcher and drink out of it 
first himself, and then give it to him that sat next, and 

England and Scotland 237 

so it went round. One custom more should be remembered ; 
and that is, that it was usual some years ago, in Christmas 
time, for the poorer people to go from door to door with a 
Wassail Cup, adorned with ribbons, and a golden apple 
at the top, singing and begging money for it; the original 
of which was, that they also might procure lamb's wool 
to fill it, and regale themselves as well as the rich. 

Perhaps, before we proceed any further in our 
remarks regarding this ancient usage, it would be 
better to give the reader some idea as to what a was- 
sail bowl consisted of. Of course, its chief ingredient 
was ale, but added to this was nutmeg, sugar, toast, 
and roasted crab-apples. This concoction was also 
known as * 'lamb's wool," but where the likeness exists 
or comes in we will leave the reader to decide for him- 
self. It was not only on New Year's Eve that the 
wassail bowl was in evidence but it extended into 
the Twdfth Day, when it perhaps was in even greater 
demand. In Herrick's Hesperides, under the title of 
the **Twelfe Night, Or King and Queen," the third 
stanza reads as follows and is quite descriptive of this 
much-loved drink: 

Next crowne the bowl ftdl 

With gentle lamb's wool; 
Adde sugar, nutmeg, and ginger, 

With store of ale too; 

And this you must doe 
To make the Wassaile a swinger. 

Although the wassail was very popular and had 
countless friends it also had others who did not admire 
it or the practices that accompanied it, as witness the 
following: **The pope [says Selden, in his Table 

238 Beverages, Past and Present 

Talk, article Pope] in sending relicks to princes, does 
as wenches do at their Wassds at New Year's Tide — 
they present you with a cup, and you must drink of a 
slabby stuff, but the meaning is, that you must give 
them money, ten times more than it is worth." 

Another convivial custom was that of pledging, and 
if the accounts given us of this practice are at all reliable 
pledging was a most necessary precaution, especially 
at the time of its introduction, and smacked more of a 
defensive measure than of a source of good fellowship. 
The word pledge is most probably derived from the 
French pleige, a surety or guage, but as to its real 
origin we can only speculate. The phrase * *I *11 pledge 
you," in drinking, some claim — ^and with considerable 
reason too — ^first came into use right after the Danes 
came into England. Doctor Harrison in his History 
of Great Britain says: 

If an Englishman presumed to drink in the presence of a 
Dane, without his express permission, it was deemed so 
great a mark of disrespect that nothing but his instant 
death could expiate. Nay, the English were so intimidated 
that they would not venture to drink even when they 
were invited until the Danes had pledged their honour 
for their safety; which introduced the custom of pledging 
each other in drinking, of which some vestiges are still re- 
maining among the common people of the north of England^ 
where the Danes were the most predominant. 

These people, the Danes, had a very troublesome 
habit, so it seems, of waiting until a persoa was drink- 
ing and then either stabbing or cutting the drinker's 
throat. This practice is well authenticated and many 
instances of its having been done are on record. A 

England and Scotland 239 

description of the modus operandi of pledging in those 
times reads as follows: 

The old maimer of pledging each other, when they 
drank, was thus: the person who was going to drink asked 
any one of the company who sat next to him, whether he 
would pledge him, on which he, answering that he would, 
held up his knife or sword, to guard him whilst he drank; 
for while a man is drinking he necessarily is in an unguarded 
posture, exposed to the treacherous stroke of some hidden 
or secret enemy. 

The Danes themselves were great drinkers and it 
was their excesses that in this particular caused Edgar 
to limit alehouses to one in each village or small town, 
and he also further ordained that pins or nails should 
be fastened into the drinking-cups and horns, at stated 
distances, **and whosoever shotdd drink beyond these 
marks at one draught should be obnoxious to a severe 
punishment." A rather unique method of compel- 
ling temperance, and it seems to have given rise to 
a custom which was afterwards called ** pin-drinking" 
or **nick the pin,'' and instead of inducing the people 
to more temperate attitudes it produced the opposite 
effect, and another law had to be established to counter- 
act the evil that arose from the pastime. Cocker's 
dictionary says of pin-drinking: **An old way of 
drinking to the pin in the midst of a wooden cup, which, 
being somewhat difficult, occasioned much drunken- 
ness, so a law was made that priests, monks, and 
friars should not drink to or at a pin. " 

In another old-time diction^y, called Gazophylacium 
Anglicanum and printed in 1689, is this definition: 
** He is on a merry pin" is said to have arisen from a 

240 Beverages, Past and Present 

way of drinking in a cup in which a pin was stuck 
and he that could drink to the pin, t. e, under or over 
it, was to have the wager." Still another practice was 
to drink supernaculum, but this, according to Brand's 
Popular Antiquities, was not drinking to the pin or 
nail but to the finger-nail. He explains it thus: 
**To drink supernaculum was an ancient custom, not 
only in England but also in several pa.rts of Europe, 
of emptying the cup or glass and then pouring the 
drop or two that remained at the bottom upon the 
person's nail that drank it, to show he was no fiincher." 
In the Winchester Wedding, a popular ballad of the 
olden times, is this allusion to supernaculum: 

Then Phillip began her health, 

And turned a beer glass on his thumb; 

But Jenkin was reckon'd for drinking 
The best in Christendom. 

Thomas Young in England's Bane or the Description 
of Drunkenness mentions supernaculum along with a 
list of other practices; he says: 

I myself e have seen and (to my grief of conscience) may 
now say have in presence, yea and amongst others, have 
been an actor in the business, when upon our knees, after 
healths to many private punkes, a healthe have been drunk 
to all the w s in the world. ... He is a man of no fash- 
ion that cannot drinke supernaculum, carouse the hunter's 
hoop, quaff e upsey-freese crosse, bowse in Permoysaunt, 
in Pimlico in Crambo with healths, gloves numpes, frolicks, 
and a thousand such domineering inventions, as by the 
bell, by the cards, by the dye, by the dozen, by the yard 
and so by the measure we drink out of measure. There 
are in London drinking schools; so that drunkennesse is 

England and Scotland 241 

professed with us as a liberal arte and science. I have 
seen a company among the very woods and forests drinking 
for a muggle. Sixe detirmined to trie their strengthes, 
who could drink most glasses for the muggle. The first 
drinkes a glass of a pint, the second two the next three so 
every one multiplieth till the last taketh sixe. Then the 
first beginneth againe and taketh seven, and in this manner 
they drinke thrice apiece round, every man taking a glass 
more than his fellow, so that he that dranke least which 
was the first, drank one and twenty pints, and the sixth 
man thirty-six. 

We have heretofore made mention of the old-time 
Romans and Greeks having a somewhat extended 
capacity for liquid refreshments, but when it comes 
to consuming eighteen quarts, or four gallons and a 
half, in one bout, language fails to express our senti- 
ments, and until other information can be obtained 
on the subject, the credit, if such it can be termed, lies 
with the ancient Briton. Written along the same 
lines is another old book entitled Philocothonisia or 
The Drunkard Opened, Dissected and Anatomized. 
This book was published in 1635 or eighteen years 
later than that of Thomas Young, and deals mostly 
with current topics; in one chapter the author 

Of drinking cups divers and simdry sorts we have; some 
of elme, some of box, some of maple, some of holly, &c., 
mazers broad mouthd disges, noggins, whiskins, piggins, 
crinzes, ale-bowles, court-dishes, tankards, from a bottle 
to a pint from a pint to a gill. Other bottles we have of 
leather, but they most used amongst the shepards and 
harvest-people of the countrey: small jacks we have in 
many ale-houses, of the citie and suburbs, tip't with silver, 
VOL. n — 16 

242 Beverages, Past and Present 

besides the great black jacks at the court, which when the 
Frenchmen first saw, they reported at their return into 
their countrey, that the Englishmen used to drink out 
of their bootes; we have besides cups made of homes of 
beasts, of cocker-nuts, of goords, of the eggs of the estriches, 
others made of the shells of divers fishes brought from the 
Indies and other places, and shining like mother of pearle. 
Come to plate, every tavern can afford you flat bowles, 
French bowles, beakers; and private house-holders in the 
citie, when they make a feast to entertaine their friends, 
can furnish their cupboards with flagons, tankards, beere- 
cups, wine-bowles, some white some purcell guilt [partly 
gilded], some guilt all over, some with covers, others 
without of sundry shapes and qualities. 

On page 51 he says: 

There is now professed an eighth liberal art or science, 
called Ars Bibendi, i, e,, the art of Drinkii;g. The students 
or professors thereof call a greene garland, or painted hoope 
hang'd out, a colledge: a signe where there is lodging, 
man's-meate and horse-meate, an inne of court, an hall or 
an hostle: where nothing is sold but ale and tobacco a 
grammar schoole, for all comers. . . . The bookes which 
they studdy, and whose leaves they so often turn over, are, 
for the most part, three of the old translation and three of 
the new. Those of the old translation: i. The Tankard. 

2. The Black Jacke. 3. The quart-pot rib*d or Thomdell. 
Those of the new be these: i. The Jugge. 2. The Beaker. 

3. The double or single can or Black-pot. Among the 
proper phrases belonging to the library are **to drinke 
upse-freese, supernaculum, to swallow a slap-dragon, or a 
rawe egge — to see that no lesse than three at once be bare 
to a health. '* 

Again he observes : 

England and Scotland 243 

Many of our nation have used the Lowe-countrey warres 
so long, that though they have left their money and 
clothes behind, yet they have brought their habit of 

Finally our author gives the following phrases in 
use for being drunk : 

Hee is foxt, hee is flawed, hee is flustered, hee is suttle, 
cupshot, cut in the leg or backe, hee hath whip't the cat, 
hee hath been at the scriveners and learned to make 
indentures, hee hath bit his grannam, or is bit by a bame- 

Upse-freese was a very heavy beer imported from 
Friesland. Another beer of like nature and, at that 
time, very popular in England was upse-dutch, which 
as its name indicates came from Holland. These beers 
were exceedingly strong and intoxicating and it was, 
perhaps, on this account that they were so well liked 
by the people who could afford to purchase them — for 
it must be remembered that they were far more costly 
than the domestic article. 

The drinking of healths dates away beyond the 
history of England, but on the other hand toasting 
is decidedly of English origin and according to the 
^Tattler, vol. i., No. 24, originated as follows: 

It happened that on a publick day [so reads the article] 
a celebrated beauty of those times (Charles the Second) 
was in the Cross Bath, and one of the crowd of her admirers 
took a glass of the water in which the fair one stood, and 
drank her health to the company. There was in the place 
a gay fellow, half fuddled, who offered to jump in, and 
swore though he liked not the liquor, he would have the 

244 Beverages, Past and Present 

toast. He was opposed in his resolution; yet this whim 
gave foundation to the present honour which is done to 
the lady we mention in our liquor, who has ever since been 
called a toast. 

The fellow's remark was undoubtedly called forth 
by a most common practice then in vogue of putting 
pieces of toast in ale, which perforce may have had its 
origin in the wassail bowl. 

In the New Help to Discourse printed in 1684 is the 

A toast is like a sot; or what is most 
Compatitive, a sot is like a toast; 
For when their substances in liquor sink, 
Both properly are said to be in drink. 

The seventeenth century was most prolific in publi- 
cations for and against the use of liquors. Some of 
these books are rare specimens of fanaticism and 
exaggeration, while others though more moderate in 
tone nevertheless condenm strongly the almost uni- 
versal habit of inebriation that existed in England at 
that time. Perhaps the subject called for vigorous 
language and no middle way could be tolerated. 
London was honeycombed with inns and ale-houses 
and one writer alone, Samuel Pepys, mentions nearly 
three hundred which he visited more or less frequently 
within the ten years he writes of in his diary, and 
these were considered to be more or less respectable. 

Naturally, where there was so much drinking, laws 
appertaining to and governing the practice would 
be in vogue; some of course would be the result of 
custom, while others would arise from circumstances 
and environment. In the matter of health-drinking 

England and Scotland 245 

Braithwait's Law of Drinking — a book published in 
16 1 7 — ^has this to say: 

These cups proceed in order or out of order, In order 
when no person transgresseth or drinkes out of course, but 
the cup goes round according to their manner of sitting; 
and this we call an health cup, because in our wishing 
or confirming of any one's health, bare-headed and stand- 
ing, it is performed by all the company. It is drunk with- 
out order, when the course or method of order is not 
observed, and that the cup passeth on to whomsoever we 
shall appoint. 

Again he states, **Some joyne two cups one upon 
another, and drinke them together." 

In the fourth decade of the same century it was or 
became the fashion to drink healths upon the knees. 
How long this idea prevailed it cannot be said and 
what gave rise to the practice none of the writers of 
the period seem inclined to state. A. M. Josevin who 
visited England during the reign of Charles II. was for 
a time at the Stag Inn in Worcester, and what he 
observed and says upon the subject of health-drinking 
there can be found in The Antiquarian Repertory, ii., 
p. 98. Part of his remarks, however, are as follows: 

According to the custom of the country, the landladies 
sup with the strangers and passengers, and if they have 
daughters, they are also of the company, to entertain the 
guests at table with pleasant conceits, where they drink as 
much as the men: but what is to me the most disgusting 
in all this is that when one drinks the health of any person 
in the company, the custom of the country does not permit 
you to drink more than half the cup, which is filled up and 
presented to him or her whose health you have drank. 

246 Beverages, Past and Present 

j^ At weddings, deaths, and christenings, ale, of cotirse, 
was one of the most important adjuncts of the occa- 
sion. In fact, it may be said in all truth that the old, 
English people never assembled at any function with- 
out ale being on the premises or near at hand. Bar- 
gains and sales were always consummated with a 
glass and any one entering upon a new occupation had 
to supply all connected in any manner with his pro- 
ject with foot-ale to drink, presumably to the success 
of the new venture. It was at weddings, however, in 
those early times that ale became of more than or- 
dinary importance; in fact, so great was its value on 
these occasions that it received the distinction of a 
separate and special classification. At the outset it 
was known as **bride-ale" which after awhile included 
•'bride-bush," "bride-stake," ^'bidding" and "bride- 
wain," all of which were sjnaonymous; and more es- 
pecially is this the case with the first three of the 
above headings, which for brevity's sake will all be 
considered under the head of bride-ale. 

When a young couple were about to be married 
the relations and friends of both furnished them with 
the necessary ingredients and implements to manu- 
facture ale for their wedding feast. After the cere- 
mony had been performed the bride began to dispense 
the results of her brewing, but in this case every one 
who partook of it was expected to pay. No stated 
price was stipulated, but the guests gave or paid ac- 
cording to their means and liking for the happy pair, 
and it is recorded that very considerable sums were 
raised in this manner with which the newly wedded 
people could start upon their life's journey. For 
many years the practice was kept in force and was 

England and Scotland 247 

carefully observed, but gradually there crept into it an 
element of what might be called after-profit, or in 
other words much more ale was made than could be 
disposed of on that day, and rather than suffer a loss 
the sale was continued for an indefinite period until 
at last we find the following — ^taken from the court- 
rolls of Hales-Owen Borough, in the county of Salpo, 
of the 15th year of Queen Elizabeth: 

Custom of bride-ale — Item, a payne is made that no 
person or persons that shall brewe any weddyn-ale to sell, 
shall not brewe above twelve strike of mault at the most, 
and that the said person so married shall not keepe or 
have above eight messe of persons at his dinner within the 
burrowe: and before his brydall daye he shall keep no 
unlawfuU games in hys house, nor out of hys house on 
pain of ao shilling. 

This plainly shows that the privilege was greatly 
abused and what was originally intended for a benefit 
became almost the reverse. Perhaps a better idea 
to which this state of affairs had arrived at can be had 
from the following quotation taken from In the Christen 
State of Matrimony, printed in 1543. '*When they come 
home from the church," says the author, "then be- 
ginneth excesse of eatying and drinking and as much 
is wasted in one daye as were sufficient for the two 
newe-maried folkes half a year to lyve upon." 

There is a tiait that, while it is perhaps more or less 
imiversal, yet we find that in England it is carried much 
further than elsewhere. We refer to the habit of 
miscalling or nicknaming the various beverages that 
were in use among the people. Whether it arises 
from a spirit of inventiveness, or is only done as a 

248 Beverages, Past and Present 

slight deception, it is hard to assert, but the fact re- 
mains that the English almost from the begimiing 
indulged in this pastime. After ale had become the 
national drink we often find it referred to as ** barley 
broth " and *'oyle of barley" and later on such names 
as "huff -cap," ''heavy-wet," **nipitatum" or "nipa- 
tato," ''humming" and innumerable other appella- 
tions of like character were bestowed upon it. 

Among the numerous names for small beers were 
such nice-sounding ones as "whip-belly-vengeance" 
and "rotgut." We have already learned that the 
wassail bowl had at least two names and this multi- 
plicity can be extended almost beyond limit. Names 
were also applied to the occasions and affairs, such as 
"leet-ale," "church-ale," "derk-ale," "Grace-ale," 
"Bede-ales," "Whitsuntide-ale" and so on through 
a category that would fill columns. Of course there 
were many kinds of ale that were dependent upon 
their various ingredients, while others were treated 
differently in the process of malting. Under the first 
heading were "Hysope-ale," "worm-wood ale," "ale 
of rosemary" and "Bettony." "Heather ale" was 
of very ancient origin in certain parts of the country 
and butter-ale was most plentiful in the seventeenth 
century. The second heading comprises such ales 
as "Burton," "HuU," "Derby" and a host of other 
towns all more or less celebrated for their brewing. 
There was the celebrated "twy-browen," a double- 
brewed ale claimed by some to be the ancestor of 
doble-doble, the strong domestic brew of Elizabethan 
times. Of this ale an old writer says " it sold for a 
groat a quart and is as strong as wine and will bum 
like sack." 

England and Scotland 249 

Pharaoh-beer was made at Bailey in Cambridgeshire 
a htmdred years or more ago, and was noted for its 
strength. "Stingo" was a very strong ale brewed 
in Yorkshire. White ale is of great antiquity and 
is supposed to have originated at Kingsbridge, though 
the method of making it has always been a secret con- 
fined to a few families. It does not improve by keep- 
ing, so only small quantities are brewed at a time 
and as soon as possible it is put into bottles. It is 
described as being a luscious liquid of which the people 
say "it is meat, drink and doth combined." At Corn- 
wall they make an ale somewhat similar to the above 
which they call laboragol. Norfolk nog, as the 
name indicates, was made in Norfolk. Tradition 
says that this ale was remarkable for its strength and 
it was owing to this quality that it was also called 
"Clamber-skuir* in reference to the rapidity with 
which it mounted to the heads of its votaries. Many 
of the colleges and ancient seats of learning brewed 
their own ales and were as proud of their product 
as any professional brewer could be. According to 
reports some of them were far above the average 
and deserved all the praise they received. Trinity 
College ale was, and still is, known as "Trinity audit,*' 
and if tradition can be relied upon it is hardly short 
of perfection, for: 

Oh, in truth it gladdens the heart to see 

What may spring from the Ale of Trinitie, — 

A scholar — ^a fellow, — a rector blithe 

(Fit to take any amount of tithe). 

Perhaps a bishop — ^perhaps by grace 

One may mount to the archiepiscopal place, 

2 so Beverages, Past and Present 

And wield the crosier, an awful thing, 
The envy of all, and — ^the parson's King! 

Jove, who would struggle with learning pale, 
That could beat down the world by the strength of ale ? 
For me, — I avow, could my thoughtless prime 
Come back with the wisdom of mournful time, 

1 'd labour — I 'd toil — ^by night and by day 
(Mixing liquors and books away) 

Till I conquer 'd that high and proud degree, 
M.A. [Master of Ale] of Trinitie. 

The above lines will suffice to give the reader an idea 
as to the manner in which the students and also the 
faculty as well view the question of ale-brewing at 
college. Besides the regular malt and hop ales, the 
English made and do make yet other ales some of 
which are palatable and wholesome. The list is a 
rather extended one and accordingly we will give 
only the more noted and popular, which includes 
* * cowslip-ale,'' ' * blackberry-ale," * *horseradish-ale," 
** china-ale," * 'apricot-ale," and **dderberry-beer," 
"egg ale," **cock ale," and '*ebulon." ''Cowslip-ale " 
according to The London and County Brewer^ i774» was 
made as follows: **Take a bushel of the flowers of 
cowslip, pick'd out of the husks, and when your ale 
hath done working put them loose in the barrel without 
bruising. Let it stand a fortnight before you bottle 
it, and when you bottle it put a lump of sugar in each 

The recipe for making cock-ale reads: 

Take a cock of half a year old, kill and truss him well, 
and put into a cask twelve gallons of ale to which add 
four pounds of raisins of the sun well picked, stoned, 
washed and dryed; sliced dates half a pound; nutmeg and 

England and Scotland 251 

mace two ounces: Infuse the dates and spices in a quart 
of canary twenty-four hours, then boil the cock in a manner 
to a jelly, till a gallon of water is reduced to two quarts; 
then press the body of him extremely well and put the 
liquor into the cask where the ale is, with the spices and 
fruit adding a few blades of mace, then put to it a pint 
of new ale yeast, and let it work well for a day, and in two 
days you may broach it for use or in hot weather the 
second day, and if it proves too strong, you may add more 
plain ale to palliate this restorative drink which contributed 
much to the invigorating of nature. 

But when it comes to something that is really and 
genuinely superior in the invigorating line, egg ale 
is something that must on no account be overlooked. 
There were several methods of making this wonderful 
beverage but the following seems to be tiie most popular 
one: '*To twelve gallons of ale was added the gravy 
of eight pounds of beef, a pound of raisins, oranges, 
and spice; twelve eggs and the gravy beef were then 
placed in a linen bag and left in the barrel until the 
ale had ceased to ferment, when two quarts of Malaga 
sack were added. After a period of three weeks in 
cask the ale was bottled and was in a short time ready 
for use. 

All the accepted elements of nourishment were in- 
cluded in this beverage, but what about the taste? 
And can it be wondered at that the English of those 
days were a sturdy and hardy race when such drinks as 
the two just mentioned were on their daily bill of fare? 
Another beverage, but one that has gone through 
a series of changes, is that called purl. In the be- 
ginning it is said that purl contained the following 
ingredients : Roman wormwood, gentian root, calamus 

252 Beverages, Past and Present 

aromaticus, snake root, horseradish, dried orange- 
peel, juniper berries, seeds of Seville oranges, and a 
pound or two of galingale placed in ale and allowed to 
stand for some months. Later on it was greatly 
simplified and consisted only of a dash of gin put into 
hot ale and was known to a certain class as dogsnose. 
Aside from the list of glasses given elsewhere, the 
English had two others that were decidedly original, 
to say the least. The first bore the name of ale« 
yard and was a trumpet-shaped glass, exactly a yard 
in length, the narrow end being closed, and* expanded 
into a large ball. Its internal capacity is a little more 
than a pint, and when filled with ale many a thirsty tyro 
has been challenged to empty it without taking it from 
his mouth. This is no easy task. So long as the tube 
contains fluid it flows out smoothly, but when air 
reaches the bulb it displaces the liquor with a splash, 
startling the toper, and compelling him involuntarily 
to withdraw his mouth by the rush of the cold liquid 
over his face and dress. The other vessels were known 
as wager or puzzle jugs and while they were easily 
filled they were decidedly difficult to empty; some 
had secret passages up the handle or the contents 
would only flow through one nozzle or spout ; others 
were so arranged that only by closing certain holes 
with the fingers could the drinker manage to suck 
the contents. Some of the jugs were plain, but n^ny 
of them were inscribed as below: 

From Mother Earth I claim my birth, 

I 'm made a joke to man ; 
But now I 'm here filled with good beer 

Come taste me if you can. 

England and Scotland 253 

The next most poptilar drink in England, following 
ale and beer, is that known as porter, which in a com- 
parative sense is a very modem beverage indeed. 
According to the records it was one Ralph Harwood, 
who in 1730 had a brewhouse on the east side of High 
Street, Shoreditch, who was the original maker of this 
world-famous drink. At first he called it entire or 
entire butts, but these names were not in accord with 
public sentiment and it was not long before it began 
to be called porter. How this appellation came to 
be applied to the liquor is still a matter of doubt 
and controversy. 

There are several stories, all more or less plausible, 
but none of them are fully satisfying in detail when 
they come to be closely scrutinised. One theory is 
that, owing to the many porters in Shoreditch at the 
time, it received its new name through their fondness 
for the drink. Pennant in his London leans strongly 
to this idea. He says, " It is a wholesome liquor, which 
enables the London porter-drinkers to undergo tasks 
that ten gin-drinkers would sink under." Another 
explanation of the origin of the name is that Harwood 
sent round his men to his customers with the liquor, 
and that the men would announce their arrival and 
their business by the cry of ** Porter!" meaning not 
the beer but the bearer. 

What first induced Harwood to make porter was 
the idea of saving time and labour. Simple ale or 
beer was not much in vogue at taverns and brew- 
houses — ^the people demanded and expected to receive 
a mixture ; half-and-half was a very common combina- 
tion and three threads was almost as popular, and 
therefore in order to supply these mixtures it was 

2 54 Beverages, Past and Present 

necessary to make at least two drawings from different 
casks, and frequently three was the common number ; 
this of course took time and was furthermore laborious, 
so Harwood bethought himself of making the three, 
ale, beer and two-penny, together at the time of brew- 
ing, and after several trials he succeeded in doing so 
and was rewarded with the most gratifying success. 
Originally the word ** stout" was used to describe a 
strong or stout beer, but after a while it was applied 
solely to a heavy brown beer much stronger than porter 
and with a greater proportion of hops. 

For some time porter was drtink in the inns and 
taverns in its natural state, but after a time there arose 
a fashion of blending it with stout. This mixture 
received the name of cooper from the fact that it 
was a person of that name who kept a house in Broad 
Street, opposite to where the excise office stood, who 
was the one to introduce the idea. Afterwards the 
mixture was brewed entire the same as porter. 

The condition of England during the periods we have 
so often mentioned was so far different from that of 
to-day and so totally foreign to any existing conditions 
that to draw a parallel between tihen and now would 
almost be impossible. The excise was the greatest 
revenue-producer in the kingdom and in the last year 
of the reign of Charles the Second it exceeded the 
customs by fifty-five thousand pounds ; but England 
was then awakening and was beginning to realise her 
importance as a maritime and manufacturing nation, 
and therefore it is of the earlier times of the sixteenth 
century that we will speak, principally through the 
voice of J. Leander Bishop, A.M., M.D., in his history 
of American Manufactures, He says: 

England and Scotland 255 

The condition of the common people, and even of the 
wealthy classes, was therefore but tardily improved dur- 
ing the slow growth of knowledge and of industry. And 
when manufactures began to revive under favorable aus- 
pices, the injurious effects of monopolies, growing out of 
the abuse of royal prerogative, by limiting its profits to a 
favored few, repressed all competition and all stimulus to 
improvement. The condition of the English people, as 
respects their civilisation and social comfort in the century 
which includes the very early history of the American 
colonies, may be inferred from a few facts, which supply 
the place of correct statistics. During the comparatively 
tranquil reign of Elizabeth, England had rapidly pro- 
gressed in wealth and power; and as history too commonly 
deals only with the intrigues of courts and cabinets, and 
the action of illustrious persons, it might be inferred, from 
the splendor of the court and nobility, that the common 
people of England were in a condition of comparative 
comfort. In mere outward display, particularly of dress, 
upholstery, and retinue, those days exceeded our own; 
but in point of comfort, even the nobility and gentry 
of the sixteenth century scarcely equalled the humblest 
peasantry or mechanic of England or the United States 
at this time [1861]; while the latter classes were for the 
most part worse fed, clothed and lodged than any class 
at present known among us. In the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, the houses of the common people were, 
many of them, built of mud and wood, thatched with straw, 
and consisted of one room without division of stories. The 
floor was the bare earth or clay covered with rushes or 
straw, under which, says Erasmus, lay ever)rthing that 
was nauseous. (These floors, or perhaps it would be 
better to say these floor spaces, were dug up and the 
soil taken away and treated so as to obtain the saltpetre 
or nitre which it contained in abundance). Chimneys were 
almost unknown, even in the houses of the gentry; and 

256 Beverages, Past and Present 

late in the century, even in the larger towns, but few houses 
contained a chimney. The fire was kindled against a hob 
of clay called the rere dosse, in the back or centre of the 
room, which was filled with smoke from wood — ^the only 
fuel used — that found its way out through an opening 
or lantern in the roof. In this apartment the family dined 
and dressed their meals; and in farmhouses the oxen often 
lived under the same roof. The utensils were mostly 
of wood, for glass was scarce and pottery wholly tmknown. 
In the reign of Henry VIII., no fire was allowed in the 
University of Oxford. Glass windows, carpets, chairs, 
and looking-glasses were still less common than chimneys; 
and forks were not known until the time of James I. Glass 
windows in Elizabeth's reign were movable furniture in 
the houses of the nobility, and the dining-halls of the 
gentry were covered with rushes or straw. The bedding 
consisted of straw pallets or rough mats covered only by 
a sheet, with a good round log instead of a bolster or pillow. 
An old annalist says : " As for servants, if they had any sheet 
abive them it was well; for seldom had they any under 
their bidies to keep them from the pricking straws that 
ran oft through the canvas of the pallet, and fased their 
hardened hides." A mattress or flock-bed and sack of 
chaff for pillow were considered evidences of prosperity 
in one who had been seven years married, who considered 
himself "as well lodged as the lord of the town.*' 

Skipton castle, one of the most splendid mansions of the 
North, had but seven beds, and none of the chambers 
had chairs, glasses or carpets. Even the baronial house- 
hold of Northumberland, in the beginning of the century, 
employed but two cooks for a retinue of two hundred 
persons, including seventy strangers daily counted upon; 
had no sheets, and the table linen, often extremely costly, 
was washed about once a month. Forty shillings was the 
yearly allowance for the washing of the household. The 
earl had three country seats with furniture but for one, 

England and Scotland 257 

and carried all with him when he removed, one cart suffic- 
ing for all the kitchen utensils, cook's beds, etc. 

The food of artificers and laborers in Henry the Eighth's 
reign was ''horsecom, beans, peason, oats, tares, and 
lentils." Barley bread was the usual food of the poorer 
classes in 1626, and white bread was but little used by them 
in 1689. Even as late as 1725, when an improved agri- 
culture had made wheat bread common in the southern 
cotmties, in Cumberland, it is said, none but a rich family 
used a peck of wheat in a year, and that at Christmas. 
A wheaten loaf was only found after much search in the 
shops of Carlisle. Servants and the very poor ate dry 
bran bread, sometimes mixed with rye meal. Yet the 
English peasantry were better fed than the French at that 
period, who ate apples, water, and rye meal. Com was 
mostly ground at home by the quern or the hand-mill, in 
the time of Elizabeth. Holland at that time supplied 
London with vegetables, and a century later a large part 
of England was an unproductive waste. In the early 
reign of Henry VIII., it has been said, not a cabbage, 
carrot, turnip, or other edible root grew in England. 

Travelling was most tedious and perillous, as well on 
accotmt of the wretched condition of the roads as the 
prevalence of moss-troopers and highwaymen, who as late 
as the time of Charles II. were hunted with blood-hotmds. 
In the reign of Henry VIII., it is said, seventy thousand 
thieves were hanged in England. Until the middle of the 
sixteenth century nearly all travelling was done on horse- 
back, and goods were transported on pack-horses, the 
foremost wearing a bell to warn travellers to turn out to 
let them pass, such was the narrowness of the way. Coaches 
did not become general until the time of Elizabeth or 
later, when they were without springs and very clumsy. 
The queen in her old age is said to have reluctantly 
used so effeminate a conveyance, which it was a disgrace 
for a young man to be seen to use; and she is said also to 

VOL. II — 17 

258 Beverages, Past and Present 

have declined a breakfast at Cambridge because she had 
twelve miles to travel before she slept. Turnpikes were 
established by act of Parliament in the time of Charles II., 
but the gates were pulled down by a mob. In 1703, public 
coaches were advertised to perform the whole journey from 
London to York in four days I And in 1760 a coach left 
Edinburgh for London once a month, and occupied a 
month in the journey. Owing to the difficulties of trans- 
portation many articles were nearly worthless a few miles 
from any market. 

The above accotmt though short and concise is a 
most graphic description of England at that period 
both socially and otherwise, but there is one feature 
which Mr. Bishop seems to have overlooked entirely, 
and that is the inns and taverns of the same era, and 
perhaps it wotdd be better to turn to the pages of 
Macaulay's History of England for an impartial account 
and one of whose accuracy there can be no doubt. 
After giving a very interesting narration of the various 
highwaymen and their methods of depriving the tm- 
wary traveller of his wealth Lord Macaulay says: 

All the various dangers by which the traveller was beset 
were greatly increased by darkness. He was therefore 
commonly desirous of having the shelter of a roof during 
the night; and such shelter it was not difficult to obtain. 
From a very early period the inns of England had been 
renowned. Our first great poet [Chaucer] has described 
the excellent accommodation which they afforded to the 
pilgrim of the fourteenth century. Nine and twenty 
persons with their horses found room in the wide chambers 
and stables of the Tabard in Southwark. The food was of 
the best and the wines such as drew the con^any to drink 
largely. Two hundred years later, under the reign of 

England and Scotland 259 

Elizabeth, WUliam Haxrison gave a lively description of 
the plenty and comfort of the great hostelries. The 
continent of Europe he said could show nothing like them. 
There were some in which two or three hundred people with 
their horses could without difficulty be lodged and fed. 
The bedding, the tapestry, above all the abundance of the 
clean and fine linen, was matter of wonder. Valuable 
plate was often set upon the tables. Nay, there were signs 
which had cost thirty or forty poimds. In the seventeenth 
century England abounded with excellent inns of every 
rank. The traveller sometimes, in a small village, lighted 
on a public house such as Walton has described, where the 
brick floor was swept clean, where the walls were stuck 
round with ballads, where the sheets smelt of lavender, 
and where a blazing fire, a cup of good ale, and a dish 
of trouts fresh from the neighboring brook, were to be 
procured at small charge. At the large houses of enter- 
tainment were to be found beds hung with silk, choice 
cookery, and claset equal to the best that was drunk in 

The innkeepers, too, it was said, were not like other 
innkeepers. On the continent the landlord was the 
tyrant of those who crossed the threshold. In England 
he was a servant. Never was an Englishman more at 
home than when he took his ease at an inn. Even men 
of fortune, who might in their own mansions have enjoyed 
every luxury, were often in the habit of passing their 
evenings in the parlour of some neighboring house of 
entertainment. They seem to have thought that comfort 
and freedom could in no other place be enjoyed in equal 
perfection. This feeling continued during many genera- 
tions to be a national peculiarity. The liberty and jollity 
of inns long furnished matter to our novelists and dram- 
atists. Johnson declared that a tavern chair was the 
throne of human felicity; and Shenstone gently complained 
that no private roof, however friendly, gave the wanderer 

26o Beverages, Past and Present 

so warm a welcome as that which was to be found at an 

(Whoe'er has travelled life's dull rotmd, 
Whate'er its stages might have been, 

Must sigh to think that he has found 
His warmest welcome at an inn.) 

Many conveniences which were unknown at Hampton 
Court and Whitehall in the seventeenth century are to 
be found in our modem hotels. Yet on the whole it is 
certain that the improvement of our modem houses of 
public entertainment has by no means kept pace with 
the improvement of our roads and our conveyances. Nor 
is this strange ; for it is evident that, all other circumstances 
being supposed equal, the inns will be best where the means 
of locomotion are worst. The quicker the rate of travelling, 
the less important it is that there should be numerous 
agreeable resting places for the traveller. A hundred and 
sixty years ago [about 1690] a person who came up to the 
capital from a remote county generally required twelve 
or fifteen meals, and lodging for five or six nights by the 
way. If he were a great man, he expected the meals and 
lodging to be comfortable and even luxurious. At present 
we fly from York or Chester to London by the light of a 
single winter's day. At present, therefore, a traveller 
seldom interrupts his journey merely for the sake of rest 
and refreshment. The consequence is that hundreds of 
excellent iims have fallen into decay. In a short time no 
good houses of that description will be found, except at 
places where strangers are likely to be detained by business 
or pleasure. 

The historian, it seenos, is at a loss to explain ^y 
the English showed such a decided preference for inn 
or tavern life, but had he delved a little deeper into 

England and Scotland 261 

the question perhaps the solution would have been 
simple. Of course the causes for this state of affairs 
were many and varied, but undoubtedly the chief 
incentive was cleanliness. There is a feeling, in 
civilised mankind, of repugnance for dirt and filth. 
Of course in some this sentiment is stronger than in 
others and it grows in proportion as they are enabled 
to view conditions by contrast. Mr. Bishop has shown 
us that in private houses, even those of the nobility, 
dirt and filthiness reigned supreme while at the same 
time the inns and taverns of the country were noted 
for their cleanliness and the good fare they offered their 
patrons. Again, these public houses were the means 
of bringing together congenial people where several 
hours could be passed in pleasant conversation and 
exchange of ideas; the news of the day could also 
be discussed and perhaps these worthy souls would 
occasionally indulge in a little gossip. Society, aside 
from that to be found in the inns and taverns, was 
very primitive, and taking these views of the question 
the wonder is that there was any home life in England 
during this epoch in their history. 

The English people have always shown a great 
love for wine, and possibly it comes from the fact that 
the island was settled by people who came from wine- 
drinking countries, which of course we know to be true, 
and furthermore there can be but little doubt as to 
their having the taste and liking continued through 
the means of inheritance. There are no authentic 
records in existence telling when the vine was first 
planted or introduced into England, but it is generally 
admitted that the Romans were the people who be- 
gan the experiment. The vine, of cotirse, will grow in 

262 Beverages, Past and Present 

England and it has been grown there for many cen- 
turies, but in order that it shall arrive at anything 
like perfection, it must be treated as an exotic or gar- 
den plant. Vineyards have often been attempted, but 
none have ever proven successful from a commer- 
cial point of view, though in a way it can be said that 
in times long past England did make considerable 
wine. The monks, we are told, made a fair quantity 
of wine from grapes grown in their gardens; and in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries the amount of wine 
made in England, so it is said, ran into thousands of 

The Isle of Ely from the abundance of its vintage 
is said to have been at one time denominated *'the 
isle of vines"; and its bishop, shortly after the con- 
quest, commonly exacted three or four tuns of wine 
as the tithe of the vineyard, while a certain amount 
was reserved in his leases for rent. But even in that 
island, which wa$ the most favoured place of its culture, 
the growth of the vine was neither permanent nor 
valuable; for it appears that in some seasons the 
produce was merely verjuice, showing clearly that 
no human skill or exertion could make the vine flour- 
ish in a cotmtry in which it was an alien. 

At Raganeia, in the hundred of Rochford, a vineyard 
of six "arpents" is said to have yielded on an av- 
erage twenty modii of wine. We are also told that 
Gloucester excelled all other parts of England, in the 
abundance and pleasant taste of its grapes, and that 
the wine was of a superior description, little inferior 
to the wines of France. Windsor Park was noted for 
its grapes ; part of the produce the king kept for him- 
self, a part was sold for his profit, and the tithe on the 

England and Scotland 263 

whole formed a part of the living of the abbot of 
Waltham, parson both of old and new Windsor. 

" Notwithstanding these historic records, it may be 
asked, If the growth of the vine was natural or flourish- 
ing in England, why discontinue it, or send such sums 
of money to foreign countries for an article which might 
be so cheaply procured at home?" asks Samuel More- 
wood. The answer is obvious : 

England is not the country for its cultivation either with 
respect to soil or climate, and we find that even in the times 
in which the vine is said to have flourished most, foreign 
wines were imported very largely, a proof that the home 
produce was very scanty and that to prosecute the cultiva- 
tion of the vine was neither successful nor profitable. 
Misled by the specious reports of William of Malmesbury, 
Bede, Stowe, and others, many in England attempted 
to cultivate the vine, but without advantageous effect; 
and we find in the present day that it thrives best when 
treated as an exotic in our gardens and greenhouses: 
England being a country so far north and so exposed 
to cold and moisture of the great western ocean, 
that it could not be expected to be favourable to its 

This is fully corroborated by the endeavours made some 
few years since to establish vineyards in the Isle of Wight, 
but those efforts completely failed in consequence of the 
causes just mentioned. There are, however, instances 
in England of the vine growing to great perfection, such 
as that planted in 1758 at St. Valentine in Essex, which 
has extended to more than two hundred feet; and it was 
known in one year to yield two thousand bunches of ripe 
grapes. The vine at Hampton palace, planted in 1769, 
has a stem thirteen inches in circtunference, with branches 
fourteen feet long. It has produced in one year upwards 

264 Beverages, Past and Present 

of two thousand bunches of grapes, the average of each 
bunch being a pound. 

The Doomsday Book also gives a number of items 
in reference to the cultivation of the grape and the 
making of wine in various parts of the coimtry, but 
of the whole list none survived more than a few years 
at the most. On the other hand, though, if the soil 
and climate of England is not favourable to the grape, 
other fruits grow in luxuriant profusion and it was 
not long before the people recognised their value in 
a wine-making capacity. Fruits, however, were not 
the only thing these people exerted their ingenuity 
upon : flowers and vegetables had to play their parts 
as well in allaying the thirst, while trees of various sorts 
were also replevined in order to extract from them 
a beverage more or less intoxicating. Several writers 
have classified these wines tmder the title "home 
wines" and perhaps no better name could be bestowed 
upon them, for while they are tmdoubtedly made in 
goodly quantities yet the amotmt has never been suffi- 
cient to warrant their being put upon the market 
as a staple article of conmierce. Some of these home 
wines call for and receive far more attention than 
would be bestowed on the ordinary wines of the grape. 
For an example we append a recipe taken form an old 
cook book for the making of rhubarb wine. 

1/ Take [it says] fifty pounds of rhubarb and thirty-seven 
pounds of good moist sugar. Have ready a tub that holds 
from fifteen to twenty gallons. Bore a hole near the 
bottom for a tap. In this tub bruise the rhubarb, add 
four gallons of clear cold water, stir well; cover with a 
blanket and let stand for twenty-four hours; then draw 

England and Scotland 265 

off the liquor through the tap ; add one or two more gallons 
of water to the pulp, let it be well stirred, and allowed to 
remain an hour or two to settle, then draw off; mix the two 
liquors together and in it dissolve the thirty-seven pounds 
of sugar. Let the tub be made clean and return the 
liquor to it, cover with a blanket and place in a room the 
temperature of which is not below 60 Fahr. Here it is 
to remain twenty-four, forty-eight, or more hours until 
there is an appearance of fermentation having begun, 
when it should be drawn off into the ten gallon cask, as 
clear as possible which cask must be filled up to the bung- 
hole with cold water; if there is not liquor enough, let it 
lean to one side a little that it may discharge itself. If 
there is any liquor left in the tub not quite fine, pass it 
through a flannel bag without squeezing and fill with that 
instead of water. As the fermentation proceeds and the 
liquor diminishes, it must be filled up more moderate, when 
the bung should be put on, and a gimlet hole made by the 
side of it, fitted with a spile; this spile should be taken out 
every two or three days, according to the state of the fer- 
mentation, for eight or ten days, to allow some of the car- 
bonic acid gas to escape. When this state is passed the 
cask may be kept ftdl by pouring a little liquor in at the 
vent-hole once a week or ten days, for three or four weeks. 
This operation is performed at long intervals of a month 
or more, till the end of December, when on a fine frosty 
day it should be racked off from the lees as fine as possible; 
the turbid part passed through a flannel bag as before. 
Make the cask clean, return the liquor to it ; fine with isin- 
glass, put the bung in firmly. Choose a clear dry day in 
March for bottling it. Use champagne bottles, as common 
bottles are not strong enough; wire down the corks. 

The compiler of the ancient book from which the 
above is taken informs her readers that this recipe is 

266 Beverages, Past and Present 

good not only for rhubarb but for all kinds of fruits — 
gooseberries, currants, blackberries, strawberries, and 
so on through the whole list. 

The second branch of home wines, if so we may 
classify them, are the vegetable wines, which are made 
from various tubers and roots such as parsnips, turnips, 
potatoes, radishes, and like products of the garden. 
These vegetable wines when carefully and property 
made are often superior in quality, and owing to the 
amount of sugar which is to be found in the tubers 
are very often strong in alcohol and therefore will 
readily intoxicate the tmwary. Parsnip wine, in 
particular, which takes at least two years to perfect, 
is a heady beverage, equalling a heavy port though 
in colour it resembles pure dear water. Rape wine is 
another concoction that contains an tmdue amotmt 
of stimtdation and latent energy ; it is of very ancient 
origin, owing perhaps to the fact that the plant or 
roots from which it was made grew wild and therefore 
were easily procurable. The common potato soon 
after its introduction into England furnished these 
inquisitive and experimental people with a wine-like 
beverage that by many is said to be of tolerable quality. 

The tubers are first subjected to a severe frost, after 
which they are bruised and put into a press: for every 
bushel of these, ten gallons of boiled water is prepared. 
Into this water is put one half-pound of hops and a half- 
pound of ginger, which, after having been again boiled for 
thirty minutes, is poured on the mashed potatoes in a 
vessel adapted for the purpose. Here it is suffered to 
remain three days, when barm — ale yeast — ^is added; the 
liquor is carefully drawn off into casks, when one half- 
pound of common sugar is put to every gallon of the con- 

England and Scotland 267 

tents. In this state it is kept for three or four months, 
before it is considered fit for drinking. Turnip wine 
while plentifully made is very rarely sold as such; in fact 
so versatile and retiring is this beverage that to obtain the 
genuine article one must perforce give it some foreign 
name, such as Chateau Yquem, or again Schloss Johannis- 
better, though perhaps you may prefer a red wine, when 
Burgundy, especially any of the better known brands, will 
do as well; while as a claret La Rose, La Fitte, or any of 
the popular and costly brands will generally succeed in 
procuring for you a fine sample of what the London imi- 
tators can do with turnip wine. 

An exceedingly fine quality of sherry and port can also 
be had from this accommodating tuber, and while England 
may not be able to grow many grapes she can and does 
grow a plentiful supply of turnips; but England is not a 
wine-making country properly speaking. 

The blossoms of the dandelion, when gathered at 
the right season and treated according to the formtda 
of the accomplished housewife, make a wine so closely 
resembling the finer wines of the Rhine that it troubles 
even the expert to distinguish which is which. Our 
German cousins, however, need never fear competition 
from this source, for, while a few gallons of this wine 
can be made at home in a profitable way if the children 
can be induced to gather the flowers, to attempt mak- 
ing it in quantities large enough for the market would 
almost be impossible owing to the cost of labour. 

Cowslip wine is another of these flower wines which 
have been pronounced by good judges to be worthy 
of a more exalted place in the list of beverages. It 
has often been confounded with the muscatel of 
Southern France and many a guest at some wayside 

268 Beverages, Past and Present 

inn has tindoubtedly been regaled with this native 
product instead of the foreign brand for which he 
called, and has never been the wiser. The flowers 
of the elder like the berries of the same plant furnish 
the careful and economical housewife, and others too, 
with a product that through some unlucky accident 
has more than once been confused with Frontignac. 

Elderberry wine we all know bears a close relation- 
ship to the famous ports ; in fact so near is this con- 
nection that often the relative is taken— or shall it be 
said given? — ^for the more celebrated wine, and, sad 
to relate, without detection. Of course such a thing 
would not be intentionally done by any of mine hosts, 
but we all recognise the fact that to err is human. 

If any of our ladies, and especially the yotmg ladies, 
were asked to tell from what tampoy — a beverage that 
at one time was very common and quite plentiful 
in England — ^was made they, like their brothers too, 
would most likely fail to guess ; and when they learn 
that the English people of olden times were so prosaic 
as to steep the fragrant and beautiful carnation pink 
in ale and wine to make tampoy they may think they 
could have found something else and left the flowers 
alone. Perhaps they could, but it must be remembered 
that according to the French the nose is the best guide 
for the stomach and if this is true surely there can be 
no more acceptable delicacy than the pink. 

In the olden times this flower was known as the 
gilofre and to-day it is often referred to, in England 
more particularly, as the gilly flower. But perhaps our 
young ladies will find it a little relief to their sentiment 
that according to the botanist the gilly flower is not 
the cultivated carnation but the one that our grand- 

England and Scotland 269 

mothers called the clove pink, which blooms so pro- 
fusely in July and of which the word giliy is said to 
be a corruption. Chaucer says: 

And many a clove gilofre 
To put in ale. 

Edmund Spenser in The Faerie Queene calls them 
sops in wine, which name was applied in consequence 
of their being steeped in wine and is more practical 
than poetical. The last in the list of home wines are 
those made either from the sap or berries of various 
forest trees, such as the beech, birch, sycamore, and 
so forth. According to Morewood, 

Birch wine is still made in some parts of England; at 
Overton Hall [he says] it is manufactured in the following 
manner: In March the trunks of the trees are bored to the 
depth of an inch and a half nearly, and about three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, at a distance of a foot from the 
ground. Directly below the orifice a metal tube is fixed 
into the bark, through which the juice flows into a receiver 
placed underneath. When the weather is warm the water 
thickens and closes the perforation, so that in a few days 
there is no exudation; but if the weather be cold or windy, 
there will be a constant discharge for a month. Some 
trees will produce twenty-four gallons in a day, when 
sold for the purpose of making a light or small wine. If 
not immediately disposed of after being taken from the 
tree, it will not keep sweet more than a day; it is heated 
nearly to boiling to preserve it, and then left to cool. When 
a sufficient quantity is then collected, to every gallon of 
juice two pounds of sugar and a quarter of a pound of 
raisins are added. This mixture is boiled for an hour, 
skimmed, and left to cool to a temperature that when 

270 Beverages, Past and Present 

yeast is added fermentation commences. In this state 
it is left to work ninety-six hours, after which it is casked, 
when five pounds of raisins and one ounce of isinglass are 
added for every twenty gallons. The bungs are left open, 
and in less than a month it is cleansed of the feculence; 
the casks are then closed up for about three months, and in 
a few weeks after bottling the liquor is ready for use, but 
like most other wines it improves greatly with age. 

Service wine may be thought by some to apply to 
the chtirch, or sacred wine, but in this case they would 
be mistaken, for the wine derives its name from the 
tree from which the berries are gathered. The general 
reader may perhaps know the tree under the name 
moimtain-ash and refuse to partake of the fine red 
berries which it so botmtifully bears, but if he was 
offered a glass of wine made from these same berries 
he would be agreeably surprised at its excellent quality. 
A drink of great antiquity is one that was called morat 
made from honey and the juice of ripe mtdberries; 
and, while this combination on the face of it appears 
to be of a decidedly harmless nature, there must have 
been something about it that acted very quickly and 
effectively, for the poet says : 

There was grace after meat with a fist in the board. 
And down went the morat and out flew the sword. 

It is most probable that the idea of making morat 
came from the East the same as julep, which at one 
time was a very common beverage in England, though 
it originated in Persia, as it is only an assibilated 
form of the Persian word gulab, meaning sweet drink. 
Milton in speaking of the julep says: 

England and Scotland 271 

And first behold this cordial jtdep here. 
That flames and dances in his crystal bounds, 
With spirits of balm and fragrant syrups mix'd. 

Still another of the sweet drinks was hragget. a 
concoction of ale, honey, and various spices, such as 
pepper, cloves, mace, cinnamon, and nutmegs, all 
boiled together and then allowed to ferment. It was 
an exceedingly sweet drink and withal quite intoxicat- 
ing. Allied to bragget is the beverage called caudle, 
made from either wine or ale mixed with bread, sugar, 
spices and eggs and drunk hot. According to the old 
law clarettun was made with wine and honey boiled 
until it was perfectly clear, and differed from mellitism 
only in the fact that the latter was not boiled. At 
Cambridge there was a beverage made which bore 
the rather queer name of rambooze or rambuze ; it was 
a mixture of wine, ale, sugar, eggs and rose-water, and 
while its local fame was good it was never popular 
elsewhere. Stingo originated in Yorkshire and was 
simply a strong and heady ale, so strong, in fact, that 
one glassful was more than enough for the average 
man. The Spanish red wine called **tent" when 
mixed with brandy was known to its advocates in 
England as visne, and was a heavy drink but never- 
theless quite popular. 

The old-time English dictionaries define aqua vitcB 
as a sort of cordial water made of beer strongly hopp'd 
and well fermented. This of course is not in accord 
with our present idea of the words, but we must bear 
in mind that the English people of those times placed 
great faith in the efficacy of their ales and consequently 
a little ** conceit " like this is surely pardonable. Aqua 

2 72 Beverages, Past and Present 

mirabihs, or wonderful water, was made from cloves, 
galangals, cubebs, mace, cardamons, nutmegs, ginger, 
and spirits of wine, digested twenty-fotir hours and 
then distilled. 

Bristol milk contained no lacteal fluid whatever; 
in fact, it was a sort of rum punch and was only fit 
for those people whose heads were not easily affected 
by a superabundance of alcohol. Spiritus pimento, 
better known though as piment, was a compound of 
wine, honey, and spices and would to-day be classed 
among the cordials. No one in the olden days could 
make flip in a manner to please those who really knew 
what the drink was, imless they had a well-seasoned 
flip dog. A flip dog is not much on the bark, for it 
is only a bar of iron shaped somewhat like a poker, and 
when it was in use had to be heated red-hot and then 
plunged into the glass containing the flip, which by 
the way was made, according to the taste of the drinker, 
either from ale, cider, or wine, and highly spiced; 
sometimes an egg was stirred in it to give it a little 
more body. 

When the navigator Pytheas visited the land 
that is known to-day as Scotland he foimd that 
the Picts were in full possession of the knowledge 
of brewing a stimulating beverage. The ingredients 
used by these interesting people were natuj-ally those 
that were the most conmion and easy of acquirement, 
but what led them to the use of mountain heath, 
except its great abimdance, as said before, cannot 
be definitely determined. 

A casual view of the Picts reveals the fact that they 
were more warlike than domestic in their habits 
and what few agricultuj-al pursuits they followed were 

England and Scotland 273 

primitive indeed, and therefore to account for their 
selection of mountain heath and honey upon any basis 

' other than that of instinct is almost impossible, for it 
seems all mankind must have something except water 
to drink. As with the materials, so was the method 
of making crude and simple. Their breweries, if such 
we may call them, were known as Kist vaen and some 
are in existence yet, especially in the counties of 
Wigton and Kirkcudbright. They are pear-shaped en- 
closures resting on southern hillslopes near clear, swift- 
nmning streams and are about sixteen feet in length, 
by eight at greatest breadth, the side wall being 
about three feet in height. It can be readily seen 
that when the Picts brewed their liquor they made 
a great quantity and they must have had use for 
it, or otherwise they wotdd not have taken the 
trouble to make such an amoimt. As in England 

^ this mead-like beverage began to disappear from 
general use about the twelfth or thirteenth cen- 
tury, the cause — ^ale — ^being the same in both coun- 
tries, and in the fotirteenth century mead became a 
rare drink. It was at this period that the German 
method of brewing was introduced into Scotland. 
On the 12th of May, 1495, ^^ abbots and monks of 
Cupar granted to certain tenants the right of brewing; 
in the same lease is named '*the common ailhous 
pertejniing till our myl of Kethik." In the Rental 
Book of the abbey are mentioned "convent ale" 
**better ale," and **drink of the masons." In Kin- 
ross-shire, says the Reverend Charles Rogers in his 
Social Life in Scotland, '*the browst" which the gude- 
wife o* Lochrin made from a *'peck o' maut" is com- 
memorated thus: 

VOL. II — 18 

274 Beverages, Past and Present 

Twenty pints o' strong ale, 

Twenty pints o' sma', 

Twenty pints o' hinkie-pinkie, 

Twenty pints o' plooman's drinkie, 

Twenty pints o' splitter-splatter, 

And twenty pints wes waur than water. 

**In the eighteenth century ale was usually brewed 
in three qualities — described as ostler ale, household 
ale, and strong ale — ^the last being reserved for holiday 
times." When a person has as much liquor as he 
can carry the people of the United States says that he 
has a "jag" and according to our own dictionaries 
this is American slang, but if our philological friends 
will but turn to the laws of Scotland they will find 
among them one that bears very strongly on this 
question. Any person who was riotous or was caught 
cheating or at other sundry offences was promptly 
"jagged," that is they were made fast to a cross by 
an iron collar encircling the neck, the staple of which 
was so placed that the offender could neither stand 
nor sit or even comfortably lean. Some of the jags 
also held the wrists, and instead of being American 
slang the credit of the application, in the sense of 
drtmkenness, should be given to Scotland. 

The Scotchman's fondness for strong drink is prover- 
bial, but to attempt the printing of the many stories 
rdating to his liking would be a task far greater than 
compiling the history of the land and would fill more 
volumes than the ordinary library has shelves for. 
Liquor, in some form or manner, enters into almost 
every walk in the Scotchman's life, which fact is per- 
haps best illustrated by repeating the remarks of a 

England and Scotland 275 

celebrated traveller who said that **no matter where 
you may go you will find evidence of a Scot having 
been there before you, in the shape of an empty whiskey 
bottle which he had discarded." 

Funerals have alwajrs been looked upon as a proper 
time for drinking and the larger the amount consumed 
the greater was the respect shown to the dead. The 
Reverend Mr. Rogers says that 

When persons of substance were interred, those attending 
their funerals were entertained with viands in curious 
variety. At the first service were offered meat and ale; 
at the second, shortbread and whiskey; at the third, seed- 
cake and wine; at the fourth, currant-bun and rum; at the 
last sugar-biscuits and brandy. These mortuary festivities 
were relished not only by the living, but the departing 
comforted their later hours by contemplating their occur- 
rence. Dean Ramsay relates that an aged spinster lady 
in Strathspey, when she was on her death-bed, called to 
her bedside her grand-nephew and heir, and affectionately 
charged him that as much whiskey was to be used at her 
funeral as had been drunk at her baptism. Unaware as 
to the extent of the potation on the earlier occasion, the 
heir allowed each one who attended the funeral to drink 
what he pleased. The result was a contretemps which the 
aged gentlewoman could not have foreseen without emo- 
tion. When the funeral party reached the churchyard, a 
distance of ten miles from the place of starting, the sexton's 
enquiry of the chief mourner, '* Captain, whaur's Miss 
Kitty?" aroused the company to the recollection that in 
resting at an inn they had there left the body on a dyke, 
and had started without it. 

In connection with the Lord President Forbes a similar 
incident occurred. At his mother's funeral he entertained 
his neighbours with ^ such profuse hospitality that he and 

276 Beverages, Past and Present 

his friends were startled on reaching the chtirchyard by 
the discovery that the cofl&n had been forgotten. 

Nuptial festivities furnished another opportunity 
for excessive drinking and the kirk-sessions throughout 
the country had their hands full passing and enforc- 
ing laws to keep these occasions within bounds. One 
law was to the effect that not more than eighteen 
pennies should be expended by the contracting parties 
and several decrees limited the number of persons 
who could attend a wedding to twenty and some 
to twenty-four people. Francis Semple, the poet, 
describes a rural bridal as follows: 

There '11 be lang-kale and pottage, 

And bannocks o' barley meal, 
And there '11 be good saut herrin' 

To relish a cogue af gude 3rill; 

There '11 be tarten, dragen, and brachen. 
An' fouth o' guid gabbocks o' skate; 

Powsoudie and drammock an' crowdie, 
An' callar nowt-feet on a plate. 

An* there '11 be meal-kail an' costocks, 

Wi'sink to sup till ye rive; 
An' roasts to roast on a brander. 

Of flouks that were taken alive. 

But the Scotchman of a few years ago did not have 
to rely upon these affairs for his drink. His own 
table and those of his friends were marvels in their 
way in regard to the amotint of liquor that was fur- 
nished at them. It was Armstrong of Sorbie, who 
lived early in the eighteenth century, who said that 

England and Scotland 277 

"it was a better world when there were more bottles 
and fewer glasses," and if the accounts that are given 
of these social functions can be relied upon it was 
rather by the bottleful than the glassful that liquor 
was consumed. To quote from Social Life in Scot- 
land again: 

During dinner liquor was used sparingly. So long indeed 
as the ladies remained in the dining-hall excess was es- 
chewed. But there was a signal toasts on the proposing 
of which the ladies withdrew. Eighty years ago the sig- 
nal toast at Glasgow was **The trade of Glasgow and the 
outward bound*'; in Fife, when a Lady Balgonie was a 
celebrated toast, the travesty "Lady be gone ye'* was 
adopted. Few guests remained sufficiently sober to re- 
join the ladies in the drawing-room — those who refrained 
from drinking, and returned to their friends were pro- 
nounced eflfeminate. Moryson relates that on a visit to 
Scotland in 1598 he found that the country people and 
merchants were inclined to excess and that persons of 
the better sort spent the greater part of the night in 

Referring to the convivial practices of the last century. 
Dr. John Strang writes: "The retiring of a guest to the 
drawing-room was a rare occurrence indeed; and hence 
the poor lady of the house was generally left to sip her 
tea in solitude, while her husband and friends were getting 
royal over the sherbet." A century ago post-prandial 
talk was rough and unseemly, while the songs and tales 
sung or spoken were utterly licentious. When the ladies 
had left, a punch-bowl was brought in. In form and 
capacity this vessel resembled the English wassail-bowl. 
It was in early times charged with mulled claret, but its 
contents latterly consisted of whiskey mixed with hot 
water and sugar. Whiskey was introduced in the bowl 

278 Beverages, Past and Present 

at the rate of a half a pint to each guest. The liquor was 
mixed with a silver spoon afl&xed to a whalebone handle. 
The contents of the ladle corresponded with the size of the 
drinking vessel, which was considerably larger than those 
now in use. The use of punch-bowls ceased about sixty 
years ago ; thereafter each was allowed to prepare his own 
liquor in his own mode. Crystal goblets with silver 
ladles, or earthenware mugs with small crystal pestle were 
substituted. To each toast a bumper was demanded ; while, 
in evidence that it had been drunk, every guest turned 
up his glass. *'To drink fair'* or ** without hedging" was 
a special commendation. Toasts were numerous. 

On public and political occasions the Sovereign, the 
Army, and Cabinet Ministers, also local magnates were 
toasted with Highland honours. In rendering these hon- 
ours, each guest, with glass in hand, mounted his chair, 
and placing his right foot on the table named the toast, — 
then drinking off his glass cheered lustily. Sentimental 
toasts, to each of which a glass was drained, were such as 
these: **May ne'er waur be amang us, " **The land o' cakes," 
** Horn, com, wool and yam, " *'May the honest heart never 
feel distresst, " "May the mouse ne'er leave the meal-pock 
with the tear in its e'e, " "May the pleasures of the evening 
bear the reflection of the morning. " 

In some companies the ladies were privileged before 
retiring to share in a species of toast-giving, which occa- 
sioned merriment. At the call of the host one of the 
company named an uimiarried lady; another guest named 
a suitor for her, and both were toasted together. 

During the seventeenth and the earlier portion of the 
eighteenth century, after-dinner drinking was protracted 
for eight or ten hours. When a bachelor gave an entertain- 
ment he was expected to continue the jollities till all the 
guests were helplessly intoxicated. In 1643 Henry Lord 
Ker, only son of Robert, first Earl of Roxburgh, died at 
Perth after one great drink. His premature death led 

England and Scotland 279 

to the famous lawsuit of i8o8-i8ia, the result of which 
gave the dukedom of Roxburgh to Sir James Innes. 

In his Journal Lord Cockbum relates an anecdote com- 
municated to him by the celebrated Henry Mackenzie. 
•* Mackenzie," his Lordship proceeds, **was once at a 
festival at Kilravock Castle, toward the close of which 
the exhausted topers sank gradually back and down on 
their chairs till little was seen above the table except their 
noses, and at last they disappeared altogether and fell 
on the floor. Those who were too far gone lay still from 
necessity; while those who like the Man of Feeling were 
glad of a pretence for escaping fell into a doze from policy. 
While Mackenzie was in this state he was alarmed by 
feeling a hand working about his throat, and called out. 
A voice answered *Dinna be feared, sir, it 's me.' *And 
who are you?' *A 'm the lad that louses the cravats.' 
When, at a later period, Grant of Lurg was dining at Castle 
Grant, he was heard soliloquising on his way from the 
dining-room, "Oich! Oich! this is the first time she ever 
dined at Castle Grant, and was able to gae up the stair by 

In front of each mansion, on the lawn, was constructed 
a platform of masonry — the loupin'-on-stone. From this 
stone gentlemen mounted their horses, and as they did 
so were supplied with the doch-an-^rius, or stirrup cup. 
Drunk from a quaich or wooden cup, it was otherwise 
known as a bonalay. At Cambo, Fifeshire, a branch of the 
noble house of Erskine maintained a perpetual dinner 
party, from which guests might retire, subsequently to 
return. When Colonel Monypenny of Pitmilly was about 
to proceed to India to take command of his regiment, he 
called at Cambo, to express an adieu. Mr. Erskine was 
at dinner; but the Colonel, who was invited to join the 
party, speedily retired. On his return from India, four 
years afterwards, the Colonel again waited on Mr. Erskine, 
who was still dining. Unconscious of his friend's long 

28o Beverages, Past and Present 

absence, he asked the Colonel to "take his chair and pass 
round the bottle." If there exists a record of a longer 
dinner than the above it would be a pleasure to read it. 
The same writer says: "About a century ago a custom 
prevailed at Edinburgh known as 'saving the ladies.' 
When after any fashionable assembly the male guests had 
conducted their fair partners to their homes, they returned 
to the supper-room. Then one of the number would 
drink to the health of the lady he professed to admire, 
and in so doing empty his glass. Another gentleman 
would name another lady, also drinking a bumper in her 
honour. The former would reply by swallowing a second 
glass to his lady, followed by the other, each combatant 
persisting till one of the two fell upon the floor. Other 
couples followed in like fashion. These drinking com- 
petitions were regarded with interest by gentlewomen, 
who next morning enquired as to the prowess of their 

There can be no doubt that the introduction of 
brewing ale and beer into Scotland was of German 
enterprise and parentage, but if further proof of 
the question should be required several featuj-es con- 
nected with the industry can be cited which are 
peculiarly of German origin and which for many 
years were constantly practised in Scotland. 

One in particular is worthy of mention, namely the man- 
ner of testing for sugar by means of leather breeches. In 
Germany, as told elsewhere, two or more of the burgomas- 
ters would meet and proceed about their duties, but in Scot- 
land the ale or beer tester travelled alone and unannounced. 
Without warning he would appear upon the scene and 
selecting a wooden bench would pour the ale or beer upon 
it and sit himself down in the little puddle. For exactly 

England and Scotland 281 

one half-hour by the clock would he remain upon the bench 
and, while he was willing to exchange all manner of news 
and gossip, he still maintained his erect position. He would 
smoke and if any one was kind enough to proffer him a 
drink he would accept it with thanks and proceed to put 
it where it would do him the most good. But during 
the thirty minutes of the testing ordeal nothing would 
induce him to move a fraction of an inch. At the expira- 
tion of the half-hour he would make as if to rise, and this 
was the critical time for the innkeeper, for if his ale or 
beer contained sugar the breeches would adhere to the 
bench and he of course would be punished; but on the 
other hand if his wares were free from sugar there would 
be no cohesion between the bench and breeches and the 
tester would have to leave and search further. 

The people of America can scarcely appreciate 
what the English and Scotch have always found to 
be a very useful adjunct to their business of innkeeping 
and taverns, namely the use of signs for the purpose 
of letting the public know what kind of business or 
trade was carried on within. This custom is of very 
ancient origin and has always received the sanction 
of the people. The English, however, during the 
earlier period and up to the present time have brought 
these signs, and especially those relative to our story, 
to a degree of perfection hardly to be found elsewhere, 
and they who understand the meanings and intents 
find in these fading and creaking emblems much that 
carries them back into the realms of history and 
legends and solves many a problem that would other- 
wise be lost. 

The stories of beliefs, religions, politics, customs, 
and prejudices are all to be found on these boards 

282 Beverages, Past and Present 

scattered here and there throughout "the tight little 

The collection easily falls [says an unknown writer in 
the New York Sun] into categories and periods. Thus 
the "Blue Lions" and *' Green Dragons" frequently en- 
countered date from the days of chivalry, when heraldry 
furnished the earliest signs. But more interesting than 
these are the examples filtered through the popular speech. 
Thus the pelican and her young, belonging to an ancient 
coat of arms, are familiarly known as the *'Hen and 
Chickens, " and the swan and portcullis of another fam- 
ily masquerade as the "Goose and Gridiron" at Spital- 
fields. The "Leopard's Head" of ancient days is now the 
"Lubber's Head," and the "Red Lettuce" is not of 
curious vegetable origin but was formerly the "Red 
Lattice. " From the days of popery comes "The Cat and 
Wheel, " which is to be referred back to Saint Catherine 
and her wheel. "The Pig and Whistle" has a longer 
lineage, deriving its significance from "riga, " a cup, and 
wassail to which the cup invites. The "Rising Stins" and 
"Half Moons" are long- forgotten reminders of Apollo 
and Diana, but who shall say whence come the "Drum and 
Monkey" and the "Cow and Snuffers," both of Spital- 
fields; the "Cat and Mutton, " of Hackney; the "Lamb and 
Lark" near Bath, and such combinations as the "Hen and 

Following the heraldic signs are the painted rebuses. 
The dominant family of the country, as we know, is usually 
immortalised in the name of the inn. With the "Markis 
of Granby" and his like we are all familiar. But the 
reading was not always so obvious. The painted "Hare 
and Bottle" was to be understood as referring to the 
Harbottle family. "The Hand and Cock" stood for the 
Hancocks. "Two Cocks" intimated the Cox family. 
"The Magpie and Goat" is to be translated into Pigot, 

England and Scotland 283 

lords of the manor. "The Bolt and Ton" discloses the 
prominence of the Boltons, Many of these families are 
effaced in the counties, but the echo of their greatness 
remains in the tavern signs. The most amusing of these 
old signs are those corrupted from the French signs intro- 
duced at the time of the conquest. Thus "The Iron 
Devil" must be translated back to "L'Hirondelle" and 
"The Bag o' tails into "BagateUe." "The Cat and 
Fiddle" comes down from "Le Chat Fidele." "The Cat 
and Bottle" indicates "La Coquine Bouteille" filtered 
through the rustic speech of the time. "The Pig and 
Carrots" is the perversion of "Le Pique et Carreau. " 
The grotesque "Hog in Armour" comes down from the 
thrilling "La Hogue et Armes, " while the familiar "Bull 
and Gate " is corrupted from Botdogne, dating from Henry 
VII.'s conquest in France. 

A notable instance of this perversion of the French tongue 
is Savage's Tavern, in Oxford Street, London, which 
starting out from "La Belle Sauvage" in transit became 
"Bell's Savage" and is now Savage's Tavern. From 
the period of William and Mary comes "The Goat and 
Boots," in Fulham Road, London. This legend accom- 
panies, strangely enough, the figure of Mercury. The 
knowledge that originally the sign was " Der Goden Bode" 
— ^the messenger of the gods — ^makes plain sailing for the 
understanding. Another interesting perversion is "The 
Goat and Compasses" which is the later rendering of " God 
encompasses us" — ^the Puritan watchword of Cromwell's 
days. Other of these signs undoubtedly refer to some 
peculiar virtue which the public house desires to make 
known. That of "A Hare and three Women" is said to 
mean despatch, while that of a seaside inn, " The Padlock 
and Anchor" indicates trustworthiness, defence against 
smuggling. "The Pack Horse and Talbot" is a reminder 
of the country and his "tall boots," for treading the mire 
of bad roads. "The Green Man" was the resort of the 

284 Beverages, Past and Present 

foresters, possibly of Robin Hood. "The Up and Down 
Post'* indicates the inn where the mail-carriers met and 
exchanged bags. "The Hole in the Wall'* in London is 
supposed to relate to days when food was secretly con- 
veyed to prisoners by removing bricks in the wall. 

But who can translate or deduce the meaning of " The 
Sugar Loaf and the Coffin" or the story of "The Miller 
and the Dove"? "The Pigeon Pie Hotel" in Derbyshire 
doubtless celebrates its specialty, as does "The Shoulder 
of Mutton and Cucumbers" at Yapton in Sussex. "The 
Old Spot" seems to have some reminiscent message for 
those who have been there. Such are those signs pre- 
fixed by "jolly," as "The JoUy Waterman," "The JoUy 
Fisherman." But who shall account for "The Case is 
Altered on Willesden Green"? A sign seen in various 
parts of England is "The Dog's Head in a Pot" accom- 
panying the painting of a dog eating out of a three-legged 
pot, which may seem to mean that the host is kind and his 
viands good. Another significant sign is " Five Miles from 
An3rwhere, No Hurry" seen in Hampshire, a pleasant re- 
minder that it is an agreeable place to linger. "The 
Boar's Head " is celebrated in Henry IV. " The Mitre " in 
Fleet Street suggests the days of Johnson, as does " The 
Turk's Head," where his literary society used to meet. 
"The Spotted Dog" belongs to Eugene Aram. "The 
Bell" at Edmonton is inseparably connected with John 
Gilpin's ride. From "The Bell" in Castle Yard Clarissa 
Harlowe was abducted. "The Maypole Inn" belongs ta 
Barnaby Rudge and Dickens. " The Three Jolly Pigeons" 
we have encountered before in She Stoops to Conquer 
and Addison has introduced us to "The Devil's Fair." 
On Oxford Street is an inn for which Hogarth painted a 
sign facetiously known as "A Man Loaded with Mischief" 
indicated by a man carrying on his back a woman and a 
monkey. Hogarth, Morland, Holbein, Correggio, and Hor- 
ace Vemet are known at diJBferent times to have painted 

England and Scotland 285 

tavern signs. Sometimes this was done out of pleasantry, 
but more often necessity. 

In Scotland one of the peculiar customs that is still 
in existence, in some parts, is the grace cup which, 
according to tradition, came about through the in- 
fluence of Margaret Atheling, Queen of Malcolm 
Canmore, whose piety and good works won for her 
the proud title of Sainte Margaret of Scotland. Sainte 
Margaret did much to overcome the natuj-al roughness 
of the Scottish nobles, as well as their carelessness in 
the matter of religious observances; and it was the 
law of her table that none should drink after diimer 
who did not wait the giving of thanks. Hence the 
origin of the phrase known throughout Scotland of 
the grace cup. 

Another cup, or, perhaps more properly speaking, 
the ** Stirling jug,'* is the only standard, by special 
statute, of all liquid and dry measures in Scotland. 

This pint measure was made and deposited in Stirling 
nearly five himdred years ago and is still kept with great 
care in the town. It is made of brass in the shape of a 
hollow cone trtmcated, and it weighs nearly fifteen pounds 
Scottish troy. The mean diameter of the mouth is 4.17 
inches, of the bottom 5.25 inches, and the mean depth is 
six inches. On the front, near the mouth, in relief, there 
is a shield bearing a lion rampant, the Scottish national 
arms; and near the bottom is another shield, bearing an 
ape passant gardant, with the letter S below, supposed 
to be the armorial bearing of the foreign artist who prob- 
ably was employed to fabricate the. vessel. The handle 
is fixed with two brass nails; and the whole has an appear- 
ance quite proper to the early age when it was first 

286 Beverages, Past and Present 

instituted by the Scottish estates as the standard liquid 

About one hundred and sixty years ago the jug 
was lost and a pewter one was put in its place. The 
substitution was not discovered until the Reverend 
Alexander Bryce of Kirknewton visited Stirling in 
1750. He being interested in antiquarian purstiits 
went to see the jug for the purpose of inspection. The 
magistrates conducted him to their council-house, and 
a pewter jug was taken from the roof, where it was sus- 
pended, and presented to him. He called the attention 
of the gentlemen assembled to the fact that this measure 
was not the original, but they unaware of the sub- 
stitution showed no feeling in the matter ; but with the 
reverend antiquarian the matter assumed a different 
aspect, and for more than two years he maintained 
a steady search for the original jug, which at last 
he found in a garret beneath a pile of lumber where 
it had been thrown after having been offered at auction 
in a sale of the effects of a coppersmith who had bor- 
rowed it for the purpose of making standard measures, 
and who a few years before had joined the insurgent 
forces and never returned. 

At Dunvegan Castle, island of Skye, is still pre- 
served the large horn known as Rory Mor's horn. It 
holds rather more than a bottle and a half. Every 
laird of Madeod was obliged, it is said, on his coming 
of age, in proof of his manhood, to drain it full of 
claret, without laying it down. The noggin, made 
of wood, and holding about two gills, is still to be 
found in **the land o' cakes." In some cases it 
answers as a measure, but frequently it serves the 

England and Scotland 287 

double purpose of measure and glass. Liquid measure 
in Scotland, it must be remembered, does not conform 
to our ideas on the subject, as for instance what is 
termed a pint both here and in England is only four 
gills in Scotland (the Scottish gill being a pint), or in 
other words a Scottish pint is equal to two quarts 
American or English. But even in Scotland measures 
differ and what was a gill in some places was only 
half a gill elsewhere. For example a Harwick gill is 
virtually and actually two gills, but was served as one 
and charged accordingly. 

Weel she loo'd a Harwick gill 
And leuch to see a tappit hen. 

A tappit hen was a measure, or bottle, shaped like 
a hen and held about two quarts. It was mainly 
used in serving claret. The measure that corresponds 
to our pint is the mutchkin, which holds four gills. 
**A broon pig" is a jocular name for an earthenware 
jar holding a pint (Scotch) in which ale was generally 
bought for home drinking. Of the thousands of 
stories relating to the "broon pig" the following 
perhaps is as good as any, for it gives an insight into 
the drinking capacity of a Scotchman when he feds 
like indulging. 

A reverend D.D. had been calling on a "Paisley body" 
in his parish — ^Tam by name and a very well known 
character. The Doctor found Tarn with a broon pig on 
the table beside him, and, observing the vessel, asked 
Tam what he had in it. " Ou it 's jist a sowp o' yill! ** said 
Tam. " Ay! and how much have you taken to-day now?" 
asked the minister. "Oh, well" replied Tam, "this is jist 

288 Beverages, Past and Present 

my fourth pint." "Your fourth pint!" quoth his rever- 
ence. " I don't believe I could drink four pints of water 
in a whole day! ** " Na, naither could I, " dryly responded 

A jorutn has never been standardised, but there can 
be but little doubt as to its size, for as a general rule 
it was a* sort of a bowl and therefore must have con- 
tained a goodly quantity. 

An' here 's to them that, like oursel'. 
Can push about the jorum. 

To explicitly state when and by whom the art of 
distillation was introduced into the Scottish domains 
is impossible. Many writers have searched the ar- 
chives, not only of history but of legends, to determine 
this question, but none have as yet succeeded in placing 
the century accurately. Some of the authorities upon 
the subject say the art was known among the High- 
landers as early as the twelfth century, while others 
claim that it was not until the fourteenth century that 
the Scotch people knew anything about the industry. 
Again others claim that the Scotch obtained their 
knowledge of making whiskey from their Irish neigh- 
bours, and who in turn received their instructions from 
St. Patrick. On the other hand some of our most 
eminent writers maintain that the art of distillation 
was brought into Scotland from England, but be these 
contentions what they may the fact remains that 
Scotch whiskey quickly became popular not only in 
its own country but throughout the civilised world, 
and also in other parts where we are most apt to term 
the people anything but civilised. 

England and Scotland 289 

In an etymological sense the word whiskey as ap- 
plied to liquor is of very recent origin, and yet not- 
withstanding this comparative newness few of the 
authorities give the student any satisfactory or ade- 
quate information as to its derivation. In N. Bailey's 
An Universal Etymological English Dictionary being 
also An Interpreter of Hard Words, the word whiskey 
is not found at all and usquebaugh is defined as a certain 
cordial made in Ireland. Later on, Johnson under the 
head of usquebaugh says: **an Irish compound dis- 
tilled spirit, drawn from aromatics; the Highland 
sort, by corruption they call whisky." Evidently our 
own Noah Webster did not feel satisfied with this 
definition in its entirety, so he adds, in the earlier 
editions of his dictionary, the fact that it was derived 
from the Welsh gwisgi. In the later editions we are 
told that it is either ** Irish or Gaelic uisge, water (per- 
haps akin to English wash water) ; in uisgebeatha^ 
whiskey, properly water of life.'* The Century after 
giving the Gaelic roots, etc., says, "It does not seem 
probable that English whiskey was taken from Gaelic 
Irish uisge simply." On the other hand Doctor Skeat 
in his Etymological Dictionary says,* ^Celtic uisge (water) ; 
the term in its present use is probably an abbreviation 
of usquebaugh (uisge-beatha), water of life." Samuel 
Morewood, as was his wont, takes up the question in 
a more thorough manner and says : ' 'The Latin epithet 
aqua vita, the Irish term usquebaugh, and the modem 
word whiskey are, in point of fact, synonymous ; aqua 
vitce signifying the water of life, and usquebaugh, which 
should be written Iskebaghah or Isquebeoh, the former 
implying water of life, and the latter living water.'' As 
isque, or iske means water, it must appear evident that 


290 Beverages, Past and Present 

the word whiskey is only a slight alteration in the 
prontmciation of this Irish term. Both O'Brien and 
Valiancy admit that ai, ay^ or ey are old terms for 
water, and isque^ or iske, implying water, the compound 
word literally means water of waters. The word 
whiskey, therefore, is of very comprehensive import, 
and fully expressive of this sense-subduing beverage. 
BuU-ceann was also another appellation by which 
spirits were distinguished, buil signifying madness 
and ceann the head; terms fully explanatory of its 
infuriating effects and the temporary derangement 
which it occasions. Fear buille is the Irish expression 
for a madman. Antiquarians inform us that buil- 
ceann was made from a species of black oats, which, 
if not malted, must have indeed produced spirits 
of a very inflammatory and fiery description, par- 
ticularly when newly manufactured; and from its 
powerful effects it procured the name of strong water, 
afterwards abbreviated into X water, the letter X 
being anciently used as the symbol of purity and 
perfection. Valiancy states that from time imme-» 
morial this letter was considered a sacred character 
among the Egyptians, Chaldeans, Thibetans, and 
Indians, and was respected as a high indication of 
divine excellence. The Egyptians, however, did not 
exactly represent it by the figure of an X, but as a 
direct and an inverted v, thus X- This sacred symbol 
is frequently to be f otmd on the columns of the colossal 
temples of that celebrated and wonderful nation. On 
the great temples of the Dalai-Lama at Puta-La or 
the Holy Hill, as well as at Teshoo-Lomboo, are nu- 
merous characters of this kind, all bearing reference 
to the lofty attributes of the divinity of the Thibetans. 

England and Scotland 291 

From the sacred application of this character it has 
descended to conMnon purposes, yet still bearing 
affinity to its literal meaning, as in the instance of X 
waters, etc. It is curious to observe that this ancient 
symbol, so common in Oriental climes, is frequently 
to be fotmd in Ireland on the pillar-stones or Phalli 
of our pagan ancestors. The less learned antiquary, 
considers those characters which are marked cross- 
like to be Christian insignia or pagan monuments; but 
the researching philosopher will only estimate them in 
the proper sense as a part of Oriental heathenism. 
That the letter X was most commonly written so as to 
represent a cross, long before the Christian era, seems 
remarkably strange when we are brought by conse- 
quences to the full conviction that the cross of Christ 
was the true symbol of perfection, of which all previous 
characters of the kind may be considered as merdy 
typical. On the statue of Osiris at Rome was en- 
graved the figure of a cross; and in the temple of 
Serapis at Alexandria were found, on the demolition of 
that edifice by the order of Theodosius, crosses cut in 
stone; these in the interpretation of the wise men of 
Egypt signified vitam venturam: which discovery is 
reported to have occasioned the conversion to Christ- 
ianity of some of the Gentiles. 

The application of the letter X to whiskey, ale, or 
beer was, and continues to be, a distinguishing mark 
of its strength and purity, and lest the single char- 
acter might not be sufficient to indicate the strength of 
some of our malt liquors it has been doubled, as in 
the instance of double X porter, now so strongly 
recommended by the faculty, for its refreshing and 
strengthening qualities. To usquebaugh the letter X 

292 Beverages, Past and Present 

has never been applied, because the appellation was 
never extended to aqua vitcB in its compound state 
after the admixture of raisins, fennd-seed, and other 
ingredients, to mitigate its heat, render it more pleas-^ 
ant, less inflammatory, and more refreshing. 

The origin of the term as applied to exhilarating 
liquors is not easy to determine, xmless by an ad- 
mission of the reasoning already advanced. Water 
in the opinion of the ancient philosophers constituted 
the basis of all matter; and Moses having written 
that the ^'Spirit of God moved upon the face of the 
waters " it was inferred that a living or prolific prin- 
ciple was thereby communicated. Hence the early 
Persians considered water the source of all bodies 
(aqua omnia) ^ and the Koran states that **God made 
every living thing of water." "May not, therefore, 
the appellation of aqua vike, or water of life, have been 
derived from this prevalent opinion, since it was 
reckoned to possess so many renovating and revivify- 
ing virtues?" In confirmation of this idea it may 
not be amiss to add that for a long period all spirits 
were known in England as "strong water" and also 
as ''comfortable waters" and furthermore we all 
know that our own American Indians soon named the 
liquor of the white men * *fire water," but we must take 
into consideration the fact that when whiskey was 
named the practice of applying water as a part or whole 
of a name was fast dying out. The word brandy 
had superseded aqua viUB for many years, gin and 
rum were also well known, and therefore to revert 
to an old custom and apply a name which according 
to all authorities means only water does not seem 

England and Scotland 293 

If our lexicographers will but turn their attention 
to that good old English word whiskey or whisky and 
then bear in mind the tendency of the people for 
nicknaming, the matter will assxmie another and 
different aspect. Whiskey means a light chaise which 
came into use originally to avoid the taxes that were 
levied upon vehicles according to their size. The 
name originated in the country districts and is derived 
from the root whisk. The liquor too was made in 
these same places and very often in spots where prying 
eyes would not be able to discern what was going on. 
For marketing the liquor this vehicle was in great 
demand among tne smugglers, for owing to its light- 
ness rapid time could be made when necessity de- 
manded. The law at this time was that all liquors 
that were to be transported from country to country 
should be in barrels or casks of not less than sixty 
gallons capacity, and this of course demanded the 
service of a strong and heavy waggon. The smugglers 
could not handicap themselves with such a weight or 
so cumbersome a means of travel, and the one-horse 
whiskey holding a cask of five or ten gallons safely 
hidden beneath the seat not only allayed suspicion 
but was also an exceedingly handy vehicle for trav- 
elling through by-roads and tmfrequented paths. 

Then again comes that bond of sympathy that 
exists almost everywhere in regard to the evasion 
of taxes, and as both the waggon and the liquor (when 
smuggled) were instituted for that purpose, and the 
liquor being without name, what could be more natural 
than to apply to it the appellation of its mode of 
transit, and particularly when deception was more or 
less necessary. The aptness also of the name, whiskey, 

294 Beverages, Past and Present 

to move about rapidly, to become frisky, adds colour 
to the contention and gives to England rather than 
to Ireland the prestige of the title. 

As said before, no one can definitely state when 
distillation was first brought into Scotland, but of 
one fact there is a reasonable assurance, and that is, 
it was the Highlanders who first undertook the manu- 
facture of grain spirits, which for many years bore 
the name usquebaugh. They were also the first to 
improve on the process of fermentation, and by dis- 
tilling the braihlies or wort they soon became noted 
for their excellent produce, which the smugglers in 
their slang vocabulary called pott du, meaning black 
pot. Undoubtedly, the liquor was made and used 
many years, perhaps centuries, by the Highlanders 
before their Lowland neighbours became aware even 
of its existence. An old-time writer, Hector Boece, 
who lived and wrote about the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, says of the ancient customs of the 
Scots that *'at such times as they determined to be 
merry, they used a kind of aqua viUe void of all spice, 
and only consisting of such herbs and roots as grew 
in their own gardens. Otherwise their common drink 
was ale; but in time of war, when they were enforced 
to lie in camp, they contented themselves with water." 

Mr. T. F. Henderson in Old-World Scotland says : 

Possibly the first to introduce usquebaugh to the Low- 
land were the monks; and, at any rate, the earliest Low- 
lander associated with its manufacture was a friar, John 
Cor by name, who in 1498 obtained eight bolls of malt 
from the exchequer for this purpose. Its Latin name 
aqua vitcB also suggests conventual associations. In 1505 
the right to sell it in Edinburgh was conferred on the 

England and Scotland 295 

surgeons; and in 1557 Bessie Campbell was summoned 
before the magistrates and ordered to cease from vending 
it in the burgh except on market days. The first Scotch- 
man handed down to posterity in connection with a case 
of drunkenness from whiskey was probably the ill-fated 
Damley: on one occasion he distinguished himself by 
making one of his French friends drunk on aqua composita, 
of the inebriating qualities of which the Frenchman may 
perhaps have been too sceptical. An enactment that, 
by reason of the dearth of malt, no whiskey should be 
brewed or sold from the 1st of December, 1579, to the ist 
of December, 1580, except that nobles and x^en of rank 
might distil it from their own malt for use in their families, 
would seem to prove that by that time the liquor was 
advancing in popularity. It was much earlier in general 
use in the west of Scotland than in other Lowland regions 
— SL fact that may be accounted for either by their prox- 
imity to the Highlands or the district of the Strathclyde 
Welsh. In the manufacture of whiskey, or, as it was 
then called, usquebaugh, there were diflEerent grades. First 
there were the common usquebaughs, mild, gentle and 
soothing, and if they had an empyreumatic taste or fla- 
vour — or as it was then vulgarly called " peat reek " — it was, 
strange as it may seem to us now, at once condemned and 
sold as an inferior article. The second quality was called 
tarruing dubaith, which means double-distilled. Treas- 
turruing was the name of it when it was put through the 
still the third time, and uisge bea'a ba*ol was the euphonious 
name of the fourth distillation, of which it is said that 
when made of oats two small spoonfuls were sufficient 
to stop the breath and would if the drinker was at all 
weak endanger his life. The love for *'usquebay that the 
Heilanman had is well satisfied in the ''Mock Poem 
upon the Highland Host who came to destroy the 
Western Shires in Winter of 1678," written by William 

296 Beverages, Past and Present 

There 's something yet that I have forgotten 
Which ye prefer to roast or sodden, 
Wine and wastles, I dare say, 
And that is routh of usquebay. 

The word routh means plenty, and the habit at that 
time was to drink the liquor from a tap-hom, but as has 
been shown the real usquebaugh was not a very ardent 
liquor and a horn of it to those that were inured to its use 
could have but little effect. Apropos of this statement 
it may be said here that the really good judges of this 
liquor contend that the lawfully made article does not 
begin to be as good and as tasty as the ** heavy wet** and 
"the mountain dew" manufactured illicitly in the hills, 
the lawful liquor being much heavier and stronger, which 
in their estimation is a very serious fault. In 1690 by an 
act of Parliament Duncan Forbes, of Culloden, received 
a perpetual liberty to distill grain at his "brewery of 
aqua vitae of Ferintosh" on payment of a small specific 
composition in lieu of excise. The result of this grant 
was to give Forbes almost a monopoly in the manttfacture 
of whiskey, for which Ferintosh continued to be a common 
synonym until within the memory of the "oldest inhab- 
itants" of the present day. In 1785 the privilege was 
withdrawn, over twenty-five thousand pounds being paid 
in compensation. It was this deprivation of whiskey 
free of duty which called forth Bun^s's lament; 

"Thee, Ferintosh! oh, sadly lost, 

Scotland laments frae coast to coast I 
Now colic grips and barkin' hoast 

May kill us a'. 
For loyal Forbes's chartered boast 

Is taen awa* ! " 

The smuggler, or as he was more often called in Scotland, 

England and Scotland 297 

the free trader, was a much respected citizen and had not 
only the sympathy of the people but had their hearty 
co-operation. "In Dundonald parish church was the gal- 
lery known as the 'smugglers' loft' where these traders 
sat on Sunday, with their wives gay in silks, highly re- 
spected by all the worshippers. In all transactions, " says 
Henry Grey Graham in Social Life of Scotland in the 
Eighteenth Century ^ *'the free trader was a hero; to 'jink 
the ganger' was an honourable exploit. If custom officers 
tried to search they found the country people in hundreds 
ready to oppose them, and before they could carry off a 
cargo, a detachment of soldiers was required to support 
them." "Illicit distillers [according to Rogers, Social 
Life in Scotland] were as much respected as smugglers, 
and equally unconscious of any heinousness. 'I alloo 
nae sweerin' in the still, everything's dune decently and 
in order. I canna see any harm in't,' replied an estimable 
transgressor of the law in answer to his minister's remon- 
strances. " Perhaps the reader may realise how much 
liqour was consumed in Scotland when he learns that in 
the country districts the number of ale-houses were in 
the proportion of one to every seventy of the population. 
Some idea of the state of society at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century can be gathered from the following 
taken from Rules of Good Deportment, written by Adam 
Petrie and published in Edinburgh in 1720. He says: "Do 
not sip your drink in taking three or four draughts of it. 
Do not lick your fingers nor dirty your napkins. If you 
are obliged to eat oflf of one dish let your superiors begin. 
It is rude to take snuff at table when others are eating, 
for the particles being driven from the nose is most un- 
pleasant. I have known some to drive it the whole 
breadth of the table. Servants should not scratch or 
shrug their shoulders, nor appear with dirty hands, nor 
lean on their master's chair. When water is presented 
after meat you may, after your superiors have begun, 

a 98 Beverages, Past and Present 

dip the comer of your napkin in the water, and wipe your 
mouth with it, holding the other end of your napkin 
between you and the company, that you may do it as 
imperceptibly as you can, and then rub your fingers, 
holding your hands down upon your knees. Superiors 
may do it more openly. You must drink out your glass 
that others may not have your blown drink [one glass had 
to serve for the whole company]; do not knaw your bones 
too clean. It is indecent to fill the mouth too full; such 
cramming is more suitable for a beast than a reasonable 
creature. Be sure to throw nothing upon the floor; it is 
uncivil and disobliging. It is rude to suck your meat 
out of a spoon with an ungrateful noise. To wipe your 
nose or sweat off the face with a table napkin is most rude. 

Comment on the above is -unnecessary; in a very 
few words it tells the whole story and gives us a most 
vivid picture. While the inns and taverns of England 
were the pride and admiration of not only her own 
people but also of travellers, those of Scotland were 
just the reverse. There were several causes for this 
state of affairs, but the chief one was the hospitality 
of the people in general, who as a rule never hesitated 
to entertain the stranger within their gates to the best 
of their ability and it was this practice more than any 
other that made the lot of an innkeeper particularly 
hazardous. Thomas Kirke as quoted in Old-World 
Scotland says, **The Scots had not inns but change- 
houses (as they call them), poor, small cottages, where 
you must be content to take what you find." By 
this he meant that there was absolutely no choice of 
dishes in the menu. What he did find was * 'perhaps 
eggs with chicks in them and some long kale; at the 
better sort of them a dish of chapped chickens" 

England and Scotland 299 

(probably cockie-leekie). As to the enticement of 
the latter delicacy, we may turn to Burt who crossed 
the border in the year of grace 1725; only we miist 
substitute pigeons — no doubt esteemed a special 
luxury — ^for chickens. **The doth," says Burt, "was 
laid, but I was unwilling to grease my fingers to touch 
it, and presently after the pot of pigeons on the table. 
When I came to examine my cates, there were two or 
three of the pigeons lay mangled in the pot." 

In objecting to the "mangling" Burt does not be- 
tray the Southron benightedness, but the mark of 
"dirty fingers in the butter" was a touch he may be 
pardoned for failing to appreciate. It is but fair 
to add that, while the ineffable filthiness of the bed- 
curtains almost debarred him from making a trial 
of his bed, he was agreeably disappointed to find — 
as he did throughout Scotland — ^tiiat the linen was 
white, well aired, and "hardened." 

Doctor Somerville, a native Scot, testifies some time 
after the experiences of Burt that there was little 
improvement. In his youthful days "few inns were 
to be met with in which the traveller could either eat 
or sleep with comfort; and so ill-provided were they 
with the most necessary articles, that on a journey 
people used to carry a knife and fork in a case deposited 
in the side-pocket of their small clothes." 

Glasses were so scarce that a single one usually 
went round the whole company; and, as the said com- 
pany was frequently very heterogeneous, it is plain 
that, to fastidious persons, if any such there were, the 
act of drinking would not be one of unalloyed delight. 
The presiding genius of the change-house or inn was 
the ale-wife, or " brewster-wife" as she was called. 

300 Beverages, Past and Present 

who assumed a position of entire equality with her 
guests, and in taverns of the better class expected to 
be asked to take a glass of wine when that liquor was 
dispensed. A century ago Edinburgh herself was no 
better off than the country districts in the matter of inns. 
In 1776, according to Major Topham, she had **noinn 
that is better than an ale-house, nor any accommodation 
that is decent, cleanly, or fit to receive a gentleman." 
In the "best inn in the metropolis'* (situate in the 
Pleasance), the bare-legged waitress, in short gown and 
petticoat, informed him and his companion that "we 
could have no beds, unless we had an inclination to 
sleep together and in the same room with the company 
which a stage coach had that moment discharged/' 

In the matter of pastimes and games the Scotch 
people were plentifully supplied, but in one particular 
sport they long excelled. Cock-fighting in the "land 
o* the thistle'* was until a few decades ago a most pop- 
ular mode of spending a holiday, and even the yoimg 
school-boys were learned in the art and taught the 
rules of the pit. 

Some time after the Forbeses had surrendered their 
title or charter, and the name Ferintosh was gradually 
losing ground and becoming more or less obsolete 
as a term for whiskey, there arose another locality 
which, through both the quality of excellence and the 
great quantity of the liquor produced, has given not 
only to Scotland but to other portions of the world 
as well, a name that has become almost generic for 
Scotch whiskey. Away to the northeast' part of 
Scotland there is an old historical shire bearing the 
name of Banffshire, which has a forbidding aspect 

England and Scotland 301 

when viewed from a distance but on closer acquaint- 
ance the visitor finds a most fertile and progressive 
coimtry. In the southern portion of this shire there 
is a place called Glenlivet or, as some prefer to write 
it, Glenlivat, and it is this name that to-day is synony- 
mous the world over with Scotch whiskey. At the 
beginning of the nineteenth century it was so famous 
for whiskey that, according to the Ordnance Gazetteer 
of Scotland^ there were as many as two hundred illicit 
stills there, every one of which was running to its 
full capacity. William Aytotm the poet, in the 
Massacre of the Macpherson, tells of the excellent 
quality of this liquor in the following lines: 

Phairhson had a son 

Who married Noah's daughter, 
And nearly spoiled ta flood, 

By drinking up ta water; 
Which he would have done — 

I at least believe it — 
Had the mixture peen 

Only half Glenlivet. 

Though we may not regret that this wonderful liquor 
was not in existence at that time neither should we be 
too critical with the poet for having such a faith in the 
efficacy of Glenlivet, for other authorities as well as him- 
self agree as to its fine qualities and the wonderful deeds 
a man could accomplish while xmder its genial influence. 
It was manufactured in the old-fashioned small deep still 
and from the best barley malt that could be procured, 
and as almost every man in Scotland at that time was 
an expert on the question of whiskey a high standard 
of necessity had to be maintained. 



ASIDE from the question of which of the two, 
the Scotch or the Irish, were the first to make 
usquebaugh^ there is another factor that en- 
ters into the argument and which should receive some 
attention. If the authorities on the subject can be 
given any credence — ^and for once they all seem to 
agree — ^the Irish liquor called usquebaugh was not a 
whiskey at all, or at least not what we would consider 
a whiskey to-day. In fact the authorities all assert 
that it was a cordial, and such would we deem it 
at the present time if the following direction for its 
making were adhered to. This recipe in its original 
is to be found in a little book entitled Delights for 
Ladies, etc., and was first published in 1602: 

To every gallon of good aqua composita put two ounces 
of chosen licorice, bruised and cut into small pieces, but 
first cleanse from all his filth, and two oimces of annis 
seeds that are cleane and bruised. Let them macerate 
five or six days in a wooden vessel, stopping the same close, 
then draw off as much as will run cleare, dissolving in that 
cleare aqua vita five or six spoonsfuls of the best Molassoes 
you can get; Spanish cute if you can get it is thought better 
than Molassoes ;' then put this into another vessel; and 
after three or four daies (the more the better), when the 


Ireland 303 

liquor has fined itself, you may use the same; some add 
Dates and Raisons of the Sun to the receipt; those grounde 
which remaine, you may redistill, and make more aqua 
composita of them, and of that aqua compostia you may 
make more usquebath. 

Of course the above is a very ancient formula and 
some may take exception to it on that ground, but 
in order to please all parties another recipe of a more 
recent date is here appended: 

To make ten gallons of this cordial, two ounces of cloves, 
nutmegs, and cinnamon must be taken with four ounces 
of anise, caraway and coriander-seed, divided into equal 
portions; also half a pound of sliced licorice root. The 
seeds and spices, being first bruised and mixed with the 
licorice root, are put into a still with eleven gallons of proof 
spirits and two gallons of water, and as soon as the spirit 
is found to come over, a small bag contaioing about two 
ounces of saffron is fastened to the end of the worm, so 
that the run of the liquor must pass through and carry 
with it the tincture and essence of the saffron, 

Morewood says that "During the operation it is usual 
to press the saffron bag in order to convey all the essence of 
this ingredient into the fluid, and when the process is 
finished, the liquor is sweetened with the best lump sugar. 
The French and others, in addition to the articles already 
mentioned, use essential oil of citron, bergamont, oranges, 
and lemons, with angelica-seed, vanilla, mace, cubebs, 
raisins, and dates, but no limitation can be given for 
making an article designed to gratify every palate. The 
predominant and early use of saffron in the manufacture 
of usquebaugh among the Irish arose from the extensive 
application and well-known virtues of that plant, in sev- 
eral useful domestic purposes. In dyeing yellow, saffron 
(crocus sativus) was the chief ingredient, as it gave that 

304 Beverages, Past and Present 

admired tinge to the flowing shirts and garments worn 
by our early ancestors. Its exhilarating, heating and 
aromatic qualities were also so familiar that it was em. 
ployed as a part of the Irish materia medica, being fotmd 
a great stimulant and renovator. On this account it has 
been called cor hominis, the heart of man; and from en- 
livening the spirits, it gave rise to the saying, when speak- 
ing of a person in a cheerful state of mind, Dormivit in sacco 
croci — He hath slept in a sack of saffron. The English, 
according to Lord Bacon, were rendered sprightly by a 
liberal use of saffron in sweetmeats and broths; and Boer- 
have calls it a true and genuine rouser of the animal spirits. 

With these two formulas before us, one ancient and 
the other comparatively modem, there can be no 
doubt as to what usquebaugh was, and to confoimd it 
with our present-day whiskey is a contradiction of 
ideas that bear no relation one to the other. The 
venerable Doctor Johnson started the ball rolling and 
of course others had to push it along in the path he 
indicated. The Irish people themselves never fell 
into this error, and for the sake of brevity as well as 
description named their product potheen or poteen. 
They discerned the difference at once, and to tell them 
that whiskey derived its name from usquebaugh would 
start an argument that would soon be settled as far 
as they were concerned. At one time potheen was also 
known in Ireland as Innishowen — ^following in the 
footsteps of Ferintosh and Glenlivet; for like these 
two Scottish towns Innishowen was pre-eminent in 
Ireland for its illicit distilleries and the fine quality 
of their produce. In fact so really superior was this 
whiskey that the English government tried several 
methods to induce the licensed distillers to make 

Ireland 305 

an article just as good, but as was the case in Scotland 
no lawfully made whiskey could even approach the 
illicit product. At first sight, this, to the uninitiated, 
may seem strange, but if he will but stop and consider 
the factors that enter into the question he will readily 
tmderstand why this is so. It is a case of one man 
working for himself and very often by himself, or at 
the most with but a very few to help him and these 
without wages except such as might accrue through 
the sale of the liquor. Being without supervision, 
what is done is according to the best judgment in the 
matter and without governmental espionage (no rules 
or regulations are laid down to be followed). It is 
this freedom of action that enters most materially 
into their success. 

Again, the "moonshiners* " manner of manufacture 
is a very wasteful one and were he compelled to main- 
tain an establishment, with all its necessary expenses, 
his methods would soon undergo great change or 
he would quickly become bankrupt. The housewife 
can make better preserves than the manufacturer 
just on this accotmt, but who is there that would pay 
her the real cost of her produce simply because she 
made it? She might sell it at the market price and 
consider that she had made money the same as the 
moonshiner does, but it must be borne in mind that in 
both cases the wants are small, and as soon as the 
amount desired is realised they are satisfied, and for a 
time, at least, the business ceases. This primitive 
manner of procedure would be an utter impossibility 
for any firm, as even the most sceptical can see, and 
while we may deplore the fact there is no remedy 
otherwise than downright philanthropy. 

3o6 Beverages, Past and Present 

Some years ago Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Hall made a 
number of protracted trips into Ireland with the 
purpose of writing a book on the country, which ulti- 
mately they did in three large volumes entitled Ireland 
and dedicated, by permission, to his Royal Highness 
the Prince Albert, etc., etc., and the following is what 
they have to say upon the subject of poteen: 

These mountains and glens have been for centuries the 
favoured resort of poteen distillers {poteen is, translated 
literally, *'a small pot**) ; and amid these fastnesses it was 
utterly impossible for the law to reach them. Indeed 
attempts to do so were rarely made; the efforts of the 
gauger being directed almost entirely to arresting them 
on their way with their commodity into the neighbouring 
towns.^ As the reader will suppose, many amusing tales 
are told of the ctuming employed by the peasantry in 
concealing their manufactures, and in outwitting the 
revenue officers. These anecdotes belong to old times. 
A few years ago, in the length and breadth of the island, 
there were at moderate computation 150,000 private stills 
at work; we may now safely assert that there are not a 
dozen in all Ireland — or rather were not a year ago (1842) ; 
for we understand that the evil trade has been reviving 
a little in consequence of the increased duty on whiskey 
and the decreased and the decreasing value of com. It is 
however, chiefly confined to "the North, "where tem- 
perance has made, comparatively, little way. 

The manufacture neither is, nor ever can be, what it 
was some ten or twenty years ago. The fact that the 
licensed distilleries are now manufacturing more whiskey 
than they did in the years 1840 and 184 1 — a fact alluded 
to in the House of Commons by Sir Robert Peel — is easily 
accounted for. At the commencement of the temperance 
movement they had large stocks on hand ; these have been 

Ireland 307 

gradually disposed of, and were exhausted when they 
began to manufacture afresh. As compared with the 
returns of the three preceding years, therefore, there is, 
no doubt, some augmentation of revenue arising from this 
impure source; but as compared with those of six years ago, 
it is very insignificant. In the fifth report to the House 
of Commons of "conmiissioners on fees, gratuities, etc., 
in Ireland," 1807, returns are given of seizures during five 
years — from 1802 to 1806 inclusive; the number of stills 
seized during that period amounted to 13,439, averaging 
in number nearly 2,800 a year. It is fair to calculate that 
not one in fifty was seized. Indeed, according to the 
evidence adduced, one third of the spirits consumed in the 
country was supplied by unlicensed distilleries — to take 
no note of the enormous quantity smuggled by connivance 
through distilleries that were licensed. It was proved to 
the commissioners that in one year duty was evaded by 
these distilleries to an amount fully equal to that upon 
which duty was paid by them. Mr. Wakefield — Statistical 
and Political — estimates that "the entire duty which 
should have been paid on home-made spirits consumed 
in Ireland amoimted to upwards of ;£2, 280,000 per annum; 
while the duty actually received thereon was little more 
than ;£664,ooo. The little poteen that is now produced 
is made by substantial farmers, who, having a super- 
abundant crop of barley, and an inconvenient market 
for it, and neither the fear of the law nor Father Matthew 
before their eyes, thus endeavour to turn it to account. 
Yet so impopular has the practice become, that we doubt 
if now-a-days any odiimi would attach to the "informer" 
who set the gauger on a right scent. 

The hatred of the people towards the gauger was for 
a very long period intense. The very name inevitably 
aroused the worst passions; to kill them was considered 
anything but a crime; wherever it could be done with com- 
parative safety, he was hunted to the death. His calling 

3o8 Beverages, Past and Present 

is now as safe as the postmaster's. The "distilleries" were 
of course conducted in the most inaccessible places; places 
so situated as to command an extensive ''lookout" from 
some point adjacent, but hidden from all eyes except those 
of the initiated. We have seen one in a cave back of a 
waterfall; the smoke issued through crevices in the rocks, 
and was very evenly distributed; no suspicion of its exist- 
ence could have been excited even to those who stood above 
the still at full work. Descend a narrow and rugged 
pathway, and you encoimtered a dirty and debauched- 
looking gang of perhaps half-a-dozen, watching the prepa- 
ration of the liquid poison. We have seen stills in "old 
times" in all imaginable positions; and sometimes so close 
to a thickly populated town or village that it was im- 
possible to believe the gauger to be ignorant of their 
whereabouts. Not unfrequently, indeed, this official could 
have laid his hands upon a dozen of them within as many 
hours; but he had cogent reasons for avoiding discov- 
eries unless absolutely forced to make them, and where 
information was laid, it was by no means uncommon for a 
trusty messenger to be despatched from the residence of the 
gauger to give due notice that by daybreak next morning 
"the boys, " with all their utensils, must have disappeared. 
Now and then they were required to leave an old worn- 
out still in the place of that they were to remove, so that 
a report of actual seizure might be made. A good imder- 
standing was thus kept up between the gauger and the 
distillers; the former not unfrequently received "a duty" 
upon every still within his jurisdiction; and his cellars were 
never without "a sup of the best. " Much of the difficulty 
of suppressing the illicit trade was created by the law, which 
levied a fine of £$0 upon the townland in which a still was 
discovered ; making it clearly the interest of the whole neigh- 
bourhood to prevent such a discovery. The original cost 
of these mountain stills was little more than three guineas; 
so that the seizure was no very great drawback to the trade. 

Ireland 309 

And, in consequence of the absurd enactment referred to, 
many an arrangement was made by which, when rendered 
useless, it was sold for £$0. The commerce was carried 
on to a very great extent, and openly. Poteen was usually 
preferred by the gentry, to "Parliament" or "King's** 
whiskey; it was known to be free from adulteration, an<J 
had a smoky flavour (arising from the peat-fires) which 
many liked. Nor were the gentry at all times free from 
the charge of "brewing their own whiskey," even in 
comparatively late years. We have seen stills at work 
in the stables of men of rank and f orttme ; and it was com- 
mon enough, when the fine of £$0 was levied on a town- 
land, for the landlord to arrange that half should be paid 
by the distillers who carried on the trade. 

And thus ends a full and graphic account of making 
poteen in the **old times" in Ireland. Every side of 
the question is given and little is left for the reader 
to imagine or untangle. But one trait of the Irish 
character the writers seem to have overlooked — ^they 
have not considered that love of adventure that is to 
be found in every son of **the green isle" from the 
highest to the lowest and to which the manufacture 
and marketing of poteen would afford an ample supply 
and of a nature that would appeal to them, and many 
amdoubtedly embarked in the business just for the 
sport it would afford them. In the first volume of 
Ireland the writers observe that 

A large proportion of the songs popular among the 
peasantry were in praise of whiskey, and very few of them 
were without some reference to it. One of them blessed 
the Pope and the Council of Trent, who 

Laid fast upon mate, and not upon drink. 

3IO Beverages, Past and Present 

It was "mate, drink, and clothing'' ; ** father and mother, 
sister and brother, my outside coat — I '11 have no 
other"; **mavoumeen, my joy and my jewel*'; "vein of 
my heart"; "life-endearing, humour-lending, mirth-in- 
creasing"; "a cordial of all ages that evil assuages": in 
short, whiskey was the panacea recommended in song 
for all the ills that flesh was heir to. 

The never a day have I for drink 
But Saturday, Sunday, Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday — 
Och! the dickens a day have I for drink 
But Saturday, Sunday, Monday — 

Whoop, hurrah — 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday! 

All attempts to check the progress of intemperance were 
fruitless; it had long been customary, indeed, to take 
oaths to abstain from drink for a season, but if kept they 
produced no permanent good, and the tricks and shifts to 
evade them were generally successful. We recollect a man 
swearing he would not drink for a month — he soaked bread 
in spirits and ate it; another swore he would not touch 
liquor while he stood "on earth," and got drunk amid the 
branches of a tree ; another who vowed not to touch a drop 
"in door or out" strode across his threshold, placing 
one leg inside and the other outside, and so, persuading 
himself he did not break his oath, drank until he fell; 
another who bovmd himself not to "touch liquor in the 
parish " brought a sod of turf from a distance, and placed 
his foot upon it when he desired to drink. We knew one 
who was kept sober thus: he was always willing to take 
an oath against whiskey for six weeks, but no longer; his 
master invariably watched the day on which "his time" 
expired, and compelled him to repeat his oath; which he 
would readily do after swallowing two glasses." 

Ireland 311 

In the writings of Dioscorides, who lived in the first 
century, there is mention of the fact that the Hiberi or 
Irish, instead of wine, used a liquor called courmi or 
curmi made of " barley," and this according to Mr. P. 
W. Joyce in his Social Life of Ancient Ireland was the 
correct ancient Irish name for ale. He says : 

**This author caught up correctly the Irish name for ale, 
which was cuirm or coirm (gen. corma) : and hence coirn- 
ihech, ** ale-house, " i, e., a. house in which ale was made. 
The present word for ale is linn or leann; and although this, 
too, was one of the words for ale in old times, it was often 
used to denote drink in general. Ale was reddish in colour 
as now. Its manufacture was understood everywhere ; and 
the whole process is given in the Senehus Mot, and in the 
commentaries and glosses on it. The grain chiefly used was 
barley, and what grew in rich land was most valued for the 
purpose; but it was often made from rye, as well as from 
wheat and oats. 

The com of whatever kind was first converted into malt ; 
Irish brae or braich: gen. bracha. For this purpose it was 
steeped in water for a certain time, after which the water 
was let off slowly, and the wet grain was spread out on a 
level floor to dry. During this time persons turned it over 
and over and raked it into ridges to bring all parts in turn to 
the surface. It was next dried in a kiln (aith, pronounced 
ah) till the grain became hard. This dried grain was malt. 
If not intended to be kept in grains it was ground in a 
quern or mill, and was then either put into sacks as it came 
from the mill, or made into cakes and dried. Malt cakes 
were often so hard that before using they had to be broken 
in pieces with a mallet and ground again in a mill to reduce 
them back again to meal. Whether as unground kiln- 
dried grains, or as meal in bags, or as cakes, this brae or 
malt kept for any length of time; and it was often given 

312 Beverages, Past and Present 

in payment of rent or tribute, as repeatedly mentioned 
in the Book of Rights, When ale was to be prepared the 
ground malt was made into a mash with water, which was 
fermented, boiled, strained, etc., till the process was 
finished. Conall Derg O'Carra had in his house strainers 
(men) with their criers always at work ag sgagadh leannay 
"a-straining ale," in hospitable preparation for guests. 
Malt, and of course the ale, might be spoiled by misman- 
agement at any stage of the process; and the Senehus Mor 
mentions three successive tests: one after kiln-drying and 
before being ground, by putting a grain under the tooth 
to try whether it was sound and free from bitterness; 
another after grinding, before it was made into a cake, 
to ascertain if it was free from mawkishness; and a third 
when it was in mash, before it was put to ferment. 

The same writer tells us that among the members of 
St. Patrick's household was a brewer, a priest named 
Mescan, and furthermore that it was the custom in those 
early days for the churches to keep a goodly supply of 
ale on hand so that the members of the congregation 
might take a drink when it was lawful for them to do so. 
At a certain Easter time, so we are told in the life of St. 
Brigit, she brewed ale to supply the churches all round 
her; and this she did as a kindly and charitable act. St. 
Domingart or Donard a disciple of St. Patrick, always 
kept a pitcher of ale and a larac or leg of beef with its 
accompaniments every Easter at his church of Maghera 
near SHeve Donard: "and he gives them to Mas-folks [t. e., 
those that have been at Mass] on Easter Tuesday always." 

These old-time people used to make another ale 
which bore the name of hrocoit, bracaut, braccat, and 
hrogoity according to the ability of the chronicler to 
spell it, or perhaps it was so called in different loca- 
tions. It differed from the ordinary ale of the times 

Ireland 313 

inasmuch as it contained a certain quantity of honey. 
Mid (pronotmced mee) was also another common 
beverage and as its name indicates was a kind of very 
strong mead, which would intoxicate a person much 
quicker than ale. Miodh cuill was a variation of mid 
caused by the use of hazel-nuts, but for what pur- 
pose otherwise than to impart a flavour cannot be 

Whether it was caused by a dearth of names — and 
yet that does not seem reasonable, for the reason that 
the name nenadmin was used in different localities 
and had become somewhat generic — ^the authorities 
are unable to state, but nenadmin was the appellation 
given to two drinks entirely different. One was a kind 
of cider said to be made from the wfld or crab-apple 
and the other was manufactured from ** wood-berries." 
Still another beverage of great antiquity was that 
known as heoir lochlannach, fabricated from the red 
heather berries called by the people monadan. An- 
other case of a double name is that of draumce and 
blathlach both meaning the same — skimmed milk, 
slightly sour and somewhat thick. It was a very 
popular drink among the ancients and was considered 
to be particularly wholesome. Medg (pronotmced 
maig) on the other hand was thought to be a very 
ordinary and indifferent beverage and was mainly 
used by the monks as a fasting potation. In the 
English language medg is whey and is the serum of 
milk, the part that is left in cheese-making. 

The English people, especially in the rural districts^ 
are very fond of whey and we are informed on good 
authority that when whey is mixed with wine or 
flavoured with spices it is a very refreshing drink, 

314 Beverages, Past and Present 

but there is ample testimony for the assertion that 
the ancient Irish did not consider it fit to drink. * * Mac 
Conglinne, grumbling at the beggarly reception he got 
in Cork monastery, complains that they gave him 
nothing but the whey-water (medg-usci) of the church 
to drink." 

Naturally where there was so much drinking there 
were many and various vessels in the shape of cups, 
goblets, and glasses, and the ancient Irish displayed 
much ingenuity and remarkable skill in the making 
and shaping of these useful utensils and especially 
those made of wood and horn. Those fashioned from 
horns were in their language called corn and when 
mounted in silver and other metals were more often 
called fethal and buabill. Some of the latter were 
exceedingly handsome and withal very costly. We 
are told in the Book of Rights that they were sometimes 
given as a part of a stipend due from one king to 
another. Some of the more costly and handsome 
ones were supplied with feet so as to permit the drink- 
ers to place them on the table without spilling their 
contents. Of course many of the larger specimens 
of the corn-buabills were imported in the rough or 
natural horn and it was the part of the native artisan 
to polish, carve, and otherwise adorn them in accord- 
ance with his patron's idea. A very curious cup was 
the medar or mether, used originally for the drinking 
of midf as its name indicates. The medar was made 
of one piece of wood and had either two or four handles, 
suggesting perhaps our present-day loving cup, and in 
shape was generally square. It circulated from person 
to person, each passing it to his neighbour after drink- 
ing as much as he wanted; the comers, instead of 

Ireland 315 

the centre, were the place to put the lips when drink- 
ing, as these comers were shaped in the style of our 
present-day pitcher lip. 

The lestar was a vessel of many sizes, ranging from 
one or two inches across the top to twenty or more 
inches; usually it was constructed of oak and hand- 
somely and elaborately carved and adorned. In The 
Life of St. Brigit it is related that on one occasion 
the king of Tefia was drinking out of a lestar covered 
with gems, when a careless man took it from his 
hand and let it drop so that it was broken into bits. 
The escra was a drinking-goblet made of various 
metals, copper, silver, tin, etc., and also of wood and 
day. Specimens of the wooden ones are still in ex- 
istence and they show fine artistic ability in their 
carvings and designs. A foldert was a cup in the 
shape of a bell and the inntille was a small drinking- 
cup of no particular shape or design. For drink- 
ing milk there was the ian-oil three hands high 
— ^about a foot in height. Cuach was the name of 
a common ordinary sort of a drinking-cup most likely 
made of day and burnt. 

The cingit was a goblet of a most curious design; 
in fact the best description of it is the common hour- 
glass with the sand channd a little longer and dosed, 
the top and bottom of the containers being cut off. 
This made it a reversible cup and perhaps was used 
when two different beverages were served at a meal. 
Small drinking-mugs of any material were called ians. 
A ballan was another cheap ordinary drinking-cup, 
as was also an ardig, but the latter was quite often 
goblet-shaped. This list could be extended indefi- 
nitdy, but what is here enumerated will give the reader 

3i6 Beverages, Past and Present 

a fair idea of the numerous drinking-vessels in use 
among the ancient Irish people. 

Banquets, or as they were called then fledy and some- 
times indelly were conducted by these people on a 
scale of magnificence far exceeding like occasions of 
the present day. Everything, too, was done in strict 
accordance with the order of priority and any de- 
parture from this rule brought the wrath of all parties 
down upon the heads of the offenders. About the 
year 1630 the Rev. Geoffrey Keating wrote several 
books on the ancient Irish and some of them were 
in the ancient language of the people, making trans- 
lation necessary, and of his writings Mr. P. W. Joyce 
in A Social History of Ancient Ireland gives us many 
interesting quotations, the following being on^ of them. 
He says : 

The account given by Keating (pp. 302-3), which he 
took from the ancient documents now lost, of the seating 
of the guests at the state banquet of Tara, is very interest- 
ing. The persons entertained were of three main classes: 
lords of territories; the commanders of the bands of 
warriors who were kept permanently and maintained at 
free quarters by the king at Tara; and the ollaves or learned 
men of the several professions. The territorial lords were 
regarded as of higher rank than the military commanders; 
and each chief of both classes were attended by his "shield- 
bearer" or squire. It was the duty of the oUave shanachie 
to have the names of all written in two separate rolls, 
in exact order of precedence, and in this order they sat 
at the table. The banquet-hall was a long narrow building, 
with tables arranged along both side-walls. Immediately 
over the tables were a number of hooks in the wall at 
regular intervals to hang the shields on. One side of 

Ireland 3^7 

the hall was more dignified than the other, and the tables 
were for the lords of the territories; those at the other 
side were for the military captains. The upper end was 
reserved for the professional ollaves; the dependents — 
always a large company — sat at the lower end. Just 
before the beginning of the feast all persons left the hall 
except three: A shanachie or historian, a bollscari or mar- 
shal to regulate the order, and a trumpeter (fearstuic) 
whose duty it was to sound his trumpet just three times. 
At the first blast the shield-bearers of the lords of terri- 
tories came round to the door and gave their masters' 
shields to the marshal, who, under the direction of the 
shanachie, hung them on the hooks according to ranks, 
from the highest to the lowest; and at the second blast the 
shields of the military commanders were disposed of in 
like manner. At the third blast the guests all walked in 
leisurely, each taking his seat under his own shield. In 
this manner all unseemly disputes or jostling for places 
were avoided. No man sat opposite another, as only one 
side of each row of tables was occupied, namely, the side 
next to the wall. 

The king was always attended at banquets by his 
subordinate kings, and by other lords and chiefs, and great 
formality was observed in seating all. In the Wooing of 
Enter (p. 69) it is stated that when the company sat drink- 
ing in the banquet-hall of Emain "no man of them would 
touch the other." Those especially on the immediate 
right and left of the king had to sit at a respectful distance. 
At the feasts of Tara, Taillteum, and Ushnagh, it was the 
privilege of the king of Oriell to sit next the king of Ireland, 
but he sat at such a distance that his sword just reached 
the high king's hand; and to him also belonged the honour 
of presenting every third drinking-horn brought, to the 
king. According to Kineth O'Hartigan, while King 
Cormac mac Art sat at dinner, fifty military guards, or 
"heroes," remained standing beside him. 

3i8 Beverages, Past and Present 

At Tara it often happened that the women did not sit 
at banquets with the men: they had a banquet-hall for 
themselves. But in the feasts at other places men and 
women always, or nearly always, banqueted in the same 
hall: the women, however, generally sitting apart, and 
they often wore a mask — sometimes called feihal — ^which 
hid or partly hid the face. An odd instance of the Irish 
"pride of place" is given by Hardiman concerning Arthur 
O'Neill the celebrated Irish harper. He was universally 
respected, partly on account of his musical abilities, but 
more because he belonged to the illustrious family of 
O'Neill, and he always sat at the table among the highest 
people. Once at a public dinner in Belfast, which was 
attended by all the local nobility and gentry, the noble 
lord who presided apologised to him for being accidentally 
placed so far down from the head of the table. "Oh, my 
lord" replied he, "apology is unnecessary: wherever an 
O'Neill sits, that is the head of the table. " The host stood 
up before the meal and formally welcomed his guests. 

At all state banquets particular joints were reserved 
for certain chiefs, officials, and professional men, according 
to rank — a. thigh for a king and poet; a chine for a literary 
sage; a leg for a young lord; heads for charioteers, and a 
haunch for queens. In the time of the Red Branch Knights 
it was the custom to assign the choicest joint or animal 
of the whole banquet to the hero who was acknowledged 
by general consent to have performed the bravest and 
greatest exploit. This piece was called curathnir, i. e,, 
the hero's morsel or share (mir). There were often keen 
contests among the Red Branch heroes, and sometimes 
fights with bloodshed, for this coveted joint or piece; and 
some of the best stories of the Tain hinge on contests of 
this kind. 

Sir Walter Scott in The Lord of the Isles gives a good 
illustration of how the people felt and acted when the 
order of priority was broken: 

Ireland 319 

"Then lords and ladies spake aside, 
And angry looks the error chide 
That gave to guests unnamed, unknown, 
A place so near their prince's throne. " 

WhHe the Irish people have always borne an enviable 
reputation for hospitality and generosity, the ancients 
looked upon these traits as virtues to be highly esteemed. 
They were inculcated into the highest and lowest as re- 
ligious duties and if by any accident a person was found 
unable to discharge the due rites of hospitality, it was 
supposed that his face became sufiFused with a ruice (ruckfi) 
or blush — a blush of honourable shame — called also 
enech-ruice or ainech-ruice. 

There were penalties attached to those who defaulted 
in the supply of provisions and caused the blush to arise 
on account of his scanty table, and the culprit had to pay 
a compensation called the ** blush fine." Mr. Joyce says: 
This universal admiration for hospitality found its out- 
ward expression in the establishment, all over the country, 
of public hotels for the free lodging and entertainment of all 
who chose to claim them. There was an officer called a 
brugh-fer or brugaid, or briuga (broo-fer, brewy, broo-a), 
who was a public hospitaller or hosteller, and was held in 
high honour. He was bound to keep an open house for 
the reception of certain functionaries — king, bishop, poet, 
judge, etc., — ^who were privileged to claim for themselves 
and their attendants free entertaiiunent when on their 
circuits; and also for the reception of strangers. He had 
a tract of land and other large allowances to defray the 
expenses of his house. 

The brewys were of two main classes. The lowest 
was the brugaid cedach or "hundred hospitaller," who 
should have at least one hundred of each kind of cattle, 
one hundred labourers, and corresponding provision for 
feeding and lodging guests. ** But " — says the gloss on the 

320 Beverages, Past and Present 

Senchis Mor — ** there is a brugaid who is better than this 
man"; this was the brugaid-lethech, who should have two 
hundred of each kind of cattle. His house should be 
supplied with all necessary furniture and appliances, in- 
cluding one hundred beds for guests; for he was not al- 
lowed to borrow. In order to be at all times ready to 
receive visitors, a brewy of either class was bound to have 
three kinds of meat cooked and ready to be served up to 
all who came; three kinds of new meat ready for cooking; 
besides animals ready for killing. In one of the law tracts 
a breTvy is quaintly described as **a man of three snouts*' 
— viz. : the snout of a live hog rooting in the fields, to break 
the blushes on his face; the snout of a dead hog on the 
hooks cooking; and the pointed snout of a plough; meaning 
that he had plenty of live animals and of meat cooked and 
uncooked, with a plough and other tillage appliances. 
He was also **a man of three sacks": for he had always 
in his house a sack of malt for brewing ale, a sack of salt 
for curing cattle joints, and a sack of charcoal for the irons; 
this last referring to the continual use of iron-shod agri- 
cultural implements calling for frequent repair and renewaL 
We are told also that his kitchen-fire should be kept 
perpetually alight, and that his caldron should never be 
taken off the fire and should always be kept full of joints 
boiling for guests. There should be a number of open 
roads leading to the house of a brewy, so that it might be 
readily accessible; and on each road a man should be 
stationed to make sure that no traveller should pass by 
without calling to be entertained; besides which a light 
was to be kept burning on the faithche (faha) or lawn at 
night to guide travellers from a distance. The noble 
brewy Da Derga, mentioned below, kept his doors open 
day and night except on the windy side of the house. As 
visitors and their followers were constantly coming and 
going, the house furniture and other property of a breivy 
were jealously protected by law from wanton or malicious 

Ireland 321 

damage, the various possible injuries being set forth in 
great detail, with the compensation for them. He was, 
moreover, a magistrate and was impowered to deliver 
judgment on certain cases that were brought before him 
to his house. He is a bo-aire for giving judgment. The 
house of a brewy answered all the purposes of the modem 
hotel or inn, but with the important distinction that guests 
were lodged and entertained with bed and board free of 
charge. With great probability the rule prevailed here, 
as in case of private hospitality, that an ordinary guest 
was supposed to be kept — ^if he wished to stay — ^for three 
nights and three days; after which the obligation to enter- 
tain ceased; but I have not found this specifically men- 
tioned. There were a few brewys of a higher class than 
the preceding, who had large tracts of land and held a very 
exalted position. 

They often entertained kings, chiefs, and warriors of 
the higher classes, with whom also they were on terms 
of familiar intercourse. The hostel of one of these was 
called a brudin or bruden (now pronounced breen or bryan. 
In the time of the Red Branch ICnights there were six 
of these "chief courts of hospitality in Erin, " each situated 
at the meeting of four roads, all of which figure in the 
Romantic Tales. The most remarkable of them was the 
"Bruden Da Derga" kept by the great hosteller Da Derga. 
. . . There was another sort of victualler called biatach 
or biadhiach (beetagh), who was also bound to entertain 
travellers, and the chiefs' soldiers whenever they came 
that way. In order to dispense hospitality, he held a 
tract of land free of rent, called a baile-biadtUaigh or bally- 
betagh, equal to about one thousand of our present English 
acres, with a much larger extent of waste land. 

The above descriptions are cases where to wish for the 
"good old times" is ftdly justifiable, and especially so 
when we read what Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall wrote in or 
about the year 1840. They write: 

322 Beverages, Past and Present 

**We had to spend a night in the wretched 'inn' of this 
miserable village, or rather part of a night, for we rose 
from our 'beds' an hour before daybreak, and pursued 
our journey. 

"There was neither tea nor bread to be procured; the 
horse, the cow, the pigs, and the hens were separated 
from us by a floor, through the divided boards of which they 
had ample opportunity of 'conversing' with us, which 
they did not fail to do in a manner that effectually pre- 
vented all hope of sleep. Soon after midnight our domicile 
was invaded by the hostess, who required from the cup- 
board some 'refreshment* for his reverence, who had 
just arrived from a station, and about an hour afterwards 
the corn-bin was to be applied to for a 'feed' for his 
reverence's pony, who had to make a new start. This 
break-in was followed by another; the 'boy' wanted his 
'top-coat, for the rain was powering down.' A short 
while afterwards the household was all in motion, and 
our chamber contained everything that was wanted." 

Still another institution in Ireland is the one that bears 
the name of shibeen and while this place, at rare intervals, 
may be able to furnish accommodations for travellers 
and strangers, it is as a general rule only an inferior public- 
house corresponding to the kind known in England as a 

Although the Irish people are great admirers of their 
own whiskey their fondness does not extend to the drinking 
of it neat or free, and they are more apt to take it in the 
form of a punch than any other way, and on account of this 
propensity they have become famous for their expertness 
in mixing this enticing potation. It has become an art 
with them and especially with the gentlemen of the old 
school, and, as with all branches of a scientific nature, 
rules exact and true are laid down for the blender to 
follow. Perhaps he has formulated these regulations 
himself, or he may cling to the methods adopted by some 

Ireland 323 

of his ancestors, but whether this be so or not the fact is 
admitted that when a glass of punch is made by one of 
these gentlemen the guest will never refuse the second. 
An old-time recipe that has been handed through many 
generations for making a punch is one that is called "be- 
tween two waters." First establish the proportions 
needed according to the water used — hard (lime), freestone 
(soft or rain water) ; and when this is done pour a proper 
amount on the sugar, which must be of good quality and 
white and by no means too much, and see that every bit 
of it is thoroughly dissolved; then add the right quantity 
of whiskey and after that fill the glass with boiling water. 



NOTWITHSTANDING that aU our authorities 
agree on the subject of metheglin and em- 
phatically state that it is mead, yet if the 
question was left to the Wdsh people they would 
tell you that such is not the case and metheglin is not 
mead. Metheglin they say was invented many years 
ago by one of their countrjmaen named Matthew Glin 
and, while mead is a mixture of honey and water, 
metheglin is an entirdy different compound, as the 
following recipe will show it has been in use in Wales 
for several centuries, and should convince even the 
most sceptical: 

Take all sorts of Herbes that are good and wholesome, 
as balme, mint, fennell, rosemary, angelica, wild tjone, 
isop, bumet, egrimonie, and such others, as you think fit; 
some field herbes, but you must not put in too many, 
especially rosemary, or any strong herbe; less than a hand- 
ful will serve of every sort. You must boyle your herbes 
and straine them, and let the Liquor stand till to-morrow, 
and settle them. Then take off the clearest Liquor into 
two gallons and a halfe to one gallon and a halfe of honey. 
Let it boyle an hour, and in the boyling skin [skim] it very 
cleane, and set it a cooling as you do Beer. And put into 
the bottom of the Tub a little and a little as they doe Beer, 


Wales and the Hebrides 325 

keeping bax^k the thick settling that lieth in the bottome 
of the Vessel that it is cooled in, and when it is all put 
together, cover it with a Cloath, and let it work very neere 
three days, and when you mean to put it up, skin off all 
the Barme cleare, put it into the Vessel, but you must not 
stop your Vessel very close in three or foure days, but let 
it have all the vent for it will work, but you must look to 
it very often, and have a peg in the top to give it Vent when 
you heare it making a noise, as it will do, or it will break 
the Vessel. Sometimes I make a bag and put in it a goode 
store of ginger sliced some cloves and cinnamon, and 
boyle it in, and other time I put into the barrel and never 
. boyle, it is both goode, but nutmeg and mace do not well 
to my taste. 

The keeping qualities of this liquor are something 
wonderful and have never really been put to the test. 
There are on record, though, instances of where it has 
been kept for fifty years and even more and it was at 
the time of drinking better, if anything, than that 
which was ten or twenty years of age and far superior 
in every respect to that recently manufactured. When 
it has reached the quarter-century mark it takes on a 
different tint or shade of colour and greatly resembles 
a fine old sherry in colour, this being the only indi- 
cation of its age to the eye; but in taste it is rounder 
and softer and is as one writer says "exceedingly 
delicious, but a very little goes a long way. " 

Mr. James Howells, the author of Epistolar Hoelianar, 
who lived in the first half of the seventeenth century, 
wrote to a friend as follows : 


To inaugurate a good jovial New Year unto you, I 

326 Beverages, Past and Present 

send you a morning's draught, viz., a bottle of methegUn. 
Neither Sir John Barleycorn or Bacchus had anything 
to do with it, but it is the pure juice of the bee — ^the la- 
borious bee and king of insects. The Druids and the old 
British bards were wont to take a carouse hereof before 
they entered into their labours with anything. It will do 
you no hurt, and I know your fancy to be good. But 
this drink always carries a kind of state with it, for it must 
be attended with a brown toast. Nor will it admit but of 
one good draught, and that in the morning; if more, it 
will keep a humming in the head, and so speak much of 
the house it comes from — I mean the bees. As I gave 
a caution elsewhere, and because the bottle might make 
more haste, I have made it go upon these (poetic) feet: 

"The juice of bees, not Bacchus, here behold. 
Which British bards were wont to quaff of old; 
The berries of the grape with Furies swell, 
But in the Honeycomb the Graces dwell." 

This alludes to a saying which the Turks have, that 

there lurks a devil in every berry of the vine. So I wish 

you as cordially as to me an auspicious and joyful New 

Year, because, you know, I am your truly affectionate 



The universal drink, however, of Wales, is cwrw^ 
or ale, and in former years the people were at liberty 
to brew it whenever they chose, and in consequence 
Welsh cwrw bore a good reputation. Czf/rw-making 
is a very old art in this rugged land and many think 
that it was the Welsh who first taught the English 
how to make it. Cwrw da to the Welshman is like 
wine to the Frenchman, and he expresses his senti- 
ments in the following, * * Al wedd calon cwrw da, *' which 

Wales and the Hebrides 327 

translated into English is, "Good ale is the key of the 

Although the people of the Hebrides and the other 
islands in this part of the Atlantic Ocean are some 
distance from the mainland of Scotland there is such 
a close likeness, not only in character but in habits 
and customs, between them and the Scots that to 
write of one is almost to tell of the other. In many 
of the essentials that contribute so much towards the 
making of a people the islanders and the mainlanders, 
if such a term is admissible, are one. Their language 
is similar, as is also their mode of living, and their 
history is so closely interwoven that it becomes a 
diffictdt task to follow the thread through its many 
courses in the web ; and yet we are told by the ancient 
explorers that when they discovered these islands the 
people thereon had an intoxicating beverage which 
they called bang. The account of this liquor is meagre 
and lacking in the most ordinary and common details; 
not even are the plants mentioned from which it was 
made, nor are any of the usual particulars which are 
generally given on such a subject forthcoming. Per- 
haps the account is correct, but the great similarity 
of the name with the Arabian bhang opens a fidd of 
conjecture that at once places doubt in the foreground; 
yet on the other hand it xnay be that, at this early 
period, these explorers and adventurers had no other 
word in their vocabulary to indicate intoxication and 
through this paucity associated the liquors one with 
the other, which may possibly account, in a degree, 
for the confusion. 

In a more recent period of their history, we find that 
mead was very common and also that they had a kind 

328 Beverages, Past and Present 

of beer or ale, which they called loin and the records 
show it was manufactured from malt. Some of the 
old time writers claim, too, that usquebaugh was first 
made in these islands and from thence taken to the 
mainland, but this does not seem probable in the face 
of the facts already advanced. The fondness of these 
people for this beverage is proverbial, and we are in- 
formed by Martin that it was considered a great breach 
of hospitality for the host to broach or tap a cask of 
the liquor and not let every drop of it be consumed 
at the time. 

Libations to the gods were also practised by these 
people and on Lewis Island the natives had regular 
festivals in which they offered to the sea-god "Shoney" 
a glass of an ale brewed for the purpose, as an in- 
ducement for him to give them plenty of seaware for 
their lands. Every family on the island would, at the 
appointed time, send a peck of n^Jt to the priest, 
who would brew it into ale, and when it was made and 
ready for consumption the people would be notified 
to gather on the shore ; and when they were assembled 
the priest would take a large horn of the freshly brewed 
liquor and wading out waist-deep into the ocean he 
would repeat, **I give you this cup of ale, O Shoney, 
hoping that you will give us in return plenty of sea- 
ware" ; and then with a quick motion of his left hand 
he would scoop out as it were a hollow, and as quickly 
pour the ale in the place ; then tiiming about he re- 
turned to the shore and opened the festivities, which 
sometimes continued for several days, all depending, 
perhaps, upon the amoimt of ale brewed and the 
quantity of other provisions brought by the people. 

Another festive occasion was that known as a 

Wales and the Hebrides 329 

sheate, streak, or round, but this sheate was composed 
of only the chiefs and leading men of the islands and 
was entirely devoted to eating and drinking. The cup- 
bearer, or, more accurately speaking, the shell-bearer, 
would hand each guest a full shell of liquor which 
he was expected to drain before returning it. At 
the door of the hall two men stood with wheelbarrows, 
and as soon as one of the company became inebriated 
to such an extent that he could not or would not drink 
any more he was taken by them on the barrow to a 
bed, where he was allowed to sleep off the effects. But 
it was stipulated that if the feast had not come to an 
end when he awoke he was to return and begin over. 

Even to-day there is often heard in many quarters 
the request for a ** shell," meaning a thin light glass 
tumbler, and can it be that this term is a survival of 
these old-time banquets and has been retained through 
the ages, descending to us as a memorial of the long- 
ago? The great universal non-intoxicating beverage 
of these islands is bland, and it can be had at almost 
any time or at any place, for it is a home-made article 
and is therefore very plentiful. Bland is simply a 
preparation of whey, but owing to the quality of the 
grass or the climate becomes here a truly palatable 
and nourishing potation and one that all travellers and 
visitors never fail to mention in their memoirs. 

Tourists and others when on the islands of Guernsey 
and Jersey are often puzzled to account for the very 
wide doors of the dwellings and most especially of the 
farm-houses, for in other particulars these dwellings 
do not differ from those to be fotmd elsewhere in that 
part of the world. Generally, too, the doorways are 
arched and are assuredly out of proportion with the 

330 Beverages, Past and Present 

rest of the building, but if the interested or curious 
visitor should gain admittance to one of these dwell- 
ings he would quickly discern the reason; for right 
before him in a good-sized room he would see cask 
after cask of the celebrated cider of these islands, 
upon which the Jerseyman depends largdy for his 
support, sending it both to England and Prance. It 
is estimated that the average yearly output of these 
islands is nearly one hundred thousand hogsheads, 
and when we consider the size of the island, twelve 
miles long and six miles wide, one ceases to wonder 
at the appellation given to it many years ago as being 
**a sea of cider." 



IN the year 1516 a party of Spanish explorers, under 
the leadership of Juan Dias de Solis, and who were 
in search of that great desideratum a south-west 
passage to the East Indies, sailed up the River Plate, 
and, through inducements offered them by the natives, 
part of the crew with their leader went ashore. For 
a while everything was pleasant, but suddenly the 
Indians, who were hidden in the forest, fell upon them 
and after a brief struggle the whole party was killed, 
then cooked and eaten in sight of their companions 
on the vessel. The survivors lost no time in returning 
to Spain and their story of what befell their former 
companions and commander had its natural effect upon 
the spirits of the people. 

The search for the south-west passage to the "Spice 
Islands" was for a time, at least, abandoned and 
perhaps would never have been resumed but for the 
actions of King Manuel of Portugal. This king had 
in his royal household a man by the name of Femao 
de Magalhaes, who after a while asked for a larger 
salary; his record shows that he was worthy of the 
increase, but Manuel, much to Magalhaes's chagrin, 
not only refused to grant the extra compensation but 
couched the refusal in such language that Magalhaes 


332 Beverages, Past and Present 

considered that he was not only injured but insulted 
as well. Accordingly, he, with another malcontent 
of note, Ruy Faleiro, the astronomer, made, through 
the bishop of Bxirgos, Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, 
overtxires to the king of Spain to go in search of this 
much desired passage. The Spanish king at once 
accepted the proposition, greatly to Manuel's dis- 
appointment, for now, having lost Magalhaes, he 
foimd that in his haste he had driven away a most 
valuable subject, and used every method at his com- 
mand to regain the courtier's service, but without avail. 
Magalhaes swore allegiance to the crown of Spain, 
changed his name to Magellan, and set forth on his 
voyage of discovery, and on November 28, 1520, he 
passed through the strait that now bears his name, 
accomplishing his mission, for he had entered the 
Pacific Ocean, thereby receiving the proud title of 
the ** first circumnavigator." 

While his ships were at anchor in or near the strait, 
some eighteen natives wearing shoes or feet-coverings 
of guanaco hide visited the fleet. These shoes made 
very large and imgainly-looking tracks or footprints, 
and on this account the crews of the different vessels 
called the Indians Patagones, hence the name Pata- 
gonia. Six years later Sebastian Cabot set out with 
a small fleet on the same mission but, owing to a 
mutiny and some other causes, he landed at or near 
what is now the city of Buenos Ayres, and from that 
time, 1526, it may be said that the history of the 
surrounding coimtry begins. The Spaniards foimd 
the natives anything but an easy foe to conquer, 
and it was many a long year before the white man was 
assured of safety. That the Indians in various parts 

South America 333 

of South America were cannibals at this time there 
is little doubt, but to what extent this practice was 
carried none of the writers of those times give any 
definite or trustworthy information; but it is not 
probable, owing to the plentiful supply of game right 
at their hands, that it was extended beyond the eating 
of their enemies killed or captured in battle. They 
were a primitive people and customs and laws of any 
kind were almost unknown. Ceremonies, too, were 
almost wanting ; in fact if a yoimg buck of the Canbas 
tribe desired to marry he gathered an armful of wood, 
set it down in front of the girl, lighted it, and had a 
little chat. Then they would go off into the woods 
and stay there three or four days and on their return 
they would be considered married. 

Among the Chaco Indians the young buck would 
go to the father of the girl, and if his proposal was 
accepted, the next morning he would go oflE in search 
of a deer, an ostrich, or wild pig — not as an offering, 
but to assure the girl that she wotild have plenty to eat 
thereafter. On his return with his trophy the girl's 
mother would take the bridle from his horse, hang 
it on the wall, just over the place where the nuptial 
couch, a mare's skin, was to be made, and they would 
retire with their heads to the west, and when the 
rising sun touched their feet the next morning they 
were pronounced married. Polygamy of course was 
common and divorce as easy as the marriage. They 
were great lovers of spirituous liquors, and while they 
did not understand distillation they did have a know- 
ledge of fermentation and in a very crude fashion suc- 
ceeded in making an intoxicating beverage from the 
seeds of the algarroba, and which they called abja. This 

334 Beverages, Past and Present 

algarroba is a most useftil plant in this part of the 
world, not only to mankind but to cattle and fowls 
as well. It grows wild and is therefore at the disposal 
of any one who has the energy to gather it, which task, 
on account of its abundance is not a very arduous one. 
It belongs to the carob {prosopis dtdcis) family and 
greatly resembles the French bean. When ground 
into meal and baked in the form of cakes it is called 
patay. The pods when simply chewed furnish strength 
and endurance on a journey, and above all it is re- 
commended for the puna or distress of the lungs when 
in a high altitude. 

The Indians of the present time still continue the 
making of aloja and the travellers into the interior 
of the cotmtry pronoimce it to be a refreshing and 
wholesome draught. The process of making is simple 
indeed ; the seeds or beans are roughly ground or broken, 
then boiled and allowed to ferment, when it is ready for 
use. Of course, as among all savage races, it is the 
women who are expected to keep up the supply of 
the liquor, and right well do they accomplish this if the 
accounts can be relied upon. The Indians also under- 
stood the art of turning honey into an intoxicating 
beverage, but they did not use water, simply heating 
the honey to a certain pitch and when cool drinking it. 

Com, or maize as it is more often called, is a very 
important staple in the Argentine Republic, not only 
as an article of food but of drink as well. The in- 
genious Indians, ever on the lookout for something 
stimulating, soon taught the early settlers how to trans- 
form this innocent article into several different kinds 
of invigorating beverages without the aid of a still. 
Chica de maiz is one of them and is a pleasant and 

South America 335 

only slightly spirituous drink and should be used during 
the period of fermentation. Aloja de tnaiz is another 
but more acid and spirituous. It is made by boiling 
the whole com and then fermenting it. The com 
should not be removed in the finished article, for in 
order to realise the ftill benefit of this unique beverage 
it shotild be drunk in strict accordance with the rules 
laid down by the Indians themselves. First a small 
teaspoonful of molasses is placed in each glass, then 
the liquor containing a number of kernels of the com 
is poured into the tumbler, and after stirring a mo- 
ment the com should be taken out and eaten, then 
drink the contents of the glass. Aloja de maiz is 
assuredly food and drink and is decidedly wholesome 
and refi;eshing, besides having the further advantage 
of being very cheap. In the use of the word chicha the 
stranger in the land will find it will pay him well to 
ascertain in advance wherever he goes and whenever 
he changes his place of visit what it means in that 
immediate vicinity, for rarely indeed does it mean 
the same thing in any two places though they be only 
a few miles apart. It is a very accommodating sort 
of a word and is susceptible of many different meanings. 
In some parts it is applied to unfermented grape-juice, 
which too often is so sweet that it is almost nauseous. 
In other places it means cider, especially in the far 
south, and elsewhere it is applied to any decoction 
that may be manufactured in the neighbourhood, so 
unless the stranger is willing to consume an3i;hing and 
everything it bdiooves him to use carefully this word 

Nothing in the shape of alcohol seems to be too 
ardent for the lower dasses, and the amount of raw 

336 Beverages, Past and Present 

spirits slightly flavoured with anise-seed which are 
consumed here is appalling when it is comprehended. 
Cana, sl white rum made from the native sugar-cane 
and almost as fiery as fire itself, is made and used here 
in enormous quantities, and young newly made com 
spirits, under the name of aqua diente, that would 
nearly blister the mouths of any other people, is highly 
prized as an efficacious agent of quick intoxication. 
From the sugar-cane they also make a fermented 
beverage called guarapi which on a hot day is a 
most pleasant and refreshing drink if taken in mode- 
rate quantity. It has to be used soon after making 
or it will turn sour and become decidedly tmhealthy. 
Sensacion is another Argentine beverage which a few 
travellers have met with and mentioned in their 
letters, but it is most likely a derisive or sarcastic ap- 
pellation bestowed upon a certain kind of aqua dienie 
perhaps that species manufactured from the native 
grapes and which would imdoubtedly furnish a sen- 
sation to any one not accustomed to its use. 

Another Indian-made beverage is piwarrie, drawn, 
as it were, from the root of the manioc, tnanihot^ 
manihoc, or maniocca, the cassava-plant. The root 
of this plant besides furnishing the natives with a very 
pleasant and invigorating liquor supplies them also 
with a valuable article of food and commerce, which is 
better known to the rest of the world as farina or 
simply cassava. In Cameos from the Silver Land by 
Ernest William White, F.Z.C., is this description : 

In the manufacture of the farina or cassava, either of 
which is the name given to the fecula manufactured from 
the oblong tuberous root of mandioca (janipha manihot). 

South America 337 

the splendid root, the size of the human head, is first 
scraped by hand with knives and then placed in long 
troughs filled with water, and moved about with a stick 
until perfectly clean. It is then taken to the first ma- 
chine, a circular rasp, which reduces the whole to a pulp, 
and in this state it is transferred to a strong box into the 
lid of which works a powerful screw, every part of which 
press, including the screw, is made by hand, of hard wood; 
and when the screw is applied, the liquid driven from the 
mass escapes by means of holes in the floor of the box. 
The compressed starchy material is now passed through 
a sieve, the fibrous parts thrown away, and the fine sub- 
jected to the heat of an oven to dry them completely; 
this oven, of a cylindrical form, has a fire beneath and a 
shaft provided with spiral arms running through its 
centre, which, being kept constantly in revolution, thor- 
oughly disintegrate, and allow the heat to penetrate to, 
every particle of the fecula, thereby ensuring perfect 
freedom from moisture, without which the process is in- 
complete. The oven is fed from the top and discharged 
from the side, and when the operation is finished, on 
opening the door, all the remains are ejected by the rotating 

The shape of these roots is fusiform, to use a bo- 
tanical term, which means tapering at both ends, being 
much larger in the middle. They will often weigh 
thirty pounds, but the strangest feature in connection 
with this valuable tuber is the fact that in its fresh 
state the juice contains a large proportion of hydro- 
cyanic acid and is therefore highly poisonous, and it 
speaks well for these untutored children of the land 
to have discovered the method by which they cotild 
avail themselves of such a valuable article of food. 

The country abounds with fruit that is indigenous 

VOL. n — 3 a 

33^ Beverages, Past and Present 

and consequently one can meet with more varieties 
of home-made wines made from these, to us, strange 
growths than can be well enumerated. Of course the 
prickly pears have to fuimish their quota, and when 
their juice is ttuned into arrope, one, if fond of sweets, 
need seek no further; for it contains the combined 
fiavoiu- of many fruits, being as one traveller puts it 
a brain fruit, for all you have to do is to think of some 
particular fruit that you are very fond of and then 
taste this arrope, and lo! you have it in your mouth 
in all its perfection and beauty. 

From a species of myrtle, that bears a jet-black 
fruit about the size of a cherry, a wine is made by the 
natives that is really excellent. It has no specific name 
other than vina and being only made in certain lo- 
calities is never offered for sale. The Indians are 
extremely fond of fruit and of all which appeal to them 
most that called chanar is the chosen; but one must 
know how and when to eat it, for if even bitten into 
before it is fully ripe it will pucker the mouth to such 
an extent that speech becomes an impossible task. 
When the chanar is ripe and fully grown it is about 
the size of an egg and is also shaped very much like 
one. Its fiavotu: is beyond description, and the way 
the Indians eat this fruit best shows in what estima- 
tion it is held. Early in the morning all hands repair 
to the chanares — chanar orchard (for, though wild, 
the trees grow in immense tracts) — and proceed to eat 
of the fruit imtil locomotion, except in a crawling way, 
becomes almost impossible, and as soon as they have 
arrived at this state they crawl to the river, drink as 
much water as they can possibly hold, and then crawl 
back to the trees, where they stretch themselves out 

South America 339 

at full length and sleep until night, when they repeat 
the operation. 

From the leaves of a shrub-like tree called poleoy a 
beverage of a non-intoxicating nature is prepared that 
is known as te del pais, and when one has become ac- 
customed to the resinous flavour it imparts it is by no 
means to be despised on a warm sultry day. 

The soil and climate of a great part of the Argentine 
Republic are almost perfectly adapted for the grow- 
ing of grapes and the people for many years have 
been making wine in enormous quantities. But such 
is the home demand for it that none is ever made for 
export and rarely is any vintage ever kept until the 
second year. The finest of these wines come from 
the district of Mendoza, though the provinces of La 
Rioja, San Juan, Catamarca, Salta, San Luis, Cordoba, 
and Entre Rios contribute each a fair supply. Almost 
every house has aroimd it its vines and every land- 
owner makes his own wine, and yet, notwithstanding 
this fact, to purchase old native wine is an impossi- 
bility, as no one attempts to keep it and the old Spanish 
custom of only buying what is needed from day to day 
is as strong in Argentine as it is in the home country. 
The industry is a growing one and, while the total 
output in gallons is in the nine figures, it is by no 
means equal to the demand. 

But of all the beverages that are in demand in South 
America there is none that equals tnaU and from 
the highest to the lowest it is the great favourite. By 
many it is called the great South American tea, and 
perhaps this name is as appropriate in its descriptive 
quality as any that could be given to it, for, as with the 
Chinese article, it is the produce of leaves and to be 

340 Beverages, Past and Present 

relished at its full value it should be drunk hot. The 
origin of its use is of course not traceable and all that 
we know upon the subject is that the Spaniards found 
it in common use when they first settled in this part 
of the world. Naturally there are many places in 
South America where the plant {ilex paraguayensis) 
grows, but it is from Paraguay — ^whence it derives its 
name also — ^that the best comes. The Indian name 
for the plant is caa, which the Spaniards resolved, 
long ago, into yerba^ and the prepared article was first 
called by them — the Spaniards — either yerba do mat6 
or yerba do polos and by the natives caa gazu. Mat6 
comes from the language of the Incas and originally 
means a calabash, and now, through a process of 
elimination, has come to mean the completely prepared 

The maU, speaking now of the vessel, is among the 
natives a small gourd (crescentia cujete-cuca or curcubita 
lagenaria-cabaco) usually about the size of a large 
orange, the tapering end of the gourd serving as a 
handle. The top of the gourd is cut off, leaving a 
hole about an inch or so in diameter, through which 
the tea is sucked by means of a tube called a bombilla. 
These vessels are often silver-motmted and handsomely 
carved, and are prized accordingly. The bombilla 
is a tube seven or eight inches long and is either of 
metal — silver — or a reed. At one end it is equipped 
either with a finely woven basket-work bulb or one 
of metal perforated with minute holes, so as to prevent 
the particles of the tea leaves from being drawn up 
into the mouth. The native method of serving it is 
to place a small quantity of the powdered leaves in 
the vessel and then pour boiling water upon them 

South America 341 

till the gourd is filled. It is necessary to drink the 
tea while it is hot, and iintil one learns how to manipu- 
late the bombilla he runs a good chance of burning 
his lips and mouth, which of course furnishes much 
amusement for the spectators. 

In Appendix E of La Plata, which was written by 
Lieutenant Powell, U. S. N., appears the following: 

Having learned [he writes] that the nearest yerbales at 
which work was being carried on at the time were thirty 
miles distant in the mountains, I determined to visit them 
accompanied by a guide, who acted as interpreter. After 
a ride of twenty-five miles over a fair mountain road we 
reached the yerbales of Santa Rosa, where we were wel- 
comed to his ranch by the patron Don Falkencia Periedo, 
who hospitably supplied us with the best he had, and to 
whom I am indebted for most of the following information 
relative to the gathering and preparing of the " Paraguay 
tea." The yerba maU or ilex paraguayensis is, as desig- 
nated by its botanical name, a shrub of the same class 
as our holly. Its Spanish name is derived from the word 
maU, a gourd, in which it is prepared as a beverage. It 
is found in the Sierras of the northern part of this and 
in similar localities of the neighbouring countries. Con- 
siderable quantities of it, as prepared for commerce, are 
now used in the different countries of South America. 
That of Paraguay is most esteemed, and is one of the prin- 
cipal articles of her export trade. There the lands in 
which the yerbales are found belong to the state, and the 
trade is a government monopoly. It is gathered and cured 
sometimes under the superintendence of the government 
officials of the department in which it is found, at others 
by private individuals who receive permission to work 
it on prescribed conditions. When worked by the offi- 
cials the workmen are drafted from the neighbourhood. 

342 Beverages, Past and Present 

as if for any other public work, and are paid in cured 
yerba or in goods, such as wearing apparel, etc., with which 
the government keeps itself supplied for such purposes, 
and on which it gains the usual percentage. When worked 
by individuals the general rule is to allow them one third 
of the yerba cured, they paying all expenses. 

On commencing the work of gathering and curing the 
yerba, the patron or superintendent selects his location 
— Shaving in view the quantity of the material and the 
facility of transportation — ^and erects the necessary build- 
ings, consisting generally of a shed fifty or sixty feet in 
length for storing the goods, provisions, etc., that he may 
have and the yerba that he collects, a number of small huts 
as dwellings for the workmen, and the barbracuras, or 
frames upon which the material is dried. The former are 
constructed in a rude manner and thatched with grass dried 
in the sun. The latter are more firmly constructed of 
poles and withes, are in size fifteen or twenty feet square, 
have arched or angular roofs and firm even floors made 
of clay, extending six or eight feet beyond the frames on 
all sides, for the convenience of pulverising the material 
after it is dried. 

Near each barbracura is erected (if there is no tree con- 
venient for the purpose) a stand from which the uru, or 
foreman, may watch the dr3ring material and go to the 
top of the barbracura to make such changes in its dis- 
position as he may deem necessary. The yerba sometimes 
reaches the size of a tree, growing to the height of twenty- 
five or thirty feet; but in collecting it for curing, the bushes 
from six to twelve feet in height, and from one to two and 
a half inches in diameter of stem, are preferred. These, 
having been passed through the flames of a fire built near 
the place for the purpose, are stripped of their half-dried 
leaves and tender twigs, which are then carried to the 
barbracura to be thoroughly toasted. For the purpose 
of transportation the raydo (a net-work of thongs of from 

South America 343 

four to five feet square, having long thongs to pass over 
the leaves and twigs upon it and sectire at its diagonal 
comers) is used and is carried upon the heads and shoulders 
of a workman. Having been struck by the quantity carried 
by one man in this manner, I had the packed raydo weighed 
as it was taken off the carrier, and found its weight to be 
fourteen Spanish arobas of twenty-five English pounds each, 
or three hundred and fifty English pounds. 

The half-dried material is carefully placed over the top 
and partly down the sides of the barbracura, in quantities 
of fifty to one hundred arobas, and in such manner as to 
permit the heat to reach every part of it. A fire, from 
which the object is to get heat with as little flame and 
smoke as possible, is then built under it, and taken charge 
of by one of the workmen. The foreman mounts the 
guard-stand and the other workmen go to the collecting 
of more half-dried leaves and twigs to take the place of 
those now being toasted. From thirty-six to forty-eight 
hours, the fire being kept up from daylight to 7 or 8 p.m., 
are occupied in the toasting process. 

If it rains upon the material upon the barbracura, it is 
necessary to repack and dry it again; and yerba which 
has been so made is not considered good for preservation, 
and is never sent to the government agent for shipment, 
but is sold for home consumption. The toasting process 
being completed, the fire is removed, the floor swept off, 
and the dry material, being worked through the frame, 
falls to the floor, and is pounded with wooden instruments 
in the shape of wood swords until reduced to the con- 
dition of a coarse powder, and is gradually removed to the 
storehouse as it becomes so. 

The yerba is packed in hide bales, made by cutting the 
edges of a raw hide even, moistening it, doubling it length- 
wise, and sewing up the side with hide thongs. The 
packing is done by putting in small quantities at a time 
while the hide is moist, settling it well with a heavy wooden 

344 Beverages, Past and Present 

pestle, and gradually closing the open end, until the bale 
will contain no more. The hide then, contracting as it 
dries, adds to the compactness of the whole, and is ready 
for transportation. The bales are termed tericos, and 
those made of the larger hides contain two hundred English 
pounds. The workmen are paid at the rate of twenty-five 
cents the aroba for the cured yerba, as it is brought from 
the barbracura, and a packer gains about six cents the 
aroba, the hide being found by the employer. 

This method of breaking off large branches was a very 
wasteftil one and had a tendency to materially injure the 
tree. Of late years the planters have become more careftil 
and insist upon only the leaves and small twigs being 
picked or broken oflE. 

The naode of drying, too, has undergone several 
changes since Lieutenant Powell wrote his description. 
Large cast-iron pans set in brick-work, in the same 
way that tea is dried in China, are used now and the 
result is of a more imiform character. With the In- 
dians the searching for a yerba woods is, of course, a 
part of their existence and when one is foimd the 
whole band, numbering generally about twenty-five, 
settle right down upon the spot, building their wig- 
wams and proceeding to get to work, and for the next 
six months they are busy preparing the tea for market. 

The Jesuits long ago discerned the profit that was 
in this new venture and with their usual enterprise 
began the cultivation of the plant on a large scale, 
and were well rewarded for their foresight and in- 
dustry, as the cultivated article is much superior to 
that which grows naturally. The finest of these 
plantations are in the province of Rio Grande de San 
Pedro of Paraguay, and from the fact that it was the 

South America 345 

priests who first began the cultivation of mat^ it 
received such names as ** Jesuit tea," **tea of the 
missions," **St. Bartholomew's tea" and other like 

Under cultivation the plant remains a small shrub 
with numerous stems, instead of forming, as in the 
wild state, a tree with rounded head. It is estimated 
that the annual consumpticm of maU in South America 
alone amounts to between sixty and seventy millions 
of poimds and it is therefore a decidedly important 
source of revenue to the different governments. 

Mat6 armago (bitter mati) is the way the people 
as a rule prefer it, but sugar and even milk is added 
and in some places the drink is brewed and served 
in the same manner as ordinary tea, but this method, 
it is claimed, robs the decoction of much of its value. 

It is supposed that the Spaniards derived the name 
Chile — English Chili — from the Incas word Tchile, 
meaning snow, which was the name these ancient 
people applied to that long strip of land bordering on 
the Pacific Ocean and south of their own lands and 
which we now know as Chili. Chili's history begins 
in the fifteenth century and differs little even in detail 
from any of the other countries in the southern hemi- 
sphere. The natives, or Indians, were called Aurau- 
canians. They themselves said they were Alapu-che, 
"children of the land," and their language was the 
same as that of a portion of the present Argentine 
Republic. Their resistance to the Spanish invaders 
was, if anything, more fierce and resolute than that 
of any other tribe in the south, but superior numbers 
and a better knowledge of warfare, with better weapons, 
at last overcame them, and what was a mighty people 

346 Beverages, Past and Present 

only a few centuries ago are now but a small com- 
munity of a few thousand. They are a very supersti- 
tious people and exceedingly tenacious in regard to their 
belief. In some respects they are also very practical, 
as for instance: in case of death they are supposed 
to bury with the body all its belongings, such as spurs, 
spears, knives, etc., and they will do so if these ar- 
ticles are of common make or old and worn. But, on 
the other hand, shotild they be new and of some value 
they whittle out a replica in wood and bury that 
instead of the original, which they retain for their own 
future use. 

Among themselves the Indians were divided into 
several tribes and were distinguished as *'Pehuenche" 
or people of the East, **Moradlie," people of the West, 
and **Huillche," far-off people living to the south. 
These general divisions were divided into provinces, 
as, for instance, that of the Purumancians, which 
were in turn subdivided into particular districts, and 
each province, so we are assured, governed itself, 
seldom or never joining one with the other except in 
case of war and sometimes not even then. In the 
begixming they were a very sociable people and it was 
only the avariciousness of the invaders that caused 
them to despise and hate the white man. 

They had their own pectdiar customs, and like their 
neighbours of Argentine cotild manufacture various 
liquors more or less powerful. One beverage in par- 
ticular they were very fond of, and when at peace, or 
not hunting, the squaws kept the tribes well supplied. 
In their language it is called mudai and before the 
Spaniards came to the coimtry was made of a native 
grain of which there exists to-day no account, but 

South America 347 

with the advent of the Spanish into the land, bringing 
with them their home-grown seeds and plants, wheat was 
introduced and the Indians use this cereal instead, and 
which, perhaps, they find better adapted to the purpose. 
In a volume entitled The Araucanians and written 
by Edmond Reud Smith of the U. S. N. Astronomical 
Expedition in Chili is a graphic account of the manu- 
facture of mudai as he witnessed it. He writes: 

While the females were engaged at their various avo- 
cations, one of them brought out a dish of meal, slightly 
moistened, and a small earthen jug, both of which she 
set down upon the ground. One of the girls approached, 
took a handful of the meal, and made it into a ball, which 
she stuffed into her mouth, and with her cheeks distended 
she returned to her work. Another followed, and another, 
imtil all, from the young children to the toothless old 
crones, wrinkled and blear-eyed, were busy munching 
and chewing, with their faces puffed out like balls, but 
still managing to keep up a ceaseless jabbering. In a 
few minutes the first returned, and, lifting up the jug, 
emptied into it the whole contents of her mouth. She 
took another mouthful of meal and went off, chewing as 
before. The rest followed in due time, and so it went on 
imtil the meal was exhausted, and the jug was full. Puz- 
zled to comprehend such singular proceedings, I approached 
one of the women, and pointing to the jug inquired, 

"Chem tua?" (What is that?) 

"Mudai/' she answered. 

"What I mudai f" 

"Yes," she answered, and laughing at my surprise she 
added, " Cume ! ctune ! " (Good ! good !) 

It was useless to seek further information in that quarter, 
and hunting up Sanchez I inquired of him what they were 

348 Beverages, Past and Present 

''Making mudai/* he answered composedly. 

"What! mudai, the liquor I have been drinking for a 
month past?" 

*'The very same," he repUed, and, without noticing the 
nervous twitchings of my face, he went on to describe the 
process of manufacturing this beverage, which is a kind 
of beer, with a sub-acid and not impleasant taste. A 
bushel or more of wheat is boiled over a slow fire for several 
hours, and at the end of which time the decoction is strained 
off and set aside to cool. To this a jug-full of masticated 
grain is added, in order to produce a rapid fermentation. 
So soon as the fermentation commences, the mudai is con- 
sidered fit for use. A bumper of the fresh brewed was 
offered me before night, but I respectfully declined. 

The aborigines of Chili were well acquainted with the 
art of pottery-making and in a number of ways they 
excelled in this important branch of domestic economy. 
Chili has a large variety of earths admirably suited 
to this purpose and when the country was invaded 
there were fotmd innumerable quantities of earthen- 
ware utensils in all sizes and shapes. In fact, jars 
five and six feet high and finely coated on the inside 
were very conmion. The rifling of the tombs, too, 
brought to light many other specimens, some white, 
some red, and others a glossy black. Some of their 
handiwork and more especially the heads on their cups 
was so findy executed, in the way of expression and 
other minute details, that they will rival even to-day 
the work of our best modem artists in that line. 

Wine from the grape has always been a very plentiful 
article in this rugged country, for the climate and the 
soil are both suited to the vine. Many writers who 
have taken the trouble to investigate and ddve into 

South America 349 

the question are of the opinion that grapes are indig- 
enous to Chili, and there is sufficient evidence available 
to prove that the aborigines made and used wine long 
before the advent of the Spaniards upon the scene. 
Dregs of wine were found in the guaqtieros (the Indian 
name) or jars that were exhumed in the cemeteries, 
and on investigation it was found to be the practice of 
the natives to bury with their dead a vessel filled with 
wine to aid them on their long journey to **Alhue- 
Mapu" (the land of spirits). Again, the wild vine 
is often met with in many parts of the cotmtry and 
when we consider the ingenuity of the natives there 
is little cause to doubt but that they had a knowledge 
of wine long before the white man brought it to their 
shores. Another link in the chain of evidence is the 
Indian word pulcu used from time immemorial and 
tmiversally in Chili for wine. 

The amotmt of wine made and used in Chili is far 
beyond what the average person would conceive. In 
fact, it is so great that Chili is high up in the scale 
of the leading wine countries of the world, and were 
the conditions of her markets to change she could 
soon become celebrated for her produce. The people, 
however, like young wine best and on this accotmt 
there is no incentive for its keeping and aging, and 
until this becomes necessary Chili need not seek the 
rest of the world for a market. The great working 
class of the people are the chief consumers, and they 
are prone to value quantity rather than quality ; they 
are also conservative, holding fast to the ideas of 
their forefathers in almost everything they do, and 
to change them or to introduce improvements, 
especially along the lines of agriculture and vinifi- 

350 Beverages, Past and Present 

cation, is something more difficult than it appears on 
the face of it. 

Though the grape grows in Chili in the greatest pro- 
fusion and of excellent quality — owing to some climatic 
influence, improper culture, or defect in the after-process 
— the wines do not contain a sufficiently large proportion 
of alcohol, and will seldom keep without an admixture of 
spirits, or of wine which has been boiled down. The 
mostos of the southern provinces are rich, and somewhat 
like port; but, as they are rarely kept for more than a year^ 
one of the chief essentials to good wine — ^namely, age — 
is wanting to give them the flavour of the celebrated 
European brands. 

A few foreigners have attempted to make fine wine in 
the country, but never on a sufficiently extensive scale to 
exert any beneficial influence; and though her advantages 
for the culture of the grape are unsurpassed, it must be 
many years before Chili can enter the market in compe- 
tition with the wine countries of the old world. Chicha, as 
the new wine is called, is consumed in great quantities, 
and is an agreeable beverage to those somewhat accus- 
tomed to its use; but in its crude, fermenting state it 
cannot be other than injurious to health. 

The above was written in 1855 and in many places 
there have been some important changes effected, 
but the home market is still capable of taking all that 
is produced. The question of irrigation has in a 
manner been solved, but there still exists a great 
difference in opinion as to which method is best suited 
to the requirements of the natural conditions, climate 
and soil. According to Mr. William Howard Russell, 
LL.D., in A Visit to Chile, written in 1890, the wines 
of that cotmtry will, even in their newness compare 

South America 351 

favourably with those of Eiirope. He says, "The 
delicious white wine of Macul, like a full red Bur- 
gundy, made on the spot, refreshed and prepared us." 
Again he says, "Excellent wine of a generous quality 
is produced in the valley, and the raisins are con- 
sidered by the natives equal to those of Malaga/' In 
another place: "The wines of the country are so good 
that it is not to be wondered at if the natives drink 
nearly all that is produced and leave very little of 
the better vintages, of the Urmeneta, Macul, and 
Paquerete for export. The better are by no means 
cheap, and the poorer classes are contented with beer, 
by no means despicable, and with chicha, sl prepara- 
tion made from grapes, which I did not find palatable, 
but it is commended by its cheapness, for it is quite 
intoxicating, and a man can become drunk at a trifling 
expense." Finally, he writes, "Nothing better than 
good Urmeneta, Macul, or Paquerete can be needed 
by any one." 

The fondness of the Chilenos for equestrian pursuits 
is proverbial and any one that is among the "who 's 
who " is seldom seen out of doors except on horseback, 
and to eat and drink while in the saddle is a very 
ordinary accomplishment. At all gatherings such as 
fairs and races every man attends mounted and dur- 
ing the whole time may never place his feet on the 

Drinking, of course, enters into all the ceremonies, 
and among the lower classes and Indians chacoli or 
agua diente is not only deemed a necessity but certain 
ftinctions cannot be conducted without it. In case 
of death, especially among the Indians, the body 
cannot be interred tintil a sufficient quantity of liquor 

352 Beverages, Past and Present 

of some kind is on hand with which to supply the 
friends and others who may attend the obsequies. 
This custom does not matter so much if the family 
of the deceased is possessed of a little ready capital, 
but it is very oppressing when the reverse is the con- 
dition, and so instead of burying the body it is htmg 
up in the hut over the fireplace tmtil they have pro- 
cured the required amount to drink its health on its 
long journey. Sometimes the period is protracted 
and the body becomes as dry and shrivelled as a 
mummy before it is buried. 

There is an dd saw that says ''Necessity is the 
mother of invention," and while we may read it in the 
idea of an advancement the invention may be only 
a return to the first principles, in order to supply the 
necessity ; and the method piu^ued in the manufacture 
of chicha de manzanos or apple cider by the natives 
of southern Chili is most assuredly prototypal. A 
sheep's skin is thrown upon the grotmd wool-side 
down and upon it is placed a number of small green 
apples. Then two natives with pliable sticks begin 
beating or thrashing them; this they continue to do 
until every apple is beaten into a pulp ; then with their 
hands they squeeze this mass free of the juice, which 
is collected in a horn and the beverage is ready for 
use. Can one conceive of a more simple and primitive 
mode and still one as effective ? and how handy it is ! 
all that is needed for consumption is made in a few 
moments right before one's eyes and its purity is 
assured in every particular; truly these ** children of 
the land" need never want for drink if they can but 
find the apples. 

Another simple beverage much used in this part 

South America 353 

of Chili is ulpo, and while it is a drink it is also a very 
sustaining food. Wheat is roasted whole and then 
ground into meal, a handful of which is stirred into a 
cup of water, thus making ulpo. Cattle-horns, or, as 
they are called in the cotmtry, chifieSj play an im- 
portant part in this land and every traveller on horse- 
back is always eqtdpped with a pair to carry his wine 
or other liquor; they are better than glass for this 
purpose, as they can withstand much rougher handling 
and use without breaking. Animal skins, too, as in 
the mother cotmtry, are used for this purpose; also 
when larger quantities have to be transported over 
the mountains. And, although we may look askance 
at the employment of skins for this purpose, when we 
stop to consider the only available carrier, the mule, 
and review the roads, which as a rule are but narrow 
paths where possibly twenty times a day the load 
comes in contact with tree or boulder, we are com- 
pelled perforce to admit that no other container 
would withstand the usage. Where railroads and 
boats are available of course barrels are used, as in 
other countries, but there are many places in Chili 
that are beyond the power of either locomotive or 
steamboat to reach, and therefore the colero will sur- 
vive and retain its place as it has done for thousands 
of years when in fact it was the only container. 

While the climate and soil of Chili is well adapted 
to the grape it is also favourable to fruits of other kinds, 
both indigenous and introduced. The list of native 
fruits is larger than one would expect to find in such 
a limited area and their quality is as varied as their 
number. Many of these fruits are scarcdy edible, 
but their juices for centuries have furnished the 

VOL. n — aa 

354 Beverages, Past and Present 

natives with more or less ardent beverages. The 
conque and curague are two Indian-made wines of 
native plants or trees, and although only the restilt of 
simple fermentation are nevertheless highly intoxi- 
cating. From the fruit of the lunta, a forest tree, 
another easily prepared drink called kouhchcw is con- 
cocted, and from wild apples that are in a state of 
over-ripeness chichi is made. 

In some respects the chi-chi resembles cider, but the 
manufacture is entirely different. First the Indians 
dig a hole in the ground ; then they line it with horse- 
hides so that it will not leak, and after the hole has 
been partly filled with almost rotten apples water is 
poured in until the cavity will contain no more. In 
a day or two fermentation begins and chi-chi is ready 
for use. From the small red dupes that hang in thick 
clusters from the branches of the schinus tnoUe, or as 
it is more commonly called the Chili pepper, the In- 
dians prepare a wine of a most agreeable quality, 
which they call huigan, but the Chilenos refuse to 
accept this name and insist upon calling it moUe. A 
prevafling habit of the natives of the southern part 
of this hemisphere is the chewing of waken, sl native 
gum. It is an universal habit and one which has 
several attractions. 

On the loth of March, 1526, the contract for the 
conquest of Peru was signed by Almagro and Luque, 
Gaspar de Espinosa supplying the funds, and on the 
26th of July, 1529, the capitulation with the crown of 
Spain for the conquest was executed. Three years 
later, on the 15th of November, 1532, Francisco Pi- 
zarro with his little army entered Coxamarca and in 
the following February his colleague Almagro arrived 

South America 355 

with reinforcements. The opening of the first chapter 
of Peru's modem history dates from these events. 
What followed is a matter of record in some respects 
and a series of traditions in others, though the true 
history of the people reaches far back into the realms 
of antiquity, for the Incas were the most advanced 
people of the southern continent. 

The Incas had an elaborate system of state worship, 
with a ritual, and frequently recurring festivals. They 
were exceedingly proud of their language and it was their 
policy to enforce its use among all the conquered tribes. 
Quichua was the language of a people far advanced in 
civilisation; it was assiduously cultivated by learned men 
for several centuries; and not only songs but elaborate 
dramas were composed and written, and it is still the 
language of the majority of the people of Peru. History 
and traditions were preserved by the bards, and dramas 
were enacted before the sovereign and his court. 

Roads, with post-houses at intervals, were made over 
the wildest mountain-ranges and the bleakest deserts for 
hundreds of miles. A well-considered system of land- 
tenure and of colonisation provided for the wants of all 
classes of the people. The administrative details of 
government were minutely and carefully organised, and 
accurate statistics were kept by means of the "qtdpus" 
or system of knots. 

The edifices displayed marvellous skill, and their 
workmanship is tmsurpassed. The worid has nothing 
in the way of stone cutting and fitting to equal the 
skill and accuracy displayed in the Inca structures of 
Cuzco. As workers in metals and as potters they dis- 
played infinite variety of design, though not of a high 
order, while as cultivators and engineers they in all 

3S6 Beverages, Past and Present 

respects excelled their European conquerors, says 
Clement R. Markham in the Encyclopedia Briiannica. 

Although there is no direct or positive testimony 
upon the subject, still there is good reason to believe 
that the Incas had some knowledge of distillation long 
before their cotmtry was overpowered. Garcilaso 
Inca de la Vega, who was bom in Peru in 1540, men- 
tions in his history of these people two liquors, sora 
and vinafer, of which, owing to their power of intoxica- 
tion, the manufacture was prohibited as being detri- 
mental to the people and to the maintenance of order. 
De la Vega's father was a Spaniard who went to Peru 
with Pizarro and liking the country settled there 
and eventually married into the royal Incas, hence 
the **Inca" in the son's name. Naturally Garcilaso 
was admirably fitted for the position of historian, as 
he was eqtiipped with all the traditions and legends 
of the people, and furthermore he had their language 
at his command — ^in fact, was one of them. So when 
we consider his statement regarding the suppression 
of sora and vinafer because they were too ardent for 
the general welfare, and then take into account that 
fermented liquors of many kinds were easily made, 
we must perforce assume that these liquors were the 
result of distillation. 

Furthermore it is stated on good authority that they 
also understood the art of malting, for sora is also 
described as having been made from malt. This beer 
was exceedingly intoxicating, so much so that there is 
some doubt as to its being the result of brewing only, 
for it was very quick in its actions. The Peruvian 
still, regarding the introduction of which there is no 
account to be fotmd, is an implement entirely unique 

South America 357 

and decidedly pectdiar to the cotintry, being simply 
a deep earthenware pot, having a hole in the side 
near the top through which passes a piece of wood 
with a deep groove in it. To the top of the pot a 
concave pan is luted and is kept constantly filled with 
cold water, serving as a condenser; the spirit falls 
into a spoon fitted to the end of the grooved stick 
and is thus carried to a receiver, and a more simple 
instrument would be difficult to imagine. 

Again, as has already been shown the Incas were 
much superior to their neighbours in every respect, 
and this being true why should not the superiority ex- 
tend to the manufacture of their beverages? They 
had a vast number of rites, religious and otherwise, 
that were celebrated by the consumption of a large 
amount of liquor, not, perhaps, by any one class, but 
by the people assembled. At some of these feasts, so 
we are told, it was no tmusual thing for them to con- 
sume a thousand jars of liquor, each jar holding eigh- 
teen gallons or more, proving conclusively that these 
affairs were inaugurated upon a much larger scale than 
anything of the kind at the present time. 

The favourite beverage, if credence can be given to 
these old-time writers, was one that bore the name of 
tnasato. It was made by boiling a quantity of ripe 
plantains, till they were quite soft, after which they 
were reduced to a pulp by beating them in a trough. 
The mass was then put into a basket lined with leaves, 
where it was left to ferment for several days. When 
ready to be used it was put into a gourd or perforated 
vessel to which a quantity of water was added ; the 
whole was then compressed and the filterings collected 
in another vessel and dnmk. At all their festivals 

358 Beverages, Past and Present 

there is a certain time when the women hand the 
small tutema shells ftdl of masato to the men, when an 
offering must be made to the departed friends ; so all 
rise and, filling their mouths with the liquor, turn the 
head to the right and through their teeth squirt the 
liquor upon the ground. At another stage in the 
proceedings every one sends a fine spray of the liquor 
into the air as a propitiatory offering to the aerial 
spirits, that they may protect their property from the 
attack of wild beasts and the destructive influence 
of the elements. 

Another prehistoric beverage and possibly the 
most ancient upon the southern continent was neto^ 
made by boiling a certain native grain several hours 
and then causing it to ferment by the addition of an 
indigenous plant, after it had been strained. Samuel 
Morewood, Esq., mentions a certain Mr. Stevenson 
who affirms that he drank some of this liquor which 
had been taken from the huacas, or burying-places, 
that must have been upwards of three centuries old. 
Perhaps he did, cum grano salts. A variety of neto 
was another beverage called duro, prepared by malting 
the same native grain and boiling the malt ; this when 
drawn oflE was ready for use and had, in taste, a strong 
resemblance to cider. 

Chica mascada is still another ancient malted bever- 
age. To prepare this drink according to the rules of 
the Incas it was necessary that the jora or malt 
should be masticated, so the old men and women 
would assemble at the place where it was to be made 
and chew the malt, after which it was made into small 
round balls and added to the beverage while still warm. 
This drink can be made very intoxicating by using 

South America 359 

plenty of grain and a small proportion of water, and 
on occasions the Peruvians do not hesitate to make it 
of full strength, for there are times when they feel that 
a little of the **good stuff" would accomplish more 
than a larger quantity of the weaker. 

The ordinary chica of to-day is made of maize and 
is only half fermented and is therefore almost deficient 
in alcoholic strength, requiring a much larger amount 
before there is any perceptible feeling of exhilaration. 
It is the universal drink of the people, and in taste is 
somewhat sharp, but one soon becomes accustomed 
to this and in a short time is apt to become fond of it. 
A highly prized chica is the chica mascada to which 
several pounds of raw beef have been added and the 
jar buried six or eight feet in the grotmd and left for 
several years. 

The universal practice at the birth of a child is to 
prepare a botijay or large jar, of this chica and bury it, 
6,nd when the child marries or dies to resurrect and 
drink it, but the concoction by this time has become 
so strong that even a small glass will intoxicate the 
most practised cAica-drinker, or, as it is expressed in 
this land, a chichero. From a tree which the natives call 
hacachu, or grave plant, and sometimes yerba de huaca 
and bovachero and which we know as the red thorn- 
apple (daturia sanguined), they make a strong narcotic 
drink called tonga. 

According to Dr. J. J. Von Tschudi in Travels in 

The Indians believe that by drinking the tonga they are 
brought into communication with the spirits of their 
forefathers. I once had the opportunity of observing 

360 Beverages, Past and Present 

an Indian under the influence of this drink. Shortly 
after having swallowed the beverage he fell into a heavy 
stupour; he sat with his eyes vacantly fixed upon the 
ground, his mouth convulsively closed, and his nostrils 
dilated. In the course of about a quarter of an hour his 
eyes began to roll, foam issued from his half-opened lips, 
and his whole body was agitated by frightful convulsions. 
These violent symptoms having subsided, a profotmd sleep 
of several hours succeeded. In the evening I saw this 
Indian. He was relating to a circle of attentive listeners 
the particulars of his vision, during which he alleged he 
had held communication with the spirits of his forefathers. 
He appeared very weak and exhausted. 

From the pulp of sugar-cane which is allowed to 
ferment, a very pleasant beverage is prepared called 
gurapo, and like chicha there are a number of different 
kinds. The favourite beverage, though, of the better 
classes of Peru is a brandy called Italia, the best of 
which comes from the vale of Yea and is made solely 
from the muscatel grape, which thrives luxuriantly 
in that neighbourhood. It is a very superior article 
and possesses an exquisite flavour and is by no means 
cheap. Another brandy of a much more common sort 
is called de pisco, or more often simply pisco. It finds 
a ready market, though, among the poorer classes, 
who consume great quantities of it when their purses 
will allow. From the pica grape an excellent wine is 
produced and commands a very good price, especially 
in Lima, where it is a favourite. From a species of 
wild grape which the Indians call maquiy and which 
is also said to be very fine for eating, is prepared a 
liquor called theca, and from a berry about the size 
of a pea and which is called mutilla is prepared chicha 

South America 361 

de mutilla. The berries are put into a vessel containing 
water and are macerated or beaten into a mass, and 
when this has fermented it is ready to drink. Of all 
the fruits that grow in Peru there is none that is 
superior to the chirimoya, which has been called by 
some travellers "a master-piece of nature." When 
fully ripe it is most exquisite and has a flavour pe- 
culiarly its own. But the great plant of Peru is the 
coca, or, as the authorities prefer to call it, cuca, the 
leaves of which are chewed by all classes but more 
especially by the Indians. The cultivation of this 
plant forms a very important feature of the country's 
revenue and the amount of leaves consumed annually 
is over fifty millions of pounds, and also with an ever- 
increasing market. The poet Cowley makes the In- 
dian **Pachamma" address Venus thus: 

Our Varicocha first this coca sent, 
Endow'd with leaves of wondrous nourishment, 
Whose juice succ'd in, and to the Stomach tak'n 
Long hunger and long labor can sustain; 
From which our faint and weary bodies find 
More Succor, more they cheer the drooping mind. 
Than can your Bacchus and your Ceres join'd. 
Three leaves supply for six days' march aflford, 
The Quitoila with the Provision stor'd 
Can pass the vast and cloudy Andes o'er." 

In many parts of the country the plant is referred 
to as **the tree of hunger and thirst" and is held in 
high veneration by the people everywhere. 

There are others, however, who have travelled in 
Peru who are not of the opinion of Doctor Von Tschudi, 
while still a large number express themselves even 

362 Beverages, Past and Present 

more strongly than does the learned doctor, who 
further on in his article on the subject cites numerous 
cases of its great benefit. In the year 1859 that 
wonderful alkaloid cocaine, to which coca owes its 
special properties, was discovered by Nieman, and the 
benefit this simple plant has contributed to suffering 
humanity cannot be computed in dollars and cents. 

Although Brazil was discovered in 1499 by Vincent 
Yanez Pincon, a companion of Columbus, and a sub- 
ject of Spain, the Spanish government manifested 
at first very little interest in the acquisition to her 
territory. The next year the Portuguese commander 
Pedro Alvarez Cabral through adverse winds was 
driven ashore at Port Seguro and he in turn took 
possession of the country in the name of the Portuguese 
king. An altar was erected and mass celebrated in 
the presence of the natives on Easter Sunday, 1500. 
Amerigo Vespucci was the next to land and explore 
the country. He also erected a fort and established 
a settlement ; then covering a period of thirty years 
the newly discovered country was neglected and 
overlooked by the people who had striven so ardently 
to establish their claims. Europe was a long time 
in recognising the great value of this new country, 
but when it did at last awaken to the knowledge of 
its value there was trouble indeed. England, France, 
Spain, and Holland at different periods disputed 
Portugal's right to the country and it was not until 
1654, after many wars, that Portugal succeeded in 
conquering her rivals and restoring the tmdivided 
empire of Brazil to her crown. 

The geographical situation of Brazil makes it a 
most interesting country and its extensive area affords 

South America 363 

tmlimited opportunities for all classes of travellers 
and scientific investigators. Naturally over such a 
large tract of land there are to be found many great 
contrasts, not only in vegetation but in the people 
who inhabit these various parts. 

To the students of ethnography the autochthones 
of Brazil have furnished a most fertile field for study, 
and perhaps in no other country can be found so 
many distinct classes of natives differing in such a 
degree one from the other, comprising, as it were, all 
the stages from fierce cannibalism to almost abject 
timidity. Their modes of living and their rites and 
ceremonies were as foreign one to another as it is 
possible to conceive. Few indeed were the things 
shared in common among them. In fact it may be 
said that aside from their love of intoxicating beverages 
there was nothing in which they all agreed. On this 
one subject, however, there was a mutual feeling, and 
the great abtmdance of fruit, trees, and plants made 
the gratification of this pleasure an easy matter. 

Of necessity they were confined to fermented 
drinks, but such was the nature of some of the in- 
gredients used in the preparation of the various bever- 
ages commonly used that they were in no wise inferior 
to distilled potations in causing quick and thorough 
inebriation. When this quality was lacking they 
would resort to other means in order to accomplish 
the desired restilt, and the expedients used were often 
decidedly original. 

Among the tribe called Muras, when the young men 
were admitted to the rank of warrior the young women 
of the tribe would prepare a wine, from the stupes of the 

364 Beverages, Past and Present 

assahy palm, while the older women would manufacture 
a kind of snuff, from the lobes of the parica and also an 
infusion from the same plant. When all was ready the 
ceremony, called by them parane would commence. First 
the snuff would be forced into the nostrils through a 
hollow reed by an accommodating companion, and when all 
noses were as full of snuff as they could hold, the drinking 
of assahy would commence. Vessel after vessel of the 
dark red liquor would be swallowed in rapid succession 
until their stomachs were distended like wine-skins. After 
a little the infusion of parica would be brought out and 
served. Apparently the savages were as full as they could 
well be, but it was necessary that they should have more; 
so in order to do it they had a pear-shaped vessel or con- 
tainer, made from the juice of the hevcsa hardened by 
smoking — ^says Paul Marcoy, in Travels in South America^ 
and of which the Umanas are, with or without reason, 
supposed to be the unlucky inventors — and presented to 
each present, and this too as well as the wine and snuff was 
taken into the system, and sometimes with fatal results. 

The one great plant of Brazil, that which furnishes 
wine, beer, spirits, and food, is known to us as the 
mandioca, from which is derived the true tapicoa. By 
many writers it is often referred to as the bread of 
Brazil and in innumerable ways it fulfils this im- 
portant part. 

In Life in Brazil^ by Thomas Ewbank, the author 

A field of ripe mandioca looks like a nursery of hazels. 
The stem of each plant is isolated, and has only a few 
palmated leaves at top. A bud or projecting nucleus of 
a sprout occurs at nearly every inch on the otherwise naked 
stem, the length of which is from six to seven feet, and 

South America 365 

an inch thick at the base. When a field is reaped, the stems 
are chopped into pieces three or at most four inches long. 
These are planted, and quickly take root, sending forth 
shoots from the buds, and in two years mature a new crop. 
The tubers yielded by each stem average five in number, 
the largest six or seven inches long, and four thick; the 
shape irregular, and in substance resembling the parsnip. 
After being scraped and rinsed, they are prepared for the 
"mill." Of the same plan and dimensions ever3rwhere, 
this machine is nothing more than a revolving grater. 
Imagine a small carriage-wheel, three feet in diameter, 
mounted on an axle, one end of which is put into a crank 
handle. Instead of iron tire, a strip of sheet brass, four 
inches wide, and punched full of holes, is nailed on the 
felloes, the rough side outward. One slave turns it, 
another pushes a single root at a time against it. When 
the part left in the hand becomes too small to be held 
steadily, a fresh root is used to press it forward till it is 
wholly ground up. The pulp is put into bags of hair or 
cloth and subjected to a press. The pressed matter, re- 
sembling cheese-cake in consistency, is rubbed through 
a coarse sieve, and thrown inta shallow copper pans 
moderately heated, and stirred up for a few minutes, when 
its manufacture is completed. It is now not unlike Indian- 
meal or oatmeal. Thus in half an hour the root is con- 
verted into what is ever3rwhere known as "the bread of 
Brazil. " The poisonous expressed juice is not immediately 
thrown away. Received into vessels, a beautiful white 

precipitate collects at the bottom. Senhor J , plunging 

his hand in the tub, brought up a specimen. "That," 
said he, "when dried, is tapioca." 

Such is the white man's method of preparing farina. 
The rasp of the aborigines consists of a board, say a foot or 
fifteen inches wide, and two feet long. One face is smeared 
over with a thick coating of gum — a natural glue that 
hardens like stone, and in it is inserted, often in regular 

366 Beverages, Past and Present 

and fancy figures, a multitude of sharp particles of granite^ 
selected from pieces broken up for the purpose. On this 
board each root, after being washed and the skin scraped 
off, is reduced to pulp by rubbing it to and fro over the 
teeth. When the desired quantity is rasped down, the 
next thing is to compress it in order to get rid of the water, 
and after it is expelled, the mass is laid on a heated stone 
griddle and stirred till dry. 

The press possesses more interest. Imagine a coarse^ 
basket-like tube, made of split cane (the slips thin, three 
fourths of an inch wide, and rather loosely plaited or 
interwoven). A common size is five or six feet in lengthy 
five or six inches diameter at the mouth, or open end, 
and three or four inches at the bottom or closed end. A 
large loop or a couple of strong withes is left at each end. 
When used, the first thing is to wet it, if dry. The operator 
then grasps the edges of the mouth with both hands, and, 
resting the bottom on the grotmd, throws the weight of 
his body on the basket till he has crushed it down to about 
half its previous height; the lower parts, meanwhile, swell 
out in diameter larger than the mouth. A smooth stick, 
like one of our broom-handles, is now introduced, held 
upright in the middle, and the pulp put in and packed 
round it till the tube is nearly filled. It is next suspended 
by the upper loop from a hook, or the limb of a tree, and a 
heavy stone or a basket of stones fastened to the bottom 
loop, so that the weight may gradually stretch the tube 
till it becomes six or seven feet in length; the internal ca- 
pacity diminishing with the extension, and the contracting 
sides powerfully forcing the pulp against the tmyielding 
central stick, and consequently driving out the liquor. In- 
stead of stones, one end of a heavy log is sometimes inserted 
through the lower loop, and loaded with a pappoose or two, 
or anything else at hand. Indians, again, will put one foot 
or both in the loop, as in a stirrup, and serve themselves 
as the weight. This basket-press is the tepiti, and if there 

South America 367 

is a current primitive invention evincing closer and happier 
reasoning out of common tracks, and which exhibits neater 
and cheaper results, we do not know where to look for it. 

When the meal has been pressed into cakes and left 
to dry for several days it is ready either for food or 
drink. If for food it is simply boiled, but for a liquor, 
called taroba^ the cakes are broken into small pieces 
and put into water, when, after fermentation, it is 
ready for drinking. When fresh, taroba is a pleasant 
and wholesome beverage and only slightly stimulat- 
ing, but after a few hours it becomes acid and much 
more ardent. Through a process of fermentation the 
distilled beiju is manufactured. The proper or full 
name of this liquor is aguadente de beiju and its in- 
toxicating powers are something above the average. 
In fact, it is said that a very small quantity will pro- 
duce intoxication much sooner than the strongest 
brandy. This liquor, while the result of native inge- 
nuity, is of quite recent date as the still had first 
to be introduced by the Portuguese before it could be 

Tucupi is the Indian term for the raw newly ex- 
pressed juice of the mandioca plant and it was often 
used by them for the purpose of poisoning cattle and 
wild beasts that encroached upon their domains ; and it 
has been hinted that it was sometimes used by white 
women as well as native ones to enable them to dis- 
pose of a husband that was de trop. 

Caysuma and tnacachera are both beer-like bever- 
ages prepared from this plant, and chibe and minagao 
are simple preparations of the flotir in cold water 
answering both purposes of food and drink. The 

368 Beverages, Past and Present 

most potent drink, though, is auiin, a fiery nun-like 
draught but much more powerful and lasting in its 
evil effects. It is, of course, distilled, and although 
the stills used by the Indians are very crude and 
primitive yet such is the nature of this wonderful 
plant they are enabled to extract the most powerful 
liquor from it in this rude way. 

Among the many sauces prepared from the mandi' 
oca, the most noted are the cassareep, tticupi, ticupi- 
pixuma or black tucupi and arube. Pepper, beef-brine, 
and the poisonous juice before the tapioca is precipi- 
tated are the chief ingredients. Through manipulation 
and heat the poison disappears, leaving a wholesome 
and appetising sauce, which equals, say many travel- 
lers, the famous soy of Japan. 

Among all classes the great national drink, however, 
is cachaca or caxaca, as some prefer to write it, for 
both words have the same pronunciation. Before 
proceeding ftirther it would perhaps be the better 
policy to say that there are many different qualities 
of cachaca, and while the good is, as in the nursery 
rhyme, very good indeed, the bad, to put it mildly, 
is horrid. Captain Richard F. Burton, that most 
thorough of travellers, in his Highlands of Brazil has 
the following to say on this subject: 

Cachaca or chaxaca, the chacass of strangers, is the tafia 
of French writers, a pretty word wilfully thrown away, 
like the Spanish tortilla that means scone. It is the kom- 
schnapps, the kwass of Brazil. The commonest kind is 
distilled from the refuse molasses and drippings of clayed 
sugar, put into a retort-shaped still, old as the hills, and 
rich in verdigris. The peculiar volatile oil or aether is not 
removed from the surface; the taste is of copper and 

South America 369 

smoke — ^not glenlivet — in equal proportions, and when 
the catinga or fetor has tainted the spirits it cannot be 
removed. Otherwise it would be as valuable to Europe 
as the com brandy of Canada, and the potato brandy of 
Holland, from which is made the veritable cognac. There 
are two kinds: the common made from the Cayenne cane, 
and the greoulinha or franquinha, the old Maderian growth; 
the latter is preferred, as the "cooler" or less injurious. 
" Brandy, " said Dr. Johnson, " is the drink of heroes," and 
here men drink their cachaca heroically; the effect is " liver," 
dropsy, and death. Strangers are not readily accustomed 
to the odour, but a man who once " takes to it " may reckon 
on delirium tremens and an early grave. Its legitimate 
use is for bathing after insolation, or for washing away 
the discomforts of insect bites. Your Brazilian host 
generally sends a bottle with a tub of hot water. The 
canninha, in Spanish cannay is a superior aTticle, made from 
the cane juice fermented in souring tubs; it is our rum, 
and when kept for some years, especially under ground, 
the flavour reminds one of Jamaica. Old travellers usually 
prefer the pinga to the vitriolic gin and the alcoholic cognacs 
which have found their way into the country; as the bottle 
is sold for a penny or twopence, there is no object in adul- 
terating the contents. Drunk in moderation, especially 
on raw mornings, and wet evenings, it does more good than 
harm. The people have a prejudice against mixing it, 
and prefer the style called "Kentucky drink" or "mid- 
shipman's grog." They are loud in its praise, declaring 
that it cools the heat, heats the cold, dries the wet and 
wets the dry. When did man ever want a pretext for a 

The restillo is, as its name shows, a redistillation of 
either cachaca or canninha, and it removes the unpleasant 
odour of the molasses spirit. This form is little known 
in Sao Paulo; in Minas it is the popular drink, and the 
planter calls it jocosely "Brazilian wine"; he prefers it, 

370 Beverages, Past and Present 

and justly, to the vile beverages imported at enormous 
prices from the "Peninsula." There is yet a third dis- 
tillation, lavado, or the washed. It is said to be so strong 
and anhydrous that if thrown into the air it descends in a 
little spray and almost evaporates. It is not, however, 
made over burnt lime, and thus it never becomes absolute 
alcohol. [In a couple of footnotes the worthy captain 
remarks:] The commonest kind was called agoa ardenie 
de canna (opposed to the agoa ardente de reino, i, e., rum, 
gin, cognac, etc.) ; when better distilled agoa ardente de meL 

Among the many trees that furnish the people with 
food, and drink as well, there are none that stand 
higher in their estimation than the caju, or what we 
call cashew and the botanist anacaradium occidentale. 
To the aborigines it was a tree of more than usual 
importance, for it was to them a calendar and a record, 
as they numbered their years by it and they kept its 
nuts to tell their age. The pulp of the ripe fruit is 
most palatable and refreshing and the caoui — ^the 
wine — ^made from it was so strong that an ordinary 
drink of it would intoxicate a man in less than ten 

The range of this tree is extensive, and like our oaks 
there are many species, causing a very noticeable 
and material difference in its produce. In one species 
the fermented juice is distilled and a very good quality 
of brandy is derived. This liquor is called by all 
classes auati and commands a very high price, as 
prices go in Brazil. The tree has of late years been 
put under cultivation for the sake of its fruit, which 
is in great demand throughout the whole of Brazil; 
but this popularity, it seems, does not go very far 
beyond the confines of its native land, for outsiders 

South America 371 

have to be extremely careful how they use it, for owing 
to the strength of the acid which certain parts of it 
contain they are more than liable to severely bum 
their lips and mouth and sometimes if too much of 
this juice is taken internally the result is fatal. The 
nut, or bean, too, when raw is very poisonous, but heat 
drives all this away and when the nuts are cooked they 
taste very much like our peanuts but are far more 

Another favourite beverage is that known as burity, 
and like the preceding is also extracted from a tree. 
In this case, however, to obtain vinho de burity, as 
the educated class call it, means the death of the tree, 
and one of the most handsome that grows in this 
favoured land. The technical name of the tree is 
maurita vinifera and the Indian appellation is murity, 
from which is derived burity. It belongs to the palm 
family and is, when in congenial soil, one of the finest 
of this grand and beautiful genus. In order to pro- 
cure the wine the tree is ruthlessly cut down close 
to the ground, and then at intervals of from three to 
five feet holes three inches deep and as square as the 
trunk will allow are cut. In a short space of time 
the sap or liquor, which is reddish in colour, begins to 
flow, and as these holes become filled their contents 
are dipped out into pails or other vessels taken along 
for that purpose. In its fresh state, just as it comes 
from the tree, the juice is exceedingly palatable and 
refreshing, but in a very few hours it will ferment and 
during this process is remarkably intoxicating. The 
Indians are very fond of this wine while it is fermenting 
and at their different feasts and other ceremonies will 
use it as only they with their enormous capacity can. 

372 Beverages, Past and Present 

What would suffice for a white man all day has often I 

been shown to be but a very small drink for one of j 

the people when they are really and genuinely thirsty. 
Allied to the burity is the carnahuba, for it too is a 
palm that furnishes a delicious wine, which is called by , 

some kaawy; but this wine has to be consumed almost 
as soon as it is drawn from the tree, for the period of 
fermentation is very short indeed and when it has 
subsided what is left is nothing more or less than 
vinegar. It is said that kaawy will become first-class 
vinegar within twelve hours after it is taken from the 
tree. Captain Burton says: 

The camahuba, when first appearing, is a mere bunch 
of fronds projecting above the ground. As it advances the 
trunk is clad in a complete armour of spikes. The fronds, 
as they fall off, leave their full brown petioles in whorls or 
spirals winding round with or against the sun. When not 
higher than a man the youngster's heart or pith yields, 
when crushed in water, a fecula somewhat like tapioca, 
white as manioc, and useful in times of drought or famine. 
At a more adult age it puts forth a thin shaft, smooth, 
clean, and grey, like dove-coloured silk, which contrasts 
strangely with the six feet of corrugated chevaux de frise — 
the magnified thistle — ^which protects its base. After the 
fifth year it assumes its full beauty, the cruelly-thomed 
leaves distinctly fan-shaped, and with long rays rising 
from a spindle which attains a maximum of thirty-five 
feet, are peculiarly picturesque. In old specimens the 
trunk is raised, after the fashion of palms, upon a lumpy 
cone of fibres or aerial rootlets, a foot high. Some eccentric 
individuals have narrowings and bulgings of the bole; 
others encourage creepers to form in masses upon the 
frond-petioles below, and suggest the idea of a tucked 
petticoat. The vitality of the tree is great; it resists the 

South America 373 

severests droughts, and I have seen instances when the 
trunk lay upon the ground and the upturned head was 
still alive, fighting to the last. It grows to a great age; 
people mostly decline to mention the number of its 

The camahuba is justly considered, both for man and 
beast, the most valuable palm of the Sertao. Its gum is 
edible and the roots are used as sarsaparilla. The mid-rib 
is rafted down the stream for fences, the fibre is worked 
into strong thread and cordage. The leaves are good food 
for cattle, they form excellent thatching, and the fibre is 
made into "straw hats," ropes and cords for nets and 
seines. The fruit is in large drooping clusters of berries, 
which in places strew the ground. When green the nut 
resembles a small olive; it ripens to a brilliant black, and 
attains the size of a pigeon's egg. The pulp, boiled to 
remove its astringency, becomes soft like cooled maize; it 
is considered good and wholesome, especially when eaten 
with milk, and animals readily fatten upon it. The ripe 
berry is usually eaten raw. The leaves of the young tree, 
when about two feet long by about the same breadth, are 
cut and dried in the shade. They then discharge from 
the surface pale grey-yellow dusty scales, which melted 
over the fire become a brown wax. 

A very near relation to the above tree is the caraua, 
which also is sometimes written carna and when so 
done often causes confusion, as the reader is apt to 
think carna is but a contraction of carnahuba, but the 
two trees are entirely distinct. The wine of the 
caratta does not amount to much and is seldom drunk, 
and then only when there is nothing else to be had 
in its place ; but although the wine is indifferent, this 
quality is totally changed when it is distilled into a 
liquor called in some parts callou. This callou has 

374 Beverages, Past and Present 

the reputation of being among the finest liquors in 
Brazil, when it has had careful attention. 

In the month of August just before the young leaves 
appear, many of the Indians, and whites as well, repair 
to the forest with vessels of all kinds and shapes in 
order to gather or collect jatoba wine. The tree is a 
giant among trees and lives for ages, in fact it is claimed 
by botanists that there are still specimens extant in 
robust health that are older than the Christian re- 
ligion. The wine is valued by the natives for its 
pectoral qualities, as well as for being thoroughly 
stimulating. The natives or aborigines have many 
names for this tree aside from jatoba^ as for in- 
stance jaiahy, jtUahi-sica, jetaiba^ abatp-timbaby and 

From the assai palm or, as some insist upon writing 
it, assahy, is made the famous vinho cT assai of which 
the Brazilians say: 

Quern veiu Para pasou ; 
Quern bebeu Assai ficou, 

which Mrs. Agassiz translates as follows : 

Who came to Para was glad to stay ; 
Who drank assai went never away. 

As the above lines indicate, there is something very 
fascinating about assai, as it is generally called, and 
though it is only mildly stimulating it is exceedingly 
refreshing. It is made from the fruit of the assai 
palm and resembles in looks large black grapes picked 
from the cluster and piled into baskets. To make 
vinho d'assai is very simple and easy, but perhaps it 

South America 375 

would be better to quote from Mr. Herbert H. Smith 
in Brazil, the Amazon and the Coast, who says : 

In a dark little shed at the back of the court, two mu- 
latto women are rubbing off the black pulp of the berries 
in great bowls of water, crushing them vigorously with 
their bare hands, and purpling their arms with the chocolate- 
like juice. After the first batch has been rubbed out, the 
liquid is decanted from the hard nuts to another lot of 
berries; these latter being treated in like manner, the 
resulting thick soup is strained through a wicker-work 
sieve and dealt out to the eager customers. Yes, the 
Americanos will have assai, con asucar; so the little shirtless 
son scampers off after sugar. Ordinary customers at the 
stand are of the lower classes, who drink their two cents' 
worth of assai with only a little mandioca meal by way of 
seasoning. In the forest, where sugar was scarce and the 
fruit plenty, I learned to like it quite as well so myself; its 
brisk nutty flavour is rather spoiled by the sweetening. 
However, our new-comers may prefer the civilised side; 
so the sugar is added, and we dip our moustaches into the 
rich liquid. Even the squeamish ones empty their bowls, 
and begin to suggest to themselves the possibility of an- 
other half-pint. Now talk no more of sherbet and ginger- 
beer and soda-water; hereafter we abjure them all, if we 
may but have our purple assai. And observe — ^as Mr. 
Weller has it — ^that "it's wery fiUin'." One can make a 
respectable meal of assai, 

Mr. Smith was an enthusiastic convert to the wine, 
but we may remark that he was not alone in his admi- 
ration, for assai only needs to be tried or tasted once 
to convert the most skeptical. Still another pleasant 
and wholesome beverage is cashiri. This also is a 
fermented drink, but even at the highest point of 

376 Beverages, Past and Present 

fermentation the liquor does not contain enough 
alcohol to inebriate unless taken in excessive quantities. 
It is, however, pronounced to be a refreshing and 
wholesome drink, which recommendation can be 
extended to another beverage prepared from the fruit 
of the copo-assu but which is too acid even in its 
natural state to allow of fermentation. 

While we of the temperate clime consider the pine- 
apple as more or less a necessary luxury and a welcome 
addition to our fruits, the Brazilians, though having a 
liking for the anana, give it no especial preference. 
In many places it is cultivated, but frequently is 
found in its wild state and so plentiful that it is often 
converted into vinho d'anana; and where a still is 
convenient this in turn is made into nandi^ which if 
properly prepared and allowed to mature in suitable 
vessels is a very fine brandy possessing an exquisite 
bouquet and flavour. Recently the making of pine- 
apple wine has assumed quite an importance and 
companies have been formed for the purpose of manu- 
facturing it for export. The outlook for the future 
for this venture seems very promising, for the wine is 
a fine article when carefully fermented and bottled. 

The Indians living in the far interior prepare for 
themselves, from fruits and plants that abound, two 
intoxicating drinks called by them kooi and kakouin. 
These of course are only fermented drinks, but, as one 
traveller says, ** our strongest brandy cannot more read- 
ily intoxicate than can kakouin.'' At Morro Velho 
a very superior article of vinho del laranja d*tera, or 
wine of native oranges, was formerly manufactured, 
but, perhaps owing to the fact that it was necessary 
to keep it quite some time before it was mature, it 

South America 377 

rarely became popular in a commercial way. The 
common sweet potato here in Brazil also furnishes 
the people with a slightly inebriating drink, called 
caowy, and when the Indians observe a little care in 
its preparation cacnvy is by no means to be despised 
although its origin may be humble; but this can be 
mitigated in a degree by giving it the Portuguese name 
for the beverage, viriho d'batata, which sounds much 
better and sometimes there is a lot in a name. 

From the root aipimakakara, a kind of manioc, a 
wine is prepared which has the name aipy. These 
roots are first sliced and then chewed by the females, 
after which they are put into a pot of water and boiled 
imtil fit for expressing. This preliminary liquor is 
called kavtaraku and is drunk lukewarm. Sometimes 
the sliced roots are well mixed with warm water and 
the decoction is drunk with avidity. In appearance 
it is like buttermilk and as it is never allowed to ferment 
in this stage it cannot possibly keep very long. This 
fact, however, is no detriment to the popularity of the 
liquor and seldom is it that enough is prepared to 
satisfy the assembled guests. 

During the process of making sugar from the cane 
some of the juice is always laid aside and allowed 
to slightly ferment or it is heated to the degree which 
we would term lukewarm. This juice in both stages 
is to be found on the shelves of every vettda in the 
Rua do Fogo (the Street of Fire), a common village 
name in Brazil, usually meaning that liquor is to be 
had on this street and that there will be quarrels 
and fights and perhaps murder committed there on 
this account. 

In several parts of Brazil there is a liquor manu- 

378 Beverages, Past and Present 

factured that is called manipoeira, but upon investi- 
gation it will be found it is only cachaca and mani- 
poeira is but local slang. Larangina, as its name 
indicates, is a kind of orange spirit which is palatable 
and withal wholesome when taken in moderation. 

Although the grape grows in Brazil and quite a 
quantity of wine is manufactured, it was not, however, 
until lately given any too much attention. One 
species of the vine, called there manga, affords a thin 
rough burgundy-like wine that in some localities and 
among a certain class is popular. Of late years vine- 
yard planting has become quite an industry, especially 
by the newer element in the country, but with so 
many other fruits that afford wholesome and palat- 
able wine and with much less labour and care the 
prospects of Brazil ever becoming a leading wine 
country are very remote. 

Along in October the seeds of the guarana have 
become ripe and the preparation of the most popular 
non-intoxicating beverage in Brazil commences. Wher- 
ever one may happen to be in Brazil a glass of guarana 
is sure to be offered and if one has a penchant for an 
acid draught guarana is an acceptable potation. The 
drink derives its name from the plant or tree of the 
same name, the seeds or nuts of which furnish the 
material for the beverage. 

The seeds, or nuts, are black without but pure white 
within and the gathering and preparing them for market 
is an industry of no mean importance. The seeds are 
first roasted and then pulverised, after which the powder 
is moistened and formed into cakes and rolls of different 
sizes and many shapes. These are then dried in the 
smoke of green wood or, if the sun is hot enough, in the sun. 

South America 379 

and become almost stone-like in their hardness. To make 
the beverage all that is necessary to do is to scrape oflf 
with a knife about a teaspoonful of powder and pour it into 
a glass of water and the drink is ready. Sugar may be 
added if desired. Another nut that the Indians use is 
coco de macaco, or monkey's chocolate. None but the 
Indians will use these nuts for drinking purposes, as the 
beverage has too much of an earthy taste to be acceptable 
to the palate of the white man. One peculiar characteristic 
quality about this drink is the fact that while in the course 
of preparation the odour it emits is so much like chocolate 
that it is difficult to distinguish between the two. 

When the traveller or explorer is aweary and thirsty 
if he has a small knowledge of the various trees he 
need not suffer long. There is the massaranduba — cow- 
tree — ^that upon incision will shortly give forth a 
white sap that has the consistency of milk, and upon 
tasting it will be found rather difficult to say that it is 
not the genuine article ; in fact chemical analysis has 
established the truth that this juice does contain 
animal milk in fair proportions. The Indians often 
make use of this sap on their journeys, but it is not 
advisable to be too liberal with it as serious trouble 
may follow. Then there is the taquara, a species of 
bamboo, whose stem is always filled with sweet pure 
water, cool and refreshing. From cow's milk a 
preparation called coalhada is made for use on hot 
sultry days. 

Would you, my friend, the power of death defy? 
Pray keep your inside wet, your outside dry. 

The first mainland of the American continent to 
be sighted by Columbus was that part of South Amer- 

380 Beverages, Past and Present 

ica which to-day is known as Venezuela and which 
received its name from the conquistadores, who found 
the Indians of Maracaibo living in huts on piles in 
the lake. This feature brought to their minds the 
city of Venice and accordingly they named the country 
Venezuela, Little Venice* — a tract of land more than 
twice the size of our State of Texas and more than three 
times the area of their own country, Spain. 

Columbus while in this vicinity found, among 
other strange and new things, a plant or tree the seeds 
of which the natives used in preparing a most whole- 
some, refreshing, and nourishing beverage. He had 
the Indians instruct him in the art of making this 
drink, new to him, and on his return he carried with 
him a supply of cacao, or, as we mistakenly term it, 
cocoa. At first the Spanish did not give mucluatten- 
tion to this new drink ; in fact it was nearly twenty 
years before cocoa and chocolate began to assume any 
importance as a beverage in Spain, though, when it did 
become popular it retained its hold and from Spain 
the friars took it into France, where A. de Richelieu 
was the first to patronise the new beverage. This 
occurred in 1661, but England had superseded France 
by at least four years, for in 1657, Tuesday, June i6th, 
there appeared an announcement in the Public Ad- 
vertiser notifying that **In Bishopgate Street, in 
Queen's Head Alley, at a Frenchman's house, is an 
excellent West India drink called chocolate, to be sold, 
where you may have it ready at any time, and also 
unmade, at reasonable rates." 

The savants claim that the tree is indigenous to 
Venezuela, and when Linnaeus the celebrated botanist 
came to classify the plant he bestowed upon it the 

South America 381 

grandest title he could conceive, theobrotna cacao, 
which taken from the Greek and rendered into English 
is theo (god) broma (food), or food fit for the gods. 
As regards the nomenclature of chocolate there seems 
to be some difficulty in deciding. One party claims 
that choco is derived from the name of an extensive 
or large tribe of Indians who virtually owned all the 
territory south of Mexico and to the Orinoco River. 
These Indians called themselves Chocos and it is a 
well-known fact that they used a large amount of cacao. 
On the other hand it is claimed that the name is de- 
rived from Choco, a province in the Atrato Valley where 
large crops were raised and extensively cultivated. 
The termination of the word- — late — ^is said to be of 
Mexican origin and is derived from IcUl, meaning water. 
Again it is contended by the third party that the whole 
word is decidedly Mexican, and in substantiation is 
cited the fact that the Emperor Montezuma had no 
less than fifty jars or pitchers of it prepared daily 
for his own use and two thousand per day were 
allowed for that of his household, and that it was 
from the Mexicans that the Spanish received the 

Aside from its quality as furnishing a delicious 
drink this bean has always been a medium of ex- 
change, taking the place of coins, a certain number 
being valued at so much and when more were re- 
quired they were put in regular-sized bags which also 
had a fixed value in different parts of the land. The 
cultivation of the cocoa tree is ever on the increase 
and has extended into almost every part of South Amer- 
ica and the West Indian Islands that offer any possi- 
bility of ultimate success, for when once a plantation 

382 Beverages, Past and Present 

has been established and has come into bearing it is 
a source of profit for many years. 

The common cocoa tree is of low stature, seldom exceed- 
ing sixteen or eighteen feet in height, though it is much 
taller in its native forests than it is in cultivated plantations. 
For the successful cultivation of the cocoa tree a rich 
well-watered soil, and a humid atmosphere, with freedom 
from cold winds, and protection from violent storms, are 
necessary. The young plants are exceedingly tender and 
susceptible to the slightest changes, and in order to be 
assured of success it is incumbent upon the grower to raise 
the plants in nurseries until they are from fifteen to eighteen 
inches in height, when they are set where they are to grow. 
Even after this operation is completed they still demand 
protection and to afiEord this the coral-bean tree, plantains, 
and other high-growing plants are grown in the rows so as 
to keep the young cocoa trees from the sun and wind. 
The trees begin, in a small way, to bear when they are four 
years of age but they do not reach maturity until eight 
or nine years old, when they should be in full productive 
vigour and this should be maintained for forty or fifty 

The amount produced from a fully matured tree seldom 
exceeds two pounds at a picking, something so small that 
when the size of the tree is considered it seems almost 
unbelievable. The leaves are large, smooth, and glossy, 
elliptic-oblong and acuminate in form, growing principally 
at the end of branches, but sometimes springing directly 
from the main trunk. The flowers are small and occur in 
numerous clusters on the main branches and the trunk, 
a very marked peculiarity which gives the matured fruit 
the appearance of being artificially attached to the tree. 
Generally only a single fruit is matured from each cluster 
of flowers. When ripe the fruit or " pod '* is elliptical-ovoid 
in form, from seven to ten inches in length and from three 

South America 383 

to five inches in diameter; in fact, at this stage it resembles 
somewhat our common cucumber in appearance, especially 
at a little distance and when the cucumber has turned. 
The rind of the cocoa is hard and thick and quite 
leathery, of a dark yellow in colour and externally rough 
and marked with ten very distinct longitudinal ribs or 
elevations. The interior of the pod has five cells in 
which there are from five to ten beans, or from twenty- 
five to fifty total to each pod of raw cocoa beans, and 
it is from this bean that the cocoa of commerce is 

As the tree belongs to the tropics where the seasons are 
always about the same it can never be said that it is ever 
out of bearing, for at the same time it will have flowers, 
young fruit, and fruit that is fully matured upon its branches 
and trunk. Naturally a spectacle like this appears out of 
the usual to people who come from places where their trees 
bear fruit but once a year, and the comments made by the 
visitors to a cocoa plantation always afford the owners 
and their help much amusement, when this condition of the 
tree is first noticed. While the tree in all truth can be 
said to be ever-bearing, it is, however, not expedient to 
gather the fruit more than twice a year. At Caracas, in 
Venezuela, where the most famous cocoa comes from, the 
gatherings are made in June and December and are locally 
called the pickings of San Juan and La Navidad. In 
gathering the workman is careful to cut down only fully 
ripened pods, which he adroitly accomplishes with a long 
pole armed with two prongs or a knife at its extremity. 
The pods are left in heaps upon the ground for about 
twenty-four hours; they are then cut open, and the seeds 
are taken out, and carried in baskets to the place where 
they undergo the operation of sweating or curing. There 
the acid juice which accompanies the seeds is first drained 
off, after which they are placed in a sweating-box, in 
which they are enclosed and allowed to ferment for some 

384 Beverages, Past and Present 

time, great care being taken to keep the temperature 
from rising too high. 

The fermenting process is, in some cases, . effected by 
throwing the seeds into holes or trenches in the ground, 
and covering them with earth or clay. The seeds in this 
process, which is called claying, are occasionally stirred 
to keep the fermentation from proceeding too violently. 
The sweating is a process that requires the very greatest 
attention and experience, as on it to a great extent depends 
the flavour of the seeds and their fitness for preservation. 
The operation varies in duration according to the state of 
the weather, but a period of about two dajrs yields the best 
results. Thereafter the seeds are exposed to the sun for 
drying, and those of a fine quality should then assume a 
warm reddish tint, which characterises beans of a superior 
quality. The finest qualities are in form and size not 
unlike thick round almonds; they have a husk of a clear 
brick-red colour, and the cotyledons, which are of a deep 
chocolate brown, have a fine membrane permeating their 
entire substance, and dividing them into numerous ir- 
regular segments, into which the seeds are easily broken 
down. The kernels are astringent in taste, with a mild, 
not disagreeable flavour. The manufacturing processes 
through which raw cocoa passes have for their object the 
development of the aroma peculiar to the substance, and 
its preparation in a soluble, palatable, and digestible form. 
The first operation consists in roasting the seeds, whereby 
the emp)rreumatic aromatic substance is formed, and the 
starch particles are changed into dextrine. The roasting is 
accomplished in large revolving cylinders, after the com- 
pletion of which the roasted seeds are taken to the crushing 
and winnowing machine. Here the seeds are reduced to 
the form of nibs, which are separated from the shells or 
husks by the action of a powerful fan blast. 

The nibs are next subjected to a process of winnowing 
in small hand sieves, by which the hard cocoa "germs'* 

South America 385 

are sifted out, and mouldy or discoloured fragments are 
removed at the same time by hand. Nibs so prepared 
constitute the simplest and purest preparation in which 
manufacutred cocoa is sold; but they require prolonged 
boiling to eflEect their complete disintegration. The nibs 
when ground to a fine meal can be cooked with much 
greater facility. The Indian, or aboriginal, method of 
preparing cocoa for consumption was to put the seeds, 
after they had been fermented to relieve them from what 
appears to be an aril or false covering, between two flat 
stones. The lower one has under it a small slow fire which 
heats the stone to about 120 degrees; the upper stone is of 
the same size but is cold, and this was held in the hands 
and moved back and forth over the seeds in order to grind 
them. After the seeds have been ground enough to suit 
the operator the meal is then mixed with a coarse brown 
sugar and reground. Sometimes, when an inferior article 
is desired, dried bread is added at the second operation, 
with the sugar. This adulteration, though, is not done for 
the purpose of gain or fraud, but in order to sell the pro- 
duce much cheaper to the poorer classes who could not 
afiEord to pay the price demanded for a pure article. 

Throughout South America, wherever cocoa is sold 
nothing but the beans can be bought, as the people 
much prefer to do their own grinding and preparing, 
for in this way only can they determine the amount of 
sweetness that is to be put into the article. It is 
claimed that unless the sugar is put into it while it is 
being ground the beverage loses much of its fineness. 
In order to produce the proper amount of froth or 
foam, without which, according to the real lovers of 
the drink, it is not good, the people of all classes use 
a species of grass-stem, on which portions of the roots 
are left, to beat it into a frothing state. 

386 Beverages, Past and Present 

Of course the inevitable and always-in-evidence 
chicha is to be found in Venezuela as in every other 
part of South America. But Venezuela chicha is not 
the chicha of elsewhere, for here it is made of two 
ingredients, niaize and molasses, both of which are 
plentiful and correspondingly cheap and so, therefore, 
is the liquor. Strangers at first do not like this chicha, 
but after a few trials, and more especially when the 
days are hot and the drinker thirsty, the liking will come 
to him and before he is aware he has grown fond of it.. 
In a certain sense this chicha can be said to be intoxi- 
cating, inasmuch as it does contain a small amoimt 
of alcohol, but this quantity is so minute that scarcely 
any one but an Indian has sufficient capacity to 
imbibe enough to make him feel exhilarated. On 
the whole the ordinary chicha of Venezuela can be 
pronounced a wholesome, nourishing, and harmless 

Another form of chicha, equally good and much 
better in flavour, is chicha de pina, made as its name 
indicates from the pineapple, or more properly from 
the skins and eyes of the fruit, which with sugar are 
put into water and allowed to ferment. This is a 
pleasant-tasting beverage and when one is thirsty and 
tired there is nothing more refreshing than a cool glass 
of chicha de pina. Prom the toasted fruit of the 
cuajo, SL forest tree, is concocted another species of 
chicha^ called by them chicha de cuajo. This also is, 
in its first stage, a pleasant and nutritive drink, but as 
the fermentation progresses it becomes more acid and, 
of course, stronger in alcoholic qualities. 

The stalks of maize also furnish a liquor, which 
bears the rather impronoimceable title of tlaolli, but 

South America 387 

unlike its name the beverage is quite pleasant, pro- 
vided fermentation has not been allowed to proceed 
too far. If such is the case, however, tlaolli is a very 
heady liquor and must be used with caution. In the 
forests there grows a tree which the Indians call bejucoy 
and for every yard of its trunk there is a full pint of 
cool, clear and refreshing water. None need ever be 
thirsty if he has an axe or strong knife and the bejuco 
is near. 

To the west of Venezuela lies the Republic of Col- 
ombia, and for a country that has had many names 
this part of the world can lay claim to all honours (?) 
that such changes can bestow. Starting at first as 
New Granada it afterwards received the title of 
Nuevo Reino de Granada — ^New Kingdom of Gran- 
ada; then after many wars it adopted the name 
of United States of Colombia, but this name for some 
reason was not satisfactory and it was changed to 
its present one. Republic of Colombia, some few 
years ago. The coimtry is a most interesting one 
and has afforded much valuable material for both 
the traveller and the explorer. The Indians too 
are of a docile character, and except when under 
the influence of their chicha are very friendly and 
always willing to put themselves to trouble in order 
to oblige. But chicha is not the only drink that 
these natives prepare, for they have plenty of ma- 
terial right at their hands and the climate is so 
warm that fermentation ensues almost before the 
ingredients are put together. One beverage in par- 
ticular that they prepare is that called guaruz, of 
which Mr. Isaac F. Holton, M.A., says in his New 

388 Beverages, Past and Present 

The last part of the ascent was an old road of stairs and 
quingos. It was a real scramble, and I arrived at the 
venta of Barro Blanco heated and thirsty. There I met 
with a new beverage — guaruz. It may be an abbreviation 
of agua de arroz — ^rice water — and seems to be a chicha in 
which rice has been substituted for maize. It was opaque, 
but white, instead of a dirty yellow like chicha. To imitate 
it I would take a mixture of rice flour, brown sugar or 
panela, and water, and let it begin to ferment till a slight 
taste of carbonic acid was perceptible. But the coolness 
made it the most exquisite beverage I ever tasted, and I 
took a second draught. I paid dear for it, for I was in 
absolute danger. I had on my thinnest clothes, was as 
hot as Tocaima, the barometer at twenty-two inches, the 
thermometer at sixty-five degrees, and I with a mass of ice, 
as it seemed, in my stomach. I sprang to the saddle for 
my bayeton, but it was packed away, and I had nothing 
to shelter me. Then I started to see if I could gain heat 
by nmning. In so rare an atmosphere this was impossible, 
only I escaped d)ring. 

In reference to the remark "was as hot as Tocaima '* 
Mr. Holden says of this town that * * Purgatory has been 
called the Tocaima of the future world, " and although 
it is high in the mountains, where coolness is to be 
expected, yet when things go right the place is a good 
one to stay away from. Panela which the author also 
speaks of is a very coarse brown sugar cast in the 
shape of a brick and this, dissolved in warm water 
and beaten, so as to make a froth, is often used as a 
substitute for chocolate. With the opening of the 
twentieth century there appeared in the United States 
of America (not Colombia) a demand for a mixed 
drink called Manaie Taylor. In 1855 Mr. Holden, 
above referred to, was in the then-called New Granada 

South America 389 

and he writes in his bcx)k the following: "Another 
table, more convenient to the damsels within, has on 
it a bottle of a fluid that bears the familiar name of 
a friend of mine, Miss Taylor. They spell the name 
mistela, translate it mixture, or, in this particular case, 
cordial." Was it not King Solomon that said, ** There 
is nothing new under the sim *' ? 

Among the more influential classes in the Republic 
of Colombia the favourite alcoholic beverage is that 
which bears the name of anisadoy a species of brandy 
in which anise-seed is distilled. As a rule the native 
anisado is of excellent quality, and when the visitor 
has become accustomed to its flavour and will use the 
liquor judiciously he will find it to be of material benefit 
to him while in the country. With the people anisado 
often takes the place of chocolate or coffee and men 
and women alike indulge in it at pleasure, apparently 
without any ill effects. A very cooling and refreshing 
non-alcoholic beverage is that called naranjada. It 
is made from the Seville orange, a fruit, by the way, 
which is so acid that it is almost impossible to eat it in . 
its natural state. 

Next to chicha in popularity is gurapo, which in this 
part of South America is made from sugar and water 
and fermented. This when fresh closely resembles 
new apple cider in its taste and properties. It is very 
cheap, two gallons costing ten cents to the peons, but 
if a white man wants it he must pay double the 
price — a rather queer provision, but one that is in 
common use throughout the country and is extended 
to other articles as well. After gurapo has stood 
some hours it becomes much stronger, but this condi- 
tion will only last for a short period of time, a few 

390 Beverages, Past and Present 

hours at most, when it will turn and become utterly 

In some parts of the republic there grows a small 
black grape, called agreasas, it is a wild vine and may 
possibly be indigenous to the cotmtry. The Indians 
for many years have used this grape for the making 
of their chicha, chocoli, and zancochado, beverages that 
though made from grapes bear little resemblance to 
wine, except perhaps in the case of zancochado, which 
in a degree is must boiled down. 

On the line of the equator lies the coimtry called 
Ecuador — in Spanish Republica del Ecuador — ^Re- 
public of the Equator. Here the mountains are 
capped in perpetual snow, while the plains below 
reek with heat. Ecuador is by no means a large 
coimtry, yet within its confines upwards of fifty dis- 
tinct and independent tribes of Indians were found 
to inhabit the place when the Spaniards first invaded 
the land. Many of the tribes were good fighters and 
the invasion of the white man soon aroused a warlike 
spirit within them making times unpleasant for all 
concerned. Peru had conquered part of this country 
before the arrival of the Spanish and the white in- 
vaders found many customs identical with those of the 
Incas. These Ecuadorian Indians, if such they can be 
called, possessed in common with their neighbours many 
intoxicating drinks, and even at this time the simple 
primitive still first observed in Peru is in use among 
several of the tribes to make a drink called ayahuasca. 
The Napo Indians have a still, which is, if anything, 
even more primitive than the one used in Peru. Mr. 
Alfred Simson in his Travels in the Wilds of Ecuador 
gives a description of this still, which we append: 

South America 391 

The Napo Indians employ an ingenious method of 
mounting a still for the distillation of spirits from plantains. 
One of their largest-sized earthen pots, containing very ripe 
plantains, boiled and mashed, and in which fermentation 
has gone on for a short time, is placed over the fire upon 
the regulation three stones. Over this pot is stood a 
similar one, with a narrower neck and its bottom knocked 
out, and on this another still smaller, likewise without bot- 
tom, but with, further, a hole in its side, through which a 
bamboo tube is inserted. The third and uppermost pot 
has then a fourth stood in its mouth to close it, and the 
steam rising through the tier of pots is condensed on the 
surface of the top vessel, which is constantly having cold 
water poured in it in exchange for the warmer water that 
is removed. Then as the bottom of the cooler converges 
to a point, as do all their cooking vessels, the drops con- 
densed upon its under surface trickle down to the centre 
and lowest extremity, and, falling into the bamboo tube, 
are conveyed to a receptacle outside,where rarely more than 
a few drops are allowed to collect before they are trans- 
ferred to the lips anxiously awaiting them. Of course the 
distillation is made at a low temperature, and all the 
cracks in the apparatus are stopped up with fine clay. 

In the language of the Zaparo Indians this species 
of chicha is called casuma. All through this part of the 
continent there is a drink which is called anvir — s, 
red-coloured liquor made from the leaves of tobacco. 
There is no record of any white man making use of it 
or even attempting to do so when he learns from what 
it is made. Naturally one is inclined to believe that 
anvir would be poisonous yet these Indians do not 
hesitate to use it freely and at times lavishly. 

From the leaves of another plant they also concoct 
a beverage, which has the name of guayusa. It is a 

392 Beverages, Past and Present 

simple fermented drink and has the reputation of 
being a good tonic. When the Indians desire to have 
something extra-strong they proceed to make a drink 
which in their language is called yoco^ and after two 
or three rounds of this beverage it is good policy for 
all strangers to retire from the scene unless they have 
a strong liking for a good fight in which they will be 
sure to figure soon as one of the principals. For a 
like purpose the Indians also add to their ayahuasca 
the leaves of sameruja and guanto wood, which de- 
coction is also at times drunk separately and bears 
the name of yaje. Cantepayo is another popular 
beverage being made from sugar-cane. On the At- 
lantic coast and in that part called the Guianas, the 
cassava root enters into another beverage, called 



STRETCHING from the mainland of the southern 
continent to the mainland of the northern, 
is a strip of land varying in breadth from 
thirty to three hundred miles and having a length of 
something less than a thousand miles. This part of 
the world is known as Central America, and although 
the area it occupies is in a sense somewhat con- 
tracted the knowledge that we possess is limited 
indeed. It is a wonderftd country and full of surprises 
to the explorer and traveller. In many parts there 
are hundreds of grand ruins, telling in silent language 
the tale of America's great antiquity and the wonderful 
people who built and occupied these grand edifices 
but of whom to-day there is no trace, not even in 
legend or tradition. In the magnitude of construction 
and the beauty of carvings and also of architecture 
many of these ruins will rival any found in other parts 
of the world. The early Spanish chroniclers of the 
day led their readers to believe that **the buildings 
were more sumptuous than the palace of Aladdin and 
the very fountains were more wonderful than the 
golden waters of Parizade,*' says Allen .Thomdyke 
Rice in his preface to The Ancient Cities of the New 
World, by Desir6 Chamay, but, as the same writer says 


394 Beverages, Past and Present 

later on, the lust for gold was too strongly imbed- 
ded in the minds of the invaders for them to give 
more than a casual glance at these immense structures. 
Years passed into centuries and it took many wars 
and much shedding of blood before the white man 
could be assured of safety in his new country, and 
then, when interest was once again revived in these 
monuments of a forgotten people, there were found 
few indeed who were willing to assume the dangers 
and hardships of such a task. 

It is not every man who is so constituted that he 
can withstand the tropical sun and an almost revolu- 
tionary change of living and habits, and neither do the 
majority of men care to face people who at any time 
may prove unfriendly ; and therefore what knowledge 
we have of Central America, more particularly beyond 
the confines of the cities and the country immediately 
adjacent to them, comes from men who were en- 
thusiastic and willing to submit to privations and 
dangers. The dwellers or natives of these remote 
places are as little understood as their country, and 
the difficulty of mastering their language has been 
overcome but by a very few. The olden-time writers 
and travellers seem to have had better success in 
this line than those of recent date, or possibly they 
were more elated over their achievements and there- 
fore readily told of them. In an old book entitled 
A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of Amer- 
ica, Giving an Account of the Author's Abode there, the 
Form and Make of the Country, the Coasts, Hills, Rivers^ 
&c., Woods, Soil, Weather, &c,. Trees, Fruits, Beasts, 
Birds, Fish, &c., the Indian Inhabitants, their Features^ 
Complexions, &c,, their Manners, Customs, Employ- 

Central America 395 

ments, Marriages, Feasts, Hunting, Computation, Lan^ 
guage, &c„ With Remarkable Occurrences in the South 
Sea and Elsewhere, by Lionel Wafer, London, 1699. 
The reader may imagine from the length of the title 
that the work is a very large one comprising many 
hundreds of pages, but such is not the case ; in fact it is 
almost the reverse, for the book contains less than 
two hundred ordinary-sized pages and in rather large 
type. On the other hand, though, whatever the title 
mentions the context treats of and very often in a 
comprehensive manner; for instance he writes: 

They make a drink also from their Maiz, which they call 
Chichah Co-pah; for Co-pah signifies Drink. They steep 
in a Trough of Water a quantity of Maiz bruised, about 
twenty or thirty bushels, if it be against a Feast or Wed- 
ding; letting it lie so long till the Water is impregnated 
with the Com, and begins to turn sour. Then the Women, 
usually some old Women, who have little else to do, come 
together, and Chew Grains of Maiz in their Mouths, which 
they spit out each into a Gourd or Calabash: And when 
they think they have a sufficient quantity of this Spittle 
and Maiz in the Calabashes they empty them into the 
Trough of water, after having first taken out the Maiz 
that was infused with it; and this serves instead of Barm 
or Yeast, setting all the Trough of Liquor in a small Ferment. 
When it has done working, they draw it off clear from the 
Sediment into another Trough, and 't is ready for use. It 
tastes like sour small Beer, yet 'tis very intoxicating. 
They drink large quantities of it. It makes them belch 
very much. This is their choice Drink; for ordinarily 
they drink plain Water or Mislaw. Mislaw is a drink made 
of ripe Plantains: There is two sorts, one made of Plan- 
tains fresh-gather'd, the other of dry ones. The former 
they roast in its Cod, which peeling off, they put the 

396 Beverages, Past and Present 

Plantains into a Calabash of Water, and mash it with their 
Hands, till 'tis all dissolved; and then they drink it up 
with the Water. The other is made of Cakes or Lumps of 
Plantains dried; for the Plantains when ripe and gathered 
will not keep, but quickly grow rotten if left in the Cod. 
To preserve them therefore, they make a Mass of the Pulp 
of a great many ripe Plantains, which they dry with a 
gentle Fire upon a Barbacue or Grate of Sticks, made like 
a Grid-iron. This Lump they keep for use, breaking off 
a piece of it when they please, and mashing it in Water for 
Mislaw, They carry a Lump of Plantain for this end 
whenever they travel; especially into Places where they 
can't hope to get ripe Plantains, tho' they prefer the dried 

On another page the author writes: 

In the Plantations, among the Houses, they set so much 
of Plantains, Maiz or the like, as serves their Occasions. 
The Country being all a Forest, the first thing of their 
Husbandry is usually to cut down the Trees, and clear 
a piece of Ground. They often let the Trees lie along on 
the Place 3 or 4 Years after they are cut down; and then 
set Fire to them and the Underwood or Stumps, burning 
all together. Yet in the meantime they plant Maiz among 
the Trees as they lie. So much of the Trees as are tmder 
Ground, they suffer to lie there and rot, having no way 
to grub them up. When the Ground is pretty clear, they 
how it up into little Ridges and Hillocks; but in no very 
good Form or regular Distance. In each of these Hillocks 
they make a hole with the Fingers, and throw in 2 or 3 
Grains of Maiz, as we do Garden-beans; covering it up 
with Earth. The Seed-time is about April; the Harvest 
about September or October. They pluck off the ears 
of Maiz with their Hands, as it is usual elsewhere: And 
tho' I was not there in their Harvest-time yet I saw the 

Central America 397 

Maiz of the preceding Harvest laid up in the Husks in their 
Houses. Instead of Threshing, they rub oflE the Grain. 
They make no Bread of it nor Cakes, but use the Flower 
on many Occasions; parching the Com, and grinding it 
between two Stones, as Chocolate is made. One use they 
put the Flower to is to mix it up with Water in a Cala- 
bash, and so drink it oflE; which they do frequently when 
they travel, and have not leisure to get other provisions. 
This mixture they call chitty which I think signifies 

In another place Mr. Wafer writes: 

Upon the Main also grows the Bibby Tree, so called 
from a Liquor which distills from it, and which otir English 
call Bibby. The Tree hath a straight slender Body no 
thicker than one's Thigh, but grows to a great height, 60 
or 70 Foot. The Body is naked of Leaves or Branches, but 
prickly. The Branches put out at the top, and among 
them grow the Berries abtmdantly, like a Garland rotmd 
about the Root of each of the Branches. The Tree hath 
all along the inside of it a narrow Pith; the Wood is very 
hard, and black as Ink. The Indians do not cut, but bum 
down the Tree to get at the Berries. These are of a whitish 
Colour, and about the size of a Nutmeg. They are very 
Oily; and the Indians beat them in the hollow Mortars or 
Troughs, then boil and strain them; and as the Liquor 
cools, they skim off a clear oil from the top. This Oil is 
extraordinary bitter: The Indians use it for anointing 
themselves. When the Tree is young they tap it, and put 
a leaf into the Bore; from whence the Bibby trickles down 
in great quantity. It is a wheyish Liquor, of a pleasant 
tart taste; and they drink it after it hath been kept a Day 
or two. 

On the subject of tobacco and smoking this old- 

398 Beverages, Past and Present 

time traveller and writer was just as explicit and 
graphic. He says: 

These Indians have tobacco among them. It grows 
as the Tobacco in Virginia, but it is not so strong: Perhaps 
for want of transplanting and manuring, which the Indians 
don't well understand; for they only raise it from the seed 
in their Plantations. When 'tis dried and cured they 
strip it from the Stalks; and laying two or three Leaves 
upon one another, they roll all up together side-ways into 
a long Roll, yet leaving a little hollow. Rotmd this they 
roll other Leaves one after another in the same manner 
but close and hard, till the Roll be as big as one's wrist, 
and two or three feet in length. Their way of Smoaking 
when they are in Company together is thus: A Boy lights 
one end of a Roll and bums it to a Coal, wetting the part 
next to it to keep it from wasting too fast. The End so 
lighted he puts into his Mouth, and blows the Smoak 
through the whole length of the Roll into the face of every 
one of the Company or Coimcil, tho' there be two or three 
hundred of them. Then they, sitting in their usual 
Posture upon the Forms, make, with their Hands held 
hollow together, a kind of Funnel round their Mouths and 
Noses. Into this they receive the Smoak as 't is blown 
upon them, sniffing it greedily and strongly as ever they 
are able to hold their breath, and seeming to bless them- 
selves, as it were, with the refreshment it gives them. 

Wafer's account of a wedding contains many features 
that to-day sound rather strange to civilised ears, yet 
there are many points in it that would not be amiss if 
they were adopted by the superior (?) race, and as it 
is quite short and concise it is appended for the benefit 
of our readers. 

When they marry [he writes] the Father of the Bride, 

Central America 399 

or the next Man of Kin, keeps her privately in the same 
Apartment with himself the first seven Nights; whether 
to express an unwillingness to part with her, or for other 
reason I know not; and she is then delivered to her Hus- 
band. When a Man disposes of his Daughter he invites 
all the Indians within twenty Miles round, to a great Feast, 
which he provides for them. The Men who come to the 
Wedding bring their Axes along with them, to work with: 
The Women bring about a half bushel of Maiz: the Boys 
bring Fruits and Roots: The Girls Fowls and Eggs; for 
none come emptyhanded. They set their presents at the 
door of the House, and go away again, till all the rest of 
the Guests have brought theirs; which all are received in 
and disposed of by the People of the House. Then the 
Men return first to the Wedding, and the Bridegroom 
presents each man with a Calabash of strong Drink, and 
conducts them through the House one by one, into some 
open place behind it. The Women come next, who like- 
wise receive a Calabash of Liquor, and march through the 
House. Then come the Boys, and last of all the Girls, 
who all Drink at the door and go after the rest. Then 
come the Fathers of the young Couple, with their Son and 
Daughter: The Father of the Bridegroom leads his Son, 
and the Father of the Bride leads his Daughter. The 
former makes a speech to the Company, and then dances 
about, with many Antick Gestures, till he is all on a Sweat. 
Then kneeling he gives his Son to the Bride; whose Father 
is kneeling also and holds her, having danc'd himself 
into a Sweat as the other. Then the young Couple take 
each other by the hand, and the Bridegroom returns the 
Bride to her Father; and thus ends the Ceremony. Then 
all the Men take up their Axes, and run shouting and 
hollowing to a Tract of Woodland, which is before laid out 
for a Plantation for the yotmg Couple. There they fall 
to work, cutting down the Woods, and clearing the Ground 
as fast as they can. Thus they continue about Seven Day^ 

400 Beverages, Past and Present 

working with the greatest Vigour imaginable: And all the 
Ground which they clear, the Women and Children plant 
with Maiz, or whatever else is agreeable to the Season. 
They also build a House for the newly married Couple to 
live in. The Seven Days being ended, and the young Man 
settled with his Wife in the new House, the Company 
make merry with the chicha-co-pah, the Corn-drink before 
described, of which they are sure to provide a good store. 
They also make Provision for Feasting; and the Guests 
fall to very heartily. When their Eating is over the Men 
fall to hard Drinking: But before they begin, the Bride- 
groom takes all their Arms and hangs them on the Ridge- 
pole of the House, where none can come at them but him- 
self: For they are very quarrelsome in their Drink. They 
continue Drinking Night and Day, till all the Liquor is 
spent; which lasts usually three or four Days. During 
which some are alwa3rs drinking, while others are drunk 
and sleeping: And when all the Drink is out, and they 
have recovered their Senses, they all return to their own 

The above is but one side of the case, and as Mr. 
Wafer gives the other we will follow in his footsteps 
and give it too. He writes: 

The Women take great care of their Husbands when 
they have made themselves drunk. For when they per- 
ceive him in such a Condition that he can bear up no 
longer, they get one or two more Women to assist them 
to take him up, and put him into his Hammock; where as 
he lies Snoring they stand by and Sprinkle Water on his 
Body to cool him, washing his Hands, Feet and Face; 
stroking oflE that Water with their Hands, as it grows 
warm, and throwing fresh. I have seen ten or twelve or 
more, l3mig thus in their Hammocks after a Feast, and 
the Women standing by to look after them. 

Central America 401 

Comment here becomes superfluous, but the question 
who would not like to be an Indian ? is sometimes in 
order. To enumerate the tribes that belong to this 
part of the world would be a most difficult procedure 
and one that is entirely without the scope of this work, 
and neither shall we attempt to confine them to any 
system of rotation as regards locality. Naturally 
our interest is centred in the Indians and their habits 
and modes of living, but the task of depicting the 
different tribes would fill volumes and in the end would 
undoubtedly prove tiresome* so consequently our 
readers will find mention of those who are considered 
by others to be the most interesting and are perhaps 
more or less typical of all who dwell in Central America. 

In the early fifties of the last century Mr. Samuel A. 
Bard took it into his head, as he says himself, to 
visit and explore a part of this land called the Mos- 
quito Shore — ^the east coast of Honduras and Nicaragua. 
Of course he had to write a book about it and he called 
it Waikna or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore. As 
the preface of Waikna is in line with the scheme of 
this work it is appended for the pleasure of our own 
readers who may not be able to obtain a copy of 
Waiknay as it is somewhat rare and is out of print. 

Scene — A lonely shore. 

Enter Yankee and Mosquito Man. 

"Well, my dark friend, who are you?" 
Waikna. "A man!" 
" And what is your nation? " 
Waikna. " A nation of men ! " 

" Pretty good for you, my dark friend! There was once 
a great nation — a few old bricks are about all that remains 

402 Beverages, Past and Present 

of it now — ^whose people were proud to call themselves — 
but what do you know about the Romans?** 

" Him good for drink — ^him grog?" 

"Bah! No!" 

"Den no good! bah too.*' 

Exeunt ambo, 

Mr. Bard W£is a good descriptive writer and what he 
had to say was told very interestingly, as the following 
will testify : 

One of Antonio's earliest exploits, after our resolution 
to stop had been taken, was to cut down a number of the 
rough-looking palm trees. In the trunks of these, near 
the top where the leaves sprang out, he carefully chiselled 
a hole, cutting completely through the pulp of the tree, 
to the outer or woody shell. This hole was again covered 
with a piece of the rind, which had first been removed, 
as with a lid. I watched the operation curiously, but 
asked no questions. In the course of the afternoon, how- 
ever, he took ofiE one of these covers, and disclosed to me 
the cavity filled with a frothy liquid, of the faintest straw 
tinge, looking like delicate Sauteme wine. He presented 
me with a piece of reed, and with a gratified air motioned 
me to drink. My early experiments with straws, in the 
cider barrels of New England, recurred to me at once 
and I laughed to think that I had come to repeat them 
under the tropics. I found the juice sweet, and slightly 
pungent, but altogether rich, delicious, and invigorating. 
As may be supposed, I paid frequent visits to Antonio's 

This palm bears the name of coyol among the Spaniards, 
and of cockatruce among the Mosquitos. Its juice is called 
by the former vino de coyol and by the Indians generally 
chicha (cheechee) — a, name, however, which is applied to 
a variety of drinks. When the tree is cut down, the end 

Central America 403 

is plastered over with mud, to prevent the juice, with 
which the core is saturated, from exuding. A hole is then 
cut near the top, as I have described, in which the liquid 
is gradually distilled, filling the reservoir in the course of 
ten or twelve hours. This reservoir may be emptied 
daily, and yet be constantly replenished, it is said, for 
upward of a month. On the third day, if the tree be ex- 
posed to the stm, the juice begins to ferment, and gradually 
grows stronger, until at the end of a couple of weeks it 
becomes intoxicating, thus affording to the Sambos a ready 
means of getting up the "big drunk.'' The Spaniards 
affirm that the mno de coyol is a specific for indigestion and 
pains in the stomach. To make this liquor or wine thor- 
oughly intoxicating, the Sambos add a certain amount of 
native honey to it and allow it to ferment. The taste of 
this liqueur, for such it really becomes, is most delicious 
and on this account it would command a fancy price in our 
more northern markets, but the effect is too severe if great 
care is not observed in its use, a very small glassful often 
proving too much for those that are well inured to the 
use of strong liquors. It is not only the alcohol that it 
contains that renders it so inebriating in its action, but 
there seems to be something in the honey that imparts a 
very ardent quality to it. This honey, by the way, is of it- 
self hardly eatable, being very pxmgent and biting, leaving 
a rasping sensation in the throat. The Sambos have no 
use whatever for any liquor that does not intoxicate at once, 
and the stronger it is and the more fiery it can be made 
the higher they prize it. 

Another class of beverages that are made on this shore 
is that called mishla and of which there are at least three 
distinct kinds. One is made from the pineapple and is a 
most wholesome drink; another manufactured from ripe 
plantains is also considered very nourishing, but that made 
from cassava and maize is the most popular with the 
natives and is also the only one that is intoxicating. This 

404 Beverages, Past and Present 

ntishla depends upon the chewing abilities of the women 
of the tribe for its fermenting principle but in this case 
both the root and grain are chewed, each separately, and 
then mixed, and for some climatic reason when the beverage 
is properly concocted, in strict accordance with the rules 
laid down by its Indian makers, mishla is a fruitful sotirce 
of intoxication, being far more so than that like-made 
drink of the farther south. Mr. Bard asserts of this drink 
that when a chief gives a private mishla he has the pretty 
girls to do the chewing. Truly men are all alike. 

Another beverage, which is perhaps more popular among 
strangers, is that made from the indigenous sugar-cane 
and wild cocoa. The canes are crushed between two 
stones, or to be more accurate it would perhaps be better 
to say that they were pounded between two stones, for 
that is what is done. A piece of cane is laid upon the 
nether stone and then an Indian takes as large a rock as 
he can well handle and proceeds to pound the cane, but 
this operation is one that requires experience and must be 
conducted in a proper manner or the juice will not flow. A 
blow too hard or not quite heavy enough will simply crush 
the fibres without liberating the juice. The wild cocoa 
is also powdered between stones kept for that purpose; 
after the operations are completed the powder is put into 
the cane- juice and is allowed to ferment, which it will 
do in an incredibly short space of time, and makes an 
agreeable and slightly exhilarating beverage. The In- 
dian name for this drink is ulung and owing to the labour 
that it requires ulung is one of the drinks that travellers 
seldom have the privilege of tasting. 

All through this part of America there grows a tree 
which the savants have named anona muricata. It bears 
a large pear-shaped fruit of a greenish colour containing 
an agreeable slightly acid pulp, and it is from this fruit 
that the much-indulged-in and easily made beverage known 
as sour-sop is prepared. To make the drink all that is 

Central America 405 

necessary to do is to put the pulp in water, add sugar as 
desired, and let it ferment; it may by this process generate 
alcohol, but if it does the amount is so small that it would 
be classified at once in the United States as being among 
the "soft drinks." But when sour-sop is tempered with 
a little aguadeinte to "para a matar los animalicos" (kill 
the animaculae), as the Spaniards say, it is a most delicious 
drink and if not used to over indulgence very beneficial. 

From another tree is prepared vino de jocote or, as 
the Indians would call it, chicha. The tree, which is a 
very large one, bears a plum-like fruit which is either 
red or yellow when ripe, and very juicy. It is from 
this fruit that jocote is made, and as certain parts of 
the country abound with this tree this drink is ex- 
ceedingly plentiful and also very cheap. When 
jocote is two or three days old it is quite acid to the 
taste and also intoxicating and in this condition it is 
most popular with the Indians and the lower classes. 

The seeds from the calabash tree also furnish a 
liquor that in its season is in great demand. It is 
called guaje and possesses the rare quality of coolness 
that it is so desirable in a hot climate, but as it can only 
be made when the seeds are soft and fresh from the 
tree it cannot always be procured, for it will not keep 
more than a day or two at the longest. From mo- 
lasses there is brewed a beer that has the name of 
cerveza negra and its only redeeming feature is its 
excessive cheapness, being most disagreeable to the 
palate and possessing little strength. 

The grandilla or water-lemon adds its quota as a 
constituent for a refreshing draught, as does an in- 
fusion of the pineapple when made into fresco. The 
love, or perhaps it would be better to say the craving. 

4o6 Beverages, Past and Present 

that the Indians have for strong drink (not necessarily 
alcoholic) is ftilly shown in their method of preparing 
cocoa or chocolate, and it behooves all strangers in the 
land, when enjoying their hospitality, and chocolate is 
offered them, to partake of it very sparingly at first ; 
for, besides being at boiling heat, the beverage also 
contains a very liberal supply of native peppers, noted 
the world over for their extreme heat, and one small 
sip of this chocolate is generally enough to make a man 
think that he has awakened in another world, and 
all doubt about which one it is is removed at once. 
The outside world has very little interest for him at 
this time. It is the inside one that calls for immediate 

In direct contrast, when the universal beverage 
tiste is proffered, the guest may drink of it unsparingly 
and with benefit, for it only contains roasted corn- 
meal, or flour, ground with cocoa and sugar and pre- 
pared as others prepare chocolate. Maza is also 
another beverage that carries with it no ill effect, and 
as its name implies is made from com and is only an 
infusion of the parched grain in water. 



ALTHOUGH there are no authentic records on the 
question as to when and where rum was first 
distilled the trend of belief is that it was in 
the West Indies that this most popular of alcoholic 
beverages first saw the light of day, and was conceived 
through the idea of utilising the waste that emanated 
from the making of sugar. The early settlers in these 
islands were not long in turning their attention to the 
raising of sugar-cane. In fact, according to Oveido 
Valdes sugar-cane plantations were in successful 
operation in Hispaniola, called now St. Domingo, as 
early as 1520, and in less than twenty-five years from 
that date, so we are told by another historian, there 
were thirty-four cane mills in active operation on this 
island. On the other islands in this great group the 
same conditions prevailed to a greater or less degree, 
whether they were populated by the Spanish, French, 
or English, for the immense profit which was realised 
from sugar-making was one of the principle incentives 
towards bringing outsiders to these lands. 

The use of the still, too, had by this time become 
quite common. It had lost its charm of mystery, and 
the results of its efforts had become an ordinary every- 
day potation instead of a wonderful medicine great in 


4o8 Beverages, Past and Present 

its efficacy and almost miractilous in its action. Ac- 
cording to the authority of an old manuscript, en- 
titled A briefe Description of the Island of Barbadoes 
and which is in the possession of Trinity College, 
Dublin, rum was first made in that island. This 
manuscript was written about the year 165 1 and the 
part treating on the subject reads: *'The chief fuddling 
they make in the island is rum-bullion alias kill-divil 
and this is made from sugar-canes distilled, a hot, 
hellish, and terrible liquor." 

It is quite evident the writer of the above did not 
approve of the efforts of his countrymen in the liquor 
line, and when we take into consideration the neces- 
sarily crude methods by which the drink was first 
produced, the wonder is that they could find anything 
in it good enough to warrant the making of a second 
crop! but then it must be borne in mind that the 
people of those days were not educated in the use 
of refined liquors and in consequence their palates and 
throats were hardened to ans^hing short of liquid 
fire. Consequently at first they were not discrimi- 
nating but as time passed on they became more sus- 
ceptible, and when they had allowed their liquors to 
stand for a few years they discovered a great change 
in them, and we find Morewood in the early part of 
the last century writing as follows: 

The word rum seems to have been formerly used in 
Great Britain to convey the idea of anything fine, rich, 
best, or excellent: thus to express a superior brandy, it was 
common to say rum Nantz, because the best description 
of that liquor was distilled at Nantz; and as spirits ex- 
tracted from molasses could not well be classed under the 

The West Indies 409 

terms of whiskey, brandy, arrack, etc., it was called rum 
to denote its excellence or superior quality. This term 
is probably taken from the last syllable of the Latin word 
saccharum (sugar) ; and it is not a little singular that the 
liquor itself has always been known among the native 
Americans by the name of rum. 

The process of sugar-making from the cane is too well 
known to require a description here, and the molasses 
from which the rum is principally made is the syrup of 
the sugar (or the drainings after it is put into the hogshead), 
which no course of boiling can bring to a thicker con- 
sistency. From the liquor of the cane, which runs from 
the coppers through a trough to a receiver prepared for 
that purpose, the skimmings are taken, and, with some 
of the liquor itself, are pumped from a cistern containing 
from three hundred to eight hundred gallons, where the 
fluid is mixed with water in the proportion of twenty-five 
gallons to one htmdred. When this mixture is sufficiently 
blended together in the vats (which in some plantations 
amount to thirty), it is covered over with boards or mats 
made of plantain leaves, and allowed to ferment for three 
or four days, or longer should there be want of yeast or 
other ferment to make it work, which often occurs at the 
commencement of the season. When reduced to a due 
degree of acidity, which is ascertained by the subsiding 
of the fermentation, it is run into a still proportioned to the 
vat, and wrought off as low wines, in which state it is put 
into the still again. The first run, or dischaige, after it 
is thus returned to the still, is taken off for high wines 
(as they are termed) or strong rum, in the proportion of 
twenty-five gallons to three hundred, the strength of 
which, when tried by a glass bead instrument, is from 
eighteen to twenty-two degrees. 

The second run of the still, which is drawn off in cans 
and carried by negroes to another vessel, is from a strength 
of twenty-three to twenty-six degrees. From these two 

4IO Beverages, Past and Present 

runRings of the still, the mm from the colony of Demerara 
is made up. The deficiency in the strength of the second 
distillation is supplied by an addition from the first, which 
is alwa3rs stronger than that exported, and of too ardent 
a nature to be used by itself, twenty-five degrees being 
colony proof. 

In the Windward Islands, one third of the skimmings 
is mixed with the lees or dunder, and one third of water. 
When these begin to ferment, which they usually do iii 
about twenty-four hours, the first mixture of molasses 
takes place in the proportion of six gallons for every 
htmdred gallons of the fermenting liquor, and a day or 
two after an additional quantity of molasses is added. 
The fermentation is tempered by an addition of cold or 
warm water. 

Dunder, a term unfamiliar to the ears of an European 
distiller, is the lees or feculencies of a former distillation, 
serving all the purposes of yeast in the fermentation. 
It is derived from a Spanish word redunder, the same 
as redundans in Latin, and is well known among the 
planters in the West Indies. The attenuating properties 
of this ferment are such that the materials with which it is 
mixed are said to yield a much greater proportion of spirit 
than could be obtained if they were fermented without it. 

For many years rum was the leading liquor of the 
•world, into every comer of which it penetrated, and 
perhaps to-day, if reliable statistics could be obtained 
on the subject, it would be fotind that the juice of the 
sugar-cane has more advocates than any other like 
drink made, and so common has the name become that 
it is now used in reprobation to describe everything 
alcoholic or connected with alcohol in any way. The 
late Doctor Oliver Wendell Holmes says on this sub- 
ject in The Autocrat: ''Rum I take to be the name 

The West Indies 4" 

which unwashed moralists apply alike to the product 
distilled from molasses and the noblest juice of the vine- 
yard. Burgundy * in all its sunset glow ' is runt. Cham- 
pagne 'the foaming wine of eastern France' is rum. " 

Wherever the sugar-cane grows there rum will be 
made and as the area is rather large, especially in the 
Americas, the amount manufactured is enormous. 
Sometimes to impart a special flavour the makers will 
use pineapples, and if pineapple rum is carefully made 
and aged in a congenial place no more tasty beverage 
can be had, for both the sugar-cane and pineapple con- 
tain minute proportions of butyric ether and the 
blending of these makes a very aromatic liquor. 

A once popular beverage was that called rum shrub, 
and being more of a liqueur the people with a "sweet 
tooth" were exceedingly fond of it. 

It is prepared by adding to thirty-four gallons of proof 
rum two ounces of the essential oil of orange and an equal 
quantity of the essential oil of lemon dissolved in one 
quart of spirit, and three hundred pounds of refined sugar 
dissolved in twenty gallons of water. This combination is 
thoroughly mixed together, after which there is added 
suflScient orange juice or solution of tartaric acid to pro- 
duce a slight pleasant acidity. After agitating the mixture 
again for some time, twenty gallons of water are added, 
bringing the quantity up to one hundred gallons, and the 
agitation of the whole is continued for half an hour. In 
about a fortnight the shrub should be clear and ready for 

While rum shrub contains more than a third of 
rum, rumfustian should not have any if properly 

412 Beverages, Past and Present 

made, being a hot drink in which gin is the foundation. 
Neither does rumswizzle have for a component any 
of the American liquor, for it is only an old English 
name for ale and beer mixed. Rumbooze is by no 
means indicative of rum, though being a tipple it could 
include it, and rumboozing were bimches of grapes, 
and a rum-barge was any warm drink, but runmey 
was a kind of sweet wine very popular in England 
many years ago. A rum-dropper was a cant word 
for a vintner and rum-hopper was the same for a 
drawer of ale or beer, and rumpo and rumbullion were 
old provincial English names from which it is thought 
by some of our lexicographers the word rum was de- 
rived, and the sailors' word rumbowling, meaning grog, 
undoubtedly comes from the same source. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century there 
was an admiral in the English navy by the name of 
Edward Vernon, and from all accounts he must have 
been somewhat democratic, not only in his dealings 
with his various crews, but also in his clothing. In 
1740 Admiral Vernon was appointed to command a 
fleet which had for its purpose the taking of Cartagena, 
a city of Colombia and the city that afterwards received 
the title of the ** Heroic City." Vernon succeeded in 
overpowering the castle at the mouth of the harbour, 
but owing to some misunderstanding the troops that 
were to assist him failed at the crucial moment and in 
consequence he had to retire to the island of Jamaica, 
and it was while he was there that he ordered the 
sailors should be given a certain amount of rum in 
water at regular intervals during the day. This order, 
of course, greatly pleased the men and to commemorate 
it they bestowed upon the beverage the nickname 

The West Indies 413 

which heretofore had been applied to the admiral 
himself, the said being "old grog, " but in this case the 
**old" was omitted. Admiral Vemon had acquired 
this cognomen through the habit of wearing a cloak, 
says one authority, and breeches asserts another, made 
of grogram, a coarse cloth manufactured of silk and 
wool — ^the name of the cloth being shortened to grog, 
the first syllable of the word. Another drink made 
with rum was called falurnum, perhaps in honour of the 
ancient Falemian. It was always served cold and 
one critic says it was **a very baneful, heady, bilious 
drink in great request. " 

There was a free and easy manner of living in these 
islands and a most lively indifference to ans^thing 
smacking of prohibition. In truth, if a person did not 
drink he commanded very little respect among his 
fellows. The compoimds they concocted were some- 
thing fearful even to contemplate. Imagine a beverage 
containing brandy, rum, wine, and porter with lime- 
peel and nutmeg, and then endeavour to figure out 
its effects in a warm climate. The name of this drink 
was rattle-skull, which of itself tells the reader all that 
it is necessary to know on the subject. But there was 
one drink that, to quote an old-time resident of the 
islands, was worthy of Ganymede. This was cocoanut 
julep. "It is," said he, **the water of young cocoa- 
nuts poured into a glass goblet, holding at least half 
a gallon, and to this is added the gelatine which the 
said nuts contain, sweetened, secudem artem, with 
refined sugar and Holland gin. Without hyperbole 
this is a delicious drink.** According to an old Creole 
recipe to properly make a punch it was necessary to 

414 Beverages, Past and Present 

One of sour and three of sweet, 
Fo\ir of strong and four of weak — 

the component parts being lime-juice, sugar, rum, and 

Liminada con ron, while it has an unusual sound to 
our ears, is only Spanish for lemonade with rum, and 
when a good article of rum is used and there is plenty 
of ice in the glass it is not only delicious in the West 
Indies but in any other country where the days are 
hot. From green grapes, that is unripe ones, a very 
pleasant beverage called agraz is prepared. It is a 
slightly acid drink, and in its season is much in demand, 
being offered for sale in all the caf6s. Orchata is some- 
thing that looks like a milk punch, and properly so, 
for it is made of the milk of almonds sweetened with 
sugar and diluted with water. It is claimed for this 
drink that aside from its refreshing qualities it is also 
sustaining and the people who use it freely can 
do an enormous amount of labotu- with little other 

When cebada is nice and cool it is not only a pleasant 
drink but it is also quite a satisfjdng one until it is 
ascertained that it is simply barley-water, but when 
this happens the sick-room prejudice has most likdy 
been overcome and it will be drunk with as great gusto 
by the strangers as by the natives. Of course chicha 
is to be had, but on the islands it is prefixed with la 
and therefore becomes la chicha, and the beverage, 
also, is somewhat different from that made upon the 
mainland, sugar, water, and toasted com being fer- 
mented together, when it is ready for use. Gara pina is 
a fermented infusion of pineapple rinds, sweetened 

The West Indies 415 

to taste with sugar, and jambumbia is cane-juice or 
simply molasses put into water and drunk cool. 

As a substitute for coffee, the poorer classes use a 
drink called gediana made from a native plant, or 
seed of the plant of the same name, and while it does 
not have the exact taste and flavour of the celebrated 
Arabian berry, it is nevertheless a wholesome drink 
and one not to be despised when in need of a reviving 
draught. Perhaps at one time the most popular 
drink in all the islands was sangaree, and strange as it 
may seem the foundation of this beverage was Madeira 
wine instead of the more plentiful and cheaper rum. 
It was made with wine, lime-juice, water, and sugar 
and was to be had in every house of any pretensions 
whatever. In fact it was an tmiversal drink, and one 
that did more good than harm, yet satisfjdng the 
cravings for something alcoholic. Swizzle is composed 
of six parts of water to one of rum and an aromatic 
flavouring, and while it may sound out of the ordinary, 
this beverage was often quite costly on account of the 
water in it, which on the island of St. Kitts, where the 
drink originated, was an expensive article, rum and 
sugar being often exchanged for it. 

Among the natives when rum is scarce and hard to 
procure they resort to the making of piworee, as it is 
called on some of the islands and ouycon on others. 
To make it they took an earthen vessel containing 
about sixty quarts and nearly filled it with water, into 
which were thrown, without order, two poimded roots 
of cassava, with a dozen fair-sized sweet potatoes, a 
gallon of sugar-cane juice, and about ten or twelve 
bananas. The vessel was then closed and left to 
ferment for two or three days, and when completely 

4i6 Beverages, Past and Present 

attenuated the scum was removed from the surface, 
and the liquor was fit for use. 

Another native or Indian-made drink is ntaby or, 
as some write it, mobby. It is composed of two quarts 
of clarified syrup, thirty quarts of water, and a dozen 
each of oranges and red sweet potatoes. It takes in 
the neighbotu-hood of thirty hours to have this drink 
perfected, and while the ingredients used are all of a 
very simple and harmless nature taken separately 
they make, when fermented together, a potent draught, 
one in fact that affects the head quickly and produces 
drunkenness much sooner than would be supposed. 
From the fruit of the wild apricot, which abounds 
on many of these islands, and which is called by the 
natives mamme and matnmea Americana by the 
botanist, that world-known cordial Ueau des noiaux is 



Sabe que es pulque, — 
Licor divino? 
Lo beben los angles 
En vez de vino. 

Know ye not pulque, — 
That liquor divine? 
Angels in heaven 
Prefer it to wine, 

THUS says the Mexican and his complacency is 
in nowise disturbed when the newly arrived 
stranger after quaffing his first glass does not 
agree with him, for well he knows that now, the spell 
being broken, his guest after partaking of two or 
three drinks more will be as ardent in his praise of 
pulque as he. In Travels in Mexico, by Mr. Fred- 
erick A. Ober, is the following article on pulque pre- 
faced with these remarks by Mr. Ober: 

From the earliest times [he writes] the inhabitants of 
earth have prepared stimulating and refreshing drinks 
from various plants, seeds, and fruits. This beverage, 
pulque, has been so long in use on the Mexican table-land 
that its origin is involved in the obscurity of fable. It 
cannot be told when it was first drunk, nor whence it 

VOL. II— a7 417 

41 8 Beverages, Past and Present 

derived its present appellation. The Aztecs gave it the 
names of neutli and octli, while the plant itself, the tnaguey, 
was called nteil. One interpreter of the Mexican hiero- 
glyphics asserts that the god Izqtiitecatl first extracted 
the life-giving juice of the maguey, while the Toltec annals, 
as usually interpreted, ascribe its discovery to a prince 
of the royal blood of that line. A pretty fable is related 
of its discovery in connection with their somewhat mythical 
chronicles. A noble Toltec named Papantzin found out 
the method of extracting the juice of the maguey, and sent 
some of it to his sovereign, Tecpancaltzin as a present, 
by his daughter, the beautiful Xochitl, the flower of ToUan. 
Enamoured alike of the drink and the maiden, the king, 
wishing to monopolise both, retained the lovely Xochitl, 
a willing prisoner, and in after years placed their illegiti- 
mate son upon the throne. This was the beginning of 
the troubles of the Toltecs, who had then enjoyed peace for 
many years; in about the year looo it led to their eventual 
dispersion, expulsion, and extinction, brought about by the 
hand of a woman, and through the means of drink. 

Through all his disasters, however, the Indian clung to 
his pulque, each generation adding to the acres of maguey 
planted by his ancestors, and at the present time its con- 
sumption has reached enormous proportions. The maguey, 
from which the pulque is produced, though native of 
Mexico, is fotmd growing in our own country, yet not in 
any great abundance. But on the great Mexican uplands 
— those high plains that stretch from motmtain to mountain 
at an elevation of more than seven thousand feet above 
the sea — ^is the dwelling-place of the maguey. You see 
it first in abundance when about one hundred miles from 
the valley of Mexico, on the plains of Apam. When the 
Spaniards first came here, in 15 19, the native Mexicans 
had the maguey, of which they made almost as many uses 
as the South-Sea islander does of the coco-palm, namely, 
a hundred. It is said that there are thirty-three species 

Mexico 419 

of this plant growing on the broad plains. The celebrated 
Mexican naturalist Senor Ignacio Plazquez, professor of 
Natural History in the State College, Puebla, enumerates 
(Revista Cientifica Mexicana^ torn, i., num. i, December, 
1879, more than the above ntmiber.) All these varieties 
have native Indian names in Aztec, and many in Otimi. 
Although most of them are used merely for hedge plants 
and surrotmding inclosures, yet the majority of them will 
produce pulque, and the various beverages obtained from 
the maguey. Twenty-two are enumerated which 3deld 
aguameilf or honey-water, and of this number six produce 
the finest liquor, or pulque fino. 

The best plants yield liquor for six months after being 
tapped. From the leaves, roots, and juice are obtained a 
greater variety of products than one wotdd think it possible 
for one plant to yield. First, paper is made from the pulp 
of the leaves, and twine and thread from the fibres. The 
rare and valuable Mexican manuscripts were composed 
of paper made from the maguey ^ which resembles more 
the pap3rrus than an3rthihg else. Another use of this 
plant is furnishing needles. The leaves are tipped with 
sharp thorns, and by breaking off the thorn and stripping 
the fibres attached away from the pulp, and then rolling 
and twisting them together, the native has a serviceable 
needle ready threaded. The poor people thatch their 
houses with the leaves, placing one over the other, like 
shingles; the hollowed leaf also serves as a gutter, or 
trough, by which the water falling from the eaves is con- 
ducted away. The fibrous parts of maguey supply the 
country with pita, or strong thread which is made into 
ropes, and is in universal use. It is not so pliable as hemp, 
and is more likely to be affected by the weather, but is 
strong and durable. 

The Greek word agave signifies "noble" and the plant 
well merits the name, both for its majesty and beauty and 
its manifold aids to man. Nothing on these plains is so 

420 Beverages, Past and Present 

imposing in appearance as the maguey. Its leaves are 
sometimes ten feet in length, a foot in breadth, and eight 
inches thick. From the centre of these great leaves, after 
collecting its strength for a number of years, it sends up a 
giant flower-stalk, twenty or thirty feet high, upon which 
is clustered a mass of greenish-yellow flowers, sometimes 
more than three thousand in number. After this supreme 
effort the exhausted plant dies; it has performed the service 
to nature for which it was created. Prom the fact that 
the aloe in the north takes a great many years to gather 
strength for sending up this stalk, the great central shaft, 
has arisen the story that it blossoms but once in a hundred 
years, and it has derived the name of the century-plant. 

In the maguey estates [says an observant writer] the 
plants are arranged in lines, with an interval of three yards 
between them. If the soil be good, they require no atten- 
tion on the part of the proprietor until the period of flower- 
ing arrives, at which time the plant commences to be 
productive. This period is very imcertain; ten years, 
however, may be taken as the average, for in plantations 
of one thousand aloes it is calculated that one htmdred 
are in flowering every year. 

The Indians know, by infallible signs, almost the 
very hour at which the stem, or central shaft, destined 
to produce the flower, is about to appear, and they 
anticipate it by making an incision and extracting 
the whole heart, or central portion of the stem, as a 
surgeon would take an arm out of the socket, leaving 
nothing but the thick outside rind, thus forming a 
natural basin or well about two feet in depth and one 
and a half in diameter. Into this the sap, which 
nature intended for the support of the gigantic central 
shoot, continually oozes in such quantities that it is 
fotmd necessary to remove it twice, and even three 

Mexico 421 

times, during the day. In order to facilitate this 
operation, the leaves on one side are cut off, so as to 
admit a free approach. An Indian then inserts a long 
gourd (called acojoie), the thinner end of which is 
terminated by a horn, while at the opposite extremity 
a square hole is left, to which he applies his lips, and 
extracts the sap by suction. This sap, before it fer- 
ments, is called aguamiel (honey-water) and merits 
the appellation. It is extremely sweet, and does not 
possess that disagreeable smell which is afterwards 
so offensive. A small portion of this aguamiel is 
transferred from the plant to a building prepared 
for the purpose, where it is allowed to ferment for ten 
or fifteen days, when it becomes what is termed madre 
pulque (the mother of pulque) ^ which is distributed 
in very small quantities among the different troughs 
intended for the reception of the aguamiel. Upon 
this it acts as a sort of a leaven, fermentation is excited 
instantly, and in twenty-four hours it becomes pulque^ 
in the very best state for drinking. 

The quantity drawn off each day is replaced by a 
fresh supply of aguamiel so that the process may be 
continued during the whole year without interruption, 
and is limited only by the extent of the plantation. 
A good maguey yields from eight to fifteen cimrtillos 
or pints of aguamiel in a day, the value of which may 
be taken as about one real, and this supply continues 
during two and often three months. A plant when 
about to flower is worth about ten dollars to the farmer; 
although, in the transfer of an estate, the maguey de 
corte, or plants ready to cut, are seldom valued, one 
taken with another, at more than five dollars. But 
in this estinM^te an allowance is made for the failure 

42 2 Beverages, Past and Present 

of some, which is unavoidable, as the operation of 
cutting the head of the plant, if performed too soon or 
too late, is equally unsuccessful and destroys the plant. 
The cultivation of the maguey, where a market is at j 

hand, has many advantages, as it is a plant which, 
though it succeeds in a good soil, is not easily aflEected 
by heat or cold, and requires little or no water. It 
is propagated, too, with great facility, for, although 
the mother plant withers away as the sap is exhausted, 
it is replaced by a multitude of suckers from the old 
root. There is but one drawback to its culture, and 
that is the period that must elapse before a new plan- 
tation can be rendered productive, which varies from 
eight to eighteen years; but the maguey grounds when 
once established are of great value, many producing 
a revenue of ten thousand dollars to twelve thousand 
dollars per annum. A long train departs every day 
from the stations on the plains of Apam loaded ex- 
clusively with pulque, from the carriage of which the 
railroad derives a revenue of about one thousand 
dollars a day. From the hacienda the pulque is carried 
to the cities in barrels and sheepskins and there retailed. 
The shops are gaudily painted and decorated with 
flowers, but they can no more hide the nature of their 
contents than a gin palace or lager-beer saloon. Their 
vile odour betrays their presence, and about their 
doors, day and night, may be seen ragged and filthy 
men and boys, and even women who drink this beverage 
until it produces intoxication. 

Not contented with thus perverting the sweet juice 
they distil from the mild pulque a strong rum, called 
mescal, which quickly causes inebriety, and is re- 
sponsible for much of the crime in Mexico. Pulque 

Mexico 423 

tastes something like stale buttermilk, and has an 
odour at times like that of putrid meat. It is whole- 
some, and many people drink it for the sake of their 
health. The natives ascribe to pulque, says Mr. Ward, 
as many good qualities as whiskey is said to possess 
in Scotland. 

They call it stomachic, a great promoter of digestion 
and sleep, and an excellent remedy in many diseases. It 
requires a knowledge of all these good qualities, however, 
to reconcile the stranger to that smell of sour milk or 
slightly tainted meat by which the young pulque-drinker 
is usually disgusted; but if this can be surmounted, the 
liquor will be found both refreshing and wholesome, for its 
intoxicating qualities are very slight; and, as it is always 
drunk in a state of fermentation, it possesses, even in the 
hottest weather, an agreeable coolness. It is found, too, 
where water is not to be obtained, and even the most 
fastidious, when travelling under a vertical sun, are then 
forced to admit its merits. 

It is only to be met with in perfection where it is 
made; for as it is conveyed to the great towns in hog- 
skins or sheepskins, the disagreeable odour increases, 
and the freshness of the liquor is lost. Aguamiel 
is a limpid liquor, golden in colour, sometimes whitish 
and mucilaginous, according to the maguey, with a 
bitter-sweet flavour and an herbaceous odotir, which 
is produced in an excavation made in the root-stalk 
of the maguey at the point where the floral peduncles 
begin to unfold. It froths when shaken, gives an 
abundant precipitate with sub-acetate of lead, and 
when filtered the resultant liquor is colourless. An 
analysis of aguamiel by the celebrated Bossingault gave 

424 Beverages, Past and Present 

glucose, sugar, and water as the principal ingredients. 
Like the vine, the maguey yields the best liquor, inde- 
pendent of the climate, in volcanic or silicious soil. 
Pulque is the product of the fermentation of aguamieU 
is an alcoholic, mucilaginous liquid, holding in sus- 
pension white corpuscles, which give its colour, and 
has an odotir sui generis^ a taste peculiarly its own, 
more or less sugary, depending upon its strength, 
and contains about six per cent, of alcohol. 

If the traveller in Mexico has a knowledge of the 
language he can derive much pleasure in translating 
the names of the pulquerias or pulque shops into Eng- 
lish. Often these names are grotesque and will have 
the tendency to lead the critical visitor into many 
strange channels of thought. At random, here are 
a few of the names which appear on the main street 
or thoroughfare of any of the principal towns or 
cities: **The White Rose," **In Remembrance of the 
Future," **Templeof Love," * 'The Avenger," ''Diana's 
Salon," "The Last Days of Pompeii," **The Little 
Hill," "The Star of Bethlehem," "The Mad King," 
"The Sorrow," "The Arts," and so on ad infinitum^ 

Although pulque is made in many parts of Mexico 
the really fine liquor comes but from the plains of 
Apam and as Desir6 Chamay says: 

Apam pulque is as superior to ordinary pulque as Cham- 
bertin is superior to ordinary claret. [The same writer 
adds] Mezcal is a kind of brandy made from a smaller kind 
of aloe, not unlike a huge cabbage in shape. To prepare 
it, roots and leaves are left to soak until they are duly 
fermented; a calf's head or the best part of a chicken is 
added to the compound previous to distillation. In the 
first case it is called mezcal cabeceta; in the second, con- 

Mexico 425 

sidered the finest flavour, mezcal pechuga. The best Indian 
cognacs are manufactured at Jalisco. 

Another liquor that is occasionally met with is one 
called staventum and while it is mild and pleasant 
to the taste its effects are just the opposite, a very 
small amount producing intoxication with an after 
headache that is fearful to contemplate. Maize, or 
Indian com, with the Mexican plays an important part 
and answers often both for food and drink. An atole^ 
in one part, and posole, in another, inserted into a 
calabash of water and stirred with the fingers will 
afford a beverage that is welcomed indeed by the 
fatigued and heated traveller. The atole has an ex- 
tended r61e in Mexico and Fanny Chambers Gooch in 
Face to Face wUh the Mexicans gives a comprehensive 
accoimt of its many phases, as follows: 

I found [she says] plain atole much the same in appear- 
ance as gruel of Indian meal, but much better in taste, 
having the slight taste of the lime with which the com is 
soaked, and the advantage of being ground on the metale, 
which preserves a substance lost in grinding in a mill. 
Tortillas, likewise, lose their flavour if made of ordinary 
meal. Atole de leche [milk], by adding chocolate takes 
the name of champuriado; if the bark of the caco is added 
it becomes atole de cascara; if red chili— chili atole. If 
instead of any of these aguamiel, sweet water of the maguey, 
is added it is called atole de aguamiel; if pilondllo, the native 
brown sugar, again the name is modified to atole de pinole. 
The meal is strained through a hair-cloth sieve, water being 
continually poured on it, until it becomes as thin as milk. 
It is then boiled and stirred rapidly until it is well cooked, 
when it is ready for the market. As served to the wretched- 
looking objects who so eagerly consume it, one felt no 

426 Beverages, Past and Present 

desire to partake, but in the houses there is nothing more 
delicious and wholesome than atole de leche. 

The same writer further on in her interesting book 

Agua de pina [pineapple water] is a simple beverage, 
and one that may be prepared in our American homes. 
Beat, roll, or grind the pineapple very fine; then run 
through a sieve, add sugar to taste and water to make it 
sufficiently thin to drink. Allow it to stand for a little 
while ; then add ice and it is good enough for a king. Agua 
de chia is made from a very fine seed that I have never 
seen in the States, but it is a delightful refreshing drink. 
Horchata — ^known to us as orgeat — ^is made from musk- 
melon seed, beaten and strained, with sugar, some lemon- 
juice, and a little cinnamon. Add ice and you have a 
beverage to please the most fastidious. 

Sometimes it behooves a traveller in a strange land 
not to be too critical and to rely more upon the obser- 
vation of the poet that ** where ignorance is bliss it is 
folly to be wise" than upon his own power of investi- 
gation. In the markets at certain seasons of the year 
there is offered for sale a kind of cake which, upon 
eating, is found to be very palatable and agreeable 
and if the visitor is willing to leave the question just 
at this point he will forever remain in peace, but should 
his curiosity get the better of him and induce him to 
delve into the mysteries of what he has eaten then 
we will quote again from Mr. Ober who says: "There 
is no more peculiar product of the Mexican lakes than 
that marsh fly called axayacatl (ahuettea Mextcana), 
which deposits its eggs in incredible quantities upon 

Mexico 427 

flags and rushes, and which are eagerly sought out 
and made into cakes which are sold in the markets." 
Says that festive monk, Thomas Gage, who visited 
Mexico in 1625: **The Indians gathered much of this 
and kept it in Heaps, and made thereof Cakes, like 
unto brickbats . . . and they did eat this Meal with 
as good a Stomach as we eat Cheese; yea, and they 
hold opinion that this Scum or Fatness of the water 
is the cause that such great numbers of Fowls cometh 
to the Lake, which in the winter season is infinite." 

These cakes **like unto brickbats" are sold in the 
markets to this day, and the black heaps of the ahtioktli 
or ** water wheat" may be frequently seen dotting the 
mud flats, about the lakes, Texcoco especially. The 
insects themselves (which are about the size of 
a house-fly) are poimded into a paste, — ^as they are. 
collected in myriads,- — ^boiled in com-husk and then 
sold. The eggs, resembling fine fish roe, are com- 
pressed into a paste, mixed with eggs of fowls, and 
form a staple article of food particularly called for 
during Lent. 

Col. Albert S. Evans once on a time took a gala trip 
through Mexico, of which he gives a rather graphic 
accoimt in a very readable book entitled Our Sister 
Republic. He was an observant traveller and a good 
recorder of events as they happened and the following 
is a little story of an incident that occurred during 
one of his many stops. He writes: 

There is a superior variety of mescal produced near 
Guadalajara, and called after the village in which it is 
made "Tequila" [pronounced Tekela]; this costs more and 
is sent to the City of Mexico and elsewhere, as something 

428 Beverages, Past and Present 

very choice as a present to one's friends. I took one drink 
of it under the supposition that it was anisette, or some 
other light liquor, swallowing about an ounce, druggist's 
measure, before I smelled the burning flesh as the lightning 
descended my throat. As I set my glass down my head 
began to increase in size so rapidly that I saw at once that 
unless I got outside immediately, the door would be too 
small to admit passing through it. Seizing my hat which 
appeared to have become about the size of an ordinary 
umbrella, I turned it up edgewise and succeeded by a 
tight squeeze in passing it through the door; the street 
then appeared funnel-shaped, and I remembered an odd 
fancy that I was to resemble the man who "went in the 
big and came out of the little end of the horn. " Curiously 
enough my legs decreased in size, as my head enlarged, and 
my last recollection of the affair is that my person re- 
sembled a sugar hogshead walking on two straws; body I 
had none. No more tequila for me, please. The teamsters 
and muleteers drink this clear, colourless, harmless-looking 
concentrated lightning with apparent impunity; but a 
single bottle of it will cause a rebellion among an entire 
regiment of soldiers, and very likely result in a pronuncia- 
mento on the spot. 

But Colonel Evans is by no means the only one who 
on first being introduced to Mexican liquor has had 
the pleasure ( ?) of recording unusual effects. Monsieur 
Desir6 Chamay says of his first drink of stavenium that 
he quickly became a somnambulist and walked about 
reciting poetry at the top of his voice and when he 
awoke his head ached for hours after. Tuna, made 
from the prickly pear, and chiloie are also two more 
native beverages that should be approached carefxilly 
at first but when tried once or twice and the system 
relaxes, if not over indulged in afterward they will 

Mexico 429 

prove qxiite beneficial. From the young leaves of 
the orange tree, which have been dried and treated 
like tea, is made hojasde naranjo simply by pouring 
boilii^ water over them. The beverage is very pleas- 
ant and refreshing and is often served in the place of 
black coflEee. 

In Yucatan, a south-eastern province of Mexico, 
and a spot of the earth where ruins of temples and 
halls aboimd, and pyramids and monoliths bear hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions that still remain unsolved, the 
natives make a beverage which they themselves de- 
clare to be the nectar of the gods, and of a truth when 
balche is newly made it is most pleasant to the taste 
and one would be hard to please who could not find 
something to admire in this refreshing and wholesome 
drink. But let balche become three or four days old 
and then occurs that great change in liquors so often 
fodnd in tropical regions, and what was perfectly 
harmless in its first making becomes exceedingly 
intoxicating and decidedly injurious. 

To make hdlche the Indians gather a quantity of 
bark from a tree of the same name and put it into 
honey and water where it is allowed to ferment for 
a few hours, when it is ready for consumption and as 
said before is a most delicious drink. Sometimes if 
the weather is not propitious the fermenting of balche 
proves a rather difficult task and both labour and 
ingredients will be lost. This, however, does not 
occur often with the Indians, who seem to have an 
instinctive knowledge of the proper time to make it. 
The Indians do not appreciate balche until it is several 
days old and then they use it in quantities that would 
almost kill the average white man. 

430 Beverages, Past and Present 

On both banks of the Rio Grande, there grows a 
plant from whose roots the people have, for many 
centuries, been making a beverage called sotol wine 
though properly speaking it is not a wine at all as it 
is the result of distillation rather than of fermentation. 
Although the chief use of sotol is for the making of this 
wine yet the plant has considerable value as a fodder 
for cattle in times of drought. Of the wine it is as- 
serted that when used in moderation it is very healthy 
and a fine builder of the system, but if its use is abused 
the effect is such that the drinker becomes at once 
very daring and will attempt anything having a 
maximum of danger in its performance. 

The border folks relate many strange stories of what 
men have done, owing to their over indulgence in sotol 
wine, and if but one half the legends be true sotol wine 
is truly a wonderful beverage. One story in particiilar 
is told that at the time when Bill Taylor and his band 
of outlaws held up and robbed the Overland Express 
on the Southern Pacific near Comstock, a few years 
ago, they were all more than half drunk on sotol. 
When three of the gang were captured in the Davis 
Moimtains several days later they had on hand a half 
empty jug of sotol. They had been forced to lighten 
their burdens by dropping a big bag of silver, but they 
retained the jug of sotoL 

Of late years there has appeared, especially in the 
mines and among the miners, a new beverage called 
dyna which is nothing more or less than a piece of 
d5mamite, the size of a pea, dissolved in a small quantity 
of mescal. The action of this combination is to put 
the victim asleep in a very few minutes, and during 
this period of somnolency, it is said, dreams of the 

Mexico 431 

weirdest forms come to the daring drinker. There 
exists no record as to who was the first to experiment 
with this fearful combination and the wonder is that 
he could induce others to try it, but success seems to 
have crowned his efforts and the use of dyna is ap- 
parently upon the increase. 

As an example of exactness there is, perhaps, no 
other beverage that requires more of this element than 
picula kakla. From its name one would readily think 
that the ingredients were many and that their com- 
pounding was more or less difficult and of necessity 
that it was also distilled, but such is not the case. 
Picula kakla is a beverage only made at a certain 
festival, which is observed more in the southern part 
of the country than elsewhere, and the exactness lies 
in the fact that four hundred and fifteen grains of 
roasted or parched com must be used in its manu- 
facture; the amount of water is not stated. What 
would happen if a grain more or less should be used 
it is not our province to conjecture, but for many 
decades four hundred and fifteen grains of com have 
been used in its preparation and the number will most 
likely remain the same for long years to come. 

In the same part of the land, and also farther south, 
the Indians as well as the whites have a practice of 
bending down and cutting oflE the tip of the unde- 
veloped shoot of the cocoanut palm; this operation 
allows the sap to flow into a calabash and furnishes 
all classes with the popular caraca, a natural beverage 
both pleasant and refreshing. From the matured seed 
or nut another beverage called acchioc is prepared by 
crushing the pulp and steeping it in hot water, then 
allowing it to ferment. 



"/'^ITSHEE monedo neebe ogee ozheton. Ininee- 
Vj wug dush ween ishkodawabuo ogee ozheton- 
ahwaun waun" — **The Great Spirit made 
water but man fire-liquor" [brandy]. Thus spoke the 
North American Indian many years ago and shortly 
after he had become acquainted with the white man 
and the white man's peculiar and attractive drink. The 
Indian was in nowise dissatisfied with the mushkow- 
augumme (strong drink) and the keewtishkabee (giddi- 
ness) that it produced, but his detestation f or a no- 
kaugumme (weak drink) was manifested very quickly. 
The tendency to ascribe the disappearance of the 
Indian from this part of the country to his use of our 
alcoholic drinks is one that not only exists with us 
in America but it prevails also in Europe, and every- 
where people are prone to take a superficial view of 
conditions and events. We are not, by any means, 
alone in this train of thought, in fact we have plenty 
of company and it can be heard in any part of the 
world, that wherever the white man goes and takes 
his liquors the natives will soon depart from the face 
of the earth, and the idea has been repeated so often 
that it has now almost become axiomatic in its appli- 
cation, but like other thoughts of this nature when 


North America 433 

submitted to even casual investigation it is found the 
implication exists only as such and is devoid even of a 

A momentary consideration of the primal idea of 
the invader into a new or strange cotmtry and the 
object of his leaving the land of his birth is fuUy 
sufficient to warrant the assertion that the use of 
liquor as a conquering agent is as far from his thoughts 
as is the possibility of living on air alone. The man 
himself alone accounts for a lost race of people if he 
and his brothers in colour are the stronger, and it is 
in the belief of this condition he determines to migrate 
into an unknown cotmtry and amidst a people whom 
he knows full well will oppose his coming. He is 
deliberate in his actions and equips himself with the 
means of annihilation rather than of conciliation. 
He is taking this step to better his conditions and it 
behooves him to prepare for danger more than pleasure. 
After a while, if circumstances will allow, he may 
introduce into his new home some of the luxuries he 
had in his former abode and among these may be a 
liquor that he had been accustomed to use, and by so 
doing he lays himself open to the charge of ruining: 
the bodies and souls of the savages that through some 
misadvertence on his part he had not already killed. 

Invasion, in this sense, is only a polite term for sev- 
eral very harsh words none of which we would like 
to have applied to our forefathers. Yet we must 
admit that the country belonged to the Indians and 
that our forebears came and settled here tminvited 
by the rightful owners, and with what consequences 
the whole world knows. Naturally these results lead 
to the question. What caused them to be such? And 

VOL. 11 — a8 

434 Beverages, Past and Present 

which to answer fully would take volumes. To reply 
briefly we must first consider the people who originally 
came and settled here, the Dutch, the English, the 
French, the Portuguese, and the Spanish, and then 
glance into their habits and mode of living. The 
Dutch and English of those times were noted for their 
cool-headedness and their sober methods of procedure. 
The French, Portuguese, and Spanish, while in every 
way as adventurous were not as self-denying, and 
instead of waiting for the time to arrive when they 
could aflEord to have sent them from the old country 
the luxuries to which they had been accustomed they 
began at once to teach the natives around them how 
to manufacture these various articles. 

With the entrance of the Portuguese and Spanish 
into South America and the West Indies came the still, 
and as has been shown elsewhere in this volume the 
time was short before the natives began the free use 
of rum, a liquor which the early English writers called 
**kill devil" so potent was its taste and so vicious were 
its effects. 

On the northern continent distillation was but 
little known and what ** fire-water" was to be had 
came from the older country for many long years. 
This supply was of necessity both limited and uncertain 
and the assertion that it was the liquor of the white 
man that killed the North American Indian is as far 
from the truth as **that the only good Indian was a 
dead Indian," which was the policy pursued both 
by the Dutch and the English. If rum was the agency 
how can we account for the vast number of Indians 
that are still to be found living in every country in 
South America, Central America, and Mexico, in dim- 

North America 435 

ates, too, where all the authorities agree that the use 
of alcoholic beverages is most dangerous, but where 
for more than three hundred years this liquor has 
been made so cheaply that even the poorest of the 
poor could aflEord to indulge in it until they became 
helpless? Can it possibly be that the white man with- 
out his liquor means the total extermination of the 
native while the white man with his rum means only 
mediocrity and that the native has a better chance 
of life? One direct proof is worth more than all the 
theories that can be formulated or advanced and the 
history of the two continents of America proves con- 
clusively that where rum was used to the greatest 
extent the aborigines ultimately fared the better. 
The wholesale use of liquor, and of the worst kind, too, 
has been practised by almost every nation in Etirope 
in their dealings with the various tribes of Africa, yet 
the negro still survives and is ready to make trouble 
for his neighbours at any minute. That the North 
American Indian had to be taught the use of distilled 
liquors is a well-known fact, but that he was a stranger 
to intoxication is another matter, and the delight he 
displayed in the keewiishkabee (being giddy by strong 
drink) will account in a material degree for the avidity 
he displayed towards brandy and other alcoholic 
beverages when he came in contact with them. Like 
all savages he drank and ate for a certain well-defined 
purpose. He had no regularity as to his meals and 
would therefore only eat when he felt the necessity 
for so doing. In the matter of drinking, water would 
quench his thirst and therefore to drink any other 
liquor which imparted a different sensation and then 
not to indulge in that exhilaration to its full extent 

436 Beverages, Past and Present 

was to him something beyond reason. Why drink 
** fire-water" if not get drunk, bah! 

Wine from the grape was no stranger to the Indian, 
but when he first began to make it or whether he 
understood the art of keeping it after it had fermented 
the historians on this subject are signally deficient. 
Mr. Henry R. Schoolcraft, LL.D., who is perhaps the 
most thorough authority on Indian history and life, 
shows that the Indians had a word for wine in their 
language and a word, too, built from a proper root or 
/ roots as follows: sho — a, grape; min — a, berry; aubo — a 
liquor - shominaubo — ^wine, that is grape-berry liquor ; 
and in like manner he analyses cider, viz.: mish — 
apple ; i — ^a connective ; min — a berry ; aubo — a liquor — 
mishiminaubo — ^apple-berry liquor. Continuing he 
also shows that ** fire-liquor" was an organic word 
rather than one introduced or constructed for the 
purpose, the word being ishkodawabo. Rum and 
wine among the Osage Indians were respectively 
pegene and mange-eshe. The language of the Chippe- 
was contains an elaborate vocabulary on the subject of 
drink a few examples of which are appended : nokau- 
guma — ^weak drink; mushkowauguma — strong drink; 
weeshkobauguma — sweet drink ; shewaugums — sour 
drink, and so on through a very comprehensive category. 
As with their more southern brothers, our Indians, 
if so we may be allowed to designate them, made the 
use of parched com universal both as a food and for 
furnishing them with a sustaining drink. Nohelicky 
as it was called by the Indians of New England, was 
considered a great delicacy, and even our forefathers 
did not hesitate to avail themselves of its strengthen- 
ing qualities whenever it was proffered them. To 

North America 437 

the Indian squaw the making of nohelick was only 
one of her daily tasks and one that to her contained 
no mysteries. But it is a matter of record that while 
the white people of the time were well and thoroughly 
acquainted with the process of making or manufac- 
turing nohelick yet notwithstanding this, there never 
was a white person who could produce the same 
result with the same materials as the simple-minded 
squaw. There was always something lacking. That 
same quality, perhaps, as that in the South where the 
old negro mammy would make her hoe-cake in the 
ashes on the hearth and when her white mistress 
attempted the same task there alwajrs issued, from 
the men of the family, a remonstrance couched in 
language polite but hidden within its periods a sar- 
casm that generally discouraged the fair neophyte 
from making further efforts in the culinary department 
of her household. 

Among the Creek Indians there was a preparation 
which the whites of those days called thin-drink but 
the Creeks called it oafka. Its main ingredient was, 
of course, com, which was pounded and boiled in 
water and was mixed with a small quantity of strong 
lees of the ashes of hickory wood. It was boiled until 
the com became tender, and the liquor as thick as rich 
soup. The lees gave it a tart taste, and preserved it 
from souring by the heat of the climate. The Apaches 
had an exhilarating beverage made from boiled com 
and subsequently fermented which they called teeswin, 
and when there was a plentiful supply of this easily 
made drink on hand it behooved strangers to be very 
cautious in their intercourse with these never too 
friendly people. 

438 Beverages, Past and Present 

Among the Papago Indians, neighbours, as it were 
of the Apaches, there is still to-day an intoxicating 
beverage to be had which this tribe calls tizwin. But 
unlike the teeswin of the Apache of olden times, this 
drink is made from the fruit of the giant cactus. The 
fruit is brilliant red and pear-shaped, containing a pulp 
which tastes very much like our own strawberry jam. 
The process of making tizwin is very simple, for all the 
material necessary is the expressed juice of the fruit 
and as the ripe fruit is by no means hard or firm the 
task is easy and demands no other utensil than a 
vessel to hold it. In a very short period of time this 
juice will ferment when it becomes ready for use. 
From Mr. Schoolcraft's works on the Indians we take 
the following, the first two parts of which were con- 
tributed by General Anthony Alexander M'Gillivray 
and entitled: 

The Ceremony of the Black-Drink 

is a military institution, blended with religious opinions. 
The black-drink is a strong decoction of the shrub well 
known in the Carolinas by the name cassina, or the upton 
tea. The leaves are collected, parched on a pot until they 
are brown, boiled over a fire in the centre of the square, 
dipped out and poured from one pan or cooled into another, 
and back again, until it ferments and produces a large 
quantity of white froth, from which, with the purifying 
qualities the Indians ascribe to it, they style it white-drink; 
but the liquor of itself, which, if strong, is nearly as black 
as molasses, is by the white people universally called black- 
drink. It is a gentle diuretic, and, if taken in latge quan- 
tities, sometimes affects the nerves. If it were qualified 
with sugar, etc., it could hardly be distinguished in taste 

North America 439 

from strong bohea tea. Except rum there is no liquor 
of which the Indians of the Creek nation are so excessively 
fond. In addition to their habitual fondness of it, they 
have a religious belief that it infallibly possesses the 
following qualities, viz. : that it purifies them from all sin, 
and leaves them in a state of perfect innocence; that it 
inspires them with an invincible prowess in war; and that 
it is the only solid cement of friendship, benevolence, and 
hospitality. Most of them really seem to believe that 
the Great Spirit or Master of breath has communicated 
the virtues of the black-drink to them, and them only (no 
other Indians being known to use it as they do), and that 
it is a peculiar blessing bestowed on them, his chosen 
people. Therefore, a stranger among them cannot recom- 
mend himself to their protection in any manner so well 
as by offering to partake of it with them as often as possible. 
The method of serving up black-drink in the square is 
as follows, viz. : 

The warriors and chiefs being assembled and seated, 
three young men acting as masters of ceremony on the 
occasion, each having a gourd or calabash full of the 
liquor, place themselves in front of the three greatest 
chiefs or warriors, and announce that they are ready by 
the word chohl After a short pause, stooping forward, 
they run up to the warriors and hold the cup or shell 
parallel to their mouths; the warriors receive it from them, 
and wait until the young men fall back and adjust them- 
selves to give what they term the yohullah, black-drink 
note. As the young men begin to aspirate the note, the 
great men place their cups to the mouths, and are obliged 
to drink during the aspirated note of the young men, which, 
after exhausting their breath, is repeated on a finer key, 
until the Itmgs are no longer inflated. This long aspira- 
tion is continued for nearly half a minute, and the cup is 
taken from the mouth of the warrior who is drinking at the 
instant the note is finished. The yoimg men then receive 

440 Beverages, Past and Present 

the cups from the chiefs or head warroirs, and pass it to 
the others of inferior rank, giving them the word ckoh! 
but not the yohuUah note. 

None are entitled to the long black-drink note but the 
great men, whose abilities and merits are rated on these 
occasions by the capacity of their stomachs to receive the 
liquor. It is generally served round in this manner three 
times at every meeting; during the recess of serving it up, 
they all sit quietly in their several cabins, and amuse them- 
selves by smoking, conversing, exchanging tobacco, etc., 
and in disgorging, or spouting out the black-drink they 
have previously swallowed. Their mode of disgorging, 
or spouting out the black-drink is singular, and has not 
the most agreeable appearance. After drinking copiously, 
the warrior, by hugging his arms across his stomach, and 
leaning forward, disgorges the liquor in a laige stream from 
his mouth, to the distance of six or eight feet. Thus, im- 
mediately after drinking, they begin spouting on all sides 
of the square, and in every direction; and in that country, 
as well as in others more civilised, it is thought a handsome 
accomplishment in a young fellow to spout well. They 
come into the square and go out again on these occasions 
without formality. 

The Ceremony of the Busk 

The ceremony of the busk is the most important and 
serious of any observed by the Creek Indians. It is the 
offering up of their first fruits, or an annual sacrifice, and 
always celebrated about harvest time. When com is ripe, 
and the cassina or new black-drink has come to perfection, 
the busking begins on the morning of a day appointed by 
the priest or fire-tnaker (as he is styled) of the town, and is 
celebrated for four days successively. On the morning 
of the first day, the priest, dressed in white leather mocca- 
sins and stockings, with a white dress deer-skin over his 

North America 441 

shoulders, repairs at break of day unattended, to the square. 
His first business is to create the new fire, which he accom- 
plishes with much labour by the friction of two dry sticks. 
After the fire is produced, four young men enter at the 
openings of the four comers of the square, each having 
a stick of wood for the new fire; they approach the new 
fire with much reverence, and place the end of the wood 
they carry in a very formal manner, to it. After the fire 
is sufficiently kindled, four other young men come forward 
in the same manner, each having a fair ear of new com 
which the priest takes from them, and places with great 
solemnity in the fire, where it is consimied. Pour young 
warriors then enter the square in the manner before men- 
tioned, each having some of the new cassina. A small 
part of it is given to the new fire by the priest and the 
remainder is immediately parched and cooked for use. 
During these formalities the priest is continually muttering 
some mysterious jargon which nobody understands, nor 
is it proper for any inquiries to be made on the subject; 
the people in general believe that he is communicating 
with the great master of breath. At this time the warriors 
and others being assembled, they proceed to drink the 
black-drink in their usual manner. Some of the new fire is 
next carried and left on the outside of the square, for pub- 
lic use; and the women are allowed to come and take it to 
their several homes, which they have the day before cleaned 
and decorated with green boughs for its reception ; all the 
old fire in the town having been previously extinguished, 
and the ashes swept clean away, to make room for the new. 
During this day, the women are suflFered to dance with 
the children on the outside of the square, but by no means 
suffered to come into it. The men keep entirely to them- 
selves and sleep in the square. The second day is devoted 
by the men to taking their war-physic. It is a strong 
decoction of the button snakeroot or Seneca, which they 
use in such quantities as often to injure their health by 

442 Beverages, Past and Present 

producing spasms, etc. The third day is spent by the 
yoting men in htmting and fishing, while the elder ones 
remain in the square and sleep, or continue their black- 
drink, war-physic, etc., as they choose. During the first 
three days of the busking, while the men are physicing, 
the women are constantly bathing. 

It is tmlawful for any man to touch one of them even 
with the tips of his fingers; and both sexes abstain rigidly 
from all kinds of food or sustenance, and more particularly 
from salt. On the fourth day, the whole town are assem- 
bled in the square, men, women, and children, promis- 
cuously, and devoted to conviviality. All the game killed 
the day before by the young himters is given to the public; 
laige quantities of new com, and other provisions are col- 
lected and cooked by the women over the new fire. The 
whole body of the square is occupied with pots and pans 
of cooked provisions and they all partake in general fes- 
tivity. The evening is spent in dancing, or other trifling 
amusements, and the ceremony is concluded. 

N. B. — All the provisions that remain are a perquisite 
of the old priest or fire-maker. 

Courtship and Marriage 

Courtship is always begun by proxy. The man, if not 
intimately acquainted with the lady of his choice, sends 
her his talk (as it is termed) accompanied with small pres- 
ents of clothing, by some women of her acquaintance. If 
the young woman takes his talk, his proxy then asks the 
consent of her uncles, aunts, and brothers (the father 
having no voice or authority in the business), which being 
obtained, the young woman goes to him, and they live 
together in pleasxire and convenience. This is the most 
common mode of taking a wife, and at present the most 
fashionable. But if a man takes a wife conformably to 
the more ancient and serious custom of the country, it 

North America 443 

requires a longer courtship, and some established for- 
malities. The man, to signify his wishes, kills a bear with 
his own hands, and sends a panful of the oil to his mistress. 
If she receives the oil, he next attends and helps her hoe the 
com in her field; afterwards he plants her beans and when 
they come up, he sets poles for them to run upon. In the 
meantime he attends her com, tmtil the beans have run up 
and entwined their vines upon the poles. This is thought 
emblematical of their approaching union and bondage; 
and they then take each other for better or worse, and are 
bound to all intents and purpose. 

A widow having been bound in the above manner is 
considered an adultress if she speaks or makes free with 
any man, within four summers after the death of her 
husband. With a couple united in the above manner, the 
tie is considered more strongly binding than in the other 
case; being under this obligation to each other, the least 
freedom with any other party, either in the man or woman 
is considered an adultery, and invariably punished by the 
relations of the oflFended party by whipping, and cutting 
off the hair and ears close to the head. The ceremony of 
cropping, as it is called, is performed in the following 
manner. The relations of the injured party assemble and 
use every strategem to come at the offender. This is called 
in the phrase of the country, raising the gang upon him. 
Each of the gang carries a stick nearly as large as a hoop- 
pole. Having caught the offender, they beat him or her, 
as the case may be, until senseless, and then they operate 
with the knife. 

It is extremely difficult to evade this punishment; but 
if the offender can keep clear of them by flight or otherwise 
until they lay down their stocks the law is satisfied, and 
they (one family only excepted) have no right to take 
them up again. But the great and powerful Wind Family, 
of whom Mr. M'Gillivray is a descendant, if defeated in 
the first attempt, have the right of raising the gang and 

444 Beverages, Past and Present 


lifting the cudgels as often as they please until punishment 
is duly inflicted. 

Among the Indians of the extreme north, those in 
Alaska and adjoining countries, there is a liquor made, 
which, if reports can be relied upon, contains more 
frenzy in one glass than a quart of any ordinary in- 
ebriating beverage made. This drink is called hoochi- 
noo by all the tribes, for it is almost imiversal in this 
part of the world and whether owing to the climate, 
or some pectdiar condition of environment that has not 
been as yet observed and studied no one is able ta 
state definitely what imparts to it its wonderful ardent 

The ingredients used in the manufacture are simple 
and innocent, being only yeast, flour, and either sugar 
or molasses, so there is nothing extraordinary in this 
respect. The still used is constructed from second- 
hand coal-oil cans, the first use of which might, per- 
haps, impart a peculiar quality and flavour, but 
repeated usings would soon remove all traces of the 
oil, consequently it would be futile to ascribe its 
potency to this source, and yet there is not a white 
man who has partaken of this liquor but has pro- 
noimced it far more powerful than any other alco- 
holic drink he has ever tasted. 

The Russians while they were in possession of this 
part of America taught the natives how to make 
hwass from rice, sugar, and dried apples, and this, too, 
could be made much stronger than the common 
beer of the temperate zone. Still farther north, 
among the Eskimos, the favourite beverage bears the 
name of oug. This is a drink which they are very 

North America 445 

uncertain of obtaining but when, after much hard 
labour and extreme danger, they do succeed in getting 
it there are merrymaking and rejoicing throughout the 
whole coimtry and all people are invited to partake 
of this great luxury, for oug is nothing more or less 
than the blood of the whale in its natural state. The 
amount of oug that each native, man, woman, or child, 
can consume is out of all proportion with the size of 
the person and far beyond the capacity of any white 
man, even could he be induced to attempt the drinking 
of it in the first place. 

The catching and killing of a whale by the people 
of the Arctic land produce a period of festivity, the 
like of which can never be seen in any other country 
for it means food and drink to all concerned for a long 
time to come. In the language of the Eskimo, 
brandy is called silcBrunartok — ^that is to say, the 
thing that makes men lose their wits, but now, says 
Fridtjof Nansen in Eskimo Life "they usually call it 
snapsemik.'' Mr. Nansen also adds: 

They are passionately fond of brandy — ^women as well 
as men — ^not, as they often confided to me, because they 
like the taste of it, but because it is so delightful to be 
drunk; and they get drunk whenever an opportunity 
offers, which is happily not very, often. That the intoxi- 
cation is really the main object in view, appears also from 
the fact that the kifaks do not greatly value their morn- 
ing dram, because it is not enough to make them drunk. 
Several of them, therefore, agreed to bring their portions 
into a common stock, one of them drinking the whole to-day, 
the next to-morrow, and so on by turns. Thus they could 
get comfortably drunk at certain fixed intervals. When 
the authorities discovered this practice, however, they 

446 Beverages, Past and Present 

took means to stop it. Unlike their sisters here in Europe, 
the Eskimo wives, as a rule, find their husbands charming 
in their cups, and take pleasure in the sight of them. I 
must confess, that the Eskimos, both men and women, 
seemed to me, with few exceptions considerably less 
repulsive, and, of course, considerably more peaceful, 
in the state of intoxication than Europeans are apt to 
be under similar conditions. When the Europeans first 
came to the country, the natives could not understand 
the effects of brandy. When Christmas approached, they 
came and asked Neils Egede when his people were going 
to be "mad"; for they thought that ** madness" an in- 
separable accompaniment of the feast, and the recurring 
paroxysm had become to them a landmark in the almanack. 
Marriage in Greenland was, in the earlier times [Nansen 
says] a very simple matter. When a man had a mind to 
a girl, he went to her house or tent, seized her by the hair 
or wherever he could best get hold of her, and dragged 
her without further ceremony home to his house, where 
her place was assigned her upon the sleeping bench. The 
bridegroom would sometimes give her a lamp and a new 
water-bucket, or something of that sort, and that con- 
cluded the matter. In Greenland, however, as in other 
parts of the world, good taste demanded that the lady in 
question should on no account let it appear that she was 
a consenting party, however favourably disposed towards 
her wooer she might be in her heart. As a well conducted 
bride among us feels it her duty to weep as she passes up 
the church, so the Eskimo bride was bound to struggle 
against her captor and to wail and bemoan herself as 
much as ever she could. If she was a lady of the very 
highest breeding, she would weep and "carry on" for 
several days, and even run away home again from her 
husband's house. If she went too far in her care for the 
proprieties, it would sometimes happen, we are told, that 
her husband, unless he was already tired of her, would 

North America 447 

scratch her a little on the soles of her feet, so that she 
could not walk; and before the sores were healed, she was 
generally a contented housewife. When they first saw 
marriages conducted after the European fashion, they 
thought it was very shocking that the bride, when asked 
if she would have the bridegroom for her husband should 
answer "yes." According to their ideas it would be much 
more becoming to her to answer ** No" for they regard it 
as a shameful thing for a young lady to reply to such a 
question in the affirmative. When assured that this was 
the custom among us, they were of the opinion that our 
women-folks were devoid of modesty. 

The Eskimo is exceedingly fond of smoking tobacco, 
but he has a most peculiar method of pursuing this 
peaceful pastime. Instead of inhaling the smoke, 
as many do, he deliberately swallows it until he has 
become so poisoned he falls senseless, and will remain 
in this condition sometimes as long as fifteen minutes. 

Another tribe of Indians that used tobacco in a 
very peculiar manner were those foimd in Lower 
California by Padre Fray Francisco Garces (or as 
some spell it Garzes) an account of which is given in 
Elliott Cloutes's On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, 
Garces* Diary, 1773-6, as follows: 

This seen (visto esto), the captain took a white stone, 
which he drew out of a bag and threw it on the fire, in 
order that it should be heated; he withdrew it at the proper 
time, and braving it well in a stone mortar mixed it with 
wild tobacco (tabaco del monte) till it became as it were a 
paste (atole). Then he handed me the pestle of the mortar, 
that also was of stone, in order that I should taste that 
mess (caldo), which I fotmd extremely bitter. I returned 
him the pestle, which he wetted again, and gave to an old 

448 Beverages, Past and Present 

man, who liked it very well though it was with great eflfort 
that he was able to swallow that sauce (salsa), which all 
the others successively tasted. My companions the 
Jamajabs having tried it were at once attacked with 
vomitings so violent that I thought one of them would 
die; which those of the rancheria greeted (cekbrason) 
with great laughter. Then the meeting was broken up, 
for there was no one else who wotdd try it any more. I 
slept within the lodg near the door. I have been able 
to ascertain that they drink this sort of gruel (este genere 
de aiole) to cure fatigue, and consequently it is customary 
to offer it to all their guests. 

At certain seasons of the year the aborigines of 
California were greatly addicted to drinking a beverage 
called saguaro. This liquor was concocted from the 
cactus cereus gigatUetis and was probably the same 
as tizwin made by the tribes further east. The Cali- 
fomian Indians, though, had a plausible reason for 
their indulgence in this liquor, claiming that it made 
them vomit yellow and therefore it kept them healthy. 
Thus does even the red man follow the practice of 
excusing himself and adds to the long list of hypercrit- 
ical subterfuges. 

The general tendency to ascribe to the Franciscan 
monks the first planting of the grape at San Diego 
in 1770 may be locally correct but the vine had been 
planted and wine made on the Pacific coast long before 
this time. In Hittell's History of California is men- 
tioned the fact that Father Juan Ugarte had between 
the years 1701 and 1707 made wonderful progress in 
his undertakings. To quote: **He had truly made 
the desert blossom as a rose. He not only raised 
maize and wheat and other grains and various garden 

North America 449 

vegetables; but he had also planted vines and made 
a considerable quantity of generous wine, with which 
he afterwards supplied all the Missions of Lower 
California and even furnished some for exportation 
to the opposite coasts of the gulf." 

To any one who has studied the situation in Cali- 
fornia the fact that this part of our continent is the 
natural home of the grape readily becomes apparent 
and while of course we have no means of proving that 
the vine is indigenous to the state what proof there 
is to be had on the subject points unmistakably in that 
direction. Hittell says that it was the sight of the 
wild vines, "which in some spots seemed to cover the 
country, that induced the Friars to plant some of 
the grape stocks brought by them from Lower Cali- 
fornia and which had been originally introduced from 
Spain. They succeeded beyond expectation and in a 
short time produced wine in plenty." 

The history of viticulture in America can be truth- 
fully said to be founded upon prejudice rather than 
reason, and this was a feature from which none of the 
nations that settled this country were free, and further- 
more as it prevailed throughout the whole land no 
part escaped. In the East the Dutch and English 
uprooted the luxuriant wild vines they found growing 
there and planted others from Europe. In California, 
as we have just read it was the profusion of the wild 
vines which caused the Friars to plant their cuttings 
the descendants of the Spanish vines; the natural 
material at every hand was not even deemed worthy 
of a trial. The vines or cuttings that were planted 
at this time it is thought originally belonged to the 
malaga family. Mr. John S. Hittel in his Resources 

VOL. ZI 39 

4SO Beverages, Past and Present 

of California says on this subject : " It has been asserted 
that this grape is of the Malaga variety; but if so, 
it has changed so much — ^perhaps while under cultiva- 
tion in Mexico, whence the first cuttings that came 
to California were probably obtained — that it no 
longer resembles its parent stock." He further adds 
that about 1820 when the missions were established 
north of the bay of San Francisco, a new variety, now 
called the Sonoma grape, and said by General Vallejo 
to be of the Madeira stock, was introduced. It is now 
extensively cultivated in Sonoma and Napa counties, 
and in the Sacramento Valley, and is also found in a 
few vineyards south of the bay of San Francisco. The 
berry is bluish-black in colotir; is covered when ripe 
with a greyish dust, which brushes oflE, leaving a 
glossy, smooth skin ; is about half an inch in diameter 
at its largest size; has a thin, sweet juice, with more 
meat and a little fruitiness. In describing the first 
variety, and its introduction in 1770, Mr. Hittel says: 

So far as is known, only one variety — that now known 
as the Los Angeles grape — ^was brought by them in the 
last century. It is the vine found in all the old vineyards 
and most of the new ones south of the bay of San Fran- 
cisco. It fills three-fourths of the vineyards in the state. 
The berry is round, reddish-brown while ripening, and 
nearly black when ftdly ripe, about three-eighths of an 
inch in diameter at its largest size, covered by a strong 
skin, possessing an abtindance of thick and very sweet 
juice, with little meat, but with no fruitiness of flavour. 

The Sonoma grape makes a light wine resembling claret ; 
the Los Angeles grape makes a strong wine, resembling 
port and sherry. The two grapes are classed together as 
the "Mission," **Native, " or " Calif omian'* grapes, and 

North America 451 

were the only varieties cultivated here previous to 1853. 
In that year the importation of foreign grapes commenced, 
and now about two hundred varieties are cultivated. The 
Mission grapes are hardy, long-lived, productive, and early 
in coming into bearing; but they are surpassed in flavour, 
hardiness, productiveness, earliness of ripening, and earli- 
ness of bearing, by many foreign varieties, which, so far 
as is known, are not inferior in any respect. The latter 
have been tried, however, only three or four years, and 
therefore we cannot speak positively whether they will 
prove so long-lived, or whether they will be equal in some 
other points to the Mission grapes. Still, the superiority 
of the foreign grapes is so great that no reasonable man 
acquainted with the subject doubts that they will drive 
the Mission grapes out of the market. 

These observations were published in 1863 and no 
truer prediction was ever penned, and in furtherance 
let us quote the following from Mrs. Frona Eunice 
Wait, in Wines and Vines of California, printed 
twenty-six years later (1889), who writes: 

It is believed that there are planted not less than one 
hundred and fifty thousand acres in vines; and fully 90 
per cent, of these are reckoned as consisting of the finer 
grades of foreign wine grape varieties, mainly drawn from 
Prance, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany, and Hungary. 
The result of the planting of these fine-grade grape-vines has 
been the producing of wines of much better quality than 
had been hitherto produced, creating a revolution in 
favour of California wines and the conquest of markets 
that even the most sanguine among us never hoped to 

A quick fulfilment of Mr. Hittd's prediction, was 
it not? And one, too, that has not its parallel in the 

452 Beverages, Past and Present 

annals of any other country, — speaking much plainer 
than words, of the energy and enterprise of the ** Sons 
of California, " for the change called not only for hard 
labour but a faith in the future that has seldom been 
equalled. Among one of the many curiosities of this 
wonderful State was a grape-vine in Santa Barbara 
County, the history of which is given by R. Guy 
McClelland in his book entitled The Golden State. It 

The laigest and most productive grape-vine in the world 
is in California, at Montecito, Santa Barbara County. In 
1765, Senora Dominguez, then a little girl, was making 
a journey on horseback towards her home; she had in her 
hand for a whip a grape-vine. After riding awhile she 
observed that the vine was budding in her hand, and on her 
arrival at home she planted it. It grew; and to-day (1872) 
is fresh and vigorous, although it is entered upon its second 
hundredth year. From this single sprig has grown a stem 
eighteen inches in diameter, with innumerable branches 
and offshoots covering an area one htmdred and twenty 
feet in length and eighty feet in width and producing be- 
tween three and four tons of grapes annually. This vine 
and its produce has for almost a century been the chief 
support and shelter of its planter; for one hundred years 
Senora Dominguez lived beneath the hospitable shade of 
this vine, and on the ninth of May, 1865, at the advanced 
age of one hundred and five years, and just one hundred 
years from the time she had planted it, surrounded by 
over three hundred of her offspring, in children, grand- 
children, great-grandchildren, and great-great-grand- 
children, Senora Dominguez died, leaving her generous 
vine still fresh and vigorous. The great growth and pro- 
ductiveness of this vine is attributed by some to the fact 
that its roots are watered by a mineral spring adjacent. 

North America 453 

The want of foresight on the part of the early wine- 
makers in the East in not giving to their wines proper 
and distinctive names should have been a lesson to 
the Califomians, but like many other matters of this 
nature the warning was not heeded, and the result 
is that the oenological nomenclature of America — or 
at least the United States — is only remarkable for its 
almost entire lack of originality. Unlike France, 
Germany, Spain, and other wine-producing countries, 
where characteristic and symbolical names were applied 
or given to the product of their vineyards, the American 
vineyardists have never had the temerity to assume 
their proper places among their brethren in the craft. 
It was William Congreve who said many years ago 
that * 'comparisons are odious," and Chaucer long 
before had said "Odyous of olde been comparisonis," 
and American wines have suffered from this utter 
want of anything approaching a patriotic sense and 
pride of product, compelling at all times the odious 

The cause of this is, of course, easy of explanation, 
and lies in the entire indifference to anything American 
that was so firmly instilled into the minds of our first 
settlers. Even our geography had to sufler on this 
account, and the reading of our cities, towns, states, 
rivers, etc., is but a repetition of European names. 
Other factors, too, have suffered accordingly. From 
east to west and from north to south, we are confronted 
with one continual reminder that our forefathers were 
entirely lacking in originality, or that their thoughts 
were ever on the land they had left. In most of the 
cases the result has only been of an aesthetical nature, 
and while it has had a strong inclination to confusion 

454 Beverages, P^t and Present 

the remedy is easily applied. This, however, is not 
the case with our wines : they have to bear comparisons 
that are at the very outset unfair to them. Their 
merit and real value are lost at once in the thoughts of 
the drinker when he is told their names, for no matter 
how fair-minded he may be, the name will bring to him 
thoughts of the original, and unconsciously there will 
ensue at once a comparison, not as to the merits of 
the wine, but upon the line suggested by the title, 
which at once removes all chances of a free, unbiassed 

In Hakluyt's Voyages (1584) is to be found the 
statement that the Indians of Roanoke Island "drank 
wine as long as the grapes lasted." Hakluyt fails 
to mention anything regarding the grapes from which 
this wine was made, but it was most probably the 
scuppernong, a, vaiTiety that is sui generistothe locality, 
and which, like the catawba of the north, has survived 
to this day. It is a peculiar grape, inasmuch as the 
ripening of its fruit is very different from that of other 
grapes. The berries will drop one by one from the 
clusters as they mature, necessitating their being 
gathered every day for several weeks. 

Another beverage of which the early explorers found 
the Indians possessed was one called pohickory, and 
wherever the hickory tree grew and bore nuts this 
drink was to be had. The little island in the upper 
New York Bay, and which is known now as Governor's 
Island, was famous in those early days for its hickory- 
nuts, which were of the shell-bark variety, and better 
adapted for the making of pohickory. In fact the 
Dutch settlers called it Nuten Island on this account, 
and the Indians of that time were very zealous in 

North America 455 

their care of it, for they considered the nuts grown 
there of a superior flavour and quality, not only for 
the making of their favourite beverage, but for food 
as well. Colonial history tells us that several murders 
were committed by both sides on accotmt of these 
nuts, and that the island was a prolific source of dispute 
between the Dutch and the Indians for many years. 
^ The method pursued by the Indians in making 
pohickory was to pound the nut, shells and kernels, in 
a mortar with a proper amoimt of water until a milky 
liquor was produced, when it was ready for use. The 
use of pohickory was by no means local or confined 
to any one tribe. The Indians of New England as 
well as of the South used it freely and plentifully, for 
owing to the nature of the nut, which could be kept 
for two or three years without deterioration, the 
beverage could be made at any season of the year, 
provided, of course, a sufficient quantity had been 
gathered and stored. 
/ From the kernels of acorns, chestnuts, and chinqua- 
pins, the Indians of Virginia and the Carolinas also 
prepared a drink which, among some of the tribe, bore 
the name of chinqua. This drink had the virtue of 
keeping for some time, but whether it was so concocted 
as to become inebriating the writers of those days 
fail to state. The question of drink was a very im- 
portant one with the early settlers, and was perhaps 
even more serious than the food problem. Neither 
the Dutch nor English were by habit water-drinkers, 
and when they arrived in America and found that 
the Indians were also extremely careful as to what 
water they drank, the matter assumed a seriousness 
that we of the present day can hardly comprehend. 

4S6 Beverages, Past and Present 

Beverly in his History of Virginia says that the liquid 
the Indians preferred for drinking purposes was the 
water that had been long standing in ponds exposed 
to the Sim. This at first sight would appear to be a 
most hazardous method of quenching the thirst, but 
it must be borne in mind that these people were but 
children of nature and were guided solely by their 
instinct, and, strange as it may seem, their guidance 
was more accurate than otherwise. Pond water has 
a repugnant sound, but reservoir water rather appeals 
to us, yet the difference between the two is so slight 
that none but the most discerning can distinguish 

In New England the water question was just as 
grave, and Alice Morse Earle in her most interesting 
and instructive books, Customs and Fashions in Old 
New England and Home Life in Colonial Days, says: 

The English settlers who peopled our colonies were a 
beer-drinking and ale-drinking race — ^as Shakespeare said, 
they were "potent in potting. " None of the hardships they 
had to endure during the first bitter years of their new life 
caused them more annoyance than their deprivation of 
tneir beloved malt liquors. This deprivation began at 
the very landing. They were forced to depend on the 
charity of the ship-masters for a draught of beer on board 
ship, drinking nothing but water ashore. Bradford, the 
Pilgrim Governor, complained loudly and frequently of his 
distress, while Higginson, the Salem minister, accommo- 
dated himself more readily and cheerfully to his changed 
circumstances, and boasted quaintly in 1629 "whereas my 
stomach could only digest and did require such strong 
drink as was both strong and stale, I can and ofttimes do 
drink New England water very well. " As Higginson died 

North America 457 

in a short time, his boast of his improved health and praise 
of the tmwonted beverage does not carry the force in- 
tended. Another early chronicler, Roger Clap, writes 
that it was "not accounted a strange thing in those days 
to drink water, " and it is stated that Winthrop drank it 
ordinarily. Wood, in his New England Prospects, says of 
New England water: "I dare not preferre it before good 
Beere as some have done, but any man would choose it 
before bad Beere, Whey or Buttermilk." 

It was also praised as being " far different from the water 
of England, being not so sharp, but of a fatter substance, 
and of a more jettie colour; it is thought there cannot 
be better water in the world. " But their beerless state 
did not long continue, for the first luxury to be brought 
to the new cotmtry was beer, and the colonists soon im- 
ported malt and learned to make beer from the despised 
Indian com, and established breweries and made laws 
governing and controlling the manufacture of ale and beer; 
for the pious Puritans quickly learned to cheat in their 
brewing, using molasses and coarse sugar. 

Now let us turn to Phillip Alexander Bruce's ad- 
mirable Economic History of Virginia, in which he 

In the True and Sincere Declarations, issued in December, 
1609, by the Governor and Council for Virginia there was 
an advertisement for two brewers, who as soon as they 
were secured were to be despatched to the Colony; and in 
a broadside published about this time the advertisement 
was repeated. Brewers were also included among the 
tradesmen who were designed by the Company to go over 
with Sir Thomas Gates. This indicated the importance 
in the eyes of that corporation of establishing the means in 
Virginia of manufacturing malt liquors on the spot in- 
stead of relying on the importations from England. The 

458 Beverages, Past and Present 

belief became prevalent that one of the principal causes 
of the mortality so common among those arriving in the 
Colony in the period following the first settlement of the 
country was the substitution of water for the beer to which 
the immigrants had been accustomed in England. The 
Assembly, in the session of 1623-24, went so far as to 
recommend that all new comers should bring in a supply 
of malt to be used in brewing liquor, thus making it un- 
necessary to drink the water of Virginia tmtil the body had 
become hardened to the climate. Previous to 1625, two 
brew-houses were in operation in the Colony, and the 
patronage which they received was evidently very liberal. 
The population of Virginia at that time had, with the ex- 
ception of a small proportion, not only been bom but 
reared in England, and had, therefore, the English thirst 
for strong liquors. It was not long before they discovered 
the adaptability of the persimmon for beer. Even an 
attempt was made to make wine of sassafras. Barley 
and Indian com were planted to secure material for brew- 
ing, the ale produced, both strong and small, being pro- 
nounced by capable judges to be of excellent quality. 
Twenty years after the dissolution of the Company, there 
were six public brew-houses in Virginia, the malt used 
being extracted from the barley and hops which had in 
considerable quantities been raised for this purpose. In 
1652, George Fletcher obtained the monopoly of brewing 
in wooden vessels for fourteen years. In some places, 
beer was, about the middle of the century the most popular 
of all the liquors drunk in the Colony, the great proportion of 
it being brewed at this time in the house of the planters. 
With the progress of time, the cultivation of barley prac- 
tically ceased. In the period of the English Protectorate, 
there were offered numbers of petitions from EngUsh 
merchants who were anxious to obtain licenses to export 
malt to Virginia; the quantity brought in steadily in- 
creased, the landowners in good circumstances purchasing 

North America 459 

it to be used in making beer. They also import the beer 
itself. The poorest class of people had recourse to various 
expedients as a substitute for malt. They brewed with 
dried Indian com or with bran and molasses; or they 
brewed with the baked cakes of the persimmon tree; or 
with potatoes; or with the green stalks of the maize chopped 
into fine pieces and mashed; or with pumpkins; or with the 
Jerusalem artichoke, which was planted like barley to be 
consumed in the manufacture of beer and spirits^ It is 
said, however, that the liquor made from this vegetable 
was not very much esteemed. There are many references 
in the county records to malt-houses and also to malt-mills, 
which were the private property of the planters. Some 
owned distilleries, others worms and limbecks. Cider 
was as commonly used as beer; in season it was found in 
the house of every planter in the Colony. In the opinion 
of English judges, like Hugh Jones, it was not much in- 
ferior in quality to the most famous kinds produced in 
Herefordshire. Fitzhugh, however, does not appear to 
have entertained this opinion, although like Jones, he had 
early in life been in a position to compare English with 
Virginia cider in the country where it was made. On 
one occasion, he sent to Geoi^ge Mason of Bristol a sam- 
ple of the cider of the Colony, accompanying it with a 
somewhat apologetic letter. "I had not the vanity," 
he wrote, "to think we could outdo, much less equal, 
your Herefordshire red stroke, especially that made 
at particular places. I only thought that because of 
the place from where it came, it might be acceptable 
and give you an opportunity in the drinking of it to 
discover what further advantages this cotmtry may be 
capable of.*' 

In New England cider had also become to be a very 
popular drink as witness ** Josselyn's account of two 
voyages to New England, 1638 " who says: 

46o Beverages, Past and Present 

Syder is very plentiful in the countrey, ordinarily sold 
for ten Shillings a hogshead. At the tap houses in Boston 
I have had an Ale quart spic'd and sweetened with sugar 
for a groat, but I shall insert a more delicate mixture of it. 
Take of Malago-Raisins, stamp them and put milk to 
them in a Hippocras bag and let it drain out of itself, put 
a quantity of this with a spoonful or two of Syrup of 
aove-Gilliflowers into every bottle when you bottle your 
Syder and your Planter will have a liquor that exceeds 
passada, the Nectar of the country. 

> Whether apple-jack was first distilled in New Eng- 
^"land or Virginia our historians fail to tell, but of one 
fact we are assured and that is in both places it quickly 
came into vogue. In Virginia it was known as apple- 
brandy, and still bears that name, but in New England 
the title apple-jack was universal. The desire for 
strong drink was expressed on every quarter, and 
everything in the shape of fruits, vegetables, and grain 
soon found its way to the distillers, there to be manu- 
factured into liquor, the owner of the still taking toll 
in kind for the labour performed. An old song which 
reads — 

Oh, we can make liquor to sweeten our lips, 
Of ptimpkuis, of parsnips, of walnut-tree chips — 

gives the reader a quick and comprehensive idea of the 
means resorted to in those early days to gratify our 
forefathers' craving for something besides water. 

Aside from spiritous beverages, the Puritans had a 
goodly list of what we to-day term "soft drinks." 
There was switchel, a concoction of molasses, vinegar, 
and ginger in water; beverige was of the same nature 

North America 461 

with the vinegar left out. In an advertisement of the 
day we read: 

The use of Hyperion or Labrador tea is every day coming 
into vogue among people of all ranks. The virtues of the 
plant or shrub from which this deUcate Tea is gathered 
were first discovered by the Aborigines, and from them 
the Canadians learned them. Before the cession of Canada 
to Great Britain we knew little or nothing about this 
most excellent herb, but since that we have been taught 
to find it growing all over hill and dale between Lat. 40 
and 60. It is fotmd all over New England in great plenty, 
and that of the best quality, particularly on the banks 
of the Penobscot, Kennebec, Nichewannock, and Merrimac. 

Had the writer of the above said that Hyperion 
tea was only a fancy name for raspberry leaves, he 
would have lost much in the strength of his advertise- 
ment and would therefore decrease his chances of 
selling something quite ordinary and easily procured. 
Liberty-tea, made from the four-leaf loose-strife which 
was pulled up like flax, the stems stripped of the leaves 
and boiled; the leaves put into an iron kettle and 
basted with the liquor of the stalks ; then the leaves 
placed in an oven and dried, was a very popular 
drink and highly esteemed by the ladies ; the leaves 
of other plants, such as ribwort, sage, strawberry, and 
currants, also furnished a modicum to disguise the 
taste of the much dreaded water. 

When rum came into fashion the epicure quickly 
fotmd several ways of mixing it that soon became 
poptdar with all classes. In no case was the mixing 
done to render the beverage weaker ; in fact the reverse 
can be said to be the object sought, and a perusal of 

462 Beverages, Past and Present 

a few of these decoctions leads to the conclusion that 
either these old-time people were almost immime from 
alcoholic influence or that their object was, like the 
Indian, to get drunk quickly, but the facts do not 
bear out this deduction. Stone-wall, a mixture of 
hard cider and rum, was an every-day sort of a drink 
and was to be had at every tavern. Comment as to 
this drink is entirdy unnecessary; even a novice in 
the art of drinking can figure out the effects. Bogus, 
which by the way was the shortening of Calibogus, was 
rum and beer, of which the less used the better. Black- 
strap was a mixture of rum and molasses 5 Alice Morse 
Earle says: 

Casks of it stood in every country store, a salted and 
dried codfish slyly hung alongside — a free lunch to be 
stripped off and eaten, and thus tempt, through thirst, 
the purchase of another draught of black-strap. A 
remarkable drink is said to have been popular in Salem — 
a drink with a terrible name — ^whistle-belly-vengeance. 
It consisted of sour household beer simmered in a kettle, 
sweetened with molasses, filled with brown-bread crumbs, 
and drunk piping hot. 

In the South, both peach and apple brandy were 
generalised under the name Virginia drams, and a 
morning draught of either was considered as essential 
to good health as a breakfast, but rum soon drove them 
out and bombo, made of rum, sugar, water, and nutmeg, 
became the fashion, Mimbo was a variety of bonibo 
with the nutmeg left out. In both the North and 
South, scotchem, made with apple-jack, boiling water, 
and a small quantity of mustard, was considered a 
fine beverage on a cold day. 

North America 463 

The Dutch of New York, or as it was then known 
the New Netherlands, were confronted with the same 
conditions, but we have the assurance that they, with 
their usual foresight in such matters, brought with 
them a goodly supply of their favourite schnapps, and 
also in addition to that they began the brewing of 
beer just as soon as they could get the materials to- 
gether for the purpose. As early as 1640, Wilhdm 
Klieft, Director-General of the Colony, erected a dis- 
tillery on Staten Island, putting it in charge of Wilhelm 
Hendricksen. This still was the first in North America 
to make liquor and spirits from grain, and fortxme 
followed it. For Kieft, although an arbitrary Director, 
had an eye for business, and it was he who built the 
first tavern on Manhattan Island, thus securing an 
output for his distillery. Com and rye were the 
grains that were mainly used, for the reason that they 
were the more plentiful, being easier of cultivation. 

The practice of distilling soon spread but it was by 
no means confined to men, as witness the reply of 
Governor Lovelace to a petition made to him in 1672 : 

Whereas Jeuffru Annigart Printz alias Pappegay living 
in Delaware River did make a request unto me that in 
regard that she lived alone and had so little assistance by 
servants, having only one man servant and likewise in 
harvest time or other seasons of the year for husbandry 
when she was constrained to hire other people to help her, 
for whose pa3mient in part, and relief also she was wont 
to distill some small quantities of liquors from com, as by 
divers others is used in that river, that I would excuse her 
man servant from ordinary training in the company in 
which he is enlisted, and also to give her license to distill 
in her own distilling kettle some small quantities of the 

464 Beverages, Past and Present 

liquors for her own use and her servants and labourers upon 
occasion as before mentioned, I have thought good to 
grant the request of said Juffro Pappegay, both as to the 
excuse of servant being at training (extraordinary ones, 
upon occasion of an enemy or invasion excepted) and 
likewise that she have license to make use of her own dis- 
tilling kettle, as is desired, provided it be done with such 
moderation that no just complaint do arise thereby, to 
continue one year. 

Not a period or full stop in the whole document 
and worthy of preservation on that account alone. 
Three years later, May 24, 1675, ^^ ordinance was 
passed prohibiting com or grain from distillation 
under the penalty of £5, but this was soon removed, 
and the business kept growing, until a himdred 
years later, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
War, it is said that no matter where one travelled in 
the country he was sure to see smoke from distilleries 
at every point. In fact it became so serious that had 
not the authorities interfered there would not have 
been grain enough left to make bread for the army. 

While the Swedes were in possession of Delaware, 
Pennsylvania, and New Jersey which at that time was 
called New Sweden, Israel Acrelius visited the colony 
and on his return to his native land he wrote a very 
interesting and comprehensive history of the new 
possessions. For many years his book remained im- 
translated, but when the Pennsylvania Historical 
Society was formed they had it written into English. 
Acrelius was a dose observer of how people lived, and 
unlike many other historians he did not think that 
it detracted from his volume to record these facts, and 
accordingly we are enabled at this late date to form 

North America 465 

a good idea of conditions as they existed then, not 
only of a public nature but of a private and individual 
character, which perhaps in the aggregate is of more 
importance in tracing the progress of a country than 
its public speeches, laws, and wars. On the subject of 
drinks he was very comprehensive and also minute, 
and the Swedes of those times surely had very little 
to complain of in this respect, for according to the 
historian the list was very complete. Mamm, he 
writes, was made of water, sugar, and rum, and was the 
most common drink in the interior. Its popularity 
was so great, he adds, that it has set up many a tavern- 
keeper. A meridian was a punch composed of rum, 
limes, water, and sugar and was drunk just before 
dinner — therefore its name. Cherry bounce was made 
from the cherry juice with a goodly quantity of rum 
in it. Manathan was small beer, rum, and sugar. 
Long'SUp or sling was one half water and one half 
rum, with sugar in it to taste. Sillibub is made of 
lukewarm milk, wine and sugar, not unlike our oleost 
(made of warm milk and beer). Spruce beer is a kind 
of sn:iall beer which is called in Swedish "larda tidnin- 
game." Tiff is small beer, rum, and sugar, with a 
slice of bread toasted, and buttered. Sampson was 
warmed cider with rum in it; mulled rum, warmed, 
with egg-yolk and allspice. Sangaree is made of wine, 
water, sugar, a dash of nutmeg, with some leaves of 
balm put in it. Cider royal is so called when some 
quarts of brandy are thrown into the barrel of cider, 
along with several pounds of muscovado sugar, whereby 
it becomes stronger, and tastes better. If it is left 
alone for a year or so, or taken over the sea, then drawn 
off into bottles with some raisins put in it, it may 

VOL. n — ^30 

466 Beverages, Past and Present 

deserve the name of apple wine. Cider royal is of an- 
other kind, in which one half is cider and the other half 
mead, both fermented together. In cherry wine, the 
berries are pressed, the juice strained from them, 
muscovado or raw sugar is put in; then it ferments, 
and after some months becomes dear. Raw dram is 
a drink of rum unmixed with anything. Still liquor, 
brandy made of peaches or apples, without the ad- 
dition of any grain, is not regarded as good as rum. 
Beer is brewed in the towns; is brown, thick, and 
unpalatable ; is drunk by the common people. Small 
beer is from molasses : when the water is warmed, the 
molasses is poured in with a little malt, or wheat-bran, 
and is well shaken together. Afterwards a layer of 
hops and yeast is added, and then it is put in a keg, 
where it ferments, and the next day it is clear and 
ready for use. It is more wholesome and pleasanter to 
the taste than any small beer or malt. Table beer is 
made of persimmons. The persimmon is a fruit 
like our egg-plum. When these have been well frosted, 
they are poimded along with the seeds, mixed up with 
wheat-bran and baked in the oven. Then, whenever 
desired, pieces of this are taken and moistened, and 
with these the drink is brewed. Mead is made of 
honey and water boiled together, which ferments of 
itself in the cask. The stronger it is of honey, the 
longer it takes to ferment. Dnmk in this country too 
soon, it causes sickness of the stomach and headache. 
Tea is a drink very generally used. No one is so high 
as to despise it, nor any so low as not to think himsdf 
worthy of it. It is not drunk oftener than twice a day. 
It is always drunk by the common people with raw 
sugar in it. Coffee comes from Martinica, St. Domingo, 

North America 467 

and Surinam; is sold in large quantities and used 
for breakfast. Chocolate is in general use for 
breakfast and supper. It is drunk with a spoon; 
sometimes prepared with a little milk, but mostly 
only with water. Brandy in tea is called Use. Besides 
these they also use the liqueur called cordials, such 
as anise-water, cinnamon-water, and others scarcely 
to be enumerated, as also drops to pour into wine, 
brandy or whiskey without end. If any one 
went thirsty in New Sweden it must have been 
because he belonged to a prohibition society, for 
the variety was great enough to satisfy the most 

At a much later period sage wine became quite the 
fashion. To make a barrel according to an old recipe 
take forty poimds of malaga raisins, two bushels of 
sage cut fine with the raisins as for mince-meat, then 
take and boil the raisins and sage in about five gallons 
of water for fifteen minutes ; then strain out all the 
liquor and add forty pounds of sugar, make it into a 
syrup with the liquor you have just strained out and 
pour it into your stand cask ; then add fourteen gallons 
of rum, fill up with water. Balm wine, made with 
prunes, cinnamon, mace, Havana brown sugar, balm, 
and pure white spirits, was also another favourite. 
Birch wine made from the sap of the birch tree was pop- 
ular, and darry wine, manufactured from clarry-tops 
when in blossom, and lovage cordial made from a plant 
of the same name had their admirers. In 1 7 7 6 Richard 
Deane, a distiller from Ireland, had for sale at his dis- 
tillery on Long Island near the ferry, so reads his ad- 
vertisement — ** Aniseed- Water, Orange Water, Clove 
Water, All Fours, or the Cordial of Cordials, Royal 

468 Beverages, Past and Present 

Usquebaugh, Plain ditto, Royal water. Cordial of 
Health, Cinnamon Water, Cardamon Water, Angelica 
Water, Aqua Codestis, or Heavenly Water, Ros Solis, 
Stoughton's Elixir Mirabilis, or Wonderful Water. 
Besides Irish Whiskey, Brandy and Rectified Spirits 
of Wine/* 

Drinking in those days was carried to an excess that 
we of the present time can hardly realise, and very 
few men of to-day would fancy sitting down to a 
banquet where every guest was expected to give a toast 
and to drink to every one given. A story illustrative 
of this method and practice, and which at the time 
was not considered anything imusual, is that of Cap- 
tain McDougal, who for some offence of little moment 
was confined in jail and forty-five of his friends gave 
him a little dinner in his temporary residence, and it 
is a matter of record that they used forty-five pounds 
of steak and each drank forty-five toasts. This hap- 
pened in New York in 1770 and speaks quite well for 
the men who a few years later had to shoulder their 
muskets and march to their country's defence. 

Doctor Cutler mentions in his diary that when he 
dined with Colonel Duer in New York, in 1787 be- 
sides beer and porter fifteen different kinds of wine 
were served at the meal. The war was over then and 
peace reigned, but our fathers had lost none of their 
valour in the struggle. 

The terms in vogue at that time to describe a person 
who had taken a drop or two too much are quite 
expressive even now: for instance, "He's made an 
Indian feast" conveys the idea at once to any one 
who has the slightest knowledge of the Indians and 
their habits. '*He 's lost his rudder" needs no further 

North America 469 

explanation, while **He's sore-footed" is minutely 
graphic ; but * * He walks by starlight " and " He 's taken 
Hippocrates* elixir" are somewhat too poetical for 
modem use, though perhaps this can be overlooked 
in the phrase '*He 's as dizzy as a goose." 

There has always been for some reason a reluctance 
on the part of many to speak of a person as being 
drunk ; why this is so is hard to explain, but even in 
early times in Greece and Rome we meet with phrases 
more or less vague to convey this meaning. The poet 
who wrote, 

For planters' cellars you must know 
Seldom with good October flow; 
But perry, quince, and apple juice. 
Spout from the tap like any sluice, 

could not have had the pleasure of drinking Sopus 
ale, which for many years was famous not only in New 
York but in New England as well for its fine quality; 
owing, as one chronicler said, to the fine water that 
was to be had at Esopus. 

Potato coffee was quite a beverage in this part of 
the world a century or more ago and many people 
seem to have relished it better than the real berry. 
To prepare it the potatoes were cut into small square 
pieces, then dried and parched in an oven, and when 
wanted were grotmd and treated in the same manner 
as the coffee berry. We are more or less prone to look 
with astonishment at the stories of the amotmt of 
liquor the people of those days could drink without 
any seeming bad effects, but all this wonderment 
and surprise will leave us when we again refer to Alice 

47 o Beverages, Past and Present 

Morse Earle in Customs and Fashions in Old New 
England, who says: 

In an old almanac of the eighteenth century I find a few 
sentences of advice as to the "Easy Rearing of Children." 
The writer urges that boys as soon as they can go alone 
go without hats, to harden them, and if possible sleep with- 
out nightcaps, as soon as they have hair. He advises 
always to wet children's feet in cold water and thus make 
them (the feet) tough, and also to have children to wear 
thin-soled shoes "that wet may come freely in. " He sajrs 
yoimg children should never be allowed to drink cold 
drinks, but should have their beer a little heated; that it 
is "best to feed them on Milk, Pottage, Flummery, Bread, 
and Cheese, and not let them drink their beer till they 
have first eaten a piece of Brown Bread. " Fancy a young 
child of nowadays making a meal of brown bread and 
cheese with warm beer! He suggests that they drink but 
little wine or liquor, and sleep on quilts instead of feathers. 
In such ways were reared our Revolutionary heroes. 
Our girls and young ladies of this time were under no 
restraint and they were at liberty to partake of punches 
hot or cold whenever they were served, and one young 
miss of eight years of age, according to our entertaining 
author, left her grandfather's house in high dudgeon 
because she could not have wine at every meal, and her 
parents upheld her, saying she had been brought up a lady 
and must have her wine when she wished it. 

Evidently Cobbett's statement of the free drinking 
of wine, cider, and beer by American children was 
true' — as Anna Green Winslow's '* treat" would show, 
another young lady or miss that Alice Morse Earle tells 
of. Elsewhere in the same volume is a description of 
a funeral, written by Sargent, in the days of his youth : 

North America 471 

When I was a boy, and was at an academy in the country, 
everybody went to everybody's funeral in the village. 
The population was small, funerals rare; the preceptor's 
absence would have excited remark, and the boys were 
dismissed for the funeral. A table with 'liquor was always 
provided. Every one, as he entered, took off his hat 
with his left hand, smoothed down his hair with his right, 
walked up to the coffin, gazed at the corpse, made a crooked 
face, passed on to the table, took a glass of his favourite 
liquor, went forth upon the plot before the house and 
talked politics, or of the new road, or compared crops, or 
swapped heifers or horses until it was time to lift A 
clergyman told me that when settled at Concord, N. H., 
he officiated at the funeral of a little boy. The body was 
borne in a chaise, and six little nominal pall-bearers, the 
oldest not thirteen, walked by the side of the vehicle. 
Before they left the house a sort of a master of ceremonies 
took them to the table and mixed a tumbler of gin, water 
and sugar for each. 

It was a hard struggle against customs and ideas of 
hospitality, and even of health, when the use of liquors 
at funerals was abolished. Old people deplored the 
present and regretted the past. One worthy old 
gentleman said with much bitterness, ** Temperance 
has done for funerals." On the other hand, while 
funerals were of great social importance, natal events 
were likewise considered an occasion of liquid refresh- 
ments as well. 

In New England, Alice Morse Earle writes, the 
** groaning beer" was drunk, though Sewall ** brewed 
my Wives Groaning Beer" two months before the 
child was bom. By tradition ** groaning cake," to be 
used at the time of the birth of the child and given 

472 Beverages, Past and Present 

to visitors for a week or two later, also was made ; but 
I find no allusion to it under that name in any of the 
diaries of the times. At this women's dinner good 
substantial viands were served. ''Women din'd with 
Rost Beef and minc'd Pyes, good Cheese and Tarts." 
When another Sewall baby was scarcely two weeks old 
seventeen women were dined at Judge Sewall's on 
equally solid meats — "Boil'd Pork, Beef, Fowls, very 
good Rost Beef, Turkey, Pye and Tarts." Madam 
Downing gave her women "plenty of sack and claret." 
In New York the amphidromia was better known as 
"a caudle party," and Mrs. John Van Rensselaer in 
her charming book The Goode Vrow of Mana-ha-ta 
writes very entertainingly of these important gather- 
ings as follows: 

The particular dainty that was the inseparable accom- 
paniment of the reception, and gave it the name, was the 
drink that was brewed and served piping hot to the visitors. 
It was called caudle, and its concoction was a secret care- 
fully preserved in certain families, who always prepared 
it and sent it to the house of **the lady in the straw" as 
an especial mark of their favour. A family receipt that 
has been handed down from mother to daughter through 
the descendants of Cornelia Lubbetse (Mrs. Johannes de 
Peyster) calls for three gallons of water, seven poimds of 
sugar, oatmeal by the pound, spice, raisins, and lemons 
by the quart and two gallons of the very best Madeira 
wine. And this, my readers, was for the ladies, who 
partook of it freely and often without scandal and re- 
turned to their homes in time to prepare for their 
husbands' and sons' coming to their suppers, where 
another goodly quantity of liquid refreshment awaited 
all parties. 

North America 473 

Liquors of all kinds were considered a necessity in 
those days and not a luxury. In Philadelphia con- 
ditions were the same, as witness an extract from the 
diary of John Adams, quoted from Home Life in 
Colonial Days (of the home of Miers Fisher, a yotmg 
Quaker lawyer) : 

This plain Friend, with his plain but pretty wife with her 
Thees and Thous, had provided a costly entertainment: 
ducks, hams, chickens, beef, pig, tarts, creams, custards, 
jellies, fools, trifles, floating islands, beer, pimch, wine and 
a long etc. ... A most sinful feast again! every- 
thing to delight the eye or allure the taste : curds and creams, 
jellies, sweetmeats of various sorts, twenty kinds of tarts, 
fools, floating islands, trifles, whipped sillabubs, etc., 
Parmesan cheese, pimch, wine, porter, beer. 

Wasn't it a sinful feast I and one wonders if the 
venerable gentleman partook of all these good things 
he is so careftd to enumerate. Weddings were of course 
golden opporttmities for our drink-loving ancestors 
and many were the concoctions prepared for this 
occasion — none of them, it may be remarked, being 
noticeable for their mildness. In 1743 The Weekly 
Post'Boy gave the following recipe for all young 
ladies that are going to be married to make a sack 

From famed Barbados on the western main 
Fetch sugar half a pound; fetch Sack from Spain 
A pint, and from the Eastern coast 
Nutmeg, the Glory of our Northern Toast. 
O'er flaming coals together let them heat. 
Till the all-conquering Sack dissolves the sweet. 

474 Beverages, Past and Present 

0*er such another fire set eggs twice ten, 

New bom from foot of cock and rump of hen; 

Stir them with steady hand and conscience pricking 

To see th' untimely fate of twenty chicken. 

From shining shelf take down your brazen skillet, 

A quart from gentle cow will fill it. 

When boil'd and cool'd put gentle Sack to Egg, 

Unite them firmly like the Triple League; 

Then covered close together let them dwell 

Till Miss twice sings — "You must not kiss and tell!" 

Each lad and lass snatch up their murdering spoon 

And fall on fiercely like a starved Dragoon. 

Thus it was strong drink on every side and used 
unsparingly by all — ^men, women, and children ; and it 
was these people who made the country, fought for 
it, freed it, and then governed it and carried it through 
epochs of troubles that have not their parallel in all 
history. Can it be that the reply made by President 
Lincoln to the complaint that his only victorious 
general was a great whiskey-drinker, and said he, **I 
would like to get several barrels of that same brand 
for my other generals," carried with it a meaning 
to which some would like to blind their eyes? 

The beverage that takes the place of the Oriental 
sherbet in America is soda water, but unlike the sher- 
bet soda water is purely an article of commerce. Its 
chief ingredient, the water, which has to undergo a 
costly preparation, deprives it of the social qualities 
so intimately connected with sherbet and in conse- 
quence the preparing of soda water is confined to 
people who make it a business. The use of water 
containing an abundance of carbon-dioxide gas is a 
matter of early history. In the beginning these waters 

North America 475 

were only to be had from natural sources, but as ed- 
ucation increased the art of making the peculiar gas 
was solved. At first this substance was called by the 
rather lengthy title of carbonic acid gas, but owing to 
the fact that sodium bicarbonate in conjunction with 
an acid was used to produce this change the name was 
soon shortened to soda water. The desire to render 
this water more palatable was only the instinctive 
outcome of the dislike the majority of people have 
for pungency, and the use of syrup flavoured or 
plain naturally followed. Unfortunately neither his- 
tory nor legend tells us when this occurred and to 
enter upon the field of speculation wotild be to invite 
criticism that would not repay the trouble. 

The national beverage of Americans of the present 
day is whiskey, but it is a whiskey of their own make 
and manufacture, differing in many details from the 
liquor of the same name made in Ireland and Scotland. 
For a number of years this beverage was known as 
Bourbon whiskey, deriving its title from the name of 
the county in Kentucky where a great deal of whiskey 
was and is yet made. 

According to Collins's History of Kentucky the first 
still erected in Bourbon County was constructed and 
operated by Jacob Spears in 1790, others also, says the 
same authority, daim that it was Captain John Hamil- 
ton who built the first distillery. The fight between 
rum and whiskey for supremacy was a long, tedious 
battle, but eventually rum was driven to the wall and 
for fifty years whiskey has maintained its popularity. 
In 1782 the court in Jefferson Coimty, Kentucky, en- 
acted a law making the price of whiskey fifteen dollars 
a half -pint or two hundred and forty dollars a gallon. 

47^ Beverages, Past and Present 

What sales were made at this price our historian 
(Collins) fails to state ; neither does he mention how 
long the price remained in force, but it is undoubt- 
edly the record price ever placed by law upon any 

Kentucky, however, was by no means the first 
State in which whiskey was made ; as shown elsewhere 
it was Wilhdm Kieft, Director-General of the New 
Netherlands, who erected the first still in North America, 
and others seeing his success soon had the art spread 
throughout the then settled portion of the country. 
In Pennsylvania, and more particularly in the western 
parts of the State, according to the Pennsylvania 
Archives, it was the practice to have a still wherever 
twenty or thirty houses were, and all parties would 
take their rye to it, paying for the distillation in kind. 
This method was universal and it was this condition 
of affairs that led to the ** whiskey instirrection " when 
the federal government determined to collect a revenue 
upon all whiskey made. This action also led the 
people into moonshining, for until a tax was placed 
upon liquors illicit distilling was impossible. 

The process of manufacturing whiskey, while it 
ultimately leads to the same result, differs materially 
in almost every locality and even among individual 
distillers. Also there are different kinds known, 
collectively, as sour mash, sweet mash, rye whiskey, 
and pure rye whiskey. To attempt a technical de- 
scription would be a task that would be of but little 
interest to the reader, but some time ago there ap- 
peared an article in one of our trade journals which 
while it is of a technical nature is so plain that almost 
any child can understand it. It reads: 

North America 477 

The writer has been connected with the whiskey business 
since 1881 and he has never yet seen two distillers who 
wotild give the same definition to hand-made sour mash, 
and very few wotdd agree as to how any of the many 
varieties of whiskey shotdd be made. It is really a difficult 
matter to tell just where whiskey ends and spirits begin, 
as witness the following varieties: 

Sour Mash Whiskeys 

(a) Made only from com, com malt; mashed in small 
tubs by hand, fermented by dipping back. 

(b) Made from com, rye, and barley malt; mashed in 
small tubs by hand; fermented by dipping back. 

(c) Made as above, but mashed by machines and 

(d) Made as above, but mashed by machines in big 

(e) Made as above, but run through charcoal by gravity 
in cistern-room. 

Sweet Mash Whiskeys 

(a) Made from com, rye and barley malt; scalded with 
water; singled in wood and doubled in copper over fire. 

(b) Made as above, but singled in three-chamber copper 
still and doubled in copper over fire. 

(c) Made as above, but singled in copper continuous beer 
still and doubled with steam. 

(d) Made as above, but scalded with spent beer instead 
of water. 

(e) Made as above, but scalded in cooker instead of mash 

(f) Made as above, but run very high in proof and stored 
in excessive heat. 

478 Beverages, Past and Present 

Pure Rye Whiskeys 

(a) Made of rye and malt and scalded with water. 

(b) Made of rye and barley malt and scalded with 

{c) Made as above but scalded with spent beer. 

Rye Whiskeys 

Made of com, rye, and barley malt along all sorts of lines. 
It *s a wise man who can straighten out these children 
of the still and name them properly and tell which are like 
and which are unlike. 

Thus is the story told by one who has the ability 
to say a great deal in a few words, and whose experience 
of more than a quarter of a century makes what he 
says peculiarly valuable. 

In the souliiem part of Texas there grows a plant 
which the Indians of that vicinity call pieoke — ^the 
whites, whiskey plant, which when sliced as a cu- 
cumber and eaten produces the same effect as the 
beverage from which it derives its name. Among the 
swamps of South Carolina there are many places 
covered with grass ; these are called tussocks. They 
are all more or less inaccessible and on many of them, 
hidden from view, can be found a small still to which is 
conveyed the seemingly worthless bruised pulp of the 
sorghum cane from which the syrup has been extracted. 
It is from this pulp and swamp water that the drink 
called tissick is distilled. It is almost pure alcohol, 
white and innocent to look upon but most dreadful to 

Under the names of fi4ss jungle and polinky are two 

North America 479 

beverages to be found in the coal regions of Pennsyl- 
vania which, as disturbers of the peace, as a reporter 
aptly put it, hardly have their equal dsewhere in 
America. Polinky is made from young raw whiskey 
and stale beer, while fuss jungle has for its component 
parts alcohol in its pure state, sugar, water, and mo- 
lasses. Aside from whiskey there is another popular 
beverage, the cocktail, but who first gave this mixture 
its name or how and where it came about none can 
tell. There are numerous stories as to its origin, but 
all of them smack of recent birth, made, as it were, 
to fit the occasion. One story speaks of it as having 
originated in New York State during the Revolutionary 
period, while another says it is a relic of the Mexican 
war. Still another claims that it is derived from a 
stock-breeding term as applied to horses; that is, a 
cocktail was a horse with a small touch of impure 
blood, in fact a mixture. This has a plausible sound 
and is perhaps the true source of the name. But 
the derivation of the term and the methods of mix- 
ing the liquors in their varying proportions sddom 
bother the man who has had his education advanced 
to the point of drinking the seductive concoction, 
which by the way has as many names as ingenuity 
can well supply and as many methods of making 
as there are makers. What the original ingredients 
and foundation were is also a matter of speculation. 
More than fifty years ago both Hawthorne and 
Thackeray wrote of the cocktail, one a gin cocktail, 
the other a brandy, and a few years ago an unknown 
writer penned the appended lines which appeared 
for the first time in the San Francisco News- 

48o Beverages, Past and Present 

The Great American Cocktail 

Since Dionysius blithe and young inspired old Hellas air 
And beat the muses at their game, "with vine leaves in his 

Since Wotan quaffed oblivion to Nieblungen gold, 
And Thor beside the icy fjord drank thunder-bolts of old ; 
Since Omar in the Persian bowl forgot the fires of hell 
And wondered what the vintners buy so rare as that they 

What potion have the gods bestowed to lift the thoughts 

Like that seductive cocktail they sell across the bar? 

Perhaps it 's made of whiskey and perhaps it 's made of gin; 
Perhaps there's orange bitters and a lemon peel within; 
Perhaps it 's called Martini and perhaps it *s called, again, 
The name that spread Manhattan's fame among the sons 

of men; 
Perhaps you like it garnished with what thinking men 

avoid — 
The little blushing cherry that is made of celluloid; 
But be these matters as they may, a cher confrbre you are 
If you admire the cocktail they pass across the bar. 


Abati-timbaby, ii., 374 

Abdelcader, mantuscript of, aiy 

Abd-ul-latef, 360 

Abel, 3 

Abelhal, ii.» 213 

Abrakan, 6a 

Abrey, sour, 243 

Abrey, sweet, 243 

Absinthe, ii., 13, 176 

Abyrstur, ii., 108 

Abyssinia, 215, 233; modem, 

Abyssinia, old liquors in, 239 
Abyssinian feast, 244 
Acchioc, ii., 431 
Accursed liquor, 178 
Acojote, ii., 421 
Acrelius, Israel, ii., 464 
Acropolis mound, 12 
Ada, 36^ 
Adam, ii., 36 
Adams, Jonn, ii., 473 
A drinking king, 136 
Advertisement of a Long Island 

distiller, 1776, ii., 467 
Advokat borrel, ii., 73 
Adynamon, 495 
Aegle marmelos, 29 
Aethalos, 243 
Afir, ii., 108 
African pottery, 269 
Africa, tropical, 256 
Agave, ii., 419 
Agbado, 308 
Agiddy, 305 
Agnihortri, 20 

Agoa ardente de canna, ii., 370 
Agoa ardente de mel, ii., 370 
Agoa ardente de reino, ii., 370 

▼OL. n — ^31 * 

Agraz, ii.,414 
Agrazada, ii., 199 
Agua de chia, ii., 426 
Aguadente de beiju, ii., 367 
Agua de pina, ii., 436 
Aguamiel, ii., 199, 410, 421, 423 
Aguamiel, analysis 01, ii., 433 
Agua pe, ii., 311 
Aguapie, ii., 196 
Aguardent de cabeca, ii., 214 
Aguardent de herva doce, ii., 

Aguardiente de cana, ii., 195 
Aguardiente de uva, ii., 195 
Aguardiente de valenciano, ii., 

Agudelho, ii., 213 
Ahan, 303 
Ahuahtli, ii., 427 
Ahuettea Mexicana, ii., 426 
Aigleucos, 494 
Aikhshava, 28 
Aipimakakara, ii., 377 
Aipy, ii.. 377 
Airen, 9 
Ajagana, 269 
Akansan, 302 
Akebesk, 294 
Akik, 334 
Akraiheme, 295 
Alaska, ii., 444 
Alaskan still, ii., 444 
Alba, wines of, 485 
Alban, ii., 310 
Albuelis, 530 
Alcohol, 333; as currency, 150; 

derivation, ii., 193 
Aldran ii., 197 
Ale, ii., 225; at weddings, ii., 

246; clergy made, ii., 233; 



Ale (Continued) 

college brewed, ii., 249; ctis- 
toms, ii., 236; home brewing 
of, ii. , 229; Household, ii. , 2 74 ; 
introduction into England, ii., 
224; testing for sugar in, ii., 
280; wells, li., no; what, will 
do, ii., 225; white, ii., 249; 
wormwood, ii., 248; yard, ii., 

Aleatico, 546 

Alec, 508 

Alexandrina, 525 

Algarsoba, ii., 334 

Allasch, ii., 85 

All Fours, the cordial of cor- 
dials, ii., 467 

Allobrogian grape, 518 

Aloe, ii., 420 

Aloja, ii., 333 .. ^ 

Aloja de maiz, n., J3S 

Alompra AloungPhoura, 58 

A lone; dinner, li., 279 

Aloocna, 479 

Alot, 272 

Altar of Bacchus, ii., 6a 

Alto Douro, ii., 205 

Alvaraca, ii., 213 

Alvarilhao, ii., 213 

Amalua, 269 

Amareno, 561 

Amarwa, 269 

Amasi, 288 

Amaso, 288 

Amberee, 347 

Ambrosia, 523 

Amderku, 294 

Amendoada, ii., 215 

America, ancient ruins of, ii., 

American manufactures, ii., 254 
American revolution, 51 
Amethyston, 520 
Amis, 93 
Amok, 167 
Amoles, 249 
Amontillado, 11., 184 
Amphidromia, ii., 47a 
Amphorae, 528 
Amvu, 269 
Anana, ii., 376 
Anancaeum 501 
AnastasiuSt 367 

Anatomy of Mdanckoly, 22a 

Andros, 413 

Angelica water, n., 468 

Angera, 245 

Angola, 303 

Anj^ona, 139 

Anice, 170 

Aninean grape, 516 

Anisado, li., 389 

Aniseed-water, ii., 467 

Anisetta, ii., 214 

Anithum sowa, 26 

Anona muricata, iL, 404 

Ansah, 302 

Ants in liquor, ii., loa 

Anvis, ii.,391 

Apaches, ii., 437 

Apam, plains ot, ii., 418 

Apam pulque, ii., 424 

Apfel wein, ii., 26 

Api, 158 

Apiana, 517 

Apio, ii., 200 

Apis, 5 

Apohtoh, 269 

Apomeli, ii., 198 

Appelbollen, ii., 74 

Apple-berry liquor, ii., 436 

Apple brandy, ii., 460 

Applejack, ii., 460 

Apple tree, 149 

Apple wine, ii., 46$ 

Appointment of first consul, 402 

Apsarases, 22 

Aqua ardente, 417 

Aqua, ccelestis, ii., 468; com- 

posita, ii., 295 ; diente, ii., 336; 

mirabilis, ii., 272 
Aquarzente, 552 
Aquavit, ii., 104, 114 
Aquavitae, ii., no, 271 
Aquilaria agallocha, 53 
Arab, 11 
Arabia, 215 
Arabia the Blest, 2x5 
Araffer, 182 
Araki, 344 
Arbutus unedo, 419 
Ardig, ii., 315 
Argeica, 521 

Argentine Republic, ii., 334 
Argitis, 521 
Annto, 212 



Arista, 465 

Aristha, 29 

Arjan 9 

Arka, 398 

Armenia 468, 476 

Amok, 169 

Arnold of Villanova, 555 

Arp hem, 341 

Arp hut, 341 

Arp meh, 341 

Arp ras, 341 

Arra, 56 

Arrack, 9, ay, 53, 99, 109, 157, 

164. 169, 206, 33a 
Arrope, ii., 338 
Arrows, the making of poison 

for, 372 
Ars bibendi, ii., 242 
Am, 130 
Arube, ii., 368 
Ami. 6^ 
Ashanti, 301 
Ashanti, discovery of pahn wine 

in, 301 
Ash -coloured grapes, 524 
Asia Minor, 387 
Asinusca grape, 525 
Asparagus, 29 
Asprigno, 549 


Assahy palm, ii., 364 

Assai con asucar, ii., 375 

Assai palm, ii., 374 

Assai wine, ii., 374 

Asti spumante, 549 

Asuras, the, 13 

Atavals 95 

Atcnif, 174 

Atole, ii., 425 

Atole de aguamiel, ii., 435 

Atole de leche, ii., 42$ 

Atole de pinole, ii., 425 

Attic honey, 342 

Auati, ii., 370 

Auraucanians, ii., 345 

Aurelius, Marcus, ii., 128 

Aurora, 132 

Ausbruch, ii., 18 

Australia, 146 if; native wines 

o^. 1 53 1 price of wine in, 153 
Austria, 22 
Austria, ii., 27 
Austria-Hungary, ii., i 

Autobiography, An, ii., 36 

Ava, 132 

Avava, 139 

Awa, 132 

Awamori, 85 

Awards for vine-dressers, ii., 319 

Axayacatl, ii., 426 

Ayahuasca, ii., 390 

Azua, ii., 196 

Azucarillo, ii., 197 


Baambu, 310 

Babovnick, ii., 84 

Bacanassi, 171 

Bacca de mina, ii., 313 

Bacca d'oro, ii., 5 

Bacchanalia, 540 

Bacchus, 13, 540 

Bacharach, ii., 6a 

Backsima, 397 

Badek, 162 

Baganda, 270 

Bagghallis, 207 

Ba^gl, 331 

Baier, ii., ii< 

B^atoo, 106 

Baker, Sir Samuel W., 97 

Baking stones, 197 

Baksoum, 59 

Bala, 304 

Balacharen, i6a 

Balche, ii., 429 

Ballad of the tea pickers, 44 


Balm wine, ii., 467 

Bamboo cup, 169 

Banana beer, 3 70 

Bang, ii., 327 

Bank's Island, 138 

Ban le roy, ii., 163 

Bannarrica, 522 

Banvin, ii., 158 

Banyoro, 267 

Baptising wine, ii., 189 

Baqa, 377 

Barbadoes, description of the 

island of, ii., 408 
Barbera, 549 
Barbracura, ii., 342 
Bardatoa, 405 
Bard, Samuel A., ii., 401 



Barley, 59. 247 

Barley broth, ii., 248 

Barra a barra, ii., aia 

Barsacs, ii., 13a 

Bary water, i8a 

Basduk, 390 

Basilica, 519 

Basket work, 2 70 

Basso, a4a 

Bastard, ii., 188 

Bastardo, ii., 213 

Bastardo grape, ii., 188 

Batavia, 158 

Batavian arrack, 158 

Bathing in wine, 466 

Batiola, 501 

Bavarian beer, ii., 4a 

Bavaroise, ii., 170 

Bayersk, ii., 103 

Bazaq, 388 

Bazin-Rene, 544 

Bazia, 388 

Beachy, Captain, 140 

Bean sauce, 88 

Beartrai)8, ii., 79 

Beaune, ii., 130 

Beava, 479 

Beche-de-mer , preparation of ,1 76 

Beehives, 280 

Beer, ii., 37, 31, 71. 74, 114, 
356, 466; history of the dis- 
covery of, ii., 33; hot, ii., 10^; 
nicknames, ii., 4$; studies, ii., 
44; testing of, ii., 37 

Beer, 45 

Beer and milk, ii., a 14 

Beer-bell, ii., 40 

Beer, derivation of the word, 

Beer fever, 11., 4a 
Beer-runes, ii., 34 
Bees, 394 
BeestmjgfS, ia9 
Beiju, ii., 367 
Bejuco, ii., 387 
Bel, 30 

Belah meblool, 348 
Belgium, ii., 74 
Belut, an 
Benicarlos, ii., 190 
Beoir lochlannach, ii., 3^3 
Berlin under the New Empire, 
ii.. 4a 

Besabesa, 181 

Betel nuts, 26 

Better ale, ii., 273 

Bettony, ii., 348 

Beverige, ii., 460 

Beverly's History of Virginia, 

ii., 456 
Bhairavii-Chakra, 16 
Bhang, 208; ii., 327 
Bhutan, 57 
Bibby, ii., 397 
Bibby tree, ii., 397 
Bicho, 303 
Bid, 211 
Bidding, ii., 246 
Bierbeer, ii., 50 
Bilberry, 64 
Bilbil, 294 
Bion, 490. 536 
Bior, ii., 45, 103 
Birch tree, 64 

Birch wine, ii., 100, 369, 467 
Bird cherry, 63 
Bir el Halazum, 35a 
Birth of a girl, 333 
Birthof ason, 333 
Biscay, ii., 19a 
Bischof, ii., 51 
Bishop, J. Leander, A.M., M.D., 

ii., 254 
Bisschop, ii., 74 
Bjor, ii., 107 
BjOrkvin, u., 100 
Blackberry ale, ii., 350 
Blackberry wine, ii., a66 
Black biscuit, 65 
Black draught, 218 
Black drink, aaa; ii., 43^» 439 
Black Forest, ii., 55 
Black pot, ii., 294 
Black strap, ii., 189, 46a 
Black wine, ii., 191 
Bland, ii., 329 
Blanda, ii., 108 
Blessing the grapes, 436 
Blood brotherhood, 173 
Blood, drinking of, 271 
Blood friendship, ii., 34 
Blount, Sir Henry, aaz 
Bock-beer, ii., 38 
Bodegas, ii., 186 
B06, Francis de le, ii., 65 



Bo^s, ii., 469 

Boisson, ii., 169 

Bolussen, ii., 74 

Bombilla, ii., 340 

Bombo, ii., 462 

Bombons, 124 

Bommes, ii., 132 

Bonalay, ii., 279 

Boner, Charles, ii., i 

Bonny clabber, 288 

Booza, 344; making of, 346 

Boral, 109 

Bordan, 310 

Bordeaux, ii., 132 

Borgetto, 561 

Borneo, 96, 100 

Bomu, 294 

Boston Tea Party, 51 

Bota, ii., 197 

Bottles, ii., 241 

Bougainville, 185 

Bouquet, 38 

Boura, 365 

Boura, capturing monkeys with, 

Bourbon whiskey, ii., 475 
Bourma, 364 
Bousa, ii., 31 
Bouza, 233, 255, 364 
Bouzy, ii., 151 
Bowdish, T. A., 302 
Boyle, Frederick, F.R.G.S., 

Boys and foxes, ii., 49 
Bradford, the Pilgrim governor, 

ii., 456 
Braga, 62, 398; ii., 114 
Braga-full ii., 112 
Bragget, ii., 271 
Branmacide, 18 
Brahmans, 16 
Bram. 163 
Brandevin, ii., 118 
Brand's Popular A rUiquities , ii . , 

Brandy, 232, 241, 253; intea.ii., 

467; naming of, li., 118 
Brandy wine, li., 118 
Brantewein, ii., 8, 118 
Branvin, ii., 100 
Brassey, Lady, 120 
Brazil, ii., 362 

Brasnl, the Amaaon, and the 

Coast, ii., 375 
Brazilian wine, ii., 369 
Breadfruit, 27 
Bread of Brazil, ii., 365 
Brennevin, ii., 109 
Breweries, ancient Scotch, ii., 

Brewers, advertising for, ii., 457 
Brewery in Jerusalem, 335 
Brewery with a hundred towers, 

ii., 27 
Brewhouse, requisites of a, ii., 

Brewing, art of, ii., 225 
Brewys, ii.,319 
Brick tea, jo 
Bride ale, li., 246; custom of, 

Bride-bush, ii., 246 
Bride-stake, ii., 246 
Bride's tears, ii., 73 
Bride wain, ii., 246 
Brilla, use of, 237 
Bristol milk, ii., 272 
Broadside on coffee, 22a 
Broadside on tea, 46 
Broccio, 563 
Brocoit, ii., J12 
Broon pig, ii., 287 
Bruce, Phillip Alexander, ii.. 

Brum, 169 

Brundo, 244 

Bnme, ii., 75 

Brutos, 454 

Buabill, ii., 314 

Bual, 321 

Bucconiates, 523 

Bucellas, ii., 212 

Bucho, 286 

Buckwheat, 65 

Buda, 269; ii., 16 

Buddleia Madagascariensis, 

Buggila, 231 
Buil-ceann, ii., 290 
Bujaaloa, 279 
Bulan, 109 
Bull, 148 

Bullock's blood, 70 
Bulwer, E. L., 2 
Bunke, ii., 104 



Burgundy, ii., 153 

Burgundy, vint^e aeaaon in, 

Bunty, ii., 371 
Bumya, 65 
Burton, Captain Richard P., 

359; ii-. 368, 37a 
Burton, Robert, 222 
Bursa, 59 
Bushby, 154 

Butler, General B. P., 285 
Butshuala, 277 
Buttermilk, 25 
Button snakeroot, ii.» 441 
Buying wines, 273 
Byrgu, 296 

Caa, 11., 340 

Caa gazu, ii., 340 

Cabbage leaves, 68 

Cabot, Sebastian, ii., 332 

Cacao, ii., 380 ; as money, ii., 381 

Cachaca, ii., 214, 368 

Caco de macaco, ii., 379 

Caecubum, 484 

Cajeput oil, 168 

Caiu, ii., 370 

Cake, ii., 426 

Calabash tree, ii., 405 

Calabresian wine, 560 

Calcutta, 17 

Calda, 500 

Calibogus, ii., 462 

California, first planting of 
grapes in, ii., 448, 450; grapes 
indigenous to, ii., 449; Hit- 
tie's History of, ii., 448; intro- 
duction of foreign grapes in, 
ii., 451; sons of, ii., 452 

Calix, 501 

Callou, ii., J73 

Camel's milk, 229 

Cameos from the Silver Land, ii., 

Cameroons, 306 
Campania, wines of, 487 
Cana, ii., 195, 336 
Canaries, 322 
Canary Islands, 316 
Candill, ii., 198 
Cango, 313 

Canna, 300 
Canninha, ii., 369 
Cannonas, 465 
Cantepayo, ii., 39a 
Cantharus, 501 
Caoui, ii., 370 
Caowy, ii., 377 
Capedo, 505 
Cape Colony, 31 1 
Cape of Good Hope, 312 
Cape Smoke, 313 
Cape wines, 312 
Capillaire, 558 
Capis, 501 
Capnios, 52^ 
Capo assu, u., 376 
Capri bianco, 549 
Caraca, ii., 431 
Caracina, 60, 61 
Caracosmus, 9 
Caraua, ii., 373 
Caravan beverage, 365 
Carboys, 206 
Carbuncled, 521 
Carcavellos, li., 21a 
Carchesium, 502 
Cardamon water, ii., 468 
Cardamus, 26 
Cardinal, ii., 51 
Carecuban, ii., 210 
Care of husbands when intoxi- 
cated, ii., 400 
Carious, 538 
Cama, ii., 373 
Camahuba, ii., 372 
Carob, 426 
Carobraki, 426 
Caroline Islands, 174 
Carraspada, ii., 198 
Carteret, 185 
Cashew nut, 258 
Cashiri, ii., 375 
Casina, ii., 200 
Casouli, 306 
Cassareep, ii., 368 
Cassava plant, ii., 403 
Cassina, ii., 438 
Cassis, ii., 213 
Casuma, ii., 391 
Catalonia, ii., 189 
Catawba, ii., 454 
Cateer el massak, 258 
Caucasia, 395 



Caudle, ii., 371, 479 

Caudle party, ii., 472 

Cauphe, 221 

Caupona, 509 

Cauponula, 509 

Caura, 309 

Cautenac, ii., 130 

Caxaca, ii., 368 

Cavsuma, ii., 367 

Cebada, ii., 414 

Cenozoic era, 1 1 

Central America, ii., 393 

Century plant, ii., 420 

Cephalonia, 417 

Ceras, 164 

Cerasina, ii., 199 

Cereus giganteus, ii., 44^ 

Cervantes, 212 

Cerveja, 321 

Cerve^a preta, 321 

Cerveza, ii., 192 

Cerveza negra, ii., 405 

Ceylon, 96; treatment of water 
m, 106; milk in, 106 

Cha, 39, 43 

Chaat, 253 

Chacatel, li., 192 

Chacoli, ii., 192, 351 

Chalices, 503 

Chaloquin, ii., 104 

Chambertin, ii., 155 

Champa^e, ii., 142; glass, ii., 
144; its different names, ii., 
1 45 ; sentiment against, ii. , 1 4 5 ; 
stifl wines of, ii., 147; test for, 
ii., 151; what made it foam, 
ii., 146; why does it foam, ii., 

Champuriado, ii., 425 

Chamusca, ii., 212 

Chanar, ii., 338 

Chanar eating, ii., 338 

Change houses, ii., 298 

Chao-tsing-tsieu, 38 

Chapman, James, F. R. G. S., 281 

Chardin, Sir John, 195, 197, 

Charlem£^g^e, ii., 46 

Charles, ii., 48 

Chamay, Desir^, ii., 424 

Chartered Royal Wine Com- 
pany, ii., 205 

Chartreuse, ii., 173 

Chateau Broustet - Nerac, ii., 
133; Climeus, ii., 132; Coutet,. 
ii.. 132; Doisy, ii., 133; Haut- 
Bion, ii., 130; Lafitte, ii., 130; 
Latour, ii., 130; Margaux, ii., 
130; Myrat, li., 133; Yquem, 
ii.. 131 

Chatties, 26 

Chefali, 421 

Cherry, bounce, ii., 465; wine, 
ii., 170, 187, 466 

Chewing, cassava, ii., 404; gum, 

Chian, 524 

Chianti, 546, 548 

Chibe, ii., 367 

Chica, 185; de maiz, ii., 334; 

mascada, ii., 358 
Chicha, ii., 335, 350, 351, 386, 

387, 390; ae cuajo, li., 386; 

de manzanos, ii., 352; de 

mutilla, ii., 361; de pina, ii., 

Chichah, Co-pah, ii., 395 
Chi-chi, ii., 354 
Chickpeas, 370 
Chilan^, 125 
Chili, ii., 345; A Visit to, 350; 

making cider in, ii., 352 
Chili pepper, ii., 354 
Chilian pottery, ii., 348 
Chilote, ii., 428 
China, grapes in, 33 
Chinnung, 42 
Chinqua, ii., 455 
Chiretta, 27 
Chiumoya, ii., 361 
Choco, li., 381 
Chocolate, ii., 380, 467; Indian 

method of preparing, ii., 406; 

nomenclature of, 381 
Chocoli, ii., 390 
Choh, ii., 439 
Choko, 177 
Cholar wine, 199 
Chong, 54, $6, 17s 
Choo, 36 
Chorba, 382 
Chowsen, 69 
Christian, 178 
Christian, F. W., 174 
Christmas ale, ii., 103 
Chrysanthemum, 90 



Chuala, 314 

Chydaeae, 496 

Ciborium, 502 

Cider, 149; ii., 26, 165, 166, 224, 

436. 459 
Ciderkin, ii., 169 
Cider royal, ii., 465, 466 
Cider tanks in H6pital du bon 

Sauveur, ii., 166 
Cidre, d^lu^, ii., 169; doux, ii., 

168; piquant, ii., 168 
Cilibantum, 504 
Cingit, ii., 315 
Cinnamon water, ii., 468 
Circassia, toasting a sweetheart 

in, 396 
Cissybium, 502 
Cistercian order, ii., 154 
Clairette, ii., 169 
Clamber-skuU, ii., 249 
Clap. Roger, ii., 457 
Clarea, ii., 200 
Clark, Doctor Edward Daniel, 

433;ii-» 15. 77 

Clark, Marcus, 150 

Clark* s Travels t ii., 15 

Clany wine, ii., 467 

Classic taste, j6o 

Cloister beer, li., 235 

Clonari blanche, 423 

Clos de Vougeot, ii., 154 

Cloudberry, 64 

Cloutes-Elliott, ii., 447 


Cluro, ii., 358 

Coalhada, ii., 379 

Coca, ii., 361 

Cocaine, ii., 362 

Coca wine, 27 

Cochin China, 53 

Cock-ale, ii., 250 

Cockatruce, ii., 402 

Cock-fighting, 170 

Cocktail, ii., 479 

Coco, ii., 171 

Cocoa, ii., 380 

Cocoanut, 97, 159; julep, ii., 413 ; 
liquor, 29; milk, temperature 
of, 98 ; oil of, 99 ; tree, liquids 
from, 97 ; tree, possibilities of, 
99; water, 184 

Cocoa, tree, ii., 380, 382; wild, 
ii., 404; wine, 124 

Cocolobis, 51^ 

Coffee, 215; ii., 47, 466; a kind 
of coal, 219; and beer-mani- 
festo, ii., 47 ; broadside on, 222 
drinking in Arabia, 226; first 
coffee-house in England, 222; 
price of, 224; proclamation; 
against, 225; smellers, ii., 47; 
stories of, 216; substitute 
for, ii., 415; tax on, 219; the 
women's petition against, 224 

Coffee-houses, 218 

Cc^ac, ii., 120; ancient receipt 
for making, ii., 126 

Coirm, ii., 311 

Colero, ii., 353 

CoUares, ii., 212 

Colocasia esculenta, 145 

Colossus of Helios, 434 

Coloured wines, ii., 187 

Columbano, 546 

Columella, ii., 127 

Colum nivarium, 505 

Comfortable waters, ii., 29a 

Comissatio, 510 

Commanderia, 421 

Completer, ii., 222 

Confection wines, 497 

Confucius, 44 

Conque, ii., 354 

Consemina, 522 

Constantinople, 219 

Consul wine, 528 

Controversy between Burgundy 
and Rheims, ii., 147 

Convent ale, ii., 273 

Cool fair maiden, li., 41 

Cooper, ii., 254 

Coptos wine, 343 

Coquempin, ii., 221 

Cordial of health, ii., 468 

Corea, 41, 5^ 

Corfu, 417 

Corks first used, ii., 144 

Cork-jumper, ii., 151 

Corma, 455 

Corme, 455 

Corn, ii., 314 

Com brandy, ii., 109 

Comifesto, li., 212 

Comu, 502 

Comum, 502 

Comus, 502 



Corrobory dance, 147 

Corsica, ^63 

Corvin, ii., 36 

Corvo, 561 

Costly water, ii., 415 

Cos-vonglotj ii., 152 

Cote d'Or, ii., 153, 155 

Cotnar, 473 

Couches, 504 

Courmi, 45 S 

Cowberry, 68 

Cow horns, qjJi 

Cowslip ale, 11., 250; wine, 267 

Cow- tree, ii., 379 

Coyol, ii., 40a 

Crambambuli, ii., 50 

Cranberry, 64 

Crawford, Tohn,P.R.S., 161, 165 

Crawford, Mabel Sherman, 547 

Creation, the, 4 

Creek, Indians, ii., 437; nation, 

^ "•» 439 .. 

Cremant, 11., 151 

Crdme de menthe, ii., 201 

Creo, ii., 50 

Cretan method of treating 

grape pests, 403 
Crete, 400; wines of, 401 
Crimea, ii., 86; wines of, 86 
Crosse, Andrew F., ii., 16 
Crows, 107 
Crozes, ii., 165 
Cuach, ii., 315 
Cuain, ii., 368 
Cuca, ii., 361 
Cucumber seed oil, 258 
Cuirm, ii., 311 
Cup, 31, 60, 89, 99, 13s, 236, 

249. 350. 430. 49a, 501 ; "•. 46, 

102, 241, 314 
Cup-bearer, 505 
• Cups, presentation of, 507 
Cura9oa, ii., 73 
Curague, ii., 354 
Curious old port, ii., 189 
Curmi, 455 
Currant wine, ii., 266 
Curry, 99 
Customs and Fashions in Old 

New England, ii., 456, 470 
Cutcherries, 104 
Cuthay, 94 
Cuyte, ii., 75 

Cwrw, ii., 326 
Cyclades, 407 
Cymbium, 502 

Cyprus, 421 ; making of wine in, 

Daeusa, 234 

Dahomey, 298 

Dakno, 295 

Dales, 389 

Dalmatia, 468 

Dalmatia and Montenegro^ 470 

Dalmatian festival, 471 

Damascus and its People, 325 

Dampier, 166 

Danaelion wine, ii., 267 

Dantzic beer, ii., 55 


Danzig, ii., 102 

Dardanelles, 432 

Dareti, 31 

Dark ports, ii., 213 

Darma, 43 

Daruma, 43 

Date, 344, 365 

Daughty, Charles M., 226 

Davidson, James W., F.R.G.S., 

De Amicis, 318 
Dean Ramsay, ii., 275 
Dean Richard, ii., 467 
Death for eating a watermelon, 

De Baptismo, ii., 227 
De Braganza, Catherine, 48 
Decline and Fall of the Roman 

Empire^ ii., 15 
Dedo de Dana, li., 213 
Degue, 297 
Delbosco, 561 
Delights for ladies, ii., 302 
Demarr, James, 148 
De Mendana, Alvaro, 185 
Denmark, ii., 114 
Deodar, 26 
De pisco, ii., 260 
Dereniak, ii., 89 
Destruction of vineyards, ii., 202 
Dethlyle, 317 
DeTourmefort, Joseph Pilton, 




Deuteria, 495 

Devas, 14 

Devi, 16 

De Villeneuve, Amauld, ii., 140 

Dhoum palm, 354 

Dhurra. 243. 254. 3^4 

Dhy 5 

Diachyton, 494 

Diatretta, 50 < 

Diaz, Bartnoimew, 313 

Dingoes, 146 

Dionysus, 448 

Dionysian festivals, 447 

Dipse, J40 

Distended abdomen, 5a 

Disraeli, 225 

Distillation, 8 

Distillation, earliest record, 24 

Distilling, in Pennsylvania, ii., 
476; in Scotland, li., 288; first 
in North America, 463 

Distinguishing name, 33 

Dobel, Peter, 63, 71, 75 

DobbeltOl, ii., 115 

Doble-doble, ii., 348 

Doch-an-dorius, ii., 379 

Dodra, 500 

Dogsnose, ii., 353 

Dokn, 355 

Dolo, 397 

Domitian, ii., 137 

Dom Perignon, ii., 143 

Donkeys laden with wine, 423 

Donskoe champanskoe, ii., 86 

Donzellinko, ii., 213 

Doogh, 194 

Doomsday Book, ii., 264 

Dop, 314 

Doppel-bier, ii., 255 

Dragasini, 473 

Draksha, 27 

Dram of love, ii., 34 

Draumce, ii., 313 

Drinke and welcome, ii., 225 

Drinking, by challenges, 512; 
excuse, 307; for amuggle, ii., 
241; from the bota, li., 197; 
health, ii., 245; horns, ii., 314; 
neat wine, 441; of poison to 
excite thirst, 514; of the 
wassail bowl, ii., 236; schools, 
ii., 240; song of the men of 
Basle, ii., 216; to the letters 

m a persons name, 511; 

water, 389 
Drink of the masons, ii., 273 
Drinks water like wine, 397 
Drip, ii., 187 

Drummond, Prof. H., 256 
Dnmkenness, phrases for, ii., 

243; punishment for, 41 
Dry Tokay, ii., 30 
Duhalde, Jean Baptiste, 37 
Duke of Holstein, a 10 
Dulce, 494 
Dunder, ii., 410 
Dunpavecha, 379 
Dunen, 120 
Durrah, 295 
Dutch Life, ii., 73 
Dutch settlers, ii., 454 
Duz, 479 

Dyaks, 108, 114; toasting, 1x9 
Dyna, ii., 430 

Earle, Alice Morse, ii., 456, 470 

Early taxation, 34 

East Africa, 361 

East India Company, 45 

Easy rearing of children, ii., 

Eau de gazeux, 368 
Eau de groseille, ii., 171 
Eau miraculeuse, 556 
Eau de pomme, ii., 166 
Eau de vie, ii., 119 
Ecbolada, j4^ 
Economic History of Virginia, 

^"••457 .. 

Ecuador, u., 390 

Edible birds' nests, 119 

Egg-ale, ii., 250 

Eg3T>t, 339; ancient wines of, 

341; taxes in, 363 
Egyptian, beer, 343 ; bill of fare, 

357; dinner, 353; feast, 361; 

pie, 360; still, 345; vineyards, 

3J9; water-carriers, ^50 
Eight-forked serpent, 78 
Eiran, 371 
Ejeeki, 286 
Ekko, 311 

Elderberry wine, ii., 268 
Eleusine, 367 



Elixir mirabilis, ii., 468 

£1 jellabe, 365 

El-khamr, 232 

£1 Makrizy, 35a 

Emarcum, 520 

Embeth, 310 

Emblic, 29 

Emotolo, 270 

Enfundi, ^05 

England, li., 224; inns and tav- 
erns of, ii., 258; vineyards in, 
ii., 262 

EnglatKTs Bane, ii., 240 

EnglafuTs Improvement by Sea 
and Land, ii., 54 

En naishu, 269 

Ensa, 302 

Enzoga, 269 

Episcopio, 549 

Epistolar Hoelianar, ii., 325 

Eptagonia, 424 

Erasmus, ii., 255 

Erdbeerenbowle, ii., 51 

Erk soos, 347 

Blran, ii., 21 

Erman, Adolph, 66 

Erromanga, 179, 186; cooking 
in, 188; feast, 189 

Escra, ii., 515 

Eskimo Life, ii., 445 

Eskimos, ii., 444 

Essentz, ii., x8 

Este genere de atole, ii., 448 

Esternazv family, ii., 27 

Estremaaura, ii., 212 

Eternal youth, 554 

Etesiaca, 522 

Ethiopia, 247; festival in, 249; 
serving liquors in, 249 

Ethiopian oven, 252 

Eugenia, 518 

Evans, Col. Albert S., ii.» 427 

Ewa, 269 

Ewbank, Thomas, ii., 364 

Examen, 225 

Excessive drinkine, ii., 468 

Excursions to the North of 
Europe, ii., 82 


Paa saa, 136 

Face to Face with the Mexicans, 
ii.. 425 

Fada, 598 

Fada-cnusch, 398 

Fada-fizza, 398 

Fada-flesch, 397 

Falemia, 484 

Falemian, 523; varieties, 484 

FaUcener, E., 406 

Falumum, ii., 413 

Fan palm, 182 

Fan-to, 190 

Farming out palm trees, 123 

Famaccina, 465 

Faro, ii., 75, 561 

Farrina, ii., 336 

Fast days, 253 

Fatiheh, 260 . ^ 

Fatness of the water, ii., 427 

Faustianum, 484 

Fenuviz, ii., 27 

Ferintosh, ii., 296 

Ferral branco, ii., 213 

Fethal, ii., 314 

Fez, 320 

Fi, 269 

Fifteen-gallon drinker, 302 

Fiji chief, life of, 141 

Fiji Islands, 139 

Fiji still, 142 

Filbunki, ii., 294 

Finger nail, ii., 240 

Finger-like vine, 524 

Fim^el, ii., 104 

Finland, ii., 90 

Fire liquor, ii., 432. 43^ 

Fire water, ii., 292 

Fishena, 479 

Fitzgerald, W. W. A., 262 

Five M., 16 

Fixed bayonets, 208 

Flacon petillant, ii., 151 

Fled, ii., 316 

Flip, ii., 272; dog, ii., 272 

Florentia, 522 

Foldert, ii., 315 

Folgozas, ii., 213 

Fontignac, 470 

Food fit for the gods, ii., 

Foot-ale, ii., 246 
Forbes, Henry O., F.R.G.S., 160, 

167, 172 
Formosa, 91; marriage in, 92; 

pottery-making in, 93 



Fortune liquor, ii., 98 

Fosnische Irauben, ii., 5 

Four hundred and fifteen grains 

of com, ii., 431 
Four wines at a meal, 491 
Fox grape, 525 
France, ii., 116; first planting of 

the vine in, ii. ,116; punishment 

for drunkenness in, ii., 140; 

wine taxes in, ii., 158 
Freemason, 263 
Fresco, ii., 405 
Frozen wine, 198, 529 
Fryer, Doctor, 19a 
Fuddling, ii., 408 
Fufu ensa, 301 
Fula, ii., 214 
Full, ii., 112 
Funeral, 399; feast, 171 
Fumess, 3d, William Henry, 

M.D., F.R.G.S., 109 
Fuss ftmgle, ii., 478 
Fura, 295 

Gagahoquah, 314 

Ga^e, Thomas, ii., 427 

Gais beer, ii., 39 

Gajanlas, 308 

Galeola, 506 

Gall, 243 

Gallego, Hernando, 185 

Galoppo, 463 

Gamal, 137 

Gambrinus, ii., 36 

Gamarwa, 269 

Ganga-bungo-ze, 265 

Garapa, 304; ii., 213 

Gara pina, ii., 414 

Garcimso Inca de la Vega, ii., 

^ 356 . 

Garcmia mangostana, 165 

Gargling wine, 23 

Garfic, 40 

Garum, 508 

Garway, Thomas, 45 

Gathering honey, 127 

Gaudi, 29 

Gayatri, 18 

Gea, 139 

Gedina, ii., 415 

Geneva, ii., 65 

Gerard, Madame £., ii., 9 

German Life and Manners, ii., 48 

Germany, ii., 31 

Geropiga ii., 214 

Geshu, 234, 248 

Geysers, li., no 

Gez, 210 

Gezangebin, 211 

Ghamsi, 269 

Ghazals of Hafiz, 2x1 

Ghee, 24 

Ghi, 27 

Ghosts, 137 

Ghussub- water, 295 

Giant cactus, ii., 438 

Gill, ii., 287 

Gilofre, ii., 268 

Gimolost, 12 

Gin, 159, ii., 65; nicknames for, 

^ "•. 65 

Gmger, 26, 348 

Ginger wine, ii., 171 

Giro, A65 

Gironde, ii., 129 

Giryamas, 262 

Giving the mitten, ii., 301 

Giving the pumpkin, ii., aox 

Giya, 294. 295 

Glacier wine, ii., 220 

Glenlivet, ii., 301 

Gli, 314 

Glin, Matthew, ii., 324 

Globusita, 72 

Glue scalding, 16 

Godfather's beer, ii., 40 

God save you, 387 

Gok-bandeema, 108 

Gold cure, 43S. 555 

Golden cotnar, 474 

Golden water, 555 

Gold leaf, 557 

Golul-drancei, 473 

Gombroon, 209 

Gomuti palm, ij8 

Gooch, Fanny Chambers, ii., 435 

Good day, ii., 72 

Good stuff, ii., 359 

Goreba, 296 

Go to Sleef, 307 

Gouveio, li., 213 

Governor, Lovelace, ii., 463 

Governor's Island, ii., 454 

Grace cup, ii., 236, 285 



Grafted vines, ii., ipa 

Granada, wines of, li., 187 

Grandilla, ii., 405 

Grand Monarque, ii., 139 

Grand mosseux, ii., 151 

Grant, Captain James August, 

Granville, 64 

Grape, 11, 90. 126, 144, i54, 23a. 
241, 253. 265. 272, 285, 304, 
3", 320, 324, 32s. 349. 369. 
379. 380. 390. 395. 400, 415, 
417, 419. 421, 428, 434. 435. 
463, 464. 468, 493, 542, 547, 
561, 562; ii., 56, 85, 339, 
348, 378, 390. 436; berry 
liquor, ii., 436; growing on 
trees, <3i; hard berried, 523; 
mounds, 333 

Grapes on coins, 400, 427, 431, 

Grass, 71 

Grasse, Dr. J. G. Th., ii., 44 

Great drinkers, 512 

Greece, 4^8 

Greenland, marriage in, ii., 

Grenache noir, ii., 13 a 
Grenthipasn, 26 
Groaning beer, ii., 471 
Groaning cake, ii., 471 
Grog, ii., 412 
Grogram, ii., 4x3 
Grout, Rev. Lewis, 288 
Grushevoi kvass, ii., 82 
Gum Boughs and Wattle Bloom, 

Guaji, ii., 405 
Guarana, ii., 378 
Guaruz, ii., 387 
Guayusa, ii., 391 
Gueuse Lambic, ii., 75 
Guianas, ii., 392 
Guinea com, 296, 310 
Gulab, 194; ii., 270 
Gulabi, wood, 195 
GuUaboo, 253 
Gumbrinskoe, ii., 86 
Gum-mastic, 238 
Gurapi, ii., 336 
Gurapo, ii., 195, 389 
Guru, 255 
Gusih, 121 


Hafiz, 211 

Hail, 519 

Hakluyt, 402 ; voyages, ii.. 454 

Hal, 294 

Half and half, ii., 253 

Halib, 229 

Hall, Mr. and Mrs. C. S., ii., 306, 

Halwa, 193 
Hamadan wine, 198 
Hamburghmtmi, ii., 55 
Hamilton, William J., 393 
Happe, ii., 7J5 
Hard cider, u., 168 
Harleian miscellany, ii., 52 
Harley, Robert, ii., 52 
Harpoos, 478 

Harris, Major W. Comwallis, 253 
Harwood, Ralph, ii., 253 
Hautkups, 396 
Having his load, 166 
Hawara, 331 
Headache, 531 
Head hunters, 108 
Heather ale, ii., 248 
Heavenly water, ii., 468 
Heavy-wet, ii., 248, 296 
Hebrides, ii., 327 
Hega, 343 
Hek, u., 31 
Hela, 305 
Hell water, 158 
Hell wine, ii., 219 
HeUas, A Walk in, 455 
Helvannaca, 520 
Helvolae, 519 
Hemalee, 350 

Henderson, Ebenezer, ii., no 
Henderson's History of Ancient 

and Modern Wines, ii., 205 
Henderson, T. P., ii., 294 
Henki, ii., 31 

Herbert, Sir Thomas, 214 
Hermitage wines, ii., 164 
Heroic City, ii., 412 
Heste-skar, ii., 109 
Hickory-nuts, ii., 454 
Higginson, the Salem minister, 

ii-, 456 
Highlands of BrassU, ii., 368 
High prices, 73 



Hindu, 19 

Hippocras, ii., 138 

Hiram, Kling of Tyre, ii., 181 

Hircaey Shereef suoy, 373 

History of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, 161 

Hittell, John S., ii., 449 

Hoc-cin, 170 

Hoe-cake, ii., 437 

Hojas de naranjo, ii., 368 

Holcus, 258 

Holland, ii., 65 

Hollands, ii., 66 

HoUinshed's Chronicler, ii., 229 

Holmes, Dr. Oliver Wendell, ii., 

Holton, Isaac F., M.A., ii., 387 

Holy mantle water, 375 

Home Life in Colonial Days, ii., 

456, 473 

Home life of Borneo head hunt- 
ers, 109 

Homer's nectar, 428 

Home wines, ii., 264 

Honey, 29, 127, 266, 275, 379, 
397, 306, 314, 365, 391, 396, 
397; ii.. 51, 77, 88, 215, 
273, 403; beer, 275; poison- 
ous, 391 ; rock, 397; water, ii., 
4ic>; wine, 235 

Honi^bier, ii., 51 

Hoochinoo, ii., 444 

Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 98 

Hope, Thomas, 367 

Hops, 39; in beer, ii., 32 

Horaky, 344 

Horchata, ii., 426 

Horchata de chufas, ii., 198 

Horconia, 521 

Horiate, ii., 199 

Horns, ii., 353 

Horses fed on wine, ii., ipi 

Hot, bird, 21 ; drink, 37; nellish, 
and terrible liquor, li., 408 

Hotel etiquette, 383 

Hottentots, 315^ 

Hough, P. Id., B.C., ii., 72 

House building, ^3 

Howells, James, ii., 325 

Howitt, William, ii., 59 

Hrenas, 10 

Huff -cap, ii., 248 

Huigan, ii., 354 

Hun, 18 

Hungary, ii., 14 

Hungary and Transylvania, ii.. 

Hungarian wines, ii., 26; method 

of obtaining drinking water, 

ii., as 
HvidtOl, ii., 115 
Hydomelum, 500 
Hydromel, ii., 52 
Hydromeli, 499 
Hyne, Cutliffe, ii., 98 
Hyperion tea, ii., 461 
Hyphrone palm, 265 
Hysope ale, ii., 248 

Ian-oil, ii., 315 

lans, ii., 315 

Ibreek, 350 

Ice, 150, 195 

Iceland, 9, 107 

Iceland, no 

Ilex Para^ua^ensis, ii., 340 

Illicit distilleries, ii., 297 

Imamy, 372 

Imperial Tokay, ii., 17 

Imphee, 294 

Impote, 275; making of, 276 

Incas. ii., 355 

Incitega, 505 

Inebriating water, ii., no 

Indian, com, 385 ; courtship and 
marriage, ii., 442; curry, 159; 
hemp, 208; ink, 35; idea of 
liquor drinking, ii., 435; mar- 
riages, ii., 333; wedding, ii., 

Indo-Aryans, 13, 28 
Indra, 21 
Indrajihva, 29 
Ingenious method of obtaining^ 

water, 284 
Ingini, 106 

Inn and tavern signs, ii., 281 
Innishowen, ii., 304 
Inntille, ii., 315 
Insingin, 310 
Inspector of wines, 376 
Instructing the unbeliever, 204 
In the Land of the Lion and the 

Sun, 199 



Intoxicating, plant, ii., 478; rice, 
54; spring, 62 

Intoxication, penalty for, 58 

lona, first city of, 415 

Ionian, 415 

Ireland, ii., 306 

Ireland, ii., 302; making of ale 
in, 311 

Irish, banquets, ii., 316; inns, 
ancient, ii., 319; inns, mod- 
ern, ii., 322; punch, ii., 323; 
whiskey, ii., 304 

Iron bark shingles, 149 

Irtiola, 522 

Isfahan wine, 198 

Ishkodawabo, ii., 436 

Isle of France, 183 

Isle of vines, the, li., 262 

Island of wild hogs, the, 180 

Israel Brewer, ii., 55 

Isthmus of Darien, ii., 394 

Italia, ii., 360 

Italians of to-day, the, 544 

Italy, 542 

Ithaca, 417 

Izbiten, ii., 84 

Jaca-tree, 27 
/ackson, 140 
Jack the painter, 149 

,ag, u., 274 
, agas, 305 
,aggery, 103, 105 
, a-luo, 269 
^ amaica, ii., 412 
. amajabs, ii., 448 
, ambumbia, ii., 415 
. ameson, Robert, 420 
Japan, 78 
,araky, 36s 
, atahy, n., 374 
Jataniansi, 26 
/atoba, ii., 374 
, ava, 146, 155, 156 
Java coffee. 159 
Java rum, 130 

Jerez, ii., 180; soil of, ii., 153 
Jerusalem, artichoke, ii., 459; 
longevity in, 335 

Jesuit tea, ii., 345 
Jinjindi, 309 

ocote, ii., 405 

ohannisberger wine, ii., 62 

ohannissegen, ii., 22 
.ohn of Brokehampton, ii., 235 
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, 49 

ohnson. Miss Anna C., ii., 55 

ohnston. Sir Harry, 267, 273 

oppenbier, ii., 55 

orum, ii., 288 
^osevin, A. M., ii., 245 
"josselyn's Account of Two Voy^ 
ages to New England^ ii., 459 

oyce, P. W., ii., 311 

uicy roots, 283 

ujube, 26 

ule ol, ii.. 103 

ulep, ii., 2 70 

ulian the Apostate, ii., 117 

unkerbier, ii., 55 

uwaree, 247 

uwaree-maiting, 247 

Kaawy. ii., 37a 
Kabak, 66 
Kacha, 14 
Kaffir-corn, 277 
Kahetia, ii., 86 
Kakerbha, 31 
Kakouin, ii., 376 
Kakutstha, 21 
Kali, 18, 19, 25 
Kalika, 19 
Kalja, ii., 93 
Kalo, 145 
Kaltschale, ii., 50 
Kahwa, 225 
Kamakhya, 19 
Kamarwa, 269 
Kamchadale, 71 
Kamchatka, 71 
Kamfia, 403 
Kamr el-sebhaly, 337 
Kanakas, 144 
Kandeel, ii., 73 
Kanipa, 170 
Kantang, 163 
Karak-ola, 104 
Karengia, 295 
Karikana, 29 



Karuoruo, 177 

Kashuks, 195 

Katakirri, 296 

Katereng, 175 

Kaula, 17, 19 

Kaulas, 16 

Kau-yang-tsyew, 40 

Kava, 132, 138; effects of, 139; 

preparation of, 178 
Kava-kava, 139 
Kaviaraku, ii., 377 
Kaweka, and Nakaweka, 267 
Kaya vodka, ii., 87 
Ke, 78 • 

Kedrouvie nuts, 69 
Keimak, 371 
Kelingoo, 104 
Kentucky, ii., 475; drink, ii., 

369; first still in Bourbon 

county, ii., 475 
Kentucky, Colhns's History of, 

Kerman wine, 198 
Kessme, 391 
Khali, 258 
Khammurabi, la 
Khar, 211 
Kharjjuna, 28 
Kharroob, 347 
Khasseky, 372 
Khoshab, 371 
Khultin, 389 
Khushaf, 346 

Ki, 78 

Kiang, 38 

Kiannan, 38 

Kidney- wink, ii., 322 

Kieft, William, ii., 463 

Kif, 318 

Kiji, 158 

Kill the animaculae, ii., 405 

Kill-devil, ii., 408 

King of all wines, the, 546; ii., 

King of grapes, the, 436 
King's drunKard, 299 
King Solomon, 2 1 
Kingston, William H. G., ii., 

King Theodore, 235 
Kirpichnui chai, 70 
Kirpui, 75 

Kirschwasser, ii., 55 

Kirsebaervin, ii., 114 

Kishmish wine, 198 

Kislya shchee, ii., 82 

Kissery, 255 

Kisslyschtschy, ii., 83 

Kist vaen, ii., 273 

Kitchen midden, 161 

Kitool, 105 

Kittool, 97 

Klaproth, Heinrich Julius von,62 

Klere, ii., 73 

Klein beer, 163 

Klekovacha, 379 

Klunzinger, C. B., M.D., 351, 

Kneip arrack, 164 
Knickerbein, ii., 50 
Koesteritz, ii., 50 
Kohl, J. G., ii., 22, 24 
Kohmet, 269 
Koji, 79 
Kojuwo, 43 
Kola, 255 
Komaras raki, 405 
Komiat, 269 
Komil, 296 
Komirin, 85 
Komovitsa, 379 
Kono, 269 
Kooi, ii., 376 
Koormack, 480 
Koumiss, 6; distilled, S 
Kow-chow, ii., 354 
Krakabervin, ii., 109 
Krallo, ii., 50 
Krambambuli, 557 
Kraut suppe, ii., 13 
Kris, 167 
Kriska, 309 
Krouskji porter, ii., 84 
Krunka tree, 294 
Kshatriyas, 20 
Kublai, 7 
Kummel, ii., 84 
Kuyazhenika, 63 
Kvass, ii., 80 
Kwass, ii., 444 
Kythnos, 414 

Laboragol, ii., 249 



Labrador tea, ii., 461 

Lac, 104 

Lac concretium, ii., 109 

La chicha, ii., 414 

Lacrims Christi, 549 

Lady in the Straw, the, ii., 47a 

Lady's fixiger, the, ii., 213 

Lagen, 158 

Lagena, 505 

Lager beer, ii., 43 

Laksman, 39 

Lambert, Father, 393 

Lambic, ii., 75 

Lambrusco, 549 

Lamb's wool, ii., 237 

Lamb wine, 40 

Lampong, dress of maidens in, 

Land Beyond the Forest, The, ii., 

Land of the Thousand Lakes, The, 

ii., 95 
Lapland, ii., 97; bread making 

in, ii., 98; weddings in, 98 
Laplanders, 10 
La Plata, ii., 341 
Larangina, ii., 378 
Larda, tidningame, ii., 46^ 
Large cellars, 87; cigars, li., 398 
Largest grape vine in the world, 

ii.. 452 
Lam, 170 
Larose, ii., 130 
Latouche,'jonn, ii., 209, 210 
La Tour, Blanche, ii., 133 
Lavado, ii., 370 
Lavradio, ii., 212 
Law of drinking, ii., 245 
L'eau des noiaux, ii., 416 
Leban, 230 
Lebanon wine, 336 
Lebelebele, 278 
Le boisson, ii., 169 
Le Gentil, M., 165 
Lemonade, 347 
Le moulant, ii., 221 
Lent rat, ^05 
Leoville, ii., 130 
Lepesta, 506 

Lepsius, Karl Richard, 341, 343 
Lerust, 283 
Lesbos, 429 
Lese, ii., 467 

Lesseps's Travels, 72 

Lestar, ii., 3i< 

Letters from the Levant, jg$ 

Lettsom, Dr. John Coakley, 

Leymoonateh, 347 
Liberalia, 541 
Liberty-tea, ii., 461 
Libo, 269, 297 
Lichtenhainer, ii., 48 
Licorice, ii., 199; root, 40 
Life and Uncommon Adventures 

of Captain Dudley Bradstreet^ 

ii., 70 
Life in Bra2til, ii., 364 
Lighmi, 298 

Liminada con ron, ii., 414 
Limonakki, 414 
Limondes gazeuses, ii., 171 
Lincoln, A., President U. S. A. 

Lion and Sun, The Land of, 

Lipica, ii., 8^ 
Lipiecniak, u., 89 
Liqueurs, ii., 171 
Liquor made m>m tobacco, ii., 

Liqusticum, aiwana, 26 

Livingstone, David, 275 

Lodhra, 26 

Loin, ii., 328 

Lombok, 126 

Long Island, ii., 467 

Longland, William, ii., 228 

Longsup, ii., 465 

Loot, 150 

Lora, 495. 527; "-, an 

Los Angeles grape, ii., 450 

Loto, 469 

Lotus flowers, 29 

Loupin-on-stone, the, ii., 279 

Lover's wine, ii., 98 

Lowbgeh, 343 

Lower California, ii., 447 

Lo Yo, 44 

Lubeck, ii., 43 

Ludlow, Captain W. P., 389 

Luese, 269 

Lully, Raymond, ii., 194 

Lunp^anda, 269 

Lusftanian Sketches, ii., 307 

Luwanga, 269 



Maas, 287 

Maba, 309 

Mabiz, 389 

Maby, ii., 416 

Macachera, ii., 367 

Macarthur, Captain John, 154 

Macaulay's Htstory of England, 
ii., 258 

Maccabeo, ii., 136 

Macdonald, Donald, 146 

Macdonald, George, 301 

Machio, 9a 

Mackintosh, Mrs., 325 

Macul wine, ii., 351 

Mad, ii., 446 

Madagascar, 179 

Madatanka, 21 

Madatyaya, 21 

Madayyadha, 21 

Maddi, 296 

Madeira, 316, 320; transporta- 
tion of wine in, 321 

Madhirika, 29 

Madhuka, 30 

Madjien, 318 

Madjoon, ^76 

Magellan, li., ^31 

Maghallanes, Hernando, 123 

Magnum opus, 555 

Maguey, ii., 418; de corte, ii., 
421; in blossom, ii., 420; its 
use, ii., 418; paper from, ii., 
419; plantations, ii., 420; sap 
gathering, ii., 420 

Mahahatakas, 15 

Mahayah, 317 

Mahia, 317 

Mahwa, 29 

Maiden grape, ii., 4 

Mairey, 29 

Maitrank, ii., 51 

Maivek, 269 

Maiyuek, 269 

Maiz, 239 

Maize, li., 425 

Maize mena, 52 

Makalakas, 279 

Maken, ii., 354 

Makia, 296 

Malafu, 307 

Malagas, ii., 187 

VOL. II — 3 a 

Malay Archipelago, 126 
Maleniak, ii., 89 
Malinovoi kvass, ii., 82 
Malmsey, 402 ; original home of, 

439; wine, 321 
Malowo, 132 
Malua, 269 
Malvagia, 464 
Malvasia, 321, 406, 465 
Malvasie, li., 187 
Malvasivor, 413 
Malvazia, ii., 213 
Malvoisie, ii., 136 
Malvoisics, ii., 190 
Mamalinga, 385 
Mamana, 269 
Mamertinum, 486 
Mamie Taylor, ii., 388 
Mamm, ii., 465 
Mamme, ii., 416 
Mammea Americana, ii., 416 
Manathan, ii., 465 
Mandarin, ^4 
Mandioca, li., 336, 364 
Mandioca root, 304 
Manga, ii., 378 
Mange eshe, ii., 436 
Mangu khan, 8 
Mangustin, 165 
Manhattan Island, first tavern 

on, ii., 463 
Mani x)oeria, ii., 378 
Manihoc, ii., 336 
Manjit, 27 
Manna, 210, 269 
Mansikka, ii., 94 
Mantras, 18 
Manzanilla, ii., 184 
Maqui, ii., 360 
Maraschina wine, 469 
Maraschino, 468 
Marco Polo, 7, 179 
Marcoy, Paul, ii., 364 
Maretis, 341, 5^3 
Marga, 168 
Mar^allion, 464 
Mana Teresa dollar, 241 
Marietta, M., 343 
Mariner, 134 
Marisa, 254 
Market grapes, 524 
Markham, Clement R., ii., 356 
Marmalade, 384 



Marocanola, 433 

Maronbise, 405 

Marriage ceremonies, agd 

Marsala, 561 

Marsh fly, ii., 426 

Martyr Isle, 186 

Marwa, 57 

Marzemino, 470 

Masachauw, 93 

Masakhauwa, 94 

Masato. ii.. 357 

Maslas, ii., 18 

Masongoi, 309 

Massanbalas, 30 j 

Massaranduba, ii., 379 

Masse, 380 

Mass making, 388 

Mast, 193 

Mastic, 333, 413. 425 

Mastica, 480 

Mate, ii., ^39, 340; armago. ii., 

345; cultivated, ii., 344 
Matimbre, 377 
Matrika bheaa Tantra, 19 
Matrimony, In the Christen State 

Ma-ul-hyat, 309 

Maurita vinifera, ii., 371 

Mauritius, 179, 183 

Mavro, 424 

Mayhew, Henry, ii., 48 

Mayiu-a yantra, 36 

Maza, ii., 406 

Mazagram, ii., 170 

McClelland, R. Guy, ii., 45a 

McGillivray, General Anthony 
Alexander, ii., 438 

Mead, 335, 397; ii., 115, 334, 
373, 327, 466; casks, size of, 
ii., 337; na-mocja, 270; rank 
of maker of, li., 334; red, 
ii., 77; white, ii., 77 

Mecca, 318 

Medar, ii., 314 

Medg, ii.. 313 

Med^-uscu, ii., 314 

Medici, Catherine de', ii., 138; 
banquet to, ii., 139 

Medoc, ii., 130 

Melampsythium, 493 

Melanesian Islands, 131 

Melicraton, 499 

Melior-ale, ii., 234 

Melitities, 494 

Meloja, ii., 198 

Melon, 348 

Mendesian wine, 343 

Menesch, ii., 31 

Menjunji, ii., 196 

Menshu, 296 

Mentha, ii., 301 

Mercury wine, ii., 165 

Merdohno, 465 

Mereesy, 230 

Meridian, ii., 465 

Merin, 364 

Merissa , 254; proclamation 

against the makmg of, 355 
Mentora, 509 
Merry-goe-down, ii., 335 
Merum, 500 
Mescal, ii., 43a, 437 
Mese, 348 
Mesikka, ii., 94 
Metale. ii., 435 
Metamba, ^10 
Metheglin, li., 78, 334 
Methi, 36 
Metica, 533 
Metilin, 439 
Methymna, 439 
Metl, ii., 418 
Meud, 46p 
Mexico, 11., 417 
Mezcal, ii., 434; cabeceta, ii., 

434; perchuga, ii., 425 
Mezzo vino, 553 
Mid, ii., 313 
Milk, 3, 5, 373, 387, 395, 371, 

397; ii., 103; ass, 5; camel, 9; 

11; cocoanut, 57; goat, 5, 

mare's, ; ; of almonds, ii., 414; 

punch, li., 414; reindeer, 10; 

sheep's, 9 
Millet, 38, 59 
Mimbo, ii., 463 
Minagas, ii., 367 
Mineral springs, ii., no 
Minhote vineyards, ii., 31 z 
Minne, ii., 113 
Mint, 65 

Miodh cuill, ii., 313 
Miraculous berry, 303 
Mirin, 85 
Mirru, 85 
Mirza-Shaffy, 399 




Mishiminaubo, ii., 436 

Mishla, ii., 403 

Mislaw, ii., 395 

Miso, 88 

Mission grapes, ii., 450 

Mistaries, 506 

Misterium, 506 

Mistela, ii., T98, 389 

Mitchell, Major, 147 

Mitra, Doctor, 17, 23 

Mixta ale, ii., 34 

Mizsgula, 405 

Mjod, ii., 93 

Mjor, ii., 115 

Mobby, ii., 416 

Mocha, 316 

Mochi-gomi, 85 

Moer, 376 

Moeoma, 379 

Mok-hayt, 333 

Mokuchou, 380 

Molasses, 36, 157 

Molesme, St. Robert de,, ii., 

Molghoy, 396 

Molle, ii., 354 

Monday beer, ii., 40 

Monea, 380 

Monkey's chocolate, ii., 379 

Monk, General, ii., 53 

Monoraki, 413 

Monorasia, 406 

Montepulciano wine, 546 

Montezuma, Emperor, ii., 381 

Month, days in, li., 113 

Moon planting, 419 

Moon^ning, ii., 476 

Morat, ii., 370 

Mordvi, 67 ; dress, 67 

Moretla, 379 

Moretloa, 379 

Morewood, Samuel, 433; ii., 66, 

78, 363, 369, 389, 303, 358, 

Morgan, M. de, 13 
Morocco, 316; grape, 533 
Morosraki, 405 
Morula, 377 
Moscatellone, 465 
Mosombie, 309 
Mostos, ii., 350 
Mottar, 139 
Mountain dew, ii., 396; heath, 

ii., 373 

Mount Ararat, 395 

Mouse, 63 

Mouton, ii., 130 

Mozizu, ii., 197 

Muchtmior, 75 

Mudai, ii., 346 

Mudam, 347 

Mudar, 08 

Mud coloured by grape skins, 

ii., 189 
Mughleh, 333 

Mtihammed Shamsuddi, 3xz 
Mulberry brandy, 438 
Mulvasia, 470 
Mum, 53; of Brunswick, ii., 53; 

origin of, ii., 54 
Mume-plum, 88 
Munguengue, 305 
Muras, ii., 363 
Muigentina, 531 
Mui^^er, 307 
Muna, 508 
Muriana, ii., 300 
Murity, ii., 371 
Murrhine, 503 
Muscadines, 403 
Muscat, 434; ii., 136 
Muscatel, ii., 187 
Muscatel de Jesus, ii., 3x3 
Muscatel grape, 517 
Muscato, 431 
Museum of Classical Antiquities, 

Musgrave (M.A.), Geoige M., ii., 

Mushkow augumme, ii., 433 
Mushroom, 75 
Muskmelon seed, ii., 436 
Muskrat, 105 
Musla, ii., 315 
Mus sodalis, 63 
Muthir, 331 
Mutilla, ii., 360 
Myrobolares, 39 
Myrrhina, 493 
Myrtle, ii., 338 
Myrtle wine, 496 
Mwenge, 369 


Nalivka, 68 
Nalivki, ii., 83 



Naming, the, 114 

Nan, 197 

Nandi, ii., 376 

Nansen, Fridtjof, ii,, 445 

Nar, 479 

Narab, 105 

Naranjaaa, ii., 199, 389 

Narbonica, 525 

Narikelaja, 29 

Naring, 350 

Nasty root, the, 178 

Natal rum, 31^ 

Na tamet ling£uinga, 137 

Nativa, 141 

Native grape, ii., 450 

Natural musicians, 385 

Naturalist* s Wanderings, A, 160 

Naxos, 407 

Nebid, 325 

Nebiolo, 549 

Nebima, 474 

Nectar, 402, 427 

Nectarites, 497 

Nectar of the country, the, ii., 

Nectar of the gods, 93, 408 

Negotin, ^80 

Negroland, 393 

Negwie, 269 

Nehave, 186 

Nenadmin, ii., 313 

Neoki, 188 

Nera, 167, 169 

Nesbitt, Hume, 153 

Neto, ii., 358 

Neutli, ii., 418 

Neutralising the Satanic oper- 
ation, 67 

New England, ii., 456; Indians 
of, ii.,436 

New fire, li., 441 

New Granada, ii., 387 

New Hebrides, 139 

New Holland, 148 

New Jersey, ii., 464 

New Netherlands, ii., 463 

New Sweden, ii., 464 * 

New Voyage, i4, ii., 394 

New York bay, ii., 454 

Nicknames, 2^8 

Nicknaming, li., 247 

Nick-the-pin, ii., 339 

Nicoresci, 473 

Nieddamanna, 465 

Nile water, 351 

Nipa, 124 

Nipatato, ii., 248 

Nipa wine, 57 

Nipitatum, li., 248 

Nisekai, 189 

Noah, 13 

Noggin, ii., 386 

No heel-taps, ii., 140 

Nohelick, u., 436 

Nokaugumme, ii., 433 

Non mosseux, ii., 150 

Nonongora, 279 

Nooni-joo, 194 

Norfolk nog, ii., 249 

North America, ii., 4j3 

North America, first distillery in, 


North, Rojger, 335 
Norway, ii., 100 
Nougat, 186 

Novel method of producing in- 
toxication, 356 
Ngaji, 397 
Ngaka, 369 
Njohhi, 369 
Nubeez, 310 
Nubia, 339, 363 
Nubian beer, 364 
Nuchie, 379 

Nude men m wine vats, ii., 157 
Nuke-mum, 162 
Numissance, 521 
Nuqu 'u z'gabib, 389 
Nuragus, 465 
Nuten Island, ii., 454 
Nutmegs, 26 
Nyaoh, 269 

Oafka, n., 437 

Obba, 503 

Obbe, 31 1 

Ober, Frederick A., ii., 417, 426 

Obuabu, 269 

Obutta, ii., 92 

Occhio de bue, 465 

Octli, ii., 418 

Octroi, ii., 160; tricks to evade 

the, ii., 17s 
Odin, ii., 114 



Odob, 269 
Odoleesci, 473 
Odra, 369 
Odre, ii., 188 

0. D. v., ii., 120 
Off all, ii., 23a 

Office of cellarer, ii., 234 
Oidium, 321 
Okakura-kakuzo, 49 

01, ii., 103 

Old, grog, ii., 413; jars. 200 

Old Tom gin, ii., 69 

Old-time funerals, ii., 471 

Old-World Scotland, ii., 294 

Oleaginea, 523 

Oli, 308 

Olive, 420 

Olive-oil making, 420 

Oloroso, ii., 184 

Oloul, ii., 80 

Olunco, 306 

Omaruf, 278 

Ombellel, 364 

Omiven^e, 269 

Ompbacium, 493 

Omwenge, 267 

On the Trail of a SpanishPioneer, 

ii.. 447 

Oogoo-dood, 102 

Oonape, 174 

Oo-oo-oo, 112 

Opimian wine, 491 

Opi-opi, 189 

Oporto, ii., 203 

Orange-flower water, 350 

Orange-leaf tea, ii., 429 

Orange-peel, 209 

Orange-vinegar, 88 

Orange- water, ii., 467 

Orcbata, ii., 414 

Orchataz, ii., 199 

Order of the shirt, 236 

Orevitza, 473 

Orge, ii., 75 

Orgeat, ii., 426 

Osage Indians, ii., 436 

Ostler ale, ii., 274 

Ostyak, 66 

Oug, ii., 444 

Our Sister Republic, ii., 427 

Outchulla, 286; method of mak- 
ing, 286 

Ouycon, ii., 415 

Oveido. Valdes, ii., 407 
Oxdmel ii., 215 
Ox3rmel ii., 52 
Oxymeli, 499 
Oyie of barley, ii., 248 

Paddy, 25 

Padmaka, 26 

Padre Fray Francisco Garces, 

ii., 447 

P^^ct, John, ii., 18, 20 

Panits, 159 

Paisbti, 2 J 

Pajarete, li., 184 

Palai, 167 

Paleptmsken, 209 

Palestine, 324; vmeyards in, 326 

Pali, 310 

Palm, 298 

Palm cat, 102 

Palmensia, 486 

Palmi prinum, 496 

Palm trees, 308; ii., 402; climb- 
ing, 123 

Palm wine, 269, 300, 343 

Palmyra, 97, 10 1; possibilities 
of, loi; pulp, 103 

Palop, 463 

Panasa, 27 

Panela, ii., 388 

Pangati, 125 

Pan^kat, x68 

Paniz, 52 

Papago Indians, ii., 438 

Papaw, 257 

Pappegay, petition of widow, iL, 

Papnka, ii., 25 

Paraguay tea, ii., 341 

Parane, li., 364 

Pardoe, Miss Julia, ii., 9 

Pardon, 309 

Pare, Ambrose, ii., 126 

Parica, ii., 364 

Parsnip wine, ii., 266 

Passada, ii., 460 

Passas, ii., 213 

Passole, 562 

Passolina, 562 

Passum, 401 

Pasu, 20 



Patagonia, ii., 332 

Patay, ii.. 334 

Patera, 502 

Paul and Virginia, 183 

Pauntz, 210 

Peacock, 26 

Peach-blossom, 90 

Peach brandy, 155, 313; ii., 

Peach tree, 155 
Pearls in wine, 32 
Peasant life in Germany, ii., 55 
Peat-reek, ii., 295 
Pecque, ii., 75 
Peculiar, jugs, 551; remedy for 

sickness, 399 
Pedro Jimmenez grape, ii., 184 
Pegene, ii., 436 
Pegu 57.. 
Pegudo, n., 213 
Pekmez, 384 
Penal-hom, ii., 34 
Penarth beer, ii., 42 
Pennsylvania, ii., 464 ; Historical 

Society, ii., 464 
Penny-ale, 228 
Perceval , Annand-Pierre Caussin 

de, 100 
Perfuming theatres, 539 
Perfumery, 285 
Perpetual life, 37 
Pepoo, 94 

Peppered wines, 407 
Persia, 191 ; cost 01 wine-making 

in, 205; eating in, 192; dinner 

menu, 193 
Persian bottles, 207; bread, 197; 

water vessels, 196; wine, 206; 

wine-making, 1^9 
Persimmon beer, li., 458, 466 
Peroo, 144 
Peru, ii., 354 
Perry, ii., 229 
Petit cidre, ii., 169 
Petrie, Adam, ii., 297 
Petrolio, 551 
Petrues, 455 
Peuce, 343 
Peyraguey, ii., 133 
Pharaoh-beer, ii., 249 
Phat, 18 
Philocothonista, the drunkard, 

ii.. 241 

Philosopher's stone, the, ii., 

Philtres, 334 
Pholycandros, 413 
Phylloxera vastatrix, 321 
Pica grape, ii., 360 
Pickings of San Juan and La 

Navidad, ii., 383 
Picts, ii., 273 
Picula kakla, ii., 431 
Pieoke, ii., 478 
Pieterman, ii., 74 
Pigeon vine, 524 
Pi-ka, 40 
Pima, 10 
Piment, ii., 272 
Pin-drinking, ii., 239 
Pineapple, 64; ii., 376; rum, ii., 

411; water, ii., 426; wine, ii., 

Pmga, 11., 369 

Pingoes, 99 

Pinos, 454 

Piper methysticum, 131 

Pippala, 31 

Piquardant, 520 

Piquette, ii., 157 

Pirao, ^05 

Pisco, u., 360 

Pita, ii., 419 

Pitch-flavoured grai)e, 518 

Pitch grape, 524 

Pitch in wine, 531 

Piteria, ii., 214 

Pitto, 300 

Pivo, ii., 84; beer, 66 

Piwaree, ii., 336, 415 

Planche's La^fs ana Legends of 

the Rhine, li., 216 
Plantains, 29 

Planting of the fig-tree, 173 
Playful daughter of a good host, 

tne, 337 
Pledging, ii. , 2 38 ; old manner of, 

"•, 239 
Pliny, 341, 343. 392, 483, 488, 

495, 515. 529, 532» 534. 53^; 

ii., 45, 127 
Pltmi, 405, 475 
Poa-Abyssinica, 243 
Pocula, 512 
Poenia, 62 
Pohickory, ii., 454 



Poi, 144; cocktail, 144; making, 
145; one finger, 145 ; two 
fingers, 145; t&ee fingers, 145 

Points of the compass, i8a 

Poisoned arrows, 271 

Poit du, ii., 294 

Pokomos, 266 

Poland, ii., 88 

Poleo, ii., 339 

Polinky, ii., 478 

Polis, 560 

Pombe, 258, 262, 305 

Pomby, 310 

Pomerans, ii., 106 

Pompeiana, 521 

Ponce de Leon, Juan, 554 

Pontac, 315 

Poonatoo, 103 

Poonak, 99 

Poor man's money, 231 

Popadia, 386 

Popes, 385 

Popina, 509 

Populo, 558 

Porter, ii., 253; naming of, ii., 

Portagallo, 470 
Portugal, ii., 202 
Port wine, ii., 203 ; dark, ii., a 13 ; 

how it cams to be black, ii., 

207; white, ii., 213 
Posca, 526 
Posole, ii., 425 
Post and rail, 149 
Potato coffee, ii., 469; wine, ii., 

Poteen, ii., 304; making, ii., 306; 

names for, ii., 310 
Potheen, ii., 304 
Potulanum, 486 
Powdered pumice, 514 
Powell, Lieutenant, U. S. N., ii., 

Praetetianum, 483 

Pranava, 18 

Prayers for the success of ale, 

Precia, 519 

Prickly pear, 313; ii., 338 

Prima ale, ii., 234 

Primitive stills, 26, 279; ii., 

Pnnce Henry, 32 

Princess Isles, 434 

Princess Palatine, ii., 139 

Prinkipo, 434 

Probus, Emperor, 380; ii., 128 

Procope, 220 

Promissao, ii., 213 

Promusl, 66 

Prosecco, 470 

Protection of fruit trees, 108 

Protopum, 495 

Pruning of vines, 460, 534 

Prunus padus, 63 ; sibenca, 63 

Prusinian, 523 

Psillo, Michael, 415 

Psythium, 493 

Public Adverttser, ii., 380 

Pucinum, wine of, 483 

Pulastya, 23 

Pulcu, ii.. 349 

Pulque, ii., 417 ; fable of, ii., 418; 

fino, ii., 419; madre, ii., 421; 

motiier of, ii., 421; shops, ii., 

422 ; trains of, ii., 422 ; virtues 

of, ii., 423 
Pulquerias, names of, ii., 424 
Pumula, 522 
Punch, Creole recipe for, ii., 413 ; 

pale, 210 
Puolemvin vaw, ii., 97 
Purl, ii., 251 
P tuple bimammia, 524 
Pusk-ola, 105 
Pyrenees Orientales, ii., 134 

Quadra, J04 

juaich, ii., 279 

juaker, 300; a, dinner, ii., 473 

Juas, 64 

juass, ii., 80 

juem, ii., 257 

Juichaua, ii., 355 

Rabaut, ii., 133 

Rabbins, 11 

Rabo da ovelha, ii., a 13 

Racemosus, 29 

Racking, 35 

Raffia, 182 

Rahstica, 524 

Raising the gang, ii., 443 



Raisin-xnaking, 330 

Rak, 9 

Raka, 72 

Rakee, 430 

Raki. 208, 332, 369, 404, 405, 

413; ii., 23; flavoured, 208 
Rama, 21 
Rambles through Normandy, ii., 

Rambooze, ii., 271 
Ramayana, 21 
Ramsay, Dean, ii., 275 
Rape wine, ii., 266 
Rasianah, 208 
Raspberry, 68 
Ratafia de cerise, ii., 170 
Ratafias, 5^8 
Rattle-skull, ii., 413 
Raw beef, 244; dram, ii., 466; 

meat, 28 
Rebbiano, 546 
Recinato, 455 
Red and white, ii., 188 
Reddened eyes, 22 
Red stroke, ii., 459 
Redunder, ii., 410 
Reindeer, 10 
Rejira, 295 
Religion, queer, 66 
Remarks in a Tour through 

Sweden, ii., 102 
Remus, 4 
Renadt, ii., 104 
Repolovo, 66 

Republic of Colombia, ii., 387 
Rere dosse, ii., 256 
Resinated wine, 414 
Resources of California, ii., 449 
Restillo, ii., 369 
Revenue, 37; of the excise, ii., 

Revtsta Cientifica Mexicana, ii., 

Reze grapes, ii., 220 
Rhaetian §rax)e, 518 
Rheims, ii., 126 
Rhine wine, ii., $6 
Rhodes, 433 
Rhubarb wine, ii., 264 
Ribas, 333 

Rice, Alien Thomdyke, ii., 393 
Rice, coffee, 182; drink, 166; 

ferment, 79; liquor, 34; ii., 

214; water, ii., 388; wine, 60, 

Richard, Dean, ii., 467 

Richs, 23 

Riessline, ii., 5 

Ri^ Veda, 5, 23 

Rijsttafil, 159 

Rilly, ii., 151 

Risgovorki, 69 

River of Pearls, 320 

Roanoke Island, Indians of, ii., 

Roasted peas in wine, ii., 188 

Rob, ii., 198 

Robertson, H. A., 188 

Roe, Sir Thomas, 3 1 

Roete, ii., 198 

Ro^er, Rev. Charles, ii., 273, 275 

Rojik, 391 

Romanee-Conti, ii., 155 

Romans, ancient, 482 

Roman wine repositories, 515 

Rome, 4 

Romulus, 4 

Rory Mor's horn, ii., 286 

Rosenbeer, ii., 50 

Rose water, 194; making of, 349 

Rosolio, 347 

Rosso, 549 

Rossoli, 469 

Rossolio, 552, 553 

Rossolis, ii., 468 

Roszamaler, ii., 6 

Rotgut, ii., 248 

Roumania, 468, 472 

Round, ii., 329 

Round about the Carpathians, ii., 

Round tables, 504 

Rousillon wines, ii., 137 

Royal mirror, ii., no; usque- 
baugh, ii., 468; water, ii., 468 

Rubellae, 517 

Rue, Vin-le-Roy, ii., 163 

Ruimbi, 267 

Rules of Good Deportment, ii., 297 

Rum, 28, 150, 157, 184; as 
colonial currency, 151; barge, 
ii., 412 ; booze, ii., 411 ; bullion; 
ii., 408, 412; dropper, ii., 412, 
first made, ii., 408; hopper, 
ii., 412 ; Nantz, ii., 408 ; nomen- 
clature of, ii., 408 ; process of 



Rum (Continued) 
making, ii., 409; Puncheon, 
corps, 151; Puncheon Revolu- 
tion, the, 150; revolt, 152; 
shrub, ii., 411; trade, 150; 
white, ii., 3^6 

Rumboozing, li., 41a 

Rumbowling, ii., 412 

Rumfustian, ii., 411 

Rumme-bunke, ii., 104 

Rumney, ii., 412 

Rumpo, ii., 412 

Rumswizzle, ii., 412 

Rune-sticks, ii., 34 

Rural and Domestic Life in 
Germany, ii., 59 

Russell (LL.D.), William How- 
ard, ii., 350 

Russet coloured grapes, 524 

Russia, ii., 76 

Russian festivals, ii., 87 

Rust, ii., 21 

Rye whiskey, ii., 476 


Saa, 138 

Sable, 72 

Saccharine powder, 72 

Sack, 322; posset, ii., 4^3 

Sacks, a man of three, u., 320 

Sacred stones, 136 

Sage wine, ii., 467 

Sagoweer, 131 

Saguaro, ii., 448 

Sa^uier, 126 

Sailabolaka, 26 

Saint Foix, M., 220 

Saira, 29 

Sake, 78; cold, 89; flavouring, 

89; hot, 88; white, 85 
Sakta Tantras, 16 
Salem, Frederick William, ii., 45 
Salep, 30, 481 
Salt, as currency, 249; bars as 

money, 241 
Salvator beer, ii., 39 
Sambala, 303 
Samit, 317 
Samn, 231 
Samos, 41 J 
Sampson, li., 465 
Sam-shee, 39 

Samtchoo 9, 36 
Sandal-wood, 26 
Sandwich Islands, 142; stills, 

Sandys, George, 402, 407 
San Francisco News-Letter, ii., 

Sangaree, u., 415, 465 
Sanskrit, 28; mythology, 13 
Santa Clara, Abraham A., ii., 

Santa Maura, 417 
Santander, ii., 192 
San-tchoo, 40 
Santorin, 410; vineyards, 411; 

wine, 411 
Santrajnani, 19 
Sappa, 465 

Sardinia 438, 462 ; raisins, 463 
Sardonic grin, 466 
Sarongs, 116, 168 
Sarsaparilla, ii., 199 
Sassafras wine, ii., 458 
Satrana, 182 
Sauces, 508 
Sau-choo, J 6 
Sauer, William, 73 
Sautemes, ii., 131 
Sava, 238 

Saving the ladies, ii., 380 
Savrin, Gustavus, i 
Saweek, 362 
Sawik, 37a' 

Sawik-al-mimmas, 370 
Saxo Grammaticus, 471 
Sbitena, ii., 84 
Scangebee, 194 
Scented wax, 528 
Schiedam ii., 71 
Schiel, v., 12 
Schlummer, ii., 50 
Schnapps, ii., 50 
Schnick, ii., 74 
Schomlau, ii., 21 
Schoolcraft (LL.D.), Henry R., 

ii., 436, 438 
Sciapagnin, ^50 

Scidmore, Eliza Ruhamah, 160 
Scio, 427 
Scipula, 524 
Scircula, 521 
Scotchem, ii., 462 
Scotch whiskey, ii., 288 



Scotland, ii., 272; liquid meas- 
ures in, ii., 987 

Scottish funerals, ii., 275 

Scuppemong grape, ii., 454 

Sea<K:ucumber. 176 

Sea of cider, ii.. 330 

Sea-seasoned wine, 490 

Sea-slug, 76 

Sea-water in wine, 490 

Sebennytic. 343 

Secret tribunal, 2, 58 

Secunda ale, ii., 234 

Seishu, 78 

Selim, ii., 421 

Semper mustum, 493 

Semple, Francis, ii., 276 

Sendius Mor, ii., 311 

Senki, 89 

Sensacion, ii., 336 

Sentinum, 490 

Serai mu^lmy, 372 

Sercial, 321 

Seripos, 408; planting a vine- 
yard in, 408 

Servia, ^67, 377 

Servia, the Poor Man's Paradise, 

Service-tree, stones on the, 


Service wine, ii., 270 

Seville orange, ii., 389 

Sewahs, 160 

Sew-heng-tsow, 38 

Shalab, 348 

Shambacco, 241 

Sharab-el-benefseg, 346 

Sharab-el-hommeyd, 347 

Sharab et-toot, 347 

Sharbat, 346 

Sharbetlee, 348 

Sheate, ii., 329 

Sheep's, milk, ii., 214; tail, ii., 

Sheerat, 210 
Shell, ii., 329 
Sherbet, 195, 346; bowls, 195; 

serving. 348; spoons, 195 
Sherez vintage, ii., 184 
Sherry wine, ii., 181 
Shibeen, ii., 322 
Shibu, 84, 87 
Shimpovka, 68 
Ship made of cocoanut tree, 100 

Shipping wines, ii., 137 

Shiraz wine, 192, 197 

Shiro-sake, 85 

Shochu, 8q 

Shominaubo, ii., 436 

Shoney, ii., 328 

Shou-chou, 57 

Show, 36 

Shojru, 86 

Shuckford, 3 

Siam, 52, 58 

Siberia, 62 

Sichew, 158 

Sicily, 560 

Sidney, Samuel, 153 

Sidra, ii., 196 

Signal toast, ii., 277 

Siker. 338 

Silaerunartok, ii., 445 

Saiibub, 465 

Simpulum, 502 

Simpson, A&ed, ii., 390 

Sinus, 405 

Sirisais, ii., 214 

Sirrah, ii., 164 

Sisera, 5 

Sisnah, 303 

Sister grape, 516 

Siva, 18, 19 

Six months of — ,125 

Skhou, 397 

SkibsCl, ii., 115 

Skimmed milk, ii., 313 

Skin bag, 231 

Skyr, ii., 108 

Slendang, 168 

Sling, ii., 465 

Slivovitsa, 378 

Slivovitz, ii., 8 

Sloka-trava, yi 

Smaa sorte, ii., 114 

Small beer, ii., 232, 466 

Small Greek ^ape, 517 

Small perry, li., 229 

Smederevski, 380 

Smitanka, 70 

Smith, Edward Reuel, ii., 347 

Smith, Herbert H., ii., 375 

Smoke from distilleries, u., 464 

Smorgasbord, ii., 92 

Smrites, 15 

Smuggler's loft, ii., 297 

Smuggler, the, ii., 297 



Snaps, ii., Z14 

Snaps oy en ol, ii., 115 

Sneezing^ 138, 265, 392 

Snider, Denton J., 215 

Snow in wine, 505 

Snow water, 65 

Snouts, a man of three, ii.,330 

Soap berry, 29 

Sober vine, 520 

Social Ltfe of Ancient Ireland, 

ii.. 3" 
Social Life in Scotland, ii., 273, 

o V 

Soda water, u., 474 

Soft drinks, ii., 92, 460 

Soja bean, 86 

Soji, 86 

Solomon Islands, 179, 185 

Soma, 24, 25; beer, 23 

Songhaya, 295 

Sonoma grape, ii., 450 

Soobiva, ^48 

Sops in wine, ii., 269 

Sopus ale, ii., 469 

Sora, ii., 356 

Sorghum, 2^7 

Sotol wine, ii., 430 

Souat, 396 

Soubye, 376 

Soudak, grapes, ii., 86 

Soudan, 247 

Souf, 243 

Sour drink, ii., 436 

Sour mash whiskey, ii., 476 

Sour-sop, ii., 404 

South America, ii., 331 

South American tea, ii., 339 

South Carolina, ii., 478 

Souzao, ii., 213 

Sowah, 235 

Soy, 86, 162 

Spain, ii., 178; indigenous vines 
of, ii., 180; introduction of 
distillation into, ii., 193 ; intro- 
duction of the vine mto, ii., 

Spanish terms, 11., 201 
Specific for gout, 140 
Speke, John Canning, 266 
Spiced beers, ii., 44 
Spionia, 521 

Spiritus, ii., 106; pimento, ii., 

Split stuff, 14^ 

Sprossenbier, ii., 10 1 

Spruce beer, ii., 10 1, 465 

Sprutz beer, ii., Z02 

Ssar, J96 

Stacula, ^21 

Stader, ii., 55 

Standing water, ii., 456 

St. Anthony's fire, 140 

Staten Island, ii., 463 

Staventtmi, ii., 425, 428 

St. Bartholomew's tea, ii., 345 

St. Dionysius, 407 

St. Dommgo, ii., 407 

Stehwein, li., 22 

St. Emilion, ii., 130, 134 

Stephanitis, 524 

Sterimberg, Gaspard de, ii., 163 

St. Estephe, ii., 130 

Still champagne, li., 150 

Stingo, ii., 249, 271 

Stirhng jug, ii., 285 

Stirrup cup, ii., 109, 279 

St. John's blessing, ii., 2a 

St. Julian, ii., 130 

St. Kitts, ii., 415 

St. Martin of Tours, ii., 129 

Stokes, J. Lort, 154 

Stone, currency, 174; oven, 187; 

wall, ii., 462 
Stoops, ii., 49 
Stout, ii., 254 
Strawberry, 64; land, ii., 95; 

tree, 405 
Straw hats, ii., ^73 
Street of Fire, the, ii., 377 
Strict moderation, 15J 
Strong ale, ii., 274; drink, 338; 

ii., 432; water, ii., 292 
Struig, 9 
Stumwein, ii., 63 
Subia, 232 
Succulent roots, 296 
Sudeshara, 22 
Sudra, 19 
Sugar, 99, 103 
Sugar-cane, 157, 184, $91; n., 

Su^i, 83 
Sujuk, 391 
Sukkar, 346 
Sukra Acharya, 13 
Sultan Abdeiraham, 255 



Sultana raisins, 198 
Suitor, George, 155 
Sulung, 167 
Suma, 424 

Sumatra, 146, 167; festivals, 167 
Sun, New York, ii., 283 
Supernaculum, ii., 240 
Sura, 25; wine, 24 
Suraahvaja, 23 
Suratva, 20 
Surie, loz 
Surmjolk, ii., 109 
Surrentine wines, 48^ 
Survival of the head-hunt, iii 
Suserklapa, 159 
Susina, 469 
Susliniki, 66 
Suslo, 66 

Svagdricka, ii., 106 
Sweet drink, ii., 436 
Sweet mash whiskey, ii., 476 
Sweet potato wine, li., 377 
Sweet reed, 31^ 
Swiss brandy, li., 225 
Swiss, the blood of the, ii., 218 
Switchel, ii., 460 
Switzerland , ii. , 2 1 6 ; transporta- 
tion of wine in, ii., 220 
Swizzle, ii., 415 
Sycites, 496 
Syder, ii., 460 
Sydney, 150 
Sylvius, ii., 6$ 
Syra, 10, 108 
Syriaca, 524 
Syr-mjelk, ii., 103 
Sza, 294 
Szamajtxlni, ii., 20 

Tabefe, ii., 214 

Tabema, 509 

Table beer, li., 466 

Tacitus, ii., 45 

Tafia, ii., 214 

Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe, ii., 

Taiwan, 91 
Taki, 361 
Tala, 31 

Tallya wine, ii., 16 
Talmud, 11 

Talpona, 522 

Talwagen, 100 

Tama Bulan, 114 

Tampoli, 189 

Tampoy, ii., 268 

Tampumpie, 187 

Tane-koji, 81 

Tang dynasty, 44 

Tanpo, 158 

Taormina wine, 561 

Tap^, 163 

Tapioca, ii., 364; press, ii., 366 

Tappit hen, u., 287 

Taquara, ii., 379 

Tara, 19 

Tar-asun, 39 

Taro, 141, 187 

Taroba, ii., 567 

Tarruing dubaith, ii., 295 

Tarrupia, 523 

Tartars, 8, 59, 62 

Tataro, 136 

Tauromevitantmi, 486 

Tavenier, 197 

Tayf, 376 

Taylor, John, ii., 225 

Taylor, Miss, ii., 387 

Tchaouch uzum, 435 

Tea, 41, 60. 76, 91, 149, 194 
225; ii., 466; broadside on, 46; 
ceremony, 49; chaw, 45; first 
mention in England, 45 ; room. 

Teak, 164 
Tear Muscat, 187 
Tears of Mohammed, 325 
Te del pais, ii., 339 
Tedj, 235, 248; making 248 
Tee, 143; uses of, 143 
Teekneght, ii., 114 
Teen meblool, 348 
Teeswin, ii., 437 
Tef, 235 
Teff, 242 

Teheran wine, 198 
Telia, 248 
Tello, 249 
Tembo k'hali, 259 
Tembo la asali, 266 
Temetum, 492 

Temperance, has done for funer- 
als, ii., 471 ; movement, ii., 31 
Tempo tamu, 258 



Tempu, 257 

Tenedos, 431 

Teneriffe, 323 

Tenibombre Islands, 131 

Teniotic, 342 

Tennent, Sir James Emerson, 

96, 104, 107 
Tenos, 413 
Tent, ii.j 271 
Tepiti, ii., 366 
Tequila, ii., 428 
Teracina, 61 
Teriaky, 372 
Terlan, 549 

Terms for drunkenness, ii., 468 
Terres des Arsacides, 185 
Terskaia braga, 395 
Tertia ale, ii., 234 
Tesmuctos, 41 ij 
Texas, ii., 478 
Thaff, 242 
Thasian grapes, 343 
The Ancient Cities of the New 

World, ii., 393 
The Ancient Rigime, ii., 159 
The Antiquarian Repertory, ii, 

The Araucanians, ii., 347 
The Art of Drinking, ii., 242 
The Autocrat, ii., 410 
The Blossom, 140 
The Book of Ranks, ii., 79 
The Book of Tea, 49 
The Browst, ii., 273 
The Ceremony of the Black- 
Drink, ii., 438 
The Ceremony of the Busk, ii., 

The Ceremony of Uncovering 

and Adoring the Relics of the 

Profhet, 373 
The Cow*s Son, 254 
The Fly-Catching Madman, ii., 

The Garden of the East, 160 
The Gold Coast, Past and Present, 

The Golden State, ii., 452 
The Goode Vrow of Mana-ha- 

ta, ii., 472 
The Graves, ii,, 131 
The Highlands of Ethiopia, 253 
The Martyr Isle, Erromanga, 188 

Theobroma cacao, ii., 381 

The Weekly Post-Boy, iL, 473 

Thin-drink, ii., 437 

Thiran, 231 

This all, 180 

This whole, 180 

Three Colonies of Australia, 153 

Three-foot vine, 524 

Three threads, ii., 253 

Three times does God help, 382 

Three Years in Constanttnople, 

Through Arctic Lapland, ii., 98 
Through Finland in Carts, ii., 

Tibet, 52 
Tiff, ii., 465 
Tiger-fish, 176 
Tiggra, 297 
Tiere, 245 
Tih-Tsung, 44 
Timor, 126, 146, 170 
Timorese oath, 174 
Tina, 503 
Tindalo, 138 
Tinejas. ii., 188 
Tinta, 321 
Tintas, ii., 213 
Ti-root, 142 
Tissick, ii., 478 
Tiste, ii., 406 
Tizwin, 438 
TJaolli, ii., 386 
To, 88 

Toaka, 181; making, 181 
Toast drinking, ii., no; in old 

New York, ii., 468 
Toasting, ori^n of, ii., 243; in 

Scotland, ii., 278 
Tob, 175 
Tobacco, liquor made from, ii., 

391; peciiliar use of, ii., 447; 

cjueer use of, 271; smoking, 

ii., 397; wild, ii., 447 
Tobo, 280 
Tocaima, ii., 388 
To-cane, ii., 152 
To cool his heart, 298 
Toddy, 27, 54, 95, 97. 98, loi. 

105, 158; bird, 102; gather- 
ing, 98, 102 
To drink fair, ii., 278 
To jink the gauger, ii., 297 



Tokay, ii., 15; dry, ii., 20; im- 
perial ii., 17; making, ii., 18 
To kill the worm, 307 
Tokrasi ton Dionysus, 408 
Tolas, 17 
To lift, ii., 471 
Tom-tom, 18 
Tonga, ii., 359 
Tongo bark, 124 
Tonquin, 52, 53; arrack, 54 
Toot, 478 
Tooz, 480 
Torbalo, 464 
Torres Island, 137 
To spy out the land, 324 
Toso, 85 
Toso-shu, 85 
Tostadillo, li., 196 
Tourchee, 194 
Tourigo, ii., 213 
To your health, 470 
To your salvation, 387 
Transylvania, ii,, i 
Trassi, 160 
Traveller's tree, 183 
Travels, 281 

Travels in Arabia Deserta^ 326 
Travels in East Africa^ a $2 
Travels in Mexico, ii., 4i;r 
Travels in South America, ii., 364 
Travels in the Wilds of Ecuador, 

ii.. 390 
Trebiano, 559 
Tree of hunger and thirst, the, 

ii., 361 
Trentmo, 549 
Trepango, 130 
Tricks, to evade temjjerance, 

ii., 310 
Triclinium, 511 
Trinity audit, ii., 249 
Troster, ii., 27 

Trousers beneath the pillow, 306 
Trulla, 503 
Tsaliseus, 92 
Tscheheer, ii., 86 
Tse-kiang, ^8 
Tsemlin^oi, ii., 86 
Tshuttora, ii., 23 
Tuak, 131 
Tuba, 123 

Tuberville, George, ii., 82 
Tucupi, ii., 367, 368 

Tudema, 522 

Tulla, 506 

Tullah, 247. 248 

Tunbu, 262 ; making, 262 

Tuna, ii., 428 

Tun of Heidelberg, ii., 64, 167 

Turkey, 215 

Turkey-in-Europe, 267 

Turning grape, 523 

Turnip wine, ii., 267 

Tuschag-tso, 398 

Tusser, Thomas, ii., 232 

Tweedie, Mrs. Alec, ii., 92 

Twin grape, ji6 

Two penny, li., 254 

Twjr-browen, ii., 248 

Tymg of the tender leaf, the, 

Tyrotarichus, 508 
Tzuika, 475 

Ualla, 304 
XJbuch walla, 286 
Uchi, 265 
Uganda, 266; eating customs, 

274; protectorate, 266 
Uganda Protectorate, 267 
Uisge bea'a ba'ol, ii., 295 
Uisgebeatha, ii., 289 
Uitzet, ii., 75 
Ulpattic Tantra, 19 
Ulpo, ii., 353 
Ulung, u., 404 
Unbaptised wine, ii., 189 
Uncial is, 524 
Unnayb, 333 
Unripe grapes, ii., 414 
Upper Egypt, 351 
Upright grape, 523 
Upse-dutch ii., 243 
Upse-freeze, ii., 243 
Upton tea, ii., 438 
Ural, 64 
Uruk, 63 
Usquebaugh, ii., 289; in the 

Lowlands, ii., 294; receipts for 

making, ii., 302 
Usuph, 317 
Ut, 341 
Uter, 503 
Uve passe, 463 
Uzak, 295 



Vaidik rites, 24 

Vakula flower, a a 

Val de penas, ii., 188 

Valle, ii., 108 

Val polioella, 549 

Valteline, 548 

Vamachara, 16 

Van Rensselaer, Mrs. John, ii., 

Varum, 37 
Vausa, 18 
Vavari bark, a 6 
Vedic, ip 
Vedvi, ii., 97 
Vegetable wines, ii., a66 
Vellipatty, 100 
Velerios, ii., 303 
Venezuela, ii., 380 
Venicula, 521 
Verdea, 321, 416 
Verdelho, 321 
Verjuice, 493 
Vermouth di Torino, 550 
Vemacci, 465 
Vemaccia, 546 
Vernon, Admiral Edward, ii., 

Vespucci, Amerigo, ii., 36a 
Vesuvia, 549 
Veth, Professor, 156 
Vidanga, 30 
Vina, li,, 338 
Vinacola, 523 
Vinafer, ii., 356 
Vin cue, ii., 169 
Vin de, cerise, ii., 169; cote, ii., 

133; gingembre, ii., 171; Mide, 

ii., 153; rosa, 470; succo, 561; 

tete, ii., 13a 
Vinegar, 99, 103, 419, sa6 
Vines on cliffs, li., 190 
Vinho d'anana, ii., 376; d'assai, 

ii., 374; d'batala, ii., 377; 

verde, ii., a 10 
Vino, 123 
Vino de, Coyol, ii., 402; fram- 

buesa, ii., 200 grosella, ii., 200; 

jocote. ii., 405; lagar, ii., 197; 

pasto, ii., 191; sasso, 417; 

spiaggia, 470; yema, ii., 196 

Vino, della, 43a; more, ii., 188; 

tartaro, 470 
Vin mousseux, ii., 14a 
Vintage ban, ii., 155 
Vintage song, the, ii., 39 
Vinto Santo, 411 
Vinum, adustum, ii., 118; pol- 

lium, 561 
Violet-flavoured wine, 561 
Violets, 346 
Vira, 19 

Virata parva, aa 
Virginia, ii., 456; brew-houses in, 

ii., 458; Indians of. ii., 455; 

malt exported to, ii., 458 
Vimeau, ii., 133 
Visula, 519, 520 
Vizamantra, 18 
Vizetelly, Henry, ii., 4a 
Vivian, Herbert, 383, 386 
Vodistsa, ii., 83 
Vodka, ii., 76 
Voguls, 63 

Von Babo, Baron Karl, 31a 
Von Buck's Travels through Nor- 

^oy ond Lapland, ii., ^o 
Von Tschudi, Dr. J. J., ii., 359 
Vonums, 92 

Voyage of the *' Sunbeam," lao 
Vnhas pati, 14 
Vugava, 470 
VOnaa, ii., 95 

Vu-si-hyen in Kyang-nan, 37 
Vu-ti, 37 


Waday, 394 
Wafer, Lionel, ii., 395 
Wager or puzzle jugs, ii., 353 
Wafkna, or Adventures on the 

Mosquito Shore, ii., 401 
Wait, Mrs. Frona Eunice, ii., 451 
Waldmeister, ii., 51 
Wales, ii., 324 
Walgbaert, ii., 75 
Wallace, Alfred Russel, 137, 15s 
Wallachian vintage, :i., 33 
Wantcha, 349 
Wap, 174 

War-physic, ii., 441 
Wasps, 184 



Wassail, ii., 236 

Watching the vineyards, 328, 

381, 543; ii., 57^ , .^ 
Water and wine side by side, 474 
Water-bottles, 350 
Water-carriers, 372 
Water-lemon, ii., 405 
Water, method of obtaining, 284 
Watermelon, 60, 283, 3^4 
Water, seven kinds of drinking, 

Water wheat, ii., 427 
Water, wonderful, ii., 272 
Wazayasakava, 253 
Weak-drink, ii., 432 
Wearing of chaplets, 510 
Wedding cake, 508; ii., 13 
Wedding soup, 11., 13 
Weiss-beer, ii., 40 
Well of the winding stairs, the, 

West Indies, ii., 407 
Whey, ii., 313 

Whip-belly vengeance, ii., 248 
Whiskey, ii., 289; American, ii.. 

475; Bourbon, ii., 475; insur- 
rection, ii., 476; Irish, ii., 304; 
making, ii., 477; origin of the 

word, li., 289 ; price of, ii., 47 s ; 
Scotcii, ii., 288; sour mash, 
ii., 476; sweet mash, ii., 476 
Whistle-belly vengeance, ii., 462 
White ant tea, 184 
White ants for food, 281 
White, Charles, 371, 373 
White-drink, ii., 438 
White (F. Z. C.) , Ernest William, 

White mounsco, u., 213 

White one, 259 

Wibeer, ii., 74 

Wild, apple, 29; grapes, ii., 360; 
paddy, 24; rice, 24; rose, 68 

Wilkinson (F. R. S.), Sir J. Gard- 
ner, 342, 470 

William of Rubruk, 7 

William of Shoreham, ii., 227 

Williams's Middle Kingdom, 44 

Willis, Dr. C. J., 199 

Willow herb, 75 

W^ills, Doctor, 207 

Wilson, G. A., 16 

Wind family, ii., 443 

▼OL, n.— 33 

Windward Islands, ii., 410 
Wine, 144, 232; ii., 55; ancient 
treatment of, 528; complaint, 
21; collection of, ii., 130; 
criers of, ii., 162; disease, 21; 
early Greek method of mak- 
^g» 43 9 J early Roman method 
of keeping, 529; earliest Ro- 
man name for, 492; first red, 
429; first wooden casks for, 
ii., 217; for daily use, ii., 191; 
from dried grapes, 494; ii., 
213; game birds in, 426; 
prape, 253; green, ii., 210; 
horror, 21; in a lady's shoe, 
ii., 90 ; in mythology, i ; inspec- 
tor of, 376; lee drinks, 495; 
tnaking, 341, 418; making by 
the Romans, 526; mixed with 
raki, 209; naming of, 37.491; 
of Hersea, 439; of native 
oranges, ii. , 3 76 ; of stone, 417; 
of the devil, ii., 146; of the 
poor, the, ii., 67; press, 340, 
52 7;saleof,4i6;skins, ii., 197; 
tasters, 409; that bears happi- 
ness with it, the, 337; that 
drives away the trouble, the, 
337; the making of the first, 
407; transportation of, 529; 
water in, 444 
Wines and Vines of California, 

ii., 451 
Wines of Pompeii, 487 
Wisniak, ii., 89 
Women drinkers, ii., 141 
Wonderful water, ii., 468 
Wood ashes, 95 
Woodruff, ii., 51 
Woolly grape, 516 
Woona, 130 

Wormwood wine, 497 
Wylde, Augustus, B., 239, 

Xarello, ii., 190 
Xeb, 341 

Xeres-Jerez, ii., 182 
Ximenes, Pedro, ii., 187 
X — , its use, ii., 291 
X water, ii., 290 




Yablochni kvaas, ii., 8i 

Yajc, ii., 39a 

Yakut, 63 

Yams, 187 

Yamshch^, 67 

Yangona, 139 

Yantzakbl, 396 

Yap, 174 

Yaoort, 3^1 

Yaraque, ii., 39a 

Yawa, 269 

Yea brandy, ii., 360 

Yeast, 35 

Yerba, curmg of, ii., 342 

Yerbales, ii., 341 

Yezd wine, 198 

Yoco, ii., 39a 

Yohullah, ii., 439 

Young, Thomas, ii., a4o, 941 

Yowrt, 9 

Yucatan, ti., 499 

Yuna, Z43 

Zacbar, Prince, 76 
Zacherl-oil, ii., 40 
Zallua, 333 
Zambesi River, 375 
Zancochado, ii., 390 
Zante, 416 
Zaweettiaraky, 253 
Zanzibar, 247, 256 
Zea, 414 
Zebeeb, 345. 347 
2^mzem, 58 
Zerambo, 257 
Zibibo, 463 
Zululand, 286 
Zululand, 288 

Zululand and Cetgwayo, 289 
Zulu marriage, 28^ 
Zumo de orozuz, ii., 199 
Zythies, ii., 117 
Zythogala, ii., ai4 
Zythum, 500 
Zythus, 344 




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