BevoriD irAdrrioN e i Partnerships Among Orchestras, Schools, and Communities Myers Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries http://archive.org/details/beyondtraditionpOOmyer onD TrAduioN Partnerships Among Orchestras, Schools, and Communities A Project funded by the National Endowment for the Arts David E. Myers, Project Director Cynthia Thomas, Research Coordinator June 1996 Georgia State University School of Music Atlanta, GA national endowment for^Wthe ARTS Coop. Agreement DCA95-I2 ©1996 by David Myers for Georgia State University and its School of Music. Permission to quote from or reproduce portions of this document for nonprofit purposes is granted when due acknowledgement is made. The National Endowment for the Arts retains unrestricted rights for use for federal purposes, including reproduction in digital form. Table of Contents Acknowledgements 3 SECTION I Introduction: Moving Beyond Tradition 7 A Partnership Approach to Orchestra Education Programs 7 A Study of Partnerships Among Orchestras, Schools, and Communities 8 Organization of the Report 8 SECTION II School Partnerships: Is There a Role for Orchestras? 11 Changing Views of School-Community Cooperation 11 Orchestras and Schools 11 Developing Partnerships 12 What is a Partnership? 14 Characteristics of Effective Partnerships 15 Support and Sustainability 16 Synthesis 17 SECTION III The Orchestra Education Project 21 Purpose 21 Gathering Data 21 Validating Data 22 Survey Findings 22 Reflections on Survey Findings and Telephone Interviews 23 Selection of Programs for Site Visits 24 SECTION IV Orchestra Partnership Profiles 27 Organization of the Profiles 27 Pacific Symphony Orchestra 29 Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra 37 Boston Symphony Orchestra 47 Ft. Wayne Philharmonic 57 Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra 65 Chicago Symphony Orchestra 73 Cedar Rapids Symphony 79 New York Philharmonic 83 Austin Symphony Orchestra 91 Beyond \ uj, '• l .^^W 1 W>V*> n M n «fti-r. r ip;M 1 / W ., ... ^, Jl*» IMP! n"rJX>JWjWll^raV™'0 aft. ftjfe W >ki > r W/>i V yMi!/trftf, i 111 nr^rrnrni ? ^yK/r r iii:fW , '' , 'Vi**ivr-v:'i'''.rf r nf'-^"'^^ g^Mg SECTION I Introduction: Moving Beyond Tradition Introducti SECTION I Introduction: Moving Beyond Tradition A Partnership Approach to Orchestra Education Programs School improvement efforts over the last decade and a half demonstrate that community-wide sharing of agendas and resources holds significant promise for education. Should symphony orchestras be part of this attempt to improve our nation's schools? Orchestras themselves have to rely on broad community support to sustain their own activities. Yet, orchestras also possess important resources and expertise that can help to enrich school programs. Forming stronger alliances with commu- nities through involvement in schools may help orches- tras meet some of their current challenges. Education initiatives may be one avenue of breaking down percep- tions of elitism and irrelevance, and of fostering ex- panded enthusiasm for orchestral music performance among diverse segments of society. The traditional connection between orchestras and schools is the youth concert. Once widely viewed as an audience development tool, youth concerts have brought thousands of children to performance halls to hear live orchestral music and to learn something about instru- ments, composers, and the music being performed. Many orchestras have generated creative strategies to enhance the appeal and impact of youth concerts. Some provide classroom materials to prepare students for the concerts. Some orchestras perform on local school campuses, or use small ensembles to offer programs that encourage interaction between students and musicians. Despite the values associated with these efforts, there is longstanding disagreement as to whether periodic music performance events have a significant impact on learning or audience development. In an attempt to exert more sustained influence on music education, some orchestras are moving beyond earlier traditions to establish ongoing relationships with schools. The motivations vary, but, in most cases, these partnerships represent a combination of concern for the presence and quality of music education in schools and the orchestra's interest in expanding its audience. In addition, they reflect a belief that orchestras, like other organizations and institutions, should forge integral connections that apply their unique resources to meeting the needs of the communities in which they reside. Partnerships generally arise because two or more institu- tions or organizations share common concerns. Some of the concerns that orchestras, schools, and communities share include: • Enhancing available music education opportunities and resources • Enriching the quality of music learning in schools through direct and meaningful interchange with professional musicians • Connecting orchestras more closely with school and community life • Broadening the base of support for the contributions of music to cross-curricular learning and school environments • Developing diverse audiences for symphony orchestras • Sustaining a pool of qualified musicians and in- formed audiences • Creatively maintaining appreciation and support for the role of symphony orchestras in contemporary society As orchestras, schools, and communities work together on behalf of music education, various partnership models may emerge. Simple affiliations may allow orchestras to support music education by providing youth concerts and in-school ensembles, and to work cooperativly with schools to sustain these programs. In other communities, coalitions may evolve in which each partner assumes responsibility for given tasks, such as scheduling or materials preparation, and the partners communicate periodically to make sure the tasks are accomplished. In still other communities, collaborations - the most complex type of partnership - may emerge. In contrast to affilia- tions and coalitions, collaborations involve extensive working out of a relationship among partners, with commitments to mutual goal setting, program develop- ment, and evaluation. A Study of Partnerships Among Orchestras, Schools, and Communities In April of 1995, the National Endowment for the Arts awarded Georgia State University a grant to research existing orchestra education partnerships and to derive principles that could be helpful in establishing effective programs. The grant called for the identification of model partnerships that included teacher training, parent involvement, and administrative support from schools and orchestras. Case studies of these partnerships were intended to reveal approaches that would be useful in other settings, including strategies for curriculum devel- opment, musician training, student assessment, and program evaluation. The study began with identification of partnerships through various professional organizations, internet groups, and a survey of published journals and reports. At the same time, a survey was developed for the member- ship of the American Symphony Orchestra League. The survey requested information about each orchestra's K-12 education programs, an indication of any partnerships in which the orchestras participated, and a description of unique features of their partnership programs. From August through October of 1995, the project director conducted meetings in four regions of the country and presented sessions for a national meeting of orchestra education directors in Washington, DC. These meetings provided updates on the project and permitted partici- pants to share their ideas regarding information that would help them to develop effective partnership programs. The project staff also undertook an extensive review of research and practice relating to partnerships in general, education partnerships, and arts education programs that used a partnership approach. This informa- tion was used to define parameters of partnerships and to create a framework for later telephone interviews and site visits. Beyond Based on the literature review and survey responses, the project staff conducted an extensive series of telephone interviews to determine those programs that represented the most fully developed partnerships. As a result of these interviews, nine orchestra education partnerships were selected for site visits. Following the two-day site visits, the project staff prepared an in-depth report describing each partnership. These nine case studies demonstrate that effective partnership principles may be uniquely applied in differing community and orchestra contexts. Though each partnership achieves a level of ongoing and system- atic relationship among the orchestra, local schools, and the community, each also represents individuality with regard to areas such as program concept, planning and administration, and implemented activities. Organization of the Report Beyond Tradition: Partnerships Among Orchestras , Schools, and Communities is organized into seven sections. Follow- ing the Introduction, Section II reports on the review of literature regarding partnerships and effective principles of implementation. Section III outlines the research method and gives results of the survey and telephone interviews. Section IV includes the case study reports for the nine orchestras that received site visits. Section V presents principles of orchestra education partnerships derived from the case studies, along with challenges and strategies associated with each principle. Section VI suggests some considerations for the future of orchestra education partnerships. Section VII lists information on the orchestras visited, related resources, and selected references used in the preparation of the report. \ ««v %«»« 5' Wifr&AnrWjtnuQqJ iff 'ifchMit'l'lWlVilltlMifldari'dlin'hili rfM^^w/fflnMrj "" hhhmn School Partnerships SECTION I I School Partnerships: Is There a Role for Orchestras? Changing Views of School-Community Cooperation Current agendas for school reform stress partnership as a means of improving education. At national, state, and local levels, organizations are cooperat- ing based on their mutual concerns and visions for America's schools. Funders are soliciting proposals that demonstrate positive outcomes of school-community cooperation. Business and industry, social agencies, cultural institutions, and higher education are sharing initiatives ranging from motto-engraved pencils to large- scale innovations in curriculum, student services, and school management. Traditionally, many education partnerships have con- sisted mainly of providing services, commodities, or money in response to specific school requests. Over several decades, however, schools and communities have been attempting to develop richer relationships that more directly affect programs and learning. Most recently, school reform sparked by the U.S. Department of Education's 1983 publication, A Nation at Risk, has brought multiple forces together to improve schools. Between 1983 and 1987, business-school partnerships served over nine million students, and the number of partnerships increased by seventy percent (Business Roundtable, 1989). Today, citizens' advisory councils help to build closer connections among teachers, administra- tors, parents, and other community institutions. Increas- ingly, partnerships offer a collegial approach to shared visions of excellence and draw communities and schools together for enhanced educational opportunities. Orchestras and Schools In moving education programs beyond annual music-and- narration youth concerts, orchestras have sought ways to make symphonic music more relevant to children's developmental needs and social frames of reference. The problem has been to develop captivating approaches without compromising musical and artistic integrity, a challenge that has been met with varying degrees of success. Nevertheless, orchestra education directors and committees have continued to pursue the goal of bringing children and music together in meaningful ways. Strate- gies have included in-school ensembles, meet-the- musician programs, instrument exploration opportunities, programs using culturally diverse musics, multi-arts experiences, and development of appealing pre-concert instructional materials. Orchestras recognize, however, that occasional music enrichment activities do not constitute substantive music instruction. Consequently, they have sometimes worked with teachers and curriculum specialists to tie orchestra education events to music curriculums and classroom instructional objectives, and to select repertoire consis- tent with children's developmental levels. They have also unified various programs under themes designed to help children organize and connect the experiences in their minds. In general, however, administrators and board members have not considered it an orchestra priority to become involved in the development of sustained, sequential, and curricular music education programs in local schools. Growing cooperation for arts education. Developing effective relationships between arts organizations, including orchestras, and school arts programs has been a subject of discussion among arts educators for some years. 1 Over the past decade, a complex of factors has spurred heightened focus on this topic. In the midst of a nation- wide school reform movement, arts organizations began 1. The journal Arts Education Policy Review, formerly Design for Arts in Education, contains numerous articles on this topic, as do other arts education journals. II to consider more seriously their potential roles in relation to education. Research documenting sharp statistical declines in the numbers of school arts programs and the participation levels of students in existing programs (Leonhard, 1991) raised concern as to the long-term impact of these trends on the viability of cultural institu- tions and professional arts occupations. At the same time, reports on education and influential research such as that of Howard Gardner documented the role of the arts in children's learning and development. Funders began soliciting proposals for arts initiatives with education components. Arts-related businesses and corporations, such as music instrument manufacturers, began respond- ing to a pattern of declining sales by focusing more heavily on promoting the values of school arts programs. Numerous conferences, reports, and seminars have addressed arts education topics, such as the urgent need to develop and support school arts programs; documenta- tion of successful arts education projects; theoretical models of arts instruction and curriculum; assessment in arts education; and ways arts organizations, cultural institutions, arts educators' organizations, and schools might collaborate. What has evolved, and continues to evolve, is a consensus that curricular arts education must be a cooperative enterprise that engages a cross-section of agencies sharing similar interests and concerns. It was this growing consensus that helped to include the arts in Goals 2000 and to lead arts educators to publish the first national standards identifying what every student should know and be able to do in respective arts disci- plines. 2 In Opportunity -to-Learn Standards for Music Instruction (1995), published by the Music Educators National Conference (MENC), there is a definitive call to connect school music programs with community arts organizations. In 1990, MENC, the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, Inc., and the National Association of Music Merchants formed the National Commission on Music Education. This group produced Growing Up Complete: The Imperative for Music Education ( 1991 ), spawning a national network of local advocacy coalitions that monitor music education programs and influence curriculum and budget decisions. In suburban Gwinnett County, Georgia, northeast of Atlanta, the local arts coalition was instrumental in saving arts education programs from elimination in 1995. By diligently monitoring political developments and forging connections with school boards and local and state governments, arts coalitions in other parts of the country have also built public support for arts education and thwarted potentially damaging legislation. 3 2. See National Standards for Arts Education, published by MENC in 1994. In addition, the National Assessment of Educational Progress is developing assessment models built on students' knowledge and performance in the arts. 12 Beyond Foundations of orchestra partnerships. Established views of organizational cooperation suggest that working together arises "with situations of resource scarcity or performance distress . . .", or "when a powerful extraorganizational force demands this activity" (Schermerhorn, 1975, p. 848). Cooperation among orchestras and schools is easily cast in this context. For example, both institutions continually struggle with declining resources and questions regarding their rel- evance and effectiveness. They also experience expecta- tions to satisfy the needs of diverse audiences. Funders demand evidence of cooperative enterprise and educa- tional impact. And in the current political climate, both orchestras and schools are having to defend efforts they make to expand expressive and intellectual horizons for their constituents. However, the picture is larger than common problems and pressures. According to Bakalis (1981), cooperation can be a creative response to scarcity. Shared vision is also an important element of cooperation (Beckhard, 1975). The historic commitments that schools and orchestras share to society's cultural well-being can support a vision of music as a crucial study in the fabric of American education. This perspective can provide a basis for shared, pragmatic efforts to ensure a lasting place for music in the school curriculum. Cooperative music education initiatives coincide with the desires of schools and orchestras to connect more closely with their communities and to successfully serve a diverse clientele. Their efforts are bolstered by the current openness of schools and communities to partner- ships and by growing recognition of the importance of arts learning in human development. Of special interest to orchestras is the fact that school music programs play an important role in training professional and amateur performing musicians who may become either orchestral performers or members of a supportive audience (Ameri- can Music Conference, 1994; Bowles, 1991). Developing Partnerships There is no consistent pattern for developing a partner- ship. Virtually anyone who has an idea can propose it, obtain the support of organizations, and implement a program. However, there are two main problems with this approach: 1 ) it may fail to build consensus regarding goals and anticipated outcomes, and 2) the partnership and/or its activities may survive only as long as the originator continues to drive them. 3. See particularly the profiles of the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne, Austin, and Cedar Rapids orchestras that appear later in this report. School Partnerships Because engaging a cross-section of organizations to support a community's schools makes so much sense, it is easy to rush headlong into ventures without adequate perspective. Those participating in partnerships too often find that "the idea has been more compelling than the outcome" and that "partnership activity often looks good but lacks substance" (Grobe, 1993, p. 29). Hord (1981) warns that the term "collaboration" is employed too loosely for the complexity it entails. She asks, "How many organizations or individuals are suffering delusions of collaboration?" (p. 17). Partnership pitfalls. In the arts, partnerships may invoke lofty educational jargon to identify anticipated outcomes, to impress funders, or to promote themselves as national models of arts education. Examples include the often-stated goal of building a lasting foundation for arts education by emphasizing arts across the curriculum, or effecting systemic school change through policies that mandate sequential arts instruction in the curriculum. While such goals may be worthy, they are deceivingly complex. Attaining them requires commitment to a long-term process of change. These goals are not realized through occasional musician performances and hit-or- miss integrative experiences by grade-level teachers. Neither can a series of education events be deemed sequential because they happen to be organized in a particular order. Moreover, assertions of major change may ignore the history of arts education in America's schools and overlook the extensive body of research and experience that exists in certain fields of arts education. Failure to recognize the historic efforts of arts educators to establish a lasting base for curricular arts education, or to acknowledge those elements of school culture and organization that have impeded these efforts, can convey the impression that some arts education partnerships lack substance. For example, the goal of making a place for the arts in education by using them to teach other subjects has a long history. For years, elementary education majors at many universities have been required to complete courses in teaching the arts. Both they and their profes- sors realize, however, that minimal understanding and training do not provide a basis for integration at deep levels. While a certain degree of confidence and compe- tence can be gained, the lack of more complete knowl- edge can lead to superficial connections between the arts and other subjects. Arts education specialists are thus a necessary part of the equation. 4 In 1934, the eminent 4- In the Milwaukee Symphony's ACE program, applicant schools must employ certified music specialists for all grades as a condition of acceptance. music educator, Will Earhart, wrote this about integrating music across the curriculum: I am an integrationist . . . I am convinced, though, that the characteristic value in music . . . should be cherished and be secured first; and its strength and vitality in its own right are the measure of its value for any and all subsequent integration purposes . (Buttelman, 1962) Levels of interaction. Frequently, terms such as partner- ship, cooperation, and collaboration are used inter- changeably to describe interactions among organizations at any level, and with any result. Dreeszen (1992) believes that partnerships progress through a develop- ment cycle. This cycle involves movement from simple transactions to coordinated tasks to more complex institutional collaborations. Theoretically, an orchestra program that starts out by providing occasional ensemble performances in a school could evolve to shared planning between teachers and musicians and perhaps attain a system-wide, curriculum-based program implemented through collaboration. However, a four-year study of twenty-nine federally funded education partnerships (Tushnet, Fleming- McCormick, Manuel, Nyre, and Schwager, 1995) found no evidence of progression from simple to more elaborate relationships: "few projects changed the structures, focus, leadership styles, and vision that existed at their start" (p. 105). Instead, partnerships began at one of three levels - limited partnership (service provider), coalition (division of labor among partners), or collaboration (shared decisionmaking) - and remained there. All types had a considerable impact, but coalitions reached higher levels of implementation, and collaborations were the most likely to continue after original funding ended. Grobe (1993) used three levels of involvement to describe partnerships: support, cooperation, and collabo- ration. At the support level, the school finds a partner to provide money or services for a specific program or project. At the cooperation level, there is more shared planning, though the school is primarily a beneficiary of services. At the collaboration level, there is equality among the partners, with each, including schools, contributing resources and fully engaging in planning and implementation. It is not necessary for every partnership to be collaborative in order to have a positive impact. However, it is important to be realistic regarding the goals that can be achieved, given the level of interaction among the partners and the range of experiences pro- vided (DeBevoise, 1986). 13 An additional concern is that goals must be supported by rigorous adherence to quality and an understanding of high-level teaching and learning in the arts. Dreeszen (1992) points out that "increasingly complex intersec- tions need not imply increasing quality of the arts education experience for individual school children" (p. 19). Though a school system may be convinced to institute policy because a program looks good, there is little point in mandating arts instruction if the policy fails to enforce high standards of instructional quality and expertise. Unfortunately, too many partnerships make unsubstanti- ated claims of impact based on inconsequential assess- ments. According to Grobe (1993), few education partnerships identify measurable outcomes or evaluate against intended outcomes. Consequently, some observers question the concept of partnership as an agent of school improvement. Principles of partnership development. A Guide to Developing Education Partnerships (Tushnet, 1993), sets forth eight principles of development based on research of effective partnerships. • Partnerships should address concerns identified and shared by schools and the community. • Partnerships can take many forms. • All affected organizations and individuals must be involved in conversations about activities. • Communication with all participants and the community must be ongoing. • Leadership, whether individual or group, should instill commitment and support activities. • Resources, particularly technical and training assistance, must be provided to those who are expected to change behaviors. • Evaluation, and change based on the evaluation, must be a part of ongoing planning. • Problems must be confronted and used to advance the partnership, (pp. 1-2) Practically speaking, partnership experience and research indicate that beginnings frequently stem from a visionary individual who convinces others to take some kind of action. What is essential is that conversations expand to all affected participants, as well as to those in positions of leadership. As a relationship, a developing partnership must be organic and flexible, rather than rigid and 14 Beyond standardized. Within the shared vision of improving education, goals and activities should be negotiated and adapted according to the capacities and expertise of the participants, the available resources, and the ratio of likely benefit to investment of time, energy, and money. Most importantly, partnerships should be developed within the context of their own communities and environments. Starting with a limited agenda and addressing a mutually identified need lays the ground- work for expansion of goals. With successful growth, more organizations and individuals can become involved, and financial resources may increase. 5 What is a Partnership? A simple definition of a partnership is that it is a coop- erative effort to achieve goals that no one organization could accomplish alone. Those who study partnerships generally concur on these identifying ideals: 1 ) a shared commitment to improving education; 2) acceptance of goals and strategies by all partners; 3) some level of reward for each partner; and 4) open exchange of information, ideas, and resources. Within this general definition, partnerships vary extensively in their structure and activities. They may be simple, complex, formal, informal, short-term, long-term, managed by one partner, or collaborative. They may merely^ffer support for activities, or they may represent extensive involvement in ongoing programs. Grobe (1993) defined three types of partnership struc- tures: simple, moderately complex, and complex. A simple structure provides resources and little more; a moderately complex partnership may include shared management in which the school is not just a recipient, but an active partner; and a complex partnership may involve formation of a new organization to manage the program. Hord (1985) distinguished between cooperation and collaboration, indicating that collaboration depends on "a clear definition of expectations by all parties involved, and a consequent agreement of the goal to be shared which will direct the process to its mutual conclusion" (p. 4). She indicated that while collaboration involves more effort, it ideally yields stronger results. Because collaborative partnerships are not appropriate for all situations, however, partners must decide whether cooperation or collaboration is the better way to meet their goals. Whichever, it is important that all partners are working from the same basic assumptions regarding the relationship. 5. For examples of orchestra partnerships with clearly stated goals and targeted agendas tied to local contexts, see the profiles of the New York Philharmonic and the Pacific Symphony. School Partnerships DeBevoise (1986) says that if the goal of improving education is at the heart of a partnership, then relation- ships may represent a continuum along a line from informal to structured. Where appropriate, formal agreements may help to clarify roles and focus partner- ships. 6 On the other hand, informal partnerships may sometimes offer greater flexibility, provided the partners are truly committed to continuing the relationship for the identified cause. Importantly, partnerships should not be limited to organizations that already have friendly relationships; rather, they should extend to all relevant parties and build trust among participants. Partnership operations should overcome inclinations by any one partner to assume complete authority for the partnership and its activities. Characteristics of Effective Partnerships Partnership effectiveness has two dimensions: 1 ) the extent to which activities have a positive impact on the intended audience, e.g., improving student learning, or establishing regular arts instruction within the curricu- lum; and 2) the adequacy and efficacy of the partnership structure, e.g., involving the right partners, or the success of their working relationship. However, because partner- ships frequently fail to set measurable goals, it can be difficult to ascertain how effective they really are (Grobe, 1993). The experience of BellSouth suggests the difficulty associated with determining effectiveness. Since 1991, the company has invested 239.5 million dollars in education, including short-term funding of equipment and continuous, active involvement in reform efforts. John L. Clendenin, head of BellSouth, says that while the company deserves an A for effort, the impact of its programs probably only deserves a C-plus: "The complex- ity of dealing with this array of problems affecting America's education system is really overwhelming ... So you make little dents. There's no one solution." Clendenin indicates that the company has to be con- cerned about the economic climate in which it operates, thus it has no choice but to be involved in education, even if only for "enlightened self interest" (Cumming, 1996, p. El). It is not clear from this report whether BellSouth and its partners have attempted to institute a systematic evaluation cycle with clearly measurable objectives for both constituents and the partnership structures. However, what is clear is the willingness of BellSouth to acknowledge the limitations of its efforts. 6. In Cedar Rapids, orchestra and school commitments are carefully spelled out in formal contracts signed by agents of both organizations. Dreeszen (1992) found nine critical success factors identified by participants in arts education partnerships: leadership and vision; effective planning; broad-based community representation; teacher participation; artist participation; public awareness and communication; general awareness of originating problem or opportunity; site-specific program design; and ongoing assessment of the partnership. Maeroff (1983) identified these traits: a common agenda must be acknowledged; a true spirit of collaboration must emerge; a single project must be identified; those involved must be adequately rewarded; and the focus must be on activities, not machinery (p. 5). Grobe (1993) listed fifteen elements of successful partnerships: top-level leadership; grounding in commu- nity needs; effective public relations; clear roles and responsibilities; racial-ethnic involvement; strategic planning; effective management and staffing structure; shared decision making and interagency ownership; shared credit and recognition; appropriate, well-timed resources; technical assistance; formal agreements; action and frequent success; patience, vigilance, and increased involvement; and local ownership. Grobe also suggested six levels of impact that a partner- ship can address: special services; classroom activities; teacher training; management; system-wide improve- ment; and policy change. Goals such as system-wide improvement and policy change often are formulated as a result of success with more limited and focused efforts. Setting out with a broad goal, such as policy change, requires high levels of investment and involvement from all partners, and may even necessitate a separate adminis- trative structure for a partnership.' Dreeszen (1992) found five general goals that seemed to characterize arts education partnerships: teaching arts skills, aesthetics, and arts appreciation; using the arts to teach other subjects or support psychosocial outcomes; serving community goals such as drug awareness; 8 exposing children and teachers to the creative process; and building audiences and encouraging lifelong learning. Ultimately, the most important criterion of effectiveness is whether a partnership improves the quality and outcomes of learning. If it does not, then there is little reason for it to exist. However, it is also important to determine why and how a partnership enhances learning, when the partnership needs to change or adapt, and when a particular structure may have outlived its useful- 7. The profile of the Boston Symphony describes an orchestra partnership dedicated to systemic school change through a separate partnership administration. 8. In Ft. Wayne, the orchestra has connected with an adolescent life- skills curriculum focused on decision making and drug awareness. 15 ness. Dreeszen (1992) contends that "partnerships grounded upon the real needs of children and schools and the complementary self-interests of the partners are more likely to be sustained" (p. 33). He recommends periodic and systematic assessment as a means of keeping a partnership on course and responsive to changing conditions. In addition, he identifies "values or guiding principles" that underlie the arts education partnerships he investigated: assuring equitable access to cultural experiences; valuing all cultures and assuring cultural diversity of programs and participants; valuing artistic quality in education; and ensuring that the arts are indispensably a part of education (p. 13). Tushnet et al. (1995) found these features of success in education partnerships: a problem-solving orientation among partners; communication that clarifies roles and relationships; shared vision; leadership; use of a variety of resources; and institutionalization. Among their major findings of effectiveness were the following: most partnerships were built on existing relationships among individuals and organizations; problems were confronted and strategized on a continuing basis; steering and advisory groups helped facilitate communication; there was a shared image of how the school would look if the problems were solved; leadership models varied, but successful partnerships used leadership both to ensure the success of activities and to strengthen the partnership; leadership was most effective when it was distributed among partners and built consensus rather than looking for consensus; expert personnel were matched with appropri- ate activities; and the partnership provided technical assistance, as well as training, to those implementing the program. Support and Sustainability Dreeszen (1992) organized support for arts education partnerships under six categories: coordination, funding, public policies and plans, information and training, advocacy, 9 and programming. Of these, coordination through a given agency is the most important to achiev- ing impact. When all six are in place, a partnership is more likely to reach its full potential. External funding often provides only seed money, which may not permit the long-term processes needed to develop collaborations. Participants in Dreeszen's study emphasized that, as a matter of principle, schools should participate in fund- ing. 10 In addition, advocacy needs to move away from merely lobbying for support of arts education to more interactive problem-solving with schools and other organizations. 9. In Pittsburgh, advocacy for school music programs is a goal of the partnership. 10. In Milwaukee, Austin, Cedar Rapids, and Ft. Wayne, schools contribute specified dollar amounts to partnership programs. 16 Beyond Program development. Program development, primarily delivering activities for students, is the typical priority of arts education partnerships. Associated activities may involve needs assessment (formal or informal); 11 overall program design, delivery, and management; curriculum development; teacher training; artist training; and student assessment and program evaluation. 12 Tushnet et al. (1995) found that partnerships focusing mainly on curriculum and instructional change tended to be project-oriented and did not emphasize the ongoing structure of the partnership. While these partnerships had an impact on schools and students, they appeared to have little impact on the community, or on the operations of partners other than the schools. Without ongoing attention to the structure of the partnership or the impact on the partners, it is unclear whether curriculum and instructional innovations will be adopted and valued over the long term. Tushnet et al. believe that focusing on specific activities serves a useful purpose; however, there is a concern that these partnerships "have little potential for extending a reform agenda" (p. 66). Leadership, personnel, and planning. Leadership, personnel, and planning are important factors in the implementation of partnership activities. Leadership should be exerted both for programs and for the structure of the partnership, and should be consistent with the characteristics of the partner organizations. Consistent with curriculum and instruction emphases, many partner- ships focus on empowering teachers to change how they work with children and to have input into the partner- ship. However, systemic and policy changes are more likely when a partnership structure incorporates represen- tatives from all levels, including, for example, top school and orchestra administrators. Turnover among key personnel can potentially impede a partnership. How- ever, if the partnership is sufficiently strong, change can occur without interruption to the partnership process or activities. Planning must include both the partnership itself and the activities to be implemented. Partnerships are frequently strengthened when they build upon existing programs and relationships, and when they explore existing conditions in schools. For example, arts educators may feel that their programs and expertise are being ignored if they are not included in a cross-curricular arts partner- ship. Not only may these teachers fail to support the program, but their potential contributions may be lost. Similarly, if a partnership proposes to have students listen 11. Profiles of the Milwaukee Symphony and the Ft. Wayne Philhar- monic both refer to needs assessments that provided a basis for the development of partnership activities. 12. The Milwaukee Symphony has developed a systematic assessment of student learning. The New York Philharmonic offers an example of program evaluation carefully derived from clearly stated objectives. School Partnerships to orchestral music as part of the curriculum, but there is no sound reproduction equipment available in the school, there is little chance that the activity will occur. Planning time for partners and for those expected to carry out activities is crucial to implementation. In addition to professional development activities for teachers, released time from instruction can help to ensure adequate preparation. This is especially true in arts programs that involve cooperative activities between grade-level teachers and arts specialists. Not only must teachers deal with new content and strategies, but they must learn to relate differently within their school cultures (Tushnet, 1993). Institutionalization. Tushnet et al. (1995) found that institutionalization occurs in two ways: through continu- ation of the partnership structure, and by having activi- ties become a part of school programs and operations. In general, those partnerships that achieved institutionaliza- tion were the ones that effectively planned for it, shared the goal among all parties, and consistently strategized toward a lasting structure. Funding. Nearly all partnerships rely on funding from outside sources, funding that will in all likelihood end at some point. In the Tushnet study, those partnerships that outlived their federal funds planned for declining federal support and increased their local funding during the initial funding period. Achieving independence involved identifying the roles of partners, establishing not-for- profit status, locating sources of donations, and adapting policies to fit partnership activities. 13 Synthesis Partnerships are organized for a variety of reasons and take many different forms. There is no recipe to develop a partnership; there are only general principles that can guide organizations seeking to work together for the common goal of improving education. As with any relationship, the factors that spell success or failure are complicated and individual. The culture, resources, needs, and shared desires within a given community provide the context in which a partnership operates. Partnerships may serve long-term or short-term needs and goals, or both. However, long-term needs tend to be better served when a partnership operates in a collabora- tive mode, recognizing that change is a labor-intensive, time-consuming process tied to local contexts and 13. Among others, the Ft. Wayne, Boston, New York, Pacific, and Cedar Rapids programs offer examples of planning that incorporate partnerships into ongoing budget frameworks. priorities. As a collaboration, a partnership is more likely to be organic and evolving, both in response to, and in anticipation of, changing needs, resources, and personnel. Also, the programs are more likely to become institution- alized when a partnership confronts problems honestly, uses them to move forward, and transcends immediate vested interests to focus on the larger goal of school improvement. It is dishonest and potentially harmful to intended goals when partnerships make preliminary and unsubstantiated claims of major improvement. This is particularly true when programs are supported by soft money, are therefore time-limited, and are functioning mainly as pilot or demonstration projects provided for schools. School closets hide the remains of many promising projects that were valued only as long as someone designed them, shouldered the administrative and financial burden, and offered an opportunity to gain the public's acclaim. There are far fewer examples of sustained programs that grew out of existing needs and resources, or that achieved educational excellence through local consensus and commitment to lasting change. Amidst the hype and hyperbole of partnership efforts, schools and orchestras must examine themselves to find those points of common vision on which productive relationships can be built. Paraphrasing one orchestra education director, The reason to work with schools is that we have resources that can strengthen education for children in our communi- ties. It has little to do with what we get out of it and everything to do with whether orchestras are willing to view themselves as responsible members of their communities. 17 Beyond to, X *BS 0\r., »^i,^/'"T J J''^t.rv*7yi^)Vf d##i!lifi»' ijjfc th ^ f lir 1. •.(!(■ SECTION III The Orchestra Education Project Education Projects SECTION III The Orchestra Education Project Purpose The purpose of the Orchestra Education Project was to identify orchestra education programs that offered convincing examples of partnerships among orchestras, schools, and communities. Of particular interest were programs that included teacher training and parent involvement, and that demonstrated administra- tive support from both schools and orchestras. From an in-depth study of existing programs, the project sought to derive guidelines that could assist orchestras, schools, and communities in developing effective partnerships for music education. Gathering Data Review of literature. To provide a basis for researching orchestra education partnerships, we completed an extensive review of literature on partnerships among many different types of organizations. This review included reports on general partnership projects, research on education and arts education partnerships, and summaries of established principles of partnership effectiveness. To be comprehensive and current, the review of literature continued throughout the duration of the project. However, the initial investigation offered a foundation for developing a survey instrument, and for designing a framework to collect data via telephone interviews and site visits. Survey. A survey was sent to member orchestras of the American Symphony Orchestra League. This survey was designed to provide general information about existing education programs, and to ascertain elements of program structure that were consistent with partnership ap- proaches. A survey research consultant assisted with the development of the instrument. An open-ended question permitted orchestras to describe unique features of their programs. Many orchestras responded to this item with detailed descriptions and examples of materials indicating strong education efforts. Telephone interviews. Based on responses to the survey, extensive telephone interviews were conducted with 42 education directors or orchestra representatives. In many cases, telephone interviews were conducted with more than one person on the orchestra staff, with representa- tives of other arts organizations affiliated with the orchestra programs, and with local school personnel. These interviews followed a standard protocol to ensure consistency in the kinds of data collected for each program. The interviews focused on in-depth program descriptions, the extent of the relationship between orchestras and schools, funding and resources, and evaluation strategies. Site visits. Using information from the surveys and interviews, orchestra education programs were analyzed in light of partnership effectiveness research. Nine orchestras that best fulfilled principles of partnership effectiveness were identified for site visits. In selecting the orchestras, consideration was also given to represen- tative sizes and geographic locations, as well as unique features that distinguished partnership programs. Two-day site visits of these programs were conducted between August and December 1995. The site visits incorporated a series of individual inter- views and focus groups with orchestra administrative personnel, education directors, conductors, performing musicians, teaching artists, board members, funders, curriculum writers, and assessment specialists. Observa- tions were made of youth concerts, in-school ensemble programs, music classes, integrated music lessons in general classrooms, and professional development workshops for teachers. Interviews and focus groups were also conducted with school principals, grade-level teachers, music teachers, students, and parents. Curricu- lum materials, minutes of meetings, brochures, newspaper articles, photographs, videotapes, status reports, program proposals, student work, and assessment and evaluation reports were also reviewed. Regional/national meetings. During late summer and autumn of 1995, the project director conducted four regional meetings and presented sessions at one national meeting of orchestra education personnel. These meet- ings provided information about the Orchestra Education Project and solicited feedback from participants regarding information that would be useful to include in the final report. These meetings also gave attendees an opportu- nity to share further information about their programs. Validating Data Multiple sources of information were used to validate the program findings. Interviews, focus groups, analysis of survey responses, and document reviews were structured to reveal both consistencies and inconsistencies in the data. Where inconsistencies occurred, further exploration was undertaken to ascertain the accuracy of information. Data that could not be verified by multiple sources were eliminated from inclusion in the program profiles found in Section IV. Site visit protocols were built on a frame- work that included the program concept, goals and objectives, program planning and implementation, program support, assessment and evaluation, and impact. Survey Findings K-12 orchestra education programs. Of the total 283 surveys returned, 237 (84%) were from orchestras that have K-12 education programs. Among these 237, education programs emphasize service to elementary school students, though other target populations are also represented (Figure 1). TARGET POPULATIONS Figure I . Target populations of K- 1 2 programs 201(85%) of the reporting education programs provide in-school opportunities, and 187 (66%) bring students to concert venues. The content focus of K-12 programs covers orchestra-related information and concepts (95%), broad music learning (81%), interdisciplinary learning with academic subjects (39%), and interdisciplinary arts learning (37%). Education-related performances gener- 22 Beyond ally center on orchestra concerts that include assisting artists (72%) and on chamber ensembles (63%). Sixty- six percent use a youth concert format that combines narration and music. Education committees. 123 orchestras (52%) with K-12 programs have education advisory committees. Advisory committees most frequently include teachers, a conductor, orchestra board members, musicians, orchestra administra- tors or education directors, 1 and school administrators (Figure 2). 150 (63%) of the reporting orchestras have "working" committees that deal directly with program C OMMITTEE MEMBERS 100 z < OS o o < LL! ec Figure 2. Most frequent education advisory committee members COMMITTEE MEMBERS z < ee. o o Q£ O. LL. o UJ o < ee. UJ a. 79% 69% Figure 3. Most frequent education working/program committee members design and implementation. The membership of these committees most often includes conductors, teachers, board representatives, musicians, and orchestra administra- tors or education directors (Figure 3). Advisory committees include parents 26 percent of the time, and working committees include them only 15 percent of the time. Business representatives serve on advisory committees only about 24 percent of the time. Those least likely to be included on education advisory or working committees are school board members and students. 1. Some reporting orchestras do not have a designated staff position of education director. Education Projects Goals and objectives of education programs. Exposure to classical music is a goal of 100 percent of the reporting programs. Additional priority goals include music apprecia- tion (99%), enhanced music learning (94%), and audience development (88%). The least frequently cited goals are enhanced self-esteem of students (42%) and positive school climate (27%). Cross-curricular learning is a reported goal in 44 percent of the programs. The most frequently cited sources of content for program develop- ment are materials from professional arts and education organizations (52%) and orchestra repertoire lists (47%). Only 32 percent of orchestras consult national music education standards, and only 39 percent tie programs to local or state curriculum guides. Formalized partnerships. Seventy percent of reporting orchestras indicate that they have "formalized" partnerships with school districts. Thirty percent or less report partner- ships with arts organizations, higher education institutions, foundations, corporations, or local governments. Professional consultants. Seventy-two percent of reporting orchestras indicate that they do not use a professional consultant for their programs. When orchestras do use consultants, they most frequently serve in advisory capacities (16%) or assist with curriculum development (15%). Ten percent or less of the reporting orchestras use consultants for program design, teacher training, musician orientation, and fund raising. Financial support and program administration. Most monetary support for education programs comes from the symphony operating budget (87%). Seventy-two percent of reporting programs use corporate support for education, 71 percent use foundation grants, and 55 percent rely on school districts to underwrite some portion of education expenses. Symphony staff members administer the overwhelming majority of programs (96%). Program effectiveness. Informal feedback is the most frequent method for determining program effectiveness (91%), followed by participant surveys, live or videotaped observation, and structured student assessment (Figure 4). EVALUATION METHODS z < o o OS 100 80 60 40 3 20 68% w /0 a 9% " Informal Participant Observation Student Feedback Surveys Assessment Figure 4. Methods of determining program effectiveness Factors of program effectiveness considered most impor- tant by orchestras include teacher feedback, the number of students served, student learning in music, the quality of musician-teacher-student interactions, and musician feedback (Figure 5). Those factors considered least important in assessing program effectiveness are student learning in non-music subjects, student attitudes toward school, and parent feedback. Only 20 percent of report- ing orchestras consider the quality of classroom activities to be an important indicator of program effectiveness. Figure 5. Factors considered most important in determining program effectiveness Reflections on Survey Findings and Telephone Interviews Survey responses indicate widespread K-12 education activities by orchestras. In most cases, the emphasis appears to be on providing youth concerts and in-school ensemble programs. As part of their response to an open- ended question soliciting information about the unique- ness of programs, many orchestras cited the development of related lesson materials, the incorporation of ethnic music, and the cross-curricular instructional opportunities afforded by musical experiences. Though a large percentage of orchestras indicated that they have "formalized" partnerships with school districts, telephone interviews and a review of documentation revealed that the extent and nature of these partnerships vary greatly. In many cases, they can best be described as cooperative alliances focused largely on the logistics of transportation, funding, and scheduling. In others, they represent an orchestra's effort to design a program that ties into existing initiatives or funding by other agencies, such as the one matching inner city and suburban children in St. Louis. Some partnerships are specific, carefully developed projects constituting only one facet of an overall K-12 program. Still others are broadly con- ceived, providing an operating structure within which an entire series of programs may be developed. 23 The surveys and telephone interviews revealed three interrelated areas of need in education programs: 1 ) accountability for the quality of classroom activities related to concerts and in-school performances, 2) systematic methods of student assessment and program evaluation, and 3) musician training for education programs. Many orchestras cite music learning as an important indicator of education program effectiveness. To maxi- mize learning opportunities, they design lesson materials and distribute them to music specialists and grade-level teachers to incorporate into their classes. Few orchestras, however, are able to verify consistent use of materials or the quality of classroom activities that are assumed to foster student learning. In fact, only a small number of orchestras indicated that the quality of classroom activities was important in determining program effective- ness. At present, there is little evidence on which to base assumptions of student learning. Much of the feedback orchestras receive is informal and anecdotal, as well as predictably positive. There is much to be said for the contributions orchestras are making to schools in terms of enriching the curriculum through musical experiences and opportunities. However, until sequential quality classroom instruction is assured and systematic measures of learning are in place, it is premature to make unveri- fied claims regarding student learning. Selection of Programs for Site Visits In keeping with the purpose of the Orchestra Education Project, there were three main criteria for selecting sites to be visited: a) evidence of an ongoing and systematic relationship betweeen an orchestra and local schools, b) inclusion of structured professional development for teachers that supports the implementation of curriculum materials, and c) evidence of broad-based support from both the orchestra and the schools. In addition, pro- grams that offered strong examples of parent involvement or student assessment and program evaluation strategies were considered for site visits. Beyond Because most orchestra partnerships are still in early stages of development, research on principles of partner- ship effectiveness provided a context for helping to select partnership sites. For example, partnerships that demon- strated attention to the relationship between the orches- tras and schools, as well as to program development were carefully considered for visits. Other factors, such as relevance to unique community needs and resources, and evidence of top-level administrative involvement were also reviewed. Finally, attempts were made to include orchestras of different sizes and budgets, to represent different geographic regions, and to present programs serving diverse populations. 24 \ wtfS M 'WMr^V/ryt/MftmA ™"m iV'imw.swa ,iifflrf.iw«i<?lw! ftC?""' •i 11 |$|w^ SECTION IV Partnership Profiles SECTION IV Orchestra Partnership Profiles The profiles that follow provide detailed descriptions of the nine partnerships visited during the study. Information included in the profiles represents a synthesis of the findings from interviews, reviews of documents, observations, and focus group sessions. For consistency, each profile is organized into eight major sections. However, each profile is also written to provide the richest possible description of a given partnership and to emphasize its uniqueness. For this reason, subheadings may vary from profile to profile. In addition, the best placement of information to convey the character and depth of each partnership differs slightly among the profiles, resulting in some variations in descriptive material included under major headings. Throughout the profiles, direct quotations from individuals and docu- ments are used to help portray an authentic picture of the partnership and its activities. The sequence of the profiles reflects the order in which site visits were conducted. The dates of each site visit are listed at the beginning of the profile. Cynthia Thomas, Research Coordinator for the Orchestra Education Project, conducted the site visits in Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Cedar Rapids and wrote the respective profiles. David Myers, Project Director, conducted the remaining visits and wrote the relevant profiles. Organization of the Profiles Overview. The overview section of each profile serves as an introduction to the community, the partners, and the activities associated with the partnership. Information introduced in the overview is generally elaborated in subsequent sections. Program Concept. This section describes the partner- ship model and lists the contributions each partner makes to the programs. Goals and Objectives. This section summarizes those goals and objectives that provide a focus for each partner- ship. These may be taken directly from printed docu- ments or synthesized from interviews conducted during the site visits. Program Planning and Implementation. This section details the actual programs of each partnership and how they evolve from ideas to application. Given the indi- viduality of the programs, the content of this section varies considerably from profile to profile. Program Support. This section highlights both tangible and intangible forms of support provided by partner organizations. It provides greater detail for the listings of partner contributions included under the section on program concept. Assessment and Evaluation. The primary purpose of this section is to indicate the methods of student assessment, program evaluation, and documentation undertaken by each partnership. This section may also indicate content included in assessment and evaluation reports. Impact. This section summarizes evidence of the ways individuals and partner institutions have been affected by the partnership. In some cases, impact evidence grows out of the previous section on assessment and evaluation. In others, indicators of impact are gleaned from interviews and observations conducted during the site visits. Coda. The coda offers brief concluding observations regarding each partnership. 27 Beyond 28 PACIFIC SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Site Visit: August 24-25, 1995 OVERVIEW Orchestra, Schools, and Community Located in Santa Ana, CA, the Pacific Symphony Orchestra (PSO) is a per- service orchestra serving suburban Orange County. During the 1995-96 season, the orchestra performed a nine-concert classic series and a seven-concert pops series. Founded in 1978, the PSO began in-school concerts in 1982. Currently, expenditures for education total about ten percent of the total budget. In addition to participating in a partner- ship with several Orange County schools, the PSO provides the community with numerous educational programs, including a six-concert family series with pre-and post-concert activities, youth concerts, lessons and clinics for instrumental students, and two cooperative student orchestras with California State University at Fullerton and the Orange County High School of the Arts. Students in Orange County's twenty-eight school districts cover the complete socioeconomic spectrum and repre- sent various ethnic minorities, including Hispanic and Vietnamese. The school districts adopt music curriculums consistent with California's state-level arts curriculum framework; however, the extent and quality of music teaching vary widely. Some districts employ specialists to teach sequential music programs. Others have no specialists and offer minimal arts experiences. In 1993, the PSO developed Class Act, a partnership to enrich music learning in selected schools through interaction among students, orchestra musicians, and parents. Class Act currently serves over 6000 students and their families, actively involves 300 parents in planning and implementation, and includes participation Andy Honla, of the Pacific Symphony, helps a young student get the feel of holding the bow during a Family Night program. by 290 teachers and school administrators. Selected schools represent a cross-section of Orange County's ethnic and economic profile. Range of Experiences Students in partner schools "adopt" a PSO musician, who presents a 45 -minute music lesson for one grade level each month. Early in the year, the entire school participates in a "Prelude Assembly," which introduces Class Act and the school's musician. A Family Night program features the school's adopted musician in a small ensemble performance at the school, followed by an opportunity to meet the performers and learn more about Class Act. All students attend a PSO Youth Concert at the Orange County Performing Arts Center. The concert builds on classroom experiences by including composers and repertoire that the students have studied. Each school holds a "Bravo Assembly" as a year-end celebration and closure activity. For this assembly, students plan unique ways of demonstrating things they have learned for their parents, teachers, and fellow students. The school's adopted musician participates as well. PROGRAM CONCEPT Partnership Model Class Act is an example of an orchestra-managed partner- ship that uses a cooperative parent-school network to support its program. The PSO underwrites the major expense of the partnership, defines the expectations of participant schools, and commits administrative time and effort for partnership operations. The senior-level Director of Education and Community Programs facili- tates program management and content. A unique feature of Class Act is the organization and high level of participation among parents (Ciass Act Partners), who assist with partnership planning and implementation. 29 Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - Provide agreed upon activities free of charge to the school, which include two in-school assembly programs, a lesson by adopted PSO musician for each grade, curriculum resource and concert preparation materials, teacher training, family night ensemble presentation, and youth concert. - Provide scheduling to meet the needs of the school within the scope of the program's goals. ' Provide additional fee-based activities upon request. ' Provide program evaluation. School Contributions to Partnership - Allocate specific times for activities, including assemblies. - Ensure the presence of grade-level teachers at school events. - Provide bus transportation to youth concert. - Provide a Class Act coordinator who serves as a liaison to the PSO. - Schedule a fall planning meeting that includes the school administrator, Class Act Coordinator, music teacher, and PSO Education Director. - Demonstrate student learning during the end of year Bravo Assembly. - Ensure completion of evaluation forms by teachers, administrators, and parents. - Provide minimum core of thirty parents to assist with at least one PSO concert event by ushering, serving as guides for pre-concert activities, or greeting arriving students. Time Frame Class Act began as a pilot project during the 1994-95 school year. The orchestra accepted seven schools for the pilot year. At the end of the year, each school's quality and level of commitment were reviewed prior to selecting schools for 1995-96. Five of the original seven were invited to continue, and five new schools were added through applications. Schools are accepted for Class Act on a year-to-year basis. 30 Beyond GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The PSO clearly documents its mission, goals, and objectives for Class Act. The PSO's mission is to supplement Orange County's elementary schools' music education by developing an ongoing partner- ship with students, teachers, administrators, and parents; to increase awareness of and involvement in classical music; and to engage students and teachers by providing interactive and varied musical experi- ences. Ciass Act has two broad goals, elaborated by specific objectives. Its first goal is to demonstrate that the Pacific Symphony Orchestra cares about the entire school community and wants to develop a long term relationship with them. The related objective is to support and enhance music education at the Ciass Act school and develop meaningful interactions with students, parents, teachers, and administrators. The second broad goal is to help students form a vision of life that contains great beauty and positive possibilities through Ciass Act's varied, interactive musical experiences. The specific objective is to maintain a sequential program that focuses on repeated close contact with one musician. The PSO clearly states that Class Act enhances, rather than replaces, music education programs in schools. The PSO believes that within the context of the orchestra's mission, operations, and community, "it can make a meaningful difference in the lives of many young people throughout Orange County by supplementing and expanding what is currently provided in the schools." The rationale for Class Act is based on the following needs. Music is critical to the development of a well-rounded human being. Music education provides students with the necessary skills to become culturally literate citizens. Music helps young people forge powerful personal connections with characteristics such as teamwork, self-esteem, self-discipline, and self- confidence, all of which lead to a responsible and productive adulthood. Music directly supports core academic studies. Music is a universal language that can bind different populations. The beauty and emotional power of classical music are accessible to diverse cultures. PROGRAM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Pilot Program - Tapping Parent Support In July 1993, the Director of Education and Community Programs wrote a letter to subscribers of the Family Series inviting them to join the orchestra in support of music education. The orchestra included the letter with each subscriber's season tickets. In response, twelve parents attended a meeting to discuss ways the orchestra might contribute to improving music programs in their schools. The parent group met with the Education Director twice monthly, establishing itself as a Class Act steering committee. To ensure the feasibility of its ideas for school settings, the committee sought advice from music teachers, grade-level teachers, special educators, and principals. A symphony volunteer (Class Act chairper- son) assisted the Education Director in guiding the work of the committee. As a former third-grade teacher, the Education Director envisioned a program more influential than some partnerships she had witnessed. Too frequently, these programs were unrelated to the curriculum, were not sequential, and had no sustainability in the school. Her goal was to develop a sustained relationship among the schools, the orchestra, and the musicians. Based on committee discussions, the Education Director authored a partnership proposal to be presented to schools for the pilot 1994-95 program. Seven parents from the steering committee volunteered to be Class Act coordinators for their respective schools, and to assist the PSO Education Director and Class Act chairperson in presenting the proposal to principals. At the conclusion of these presentations in the Spring of 1994, all seven schools became partner schools for 1994-95. The Education Director sees her teaching experience as an advantage in writing a proposal that administrators and teachers would endorse. Though many arts groups want to capitalize on school reform to advance arts education, limited understanding of school culture and organization can sometimes be a problem. In the words of one teacher, We're always being asked, or told, to do more — often without the resources to back it up. There's a limit to what we can do, or what we feel comfortable doing, and some decisions have to be made about what is most important. The success of the PSO proposal, according to parents, principals, and teachers, was that it laid out a program that was compatible with school operations. One principal states that two factors weighed heavily in her response: This was a parent-based initiative, not one more organization selling its wares to the school. Secondly, there was an infrastructure to support it. Lots of people have good ideas , but Class Act was more than a good idea — it was a workable plan. A parent coordinator emphasizes the point further: We did not want teachers to feel they had to worry about developing one more program. We used their input to create the program , told them it could be adapted to their needs, and offered support to make it work. Teachers and administrators agree that the combination of parent enthusiasm and careful planning convinced them that Class Act would not be a burden. A teacher comments, The PSO facilitator is a can-do person, and the parents handle the organization. I think Class Act has been exceptional in helping everyone, including teachers, feel a sense of ownership . It means a lot to have someone be sensitive to our needs . Management and Operation Personnel. The PSO Director of Education and Commu- nity Programs assumes the major management responsi- bilities. The Class Act Chairperson, who is a PSO volunteer, functions as a liaison between the Education Director and the schools, site coordinators, and PSO musicians. An extensive parent network, emanating from the enthusiasm of the original steering committee, plays a crucial role in operations. Parents serve as coordinators or as parent partners. Coordinators promote Ciass Act; assist with scheduling and coordination of student programs; and provide a communications link among teachers, musicians, parents, and the orchestra staff. Partners assist coordinators with implementing student activities and, as a part of each partner school's agreement, are required to usher, chaperone, or perform other similar tasks for at least one PSO education event at the Performing Arts Center. When asked why they commit time and energy to Class Act, parents respond that they believe creative and expressive learning are as important as the "basics." Because specialist positions have been cut in public 31 schools, and private schools sometimes cannot afford specialists, parents fear there is little emphasis on the arts. One parent says, Our school provides very little in the arts, often bringing someone in just to do a Holiday program. I feel we need more than that. We need arts programs that benefit our kids over time, not just the occasional performance. Originally, Class Act parents functioned separately from established parent-teacher organizations. However, because of overlaps in parent involvement and the success of the program, there is a tendency toward strengthening alliances between Class Act and existing parent-teacher groups in the schools. School selection. Schools apply to the program by submitting a written application. The application form is simple and quickly completed by the principal. It asks for information as to grade levels and populations, and for the name of a potential Class Act coordinator. In addi- tion, it requests a description of the existing music program and the name of the teacher, if the school employs a specialist. Schools describe why they want to participate in Class Act and how the partnership would benefit their programs. Criteria for inclusion in Class Act include a commitment to fulfill the specified school contributions, and evidence that the partnership meets a felt educational need among administrators, teachers, and parents. Continuation is not automatic. It is based on an annual review of how effectively the partnership functioned during the preced- ing year. School activities. Class Act is designed to keep musicians in contact with their schools throughout an entire school year. The calendar for student and parent activities is as follows: September: Introductory assembly, performed separately for primary and upper grades October - April: One-hour music lesson per month, taught by adopted musician, with a designated grade level for each monthly lesson February: May: June: Evening ensemble programs for families at each school Youth Concert at Performing Arts Center Closing assembly, performed separately for primary and upper grades 32 Beyond Each activity encourages interaction between the musician and students. For example, students may sing or play instruments during assemblies and lessons. They may participate through focused listening, questioning, and active musical response. As part of the Family Night ensemble performance, student and parents visit with each musician at various "stations" in the school. In a videotaped lesson observed during the site visit, a musician captivated students by having them imitate movements required to play his instrument. Soon, they were listening attentively for changing pitch, trying to anticipate the movement associated with higher and lower sounds. In a closing assembly program, students beamed as their musician joined the school orchestra in a performance of Ode to Joy. Musicians believe that the personal relationship they establish with students is mutually beneficial. One points out that students come to other concerts as a result of Class Act: "It's fun to have groupies at the Family Con- certs because of the relationships we've set up through Class Act." Another sees this long-term benefit: "A lot of kids today only hear pop music. We get to show them that they can fit into classical music too, and that it can be a natural part of everyday life, now and on through adulthood." Students seem to like the idea of having a musician who is their "very own." Using the musician's first name in a familiar and affectionate tone, one student's eyes glimmer as he explains: "It's really neat when our musician is in the school because somebody is getting to have music class, and everybody knows who's there. It would be disappointing if the musician didn't come any more." For another, there simply isn't enough time: "I wish they could come more often. I decided to play the cornet because our musician showed us what a great thing music can be in your life. Maybe I'll be in an orchestra when I grow up!" Finally, a primary student offers this testimony: "When I know the musician is coming to my school, or I see [the musician] at the concert, I just get really excited. I think we're lucky, don't you?" Youth concert. As part of Class Act, students and teachers attend the Youth Concert presented for Orange County schools in May. Repertoire builds on the theme of the year (e.g., Beethoven), as well as other composers and music. The PSO provides preparation materials. At the concert, the adopted musicians greet "their" children at the buses and are introduced to the audience when the orchestra comes on stage. Professional development. The PSO Education Director presents a one-hour workshop for all teachers. Teachers engage in hands-on classroom activities designed to make them feel more comfortable supporting Class Act in their homerooms. The workshop introduces teachers to the components of the program, provides resources and materials, and offers an opportunity for questions and discussion. In addition, the PSO sponsors "Teacher's Night" at the Orange County Performing Arts Center. This includes dinner, free tickets to a PSO Classics Concert, a pre-concert lecture, and distribution of preparation materials for the upcoming Youth Concert. Parent awareness. In 1994-95, the Education Director conducted parent in-service sessions at schools to acquaint them with Class Act. In 1995-96, the parent information session was combined with the Family Night ensemble presentation. Parents receive a packet of materials designed to supplement the year-long Class Act theme at home. During a Beethoven emphasis, for example, the packet included a picture of Beethoven, a biography, ideas for making instruments, a listening list, and a glossary. Musician orientation. Musicians have three orientation sessions with the Education Director. They review the lessons designed by teachers, adding ideas and tailoring them to their own presentation styles. In addition, they consider feedback provided by parents and teachers who attend in-school lessons and performances. Communication. An observed hallmark of Class Act is the amount and quality of communication among all participants. The Education Director prepares a "Program Overview," which provides constituents with information about the mission, need, background, goals, schedule, activities, and commitments associated with the partner- ship. Additional documents, which include written reminders of duties for specific events, outline the responsibilities of all personnel. Detail in these communi- cations provides volunteers with a sequential checklist of tasks to help programs run efficiently, from confirming dates and room reservations to assisting musicians with supplies. Both the Education Director and the Class Act Chair use telephone follow-up to trouble-shoot and to ensure smooth operations. During the site visit, school personnel and parents consistently remarked on the thoroughness of advance communications, organization, and follow-up. More importantly, they indicated that the tone of letters, conversations, and documents is always positive. Samples of announcements, job duties, and thank-you letters confirm an efficient, positive approach that encourages cooperation. Program Content Thematic focus. A single composer's life and music provide a year-long focus for Class Act. The 1994-95 composer was Beethoven. For 1995-96, the composer was Aaron Copland. During the summer, classroom and music teachers assist the Education Director in develop- ing suggested grade-level lessons to be presented by PSO musicians. For 1996-97, musicians will also participate in designing in the lessons. Learning activities are based on student-centered goals and objectives that can be correlated with state and national arts standards, as well as general instructional outcomes. Examples of instructional goals include the ability to identify instruments of the orchestra and their sounds; to differentiate among solo, ensemble, and orchestral settings; and to increase self-knowledge and self-esteem. The lessons reinforce the four primary components of music education from California's arts curriculum framework: aesthetic perception, creative expression, arts heritage, and aesthetic valuing. Involving teachers in lesson design ensures that activities are developmentally appropriate, and encourages teachers to connect other classroom learning with the musicians' lessons. The Education Director also prepares outlines and suggested activities for the introductory and closing assemblies. She and the musician jointly present the introductory assembly, which provides an overview of Class Act and acquaints the children with the composer for the year. The closing assembly incorporates demon- strations of student learning related to the year's activi- ties. Classroom materials. The PSO provides each teacher with resources consisting of a music lesson packet, a grade-level music text, an audio tape of the focus composer's music, suggested follow-up activities to musicians' visits, and a packet of pre-concert materials for the Youth Concert. In addition, each school receives related reference materials, including a video cassette and hard-bound literature book, for its library. The lesson packet for classroom teachers supplements the musicians' monthly lessons by including other composers and a variety of concepts. For example, in 1994-95, the packet featured a different composer each month, suggested a sequence of composers and works to be studied, and included a bibliography. It also provided materials for in-depth study of Beethoven. All of the classroom materials suggest, rather than prescribe, learning activities. Teachers praise this approach, saying, "We appreciate the support materials. We are encouraged 33 and motivated, but not pressured to do all of the activi- ties." Teachers also like the fact that materials emphasize teaching-learning strategies that are current and that transfer across the curriculum. Some activities, such as using a Venn Diagram to compare composer and music traits, are adapted from the California Literature Project. PROGRAM SUPPORT Orchestra The PSO currently pays for Class Act from its general operating budget, supported by numerous foundations and government agencies. Marketing and development offices promote the program, in part with a goal of securing foundation support specifically for Class Act. The senior-level appointment of the Director of Education and Community Programs is evidence of the commitment of the orchestra to Class Act, as well as to a broad educa- tion mission. In addition, the orchestra management agreed to expand the number of schools from seven in 1994- 95 to ten in 1995-96. The financial commitment for Class Act is approximately $5,000 per school. Parents and Schools Pacific Symphony flutist, Cindy Ellis, shows the finer points of her instrument to eager students. Parent volunteers are the key to keeping the program functioning. From the outset, the Education Director intended Ciass Act to operate through a parent liaison network. She has accomplished marked results, with the number of involved parents rising as they witness the benefits of the program in their schools. The potential impact of this high level of parent involvement on attracting community funds remains to be seen. The only financial commitment from schools is to provide transportation to the Youth Concert. However, if a school has inadequate financial resources to meet this commitment, the PSO assists in finding funds. 34 Beyond ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Evaluation Forms The primary method of program evaluation consists of forms completed by parents, teachers, principals, and musicians. Evaluations occur both at the middle and the end of the school year. As possible, results of the mid-year evaluation influence remaining events for that year. The closing assembly provides an informal assessment of student learning. No formal assessment of student learning occurs at present. Evaluation forms are generally open-ended, allowing for comments in response to various questions. The questions cover schedule, effectiveness of musicians, effectiveness and use of materials, commu- nication, and general comments. In addition, teachers complete evalua- tions of the content and sequence of the musicians' presentation of lessons, giving the forms to the parent coordinators immedi- ately afterward. Interactions at planning and staff devel- opment meetings, musician orientation sessions, and regular meetings of Class Act coordinators also provide feedback. Results and Recommendations Results from 1994-95 evaluations, summarized in writing, included recommendations for the 1995-96 year. Among the cited strengths were the classroom materials and the development of an ongoing relationship between the schools and their musicians. Recommendations included bringing additional structure to the parent partner activities; planning musician lessons to focus on more music and less talk; making sure materials match the grade levels of students, particularly at higher levels; and considering a docent program to help fill in activities between musician lessons and the Youth Concert. An example of program change as a result of teacher/parent feedback is the reordering of the grade-level sequence for monthly lessons. Because of the potential lag time between the lesson and the concert (for example, October to May), musicians began lessons with fifth grade classes rather than kindergarten during 1995-96. Younger children thus had the least amount of time between the musician lesson and the Youth Concert. Other adaptations for 1995-96 involved combining the parent awareness session with the Family Night ensemble presentation; mandating the participation of parent partners as volunteer assistants for a minimum of one PSO event during the year; and having Class Act co- chairs, rather than a single chair, due to increased time demands. Problem Schools Problems experienced with two pilot schools that did not fulfill their commitments to the partnership demonstrate the importance of ongoing evaluation. There were difficulties with scheduling, teacher attitudes, facilities, and completion of forms, and musicians did not feel accepted. Because of their effective communication network, the PSO Education Director and Class Act Chair identified the problems early and worked with the parent coordinators and the schools to correct them. By the end of the pilot year, however, it was evident that the partnership was not functioning satisfactorily. The PSO decided to drop the two schools and invest in schools promising higher levels of commitment. Because the commitments of both schools and the orchestra are specified in writing, the PSO made the decision to drop based on an objective review of adherence to Class Act criteria. The PSO has also adapted its selection process to include a waiting list and a reference from a school district arts specialist in order to better ascertain an applicant school's level of commitment. IMPACT Orchestra and Musicians According to the Education Director, the positive perceptions of the orchestra resulting from Class Act helped pave the way to expand the program to ten schools. One statistical impact attributed to Class Act is an increase in ticket sales for the Saturday Family Series. Another benefit for the orchestra is the base of volunteer support developed through Class Act. Parent partners for each school must provide thirty volunteers for five hours of service during an event at the Performing Arts Center. Anyone who volunteers three times receives two free tickets to a PSO concert. The Education Director states, "We simply could not run our programs without this support." Another observed benefit appears to be the dialogue that is occurring among the orchestra, school personnel, and the community as a direct result of Class Act. During interviews, people repeatedly emphasized the cooperation that underlies the program. They suggested that an open- door invitation for input and feedback, combined with responsiveness to suggestions, is a key element of the partnership's success. The carryover benefit for the PSO, based on parent and teacher perceptions, seems to be an enlarged presence in the community and a perception that the orchestra functions on behalf of its constituents. The three musicians involved in Class Act enjoy the connection they feel with the students and the satisfac- tion they derive from providing music opportunities in the school setting. In the words of one musician, "We have to do our part to ensure that there are audiences for the future." They also believe the sense of teamwork that characterizes this program is something more symphony musicians should experience: If players felt like they were part of planning and making something work, the way we do, they'd feel a lot better about their jobs. They'd also be doing something to make sure the thing they love so much doesn't die. Schools, Students, and Parents Dramatic evidence of Class Act's impact is seen in one school, where classroom teachers and administrators devised a plan to alter the schedule so that a qualified classroom teacher could teach music classes. The teachers and parents felt that Class Act would be more effective if the students had an ongoing music program. A parent coordinator stated flatly, "This is a direct result of Class Act. It would not have happened without the partnership." A parent from another school speaks in terms of the impact on her own child: "We didn't have any music program. When Class Act came, kids started getting excited about the possibility of playing an instrument. My child plays the cello because the PSO brought music back into our school." Parents and teachers believe that in a very short time Class Act has reinforced the importance of music as a necessary part of school experience. One teacher states, "There are too few right-brain experiences in our curricu- lum. We know it's important, but now we have some evidence to support our claims. The people who cut the arts need to see how kids respond to expressive learning." Demonstrating an extensive set of activities she devel- oped in conjunction with Class Act resources, a special education teacher speaks eloquently of the importance of creativity and expression in the learning of special children: 35 Beyond The arts are even more important for special children because they don't have well-developed skills of verbal expression. The arts are one of the best ways to teach so many things - time on task, sequencing, following patterns, cooperation, multicultural awareness , even recycling - because the arts have an emotional as well as an intellectual component. Enthusiasm for Class Act among parents runs high, not only among those who serve as coordinators or partners, but within the larger community. Attendance at Family Night programs has nearly overwhelmed the available facilities. In one school, the parent-teacher organization has established a standing committee for Class Act. According to a parent, "We won't let this program go. It's too important to our kids." CODA In its 1995-96 series flier, Music Director Carl St. Clair says, "No orchestra can be considered truly great until it serves its own community." The impression of the PSO's Class Act partnership is that it is consistent with St.Clair's vision of greatness. By bringing parents — those whose vested interest in the quality of schools makes them the best proponents of worthy programs - to the table as planners and facilitators, the PSO lays the groundwork for weathering threats associated with political and administrative change, and for potential corporate connections. By demonstrating the value of music education where financial cutbacks decimated programs, the PSO offers a vision of schools that places expression and creativity among the qualities necessary in a complex society. Continuing development should see Class Act play an important role in linking the PSO intrinsically with the community in which it resides. 36 Milwaukee MILWAUKEE SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Site Visit: September 27-28, 1995 OVERVIEW Partnership Programs The Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra (MSO) conducts several programs cooperatively with area schools. Of these, the most comprehensive is Arts in Community Education (ACE), a partnership with twenty-one elementary schools. Focused on integration of the arts across the curriculum, ACE serves 6000 children and their families, and 350 teachers, in communities repre- senting broad economic and ethnic diversity. Two other MSO programs provide examples of shared planning among the orchestra, schools, and community. These are the High School Concerts and the Minority Scholarship Program. The high school program incorpo- rates curriculum materials developed by a committee of orchestra and school personnel, and includes selected high school choirs in performances. The scholarship program offers free private instruction by volunteer MSO musicians to students from traditionally underserved minority populations. Range of Experiences ACE. Annual ACE experiences for students and their families include several in-school ensemble presentations, a youth concert at Milwaukee's performing arts center, a sequential curriculum linking music learning with other subjects, and early evening family programs at each school. The content of ACE is intentionally organized by grade level to accommodate children's developmental learning needs. High school concerts. Concert attendance is the focus of the High School Concerts. Repertoire is currently linked with a two-year cycle of curriculum materials and activities designed to build understanding of U.S. history through music and the humanities. High school choirs may audition to participate in one of two concert programs each year. If selected, the orchestra's Chorus Director visits the school for pre-performance training. Elective opportunities are available for in-school music, dramatic, and historical presentations by artists and community members. Students may take concert-related tours of the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Milwaukee Public Museum, or other venues arranged in conjunction with the concert themes. Minority scholarship program. In addition to private instruction with an MSO musician, the Minority Scholarship Program provides subscription concert tickets for students and their families. Students may also participate in master classes, student recitals, social events, small ensembles, repertory classes, and, through audition, the Milwaukee Youth Symphony Orchestra. PROGRAM CONCEPT In general, ACE, High School Concerts, and the Minor- ity Scholarship Program are managed similarly in that the orchestra initiates and oversees them. Because ACE is the most fully developed partnership, this report focuses on that program. Where descriptions refer specifically to the High School Concerts or Minority Scholarship Program, they are clearly indicated. Partnership Model The MSO's ACE program is an example of a managed partnership offering direct services to schools. The orchestra plans and implements the program, and shoulders major responsibility for funding. An external consultant, who continues as an active program advisor, developed the original conception and the design of ACE. Schools are chosen through a competitive applica- tion process. 37 Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - Program design and management - A free age -group orchestra concert for children and parents of each grade level, which connects to a sequential curriculum - Thematic, interdisciplinary curriculum design and concert preparation materials - Curriculum resources, including a "discovery box" of ethnic instruments and items for sound exploration - Professional development for teachers - In-school ensemble performances for each grade level - Early evening family ensemble programs in schools - Musician training - Leadership by MSO Education Director and external consultants School Contributions to Partnership - Commitment of grade-level and specialist teachers to teach the curriculum - Certified music specialist for all grade levels on the faculty - Endorsement by the principal - Endorsement of parent organization - Volunteer teacher expertise to assist with curriculum development - A designated faculty liaison to assist with in-school scheduling, distribution of ACE materials, and follow-through on program requirements - Five-dollar per student fee - Support for scheduling ensembles and concerts - Released time and substitute salaries so teachers can attend workshops - Bus transportation and chaperones for concerts - Compliance with assessment requirements 38 Beyond Time Frame The initial year for ACE was 1990-91, beginning with kindergarten classes in eleven schools. A new grade level has been added each year, so that by 1995-96, the program is serving students through the fifth grade in eight school districts. The potential to expand to more schools and grade levels is, in general, a function of fiscal resources available to support the program. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The MSO publishes the following mission statement on its education materials: The mission of the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra Education Program shall be the development of diverse, informed audiences who value live sym- phonic performances. This shall be achieved through presentation of concerts, supporting materials, and other activities designed for all ages, creating a lifetime of participation with the orchestral arts. ACE ACE endorses the broad goal of "advancing children's overall learning and development." This goal is devel- oped through the following set of ideas listed in the curriculum materials. - Arts education must be fully integrated into the total curricular design. - Children only love that which they know well. - The arts are basic to a child's education. - To ignore the arts is to produce semi-literate individuals. - This "love affair" with the arts must begin as early as possible. - Children come to value the arts through repeated listenings and active exploration. - Arts education is the responsibility of all educators. With these ideas as a foundation, the program seeks to support students' development in interdisciplinary learning and critical thinking, self-esteem, self-confi- dence, motivation, cooperation, and communication. Milwaukee High School and Minority Scholarship Programs The high school concert program seeks to integrate musical experience and cross-curricular learning for students in eighth through twelfth grades. The current two-year cycle traces the period from the American Revolution through twentieth-century urbanization. It features an interdisciplinary approach that relates music to literature, technology, and politics. The next two-year cycle will address major themes in world literature and music. Beyond encouraging talented minority students in instrumental music, the scholarship program has the broader goal of building relationships between musicians and students. Through positive relationships, the program seeks to foster students' responsibility, goal setting, self- discipline, and self-esteem. PROGRAM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION The senior-level Director of Education and Outreach, the Education Concert Manager, and the Education Assistant manage education program development. These staff members work with a board education committee, which includes teacher representatives, an Educators Advisory Council, and the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra League (MSOL). The MSOL plays an important role in fund raising and in volunteer support of education programs. MSOL volunteers are available for concert preparation in schools and to greet and usher students at education concerts. ACE ACE evolved out of a desire on the part of the MSO to expand its education efforts beyond concert performances for students. The orchestra believed there was value in relating more closely with schools and communities through arts education programs. The MSOL supported this initiative and funded an initial needs and resources study. To shape these efforts, the MSO employed a consultant who had designed other orchestra education programs as a program advisor. The adopted model focuses on interdisciplinary learning through the arts, incorporates live performance experiences in the context of a planned curriculum, and includes systematic assess- ment of student characteristics relative to the program. Ongoing program planning involves the Education Director, a curriculum specialist, the program advisor, the MSO's Resident and Assistant Conductors, and an assessment specialist. In general, they develop plans for a given school year during the winter months of the preceding year. School selection. Schools submit applications to be selected as MSO partners. Criteria used in reviewing applications include evidence of comfort and excitement regarding the ACE philosophy and approach; breadth of ethnic and socioeconomic representation desired among ACE schools; and evidence of school-wide commitment among teachers, principal, and parents. Requirements of partner schools are listed earlier under School Contribu- tions. Curriculum. Each grade level receives a curriculum resource package, written by the ACE curriculum specialist, that is consistent with the developmental learning characteristics of the age group. The concepts and activities are sequential, building on prior years' experiences. The approach is unified across grade levels by using basic music concepts as a foundation for under- standing, and by emphasizing exploration, problem- solving, multiple forms of literacy, wonder, belonging to a caring community, and feeling unique and important. The ACE curriculum is intended to enhance, not to replace, music curriculums in the schools. Connections between music and other subjects are based on a review of concepts and skills being taught across the curriculum in partner schools. Grade-level themes are as follows: Kindergarten Family of Music - composer, conductor, performer, and audience - social development and relationships in all types of families Grade I Musical Tales - events, thoughts, and emotions in relation to development of language, reading, and creative writing Grade 2 Detectives - problem-solving and critical thinking skills Grades 3 & 4 Children of Wisconsin, Children of the World - multicultural awareness sensitivity, and pride African, Hispanic, and European cultures (grade three) Native American, Asiatic, and folk cultures of Europe and America (grade five) Grade 5 The Sounds of Science - parallels between artistic and scientific processes Problem-solving Interconnections between the arts and sciences in areas such as acoustics, use of nature as inspiration in the arts, and physiology of hearing and producing sound 39 Each curriculum packet includes an overview of ACE, background on child development and learning in the arts, suggested interdisciplinary teaching/learning strategies, and resources for extension. The music content for each grade level includes orches- tral pieces that musicians will perform at the symphony concert. Concert repertoire is chosen to match children's perceptual abilities and attention spans, as well as to illustrate concepts. It is selected in part from each grade's core listening repertoire, which remains constant from year to year. In addition to providing continuity, the MSO Resident Conductor indicates that using a core repertoire frees teachers from having to learn all new pieces every year. Ensembles. Twelve MSO ensembles, an MSO chorus ensemble, MSO Resident and Assistant Conductors, and twenty-one cultural partner artists and ensembles perform in schools. There are three in-school visits (four in kindergarten) to each grade level per year, presented for about fifty to seventy-five children at a time. Cultural partners reflect cooperation between the orchestra and other artistic and cultural organizations, broadening ACE content to include opera, jazz, theatre, dance, and ethnic music. In-school performances relate to the grade-level curriculum themes and engage children in interaction with performers. They last one class period, or about 35- 45 minutes. Musician training. Conductors and members of MSO ensembles that perform in schools receive a three-session training program from the ACE program advisor. The sessions include familiarizing the ensemble with the curriculum theme, developing a concept for the presenta- tion, and doing a run-through for comments. Ensembles entering their second year of participation have a program review session with the program advisor. Musicians report that the training is extremely helpful: "We learn how to develop a theme out of our own strengths, to share what we most want to get across about what we do." The enthusiasm for doing in-school programs is evident: "This is our future. Kids learn to know us as individuals because we get them participating with us." In one program observed during the site visit, musicians explored the second-grade detective theme through simple costumes and questioning techniques that required the children to watch and listen carefully. The students were fully engaged throughout the performance. In a post-performance interview, presenters indicated that one of the challenges is to keep the program "fun" for them- selves. They mentioned that while they know the grade- level theme, they are not well-acquainted with the concepts and activities of the curriculum. This kind of information would be useful, they believe, in making sure their presentations connect with the children's learning. 40 Beyond Concerts. ACE students and teachers attend a school- day orchestra concert at the performing arts center. Parents are also invited to attend. The conductor (MSO Resident or Assistant) determines the repertoire for concerts in coordination with the core repertoire of the ACE curriculum. In grades K-2, the concerts are spe- cially designed for ACE schools, and connect with the curriculum themes. In grades three, four, and five, they overlap with the MSO's Youth Concert series, two programs of which are designed to coordinate with grade- level curriculum themes. The annual youth concert program, "Kaleidoscope," for example, relates to the multicultural theme by featuring culturally diverse music, and using cultural partners for authentic performances of ethnic music and dance. In fifth grade, "The Science of Sound" concert reinforces the curricular theme of parallels between scientific and musical exploration. Family/parent involvement. In conjunction with each partner school's parent organization, ACE provides one early-evening ensemble presentation for families. Parents interviewed during the site visit indicate that their children speak frequently of ACE activities at home and insist that their parents attend evening events. One low- income inner-city school drew 375 people to its ACE family concert in 1995-96. Continuing growth in attendance at evening programs appears to parallel increased parent involvement in planning. There is also a parent newsletter that includes ideas for at-home activi- ties related to ACE. Schools may also involve families in other ways. For example, some schools have an evening program where children share what they have learned. Professional development for teachers. The primary in-service training for teachers consists of two half-day workshops per year. An optional curriculum development workshop is available during the summer. Generally, grade-level teachers in their first and second years as ACE participants attend the workshops. Art and music specialists continue to attend each year because of the addition of a new grade level and/or working with new teachers in the program. Veteran ACE teachers also present strategies as part of the in-service training. In addition to the curriculum, workshops introduce teachers to their roles in documenting and assessing student work. Instructional planning and teaching. A requirement of all ACE schools is that they employ a certified music specialist serving all grade levels. School personnel emphasize that for ACE to work, there has to be a "culture of collegiality" within the school, i.e., a willing- ness to work together. ACE materials do not offer a prescriptive curriculum. Materials and resources are provided, and teachers determine how they can work collaboratively to implement them. Teachers agree that joint planning time greatly facilitates ACE. Some schools Milwaukee have restructured schedules to provide limited opportuni- ties; in others, teachers have volunteered their own time to plan cooperatively. Teachers also agree that ACE is best viewed as something that can he integrated into existing programs, rather than as an add-on. Some classroom teachers at workshops held during the site visit expressed feelings of anxiety and uncertainty associated with ACE expectations. They were concerned about their lack of a music background, the pressures of existing curriculum expectations, and the fear of failure. According to teachers, music specialists frequently play a key role in facilitating cooperation to meet ACE goals. In one school, grade-level teachers emphasize writing tasks related to the ACE curriculum, whereas the music specialist oversees the "doing" of music activities. In another, grade-level teachers use the ACE repertoire as a background during seat work in order to prepare the children for perceptive listening during music classes. Teacher reluctance to incorporate ACE into classroom settings, including music, is generally overcome by a positive school climate and evidence that ACE enhances rather than replaces existing programs. High School Concerts The two-year curricular theme of American history is an attempt to bring focus and depth to the high school concerts. The four-concert series addresses the following topics: U.S. Civil War, American Revolution, immigra- tion, and urbanization. Building on a tradition of involv- ing selected high school choirs with the MSO in perfor- mances, the programs now also incorporate cross- curricular materials that correlate with programs of study in the humanities. In addition, schools may enrich the trip to the concert with related activities at Milwaukee museums, or by hosting community professional artists and authorities selected by MSO education staff for relevant presentations. Orchestra personnel, curriculum specialists from public schools, professional historians, and teachers collaboratively develop curriculum themes and materials. The concert repertoire is specially chosen by conductors to integrate with the curriculum theme. The MSO makes it clear that the concert and materials are intended to enhance broader study: "This ... is not an historical study which goes deeply into causes and effects. ... It is our intention ... to address crucial turning points . . . with a focus on the arts, past and present." School administrators and teachers believe this approach deepens students' understanding of history. A history teacher explains: "Students gain a sense of the total social context surrounding historical events, rather than seeing them as isolated occurrences." A superintendent empha- sizes the fact that students need to feel part of a "commu- nity of learning. The concert demonstrates that learning is holistic and connected across many fields of human endeavor. Moreover, music provides an emotional connection that influences our ability to recall events in context." A language arts teacher reinforces the issue of context: "learning becomes a layered, penetrating experience. There is a context established that is not possible to convey in a classroom. This experience will remain with them well beyond any words we use to describe historical events." Focusing on the historical theme is not without its challenges. The MSO Chorus Director, for example, notes that it can take considerable effort to find literature that meets the triple criteria of connecting with the historical themes, being appropriate for high school voices, and fitting the instrumentation of the orchestra. School personnel may have to defend the program against criticisms that concert attendance represents a non-essential field trip. And orchestra administrators have to ensure that there is a sufficient audience to justify the programs. Nevertheless, there is agreement that moving beyond a "presentation" mode to connecting concerts to the high school curriculum appears to have positive implications for everyone. Most importantly, participants believe that the contribution to student learning justifies the time and energy required to make the integrated approach succeed. Minority Scholarship Program The minority program arose in part from several con- cerns: a) lack of minority participation in symphony orchestras and audiences, b) noticed declines in the number of instrumental students in schools, and c) a desire to provide opportunities for communities poten- tially underserved by classical music organizations. Originally sparked by the efforts of an MSO bassoonist, a number of orchestra musicians volunteer their time to give lessons to talented students. Since the program's inception in 1989, forty-four students and forty MSO musicians have participated. Small ensemble performance opportunities, master and repertory classes, attendance at MSO concerts, and social events enrich the lesson experience. Managed by the MSO's Education Concert Manager, the Minority Participation in the Arts sub-committee of the MSO's board education committee oversees the program. Music supervisors and teachers recommend students and participate in interviews that are a part of the selection process. A natural connection exists with ACE, in that 41 heightened awareness among all teachers for providing arts opportunities yields more focus on identifying students likely to benefit from private instruction. The program maintains an enrollment of about thirty stu- dents. Students are predominantly African- American, Hispanic- American, and Native American. The MSO provides materials and supplies for low-income families. Where necessary, the MSO loans instruments at no cost. Parental support is a critical element of the Minority Scholarship Program. Parents must see that students get to lessons, support at-home practice, and help students balance their schedules among competing priorities. As a condition of acceptance, parents and students sign a commitment form that covers lesson scheduling and attendance, daily practice, improvement over a three- month trial period, and participation in enrichment opportunities provided by the orchestra. Because the musicians are volunteers, schedules may need to be flexible, or musicians may need to discontinue the lessons. In these cases, the MSO promises students and parents that every effort will be made to find another teacher from the orchestra. PROGRAM SUPPORT Financial Support The MSO provides the major financial support for partnership programs. Fund raising occurs under the auspices of the MSO's development staff. The MSO League is also a significant source of financial support for all education programs. The MSO maintains three education staff positions, including the Director of Education and Outreach, the Education Concert Man- ager, and the Education Assistant. Financial underwriting of ACE includes support from major foundations with local affiliates and Milwaukee- area private foundations. Expenditures include remu- neration of the program consultant, curriculum specialist, and assessment specialist; support of in-school ensemble and cultural partner presentations; maintenance of in- service programs; and production/distribution of all curriculum and curriculum support materials. Concert expenses include separate ACE concerts for grades kindergarten, one, and two, and ACE overlap with regular Youth Concerts in grades three, four, and five. These expenses also include costs for cultural partners who may perform with the orchestra. The required five-dollar-per-student fee covers approxi- mately ten percent of budgeted ACE expenditures. Schools also pay to transport students to concerts. In some schools, parent organizations have contributed funds to purchase audio playback equipment for class- 42 Beyond Tradition rooms. Student ticket sales for high school concerts cover about twenty-five percent of the orchestra's incurred expenses. Schools supply transportation to the concerts. A designated fund composed of private contributions supports the Minority Scholarship Program, which incurs minimal costs. Organizational Support Conductors. Discussions with teachers and parents indicate their sense that conductors strongly support education endeavors. They make school visits for ACE, train MSOL volunteers to do concert preparation in schools, lead concert preparation for Minority Scholar- ship students and their parents, and develop programs that are both appropriate for the age levels of students and inclusive of challenging repertoire. They have wedded repertoire to curriculums, and have intentionally demonstrated cultural diversity through repertoire and guest performers. According to one parent, the success of high school concerts is due in large part to the conductor's ability to program compelling repertoire and establish rapport with the audience. The MSO's Resident Conductor, interviewed during the site visit, does not believe in "playing down" to kids: "It is essential to provide an authentic orchestra experience." He believes education, in the broadest sense, is the mission of the orchestra, and that a strong relationship with schools is integral to this mission. Musicians. MSO musicians show high levels of support for education programs. The fact that 25-30 percent of MSO's core musicians participate in in-school ensemble programs, and that others volunteer to teach students in the Minority Scholarship Program offers significant evidence of their backing. One musician proclaims, "This is the most important thing I do." Another says, "We have to do it because we believe in art as a vital part of existence." And yet another offers this perspective: "If we don't do education programs today, we have no future tomorrow." Schools. While schools function mainly as beneficiaries of MSO efforts, the programs could not operate without school support. Teachers and parents are uniformly enthusiastic about all three partnership programs. In ACE, specialists and grade-level teachers commit to sharing instructional responsibilities; in the high school program, literature and history teachers are the ones who integrate symphony materials into their classrooms. In the words of one classroom teacher, "The question about doing ACE is not whether we will, but how we will. Now that we have ACE, we would not want to be without it." Parents. Parent support for partnership programs is evident in levels of participation in ACE family events and in their commitment to the Minority Scholarship Milwaukee Program. Parents and teachers in one class reported that sixteen of twenty-one parents came with their children to an end-of-year ACE sharing program. One music teacher reports that she gives a presentation on ACE to the school's parent organization every year. As a result, parents in that school have purchased stereos for their children's classrooms. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Student Assessment - ACE Projects A prominent feature of ACE is its extensive and system- atic approach to student assessment. A university-level music education expert, who specifies the documentation requirements and guides the review of materials, oversees the assessment. As part of the school's participation, teachers are required to submit "A Culminating Experi- ence" project at the end of the year. The highest partici- pating grade in each school must submit a video record- ing of its project. In addition, the assessment team reviews teacher journals and evaluation forms completed by parents, teachers, school administrators, and ensemble artists regarding the effectiveness of in-school ensemble presentations. The assessment procedure grows out of the grade-level curricular themes. The culminating project consists of a four-phase sequence that documents introduction/ discussion of the project with students, creation/develop- ment of the project, performing the project for others, and reflecting on the project. Based on an authentic assessment model, the project is an actual classroom activity, documented by videotaping one classroom of students through all four phases. It may occur over a period of weeks, and teachers must design the project to demonstrate concepts and skills related to the curriculum themes, interdisciplinary learning, critical thinking, and evaluation skills. Insight into student development associated with ACE is gleaned from a systematic review of the culminating projects. The assessment specialist has developed a qualitative scoring rubric that assigns five levels of achievement over four dimensions of student learning and social behavior: 1) learning as a group through a collaborative project, 2) concept acquisition and think- ing skills, 3) ways of showing understanding and commu- nication, and 4) perceptions about learning within the classroom. Teachers are introduced to the assessment procedure during in-service training. Suggestions are given for ways to develop projects. For example, having children choose a story and add instrumental sounds, movement, and singing to it demonstrates the kindergarten theme. In first grade, the children write an original story, then add movement and music. Results of the assessment are shared with schools and are used in ongoing ACE planning. Like ACE itself, the assessment procedure has evolved over time, and is still being refined to give the most reliable information about students and their achievement. Findings of ACE Assessment The assessment specialist sees clear progress in student achievement associated with ACE. In the category of collaboration in learning, students are less teacher reliant and more empowered to develop their own ideas. They demonstrate the ability to consider ideas from different class members, to choose one idea, and to pursue it with a sense of group ownership. In the category of concept acquisition, students are progressing in their ability to connect ACE themes across the curriculum. Students demonstrate understanding and judgement, as in the case of a student who suggested using instruments that were more authentic in a multicultural experience than homemade ones. Students also demonstrate greater independence in learning as teachers move from "telling" modes to "facilitating" modes. In demonstrating understanding and communication skills, students are synthesizing experiences and recalling information in ways that enhance creativity. Insights into the quality of their projects are becoming increasingly sophisticated. With regard to perceptions of learning in the classroom, students increasingly evidence comfort in sharing ideas and making suggestions. Students are enthusiastic participants in all phases of the culminating project, and they appear to take risks without embarrassment. Program Evaluation The ACE assessment is the major avenue of information regarding the effectiveness of the program. In addition, parents, teachers, and ensembles complete evaluation forms, and feedback is offered orally at workshops and committee meetings. Teachers also maintain journals, and the curriculum packets invites them to share ideas and activities that successfully implement the themes. School visits by the MSO Education Director and ACE curriculum specialist provide additional information. 43 In general, MSO staff and consultants believe ACE is making important contributions to children's learning and to positive school climates. Written feedback to each school allows for citing of strengths and areas needing improvement. In addition, the assessment team is able to effect changes in program planning and implementation, and in professional development, based on observations made during reviews of the culminating projects. For example, the assessment team has discovered that implementing the third grade curriculum theme in the context of the schools' ongoing programs presents some peculiar difficulties. By bringing the problem to the attention of the schools and the planning team, adjust- ments may be made in curriculum content, in the suggested activities, in workshop content, and in the ways teachers elect to teach the curriculum. Because the assessment is ongoing, subsequent culminating projects will indicate whether changes appear to have resolved the original problems. IMPACT Schools and Curriculum School administrators and teachers agree that ACE can have important implications for how a school operates. For example, one teacher described how her school had tried several different approaches to an interdisciplinary curriculum. The problem, she said, was that there was never enough of a structure from which to work: ACE, however, is different. ACE brings a structure that requires us to work together and to be creative. It doesn't tell us what to do, but it gives us clear ideas about how to connect our different subjects, and how to get the art and music specialists more involved with the regular class- room. And it offers the special concerts and programs that help tie everything together. An enthusiastic school administrator believes ACE connects well with a school and teachers who are already creative: "If you're a good teacher, you'll buy into ACE. It's consistent with the 'cutting edge' in education today." This administrator and several other teachers find that an important effect of ACE is the empowerment of teachers to communicate and to lobby for more shared planning time. According to one teacher, "The program can't work if we don't cooperate. Because of how good the program is, we wanted to work together, and we found some ways." Teachers seem to agree that if they demonstrate how cooperation improves learning, administrators will be more willing to schedule shared planning time. 44 Beyond There is nearly unanimous agreement that integration of subject matter through the arts, combined with discrete learning in arts disciplines, enriches the curriculum. There is also agreement that arts specialists are a neces- sary element. In one school, the staff has agreed to teach more physical education themselves in order to "buy" a full-time art teacher. Teachers state it this way: We can do a certain amount with music, but it is harder to feel comfortable with music than it is with physical education. We felt we needed the art and music teachers to be the experts and to help us with ideas and activities. That way, we can tie what they're learning in music into other subjects, but we don't have to teach the basic music skills they need in order to understand the connections. I don't think it would work if we were expected to do that - we just don't have the knowledge. Because the ACE application requires evidence of support from the parent association, parents are generally aware of the program from the outset. One parent indicates that the ensemble visits are the one thing her child speaks of most frequently in regard to school. This parent also indicates that the family program assures parents that ACE is not just about techniques of teach- ing: "ACE is a philosophy, a belief. It tells us that the orchestra cares about the entire community." Parents have volunteered to assist in chaperoning trips to concerts, to help with evening programs, and to help the school raise the five-dollar-per-student ACE fee. Orchestra As a result of its education initiatives, the MSO's Education Director believes that the community is now beginning to perceive the orchestra as a "good neighbor": "There is certainly more trust among our constituencies that we, like they, are committed to the welfare of our entire community." MSO administrative staff are eager to see the extent to which this apparent community engagement translates into sustained funding, both for ACE and for the orchestra at large. At present, there are indications that funders are impressed by the orchestra's substantive commitment to schools. The orchestra has elected to demonstrate this commitment in part by making the Director of Education and Outreach a senior- level administrative position. Musicians believe the opportunity to participate in education programs, particularly as part of the ensembles that visit schools, provides a chance to be seen as individuals rather than simply as members of a large orchestra. One musician believes this is good for orches- tra members and for students: Milwaukee We have a sense of identity that we might not have otherwise - we feel as though we're making a more direct difference in kids' lives. And kids who might be interested in music have a chance to see us as individuals who have pursued certain goals to get where we are. Musicians also find that they feel energized by the opportunity to create and shape performances, and to perform in more intimate settings: "We get to demon- strate that we are creative artists, and I think that gives kids a model for creativity in their lives." The Education Director reports that when the MSO went through some difficult labor negotiations a few years ago, ACE became a common rallying point for the board, the administration, and the musicians: "Whatever we did, it was clear that no one wanted a retreat from the things we were doing in education, particularly ACE." She takes this as evidence that the new roles of musicians, the satisfaction of giving to the community, and the positive perceptions of education programs by school personnel and parents are combining to forge a collaborative investment in quality education in Milwaukee. CODA There is a clear sense of excitement in Milwaukee about the orchestra's education mission and initiatives. Teach- ers, parents, board members, and school and symphony administrators eagerly share their view that the symphony is an important player in a broad, school improvement effort. Moreover, orchestra personnel believe that the long-term benefit of education outreach will be stronger integration of the orchestra with the community, and hence a foundation for continued cultural and artistic vitality in Milwaukee. The route that the MSO has pursued in connecting with schools has been largely grass-roots. If teachers, parents, and principals are enthused, and results are apparent, the larger system will respond. Conversations with orchestra administrators also indicate, however, that they believe connection at system administrative levels may be necessary to ensure long-term commitments and expan- sion from elementary to secondary schools. Sustainability is an ever-present question, and the balance of invest- ment among the orchestra, the schools, and the commu- nity requires continuing appraisal. At the same time, the orchestra must deal with the challenges, both fiscal and logistical, of expanding the program to new elementary schools and to higher grade levels. MSO administrators anticipate that progression into middle schools will strengthen district-level participation. The impression is that those who are most directly associated with children's learning value the orchestra's approach of connecting symphony programs to school curriculums. It is also consistent with current research demonstrating the value of arts experiences across various dimensions of the learning process. With continued documentation of the impact of the partnership on learning and schools, there appears to be clear potential for a long-term MSO role in ensuring quality education for the children of Milwaukee. 45 Beyond 46 Boston BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Boston Music Education Collaborative Site visit: November 2-3, 1995 OVERVIEW Schools and the Boston Music Education Collaborative The Boston Music Education Collaborative (BMEC) is a partnership among the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO), the New England Conservatory of Music (NEC), WGBH Educational Foundation (public broadcasting), and the Boston Public Schools (BPS). The program serves students in six elementary, one K-8, and three middle schools. The schools, all in the inner city, have predominantly lower socioeconomic minority popula- tions. In 1995-96, the partnership reached approximately 3000 children in grades one through three and six through eight. History Early in the 1990s, two overlapping concerns at the BSO provided an impetus for broadened education initiatives: a) the ongoing challenge of connecting the orchestra with a culturally diverse community, and b) growing sentiment that the orchestra should play a more active role in supporting music education in the public schools. Two decades of economic and social upheaval, a declin- ing tax base, and competition for available monies had resulted in severe cutbacks in school music programs. Spurred by the interest of several trustees, the partners began discussions regarding a possible BSO response. Trustees, administrators, and musicians agreed that the issues were larger than audience development. They felt that the BSO, an historic, world-class institution, could aid local school improvement by committing energy and resources to Boston's music education programs. Finding similar interests at NEC and WGBH, the BSO joined these institutions and the BPS in pursuing a cooperative, comprehensive music education effort. The partners determined that the relationship would be evolutionary rather than prescribed, and that the BPS would be a full-fledged partner, rather than only a beneficiary. According to the BSO's Director of Educa- tional Activities, the cultural institutions were more interested in participating as partners than in having to manage the partnership. This stance, combined with the intensive labor of coordinating resources with classroom settings, resulted in the creation of BMEC, a separate administrative entity charged with facilitating the partnership. Besides managing partnership operations, BMEC serves as a catalyst for program planning, the focus of which is redeveloping music education as a core element of generalized school improvement in the city of Boston. Range of Experiences Direct music experiences, based on singing, moving, and playing instruments, are essential to the BMEC approach. Teachers incorporate performance into classrooms in order to teach understanding of music as a discipline, and to enhance learning in other subjects. School music specialists and classroom teachers provide instruction. In middle schools, students also participate in instrumental and choral ensembles. Student aides from the NEC visit classrooms to assist teachers with resources and instruc- tion. Individual musicians (volunteer "godparents") from the BSO establish ongoing relationships with students in specific schools. Visiting the schools two or more times each year, they play their instruments, discuss their lives as musicians, and reinforce basic music concepts. BSO- member ensembles also perform in some schools. BMEC contracts selected performing artists in the Boston area to visit schools and provide experiences with music of various cultures. Children in partner schools may attend 47 Youth Concerts at the BSO, depending on availability of bus transportation from the BPS. Children who demon- strate particular musical talent may receive scholarships for other BSO and NEC programs. PROGRAM CONCEPT Partnership Model BMEC represents an adaptive partnership model based on principles of organizational collaboration. The partnership intends to accomplish more than any one institution can accomplish alone, drawing on the unique resources of each partner in tandem with the others. By design, BMEC combines hands-on oversight from top- level administrators of partner institutions with recom- mendations and decisions by teachers, BMEC staff, and symphony musicians. The purpose of this design is to ensure investment at all levels, and to develop a sustain- able program that can weather personnel changes and organizational restructuring. Participants in BMEC decided that operations, partner roles, and programs would be flexible and organic, rather than static and imposed. Thus, a distinguishing trait of the operation is that partner needs and aspirations, especially those indicated by teachers in the BPS, drive BMEC from within. Site-visit interviews also revealed a strong desire among partners to ensure community ties through parent involvement. A recent effort involves building parent liaison groups to provide feedback and participate in program planning. According to BMEC, their underlying assumptions include the following. - A clear focus on transformation within inner-city public schools - Community-responsive programming through interactive feedback centering on classroom teachers - Sustainability through sequential student learning, professional development, parent education, effective assessment, and advocacy - Replicability through a clearly documented process of implementation - Accountability through the incorporation of national standards, valid program assessment, and assessment of the partnership's implications for public policy These assumptions reflect principles that have been found to support successful collaborations in a number of fields. 48 Beyond Operating Structure BMEC operates as an autonomous administrative agency, functioning as a broker for program development. Basing its approach on systemic change through teacher empow- erment, BMEC relies on teachers as pedagogical experts and advisors. Their suggestions are the basis for coordina- tion of school services. Through BMEC, each partner responds to school needs out of its unique mission and resources. BMEC has its own Board of Directors and five staff members. The Board of Directors consists of top-level administrators and representatives of the partner institu- tions, as well as other community, arts, and education leaders. Through the BMEC board, the four partner institutions share tasks of policy setting, supervision, financial stability, and accountability for the partnership and its programs. To focus its work, the Board is divided into five task forces: management, education, fund raising, public relations, and community relations. The BMEC staff includes an executive director, two project coordina- tors, a director of external relations, and an administrative assistant. The executive director works closely with administrators of each organization, particularly in matters of management and funding. The four partners jointly manage fund raising. BMEC has its own office space, located in relative proximity to the NEC and the BSO. BMEC Contributions to Partnership - Centralized operations for management and leadership - Impetus for communication and resource sharing - Financial support/coordination of curriculum planning - Resource center/financial support for instructional materials - Professional development, including stipends - Scheduling - School performances by cultural partners - Supervision by a board of cultural and community leaders - Support for activities such as local concert attendance Boston BSO Contributions to Partnership - Membership on the BMEC hoard, including the BSO's Managing Director and Director of Educational Activities - Guaranteed BMEC funding - Staff support for fiscal operations and fund-raising - Free school-day youth concerts for partner schools, including pre-concert materials and preparation - Hosting summer workshop at Tanglewood - Arts immersion and strings education programs for selected students - Recruitment of BSO musicians for voluntary school visits (godparent program) - In-school ensemble performances NEC Contributions to Partnership - Membership on the BMEC board - Guaranteed BMEC funding - Staff time for development of funding sources - Student music aides for partner schools - Pedagogical consultation and identification of teaching resource personnel - Continuing education classes, such as recorder, guitar, and computer, as part of the BMEC professional development package - Cooperation in the use of facilities and resources, for example having a BMEC children's choir sing with Maestro Seiji Ozawa at the re-opening of NEC's Jordan Hall WGBH Contributions to Partnership - Membership on the BMEC board - Hosting partner school students at live broadcasts - A library of videos for curriculum resource packages - In-school filming of partnership activities - Public service announcements School Contributions to Partnership - Membership on the BMEC board - Commitment of classroom teachers and music specialists to professional development, curriculum planning, and teaching - Administrative cooperation at system and local school levels - Teacher attendance at planning meetings throughout the year Time Frame The 1993-94 school year was both a design year and initial implementation period. The first full year of operation was 1994-95. The cultural institution partners currently guarantee funding through the completion of the pilot phase in August 1997. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Evolution of Goals and Objectives BMEC did not begin with a set of predetermined objec- tives. Rather, it relied upon open-ended interchange among the three cultural institutions and the BPS. These discussions included focus groups of teachers who developed "wish lists" for the partnership. The teachers raised issues, such as the small number of employed music specialists, the lack of music-teaching equipment and resources, and the use of music class as a "drop-off' for students. As a result, BMEC adopted the following goals: a) to rebuild music education from within the system; b) to help schools see music teachers as essential to a balanced curriculum; c) to overcome isolation of the music specialist from other faculty; (d) and to enhance the role of music in learning across the curriculum. Ten "measures for school implementation," which were borrowed from the original partnership proposal, frame the direction for the work of BMEC. Music instruction Professional enrichment and sustained networking Transformation of the total curricular experience Contact with professional musicians Community building/Parental involvement Student self-assessment Events at the BSO, WGBH television and radio stations, and the NEC Special mentoring and career activities for middle school students Continuation of the experience outside the school year Ongoing program assessment 49 The measures serve as continuing benchmarks for determining strategies, reviewing achievements, and setting future directions. Mission Statement BMEC's formal mission statement, developed after a year of discussion, speaks to the partners' commitment to infusing music into the BPS, making a difference in the quality of education, institutionalizing music as part of the core framework of the K-12 curriculum in the BPS, and focusing partner resources in support of individual schools' evolving objectives. Objectives - Commit the pooled resources of major cultural and educational institutions in order to promote permanent learning habits for success through music: teamwork, practice, creativity, and concentration. - Provide excellent instrumental and vocal skill achievement opportunities. - Make a compelling case for all public schools to adopt excellent K-12 integrated music programs. - Enhance the schools' use of music for shared learning across diverse ethnic cultures. - Build a sustainable, two-way, open door policy among cultural institutions, public schools, and the families of Boston. - Serve as a resource and model for other U.S. cities to build shared responsibilities among public and private institutions for improving urban education. - Provide viable alternatives to students on how to spend their leisure time. Strategies - Support the collaboration of music specialists and classroom teachers in bringing musical experiences into every classroom. - Provide resources, such as New England Conservatory student aides, BSO orchestra players, and WGBH, videos, to support instrumental and vocal programs run by BPS music specialists. - Assess the potential effect of music on other academic areas. 50 Beyond - Provide successful formats through which cultural institutions can increase the significance of their outreach efforts. - Assist in the adoption of consistency, continuity, and flexibility as educational guidelines. - Provide a year-long vehicle for increasing parent commitment to their children's education through attending student performances and additional music appreciation activities. - Effect an advocacy campaign for the project that will insure its permanence through public demand and public funding. - Document the process and the success of the BMEC in order to provide a model for other public-private programs. PROGRAM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Flexible Program Design Discussions regarding ways that the partnering cultural institutions could effect a stronger presence in education and the community began in 1990. As program ideas began to take shape, there was agreement on two points: 1) the partnership would be flexible and evolving; and 2) it would be tailored to the unique characteristics of the community, the schools, and the participating cultural institutions. At one point, the partners hired a consultant to develop a proposal based on existing models. However, the Boston partners determined that a prescribed design was incon- sistent with their goal of sustained community respon- siveness. An advantage of this approach, according to BMEC's Executive Director, is that the cultural institu- tions continually challenge themselves to develop new avenues of response instead of relying on BMEC to solicit services. One partner representative states it this way: "Because we have a shared mission, we are constantly trying to find ways to link existing programs to BMEC, and to develop new programs that serve our needs, as well as BMEC's." School Selection and Characteristics The partners selected ten schools as pilot sites. Criteria for selection included a demonstrated need for support of the music education program; and evidence of staff collegiality and whole-school commitment, including classroom teachers, music specialists, and principals. Because of the desire to be a model inner-city program, Boston the partnership also wanted the participating schools to reflect demographic representation of Boston's cultural and economic spectrum. The program began in grades one and six, with a plan of adding two grades per year. In 1995-96, the program included grades one through three and six through eight. Curriculum Design Education Curriculum Design Teams (groups of teachers and consultants) meet regularly to design curriculum resource packages. Each package focuses on a particular topic and supports interaction between music specialists and classroom teachers. The partnership encourages teachers to expand on the packages according to the characteristics of given students and school situations. In addition, a team of BMEC music teachers establishes standards in music for the partnership schools, selects repertoire for concerts, and correlates BMEC programs to local, state, and national standards in arts education. The curriculum resource packages are developed accord- ing to the grade of the student, and they promote music both as a discrete discipline and as a vehicle for curricu- lum integration. Each package includes a story or stories; compact discs and cassette tapes; lesson plans, teacher supplements, materials for art projects, and sheet music; posters, maps, and photographs; and videotapes. Re- sources from each partner institution enhance the packages. These resources may include videos from WGBH and related in-school performances. Packages for Primary Grades Peter and the Wolf is an introduction to the instruments of the orchestra based on the story and music of Peter and the Wolf. Activities include listening, singing, and "music exercises" related to timbres and the use of melody, texture, and mood in story telling. Butterfly Unit is based on the story, "The Very Hungry Caterpillar." The package includes related activities in both academic and arts subjects. Songs and rhythmic exercises provide the foundation. Multi-Cultural Unit consists of units related to Native American, African, and Brazilian cultures. The unit includes folk songs, dances, food, story telling, recorders, rhythm instruments, and home-made instruments. Packages for Intermediate Grades and/or Middle Schools What I Had Was Singing, based on Marian Anderson's biography, is an introduction to the life and work of the first African-American woman to sing with the Metropolitan Opera. Recordings, videos, and books also provide background on the civil rights movement and the history of opera, and relate to social studies and language arts. Dicey's Song, also based on a book of the same title, focuses on the story of Dicey and her siblings, who are abandoned by their mother and walk from Massachusetts to Maryland to find their grandmother. In the story, Dicey meets a folk and blues musician, and these music genres provide a core for the package. The package also includes classical music, which relates to Dicey's sister, who is a piano prodigy. Additional curriculum materials are also available through BMEC's resource center. For example, agree- ments with recording companies have allowed BMEC to develop an ever-expanding library of compact discs at no charge. BMEC matches school funds to purchase music textbooks, and underwrites classroom instruments such as recorders and other classroom instruments. Classroom Activities The site visit included observation of three elementary classes. In one of the classrooms, students connected music with patterns, using interlocking, colored plastic cubes to represent sequences of sounds and rests. They also played recorders. In another room, a classroom teacher led the children in a carefully sequenced music lesson built on a series of rhythmic ostinatos performed while singing "Are You Sleeping?" The third class, taught by the music specialist, involved rhythmic development through singing and movement. Classroom teachers find that the intentional connections BMEC curriculum packages make between music and other subjects help them feel more comfortable with music activities. They believe in music "for music's sake;" however, they also think music makes learning more enjoyable, channels children's energy, and aids retention. In the words of one teacher, "I now make sure I have the children sing or listen to music every day." Teachers also indicate that having BMEC in their school validates using music in their classes: "Principals' attitudes have changed - now they want us to be using music, whereas before they sometimes thought we were wasting time if we were singing." 51 In a school that saw its music specialists reduced from four to one since the 1970s, the remaining music special- ist appreciates the increased involvement of classroom teachers: "Our schedule doesn't allow me to see all the children, so I'm glad to know that classroom teachers include music." The specialist is also glad that BMEC stresses music both as a discipline and as a means of curricular integration. She would like classroom teachers and administrators to recognize that music has its own curriculum, and she believes joint planning between specialists and classroom teachers would improve the cohesiveness of music across the curriculum. Instructional activities in middle schools include band and choral programs, as well as integration of music into other subjects. BMEC helps music specialists develop curriculums for the performing ensembles, subsidizes instrument rentals, purchases literature, and facilitates joint performances with other schools. NEC Student Aides Sixty students from NEC serve as technical assistants in classrooms, helping to build music literacy and bringing resources to integrate music with other subjects. They also provide instrument demonstrations and organize instrument petting zoos. In middle schools, NEC students may also provide instrumental lessons. Student aides are in the schools a minimum of one and one half hours weekly. They are paid a fee for their services; however, BMEC hopes to replace monetary payment with course credit. A member of the NEC music education faculty facilitates training and serves as a pedagogical mentor. Aides are trained through workshops with music specialists, and are supervised by BMEC staff, who make site visits and videotape the students' work. An extensive handbook, prepared by BMEC, provides information on BMEC's mission and objectives, suggestions for effective relation- ships with teachers and students, lesson plan forms, and resource materials on children and music learning. Teachers interviewed during the site visit indicated that the NEC student aide program, like all aspects of BMEC, is evolving. While some aides are dedicated and respon- sible, others are less reliable and seem uncertain of their roles in the classroom. Teachers also varied in their perceptions of the student aides' roles, suggesting that further work is needed to establish the most productive relationship. 52 Beyond Professional Development for Teachers Professional development centers on a five-day summer workshop, a portion of which is held at Tanglewood. The format involves a series of presentations on musicianship, curriculum resource packages, and curriculum integration. There are also enriching musical opportunities, such as an open rehearsal by the BSO, and a teachers' choir. In keeping with BMEC's emphasis on teacher empower- ment, teachers who design materials or have been previously trained help to train new teachers. Incentives for attending the workshop include a stipend and professional development credits. The main goals of the summer workshop are to build teachers' confidence and comfort with music, and to foster interaction between classroom teachers and music specialists. One classroom teacher affirmed this purpose by saying, "After the summer workshop, I realized there were things I could do with music - it helped me feel more confident." During interviews, teachers indicated that they would like the workshop to include more activities with direct classroom application. Beyond the summer workshop, teachers may also partici- pate in additional clinics, continuing education classes at the NEC, and monthly meetings. There are two types of monthly meetings: "liaison groups" of representative teachers to share progress and plan curriculum, and school meetings with teachers and principals to redefine goals. Classes at NEC, called "intensives," are available in recorder, piano, voice, and computer music. In addition, partner school teachers may audit any continuing education course offered by NEC. Godparent Program Fifteen individual musicians from the BSO have adopted partner schools. Each "godparent" voluntarily visits his or her school or class a minimum of two times per year. BSO conductor Seiji Ozawa has been among the partici- pants. Godparent activities may include instrument demonstrations, discussions of life as a professional musician, and reinforcement of music concepts. Godpar- ents plan the specifics of their programs, sometimes incorporating unique features such as student composing or juggling. Prior to school visits, BMEC prepares and sends out information about the godparents. Originally, BMEC actively recruited the musicians who served as godparents. As the program has grown, how- ever, the BSO has assumed more responsibility in this area, mainly through the enthusiasm of current partici- pants. BMEC has engaged Young Audiences of Massa- chusetts to assist musicians in feeling comfortable with Boston children in classroom settings. Individual godparent programs may or may not coincide with the content of other BMEC programs; however, BMEC encourages as much connection as possible. Performances BSO-member ensembles plan and present programs in some partner schools. Like the godparent program, ensembles do not necessarily connect program content with other experiences the students may have, though BMEC encourages these connections. To broaden the range of music experiences, BMEC provides multi- cultural opportunities through the Cultural Partners program. Ensembles and artists offer diverse performance experiences that frequently correlate with the materials in the curriculum resource packages. Partner schools, with BMEC encouragement, also send children to school-day Youth Concerts performed by the BSO. BMEC underwrites the ticket cost for students. Because the BPS has cut transportation funds, attendance at Youth Concerts is problematic for some schools. Participation in BSO Talent Programs Partnership children who are identified as musically talented may receive scholarships to participate in two programs: 1) Project STEP (String Training and Educa- tional Program for Students of Color), and 2) Days in the Arts summer program. BMEC supports efforts to identify deserving children in the partner schools through recruitment, teacher awareness, and responsiveness to parental interest in furthering their children's musical development. PROGRAM SUPPORT Financial Support of BMEC BMEC's financial support consists of funds raised prima- rily from Boston-based foundations with an interest in youth education. Funders were attracted to BMEC because it emphasizes linkages between non-profit institutions and public schools. In addition, they were intrigued with the potential benefit for both organiza- tions. Funders wanted to see how non-profit cultural institutions might adapt programs, resources, and person- nel to fit the goals of a partnership. Additional support from national foundations, including the Knight Foundation, is predicated on the potential for audience development at the BSO, and the working out of the relationship between the orchestra and a structured partnership program. A significant challenge, according to the Director of Development, is for the orchestra to manage its own financial needs and resources while fulfilling its commitment to BMEC. The recent addition of a BMEC staff member for development will require ongoing definition of the administrative relationship between BMEC and the BSO. To overcome reluctance on the part of funders who were looking for guaranteed longevity, WGBH, NEC, and the BSO agreed to share financial responsibility for the survival of BMEC. By necessity, this commitment came from each institution's executive administrator, each agreeing that the cultural institutions would average and cover any expenses exceeding raised dollars for the pilot years, thus making BMEC a top fiscal priority. The BSO's Director of Development supports this commitment: "We would be remiss not to place a high priority on something so central to the future of the BSO. The profound level of cooperation required among the partners can only benefit them and this community." Administrative Support from Cultural Institutions The level of commitment evidenced by top administra- tors of each partner institution is clearly a distinguishing feature of BMEC. The BSO's Managing Director believes there is no alternative: Both the history and the future of this orchestra compel us to strengthen our connections with the community. At present, we cannot claim total success in this area. We must build on the great tradition of reaching out through the Esplanade concerts and our other initiatives to connect with a diverse community, to be valued, and to be a better educator. We want to transform the concert experience for our audience . Similarly, the NEC views BMEC as a vehicle for enhanc- ing its own role and perception among an increasingly diverse inner-city community. According to one admin- istrator, the redevelopment of music education in Boston's schools will require the continuing involvement of the city's cultural institutions: We have an ongoing responsibility to this community, as well as to our own future. The steps may seem small at the present time, but they are having a significant impact. We are trying to lay a foundation so that music will not be marginalized again in our city's schools. 53 School Support Although the operational relationship with schools is based on teacher empowerment, BMEC is equally conscious of support from system-wide and school-level administrators. The BPS Superintendent of Schools is supportive, and the system's Director of Music Curricu- lum and Coordinator of Arts are on the BMEC board. BMEC works diligently to maintain support from school principals. One principal expressed particular pleasure in the fact that music is less isolated and more integrated within the school program: What makes this partnership so terrific is that the BMEC folks really listen to us. The music teacher is now more of a resource to the classroom teachers , and music is part of our thematic approach to learning. It's really changed the way I look at music in the school. BMEC ultimately would like the schools to assume responsibility for quality music education, with partner- ships remaining an important dimension. Representatives of the cultural institutions consistently describe BMEC as a "partnership facilitator," not a "program provider." Consequently, the BMEC encourages schools to contrib- ute financially by providing bus transportation to concerts, paying for substitute teachers during meetings or workshops, and matching funds for the purchase of instructional materials. In addition, BMEC continually advocates for employment of more music specialists, which has been undertaken in some schools. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION The partnership proposal of April 1993 indicated a two- pronged approach to assessment: a) assessment of program quality relative to impact on teachers, students, and instruction; and b) measurement of the implications of the partnership for affecting public policy. As with all aspects of BMEC, assessment procedures are evolving rather than prescribed. To the present time, representatives from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University have begun to document aspects of the partnership with regard to impact on public policy. Program and instructional documentation include video records of all events, as well as some reflective writing by students. WGBH contrib- utes to the documentation and community awareness of BMEC by producing videotapes and public service announcements. Anecdotal and informal feedback is solicited via evaluation forms completed by teachers for specific events and the monthly teacher meetings. In general, the evaluation forms ask teachers for perceptions of the effectiveness of program elements, usefulness in the classroom, and recommendations for improvement. 54 Beyond A "mid-design year report," prepared in March of 1994, reported on progress and anticipated strategies regarding the ten "measures of implementation" from the original partnership proposal. At that time, the greatest progress had been made in the areas of curriculum, instruction, professional development, and contact with professional musicians. Less progress had been realized in parent involvement, student assessment, and experiences outside of school. BMEC plans a formal evaluation of its impact on teaching and learning in the ten partner schools beginning in the summer of 1996. IMPACT Schools Addition of specialists. The most observable impact on schools is that since the beginning of the partnership, music specialist positions have been added in partner schools. In 1993, there were eight music specialists among the ten schools. For the 1995-96 school year, there were 12.5. For the same year, the BPS dramatically increased the number of employed music specialists. In addition, they filled the system-wide position of Director of Music Curriculum, which had been vacant for an extended period of time. Though a direct relationship to BMEC is not apparent, BMEC believes it has played an influential role in the change of attitude resulting in these additions to the music faculty. Changing attitudes. According to teachers, a major result of the partnership has been an attitude of accep- tance and openness to music education. This appears to be directly related to the two-fold emphasis on music as a discrete discipline and a vehicle for curricular integration. Not only are classroom teachers discovering that music is "doable" for them, but they are also realizing that music concepts must be developed within a sequential and curricular music program. Participating teachers regret that not all teachers are involved: "This program should be mandatory for everyone - teachers and administrators - because of the positive effects it has on learning. Music is not just singing cute songs - it is real learning!" Parent involvement. BMEC currently is attempting to increase parent involvement. The partnership publishes a newsletter, which is sent home with all students in the ten pilot schools. Parent Site Councils provide an important avenue of communication between BMEC staff and parents. It is through Parent Forums that teachers, principals, students, parents, and BMEC board members share information about the program. The forums provide opportunities for parents to see what their children experience in the classroom, to offer feedback, and to make suggestions about the role of the cultural institutions in meeting community needs. Boston Budget. When asked how BMEC had affected the school, one principal stated, "Music is no longer the last thing I think about when it comes to the budget." The reason, she said, is that BMEC has helped integrate music into the total school program: "The music teacher is more connected, and the classroom teachers are using music in creative ways." However, as to whether the school would invest more heavily to keep the program, the principal responded, "I don't think we could sustain it. I try to institutionalize certain elements of lots of different programs, but I can't raise enough money to do it all." She paused briefly, then continued: "Whether the operational budget would ever support this kind of music program is a system-wide question of where we place our values - principals don't have the latitude to make those decisions." Boston Symphony Orchestra The BSO's Managing Director says the BSO feels "empowered" by what is happening with BMEC: "We stand to gain a great deal in terms of community aware- ness and goodwill, more culturally diverse audiences, younger audiences, and, ultimately, more support." He also indicates that education generally is perceived as an important mission: "There is a message in tying our new Pops conductor, Keith Lockhart, with the Youth Con- certs. There is also a message in the fact that our musi- cians do not take days off when we play Youth Concerts." BSO staff agree that the orchestra has no interest in supplanting music programs taught by certified specialists in schools, or in providing "free" programs for an indefi- nite future. The orchestra's role is to function as a "good partner" with the schools, a role that the BMEC's work has advanced. According to the Director of Develop- ment, the BSO has moved from a narrow agenda of audience development toward a shared agenda with other partners: "Constant effort is required to bridge the gap between our administrative operations and those of the partnership structure." Within this effort, the BSO has found it energizing to look at its programs in terms of a broadened education mission: "We keep asking ourselves what else we need to do." BMEC's Executive Director believes that musicians in the orchestra are also realizing benefits of closer commu- nity connections. Whereas musicians traditionally focused on playing the best music at the highest levels for the audience, they are now beginning to see the value of building personal relationships with the community. The emerging outcome, she believes, is a feeling of closer ties with the community in which musicians live and work. The Director of Development echoes this sentiment: "By taking the education mission of the orchestra more seriously, musicians are taking responsibility for the future of the institution." According to one BSO trustee, also an overseer for WGBH, "We are compelled to be a relevant and significant force in the community." New England Conservatory of Music Like the BSO, the NEC has to consider its own goals and administrative organization relative to that of BMEC. According to one NEC administrator, one of the most important outcomes has been the development of trust among the partner institutions. Changing attitudes and atmospheres from institutional agendas and skepticism to shared enthusiasm for the partnership has been a signifi- cant achievement. Another emerging outcome for NEC is its growing role as a player in helping schools develop fully staffed music and arts education programs: "We want to be part of this community's redevelopment of its music education programs, and to be part of a continuing advocacy that cannot be denied by the schools. Through the student aide program, the NEC also believes BMEC is having an important impact on the way musicians are trained for the future. According to BMEC's Executive Director, the conceptualization of one's role as a perform- ing musician is being altered to include more direct involvement with the community. An NEC administra- tor agrees: "We are awakening young musicians to the fact that they have a responsibility to their communities." During its young existence, BMEC has focused heavily on working out the mechanics of a school-community partnership to serve the goal of redeveloped and renewed music education in Boston. It strives to develop a process- oriented, action-based collaboration that is sustainable, replicable, and accountable. With maturity, BMEC undoubtedly will find ways to link the facets of its programs more cohesively, and to strike a balance between setting standards for program quality and its commitment to teacher empowerment. BMEC's founda- tions bode well for important contributions to music education. 55 Beyond 56 Fort Wayne FORT WAYNE PHILHARMONIC Site visit: November 14-15, 1995 OVERVIEW Orchestra, Schools, and Community The Ft. Wayne Philharmonic (FWP) is a core orchestra of 42 full-time musicians. The orchestra has a nine- month season. Musicians' contract obligations include full-orchestra and chamber music subscription series, regional concerts, and specified education and outreach services. The Ft. Wayne metropolitan area has a population of 365,000. The city is the seat of Allen County, an agricul- tural and manufacturing region of northeastern Indiana. The county encompasses four school systems, all served by the FWP. Of these, the Ft. Wayne Community Schools have the largest and most diverse population. The FWP maintains close affiliation with the community and its arts, social, and educational organizations. The orchestra co-sponsors the Ft. Wayne Youth Symphony with the Ft. Wayne Community Schools and Indiana Purdue University Ft. Wayne (IPFW). The orchestra also provides scholarships to study with Philharmonic musicians through the Big Brothers/Big Sisters Program, and offers minority outreach through church perfor- mances. In addition, FWP volunteers sponsor needs/ talent-based scholarships, a young artist competition, an instrument loan program, a summer strings camp, docents for Young People's Concerts, and concert previews. School-based programs of the FWP intersect with two other organized arts education efforts: the Foundation for Art and Music in Elementary Education (FAME); and Arts Leadership Initiative, a project of Arts United of Greater Ft. Wayne. The organizations share commit- ments in three primary areas: strengthened relationships between school arts programs and community arts; advocacy for sequential arts education in the schools; and development of resources to teach the arts as disciplines and to integrate the arts with other subjects. Range of Experiences Experiences vary according to each local school's choice of FWP programs. Fifth-grade children may participate in field trips to Young People's Concerts at the Embassy Theatre. Younger children and their parents, as well as school groups, may also choose to attend week-end Children's Concerts, presented twice each year. The Pied Piper program offers opportunities for classroom teachers to work with FWP musicians to design lessons that integrate music into a classroom theme or subject. The Ensemble Program offers eight chamber groups, who perform 3 5 -minute educational presentations for stu- dents. Hip Hop Pete and the Rockin Role Models is a program that reinforces decision-making and alternatives to drug use among adolescents. In-school presentations foster interaction among students and musicians. PROGRAM CONCEPT Partnership Model The FWP education program represents a cooperative partnership model involving the orchestra, the schools, and other arts organizations. Ongoing dialogue among these groups provides a basis for responding to the needs, interests, and priorities of the schools. An advantage of a mid-size community such as Ft. Wayne is that individuals may serve leadership and/or advisory capacities in more than one community organization. Thus, commitments and resources potentially may be pooled for common priorities, rather than divided among competing efforts. Arts Leadership Initiative (ALI) Arts Leadership Initiative is a partnership program that operates under. the auspices of Arts United of Greater Ft. Wayne. It provides a forum for communication and cooperation among community arts groups, artists, and 57 schools. ALI's five "motivations" are to better link schools and community, to change the culture of school through the arts, to change curriculum to better inte- grate the arts into all subject areas, to increase the effectiveness of the teachers, and to devise new ways to teach the arts in accordance with the national standards in arts education. Through ALI, the FWP shares responsibility with other Ft. Wayne arts institutions for teacher in-service training and professional resources to support the above motiva- tions. Arts United's Arts-in-Education Committee, including artists, arts administrators, teachers, education administrators, and other community members, oversees ALI. Foundation for Art and Music in Elementary Education (FAME) FAME is a regional organization of school arts specialists, education administrators, classroom teachers, artists, and other community leaders dedicated to fostering and perpetuating the fine arts in elementary education. Its activities include festivals, development of cultural resource materials, camps, teacher workshops, and a visiting artist program. Interaction between the FWP and FAME occurs through the orchestra's teacher in-service program, shared membership on arts education advisory committees, shared concerts, a student composition project, and a visual arts/concert project entitled "Fusion of Concert Colors." Co-Sponsored Leadership Position The Director of Education and Operations for the FWP also fulfills responsibilities in the music department at IPFW. This jointly supported position facilitates commu- nication and resource sharing among the FWP, the university, and music educators in public schools. An important component is the development of programs to enrich and reinforce the goals of local music education curriculums. Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - Concerts, small ensembles, and individual musician programs - In-school programs as part of the salaried services of musicians to the orchestra - Teacher in-service training - Curriculum resource materials 58 Beyond Tradition - Participation in Arts Leadership Initiative program design and planning - Cooperation with FAME personnel and activities - Leadership in communications, scheduling, and logistical management School Contributions to Partnership - Selection of teacher participants in ALI - Released time for teachers in staff development workshops - Substitute teacher pay during staff development days - Financial support of in-school ensemble and musician programs - Cooperation in scheduling events - Student transportation to concerts - Participation in ALI and orchestra education advisory committees - Completion of evaluation forms - Development and trial of unit plans that integrate the arts into the curriculum. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES School partnership efforts at the FWP function as part of a larger vision of connections between the orchestra and the community. To this end, the orchestra administration is committed to having "education inform everything that we do." The staff, the musicians, and the board, according to the Executive Director, recognize the importance of the education mission. "It is by design, he says, "that our education director is a senior management position, and that education oversees operations, rather than the other way around." Because of its community-oriented mission, the FWP is intentional about outreach that keeps musicians in close contact with the population. Administrative staff and musicians are in accord regarding this goal. Although admitting that sometimes outreach can be draining, several musicians reinforce its importance: "An orchestra can become very removed from the rest of the commu- nity. You have to have an eye to the future. If we take a self-centered approach, we will soon be obsolete." Fort Wayne The FWP is seeking engagement with schools and the community in developing mutually beneficial programs. The problem with programs planned without real school involvement, says the Executive Director, is that they function in a vacuum and tend to be imposed upon, rather than integrated into, schools' priorities: "Ten years from now, we want the schools to see us as an indispens- able part of what they do. We hope that will translate into a community that values both the orchestra and music education in its schools." Inclusion and improvement of music education in schools is one of the major goals of the FWP. This requires the development of a trusting relationship with school administrators, music teachers, and parents. The FWP believes its programs should help advocate for the importance of certified music teachers by demonstrating the role of music in learning: "We are trying to find valid connections to other subjects that are rooted in knowing and understanding music for what it is. You cannot have valid music programs in schools without having trained musician-teachers on your faculty." Objectives include establishing channels of two-way communication with schools, keeping school personnel involved in decision-making and evaluation efforts, and providing incentives for musicians to develop programs that are consistent with schools' needs and interests. An additional objective is to increase funding to strengthen education partnering efforts. A recent FWP proposal to a major foundation describes the orchestra's initiatives to bolster school instrumental music programs, foster greater interaction between musicians and students, and connect in-school presentations more closely with the curriculum. PROGRAM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Groundwork Although the FWP has had education programs for many years, the importance of education as a mission has evolved recently. Committed to fiscally responsible management, the orchestra has had to be creative in maintaining its full-time core. Combining education and concert services fulfills two primary objectives: artistic continuity with fiscal solvency, and integration with the community via focused education programs. Arts Education Survey Concurrent with the orchestra's emerging goals, and with the priority of education among other arts organizations, Arts United of Greater Ft. Wayne commissioned a study in 1991-92 to further partnerships among arts organiza- tions and educators. The study, conducted by a national consulting firm, was born out of concern that school arts opportunities were diminishing, and that schools could not by themselves ensure adequate instruction in and through the arts. Using public opinion polls, surveys, interviews, site visits, and focus groups, the study examined public perceptions and values regarding arts education, the status of arts in the schools, the work of artists and arts organizations with schools, and the necessary elements of a partnership approach. The following are several of the firm's recom- mendations. Existing levels of public support for arts education, already relatively high, should be recognized, tapped for advocacy, and expanded through public information. A collaborative arts education plan should be developed, with delineated leadership, and with involvement of prospective private sector resources. Communication among schools, arts organizations, and artists should be strengthened, building a foundation for a partnership approach to curriculum, teacher training, utilization of arts organization programs and resources, and funding issues. Arts Leadership Initiative (ALI) was established as a result of the study. The major thrust of ALI is a series of monthly professional development workshops for selected teams of classroom teachers and arts specialists. Each full-day workshop focuses on knowledge in a single arts discipline, related resources and programs of local arts organizations, and methods for teaching the art form and integrating it across the curriculum. At the conclusion of six workshops, each team of teachers develops an integrated unit plan, to be implemented the following school year and shared with new ALI participants. Teachers in the ALI program may earn graduate credit by completing stipulated requirements appropriate to a university course. Program Content A music education advisory committee, consisting of music educators, other school personnel, and symphony staff, assists with planning program content for each year. This committee, which meets each summer to plan the following school year, may address repertoire, logistics, funding, and other issues. The Director of Education serves as a liaison among the conductor, the musicians, and the educators. 59 Pied Piper. Individual FWP musicians, including a harpist, a bassist, and a cellist, pair with classroom teachers to design a thirty-minute program that reinforces learning in another subject. A goal is to foster interaction between the musician and the teacher, and among the musician, teacher, and students. Sample programs indicate what the classroom teacher might do to prepare children for the visit, as well as what may occur during the visit. The FWP Director of Education assists teachers and musicians with ideas. Ensemble Program. Eight FWP ensembles offer 35- minute in-school presentations designed to introduce students to the instruments and the FWP in creative, interactive ways. Each ensemble designs its own program. The outline of a selected program is sent directly to teachers prior to the school visit. Seven of the ensembles are standard chamber instrumentations. The eighth is a percussion-harp group. The Director of Education works with schools to plan performances that cover all of the orchestral families in the grades prior to fifth, when students attend the Young People's Concert. Hip Hop Pete and the Rockin' Role Models. Using a string quartet-plus-percussionist, this assembly program is a 35-minute music-based presentation connected with the schools' adolescent life-skills education program. Through rap, classical music, jazz, dramatic dialogue, and discussion, musicians challenge students to consider ways of making positive life choices. Although focused on alternatives to drug use, musicians present broader issues of self-esteem and peer pressure in a context of applicable strategies. Young People's Concerts. School-day concerts are presented for fifth-grade children in the Ft. Wayne community and surrounding area. An insert published as part of the local newspaper includes information about the repertoire, musicians, and the FWP. The insert is distributed to all music specialists and fifth grade stu- dents, and docents use the material to prepare students for the concerts. Teacher Training The FWP provides one full day of professional develop- ment for participants in ALL During our site visit, we observed the 1995-96 music workshop. Two accomplished music specialists, also leaders in FAME, presented hands- on activities and materials to an enthusiastic and respon- sive group of about thirty teachers. Throughout the day, the leaders apprised teachers of resources available through FAME, the public library, the FWP, and profes- sional organizations. The FWP Director of Education reviewed symphony programs for schools, including a video of Hip Hop Pete and models of school programs 60 Beyond presented by a string quartet and a harpist. In conjunc- tion with musician demonstrations, a clinician demon- strated a teacher-musician exchange that could be used to connect a performance with the classroom curriculum. A debriefing session and review of teachers' evaluation forms indicated appreciation for the thoroughness, practicality, and sophistication of the workshop. Evidence from interviews indicates that the music workshop is aligned with teachers' and students' learning needs. One teacher says, "I didn't know the Philharmonic had so much to offer the schools." Another indicates, "I intend to work much more closely with our music teacher to incorporate these ideas." A reported difficulty in applying ideas is that music teachers and classroom teachers rarely have joint planning opportunities. Curriculum Resources Teachers receive three types of resources: a notebook of materials given to ALI participants as part of their one- day FWP training, an insert in the local newspaper providing information and activities related to the Young People's Concert, and outlines of ensemble and solo musician programs to assist teachers in connecting them with the curriculum. Materials in the ALI notebooks include FWP education program descriptions, lesson plans, lists of resources, and examples of how to integrate music with other subjects. The 1995-96 notebook included instructional units for "The Magic Flute" and Aaron Copland's 'Appalachian Spring." There was also a web showing curriculum connections for "The Magic Flute." The notebook has numerous multicultural activities and resources, bibliog- raphies, and discographies. Much of the content overlaps the work of FAME, including the culture kits that FAME develops and makes available to teachers. The newspaper insert for the Young People's Concert provides the program, background on the composers and repertoire, information about the FWP, and vocabulary games. Outlines of ensemble and individual musician presentations may include the repertoire to be performed, instrument characteristics, history of the instrument, music concepts, related concepts in other subject areas, and special techniques. There may also be suggested questions and activities for students. Musician Orientation The FWP solicits suggestions from music educators regarding desirable music content for ensemble and individual musician programs. For 1995-96, teachers suggested the elements of music, instrument timbres, composers of performed music, and absolute vs. program Fort Wayne music. Teachers also requested curriculum connections between music and visual art (depth, form, texture), language arts, and social studies. The FWP Director of Education is the primary route for sharing input from the schools with musicians. School personnel previewed Hip Hop Pete and made suggestions before musicians presented the program to students. In addition, the FWP provided a workshop for musicians on effective development and presentation of in-school programs. The workshop covered the purpose of "live" programs, and emphasized the dual importance of accessible musical content and rapport with children. It oriented musicians to choices of music that are consistent with the age group and the curriculum, and provided strategies for pacing, maintaining students' attention, and managing groups of children. Leaders encouraged the musicians to develop and rehearse a script for school performances. FWP musicians indicate that they prepare and present their programs in a variety' of ways. Some feel that a script is ven T helpful; others find a general outline, with room for responding to a given audience, more workable. All agree that experience plays a role in comfort and effec- tiveness. In addition, they feel that feedback from knowledgeable observers could be helpful in improving their programs. In the words of one musician, "Just because you are a musician doesn't mean you have knowledge and skills with kids." Scheduling FWP staff manage the scheduling of school programs in coordination with requested musicians, school schedules and calendars, and orchestra obligations. Musicians indicate that the orchestra's commitment to education entails a large number of school programs, and school schedules do not always mesh well with musicians' rehearsal and performance schedules. A continuing challenge is to ensure that apportionment of education and orchestra services preserves high-quality- contribu- tions in both areas. To help maintain its full-time positions and fulfill its outreach mission, the FWP uses a service conversion formula for concert and education programs (one service equals 2 and 1/2 hours, which can encompass up to three short school programs). Schools may schedule Pied Piper programs for two back- to-back 30-minute programs, each presented for fifty- or fewer children. Ensembles may be scheduled for three consecutive programs, each presented for about 150 students. PROGRAM SUPPORT Funding The FWP relies on a variety of funding sources for education, some of which are tied to specific programs. For example, Arts United of Greater Ft. Wayne supports the ALI workshop with monies from the Knight Founda- tion and local funders. Schools pay for substitutes to replace teachers who attend the workshops. Hip Hop Pete is an example of school connections using funds that initially may seem to be beyond the domain of orchestra education. Through conversations with the school superintendent, the FWP Executive Director learned of monies designated for drug awareness pro- grams. Musicians and staff of the FWP designed a program that qualified for funding. Recently, Physicians Health Plan has partially underwritten Hip Hop Pete because of its positive health message for adolescents. The Ft. Wayne Community Schools partially subsidize the FWP ensemble program. The FWP's Executive Director believes that school investment offers a "quanti- fiable indication of how important we are to kids." Recently, he and the Director of Education approached the schools regarding the fact that their support for school programs had remained static over an extended period of time. The Executive Director believed the schools should consider increasing their contribution, given both the educational value of the programs and the FWP's rising costs. The schools' Curriculum Coordinator agreed, stating that "we get far more out of these pro- grams than we contribute to them." The FWP prepared a proposal that included data regard- ing the schools' financial support over several years. Data also reflected the numbers of students served and the orchestra's incurred expenses for education programs. The proposal described the various facets of school programs and included summaries of evaluations by teachers. As a result of this carefully prepared proposal, the FWCS agreed to fund approximately fifty 7 percent of the cost of the orchestra's school-related programs. The schools also have promised an annual increase of three percent in their contribution. The Director of Education emphasizes that the strength of the orchestra's relationship with the schools, careful record-keeping that provided supporting data, and presentation of the data in a systematic way were key elements in the schools' decision to increase funding. 61 Symphony and School Administrative Support The FWP's Executive Director believes that the educa- tion program lives or dies on the attitude of the leader- ship: "If you want an effective education program, it must be supported from the top." FWP board members agree that education must be a priority if the orchestra is to enjoy significant support from the community. According to one board member, it is simply good civic practice for the orchestra to work with schools in providing music education opportunities. To foster connections between the orchestra and the schools, the Superintendent of the Ft. Wayne Commu- nity Schools is an orchestra board member. A school- system Curriculum Coordinator serves on the board education committee, functioning as a liaison among principals, teachers, and the orchestra. The university chancellor also serves as a member of the orchestra board. The Arts United study and the site visit for this report both offer evidence of principals' support for partnership activities. However, there is also a feeling among teachers that administrative support for music education could be strengthened. According to the Executive Director, it is important for the FWP to function as an advocate for music education. He cites the example of discontinued strings programs at the elementary level, which has had an impact on the number and quality of students audi- tioning for the youth orchestra. Musicians, similarly, feel that credibility with the school system through partner programs may encourage administrative decisions in support of music education. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION At the present time, the FWP does not have a framework of explicitly stated objectives for evaluation of programs or partnership structure. However, the orchestra consis- tently asks school system personnel, including adminis- trators, classroom teachers, and music teachers, to complete and return questionnaires regarding the effectiveness of the ensemble, Pied Piper, Hip Hop Pete, and YPC programs. These questionnaires focus on the organization, the value of the content, the quality of interaction, the availability of pre-concert materials, and the source of funding (as applicable). Music teacher questionnaires ask for evidence of curriculum connec- tions and recommendations for improvement. There is no direct assessment of student learning or attitudes. The 1994-95 evaluation responses were overwhelmingly positive. Music educators' responses reveal useful information about strengthening relationships between the FWP and school programs. 62 Beyond The most effective way of having students prepared is to communicate directly with music teachers, and to send pre-program materials to teachers rather than route them through administration. Scheduling programs so that music teachers in the schools are able to be present will enhance the curriculum connections; this requires coordination among the orchestra, the principals, and the music teachers. Lack of joint planning time between music and classroom teachers often precludes cooperative design of integrated lessons. Where curriculum integration does occur, lessons seem to be successful and well-received by students. ALI also prepares teacher questionnaires for its programs. These offer feedback to the FWP on the effectiveness of the music in-service training day. A review of completed forms indicated positive responses, particularly regarding the organization and practicality of the content. The 1991-92 Arts United study provided information regarding the status and perceptions of arts education in Ft. Wayne at that time. Systematic objectives, assess- ment, and evaluation, however, were not incorporated in the initial phase of ALI. At the present time, Arts United is working with an evaluator to develop assessment methodology relative to teacher attitudes, implementa- tion of units, effect on students, and effect on arts organizations. As a participant in ALI, the FWP will have access to the results, as well as an opportunity to adjust its programs accordingly. IMPACT Schools and Curriculum Favorable responses on questionnaires, combined with results of interviews conducted during this study, suggest that FWP programs have had a positive impact on schools. According to the Curriculum Coordinator, "the Philharmonic certainly has helped keep the need for music education present in the minds of teachers, administrators, and the community." She also notes that some parents are lobbying the system to reinstate instru- mental music in elementary schools. This she attributes in part to the presence of FWP musicians in local schools. Parents, principals, and teachers interviewed during the site visit spoke of a positive impact in terms of musicians as role models, exposure to classical music, and awareness of musical opportunities in their community. The Hip Hop Pete program, they said, demonstrates the ability of artists to transcend self-absorption in their art and to use their talent for broader social aims. Students similarly indicated enthusiasm for programs that allow them to see the musicians as "real people." Fort Wayne Despite the positive perceptions of the FWP's school programs, the Curriculum Coordinator emphasizes that competing requests for school funds exceed existing resources. Continuing support for the orchestra's pn> grams will require their coherence with state mandated proficiencies, as well as evidence of improvement in student learning. Teachers in ALI indicate their growing awareness that the arts contribute to general learning. Completed unit plans provide evidence of their efforts to apply integra- tion concepts from ALI workshops. Plans are based on a "web" approach. They include the following components: focus; concepts; objectives; relevant national arts education standards; lists of suggested activities; evalua- tion procedures; resources; and a matrix summary of thinking levels, arts disciplines incorporated in the unit, and learning styles. With development of the ALI program, it is likely that plans increasingly will reflect substantive learning experiences. Another impact of ALI appears to be administrative sensitivity to the need for joint planning time for arts specialists and classroom teachers. The schools' Curricu- lum Coordinator notes that the ALI team model is consistent with the move toward thematic curricula. It also parallels efforts at the state level to encourage local schools to provide joint planning time. According to teachers, joint planning time would facilitate mutually beneficial connections between the arts and other subjects. Fort Wayne Philharmonic In discussing the impact of education partnerships on the orchestra, the Executive Director points to the senior- level management status given to the Director of Educa- tion. This staffing commitment is both a catalyst for the orchestra's education efforts and a result of heightened education awareness. Joint funding of the position by the orchestra and IPFW occurred in part as a result of the university chancellor's membership on the orchestra board. As a participant in ALI, the orchestra increases its opportunities to relate with the broader arts community. Not only may the orchestra influence ALI's program content and quality; it may also experience benefits such as systematic assessment and funding opportunities. Additional influence on the orchestra includes the fact that musicians are contracted for education, roughly in equal amounts to concert performances. From the orchestra's perspective, education services afford increased flexibility in maintaining and creating full-time positions. This investment in education also enhances the orchestra's role as a resource for school music programs. A less tangible outcome, in the Executive Director's view, is the potential for job satisfaction associated with musicians' close connections with their community. Not only do they engage in a greater variety of occupational tasks, but the community recognizes them as contributors to civic well-being. According to a parent, this reduces the impression of musicians and the orchestra as distant and stuffy. Although musicians were initially resentful about having education services written into their contracts, they now see the benefits. As one musician puts it, These programs provide a service opportunity, which, is absolutely necessary for the orchestra's survival. But more importantly, they give us a chance to feel that we are a real part of the community. People recognize us in the grocery store or at the car wash. We get a lot of satisfaction out of knowing that we are involved and appreciated. And our involvement may allow us to have more influence on decisions that schools make about music programs . Staff and musicians of the FWP concur that orchestral training may need to change in order to reflect broadened professional expectations. In most cases, education focuses on development of technique and musicianship, and is unrelated to market demands. Without sacrificing excellence in performance, musicians believe courses in pedagogy and outreach would be useful. In addition, they feel that orchestras with strong education expectations should incorporate that information into the audition process, perhaps asking musicians to demonstrate skills such as communicating verbally with an audience. Rather than developing a delineated partnership struc- ture, the FWP has implemented its entire education program as a cooperative partnership with schools and other arts organizations. Elements include orchestra management of offered programs, consistent and effective communication with schools, alliances with other arts education partnership efforts, shared funding with schools and other organizations, and contractually specified education services for orchestra musicians. The impres- sion of the program is one of commitment to the commu- nity through substantive alliances serving schools and students. Increased collaborative efforts should strengthen this goal, and provide a broad base of support for the FWP into the next century. 63 64 Beyond Pittsburgh PITTSBURGH SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Site visit: November 14-15, 1995 (Site visit and profile by Cynthia Thomas) OVERVIEW Orchestra, Schools and Community The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (PSO) serves the Greater Pittsburgh area, which encompasses seven counties in Western Pennsyl- vania. The population of Allegheny County, where Pittsburgh is located, is 1,336,500. The main partner with the PSO is the Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS), an urban school district. Other significant partnerships exist with the Upper St. Clair School District, an affluent suburban area, and the Ambridge Area School District, a blue-collar suburban community. \&* j-.r o %<s*. u John Soroka, of the Pittsburgh Symphony, leads students in a percussion lesson. The Ambassador Program began in 1993 with six volunteer musicians piloting the program in two second- ary schools. It now includes twenty-seven musicians placed in thirty-two schools. While most of the encoun- ters are at the secondary level, there have been some musicians placed in elementary schools as well. An interesting outgrowth that cannot be overlooked is the connection between the Ambassador Program and two other symphony offerings - Side-by -Side and community concerts. In many cases, these concert opportunities have stemmed from experiences initiated by musician visits in the schools, thus strengthening the interactions between the schools, the orchestra, and the community. Range of Experiences Through its Ambassador Program, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra places musician ambassadors in selected middle and high schools as coaches, mentors, performers, and specialized resource personnel. Some musicians coach school orchestras or other student ensembles in advanced performance and rehearsal techniques. Other musicians interact with general music teachers and correlate lessons with the music curriculum, while others are paired with classroom teachers and make connections between music and academic subjects such as language arts or social studies. Interested musicians are matched with a school in their own residential neigh- borhood. They are chosen to participate in the Ambassador Program based on prior experience in school settings and enthusiasm for outreach efforts. Selected schools possess a dedicated full-time music specialists supportive principal, and an active advocacy group (e.g., PTA or music parents group). By carefully pairing musicians and music educators, students benefit by learning from both "teachers." Professional players bring specialized knowledge and in- depth musical understanding that add to the work of band or orchestra directors and general music teachers. The music teacher is a specialist in sequential music learning and classroom management while the orchestra musician is a specialist in his or her particular instrument, respective performance techniques, and orchestral repertoire. Together, professional music educators and professional musicians bring distinct specializations to the classroom that enhance the learning environment. 65 PROGRAM CONCEPT Origin The idea for the Ambassador Program was musician- generated. Some musicians concerned about working in an environment of "creative loneliness," felt disillusioned with the "conservatory viewpoint." That is, students who attend music conservatories gain performing skills that enable them to pursue a performance career. They spend their time in the practice room refining their perfor- mance technique with very little emphasis on teaching or sharing their knowledge with other members of the community. Although the original impetus began with the musicians, the idea was taken to the next level by the PSO staff and members of the New Leadership Board. This Board is composed of business leaders and professionals between thirty-five and fourty-five years of age - brought together to generate and implement new programs for attracting young audiences to the Symphony. Many professional musicians lead a life of practicing at home and then performing in a concert hall environment with little interaction with other community members. Some PSO musicians felt it was important to extend the concert hall walls, both for their own personal growth and to promote the importance of music and music education in the lives of individuals. Partnership Model The Ambassador Program and related experiences are an example of a managed partnership. Now in the fourth year of implementation, the Orchestra Education Director remains responsible for organizing, managing, and promoting the Ambassador program. The schools make in-kind contributions, but make no financial contribution at present. 66 Beyond Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - Free outreach concerts in the community and youth concerts in Heinz Hall - Free preparatory materials for youth concerts - Free in-school ensemble performances and musician visits - Teacher workshops - Superintendent - Night at the Symphony School Contributions to Partnership - Staff time for planning, curriculum development and workshops at Heinz Hall - Space for rehearsals and concerts - Maintenance, technical specialists, and security for rehearsals and concerts - Piano tuning - Materials (worksheets, music, music stands, chairs, etc.) - Advocacy support - PTA/PTO meetings and workshops - Released time for education committee members to write curriculum materials - Bus transportation GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The overall mission of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orches- tra Education Program is arts advocacy within its commu- nity. This advocacy goal emanated from an elaborate reevaluation process begun during the 1992-93 season. As a result, the PSO developed a Five-Year Strategic Plan, which states that the main goal is to serve as an educa- tional and cultural resource to the greater Western Pennsylvania region by offering accessible, effective, and comprehensive orchestra education programs that work Pittsburgh cooperatively with educational and community resources and organizations. Through implementing effective orchestra education programs and by initiating music and arts education advocacy activities, the PSO intends to counter the decline of music education in Western Pennsylvania schools. The Strategic Plan also identifies four educational need areas and strategic goals that address them. Area: Advocacy of music education Goal: To establish a network of community-based music advocacy programs Area: K-12 direct in-school education programs Goal: To teach students, teachers, administrators, and parents about music Area: K-12 general access music education programs Goal: To enhance understanding and experiences of/in music for students, teachers, administrators and parents Area: Education department development Goal: To develop the education department into a sustaining organizational unit to support its mission Symphony staff consistently state that a long-range goal of the program is to find a solution to an aging audience and create an audience for the future. The Ambassador strategy is meant to influence students, teachers, and parents so that they will support the orchestra, now and into the future. School administrators and teachers believe that the main goals of the Ambassador program are to build bridges and understanding, establish two-way communication, and initiate a personal relationship between the orchestra and local schools. Additional aims are to promote arts literacy in the schools and therefore the community-at-large, and to share musical expertise between professional symphony musicians and professional music educators. At present, the school and orchestra participants perceive these goals and objectives somewhat differently due to their respective contexts. These differing viewpoints do not detract, however, from the strong relationship built between the symphony and the schools throughout the early years of the Ambassador program. In fact, they lay the groundwork for future reevaluation as the program evolves. PROGRAM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Planning Process The 1992-93 season of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orches- tra marked the initiation of an extended PSO outreach effort. This was the first step in a three-part program aimed at planning, piloting, and implementing a compre- hensive orchestra education program. The PSO was facing important issues concerning its role in the commu- nity and its relation to the audience it serves. In December of 1992, the Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) decided to eliminate the arts division supervisory staff and cut the transportation budget by $1 million dollars. Both cuts immediately affected the PSO's education programs, as well as sent a serious message to the local arts community that arts education was not a priority in the PPS. Both the school district and the orchestra discovered that they shared a common problem - the need for increased arts advocacy throughout their community-at-large. Music educators and symphony administrators alike felt they stood to gain by pooling their efforts and resources to promote the importance of music and the arts in the lives of their citizenry. The PSO simultaneously undertook the following activities in order to determine the future direction of the entire education program. Education needs survey. A survey, distributed to 800 schools in the Western Pennsylvania area, focused on school and community demographics, PSO programming, and school needs and resources. Responses to two questions identified the strongest needs and served as a guideline for education initiatives. 67 What are the greatest needs of your school music program? Exposure to the arts/cultural awareness Arts education advocacy Support for school string programs How might the Symphony be able to assist you, your school, and/or your community with these needs? Provide in-school programs Continue free Tiny Tots and youth concerts Supply information on symphony program offerings Educators' committee. This working committee was formed in 1993 with three objectives in mind: 1 ) to assist the orchestra in reaching young audiences through schools and communities, 2) to broaden commu- nication with teachers, and 3) to help the PSO be responsive to the needs of the education community. The committee consists of fourteen educators from four counties and is charged with creating supplementary materials to complement youth concerts. A long-term advocacy goal will be to have a PSO staff member or musician speak to at least one school board meeting in every school district in a seven-county region over a 5- year period of time. Service Exchange Agreement During the pilot phase in 1992-93, the musicians discov- ered they could easily become overwhelmed with the time commitment and avid interest expressed by the schools. Because they were committed to the program, they wanted to institutionalize it as part of their contract. PSO management had been interested in the concept of "individual credit" for payment, so it agreed. The Service Exchange Agreement was officially introduced into the contract in Spring 1994 and has induced an increase in musicians' involvement in the community. The resulting agreement consists of eight outreach or education services in exchange for a week of vacation at a mutually agreed upon time. 68 Beyond Tradition Participating Schools/Communities After examining several other potential sites for the pilot, the PSO decided to focus its attention on areas of the community that already had a PSO outreach presence, had a substantial commitment to music education but needed support for music programs, had outstanding music teachers who were committed to improving their programs, had demonstrated support from the community for the education system, and had a stated music curricu- lum. The Homewood Community One elementary school, one middle school based on the Montessori philosophy, a middle school with a creative arts focus, one magnet high school for math and science, and a high school with a performing arts emphasis serve the Homewood community, a predominantly African- American and lower-socioeconomic neighborhood. Each of these five Pittsburgh Public schools is different in structure, administration, and philosophy. ArtsPROPEL A distinguishing feature of the Homewood neighborhood at the time of its selection was that all five schools were participating in the ArtsPROPEL curriculum and assessment techniques, which included videotape, audiotape, journals, critiques, and portfolios. Symphony ambassadors correlated their lessons with the ArtsPROPEL approach. Musicians were videotaped at the elementary and middle school levels so that the teacher could review the lesson with the students after the musician's visit. Two PSO musician ambassadors worked with fifth and sixth grade students at Homewood Montessori on two ArtsPROPEL domain projects: First Rhythm and First Melody. The focus of these projects is student composi- tion. Prior to a visit by a symphony musician, the general music teacher works with students in creating short rhythmic and melodic compositions. During the musician's visit, the students perform these compositions, and the visiting musician helps the students to refine or enhance their efforts. Pittsburgh One student's journal entry states, / really enjoyed the visits to our music classes. A percussionist in the symphony made our music classes interesting. Every class before he came, we would finish our rhythm project compositions. We would be ready when he came. With the help of our music teacher, he gave us lots of encouragement . We would practice our pieces, then perform them on foreign percussion instru- ments brought by the percussionist. Classroom Activities After two years, the original Ambassador to Homewood Montessori was reassigned to another school. The new Ambassador is another percussionist, new to the PSO. During the site visit, he taught an African drumming lesson to a sixth grade general music class. The students learned several different rhythm patterns and then attempted to put them together to make a polyrhythmic composition. The musician brought authentic African instruments and added them to the composition once the children learned their parts. The general music teacher videotaped the lesson so that he could follow-up with the students after the visit. Although the teacher and the musician had discussed the visit by telephone, there was no evidence that they had planned ways to connect the visit with the curriculum or incorporate the students' previously composed rhythm pieces. At Upper St. Clair high school, a violinist has served as Ambassador for two years. His primary interactions have been to coach the orchestra and conduct sectional rehearsals. During the site visit, we observed a casual lunchtime conversation during which the musician talked about his life as a professional musician. He described his weekly routine, which includes being responsible for playing three to four new compositions each week. He attends four rehearsals and performs three concerts with a completely different set of repertoire every week. The ambassador drew comparisons between a high school rehearsal, designed to help young musicians learn the music, and a professional rehearsal, where musicians come already knowing their parts and the conductor adds interpretive shadings. He explained that over the course of a year, an orchestra player might perform 70-80 different compositions. In an elementary setting, another violinist (who had formerly worked as a computer programmer for Citibank) visited a third grade class studying a science unit about sounds and vibrations. The musician and teacher had communicated previously by phone to set up the visit, and the teacher had sent a copy of the science unit to the musician. During the site visit, the musician began with a demonstration of vibrations with a piece of string. Later, he used his violin to show the relationship between the length of a string and how it determined whether a pitch was high or low. During the discussion of the scientific principles, the children were attentive and well behaved. Later in the lesson, however, the mood changed markedly when the musician began to play short excerpts on the violin. All of a sudden, the children were excited about their visiting guest. When the musician was making music, rather than talking about the mechanics, he was able to communicate the real musical education message. In all three settings observed during the site visit, teachers and musicians have communicated by phone to set up the classroom visit, but dedicated planning varies. Both the teacher and the musician have specialized knowledge to share with the students, and if planning time were possible, these pairs of teachers could truly capitalize on each other's strengths. Teacher/Musician Training At present, the PSO does not offer training for either the teachers or the musicians participating in the Ambassa- dor program. One outside observer from a local founda- tion asked specifically if musicians received any orienta- tion sessions before visiting the schools. The PSO made an early attempt at musician training, but it was not successful and therefore, not continued. PROGRAM SUPPORT The Symphony, with foundation and corporate support, underwrites the cost of the Ambassador Program. Some school districts donate money at the end of the year. The Ambassadors participate in outreach and education activities through the service exchange agreement as part of their annual contracted salary. Schools contribute staff time and advocacy support. The Symphony covers the expense of the Side-by-Side concerts. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Originally, the PSO planned to retain an outside assess- ment consultant at the conclusion of the pilot stage. It was the intent that this consultant would help evaluate activities with teachers, administrators, PSO staff and musicians. As the program unfolded, this evaluative element did not come about due to financial limitations. 69 Student journals and videotapes tracked increased student learning in the schools that were involved with the ArtsPROPEL evaluation approach. After participat- ing in the First Melody domain project at Homewood Montessori, one sixth grader writes 1 learned about things that make good melodies. They should be easy to remember, but not too boring. It shouldn't be too repetitive, either. I also learned that a good melody should have one high point. Probably, the thing 1 learned most about and had the most fun with was ways to change my melody. This student's writing reflects an understanding of common melodic characteristics - that melodies are easy to remember, are repetitive, have a climax point, and can be modified. Since the ArtsPROPEL funding has ended for the project in the Pittsburgh Public Schools, it is difficult to predict what carryover will continue in the future among school personnel and symphony ambassadors. The ArtsPROPEL programs have been supported by teachers and principals who know it is a good assessment model; however, not all schools chose to continue the program. Other methods of evaluating the Ambassador Program have included surveys and questionnaires targeted to teachers and musicians, as well as informal feedback received from participants. Surveys were used to evaluate the Side-by'Side events as well. IMPACT Early Outcomes By the end of the pilot year, musicians felt that the program increased student self confidence, enhanced student performance potential due to challenging repertoire, broadened the classroom environment, and raised standards for student performance. Mutual Benefits The symphony is reaching a wider audience with the help of the ambassadors and the Side-bySide concerts, while the schools have been able to draw on new sources of professional personnel who enrich the programs taught by school music specialists. Orchestra musicians feel they have gained a broader view of music education, as well as a new respect for their local music teachers and the reality of school teaching situations. In working with students, musicians have been able to increase the 70 Beyond playing level and discipline of students; engender excitement about music; and, in general, enhance what the music teacher is already doing. They also remark that they enjoy the immediate feedback received from the students. There is evidence that ambassadors have helped to demystify the perception of orchestra musicians and what their life and daily work entail. The ambassadors are the connection between the orchestra and the schools. Schools are appreciative of the interest shown by the orchestra in school matters. One music supervisor is especially grateful for the strong leadership of the PSO, which is the community's largest arts leader. The symphony's participation helps give the school arts curriculum legitimacy. By placing PSO musicians in the schools, the Ambassador program is changing how music education is being delivered and taught. Students express appreciation for their new learning experiences. They feel that they now know some musicians as real people. At first, they thought that musicians might be "snobby, stuck-up or critical," but they have come to find out that the musicians who come to their school are "normal" people. They bring new ideas and challenge new learning in a manner that doesn't force, patronize, or talk down to the students. The students, upon visiting their new "friends" in the concert hall, are surprised at the difference between the regular person they meet at their school and the professional person they meet in the hall. The relaxed, friendly people that they meet in their schools are often dressed casually, in contrast to the formal dress of the concert hall, where musicians behave in a much more "serious manner" as they prepare backstage for a performance. The students now see a difference between knowing musicians on a personal basis and seeing them in their working environment. School representatives agree with orchestra personnel that the stereotypes of orchestra musicians and the mystique of the orchestra are being broken. Students and teachers now possess a clearer understanding of an orchestra musician and his or her role in a professional orchestra. Pittsburgh How the Orchestra Has Changed How it Conducts Business The Service Exchange Agreement allows up to eight services per musician to be exchanged for a week of vacation. This agreement is charting new waters for orchestra/musician relations and offers the musician some aspect of choice in how his or her talents will be used. A musician's working environment may now extend beyond the concert hall into the schools and into his or her community. Having made new "friends" in the schools, the orchestra is now including young performers in concert programs and offering numerous Side-by -Side performing opportuni- ties for students to "sit in" with professional musicians in rehearsals, as well as concert settings. These types of performing opportunities benefit the schools by extend- ing music education beyond the walls of the school, while serving as a unique marketing tool for the orchestra. Outgrowths and Connections: The Side-by- Side Program Where an ambassadorship has been established in a certain neighborhood, the orchestra follows up by scheduling a concert in that community. The first outreach concert in the Homewood neighborhood, featuring the PSO playing alone, drew an audience of 70 people. Later, as a result of the coaching efforts in the high school, the musicians initiated a series of Side-by-Side rehearsals, which culmi- nated in a Side-by-Side performance of the PSO and two combined high school choirs. This second outreach effort drew an audience of 700. Along with the Ambassador Program, the PSO has initiated a series of Side-by-Side concerts and events that place secondary school students on stage and in rehearsal with PSO musicians in Heinz Hall. The performances have involved both instrumental and choral students. Since 1993, the PSO has held at least one annual Side-by- Side performance in Heinz Hall conducted by Music Director, Lorin Maazel, arid several other smaller concerts in community settings. In many cases, the Ambassadors are instrumental in guiding the appropriateness of the Side-by-Side experience, as well as the selection of repertoire. In the spring of 1993, the first Side-by-Side concert held in Heinz Hall included three different student performing ensembles: a horn choir, an SATB mixed chorus, and a percussion ensemble. The 1994 experience was an all-day event beginning in the morning with sectional rehearsals with PSO musicians, a student rehearsal on stage, lunch with PSO musicians, a combined rehearsal on stage, and culminating with an open rehearsal performed for a live audience and taped by a local television station. The 1995 performance was titled "Night of 2,000 Stars." Conducted by Lorin Maazel and Guest Conductor, Robert Page, the concert brought together a 2, 000- voice chorus, the PMEA (Pennsylvania Music Educator's Association) All-State Chorus, and the All-State Orchestra. By involving the PMEA ensembles, the PSO is acknowledging the important contributions made by music educators throughout the state of Pennsylvania, as well as forging a major link to music education in the Pittsburgh community. Placing all these groups together in a performance sends a valuable message to school music teachers that the PSO, the premier musical organization in their community, considers the schools' student ensembles important enough to sit Side-by-Side in a concert setting. This type of initiative helps to validate the local school music programs and should go a long way in ensuring the importance of music education and arts advocacy in the community. CODA The ambassadors are getting to know their community and meeting their neighbors on a personal level, thereby making some progress toward alleviating the "creative loneliness" dilemma. Musicians no longer make their music strictly alone in a practice situation or in the concert hall. They are becoming actively involved in their neighborhoods and sharing their knowledge with students, teachers, and parents. The unique combination of the Ambassador Program, the Side-by-Side concerts, and the community concerts in specially targeted neighborhoods has allowed the PSO to make deeper connections with students, parents, teach- ers, and school administrators, as well as citizens-at-large. Any of these three programs could be pursued separately or as one-time occurrences and be worthy of note, but their interrelatedness strengthens the PSO's outreach. By carefully selecting neighborhoods, matching orchestra personnel and resources, and targeting schools with strong music education programs, the PSO is constructing a partnership framework with its community and featur- ing orchestra musicians as the connective tissue. 71 Beyond 72 Chicago CHICAGO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Site Visit: November 27-28, 1995 (Site visit and profile by Cynthia Thomas) OVERVIEW Orchestra, Schools and Community The Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) has an education partnership with Urban Gateways, a Chicago- based arts education organization. The joint program is called the Aulos Fellowship Program (AFP). It is funded for five years and is the second phase of an earlier three- year partnership. Three inner-city schools participate in AFP. Two are from the Chicago Public Schools and one is from the Chicago Archdiocese. All three schools are located in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods and serve populations that are predominantly African- American and Latino. Urban Gateways Urban Gateways (UG), 1995 recipient of the National Medal of the Arts, has been known for its arts education programs for more than thirty-five years. UG maintains a roster of artists in dance, music, theatre, visual art, and creative writing. The agency specializes in presenting ethnic artists who reflect the cultural diversity of the greater Chicago area. Among the artistic offerings are West African dance and drumming, Jewish Klezmer bands, Mexican folk art, Polish papercutting, African- American strip quilting, Chinese dance and culture, Latino literature, and performances by the Chicago Children's Choir. Range of Experiences The AFP partnership emphasizes teacher and artist training. The main focus is on making teachers comfort- able with incorporating music into the classroom curricu- lum. Year-long activities include teacher training, artist training, collaborative planning sessions, school residen- cies, field trips, parent workshops, in-school touring performances, CSO in-school ensemble performances, Urban Gateways matinee concerts, and CSO youth concerts. PROGRAM CONCEPT Partnership Model The AFP partnership is an example of a jointly managed program offered to selected inner-city schools. Both partners contribute staff and substantial grant funding to the project. The CSO's connection with an established arts education organization strengthens the orchestra's education efforts. UG provides cultural and artistic diversity, which enriches the symphonic experiences emphasized by the CSO. Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - $114,000 grant funding - Dedicated staff time provided by Coordinator of Education Relations (reports to Director of Education) - One of two curriculum consultants - Discounted tickets to youth and family concerts - Bus transportation - Teacher training prior to youth and family concerts - Curriculum materials for CSO youth concerts - CSO chamber ensembles - CD players and recorders 73 Urban Gateways Contributions to Partnership - $150,000 grant funding - Dedicated staff time provided by the Director of Program Development ' One of two curriculum consultants - Bus transportation to youth and family concerts - Teacher, artist, and parent training - Touring performances ' Teaching artists School Contributions to Partnership - All teachers in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades from selected schools - Commitment from each school's principal - Released time for teacher training - Classroom teaching time and curriculum commitment History of the Program The CSO's early association with Urban Gateways began by providing discounted tickets to UG's Cultural Enrich- ment Program (CEP). CEP is an established UG Program that targets thirty selected inner-city Chicago Public Schools. Teachers at these schools attend two all-day workshops at Orchestra Hall, which are designed to support them in preparing their students for youth concerts. The goal of CEP is to expose teachers to the same experiences their students will have when they visit Orchestra Hall. CEP is a continuing program that has spawned two additional projects, including the AFP. The Cultural Enrichment Program Plus Five Project Building on CEP, the CSO and UG in 1991 intensified their cooperative relationship by developing additional arts education programs. Five of the original CEP schools were selected to participate in a new venture called the Cultural Enrichment Program Plus Five Project (CEP+5). CEP+5's thrust was to equip classroom teachers with training, experience, and teaching materials to enable them to integrate music and arts education into the curriculum. CEP+5 monitored a group of 450 students in the five schools as they moved through fourth, fifth and 74 Beyond sixth grades. During the first year of the project, fourth- grade students learned about music from around the world. The second year, in fifth grade, these same students focused on sound sources. The third year of instruction concentrated on musical composition. As an additional component of the project, parents of partici- pating students attended workshops, and encouraged their children's studies outside the classroom. Aulos Fellowship Program In the 1994-95 school year, the CSO and UG initiated the Aulos Fellowship Program as a second phase of their partnership. The AFP provides increased emphasis on musical training for the teachers, with a goal of develop- ing more sequential instruction for the children. Based on a program evaluation by OER Associates - Evaluation Research of Wilmette, Illinois, the AFP is attempting to encourage sequential programs by grouping the teachers into cross-grade teams. The AFP is intended to continue through a five-year period. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES In the words of one of the curriculum consultants, "To change the face of a school, you awaken the creative powers of teachers in the arts and allow them to be creative." The main goal of the program is to challenge the segregation that exists between school systems and cultural organizations; between academic subjects and arts and humanities subjects; and between the classroom teacher and the arts specialist teacher. Specific objectives include the development of students' rhythmic, melodic, and analytical skills; the exploration of ways in which the teaching of language arts, social studies, mathematics, and science may be enhanced through the arts; and the use of the arts as a catalyst to understand cultural diver- sity. PROGRAM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Planning The CSO, UG, and OER worked together for six months to plan CEP+5. In hindsight, the partners wish that they had allowed for a longer planning process, which should have included representatives from the schools; however, given the complexity of the Chicago Public Schools, they felt it was important to get something started, involve the schools, build trust and credibility, and then continue to adapt the program as it evolved over time. Chicago School Selection In CEP+5, the evaluation team (OER) noted that teacher attendance at the workshops varied greatly from school to school. The team determined that if a school had a weak principal, there was low or sporadic atten- dance. Therefore, for the AFP, the school selection process placed more emphasis on the strength of the principal and the potential for establishing strong cooperation among participating teachers. In addition to an application submitted by interested schools, site visits and on-site interviews with the faculty determined the level of principal and teacher commitment. The involvement of a trained music specialist varies from school to school - one school employs a full-time paid music specialist; another school has a volunteer music teacher; and the third school utilizes a part-time music teacher. At present, selection criteria do not require the participation of a music specialist. However, where music specialists are available, further connections with the music curriculum are encouraged. Teacher training Teachers participate in eight full days (sixty hours) of training per year - a three-day intensive summer institute in June and five additional days scheduled throughout the school year. Teachers also attend two after-school preparatory sessions for the two annual CSO youth concerts. In return for their time, teachers are paid an annual stipend of $1,000. The CSO and UG each hire a curriculum consultant. The two paid curriculum consultants conduct activities designed to develop musical expression by singing and by playing the soprano recorder. The goal is for each teacher to establish a personal connection to music by perform- ing, creating, and listening - not to become a virtuoso singer or recorder player. The consultants schedule site visits in order to observe the teachers using music in their classroom settings. All teachers present culminating activities with their students that demonstrate skills in singing and recorder playing, as well as musical under- standing. Curriculum Over the course of the three AFP years, teachers are expected to complete the following three objectives in music instruction: 1 ) demonstrate understanding in three levels of rhythm, form, and melody curricula; 2) play simple tunes on the soprano recorder; and 3 ) demonstrate ability to listen and recognize selected music repertoire. Some examples of the selected repertoire include Pachelbel's Canon, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, William Grant Still's Afro-American Symphony, B. B. King's Why 1 Sing the Blues, and Charles Ives's Variations on America. Rhythmic concepts range from keeping a steady beat to performing a rhythmic canon. Melodic concepts include simple activities, such as differentiating melodic direction and eventually playing major scales. Form identification ranges from identifying same, similar, or different sections in a musical selection to recognizing a rondo form. Artist Training Urban Gateways selects three teaching artists from their roster of artists to work with the AFP schools. Selection is based on the ability to both perform and teach in a classroom setting. Teaching artists attend the training sessions provided for the teachers. Each teaching artist is in residence for fifteen weeks in one school per year, covering all the schools over three years. The residency includes six to seven teaching/performing sessions with the students and a field trip appropriate to the teaching artist's specialty area. The three UG artists presently working with the AFP program include a jazz saxophon- ist, a Latino and Afro-Cuban percussionist, and a folk musician. Collaborative Planning The teaching artist and the teachers in each school arrange collaborative planning sessions. These "collabs" allow for joint curriculum planning, through which artists and teachers share ideas and plan activities to integrate the arts into their upcoming lessons. Four "collabs" of two hours each occur throughout the year. Parent Participation AFP originally called for at least one parent workshop per year in each school. The purpose of the workshop was to provide first-hand knowledge and a better understanding of the kinds of activities the children were experiencing. The parent workshops have met with mixed success. At the end of the first year of AFP, only one workshop had been conducted at one school. Progress in this area has been difficult due to varying levels of parent interest. CSO African Portraits Concert One activity that elicited strong parent involvement was a CSO concert featuring a composition by Hannibal Lokumbe, entitled African Portraits, presented during the 1994-95 school year. The CSO provided complimentary tickets to approximately 100 parents, teachers, and students. Other guests included the three teaching artists, the curriculum consultants, and Urban Gateway staff members. For many of the invited guests, this was a first- time visit to Orchestra Hall. 75 Concerts and Field Trips Each school annually participates in several performances and activities outside of school - two CSO youth concerts, one Urban Gateways matinee, and one field trip related to the artist residency. In-school concerts include two UG touring performances. With the exception of the field trip, few connections have been made between these performances and other AFP activities. PROGRAM SUPPORT Both the CSO and Urban Gateways support the Aulos Fellowship Program primarily with dedicated staff time and grant money. Schools do not make a financial contribution; however, the teachers and principals make a substantial time commitment to the project. Parents have been involved to a lesser extent, but where in- cluded, are very supportive of the program and its potential to increase student learning. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Combining experiences from the earlier CEP+5 project and suggestions from the evaluation team, the CSO and UG have made the following changes from CEP+5 to AFP: CEP+5 2-3 workshops per year 7-week artist residencies, Separate training for teachers/UG artists AFP 8 workshops per year One 15-week artist residency per year Combined training for teachers/UG artists Formal Evaluation by OER Associates Since the inception of the CEP+5, OER Associates has conducted a systematic annual evaluation for the CSO and UG. The evaluation process is extensive, including structured interviews, questionnaires, and observations. To a large extent, the evaluation relies on self-reported perceptions among participants. The analysis of data seeks to determine the extent of program implementa- tion, comfort levels of teachers for teaching arts concepts, and student awareness of the program. 76 Beyond At the end of the first year of the AFP ( 1994-95 ), the evaluators noted steady progress by the teachers in developing new musical skills as a result of the curriculum consultant's in-service training. Evaluators also found that teachers and students felt that the residencies, the touring performances, and the CSO evening concerts were effective. Activities perceived as less effective were those that lacked advance preparatory materials. IMPACT Teacher Growth The most dramatic impact so far seems to be in the area of teacher attitudes and their development of music skills. Teachers state that they were shocked at the initial expectations when they realized how much time and effort would be required. By attending the extended training sessions, teachers are students themselves and state that they now possess a deeper appreciation of the learning process that their students experience daily. Some teachers feel more comfortable with their abilities to produce music and involve their students; however, overall growth in the comfort level of integrating music into the curriculum varies from school to school. Princi- pals feel that their teachers have a way to go before they achieve a strong comfort level. As one teacher says, "I am more excited myself, but the children's excitement and behavior makes it really worth it for me." Teachers understand their role of clarifying and making connections within the curriculum. Both principals and teachers would like to see more hands-on materials illustrating how to integrate music into the curriculum. One teacher speaks about how she now looks for musical books and other supplementary materials to enhance units in history, literature, poetry, and the study of other countries. She finds it harder to make connections to math and science, and prefers more authentic connec- tions to the arts. Artist Attitudes According to one teacher, "At first, some Urban Gate- ways artists taught what [they] thought was important in the residencies." Artists now attend the training with the teachers and have grown from an initial negative attitude to one of understanding the teacher's perspective. Teachers feel that the participation of both CSO and UG musicians is key to the success of AFP. One teacher says, "We cannot do everything ourselves. We need the musicians to do what they do best." Chicago CODA The partnership between the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Urban Gateways is providing an environ- ment in which the partners, as well as the participants, are learning from one another. The CSO and UG are gaining a new understanding of two philosophically contrasting organizations and are capitalizing on their strengths, the classical and ethnic artistic traditions. Parents are beginning to experience the arts along with their children. The CSO and UG are developing better organizational skills. The CSO is preparing materials further in advance of concerts because they now understand that teachers need more preparation time to implement study units. Urban Gateways sets up a year-long activity calendar and makes it available at the start of the school year. The present AFP is an excellent example of adaptive planning. Program elements that were tried in Phase One (CEP+5) are being refined in Phase Two (AFP). The partners are soliciting input that results in gradual modifications from year to year. Participants agree that the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Urban Gateways are responsive to suggestions, and therefore, the program and the partnership represent an evolutionary process. All parties are developing new skills, gaining new perspectives, and appreciating the special talents of other participants. One principal observes, "The partners must be good learners. They must be able to listen to each other and adapt accordingly." 77 Beyond 78 Cedar Rapids CEDAR RAPIDS SYMPHONY Site Visit: December 1-2, 1995 (Site visit and profile by Cynthia Thomas) OVERVIEW Orchestra, Schools, and Community The Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra (CRSO) serves the city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, population 120,000. The CRSO is a part-time orchestra composed of seventy-five musicians. In an effort to improve the curriculum in the public school system, the CRSO and the Cedar Rapids Community School District (CRCSD) have formed a partnership in support of music education. An important aspect of the partnership is the Third- Grade String Program, which is offered annually to every third-grade child in the CRCSD. Children in the twenty- one elementary schools (approximately 1400 children per year) receive ten lessons taught by a member of the CRSO, who is trained in the Suzuki method. The elementary music coordinator and the school principals schedule the ten lessons in four-week blocks, thus students receive a lesson every other day. Classroom teachers and parent volunteers assist with the group lessons. An outgrowth of the Third-Grade String Program is the After School Group Lesson Program, which provides string instruction to interested students in the third, fourth, and fifth grades. Range of Experiences A goal of the Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra (CRSO) is to instill a lifelong appreciation of music among its constituents. To this end, the CRSO estab- lished a Symphony School in 1986 to provide high quality music instruction to young string players in the Cedar Rapids area. In addition to the Third-Grade String Program and After School Group Lesson Program, the Symphony School offers private lessons, Suzuki instruc- tion, early childhood music, youth orchestras, and a children's chorus. In addition, the Cedar Rapids Sym- phony provides concerts and small-ensemble perfor- mances to enrich the musical development of students in the CRCSD. PROGRAM CONCEPT Partnership Model The school/orchestra partnership in Cedar Rapids offers an example of a coalition in which duties and expecta- tions of each partner are clearly defined. The relationship is facilitated by the strong leadership of the symphony's Education Director. The CRCSD, the Symphony School, the CRSO, and the Symphony Guild develop activities that enhance the school's music curriculum. Participants enjoy a range of opportunities, including in- service training for teachers, complimentary tickets to symphony performances and the Metropolitan Orchestra Festival, participation in the Third-Grade String Program and After School Group Lesson Program, ensemble performances in the schools, performances and instruc- tion by guest musicians in the schools, participation in the Youth Orchestra, and enrollment in the Symphony School. The CRCSD and CRSO use a contractual agreement to delineate partner expectations among the among the Symphony School, the public schools, the CRSO, and the Symphony Guild. In June of each year, the partners renegotiate the contract and present it to the CRCSD Board of Education and the CRSO Board of Directors for approval. The Superintendent of Schools is a member of the orchestra board, and the Executive Director of Middle and High Schools chairs the orchestra's education committee. 79 Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - Youth concerts for the fourth and seventh grades - Brass quintet performances for all elementary schools as preparation for the fourth-grade youth concert - String quartet performances for all elementary schools in preparation for the Third-Grade String Program - Symphony School program offerings - Staff involvement in writing curriculum materials - Though not formally included as partnership activities, the CRSO also offers the schools master classes by guest artists, string teaching seminars, informal recitals, and instrumental coaching for middle and high schools. School Contributions to Partnership - $3600 contribution toward fourth and seventh grade youth concerts - $3500 contribution toward brass and string ensemble in-school performances - Office space and publicity for symphony/school events - School instruments for Symphony School use - Assistance in writing and publishing curriculum materials History In 1986, the CRSO established the Symphony School to help ensure opportunities for string students in the CRCSD to be taught by string specialists. This move was in response to state teacher certification standards that permitted all certified music teachers, including those without strings background, to teach strings in public schools. In 1989, the CRCSD, facing a budget crisis, made a decision to change the starting grade level of its elemen- tary strings education program. Instead of beginning strings instruction in the fourth grade, the school district determined to delay the program until the sixth grade. This decision raised community-wide concern as to the CRCSD's commitment to a high quality orchestra education program and provided the catalyst for develop- ment of a partnership between the CRSO and the CRCSD. 80 Beyond GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The CRSO has the following goals for its partnership with the CRCSD. - To provide all age groups with educational programs that will enhance rather than replace existing programs in the community - To produce well-rounded, well-educated citizens who have had a quality musical experience at a young age and who will grow into adults who appreciate music - To supplement the school string instruction program and reestablish early string training in the third grade - To secure future audience development and community support for the arts - To ensure that the contributing organizations maintain cooperative educational goals PROGRAM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Development of the Program The CRSO Education Director, who at the time of the change in string instruction was a parent of two string students and an active member of the Symphony Guild, believed elementary string instruction was crucial to the quality of the CRCSD's music education programs. Putting the best interpretation on an undesirable situa- tion, she recognized that the budget limitations of the school district afforded the orchestra an opportunity to consider making contributions to school programs. In her view, the schools and the orchestra shared resources that could sustain an ongoing string program. The Education Director initiated consultations with music and community leaders to discuss strategies for addressing the problem of school music program cutbacks. The Education Director met with the CRSO Music Director, members of the symphony board, a local businessman, and the founder of a Suzuki program at the University of Iowa. The symphony hoped to fund a position for an orchestra musician to teach a modified Suzuki string instruction program in the schools. The businessman agreed to contribute $9,000 toward this effort. His contribution was sufficient to provide the equivalent of a full-time salary for a musician willing to combine teaching with performing in the orchestra. The donated funds also allowed the orchestra to pursue the program at no risk to its operating budget. Cedar Rapids Initially, some music educators feared that the intended effort could jeopardize existing programs. However, the schools and the orchestra recognized that, without interventions, both institutions would suffer negative outcomes. In the short term, cutting the school's string program would lower the overall quality of music educa- tion in the CRCSD. Over the long term, community appreciation and support for the orchestra were likely to decline. By identifying their immediate needs, sharing concerns about the long-range impact of a current problem, and pooling resources to address the problem, the orchestra and the schools forged a partnership to benefit both organizations and, more importantly, to serve the learning needs of children in Cedar Rapids. Program Offerings The purposes of the Symphony School are to help build the public school string program, nurture children through music, build future symphony audiences, and offer opportunities for musicians to be self-sustaining. The Symphony School administers the Third-Grade String Program, which occurs during school hours, and the After School Lesson Program. The School uses the Suzuki method, encouraging parents to start their children's music education at an early age. Private and group lessons are also available, and scholarships and financial support students in need. The school maintains an enrollment of over 250 and employs a staff of twenty- one orchestra musicians. By working both as teachers and players, many of these performers earn full-time salaries. The Symphony School's offices are housed in a centrally located middle school building. The CRSO rents the office space, as well as studios and classrooms, from the CRCSD. In addition, the auditorium is available for recitals and other performance activities. The Third-Grade String Program involves parent volunteers and classroom teachers in the ten class lessons each child receives from an orchestra musician. The volunteers assist children with holding the instrument and the bow, placing the bow correctly on the string, fingering accurately, and developing overall technique. In the process, parents and teachers report that they learn more about music themselves. The After School Lesson Program extends the Third- Grade String Program by providing elective after-school lessons for children in the third through fifth grades. Depending on local interest, lessons may be scheduled in a child's school, or parents may drive their children to another nearby school. Private and group lessons are available for a minimal fee of five dollars each. Approxi- mately 50 students enroll annually. SUPPORT Financial and staff contributions by the school district and the symphony help solidify the relationship among orchestra education partners in Cedar Rapids. The orchestra provides musicians to teach lessons, as well as staff support for writing curriculum materials. School administrators serve on the orchestra board and commit- tees and schedule the Third-Grade Program. School personnel also help to write curriculum materials, which are published by the CRCSD. Parent support is crucial to the success of the partnership. In addition to parent assistance in the Third-Grade String Program, parents must provide transportation to the Symphony School's after-school programs. Orchestra representatives believe that if parents take pride in seeing their children increase their musical knowledge, they are likely to support the program and the orchestra in other ways. The parents' interest level, availability for after school transportation, and ability to pay partial tuition are viewed as key elements in whether a child continues string instruction beyond the third-grade introductory experience. EVALUATION & ASSESSMENT At present, the CRSO does not have an elaborate mechanism in place for evaluating programs. Some attempts have been made via questionnaires to solicit feedback from teachers, parents, and students regarding the Third-Grade String Program. Reponses to the questionnaire mainly reflect positive comments, however, and offer limited opportunities to determine improve- ment measures or assess student learning. IMPACT Through the Third-Grade String Program and the After School Program, the Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra has helped to fill a gap in the public school music curriculum. The CRCSD's sequential strings education program, which begins in sixth grade, draws on an existing pool of talent and skill generated in part by Symphony School programs. During the site visit, a group of Cedar Rapids leaders assembled to describe the various facets of the partnership. They included a CRCSD top level administrator, who also chairs an orchestra committee; a classroom teacher; an art teacher; two band directors; an orchestra director, who is also a 81 Beyond symphony player; a principal, who is also a parent; a school music administrator; and the orchestra Education Director. All agreed that the community shares numerous benefits, including the following, through the partnership between the school district and the orchestra: A high level of trust and understanding exists among the partners because of increased communication among school staff, students, parents, and symphony staff. Professional musicians teaching in the schools under the auspices of the Symphony School assure the quality of musical offerings and understand- ing throughout the community. Through the Third-Grade String Program, classroom teachers and parent volunteers acquire understanding of music and music education by assisting students. The orchestra's Education Director is a valuable community resource for sharing ideas among partners and constituents. CODA An advantage for the Cedar Rapids partnership is its small-town setting. The size of the school district and the orchestra offer possibilities for frequent interaction and communication that might be less available in larger communities. By capitalizing on the available opportuni- ties for close affiliation, the Cedar Rapids Community School District and the Cedar Rapids Symphony Orches- tra have built a partnership that enriches the entire community through music education. 82 New York Two young students get an opportunity to try out the (lute as part of the New York Philharmonic's School Partnership Program. NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC Site visit: December 7-8, 1995 OVERVIEW Schools and Students The New York Philharmonic (NYP) Partner- ship Program includes five public schools in Manhattan. It serves a broad socioeconomic mix of students, primarily in grades three through six. One school is largely middle class; the others have as high as ninety percent of their students on federal assistance. Family situations differ widely, and some children reside in homeless shelters. Ethnic repre- sentation is varied, with the majority of children being of Hispanic or African- American descent. In one school, teachers conduct the majority of classes in Spanish. Schools represent a variety of operating climates. The environments of the partner schools differ in administra- tive style, teacher commitments, planning time, parent involvement, communication, scheduling, resources, and discipline standards. Implementing the program for the greatest student benefit is thus labor intensive and requires a hands-on, problem-solving approach. Range of Experiences Each school is assigned one teaching artist, who collabo- rates with classroom teachers to provide instruction in basic music concepts. Additional classroom visits by individual musicians reinforce curricular concepts through interactive demonstrations of instruments. A quintet from the NYP performs in each school. Jon Deak, a NYP member who organized the quintet, composes and arranges the group's pieces to relate to the curriculum and the concert repertoire. Partnership students attend concerts and/or open rehearsals in Avery Fisher Hall. The NYP does not present school-day concerts exclusively for students, but assigns student- group seats among a paying audience of adults. The partnership program provides tickets for students, teachers, and parents to attend several events during the school year. PROGRAM CONCEPT Partnership Model The NYP program is an example of a partnership concept adapted to the prevail- ing community context. The NYP functions as a manag- ing partner, sustaining the expense and specifying expectations for participating schools. School budget limitations and the longstanding low priority of arts education in the New York City schools preclude direct financial commitment from the school system. The NYP has shouldered the primary burden of leadership develop- ing and implementing the program model. Five critical principles underlie the NYP's partnership program. Shared responsibility and commitment between the orchestra and the schools Professional development that matches teachers' knowledge and comfort levels, and prepares them to lead music activities with confidence A curricular focus on basic and interactive music learning, with knowledge of the orchestra developed as part of a broad music learning context Ongoing and sequential presence of the orchestra's teaching/performing personnel in the schools Unity among all facets of the program 83 Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - Program design and management - Curriculum design - Published resources and individual student journals to support the curriculum - Recordings - Classroom percussion instruments and recorders for each child - Portable stereo playback systems - A series of professional development workshops, with small stipends for teachers - Parent-child workshops - Free attendance for parents, children, and teachers at subscription concerts, NYP Young People's Concerts, and open rehearsals - Teaching artists, who teach lessons and participate in planning sessions with classroom teachers - In-school demonstrations and performances by musicians - Two student scholarships per school, plus instruments, for music lessons at a local community music school. School Contributions to Partnership - Cooperation in scheduling and logistics, including ticket distribution and organization of trips to concerts - Administrative and teacher commitment to curriculum implementation (150 hours annually), and after-school professional development (20-30 hours annually) - Recommendation of students for scholarships to study instruments at a settlement - Completion of evaluation forms writing and piloting of six lessons relating music to the academic curriculum, designed at the end of a project year and implemented the following year. 84 Beyond Time Frame Originally intended as a three-year cycle for each partner school, the time frame of the program is currently being reconsidered. The financial requirements of adding new partner schools, the success of functioning programs, and the negative impact on students whose schools might be discontinued present a challenge for the NYP; part of this challenge is whether to develop current programs further or to transfer the existing model to other schools. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Program Goals To build a fundamental knowledge of music, of a symphony orchestra, and of its repertoire among teachers, students, and parents To develop an ongoing multi-year relationship between the NYP and a body of schools in New York City To set a standard of excellence which defines a relationship between a symphony orchestra and schools within its community Program Objectives To build programs in a group of New York City public schools, starting with four schools and growing to ten schools, each in a three-year intensive relationship with the New York Philharmonic To develop a body of classroom (and, where possible, music) teachers committed to the teaching of music on a regular basis as an independent subject area, as well as a resource for the teaching of other subject matter To develop skills in classroom teachers that enable them to teach basic musical principles in a knowledgeable and committed manner To develop in elementary school students a) an interest in a wide range of music; knowledge of basic musical principles that apply to all music (melody, dynamics, rhythm, tempo, form); c) knowledge of and interest in a symphony orchestra and its component parts; d) basic skill on recorder, as an analogue of orchestral performance experience; e) familiarity with the New York Philharmonic; f) an increasing ability to listen analytically to music; and g) an ability to derive pleasure and satisfaction from a wide range of musical experiences To engage parents as co-learners with their children; to include them in parent-child workshops; to invite them to attend multiple events both in school and at Avery Fisher Hall with their children To develop among musicians of the New York Philharmonic and Education Department faculty a) an increased awareness of and commitment to their own community, and b) an active involvement in the partnership program New York Constituent Outcomes (three-year cycle) For students and teachers: understanding of music concepts, skill in recorder playing, knowledge of the orchestra and specific orchestral masterworks, positive attitudes toward a diverse range of music, increased interest in attend- ing live music events, and appreciation for the value of music as a positive and important force in their lives For parents: developing an interest in sharing musical activities with their children, and appreciating the value of music in their lives For artists: greater understanding of the public schools, a strengthened commitment to reaching out to those who may not know the value of one's work as a musician, and a perception of outreach as a part of the working life of a musician PROGRAM PUNNING AND IMPLEMENTATION History and School Selection In early 1994, the Director of Education asked adminis- trators in Manhattan school districts for recommenda- tions of partner schools. Twelve elementary schools were identified, based on need, leadership, and likelihood of commitment. Over a 3-4 month period, meetings were held with school staff members to explain the program. Guidelines for partner schools included a three-year commitment, with approximately 250 children and 8-12 teachers in each school required as a "critical mass." Schools did not need to have a music program, nor did they need to be "model" schools. As a result of the meetings, four partnership schools emerged, mainly through self-selection. One school was among New York City's list of "worst schools;" another was a national model for excellence in inner-city educa- tion. Hie four schools represented an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population. Because the partnership program is labor intensive, and because funding is limited, only one school was added to the original four in 1995-96. At present, expansion of the program is limited in part by the number of seats the NYP can afford to make available for events in Avery Fisher Hall. The Director of Education finds that the most consistent characteristic among partner schools is effective leader- ship. Principals of partner schools tend to be visionary and have a strong interest in stability. In addition, they believe that music and the other arts offer an important educational dimension that they are otherwise unable to provide. It is clear that the teachers and principals share a dedication to providing rich learning opportunities for their students. Interviews and observations in three of the partner schools confirm the importance of administrative leadership and support. Principals in these schools are known by the children, comfortable with students, and collegial in their relationships with teachers. There is a palpable focus on learning, and on establishing a school climate that is individual, relaxed, and orderly. When asked why they encourage and support the partnership with the NYP, principals cite the quality advantages of making classical music part of children's lives and learning. They also refer to the sense of value they feel in seeing the NYP, a world-class orchestra, take an interest in its local community. Principals and teachers alike believe that there are qualitative advantages that distinguish this program - organization, emphasis on learning, collaborative approach with teachers, quality control, flexibility without compromising quality, and continuous and effective communication. According to one principal, "This program has trans- formed who we are as a school. Not only are we learning music, but we are developing self-esteem and pride." A district arts coordinator who reviews the curriculum and functions as a liaison between principals and the orches- tra says, "This program has a defined substance that is helping children, parents, and teachers develop a relationship with the New York Philharmonic." Curriculum and Teaching The NYP Director of Education and teaching artists design the curriculum. The 1995-96 curriculum includes nineteen lessons organized into six units of study, which are taught by classroom teachers. An additional fifteen lessons, taught weekly by teaching artists, supplement the work of classroom teachers. The curriculum is laid out sequentially, with step-by-step activities, resources, glossary, suggestions for portfolio entries, optional homework assignments, and brief descriptions of the 85 lessons to be taught by teaching artists. Classroom teachers and teaching artists correlate their lessons, each lesson constituting about fifty percent of the instruction time. The NYP curriculum relates loosely with the music curriculum framework of the New York City Schools. However, because the school system employs very few music specialists, the partnership cannot connect with ongoing school music programs. Music learning in classrooms stresses fundamental concepts through experiences in composing, listening, and performing. The schools receive a commercially published teaching method for recorder (one school employs a music specialist who teaches the recorder program). Although the curriculum focuses on the medium of the orchestra and connects the children with "their" orchestra, experiences are richly eclectic. Re- corder performance and composition emphasize direct musical experience; individualized materials and home- made instruments encourage personal investment; regular journal entries foster reflective thinking. The NYP program strives to foster interaction among classroom teachers and teaching artists so that instruc- tional time, strategies, and planning are truly shared. In the classrooms visited for this study, teachers played active and enthusiastic roles during teaching artists' lessons. Lesson content relates to the repertoire in concerts that the children will attend. Music in the lessons is broadly representative of composers, styles, and genres, and is not limited to traditional works for children. The 1995-96 repertoire includes Beethoven's Symphonies Nos. 5 and 6, Ravel's Bolero, Stravinsky's Rite of Spring, Mozart's Overture to the Marriage of Figaro, Reich's Drumming, and Cage's 4' 33". Relevant learning activities are designed to stretch the children's expressive awareness and response through experiences appropriate to their developmental levels. Learning activities are designed to be musically involving, and to foster understanding through basic experiences that replicate the work of professional musicians. In-school performances extend students' learning through direct, personal interaction with musicians and their work. These programs include special arrangements of repertoire from the orchestra concerts, connecting the music with curriculum themes and perception of distinc- tive instrumental timbres. Students explore the instru- ments, particularly percussion, as a way of participating authentically in musical experiences. Beyond Teaching Artists The NYP employs teaching artists through an interview and recommendation process overseen by the Director of Education. They are not certified music teachers, and there are no particular degree requirements. Rather, teaching artists must possess the knowledge, skill, and enthusiasm to foster musical understanding and apprecia- tion among students, teachers, and parents. The Director of Education oversees the teaching artists and works with them to develop approaches that increase classroom teachers' confidence and involvement. The goal is to establish a partnership between teaching artists and teachers, rather than viewing teaching artists as the "visitor experts." The Director of Education also reviews planned classroom activities and provides feedback on lesson effectiveness. During interviews, classroom observations, and parent- child workshops, NYP teaching artists exemplified high levels of enthusiasm and creativity, strong musicianship, excellent rapport with children and adults, and high standards of music teaching and learning. Far from wishing that all students would want to become musi- cians, the teaching artists indicate that they thrive on the idea of introducing children to music and the orchestra as an element of a quality life. "Being a great teacher and a great performer are not mutually exclusive," they argue. One artist says, "I hope when I leave that I've stirred something up, that I've helped them to be able to make choices about what they do in life - not just in their jobs, but in their lives." Another says, We are making 'real world' connections to music and musicians, trying to instill a passion for learning and a comfort with the world of music. We are not trying to replace music specialists in the schools — we want to help, to empower classroom teachers to do music with their kids. Another musician claims, "Growing an audience is something we hope for, but it isn't the reason we do this - the real reason is to instill a love of learning and music." 86 New York Professional Development and Teacher Planning Teachers are offered a small stipend to attend six profes- sional development seminars throughout the school year. Teaching artists, who present concepts and ideas for lesson activities, and expand teachers' knowledge and confidence in "doing" music, lead these seminars. The seminar usually includes attendance at a NYP concert. In addition, teachers learn basic recorder skills. Other guests may provide additional information, such as how to integrate music with other subjects. Each school's assigned teaching artist meets regularly with classroom teachers to check progress on lessons, to make suggestions for activities prior to the next visit, and to clear up confusion and answer questions. In classroom observations, it was clear that teachers had done their "homework" in preparing for the teaching artists' lessons. During a planning session in one school, the teaching artist focused on activities to be done prior to his next visit. He reviewed terms and concepts, and assigned two tasks: a) to develop a graphic score of each class's original sound piece, and b) to prepare a recording of the piece. He also suggested a social studies connection to Africa that would build on drumming as communication and on Steve Reich's residency in Africa prior to composing Drumming. Teachers had opportunities to clarify the graphic scores, and to quiz the teaching artist on appro- priate ways of breaking an extended composition into shorter listening sections for the students. Communication and Documentation The Director of Education has been diligent in develop- ing written descriptions of the partnership program and in delineating goals and objectives. These documents serve both advocacy and documentation purposes and are shared with the NYP administration, Education Commit- tee, and other appropriate audiences. During the site visit, the Director of Education addressed the annual meeting of the NYP and laid out the importance of education initiatives. A particular challenge is to convey the importance of outreach efforts when the orchestra easily fills the performance hall for concerts. School personnel report that the Director of Education's ongoing and clear communication is one of the outstand- ing features of the partnership program. Interviews indicate that principals, teachers, teaching artists, and students all share a basic understanding of the goals and objectives of the program. Parent-Child Workshops Each school hosts a parent-child workshop conducted by the teaching artists. The workshops are designed to have parents share in direct musical experiences similar to those the students gain in their classrooms, and to orient the parents and children to a concert that they will attend together. These experiences are beneficial in advocating the importance of music education in the schools. Observation of a parent-child workshop, from 6:30-8:00 P.M., revealed a large and enthusiastic parent group. The school principal introduced the program with a strongly supportive statement regarding the NYP program. Through a series of creative activities led by the school's teaching artist, the participants cooperatively created and performed small-group compositions that integrated elements of a "fanfare." This experience led to the understanding of a piece performed on a later Young People's Concert, for which tickets would be furnished. In addition to shared music learning, it is clear that the intergenerational interaction among parents and stu- dents, and among adults in creating and making music carries important social and self-esteem benefits. The Assistant Principal of this school indicates that a growing number of parents are placing their children on a waiting list for admission because of the NYP partnership program. PROGRAM SUPPORT Financial Support The orchestra financially supports the NYP partnership program. The NYP Board supports about one-third of the program, with the remainder from private donors. In partial fulfillment of its goal to establish an endowment for the partnership, the NYP received a major endow- ment commitment at the completion of the program's first year. This is in addition to support through annual giving. The Director of Education believes successful fund-raising is at least partially attributable to an "open door" policy, which invites interested individuals to observe the program at any time. Symphony Support In addition to the NYP Education Committee, a partner- ship advisory committee has been established, consisting of a voluntary fine arts education coordinator for the New York City schools, a program evaluator, several teachers, and an assistant principal. The NYP's full-time Director of Education oversees the partnership in 87 addition to numerous other education programs. There is a full-time education assistant. Maestro Kurt Masur is a strong proponent of education efforts; it was Maestro Masur's strong urging that spurred the partnership program to include direct music making on the recorder. School and Parent Support Interviews with school personnel indicate high levels of support for the program and a willingness to fulfill school responsibilities. Visits found teachers actively involved and principals enthusiastically cooperative. Questions about possible dissatisfactions, including time demands in light of already heavy burdens, were met with references to the exceptional quality of the NYP program, the efficiency of management, the careful planning, and the visible positive results in terms of learning and school climate. Although the NYP goals are clearly collaborative in intent, it is apparent that the schools rely heavily on the NYP to shoulder the responsibilities of funding, program design, and curriculum content and delivery. Attendance at parent-child workshops, which are held at early morning or evening hours in accord with prefer- ences of given communities, ranges from about twelve to sixty persons. Principals indicate strong parental support for the program, as do students. In fact, one economically deprived student felt ambivalent about her father's strong support for practicing, as she was concerned that she might be disturbing others in her homeless shelter. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Based on experiences with the 1994-95 pilot project, the 1995-96 program builds closer correlations between the published and the implemented curriculum, more clearly defines the responsibilities of teaching artists and classroom teachers, and clarifies expectations regarding student journal keeping. In 1994-95, the primary and most objective route of information regarding program effectiveness was the response of participating teachers to an evaluation form. Observation and discussion provided additional informa- tion. The evaluation form consisted of a five-point scale, permitting teachers to respond to statements with ratings from Excellent to Poor, or for Not Applicable. The statements were organized into categories including professional development seminars, teaching artists' classroom visits, your own work in the program, concerts, open rehearsals, classroom demonstrators, NYP Quintet, use of recorders, curriculum materials, student journals, and general program evaluation. In addition, the evaluation asked teachers several open-ended questions and encouraged them to add comments. 88 Beyond In contrast to many evaluations that rely on assessment of student and teacher attitudes (often predictably positive), this questionnaire focused on the effectiveness of program facets relative to stated program goals. The questionnaire asked teachers to indicate perceptions of their levels of involvement, and to rate perceived levels of learning (their own and students') relative to stated objectives and outcomes. The questionnaire also asked teachers to make specific suggestions for improvement. The evaluation form focused primarily on the impact of the program on the school and the student. It did not evaluate program operation or the effectiveness of the partnership structure. The major strength of the pilot evaluation was its cohesiveness with the partnership program's stated goals, objectives, and outcomes. In addition, the form was specific with regard to demonstrated teacher and student behaviors under each program element. As a result, comments and responses tended to be more pointed and helpful than the frequent "everything is just wonderful" feedback that many arts education partnerships elicit. Responses were generally in the satisfactory to excellent range; however, some statements had responses across all categories, or indicated a need for program review. For example, many teachers observed that attending open rehearsals did not further program goals or extend classroom work, whereas teachers viewed quintet perfor- mances in the schools as highly effective. Additional strengths of the pilot evaluation included the quality of the Evaluation Report, written by the Director of Education, and the obvious relationship of intended program changes to information gleaned during the 1994- 95 year. The report included descriptive information about the schools and program elements, a narrative synthesis of perceptions regarding effectiveness, and intended program changes for 1995-96. For 1995-96, the NYP hired an external evaluation consultant to expand the evaluation process. The evaluator reviewed program documents, attended teacher training and meetings, observed all facets of the program, and led focus groups with teachers and students. The evaluation was framed around a series of questions related to effectiveness of the program in terms of goals and objectives, adherence to education standards, and the level of service provided by the NYP in support of the partnership. It thus included aspects of program structure not incorporated in the 1994-95 pilot evaluation. Mew York IMPACT Schools and Curriculum During interviews, children indicated strong positive responses to their teaching artists and classes from the NYP. But they also moved beyond the fact that they "like" music classes. When asked whether it was impor- tant to have music in school, they responded that "music helps you express yourself," and "playing an instrument can really help you feel good about yourself." When asked about music's importance relative to other areas of study, they did not succumb to the temptation to speak of what was more important; rather, they indicated that music is, like other subjects, important in its own right. Students also believed that skills learned in music can transfer to other subjects, such as reading, and can make learning in general more enjoyable. Asked to identify 7 what they were learning, they easily and proudly described information and concepts consistent with the prepared curriculum. In a recorder class, they demonstrated accuracy, musicianship, and strong satisfac- tion in their achievement. Two features stood out in the student interviews: a) unaffected and enthusiastic gratitude for every facet of the program; and b) appropri- ate pride in their growing knowledge, evidenced by accurate and comfortable discussion of repertoire, composers, and concepts. According to principals and teachers, the NYP program has, in only its second year, become integral to the school climate. Parents already expect there to be music oppor- tunities, and it is clear that there would be a "void" if the program were to be removed. In the absence of the partnership, staff believe music would continue because of its demonstrated value, because teachers now feel more confident teaching music, and because students and parents would demand it. Teachers indicate that profes- sional development seminars increase their knowledge and confidence with music, which was not a part of their collegiate preparation. They also voice appreciation for the opportunity to grow in their awareness of music through attendance at concerts. A younger brother and parent of a New York Philharmonic partnership student get an opportunity to try the recorder, which all students in the partnership program learn to play. In terms of implemented program quality, teacher evaluations for 1994-95 indicate highly effective results for most facets. Teachers believe that students have improved in their knowledge and skills, and that they are enthusiastic about the program. The shared delivery system of classroom teachers and teaching artists seems to work successfully; however, some teachers continue to find it difficult to implement the curriculum due to limited music backgrounds. Interviews indicated high levels of commitment among principals, including a desire to offer material support, were it possible. Principals state that parents would be quick to respond if the program were threatened in any way. Measurable evidence of this commitment is apparent in the only middle class school, where the Parent-Teacher organization has gathered sufficient funds to hire a music specialist in grades K-2 and to purchase portable audio playback equipment for classrooms. Parent commitment is also evident in their attendance with their children at workshops and concerts. The New York Philharmonic Teachers, administrators, and, impor- tantly, students are all keenly aware that the music program is associated with the New York Philharmonic. One teacher states, "I feel as though I belong at Avery Fisher Hall." Students speak of the orchestra with innocent familiarity, reeling off names of composers and musicians as though they are members of an extended family. According to one teacher, "it is a marvelous experience for teachers and kids to meet up with hundreds of other 'ordinary people' who are going to concerts." At a beginning level, at least, there is evidence that some of the barriers to symphony attendance felt by inexperienced individuals may be abated through the partnership program. There is also strong evidence that the NYP is enhancing its perception as a good neighbor by being concerned with the welfare of the community in which it resides. The potential fiscal advantage of this community connection, which breaks the elitist stereo- type that discourages some funders, remains to be seen. 89 Beyond Hands-on outreach by NYP musicians poses challenges in terms of their contracts, heavy playing demands, and traditional career perceptions. However, the quintet is evidence that a growing number of musicians are willing to relate directly with members of their communities, and to participate in sharing high levels of music making with non-traditional constituents. Evidence of the raised profile of education within the orchestra may be seen in the Director of Education's being invited to address the NYP Annual Meeting. As the orchestra struggles to ascertain its priorities, there is little doubt that education and outreach efforts will play a role. In part, this is due to the highly professional, assertive leadership of the Director of Education. It is also related to growing awareness that the orchestra must nurture lifelong relationships with people in the commu- nity. CODA The NYP partnership program is only in its second year of operation. For its short history, the program represents significant adherence to many partnership principles that have been identified in effective programs in various fields. It has focused goals and objectives, strong leader- ship and management, adapts to the resources of the community it serves, operates in the context of strengths and limitations of its partners, evidences high-quality implementation and delivery, and maintains documenta- tion and evaluation procedures. The overall impression of the program is one of careful planning, high-quality music and educational experi- ences, programmatic unity in support of goals, and high levels of respect among school personnel. As the program evolves, it is likely that greater collaboration will charac- terize the structure and planning of the partnership, and that increased financial support will sustain expanded programs. 90 Austin AUSTIN SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Site visit: December 12-13, 1995 OVERVIEW Orchestra, Schools, and Community The Austin Symphony Orchestra (ASO), founded in 1911, is an 85-piece, per-service orchestra. The orchestra performs eight subscription series concerts and two pops concerts each season. From its beginnings, education has been an important mission. The orchestra currently employs a full-time Director of Education Programs to develop education programs and oversee relationships with schools. Because the players are part-time, they adjust other obligations to fulfill services that are sched- uled during the school day. Austin, the capital city of Texas, anchors a metropolitan area of about 550,000 people. ASO education programs serve the Austin Independent School District (AISD), with some participation among suburban systems. AISD's population includes Hispanic, Asian, and African- American minorities, as well as a cross-section of socio- economic levels. The system employs certified music specialists for all schools. Two system-level music educa- tion supervisors manage curricular continuity and music program development. The ASO and the AISD have a longstanding cooperative relationship. Over the past sixteen years, the ASO Education Director, members of the ASO board, school personnel, and the ASO Women's Symphony League have jointly focused on programs that serve children's learning needs. They have linked ASO education efforts with the AISD curriculum, and have secured financial commitments from both the schools and the orchestra. Range of Experiences Primary components of the ASO schools' programs include ensemble visits to primary grades, young people's concerts for grades 4-6, and on-campus high school performances. Additional opportunities include an annual Halloween concert for primary grades and "Backstage With the Arts," a cooperative multi-arts ■ program where children visit six different arts organiza- tions. The ASO also offers the schools master classes provided by ASO guest soloists. "Simple Simon" is a program of The Women's Symphony League, in which docents lead thirty-minute lessons in elementary grades using original songs and print materials designed to spur interest in the instruments of the orchestra. PROGRAM CONCEPT Partnership Model The ASO education program is based on a cooperative partnership model that features involvement by ASO and AISD personnel at operational, administrative, and board levels. A senior-level music supervisor in the AISD is an ex-officio member of the ASO board and participates actively in program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The ASO invites the Superintendent of Schools to be a symphony board member. Both the orchestra and the schools invest financially in the program. The ASO board has a vice-president for education who reports regularly to the board on youth activities and is involved in fund raising. The board also has an appointed government affairs liaison to monitor legislative agendas affecting the arts and education. The board's concern with education is not limited to advancing symphony programs. Rather, they intend to connect the orchestra visibly with the community's schools, particularly the arts education programs. The ASO board has lobbied state 91 and local governments to support curricular arts pro- grams, convinced the AISD to make a financial commit- ment to school-orchestra cooperation, and worked cooperatively for advocacy through the local Fine Arts Coalition in Education (FACE). Orchestra Contributions to Partnership - Board-level commitment to education, both philosophical and material - A full-time Director of Education Programs position - Ensembles, young people's concerts, master classes, and high school concerts Fund raising - Leadership in program planning, management, and scheduling - Coordination for developing instructional materials, and provision of educational packets to music specialists and classroom teachers - Docent support School Contributions to Partnership - Representation on the symphony board - Active music administrator involvement in program planning - Financial support - Teacher expertise/involvement in design of instructional materials - Student preparation and follow-up in classrooms - Cooperation in scheduling and logistics - Bus transportation to concerts - Inclusion of symphony-related programs in the system-wide music curriculum guide 92 Beyond GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The ASO has identified two major priorities within its mission: 1 ) the performance of symphonic music for the city of Austin, and 2) the education of young people throughout central Texas. The prominent role of educa- tion gives testimony to an historic solidarity with the schools in addressing the community's cultural and educational well-being, a goal that the Women's Sym- phony League nurtures and advances. Board members prefer not to draw a distinction between the two parts of the mission. In the words of one member, "We do not want children's programs to be a separate structure from the Austin Symphony." Both school and orchestra personnel state that maintain- ing a strong relationship between the organizations is their highest priority. The impression is that mutual commitments are steadfast, while particulars of the relationship may be fluid. According to the Education Director, the relationship is pragmatic. It is founded on the partners' assumption that quality arts education is their common trust, and that progress is best accom- plished through shared problem-solving. The Education Director cites several factors that underlie orchestra-school cooperation: 1) having a full-time orchestra education director and a board committed to education; 2) maintaining two-way, ongoing communica- tion with the schools; 3 ) designing programs that meet children's developmental learning needs, and that are consistent with the schools' music curriculums; and 4) devising innovative performance presentations. ASO board members share this perspective. In addition, they emphasize that in order to have a healthy relation- ship, it is important to share a financial commitment between the orchestra and the schools, and to have effective leadership in both organizations. Orchestra and school personnel cite the involvement of Maestro Sung Kwak in program planning and presenta- tion as evidence of the orchestra's deep commitment to education. He is departing, however, and the search for a new conductor naturally raises interest in how s/he may deal with schools and education programs. Suggesting that the schools have come to expect a certain attitude from the orchestra, one teacher says, "Having a conduc- tor who is positive toward education is not a choice. We'll have to be as clear regarding our expectations with the new one as we have been with our present conduc- tor." Austin The ASO administration and board do not see education as the primary consideration in hiring a new conductor. However, they emphasize that maintaining a positive relationship with the schools will continue to be a priority, and that they will retain appropriate personnel to fulfill education services. PROGRAM PUNNING AND IMPLEMENTATION The relationship between the ASO and the AISD involves school personnel directly in planning and implementation. All activities are connected with the curriculum of AISD. Music supervisors help select repertoire and review presentations, stressing aspects such as age appropriateness and connection with the system's sequential music curriculum. According to the orchestra's Education Director, the symphony's programs are "spiral," beginning in kindergarten and continuing through high school. Primary Grades Program - Small Ensembles Building Blocks, designed for grades K through 3, features in-school performances by orchestra ensembles and a harpist. Performances are held in multipurpose rooms for several classes of children at a time. The intent is to provide an "up-close" experience with musicians and their instruments, and to offer opportunities for students to talk with the musicians. School music specialists are the contact persons for selecting and scheduling performances. The intent is that, prior to fourth grade, all children will hear an ensemble from each family of instruments. There are no curriculum materials specifically associated with en- sembles, and teachers generally are not aware of program content prior to ensemble visits. However, music teachers report that the focus on instrumental timbres permits them to connect the performances easily with the music curriculum. Teachers also indicate that they are able to influence the content and quality of programs. The ASO Director of Education Programs invites direct contact, or they may communicate reactions through their music supervisor. Two examples of ways teachers have influenced the programs include asking musicians to use visual aids that assist learning and retention, and suggesting that per- formers gear vocabulary to the ages of the children. Interviewed teachers report that they observed positive changes in both areas. Participating ensemble musicians develop their own programs, thus the presentations may differ considerably. Teachers find that programs consistently involve children in active responses to the music. Musicians from one ensemble indicate that their particular approach is to provide an "experience," rather than to teach concepts, though they are conscious of illustrating pitch and timbre. This group tries to strike a balance between education and entertainment, building on their own personalities to create a cohesive performance. Upper Elementary Grades -Young People's Concerts with Live Video Projection Children in fourth through sixth grades attend Young People's Concerts (YPCs) at Bass Concert Hall on the University of Texas campus. A unique aspect of these concerts is a large video screen placed behind the orchestra, on which images of individual orchestra musicians and the conductor are featured live during performances. The images correlate with musical events, such as a prominent violin passage or a culminating moment in the score. In conjunction with the repertoire, artwork by students or photos (such as the Grand Canyon) may also be projected. The video projection reinforces the music, so there is no distraction from listening. Examples of repertoire enhanced in this way include Carnival of the Animals, Grand Canyon Suite, and And God Created Great Whales. Curriculum The AISD mandates participation in YPCs as an element of the music curriculum in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Because the system's curriculum department has officially accepted the curriculum, all children must receive this experience. Music specialists and grade-level teachers in AISD serve as curriculum consultants for the YPCs. They write lessons that correlate with the district's music curriculum, are accessible to non-specialist teachers to use in relation to other subjects, and are relevant to visual art classes. The design of the print materials is adaptable, so that teachers may choose how to incorporate suggestions into ongoing classroom activities. The ASO provides every teacher with materials. Music teachers receive a music packet, while grade-level teachers receive a packet relating the concert repertoire to science or social studies. Another feature is that activities are organized as learning centers, and children may work independently in their classrooms. An accompanying recording provides the music that students will hear in the concert. 93 Grade-level teachers may use the lessons in a variety of ways; however, they are asked to do two specific things: 1) construct a bulletin board, based on suggestions included in the materials; and 2) play the recording of the music. The recording may be played as a background during other work, incorporated into opening exercises, used as a transition between subjects, or employed for focused listening. Art teachers may have children draw while listening to the tape. Schools display drawings and, in some cases, these are used for the video projection that accompanies the YPCs. Concert repertoire that builds on compositions being taught in the AISD emphasizes connections with the music curriculum. In one teachers' words, "We have a huge listening component in our curriculum. What is so great about the concerts is that the material is directly related to pieces we are already teaching." Students also learn some of the concert pieces for the Music Memory contest, a program that teaches repertoire, then chal- lenges children to recognize excerpts and name the titles and composers of the works. Instruction is based on "listening maps," which aid students in following the musical events and characteristics of compositions. Thematic programs Relating YPCs to the ongoing curriculum is aided by the cyclical repetition of four YPC themes: multicultural music, which relates to social studies; where is the sound, which relates to science; dance beat, which features live dancers and relates to social studies; and musical menag- erie, which features student artwork and relates to science. Knowing which theme will be featured in an upcoming year permits teachers to plan early for related activities. Repertoire and learning experiences associated with each theme may change, even though the themes themselves are recycled. Professional development Music teachers are introduced to YPC lesson materials at a ninety-minute symphony-sponsored teacher apprecia- tion party in the fall. In their own schools, music teachers present short introductions to the materials for grade- level teachers. The extent of application is an individual teacher decision. Music specialists indicate that follow-up by classroom teachers can be uneven, but that most do something. Because of favorable scheduling (music as often as once every three days in lower grades), specialists feel they are able to make the primary connections to the school's curriculum. Because overlap with the curriculum is written into YPC lessons, more extensive in-service is not considered critical. 94 Beyond High School Concerts Each year, four AISD high schools host on-campus performances by the ASO. Held in gyms, these perfor- mances include student concerto soloists and "side-by- side" opportunities for students to play with the sym- phony. The orchestra rotates among AISD high schools, serving all ten over several years. Curriculum connections To help ensure curricular correlation and prepare students for the concerts, teachers and the ASO's Education Director identify instructional themes that teachers can reinforce through English classes. Packets and sample lessons are developed. This approach reaches all the students, whereas music classes would reach only a limited number at any given time. Underserved populations During the site visit, we interviewed the principal of a high school that serves a predominantly lower socioeco- nomic population. Students in the school historically had been denied assembly-style programs because of repeated incidents of uncontrolled behavior. This principal, however, believes that students "rise to the occasion" when given special opportunities such as ASO concerts: I if as, of course, worried that students might not show respect. But I believe the advance organizers offered through classroom preparation, a positive tone set by the principal's office, and the expectation that good behavior is its own best payback helped establish the proper climate. How can they learn appropriate social skills if they don't have a chance to apply them? The principal believes that "special programs" should not be targeted exclusively toward students who already have many advantages, or who pose no behavior risks: Our students are not the kind who will ever have classical concert experiences unless we provide them and instill a desire to continue having them. Our mission is lifelong learning, and that has to involve teaching the connecting thread of music throughout the history and cultures of our world. I think bringing these concerts to our poorer minority populations is one of the best investments the ASO will ever make in our community. Austin Shared Planning ASO-AISD programs reflect a shared approach to planning, content, implementation, and quality. The ex- officio hoard position of a school music supervisor permits top-level input into the orchestra's relationship with the schools. According to two board members, this supervisor's well-established reputation for management and programmatic excellence is a key element in the organizations' successful relationship. As a liaison, she is able to identify factors that affect program operation and quality, and to anticipate the potential impact of both school-related and orchestra-related change. Prior to presentation, an AISD music supervisor, the symphony's Education Director, and other selected individuals review Building Blocks ensemble programs on videotape or in a live performance. Suggestions are made regarding content and format, with follow-up observa- tions of effectiveness during site visits to schools. En- sembles are asked to have their programs reviewed if they make a major change in content, or if one or more members of the ensemble change. Curriculum design and delivery for Young People's Concerts is also a joint effort between the schools and the orchestra. The orchestra provides funding to hire AISD teachers who write the lessons. The ASO believes that the potential for use by grade-level teachers is much higher if classroom and music teachers work together in producing materials. At the high school level, the ASO Education Director works closely with school personnel in scheduling, identifying students for side-by-side experiences, and preparing students for the concerts. Just like at the elementary level, music teachers continue to be an important part of the process. According to one ASO board member, "We believe the commitment of the music teachers is absolutely crucial. We simultaneously work with administrators and teachers because success is dependent on two-way communication across the board." Development and Continuity Historically, the Women's Symphony League (WSL) has cultivated education priorities and efforts. In addition to fund raising, League members have been volunteer docents, ushers for concerts, arts education advocates, and leaders in community cultural awareness. The members make the point that building a strong program in coordination with schools takes time and patience: "You have to start small - do a few things well, then build on your successes. You can't have a full-blown program overnight." In general, WSL members and the Education Director believe that program development must engage teachers in a commitment to the program's value: "Demonstrating a program that is of high quality convinces teachers to support it, which, in turn, builds a base for support by principals." Sustained communication and a spirit of goodwill are also important factors: We make it a point to provide recognition and express appreciation to those people who work so hard for these programs . We have many committed people , but if we don't appreciate their efforts sufficiently, they may put their energies elsewhere. PROGRAM SUPPORT Ensemble performances (Building Blocks), YPC, and high school concerts are free to students in the AISD. The AISD contributes significant direct financial support annually toward YPCs and high school concerts and provides bus transportation to YPCs. The ASO funds all of the remaining elements of the program, including the per-service union wage for each musician's participation in education events. The ASO Education Director, the Board, and the Women's Symphony League participate in fund raising to support education. Numerous local corporations and foundations participate in funding ASO education programs. The symphony board believes financial commitment from the schools is crucial to attracting these funds. One long-time member states that convincing the schools required diligence: "We had to have many meetings with the Board of Education and school administrators. But their decision to put it in the budget, and to support transportation, now for nearly twenty years, has helped keep the school concerts viable." This same board member emphasizes that appreciation for the schools and their many priorities is central to a successful relationship: "We make it a point to publicly announce the level of school support and thank the school board for what it does." ASO board members also indicate that funders increas- ingly are attracted to the idea of supporting the sym- phony because of its strong education interests. The ASO tries to build on the fact that funders like the way the community perceives them when they subsidize children's programs. In the words of one fund director, "Children are our most important product, but the least serviced in our society. Our country needs to learn how to treat our children as the investment they are." 95 Expressing concern about budget cuts that disproportion- ately affect the arts, this same funder raised the issue of a community's responsibility to broadly educate its chil- dren. In her view, the symphony should link with and support strong school music programs, and inform corporations about the positive results of music educa- tion: People are not educated if all they've learned is math and grammar. Music study can help these areas, but creative experiences are also important on their own. Of course, the programs have to be creative, not mundane. When I saw the Young People's Concert, I was struck by how spellbound the children were - they were entranced. I was convinced this program should be supported. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Evaluation of ASO education programs is largely infor- mal and anecdotal. Teachers are requested to complete evaluation forms on various programs. More frequently, feedback occurs through direct verbal interchange with the ASO Education Director or the AISD Music Supervi- sor. Music teachers note that supervisors solicit responses regularly and that they consistently communicate teachers' observations to the orchestra. There is a strong perception among constituents that the symphony Education Director welcomes and responds to suggestions, and that communication between the Education Director and music supervisors is open and continuous. A board member notes that strong leadership in the schools provides a conduit for ensuring that the orchestra understands the learning needs of students, and that the orchestra adapts to school calendars and sched- ules: "I don't think this program could work at all if we didn't have strong leadership both at the symphony and in the schools. You need a committed music supervisor and a committed education leader at the symphony." A music supervisor agrees: "Both sides of the equation are necessary - you've got to have good leadership in both organizations for a partnership to work." Musicians indicate that their primary feedback comes from the responses of children to their presentations, especially in the ensembles. Although they feel comfort- able with their ability to plan appealing programs, they would be open to systematic training and evaluation in areas such as how to deal with students, and how the performing musician relates to the world of education. The musicians believe that opportunities for them to give feedback might be useful in encouraging teachers to be better listener role models during performances, and in making sure that schools adhere to planned presentation schedules. 96 Beyond The orchestra maintains statistical data on numbers of students served, programs presented, and the budget. This information is used for documentation, and to provide information to prospective funders regarding the pro- gram. IMPACT Schools One apparent impact on the schools is that music educators and parents can rely on the orchestra as an advocate for curricular music education programs. Both school and orchestra personnel testify to the orchestra's role in convincing state legislators not to make the arts extra-curricular, a move they believe would have given local schools the latitude to de-fund all arts experiences. Another important impact is the reinforcement of the curricular music program through extensions to the community's primary cultural institution. An instrumen- tal music supervisor believes that the opportunity to see and hear professionals at close range, and to participate in experiences such as side-by-side concerts enhances the quality of school orchestra programs. Teachers, a principal, and a parent voice their particular appreciation for the availability of "live" classical music experiences for underprivileged students. According to the principal, "Even in a town where education and culture are high priorities, it is too easy to forget that some children might never realize the power of a sym- phony performance, or of hearing live musicians." A parent, who also happens to be a teacher, echoes this sentiment: The children in my school are largely Hispanic from low' income families . I have seen the faces of these children when they first hear a violin or walk into Bass Concert Hall. We never know how these opportunities may open doors for children who otherwise might not know what's available to them. Teachers and administrators agree that the opportunity to see and hear professional musicians has a positive impact on the climate for learning in schools. One teacher says, "This program makes teaching in this system a whole lot of fun. Everyone is always looking forward to the musi- cians coming in, or to going to the concerts." They also believe that, over time, connections between the school and professional artists have a positive impact on atten- dance, drop-out rate, and positive attitudes toward school: Austin Kids get excited about coming to school when they know the musicians are coming, or because we're going to the concert. The key is making sure they're prepared so that they can get the most out of it. We can use these experiences to turn them on, and to help them feel better about themselves. When they feel that the school cares enough to provide something special, they'll respond in kind in most cases. Orchestra Musicians interviewed for the study like the fact that ensemble performances offer them more autonomy than they normally experience in a large section, especially the strings. They also think that the orchestra benefits from an attitude of "giving back" to the community through involvement with the schools. Another benefit is the intergenerational age span of the ASO audience. Accord- ing to the Education Director and a music supervisor, "Kids who hear the orchestra in school are calling up regularly for tickets, or asking how their parents can get tickets. It is gratifying to see so many young people in our audience." ASO board members believe that the strength of the education programs is a vital factor in their overall fund raising. One member says, "Orchestras who are ignoring the potential of education as a way of raising money are really missing the boat in today's world." They believe that connecting with the schools is not only the "right thing" to do, but that it engenders a favorable community impression that helps bring larger audiences through the doors. Another board member comments: "Not only are we gaining, but the corporate community is gaining as well. Our funding increases, and the corporations get a good dose of positive perception for their work. Everybody wins." CODA The Austin Symphony Orchestra's partnership with the schools demonstrates how shared commitment and hands-on involvement can form the core of a lasting productive relationship. The institutions are united in their view that investment in the community's cultural and educational welfare is a mutual responsibility. Trust established over many years through the persistence of effective leaders sustains the program and gives it viability in the eyes of funders and the community. 97 Beyond Tradition 98 \ Hy », Xtfllta ^ '<'<r^y/^i:r,wf>^;i\j^w' ,m 'V'i^ ^■rvy/'WS';^'''' 1 " ffi f' ¥ « % J. wMW«vri m ?' r *f 7 '- i!>, ' imml ' SECTION V Principles of Effective Orchestra Education Partnerships Effective Partnerships SECTION V Principles of Effective Orchestra Education Partnerships The case studies, surveys, and regional meetings con- ducted during the project yielded a number of principles that contribute to the effectiveness of orchestra-school interactions. In this section, principles are organized under six major headings, with associated challenges and strategies outlined for each. It is important to remember that there are no formulas or proven steps that can ensure the success of a partnership. Schools and orchestras vary from community to commu- nity. They are diverse in size, budget, constituents, level of community involvement, and quality. As institutions, they embody unique traditions, values, and priorities that shape their quest for relevance amidst social and eco- nomic change. Their communities comprise distinctive combinations of personalities, skills and talents, re- sources, and needs. The principles, challenges, and strategies that follow are not meant to be exhaustive or absolute. The intent is to offer guidelines that can help orchestras, schools, and communities develop more effective partnerships. I. The Role of Education is Valued Within the Orchestra As orchestras struggle with how to achieve community relevance and expand their bases of support, some believe that a heightened priority for education makes good sense. Representatives of the orchestras profiled in this study generally agree that modern orchestras must strengthen education efforts while maintaining the orchestra's artistic integrity. Challenges to education as an orchestra priority Tension still exists in many places between the artistic and educational missions of the orchestra. Too frequently, these missions are viewed as distinct. There may be concern that moving education from the realm of volunteerism to an administrative function with budget support may dilute the artistic mission. Some people question whether orchestras can afford to apply limited resources to education. Where they exist, education directors sometimes find themselves playing the roles of logistical managers and public relations agents rather than respected administrators who help set agendas and policies. I . Valuing education within the orchestra Among orchestras reporting that education is clearly part of a stated mission are those in Pittsburgh, Santa Ana (Pacific Symphony), Omaha, Ft. Wayne, Colorado, Boston, Austin, and Cedar Rapids. The increasing interest in education among funders offers orchestras an important opportunity to explore relationships with schools. However, this opportunity can also be construed as an urgent need to do something or to gain acclaim as a national model. Unfortunately, urgency to demonstrate results may hinder the planning and improvement of relationships and programs. As a result, the orchestra and the community can be diverted from the reality that change requires intensive labor, time, and sustained commitment. Boards, administrators, 101 and musicians can expect greater impact and returns by focusing on improving local education, which ultimately benefits every segment of community life, than by seeking the illusive goal of providing the definitive national model for music education. Orchestras that have moved forward in developing partnerships with schools generally display a consistent thread of educational interest throughout their organiza- tions. They believe that an orchestra properly participates in local education out of its unique capacities and concerns. Whether motivated by altruistic regard for children's cultural well-being or by the need for audi- ences, or both, these orchestras are initiating new relationships with their communities and schools. Strategies to strengthen the role of education in the orchestra Include education in the mission statement, goals, and objectives of the orchestra. Have a board-level education committee that includes educators, as well as orchestra, community, and corporate representatives. Give task forces or targeted committees specific education assignments, such as monitoring education legislation or lobbying for enforcement of arts education mandates. Build commitment to the educational mission among administrators, conductors, and musicians, and report regularly to the larger community on the orchestra's education and outreach efforts. Employ executive officers and other top-level administrators who are committed to and can articulate the educational mission, who are knowledgeable about specific education efforts, and who participate actively in the operation of the orchestra's educational mission. Make the education director a senior-level administrative appointment, with appropriate staff and budget support. Commit to funding education as part of the ongoing operational budget requirements of the orchestra. Explore interagency dialogue and cooperation with other arts and education organizations in order to maximize the orchestra's education contributions to the community. Incorporate education considerations into hiring policies for administra- tive personnel and musicians, and build education responsibilities into musicians' contracts. 102 Beyond 2. Partnership Planning Is Ongoing, Adaptive, and Evolving Orchestra partnerships demonstrate a variety of approaches to planning. Most focus heavily on setting up cooperative programs between orchestras and schools in order to implement a music and/or arts education program designed by the orchestra. Additional partners may assume a supporting role, e.g., funding, or the role of beneficiary, but may not be vitally involved in structuring the partnership or developing its programs. An exception is the Boston Music Education Collaborative, where deliberate attention has been given to the structure and operation of the partnership itself, and where schools are considered participat- ing partners rather than benefi- ciaries of a designed program. 2. Ongoing planning The Cleveland Orchestra has undertaken a lengthy planning process that includes a review of the orchestra's longstanding education program in order to establish future directions, including the use of technology. Milwaukee and Ft. Wayne offer examples of orchestras that undertook needs assessments as part of planning. In Boston, an intentional focus on partnership structure preceded the implementation of programs. There is little question that planning must be continuous and responsive to indicators of strengths and weaknesses. The planning process must be flexible and adaptable, yet sufficiently organized to ensure effectiveness and outlast changes in personnel, partner organizations, and pro- grams. In addition, planning should generate the evolu- tion of ideas and ventures consistent both with the partnership's vision of improved education and the artistic mission of the orchestra. Challenges in partnership planning Most orchestra partnerships begin as the result of initia- tive on the part of an individual or organization. Often, they arise from previous limited cooperative activities, such as youth concerts or ensembles in the schools. Sometimes, they come about in response to a crisis, such as the elimination of a music education program. What- ever the impetus, building cooperative programs requires a balance between leadership and building consensus among constituents. If an orchestra assumes leadership in designing a partner- ship that others join, then the challenge of clarifying the programs to be implemented and the associated expecta- tions of partners becomes paramount. There is a built-in susceptibility to negative feelings and failure if an orchestra develops programs and delivers them to partner schools without clearly specifying the schools' responsibilities. Some orchestras use contractual agreements to be sure that schools and the orchestra both fulfill their obligations. Effective Partnerships It the orchestra chooses a different approach - perhaps gathering schools, corporations, and other arts organiza- tions at the planning table before undertaking activities - the challenge becomes one of negotiating individually held agendas for the sake of the partnership. Points of intersec- tion regarding visions for school improvement, resources, commitment levels, and leadership must be determined. Those who pursue this more collaborative route must be prepared to invest considerable time and energy 7 , and must be patient enough to allow the partnership structure and programs to evolve out of an interactive process. In general, that which is planned is more likely to be accomplished. Thus, building a secure but flexible framework for operation of the partnership and its programs, including evaluation of both, enhances the potential for success. Strategies for partnership planning View the orchestra as a catalyst for change within schools and the community. Analyze perceived needs, existing resources, and potential for cooperation through formal or informal needs assessments, interviews, discussion groups, or other means that involve schools, the orchestra, the community, and corporations. Identify partners with concerns, expertise, and resources relevant to targeted needs, and who desire to participate in cross-agency cooperation Develop a unifying vision of the partnership and its goals, and support this with prioritized objectives and strategies. Target existing and potential resources for support of partnership goals. Include a cross-section of partner representatives, such as teachers, parents, orchestra musicians, corporate representatives, and school and orchestra administrators in the planning process. Organize a partnership structure with leadership, broad representation, and varied funding sources that will sustain changes in personnel, addition or withdrawal of partners, or shifting priorities and agendas. Develop activities and programs that are consistent with needs and resources, and that correlate with a clearly established orchestra mission. Build on existing programs and relationships, particularly where music education programs already exist or have a history of connection with the orchestra. Capitalize on the vested interests of parents in schools by involving them in the planning process. Plan from the outset for evaluation of programs and the partnership structure, and adapt ongoing plans according to data provided by the evaluations. 3. Partnership Development and Implementation Foster Sustained Relationships and Programs Perhaps the most difficult aspect of a partnership is determining to what extent schools should ultimately own the programs. Additional problems include deter- mining how the partnership should function over time and identifying the roles each partner should play. Despite the frequently stated goal of permanent and systemic change in schools, most of the partnerships visited in this study rely heavily on the orchestra for leadership, program development, funding, and administration. 3. Developing sustained programs As part of their partnership vision, the Pittsburgh and Boston symphonies stress advocacy of curricular music education in the schools. The Milwaukee, Austin, Boston, and Pittsburgh symphonies all include programs for secondary students. This orchestra-does-all approach may suffice if the orchestra seeks only to demonstrate the role of music in education for a limited number of schools and students, or to provide periodic enrichment opportunities for students and teachers. If a broader impact is the goal, however, partnerships must deal with the question of how a relationship will function in support of that goal. In one case, an orchestra has discovered that the changing priorities of funders and school administrators are making it difficult to sustain and advance the partnership programs it designed and delivered over several years at no cost to schools. Challenges to sustained partnerships At this point, the responsibility for most orchestra partnerships weighs heavily on the shoulders of education directors, with some assistance from volunteers. Though schools may contribute released time for teachers or transportation of students to concerts, and parent organizations may purchase equipment, there is a persis- tent view among school personnel and parents that the orchestra is providing them with a program. In some cases, principals and parents view selection as an orches- tra partner to be one of many prestigious awards bestowed upon their school. School representatives generally consider orchestra partnerships to be among the very best of all the partner- ships in which they are involved. However, they do not typically speak from the perspective of ownership of the partnership process and activities, nor do they foresee the school's assuming more responsibility for the program. More frequently, they emphasize their good fortune in having the orchestra bring them a program. 103 Most principals feel that there will be limited long-term impact if the orchestra withdraws from their schools, given the budget constraints and program demands that schools face. Originally, some orchestras hoped to stimulate change through limited-term projects that would establish permanent programs and then apply resources to other schools or grade levels. However, they are now finding that if the orchestra's role is lessened, little or nothing of the program may remain. In addition to difficulties associated with redirecting resources toward new schools, partnerships are finding that school administrative practices make it difficult to continue sequential programs beyond elementary grades into middle and high schools. Elementary schools tend to have more scheduling flexibility, more opportunity for cross-disciplinary learning because of extended student time with one teacher, and fewer student management problems. Adding middle schools can also be difficult because of attendance patterns that draw from several elementary schools, some of which have been partners and some of which have not. In these situations, children in sixth grade may have differing levels of musical background and experience. The dichotomy between the desire to initiate lasting change and the fallibility of programs that cannot exist unless the orchestra sustains them illustrates one of the primary difficulties with partnerships. Making a transi- tion from a provided program to a shared relationship is a major challenge. Strategies for continuing partnerships and sustained programs Identify local music education concerns and discuss ways the orchestra might respond. Identify partners who share similar concerns and discuss commitments and resources, funding, and fund-raising. Establish several focused goals and objectives for the partnership that are consistent with concerns shared among partners. Build a basis of trust among all partners through regular communica- tion, acknowledgement of problems, and cooperative problem-solving. Secure commitment from both top-level leaders and staffs of partner organizations. Identify mutual benefits for all partners. Emphasize the role of the partnership in advocacy for ongoing music education programs, rather than as a substitute for employing certified music specialists. 104 Beyond Determine who will coordinate the partnership activities and whether a separate administrative structure will be required. Distribute leadership and task responsibilities among partners through committees, task forces, or individual assignments. Use information from assessment of needs and resources to guide program design and planning. Begin with focused, small-scale programs consistent with available resources. Clarify present and anticipated roles/responsibilities of each partner. Determine whether the partnership will include secondary as well as elementary schools, and anticipate changes that will be necessary because of differences in school organization and structure. Plan for systematic or phased-in program adoption, including expectations for achieving program and financial continuity as external resources are lessened or redirected. Build in continuous evaluation and feedback directly related to established goals and objectives. Effective Partnerships 4. Implemented Programs Demonstrate High-Quality Teaching and Learning The primary focus of most orchestra-school partnerships is program development - the design and implementation of activities and support materials for student learning in and through music. Typical components include concert experiences, musician/ensemble visits to schools, curricu- lum resource materials and lessons, and professional development for teachers. Some partnerships also include evening events for families and training for musicians. Within an overall program, components may be tied together through common concepts and themes, such as the science of sound. They may also be connected through composers and reper- toire, and through sequential learning activities designed to foster musical growth and understanding. 4. High quality teaching and learning The instructional focus of partnership programs can vary considerably. In Cedar Rapids, Pittsburgh, Jacksonville, Asheville, and Sulphur Springs, Texas (Northeast Texas Symphony), partnerships provide string instruction. In Westchester, NY, there is a particularly strong multicultural connection. Others focus on general music instruction and cross- disciplinary instruction through music. Among orchestras offering specific incentives for teachers to participate in professional development are those in Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York. In Westchester, teachers and performers from ethnic ensembles participate jointly in professional development. The New Philharmonic of New Jersey establishes clear thematic links that unify planning, materials, school visits by musicians, and concerts. In the Philadelphia Orchestra and the New Jersey Symphony, exemplary teachers are identified to help develop curriculum materials. In New York, teachers write lessons at the end of one year to be implemented in the following year. As is evident from the case studies, program development may occur in any number of ways and focus on a variety of needs and concerns. Whether a partnership emphasizes general music instruction, an instru- mental program, arts education, or some combination of these, unity is more likely when teachers - those closest to the children - are involved with each facet, from selecting age- appropriate concert repertoire to sharing successful teaching strategies with their professional colleagues. Challenges to achieving high-quality learning experiences The chief challenge of program development is to ensure musical and educational worth. Short of this, there is little reason to invent a partnership. Many programs have adopted the rhetoric of recent research regarding the benefits of arts education to Justify programs. However, there is broad inconsistency in the quality of experiences and materials being claimed to provide these benefits. To date, assessment/evaluation strategies rarely provide orchestras and schools with information regarding the value of experiences, materials, and student outcomes in light of established high-level criteria for arts teaching and learning. Challenges in Curriculum and Teaching There may be too much focus on peripheral information about composers, history, etc., and not enough on the music itself. Criteria for selection/development of materials and activities do not reflect established, high standards of teaching and learning in music, such as those indicated in the national standards for music education. Materials and experiences may require only low-level thinking and make superficial or spurious connections between music and other subjects. Materials and experiences may fail to embrace ethnic and social diversity among students and communities. There may be inconsistency from teacher to teacher in the extent and quality of their implementation of materials and strategies. There may be no systematic connections with existing curriculums in music or other subjects. Schools may lack resources to implement lessons or curriculum materials. Challenges in Professional Development for Teachers Programs may be superficial due to limited time or interest. Teachers may not feel sufficiently recognized or rewarded for their efforts. Teachers may be unsure of their role in relation to musicians and/or docents during school programs. 10 Anxiety and lack of confidence may impede transfer from workshops to the classroom. Teachers may feel overwhelmed by expectations to incorporate music in their classrooms, or by the amount of material they are expected to cover. Music specialists may feel disenfranchised by a new program. Challenges in Musician Training Musicians may feel uncomfortable relating to children or acting as teachers. Musicians may lack knowledge/skill in children's characteristics and classroom management. Musicians may resist training because they don't recognize a need for it. Musicians may not be familiar with curriculum materials and activities. Musicians may be unclear about how to interact with teachers in school settings. Musicians may not be sure how to plan programs with appealing repertoire, activities, and pacing. Musicians may be unaware of the tightness of school schedules and the impact of failing to begin and end programs on time. Challenges in Musician Performances and Youth Concerts Formal dress and staging may suggest irrelevance in students' minds. Repertoire may be too advanced, may not reflect ethnic diversity, or may "play down" to students. Strategies may not engage students in active listening or involvement. Performances may not relate with curriculum themes and materials, or with other partnership experiences. Performances may stress entertainment over learning in order to try to hold students' interest. Concepts and explanations presented during performances may be inappropriate for the student age group. 106 Beyond Strategies to encourage high-quality learning experiences Strategies for Curriculum and Teaching Determine a clear program focus based on needs and shared concerns, e.g., strings program, general music, integrated arts, etc. Establish a limited number of student learning objectives that reflect a range of thinking processes and that can be measured. Tailor learning objectives to age levels of children. Use subject area consultants for development and review of materials. Design materials and activities that reflect the cultural and ethnic diversity embodied in music. Establish content criteria based on national, state, and local standards in music and arts education. Use books, journals, and teaching-learning models, such as those available from the Music Educators National Conference, to provide guidelines for materials and strategies. Use expert consultants to observe the quantity and quality of implementation in classrooms, and use these findings as a basis for planning professional development. Use rigorous criteria for assessing teaching and learning in order to identify model teachers to be leaders in the development of materials and the sharing of ideas (not merely the most active or cooperative individuals). Encourage interaction and joint planning between music specialists and classroom teachers. Emphasize the roles of active involvement through music making, and aesthetic satisfaction through quality music experiences. Effective Partnerships Strategies for Professional Development for Teachers Offer attendance incentives, such as staff development credits, released time, or stipends. Encourage identification with the orchestra by providing tickets to concerts and inviting teachers to pre-concert lectures and guest artist receptions. Combine music specialists and classroom teachers in common professional development activities. Employ expert leaders who are knowledgeable in music, music teaching and learning, and integration of music across the curriculum. Encourage teachers to design valid learning experiences based on their own skill and comfort levels. Develop high-quality resources to implement teaching/learning strategies. Provide subject area experts to provide consultation and critiques for teacher-developed curriculum resources and lessons. Provide periodic, regularly scheduled workshops, discussion opportunities, and problem-solving sessions. Engage teachers in active music making to enhance their understanding of music. Use role-playing and modeling to build interaction skills with musicians and docents during in-school programs. Strategies for Musician Training Involve musicians with teachers and consultants in program planning and development of curriculum materials. Plan joint professional development sessions for musicians and teachers. Use music education consultants to assist with development and critique of programs presented by musicians in schools. Share feedback from students and teachers with musicians. Encourage the development of presentations that are consistent with musicians' strengths. Build education participation and training into contractual agreements for musicians. Use modeling and role playing to build confidence in working with children. Strategies for Musician Performances and Youth Concerts Develop program themes and select repertoire through a collaborative process among conductors, educators, musicians, and orchestra staff. Encourage active involvement of students through thinking tasks or by inviting them to sing or play classroom instruments. Establish connections among concert repertoire, curriculum materials, and in-school musician presentations. Use authentic performances of ethnic music and dance to integrate ethnic influences in the orchestral repertoire. Reduce barriers between musicians and students by having musicians greet students in the lobby, meet buses, engage in question and answer sessions, or wear colorful or informal attire. Increase student interest through student-composed works, side-by-side opportunities for student musicians, or inclusion of student instrumental or choral ensembles. Invite parents, and provide to families concert preparation sessions that offer hands-on opportunities to understand a selected composer or work. 107 5. Resources and Funding Constitute a Shared Enterprise The term "partnership" suggests mutuality - a sharing of both resources and benefits for the sake of a commonly held goal. As suggested earlier, when orchestras serve as the initiators, designers, funders, and administrators of partnerships, doubts arise as to how invested the schools are or may become. On the other hand, if a partnership serves a catalytic role in helping schools and commu- nities discover the advan- tages of music education for children, the focus can be more on those resources each organization can realistically commit, how additional resources may be enlisted, and what each organization gains through its shared support of the common goal of school improvement. 5. Shared Resources Orchestras that report connections with other arts, education, and business organizations include Kansas City, San Francisco, Ft. Wayne, Boston, Seattle, Oklahoma City, St. Louis, and Grand Rapids. In Port Angeles, WA, the orchestra has taken advantage of local Native American culture to enrich its relationship with the schools and the community. Orchestras that have tied into existing education partnerships include Seattle, Long Island, Ft. Wayne, and St. Louis. Challenges to shared resources and funding As non-profit service sector institutions, orchestras and schools can rarely predict what their available funds will be from year to year. If education partnerships remain peripheral to the primary fiscal commitments of both organizations, they may suffer double jeopardy when monies run low. Throughout the study, orchestras had a tendency to report funds supplied by parent groups and principals' discretionary funds as "school contributions." While it is gratifying that parents recognize and support the activi- ties provided by orchestras, other programs will undoubt- edly come along and priorities may change. Further, this pattern replicates an historic problem in music education - schools have encouraged extramural funding of music programs that are in fact a curricular responsibility. When budgets are cut, it is relatively easy to place these pro- grams in the "nice but not necessary" category and to use supplementary funds to support "basic" education needs. A related concern is that arts programs funded by principals' discretionary funds or parent-raised monies tend to favor students in more affluent schools, exacer- bating the inequity many partnerships hope to overcome. 108 Beyond Strategies for shared resources and funding Include foundation and corporate representatives on partnership advisory committees and working groups. Consider schools as full and equal partners, with responsibility for financial and/or in-kind commitments consistent with their identified resources. Propose that school administrators and boards of education include the partnership in annual budget building. Identify potential funding sources on a continuing basis through the development and/or foundation divisions of partner institutions. Explore music and education industry donations as a source of recordings, instruments, textbooks, and other curriculum materials. Develop flexibility in orchestra resources by the use of service conversions for musicians and writing education services into musician contracts. Promote participation in partnership activities as a way for musicians to "give back" to their communities and connect more closely with audiences. Include parents and orchestra volunteers in partnership activities, and capitalize on their liaison role with the larger community. Publicize the program and invite community and corporate leaders to observe it in action. Tap into existing school and community programs or designated funds for specific initiatives, such as education partnerships, minority inclusion, or drug awareness. Cooperate with other arts organizations to focus activities, avoid duplication of services, and foster cost effectiveness of programs. Effective Partnerships 6. Documentation, Assessment, and Evaluation Provide an Accurate Picture of the Partnership's Activities and Impact as a Basis for Continued Planning An accurate record of the work of a partnership and its programs is indispensable for reflection on progress, future planning, and justification and solicitation of funds. Statistical summaries, written descriptions, photographs, and videotapes can provide a comprehensive overview of what has actually occurred, as well as offer a starting point for assessing the extent and quality of activity relative to initial goals and objectives. 6. Documentation, assessment, and evaluation In Pittsburgh, the orchestra partnership was able to connect with an ArtsPropel project in local schools. Milwaukee has an extensive student assessment program based on an autherrtc, performance-based model. The Chicago Symphony has employed an external firm to assess responses of students and teachers to its programs. Assessment may refer to the measuring or systematic observation of any number of variables associated with the partnership. Assessments may focus both on the partnership structure, and on program quality and impact. For the partnership structure, assessments can ascertain levels of partner involvement, partners' knowledge of programs, their quality of interac- tions, and resource commitments. Assessments can also track the evolution of the partnership. The influence of the partnership on institutions can be assessed where change can be directly related to the partnership's objectives and work. Examples might be the addition of music specialists by a school system or the institution of a mandated music requirement for high school graduation. Program assessment frequently emphasizes changes in student learning, behaviors, attitudes, and self-esteem. Other facets of programs can be assessed as well, includ- ing changes in teacher or musician attitudes and behav- iors, quantity and quality of classroom experiences, or quality and appropriateness of curriculum resources. Evaluation of a partnership draws on documentation and assessments to reach overall conclusions regarding operations and impact. Evaluation synthesizes data from many sources and offers a composite picture of the extent to which the partnership is attaining various goals and objectives. Challenges for assessment and evaluation Evaluation reports on arts education partnerships can be astoundingly superficial and free of critical appraisal. The allure of national recognition, as well as the need to impress funders, sometimes results in a confusion of public relations with serious evaluation designed to provide feedback for improvement. Consequently, assessments may only address areas with predictably positive outcomes, and evaluation reports may offer only summaries of supposedly substantial contributions. Many assessments fail to acknowledge the context or quality of experiences, or how much children have actually learned, thereby creating a false impression. For example, children are very likely to indicate on a survey that learning is more enjoyable because of in-school performances or trips to a concert. However, those experiences may be unrelated to sequential learning opportunities, or the assessment may fail to verify the frequency or quality of related curricular events in the classroom. In such cases, the experiences are merely enrichment, and the results of the assessment actually say nothing about the role of the arts within an ongoing program of instruction. One might obtain a similar result by taking the children to the circus or providing other non-arts diversions to a repetitive and predictable school schedule. Unfortunately, failure to systematically confront both strengths and weaknesses may do more harm than good to arts education and to the potential role of partnerships in developing sustained curricular programs. One funder interviewed during the study indicated that her organiza- tion is rethinking contributions to arts education projects because they promise more than they deliver, and because results are obviously skewed in evaluations that present a one-sided positive depiction. The challenge for partner- ships is to develop honest appraisals that help identify what works and what doesn't, indicate the conditions that underlie success, and suggest the strategies most likely to improve education in and through the arts. 109 Beyond Strategies for documentation, assessment, and evaluation Maintain statistical data regarding schools, children, and families served. Design evaluation questionnaires (for parents, teachers, musicians, committee members, etc.) that are based on stated goals and objectives and that help determine how well programs are meeting goals and objectives. Use live observations and videotapes for systematic assessment of program quality and student achievement, as well as documentation Retain consultants who are knowledgeable in arts learning, partnership structures, and assessment so that evaluations reflect issues of quality and school/community context, as well as measured change in partnership or program attributes. Develop assessment measures directly related to partnership and program objectives, rather than conducting superficial assessments of traits likely to show a positive result. Acknowledge findings of both strengths and weaknesses, using them as a basis for problem-solving, partnership and program refinement, and revision of objectives. Use a variety of ongoing and concluding procedures, including interviews, observations, surveys, and videotapes to provide information that can be analyzed in terms of stated goals and objectives. Gain many different perspectives on the effectiveness of the partnership and its programs, including those of students, parents, teachers, administrators, musicians, and others who are directly involved. Develop measures of student learning that are consistent with instructional objectives, the content of learning experiences, and the developmental levels of students. Use student assessment measures that are performance-based, grow directly from learning experiences, and incorporate materials, such as audio recordings, videotapes, and students' reflective comments. Use assessment criteria reflective of high standards of teaching and learning in the arts, and develop evaluation reports that provide perspective regarding the interpretation of assessments. 110 V jPj fiJfc fiy/flffllHfrfpiiJIIiJiMWVilMjl SECTION VI Looking Ahead . Looking Ahead SECTION VI Looking Ahead . . . Toward Building on Firm Foundations It is clear from this study that orchestra partnerships are making positive contributions to schools and communi- ties. The impetus for partnerships can be traced to three main factors: a) awareness of the positive outcomes for both orchestras and communities when they develop closer ties; b) a national school improvement agenda emphasizing the role of partnerships in supporting education; and c) the current jeopardy of many school music programs and the resulting risk of diminished audiences and talent pools for orchestras. Despite their relative youth, existing orchestra-school partnerships already demonstrate numerous principles of effectiveness found to have worked in other fields. These include deliberate planning, a hands-on approach to problem-solving, broad-based representation on commit- tees and task forces, incorporation of community needs and resources, and efforts to document and evaluate impact. Reflecting their constituents' immediate con- cerns, orchestra partnerships tend to target improvement of music curriculum and instruction at the classroom level. However, planners are also cognizant of the need for administrative involvement. The effort, energy, and creativity found among current partnerships provide a firm foundation for strengthened and sustained programs. Bolstered by commitments among school and orchestra personnel, the potential for further development is very strong. Moreover, these programs offer a wealth of lessons for communities seeking to advance music education through dynamic orchestra-school relationships. Toward Schools that Maintain Balanced Educational Programs Effective schools are a community-wide concern. As education partners, orchestras demonstrate investment in the overall quality of life of their communities. They extend the traditional role of concert performance to include intentional and developmental outreach. They contribute unique resources to enhanced learning and an enriched cultural environment. Orchestra involvement in education does not, however, supersede responsibilities of schools to implement balanced education programs, including music, that are supported by expertise in teaching and learning. The most important contribution orchestras can make to schools is to foster a climate that values and supports sequential music and arts education. As curricular subjects, the arts should be taught by certified specialists and enriched by collaborative programs connecting students directly with the lives and work of professional musicians. Lasting curricular change through orchestra partnerships is most likely when schools must satisfy clear criteria as part of a partnership agreement, when there is evidence of commitment to educational effectiveness by the school, and when there is planned evolution of a partner- ship, including funding for programs. As a condition of partnership, some orchestras require that schools employ faculty music specialists. Others make it clear that the goal is the development or reinstatement of curricular music education. Nearly all are explicit in stating that they intend to support, rather than replace, school music programs. 113 Whatever the approach, achieving collaboration between orchestras and schools in support of curricular music education is bound to require sustained commitment. Collaboration is complex and time-consuming. It requires commitment not only to achieving results, but to ongoing participation in the process of change. There must be evidence that schools are serious about providing students with a complete and balanced education that includes music, and orchestras should insist on progress toward this goal as a requisite condition of continuing relationships. Toward Quality Learning Programs At the heart of effective schools lie high-quality instruc- tional programs. Throughout the history of arts educa- tion in American schools, the amount and quality of arts learning available to students has varied widely and been subject to many constraints. Nevertheless, music education has flourished in many communities, often because of the singular dedication of music teachers to their students and their discipline. Some orchestra partnerships are beginning to encounter many of those impediments that music educators have faced for decades, including scheduling problems, lack of coordination between music specialists and grade-level teachers, insufficient equipment and materials, and administrative value choices that simultaneously tout the arts for public relations but fail to support them as an instructional necessity. These administrative and logisti- cal issues easily divert a partnership from concerns of quality. It can be tempting to believe that an imple- mented program, having successfully negotiated the hurdles of scheduling, materials, equipment, or other difficulties, is adding value to the curriculum without any evidence to support this conclusion. In his 1984 book, A Place Called School, the eminent educator John Goodlad raised a concern about the dichotomy between the stated values of the arts in schools and the observed practice of arts education, which failed to fulfill those values. This study raises a similar concern. While representatives of arts organiza- tions, orchestras, and partnerships are familiar with the claims of recent research and advocacy efforts in arts education, they are not generally as knowledgeable about those long-established foundations of music teaching and learning that underlie the most important contributions of the arts. 14 Beyond Those who are new to arts education sometimes charac- terize traditional music education as product-oriented, in contrast to the newer process-oriented and creative approaches of partnerships. In reality, there is a longstanding emphasis within the music education profession on process and creativity. Similarly, curricular integration, implemented by general classroom teachers, is often promoted as a way of making a lasting place for music in the schools. In fact, arts educators have a long history of experience with curriculum integration. What they know is that failure to comprehend the complexity of cross-disciplinary correlations, and to ensure the authenticity of the arts when making connections with other subjects, not only results in low-level applications, but also leads administrators to see the arts and arts specialists as disposable commodities. Music education is, by definition, a field requiring synergistic knowledge and practice in the discipline of music, the music learning process, student development, and strategies that build musical skill and understanding. Teaching music to groups of children is not intuitive simply because one is a trained musician. And, as evidenced in observations made during this study, classroom teachers do not automatically integrate the arts with depth as the result of limited workshop experiences. The fact that orchestras are sufficiently concerned about the presence and practice of music education to under- take program development offers a rich opportunity for students, teachers, and the larger community. However, if these efforts are to move music education beyond the limitations it has faced in the past, they must connect with the rich history of knowledge and practice that already exists, work with knowledgeable music education professionals to ensure high-quality programs, and subject implemented programs to the scrutiny of standards that reflect rigorous levels of thought and practice. Toward Authenticity and Accountability for Orchestras There are some things orchestras are equipped to do and others that lie outside their mission and expertise. As institutions, they retain resident experts in classical symphonic repertoire and instrumental performance. These areas of knowledge may extend to the history of music, music in social and cultural context, chamber music, the historical development of instruments, solo repertoire, music in relation to other art forms, and additional topics depending on individual backgrounds and interests. In addition, the symphony orchestra harbors rich traditions not only as a continuing re-creator Looking Ahead of historical experience through music, but as a dynamic institution that presses the existing limits of human expression through new musical forms, technological advances, and innovative conceptions of organized sound. Some orchestras have sought relevance for younger audiences by adopting an entertainment mentality, developing glitzy shows, or performing arrangements of popular music. Despite some successes, this approach may miss the point that the orchestra can better satisfy students' inquisitiveness regarding music when it finds creative ways to engage them in the work the orchestra does best. Relevance does not imply simplistic embracing of the most recent trend or fad, playing only easily accessible repertoire, or merely devising ways to hold students' attention. Rather, relevant programs present the life and work of musicians in ways that fulfill students' natural curiosity about how music works, how musical problems are solved, and how the orchestra fits uniquely into the vast menu of musical opportunities available in today's society. In fact, with careful planning, students' ears and minds are capable of being stretched well beyond the limits many adults tend to impose on them. As orchestras seek to define a role in education relative to their artistic mission, it is essential that they work within the realm of their unique identity as musical institutions. Consistent appraisal of education activities within this context will help allay the concerns of those who question whether the orchestra is compromising its artistic integrity in seeking to be relevant for young audiences. Toward Mutual Responsibility In a true partnership, everyone contributes and benefits in relation to shared interests and concerns. At present, most orchestra-school partnerships are orchestra- initiated, with programs designed and delivered for schools rather than being developed as mutual efforts. Initially, it may be necessary in some cases for orchestras to offer leadership in reinstating or strengthening music education programs. However, as partnerships mature, it is important to foster increasing mutual responsibility as well as benefits. For orchestras, there ought to be an intentional change in operations to permit a continuing role in assuring the quality of local schools. Accepting partnerships as an ongoing budget obligation, providing training for musicians, and giving the Education Director a senior administrative position are some examples. Beyond these, an orchestra should come to view itself as an influential contributor to the community, with responsibilities for actively participating in decisions that affect schools and advocating the importance of music education programs. For schools, mutual responsibility implies a proactive role in making curricular arts programs an educational necessity and working diligently with orchestras and other partners to sustain them. This means moving beyond cooperation in providing released time for professional development or transporting students to concerts. Partnerships with limited school investment are unlikely to outlive reliance on fixed external funding or become permanent in the school culture. Over the long term, orchestras and schools must seek ways to move on from the orchestra-as-provider, school-as-beneficiary roles that typify most partnerships at the present time. Toward a Music Learning Society During the course of this study, several administrators advanced the view that the contemporary orchestra must be, in the broadest sense, an educator. Such a view makes sense if the orchestra is in fact a dynamic rather than a static institution. If the orchestra's interest in education is primarily that of introducing school children to the orchestra with the hope of building future audiences, its efforts are probably for naught. There is no hard evidence to suggest that sizeable audiences or support will automatically accrue from such motivations. On the other hand, if the orchestra sees itself as helping to fulfill the human longing for aesthetic satisfaction and advancing the expressive capacities of the human mind and spirit, then its role becomes one of educating people to the wealth of life-enriching opportunities available through the symphonic musical experience. In this sense, the orches- tra participates in a continuum of educational opportuni- ties that foster the valuing of music (and the orchestra) through knowledge and understanding. Such opportuni- ties should be available to people of all ages, backgrounds, and levels of musical experience. Partnerships between orchestras and schools thus become a crucial link in a lifetime of music education experiences that connect to serve the artistic and cultural well-being of entire communities. This study has attempted to provide information that will guide orchestras and schools toward developing effective partnerships for music education. Where orchestras commit themselves to working in concert with other agencies for a high quality of community life, they are likely to develop significant and indispensable programs that support continuous musical learning and growth. 115 116 Beyond /"* aA W^WMgpy^jnw,., SECTION VII Resources and References Resources & References SECTION VI I Resources and References ORCHESTRAS PROFILED IN THE STUDY Austin Symphony Orchestra Ken Caswell, Executive Director Sung Kwak, Music Director/Conductor Diana Eblen, Director of Education 1101 Red River Austin TX 78701 (512)476-6064 (512) 476-6242 (fax) Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. Kenneth Haas, Managing Director Seiji Ozawa, Music Director Myran Parker-Brass, Director of Youth Concerts 301 Massachusetts Ave. Boston MA 02 115 (617)266-1492 (617) 638-9367 (fax) Boston Music Education Collaborative Christine Taylor, Executive Director 295 Huntington Ave., Suite 210 Boston MA 02115 (617)859-4998 (617) 859-0886 (fax) Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra Kathy Hall, Executive Director Dr. Christian Tiemeyer, Music Director Stephanie Wagor, Education Director 205 Second Avenue SE Cedar Rapids IA 52401 (319)366-8206 (319) 366-5206 (fax) Chicago Symphony Orchestra Henry Fogel, Executive Vice President and Executive Director Daniel Barenboim, Music Director Holly H. Hudak, Director of Education and Community Programs Susan J. Frost, Coordinator of Youth Education 220 South Michigan Avenue Chicago IL 60604 (312)345-8143 (312) 786-1207 (fax) Fort Wayne Philharmonic Christopher D. Guerin, Executive Director Edvard Tchivzhel, Music Director Anna Graham, Director of Education 6k Operations 2340 Fairfield Avenue Fort Wayne IN 46807 (219) 744-1700 (219) 456-8555 (fax) Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, Inc. Steven A. Ovitsky, Executive Director VACANT, Music Director Mary Wayne Fritzsche, Director of Education 6k Outreach 330 East Kilbourn Avenue, Suite 900 Milwaukee WI 53202-6623 (414) 291-6010 (414) 291-7610 (fax) New York Philharmonic Deborah Borda, Executive Director Kurt Masur, Music Director Polly Kahn, Director of Education 132 West 65th Street New York NY 10023 (212)875-5732 (212) 875-5716 (fax) Pacific Symphony Orchestra Louis G. Spisto, Vice President 6k Executive Director Carl St. Clair, Music Director Kelly Ruggirello, Director of Education 6k Community Programs 1231 E.Dyer Road, Suite 200 Santa Ana CA 92705-5606 (714) 755-5788 (714) 755-5789 (fax) email: email@example.com Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra Gideon Toeplitz, Executive Vice President 6k Managing Director Lorin Maazel, Music Director Suzanne Perrino, Director of Education Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts 600 Penn Avenue Pittsburgh PA 15222-3251 (412)392-4900 (412) 392-4909 (fax) 119 RESOURCE LIST Journals Music Education American String Teacher, American String Teachers Association, Reston, VA General Music Today, Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA Journal of Music Teacher Education, Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA Music Educators journal, Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA SYMPHONY, American Symphony Orchestra League, Washington, DC Arts Education, Visual Art Education & Museums Art Education, National Art Educators Association, Reston, VA Arts Ed Net Offline, Getty Center for Education in the Arts, Santa Monica, CA Arts Education Policy Review, (previously Design for Arts in Education), Heldref Publications, Washington, DC Arts USA, American Council for the Arts, New York, NY Journal of Aesthetic Education, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL Museum News, American Association of Museums, Washington, DC Studies in Art Education, National Arts Educators Association, Reston, VA General Education American Education, U. S. Department of Education, Washington, DC American journal of Education, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL Contemporary Education, Indiana State University, School of Education, Terre Haute, IN Education Week, Editorial Projects in Education, Washington, DC 120 Beyond Educational Leadership, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA Harvard Educational Review, Gutman Library, Cambridge, MA journal of Teacher Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA Phi Delta Kappan, Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN Research Journals Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin, Council for Research in Music Education, Urbana, IL journal of Education Research, Heldref Publications, Washington, DC journal of Research in Music Education, Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA Resources & References Organizations Arts/Arts Education American Association for Higher Education One Dupont Circle, Suite 360 Washington, DC 200364110 202) 293-6440 FAX: (202) 293-0073 American Association of Museums 1225 Eye Street NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20005 (202) 289-9127 American Council for the Arts 1285 Avenue of the Americas Floor 3, Area M New York, NY 10019 American Council for the Arts Publications Department 53 One East 53rd Street New York, NY 10022-4201 (212) 223-2787, ext. 241 FAX: (212) 223-4415 American Music Conference 5 140 Avenida Encinas Carlsbad, CA 92008-4391 (619)431-9124 American Symphony Orchestra League 1156 Fifteenth Street, NW Suite 800 Washington, DC 20005-1704 (202) 776-0212 FAX: (202) 776-0224 Arts vision Mitchell Korn, President 6 Libera Court Rhinebeck, NY 12572 (914) 876-0300 Center for Arts in the Basic Curriculum 58 Fearing Road, Hingham, MA 02043 AND, 1319 F Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20004 Getty Center for Education in the Arts 401 Wilshire Boulevard Suite 950 Santa Monica, CA 90401-1455 (800) 223-3431 FAX: (310) 453-7966 Getty Trust Publications Distribution Center E29X P.O. Box 2112 Santa Monica, CA 90407-21 12 (800) 223-3431 or (310) 453-5352 FAX: (310) 453-7966 Kennedy Center Alliance for Arts Education Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Washington, DC 20566 (202) 254-7190 Music Educators National Conference 1902 Association Drive Reston, VA 22091 (703) 860-4000 or (800) 336-3768 MENC Publications Sales 1806 Robert Fulton Drive Reston, VA 22091 (703)860-1531 Music Teachers National Association 441 Vine Street Suite 505 Cincinnati, OH 45202-2814 (513)421-1420 National Art Education Association 1916 Association Drive Reston, VA 22091 (703) 860-8000 National Association of Music Merchants 5 140 Avenida Encinas Carlsbad, CA 92008 (619) 438-8001 National Association of Recording Merchants 9 Eves Drive Suite 120 Marlton, NJ 08053 (609) 596-2221 National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts 40 North Van Brunt Street Suite 32, P. O. Box 8018 Englewood,NJ 07631 (201)871-3337 National Endowment for the Arts 1 100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington, DC 20506 (202) 682-5426 121 National Assembly of Local Arts Agencies 927 15th Street NW, 12th Floor Washington, DC 20005 (202)371-2830 FAX: (202) 371-0424 Pittsburgh Fund for Arts Education 100 Forbes Avenue Suite 1180 Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (412) 261-3992 Southeast Center for Education in the Arts University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Jeffrey Patchen, Director 615 McCallie Avenue Chattanooga, TN 37403 (423) 755-5263 or (423) 755-5204 FAX: (423) 755-4632V Young Audiences 115 East 92nd Street New York, NY 10128 (212)831-8110 General Education Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development 1250 N.Pitt Street Alexandria, VA 22314 (703)549-9110 FAX: (703)549-3891 The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 5 Ivy Lane Princeton, NJ 08540 (609)452-1780 Council for Basic Education 1319 F Street NW Suite 900 Washington, DC 20004-1152 (202)347-4171 National Education Association 1201 16th Street NW Washington, DC 20036 (202) 833-4000 122 Beyond Research and Assessment Organizations Far West Laboratory for Education Research and Development 730 Harrison Street San Francisco, CA 94107-1242 (415) 565-3019 FAX: (415) 565-3012 Harvard Project Zero Harvard Graduate School of Education Longfellow Hall 13 Appian Way Cambridge, MA 02138 (617)495-4342 FAX: (617) 495-9709 National Arts Research Project Attn: Robert Witeman St. Johns University 8000 Utopia Parkway Mar 210 Jamaica, NY 11439 (718)990-1305 (718)990-6096 National Assessment of Educational Progress 800 North Capitol Street NW Suite 825 Washington, DC 20002-4233 PACE Performance Assessment Collaboratives for Education Harvard Graduate School of Education 8 Story Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 496-2770 FAX: (617) 496-2777 Southwest Regional Laboratory 4665 Lampson Avenue Los Alamitos, CA 90720 (310)985-9181 Resources & References Music Education Resources Beethoven, J., et. al. (1995). The Music Connection. Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett Ginn, Inc. Bergethon, B., Boardman, E. & Montgomery, J. (Eds.). (1996). Musical growth in the elementary school. New York: Harcourt and Brace. Berz, W., ck Bowman, J. (1994). Applications of Research in Music Technology. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. Boyer- White, R., Campbelle-duGuard, M., et. al. (1995). Share the Music. New York, NY: MacMillan/McGraw-Hill. Colwell, R. (Ed.). (1992). Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning: A Project of the Music Educators National Conference. New York: Schirmer Books. Consortium of National Arts Education Associations. (1994). National Standards for Arts Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. Cutietta, R., Hammann, D., & Walker, L. (1995). Spinoffs: The Extra-Musical Advantages of a Musical Education. Eklhart: United Musical Instruments U.S.A. Inc., for the Future of Music Project. Fowler, C. ( 1994). Music! Its Role and Importance in Our Lives. New York: MacMillan/McGraw-Hill. Hackett, P. & Lindeman, C. ( 1995). The Musical Class- room: Backgrounds, Models and Skilbfor Elementary Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Lehman. P. (Ed.). (1994). Teaching Examples: Ideas for Music Educators. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Confer- ence. Mark, M. (1986). Contemporary Music Education. New York: Schirmer Books. Merrion, M. (1989). What Works: Instructional Strategies for Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. Meske, E. B., Andress, B., Pautz, M., Willman, E (1988). Music. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. National Coalition for Music Education. ( 1994). Music for a Sound Education: A Tool Kit for Implementing the Standards. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. Arts Education Resources American Council for the Arts. (1989). The Challenge to Reform Arts Education: What Role Can Research Play? Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. Arts, Education, and Americans, Inc. (1981). Creative Collaborations: Artists, Teachers, and Students. New York: Arts, Education, and Americans, Inc. Balfe, Judith & Heine, Joni, C. (Eds.). (1988). Arts Education Beyond the Classroom. New York: American Council for the Arts. Boyer, E. (1977). Arts in Education: The View from FOB 6. Washington D.C.: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare-Education Division-Office of Education. Consortium of National Arts Education Associations. ( 1994). National Standards for Arts Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. Lee, R. (Ed.). (1985). The Arts in Learning: Interdisciplinary Resources for Education. Albany, NY: New York Council for the Arts 6k New York State Education Department. National Endowment for the Arts. (1988). Toward Civilization. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Arts. Ryder, Willet. (1994). Linking the College Classroom to the Community. Art Education, 41 (3), 23-24, 43-44. Shipley, L. (1986). Information Resources in the Arts: A Directory. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. Symposium on National Standards for Education in the Arts. (1994). The Vision for Arts Education in the 21st Century. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Confer- ence. United States Congress House Committee on Education and Labor. ( 1984). Arts and Education Report. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools: K-12. (1989).Sacramento, CA: California State Department of Education. Welch, Nancy & Greene, Andrea. (1995). Schools, Communities, and the Arts: A Research Compendium. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. 123 General Education Resources Armstrong, Thomas. (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Brandt, Ronald S. (Ed.). (1995). How Technology is Transforming Teaching. Educational Leadership, 53 (2). Gardner, Howard. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: BasicBooks, A Division of Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. Gardner, Howard. (1991). The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think & How Schoob Should Teach. New York: BasicBooks, A Division of Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. Goodlad, John I. (1994). Education Renewal: Better Teachers, Better Schoob. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Partnership/Collaboration Resources Cortines, R. (1994). The Arts: Partnerships as a Catalyst for Educational Reform. Sacramento, CA: California Depart- ment of Education. Dreeszen, C. (1992). Intersections: Community Arts and Education Collaborations. AmherstAmherst Arts Extension Service. Education Resources Group, Inc. (1991). Options for Evaluating the Educational Partnerships Program. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Educational Leadership. (1986). 43(5). Collaboration for Change. Grobe, T. (1993). Synthesis of Existing Knowledge and Practice in the Field of Educational Partnerships. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Katz, J. (Ed.). (1988). Am and Education Handbook: A Guide to Productive Collaborations. Washington, DC: National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. Soren, B. (1993). Nurturing Mind, Spirit, and a Love of the Arts and Sciences: Schools and Cultural Organizations as Educators. Studies in Art Education, 34, 149-157. Tushnet, Naida C. ( 1993 ). A Guide to Developing Educa- tional Partnerships. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. $4.50 Tushnet, N., Fleming-McCormick, T, Manuel, D., Nyre, G., & Schwager, M. (1995). Documentation and. Evaluation of the Educational Partnerships Program: Final Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. 124 Beyond Internet Resources Many arts education resources are now available on-line through the World Wide Web. Organization listings, reports, news updates, bibliographies, curriculums, position papers and many other types of information are available. The representative WWW listing below provides only a sampling of beginning points for gathering information about arts education. American Music Center American Music Conference Internet Service Arts Curriculum Framework (State of Massachusetts) Arts Education (American Council for the Arts) Arts Education On-Line (California Arts Project) Arts Education Systems Synthesis Project (Carnegie- Mellon University) Arts Resource Connection Arts Wire ArtsEd Links ArtsEd Net ArtsEdge (Getty Center for Education in the Arts) Artsnet (CarnegieMellon University) ArtsUSA (American Council for the Arts) Association for the Advancement of Arts Education ERIC (Educational Resource and Information Center) Kennedy Center Alliance for Arts Education Network Major Journals of Research in Music Education Music Education Online National Endowment for the Arts On-Line Music Resources Schools, Communities, and the Arts: A Research Compendium World Wide Arts Resources Resources & References SELECTED REFERENCES American Symphony Orchestra League. (1993). American- izing the American orchestra. Washington, DC: American Symphony Orchestra League. Amdur, D. (1993). Arts and cultural context: A cuniculum integrating discipline-based art education with other humanities subjects at the secondary level. Art Education, 46(4), 1249. American Music Conference. (1994, April). American attitudes toward music. Carlsbad, CA: Music USA. Anderson, T. (1995). Rediscovering the connection between the arts: Introduction to the symposium on interdisciplinary arts education. Arts Education Policy Review, 96 (4), 10-12. Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Bakalis, M. (1981). American education and the meaning of scarcity, Part II. Phi Delta Kappan, 63, 102-105. Balfe, J., & Heine, J. (Eds.). (1988). Am education beyond the classroom. New York: American Council for the Arts. Beckhard, R. (1975). Organization development in large systems. In K. Benne, L. Bradford, J. Gibb, & R. Lippitt (Eds.), The laboratory method of changing and learning. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books. Birkhead, C. (1993). Orchestras and the future, Symphony, 44, 52-55, 78-79. Boston, B. (1995). Orchestrating advocacy: Goals 2000. Symphony, 46, 24-26, 52, & 56. Bowles, C. (1991). Self-expressed adult music education interests and music experience. Journal of Research in Music Education, 39, 191-205. Brandt, R. (Ed.). (1986). Collaboration for change. Educational Leadership , 43 (5). Brookes, M. (1988). Art by the alphabet. Principal, 67 (1) 15-18. Business Roundtable. (1989). Business means business about education: A synopsis of the Business Round Table Companies' education partnerships. New York: Author. Buttelman, C. (1962). Will Earhart: A Steadfast Philosophy. Washington: MENC. Chen, V. & Granger, L. (1988). Arts smarts: First rate arts education programs. School Administrator, 45, (10) 8-11. Consortium of National Arts Education Associations. (1994). National standards for arts education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. Cortines, R. (1994). The arts: Partnerships as a catalyst for educational reform. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education. Cumming, D. (1996, March 21). BellSouth assesses its aid to education. Atlanta Journal-Constitution, p. El. Danzberger, J. (1990). Educational partnerships program: Analysis of project characteristics. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. DeBevoise, W (1986). Collaboration: Some principles of bridgework. Educational Leadership, 43, (5) 9-12. Dreeszen, C. (1992). Intersections: Community arts and education collaborations. Amherst: Amherst Arts Extension Service. Dunn, P. (1995). Integrating the arts: Renaissance and reformation in arts education. Arts Education Policy Review, 96,(4)32-37. Eddy, J. (1976). Bridging the gap between the arts and education. In E. Eisner (Ed.), The arts, human development, and education. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan. Education Resources Group, Inc. (1991). Options for evaluating the educational partnerships program. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Eisner, E. (1988). The prinicpal's role in arts education. Principal, 67, (1)6-10. Evans, P. & Shaw, R. (1986). School-college collaboration: How does it work? What are the benefits? NASSP Bulletin, 70, 84-89. Felton, J. (1995). Mandate for education. Symphony, 46, 36- 40, 50. Fowler, C. (1991). Understanding how the arts contribute to excellent education: Study summary. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. Fowler, C. & Elliot, D. ( 1993). Winds of change: A collo- quium in music education. New York: American Council for the Arts. Fullan, M. & Miles, M. (1992). Getting reform right: What works and what doesn't, Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 745-752. Furber, M. (1986). A new meaning to "partnerships." Des/gn for Arts in Education, 87, (6), 49-52. 125 Gardner, H. (1990). Art education and human development. Los Angeles: Getty Center for Education in the Arts. Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: How children think and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Books. Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books. Goldberg, R. & Phillips, A. (Eds.). (1995). Arts as educa- tion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review. Gordon, D. & Stoner, S. (1995). Beyond enhancement: The Kennedy Center's commitment to education. Arts Education Policy Review, 96, (4) 38-47. Goodlad, J. ( 1984). A place called school. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Goodlad, J. (1994). Education renewal: Better teachers , better schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gregory, M. (1995). Collaboration for music teacher education between higher education institutions and K- 1 2 schools. Journal of Research in Music Education, 43, (1)47-59. Grobe, T. (1993). Synthesis of existing knowledge and practice in the field of educational partnerships. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Hanna, J. (1992). Connections: Arts, academics, and productive citizens. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 601-607. Hardy, V. (1993). Enriching your arts program on a tight budget. Principal, 72, (4) 36-38. Hausman, J. (1976). Elitism in the arts and egalitarianism in the community - What's an arts educator to do? In E. Eisner (Ed.), The arts, human development, and education. Berkeley: CA: McCutchan. Haycock, K., Hart, P., & Irvine, J. (1991). Improving student achievement through partnerships. Washington, DC: Ameri- can Association for Higher Education. Hord, S. ( 1981 ). Working together: Cooperation or collabora' tion? Austin: University of Texas at Austin, Research and Development Center for Teacher Education. Hord, S. (1985). Collaboration or cooperation: Comparison and contrasts, dilemmas and decisions. Austin: University of Texas at Austin, Research and Development Center for Teacher Education. Hord, S. (1986). A synthesis of research on organizational collaboration. Educational Leadership, 43, (5) 22-26. 126 Beyond Hutchens, J. ( 1986). The emerging arts educator: A descriptive study of the education of the community arts adminstrator. Studies in Art Education, 27, 174-185. Irwin, R. & Reynolds, K. (1995). Integration as a strategy for teaching the arts as disciplines. Arts Education Policy Review, 96, (4) 13-19. Jacobson, M. (1994). Our classroom colleagues: Nurturing orchestral music in the public schools. Symphony, 45, 34-38, 40, 63. Katz, J. (Ed.). (1988). Arts and education handbook: A guide to productive collaborations. Washington, DC: National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. Keenan, J., Willett, J., & Solsken, J. (1993). Constructing an urban village: School/Home collaboration in a multicultural classroom. Language Arts, 70, 204-214. Kimpton, J. & Lestz, G. (1985). Selling young people on the symphony. Music Educators journal, 72, (1) 44-45. Lee, R. (1985). The expanding role of the arts in education. Music Educators Journal, 72, (2) 28-33. Leonhard, C. (1991). Status of arts education in American public schoob. Urbana: Council for Research in Music Education. Lynch, R. (1994). Implementing the standards: Making use of the arts community. In B. Boston (Ed.), Perspectives on implementation: Arts education standards for America's students (pp. 75-81). Reston: Music Educators National Conference Maeroff, G. (1983). School and college: Partnerships in education. Princeton: Carnegie Foundation. Mitchell, P. (1988). I can be all me. Principal, 67 (1) 19-24. Moore, J. (1994). The individual and community in music education policy. Arts Education Policy Review, 95 (4) 32-39. Myers, D. (1988). Schools, the arts, and communities: Contenders or comrades for arts education? Design for Arts in Education, 89 (3) 17-22. National Commission on Music Education. (1991). Growing up complete: The imperative for music education. Reston: Music Educators National Conference. New England Foundation for the Arts. (1983). The arts go to school. New York: American Council for the Arts. Nierman, G. (1993). Perspectives on collaboration versus cooperation. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 2, (2) 25-28. Resources & References Rackham, N., Friedman, L, & Ruff, R. (1996). Getting partnering right: How market leaders are creating long'term competitive advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill. Remer, J. (1990). Changing schools through the arts. New York: American Council for the Arts. Roucher, N. & Lovono-Kerr, J. (1995). Can the arts maintain integrity in interdisciplinary learning? Arts Education Policy Review, 96 (4) 20-25. Rubenow, R. & Pauls, L. (1993). Interdisciplinary collabo- ration in teacher education programs. Contemporary Education, 64, 258-260. Ryder, W. (1994). Linking the college classroom to the community. Art Education, 47, (3) 22-24, 43-44. Schermerhorn, J. (1975). Determinants of interorganizational cooperation, Academy of Management Journal, 1 8, 846-856. Shuker, N. (Ed.). (1977). Arts in education partners: Schools and their communities. New York: JDR 3rd Fund, Inc. Sinatra, R. (1986). The arts as a vehicle for thinking. Early Years, 16 (7), 54-56. Snider, A. (1993). The snowy day: The story of a collabora- tion (with apologies to Ezra Jack Keats). Art Education, 46, (4)7-13. Soren, B. (1993). Nurturing mind, spirit, and a love of the arts and sciences: Schools and cultural organizations as educators. Studies in Art Education, 34, 149-157. Stastny, K. (1990). The rational pursuit of collaboration: Where does it lead? Proceedings of the annual meeting of the National Art Education Association Conference, USA. Stoel, C, Togneri, W., & Brown, P. (1992). What works: School/college partnerships to improve poor and minority student achievement. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Sturdivant, C. (1992). Ownership, risk-taking, and collaboration in an elementary language arts classroom. The Volta Review, 94,371-375. Sukraw-Ebert, J. (1988). Arts are not apart, but a part. Principal, 67, (1) 11-14. Thomas, H. (1994). Nurturing interest in young concertgoers. Music Educators Journal, 80 (6), 44-45. Tushnet, N. (1993). A guide to developing educational partnerships. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Tushnet, N., Fleming-McCormick, T, Manuel, D., Nyre, G., 6k Schwager, M. (1995). Documentation and evaluation of the educational partnerships program: Final report. Washing- ton, DC: US Department of Education. Visual and Performing arts Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee. ( 1989). Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools: K-12. Sacramento: California Department of Education. Waleson, H. (1995). Civic partnerships: Reaching kids in their communities. Symphony, 46, 30-34. Welch, N. & Greene, A. (1995). Schools, communities, and the arts: A research compendium. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. Werner, G. (1988). Joining forces with the arts community. Music Educators Journal, 75, (4) 46-49. Wilbur, F & Lambert, L. (1991). Linking America's schools and colleges: Guide to partnerships and national directory. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Wolf, D. (1994). An assessment of Creating Original Opera. Cambridge: Performance Assessment Collaboratives for Education. 127 128 Beyond -.-.- ■■ ■ ■■ ■ - ■ . . '