(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Beyond tradition : partnerships among orchestras, schools, and communities"

BevoriD irAdrrioN 




e 



i Partnerships Among Orchestras, 

Schools, and Communities 








Myers 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/beyondtraditionpOOmyer 




onD TrAduioN 



Partnerships Among Orchestras, 
Schools, and Communities 



A Project funded by the National Endowment for the Arts 
David E. Myers, Project Director 
Cynthia Thomas, Research Coordinator 



June 1996 

Georgia State University 
School of Music 
Atlanta, GA 



national 
endowment 
for^Wthe 

ARTS 

Coop. Agreement DCA95-I2 

©1996 by David Myers for Georgia State University 
and its School of Music. Permission to quote from or reproduce 
portions of this document for nonprofit purposes is granted when 
due acknowledgement is made. The National Endowment for the Arts 
retains unrestricted rights for use for federal purposes, including 
reproduction in digital form. 



Table of Contents 



Acknowledgements 3 

SECTION I 

Introduction: Moving Beyond Tradition 7 

A Partnership Approach to Orchestra Education Programs 7 

A Study of Partnerships Among Orchestras, Schools, and Communities 8 

Organization of the Report 8 

SECTION II 

School Partnerships: Is There a Role for Orchestras? 11 

Changing Views of School-Community Cooperation 11 

Orchestras and Schools 11 

Developing Partnerships 12 

What is a Partnership? 14 

Characteristics of Effective Partnerships 15 

Support and Sustainability 16 

Synthesis 17 

SECTION III 

The Orchestra Education Project 21 

Purpose 21 

Gathering Data 21 

Validating Data 22 

Survey Findings 22 

Reflections on Survey Findings and Telephone Interviews 23 

Selection of Programs for Site Visits 24 

SECTION IV 

Orchestra Partnership Profiles 27 

Organization of the Profiles 27 

Pacific Symphony Orchestra 29 

Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra 37 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 47 

Ft. Wayne Philharmonic 57 

Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra 65 

Chicago Symphony Orchestra 73 

Cedar Rapids Symphony 79 

New York Philharmonic 83 

Austin Symphony Orchestra 91 



Beyond 



\ 



uj, '• l .^^W 1 W>V*> n M n «fti-r. r ip;M 1 / W ., ... 






^, Jl*» 



IMP! 




n"rJX>JWjWll^raV™'0 



aft. 



ftjfe 



W >ki > r W/>i V yMi!/trftf, 



i 111 nr^rrnrni 



? 



^yK/r r iii:fW , '' , 'Vi**ivr-v:'i'''.rf 



r 



nf'-^"'^^ 







g^Mg 




SECTION I 

Introduction: 
Moving Beyond 
Tradition 




Introducti 



SECTION I 



Introduction: 

Moving Beyond Tradition 



A Partnership Approach to 
Orchestra Education Programs 

School improvement efforts over the last decade and 
a half demonstrate that community-wide sharing of 
agendas and resources holds significant promise for 
education. Should symphony orchestras be part of this 
attempt to improve our nation's schools? Orchestras 
themselves have to rely on broad community support to 
sustain their own activities. Yet, orchestras also possess 
important resources and expertise that can help to enrich 
school programs. Forming stronger alliances with commu- 
nities through involvement in schools may help orches- 
tras meet some of their current challenges. Education 
initiatives may be one avenue of breaking down percep- 
tions of elitism and irrelevance, and of fostering ex- 
panded enthusiasm for orchestral music performance 
among diverse segments of society. 

The traditional connection between orchestras and 
schools is the youth concert. Once widely viewed as an 
audience development tool, youth concerts have brought 
thousands of children to performance halls to hear live 
orchestral music and to learn something about instru- 
ments, composers, and the music being performed. Many 
orchestras have generated creative strategies to enhance 
the appeal and impact of youth concerts. Some provide 
classroom materials to prepare students for the concerts. 
Some orchestras perform on local school campuses, or use 
small ensembles to offer programs that encourage 
interaction between students and musicians. 

Despite the values associated with these efforts, there is 
longstanding disagreement as to whether periodic music 
performance events have a significant impact on learning 
or audience development. In an attempt to exert more 
sustained influence on music education, some orchestras 
are moving beyond earlier traditions to establish ongoing 
relationships with schools. The motivations vary, but, in 



most cases, these partnerships represent a combination of 
concern for the presence and quality of music education 
in schools and the orchestra's interest in expanding its 
audience. In addition, they reflect a belief that orchestras, 
like other organizations and institutions, should forge 
integral connections that apply their unique resources to 
meeting the needs of the communities in which they 
reside. 

Partnerships generally arise because two or more institu- 
tions or organizations share common concerns. Some of 
the concerns that orchestras, schools, and communities 
share include: 

• Enhancing available music education opportunities 
and resources 

• Enriching the quality of music learning in schools 
through direct and meaningful interchange with 
professional musicians 

• Connecting orchestras more closely with school and 
community life 

• Broadening the base of support for the contributions 
of music to cross-curricular learning and school 
environments 

• Developing diverse audiences for symphony orchestras 

• Sustaining a pool of qualified musicians and in- 
formed audiences 

• Creatively maintaining appreciation and support 
for the role of symphony orchestras in contemporary 
society 



As orchestras, schools, and communities work together 
on behalf of music education, various partnership models 
may emerge. Simple affiliations may allow orchestras to 
support music education by providing youth concerts and 
in-school ensembles, and to work cooperativly with 
schools to sustain these programs. In other communities, 
coalitions may evolve in which each partner assumes 
responsibility for given tasks, such as scheduling or 
materials preparation, and the partners communicate 
periodically to make sure the tasks are accomplished. In 
still other communities, collaborations - the most complex 
type of partnership - may emerge. In contrast to affilia- 
tions and coalitions, collaborations involve extensive 
working out of a relationship among partners, with 
commitments to mutual goal setting, program develop- 
ment, and evaluation. 

A Study of Partnerships Among Orchestras, 
Schools, and Communities 

In April of 1995, the National Endowment for the Arts 
awarded Georgia State University a grant to research 
existing orchestra education partnerships and to derive 
principles that could be helpful in establishing effective 
programs. The grant called for the identification of model 
partnerships that included teacher training, parent 
involvement, and administrative support from schools 
and orchestras. Case studies of these partnerships were 
intended to reveal approaches that would be useful in 
other settings, including strategies for curriculum devel- 
opment, musician training, student assessment, and 
program evaluation. 

The study began with identification of partnerships 
through various professional organizations, internet 
groups, and a survey of published journals and reports. At 
the same time, a survey was developed for the member- 
ship of the American Symphony Orchestra League. The 
survey requested information about each orchestra's K-12 
education programs, an indication of any partnerships in 
which the orchestras participated, and a description of 
unique features of their partnership programs. From 
August through October of 1995, the project director 
conducted meetings in four regions of the country and 
presented sessions for a national meeting of orchestra 
education directors in Washington, DC. These meetings 
provided updates on the project and permitted partici- 
pants to share their ideas regarding information that 
would help them to develop effective partnership 
programs. The project staff also undertook an extensive 
review of research and practice relating to partnerships in 
general, education partnerships, and arts education 
programs that used a partnership approach. This informa- 
tion was used to define parameters of partnerships and to 
create a framework for later telephone interviews and site 
visits. 



Beyond 



Based on the literature review and survey responses, the 
project staff conducted an extensive series of telephone 
interviews to determine those programs that represented 
the most fully developed partnerships. As a result of these 
interviews, nine orchestra education partnerships were 
selected for site visits. 

Following the two-day site visits, the project staff 
prepared an in-depth report describing each partnership. 
These nine case studies demonstrate that effective 
partnership principles may be uniquely applied in 
differing community and orchestra contexts. Though 
each partnership achieves a level of ongoing and system- 
atic relationship among the orchestra, local schools, and 
the community, each also represents individuality with 
regard to areas such as program concept, planning and 
administration, and implemented activities. 

Organization of the Report 

Beyond Tradition: Partnerships Among Orchestras , Schools, 
and Communities is organized into seven sections. Follow- 
ing the Introduction, Section II reports on the review of 
literature regarding partnerships and effective principles 
of implementation. Section III outlines the research 
method and gives results of the survey and telephone 
interviews. Section IV includes the case study reports for 
the nine orchestras that received site visits. Section V 
presents principles of orchestra education partnerships 
derived from the case studies, along with challenges and 
strategies associated with each principle. Section VI 
suggests some considerations for the future of orchestra 
education partnerships. Section VII lists information on 
the orchestras visited, related resources, and selected 
references used in the preparation of the report. 



\ 



««v 



%«»« 






5' 



Wifr&AnrWjtnuQqJ 







iff 



'ifchMit'l'lWlVilltlMifldari'dlin'hili 






rfM^^w/fflnMrj 



"" hhhmn 











School Partnerships 



SECTION I I 



School Partnerships: Is There a 
Role for Orchestras? 



Changing Views of School-Community 
Cooperation 

Current agendas for school reform stress partnership 
as a means of improving education. At national, 
state, and local levels, organizations are cooperat- 
ing based on their mutual concerns and visions for 
America's schools. Funders are soliciting proposals that 
demonstrate positive outcomes of school-community 
cooperation. Business and industry, social agencies, 
cultural institutions, and higher education are sharing 
initiatives ranging from motto-engraved pencils to large- 
scale innovations in curriculum, student services, and 
school management. 

Traditionally, many education partnerships have con- 
sisted mainly of providing services, commodities, or 
money in response to specific school requests. Over 
several decades, however, schools and communities have 
been attempting to develop richer relationships that 
more directly affect programs and learning. Most recently, 
school reform sparked by the U.S. Department of 
Education's 1983 publication, A Nation at Risk, has 
brought multiple forces together to improve schools. 
Between 1983 and 1987, business-school partnerships 
served over nine million students, and the number of 
partnerships increased by seventy percent (Business 
Roundtable, 1989). Today, citizens' advisory councils help 
to build closer connections among teachers, administra- 
tors, parents, and other community institutions. Increas- 
ingly, partnerships offer a collegial approach to shared 
visions of excellence and draw communities and schools 
together for enhanced educational opportunities. 

Orchestras and Schools 

In moving education programs beyond annual music-and- 
narration youth concerts, orchestras have sought ways to 
make symphonic music more relevant to children's 
developmental needs and social frames of reference. The 



problem has been to develop captivating approaches 
without compromising musical and artistic integrity, a 
challenge that has been met with varying degrees of 
success. Nevertheless, orchestra education directors and 
committees have continued to pursue the goal of bringing 
children and music together in meaningful ways. Strate- 
gies have included in-school ensembles, meet-the- 
musician programs, instrument exploration opportunities, 
programs using culturally diverse musics, multi-arts 
experiences, and development of appealing pre-concert 
instructional materials. 

Orchestras recognize, however, that occasional music 
enrichment activities do not constitute substantive music 
instruction. Consequently, they have sometimes worked 
with teachers and curriculum specialists to tie orchestra 
education events to music curriculums and classroom 
instructional objectives, and to select repertoire consis- 
tent with children's developmental levels. They have also 
unified various programs under themes designed to help 
children organize and connect the experiences in their 
minds. In general, however, administrators and board 
members have not considered it an orchestra priority to 
become involved in the development of sustained, 
sequential, and curricular music education programs in 
local schools. 

Growing cooperation for arts education. Developing 
effective relationships between arts organizations, 
including orchestras, and school arts programs has been a 
subject of discussion among arts educators for some years. 1 
Over the past decade, a complex of factors has spurred 
heightened focus on this topic. In the midst of a nation- 
wide school reform movement, arts organizations began 



1. The journal Arts Education Policy Review, formerly Design for Arts in 
Education, contains numerous articles on this topic, as do other arts 
education journals. 



II 



to consider more seriously their potential roles in relation 
to education. Research documenting sharp statistical 
declines in the numbers of school arts programs and the 
participation levels of students in existing programs 
(Leonhard, 1991) raised concern as to the long-term 
impact of these trends on the viability of cultural institu- 
tions and professional arts occupations. At the same time, 
reports on education and influential research such as that 
of Howard Gardner documented the role of the arts in 
children's learning and development. Funders began 
soliciting proposals for arts initiatives with education 
components. Arts-related businesses and corporations, 
such as music instrument manufacturers, began respond- 
ing to a pattern of declining sales by focusing more 
heavily on promoting the values of school arts programs. 

Numerous conferences, reports, and seminars have 
addressed arts education topics, such as the urgent need 
to develop and support school arts programs; documenta- 
tion of successful arts education projects; theoretical 
models of arts instruction and curriculum; assessment in 
arts education; and ways arts organizations, cultural 
institutions, arts educators' organizations, and schools 
might collaborate. What has evolved, and continues to 
evolve, is a consensus that curricular arts education must 
be a cooperative enterprise that engages a cross-section of 
agencies sharing similar interests and concerns. 

It was this growing consensus that helped to include the 
arts in Goals 2000 and to lead arts educators to publish 
the first national standards identifying what every student 
should know and be able to do in respective arts disci- 
plines. 2 In Opportunity -to-Learn Standards for Music 
Instruction (1995), published by the Music Educators 
National Conference (MENC), there is a definitive call 
to connect school music programs with community arts 
organizations. In 1990, MENC, the National Academy of 
Recording Arts and Sciences, Inc., and the National 
Association of Music Merchants formed the National 
Commission on Music Education. This group produced 
Growing Up Complete: The Imperative for Music Education 
( 1991 ), spawning a national network of local advocacy 
coalitions that monitor music education programs and 
influence curriculum and budget decisions. In suburban 
Gwinnett County, Georgia, northeast of Atlanta, the 
local arts coalition was instrumental in saving arts 
education programs from elimination in 1995. By 
diligently monitoring political developments and forging 
connections with school boards and local and state 
governments, arts coalitions in other parts of the country 
have also built public support for arts education and 
thwarted potentially damaging legislation. 3 



2. See National Standards for Arts Education, published by MENC in 
1994. In addition, the National Assessment of Educational Progress is 
developing assessment models built on students' knowledge and 
performance in the arts. 



12 



Beyond 



Foundations of orchestra partnerships. Established 
views of organizational cooperation suggest that working 
together arises "with situations of resource scarcity or 
performance distress . . .", or "when a powerful 
extraorganizational force demands this activity" 
(Schermerhorn, 1975, p. 848). Cooperation among 
orchestras and schools is easily cast in this context. For 
example, both institutions continually struggle with 
declining resources and questions regarding their rel- 
evance and effectiveness. They also experience expecta- 
tions to satisfy the needs of diverse audiences. Funders 
demand evidence of cooperative enterprise and educa- 
tional impact. And in the current political climate, both 
orchestras and schools are having to defend efforts they 
make to expand expressive and intellectual horizons for 
their constituents. 

However, the picture is larger than common problems 
and pressures. According to Bakalis (1981), cooperation 
can be a creative response to scarcity. Shared vision is 
also an important element of cooperation (Beckhard, 
1975). The historic commitments that schools and 
orchestras share to society's cultural well-being can 
support a vision of music as a crucial study in the fabric of 
American education. This perspective can provide a basis 
for shared, pragmatic efforts to ensure a lasting place for 
music in the school curriculum. 

Cooperative music education initiatives coincide with 
the desires of schools and orchestras to connect more 
closely with their communities and to successfully serve a 
diverse clientele. Their efforts are bolstered by the 
current openness of schools and communities to partner- 
ships and by growing recognition of the importance of 
arts learning in human development. Of special interest 
to orchestras is the fact that school music programs play 
an important role in training professional and amateur 
performing musicians who may become either orchestral 
performers or members of a supportive audience (Ameri- 
can Music Conference, 1994; Bowles, 1991). 

Developing Partnerships 

There is no consistent pattern for developing a partner- 
ship. Virtually anyone who has an idea can propose it, 
obtain the support of organizations, and implement a 
program. However, there are two main problems with this 
approach: 1 ) it may fail to build consensus regarding goals 
and anticipated outcomes, and 2) the partnership and/or 
its activities may survive only as long as the originator 
continues to drive them. 



3. See particularly the profiles of the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne, Austin, and 
Cedar Rapids orchestras that appear later in this report. 



School Partnerships 



Because engaging a cross-section of organizations to 
support a community's schools makes so much sense, it is 
easy to rush headlong into ventures without adequate 
perspective. Those participating in partnerships too often 
find that "the idea has been more compelling than the 
outcome" and that "partnership activity often looks good 
but lacks substance" (Grobe, 1993, p. 29). Hord (1981) 
warns that the term "collaboration" is employed too 
loosely for the complexity it entails. She asks, "How 
many organizations or individuals are suffering delusions 
of collaboration?" (p. 17). 

Partnership pitfalls. In the arts, partnerships may 
invoke lofty educational jargon to identify anticipated 
outcomes, to impress funders, or to promote themselves as 
national models of arts education. Examples include the 
often-stated goal of building a lasting foundation for arts 
education by emphasizing arts across the curriculum, or 
effecting systemic school change through policies that 
mandate sequential arts instruction in the curriculum. 

While such goals may be worthy, they are deceivingly 
complex. Attaining them requires commitment to a 
long-term process of change. These goals are not realized 
through occasional musician performances and hit-or- 
miss integrative experiences by grade-level teachers. 
Neither can a series of education events be deemed 
sequential because they happen to be organized in a 
particular order. Moreover, assertions of major change 
may ignore the history of arts education in America's 
schools and overlook the extensive body of research and 
experience that exists in certain fields of arts education. 

Failure to recognize the historic efforts of arts educators to 
establish a lasting base for curricular arts education, or to 
acknowledge those elements of school culture and 
organization that have impeded these efforts, can convey 
the impression that some arts education partnerships lack 
substance. For example, the goal of making a place for the 
arts in education by using them to teach other subjects 
has a long history. For years, elementary education majors 
at many universities have been required to complete 
courses in teaching the arts. Both they and their profes- 
sors realize, however, that minimal understanding and 
training do not provide a basis for integration at deep 
levels. While a certain degree of confidence and compe- 
tence can be gained, the lack of more complete knowl- 
edge can lead to superficial connections between the arts 
and other subjects. Arts education specialists are thus a 
necessary part of the equation. 4 In 1934, the eminent 



4- In the Milwaukee Symphony's ACE program, applicant schools must 
employ certified music specialists for all grades as a condition of 
acceptance. 



music educator, Will Earhart, wrote this about integrating 
music across the curriculum: 

I am an integrationist . . . I am convinced, though, that 
the characteristic value in music . . . should be cherished 
and be secured first; and its strength and vitality in its 
own right are the measure of its value for any and all 
subsequent integration purposes . (Buttelman, 1962) 

Levels of interaction. Frequently, terms such as partner- 
ship, cooperation, and collaboration are used inter- 
changeably to describe interactions among organizations 
at any level, and with any result. Dreeszen (1992) 
believes that partnerships progress through a develop- 
ment cycle. This cycle involves movement from simple 
transactions to coordinated tasks to more complex 
institutional collaborations. Theoretically, an orchestra 
program that starts out by providing occasional ensemble 
performances in a school could evolve to shared planning 
between teachers and musicians and perhaps attain a 
system-wide, curriculum-based program implemented 
through collaboration. 

However, a four-year study of twenty-nine federally 
funded education partnerships (Tushnet, Fleming- 
McCormick, Manuel, Nyre, and Schwager, 1995) found 
no evidence of progression from simple to more elaborate 
relationships: "few projects changed the structures, focus, 
leadership styles, and vision that existed at their start" (p. 
105). Instead, partnerships began at one of three levels - 
limited partnership (service provider), coalition (division 
of labor among partners), or collaboration (shared 
decisionmaking) - and remained there. All types had a 
considerable impact, but coalitions reached higher levels 
of implementation, and collaborations were the most 
likely to continue after original funding ended. 

Grobe (1993) used three levels of involvement to 
describe partnerships: support, cooperation, and collabo- 
ration. At the support level, the school finds a partner to 
provide money or services for a specific program or 
project. At the cooperation level, there is more shared 
planning, though the school is primarily a beneficiary of 
services. At the collaboration level, there is equality 
among the partners, with each, including schools, 
contributing resources and fully engaging in planning and 
implementation. It is not necessary for every partnership 
to be collaborative in order to have a positive impact. 
However, it is important to be realistic regarding the 
goals that can be achieved, given the level of interaction 
among the partners and the range of experiences pro- 
vided (DeBevoise, 1986). 



13 



An additional concern is that goals must be supported by 
rigorous adherence to quality and an understanding of 
high-level teaching and learning in the arts. Dreeszen 
(1992) points out that "increasingly complex intersec- 
tions need not imply increasing quality of the arts 
education experience for individual school children" 
(p. 19). Though a school system may be convinced to 
institute policy because a program looks good, there is 
little point in mandating arts instruction if the policy fails 
to enforce high standards of instructional quality and 
expertise. 

Unfortunately, too many partnerships make unsubstanti- 
ated claims of impact based on inconsequential assess- 
ments. According to Grobe (1993), few education 
partnerships identify measurable outcomes or evaluate 
against intended outcomes. Consequently, some observers 
question the concept of partnership as an agent of school 
improvement. 

Principles of partnership development. A Guide to 
Developing Education Partnerships (Tushnet, 1993), sets 
forth eight principles of development based on research 
of effective partnerships. 

• Partnerships should address concerns identified and 
shared by schools and the community. 

• Partnerships can take many forms. 

• All affected organizations and individuals must be 
involved in conversations about activities. 

• Communication with all participants and the 
community must be ongoing. 

• Leadership, whether individual or group, should 
instill commitment and support activities. 

• Resources, particularly technical and training 
assistance, must be provided to those who are 
expected to change behaviors. 

• Evaluation, and change based on the evaluation, 
must be a part of ongoing planning. 

• Problems must be confronted and used to advance 
the partnership, (pp. 1-2) 

Practically speaking, partnership experience and research 
indicate that beginnings frequently stem from a visionary 
individual who convinces others to take some kind of 
action. What is essential is that conversations expand to 
all affected participants, as well as to those in positions of 
leadership. As a relationship, a developing partnership 
must be organic and flexible, rather than rigid and 



14 



Beyond 



standardized. Within the shared vision of improving 
education, goals and activities should be negotiated and 
adapted according to the capacities and expertise of the 
participants, the available resources, and the ratio of 
likely benefit to investment of time, energy, and money. 
Most importantly, partnerships should be developed 
within the context of their own communities and 
environments. Starting with a limited agenda and 
addressing a mutually identified need lays the ground- 
work for expansion of goals. With successful growth, more 
organizations and individuals can become involved, and 
financial resources may increase. 5 

What is a Partnership? 

A simple definition of a partnership is that it is a coop- 
erative effort to achieve goals that no one organization 
could accomplish alone. Those who study partnerships 
generally concur on these identifying ideals: 1 ) a shared 
commitment to improving education; 2) acceptance of 
goals and strategies by all partners; 3) some level of 
reward for each partner; and 4) open exchange of 
information, ideas, and resources. Within this general 
definition, partnerships vary extensively in their structure 
and activities. They may be simple, complex, formal, 
informal, short-term, long-term, managed by one partner, 
or collaborative. They may merely^ffer support for 
activities, or they may represent extensive involvement 
in ongoing programs. 

Grobe (1993) defined three types of partnership struc- 
tures: simple, moderately complex, and complex. A 
simple structure provides resources and little more; a 
moderately complex partnership may include shared 
management in which the school is not just a recipient, 
but an active partner; and a complex partnership may 
involve formation of a new organization to manage the 
program. 

Hord (1985) distinguished between cooperation and 
collaboration, indicating that collaboration depends on "a 
clear definition of expectations by all parties involved, and 
a consequent agreement of the goal to be shared which will 
direct the process to its mutual conclusion" (p. 4). She 
indicated that while collaboration involves more effort, it 
ideally yields stronger results. Because collaborative 
partnerships are not appropriate for all situations, however, 
partners must decide whether cooperation or collaboration 
is the better way to meet their goals. Whichever, it is 
important that all partners are working from the same basic 
assumptions regarding the relationship. 



5. For examples of orchestra partnerships with clearly stated goals and 
targeted agendas tied to local contexts, see the profiles of the New York 
Philharmonic and the Pacific Symphony. 



School Partnerships 



DeBevoise (1986) says that if the goal of improving 
education is at the heart of a partnership, then relation- 
ships may represent a continuum along a line from 
informal to structured. Where appropriate, formal 
agreements may help to clarify roles and focus partner- 
ships. 6 On the other hand, informal partnerships may 
sometimes offer greater flexibility, provided the partners 
are truly committed to continuing the relationship for the 
identified cause. Importantly, partnerships should not be 
limited to organizations that already have friendly 
relationships; rather, they should extend to all relevant 
parties and build trust among participants. Partnership 
operations should overcome inclinations by any one 
partner to assume complete authority for the partnership 
and its activities. 

Characteristics of Effective Partnerships 

Partnership effectiveness has two dimensions: 1 ) the 
extent to which activities have a positive impact on the 
intended audience, e.g., improving student learning, or 
establishing regular arts instruction within the curricu- 
lum; and 2) the adequacy and efficacy of the partnership 
structure, e.g., involving the right partners, or the success 
of their working relationship. However, because partner- 
ships frequently fail to set measurable goals, it can be 
difficult to ascertain how effective they really are (Grobe, 
1993). 

The experience of BellSouth suggests the difficulty 
associated with determining effectiveness. Since 1991, 
the company has invested 239.5 million dollars in 
education, including short-term funding of equipment 
and continuous, active involvement in reform efforts. 
John L. Clendenin, head of BellSouth, says that while the 
company deserves an A for effort, the impact of its 
programs probably only deserves a C-plus: "The complex- 
ity of dealing with this array of problems affecting 
America's education system is really overwhelming ... So 
you make little dents. There's no one solution." 
Clendenin indicates that the company has to be con- 
cerned about the economic climate in which it operates, 
thus it has no choice but to be involved in education, 
even if only for "enlightened self interest" (Cumming, 
1996, p. El). It is not clear from this report whether 
BellSouth and its partners have attempted to institute a 
systematic evaluation cycle with clearly measurable 
objectives for both constituents and the partnership 
structures. However, what is clear is the willingness of 
BellSouth to acknowledge the limitations of its efforts. 



6. In Cedar Rapids, orchestra and school commitments are carefully 
spelled out in formal contracts signed by agents of both organizations. 



Dreeszen (1992) found nine critical success factors 
identified by participants in arts education partnerships: 
leadership and vision; effective planning; broad-based 
community representation; teacher participation; artist 
participation; public awareness and communication; 
general awareness of originating problem or opportunity; 
site-specific program design; and ongoing assessment of 
the partnership. Maeroff (1983) identified these traits: a 
common agenda must be acknowledged; a true spirit of 
collaboration must emerge; a single project must be 
identified; those involved must be adequately rewarded; 
and the focus must be on activities, not machinery (p. 5). 

Grobe (1993) listed fifteen elements of successful 
partnerships: top-level leadership; grounding in commu- 
nity needs; effective public relations; clear roles and 
responsibilities; racial-ethnic involvement; strategic 
planning; effective management and staffing structure; 
shared decision making and interagency ownership; 
shared credit and recognition; appropriate, well-timed 
resources; technical assistance; formal agreements; action 
and frequent success; patience, vigilance, and increased 
involvement; and local ownership. 

Grobe also suggested six levels of impact that a partner- 
ship can address: special services; classroom activities; 
teacher training; management; system-wide improve- 
ment; and policy change. Goals such as system-wide 
improvement and policy change often are formulated as a 
result of success with more limited and focused efforts. 
Setting out with a broad goal, such as policy change, 
requires high levels of investment and involvement from 
all partners, and may even necessitate a separate adminis- 
trative structure for a partnership.' 

Dreeszen (1992) found five general goals that seemed to 
characterize arts education partnerships: teaching arts 
skills, aesthetics, and arts appreciation; using the arts to 
teach other subjects or support psychosocial outcomes; 
serving community goals such as drug awareness; 8 
exposing children and teachers to the creative process; 
and building audiences and encouraging lifelong learning. 

Ultimately, the most important criterion of effectiveness 
is whether a partnership improves the quality and 
outcomes of learning. If it does not, then there is little 
reason for it to exist. However, it is also important to 
determine why and how a partnership enhances learning, 
when the partnership needs to change or adapt, and 
when a particular structure may have outlived its useful- 



7. The profile of the Boston Symphony describes an orchestra 
partnership dedicated to systemic school change through a separate 
partnership administration. 

8. In Ft. Wayne, the orchestra has connected with an adolescent life- 
skills curriculum focused on decision making and drug awareness. 



15 



ness. Dreeszen (1992) contends that "partnerships 
grounded upon the real needs of children and schools and 
the complementary self-interests of the partners are more 
likely to be sustained" (p. 33). He recommends periodic 
and systematic assessment as a means of keeping a 
partnership on course and responsive to changing 
conditions. In addition, he identifies "values or guiding 
principles" that underlie the arts education partnerships 
he investigated: assuring equitable access to cultural 
experiences; valuing all cultures and assuring cultural 
diversity of programs and participants; valuing artistic 
quality in education; and ensuring that the arts are 
indispensably a part of education (p. 13). 

Tushnet et al. (1995) found these features of success in 
education partnerships: a problem-solving orientation 
among partners; communication that clarifies roles and 
relationships; shared vision; leadership; use of a variety of 
resources; and institutionalization. Among their major 
findings of effectiveness were the following: most 
partnerships were built on existing relationships among 
individuals and organizations; problems were confronted 
and strategized on a continuing basis; steering and 
advisory groups helped facilitate communication; there 
was a shared image of how the school would look if the 
problems were solved; leadership models varied, but 
successful partnerships used leadership both to ensure the 
success of activities and to strengthen the partnership; 
leadership was most effective when it was distributed 
among partners and built consensus rather than looking for 
consensus; expert personnel were matched with appropri- 
ate activities; and the partnership provided technical 
assistance, as well as training, to those implementing the 
program. 

Support and Sustainability 

Dreeszen (1992) organized support for arts education 
partnerships under six categories: coordination, funding, 
public policies and plans, information and training, 
advocacy, 9 and programming. Of these, coordination 
through a given agency is the most important to achiev- 
ing impact. When all six are in place, a partnership is 
more likely to reach its full potential. External funding 
often provides only seed money, which may not permit 
the long-term processes needed to develop collaborations. 
Participants in Dreeszen's study emphasized that, as a 
matter of principle, schools should participate in fund- 
ing. 10 In addition, advocacy needs to move away from 
merely lobbying for support of arts education to more 
interactive problem-solving with schools and other 
organizations. 



9. In Pittsburgh, advocacy for school music programs is a goal of the 
partnership. 

10. In Milwaukee, Austin, Cedar Rapids, and Ft. Wayne, schools 
contribute specified dollar amounts to partnership programs. 



16 



Beyond 



Program development. Program development, primarily 
delivering activities for students, is the typical priority of 
arts education partnerships. Associated activities may 
involve needs assessment (formal or informal); 11 overall 
program design, delivery, and management; curriculum 
development; teacher training; artist training; and 
student assessment and program evaluation. 12 

Tushnet et al. (1995) found that partnerships focusing 
mainly on curriculum and instructional change tended to 
be project-oriented and did not emphasize the ongoing 
structure of the partnership. While these partnerships had 
an impact on schools and students, they appeared to have 
little impact on the community, or on the operations of 
partners other than the schools. Without ongoing 
attention to the structure of the partnership or the 
impact on the partners, it is unclear whether curriculum 
and instructional innovations will be adopted and valued 
over the long term. Tushnet et al. believe that focusing 
on specific activities serves a useful purpose; however, 
there is a concern that these partnerships "have little 
potential for extending a reform agenda" (p. 66). 

Leadership, personnel, and planning. Leadership, 
personnel, and planning are important factors in the 
implementation of partnership activities. Leadership 
should be exerted both for programs and for the structure 
of the partnership, and should be consistent with the 
characteristics of the partner organizations. Consistent 
with curriculum and instruction emphases, many partner- 
ships focus on empowering teachers to change how they 
work with children and to have input into the partner- 
ship. However, systemic and policy changes are more 
likely when a partnership structure incorporates represen- 
tatives from all levels, including, for example, top school 
and orchestra administrators. Turnover among key 
personnel can potentially impede a partnership. How- 
ever, if the partnership is sufficiently strong, change can 
occur without interruption to the partnership process or 
activities. 

Planning must include both the partnership itself and the 
activities to be implemented. Partnerships are frequently 
strengthened when they build upon existing programs 
and relationships, and when they explore existing 
conditions in schools. For example, arts educators may 
feel that their programs and expertise are being ignored if 
they are not included in a cross-curricular arts partner- 
ship. Not only may these teachers fail to support the 
program, but their potential contributions may be lost. 
Similarly, if a partnership proposes to have students listen 



11. Profiles of the Milwaukee Symphony and the Ft. Wayne Philhar- 
monic both refer to needs assessments that provided a basis for the 
development of partnership activities. 

12. The Milwaukee Symphony has developed a systematic assessment of 
student learning. The New York Philharmonic offers an example of 
program evaluation carefully derived from clearly stated objectives. 



School Partnerships 



to orchestral music as part of the curriculum, but there is 
no sound reproduction equipment available in the school, 
there is little chance that the activity will occur. 

Planning time for partners and for those expected to carry 
out activities is crucial to implementation. In addition to 
professional development activities for teachers, released 
time from instruction can help to ensure adequate 
preparation. This is especially true in arts programs that 
involve cooperative activities between grade-level 
teachers and arts specialists. Not only must teachers deal 
with new content and strategies, but they must learn to 
relate differently within their school cultures (Tushnet, 
1993). 

Institutionalization. Tushnet et al. (1995) found that 
institutionalization occurs in two ways: through continu- 
ation of the partnership structure, and by having activi- 
ties become a part of school programs and operations. In 
general, those partnerships that achieved institutionaliza- 
tion were the ones that effectively planned for it, shared 
the goal among all parties, and consistently strategized 
toward a lasting structure. 

Funding. Nearly all partnerships rely on funding from 
outside sources, funding that will in all likelihood end at 
some point. In the Tushnet study, those partnerships that 
outlived their federal funds planned for declining federal 
support and increased their local funding during the 
initial funding period. Achieving independence involved 
identifying the roles of partners, establishing not-for- 
profit status, locating sources of donations, and adapting 
policies to fit partnership activities. 13 

Synthesis 

Partnerships are organized for a variety of reasons and 
take many different forms. There is no recipe to develop a 
partnership; there are only general principles that can 
guide organizations seeking to work together for the 
common goal of improving education. As with any 
relationship, the factors that spell success or failure are 
complicated and individual. The culture, resources, 
needs, and shared desires within a given community 
provide the context in which a partnership operates. 

Partnerships may serve long-term or short-term needs and 
goals, or both. However, long-term needs tend to be 
better served when a partnership operates in a collabora- 
tive mode, recognizing that change is a labor-intensive, 
time-consuming process tied to local contexts and 



13. Among others, the Ft. Wayne, Boston, New York, Pacific, and 
Cedar Rapids programs offer examples of planning that incorporate 
partnerships into ongoing budget frameworks. 



priorities. As a collaboration, a partnership is more likely 
to be organic and evolving, both in response to, and in 
anticipation of, changing needs, resources, and personnel. 
Also, the programs are more likely to become institution- 
alized when a partnership confronts problems honestly, 
uses them to move forward, and transcends immediate 
vested interests to focus on the larger goal of school 
improvement. 

It is dishonest and potentially harmful to intended goals 
when partnerships make preliminary and unsubstantiated 
claims of major improvement. This is particularly true 
when programs are supported by soft money, are therefore 
time-limited, and are functioning mainly as pilot or 
demonstration projects provided for schools. School 
closets hide the remains of many promising projects that 
were valued only as long as someone designed them, 
shouldered the administrative and financial burden, and 
offered an opportunity to gain the public's acclaim. There 
are far fewer examples of sustained programs that grew 
out of existing needs and resources, or that achieved 
educational excellence through local consensus and 
commitment to lasting change. 

Amidst the hype and hyperbole of partnership efforts, 
schools and orchestras must examine themselves to find 
those points of common vision on which productive 
relationships can be built. Paraphrasing one orchestra 
education director, 

The reason to work with schools is that we have resources 
that can strengthen education for children in our communi- 
ties. It has little to do with what we get out of it and 
everything to do with whether orchestras are willing to view 
themselves as responsible members of their communities. 



17 



Beyond 



to, 



X 



*BS 



0\r., 



»^i,^/'"T J J''^t.rv*7yi^)Vf 






d##i!lifi»' 






ijjfc 



th ^ f 



lir 



1. •.(!(■ 







SECTION III 

The Orchestra 
Education Project 



Education Projects 



SECTION III 



The Orchestra Education Project 



Purpose 

The purpose of the Orchestra Education Project was 
to identify orchestra education programs that 
offered convincing examples of partnerships among 
orchestras, schools, and communities. Of particular 
interest were programs that included teacher training and 
parent involvement, and that demonstrated administra- 
tive support from both schools and orchestras. From an 
in-depth study of existing programs, the project sought to 
derive guidelines that could assist orchestras, schools, and 
communities in developing effective partnerships for 
music education. 

Gathering Data 

Review of literature. To provide a basis for researching 
orchestra education partnerships, we completed an 
extensive review of literature on partnerships among 
many different types of organizations. This review 
included reports on general partnership projects, research 
on education and arts education partnerships, and 
summaries of established principles of partnership 
effectiveness. To be comprehensive and current, the 
review of literature continued throughout the duration of 
the project. However, the initial investigation offered a 
foundation for developing a survey instrument, and for 
designing a framework to collect data via telephone 
interviews and site visits. 

Survey. A survey was sent to member orchestras of the 
American Symphony Orchestra League. This survey was 
designed to provide general information about existing 
education programs, and to ascertain elements of program 
structure that were consistent with partnership ap- 
proaches. A survey research consultant assisted with the 
development of the instrument. An open-ended question 
permitted orchestras to describe unique features of their 
programs. Many orchestras responded to this item with 
detailed descriptions and examples of materials indicating 
strong education efforts. 



Telephone interviews. Based on responses to the survey, 
extensive telephone interviews were conducted with 42 
education directors or orchestra representatives. In many 
cases, telephone interviews were conducted with more 
than one person on the orchestra staff, with representa- 
tives of other arts organizations affiliated with the 
orchestra programs, and with local school personnel. 
These interviews followed a standard protocol to ensure 
consistency in the kinds of data collected for each 
program. The interviews focused on in-depth program 
descriptions, the extent of the relationship between 
orchestras and schools, funding and resources, and 
evaluation strategies. 

Site visits. Using information from the surveys and 
interviews, orchestra education programs were analyzed 
in light of partnership effectiveness research. Nine 
orchestras that best fulfilled principles of partnership 
effectiveness were identified for site visits. In selecting 
the orchestras, consideration was also given to represen- 
tative sizes and geographic locations, as well as unique 
features that distinguished partnership programs. Two-day 
site visits of these programs were conducted between 
August and December 1995. 

The site visits incorporated a series of individual inter- 
views and focus groups with orchestra administrative 
personnel, education directors, conductors, performing 
musicians, teaching artists, board members, funders, 
curriculum writers, and assessment specialists. Observa- 
tions were made of youth concerts, in-school ensemble 
programs, music classes, integrated music lessons in 
general classrooms, and professional development 
workshops for teachers. Interviews and focus groups were 
also conducted with school principals, grade-level 
teachers, music teachers, students, and parents. Curricu- 
lum materials, minutes of meetings, brochures, newspaper 
articles, photographs, videotapes, status reports, program 
proposals, student work, and assessment and evaluation 
reports were also reviewed. 



Regional/national meetings. During late summer and 
autumn of 1995, the project director conducted four 
regional meetings and presented sessions at one national 
meeting of orchestra education personnel. These meet- 
ings provided information about the Orchestra Education 
Project and solicited feedback from participants regarding 
information that would be useful to include in the final 
report. These meetings also gave attendees an opportu- 
nity to share further information about their programs. 

Validating Data 

Multiple sources of information were used to validate the 
program findings. Interviews, focus groups, analysis of 
survey responses, and document reviews were structured 
to reveal both consistencies and inconsistencies in the 
data. Where inconsistencies occurred, further exploration 
was undertaken to ascertain the accuracy of information. 
Data that could not be verified by multiple sources were 
eliminated from inclusion in the program profiles found 
in Section IV. Site visit protocols were built on a frame- 
work that included the program concept, goals and 
objectives, program planning and implementation, 
program support, assessment and evaluation, and impact. 

Survey Findings 

K-12 orchestra education programs. Of the total 283 
surveys returned, 237 (84%) were from orchestras that 
have K-12 education programs. Among these 237, 
education programs emphasize service to elementary 
school students, though other target populations are also 
represented (Figure 1). 



TARGET POPULATIONS 




Figure I . Target populations of K- 1 2 programs 

201(85%) of the reporting education programs provide 
in-school opportunities, and 187 (66%) bring students to 
concert venues. The content focus of K-12 programs 
covers orchestra-related information and concepts (95%), 
broad music learning (81%), interdisciplinary learning 
with academic subjects (39%), and interdisciplinary arts 
learning (37%). Education-related performances gener- 



22 



Beyond 



ally center on orchestra concerts that include assisting 
artists (72%) and on chamber ensembles (63%). Sixty- 
six percent use a youth concert format that combines 
narration and music. 

Education committees. 123 orchestras (52%) with K-12 
programs have education advisory committees. Advisory 
committees most frequently include teachers, a conductor, 
orchestra board members, musicians, orchestra administra- 
tors or education directors, 1 and school administrators 
(Figure 2). 150 (63%) of the reporting orchestras have 
"working" committees that deal directly with program 



C OMMITTEE MEMBERS 



100 



z 

< 

OS 

o 

o 



< 



LL! 

ec 




Figure 2. Most frequent education advisory committee members 



COMMITTEE MEMBERS 



z 
< 

ee. 
o 

o 

Q£ 
O. 

LL. 

o 

UJ 

o 

< 



ee. 

UJ 

a. 




79% 69% 



Figure 3. Most frequent education working/program committee 
members 

design and implementation. The membership of these 
committees most often includes conductors, teachers, 
board representatives, musicians, and orchestra administra- 
tors or education directors (Figure 3). Advisory committees 
include parents 26 percent of the time, and working 
committees include them only 15 percent of the time. 
Business representatives serve on advisory committees only 
about 24 percent of the time. Those least likely to be 
included on education advisory or working committees are 
school board members and students. 



1. Some reporting orchestras do not have a designated staff position of 
education director. 



Education Projects 



Goals and objectives of education programs. Exposure 
to classical music is a goal of 100 percent of the reporting 
programs. Additional priority goals include music apprecia- 
tion (99%), enhanced music learning (94%), and audience 
development (88%). The least frequently cited goals are 
enhanced self-esteem of students (42%) and positive 
school climate (27%). Cross-curricular learning is a 
reported goal in 44 percent of the programs. The most 
frequently cited sources of content for program develop- 
ment are materials from professional arts and education 
organizations (52%) and orchestra repertoire lists (47%). 
Only 32 percent of orchestras consult national music 
education standards, and only 39 percent tie programs to 
local or state curriculum guides. 

Formalized partnerships. Seventy percent of reporting 
orchestras indicate that they have "formalized" partnerships 
with school districts. Thirty percent or less report partner- 
ships with arts organizations, higher education institutions, 
foundations, corporations, or local governments. 

Professional consultants. Seventy-two percent of 
reporting orchestras indicate that they do not use a 
professional consultant for their programs. When 
orchestras do use consultants, they most frequently serve 
in advisory capacities (16%) or assist with curriculum 
development (15%). Ten percent or less of the reporting 
orchestras use consultants for program design, teacher 
training, musician orientation, and fund raising. 

Financial support and program administration. Most 
monetary support for education programs comes from the 
symphony operating budget (87%). Seventy-two percent 
of reporting programs use corporate support for education, 
71 percent use foundation grants, and 55 percent rely on 
school districts to underwrite some portion of education 
expenses. Symphony staff members administer the 
overwhelming majority of programs (96%). 

Program effectiveness. Informal feedback is the most 
frequent method for determining program effectiveness 
(91%), followed by participant surveys, live or videotaped 
observation, and structured student assessment (Figure 4). 



EVALUATION METHODS 



z 
< 

o 

o 

OS 






100 
80 
60 
40 



3 20 





68% 










w /0 a 9% 



" Informal Participant Observation Student 

Feedback Surveys Assessment 



Figure 4. Methods of determining program effectiveness 



Factors of program effectiveness considered most impor- 
tant by orchestras include teacher feedback, the number 
of students served, student learning in music, the quality 
of musician-teacher-student interactions, and musician 
feedback (Figure 5). Those factors considered least 
important in assessing program effectiveness are student 
learning in non-music subjects, student attitudes toward 
school, and parent feedback. Only 20 percent of report- 
ing orchestras consider the quality of classroom activities 
to be an important indicator of program effectiveness. 




Figure 5. Factors considered most important in determining 
program effectiveness 



Reflections on Survey Findings 
and Telephone Interviews 

Survey responses indicate widespread K-12 education 
activities by orchestras. In most cases, the emphasis 
appears to be on providing youth concerts and in-school 
ensemble programs. As part of their response to an open- 
ended question soliciting information about the unique- 
ness of programs, many orchestras cited the development 
of related lesson materials, the incorporation of ethnic 
music, and the cross-curricular instructional opportunities 
afforded by musical experiences. 

Though a large percentage of orchestras indicated that 
they have "formalized" partnerships with school districts, 
telephone interviews and a review of documentation 
revealed that the extent and nature of these partnerships 
vary greatly. In many cases, they can best be described as 
cooperative alliances focused largely on the logistics of 
transportation, funding, and scheduling. In others, they 
represent an orchestra's effort to design a program that 
ties into existing initiatives or funding by other agencies, 
such as the one matching inner city and suburban 
children in St. Louis. Some partnerships are specific, 
carefully developed projects constituting only one facet of 
an overall K-12 program. Still others are broadly con- 
ceived, providing an operating structure within which an 
entire series of programs may be developed. 



23 



The surveys and telephone interviews revealed three 
interrelated areas of need in education programs: 

1 ) accountability for the quality of classroom activities 
related to concerts and in-school performances, 

2) systematic methods of student assessment and program 
evaluation, and 3) musician training for education 
programs. 

Many orchestras cite music learning as an important 
indicator of education program effectiveness. To maxi- 
mize learning opportunities, they design lesson materials 
and distribute them to music specialists and grade-level 
teachers to incorporate into their classes. 

Few orchestras, however, are able to verify consistent use of 
materials or the quality of classroom activities that are 
assumed to foster student learning. In fact, only a small 
number of orchestras indicated that the quality of classroom 
activities was important in determining program effective- 
ness. 

At present, there is little evidence on which to base 
assumptions of student learning. Much of the feedback 
orchestras receive is informal and anecdotal, as well as 
predictably positive. There is much to be said for the 
contributions orchestras are making to schools in terms of 
enriching the curriculum through musical experiences 
and opportunities. However, until sequential quality 
classroom instruction is assured and systematic measures 
of learning are in place, it is premature to make unveri- 
fied claims regarding student learning. 

Selection of Programs for Site Visits 

In keeping with the purpose of the Orchestra Education 
Project, there were three main criteria for selecting sites 
to be visited: a) evidence of an ongoing and systematic 
relationship betweeen an orchestra and local schools, 
b) inclusion of structured professional development for 
teachers that supports the implementation of curriculum 
materials, and c) evidence of broad-based support from 
both the orchestra and the schools. In addition, pro- 
grams that offered strong examples of parent involvement 
or student assessment and program evaluation strategies 
were considered for site visits. 



Beyond 



Because most orchestra partnerships are still in early 
stages of development, research on principles of partner- 
ship effectiveness provided a context for helping to select 
partnership sites. For example, partnerships that demon- 
strated attention to the relationship between the orches- 
tras and schools, as well as to program development were 
carefully considered for visits. Other factors, such as 
relevance to unique community needs and resources, and 
evidence of top-level administrative involvement were 
also reviewed. Finally, attempts were made to include 
orchestras of different sizes and budgets, to represent 
different geographic regions, and to present programs 
serving diverse populations. 



24 



\ 






wtfS 



M 



'WMr^V/ryt/MftmA 



™"m 






iV'imw.swa 






,iifflrf.iw«i<?lw! 




ftC?""' 








•i 11 




|$|w^ 



SECTION IV 



Partnership Profiles 



SECTION IV 



Orchestra Partnership Profiles 



The profiles that follow provide detailed descriptions 
of the nine partnerships visited during the study. 
Information included in the profiles represents a 
synthesis of the findings from interviews, reviews of 
documents, observations, and focus group sessions. For 
consistency, each profile is organized into eight major 
sections. However, each profile is also written to provide 
the richest possible description of a given partnership and 
to emphasize its uniqueness. For this reason, subheadings 
may vary from profile to profile. In addition, the best 
placement of information to convey the character and 
depth of each partnership differs slightly among the 
profiles, resulting in some variations in descriptive 
material included under major headings. Throughout the 
profiles, direct quotations from individuals and docu- 
ments are used to help portray an authentic picture of the 
partnership and its activities. 

The sequence of the profiles reflects the order in which 
site visits were conducted. The dates of each site visit are 
listed at the beginning of the profile. Cynthia Thomas, 
Research Coordinator for the Orchestra Education 
Project, conducted the site visits in Pittsburgh, Chicago, 
and Cedar Rapids and wrote the respective profiles. 
David Myers, Project Director, conducted the remaining 
visits and wrote the relevant profiles. 

Organization of the Profiles 

Overview. The overview section of each profile serves as 
an introduction to the community, the partners, and the 
activities associated with the partnership. Information 
introduced in the overview is generally elaborated in 
subsequent sections. 

Program Concept. This section describes the partner- 
ship model and lists the contributions each partner makes 
to the programs. 



Goals and Objectives. This section summarizes those 
goals and objectives that provide a focus for each partner- 
ship. These may be taken directly from printed docu- 
ments or synthesized from interviews conducted during 
the site visits. 

Program Planning and Implementation. This section 
details the actual programs of each partnership and how 
they evolve from ideas to application. Given the indi- 
viduality of the programs, the content of this section 
varies considerably from profile to profile. 

Program Support. This section highlights both tangible 
and intangible forms of support provided by partner 
organizations. It provides greater detail for the listings of 
partner contributions included under the section on 
program concept. 

Assessment and Evaluation. The primary purpose of this 
section is to indicate the methods of student assessment, 
program evaluation, and documentation undertaken by 
each partnership. This section may also indicate content 
included in assessment and evaluation reports. 

Impact. This section summarizes evidence of the ways 
individuals and partner institutions have been affected by 
the partnership. In some cases, impact evidence grows out 
of the previous section on assessment and evaluation. In 
others, indicators of impact are gleaned from interviews 
and observations conducted during the site visits. 

Coda. The coda offers brief concluding observations 
regarding each partnership. 



27 



Beyond 



28 




PACIFIC SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



Site Visit: August 24-25, 1995 



OVERVIEW 

Orchestra, Schools, and Community 

Located in Santa Ana, CA, 
the Pacific Symphony 
Orchestra (PSO) is a per- 
service orchestra serving 
suburban Orange County. 
During the 1995-96 season, 
the orchestra performed a 
nine-concert classic series 
and a seven-concert pops 
series. Founded in 1978, the 
PSO began in-school 
concerts in 1982. Currently, 
expenditures for education 
total about ten percent of 
the total budget. In addition 
to participating in a partner- 
ship with several Orange 
County schools, the PSO provides the community with 
numerous educational programs, including a six-concert 
family series with pre-and post-concert activities, youth 
concerts, lessons and clinics for instrumental students, and 
two cooperative student orchestras with California State 
University at Fullerton and the Orange County High 
School of the Arts. 

Students in Orange County's twenty-eight school districts 
cover the complete socioeconomic spectrum and repre- 
sent various ethnic minorities, including Hispanic and 
Vietnamese. The school districts adopt music curriculums 
consistent with California's state-level arts curriculum 
framework; however, the extent and quality of music 
teaching vary widely. Some districts employ specialists to 
teach sequential music programs. Others have no 
specialists and offer minimal arts experiences. 

In 1993, the PSO developed Class Act, a partnership to 
enrich music learning in selected schools through 
interaction among students, orchestra musicians, and 
parents. Class Act currently serves over 6000 students and 
their families, actively involves 300 parents in 
planning and implementation, and includes participation 



Andy Honla, of the Pacific Symphony, helps a young 
student get the feel of holding the bow during a 
Family Night program. 



by 290 teachers and school administrators. Selected 
schools represent a cross-section of Orange County's 
ethnic and economic profile. 

Range of Experiences 

Students in partner schools "adopt" a PSO musician, who 
presents a 45 -minute music lesson for one grade level each 
month. Early in the year, the entire school participates in a 
"Prelude Assembly," which introduces Class Act and the 
school's musician. A Family Night program features the 
school's adopted musician in a small ensemble performance 
at the school, followed by an opportunity to meet the 
performers and learn more about Class Act. 

All students attend a PSO Youth Concert at the Orange 
County Performing Arts Center. The concert builds on 
classroom experiences by including composers and 
repertoire that the students have studied. Each school 
holds a "Bravo Assembly" as a year-end celebration and 
closure activity. For this assembly, students plan unique 
ways of demonstrating things they have learned for their 
parents, teachers, and fellow students. The school's 
adopted musician participates as well. 

PROGRAM CONCEPT 

Partnership Model 

Class Act is an example of an orchestra-managed partner- 
ship that uses a cooperative parent-school network to 
support its program. The PSO underwrites the major 
expense of the partnership, defines the expectations of 
participant schools, and commits administrative time and 
effort for partnership operations. The senior-level 
Director of Education and Community Programs facili- 
tates program management and content. A unique 
feature of Class Act is the organization and high level of 
participation among parents (Ciass Act Partners), who 
assist with partnership planning and implementation. 



29 



Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- Provide agreed upon activities free of charge to the 
school, which include two in-school assembly 
programs, a lesson by adopted PSO musician for each 
grade, curriculum resource and concert preparation 
materials, teacher training, family night ensemble 
presentation, and youth concert. 

- Provide scheduling to meet the needs of the school 
within the scope of the program's goals. 

' Provide additional fee-based activities upon request. 

' Provide program evaluation. 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- Allocate specific times for activities, including 
assemblies. 

- Ensure the presence of grade-level teachers at 
school events. 

- Provide bus transportation to youth concert. 

- Provide a Class Act coordinator who serves as a 
liaison to the PSO. 

- Schedule a fall planning meeting that includes the 
school administrator, Class Act Coordinator, music 
teacher, and PSO Education Director. 

- Demonstrate student learning during the end of year 
Bravo Assembly. 

- Ensure completion of evaluation forms by teachers, 
administrators, and parents. 

- Provide minimum core of thirty parents to assist with 
at least one PSO concert event by ushering, serving 
as guides for pre-concert activities, or greeting 
arriving students. 

Time Frame 

Class Act began as a pilot project during the 1994-95 
school year. The orchestra accepted seven schools for the 
pilot year. At the end of the year, each school's quality 
and level of commitment were reviewed prior to selecting 
schools for 1995-96. Five of the original seven were 
invited to continue, and five new schools were added 
through applications. Schools are accepted for Class Act 
on a year-to-year basis. 



30 



Beyond 



GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

The PSO clearly documents its mission, goals, and 
objectives for Class Act. The PSO's mission is 

to supplement Orange County's elementary schools' 
music education by developing an ongoing partner- 
ship with students, teachers, administrators, and 
parents; to increase awareness of and involvement in 
classical music; and to engage students and teachers 
by providing interactive and varied musical experi- 
ences. 

Ciass Act has two broad goals, elaborated by specific 
objectives. Its first goal is to demonstrate that the Pacific 
Symphony Orchestra cares about the entire school 
community and wants to develop a long term relationship 
with them. The related objective is to support and 
enhance music education at the Ciass Act school and 
develop meaningful interactions with students, parents, 
teachers, and administrators. The second broad goal is to 
help students form a vision of life that contains great 
beauty and positive possibilities through Ciass Act's 
varied, interactive musical experiences. The specific 
objective is to maintain a sequential program that focuses 
on repeated close contact with one musician. The PSO 
clearly states that Class Act enhances, rather than 
replaces, music education programs in schools. The PSO 
believes that within the context of the orchestra's 
mission, operations, and community, "it can make a 
meaningful difference in the lives of many young people 
throughout Orange County by supplementing and 
expanding what is currently provided in the schools." 

The rationale for Class Act is based on the following 
needs. 

Music is critical to the development of a well-rounded human being. 
Music education provides students with the necessary skills to become 
culturally literate citizens. 

Music helps young people forge powerful personal connections with 
characteristics such as teamwork, self-esteem, self-discipline, and self- 
confidence, all of which lead to a responsible and productive adulthood. 

Music directly supports core academic studies. 

Music is a universal language that can bind different populations. The 
beauty and emotional power of classical music are accessible to diverse 
cultures. 



PROGRAM PLANNING 
AND IMPLEMENTATION 

Pilot Program - Tapping Parent Support 

In July 1993, the Director of Education and Community 
Programs wrote a letter to subscribers of the Family Series 
inviting them to join the orchestra in support of music 
education. The orchestra included the letter with each 
subscriber's season tickets. In response, twelve parents 
attended a meeting to discuss ways the orchestra might 
contribute to improving music programs in their schools. 

The parent group met with the Education Director twice 
monthly, establishing itself as a Class Act steering 
committee. To ensure the feasibility of its ideas for school 
settings, the committee sought advice from music 
teachers, grade-level teachers, special educators, and 
principals. A symphony volunteer (Class Act chairper- 
son) assisted the Education Director in guiding the work 
of the committee. 

As a former third-grade teacher, the Education Director 
envisioned a program more influential than some 
partnerships she had witnessed. Too frequently, these 
programs were unrelated to the curriculum, were not 
sequential, and had no sustainability in the school. Her 
goal was to develop a sustained relationship among the 
schools, the orchestra, and the musicians. Based on 
committee discussions, the Education Director authored a 
partnership proposal to be presented to schools for the 
pilot 1994-95 program. Seven parents from the steering 
committee volunteered to be Class Act coordinators for 
their respective schools, and to assist the PSO Education 
Director and Class Act chairperson in presenting the 
proposal to principals. At the conclusion of these 
presentations in the Spring of 1994, all seven schools 
became partner schools for 1994-95. 

The Education Director sees her teaching experience as 
an advantage in writing a proposal that administrators 
and teachers would endorse. Though many arts groups 
want to capitalize on school reform to advance arts 
education, limited understanding of school culture and 
organization can sometimes be a problem. In the words of 
one teacher, 

We're always being asked, or told, to do more — often 
without the resources to back it up. There's a limit to 
what we can do, or what we feel comfortable doing, and 
some decisions have to be made about what is most 
important. 



The success of the PSO proposal, according to parents, 
principals, and teachers, was that it laid out a program 
that was compatible with school operations. One 
principal states that two factors weighed heavily in her 
response: 

This was a parent-based initiative, not one more 
organization selling its wares to the school. Secondly, 
there was an infrastructure to support it. Lots of people 
have good ideas , but Class Act was more than a good 
idea — it was a workable plan. 

A parent coordinator emphasizes the point further: 

We did not want teachers to feel they had to worry about 
developing one more program. We used their input to 
create the program , told them it could be adapted to their 
needs, and offered support to make it work. 

Teachers and administrators agree that the combination 
of parent enthusiasm and careful planning convinced 
them that Class Act would not be a burden. A teacher 
comments, 

The PSO facilitator is a can-do person, and the parents 
handle the organization. I think Class Act has been 
exceptional in helping everyone, including teachers, feel a 
sense of ownership . It means a lot to have someone be 
sensitive to our needs . 

Management and Operation 

Personnel. The PSO Director of Education and Commu- 
nity Programs assumes the major management responsi- 
bilities. The Class Act Chairperson, who is a PSO 
volunteer, functions as a liaison between the Education 
Director and the schools, site coordinators, and PSO 
musicians. 

An extensive parent network, emanating from the 
enthusiasm of the original steering committee, plays a 
crucial role in operations. Parents serve as coordinators or 
as parent partners. Coordinators promote Ciass Act; assist 
with scheduling and coordination of student programs; 
and provide a communications link among teachers, 
musicians, parents, and the orchestra staff. Partners assist 
coordinators with implementing student activities and, as 
a part of each partner school's agreement, are required to 
usher, chaperone, or perform other similar tasks for at 
least one PSO education event at the Performing Arts 
Center. 

When asked why they commit time and energy to Class 
Act, parents respond that they believe creative and 
expressive learning are as important as the "basics." 
Because specialist positions have been cut in public 



31 



schools, and private schools sometimes cannot afford 
specialists, parents fear there is little emphasis on the arts. 
One parent says, 

Our school provides very little in the arts, often bringing 
someone in just to do a Holiday program. I feel we need 
more than that. We need arts programs that benefit our 
kids over time, not just the occasional performance. 

Originally, Class Act parents functioned separately from 
established parent-teacher organizations. However, 
because of overlaps in parent involvement and the 
success of the program, there is a tendency toward 
strengthening alliances between Class Act and existing 
parent-teacher groups in the schools. 

School selection. Schools apply to the program by 
submitting a written application. The application form is 
simple and quickly completed by the principal. It asks for 
information as to grade levels and populations, and for 
the name of a potential Class Act coordinator. In addi- 
tion, it requests a description of the existing music 
program and the name of the teacher, if the school 
employs a specialist. Schools describe why they want to 
participate in Class Act and how the partnership would 
benefit their programs. 

Criteria for inclusion in Class Act include a commitment 
to fulfill the specified school contributions, and evidence 
that the partnership meets a felt educational need among 
administrators, teachers, and parents. Continuation is 
not automatic. It is based on an annual review of how 
effectively the partnership functioned during the preced- 
ing year. 

School activities. Class Act is designed to keep musicians 
in contact with their schools throughout an entire school 
year. The calendar for student and parent activities is as 
follows: 

September: Introductory assembly, performed separately for 

primary and upper grades 

October - April: One-hour music lesson per month, taught by adopted 
musician, with a designated grade level for each 
monthly lesson 



February: 



May: 



June: 



Evening ensemble programs for families 
at each school 

Youth Concert at Performing Arts Center 

Closing assembly, performed separately 
for primary and upper grades 



32 



Beyond 



Each activity encourages interaction between the 
musician and students. For example, students may sing or 
play instruments during assemblies and lessons. They may 
participate through focused listening, questioning, and 
active musical response. As part of the Family Night 
ensemble performance, student and parents visit with 
each musician at various "stations" in the school. 

In a videotaped lesson observed during the site visit, a 
musician captivated students by having them imitate 
movements required to play his instrument. Soon, they 
were listening attentively for changing pitch, trying to 
anticipate the movement associated with higher and 
lower sounds. In a closing assembly program, students 
beamed as their musician joined the school orchestra in a 
performance of Ode to Joy. 

Musicians believe that the personal relationship they 
establish with students is mutually beneficial. One points 
out that students come to other concerts as a result of 
Class Act: "It's fun to have groupies at the Family Con- 
certs because of the relationships we've set up through 
Class Act." Another sees this long-term benefit: "A lot of 
kids today only hear pop music. We get to show them 
that they can fit into classical music too, and that it can 
be a natural part of everyday life, now and on through 
adulthood." 

Students seem to like the idea of having a musician who 
is their "very own." Using the musician's first name in a 
familiar and affectionate tone, one student's eyes glimmer 
as he explains: "It's really neat when our musician is in 
the school because somebody is getting to have music 
class, and everybody knows who's there. It would be 
disappointing if the musician didn't come any more." For 
another, there simply isn't enough time: "I wish they 
could come more often. I decided to play the cornet 
because our musician showed us what a great thing music 
can be in your life. Maybe I'll be in an orchestra when I 
grow up!" Finally, a primary student offers this testimony: 
"When I know the musician is coming to my school, or I 
see [the musician] at the concert, I just get really excited. 
I think we're lucky, don't you?" 

Youth concert. As part of Class Act, students and 
teachers attend the Youth Concert presented for Orange 
County schools in May. Repertoire builds on the theme 
of the year (e.g., Beethoven), as well as other composers 
and music. The PSO provides preparation materials. At 
the concert, the adopted musicians greet "their" children 
at the buses and are introduced to the audience when the 
orchestra comes on stage. 

Professional development. The PSO Education Director 
presents a one-hour workshop for all teachers. Teachers 
engage in hands-on classroom activities designed to make 



them feel more comfortable supporting Class Act in their 
homerooms. The workshop introduces teachers to the 
components of the program, provides resources and 
materials, and offers an opportunity for questions and 
discussion. In addition, the PSO sponsors "Teacher's 
Night" at the Orange County Performing Arts Center. 
This includes dinner, free tickets to a PSO Classics 
Concert, a pre-concert lecture, and distribution of 
preparation materials for the upcoming Youth Concert. 

Parent awareness. In 1994-95, the Education Director 
conducted parent in-service sessions at schools to 
acquaint them with Class Act. In 1995-96, the parent 
information session was combined with the Family Night 
ensemble presentation. Parents receive a packet of 
materials designed to supplement the year-long Class Act 
theme at home. During a Beethoven emphasis, for 
example, the packet included a picture of Beethoven, a 
biography, ideas for making instruments, a listening list, 
and a glossary. 

Musician orientation. Musicians have three orientation 
sessions with the Education Director. They review the 
lessons designed by teachers, adding ideas and tailoring 
them to their own presentation styles. In addition, they 
consider feedback provided by parents and teachers who 
attend in-school lessons and performances. 

Communication. An observed hallmark of Class Act is 
the amount and quality of communication among all 
participants. The Education Director prepares a "Program 
Overview," which provides constituents with information 
about the mission, need, background, goals, schedule, 
activities, and commitments associated with the partner- 
ship. Additional documents, which include written 
reminders of duties for specific events, outline the 
responsibilities of all personnel. Detail in these communi- 
cations provides volunteers with a sequential checklist of 
tasks to help programs run efficiently, from confirming 
dates and room reservations to assisting musicians with 
supplies. Both the Education Director and the Class Act 
Chair use telephone follow-up to trouble-shoot and to 
ensure smooth operations. 

During the site visit, school personnel and parents 
consistently remarked on the thoroughness of advance 
communications, organization, and follow-up. More 
importantly, they indicated that the tone of letters, 
conversations, and documents is always positive. Samples 
of announcements, job duties, and thank-you letters 
confirm an efficient, positive approach that encourages 
cooperation. 



Program Content 

Thematic focus. A single composer's life and music 
provide a year-long focus for Class Act. The 1994-95 
composer was Beethoven. For 1995-96, the composer was 
Aaron Copland. During the summer, classroom and 
music teachers assist the Education Director in develop- 
ing suggested grade-level lessons to be presented by PSO 
musicians. For 1996-97, musicians will also participate in 
designing in the lessons. 

Learning activities are based on student-centered goals 
and objectives that can be correlated with state and 
national arts standards, as well as general instructional 
outcomes. Examples of instructional goals include the 
ability to identify instruments of the orchestra and their 
sounds; to differentiate among solo, ensemble, and 
orchestral settings; and to increase self-knowledge and 
self-esteem. 

The lessons reinforce the four primary components of 
music education from California's arts curriculum 
framework: aesthetic perception, creative expression, arts 
heritage, and aesthetic valuing. Involving teachers in 
lesson design ensures that activities are developmentally 
appropriate, and encourages teachers to connect other 
classroom learning with the musicians' lessons. 

The Education Director also prepares outlines and 
suggested activities for the introductory and closing 
assemblies. She and the musician jointly present the 
introductory assembly, which provides an overview of 
Class Act and acquaints the children with the composer 
for the year. The closing assembly incorporates demon- 
strations of student learning related to the year's activi- 
ties. 

Classroom materials. The PSO provides each teacher 
with resources consisting of a music lesson packet, a 
grade-level music text, an audio tape of the focus 
composer's music, suggested follow-up activities to 
musicians' visits, and a packet of pre-concert materials for 
the Youth Concert. In addition, each school receives 
related reference materials, including a video cassette and 
hard-bound literature book, for its library. 

The lesson packet for classroom teachers supplements the 
musicians' monthly lessons by including other composers 
and a variety of concepts. For example, in 1994-95, the 
packet featured a different composer each month, 
suggested a sequence of composers and works to be 
studied, and included a bibliography. It also provided 
materials for in-depth study of Beethoven. All of the 
classroom materials suggest, rather than prescribe, 
learning activities. Teachers praise this approach, saying, 
"We appreciate the support materials. We are encouraged 



33 



and motivated, but not pressured to do all of the activi- 
ties." Teachers also like the fact that materials emphasize 
teaching-learning strategies that are current and that 
transfer across the curriculum. Some activities, such as 
using a Venn Diagram to compare composer and music 
traits, are adapted from the California Literature Project. 

PROGRAM SUPPORT 

Orchestra 

The PSO currently pays for Class Act from its general 
operating budget, supported by numerous foundations 
and government agencies. Marketing and development 
offices promote the program, in part with a goal of 
securing foundation support 
specifically for Class Act. The 
senior-level appointment of 
the Director of Education and 
Community Programs is 
evidence of the commitment 
of the orchestra to Class Act, 
as well as to a broad educa- 
tion mission. In addition, the 
orchestra management agreed 
to expand the number of 
schools from seven in 1994- 
95 to ten in 1995-96. The 
financial commitment for 
Class Act is approximately 
$5,000 per school. 




Parents and Schools 



Pacific Symphony flutist, Cindy Ellis, 
shows the finer points of her instrument 
to eager students. 



Parent volunteers are the key to keeping the program 
functioning. From the outset, the Education Director 
intended Ciass Act to operate through a parent liaison 
network. She has accomplished marked results, with the 
number of involved parents rising as they witness the 
benefits of the program in their schools. The potential 
impact of this high level of parent involvement on 
attracting community funds remains to be seen. 

The only financial commitment from schools is to 
provide transportation to the Youth Concert. However, if 
a school has inadequate financial resources to meet this 
commitment, the PSO assists in finding funds. 



34 



Beyond 



ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 
Evaluation Forms 

The primary method of program evaluation consists of 
forms completed by parents, teachers, principals, and 
musicians. Evaluations occur both at the middle and the 
end of the school year. As possible, results of the mid-year 
evaluation influence remaining events for that year. The 
closing assembly provides an informal assessment of 
student learning. No formal assessment of student 
learning occurs at present. 

Evaluation forms are generally open-ended, allowing for 
comments in response to various questions. The questions 

cover schedule, effectiveness 
of musicians, effectiveness 
and use of materials, commu- 
nication, and general 
comments. In addition, 
teachers complete evalua- 
tions of the content and 
sequence of the musicians' 
presentation of lessons, 
giving the forms to the 
parent coordinators immedi- 
ately afterward. Interactions 
at planning and staff devel- 
opment meetings, musician 
orientation sessions, and 
regular meetings of Class Act 
coordinators also provide 
feedback. 

Results and Recommendations 

Results from 1994-95 evaluations, summarized in writing, 
included recommendations for the 1995-96 year. Among 
the cited strengths were the classroom materials and the 
development of an ongoing relationship between the 
schools and their musicians. Recommendations included 
bringing additional structure to the parent partner 
activities; planning musician lessons to focus on more 
music and less talk; making sure materials match the 
grade levels of students, particularly at higher levels; and 
considering a docent program to help fill in activities 
between musician lessons and the Youth Concert. An 
example of program change as a result of teacher/parent 
feedback is the reordering of the grade-level sequence for 
monthly lessons. Because of the potential lag time 
between the lesson and the concert (for example, 
October to May), musicians began lessons with fifth 
grade classes rather than kindergarten during 1995-96. 
Younger children thus had the least amount of time 
between the musician lesson and the Youth Concert. 



Other adaptations for 1995-96 involved combining the 
parent awareness session with the Family Night ensemble 
presentation; mandating the participation of parent 
partners as volunteer assistants for a minimum of one 
PSO event during the year; and having Class Act co- 
chairs, rather than a single chair, due to increased time 
demands. 

Problem Schools 

Problems experienced with two pilot schools that did not 
fulfill their commitments to the partnership demonstrate 
the importance of ongoing evaluation. There were 
difficulties with scheduling, teacher attitudes, facilities, 
and completion of forms, and musicians did not feel 
accepted. Because of their effective communication 
network, the PSO Education Director and Class Act 
Chair identified the problems early and worked with the 
parent coordinators and the schools to correct them. By 
the end of the pilot year, however, it was evident that the 
partnership was not functioning satisfactorily. 

The PSO decided to drop the two schools and invest in 
schools promising higher levels of commitment. Because 
the commitments of both schools and the orchestra are 
specified in writing, the PSO made the decision to drop 
based on an objective review of adherence to Class Act 
criteria. The PSO has also adapted its selection process to 
include a waiting list and a reference from a school 
district arts specialist in order to better ascertain an 
applicant school's level of commitment. 

IMPACT 

Orchestra and Musicians 

According to the Education Director, the positive 
perceptions of the orchestra resulting from Class Act 
helped pave the way to expand the program to ten 
schools. One statistical impact attributed to Class Act is 
an increase in ticket sales for the Saturday Family Series. 
Another benefit for the orchestra is the base of volunteer 
support developed through Class Act. Parent partners for 
each school must provide thirty volunteers for five hours 
of service during an event at the Performing Arts Center. 
Anyone who volunteers three times receives two free 
tickets to a PSO concert. The Education Director states, 
"We simply could not run our programs without this 
support." 



Another observed benefit appears to be the dialogue that 
is occurring among the orchestra, school personnel, and 
the community as a direct result of Class Act. During 
interviews, people repeatedly emphasized the cooperation 
that underlies the program. They suggested that an open- 
door invitation for input and feedback, combined with 
responsiveness to suggestions, is a key element of the 
partnership's success. The carryover benefit for the PSO, 
based on parent and teacher perceptions, seems to be an 
enlarged presence in the community and a perception 
that the orchestra functions on behalf of its constituents. 

The three musicians involved in Class Act enjoy the 
connection they feel with the students and the satisfac- 
tion they derive from providing music opportunities in 
the school setting. In the words of one musician, "We 
have to do our part to ensure that there are audiences for 
the future." They also believe the sense of teamwork that 
characterizes this program is something more symphony 
musicians should experience: 

If players felt like they were part of planning and making 
something work, the way we do, they'd feel a lot better 
about their jobs. They'd also be doing something to make 
sure the thing they love so much doesn't die. 

Schools, Students, and Parents 

Dramatic evidence of Class Act's impact is seen in one 
school, where classroom teachers and administrators 
devised a plan to alter the schedule so that a qualified 
classroom teacher could teach music classes. The 
teachers and parents felt that Class Act would be more 
effective if the students had an ongoing music program. A 
parent coordinator stated flatly, "This is a direct result of 
Class Act. It would not have happened without the 
partnership." A parent from another school speaks in 
terms of the impact on her own child: "We didn't have 
any music program. When Class Act came, kids started 
getting excited about the possibility of playing an 
instrument. My child plays the cello because the PSO 
brought music back into our school." 

Parents and teachers believe that in a very short time 
Class Act has reinforced the importance of music as a 
necessary part of school experience. One teacher states, 
"There are too few right-brain experiences in our curricu- 
lum. We know it's important, but now we have some 
evidence to support our claims. The people who cut the 
arts need to see how kids respond to expressive learning." 
Demonstrating an extensive set of activities she devel- 
oped in conjunction with Class Act resources, a special 
education teacher speaks eloquently of the importance of 
creativity and expression in the learning of special 
children: 



35 



Beyond 



The arts are even more important for special children 
because they don't have well-developed skills of verbal 
expression. The arts are one of the best ways to teach so 
many things - time on task, sequencing, following 
patterns, cooperation, multicultural awareness , even 
recycling - because the arts have an emotional as well as 
an intellectual component. 

Enthusiasm for Class Act among parents runs high, not 
only among those who serve as coordinators or partners, 
but within the larger community. Attendance at Family 
Night programs has nearly overwhelmed the available 
facilities. In one school, the parent-teacher organization 
has established a standing committee for Class Act. 
According to a parent, "We won't let this program go. It's 
too important to our kids." 

CODA 

In its 1995-96 series flier, Music Director Carl St. Clair 
says, "No orchestra can be considered truly great until it 
serves its own community." The impression of the PSO's 
Class Act partnership is that it is consistent with 
St.Clair's vision of greatness. By bringing parents — those 
whose vested interest in the quality of schools makes 
them the best proponents of worthy programs - to the 
table as planners and facilitators, the PSO lays the 
groundwork for weathering threats associated with 
political and administrative change, and for potential 
corporate connections. By demonstrating the value of 
music education where financial cutbacks decimated 
programs, the PSO offers a vision of schools that places 
expression and creativity among the qualities necessary in 
a complex society. Continuing development should see 
Class Act play an important role in linking the PSO 
intrinsically with the community in which it resides. 



36 



Milwaukee 



MILWAUKEE 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Site Visit: September 27-28, 1995 



OVERVIEW 

Partnership Programs 

The Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra (MSO) conducts 
several programs cooperatively with area schools. Of 
these, the most comprehensive is Arts in Community 
Education (ACE), a partnership with twenty-one 
elementary schools. Focused on integration of the arts 
across the curriculum, ACE serves 6000 children and 
their families, and 350 teachers, in communities repre- 
senting broad economic and ethnic diversity. 

Two other MSO programs provide examples of shared 
planning among the orchestra, schools, and community. 
These are the High School Concerts and the Minority 
Scholarship Program. The high school program incorpo- 
rates curriculum materials developed by a committee of 
orchestra and school personnel, and includes selected 
high school choirs in performances. The scholarship 
program offers free private instruction by volunteer MSO 
musicians to students from traditionally underserved 
minority populations. 

Range of Experiences 

ACE. Annual ACE experiences for students and their 
families include several in-school ensemble presentations, 
a youth concert at Milwaukee's performing arts center, a 
sequential curriculum linking music learning with other 
subjects, and early evening family programs at each 
school. The content of ACE is intentionally organized by 
grade level to accommodate children's developmental 
learning needs. 

High school concerts. Concert attendance is the focus of 
the High School Concerts. Repertoire is currently linked 
with a two-year cycle of curriculum materials and 
activities designed to build understanding of U.S. history 
through music and the humanities. High school choirs 
may audition to participate in one of two concert 



programs each year. If selected, the orchestra's Chorus 
Director visits the school for pre-performance training. 
Elective opportunities are available for in-school music, 
dramatic, and historical presentations by artists and 
community members. Students may take concert-related 
tours of the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Milwaukee 
Public Museum, or other venues arranged in conjunction 
with the concert themes. 

Minority scholarship program. In addition to private 
instruction with an MSO musician, the Minority 
Scholarship Program provides subscription concert 
tickets for students and their families. Students may also 
participate in master classes, student recitals, social 
events, small ensembles, repertory classes, and, through 
audition, the Milwaukee Youth Symphony Orchestra. 

PROGRAM CONCEPT 

In general, ACE, High School Concerts, and the Minor- 
ity Scholarship Program are managed similarly in that the 
orchestra initiates and oversees them. Because ACE is the 
most fully developed partnership, this report focuses on 
that program. Where descriptions refer specifically to the 
High School Concerts or Minority Scholarship Program, 
they are clearly indicated. 

Partnership Model 

The MSO's ACE program is an example of a managed 
partnership offering direct services to schools. The 
orchestra plans and implements the program, and 
shoulders major responsibility for funding. An external 
consultant, who continues as an active program advisor, 
developed the original conception and the design of 
ACE. Schools are chosen through a competitive applica- 
tion process. 



37 



Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- Program design and management 

- A free age -group orchestra concert for children and 
parents of each grade level, which connects to a 
sequential curriculum 

- Thematic, interdisciplinary curriculum design and 
concert preparation materials 

- Curriculum resources, including a "discovery box" of 
ethnic instruments and items for sound exploration 

- Professional development for teachers 

- In-school ensemble performances for each grade level 

- Early evening family ensemble programs in schools 

- Musician training 

- Leadership by MSO Education Director and external 
consultants 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- Commitment of grade-level and specialist teachers to 
teach the curriculum 

- Certified music specialist for all grade levels on 
the faculty 

- Endorsement by the principal 

- Endorsement of parent organization 

- Volunteer teacher expertise to assist with curriculum 
development 

- A designated faculty liaison to assist with in-school 
scheduling, distribution of ACE materials, and 
follow-through on program requirements 

- Five-dollar per student fee 

- Support for scheduling ensembles and concerts 

- Released time and substitute salaries so teachers can 
attend workshops 

- Bus transportation and chaperones for concerts 

- Compliance with assessment requirements 



38 



Beyond 



Time Frame 

The initial year for ACE was 1990-91, beginning with 
kindergarten classes in eleven schools. A new grade level 
has been added each year, so that by 1995-96, the 
program is serving students through the fifth grade in 
eight school districts. The potential to expand to more 
schools and grade levels is, in general, a function of fiscal 
resources available to support the program. 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

The MSO publishes the following mission statement on 

its education materials: 

The mission of the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra 
Education Program shall be the development of 
diverse, informed audiences who value live sym- 
phonic performances. This shall be achieved through 
presentation of concerts, supporting materials, and 
other activities designed for all ages, creating a 
lifetime of participation with the orchestral arts. 

ACE 

ACE endorses the broad goal of "advancing children's 
overall learning and development." This goal is devel- 
oped through the following set of ideas listed in the 
curriculum materials. 

- Arts education must be fully integrated into the total 
curricular design. 

- Children only love that which they know well. 

- The arts are basic to a child's education. 

- To ignore the arts is to produce semi-literate 
individuals. 

- This "love affair" with the arts must begin as early as 
possible. 

- Children come to value the arts through repeated 
listenings and active exploration. 

- Arts education is the responsibility of all educators. 

With these ideas as a foundation, the program seeks to 
support students' development in interdisciplinary 
learning and critical thinking, self-esteem, self-confi- 
dence, motivation, cooperation, and communication. 



Milwaukee 



High School and Minority Scholarship Programs 

The high school concert program seeks to integrate 
musical experience and cross-curricular learning for 
students in eighth through twelfth grades. The current 
two-year cycle traces the period from the American 
Revolution through twentieth-century urbanization. It 
features an interdisciplinary approach that relates music 
to literature, technology, and politics. The next two-year 
cycle will address major themes in world literature and 
music. 

Beyond encouraging talented minority students in 
instrumental music, the scholarship program has the 
broader goal of building relationships between musicians 
and students. Through positive relationships, the program 
seeks to foster students' responsibility, goal setting, self- 
discipline, and self-esteem. 

PROGRAM PLANNING AND 
IMPLEMENTATION 

The senior-level Director of Education and Outreach, the 
Education Concert Manager, and the Education Assistant 
manage education program development. These staff 
members work with a board education committee, which 
includes teacher representatives, an Educators Advisory 
Council, and the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra 
League (MSOL). The MSOL plays an important role in 
fund raising and in volunteer support of education 
programs. MSOL volunteers are available for concert 
preparation in schools and to greet and usher students at 
education concerts. 

ACE 

ACE evolved out of a desire on the part of the MSO to 
expand its education efforts beyond concert performances 
for students. The orchestra believed there was value in 
relating more closely with schools and communities 
through arts education programs. The MSOL supported 
this initiative and funded an initial needs and resources 
study. To shape these efforts, the MSO employed a 
consultant who had designed other orchestra education 
programs as a program advisor. The adopted model 
focuses on interdisciplinary learning through the arts, 
incorporates live performance experiences in the context 
of a planned curriculum, and includes systematic assess- 
ment of student characteristics relative to the program. 

Ongoing program planning involves the Education 
Director, a curriculum specialist, the program advisor, the 
MSO's Resident and Assistant Conductors, and an 
assessment specialist. In general, they develop plans for a 
given school year during the winter months of the 
preceding year. 



School selection. Schools submit applications to be 
selected as MSO partners. Criteria used in reviewing 
applications include evidence of comfort and excitement 
regarding the ACE philosophy and approach; breadth of 
ethnic and socioeconomic representation desired among 
ACE schools; and evidence of school-wide commitment 
among teachers, principal, and parents. Requirements of 
partner schools are listed earlier under School Contribu- 
tions. 

Curriculum. Each grade level receives a curriculum 
resource package, written by the ACE curriculum 
specialist, that is consistent with the developmental 
learning characteristics of the age group. The concepts 
and activities are sequential, building on prior years' 
experiences. The approach is unified across grade levels 
by using basic music concepts as a foundation for under- 
standing, and by emphasizing exploration, problem- 
solving, multiple forms of literacy, wonder, belonging to a 
caring community, and feeling unique and important. 

The ACE curriculum is intended to enhance, not to 
replace, music curriculums in the schools. Connections 
between music and other subjects are based on a review 
of concepts and skills being taught across the curriculum 
in partner schools. 

Grade-level themes are as follows: 

Kindergarten Family of Music - composer, conductor, performer, and 
audience - social development and relationships in all 
types of families 

Grade I Musical Tales - events, thoughts, and emotions in 

relation to development of language, reading, and 
creative writing 

Grade 2 Detectives - problem-solving and critical thinking skills 

Grades 3 & 4 Children of Wisconsin, Children of the World - 
multicultural awareness sensitivity, and pride 

African, Hispanic, and European cultures (grade three) 

Native American, Asiatic, and folk cultures of Europe and 
America (grade five) 

Grade 5 The Sounds of Science - parallels between artistic and 

scientific processes 

Problem-solving 

Interconnections between the arts and sciences in areas 
such as acoustics, use of nature as inspiration in the arts, 
and physiology of hearing and producing sound 



39 



Each curriculum packet includes an overview of ACE, 
background on child development and learning in the 
arts, suggested interdisciplinary teaching/learning 
strategies, and resources for extension. 

The music content for each grade level includes orches- 
tral pieces that musicians will perform at the symphony 
concert. Concert repertoire is chosen to match children's 
perceptual abilities and attention spans, as well as to 
illustrate concepts. It is selected in part from each grade's 
core listening repertoire, which remains constant from 
year to year. In addition to providing continuity, the 
MSO Resident Conductor indicates that using a core 
repertoire frees teachers from having to learn all new 
pieces every year. 

Ensembles. Twelve MSO ensembles, an MSO chorus 
ensemble, MSO Resident and Assistant Conductors, and 
twenty-one cultural partner artists and ensembles perform 
in schools. There are three in-school visits (four in 
kindergarten) to each grade level per year, presented for 
about fifty to seventy-five children at a time. Cultural 
partners reflect cooperation between the orchestra and 
other artistic and cultural organizations, broadening ACE 
content to include opera, jazz, theatre, dance, and ethnic 
music. In-school performances relate to the grade-level 
curriculum themes and engage children in interaction 
with performers. They last one class period, or about 35- 
45 minutes. 

Musician training. Conductors and members of MSO 
ensembles that perform in schools receive a three-session 
training program from the ACE program advisor. The 
sessions include familiarizing the ensemble with the 
curriculum theme, developing a concept for the presenta- 
tion, and doing a run-through for comments. Ensembles 
entering their second year of participation have a program 
review session with the program advisor. Musicians report 
that the training is extremely helpful: "We learn how to 
develop a theme out of our own strengths, to share what 
we most want to get across about what we do." The 
enthusiasm for doing in-school programs is evident: "This 
is our future. Kids learn to know us as individuals because 
we get them participating with us." 

In one program observed during the site visit, musicians 
explored the second-grade detective theme through 
simple costumes and questioning techniques that required 
the children to watch and listen carefully. The students 
were fully engaged throughout the performance. In a 
post-performance interview, presenters indicated that one 
of the challenges is to keep the program "fun" for them- 
selves. They mentioned that while they know the grade- 
level theme, they are not well-acquainted with the 
concepts and activities of the curriculum. This kind of 
information would be useful, they believe, in making sure 
their presentations connect with the children's learning. 



40 



Beyond 



Concerts. ACE students and teachers attend a school- 
day orchestra concert at the performing arts center. 
Parents are also invited to attend. The conductor (MSO 
Resident or Assistant) determines the repertoire for 
concerts in coordination with the core repertoire of the 
ACE curriculum. In grades K-2, the concerts are spe- 
cially designed for ACE schools, and connect with the 
curriculum themes. In grades three, four, and five, they 
overlap with the MSO's Youth Concert series, two 
programs of which are designed to coordinate with grade- 
level curriculum themes. The annual youth concert 
program, "Kaleidoscope," for example, relates to the 
multicultural theme by featuring culturally diverse music, 
and using cultural partners for authentic performances of 
ethnic music and dance. In fifth grade, "The Science of 
Sound" concert reinforces the curricular theme of 
parallels between scientific and musical exploration. 

Family/parent involvement. In conjunction with each 
partner school's parent organization, ACE provides one 
early-evening ensemble presentation for families. Parents 
interviewed during the site visit indicate that their 
children speak frequently of ACE activities at home and 
insist that their parents attend evening events. One low- 
income inner-city school drew 375 people to its ACE 
family concert in 1995-96. Continuing growth in 
attendance at evening programs appears to parallel 
increased parent involvement in planning. There is also a 
parent newsletter that includes ideas for at-home activi- 
ties related to ACE. Schools may also involve families in 
other ways. For example, some schools have an evening 
program where children share what they have learned. 

Professional development for teachers. The primary 
in-service training for teachers consists of two half-day 
workshops per year. An optional curriculum development 
workshop is available during the summer. Generally, 
grade-level teachers in their first and second years as 
ACE participants attend the workshops. Art and music 
specialists continue to attend each year because of the 
addition of a new grade level and/or working with new 
teachers in the program. Veteran ACE teachers also 
present strategies as part of the in-service training. In 
addition to the curriculum, workshops introduce teachers 
to their roles in documenting and assessing student work. 

Instructional planning and teaching. A requirement of 
all ACE schools is that they employ a certified music 
specialist serving all grade levels. School personnel 
emphasize that for ACE to work, there has to be a 
"culture of collegiality" within the school, i.e., a willing- 
ness to work together. ACE materials do not offer a 
prescriptive curriculum. Materials and resources are 
provided, and teachers determine how they can work 
collaboratively to implement them. Teachers agree that 
joint planning time greatly facilitates ACE. Some schools 



Milwaukee 



have restructured schedules to provide limited opportuni- 
ties; in others, teachers have volunteered their own time 
to plan cooperatively. 

Teachers also agree that ACE is best viewed as something 
that can he integrated into existing programs, rather than 
as an add-on. Some classroom teachers at workshops held 
during the site visit expressed feelings of anxiety and 
uncertainty associated with ACE expectations. They 
were concerned about their lack of a music background, 
the pressures of existing curriculum expectations, and the 
fear of failure. 

According to teachers, music specialists frequently play a 
key role in facilitating cooperation to meet ACE goals. In 
one school, grade-level teachers emphasize writing tasks 
related to the ACE curriculum, whereas the music 
specialist oversees the "doing" of music activities. In 
another, grade-level teachers use the ACE repertoire as a 
background during seat work in order to prepare the 
children for perceptive listening during music classes. 
Teacher reluctance to incorporate ACE into classroom 
settings, including music, is generally overcome by a 
positive school climate and evidence that ACE enhances 
rather than replaces existing programs. 

High School Concerts 

The two-year curricular theme of American history is an 
attempt to bring focus and depth to the high school 
concerts. The four-concert series addresses the following 
topics: U.S. Civil War, American Revolution, immigra- 
tion, and urbanization. Building on a tradition of involv- 
ing selected high school choirs with the MSO in perfor- 
mances, the programs now also incorporate cross- 
curricular materials that correlate with programs of study 
in the humanities. In addition, schools may enrich the 
trip to the concert with related activities at Milwaukee 
museums, or by hosting community professional artists 
and authorities selected by MSO education staff for 
relevant presentations. 

Orchestra personnel, curriculum specialists from public 
schools, professional historians, and teachers 
collaboratively develop curriculum themes and materials. 
The concert repertoire is specially chosen by conductors 
to integrate with the curriculum theme. The MSO makes 
it clear that the concert and materials are intended to 
enhance broader study: "This ... is not an historical 
study which goes deeply into causes and effects. ... It is 
our intention ... to address crucial turning points . . . 
with a focus on the arts, past and present." 

School administrators and teachers believe this approach 
deepens students' understanding of history. A history 
teacher explains: "Students gain a sense of the total social 



context surrounding historical events, rather than seeing 
them as isolated occurrences." A superintendent empha- 
sizes the fact that students need to feel part of a "commu- 
nity of learning. The concert demonstrates that learning 
is holistic and connected across many fields of human 
endeavor. Moreover, music provides an emotional 
connection that influences our ability to recall events in 
context." A language arts teacher reinforces the issue of 
context: "learning becomes a layered, penetrating 
experience. There is a context established that is not 
possible to convey in a classroom. This experience will 
remain with them well beyond any words we use to 
describe historical events." 

Focusing on the historical theme is not without its 
challenges. The MSO Chorus Director, for example, 
notes that it can take considerable effort to find literature 
that meets the triple criteria of connecting with the 
historical themes, being appropriate for high school 
voices, and fitting the instrumentation of the orchestra. 
School personnel may have to defend the program 
against criticisms that concert attendance represents a 
non-essential field trip. And orchestra administrators 
have to ensure that there is a sufficient audience to justify 
the programs. 

Nevertheless, there is agreement that moving beyond a 
"presentation" mode to connecting concerts to the high 
school curriculum appears to have positive implications 
for everyone. Most importantly, participants believe that 
the contribution to student learning justifies the time and 
energy required to make the integrated approach succeed. 

Minority Scholarship Program 

The minority program arose in part from several con- 
cerns: a) lack of minority participation in symphony 
orchestras and audiences, b) noticed declines in the 
number of instrumental students in schools, and c) a 
desire to provide opportunities for communities poten- 
tially underserved by classical music organizations. 
Originally sparked by the efforts of an MSO bassoonist, a 
number of orchestra musicians volunteer their time to 
give lessons to talented students. Since the program's 
inception in 1989, forty-four students and forty MSO 
musicians have participated. Small ensemble performance 
opportunities, master and repertory classes, attendance at 
MSO concerts, and social events enrich the lesson 
experience. 

Managed by the MSO's Education Concert Manager, the 
Minority Participation in the Arts sub-committee of the 
MSO's board education committee oversees the program. 
Music supervisors and teachers recommend students and 
participate in interviews that are a part of the selection 
process. A natural connection exists with ACE, in that 



41 



heightened awareness among all teachers for providing 
arts opportunities yields more focus on identifying 
students likely to benefit from private instruction. The 
program maintains an enrollment of about thirty stu- 
dents. Students are predominantly African- American, 
Hispanic- American, and Native American. The MSO 
provides materials and supplies for low-income families. 
Where necessary, the MSO loans instruments at no cost. 

Parental support is a critical element of the Minority 
Scholarship Program. Parents must see that students get 
to lessons, support at-home practice, and help students 
balance their schedules among competing priorities. As a 
condition of acceptance, parents and students sign a 
commitment form that covers lesson scheduling and 
attendance, daily practice, improvement over a three- 
month trial period, and participation in enrichment 
opportunities provided by the orchestra. Because the 
musicians are volunteers, schedules may need to be 
flexible, or musicians may need to discontinue the 
lessons. In these cases, the MSO promises students and 
parents that every effort will be made to find another 
teacher from the orchestra. 

PROGRAM SUPPORT 
Financial Support 

The MSO provides the major financial support for 
partnership programs. Fund raising occurs under the 
auspices of the MSO's development staff. The MSO 
League is also a significant source of financial support for 
all education programs. The MSO maintains three 
education staff positions, including the Director of 
Education and Outreach, the Education Concert Man- 
ager, and the Education Assistant. 

Financial underwriting of ACE includes support from 
major foundations with local affiliates and Milwaukee- 
area private foundations. Expenditures include remu- 
neration of the program consultant, curriculum specialist, 
and assessment specialist; support of in-school ensemble 
and cultural partner presentations; maintenance of in- 
service programs; and production/distribution of all 
curriculum and curriculum support materials. Concert 
expenses include separate ACE concerts for grades 
kindergarten, one, and two, and ACE overlap with 
regular Youth Concerts in grades three, four, and five. 
These expenses also include costs for cultural partners 
who may perform with the orchestra. 

The required five-dollar-per-student fee covers approxi- 
mately ten percent of budgeted ACE expenditures. 
Schools also pay to transport students to concerts. In 
some schools, parent organizations have contributed 
funds to purchase audio playback equipment for class- 



42 



Beyond Tradition 



rooms. Student ticket sales for high school concerts cover 
about twenty-five percent of the orchestra's incurred 
expenses. Schools supply transportation to the concerts. 
A designated fund composed of private contributions 
supports the Minority Scholarship Program, which incurs 
minimal costs. 

Organizational Support 

Conductors. Discussions with teachers and parents 
indicate their sense that conductors strongly support 
education endeavors. They make school visits for ACE, 
train MSOL volunteers to do concert preparation in 
schools, lead concert preparation for Minority Scholar- 
ship students and their parents, and develop programs 
that are both appropriate for the age levels of students 
and inclusive of challenging repertoire. They have 
wedded repertoire to curriculums, and have intentionally 
demonstrated cultural diversity through repertoire and 
guest performers. According to one parent, the success of 
high school concerts is due in large part to the 
conductor's ability to program compelling repertoire and 
establish rapport with the audience. The MSO's Resident 
Conductor, interviewed during the site visit, does not 
believe in "playing down" to kids: "It is essential to 
provide an authentic orchestra experience." He believes 
education, in the broadest sense, is the mission of the 
orchestra, and that a strong relationship with schools is 
integral to this mission. 

Musicians. MSO musicians show high levels of support 
for education programs. The fact that 25-30 percent of 
MSO's core musicians participate in in-school ensemble 
programs, and that others volunteer to teach students in 
the Minority Scholarship Program offers significant 
evidence of their backing. One musician proclaims, "This 
is the most important thing I do." Another says, "We 
have to do it because we believe in art as a vital part of 
existence." And yet another offers this perspective: "If we 
don't do education programs today, we have no future 
tomorrow." 

Schools. While schools function mainly as beneficiaries 
of MSO efforts, the programs could not operate without 
school support. Teachers and parents are uniformly 
enthusiastic about all three partnership programs. In 
ACE, specialists and grade-level teachers commit to 
sharing instructional responsibilities; in the high school 
program, literature and history teachers are the ones who 
integrate symphony materials into their classrooms. In 
the words of one classroom teacher, "The question about 
doing ACE is not whether we will, but how we will. Now 
that we have ACE, we would not want to be without it." 

Parents. Parent support for partnership programs is 
evident in levels of participation in ACE family events 
and in their commitment to the Minority Scholarship 



Milwaukee 



Program. Parents and teachers in one class reported that 
sixteen of twenty-one parents came with their children to 
an end-of-year ACE sharing program. One music teacher 
reports that she gives a presentation on ACE to the 
school's parent organization every year. As a result, 
parents in that school have purchased stereos for their 
children's classrooms. 

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 
Student Assessment - ACE Projects 

A prominent feature of ACE is its extensive and system- 
atic approach to student assessment. A university-level 
music education expert, who specifies the documentation 
requirements and guides the review of materials, oversees 
the assessment. As part of the school's participation, 
teachers are required to submit "A Culminating Experi- 
ence" project at the end of the year. The highest partici- 
pating grade in each school must submit a video record- 
ing of its project. In addition, the assessment team 
reviews teacher journals and evaluation forms completed 
by parents, teachers, school administrators, and ensemble 
artists regarding the effectiveness of in-school ensemble 
presentations. 

The assessment procedure grows out of the grade-level 
curricular themes. The culminating project consists of a 
four-phase sequence that documents introduction/ 
discussion of the project with students, creation/develop- 
ment of the project, performing the project for others, 
and reflecting on the project. Based on an authentic 
assessment model, the project is an actual classroom 
activity, documented by videotaping one classroom of 
students through all four phases. It may occur over a 
period of weeks, and teachers must design the project to 
demonstrate concepts and skills related to the curriculum 
themes, interdisciplinary learning, critical thinking, and 
evaluation skills. 

Insight into student development associated with ACE is 
gleaned from a systematic review of the culminating 
projects. The assessment specialist has developed a 
qualitative scoring rubric that assigns five levels of 
achievement over four dimensions of student learning 
and social behavior: 1) learning as a group through a 
collaborative project, 2) concept acquisition and think- 
ing skills, 3) ways of showing understanding and commu- 
nication, and 4) perceptions about learning within the 
classroom. 

Teachers are introduced to the assessment procedure 
during in-service training. Suggestions are given for ways 
to develop projects. For example, having children choose 
a story and add instrumental sounds, movement, and 



singing to it demonstrates the kindergarten theme. In 
first grade, the children write an original story, then add 
movement and music. 

Results of the assessment are shared with schools and are 
used in ongoing ACE planning. Like ACE itself, the 
assessment procedure has evolved over time, and is still 
being refined to give the most reliable information about 
students and their achievement. 

Findings of ACE Assessment 

The assessment specialist sees clear progress in student 
achievement associated with ACE. In the category of 
collaboration in learning, students are less teacher reliant 
and more empowered to develop their own ideas. They 
demonstrate the ability to consider ideas from different 
class members, to choose one idea, and to pursue it with a 
sense of group ownership. 

In the category of concept acquisition, students are 
progressing in their ability to connect ACE themes across 
the curriculum. Students demonstrate understanding and 
judgement, as in the case of a student who suggested 
using instruments that were more authentic in a 
multicultural experience than homemade ones. Students 
also demonstrate greater independence in learning as 
teachers move from "telling" modes to "facilitating" 
modes. 

In demonstrating understanding and communication 
skills, students are synthesizing experiences and recalling 
information in ways that enhance creativity. Insights into 
the quality of their projects are becoming increasingly 
sophisticated. 

With regard to perceptions of learning in the classroom, 
students increasingly evidence comfort in sharing ideas 
and making suggestions. Students are enthusiastic 
participants in all phases of the culminating project, and 
they appear to take risks without embarrassment. 

Program Evaluation 

The ACE assessment is the major avenue of information 
regarding the effectiveness of the program. In addition, 
parents, teachers, and ensembles complete evaluation 
forms, and feedback is offered orally at workshops and 
committee meetings. Teachers also maintain journals, 
and the curriculum packets invites them to share ideas 
and activities that successfully implement the themes. 
School visits by the MSO Education Director and ACE 
curriculum specialist provide additional information. 



43 



In general, MSO staff and consultants believe ACE is 
making important contributions to children's learning 
and to positive school climates. Written feedback to 
each school allows for citing of strengths and areas 
needing improvement. In addition, the assessment team 
is able to effect changes in program planning and 
implementation, and in professional development, based 
on observations made during reviews of the culminating 
projects. 

For example, the assessment team has discovered that 
implementing the third grade curriculum theme in the 
context of the schools' ongoing programs presents some 
peculiar difficulties. By bringing the problem to the 
attention of the schools and the planning team, adjust- 
ments may be made in curriculum content, in the 
suggested activities, in workshop content, and in the ways 
teachers elect to teach the curriculum. Because the 
assessment is ongoing, subsequent culminating projects 
will indicate whether changes appear to have resolved 
the original problems. 

IMPACT 

Schools and Curriculum 

School administrators and teachers agree that ACE can 
have important implications for how a school operates. 
For example, one teacher described how her school had 
tried several different approaches to an interdisciplinary 
curriculum. The problem, she said, was that there was 
never enough of a structure from which to work: 

ACE, however, is different. ACE brings a structure that 
requires us to work together and to be creative. It doesn't 
tell us what to do, but it gives us clear ideas about how to 
connect our different subjects, and how to get the art and 
music specialists more involved with the regular class- 
room. And it offers the special concerts and programs 
that help tie everything together. 

An enthusiastic school administrator believes ACE 
connects well with a school and teachers who are already 
creative: "If you're a good teacher, you'll buy into ACE. 
It's consistent with the 'cutting edge' in education today." 
This administrator and several other teachers find that an 
important effect of ACE is the empowerment of teachers 
to communicate and to lobby for more shared planning 
time. According to one teacher, "The program can't work 
if we don't cooperate. Because of how good the program 
is, we wanted to work together, and we found some ways." 
Teachers seem to agree that if they demonstrate how 
cooperation improves learning, administrators will be 
more willing to schedule shared planning time. 



44 



Beyond 



There is nearly unanimous agreement that integration of 
subject matter through the arts, combined with discrete 
learning in arts disciplines, enriches the curriculum. 
There is also agreement that arts specialists are a neces- 
sary element. In one school, the staff has agreed to teach 
more physical education themselves in order to "buy" a 
full-time art teacher. Teachers state it this way: 

We can do a certain amount with music, but it is harder 
to feel comfortable with music than it is with physical 
education. We felt we needed the art and music teachers 
to be the experts and to help us with ideas and activities. 
That way, we can tie what they're learning in music into 
other subjects, but we don't have to teach the basic music 
skills they need in order to understand the connections. I 
don't think it would work if we were expected to do that - 
we just don't have the knowledge. 

Because the ACE application requires evidence of 
support from the parent association, parents are generally 
aware of the program from the outset. One parent 
indicates that the ensemble visits are the one thing her 
child speaks of most frequently in regard to school. This 
parent also indicates that the family program assures 
parents that ACE is not just about techniques of teach- 
ing: "ACE is a philosophy, a belief. It tells us that the 
orchestra cares about the entire community." Parents 
have volunteered to assist in chaperoning trips to 
concerts, to help with evening programs, and to help the 
school raise the five-dollar-per-student ACE fee. 

Orchestra 

As a result of its education initiatives, the MSO's 
Education Director believes that the community is now 
beginning to perceive the orchestra as a "good neighbor": 
"There is certainly more trust among our constituencies 
that we, like they, are committed to the welfare of our 
entire community." MSO administrative staff are eager to 
see the extent to which this apparent community 
engagement translates into sustained funding, both for 
ACE and for the orchestra at large. At present, there are 
indications that funders are impressed by the orchestra's 
substantive commitment to schools. The orchestra has 
elected to demonstrate this commitment in part by 
making the Director of Education and Outreach a senior- 
level administrative position. 

Musicians believe the opportunity to participate in 
education programs, particularly as part of the ensembles 
that visit schools, provides a chance to be seen as 
individuals rather than simply as members of a large 
orchestra. One musician believes this is good for orches- 
tra members and for students: 



Milwaukee 



We have a sense of identity that we might not have 
otherwise - we feel as though we're making a more direct 
difference in kids' lives. And kids who might be interested 
in music have a chance to see us as individuals who have 
pursued certain goals to get where we are. 

Musicians also find that they feel energized by the 
opportunity to create and shape performances, and to 
perform in more intimate settings: "We get to demon- 
strate that we are creative artists, and I think that gives 
kids a model for creativity in their lives." 

The Education Director reports that when the MSO went 
through some difficult labor negotiations a few years ago, 
ACE became a common rallying point for the board, the 
administration, and the musicians: "Whatever we did, it 
was clear that no one wanted a retreat from the things we 
were doing in education, particularly ACE." She takes 
this as evidence that the new roles of musicians, the 
satisfaction of giving to the community, and the positive 
perceptions of education programs by school personnel 
and parents are combining to forge a collaborative 
investment in quality education in Milwaukee. 

CODA 

There is a clear sense of excitement in Milwaukee about 
the orchestra's education mission and initiatives. Teach- 
ers, parents, board members, and school and symphony 
administrators eagerly share their view that the symphony 
is an important player in a broad, school improvement 
effort. Moreover, orchestra personnel believe that the 
long-term benefit of education outreach will be stronger 
integration of the orchestra with the community, and 
hence a foundation for continued cultural and artistic 
vitality in Milwaukee. 

The route that the MSO has pursued in connecting with 
schools has been largely grass-roots. If teachers, parents, 
and principals are enthused, and results are apparent, the 
larger system will respond. Conversations with orchestra 
administrators also indicate, however, that they believe 
connection at system administrative levels may be 
necessary to ensure long-term commitments and expan- 
sion from elementary to secondary schools. Sustainability 
is an ever-present question, and the balance of invest- 
ment among the orchestra, the schools, and the commu- 
nity requires continuing appraisal. At the same time, the 
orchestra must deal with the challenges, both fiscal and 
logistical, of expanding the program to new elementary 
schools and to higher grade levels. MSO administrators 
anticipate that progression into middle schools will 
strengthen district-level participation. 



The impression is that those who are most directly 
associated with children's learning value the orchestra's 
approach of connecting symphony programs to school 
curriculums. It is also consistent with current research 
demonstrating the value of arts experiences across various 
dimensions of the learning process. With continued 
documentation of the impact of the partnership on 
learning and schools, there appears to be clear potential 
for a long-term MSO role in ensuring quality education 
for the children of Milwaukee. 



45 



Beyond 



46 



Boston 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 

Boston Music Education Collaborative 

Site visit: November 2-3, 1995 



OVERVIEW 

Schools and the Boston Music 
Education Collaborative 

The Boston Music Education Collaborative (BMEC) is a 
partnership among the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
(BSO), the New England Conservatory of Music (NEC), 
WGBH Educational Foundation (public broadcasting), 
and the Boston Public Schools (BPS). The program 
serves students in six elementary, one K-8, and three 
middle schools. The schools, all in the inner city, have 
predominantly lower socioeconomic minority popula- 
tions. In 1995-96, the partnership reached approximately 
3000 children in grades one through three and six 
through eight. 

History 

Early in the 1990s, two overlapping concerns at the BSO 
provided an impetus for broadened education initiatives: 
a) the ongoing challenge of connecting the orchestra 
with a culturally diverse community, and b) growing 
sentiment that the orchestra should play a more active 
role in supporting music education in the public schools. 
Two decades of economic and social upheaval, a declin- 
ing tax base, and competition for available monies had 
resulted in severe cutbacks in school music programs. 
Spurred by the interest of several trustees, the partners 
began discussions regarding a possible BSO response. 
Trustees, administrators, and musicians agreed that the 
issues were larger than audience development. They felt 
that the BSO, an historic, world-class institution, could 
aid local school improvement by committing energy and 
resources to Boston's music education programs. 

Finding similar interests at NEC and WGBH, the BSO 
joined these institutions and the BPS in pursuing a 
cooperative, comprehensive music education effort. The 
partners determined that the relationship would be 



evolutionary rather than prescribed, and that the BPS 
would be a full-fledged partner, rather than only a 
beneficiary. According to the BSO's Director of Educa- 
tional Activities, the cultural institutions were more 
interested in participating as partners than in having to 
manage the partnership. This stance, combined with the 
intensive labor of coordinating resources with classroom 
settings, resulted in the creation of BMEC, a separate 
administrative entity charged with facilitating the 
partnership. Besides managing partnership operations, 
BMEC serves as a catalyst for program planning, the focus 
of which is redeveloping music education as a core 
element of generalized school improvement in the city of 
Boston. 

Range of Experiences 

Direct music experiences, based on singing, moving, and 
playing instruments, are essential to the BMEC approach. 
Teachers incorporate performance into classrooms in 
order to teach understanding of music as a discipline, and 
to enhance learning in other subjects. School music 
specialists and classroom teachers provide instruction. In 
middle schools, students also participate in instrumental 
and choral ensembles. Student aides from the NEC visit 
classrooms to assist teachers with resources and instruc- 
tion. Individual musicians (volunteer "godparents") from 
the BSO establish ongoing relationships with students in 
specific schools. Visiting the schools two or more times 
each year, they play their instruments, discuss their lives 
as musicians, and reinforce basic music concepts. BSO- 
member ensembles also perform in some schools. BMEC 
contracts selected performing artists in the Boston area to 
visit schools and provide experiences with music of 
various cultures. Children in partner schools may attend 



47 



Youth Concerts at the BSO, depending on availability of 
bus transportation from the BPS. Children who demon- 
strate particular musical talent may receive 
scholarships for other BSO and NEC programs. 

PROGRAM CONCEPT 

Partnership Model 

BMEC represents an adaptive partnership model based 
on principles of organizational collaboration. The 
partnership intends to accomplish more than any one 
institution can accomplish alone, drawing on the unique 
resources of each partner in tandem with the others. By 
design, BMEC combines hands-on oversight from top- 
level administrators of partner institutions with recom- 
mendations and decisions by teachers, BMEC staff, and 
symphony musicians. The purpose of this design is to 
ensure investment at all levels, and to develop a sustain- 
able program that can weather personnel changes and 
organizational restructuring. 

Participants in BMEC decided that operations, partner 
roles, and programs would be flexible and organic, rather 
than static and imposed. Thus, a distinguishing trait of 
the operation is that partner needs and aspirations, 
especially those indicated by teachers in the BPS, drive 
BMEC from within. Site-visit interviews also revealed a 
strong desire among partners to ensure community ties 
through parent involvement. A recent effort involves 
building parent liaison groups to provide feedback and 
participate in program planning. 

According to BMEC, their underlying assumptions 
include the following. 

- A clear focus on transformation within inner-city 
public schools 

- Community-responsive programming through 
interactive feedback centering on classroom teachers 

- Sustainability through sequential student learning, 
professional development, parent education, effective 
assessment, and advocacy 

- Replicability through a clearly documented process 
of implementation 

- Accountability through the incorporation of 
national standards, valid program assessment, and 
assessment of the partnership's implications for 
public policy 

These assumptions reflect principles that have been 
found to support successful collaborations in a number 
of fields. 



48 



Beyond 



Operating Structure 

BMEC operates as an autonomous administrative agency, 
functioning as a broker for program development. Basing 
its approach on systemic change through teacher empow- 
erment, BMEC relies on teachers as pedagogical experts 
and advisors. Their suggestions are the basis for coordina- 
tion of school services. Through BMEC, each partner 
responds to school needs out of its unique mission and 
resources. 

BMEC has its own Board of Directors and five staff 
members. The Board of Directors consists of top-level 
administrators and representatives of the partner institu- 
tions, as well as other community, arts, and education 
leaders. Through the BMEC board, the four partner 
institutions share tasks of policy setting, supervision, 
financial stability, and accountability for the partnership 
and its programs. To focus its work, the Board is divided 
into five task forces: management, education, fund raising, 
public relations, and community relations. The BMEC 
staff includes an executive director, two project coordina- 
tors, a director of external relations, and an administrative 
assistant. The executive director works closely with 
administrators of each organization, particularly in matters 
of management and funding. The four partners jointly 
manage fund raising. BMEC has its own office space, 
located in relative proximity to the NEC and the BSO. 

BMEC Contributions to Partnership 

- Centralized operations for management 
and leadership 

- Impetus for communication and resource sharing 

- Financial support/coordination of curriculum 
planning 

- Resource center/financial support for instructional 
materials 

- Professional development, including stipends 

- Scheduling 

- School performances by cultural partners 

- Supervision by a board of cultural and community 
leaders 

- Support for activities such as local concert 
attendance 



Boston 



BSO Contributions to Partnership 

- Membership on the BMEC hoard, including the 
BSO's Managing Director and Director of 
Educational Activities 

- Guaranteed BMEC funding 

- Staff support for fiscal operations and fund-raising 

- Free school-day youth concerts for partner schools, 
including pre-concert materials and preparation 

- Hosting summer workshop at Tanglewood 

- Arts immersion and strings education programs for 
selected students 

- Recruitment of BSO musicians for voluntary school 
visits (godparent program) 

- In-school ensemble performances 

NEC Contributions to Partnership 

- Membership on the BMEC board 

- Guaranteed BMEC funding 

- Staff time for development of funding sources 

- Student music aides for partner schools 

- Pedagogical consultation and identification of 
teaching resource personnel 

- Continuing education classes, such as recorder, 
guitar, and computer, as part of the BMEC 
professional development package 

- Cooperation in the use of facilities and resources, for 
example having a BMEC children's choir sing with 
Maestro Seiji Ozawa at the re-opening of NEC's 
Jordan Hall 

WGBH Contributions to Partnership 

- Membership on the BMEC board 

- Hosting partner school students at live broadcasts 

- A library of videos for curriculum resource packages 

- In-school filming of partnership activities 

- Public service announcements 



School Contributions to Partnership 

- Membership on the BMEC board 

- Commitment of classroom teachers and music 
specialists to professional development, curriculum 
planning, and teaching 

- Administrative cooperation at system and local 
school levels 



- Teacher attendance at planning meetings throughout 
the year 

Time Frame 

The 1993-94 school year was both a design year and 
initial implementation period. The first full year of 
operation was 1994-95. The cultural institution partners 
currently guarantee funding through the completion of 
the pilot phase in August 1997. 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

Evolution of Goals and Objectives 

BMEC did not begin with a set of predetermined objec- 
tives. Rather, it relied upon open-ended interchange 
among the three cultural institutions and the BPS. These 
discussions included focus groups of teachers who 
developed "wish lists" for the partnership. The teachers 
raised issues, such as the small number of employed music 
specialists, the lack of music-teaching equipment and 
resources, and the use of music class as a "drop-off' for 
students. As a result, BMEC adopted the following goals: 
a) to rebuild music education from within the system; b) 
to help schools see music teachers as essential to a 
balanced curriculum; c) to overcome isolation of the 
music specialist from other faculty; (d) and to enhance 
the role of music in learning across the curriculum. 

Ten "measures for school implementation," which were 
borrowed from the original partnership proposal, frame 
the direction for the work of BMEC. 

Music instruction 

Professional enrichment and sustained networking 

Transformation of the total curricular experience 

Contact with professional musicians 

Community building/Parental involvement 

Student self-assessment 

Events at the BSO, WGBH television and radio stations, and the NEC 

Special mentoring and career activities for middle school students 

Continuation of the experience outside the school year 

Ongoing program assessment 



49 



The measures serve as continuing benchmarks for 
determining strategies, reviewing achievements, and 
setting future directions. 

Mission Statement 

BMEC's formal mission statement, developed after a year 
of discussion, speaks to the partners' commitment to 
infusing music into the BPS, making a difference in the 
quality of education, institutionalizing music as part of 
the core framework of the K-12 curriculum in the BPS, 
and focusing partner resources in support of individual 
schools' evolving objectives. 

Objectives 

- Commit the pooled resources of major cultural and 
educational institutions in order to promote 
permanent learning habits for success through music: 
teamwork, practice, creativity, and concentration. 

- Provide excellent instrumental and vocal skill 
achievement opportunities. 

- Make a compelling case for all public schools to 
adopt excellent K-12 integrated music programs. 

- Enhance the schools' use of music for shared learning 
across diverse ethnic cultures. 

- Build a sustainable, two-way, open door policy 
among cultural institutions, public schools, and the 
families of Boston. 

- Serve as a resource and model for other U.S. cities to 
build shared responsibilities among public and 
private institutions for improving urban education. 

- Provide viable alternatives to students on how to 
spend their leisure time. 

Strategies 

- Support the collaboration of music specialists and 
classroom teachers in bringing musical experiences 
into every classroom. 

- Provide resources, such as New England 
Conservatory student aides, BSO orchestra players, 
and WGBH, videos, to support instrumental and 
vocal programs run by BPS music specialists. 

- Assess the potential effect of music on other 
academic areas. 



50 



Beyond 



- Provide successful formats through which cultural 
institutions can increase the significance of their 
outreach efforts. 

- Assist in the adoption of consistency, continuity, and 
flexibility as educational guidelines. 

- Provide a year-long vehicle for increasing parent 
commitment to their children's education through 
attending student performances and additional music 
appreciation activities. 

- Effect an advocacy campaign for the project that will 
insure its permanence through public demand and 
public funding. 

- Document the process and the success of the BMEC 
in order to provide a model for other public-private 
programs. 

PROGRAM PLANNING 
AND IMPLEMENTATION 

Flexible Program Design 

Discussions regarding ways that the partnering cultural 
institutions could effect a stronger presence in education 
and the community began in 1990. As program ideas 
began to take shape, there was agreement on two points: 
1) the partnership would be flexible and evolving; and 2) 
it would be tailored to the unique characteristics of the 
community, the schools, and the participating cultural 
institutions. 

At one point, the partners hired a consultant to develop 
a proposal based on existing models. However, the Boston 
partners determined that a prescribed design was incon- 
sistent with their goal of sustained community respon- 
siveness. An advantage of this approach, according to 
BMEC's Executive Director, is that the cultural institu- 
tions continually challenge themselves to develop new 
avenues of response instead of relying on BMEC to solicit 
services. One partner representative states it this way: 
"Because we have a shared mission, we are constantly 
trying to find ways to link existing programs to BMEC, 
and to develop new programs that serve our needs, as well 
as BMEC's." 

School Selection and Characteristics 

The partners selected ten schools as pilot sites. Criteria 
for selection included a demonstrated need for support of 
the music education program; and evidence of staff 
collegiality and whole-school commitment, including 
classroom teachers, music specialists, and principals. 
Because of the desire to be a model inner-city program, 



Boston 



the partnership also wanted the participating schools to 
reflect demographic representation of Boston's cultural 
and economic spectrum. The program began in grades 
one and six, with a plan of adding two grades per year. In 
1995-96, the program included grades one through three 
and six through eight. 

Curriculum Design 

Education Curriculum Design Teams (groups of teachers 
and consultants) meet regularly to design curriculum 
resource packages. Each package focuses on a particular 
topic and supports interaction between music specialists 
and classroom teachers. The partnership encourages 
teachers to expand on the packages according to the 
characteristics of given students and school situations. In 
addition, a team of BMEC music teachers establishes 
standards in music for the partnership schools, selects 
repertoire for concerts, and correlates BMEC programs to 
local, state, and national standards in arts education. 

The curriculum resource packages are developed accord- 
ing to the grade of the student, and they promote music 
both as a discrete discipline and as a vehicle for curricu- 
lum integration. Each package includes a story or stories; 
compact discs and cassette tapes; lesson plans, teacher 
supplements, materials for art projects, and sheet music; 
posters, maps, and photographs; and videotapes. Re- 
sources from each partner institution enhance the 
packages. These resources may include videos from 
WGBH and related in-school performances. 

Packages for Primary Grades 

Peter and the Wolf is an introduction to the instruments of the 
orchestra based on the story and music of Peter and the Wolf. 
Activities include listening, singing, and "music exercises" related to 
timbres and the use of melody, texture, and mood in story telling. 

Butterfly Unit is based on the story, "The Very Hungry Caterpillar." 
The package includes related activities in both academic and arts 
subjects. Songs and rhythmic exercises provide the foundation. 

Multi-Cultural Unit consists of units related to Native American, 
African, and Brazilian cultures. The unit includes folk songs, dances, food, 
story telling, recorders, rhythm instruments, and home-made instruments. 



Packages for Intermediate Grades 
and/or Middle Schools 

What I Had Was Singing, based on Marian Anderson's biography, 
is an introduction to the life and work of the first African-American 
woman to sing with the Metropolitan Opera. Recordings, videos, and books 
also provide background on the civil rights movement and the history of 
opera, and relate to social studies and language arts. 

Dicey's Song, also based on a book of the same title, focuses on 
the story of Dicey and her siblings, who are abandoned by their mother 
and walk from Massachusetts to Maryland to find their grandmother. In 
the story, Dicey meets a folk and blues musician, and these music 
genres provide a core for the package. The package also includes 
classical music, which relates to Dicey's sister, who is a piano prodigy. 

Additional curriculum materials are also available 
through BMEC's resource center. For example, agree- 
ments with recording companies have allowed BMEC to 
develop an ever-expanding library of compact discs at no 
charge. BMEC matches school funds to purchase music 
textbooks, and underwrites classroom instruments such as 
recorders and other classroom instruments. 

Classroom Activities 

The site visit included observation of three elementary 
classes. In one of the classrooms, students connected 
music with patterns, using interlocking, colored plastic 
cubes to represent sequences of sounds and rests. They 
also played recorders. In another room, a classroom 
teacher led the children in a carefully sequenced music 
lesson built on a series of rhythmic ostinatos performed 
while singing "Are You Sleeping?" The third class, taught 
by the music specialist, involved rhythmic development 
through singing and movement. 

Classroom teachers find that the intentional connections 
BMEC curriculum packages make between music and 
other subjects help them feel more comfortable with 
music activities. They believe in music "for music's sake;" 
however, they also think music makes learning more 
enjoyable, channels children's energy, and aids retention. 
In the words of one teacher, "I now make sure I have the 
children sing or listen to music every day." Teachers also 
indicate that having BMEC in their school validates 
using music in their classes: "Principals' attitudes have 
changed - now they want us to be using music, whereas 
before they sometimes thought we were wasting time if 
we were singing." 



51 



In a school that saw its music specialists reduced from 
four to one since the 1970s, the remaining music special- 
ist appreciates the increased involvement of classroom 
teachers: "Our schedule doesn't allow me to see all the 
children, so I'm glad to know that classroom teachers 
include music." The specialist is also glad that BMEC 
stresses music both as a discipline and as a means of 
curricular integration. She would like classroom teachers 
and administrators to recognize that music has its own 
curriculum, and she believes joint planning between 
specialists and classroom teachers would improve the 
cohesiveness of music across the curriculum. 

Instructional activities in middle schools include band 
and choral programs, as well as integration of music into 
other subjects. BMEC helps music specialists develop 
curriculums for the performing ensembles, subsidizes 
instrument rentals, purchases literature, and facilitates 
joint performances with other schools. 

NEC Student Aides 

Sixty students from NEC serve as technical assistants in 
classrooms, helping to build music literacy and bringing 
resources to integrate music with other subjects. They 
also provide instrument demonstrations and organize 
instrument petting zoos. In middle schools, NEC students 
may also provide instrumental lessons. Student aides are 
in the schools a minimum of one and one half hours 
weekly. They are paid a fee for their services; however, 
BMEC hopes to replace monetary payment with course 
credit. 

A member of the NEC music education faculty facilitates 
training and serves as a pedagogical mentor. Aides are 
trained through workshops with music specialists, and are 
supervised by BMEC staff, who make site visits and 
videotape the students' work. An extensive handbook, 
prepared by BMEC, provides information on BMEC's 
mission and objectives, suggestions for effective relation- 
ships with teachers and students, lesson plan forms, and 
resource materials on children and music learning. 

Teachers interviewed during the site visit indicated that 
the NEC student aide program, like all aspects of BMEC, 
is evolving. While some aides are dedicated and respon- 
sible, others are less reliable and seem uncertain of their 
roles in the classroom. Teachers also varied in their 
perceptions of the student aides' roles, suggesting that 
further work is needed to establish the most productive 
relationship. 



52 



Beyond 



Professional Development for Teachers 

Professional development centers on a five-day summer 
workshop, a portion of which is held at Tanglewood. The 
format involves a series of presentations on musicianship, 
curriculum resource packages, and curriculum integration. 
There are also enriching musical opportunities, such as 
an open rehearsal by the BSO, and a teachers' choir. In 
keeping with BMEC's emphasis on teacher empower- 
ment, teachers who design materials or have been 
previously trained help to train new teachers. Incentives 
for attending the workshop include a stipend and 
professional development credits. 

The main goals of the summer workshop are to build 
teachers' confidence and comfort with music, and to 
foster interaction between classroom teachers and music 
specialists. One classroom teacher affirmed this purpose 
by saying, "After the summer workshop, I realized there 
were things I could do with music - it helped me feel 
more confident." During interviews, teachers indicated 
that they would like the workshop to include more 
activities with direct classroom application. 

Beyond the summer workshop, teachers may also partici- 
pate in additional clinics, continuing education classes at 
the NEC, and monthly meetings. There are two types of 
monthly meetings: "liaison groups" of representative 
teachers to share progress and plan curriculum, and 
school meetings with teachers and principals to redefine 
goals. Classes at NEC, called "intensives," are available in 
recorder, piano, voice, and computer music. In addition, 
partner school teachers may audit any continuing 
education course offered by NEC. 

Godparent Program 

Fifteen individual musicians from the BSO have adopted 
partner schools. Each "godparent" voluntarily visits his 
or her school or class a minimum of two times per year. 
BSO conductor Seiji Ozawa has been among the partici- 
pants. Godparent activities may include instrument 
demonstrations, discussions of life as a professional 
musician, and reinforcement of music concepts. Godpar- 
ents plan the specifics of their programs, sometimes 
incorporating unique features such as student composing 
or juggling. Prior to school visits, BMEC prepares and 
sends out information about the godparents. 

Originally, BMEC actively recruited the musicians who 
served as godparents. As the program has grown, how- 
ever, the BSO has assumed more responsibility in this 
area, mainly through the enthusiasm of current partici- 
pants. BMEC has engaged Young Audiences of Massa- 
chusetts to assist musicians in feeling comfortable with 



Boston 



children in classroom settings. Individual godparent 
programs may or may not coincide with the content of 
other BMEC programs; however, BMEC encourages as 
much connection as possible. 

Performances 

BSO-member ensembles plan and present programs in 
some partner schools. Like the godparent program, 
ensembles do not necessarily connect program content 
with other experiences the students may have, though 
BMEC encourages these connections. To broaden the 
range of music experiences, BMEC provides multi- 
cultural opportunities through the Cultural Partners 
program. Ensembles and artists offer diverse performance 
experiences that frequently correlate with the materials 
in the curriculum resource packages. 

Partner schools, with BMEC encouragement, also send 
children to school-day Youth Concerts performed by the 
BSO. BMEC underwrites the ticket cost for students. 
Because the BPS has cut transportation funds, attendance 
at Youth Concerts is problematic for some schools. 

Participation in BSO Talent Programs 

Partnership children who are identified as musically 
talented may receive scholarships to participate in two 
programs: 1) Project STEP (String Training and Educa- 
tional Program for Students of Color), and 2) Days in the 
Arts summer program. BMEC supports efforts to identify 
deserving children in the partner schools through 
recruitment, teacher awareness, and responsiveness to 
parental interest in furthering their children's musical 
development. 

PROGRAM SUPPORT 
Financial Support of BMEC 

BMEC's financial support consists of funds raised prima- 
rily from Boston-based foundations with an interest in 
youth education. Funders were attracted to BMEC 
because it emphasizes linkages between non-profit 
institutions and public schools. In addition, they were 
intrigued with the potential benefit for both organiza- 
tions. Funders wanted to see how non-profit cultural 
institutions might adapt programs, resources, and person- 
nel to fit the goals of a partnership. 

Additional support from national foundations, including 
the Knight Foundation, is predicated on the potential for 
audience development at the BSO, and the working out 
of the relationship between the orchestra and a structured 



partnership program. A significant challenge, according 
to the Director of Development, is for the orchestra to 
manage its own financial needs and resources while 
fulfilling its commitment to BMEC. The recent addition 
of a BMEC staff member for development will require 
ongoing definition of the administrative relationship 
between BMEC and the BSO. 

To overcome reluctance on the part of funders who were 
looking for guaranteed longevity, WGBH, NEC, and the 
BSO agreed to share financial responsibility for the 
survival of BMEC. By necessity, this commitment came 
from each institution's executive administrator, each 
agreeing that the cultural institutions would average and 
cover any expenses exceeding raised dollars for the pilot 
years, thus making BMEC a top fiscal priority. The BSO's 
Director of Development supports this commitment: "We 
would be remiss not to place a high priority on something 
so central to the future of the BSO. The profound level of 
cooperation required among the partners can only benefit 
them and this community." 

Administrative Support from 
Cultural Institutions 

The level of commitment evidenced by top administra- 
tors of each partner institution is clearly a distinguishing 
feature of BMEC. The BSO's Managing Director believes 
there is no alternative: 

Both the history and the future of this orchestra compel us 
to strengthen our connections with the community. At 
present, we cannot claim total success in this area. We 
must build on the great tradition of reaching out through 
the Esplanade concerts and our other initiatives to 
connect with a diverse community, to be valued, and to 
be a better educator. We want to transform the concert 
experience for our audience . 

Similarly, the NEC views BMEC as a vehicle for enhanc- 
ing its own role and perception among an increasingly 
diverse inner-city community. According to one admin- 
istrator, the redevelopment of music education in 
Boston's schools will require the continuing involvement 
of the city's cultural institutions: 

We have an ongoing responsibility to this community, as 
well as to our own future. The steps may seem small at 
the present time, but they are having a significant impact. 
We are trying to lay a foundation so that music will not 
be marginalized again in our city's schools. 



53 



School Support 

Although the operational relationship with schools is 
based on teacher empowerment, BMEC is equally 
conscious of support from system-wide and school-level 
administrators. The BPS Superintendent of Schools is 
supportive, and the system's Director of Music Curricu- 
lum and Coordinator of Arts are on the BMEC board. 
BMEC works diligently to maintain support from school 
principals. One principal expressed particular pleasure in 
the fact that music is less isolated and more integrated 
within the school program: 

What makes this partnership so terrific is that the BMEC 
folks really listen to us. The music teacher is now more of 
a resource to the classroom teachers , and music is part of 
our thematic approach to learning. It's really changed the 
way I look at music in the school. 

BMEC ultimately would like the schools to assume 
responsibility for quality music education, with partner- 
ships remaining an important dimension. Representatives 
of the cultural institutions consistently describe BMEC as 
a "partnership facilitator," not a "program provider." 
Consequently, the BMEC encourages schools to contrib- 
ute financially by providing bus transportation to 
concerts, paying for substitute teachers during meetings 
or workshops, and matching funds for the purchase of 
instructional materials. In addition, BMEC continually 
advocates for employment of more music specialists, 
which has been undertaken in some schools. 

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 

The partnership proposal of April 1993 indicated a two- 
pronged approach to assessment: a) assessment of 
program quality relative to impact on teachers, students, 
and instruction; and b) measurement of the implications 
of the partnership for affecting public policy. As with all 
aspects of BMEC, assessment procedures are evolving 
rather than prescribed. 

To the present time, representatives from the Kennedy 
School of Government at Harvard University have begun 
to document aspects of the partnership with regard to 
impact on public policy. Program and instructional 
documentation include video records of all events, as well 
as some reflective writing by students. WGBH contrib- 
utes to the documentation and community awareness of 
BMEC by producing videotapes and public service 
announcements. Anecdotal and informal feedback is 
solicited via evaluation forms completed by teachers for 
specific events and the monthly teacher meetings. In 
general, the evaluation forms ask teachers for perceptions 
of the effectiveness of program elements, usefulness in the 
classroom, and recommendations for improvement. 



54 



Beyond 



A "mid-design year report," prepared in March of 1994, 
reported on progress and anticipated strategies regarding 
the ten "measures of implementation" from the original 
partnership proposal. At that time, the greatest progress 
had been made in the areas of curriculum, instruction, 
professional development, and contact with professional 
musicians. Less progress had been realized in parent 
involvement, student assessment, and experiences outside 
of school. BMEC plans a formal evaluation of its impact 
on teaching and learning in the ten partner schools 
beginning in the summer of 1996. 

IMPACT 
Schools 

Addition of specialists. The most observable impact on 
schools is that since the beginning of the partnership, 
music specialist positions have been added in partner 
schools. In 1993, there were eight music specialists 
among the ten schools. For the 1995-96 school year, 
there were 12.5. For the same year, the BPS dramatically 
increased the number of employed music specialists. In 
addition, they filled the system-wide position of Director 
of Music Curriculum, which had been vacant for an 
extended period of time. Though a direct relationship to 
BMEC is not apparent, BMEC believes it has played an 
influential role in the change of attitude resulting in 
these additions to the music faculty. 

Changing attitudes. According to teachers, a major 
result of the partnership has been an attitude of accep- 
tance and openness to music education. This appears to 
be directly related to the two-fold emphasis on music as a 
discrete discipline and a vehicle for curricular integration. 
Not only are classroom teachers discovering that music is 
"doable" for them, but they are also realizing that music 
concepts must be developed within a sequential and 
curricular music program. Participating teachers regret 
that not all teachers are involved: "This program should 
be mandatory for everyone - teachers and administrators 
- because of the positive effects it has on learning. Music 
is not just singing cute songs - it is real learning!" 

Parent involvement. BMEC currently is attempting to 
increase parent involvement. The partnership publishes a 
newsletter, which is sent home with all students in the 
ten pilot schools. Parent Site Councils provide an 
important avenue of communication between BMEC 
staff and parents. It is through Parent Forums that 
teachers, principals, students, parents, and BMEC board 
members share information about the program. The 
forums provide opportunities for parents to see what their 
children experience in the classroom, to offer feedback, 
and to make suggestions about the role of the cultural 
institutions in meeting community needs. 



Boston 



Budget. When asked how BMEC had affected the 
school, one principal stated, "Music is no longer the last 
thing I think about when it comes to the budget." The 
reason, she said, is that BMEC has helped integrate music 
into the total school program: "The music teacher is more 
connected, and the classroom teachers are using music in 
creative ways." However, as to whether the school would 
invest more heavily to keep the program, the principal 
responded, "I don't think we could sustain it. I try to 
institutionalize certain elements of lots of different 
programs, but I can't raise enough money to do it all." 
She paused briefly, then continued: "Whether the 
operational budget would ever support this kind of music 
program is a system-wide question of where we place our 
values - principals don't have the latitude to make those 
decisions." 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

The BSO's Managing Director says the BSO feels 
"empowered" by what is happening with BMEC: "We 
stand to gain a great deal in terms of community aware- 
ness and goodwill, more culturally diverse audiences, 
younger audiences, and, ultimately, more support." He 
also indicates that education generally is perceived as an 
important mission: "There is a message in tying our new 
Pops conductor, Keith Lockhart, with the Youth Con- 
certs. There is also a message in the fact that our musi- 
cians do not take days off when we play Youth Concerts." 

BSO staff agree that the orchestra has no interest in 
supplanting music programs taught by certified specialists 
in schools, or in providing "free" programs for an indefi- 
nite future. The orchestra's role is to function as a "good 
partner" with the schools, a role that the BMEC's work 
has advanced. According to the Director of Develop- 
ment, the BSO has moved from a narrow agenda of 
audience development toward a shared agenda with other 
partners: "Constant effort is required to bridge the gap 
between our administrative operations and those of the 
partnership structure." Within this effort, the BSO has 
found it energizing to look at its programs in terms of a 
broadened education mission: "We keep asking ourselves 
what else we need to do." 

BMEC's Executive Director believes that musicians in 
the orchestra are also realizing benefits of closer commu- 
nity connections. Whereas musicians traditionally 
focused on playing the best music at the highest levels for 
the audience, they are now beginning to see the value of 
building personal relationships with the community. The 
emerging outcome, she believes, is a feeling of closer ties 
with the community in which musicians live and work. 
The Director of Development echoes this sentiment: "By 
taking the education mission of the orchestra more 



seriously, musicians are taking responsibility for the future 
of the institution." According to one BSO trustee, also an 
overseer for WGBH, "We are compelled to be a relevant 
and significant force in the community." 

New England Conservatory of Music 

Like the BSO, the NEC has to consider its own goals and 
administrative organization relative to that of BMEC. 
According to one NEC administrator, one of the most 
important outcomes has been the development of trust 
among the partner institutions. Changing attitudes and 
atmospheres from institutional agendas and skepticism to 
shared enthusiasm for the partnership has been a signifi- 
cant achievement. Another emerging outcome for NEC 
is its growing role as a player in helping schools develop 
fully staffed music and arts education programs: "We 
want to be part of this community's redevelopment of its 
music education programs, and to be part of a continuing 
advocacy that cannot be denied by the schools. Through 
the student aide program, the NEC also believes BMEC is 
having an important impact on the way musicians are 
trained for the future. According to BMEC's Executive 
Director, the conceptualization of one's role as a perform- 
ing musician is being altered to include more direct 
involvement with the community. An NEC administra- 
tor agrees: "We are awakening young musicians to the 
fact that they have a responsibility to their communities." 

During its young existence, BMEC has focused heavily on 
working out the mechanics of a school-community 
partnership to serve the goal of redeveloped and renewed 
music education in Boston. It strives to develop a process- 
oriented, action-based collaboration that is sustainable, 
replicable, and accountable. With maturity, BMEC 
undoubtedly will find ways to link the facets of its 
programs more cohesively, and to strike a balance 
between setting standards for program quality and its 
commitment to teacher empowerment. BMEC's founda- 
tions bode well for important contributions to music 
education. 



55 



Beyond 



56 



Fort Wayne 



FORT WAYNE PHILHARMONIC 



Site visit: November 14-15, 1995 



OVERVIEW 

Orchestra, Schools, and Community 

The Ft. Wayne Philharmonic (FWP) is a core orchestra 
of 42 full-time musicians. The orchestra has a nine- 
month season. Musicians' contract obligations include 
full-orchestra and chamber music subscription series, 
regional concerts, and specified education and outreach 
services. 

The Ft. Wayne metropolitan area has a population of 
365,000. The city is the seat of Allen County, an agricul- 
tural and manufacturing region of northeastern Indiana. 
The county encompasses four school systems, all served 
by the FWP. Of these, the Ft. Wayne Community 
Schools have the largest and most diverse population. 

The FWP maintains close affiliation with the community 
and its arts, social, and educational organizations. The 
orchestra co-sponsors the Ft. Wayne Youth Symphony 
with the Ft. Wayne Community Schools and Indiana 
Purdue University Ft. Wayne (IPFW). The orchestra also 
provides scholarships to study with Philharmonic 
musicians through the Big Brothers/Big Sisters Program, 
and offers minority outreach through church perfor- 
mances. In addition, FWP volunteers sponsor needs/ 
talent-based scholarships, a young artist competition, an 
instrument loan program, a summer strings camp, docents 
for Young People's Concerts, and concert previews. 

School-based programs of the FWP intersect with two 
other organized arts education efforts: the Foundation for 
Art and Music in Elementary Education (FAME); and 
Arts Leadership Initiative, a project of Arts United of 
Greater Ft. Wayne. The organizations share commit- 
ments in three primary areas: strengthened relationships 
between school arts programs and community arts; 
advocacy for sequential arts education in the schools; and 
development of resources to teach the arts as disciplines 
and to integrate the arts with other subjects. 



Range of Experiences 

Experiences vary according to each local school's choice 
of FWP programs. Fifth-grade children may participate 
in field trips to Young People's Concerts at the Embassy 
Theatre. Younger children and their parents, as well as 
school groups, may also choose to attend week-end 
Children's Concerts, presented twice each year. The Pied 
Piper program offers opportunities for classroom teachers 
to work with FWP musicians to design lessons that 
integrate music into a classroom theme or subject. The 
Ensemble Program offers eight chamber groups, who 
perform 3 5 -minute educational presentations for stu- 
dents. Hip Hop Pete and the Rockin Role Models is a 
program that reinforces decision-making and 
alternatives to drug use among adolescents. In-school 
presentations foster interaction among students and 
musicians. 

PROGRAM CONCEPT 

Partnership Model 

The FWP education program represents a cooperative 
partnership model involving the orchestra, the schools, 
and other arts organizations. Ongoing dialogue among 
these groups provides a basis for responding to the needs, 
interests, and priorities of the schools. An advantage of a 
mid-size community such as Ft. Wayne is that individuals 
may serve leadership and/or advisory capacities in more 
than one community organization. Thus, commitments 
and resources potentially may be pooled for common 
priorities, rather than divided among competing efforts. 

Arts Leadership Initiative (ALI) 

Arts Leadership Initiative is a partnership program that 
operates under. the auspices of Arts United of Greater Ft. 
Wayne. It provides a forum for communication and 
cooperation among community arts groups, artists, and 



57 



schools. ALI's five "motivations" are to better link 
schools and community, to change the culture of school 
through the arts, to change curriculum to better inte- 
grate the arts into all subject areas, to increase the 
effectiveness of the teachers, and to devise new ways to 
teach the arts in accordance with the national standards 
in arts education. 

Through ALI, the FWP shares responsibility with other 
Ft. Wayne arts institutions for teacher in-service training 
and professional resources to support the above motiva- 
tions. Arts United's Arts-in-Education Committee, 
including artists, arts administrators, teachers, education 
administrators, and other community members, oversees 
ALI. 

Foundation for Art and Music in Elementary 
Education (FAME) 

FAME is a regional organization of school arts specialists, 
education administrators, classroom teachers, artists, and 
other community leaders dedicated to fostering and 
perpetuating the fine arts in elementary education. Its 
activities include festivals, development of cultural 
resource materials, camps, teacher workshops, and a 
visiting artist program. Interaction between the FWP and 
FAME occurs through the orchestra's teacher in-service 
program, shared membership on arts education advisory 
committees, shared concerts, a student composition 
project, and a visual arts/concert project entitled "Fusion 
of Concert Colors." 

Co-Sponsored Leadership Position 

The Director of Education and Operations for the FWP 
also fulfills responsibilities in the music department at 
IPFW. This jointly supported position facilitates commu- 
nication and resource sharing among the FWP, the 
university, and music educators in public schools. An 
important component is the development of programs to 
enrich and reinforce the goals of local music education 
curriculums. 

Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- Concerts, small ensembles, and individual musician 
programs 

- In-school programs as part of the salaried services of 
musicians to the orchestra 

- Teacher in-service training 

- Curriculum resource materials 



58 



Beyond Tradition 



- Participation in Arts Leadership Initiative program 
design and planning 

- Cooperation with FAME personnel and activities 

- Leadership in communications, scheduling, and 
logistical management 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- Selection of teacher participants in ALI 

- Released time for teachers in staff development 
workshops 

- Substitute teacher pay during staff development days 

- Financial support of in-school ensemble and 
musician programs 

- Cooperation in scheduling events 

- Student transportation to concerts 

- Participation in ALI and orchestra education 
advisory committees 

- Completion of evaluation forms 

- Development and trial of unit plans that integrate 
the arts into the curriculum. 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

School partnership efforts at the FWP function as part of 
a larger vision of connections between the orchestra and 
the community. To this end, the orchestra administration 
is committed to having "education inform everything 
that we do." The staff, the musicians, and the board, 
according to the Executive Director, recognize the 
importance of the education mission. "It is by design, he 
says, "that our education director is a senior management 
position, and that education oversees operations, rather 
than the other way around." 

Because of its community-oriented mission, the FWP is 
intentional about outreach that keeps musicians in close 
contact with the population. Administrative staff and 
musicians are in accord regarding this goal. Although 
admitting that sometimes outreach can be draining, 
several musicians reinforce its importance: "An orchestra 
can become very removed from the rest of the commu- 
nity. You have to have an eye to the future. If we take a 
self-centered approach, we will soon be obsolete." 



Fort Wayne 



The FWP is seeking engagement with schools and the 
community in developing mutually beneficial programs. 
The problem with programs planned without real school 
involvement, says the Executive Director, is that they 
function in a vacuum and tend to be imposed upon, 
rather than integrated into, schools' priorities: "Ten years 
from now, we want the schools to see us as an indispens- 
able part of what they do. We hope that will translate 
into a community that values both the orchestra and 
music education in its schools." 

Inclusion and improvement of music education in schools 
is one of the major goals of the FWP. This requires the 
development of a trusting relationship with school 
administrators, music teachers, and parents. The FWP 
believes its programs should help advocate for the 
importance of certified music teachers by demonstrating 
the role of music in learning: "We are trying to find valid 
connections to other subjects that are rooted in knowing 
and understanding music for what it is. You cannot have 
valid music programs in schools without having trained 
musician-teachers on your faculty." 

Objectives include establishing channels of two-way 
communication with schools, keeping school personnel 
involved in decision-making and evaluation efforts, and 
providing incentives for musicians to develop programs 
that are consistent with schools' needs and interests. An 
additional objective is to increase funding to strengthen 
education partnering efforts. A recent FWP proposal to a 
major foundation describes the orchestra's initiatives to 
bolster school instrumental music programs, foster greater 
interaction between musicians and students, and connect 
in-school presentations more closely with the curriculum. 

PROGRAM PLANNING 
AND IMPLEMENTATION 

Groundwork 

Although the FWP has had education programs for many 
years, the importance of education as a mission has 
evolved recently. Committed to fiscally responsible 
management, the orchestra has had to be creative in 
maintaining its full-time core. Combining education and 
concert services fulfills two primary objectives: artistic 
continuity with fiscal solvency, and integration with the 
community via focused education programs. 

Arts Education Survey 

Concurrent with the orchestra's emerging goals, and with 
the priority of education among other arts organizations, 
Arts United of Greater Ft. Wayne commissioned a study 
in 1991-92 to further partnerships among arts organiza- 
tions and educators. The study, conducted by a national 



consulting firm, was born out of concern that school arts 
opportunities were diminishing, and that schools could 
not by themselves ensure adequate instruction in and 
through the arts. 

Using public opinion polls, surveys, interviews, site visits, 
and focus groups, the study examined public perceptions 
and values regarding arts education, the status of arts in 
the schools, the work of artists and arts organizations with 
schools, and the necessary elements of a partnership 
approach. The following are several of the firm's recom- 
mendations. 

Existing levels of public support for arts education, already relatively 
high, should be recognized, tapped for advocacy, and expanded through 
public information. 

A collaborative arts education plan should be developed, with delineated 
leadership, and with involvement of prospective private sector resources. 

Communication among schools, arts organizations, and artists should be 
strengthened, building a foundation for a partnership approach to 
curriculum, teacher training, utilization of arts organization programs 
and resources, and funding issues. 

Arts Leadership Initiative (ALI) was established as a 
result of the study. The major thrust of ALI is a series of 
monthly professional development workshops for selected 
teams of classroom teachers and arts specialists. Each 
full-day workshop focuses on knowledge in a single arts 
discipline, related resources and programs of local arts 
organizations, and methods for teaching the art form and 
integrating it across the curriculum. At the conclusion of 
six workshops, each team of teachers develops an 
integrated unit plan, to be implemented the following 
school year and shared with new ALI participants. 
Teachers in the ALI program may earn graduate credit by 
completing stipulated requirements appropriate to a 
university course. 

Program Content 

A music education advisory committee, consisting of 
music educators, other school personnel, and symphony 
staff, assists with planning program content for each year. 
This committee, which meets each summer to plan the 
following school year, may address repertoire, logistics, 
funding, and other issues. The Director of Education 
serves as a liaison among the conductor, the musicians, 
and the educators. 



59 



Pied Piper. Individual FWP musicians, including a 
harpist, a bassist, and a cellist, pair with classroom 
teachers to design a thirty-minute program that reinforces 
learning in another subject. A goal is to foster interaction 
between the musician and the teacher, and among the 
musician, teacher, and students. Sample programs 
indicate what the classroom teacher might do to prepare 
children for the visit, as well as what may occur during 
the visit. The FWP Director of Education assists teachers 
and musicians with ideas. 

Ensemble Program. Eight FWP ensembles offer 35- 
minute in-school presentations designed to introduce 
students to the instruments and the FWP in creative, 
interactive ways. Each ensemble designs its own program. 
The outline of a selected program is sent directly to 
teachers prior to the school visit. Seven of the ensembles 
are standard chamber instrumentations. The eighth is a 
percussion-harp group. The Director of Education works 
with schools to plan performances that cover all of the 
orchestral families in the grades prior to fifth, when 
students attend the Young People's Concert. 

Hip Hop Pete and the Rockin' Role Models. Using a 
string quartet-plus-percussionist, this assembly program is 
a 35-minute music-based presentation connected with 
the schools' adolescent life-skills education program. 
Through rap, classical music, jazz, dramatic dialogue, and 
discussion, musicians challenge students to consider ways 
of making positive life choices. Although focused on 
alternatives to drug use, musicians present broader issues 
of self-esteem and peer pressure in a context of applicable 
strategies. 

Young People's Concerts. School-day concerts are 
presented for fifth-grade children in the Ft. Wayne 
community and surrounding area. An insert published as 
part of the local newspaper includes information about 
the repertoire, musicians, and the FWP. The insert is 
distributed to all music specialists and fifth grade stu- 
dents, and docents use the material to prepare students 
for the concerts. 

Teacher Training 

The FWP provides one full day of professional develop- 
ment for participants in ALL During our site visit, we 
observed the 1995-96 music workshop. Two accomplished 
music specialists, also leaders in FAME, presented hands- 
on activities and materials to an enthusiastic and respon- 
sive group of about thirty teachers. Throughout the day, 
the leaders apprised teachers of resources available 
through FAME, the public library, the FWP, and profes- 
sional organizations. The FWP Director of Education 
reviewed symphony programs for schools, including a 
video of Hip Hop Pete and models of school programs 



60 



Beyond 



presented by a string quartet and a harpist. In conjunc- 
tion with musician demonstrations, a clinician demon- 
strated a teacher-musician exchange that could be used to 
connect a performance with the classroom curriculum. 

A debriefing session and review of teachers' evaluation 
forms indicated appreciation for the thoroughness, 
practicality, and sophistication of the workshop. Evidence 
from interviews indicates that the music workshop is 
aligned with teachers' and students' learning needs. One 
teacher says, "I didn't know the Philharmonic had so 
much to offer the schools." Another indicates, "I intend 
to work much more closely with our music teacher to 
incorporate these ideas." A reported difficulty in applying 
ideas is that music teachers and classroom teachers rarely 
have joint planning opportunities. 

Curriculum Resources 

Teachers receive three types of resources: a notebook of 
materials given to ALI participants as part of their one- 
day FWP training, an insert in the local newspaper 
providing information and activities related to the Young 
People's Concert, and outlines of ensemble and solo 
musician programs to assist teachers in connecting them 
with the curriculum. 

Materials in the ALI notebooks include FWP education 
program descriptions, lesson plans, lists of resources, and 
examples of how to integrate music with other subjects. 
The 1995-96 notebook included instructional units for 
"The Magic Flute" and Aaron Copland's 'Appalachian 
Spring." There was also a web showing curriculum 
connections for "The Magic Flute." The notebook has 
numerous multicultural activities and resources, bibliog- 
raphies, and discographies. Much of the content overlaps 
the work of FAME, including the culture kits that FAME 
develops and makes available to teachers. 

The newspaper insert for the Young People's Concert 
provides the program, background on the composers and 
repertoire, information about the FWP, and vocabulary 
games. Outlines of ensemble and individual musician 
presentations may include the repertoire to be performed, 
instrument characteristics, history of the instrument, 
music concepts, related concepts in other subject areas, 
and special techniques. There may also be suggested 
questions and activities for students. 

Musician Orientation 

The FWP solicits suggestions from music educators 
regarding desirable music content for ensemble and 
individual musician programs. For 1995-96, teachers 
suggested the elements of music, instrument timbres, 
composers of performed music, and absolute vs. program 



Fort Wayne 



music. Teachers also requested curriculum connections 
between music and visual art (depth, form, texture), 
language arts, and social studies. 

The FWP Director of Education is the primary route for 
sharing input from the schools with musicians. School 
personnel previewed Hip Hop Pete and made suggestions 
before musicians presented the program to students. In 
addition, the FWP provided a workshop for musicians on 
effective development and presentation of in-school 
programs. The workshop covered the purpose of "live" 
programs, and emphasized the dual importance of 
accessible musical content and rapport with children. It 
oriented musicians to choices of music that are consistent 
with the age group and the curriculum, and provided 
strategies for pacing, maintaining students' attention, 
and managing groups of children. Leaders encouraged 
the musicians to develop and rehearse a script for school 
performances. 

FWP musicians indicate that they prepare and present 
their programs in a variety' of ways. Some feel that a script 
is ven T helpful; others find a general outline, with room 
for responding to a given audience, more workable. All 
agree that experience plays a role in comfort and effec- 
tiveness. In addition, they feel that feedback from 
knowledgeable observers could be helpful in improving 
their programs. In the words of one musician, "Just 
because you are a musician doesn't mean you have 
knowledge and skills with kids." 

Scheduling 

FWP staff manage the scheduling of school programs in 
coordination with requested musicians, school schedules 
and calendars, and orchestra obligations. Musicians 
indicate that the orchestra's commitment to education 
entails a large number of school programs, and school 
schedules do not always mesh well with musicians' 
rehearsal and performance schedules. A continuing 
challenge is to ensure that apportionment of education 
and orchestra services preserves high-quality- contribu- 
tions in both areas. To help maintain its full-time 
positions and fulfill its outreach mission, the FWP uses a 
service conversion formula for concert and education 
programs (one service equals 2 and 1/2 hours, which can 
encompass up to three short school programs). 

Schools may schedule Pied Piper programs for two back- 
to-back 30-minute programs, each presented for fifty- or 
fewer children. Ensembles may be scheduled for three 
consecutive programs, each presented for about 150 
students. 



PROGRAM SUPPORT 

Funding 

The FWP relies on a variety of funding sources for 
education, some of which are tied to specific programs. 
For example, Arts United of Greater Ft. Wayne supports 
the ALI workshop with monies from the Knight Founda- 
tion and local funders. Schools pay for substitutes to 
replace teachers who attend the workshops. 

Hip Hop Pete is an example of school connections using 
funds that initially may seem to be beyond the domain of 
orchestra education. Through conversations with the 
school superintendent, the FWP Executive Director 
learned of monies designated for drug awareness pro- 
grams. Musicians and staff of the FWP designed a 
program that qualified for funding. Recently, Physicians 
Health Plan has partially underwritten Hip Hop Pete 
because of its positive health message for adolescents. 

The Ft. Wayne Community Schools partially subsidize 
the FWP ensemble program. The FWP's Executive 
Director believes that school investment offers a "quanti- 
fiable indication of how important we are to kids." 
Recently, he and the Director of Education approached 
the schools regarding the fact that their support for 
school programs had remained static over an extended 
period of time. The Executive Director believed the 
schools should consider increasing their contribution, 
given both the educational value of the programs and the 
FWP's rising costs. The schools' Curriculum Coordinator 
agreed, stating that "we get far more out of these pro- 
grams than we contribute to them." 

The FWP prepared a proposal that included data regard- 
ing the schools' financial support over several years. Data 
also reflected the numbers of students served and the 
orchestra's incurred expenses for education programs. The 
proposal described the various facets of school programs 
and included summaries of evaluations by teachers. As a 
result of this carefully prepared proposal, the FWCS 
agreed to fund approximately fifty 7 percent of the cost of 
the orchestra's school-related programs. The schools also 
have promised an annual increase of three percent in 
their contribution. The Director of Education emphasizes 
that the strength of the orchestra's relationship with the 
schools, careful record-keeping that provided supporting 
data, and presentation of the data in a systematic way 
were key elements in the schools' decision to increase 
funding. 



61 



Symphony and School Administrative Support 

The FWP's Executive Director believes that the educa- 
tion program lives or dies on the attitude of the leader- 
ship: "If you want an effective education program, it must 
be supported from the top." FWP board members agree 
that education must be a priority if the orchestra is to 
enjoy significant support from the community. According 
to one board member, it is simply good civic practice for 
the orchestra to work with schools in providing music 
education opportunities. 

To foster connections between the orchestra and the 
schools, the Superintendent of the Ft. Wayne Commu- 
nity Schools is an orchestra board member. A school- 
system Curriculum Coordinator serves on the board 
education committee, functioning as a liaison among 
principals, teachers, and the orchestra. The university 
chancellor also serves as a member of the orchestra board. 

The Arts United study and the site visit for this report 
both offer evidence of principals' support for partnership 
activities. However, there is also a feeling among teachers 
that administrative support for music education could be 
strengthened. According to the Executive Director, it is 
important for the FWP to function as an advocate for 
music education. He cites the example of discontinued 
strings programs at the elementary level, which has had 
an impact on the number and quality of students audi- 
tioning for the youth orchestra. Musicians, similarly, feel 
that credibility with the school system through partner 
programs may encourage administrative decisions in 
support of music education. 

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 

At the present time, the FWP does not have a framework 
of explicitly stated objectives for evaluation of programs 
or partnership structure. However, the orchestra consis- 
tently asks school system personnel, including adminis- 
trators, classroom teachers, and music teachers, to 
complete and return questionnaires regarding the 
effectiveness of the ensemble, Pied Piper, Hip Hop Pete, 
and YPC programs. These questionnaires focus on the 
organization, the value of the content, the quality of 
interaction, the availability of pre-concert materials, and 
the source of funding (as applicable). Music teacher 
questionnaires ask for evidence of curriculum connec- 
tions and recommendations for improvement. There is no 
direct assessment of student learning or attitudes. 

The 1994-95 evaluation responses were overwhelmingly 
positive. Music educators' responses reveal useful 
information about strengthening relationships between 
the FWP and school programs. 



62 



Beyond 



The most effective way of having students prepared is to communicate 
directly with music teachers, and to send pre-program materials to 
teachers rather than route them through administration. 

Scheduling programs so that music teachers in the schools are able to 
be present will enhance the curriculum connections; this requires 
coordination among the orchestra, the principals, and the music 
teachers. 

Lack of joint planning time between music and classroom teachers often 
precludes cooperative design of integrated lessons. 

Where curriculum integration does occur, lessons seem to be successful 
and well-received by students. 

ALI also prepares teacher questionnaires for its programs. 
These offer feedback to the FWP on the effectiveness of 
the music in-service training day. A review of completed 
forms indicated positive responses, particularly regarding 
the organization and practicality of the content. 

The 1991-92 Arts United study provided information 
regarding the status and perceptions of arts education in 
Ft. Wayne at that time. Systematic objectives, assess- 
ment, and evaluation, however, were not incorporated in 
the initial phase of ALI. At the present time, Arts United 
is working with an evaluator to develop assessment 
methodology relative to teacher attitudes, implementa- 
tion of units, effect on students, and effect on arts 
organizations. As a participant in ALI, the FWP will 
have access to the results, as well as an opportunity to 
adjust its programs accordingly. 

IMPACT 

Schools and Curriculum 

Favorable responses on questionnaires, combined with 
results of interviews conducted during this study, suggest 
that FWP programs have had a positive impact on 
schools. According to the Curriculum Coordinator, "the 
Philharmonic certainly has helped keep the need for 
music education present in the minds of teachers, 
administrators, and the community." She also notes that 
some parents are lobbying the system to reinstate instru- 
mental music in elementary schools. This she attributes 
in part to the presence of FWP musicians in local schools. 

Parents, principals, and teachers interviewed during the 
site visit spoke of a positive impact in terms of musicians 
as role models, exposure to classical music, and awareness 
of musical opportunities in their community. The Hip 
Hop Pete program, they said, demonstrates the ability of 
artists to transcend self-absorption in their art and to use 
their talent for broader social aims. Students similarly 
indicated enthusiasm for programs that allow them to see 
the musicians as "real people." 



Fort Wayne 



Despite the positive perceptions of the FWP's school 
programs, the Curriculum Coordinator emphasizes that 
competing requests for school funds exceed existing 
resources. Continuing support for the orchestra's pn> 
grams will require their coherence with state mandated 
proficiencies, as well as evidence of improvement in 
student learning. 

Teachers in ALI indicate their growing awareness that 
the arts contribute to general learning. Completed unit 
plans provide evidence of their efforts to apply integra- 
tion concepts from ALI workshops. Plans are based on a 
"web" approach. They include the following components: 
focus; concepts; objectives; relevant national arts 
education standards; lists of suggested activities; evalua- 
tion procedures; resources; and a matrix summary of 
thinking levels, arts disciplines incorporated in the unit, 
and learning styles. With development of the ALI 
program, it is likely that plans increasingly will reflect 
substantive learning experiences. 

Another impact of ALI appears to be administrative 
sensitivity to the need for joint planning time for arts 
specialists and classroom teachers. The schools' Curricu- 
lum Coordinator notes that the ALI team model is 
consistent with the move toward thematic curricula. It 
also parallels efforts at the state level to encourage local 
schools to provide joint planning time. According to 
teachers, joint planning time would facilitate mutually 
beneficial connections between the arts and other 
subjects. 

Fort Wayne Philharmonic 

In discussing the impact of education partnerships on the 
orchestra, the Executive Director points to the senior- 
level management status given to the Director of Educa- 
tion. This staffing commitment is both a catalyst for the 
orchestra's education efforts and a result of heightened 
education awareness. Joint funding of the position by the 
orchestra and IPFW occurred in part as a result of the 
university chancellor's membership on the orchestra 
board. 

As a participant in ALI, the orchestra increases its 
opportunities to relate with the broader arts community. 
Not only may the orchestra influence ALI's program 
content and quality; it may also experience benefits such 
as systematic assessment and funding opportunities. 

Additional influence on the orchestra includes the fact 
that musicians are contracted for education, roughly in 
equal amounts to concert performances. From the 
orchestra's perspective, education services afford increased 
flexibility in maintaining and creating full-time positions. 
This investment in education also enhances the orchestra's 
role as a resource for school music programs. 



A less tangible outcome, in the Executive Director's view, 
is the potential for job satisfaction associated with 
musicians' close connections with their community. Not 
only do they engage in a greater variety of occupational 
tasks, but the community recognizes them as contributors 
to civic well-being. According to a parent, this reduces 
the impression of musicians and the orchestra as distant 
and stuffy. Although musicians were initially resentful 
about having education services written into their 
contracts, they now see the benefits. As one musician 
puts it, 

These programs provide a service opportunity, which, is 
absolutely necessary for the orchestra's survival. But 
more importantly, they give us a chance to feel that we 
are a real part of the community. People recognize us in 
the grocery store or at the car wash. We get a lot of 
satisfaction out of knowing that we are involved and 
appreciated. And our involvement may allow us to have 
more influence on decisions that schools make about 
music programs . 

Staff and musicians of the FWP concur that orchestral 
training may need to change in order to reflect broadened 
professional expectations. In most cases, education 
focuses on development of technique and musicianship, 
and is unrelated to market demands. Without sacrificing 
excellence in performance, musicians believe courses in 
pedagogy and outreach would be useful. In addition, they 
feel that orchestras with strong education expectations 
should incorporate that information into the audition 
process, perhaps asking musicians to demonstrate skills 
such as communicating verbally with an audience. 

Rather than developing a delineated partnership struc- 
ture, the FWP has implemented its entire education 
program as a cooperative partnership with schools and 
other arts organizations. Elements include orchestra 
management of offered programs, consistent and effective 
communication with schools, alliances with other arts 
education partnership efforts, shared funding with schools 
and other organizations, and contractually specified 
education services for orchestra musicians. The impres- 
sion of the program is one of commitment to the commu- 
nity through substantive alliances serving schools and 
students. Increased collaborative efforts should 
strengthen this goal, and provide a broad base of support 
for the FWP into the next century. 



63 



64 



Beyond 



Pittsburgh 



PITTSBURGH SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 

Site visit: November 14-15, 1995 

(Site visit and profile by Cynthia Thomas) 



OVERVIEW 

Orchestra, Schools and Community 

The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (PSO) serves the 
Greater Pittsburgh area, which encompasses seven 
counties in Western Pennsyl- 
vania. The population of 
Allegheny County, where 
Pittsburgh is located, is 
1,336,500. The main partner 
with the PSO is the Pittsburgh 
Public Schools (PPS), an 
urban school district. Other 
significant partnerships exist 
with the Upper St. Clair 
School District, an affluent 
suburban area, and the 
Ambridge Area School 
District, a blue-collar 
suburban community. 



\&* 



j-.r o 



%<s*. u 




John Soroka, of the Pittsburgh Symphony, 
leads students in a percussion lesson. 



The Ambassador Program began in 1993 with six 
volunteer musicians piloting the program in two second- 
ary schools. It now includes twenty-seven musicians 
placed in thirty-two schools. While most of the encoun- 
ters are at the secondary level, there have been some 
musicians placed in elementary schools as well. An 
interesting outgrowth that cannot be overlooked is the 
connection between the Ambassador Program and two 
other symphony offerings - Side-by -Side and community 
concerts. In many cases, these concert opportunities have 
stemmed from experiences initiated by musician visits in 
the schools, thus strengthening the interactions between 
the schools, the orchestra, and the community. 

Range of Experiences 

Through its Ambassador Program, the Pittsburgh 
Symphony Orchestra places musician ambassadors in 
selected middle and high schools as coaches, mentors, 
performers, and specialized resource personnel. Some 



musicians coach school orchestras or other student 
ensembles in advanced performance and rehearsal 

techniques. Other musicians 
interact with general music 
teachers and correlate lessons 
with the music curriculum, 
while others are paired with 
classroom teachers and make 
connections between music 
and academic subjects such as 
language arts or social studies. 

Interested musicians are 
matched with a school in 
their own residential neigh- 
borhood. They are chosen to 
participate in the Ambassador 
Program based on prior 
experience in school settings and enthusiasm for outreach 
efforts. Selected schools possess a dedicated full-time 
music specialists supportive principal, and an active 
advocacy group (e.g., PTA or music parents group). 

By carefully pairing musicians and music educators, 
students benefit by learning from both "teachers." 
Professional players bring specialized knowledge and in- 
depth musical understanding that add to the work of 
band or orchestra directors and general music teachers. 
The music teacher is a specialist in sequential music 
learning and classroom management while the orchestra 
musician is a specialist in his or her particular instrument, 
respective performance techniques, and orchestral 
repertoire. Together, professional music educators and 
professional musicians bring distinct specializations to the 
classroom that enhance the learning environment. 



65 



PROGRAM CONCEPT 

Origin 

The idea for the Ambassador Program was musician- 
generated. Some musicians concerned about working in 
an environment of "creative loneliness," felt disillusioned 
with the "conservatory viewpoint." That is, students who 
attend music conservatories gain performing skills that 
enable them to pursue a performance career. They spend 
their time in the practice room refining their perfor- 
mance technique with very little emphasis on teaching or 
sharing their knowledge with other members of the 
community. 

Although the original impetus began with the musicians, 
the idea was taken to the next level by the PSO staff and 
members of the New Leadership Board. This Board is 
composed of business leaders and professionals between 
thirty-five and fourty-five years of age - brought together 
to generate and implement new programs for attracting 
young audiences to the Symphony. 

Many professional musicians lead a life of practicing at 
home and then performing in a concert hall environment 
with little interaction with other community members. 
Some PSO musicians felt it was important to extend the 
concert hall walls, both for their own personal growth 
and to promote the importance of music and music 
education in the lives of individuals. 

Partnership Model 

The Ambassador Program and related experiences are an 
example of a managed partnership. Now in the fourth 
year of implementation, the Orchestra Education 
Director remains responsible for organizing, managing, 
and promoting the Ambassador program. The schools 
make in-kind contributions, but make no financial 
contribution at present. 



66 



Beyond 



Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- Free outreach concerts in the community and youth 
concerts in Heinz Hall 

- Free preparatory materials for youth concerts 

- Free in-school ensemble performances and musician 
visits 

- Teacher workshops 

- Superintendent 

- Night at the Symphony 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- Staff time for planning, curriculum development and 
workshops at Heinz Hall 

- Space for rehearsals and concerts 

- Maintenance, technical specialists, and security for 
rehearsals and concerts 

- Piano tuning 

- Materials (worksheets, music, music stands, chairs, etc.) 

- Advocacy support - PTA/PTO meetings and 
workshops 

- Released time for education committee members to 
write curriculum materials 

- Bus transportation 



GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

The overall mission of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orches- 
tra Education Program is arts advocacy within its commu- 
nity. This advocacy goal emanated from an elaborate 
reevaluation process begun during the 1992-93 season. As 
a result, the PSO developed a Five-Year Strategic Plan, 
which states that the main goal is to serve as an educa- 
tional and cultural resource to the greater Western 
Pennsylvania region by offering accessible, effective, and 
comprehensive orchestra education programs that work 



Pittsburgh 



cooperatively with educational and community resources 
and organizations. Through implementing effective 
orchestra education programs and by initiating music and 
arts education advocacy activities, the PSO intends to 
counter the decline of music education in Western 
Pennsylvania schools. 

The Strategic Plan also identifies four educational need 
areas and strategic goals that address them. 

Area: Advocacy of music education 
Goal: To establish a network of community-based 
music advocacy programs 

Area: K-12 direct in-school education programs 
Goal: To teach students, teachers, administrators, and 
parents about music 

Area: K-12 general access music education programs 
Goal: To enhance understanding and experiences of/in 

music for students, teachers, administrators 

and parents 

Area: Education department development 
Goal: To develop the education department into a 

sustaining organizational unit to support its mission 

Symphony staff consistently state that a long-range goal 
of the program is to find a solution to an aging audience 
and create an audience for the future. The Ambassador 
strategy is meant to influence students, teachers, and 
parents so that they will support the orchestra, now and 
into the future. 

School administrators and teachers believe that the main 
goals of the Ambassador program are to build bridges and 
understanding, establish two-way communication, and 
initiate a personal relationship between the orchestra and 
local schools. Additional aims are to promote arts literacy 
in the schools and therefore the community-at-large, and 
to share musical expertise between professional symphony 
musicians and professional music educators. 

At present, the school and orchestra participants perceive 
these goals and objectives somewhat differently due to 
their respective contexts. These differing viewpoints do 
not detract, however, from the strong relationship built 
between the symphony and the schools throughout the 
early years of the Ambassador program. In fact, they lay 
the groundwork for future reevaluation as the program 
evolves. 



PROGRAM PLANNING 
AND IMPLEMENTATION 

Planning Process 

The 1992-93 season of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orches- 
tra marked the initiation of an extended PSO outreach 
effort. This was the first step in a three-part program 
aimed at planning, piloting, and implementing a compre- 
hensive orchestra education program. The PSO was 
facing important issues concerning its role in the commu- 
nity and its relation to the audience it serves. 

In December of 1992, the Pittsburgh Public Schools 
(PPS) decided to eliminate the arts division supervisory 
staff and cut the transportation budget by $1 million 
dollars. Both cuts immediately affected the PSO's 
education programs, as well as sent a serious message to 
the local arts community that arts education was not a 
priority in the PPS. Both the school district and the 
orchestra discovered that they shared a common problem 
- the need for increased arts advocacy throughout their 
community-at-large. Music educators and symphony 
administrators alike felt they stood to gain by pooling 
their efforts and resources to promote the importance of 
music and the arts in the lives of their citizenry. 

The PSO simultaneously undertook the following 
activities in order to determine the future direction of the 
entire education program. 

Education needs survey. A survey, distributed to 800 
schools in the Western Pennsylvania area, focused on 
school and community demographics, PSO programming, 
and school needs and resources. Responses to two 
questions identified the strongest needs and served as a 
guideline for education initiatives. 



67 



What are the greatest needs of your school music 
program? 

Exposure to the arts/cultural awareness 

Arts education advocacy 

Support for school string programs 

How might the Symphony be able to assist you, 
your school, and/or your community with these 
needs? 

Provide in-school programs 

Continue free Tiny Tots and youth concerts 

Supply information on symphony program offerings 

Educators' committee. This working committee was 
formed in 1993 with three objectives in mind: 
1 ) to assist the orchestra in reaching young audiences 
through schools and communities, 2) to broaden commu- 
nication with teachers, and 3) to help the PSO be 
responsive to the needs of the education community. The 
committee consists of fourteen educators from four 
counties and is charged with creating supplementary 
materials to complement youth concerts. A long-term 
advocacy goal will be to have a PSO staff member or 
musician speak to at least one school board meeting in 
every school district in a seven-county region over a 5- 
year period of time. 

Service Exchange Agreement 

During the pilot phase in 1992-93, the musicians discov- 
ered they could easily become overwhelmed with the 
time commitment and avid interest expressed by the 
schools. Because they were committed to the program, 
they wanted to institutionalize it as part of their contract. 
PSO management had been interested in the concept of 
"individual credit" for payment, so it agreed. The Service 
Exchange Agreement was officially introduced into the 
contract in Spring 1994 and has induced an increase in 
musicians' involvement in the community. The resulting 
agreement consists of eight outreach or education services 
in exchange for a week of vacation at a mutually agreed 
upon time. 



68 



Beyond Tradition 



Participating Schools/Communities 

After examining several other potential sites for the pilot, 
the PSO decided to focus its attention on areas of the 
community that already had a PSO outreach presence, 
had a substantial commitment to music education but 
needed support for music programs, had outstanding 
music teachers who were committed to improving their 
programs, had demonstrated support from the community 
for the education system, and had a stated music curricu- 
lum. 

The Homewood Community 

One elementary school, one middle school based on the 
Montessori philosophy, a middle school with a creative 
arts focus, one magnet high school for math and science, 
and a high school with a performing arts emphasis serve 
the Homewood community, a predominantly African- 
American and lower-socioeconomic neighborhood. Each 
of these five Pittsburgh Public schools is different in 
structure, administration, and philosophy. 

ArtsPROPEL 

A distinguishing feature of the Homewood neighborhood 
at the time of its selection was that all five schools were 
participating in the ArtsPROPEL curriculum and 
assessment techniques, which included videotape, 
audiotape, journals, critiques, and portfolios. Symphony 
ambassadors correlated their lessons with the 
ArtsPROPEL approach. Musicians were videotaped at 
the elementary and middle school levels so that the 
teacher could review the lesson with the students after 
the musician's visit. 

Two PSO musician ambassadors worked with fifth and 
sixth grade students at Homewood Montessori on two 
ArtsPROPEL domain projects: First Rhythm and First 
Melody. The focus of these projects is student composi- 
tion. Prior to a visit by a symphony musician, the general 
music teacher works with students in creating short 
rhythmic and melodic compositions. During the 
musician's visit, the students perform these compositions, 
and the visiting musician helps the students to refine or 
enhance their efforts. 



Pittsburgh 



One student's journal entry states, 

/ really enjoyed the visits to our music classes. A 
percussionist in the symphony made our music classes 
interesting. Every class before he came, we would finish 
our rhythm project compositions. We would be ready 
when he came. With the help of our music teacher, he 
gave us lots of encouragement . We would practice our 
pieces, then perform them on foreign percussion instru- 
ments brought by the percussionist. 

Classroom Activities 

After two years, the original Ambassador to Homewood 
Montessori was reassigned to another school. The new 
Ambassador is another percussionist, new to the PSO. 
During the site visit, he taught an African drumming 
lesson to a sixth grade general music class. The students 
learned several different rhythm patterns and then 
attempted to put them together to make a polyrhythmic 
composition. The musician brought authentic African 
instruments and added them to the composition once the 
children learned their parts. The general music teacher 
videotaped the lesson so that he could follow-up with the 
students after the visit. Although the teacher and the 
musician had discussed the visit by telephone, there was 
no evidence that they had planned ways to connect the 
visit with the curriculum or incorporate the students' 
previously composed rhythm pieces. 

At Upper St. Clair high school, a violinist has served as 
Ambassador for two years. His primary interactions have 
been to coach the orchestra and conduct sectional 
rehearsals. During the site visit, we observed a casual 
lunchtime conversation during which the musician 
talked about his life as a professional musician. He 
described his weekly routine, which includes being 
responsible for playing three to four new compositions 
each week. He attends four rehearsals and performs three 
concerts with a completely different set of repertoire 
every week. The ambassador drew comparisons between a 
high school rehearsal, designed to help young musicians 
learn the music, and a professional rehearsal, where 
musicians come already knowing their parts and the 
conductor adds interpretive shadings. He explained that 
over the course of a year, an orchestra player might 
perform 70-80 different compositions. 

In an elementary setting, another violinist (who had 
formerly worked as a computer programmer for Citibank) 
visited a third grade class studying a science unit about 
sounds and vibrations. The musician and teacher had 
communicated previously by phone to set up the visit, 
and the teacher had sent a copy of the science unit to the 
musician. During the site visit, the musician began with a 
demonstration of vibrations with a piece of string. Later, 
he used his violin to show the relationship between the 



length of a string and how it determined whether a pitch 
was high or low. During the discussion of the scientific 
principles, the children were attentive and well behaved. 
Later in the lesson, however, the mood changed markedly 
when the musician began to play short excerpts on the 
violin. All of a sudden, the children were excited about 
their visiting guest. When the musician was making 
music, rather than talking about the mechanics, he was 
able to communicate the real musical education message. 

In all three settings observed during the site visit, 
teachers and musicians have communicated by phone to 
set up the classroom visit, but dedicated planning varies. 
Both the teacher and the musician have specialized 
knowledge to share with the students, and if planning 
time were possible, these pairs of teachers could truly 
capitalize on each other's strengths. 

Teacher/Musician Training 

At present, the PSO does not offer training for either the 
teachers or the musicians participating in the Ambassa- 
dor program. One outside observer from a local founda- 
tion asked specifically if musicians received any orienta- 
tion sessions before visiting the schools. The PSO made 
an early attempt at musician training, but it was not 
successful and therefore, not continued. 

PROGRAM SUPPORT 

The Symphony, with foundation and corporate support, 
underwrites the cost of the Ambassador Program. Some 
school districts donate money at the end of the year. The 
Ambassadors participate in outreach and education 
activities through the service exchange agreement as part 
of their annual contracted salary. Schools contribute staff 
time and advocacy support. The Symphony covers the 
expense of the Side-by-Side concerts. 

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 

Originally, the PSO planned to retain an outside assess- 
ment consultant at the conclusion of the pilot stage. It 
was the intent that this consultant would help evaluate 
activities with teachers, administrators, PSO staff and 
musicians. As the program unfolded, this evaluative 
element did not come about due to financial limitations. 



69 



Student journals and videotapes tracked increased 
student learning in the schools that were involved with 
the ArtsPROPEL evaluation approach. After participat- 
ing in the First Melody domain project at Homewood 
Montessori, one sixth grader writes 

1 learned about things that make good melodies. They 
should be easy to remember, but not too boring. It 
shouldn't be too repetitive, either. I also learned that a 
good melody should have one high point. Probably, the 
thing 1 learned most about and had the most fun with was 
ways to change my melody. 

This student's writing reflects an understanding of 
common melodic characteristics - that melodies are easy 
to remember, are repetitive, have a climax point, and can 
be modified. 

Since the ArtsPROPEL funding has ended for the project 
in the Pittsburgh Public Schools, it is difficult to predict 
what carryover will continue in the future among school 
personnel and symphony ambassadors. The ArtsPROPEL 
programs have been supported by teachers and principals 
who know it is a good assessment model; however, not all 
schools chose to continue the program. 

Other methods of evaluating the Ambassador Program 
have included surveys and questionnaires targeted to 
teachers and musicians, as well as informal feedback 
received from participants. Surveys were used to evaluate 
the Side-by'Side events as well. 

IMPACT 

Early Outcomes 

By the end of the pilot year, musicians felt that the 
program increased student self confidence, enhanced 
student performance potential due to challenging 
repertoire, broadened the classroom environment, and 
raised standards for student performance. 

Mutual Benefits 

The symphony is reaching a wider audience with the help 
of the ambassadors and the Side-bySide concerts, while 
the schools have been able to draw on new sources of 
professional personnel who enrich the programs taught by 
school music specialists. Orchestra musicians feel they 
have gained a broader view of music education, as well as 
a new respect for their local music teachers and the 
reality of school teaching situations. In working with 
students, musicians have been able to increase the 



70 



Beyond 



playing level and discipline of students; engender 
excitement about music; and, in general, enhance what 
the music teacher is already doing. They also remark that 
they enjoy the immediate feedback received from the 
students. There is evidence that ambassadors have helped 
to demystify the perception of orchestra musicians and 
what their life and daily work entail. The ambassadors are 
the connection between the orchestra and the schools. 

Schools are appreciative of the interest shown by the 
orchestra in school matters. One music supervisor is 
especially grateful for the strong leadership of the PSO, 
which is the community's largest arts leader. The 
symphony's participation helps give the school arts 
curriculum legitimacy. By placing PSO musicians in the 
schools, the Ambassador program is changing how music 
education is being delivered and taught. 

Students express appreciation for their new learning 
experiences. They feel that they now know some musicians 
as real people. At first, they thought that musicians might 
be "snobby, stuck-up or critical," but they have come to 
find out that the musicians who come to their school are 
"normal" people. They bring new ideas and challenge new 
learning in a manner that doesn't force, patronize, or talk 
down to the students. The students, upon visiting their 
new "friends" in the concert hall, are surprised at the 
difference between the regular person they meet at their 
school and the professional person they meet in the hall. 
The relaxed, friendly people that they meet in their 
schools are often dressed casually, in contrast to the formal 
dress of the concert hall, where musicians behave in a 
much more "serious manner" as they prepare backstage for 
a performance. The students now see a difference between 
knowing musicians on a personal basis and seeing them in 
their working environment. 

School representatives agree with orchestra personnel 
that the stereotypes of orchestra musicians and the 
mystique of the orchestra are being broken. Students and 
teachers now possess a clearer understanding of an 
orchestra musician and his or her role in a professional 
orchestra. 



Pittsburgh 



How the Orchestra Has Changed 
How it Conducts Business 

The Service Exchange Agreement allows up to eight 
services per musician to be exchanged for a week of 
vacation. This agreement is charting new waters for 
orchestra/musician relations and offers the musician some 
aspect of choice in how his or her talents will be used. A 
musician's working environment may now extend beyond 
the concert hall into the schools and into his or her 
community. 

Having made new "friends" in the schools, the orchestra 
is now including young performers in concert programs 
and offering numerous Side-by -Side performing opportuni- 
ties for students to "sit in" with professional musicians in 
rehearsals, as well as concert settings. These types of 
performing opportunities benefit the schools by extend- 
ing music education beyond the walls of the school, while 
serving as a unique marketing tool for the orchestra. 

Outgrowths and Connections: The Side-by- 
Side Program 

Where an ambassadorship has been established in a certain 
neighborhood, the orchestra follows up by scheduling a 
concert in that community. The first outreach concert in 
the Homewood neighborhood, featuring the PSO playing 
alone, drew an audience of 70 people. Later, as a result of 
the coaching efforts in the high school, the musicians 
initiated a series of Side-by-Side rehearsals, which culmi- 
nated in a Side-by-Side performance of the PSO and two 
combined high school choirs. This second outreach effort 
drew an audience of 700. 

Along with the Ambassador Program, the PSO has 
initiated a series of Side-by-Side concerts and events that 
place secondary school students on stage and in rehearsal 
with PSO musicians in Heinz Hall. The performances 
have involved both instrumental and choral students. 
Since 1993, the PSO has held at least one annual Side-by- 
Side performance in Heinz Hall conducted by Music 
Director, Lorin Maazel, arid several other smaller concerts 
in community settings. In many cases, the Ambassadors 
are instrumental in guiding the appropriateness of the 
Side-by-Side experience, as well as the selection of 
repertoire. 



In the spring of 1993, the first Side-by-Side concert held 
in Heinz Hall included three different student performing 
ensembles: a horn choir, an SATB mixed chorus, and a 
percussion ensemble. The 1994 experience was an all-day 
event beginning in the morning with sectional rehearsals 
with PSO musicians, a student rehearsal on stage, lunch 
with PSO musicians, a combined rehearsal on stage, and 
culminating with an open rehearsal performed for a live 
audience and taped by a local television station. 

The 1995 performance was titled "Night of 2,000 Stars." 
Conducted by Lorin Maazel and Guest Conductor, 
Robert Page, the concert brought together a 2, 000- voice 
chorus, the PMEA (Pennsylvania Music Educator's 
Association) All-State Chorus, and the All-State 
Orchestra. By involving the PMEA ensembles, the PSO 
is acknowledging the important contributions made by 
music educators throughout the state of Pennsylvania, as 
well as forging a major link to music education in the 
Pittsburgh community. Placing all these groups together 
in a performance sends a valuable message to school 
music teachers that the PSO, the premier musical 
organization in their community, considers the schools' 
student ensembles important enough to sit Side-by-Side in 
a concert setting. This type of initiative helps to validate 
the local school music programs and should go a long way 
in ensuring the importance of music education and arts 
advocacy in the community. 

CODA 

The ambassadors are getting to know their community 
and meeting their neighbors on a personal level, thereby 
making some progress toward alleviating the "creative 
loneliness" dilemma. Musicians no longer make their 
music strictly alone in a practice situation or in the 
concert hall. They are becoming actively involved in 
their neighborhoods and sharing their knowledge with 
students, teachers, and parents. 

The unique combination of the Ambassador Program, the 
Side-by-Side concerts, and the community concerts in 
specially targeted neighborhoods has allowed the PSO to 
make deeper connections with students, parents, teach- 
ers, and school administrators, as well as citizens-at-large. 
Any of these three programs could be pursued separately 
or as one-time occurrences and be worthy of note, but 
their interrelatedness strengthens the PSO's outreach. By 
carefully selecting neighborhoods, matching orchestra 
personnel and resources, and targeting schools with 
strong music education programs, the PSO is constructing 
a partnership framework with its community and featur- 
ing orchestra musicians as the connective tissue. 



71 



Beyond 



72 



Chicago 



CHICAGO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Site Visit: November 27-28, 1995 

(Site visit and profile by Cynthia Thomas) 



OVERVIEW 

Orchestra, Schools and Community 

The Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) has an 
education partnership with Urban Gateways, a Chicago- 
based arts education organization. The joint program is 
called the Aulos Fellowship Program (AFP). It is funded 
for five years and is the second phase of an earlier three- 
year partnership. Three inner-city schools participate in 
AFP. Two are from the Chicago Public Schools and one is 
from the Chicago Archdiocese. All three schools are 
located in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods 
and serve populations that are predominantly African- 
American and Latino. 

Urban Gateways 

Urban Gateways (UG), 1995 recipient of the National 
Medal of the Arts, has been known for its arts education 
programs for more than thirty-five years. UG maintains a 
roster of artists in dance, music, theatre, visual art, and 
creative writing. The agency specializes in presenting 
ethnic artists who reflect the cultural diversity of the 
greater Chicago area. Among the artistic offerings are 
West African dance and drumming, Jewish Klezmer 
bands, Mexican folk art, Polish papercutting, African- 
American strip quilting, Chinese dance and culture, 
Latino literature, and performances by the Chicago 
Children's Choir. 

Range of Experiences 

The AFP partnership emphasizes teacher and artist 
training. The main focus is on making teachers comfort- 
able with incorporating music into the classroom curricu- 
lum. Year-long activities include teacher training, artist 
training, collaborative planning sessions, school residen- 
cies, field trips, parent workshops, in-school touring 
performances, CSO in-school ensemble performances, 
Urban Gateways matinee concerts, and CSO youth 
concerts. 



PROGRAM CONCEPT 
Partnership Model 

The AFP partnership is an example of a jointly managed 
program offered to selected inner-city schools. Both 
partners contribute staff and substantial grant funding to 
the project. The CSO's connection with an established 
arts education organization strengthens the orchestra's 
education efforts. UG provides cultural and artistic 
diversity, which enriches the symphonic experiences 
emphasized by the CSO. 

Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- $114,000 grant funding 

- Dedicated staff time provided by Coordinator of 
Education Relations (reports to Director of 
Education) 

- One of two curriculum consultants 

- Discounted tickets to youth and family concerts 

- Bus transportation 

- Teacher training prior to youth and family concerts 

- Curriculum materials for CSO youth concerts 

- CSO chamber ensembles 

- CD players and recorders 



73 



Urban Gateways Contributions to Partnership 

- $150,000 grant funding 

- Dedicated staff time provided by the Director of 
Program Development 

' One of two curriculum consultants 

- Bus transportation to youth and family concerts 

- Teacher, artist, and parent training 

- Touring performances 
' Teaching artists 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- All teachers in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades 
from selected schools 

- Commitment from each school's principal 

- Released time for teacher training 

- Classroom teaching time and curriculum commitment 

History of the Program 

The CSO's early association with Urban Gateways began 
by providing discounted tickets to UG's Cultural Enrich- 
ment Program (CEP). CEP is an established UG Program 
that targets thirty selected inner-city Chicago Public 
Schools. Teachers at these schools attend two all-day 
workshops at Orchestra Hall, which are designed to 
support them in preparing their students for youth 
concerts. The goal of CEP is to expose teachers to the 
same experiences their students will have when they visit 
Orchestra Hall. CEP is a continuing program that has 
spawned two additional projects, including the AFP. 

The Cultural Enrichment Program 
Plus Five Project 

Building on CEP, the CSO and UG in 1991 intensified 
their cooperative relationship by developing additional 
arts education programs. Five of the original CEP schools 
were selected to participate in a new venture called the 
Cultural Enrichment Program Plus Five Project (CEP+5). 

CEP+5's thrust was to equip classroom teachers with 
training, experience, and teaching materials to enable 
them to integrate music and arts education into the 
curriculum. CEP+5 monitored a group of 450 students in 
the five schools as they moved through fourth, fifth and 



74 



Beyond 



sixth grades. During the first year of the project, fourth- 
grade students learned about music from around the 
world. The second year, in fifth grade, these same 
students focused on sound sources. The third year of 
instruction concentrated on musical composition. As an 
additional component of the project, parents of partici- 
pating students attended workshops, and encouraged 
their children's studies outside the classroom. 

Aulos Fellowship Program 

In the 1994-95 school year, the CSO and UG initiated 
the Aulos Fellowship Program as a second phase of their 
partnership. The AFP provides increased emphasis on 
musical training for the teachers, with a goal of develop- 
ing more sequential instruction for the children. Based on 
a program evaluation by OER Associates - Evaluation 
Research of Wilmette, Illinois, the AFP is attempting to 
encourage sequential programs by grouping the teachers 
into cross-grade teams. The AFP is intended to continue 
through a five-year period. 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

In the words of one of the curriculum consultants, "To 
change the face of a school, you awaken the creative 
powers of teachers in the arts and allow them to be 
creative." The main goal of the program is to challenge 
the segregation that exists between school systems and 
cultural organizations; between academic subjects and 
arts and humanities subjects; and between the classroom 
teacher and the arts specialist teacher. Specific objectives 
include the development of students' rhythmic, melodic, 
and analytical skills; the exploration of ways in which the 
teaching of language arts, social studies, mathematics, 
and science may be enhanced through the arts; and the 
use of the arts as a catalyst to understand cultural diver- 
sity. 

PROGRAM PLANNING AND 
IMPLEMENTATION 

Planning 

The CSO, UG, and OER worked together for six months 
to plan CEP+5. In hindsight, the partners wish that they 
had allowed for a longer planning process, which should 
have included representatives from the schools; however, 
given the complexity of the Chicago Public Schools, they 
felt it was important to get something started, involve the 
schools, build trust and credibility, and then continue to 
adapt the program as it evolved over time. 



Chicago 



School Selection 

In CEP+5, the evaluation team (OER) noted that 
teacher attendance at the workshops varied greatly from 
school to school. The team determined that if a school 
had a weak principal, there was low or sporadic atten- 
dance. Therefore, for the AFP, the school selection 
process placed more emphasis on the strength of the 
principal and the potential for establishing strong 
cooperation among participating teachers. In addition to 
an application submitted by interested schools, site visits 
and on-site interviews with the faculty determined the 
level of principal and teacher commitment. 

The involvement of a trained music specialist varies from 
school to school - one school employs a full-time paid 
music specialist; another school has a volunteer music 
teacher; and the third school utilizes a part-time music 
teacher. At present, selection criteria do not require the 
participation of a music specialist. However, where music 
specialists are available, further connections with the 
music curriculum are encouraged. 

Teacher training 

Teachers participate in eight full days (sixty hours) of 
training per year - a three-day intensive summer institute 
in June and five additional days scheduled throughout the 
school year. Teachers also attend two after-school 
preparatory sessions for the two annual CSO youth 
concerts. In return for their time, teachers are paid an 
annual stipend of $1,000. 

The CSO and UG each hire a curriculum consultant. 
The two paid curriculum consultants conduct activities 
designed to develop musical expression by singing and by 
playing the soprano recorder. The goal is for each teacher 
to establish a personal connection to music by perform- 
ing, creating, and listening - not to become a virtuoso 
singer or recorder player. The consultants schedule site 
visits in order to observe the teachers using music in their 
classroom settings. All teachers present culminating 
activities with their students that demonstrate skills in 
singing and recorder playing, as well as musical under- 
standing. 

Curriculum 

Over the course of the three AFP years, teachers are 
expected to complete the following three objectives in 
music instruction: 1 ) demonstrate understanding in three 
levels of rhythm, form, and melody curricula; 2) play 
simple tunes on the soprano recorder; and 3 ) demonstrate 
ability to listen and recognize selected music repertoire. 
Some examples of the selected repertoire include 
Pachelbel's Canon, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, William 



Grant Still's Afro-American Symphony, B. B. King's Why 1 
Sing the Blues, and Charles Ives's Variations on America. 
Rhythmic concepts range from keeping a steady beat to 
performing a rhythmic canon. Melodic concepts include 
simple activities, such as differentiating melodic direction 
and eventually playing major scales. Form identification 
ranges from identifying same, similar, or different sections 
in a musical selection to recognizing a rondo form. 

Artist Training 

Urban Gateways selects three teaching artists from their 
roster of artists to work with the AFP schools. Selection 
is based on the ability to both perform and teach in a 
classroom setting. Teaching artists attend the training 
sessions provided for the teachers. Each teaching artist is 
in residence for fifteen weeks in one school per year, 
covering all the schools over three years. The residency 
includes six to seven teaching/performing sessions with 
the students and a field trip appropriate to the teaching 
artist's specialty area. The three UG artists presently 
working with the AFP program include a jazz saxophon- 
ist, a Latino and Afro-Cuban percussionist, and a folk 
musician. 

Collaborative Planning 

The teaching artist and the teachers in each school 
arrange collaborative planning sessions. These "collabs" 
allow for joint curriculum planning, through which artists 
and teachers share ideas and plan activities to integrate 
the arts into their upcoming lessons. Four "collabs" of two 
hours each occur throughout the year. 

Parent Participation 

AFP originally called for at least one parent workshop per 
year in each school. The purpose of the workshop was to 
provide first-hand knowledge and a better understanding 
of the kinds of activities the children were experiencing. 
The parent workshops have met with mixed success. At 
the end of the first year of AFP, only one workshop had 
been conducted at one school. Progress in this area has 
been difficult due to varying levels of parent interest. 

CSO African Portraits Concert 

One activity that elicited strong parent involvement was 
a CSO concert featuring a composition by Hannibal 
Lokumbe, entitled African Portraits, presented during the 
1994-95 school year. The CSO provided complimentary 
tickets to approximately 100 parents, teachers, and 
students. Other guests included the three teaching artists, 
the curriculum consultants, and Urban Gateway staff 
members. For many of the invited guests, this was a first- 
time visit to Orchestra Hall. 



75 



Concerts and Field Trips 

Each school annually participates in several performances 
and activities outside of school - two CSO youth 
concerts, one Urban Gateways matinee, and one field trip 
related to the artist residency. In-school concerts include 
two UG touring performances. With the exception of the 
field trip, few connections have been made between these 
performances and other AFP activities. 

PROGRAM SUPPORT 

Both the CSO and Urban Gateways support the Aulos 
Fellowship Program primarily with dedicated staff time 
and grant money. Schools do not make a financial 
contribution; however, the teachers and principals make 
a substantial time commitment to the project. Parents 
have been involved to a lesser extent, but where in- 
cluded, are very supportive of the program and its 
potential to increase student learning. 

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 

Combining experiences from the earlier CEP+5 project 
and suggestions from the evaluation team, the CSO and 
UG have made the following changes from CEP+5 to 
AFP: 

CEP+5 

2-3 workshops per year 
7-week artist residencies, 
Separate training for teachers/UG artists 

AFP 

8 workshops per year 

One 15-week artist residency per year 

Combined training for teachers/UG artists 

Formal Evaluation by OER Associates 

Since the inception of the CEP+5, OER Associates has 
conducted a systematic annual evaluation for the CSO 
and UG. The evaluation process is extensive, including 
structured interviews, questionnaires, and observations. 
To a large extent, the evaluation relies on self-reported 
perceptions among participants. The analysis of data 
seeks to determine the extent of program implementa- 
tion, comfort levels of teachers for teaching arts concepts, 
and student awareness of the program. 



76 



Beyond 



At the end of the first year of the AFP ( 1994-95 ), the 
evaluators noted steady progress by the teachers in 
developing new musical skills as a result of the curriculum 
consultant's in-service training. Evaluators also found 
that teachers and students felt that the residencies, the 
touring performances, and the CSO evening concerts 
were effective. Activities perceived as less effective were 
those that lacked advance preparatory materials. 

IMPACT 

Teacher Growth 

The most dramatic impact so far seems to be in the area 
of teacher attitudes and their development of music skills. 
Teachers state that they were shocked at the initial 
expectations when they realized how much time and 
effort would be required. By attending the extended 
training sessions, teachers are students themselves and 
state that they now possess a deeper appreciation of the 
learning process that their students experience daily. 
Some teachers feel more comfortable with their abilities 
to produce music and involve their students; however, 
overall growth in the comfort level of integrating music 
into the curriculum varies from school to school. Princi- 
pals feel that their teachers have a way to go before they 
achieve a strong comfort level. As one teacher says, "I am 
more excited myself, but the children's excitement and 
behavior makes it really worth it for me." 

Teachers understand their role of clarifying and making 
connections within the curriculum. Both principals and 
teachers would like to see more hands-on materials 
illustrating how to integrate music into the curriculum. 
One teacher speaks about how she now looks for musical 
books and other supplementary materials to enhance 
units in history, literature, poetry, and the study of other 
countries. She finds it harder to make connections to 
math and science, and prefers more authentic connec- 
tions to the arts. 

Artist Attitudes 

According to one teacher, "At first, some Urban Gate- 
ways artists taught what [they] thought was important in 
the residencies." Artists now attend the training with the 
teachers and have grown from an initial negative attitude 
to one of understanding the teacher's perspective. 
Teachers feel that the participation of both CSO and UG 
musicians is key to the success of AFP. One teacher says, 
"We cannot do everything ourselves. We need the 
musicians to do what they do best." 



Chicago 



CODA 

The partnership between the Chicago Symphony 
Orchestra and Urban Gateways is providing an environ- 
ment in which the partners, as well as the participants, 
are learning from one another. The CSO and UG are 
gaining a new understanding of two philosophically 
contrasting organizations and are capitalizing on their 
strengths, the classical and ethnic artistic traditions. 
Parents are beginning to experience the arts along with 
their children. 

The CSO and UG are developing better organizational 
skills. The CSO is preparing materials further in advance 
of concerts because they now understand that teachers 
need more preparation time to implement study units. 
Urban Gateways sets up a year-long activity calendar and 
makes it available at the start of the school year. 

The present AFP is an excellent example of adaptive 
planning. Program elements that were tried in Phase One 
(CEP+5) are being refined in Phase Two (AFP). The 
partners are soliciting input that results in gradual 
modifications from year to year. Participants agree that 
the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Urban Gateways 
are responsive to suggestions, and therefore, the program 
and the partnership represent an evolutionary process. 
All parties are developing new skills, gaining new 
perspectives, and appreciating the special talents of other 
participants. One principal observes, "The partners must 
be good learners. They must be able to listen to each 
other and adapt accordingly." 



77 



Beyond 



78 



Cedar Rapids 



CEDAR RAPIDS SYMPHONY 

Site Visit: December 1-2, 1995 

(Site visit and profile by Cynthia Thomas) 



OVERVIEW 

Orchestra, Schools, and Community 

The Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra (CRSO) serves 
the city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, population 120,000. The 
CRSO is a part-time orchestra composed of seventy-five 
musicians. In an effort to improve the curriculum in the 
public school system, the CRSO and the Cedar Rapids 
Community School District (CRCSD) have formed a 
partnership in support of music education. 

An important aspect of the partnership is the Third- 
Grade String Program, which is offered annually to every 
third-grade child in the CRCSD. Children in the twenty- 
one elementary schools (approximately 1400 children per 
year) receive ten lessons taught by a member of the 
CRSO, who is trained in the Suzuki method. The 
elementary music coordinator and the school principals 
schedule the ten lessons in four-week blocks, thus 
students receive a lesson every other day. Classroom 
teachers and parent volunteers assist with the group 
lessons. An outgrowth of the Third-Grade String 
Program is the After School Group Lesson Program, 
which provides string instruction to interested students in 
the third, fourth, and fifth grades. 

Range of Experiences 

A goal of the Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra 
(CRSO) is to instill a lifelong appreciation of music 
among its constituents. To this end, the CRSO estab- 
lished a Symphony School in 1986 to provide high 
quality music instruction to young string players in the 
Cedar Rapids area. In addition to the Third-Grade String 
Program and After School Group Lesson Program, the 
Symphony School offers private lessons, Suzuki instruc- 
tion, early childhood music, youth orchestras, and a 
children's chorus. In addition, the Cedar Rapids Sym- 
phony provides concerts and small-ensemble perfor- 
mances to enrich the musical development of students in 
the CRCSD. 



PROGRAM CONCEPT 
Partnership Model 

The school/orchestra partnership in Cedar Rapids offers 
an example of a coalition in which duties and expecta- 
tions of each partner are clearly defined. The relationship 
is facilitated by the strong leadership of the symphony's 
Education Director. The CRCSD, the Symphony 
School, the CRSO, and the Symphony Guild develop 
activities that enhance the school's music curriculum. 
Participants enjoy a range of opportunities, including in- 
service training for teachers, complimentary tickets to 
symphony performances and the Metropolitan Orchestra 
Festival, participation in the Third-Grade String Program 
and After School Group Lesson Program, ensemble 
performances in the schools, performances and instruc- 
tion by guest musicians in the schools, participation in 
the Youth Orchestra, and enrollment in the Symphony 
School. 

The CRCSD and CRSO use a contractual agreement to 
delineate partner expectations among the among the 
Symphony School, the public schools, the CRSO, and 
the Symphony Guild. In June of each year, the partners 
renegotiate the contract and present it to the CRCSD 
Board of Education and the CRSO Board of Directors for 
approval. The Superintendent of Schools is a member of 
the orchestra board, and the Executive Director of 
Middle and High Schools chairs the orchestra's education 
committee. 



79 



Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- Youth concerts for the fourth and seventh grades 

- Brass quintet performances for all elementary schools 
as preparation for the fourth-grade youth concert 

- String quartet performances for all elementary 
schools in preparation for the Third-Grade String 
Program 

- Symphony School program offerings 

- Staff involvement in writing curriculum materials 

- Though not formally included as partnership 
activities, the CRSO also offers the schools master 
classes by guest artists, string teaching seminars, 
informal recitals, and instrumental coaching for 
middle and high schools. 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- $3600 contribution toward fourth and seventh grade 
youth concerts 

- $3500 contribution toward brass and string ensemble 
in-school performances 

- Office space and publicity for symphony/school 
events 

- School instruments for Symphony School use 

- Assistance in writing and publishing curriculum 
materials 

History 

In 1986, the CRSO established the Symphony School to 
help ensure opportunities for string students in the 
CRCSD to be taught by string specialists. This move was 
in response to state teacher certification standards that 
permitted all certified music teachers, including those 
without strings background, to teach strings in public 
schools. 

In 1989, the CRCSD, facing a budget crisis, made a 
decision to change the starting grade level of its elemen- 
tary strings education program. Instead of beginning 
strings instruction in the fourth grade, the school district 
determined to delay the program until the sixth grade. 
This decision raised community-wide concern as to the 
CRCSD's commitment to a high quality orchestra 
education program and provided the catalyst for develop- 
ment of a partnership between the CRSO and the 
CRCSD. 



80 



Beyond 



GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

The CRSO has the following goals for its partnership 
with the CRCSD. 

- To provide all age groups with educational programs 
that will enhance rather than replace existing 
programs in the community 

- To produce well-rounded, well-educated citizens who 
have had a quality musical experience at a young age 
and who will grow into adults who appreciate music 

- To supplement the school string instruction program 
and reestablish early string training in the third grade 

- To secure future audience development and 
community support for the arts 

- To ensure that the contributing organizations 
maintain cooperative educational goals 



PROGRAM PLANNING 
AND IMPLEMENTATION 

Development of the Program 

The CRSO Education Director, who at the time of the 
change in string instruction was a parent of two string 
students and an active member of the Symphony Guild, 
believed elementary string instruction was crucial to the 
quality of the CRCSD's music education programs. 
Putting the best interpretation on an undesirable situa- 
tion, she recognized that the budget limitations of the 
school district afforded the orchestra an opportunity to 
consider making contributions to school programs. In 
her view, the schools and the orchestra shared resources 
that could sustain an ongoing string program. The 
Education Director initiated consultations with music 
and community leaders to discuss strategies for addressing 
the problem of school music program cutbacks. 

The Education Director met with the CRSO Music 
Director, members of the symphony board, a local 
businessman, and the founder of a Suzuki program at the 
University of Iowa. The symphony hoped to fund a 
position for an orchestra musician to teach a modified 
Suzuki string instruction program in the schools. The 
businessman agreed to contribute $9,000 toward this 
effort. His contribution was sufficient to provide the 
equivalent of a full-time salary for a musician willing to 
combine teaching with performing in the orchestra. The 
donated funds also allowed the orchestra to pursue the 
program at no risk to its operating budget. 



Cedar Rapids 



Initially, some music educators feared that the intended 
effort could jeopardize existing programs. However, the 
schools and the orchestra recognized that, without 
interventions, both institutions would suffer negative 
outcomes. In the short term, cutting the school's string 
program would lower the overall quality of music educa- 
tion in the CRCSD. Over the long term, community 
appreciation and support for the orchestra were likely to 
decline. By identifying their immediate needs, sharing 
concerns about the long-range impact of a current 
problem, and pooling resources to address the problem, 
the orchestra and the schools forged a partnership to 
benefit both organizations and, more importantly, to 
serve the learning needs of children in Cedar Rapids. 

Program Offerings 

The purposes of the Symphony School are to help build 
the public school string program, nurture children 
through music, build future symphony audiences, and 
offer opportunities for musicians to be self-sustaining. 
The Symphony School administers the Third-Grade 
String Program, which occurs during school hours, and 
the After School Lesson Program. The School uses the 
Suzuki method, encouraging parents to start their 
children's music education at an early age. Private and 
group lessons are also available, and scholarships and 
financial support students in need. The school maintains 
an enrollment of over 250 and employs a staff of twenty- 
one orchestra musicians. By working both as teachers and 
players, many of these performers earn full-time salaries. 

The Symphony School's offices are housed in a centrally 
located middle school building. The CRSO rents the 
office space, as well as studios and classrooms, from the 
CRCSD. In addition, the auditorium is available for 
recitals and other performance activities. 

The Third-Grade String Program involves parent 
volunteers and classroom teachers in the ten class lessons 
each child receives from an orchestra musician. The 
volunteers assist children with holding the instrument 
and the bow, placing the bow correctly on the string, 
fingering accurately, and developing overall technique. In 
the process, parents and teachers report that they learn 
more about music themselves. 

The After School Lesson Program extends the Third- 
Grade String Program by providing elective after-school 
lessons for children in the third through fifth grades. 
Depending on local interest, lessons may be scheduled in 
a child's school, or parents may drive their children to 
another nearby school. Private and group lessons are 
available for a minimal fee of five dollars each. Approxi- 
mately 50 students enroll annually. 



SUPPORT 

Financial and staff contributions by the school district 
and the symphony help solidify the relationship among 
orchestra education partners in Cedar Rapids. The 
orchestra provides musicians to teach lessons, as well as 
staff support for writing curriculum materials. School 
administrators serve on the orchestra board and commit- 
tees and schedule the Third-Grade Program. School 
personnel also help to write curriculum materials, which 
are published by the CRCSD. 

Parent support is crucial to the success of the partnership. 
In addition to parent assistance in the Third-Grade 
String Program, parents must provide transportation to 
the Symphony School's after-school programs. Orchestra 
representatives believe that if parents take pride in seeing 
their children increase their musical knowledge, they are 
likely to support the program and the orchestra in other 
ways. The parents' interest level, availability for after 
school transportation, and ability to pay partial tuition 
are viewed as key elements in whether a child continues 
string instruction beyond the third-grade introductory 
experience. 

EVALUATION & ASSESSMENT 

At present, the CRSO does not have an elaborate 
mechanism in place for evaluating programs. Some 
attempts have been made via questionnaires to solicit 
feedback from teachers, parents, and students regarding 
the Third-Grade String Program. Reponses to the 
questionnaire mainly reflect positive comments, however, 
and offer limited opportunities to determine improve- 
ment measures or assess student learning. 

IMPACT 

Through the Third-Grade String Program and the After 
School Program, the Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra 
has helped to fill a gap in the public school music 
curriculum. The CRCSD's sequential strings education 
program, which begins in sixth grade, draws on an 
existing pool of talent and skill generated in part by 
Symphony School programs. During the site visit, a 
group of Cedar Rapids leaders assembled to describe the 
various facets of the partnership. They included a 
CRCSD top level administrator, who also chairs an 
orchestra committee; a classroom teacher; an art teacher; 
two band directors; an orchestra director, who is also a 



81 



Beyond 



symphony player; a principal, who is also a parent; a 
school music administrator; and the orchestra Education 
Director. All agreed that the community shares numerous 
benefits, including the following, through the partnership 
between the school district and the orchestra: 

A high level of trust and understanding exists among the partners 
because of increased communication among school staff, students, 
parents, and symphony staff. 

Professional musicians teaching in the schools under the auspices of the 
Symphony School assure the quality of musical offerings and understand- 
ing throughout the community. 

Through the Third-Grade String Program, classroom teachers and parent 
volunteers acquire understanding of music and music education by 
assisting students. 

The orchestra's Education Director is a valuable community resource for 
sharing ideas among partners and constituents. 

CODA 

An advantage for the Cedar Rapids partnership is its 
small-town setting. The size of the school district and 
the orchestra offer possibilities for frequent interaction 
and communication that might be less available in larger 
communities. By capitalizing on the available opportuni- 
ties for close affiliation, the Cedar Rapids Community 
School District and the Cedar Rapids Symphony Orches- 
tra have built a partnership that enriches the entire 
community through music education. 



82 



New York 




Two young students get an opportunity to try out the (lute as 
part of the New York Philharmonic's School Partnership Program. 



NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 



Site visit: December 7-8, 1995 



OVERVIEW 
Schools and Students 

The New York 
Philharmonic 
(NYP) Partner- 
ship Program 
includes five 
public schools in 
Manhattan. It 
serves a broad 
socioeconomic 
mix of students, 
primarily in 
grades three 
through six. One 
school is largely 
middle class; the 

others have as high as ninety percent of their students on 
federal assistance. Family situations differ widely, and 
some children reside in homeless shelters. Ethnic repre- 
sentation is varied, with the majority of children being of 
Hispanic or African- American descent. In one school, 
teachers conduct the majority of classes in Spanish. 

Schools represent a variety of operating climates. The 
environments of the partner schools differ in administra- 
tive style, teacher commitments, planning time, parent 
involvement, communication, scheduling, resources, and 
discipline standards. Implementing the program for the 
greatest student benefit is thus labor intensive and 
requires a hands-on, problem-solving approach. 

Range of Experiences 

Each school is assigned one teaching artist, who collabo- 
rates with classroom teachers to provide instruction in 
basic music concepts. Additional classroom visits by 
individual musicians reinforce curricular concepts 
through interactive demonstrations of instruments. A 
quintet from the NYP performs in each school. Jon Deak, 
a NYP member who organized the quintet, composes and 
arranges the group's pieces to relate to the curriculum and 
the concert repertoire. 



Partnership students attend concerts and/or 
open rehearsals in Avery Fisher Hall. The 
NYP does not present school-day concerts 
exclusively for students, but assigns student- 
group seats among a paying audience of 
adults. The partnership program provides 
tickets for students, teachers, and parents to 
attend several events during the school year. 

PROGRAM CONCEPT 

Partnership Model 



The NYP program is an example of a 
partnership concept adapted to the prevail- 
ing community context. The NYP functions as a manag- 
ing partner, sustaining the expense and specifying 
expectations for participating schools. School budget 
limitations and the longstanding low priority of arts 
education in the New York City schools preclude direct 
financial commitment from the school system. The NYP 
has shouldered the primary burden of leadership develop- 
ing and implementing the program model. 

Five critical principles underlie the NYP's partnership 
program. 

Shared responsibility and commitment between the orchestra and the 
schools 

Professional development that matches teachers' knowledge and comfort 
levels, and prepares them to lead music activities with confidence 

A curricular focus on basic and interactive music learning, with 
knowledge of the orchestra developed as part of a broad music 
learning context 

Ongoing and sequential presence of the orchestra's teaching/performing 
personnel in the schools 

Unity among all facets of the program 



83 



Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- Program design and management 

- Curriculum design 

- Published resources and individual student journals 
to support the curriculum 

- Recordings 

- Classroom percussion instruments and recorders for 
each child 

- Portable stereo playback systems 

- A series of professional development workshops, with 
small stipends for teachers 

- Parent-child workshops 

- Free attendance for parents, children, and teachers at 
subscription concerts, NYP Young People's Concerts, 
and open rehearsals 

- Teaching artists, who teach lessons and participate in 
planning sessions with classroom teachers 

- In-school demonstrations and performances by 
musicians 

- Two student scholarships per school, plus 
instruments, for music lessons at a local community 
music school. 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- Cooperation in scheduling and logistics, including 
ticket distribution and organization of trips to 
concerts 

- Administrative and teacher commitment to 
curriculum implementation (150 hours annually), 
and after-school professional development (20-30 
hours annually) 

- Recommendation of students for scholarships to 
study instruments at a settlement 

- Completion of evaluation forms writing and piloting 
of six lessons relating music to the academic 
curriculum, designed at the end of a project year and 
implemented the following year. 



84 



Beyond 



Time Frame 

Originally intended as a three-year cycle for each partner 
school, the time frame of the program is currently being 
reconsidered. The financial requirements of adding new 
partner schools, the success of functioning programs, and 
the negative impact on students whose schools might be 
discontinued present a challenge for the NYP; part of this 
challenge is whether to develop current programs further 
or to transfer the existing model to other schools. 

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

Program Goals 

To build a fundamental knowledge of music, of a symphony orchestra, 
and of its repertoire among teachers, students, and parents 

To develop an ongoing multi-year relationship between the NYP and a 
body of schools in New York City 

To set a standard of excellence which defines a relationship between a 
symphony orchestra and schools within its community 

Program Objectives 

To build programs in a group of New York City public schools, starting 
with four schools and growing to ten schools, each in a three-year 
intensive relationship with the New York Philharmonic 

To develop a body of classroom (and, where possible, music) teachers 
committed to the teaching of music on a regular basis as an 
independent subject area, as well as a resource for the teaching of 
other subject matter 

To develop skills in classroom teachers that enable them to teach basic 
musical principles in a knowledgeable and committed manner 

To develop in elementary school students a) an interest in a wide range 
of music; knowledge of basic musical principles that apply to all music 
(melody, dynamics, rhythm, tempo, form); c) knowledge of and interest in 
a symphony orchestra and its component parts; d) basic skill on 
recorder, as an analogue of orchestral performance experience; e) 
familiarity with the New York Philharmonic; f) an increasing ability to 
listen analytically to music; and g) an ability to derive pleasure and 
satisfaction from a wide range of musical experiences 

To engage parents as co-learners with their children; to include them in 
parent-child workshops; to invite them to attend multiple events both in 
school and at Avery Fisher Hall with their children 

To develop among musicians of the New York Philharmonic and 
Education Department faculty a) an increased awareness of and 
commitment to their own community, and b) an active involvement in 
the partnership program 



New York 



Constituent Outcomes (three-year cycle) 

For students and teachers: 

understanding of music concepts, skill in recorder 
playing, knowledge of the orchestra and specific 
orchestral masterworks, positive attitudes toward a 
diverse range of music, increased interest in attend- 
ing live music events, and appreciation for the value 
of music as a positive and important force in their 
lives 

For parents: 

developing an interest in sharing musical activities 
with their children, and appreciating the value of 
music in their lives 

For artists: 

greater understanding of the public schools, a 
strengthened commitment to reaching out to those 
who may not know the value of one's work as a 
musician, and a perception of outreach as a part of 
the working life of a musician 

PROGRAM PUNNING AND 
IMPLEMENTATION 

History and School Selection 

In early 1994, the Director of Education asked adminis- 
trators in Manhattan school districts for recommenda- 
tions of partner schools. Twelve elementary schools were 
identified, based on need, leadership, and likelihood of 
commitment. Over a 3-4 month period, meetings were 
held with school staff members to explain the program. 
Guidelines for partner schools included a three-year 
commitment, with approximately 250 children and 8-12 
teachers in each school required as a "critical mass." 
Schools did not need to have a music program, nor did 
they need to be "model" schools. 

As a result of the meetings, four partnership schools 
emerged, mainly through self-selection. One school was 
among New York City's list of "worst schools;" another 
was a national model for excellence in inner-city educa- 
tion. Hie four schools represented an ethnically and 
socioeconomically diverse population. 

Because the partnership program is labor intensive, and 
because funding is limited, only one school was added to 
the original four in 1995-96. At present, expansion of the 
program is limited in part by the number of seats the NYP 
can afford to make available for events in Avery Fisher 
Hall. 



The Director of Education finds that the most consistent 
characteristic among partner schools is effective leader- 
ship. Principals of partner schools tend to be visionary 
and have a strong interest in stability. In addition, they 
believe that music and the other arts offer an important 
educational dimension that they are otherwise unable to 
provide. It is clear that the teachers and principals share a 
dedication to providing rich learning opportunities for 
their students. 

Interviews and observations in three of the partner 
schools confirm the importance of administrative 
leadership and support. Principals in these schools are 
known by the children, comfortable with students, and 
collegial in their relationships with teachers. There is a 
palpable focus on learning, and on establishing a school 
climate that is individual, relaxed, and orderly. 

When asked why they encourage and support the 
partnership with the NYP, principals cite the quality 
advantages of making classical music part of children's 
lives and learning. They also refer to the sense of value 
they feel in seeing the NYP, a world-class orchestra, take 
an interest in its local community. Principals and teachers 
alike believe that there are qualitative advantages that 
distinguish this program - organization, emphasis on 
learning, collaborative approach with teachers, quality 
control, flexibility without compromising quality, and 
continuous and effective communication. 

According to one principal, "This program has trans- 
formed who we are as a school. Not only are we learning 
music, but we are developing self-esteem and pride." A 
district arts coordinator who reviews the curriculum and 
functions as a liaison between principals and the orches- 
tra says, "This program has a defined substance that is 
helping children, parents, and teachers develop a 
relationship with the New York Philharmonic." 

Curriculum and Teaching 

The NYP Director of Education and teaching artists 
design the curriculum. The 1995-96 curriculum includes 
nineteen lessons organized into six units of study, which 
are taught by classroom teachers. An additional fifteen 
lessons, taught weekly by teaching artists, supplement the 
work of classroom teachers. The curriculum is laid out 
sequentially, with step-by-step activities, resources, 
glossary, suggestions for portfolio entries, optional 
homework assignments, and brief descriptions of the 



85 



lessons to be taught by teaching artists. Classroom 
teachers and teaching artists correlate their lessons, each 
lesson constituting about fifty percent of the instruction 
time. The NYP curriculum relates loosely with the music 
curriculum framework of the New York City Schools. 
However, because the school system employs very few 
music specialists, the partnership cannot connect with 
ongoing school music programs. 

Music learning in classrooms stresses fundamental 
concepts through experiences in composing, listening, 
and performing. The schools receive a commercially 
published teaching method for recorder (one school 
employs a music specialist who teaches the recorder 
program). Although the curriculum focuses on the 
medium of the orchestra and connects the children with 
"their" orchestra, experiences are richly eclectic. Re- 
corder performance and composition emphasize direct 
musical experience; individualized materials and home- 
made instruments encourage personal investment; regular 
journal entries foster reflective thinking. 

The NYP program strives to foster interaction among 
classroom teachers and teaching artists so that instruc- 
tional time, strategies, and planning are truly shared. In 
the classrooms visited for this study, teachers played 
active and enthusiastic roles during teaching artists' 
lessons. 

Lesson content relates to the repertoire in concerts that 
the children will attend. Music in the lessons is broadly 
representative of composers, styles, and genres, and is not 
limited to traditional works for children. The 1995-96 
repertoire includes Beethoven's Symphonies Nos. 5 and 
6, Ravel's Bolero, Stravinsky's Rite of Spring, Mozart's 
Overture to the Marriage of Figaro, Reich's Drumming, and 
Cage's 4' 33". Relevant learning activities are designed to 
stretch the children's expressive awareness and response 
through experiences appropriate to their developmental 
levels. Learning activities are designed to be musically 
involving, and to foster understanding through basic 
experiences that replicate the work of professional 
musicians. 

In-school performances extend students' learning through 
direct, personal interaction with musicians and their 
work. These programs include special arrangements of 
repertoire from the orchestra concerts, connecting the 
music with curriculum themes and perception of distinc- 
tive instrumental timbres. Students explore the instru- 
ments, particularly percussion, as a way of participating 
authentically in musical experiences. 



Beyond 



Teaching Artists 

The NYP employs teaching artists through an interview 
and recommendation process overseen by the Director of 
Education. They are not certified music teachers, and 
there are no particular degree requirements. Rather, 
teaching artists must possess the knowledge, skill, and 
enthusiasm to foster musical understanding and apprecia- 
tion among students, teachers, and parents. The Director 
of Education oversees the teaching artists and works with 
them to develop approaches that increase classroom 
teachers' confidence and involvement. The goal is to 
establish a partnership between teaching artists and 
teachers, rather than viewing teaching artists as the 
"visitor experts." The Director of Education also reviews 
planned classroom activities and provides feedback on 
lesson effectiveness. 

During interviews, classroom observations, and parent- 
child workshops, NYP teaching artists exemplified high 
levels of enthusiasm and creativity, strong musicianship, 
excellent rapport with children and adults, and high 
standards of music teaching and learning. Far from 
wishing that all students would want to become musi- 
cians, the teaching artists indicate that they thrive on the 
idea of introducing children to music and the orchestra as 
an element of a quality life. "Being a great teacher and a 
great performer are not mutually exclusive," they argue. 
One artist says, "I hope when I leave that I've stirred 
something up, that I've helped them to be able to make 
choices about what they do in life - not just in their jobs, 
but in their lives." Another says, 

We are making 'real world' connections to music and 
musicians, trying to instill a passion for learning and a 
comfort with the world of music. We are not trying to 
replace music specialists in the schools — we want to help, 
to empower classroom teachers to do music with their 
kids. 

Another musician claims, "Growing an audience is 
something we hope for, but it isn't the reason we do this - 
the real reason is to instill a love of learning and music." 



86 



New York 



Professional Development and Teacher Planning 

Teachers are offered a small stipend to attend six profes- 
sional development seminars throughout the school year. 
Teaching artists, who present concepts and ideas for 
lesson activities, and expand teachers' knowledge and 
confidence in "doing" music, lead these seminars. The 
seminar usually includes attendance at a NYP concert. In 
addition, teachers learn basic recorder skills. Other guests 
may provide additional information, such as how to 
integrate music with other subjects. 

Each school's assigned teaching artist meets regularly with 
classroom teachers to check progress on lessons, to make 
suggestions for activities prior to the next visit, and to 
clear up confusion and answer questions. In classroom 
observations, it was clear that teachers had done their 
"homework" in preparing for the teaching artists' lessons. 

During a planning session in one school, the teaching 
artist focused on activities to be done prior to his next 
visit. He reviewed terms and concepts, and assigned two 
tasks: a) to develop a graphic score of each class's original 
sound piece, and b) to prepare a recording of the piece. 
He also suggested a social studies connection to Africa 
that would build on drumming as communication and on 
Steve Reich's residency in Africa prior to composing 
Drumming. Teachers had opportunities to clarify the 
graphic scores, and to quiz the teaching artist on appro- 
priate ways of breaking an extended composition into 
shorter listening sections for the students. 

Communication and Documentation 

The Director of Education has been diligent in develop- 
ing written descriptions of the partnership program and 
in delineating goals and objectives. These documents 
serve both advocacy and documentation purposes and are 
shared with the NYP administration, Education Commit- 
tee, and other appropriate audiences. During the site 
visit, the Director of Education addressed the annual 
meeting of the NYP and laid out the importance of 
education initiatives. A particular challenge is to convey 
the importance of outreach efforts when the orchestra 
easily fills the performance hall for concerts. 

School personnel report that the Director of Education's 
ongoing and clear communication is one of the outstand- 
ing features of the partnership program. Interviews 
indicate that principals, teachers, teaching artists, and 
students all share a basic understanding of the goals and 
objectives of the program. 



Parent-Child Workshops 

Each school hosts a parent-child workshop conducted by 
the teaching artists. The workshops are designed to have 
parents share in direct musical experiences similar to 
those the students gain in their classrooms, and to orient 
the parents and children to a concert that they will 
attend together. These experiences are beneficial in 
advocating the importance of music education in the 
schools. 

Observation of a parent-child workshop, from 6:30-8:00 
P.M., revealed a large and enthusiastic parent group. The 
school principal introduced the program with a strongly 
supportive statement regarding the NYP program. 
Through a series of creative activities led by the school's 
teaching artist, the participants cooperatively created and 
performed small-group compositions that integrated 
elements of a "fanfare." This experience led to the 
understanding of a piece performed on a later Young 
People's Concert, for which tickets would be furnished. 

In addition to shared music learning, it is clear that the 
intergenerational interaction among parents and stu- 
dents, and among adults in creating and making music 
carries important social and self-esteem benefits. The 
Assistant Principal of this school indicates that a growing 
number of parents are placing their children on a waiting 
list for admission because of the NYP partnership 
program. 

PROGRAM SUPPORT 

Financial Support 

The orchestra financially supports the NYP partnership 
program. The NYP Board supports about one-third of the 
program, with the remainder from private donors. In 
partial fulfillment of its goal to establish an endowment 
for the partnership, the NYP received a major endow- 
ment commitment at the completion of the program's 
first year. This is in addition to support through annual 
giving. The Director of Education believes successful 
fund-raising is at least partially attributable to an "open 
door" policy, which invites interested individuals to 
observe the program at any time. 

Symphony Support 

In addition to the NYP Education Committee, a partner- 
ship advisory committee has been established, consisting 
of a voluntary fine arts education coordinator for the 
New York City schools, a program evaluator, several 
teachers, and an assistant principal. The NYP's full-time 
Director of Education oversees the partnership in 



87 



addition to numerous other education programs. There is 
a full-time education assistant. Maestro Kurt Masur is a 
strong proponent of education efforts; it was Maestro 
Masur's strong urging that spurred the partnership 
program to include direct music making on the recorder. 

School and Parent Support 

Interviews with school personnel indicate high levels of 
support for the program and a willingness to fulfill school 
responsibilities. Visits found teachers actively involved 
and principals enthusiastically cooperative. Questions 
about possible dissatisfactions, including time demands in 
light of already heavy burdens, were met with references 
to the exceptional quality of the NYP program, the 
efficiency of management, the careful planning, and the 
visible positive results in terms of learning and school 
climate. Although the NYP goals are clearly collaborative 
in intent, it is apparent that the schools rely heavily on 
the NYP to shoulder the responsibilities of funding, 
program design, and curriculum content and delivery. 

Attendance at parent-child workshops, which are held at 
early morning or evening hours in accord with prefer- 
ences of given communities, ranges from about twelve to 
sixty persons. Principals indicate strong parental support 
for the program, as do students. In fact, one economically 
deprived student felt ambivalent about her father's strong 
support for practicing, as she was concerned that she 
might be disturbing others in her homeless shelter. 

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 

Based on experiences with the 1994-95 pilot project, the 
1995-96 program builds closer correlations between the 
published and the implemented curriculum, more clearly 
defines the responsibilities of teaching artists and 
classroom teachers, and clarifies expectations regarding 
student journal keeping. 

In 1994-95, the primary and most objective route of 
information regarding program effectiveness was the 
response of participating teachers to an evaluation form. 
Observation and discussion provided additional informa- 
tion. The evaluation form consisted of a five-point scale, 
permitting teachers to respond to statements with ratings 
from Excellent to Poor, or for Not Applicable. The 
statements were organized into categories including 
professional development seminars, teaching artists' 
classroom visits, your own work in the program, concerts, 
open rehearsals, classroom demonstrators, NYP Quintet, 
use of recorders, curriculum materials, student journals, 
and general program evaluation. In addition, the 
evaluation asked teachers several open-ended questions 
and encouraged them to add comments. 



88 



Beyond 



In contrast to many evaluations that rely on assessment 
of student and teacher attitudes (often predictably 
positive), this questionnaire focused on the effectiveness 
of program facets relative to stated program goals. The 
questionnaire asked teachers to indicate perceptions of 
their levels of involvement, and to rate perceived levels 
of learning (their own and students') relative to stated 
objectives and outcomes. The questionnaire also asked 
teachers to make specific suggestions for improvement. 
The evaluation form focused primarily on the impact of 
the program on the school and the student. It did not 
evaluate program operation or the effectiveness of the 
partnership structure. 

The major strength of the pilot evaluation was its 
cohesiveness with the partnership program's stated goals, 
objectives, and outcomes. In addition, the form was 
specific with regard to demonstrated teacher and student 
behaviors under each program element. As a result, 
comments and responses tended to be more pointed and 
helpful than the frequent "everything is just wonderful" 
feedback that many arts education partnerships elicit. 
Responses were generally in the satisfactory to excellent 
range; however, some statements had responses across all 
categories, or indicated a need for program review. For 
example, many teachers observed that attending open 
rehearsals did not further program goals or extend 
classroom work, whereas teachers viewed quintet perfor- 
mances in the schools as highly effective. 

Additional strengths of the pilot evaluation included the 
quality of the Evaluation Report, written by the Director 
of Education, and the obvious relationship of intended 
program changes to information gleaned during the 1994- 
95 year. The report included descriptive information 
about the schools and program elements, a narrative 
synthesis of perceptions regarding effectiveness, and 
intended program changes for 1995-96. 

For 1995-96, the NYP hired an external evaluation 
consultant to expand the evaluation process. The 
evaluator reviewed program documents, attended teacher 
training and meetings, observed all facets of the program, 
and led focus groups with teachers and students. The 
evaluation was framed around a series of questions related 
to effectiveness of the program in terms of goals and 
objectives, adherence to education standards, and the 
level of service provided by the NYP in support of the 
partnership. It thus included aspects of program structure 
not incorporated in the 1994-95 pilot evaluation. 



Mew York 



IMPACT 

Schools and Curriculum 

During interviews, children indicated strong positive 
responses to their teaching artists and classes from the 
NYP. But they also moved beyond the fact that they 
"like" music classes. When asked whether it was impor- 
tant to have music in school, they responded that "music 
helps you express yourself," and "playing an instrument 
can really help you feel good about yourself." When asked 
about music's importance relative to other areas of study, 
they did not succumb to the temptation to speak of what 
was more important; rather, they indicated that music is, 
like other subjects, important in its own right. 

Students also 
believed that 
skills learned in 
music can 
transfer to 
other subjects, 
such as 
reading, and 
can make 
learning in 
general more 
enjoyable. 
Asked to 
identify 7 what 
they were 
learning, they 
easily and 

proudly described information and concepts consistent 
with the prepared curriculum. In a recorder class, they 
demonstrated accuracy, musicianship, and strong satisfac- 
tion in their achievement. Two features stood out in the 
student interviews: a) unaffected and enthusiastic 
gratitude for every facet of the program; and b) appropri- 
ate pride in their growing knowledge, evidenced by 
accurate and comfortable discussion of repertoire, 
composers, and concepts. 

According to principals and teachers, the NYP program 
has, in only its second year, become integral to the school 
climate. Parents already expect there to be music oppor- 
tunities, and it is clear that there would be a "void" if the 
program were to be removed. In the absence of the 
partnership, staff believe music would continue because 
of its demonstrated value, because teachers now feel more 
confident teaching music, and because students and 
parents would demand it. Teachers indicate that profes- 
sional development seminars increase their knowledge 
and confidence with music, which was not a part of their 
collegiate preparation. They also voice appreciation for 
the opportunity to grow in their awareness of music 
through attendance at concerts. 




A younger brother and parent of a New York Philharmonic 
partnership student get an opportunity to try the recorder, which 
all students in the partnership program learn to play. 



In terms of implemented program quality, teacher 
evaluations for 1994-95 indicate highly effective results 
for most facets. Teachers believe that students have 
improved in their knowledge and skills, and that they are 
enthusiastic about the program. The shared delivery 
system of classroom teachers and teaching artists seems to 
work successfully; however, some teachers continue to 
find it difficult to implement the curriculum due to 
limited music backgrounds. 

Interviews indicated high levels of commitment among 
principals, including a desire to offer material support, 
were it possible. Principals state that parents would be 
quick to respond if the program were threatened in any 
way. Measurable evidence of this commitment is apparent 
in the only middle class school, where 
the Parent-Teacher organization has 
gathered sufficient funds to hire a 
music specialist in grades K-2 and to 
purchase portable audio playback 
equipment for classrooms. Parent 
commitment is also evident in their 
attendance with their children at 
workshops and concerts. 

The New York Philharmonic 

Teachers, administrators, and, impor- 
tantly, students are all keenly aware 
that the music program is associated 
with the New York Philharmonic. One 
teacher states, "I feel as though I 
belong at Avery Fisher Hall." Students speak of the 
orchestra with innocent familiarity, reeling off names of 
composers and musicians as though they are members of 
an extended family. According to one teacher, "it is a 
marvelous experience for teachers and kids to meet up 
with hundreds of other 'ordinary people' who are going to 
concerts." At a beginning level, at least, there is evidence 
that some of the barriers to symphony attendance felt by 
inexperienced individuals may be abated through the 
partnership program. There is also strong evidence that 
the NYP is enhancing its perception as a good neighbor 
by being concerned with the welfare of the community in 
which it resides. The potential fiscal advantage of this 
community connection, which breaks the elitist stereo- 
type that discourages some funders, remains to be seen. 



89 



Beyond 



Hands-on outreach by NYP musicians poses challenges in 
terms of their contracts, heavy playing demands, and 
traditional career perceptions. However, the quintet is 
evidence that a growing number of musicians are willing 
to relate directly with members of their communities, and 
to participate in sharing high levels of music making with 
non-traditional constituents. 

Evidence of the raised profile of education within the 
orchestra may be seen in the Director of Education's 
being invited to address the NYP Annual Meeting. As 
the orchestra struggles to ascertain its priorities, there is 
little doubt that education and outreach efforts will play a 
role. In part, this is due to the highly professional, 
assertive leadership of the Director of Education. It is also 
related to growing awareness that the orchestra must 
nurture lifelong relationships with people in the commu- 
nity. 

CODA 

The NYP partnership program is only in its second year 
of operation. For its short history, the program represents 
significant adherence to many partnership principles that 
have been identified in effective programs in various 
fields. It has focused goals and objectives, strong leader- 
ship and management, adapts to the resources of the 
community it serves, operates in the context of strengths 
and limitations of its partners, evidences high-quality 
implementation and delivery, and maintains documenta- 
tion and evaluation procedures. 

The overall impression of the program is one of careful 
planning, high-quality music and educational experi- 
ences, programmatic unity in support of goals, and high 
levels of respect among school personnel. As the program 
evolves, it is likely that greater collaboration will charac- 
terize the structure and planning of the partnership, and 
that increased financial support will sustain expanded 
programs. 



90 



Austin 



AUSTIN SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



Site visit: December 12-13, 1995 



OVERVIEW 

Orchestra, Schools, and Community 

The Austin Symphony Orchestra (ASO), founded in 
1911, is an 85-piece, per-service orchestra. The orchestra 
performs eight subscription series concerts and two pops 
concerts each season. From its beginnings, education has 
been an important mission. The orchestra currently 
employs a full-time Director of Education Programs to 
develop education programs and oversee relationships 
with schools. Because the players are part-time, they 
adjust other obligations to fulfill services that are sched- 
uled during the school day. 

Austin, the capital city of Texas, anchors a metropolitan 
area of about 550,000 people. ASO education programs 
serve the Austin Independent School District (AISD), 
with some participation among suburban systems. AISD's 
population includes Hispanic, Asian, and African- 
American minorities, as well as a cross-section of socio- 
economic levels. The system employs certified music 
specialists for all schools. Two system-level music educa- 
tion supervisors manage curricular continuity and music 
program development. 

The ASO and the AISD have a longstanding cooperative 
relationship. Over the past sixteen years, the ASO 
Education Director, members of the ASO board, school 
personnel, and the ASO Women's Symphony League 
have jointly focused on programs that serve children's 
learning needs. They have linked ASO education efforts 
with the AISD curriculum, and have secured financial 
commitments from both the schools and the orchestra. 



Range of Experiences 

Primary components of the ASO schools' programs 
include ensemble visits to primary grades, young people's 
concerts for grades 4-6, and on-campus high school 
performances. Additional opportunities include an 
annual Halloween concert for primary grades and 
"Backstage With the Arts," a cooperative multi-arts ■ 
program where children visit six different arts organiza- 
tions. The ASO also offers the schools master classes 
provided by ASO guest soloists. "Simple Simon" is a 
program of The Women's Symphony League, in which 
docents lead thirty-minute lessons in elementary grades 
using original songs and print materials designed to spur 
interest in the instruments of the orchestra. 

PROGRAM CONCEPT 

Partnership Model 

The ASO education program is based on a cooperative 
partnership model that features involvement by ASO and 
AISD personnel at operational, administrative, and board 
levels. A senior-level music supervisor in the AISD is an 
ex-officio member of the ASO board and participates 
actively in program planning, implementation, and 
evaluation. The ASO invites the Superintendent of 
Schools to be a symphony board member. Both the 
orchestra and the schools invest financially in the 
program. 

The ASO board has a vice-president for education who 
reports regularly to the board on youth activities and is 
involved in fund raising. The board also has an appointed 
government affairs liaison to monitor legislative agendas 
affecting the arts and education. The board's concern 
with education is not limited to advancing symphony 
programs. Rather, they intend to connect the orchestra 
visibly with the community's schools, particularly the arts 
education programs. The ASO board has lobbied state 



91 



and local governments to support curricular arts pro- 
grams, convinced the AISD to make a financial commit- 
ment to school-orchestra cooperation, and worked 
cooperatively for advocacy through the local Fine Arts 
Coalition in Education (FACE). 

Orchestra Contributions to Partnership 

- Board-level commitment to education, both 
philosophical and material 

- A full-time Director of Education Programs position 

- Ensembles, young people's concerts, master classes, 
and high school concerts 



Fund 



raising 



- Leadership in program planning, management, and 
scheduling 

- Coordination for developing instructional materials, 
and provision of educational packets to music 
specialists and classroom teachers 

- Docent support 

School Contributions to Partnership 

- Representation on the symphony board 

- Active music administrator involvement in program 
planning 

- Financial support 

- Teacher expertise/involvement in design of 
instructional materials 

- Student preparation and follow-up in classrooms 

- Cooperation in scheduling and logistics 

- Bus transportation to concerts 

- Inclusion of symphony-related programs in the 
system-wide music curriculum guide 



92 



Beyond 



GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

The ASO has identified two major priorities within its 
mission: 1 ) the performance of symphonic music for the 
city of Austin, and 2) the education of young people 
throughout central Texas. The prominent role of educa- 
tion gives testimony to an historic solidarity with the 
schools in addressing the community's cultural and 
educational well-being, a goal that the Women's Sym- 
phony League nurtures and advances. Board members 
prefer not to draw a distinction between the two parts of 
the mission. In the words of one member, "We do not 
want children's programs to be a separate structure from 
the Austin Symphony." 

Both school and orchestra personnel state that maintain- 
ing a strong relationship between the organizations is 
their highest priority. The impression is that mutual 
commitments are steadfast, while particulars of the 
relationship may be fluid. According to the Education 
Director, the relationship is pragmatic. It is founded on 
the partners' assumption that quality arts education is 
their common trust, and that progress is best accom- 
plished through shared problem-solving. 

The Education Director cites several factors that underlie 
orchestra-school cooperation: 1) having a full-time 
orchestra education director and a board committed to 
education; 2) maintaining two-way, ongoing communica- 
tion with the schools; 3 ) designing programs that meet 
children's developmental learning needs, and that are 
consistent with the schools' music curriculums; and 4) 
devising innovative performance presentations. 

ASO board members share this perspective. In addition, 
they emphasize that in order to have a healthy relation- 
ship, it is important to share a financial commitment 
between the orchestra and the schools, and to have 
effective leadership in both organizations. 

Orchestra and school personnel cite the involvement of 
Maestro Sung Kwak in program planning and presenta- 
tion as evidence of the orchestra's deep commitment to 
education. He is departing, however, and the search for a 
new conductor naturally raises interest in how s/he may 
deal with schools and education programs. Suggesting 
that the schools have come to expect a certain attitude 
from the orchestra, one teacher says, "Having a conduc- 
tor who is positive toward education is not a choice. 
We'll have to be as clear regarding our expectations with 
the new one as we have been with our present conduc- 
tor." 



Austin 



The ASO administration and board do not see education 
as the primary consideration in hiring a new conductor. 
However, they emphasize that maintaining a positive 
relationship with the schools will continue to be a 
priority, and that they will retain appropriate personnel to 
fulfill education services. 

PROGRAM PUNNING AND 
IMPLEMENTATION 

The relationship between the ASO and the AISD 
involves school personnel directly in planning and 
implementation. All activities are connected with the 
curriculum of AISD. Music supervisors help select 
repertoire and review presentations, stressing aspects such 
as age appropriateness and connection with the system's 
sequential music curriculum. According to the orchestra's 
Education Director, the symphony's programs are "spiral," 
beginning in kindergarten and continuing through high 
school. 

Primary Grades Program - Small Ensembles 

Building Blocks, designed for grades K through 3, features 
in-school performances by orchestra ensembles and a 
harpist. Performances are held in multipurpose rooms for 
several classes of children at a time. The intent is to 
provide an "up-close" experience with musicians and 
their instruments, and to offer opportunities for students 
to talk with the musicians. 

School music specialists are the contact persons for 
selecting and scheduling performances. The intent is 
that, prior to fourth grade, all children will hear an 
ensemble from each family of instruments. There are no 
curriculum materials specifically associated with en- 
sembles, and teachers generally are not aware of program 
content prior to ensemble visits. However, music teachers 
report that the focus on instrumental timbres permits 
them to connect the performances easily with the music 
curriculum. 

Teachers also indicate that they are able to influence the 
content and quality of programs. The ASO Director of 
Education Programs invites direct contact, or they may 
communicate reactions through their music supervisor. 
Two examples of ways teachers have influenced the 
programs include asking musicians to use visual aids that 
assist learning and retention, and suggesting that per- 
formers gear vocabulary to the ages of the children. 
Interviewed teachers report that they observed positive 
changes in both areas. 



Participating ensemble musicians develop their own 
programs, thus the presentations may differ considerably. 
Teachers find that programs consistently involve children 
in active responses to the music. Musicians from one 
ensemble indicate that their particular approach is to 
provide an "experience," rather than to teach concepts, 
though they are conscious of illustrating pitch and 
timbre. This group tries to strike a balance between 
education and entertainment, building on their own 
personalities to create a cohesive performance. 

Upper Elementary Grades -Young People's 
Concerts with Live Video Projection 

Children in fourth through sixth grades attend Young 
People's Concerts (YPCs) at Bass Concert Hall on the 
University of Texas campus. A unique aspect of these 
concerts is a large video screen placed behind the 
orchestra, on which images of individual orchestra 
musicians and the conductor are featured live during 
performances. The images correlate with musical events, 
such as a prominent violin passage or a culminating 
moment in the score. In conjunction with the repertoire, 
artwork by students or photos (such as the Grand 
Canyon) may also be projected. The video projection 
reinforces the music, so there is no distraction from 
listening. Examples of repertoire enhanced in this way 
include Carnival of the Animals, Grand Canyon Suite, and 
And God Created Great Whales. 

Curriculum 

The AISD mandates participation in YPCs as an element 
of the music curriculum in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. 
Because the system's curriculum department has officially 
accepted the curriculum, all children must receive this 
experience. 

Music specialists and grade-level teachers in AISD serve 
as curriculum consultants for the YPCs. They write 
lessons that correlate with the district's music curriculum, 
are accessible to non-specialist teachers to use in relation 
to other subjects, and are relevant to visual art classes. 
The design of the print materials is adaptable, so that 
teachers may choose how to incorporate suggestions into 
ongoing classroom activities. The ASO provides every 
teacher with materials. Music teachers receive a music 
packet, while grade-level teachers receive a packet 
relating the concert repertoire to science or social studies. 
Another feature is that activities are organized as learning 
centers, and children may work independently in their 
classrooms. An accompanying recording provides the 
music that students will hear in the concert. 



93 



Grade-level teachers may use the lessons in a variety of 
ways; however, they are asked to do two specific things: 
1) construct a bulletin board, based on suggestions 
included in the materials; and 2) play the recording of 
the music. The recording may be played as a background 
during other work, incorporated into opening exercises, 
used as a transition between subjects, or employed for 
focused listening. Art teachers may have children draw 
while listening to the tape. Schools display drawings and, 
in some cases, these are used for the video projection that 
accompanies the YPCs. 

Concert repertoire that builds on compositions being 
taught in the AISD emphasizes connections with the 
music curriculum. In one teachers' words, "We have a 
huge listening component in our curriculum. What is so 
great about the concerts is that the material is directly 
related to pieces we are already teaching." Students also 
learn some of the concert pieces for the Music Memory 
contest, a program that teaches repertoire, then chal- 
lenges children to recognize excerpts and name the titles 
and composers of the works. Instruction is based on 
"listening maps," which aid students in following the 
musical events and characteristics of compositions. 

Thematic programs 

Relating YPCs to the ongoing curriculum is aided by the 
cyclical repetition of four YPC themes: multicultural 
music, which relates to social studies; where is the sound, 
which relates to science; dance beat, which features live 
dancers and relates to social studies; and musical menag- 
erie, which features student artwork and relates to 
science. Knowing which theme will be featured in an 
upcoming year permits teachers to plan early for related 
activities. Repertoire and learning experiences associated 
with each theme may change, even though the themes 
themselves are recycled. 

Professional development 

Music teachers are introduced to YPC lesson materials at 
a ninety-minute symphony-sponsored teacher apprecia- 
tion party in the fall. In their own schools, music teachers 
present short introductions to the materials for grade- 
level teachers. The extent of application is an individual 
teacher decision. Music specialists indicate that follow-up 
by classroom teachers can be uneven, but that most do 
something. Because of favorable scheduling (music as 
often as once every three days in lower grades), specialists 
feel they are able to make the primary connections to the 
school's curriculum. Because overlap with the curriculum 
is written into YPC lessons, more extensive in-service is 
not considered critical. 



94 



Beyond 



High School Concerts 

Each year, four AISD high schools host on-campus 
performances by the ASO. Held in gyms, these perfor- 
mances include student concerto soloists and "side-by- 
side" opportunities for students to play with the sym- 
phony. The orchestra rotates among AISD high schools, 
serving all ten over several years. 

Curriculum connections 

To help ensure curricular correlation and prepare students 
for the concerts, teachers and the ASO's Education 
Director identify instructional themes that teachers can 
reinforce through English classes. Packets and sample 
lessons are developed. This approach reaches all the 
students, whereas music classes would reach only a 
limited number at any given time. 

Underserved populations 

During the site visit, we interviewed the principal of a 
high school that serves a predominantly lower socioeco- 
nomic population. Students in the school historically had 
been denied assembly-style programs because of repeated 
incidents of uncontrolled behavior. This principal, 
however, believes that students "rise to the occasion" 
when given special opportunities such as ASO concerts: 

I if as, of course, worried that students might not show 
respect. But I believe the advance organizers offered 
through classroom preparation, a positive tone set by the 
principal's office, and the expectation that good behavior 
is its own best payback helped establish the proper 
climate. How can they learn appropriate social skills if 
they don't have a chance to apply them? 

The principal believes that "special programs" should not 
be targeted exclusively toward students who already have 
many advantages, or who pose no behavior risks: 

Our students are not the kind who will ever have classical 
concert experiences unless we provide them and instill a 
desire to continue having them. Our mission is lifelong 
learning, and that has to involve teaching the connecting 
thread of music throughout the history and cultures of our 
world. I think bringing these concerts to our poorer 
minority populations is one of the best investments the 
ASO will ever make in our community. 



Austin 



Shared Planning 

ASO-AISD programs reflect a shared approach to 
planning, content, implementation, and quality. The ex- 
officio hoard position of a school music supervisor permits 
top-level input into the orchestra's relationship with the 
schools. According to two board members, this 
supervisor's well-established reputation for management 
and programmatic excellence is a key element in the 
organizations' successful relationship. As a liaison, she is 
able to identify factors that affect program operation and 
quality, and to anticipate the potential impact of both 
school-related and orchestra-related change. 

Prior to presentation, an AISD music supervisor, the 
symphony's Education Director, and other selected 
individuals review Building Blocks ensemble programs on 
videotape or in a live performance. Suggestions are made 
regarding content and format, with follow-up observa- 
tions of effectiveness during site visits to schools. En- 
sembles are asked to have their programs reviewed if they 
make a major change in content, or if one or more 
members of the ensemble change. 

Curriculum design and delivery for Young People's 
Concerts is also a joint effort between the schools and the 
orchestra. The orchestra provides funding to hire AISD 
teachers who write the lessons. The ASO believes that 
the potential for use by grade-level teachers is much 
higher if classroom and music teachers work together in 
producing materials. 

At the high school level, the ASO Education Director 
works closely with school personnel in scheduling, 
identifying students for side-by-side experiences, and 
preparing students for the concerts. Just like at the 
elementary level, music teachers continue to be an 
important part of the process. According to one ASO 
board member, "We believe the commitment of the 
music teachers is absolutely crucial. We simultaneously 
work with administrators and teachers because success is 
dependent on two-way communication across the board." 

Development and Continuity 

Historically, the Women's Symphony League (WSL) has 
cultivated education priorities and efforts. In addition to 
fund raising, League members have been volunteer 
docents, ushers for concerts, arts education advocates, 
and leaders in community cultural awareness. The 
members make the point that building a strong program 
in coordination with schools takes time and patience: 
"You have to start small - do a few things well, then build 
on your successes. You can't have a full-blown program 
overnight." 



In general, WSL members and the Education Director 
believe that program development must engage teachers 
in a commitment to the program's value: "Demonstrating 
a program that is of high quality convinces teachers to 
support it, which, in turn, builds a base for support by 
principals." Sustained communication and a spirit of 
goodwill are also important factors: 

We make it a point to provide recognition and express 
appreciation to those people who work so hard for these 
programs . We have many committed people , but if we 
don't appreciate their efforts sufficiently, they may put 
their energies elsewhere. 

PROGRAM SUPPORT 

Ensemble performances (Building Blocks), YPC, and high 
school concerts are free to students in the AISD. The 
AISD contributes significant direct financial support 
annually toward YPCs and high school concerts and 
provides bus transportation to YPCs. The ASO funds all 
of the remaining elements of the program, including the 
per-service union wage for each musician's participation 
in education events. The ASO Education Director, the 
Board, and the Women's Symphony League participate in 
fund raising to support education. 

Numerous local corporations and foundations participate 
in funding ASO education programs. The symphony 
board believes financial commitment from the schools is 
crucial to attracting these funds. One long-time member 
states that convincing the schools required diligence: 
"We had to have many meetings with the Board of 
Education and school administrators. But their decision 
to put it in the budget, and to support transportation, 
now for nearly twenty years, has helped keep the school 
concerts viable." This same board member emphasizes 
that appreciation for the schools and their many priorities 
is central to a successful relationship: "We make it a point 
to publicly announce the level of school support and 
thank the school board for what it does." 

ASO board members also indicate that funders increas- 
ingly are attracted to the idea of supporting the sym- 
phony because of its strong education interests. The ASO 
tries to build on the fact that funders like the way the 
community perceives them when they subsidize children's 
programs. In the words of one fund director, "Children 
are our most important product, but the least serviced in 
our society. Our country needs to learn how to treat our 
children as the investment they are." 



95 



Expressing concern about budget cuts that disproportion- 
ately affect the arts, this same funder raised the issue of a 
community's responsibility to broadly educate its chil- 
dren. In her view, the symphony should link with and 
support strong school music programs, and inform 
corporations about the positive results of music educa- 
tion: 

People are not educated if all they've learned is math and 
grammar. Music study can help these areas, but creative 
experiences are also important on their own. Of course, 
the programs have to be creative, not mundane. When I 
saw the Young People's Concert, I was struck by how 
spellbound the children were - they were entranced. I 
was convinced this program should be supported. 

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION 

Evaluation of ASO education programs is largely infor- 
mal and anecdotal. Teachers are requested to complete 
evaluation forms on various programs. More frequently, 
feedback occurs through direct verbal interchange with 
the ASO Education Director or the AISD Music Supervi- 
sor. Music teachers note that supervisors solicit responses 
regularly and that they consistently communicate 
teachers' observations to the orchestra. 

There is a strong perception among constituents that the 
symphony Education Director welcomes and responds to 
suggestions, and that communication between the 
Education Director and music supervisors is open and 
continuous. A board member notes that strong leadership 
in the schools provides a conduit for ensuring that the 
orchestra understands the learning needs of students, and 
that the orchestra adapts to school calendars and sched- 
ules: "I don't think this program could work at all if we 
didn't have strong leadership both at the symphony and 
in the schools. You need a committed music supervisor 
and a committed education leader at the symphony." A 
music supervisor agrees: "Both sides of the equation are 
necessary - you've got to have good leadership in both 
organizations for a partnership to work." 

Musicians indicate that their primary feedback comes 
from the responses of children to their presentations, 
especially in the ensembles. Although they feel comfort- 
able with their ability to plan appealing programs, they 
would be open to systematic training and evaluation in 
areas such as how to deal with students, and how the 
performing musician relates to the world of education. 
The musicians believe that opportunities for them to give 
feedback might be useful in encouraging teachers to be 
better listener role models during performances, and in 
making sure that schools adhere to planned presentation 
schedules. 



96 



Beyond 



The orchestra maintains statistical data on numbers of 
students served, programs presented, and the budget. This 
information is used for documentation, and to provide 
information to prospective funders regarding the pro- 
gram. 

IMPACT 
Schools 

One apparent impact on the schools is that music 
educators and parents can rely on the orchestra as an 
advocate for curricular music education programs. Both 
school and orchestra personnel testify to the orchestra's 
role in convincing state legislators not to make the arts 
extra-curricular, a move they believe would have given 
local schools the latitude to de-fund all arts experiences. 

Another important impact is the reinforcement of the 
curricular music program through extensions to the 
community's primary cultural institution. An instrumen- 
tal music supervisor believes that the opportunity to see 
and hear professionals at close range, and to participate in 
experiences such as side-by-side concerts enhances the 
quality of school orchestra programs. 

Teachers, a principal, and a parent voice their particular 
appreciation for the availability of "live" classical music 
experiences for underprivileged students. According to 
the principal, "Even in a town where education and 
culture are high priorities, it is too easy to forget that 
some children might never realize the power of a sym- 
phony performance, or of hearing live musicians." A 
parent, who also happens to be a teacher, echoes this 
sentiment: 

The children in my school are largely Hispanic from low' 
income families . I have seen the faces of these children 
when they first hear a violin or walk into Bass Concert 
Hall. We never know how these opportunities may open 
doors for children who otherwise might not know what's 
available to them. 

Teachers and administrators agree that the opportunity to 
see and hear professional musicians has a positive impact 
on the climate for learning in schools. One teacher says, 
"This program makes teaching in this system a whole lot 
of fun. Everyone is always looking forward to the musi- 
cians coming in, or to going to the concerts." They also 
believe that, over time, connections between the school 
and professional artists have a positive impact on atten- 
dance, drop-out rate, and positive attitudes toward 
school: 



Austin 



Kids get excited about coming to school when they know 
the musicians are coming, or because we're going to the 
concert. The key is making sure they're prepared so that 
they can get the most out of it. We can use these 
experiences to turn them on, and to help them feel better 
about themselves. When they feel that the school cares 
enough to provide something special, they'll respond in 
kind in most cases. 

Orchestra 

Musicians interviewed for the study like the fact that 
ensemble performances offer them more autonomy than 
they normally experience in a large section, especially the 
strings. They also think that the orchestra benefits from 
an attitude of "giving back" to the community through 
involvement with the schools. Another benefit is the 
intergenerational age span of the ASO audience. Accord- 
ing to the Education Director and a music supervisor, 
"Kids who hear the orchestra in school are calling up 
regularly for tickets, or asking how their parents can get 
tickets. It is gratifying to see so many young people in our 
audience." 

ASO board members believe that the strength of the 
education programs is a vital factor in their overall fund 
raising. One member says, "Orchestras who are ignoring 
the potential of education as a way of raising money are 
really missing the boat in today's world." They believe 
that connecting with the schools is not only the "right 
thing" to do, but that it engenders a favorable community 
impression that helps bring larger audiences through the 
doors. Another board member comments: "Not only are 
we gaining, but the corporate community is gaining as 
well. Our funding increases, and the corporations get a 
good dose of positive perception for their work. 
Everybody wins." 

CODA 

The Austin Symphony Orchestra's partnership with the 
schools demonstrates how shared commitment and 
hands-on involvement can form the core of a lasting 
productive relationship. The institutions are united in 
their view that investment in the community's cultural 
and educational welfare is a mutual responsibility. Trust 
established over many years through the persistence of 
effective leaders sustains the program and gives it 
viability in the eyes of funders and the community. 



97 



Beyond Tradition 



98 



\ 



Hy 



», 



Xtfllta 



^ 



'<'<r^y/^i:r,wf>^;i\j^w' 









,m 



'V'i^ 



^■rvy/'WS';^'''' 1 " 

ffi f' ¥ « % J. 








wMW«vri m ?' r *f 7 '- i!>, ' imml ' 



SECTION V 

Principles of Effective 
Orchestra Education 
Partnerships 



Effective Partnerships 



SECTION V 



Principles of Effective Orchestra 
Education Partnerships 



The case studies, surveys, and regional meetings con- 
ducted during the project yielded a number of principles 
that contribute to the effectiveness of orchestra-school 
interactions. In this section, principles are organized 
under six major headings, with associated challenges and 
strategies outlined for each. 

It is important to remember that there are no formulas or 
proven steps that can ensure the success of a partnership. 
Schools and orchestras vary from community to commu- 
nity. They are diverse in size, budget, constituents, level 
of community involvement, and quality. As institutions, 
they embody unique traditions, values, and priorities that 
shape their quest for relevance amidst social and eco- 
nomic change. Their communities comprise distinctive 
combinations of personalities, skills and talents, re- 
sources, and needs. 

The principles, challenges, and strategies that follow are 
not meant to be exhaustive or absolute. The intent is to 
offer guidelines that can help orchestras, schools, and 
communities develop more effective partnerships. 



I. The Role of Education is Valued 
Within the Orchestra 

As orchestras struggle with how to achieve community 
relevance and expand their bases of support, some believe 
that a heightened priority for education makes good 
sense. Representatives of the orchestras profiled in this 
study generally agree that modern orchestras must 
strengthen education efforts while maintaining the 
orchestra's artistic integrity. 

Challenges to education as an 
orchestra priority 

Tension still exists in many places between the artistic 
and educational missions of the orchestra. Too frequently, 
these missions are viewed as distinct. There may be 
concern that moving education from the realm of 
volunteerism to an administrative function with budget 
support may dilute the artistic mission. Some people 
question whether orchestras can afford to apply limited 
resources to education. Where they exist, education 

directors sometimes find themselves 
playing the roles of logistical managers 
and public relations agents rather 
than respected administrators who 
help set agendas and policies. 



I . Valuing education 
within the orchestra 

Among orchestras reporting that 
education is clearly part of a stated 
mission are those in Pittsburgh, 
Santa Ana (Pacific Symphony), 
Omaha, Ft. Wayne, Colorado, Boston, 
Austin, and Cedar Rapids. 



The increasing interest in education 
among funders offers orchestras an 
important opportunity to explore 
relationships with schools. However, 
this opportunity can also be construed 
as an urgent need to do something or 
to gain acclaim as a national model. Unfortunately, 
urgency to demonstrate results may hinder the planning 
and improvement of relationships and programs. As a 
result, the orchestra and the community can be diverted 
from the reality that change requires intensive labor, 
time, and sustained commitment. Boards, administrators, 



101 



and musicians can expect greater impact and returns by 
focusing on improving local education, which ultimately 
benefits every segment of community life, than by 
seeking the illusive goal of providing the definitive 
national model for music education. 

Orchestras that have moved forward in developing 
partnerships with schools generally display a consistent 
thread of educational interest throughout their organiza- 
tions. They believe that an orchestra properly participates 
in local education out of its unique capacities and 
concerns. Whether motivated by altruistic regard for 
children's cultural well-being or by the need for audi- 
ences, or both, these orchestras are initiating new 
relationships with their communities and schools. 

Strategies to strengthen the role of 
education in the orchestra 

Include education in the mission statement, goals, and objectives of the 
orchestra. 

Have a board-level education committee that includes educators, as well 
as orchestra, community, and corporate representatives. 

Give task forces or targeted committees specific education assignments, 
such as monitoring education legislation or lobbying for enforcement of 
arts education mandates. 

Build commitment to the educational mission among administrators, 
conductors, and musicians, and report regularly to the larger community 
on the orchestra's education and outreach efforts. 

Employ executive officers and other top-level administrators who are 
committed to and can articulate the educational mission, who are 
knowledgeable about specific education efforts, and who participate 
actively in the operation of the orchestra's educational mission. 

Make the education director a senior-level administrative appointment, 
with appropriate staff and budget support. 

Commit to funding education as part of the ongoing operational budget 
requirements of the orchestra. 

Explore interagency dialogue and cooperation with other arts and 
education organizations in order to maximize the orchestra's education 
contributions to the community. 

Incorporate education considerations into hiring policies for administra- 
tive personnel and musicians, and build education responsibilities into 
musicians' contracts. 



102 



Beyond 



2. Partnership Planning Is Ongoing, 
Adaptive, and Evolving 

Orchestra partnerships demonstrate a variety of approaches 
to planning. Most focus heavily on setting up cooperative 
programs between orchestras and schools in order to 
implement a music and/or arts education program designed 
by the orchestra. Additional 
partners may assume a supporting 
role, e.g., funding, or the role of 
beneficiary, but may not be 
vitally involved in structuring the 
partnership or developing its 
programs. An exception is the 
Boston Music Education 
Collaborative, where deliberate 
attention has been given to the 
structure and operation of the 
partnership itself, and where 
schools are considered participat- 
ing partners rather than benefi- 
ciaries of a designed program. 



2. Ongoing planning 

The Cleveland Orchestra has 
undertaken a lengthy planning 
process that includes a review of 
the orchestra's longstanding 
education program in order to 
establish future directions, including 
the use of technology. Milwaukee 
and Ft. Wayne offer examples of 
orchestras that undertook needs 
assessments as part of planning. In 
Boston, an intentional focus on 
partnership structure preceded the 
implementation of programs. 



There is little question that 
planning must be continuous 

and responsive to indicators of strengths and weaknesses. 
The planning process must be flexible and adaptable, yet 
sufficiently organized to ensure effectiveness and outlast 
changes in personnel, partner organizations, and pro- 
grams. In addition, planning should generate the evolu- 
tion of ideas and ventures consistent both with the 
partnership's vision of improved education and the 
artistic mission of the orchestra. 

Challenges in partnership planning 

Most orchestra partnerships begin as the result of initia- 
tive on the part of an individual or organization. Often, 
they arise from previous limited cooperative activities, 
such as youth concerts or ensembles in the schools. 
Sometimes, they come about in response to a crisis, such 
as the elimination of a music education program. What- 
ever the impetus, building cooperative programs requires 
a balance between leadership and building consensus 
among constituents. 

If an orchestra assumes leadership in designing a partner- 
ship that others join, then the challenge of clarifying the 
programs to be implemented and the associated expecta- 
tions of partners becomes paramount. There is a built-in 
susceptibility to negative feelings and failure if an orchestra 
develops programs and delivers them to partner schools 
without clearly specifying the schools' responsibilities. 
Some orchestras use contractual agreements to be sure that 
schools and the orchestra both fulfill their obligations. 



Effective Partnerships 



It the orchestra chooses a different approach - perhaps 
gathering schools, corporations, and other arts organiza- 
tions at the planning table before undertaking activities - 
the challenge becomes one of negotiating individually held 
agendas for the sake of the partnership. Points of intersec- 
tion regarding visions for school improvement, resources, 
commitment levels, and leadership must be determined. 
Those who pursue this more collaborative route must be 
prepared to invest considerable time and energy 7 , and must 
be patient enough to allow the partnership structure and 
programs to evolve out of an interactive process. 

In general, that which is planned is more likely to be 
accomplished. Thus, building a secure but flexible 
framework for operation of the partnership and its 
programs, including evaluation of both, enhances the 
potential for success. 

Strategies for partnership planning 

View the orchestra as a catalyst for change within schools and the 
community. 

Analyze perceived needs, existing resources, and potential for cooperation 
through formal or informal needs assessments, interviews, discussion 
groups, or other means that involve schools, the orchestra, the 
community, and corporations. 

Identify partners with concerns, expertise, and resources relevant to 
targeted needs, and who desire to participate in cross-agency cooperation 

Develop a unifying vision of the partnership and its goals, and support 
this with prioritized objectives and strategies. 

Target existing and potential resources for support of partnership goals. 

Include a cross-section of partner representatives, such as teachers, 
parents, orchestra musicians, corporate representatives, and school and 
orchestra administrators in the planning process. 

Organize a partnership structure with leadership, broad representation, 
and varied funding sources that will sustain changes in personnel, 
addition or withdrawal of partners, or shifting priorities and agendas. 

Develop activities and programs that are consistent with needs and 
resources, and that correlate with a clearly established orchestra mission. 

Build on existing programs and relationships, particularly where music 
education programs already exist or have a history of connection with 
the orchestra. 

Capitalize on the vested interests of parents in schools by involving 
them in the planning process. 

Plan from the outset for evaluation of programs and the partnership 
structure, and adapt ongoing plans according to data provided by the 
evaluations. 



3. Partnership Development and 
Implementation Foster Sustained 
Relationships and Programs 

Perhaps the most difficult aspect of a partnership is 
determining to what extent schools should ultimately 
own the programs. Additional problems include deter- 
mining how the partnership should function over time 
and identifying the roles each 
partner should play. Despite 
the frequently stated goal of 
permanent and systemic 
change in schools, most of the 
partnerships visited in this 
study rely heavily on the 
orchestra for leadership, 
program development, funding, 
and administration. 



3. Developing sustained 
programs As part of their 
partnership vision, the Pittsburgh 
and Boston symphonies stress 
advocacy of curricular music 
education in the schools. The 
Milwaukee, Austin, Boston, and 
Pittsburgh symphonies all include 
programs for secondary students. 



This orchestra-does-all 
approach may suffice if the 

orchestra seeks only to demonstrate the role of music in 
education for a limited number of schools and students, 
or to provide periodic enrichment opportunities for 
students and teachers. If a broader impact is the goal, 
however, partnerships must deal with the question of how 
a relationship will function in support of that goal. In one 
case, an orchestra has discovered that the changing 
priorities of funders and school administrators are making 
it difficult to sustain and advance the partnership 
programs it designed and delivered over several years at 
no cost to schools. 

Challenges to sustained partnerships 

At this point, the responsibility for most orchestra 
partnerships weighs heavily on the shoulders of education 
directors, with some assistance from volunteers. Though 
schools may contribute released time for teachers or 
transportation of students to concerts, and parent 
organizations may purchase equipment, there is a persis- 
tent view among school personnel and parents that the 
orchestra is providing them with a program. In some 
cases, principals and parents view selection as an orches- 
tra partner to be one of many prestigious awards bestowed 
upon their school. 

School representatives generally consider orchestra 
partnerships to be among the very best of all the partner- 
ships in which they are involved. However, they do not 
typically speak from the perspective of ownership of the 
partnership process and activities, nor do they foresee the 
school's assuming more responsibility for the program. 
More frequently, they emphasize their good fortune in 
having the orchestra bring them a program. 



103 



Most principals feel that there will be limited long-term 
impact if the orchestra withdraws from their schools, 
given the budget constraints and program demands that 
schools face. Originally, some orchestras hoped to 
stimulate change through limited-term projects that 
would establish permanent programs and then apply 
resources to other schools or grade levels. However, they 
are now finding that if the orchestra's role is lessened, 
little or nothing of the program may remain. 

In addition to difficulties associated with redirecting 
resources toward new schools, partnerships are finding 
that school administrative practices make it difficult to 
continue sequential programs beyond elementary grades 
into middle and high schools. Elementary schools tend to 
have more scheduling flexibility, more opportunity for 
cross-disciplinary learning because of extended student 
time with one teacher, and fewer student management 
problems. Adding middle schools can also be difficult 
because of attendance patterns that draw from several 
elementary schools, some of which have been partners 
and some of which have not. In these situations, children 
in sixth grade may have differing levels of musical 
background and experience. 

The dichotomy between the desire to initiate lasting 
change and the fallibility of programs that cannot exist 
unless the orchestra sustains them illustrates one of the 
primary difficulties with partnerships. Making a transi- 
tion from a provided program to a shared relationship is a 
major challenge. 

Strategies for continuing partnerships 
and sustained programs 

Identify local music education concerns and discuss ways the orchestra 
might respond. 

Identify partners who share similar concerns and discuss commitments 
and resources, funding, and fund-raising. 

Establish several focused goals and objectives for the partnership that 
are consistent with concerns shared among partners. 

Build a basis of trust among all partners through regular communica- 
tion, acknowledgement of problems, and cooperative problem-solving. 

Secure commitment from both top-level leaders and staffs of partner 
organizations. 

Identify mutual benefits for all partners. 

Emphasize the role of the partnership in advocacy for ongoing music 
education programs, rather than as a substitute for employing certified 
music specialists. 



104 



Beyond 



Determine who will coordinate the partnership activities and whether a 
separate administrative structure will be required. 

Distribute leadership and task responsibilities among partners through 
committees, task forces, or individual assignments. 

Use information from assessment of needs and resources to guide 
program design and planning. 

Begin with focused, small-scale programs consistent with available 
resources. 

Clarify present and anticipated roles/responsibilities of each partner. 

Determine whether the partnership will include secondary as well as 
elementary schools, and anticipate changes that will be necessary 
because of differences in school organization and structure. 

Plan for systematic or phased-in program adoption, including 
expectations for achieving program and financial continuity as external 
resources are lessened or redirected. 

Build in continuous evaluation and feedback directly related to 
established goals and objectives. 



Effective Partnerships 



4. Implemented Programs 

Demonstrate High-Quality Teaching 
and Learning 

The primary focus of most orchestra-school partnerships 
is program development - the design and implementation 
of activities and support materials for student learning in 
and through music. Typical components include concert 
experiences, musician/ensemble visits to schools, curricu- 
lum resource materials and lessons, and professional 

development for teachers. Some 
partnerships also include 
evening events for families and 
training for musicians. Within 
an overall program, components 
may be tied together through 
common concepts and themes, 
such as the science of sound. 
They may also be connected 
through composers and reper- 
toire, and through sequential 
learning activities designed to 
foster musical growth and 
understanding. 



4. High quality teaching 
and learning 

The instructional focus of 
partnership programs can vary 
considerably. In Cedar Rapids, 
Pittsburgh, Jacksonville, Asheville, and 
Sulphur Springs, Texas (Northeast 
Texas Symphony), partnerships 
provide string instruction. In 
Westchester, NY, there is a 
particularly strong multicultural 
connection. Others focus on general 
music instruction and cross- 
disciplinary instruction through 
music. 

Among orchestras offering specific 
incentives for teachers to participate 
in professional development are 
those in Chicago, Philadelphia, and 
New York. In Westchester, teachers 
and performers from ethnic 
ensembles participate jointly in 
professional development. 

The New Philharmonic of New Jersey 
establishes clear thematic links that 
unify planning, materials, school 
visits by musicians, and concerts. In 
the Philadelphia Orchestra and the 
New Jersey Symphony, exemplary 
teachers are identified to help 
develop curriculum materials. In New 
York, teachers write lessons at the 
end of one year to be implemented 
in the following year. 



As is evident from the case 
studies, program development 
may occur in any number of 
ways and focus on a variety of 
needs and concerns. Whether a 
partnership emphasizes general 
music instruction, an instru- 
mental program, arts education, 
or some combination of these, 
unity is more likely when 
teachers - those closest to the 
children - are involved with 
each facet, from selecting age- 
appropriate concert repertoire 
to sharing successful teaching 
strategies with their professional 
colleagues. 



Challenges to achieving high-quality 
learning experiences 

The chief challenge of program development is to ensure 
musical and educational worth. Short of this, there is 
little reason to invent a partnership. Many programs have 
adopted the rhetoric of recent research regarding the 
benefits of arts education to Justify programs. However, 
there is broad inconsistency in the quality of experiences 
and materials being claimed to provide these benefits. To 
date, assessment/evaluation strategies rarely provide 
orchestras and schools with information regarding the 
value of experiences, materials, and student outcomes in 
light of established high-level criteria for arts teaching 
and learning. 

Challenges in Curriculum and Teaching 

There may be too much focus on peripheral information about 
composers, history, etc., and not enough on the music itself. 

Criteria for selection/development of materials and activities do not reflect 
established, high standards of teaching and learning in music, such as 
those indicated in the national standards for music education. 

Materials and experiences may require only low-level thinking and make 
superficial or spurious connections between music and other subjects. 

Materials and experiences may fail to embrace ethnic and social diversity 
among students and communities. 

There may be inconsistency from teacher to teacher in the extent and 
quality of their implementation of materials and strategies. 

There may be no systematic connections with existing curriculums in 
music or other subjects. 

Schools may lack resources to implement lessons or curriculum 
materials. 

Challenges in Professional Development 
for Teachers 

Programs may be superficial due to limited time or interest. 

Teachers may not feel sufficiently recognized or rewarded for their 
efforts. 

Teachers may be unsure of their role in relation to musicians and/or 
docents during school programs. 



10 



Anxiety and lack of confidence may impede transfer from workshops to 
the classroom. 

Teachers may feel overwhelmed by expectations to incorporate music in 
their classrooms, or by the amount of material they are expected to 
cover. 

Music specialists may feel disenfranchised by a new program. 
Challenges in Musician Training 

Musicians may feel uncomfortable relating to children or acting as 
teachers. 

Musicians may lack knowledge/skill in children's characteristics and 
classroom management. 

Musicians may resist training because they don't recognize a need for it. 

Musicians may not be familiar with curriculum materials and activities. 

Musicians may be unclear about how to interact with teachers in school 
settings. 

Musicians may not be sure how to plan programs with appealing 
repertoire, activities, and pacing. 

Musicians may be unaware of the tightness of school schedules and the 
impact of failing to begin and end programs on time. 

Challenges in Musician Performances 
and Youth Concerts 

Formal dress and staging may suggest irrelevance in students' minds. 

Repertoire may be too advanced, may not reflect ethnic diversity, or 
may "play down" to students. 

Strategies may not engage students in active listening or involvement. 

Performances may not relate with curriculum themes and materials, or 
with other partnership experiences. 

Performances may stress entertainment over learning in order to try to 
hold students' interest. 

Concepts and explanations presented during performances may be 
inappropriate for the student age group. 



106 



Beyond 



Strategies to encourage high-quality 
learning experiences 

Strategies for Curriculum and Teaching 

Determine a clear program focus based on needs and shared concerns, 
e.g., strings program, general music, integrated arts, etc. 

Establish a limited number of student learning objectives that reflect a 
range of thinking processes and that can be measured. 

Tailor learning objectives to age levels of children. 

Use subject area consultants for development and review of materials. 

Design materials and activities that reflect the cultural and ethnic 
diversity embodied in music. 

Establish content criteria based on national, state, and local standards in 
music and arts education. 

Use books, journals, and teaching-learning models, such as those 
available from the Music Educators National Conference, to provide 
guidelines for materials and strategies. 

Use expert consultants to observe the quantity and quality of 
implementation in classrooms, and use these findings as a basis for 
planning professional development. 

Use rigorous criteria for assessing teaching and learning in order to 
identify model teachers to be leaders in the development of materials 
and the sharing of ideas (not merely the most active or cooperative 
individuals). 

Encourage interaction and joint planning between music specialists and 
classroom teachers. 

Emphasize the roles of active involvement through music making, and 
aesthetic satisfaction through quality music experiences. 



Effective Partnerships 



Strategies for Professional Development 
for Teachers 

Offer attendance incentives, such as staff development credits, released 
time, or stipends. 

Encourage identification with the orchestra by providing tickets to 
concerts and inviting teachers to pre-concert lectures and guest artist 
receptions. 

Combine music specialists and classroom teachers in common 
professional development activities. 

Employ expert leaders who are knowledgeable in music, music teaching 
and learning, and integration of music across the curriculum. 

Encourage teachers to design valid learning experiences based on their 
own skill and comfort levels. 

Develop high-quality resources to implement teaching/learning strategies. 

Provide subject area experts to provide consultation and critiques for 
teacher-developed curriculum resources and lessons. 

Provide periodic, regularly scheduled workshops, discussion opportunities, 
and problem-solving sessions. 

Engage teachers in active music making to enhance their understanding 
of music. 

Use role-playing and modeling to build interaction skills with musicians 
and docents during in-school programs. 

Strategies for Musician Training 

Involve musicians with teachers and consultants in program planning 
and development of curriculum materials. 

Plan joint professional development sessions for musicians and teachers. 

Use music education consultants to assist with development and critique 
of programs presented by musicians in schools. 

Share feedback from students and teachers with musicians. 

Encourage the development of presentations that are consistent with 
musicians' strengths. 

Build education participation and training into contractual agreements 
for musicians. 

Use modeling and role playing to build confidence in working with 
children. 



Strategies for Musician Performances 
and Youth Concerts 

Develop program themes and select repertoire through a collaborative 
process among conductors, educators, musicians, and orchestra staff. 

Encourage active involvement of students through thinking tasks or by 
inviting them to sing or play classroom instruments. 

Establish connections among concert repertoire, curriculum materials, 
and in-school musician presentations. 

Use authentic performances of ethnic music and dance to integrate 
ethnic influences in the orchestral repertoire. 

Reduce barriers between musicians and students by having musicians 
greet students in the lobby, meet buses, engage in question and answer 
sessions, or wear colorful or informal attire. 

Increase student interest through student-composed works, side-by-side 
opportunities for student musicians, or inclusion of student instrumental 
or choral ensembles. 

Invite parents, and provide to families concert preparation sessions that 
offer hands-on opportunities to understand a selected composer or work. 



107 



5. Resources and Funding Constitute a 
Shared Enterprise 

The term "partnership" suggests mutuality - a sharing of 
both resources and benefits for the sake of a commonly 
held goal. As suggested earlier, when orchestras serve as 
the initiators, designers, funders, and administrators of 
partnerships, doubts arise as to how invested the schools 

are or may become. On the 
other hand, if a partnership 
serves a catalytic role in 
helping schools and commu- 
nities discover the advan- 
tages of music education for 
children, the focus can be 
more on those resources each 
organization can realistically 
commit, how additional 
resources may be enlisted, 
and what each organization 
gains through its shared 
support of the common goal 
of school improvement. 



5. Shared Resources 

Orchestras that report connections 
with other arts, education, and 
business organizations include Kansas 
City, San Francisco, Ft. Wayne, Boston, 
Seattle, Oklahoma City, St. Louis, and 
Grand Rapids. In Port Angeles, WA, 
the orchestra has taken advantage of 
local Native American culture to 
enrich its relationship with the 
schools and the community. 

Orchestras that have tied into 
existing education partnerships 
include Seattle, Long Island, Ft. 
Wayne, and St. Louis. 



Challenges to shared 
resources and funding 



As non-profit service sector institutions, orchestras and 
schools can rarely predict what their available funds will 
be from year to year. If education partnerships remain 
peripheral to the primary fiscal commitments of both 
organizations, they may suffer double jeopardy when 
monies run low. 

Throughout the study, orchestras had a tendency to 
report funds supplied by parent groups and principals' 
discretionary funds as "school contributions." While it is 
gratifying that parents recognize and support the activi- 
ties provided by orchestras, other programs will undoubt- 
edly come along and priorities may change. Further, this 
pattern replicates an historic problem in music education 
- schools have encouraged extramural funding of music 
programs that are in fact a curricular responsibility. When 
budgets are cut, it is relatively easy to place these pro- 
grams in the "nice but not necessary" category and to use 
supplementary funds to support "basic" education needs. 
A related concern is that arts programs funded by 
principals' discretionary funds or parent-raised monies 
tend to favor students in more affluent schools, exacer- 
bating the inequity many partnerships hope to overcome. 



108 



Beyond 



Strategies for shared resources and funding 

Include foundation and corporate representatives on partnership 
advisory committees and working groups. 

Consider schools as full and equal partners, with responsibility for 
financial and/or in-kind commitments consistent with their identified 
resources. 

Propose that school administrators and boards of education include the 
partnership in annual budget building. 

Identify potential funding sources on a continuing basis through the 
development and/or foundation divisions of partner institutions. 

Explore music and education industry donations as a source of 
recordings, instruments, textbooks, and other curriculum materials. 

Develop flexibility in orchestra resources by the use of service 
conversions for musicians and writing education services into musician 
contracts. 

Promote participation in partnership activities as a way for musicians 
to "give back" to their communities and connect more closely with 
audiences. 

Include parents and orchestra volunteers in partnership activities, and 
capitalize on their liaison role with the larger community. 

Publicize the program and invite community and corporate leaders to 
observe it in action. 

Tap into existing school and community programs or designated funds 
for specific initiatives, such as education partnerships, minority inclusion, 
or drug awareness. 

Cooperate with other arts organizations to focus activities, avoid 
duplication of services, and foster cost effectiveness of programs. 



Effective Partnerships 



6. Documentation, Assessment, and 
Evaluation Provide an Accurate 
Picture of the Partnership's 
Activities and Impact as a Basis 
for Continued Planning 

An accurate record of the work of a partnership and its 
programs is indispensable for reflection on progress, future 
planning, and justification and solicitation of funds. 
Statistical summaries, written descriptions, photographs, 

and videotapes can provide a 
comprehensive overview of 
what has actually occurred, as 
well as offer a starting point 
for assessing the extent and 
quality of activity relative to 
initial goals and objectives. 



6. Documentation, 
assessment, and 
evaluation In Pittsburgh, the 
orchestra partnership was able to 
connect with an ArtsPropel project 
in local schools. Milwaukee has an 
extensive student assessment 
program based on an autherrtc, 
performance-based model. The 
Chicago Symphony has employed an 
external firm to assess responses of 
students and teachers to its 
programs. 



Assessment may refer to the 
measuring or systematic 
observation of any number of 
variables associated with the 
partnership. Assessments may 
focus both on the partnership 
structure, and on program 
quality and impact. For the 
partnership structure, 
assessments can ascertain levels of partner involvement, 
partners' knowledge of programs, their quality of interac- 
tions, and resource commitments. Assessments can also 
track the evolution of the partnership. The influence of 
the partnership on institutions can be assessed where 
change can be directly related to the partnership's 
objectives and work. Examples might be the addition of 
music specialists by a school system or the institution of a 
mandated music requirement for high school graduation. 

Program assessment frequently emphasizes changes in 
student learning, behaviors, attitudes, and self-esteem. 
Other facets of programs can be assessed as well, includ- 
ing changes in teacher or musician attitudes and behav- 
iors, quantity and quality of classroom experiences, or 
quality and appropriateness of curriculum resources. 

Evaluation of a partnership draws on documentation and 
assessments to reach overall conclusions regarding 
operations and impact. Evaluation synthesizes data from 
many sources and offers a composite picture of the extent 
to which the partnership is attaining various goals and 
objectives. 



Challenges for assessment and evaluation 

Evaluation reports on arts education partnerships can be 
astoundingly superficial and free of critical appraisal. The 
allure of national recognition, as well as the need to 
impress funders, sometimes results in a confusion of 
public relations with serious evaluation designed to 
provide feedback for improvement. Consequently, 
assessments may only address areas with predictably 
positive outcomes, and evaluation reports may offer only 
summaries of supposedly substantial contributions. 

Many assessments fail to acknowledge the context or 
quality of experiences, or how much children have 
actually learned, thereby creating a false impression. For 
example, children are very likely to indicate on a survey 
that learning is more enjoyable because of in-school 
performances or trips to a concert. However, those 
experiences may be unrelated to sequential learning 
opportunities, or the assessment may fail to verify the 
frequency or quality of related curricular events in the 
classroom. In such cases, the experiences are merely 
enrichment, and the results of the assessment actually say 
nothing about the role of the arts within an ongoing 
program of instruction. One might obtain a similar result 
by taking the children to the circus or providing other 
non-arts diversions to a repetitive and predictable school 
schedule. 

Unfortunately, failure to systematically confront both 
strengths and weaknesses may do more harm than good 
to arts education and to the potential role of partnerships 
in developing sustained curricular programs. One funder 
interviewed during the study indicated that her organiza- 
tion is rethinking contributions to arts education projects 
because they promise more than they deliver, and because 
results are obviously skewed in evaluations that present a 
one-sided positive depiction. The challenge for partner- 
ships is to develop honest appraisals that help identify 
what works and what doesn't, indicate the conditions 
that underlie success, and suggest the strategies most 
likely to improve education in and through the arts. 



109 



Beyond 



Strategies for documentation, assessment, 
and evaluation 

Maintain statistical data regarding schools, children, and families served. 

Design evaluation questionnaires (for parents, teachers, musicians, 
committee members, etc.) that are based on stated goals and objectives 
and that help determine how well programs are meeting goals and 
objectives. 

Use live observations and videotapes for systematic assessment of 
program quality and student achievement, as well as documentation 

Retain consultants who are knowledgeable in arts learning, partnership 
structures, and assessment so that evaluations reflect issues of quality 
and school/community context, as well as measured change in 
partnership or program attributes. 

Develop assessment measures directly related to partnership and 
program objectives, rather than conducting superficial assessments of 
traits likely to show a positive result. 

Acknowledge findings of both strengths and weaknesses, using them as a 
basis for problem-solving, partnership and program refinement, and 
revision of objectives. 

Use a variety of ongoing and concluding procedures, including 
interviews, observations, surveys, and videotapes to provide information 
that can be analyzed in terms of stated goals and objectives. 

Gain many different perspectives on the effectiveness of the partnership 
and its programs, including those of students, parents, teachers, 
administrators, musicians, and others who are directly involved. 

Develop measures of student learning that are consistent with 
instructional objectives, the content of learning experiences, and the 
developmental levels of students. 

Use student assessment measures that are performance-based, grow 
directly from learning experiences, and incorporate materials, such as 
audio recordings, videotapes, and students' reflective comments. 

Use assessment criteria reflective of high standards of teaching and 
learning in the arts, and develop evaluation reports that provide 
perspective regarding the interpretation of assessments. 



110 



V 






jPj 



fiJfc 



fiy/flffllHfrfpiiJIIiJiMWVilMjl 



SECTION VI 



Looking Ahead . 



Looking Ahead 



SECTION VI 



Looking Ahead . . . 



Toward Building on Firm Foundations 

It is clear from this study that orchestra partnerships are 
making positive contributions to schools and communi- 
ties. The impetus for partnerships can be traced to three 
main factors: a) awareness of the positive outcomes for 
both orchestras and communities when they develop 
closer ties; b) a national school improvement agenda 
emphasizing the role of partnerships in supporting 
education; and c) the current jeopardy of many school 
music programs and the resulting risk of diminished 
audiences and talent pools for orchestras. 

Despite their relative youth, existing orchestra-school 
partnerships already demonstrate numerous principles of 
effectiveness found to have worked in other fields. These 
include deliberate planning, a hands-on approach to 
problem-solving, broad-based representation on commit- 
tees and task forces, incorporation of community needs 
and resources, and efforts to document and evaluate 
impact. Reflecting their constituents' immediate con- 
cerns, orchestra partnerships tend to target improvement 
of music curriculum and instruction at the classroom 
level. However, planners are also cognizant of the need 
for administrative involvement. 

The effort, energy, and creativity found among current 
partnerships provide a firm foundation for strengthened 
and sustained programs. Bolstered by commitments 
among school and orchestra personnel, the potential for 
further development is very strong. Moreover, these 
programs offer a wealth of lessons for communities 
seeking to advance music education through dynamic 
orchestra-school relationships. 



Toward Schools that Maintain Balanced 
Educational Programs 

Effective schools are a community-wide concern. As 
education partners, orchestras demonstrate investment 
in the overall quality of life of their communities. They 
extend the traditional role of concert performance to 
include intentional and developmental outreach. They 
contribute unique resources to enhanced learning and an 
enriched cultural environment. 

Orchestra involvement in education does not, however, 
supersede responsibilities of schools to implement 
balanced education programs, including music, that are 
supported by expertise in teaching and learning. The 
most important contribution orchestras can make to 
schools is to foster a climate that values and supports 
sequential music and arts education. As curricular 
subjects, the arts should be taught by certified specialists 
and enriched by collaborative programs connecting 
students directly with the lives and work of professional 
musicians. 

Lasting curricular change through orchestra partnerships 
is most likely when schools must satisfy clear criteria as 
part of a partnership agreement, when there is evidence 
of commitment to educational effectiveness by the 
school, and when there is planned evolution of a partner- 
ship, including funding for programs. As a condition of 
partnership, some orchestras require that schools employ 
faculty music specialists. Others make it clear that the 
goal is the development or reinstatement of curricular 
music education. Nearly all are explicit in stating that 
they intend to support, rather than replace, school music 
programs. 



113 



Whatever the approach, achieving collaboration between 
orchestras and schools in support of curricular music 
education is bound to require sustained commitment. 
Collaboration is complex and time-consuming. It 
requires commitment not only to achieving results, but to 
ongoing participation in the process of change. There 
must be evidence that schools are serious about providing 
students with a complete and balanced education that 
includes music, and orchestras should insist on progress 
toward this goal as a requisite condition of continuing 
relationships. 

Toward Quality Learning Programs 

At the heart of effective schools lie high-quality instruc- 
tional programs. Throughout the history of arts educa- 
tion in American schools, the amount and quality of arts 
learning available to students has varied widely and been 
subject to many constraints. Nevertheless, music 
education has flourished in many communities, often 
because of the singular dedication of music teachers to 
their students and their discipline. 

Some orchestra partnerships are beginning to encounter 
many of those impediments that music educators have 
faced for decades, including scheduling problems, lack of 
coordination between music specialists and grade-level 
teachers, insufficient equipment and materials, and 
administrative value choices that simultaneously tout the 
arts for public relations but fail to support them as an 
instructional necessity. These administrative and logisti- 
cal issues easily divert a partnership from concerns of 
quality. It can be tempting to believe that an imple- 
mented program, having successfully negotiated the 
hurdles of scheduling, materials, equipment, or other 
difficulties, is adding value to the curriculum without any 
evidence to support this conclusion. 

In his 1984 book, A Place Called School, the eminent 
educator John Goodlad raised a concern about the 
dichotomy between the stated values of the arts in 
schools and the observed practice of arts education, 
which failed to fulfill those values. This study raises a 
similar concern. While representatives of arts organiza- 
tions, orchestras, and partnerships are familiar with the 
claims of recent research and advocacy efforts in arts 
education, they are not generally as knowledgeable about 
those long-established foundations of music teaching and 
learning that underlie the most important contributions 
of the arts. 



14 



Beyond 



Those who are new to arts education sometimes charac- 
terize traditional music education as product-oriented, in 
contrast to the newer process-oriented and creative 
approaches of partnerships. In reality, there is a 
longstanding emphasis within the music education 
profession on process and creativity. Similarly, curricular 
integration, implemented by general classroom teachers, 
is often promoted as a way of making a lasting place for 
music in the schools. In fact, arts educators have a long 
history of experience with curriculum integration. What 
they know is that failure to comprehend the complexity 
of cross-disciplinary correlations, and to ensure the 
authenticity of the arts when making connections with 
other subjects, not only results in low-level applications, 
but also leads administrators to see the arts and arts 
specialists as disposable commodities. 

Music education is, by definition, a field requiring 
synergistic knowledge and practice in the discipline of 
music, the music learning process, student development, 
and strategies that build musical skill and understanding. 
Teaching music to groups of children is not intuitive 
simply because one is a trained musician. And, as 
evidenced in observations made during this study, 
classroom teachers do not automatically integrate the arts 
with depth as the result of limited workshop experiences. 

The fact that orchestras are sufficiently concerned about 
the presence and practice of music education to under- 
take program development offers a rich opportunity for 
students, teachers, and the larger community. However, if 
these efforts are to move music education beyond the 
limitations it has faced in the past, they must connect 
with the rich history of knowledge and practice that 
already exists, work with knowledgeable music education 
professionals to ensure high-quality programs, and subject 
implemented programs to the scrutiny of standards that 
reflect rigorous levels of thought and practice. 

Toward Authenticity and Accountability 
for Orchestras 

There are some things orchestras are equipped to do and 
others that lie outside their mission and expertise. As 
institutions, they retain resident experts in classical 
symphonic repertoire and instrumental performance. 
These areas of knowledge may extend to the history of 
music, music in social and cultural context, chamber 
music, the historical development of instruments, solo 
repertoire, music in relation to other art forms, and 
additional topics depending on individual backgrounds 
and interests. In addition, the symphony orchestra 
harbors rich traditions not only as a continuing re-creator 



Looking Ahead 



of historical experience through music, but as a dynamic 
institution that presses the existing limits of human 
expression through new musical forms, technological 
advances, and innovative conceptions of organized 
sound. 

Some orchestras have sought relevance for younger 
audiences by adopting an entertainment mentality, 
developing glitzy shows, or performing arrangements of 
popular music. Despite some successes, this approach may 
miss the point that the orchestra can better satisfy 
students' inquisitiveness regarding music when it finds 
creative ways to engage them in the work the orchestra 
does best. Relevance does not imply simplistic embracing 
of the most recent trend or fad, playing only easily 
accessible repertoire, or merely devising ways to hold 
students' attention. Rather, relevant programs present the 
life and work of musicians in ways that fulfill students' 
natural curiosity about how music works, how musical 
problems are solved, and how the orchestra fits uniquely 
into the vast menu of musical opportunities available in 
today's society. In fact, with careful planning, students' 
ears and minds are capable of being stretched well beyond 
the limits many adults tend to impose on them. 

As orchestras seek to define a role in education relative 
to their artistic mission, it is essential that they work 
within the realm of their unique identity as musical 
institutions. Consistent appraisal of education activities 
within this context will help allay the concerns of those 
who question whether the orchestra is compromising its 
artistic integrity in seeking to be relevant for young 
audiences. 

Toward Mutual Responsibility 

In a true partnership, everyone contributes and benefits 
in relation to shared interests and concerns. At present, 
most orchestra-school partnerships are orchestra- 
initiated, with programs designed and delivered for 
schools rather than being developed as mutual efforts. 

Initially, it may be necessary in some cases for orchestras 
to offer leadership in reinstating or strengthening music 
education programs. However, as partnerships mature, it 
is important to foster increasing mutual responsibility as 
well as benefits. For orchestras, there ought to be an 
intentional change in operations to permit a continuing 
role in assuring the quality of local schools. Accepting 
partnerships as an ongoing budget obligation, providing 
training for musicians, and giving the Education Director 
a senior administrative position are some examples. 
Beyond these, an orchestra should come to view itself as 
an influential contributor to the community, with 
responsibilities for actively participating in decisions that 
affect schools and advocating the importance of music 
education programs. 



For schools, mutual responsibility implies a proactive role 
in making curricular arts programs an educational 
necessity and working diligently with orchestras and 
other partners to sustain them. This means moving 
beyond cooperation in providing released time for 
professional development or transporting students to 
concerts. Partnerships with limited school investment are 
unlikely to outlive reliance on fixed external funding or 
become permanent in the school culture. Over the long 
term, orchestras and schools must seek ways to move on 
from the orchestra-as-provider, school-as-beneficiary roles 
that typify most partnerships at the present time. 

Toward a Music Learning Society 

During the course of this study, several administrators 
advanced the view that the contemporary orchestra must 
be, in the broadest sense, an educator. Such a view makes 
sense if the orchestra is in fact a dynamic rather than a 
static institution. 

If the orchestra's interest in education is primarily that of 
introducing school children to the orchestra with the 
hope of building future audiences, its efforts are probably 
for naught. There is no hard evidence to suggest that 
sizeable audiences or support will automatically accrue 
from such motivations. On the other hand, if the 
orchestra sees itself as helping to fulfill the human 
longing for aesthetic satisfaction and advancing the 
expressive capacities of the human mind and spirit, then 
its role becomes one of educating people to the wealth of 
life-enriching opportunities available through the 
symphonic musical experience. In this sense, the orches- 
tra participates in a continuum of educational opportuni- 
ties that foster the valuing of music (and the orchestra) 
through knowledge and understanding. Such opportuni- 
ties should be available to people of all ages, backgrounds, 
and levels of musical experience. Partnerships between 
orchestras and schools thus become a crucial link in a 
lifetime of music education experiences that connect to 
serve the artistic and cultural well-being of entire 
communities. 

This study has attempted to provide information that will 
guide orchestras and schools toward developing effective 
partnerships for music education. Where orchestras 
commit themselves to working in concert with other 
agencies for a high quality of community life, they are 
likely to develop significant and indispensable programs 
that support continuous musical learning and growth. 



115 



116 



Beyond 










/"* 



aA 



W^WMgpy^jnw,., 











SECTION VII 

Resources and 
References 



Resources & References 



SECTION VI I 



Resources and References 



ORCHESTRAS PROFILED IN THE STUDY 

Austin Symphony Orchestra 

Ken Caswell, Executive Director 

Sung Kwak, Music Director/Conductor 

Diana Eblen, Director of Education 

1101 Red River 

Austin TX 78701 

(512)476-6064 

(512) 476-6242 (fax) 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. 

Kenneth Haas, Managing Director 

Seiji Ozawa, Music Director 

Myran Parker-Brass, Director of Youth Concerts 

301 Massachusetts Ave. 

Boston MA 02 115 

(617)266-1492 

(617) 638-9367 (fax) 

Boston Music Education Collaborative 

Christine Taylor, Executive Director 
295 Huntington Ave., Suite 210 
Boston MA 02115 
(617)859-4998 
(617) 859-0886 (fax) 

Cedar Rapids Symphony Orchestra 

Kathy Hall, Executive Director 

Dr. Christian Tiemeyer, Music Director 

Stephanie Wagor, Education Director 

205 Second Avenue SE 

Cedar Rapids IA 52401 

(319)366-8206 

(319) 366-5206 (fax) 

Chicago Symphony Orchestra 

Henry Fogel, Executive Vice President and Executive 

Director 

Daniel Barenboim, Music Director 

Holly H. Hudak, Director of Education and Community 

Programs 

Susan J. Frost, Coordinator of Youth Education 

220 South Michigan Avenue 

Chicago IL 60604 

(312)345-8143 

(312) 786-1207 (fax) 



Fort Wayne Philharmonic 

Christopher D. Guerin, Executive Director 

Edvard Tchivzhel, Music Director 

Anna Graham, Director of Education 6k Operations 

2340 Fairfield Avenue 

Fort Wayne IN 46807 

(219) 744-1700 

(219) 456-8555 (fax) 

Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, Inc. 

Steven A. Ovitsky, Executive Director 

VACANT, Music Director 

Mary Wayne Fritzsche, Director of Education 6k Outreach 

330 East Kilbourn Avenue, Suite 900 

Milwaukee WI 53202-6623 

(414) 291-6010 

(414) 291-7610 (fax) 

New York Philharmonic 

Deborah Borda, Executive Director 
Kurt Masur, Music Director 
Polly Kahn, Director of Education 
132 West 65th Street 
New York NY 10023 
(212)875-5732 
(212) 875-5716 (fax) 

Pacific Symphony Orchestra 

Louis G. Spisto, Vice President 6k Executive Director 

Carl St. Clair, Music Director 

Kelly Ruggirello, Director of Education 6k Community Programs 

1231 E.Dyer Road, Suite 200 

Santa Ana CA 92705-5606 

(714) 755-5788 

(714) 755-5789 (fax) 

email: pso@pso.org 

Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra 

Gideon Toeplitz, Executive Vice President 6k Managing Director 

Lorin Maazel, Music Director 

Suzanne Perrino, Director of Education 

Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts 

600 Penn Avenue 

Pittsburgh PA 15222-3251 

(412)392-4900 

(412) 392-4909 (fax) 



119 



RESOURCE LIST 

Journals 

Music Education 

American String Teacher, American String Teachers 
Association, Reston, VA 

General Music Today, Music Educators National 
Conference, Reston, VA 

Journal of Music Teacher Education, Music Educators 
National Conference, Reston, VA 

Music Educators journal, Music Educators National 
Conference, Reston, VA 

SYMPHONY, American Symphony Orchestra League, 
Washington, DC 

Arts Education, Visual Art Education & Museums 

Art Education, National Art Educators Association, Reston, 
VA 

Arts Ed Net Offline, Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 
Santa Monica, CA 

Arts Education Policy Review, (previously Design for Arts in 
Education), Heldref Publications, Washington, DC 

Arts USA, American Council for the Arts, New York, NY 
Journal of Aesthetic Education, University of Illinois Press, 
Champaign, IL 

Museum News, American Association of Museums, 
Washington, DC 

Studies in Art Education, National Arts Educators 
Association, Reston, VA 

General Education 

American Education, U. S. Department of Education, 
Washington, DC 

American journal of Education, University of Chicago Press, 
Chicago, IL 

Contemporary Education, Indiana State University, School 
of Education, Terre Haute, IN 

Education Week, Editorial Projects in Education, 
Washington, DC 



120 



Beyond 



Educational Leadership, Association for Supervision and 
Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA 

Harvard Educational Review, Gutman Library, Cambridge, 
MA 

journal of Teacher Education, American Association of 
Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC 

National Association of Secondary School Principals 
Bulletin, National Association of Secondary 
School Principals, Reston, VA 

Phi Delta Kappan, Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN 

Research Journals 

Council for Research in Music Education Bulletin, Council for 
Research in Music Education, Urbana, IL 

journal of Education Research, Heldref Publications, 
Washington, DC 

journal of Research in Music Education, Music Educators 
National Conference, Reston, VA 

Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, Music 
Educators National Conference, Reston, VA 



Resources & References 



Organizations 

Arts/Arts Education 

American Association for Higher Education 

One Dupont Circle, Suite 360 
Washington, DC 200364110 
202) 293-6440 
FAX: (202) 293-0073 

American Association of Museums 

1225 Eye Street NW, Suite 200 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202) 289-9127 

American Council for the Arts 
1285 Avenue of the Americas 
Floor 3, Area M 
New York, NY 10019 

American Council for the Arts Publications 

Department 53 
One East 53rd Street 
New York, NY 10022-4201 
(212) 223-2787, ext. 241 
FAX: (212) 223-4415 

American Music Conference 

5 140 Avenida Encinas 
Carlsbad, CA 92008-4391 
(619)431-9124 

American Symphony Orchestra League 

1156 Fifteenth Street, NW 

Suite 800 

Washington, DC 20005-1704 

(202) 776-0212 

FAX: (202) 776-0224 

Arts vision 

Mitchell Korn, President 
6 Libera Court 
Rhinebeck, NY 12572 
(914) 876-0300 

Center for Arts in the Basic Curriculum 

58 Fearing Road, 
Hingham, MA 02043 
AND, 1319 F Street, NW, 
Suite 900, 
Washington, DC 20004 

Getty Center for Education in the Arts 

401 Wilshire Boulevard 

Suite 950 

Santa Monica, CA 90401-1455 

(800) 223-3431 

FAX: (310) 453-7966 



Getty Trust Publications 

Distribution Center E29X 
P.O. Box 2112 

Santa Monica, CA 90407-21 12 
(800) 223-3431 or (310) 453-5352 
FAX: (310) 453-7966 

Kennedy Center Alliance for Arts Education 
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 
Washington, DC 20566 
(202) 254-7190 

Music Educators National Conference 

1902 Association Drive 

Reston, VA 22091 

(703) 860-4000 or (800) 336-3768 

MENC Publications Sales 

1806 Robert Fulton Drive 
Reston, VA 22091 
(703)860-1531 

Music Teachers National Association 

441 Vine Street 

Suite 505 

Cincinnati, OH 45202-2814 

(513)421-1420 

National Art Education Association 

1916 Association Drive 
Reston, VA 22091 
(703) 860-8000 

National Association of Music Merchants 

5 140 Avenida Encinas 
Carlsbad, CA 92008 
(619) 438-8001 

National Association of Recording Merchants 

9 Eves Drive 
Suite 120 
Marlton, NJ 08053 
(609) 596-2221 

National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts 

40 North Van Brunt Street 
Suite 32, P. O. Box 8018 
Englewood,NJ 07631 
(201)871-3337 

National Endowment for the Arts 

1 100 Pennsylvania Avenue NW 
Washington, DC 20506 
(202) 682-5426 



121 



National Assembly of Local Arts Agencies 

927 15th Street NW, 12th Floor 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202)371-2830 
FAX: (202) 371-0424 

Pittsburgh Fund for Arts Education 

100 Forbes Avenue 
Suite 1180 
Pittsburgh, PA 15222 
(412) 261-3992 

Southeast Center for Education in the Arts 

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga 

Jeffrey Patchen, Director 

615 McCallie Avenue 

Chattanooga, TN 37403 

(423) 755-5263 or (423) 755-5204 

FAX: (423) 755-4632V 

Young Audiences 

115 East 92nd Street 
New York, NY 10128 
(212)831-8110 

General Education 

Association for Supervision and Curriculum 
Development 

1250 N.Pitt Street 
Alexandria, VA 22314 
(703)549-9110 
FAX: (703)549-3891 

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching 

5 Ivy Lane 
Princeton, NJ 08540 
(609)452-1780 

Council for Basic Education 

1319 F Street NW 

Suite 900 

Washington, DC 20004-1152 

(202)347-4171 

National Education Association 

1201 16th Street NW 
Washington, DC 20036 
(202) 833-4000 



122 



Beyond 



Research and Assessment Organizations 

Far West Laboratory for Education Research 
and Development 

730 Harrison Street 

San Francisco, CA 94107-1242 

(415) 565-3019 

FAX: (415) 565-3012 

Harvard Project Zero 

Harvard Graduate School of Education 

Longfellow Hall 

13 Appian Way 

Cambridge, MA 02138 

(617)495-4342 

FAX: (617) 495-9709 

National Arts Research Project 

Attn: Robert Witeman 
St. Johns University 
8000 Utopia Parkway 
Mar 210 

Jamaica, NY 11439 
(718)990-1305 
(718)990-6096 

National Assessment of Educational Progress 

800 North Capitol Street NW 

Suite 825 

Washington, DC 20002-4233 

PACE 

Performance Assessment Collaboratives for Education 

Harvard Graduate School of Education 

8 Story Street 

Cambridge, MA 02138 

(617) 496-2770 

FAX: (617) 496-2777 

Southwest Regional Laboratory 

4665 Lampson Avenue 
Los Alamitos, CA 90720 
(310)985-9181 



Resources & References 



Music Education Resources 

Beethoven, J., et. al. (1995). The Music Connection. 
Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett Ginn, Inc. 

Bergethon, B., Boardman, E. & Montgomery, J. (Eds.). 
(1996). Musical growth in the elementary school. New York: 
Harcourt and Brace. 

Berz, W., ck Bowman, J. (1994). Applications of Research in 
Music Technology. Reston, VA: Music Educators National 
Conference. 

Boyer- White, R., Campbelle-duGuard, M., et. al. (1995). 
Share the Music. New York, NY: MacMillan/McGraw-Hill. 

Colwell, R. (Ed.). (1992). Handbook of Research on Music 
Teaching and Learning: A Project of the Music Educators 
National Conference. New York: Schirmer Books. 

Consortium of National Arts Education Associations. 
(1994). National Standards for Arts Education. Reston, VA: 
Music Educators National Conference. 

Cutietta, R., Hammann, D., & Walker, L. (1995). Spinoffs: 
The Extra-Musical Advantages of a Musical Education. 
Eklhart: United Musical Instruments U.S.A. Inc., for the 
Future of Music Project. 

Fowler, C. ( 1994). Music! Its Role and Importance in Our 
Lives. New York: MacMillan/McGraw-Hill. 

Hackett, P. & Lindeman, C. ( 1995). The Musical Class- 
room: Backgrounds, Models and Skilbfor Elementary Teaching. 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 

Lehman. P. (Ed.). (1994). Teaching Examples: Ideas for Music 
Educators. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Confer- 
ence. 

Mark, M. (1986). Contemporary Music Education. New 
York: Schirmer Books. 

Merrion, M. (1989). What Works: Instructional Strategies for 
Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National 
Conference. 

Meske, E. B., Andress, B., Pautz, M., Willman, E (1988). 
Music. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 

National Coalition for Music Education. ( 1994). Music for a 
Sound Education: A Tool Kit for Implementing the Standards. 
Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. 



Arts Education Resources 

American Council for the Arts. (1989). The Challenge to 
Reform Arts Education: What Role Can Research Play? 
Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. 

Arts, Education, and Americans, Inc. (1981). Creative 
Collaborations: Artists, Teachers, and Students. New York: 
Arts, Education, and Americans, Inc. 

Balfe, Judith & Heine, Joni, C. (Eds.). (1988). Arts 
Education Beyond the Classroom. New York: American 
Council for the Arts. 

Boyer, E. (1977). Arts in Education: The View from FOB 6. 
Washington D.C.: Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare-Education Division-Office of Education. 

Consortium of National Arts Education Associations. 
( 1994). National Standards for Arts Education. Reston, VA: 
Music Educators National Conference. 

Lee, R. (Ed.). (1985). The Arts in Learning: Interdisciplinary 
Resources for Education. Albany, NY: New York Council for 
the Arts 6k New York State Education Department. 

National Endowment for the Arts. (1988). Toward 
Civilization. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for 
the Arts. 

Ryder, Willet. (1994). Linking the College Classroom to the 
Community. Art Education, 41 (3), 23-24, 43-44. 

Shipley, L. (1986). Information Resources in the Arts: A 
Directory. Washington, D.C.: United States Government 
Printing Office. 

Symposium on National Standards for Education in the 
Arts. (1994). The Vision for Arts Education in the 21st 
Century. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Confer- 
ence. 

United States Congress House Committee on Education 
and Labor. ( 1984). Arts and Education Report. Washington, 
D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. 

Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public 
Schools: K-12. (1989).Sacramento, CA: California State 
Department of Education. 

Welch, Nancy & Greene, Andrea. (1995). Schools, 
Communities, and the Arts: A Research Compendium. 
Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. 



123 



General Education Resources 

Armstrong, Thomas. (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the 
Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision 
and Curriculum Development. 

Brandt, Ronald S. (Ed.). (1995). How Technology is 
Transforming Teaching. Educational Leadership, 53 (2). 

Gardner, Howard. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory 
in Practice. New York: BasicBooks, A Division of Harper 
Collins Publishers, Inc. 

Gardner, Howard. (1991). The Unschooled Mind: How 
Children Think & How Schoob Should Teach. New York: 
BasicBooks, A Division of Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. 

Goodlad, John I. (1994). Education Renewal: Better 
Teachers, Better Schoob. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass 
Publishers. 

Partnership/Collaboration Resources 

Cortines, R. (1994). The Arts: Partnerships as a Catalyst for 
Educational Reform. Sacramento, CA: California Depart- 
ment of Education. 

Dreeszen, C. (1992). Intersections: Community Arts and 
Education Collaborations. AmherstAmherst Arts Extension 
Service. 

Education Resources Group, Inc. (1991). Options for 
Evaluating the Educational Partnerships Program. Washington, 
DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. 

Educational Leadership. (1986). 43(5). Collaboration for 
Change. 

Grobe, T. (1993). Synthesis of Existing Knowledge and Practice 
in the Field of Educational Partnerships. Washington, DC: US 
Department of Education. 

Katz, J. (Ed.). (1988). Am and Education Handbook: A 
Guide to Productive Collaborations. Washington, DC: 
National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. 

Soren, B. (1993). Nurturing Mind, Spirit, and a Love of 
the Arts and Sciences: Schools and Cultural Organizations 
as Educators. Studies in Art Education, 34, 149-157. 

Tushnet, Naida C. ( 1993 ). A Guide to Developing Educa- 
tional Partnerships. Washington, DC: U.S. Government 
Printing Office. $4.50 

Tushnet, N., Fleming-McCormick, T, Manuel, D., Nyre, 
G., & Schwager, M. (1995). Documentation and. Evaluation 
of the Educational Partnerships Program: Final Report. 
Washington, DC: US Department of Education. 



124 



Beyond 



Internet Resources 

Many arts education resources are now available on-line 
through the World Wide Web. Organization listings, 
reports, news updates, bibliographies, curriculums, position 
papers and many other types of information are available. 
The representative WWW listing below provides only a 
sampling of beginning points for gathering information 
about arts education. 

American Music Center 
American Music Conference Internet Service 
Arts Curriculum Framework (State of Massachusetts) 
Arts Education (American Council for the Arts) 
Arts Education On-Line (California Arts Project) 
Arts Education Systems Synthesis Project (Carnegie- 
Mellon University) 
Arts Resource Connection 
Arts Wire 
ArtsEd Links 
ArtsEd Net 

ArtsEdge (Getty Center for Education in the Arts) 
Artsnet (CarnegieMellon University) 
ArtsUSA (American Council for the Arts) 
Association for the Advancement of Arts Education 
ERIC (Educational Resource and Information Center) 
Kennedy Center Alliance for Arts Education Network 
Major Journals of Research in Music Education 
Music Education Online 
National Endowment for the Arts 
On-Line Music Resources 

Schools, Communities, and the Arts: A Research Compendium 
World Wide Arts Resources 



Resources & References 



SELECTED REFERENCES 

American Symphony Orchestra League. (1993). American- 
izing the American orchestra. Washington, DC: American 
Symphony Orchestra League. 

Amdur, D. (1993). Arts and cultural context: A cuniculum 
integrating discipline-based art education with other 
humanities subjects at the secondary level. Art Education, 
46(4), 1249. 

American Music Conference. (1994, April). American 
attitudes toward music. Carlsbad, CA: Music USA. 

Anderson, T. (1995). Rediscovering the connection 
between the arts: Introduction to the symposium on 
interdisciplinary arts education. Arts Education Policy 
Review, 96 (4), 10-12. 

Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. 
Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum 
Development. 

Bakalis, M. (1981). American education and the meaning 
of scarcity, Part II. Phi Delta Kappan, 63, 102-105. 

Balfe, J., & Heine, J. (Eds.). (1988). Am education beyond 
the classroom. New York: American Council for the Arts. 

Beckhard, R. (1975). Organization development in large 
systems. In K. Benne, L. Bradford, J. Gibb, & R. Lippitt 
(Eds.), The laboratory method of changing and learning. Palo 
Alto: Science and Behavior Books. 

Birkhead, C. (1993). Orchestras and the future, Symphony, 
44, 52-55, 78-79. 

Boston, B. (1995). Orchestrating advocacy: Goals 2000. 
Symphony, 46, 24-26, 52, & 56. 

Bowles, C. (1991). Self-expressed adult music education 
interests and music experience. Journal of Research in Music 
Education, 39, 191-205. 

Brandt, R. (Ed.). (1986). Collaboration for change. 

Educational Leadership , 43 (5). 

Brookes, M. (1988). Art by the alphabet. Principal, 67 (1) 
15-18. 

Business Roundtable. (1989). Business means business about 
education: A synopsis of the Business Round Table Companies' 
education partnerships. New York: Author. 

Buttelman, C. (1962). Will Earhart: A Steadfast Philosophy. 
Washington: MENC. 

Chen, V. & Granger, L. (1988). Arts smarts: First rate arts 
education programs. School Administrator, 45, (10) 8-11. 



Consortium of National Arts Education Associations. 
(1994). National standards for arts education. Reston, VA: 
Music Educators National Conference. 

Cortines, R. (1994). The arts: Partnerships as a catalyst for 
educational reform. Sacramento, CA: California Department 
of Education. 

Cumming, D. (1996, March 21). BellSouth assesses its aid 
to education. Atlanta Journal-Constitution, p. El. 

Danzberger, J. (1990). Educational partnerships program: 
Analysis of project characteristics. Washington, DC: Office of 
Educational Research and Improvement. 

DeBevoise, W (1986). Collaboration: Some principles of 
bridgework. Educational Leadership, 43, (5) 9-12. 

Dreeszen, C. (1992). Intersections: Community arts and 
education collaborations. Amherst: Amherst Arts Extension 
Service. 

Dunn, P. (1995). Integrating the arts: Renaissance and 
reformation in arts education. Arts Education Policy Review, 
96,(4)32-37. 

Eddy, J. (1976). Bridging the gap between the arts and 
education. In E. Eisner (Ed.), The arts, human development, 
and education. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan. 

Education Resources Group, Inc. (1991). Options for 
evaluating the educational partnerships program. Washington, 
DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. 

Eisner, E. (1988). The prinicpal's role in arts education. 
Principal, 67, (1)6-10. 

Evans, P. & Shaw, R. (1986). School-college collaboration: 
How does it work? What are the benefits? NASSP Bulletin, 
70, 84-89. 

Felton, J. (1995). Mandate for education. Symphony, 46, 36- 
40, 50. 

Fowler, C. (1991). Understanding how the arts contribute to 
excellent education: Study summary. Washington, DC: 
National Endowment for the Arts. 

Fowler, C. & Elliot, D. ( 1993). Winds of change: A collo- 
quium in music education. New York: American Council for 
the Arts. 

Fullan, M. & Miles, M. (1992). Getting reform right: What 
works and what doesn't, Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 745-752. 

Furber, M. (1986). A new meaning to "partnerships." 
Des/gn for Arts in Education, 87, (6), 49-52. 



125 



Gardner, H. (1990). Art education and human development. 
Los Angeles: Getty Center for Education in the Arts. 

Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind: How children think 
and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Books. 

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in 
practice. New York: Basic Books. 

Goldberg, R. & Phillips, A. (Eds.). (1995). Arts as educa- 
tion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review. 

Gordon, D. & Stoner, S. (1995). Beyond enhancement: 
The Kennedy Center's commitment to education. Arts 
Education Policy Review, 96, (4) 38-47. 

Goodlad, J. ( 1984). A place called school. New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Company. 

Goodlad, J. (1994). Education renewal: Better teachers , better 
schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 

Gregory, M. (1995). Collaboration for music teacher 
education between higher education institutions and K- 1 2 
schools. Journal of Research in Music Education, 43, 
(1)47-59. 

Grobe, T. (1993). Synthesis of existing knowledge and practice 
in the field of educational partnerships. Washington, DC: US 
Department of Education. 

Hanna, J. (1992). Connections: Arts, academics, and 
productive citizens. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 601-607. 

Hardy, V. (1993). Enriching your arts program on a tight 
budget. Principal, 72, (4) 36-38. 

Hausman, J. (1976). Elitism in the arts and egalitarianism 
in the community - What's an arts educator to do? In E. 
Eisner (Ed.), The arts, human development, and education. 
Berkeley: CA: McCutchan. 

Haycock, K., Hart, P., & Irvine, J. (1991). Improving student 
achievement through partnerships. Washington, DC: Ameri- 
can Association for Higher Education. 

Hord, S. ( 1981 ). Working together: Cooperation or collabora' 
tion? Austin: University of Texas at Austin, Research and 
Development Center for Teacher Education. 

Hord, S. (1985). Collaboration or cooperation: Comparison 
and contrasts, dilemmas and decisions. Austin: University of 
Texas at Austin, Research and Development Center for 
Teacher Education. 

Hord, S. (1986). A synthesis of research on organizational 
collaboration. Educational Leadership, 43, (5) 22-26. 



126 



Beyond 



Hutchens, J. ( 1986). The emerging arts educator: A 
descriptive study of the education of the community arts 
adminstrator. Studies in Art Education, 27, 174-185. 

Irwin, R. & Reynolds, K. (1995). Integration as a strategy 
for teaching the arts as disciplines. Arts Education Policy 
Review, 96, (4) 13-19. 

Jacobson, M. (1994). Our classroom colleagues: Nurturing 
orchestral music in the public schools. Symphony, 45, 34-38, 
40, 63. 

Katz, J. (Ed.). (1988). Arts and education handbook: A guide 
to productive collaborations. Washington, DC: National 
Assembly of State Arts Agencies. 

Keenan, J., Willett, J., & Solsken, J. (1993). Constructing 
an urban village: School/Home collaboration in a 
multicultural classroom. Language Arts, 70, 204-214. 

Kimpton, J. & Lestz, G. (1985). Selling young people on 
the symphony. Music Educators journal, 72, (1) 44-45. 

Lee, R. (1985). The expanding role of the arts in education. 
Music Educators Journal, 72, (2) 28-33. 

Leonhard, C. (1991). Status of arts education in American 
public schoob. Urbana: Council for Research in Music 
Education. 

Lynch, R. (1994). Implementing the standards: Making use 
of the arts community. In B. Boston (Ed.), Perspectives on 
implementation: Arts education standards for America's students 
(pp. 75-81). Reston: Music Educators National Conference 

Maeroff, G. (1983). School and college: Partnerships in 
education. Princeton: Carnegie Foundation. 

Mitchell, P. (1988). I can be all me. Principal, 67 (1) 19-24. 

Moore, J. (1994). The individual and community in music 
education policy. Arts Education Policy Review, 95 (4) 32-39. 

Myers, D. (1988). Schools, the arts, and communities: 
Contenders or comrades for arts education? Design for Arts 
in Education, 89 (3) 17-22. 

National Commission on Music Education. (1991). 
Growing up complete: The imperative for music education. 
Reston: Music Educators National Conference. 

New England Foundation for the Arts. (1983). The arts go 
to school. New York: American Council for the Arts. 

Nierman, G. (1993). Perspectives on collaboration versus 
cooperation. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 2, (2) 25-28. 



Resources & References 



Rackham, N., Friedman, L, & Ruff, R. (1996). Getting 
partnering right: How market leaders are creating long'term 
competitive advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

Remer, J. (1990). Changing schools through the arts. New 
York: American Council for the Arts. 

Roucher, N. & Lovono-Kerr, J. (1995). Can the arts 
maintain integrity in interdisciplinary learning? Arts 
Education Policy Review, 96 (4) 20-25. 

Rubenow, R. & Pauls, L. (1993). Interdisciplinary collabo- 
ration in teacher education programs. Contemporary 
Education, 64, 258-260. 

Ryder, W. (1994). Linking the college classroom to the 
community. Art Education, 47, (3) 22-24, 43-44. 

Schermerhorn, J. (1975). Determinants of 
interorganizational cooperation, Academy of Management 
Journal, 1 8, 846-856. 

Shuker, N. (Ed.). (1977). Arts in education partners: Schools 
and their communities. New York: JDR 3rd Fund, Inc. 

Sinatra, R. (1986). The arts as a vehicle for thinking. Early 
Years, 16 (7), 54-56. 

Snider, A. (1993). The snowy day: The story of a collabora- 
tion (with apologies to Ezra Jack Keats). Art Education, 46, 
(4)7-13. 

Soren, B. (1993). Nurturing mind, spirit, and a love of the 
arts and sciences: Schools and cultural organizations as 
educators. Studies in Art Education, 34, 149-157. 

Stastny, K. (1990). The rational pursuit of collaboration: 
Where does it lead? Proceedings of the annual meeting of 
the National Art Education Association Conference, USA. 

Stoel, C, Togneri, W., & Brown, P. (1992). What works: 
School/college partnerships to improve poor and minority student 
achievement. Washington, DC: American Association for 
Higher Education. 

Sturdivant, C. (1992). Ownership, risk-taking, and 
collaboration in an elementary language arts classroom. The 
Volta Review, 94,371-375. 

Sukraw-Ebert, J. (1988). Arts are not apart, but a part. 
Principal, 67, (1) 11-14. 

Thomas, H. (1994). Nurturing interest in young 
concertgoers. Music Educators Journal, 80 (6), 44-45. 

Tushnet, N. (1993). A guide to developing educational 
partnerships. Washington, DC: US Government Printing 
Office. 



Tushnet, N., Fleming-McCormick, T, Manuel, D., Nyre, 
G., 6k Schwager, M. (1995). Documentation and evaluation of 
the educational partnerships program: Final report. Washing- 
ton, DC: US Department of Education. 

Visual and Performing arts Curriculum Framework and 
Criteria Committee. ( 1989). Visual and Performing Arts 
Framework for California Public Schools: K-12. Sacramento: 
California Department of Education. 

Waleson, H. (1995). Civic partnerships: Reaching kids in 
their communities. Symphony, 46, 30-34. 

Welch, N. & Greene, A. (1995). Schools, communities, and 
the arts: A research compendium. Washington, DC: National 
Endowment for the Arts. 

Werner, G. (1988). Joining forces with the arts community. 
Music Educators Journal, 75, (4) 46-49. 

Wilbur, F & Lambert, L. (1991). Linking America's schools 
and colleges: Guide to partnerships and national directory. 
Washington, DC: American Association for Higher 
Education. 

Wolf, D. (1994). An assessment of Creating Original Opera. 
Cambridge: Performance Assessment Collaboratives for 
Education. 



127 



128 



Beyond 



-.-.- ■■ ■ ■■ ■ - 

■ 






. . '