Skip to main content

Full text of "The Bṛhad-devatā"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 
































CjjtBXTDas, Mass., U.S. ^ 
BosToii, Nivr VoKi, Chidao 

, San Frahcibco 

PublicBlion Agent of Harvard Udi 
Ginn and Company. 


Ldpuq : Otto HASSAaMwrrz 

9 St. Hartin'a Street, Leicester Squi 
Querstrnaae, U. 

*,* A copy of this volume, postagn paid, may be obtained direotly anyivhere within the 
limits of the Universal PoBtal Union, by sanding a Postal Order for the prico as given 
below, to Tha Publication Agent of HaroiaA tfniwrsify, Cani/riAft, Viuaruhuietfi, t/nifnl Stalu c>f 

The price of this volame ii one dollu- and fifty cents (|1.60). According to tha ooii' 
veraioa-tables used in the United States money-order system as the basis of international 
money -orders, one dollar and fifty cents (,{ l.EO) — 6 shillings and 2 pence = 6 marks Mid 
26 pfennigs -^ 7 frftncs or lire and TO centimes " 6 kroner and S6 Ore ~ 8 florins and 66 

cents Netherlandish. 




Firtt edition. 1904, One Thwaatid Copiet 





1. Importance of knowing the deities. The Vedic Triad . . . . 1 

2. Prayer and praise .2 

3. Different kinds of hymns 3 

4. Hymn deities, stanza deities, incidental deities 4 

5. Origin of names 5 

6. dannaka's view : all names derived from action 6 

7. Auspicious names. Different kinds of formulas 7 

8. Different kinds of formulas and modes of expression .... 9 

9. Definition of noun and verb 10 

10-12. Examples of different kinds of formulas 10 

13. The Sun and Pr^Spati as the source of all 14 

14. The three forms of Agni 15 

15. The Triad and the Atman. Three forms of Y&c 16 

16. The chief deity of a hymn 17 

1 7. Names of deities enumerated 18 

18. Characteristics of hymns to Agni, Indra-Vayu, and 8urya . .19 

19. The three Agnis 20 

20. Agni, Jstavedas, Yaisvanara : essentially identical, but distinguished 21 

21. The deities of the three worlds in the descending series .... 22 

22. 23. The deities representing terrestrial Agni 23 

24. Other deities associated with Agni 26 

25. The groups of deities of the middle sphere belonging to Indi*a ... 28 

26. Deities and deified objects belonging to Indra's sphere .... 29 

Zntroduotion (oontinaed). 

1. Deities of Indra's sphere 31 

2. Deities of Surya's sphere : his three wives 32 

3. Deities of Surya's sphere (concluded) 34 



4. Surya and Yai^vauara, a form of Agni .35 

5. Five names of Agni. Derivation of Agui, DravinodaSy Tanunap&t . 36 

6. NarS^amsay Favamftna, Jatavedas 37 

7. The twenty-six names of Indra: Viyu, Yaruna, Kudra, ludra (1-4) 39 

8. Parjanya, Brhaspati, Brahmanaspati, K^etrasya pati, Rta (5-9) . . 40 

9. V&sto^pati, y&caspati, Aditi, Ea, Yama (10-14) 42 

10. Mitra» yisvakannan,Sarasvat, Vena, Manyu (15-19) .... 44 

11. Asuniti, Apam nap&t, Dadhikr&, Dhatr, Tark^a (20-24) .46 

12. Pururavas (25), Mrtyu (26). The seven names of the Sun: Savitr (i), 

Bhaga(2) 47 

13. Pusan, Yisnu, Ee^in, Yi^vanara, Y^s&kapi (3-7) 49 

14. Derivation of Yi^nu. The incidental names of the deities cannot be 

enumerated 50 

15. Threefold Yftc : her terrestrial and middle forms . 51 

16. Other middle forms of Vac. Her four celestial forms . . 53 

17. Names of female seers : three groups 55 

18. Deity in self-laudations and colloquies (87, 88) 56 

Grammatical Section (89-121). 

Different kinds of particles (89-93) ^^ 

19. Particles (concluded). Prepositions. Genders 58 

20. Nouns. Pronouns. Importance of meaning. Rules for construing 59 

21. Analysis of words. Six kinds of compounds 60 

22. Meaning and analysis of words 61 

23. YSska's wrong ei^planations. Dropping of letters 63 

24. Word and sense. The verh expresses a form of becoming. Definition of 

hhavavrttam. Six forms of becoming {bhava) 64 

25. The deities of the Yy&hrtis and of Om 65 

The Deities of the ]§lg-veda. 

26. The first three hymns. Authors of VaiAvadOTa hymns ... 67 

27. Character of Vaiivadeva hsrmns 68 

28. Passages of the Rg-veda addressed to Sarasvatl. Indra hymns 69 

29. Indra associated with the Maruts in B.Y. i. 6 71 

30. llie deities of RY. i. 12 and of the AprI hymn i. 13 . 73 

31. The eleven AprI hymns 74 

32. Tanunap&t and Nara^msa. The deities of the Apri hymns 

(ii. 157 — iii. 80). Idhma a form of Agni 75 


Daities of 9g-veda i. 13-126. 


1. Tanunap&t. Nar&iamsa. Ila. Barhis 77 

2. The Diyine Doors. Night and Morning 78 

3. The Two Divine Sacrifioers. The Three Gbddesses. Tvasfr ... 80 

4. The celestial Tvastr. Story of Dadhyafic and the Mead .... 82 

5. The horse's head of Dadhyafic. The middle Tvastr 83 

6. Yanaspati. The Svah&krtis 85 

7. Tanunapat and Nar&^amsa in Apr! hymns. Deities of RY. i. 14 and 15 . 86 

8. Hymn to the Seasons : BY. L 15 87 

9. Three kinds of Vai£vadeva hymns 89 

10. How to ascertain the deity of a hymn 90 

11, 12. Hymn-owning and incidental deities. Seers of Vai£vadeva hymns . 91 

13. Explanation of Dravinodas. Deities of BY. i. 16-18 .... 95 

14. Deities of RY. i. 18. Eight names of PrajSpati (69-74) .... 97 

15. Prajapati's names (continued). Deities of RY. i. 19 .... 98 

16. How to ascertain the deity of a stanza, &c 100 

17. Story of the Rbhus and Tvastr 102 

18. Deities of RY. i. 20-22 103 

19. RY. i. 22 (concluded). RY. i. 23: Pu^an Aghrni 105 

20. Deities of RY. i. 24-30 106 

21. Deities of RY. i. 31-40 108 

22. DeitiesofRY. i. 41-47 109 

23. RV. i. 48-60. Story of Savya. The 6atarcins Ill 

24. RY. i. 61-73. The eleven Saupan^a khilas. RY. i. 74-89 .112 

25. RY. i. 90-93. The order (according to the BSskalas) of hymn-groups 

in Man^Lala i. 74-164 114 

26. RY. L 94-1 1 1. Seers of hymns with refrains. The thousand J&tavedas 

hymns of KaSyapa 115 

27. RY. i. 105. Story of Trita 118 

28. Deities of RY. i. 1 1 2-1 2 1 119 

29. 30. Story of Eak^vat and Svanaya 120 

31. D&nastntis. N&ra^msi stanzas. Opinions regarding RY. i. 126. 6, 7 . 123 

Deities of &V. i. 127— iv. 32. 

1. Story of Roma^ and Indra. RY. i. 127-136. Praise in the dual . . 125 

2. Distributed praise. RY. i. 137-139. Vaiivadeva hymns . .126 

3. Story of the birth of Dirghatamas 128 

II. b 



4. Hymns revealed to Dirghatamas : BY. i. 140-156 . 

6. Story of Dirghatamas (continaed) 

6. Deities of RV.i. 157-163 

7. Deities of RV. i. 164. The three Agnis. The year 

8. Accouiit of the contents of BY. i. 164 (continued) . 

9. RV. i. 164 (concluded). RV. i. 165: Indra and the Maruts 

10. Indra, the Maruts, and Agastya: RV. i. 169, 170 . 

11. RV. i. 1 71-178. Agastya and LopSmudri: RV. i. 179 . 

12. Story of Agastya and Lop&mndra (concluded): RV. i. 1 80-1 91 

Ma^dala ii. 

13-15. Deities of RV. iL 1-12. Story of Grtsamada, Indra, and the Daityas . 

16. Deities of RV. ii. 23-30 

17. Deities of RV. ii. 31-35 

18. Deities of RV. ii. 36-43. Indra as a Kapifijala 

SCandAlft ill. 

^^^^ . 

19. The seer Vi^mitra. Deities of RV. iiL 1-6 . 

20. Deities of RV. iii. 7-29 

21. Deities of RV. iii. 30-33. Vi^vSmitra, Sudas, and the Rivers 

22. RV. iii. 31 : an adoptive daughter. Viiv&mitra and dakti 

23. Viiv&mitra and V&c Sasarpari. Spells against the Vasisthas 

24. Deities of RV. iii. 54-60 

25. Deities of RV. iii. 6 ly 62 





Ma^dala iv. 

26. DeitiesofRV. iv. 1-15 

27, 28. RV. iv. 18-30. Indra's birth and fight with Vftmadeva 
29. The steeds of the various gods 



Deities of &V. iv. 33— vii. 49. 

1, 2. Deities of RV. iv. 33-58 


3. Deities of RV. v. 1-28. Story of Tryaruna and Vr^ J&na 

4. Story of Tryaruna (concluded) 

5. References to RV. v. 2. 2, 9 in other works. Deities of RV. v. 29-40 

6. Atri's D&nastuti 

7. Rnamcaya's gifts to Babhru. Deities of RV. v. 41-51 





8. Detailed account of BY. ▼. 41-43 175 

9. Deities of RV. ▼. 43 (continued), 44, 45 177 

10. Deities of RV.v. 51-60 178 

11-15. Story of 6yava^a 179 

16. RV. V. 73-78. Story of Saptavadhri 186 

17. Deities of RV. v. 79-87. The S'risuktam and six other khilas . 187 

18. The khilas of Fraj&vat and Jivapntra. Employment of formulas 189 

19. Story of the birth of Bhrgu, Angiras, and Atri 191 

Mandala vi. 

20. Origin of BharadvSja. Deities of RV. vi. 1-46 192 

21. Deities of RV. vi. 37, 44, 45, 47 193 

22. Deities of RV. vi. 47 (continued) and vi. 48 195 

23. Deities of RV. vi. 49-62 196 

24. Deities of RV. vi. 63-74. The seven treasures 197 

25. RV. vi. 75. Story of AbhySvartin and Prastoka S&rfijaya 198 

26. Deities of RV. vi. 75 in detail 199 

27. Detailed account of RV. vi. 75 (continued) 200 

28. Story of Cayamana and Prastoka (concluded) 201 

29. Pedigree of Vasistha. Ka^yapa's wives 202 

30. Story of Mitra-Varuna and Urvaii 203 

31. Birth of Agastya and Vasistha . 204 

32. Vasistha and his descendants. Deities of RV. vii. 1-32 . . 206 

33. Deities of RV. vii. 33-38 207 

34. Deities of RV. vii. 38-43 208 

35. Deities of RV. vii. 44-49 210 


Deities of &V. vii. 50— z. 17. 

1. Deities of RV. vii. 50-66 211 

2. Deities of RV. vii. 66-85 212 

3. Vasistha and the dog of Varuna : RV. vii. 86-89 213 

4. Deities of RV. vii. 90-96 214 

5. Story of Nshu^ and Sarasvati : RV. vii. 95, 96 215 

6. Deities of RV. vii. 97-104 216 

7. Detailed account of RV. vii. 104 218 


Mftnflala viiL 


8. Story of Eanva and Prag&tba 219 

9. Deities of BV. viii. 1-2 1 220 

10. Deities of EV.viii. 5-18 222 

11. BV. viii. 19: praise of Trasadasyu's gifts 223 

12. The boons chosen by the seer. Story of Sobbari and Citra . . . 224 

13. Story of Sobhari and Citra (continued) : BV. viii. 22-25 . . .225 

14. Deities of BV. viii. 26-31. BV. viiL 29 is a prtbak-karma-stati . .227 

15. Detailed account of BV. viii. 29, 31. Deities of BV. viii. 32-34 . . 228 

16. Indra and Vyamsa's sister. Deities of BV. viii. 35-46 . . . .230 

17. Deities of BV. viii. 47-56 231 

18. Deities of B.V. viii. 60-67 232 

19. Deities of EV. viu. 68-75 234 

20. Deities of BV. viiL 76-90 236 

21. Story of Apal& 236 

22. Story of Apal& (concluded). Deities of BV. viii. 92, 93 .... 237 

23. 24. Story of Soma's flight from the gods 238 

25. Details regarding BV. viii. 100. Vi^nu helps Indra . .241 

26. Details regarding the deities of BV. viii. loi 242 

Mandala iz. 

. . 

27. Deities of BV. ix. 1-86 243 

28. Deities of BV.ix. 87, 96, 112 245 

29. Indra and the seers. Value of penance 246 

3p. Deities of BV. x. 1-8. Triiiras and Indra 248 

31. Deities of BV.x. 9-14 249 

32. Deities of BV. x. 14 (conoluded), 15, 16. Three Agnis 250 

33. Story of Saranyu: BV. X. 17 261 

adhyAya vn. 

Deities of Bt. z. 17-08. 

1. Story of Saranya (continued) 252 

2. Story of Saranyd (concluded). Deities of BV. x. 1 7 .... 263 

3. Detailed account of the funeral hymn BV. x. 18 254 

4. Formulas in which no deity is mentioned 255 

6. Deities of BV. X. 19-27 257 

6. BV. X. 27 (continued). BV. x. 28: Dialogue of Indra and Vasukra 258 



7. Deities of RV. x. 30-33 269 

8. The hymn of Dice : EV. x. 34. Deities of RV. x. 35-44 . . . 260 

9. Deities of RV. x. 45, 46. Story of Gho^a 262 

10. Story of Oho8& (concluded) 263 

11,12. Story of Indra Yaikuntha . ... .... 264 

1 3. Story of Indra Yaikuntha (concluded). Story of Agni and his brothers : 

RV. X. 61-63 266 

14. Story of Agni's flight (continued) 267 

15. The meaning of ^xmcaJandA 268 

16. Story of Agni's flight (continued) 270 

17. Story of Agni's flight (concluded). RV. x. 54-57 271 

18,19. Story of Subandhu 272 

20. Detailed account of RV. x. 59, 60 275 

21. Story of Subandhu (concluded). Deities of RV. x. 61-66 . . 276 

22. Details of RV. x. 63-66. Deities of RV. x. 67-72 277 

23. Detailed account of RV. X. 71 279 

24. Details of RV.x. 72-84. Two khilas 280 

25. The SuryS. hymn : EV. x. 85. Three forms of U^as .... 282 

26. Account of the Sury& hymn (continued) 283 

27. Derivation of Candramas. Contents of RV. x. 85. 20-30 . 284 

28. Contents of RV. X. 85. 31-43 286 

29. Remarks on the Siiryft hymn (concluded) 287 

30. Deities of RV. x. 89-93. Story of Pururavas and Urva^i . . 289 

31. Story of Puniravas and UrvB^f (concluded) 290 

32. Deities of RV. x. 96, 97. Story of Devapi : RV. x. 98 . . • 292 


D«iti6S of BY. z. 08-101 (1-08). Concliudoii (00-140). 

1. Story of Dey&pi (continued) 294 

2. Story of Devapi (concluded). Deities of RV. x. 99-101 .... 294 

3. Deities of RV. X. 102, 103. The khila of Naknla .... 296 

4. Deities of RV. x. 104, 105. Bhutam^ Ka^yapa: RV. x. 106 . . 298 

5. RV. X. 107. Story of Saram& and the Panis: RV. x. 108 . . 299 
6, 7. Story of Saramft and the Panis 300 

8. Deities of RV. X. 109-120 302 

9. Deities of RV. x. 1 21-129. Three khilas {namas te; yam kaljpayanti 

no 'rayah ; ayusyam) 303 

10. Deities of RV. X. 130-137 305 

11. The khila ^Bhumi^.' The deities of RV. x. 138-142 . . .306 

12. Deities of RV. x. 143-154. Two khilas (Medhasuktam and a sur etu) . 308 

13. Deities of RV. X. 155-159 . 309 




14. Deities of RV. x. 160-164. Ehila {venae tat pafyat). The seer Kapota 

Nairrta 310 

15. Deities of RV. z. 165-174. KbilA (yenedam) 312 

16. Deities of RV.x. 175-181 313 

17. Deities of RV. z. 182-184. Kbila {nejame^a) 315 

18. Bemarks on the khila 'Nejame^a.' Deities of RV. z. 185-188 316 

19. Deities of RV. z. 189, 190. The khila * 8ainj£K&nam ' 318 

20. RV. z. 191. The two khilas * Prfidhyarftn&m/ * Nairhastyam.' 

MahftnftTnnT stanzas 320 

21. The Mah&n&mnis do not constitute a hymn. Remarks on the Praipas, 

Eunt&pa, &c. 321 

22. Deities of Niyids, Nigadas, and Metres 324 

23. Deities of Metres, VedaSyVa^atk&ra, Sv&h&kftis. The tones (Svaras) . 325 

24. Deities of the tones 326 

25. Deities of the Prastava, Udgitha, Upadrava, Pratih&ra, Nidhana . 327 

26. Various deities incidental in Vaifivadeva hymns .... 329 

27. Remarks about deities and knowledge of them 330 

28. Importance of knowing the deities 332 


The tymboU detignating MSS. are eacplained in the IrUroduetian, pp. xi-xyiii. 

= Aitareya Br&hmana. 
AQ8. =Aival&yana Qfhya SQtra. 
Ar^* = Ar^&nakramanl. 
A8^8. = A^yal&yana l^rauta Stlira. 
A V. = Atharva-yeda. 
BD. =• Brhaddeyatft. 

JA08. = Journal of the American Oriental Society. 
JBAS. = Journal of the Rojal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

= Kau9itaki Brfthmana. 

s= Euhn's Zeitschrifb. 
M.M. = Max MdUer. 
n. = Nitimafijarf. 

Nir. = Yftska's Nirukta. 
B. = Biyendral&la Mitra. 

r. = the reading in B&jendral&la Mitra's text 

BV. = Rg-yeda. 
9. = ^adguruii^ya. 

8. = Sftyana. 

8. = Saryftnukramani. 

8'B. =: Satapatha Br&hmana. 
TB. = Taittiriya Brihmana. 
T8. = Taittiriya SaiphiUL 
T. r. = yariouB reading. 
V8. = V&jaeaneyi Samhitft. 
ZDMQ. = Zeitachrift der deutechen morgenlandiachen Qesellichaft. 



1. Xmportanoa of knowing the doitiov. The Yedio Triad. 

1. With obeisance to the seers of formulas, I will, in the 
sequence of the traditional text^ state for (all) stanzas the 
divinity of the hymn, the stanza, the hemistich, and the verse. 

i|4|l^<nibfkm\ corrected toi|4|M||| h, *|4|M||| rd (^gridhSna i. 1. 1 haa i|l|l^<ni 
^ The words tamoMnayanupirvaiaii occur also in RgvidhSna i. I. a. 

2. In every formula one should know the divinity with 
exactness; for he who knows the divinities of the formulas, 
understands their object. 

^ini fl hm^rbk, f^ fl^A rV. — ^HHI^ItI hm^bfkn, l|(C|4C(fJ| r^ ^Wf%h 
I|l(f9| r. — ^With the words ^^Rflft f|[ ^^mil(^cp. SarvinukramaQi, Introduction § x : 
'WfRrt • • • ^4<lf^^; and TV^mrf ^^Alf^^ below, viii. 31. 

8. He is capable of giving an (authoritative) opinion (vijhd- 
payati) as to their {^ad =^ mantrandTri) intentions* which were 
contained Qiitdri) in them {^ad) at the time when the formulas 
were revealed to the seers (f^Tuzm mantradrsti^), (and) as to 
the correct understanding (of them) and the various ceremonies 
(connected with them). 

hm^rfk, «(ilMl€Hn^ b. 

^ Cp. Nirukta vii. 3 : evam ueeavaeair abhiprayair rfi^V* fnantradfffayo bhavantL 

n. B 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 4— [2 

4. For no one without really having correct knowledge of 
the divinity (addressed in the formula), attains to the fruit of 
customary or Vedic ceremonies \ 

Mhmi^li Bhm^r', iftftWIff r. — TT hm^fk, ^ b, no particle r. 

^ Cp. Sarvanukrama^i, Introduction § i : 'for without this knowledge, irauta and 
smarta rites cannot be accomplished.' Cp. also below, i. ai, and BgvidhSna i. a. i. 

5. The first group of these (deities) belongs here to the divinity 
Agni, the second to Vayu or Indra, and the third to Surya *. 

13f hm*r, l^bfk. — ^^S^ ^hm^rbfk, ^|^$%^ 5 ^^^^* 

^ Op. below, i. 69 ; Nimkta yiL 5 ; SarvSnukrama^T, Introduction L 8. 

6. Whatever god a seer desiring an object mentions, let that 
one, it is said, be (the god of the formula)* A formula pre- 
dominantly praising (a god) with devotion, is addressed to that 
same god. 

^m^b, ^ hd,^^ f kr. — ¥rj|irThm^r'r*,lFWTbf kr. — ^l|^bfkr,7<^hmM.— • 
The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in bm^, not in hdf k, 

^ Op. Nirukta vii. i : ' the formula has that god for its deity to whom he addresses 
praise when desiring the possession of an object which he wants.' 

2. Prayer and praise. 

7. Praise is expressed by means of name, form, action, and 
relationship, but prayer by means of objects such as heaven, long 
life, wealth, and sons^ 

* Op. {tgvidhSna i. 1.6. 

8. The stanzas in which both praise and prayer appear, are 
here (in the Bg-veda) but few ; still fewer than these are those 
in which heaven is prayed for. 

^WTfMV 5 hm»rb, ^Wnfll^ q f, I^MlRm^ r*r<.— f^ hm'r, f^lfT 
bfkr^r*.— m: ^: r, in ^ hfk. Kl ^m\ m ^ b. 

9. Every one of us (sarvo 'yam) recognizes one who praises, 
(thinking) 'this man wants something fix>m me/ and (he also 

3] — i 14, 15 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

recognizes) one who states an object^ (thinking) ' he praises, (that 
is) he regards me as one having (those) objects (to bestow)/ 

^^<lfil^ hm^r, Vlf€|dq bfk. 

10. But whether the seers who discern the truth either praise 
or state (an object), they express both; for both are in reality 
the same. 

^flf^ll 5*1%^ hm^bfk^^ ^^^flTV ^rfl^ '• — M*fM(JlHliS^fiIf!i: hm^r, 

11. When the name of a deity is mentioned in the second 
person & in a formula, one should know that to be the deity in 
the formula, because (that) indication is there {scmipado^. 

UnfN^ Bhm^r', ITflBi^ r. — Jt^n ^^Rlt f^WTiPS^ hm^fk, TtShfTir: ^phlff 

i|^ r. — ^The end of the wirga is here marked hy ^ in hf, not in hm^k. 

^ Cp. Nimkta vii. a : pratyak^akfta madhyafnapurusayogoi tvam iti eaitena sarva" 

3. Different kincUi of hymns. 

12. Therefore one familiar with (the) application (of formulas) 
should in every formula carefuUy observe the deity, with regard 
to name, and the multiplicity of the designations (of deities). 

5 ^'Rrt h^•fkr^ 5 ^^ITfT bm\ li^^WT r. — •fWRf hm*rbf k, •pTOPT r^r*. 

13. The complete utterance of a seer is designated a hymn 
(suhta), in which the deities appear in one, in many, (or) in two 

bfkr, inrart t\ — h has on the margin f^ ^ fW^ "MlRM^^^i 'Tirj flf^tftft 

14. 15. A variety arises with regard to the deity, the author- 
ship, the subject, and the metre. All hymns which are revealed 
as the praise of one single (seer, constitute) a seer's hymn (fji- 
suhta) ; for that is the (aggregate) hymn of that seer. In so far 




as a subject is completed (in several stanzas), they call it a 
subject-hymn (artha-silkta), 

bfkrdh (corrected on margin in h to'-^^fflft), Hyft^?IHf*l(lll»l^ ^T1^*^)r'r*. — ■ 
The reading of 15"^ in thoteitifl thatof Bhr^m' ; instead of tliis t reads ^q^4il ^ 414^ 
^(1ff1«IIVf^'t. h bas also on the margin ^)iNT TJ TTO^ ^flflmT«J^*S 
jfit «7^ V[Z- t With reference to is"*, h has on the margin: TTRT^: ^WT- 

16. (The stanzas) which have a common metre are called a 
metre-hymn (chandah-sukta). Thus one should here recognize the 
variety of hymns such as it really is. 

^:^hr^V,?n^bfm\?iTg k.^n^r.— ?ni^: hdfm', Trafs^: r,-^^: 

ki W^fM" b. — ^ftvil*)^ Bhr^m^, ^f^tH*tfl(1_r. — ^The end of the tjarga ia here marked 

4. Hymn deitiex, stansa deities, incidental deities. 

17. The denominations of the deities in the formulas are of 
three kinds : such as belong to a (whole) hymn*, or such as belong 
to a stanza (only), as well as such as are incidental ''. 

»W»5 hrb, JT^ fk.— 'fl V^lfV hm'bf, ^ ^WT^ r. "V ^7i*Tftl k. 
* Cp. Nirukta vii. 13 and x. 43. ** Op. Nirakta i. 30 and vii. 18. 

18. (Names) belonging to hymns belong to (whole) hymns, 
those belonging to stanzas belong to (single) stanzas (only), lu 
a formula addressed to one divinity certain other (names) are 
here mentioned, 

»nnft% hm'r, HflllSt ?t: bfk.— % ^B^: hm»r, ^: IR^: b, ^^: r'r*fkr"r«.— 
^nft bm'rfk. ^TTf*! br*. — "^ *lf*l^^fl^Bhm'^^ JTO^: r. — i8'' = 4i'*. 

19. either because they belong to the same world or because 
they are associated : these are incidental. Hence even in a hymn 
of manifold character, there may belong to the (whole) hymn 

•Ipl^ifq hm> rb f k. •OTST^lfq r^ r* t\ 

20. a deity : that is, (such) a hymn is understood to be one 

6] — i 23 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

that cannot be definitely described *. When a hymn is broken up 
(hhinne) ^, one should here state the deity from (its) characteristic 
mark ®. 

•^ hm^r'bi^r', •^ fk^^ ^^ r. — ^CJAlHlf ftHT^: m^rbfk, ^^BRfT ftW" 
%^m hd. No varioos reading is given by RSjendralala Mitra. 

* This perhaps refers to hymns of an indefinite character in which the name of no 
deity is mentioned (cp. anadiffa'devata, Nirukta vii. 4), but the deity of which, as a whole* 
is Prajapati (cp. below, vii. 16 ; Sarv. x. 18 ; Sieg, SagenstoflPe, p. 8). ^ That is, when 
single stanzas of it are ritoally applied, the deity is that of the stansa : cp. suktO'bheda^ 
prayage in SarvSnukrama^I i. 139. ® Cp. Sarvannkrama^i I.e. and i. 94. 

21. In each case one should duly connect the formulas with 
the rites by ascertaining the deity ; for that is the rite which is 
completely successful ^ 

llimV hm^r, n^m bf k. — ^m^ hm^rb, ^m H* fkr^ — The end of the wtrga 
is here marked by 8 in hm^bfk. 

^ Cp. L 4, where the same thing is negatively stated; see also i. 118, iL 20, viii. 124. 

5. Origin of names. 

22. A Because the praisers, at the beginning and end of hymns, 
proclaim the occasion^, one who knows formulas should here 
observe the deities with regard to their name. 

\mi\ TWT bfkr*, \mi\ TniTil,r^r*, ^^RmrRTr hm^r'. — ^f!)^^ hbfkr, 
^9^lj^ fl m^, ^A^^ r^ r*. 

* Text, with translation and notes, of the following passage (22-33) on the origin of 
names has been printed by me in Album-Kern (Leiden, 1903), pp. 334, 336. 

^ That is, the Bishis often mention the names of the deities especially at the beginning 
and the end of a hymn, together with some reference to the droomstances connected with 
their laudation. 

23. As to that> indeed, they say: 'from how many actions 
does a name arise, whether of Vedic beings or any other (name 
occurring) here?'* 

iaWI*ll r^, ^EHHTft f, ^WTlt all the rest. — TT bfkr^r', ^ hm^r. — ^n[T^ 
»^r*, ^nraV hm^rbk. 

^ This expression is equivalent to laukyinam; cp. laukydnajn vaiUkanain va above (i. 4). 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 24— [6 

24. ' From nine/ say the etymologists, and the ancient sages 
Madhuka, Svetaketu, and Galava think so too : 

^KmU all MSS. except r^r*, which have l|1< | im :. — K^ hr', ipiflt Bm^r'r*d : 
I have chosen the former readmg against the balance of the MS. evidence, because it is the 
more difiicult, because the plural suits the construction better, because h and r' are the 
most correct of the MSS., and because «i«c|c) is very easily altered to «i««^, as is proved 
by the fact that d, which is a copy of h, has the latter reading. 

26. '(viz.) that which (comes) from abode> action, form, luck, 
speech, prayer, from accident, as well as addiction^ and ex- 
traction ^.' 

fJ^IFI^t^WWrR^ hm^rb, ^f^^lH^^^l^l^^f, "af ^^iMfl^'llfl, r^^*^^ — IWT- 

m^ (the syllables m\\ in the margin being meant to fiU the lacxma). Op. the various 
readings below, i. a8. 

^ I have assumed this to be the most h'kely meaning from the use of «pa-va«. ^ Lit. 
' the condition of being the descendant (ay ana) of him (amtifya).' 

26. With regard to that (question), Yaska, Gargya, and Eathi- 
tara say, ' from four : from prayer, from the diversity of objects *, 
from speech, and from action.' 

•T^ftwrrt hm^rbf, •'^^JITTT* kr*. — Between ffH andfl^lJK^fk insert iTTRTf*! 
^^A^lf IjWit, evidently copied by mistake from 27* . — l|l4s%W^ hm^rb, 
^|I$^%JI|T^ fkr*r* (•^pTT? f), ^ ^ ^t^'^T^ r^r*. — The end of the varga is here 
marked by M in bfdm^, not in k. 

^ Artha'Vairvpya here corresponds to rupa in 25. 

6. Bknnaka's views all names deriyed from actioxu 

27. ^unaka, however, says that all these names (come) from 
action : prayer and form and utterance % all aiise from action. 

IK^TT^nrf hr^r'm^bfk, ^H^ ^JTf r. — ^T^ h^*br*^^ ^TRW r, Urt fk. 
* Rupa here corresponds to artha-vairHpya and vacya to vac in 26. 

28. Similarly, even that (name) which (comes) from acci- 

7] — i32 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

dent \ as well as from addiction and extraction, is simply action : 
and so hear (what) the reasons (are). 

^nnnv ^ iirb, fl i iifimi€iim€i ^ fk, vnj ^^mm^ r^r*.— inrT ?R[f*r au 

MSS. except b, vhich has flm^l^fM. — ^^[^ ^ m^ bf k, ^^^ 5 '» ?^ ^ ^ ^'^^' — 
^mt BhIIl^r^^^! r. The evidence of the MSS. is so strongly in iavour of the ungram- 
matical use of the nom. for the ace, that I have retained it as an original inaccoracy (due 
perhaps to the metre). The $gvidhSna has instances of the same loose usage (i. 3. 4 ; iii, 
4. i). )i]q« (the reading apparently of r^r^) looks too much like a correction (cp. i. 46). 

^ Yadfckof/a is the only word here and in 25 which is not in the ablative, probably 
owing to the frequent adverbial use of the instrumental of this word. The corruption japat 
(for ea yat) in 25 was probably due to yadfehayopavoianat being understood by the copyist 
as one expression and the consequent necessity of making up the number nine in some 
other way. The corruption is not repeated in 28 because of the absence of this necessity. 
Yadfchaya (scil. noma) is explained below (i. 30) as yadrchikaiii nama, 

29. Creatures arise from action ; from action (comes) the inter- 
course of heings. And a being comes into existence somewhere : 
it is produced from (its) abode. 

IWT: hm^r.lWr r^bfkr*. — ff^l H^HMfHl hm^rb.H^: ^iflJi^Ri: f (^ilTffiT: 
kr^), l|4?n ^W TTOI r^. — Shf^^V *dl MSS. except r^r*, which have ^?ft. — ^^TRfit 
ilV k, i[ WnA ^W Hr*d, ^ITRlH ^W fm^r, 4il|IM<)4^ b, fSR^ ^W r^r*. 

30. An accidental name is given somewhere or other : one 
should know that that also is here (derived) fr'om a comparison 
with some (form of) becoming. 

5 < i inifii^<i7 ^ hm^r, ^m mm^n^ fkr^ ^m ^m ^Shft ^^^ ^m 

imnft tWJhft b.— ^Mnf^ hm^r»r*r^ ^lnmi^fM bfkr^ <|Mfm^q r. 

31. For there is no (form of) becoming unconnected with 
action, nor is any name meaningless. Names have no other source 
than becoming ; therefore they are all derived from action. 

1 WRTftr hm^r, 1 TRTf b, K TRTf f» dOIKIII kr*. — The end of the varga 
it here marked by ^ in hd, by ^^ in fk, not at all in bm^. 

7. Auspicioiui names. Different kincUi of formulas. 

32. A name which is formed from luck and from addiction 

Introduction] B^HADDEVATA i. 33— [8 

simply becomes a prayer : from (words expressing) luck, such as 
svasti (welfare), 

IW hm'bfk, ?rg r.— •^^RT^hm'r, '^IT ^ b. "TSR "^ r^'riir^ (^f)- — 
»n?|^ IJm'rfk, V^im flthb. — ^^WT^JfjIWrfift hra'bkrV, MWi l ^ JJWft 
f corrected to "fiff f, ?t^WT^^finf«I ^ r, Tinn% TJPnf*! ^ r'r*. 

33. names of beings, even the well-known ones, are formed on 
the principle, ' how, pray, could this man, with such a contemptible 
name, live long here ? ' * 

Xfit gtf??nT* hm'rb, ^rft *f(Mfl» f, ^rif*nHfl* kr^ — f^ bfkr, Iffthr*. — 
ftf^t ^l -flrn bm'rfk, f^[f^TTT^]fq b, M^TTT'qfq i-'i*. 

' That is, even ordinary DBmes are boeed on the principle of avoiding what ia in- 
suHpicloua. Cp. Nirukta i. 20, where ku in ku-eara is iuterpreted as kultiia if the word ia 
nn epithet of ' b«aat ' (larga), but not if it applies to a god. 

34. The formulas which have been seen by the seers of such, 
may be of various sorts both with respect to the {kind of) praise 
and to the (degree of) majesty (arising) from the prominence of 
a deity's nature. 

^ BhmV».^ r.~t^ hr, ^ bfk. — TO|qiXq«ltHt i: hr^fr'r'. mrWt ^- 

irrai'i: m' k, TRTTTi%^iTrant: b, twitht^ Trart: r. 

35. Praise (47)*, laudation (48), blame (49), doubt (51), plaint 
(50), desire {53), prayer (50), boasting (51), request (49), question 
(50), summons (57), enigma (57), 

imftfmT m'r^r*, 'M^lfV|m k, UVf^m hdbfr: cp. the Vftrioun readings 

' The figures in 35-39 t«fer to the alokas below which exemplify these categories. 
Cp. Nirukta vii. 3, where examples of praise (jhi(t)> prayef (.o^s), narration {dcikhyaia), 
plaint {paridnana), blame (nlniJa), and laudation (praiamid) are given. 

36. commission (51), injunction (52), vaunt (53), lament* (53), 
narration {58), conversation (52), purifying narrative** (53). 

' Corteaponding to this {iiHapilam) we have vilSpa in 53. * Simplj SMifSna 

in 53. — The end of the varga is here marked by *& in m'dfk, not in b. 

9] — i. 41 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

8. Different kincUi of foramlas and modes of expression^ 

37. Lascivious verses (55), obeisance (54), obstacle (55), resolve 
(55)> prattle (55), reply (50) ; 

HfilTT^rat. r*, nfciO^^ f k r, irfnllV^ b, irfJft^WC b m^ r'' (cp. tlie various readings 
in 65)- — M(?lfll*| ffiin ^ hm^r'r'', llRl^W' ^ WR ^r, Hffl^tl^ ^ WR 


38. prohibition and admonition (52)^ intoxication and denial 
(56, 57), and what is called invitation (56), agitation (56)^ and 
wonder (57); 

H^II^IMJI^'I hm^rfk, Jl^l^Ui^ch b. — ^^ f hm^r'r'', ^ f b, % f k, ^ iT f f, 
^ H?^ r. — 41^0 ^*ni\ 4^0 ^^^ (cp« various readings in 56). — ^!^ Bhm^r', 

39. abuse (48), eulogy*, invective (49), curse ^ (49, 58); pre- 
position, particle, noun, and verb ® ; 

^RnfNtbm^r'br',l|Wnitfk. — ^pTOT•b^'m^^''(f?),^RR•k^^flWRr•^. — ^l 
bbfk, ^Vr^: r. — ^^Ri^f bm^rb, ^9^^F^ r^r*fkr*. — HlMlfl^ bbfk, (<IM|fl|^ r^r*. 

^ No example of ibis category (abkUtava) is given below, perbaps because of its 
practical identity with praise (siuti), ^ See below (47-58), where examples of all these 

thbrty-five modes of expression are given (excepting abhiftava). ^ These four grammatical 
categories are discussed below (i. 42-45 and ii. 89-98). 

40. past, present*, and future; masculine, feminine, neuter^: 
of such a nature are the formulas in all the Vedas everywhere. 

JtfH^ ^ hm^k, Vff^r^fT U fftWW br. — ^Jllt MSS. — '^ ^ hm^r'br'', i^iflf 

fk, wn T. — Vq^t^ ^nn* Bhr^mS iTq^^mni Vmn* r, ^W^qTOTcl 

* Bhavya here meaning 'present,' in i. 61 means 'future.' ^ Cp. below, ii. 96. 

41. Stanzas, hemistichs, and verses are for the purpose of 
setting forth the object of (their) utterances ; moreover, in Brah- 
mana and ritual (Jcalpd) some (of these stanzas &c.) here are quoted. 

^l*ll^44'll'^T*ll^m^^fkr*r',5Wfl4lI«II^*Hr. — ^lHT:hm^r,^bfk. — 
Hlfl% ^n^ ^P^ ^ fPRTir*^ mf'ff^hm^rbfk, f^T^ ^P^ ^ ^ ^ fi|H- 
^Bf^4^ ^r^Hlfl^r^r*. — ^The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in hm^bfk. 

n. c 


Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 42— [10 

B. D«fliiitioii of noiui and verb. 

42 ». The uttered sound by which we here apprehend a sub- 
stantive, when connected in the (correct) disposition of syllables, 
the wise call ' noun ' (name). 

•'qft,7f5l?rbk,'"mn.'5l*lf hm^f. — sf^''™''''?^ ''''''• — H^^^"l»m*b,'rt^1^<,» 
fkr. — 41-45 aro omitted in r' r*. 

* The text and traDalation, with notes, of 43~4S tutvo been printed in Album-Eern, 
pp. 334 and 33J. 

43. That in which eight inflexions are employed in various 
senses, sages call a noun, when there is a distinction of number 
and gender. 

fWUm: hr'r'm', ^^7^: fkr. 

44. That notion which, connected with many actions, becoming 
a later from an earlier*, (and yet being) but one, is effected by 
the development of the action, they call by the term ' verb.' 

^fTT^^bfk. — ftnrm^bfkr, ft^ h. 

^ That ia, which eipresses sequence of time: the eipreseion ie taken fromNirnktai. i. 

45. When there is a becoming which arises from the develop- 
ment of an action, and which is designated by a term with a 
primary suffix, and which is joined with number, inflexion (or) 
indeclinable form (avyaya), and gender, then it is to be regarded 
as a substantive (dravya). 

11^ firt^rffTTt b. — •ftWBjara'hm'r, ftnfW^q'fkb, The endof theuarya ia here 
marked by (i iu hm^ bf k. 

10. Examples of different kinds of fbnnnlu. 

46. Hear now, in succession, how the seers formerly with terms 
of different kinds saw their various utterances here. 

RftMI^f hr'r*m'bfkr'. (qfqV|I^fil r. 

47. By means of (attributing) beautiful form and bo forth, 
praise {35) is pronounced ; similarly prayer by (such terms as) 
heaven and so forth. The utterances which are different from 
these may also be of many kinds, 

iftTltT UlliV: br^r'br''m', iftWT W fk, WtWTimif^: r. 

11] — i. 52 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

48. In the formula * Citra indeed ' {dtra it : viiL 2 1 • 1 8) Sobhari's 
praise of the liberal giver is a laudation (35). (Formulas) expres- 
sive of abuse (39) appear : (e. g. the formula) * and thy mother ' 
(mdtd ca)* reviles, 

^ft»ft: m\ ^PN^: hr. 5BfW^ b, ^P^ 

• VS. xxiu. 25; TS. vii. 4. 19* ; SB. xiii. v. a^ TB. iii. 9. 7* ; ASS. x. 8. 10. 

49. The stanza *vain food' (mogham annam: x. 117. 6) is 
blame (35), while the stanza *who me' (yo md: vii. 104. 16) is a 
curse (39). *What, wondrous Indra' (i/ad indra citra: v. 39. i) 
is a request (35), while in the stanza * over this world ' {ahhldam : 
X. 48. 7) there is invective (39) ; 

hm^br, fTf^ f kr*. 

50. *May wind waft hither' {vdta a vdtu: x. 186. i) is a 
prayer (35) ; * staves' {danddh: vii. 33. 6) is plaint (35), while the 
two stanzas 'I ask thee' (prchdmi tvd: i. 164. 34, 35) are 
respectively question (35) and reply (37). 

^1$f?f hm^rbf kr«r«, ^^[^aTf^ r*.— ^rf^^ifT hm^rb, qft^^piT f kr^r^r*. — The 
end of the varga is here marked bj ^0 in hbf km^. 

11. Ezamples of diiFerent IdncLs of fonnnlaji (contmned). 

51. *What was below' (adhah svid dslt: x. 129. 5) is doubt 
(35) ; * I was Manu' {aham manuh : iv. 26. i) would be boasting 
(35); in tKe (stanza) 'this our sacrifice' {jmom no yajnam: 
iii. 21. i) the (first) verse is called commission (36). 

^W^hm^rbfk.^inW^^ r^r*.— l|<«RThm^r. ITOin r^r*bfk,lR51fTr^— 
^^]^ hm^rbfk, BTI% r^r*. 

52. 'Here let him say* (iha bravltu: i. 164. 7) is injunction 
(36); the stanza 'clasp me tightly' {upopa me: i. 126. 7) is con- 
versation (36) ; but ' not with dice ' {aksair md : x. 34. 13) in the 
praise of dice * is prohibition and admonition (38). 

WR bfkr, Wgm hm\ ^TtTR r^r^r*. — ^^B^pi^ S> hr*m^ B, ^J'ft^ ?> r. — ^lrf?f- 
^Vtli^ hm^rbf k. Hfiftvn^ rV. 
^ That is, in the dice-hymn, x. 34. 




53. 'Ho, wife' (haye jdye: x. 95. i) is narrative* (36); 'of 
the reed to me ' {nadasya ma : i. 1 79. 4) would be lamentation 
(36)'^; 'without a husband' {avirdm: x. 86. 9) is a vaunt (36) 
about oneself, while 'the lover'"' (sudevak: x. 95. 14, expresses) 
desire {35). 

ftfllTi: ^T»^r*r''bfkm^(no niiarja bfkm'). fqWTI'jI r, — ^raKHTTWi: hr' 
r*ni'bfkr^ **n<,l(*lfl IT'^r. 

' ikh^ana here corresponds to pavitTokhyma in 36. VHapa here eoireaponda 

to vHapitam in 36 ; the latter eiprossion is sJhu used in Nirukta v. 3 with reference to the 
above pasdago (i. 179. 4). ' In Nirukta vli. 3 this passage is, however, described as 

plaint (paridsoana), 

54. Obeisance {37, is expressed) in (the formula of) Sunahsepa, 
' Obeisance to thee, Lightning ' {namas te astu vidyute : AV. i. 
13. i)*; but when one resolves what is expressed (with the words) 
' I will be equal ' {tulyo 'ham sydm) ^, 

^:^ m'r, ^:^ b. g^:lf^ r», ^:^ f, ^:^ kr^ {«<t) TTT ^ 
r*r*. — IJ^ff ^T»^rfk, )JW^ f ^TTHb. — Instead of 54"*, aa given in the toit 
according to hni'rbfk, a totally different line oocurs in r^ 1 ^ Qi^nT^ '^i^! Xrf^- 
'4 1411 Hi C ^1 the first pada of which ia the pratika of a khUa mentioned below {viii. 45). 

* Cp. below, viii. 44 ; Meyer, Rgvidbona uiii, xxvii. The author here Aceros 

to have been unable to quote an example of samkalpa, and to have contented himself with 
giving only a definition of its meaning. 

65. (there is) resolve (37); 'what, Indra, I' {yad indrdham: 
viii. 14. I, AV. XX. 27. i) is the prattle (37) of Aita^a*; 'the 
harlot ' (mahdnagnl : AV. xx. 1 36. 5) would be a lascivious verse 
(37); 'bang!' {bhuk: AV. xx. 135. i-s)*", again, (expresses) an 
obstacle (37). 

#7nra m^hfk, ^TTIRI br. — Tf. Bhm'r^ g: r. — mjMJ«(ll''hni'rfk, Mf I<I1MII* 
b. — ^Ti^^hm', 'On^tfkr^, aiT b, g r. — Trt?r^TVthdf, nfil^T'ft kr*, llfflO^hrn'r 
(cp. above, 37). — gfirWft m'hr^f, ^f^iwfil kr^, flfirwfi? br^ ^jfinyJI r. — The end 
of the varga is here marked by S^ in hdm*f, not in bfc. 

' See Ailareya Biubmana vi. 33. t, and SHyana's comment in Aufrecht's edition ; also 
Haag, vol. ii, p. 434. '" Op. AB. vi. 33. ig, Haug, vol. ii, p. 435. 

13] — i 58 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

12. Further ezamplas of diiFarent IdncLs of finmnlaji. 

56. *Well, I' {hantdhcmi: x. 119. 9), this (formula) is intoxi- 
cation (38) ; * not our own ' {na sa svah : vii. 86. 6) is denial (38) ; 
*0 Indra-Kutsa ' {indrdkutsd: v. 31. 9) is invitation (38); *I 
discern not' {na vijdndmi : i. 164. 37) is agitation (38). 

I|4H<^M hm^r, ITRT^^ b. I|4H<4J^^ fkr^— if if ^ bm^r'f, ifiT^ kr«, 
IRTO r, omitted in b. — ^H^cit bhr'm^, ^MJJ^ f, ^Hj(«| k, ^fi^ r*, HfSfS^: r.— 
ii^^2 hrm*, tfo^^: fk. — ^56* and 57" are omitted in b. 

57. *Let the invoker worship' {Jtotd yak§at: i. 139, 10) is a 
summons (35) ; * who, to-day' {ko adya: i. 84. 16 or iv. 25. i) is 
wonder (38) ; Ho his brother not' {na jdmaye : iii. 31. 2)* — this 
(stanza) is denial (38) ; (there is) an enigma (35) which begins 
* outstretched ' {vitatau: AV. xx. 133. 1-6)^. 

^rnRI^^MjJ^il r*, Wn?irqnft r, ^I^^MJ{^ ^^ ^I^^MjI^^bd, m^flMjl^ b, 
fl|4ltlUJJ<nfkr', ^Trt^pPfit vo}. — %irr hdm^bfk, i|fif r. — J|l|(^fl|| hr^kr", •^- 
f55HT fbmMr (cp. 35). 

* Cp. beloWy iv. III. If the reading adopted in the text is the right one (jamaye 
*pahnavo na), the transposition of the negative is remarkable, and we have thus two examples 
of apahiMva and none of abhi$tava : see note on i. 39. ^ The Sandhi of vitatadi 
adds a second irregularity to this line. 

58. * Death was not ' {na mrtyur dsU : x. 1 29. 2) — ^this (stanza) 
they pronounce to be narration (36)*; *may they be childless' 
{aprcydh santu: L 25. 5") is a curse (39)^, while * blessed* {bhor 
dram : L 89. 8) is a prayer^ in Gotama<*. 

9f3pi(^hdm^r, HjPl^bfkr^ — 41 11^ m^, ift^ hbfkr". The author of 1.89. 8 (6Aa- 
drani kan^bkili) is Qotama, that of iv. 11. 7 (bkadraffi ie agne) is VSmadeva Gautama. The 
former must be meant because it (and not the latter) is a good example of a prayer, and 
a seer would not be referred to by his patronymic when the latter belongs to two seers 
(YSmadeva and Kodhas), and the context does not show which is meant. I have, more* 
over, preferred the reading 4t7l%» &s seers are regularly referred to thus in the locative 
(cp. i. 54, ii. 129-131), not, e.g. as in7m,'in the hymn of Gotama'(but ^TH^^R^ in iii* 
36). (In iL 139 hbm^ have all wrongly *un^ for 41 ci^ ; cp. also critical note on ii. 46.) 

* The same term is used to describe the same stanza in Nirukta vii. 3. ^ ' Curse * 
(39) is twice exemplified, once as dapa (49), and once (57) as ahhiiapa, ^ This is 
the second example of aUs (35). Apahnava in i. 57 (note *) would therefore not stand 
alone as exemplified twice. ^ The author of i. 89. 




59. Much else of this kind can be found, and can in accordance 
with the application {prayogatas) of these (formulas) be stated to 
be such, when contained in stanzas, (whole) hymns, and heraistichs. 

60. These contents {vdkydrthdh) of the formulas are properly 
connected with the deity belonging to the hymn ; but the praise 
in this case is a matter of inference*. 

•m gWWTf^T'ftjlhm' bfr, <»lri ^»*(lPl*ll*t,r' r', "m ^Hlfimt kr'.— W^ra* 
hm^rb, ?fgTlT* fkr'.— ?TTT* hm'rb, tC^V r\ "H TTtg" f, "WT W^» kr=. — The Bud 
or the varga is bore rouked by ^^ in bdbf, and \tj ^^ in k, not at all in n'. 

' Tbeae varionB forms of statement in reality imply praise of the deity with which 
they ace connected. 

13. The Snn &ud Fr^&pati as the lonrce of alL 

61. Of what is and has been and is to be", and of what moves 
and is stationary, — of all this some regard the Sun alone to be 
the origin and the cause of dissolution. 

hr^m'bfkr'r'read6i'''iisinthetext; r baa JPW! JTft^fl WfW ^TT^ S 'Rt.l 
* Biovya is used above (i. 40) in the Hense of ' present.' 

62. Both of what is not and what is, this source is (really) 
Prajapati, as (being) this eternal Brahma which is at once imperish- 
able {aksaram) and the object of speech {vdcyarn)^. 

imhm'rbfk, l[qtr'.— ^Bbr»n.\ W^r.— ^ TTO hdr^m'b, ^^mBr'^^ 
^ WT^ f, ^ ^T^ k, ^I5J^ r. 

' That is, Frajopati is a form of the supreme Brahma, nhich alone is eternal [tiitya) 
and, though transcending thought and speech, can be directly expressed (vacya) in the 
VedSntifit formula (cp. TedSntasara, § 144, and introductory stauia, ed. Bohtlingk). 

63. He (the Sun), having divided himself into three, abides 
in these worlds, causing all the gods in due order to rest in 
his rays. 

BE^br^m'bfkr^r', W^ r. — ft^ ^hm'r, W%Ur: ^b, f*ftWT^ f . 

64. This (being) which, in the foim of fire, abides in three forms 
ifridhd) in the worlds that have come into being, the seers adore 
with songs aa manifested under three names. 

15] — i. 69 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

hm^rbfk, i^flpr r*r*r^ 

65. For he abides, glowing, in the interior of every being, and, 
with sacrificial litter spread, they adore him in the invocation 
as having three abodes. 

m^hm*r'r\ m ^ bfkr^, 1^ ^ r« — Th© end of the varga is here marked by 
<|$ in bfkm^hd. 

14. The tliree fomui of Agni. 

66. Here (on earth) he is by priests called Agni Pavamana, 
^in the) middle (sphere), Agni Y anaspati % but in that (celestial) 
world, Agni Suci K 

r. — Hfflf^R^^ m^r*r*r^ ^ f, ^ hd, ^ bkr. 

* Agni is called Yanaspati in AV. v. 24. 2 : op. St. Petenborg Dictionary wh voce, 
^ Pavamana, ?aoi, Kvaka are the three names in TS. ii. 2. 4', and in the Puranas (see 
St. Petersborg Diet.). Cp. the names of Agni's brothers below (vii. 61). 

67. In this world he is extolled by seers with praises as being 
Agni, in the middle (world) he is praised as Jatavedas, in heaven 
he is praised as Y aiiSvanara ^. 

f^flnn r^r'r'bfk, l^f^fll hm^r. — ^iH^^'* '» ^iH^^l hdm^bfk. 

* The triad Agni, JStavedas, YailvSnara is placed at the head of the DaivatakS^da 
of the Naigha^tuka. YSska, in Nirakta vii. 23, states that ancient ritualists took Agni 
YaisT&nara to be the son, while Skkapu^i considered him to be the terrestrial Agni. 
With the latter view YSska substantiallj agrees in Kirukta vii. 31. Cp. below, ii. 17. 

68. Because, taking up fluids with his rays, accompanied by 
Vayu, he rains upon the world, he is termed * Indra.' 

•«l 'ni: ^ hm^rbfk, ^ Wf ^^l r^r*. — ^ ^l hm^rbfk, ^ ^: r^*. 

69. Agni in this (world), Indra and Vayu in the middle, Stirya 
in heaven, are here to be recognized as the three deities *. 

KWft hr^w}, ^UP^ bfkr. — ^TTg^ ^ hm^rfk, TTJ^ ^T b. 

* Op. iisra eva devatafi &o. in Nirukta vii. 5, and Sarwrnkramai^i, Introduction ii. 8 
(with ^a^gurnsisya's comment). 

IntroducUon] BRHADDEVATA i. 70— [16 

70. Owing to the majesty^ of these (deities) different names 
are applied (to each of them) ; (the diversity of names) here 
appears in this and that (sphere) according to the division of their 
respective spheres. 

Jl^ff[ k, im n ^^ Vfl ^^^ r.— The end ofthe rnrja is here marlced by ^8 in hdbni' fk. 
' Op. Nirukta rij. g : (diaij) mahabkagyad tkaika$ga apt bahini namadhryani bkavanH, 

IS. The Triad and the Atmaa. Three fonuB of Vao. 

71. This is a manifestation of their power (vibkuti), that their 
names are various. The poets, however, in their formulas say 
that these (deities) have a mutual origin {anyonyayonitd) », 

iTTTTf*! *(<*I*V' I'f''- Trarft n^*i*u: \, '(wrwrf'i ^^nj: b. — •^tftrnn 

' Cp. my Vedic Mythology, p. l6. la Nirakta vii. 4 the gods are ilaretarajanmana^, 

72. These deities are desig^iated by different names according 
to their sphere. Some speak of them thus as belonging to (hhakta) 
that (sphere), and chiefly concerned with it. 

l|f<8T*AT m^rbfk, HRIHWI hd, Hf^^T^ r\ — 7H(Hll*flfl,» hm'fkr. ^WTini 
b. — ^%f^^ fl^f**! UTJhm'rbfk, jN^f^r^iff^ ^ r'r*, TTTI r*. 

73. The Soul (atmd) is all* that is proclaimed to be an 
attribute {bhakti)^ of those three chief lords of the world who 
have been separately mentioned above. 

^T13^^Tll5TirThm'fr,''5lqHlkr',<»«nvm:r*, yg^J^SfflUTT b. — fllwf^* 
hm'rfk, ^^^iR." b, wtlrfM" r'r*. — ^Iflflfw." H^^lfif* hm'rbfk, lR[551ff»: 

' Cp. Niraktft vu. 4 : dimo tanam deoatya. ** Cp. Durj^a on Nirakta, Bibliotheca 

IndicB edition, vol. iii, pp. iii and 391, laat line. 

74. They say that it is the ene:^ (of the Soul) which is the 
weapon and the vehicle * of any (god). 

Similarly (they say) that Speech (Vac) is praised separately 

17] -i 78 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

as this (terrestrial) one, as connected with Indra (in the middle 
sphere), and as celestial. 

HFRT f, ?N% TRW (•^b) brV, ?^^ ^n^RT kr*. — ^(^ fR^Bhr^ ^TO W^r. 

* See Nirakta vii. 4 : atmaivaisaiii ratho bhavati . . . atmayudham, Cp. BD. Ui. 85 ; iv. 143. 

75. In all those praises which are addressed to many deities, 
and in those joint praises which are in the dual, the (three) lords 
(of the world) are predominant. 

^V^^fll ^'rtt kr*, l|9^qfl|€|i: ^?rot rd, ^JT^^fll fJT ^iWt hm^bf. The 

MS. evidence is in favour of a p&da of nine syllables (cp. ii. 25 and viii. 62). — (^c|<^- 

^g?ra^ hm^r^r^r^f (^^ f), f^^Alfl^l^^ kr*, ^^W^fl^ b, V^^l ^dMM r. — 

M^ftll^^ hrb, ^nftfTf'ni m^fkr^r'r*.— The end of the varga is here marked by ^M in 
hdbf, not in m^k. 

16. The chief deity of a hymau 

76. In bringing out (sampddayan) the sphere, the names, and 
the attributes (bhaktlh) of a deity in each praise, one should here 
obs erve eve ry possible means of doing so {mrripadmn). 

\mim\l ^ifV m^r, •?rRn ^ifV hdbfk. 

77. All who are praised with the attributes (bhakti) of Agni, 
one should sum up {samdpayet) in Agni, and what has the 
attributes of Indra, in Indra^ and what is attached to Surja^ 
in Surya. 

r^. — llifl^ hdm^fk, ifif^ b, 11%^ r, fl%^ r^r*. 

78. That deity to whom the oblation is offered, and to whom 
the hymn belongs*, will there be the chief object (of praise), 
not (the deity) who is praised incidentaUy. 

fif^;!^ hr*m* (cp. Nirukta vii. 18), t'f^J^H rbf k. — fj^ hrbf, irft kr*. — ^pft 
^ hm^bfk, ^ 5 r.— %^ m hrbfk, 7t^ 7t^ r^r*.— ITOPT hm^r, oif fk, •IfT b, ^ 
r^r*. — ^BPlhrfk, ^TT b, ?e^ r^r*. — fJT ^pj: hdm^f, fJT ^ b, ITT ^piT k, fJT: 

^pr: r. 

* Op. Nirukta vii. 18 : yaa tu auktani bhajate, yasmai kavir nirupyate, 

n. D 

Introduction] B^HADDEVATl L 79— [18 

79. Thus the rule about these three (gods) has been stated 
in a general way. But after it has thus been stated in general, 
the list (of the gods is as follows) in detaiL 

jfn hm^rbfk, Iff r^r*.— HiiNrH^hm^rbf, l^NT^^^kr*. — HM l^^^tld^ hm^rb 
fk. WqVJ 1TO*i:r^r*. 

80. For the detailed account of the names of each must 
necessarily be known, since it is impossible to know the formulas 
without cognisance of the names ^ 

Wnit m^br^r*, WPiT brfk, WHV! r*. — itV iPlit f. — The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^^ in hdbm^, not in fk. 

* Cp. above, i. a, 4. 

17. ITajBias of doitias enumerated. 

81. Even unembodied beings, the great sages, the seers, have 
also lauded as deities here, to the best of their ability, in their 
various praises : 

^WT^ hrfk, iTRT^ b. — ^l|AI<|^ r^r*, ^l|fl| ^ rbfk, ^IRTt ^ hd. — 8i*^ is 
the readmg of hdrfk; ^""*"^ TPJ TH ^fflfwif b. 

82. (the seers) by whom Agni, Indra, Soma, Vayu, Surya, 
Brhaspati, the Moon, Vi^nu, Parjanya, Fu^an, the Rbhus, the 

^WRli Tht %^fM% k, ^^Cfir^ t\ l|^f^{, hdm\ — ^ ^I4M4^ hdr, ^ 
^T'PPlV f, ^ ^1*5^^ k, H^ qiy^^ b, ^^\ g^^ r^r*. 

83. the Two Worlds, the divine Maruts,Earth, the Waters, Praja- 
pati, and the divine Mitra-Varuna, separately, and both together, 

^ ^mV ^ ff hd, ^ fj fk. — ^ ^fkr, Iflf ^b, ^^m\ ^ iff 
hdw— HTJifV hbrfk, HT ^wlt m\ 

84. the All-gods, Savitr, Tva^tr (who is) regarded as the 
fashioner of forms, the Steed, Food, Priests, the Bolt, the Pressing- 
stones, (all these deities) famished with cars, 

«nf: hrfk, m: b, ^: r*. — iiij«|<ii: hfk, •^"^ift b, •il^ r, ^wpr* r*. 

19] —I 90 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

85. are praised separately in their various hymns and stanzas 
by their names : these (names) of theirs in their respective praises 
I will declare in order. 

^^n^^ hrbfk, ^1^3^ ^ r*. — ^The end of the varga ia here marked bj ^^ in 
hdbfm^, not k. 

18. CliavaeteristiiMi of hynmji to Agniy Zndra-V&yn, and Suytt. 

86. One should determine a formula to be addressed to Agni 
when distinguished by the characteristic marks of Agni, which on 
the one hand consist chiefly of the five oblations {havi^panktij^ and 
on the other (are) simple invocations by name. 

%m^\ifg^ hr»r*m\ fn^TTin ^k, fT^^TnT b. fKmRl* 

• r. 

87. A formula addressed to Indra is distinguished by the 
characteristic marks of Vayu as well as of Indra, and by 
denominations of the bolt, by mighty activity \ and by might. 

irannVT hm^rf, ^rarenVT bk. — ^%ir hm^rf, If^ k, f|%lf b. 

* The same expression, batakrii^ is applied to Indra in Nirukta vii. lo. 

88. (A formula) addressed to Surya (is distinguished) by the 
characteristic marks of Sorya, as well as by all qualities relating 
to brilliance^ and by those denominations of the moon by which 
it (the moon) here belongs to the hymn. 

ifiNr br*bfkr«, ^fif^ rm\— iTR^ft^ Bhr^ in«Tfi!%^ r.— iWrtt^lf % hrfk, 

«9fi| If ^: b, irt?| If ir: r*r^ irt?l«frth r*. 

89. All such (hymns) of any (seer) here which (authorities) 
cannot determine by mention of the denominations of these deities, 
(must be determined) in some other way than this. 

in^pimit hr, ^irehnit m\ ll^m^nft bfkr'r*. 

90. Let this application of these (three) lights* take place 
in the three worlds (respectively): a wise man knowing the 
formulas does not fail in the application. 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 91— [20 

Trahm^r, ^hfk. H^ffTF^Ttm hmVfk. H*ftflS ?t^t b. atftffm f^ 

TAini,hd, — The end of the varga is here marked by <)*■ in hdm^hf, not in k. 

* Op. i. 97 and Nirakta vii. 20. 

19. The thxea Agnis. 

91. Because this (terrestrial Agni) is led* {nlyate) by men, 
and that (celestial Agni) leads him from this (world), therefore 
these two (Agnis), while having the same name, have performed 
their work each separately. 

i^^^br, ITW^hm', ?f3t»TTf fk.— ^inibm'rbrk, ^^f*,_^T|^: 

hm', ^fltjj: b. "^wg fk. '^ ^\ T. 

* The root ni being etymologically conne(^d with the second part of the name (cp. 
tii^ parah in Niruktu vii. 14]. 

92. Because he is known {vidyate) when bom {jdtah) «, or 
because he is known (vidyate) here by creatures {jdtaih), therefore 
these two, while having an identical name (i. e. J&tavedBs), pervade 
{samdpnutah) ^ both worlds'^ (separately). 

ff ^rm: ^r*. ff Wm^ hra'b. ff SnW r. ff Hami kr^, ^ Wm^ r. That 
<ai\t\l tfl_mii3l be the correct reading, in spite of the almost universal b||ft4$|, is apparent 
from ii. 30 ; cp. ?nim^ for JTOPi: « in ii. 44, and ^^^ '">" VK^i 'i '''• 6- — TT™ 
hm^rbf, ^Unik.^I^TOr*. — ^"TTTT'ft hm'fk, "TTTTTT^^br. (The hiatiifl is doubtless 
original, though not metrically necessary, because tlie word belongs in sense to 1.*11 , not 
to ^jft'). ^»fV omitted in t. — €WT^; hrf, ««I^H; m' bk, a«^m: t*. 

* This etymology differs from the first of the five given in Nirukta vii. 19, but the 
second is identical in sense vith the second of Yaska (jatiM vtda tani vainam ttiduh). 
Three others (agreeing with Yaska) are given below {ii. 30, 31). Samainatah (cp. r*) 
wonid be the usual word in this sense. ' That is, the terrestrial nnd the celestial. 

93. He (Agni), aa the middlemost of these (three), shines in the 

air discharging (rain) ^ : thus some (names) of Agni are mentioned 
only incidentally. 

ft^9(a*I5(^hdmV, ft^aCraH^ f, f4UHIri(JM,b. n|(f«|»1*IH. kr-, <»!m(^4.^H 
r*. — ^^^^j hrbfk, V^[^ r'. — "Vm^ hr^, «^SWt m'r. 4<4]^ r*. ^l^\?^ bfk. 

* Cp. ii. 59; vujjaan apa/i ; also i. 63 : varaati. 

21] — i 97 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

94. This (terrestrial) Agni is hairy {keit) with flaimes, and 
the middle one with lightnings, while that (celestial) one is hairy 
with rays : therefore (the poet) calls them hairy ones {JceHnah) *. 

^rf^f3f%l|^ b. — %^ hm^bfk, ^ r'r*, %^ r. — ^wh' ^ r, ^wh' Jl f k, ^Wt ^ hdm^, 
^1% U b. — 7|^«H«^m^r, Yn TR,r*, ?|%«(^hd, ?l%^nH^» ^ WPlfk. 

* Cp. Nirukta xii. 25-27, and below, ii. 65. 

95. Now owing to the separate nature of these three hairy 
ones here, they are distinguished in their specific characters 
{praJcriydsu) in the stanza, * Three hairy ones ' {trayaJj, kesiivah^ : 
i. 164. 44). 

^Nrer% bdr, ^Nrai^ m\ ^am^ fk, ^eNRi% b. — nHi^i^ ^rk 'Winr V^^^ 

bm^r fk («|caHl f k), mRi^I ---------j) [the same lacuna similarly marked occurs 

in f, bat has been filled in by another hand, leaving the space under the last two short 
horizontal lines unoccupied], MAHlf*! <tn^^ ^qTT^ ^ r^* — The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^Q, in hdbfm^, not in k. 

* Op. SarvanukramanI on BV. i. 164. 

20. Agni, J&taTedaSy Vaisvanara: assentiaUj identical, but 


96. It is impossible to explain their production (prasuti) or 
their power, sphere, and birth*: for the whole of this world 
is pervaded by them. 

f^|%^bfk,lT^[irtfbdm^lT^'JNtr,lTQ?WA — Rl^Rl^l^^^ ^bdr^m^f 
kr*, ft^lpRffTC ^ b, fS|5|fiK WnnW ^ r. Op. f^^f^4il«|^4iqH^i. 104, ii. 20. 

* Because they are really identical, as explained in i. 97, and therefore cannot be 
said to have different origins, abodes, and powers. 

97. Agni is contained in (into) Vaifivanara, Vaifivanara is con- 
tained in Agni ; Jatavedas is in these two ; thus these two (lights) 
are two (forms of) Jatavedas*. 

^^TRt hm^rbfk, %TRt r^r*. — ^iW bm^rb, ^rf^ fk, ^pft r^r*. — ^f||«l<: 
m^r, ^NTRT bdbfk. — ^lA^^I^ Bhm^r^r*, ^M^^l^ r. — irfRt hm^b, ?f^ fk, 
H%lft r^r^r^r*, nHn r. — WTHitipEft Bhdm^r^r^ WHT^i^ r. 

* Cp. above, i. 90, and Nirukta vii. ao: tU uttare jyotisi jatavedasi ucyete. 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 98— [22 

98. The divine nature of each god here (is derived) from 
their belonging to the same world, from their having one and 
the same birth, and from brilliance being inherent in them ; at 
the same time (ca) they appear praised separately*. 

««)ifH*<THiTi ?Nre: hm'r, "•wTg?twir b, "WT g%^re: fk, o^rre Ttsreir^r*. — w« 

b. — ^ yiM^fli: hm'r^fkr^ % ^'fl+yfli: r, ^ffl^ ^pu: r*, ^ ^TTT b. 

* Though identical in abode, origin, and nature, they are praised as separate deities 
in the hjiunB, as stated in the next e'loka (99). Cp. below, i. loi. 

99. When we speak of (a hymn) as addressed to Agni, the 
terrestrial one in that case owns the hymn [suktabhdj). When 
a hymn is stated to be addressed to Jatavedas, the middle (Agni) 
has been taught (as the object of praise) in it. 

^ b, 55 fk.— ^W?nTi 7R hm' rbfk, gw »npn U r'r*.— ^: hm' br, (•W)^ni; fk. 

100. Or when again we speak anywhere of (a hymn) as 
addressed to Vaifivanara, Surya is in that case to be recognized 
in the praise of VaiSvanara to be the owner {bhdj) of the hymn. 

g]S:hm^r^ ^ rbfk. — IR hm'rfk, TT^ li. — The second line in i^r* appears 
aa ^JiStTIW ^q^ ^iH ^^IlO f^ft- — The end of Ibe varga is here marked by 
^0 in hdm'bf, not in k. 

21. The deities of the tliree worlds in tlie descending aeries. 

101. 102. Now the terrestrial and the middle (Agnis) are seen 
to be produced {prasuta) from the sun : at each sacrifice (the priest), 
wishing to perform the htany to Agni and the Mamts according 
to the descending series (which is) the reverse of the ascending 
series" of these three worlds, begins with a hymn toVai^vanara**; 

Tftt hm'r, fUft r'r*. fVt fkr*, l^ b. — 1^* bm'rf, ?I^ k, IJ^ b, IfTC* 
r^. — HftHBIJ^ hdrbfk, TifiniWA m'. 

* Tliat is, earth, air, heaven. ^ That is, Surja in heaven. The wording is for 
the most part identical vith that oF Nirnkta vii. 33 : tfo^ lokaxdm . . . rohal jtratjiava- 
Tohai eiktratak . . . holdgnimarult iailre vaihSitarit/e^ tikltna yratipadyate. 

28] — i. io6 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

103. Then he lauds next the deities of the middle sphere, 
Budra and the Maruts, (and) again * this (terrestrial) Agni in the 
Stotriya \ 

4|ll|4|lil«|| hrb, WV^ ^irnfTf f, WRT k, 4|U|4|||i|i m^. — ^ hdr^m^ (q). 
Nirukta vii. 23), Xjj( f, fjf[ rbk. — ^StWt hm^rfk, ^fWI^ b. 

* That is, in the third place, on earth. ^ Which is peculiar to Agni : see Both, 
Erlautenmgen, on Nirukta vii. 33, where YSska remarks taia agachati madhyasthana devatali^ 
mdraifi ca manUai oa, tato *gnim ihasthanam: atraiva stotriyaiii iai^Bati, 

104. Just as this has been said of these (three) as arising from 
(their different) powers and spheres ^ so it also appears here in its 
respective place (as applicable) to the god of gods (Prajapati)^. 

^llhff hr'r*m^bfkr^ l^^ff r.— fWT ^ Bhr3m\ Jm ^ r. 

* I take v(bh%ti'$thana-$affibhawim as a bahuvrihi (as in ii. 20) ; vibhuti-sikana'-janma in 
L 96 is a dvandva. ^ Of whom these three are manifestations ; see i. 62, 63, and cp. 73. 

105. Whatever (appears) anywhere as belonging to the sphere 
of earth, and « oonSned b Z terr«trW ^, attend to all 
that (now) being told in due order. 

'qr^nnftnf^.hm^b, ^rrftfiiftRwtrk, qifMfiif^im^r^r^f, ^n^fifftnn?,r*. — 

•^|l( hm^r^r*r*, •^^ '» •^N bkr. — fifWtWT hm^r, OiqlM<1l fk, f)|q\^fl: 

b. — ^The end of the varga is here marked bj ^^ in hdbfk, not in m^. 

22. The deities representing terrestrial Agni. 

106. Jatavedas is contained in Agni^Yai^vanara is contained in 
Agni ; so also are Dravinodas, and Fuel (idhma), and Tanunapat is 
contained m Agni*. 

m^<i: f^nft hdr, IMK^^I ftnit bfk (^ f). — ^NrW^t f%nf: hm^rb, •ic 
f^Ri: fd, ^ WR k. — The second p&da of 106 is identical with the second of 97. 

* The deities enumerated in vargat 22, 23 (106-114) correspond to the list of terrestrial 
deities in Naighai^t^ka v. 1-3, the only essential difference being that I]S (a goddess 
of the middle sphere, in Naigha^t^ka y. 4) is added in 1x2. The sequence of the sixteen 
names in Naigha^tnka v. i, 2 is also followed without deviation (106-109' ). There are, 
however, some variations (which will be noted below) both in the sequence and the form of 
the names enumerated in Naigha^t^ka v. 3 (109^-114). The twelve Apri deities (Idhma- 
SvShakrtayab: Naigha^tuka v. 2) are again enumerated in connexion with BY. i. 13 (ii. 147- 
150) and the etymology of these names is discussed in ii. 158, iii. 1-30. 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 107— [24 

107. NarSiamsa is contained in him, in him^ is contained 
I}a, the Litter and the Divine Doors are contained in this * Agni. 

hdr^, ^fl*lflH.I). %*l'^'TH,r*. — "fSfldb! bdm', •«; bfkr. — lM*i*I*ihdra^r, fM4^(m.b, 
f^in ij fit.— flftni: mMfkr, MUM b. 

' Tlie correct furm at the beginning of the pada here and in in would be elatn; 
I have, however, kept eaam as the form favoured b^ the best MSS., and aa the ooly form 
otherwise occurring in every sloka from 107 to 114. 

108. Night and Dawn* and the two Divine Sacrificers are 
contained in him ; and the Three Goddesses are contained in him, 
and Tvaetr is contained in him. 

^3^ f^^ all the rest (hdm' bkr)^^ (^^ fttTKT Naighantiika v. 2). — ?1?ITTT- 
%(T^T^nft hin'r, ^^flHl'^fl^lf^'H r*. "^ ^Tl^PraV b, TJ ^TfJJ^l k. <TJ 
^fl^lS^ft: f, "^ ^ Jl<t?l*ft r''. — ^^^bfkr, ^:?f.m^ ^•fll«,hr*d. — f?ra: f^T- 

TT^'f r, (fl«r^fli%«i b. f7Taf%'n%^ fk, finer: ftnn irt hm*- 

* Naktosdaa, also ii. 148 [naklosasaa, iii. 8), while Naighanfukn v. a has usatSnakla. 

109. Vanaspati is contained in him, also the Svahakj-tis; and* 
the Steed, and the Bird, and the Frogs are contained in him. 

%^hm'r, %Tb, %^fkr^. — ^fl<1?t«)i: hm'rb, ^ It^raiTT: fkr^ 

' The following thirty-seven nwnes, including tbe eight pairs at the end (109' -114), 
correspond to the thirty-six in Naighaiituka v. 3, to irbicb Ila is added in tiz from v. 4. 

110. And the Pressing-stones are contained in him, and the 
Dice% also NaraSamsa'', the Car, and the Drum, and the Quiver 
(are contained) in him, the Handguard, the Reins, the Bow ; 

irrrran_ m' rb, WT^HPT.hdr^, ^l^imitf, 5^^TWP^,kr^ — ^IAVB m'r, 
%*IH^T^ hd, %7m^T^r*, %q*l^1^ fkr^ ^flHWI^ b. — 'fvj^W hr^m', »f\I%li 
r''r', ■fV%^fk, "^^^ b. — jftsiq^ hm'rfk, iTlMfll b. — lilljfll^iB the reading of 
all the MSB., at well as of two of the Naighantuka (see Both, p. 37). 

* The sequence of the names in Naighantuka v. 3 is aksoA, gravanah. Nai^ 
samea has already occurred alwve (i. 107) as a terrestrial deity (^ Naigharituka v. 3} and 
the corresponding form in the text of Naighantuka v. 3 is jiaraianiMah, which is the form 
explained by Yaska, Nirukta ix. 9 {yena narah yraiasyante »a naraianisa maairah), quoting 
RV. i. 116. I as an example (cp. below, iii. I,'i4). — The end of the vaiga is here marked 
by ^^ iu bm'dfk. 

25] — i. 114 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

28. Terrestrial deities conneoted with Agni (contiiiiied). 

111. And the Bowstring is contained in him, and the Arrow, 
and contained in him are ^ the Whip, the Bull, and the Mallet, 
in him the Draught and the Mortar K 

* SfUd {zsiiriiaO is tbe plaral agreeing with aivajant, vfsabhali, and drugha^^, 
^ Ulikhdlam comes before vrsabka^ in Naigba^fuka v. 3. 

112. And the Elvers (are contained) in him, and the Waters 
and all the Plants; Batri, Apva, Agnayi, Aranyani, Sraddha, 
Ila*, and Prthivib. 

^A\ ^fnVSm f bm^r^r^r'', ^At ^(t^Sm Vf f, ^^I^MVRT: ^ kr', ^At 
PfhWV ^ b, iTT^WhlVRWT r.— ^jan^TOTV bd, il^MlMI^^ r»^^ 10^- 
WWH* m\ TT^^Wnrnap r, ^iPimilh^l^ fkr*. — •?;^jrnft bm^r^fkr^r*, •^IST^ 
b. •K^rrPr: r.— ^|%35T bdm\ ^Wrtrr fkr, Vfi:KJ b, ^WT ITRT r^r*. 

* I]S does not occur in Naigba^tuka y. 3, but is taken from v. 5. ^ Tbese 
feminine deities correspond to the nine (vitb the addition of I]a from v. 5) m Naigbai^t^ka 
V. 3, tbe first fonr being in tbe same order. The^ recur below (ii. 73-75)5 where I1& is 
omitted, Usas and SarasvatI appearing instead. 

113. And the two Ends of the Bow belong to him and the 
Two Worlds* forming a pair, and Pestle and Mortar^ (belong) 
to him, and the two Oblation-carts as they are called. 

j(9iH br^*r^ irt?| bdm^rfk.— ipnaThm^r^rV, ipiWTbfkr.— ^ 7Cti[* 
hmV, If <t^b, 5%l^k, IjiJfllTr*.— •^^hm^fkr, •^IRrV, 

* Bodasi for tbe dyaoapjihivl of Naigha^fuka v. 3. ^ Musalolukhdle for the 
MlukhdUmusdle of Kaigba^fuka v. 3. 

114. The two Fostering (goddesses)* and the two worshipped 
with strengthening oblations* (are contained) in him, and the 
Vipafi together with the 6utudri, and the two Agnis, the divine 
6una and Sii-a^, are contained in him. 

•inft ^ bm^br, •irfTf^ fkr*, •jrfn^ r^*.— finn^ ^ hm^rf, f^^lTTIf b, 

n. E 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 115— [Se 

" Op. Nirukta iz, 41, 43. Explained by the commeDtators as Indra and Aditya: 

see Roth od Nirukta ix. 41, and the various viewB stated below, v. 8. 

115. This World* and the morning Soma pressing which is 
performed at the sacrifice, and the two seasons, Spring and 
Autumn a, the Anuatubhi* (metre) and the Trivrt Stoma ; 

^rt?rflihiii^r'r^r*r^.Wt^%b. irlfti^rkr'. — VTIf. W^ hm'rfk, mW^TT'T 
b. — ^hm'r, ^f.^'^k.n^b. — "J^WT f^yi,hm^f, ^CT^^ ft|(T.k,»I5^T^ 
55^1". ^U'l.^ <lfijagd, r' r*. — The end of the torja is here marked by ^9 in btn'bfk. 

• This and the following four and a half slokaa (115-130°*) are basBd chiefly on Ninikta 
vii. 8. The objecta there enumerated as belonging to the sphere of Agai (^agnibhakCmi) 
are; oyani lokaA prala^iaeanuiii vatanio gayatri trioj-lttomo rathamtararii idma ye ea deva- 
gattaft lamamnSlafi pralhame sthane . , , From Nirukta vii. 1 1 ore borrowed farad and antt- 
ifubh, which, besides the fltavimiattomah &nd the vairojani lataa, are there described aa 
abiding on earth {pftkivyayalanani). Atnu(ubh is curiously inserted between itomafi 

and trivj-t, doubtless for metrical reasons. A similar distortion of the natural order of 
the words occurs in ii. 13 (otau, tfliyaijt Mavanai/i, loka^). 

34. Otitor deitie* aaiociatsd with Agni. 

116. the Gayatri, the EkaviraSa (Stoma)*, the Rathamtara 
chant and the Vairaja chant*, the Sadhyas and the Aptyas with 
the Vasus^ (belong to the sphere of Agni). 

^ro ^rra hmV, ^re ^rtsi b, *w vtp^ ftr^ 

* See 115, note*. ^ These three groups take the placB of the geaeral statement 

of the Nirukta vii. 8 (the divine groups of the first sphere), bnt none of these three grottpi 
belonRS to the terrestrial region according to Naighanfuka v. 5, 6. 

117. With Indra and the Maruts* with Soma and Varuna, 
with Parjanya and the Seasons, and with Vi^nu *> he shares praise. 
^^5fl hdrfk. q^iQ^ b. 

* The Maruts are not mentioned in Nirukta vii. 8, but only Indra, Soma, Varmja, 
Parjanya, Htavalj aa deities sharirg praise with Agni {aiya sa'pttavika drvah). According 
to Nirukta vii. 8 Agni shares only sacrifice, but not praise in the BV. with Vis^u (ag*a- 
ottiffovai/i hapir, na to j^k sar/utmiki datatayUu vidyate). See Both, ErUutemngen, p. I04. 

27] — i. 119 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

118. This same Agni shares sovereignty with Pu^an^ and 
with Varuna. One who knows the essential meaning (of the 
formulas) should connect^ the deity (and) the oblation by means 
of the formulas. 

hdm^rbfk.— ffi|: hm^rb, fif: f, t*n^: k, fi(%: r*. 

* This probably alludes to the remark in Nirnkta vii. 8 (similar to that regarding 
Visnn : see above, 117, note ^), that Agni-Fusan share an oblation, bat not any invocation 
in the dnal {agnapaufifa^ havir, na tu Mai^stavai), YSska, however, qaotes the verse RY. 
X. 17. 3 as invoking Agni and Pusan separately {vibkdktistuti)^ though not in the dual. 
^ Though the MSS. of both A and B read MOtfutuyatef and only r^r^ smuyojayet^ I have 
chosen the latter reading, as it is impossible to construe the former. I assume sat^stuyete 
to have been an early gloss meant to explain saipycjayett and to have been substituted 
for the word in later MSS. in the form of safjMtuyate. I take the meaning of the line as 
given in the text to be as follows : ' one who knows the true meaning of the formulas should 
connect dual divinities in such a way with an oblation by means of formulas that they not 
only share the oblation, but share praise ($a$n$tuyeie),* I construe sttnnyojayet with the two 
accusatives devtUam and kavili (cp. ii. ao, satpyag vijanan mantresu tatji tu karmatu yofayet). 

119. Even though (a god) be not praised along with (another 
in the dual), one and the same oblation is (occasionally) offered 
(to both) a. The bringing of the gods, as well as the taking of 
the oblations (to them)^, 

^re^pnanfq hdm^ bf, ^ra^Tn^r f'l k, ^nmnr^nf^ r, ^<TO^ppsTf^ r^r*. — wfh 

hrb, wit kr*(r*?). — ffif^^ br, ft^f^ hm^r^ ffiftlTr fkr*. — fin(Q(ll h, f«V^nnt 
mMbrfk. — ^^^Tf^ ff^nf h (ifflf ^ ff^f Nirukta vii. 8), Ifflf ff^Hn m\ f^ 
bfkr, ft'Rt Iff r^r*. 

^ This doubtless alludes to Yaska's remarks in Nirukta vii. 8 as to Agni-Visnu 
and Agni-Pusan having a combined oblation, but not combined praise (saipstava). The 
writer means that a combined oblation is offered to deities whose praise is combined ; 
but even when combined praise of them cannot be found, a combined oblation may be 
offered them. With regard to Agni-Pusan, Durga remarks : wifgyam udaharat^ni yena 
tasfutavafi. ^ This line 119' {devatavahanam) in all the MSS. comes before 118^ 

{devatSm artha^). It was probably transposed by an oversight in the archetype owing to 
the beginning of both lines being identical (devatiP). That it originally came hefore 120^ 
{karma dfffe ca) is both evident in itself, and is proved by Nirukta vii. 8, on which the 
two lines are clearly based : atkatya kartma vahmuuii ca hapi§am Svakanafii ca devatand^ 
yac ca ikt^i cid ddrftivifayikam agmikarmaUat. 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA i. 120— [28 

120. is his activity, and whatever moves within the ken 
of vision {is connected with that activity) *. Thus the whole of 
this great group contained in the Agni of earth has been stated. 

■5% ^ hm' rfk. ^% 5 r^r*, ^%^ r*r', ^%J b. The tine being clearly A paraphrase 
of the phrase used in the Nirukta vii. 8 (yoc ca Hni etd darstivisayikam agnikarma), the 
original reading was probably dfxfei ca at rfrsfM tu (vUaye). — q|q«|4iqivcn brf, *Ik47- 
'V^ k, •TiHT'T^ b. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^jj in hdm^bfk. 

' That IB, one of Agni'a activities is to make objects visible. Cp. Itoth, Erlaiiter- 
iingen, p. 104 : ' und alles was sich auf daa Sehen betieht fallt unter seine Thatigkeit,' 

25. The group of deitias of the middle sphere belooging to Iiidr». 

121. Now the group of the middle sphere belonging to Indra 
follows here, (including) the celestial cars and the group of the 


l5'j?1 n:'d, ^1%^^^ hr, ^TT: %s(^ f, fll^flO ^' T^>^ br^r*. — ^m'. ^i^P^ 
hir. ^m ^ ^J^h, ir^ •^^_f, JUft ^: JT.k.— anmrtg^ hJm'r^r'r^ jp^- 
^T^i btk, 'r^4lltK*mr'r*. — The evidence of the MSS. points to "^J^T^ as tha 
original readiog. The alteration of •im^i" to *i««iqi" would easily suggest itself, and 
then the gen. pi. would naturally be changed [as in r^r*) to the nom. fur the sake of the 

122. In Indra * are contained Paijanya, Rudra, Vayu, Brhaspati, 
Varuna, Ka, Mrtyu, and the god Brahmanaspati ; 

' The deities of the middle sphere enumeraled in this and the following Heven a'lokaa 
(131-IZ9) are identical with those contained in Naigbanfuka v. 4, 5. The order is, how- 
ever, considetably diversified here, and two deities are added (Sita and Laksa). 

123. Manyu, Vij5vakarman, Mitra, Ksetrapati*, Yama, Tark^ya, 
as well as VastoBpati, and also Sarasvat are here ; 

l?^ hr {tf^l Nwghantukav.4),lTlI^ m'bfkr^r^— ir^f hm>rbrk, Tfir ^r'r*. 
' Kaetratya paUh in Nugbantuka v. 4. 

124. Apara napat and Dadhikra, then Suparna, Pururavas, Rta, 
Asuniti, Vena ; in his sphere (asraye) also is Aditi ; 

^fMUTT^ hm'r. ^fiWT^ r^ ^J^UTT^ b, ^fVHET ^ r'r*r*, ^ftlSi fk. — ^H'l^ 
hm' jf,'%l[^^k, T^ r*. ^ b. — flda«Sl'S|^ r'r*, 7^1 Jran'Rt b, 7!%^:^ ftwV 
hdm'rfk, ffV^V f^^ t'r^ Thoagh the weight of the MS. evidence Ketna to favour 

29] — L 127 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

H^^fl f^nrt) I have preferred flQ^4fl|^^ because (i) Indu occurs in the next sloka 
but one, where there is no trace of a corruption, (a) f^^PTt are not mentioned in Naigha^fuka 
^•4>5s (3) •l^^ conld easily be corrupted to f^^y especially in juxtaposition with 
^(^fn!) the latter being the first of the 4|U|4|i|j||iir f^PTt (see Nirukta xi. 22); (4) 
ciQn^ could have been corrupted to n^* J^ • — With regard to the expression dQc|~ 

mv^^f^Hii q>. ii. 10 ^rarrai^ ^<wi. 

125. and Tvagtr and Savitr, Vata as well as Vacaspati, Dhatr 
and also Frajapati, and those who are called Atharvans ; 

mrii hm^br, TPft r^r*, omitted in fk. — ^ ^V^IQ^ hm^r, ^rnrfHTOfb, 

^ qiMlUl^k 



126. and so also the Falcon, and Agni, as well as she who 
is called Ba; Yidhatr, Indu, the Dragon of the Deep, Soma, 
the Dragon, and the Moon; 

ftl^^^li^r^r*, ^R%qi^b, ^^^^^H^hm^rfk, each group of MSB. thus showing 
both readings (as above in 124). But ^«iqS is improbable, because (i) the name occurs 
below (128) ; (2) ^n would then be the only name in Naigha^tuka v. 4> 5 omitted in 
this passage of the BD. (122-129). ^S^* ^^^ probably come in here owing to the firequent 
juxtaposition of the name with ii«i4iui** — ^(m^ hm^rbfk, ^Rm[ r* (r^ ?)r*. — ^iT^cbl 

^ VI ^y^ hdm\ 7ii)wr%^ VI ^w* b, 7(^[wn ^m w ^yrn r, <i^^i^q vx 

mrn fk (the H in f looks like W, k has W). — f^lMI^'i^ hm^r, RIMT!)^^ b, fV" 

^rnij^ f» Rmft*^^ k.-^rhe end of the varga is here marked by ^M in hm^bf k ; but 
in d the ^M follows the number of the preceding sloka, ^M (= ^^M). 

26. Deities and deified o1d0<^ belonging to Zndra's sphere. 

127. and the divine YiiSvanara, and the group of the Budras 
«, p™«d ^th (hiM), the Ma^ts. a« wen » the aU»s, «.d the 
Fathers together with the Rbhus. 

^^ hm^rb, ^ kr^r^. — ^ift ^i(9[Tmf r^r*, ^ift ^QKli b, ^ ^|9^ ^* ^ 
^■^IJDlf h dm^fr. If i««|«ii were read, the Budras, occurring as the^ do in Naighai^fuka 
V. 5, would disappear from the present passage of the BD. altogether. The names in the 
Naigfaanfuka occur in the following order : M\jf{l \ V3[{1 1 ^•iq* I irf^fT^* I fM<1<J I 
Hence both Budras and Bbhus are to be expected in the present sloka. — ^jf^i* hm^r, 
^V^mt d, ^ VfSlI b, %^T^* f k. The Bbhus, not the Btus, occur in Naigha^t^ika y. 5. 
^^glSn was doubtless changed to^gfilt on account of the reading ^^<q I in the preceding 
line. The words ti^q^jftii i[^ occur at the end of a line in Bgyidhana i. 9. 4. 




128. Raka, Vac, Sarama, and the Aptyae, the Bhrgus, Aghnya, 
Sarasvati, Yami, UrvaSi, Sinlvali, Pathya, Svasti, Usas, Kuhu ; 

(probably meant for "^j f, Vfl^^f^ k, ^TOT^fH b. 

129. Earth, Anumati, Dhenu, STfca^ Lak^a"*, likewise Go and 
Gauri, as well as Rodasi ; and he (Indra) is the husband of 

r'r* (cp. ii. 84). — 1^ hm^r*r*fb, ?!% n k. f^fiRTr'A — %^ i^I«ll%l| hm^r. 
^PraT'TOTt^ f, ^"qyHHI^tl kr^ ^^5T«IT%^ b. 

* Srta and Lak^ a 
a Naighantuk* v. 4, g. 

the only nameB in the above passage (iza-iag) not found 
'' See below, ii. 84 (also ArsSnukraroa^i x. 101), and viii. 51. 

130. The metre Tri?tubh" and Parikti and the middlemost 
of the worlds and the middle (i, e. midday) pressing (of Soma), 
one should know, (belong to his) sphere among these same (gods) ; 

5?lMflIl4l hdm^t, Tpt^lrra^ fkr^r', int^^pSR) b. 

' The statements of this and the following sloka are based ou Nirnkta vii, 10 : 
athaitSnindrabhaklmi .- ontariktaloko madhya^tdina^ tavantop grUmat liis(ap . . hfbat lima, 
And vii. II : hemanla^ pailklih . , iakvara^ tamely anlariksajfalattani. 

131. and the two seasons, Summer and Winter, and the 
chant which is called Erhat, and the chant which, ^akvara 
by name, is sung in the oakvari verses*. 

Wg^^hrfk,lB1!^b. — ^fT^bfkr, ^f(t.hd. — Haljihrfk.^fOfl b. — inBitllhr 
fki IJBI^ !>■ — Tbfi only MSS.accoHsible to me which, in accordance with the usage of Vedic 
works, repeat the last words of tbe adhyaya, are b and f. Whether any of the MSS. used by 
Bfijendralala Mitra follDW this practice, I have no means of ascertaining. See Rolh, 

Hirukta, Eirlautemngen, p. 15, last paragraph. The end of the varga is here marked by 

^^ in hdfkm^. The last s'loka is numbered S^^ in bd. It should lie the same in r 
(instead of ^^0) ; the error is due to Q,^ being repeated after iloka IJ,^. 

' Cp. Durga on Nirukta vii. 10, 11, Bihiiotheca Indica ed., vol. iii, p. 364. 

31] — ii. 4 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

1. Doities of Zndra's sphore. 

1. Sakatayana, moreover, says that to him (Indra) belong 
(asyqg^'ayau) two Stomas, (viz.) that which is called the fifteenfold 
{pancadasa), and that which is three times nine in number {trinava)\ 

flft h^®m*bf^'^^ lit r. — lIT^Rft lim^r, ^mi^ b, HHT^ (ill<l^<l<i:) f. The 
line 1** omitted in k. — IRI hm^rb, VM fkr*. — ^WBVt hm\ Mm^ fk, ^nRIT b, 

* The statement that the Paficadaaa Stoma and the Tripava Stoma belong to Indra's 
sphere is also made in Nirukta vii. lo, line i, and ii, line 5 respectiyely. 

2. He is praised in combination (scmstutah) with Piifan and 
Vijnu and Varuna, and with Soma, Vayu, Agni, Kutsa, as well 
as Brahmanaspati^; 

^ hm^r, %^ b. In place of ll^lT^ ^|[^ f has ^^^TT* and k f%tVT (sic). 

* AH the ten deities stated here, and in the following sloka, to be praised with Indra 
are enumerated in the same sense in Nirukta vii. lo (lines 3, 4) : aihq^a Maijutavikd 
devali : agmfi tomo varut^ pufa hfhaspatir hrahnua^aapatifi partfatafi httso visifur vayu(i. 

3. with Brhataspati^ as well as (with him) who is Farvata^ 
by r^. Tiey Zy that in »o«e praise, Lrtain (goda) aro 
praised as incidental ^'^ 

Jf^TOfinrr ^ bdm^r^br^, ff^rf^PIT ^ 1RT r, l|f <|R|«II ^ f , ^ ^f ^MRlfll 

^^ kr^ As MSB. of both families have the reading ^fl|4ilfi|«II (following YSska's ety- 
mology Wffd MIfll Nirukta x. 11) it must be original (cp. B's variant in the next pada). 
The IT having dropped out in some, a syllable was added at the end in one variant (r) 
and at the beginning in another (kr*). — ^P9l ^PJlft vAw* hdm^r^B, ^f7T%9 ^ VtflK 

Wnr k, 4lf^(^f^Rlf<NI b. — finiTWT hm^bfk, RlMlfli: r, fHTRH r^r*. — ^^pTTJ 
hm^rfk, ^^pTT b, ^pp r^r*. 

* Brhataspati is doubtless meant as the etymological equivalent of Brhaspati (see 
critical note). ^ Op. below, iv. 5, where Parvata is explained as representing Indra's 
bolt (vttjra). ® Nipatafi is here used like nipatinalii cp. Nirukta x. 13 : ka4 cid 
(devata) n/^iMtah^jafi. 

4. And the god Mitra is frequently praised* in the sacred 
text (sruyate) with Varuna, Soma with Rudra and Pu^an, and 
again Pu§an with Vayu^; 




fJTT^ A. fir^B. — ^^nthdrn'r^r^r^. i^TI^ b,^ fk, ^TJ^ r. — Wfl^ani all 

Mss. (c|i.E.iioi6 3),^rfT: «?nt,r.— g»r: g^ ^ Trgmm^rfk, gigin ^^T^m td. 
St- '^ ^ ^1*1*11 h. 

■ Tliat is. in Indra'a (middle) sphere : cf. Koth, Erlauterungen, p. 105. The Btate- 
moDt about these five couples being praised together, followa Nirukta vii. 10 : atkapi mltro 
vamnena tatpalai/ate puana ntdre^a ca lotao'gniitd CO puitt vaCma ea parjanya^. In 

Bssotiating VSyu (not Agni) with PuBan the BD. here agreea with the shorter recenaioa 
of the Nimkta (ca^una ca piifa: Both, p. loi), while the longer recension (at) quoted 
in note *) aesociates Agni tdth Pusan : see Both, Erlaiitemngen, p. 105, note 3. 

5. and Parjanya with Vata. Elsewhere, however, he (Indra) 
is here and there {kvacit), in these stanzas, hemistichs, verses, (or) 
hymns (of the Jlg-veda) as a whole, distinguished (as the deity). 

TI^'N ^ hul'r^ ^Tfl^ IJ r, m^ %^ fkr^r^ fllTlfl^q h. MT^ ^ EPftl*l 

hm^r''rV,%g!f^Tai^cT_bt,%aif^fk. — ^Qj ^ hm'rfk. ^£^q jjr^r*, ^- 
^?tg r', ^^JT^ g b. 

6. Now the taking up* of moisture is his function, and the 
destruction of Vrtra, (and) — the prevailing feature {prahhutvam) 
of (his) praise — the complete accomplishment of every (kind of) 
mighty deed**. 

<.*I14'*' hdmVbfk, 4.4^^1*1 r'r*. — flF^T^hm^rfk, W^i^n^b. — ^Hlhdm'r, 
^i b, ^TT: fk. — HgW hrbfk, W^ m'. — The end of the cur^a is here marked by 
<) ip bfkmM. 

* One would at first sight be inclined to favour the reading of r'r* raaaddtiam: cp. 
Nirukta vii. 10 : ratdnupradanam, the giving back of moisture,' while Totddanam is there 
stated tu bo the function of the Sun (see below, 19]. Bnt the reading of the text, row- 
ddnam, occurring in MSS. of both families, ia supported hy BD. i. 68, where it is said of 
the middle Agni (JatavedaB) raian . . addya . . variati ; and in iv. 38 the function of (the 
middle) Agni is desciibed as harai/am . . vdro t^Uarga/ii ^unar eva ca. This s'loka 

is based on Niruktu vii. 10, whore the three functions of Indra aie stated to be the bestowal 
of moisture, the slaying of Vftra, and the accomplishment of every mighty deed : alhStga 
karma ratdHupraddnatii vjiravadko yd ca kd ca balakj-lir iadrakarmaiva tat, 

2. D«iti«S of Siirja's spbara: hui tliree wives. 

7. Thus Indra's group belonging to the middle sphere has been 
duly specified. Now learn the following group of the heavenly 
sphere (and) belonging to Surya. 

^ i 

33] — il lo TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

JK ^IT^ dr, JT* 'ITV fk, ft VtK^ h, W^K% b, fj^ tj^ r\ — WW* hdr, ^nfT 
bfk. — ^^ifT^hrfk, ^f«||«l4Lb. 

8. The two chief gods * of that (group) connected with Surya 
are the Aivins ^ ; while Vr^akapaji, Surya, and U^as ^ are the 
wives of Suiyad 

^frRfinft" hrbfk, ^^ Frftpft r^r*. — f^TWWnft all MSS., fl||4MlRl r (cp. 
B's note 2). — ^^qt^T: hrfk, f^f^ b. — 1^1^ hrb, tRPi: f, ^JJSnf: kr*, X(mm t\ 

* Cp. Nirakta xii. i : tasam (dytuthanana/fi devatanam) oMnau prathamagaminau hhavatah. 
^ In thiB and the following four slokas (8-1 a) all the deities enumerated in Naigha^toka 
V. 6 are mentioned, though in a different order, except Tvaetf (omitted perhaps because 
occurring twice before : i. 108, and i. 125). The list begins with the same four names : 
Asvins, Usas, Surya, Vrsakapftyi. ® Cp. below, iii. 10. ^ Cp. Nirukta xii. 7 : 
firjfa iuryanfa patnL 

9. From that (heavenly world) they return hitherward*, 
reversed, in connexion with him (Surya), They call her U^as 
before sunrise b. Surya when midday reigns c, 

l|^[lft^#fN| hrf (^ f) k, ^ig^^#nr^r*r^ IVQ^ ^TJ^ m\ ^If^fit Wm^ b. — 
KfTPJtm^bfkrd, irfnwnfTt^h. — ^cf^HRIT: hr, TT^TmH b. TTi^f^raT: fk, >qra\^ 
'^r*.— E^t^^Sm^hfr, Ii0<^» K Hf^k^'Tc^b, 40<^ r^r* (cp. below, vii. lai).— 
^jJT r, ^^ hdm^fk, ^j5f b. 

* The words amuto *nak are doubtless su^^ested by Nurukta Tii. 24 : amnio *rvaHcafi 
paryavartante with reference to the rays of the sun. ^ Cp. iii. 10 : prag udayat, and 
vii. 121. ^ The expression madhyatjidine Hkite also occurs in BgvidhSna i. 9. 2. 

10. but Vpjakapayi at the setting * of the sun. In his sphere 
{diraye) also are Saranyu, Bhaga, Pugan, Vrsakapi ; 

fmWl4l all MSS., ^milMlRir. — ^^^ m*Jfli*iir^r*, ^^^Vl^Sl^ljr bfr', 
^j5^ ^l«l«llf| k, ^^$T^RIT% "WW hdm\ ^^tlV^lil "WIT: r. — g Hlijf^ r^ ?IJ 
Plflf^ r*, ^jfif fa^ftl b, ^gfingf^ hdm^rfk. — ITOT^ m^br (cp. above, i. 124), 
HIBTBiSr h r^, THBT^ f, Wr^Wt k.— «T^ h m^ r, «T^ f, lIT^ni b. mn^ 
k, TOTH^ r*.— fqrufq: hm^rb, ^f^lfif: fkr*. 

* Tu nimruci : this is a good instance of the B MSS. preserving, in a corrupt form, 
the undoubtedly original reading ; of the agreement of an A MS. (r^) and a B MS. (b) 
in preserving an original reading (cp. i. 126) ; and of A MSS. (in agreement with some 
B MSS., fk) showing a corruption in a seemingly correct form: ttuHfv fci. 

n. p 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA ii. 1 1— [84 

11. Yama, Vai^vanara^, Vignu, Varuna, Aja ekapad, and Earth 
(jjrtkivi), and Ocean {samudra), the Gods, and the Seven Seers 
(saptar^ayah) ; 

^Vlli.' "11 MSa,, fcmmi.: Naiglwriiuka v. 6 aa well aa 5 (both celestiil and 
atmoipheric): the latter form oconra above, i. 127. — 4|Jjj^^ bfk (Naigliantukav,6 4I*|j{_;), 
19^'^ I )j| hdm^r. — The end of the varga ia here m&rlied by ^ Id dbfk, but by ^ in hm'. 

' For a Bimilar diBcrepancy, cp. above, i. no (NarSa'amaa and NirSbaipsa). 

3. Beitiea of SnrTa'c sphers (oontmned). 

12. the Adityas, the Hairy Ones* (kesijiah), and the Sadhyas, 
Savitr with the Vasus, Mann, Dadhyafic, Atharvan, the All 
(gods) ^, the Steeds (vajinah), the Wives of the Gods. 

^fBrai hm'r, ^^b, «^fk. — ^^f»T^ brn'r. TT^fil^b, ^"[gflf^rk. — ^«J^ 
dr, ^IffT^hm'fk, ^WTW" b. 

* In Nwghantuka v. 6 both kefi and keiiaah occur. Both may be meant by the 
prior merobbr of the compound used in the text, Ictii-tadhyak. VUve is oct.'Bsianally 

used in the Efhaddevata for vUve devah : see Index of Words, snb voce. 

13, That* (heavenly) world, the third (Soma) pressing i*, the 
Raivata and the Vairupa chant (sdman), and the Rains as well 
as the Cold Season ; 

^i^ gfl^ei w^^i ^n' T, ^R^ gfl1*i vvt wtin: hm\ w^ gwt'ra^ 
iTtwr: r'r*. ip^ gwtTi: flfl»wt*: b. ^wt gnhi: '^'i wt?? fkr' (w^ f). — 'aro 

^m'r, Wmr^hbfk.— firftl^^i^hrfk, firfilft lb. 

' Thia and the next slofca are baaed on the following statements of Nirukta vii. it 
(lines I and 6); — atkailani/ adityabhalitini : ncau lahaa Iftiyasavanam varsa jagati tapta- 
daiaitomo vairipam tama and Hiiro 'Uckanddt traj/aitrimiatlomo raivala^ lamfti di/abhakfitii. 
^ The order of the words in the text, aiau tfliyam tavanam lokah, in which all the MSS. 
agree, in a curious trail spoait ion, on metrical grounds, of the words of the Nirukta. A 
similar transposition is sometimes found in the case of pratikas (cp. i. 57 ; iv. 1 23 ; v. 169). 

14, and the thirty -threefold Stoma and that which in 
arrangement (klptya) is seventeenfold ; and the metre called 
JagatI as well aa the Atichandas metres, 

H ^tw: btk,^:^ft'i: r, *l«B\*i r'r*,^:)JtW: m', v. 'BtWl^d. — ^lUThm^fk, 
fifTTT b. WWT d, J^ I. — "^^^re hrim' r, »^^1I^ b, 'I(^9T? r'r^r*t*, {lfV\) 

*^ - - ^re (^0 f, (nvi) v^-~i^{^)k. 

35] — ii 19 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

15. And what relates to Puru^a, they say, is his (asya) ; now 
all this (universe : etat sarva/m) is related to Furu^a ^ Three gods 
are to be recognized as associated with him (etasya) in praise : — 

^nr^ hm^r, fl|jr4^ k, ¥l¥^ fb. — H^im ^ hm^r, ^pi?^ f fkr*, ^STRSI^ 

5 ^- — iWwrpw^* hm^r, 4mn^i^ 1^ f, ^Bmrf^Pim^ k, ^mf^nrraPT: b. 

* Op. above, i. 73. 

16. (viz.) the Moon and Wind (Vdyu) and that which is 
regarded as the Tear {scmvatsara)\ Now some offer to him an 
oblation addressed to Surya and^ VaiiSvanara. 

^W ^SRWt r^'*. Vn iRWt ^tr*> Vi^ ^Wt bdm^br. — %Pl^ hm^rfk, ^j%^ 
b. — Pl^MW* bm^bfk, ftl^MH* r, Pl^M^ r^r*. — ^H^^^l^li hm^bfk (Nirukta vii. 
23, last two lines), ^h9 ^f|l1< r. — ^f^t hdrfk, f^^* b. — The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^ in hdbf, by }{ in m^, not at all in k. 

* This line follows Nimkta vii. 11, line 3: eandrama$a vayuM mujtvaisarei^ 1091- 
stavaft. ^ Cp. Sa4gnra8i8ya on x. 88 : $auryavaihanariyam : iurffodevatytagi vaiivauara' 
gwfSgnidevatytuii ea. 

4. Bwya and Vai/hrftnara a ftom of AgnL 

17. For (the h3rmn) addressed to Surya and Vaifivanara* appears 
like a hymn of his (Surya's : tat-suktcm) : (whether) a stanza, a 
hemistich, or a verse, or a couplet, or a triplet (is regarded). 

IfH^nWUhm^rfk, l| ^^R^br^r*. — Ijlfhrfk, ffr^r*. 

* BY. X. 88 ; see SarvSnukrama^i and SSya^a's introduction to that hymn ; cp. also 
above, i. 100, loa, and Nimkta vii. 23 and 34. 

18. But by that expression containing the word * head ' * (his) 
praise is apparent. Here the identity of Surya, Vaidvanara, and 
Agni appears. 

im^ hm^r, JIMI^il bfkr^ IHVl^W r^r*. — T^ ^J^S^^nTT m^rb, ^W ^" MlIT 
hd, f^FT ^Al f, ^RT ^jItT k. — ^pWTPITnftfTH, kr, ^t|^VI«lOil^^lH.b. 
4ft4^^II^M^^IH hr^r*m^fr^rl 

* Murdhanvata : that is in RY. x. 88. 5, 6, where Agni is described as being the head 
(mmrdka), or standing at the head (murdhan) of the world ; cp. Nimkta vii. 37. 

19. Now the holding* (harana) of moisture in that (celestial) 
world {amutra) also by means of (his) rays — this is (his) function : 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA ii. 20— [86 

wherefore all beings fail to distinguish (him) very clearly by 
the eye, 


Mm^ k. I hsvQ adopted the reading of r, against the weight of the MS. ovideace, 
hecause ou the one hand Tiua or a ftimilai word in necesBCiry (tp. i. 6Si ii. 6; iv. 38), 
and, on the other, roAnibhiA, as comiag at the end of the lint, is superfluous here. Its 
occurrence here also is doubtless an early corruption due to anticipation helped by the 
identity of the first BjUftWe of Toiatya and Taimtbhik. — <t4iy4 ^ hr^bfkr'r'', ^rfoilfj^ 
r.— ^•1|fflrq«|llfinhdr»m'r^r''r', ^ "TTfilf^^n^tft bfk, <I 1 ^^*<| | * I 'q tjlijfa 
r. — ^^IJTUri br, ^J^^jTITft hr^m'fkr*r''r''. ^». the reading of moat of the MSS., 
would be an easy corruption of flq", partly owing to the u of "^fllHl, and partly because 
MM' would be in the mind of the copyist. The expression fl^^JTlf*! recurs in ii, 31. But 
94 ^nimmightbavebeeu the original reading. — ^^m hdr^m'bfkr*r'r',^aWl r. 

* This word is probably meant to eipreaa the double phrase of the Nirukta (vii. 11) : 
athatya karma raiddanam raimibhii ca ratadharaiyxm, ' the taking up and holding of moisture 
with his rays.' 

20. Now distinguishing correctly in the formulae this dis- 
tribution of these (three deities) which arises* from (their different) 
powers and spheres, 

, ft^rt b, ftuTT hm'k, ftupi f. f 

* VShhuH-sthana-iaiphhaeam, a bahuvrThi, as in i. 104; but v&hvti-tthdnQ-ianma in 
i, 96 is a dvandvB. 

21. Teaching, studying, and reciting a formula (addressed to 
them), a man attains to the sphere of, to identity of world (and) 
intimate union with, these same (gods). 

ir«im«iayl*iiWt hm^rfk, •'a.^O'iiib. — »nri ^^T^Hft^^irn'r, n^ ^^t^- 

^^5 b, 5i^ ^•ll'J^i^lll.r'r*, liH ^fllfl*i^T^*lfl,fk ("^rt^ corr. to •^W^f), Jfft 
^irnpit^hd.— ^TPThrn'r, ^TT^bfL— ^1"^^^^, 'ffTfft^ hdkf {»n<» f), ^- 
fltW h. — Tf^ fltSffl Bhr'm\ VfM'mfd r. — The end of the varga is hero marked by 
Bin hdbfili', not in k. 

6. FivA luumM of Agni. DeriTatioii of Agnii Draviaodafl, Tannnapat. 

22. Now as to the hymns, the poets proclaim (in them) five 
names of Agni, twenty-six of Indra, and seven of Surya. 

^rOlhdm'rbfk, ^hg^'x^ — ^f}1lRKt.hdhr, "Ufii; f, "l(ft in' k. 

37] — ii. 27 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

23. The separate explanation, based on the function^ (of the 
god), of each of these here, do ye listen to as duly stated by 
me in its entirety. 

* With pjihak-nirvaeanai^ hartnajam cp. vibhagoffi vtbhuti^thana'Satiibhavam in ao. 

24. Because he was bom at the beginning ((tg-re) of beings, 
and because he is a leader {dgrorni)^ at the sacrifice, or (because) 
he unites (his) body {angam scumrui) \ he is praised by sages under 
the name of *Ag-ni.' 

^Ifl^^ hm^r, ^rt^ bfk, — ^NfOH m^fk, 4lim^ hrb, It^RB^ r^r*. — ^t4 hdm\ 
irnt fk, "Vt^ b, ^tI> r^r*. 

* These three etymologies are practically identical with those of Nimkta yii. 14 : 
agroffir hhavoH, agraqi yajHepi praifiyate, akga^ nayati sa^namamana^ ; cp. aboye, i. 91. 
^ Swji'nayate is doubtless meant to correspond to Yaska's nayaH Motii-namamanafi. 

25. Kutsa^ observing the action by which he bestowed^ dra- 
vina^ — wealth or^ strength — proclaimed him as Dravino-das (i). 

inft hm^rfk, ^ b, ^ r^r*. — MI4^^^ r, l||€|l99|i| f, ITRn^^ hdm\ 
M|C||{[^<| k, l|€|^i|i| br^r^: cp. RV. i. 96. 8 IT VH\ (indicative aorist in form, but 
injunctive in sense). 

* In BY. i. 96. 8. ^ The a in the migority of MSS. seems decisive in fovonr 
of prayaekad as against prayached. ^ Cp. Nirukta viii. i : dkana^ drapii^am ucyate 
. . . hdkttji w dramifam, ^ Though vapi gives one syllable too much to the line, it 
is probably original, as the rhythm at the end of the pSda is normal (u-- *), the two 
syllables at the beginning (dravi-) taking the place of one long one. For analogous irregu- 
larities in the MahSbhSrata, see Hopkins, The Great Epie of India, p. 53. 

26. This (terrestrial) Agni is Tantinapat (2). For that (celestial) 
Agni is tanu fix)m tanana (extending): from him the middle 
(Agni) was bom, then from the middle one, in (his proper) place, 
this (terrestrial) one*. 

inninf^: fr, wwrni^ m\ j(^^ nip k, iwrfrj: b, wncm^* b, wm t[^. 

r^r*.— irtr hm^r, fjil bfk.— ^n%^^ hm^r, HmfT^^ f, HTPft^^ kr», IR b, J(^ 
r^r^. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in hdm^bfk. 

* Cp. below, iii. 64. 

6. NarSlamia, Favamana, Jatavadas. 

27. The poets call an immediate * descendant {prey dm) grand- 
son {napdt)^ and this (terrestrial) Agni is the grandson ^ of that 
(celestial) one ; hence he is Tantinapat. 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA ii. 28— [88 

ir'RlTrhbr''r'fk, ^PWrtdr. — 9il|m^: hrb. Wn<Bfl: m'.^ro^.'fk. — flfJW 
hm' r, Ug^ b, ^[^ r^ ^^ fk. 

' This expressiou ia borrowed from Nirukta viii. 5 : napad iti ananlarSyaA prajaya 
namadheyain. ' Next afUr s son ' is evidentljr the meaning here of ananlarn. ^ Yaska 
alfio eipl&ins Taniinapat as a 'grandson,' but in a different sense (cow, milk, sacrificial 
butter), as the word, according to hint, designates the ajya. He also quotes Sakspiini'a 
divergent explanation of Agni aa a 'grandson' (atmospboric waters, plants, Agni). 

28. Because he is individually {prthaJctvena) lauded (sains) by 
men (nr)^ combined at the sacriBce, therefore poets praise this 
(Agni) as Narafiarnsa (3) in Apri hymns. 

5«lSi»Ih(lm'f,5qTlf»fkr,5qaiiTb. — ^Wlft^ hr*fm'kt*r*r', QH^^ b, tm^n 
T. — ^nf^m'bfk. lT^^l%hii. ?r^^r, mi*a(lr'r^(r*?). — Vi.m hdm^rbfk, 
^pi: ^'r^ 

' Tiiis is evidentl; bu<ed on Sakapuni's explanation of Nataennisa as Agni (Nirnkta 
viii. 6) ; noraiA prahiyo hkavati, Kattbakja's explanation of Narisaqisa aa sacrifice {yajia) 
is given below, iii, 2. 

29. And again because the terrestrial Agni purifies (pundti) 
this universe, therefore he is praised by hermit seers as (the 
Purifier)* Pavamana (4). 

5»ITf7Tlir, ^b. WTTlfTIfltr. — ^ ^hm'r, 15 "^ f kr^, '^I b.' — ^yi»(«rt- 
fiT%'Ibra'r, ^I3Vreftftf*r%f b, ^WT'TO ^Oft^'I r*, ^tfTTB ^ftftl k, ^^- 
*ranf(T%^ r. This sloka is omitted here, but added after 31, in a somenhat alt«red form, 
by r'r*. 

" Op. above, i. 66. 

30. Again, because when bom (jdta) he knows (veda) beings, 
he is spoken of as Jatavedas (5), and because he became one in 
whom knowledge {vidya) was produced {jdta), or (because) when 
bom {jdta) he knows [adhi-vetti) wealth ; 

imft^m ^TOit bm'rfk. ami %^Ttr Ptb^ b. an^^v' Prait r^r* (cp. 

1.92). — H^bm'kr, ?l%^b, ?I^ r'r*. — 3(17! f«|^ bmV, Hlfl'^fll bfk, flTPt ^^ 
r'rS'.— ftTT hr'm'br^", ftTT f, f^ k, f^^ r.— fv^ffT TT hra'rb. fv^ ^ 
fk, W^ftT^r'i*. 

31. or becaxise when bom {jdta) again and again he is known 
(vidyate) by all beings, therefore he, as the Indra of the middle 
part (of the universe) ^ is praised as Jatavedas*'. 

39] — ii 34 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

Wjm hm^r, ^m k, ^Hm bfr^ A— ^r«Rf3rtfr hr^m^bfkr^, IffiqilT^I^ r. — 

After this (31) sloka, r^r^ add 29 in the following modified form : 

The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in hbfk, not in m^. 

* Op. above, i. 99, where a hymn to Jatayedas means one addressed to the Middle Agni ; 
q>. also i. 67. ^ Two etymologies of Jatavedas have already been given in i. 92,^0/0 vidyate 
andjatair vidyate, the former being identical with the fourth given in ii. 30, 31. There are 
thus five which correspond more or less to the five given in Nirakta vii. 19 : three of these, 
jaiofrtdya, jatavitta, jate Jat^ vidyate^ are followed by the second, third, and fourth in the 
above two Aokas (30, 31), another, jatdni veda, is partiaUy followed by the first, while 
the fifth, jatani . . enai^ vidufi, is followed by the second in i. 92 (jdtair vidyate). 

7. The twan^HU names of Zndra: Ybju, Vanmay Budra, Zndra. 

32. But because he, in a most subtle form, abides in the 
air as the one pervading (vyapya) the three (worlds), the seers 
adoring (him) by reason of this function, called him Vayu* (i). 

^Hn hm^r, ^Hr b, ^ f, ^% r^kr^r^r^ 

* YEyn comes first in the Naigha^tuka (v. 4) in the list of the deities of the middle 
sphere : q>.Nirukta x. i, and Both, Erlaaterungen, p. 134. Twenty-three of these twenty- 
six names (the first eight in the same order) occur among the thirty-two of Naigha^tuka 
y. 4, the three others appearing in Naigha^to^ v. 5. Cp. above, i. 122-129. 

33. But because with concrete moisture he alone covers 
(vrnoti) * these three (worlds), the singers in their praises speak 
of him, by reason of this faculty, as Varuna (2). 

^I|1^l^lf^(i4\ hm^rbfk, ^ftftifTfTyftlft'lT't r^ r*. — ^A^ bfkr, nnM 
hm\ — ^inwr hrbfk, mWl m\ — BM^q: hm^rb, VlWm f, ^TT^ ^ t» 3 WTKW* '^r*- 

* This follows the etymology of Nirakta x. 3 : varuj^ vp^titi satafi, 

34. Because he roared {arodit) * in the air, giving rain with 
lightning^ to men, therefore he is highly praised by four seers ^^ 
as Rudiu (3). 

irftlfV^ hm^rfk, ftWWyr*- — ^ft^jtB «ftj|*ihm^r, f^^^fB^l^igmiH. 

IntroducUon] BItHADDEVATA ii. 35— [40 

r't*. — Thia aluka (34) is omitted in b. 

* This is one of the etymologies of Kud» given in NiruktA x. g : yad arodit lad 
rvdratya rudratvam lU haridravikam. Yaska renurka that the name may also be derived 
from the root ru. ** Cp, vatavTStt, ' rain with wind.' " That ia, by Kaijva {i. 43), 

KutM {i. 114), Grteamada (ii. 33), and VaBistha (vii. 46). 

35. And having become the established (source of) life of the 
four kinds of beings, he rules {t§te) over this universe ; therefore 
he has been named Indra {4). 

I^hd, ttm'i-.^tb, l^k. — ^^hm'r.^^^fk, WTB b. — V^l hm^ 
rbf, 4IIQ{i: k. — Sloka 35 cornea before 32 (th»t is, at the begianing of the varga) in bfk. 

36. Because he, associated with the Maruts, at the (proper) time 
bursts open (dj-ndti) refreshment iirdm) * in the sky, accompanied 
with great roar, therefore the seers called him Indra. 

T^ imiPl hm'rli {=Ninikta x. 8), ^T7 ^^rfH rV (f^ 4<{lfj| is the second 

derivntiou in Nirukta s. 8), ^Wt {mttn f, ^Wf ^UTTft k. — ^^hrb, H^fk. 

K%W hm'rb, ^^'^m fk. — The last pada in m' is TlPt^ tfn ^ wni repeated by 
mistake from the last sloka. — The end of the varga h here marked by O in hm' bf, not in k. 

" This is identical with the first of several etymologies given in Nirukta x. 8. 

8. Paijuiya, BrtiaBpati, Brahm aywpati, Efetrasya pati, Sta. 

37. Because he alone endows (prdrjayati)^ this earth at the 
(proper) time with moisture produced from the sky, therefore the 
seers Atri'* and the son of Urvafii*' (Vasi^tha) speak of him as 
Parjanya (5). 

V.f^*{\ bm", <lf^*IT fk, ^lf«^WT b. — TrHNriWr hm\ UTflNft^ fk. ITTlNft^ 
b. — ^^hdr, ^rnffrV, ^^^f, ^^^b, ^f^m'. 

* The four etymologiea of Paxjanya given in this and the following a'loka are identical ■ 

with Yaska'a in Nimkta x. 10 ; parjanya* tfjirr adyanlavipantatya tarpayita janyak, paro 
jeta va janayUa oa, prarjayita vS raaamm. As composer of the Parjanya hymn, v. 83. 

" Vasiatha, several timea thiia referred to by his metronymic (e.g. ii. 44, 156; iii. 56; 
Cp. V, 149, 150), ii the author of the other two Parjanya hymns, vil. loi, 102. 

41] — ii. 41 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

38. Because he gladdens {tarpayati) the worlds, and because 
he is genial {janya) — friendly to the people (jana) — (or because he 
is) a supreme {para) conqueror (jetd) or generator (janayita), 
therefore (Kumara) Agneya * sang (of him as Parjanya). 

b.— ITCt %mT h m^ r b (Nirukta x. 10), ^ %mT f k r^ — <|fl^|He)4d<f1 b f k. ^Ifl^l'^il^djft 
r'm\ €|4l|^<(^^ r, ^n^T^QT^^nft h, <l4lR<(l^<f1 d. — 38 is omitted in r^r*. 

* As the alternative author of vii. loi, loa : cp. ArsSnukramanl on those hymns : 
agniptUraft kumaro va vasistko va tvaycufi munt^, and SarvSnukrama^i : ete humara agneyo 
'pa^ifod vmisfha eva va vfsftkamafi, 

39. Because he protects (pdti) the two great (brhat) worlds, 
the middle and the highest, he is, by reason of this great function, 
lauded as Brhaspati » (6). 

^|f?rrhm^r, ^Ifflff fkr*, fW b. — •fJlOf^fl* b, •fiffT^t^: hdm^r, •ftrft" 

tlnni: f, ^ Xj^tf^i k. 

* Cp. YSska's etymology (Nirakta x. 11): brhaspatir bfhatah pata palayiia ta; hjrkatal^ 
being explained by Durga as mahato asya jagata udakasya va, Cp. ii. 3 : hfhatoi patina, 

40. Speech is Brahma and truth is Brahma, this whole world 
is Brahma; therefore Saunahotra* (Grtsamada) praising sang (of 
him) as protector {pdtdram) of Brahma ^ (i. e. as Brahmanaspati, 7). 

TP^^b, ^T«| hm^rfk. — MMK hm^r, tTRTft fk,. m^44J b. — ^rVPO^bm^r, 
Mill Ul lit fb. — •ft^^^b, •ft^: ^pPt^r, •ft^^b, •ft^^pPt^mS ^ft^ 
^5rt f k. — This sloka (40) omitted in r^ r*. 

* In RV. ii. 23-26. * Nirukta y. 12 : brahmanaspatir brahmanah pata va pala^ 
yita va, 

41. Because he entered into the earth (ksitau) » at the (proper) 
seasons, distributing food to the nations^ (Jcsitihhydh)^ therefore 
Vamadeva<5, praising (him), calls him 'Lord of the Field' (8). 

ySin hm^, ^W d, ^HfT r^ ^^t^^ r. The reading of 41** in the text is that of hdm^r 
(presumably r^, as r^r^ omit this line here) ; this form of the line is added by bfkr^r^r^ 
after 60^ (see o.r. there), instead of it bfk, and in addition to it r (=r^; omitted in 
r'r*), have here — 

«ini ^npwr^ ^ ^ ^T^ yi: i bfk 





which prohably represent — 

tTW^fl hm^bfk, TTH^: r, Tra^ r^r*. 

" Ninikta X. 13: ksftrasya pali(i: kaetrmii ksit/aler iiivasakarmanat, tasya paid vd 
fSlayita vS. ** The ameDded form of this line as found in gome of the MSS. (see 

critiual vote above) would mean : ' because dwelling in the field he sgtiin in due seaaon 
gives rain.' ° In EV. iv. 57. 

42. Because he declared him who, connected with the middle 
world, is to be seen by the mind (only), with truth {to be) In 

truth (satya) '*', the same (Vamadeva) praised him as Kta ^ {9). 

JR%ltbmM>flii'j*. W»I^r^^^R^t^T A — TJTIJWhdr.g^TflHm'b.^WT^ 
fkr^. fTJ ^r^r*. — TJ^hm'fr, ^Tptk, V4 b. — m^ ^^hrb, wSpf #St ^ 
f, W&»I^%b, «Sr W$ JTm'.—^K^bm'rbfk, ^ Tjq rS'. — '^TTI^hm'rbfk. 
•jft: r'r*. — The ead uf the varga is hero marked by c in hdm'bfk. 

* Bta is explained in Nirukta iv. ig a« satyam vd yajZam vd. Cp. also Sayana on 
RV. iv. 23. 8. *• RV. iv. 33. 8 (in illustration of fM is commented on by Yaska in 

Kirukta I. 41 ; cp. Both, Erliiulerungen, on this passage. 

9. TEetospati, Vacaspati, Aditi, Ea, Tama. 

43. And by his magical power he abides in the air with 
internal moisture "■ shed with thunder : hence he (Vamadeva) 
again*' spoke of him (as such in) 'the call of Rta' {rtasya slokah)'^. 

i^W'fix^: f^: bdtn'r, T^^rRTTT^ f^i», ^q*nn^S f^ fk, ■^ f^rft 

'i^I^TlTr'i*. — f^Iift <fl1«p!i^ hfr. f^Tft ^%^ m^k, f^pft ^t%^ b. — ^Tm 
^^hm'rfb. ^7^1 ^1^ ^- — ^'^ Iii^^rh, fSlT fk. — g'l^'ihm'rb, ^T^ff f. 

' With reference to tbe meaning ' water ' (Niruk-ta d. 25 ; j-taia ity udaliandma) ; cp. 
below, ii. 50. ^ That i^, first in the sense of 'truth' (salya), now in the sense of 

'water' {i.e. cloud-water, lit. ' internal Quid' : antdTina). " RV. iv. 33. 8° : see 

Nirukta x. 41. 

44. But because (being in the) middle (sphere) he granting an 
abode (i;^^^^) to the world, protects^ (it), therefore the son of 
Urvaj^i (Vasistha) proclaims him (to be) Vastofpati (lo) in four 
(formulas) ^. 

ff^T^W^r, liq^Wbd. H^re'T.m'.nir^h, ITOIp fk. — JraiTT: ^hdm', JWTW 

43] — ii. 48 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

bfkr (cp. critical note on i. 92 : jata^ son tkudjatasya). — 4l^^f?i hdr, ^litfll^ElfTft k, 

^T^V«rf?f f, ^BTptfr: nft b. 

* Nirukta x. 16: vasiospatir: vdgtu vasaier nivasaharmaf^s, tasya pdta vapdlayita vd. 
^ RV. viii. 54. 1-3, 55. 1. Caturhhift, here and in some other passages of the BD. (see 
Index of Words), refers to stanzas, not hymns. MantraifL is perhaps to be supplied here, 
not fghhih : but see vi. 41, where fghhii caturhhifi actually occur in juxtaposition. 

45. Since the Vedas are learned with speech (vac), (and) the 
metres there (are recited) with speech, and moreover speech is 
this universe, therefore (he is) praised as ' Lord of Speech ' (11)*. 

TPTT %^ hm^rb, ^T^ %?[ f, TRt ^ k. — This sloka (45) is omitted in r^r*. 

* Nirukta x. 17 : vdcaspatir : vdcah pat a vd pdlayitd vd, 

46. And because he abides (in the) middle (sphere) surrounding 
(the world)*, not afficted {dina) on any side, therefore the seer 
RahQgana Gotama^ proclaims him as Aditi^ (12). 

'T JRre'f lini\ ^ 9Rr%^ r^*, 3Rr%^ b, T gRr%^ rfkr^ — 'ftwft r^r*bm\ 
«lin«n hfkr. Cp. critical note on i. 58. 

* Cp. BV. X. 90. I : sa hhumim viivato vflvdiislhat, ^ In BV. i. 89. 10 (Nirukta 
iv. 22, 23). ^ Nirukta iv. 22 : aditir adind devamdtd, 

47. But because he is a protection to creatures, desiring 
(their) Tea — happiness {suTcho)^ — in his heart, therefore the seer 
Hiranyagarbha ^, adoring ^ (him), spoke of him as Ka (13). 

Z|^^ hm^fr^^^ ^TB^ b, M^^Jk r, JfW^ k. — ^f^l^^^lill g^3»(^hm^rV, 

^rfiWf frar ^[^SRi^bfk, iTBr ^V^: ftw: ^: r. — ^^S^^in^^hm'r, ?^iN»i,bfk. — ^^- 

'tflTR ^i^b, ^r#5 Wr^Vl,r, ^ilTiqr'q Vl.f, W^^ VA ^^ hm^ r^r^r^ ipT 5 

* Sukha is one of the three explanations of ka given in Nirukta x. 22 : kah kamano 
vd kramano vd sukho vd. ^ The reputed seer of BV. x. 121 ; see Ar^anukramani 
X. 59 and SarvSnukramanT on x. 121. ° Cp. arcantafi in ii. 32. 

48. He giving* (prayachan) offspring here, and gathering 
(them) goes forth ^ (to the other world) : therefore the seer Yama^ 
calls him, the son of Vivasvat^, Yama® (14). 

irar: hr^m^br, IWt fk. — ^3RnP9 hr^m^r^ IRH^bfk, TRT^fif r, HKl^f^: 
r^r*.— ^l^fh^T hr^m^r^r'. 4iH<(\W f k, ^ETITfNT b, iNlftm r.— ITOTfif hr, f ^UfiT 




^♦I^WH^hm'r, — The end of tUe varga is here marked by ft in hm'bfk. 

' Nirukta I. 19 : yamo yachalUi sata^, ' Cp. EV. s, 14. i (commented on in 

Nirukta X. 19) pareyivaipsam . . . tamgamanam janafiam, ' The reputed seer of RV. 

x> 14; cp. Arsonukrama^i X. 6 nnd SaTvanukramani on x. 14. ^ BV. x. 14. 1 : eat- 

vanataijt . . yamam. * Cp. Niruktn x. 30: agnir api yoma ueyate. 

10. Ultra, Visrakannan, Saraarat, Vanai Manyn. 

49. Because all men making {mitrVcrtya) a friend (of him) 
worship hira, therefore Visvamitra" himself praising (him) calls 
him 'Mitra'b (15). 

f?nftWW hm'bfkr, SH Bfft^r'r*. — irf^hm'r, Trf^ fk^^ ?1^ r'r*. 

* In RV, iii. 59. i (commented on in Nirukta x. la). That ie, ' Friend.' None 

of the three etymologies given in NJrukta x. 11 ia here followed. 

50. Because at the close of the hot months he refreshes the 
earth with water {fta) *, creating the activity ^ {harma) of every- 
thing [visvasya'), therefore he (is called) ViSvakarman (16). 

f^r^reHTWTfii'Rt m' r, ^i^wrerfirf^PF^ hd, ft^wrwifHi^ fk.^r^T5rin- 

Hlfl*l3l b. — ^Tif^Traft lTrf7mhm'rbfC?lf7t f), ^T^TWl^ff! ^fit k^^ ^1^ ^IfT- 
fll1nart»lr'r*. — ar^^I»l_hm^r. 5Rlib, ^J^f, 3nRnT.k. — ^ W. hm'rbfk, Ht ^ 

' Cp. above 

** Cp. Nirukta x. 25 : vHvakarma tarvatj/a karla. 

61. Because he has lakes {sardmsi) full of ghee in the three 
worlds, (the seer)^ proclaims (him) as ' Sarasvat ' **, (while) Vac 
(speech) they call Sarasvati*'. 

iftrg m'dr. ^rf^ hfk, TfSf^ b. — I^ ITTf hra'rfk. \^ WTTJ b (cp. iv. 39), 
t,(ftH"«rJ r'r'. — ^T^ FTir: tH,*<tift*t_ all except r'r* uhiih read ^VSHlft^lfV, i.e. 

' That is, VaaiB\ha in RV. vii. 96. 4-6. one of these three etanias being quoted by 
Yfiska (Nirukta x. 34) for Sarasvat, but without explBuation. ** Yuaka, Nirukta x. 14, 

does not explain Sarasval, merely remarking : taratvaa vyakhyalah. This must refer to 
i{. 33, wheio Sarasvatl ia ntated to bo a name of Vac (voice), RV. vi. 61. 3 being quoted 
as an example of Sarasvall as a river, while examples of her as a goddess (nwdiysi/iono 
itti) are deferred to Nirukta xi. 35-37. ° 51° =:iv. 39' , except that in the latter 

passage Htujl takes the place of IHT* Onriously enough b haa in the present passage 


45] — ii. 53 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

the reading llim which we should at first sight expect in iv. 39 (cp. notes on that aloka). 
The reading of r^r^ refers to the only two seers who mention Sarasvat, Durghatamas in 
RV. i. 164. 5a and Yasistha in RV. vii. 96. 4-6. 

62. Because being their life {prdna) he moves* {venati) — 
abides — in them, therefore the seer named Vena Bhargava ^ here 
calls him Vena (18). 

irit«f!^ hm^r^ tlf^^e^lj h, ^ll«lQ|^ r^r"', «lf^nd^ r, omitted in fk. — HTffJ" 
*^WV hm^r, lITfri %^ fk> ^ITfT^J^'ft b, ^HfT^^^ r^ r* (cp. ii. 47). 

* Yaska, Nirukta x. 38, explains Vena as derived from the verb ven in the sense of 
'to desire ' : venatef^ kantikarmanah. This verb is one of the kdntikarmai^ in Naighai^tuka 
ii. 6; it also occurs among the verbs of motion (gatiharmaiiuLf) in Naigha^tuka ii. 14. 
Cp. Both, Erlauterungen, on Nirukta x. 38. ^ The reputed seer of BY. x. 123, the 
first stanza of which is explained by Yaska in Nirukta x. 38. Cp. ArBanukramaigil x. 60 : 
veno noma hhfgolL sutaft. 

63. Primaeval (agraja) Heat * (tapas), desiring (ahhimatya) ^, 
created him month after month : therefore Manyu Tapasa ® calls 
him 'Manyu.* 

*H^*1*ibm^r, 7!T#^ bfk, 4||^4|i r^r*. — ^fii4|(l| m^br, ^T^HIIIf hr^ ^Bf8|- 
^m fkr*, ^V^nr9 r^r*. — Trat^^HT: r^r*. IWt ^Pl k, TOt Wi fb, TOt IHP^hm^r. 
— fjfrWT* bfkr, «i«q(*i(m'' hm^. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 in 
m^bfk, not in hd. 

* My reasons for adopting the emendation tapo 'grajam are the following. Tapas 
would account for the patronymic form tapasa in the name of the Bishi invented from the 
contents of the two hymns BY. x. 83, 84, where Manyu is frequently addressed and 
connected with tapas (83. a, 3), and might thus be called manyu tapasa. Tapas is the starting 
point of creation in some of the cosmogonic hymns of the BY. (x. 190. i ; x. 129. 3), whence 
desire, kama (cp. abhi-matya), came into being, the first seed of manas (cp. manyu) ; and 
tapas is identified with svayaiithhu brahma and called the 'first marvel/ TB. iii. 12, 3^ 
(cp. Yed. stud, iii, p. 129). Manyu in x. 84. i (also 83. 3) is identified with Indra (the middle 
Agni), and Agni in RY. x. 52. 3 is said to be bom month after month (jayate mdsi masi, 
cp. sasfje mast mdsy enam). Thus Manyu Tapasa would be the deity as well as invented 
Bishi, though these are regarded as distinct (there being no atmastava here), as Yama in 48, 
Yena in 52, l^ksya in 58, Mftyu in 60. Dr. Sieg, with whom I corresponded about this 
passage, wished (with r^r^) to read tapo'grajah, 'the eldest bom of Tapas' (= Manyu 
l^pasa), but the meaning seems to me impossible. The MSS. constantly confuse anusvSra 
and visarga ; for instance, in ii. 60 where, in the case of the analogous emendation ^nn^9 
nearly all the MSS. have visarga for anusvara. Again, vrajam (fb) is very dose to grajam. 




** Yfinkft (x. 29] derires Manyu from man aliw, though without explaining why he ia ed 
called : nuntjiur mani/ater diptiknrmanah liTDdhakatmano vadkakarmano ea. " Maoyu 

T^posft ia, according to Ananuknima^i x. 33 and the Karvanukramanl on x. 83. the oeer 
of BV. X. 83, S4. The first stanza of the latl«T byron is commented on b; Yasks, Nimkta 
X. 30. 

11. Aaaiuti, Apam napat, Sadhikrai Shatr, TarkSTa. 

C4, Because at the time when beings die he alone leads 
(^nayati) (their) spirits^ (asun), therefore he is spoken of as AsuDiti 
{20) by Srutabandhu '' who praises (him). 

^7ISrg5,lim^-. H*l«l*fl fk, xra;5T?fTh. — ^qdl «flsl*[^I hm'r, ^^TTT ^- 

^^sm b, g^Tprr g^R^TT r, g^Tmr ^Trayn k. 

' Nirukta x. 39 : asunUir own nayali. ^ The reputed author of BV. X. 59, the 

fifth stansB of which is commented on in Nirukta s. 40. 

65. At the end of the hot months (his) birth takes place in 
(their) midst ^ : therefore the seer Grtsamada ^ (in) praising (him) 
calls him Child of Waters « (21). 

"nitilfni*! bm'r, "HmiPt'l** hfk. — JT^ H^WqiHhrn'r, W^ ^ SliqilTH. 
r'r\ H^ ^1^ UBTHIT Ik, JTSl ^ «(«*IT b.^^t^H^: ^^ra'r, ^(HH*^ ^^ •>. 
J]fH*<«f 'Sra^fk, JJ(«41V|< ^ b, JJ<W«<**flmM.r'r'. 

* Cp. aj'ju aatar in BV. x. 30. 4 commented on in Nirukta x. 19 ; not 'in the middle 
(sphere),' as one would othem'ifie bo inclined to trannlate from the use of madkyamah in 
ii. 44 and madhi/iibkagendra^ in ii. 31. ^ In RV. ii. 35 (cp. Nirukta x. 19). ° Cp. 

Nirukta s. 18: Ofoi^ napal tanZnapira vyakhyatah: see above, ii. 37. 

56. Because supporting {d-dadhat) the mass of waters con- 
tained in the atmosphere ^ for eight months, he roars *■ ijirandati) 
frequently in (then-) midst, therefore he is described as Da- 
dhikra (22). 

"amroi^mlrbf, oJIwhlT^k.— W^VWtm'r, ^^VWt bd. W^VWt f. ""^ 
k, WrMWl b. -Wmrtin r'r*. — 56"* omitted in fk. — W^W hm'rb, W^^ r^r*.^ 
•flW<lhr, "^Tflb. — 'flfralM flrniTtbr^m'br'/r'', 'llffiT a<{t'«l^ r^r*. 

■ Cp. anlarasdh above, 43. '' This is one of (he three derivatiouB given in 

Nirukta ii. 37 [the first part of the compound, ifatfAaf, being the sarao in all three): dadkat 
kranalili ra dadhat krandaliti va dadkadakari bhavalili ra. 

47] — ii 59 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

57. He then himself roaring deposits {dadhdti) in the earth 
for a month, the germ developed in the ninth month : (therefore) 
he is sung in stanzas (of the Rg-veda) as ' Dhatr ' » (23). 

Wffi hw}T,WJ^h. — ^ irrftWn^hm^rb,^»rrflTO^r^r*. — 67** ^omitted in fk. — 

^#T VT?t!ff5f: hm^r. ^iji VT?! ^of^i f, ^t^i K "^^ ^ 'rf^: b. 

* There is no corresponding explanation in the Nirukta; all that is there said is 
(xi. 10) : dhatd sarvasya vidhdta, 

58. In the wide* (stlrne) air he dwells (ksiyati) or he swiftly 
(turmmi) glides ^ (ksarati) : therefore the seer Ari^tanemi Tark^ya ® 
has spoken of him thus as Tark^ya (24). 

^W^^'rfT^ f^^rtif hm^r (Nirukta x. 37 ^ft^^«nl\^ f^qfn), ^ f^ ^'WWI 

r^r*, ^ ftW ^UTOt fr*k. ^ f^MHD^^ b. — J^ ^ ^TTV^t hm^r (^Jlfinf 

•^^rfir Nimkta x. 27), ^OW^I r^r"', ^rffl[^t^ M«qfil f, *lffll*lRl M«^ffl kr^ <(f4iMf^ 

^fjfir b, ^rffl[miftf Vf5^ r^r*.— ?»iM:hr»bfkr2r«r', ?|5hPR^r (r^r*?).— The 
end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hm^bf, not in k. 

* Nimkta z. 27 : iarksyas tvas(ra vyakhyaialt. (see viii. 13 : tvasfa turfiom ainuia iti 
nairuktai): fln(ie ^niarikse ksiyati tHri^am artham rakfaty ainoier vd. In view of the 
etymology in the Nirukta, it looks as if tirne might have been the original reading of 
the BD., but giiniie may have been an intentional variation as having a clearer meaning. 
Gp. the etymologies of Tva^tr given below, iii. 16. ^ Ksarati may also have been 
an intentional deviation from raksati, the explanation of the Nirukta. ^ The reputed 
author (Arsanukramani x. 61) of BY. x. 178, the first stanza of which is commented on 
in Nirukta x. 28. Tdrksyarsih may be meant for a compound, not an irregular sandhi. 

12. FnrnrayaSf Mrtyu. Vames of the sim : Savit^, Bhac^. 

59. Roaring (i^uvan) in the sky he proceeds to sunrise, discharg- 
ing* the waters from the abyss (krntatrdt)^ : (therefore) Uruvasinio 
(i. e. Urvafii) calls him Pururavas (2 5) <l in her own words ®. 

r, ^«nrn^ fk. — fq^^im: m^r, f^r^^n^* f, f^iwi ^mi h, f^^f^^^: k, f^w^- 

IR: b. — y^l^fl^ hr, y^^^iW, m\ g^BT'TO^ b, «|Tf<fl^*i f, i|fl<*«li**< k. — 
•<H44^MlRl^ bfkr, ^«ll449^Mir^^ hdm\ •frfhWrrftl^ r^r*, 

* Cp. above, i. 93. ^ An instance of a Vedic word used without the influence 
of the passage referred to. ^ Meant to be an etymological form of Urvasi, which, 
however, differs from any of the three derivations given by Yaska in Nirukta v. 13. ^ Cp. 
Nirukta x. 56 : pururavd bahudhd roruyate. On the rava of various gods, see Yedische 
Studien iii, p. 137. * In RV. x. 95. 7 (commented on by Yanka in Nirukta x. 47). 




60. 61. But because with great din he goes driving on the 
deceased (mrta/ni)^, therefore him, as being death (mrtyu), the 
youngest son of Yama, named Samkusuka ^, himself praises as 
'Mrtyu' (26)*'. 

Causing the darkness to disappear from the sun and Dawn 
to appear, 

6o. H*«Jiqqaffl kd, H[mqtmap| f. U-mq<iarfl h. HMI<<<i^rt1 ni'. HtU i q<i^rn 

b, HI'<*ll'^%fiT r, ^tflTt'r*. — ^: fkr*, yil hm'r. ^ r', giilUr*. Betwerii Ihe 

two liueaof 6o(wherBit is absolutely out of pl»cu)bffcr*r^r*r(r' ?) add the line (=41° j: 

^^TET bfkr^, ^r, ^f^^TJ^ r, ffl^flt^ b, fqq?T f, ft^^ r^. ftT^HT k. 

b, "fflf^H k, "ft^ f r^ '>f^^ (NTTV) r' r*. 

61 . W^^ra: bm^ r, ^rasro: bf kr^, ^^^ra: r°. — Uq<f4U. r, ^ qf^^ti, r' r*. H^^ti 
hr'mVr*,^M^fb.«^k. — g5^bfkrVbrV,^r't*. — '3TOhia'r,9:«b,'3:fk. 

' Tbe eiplanation of Sttlabalaksa Maudgslya in Nirukta li. 5 : mrlyur marayatUi talo, 
mj-lam cySvayatili ta iatahatakso mawigalya^. Tbo author uf RV. s. 18, the first 

stanza of wbich ia quoted b; Yuska iu Nirukta xi. 7. C[i. Arsuttukramam x. 8, aud 
Sananukramflrii on EV. i. 18. " Twenty-three of these names occur in Naigbantuka 

V. 4, and three (Aditi, Dh&tr, Mrtyu) in v. 5, lU'ist ortheni being exphined id Nirukta x. 

62. he alone propels {pra-sauti) " the day-star : by reason 
of that function he is Savitr {1). And he arose illuminating 

{bhdsayan) these worlds with his rays : therefore the seer Vasistha ^ 
himself (in) pi'aising (him) calls him Bhaga'' (2). 

f^rrat bfk, f^^ '^^Tt.r'r*, f^ 4(1*1,: bin'r. — H«^S[«: bm'rbfk, H^ft*: 
r'r*.— imnni.mVk, HT^RWIJirb, HTfil *ra r'r*. — %q ^T;" bm'r, ?fq|^ ^» br* 
r^r'', ^ "^"fk. — ^q*«flHhnj' r, ^^^JR. b f k r^ (r* i). — The end nf Ihe Porja is bere 
marked by S^ in b bfk, nut in tn'. Tbe end of tbe preceding lino (^ ^IVfTfH:) is marked 
in hd by Q.^, and the end of the varga (after JHRJ by ^^ I <|^ 11 

* Op. Kirukta x. 31 : iavild sarvasya prasavila. Tbe enunier»tlou of the eeven nunea 
of SiJrya begins with this aloka. I have preferred tbe reading which has divakara in the 
BCCUBalive, bb tbe verb pra-ii is regularly used as a transitive ; but tbo nom, othenriae 
makes good sense: 'the day-star (i.e. Surya) stimidatea (in general}.' The author 

of KV. vii. 41. I, which is commented on in Nirukta xu. 14. ° Bkatayan here appears 

to be meant for an etymological explanation of hkaga, suggoEted, perhaps, by tbo explanation 
of jdra &H applied to the sun in Nirukta iii. 16: ratrer jarayila »a tva bhasam; though the 
word bkaga is there derived from tbe root hhi'j. 

^ k 


49] — ii. 66 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

13. Puan, Yifi^ii, Ketaa, YisTanara, yjrsakapi. 

63. Nourishing (pv^an) he causes the earth to thrive, dis- 
pelling the darkness with his rays ^ : therefore Bharadvaja praised 
him as * Pu^an ' (3) with five (hymns) K 

* Cp. Nirukta xii. 16 : yad raimipotafii pusyati tat pusa bkavati. ^ BY. vi. 53-56, 
58 ; the fiist stanza of the latter is commented on by YSska, Nirukta xii. 17. Op. below, 

T. 118. 

64. Because the three {trini) regions (rajdmsi) shine with 
brilliance as his footsteps, therefore Medhatithi ^ pronounces him 
(to be) VLjnu (4) of the three strides {trivikrama). 

Ynm hm^r, ?t«r ^ b, ?t^ret f, ^(^ni r^r*, ?t^ k. 

* In BY. i. 32. 17, which is commented on by Yaska in Nirukta xii. 19. In explaining 
the words of the text, tredhd nidadhe padam, he quotes Sakapui^'s opinion that this refers 
to the three worlds (pjrthwyam antariJcse divi), an opinion followed in the present passage 
of the BrhaddevatS. Cp. my * Yedic Mythology,' p. 38. 

65. Because, after making a sojourn (sdyam) apart, he goes, 
at the departure of darkness, making light* {prakdScmi) for 
beings with his beams, therefore they regard him as (the Hairy) 
Kefiin (5). 

iTRl gll^lffl m*r, ^TRI ^V^ VXfft hd, W(^ ^^ lUfil fk, ^TRI ^Vj ^Tlft b, 
^fW f'^ it ^ r^r*. — W^ m^rbfk, ^ hd. 

* Cp. Nirukta xii. 35 : kefi, Iteia raimayas, tais tadvan hhavati, kaianad va prahd- 
ianad va, Cp. above, i. 94. 

66. Because all men {viive nardh) now singly (and) separately 
think* of him, by reason of this function he is praised in 
laudations as Vi^vanara (6). 

^rincnnrai^OT hm^r, w iRonnrap^n^ r^r*, in iwqww^wf b, in hsmw- 

^W fk. — ^np^ r, ^ M^9( hdb, ^ iT^% fk. — ^[IW fTT* hr, ^^ if^: m^d, 
5^^ ^TCT k, ^^W^: fb. — (^^l^i^hm^rbfk, ^hTTT^r^r*. 

* The verb used in Yaska's explanation is not man but nl (Nirukta vii. 21) : viivan 
naran nayati viiva enafgi nard nayantlti oa. Cp. Roth's Erlauterungen on Nirukta vii. 21. 

n. H 

Introduclion] BIIHADDEVATA ii. 67— [50 

67. Because having become a brown (kapila) bull^ {w?^)i he 
mounts the firmament, therefore he is Vr^api {7), (in) ' Indra 
is above all'^ (RV. x. 86); (or) this highest bull {vrsd) goes 
causing to waver {kampayan) with (his) rays " : 

^^^ br'r*, 5^qi (without visarga) hdr'm' fkr^, ^^ r. — "0*!f*l lim'r, "Offl b, 
'^IJWI fk. — The end of the varga is here marked at the end of this s'lofca (era tafi) by ^^ 
in hdljfk, not in m^, I have left it there, as all the MSS. which mark it agree. It would, 
however, have been much more natural to end the varga after the preceding line {utlaroA), 
as varga 13 and varga 14 ifould thus have five sloka« each, instead of five and a half and 
fuur and a half reapectivel/. The aense would, moreover, not have been interrupted as b,v 
the present division. In hd the preceding line (utlarali) ends a sloka, numbered (t^, 6S1' 
is numbered Q.^, 69 as ^00, 69 (after yah) as ^ (=^0^), See. 

' Cp. below, vii. 141. '' The refrain of EV. x. 46, the twen^-first stanza of wliioh 

is commented on by Yaaka in Nirukta lii. 28. " This alternative etymulogy ia baaed 

on ^aska's in Nirukta xli. 37 : yad raimibhir ebhiprakampayanti eli tad vTsakapir bkavati 
VTtakampaaah . 

14. Derivatiou of Visnn. Incidental names cannot be enoner&ted. 

68. (i. e.) because he goes home {(xstam) at eventide causing 
beings to sleep *, (his name) Vrgfikapi may be (derived) from this ; 
for in the three formulas beginning ' the waste ' {dhanva : RV. x. 
86. 20-22) in the hymn to Vr^akapi **, he appears to be bidden'' 
thus (iti) by Indra. 

IT^hm'ri.,J!^|f, JT^^k. ftghrfk. 5^ b, f^r". — V^lfl m'rbr\ 

V^ft f k, >in^fcl h .1 r '. — Bgwthdra'.Higjlft fkr'. JliajHil b. — flrfX'^I'M tm'rfb, 
^Tra"^ kr^. It woulil bo best (as in hd) to make s'loka 68 end after varuakape, aa I have 
hoen obliged to do in the above translation, owing to the sense running on. 

* This is meant to be an explanation of rtUmibhiA kampayann eti. ^ The irregular 

formation varit^apa for varsakapa seems to be due to the eiigenc^r of metre. " lu 

the three stanias {s. 86. 30-12) Vraakapi is addressed and called upon to go home (ailam 
ehi) by the path, which procures sleep {rvapaanat/iiana : in Nirukta xii. 3S, however, ex- 
plained as that which destroyB dreams : napnait itdtayali). 

69. Vignu * may be from (the root) vis (vimdti) or m4 (viSati), 
(or) from veins [vevesti), expressing pervasion *• : (he) is (thus) 
explained as the Sun who ia everything'^ and is contalaed 
in everything. 

51] — ii 73 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

^ftr bf, f^n^ftr ^ • ^0 reading of bk looks like a corrupiion of «l|^^<, (the third 
etymology in Nimkta xii. i8)« which may thus have been the original reading of the Brhad- 
devatS. — ^li^lin hdm^r, ^li^^WTt f, •'WSWT bk. — ^l hm^bk,^f, WRTJ r. — JK 
hdmS ^ k, m r, Vi bf. — The third line of 67 (TfTIf*) and 68, 69 omitted in r^r*. 

* The etymology of Vis^u is added here at the end of the list of the names of Surya, 
as it was not given in 64. Cp. Kirukta xii. 18 : aiha yad visito bhavati tad visi^ur 
bkavatij vi^ifur viiater va vyainoter va. The above three explanations are probably meant 
to correspond to these : vi$i^ati=visit€ifi, vUati^vUati, vevesfis^vyainoti, ^ Op. ii. 158. 

70. The five, the twenty-six, and the seven names of Agni, 
Indra, and SOrya* (respectively), have (thus) been duly stated 
in succession. 

* Cp. above, ii. 23. 

71. But of the incidental names *, accompanied by the above- 
mentioned^ nominal characteristics {ndma-lakfanaih), a separate 
enumeration does not exist. 

^rwt 5 bfkr, TPit ^ hdm^. — ^irjilR hdr, ^>Q%^ bfk. — The end of the vurga 
IS here marked by ^({ in hdm^bfk. — This sloka (71) is numbered as ^ (=^^) in hd, 
and 8 (=^08) in m\ 

* That is, epithets, e. g. vrtrahan, which accompany any of the regular names, e. g. 
Indra, mentioned above^ cannot be enumerated ; cp. Nirukta vii. 13 : ahhidhanaih sa^jfujya 
havU eodayadndraya Vftraghna indraya vrtratura indrayatithomuca iti: tdny apy eke aamd- 
mananti, bhuySfnii tu samamnanat. Cp. below, ii. 93. ^ i. 86-88. 

15. Threefold Vac : her terrestrial and middle fbrms. 

72. As to Speech (Vac) also, who is threefold as terrestrial, 
middle, (and) celestial, listen to (an account of) her hymns (and) 
names according to her sphere. 

ftftvT 5 ^ hdr, ftftvT 5 ^: m\ fBivrgTr b, (^TTRrar) ^ ftw 5 ^ 

fk. — •^HT'f f^ hm^r, ^HTf ft* b, •WTTrfSf fk. 

73. Now she owns the entire hymn when the rivers on earth, 
and when the waters, (and) when the plants*, being praised, 
own it^. 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA ii. 74— [62 

Tf^T hm't'*bfkr^ 'S^r'r*, TPTT r. — ^Rl ^pTT hdm'bfk, SRi: ^?TT r, -HlW^r 
r'r*. — ^I^ %»( r'r*bfkr^, q^^ r\ IR %»i hd. TJ^^'r m^ — WSpfirnft bdm'r. 

^^ira: V^ hdr, 7[^ TftqV*(*fl^T r'r*. 

" HiveFs, waters, pbnts are bere mentionod ia the same order as in Naighantuka 
V. 3, and above, i. iix. Enam, nliich all the MSS. have, ia UDgnnunatically used 

for enad. Kith reference to the neuter tiktam; cp. V.r, of itarad, vm. 17. 

74. And when she becomes Aranyani and Ratri, Sraddha, 
U^as, and Prthivi by name, and Apva*, (ail these forms of her) 
own the stanza''. 

■?ni^^hdm'r,?r^^b.W^^fk. — ^t^:hdr,^WTm\tmr^r*bfkt'. — 
gfwrt ^ hdrb, gfsrft #^ m'fk. — IfiffT^l^ hd, ^Al'UI'if ni\ ^?TnrT ^ fkr, 

g^ mr^ b. 

' See below, 75, note '. *■ As her representatives, being thua fghkaja^. 

75. Also when she becomes AgnayT^ by name, she appears 
here {in the RV.) in various passages {(atra tatra) praised only 
incidentally in some (hymns) addressed to Agni. 

•nrnftifit^ hdm^r, TTW^t %^ b, 1T«ift%^ fk. — ^jf^rt,bfkr, !J apftf^i; 

' Of the above eleven names of female deities, nine agree with the enmneration 
{nadyah to Agmyt) in Naighantuka v. 3 (terrestrial deities), Vg&s and Sarasvati being added 
from Naigba^fiika v. 5 (ntmoKpheric deities). Tbejr also correspond to the Ust of ten in 
BD. i. 113 (where they are connected nith the terrestrial Agni), the only difference being 
that ITsas and Sarasvati in the present passage take the place of IIS in that. 

76. When she, being Vac '^ in the middle (sphere), has become 
Aditi and Sarasvati, she owns the complete hymn under (these) 
three names only''. 

JTHt W^ hdm'r, iHTOW bfkr*. — gWT t^ hm'r, g#^ ^ bfk. — S^rt hbr, 
Wra fk, 5»re m'. — ^ f^lfSr^ hm'r, gwn; fir^ b, S 1^Cfir% fk. — The end of the 

carjra is hero narked by qit in bfm^, not iahdfc. This sloka (76) is numbered as C(=90C) 
in hd, and as ^0 (=^^0) in m*. 

' Of the nineteen names of the middle 'Vac enumerated in 76 to 78, all except 
Romosa (and, of course, Durga) are to be found in Naighaptuka v. 5 (deities of the middle 
sphere), dnapatni/aft being added from Naighantuka v. 6 (celestial deities), while four 
(occurring in v. 5), Pj^hivi, Gauri, Usas, and Ila, are omitted. They are for the most 

53] — ii. 78 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

part identical with the female deities previously enumerated (i. 128, 129) as connected 
with Indra. ^ That is, the middle Yac is sukiabhaj under these three names alone, 

while under the remaining names, which are incidental, she is only rgbhaj, 

16. Other middle fomui of Vao. Her four oeleitial fbrms. 

77. [She on becoming Durga (and) uttering* a stanza may 
own a (whole) hymn]^. Her (other) names are Yami, Indrani, 
Sarama, Boma^ ^, UrvaSi ; she first ^ becomes Sinivali and Baka, 
Anumatiy Kuhii ; 

^5SThdm^fkr,T|?Jh. — ^k^^ hd rfk, ♦Jifl'i b, ^3[jW m\ — ^S9fThdrfk,V^mS 
WT r*r^, l?ffr b. — The first line of 77 (esaiva dwrgd) is omitted in r^r*. — ^IffTWrPf 
hm^r, ^Wnirft* r^r*, % ^fif^Tft ^ TTTRt f, Wft ^fMl^ ^ •IWI'ft 
^1llfl[l4) b. This looks as if the words of the text I1i)|4||fi| had been glossed with 
the words V$i ^(fl^If^ ^ «ii«ii(«i ^A^Jtlf^, i.e. 'and the names devoted to her 
praise, which own hymn or stanza,' (are) . . . , and as if this gloss had been substituted 
for TRTTTrfV in b as well as f (where, however, ^nRT^Tf^ is omitted), while only 
^li4J{|fq| was substituted in r^r*. — tllD^lfUl hdm^, ^Hl^luH 'i «l(«l^lfui b, 
^fimiffl f. — «rTOI3m hdm^r^ iT^^^TiOT bfkr^ ^«|fMV|| r, VM^VII r^r*. — 
TJWl m^nUil hdm^rbfk, TT^m^^Pi: r^r*. 

* What was exactly meant by kfiva in connexion with fcom in this interpolated line 
(see next note) is not clear. ^ There can be no doubt that this line is an inter* 

polation> for Burga, not being a Vedic goddess, is not to be found in the NaighaiQituka, 
as are all the other deities here enumerated ; the line, moreover, interrupts the sense of 
the passage, besides giving half a sloka too much to the varga. It must, however, have 
been an early interpolation, as it occurs in MSS. of both groups. ® This is the only 

one of the above names not occurring in Naigha^fuka v. 5, 6. Cp. note* on 76. 
^ This perhaps alludes to the fact that the group Anumati, BakS, Siniv&H, Euhu, in 
Naighai^tuka v. 5, comes before Yami, UrvasT, Prthivi, Indra^i. 

78. then Go, Dhenu, the Wives of the Gods, Aghnya, Pathya, 
and Svasti, Rodasi. (Now) whatever names of any (gods) * are 
incidental, own the stanza (only)^. 

4)^«i^4Mr»J1^WT hm^ bfk, ^h^t^j^^^ri^ I^TT r, ^O^^flMw^^'^n r^ r*, 
^^qont VI r*r'. — l^flR^ hr^m^br^r^ ^fftl ^ fkr*, ^T^R^ r. — ^MlRl^lHl 
^44i|(||| hm^r, ^Mlfd^l^llfMl^lf^ b, PlMIMI«l|ini44l(^ fk, «(Mlffl4l^ ^- 

Introduction] BEHADDEVATA ii. 79— [6* 

* Yeidia : this being a general renurk, &nd tLerefore not rerening gratnmaticalljr to 
the female deitiea enumerated in the preceding lines. That is, the incidental (not- 
palika) names of the middle Vac (lilie the corresponding ones of her tefrCBtrial form in 
74, 75) are only Btanxa-uwning (rs^haj), not bymn-owniog [tikla&kaj) as the primary names 
in 76 (as well as 73 and 79). 

79. But when this Vac becomes Surya, she belongs to that 
(celestial) world : thus on becoming U?as as well as Surya, she 
owns the entire hymn ". 

g]$Tg bditi^rb, g|$Tg f. — "f^mr bkr, "firm f. 'ftr^; bd. — 7t^ hdm^bfkr'r', 

^ r. — gwg^ rbrS''. ^Tlig^ hdm^^ffcrl 

* These beiug the primary nameii of the celestial Vuc. Thus there is a whole hymn 
to Siirja (x. 85) and a number to Ufaa, 

80. And when she becomes Vr^akapayi (and) Saranyu*, these 
two undoubtedly (own) a stanza''. And when she is Earth 
corresponding to Heaven (dyuvat) **, she only owns (a stanza) 

incidentally ^. 

■%^^^qji;hm'rb.?^^^f, l^^^ ?!|"g?^ r^r*, % g^Il rl — ^^^ hdr^ 
gftfl m', qftfl r, ^f^fk.aN'tt r'r*. 

* Usas, Sur}-u, YfSakapSyi, Soranyu ore all mentioned together in this order as god- 
desses of the celestial spheje in Naighantuka vt. 6. Vrsakapayi and Saranyu are esch 
montiooed only once in (he RV. (x. 86. 13 and x. 17. 2 respectively). " That b. as 
belonging to the celestial sphere ; for Frthivi occurs among the deities of each of the 
three spheres in Najghantuka v. 3, 5, 6. This is doubtless due partly to Frthivi being 
coustantly invoked along with {the celestial) Dyaus, and partly to the loose use of the 
' three earths ' in the RV., to denote earth, oir, hosven ; cp. my ' Vedic Mythology,' p. 9. 

Pfthivi is addressed in only one whole hymn (of three stanzas), v. 84, where she is stated 
below (v. 88) to be madhyama; but according toii. 74, 76,80 no form of Pfthivi is mktabhaj. 

81. We see that when this "Vac is Surya, Gauri", Sarasvati, 
they (are) in the hymns to the AU-gods (praised) incidentally only. 

bfk omit ^qi*)q ^m', going on JT»TT 'ilO ^'^■> doubtless owing to the preceding 
lino ending with ^T^.— %^WT: hm' rbk, %WT: f,%^lTT»lr' r*. — 81''= iv. 36^ — The end 

of the carya is here marked by ^§ in hhfk, not in m'. — In hd, 8i°* (ending ^X^oftlT_) is 
numbered <\^ (=^19). and 82"'' (ending ^W^) <\1i {=^<\1i,). 

* A goddess of the middle sphere (Naighari(uka v. 5) umittod in the enumeration 
above (77, 78}. &V. i. 164. 41, 41 are given as examples for Oauri in Niiukta xii. 40, 41. 

65] — ii. 84 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

17. Vames of female eeera : tliree groupe. 

82. Gho^a *, Grodha ^, Visvavara ^^ Apala d, Upanisad, Ni^ad ©, 
Brahmajaya (who is) named Juhu ^, the sister of Agastya &, Aditi \ 

m^bfkrV, ^q|<lM|4inMfim<lf*^M4. hdr^ — tll^f HI43H4« m^brfkd,irRn"^regpgh. 

* RV. X. 39, 40, * X. 134. 6, 7. ® V. a8. * viii. 91. 

* These two are the seen of the khila of seven stanzas beginning pra dharayantu tnadhuno 
ghftatyoy and described thns in the Kashmir MS. of the khilas : * pra,* sapta, brdhmyo 
[i.e. brahfnyau=rbrahmavddinyau] nisadupanisadau, ' Juhu Brahmi^yS, seer of RV. 
X. 109 ; see Ar^ukrama^i x. 51, and Sarvanukrama^T on RV. x. 109. ' Seer of 
RV. X. 6o« 6 ; cp. Arsannkrama^i x. 24 ; Sarvanukrama^i on x. 60 ; Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. 139, 
note 7. ^ The seer of some of the stanzas of RV. iv. 18. 

83. and Indrani*, and the mother of Indra^, Sarama^, Romafia^, 
Urvafii ®, and Lopamudra ^, and the Rivers ?, (and) Yami \ and the 
wife SafivatiS 

^^4||fl| hm'rb, ^<|^4||fl| fkr*. — ^ JTSHt hdr^*, ^ 1(|4||<f) m^r, jfilm ^ 
bfkr*.— 83^ = u. 77^. 

* X. 86 (several stanzas) and 145. ^ Indramatara|]t are said to be the Rishis 
of X. 153, Arsanukrama^i x. 79. ° In several stanzas of x. 108. ^ i. 126. 7. 

* In several stanzas of x. 95. ' i. 179. i, 2. ' In some stanzas of iii. 33. ^ That 
is, Yami Vaivasvati in x. 10 and 154. ^ viii. i. 34. Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. 40^ cites 
a passage from the Nitimafijari in which nort, among women (strisu)^ is she who is distressed 
when her husband is distressed, and rejoices when he rejoices, iaivatt being quoted from 
the RV. (viii. i. 34) as an example. Op. Sarv&nukramai^i on RV. viii. i, and below, vi. 40. 

84. 6ri», Lak^a^ Sarparajni®, Vac<i, ^raddha^ Medha^, 
Dak§ina &, Ratri ^, and Surya Savitri i, (all these) are pronounced 
to be female seers ^ {hrahmavddinyah). 

^t4[r^ hdm^ ^tvnr b, ^^ij^ fk, ij^^^^: r. — ^irrirnft hm^r, iil9<iin 

b, irNKniT f, ^NKnrr kr^ — ^t«i ^nr ^w hm^r, ^i^s^i^v^ b, theti^ 

fk. — |,f\fli: hm^r, |,f\fll fk, kj^iil b. 

* Supposed seer of the ffrlsukta, the khila after ¥.87. ^ Seer of a khila, cp. 
below, viii. 51. ^ RV. x. 89. * x. 125. • x. 151. ' Seer of the 
MedhSsukta, the khila after RV. x. 151. ' Rv. x. 107. ^ x. 127. ^ x. 85. 
' These three slokas (82-84) are identical with three at the end of the Arsanukramanl 
(x. 100-102). With 82, 83, cp. i. 128, 129. 

IntroductioDJ BRHADDEVATA ii. 85— [68 

85. The first group of these, consisting of nine *, praised the 
deities ; the middle series ^ conversed with seers and deities. 

«I*II iimV, (Tret fkr^, TTTHT b. — qj^^BI^ hra'r, ^^1^51 ^ b, q^ljgT ^ f . 
^'t^JffT ^ k. — B^hm'r, «g^ b, ^I^ f kr^ ^T^ r'. 

* That is, those enumerated in ii. 82. The niao eaiinieratcd in il. 85. 

86. So the last group sang of the evolutionary forms (hhdva- 
vrttdjii)^ of Self''. Whoever is the seer (of a hymn by one) of 

the last gi'oup is also the deity ". 

inNl^t^W: hm'r, ^T^ ^^it^fl: k, ^STCnTTtrra: bf. — 86 ii omitted in 

r'r*. — The end of the varga ia here marked by q^O in hdbfk, not ia m'. 86"' il 

numbered as (^c {=^«lC)in hd, 87°* aa Ifi. (= ^Sft). 

* For a definition of bhdvavrttam, see below, ii. izo. ** According to the Sarvl- 
nuknma^T, eeer and deity are identical in the case of ^rparijilT (RV. x. 189: atmadai- 
valam), Vac (x. IZg: tustSvalmanam), S'raddha [s. 151), Daksina (x. 107]. RatrT (x. 137), 
SU17S SavitrT (x. 85 : atmadaivatam). The three others, S'ri, I^km, Medi^, are the seen 
and deities of khilas. Alman here I take to mean ' self (in accordance with the evident 
roeaniiig of the Sarvannkramani paasages just given, and their interpretation by Sadgara- 
sisya), the expression atmano bhSvavrllaai jagaM being equivalent to atiwrnun attaud . . 
devatam in 87. " As the object of praise is self. 

16. Ztai^ In Mlf-landatiotts and colloquieB. Farticloi. 

87. Now (each seer of) the last group thus praised herself 
aa the deity : therefore whoever may be the seer in self-laudations 
is at the same time the deity. 

^m^Itth: bm^r, ^iTWt^ra: b, Tm^t^nr: f, '^'flng ^: r'r*. — jwt^tw- 

'ai^^ hm'r, TWT^TT^raftg b. TTOTt^HTO^ fk, flJ*llif I(««'^fc3(^) r'r*.— ^TO 

^ft: %^ ^flfli hm'r, ^n^r '^ft ^^ ^^711 fb, ^rra ^ft ^^rm k, sftT%^ 


88. He who utters the speech in colloquies should be (regarded 
as) the seer "^ in it ; whoever may be addressed by that speech 
should be (regarded as) the deity therein ''. 

fl^fft: hm^rbfk,>Ifligf^: r'r^. — "11*0 "^rt htii'rb,^SlT'5'r fk.— ^TW^ m^kr, 
TT^^lidfb. — ^m ^r^ ^hdm'r, ^^m ^ "^^f.^TfT «r ^ «Tk, ^^init^ 
WT r'r*, ^m 3 OT b. 

67] — ii. 91 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

* Op. SairSnokramani, Introduction ii. 4 : yasya vahymj% sa fsifi. ^ Cp. ibid., 
ii. 5 : ya tenoeyaie $a devata; see also the three linea quoted from the DevatSnukramani by 
l^gnnuisya (pp. 97, 98) on BY. i. 165. 

89. * Particles are enumerated in various senses — both for the 
purpose of connecting actions, and occasionally for the sake of 
comparison ^. 

WltM^^lflY T hm* (and Nirukta i. 4), ^mfRVf^nrV T fkr, l|^Umif4Hf9 ^ 

* Text and translation, with notes, of the following passage (ii. 89-122) have been 
printed by me in the Albmn-Kem» pp. 334-340. ^ Cp. Nirukta i. 4 : aiha nipata 
MceSvaeetv artheiu nipatanty apy iq>amdrthe *pi karmopastuiigraharthem 

90. Others again (are) occasionally (used) for the purpose of 
filling up* defective verses {pdda). Those (particles) which in 
metrical books have the purpose of filling up (the verse) are 
meaningless ^ : — 

^RPlt hm^r, HTPrT f, iRTft k, ^nTRT b. — y4^l||'|tlfl hm^r, ^(JCTTif br^r*, 

31, « 4 f, ^^iin^ k. — ^g^nrnfrw* hm^rb, ^^irr^ ^ r^r*, y<i<qi4i^ f. 

* Op. Nirukta i. 4 : atha nipatali . . api padapurai^. ^ Based on Nirukta i. 9 : 
atka ye pravjrtte *rthe *mitakfaretu granthefu vakyapuraj^a agaehanti, padapurat^ te mita" 
ksarefv anarikakali : ham hn id v Hi: ' Now those particles which, when a subject is 
started, appear as sentence-filling in non-metrical works, being yerse-filling in metrical boobt, 
(are) meaningless, (viz.) ham, im,id,u*: examples for these are quoted in Nirukta i. 10. 
Cp. also BV. Friltis&khya xii. 9, and VS. PrStisSkhya ii. 16. 

91. they are to be recognized as Jccrni^ fm, id, u\ But (there 
are) also such (particles) as have various senses. Iva, na, cid, nu — 
these are the four having the sense of comparison ^. 

•I^OfilffllRl m^r (and Nirukta i. 9), ^l^f^ jfH h, ^rR^f7TQ[f?r b, ^T^ftfinjfiT 

, ^rnufflcni kr*. — in^^m^i^ n hm^r, ^5«n^rwrw n f, Frnrnrnwrni n b, 

?l% 4ll4^i: ^pfft r^r*. — ^r^ft ^ t*IW hr^ 1[qt l| ffTff m\ f^ ^ t^ r*, 1[ir WT 
t^ b, 1[ir ifT t^ f, ICff t^ r. — il^fin ?| hm^r'bfkrV, ^minft r^r*. — The 
end of the varga is here marked by ^C in hbf, by ^^ in k, omitted in m^. 

* Nirukta i. 9, quoted above, ii. 90, note ^. ^ Op. Nirukta i. 4 : ete eatvara 

upamartke bhavandtif the four particles mentioned above being then discussed in the same 

n. I 

Introduction] BRBCADDEVATA ii. 92— [68 

19. Particles (continaed). Fr«poiitioiiB. Oanden. 

92. Now na is, in metrical books, only occasionally used as 
a particle {iiipatyate) in the sense of comparison, but frequently 
in (the sense of) negation*. 

^xmr^ hm'r'r*, gqJTT^ br.gqTTT^ fk. — Jlfift^ 9T^^TTi: hr'bfkr^r', Jlfiftq- 

^^rtraj: r, ^^fliT^^i^^: m' (cp. u. 90''). 

' Op.Nimkta i. 4; neli pralitedhartkiyo bhaiayam, ubhayam aavadhyai/ain . . . proliit- 
dhSrHiya^ , . . upamdrlhiya^. 

93. There does not exist an enumeration of the particles 
(stating explicitly) ' there are so many ' *. These particles are 
used (nipdtyante) at every turn {pade pade) on account of the 
subject-matter (prakarana) \ 

' The same expressinn ia used in RT. Pi^tis&khja lii. 9 : neyaata Uy asti tamihyS ; bat 
tlie TS.PratiH'fifchya(ii. 16 and viii. 57) enumeratea fourteen. and in the latter pasaaga atrtea 
that to be the number. Yaska, however, mentions twenty-two in Nirukta i. 4 ff., where 
five of those treated in the VS. Priitisakhya do not occur. '' Cp. RV. Pratisakhyaiii.g: 

aTlhanaiat, on account of the sense.' See also Hemacandra'a Abhidhann-cintamani, ed, 
fiiibtlingk, p. 443 ; Benfey, Qiittinger Qelehrte Anzeigen, 18^9, no. 103, p. 1013. 

94. The twenty* prepositions (upasargdh) are to be recognized 
by reason of their connexion with (verbal) action ^ ; for they 
differentiate the meaning ° in the inflexions of noun and verb'^. 

ftrarra^3t'Ihm'r^bfkr*r', ftrarra^ft^r. — TH^ hm^b, W^r*r", l^T f k, ^rfTt 
1^*, W^Pt,!-. — "ftHfiirg hm'r^bfkr^A "ftwRltpT: r', 'f^«fi«fl: r*. 

' Tliia Dumber is expressly stated in RV. Piutisakhya xii. 6, 7 ; it is alao the number 
enumerated in Kiruktai. 3, RV. Friitiaakhya xii. 6, VS. PtStis'akhya vi. 24, and in the Oapa 
pradaya^. *" Cp. PSnini i. 4. 59 : upasargafi Ai iyayoge. " Cp. RV. Fratiiakhya sii. 8 : 
upiuar^D vUetakit. Cp. Nirukta i. 3 : %amakhyatayOT artkavikara^m, 

95. Acha% Srad, antar — these the teacher Sakatayana con- 
sidered prepositions because of their comiexion with action ; they 
are three more. 

59] — ii 99 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

^ aU MSS. and r. — ^^IToNh: hm^rb, ^IToNh fk.— it 1J hiii\ ?| If bfk, ?N r. — 
95>io5 omitted in r^r^. 

^ Aim, which already occurs among the twenty, must be an old corruption^ as the 
reading of all the MSS. It might stand for either acha or aram, but the former seems 
both palaeographically and otherwise the more probable. Alam, antar, aoka are gatia in 
FS^ini i. 4. 64, 65, 69. A vSrttika on Pacini i. 4. 59 adds irad to the list of upaiorgas, 

96. There are just the three genders in popular usage {loke) — 
masculine, feminine, neuter *. In (regard to) nouns, the employ- 
ment of which has been stated^, the subject-matter must be 
stated in this way®. 

^ n hm\ ^fW bfk, Wn T. —n\M^U^7 l ^ hbfkr, WRflim^l r^r* 

(among the fragments added in E's edition, p. 56, sloka 130). — WV^ TlWKji ^(^ hbfkr, 

^^t^ irV^ W^ r^r^ {Qnd.), — The end of the varga is here marked by 9Q. in hbfk, 
not in m^. 

* Op. above, i. 40. ^ This probably refers to BD. i. 23-45. ^ That is, 
in connexion with gender. 

20. STonns. Fronount. Sense. Bnles for oonstming. 

97. Now these (names) are mentioned (not only) by means 
of nouns, (but also) by means of genders; by means of pronouns 
repeated mention (is made) of (a noun already) mentioned, similar to 
(the repeated mention of) a positive or negative act {krtdkrtasya) *. 

mrranfrer all MSS. — If^lft rk, ^^ hm^bf. — ^9^>Rtf : bfkr, ^^: h. 

* Lit. ' what has been (stated to be) done or not done ' : the meaning probably being 
that pronouns may refer to a preceding verbal notion as well as a noun. 

98. All (authorities) say that the names (occurring) in verses, 
hymns, stanzas, hemistichs, and any others (there may be), (are) 
noims; some^ (call them) so according to circumstances {yatha 
hatha) ^. 

^ Wnnfr ^WTFI^ hf k r, ^j«ir b, JPffrnRTf*! % ^TF^ r^ r* (sloka 131). — ^H^ 
^ hbfkr, IRI^ r^ r*. — ^1^1 ^WT hfkr, Jf^ l|^b, WRIT 'TOT r^ r*, 1^1 flWT m\ 

* Anye here used in antithesis to icarve must be meant as an equivalent to eke* 
^ A somewhat archaic use of the adverb hatha ; cp. yatha hatha ca in Nirukta iv. 3, x. 26. 

99. The sense is the chief thing*; for a term (Sahda) is 
required (to be) dependent on the qualities {guna) of it^ (the 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA a lOO— [60 

sense) ; therefore one should bring terms under subjection to 
the sense by the various expedients of construing. 

"mi: r, •iTTi^tii^ b, *nw*ii fk. 

* op. NinikU ii. i : arthanUj/a^ pariktela. ^ That tad must refer to arthah ia 
Bbown b; the eipresbion iabdan arthavaiam nayet. 

100. A redundant word (pada) should be rejected, while one 
that is lacking one should introduce into the sentence ; and 
one that is far removed one should bring into juxtaposition, 
and should (then) arrange the regular sequence (of the words). 

101. Gender, root, and inflexion one should, in their respective 
places, adapt * (to the sense). Whatever is Vedic in a formula 
one should turn into everyday speech (laukika) \ 

Vnjftjrfm ni'kr, VligftHftl bdb. WjfilftflfH f. — *i*l*i'iH hdm'. OT% 
?T^ brk, ^N^rn r (cp. Nirukla ii, i : f^PTWt: H'm^). — »T#i m'bfk, ^T^ iid, 
^TW r. — JlTT^r^T^ m'b, fTrT gi^tfl f. J^Iil-tlTl r, J^T*!^ ^ hd. — The end 
of the varga ia here marked hy ^0 ia bdbf, not in m'k. 

' Cp. Nirukta ii. t : yatharlkaifl vibhaktih tamnamayet. * Cp. i. 4 and 33. 

91. Analfiifl of words. Six kindji of ooBtpouidfl. 

102. The analysis of the secondary elements {c/utux) * may be 
(effected) by the aid of all roots {dhdtu) which possess a traditional 
characteristic form {linga), and the sense of which can be stated. 

■■mflfllllfl la'bfkr, ^T^«(T»tfl bd. — "fS^W: ^TT^h, "ft^ Wnt,m'. "ffl^^I^ 
bfk, "flT^ ^ T. 

* The root {dhala) here Tepresentiog the primary fonn {prakj-li or pradhana), cp. 
ii. 108, And r. 96. 

103. A word [pada), the definition of which can he expressed, 
whether it be derived from two roots, many (roots), or one root, 
is one consisting of a sound (sabda) that contains root, preposition, 
members {avayava), and secondar}' elements {guna). 

61] — il 107 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

b. — mfi^ hdfkr, TTft b. — Tll^ hdw}, Tl^ b fk, IT^ r. 

104. A word inay be explained in five ways, (viz.) aa derived 
£jx)m a root, as derived from the derivative * of a root, as derived 
from a compound meaning {samastdrtha)\ as derived from a 
sentence {vdkya) ^, and as (of) conftised ^ (derivation). 

* CorrespoDding to taddhita below, 106, and Ninikta ii. a. ^ Thai Ib, derived 

with a samasanta suffix ; cp. taddhita-iomasefu, Nirukta ii. 2. ^ As, for example^ 

itihasa {szUi haa$a), ^ VyatHnn^i that is, by transposition of letters; cp. Nirukta 

ii. I : ady^anta-viparyttyafi, 

105. Dvigu, Dvandva, Avyayibhava, and KarmadhS.raya, the 
fifth Bahuvrihi, and the sixth called Tatpuru^a (are the com- 
pounds) *. 

* This sloka is quoted by Durga on Nirukta ii. 2. Only four classes are distinguished 
in the VS. FiatisSkhya (i. 27 and v. i, commentary)^ which does not mention the dvigu 
or the karmadhSraya class. 

106. In compounds, as well as in a secondary derivative, 
explanation {nirvacas) should proceed from analysis : one should 
explain after separating ^ (the parts) ; thus * punishable ' (dayd^a) ^ 
as * deserving punishment ' {danda^rhd)^ 

f^lTfTftRhn xn^, f^nVfT f^Am hdrfk, f^Hlf iffl^'^: b. — nRi^ hdr, llfl{!t b, 
HT^ fk. — fSrjj^rr^ hdm\ 1*15515 r, f*rfWT fk, fiiq^CIl b. — l^ip[I bfr, ^H9«i 
hd, ?P9 m^k. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hdbf k, not in m^. 

* Cp. Nirukta ii. 2 : taddkita-^ama$esu . . . pSirvaifi f^rvam aparam aparoffi praoibkajya 
ntr&niya/. ^ As an example of a taddhita ; cp. Nirukta iL 2 : dai^afk . . . dafK^im 
arkaU ; see also K^ini v. i. 66, 

22. Xeaning aad analyns of wordi. 

107. and * fair-wived* {rupavad-hharya) as 'he has a fair 
{rupavati) wife (hhdryd) * *. Thus * Indra-Soma ' {Indrd-Somau) as 
* Indra and Soma * is an example (of a Dvandva). 

* As an example of a bahuvrihi. YSska, in Nirukta ii. 2, 3, exemplifies only the 
tatpurusa class, though without naming it. 

IntroductioD] BRHADDEVATA ii. 108— [6S 

108. The form of the sound (Sahda), the sense of the word 
{pada), the etyraology, the primary form {prakrti), the secondary 
element {guna), all this has manifold sense : there are ten species 
{ffuiidh, soil., of explanation) in (ca^e of) misunderstanding (antt- 
vagame) "■. 

irerf?!^ hdbfk, «afrt<,r.— ^Hl*1fl'r5* r, ^Ull*lfl'l*l hdm', ^mil^g^ bfk. 

* That IB, five correct eipl nil ati oris under the above heftds, and five incorrect. 

109. Terms (Sahddh) expressive of a general meaning are 
occasionally applied in a particular sense (viSese) ; thus (in) ' Who, 
pray, men ' {ko nu nnarydh : viii. 45, 37), the interpretation (of) 
' goes ' i^mle) is in (the sense of) ' fleeing' *. 

f'rlf^ mifurti: bm'r. ft^ BSifiTn: b. fin^ ^iftii r, f«iai^ aiftii k. — 

MWI*!"^ hrbfk. — 'Vm ^ffll hm'bf, *J«(l3fM rk. — ^TT^t b. I^ft^ m'bfr, ^- 
Bft k. — 109'* and no"* are omitted in d. 

* The word ifate in RV. viii. 45. 37 is explained by Yaska In his comment on this 
Btanta (Nirukta iv. 3) as palayate, wbile in Kaigbantuka ii. 14 it is enumerated among 
tbe verbs which mean 'to go.' 

110. But other (terms) expressive of a particular meaning are 
occasionally applied in a general sense ; in the formula, ' With cold 
the fire' (himendgnim : i. 116. 8), the term 'frost'* {hima) is 
an example. 

* Yiaka, in hia comment on BV. i. tt6. 8 (Nirukta vi. 36],ei)>lainE himena by udakena 
grtsmdntt ; cp. also Siiya^a on i. 116. 8. 

111. Yaska has, in the stanza 'To every tree'" {vrk§e-vrlc$e : 
X. 27. 22), explained the word ' man-eating ' (^puru^ddah) by taking 
one word (and) dividing (it) into two ^. 

y^MI^: hdm'fr. ^S;qi^: b. gVH^ k- — The end of the targa is here marked by 
^^ in hdbf, nut in m'k. 

* This and the following five eiamplea (in 111-114) are given as illustrations of wrong 
interpretation due to miHiinderstanding [anaiiagama). The preceding two ilokas may also 
have been meant to be included in this oriticiem. ^ Yaska, in Nirukta ii. 36, esplaini 
pinuadah u purwan adanaya, in order to devour men,' but there is nothing hi thi* to 
justify the criticitm that he took pirvtadah as two words. 

63] — ii 115 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

28. Tatka's wrong eacplanatioiui. Bropping of letters. 

112. Similarly, another (expression) which is not one (word), 
he has explained 843 one only hy (his) analysis as * month-maker ' 
{mdsa-krt) in the formula, * The ruddy one me once ' * {aruno md 
sakrt: i. 195. 18). 

* In his comment on this stanza Yaska (Nirukta v. 21) explains the word as masandift 
karta. Oar author here agrees with the Fada[»tha. See Both, Erlautenmgen, on Nirukta 
V. 21 ; SSya^ on BY. i. 195. 18 ; Geldner,yedische Studien iii, p. 178. 

113. In the stanza, 'Not to his brother' {najdmaye : iii. 31. 2), 
he has explained the two words garbharn nidhdnam, even though 
(another) word * intervenes, by making them into one ^. 

* Saniiuri the words in iii. 31. 2 being garhha^ ianitw nidhanam. ^ That is, 
his explanation, in Nirukta iii. 6, is garbkanidhamm, YSska, however, doubtless intended 
merely to express that the two words constitute an ' open ' or purely semantic compound ; 
op. Geldner, Yedische Studien iii, p. 107 ; Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. 92. 

114. The class of word is not recognized in the word tvah\ 
(nor) the sense in ditdman ^. Misunderstanding of the accent (in) 
adhdyi is shown in the stanza 'As on the tree'^ (vome na: 
z. 29. i). 

•<ftHlfll hdm^r, •Xt^frnfT b, ^PkljIAl f. — ?T:^ hdm^b, ^f^ fk, W 

in^(^:) r. — ^: ftpTRfr hdm\ ^ fli4ii4ini b, ^ f^«ii4ifii f, ih fkmnfM r. — 

I94,I«I«|J|4[1 hdm^rfk,ig4,l«l«l^l4\ b. — ^1|%%» m^r, l|%il* hd.^V b, ^it» fk. 

^ Yaska (Nirukta L 7) enumerates, doubtless following an earlier view, tva among 
the particles, but he dearly considers it an inflected word (ibid, i. 8). Our author must 
therefore be criticixing the latter view. ^ Yaska (Nirukta iv. 3) states that the word 

means 'fore-arm' (dot), adding the divergent views of Sakapuni, Taiftki, and GSlava. 
From the above it does not, of course, appear what view our author held. ^ YSska 

(Nirukta vi. 28) in commenting on BY. x. 29. i reads vay6 n< adhayi, while the Padaj^fha, 
reading va y6 n< adhayi, leaves the verb unaccented after the relative. If our author is 
criticising YSska, it does not appear what he means here by a misunderstanding of the 
accent. Cp. Both, Erlauterungen, p. 94; Max Miiller, BY. PiStiB&khya, p. 4; Big-veda, 
2nd ed., vol. iv, p. 9 ; SSya^a on BY. x. 29. z ; Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 532. 

115. As the regular order* (of the words) was (arranged) 
according to the sense in Sunah-sepa/m^^ Nard-samsam^ Dydvd 
nah prthivl d, nir-askrta ®, and the rest : 

IntroducUoo] BRHADDEVATA ii. ii6— [64 

H^rflWvd^lidro*, ofh^^Tg r, "ft! TT^T^ bfk. — '^t71B^hm'r,«^tmft fk. 

•wtgmt b. 

* That is, in the HTftmaj^tba- Thia and tha following a'lokn appenr to be connected 
thns: as the sense requires the restoration of words to their proper order ( pada-kranta), 
BO it requires the restoration of letters for the purposes of etymolojfy to their proper order 
(porpo-Jrrama). ^ For iunad etc chtpam in RV. v, 2. 7 ; see RV. Pralisakhf a ii. 43 
and xi. 8. " For nara va sarpiam in RV. i. 64. 3 ; see RV. Fr^tisakhya, kc. cit. 
^ That is, these words iu RV. ii. 41. 20 must be read as dyavSprlhivl nnh; cp. Nirukta 
ii. 38. ' For diV u roasaram atkrta in EV. \. 1 27. 3 i cp. BV. Pratisakhya x. 4, xi. 5. 

116. (so) there Is dropping of a letter {varna), of two letters, 
of many, and of a consonant ; (for instance, in) atrdni *, kapik ^, 
ndhhd ", danah ^, ydmi <>, and aghdsu f. 

^tlftw^ig m', tnftrW^Tg hdr, ^rrfftW^ig b. <Jlf*1«^I«( f. — The end of 

the varga is here marked by ^^ in hdbfk, not in ni'. 

* For attfaiyi in EV. s. 79. 1. *' For vrta-kapih in HV. x. 86. 5; see Kirukta 
zii. 37, " A very frequent form in the BV. before consonants beside the tve 
nabhan. There is possibly an olluBion to Yaska'a etymology (in Nirukta iv. li): nabkb- 
tamnahanat, " Explained by Yaska (Nirukta vi, 31), on EV. i. 174. 1, as danamanasafi. 
* Given by Yaska (Nirukta ii. 1) as an example in tat Iva ydmi (BV. i, 24. 11 or viii. 3. 9) 
for the dropping of a letter. It is explained by Durgs as=yacanii. ' In RV. x. 
85' 131 supposed to be^maghStu [the reading of the AV.); see Weber, Naksatra ii. 365, 
note '. 

34. Word and aeiiie. Tlie verb expreisei a form of becominff. 

117. From the sense (comes) the word (pada), its designation ; 
from the word (comes) the ascertainment of the sense of the 
sentence {vdkya). (For) the sentence arises from an aggregation 
of words, the word arises from an aggregation of letters *. 

^TfSl^hdm'rfk, ^TT^T^ b. 

■ Which are significant; bonce the sense is the starting-point in interpretation. 

118. From the sense (of the word), the subject-matter {praka- 
rana}, the gender, the appropriateness, and from (considerations 
of) place and time, the (possibility of) discriminating the (whole) 
sense in the formulas will result ; such is the settled rule {sthitil^) 
in {regard to) other (writings) also. 

There is a lacuna iu b from iiS"* to iii"': 7nt^^fq^[q[ HVf^j^R^: I 

65] — il 122 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Introduction 

119. He who thus exerts himself in the study of etymology 
(nairukte) by the various means of construing (anvaya), being 
desirous of knowing the form of Brahma % will, even though an 
evil-doer, go to the supreme ^ {param). 

* That U, the Veda. ^ Cp. l^^rukta i. i8 : yo *rihajHa it sakalofii hhadram 
ainuie : nSkam eti jHanavidhuta^apma, 

120. How this (world) did not exist in the beginning, either 
as non-existent or existent, how this universe {sarvam) came into 
being, (all) this they term the evolution {vrttam) of becoming* 

^rmnl fk. — ^^plfl dm^rfk, mUi h, M^^^ r^r* (R's edition, p. 56, sloka 132). 

* Op. below» viii. 46 on BY. x. 129 (nasat) : vadanti bhavaiffttajn tat 

121. The verb {dJchydta) has becoming as its fondamental 
meaning (pradhdna) *. There are these six modifications (vikdrdh) ^ 
of becoming : genesis {janma), existence {astitvam), transformation 
{pariTidmah), growth (vrddhih), decline {hdncrni), destruction® 

Mff^KI lid'. Mff^lO fk, q^H^i^i r^r* (p. 56, sloka 128). — ^^iRfli^hrm^ 
r^r* (p. 56, Bloka 128). iPinrftR* f.— ^r^^WTiit m^fr, HfhlTT^ d. Hft^ITlit h, VlfK' 
ITWt k. — ^firfpf ft* hdr, |Rlf if^Hl* fkr^r* (p. 56, sloka 128). — ^The end of the 
varga is here marked by ^8 in hm^f, not in k (nor in b owing to the lacuna in that MS.). 

* This definition is identical with that in Nirukta i. i : bhavapradhSnam akhyatam, 
Cp. BV. Fratib'akhya ii. 12. 8. ^ This is quoted by YSska (Nirukta i. 2) as the 
opinion of Yarsyaya^i : sa4 hhavavikara bhavanti, ^ The passage in Nirukta i. 2 on 
which this is based, gives the verbs (jayate &c.) corresponding to the above nouns. 

25. The deities of the Vyfihrtui aad of Qm. 

122. But whatever other modifications of becoming arise from 
these six * must be inferred in each case according to the sentence^, 
to the best of their ability (sdmarthydt), by those who are most 
familiar with the formulas, 

II. K 

Introduction] BRHADDEVATA ii 123— [66 

Vfff 1J hrfk, ^tJt: ^ r'r* (p. 56. slota 129).— ?* fl'fllflWH.hrfk, t|Viq^*m. 
r'r* (p. 56, aloka 129). — ^l^ffli: r, ^T^ f, ^TW^: h dm' (cp. Nirukla i. 3 : ^njff^WT.). 

* The wording is Bomewhat clumsy ; literally : ' others whioh arise from the modi- 
fication of becoming of these six.' The passage of the Nirukta (i. 3), on which the above 
is based, is more clearly expressed : anj/e ihavaviiarS tltfom tva vHcara bhavantt. ** Cp. 
Nirukta i, 3 ; te yathaoacamim abhyihUavnah, 

123. and (must) likewise {be iaferred) in accordance with the 
(nature of the) adorations {iiamaskdraih) * of the Gods and Fathers 
(appearing in those formulas). 

Now hear the divinity of the sacred utterances {oyShrti)^, 
individually and collectively. 

Tirarf^^rtN hm'r, WH^l^wSlfl fk, TW^ITTT^I^ b. — IW »Wf hm'r, ^H 

^po f k, ^r^nit b. 

*' That is, the various modifications of the verlal sense are to be Inferred not only 
from the nature of the sentence but aho of the prayer which it contains. If namaskarah 
be read, the meaning would be : ' the nature of the prayer is also to be inferred [in doubtful 
cases) from the tenor of the sentence.' ^ That is, the three mystical words bhir 

bhivah na^. 

124. Now the divinity of the sjicred utterances collectively 
is P^ajapati^ while the deities of them individually are this 
(terrestrial) Agni, Vayu, and Siirya (respectively). 

^^ ghm'r, ^flRT^fk, %^ ^ b. 

' Cp. Barvanukrama^T, Introduction ii. to : gamastanam prajapali^. 

125. The syllable Ora has Vac for its deity, or else it is 
addressed to Indra, or else (it belongs) to Parame^thin ; or it 
is addi'essed to the All-gods, or to Brahman, or to the Gods 
(in general), or Ka (is Its deity)*. 

^M^^Wt hdbr'r* {p. 56, e'loka 133), ^TI^TOt r, ^IT^^Wt f, ^TH^' m', ^- 
*^q1 k, — ^; fltl[^r'r*brkr,^: UlRhdm'. — The end of the vargaia here marked 
after this sloka (135) by ^M in hdm', but after IZ4 in bfk. The former is doubtless correct, 
as the eud of the oarga thus corresponds with the end of the Introduction, while in the other 
case the twenty-fifth vartja would without any apparent reason contain only throe s'lokas. 
The two vargaa, 35 and 26, however, contain together only eight slokas instead of ten. 

* On this s'loka is based SarvSnukramai^i, Introduction ii. 11, vhere, however, Vao 
and InJra are omitted, and oifAyaJmtJca^ (see Sadgurusisya) corresiponds to ka. 


67] — ii 128 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. I 1-3 

26. The first tliree hymnt. Authors of VaKvadera hymns. 

126. The first hymn is addressed to Agni. Its seer^ is 
Madhuchandas. The seven triplets^ which follow it should all 
be recognized as addressed to different deities. 

^n^ hm^rfk, ^R^ b. — •if M'NPRtbm^r'r*!*, •if ^Rl^J b, •if WJ^ f, 

•llWigiJ k, •^ mf^a: r. — ^fVi: ^ hm^^"^*^^ ^^TP^R^ b, ^<|l<fl^ fk, i|^- 

t5««iM r. — ^From here (126) down to 145 BsgendralSla Mitra giyes readings connected with 
r^ : ghapmstdkoddkftapa(hafi (perhaps =' restored ' or ' corrected ' reading). Both gha and 
gka tt are referred to in the notes on sloka 137, p. 57. 

^ More literally, ' the authorship (arfaJcam) is that of Madhuchandas.' ^ That 

IS, those which are contained in BY. i. 2, 3. 

127. The first of these (2. 1-3) is addressed to Vayu, the 
following one (2. 4-6) to Indra and Vayu, then one to Mitra 
and Varuna (2. 7-9), one also to the A^vins (3. 1-3), one to Indra 
(3. 4-6), then one to the All-gods (3. 7-9). 

^^t hm^r, ?W bfk. — ^^HTfi'ft hr*r*fkr*r*, ^ fTTftSRt b, •Hf mf^ 
r. — ^^ hrV, ^n^ fkr*, fip^ b, '^l^ft r. — ih hr*r*, ift m\ ^ bfk, tfl r. — 
^fl^qii: hm^r'r*, t)^I^^: bfk, MV4|4g'4: r. 

128. Now (this) last triplet (3. 7-9), composed in the Gayatri 
metre, contains that name {tan-ncmd)^, or has (the word) *all' 
(vUva) as its characteristic mark. But (any) other (hymn) 
addressed to many divinities can be recited in (the place of) 
those addressed to the AU-gods^. 

IRTRVT hr^r*r'm^ WPmn bfk, ITT^: ITOTf r. — ^f^lrfliyt ^ hm^r"r*r'b. f^T" 
miA^ fkr. After this there is a lacuna of four pSdas in fk : •ftnft [^ * * ITHhT^ 

^] iHt If vf^fiPi* — fli*i^^^^ 'i^* ^^'» TRnft w €|Ra^: b, TRnit 

^V^rratn r^r^r^ (r^ or ea first appears in Bajendral£la*s edition in the notes on this 
sloka, the whole introduction being evidently wanting in thb MS.). — ^^^^ci^^rb 
(=Nirukta adi. 40), lUT^^fl^ r*, ^JT^qnif, r', l| Jl^qWIi, hd. — U^*fJ m*^^ irt 
1J hb, ^if^^ r^r*. — I28*'=iii. 33^. 

* That is, each of these three stanzas contuns the name vUve devasah, or in other 
words it is characterzed by the term viha, ^ According to YSska (Nirukta zii. 40) 

this (i. 3. 7-9) is the only gSyatri triplet addressed to the Yisve dev&^. But, he adds, 

BV. i. 3] 

B^HADDEVATA ii. 129— 


whatever (hymn) is addieBied to many divinitieB may be suitably employed in place of 
such as are (in the atrict sense) addressed to the All-gods : yal tu lUfi cid bahiiilaii>atai}i 
lad vairnadevanain stkaBt yujyate. Cp. Roth, Erlauteningen, p. 167 ; also Sadguiusisya 
on 8ttn-5nukraniaiiT i. 139, 

129. In* LuSa'', Duvasyu'', aaryata'*, Gotama^ Rji^van*', 
Avatsaras, Paruchepa*>, Atri', the seer DirghatamasJ, 

^4Hn 'i^ ^|(@ hdni'r*r*r' (lacuna in fk): the latter muat ba a veiy old corruption 
as MSS. of both families have it. The only MSS. with the correct reading are apparently 
r' and r^. — JutH h d m^ b, SnTTO r ; the reading of f k (where the Su of ftPn seems to 
have caused the lacuna: see note on 128) fil^Ttfl^i alao pointa to 4||n*t- fllfl+i and 
■iflfl*! are frequently confused in the MSS.: cp. critical note on i. 58. — 1^^ h r*f, M^^^ 
b. ^^^r, ^T^kr^ tftij^m*.— V'ftr(=r'r'),^bffcr*r»hdm>rV: the latter 
must also be a very old corruption, which is easy to explain palaeographically, and would, 
moreover, have been helped by the hiatus ("¥^ U-fll). — ^raiTITO^ bm'r. ^*Sfl- 
41W(n b. ^MniQin f, ^ratPysft kr*. — The end of the narga is hero marked by ^^ 
in hdbfk, not ia m'. 

* The following twenty seers enumerated in 139-131 are all authors of hymns to the 
All-gods. '■ Seer of RV. x. 35, 36. ' Seer of RV. x. 100. '' Seer of EV. 

X. 9a. • Seer of EV. i. 89, 90. ' Seer of RV. vi. 49-53. * Seer of RV. 

T. 44. '' Seer of BV. i. 139. ' Seer of EV. vi. 41-43. J Seer of RV. i. 164. 

27. Character of Taixvadera hrnuts. 

130. in Vasiatha", Nabhanedi^tha**, Gaya", Medhatithi**, Manu«, 
Kak^ivat^ Vihavya^, as well as in many other seers'", 

^i^W7Tr>^ilft'l?^bdin*r*,qrpfhl^bfkr^ — «'B^Trf%hm'r'r*bkr^r'',»3^f55r. 

' Sear of EV. vii. ,34-37, 39, 40, 42, 43. '' Seer of RV. x. 61, 6a. ' Seer 

of RV. I. 63, 64. ■' Seer of EV. i. 14. * Seer of RV. viii. 37-30. ' Seer of 

RV, i. lai, 133. ' Seer of RV. x. laS. '' Besides the twenty here enumerated 

there are about ten other authors of Vaiivsdeva hymns in the EV, ; see .4ufrecht, BV.' 
vol. ii, p. 668, under devah. Seventeen of the twenty seers enumerated above (the 
omissions being Atri, Gathin, and NSbl^inedia(ha) are repeated below in iii. 55-59, where 
twenty more are added. 

131. in Agastya*. Brhaduktha "», Vi^vamltra*', and Gathin<i, 
variations {vipravdddk) <* are here (in the Pg-veda) apparent in 
their respective praises. 

69] — ii 135 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 3 

in^ '» ftlWT^T^ bfk. 

* Seer of BV. i. i86. ^ Seer of RV. x. 56. * Seer of RV. iii. 57. 
^ Seer of BV. iii. 20. ^ That is, these seers difPer from one another in regard to 
the deities addressed in their Vaisvadeva hymns. 

132. Now the teachers Yaska^ and Sandilya say that any 
formula^ in which a combination of many (deities) appears, is 
addressed to the All-gods. 

Wit^i ^^ hm^r, Mi\^l ^ b, w£Ax ^ fk. — ^^|^ J[^ hm^r'r*r*, ^tW^ W^ 
r, •^ ?rf^b, •^^ f, ^ 5i^^k. 

* In Nirakta xiL 40: see above 128, note ^. ^ Mantra is here treated as a 
neater ; also below, viii. 129. 

133. One should state everything, whatever it be, a verse, or 
hemistich, or stanza, or hymn, which is addressed to many 
divimties, to be addressed to the All-gods*. 

^^^4 hrbfk, ^|^?^^m^. — ^V^^H^hm^rbfk (Ninikta zii. 40), •%^?THr^r*. 

* See above, 128, 132, and Ninikta xii. 40. 

134. All {sarvdh) the deities are praised by the seers with col- 
lective laudations ; now this technical term {samjnd) * collective ' 
(viha) is laid down (nijpdtitd) in (the sense of) all-comprehensive- 
ness* {sarvdvdptau). 

The words ^T^ to ^ITH (inclnsive) are omitted in fk. — ^^I^^T bfkr*r^hm^r'r*, 

^WWr r. — RlMlfJIfll hdr, RlMlHl^ bm^r*r*, (iimfllfJI f k. — The end of the varga 
if here marked by ^^ in bfk, by ^C in hd, not at all in m^. 

* That is, it is used in a collective sense, viive devafi thus meaning 'the gods 

28. Passages of the ]{tg-veda addreMed to Sarasvatiu Indra 


136. Now the seventh (triplet) is addressed to Sarasvati 
(3. 10-12). These are the Praiiga deities*. She is praised in 
all stanzas by the name of Sarasvati in two ways : 

KV. i. 3-] BRHADDEVATA u. 136— [70 

*lK*3fl^ hrn'r^r^r*, ^T^^ITrej bfk, UKMd! r. — fl^ hui'r^r*r*, If^TlfT b, 
g^r^ fkr^, W>P?^ r.— TPrr: ira^I" hilr.ipmra" b, ^W\ irail' fkr". — After 135"* 

the following line (not found in hdm'r^bfkr''r°) ia added by r: 

— WT^tfVfit bm'bfk,*H,Mdl gr. — t^PraHtnim*, ft;ft^fk, fitft^fltUb, ft;f»|- 
Vm.r. — -^^hm'bfk, W^r. — «4iy ^ hm'r^i^r', Wf?B7^ r, 5fT8^ b.^TfljSlfk. 

* BV, i. 3. lo-ia, where Sareivati appears &s a Pniiga deity, is explained is Nimkta 
zi. 36, 37. Sarasvati again appears as a Praiiga deity in BV. ii. 41. 16-18. Cp. below, 
if. 9a. 

136. as a. river, and as a deity. Now with regard to this 
the teacher Saunaka has stated that the passages (in which she 
is praised) as a river* are six, (and that there is) not a seventh : 

•l<(lflX^fll«hbfkr^ (Nirukteii. 33). T^ft^t^ TT^ r.— fl^mi4^ hdm'. 
<a^l^t^^b,(J^TMHS5Ifkr'. ^TItT^r4<|]r*r*r*, (lS|q4J«*ir. — ^t^fV. hdm'r^r*bf 
lir^r*, 4g<1M.''. — •l4)flfHfl*<Kr*r*r^r^, *l^^f*1'|44I b, *l^qfi|II4n fk. Ti(1fl'^flfli: 
h dm'.— ^ ^ hm'r^r*r*A ^t fk, rf^ h. — i36'"'-i38°'^ seem to be omitted in r^ (and 
r*?), aa theae five lines are relegated to a footnote by Eajendraiaa Mitra. 

* Cp. Nirukta ii. 93 : aarasvalUy etaiya nadivad devaldvat: co nigama bkaeantt, 

137. (the six being)* 'Beet Mother' {amhi-tame: ii. 41. 6)^, 
'Alone' (ekd: vii. 95. 2), 'On the Dreadvati' {dr^advatydm : iii. 
23. 4"*), 'Citra indeed' {citra it: viii. 21, 18), ' Sarasvati ' " (x. 64. 9 
and vi. 52. 6*). Yaska, however, regarded this (passage), 'She 
with her might' {iyain Susmehhih : vi. 61. 2)*^, to be a seventh. 

^B^W hm', ^[^mi fkr, ^r^^ b.— ftni T« br'r^r^Or". X^ bfk. 

' As the first line of the sloka contains pratikas only, one would naturally expect 
nix aeparafe words to represent them ; but according to tbe reading favoured by tha 
HSS. (citra I'e ea, larasvali) there are oaly five, saratvati representing two paasagee. On 
the other hand, the reading of bfk, citra imam, gives six pruttkas; imam (i. 75. 5} is, 
moreover, most appropriate, as Sarasvati is here invoked with a number of other riven. 
Citra imam could easily have been corrupted to citra ic ca, the second word beginning 
with the same letter, and citra it being already familiar to the scribe from a ptevioni 
occnrrence (i. 48}. CJfra Je ea would mnch less oasilj be cormpted to eitra imam. The 
id could not have been considered necesHar; for identification, aa another stanza of the 
BV. also begins citra it {3. 115. l). For these reasons citra imam appears to be the pre- 
fenble reading. In this pasuge •Strt^vati is again a Prauga deity ; cp. 135, note *> 

71] — ii 140 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. L 6 

* There are three pSdas In the RV. beginning Sarasvafi : z. 64. 9 (aaroivaii »arat^h 
skuOimfi), yL 53. 6 {sartOvaiR nndhvbhilk pinvamdna), and ii. 3. 8 (sarawaii sadhayand 
dkifom). The latter passage could not haye been meant, as Sarasvatl is here one of the 
three sacrificial goddesses along with IIS and BhSratl in an Apr! hymn. If sarasvatl is 
meant to represent two pratikas, the second passage can hardly be objected to because 
it is only the second pSda of a stanza, since dfsadvatySm in the same line is the third 
fdida of a stansa. ^ This stansa is expressly stated by YSska (Nimkta ii. 33) to be 
addressed to Sarasvatl as a river : athaitan nadivat, 

188. Aitara^ regarding this (stanza) as a sacrificial text iydjydl) 
for the victim offered to Sarasvatl {sdrasvata) in the Maitrayaniya 
(Samhita)^, because the oblation is (here) the chief thing ^^^ has 
stated (that it is addressed) to Vac \ 

•^hrt hr^r*fbkr*r*, ^^ift m^. — ^mwrr hr^r*m^br*r*, Jf«n fk. The anosvSra 
most have dropped out owing to the following ^. — *Vf^* hm^r, *^f^^i b, ^ftf^^ 
f, •JRR k. — ^l(^nCt hdm^rb, Il«hl0 fk. 

* This name is not found elsewhere. ^ iv. 14. 7 (among the yajyanwakya texts). 

* That is, regarded from the point of view of the sacrifice, the goddess would be addressed, 
not the river. ^ That is, Sarasvatl =Y5c; cp. Nirukta vii. 33, where Sarasvatl is 
the only one of the fiftynseven names of vac (Ni^ghaptaka i. 11) discussed. 

139. (The hymn) * Doer of fiiir deeds ' (suriipakrtnum : L 4) is 
addressed to Indra, as well as seven others afber it (s-ii). Six 
™«»«i™ ,tan»« (beginning) -Then according to their' woif (Od 
aha svddhdm anu : 6. 4--9) are addressed to the Maruts. 

irwRni: hm^b, ^i^rn: fk, ^n^£^^« r. — ^mrr^ bfr*, ^nrr^ kr*, ^mr^ 

hdm^r. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^C in bfk, not in hdm^. 
29. Zndra assooiatad with tlie Maruts in BY. L 6. 

140. One (of them), * What is firm ' {vllu cit : 6. 5) is sung 
in honour of Indra with the Maruts. But the latter hemistich 
of the (stanza) next but one to this (Le. 6. /)^ is addressed to 
two deities. 

^ft^ hdm\ ift^ bfkr, 4^ r', fif^ r^, ft^ r^ HT^ r*. — l[lin^ hm^r^bfkr^r^ 
V9[V^ '» f^^'t r^ — Il4kl^<l4l^ hm^r, ipit?I^T^H* fbk. — ^J^WT Wt dm\ 

^nKf^^ r*r^ inHr^ h, inH^r, •^h^b, •qif^lWt f, •f^wtk. — ^fK^^: 

brfkr*r*, f^[^^: m\ ft %^l hd. 

* That is, the third pada, this being a gSyatri stanza. 

RV. i. 6-] BRHADDEVATA ii. 141— [72^ 

141. For while it is chiefly addressed to the host of the 
Maruts, Tndra is at the same time intended to be distinguished 
thus : ' both glad (and) equal in brilliance ' (inandu samdnavar- 
casd) ; or (this means) ' with him who is glad (and) of equal 
brilliance ' *. 

WWUHVT'fl^ hmV, "^rrat fk, "VT^ b. — ftW ^^ r". ffW %^ m\ fW 
^^ h, ^tW ^ift b, ftm ^fsft f, f^ ^f^ k, (li?) ftj^ ^ r^r^r*. i'4 t\^^ 

T. W^hr3]*m^r,3g^b, WJIr^.W^Uk. *|«l«iq^«I r*(=RV.), 'T^ LdtV, 

•t4^ r, 'Tt^ hfk. 

* ThsBe alteroative eiplanationii &re based on Kimkta iv. 12 ; mendi madipii yHrayi 
llkaji : api va manJuna tentti lyat, tamattovarcaseli/ eterta Vj/alihjialam. 

142, Those to whom (the hemistich appears to be) addressed 
to two deities *, explain (the final vowel of) mandu as not liable 
to phonetic combination {^pragrhnanti) ^. One (however) who 
from hia study (of it) recognizes the pada to have only one deity, 

deserves a hearing ; 

JT^hdr, it^b, ?i^k, »n^r'r*r^/.^ — ^HT^^ hm'r^r*r^b, ^^1*15 r, llVIllq 
fkr^ — H*^<l«IH,bdbfk, •^^CT't, m', »^^BIH r. — fttUqi" bdbf. ft^VT* r. 

■ The two deities would be tbe Lost of the Maruts and Iiidra ; b«t cp. Griffitli, 
TranNlation of the Ilig-veda on i. 6. 7, kud GnaamaDn, Worterbiicb, nnder manda. 
'' Mandi ia treated as pragrh^ in the PadapS^. 

143. asRodasI in the Atharva-veda(aiAarz'an5rtVasa) is (regarded 
as one) of the wives of the gods *. 

This praise is by the teachers regarded as chiefly addressed 
to the host of the Maruts \ 

W^yf-^m hrm\ VM^lff t,^ b, Vl<(|4l14.% f, ^l«l<il*I<.^ k. — 143"* is 
omitted iu r'l r". 

* In Ry.T.46. 8 nidan is treated as pragTbya in the Padapafha (donbtless beeanse not 
accented rodaA). Thi« elanis also iKcnrs in the Atharva-veda vii. 46. 8. It is commented 
on hy Y^ka (Nirukta xii. 46), who, however, explains rddan here as rudratya patnl. Op. 
Sajana on RV> v. 46. 8. ** That tbe praise of tbe Maruts is predominant here, ia 

supported by the wording of the SaryariukramB^T ; the eix (stanzas) ad aha (6. 4-g) are 
addreued to the Manits, vi/u cid [6. 5). indre^a (6.7) are also addressed to Indra.' 

78] — ii. 148 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 13 

144. As the host of the Maruts is chiefly addressed, Indra 
is at the same time intended to be distinguished. For the entire 
host of the Maruts is considered to share (in sacrifice) equally 
(samdmiam) with the great Indra. 

WWRirWflt hr"r*bfkr*, l4m4A!ln r. — M\H^ ^Rfl^ hdr, ^MQ^fV.^ 

r*(r»?)bfk, HMt J I^^tm r^r*r•^^ ^TCIRt IWITW m^— iRffif hm^r, ^ERfTlf f, 

1(ilTlI b, WRJ4 r^r*r*k. — ^nW bm^r, Jf^m r^r*r*, m^ni bfk. — Tbe end of tbe 
varga ia here marked by ^%, in bm^bfk. 

80. TlM deities of BY. L 12, aad of the Apri hymn L 13. 

145. The hymn ' Agni' (ynwi: I 12) has Agni aa its divinity. 
In it one verse^ ^ by Agni Agni is kindled ' {agnindgnih sam idhyate : 
6^), is addressed to two deities: they mean Nirmathya and 
Ahavaniya *. 

•f^l^int bm^r, *^^ b, •^HWt fk. — ^fl(^^: hbfk, fi(^^: m^r'r^r* (Sarvft- 
nnkrama^i flfM^^AO* — ^PHTOTP r^r*fk Sarvanokrmma^i, (i|l)1l||^ bdr'm^b. — •IJT" 
^T^bdm^rb, njT^^fk, nn^r^r*, •irfif r*. 

* Two forms of Agni, tbe one being tbe fire produced by friction, tbe otber tbe oblation 
fire. Cp. Sar^nukrama^I on BV. i. la: pado dvyagnidaivato nirmathyahavamyau, 

146. Now as to the deities which, stanza by stanza, in the 
second hymn of twelve stanzas (L 13), are praised along with 
Agni, hear their names from me. 

^IT^ ^Vn; bm^bfk, ^^int IJirn r. — ^^5^ bm^r, ^rR b, ^^^ r^r*r*fk. — 
IT^niT bm^rb, f%RT fk. — In r^r*r* 146*^ reads: 

ifjiH ^V!T ^rret trtPi ''S^ftf w. 1 

147. In the first (stanza) Fuel^ (idhma) is .praised, in the 
second Tanunap&t, Nara^ainsa in the third, but in the fourth 
Ila is praised; 

^pi%19ft bm^rb, ^l!%uf)r fk, ITf^n^ r^r*r*. — ^^|lft f^fdSl hw}, Ijrt ft(WJ 

r, ^pfit ^w: b, ipm t^: f, ^nenif ftir: k. 

* On tbe Apr! bynins, see Rotb, Erlantemngen, pp. 122-134. 

148. but the Litter {barhis) in the fifth, then the Divine 
Doors with another (6), Night and Morning {naktosdsd) in the 
seventh, while in the eighth are praised together 

u. L 

RV. i. 13] BRHADDEVATA ii. 149— [74 

^^^hm'bfk, ^^^r; the Sarvanukmmapi has the Veilic form ^^l. — WVX 
hm'rfb, 5V<IT r*, af^ br^. — li*^n\ fl^ hm'r^, ^pft ^"| (H being omitted) b, l^jft '^ 
(the preotding four lyllablea ^E«[i ^ being omitted) fk, « gnV ^ r'r''. g ^ift ^ r. 

149. the two ' Divine ' Sacrificers ; In the ninth stanza are 
praised the Three Goddesses ; but Tva§tr ia to be known as 
praised in the tenth. 

^^T^^hmV, ^5n^^fkr*r\ ^^T^ b. — ^'. hm'r, ^7J: b, ^: f k. — The en J 

of the varga is here marked b; ^0 in hdm^bfk. 

31. The eleven Apri I1711UIS. 

150. In the eleventh (stanza) of the hymn one should know 
Vanaspati to be praised, but in the twelfth one should know 
the divine ' Svahakrtis ' to be praised. 

^m'r'.^b.^fk.^hdr.— ^^bm',^r'bfk.^r.— "Wftftfil 
hm'r^bfk, "WTTtftf r. 

151. Now as to the deities which, stanza by stanza, are 
celebrated in thia hymn (i. 13), they (occur) in all the Apria; 
the second (deity), however, is subject to option {vika2pate) *. 

" As to how this option applieo, aee below, ii. 155-157- 

152. As to the Apri hymns, including the Prai^as (ritual 
summons), they are eleven (in number); or (rather) the Prai^a 
hymn * (consists of) sacrificial formulas, while these other (hymna 
of the Itg-veda) are ten (in number) *>. 

WfTWt^WTfSr hm'r^r", tt^H^WTf'l bfkr'', ^If^ ^mf^I r. — !TT3W^TJ Hfwi 
^ hm't'bfkr^/, Sl*T^It WVift r.— q^ft hrn'r^fkr*!*, inftf^ b, ^^I r. — 
•TTTTf^^Jl'ni'rb, <»Wftt ^ k, •'"jf^ f. 

' Which consiatH of twelve yajunifi, that i», TS. zzi. 39-40. This ia referred to \>j 
Yagka (Nirukta viii. 33) aa prainham (scil. talttam), aad included by him among the eleven 
Apri hjmma (tony elany ekadaiaprlsiktani). Cp. Both, Erlanternngen, p. 133. ^ The 

ten ipri hymns of the Rg-veda are enumerated in the AnuvakSnukrama^T, 10- 13, p, 48 
of my edition of the Sarvanukramai}i. See also A^S. iii. 3. 5 ff- 

75] — ii. 155 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 13 

153. Now there are three (Apri hymns) relating to the Sautra- 
ma^i sacrifice {sautramandm) ^^ one to Prajapati {prdjdpatya)^^ 
and one used at the horse-sacrifice (dhmnedhika)^, and the one 
(employed) in the human sacrifice {purusasya medhe) ^ : these (make) 
six (special additional Apn hymns) in the Yajur-veda {^(yvhsii). 

TPW 5 l^m^f TPW ^ rbfk. — ^l(^:iiN r, il^|^ hm^ bfk. — ^mff 1R[ hm*r* 
bf kr*r*, IRT f n 

* That ia, VS. xx. 36-46 (cp. OT. xiii. 9. 3^*, note) ; xi. 55-66 (q). SjB. xii. 8. a^®) ; 
xxL ia-23 (qi. SB. xii. 9. 3^^). ^ That is, VS. xxvii. ii-aa (see commentary on the 
first stanxa and q>. SB. vi a. 2^ if., especially ^^ and note on ^^). * VS. xxix. i-it 
(cp. S%. xiii. a. a^^). ^ Beferred to in Safikh. 8S. xvL la. 8 as beginning ognir mfiyufi* 

154. Here only the Prai^a hymn (VS. xxi. 29-40) need be 
(considered) ; that (which has been referred to beyond this) in the 
Yajur-veda (i/cytthsu) need not be troubled about (here). 

Of those (eleven) the hymn relating to the Prai^as \ and that 
which Dirghatamas sang (L 142), 

t|yMlf^< > g ^ r^r*r«.— 5M7! hm^rMhlWfl bfkr.— ^ UfT hm\ UfT 'W r, UfT 
nV fkr', in[ only b, ^n m| ^t^» — '^^ end of the varga ia here marked by ^<| in 

* That is, Apri stanzas belonging to (-gata) or tnmed into (-Affa) Praisas, the 
exptesaion being eqtdyalent to YSska's praifika, 'consisting of Praifas.' 

8S. TaafbMipSt and Ifarihianna in Aprf hjinim. Zdlimaafbrmof Agni« 

165. and that which has been mentioned in (the collection of) 
Medhatithi (i. 13)*: only these three contain both ^ (Tantinapat 
and NarS^amsa). Both that which is mentioned in (the collection 
of) Qrtsamada * (il 3) and in (that of) Vadluya^va ^ (x. 70), 

4imffllfy hm^r^r*r\ ?NTftSllJ fkr', iNTffff^ r. — •qftf g hrbfk, •^Ifir ^ 
m^ — ^^rtt 5WI^ hm^r*r*r\ Vf^jw^^l bfkr. — ^^mX|% hm^r*r*r\ q||i|^^r, 
^n^W f, 'TTg^Sr k. ^TT^I^ b.— ^ hr^r*r^b, IT fk, ^ r. 

* Which ^rould constitute a fsi^sukta according to i. 14, 15. ^ Ubhayavimti i 
cp. Nirokta viii. aa: maidhatitha^ dairghatamcwujt praifikam ity vbhayavanti; cp. Roth, 
Erlanterangen, p. laa; see also my Introduction to the SarvSnukrama^I, p. xiy. 

HV. i. 13. I-] B^HADDEVATA ii. 156— [76 

156, both (the hymn) of Atri (v. 5) and that (vii. 2) which 
was revealed to the son of Urvafil (Vasistha), contain Nara^aipsa. 
Tanunapat (appears in that) which Agastya (i. 1S8) and Jama- 
dagni* (x. no) sang, 

^ r. — JTOT^ hm'r*br*r\ V^% r, no particle in k. — 9(«^fM^ r. WTW^^I^ b. 
4(1M4J<4^ r^r', m4{^qV hdm'r^ — There is a lacuna in fk between tUfS and <|ni41- 

* The reading of hdm'r^, vamadevaA, is doubtless a coTruption of the incorrect reading 
jimadagna^. There is no Apri hfinn by VSmadeva, while that of Jamadagni is psrticulMlf 
important, the whole of it being commented on by Yaska (Nirukta viii. 4-21) ; cp. Roth, 
ErlauteruDgen, p. isi, and SarvSnuluamaQT, Introdui.'tion, p. xiv. 

157. and that which the seer Vi^vamitra (iii. 4) and Asita 
the 8on of Ka.5yapa {ix. 5) sang. 

Now as to the twelve deities which have been stated* (to 
belong) to the stanzas of Medhatithi {i. 13, 1-12), 

"^^i^ irig b, "^t^i^ ^ g fk, "^^^ ^n^ m'^*rV^^ •%^^"Y^^ h, 

"»l^''ft^T^ d, "^t^in ^rrq r. 

' Above, ii. 146-150. 

158. learn the manner (sampadtmi) in which they repi-esent 
(sampadyante) Agni. 

The Fuel (idh-ma) is the Agni who is everything ; for this 
(Agni) is kindled {sam-idkyate) ^ as fuel. Or this form {i-dhtna) 
is made from the root dhmd; for fuel is kindled when blown 

HW\f*im'. hr'm'r'r'r', TIHTft JU: bfk. ^WT^NiT: r.— «*Fi:br'ni'bfkrVr\ 
fltj^W.r. — <^: hui\h'T\ ^¥Hft b. ^^^ r, ^Wfy f. — ■ m i ^'ifflt^flH hm'r^ 
r^r*r*, Ull^^flBAH, K Wn?t^WW?T*t, fk, UJlTffifltjnH r- — WFlft f, Wfrtt bfk, 
^?JT hdm^. — ft^: hm'rbfk, ^^^ r^r^r^. — The end of the varga is here marked bj 
^^ in hm'fk. The last f^da ii repealed in b only. 

* This etTmoSogy conesponds to the only one given by YBika (Nimkt* viii. 4} : 

idhmalt lamindhatiat. 

77] — iii 4 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 13. 4 

1. Taalnap&t. Varatenisa. Z}a. Barliis. 

1. Now this same Agni is (also) Tanunapat ^ by name. That 
(celestial Agni) extends (yachati) ^ his body (tonttm). 

They say that ' Napat ' is a descendant ^^ and that the origin 
of this one {asya) is from that one {amutas) ^. 

fl^Wift l!5Hhm^r'r*r*r^ 1|%V|^ ^HR^b, Iji^Wfn 'f^f. ^«^y*nl '^ 

r. — ^Uqift^^hm^r^bfkrVr^ "VfiraT r. 

* Op. aboye, iL 26: aya^i toniciiapacl o^t^. ^ Op. ibid.: otau iU tananat tanufi. 
^ Cp. ii. 37 : onan/aro^i prajam ahur napad Ui. ^ Op. ibid. : napad amufya caivayam 
agmiftf and ii. 26 . 

2. Now some say that Naratomsa here is Agni ^ Again {atha 
vd) others (use the term) in (the sense of) sacrifice^, (saying) 
' all men {nardh) utter praise {liarnsanti) seated at it/ 

r*r^ jfH m WK^ bk, jfif ^TT^l f, fft ^Tf|['rJ r. 

* This is the opinion of Sbkapii];^ according to YSska, Nirokta yiii. 6 : agnir iti 
iSkapva^r : narailk praiatyo bhavati. ^ This is the view of K&tthakya, ibid. : nard* 
dai/iMO yajKa Ui kaithakyo : nara atminn dnna^ imjnanH. 

3. Others say he is Agni, because he is NaraiSamsa as the 
object of praise (praSoLsya) by men seated at the sacrifice ^ ; and 
80 also say the ritualists (jrtvijo nardh) ^ 

lllji^hr*bfkr*r*r^ ?|I|l^r. — V[V^ bdb, mT9 fk, mj^ m^, IT^W r. — ^^ftWt 
inc: hr'bfr'r^r^ %^tfWt T^ m\ ^ftWt IT* k» ^ ^BftWt f^J r. 

* The previous sloka states two views corresponding to those stated in Nirukta viii. 6, 
that Naiasaqisa is (l) Agni; iiarai^ praiasyaft (Sakapu^i); (a) yajHa: nara asminn dsmafi 
itti^anii (EStthakya). The third here added is a combination of the other two : narair 
anmair adkvare praSasyafi ; it is identical with the explanation given in ii. 28 : yo/He yae 
ekatyate nfbhifi. ^ This expression is doubtless meant to be equivalent in sense to 
yaJMkafif so often used Ivy l^ka. 

4. Ila is a form made by the Rishis^ and (is derived) from 
the root id, expressing praise ^ : Agni is called ildvdn ^ {* possessing 

RV. i. 13. 5-] BIEIHADDEVATA iii. 5— [78 

refreshment ') either from that (root) or from the root id, expressing 
Increase ^. 

'gf^ntl^: kr", ^fqf*1»(f>ra^XI!: r. — |,dblfli*l, f. lWIfli«,bk, l,<iqi«,btn'r. — ■ 
^Vnitif^^lim'hk, ^nfVfM5 f. ^"InjfM^ r. — lf«*IT hmV^, t;f^*IT r'r^, t^RTTT 
fb, ^rfWTT k, |,r*.IBI r. ^ry**SniT ^^ ^f^BS^Hn hm'r^ ^f^H^mT t'', ^^- 

flp^ b. ^n ^'ri ^ '^ TgT fk, in<44mi r. 

* The meaubg of this reading {fti-krlam rupam) I take to be this: the fonn Il», it 
is tme, does not occur ia the Rg-veda ; nevertheless it is Vedic, being abstnutod by the 
Bishis from the various forms of the verb i^, ' to praise,' which occur in the Apri ittaDzu 
addressed to IJa (cp. Itotb, Erlauterungen, p. ii8). I was at first inclined to adopt the 
reading iti-kftam, 'tnade from the root it' (=i<f, cp. QrasBmann, Worterbuch, aub Toce 
i^ ; but this seemed incompatible with the following idti ca (not ii^rr do] and tena in 
the next line, which points to a single antecedent etymology, while YoRka make! no 
reference to a root if in his explanation of l\a (see next note). ** Yaska (Nirnkta 
Tiii. 7) derives i(a from either i^ or ulk : iff?^ iluHkarma^a ind/iairr va, ° Our author 
hns to say 'Agni is called ilavdn,' because ila itself does not occur in the Itg-veda. 

The preceding va in eoklo shows that the card/ii- of the MSB. must also contain va 
(that is, va fddhi-). The dropping of the d in the MSB. is doubtless due to confusion 
with vardkin and other doriTatives of the root trdk, which bappeD§ to have the lame 
me&ning as rdh. 

5. Again, this Agni is the Litter (barhis), for the whole of 
it {sarva/m) is furnished {paribrmhitam) with food*, or because, 
when sacrificed to, he (Agni) is furnished (panbrmhitah) ^ with 

Ifipft hm'r'r'r^ V^ b, ^W^ f. ^' ^pft r. — ^ 5ff ra'dr, VX W^h, TT 
B'l_bfk. — tlR^ftn; hm'r^^*^^ qftjf ?l fk, itXJH^ h, ffTJlTt r- — The end of 
the varga ia here marked by S in dbfk, not in m'. 

* That is, the oblations are laid on it. The etymological explanation is •imilar 
to that of ^^ka (Ninikta viii. 8) : barhi^ pariharha^al. 

2. Tha BiTins Boon. Kight and MomiiiK. 

6. The Divine Doors, as they are called, are the wives of 
all (the gods) * ; they follow Agnayi, and so also Agnajri (follows) 

79] — iii 9 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 13. 7 

fl[Kiy r, flll^^ h, %}K^ hm^r'fkr'r^r^ (on this oorraption cp. critical note on 
i. 93). The MSS. have the correct form in i. 107 and ii. 148. — Jllm omitted in fk.-*^ 
VnV* hdm\ mi€| b, 1I8RI* fh, 4Afl! r. — 6*^ follows the reading of bm^rbfk : 

* This is doubtless suggested by BY. x. no. 5 (commented on in Kirukta viii. 10) : 
pi iraifimtan paHbhyo na , , , devebhyo bhavata tupraya^. ^ This remark is intended 
to show the identity of the devyo dvaraf^ with Agni (cp. i. 107) : being the wives of the 
gods they represent AgnSyli the wife of Agni, who comprehends all the terrestrial deities 
(see L 105, 106). Sakapu^i, in Nirukta viii. 10, identifies them with Agni : yaj^ gfha'^ 
doara Hi koithahya^: agnir iti iakapuifil^. 

7. Now being firmly established in Agni they are praised in 
combination with Agni. In their case also there is a predominance 
of Agni, both in praises and oblations ^ 

^ flMfllVI^ hrbfk, ^^rrflRTI^IT^ r*r*r^ — ^5^^% hm^r'bfkr^r*, ^^]?% 
^ r. — l§f}lQq hr*r*r^ ^Rlfij m\ ^fTf^iTW r, ^f?re4 b, 'jfiHR f. — f^f ^ 
m^r, fpFJ ^ h, ft^ ^ bfk. 

* Because they, as well as the other Xpri deities, are regarded only as forms of Agni. 

8. And as to the two goddesses, Night and Dawn {naktosasau)^ 
they too are regarded as related to Agni For the Dark {iydvl) ^ 
is related to Agni ^, while Dawn is, as it were, a sixteenth portion 
Qoaid) of that time ^ {kdla). 

mitm^ ^ ^ hr»m^fkr«r*r^ ^flit^ WT ^ ^ r, ^k^dfk h.—Wm^Mt hm^ 
bfr^r^ irpn^rt^ r»d, UTTin^ r, ^^T^^tW^ k, HT^HtM^ r«.— If^Wt* bfkr, 
HWt* hdm\ — H%^ 5 ^^« ^ ^ 3 ^» '■^ 3 "*^'» ftWrnWT r*r*r*. 

* Syavi is the first of the twenty-three names of night enumerated in Kaigha^fuka 
17. ^ Thus SySvisNight occurs in the first stanza of an Agni hymn (i. 71. i). 
* That is, Usas being a part of SySvi would also be related to Agni. Cp. Nirukta ii. 18 : 
{uf Sfi) ratrer aparaf^ kSlaf^ The reading of r^r^r^ is doubtless a corruption of kalaoamd, 
L e. Usas is ' the last portion ' of that time. 

9. Dawn {risas) lightens ^ {uchati) the darkness, Night {naHd) 
anoints (anakti) ^ her with drops of dew {hima) ^ ; or else this (form) 
might be (derived) from the root anc ^, preceded by the negative 
{nan) ®, (and) mean ^ the indefinite -coloured one ' {avyakta- 
varnd) ^. 

RY. i. 13. 8-] BRHADDEVATA iii. 10— [80 

ff^ft-jfir; hra'rb, ff ft^fir: fk, Ufq WtV hm'r (Ninikta viii. lo: ^Hft 

Tt"~^Wj. ^rtW ^V bfkr*.— n^gifT^^ hd. 1^ ^ ^ r, l^g^T %f m'. "I 
5^1^ b, 1 5^i^ f, (T 9J(^) %5 r^. 1 ^^5)^ k. — Tbissloka ia omitUd in r'r*r". 

' Cp. Niriikla ii. i8: niah kaimidi uehaliti. ^ Mirukta viii. lo: nakMi . . 

anakli bkitSity avaiyayeiia ; cp. ii. l8 on ratri .- talfT va tyad danakarmanah .- pradiyanU 
'eyam avaiyayah. ° Hima-bindu, In the plural, is here substituted for the plural expres- 

aiou avaiyayah, twice used by Yiaka in connexion njth night. *' That is, nakla^ 

an-akia : as far as the meaning in concerned, tbe derivation from aSj (from which comea 
vy-akta itself) would have been more natural ; but the author doubtless vaoled a root 
different from the one be bad already used in bis first etymology (anakti). B^eodialala 
Mitra, who has the corrupt reading pirvaip ver, refers to RV. i. 72, 9, where the word 
veh occurs. This is iudeed veri£catiuii gone wrong. " An earl; occurrence of the 

technical form of the negative prefix as used h; [^nini. Cp. Nirukta viii. 10 : apt 

ca nakla avyakta-varnd. 

10, For at first she becomes Gloaming {dosd)^, at midnight 
she is Darkling {tamas-vatl), and before the rising of the Sun 
she becomes Dawn (usas) by name. 

^tin hm"rS*r«, V^ fkr.— f*nft% ^ hm>r'hr>r''rT, finf^ WT f k. JT* HlS 
r. — fl414j1^ bfkr, JlHf^^t hr^r'r^r'', ?Hlf^'ft m'. I have preferred ffd^lf), since it 
ia the form which occurs in Naighantuka i. 7 as one of the uamea of night. — Qm hm r, 
itV\ b, tr^fkr*. — 10"* cornea first in bm'r'bfkr^r*; in r (=r'j*r') io*''como8 before 

ro" , The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in b, by a figure meant for ^, but 

looking like ^, in f, by ^ in k, not at all in bdm^. — This ilofca ia numbered ^00 in fad. 

' Doaa and TamasvatT, as well as S^yavT and Nakta, occur in Naighantuka i. 7 as 
■ynonymns of Ratri. 

3. Tlifl Two XKrias Sacrificcn. Tbe Thrsa OoddssiM. Tract^. 

11. Now tbe Two Divine Sacrificers are the terrestrial and 
the middle {forms of) Agni*. For they were bom from the 
celestial {divya) Agni ; they are therefore celestial {daivya) *> 
by birth. 

^<liq__bm'r(SflrvilnukramanI},^«||^ bdr^fkr^ — ^ra^bm'r^r^r'.^tfib, omitted 
infk.OTt r. — U^ff hrn'r^tafkr^r^r', ^^ r. — ^aft m'b, ^afthdr, ^^fk; cp. 
above, i. 108. — flWTThm'r, flMWT bfk, WVfil r'r'r^r\ 

' This agrees with Taijka's explanatiun in Ninikta viii. ti : daivgau holSrav ayam 
eagtUT Man ea Modkyama^. That is, daivya is treated as a patronymic formation 

from dhya : cp. ii. ati, 

81] — iil 15 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.i. 13. 10 

12. Now they who are called the Three Goddesses are here 
simply (representative of) Speech (VSc) in the three spheres. 
She is spoken of by a threefold name ^ as abiding in the three 
lights K 

^flfrft hm^r, ^iWt fbk. 

* On the three forms of Y&c, see aboye, ii. 7a IF. ^ Cp. above, i. 90. 

13. Ila follows^ (the terrestrial) Agni^ Sarasvati^ is attached 
to (prdptdjf the middle one, while that (celestial form of Vac) 
becomes Bharati as occupying that (celestial) world. 

•<|^35T hdm\ •^ptlTT r, •q^lTT r^r*r*, •^fiWT b, •^jSjwr fkr*. — Wsi VUKl 
hdr»bfkr»r*r^ ifHT inHTm\ irST <^l|(t r.— ^hdrm^r^rS*, 1»^bfk.— fl|RfTf%l 
fWl hm^rb, RUlf^fH^ r^r*r*, f^RIT flflft fk. — iWfW hin\ ^^ d, il^lft fk, 
n\^ b, HKlH r. 

* Anuffd : q>. anuvartate^ above, iii. 6. ^ Op. above, ii. 76. 

14. Now this same Vac is threefold (as) in heaven and in air 
and here (on earth). Both when individual and combined she 
belongs {bhajati) to ^ all these (three) Agnis \ 

^A hm^b, 9k d, HT^ fk, ^ Wf^J. — 'WTT bfkr, ^THT r*r*r*, HVP^^dm^ — 
VHBT bfkr, ?ERWP^bm^ — iHTO* hm^r^r*r*bfk, iWfit r. — •iTHlft bdrbfk, 

* Op. Ma in i. lo8, anuga in iii. 13, and anuvartale in iii. 6. ^ Thus not only does 
I]S, the terrestria] form of VSc, belong to the terrestrial Agni, but all the 'Three goddesses* 
belong to the terrestrial Agni (i. 108), as well as to the other two forms of Agni. 

16. Now as to Tva^tr, there is praise (of him) as this same 
terrestrial Agni ^ ; or (it may be said) there are stanzas ^ to him 
as terrestrial, and there is one stanza ^ also in the (hymns) to the 
seasons (addressed) to (him as) one or other {kasydpi, form of Agni) d. 

fl^ml ^tW: hm^r' (•T^P r*), ip itti^^^ r, C|4gll1l)q r'r*r\ lT.*^^^n^ fk, 
fK m^b.— ^: hm^r8br^*r\ ^: f. ^l kr.— ^ ^ hdbm^fk, ^: ^l 
r. — ^rarPpi hdm^r, IRIT^ r'^r'', 41^)4^^ fkr^ 4NPfK ^» 'ftWlt'l^r^ 
r*r*. — ^rf^ ^ hdrm*fkr*r*r''b, ^IPW^ ^ r^r*r«. — The whole line has the 
followmg modified form in r^r*r*: ^TfWt ^1^1% ^ lftWlf^W||^4^3 ^. — The 
end of the varga is here marked by ^ in dm^bfk. 
II. M] BftHADDEVATA iii. i6— [82 

* Thkt is, in Sprl hymns ; oar author agreeing with the view of S^apuni quoted 
in Hinikta viii. 14 {agnir Ui iakapaniA), u well aa with the view repreaented by the 
Naigha^^uka, where Tvas^- is first mentioued among the Apri deities (t. 2), secondlf , amung 
the atmospheric deities (v. 4), and thirdly, among the colestial deities (v. 6). According 
to the view of others, Tvaafr in the Apr! bymne belongs to the middle group ; midhya' 
mikai tviulaity ahu^, madhyamt ca sihaue tamamnatah (Nirukta viii. 14). He is stated 
below (iii. 25) to Iwlong to the middle group, when Tvpakarla. Cp. Giieg, SagenstoffC, p. 14. 
^ That is, in the Btanias of the Apr! hymns addressed to him, be represents the ter- 
restrial Agni. ° The third atania in two of the three hymns to the Seitsons (L 15; 
ii. 36 ; on ii. 37 see below, iii. 36} is addressed to Tvastf, though the name occurs io 
ii. 36. 3 only. * That is, in the hymns to the SeasouB any one of the three forma of 
Agni may be meant. The general sense of the second line I take to be : Tvaa^ in the 
Apr! hymna representii the terrestrial Agni only, but in the hymns to the Seasons he mikj 
represent one of Agni's other forms. I am, however, somewhat doubtful whether I have 
interpreted this passage correctly. 

4. T1l0 celestial Tvaatr. Story of BadliyaEo and the Mead. 

16. {J^astr) may be (derived) from tvis or from tvak^, or (it 
means) 'he quickly (turnam) obtains (aSnute)''^, or 'he assists 
(ut-tdrana) in works {karmasu) ' ^ : therefore he obtains this name. 

W^lrtr hr^br^'r^, TT^Trfx m', fjf^ VJ fkr^ gj?ft V( r. — ^ijd^fl Xf^ ^ 
hm^ (cp. Nirukta viii. 13), ^jJ^Tyt TR ^J r^r', qillwafl TR ^ r*r^ g)(i*|y|fl 11^ 
^ bfk. ^l i i*H{iqfl1rfl ^ r. — flHJ^-t1K<U l ^f?! h^'b^^ <lili^-riKm1 ^f^ r*r^ 

^Mg inr^ ^f^ fk, qrfg (fl<,mi "^f^ r. 

* These three etymologies are derived from Nirukta viii. 13: (cm(o tinfom aimattt 
Hi Ttairaktahi: Iviser va lyad diplUcarma^at, tvaktaler eS tyat iarotttonnopo^. In con- 
nexion with tvifi-las, 'from the root tvU,' Mitra gives one of his marvellously irrelevant 
references to the Rg-veda, x. 84. 3 ; ' thou art brilliant {IvttUaa), Manyu, like fire.' 

This additional etymology may have been suggested by Yaska's (tvakiatek) karotikar- 
tna^ah. The suffix -tar would be accounted for by larapa, while (dm would be explained 
by transposition of letters (as in Yaska's parjaaya from tfp) from ut and /tarmaau. This 
is certfunly going beyond even Yaiika's wonderful achievements in etymology. 

17, The thousandfold ray of the sun which abides in the moon, 
as well as the mead (madhu) which ia above {param) and on earth 
(iha), also (abides) in the Tvaatr (who is) Agni *. 

'?TWt Ti^ hrW\ »njft ^ b, 'ifift ^re fk. '?rFftir^ r. — *m<juif«ifl: 

hm^rb, ^Cflt^JMlfWrtl fk, "^^fJT^ f%m: rV*r*. — tftift hr^m'brVr'', ^TTft fk, 

83] — iii. 21 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 13. 10 

^«Vlr.— •^TW hr^mVr^ nriftr: br, 0^7^ fk.— ^ ^ hr», ^ ^ m^t\ ^ 
^fbkr', ^ ^i\ 1T<^ ^r.— IWI^hrmVr^ If if IJ f r*. ?f ifij k. 

* This 18 the celestial Tvastr who is the guardian of the heavenly Soma (cp. my 
'Vedio Mythology/ pp. 53 and 116), the abode of which is the moon (op. cit.> p. 112). Agni 
is also a goardian of Soma (op. cit., p. 90), and in the later mythology the sun is regarded 
as replenishing the moon when caused to wane by the gods drinking up the Soma (op. cit., 
p. lis)* Having thus stated Tvasfr's connexion with the heavenly mead> the author goes 
on to relate the story of how the Asvins obtained it from Dadhyaflc* 

18. ^ Well-pleaeed (with him, Indra) bestowed on the son of 
Atharvan (Le. Dadhyafic) even that spell {brahma)^; and the 
seer became more brilliant by means of the spell. 

HfTTflr hr'm^bfkr«r*r''n(g). W|fT ^ r. fl^^ft n. — fm^ hr»m^bfkr«r«r^ 

5ITII r. — q^^q^m: hr'm^bfkr^r'^r'', ^f^^^ r, (^|V^)^|if^r^: n, (^^Wr)ff- 

W*f: n(m), (5|lRn)iRf?r*ir: n(g).— ^(WjfiflfT: hr»mHfkr«r*r^ ^H^IW r.— 
18^^ is omitted in n. 

* The story of Dadhyafic, as far as related in the following six slokas (18-23, excepting 
iS'^), is quoted in the Nitimafijarl on BV. i. 116. la. It is also told by SSyapa (on 
RV. L 116. 12), who states that it is narrated at length in the SIS|3^yanaka and the 
'^jasaneyaka. It is to be found in the iSatapatha Biahma^a (xiv. 1. 1^^"^^ ; see Sacred 
Books of the East, voL zliv, pp. 444 f.). ^ Which reveals the abode of Soma. 

19. Indra forbade the sage (saying), ^ Do not speak anywhere 
of the mead thus (revealed) ; for if this mead is proclaimed (to 
any one), I will not let you escape alive/ 

H^pJ hm^bn, if ^rfif n(m), Wjft fk, 'Tgft^ r, ^ 1^ r^r*r*. — W f% iSK^ 
H^^flRUhm^rbfk, if^ W^P'C'^^•*^•^ t^ ^^K^ iNt l!ftP(.n. — ^ttmm ^Wtl^WT" 
HfUhm^rbfkn, iftW^ «f fj^5| r^r*r^ 

20. Now the divine Asvins asked for the mead in secret from 
the seer ; and he told them what the Lord of Sac! had said. 

fl|f^ hrWr'^r^ ftW^b, fiftiK^. f^f^^k, ftfll^r, U\hJ[\ n. — 
9|^|f|% hm^rbn(g), i[^T^% f, civiI'r'^ n. — The end of the varga is here marked by 
ti in hm^bf, not k. 

5. The horse's head of Badhya&o. The middle Tvaf^* 

21. To him the Naaatyas spake: *Do you quickly make us 
two receive the mead by means of a horse's head ; Indra shall 
not slay you for that/ 

RV. i. 13. K^] BRHADDEVATA iu. 22— [84 

m^ir hr^r'r"' Styans, "Vf^ n{g), TIT%^ in'rn. ^T^'l fk, ^I%T b. — JHTPl 
hm'bfkn, jJTOtr. — ?(H?IWTtt hr'r*r', SOtllWR m', tllll^Hl^fk, *IH*Hflft 

*1^^ r. — OTT ^VHTT: hm'r^r^r'r^ Wt flflflfll b, ^ irftTOt f. Wt f f^mPl r. 

22. Because Dadhyafic had told (the secret) to the two ASvins 
with the horse's head, Indra took off that (head) of his ; (but) 
his own head they (the ASvins) put on (again) * 

^IP^ mlr^^ "m^ n{g). ^«T%'1 hrbfk. — ?ft 5 hm'r. Tf^J r'r*r^ m»flt 
bfkr^n. — n^^^hm'bfk, TT^T®!^ r. — fV^ ^ bf. fi«^' W^ n(g), f^T^TTJ 
n. TTWi r, f^?rra ht'm', f^^f^ r°r''. — aiVWlm'. aWTTfni r, ^flfllUbf, 
•lflnT*lkr*, irVflT*lhr^r''r', TrVTTITHnCm)n(5), ^\flfl|*i,n (fiS^a^^a has the fonni 
f*Wra and UWVTTTl). — ^rf^I hr'bfkr'r*r'n, rft fl^. t. 

* The S^. &nd Safsna tell tbe atory oaij of far as the replacing of the head; cp. 
SB.: athaasi/a nam iira ahj'tya lad dhaan/a prall dadkalah ; ^yapa: rvakiya^ mantuofi 
tira^ pratyadhattam. The S'fi. uses the expression aivyatu Hra^, and tbe verba ehid uid 

23. And the horse's head of Dadhyaflc, severed by the bolt- 
bearer with hia bolt, fell in the midst of a lake on Mount 

^^^^^hm'r^br'r', ^^St^^ fk, ^^Rvfl^ r. — "BTIW hm', ^T^ r, ^T^ b, 
Tr« fk, (^vWtt^ftnTO ^^ »■— *"* MSS. and r, ftl* n. 

24. Rising up from the waters (and) bestowing manifold boons 
on living beings, it lies submerged in those same waters to the 
close of the cosmic age (yuga). 

fl^fl^ hm'r, fl^4I*4 f. T^'W^ k, mji^ h, TTf^fT^ r'r*(?)r*r". — MI^KI 
hm'r^r'r*r', ITT^TW r, U^Tt bfk. — ^"Tl^hm'r. "If^ bfk. — fiRWlfi! hm^r' 

25. That Tva^tr, who is in the group of the middle sphere 
{mddhyamika) *, is a modifier (yikartr) ^ of forms. He too Is praised 
incidentally ; a hymn to him does not exist °. 

f*m?tl hm'rbfk. f^PtfH ^ r'r*r'. — TTO 1 r, TW ^ hni', 7W (no particl*) 
bfk. — The end of the varga is here maiked by H in bm'bfk. 

85] — iii 29 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.i. 13. la 

* Op. Nlrnkta viii. 14 : madhyamUcas tva^toUy ahur, madhyame ea Mane Bomanmatali, 
^ Tmtr i> often spoken of in the BV. as a ftMbioner of forms, and is called rupdkfi in 
the TS. &C.; op. my 'Vedic Mythology,' p. 11 6. ^ See op. cit., p. 116, B, line 5. 

6. VaiuuipatL The Sviliikftfai. 

26. Now he whom they proclaim as Vanaspati is this (ayam) 
Agni^ as Lord of the Wood; for this (Agni) is lord (pati) of 
woods as (their) protector (pdtd), or because he guards {pdlaycUi) 

* Vanaspati as an Apii deity is here (BV. i. 13. 11) identified with the terrestrial 
Agni ; but above (i. 66), where the three forms of Agni are distinguished, Vanaspati represents 
the middle Agni, as JfKtayedas does in i. 67. ^ Cp. Nimkta viii. 3 : 9011011091 pita 
va palayita oo. 

27. This {ayam) Agni is aJso lauded as Vanaspati by Grtsa- 
mada in the third (stanza) ^ of the hymn ^ Enjoy ' {mandasva : 
iL 37), which contains six stanzas. 

•MRl(\<ft* hm^, •flfiW^ bfkr. — •ftllft b, •pHTt fk, •f%Wt hm^r. — 4|^^W4C| 
bfkr, «!^%f^ ^ hm^r^r^r''. — ^[H^ bfkr, ^fc^f m\ ^ ^ hr^ 

* This stansa is commented on by YSska (Nimkta viii. 3) as an example for Vanaspati. 
He quotes four others (viii. ^7-20) in connexion with Vanaspati as an Apri deity (x. no. 
10; liL 8. 1 ; and two stansas not from the BV.)- 

28. But an occasional ( prasangajd) praise of him (Vanaspati), 
» a «crificM pc^ . and La uZ ^1*%, -hole^ hU "They 
anoint ' {afijanti : iii 8), is (to be found) in the third Mandala. 

lITUr hm^r'br'r^ fTHI r, ^ fk. — 4*9^ IV f^ hm^r*fkr*r*, iRf^ Hfll r\ 
MVtt WIH! b, ^HMHI^I r. 

* Op. below, iv. loo. ^ YSska in his comment on BV. iii. 8. i merely remarks 
(Kirukta viii. i6) regarding Vanaspati : agnir Ui iakapu^ift. But in commenting on BV. 
X. no. lo (Nimkta viii. 17) he observes: tai ko vanatpatilt ? yupa iti katihakyak^ agnir 
m Ukapuifi^. 

29. As to the Svahakrtis — the views of the learned have been 
various. It is, however, a certain conclusion that all that (viz. 
which is meant by the term) ^ is simply (a form of) this Agni ^. 

RV.i. 13. 1 2-] BRHADDEVATA iii. 30— [1 

*9nnTti%^iT13 hmVfkr''r"'t'. " BflHflf i iai«a r'r'r', •w^^^TO^n^ i.—^m 
r^br'r^, ^ni Iini\ S^i^r, omitted in fk. 

' Op. the various esplanationB of the term given in Nirukla viii. 3o> Cp. 

Y^ka'a remark (Nirukta viii. 3>) after Etating tlie vaiioua deities with nhich the prayaja* 
and the tmttyajai had been identified : agiieya iti lu tthitih, bhaitimatram ilaral, it IB, 
however, certain (hat they represent Agni ; everything else is merely an attrihute,' 

30. For he is the maker {kartd) of oblations {svdhd) ; the 
making {krti) of them, (that is to say,) here is of a single nature 


it is he who is the source {prasuti) of living beings. 

the imperishable (source) of all of them. 

ff IRh n 

rVr\ f ^ hbfk, ^ ^ r.— ^Tfm hm 

'. ^fli*ii 

r. — 0ril4d|4J[(1.1tbfk, V( Bft7rerR,r. — *i^qTH, hr^bfkr*r^^^ ^J^^T'l.r. — The end 

of the varga ia here marked by ^ in hdm'bfk. 

' Id tliis etymology if'* '* explained hy iarlf. while there 

ii only one maker of them, that ia Agni, the a 

many maAd*, there 
□f all beings (cp. i. 6i). 

7, ■Tanonapat and ITariiaiiiBa. Deitiea of BY. i. 14 and 16. 

31, Both the second (stanza) with Tanunapat and that which 
contains Naraiamsa, are combined as applicable {prayoktavye) in 
only three * (hymns) which (thus) contain both ''. 

"^rff" r.'Tnf^ohdm^bfk. — >^ 'q hrHfkr^^r^'lTT 3 r.— T^ rbf k, ^H» f, 
«nTT'hd. — W^^^hm^r'kr^H^T#^fb, ^IT^ r*r', *|*(*a*i1 r. — "^TW in'rbr^r', 
•^W fk, o^^hil— ijhm'r'br\ ^ fk, ^ r', «1 r. 

* See above, ii. 135, note ''. ** That is, Taniinapat and NariiiarriBa. 

32. The (stanza) containing Narai^amsa, as well as the second *, 
may be (applied In behalf) ^ of those wanting children, (of him) 
who desires strength or who desires food, as well as (of him) who 
may wish for prosperity. 

TT^Tf fr.^ WTbk. ^T^hr'r", -q^^m^ — '^n^ hr^fkr'r''r\"%(ll«} 
b, "^r. — a*T*rt ^hm'r'bfkr^r''r''. ^WT IT ^T^ r. — ^fiTftl^^WTft ^I hm' 
r^br^r^r', ^fulf TTOTft ^: fk, 'jf^t'I^ffil Tift I: r. 

* That is, the alania containing Tanunapat. ^ That ia, apart froni their usual 
sacrificial application oa Apri atauziui. 

87] — iii 36 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 15 

88. The hymn, * Hither with these' (aihhih: i. 14), which 
invoking Agni^ is spoken of here as addressed to the All-gods 
{vaiivadeva)^ is recited (Sasyate) among the hymns to the All- 
gods, because, being composed in the gayatn metre, it contains 
the characteristic 'All' {vi4va)\ 

fjlfim^ h. fJlSlft^f mVfrVr^ fll^M k. ffif J(W(% t.—J(^ 
hm^rb, WT^ fk. — iii- 33*^=11. "8^ 

* Agni ia the only god invoked in the vocative in this hymn ; bat the gods, thrice 
with the characteristic vUve, are several times mentioned in it, as well as several individual 
gods (in 3 and lo). Op. below, iii. 51. ^ Op. iii. 43, and ii« 128, 133, 134. 

34. As to the hymn, 'Indra, drink Soma' (L 15), consisting 
of twelve stanzas, and addressed to the Seasons % (the seer) praises 
in it seven deities ^ in their respective stanzas, together with the 
Season (rtu). 

fq%lfti[ hm^r^, fq^lftif r*r*r\ fq%lfW bf, X^ft^ ^ r. — ^flll<1(Wi MSS., 

* That is, the deities of the fltnyajas ; cp. AB. ii. 29. ^ Enumerated below, 37, 38. 

36. There (the deities) are characterized in the plm^ and 
in the singular, in six stanzas (1-6) 'with T$,t\i' (ftuna), in four 
with the lEltus {rtuhhih), then again in two (11, 12) * with Jltu '*. 

^fl^^fflfi* ^r,^fl^ij5(ii ^b, ^<l^f(]fii: ^fk, ^A^M jPi: ^hd. — 

The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in dm^bfk, by ^ in h. 

* This statement is only approximate as regards this hymn of the BY. (ftuna occurs 
in 1-4 and 6, while 5 contains ftuhr ; jiubhiii occurs in 9 and 10 only, and no form of 
f<» in f and 8 ; ftuna in 11 and 12) ; but it is an exact description of the twelve Praisas 
for the ]^ta offerings; see TS. vi. 5. 3; AB. ii. 29. 2-4, and Hang, vol. ii, p. 135, note ^'. 

8. Hjam to the Seasons : BV. i. 15. 

86. The ij^tus are here incidentally praised with the deities : 
so it is both in the hymn of summons {prai§a) for offerings to 
the Rtus, and in the hymn of Grtsamada ^ also. 

^T?^i|^«f?r fk, J||4*l^f?l ^b, im^^^ ^ hclm\— 35, 36 omitted in r^r*r«. 

HV. i. 15] 


' That is, BV. ii. 36; cp. AB. v. 9.6, Htug, toI. ii, p. 336, nolo '; lee »l»o Oldenberg, 
FrolegomeDB, p. 193, on the relation of £V. i. 15 to ii. 36 and 37 (which two really constitute 
one h^ron). 

37. Now with the first * (stanza) he (the seer) praised Indra, 
the Maruts with the second, Tvastr^ with the third, and Agni 
with the fourth ; 

' With mukhyai/i, compare mukhe tu ya, v. r. *" On Tvwtr in the Rtu hymnB, 

Cp. above, iii. 15. 

38. with the fifth Sakra (Indra) again, the two gods who 
delight in truth (Mitra-Varuna) with the sixth, and with the 
four* beginning with the seventh (7-10) Agni Dravinodas. 

q^Hfl hdm^r, M^MJt bfk. 

* Caturbhiii, agreeing nilb laptantyadyahhih, clearly nsed as & feminine; cp. above, 
ii. 44. 

39. The divinity of the formulas of the Kg-veda is to be 
known from authoritative statement* {adeid), not from its 
characteristic mark {lingcC) ; for it is not possible to know actually 
{f.aUvenci) the divinity of these (stanzas) from its characteristic 
mark ''. 

T ftnr^: hm'rhfk, g ftnrr: rV*r«.— Wrof hbfkrVr', ITTOt m', l^raf r.— 

^'rthni'rbfk, ^mn: r'r*r'. 

' Op. below, iii. 109. ^ That is, Agni ia not mentioned b^ his actnal name, 

bnt only by the attributive Draviijodas, which might designate another god (though it i> 
a well-known epithet of Agni ; cp.i.io6i ii. 25; but see iii. 61). 

40. With the eleventh (he praises) the Nasatyas (Aivins), with 
the twelfth this Agni again. Rathitara, however, says that this 
hymn consists of single separate praises *. 

WI^VT hdm'fr, I^Ti^Vf bk. — '<,vftfl<: hrbf, <.^ifl<,: kr*. — The end of 
the varga is here marked bj c in bfkm', not in hd. 

* la other words that it is a pYlhahtMi, one of the three kinds of hymns to the 
All-gods ; rp. below, 43. 

89] — iii. 44 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 15 

9. Three kinds of hymns to the Allpgods. 

41. For where, in (a hymn) with many deities or two deities, 
each deity is praised singly* {ekaikd) or by qualities arising from 
its activities ^ they regard that (hymn) as one containing dis- 
tributed praise® (vibhaktd-stuti). 

^¥^ fli^ hm^r, ^ir^^ fl[^ bfkr^ ^jr^q<ll4i*^ t^t^t^. — jH^ hm^rbf k, 

3%» ^ r^r*r^ — f^^M^fJI Iff r, f^Rni^TH!^ fk, ft*«»^Rl*t^ b, fCRTfTR^flT 

11^ hdm^, ^RffW^fTT if^ r^r*r®r^(?) ; qp. v.r. below, iii. 82 ; f^^ffl^Rl* in Nirukta 

▼ii. 8. 

* Op. below, iii. 83> where ekavat * in tbe singular ' is used. ^ Op. below, 

vL 69, on BY. "viii. 29. ^ Y&ska, in Nirukta vii. 8, gives BY. x. if . 3 as an example 

of vibhaktistutifi (where Piisan and Agni are praised separately in the singular) as opposed 
to a Mo^itava or 'joint-praise.' 

42. Now the hymns to the All-gods (vai^adeva) are of three 
kinds : that which is provided with joint-praise of the Sun 
{surychsamstava)y that which contains the characteristic *A11' 
(viSva-linga), and that which contains separate praise {prthak-stuti). 

f^|ftisrrf*f hm^r, Wwr % b, W^VT ^ fk. — ^lIV^fTf h, •ft: dm^bfkr (cp. 
•^iit^ in 40 and •^^ft in 43). 

48. That which is called 'Separate praise' (prtJiaJc-stuti) one 
should recognize as addressed to many divinities ; that which is 
characterized by *A11' {mha-linga) ^ is the one in which (the 
gods are praised) with their universal (vUva)^ qualities arising 
fix)m their activities ®. 

yil^^fllRl hm^bfk, •^[fif U r. — ft%: ^: hm^r, ft% l^t f, •^J k, ft%%: 
b. — ^49^9: hm^rbfk, ^l|4(3|I ^Tft r^r*r*. — ^43^= iii. 6o^ 

* The term viivalinga occurs in Nirukta zii. 40, where Ylska states the view of 
BSkapii^i that only such hymns are vaiivadewa as contain the characteristic word vUve, 
See Both, Erlautenmgen, p. 167. ^ Cp. above, ii. 134. ^ Op. yi. 69. 

44. That which with reference to the All-gods frequently 
praises the Sun, (and) at the same time praises the gods them- 
selves, they call a joint-praise of the Sun {suryorsamstavd). 

^rf^ in[ rm\ ^T%^ ^ hdb, (ftwr) 'if^ ^ u f*nw^ k. — ^iiiHa)rfl 

hm^bk, ^ ^iftfif f, ^'rt^ ^BPr r^r*r«. 

n. N 

RV. i. 15] B^IHADDEVATA iii. 45— [90 

45. But (the term * does) not (apply) at the be^nning of the 
hymn to Bhaga"*, nor in hymns to U^as, nor in the hymn to 
Savitr, 'I invoke'" {hvayami: i. 35), nor in the Surya (hymn)^, 
ui (regard to) oblation (and) sacrifice " i^nakha) ; 

51).— "q^q^g ^br\»^q^5 ^iim'r\«**^M*lg TT f It, (l ^) Wti?^ TT r. — 

>T%hilm'r'bfr'', ^% rk. — The end of the varga is here marked by ft in hdm'bfk. 

' That is, vaihadtva, ^ Bhagaiya tuhladaa=.bhagasya tuklasyaudaa: in the 

first Btanza of vii. 41 (the only bymn to Bhaga in the R¥.) a number of other gods are 
mentioDed, but it la not vaUvadevi. " In the firat stani& of thia hymn Savilf ia 

Bsaooiat«d with noveral other deittea, but it is not vaUeadevi, RV. i. 85. to the 

first stoDza of which a similar remark applies. ' This, I suppose, means: nor Ant 

stanios from these hymns treated as addressed to tltc All-gods when applied Bsurificiallf. 

10. How to aacwtain the deity of a bynm. 

46. nor, similarly, in any other formulas (which are) statements 
{pravdddh) *, or where the word ' associated ' (sajosdh) or ' together ' 
{sajuh) ^ may be (used). 

Hfll^ghm'r^bfkr^r', Hl]!^^ r. 

* Thnt is, when names are merelj mentioned and do not imply an invocation. 
Which, governing the accompanying name in the inatiumenlal caae, put it in a Bubordiuate 


47. But the old Lamakayana* states even that (hymn) to be 
addressed to the All-gods, in which many (deities) ai-e celebrated 
even incidentally {prasangdt). 

?lf*fl«l,hm' rfli. ^ft(rt,r' r* r^ — Hflfl'T^hin' r, BflflT^bk.HH^l^f. — trft^BW- 
•m^bm^rb, Hn,*iiirSflH,fk. — WRWra'i: hd, *^t141<li: m'r, 0*4414*1: bfkr^r^. 

* See ludische Studien, vol. xiii, p. 426. 

48. The divinity, whether praised or not, (but) indicated some- 
where " (in the hymn), the seers adore with formulas. That ^ (deity) 
one learned in scripture (^dstra) should take note of. 

^pr TTft hni'r^bfkr^r*. fl^TT^ r (cp. 81"). — D^tjI'f ^^{^f^ hm'r, 1?^^ 
fa«A ^fJBb. W^^ 'jtCft "^f^ff (k, ^^irn^W^i^: r'r*r*. — ^fiffl dr. J^Tfh. 


91] — iii 51 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 15 

^rt m\ ^^tfn fk, ^ b. — in^rf^ hin^r'bfkr*r*r\ in^Rf: r. — ^48"^ is nearly 
identical 'with iii. 81^ • 

* Op. the next sloka ; also i. 22. ^ The feminine iam is used as if devaia, not 

daioaiam preceded. 

49. For the actions (of the gods), though not designated by 
their agents S are nevertheless indicated ^ somewhere — at the 
beginning, and in the middle, and at the end^ and in individual 
passages (prthaJctve^u). 

HT^ t^ m^bfk, ^W?ft 5 r, HT^ hd (no particle). — K^ ^TRI ^ b, K^ ^fHH ^ 
f, irS^ ^ TRI ^ hd, irS^ ^ ^fil5 m\ irS^ TRI ^ r. — ^IRF^ hdr'r', ^^I^E^ 
m^r'', ^n^^ fk, fWTf^ t. — 1|^: hr^r'm^fr^ ^AfHl kr. — •^nPlf^STt^ hbf, 
•«*IMfEI|*l m% ^^V|Mii(Kn^ r, ^HflVIMl^Sn^ k. — aff^ hm^rbfk, ^WT^ 


* Thf^t 'w, though the names of the gods who perform those actions may not be 
mentioned at the same time (as in BY. viii. 29). ^ That is, are connected with the 
deity of whom they are characteristic 

50. The very action itself in the Nivid to Savitr* praises 
by the action^: since the cow, the courser, and the ox -are 
(called) milker, swift, or carrier ^ (respectively). 

^8n WWHTPRBTT hm*r, HSW 7m W(T^^l^ fk, HRR WT^ ^TPnrWPT, 

. — ^'w^ iiw^f If! hm*r*'r\^w7j^rRfl[TfT fk, ^rvRsrernfr b, ^iv^prRnn|fT r. — 

^ftaiT <timi^X^ ^ hm^ r (^ m^), ^Jt^fT ^t^ ^ITf^ ^ fk, ^^t^fT ^f^" 

^^q ^ b. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 in hdm^bfk. 

• The Nivid to Savitr is EV. i. 24. 3 ; cp. AB. v. 17. 7. * Op. below, iii. 78; 
see also i. 7 : ttutis tu learmaista &c. ^ In VS. xxii. 22 : dogdhri dhenur vo4han€u/van 
aiafk saptifL ; quoted below, with a slight variation, iii. 79. 

11. Hjam-owxiiiig and incidental deities. Seers of Vaiiivadeva hsnnns. 

61. Inasmuch as (the seer) praises Agni and others in the 

hymn to Bhaga* (vii. 41), Mitra and others in the panegyric 

of the horse (L 162)*^, and adores Agni in (the hymn) to the 
All-gods c, * Hither with these ' (aibhih, i- 14) • 

w^ ^hb, iffSf 'PC™^ 'nSt ^i r, in% V fk. — •^t'nra^pft' hm^r, •^INrr- 

^#^ r^r*^•r^ ^^^^^ii^rfl f. (ti|)^IT^Tire^ b.— ^^ bfkr, ^ hd. 

RV. i. 15] B^tHADDEVATl iii. 52— [92 

* Tb&t ia, in the first atanin; see above, iii. 45, ** That is, in the first sUiua. 
° See aboTe, iii. 33 : Sgitet/am tuktam . . vathadevam ihocyalr ; cp. below, iii. 141. 

62. as to that, they say that, while for the most part employ- 
ing in his praise (stuvan) other stanzas * at the beginning and 
end {of a hymn)*', he (the seer) from association (pratiyogdt)'' 
or on occasion {prasangdt) praises another deity at the same 

^TT g^fl^ ti, arr q^ff: h. v^ ^pff^: m', an: ^p^: r^r^r'', an ^qgft; 
b, ^T ^ jPt: f. arr ^ 5I1T: k, art ^'raft: r. — nffl*j1'ii(i,m'r'r''r^. Hiffl«n- 

* That is, staoias io other motrefl than those employed in the body of the hymn ; 
tbua the first staaza of the hymn to Qhaga (vii. 41) is composed in jagati, the rest in 
trisfubb ; the first and last of the hymn to Savitr (i. 35), mentioned above [45) in this 
coDDeiion, are also in j^kgati, the rest in trisfubh. '' Cp. above, i. 21, and below, 
V. 171. ° The reading of some of the B M6S., prafaryogat, ' through aasodation with 
the early morning,' may be due to the influence of the first stanza of the hymn to Bhaga 
(vii. 41), which begins prilar agniia, pTaiar indram &c. That is, the first and last 
stanzaa of a hymn often show diversity of both metre and deity. 

53. The deity to whom he addresses statements of an object 
{arthavdddn) * is to be known as hymn-owning {sukta-hhdgini) ; 
but the one whom he praises on occasion {prasangena) is to be 
recognized as incidental (nipdtini) \ 

fl<«^^T^T^hrbk, "^T^f, •^I^^m^, q^Vl4<lIfi: r't*r*. — ss*"* omitted in 


* Op. arthatji bruvanlam in i. 9. Cp. above, i. 17, 18. 

54. In four ways * {caturdhd), it may be said {vd), the hymn- 
owning (deity) ia mentioned (bhanyate) in that hymn in which 
a seer who praises all the royal Kishis or (divine) Ilishis'' is 
indicated (nirdista) " 

^5^ H^ flROI hd. ^giir W^ ^T^R r, ^TJffT fant !TftR b. ^ 7J 
^Tfan^ r'rS". — ^ ^T bdr^ ^ ^ b, ^ ^ t. — 54"* is omitted in m'fk. — 
^[iifT^ hm'r, ^rfx^ bfk. — ^q^hm'rh, ^ftt. f k. — ^^Hft: hdr, ^"^^ f , 
^qjft m'b, f^qgftn, k. 

* That ia, I suppose, if the term vUut occurs in a line, hemistich, atania, or a hymn 
as a whole : see the remark on the nature of a Vaiavadeva hymn above, iL 133. ^ This, 

98] — iii. 56 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 15 

I suppose, is meant for a paraphrase of vUvan devdn, ^ This word does not occur 

till 56, and may possihlj he a corruption (see 56, note '). The thirty-seven names (except 
l^hhSka : see 56, note ') enimierated in Sg-S9 ^^ those of the reputed seers of Vaisva- 
deva hymns. Of the twenty-four masculine names occurring in 55-57, seventeen occur in 
the previous list of twenty seers of Vaisvadeva hymns, ii. 1 29-131. The additional ones 
are yasukar9a, SvastyStreya, NShhaka, Kasyapa, Vamadeva, Madhuchandas, I^rtha. 

55. as Medhatithi*, Agastya^, Brhaduktha^^, Manu^, Gaya®, 
BjiiSvan ^, Vasukarna », Saryata \ Gotama ', Lusa J ; 

HVTftftnjrhfk, •fiP5W»m^d, •ffRl^h. — •ireB^hm^r, •ireBTObfkr^r*. — ^W%^ 

^™^ Ifl* hfkr.-^l|^*li^ hdm\ ^ ^^i^f^ fkr, 4^41$ ^ h. — ^IH^nft r, ^€$1^ 

hm\ KP^TTft fk, WT^il'ft h. — ^ft^nft ^l r (=r^r*r«), W[^^t if ^t hm^bfk, 

l|i*|^ Hm r^r*r*r''. I have adopted the reading of r^r*r^ because (i) ^PTJ by itself 
could not be right, as that name occurs below (58) ; (2) Hm never occurs elsewhere with 
the patronymic ITni^ , but only with qs^nt , as the name of a seer ; (3) «nn^ could 
easily be corrupted to «1|«|5U, and this would almost inevitably lead to the following 
word becoming ^nT» (the reading ^ ^l seems to me a corruption of WHl) ; (4) though 
•ll«iqi is a patronymic of i(i«|in* there is no reason to add the patronymic (as there 
is in the case of Agni below, 58), but the fact of its existence would have m^de the cor- 
ruption of «Mn^ easy. The MSS. r^r^ have in several previous cases been shown to 
have alone preserved the correct form of names in similar enumerations (^m in i. ia6, 
^J^ in i. 127, ^^^ and ^Vf^ in ii. 129) ; the present I regard as another instance. — 
The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hbfk, not in m^. 

• Seer of i. 14. * Seer of i. 186. ^ Seer of x. 56. * Seer of viii. 
27-30. • Seer of x. 63, 64. ' Seer of vi. 49-52. * Seer of x, 65, 66. 
^ Seer of x. 92. * Seer of i. 89, 90. ^ Seer of x. 35, 36. 

12. Seem of Vaiivadeva bymiui (eontiniied). 

56. S vasty atreya S Paruchepa^, Kak^ivat^^, the son of Gathin 
(ViiSvamitra) d, and the son of Urvafii (Vasi^tha)®, Nabhaka^, 
Duvasyu fir, and the son of Mamata ^ (Dirghatamas), 

Trf^nWWt b, «im«n44n fk, Illf^O^ll* hdm\ ^IIHeiO^V* Tf Trf^f^tfgt 
r^r''. Wrf^nfr^lfl must be the correct reading, because there is no seer named ^ifvi, 
but only «1|R9«|^ (seer of iii. 20. i, 5), and the two patronymics would naturally form 
a dvandva, just as 4|fi|*|l||4^ in viii. 70. 

• Seer of v. 50, 51. * Seer of i. 139. ^ Seer of i. 121, 122. * Seer 
of i. 3. 7-9; X. 137. 5 : no entire hymn to the All-gods is attributed to him. * Seer 
of vii. 34-37, 39, 40, 42, 43. ' All the MSS. and B read nabhakai caiva nirdifto ; 




but Nabhaka (seer of viu. 39-42) la not credited with any hymn or stuiza to the All-gods ; 
on the other hand, NahhanediMha, who (and not f^bhaka) is mentioned in n previous list 
[ii. 139-131) as among the aem of Vai^vadeva hymas, is the author of two hymns to the 
All-gods (x. 61, 6a), This snggests that in nirdisto (peculiar enough in tliis place) «o 
may have a corruption of nedtsf Ao. * Seer of s. 100. Seer of i. 164. 

57. Vihavyaf, the seer Ka^yapa'', and he who is Avatsara° 
by name^, Vamadeva^ Madhuchandas *", Partha^, Aditi, daughter 
of Dak^a ^ ; 

ft^; bra'r,ft?^hdfk. — ^WXI^ft^hm'r. *»HM?|rtl, brr'r\ ^Rffll^f^ 
f.^ra^^rofii^Ii.— I^lff.„^rhfk,l^^hm''m^^JTWtr'r*r<'.'-4^^(Ilf^^flihdm^ 

•^TTTf^fit: b, ■ytnf^tn f, "^aif^fn: r, ^titjflif^rfl; r^r*r*. 

" Seer of s. i38. '' Seer of x. 137. 2, and (as an alternative to Maua) of viil. 

29. ° Seer of v. 44. ^ EijendraSla Slitra, reading namayah, has here one of 

his marvellous references to the RV., i. 139. 9, where the word nShhaya^ occurs. * S«er 
of iv. 55. ' Seer of i. 3. 7-9. " That is, TSnva Partha, aeer of x. 93. ■" That 
is, Aditi DSkfayanT, alternative Mer of i. 73 ; cp. Sarrannkramai^i ; Arson ukramsQi x. 39. 

58. Juhu*, and the seer Grteamada**, and those who are the 
divine Seven Rishia ", Yama ^, Agni Tapasa ^, Kutsa ^, Kusidin B, 
and Trita^'; 

^f^ bfdr. ^fS: m\^ft Ilk. — ^Tf: ^H^H^ hni'r, ^TT ^ "fll*!^ r^r'', ^^. 

ff vm ^ b, ^^ ?i iBW^ fk. — ?raV ftrernre b, ^fft f+iyim*): f, ^r^ fir 

Wnrei k, Jipretif^r^ft; r.^Ijft ft^rnre: hdr^m'r^r^ I have preferred the reading 
^l^l*OIH<]: because (i) the patronymic Tapsjia conld not be connected with Atri, who 
is Bhauna; (a) l^pasa, as the patronymic uf three Rishia (Agni, Gharma, Manyu), would 
not be used alone to designate one of them without any indiration to show which waa 
meant ; (3) Agni Tapaaa is the seer of a hjinn to the All-gnds. On the other hand, 
Atri, who occurs in the previous list (ii. 129-131), thus disappears from the present one. 
From some of the preceding notes it will be seen that something may be said in favour 
of each of the three names of the previous list, Gathln, KSbbSnedis^ha, Atri, reappearing 
in the present longer list, where they are absent in my text, 

' Seer of x. 109. '' Seer of ii. 29, 31. ' Seers of x. 137. ■* Seer of 

I. 14 and part of x. 10. ' Seer of x. 141. Seer of i. 106, 107, sltemative seer 

of i. 105. ' Seer of viii. 83. '' Seer of s. r-7, alternative seer of i, 105. 

59. also the four brothers, Bandhu and the rest* separately 
(prthak)^, and Vignu'', and Nejamesa <■, and he who is Saqivanana^ 
by name. 


95] — iiL 62 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 15 

^^H^fl^i^^ hdm^r, 4^119^49^ b, l|^H«n^lQ«^ fk. — #IRlRJm^rbfk, 

* Seers of ▼. 24 and x. 57-60. ^ That is, in v. 24 ; q). Ar^ukramai^i v. 11, 
"where their names are enumerated, and they are stated to be ekarcah, i. e. each the seer 
of one stanza. These statements are repeated in the Sarmnukrama^I. ^ The seer 
of X. 184. ^ The seer of the khila after x. 184. * The seer of x. 191. 

60. All these have praised (him) in separate hymns with his 
universal {yi&vaih) qualities arising from his {asyd) activities®, 
(whether those qualities are mentioned) collectively or individually. 

^ hm^rbfk, ?BrfT r^r*r«.— 1R| ^ hm^r, IW ^ f k, IHT ^ br^rl— ^^ 
hm^r, ^Inf bfk. — 60 =43 . — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hdm^bfk. 

* That % the seers of Vaisvadeva hymns praise Agni in those hymns with the attributes 
of the All-gods, as in BY. i. 14 ; op. above, iii. 33 and ii. 134. 

18. Szplaii»tion of Dravi^odas. Deities of BV. i. 16-18. 

61. Now the Dravinoda, who has been asserted above (iii. 38) 
(to be) the terrestrial Agni, some call Indra^ because of his 
being the giver of strength and wealth^. 

^nWt dm^rfk, inN% hb. — s(fc|iq^^ ^: br^^*^^ •^TRH hdm^rfk (cp. the 
varions readings in 62 and 65). — ^ig^i^*c)i hdm^r, ^if^ifll^^ bfk. — ^Hf^TllHl 

bdm^r, nfrft^nft: b, iRPnrat: fk. 

* Cp. Ninikta viii. 2, where it is stated to be Eraustnki's opinion that Draviijiodas 
IB Indra, and where that opinion is refuted; see Both, Erlauterungen, p. 115. ^ Cp. 
above, ii. 25, where this is stated to be the reason why Eutsa calls Agni Di-avi^odas. 

62. This (terrestrial) Agni is Dravinoda * ; for he is the giver 
of strength ^ ; 

B and he is produced by strength, (that is) rubbed ^ {;niathyati) 
by the seers at the sacrifice. 

l[fiRJ^ t%r5 hdm^b, •^T^ m^m^rfk. — ^The five lines, 62*^-64, are to be found 
in bfkr^r'^r"' (=B) and m^ only; they are omitted in hdm^m^r (r^r*r*r')=A. It is 
not till here (after 350 slokas) that the divergence, as to length, of A from B begins. 

b. — Here the value of m^ in constituting the text of the passages peculiar to B at once 
begins to show itself. 




' I take Dravi^oda^ hero, and in 6i, aa tte nom. (in 63 we have the nom. pi.) of the 
aJtenifttive form dravinoda used for metrical roaflonit iDHtead of dravinoddt (the nom. of 
dravi^odas), which is otherwise employed here (i, io6i iii. 65; ace, ii. 25). Cp, 

Bibove, ii. 25. " Cp. Nirukta viii. 3 : balena mathyamano jdi/ale. 

B 63. They call the oblations wealth {dravina)^ because it is 

produced from the oblation ; now the sacrificers (rtvij) are givers 
of them ^ (oblations) ; hence they themselves are wealth-givers 
{dTaviJw-da) ". 

^f^m'bfk, 3[ftl!nr'r*r^ — ff^Nt r^r^r', ffM<^ b, f ^Ifll fk. %^^ m^ — 
Tm tj1<J«,m^b, Tm\ ^^m.rfk. 

■ Cp. ii. 25 and Nirukta viii. I. '' Cp. Nirukta viii. 3: flvijo 'tra dravinoitasa 

vcgaate haviao daldraA. ' The plural of dravinoda occurs in BY. i. 53. I. Yaska 

9 the form dravinodas 


B 64. Or he (Agni) is (called) Dravinodasa because he appears 
(connected) with them {e^dm) from (such expressions as) ' the son 
of the seers ' \ (and) ' O child of strength ' ^ ; or because he was 
produced from the middle <= (Agni). 

'W^tnn ^ br (Nirukta viii. »}, ^^^ fk, ^ftg^ m*. — l^lWt bfkr^r''r^, t^fit 
?^ m'. — V^vti ^I^t m'fk. q;<i) Wt b, 9f^q^ t. — nHt 51% r^r'r^ ift irfj 
m'bfk. — srTfvft^: fr*, ?iWt^: m'hkr^r^. 

* Cp. Nirukta viii. 3 : yalho etad: agnim dravinodatam ak^jlt: flvijo 'tra dravifo- 
dataft . . te eainam janayattti. ' rtlnaip putro adMrSja eta ' ily api nigamo bkavali. Op. Doth, 
Erlauterungen, p. 116, note ^. The worda r^'V^V^ p^traft occur in VS. v. 4. ^ Agni 

is often addressed in the RV. as ' lahaso yalio,' i. z6. 10 &c. Cp. Nirukta viii. a : balena 
mathyamano jayaU, lofmad enam aha sahasai palram, tahaiah tiiniwi, tahaso yakam. The 
expressiou $akaso yaho is used in explanation of rsinoni ptitrah, as the prieeta produce 
Agsi by ineans of strength (see above, 62). ' That is, he is Dravinodasa as derived 

from Dravinodoe; cp. Nirukta viii. z : atkapy agniiji dravi^odasam aha ; esa panar elaimaj 

A 65. It is this (terrestrial) Agni who Is wealth-giver {dravi- 
noda) ; it is then* that he is called 'Dravinodas' : it is only in 
(hymns) addressed to Agni that mention of Dravinodas appears''. 

j{^r<(On<lfM<.hdin^r. — TJI^^t^ ^W%br^m, "^nf^H r. — ITTT^T^ftlB^- 
^I bdm^ni*m', Htli^Uft' r (Nirukta viii. 2 ; HflT^l ^iftfl^^X:). — This iloka 
(65) is found in A MSS. only, hdr^r (preauinaWy r'r r*). The varga would therefore 

97] —TRANSLATION AND NOTES iil 69 [-RV. i. 18 

bave only three and a half slokas in them. As the varga ^thont 65 would have the normal 
number of five slokas, and 65^ is very tautolo^cal immediately after 62' » it is probably 
a later addition. This aloka follows the Nirukta even more closely than the preceding five 
lines in B do. 

* That is, when he is terrestrial. ^ Cp. Nirukta viii. 2 : ayam evajnir dravi^oda 
iU ^eqm^r : agneyesv eva hi suktefu draviii^odasalL pravdda hhavantu 

66. Here (the hymn) which follows that of nine stanzas * to 
Indra (i. 16) is addressed to Indra-Varuna (i. 17). The one next 
to it is 'The Soma-presser ' (somdnam: i. 18): Brahmanaspati 
is praised 

ipn^ hm^r, ^VRRi^ ?n b, ^qi|4fll flfT r*r\ 1ft(lRr ?ft f , •^ ?n k. — 
IRBt^ ^ hm\ •t 5 r. •t ^ r^r*r', •^ b, •^ ft fk. — The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^^ in bfm^, not in hdm^m^ The omission of the figure in A here, 
just where the varga would have the abnormal number of three and a half slokas, is striking, 
especially as the ends of the preceding varga (12) and of 15 (which contain the normal number) 
are indicated (cp. note on 71). 

* The reading of B gives the pratika of i. 16 (a tva), 

14. Deities of BV. i. 18. Eight names of Fn^apati. 

67. in the first five stanzas ; in (the next) three (6-8) Sadasas- 
pati; and in the last stanza (9) Nara^amsa; Soma-Indra are 
incidentally praised {nipdtita) 

68. in the fourth; Soma and Indra, and Dak^ina as well 
{ddhikd), in the fifth. 

On occasion the relationships {sambandhdh) of sphere and 
world* are proclaimed by the seer. 

<f^qin44l hdm, ^fwr fm r^r*, ^fWT ^ hfkr. — ^^^ hdm, •W: r. — 
limVt^PJ^ hmr, fft^Wnnott hfk. 

* That iSy deities are occasionally mentioned together because they are related in 
sphere {Hhana) or world (loka) as either terrestrial, or atmospheric, or celestial 

69. Thus (a name) of Prajapati {prdjdpatyam) might be 
(meant for) Indra * : on this principle (iti) two names of his ^ are 
mentioned here. There are six others as well ; Prajapati is the 
first of them. 

II. o 

RV. i. i8-] BRHADDEVATA iii. 70— [98 

r. trar V«Iir»I bfk,- — 69"* reads thus in r'r^: ^nf't 7^1? Il+Hf-I ITlinHWrf*! 
TTTft g. — *n!l7l % ^ ^ 'Ml'*II«*I^Iimr, ^if^^f ^f^KI b, JRftl^ qif^T^T 

^ For four of the eight names here stated to belong to PrajSpali, viz. firahmtuuB- 
pati, Vacaepati, Ka, Prajapati, occur in the list of deities belonging to Indra'a sphere in 
Naighftp{iika v. 4. ^ That is, Brohmanaspati in 66, and Sadusupati in 67. 

70. The remaining names I will next state (B) : — Satpati ^ Ka, 
Kama, and Sadasaspati ; 

70° ia nanting in A (hdr'r'r*r') and m ; it seems almost neceseary as a transJIion 
from 69° U) 70' , and without it the varga has only four and a half alokas. — VfTfH- 
hdm'b, V^l r. Wfilfk. — flj^hm'rb, ^iW f k. 

' Satpati does not oecur in the Naighanpika; in the RV. it is predominantly an 
epithet of Indra (cp. above, 69]. Six of these names of Frajapati end in pali. 

71. Ilaspati, Y^caspati, then Brahmanaspati : the third* and 
the last ^ (belong) to a hymn '^, as well as the first ^ and the fifth ** ; 

idb*Hfd*. m', I,35JJltT! h, ^«igf?T bk. I^tfl^ylflf, fr, ^^JWfif^ r". — 7T?Tghm'r, 
5?^ b, ^praj T* r", ^n^ f k. — yftTT% 5 '"°^''' ^fll*''! ^ h k, ^Tft^TTTt ^ f. — WW! 

bfkr^r'r'.^TJ^ hm'r.— The end of theuorgn is here marked by ^tfin fbdm',not in m'k. 
' That is, Ka. The BD. mentions one alania only (i. 24. l) as addressed to Ka. 
That ia, Brabmanafipiiti, to whom (or Brhanpati) several hymns are addressed. " The 
ftenitive snktain/a must bo uaed vaguely to eipress 'belonging to a hymn or pait of a 
hymn,' not as the equivalent of Kuklabhaj ; for no hymn aa a whole is attributed to either 
Ka or Sadasoapati. ^ That is, Pr^apati, to whom x. lai ia addressed. The reading 

of A, calvrtham, must be wrong, aa neither a hymn nor a stanza is addressed to Kama 
in the rtg-veda. It was probably caused by a slip for pralhanmm, as the ordinal is pre- 
ceded by tftiya, and immediately followed by paHcamam. * That is, Sadoaaapati, to 
whom the three stanzas mentioned above (67), vit, i. 18. 6-8, are addreased. 

15. FnJ&pati'* names (continued). DeitieB of BV. i. 19. 

72. 73. but under the four other (names) neither a hymn nor 
a stanza belongs to {ainute)^ him. 

Now certain people (ete)^ desirous of a correct view in devotion, 
say that all the names of all the deities (belong) to Prajapati ". 


99] — iii. 76 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.i. 19 

With regard to that (others) say, this should not be so; for 
he is traditionally held (smrta) to be (the owner) of eight (only) ; 

7a. ?W mVr*r', ?^ hd, IHI bfkr. — ^ ^ WP^r, if ^ IfTW^bfk, ^ TTPl 
f^^r^r*r*, ^ Ifnrn^hdr^m^m^m^ — ^Ig^ bfkr, Ig^ hdr^r»r*r«m^m*m^ — «»^ 
bfkr, •^f^ br'r^r^r^ •^j'^ m^m'm^ This points to f Wf i||U|J|^7| as the original 
reading of B, and ^Iff ^ WfJW^i'^^ as that of A (but in the latter case ?^, not 
?W» must have been read). — ^«ini«ii m^br, ^^IHJ ^ hd, ^IfTft 5^» ^Tlftf (no 5). 

73. ferine bfm^r, If^Tf hd. — ^ipi hdr'bfkr*r^ 1^ ni^r. 

^ Used in the sense of bhajate. The reading of B wonld mean, no hymn or stanza 
is mentioned with reference to him (tatra). ^ Ete (all MSS.) is used demonstratively 

with reference to the following word, ' these people, viz. those who Ac* : in sense it is 
practically =eA^. ^ Because he is the source of all; cp. above, i. 62. 

74. and by these (names) only ar^ sacrifices and oblations 
offered {kcUpyante) to him. 

Now together with the Maruts, vho belong to the middle 
sphere, this terrestrial Agni 

^Ift'r 'TTO hm^r, ^lit^T^ W' bfkr2r«rl--4W5|% m^rbfkr'r^r^ WH% hd.— 
*'^|ft<,l|H^hm^r'r^r*r*, •UTT^J XT^bfkr. 

75. is here praised with the hymn pf nine stanzas * To this * 
(prati tyam: i. 19). But by reason of the association with the 
Maruts in this hymn addressed to Agni and the Maruts, 

IR^jilf m^bkr,«^i5>f f,^iiff hd,«^Ptf r'^r"'. — 4111^^1 ^hm^r,«^[^TflCT bfkr*. 

76. Taska^ thinks the middle Ami, and not the terrestrial 
one, (is meant). But it cai. only bTthis terrestrial (Agni). for 
such is (here) evidently (his) character ^ (rupa). 

Vn^TR ^'I m^, TrWt ^'I hdr, Vn^TR ^ b, iH^ ^ r^r^r"', KVi ^[^ fk. — 
Minlfl^^l hm^r, Mlf^'^Q^ br*r^ ^Trf^ ^ f, Mlf^ ^ k. — The end of the 
iforga is here marked by ^M in hdm'm^bfk. 

* In commenting on the first stanza of i. 19, he remarks (Nirukta x. 36) : ham anyarn 
madhyamad evam avaksyat ? ^ The last pSda recurs three times (v. 87 ; vi. 94 ; viii. 

62 ), where I have printed tatharupam as a possessive compound in agreement with suktam. 
Here, however, it seems better to take taiha rupam as two words, and explain : ' for his 
(Agni's) character appears here as such.' 

RV. i. 19] 



16. How to aacertaia the deity of a stansa, &g. 

77. Such (a prayer) as ' Thou art invoked to drink ' * is not 
(applicable) in (the case of) the lightning (Agni) : so (the 
invocation) must belong to the designation of the respective 

deity •>. 

W^ M\(19 %f(! iim'fk. IJIRl Thl^ ^fTI r, ^^^ <fhl^ %?T^ r^r*r*. — ^^^jfSt 
1 TT^ftl ff hm'r,1l^ %fl!lf*jflt5 r*r*, ^^ '^SiaftjS^ fk. — TW ^TTf hm'r, 
^RT^^ r^r'. Ttfrrf^ f^. — ^^ g?l^ hrn'r, ^pft ^?ft fkr'r'A — Tho whole of 

varga i6 (77-82) is omitted in b. 

' The words hut/ate pltaye ea arc intended to repreEeDt the actnal nordi of the text 
in i. 19, I : gopithaya pra hiyast. That is, we must go by the name of tho deity, 

oud therefore here take Agtii to be terreatrial, and the M&ruta atmospheric. 

78. How is one to know the divinity * of a stanza, of a hemi- 
stich, of a verse ? As in the Nivid to Savitr ^ the activity (of 
the god) is praised by the (statement of his) activity *=, 

"^^In fr^r^r'. Tim?! k, an^hm'r. — ^A WtflUT hm'rfk, ^^^rfjlTT r*i'. 

* The doubt as to %Fhich A^foi is meant (75, 76) briogfi our author to the question, 
how is one to be sure of the deity in stanzaa or parts of staazas, as compared with the 
deity of a whole hymn {above, 53) \ This he answers by saying that mention of the activity 
[karma) peculiar to a god imphes praise of that god. Three of the examples of this given 
in 78-80 have already been mentioned iu 50, 51. '' RV. i. 34. 3: 'To thee, god 

Savitf, the disposer of boons, ever helping, we come for our share ' ; see AB. v. 17. 7 : 
afrit tva deva savitar ili tacUrant. ' See above, iii. 50. 

79. (as in) 'The milking cow, the carrying ox, the swift 
courser, the industrious (woman) ' *, and as (in the stanzas) ' May 
Mitra be gracious to us ' (iam no mitrah : i. 90, 9), ' May Varuna 
be our protector ' (Vamnah prdvitd bkuvat : i. 23. 6) ^, 

hm'f, ^fH^t fv'n: r, flf^r TT^ ^ 1 
fk, q^«|r*(il*JI r. 

• This line is quoted from VS. is 
changed, owing to (he exigency of metre, 
in iii. 50. •* That is, in these two sta 

as gracious' and protector' respectively. 

'* r'.— ! ijtnf*<<ft«l h m V r< 

L. 32, the last two wordn piiramdhir yoiS being 
to puranidhiya. It has already been alluded to 
uiias Mitra and Varuna are practically praised 


101] — iii 82 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV.i. 19 

80. (and) ' Hither with these, Agni' (aibhir agne : i. 14. i)^- — 
in such cases (tatra) the deities have to be carefully observed 
in accordance with the general purport {prdyena) of the hymn. 

Connected with words (Sahda) containing two or more members 
(pada) ^, there are two deities or many deities ®. 

* Already referred to above (iii. 51) in this connexion. ^ That is, DevatS- 
dvandas imply the praise of two or more gods. ^ Drndaivct-hahudaivatam seems to 
be an abbreviated compotmd, for dvidatcata-hahudaivatam. 

81. A divinity not associated in praise * (oiscmstuta) is (to be 
regarded) as though associated in praise if indicated anywhere \ 

Where in a formula addressed to two divinities a deity is 
spoken of in the singular (ekavat), 

^^pnn^hdr, il^ ^f, ^9^?nR^k (cp. the v.r. in iii. 48). — Hi^^Tl hd, f^^sn 

m^, fl^^ rfk. — ^81' is possibly an early interpolation, as it is almost identical with 
4&* , as it is unconnected in construction with the preceding or the following line, and 
as with it the varga has six and a half slokas. 

* I take the sam to be significant here (which it does not seem to be in iii. 48) 
owing to the mention of dual divinities in the preceding line. ^ That is, if association 
with a deity who is clearly praised may be gathered from the context (cp. iii. 49 and i. 1 19). 
An instance of this would be the last stanza of L i54» where Vis^u only is praised, but 
the dual vam occurs. Here it may be gathered that Indra is associated with Yis^u, as 
the two are invoked together in L iSS* I-3* 

82. one should kiiow that to contain separate praise {mbhaktar- 
stuti)^; also that in which, when there are many (divinities), 
a deity is (spoken of) singly (a-bahuvat) ^. 

In benedictions {dMrvdde§u), in (enumerations of) technical 
names {samjfidsu% in leading ritual forms (karrnarsamsthdsu), many 
deities are in the plural (pahuvat) where two-membered (deities : 
dvipade) are associated in praise ^. 

ftmi* h rfk (cp. V. r. in iii. 41 ; Nirukta vii. 8 has ftPfflK*). — i|ji«|^^^^ hm^ r, 
4V(n^V^^ r'^r^ 'IFWflEF^W fk. — ^^ fkr^^^ W^ hm^r. — 4111 1^ hdm^, •HT^ 
r. •iftj f. •iJS k.— •^^TT? hm'fr, •^TJ k.— f hm^fk, ff r^r^rl— Ur^^R hdr. 

RV. i. 20] 



IR fi^rtl r, fii^ IR ?f^cft f k. — 8a"* ih identical with v. 93° . — 8 J is repeftted 
in m' after 154. — The end of the varga in here marked by ^§ in hdm fk. 

' Soe the definition of vihhakla-stvti sbove, iii. 41. ^ I take bahtifu to be 

parallel to dvidaivale, and abahuvaC to ekavat. ' The general meaning of the loet 

two lineR appearn to bo that under these conditions man]' deities are not treated in the 
singular, and therefore it is in this case not vibhakla-ituli. I do not, however, under- 
stand the limitations stated in 83° . That line may also be an early interpolation as it 
recurs at v. 93. 

17. Storj of the Bbkaa and Trastr. 

83. In former times* there were three sons of Sudbanvan, son 
of Angiras, (viz.) !lEtbhu, Vibhvan, and Vaja^; and they became 
pupils of Tvaatr. 

The reading of 83°^ in the teit is that of h m^ r, mfl<i^V|<4*i: y-sll*^*! ^TfjTW^ 
% r'r'r'', Tire ^W^^t: H^T^PI ■WiPK,*!^ ^ fk. ^*l(^*|V(«l4^T?fl*I?flf*I*,a^ 
% b. — TW^ hm>r, nr^ bfkrl — WJ^ ^iH^hr=m'b^b^*^^^ 7t Wf^ '^ c. 

^ The following stoiy about the ^bhus making the cup of Tvastr into four is related 
aa an introduction to the {tbhu hymn i. ao. Cp. Nirukta it. 16 (on RT. i. no. 4) : 

j-bhar v&hed vaja iii ludhanvana ahgirasatya Iraya^ pvlra babhuvu^. 

84. Tvaatr instructed them in every art of which he was a 
master (^tvdsfra). The All-gods, who were thoroughly versed 111 
the arta {parinistkita-karman), challenged them*. 

' That is, to abow their skill in the arts they had acquired. 

85. They then made for all (the gods) vehicles and weapons. 

B They made the nectar- yielding cow — the draught of im- 
mortality [amrta) is called nectar {sabar) — 

^ Tra^ hm^r, ?! 7T?T^^ b, ?!?l^iran««l| f. IPTOIT^ mUf r^r''. — 
ghdm\ ^ btkr. — 85'''' comes after 89"'' in r.—^^R^m'r (^^ and ^ r), 

Sr^ a^^ fk, ^ Hwiv\ b. — T[^ r, ^mS (iprj) bfk, (f :)^: m'. — 85'"'- 

81/'' in Em' only. 

B 86. of Brhaspati ; then for the ASvins a divine car with three 
seats, and for Indra his two bay steeds ; also what (they did) 
through Agni who had been dispatched (to them) by the gods ^. 

103] — iii 89 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. ao 

^f^S'^TWTfwt m\ ^[f^Rf^^flpqf br, ^f^ fwt f, ^f^rfwt k. — 
f^'PyC'lr. Oi^'y^lifk, 5«iy <*i b, ^Brt^^m\ — f^^H^ ^ f^ br, ^ tsH^ 
f^ m^, X^IJ^ ffr fk. — ^^^l|f|?lTr* bfkr, ^f(Mff^«||<^ m^. 

* That is, the four cups which they made out of Tvastr's one, at the command of 
the gods who sent Agni as their messenger (see tiV. i. 161. 1-3). 

B 87. When he had said * One cup (make into four * : RV. i. 
161. 2), and when they had conversed in heaven (with the stanza), 
*The eldest said* (iv. 33. 5)*, they fashioned the (four) cups as 
had been said, gladdened by him \ 

U* ^nrefinjilr b, n* ^ iRrfinqpfc kr, irt ^ ^Bir f, irt ui^lPiR^^^ m\— 

w^ "WfwwT T^TT m*, wt^ ^mfncRn i^n b, mn mf}n^\ n[Pi f, ^snj ^[Ttq- 

WWTf ^ r. — ^<5!Wr m^fr, ^WTT k, BWT b. — ^ m^, ?ni r, 7f b, if " " fk. — The 
end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in m^f, by ^^ in b (because the sixteenth varga 
is omitted). 

* Where the eldest Bbhn recommends the making of two, the second, of three, and 
the youngest, of four. ^ That is, by the promise of making them participate in 
sacrifice with the gods (BY. i. 161. 2). 

18. DeitiM of BV. L 20-22. 

B 88. And Tvagtr, and Savitr, (and) the god of gods, Prajapati, 
summoning all the gods, bestowed immortality (on the Rbhus) *. 

^ bfk, ^ T.—^^^: w}h, 1^ kfr.— •inwr ^Ry m\ •iwar ?• fk, 
«9fi^rrp b, ^4<wi ^r|* r. 

* Op. EV. iv. 33. 3, 4, and see my * Vedic Mythology,' pp. 132, 133. 

B 89. There appears (in the RV.) praise of them in the plural 
{hahuvat) with the name of the first and the last *. 

In the third pressing (savana) a share is prescribed for them 
(te§dm) ^ with those (All-gods) ®. 

vimw^^ bfk, ^mw41 r, iiifiin41<v m^ — wfl^flt f. ^nmR: r, wf- 

Tf^t b, Wf^ ^TTt m^ (cp. Nirukta xi. 16 : i|JI4(fl^4(|:). 

* That is, these three deities are mentioned either as fhhavafi or vajah, but not in 
the plural form of Yibhvan ; cp. Nirukta zi. 16 : tesam prathamottamabhya^i bahuvan 
nigamd bhavanti, na madhyamena. Roth, in his Erlauterungen, p. 148, seems to have 
mistaken the force of hahuvai when he translates : ' es gibt viele Textstellen, wo der erste 

RV. i. ao-] 



tind Ictsto derselben genannt aind, nicht so der mittlere.' YS^ks goes on to sa;: 'thus 
there ate manf (bahinf) hymns in the ton books (of Iho EV.) with the plaral (bahmiaea- 
nena) of Rbhu and praise in connexion (^samstana) with the uup (eamasa).' The remark 
made ill my 'Vedic Mythology' that 'the plural of each of their names may doaignate the 
triad ' ia somewhnt misleading, as the plural of the forms vibhu or vibhii only, not DiiApow, 
is used. ^ Op. BV, i. zo. 8 : abhajanta bhagajp devest yajfUi/am; also AB. iii. 30 regaiding 
thnr ahore in the evening libation ; see Sayana on RV. i. zo. 8 ; ' Vedic Mythology,' p. 131, 
I. 16. ° The word laih would refer to larvdn drran {=viivdn devdn) in B {88*}. 

but to viivetam (85") in A, as Ss'^-Bg"'' are omitted in the Utter. 

90. And Indra drank Soma with them* (the Rbhus) at that 
pressing. Now this hymn (beginning) 'This' {ayam : i. 20), which 
follows " and consists of eight stanzas, is their praise. 

V^^m'fkr, 5ff^: fff hd. — t^ ^ hm'bfk, RT^ r. — H^H hr*m' 
r'r*r', ^raiT,bfkr. — ^re* hr'm'br''r', ^^ f , IB^ k. W^ r. 

* That is, nhich follows the one last mentioned (i. 19) in 75 {xuktena Bovatena 'prali 

91. (In) 'Here' {iha: i. 21) the two gods Indra-Agni are 
praised. The beginning of the third * (hymn praises) the Asvins ; 
and then the next four (stanzas) 'The golden-handed' {Jiiranya- 
panim: i. 22. 5-8) are addressed to Savitr. 

"f^f%*ft hm'r, »f^n1ir^*fl fkbr'r^. — VlPtSI^nu^lUlun-Hii: hm^r^ 

mU|<II ^tTCT: fk. The SarvanukramanI has butli ^Jlplstj; oud ^JIWI; cp. §a<]gurn- 

* That is, i. as, the third hymn mentioned after the digression (iii. 78-89), the first 
being i. ao. 

92. One" (9) is (addressed) to Agni, but two (lo, 11) to the 
Goddesses ; in the twelfth (stanza) the wives of the gods, IndranI 
and Varunani and Agnayi, are praised separately. 

^*T^3 ^^Mi hdm', IJWT^g ^TTTT r. li^T^"g ^ \4\^\ r''r^ H*T^^ 
"^ ^^tft b, l(,qtlQ ^q^qi^i fk. There is this marginal note in h : manlra-iinffO' 
vintddkam rial, that is, thi:< statement contradictf the evidence of the text. The order 
of the words so as to give the correa sense should be U^5 ^4^*1)1(41- Tbe Sarvann- 
kramaril lias Si'Jial "% ^'ft'TT'l^l . — 3T^Wt b, ^T^TTT fk, ^T^Wt bdm^r. — ^MT^ 


106] — iii. 95 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. I 23 

r^r'r^ ^ Hfit^ lidr, 'ITPfWt m\ ^TTOT^ fk, ^^TOFrf b (the last four contract the 
initial vowel with the ^ at the end of the precedmg pSda). — ^ ^«i^ hm^r, TfJ* ^^P( 
br'r^r^.-^rhe end of the varga is here marked by ^^C in bf, not in hm^m'm'dk. 

' We have to choose here between an actual mistake in the text (which ought to 
state that 9, 10 are addressed to Agni, and ii to the Goddesses) and a misleading trans- 
position of the words from their natural order on account of the metre. As a similar 
case has already occurred in ii. 13^, the latter is perhaps the more probable assumption. 

19. BV. i. 22 (oontiniied). BV. L 23 : Puyan Aghpal. 

93. And two (stanzas, 13, 14, praise) Heaven and Earth ; the 
stanza 'Soft' (syond: 15) should be held to be addressed to 
Earth. The (stanza) 'From thence' {atah: 16) is (addressed) 
optionally {vd) to the gods; the rest of the hymn (17-21)* is 
addressed to Yi^nu. 

^ ^ ^^ri^hdr, V;ft \ b, ^ft f. — ^^1%!^ h, lfl\«lgqk m*, ^^t%f^ f, ^^fl,b, 

^rnrm^r. — ^rrnwr ^wr hfr^ gi^^i ^mv b, ^^ Mii^qi r. — ^^trt ^w 

fi^ hrbfk, mit t^ ^ ^^ r4*r®. 

* Owing to the va, i6 is also optionally addressed to Vis^u. 

94. To Vayu (belongs) 'Mighty' {tlvrdh: L 23. i) ; for the 
two, Indra-Vayu, there is a couplet (2, 3) ; after that there is 
a triplet to Mitra-Varuna (4-6), also (one) for Indra accompanied 
by the Maruts (7-9) ; 

fltWt hr^'r*, «Wt bfr^«.— qx^lhdr, XTK* bfk.— gfT r^r^r^ f^NV hbfk, 

95. (then) a triplet for the All-gods (10-12) and a triplet 
for Pu^an Aghrni (13-15). 

B (He is thus named,) for there is attached {d-sakta) to his car 
a ghrryi : a skin full of curds ^ 

g^ r»r*r«m*r», f^|^ hbfk.— HI^III^ g^t r, ^Rl^m^ ^ bfkr*, ^n^ftrft- 
lyr: hm*r^ — miinl b, iraiit m*fr, m^Jt k. — ^ f , ^l r, ^^^V[T b. — fjSf 
fm ^ fk, ^jff ^ift ^ b, ^ flft ^ r» ^ ^: ^ r*r''. — ^The four lines 95*^*^ 
to 97^ are wanting in A. 

* Aghpfi is explained by Yaska, Nirukta y. 9, simply as agata-hf^i, the meaning of 
kpfi not being stated. 

n. P 

RV. i. 23-] 



B 96. Therefore (tat) he is praised as A-ghrni ; hence he is lauded 
(ribhyate) by singers (hri)\ For as their skin (dj-ti) is full 
of mead, the suppliant {arthin) also approaches the ASvins (in the 
same way)!*. 

'^irgftra.m^ f k. Tirg^ii, w^f^a, r. — tt^: m', TRqq: f kb, fl^Tf: r. — ^Mrwt 

fl?fl7l m', jftfKHt fK*^ t?h. im^ ft«Rt k, « afm? fl?fl^ r.— im:^^ 
^ra: r- — 5?5f r. 5J$: fk, gif b. — ^fil^ r, ^f?l*l,fni\ ^!ft*i,lJ, fiffilUkt*. — '^Wfit 
m\ 'V^tfil fk^^ lIT^Tfi! b, ^^^ r. 

' Kiri, being a Vedio word otherwiao found eiclurivaly in tlie RV., baa been corropUd 
in ftll the MS8. but m'. It is one ot the slotraamaai in NiiigUan{ufcft iii. 16. The verb 
iB also otberwiite limited to Vedio tests; cp. RV. vii. 76. 7 : usa ribhyate vattiihal^. Op. 
Geldner.Vedische Stiidien, iii. p. 176. '' Tbat is, Puaan, having a skin (ghrni = drH) 

filled witb curds on his oar, is prayed to as tbe Asvina are who have a skin (dr(() filled 
with mead on their ear. 

B 97. The skin itself appears in (the passage) ' Refresh the 
track with mead'* (a vartanim madlmna : iv. 45, 3'). 

Seven and a half (stanzas) are to he known as (belonging) to 
the Waters (16-23"*) ; the last in addition to the (preceding) half 
(23"*, 24) has Agni as its deity. 

■^ ^^^ bfr.TII irfift'm', ^ T^'ft' k. — ?%ft^ m'fkr, 5^R*I b. — IW^JT" 

mn" btkr'r*, VU|^I4II° hr^ (HmiV2|Vr' Sarvanukramam). I have here assumed 
a cotrnption by the tcimsposition of i and e in ^nPtfl for 5(01,1 (cp. Ej note '), aa the 
fortner reading seems to make no possible sense. — The ead of the varga is here marked 
by ^Q. in hdm^ bfk. The numbering is thus resumed after the omisiiion of ^'Q and ^^ 
in hd, where these three vargai (17-19) have an aggregate of nine slokas only. 

* That is, in the fourth [^a of x. 45. 3: dj-litp tahfthe madkamanlam aMna, 

30. Duties of ST. i. 24^30. 

98. But (in) 'Of whom now' {kasya nunam: i. 24) the first 
(stanza) is addressed to Ka (i), there is (then) a stanza addressed 
to Agni (2), a triplet (next) to Savitr (3-5), ' Bestowed by the 
gods' {bhagorbhaktasya : 5), being optionally {vd) addressed to 

What follows (6-15), as well as (the nest hymn) 
{j/ac cit : i, 25), is addressed to Varuna. 

Whatever ' 

107] — iii. I02 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 30 

ft- — ^^ ff IWr bm^^^ lit ^rtlWb, ^t ftWfk, lit Vfifn t. 

99. 'Do thou put on^ (v(zsi§vd hi: i. 26) are two (hymns) 
addressed to Agni (26, 27) ; but the stanza 'Thou that knowest 
lauds' (jardbodha: i. 27. 10) is to be recognized as (belonging) 
to the Middle Agni ; the last (stanza) * Obeisance^ {ncmiaJf, : L 27. 
1 3) is addressed to the All-gods. 

100. The following four (stanzas), ' Where ^ {yatra : i. 28. 1-4), 
are (in) praise of Indra and the Mortar, (so) think Yaska^ and 
Katthakya, but Bhaguri (thinks) of Indra (alone). 

f|%t^ fkr*r\ ^BlWW b, ^T^Tft* bm\ ^TI^^ r. — ^^^^41 bm^, ^^ft^" 

* There is no statement as to tbe deity of tbese four stanzas in tbe Nirukta. The 
Sarvanukrama^i follows Bhagnri, as it makes no statement about these four stanzas (which 
means that Indra is the deity : asya suktasyaanade^a indro devata, l^a^gorasisya). 

101. 'If indeed' {yac cid dhi: i. 28. 5)* are two (stanzas in 
praise) of the Mortar (5, 6), the two following (7, 8) are (in praise) 
of the Pestle also^; the last (stanza) lauds the skin used in 
pressing {adhi§avanlya) or Soma®. 

H4lfMM^Un*i TT hdr (Sadgurosisya, Sayai^a), 'i^lfviM^tfli) (^ ?) r*, ^ ^^ 
irfVnrtt b, ^ ^4^f4i4^^ f k. — ^^[^ ^IWI inprf?f hm^r (Sadgurusisya, Saya^a), 

^TitfiMi^wi mtirf?! bk, ?ftinnwT ip f. 

* Yaska quotes this stanza (Nirukta iz. 21) as an example for Ulukhala, but without 
commenting on it. ^ According to a marginal note in h, ^ti has here the sense of 
ca : iui earthe : tena eolukhdUz'SamuccayafL : mantra'-lii^a'-sai^vaddt The Sarvanukramanl 
has yae cid dhy mdukhalyau, pare (7, 8) mausalyau ca, ' There is no reference to 
Soma in the Sarvanukramai^i, where Prajapati Hariscandra or the skin is stated to be 
lauded : prajapaier hariicandrasya^ntya carmapraiainsa va. This is based on the com- 
bined statements of the Bfhaddevata (omitting Soma) and the Devatanukrama^i : see 
l^4fiu'^^y<^ (on i. 28), who remarks that the praise of Soma in this stanza is implied 
by AB. vii. 17. i. — loi* is quoted by both Sadgurusisya and Sayana on RV, i. 28. 

102. * What though, True One ' {yac cid dhi satya : i. 29) is 
addressed to Indra as well as the followinsr (i. -^o). After the 

RV. i. 30-] 



triplet ' Hither, O ASvins 

the A^vins, the next {uttara) 

(a^vind * 

. 30. 17-19), addressed to 

triplet ' Who of thee ' {kas te : 

20-22), addressed to Dawn, is the last (triplet). 

^St7g» MSS. Rcd r. — ^TftTT g^Tit,m\ ^Tf^TTrrqTttr, '^llftj*!! g^l^hfkb. 
«Tt>a*i5^Kr''- — WRIT'S'*!*,: hr, '«ft|*IH*(H.: m\ ^iPa^BCni, lifr^r'. v\Vh'^ 

^^ 'd<4^U,r. Tho Sarvanukramiuji haa the form ^H^ hero: XT^ gMIIlf^^* 
m^. — The end of tha varga is here marked by ^0 in m^bfk. 

' Confusion has been caused in the readings of the MSS. owing to the pratlka of 
tbe triplet being Sjioinau and tho triplet being described as 'addressed to the As'vina,' 
atvina. The exact ptattka aiviaau is hero represented bj aivina, which I have preferred 
to read before tfcat, as it is better that vltarafi should be immediately preceded by its 

21. DeitioB of BT. 


103. Being praised (with the stanza) 'For ever' {iaivat: i. 30. 
16), he (Indra) " rejoiced in mind gave to Sunabsepa (the seer) 
a celestial car all made of gold. 

flif hdr, ^»bfk. 

" Indra being the dettj of the hymn according to 103. 

104. The (hymn) which (begins) 'Thou' {tvam: i. 31) is ad- 
dressed to Agni ; and (then come) two (32, 23) addressed to Indra. 
Then ' Even thrice ' (tn^ cid : i. 34) is addressed to the ASvins ; 
'Of Indra' {indrasya: i. 32) lauds the action (of Indra) without 
(any) statement of an object* {artha-vdda). 

?TW hr^fkrVr',lpTTTlb.gT«I^r.— '^'IThr,t(jni|^>^ ^f — ^ 

^iT^ hrb, ^ iJti^ m\ w^ ^rnf ft. — "^^fri g hr, •^^rt*^ b, "^^ n fk. 

' That is, the whole of EV. i. 33 ia concerned with the myth of Indra's conflict with 
Vrtra. containing no prayers addressed to the god. Artha'Vada, meaning ' expression of 
a want,' has already occurred above (53) : yatya^ (dtvatayam) vadatj/ arlha-vadon. 

105. (In) ' I invoke ' {Jivaydmi : i. 35) one verse (1") is to Agni, 
the next (i^) is addressed to Mitra-Varuna, the third (i') is (in) 
praise of Night, (while) the (whole) hymn is stated to be addressed 
to Savitr. 


109] — iii 109 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 43 

irn^{q% r, nT^ ^rat h, vj^ ^^ vo}, in^ ^ b, ti% wn fk. — g<n«i\ 

106. These five hymns (31-35)* the sage, the son of Angiras^, 
after he had seen them, sang, on gaining the position of Hiranya- 
stiipa and eternal friendship with Indra. 

IV^irrf^ lidin\ Il^infTT bfkr. — ^f^T hm^r^bfkr"r*r\ fBTT r. — ^PTTO hr, HTH: 


* Cp. Ar^ukramapi i. 11. ^ Loc. cit.: ahgirasafi tutah, 

107. 'Forth* (pra: i. 36) is addressed to Agni; the three 
(37-39) following this (beginning) 'Sporting' {krUam: i. 37) are 
to the Maruts ^ ' Stand up ' (ut ti§tha : i. 40) is addressed to 
BrahmanaspatL 'Whom they protect' (yam rak§anti: i. 41) is 
(composed of) three triplets: 

9rn(?V hrb, ?np! f, •?! k. — iftgs hdm\ nfNf r, tflnj fk, ^jftlT r'', ^^ b. — 

^Sf^fTV B, «iiiq<( hm^r: I have preferred the former reading because the Sarvann- 

kramapi has ^Sf^fTV • • 1lf|Ul^fC|«t^. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ 
in hm^fk, by ^^ in b. 

* The correction of maruiam to marutam is rendered necessary by the sense and the 
constmction. The SarvSnukramai^ has hrllam . . marutmii hi, that is, ' ktilam (i. 37), as 
well as the two following, is addressed to the Maruts ' {hi by the parihhSsa meanmg 

22. DeitiM of BV. i. 41-47. 

108. (the first, 1-3, and the third, 7-9, being addressed) to 
Varuna, Aryamaii, and Mitra, (while) the middle one (4-6) has 
the Adityas for its divinities. * Shorten, Pu^an ' (sam pu§an : 
L 42) is addressed to Ptisan. (Then come) six (stanzas) addressed 
to Budra (i. 43. 1-6), the third, however, not exclusively. 

109. There is here (i. 43. 3) praise (of Rudra) along with Mitra, 
Varuna, and the All-gods. 

B It has already been said before* by the seerb that without 
an authoritative statement {ade&ci) the divinity 




HUFJngfWT bfk. — ^twr^Tn? r, g^TT^in fk. yStl^^IT b. — The five lines 109*"*- 
III are wanting in A; m*' baa tbem ae well as B. 

' In iii. 39 : adeiad daivatam jileyam . . , na iaiyaiii Ungate . . jtlalum. That 

is, hj ffaunaka, the reputed author of the present work. Thia way of referring to the 
author of the previous passage as different from that of the present one, certainly givea 
the latter the appearance of being & later addition. 

B 110. cannot be known from its characteristic mark (lihga) ; 
yet in some places (kvactt) it (the deity) is stated * : (thus) in 
'Thou, O Agni' (tvam agne : i. 45. i) the Adityas, Vasus, Kudras 
are praised at the same time '' (with Agni). 
^rapn: fkb, j^f^i '^ ^?rT: r. 

' This seems to mean, that oven though there may be no antbority for it, a state- 
ment aa to Ihe deity is occasionally made in this work ftom the occurrence of the name 
{Uagat). ^ These names all occur in i. 45. I ; but the SatvilnukramapT saya nothing 

about them. 

B 111. (Then come) three (stanzas) addressed to Soma (L 43. 7-9). 
*0 Agni' {cKjyie,: i. 44. i) are two (hymns) addressed to Agni (44, 
45). With a Pragatha couplet* the Aavins are (here)** praised 
with Dawn who bears her characteristic mark {linga-hhaj)^. 
' Here is Soma, O bounteous ones * (ayam somak suddnavaA : 1 45. 

f?ra: *Jl**rt bm\ fire: ^^Tsft" fk, 5^: lHwft r. The Sarvanukiamani has g^ 
(ftwfy, but 5^'' being iu accordance with its phraaeology, would naturally have been 
Bubstitnted for fira:. — tt Tl!^ b, W IPt^ r,^% m^fk. — H»Il^*Ilftl»ft ^pft r, 
IT'IT^ ft'ft b. TTTTTftrf^ ^ 1^'^ ^^ft fk, Hlflmnffl*) ^ f^^ ^pft m^ — 
ftrfWTtl m'ffcr, ftnpn^ b. 

* That is, a couplet consisting of a brhati and a satobrhBti. ** That ia, in 

i. 44. I, 2 ; cp. SarvanultramanT ; adyo dv^eo ^tvy-uioiaiji eo. ° That is, ahe ia men- 

tioned by name (as well aa the Asvina and Agni), ^ As his pratika seems to be 

necessary, and iii" looks as if it had been known to the author of the Sarvimukramanl 
(see critical note on titrah and note ''), the aloka is probably genuine. 

112. is a hemistich which has the gods for its deities*. The 
two following (hymns, beginning) 'She here' (ejo : i. 46, i) are 
addressed to the Asvins {46, 47). 


Ill] — iii. 114 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.i.51 

B TSaka ^ thinks the Sun {aditya) is praised at the same time in 
(the stanza) * With oblation ' {homsd : L 46. 4), 

iia**' is wanting in A and m^. — m^jkl r, vfinTl b, WT fk, — The end of the varga 
is here marked by ^^ in bfk, after the next line (113 ) in m\ not at all in hd. 

* Op. SSya^a, Introduction to i. 45 : ayoTi soma ity ardhareo devadevatya^ ; Sar- 
'vSnukrama^i : ardhareo ^ntyo daivafi. ^ In Nirokta v. 24, where aditya^ occurs in 
the explanation of BY. i. 46. 4. 

23. BV. i. 48-60. Story of Savya. The CTataroiiui. 

113. 'Together with' {saTiai i. 48. i) are two (hymns) ad- 
dressed to Dawn (48, 49) ; then ' Upward him ' (wd u tyam : i. 50) 
is addressed to Surya : (in) * Wherewith ' (yena : i. 50. 6) Varuna * 
connected with Heaven {dyuhhakti) is praised ; the last triplet 
(50. 1 1- 1 3) is destructive of disease {rogaghna)\ 

il^t^ hdm\ iTfV^ bfkr. — ^^\ bfk, iJ^flH^bm^r. 

' There is no statement in the San^ukramai^i about the deity of this stanza ; cp. 
SSya^a on i. 50. 6. ^ Cp. San^ukramapl : antyas tfco rogaghna ^anisat, 

114. With the first two (stanzas) in the last triplet (beginning) 
'Kising' {udyan : i. 50, 11, 12) there is driving away of disease*, 
while in a hemistich^ (of the last stanza) there is hostility to foes^. 

Among the Satarcins is Savya^ who is a form of Indra 

ftTni^fil^ b, OfllM^ffl^r*, O^IM«lf« r^ O^IM^ftfli m\ O^I^M^ftli, f, 
O^MfjfijHb, 0^M5^' r. — ^ffl[^^ r, fi[lf|;^ hm^bfk, (w^ 5) f^M|[^^ r^ — 
^^ ^n: hdr, ^;^f ^n m\ Tl^^^lWIS r*, Hf^ Wt b, ^ fWT f, ^^ ^W k. 

* Op. SSya^a's introduction to the triplet i. 50. ii-i3» where he quotes the following 
tfloka from Saunaka : 

^ The second hemistich according to BgvidhSna i. 19. 4 : uttamas tasya cardharco dvisaddvesa 
iti mnjialk; several MSS. of the SarvSnukrama^i add antyo 'rdharcah iatrughnai ea, 
* The BD. takes no notice of the khila which comes after BY. i. 50, and is printed hy 
Auf^echt and Max Miiller. It is the first in the Kashmir collection, but the first pada 
there is different : sam ait tisyordhvamahasa {adityena sahtyaaa &c.). ^ Savya being 

the seer of the group of seven hymns i. 51-57 (see ArsSnukramani i. 13), these seven hymns 
are now alluded to here in this way only. The allusion to the deity of these hymns is 
stiU more remote in Savya's attribute aindra. 

RV.i.5i-] BRHADDEVATA iii. 115— [112 

115. Of the sage Angiras who wished for a son like Indra, 
the Bolt^bearer himself became the son ", having assumed the form 
of Savya in consequence of the seer's asceticism. 

XSiifl hm', ft*P^ Ij. ^i^ fk, i;i^^ r. — q«l^ hm', ^%q r, ^RR ^ fk, 
^T^ T b. — JJffl"^^ A, gwf m", ^(flfSj. r, )J^t4 f k. 

* Cp. SarvaaukromanT : anijird indralntyam pulram ichatin abhyadknayat: savya itlndra 
eroiya pufru 'jayata. 

116. Now the seers in the first book are to be known as 
Satarcins ; in the last, as seers of short hymns and of long hymns ; 
in the middle ones, as middlemen (madhyama) *. 

^Si^^ffM^l^nT hrbfk, Sanannkramani, ^^^TliT lljl^I m', Ar^nnkramani, 
Sarvinukiamaiji, tt. r. — VV) hr. SarvanukraTnani, ^% b, TT^ f k. — 41U|M[: hm'rbfk, 
Argaoukramani, JJTVJJn: SarvaniikramapT, XGS. Ui. 4. a (mflR^n 4||Vt|t|i: . . , ^Jf- 

" Cp. Saniinukranunil, Introduction ii. 2 (iJrtRH ^(R( 'rS%i'S ^s^U)|iM|I- 
^JS\ Wai^ HTWIflT:) i AraBnukcaraBn! i. z ; ii. r ; x. 1: cp. BD., vol. i, p. 146 ; eee 
Roth, Zur Litteiatur, p. 26. 

117. 'Now indeed' (nu cit : i. 58), containing nine stanzas, is 
addressed to Jatavedas ; while the hymn which (begins) ' Branches ' 
(vaydh : i. 59) is addressed to Vai^vanara ; the following one, 
'Bearer' {yahnim: i. 60), is addi'essed to Agni. 

fkt'r^r^ ^n^ g WT: 'I^i. — 117"'' and iiS"' are wanting in hil. — The end of the 
varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk, after the next tine in m'. 

24. BT. i. 61-73. Eleven Ehilaa. BV. i. 74-89. 

118. Then (come) three (61-63), 'To him' {asmai: i. 61), ad- 
dressed to Indra ; ' For the manly host ' {vrsne Sm-dhdya : i. 64) is 
addressed to the Maruts ; 'With a cow' (pahd: i. 65) is (the 
first of) nine hymns (65-73) addi-essed to Agni; 'Ever Indeed 

of you ' {ia^vad dhi vdm) 

113] — iil 121 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.K85 

119. are ten addressed to the Afivins*; (the hymn) 'These' 
(imdni: viii. 59)^ is (in) pmise of Indra-Varuna. But whatever 
(other deities) belong to the Sauparna hymns'^ are praised inci- 
dentally {nipdtastuti§u). 

flSRi: m\ flf^^T^^^ f^S fkb (cp. SarvSnakrama^i on Tiii. 59: "11^14^^^. 
Instead of this line r^r"^ read : 

— iflM^m^ hbf k, ^ifitm^ m\ — ^in: l|TftPthr'bfr*r\ mHil(^ k, Hlf^fl r. — 

frenp hr, (iiMim b, Pi^imi k, finrnrn fr*r^- 

* Here we have a collection of eleven Ebila hymns, ten addressed to the Asvins, 
and one to Indra-Vara^a. The text of the former is known in one MS. only, but the 
latter is identical with the eleventh VSlakhilya hymn of the BY. (viii. 59), the seer of which, 
according to the Sarvanukrama^i, is Snpor^a and the deity Indra-Yaru^a. Thb collection 
is spoken of in the Rgvidhana i. 20. 3 as ' the eleven purifying Sauparna hymns * (saupar^ni 
pavitrai^i suktany ekadaia). Of the ten Asvin hymns we know only the pratikas of two, viz. 
iahad dhi vdm (the first) and of one of the others, pra dhara yantu madhuno ghftasya (AGS. 
iii. 12. 14 and l^ya^a on AB. viii. 10. 4) ; cp. Meyer, RgvidhSna, p. zziv. In the Kashmir 
MS.» the first has fourteen stanzas, the first line being iaivan naaatya yuvayor mahitvam. 
The second has seven stanzas, and begins with the line pra dharayaniu madhuno ghftaaya, 
^ The eleventh hymn of the collection {imdni), addressed to Indra-Varuna (referred to as 
saupari^ in AB. vi. 25. 7), is passed over below, vL 86 (see note on that passage). Cp. on 
the tttvpan^ khilas, Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 508. ^ I supply devatafi here, and 

take the meaning to be: whatever deities, except the Asvins and Indra-Varuna, are 
mentioned in these eleven Sauparna hymns are only incidental {nipdtim, not iuktabhaj or 
fgbkaj), Sauparna seems to be a derivative of sauparr^. 

120. The following six hymns (74-79), ' Going forth ' (upapra- 
yantah : i. 74. i), are addressed to Agni ; but the triplet * With 
golden locks, of air ' {hiraifiyakeSo rajasah ; L 79^ 1-3) is (addressed) 
to the middle Agni 

fJUfl ^IP r, ^JirWI* hm^b. ^Ml^l^l^ fk. 

121. Now * Thus * (itthd : i. 80. i) are five (80-84) addressed to 
Indra; in the (stanza) 'Whatever' {yam: i. 80. 16) Dadhyaflc, 
ManUy and Atharvan are incidentally mentioned*. Then *They 
who forth ' (pra ye : i. 85. i) are addressed to the Maruts, 

n. Q 

RV.i.85-] BRHADDEVATA iii. 122— [114 

l^tTT lid, l,4^Pl b, 5^0! fbr^r^r'. f;Slfn r. — f^mifrlAi: lifkr, Pl^lRH: 
hm'. — Tf ^ (TTT: hrf, H ^JtR!: k, V^ TTH: b. I|l|fii!i: m'. 

■ This folloKH Nirokta lii. 33, 34 (on i. 80. i5) : dadhyaa ■ . atkarva . . inanuJi . . 
tesarji nipato bhavaty aindryant r<3i> 

122. being four (85-88). 'To us' (« nah: i. 89. i) are two 
(hymns) to the All-gods {89, 90) ; two * (stanzas here) are regarded 
as (In) praise of the gods (in general), both ' To us, the auspicious ' 
(d no hhadrah: i, 89. i), * Of the gods' (devdndm: i. 89. 2), and 
again ' What is auspicious ' {bhadram : i. 89, 8) up to (i/dvat) ' A 
hundred' {^atam: 1. 89. 9)1*. 

flWl^T Wt hbr, "(rar^rot fkr^. — H^^ hm'.q^l^'^ t. *rt^^ k, %W^q fb, 
i;f7l ^r r^r*r'r^. — "% ^fllll ^fd^Tl hd, *% ^qi*ll ^ffl^fll r, ^ ('^ f k) ^TTTf 
^ffl^fl: hffc, ^TTTi ^fiPCTTT r'r'r'r^ ^ ^^TTT ^jfH ft^I m'. — V^ r. ^ 
hmVk, >t5^ b. — <II4'4^ r, ^TW^ hfk, <J|1|^A b. — laa"* and 113"^ are omitled io 
r^r*r*. — Tho end of the vorga is Lore marked by ^8 in hbfk, but ia m* after 123 . 

^ 1 supply T^au here, and take punaA to indicate a repetition of dve (rem), ^ There 
iH no reference to these four stanzas in the SarvinukramBjii, 

36. BT. i. 80-93. Ordar of hymiL-ffroTips in Ma^dala i. 74-164. 

123, In the triplet ' The winds waft mead ' {madhu vdtdh : 
i. 90. 6) the supreme (paramo) mead is also (apt)* desired ; but in 
the (stanza) 'Aditi is Heaven' {aditir dyauh: i. 89. 10) the 
majesty of Aditi is told, 

g% br, 5^ fk, g^^bm'. — JlwJt^ r, H^rt^lfl'S f k, *1?|<I^«1?| b, tJVRm?! 
hdm'. — After 133°* r adds tbe following line (omitted in Am'bfk): 

— ^jftPTT" hm^r, VCQit br^r'i'', flfflU fk. 

* That is, while the triplet is addressed to the All-gods, the heavenly mead [madhu, 
which word occurs in every stanza of the triplet] is prayed for. 

124. 'Thou, Soma' {^vam soma: i, 91) is addressed to Soma; 
'These Dawns '(e(a u tydh: i. 92) is addressed to Dawn; the triplet 
'O A&vms' {ahtnd : i. 92. 16-18), to the ASvins. ' Agni and Soma' 
(agnisomau : i. 93) is (in) praise of Agni associated with Soma. 


1JT%^TIW'niWHhin*r',1[ft?|^1l^»nJWHr*r*r*,Srt^Jr^1fTTSHI^iWl rT', 

115] —iiL 127 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.i.94 

^ ^t»W r. ^ Wt»nn» fk, ^ ^(P|9FVT* b. 


125. After Gotama (74-93) the son of U^ij (Kak^ivat comes : 
1 1 6-1 26) ; after tjie seer Paruchepa (127-139) follows Kutsa 
(94-115); after Kutsa, Dirghatamas * (140-164): always {koAvai) 
these two^ (sets respectively) ; in this order {evam) is read (the 
text of the !Rg-veda). 

^ftlHTT^ hdr, «nn«lljm^bfk, AnuySl^nukramaQi.— In r^r*r®, 125"^ reads as 
follows : 

^«fiiflK^M)<l^ b, ^^(l|l^<1K4j|<n«|7) f, ^r^lV^tifTTQ ^WSt k. — The end of 
the varga is here^ marked by ^M in hm^bfk. 

* That is» while the order of the Sakalas is Gotama, Entsa, Kakslvat, F&mchepa, 
Durghatamas, that laid down in the BD. is Gotama, Eaksivat, Paruchepa, Kutsa, Dur- 
ghatamas : thus Eutsa instead of coming second comes fourth. This is the order of the 
BBskalas, as shown by the form in which this sloka appears in the AnuySk&nukrama^I (see 
BD., Yol. i, p. 146) : kutsad dirghatatna ity ef a tu baskdlakaft kramafi. See Euhn, in Indische 
Studien, i, p, iig, and Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 496. ^ Owing to the dual neuter 
I supply sukte, that is, ffitukie (collections by one seer; cp. i. 14) : the collections of 
each of these fiye seers should be coupled successively in this order in reading the 

26. BV. i. 94-111. Seers of hymiui with refindns. Khila« of Salyapa. 

126. Kutsa, son of Angiras, saw 'This' {imcmi: i. 94): he 
uttered (this hymn) containing sixteen stanzas (and) addressed to 

A Three verses (8 ^^^) of the stanza * Foremost, Gods ' (purvo 
devdh : i. 94. 8) have the gods as their deities ; then half of the 
last (stanza : L 94. 16) 

VKl^^V hm^r, Wnf^^ bfkr'r'^. — iHcb^^li hdm\ iftHl^ r, ^t35l(V^ f, 
NtV^^H^b. — 136*^ is found in hm^r, but is omitted in bfkr^r'^. 

* The second pSda of 126 has one syllable too many. 

A 127. either belongs to the same deity (i.e. Agni) as the 
(whole) hymn which precedes it {tatpurva), or it is (addressed) to 


BRHADDEVATA iii. 128- 


the six deities, Mitra and the rest, who are here referred to {pra- 
krta) » 

The last hemistich (i. 94, le*"*) is (addressed) optionally (vd) to 
the six (deities) praised, -whereas in ' Foremost' {purvah : i. 94. 8) 
the gods (in general) are praised with three verses. 

r'^r'', WSi ^h {one sjllftblo ahort), ^^hmVf (two syllables short). — MI^HJ ^tw: fk, 
xnt^ ^fW b. m^: ^jfirfn: hm'r. — 127"* in hm'r (wanting in bfkr'r'). In r*r\ 
the four piidaa of tbo tristubh stania 135° and l2^ have been turned into four uiUBtubh 
lines as folloTra : 

These M6S. siso insert 125' between the first and aecond of the above linei. 

' There can be no doubt that 126"* and 117°* are a later addition of the A MSB.. 
since they merely ampli^ laj"* trhich A has in common with B; they also give tha 
ear^B six s'lokas instead of the normal five. 

128. "In Bharadvaja, Grtsamada.Vasi^tha'*, Nodhas'', Agastya"*, 
Vimada^ Nabhaka^ KutsaS there are no eimilar {samdimdhar- 
minah) refrains in (hymns) addressed to many divinities, also (not) 
in those addressed to two gods. 

"ft^^T hm'r'r*r'', "ft^ bfkr. — ^JT^H^g hm^, "^i^ltg dbr, "^Hj f. — 
f^^'^3 hbfk, flE^^m\ — BHI'Wfil'Ii: hm'r^bfkr't'r', (JMII|^qV|l{i: r. 

' In connexion with the last hemistich (the refrain of i. 94-96, 98) of Kntsa's hymn 
(i. 94) mentioned in the preceding sloka, the author now goes ou to enumerate eight seen 
whose hymns are characterized by refrains. The meaning seems to be, that no refrain 
of a similar character to this one of Kutsa's (that is, a refrain containing the names of 
SBTBral deities) occnra in any of the hymns of these seers addressed to many deities or 
two deitiea. None of the refrains of these seers (except Kutsa's) appear to have this 
character, even in hymns addressed to a single deity ; but this point would have to be 
more closely examined. Tbe first three names are Ihoso of seers of whole Ma^4*las, 

in which refrains are Sequent. " Seer of i. 5S-64 : 58, 60-64 end with the Mme refraiD. 
^ Seor of i. 166-168 which end with the same refrain. ■ Seer of t. 21 and 24: kU 

the stansas of the former and half uf those of the latter contain tbe refrain oi vo made . . . 
vivaiaase. ' Seer of viii. 39-41, through the whole of which mns the refrain aaftAaatoia 

117] — m. 130 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.i.100 

anffoke same. The name, properly spelt NSbhaka (above, iil. 56; Ar^okrama^i viii. 10; 
Sar^nukrama^i), has the first syllable shortened owing to the metre. ^ Seer of 

L 94-98, all of which end with the same refrain except 97, which has a refrain of its own 
running through the whole hymn. 

129. *Two unlike' {dve virupe: i. 95) is a hymn to Agni 
Aui^asa, * He in the ancient way ' {sa pratnathd : i. 96) is to Agni 
Dravinodas , * Of Vaiigvanara ' {vai^dnarasya : i. 98) is addressed 
to YaiiSvanara ; but the one before this (i. 97) is to Agni Suci*. 

< t Ni»€llM^ hd, ^1^^^ bfk, ^iJ^Wn^ m\— 5[fiRrt^«q?|[ hm^r, ^- 
Ijt^ ^ b, ^f^POt^ ^ ft — ^fll«l<^ffl rfk, ^^lil^QPl ^ hdr^ omitted 
in b. — r has ^ni^after^fUlO^H.- — "9*'*' ia omitted in r^r*r*. 

* Cp. SSya^a, introduction to RV. i. 97.— The first two p&das of this stanza have 
twelve syllables ending iambically ; the fourth, though having eleven syllables, ends iambi- 
cally also. 

B 130. Some say that the thousand hymns addressed to Jata^ 
vedas (which come) before (the hymn) addressed to Indra (i. 100) 
have Ka^yapa as their seer*: the first hymn of these is 'For 
Jatavedas ' {jdtavedase : i. 99). Sakaptini tbinks that they increase 
by one^ (in the number of their stanzas)^. 

k, fJRT ^H^fTiHi b.— HWrr^ m^r (SarvSnukrama^I), ^WrmW b, ^WRT ^Wft 

fk. — 130 is omitted in A. After 130 Mitra adds from one (r'^) or two (r^r^) of his MSS. 
three lines not found in A or bf kr' : 

* The text of the SarvSnukramaigii on BY. i. 99 is clearly based on this stansa, which 
must therefore be original Cp. vol. i. Appendix vi, p. 148. ^ ^th the three interpolated 
lines in B cp. the slokas in Sa^gurusisya on Sarvanukramaigil i. 99, where the total number 
of the stanzas (calculated as an arithmetical progression) contained in the xooo hymns 
attributed to Kasyapa is stated to be 500, 5CX3 less one (i. e. subtracting one for the first, 
BY. i. 99, which is not a khila) : cp. my explanatory note, SarvSnukramaigii, p. 159. When 
ipa^gurusisya states that 'Siaunaka himself has referred to these khilas in indexing the 
seer ' (fsyanukramaf^) the allusion must be to the above passage of the BD., as the Arsanu- 
krama^I makes no mention of them. ^ Padas acd, though ending like trbtubhs, 
have twelve syllables. 

RV.i. 100-] BRHADDEVATA iii. 131— [118 

131, 'The mighty one who' (so yo vr§d: i. 100) is (the first 
of) five (hymns) addressed to Indra (100-104)*; there are (then) 
three (105-107) addressed to the All-gods, (beginning) ' The Moon ' 
{candramas: i. 105.1). 'That which, O Indra-Agni' (yainrfra^i : 
i. 108) is (the first of) two addressed to Indra-Agni (108, 109); 
the two following (no, in) 'I wrought' (tatam: i. no. i) are 
addressed to the ^Ibhus, 

"nie end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hm'bfk. 

* The Satraniikramaiii states RV. i. loi. i to be garbkatrdtijfy upanifat, and in 
Rgvidhana i. 33. 3 it is deBcribed as garbhapramoeanl. 

27. KV. 1. lOfi: Storr of Trita. 

132, The cruel sons of the she-wolf {sdldvfki)"- having cast 
Trita, who was following the cows, into a well'', carried oif all the 
cows from thence ''. 

4JI*!ll3*l»r, irWT'hm'r^r'', l[m»b, fSJdbl' T (cp, RV. 4IHfll|*). — ^IT: M^IH, 
hm'r, m: H^T^Br^ — ITflTIWflT r, ipft'l'hd, ll^* l□^ \l^\V bfk, HW* r*r''. 

* Cp. RV. i. 105. iS ; arvno ma sakfd vfkuA patha yanlam dadariit hi. Op. 
RV. i. 105. 17 ; Mta^ kipe 'cakitali. " On the story of Trila in the well cp. Goldrer, 
Vedischc Studien, iU. 170 ff. 

133, He, the best knower of formulas among all knowers of 
such, pressed Soma there and summoned all the gods : Brhaspati 
heard that (call)*. 

^T^I^b, ^l<|?(^_in^fk, '^Iflm'l.h. 

' The words toe ehairava bfiaspatift occar in BV. i. 105. 17. 

B 134. Now on seeing them coming, he reproached (them), 
saying, ' Where, indeed, abides, the all-seeing power (sarvadrktva) 
of this Varuna and of Aryaman 1 

^Hl'^flli^ JlTtr, ^ifl^nl T m b, ^IRWt 1 ?rf fk, w*rffTW ?rpf,m'. — 

r— ai m'ik, « 1,. ^ r.— q^UH a it J H Il r, ^^IH^T^^" b, ^nn»T^«!|^" f, fl- 
<a?jl^»^^" ni'. — 134, 135 waoting in A. 

119] — iii 139 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.i.115 

B 136. *My limbs were wounded by the bricks of the well. 
Having seen all (the gods) I praise (them), even though not one (of 
them) sees (me)/ 

^^tlTf m^r, ^a^PTf bf, ^^^f k, — ^ if VIWfH bfkr, njt ^ f^lffi(l m^. 

136. The three troops* of the All-gods, urged on by Brhaspati, 
went to that sacrifice of Trita and took shares of it together. 

ft^^qnuiw^ m^br, o^ 'RTOhfk.— ^Rgf^nrar bdm\ wi^ ^rar r, ^wir- 

T^l^ni bfkr'r^r''. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in hdm^. ' 

* Ab belonging to the three spheres of heaven, air, and earth ; cp. my ' Vedfc 
Mythology,' p. 19. 

38. Deities of BY. L 113-131. 

137. As a seer Brhaspati declared the knowledge and discern- 
ment of Trita here displayed (etat) with the last triplet (i. 105. 
16-18)* of the hymn (beginning) 'That' {asau : i. 105. 16). 

ffwtfR^nWW^bm^r, ^f^nTm^nrOm r*r*r^ Jf MlVtllflA^A^ f, ^^^dln 
n^n b. — ^^ hm^bfk, ^^R r. 

* It is important to note that this statement ignores the existence of BY. i. 105. 19, 
which, according to Grassman, BY. Translation, vol. ii, p. 446, is an interpolation. The 
first pfida of this stanza is, however, quoted by YSska, Nirukta v. 11, to illustrate the 
word S^ufo, 

188. (The verse) 'I praise' {Ue: i. 112. i*") is to Heaven and 
Earth, the next verse (i^) is addressed to Agni ; the remainder of 
the hymn (112. 1*^*^-25) should be (regarded as) addressed to the 
A6vins». 'This' {ichm: l 113) is (in) praise of Night and Dawn, 

•jf^Wt^ br'r'', •^ftp^ fk, •^ftPTI^hdm^r. — •Hft 1||V)<|: r, •%?W1^ b, 
•^^«l^«j: r*r^ ^5Vrrai^« hdm^, •UWRRlff fk. — <|^M^: m^r, •^ fk, ^ 
h, TTf%^W%b. 

* Op. the quotation in Sadgunuisya (p. 93) from the Devatanukranuugil : tfe dyavi- 
pjrthioyor adya^ padafk paro ^gnaya aMnofji tac ca iuktam. 

139. 'These' {imdh: i. 114) is addressed to Rudra; the next, 
*The brilliant' {dtram: i. 115), is addressed to the Sun. Then 

RV.i.ii6-] BIIHADDEVATA iii. 140— [120 

(come) five {i. 116-120) addressed to the Aivins (beginning) 'For 
the Nasatyas' {ndsaiydbhyam : i. 116. 1) : the last (stanza) in the 
last (hymn : i. 1 20. 1 2) is destructive of evil dreams, 

lit ^hm^^^*^^^^!: ^bfkr.— W^^JnAm'.W^ W^,r, ??^ Vrf 
fk, f^^ ^q^ b. The reading of A is supported hj tbe SarvannkramntiT ; antya du^- 
tvapiiandilni : cp. also Rg\*idbina i. 15. 1; Sayana od i. lao. iz; Fiscliel, Vedische Stadieo, 
i, p. I. — "TTfil^ Ak, "Tnpft fb. 

140. 'When?' {kad: i. 121) is addressed to Indra, and 
'Forth' (pro: i. 122) is addressed to the AU-gods. The two 
(123, 124) next (beginning) 'Broad' (prthuh: i. 123. 1) are 
addressed to Dawn (awsose). In 'At mom' {prdtah: L 125) the 
seer lauds the gift of Bhavya"'. 

Vft^ fk.— ^ ^ hmH, ^ g bfkr^B. 

" 140' -150 ate quoted in the NiUmaajari on EV. i. 126. 7. The following story 
ia told to show under whst circumstancea BV, i, lag and Iz6 were repealed to KAksTvat. 
The name Bhavya, which occutb in RV. i. 136. I, ia hero meant aa an equivalent of 
BhavafaTya, by which it is explained in Niiukta ix. lo. 

141. 'When, indeed?' {kad ittkd: i. 121), a hymn of Kakaivat 
which is traditionally held to be addressed to Indra, is indicated aa 
indirectly addressed {paroksa) to the All-gods in the Svarasamans*. 

fliN^^ ^f^^Rl bdm', ^^qn qif^WTfrr r'r^r*r', qtpft^ff 'TTf^Sf b, 
8(^fl*i ^^4fil fk, flWtfHT fflf^Qlfl r. — 141'''' and 142"^ omitted in f k ; 141 
omitted in n. — T^^ bdr, ^^% br". — The end of the varga is here marked by ^C in 
hdm^b, but after 141* in fk. 

* It is mentioned as paroktavaUva'itva in tbe Kausltaki Brahniana xziv, 9 (one of 
the sections on the Svaras^uans) ; cp. below, v. 44, 45. 

38. Stor7 of Eakuvat and Svaiiaya. 

142. Having acquired knowledge from his spiritual teacher* 
(and) going home, as we are told (kila), Kakaivat fatigued on the 
way fell asleep within the forest. 

^iftira hdbr, ^ ^rera n. — ftiW bdm', nft br. — 142-153 wanting in r'r*r' 
(142 and 153 both end with the word ftw). 

* That is, having completed hia apprenticeehip in Vodic study. 


121] — iii. 147 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 125 

143. Him a king, Svanaya by name, the son of Bhavayavya, 
saw as he went along to amuse himself, accompanied by his 
retinue, his wife, and his domestic priest. 

*<l*l*l*l^<fthm^rn(d),4<|fl*imj^b,4!|«|^^4<|fl^fkr*n(ab). The reading •^pSt 
is supported by SSya^a (on RV. L 125. i, where the story of KaksTvat is told), who calls 
Svanaya ^144^^ ^t | . — The unanimity of the MSS. in writing ffl'Cl^ has caused 
a lapAe from consistency, which requires f|ilcibl«i in the text. 

144. Then on seeing him endowed with beauty (and) resembling 
the son of a god, he thought of bestowing his daughter (on him), 
if there were no objection on the score of caste and family. 

^|%irhdfr,1H%irk,^n%ifb,^Rnnfn. — «41^lf^OWT:hdbfkr,«41lInOWTtn. 

145. Then after wakening him he inquired as to his caste, 
family, and so forth. The youth replied to him saying, * king, 
I am of the race of Angiras ; 

WK hdm^ H^ bf kr, IWT n. — 145^*^ and 146*'^ are omitted in r*. 

146. 'I am a son of the seer Dirghatamas, son of Ucathya, 
O king.' Thereupon he (Svanaya) gave him ten maidens decked 
with ornaments*, 

^WT bfkr'n, W^ hdm^r.— <^WKfi | ^filfl| ; b, ^ MUT^^H^i : n, ?[U 

*«Kft^ftflIfk,i^ ^K44|f^fl|: r*, (^4|l4i4,q«)fMfll^hdm^r. — The reading ^WT 

1^ is preferable, as apparently based on the words q^«f^ ^J( \mm (interpreted as 
* ten chariots with maidens ') in RY. i. 136. 3, and because the reading in the next line 
(common to A and B) WmTV \^l\ implies a previous statement of number. Svanaya 
intends to give his daughter (qi^I) to Kaksivat, but in the meantime presents him with 
ten maidens along with the chariots, &c.— -The end of the vatya is here marked by ^<& 
in bf, not in hm^k. 

* Or, according to A, '(his) daughter decked with heavenly ornaments' (see critical 

30. Btozy of SakpTat and Svaaaja (oontinnad). 

147. and the same number of chariots, strongs-bodied bay 
.teed, goi-g in tean^ of fo»r. for the p«n»« of L.^g the 
maidens^, money and (utensils of) inferior metal ^, goats and sheep. 

TWtWnPlh, TWPBTTP^d, i^i^Hl^ b, <Vi^lHI r*n, <ViVIMI fk, T^- 
•itun, r, TWrP^^Tl m^. (The word WRTHO occurring in RV» i. 126. 3, would easily 
II. R 

RV. i. ia6] 

BRHADDEVATl iii. 148- 


lie corruptod : cp. b.) — fl^ifll^ hdm'r, ^^T%^ b, ^fM^ %: r^n, flftxiWV %'. f k. 
(The word vufvahga does not occur in RV. i. is6. 3. but is an epithet of aixia lu RV. i. 
118- 9.J — VrjC^ hdm'fk, ^T^l? r, l^ gW bn, Vt ^TO r". (I have preferred 
V^I^HQ aa a dvandva owing to the following ^^itq4*t.i and beDause this reading occun 
in B as well as A.) 

' The expression vadfivnam cahanarthaya was doubttesa anggested b; vadhimontah 
in BV. i. 126. 3. Cp. critical note on hanyd daia above, 146. A Bimilar diatinction 

between dhana and kapya ia found in Manu vii. 96. Thure is no roreronce to thexo, nor 
to sheep and goats, in the text of the h^mn. 

148. Further he gave (him) a hundred necklets and a 
hundred bulla. This is told in the next hymn with (the 
stanza) 'A hundred' (satam: i. 126. 2) and so forth*. 

^qWTTffi ^ hm'r, ^qHTIlibfk. inTTTPft r'a. — HflJ-rt*,^*! hdm' r, TPTTT- 
JTft ^ r'n, ipra^ ^ b, ip* fl^-rO. ^ fk.— ! Hflfil«| l f<^1f<flH. ''m'r, 
IpTftWrfif ^t^nt r", ^t^ b, ^^UT* rk, "f'QTt n. — The line 148"' occupies this 
position in B and a, but in A and m' it comes after 150, its place at 148" being taken 
by the following line in A and m' : 

aiwf ^rr^ ^ftiar'' ^v *a<flr<,m*i«: i '' hdmS wStv r. 

Thifl line must be spiirious, as it repeats the sense of 149' , which is commoa to A and 
B. Its ioelaBion would, moreover, give five and a half slokas to the varga instead of five. 
The line 148° is more appropriate here, as it interrupts the sense after IQO. 

■ Having thus referred toRV. i.ii6, a, 3 the author, in the following aloka, enumerate* 
the gifts over again in close adherence to the wording of those two etansas. 

149. A hundred horses, a hundred necklets, ten chariots 
with maidens, (steeds) going in teams of fom-, and a thousand 
and sixty cows" — 

lt^T %^br, *I«ri^^hm'fk. — qBJtJ|(yqi*i,br", Mn(I!rfVV1.m^ M«tfq(f\mn_ 
hfr, MBiqif^Vi^n. — 149, 150 omitted in d. 

* The text of the hymn (i. 136. 2, 3} has niskSa chatam aican . . cadhimanto daia ralka- 
lotfljk aahuTom , . gavyam. 


150. Kak^Ivat, who obtained* (all this) from Svanaya Bhava- 
yavya, both praised (him) after receiving (it) and recited (the 
hymn) 'At morn' {prdtah: i. 125) to his father. 


123] — iii 154 TRAIJSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. ia6 

injK hm^rbfk, IHTS r'^n. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 m bfkm^t 
not in hd« 

* The accusatives in 149 are of coarse governed by this verb. 

31; Oifto of kings. Haralaiiun stansas. Opinioxui regarding L 136. 69 7. 

A 161. Now here (in 125) the rewards (of liberality) are for 
the most part set forth to him. The father, however, saw the 
second (stanza), which begins * Possessed of many kine ' {suguh : 
125. 2). 

The three slokas 151-153 are found in hdr'm^ only. They are in all probability 
an interpolation. The matter is superfluous (nor is there any reference to it in the 
Sarvanukramani), and the style is suspicious (e.g. ueyate). The length of the varga is 
here no argument in favour of the genuineness of the lines. The last varga of two other 
chapters has fewer than the normal number of slokas ; chapter v having three, and vi only 
two. These three slokas appear, however, to have been known to l^ya^a ; for in his comment 
on i. X25. 1 he remarks that Kakslvat went and told his father Dlrghatamas of all he had 
received, and, on L 125. 2, he goes on to say that in this stanza Kakslvat 's father, being 
pleased with the wealth Eaksivat had brought, blessed the king abundantly. 

A 152. The revered Saunaka says that the whole (hymn) is 
Kak^ivat's. But as to this (stanza), how could it, according to the 
indications (it contains), have been seen by Dirghatamas? 

WT^WW m\ ipft^ hdr. 

A 153. The answer is, that when 'At mom' {prdtah: i. 125. 1) 
had been uttered (by Kak^ivat), he (Dlrghatamas) was delighted 
by the gift to his son, and then uttered a prayer for the king with 
(the stanza) 'Possessed of many kine' {suguh: i. 125. 2). 

HMK^yil m*, MiaH^A hdr. 

154. The stanzas in which the deeds of kings and their gifts, 
great, small, and middling, are told, should be understood to be 
called ' Laudations of Men ' (ndrdsamsi) *, as the praise of kings 
(is expressed) by them in the ten books (of the Kg-veda)^. 

^TTPTJ hm^r, irrPf bfk. — ^TTljt hm^r, TTIH bkr^ — inft^TF^ hdfr, HifhTR^ 
r*r\ inft^T<t.k, ?!T Hlft^ b. — ^I^^^Hy hdr, ^I^HRlJ m\ (^ift) fOT ^BIT^ 
^ftB l•*^^ f4<r<tl b, l«rChl fk. 


1 36-] 

BEHADDEVATA iii. 155- 


* Otherwise csUed ' Praise of Gifts ' (danaituti) : on the relation of the Iftttor to 
NUnisaipsi staniu cp. Bloomfield, nymnB of the Atbaiva-Ted>, 8BE. xlii, p. 688 1 
^ After 154 m* adds the following three linea (^iii. 83}: 

155, The five (stanzas) 'Lively' (amanddn: 1. 126. 1-5) are 
a song (in praise) of Bhavayavya. With a couplet (6, 7) there 
ia a converBatioQ of a husband and wife *. Sakapuni thinks these 
two stanzas are a conversation of Indra and the king with 
Roma^a \ 

VmW^ ^%T hm^r'r*/, '^ ^^ AJUqi^l fk, "^ f^^ ffH^T^: b, ^ ^^ 
OT^T^: r.~«lT^^ r, €^ bfk, tiHq i <"1 hdm'.— 0*iai^*I^Mtfl<, hni'r. IT^IT- 
Tfl^ll JIT*lll*l.bfk, ira ^ ira %^ m»¥t»t.r*r*r^ 

' Cp. Pischel, Vedisehe Studien, vol. i, p. i. ^ iii. 155-iv. 3" are quoted in the 

Kitimafljari on HV. i. 126. 6, 7. 

156. Sakatayana thinks that in this couplet there is a story 
of a husband and wife* (in connexion) with Indra. Brhaspati 
gave his daughter '', Iloma:5a by name, to king Bhavayavya. 

^if^Plrn'r*. f%iftPt b, |%»aftnt hd, W%^f^^^^. — 156°* is omitted in 
fk. — gmhm'r, « nt fk^*^^ ^ ?Tt n. — (\MV\ t. <t>Iflt b. ^tWIIThdfin', ^tUTTT 
k. — ?;r^ hrb, ^T^ fk- — The laat pida ia repeated in b only. — The end of the varga 
ia here marked by ^1 in m'bfk, by ^(J in hd. — After ^[fil ff^^ITT^ gTfWfm'i: 
(bdr) VWTfC. is added in btk. 

* According to the SartSnakiamsiji, i. 136. 6, 7 are a colloquy of Bh&vayavys and 
Romou, husband and wife; cp. Sajana on i. 136, introdaction, and on etaniu 6 and 7. 
** SSfft^a tieo, on i. 136. 7, statea lliat Romu'S waa the daughter of Brhasp&tL 

125] — iv. 4 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 13% 

1. Bomaifl and Zndra. BY. L 137-136. Praise in the doal. 

1. Then the Lord of Bays, the Companion of Saci (Indra) 
becoming aware of that affair, (and) desirous of seeing his dear 
friend Svanaya, quickly went to him. The king joyfully honoured 
him with due ceremony. 

W!# hm^r. imA Bn. — •lITirpj hm^r. •^rwni bfkn. — o^fTO: hm^bfk, 

•4i^i«i: r. ^n^a: n. — ^^wr^hnf tdr, if^nr^ if m\ mrrf^ if b, irmf^ 

If fk. JHWniaV^ n, ITVr^lft^^ r'rl — PlfM^^ TWTT hm^r, ftfVTr ^ TWT 

br«r^ (^ b), ftftnrr ^ ^nrr fkn. 

2. And the daughter of the Angiras (Brhaspati) came there : 
rejoicing she adored their feet. Indra then in a fidendly way 
said to her, * Have you hair or have you not, O Queen ? ' 

1«T hm^r, J21 r^r'r^ f^ bfkn.— ^f^ hdfk, ^ ^ r, ^ b. 

3. She in a childlike way then addressed him, ' Feel me closely 
{upopa me: i. 126. 7), Mighty One'*. The king having soothed 
her with the previous (stanza: i. 126. 6), rejoiced. She then 
followed her husband as a devoted wife. 

mW bdfr. ^^nP bk.— If hbk, Iff r.— ^RT^ ^pfN % r. ^HI^ImIU % lidm\ 
^^l<Yi)M % f, ^RTfl[t ^ft^ % b. — nn iriT^ hdm\ ^Him r^r*r*, nn VJM b, •^ 
in^ fk, np^ r. — WfS: ^ 58pniHhdm^,lH;itirr^Jl^r^r*r*, l|f(\m<«^l|^l 
b, l|ff\m^V|4fl f» if^qi^vqsi^c^r. Tbe A MSS. appear to have endeavoured to remove 
the hiatus by insertbg a syllable, while the B MSS. changed Mie\ into Ji^qi^, which 
leaves the sentence without a verb. — ^T'l hm^r^r*r*b, ^^(^ fkr, — VfH Mf^H^T 

* The quotation from the BD. in the Nitimafijari on BY. i. 126, 6, 7 ends with this 
line (3«*). 

4. Next follow two hymns (127, 128) addressed to Agni 
(beginning) *Agni' (agnim: i. 127). There are (then) five (129-- 
133) addressed to Indra (beginning) 'Which' (yam: i. 129). Here 
the stanza 'Forth this' {pra tad: i. 129. 6) is addressed tolndu, 
while Indra-Parvata are praised together (in) *Ye him' (yuvam 
tarn: i. 132. 6). Yaska here considered Indra to be predominant. 

RV. i. i34->] BIIHADDEVATA iv. 5— [126 

°^ f^ "^f- — "'rffft'bfkr, '^T^^TT bdai' (as part of the pratlka). — fw^ lim', X^ 
gbfkr, fW^ gt'r*c'- — ^ XX 1IW Hm'r'r'r', Si5| ^0^ fk, SCl <lliail b, ift 

6. For in {certain) stanzas (Indra's) bolt is praised as Parvata, 
and when there is praise (of the two) in the dual {dvivat-stutau) 
they say that Indra Is predominant, {Beginning with) ' Hither 
thee' {a tvd: i. 134. i) there are nine* (stanzas: i. 134. 1-6, 
135. 1-3) to Vayu, (then) five (i. 135. 4-8) to Indra-Vayu, (then) 
one (i. 135. 9) to Vayu. The next (hymn: i. 136) haa two pre- 
dominant (deities). 

SB^ ^: hm'r'^*r^ ^&^ '■ ^I'ff b, 5"* oraittrd in fk. — q^flflfff ^ift 
m\»I#Tlf^?T^r'r*i*. M^AjHSillfl hd, ^#7ft ftf^ ^^ b, q^TT^^T^^^r. — 
■fiCT^^ft'm'r, f^^t^tft hd, (^^(^(il b, — %i(f»rnr: hdm', qsjfiTTJf:r^r*r*, %^- 
Tf: b, tJ^HT? r.^'W WT 'Tret^ b, lir WT 'PI r'r*r^, TIT ?TT fl1*rt4lfl fk, 
^a WT ^T^Tt^T^ h.i^^ W WT^^tT^ r, TIT ^ TT^ "^TV m'. — The end of the 
varga is here marked by S 'n hdbfk, not in m'. 

' The SarvaniikrAmani ahona that nova tnust be Kad : □ led lad vayavj/a^ lu . . 
atir^ar/i nova, caturthyaJi/ah paScqaindryai ea, a IvS has ati atanzas; it, as well as the 
follovfing (la), is addreaaed to V3,yu; ttirnam (136) has nine stanzas; the five stantas 
beginning with the fourth (4-8) are addressed tu India as well (as VEju).' 

3. Distribated praise. BV. i. 137-139. Vaiaradeira hTmua. 

6. There five (stanzas : i. 136. 1-5) have Varuna and Mitra 
for their gods ; the following two (1. 1 36. 6, 7) are (addressed) 
to the (deities) mentioned'^, Dyaus and the rest. Couples (of 
deities : dve dve), including the Two Worlds (rodasl), are praised 
together [samstute)^, (each) in a verse'' (pada), and the gods (are 
praised) with a hemistich (7"'); the rest (7"'') is distrihuted (in 
praise) ^. 

^ fl^dlTil'^^'n hbk, 11^ ^^ Ol^^qT r. — f^tTlf^W hdr, 1^: bfk, ft»V 
W^: '\—'^\ bfkr, q^ It hdm'.— "^^ ^ hra' t.\ ^ hik,\ ^ ^ {«^) r*. 

' Divadibbyali kathitabhya^ pare doe ; the Ssrranukratnani has anlye lihgohladtvalyt. 
^ Thia does nut ueaD, as the text of the hjmn shows, praise in the dual {taviituU) ai 


127] — iv. 10 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. L 139 

opposed to ffibkakia'Stuti (cp. Nirukta vii. 8, and above, L 117). ^ That is, Bodasi 

(dual) in 6', Mitia, Yarupa in 6^, Indra, Agni in 6^ Aryaman, Bhaga in 6 . ^ That 

is, Agni, Mitra, Yarn^a are praised separately (vthhakta'Stuti), 

7. The hymn * We have pressed' (i. 137) is addressed to Mitra- 
Yaruna. 'Forth, forth' {prorpra: i. 138) is addressed to Pusan, 
the third (L 1 39) is addressed to the All-gods. ' Let it be heard ' 
{astu irau§at : i. 1 39) is the third hymn addressed to the All-gods. 

A hymn to the AU-gods may be (included) among those which 
contain many deities ^ 

^•^ ^^IZ bfkr^ innnik bm^r.— '•^^(itj hm^rfk, •^^fftj b. — The Saryanu- 
kramani, snmming np the contents of this hymn, remarks: vaihadevam etai. The eiat^ 
however, does not seem to me to suffice for deciding in favour of the reading of hm^r. 

* It has been stated above, ii. 132, 133, that hymns addressed to many deities are 
to be regarded as hynms to the All-gods. 

8. There are variously (hahicsah), in (hymns) addressed to the 
All-gods, stanzas, verses, hemistichs^ stanzas with two verses 
{dvaipaddh) or with three {traipaddh): (such) Vaifivadeva (formulas) 
have two predominant (deities) or one predominant (deity) or 
many predominant (deities). 

irWET! hm^r^r*r*, ireRV: r, 'TORf bfk. — Ml^^t^ll bfk, VfU^f ^V^S^ hd, X(l^ 
H^Wf m\ inHf r^r*r« and ^T^ r (both without liT^).— %q^ hm^r, t^T^T^ 
b, (^)^^l^T^ f.— %^^: hm^, ^^ bfk, ^: r*rl 

* Op. above, ii. 133 : padain va yadi vardharcam fcai^i vd with reference to hymns to 
the All-gods. 

9. There is (one: L 139. i) addressed to the All*gods, the 
second (2) is addressed to Mitra -Varuna ; three (3-5) are to the 
AiSvins, then (one) is addressed to Indra (6), then (one) to 
Agni (7), one is addressed to the Maruts (8), then (one) is 
addressed to Indra-Agni (9) ; and the next is addressed to 
Brhaspati (10) ; the last (stanza) praises the gods (11). 

10. The seer in the (stanza) ' Dadhyanc of me ' {dadhyan ha 
me: i. 139. 9) praises either the (ancient) seers or himself* by 

RV. i. 140-] BRHADDEVATA iv. 11— [128 

proclaiming his own origin among them. For this reason** some 
disagree in regard to this (stanza, saying), that Indra -Agni ^ are 
at the same time (tu) incidentally praised {mpdta-hhdj) in it. 

^Vl^f ^hd. ^VW?Im\ ^TJW^r. ^ 5^ l)tk. — f *fl|*1|*H ^ It^ r, 
44IH1(NI<J fn ?tf bfk, Tre^T^: ^MtI Am'. — inTff '^ Am', TJH ^nmi b, IJH- 
*5?i™ r, ^WW^ra ft.— irar 5 bfkr, &^ hdni'T'r*r' {one Bjlkble Bhort).--The 
end of the varga is here marked b; ^ in hdbrkm'. 

* The reading of A appears to be a corruption because the firat i»da here has eleven 
BjDableB ending with an iambic, alkarvSnafi ie nominative, and this name does not occur 
in the stauia, and the perfect faiamsa ia used along with the present itouU. Tatmad 

■eema to mean : aince no deit}' appears if the seer is described as proclaiming hifl ancestij. 
others Bay Indra-Agni are the deities of the stanza. " The Sar?anukraioa(ji aimplj 

states Indra-Agni to be the deities of the alania. 

3. Storr of tli« birth of KTghatamaa. 

11. There were (once) two seers' sons, Ucathya and Brhaspati. 
Now Ucathya's wife was Mamata by name, of the race of Bhrgu ". 

" This and the next four s'lokaa (11-15) *•* q'loted in the Nltimafijari on RV, i. 
147- 3' 

12. Brhaspati, the younger (of the two), approached her for 
sexual intercourse. Now at the time of impregnation the embryo 
addressed him: 

1i^?II«'r'r*r*,«rft^(n^br,wrft?'tka, — flfiMTIfl Am',Trt^V1T fkrn, 
HSftflfl b. 

13. ' Here am I previously engendered ; you must not cause 
a commingling of seed.' Brhaspati, however, could not brook 
this remonstrance about the seed. 

a^»llfil*^Vihm'r, JT ^HHfflKH r*. 71 ^HiBftwH ^ qfinnW fk, — 
^ *m^ Jf^lft: hm^r, ftHlffl<*<^*|(t,rkr''n, ff^rtTTrf^K b. 

14. (So) he addressed the embryo : * Long darkness shall be 
your lot.' And (hence) the seer, Ucathya's son, was bom with 
the name Dirghataraas (Long Darkness), 

1! 3|^hdiii>r, K^ TTbfkn. 

129] — iv. 1 8 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 15^ 

15. He when bom distressed the gods, having become suddenly 
blind. The gods, however, gave him (the use of) his eyes {tan- 
netre) ; so he was cured of his bUndness. 

fkr*r*n, 1[?rinrf r. — 1!^ m\ li ?(% hdb, ^ft?! fk, (^^ ^ HT '(^ r, irernf^ 
r^r^r^. — m hdbfk, ^ m^, ^ r. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in bf, not iii 

4. Bjrmiui revealed to PJrghatamaa i BY. i. 140-156. 

16. With four* (hymns beginning) 'To him seated on the 
altar' {vedifode: i. 140) he praised Jatavedas (Agni). 'Kindled' 
{samiddhah: i. 142) is an Apri hymn, its last (stanza) being 
addressed to Indra (i. 142. 13). The six (i. 145-150) following 
(beginning) 'Him' (tarn : i. 145. i) are to Agni. 

Ilfinil^: Milftl T^^ br, lrf%IT: flW IffinWft r^r*r*. Ml 814^: ^ITTftr ^ hm^r'. 
As aU the MSS. have ^Qm^, i. e. X40-X44 (deducting 142, the AprI hymn), the reading 

of B (jm^ and ^) must be right ; that of A (IT, 143, and ^nftt 143-150) would indude 
143, 144, which have already been mentioned. — 16^ is omitted in f, the whole of 16 and 
17 in k. 

^ That is, i. 140, 141, 143, 144. An Apn hymn, when interrupting a series of hymns, 
is similarly left out of account in v. la and other passages below. 

17. But Mitra-Varuna are praised with the three (i 51-153) 
hymns (beginning) 'A Friend' (mitromi,: i. 151). *A Friend' 
{mitram: i. 151. i) expresses that this (stanza) is addressed to 
Mitra (only). ' May the kine' {a dherKwdh : i. 152. 6) lauds 

^nj ^'» ^ ^^^» ^ ^d- — 5H^*lm\ t(^ hbfr, fipft d. 

18. either Aditi or Agni; for (its) character is evidently 
such A. Saunaka, however, thought that both in Eutsa ^ and here 
Aditi means Agni only ^. 

f^fil ^ hdm^r, f^fi|€(|ISi: br'r'', flpft fTPJ ^^ (i-o- the reading of B is m^: 
for ^ in A). — ^R^ ^ hm*rb, ^R^ ^ fk, JRigt ^ r'^r^ — i8*=v. 87^ vi. 94*, 

^ That is, the form of the name appearing in the stanza is Aditi, but it means Agni 
according to ^aunaka's view stated in the nest line : hence ' Aditi or Agni.' ^ That 

n. s 

RV. i. IJ4-] BBHADDEVATA iv. 19— [130 

is, in EV. i. 94. 15. " Or according to the reading of B ; ' Yasla considered Aditi 

to lie Agni in BV. i. 94. 15, and Sauna^B in this passage.' Yaska in introducing RT. i. 
94. 15 remarks (Nirnkta xi. 33) : agnir apy adilir aeyate. 

19. The Beer may here mention (Aditi) either incidentally 
{jprasahgat) or because he saw {Agni in this form). The three 
(hymna) after this (i. 154-156), (beginning) ' Of Vi^nu now' iyi^nor 
nu havi : i. 154. i), are addressed to Visnu ; 

The reading of 19"'' in the teit is thdt of hm'r, ^fT^: Hfl»t<(l|^Bm1*l'^- 

«1-^«^<1 fk ("H^TSlrtT k). 

20. and with the three stanzas 'Forth your' {jpra vah: i. 155. 
1—3) Indra-Visnu are praised together. In the stanza 'Those 
of you two' {ta vdm: i. 154. 6) he (the seer) may be said to 
long for {vd kdhksati) the mansions of Vi^nu. 

ll^r^frt<*f*)^lid (cp, KarvanukramariT \^ ^ 1 41 «tj : , ' the first triplet is addressed 
to Indra as well.' scU. as Visnu), Tt T^T'TOf'T^ ra'^^ WT ^ VJfUifif^ ^''r^ l^T 
^ '^!!9fiT^ bfk, H W. m^ ^iIW?^. (ij) r. Hero wo see not only how ensily tjfl(#» 
13 substituted for ^ fiW. tut the maac. form ^TJW: for the fern. ^TTOfiT- ia the 
BD.— ^fW5hm'r=brkr'r\ 7J r. — m ^Riwf^ hm'r'br''r'', IfTWfiTWf^ fk 
("Wf'T k), Wf'I^W^ r. — The end of the varga u here m*rked by It in hdbfk, not 

6. StOT7 of DirghatKiniw (contiitTLed}. 

21. *HiB attendant slaves, being weary, bound the aged and 
blind Dlrghatamas and cast him down^ into the waters of the 

iftflrfTir: hm'r, qft^^T^qfr: Bn. — T«^hdm'r'r*r', ^^b, irar, "'^ftfk, 
Vftn.— iraT^:r'rV(RV. 1.158.5), Wn^Ihm'fkn, «qT^: r, TJI^: b. 

' The following four and a half slokas (21-25" ) are quoted in the NltimaBjari on 
RV. i. 18. I and i. 158.5; cp. Sayana on RV. L 158.3, 4. "" Cp. RV. i. 158. 5 : dSsd 

yad i-/t tiuamubdkam aoadhu/i ; cp. Nirukta iv, 6 : trilam kipe 'cahilam. 

22. One among them, Traitana by name, tried to strike 
him away with his sword, and (in so doing) cut to pieces 
(nyakrntata) his own head, shoulders and breast *. 

131] — iv. 25 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. L 156 

%ii^\ hm'r (=EV. i. 158. 5), ^[^^ r^r*r*, ^ fk, %lrtt b. — ^RTf^hdr, 
^^nf^mS ^m^q fk, VMIAf b, VMlf^^n. 

* Cp. BV. i. 158, 5 : Uro yad asya traitano vUdt^at, ivaytan data uro a$jH8aiv api gdha. 

B 23. Now Dirgbatamas having (thus) slain him (who had) 
involved (himself) in great sin, moved his limbs there (in the 
river), (though) excessively stupefied (unmohita) by the water {vda). 

iffTTT Bn, ^nfiTT m\ — yi m^r*r*r^n, J^l fk, yi: b. — <^«l|<|4^<| r*r*r^ •^- 

^%^ fkn, •^5^T%'r b, •^ig^^^ to}. — fl^^l^fffl b, A^^l^ff^H r^r^r\ 

fl^^l^hffRl (^iPl) m\ fl^^^ffRl (^|iPl) fk, ^ g ^Fnpit n. — This sloka 
ia omitted in hdr, bat is found in bfkr'r^r'^m^n. 

24. Now the currents {nadyah)^ threw him up in the 
neighbourhood of the Anga country. 

B Ufiij was employed b in the house of the king of Anga. 
Through desire of obtaining a son, 

Wn? b. If Jlj T*r^n(g),irTO fn(ab), IHW n, flf: ^pItJ hdm^r (iRf: occurs in BV. i. 
158* S)« ^ftt llRrt was in the original form of the text seems certain, and that ^hJI was 
inserted later to supply the pkce of syllables which had dropped out (first IT after ^, and then 
the augment in ^fJ^HtM^) is highly probable. — ^fJ^f^M^ fkr^r^n, i|4jf^r^Mct^b 
(the plural changed to the singular probably owmg to the loss of the plural ^^RTS), 
4f|P^^^ hdm^r. The form ^;^f^^P(^ occurs agam below, iv. 88.— ^Wf m^r^r^r*', 
^Wt^b, «|iii«f^ f k, ^ftH^f^n.— — 34** is wanting in hdr, but is to be found in Bm^n. 

* Cp. BY. i. 158. g: na ma garan nadyo mafftamafi,* ihe most motherly streams did 
not swaUow me up.' ^ I have changed this ace. in order to be able to separate 
ibis from the following sloka in translation. 

B 25. the king dispatched (this) slave (to Dirgbatamas). The 
great ascetic observing her to be devoted (to him), afler he had 
come out (of the water), begat (with her) the seer Kak^ivat and 

Tnnm^r*r*r''n,Tnnbfk. — lrfflri^T^»nftr*r*r^1|^pn?[T^'nfT 

irffnt nTwr ^*f n. — iRTT ^RTnrrr: r^r'^r^ iWT ifinn: b, iwr ^rrttj f, 'wr 

^ irar m\ (innr) T'n^f*!: n. — 25"^ not in hdr, but m Bm^n. — ^<|€||4||^ ^tcTRI 
hdr, ^«^PhR^ tUTH^bfkr^r^r^ (^^ r^»r^), ^J ^ wf\^ ^ 11.-25^^ 
omitted in m^. — The end of the varga ia here mai'ked by M in hdb, by ^ in f, not at 
all in m^k. — In hd the varga has only three slokas. 

KY. i. 157-] BRHADDEVATA iv. 26— [132 

6. Deities of BV. 1. 157-163. 

26. And the seer praised with the two (157, 158) hymna 
(beginning) 'He is awake' {ahodhi: i. 157. i), the two Aivins : 
but with the two {159, 160) following (beginning) 'Forth' 
{pra: i. 159. i), Heaven and Earth. That which comes next to 
these (etad'Uttaram) 

^JHR ^ hm'r. TJEPT ft^ bfk, ja i '^Pfl ^ f (gmWTH) r^r'.— o^ g lim'r, 
"^ ^ b, 0^ n fk, »aiT (T r'rl 

27. (beginning) 'Why' {Hm: i. 161. i) is addressed to the 
Rbhus. The two {162, 163) following (beginning) 'Not ua' 
(ma nak: i. 162. i) are a laudation of the sacrificial horse. In 
the (stanza) ' FuU-hauncbed ' (irTndntdsah : i. 163. 10) he extola 

the horse as he is being led. 

Tf^ bflt/r', TJ^ hm^r. The former is obviouBly the correct reading, aa both i6a and 
163 are in praise of the Mcriflcia) steed, and if Ift were read, there would be do refereoce 
to 163 M a hymn. 

28. And here also (i. 163. 10) the many steeds belonging to 
his troop {svai/utkydh) are praised : both the yoked and unyoked 
are incidentally {prasahgdt) mentioned. 

^'^TBTra.m'r, ♦I^WHj.hdbf, «y«im,k. — TWm'bfr, ?f^hd. 

29. He speaks of him (though) not (yet) sacrificed as (already) 
sacrificed, of (his) future (state) as if past. Of his flesh (mdmsa) *, 
of the basket (sitna) *>, of the pots {cam) <=, and of the oblation 

Wf*rai "^Tf gTT''r*r''r', Wft^JI ^ *J(lfl(1,bfk ("TTTt^O. ff^ ^Tf ^n: 
I. — Ttm m', irei»thd, TTftltr, ^ bfk. — fl]«^ ^^I^ hniV. ^t^^ ^ WW^ 
bfkr^'r' (•'TO r'r'). — ^^WT r'r', '^IJ^l bm'r^, ^JUi r, ^^?Sli b, q^UFt fk- — 
fPm^rar hm' r'r, 9i Oimtfl^I r*t', filift^lT bfk. 

'Cp.i.162,9: aivasya kravisak; eee also 10, 12, 13. '' The form occarrinR 

ID the RV. (i. 161. 13) is tunah; if the reading of bm'r is original, the ftender haa been 
cbangetl, poaaibl; because this form was taken aa a masc. ; but in its tivo other occur* 
rences in the liV,, the n'ord, being uied in the sing., i<i clearly Tern. Tiic reading of B, 
lauaaiya ea ma^atya would mean ' Seeh collected in the baiskets'i cp. RV. i. 161. 10: 



133] — iv. 32 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. L 164 

pia^uoTi . • nmayaSbhfiam. A's reading sunasya in, however, more in keeping with the 
style of the present passage, in which every ohject is otherwise enumerated without an 
attributive adjective. ^ In i. i6a. 13, where the form caruf^m occurs. ^ The 

form kavisafi occurs in L i6a. 17. 

30. and of the robe {vdsas) and upper covering {adhivdsa)^^ 
and of his body {gdtra)^ which is mentioned as about to be 
dissected {viSasya)^, of the spit {sula)^ and the post {sthund)^^ 
and of the axe (svadhiti)^ there is here (atra) laudation. 

frf^in} ^ iftfihfi^hm^r^kr^ lrf^(^[9 ^ ^fhjf^fb, <C|^VV ^ 'SH'PH.A 
Ijlf^^l IWfhnf^r (by mistake from the next line). — •ii^m ^MI4^l|||^i m^, ^THI- 
«|fil^U|1«li (no ^ hd, Hl^^ffjI^mUli ^ r*r*, ^I^^^^U^MI^i ^ b, THI^i^H^ 

m*|| ^ f.— The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in m^bfk, not in hd. 

* Both va$a$ and adhioasa occur in L 162. 16. ^ The word occurs in the singular 

in i. 169. II, and in the plural in 18, 19, ao. ^ Op. i. i6a. z8 : gaira • • . parus-parur 

• • 9i ioMia ; cp. 19 : ahatya vUaata, and ao : md te , » avUasia • . gatra^y atina mithu kafL. 
' dp. i. l6a. II : te , , ahhi iula^ nihatoiya, * The word $thu^a does not occur in 

the hymn, but its equivalent aiva^yupa is used in L 163. 6, and waru in 9. ' The 

word tvadkUi occurs in i. i6a. 9, 18, ao. 

7. Beities of BV. L 164 : the throe Agnia ; the year. 

31. There is here also mention of the goat {chdga)^ (and) 
praise at the same time of Indra-Pu^an ^. 

The hymn which (begins) * Of this benignant ' {a^a vdmasya : 
L 164)^ is stated to be addressed to the All-gods. 

Wt^P9 hm^r'bfkr*, ITRRI r. — ^ fjflK m*r, ^ ^f?f: h, ^ iftlfrn^^ f kr'r*, 
^ irifhfrffCb.— ^rnr ISn* r. '^t^^fP MSS.— 31"^ is omitted in d, 31*"^ in f. 

* The goat is mentioned three times in this hymn, twice as aja (a, 4), and once as 
ekaga (3). ^ In i. i6a. a along with the goat ^ The term asyavSmtya^ (tuktam) 

is also used in BgvidbSna ii. a6. a and Manu xL 351. 

32. In it are various sayings {pravdddh) and here (too) mention 
of the gods. 

B In the stanza 'Of this' {asya: i. 164. i) in the hymn, three 
brothers* are spoken of in the third person {parok§a) — I will 
explain (them). 

/. i. 164] BRHADDEVATA iv. 33— [134 

TRb.^^r. ^Hhd. — •SfTT JR^il^lHl'ni'r.^rT^'Bht'W.b. — 33"' omilted in fit. — 
', ^^n rk. — ^TT^^ra: m^ Tl*n;^ra: bf k. The noit Eloka and the contents 
of RV. i. 164. I make the emendation *<Ifl<.t(, certain. — 32"' wonting in hdr. 

' Another lustaDce of the nom. being loosely used for the ace; cp. i. aS and Mejrer, 
Rgvidbfins, p. ix. 

33. Now the benignant, grey-haired one is Agni, while the 
middle brother is Vayu. The third here ia butter-backed {ghrta- 
pj-stha)^: (his) seven rays are praised t". 

bfk. — ^TTT: hm'r, ^: bfk. 

' Cp. EV- i. 164. I : Iftiyo bhratd ghftapTi(haA, esplained by Yiiska, Nirukta iv. a6, 
08 the terrestrial Agni : oyam agnih. The expreeaion laplaputram in BY. i, 164. I 

18 explained by YSaka (ibid.) as the seven rays of the 8un> 

34. But the following (stanzas) tell of Agni, how he rains and 
protects " ; and of days and nights {ahordtra), of days {dina), of 
months, and of revolving seasons ••. 

^XfH hm'r, ^Tft bfk. ^Tf*I r^r*. — ^I^t^TTR. r', ^IJ^IMT hbfk. mft^T^" 
m'r. — f^lT^hra'r'fk. fifTPlb. — ^^ hmV, J^^ f. ««1(f?i b. ^T^^ r*. — 
lft.^l3»i: b, Mf^tlfrt: fk, TTft^l^^hm^r, irft^W'W.r''. — 34*=viL 24*. 

" Especially in BV. i. 164. 7. The same expressions are used of Siirya in viL 34. 
\a«ka, Kirukta iv. 27, explains tiinabki (BV. i. 164. a) as referring to the seasons, ifffo- 
daiara (BT. i. l64.Ii)a« referring to the months, tapla iatani vimialiica (ibid.) as referring 
to the days and nights in the year. Yaska doei not, in his commeat, use the expression 
dina, nhich, however, is bore probably meant as an explanation of the three hundred and 
sixty spokes in the wheel of the year (i. 164. 48}. 

35. With the following (stanzas) * the seer celebrates the year 
{samvatsara) like a wheel (as) fivefold, and threefold, sixfold and 
twelvefold ^ ; 

^f^nnbr^r\^g»nf, f^rftVT br.— ^[T^TI^ ^ hm'r, ^T^ ^ft ^bfk, 
4T<SJVllfll ^ r*. — 35°'' bos tlie following form in Sayana: f^MT ^T^HVT ^ITT 
^l^VT ^raVT ^ITT- — ^fH^nift: bs. jftT^^Hft". hr {o^- h), »lT?*J^f((: f. — The 
end of the varga is here marked by 'O in hdbfk, not in m'. 

' That is, RV. 1. 164. 12-16. '' This b'loka is quoted by SSyai^a on AV. xiz. 

53. 2, being introduced with the noids talha ca iaunako'py aka. 

135] — iv. 39 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. i. 164 

8. Account of the contents of BV. i. 164 (continned). 

36. and knowledge of the soul {k§etra-jndna)^ and the cow 
{dhenu)^^ the buffalo {gaurt)^^ Vaxj^, Sarasvati®, and the ordinance 
{dharma) of former ages, the Sadhyas, and the troops of the gods ^ ; 

%^TrR hdr'b, %^ J(Vi r*, ^HUTR m^fkr. — ^ft^ hdr, ^fr(t m^bfk. — \li| 
yji«|41*i ^ m^r, ^ y^^^n Vn hdr^ ^i^g^JgiTTft ^ bfkr^p*. — ITTWPthdin^r, 

^rrnt b, m^n fk.— l^init^hdm^r, ^ipRrT f, ^TTTurt b, ^^rrrurr k. 

* This appears to be an abbreviated expression for kietrqjfta-jflana ; see below, iv. 40 
and cp. kietra-jfta in the St. Petersburg Dictionary. The reference in the text is to 
i. 164. 16 ff., e.g. 18: manah huto adhi prajaiam} ^ Beferred to by this name in 
i. 164. 26. ^ i. 164. 41. ^ i. 164. 45. * i. 164. 49. ' i. 164. 50: devafi 
• • . dharma^i prathamdni • . purve iadhyah* 

37. and the various activities of Agni,Vayu, and Vivasvat (the 
Sun) * and the mighty power {phhuti) of Agni and Vayu in the 
stationary and moving world ^ ; 

^rArfiir ^t^ bfk, ^rArfiir w(m** hdr. — aijiRi bfkr^r*, ^Rni^ hm^p. — ^wr^ 

br*^^ VtJ^ fk, ^PBPI* hdm^r. 

^ In i. 164. 44: vapata eha^ . . vUvctm eko abhi ea${e . . dhrajir ehasya dadfie na 
rupam, ^ It is not clear what passage is here regarded as describing the powers of 

the two gods, Agni and V&yn, in contrast with those of the three, Agni, VSyn, and Vivasvat, 
in i. 164. 44 ; perhaps 47 is meant. 

38. the taking {haranam) * of water {var) by the (Sun's) rays 
and its discharge again b. There is here also glorification of the 
activities of Parjanya, Agni «, and Vivasvat ^ (the Sun). 

iR.4lMlO bfkr^, <a^(il^ T <i r»,T(l3fpTt^ hm^r.— ftinf m^r.flRrf: hd. 
f^^ b, ft^ fkr*. — ^^J^ hdm^br, ^T^ fkr^r^rl 

* In i. 164. si'' : itananam etad udakam ue eaity ava eahabhih. ^ Op. above, L 68 
and ii. 19. • In i. 164. 51*^. * In i. 164. 53. 

39. Now mother and son are Vac (Speech) and Prana (Breath) : 
the mother is Vac, the son is the other (Prana). Prana is (meant 
by) ' Saras vat ' *, while Vaxj they call Sarasvati \ 

^WirwfV hm^r, ^CTTWraft bfk. — linjt hr^p^r*r*m\ ITRJT bf r, Vm k. — ^39^= 
ii. Si^' 

RV. i. 164-] BRHADDEVATA iv. 40— [136 

' In ii, 51 Sanuvat i» one of the names of the Middle Agni or Indra. Baraivanlam 
is here a quoUlion from the teit of BV. i. 164.58**: tarareanlam avate johaviml. * Cp. 
ii. 51, whure Sarasvatl ie identified with VSc in the name words, 

40. The body joined with the organs of sense is designated 
ksetra. Prana alone knows it : hence he (Prana) is spoken of as 
' he who knows the body ' (ksetra-jfia). 

%^ hi-bfk, ^ m'. — ^^H bfkr, %^ hd. — The end of the varga is here marked 
by C in hdm'bfk. 

9. BT. i. 164 (concluded). AT. 1. 165 : Indra and the Karats. 

B 41, Saka is (used) in (the sense of) cloud"; its dkuma ia 
water ^ or garment °. The bull <* is Soma ; and the three lords « 
(adhipa) are his purifiers f. 

^ m'kr*. ir^ f. ^ b. ^: r.— ^: r, ^ b. ^ m'fkr*.— ^T« r, ^TTO f, 
lire b, TTnr t. — *PaTn: m'br, "fwr fk. — 41 and 4a are not found in hdr'r*(r' f)t*t*. 

' This is meant as an explanation of iakamayam dhumam in RV. i. 164. 43, Cp, 

Megbadiitas: dhuma-jyoU/i-talila-inaTtitaii tamnipalah . , migha^, ' That is, as the 

envelope of the cloud; cp. op. cil- 61. ^ That ia, in RV. i. 164, 43°. ' That 

ia, the trayah htiinah in RV. i. 164. 44, As the present varga contains eight slokas, 

the presumption is that three of them are later additions. That 41 is one of these is highly 
probable, because in the first place it has the general appearance of a gloas, and, secondly, 
because, after the coiuideration of the individual stantas of RV. i. 164 has been concluded, 
it refers back to an cartier Btania. 

B 42. That {part of i. 164) which ends with (the stanza) 'The 
buffalo' {gaurih: i, 164. 41) is addressed to the All-gods*; after- 
wards there may be (said to be) separate praise (prthak-stuti). The 
two (stanzas : 46, 47), ' Indra, Mitra ' {indram mitram : i. 164. 46), 
are addressed to Surya'^ ; the last (stanza) to Sarasvat (i. 164. 52) 
may optionally {vd) be addressed to Surya <>. 

^TUm^r, ^T bfk. — "gft: m'br, "^ft f, ^ft k. — ^ ^tVl m', f^ft ^TTT 
r, lit Wt^ b, ""Bil ^ft'rf fk. — ^rtrt ^HWI m'b, ^fKt ^1^1 r, Wtf^ ^TWT f. 
^ftt ^TWTk. 

' Op. SarvSnukramagi ; gaarir iU . . elad-antam vaiivadevam. Cp. Sarvanu- 

kramani : indram mitrarn lavryav. ' Cp. Farranukramani : aniyd laramale turyaya vS, 

This and the two preceding quolationB show that this sloka was known to the author of the 
Barvitnukraroa?!, and it must therefore belong to tlio original text of the BD. 

137] — iv. 45 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 165 

A 43. Now this hymn contains little praise * : it lauds knowledge. 
And because it contains many statements, water {salUa) ^ is (also) 
mentioned (in it) ^. 

r* most in B's note on this line be a mistake for r^, for bfk, with which r' regularly 
agrees, omit this Aoka, while hr^r^r^, with which r^ otherwise agrees, have it. 

^ The San^nukrama^T has the same words, alpas/ovo^i tv etat, adding atra prayef^a 
JfHana' . • -praiatiaa ca. Hence 43^^ mnst have belonged to the original text. ^ SdUlani 
occurs in i. 164. 41. The meaning is: it is not surprising that among its multifiarious 
contents this statement should also occur. ^ 43^^ looks like a later addition. 

44. *(The hymn) *With what?* {hay a: i. 165) is traditionally 
held to be the chief (jparoma)^ dialogue of the Maruts and Indra. 
The odd (stanzas) are (the speech) of the Maruts^, all the even 
ones, including the last ^, are Indra's, 

irri^^^ fk, irn(H^b, 4ii\7)^^ hdm^r. — Tf^i ot: hm^r, ii^irani: 

fkrV, V IK^ fm: b.-^: hm^, inr bfkr«,-«nHH^ bm^r, ^fTURn dfk, 


* Slokas 44-55 are translated by Sieg, Sagenstofife, pp* 108 f. ^ Sieg translates 

parama hj * following ' (' das folgende Lied ') ; but para only (not parama) has this sense 
in the BD., and, as far as I know, elsewhere also. The meaning appears to be that this 
is the most important dialogue in the BY. between Indra and the Maruts, though there 
are other hymns of a similar character (e. g. i. 170). ^ Op. Sar^biukrama^T : ^tl- 

yadyayifyo mamiiaif^ vakyatji. ^ That is, the last of the dialogue, the twelfth stanza ; 

the last three stanzas not being regarded as part of the dialogue, but as addressed by the 
seer to the Maruts (see next sloka). 

46. (as well as) the eleventh and the first. The next triplet 
(I 165. 13-15) is addressed to the Maruts. 

B But the authorship (Jcartrtvam)^ of the triplet there *> is 
attributed <> to another <^. 

411 ^A^^ hm^r, 4i|^wna^ r*r\ 4(|Wf^^ b, iTPTftlT ^t- — BITT: hm^r', 
H^rrn br^r'', ^fl^t f, VJ^4|: kr (cp. SarvSnukrama^T, ^^i^-ql). 

^ With kartftvam^ariakam cp. kjrtvassdritva in the obviously spurious line above, 
ii 77. ^ At the end of BV. i. 165. • The authority here vaguely indicated is 

probably the Arsanukrama^T, i. 25, a6, where the Bishi of the even stanzas is stated to 
be Indra, the seers of the odd ones {tffiyadyayujdm) the Maruts, while Agastya is the seer 

n. T 





of the l&Ht triplet {sSktasyantye tj-ce 'gaslya fiih). That \s, to one who ia differeat 

from those of 1-12. I regard 45' as a, later supplemcDtftry addition, both on account of 
the wording {kart'^lva) and because there was no special reaaon for mentioning the seer 
here in an index of deities. 

B 46. A story of ancient events {purdvrtla) is (here) proclaimed 
by the seers *. 

Satakratu (Indra), while roaming in the sky, fell in with the 
Maruts *>. 

I.(flfl*l H'.IJfll', l,f?lfl«i 4<.ig-rt m'fkr. Sieg, p. 108, note*, givea |.(JHI*r: 
as the reading of h. — HR,^*M m' b, lin.^"rf*J f, HR*!"^^ k, IjfX^Vl'ft r. — 
Jl^fil^ hm'r. W^Rjq bfkr^r\ 

' This lino (46" ), as an inttoduttion to Ibe story of tho relation of Agaatya to Indra 
and the Maruts in tho series of hymns i. 165-178, may bo a later addition, as tho author 
of the BD. uanally begius a story iiithuut any introduction, and, i. 165 having already 
been described as a dialogue, there is no special reaaon for any introduction. Thus four, 
orpossibly five, lines(4I,43'' ,45° ,46" ) in this rorjo are. in all probability, later additions. 
With those deductions, the varga would still have a whole sloka, or half a a'loka, heyond 
the normal number. The text of 46' -54 has bees printed by Oldenberg in ZDMO. 

«iix (1885), pp. 63, 64. 

47. On seeing them Indra praised them, and they as seers 
addressed Indra. By the aid of austerity Agastya became fully 
[tattvatah) aware of their dialogue. 

l! %TP^rVr«r'. Tt^Tfl^hdm', 7»^^nT.K ?!%^ fk.— %^ hdm>r, ^^ 
fr'r'r', ^fV bk (the former is probably the belter reading; op.ftf^?n TPWI below, 

59). — nwi: iidk, Tnw! f, Twri r, f 3 fl: t. 

48, He quickly went to them after having prepared {nirwpycC) 
an oblation to Indra, and he praised the Maruts f^ also with the 
three hymns (i. 166-168) 'Now that' {tan nu : 1. 166. i). 

T^H^HJ. hm\ f*t^^ dr, fSuJlj^ fk, f*I^wfi? b. — TTf^rfTI hdmVr^r*r'. 
TTf^ffl fkr, ^f^fdb. — ^ f^ft: bfkr. gf^tfir: r^r^r*, THlfH: hni'r'(Sarvanufcrama9i: 
m'^n V(: Aj= three). The latter reading was probably caused by the syllabled dropping 
out and being wrongly replaced by ^. — The end of the earja is here marked by d in 
hhfk, not in dm\ 

* That is, with the last triplet of 165 as well as with tho followiug three hymns. 

139] — iv. 51 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. i. 170 

10. Zndra, the Marats, and Agastja: BV. i. 169^ 170. 

49. And (with) * Even from great ' {mahaS dt : i. 1 69) he 
(praised) Indra, and with the (stanza) ' A thousand ' {sahasromi : 
i. 167. i) he* wishes to give the oblation which he had prepared 
(mrwj9tom) for Indra to the Maruts ^. 

hm*r, ^^ If ^H^ 'TO r*r*r^ ^Tf^f If ^dT TO fb, ^BTTO IT IPIT 'TO k. — ^fTOH 

hm^r, f«f^ f, tTOR b, fvp^ k, fil^RT (^HHc) n. — f^fTf hdm^r, J^X fbr^r'^^n, 

^^^Y kr'.— -Sieg, p. 109, note ^, prefers the reading \^q«4 bnt it is not clear to me 
how he would construe this genitive, as it cannot depend on the foUowing tad^bhacam, 
which already contains a genitive in sense ('his intention'). 

* The four and a half slokas, 49^-53* are quoted in the Nltunafljari on BV. i. 
170. I. ^ Cp. Nirukta i. 5 : aga$tya indraya havir nirupya martidbhyafk BatppradiUani 
eakara; sa indra etya paridevaya^ eakre, 

50. Indra recognizing his intention (tad-bhavam)^ said to 
him regarding {avek§ya) it, * Not ' {na : i. 1 70. i ) : ' there ^ is, 
indeed, not (anything for) to-morrow, nor for to-day : who knows 
that which has not been {adbhutam) ' ® ? 

Ifirnii^bfr'r^r^ iPTO'lk, IfPTO^hdm^r. — f^Bhdm^ fW^r. — If^W" 
^ft?^hdm^r, Iflft^TO^Bn. 

* Cp. below, vi. 38 : viditvd tasya tatp. bhavam, ^ 50^^ closely follows the wording 
of BV. i. 170. I : na nunam asti, no hoik: has tad veda yad adbhutam F cp. Nirukta i. 6, 
where nunam is explained by adyantanam, and ivas by ivastanam : see Both, Erlauterungen, 
p. 6. ® Yaska, loc. cit., explains adbhutam by abhutami cp. Oldenberg, op.cit., p. 61. 

51. * But the intention itself (cittam eva) of any one, in the 
uncertainty of purpose (arthot-sarncdre), comes to naught'*, 
Agastya (then) said to Indra, * Why, us ? ' {kim nah : L 1 70. 2) ; 
• they (the Maruts) are thy brothers ' K 

^HiTi^l^^H'^lK r^r^r^ niaft^^wil b, inafiiw^^'ftrv fk, iwrf^TTO^- 
^ r, ^^af^tq^^'iiR m^hd (•?cv^ hd), n^f^fli^wiO n, ^f^t^nrn^TOTft 

n(abgm), cp. BV. i. 170. i, ^ift ^^^. 

* 51"^ is a paraphrase of BV. i. 170. l***: hatya citznanyasya^ cittam eoa=citiam 
utqadhUam, ariha8ameare=:abhi saifiearef^yam, vinaiyatizzzvi naiyati. In Nirukta i. 6 
adhaiam is explained by adhyatam=:abhipretam, ^ Bhrataras ^aoa=BV. i. 170. a: 
hhrataro marutai tava. 

RV. i. 170-] 



52. • Agree with the Maruts * ; slay us not, Satakratu ' *». But 
in the (stanza) 'Why us, O brother 1' {kim no bhrdtak: L 170. 3) 
Indra reproached Manya" (Agastya). 

U'U4^4f4 fkr^r'n (cp. RV. i. 170. a, flWrS). TO'Rra b, as^trOig hdm'r. — 
W. br^r'^r'n. RV., »i f, 1 k, ^ hdm'r. — Xfif WW hni' rfk, ^^ ^^WT b, I^JTWi n. 

* Manuibhih tamprakalpanja ; cp. RV. i. 1 70. 2 : Ubhi^ kalpasva ladhuya. Vadkir 

ma tio^ ; cp. RV. ibid.: ma nah aanara^e vadhiA. " MSnyti, els the name of the poet, 

occurs in HV. i. 165. 14, 15. Cp. Sieg, p. 108, line 7. 

53. But Agastya in the (stanza) ' Ready ' {aram : i. 1 70. 4) 
pacified the agitated (t^tbdha) Indra. After propitiating him, 
he made over the oblation to them (the Maruts) *. 

tqrfWSrathm'rfk. cTTftrfWWt b, WTTTfftan n. — ^3^ hm'r, 'J^ b. 
JT»^fkr*r'r'n. — HUTW'n^ hm'r, JRTT^^ br''r*n, TOTWlct. ^^ Bai^*|*|^fk (cp. 
Tfi. iJ. 7. II on BT. i. 165: fan . . kayaiuhhiyenaniamayatam, and TMB. xii. 14. 5: agtutyo 
. . lenaaiamayal, quoted b; Ludwig, vol. v, p. 496). Further pauages in Sieg, pp. Ilo, 
HI. — 5i^1*i brn, ^fl'i fk, ^111 Am*. — The end of the varga ia here marked by 
<)0 in hdf, b; '\f\ in b, not at all in m'k. 

" The second line (53' ) is probablj meant to refer to tho contenta of RV. i. 170. 5, 
though Indra iit there invoked to taste the oblations, not the Maruts. 

11. BV. i. 171-178. Agastyft and Irfipunndra: B7. i. 179. 

54. Then when the Soma had been pressed, Indra made them 
(the Maruts) drinkers of Soma (with him). Therefore one should 
understand that in (hymns) addressed to Indra the Maruts are 
incidentally praised. 

^B, ^hm'r. — r»ttri?t»l It^ r, OniTlCt^J hdm'bfk. f'TOl^tg iJi'S^ r V. — 
»T^: ^mi,m'. ITVT ^fllthd, JT^TI^ TTT'l. r, T^I ^^- br'r^, ?f^ ^f?!! k, 
JTVT^'ft'f — Before 54, bfkr(t*r*r'?} add the following aloka (wanting in hr'r*r''m'}: 

' r, 4iinmr<sO ^- «i<fl<<if<sO ■=• «i*fl*ii4i0 ^- *" r, "»reai ^^ f, •'rew %^ 

k, '*|Qf b. The correct form of the first line was probablj ^^TI ^\*T^4f^<E^11lMi: 
^^WWPTT.'with the previoua stanza (i. 170. 4) Agoafja conciliated Indra from a desire 
of his affection.' This s'loka is cleaTlj a lat«r addition, being simply a repetition of the 
previous one, the second line being almost identical even in form with 53' . 

141] — iv. 59 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. 1. 179 

56. Pleased at heart the seer praised the Maruts again 
separately * in the two (171, 172) hymns, * To jou* {prati : L 171. i), 
but Indra with the six following ones (173-178). 

irreCdr, Trthm^bfk. — ^IWg^ bkr*r*r^ ^I ^^hm^r. — Tift fbm\ *WiT 
hdr, iftflr k.— ICljt ^fVi: qr^ m lidm^r, J|lf|fMri^ : irfNft: B (irTOn.rVr^). 

* That is, by themselves, without Indra, the repetition of pfthak indicating the two 
hymns 171 and 179. 

B 66. And Indra in the four (stanzas) ' Praised ' {stutdsah : i. 1 73. 
3-6) is praised with them*. Wherever Indra was with the 
Maruts, he was Marutvat (attended by the Maruts). 

% ^ b, ^ ^ fm^y ^ ^^ k. — This sloka appears in bfkm^, but is wanting in 
hdr (Mitra having no note on the omission). It must be original, as the statement of 
the SarvSnukramanT, eatasro *ntya mamtvatiyahf is based on it. 

* Op. SarvSnnkramai^I : marutviint iv indro dwaia* 

67. The seer* began, from desire of secret union, to talk to 
his wife, the illustrious Lopamudra, when she had bathed after 
her courses (rtau) K 

^rft bfkr^r*r«, ^B?p hm^r.— ^ft^ hrbfk, W^ m\— iftm^ has been 
misprinted ^nqj^^l.— The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hdbfk. 

* That is, Agastya. ^ The NTtimaiyari on BY. i. 179. i quotes slokas 57-60; 
Oldenberg prints them in ZDMG. xxxiz, p. 68; Sieg, Sagenstoffis, p. 120, translates them. 

12. Agamtjtk and Xiopamndra. BV. i. 180-191. 

68. She with the two stanzas * During many * {purvih : i. 1 79. 
I, 2) expressed her purpose. Then Agastya, desiring to enjoy 
himself, satisfied her with the two (3, 4) following (stanzas). 

69. The disciple (of the seer) becoming aware by austerity* 
of the whole condition of these two desiring to enjoy themselves, 
(but) thinking he had committed a sin (enas) in listening {Srutvd) ^, 
sang the last two (stanzas : 5, 6). 

^m'fr.^hbk. — ^^m\^9ft^r(r^r*r'),ir^: hd, «f ^W^b,ff^:r'r', 
^ ^^ fk, ^ J^hc|^r*r^. The evidence of the Sarvanukramani (cp. also Saya^a) leaves 
no doubt as to ^f^«iS having been the original reading; see note ^. 

RV. i. 1 79-] 




r , nij^ 1, inj^ b. Vljtifll ft. — aj^ r, 5^ m'bfk, 3J^ hd. — 

"firfara^j: bf, "fflsi^g: k. — "HFRPn wftf bfki. "Ht ITTra^ 

treated aa a whole hj Oldenberg, ZDMO. : 

I. 130-136. 

ii, pp. 65-68, and by 

' Cp. iv. 47 : aamvadam tapaia veda, and iv. 50 : oijUSya . . tadbhivam. ^ 

faivanaktBiJoaiii : lamvadam fnitvaanltviii brahmeedriantye . . apatyal ; and t^ayaija on 
nV. i. 179. 5 : mijibhagasamiapa^ imtva tal^rayatcitlat/t ciktriitT utlarabki/dm aha, 

60. The preceptor and his wife {^uru) lauding and embracing 
him kissed him on the head, and smiling both of them said to 
him, ' You are sinless, son ' ^. 

Hll*a hm'r 
"^^ITj: hm'r, 
JWtfil Am'. 

' BV. i. 179 i 

Sieg, SageDstoffe, ; 

61. Then with the five hymns (i. 180-184), 'Your (coursers) 
through the regions ' (i/uvo rajdrnsi : i. 1 80. i ), Agastya praised the 
Afivins; but with the following, 'Which of the two"^ (katard: i. 185), 

Wrrffl 'i^ hdr*r*r*, 4fl\in ^T^ in\ qirtV^J (only) b, ^tfT flkfl7.UI rfk, 

62. (he praised) Heaven and Earth ; with the hymn 'To 
our'(o iiah: i. 186), all the dwellers in the Bky{vii-vdn divaukasak)'^; 
(with) 'The draught' {pitum : i. 187), Food — 'Kindled' (samiddkah: 
i, 188) is an Apri hymn^ — and (with) '0 Agni, lead' {agne naya: 
L 189), (he praised) Agni. 

^KT ^ r, ^*1T hm'bfk. — «r«lf^i?nfil«l1 bf, ^fwjt Wlfira^ kr^r^r', 
Hft^liuj^ !i r, ^finrTWt d, BTfinrra^ m^ (cp. SBrvannkramaiii ; «!*)■< mlUCj:)' — 
fU4|^ *ll}fil ^ hm' r, ^ ^ 'reT^bfkr*r*r''(Sarvanukranianl: ^SRI. . . m^tl*<). 

* That is, the All-gode {vUvan derran). According to the leading of A, thii 

statement aa to i. 188 must be taken parenthotically, the following agaim being governed 
by lusldva io 61'. The reading of A is irregular in ita Saodbi (tamiddhdpTyah^tamddka 
dprya^), while in B the pratika is imperfect: ague ca naya for ' agne naya' ea, 

63. 'The resistless' {a7iarvdnam. : i. 190) is to Brhaspati. 
The following (hymn), ' Venomous creature ' (Aania^aA : i. igi)\ 
is of esoteric import {upani§at)\ Some consider this to be a praise 
of Waters, Grass, and the Sun ''. 

iTT'l.lim'r, VKj: b, XRJ fkr^r^r'. — ^fif hdrk, ^fill^ b, ^fil f. 

143] — iv. 66 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. ii. lo 

* Another case of irregular Sandhi (as in the preceding s'loka: kankaiopanisat^zkankata 
upamiiat), ^ On the meaning of upanisat as used here, cp. Sadgurusisya on BV. i. 50. 
^ Op. SarvSnukramanl: ka^aiafk . • upanisad . • ap-(f^-sat»ryai7i visaia^kavan agastyafk 

64. Or AgMtya, in fear of poison*, saw this (hymn) as an 
antidote. The last couplet here of the hymn, however, contains 
no distinct name {adf§takhya) and its character is obscure^ 
(najtorfipa) ^. 

^?[^ n^«it^ TT hm*r, ^^^A^JII^^ B. — ^fll|4^ hm^B, KfSII^ r. — 

fWpr: B, f^HH^* hm^r. — ^9K4fl|Wl hm^B, ^imi^ r. — ^: m\ g^: hdr', 

^FT! bf, ffl[l|S k, W^\ r. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in 

* Op. the quotation from the SarTSnukramanT in note ° on the preceding s'loka. 
^ No name of any deity appears in this couplet ; and as to the only two names of living 
things, kummhkdka and vfieika^ which occur in it, the sense of the former is quite uncertain, 
while that of Vfieika, though meaning scorpion in later Sanskrit, is somewhat doubtful. The 
expression nasfarupa seems to mean that the sense is not obvious from the form of the 
stanzas themselves : cp. the expression tatka rupaiji ki dfiyate which is used several times in 
the BD. (iiL 76 &c.)- ^ The fact that varga la contains seven slokas does not indicate 
here that some of them are later additions ; for as the end of a manidala always coincides 
in the BD. with the end of a varga, the latter has sometimes more, sometimes less, than 
the normal number of five slokas (cp. iv. 18, 25; v. 38; vi. 6, 25, 39; v. 19 is no 
exception, as Aokas loa, 103 there are an introduction to ma^^^^ ▼O* 

Ma^dala ii. 
18. Deities of BV. ii. 1-12. Qytsamada, Indra, and the Daityas. 

65. Grtsamada praised Agni (with) * Thou ' {tvam : ii. i). Then 
' With sacrifice * {yajnena : ii. 2) and * Agni kindled ' {samiddho 
agnih : ii. 3) are (respectively) addressed to Jatavedas and Apri 
stanzas. Then with the seven (hymns : 4-10) * I call ' {huve : ii. 4) 
(he praised) Agni. 

^Wftf hm^r, ^ftftt r«r^ ^rf?r f; itfif k,^^ h.— ^^fl^<4aH. bfkr'r^ HW^- 
4l4IH^hd, mA^<im,m^r. 

66. * Having applied himself to austerity, he, with {bibhrat) 
a great body like that of Indra {aindra), in a moment appeared 
in heaven and air and here (on earth). 

RV. ii. 12] BRHADDEVATA iv. 67— [144 

^^p^ hm'rns, ^Ql^t^ bfkr^r*r^ 

^ The NTtimafijarl on BY. ii. I3. I quotes 66-69; SSya^a quotes 66-68, besides 
giving two other versions of the story. 

67. Now the two Daityas of terrible prowess, Dhuni and 
Gumuri, thinking him to be Indra, both feU upon him armed. 

13[fHf7| hm^rn, 1[^[ ff?f bfks. — ^if^TT 5 ^ni^rks, if^TT flfl" bn, if^TT ^ft f/. — 
^^*ft Bm^ns, ^ hdr. 

68. The seer becoming aware of the intention (hhd/va) » of these 
two bent on evil, proclaimed the deeds of Indra with the hymn 
* Who when born ' (yo jdtah : ii. 1 2). 

* Cp. above, 59 : viditva . . tayor bhavam. 

69. The deeds of Indra being (thus) declared, fear quickly 
entered them. Now Indra (saying) * This is (my) opportunity,' 
struck them down (niharhayat). 

^i^ hm^rfb, ^itl^S r^r*r*. — ift^TWr^ ftl^ll f hdm^r, llWt ^^M^HI^I Bn 

(the latter reading is more in keeping with BY. ii. 15. 9 : svapnenahhyupya cumuri^ dhunitu 

ca jaghantha). — fif^J€|^hdm\ vCiql^^ r, ^nff^R^b, fV^f^Tc^f. — The end of tbo 
varga is here marked by ^^ in hdbf, not in k. 

14. Gftsamada and Zndra. 

70. Having smitten them down, l§akra addressed Grtsamada 
the seer : * Look upon me, friend, as one beloved ; for you have 
become dear to me ' ; 

Hfi hm^r, 1[^ br*r^ fj^ f . ICfT k. — ^irfhm^bfk, JH rr^r*r«. — ^mrhm^rbfk, 
Vm r^r*r*. — fWE(^ hm^bfkr*, fi(^^ rr*r*r* (Mitra thinks the correct reading of this 
passage should be : ifW % ^Wl fjRJ^W^I I ). — ^fTPnit hm^r, ITWft bf k, IfT'nft r*. 

71. * Ask a boon of me ; and may your penance never fail.' 
Bowing down the seer replied to him : * For us, chief of 
speakers *, 

W^ hm^r, Ti^^Cnj^bfk. — ^ Am\ WO bfkr. 

^ The seer uses this form of address in support of one of the boons he asks, 'speech 
that stirs the heart.' 

145] — iv. 75 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. ii. 12 

72. let there be both security for our bodies and speech that 
stirs the heart. Let us abound in heroes* and wealth. We, 
Lidra, turn our thoughts (dMmahe)^ to thee ; 

* The eipreasioDS tuvHraft and vSk castu hfdayamgama were doubtless suggested by 
the last pSda of BY. ii. 12. 15: tvmraso vidaiham a vadetna, and by ii. ai. 6^ : (dhehi) 
poMoufi rayv^am, oriffti^ ianunaip, avadmanain vdcaf, ^ The evidence of the MSS. 

points to the form dhl-mahe (which I take to be the i. plur. pres. middle of dhi, to think) ; 
dhhnahi in B is doubtless due to the influence of that fonn in the ^vitrl (BY. iii. 6a. 10). 

73. and thee, Indra, we discern in every birth*, and this 
my heart is fixed on thee ; go not away : thou art the better 
chariot-%hter ' {rathttarah) ^. 

Wt ^ f^WrtWt hm'rb, Wt ^f^WrfWt f k. — IWrf'l ^WlPf br, ^IlrfSf ^V^rf^ f, 
IPVf^ ^^r^ hdr^r^r^r'm^ (fl^Pl perhaps due to a transposition of syllables by a 
slip of the copyist of the archetype of A, that is, IRHpf for ^RrftT). — ^' rb, ?ff 
WP^r^rV.lWiP^fk.— inqin^m\4||M*IW^ 

^ That is, probably, in every form thou assumest. ^ This being a reason for 

Indra remaining with G^tsamada to assist him in his conflicts with Daityas ; cp. the words 
used of Indra in BY. i. 84. 6 : nakis (vad ratkttaralt. 

B 74. This choice (made by Grtsamada) is explained in the 
final (6) stanza (of RV. ii. 2 1), * Indra, the best ' {indra ire§thani) : 
he chose all this as a boon. The Lord of Saci hearing that *, 

1!f|[^ br, ITf|[^ f k, llfi[?f m^ — ^TJ^f, TRP^b, ^TnN.m\ ^l4^r. — SftT" 

'J^mWT r, %Wf*f ^TWm m^, DSI^fll^iW^I b, SrtTffiWTlIRn f k. — This sloka 
is not found in A, but bfkm^r have it.-^The end of the sloka is here marked by ^8 in 
bf k, not in m^. 

^ That is, the prayer of Gftsamada stated in 7a, 73. 

15. Story of Zndra and Ortiaiiiada (eontiniiod). 

75. the Swift Conqueror {turdsdi) agreeing, grasped (him) by 
the right hand, and the seer, through his friendship for him, 
touched Indra's hand with his own. 

ipCFIT^ bdm\ TWW B. — g Bhdm\ Wf r.— Igft^T^ hm^rfb, ^ f^Hmr k. 
II. U 

RV. ii. 13-] BRHADDEVATA iv. 76— [146 

76. And thus they went together to great Indra's abode. 
There the Destroyer of Forta (puramdara) himself affectionately 

honoured him, 

%^ hra»r, rft ^ bfk.— "^^ hm^r, "IT^ br'r'r^ '^ fk. 

77. and paid reverence "^ to the aeer with ceremony preacribed 
by rule ^. And because of his friendship the Lord of Bay Steeds 
(harivahaiia) again addressed bim : 

g^l^^b (transposition for •ft^Pff''), fl*(flJI^JJfl(*tfl,f. 

* Cp. below, V. 79, where the same verb {paj) ia used of a king receiving a iaer. 
Op, the eame expression below, v. J4. 

78. ' Since you, O best of seers, with your praise {gpian) * 
delight (mddayase) us, therefore, being the son of Sunahotra^, 
you shall be (called) Grtsaniada by name °. 

319ir*l.r, 5^»F^T*1, b, WW^TTf bdm'. q Ml 1*1. (for tie three wotda WTt^I- 

' Cp. Y£ska'a etymology, Nirukta is. 5 ; gj-lea ili medhavinama gfifateh slutikarmanah, 

Cp. Arsanukramiu^i ii. 2 : auraiah ianaholratya ; and ^itgurusiaya on SarvanukramapT, 

introduction to Mandal* ii; /anaholrapufra^. * Cp, Railguriiaisya, ibid.: paicad 

indrtnaktagftsamadanama. The reference he makes to the ' Bsyanukramai^a ' can only be 

intended for a paraphrase of the correaponding paaaage in the Arsfuiuknmani, ii. 2-^ . 

79. Then with the twelve (ii. 1 1-22) hymns (beginning) ' Hear ' 
i&rudhi: n. 11. i) the seer praised Indra. And just as he waa 
praising (him) he saw Brahmanaspati there, 

SWirerfiT't. h d m' r, nfTOT^ffn: bf k. — The end of the varga is here marked by SH 
in hbfk, not in m\ 

16. Deiti«a of ST. u, 28-30, 

80. Now he praised Brhaspati also in those (stanzas) in which 
(that form of) the name {linga)^ appears. He praised him also** 
with the four (hymns) after this (ii. 23-26) 

feftlflft"^ ^ hm^r, 5BfWf«^: V% r', {^Ih^^: ^ b, ^PtftlfW^ 
«ffk(cp.SarvanQkrttmanionii. aji^T^^nin^^SftnFT')' — Hfl'*f*C bfr, H«S«f»f« 

147] — iv. 83 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. ii. 2S 

m^fr, •(*!<«( b. 

* The SarrSnukiaroa^I has the same word dfifalihga, which ^a^gurusifja explains 
as follows : tatra bfhaipate devanida ityadi'df9ta-hfha9pati-4ahdad bfhaspatidevatyalt. 

That is, Brahmanaspati as well as India : tarn api referring back to braktnai^aspatim in 
79^ because 80^ is parenthetical. 

81. (beginning) * Of the hosts' {gandndm: ii. 23. i) ; in the 
(stanza) ' All ' {viSvcmi : iL 24. 1 2) Indra and Brahmanaspati 
together. Or* (he praised) Brhaspati incidentally (pra^angdt) 
and Brahmanaspati strictly speaking (eva) ^. 

^^nH^W^n««n hrbfk, ^^|II9IU|4M<1) dm\ — •fif m[^fTt[T hm^r, •fiTTOW- 
?^Tf bfkr^r*.— •qfiiihl ^ hm^bfk, nrfJlirt ^ r«. 

* As an alternative way of stating what has been said in 80 : that is, Brahmanaspati 
is iukiabhaj, while Brhaspati is fgbkaj (80) or nipatahhaj (81). ^ The Sarvfinakramanl 
gives the deity of ii. 33-26 as Brahmanaspati, adding harhaspatyas tu dffialingat^ 

A 82. He praised the different power of the two by (lauding) 
one and the same deed \ 

To Mitra, Vanina, Dakija, Amia, Tuvijata^, Bhaga, Aryaman^ 

flfflt: hdr', inft: m^r. — 82** is not to be found in bfkr^r* (doubtless also r^), that 
is, it belongs to A only. As the varga has six slokas with this line included, the latter 
is probably a later addition. Cp. note on 83^ • 

* That is, though praised under difiPerent names, their activity cannot be distinguished 
in these hymns. ^ Though this word is an epithet of Varu^a in RV. ii. 27. i where 
the names of the Adityas are enumerated, it appears here to be meant as a proper name 
so as to make up seven Xdityas. In this the author doubtless had Nirukta xii. ^6 in 
his eye, where tuvijatafL is explained as bahvjaiai ca dhata. In BD. vi. 147, 148° (B) 
twelve Adityas are enumerated, including DhStf. 

83. the Adityas, belongs the hymn 'These* (imdh: ii. 27). 
(The hymn) *This' {idami ii. 28) is stated to be addressed to 
Varuna. (The stanza) addressed to Vanina beginning* *Who 
me ' {jfo 7ne: ii. 28. 10) is destructive of evil dreams and the like ^. 

in^ bfkr'^r'', ^^Tflft hdm^rl— 1[WT^ hdm*r», fft^ br*rl— ^^WR^ r^bfk, 

^WTO* m\ ^Wni» hd. — •HHrrfinft k, •iniinnft fb, UmifUl^: hdm^r^ — 83*'*' 
occurs here in hdm^r^ but in the B MSB. it is found after 9a, where with reference to 

RV. ii. 2g-] BEHADDEVATA iv. 84— [148 

BV, ii. 4t. BO it ii quite out of place, but vhere its preaenee gives the varga five sloku 
(amatter of no importance there: cp. above, iv. 64, note "). Its present poeitioii is necegrar;, 

thoQgb its inclusion gives the varga one line beyond the normal Dumber of five slokaR. 
If auy of the other liuoa are later additions, they are probably 82° , fimnd in A only, and 
81' , nbioh could be spared from the text with advantage, though it is found in all the MSS. 

' The reading of the B MSS. wonid mean: 'The (sUnia) "Who me" in (this) 
hymn to Varuna,' The comparison of vi. 78 makeH this reading varune seem moTD likely 
to have been the original one than eaniRi. ^ The leading of m' looks like duhtvap- 

itagha", ' the sin (caused) by evil dreama.' Some MSS. of the Saivanukramani add the 
words apantya dufitvapnanaSini, and the Rgvidh^na, i. 30. i, describes this stania as 
du^tcapna iamani. 

84. 'Upholders of law' {dhrtavratah : u. 29) is addressed to 
the AU-goda, but that which follows, ' Right ' {rtam : ii. 30), is 
addressed to Indra. In the (stanza) ' His power indeed ' (pra hi 
Iratum : ii. 30. 6) Indra-Soma are praised together. 

vt 5 ^hm^r. nt m: br«. Tit 7w: f. lit ^: r», nt iW. k. 

85. But in the hemistich ' O Sarasvati, thou ' {Sarasvaii tvam : 
ii. 30. 8 "'') the Middle Vac {is praised). ' Who us ' (yo nah : 
ii. 30. 9) is {in) praise of Brhaspati ; the stanza ' That of yours' 
(tarn vah : ii. 30. 11) is (in) praise of the Mai-uts. 

JHffWT g r, ITWmT ^ hdm' h, WT^tWt ^ fkr*.— ^f?rf?rgf!Wf »rtC b, ^W"* 
gf?raf ITT^fkr*, ^^^ (jjfnijf ^f^r*, Jf^rf?! IJ V\ «I^hdm'f. — 7W ^^ r", 
Pft ft'l f li. 1(^1^< b, g^TRT h m' r : the reading of the B MSS. is supported by the 
Sarvanukmna^I : yo no barha$palya (ani co maruti. — The end of the varga is here 
marked by ^$ in bbf k, not in dm'. 

17. Seitias of BV. ii. 31-35. 

86. ' Oar' {asmdkam : ii. 31) should be {regarded as) addressed 
to the All-gods ; and the stanza at the beginning of {the hymn) 
' Of this ' (asya : ii. 32. i) belongs to Heaven and Earth ; the two 
following it (ii. 32. 2, 3) are addressed either to Tvastr or to Indra. 

^1X5 bfkr^'r'. ^TTHhraV^ TJ r. — ^^IH^fJ! ^T^ 5J b, Tn^T^^ ^T^ ^ W^ 

hd. 4J»l<iq^ W^m', fJIiT^T^Tn?^ ^ r— "^tWT^ft m'. "S^t^STT^ hdr=, 
'^^WT^ftf. '^f^WT^ftr. "^tTgmr'r^', (^ITT^) ^fft WT?ft b. — br^r*r"bave 

149] — iv. 89 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. ii. 34 

l^at the beginning of the line before VHTT® (instead of at the end of the preceding 
line). — ^TRT ^hrft m*, ^T^^fjHt h, ^TRT ^|wt d, "^l^ Q**! r^ (cp. Sarvanukrama^I : 

87. Two (stanzas) each belong to Eaka (ii* 32. 4, 5) and Sinivali 
(6, 7), while with the last (8) the six (goddesses) Guhgu and the 
rest (are praised) : 

B preceded by these (stanzas : tatpurve) there are two stanzas 
(beginning) * Kuhu I * * {huhum ahcrni) traditionally held (to belong) 
to Kuhu. 

^ j|VIVI<l ^» ^ 3^WIH. mM mz d), iTf 'RTOTBC b, ^^pTRTT^ fk, ^ 

^p^JV" r^r*r«. ITf ^hj^t^n^r.— TRfTW^ hm^rbfk. •^WT ^^mt r^r*r«.— 87*^ 
are found in B only, not in Am^. 

* In TS. iii. 3. 11^ the two stanzas to B&kS (sRY. ii. 32. 4, 5) are followed by the 
above two stanzas to Kuhu, and are preceded by others to Anumati (TS. iii. 3. 11^'^); 
these are again preceded by fonr to DhStr (TS. iiL 3. ii'*^). 

B 88. Followed by these {taduttare) there are two, anu nah (and) 
anv ity traditionally held to belong to Anumati. At the beginning 
in the same place there are four (stanzas) to Dhatr (beginning) 
* May the Creator grant us wealth ' {dhdtd daddtu no rayim). 

pBffii % ^ r^r® r\ ftrf^ ^1!^ b. ft^f?! ^ fk. — ^PTO^ r*r*r^. ^ I ff^PS^ 
fk. % fira^ b. — ^nmft fr*r*r''. ITTT^ k, ^TRt b. — l^yCtfti ^ r*r*r^, ^^iffl TT 
f k, 1^ ifr (^^ ifr TS.). 

89. Now * To thee '(ate: ii. 33) is addressed to Budra (and) 
the following, * Delighting in showers ' (dhdrdvardh : ii. 34) to the 

Seeing a beast {mrgam)^ on his left, the seer himself approaching 
in fear {hihhyad etya) b, 

^rnnry hm^r^r*r^ 4144^^^ b, ^THV^ fk, ^Ti!^^ r. — ^ hm^r', ^^TPl 
bfkr^r*!® (^ in RV. ii. 33. 11). — f«I^^A| Wf^l ^TOUhdm^, f^^j^V ^Hft ^RH^ 

f, f'w ^ fk^ ^^n^ b, fipirtti^ wf^l ^MK '• (^ftw) ^^^ OinRiKii^f^ 

(the last two syllables come from the following line) r^r^r®. 

* Or ' beasts * according to six MS S. ^ Or ' afraid of them ' according to 
several MSS. 

RV. ii. 33-] BRHADDEVATA iv. 90— [150 

90. praised the same in the (stanza) 'Praise the famous' 
{stuhi Srutam : ii. 33. 1 i), propitiating him. Then in the following 
hymn (beginning) ' Unto ' (iipa : ii. 35) Apam napat ia praised. 

a^qroftf^hd, ^^T^ b, ^ flire^ f, ^sf'"«ft<l r'f'^r^ — 90"* is omitted in 
m^r. — ?ni: ^^hdr, Wi: ^Tbr', W xft: fk. — The end of the vorja is here marked 

hy < 

18. Deities of BV. il. 36-43. Zndra as a Xapinjala. 

91. There are two hymns (ii. 36, 37) addressed to the Seasons 
(beginning) 'To thee' {tuhhyam: ii. 36. i). After one addressed to 
Savitr (38) follows one to the AiSvins (39). With the last (stanza : 6) 
of (the hymn) to Soma-Pusan (40), Soma, Pusan, and Aditi as 
well, are praised. 

•WT^ hbk, 'W^ f, "WTF^ r. — W^pft^ b, «1*nfl«^<rt (^^0 t. 'E^JH- 
^ hm'r («rt«|inwUfl, SaTvanukramani). 

92. And (at the beginning of ii. 41) there are two (stanzas) 
to Vayu (i, 2), one to Indra-Vayu (3); next (come) five triplets 
(4- 1 8) addressed to the Praiiga deities *. The stanza ' Forth ' 
{pra: 19) praises the two Soma carts: Agni is there incidental 
(nipdta-bhdj). ' Heaven and Earth ' {dydvd : 20) (praises) Heaven 
and Earth ; then follow (21) the two Soma carts'^. 

'■^Ttpft vvTV A, "»Tra^ 5ia#i b, "THW ftfliTi r. (^^) Trtrar ^iwr^ 

r. — H|'4im,b, iraiITO,hdm'rfk.^^rfM^Rhrfk, irfy^W^ b. 

' On these deities cp. above, ii. »7-3S; also Barvainikranie.5i on BV. i. 3 and ii. 41, 
'' According to the Sarvanukramanl, the whole of the last triplet (19-21) is addressed to 
cither Heaven and Earth or the two Soma carts, while Agni is optional in ii^'. 

93. Now* Indra again desiring praise, became a francoline 
partridge, and taking up a position on the right quarter of the 
seer as he was about to set out *•, uttered a cry (yavdsa) ". 

r'^r^r', ^^TTj VfH <f^H!I4<. b, ^'(T^ Tffl{ ^ffV f. 

* This and the following sloka are quoted by Saitgiiriui'isja (p. 104) on RT. ii. 43. 
^ Cp. Nirukla ix. 4: grtiamadam artkam abkyitttkitaip kapiUjalo 'bkivavaie, cp. Baiv2nu~ 

161] —iv. 96 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iii. 6 

kruna^i on RV. ii. 43; BgvidhSna i. 31. 3, 4; Max Miiller, BY.^ vol. ii, p. 8. 
^ Though, according to Both, Erlauteningen, p. 125, the passage of the Nirukta quoted 
in note ^ is an interpolation, it was evidently known to the author of the BD. The 
stanza which Yaska goes on to quote for hapifijala is the first of the khila after RV. ii. 43. 

94. He (Grtsamada), with the eye of a seer, recognizmg him 
(Indra) in the form of the bird, praised him in the two following 
hymns (ii. 42, 43), * With repeated cry' {kanikradat : ii. 42. i). 

Mi l ^lURl^ hm^r, ltm^»Hfi| <> s, M<l^lRlft bfk. — ^The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in hdm^. 

Mandala iiL 
19. The 8e«r VHramitra. Deities of BV« iii. 1-6. 

95. The son of Gathi * who, after ruling the earth ^, attained 
by penance to the position of a Brahman seer (hrahmarsi) and 
(obtained) a hundred and one sons®, uttered the hymn which is 
addressed to Agni, * Of Soma me' {somasya md : iii. i), and the two 
following (iii. 2, 3) 

TdUm hm^rb, mU^ f. — irf ^b. ^0^ r. 'THT fk, ITTW^hd, ^TTftRC ^l^ — 
•^nnC^hdr, n^in^b, •^W^rV, n^lTOlf. — ^llf^y^H^hd, TTf%IH^r, 
^ifilH' ^Tfferg^ b. — inqt ^ hm^r, w^lkfit ^ f. ^I?q^ ^ b, ?^ ^ 


* That is, Yisvamitra, seer of Ma^^^a iii. ^adgurusisya (p. 104) gives a somewhat 
different and more detailed account of Yisvamitra. ^ This remark of course refers to 

VisvSmitra having originally belonged to the warrior class. ^ Cp. AB. vii. 18. i. 

96. addressed to Vaifivanara. * With every log' (samit'Samit : 
iii. 4) is an Apri hymn (dpryah). There follow here two hymns 
(iii. 5, 6) addressed to Agni : Heaven and Earth, the Dawns*, the 
Waters, the Gods, the Fathers, and Mitra are incidentally 
mentioned deities (nipdtdh) K 

^fll^lO^ ^ fkr*r*r^, ^fll^O^ W b, ^^I^O^f^ r, ^TTTTn^rfTT hdm^ (the 
prattka of iiL 3). I have omitted the syllable If because it is redundant after Hf^X ^, 
and because it would give the pSda thirteen syllables according to the reading of the B 
MSS. B's reading ^4C||«l0^f^ ia impossible, while that of hdm^ ^IWT ^ I ^TRTT- 
itf?f I regard as a corruption : Vlf^ ^ having become IJW^ ^, the following %^- 
lO^ bad to be changed to ^^l^^l^ffl. This reading gives both a wrong and an 




incomplete sense : ' the foHowiug also (iii. a) beginning " vaUvSnaToya " (is addressed to 
Agni, instead of Vaiavaaara),' and no aceount is then bikfln of iii, 3. — ^|Vijt h d, ^IP^ 
m\ ^ira^ r, Wifiiql lifr^r'^-^ ^fOmi k. — ^ TIT^ hm'r, '^ ^ ?J ?J b.^ ^ ^ f It, 
^ V^ s. — ^^ hm'r, W^ bfr^r'r''f, W^ k. — ^TTTT^ftraT ^Wt PHTniT 

ftr^ IJ fSmm*11«iq^r, gadgumiaya (cp. v.r.). — fW^^ bm'rs, ftPT^i?! r^bfk 

* On the Sandhi "VT 'O'lfll see introduction (o SarvSnukramani, p. x, and foot- 
note ^; Auftecbt, Aitareya Brahmana, p. 427, laat §. ^ NipSta is bere used=nJ^atin. 
I'he last three [ntdas of 96 are quoted by Sadgui-uaisya, p. 105. 

97. In (hyrans) addressed to Agnl, VaiSvanara, Varuna, Jata- 
vedas are seen to be praised ". Wherever (here) one (of them) 
may be praised or there ia no (actual) praise ^, one should know 
that they are intended to be incidental or to serve as a comparison. 

« ^Wn h m' r, ^^^ B. — ^T^T^jfirfT h m' r, fliliCl^fA^I B. — f*I1iai<lT^" 

hdra', Pmnu'iiuft' r'r^r*r*, ^msT^H" b, »|yiB[tjflTfl' fk, %HTBi*tri^ r. — 
1', "mrr^T^ r, "tjwt^t^ fk. 

*' The first pada has only ten syllabloE. ** That ia, when the deity is not invoked, 

but the name is merely mentioned, as in a simile. 

98. The royal seers ^, the Grtsamadas, the Vasisthas, the 
Bharadvajaa, the KuSikas, and the Gotamas, the All (gods), the 
Aavins, the Angirases, the Atrie, Aditi, the Bhojas'', the Kanvas, 
the Bhrgus, the Two Worlds (rodasi), the Regions [di^ah) ", 

jfSI^T bfk, gtftpi^ hdm'r. — jftflll^ hd, jftTTWT^ m'hfkr. — jft^hm'rb, 

srnrr fk. — ^rusr m', qwa^ hdr, iirerr b. ^ran k r'^r'r', vmi t. 

* Mentioned as a class or group, like all the following names except the Asvina, 
Bodaiii, and Aditi. '' That is, liberal patrons, here spoken of as a class (as in RV. 
z. 107). ° Mentioned below also (viii. iz8) as incidental in hymns to the All-guda. 

99. when praised at the beginning, end^ or middle of a hymn, 
in (hymns) addressed to Savitr, Soma, the Afivins, or the Maruts, 
to Indra or Agni, to Rudra, Surya, or Usas, do not interfere 
[vyaghnanti) with the deities who own the hymn {suktabhdj) ^. 

•¥tWn» hdr, '^^" B. — "irrVt^^^" i-. "Hr^**^^" hdm', "dlV^^^I* 

153] — iv. 1 02 TEANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iii. %6 

^iWt^%5 b, ^VRft^l%3 f. — ^^TT^ hm^r, ^^l^fli: r*r^ no IJ or ^: in bfk. — 

^^r^» 9WfTPnfT'(.r*« — The end of the varga is here marked by ^Q. in bfkd. 

* Gp. above, iii. 5a ; also i. 23 and below, v. 171. ^ That is, sach incidental 
deities do not interfere with one particular god bemg the chief deity of the hymn. 

20. DeittoB of BV. iii. 7-29. 

100. The seventeenth Adhyaya (RV. iii. 7-29) is Agni's. 
'Stand erect to aid us' {jlrdkva u su na utaye: i. 36. 13, 14) — 
these two stanzas of Kanva are addressed to the sacrificial post 
(yaupl), and the five (beginning) * They anoint thee' {anjanti tvd^ : 
iii. 8. 1-5). 

ll!|br,^%hm*fk. — 4IMII4^r>4^m\bd,4if^\m\qi|^|^bfk. — «n««ll^bd, 
ift^STt^m^bfk, iftuTi H^r. 

* The correct pratika is ivam, but tva {tveti) has been substituted for the sake of 
the metre. 

101. The rest* (are addressed) to many posts, while the eighth 
stanza is addressed to the All-gods; the last (stanza) of this 
(hymn) is that which is said to be concerned with cutting (the 
post)b. The sixth (hymn: iii. 12)® is said to be addressed to 

1t^ wr^ fkr, ^^rnot ^^{^^P'ft) bd, H^^ wr^ m^r^ ^^t wr^ b. — 

inf^ ^^twr hdm\ ir^WT ^^twr bfkr", ir^Wr; ^(^ r*r^ Hf^^ ^^tWTr. — 'm^- 
^l[J^^^hdT,(it(^)jT^Jl^^^ — fk. 

* That is, all but the eighth and the eleventh stanzas, which are excepted ; according 
to the SarvSnukrama^I the eighth is optionally excepted : afijanti yupastutih: foffhyadyabhir 
bahavOf^ntya vraddny, as f ami vaiivadevi vd, ^ The text of the Sann^ukrama^I (also 
SSya^a) has vra/cifit, but Sa^gurusisya (adhikarane lyuf) must have read vra£canu 
° That is, the sixth hymn of the AdhySya (cp. 100). 

102. (The stanza) *Agni, Dawn' (agnim usasam: iiL 20. i) 

is addressed to the All-gods ; (they are) also (invoked) with the 

(stanza) 'Dadhikra' {dadhikrdm : iii. 20. 5). But the stanza 

*Agni and Indra' {agna indroA ca: iii. 25. 4) is addressed to 

Agni-Indra. The following triplet (iii. 26. 1-3) is addressed 

to Vaifivanara. 

n. X 

2«-] BEELA-DDEVATi iv. 103- 


[154 1 

^rftgro %5^ hdlnlr'r^^*r•bfkt^ ^V^4|fMfjM4J r: the litter reidiag is 
doubtlfiBfl a correction owing to the metrical irregularity of a pada of nine syllablea (cp. 
Sarvanukraniani : agnim "samm adyantye vaiivadev'jaii). — ^fWRlfiTflt Am', ^ftnfT- 
^rffTfltr. <ry*ftrrtb. — ^[^^^4^°^', l^r^ b, X^-^^ f, ^^filhm'r.— ll<t 
hJbfk, q^r. 

103. And {the triplet) ' Let them go forth' (^ra yantu : iii. 26. 
4-6) is addressed to the Maruts*. The last (stanza), 'With 
a hundred streams ' {Satadkdram : iii. 26. 9), is (in) praise of 
a preceptor \ ' Forth your food ' (pra vo vdjdh : iii. 2 7. i) praises 
the seasons ; 'Rub ye' (manthata : Iii. 29. 5) praises the priests. 

iTT^Tn; Bhm', WT'CTT^ !■■ — ^Ri3i '^ftft hd, 'wfwai: ^hfir r, '^rt^ir^ 

br^r^r', i^f^ai^q fk. — ?W?!hdm'fk, JT^: br. 

* Cp. Sarvanukramaiii ; Ireau vaiivSaanya-marutaa : the Isat ward is explained by 
Sadguraiisya with dviliyasya (ircasi/a) maruto 'gnifi. See Qeldaer, V«diache Studieu, iii, 
p, 160. '' Cp. op. cit., pp. 159, 160. 

104. But in the (stanza) 'Misty' {purlsydsah : iii. 22. 4) he 
(the seer) lauds the fires on the altar (dkisnya). Now they are 
there to be recognized as the Divine Sacrificers. 

%«J|%4 hdbr, '01(1%^ fkr^ — m J hin'r.TT^ f bfkr'A — The end of the varga 
\e here marked hy ^0 in bdm'f, not in k. 

31. IJeitiu of BV. iii. 30-33. Tisvnnutra, Sndas, and the Biven. 

105. The twenty-three* (hymns) after this (beginning) 'They 
desire' (ichanti: iii. 30) are addressed to Indra. But in the 
hymn ' Forth ' {pra : iii, 33) Vi^vamitra and the Rivers engaged 
in a dialogue K 

*,*^ffl hm'r, fT^^ WT bk, ^wft W f. — f<Hllfti: r^bfkr^r'n, •ft^ 
hd, "f»rt r. — *(ljfi(t, hrbf k. *|<jfi(X r^r^r^ "^ H^^m^ ^ ^^^r'r*r'. 

* That is, RV. iii. 30-53, not 30-52, becauBe iii. 33 ia eicepted ; for similar state- 
ments cp. V, 12 and 105. ^ 105* and 106° aro quoted in the Nitimaajari on RV. 
iii. 33- 1- 

106. The seer going with Sudaa — being his domestic priest for 
the sake of sacrifice — to the confluence of the Vlpai and the Sutudri 
addressed these two (rivers) with (the words) 'Be propitious' (iom). 


155] — iv. 109 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iii. 33 

ilff|«||<f hm^rn(m), ^^fifSllliS fk, tir«l9l^ b, ^ f^fVi n. — ^i^WX ^ ^^^ftj 
b, 5?[5gT Wf ^SPgfk: f, f^TO ^ f 115ft: hdm\ f^ro: ^St^fT'I^rn.— ^tfiiSfit 
hdm^, Tllft!^ r, 1^!^ f, IfStll^ b, ^3c) k. 

107. In that (hymn) there appear statements {pravdddh) in 
the dual, plural *, and smgular : m the hemistich * Unto ' (acha : 
iiL 33. 3**) or in the (successive) padas (pacchah) *Down to thee* 
{ni te : I0^ lo*', 1 1"), in the singular {ek(wat) in (reference to) the 
rivers ^ ; 

irast ^ bdr, 11^ ^ in\ 119 ^ b, 1|9 ^ f, IT^ ^ k. — •^ffj % hdm\ 
HJfll % bfk, •'iftf % r. 

* Cp. Ninikta ii. 24. ^ Wliioh speak in the plural in iii. 33. 10^. 

108. in the dual {dvivat) in the first distich (iii. 33. i, 2) besides 
a hemistich (3**^, the speech (being that) of ViSvamitra * according 
to the sacred text {iruteh)^. Or (on the other hand) the rivers 
addressed the seer in the plural {bahuvat) with these (following) 

^ f, nfiftr^fiirlT r, iiiiifii4fM4i b, jprt^ ^ k. 

* According to the Ar^ukramaigLi iii. 7 (followed bj the Sarvanukramai^il) stanzas 
4, 6, 8, 10 are spoken by the rivers {nadivaeat), the remaining nine bj the seer (vUva" 
mUravaeatflsi). The Sarvannkramai^i has in this passage clearly borrowed from the 
ArsSnukrama^T. ^ The same expression {druteh) is nsed in the Sarvanukrama^i in 
stating that VisvSmitca is optionally the author of BY. iii. 31 (see AB. yi. 18. 2) ; the 
ArffinukramaigLl (iii. 5) has the expression yatha irutif^ with regard to that hymn (cp. 
I^a^gnnisisya, p. 106). 

109. (viz.) with the sixth, the eighth, the fourth, and the 
tenth ; the rest {itardh) are the seer's. The two gods who are 
celebrated in the seventh stanza and in the sixth ^ 

^nTB«n hf.uFnwT dm\ ^reTwirt b. fwreiirf k. M»i»>yi1*i. r.— ^yir^ 

^l|««ll hdm^f, ^7|4t ^ ^^M|j rbk. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 in 
m^, by ^^ in hdf, not at all in bk. 

* Indra and Savitf are mentioned in the sixth, and Indra in the seventh. The 
SarvSnukramai^i says : iosfhUaptamyoi tv indra$tuti^. 

1 , )■, 

RV. iii. 33-] 



39. HT. iii. 31 : aa adoptive daughter. ViiTamitra and Sakti. 
110, 111. are to be recognized as incidental. In the last 
(hymn)" there is (a stanza) *" addressed to IndrarParvata. How 
one makes a daughter what is called an adoptive child [pulrika) 
or in that sense (fathd) impregnates her**, that is told in the (hymn) 
' Teaching ' {idsat : iii. 31)**. In the stanza ' Not ' {na : iii. 31.2) the 
giving of inheritance to a daughter is forbidden «. 

^^ ^» hdr, ^ %■> b, TPrt^ fk. — in? fkr^r'^r', iTTg ^, Tift hdm' r.— 11 1. 
(Tai hm'r, tT^TT l)fk. — "^jft TT lidm' r, 'ttftVT !:rr*r'',X*'t^1 k. — fl^mf^ffl 
lim'r. flrtjilejfdb, TT^Tflf^fi! f . — uniOtHIft btn'r, jrfjftvft rk, nfn^'^fd b. 

' That ia. of tbe fieriea of twenty-three {above, 105). x-ii- iii- 53. '' Tliat is, 

iii- 53- I. ° SiHeali rrto ia meBnt for the equivalont of $tkam rSjan in RV. iii. 31. l". 

' EV. iii. 31. I is conimented oa by Vaska, Nirnktu iii. 4; pp. Sayana on BV. iii. 31. 
1. a ; see Geldner, Vodische Studien, iii, pp. 34, 35, * RV. iii. 31. 2 ia commonted 

on L; YSaka, Nirukta iii. 6. 

112. And (the seer) says that her son (who is) younger (than 
she) is a brother like an eldest (brother) *. 

At a great sacrifice of Sudas, by Sakti** Gathi's<= son 

( Vi^vamitra) J 

fl*ai^I4! li, iren^ A. — ^7nT,m', g?TH. the rest. — irflt*TT lim'r^r^r*!', 
^fWT r, ^ftpSrt bfk. — arTft" Udm', STTt^" bfkr. 

" That if:, he inberita property from hia grandfather through his mother. Just as 
much as if bo bad been an eldeat brother of the latter. I take jyesfhavat to be=: 
jyestham [bkrataram) iva. Son of Vasistba. " The form Gathi (not Gildhi) 

ia Biipported by the AB. and Sarvfinukraniaiji, introduction to Manilala iii. * iia' - 

116° are quoted b; Sadgurasisya on RV. iii. 53, the first two Itnea, however, only in an 
adapted form ; ep. Indiecbe Stndien, i. 119 f.; Mnir, Sanskiit Tests, i. 343. 

113, 114, was forcibly deprived of consciousness. He sank 
down unconscious. But to him the Jamadagnis" gave Speech 
called Sasarparl, daughter of Brahma or of the Sun^, having 
brought her from the dwelling of the Sun. Then that Speech 
dispelled the KuSikas'** loss of intelligence {a-matim)^. 

f*I^^n»t hm'r, ^sfltflT^ bfk, ^Wl r'r'r'. — ^WT%li: hm'r, ^WT%7i: b, 
V- fk, mrm^fl: r^r^r'. — ^^t^hra'r.TRft^bfk. — 1|^bfr,TT^ k.lT^n 


157] — iv. 117 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iii. 53 

hdr^r*. — VT|f¥ ^ li™^'?» TTlrfV ^ bfk. — 113*^ and 114 are quoted by SSyapa on 
BV. iii. 53. 15 (112^ and 113° being paraphrased by him as well as Sadgnmsisya). — 
114- ^^'^^llf^^lltW Am\«^Hlf^f If «| b, ^^«llf4f IfW fk^^'^f^lf^f HIW r, ^- 
^T»nr ^nm ?. — ;j[^ hm^r. m ^^ r^r'r^ ^^?. ^f^ fk, ^ b. — ^Rrf?l 

The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hdbfk, not in m^. 

* Op. BY. iii. 53. 15, 16. ^ Sasarpari is called auryasya dukUa in BY. iii. 53. 15. 

^ That is, the other Eusikas, as well as YisvSmitra, had been rendered unconscious by 
ffakti. ^ The word occurs in BY. iii. 53. 15 (iosarpanr amatii^ badhamana). 

23. Visramitra and Yza Sasarpari. Spells against the Vasis'^has. 

115. And in the (stanza) * Hither ' (wpa : iii. 53. 1 1) VLSvamitra 
restored the KuSikas to consciousness (anuhodhayat). And 
gladdened at heart by receiving Speech he paid homage to those 
seers (the Jamadagnis), 

^ftfir ^rrerf m^r^r*. ^ftfn ^rrerr b, ^ftfn ^rrort hd, ^j^ ^rran f,^i^ 

^TTWf r, ^f^ ^T^ r*, ^l|^?tf?r (the fuller pratika) s. — ^^iftWR^ hm* r, ^^Wt^RH^ s, 
•^^ffl^lfl^b, ?9%?^fk: the latter two readings probably stand for vq^ciMCVt && BY. iii. 
53. II contains the form %?RIW^. I have corrected q^^tiq^ to •j^^tiq^, as the 
syllable ^ could only be accounted for by ^ (not «?), and unaugmented forms are not 
uncommon in the BD. (e.g. aboye, 113, avasidat). — HTnKT hm^rs, Trf^TTRirr b, irfTf" 

wtm fk. — aigiHHiwu^iid hm^bfk, ?nyfrn5«i%7TO?tr*r\ ^*<<vn< < yj i i€in, ?. 

116. himself praising Speech with the two stanzas * Sasarpari' 
{sasarparih : iii. 53- 15, 16). (With the stanzas) * Strong' {sthirau : 
iii. 53. 17-20) (he praised) the parts of the cart and the oxen, as 
he started for home. 

116*^ comes before 115**^ in bfk. — •Wif^ bfkr«, •il^ 'fl' hm^r (BY. iii. 53. 18 
has ^PI357^): though all the MSS. have V, consistency requires 35 in the text. — 
^fP^lip^ hm^r, ^IfT^Wl, b, ^flAl^^^f. — After it6*'' bfkm^r (not hdr^r^r*) add 
the line: 

117. And then going home he deposited (them* there) in 
person (svaiarlrena). 

RV. iii 




But the four stanzas which follow (iii. 53, 21-24) ^re tra- 
ditionally held to be hostile to the Vasisthas'', 

THT^ t)fkr, inq^ hdm^^^^l^^m bfk, ^irOt '^ r, ^ HTH ^ hdm'. — 
iJ I ^-MlO^H ■"'• ^ lgl°^0 4^ hd (=ai^iqft^), fl ^^prR f r. ^ ^WT^ f b, 
V 4JII|l| ^ f. — The following line is added in B after 117" : 

' fkm'r, "ir^ ^b. * br, '^JTW fm', H^ k. ^ bm^fk, IJ^T^ r. Thia line »Dd 

that which appears in B after Ii6'" aeem to be eorruptions of the lineH which th^ 
reapoctively foUnw, aud which are common to A and B. la m*, 116° and 117" appcu 
08 follows (li;"* thus having throe forma in Ihia MS.): 

"^ ^ ^^ifV^ ^fPTO ^^^t ^'^1 

' That is, the cart, its parts, and the oxen. Cp. SV. iii. 53. lo; □ grhebkyah . . a 
vimocandt, ' until we reach home and unyoke.' On 1 1 ;° -1 19 cp. Indiache Studien, 

i. 120 ; Muir, Sanskrit Texts, i, p. 344 ; Both, Zut Litteratur, pp. 107, loS ; Sajana on 
BV. iii. 53. 2 1 ; Sailgurutt'isya (p. 108), who quotes RgridhlDa ii. 4. 2 ; Mai Miiller, RV.^ 
vol. ii, p. 33. 

118. They were pronounced by Vifivamitra; they are tra- 
ditionally held to be ' unprecations ' {ahhUdpa). They are 
pronounced to be hostile to enemies* and magical (abkicdrika) 

m; h1»T bfk, TJ fftWT r'r'r*r*r^, ^: wtTBT hm'r (cp. Sarrtnukrem^fll : nfSf- 
IlltJim:)' — The reading of US'"* in Ihe teit is that of B; instead of it A hw: 

ft%n(fl«: r'r'r*r^. — fMTT ^fltfil^Tftw: b, fSput ?NTt»T^Tti;: f. — The end of 
the varga is here marked b; ^^ in hdbfk. 
' Op. ^gvidbSns i. 19. 4; i. so. t. 

24. BT. ill. S3. 21-24. Deities of BV. iii. 54-60. 

119, The Vasisthas will not listen to them. This 
unanimous opinion of their authorities {dcdryaka)'^ : great j 
arises from repeating or listening (to them}^ ; 

159] — iv. 123 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iii. 60 

m f hm^r. g«r b. ^ ir fk.— ^IfT* hdm^fk,— *>5[t^^ ^TT^ hd, ^(V 
J|Q||i|^ bfkr. — 119* is omitted in r^r*. 

* That is, the authorities among the Yasisthas are unanimous on the injurious efiPect 
of these stanzas on the Yasisthas. The word acdryaka \b quoted only in the sense of ' the 
position of a teacher '; here it must have some such sense as ' body of teachers.' ^ That 
ia, on the part of Yasis^has. 

120. By repeating or hearing (them) one's head is broken into 
a hundred fragments ; the children of those (who do so) perish : 
therefore one should not repeat them * 

iflfifitf hbrs, 4tm%^ m\ «fl"n^«i fk. — ^7^*1 bfkrs, ^fi^ hdm^, corrected on 
margin to ^n«i in h. 

* This sloka is quoted by Sadgurus'isya to show why the Yasis^has do not listen to 
these stanzas. Both, Zur Litteratur, p. io8, cites the sloka ; cp. Max Miiller, EY.^ vol. ii, 

121. The seer praised the All-gods with the four (hymns) 
*To him' {imam : iii. 54-57). 

B He praised them all with his whole soul, thinking of the 
highest Abode, 

121^ is found in B and m^ only. 

B 122. while he uttered ' Great is that unique mysterious power 
of the gods ' {^devdndm asuratvam tad ekam m<jchat)\ 

The ASvins, Mitra, the Rbhus are (the respective deities of) 
'The milch-cow' {dhenuh: iii. 58), *Mitra' {mitrah: iii. 59), and 
* Here, here, of you ' {iheha vdh : iii. 60). 

* That is, the refrain of iiu 55 slightly altered {mahad devanam oiuratvam eham). 
^ 132^ is found in B and m^ only. This and the preceding line may very well be later 
additions as they contain no new statement. If we deduct them, as well as 123^^ (A) 
and 1 24^ , the two vargas, 24, 25, have only five and a half slokas. They may thus originally 
have formed one varga only. 

A 123. (The stanza) addressed to Mitra, *To Mitra five' 
{mitraya panca : iii. 59. 8) *, should be recognized as addressed 
to the AU-gods ^. 

But the last triplet here in the hymn to the Rbhus (iii. 60. 5-7) 
is addressed to Indra and the Bbhus. 

RV. iii. 60-] BRHADDEVATA iv. 124— [160 

WWT^ in all MSB. and r. — ^T| tSVHt hd, ^ '4t\H b, ^ yV*t fk, ^K'. ^ 

MTin: r. The end of the varga is markEd by ^8 bere (after HTtI*!:) in h {^^ in d), but 

in m'bfk at tlie eud of the next line (after M^*lia.). where tho number of the e'loka ia 
also given by m' as 4 {=§04). 

' The Ail-gods are mentioned in it : la devSit vtfvait bibkarli. There is no reference 
to ibh statement in tho SorvaDukiamanl. 133° is found in bdm^r onlf, being 

omitted in bkrV. 

26. Deities of BV. iii. 61, 62. 

B 124. In the preceding couplet {iii. 60. 3, 4) Indra is incidental. 
After ' O Usaa, with strength ' (uso vdjena : iii. 6 1) the fifth " 

(hymn), which is addressed to Dawn, there follow in the final 
(hymn: iii. 62) six triplets addressed to separate deities: the first 
{1-3} ia addressed to Indra -Varuna, and the following one (4-6) 
to ] 

124"* ia found in bfkm'r. but is omitted in hdr' r*r^ {?). — ^ |^ br, gjt^^ f. — 
^W*n(t. r. y-q«T^m^, ygJTtiT, b f k. — ■^JTRrr^b.^t^^Tfrn', ^t^^iOTf bd, 'SqTWT 
f k, gq^T5 r (SurvilDukramniil on EV. iii. 6i : ^q^H). — yTH,l^*W ^Z ^II^^flT- 

^^: Am'i^ ('?tT: '^m: m'). "arrr ^^i^^m ^: b. ^ttt ^^h ■^-- i\^n\ 
— ^ f k, grf^ ^^«: ^rn ^Hi^^m 5%: f. — <ra^^^;:'ldm'r^l^T:^TT:r, d^-rn,: 

r*, (TT^^IW) 3tTT: bfk. 

* This mu9t mean the fifth hymn of the group iii. 57-G2, the seer of which ia Visva* 
mitra, white the seer of the preceding three (54-5^) ix Prajapati Vis'vamili^ ot Vacya. 
It could not moan 'the fifth hymn to Uaas,' as iii. 61 is the Bixlh hymn in the BY. 
addiesaed to that deity. 

125. and (then come three respectively) addressed to Pusan 
(7-9), Savitr {10-12), Soma {13-15), while the last {16-18) is 
addressed to Mitra -Varuna. And with that (final triplet) Jama- 
dagni* praised the two gods who delight in law (^rtdvrdhav) *>. 

ShrW^'5 ^tTO: hm'r, maTiCWj ^I^: bfkr^r'. — "f*!^ A,"fq^ B. — The 

end of the varga is here marked by ^4 in bf, not in hdk, 

' Aecordingto tho Ar^nllk^ama^^l, followed by the SarvanukromanT, Jtimadagni is tho 
alternative seer of this triplet. ^ This epithet of Mitra -Varui^a occurs in BV. iii. 

6a. 18 as ftm)rd)ta. 

161] _iv. 129 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iv. 15 

Ifawdala £▼. 

• • 

26. Deities of BV. iv. 1-15. 

126. He (Vamadeva) for whom, when he cooked the entrails 
of a dog for the sake of honouring the Gods, the Seers, and the 
Fathers, the Vrtrarslayer (Indra), in the form of an eagle, brought 
the mead^ 

Mm^l^lfUl €|^l|: Am^, Jf '^PmWn^mi Bn. — fj^ ^ hm^r, fRI ^ 
r'r^rV fj^ ^ b, fRT^ fk. — •Hf ^IfiJ n, •^ ^VfTf r,»ll ^irfT'lni\«^f?:^fk, 

* Cp. RV. iv. i8. 13 : iuna antra^i pece • . . adha me iyeno madhu a jabhara, Cp. 
Manu X. 106; Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. 79. — 126 is quoted by the l^Itimaiyarl on RV. iv. 
18. 13. 

127. that seer, descendant of Gotama, praised Agni with fifteen 
hymns (beginning) *Thee' {tvdm: iv. 1-15), and Indra with the 
following sixteen, * Hither' (a: iv. 16-32) ». 

^ftfTf 5 hr^r*m^b, ^ftf^f ^ r*'^ ^Blft^ft ^ b, IfJlV^ ^ fk, ^jV^^^ r. 

* The series, being interrupted by iv. 27 {fyenastutif below, 136), extends to 32 ; cp. 
above, iv. 105, and below, v. 12, 105. — 126 and 127 are translated by Sieg, Sagenstoffe, 
pp. 78, 79. 

128. In the three* (stanzas) *As such, thy brother' {sa hhrd- 
taromi: iv. i. 2-4) Agni is incidental {nipdtabhdj) ; others say 
that (the seer) praises the incidental {nipdtin) Agni together 
with Varuna \ 

I'^br, ^W WMIlfl^l^ihd, ^(m MMIfl^ f, Vf fnUlW k. 

* This must be an old mistake for eatasfstt (often confused in MSS. with ea ttsfsu), 
as the vocative agne occurs in all the four stanzas (iv. i. 2-5), and the SarvSnukramaigii 
has upadyai caiasrai^. ^ Hence the statement of the SarvSnukramani that Agni alone 
or Agni and Varupa are the deities of iv. i. 2-5. 

129. Some (say) that the two hymns *Agni, upon' {praty 
agnih: iv. 13, 14) are addressed to the divinities mentioned by 
their characteristic names {lingoktadaivata) *. But with the two 
(stanzas) * He noted ' {hodhat : iv. 1 5. 7, 8) the seer praises 
Somaka only. 

n. Y 

RV. iv. 15-] BRHADDEVATA iv. 130— [162 

HflftKfl TJ hm'r, MffltqRftJt* b, HSf^lRfg^ r", HHRH^'S ft. — After up"* 
bfk have the following cnrriipt fi'loka ; 

— Ijl*l**tfl g hm'r, ^l^^ntl lir'r', "^fTt: fk, — The end of the var^a ia here 
m&rkiid bj ^^ in hbfkm'. 

' Cp. Sarv&nukramai;!! : liAgokladaivalam In eke, 

S7. ST. It. 18-30. Zndra's birth and fight with Tuuadttra. 

130. And with a view to (long) life for him the A^vlns are 
praised with the two following (stanzas: iv. 15. 9, 10). Her 
unborn child {garbham) who said, ' I will not be born in the 
atraightforwai'd way {anjasd) ' ^, 

■qr^^i^TT Bhra\ ^Tg^^Tt r. — ^5(97 T 3Tf*ri& f hrn^b, IRreT T ^rf*!^ 
f f, irS^ ^ ^rf'T^Jf r, arf'I^m r^r'r*. a|f*15ir'!I rl — yOUf hrfk, ^^IHI b, 
^rnirrm'. — >rf%^ Am'r^n, W^ TPt^r. l(Trfftq b, apf^ f . — J Ar", TTJ^bkn. 

* Cp. BV. iv. i8. a: naham ato mV ai/a dargakaUal. On 130-131 cp. Sieg, Sagen- 
■tolfe, p. 179 f.; cp. al^o Fischel, YediBcke Studien, ii, pp. 41-44. The NlttmiiiljarT on 
RV. iv. 18. 13 quotes 130"' and 131"'. 

131. (that is), her son Indra, Aditi, anxious for her own 
welfare, admonished (a7ifasa()*. But he (Indra), aa soon as bom, 

challenged the seer to fight. 

^^3ITf r'r^^^SIT^bfb, ir^lTT^r, Wi^lIMhJniV^F^arTf n. — ai1«*)H"1 
hm'b. 5n7nmHr'r''''^^r°. TJNtfk.— o^fT^ g bm', "^^T^ niT.bfkr. 

' Thut is, ia BV. iv. 18. 1 : mo mataram amuyS paltave kak. Dr. Sieg, SageDstoffe, 
p. 80, line I, and Ss, note *, nould read anvagat in the sense of ' yielded ' (oschgeban) ; 
but tbiii would be tike using the German sie ging ihm nach' in the same sense. 

132. Vamadeva, engaging him, after he (Indra) had thus done 
violence to himself (the seer)*, for ten days and nights, vanquished 
him with might. 

^y«in.hmV, ^tV^rV*r^F*(?}, ^TTqiJUfk, ^TT^TJUb. — ^T^g r, TT^Iq 
f. TTf^m'. <,\-Hi "^bk, T.I'^V A. 

' That is, after violeoce had thus been done to him by lodra = indre^a balatkj-lah. 

133. Gautama, selling" him in the assembly of seers in the 
(stanza) 'Who this' (ka ima/m: iv. 24, 10), himself for that 


163] — iv. 138 TRAJNSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iv. 30 

purpose {tena)^ praised (him with the stanza), *None, O Indra' 
{nakir indra : iv. 30. i) ; 

* Cp. SSyapa on BY. iv. 24. 9 ; Sieg, Sagenstoffe, pp. 90-96. ^ I take tena to 
refer to vikntfan ; Dr. Sieg, however (who translates 133-134), Sagenstoffe, p. 95, takes 
it with the pratika of iv. 30, :=tena tuktena, 'with the whole hymn iv. 30'; against this 
is the fact thalr the hymn as a whole has already been mentioned (127) as one in praise of 
Indra, that the author in the present passage otherwise refers to single stanzas, and that 
it is contrary to the style of the BD. to refer with tena to a following pratika instead of 
saying nakir indrety anena or etena. 

134. and in the (stanza) * What ! then art thou ' {kvm, dd utdsi : 
iv. 30. 7) he halfway {ardhe) * dispelled his wrath. Then the seer 
his (Indra's) form and heroic deeds, his valiant exploits, 

IfS^jR^ Am\ irajif^ bfkr«, ?!^ if«r r.— f >4<ll4 l fU| hm^r, ql4^|€iirU| fbk, 

^rtrorinftr r\ CNhWiftr r*r«.— m«|t^: hm^r, mjftr: bfkr', ^Tf^ r*r*r«.— 
The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hm^b, not in k. 

* The reading madhye is probably an explanation of ardhe. 

1 36. and his various deeds proclaimed to Aditi. ' I ' {ahmn : 
iv. 26) is self-praise in a triplet : for there is praise (in it) as if of 
him (Indra)*. 

?nr^nCbdm^r^ •ro^raCbfkr^r*. — ^niR^IV ft rV, ^fq^^HI fthdr, 
^fflPlfl^ f^ b, ^Rlfqim f^ f kr^ 

* That is, the seer praises himself as if he were Indra; cp. SarvSnnkramaQi : indram 
ivatmanam ffis tusfaoendro vdtmanam. Cp. Geldner, Vedische Studien, iii, p. 160, note ', 
and Sieg, Sagenstoffe, pp. 87 and 95, note \ 

136. With the following nine stanzas (beginning) * Before all 
birds this' (pra su sa vihhyah: iv. 26. 4-7; 27. 1-5) there is 
praise of the eagle. In the hymn of five stanzas * Thee ' {tvd : iv. 28) 
Indra is praised together with Soma. 

^f?r br, ^ w}, ^ hr^r*, ^ fk. — ^Eh¥li%^: ^l €f bkr, ?sh?(^ ^» €f 

137, 138. Kraustuki regards this praise to be chiefly addressed 
to Soma ; while with the triplet ' Even of the Sky ' {divaS dd : 
iv. 3a 6-1 1) the teacher l^akatayana considered the middle Dawn 

RV.iv.3H BRHADDEVATA iv. 139— [164 

to be praised with Indra. And in the stanza here ' Good wealth ' 

(vdmam : iv. 30. 24) Bhaga, Pusan, and Arjaman are praised : 

«1«HyT*1TH,br,''3l\rr'm;Am'fk['. !|ftjftr^h(l,*1gf4l<,rkm'r,lfftjf»:r'r*r*, 

138. ^ mrr^: bfk, ^ ^'rVr', ^ ?TT^T^:hm^r. — TPPPI^ ^JTII^T^ 

hd. qmfaj^^fliflm r, q i ^ifiiJ^r^ g-^B.— »nr:hd, »T^:b,^w:k, jw: TH:f. 

B 139, Pusan is (here) called ' Karulatin ' * : according to a Vedic 
text (s'ruti)^ he is 'toothless.' Asvalayana says that (the stanza) 
'Of us most excellent' (asmdkam uttamam : iv. 31. 15) praises 
the Sunc. 

flt^?nftf?T fltr. «^*i!ftf!T b. — WlrtlWlfl' r, ^Wt^TTT" b, «lflHlT|l* f. 
WifllMlfT" k. — This a'loka (139) is not found in A. — ra' omits 138"* u well he 139, 
probably owing to 138"* and 139''' ending similarly (irfZ)'niT: and (^^)'nrT:. — 
Tbe end of the tiarga is here marked by ^C in bf, after HT^HTtPi: (138"*) in m', 
after 133°'' in hd, not at all in k. 

' The word occurs io EV, iv. 30. 14, which is commented on by Yaska, Nirukta vi. 
30, 31 ; cp. Roth, Erlauterungoa, pp. 96, 97. *" That is, S^B. i. 7, 4', quoted by Yiska, 

Nirukta vi. 31. ° There is no reference to this statement in the Sarvanukramani. 

29. The Bteeda of the varioua goda. 

140. The horses of Indra are Bays (hari), the horses of Agni 
are Ruddy ones (rohit) ; those of Surya are Fallows (harit), and 
those of Vayu Teams (niyut) K 

ffft irer hm'rb, fTTTT V^ f. f^lT^^T k. — ^B^T^T^ ^'^*r'bfkr=r^ 
»^^hdr. "^^m' (cp. VK'^ '" "■''■ on '■ '°7)' — ^Rfl^fl hro'r. fft^I ^tWT B. 
' This and the following two a'lobas closely follow Naighantuka 1, 15. 

141. The Ass" is associated {sahita) with the Asvins, and 
Goats are the steeds (vdjin) of Pu^an, but Dappled mares (prsati) 
are the horses of the Maruts, while ruddy {aruni) Cows are those 
of the Dawns. 

^rewtfkr'r*r^m\ TTO^ftlld^^ TTWTT br(tlie Naighanfuka has TTflWt^ft^:. 

but the "?ft before ift^ST*?. in all the MSS. seemn dedsivB in favour of XTWTt). 

♦iffjfthdm'r', Hffifl fk, ITtffTTt r'r'r', Olffl^ br (this is an evident substitution in 
order to get a plural agreeing with ^I^JTTO- — '%^'V hm'r, ^^T^ B. — ^Idh br'r^ 


165] — iv. 144 TKANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iv. 32 

^mrn^ Naighan^uka). 

* Cp. my * Vedic Mythology,' p. 50. 

142. The steeds of Savitr are Duns {Sydvdh) ; the Multiform 
(viharupd)^ is (the steed) of Brhaspati. Now these too are 
praised with (their) deities, otherwise ^ but seldom. 

IBTTT hm^rf, VRT r^r*r', ^^RTTT bk. — ^^aifil^ hm^r. ^IRn^W B. — 

* Conceived as a cow ; cp. above, iii. 85, 86 (the nectar-yielding cow of Bfhaspati). 
^ That is, when mentioned alone, without being associated with the gods. 

143. (The god) whose weapon and vehicle appear here in 
a laudation should be recognized as the one praised; for that 
(god) is in many ways the soul {dtman) of it \ 

^Rrt ^br, l!fft^ 71 hd, l!fft^ (nolj) fk. — ^pRTnfUT* hm^r, PtHIHIHII^ b, t^nTT- 
^WTT* fk. 

* That is, manifests himself in the weapon or vehicle ; cp. above, i. 73, 74. 

144. * Two small girls ' {hanlnakd : iv. 32. 23, 24), the remainder 
of the hymn*, is here called a praise of the two Bays (of Indra)^. 
And the four (words) after it ®, (viz.) vidradhe (and the rest) are 
to be recognized as liable to phonetic combination {apragrhydni)^. 

f^b, f^: r, flJT fk,l^^ hm*r^ ^|\hr r^r*r«. — ^^fNl^ bfkr, ^5^ hm\ — 
^WT^hW ftp hr, ^RTltr ^IT'n bfkr^rM— •^ITRm* hrfk, •i^^THTH* b, 
•l^^rWnP r»r«r\— 1%3[^ hdm\ ftfj^^J: r, ft^: b. ft|pr: f, f*^: k.-The last 

[Ada is repeated in fk as foUows : ^«mi^||iniPls^4* (R^flJ k) I 'W Hft^ITrf'f f^*t — 

The end of the varga is here marked by ^Q, in hm^bf, and by ^Q. in k. 

* That is, the hymn which as a whole has already been stated (above, 127) to be 
an Indra hymn, and of which these are the last two stanzas. ^ Cp. Nirukta iv. 15 : 
aivayof^ sa^stavaft, and Sarvannkrama^I : antyabhyim indrahau stutau. The list of the 
steeds of the gods given in 140-143 is by way of introduction to the statement about iv. 
3a. 33, 24. ^ Atali, that is, after the word kanmakd in the text of iv. 3a. 23. ^ That 
is, the four words vidradhe navi drupade arbhahe are to be taken not as duals, but as 
locatives singular^ in agreement with the Pada text and Sfekapuni's opinion stated by YSska 
in Kirukta iv. 15 (on RV. iv. 32. 23) : kanyayor adhisihanapravacanani saptamya ekava- 
eananiti Ukapunil^, Cp. Yedische Studien, iii, p. 88^ note ^ ; Oldenberg, Prolegomena, 
p. 532 (middle). Owing to the corrupt readings of b in BD. iv. 144, Meyer, Bg^dh&na, 
p. xxvi, was erroneously led to suspect the existence of a khila after BY. iv. 3a. 

RV. iv. 33-] 



1. BeitisB of &V. iv. 33-S2. 

1. (With) 'Forth' (pra: iv. 23- ') begins a group of five 
hymns addressed to the Rbhua (iv, 33-37). Following that are 
three (hymns) addressed to Dadhikra (iv. 38-40) ; but the stanza 
which ia at the head of the hymns addressed to Dadhikra (iv. 38. i) 
praises Heaven and Earth. 

^fy»l6^i r^. — g^ 7J in hm'r'r, ('WT»l) ^?ft fif ^T*t. (pratika of iv. 38. i) br'. 
^pft ft ^T^^fkr*. The roadiog ^% TJ ^ (cp. tjf^tJ ia. 37) eeeniB to be faioared bj 
the Sarvanokramanl: ^ifwil ft «iqi^fV(<C||4|1. 

2. Then with indirect {paroksa) expressions (vac) and names 
the three, Agni, Vayu, Surya, are praised in the stanza, ' The 
Swan dwelling in light' {kamsah hicisat: iv. 50. 5). 

H^?it dr, UgjITm', ^*Jfll(, hb, ^T^lft^fk (the ^ if doubtloas due to that of the 
preceding »lO^<, a°d the following ^ifffl^). — TPRfim hd, >r[*rtH^ br, 'TTTft m', 
ITH^f*! f k. — •Wt% A, •WTT B. 

B 3. In the Aitareya (Brahmana) ' The Swan ' ijiamsah : iv. 40. 5) 
is prescribed as having Siirya for its deity*. Now (there follow) 
two hymns addressed to Indra-Varuna (iv. 41, 42), then three 
(iv. 43-45) addressed to the ASvins (beginning) 'Who?' {hah: 
iv. 43. i). 

^thm'r, ^^m.bfk, l^fTT^r' (Ihia Tepresenls the pratlka of iv. 41. i,^lfT). — 
•ftlHlPl W, r^r^r^r'br^ "PuHlR ^ hdin\ »r**llfM*: (!) r. — 3** it omitted iu 
fk. — 3" , though found in Bm' onlf, is probably original, as it it suppoKed by tho 
■tatcnient of the SarTaQukramanl : vnii tflVj. Without it the varga would have an 
odd liae ; with it the vurga baa eiz b'lokaa, like the first varga of the fint and of the 
■ecoad adhyaija, 

* Id ad. iv. 30. 5 this stacia is connected with the sun (haijua). 

4. In the (hymns) 'The best' {agrcvm: iv. 46. l), '0 Vayu' 
{yayo: iv. 47. i), 'Enjoy' {viki : iv. 48. r-5) seven stanzas are 
declared to be addressed to Vayu ; and nine are addressed to 
Indra -Vayu, (viz.) ' Indra ' {^ndrah : iv. 47. 2-4) being three, (and) 
' With a hundred ' {satena : iv. 46. 2-7) being six. 


167] —V. 7 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. iv. 57 

ftll^^ hdm^r, f^Onimi: b, f<|^4|iwi r*r^ — f k omit 4"^*. — fl^^Ab, l[?fTCC 

5. 'This' {idam: iv. 49), addressed to the deities mentioned 
in it*, (and) the last couplet (10, 11) of *He who has propped' 
(yew tastambha: iv. 50) — these eight stanzas^ are traditionally 
held to be (in) praise of Indra-Brhaspati. 

* That is, Indra and Brhaspati. ^ That is, 49. 1-6 and 50. 10, 11. 

6. That * hymn, however, is addressed to Brhaspati ; the two 
next (beginning) *That' {idam: iv. 51, 52) are addressed to U^as. 
In the triplet 'Sm'ely that king'^ {sa id rdjd: iv. 50. 7--9) 
laudation of the function of the appointor of priests (purodhatuh) 
is expressed. 

9 flWHIH. r. — In most of the MSS. the syllable 11^ has dropped out after ^, partly 
perhaps owing to a misunderstanding of the following f^^«f^; in the reading of B the 
words have been transposed to normalize the metre (cp. above, iv. loa).— '^I^m bfkr, 
lit b, q^ d.— ^fNTj: br, HtNTJ fk, ^fNT^ hd, qfNT^: m^— H^SlfiR m^r, 
4^1(41' f> «t«)l|i(l h.-~-The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in hbf k, not in m^. 

* That is, BV. iv. 50. ^ Op. AB. viii. 34-26, especially a6. a ; also SSya^a, 
introduction to RV. iv. 50. 7. 

a. IMties of BV. iv. 63-68. 

7. There are two hymns addressed to Savitr (beginning) * That* 
(tat : iv. 53, 54) ; * Who ? ' {kah : iv. 55) is addressed to the All- 
gods, while that which follows (viz.) * The mighty ' {mahl : iv. 56) 
is addressed to Heaven and Earth. But (in the hymn) ' Of the 
field' ijcsetrasya: iv. 57) the (first) three (stanzas) are addressed 
to the Lord of the Field, while the next stanza, * Prosperously the 
steers ' {iunam vdhdh : iv. 57. 4), has Sima as its god. 

br, f^RR ^^MHI f k, %^mVV^^ hdm^r^ (%^ r^) : the reading of the Sarwiukrama^I 
finn ^^Mmi* has decided me in favour of the reading adopted in the text (cp. above, 

RV. iv. 57-] BRHADDEVATA v. 8— [168 

iii. in). The H which has dropped out after fdWt[_ (making the j^a one sjlkble short) I 
have restored from the reading g^^. — ^fl^fll hm^r, "^M^fl hr^r^r'', ^ ^ftt. — 
^qprCTm'. »J5^plTTfr^r''r'. r^g-riil fc, yg-rt*.!: b. «2*l-ri*l1 r, flg-rt*)l hd. 

8. ouna here is Vayu, Sira is Surya : (for) they say that 
Suna and Sira are Vayu and Surya. Yaska, however, considered 
Sunasira to be Indra^, (and) Sakapuni thinks those two {Suna and 
Sira) to be Surya and Indra ''. 

t^T^ f, t^T^ k. 

* His view, in Nliufcta is. 40, agrees not with this, but with the explanation given 
in 8": fanasirau: iuno vayuh (iu ety anlarikse), Ara adityalf lara^l. Yaska does not 
quote Sakapiini'H view. ^ This aluka is quoted by SadguruHisya on RV. iv. 57. 

9. Now these two, Suna and Sira, are praised in the fifth 
(stanza : iv. 57. 5), while there are two (6, 7), the sixth and the 
seventh (stanzas), to Sita. The verse {pdda) ' Prosperously our 
shares' {Sunam nak 2>haidh : iv. 57. 8") praises agriculture; 
'Prosperously the ploughers ' (A'u/ia?n kindMh: iv. 57. 8''), men 
who live by agriculture. 

^ ?J ^Wt^ ^ A, j\ 5 tDnitt ^m\ ^ni^ ^ff\ 5TObfkr (IJ^'b, ftj" f , 

10. Parjanya is here praised in the third verse (Iv, 57. 8'), 
while the seer pronounced the last (verse) with a desire of wealth 
(iv, 57. 8 '*). Or (it may be said) the whole hymn praises 
agriculture. 'From the ocean" {samudrdt : iv. 58) belongs to 
the Middle Agni. 

^f[l TF^J^ y!^«*mAin\ ^ m^ y*i'ti bfkr. — «^ KIWHlf, m', ^ A|Mfl(^ 
hd, IRU^ft^ r', ^Wl'^ftl, r'r*r*, "flgft): bfr, jftgfq: k. — ^JJranft hm'r", 
irf^rpft r'r*r'', aft*BTflt bfkr. — wft ^ hrbfk, Wft^ r'r*r^. 

11. As mentioned in a Brahmana it is indicated as addressed 
either to the Sun {dditya) or to Agni ; for it appears as an Ajya 
hymn " ; or some speak of it as (in) praise of Waters or (in) praise 
of Ghee, (or) as addressed to Cows, (or) to Surya ^. 

in^^W.'kr*r'r', IJJI^^ Am'b. — flimiW^jii m^r^r'r", qiHISIf^A hdr^, ?l^- 
85^ r. <]qi4J^n f. *Jl«ll*«lii b. — f^ ^ Ani'b, Uf^BH fkr'r'rl — iRlfll 


169] —V. 13 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. i 

4^4*iWl<ftl Am\ iRt ^fif ^ ^H^fl^l^Rll r, iRf ^fif ^ ^Hl*iflfliPH f, 'Wt 
mfJl ^ ^JtShnt^Plf k, iRt ^tH ^ 'WT ^n^^Ql^Pn b. — The end of the 
varga is here marked by ^ in hm^bfk. 

* BY. iv. 58 in AB. v. 16. 6 is stated to be the Ajya Sastra of the seventh day : 
samudrad urmir . • . iti saptamasyahna ajyaif^ hhavatu (The reading of hdr^ alludes to AB. 
y. 16. I : y€d vd aiti ea praiti ea tat saptamasyahno rupam,) ^ Cp. San^nukramanl : 
samudrad . . agneytu^ . . sauryaift vapatfi va gavyani vd ghftastutir vd, 

Manclala ▼. 

• • 

3. DaitiMi of BV. ▼. 1-28. Story of Tryanma and Vrfia Jaiia. 

12. The Atris having dispelled the eclipse of the sun decreed 
{dr§tcmi) by Svaxbhanu, praised Agni with the twenty-seven hymns 
' He has awoke ' {abodhi : v. 1-28) ^ 

^4iqf8 hm^rbfk, ^nfT^f^* r'r^r'^. — ^^IMfM hm\ •^ ^RfV r, •^TT" 
MIV^ b, ®Wnra% r*r*r\ •^TTSN k ^l(|IMIlJfi| f. 

* That is, inolading 28, because the Apr! hymn, v. 5, is left out of account ; cp. 
note * on iv. i6. 

13. Traivr^na (Tryaruna), Trasadasyu, AiSvamedha, Rnamcaya 
may be observed as objects of praise in various passages in the 
(hymns of the) Atris *. 

^ l|f|4)\iT m^r, ^4TV^V hd. — VthTV* hdm^, also in bfkr'r^ (where this sloka 
comes later), ffH IRj: r. — M^^U hdr, mO^I ™^f« — This sloka is omitted here by 
B(bfkr^r^), but occurs after 28 in the following form: 

^*wi«ii: ^tVtrr: ^rf^^ »f^wft<l i 

m^ (also r) has this Aoka, both here with the reading of A, and afterwards with that of 
B, vis.: 

* The general remark made in this sloka serves as an introduction to the story of 
Tryaruigia. I do not agree with Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. 74, note ', in thinking this sloka 
more appropriate after 28, nor in reading jfH IRf! instead of ^^"^^l* . In my text, 
however, the third varga in this way has six slokas and the sixth only four, instead of both 
having five. 

II. Z 

KV. V. I-] BRHADDEVATA. v. 14— [170 

14. King* Tryaruna, son of Trivr^na, of the race of Iksvaku, 
was riding in his chariot, and his domestic priest, VrSa, the son 
of Jana, took the horses' reins, 

t^nfltAaiin(gh),^^Tq[H:fkrD(abcm),^^rb. — ^ann-MSS., « ^(W 
n. — ^hrb, ^^fkrl 

' This story (14-33) U quoted in the Nitimafijari ou EV. v. a. 9. It ia also given 
by Sayana on RV. v. 5. t, in two metrical forms, as derived from the S^a(yayana and the 
Tandya BnThmana. The whole Btor/ in examined by Sieg, SagenstofFe, pp. 64-76. Cp. 
Hillebmndt, ZDMQ. xsiiii, pp. 348 ff.; Qeldner, Festgriwa ao Both. p. 19a; Oldenberg. 
SBE. ilvL, pp. 366 ff. ; Ludwig, Bg-voda, iv, p. 334. 

15. The chariot, as it went along, cut off the head of a Brahman 
boy, and the king said to his domestic priest, 'You are guilty.' 

%^ hm'r, ^ bfkn.— TXt^r A, XJ^ ?! B. 

16. He (Vr^a) having had revealed to him Atharvan spells 
and having (with them) brought the boy back to life, left the king 
in anger and betook himself to another country. 

fil^ A, ^bfn, ^k. — ^^W^hm'ftn, ^pq ^ br. 

17. In consequence of the departure of the seer, the heat of 
his {the king's) fire also disappeared, for none of the oblations cast 
on the fire were (any longer) cooked. 

flll'UI'a hra'r^fkr^r''r''ii(ab), •1*11317^ b, ^TTnTHr r. ^imTTTO "(c). — ^H%: 
Ab, ^^fk, aj^r/r^D. — TnSTf*T Ijm'rbfkr^r^ mfTlf'I r'r*r". — f^tf*! hm'r, 
I^TOI r'r*r°, 1I*J|R fkr^, ^Wlfi) b, 'qiSIIlft r''n. — Uq«IH hdr'r'/', SJtl^f'F 
m', ^q^pft b, gpi^ fk^^ <(ft^% r*n. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^ 
in hbf, not in ra^k. 

4. Story of Tryanma (contiuaed). 

18. Hence the king distressed went to Vr^a Jana, propitiated 
and brought him back, and again made him his domestic priest, 

flthbfkn, wanting in r. — 7THl"°V^r'r'n, irH,b, 7T(?)f, TR.k, ^ r. — ^JpltWT 
hm'r. W^^ bfku. — ^ ^TR hdr, ^ BTRm', ^^inifkn, ^ ^TPI b: the 
Sarvatiukramani and the l^ndya lir^hmana have the fomi 41(1 41*1! (see Max SluUer, 
HV.* vol. ii, p. 35, near bottom), filitra, however, has the marvellous note : VJ^ flTt' 
filftfl irat *fft5J»Tlff% (sic). 


171] _v. 23 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. a 

19. Vrsa being propitiated sought for the heat * of the fire in 
the king's house, and he found a Pifiaci as a wife of the king. 

^^VT'l m\ ^%qn[T'l hdr, f^raPfT'l b, f^R^^T^ fk. — (MUII'^Y m r^br'r^ 

* I take this word {haram) for the neuter word haras, * heat,' irregularly used as a 
masculine. Sieg, p. 68, regards it as another word {hara, masc.)f meaning ' robber ' (Bauber). 
This does not seem likely, especially as haras again occurs (in ai) in the sense of ' heat/ 

20. Having seated himself with her upon the cushion on 
a stool, he addressed her with the stanza, * Whom do you here ? ' 
{kam etam tva/m : v. 2. 2). 

fim^: hm^r, firq^: b, fSparret f, f*RTOJ kn. — '^nnraf hm^bn(ab), ^wrawt f, 

ifra ^ rn(c), TrriTRT k. — ??ft?f?r ^1^ hm^r, ?r ^'PJ^ b, W ^^lyTT r*n, W 
^*>*5^l k, W ^3^!|^ f . 

21. Speaking of the heat (haras) in the form of a hoy* he 
addressed her (thus). And when he had uttered the (stanza) 
*Far with light' {vi jyotisd: v. 2. 9) the fire suddenly flamed up, 

fX;: hm^rbfkn, ^^l r^r*r«. — ^IfTOLr^n. ^^bfk, ^l^hdr, llWCm^ 

* Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. 70, note ^, compares agni kumara, giving references. 

B 22. repelling (sahamdna) him who approached and illuminating 
what was (already) bright ; 

and it burned the Pi^aci where she sat. 

2a«^ is in B only (bfkr'r^r"^). — ^^RTWRT fr^r^r'^, iniTqTTf bk. — iranr^ 
r*r*r^ IWnnPlb, IWnr^T^fk. — m ^ hdr. m^ m\ m 5 bkn, 7f 5 f. — 

^l^nMHrtUl hbr, Vm ^f(^f^^[H f , ^^^ ^^^ ff^m n(c), Vm Vm f^irni n(abm). — 
The end of the varga is here marked by B in bfk, not in hm^. 

5. BaferencM to BV. ▼. 2. 2, 9 in other works. Deities of BV. ▼. 29-40. 

23. This couplet * is mentioned {pardmrsta) in the Brahmana 
of the Bhallavins : 

B such is the Vedic passage (sruti) (quoted) in the work entitled 
Nidana of the Samavedins ^ {chandoga). 

RV. V 




ivHt^iVv! 11(c), •t^HiQ^iW'it ii(aij). HStf^?n?r%nih), «rflT^«m5t n(g)- — 33"* 

ia found in B aod m' only, beiug wanting in A. — \fi( ^f*'- tfm^r, 1^ ^ftt Ic. X^ 

* Tbat JB, the two stanzas v. z. 2 and 9. '' Tbat is, the Njdana book contuos 
a quotation mentioning these stanzas from the BhUllavi Brahmana. If the Nidana-siitn 
ia meant, the quotation in question cannot be traced in the published text : see Eieg, 
Sagenatoffe, p. 65. 

24. The mention (of them) is probably (bhaved eva) with 
reference to this hymn (as a whole) ; for exoteric (bdhi/a)^ 
formulas are to be found enjoined by the requirements (dr^ta) of 
a ceremonial rule (vidhi). 

*f%^ hm^r. H'^^M h, >i^\^ fk. — ^"^^^ hm'r, ftq^Hl bfr^r^r', Piq^CIT 
k. — (I'l4i|1^l4i f? Ara\ 4141 ff bfk, ^TTWT WWIT ft r(r*r'r'f): this looks u if 
two (ijllables had dropped out in B. and 'fl'?n had been supplied in some of the MSS< 

from the following line (?rnR% WWT). ftfy^^l Ani\ f«|fyiI4^»I r, plpni^'l 

bfk. — ^^(^fll Am'k, Mlf^fli: bfr. 

* That is, a BnUuna^a sometimes applies mantras from a Veda other than its own, 
if the ritual neceBsitates their use. I am, however, ver? doubtful about the emendatioa 
hahyah, which moy entirely vitiate the sense of the line. 

25. Formulas (thus) appear in a Brahmana pointed out in 
a particular passage i^kade&a) : so the Apri stanzas of Jamadagni *' 
and the stanzas relating to the drops of ghee (stoHya)*' in the 

TTfli^ hm'r.Tj^i^ fk, T[4t^ K— ^TTW^i^irenrncTOni'. aii4i<J<(itflli)qi«i: 

tivjiiil^ f. — wt^t^TP^Br^ ^rrtfriir^hm', ^ftffNrP^r. 

* That is, RV. x. 1 10, qnoled in TB. iii. 6. 3' as well as in VS. xxii. 35 : cp. aboia, 
ii. 156, and below, viii. 37. ^ RV. i. 75 and iii. ai, quoted in TB. iii. 6. j' u weU 
as in AB. ii. 12. 3, 6 (cp. commentary, Aufrecht, p. 358). 

26. Now the fifth hymn here is (made up of) the Apr! stanzas 
'To the well-kindled' (susaviiddhdya : v. 5. i). The stanza 
'Thereon' (edam: v. 26. 9) is optionally {vd)^ addressed to the 
All-gods, and the last (stanza) in the last hymn but one** (v, 27, 6) 
is addressed to Indra-Agni. 


173] —V. 30 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.v.40 

^irflRT: f kr, ^Vrf^: b, ^n^l hdm^, W^t r^r^r*r*. — ^inr 1J hm^r, Uf^ B. — 
lI^Af, "^^t^kr^ ^ipib, Ipf^ r. — 'Wl ^rWT r. ^rfWT hfb, '^mj k. 

* The SarvSnukrama^i has antya Uhgoktadevaia, bnt the commentator Jagannatha 
explains : antya vaiivadevt va. ^ Cp. above, v. I a. 

27. There are twelve hymns addressed to Indra (beginning) 
'Three' {tri: v. 29-40); but here USana is praised with the verse 
{pdda) * Ufiana ' (v^and : v. 29. 9**) and also with that (which 
begins) * When together to you two ' {sam ha yad vdm : v. 31. 8^. 

^[^nftr V^ ^'^ ™^ ^fW^ hdr, ^ETT^ b, ^s^lfill<^ fWR^* f, flPP^- 
WTifhg* r*r\ — ?R Am^^^ Vm bfkr. — ^J^(f^ IJ hm^r. Bl^ ^ bfk. — qi^ 

^ f in[ni%«f ^ A, xn^ ^ ^ f W ^^^ ^* B (VfK'^tm r^r'^). — The end of the 

varga is here marked by M in bfk, not in hdm^. 

6. Atri's praise of gifts. 

28. And in the (stanza) '0 Indra and Kutsa {indrdkutsd: 
5. 31. 9) Indra is praised with Kutsa ; and in the five stanzas 
• When thee, Surya ' {yat tvd surya : v. 40. 5-9) the feat of the 
Atris is celebrated \ 

* After this B (bfkr'r^) and m^ add the ^oka which in A forms an introduction 
to the story of Tryaru^a (see note on v. 13). 


B 29. In* the (hymn) addressed to Agni, *With a wagon' 
{ana^antd : v. 27), the seer Atri himself, pleased with his gifts, 
proclaimed these (kings) ^ as royal seers *5, so say some (authorities). 

^nW^bfkr, •^W^^i^^m*. — M^', <l^^l^m\ <l^ij||«|,fk. 

* The following seven and a half slokas (29-36' ) are not found in A. ^ Refer- 
ring to the four kings mentioned in v. 13, which in B immediately precedes the 
present sloka. IBtnaxpcaya, however, does not appear in this hymn (cp. below, 33). 
^ This must mean that Atri merely introduces the subject of their gifts to him, but that 
the three kings are the seers of the hymn as a whole, according to the view of some 
authorities. According to the main statement of the Sar^nukrama^i the three kings are 
the seers of the hymn ; and according to the ArsSnukrama^I, v. 13, 14, Tryaru^a and 
Trasadasyu are the seers of v. 27. 1-3, and Aisvamedha of 4-6. 

B 30. There also appears (here) a prayer to Agni* on their behalf 
(ehhyah) in consequence of (their) request {adhye§andt)^. Ten 
thousand, three hundred and twenty kine ^^ 

RV. V. 40-] BRHADDEVATA v. 31— [174 

irRibr, ftim'k. — t*T1lf?Tb, fqilf?!: m'rfk. 

' In EV. V. IT. 1, a, 3. * Tbot is, tn the seers to officiftte for them; the 

rererence ia probably to RV. v. 37, 4. " Cp. RV. v. 27. I, x : daiabhih sahasratk . . . 

data ca vitasatint ca gonSm, 

B 31. (and) a golden wagon with two oxen", king Tryanina gave 
to Atri. And A^vamedha (gave) a hundred oxen, Trasadasyu 
much wealth. 

#^ fra\ ^ntS k, ^TIlJ» b. — firtl^ r, ^iJtTT^ b, yjtfll^ fk, jq^TT*!: 
u>^. — TRi^: m\ "(ra^ fkr. TI^^ K — ^HUTt m'. ^VaJFT fb, ^Wt k. ^t^t^ 
r (BV. V. a;. 5 THTt- ■ 'd^dlO' — The end of the varga in here cnatked by ^ in bfk, not 
in m , nor of coiifBE in hd. 

' Cp. RV. V. 27. 1 ; onasvanta . . gava. 

7. Biiamcaya's gifta to Babhi^. Deitiea of XV. t. 41-61. 

B 32. Others say that he (Atri) addressed this hymn to the 
kings, for one cannot give to oneself"^, (and) the seer received 
(the gifts) from (each) king, 

v^^ r, wwre m\ wnr bfk. — wiwi f% ^\tt(^ tm', kibtt fj Tranl k, 
TRfrg^T*^!^: b. 

* Thia alternative view, that Atri is the seer of the nhole hymn, is stated on the 
same ground by both the Sarvanukraiiiani (natToalmane dadyad ili tarvdn alrim kecil) 
and in the ArsanukTsmanT (v. 14, ig) : 'or Atri Bhauma alone ia here the seer; fnr in 
the act of giving [read danakriySnain) one and the same person cannot be proclaimed (nq 
iatyate) as both giver and receiver.' Cp. SadguniiiBja, p. 115. 

B 33. Rnamcaya chose tlie seer Babhru ", son of Atri, to officiate 
as priest at a Soma sacrifice in which a thousand sacrificial fees 
were bestowed. So he (Babhru) sacrificed for him (Rnamcaya)*'. 

^^tftrf'Tgft HWIH f. — ^^iHRITW^ rn, ^iWTrWI bfkm". 

' GauriYlti (the reading of bfm') cannot be right, as he is the seer of v. aq, while 
the hymn in question is v. 30 (see 36), in which Rijaincaj'a and Babhru are mentioned 
together (r. 30, 14); cp. Sarvanukramaipi on v. 30; babhrur : ptajiicayo 'py atra raja 
slutah. ^ 33-3^° ■" quoted in the Nltimafljarl on RV. v, 30. 15. 


175] —V. 37 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. 41 

B 34, And the king of the Ru^amas^ {raii^a/ma) gave him 
four thousand four hundred (cows)^ and a golden caldron <^ 

If^nrft m* (cp. note •). 

* Cp. BY. v. 30. 14 : fi^tufieaye rajani ruiamandm. ^ Cp. BY. v. 30. 13 : gavdtfi 
eatvari dadatafi sahoird fi^atjieayasya. ^ Cp. BY. v. 30. 15 : gharmah . . taptaftpra' 
Vfje . . ayatmayaft, 

B 35, 36. And he received golden caldrons* for the Pravargya 
rites. And having received (them), the seer as he went along 
was questioned on the way by the Middle Agni as well as by 
Indra ^ ; and he related (all) this with the four (stanzas) * This good ' 
{bhadram: v. 30. i2-i5)<^. 

The next eleven^ (hymns) after this (beginning) * Who pray of 
you two V {ko nu vdm : v. 41-51) are addressed to the All-gods. 

'rf^l^tr ^ifl^ fit- — 3^- W^fbin^r, ^kn. — •^flf'f IWP r, «^4^ IWT* b, 
•^TW lWT*f, •^Trtrtrr* br\ — ^TT^^T: bm^r, ^I^Tfll 5 bfkr*r^. — The end of 
the varga is here marked by ^ in dbf, not in m^k. In A the varga would have only 
one line. 

* Mahttvira, otherwise gharma, is a kettle for heating milk at the Pravargya or 
introdactory ceremony of the Soma sacrifice. ^ This is to explain how Agni is 
addressed in stanzas 12, 13, 15 of RY. v. 30, which is a hymn addressed to Indra. ^ That 
the preceding passage (29-36^) belonged to the original text of the BD. is, in the first 
place, supported by the fact that it must have been known to the author of the SarvSnu- 
krama^i ; for the remark ndtmdtmane dadydt is clearly borrotired from 32^ (dtmd hi ndtmane 
dadydt) while the words sarvdiv a^ri^i kecana are probably due to 32' (rqjHaf^ prati ea 
tat suktatu babhdfa Ui keeana). In the second place, the four vargoB 6-9 have, in hd, 
only six slokas (instead of the normal number, twenty), and yet the end of the ninth 
varga is indicated in the same place (after 45 ) and with the same figure in hd as in b. 
^ Cp. SarvSnukramail^T : vaUvadevaffi vai tad (vat = 5, <ad=6). 

8. Detailed aooount of BV. 41-43. 

37. (Then come) ten (hymns) addressed to the Maruts* 
(beginning) 'Forth' (pra: v. 52-61). Ila, however, is praised in 
the stanza *To' (ahhi: v. 41. 19). 

RV. V. 42-] BRHADDEVATA v. 38— [176 

B In the third stanza *Up' {ut : v. 42. 3) Savitr (is praised), 
Saunaka said. 

f. — 3^^ in Bm^ only. — ^(<^f^ g^l^^NI m^, H^^il^CIIW^I ^t r, fip?tTrat 
^rPnrr iftTlt ^rt^ is the whole line in f, and Rlfl)€||<|i l^^Rlt^^^fh^ in b. 

^ Cp. SarvSnukramani on y. 52: marutam ha tat {ha =4, tat ^6). 

38. The triplet * Invoke* {upa: v. 42. 7-9) is addressed to 
Brhaspati ; the next stanza (v. 42. 10) is addressed to the Maruts ; 
'Praise him' (tcum u §tuhi: v. 42. 11) is addressed to Budra. 
But in the stanza * Forth the fair praise' {pra su§tutih: v. 42. 


hm^bfk have no ^ (the pratika of y. 43. zo), which makes the first pada one 
syllable short : I conjecture that ^ has dropped out before ^^. The reading of R, 
^f^fTT ^rni^ncra[^ ^> makes the first pSda end in the middle of ^^. — OsO 
7J A, ^^ti^ IBT^ fkr, O^IA. b. 

B 39. the deity is variously stated by Saunaka and other teachers. 
Sakapuni (considered) Ilaspati, Galava Parjanya-Agni, 

39' is found in bfkm^ only: there is no reference to it in B (though some of his 
MSS. must have it). — •(\(!I m^k, •f?Cin» bf. — f^cbiURlt hd, flRT^: r, 1[lRrf7f m\ 
J^[^[f^ f k, fir^ b. 

40. Yaska^ thought Pu^an, Saunaka Indra to be praised, 
Bhaguri VaiSvanara. * This ' {e§ah : v. 42. 1 5) is addressed to 
the Maruts; * Together' {sam: v. 42. 18) is addressed to the 
Aivins \ 

W%^ ^PRTfinft Am^bfk. lilf^dTlM^Hlftl^ i ^i r. 

* BY. y* 43. 14 is not commented on in the extant text of the Nirnkta. ^ The 

Saryanukramani giyes no details about BY. y. 43 except on stanza 11: ekadaii raudri, 

41. *AdhYaryus' {adhvaryavah : y. 43. 3) is addressed to 
Vayu ; * The ten ' (daia : v. 43. 4) is addressed to Soma, while 
that which follows (v. 43. 5) is addressed to Indra. 

B The following (6) * They deck ' {anjanti: 7) (praise respectiYely) 
Agni (and) the Kettle (gharma), and the stanza * Hither * (acha : 8) 
praises the A^Yins. 

177] —V. 44 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. 44 

^155% ^TTpl It k (irarf^ ^ is the pratika of v. 43. 5). — W^ m^b, W fkr. — ITTT- 

Wftl r. M<|QIW^ bfk. Ml^l^ffi m*. — ^41*^ in Bm^ only. — ^The end of the varga iv here 
marked by ^ in bfk, not in hdm^. 

9. DeitiM of BV. t. 43 (oontianod). Mf 45. 

B 42. 'Forth' {pra: v. 43. 9) (praises) Vajni and PO^an. In 
the first hemistich (of) * Hither' (a: v. 43. 10**) Agni is here 
mentioned, and in the second (lo***) the celestials (divauka^ah)^ 
are praised. 

Wi Tf r, nffr ^ b, ^ ^ f k, n wm m^ — ^^pwi ^tW b, ^]Wf ^WW f, 

^W^ k, igpii ^\^^\ w}, igpii m itwiHTr. — ^^jirr nffi r, ^niftfii bfk, ^px- 

(qfci m^. — ^Thifl eloka is found in Bm^ only. 

* This probably means the All-gods (cp. iv. 62) : the expression in the text of BY. 
T. 43. 10 is vihe maruiah. 

43. * Hither' (a: v. 43. 11) praises the Middle Vftc, then 
another (12), Brhaspati^ 

B *The higher one' {jydydmsam : v. 44. 8) praises the Sun 
(dditya). Vayu is here spoken of (in) * Forth to you ' (pra vah : 
V. 44. 4). 

43* in m* follows 45" . 

^ The Sarvinnkrama^i gives no details for t. 43. 

B 44. 'Him as of old' (torn pratnathd: v. 44. i)^ is addressed 
either to Soma (or) the Gods, or Indra, (or belongs) to Prajipati. 
Kau^taki himself^ has spoken of this (hymn) as one in which 
the All-gods are indirectly addressed (parokfa). 

n\^ WT ^^^ ^ r, llWt ^i^iffO WT fk (Wr k), ^W^ WT ^^tft ^ b, 
1^41 Tf fifift WT m\ — ^OTFA: bfkr, HHl^ m*. — ^FH^IlflP br, lit4tllfti: fk, 

* There b no stotemant about this staon in the Sanrfonkiamai^L ^ Thai U, 
Kanwtaki Brjhmana zxit. 9, where it is stated that three hymns, RV. u 122 ; v, 44 ; 
L 121, which are indirectly addreased to tho All-gods (and, not having any deity specified, 
belong to Pte^pati) are inserted in plaee of others : ^ijapaiywi^y anirmkiami parok§a^ 
vaUvadofimf §madhi$mmie 

IL A a 

RV. V. 47-] 



B 45. Among these it is spoken of as the third " : after it comes 
the (hymn) ' I invoke the gods ' (devdn huve : x. 66) ''. 

In the couplet ' The Spouses of the Goda ' (devdnam patnih : 
T, 47. 7, 8), the spouses of the gods are praised. 

^ ^TT^r. T^ 3T=R;i3fk, i:^ 5TT m'. — «ft:fir g hm'r. "WtI ^ bfk.— The end 
of tlie varga is here marked by (i. in hbf, not in m'k. 

' That is, I Kuppoee, according to its position in the RV.: it is aeconJ in the order 
in which the Brabmana ennmerataB them (see aliovo, 44, note "). That is, Kaust- 

taki afterwards (in xxiv. 9) enumeralea three hynms which aro directly (pralyatsam) 
addrenaed to the All-gods, viz, BV. x. 65 ; x. 66 ; i. 36 : i. 60 corresponding to v, 44. 

10. DeitiM of &T. v. 51-60. 

46. And with three* of the four'^ (beginning) ' This' (ayam: 
Y. 51. 4-7) Indra-Vayu are pi-aised, while 'O Vayu, come' (vdyav 
a ydki : v. 51, 5)^^ (praises) Vayu (only)'*. With the stanza 'The 
car' iratham: v. 56. 8) is here praised Rodasi, whose (husbands) 
the Maruts — she being the spouse of the Rudias^ — are praised 
(in the whole hymn)'. 

flrafliirff bdra\ fli^ijifftfit b, flmg^tfiTr, TrggasHfiif, ^rg^^Rtk. — 

g^ fk, ?g^ \>, ^^ r, ^[t^ m', g^ bd. — 'EJ^T br, ireTT f k d, VWIIbm". — Instead 

of this tristubh r^r*r'' have a s'loka, which m' has in addition to it: 

' For tiv[bhii. For ca/iwpiam. The iti should follow ayam, not eatnrnam, 

° Hero R has in connexion with his cniTupt reading Tkkaiti one of his marvellous references 
to the RV. (vit. 37. 4, where the word ifcoa occurs). ^ The Sarvanukramani makes 

no statement about these stanzas. ° Cp, 47. ' The Sarvanukramai^i has no 

statement about this stania. 

47. But in the (stanza) ' Hither, O Rudras ' (a rudrdsak : 
V. 57. i) the host of the Rudras is praised". Now this is the 
name of the host of the Maruts : they are called Rudras. 

•#J!sn*f Abk, "^ ^m f, *»#7WT ra', "^ iT'sn r. — ^?tt: a, ^?tt: b. 

I reference to this stanza in the Sarvanukramani. 


179] —V. 50 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. 6i 

48. Now that Agni and this, (viz.) both the middle and the 
terrestrial Agnis, are praised with the Maruts in the (stanza) 
*0 Agni, with the Maruts' {ague marvdhhih: v. 60. 8)*. 

^^ft r^ m^br*r^ oft^ fk. -ftf^ hd, o fMf^iH r.— ^lift ^o hdr, ^EpliiPP bf, 
^tfTT* r^r'^. — 48*" in the text follows the reading of Am^; in B (also m^) the line 
has the following fonn: 

^H^ 5%^^ t^B^W ii^lft 1% (b, ^ m^fkr) | 

^ Or according to the reading of B : 'In the triplet " Whether in the highest " 
(yad uttame: v. 60. 6-8), and in "l praise Agni" (t^ ^gnim: y. 60. i) in a hemistich (in 
each of these four stanzas), being (thus) addressed in (altogether) two stanzas' {dvfce: 
i.e. i^ , 6^ , 7 , 2> , Agni being mentioned in these four hemistichs ; but YaiBvanarais also 
mentioned in 8 , so that this statement would not be quite correct). The Sarvanukramani 
has : agneytofi ea vd, i. e. the Maruts, or the Maruts and Agni. 

B 49. Vac (may be) middle, all female goddesses (striyah) 
(may be middle), and every male (deity may be) middle, as well as 
all groups {gana)^ (such as) the Maruts, respectively according 
to their different qualities*. 

9!iqm m^r, iTHViTr b, ^ HT fk. — This sloka is not found in A, but in Bm^ 
only. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 in bfk, not in hd ; in m^ it is marked 
after ^ifl^YrV (48^, after which that MS. adds the B form of 48^^. 

* This general remark is evidently suggested by the preceding sloka where the middle 
Agni, as specially connected with the Maruts, is distinguished from the terrestrial Agni. 

11. Story of liyav&hra. 

50. There was a royal seer famous by the name of Rathaviti 
Daxbhya. That king being about to sacrifice went to Atri and 
propitiated him *. 

^l«qT all MSS. and n, ij^T^fHTt SarvSnukramapi, Sa4guni8isya, n(gh); cp. Max 
Miiller, EV.* vol. ii. p. 45. — IS^l hm^rns, ^ftil bfkr*r''n(gh). — XTTlf^ bds, 
M^f^n,m\ <|Qir$4in, TWfl^ br, inW^ fk. 

* This story is quoted in the Nitimafijari on BY. v. 61. 17, and by Sadgurusisya on 
RV. V. 61, with the omission of occasional slokas, from here to the end (50-79)* SSya^a, 
introduction to BY. v. 61, tells the story in another metrical form. Sieg, SagenstofPe, 
pp« 50-64, treats of the story as a whole ; he also states the relation of its various forms, 
p. 51, note \ 

RV. V. 6i] BEHADDEVATA v. 51— [180 

51. And making known his identity and the object he had 
in view, Bs he stood with folded hands, he chose the seer 
Arcananas, the son of Atri^, to officiate as (his) priest. 

^Vr^iT^ hm^rns. I||44^ bfkr^r'^. — •ffC: f^RTTt fkr, •ftf fllRf: hm^bs. 
^ SSyana on BY. y. 6i speaks of him as atri-kula-nandtma. 

52. He, accompanied by his son, went to the king for the 
performance of the sacrifice. Now the son of Arcananas, Atri's 
son, was Syavafiva, 

^•l^Ti hm^frs. ^itRTipi bkn. — 1tliqif|^l«» lim^r, SfliqiWI® f, UTRT^^W* ?, 
IBT^nraP n. — 53*** is omitted in br^r*r*. 

53. who had been gladly taught by his father all the Vedas 
with their members (angd) and subordinate members (updnga). 
Then Arcananas having gone with his son, performed the sacrifice 
for the king. 

This s'loka is omitted in b and r^r^r*. 

54. And as the sacrifice was in progress, he saw the Ulustrious 
daughter of the king. The thought occurred to him that the 
princess might become his daughter-in-law. 

IT% ^ hdm^rbfkn, ^^^^ Sadgurusisya (one MS. I^ ^). 

55. Then the heart of SyavaiSva too became fixed on her ; and 
so he said to the institutor of the sacrifice : * Ally yourself with 
me, O king.' 

55' is omitted in b and r^r^r*, while the whole sloka is repeated in m^. — ^The end 
of the varga is here marked by ^^ in b, not in hdm^fk. It is marked by <)^ in h (not 
in d) after ^vSm (89\ &nd after 58 in f. 

12. Story of lly&Tiiva (oontiniied). 

B 56. The king wishing to give his daughter to Syavafiva, said 
to his royal consort : * What is your opinion ? I (desire to) give 
the girl to SyavaiSva. 

181] —V. 59 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. v. 6i 

^ ^RTnril Sadgurusisya, u (and, I believe, m^, but I have not specially noted the 
reading of that MS.), IT 4|fl4^ f k, ^ y^^i^ r. — 56-58 (three and a half slokas) are 
wanting not only in A but in b. That they were an addition to the original text of the 
BD. is also indicated by their general character, by their being unnecessary to the nar- 
rative, and by the Ikct that without them the varga would have the normal length of five 
blokas. But that they were a comparatively old addition is proved by Sa4guni8i8ya having 

B 57. For a son of Atri » would be no contemptible (adurhcUa)^ 
son-in-law for us.' She on her part said to the king : * I have 
been bom in a family of royal seens ; 

^PNyil m^fkrs, Hf^niWt n. 

* strictly speaking, 'a grandson of Atri,* according to the correction of the Nlti- 
mafljarl MSS. ^ As the MSS. do not use the avagraha, durhdlo is ambiguous in form, 

but the context shows that it stands for adurbah. 

B 68. one who is not a seer should not be our son-in-law ; this 
(youth) has not seen formulas. Let the girl be given to a seer : 
she would thus become a mother (am6d)* of the Veda; for a 
(certain) seer^ regards one who sees formulas as a father of the 
Veda e; 

ift 5 m^n 8, ift f|[ f kr. — %^ilTf ^ m* rn, all MSS. of Sa^guruuisya but two (which 
have ^^T^ ^), ^^^l ^ f, ^J^W ^ k. — TTIR m^f km, three MSS. of §a4gurusi«ya, 
iniT four MSS. of Sadgurus'isya. — ^Hl^ §, ^Bftf fkm*, ^bW rn. 

^ This emendation, which I made in Sa^guruhisya (in 1886), still appears to me the 
only possible one. ^ Vasukar^a; cp. my explanatory note on Sadgurusisya, § i. 3, 

p. 177. Sieg, p. 5a, note ^ would read ff<ifi mantradfiam, but the two words in 
agreement would be tautological. ® Op. Sa^gurusisya, p. 58, note ^^. 

59. The king, after conferring with his wife, refused him 
(saying), 'No one is worthy to be (our) son-in-law who is not 
a seer.' 

1IWFI% H hm^r, ITRWIWT r*r*r\ ITRfWVPV f. Hl^^fl^l k, H • ^Pf ^ b; 
the whole line in Sadgurusijya runs : jfH n^*^«l ^WT HWW^ fl^W ^* l. — %^ 
hm^r^s, ift ^ brn, ijt f fk. 

RV. V. 6i] BRHADDEVATA v. 60— [182 

60. The seer, being rejected by him, returned, when the 
sacrifice was over ; but the heart of SyavaSva returned not from 
the girl. 

5%^hr?, ^ ^ni\ ^ ^ bfkn. — 4'4I<JI hdni', 4<4r4ji bfkrDB. — 
^ ^rai^ m'rna, %^ Sfffll^ hd, •! m ftflit'J^ fkr^r^r', 1 J! Rllff 4^<) b. 

61. So these two returned ; they both met 
B SaSlyasi and Taranta and king Purumilha. 

flfUdl Aoi'i flrt^ ift bn, rtrt^ (ft fk. JHT: ^(ft r^i'^r'.— t^^rfT^ r, ftqrfig 
hd, f*lfllflf nn. The emendation f'lWjtJlIH. is based on the reading of B, on the 
neceiiGity of a diml middle form, and the assumption that in A the second <T dropped 
out, and that Mqnl*j' became corrupted to l^SWI'^i as a gerund seemed required 
for the construction, and ^i"^ is often used thus (see index of words aub toco aiu). 
Then ">i|qq|" became niqniR", vrhicli is very pleonastic after )n ^ ■ ^^ causative for 
the simple gerund is aUo clearly wrong. — •J*ll'^qtfil' b, a*l|^fllfiT" n, WTT^Tlft 

fk, ni^inifiC h dm' r. 61"'' is altogether different in Sadgurus'iaya. 61"' is found here 

in m^bfkn ; in A this line appears at 80" , where it is repeated in m*. — 61' is not in 

62. Now the two kings Taranta and Purumilha were seers, 
sons of Vidada^va. These two kings themselves paid homage 
to the two seers. 

^^^Mlll rn, %^5^ fk, ^^TTWtt b, ^^^f^'O Am' ; ths SarvanukramsTji has 
q^^tH; the fotm of the name in the EV. ie ^^^ftl, while %«^^f^ff*l_ia not found 
elsewhere. — gM<Tt m'br, J^fJT: hr'r'r^k, gtrfn f. 

63. And the king (Taranta) showed the seer's son to his royal 
consort ; and with Taranta's approval she gave manifold wealth, 

7!5^: bm^, %5ii:bfkr*r'n. — TTT^TT^wm^^Am' (<^hd), ?T^gn^ n7 ( ^q 

bfk. — HT^T? m'fkrnH, V^|< hd, ^TT^T? b. — The end of the varga is here marked 
by ^^ in bfk, not in hdm'. 

13. Storr of ilyaToira (coBti&ti«d). 

64. goats and sheep, cows and horses, to SyavaSva, did RaSIyasL 
B Father and son, (thus) honoured by the institutors of the 
sacrifice, went to their hermitage to Atri. 


183] —V. 71 TKANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. v. 6i 

B 65. And they saluted Atri, the great seer, of brilliant splen- 
dour. (But) Syavafiva thought : * Because I have not seen (any) 

B 66. I have, alas ! not obtained the maiden beautiful in all her 
limbs. Could I but become a seer of formulas, my joy would 
be great.' 

nrpff m^fk, •Trf*nRt r, •^TP^ in Sa^gnrusisya. — W^ r, SadguruBisya, IV^Tf 
m\ ^n \ f k. 

B 67. To him as he thus reflected in the forest the host of the 
Maruts appeared. 

He saw standing at his (dtmanah) side, quite (iva) similar in form 

9^%Mlf^4lcll*i: Am^bfk^^ (J¥H^MI^f IcN^! me. — 64*^-67** are not found 
in the Nitimafljarl. 

68. and equal in age, the Maruts, with gold on their breasts. 
Seeing the gods similar in age, with the figures of men, 

68'^ IB not found in Sadgornsisya. 

69. Byavaiva, astonished, then asked the Maruts, *Who are 
ye?' {ke§tha: v. 61. i). Then, however, he became aware that 
they were the divine Maruts, the sons of Budra. 

% %f?f hd, %€|t7r bfkr. — ^s^^jj^^f U|<1 A, ^s^y^l^l^Ulfl a, ^rfWHF^^S^RI 

br, ^rftrernRTS^Ri fk. 

70. Having observed (this), he also praised them with the 
(stanzas) *They that ride' {ya tm vahante: v. 61. 11). For the 
seer considered it a great transgression on his part, 

l«llf!lii|ir^r*r*''.l*Utifi*Trbdm\f,«HR[ft|j||8, f?ff|JlT:irfV!:bfrk. — 
IfTQ^ hdr, KT^Ril b, ^TT^t fk, iTTjft: ?. — HfJIllj re, ^fq^k^i b. ^f7lttl4J 
hdm^fk. — IT ^1% ^Sft^ ?, IT ^1% UfM^ bd, ?t ^i%m^ (I bave not noted whetber 
^ft^ or ^ft^), fl^fM^r*! bfkr. 

71. that, as soon as he had seen them, he did not praise them, 
and that he asked them, * Who are ye ? ' Being praised and being 
delighted with their praise, the sons of Pr^ni (the Maruts) as they 
went along, 

RV. V. 61-] BRHADDEVATA v. 72— [184 

^m fkr, lim r^r* r^. IR hdm\ ^W ?, ^ b.— ^W bf krs, ^qpf A.— 69*^, 70. 71''* 
omitted in n. — ^<kii ?I^ hbfk, ^(l||^€|| m^r. — 71*^ omitted in Sadgorusisya. — The 
end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in m^bfk, not in hd. 

14. Story of ti^vaAva (oontiaiiod). 

72. taJdng off the gold from their breasts, gave it to him. 
Now* when the Maruts had gone thence, the illustrious SyavaiSva 

^R^^ ^'nft'^lt hm^r. ^«i^«9t^^(|V ?, <l||fJV It ^TV^^: r*. ^I^^HI 
^nil^^Vt fkr*n, ^T^^ ^p(^^ b. The line in Sadgunwisya runs: ^^1^ ifipft 
^C^STPt.^^snft'^lt^'fg^^. — 11^ i^-. hm^r, 4(4d<l bkn, a(V<l f. — %Mf\' 
VUJ* i^?Si ^ ^T^T^nn* hm^r, ^«i^inm. B. — Sa^gnrusisya has an additional line after 

72^ , and SSya^a another after 72^^. 

ft Cz 

fid ^^ah 

Sayana on KV. v. 61. 17 quotes 72-79 

73. went in thought to the daughter of Rathavitl He only 
just (sadyah) a seer*, wishing to declare himself to Rathaviti, 

H iW ^ft^ hdrk, Sadguruiisya (w*), ^ iW 'ift^ f, ^ W ^Sft^ b. ^ 
tl«l^flin.8> ^Hi'^f'^H.n. — M^H^n^As, ^Q^Wr^b, ^^T'lk, ^^ (iRT*) f, fiRW rs. 

* Sieg, p. 53, note ^, wishes to read f$im, but this is against the MS. evidence, and 

74. commissioned Night on a message with the two (stanzas) 
*This my song of praise ' {etam me stomam : v. 61. 17, 18) ; and 
to her (Night) who did not see* Rathaviti, he discerning (him) 
with the eye of a seer, 

•WWt Anss, •l|IUrf b. (^i^)^7^ f, (^rtif)5T^Tr k. — ^i^?^ hm^rns, ^jj^ 
r*r*s, ^iflf b, flpff f. f^^\ k. — ^Rft^RR^hm^r, HIlH^^^bfk, ^f^^^ nss. — 
irq^Rt hm^rs, ^V^V^ ?. ^MUJ^'br^r*, imS^ fk. 

* Op. Sieg, p. 53, note *, and p. 57, line 2. 

75. said, *Here he dwells' (e^a k§eti : v. 61. 19) *on a delightful 
ridge of the Himavat'*. Urged by the goddess Night, after 
learning his instructions, 

5% bfk. ^ hm^r.— initf^: hrfkss, irftfij^: b, IRfrf^: n. 

^ Op. BV. y. 61. 19: eaa kseti rathaviti^ . . .parvatefv apairUalt, 

186] —V. 8 1 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. 7a 

76. the son of Darbha, taking the girl with him, approached 
Arcananaa, and after dasping his feet, standing bent forward 
with folded hands, 

I^Wf hrfk, ;^TOf b, i^T^fUT s, ^I^JH^ns. — ^filRf: hdm^r, fllRVT Bnss. — The end 
of the varga is here marked by ^8 in bfk, not in hdm\ 

15. Story of 6yavSiva (oonolnded). 

77. he announced his name (saying), 'I am Rathaviti, son 
of Darbha : inasmuch as I refused you formerly when you 
desired an alliance with me, 

?eRrf^ hm^rs, ^^H^H. bfkna. — IHVT^f^ ^ a, HWI^^ ^f^ hd, Hflnf^ 
IR^in^bfk, IINI^^4 four Sadgurusisya MSS., HWlRlf^M^ two Sadgurusisja MSS. 

78. forgive me for that. I pay homage to you ; and do not, 
adorable one, be wroth with me. You are the son of a seer, 
a seer yourself, you are, adorable one, the father of a seer. 

?n ^ % hm^rks, if ^ % b, % ilT ^ ns. — ^: Bss, Iff: n, yWJ hm^r. — 
lfl«l^fM: hm^rnss, ^(fl ^ifl: kr^r*r\ ^rt ^rfl f, ^TO Hfl: b. — 9!9n^: hm^rs, 
^^4f^« fkn, ilTTT^^ bs. 

79. Come, accept this (girl) as a daughter-in-law.' So said the 
king, and himself honouring him with water to wash his feet 
(pddya), with the water of hospitality {arghya) and with a 
mixture of honey {madhuparka)^, 

^^\fMli^H.^Ts, ^mUifi^H^nB, i^ il^^nf^ b. — yi^Rim ^ro hdm\ 

^^Hinm ?t bfkr, TPfTPrr ^rt r^r*r'. 

* 79^" appears in a modified form in Sa4guru8'is ja : the better reading there is 
pddffarghyamadhuparkam (instead of padyarghyatji madkuparkam) because padya and arghya 
are different honorific gifts ; cp. AGS. i. 34. 7 : visfarahf padyam, arghyam, aeamanlyojii, 
madhuparko, gauft, 

80. 81. and giving him a hundred white {iukla)^ steeds, he 
dismissed him to his home. And the seer, on his part, having 
praised Sadiyasi, and Taranta, and king Purumilha with the six 
(stanzas) *May she gain' {sanat : v. 61. 5-10), departed to his abode. 

Now the following eleven ^ (hymns beginning) * With law ' 
(rtena: v. 62-72) are addressed to Mitra - Varuna. 
II. B b 

RV. V. 73-] 



%i"p5% f. — 80"'' occurs a^ fit'"' in B. It aeeins not improbable that the line belonged 
to the original text in both places, because witli it bothoar^a 12 and cor3ai5(cp.note 01156) 
wonid have the nonnal number of five slokaa, and in the proHcnt position it would, in 
keeping with the epic style of the passage, come in somewhat like a refrain at the end 

of the story. The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hbf km^. 

' Sief(, p. 54, note '', wishes to read dulkam for taklam, but there seems to me 
to be no necessity for the correction : iakla is quite appropriate as an attribute of haraes 
(:=Tedic htkra, which one MS. has) ; while there is no reason wh; a familiar word like 
Mka should have been changed to iakla. ** Cp. Sarv^nukraman! on RV. v. 6a : 

maitraoarunatp vai tal (cai^5, (q(=;6). 

16. BV. V. 73-78. Story of SaptaviuUiri. 

82. There are six (hymns) addressed to the ASvins (v. 73-78), 
There Is (here) a mystic {upani§at) praise consisting of five* 
stanzas (v. 78. 5-9) with a view to childbirth. 

JH^T^ hd, IJiiT^l fbkr. — Mll^f" hm'r^ H^^ fr, TJ^" bk. 

* Cp, SarvSnukramanl : antydh paXca garbhasraviny upanisal. Sadgumainya, with 
reference to this, remorks (p. 12j) that upaniaat is used in the singular because the five 
stanzas are specified as an aggregate (paXcarcaiamadayopadiilalval). According to ^yana 
the last three stanzaa only (7-9) are parbkairaviat/ vpanisal. Aufrecht, in his abstract of 
the Baivanukramapi, has 5-7 ' : this should be corrected to ' 5-9.' 

82''*-84. There is a sacred tradition {Sruti) that the seer* 
after incurring seven failm-es (opamc^Aan)*' was appointed i^ (again) 
by (king) Asvamedha of the race of Bharata, his wedlock being 
childless. On the eighth failure, however, the king casting him, 
in a trough (made) of a tree (yrksadronl)^, into a chasm {rbisa)° 
kept him down (in it) when he leapt up at night. (Then) the 
seer praised the Lords of Light {Subhaspatl) with the hymn ' Ye 
ASvins ' {aSvi?iaii : v. 78). 

82*"'. ^ai(flim,tm-5 r'r^r", ^Ha[p^iq^Ty^^hdm'r^ fl}rat<itmTT^5 '• 
HJTHCTti^TT^ 3 b, ^HB^-IITT^ ^ ft- — 83, ^^Bf^: BTlt '. 'Vf^ BWT hdm". 

vq1;?^mr^^rTO1f1fkr^^^ft^m^<'b.— ^^ft: hdr, »i: wmbfkrV. — 

im^'if A, TTTftiS^ r, H^ ^1\ h, n?!IH»* f. ffffnTT k. — 84. ^<rt% TT r*r', ^Vt% 
fb, ^^tsTf fk, ^^t^fr^x'. -^Pi %f hr, -ifff^^f d, ^ft %f m'. — «RT 
hm'rfk, ftw b, TlVt {XJ^) ^'^*r^ — anaTTT'nibfkr. SIWT^^A. 

187] —V. 8; TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. 78 

* That is, Saptavadhri, the seer of BY. v. 78. ^ This being an explanation of 
the seer's name, Sapta-vadhri, as ' seven times impotent.' ® That is, conmiissioned 
according to the custom of niyoga; the verb kf being used as above in iv. Xio (putrid 
ka^ kf), ^ This is an attempt to explain the situation in BY. v. 78. 5, 6, where the 
Asvins are described as releasing Saptavadhri by rending a tree (vrksa), ^ This word 
occurs in the preceding stanza (v. 78. 4), where the As'vins come to the rescue of Atri 
in a chasm (fbua). 

86, 86. They, raising him out of that (chasm), made him 
productive again. The triplet * Like the wind ' {yathd vdtah : 
V. 78. 7-9) is with a view to a child (garbha) for himself who like 
a child (in the womb) slept (in the tree)* ; but the other two 
stanzas^ are to be known as for the Afivins^'. 
B This is also recognized {dr§tam) as a consecrating prayer for 
children issuing from the womb (sravatdm) ^. 

85. ^H'^K hm^bk, ^r^^lV f, M^MW r. — Igm ^T^N m\ JJ^ W^ bd, ft^- 
^jnJN b, f^ 1!T^ fk, f^nrar^ r*r^ — ^r^T^ hdm\ Jpkvi bfkr^r^ — ISR- 
IRC hm^rb, Vl^r*r^ Vl^^. ^nnW(.k. — 86. ^^ mf^^lOlflX W^ bm^r, 
i^lTRftWTfinf^ 1^ B. — 86*^=viii. 66*^ This line is wanting in A, but is found 
in m^ as well as B.-*— The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in m^ 
or hd (as the line is wanting in these two MSS.). 

* The versified story told by SSya^a, in his introduction to RY. v. 78. 5, is different 
from the above. Here the seer is placed in a box at night by enemies and kept from 
intercourse with his wife, but is rescued from his confinement by the Asvins. ^ That 
is, V. 78. 5, 6, the first two of the five specified in 82. ® The Asvins are invoked in 
these two stanzas. ^ Cp. |lgvidhftna, ii. 17. i^ -4' , quoted by Sa^gurusisya, p. 133. 

17. Deities of BV. t. 79-87. Shilas. 

B 87. But it * may likewise {tadvat) be (regarded as) concerned 
with the evolution of becoming (Jbhdva-vrtta)^, for it evidently has 
such a character : that it has this character (rupa) is evident fjpom 
the two words afterbirth {jardyu)^ and embryo {garbha)^. 

Km^^fj^w}, mwarn^b, ir^^n f^. inrerw.r. — ^irry bm^ ^rif* fk, 

^^|f|f, r. — This s'loka is not found in A, but m^, as well as B, has it. — 87 =iii. 76 ; 
iv. 18^; vi. 94 ; viii. 62 . 

^ That is, this aggregate of five stanzas {tad in 86^). ^ That is, it has also a 

more general sense ; see bhavavrtta in the index of words. ° Which occurs in BY. v. 

78. 8. * Which occurs in EV. v. 78. 7. 

RV. V. 79-] BHHADDEVATA v. 88— [188 

88. The two (hymns) ' To great ' {make : v. 79, 80) are addressed 
to Dawn; the two 'They yoke' {y?(fi;'a;e : v, 81, 82) are addressed 
to Savitr. (In) ' Unto ' {acha : v. 83) Parjanya is praised ; but in 
' Verily ' (bat ; v. 84) the Middle Earth » is praised. 

'S'^Tn 'I A. TrtfT ^ B. — fltdbfd Wfljl'l. A, TJ ^fe^ft B. — ^pTT B, ?J ^T^ A. 

■ In Nirukta si. 37 (on RV. v. 84. i) Prtluvi is ono of the doitios of the middle 
sphere {madhijasthana ttriyah : xi. 22-50) ; see Nwghantuka v. 5. 

B 89. The (stanza) 'For us to-day, god Savitr' {adyd iio deva 
savitah : v. 82. 4) destroys evil dreams. 

' Forth to the sovereign lord ' {pra samraje : v. 85) is addressed 
to Varuna. The following one ' Indra-Agni ' (indrdgni : v. 86) 
is addressed to Indra-Agni. 

f^ ^I^THTTSpI^ bf, "irfV^ ^r, ^ ^:ti1HHSll«l*I«. m'. — "1^% t^ hdb, 

"M*J^<1 r'^r'r', I^RT^I^ f, "UH^^Rt k, »q ^'tu7| b. 89*'* is nut found in A, but 

m^, &s irell as B, has it. 

90. The following hymn 'Forth' (pra: v. 87), the last (of 
the Mandala), is addressed to the Maruts while making incidental 
mention of Visnu (vi^nu-nyaiiga). 

B It is called Evayamarut ", being the antecedent {prali- 
pui'vaka) ^ in the (case of the) Indra hyran ' As Heaven ' {dyaur 
na : vi. 20). 

Pro ^HF ^ff^' Hl'^'tl'i d, f<l«jj iR m', Plt^^'jl b. — ^TOTH hr'', «fl^J^ 

dbfkr. — ^ fb, 5(^ k, %^ r. — do"* is not found in A or m'. 

' Because this word is the refrain in the second pada of ever; stania of the hjron. 
That is, the byian for which another may be sabatituted. That this must be the meauing 
of the word (which has uot been noted elsewhere) appears from AB. vi. 30. 15 and the 
comment, on that paasftge, of Sayana, who reraarka that, at the midday libation, instead 
of the ETayamitrut hymn an Indra bymn, 'di/aur na' (vi. 30), which makes mentiOQ of 
Visnu {vififu-ni/anga), ihould be substituted. 

91. But the hymn of Fortune {.h'isukta) '^ is a benediction : the 
following six'' are connected with fortune and sons". Or that 
(hymn) may be (regarded as) meant to banish ill-luck. Agni is 
incidentally praised ^ {nipdtabkdj) in it. 


189] _v. 92 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. v. 87 

^ H^nUrt r*r\ i<ny*^IU|i kr^^\ — '^Z bfkr^r'^r^r*!*, 7J hdr. — (i!?5rra[T* hm^r, 

irerTflfT r^r*r«, ^mTT bfkr«, (no ?f?^).— •IRSRH^^hm^r, •^TW^Prff^: r^r*f«. 

•^I^Wnifirtf^ bf, ^1^* ^nrtf^ kr^, ^'W^fMif^ r*r''. — 7n A, WH B. — The end 
of the varga is here mftrked by ^^ in bfkm^, not in hd. 

^ This khila after BY. y. 87 is printed by Anfrecht, RV.^ p. 676, where it has 
twenty-three stanzas, and by Max Miiller, RY.^ vol. iv, pp. 523-538, where it has twenty- 
nine stanzas, the first fifteen with a commentary. In BgridhSna ii. 18. i it is stated to 
consist of fifteen stanzas (the sioka in which this is stated reappears in the khila itself, 
sixteen in Max Miiller, twenty-two in Aufrecht) ; this statement is confirmed by the text 
of the hymn in the Kashmir MS. collection of khilas (ii. 6-8), which has only fifteen 
stanzas, agreeing with the first fifteen in Aufrecht and Max Miiller. Gp. Meyer, Rgvidhana, 
pp. xxi, xxii. ^ This must refer to the six khilas which follow the ^risukta in the Kashmir 
MS. of the khilas, viz. (i) ya anandam aamavUat (four stanzas), (a) cikRto yasya noma 
(five stanzas), (3) mayi ileso md vadhifi (five stanzas), (4) saifi sravantu moru/ai^ (five stanzas), 
(5) a te garhho yonim (seven stanzas), (6) agnir etu prathamo devatdnam (five stanzas). 
The next khila in the collection is that which comes after BY. vi. 45 (=:viii in Aufrecht), 
beginning eakpU ea, ^ The last three of these six khilas are mentioned in the next 

s'loka (9a), saiji travantu being charms for the prosperity of cattle, a te and agnifi for the 
attainment of sons. ^ Under the name of JStavedas. 

18. The Khilas of Frajavat and Jivapntra. Smployment of fbrmulas. 

92. Or * the two (hymns of) Prajavat ^ and Jivaputra ^ (may 
be) used together as praise (samstutau) in the ceremony of 
pregnancy {garbhakarman). (In the hymn) * Flow together ' {sam 
sravanti)^ various kinds of females having milk are praised 

l4(ri||^^qyi)hdm\J4^iq^qy^ r^r^r*r•bfkr^ H^iqin^^qy^ r, TTHT- 
m^ ^sy^l r^* *'5J^ I believe to be due to a misunderstanding of the following ^J» 
I have decided on the dual because of ti«ai at the end of the line, and because AGS. 
i. 13. 6 has the dual. — ^irf^T^: r, W^^ b, qftW fk, ^TWlf^m: hm^r^r^ — 
ireR|irftf?f hdm^rf, ^EW'nftfif k, ^ff^pnftfif b. — 92*^-102 are omitted in r^r*r*. 

^ That is, they may have this special application; cp. AGS. i. 13. 6: prajavaj- 
jivaputrabhyam haike ; cp. Stenzler's note, p. 34 ; Meyer, Rgvidl^na, p. xxv. ^ This 
khila, called by the name of its author, has seven stanzas in the Eashmur MS., and is 
there described thus in the Anukramai)! : * a te/ taptCt prajavdn, garhharthditstutili. Its 
first stanza is quoted by Stenzler in his critical notes, AGS., p. 48. ® This khila, 

also called after its author, coming immediately after that of Prajavat in the Kashmir MS., 

RV. V. 87] 



has five itaniu, and is thilB described in the AnukramanT : ' agnih' paHea, jivapuira, dpni- 
rarunam. The first staaiii is quoted b; Stenilei, critical notes, p. 48 ; and the first two 
are quoted in Paroskara OS. i. 5. 11. The first is almost identical with AT. iii. 23. 3. 
Cp. Meyer, Bgvidhana, p. xxi; Indische Studien, v. 315. ^ As all the M8S. agree 

in reading innt sravantijll, this may be a variotie reading of the pralika, and not a cor- 
ruption of itm sravanle tli ; but the Kashmir MS. of this khila has lani sravanlu aa well 
a» AV. ii. 36. 3, which is almoRt identical with this stanza. The five stanzas of this khila 
occur in AV. ii. 26. 1-5. the first three in a different order (z = AV. I, 3^AV. 3). 

93. In benedictions*, in (enumerations of) technical names, 
in leading ritual forraa ^, a deity is incidentally mentioned {nipdta- 
bkdj). One familiar with formulas should here observe (it) carefully 
from the statement of its characteristic name {lingo). 

o^^rg ^^TfT hm'b, 'VWl 5 ^flflt fkr'. "♦i'SII^ ^flrtU r. 

'TrarThdr^fkr^— 93''*=iii. 82"*. 

* Such as the Snaikta, in vhich Agni is incidental (see abot'e, 91). 


94. (In the case) of the application of a formula and the 
formula (itself), the application is the more important. There 
should be careful observation of the rule {vidhi) regarding the 
two. The formulas should be (regarded as) making (only) state- 
ments {ahhidhdyaka)K 

H*WHir t l*t' g Hl 1: br, TT' a i Hil ' H t^l^li: fk. JPmratT'PBrnirT hdm'r^— "VT- 

iRTt: br, "wrarr: r^, "vt'tt; f, "Vfraik, "vrf'ifliT: hdm'r'. 

* That is, they merely contain statements abcint deities, but give no rule [vidki) as 
to their employment {viniyoga), as the Brahmanas and Sutras do. 

95. Hence (there may be) a disagreement of the formulas 
with the (application). But the words {pada) occurring in them 
(the formulas), which have a generally understood meaning (sam- 
vijhdnd), may express what is secondary {guna)^. 

gmifwy 1*1*1(11 r. apnfHVT^rarf'i b, jnrrtwraTrf'i hm'f. — «if^uii" 

hra'bf. flftTT^» r.— OS*"* u iimiUed in k. 

* For in.'ttiince, Jiltavedaa mif^bt in a formula be generally aodeTstood to mean Agni, 
but the specific sense might be the primary one in the ritual, Cp. Nirnkta vii. 13 : yot 
(u samKijilana-bhutaj/i s^al pradhdni/a-ttuti. 


191] _v. loo TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. v. 87 

96. The formulas being secondary and the rites primary, the 
deities may be primary or secondary * : this is (to be) understood. 

in4|<|J|U|^<ni: ^g^ r, inJrRJpigjn '^ hdbf. — ^The end of the varga is here 
marked by ^^ in hbf, not in m^dk. 

* That is, according as they are applied in the ritual or are mentioned in the formulas. 

10. Story of tho birth of Bh^giiy Angiraji and Atri. 

97. Prajapati*, desirous of oflfepring, offered a sessional sacrifice 
(sattra) lasting three years, accompanied by the Sadhyas and the 
All-gods, we are told (iti). 

ini MSS. — f^^^: tiifn ^ ABn, f^%%f^fj| m ^5?!^ Sadgurus'isya. 

* The following story, as an introduction to RV. vi, is quoted in the Nltimafijari 
(97-102) and by Sadgurusisya (97-101). 

98. Thither came Vac in bodily form to the ceremony of 
initiation. On seeing her there simultaneously Ka's (Prajapati's) 
and Varima's 

IfW ^ORUH bns, ^q|<H4<|^0fi^1 hdm^fk. 

99. semen was effused. Vayu scattered it in the fire at his 
will. Then from the flames Bhrgu was bom, (and) the seer 
Angiras among the coals {angdra)\ 

^Vm hdm^s, n?[T^b, flflll'^H^f, ^1[nVl^kn, Hf I^IH^r. — ITTOff s, 
irW hdm^r'n, VIW fkr*, IfT^ b, J(V9 r. — f^Mt hdm^rfks, f^h^ b, f^^ 
n. — Uf f\M(f <l hdm^r^s (Nirukta iii. 17), ^nTft^^^fTT rn, Hf f^^ffiKI 
b. HfK^iPKI kr^ ^'<IK^ifit<l f. 

* Cp. Nirukta iii. 17 and AB. iii. 34. i (y§ *ngttra asmiii te '^^raso ^bhavan). 

100. Vac, on seeing the two sons, herself being seen, said 
to Prajapati : * May a third seer also, in addition to these two, 
be (bom) to me as a son.' 

H^IMRI ^gpft s, TnrnrfJf ^gpft n, n^mtn g tA* b, inrnift^ ift* hdm^rfk. — 
^9T f^ bfrn, ^yr f^ 8 (two MSS.), ^ffT ^W f (one MS.), ^ffT JVI k, f^ f^ 
hdm^. — 4|l|< hm^rbfkn, ^^(^ s. 

RV. vi. I-] 



101. Prajapati (thus) addressed, replied 'So be it' to Bharati 
(Vac). Then the seer Atri was born, equal in splendour to Sun 
and Fire. 

Sl^igfli: LrbTkn, H^^HI m\ n^ffilf 8. — HWWTmi lifkrn, >imf(TQli 5J », 

WTOWTlff g hdm'. — The end of the varga is here marked by StJ in m' bfk, not in d. 


Mandalft vi^ 
SO. Origin of BltorodTija. Daitiei of B.T. vi. 1-4S. 

102. Brhaspati was the son of the seer who was bom from 
the coals (Angiras). Brhaspati's (son) Bharadvaja *, who is called 


ft^^filra^fbr'n, ffl^vJtffl hdrk. 

* As the account of the sixth Uandala reaUy begins with the mention of its Baer, 
we have here no eiceptiun to the rule that the beginning of a Maijfjaln toincideB with the 
beginDing of a varga in the BD. 

103. and who was a preceptor among the Maruts, was (thus) 
the grandson of Angiras. Now this sixth Mandala is stated to be 
his and his sons' *. 

HV^ret^ r, *?^NaT?rt^ b, n^PElft fk, JTV^ft hd, W^?^ m'. — »J^^ r, 
ajTt^ lidmS 5^^ fbk, jrH^r'r^ JJ^^^ r'lS*. — «^T^ fj 71%^ fbkr, 

*j*jy^^ n^lnn. a. 

* Bharadvaja is the seer of the great majorily of the hymns of Maridala vi; a few 
hymns are also attributed to six seers with the palronymiu Bharadvaja. 

104. In it there are thirteen hymns addressed to Agni 
(beginning) 'Thou, O Agni' {tvam hy agne : vi. i-6, 10-16), while 
there are three (beginning) ' The head ' {murdhdnam : vi. 7-9) to 
Agni VaiSvanara. 

105. After this (i.e. vi. 16) there are here exactly twenty-nine 
(hymns) ^ addressed to Indra (beginning) ' Drink ' {piba : vi. r 7. 1 ). 
The two gods who (occur) in the (stanza) ' O Agni, he dwells ' 
{agne sa ksesat ; vi. 3. i) are incidentally mentioned (nijidtila). 

hdr, liflrtflfquffl^q m'.— ^ ^ A. t( ^ B. 


* This makes vi. 46 the last of the Indra hymns (allowing for vi. 28 as gavdm stuti), 
thus leaving the deity (Indra) of the greater part of vi. 47 unspecified. It would therefore 
have been more correct to say thirty instead of twenty-nine. 

106. But these two stanzas * Bring to aid' {protaye : vi. 2 1. 9), 
*Now my' {nu me: vi. 21. 11)* are traditionally held to be ad- 
dressed to the All-gods. The hymn * Hither' (a: vi. 28) is (in) 
praise of cows, the second stanza (vi. 28. 2) and the last verse 
(vi. 28. 8*^ being addressed to Indra ^. 

l|[?r hdr, ir if m^r^r*r«, mil b, If if f, W ^fk. — ^br*,^(pft fk, g?thm^r.— 
106^ is omitted in fk. — ^The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in b, not in hdm^fk. 

* 106^ is quoted by SSya^a on BY. vi. 24. 5 in the foUowing form : protaye 'nyad 
Hi tv ete vaiivadevyao fcau smfie : that is, the stanza any ad (vi. 24. 5), not nu me (vL 21. 11), 
is stated to be addressed to the All-gods. There is nothing in the MSB. of the BD. to 
support this reading, while the Sarvanukrama^i on BY. vi. 21 makes the express statement 
navamyekadaiyau vaUvadevyau, saying nothing about vi. 24. 5. ^ Op. Sarvftnukrama^i : 
dvittyaindn vaantyai ca padaft, 

21. Deitias of BV. vi. 37, 44, 45, 47. 

107. In the (stanza) * Bringing hither' (dsasrdndsah : vi. 37. 3) 
Vayu and Indra axe praised together a. 

B Or else Indra is here predominantly praised, while Vayu is 
incidental (nipdtabhdj). 

m^fK^H H^^ hm^r, l^^^l^iTf ^jrft br*r^. — 107^^ omitted in k. — ^Tf 
br, ^T^ m^f, omitted in k. — 107* is found in B and m^ only. 

* There is no reference to this stanza in the SarvSnukrama^T. 

B 108. The triplet 'This god' (ayarn devah: vi. 44. 22-24), 
which is addressed to Soma, some say is addressed to Indra a. 

But the triplet * Above' (adhi: 31-33) of the (hymn) *Who 
brought ' (ya dnayat : vi. 45)*^ is (in) praise of Brbu c. 

108"^ is found in B and m^ only. — II IHI^^f^f^ FW A, IfOt ^^fTWRlt 
m'rbfk (^?^ b, IR^ fk). — J^^^ftfif fl^ft: Am\ 5^«\Stfif yit: 'ffii: r, 

f^ ^ftfii fjRT^ft: b, g% irifit ^^i^Ri: f, f^ mw ^WT^ft: k. 

* The SarvSnukramani makes no mention of this triplet. ^ The reading of B 
{iariratu caJcsur Uy asydifi, tfce ^dluti bfhusttUih) would mean : * The body (is praised) in 

II. C C 

RV. vi. 47-] 



the stansEt "Tlic eja" (caJuuh), in the triplet "above" {adhl) there !■ praise of Brbn.' 
Cakiuli is the pratika of the khila which precedea EV. vi. 45. In Anfrecht'a RV. (p. 676 f.) 
it contains three staozaa. But ia the Kaahmir collection of khilaa (ii. 15) it haa only 
one stanza (idontickl with the first in Aiifrecht), followed by the words ya anayat para- 
vala^ (the pratika of RV. vi. 45) ; and in the Anukramani at the beginning of Adhyiif a ii 
it is described with the words : caksur, aka (^ekaj, atmastaliA. ' Cp. Sarvanukramaqi : 

tj-ee 'ntye brbus talifS daioalam. 

109. And Samyu"* praises his father in the last verse (pada) 
of the triplet. The five stanzas (beginning) 'Sweet, indeed, ia 
this ' (svdd'us kildyam ; vi. 47. 1--5) which follow {the Indra 
hymns) b are addressed to Soma". 

ftrat kr, ftnn: l»b, finr^: d. — ij^ hm'r, V^ b, fli*l^ fk. — g^^IT^ m". 
g^WT^ lidr, ^JK^TW B, — ?nWf^ B, ^rmChdm'r. — "ft TJ ^^P^'. V^ TfrT.1 
hdrlrW\ »^T: tl^^: #tWI T[^ ^ bfkr. 

* The seer of liV. vi. 44-46, 48 : there is nothing in tiie last pada of 4^ to indicate 
that Samyu's father is praised. Sadgurusisya, however, remarks that according to a Vediu 
authority Brbu was a relative (bandha) of S'amyu. That is, the group of Indra 
hymns ending with vi. 46 ; cp. above, v. 105. ° The reading of A agrees In matter 
with the Sarvanukramani, which makes no mention of Indra as an alternative deity 
for 47. 1-5; on the other hand the wording of B [ela(i paicareah iamai/aA) Agrees 
more clouely with that of the Sarvanukramani ; paHea^iIau lawnyaL 

B 110. Or else Indra is here predominantly praised, while Soma 
is incidental; for in the Aitareya (Brahmana)* they are stated 
to be Anupaniya stanzas addressed to Indra. 

no" ia nearly identical with 107 . — T^f^^T^ b, l^;(Ss^T f, l^^^l k, 

T^f^Hr* '• T^^l ™'- — fH*lT'll*l[: b, ftmn^^i: fk, f»iqi7t»i m'. f'niTffti'i 

r. )^<1^ b, 4fl<(l*j| m'fkr. Iio is found in fl and m' only. 

* lu AB. iii. 38. 1 it is stated that the four stanzas RV, vi, 47. 1-4 are to be repeated 
as anupaalya stanzas to Indra : $vdduf kildyaift madhuman utSyam ilatdratt/alndTir anupa- 
mt/ah ia>p»ati, 

111. (In) 'Destitute of pasture' {ftgavyuti : vi. 47. 20) one 
verse {pada) praises the Gods, the next one (the second) the 
Earth 1, the third l' Brhaapati, the last verse {pada) Indra. 

3<0*I«( fW^^r^^''r^g?ft^i^^t^^f*^bfk, gjft^i»airT«j^H^r. — The 
end of the vanja is here marked by ^<) in bfm', not in hdk. 


195] —V. 1 14 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. vi. 48 

* 1 11^ is quoted by Sa^gamsifya on BY. vi. 47. ^ The reading tfiiyas tu tt 
indram furnishes a dear case of a particle inserted to avoid the hiatus. 

22. Deities of BV. vi. 47 (eontiniied) and vi. 48. 

112. The (verse) which follows, * Lord of Wood, be firm 
in body' (vanaspate vidvangdh: vL 47. 26"), the teachers state 
to be evolutionary (phdvavrtta). But the (whole) three stanzas 
(26-28) relate to the stroking of the car*, while the three here 
(beginning) * Forth' {upa: 29-31) are (in) praise of the Drum. 

lit ^Snfl^ hdm\ IRf fWf b, IRf ^f^RR^ f , 1|^ IRf k. — ^^ fJl^^ bdm\ 
V^m ftr^ b, W?m fil^ fk. — ^With 112 begins a lacuna of fifteen 8lGka8(ii2-i26) 
in B ; cp. Sieg, Sagenstoffe> p. 39. 

* See AB. vii. 9. 2; AGS. iL 6. 5; Sa^gurusisya on BY. vi. 47. 

113. And the hemistich * Together, winged with steeds' 
(5am aSvaparndh : vi. 47. 31**^ is addressed to Indra*. The ten 
(stanzas) at the beginning of the Trnapani hymn^ (vi. 48. i-io) 
are to Agni ; the following triplet (i 1-13) in (this) hymn to Prfini 
is addressed to the Maruts, and, again, the following couplet 
(14, 15) is addressed to the All-gods. 

The text of 113^^ and 114 follows the reading of bfk owing to the confusion and 
corruption of these six padas in hd and m^ : 

"s"*- ^* ^ b, WB(: I Hft fk.— ^rpw: bfk.— ^ftr^ b, fftr^ f. if*«ir- 

^ k. — In hdm^ the whole pada reads ^if^Wl TT ^(^J^l gf^^ I ^jrf^Wt ^ 

being taken from 114^. 

113*^. VfS(l ITCt b, Wr ITCt fk. — '^H^ fb, %^^ k. — In hdm^ this pada reads 

* There is no statement as to the deity of vi. 47. 6-19 and 21 ; cp. above, loS ; on 
22 fiP. see below, v. 140. ^ Cp. SarvSnukrama^I : tpi^paifikaijt pfinisuktam ; see Sa4- 
gurusisya on BV. v. 49 and vi. 48. 

114. Or it may be addressed to the Adityas or to the Maruts *. 
The four (stanzas) * To me, O Pu§an' (a md Pusan : vi. 48. 16-19) 
one should know to be addressed to Pu^an, (and) the following 
couplet there (20, 21) to be addressed to the Maruts; the last 

RV. vi. 48^] 



(stanza) is a celebration of Heaven and Earth or is (meant) for 
PrSni (22)*'. 

114"- ^ W(^ (h, ^ WT k. — This pada in hdm' roads W 'H y_^ffffi! Vt^- 

114*. ^ ?ft g^f'Tfir «1«m^(i«: b. tit wt ^^fir mwra f?ra: f, ^ >ft 

5^ ^ Trarra f^ra: it. — TIiIs pSda in hdm' reads g^: 11^ JmHT: ^^1^= 113*- 
114'. TTt ft^TR^ fk, H^ f'WTT Ii- — This pada in hdm' reads Tltf^wt TT 

114''. uwrgi^: b, ^j^?fv. f, g^: k.— qiH^ g^ ^ b, ^tfifni fir*rnR» 

"W fb. — This [wda in hdm^ reads VWT ^^J^tfiH ga*lt Tl B — The end of the varga 
is here marked by ^^ iu hbf, not in rtk. 

* The only practical difference between the above stntements about RV, vi. 48 and 
those of the SurvanukramanT is, that in the latter the option of liigohladecalS includes 
stanza 13. Cp> BD. vol. 1, p. 123, note *. '' Sadguros'isya remarks that the wording of 
the SarvanukramaijT, anlya dySvabhimj/or vS pra'ner va, a in imitation of another Anu- 
kramBQi: the passage meant is undoubtedly BD. v. 114 . 

23. Deities of BV. vi. 49-63. 

115. 116. Afiter thia the four hymns ' I praise' {stuse: vi. 49- 
52) are addressed to the All-gods: the second stanza (vi. 49. 2) 
(praises) Agni, and the fourth (49. 4) Vayu, then the fifth (49, 5) 
the A^vins, but the seventh here praises Vac (49. 7), the eighth 
49. 8) Pugan, the ninth (49. 9) Tva,?tr, ' Of the world ' (bhuvanasya : 
49. 10) Rudra, then the two next (49. ir, 12) 

116. ^ft^i^s 3 '^ i^'i"''' ^Vw^^rriM^ ij. w^f«^«(«ifl<.*n fk (i.e. ITT^- 

^^, the pratTka of vi. 49. 7). — »^tff^ hdm'b, "WtrT^k. 

117. are addressed to the Maruts. (With) 'Who the spaces' 
{1/0 rajdmsi: vi. 49. 13) the seer sang of Vignu*. 'To' {abhi: 
vi, 50. 6) is addressed to Indra, and ' Hither ' (a : vi. 50. 8) is ad- 
dressed to Savitr. There is one to Rodasi (vi, 50. 5), one to Agni 
(9) as well as to the A^vins (ro) (beginning) 'And' {uta: vi, 50. 
9> 10) b. 

flUfll 'itbd, MT^n^ ^b, *(1\fln ^in', fll^fl) (no ift) fk. — aiTTgft: hd, 

iTRT^ft: m', iRTjft: b, fli»iigf3i: f, initgft: k. — 'w^ifYft fl b, TPBtj^rtTi ^ 


197] —V. 1 2o TRANSLATION AND NOTES [ 66 

* The SarvSnnkrama^T gives no detafls for RV. vi. 49. ^ Both go. 9 and go. 10 
begin with tUa, and as this pratika is placed between agneyi and aMnt, it is probably 
meant — dehaH-dipa-nyayena — to refer to both. There is no pratika for raudan, for 
as BodasI is mentioned in 5 only, the pratika a (50. 4, 8 as well as 6) would not apply 
here also. — The SarvSnukramapi gives no details for vi. go. 

118. *0 Agni and Parjanya' {agnlparjanyau : vi. 52. 16)* 
belongs to those two (deities), and the two stanzas ' Upward 
that' {vd u tyat: vi. 51. i, 2) are addressed to Surya^. *We' 
{^ayam : vi. 53-56) are four (hymns) addressed to Pu^an, as 
well as that which comes next (58) to the one addressed to 
Indra-Pu^an (57). 

^fWf ^ftj Wf b, ^fWf '^ Wf fk, ^[j5f ^t^ Wf hdm^. — The text of 118** 

follows hdm^, ^ ^fNlTpf ^ ^^S^Tf^NrQT^t^ b, ^ ^^B^4t^ f, ^ q^tlTf " 

^t^nft k, that is, probably =^ mIuQIPI ^%[wr]8|^|.IMl^f|M^TI*IH; 'there are five 
hymns to Pusan beginning " We " (53-56, 58), the last but one (57) being addressed to 
Indra-Piisan.' The meaning would thus be identical with that of the reading in the text. 

* No reference to this stanza in the SarvSnukramai^i. ^ The SarvSnukrama^I 
makes no mention of these two stanzas. 

B 119. Some declare the stanza * Him chief of charioteers, with 
braided hair' {rathltamam kapardiruxm : vi. 55. 2) to be addressed 
to Budra. 

* I will now proclaim ' {pra nu vocd : vi. 59, 60) are two hymns 
addressed to Indra-AgnL *She' (iyam: vi. 61) is addressed to 
Saras vati ; * I praise ' (stv^e : vi. 62) 

119* is found in bfkm^, not in hd. — ^^3^^ bfk, ^I'J^TO hd. — ^The end of the 
varga is here marked by ^^ in bfh, not fn dk. 

24. Deities of BV. vi. 63-74. The seven treasures. 

120. are two (62, 63) addressed to the Aivins ; and there are 
also two (64, 65) addressed to Dawn; but *A wonder now' 
{vapur nu : vi. 66) is addressed to the Maruts. 
B And in the couplet * Unto ' {upa) » he (the seer) proclaims 
adoration of the Afivins. 

RV. vi. 67-] 



ni', ^TT^EH^W^b, ^n;g^ ;Rt.f. — 120'"' in bfkouly. — ftpffT fk, ^Wt b. — TTW 
b, TT^TT fit (ep. vii. 44). 

' There is no Btaiiz& beginning with vpa in i»r near RV. vi. 66. 

121. There is one to Mitra -Varuna, (viz.) 'Among all beings 
your' (inhesd7ii vah satdm : vi. 67). ' Obediently' {4rustl: vi. 68) 
is addressed to Indra -Varuna ; the following one, ' Together ' {sam : 
vi. 69) is addressed to Indi-a -Visnu. 

^^^ hd, ^fif^» h, ^ qiJts^r f. — in7t.hdm\ TTTIl bfk. 

122. Heaven and Earth {70), Savitr (71), Indra-Soma {72), 
Brhaspati (73) are respectively praised in the following hymns ; 
(in) ' Soma and Rudra ' {somdrudrd : vi. 74) those two (gods) 
are praised. 

«f^^T«\*(t hd, %|fi|^^(,nfl*ft mS «ft%ifllft ^t*it bfk. — 7^ ^pft b, m 
^Tft fk, fiyd^ hdm' (cp. iiS"). 

B 123. Discus, car, jewel, wife, territory, horse, and elephant — 
these are the seven treasures of all emperors {cahravarti'n)\ 

¥^ 'q^^fltlTH.rk, W^fqi '^flWfi^TTHm'.^^^ '^TPriH^b. — Thiailnka 
w found in bfkm , but not in hd, nor jirei'iimably in the other A MSS. (cp. above, ill, 
note).— The end of the varga is here marked by \)i in bfk. 

' This aloka a meant to explain tbe eipresBion lapta ratio in RV. vi. 74. i, and 
serves at the tame time to introduce the story of the conqueror AbhySvartin. 

36. BT. Ti. 75: Stor; of Abhyavaxtin ajid Frastoka Soi^aya. 

124. Abhyavartin Cayamana^and Prastoka, son of Smjaya*", 
having been conquered in fight by the Vara^ikhas ", came to 

tiisi*i: hln^ ^r^: d, *\\%^: f, irn^: n, <iivi: k. tt^^: b. — ^ramtg^ 

kn, VI4Jt)jJ f. Wat4]?ft b, l|f*<OIJ*(JJ^ hdm' (thia would make a j^a of nine 
syliablee). — IKfSl^^ n, TTft^^l^^ hdm', ^T^ftnft^ f. ^T^ftjllt k, flKftlft 
b.— gfU hdm'n, ^ fk, ^ b. 

' Op. RV. V 
form of the nam* 
mafijari on HV. i 

'' Cp. EV. 1 
I. 27- 45- " 1 

7 ; VI. 47. 22, 25. ■ This ]« the 

arga (124-128) is quoted in tlie Niti- 



125. Having approax^hed and propitiated him and mentioning 
their names, the two said to him : * Brahman, know that we 
have been vanquished by the Varafiikhas in fight. 

IV^nR^t^Tpft hm^k, ^(«f«i^ Wrtft b. — ^?f bm^b, ^ fkn. — Htii^r hm^bfk, 

126. With you as our domestic priest we could conquer the 
warriors {k§atrabandhuny That is to be recognized as k§atra 
(warrior caste) which protects the everlasting hrahma (priestly 

127. The seer saying * yes ' to them, addressed his son Payu : 
' Make these two kings imassailable to their enemies.' 

ifr 1J hdm\ g 7ft bfkrn. — JS^^tlft hdm^n, J^^^ bfr, J^Q^H k, gp| 

128. Saying *yes' to his father, he consecrated their imple- 
ments of war individually with the hymn * Of a thunder cloud ' 
(Jmiutasya: vi. 75). 

QJ^^TT^lfir bkrn, fCl^JflQq hdr^ ff)4|^^<)i| r^r*r'. — ^g^^ bm^r, ^W'f ?!• 

fkn, ^^|it* b. — ••H«H4|^«M|^ brn, •TWiniTO<t bd, •TT ^ 'WTOJ^ fk. — The end 

of the varga is here marked by ^M in bfk, not in hd. 

26. Deities of BV. vL 75 in detalL 

129. The first (stanza) of this hymn praises the warrior in his 
coat of mail (i), the second is (in praise) of the bow* (2), the third 
consecrates the bowstring (3)^. 

V^TO A, y«| 1jM?f B. — fipft^ 5 hm*r, fipft^ ^ bfk. — •Vf^Tl^ Afk, 

•wrtft b. 

* The genitive dhanusaft would here, as often in the BD., mean 'belongs to,' 'is 
connected with»' or it may possibly be governed by abhimantriifi to be supplied from 
jyabkinumtriifi, ^ This varga (129-133) is quoted in the Nitimafyaii on BY. vi. 75. 1. 

130. The fourth stanza praises the ends of the bow (4), the 
fifth praises the quiver (5). With half of the sixth the charioteer, 
with the (other) half the reins are praised (6). 

RV. vi. 75] 



^^WJIIriTf "fjl'ff A, ^IfTl MTaf ^^Vf Bu. — 5 hdni". ^Jl^ b, ^ r'r'r*r', 
■^»I am.— -^TTfti hdm'rbfii, ^Trf'T k. — ^^pTT: lim'r, g ^m: bn, JT ^^' K 

131. The seventh praiaes the horses (7), the eighth the 
arsenal (8), the ninth the guards of the car (g), the tenth the 
deities of battle (10). 

^ratghm^r, ^Wli^ b, ^^t " f k. — ta\fH W ra, wtWT' hdm\ ^tWI* fk. 

132. The eleventh praises the arrow (11), the twelfth is a 
praise of the cuirass (12), the thirteenth praises the goad (13), 
the fourteenth the handguard {14). 

133. In the first verse of the fifteenth (stanza) the poisoned 
arrow is praised {15"), in the second {15*) the iron-tipped 
(arrow), but in the following half (of the stanza) the missile 
of Varuna (15"'). 

^n»: f, t^ g^: b. — Wtg^ bm'rb, <»g^ rk— ?I 'vSi^ lidm'r, 51^ ^ b, 
W^ ^fk, Tr5^r°. — XJ^hdm'bfkr*, VJ?i{.T. — The end of the tjarja 18 bere marked 
by ^^ in m'bf, by <)§ in k, not at all in hd. 

37. B.V. vi. 75 (contutnod). 

134. 135. In the sixteenth (stanza) of this hyran the arrow 
discharged from the bow is praised (16) ; in the seventeenth (there 
is praise) of the beginning of the fight (17), while the eighteenth 
is to be known as (in) praise of the mail of him who ties it on 
(badhyatak) ; the last (19) is (in) praise of him who is about to 
fight; and in the last verse (19'') the seer utters prayei-s on his 
own behalf. 

134. ffldbWi B, MidbMI A.- — Ijai^: bdm'r, g^^VT r^r*^^ iTlSI^: r", 

«rnn^ ft, ^i}^ b.^^tr^^ g bdb, '^^*i^ g ft, ^^^^ ^ r. — Tant: a, 

srsm m', IWTT b, q^I?!! fk, ^5tTTR.r. 

135- ^jfilXrWr Am', ^«5^flt r, ^(«ij-H*1I bf, ^^JtHTT k. — ^ft^ m'b 
fk/', ^ft^hdr. — lirapr Tlrfil^tbdra'r, VlflI(|«IIA*i: bfk. 


136. *Now the seer having with this hymn praised the 
implements of battle of these two (kings), sent them forth again 
against the Yaradikhas. 

* This and the following two slokas (136-138) are quoted in the Nitimailjan on 
EV. vi. 27. 4. 

B 137. With the four stanzas * This here of thee ' (etat tyat te : 
vi. 27. 4-7) Bharadvaja praised (Indra) from a desire of aiding 
the king (Cayamana). Pleased thereby the Fort-destroyer, 

^?T93ft m^bfkrn(aghm), ^ f^Rnft n(bc).— •qrn«reT m*bfkn,«HTf^ r. — 

(•icjsiq m^fkr (SarvSnnkrama^i on vi. 75), ft cjsi^ b, f^ QS14 n. — This and the 
following sloka are not found in A, but only in B and m^. 

B 138. the Lord of Saci, coming to Abhyavartin on the bank 
of the Haryupiya river, slew them in company with Cayamana. 

^Ji^ m^bfkn, IRniFI r.— f^q^TP f, f^f^^ b, flW^^Jir r, f^^^lH* k, 

q^^fNt* m^ (fft^jfhrr EV. vi. 27. 5). — ^TOPNTI m^rn(m), (ilMl^lin. fk, 

ftrei^ft b, ^Rn^TT n. — ^^MR|« bn, IJ^t^fii: fkr. — The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^^ in f k, by ^^ in b ; in m it is marked by ^^, but at the end of 
136 (after Hfif). 

28. Btory of Cayamana and Frastoka (oonolnded). 

139. *Now these two, Abhyavartin and Sarfijaya, having 
conquered the Vara^ikhas, gave manifold wealth to their pre- 
ceptor Bharadvaja. 

ift* 1J Am^, ipi Bn. — Wfft Am^fk, TTT^r, wanting m b. — ^I4f94l%(41 hm^r, 

n. — «flrtft^ ^ hm^rbfk, ftt^Vt ^f^^I ^^ n. 

* This and the following sloka are quoted in the Nitimailjari on EV. vi. 47. 22. 

140. Bharadvaja and Garga *, being seen by Indra on the road, 
proclaimed that gift with the (stanzas) ^ * Two ' (dvaydn : vi. 27. 8) 
(and) *Prastoka' {prastokah: vi. 47. 22). 

Vr(^Am\ ft ^ B.-lflt A. H^ B. 

11. D d 

RV. vi. 7S-] 



* Garga, Bon of Bharadi^a, is stated b; the Sarvtinukromatii to be the seer of BY. 
vi. 47, Knd Faju, son of Bbaradvaja, of RV. vi. 75 ; agreeing with the AraaDukramanT, 
vi, 6, 8. Though the number of stanzaa is not mentioned, the plural abhih, ti^ether 

with the contents of the pusage in the SV., indicates that \i. 47. 2>-i5 (rp. SarviiaQ- 
kramani) are meant. 

B 141. The seer on his part praised the gift of that (Cayamana), 
himself proclaiming what had been given {by him) with the one 
stanza, ' Two, O Agni ' {dvaydn agyie : vi. 27. 8). 

This s'loka is not fonnd in A or m', but onl; in bfkr^r'^t^ ; after it bfk repeat 140. 
thus making up five s'lokas for the earga. 

142. The deities who in this hymn'' are occasionally'' {pra- 
sangdt) celebrated, Rathitara regarded as hymn-owning {suktahkdj) 
in praise (stufau) '^. 

UHflfm^ m\ Hfl-fT fWf A, ireirrf^ b, H^lfTfSfff r, iniTTfef k, 1141 fT- 
f^r. — TT^^ ^(ft'hdm'r^^'r^ ^HJTI^fgJi: b. HTT^^TTNp!: f, HTt"«7rfT^: 
k, TT'itdO*!''' ■"■ — The end of the varga is bore marked bj ^C in m'fk, by ^0 cor- 
rected to ^C in b, not at all in hd. 

' That ia, RT. vi. 75, as the one under discusBiou, ** That is. Heaven and 

Earth, Pusan (10), Sotoa, Aditi (12), Parjanya (13), Brahmanospaci, Aditi (17), Soma, 
Varui;ia (18). ° On a sumonbat aimilar use of atulaa cp. vi. 16 and viii. 100. 

Ma&dala vii. 
SD. Pedigree of Tuistha. Ka^Tapa's wivea. 

143. *The son of Prajapati was Marici, Marici's son was the 
sage Kasyapa. He had thirteen divine wives, the daughters 
of Dak^a : 

» 1 0* m'rbn,WTT^: l"ifk. — *[fi|:A, W^B. — WnTThm'rbfk.Tnn rV*r'. 
* The following passage (143-155) is quoted in the NitimaGjari on RV. vii. 104. 16, 

B 144. Aditi*, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Simhika, Muni, 
Krodha, ViSva and Vari^tha, Surabhl and Vinata, 

^: mWT r, ^g^MT m', ^^TT^ f, ^g^TWT k, gSTT^ b, ^JJSWT n (^^in 
e. J^^m. ^f!IZn li). ftrftWT ^f^^. r. f«ff ^lft»i> m^kr^n, flt^^ftlift f, fifff- 

^rrf^ b. f«f^iftrftvft n(g). — nfYvn^nrr r, aftvr fir fm'n, aftVT jtt b, aftvr 

fm k. — ^f^ bkrn(gh), ^fKZl ". — g^fW^ bo, ^T^ f. JT^ k, ^^f^ 


203] —V. 148 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. vu. i 

m^. — f^vini m^bn, fsnni fk. — This sloka and 145** are wanting in A, but they are 
found in B and m^. 

* The names of the thirteen daughters of Daksa enumerated in 144 and 145^ are 

the same as those given in Mah&bh&rata i. 3520, with the exception of YarifthS and Surabhi, 

instead of which PradhS and EapilS appear in the epic, where the corresponding passage 

reads as follows : 

aditir dUir danufi hold danayu^L Hiphikd tatha, 

krodha pradhd ea viivd ea vinata kapUa mttnt^, 

kadrui ca. 

Thus the first line (excepting the last word) is identical in both« while the second and 
third begin with the same word. The question whether these three lines originally belonged 
to the text of the BD., or were interpolated from the Mah&bhSrata, is of critical importance. 
Without them the varga would have only three and a half s'lokas. Op. Muir, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, i. 122 and i. 116 f. 

B 146. and KadrQ by name : (these) daughters he (Dak^a) gave 
to KaiSyapa. 

From them the Gkxls and Asnras, the Gandharvaa, the Serpents, 
the Eaki^asas, 

^iJ%Wf bm^n, ^^%^ni kr.— •5^7%^ hm^r, •^li: ftlTJ bn, •^^ 

ftWTfk.— I45'=vu.68^ 

146. Birds, Pidacas, and other classes (of beings) were produced. 
Now among these (daughters) the one goddess Aditi produced 
twelve sons. 

^^ hm^r, ITR fkn, ifti? b. — flCT^lJP Bn, V^l[lft A. 

B 147. (These were) Bhaga, Aryaman, and AmiSa, Mitra and 
Varuna, Dhatr and Vidhatr, and Vivasvat of great brilliance, 

•^hrtlRr, WiiTfirV fk, •^jiirjW m*bn. — This Jloka is found m B and m^ 
only. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^Q, in bfk, not in m^ (nor in hd, as the 
sloka is wanting in these MSS.). 

30. Story of Mitra-Vam^a and VrvaiK. 

B 148. Tva^tr, Ptisan, and also Indra ; the twelfth is called Vignu. 
(Thus) that pair was bom of her — Mitra and Varuna. 

inB|% hm^r, WTI^ br*, 19%«W n, ITVt^W fk. — flm^ ^^^TW f '»» Ui^n^ 
W^M* ^ hdm\ fffin 'PW: «f f, t5l%^ 'PW «f k, tif%lir ^1% ^ b, Ol^^ 
IRWRI ^ r^r', ^: iTf r«r'. 

RV. vii. i] 



149. *0f these two Adityas, when they saw the nymph 
Urvafi! at a sacrificial session, the semen was effused*'. It fell 
into ajar containing water that stood overnight. 

M^ns. ^ ABtn'. — ?!7^ hr^r^r^ns. W: JMT m' k. <T jft f, JnBt^b. ^ IJ 

' The following passage {149-155° ) ia quoted by Sayana on RV. vii. 33. 11 (trmi- 
Uted by Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. 105 f.). Op. Nirukta v. 13 : taiya darianan mtlra- 

varunayo retai easkanda; also SarvonukTimBnl i. 166: milravanttfayor dUiitayor BrvaAm 
apiarasani drstva vasatiaare kumbhe rcto 'palal, Cp. above, v. 99. 

150. Now at that same moment two vigorous ascetics, the 
seers Agastya * and Vasistha, there came into being. 

' ,0n the story or the birth of Agastja see Sieg, Sagenstoffe, pp. 105-108. 

B 161. Now the semen having fallen in various ways — in a jar, 
in water, on the ground — the sage Vasistha, best of seers, was 
produced on the ground*; 

irfint ^ m'rffcn, TTfirt'^: bs. — qranjifl m^bkr, V«^ ^ s. — WJ?I ^ft" 
m'rs, ^^JJ^f^'n, ^ VJ^f^ ^^- ^ ^f^° f- — This s'loka is found in B and m' only. 

' As this does not a^ee with 149 and 15S, '^'^ probably have a later addition in 
these three lines (151, 152"*). 

B 152, while ALgastya was produced in the jar, (and) Matsya*, 
of great brilliance, in the water. 

Then Agastya, of great glory, arose being the length of 
a peg {iamyd). 

migfn; brs, nfigft: n, JTf : fk, wqw^in. m'. — dfinsji* A, *mflnr: 

Bob. — 153°* is found in B sad m' only. — The end of the vaTga la hero marked by ^O in 
hm'fk, not in bd. 

' Cp. Sieg, Sagenstoffe, p. io6, note *. 

31, Birtli of Ag&stTa and Tasijtha. 

153. Because he was meted with a measure, he is here called 
Manya * ; or else (because) the seer was bom from a jar '•. For 
measurement is made with ajar also : 

tf jfWSthm'rfks, JTfhn^b, {5i^»rTTt)?lft^r'r*r*. — iss"*!* omitted in n. 


205] —V. 157 TRAJTSLATION AND NOTES [RV.vii, i 

* In BV. vii. 33. 13 Mana appears to be a name of Agastya; cp. Sieg, SagenstofiPe, 
p. 106, note ^ and p. 108, top. ^ That is, Agastya was called MSnya either because 
he was iamyamatra or because he was produced from a jar which is used as a measure 
of capacity. 

154. by * jar ' {JcumhTm) the designation of a measure of capacity 
{parimdnd) is indicated. 

Then, as the waters were being taken up (grrAyamana), Vasi^tha 
was (found) standing on a lotus {pib§kara)\ 

•m'f 5 hm^rbfkn, •^IPF ^ s. — W^W?t br^r*r*ns, W^ fk, W^^nPl hdr, 

* This is analogous to the lotus of BrahmS. 

155. There on every side the All-gods supported the lotus*. 
Arising out of that water he (Vasi^tha) then performed great 

iNN H^ 'HI Am\ ^ni?f: ^qnc imr, irfw: ^^it ?w bfkn, irfw: ^pif^ ^ 

ff s. 

* Op. BY. yii. 33. 11 : f>ihe devah puskare ivadadanta; explained by YSska, Nirukta 
y. 14, with the words: sarve devafi puskare tva^dkdrayanta ; cp. Both, Erlautemngen, 
p. 64. 

156. His name arose, with reference to his virtue {gunatah), 
from the root vas expressive of pre-eminence : for he once upon 
a time, by means of austerity, saw Indra who was invisible to 
(other) seers. 

Iini44ui: hm^r, f|ta|44q: b, 4|Q|I|4u|I fr^r'', $|«i44f^ k. — f\^ hm^r, 
%* br«r^ ^ fk. 

157. The Lord of Bay Steeds (Indra) then proclaimed to him 
(that he should receive) shares in Soma. 

B For this appears from the Brahmana (passage) * The seers (saw 
not) Indra ' {rsayo vd indram) *. 

tf>*i*H< | |* i ^ Am\ 4r>H4<|J | iiaflH^ B. — amUIITlfii m^r. WIW^ ^ bfk.— 
157^ is found in B and m^ only. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in m^ b, 
by ^0 in fk, not at all in hd (as the last line is wanting in these MSS.). 

* TS. iii. 5. 2^ : r^ayo vd indraiji pratyakfatn napaiyanj ta$ii vansfkaft praiyaksam 
apaiyai . . . tasmai eiani stomabhagan abravtt. 

RV. vii. 1-] 



32. Vasiotlia and Ub descendants. Deities of BV. vii. 1-33. 

158. Vasiatha and the Vasiathas thus (became) Brahmans in 
the oflEce of Brahman priest *, most worthy of fees in all rites 
at sacrifices. 

^RlB^ ^81^ B. flf«BI^ <)f«8T9 Am'. — Sm^^Sftr hm'bfk,^ JTlftiJWt 

fk, <min<J|«rt\«H^fi; b. ^\wtm«lfti»T^r. 

' Op. RV. vii. 33. 11; utaan mailravaruno vaais(hayrvaij)a brahman manato 'dhi 
jalafii TS. iii. 5. 2^: tasmad vasisfho brakma kdryafi. 

169. Therefore one should honour with fees all such descen- 
dants of Vasiatha who may at any time even to-day be present 
at a sacrificial assembly, eo (says) a sacred text of the Bhallavins. 

^i^nft Am', ^rarrft b. — h^^ht; ^^ a, ^^wrf^wf b. — ?Bfi|ftTt a\ 

'*AUil fkr. — ^r?^hdr, If^ m'. ^J^lJ^ B. — Wis'^tfl ^filfijflWl Am', ^Brif 

HTawt^: B. 

160. Now the seer, the son of Mitra-Varuna (Vasiatha), with 
the following sixteen" hymns (beginning) 'Agni' {agnini: vii, i. i) 
praised Agni; 'Enjoy our' (ju^asva nak: vii. 2) here are Apri 

', ^HT^ '^ft'l.r, gaifl ^fqiT,bfk. — Wftmhdm\no?Jmbfkr 
I'r, UrfWll^l fk, Wfff'ra b. 

■ That ifl, ™. 1-17, deducting vii. a aa an Apri hjmn ; on tbia method of statiDg 
the figures, cp. above, i?. i6 ; v. la, 105 &c. 

161. Then 'Forth to Agni' {prdgnaye: vii. 5), 'Forth of the 
sovereign lord ' [pra samrdjah : vii. 6), the second ' Forth to 
Agni' [prdgnaye: vii. 13) which consists of three stanzas — these 
are addressed to Vaifivanara. Then those which follow, (beginning) 
' In thee, indeed ' {tve ha : vii. 1 8), are addressed to Indra, 

162. being fifteen hymns (vii. 18-32) : praise of the Maruts 
is incidental {in them). In the (stanza) 'No one Sudas's' {nakih 
suddsah : vii. 32. 10) the gift of Paijavana (Sudas) 

The end of the varga it here marked by ^^ in m' bfk, nut in hd. 




207] —V. 1 66 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.vii.37 

33. Deities of BV. vii. 33-38. 

163. is proclaimed by Vasi^tha, as well as in the four * (stanzas) 
*Two from the grandson' (dve na^tuh: vii. 18. 22-25). 'White- 
robed' {Svityancah : vii. 33) they pronounce to be a dialogue or 
a hymn addressed to Indra. 

f k^^ ^4I<S)^^ r*r^. — ^ftWN^ hd, •fiwN^ r^r^r*r*, f^c^t?T^ b, •ftrt Wf^ 
r, ^BfJr ^ f, ^lafiPH k. 

* The masc. eaturhhih, as in Boveral other passages, being used for the fern, eaiasr" 
bhifi (see index of words under catur), 

164. Here is proclaimed a dialogue of Vasi§tha and Agastya 
with their sons and also with Indra^ and (their) greatness, birth, 
and action (are celebrated). 

165. The following four (hymns) * Forth' (pra: vii. 34-37) 
are addressed to the All-gods. There, however, the stanza * Bom 
in the waters' (dbjdm : viL 34. 16) praises the Dragon (a^t), and 
there *May us not' (ma nah: vii. 34. 17) (praises) the Dragon 
of the Deep (ahi hudhnyd) *. 

m 5 Bhdm\ ?nPf r. — ^rff ITI hm^r, ^rflf ^ bfk. — J(\ Iftlff^ hdm^r, 
m ift^flf b, J(l ifil^ fk.— ^VRl^hdb. ^W m^r, ifT^fk. 

* The reading adopted in the text is supported by the SarvSnukramanii : ' ahjam ' 
oAer, ardharca uttaro 'hirbudhnyaya. 

B 166. The Dragon (ahi) strikes (dhanti) the clouds, or he goes * 
in the midst among them. The Dragon is of the deep (hudhnya), 
for he is bom in the deep (hvdhna), the air \ 

^ff<if[Pfl m^br. ygfi: iR[fir fk. — Ih^n^ r, Into b, imffir m\ ^^anf^ 

fk. — Jlfn HT bkr, l^ft ^ t iP?hn m^. — 5^5 ^W^l r, %1B( J(U[m to}, ?rtif\fNj 
b, ^M4|MI^: f k. — ^^ ff bf, " ff k, ^pdfTf r, ^^ ff m^. — This sloka is not found 
in A, but only in B and m^. 

* Ahi in ^irukta ii. 17 is derived from ayana, ' going/ or ahanti : ahir ayanad : 
eii^ntarikse . . . nirhrasitopasarga ahantiUi, ^ Gp. Nirukta x. 44 : yo^hih sa budhnyo: 
hudhnam antariksariif tannivasat. 

Hv. vii. 38-] 

B^HADDEVATA v. 167— 

167. ' On high that' {ud u syah : vii. 38) is a hymn of Savitr. 
Here the couplet ' Blessed for us ' (iam nah : vii. 38. 7, 8) haa 
Steeds as its divinities, and the hemistich ' On Bhaga the mighty ' 
{hhagam ugrah : vii. 38. 6'**) is addressed to Bhaga, so a sacred 
text (states). 

g* hralr. ^ bfk^'^^ — 0^: hdm', "^l B, "^^m: r.— '(H^ KT^ 
hm'r^B, iH^ 'Tt^ r. — lrf?T ^ft: m^fr^r'^r', Xf^ ^: hdr^ J^ ^ft: bk. — iSj"^ 
in r reads Hi(*l|t(l^r^ ^Ti: by confuaion with the second pada of the next line. — The 
end of the oarga is here marked by ^^ in m'bf, not in hdk. 

34. D«itleB of BV. vii. 38-43. 

108. And the third verse in the fifth (stanza) here (vii. 38. 5')* 
has the Dragon for its divinity. 

B As the hemistich 'On Bhaga the mighty' {bhagam ugrah 
vii. 38. 6 "'), so also is ' Now Bhaga ' [nunam hhagah : vii. 38. i "^^ 

g^TV^l^ hm'r. gfl*j^i^ bfk. — »ra«nnf?t^l: Am\ H^«T*IT*|f^ ^ftl 

bfk, TnHTTTTI^t^ ^: r. — les"* is wanting in A and m'. — ^ »R^ m' r, 3^ W^ 

b, *pr wit 1 Huft f. t fl'it M wit k. 

' There is 
latter hemistich 

reference to this pSdft in the San-anukraman!. 
B well as the former is addresstid to Bhaga as a ft 

^ That is, the 

a of Savitf (cp. neit 

B 169, according to (the stanza) ' May that Savitr produce 
treasures'*' (RV. v. 82. 3), he (Savitr) may {vd) be (regarded as) 

'Upright' {urdkvah: vii, 39. 1) is (the first of) five (hymns) 
addressed to the All-gods (vii. 39-43). Bhaga is the divinity 
of the five stanzas 

« A\ brk, «^ II f.^ — TI^tM: Am't^, ^Tft^ r, V^'^ b, M^T^ f. ^?T# k. — 
Vi\^ V{f^^J[', Am'r^ ^\'^^ Wl^^m: r, l^TF^ WI^^WT". b, IJMI^T wi^^m 
fk. — 169° is wanting in A and m . 

' The whole pada in EY. v. 81. 3 ia: ta hi ratnani daiase tuvati savitS bhogafi. 
It ia perhaps owing to this remark that the Sarvunukramanl statea the deity of RV. 
vii. 38. 6° to be Savitr or Bhaga : bhagam Hi bkago vdrdharca^. 


209] —V. 172 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. vii. 43 

170. (beginning) * Winning at morn ' {prdtarjitam : vii. 4 1 . 2-6). 
The last (stanza) is addressed to Dawn (vii. 41.7), or else a prayer * 
for the seers {dra$tr)^ is here (expressed). Some, hov^ever, pro- 
nounce Bhaga only to be (the deity) in the (stanza) ' At mom * 
(prdtah: vii. 41. i)^ 

ViMVIWI hw}, Hfl^miail b, ^^l^im f, ^<mim k (^^«i^i Sarvanu- 
kiama^i), ^^^JT «m r.— ^pft ^ITflft^ ^ b. Jtph IfTflft^ ^ f. ^!f^ ^frflf^ 
^ k, fg^ IfTfift^ ^ r V, J^ ^"^Wl^Xq ^ ni\ J^ ^JiWlRR^ I ^hd, J^ 

ITfmT inWnr fk. 

* I^r for a/tr on account of tbe metre. ^ Op. na usasai^ . . uchantu, ' may the 
Dawns shine on us,' in BV. vii. 41. 7. ^ Whereas according to 169 this stanza would 
be addressed to the AU-gods ; cp. SarvSnukrama^i : adyd lihgohtadevata, 

171. Now the seers at the beginning and end (of hymns) 
proclaim (deities) in an occasional manner* (prasangatah) : (thus) 
in this hymn there are some deities (here) and others (there) in 
that place (tatra)\ 

^I<l*^ft3hd. 1HI4l^*il'irm\^WirRi5r*r\^W^Tfit5fk, mil^l|b, ^|<m«ft 
?t g r.— ^TTO: hd, II^U b. WTI f, inEI k. (^) W^mi m\ (^ Ij) ^WTO: r.— ^ 
*t^ Bhm^r', ^fc^ r. — F|^ Bhm^r^ Jd^J r. — "mnni fkr^r*r''r^ ^WIV^ 
b. ifWT^nr r. ^Riin^W^ hdm^ 

* Op. above, iii. 52 (note also the 0. r. there, praiaryogat). ^ That is, at the 
beginning and end of the hymn : Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varui^a, Asvins, Piisan, Brahma- 
naspati, Soma, Budra, as weU as Bhaga, occur in the first stanza, and Usas, besides the 
deities of the refhiin yuyarii pata, in the last stanza of this hymn, which as a "whole is 
addressed to Bhaga. 

172. Other deities are proclaimed because they belong to the 
same v^orld or because they are associated ^ or else again because 
they share praise (samstavdt), because of the sphere of (their 
accompanying) troop {gaTia)^, or because of a (common) attribute 

^rratWR^hdm^r, HmTT^T B. — «iqMRI«ll^ hdm^r, iNrWRTf b. ^WRTR* f, 

JUraiPr* k. — 9Tf7|Rft hm^r, irfW^ft b, nifilRt fk. — Wl^ hm^r, ilTT^ bfk. — The 
end of the varga is here marked by ^8 in m^fk, by ^8 in b, not at all in hd. 

* 172*= i. 19**, 98*; vii. I44*. ^ Thus Indra is associated with the troop of the 
Maruts. • Op. i. 73, 76, 77. 

II. E e 

RV. vu. 44-] BRHADDEVATA v. 173— [210 

36. DeitiM of BV. vii. 44-49. 

173. Next (come) one (hymn) addressed to Dadhikra (viL 44), 
one to Savitr (vii. 45), one to Budra (vii. 46) in succession. But 
the deities proclaimed as belonging to the first (stanza) of (the 
hymn) addressed to Dadhikra (vii. 44. i) 

b, i^fWiir m^fk, ^f%rai r. — im^|<||^ Am^, IVWHT^ 5 ^• 

174. may be recognized* 'O Waters' {dpah : vii. 47) should 
be (regarded as) addressed to the Waters. The first triplet (of the 
next hymn) is addressed to the Rbhus (vii. 48. 1-3). The last 
(stanza: vii. 48. 4) is pronounced to be addressed either to the 
AU-gods or to the Rbhus. 

•^ Wt hdm^rbfk, •^ IJ r^r*r*. — 174^ is omitted in r^r*r*. 

* That IB, by their names occurring in the stanza; cp. SarvSnnkramaiji ; adya 


175. For it is thus that this entire (hymn) addressed to the 
^bhus is chanted on the tenth day in the litany to the All-gods \ 
* Whose chief the sea ' (samudrajye§thdh : vii. 49) is (in) praise 
of the Waters. 

H^ hm\ l(r^ r^ if% f, ^"^ k, J[^ br. — ^^^ hw}, ^iWtf "^ bfkr. — 
irfl5[*rtT Vrt hr, ^rgj[«|f&?IRt r^*r«, il<is^lf<«Mi bf, ilfis^lf<«<ll k.— 176**** 
omitted in r^r*r'. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in m^bfk, not in hd. — 
The last (Sda is not repeated here in either b or f. 

* See AsS. vlii. 12. 24, quoted by Saya^ on BY. vii. 48. 4 : daiam/t 'An< vaUvadeva- 
ioitra drbhavanividdhanajn ; iutryate hi : fbhuksai^ ity arbhavam Ui; cp. below, vi. 108. 

211] — vi. 4 TRAJTSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. vii. 59 

1. DeitieB of BV. vii. 60-66. 

1. Now with the hymn ' Guard me ' (a mam : vii. 50) the 
deities are praised in successive stanzas : 

B Mitra-Varuna (i), and Agni (2), the (All)-gods (3), as well as 
the Rivers (4). 

'ra^m^r, Vnr^fb, H^RJ^k. — 1*^ is not found in A, bnt only in B and m^ 
It mnst be original as the detailed statement of the Sarvanukramapi is founded on it : 
a mam : maiiravarw^y, agneyt, vaiivadevi, nadistutili* 

2. Two triplets (vii. 51, 52) have the Adityas for their deities. 
The triplet which (begins) ' Forth ' {pra : vii. 53. 1-3) is to the Two 
Worlds (rocia^f). There are (then) four (stanzas : viL 54. 1-3, 55. i) 
addressed to Vasto^pati ; the seven (following: vii. 55. 2-8) are 
traditionally held to be lullaby stanzas a. 

•^^?lft bfkdr, •^^IWt m\ •^^wft h. — ^TOt^RWP^ hd, ^l^dt^WU^ b^ 

fli^*M«*tr, wrah^rfir^fk. — ^q^^ Am\ ^nra^ fkr, ^nn ^i b. — ^iv^rra^ 
^n: ^m: b (iv^rnnt ^: b, ki^imwI ^ f, vmw^^ k, ir^rrf^^ ^w: r), 
^^ irerrf*nft ^^n: a (^irtt ^ni r^r^r*r*, •fxrt^ ^ni hd), ^ irenft^ft 

* Cp. Sarvanukramani on vii. 55 : asfau : vastospatyadya . . iesaft prasvapinya upam^aU 
The reading of B is too vagne, 'there are stanzas traditionally held to be lullabies,' while 
the reading of A would include the first stanza, ' eight are traditionally held to be a lullaby.' 
The reading of m^ alone gives the correct sense clearly : ' seven are traditionally held to 
be a lullaby/ ^9fT perhaps dropped out owing to the following syllables IV9, ^VTV being 
then supplied in A and '^mX in B. — In Bgvidhana ii. 26. 5 this hymn is described as 

3. After this there are four hymns addressed to the Maruts 
(beginning) * Who, pray?' {ka im: vii. 56-59) ; the last stanza of 
these (vii. 59. 12) praises Tryambaka *, the divine father. 

ilt Am^, tht: b. 

* There is no mention of Tryambaka in the SarvSnukrama^i, which describes this 
stanza as raudri mfiyuvimocani, 

4. With the seven hymns beginning * When ' (ya< : vii. 60-66) 
Mitra-Varuna are praised ; but with the following eight (beginning) 
' To meet your' {prati vdm : vii. 67-74) ^^® divine AiSvins. 

^'ft 5 br, ^?ft fl fk, ^?ft ift hm^ — ^1|^ Am^, ^?ft B. 

RV. vii. 60-] 



6. (In) 'When to-day' (yad adya: vii. 60) one (i), (in) 'Aloft 
the sun' {ut silryak: vii. 62) three (1-3), (in) 'Aloft he goes' (ud 
V eti : viL 63) four and a half {i-S"*) are addressed to Surya, whUe 
(in) ' That eye ' (fete caksuh : vii. 66. 16)^ the eye (of the sun) is sung 
as the deity. 

^%^(^^f%ra hm'bfk {^nr^" fk), il^^nt^-fi Jfi[ fira r. — V\^% hdm', 
^M r, 71^ bfr^r'r^ (T^ k. — xf^ g hdr, ffi! (uo J[) bfkr^r^r'm*. — The end of 
the varga h here marked by ^ in m^bfk, not in hd. 

* Tbere is no eUteinent about this stanza in the Sarv&nukrama^i. Cp. below (9). 

a. Deitiei of BT. vii. 66-85. 

B 6. Saunaka has stated that the two stanzas ' Thus of you 
to-day' (tad vo adya: vii. 66. 12, 13) belong to the Adityas, 
while all the other stanzas, ' When to-day' {^adadya: vii. 66. 4-1 1) 
and the rest, are proclaimed (by him)* to be addressed to Surya. 

trtt: wh w^' ^Wt br, Winn a^ ^^: ?rr5 fk. nmmi ^^: h^t^tt m' 

(the plural of ^nO woiOd be more consisteut with 5 and 9 than that of WTOTJ- — Thia 
and the followiog three Blokaa (6-9) are found in B and m^ onl;, 

' Cp. below (8), where it ia stated that these staniaB'are traditionally held to tie 
addressed to the Adityas.' 

B 7. ' These chastiaers ' {ime cetdrak : vii. 60. 5) and the rest . . . 
these nine are traditionally held to belong to Aryaman, Mitra, and 

^ ^(ill, fkm'r, t^ ^flKH''- — Of the second pada consiating probably of 
pratikfts only, I have been able to make nothing. The readinga of the MS8. are aa follows : 

«% fMt f, ?i ^ fiNt k, q Ifn finft b, a^ fiNt r, "wl iwft m'. — f*(^^ 
TT?t,m'bfk, fim: ^: r. 

B 8. The ten stanzas beginning ' When to-day the sun's ' (yad 
adya surah : vii. 66. 4-1 3) are traditionally held to be addressed to 
the Adityas ; or else Savitr, Aditi, Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga 
fllf^ffl*. m'bfk^*^^ ^Tf^t?t^ r (=r^). 

B 9. are praised. Tlie three stanzas which then follow, ' Aloft 
that' {ud u tyat: vii. 66. 14-16), are addressed to Surya. The 
teacher Saunaka has stated the stanza ' That eye ' {tac cak^uh : 
vii. 66, 16) to be a prayer*. 


213] — vL 13 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.vilSs 

* That these two slokas (8, 9) belonged to the original text is supported by the fiact that 
the wording of the Sarvanukramapl is clearly based on them : BD. yad adya sura Uyadyd 
daiaditya^, SarvSnnkrama^T caturthyadya daiadUyaiL ; and both have ixsratk saury afk. 

10. Now Dawn (is praised) with the seven (hymns) ' Forth the 
Dawn' {vy usah : vii. 75-Si); but the four hymns following these, 
*0 Indra and Varuna' (indrdvarund: vii. 82-85), are (in) praise 
of Indra- Varuna. 

HHr: m^rbfk, JlfiH hd. — ^^M^^fll Am\ •^T^I^fHiH* b, ^^l^^UllHl r ; the 

whole line is ^MlO'sO^^ ^ft» ^ ^» ^mRsO ^^' ^^ ^' — ^® ®^^ ®^ *^® varya 
is here marked by ^ in bfk, not in hdm^. 

3. Vasiftha and the dog of Vam^: BV. vii. 86-89. 

B 11. In the hemistich * Alofb the light' {ud ujyotih : vii. 76. i***) 
the Middle (Agni) is praised. 

During* the night Vasistha in a dream ^ approached the house 
of Varuna ^. 

11" is not found in A or m^, but only in B. — ^fSf '^ixj^q^ hm^r, ^H4fTM^^ 
fkn(cgh), ^nnrnT^bn(am)s, 4j(Hqf|<^ n(b), ^14*11^^^,1*. 

• II* -15** are quoted in the NTtimafijari on RV. vii. 55. 2; and 11 * -13 in Sayapa 
on RV. vii. 55. 3. * See Vedische Studien, ii, p. 56 (cp. 55). • Cp. RV. vii. 86. 6 : 
svajmai caned auftasya prayota ; and vii. 88. 5 : h^hantam manaifi, varui^, . . sakasra" 
dvaraif^ jagama gjrhajfi te. 

12, 13. He then entered. A dog there ran at him, barking. 
B Pacifying the hound which was making a din and running 
(up) with intent to bite, he lulled him to sleep* {vyasiL§vapat) 
with the two (stanzas) * When, O bright one ' (yod arjuna : vii. 

55. 2, 3)- 

He sent him ^ as well as the other attendants of Varuna to 
sleep ^. 

If in bfkrns. If ^If hd, W ITI m^ — •^ITOmi Am^, •KHrSlT Bns. — 12*^ and 
13*' are not found in A, but in B and m^ only. — ^|pF^m^n(h)8, ^^pF^fk, ^ j*^b, 
"S^PI rn. — 13. fltWt m^bfks, f^fft: rn. — ^^MM<f, m^bfr, ^V^|QRT^ k, ^f^^ n, 
H^JMfl, 8. — ?I If Am\ ip} Bns. — J|i^lM4l4||4l bfrn, llMIM<il4||^ k, IVWR- 

^rnrre hdm^s. 



* The anomikloLiB form vyaivnapat is evidently based on the reCmiu of RV. lii. 55. 
2-4, ni stt tvapa, Z tras therefore tempted to make the emendation nyotuivapaf. 
'' The reading of B nam connects 13' with 13" , that of A ta lam, 13' with la" . 
° Cp. Tediache Studien, ii, p. 56, note *. 

14, 15. Then king Varuna bound* him with his fetters. Bound 
(thus) he (Vasistha) praised his father (Vanina) with the next 
(itah)^ following four (hymns) 'The wise' {dhird: v'n. 86-89). Then 
his father released him, 

A As soon as the (stanza) 'Thee in the fixed' (dhruvdsu tvd: 
vii. 88. 7) had been uttered, the fetters dropped {pramocire)" 
from him. 

#: TTtJ: HW^UJ^ Am' (Trfrr" m'), ^TT«n^n^niI^V! Bd. — Q ^T hm'rfkn, 
fl ^ r'r*r', « ^1^ b.— "fjrfTTt hdr. «ftn7T bfk. 

15. ?ni: ftTTT hm'bf. ^V: fwr t, Wn^iraT n. — 15"'* is the reading of Am": 
instead of it, but after 14" , Bm' read: 

^ fr'r'r', <fS ^TI k, T^t B b. ' t*r'r', W^TT^J^ft b, ^^T^^ft fk. 

Both forms of the line are omitted ld n. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in 
ra'. after 15°* (pita) in bfk (as the B form of 15"' comes before 15''''). not at all in hd. 

*' Here the root bandh ia coDJugated as an Atnjanepada of the fourth class ; cp. 
V. 134 and vi. 33 {duhsaii in A). ^ That is, after the group 82-85 mentioned in 10. 

' The anomalous form pramocire must be meant for the 3. plur. perfect passive (by false 
analogy from forais like pecire). The xhole line has been adapted from BV. vii. 88. 7 : 
dhrwvaiu tra atu hiilisu iiiyanlo py aimal paiam caruno mtimoeal. The reading of B would 
mean: *In the stanza dhrtivasu tva he appears bound with the fetters of Varuna.' 

4. Deiti«8 of BV. vii. 80-96. 

16. The next three hymns, ' Forth with longing for the 
heroes' {pra virayd : vii, 90-92), are addressed to Vayn. Now 
in this praise those (stanzas) are addressed to Indra-Vayu in 
which there is praise in the dual (dvira^)*. 

TTT^" Am\ m^' B. — "Tnrar: g?fV m'r'r'r^t*, "TITWT: ^i\ hd, "^T^- 
^T: ^^ r. oTTTrar *r^ bfk. — ?ng hm'r, in^ r'rV, ?rret fk. ^TTJ^ b. 

' See Sarvanukramani on EV. vii. 90 : nindrj/ai ca ya dvivad ukfi/i ; cp. alio 

215] — vi 20 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. vii. 96 

B 17. ' Forth with longing for the heroes ' {pra virayd : vii. 90. i) 
is spoken of in the Aitareya (Brahmana) ^ as a stanza addressed to 
Vayu belonging to the Pmliga Utany * (i>ra«^f) : the predominance 
of Vayu is (thereby) expressed in contravention (vyatyayam krtvd) 
of one of its verses (pada) \ 

^nrar m^bfk, ^nrar: r. — ^HT^^ m^, VJ^[^ b, HT^^ fkrl 

* That is, AB. v. so. 9. ^ That is, the first j^da of vii. 90. i contains the 
dual form vam, so that judged by this the whole stanza would be addressed to Indra as 
well as VSyu. 

B 18. * These with true' (te satyena : vii. 90. 5-7) being a triplet, 
*As long as strength' {ydvat tarah: vii. 91. 4-7), again, being 
a quatrain, 'Eager' (u^antd: vii. 91. 2), being one, and the stanza 
'Forth the presser ' {pra sotd : vii. 92. 2) — these are traditionally 
held to be the nine (stanzas) belonging to the two (Indra -Vayu) *. 

H ittftl ^T^br, H ittftl ^ f , H iftftl "if m^k. — The words IPTT 'W ^^J 
occur above, vi. 7 . — 17, 18 are not found in A, but in B and m^ only. 

* The details given in this sloka are not mentioned in the SarvSnukramani. 

19. The two (hymns) *The pure ' {hu^im : viL 93,94) are addressed 
to Indra-Agni ; the two following, * Forth ' (pra : vii. 95, 96), are 
addressed to Sarasvati. Sarasvat (is praised) with the stanza 
*He' (sah: vii. 95. 3) and with the three 'Longing for wives' 
{janiyantah : vii. 96. 4-6). 

1% IBTT^TTO ffil B (^ bfkr^ ^^ r*r''), ^?T%^ iTT^ri^ Am\ I have 
preferred the reading of B (with the emendation ^R^ for W^) because it is supported 
by the SarvSnukramani on BV. vii. 95, 96 : igiH^d iT^^I^ • • MilRUM^ iTRW* 

'BT^- — ^^ fiW^t bdr^ ^VnV^ mVr*r*, 1T^I^%: r, ^(jST^ b, irg^?^ fk. — 

The end of the varga is here marked by i in bfk, not in hdm^. 

6. Story of Vihua and SarasyatiE : BV. vii. 96, 96. 

20. King Nahu^a * in former days wishing to consecrate him- 
self for a thousand years, travelled over this (earth) with a single 
chariot, saying to all streams : 

RV.vii.96-] BRHADDEVATA vi. 21— [216 

f k, — gq»^ r, 5^ hd. ^^ fk, flRlt. li. 

* The story of fl^uu and Saruvfttl is briofly referred to by SSyapft on RV. vii. 95. 1. 

21. ' I am about to offer sacrifice ; bring me shares {for it), 
either in pairs or singly.' The rivers replied to the king ; ' How 
can we, who have but very little power, 

?Tf(T br*, f?! fk, TlfT! r^r*r'', ^f^ hdm'A — WTTT% hdm'r^, ITt V%\ r'r*r*, 

T ^rir ft, wt; ^#r: r', jtt: ^t b. — qivj^^ij; Am'r^, ucii^^aj: b, «i«(^*m fk 

(■H k), qiU(l|«ftH: r. — iRi: ^^T" hm'brk, *H|fll<!yo r. 

22. bring you all the shares for a sacrificial session lasting a 
thousand years ? Resort to the Sarasvati : she will bring them 
for you, Nahu^a.' 

*)HIT'H'(l5i hdm^ WtTr*R^}l% r, ^$1*41^11$ l»fk. — fl% all MSS. and r. — 
Triwff^ bdm^rb, ^T^TTf^ r'r", ^ V^% fk. — 7t B, WT A. Wlir^ m^r, 

^^J^^: hdf, ^ww. k, ^i^m: h. 

23. Saying ' So be it,' he quickly went to the river Sarasvati ; 
and she received him and yielded (duduke) (him) milk (and) ghee. 

anrnn^ Am', wjithto b. — utw a, wr^ b {b, <»^ rkm'). — ^^^ifN. 

all but m', which baa ^^j^llH- — ^3" •* ""^ reading of B ; llf^^OIf ^ %•( tj^t 
¥tiS^ jSJin is that of Am'. I have preferred the former as it more closely follona 
the words of RV. vii. 95. a : 'JPl <Jf^ ^fj^ •!l*«(iy. 

24. This exceedingly marvellous act of the Sarasvati towards 
the king, the son of Varuna (Vasi^tha) proclaimed with the second 
(stanza) of the first (of the two hymns, viz. vii. 95. 2). 

No MS. marks the end of the varga ; but that it ends here is indicated by the fact 
that the figure >4 is in b placed after 26" , which in that MS. by mistake ends similarly, 
vii. 14144(10 gfl\<|m (see critical note on 16). 

6. Seitiei of ST. vii. 97-104. 

25. ' In the sacrifice ' {yajne : vii. 97) is addressed to Brhaspati ; 
(then comes) a (hymn) addressed to Indra (vii. 98) ; but the two 
following (99, 100) after that are addressed to Visnu, and the 


217] — vi. 28 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. vii. 104 

three (stanzas) * Wide * (urum : vii. 99. 4-6) should be (regarded 
as) addressed to Indra as well. The two next (hymns) * Three ' 
(tisrah : loi, 102) are addressed to Parjanya. 

^ b (no ^n|), \ ^rrt^orS^^^ "^ r, ^^ ^n| t^: ^ r^r*r*. — ji if^ im: Am^, ir 
5^T^ f. — ^fJror: ^: br, firer ^ f, fiwni hdm^k. 

A 26. Now the first (stanza) here* (vii. 97. i) praises Indra, the 
second and the rest (2, 4-8) (praise) Brhaspati. 
B In *At the sacrifice' (ycyfie : vii. 97) the first (stanza) praised 
Indra alone, but the last both Indra and BrhaspatL 

^ 26^ is tbe reading of Am^; instead of this line B has : 

^ r, 111^44 m^f, ^mft ^fn k, ^inft" b. 

The first pSda here is probably a corrnption of 26^ (the last five syDables being practically 
identical), while the second seems to be due to a confusion with 24 . 

26^^ is not found in A, but in B and m^ only. 26 is redundant, as stanzas 2, 4-8 
would already be addressed to Bfhaspati by 25^; while 26^ repeats the statement of 26^ ; 
on the other hand 26 is necessary to the sense (cp. Sanranukrama^i). The original 
reading of 26 thus seems certainly to have consisted of the single line : ^cil^ fi^«ii 
^^ ^RUT fW^ni^^ft • cp- SarvanukramanI on vu. 97 : ^n| . . ^SITfl[ ^ijiH- 

27. The third and the ninth (vii. 97. 3, 9) praise Indra and 
Brahmanaspati. (The hymn)* ' For a year ' (scmvatsaram : vii. 103) 
(praises) the firogs ; but that which follows (vii. 104) is addressed 
to Indra-Soma. 

irfWt'!^ Am^, if|^?n* ^' — ^^41*1 bfkSs, 4|ll|^|«t °^^ •1H^*«I r^r^r^ 
HT^raH^ A. I have preferred the former reading as being supported by the Sarvanu- 
krama^i: iH^^lT^TR. 

* 27'' and 28 are quoted by SSyana in his introduction to BV. vii. 104. 

28. The seer, when his hundred sons had been slain by the 
followers of Sudas, full of pain and overwhelmed with grief for 
his sons, saw (this hymn) for the destruction of demons ^ 

n. p f 

HV. vli. 104-] 



T:i^t9 mV/r''br''nS, 8 (o.r.). ■^^t9 hrfks. — aS"*, occumng her 
hdr^ (but omitted here in m^r'r*r'), ia repeated at 34" , with ^ft^ (A) in place 
4/t^rlt: (B). — Tlftrthd, jit: Ba. — The end of the tmr.ja is here marked by ^ 
lu'hr. not in hdk. 

B and 

■ 38"' 

a quoted in the NltimaiyarT on KV. vii. I0-|. 16. 

7. Detailed acooimt of SV. vii. 104. 

29. The stanza ' Who the simple ' {ye pdkaSamsam : vii. 104. 9) 
is addressed to Soma; the next (10) after that is addressed to 
Agni ; the eleventh is addressed to the All-gode (11); the couplet 
which follows it (i 2, 13) is addi'essed to Soma. 

^RTtlft niMr, « 1*1*11 h, "%^ b, «^t?n tk. 

30. The stanza 'As if I' (yadi vaham : vii. 104. 14) is 
addressed to Agni, while ' Who me ' {t/o md : 1 6) is traditionally 
held to be addressed to Indra; 'She who strides forth' {pra yd 
jigdti : 1 7) is addressed to the pressing stones, while ' Spread 
out' {vi tisthadhvam : 18) is addressed to the Mai-uts. 

■^T^ ^Stfri 5 WnThiii'r, ^Slfll^s. ^^ T^'- lib. ^ 5lfl1'5(«fl^ ^\: f, 
^ %?ftTf: grfti'^'lT r'^r''. — VTSaft hdm'r. ^i,\ii\ b, ^^\gl\ f. ^^^^^\ k. 

31. Five (stanzas, beginning) ' Hurl forth' (pra vartaya: vii. 
104. 19-22, 24) are addressed to Indra, while the last stanza is 
addressed to Indra-Soma. In the stanza 'May not the demon 

us ' {ma 7io raksas : 23) the seer invokes a blessing* 

«^t»ft gg- b^n^ "Htjftfgj" r. "^jft ^TJ" f, "Stlft ^^J" b. -^^ |5» k. 

5TTflRH''kr, CTTRT^ hdm'.— gf^ hdr, 1^ bfk, ^ r'rS«. 

' I have preferred the reading aiisan to aiisah because it u eopported h; the 
Sarvlnukraniani on BV. vii. 104 : pra vartayeti faicaindn/o ma no rakta Ui/ fter atmatia 

32. and protection in heaven and earth on his own behalf. 
'The owl-fiend' {idukayatum : vii. 104. 22) (prays) 'Slay these 
night-walkei-s of various forms ' ". 

f^ft %^ hdm', ^^%^ br. fifft^^ fk.— ^flI3»t ^ hdal^ gftraT^ br. 
gftNtV fk. — irWIIm'bkr, TnanT^^hd. — OT^TOTTJ ra (and ItV, vii. 104. 32), 


219] — vi 36 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. viii. i 

^3irarm?| all the MSS. (•'TW r^) except r'^. — This sloka is omitted in r^r*r* according 
to B, p. 163, note ^, hut this statement contradicts his preceding note ^. 

^ 33^ is quoted hy Sayapa on BY. viL 104. 32, \rho adds a line which is not found 
in any of the MSS. of the BD. 

33. Now in the fifteenth and in the eighth (stanza) of the 
hymn the son of Varuna (Vasistha), while bs it were lamenting, 
hrsoul being overwhelmed with paiL and grief, utters a cuxBe. 

34. Yaaistha was at that time pained, as his hundred sons had 
W dain by SudSsa- who. in coLeq-nce of a ourso, had boon 
transformed into a demon {rak§as) ; such is the sacred tradition. 

Kf^ hdr, ifTfllPl m\ ^: B.— ^flnfr hdm^r, #^T%^ h, ^1<1^^ f, 
^ft^ k.— ftftnra^ hrhfk, frftW: l^ m\— 34«^=28''^ (cp. v.r. there).— % 
^^ft; Am^, m "WflUB. — The end of the varga is here marked hy ^ in hfk, not in dm^. 

* For SudSs, as ahove, iv. 106, 112. 

8. Story of Kai^va and Tra^tha. 

35. * Kanva and Pragatha were two sons of Ghora. When 
they had been dismissed by their preceptor they dwelt together 
in the forest. 

•irnrn?^* hdr, •m ^rtjt h, •^rnn ^(^t f k. it wonld have been more con- 
sistent to print •irniT ^q(]t (cp. iv. 96* and note *). 

* The following four slokas (35-38) are quoted by the NitimaHljari on BV. viii. i. 
Sadgorusisya (p. 136 f.) gives a metrical form of the story which is differently worded. 

36. Now while these two dwelt there the younger (brother) of 
Kanva (i.e. Pragatha), having placed his head while asleep {svapat)^ 
on the lap of Kanva's wife, did not awake. 

^VMraHi: rn, IP^: VinSni fk, ^R^RnTT b, IIM^MrWli hdm^ — ^TO^ hdm^r* 
f r^n, ;5rq?t k. (tirtt) ^nnin, ^(^T^ r^r*r«. Ig^br.— HIL^4a1<M J > hm\ IP^- 
^*HI d, ip^TJit b, li^^dPl f. *^^^^ k, ^n^ ^?^ n, ^n^^^i^ 
r^r^r'', ^Ujl^lhl^f l\r. — «IM^14A hdm^ (•iTT d), WWfSPI r^r*r*n, TRI^- 

^nh,^ ^^mn f, ^ ^^^rnn r'r*r\ ^ wf«r^ k. 

RV. viii. 1^] 



* The MS. evidence for t, that is for the neuter participle agreeing with iirai. ia 
overwhelming, though mopon would be moie natural. 

37. Now Kanva, enraged by suspicion of a sin (and) wishing 
to curse him, awakened him with his foot, as though about to 
consume him with his fiery energy. 

3j|j4iI1^ hrbfk, f^raifl^ n. — lUMlf^Hl^Or hm^rb. (JIMlfrlli^CIT f, 

fk. — f^y^fdfl m^rn, f((^Sjfafl hd. PlM^fd^ U Piy^^fl k, f^fl^frifl b. 

38. Pragatha, becoming aware of his intention*, stood with 
folded hands and chose the couple for his mother and father. 

H m^ hrb, 7i HT <1, JTrt fi fk.— TTTT?: lulrk. Tra»T: b. — HTOftT ftRT: bfc. 

Hi^fti ^nr: f, uiaf^: f^w: bdr. 

' Cp. above, iv. 50, 59. 

39. The seer, being (thus) the son of either Ghora or Kanva", 
saw, in company with many other members of his family, the 

eighth Mandala. 

^Kt hni^r, ^trl' bfk, ^^Tt I'r^r^r^. — *Hy1 hdf, VTvi) h. HH\^ k, 

vt^ m^r.— ^irft: sf iidm^b, ^T^ )8f fb, ^yft: ft^: r— «ffH ^tft^ 
hdm'r (»n: r). «ff?t: Vfm b, *lf^rtifM f, yf^fH^fH k. — ITie fi.d of the varga is 
here marked bj C in bfk, not in hd. 

* Cp. Sarvannkramanj 

; Ar^ukrami 
lam gatal,. 

i. 3 : pragalho ghorajo munih. 

'hi son bhralaJi hannaiyi pulralan 
a ii ghoram/a lraja:atya bhrala sai 

Saities of BT. viii. 1-21. 

40. There are four hymns addressed to Indra (beginning) ' Not 
at air (ma cit: viii, 1-4) : in the stanza 'Downward his mighty' 
(anv asya stkuram: viii. i, 34), Sa^vati, daughter of Angiras, 
living (vasa7iti) * as his wife {narl) •', praised her husband ". 

fl*(Ml hdm^r, flWlft kr^ *rejft bfr*. 

' That ia, living with hioi us his wife, though he had been turned into a woman. 

On Suvstl and nori, see above, ii. 83 and uotc. ° Op. Sarvanukramani : patHt 

caaya^igiraii iaivatl pmnstvam upatabhj/ajnap prUa^lyaya Ivffava. 


221] — vl 44 TBANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. viii. 4 

41. The seer turned that Asanga, who had been a woman, into 
a man (again) * With the four ^ stanzas * Praise ' (stuhi : viii. 
I. 30-33) his own gift (to the seer) is proclaimed (by Asanga). 

Wt WWT't.f, If TR3l Wf «flfl|«|,k. — ^rer A, fP9 B. — ^i()<^n^4(j(4¥: vfKr 

^itfhm^ all MSB. (^ff ^^f^ ^^Rf^ft: s). 

* Op. SarvSnukrama^i on BY. viii. i : asaAgo yaft stribhutva pwndn <d)hut sa medhya* 
iitkaye danam dativa stuhi stuhiti catagrhhir dtmanatii iusfava. The story of Asafiga is 
related by Sayana on RY. viii. i. i and 34. Asaftga, son of king Playoga, was, he relates, 
owing to a curse of the gods, turned into a woman, but afterwards was, by the &your of 
Medhyatithi, restored to manhood by the power of penance. He consequently bestowed 
much wealth on the seer (30-33) and was praised by his wife S'asvati, daughter of Afigiras 
(34). See also Sadgurusisya, p. 137 ; Sieg, Sagenstoffe, pp. 40, 41. ^ Though caturbhifi 
is, as we have seen, frequently used alone as an alternative for eatasjrhhih (cp. next bloka), 
it seems hardly possible that fghhii caturhhih could have been the original reading. I was 
therefore much tempted to emend the MSS. reading to catasfbhifi praklrtitam. With 
reference to this passage (BY. viii. i. 30-33) the SarvSnukramanl has eatasfhhifi, the Niti* 
mafijari fghhU catasrbhift (Sieg, p. 41), and the ArsSnukrama^i rco^i eatasfi^am. In the 
BSmSyana, however, ccUurhhilt occurs in juxtaposition and agreement with a feminine noun 
(see St. Petersburg Dictionary, under catur), 

42. But with the two stanzas * Bestow' {MJc§a: viii. 2. 41, 42) 
that of Vibhindu, king of Kadi (kdiya)^, is proclaimed, while with 
the four^ (stanzas) * Which' (yam: viii. 3. 21-24) *^® is^) ^^ *^® 
liberal Pakasthaman is praised. 

wm^ bbr, nT^rer d, wm^ fk.— nrromi^ hm^r, nrni^ br«r^ •^n^^ 

fk. — ift^RT hm^r, ^ftWf b, ^ftW9 f, Ht%^ k. 

* Op. Sarvanukrama^i on RY. viii. a : aniydhhyttiji medkatithir vibhindor danani 
ius(ava. ^ See note ^ on 41. 

43. The two pragatha couplets (beginning) * Forth ' {pra : viii. 
4. 1 5- 1 8) Sakatayana thinks are addressed to Pui^an ^ ; Galava, 
however, (thinks) the former (15, 16) is addressed to Indra only, 
the latter (17, 18) to Pu^an. 

fl(t hm^rs, ?J B. — 'd^<*(,hm'r, VSii<IH,b, ^nWf^fkr^ 

* 43' is quoted by Sadgurusisya on BY. viii. 4. 

44. In the last triplet of the last of the Indra hymns here 
(viii. 4. 19-21), the gift of king Kurunga is praised (with the 
words) * Abundant wealth' {sthuram rddhah: 19). 

RV. viii. 5-] 



"^^fTHnf'f tm' r, •nrt f^H% k, "WT fN^ r, '^i f^^% b. — The end of the varga 
it here marked by Q, in m'bfk, nut in hd. 

10. Bsities of BT. viii. 5-18. 

45, In the hymn addressed to the A;5vins, ' From afar ' (durdt : 
viii. 5), the thirty-seventh stanza, (that is) the hemistich 'As' 
{yathd: 37"^, and the final couplet (38, 39) are traditionally held 
to be (ill) praise of the gifts of Ka§u K 

WH^^TTWt b, •f'fUfljft f. •f^Wnft k, "^IfimT hd, NHWI** r, "ftipiHT 
m'. — fT^lS^hiri'B (»^ r). 'TTnHf r. — ^T^^jft: b(S), THI^ f, (^lt^)*lf'l^ k, 
^TT^ra; hm'r. — W\\ b, omitted in fk, W<T: hm^r. 

" Cp, Sarvanukramani on BV. viii. 5 : antyah paUcdrdharcai caidyastja kador danailuliA. 

46. 'Great' {mahdn: viii. 6) is addressed to Indra: in (the 
stanza) containing (the word) 'ancient'* [pratna: viii. 6. 30), 
Sakapuni, as well as Mudgala, son of Bhrmya^va, thinks Agni 

Vaiavanara is praised. 

Pt ^TffTTt ^(THbi-. Im'^BIT'L: ^: Am'. — 46"*" is omitted in fk. — ilfl^^ 
HS^Wm Am'. llfT^l^ TJ^^WTH b, *)«lPlfl\^^^fl*IH. r.— HTI^T^ i*. 

well as ihe thirtieth i^taQza contains the word, bat the latter only 

' Tlie eleventh a 
1 be meant. 

47. But in the triplet ' A hundred ' {^atam : viii. 6. 46-48) the 
gift of Tirindlra * is recorded. ' Forth ' {pra : viii. 7), the following 
(hymn), is addressed to the Maruts ; and the three ' Hither to us ' 
(a nah : viii, 8-10) are addressed to the Asvins. 

1tf^;f^ hdm'r, iKtf^ bfk.— iMimi I-, 1»WT hdm'bfk.— '»ft»TTf*r ^ bm'r, 

"f^'n-yfl: b. 

* cp. ^arvaniikramaQi : Ij-co 'nigaa lirindirasya jiariavyasi/a danastuiih. 

48. 'Thou' {fvam: viii. 11) is addressed to Agni. 'Which, 
O Indra' {ya indra : viii. 12. i) are six (12-17) addressed to Indra; 
but in a hemistich of the last (stanza) but one of the last (viii. 1 7, 
14"'') the god Vasto^pati is praised. 


223] —vi. 52 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.viii.19 

49. * This ' {jidcmh : viii. 1 8) has the Adityas as its deities : with 
three* (of its stanzas), the sixth, the fourth, and the seventh, 
Aditi is praised ; the eighth stanza, * And ' (wfa), is addressed to 
the Aivins. 

•f^: ^1!T hm^r, •fi^fn^RTT B. — ^WTT ^^^T ^H^l r^^*^^ ^m ^?|«fT 

^H^IH. lid. ^*n '^rj^^Tw^ m\ ^Wrf ^^pfPir?rRft^ B. — The end of the varga 
is here marked by ^0 in m^bfk, not in hd. 

* The Sarvanukramaijii does not specify these three stanzas. 

11. BV. yiiL 19 : praise of Trajmdassrn's gifts. 

50. (In) * Blessing' (iom : viii. i8. 9) the three (gods) Fire {agni), 
Sun (surya), Wind (anila)^ are (respectively) praised in successive 
verses (jHxc-chah). The pragatha couplet ' Whom' {yam : viii. 19. 
34, 35) is (in) praise of Varuna, Aryaman, and Mitra 

'Wren* A. Il^t^RTlr, ITOT^itil.f, IWTO^k, l(T^PBt^ b.— ^^inmirt Am^ 

•ftfTT^ r^r*, ®finrRr bfk. — imi^ Am\ ^^\^ B. — ff?f ^[fir: r, jfH ^?n: b, 

1[f7T ^f^ hdm\ fft K^ t\ 

* Op. Sarwiukrama^I on BY. viii. 18 : para (9) agnisutyanUandm, 

61. *in the (hymn) addressed to Agni. * He has given ' {addt : 
viu. 19. 36, 37) are (two stanzas in) praise of the royal seer 

B He gave fifty maidens ^ and three herds of seventy {saptatlh) 

^5?ft hdr, ^fif bfk. — ^^l br, mm\ fk, ^Siftfni m\ ^mi n. — ^i^^sf^ we 
not found in A, but in B and m^ only. 

* The following six and a half slokas (51-57^ ) are quoted in the Nitimafijari on 
BY. Tiii. 19. 37. ^ Op. RY. viii. 19. 36 : adai . . pailcadatatii trasadasyur vadhunam, 

B 52. horses, and camels, and he also (gave) various garments, 
jewels, a brown bull, the lord that led those (herds) \ 

^RVtTRin m^fkrn, H^lHilKlim b. — ^fl^^rrth" m\ H^lTWt b, l!^^T^ fkn, 
^\^IH|i r. — ^Vf fkr, ^^ b, ftfW m\ — UTR m^n(m), IjtW n, l([^ n(h), 
irrt bfr, HW k. — ^%9t m^frn(a), ^%1lt kr*. ^I%^t; b, ^%irt n. — irfJC^r. 
VfH m^fkr^n, VX% b. 



* See BV. viti. 19. 37 : tisf^ni saptatiitdoi h/avah praneta . . diyanaiii patih ; cp. the 
enumemlion of gifts in RV. viii. 46. Z2, 33. 

B 53. Having wedded, the seer as he went on hie way proclaimed 
(all) this to India, and with the hymn 'We' {vayam: viii. 21) 
(praised) Sakra. Pleased thereby the Lord of baci 

"lt^ ^ m^bfkn, "Tfd % r.— H* ^ all MSB. r and n (cp. v. 137).— It^Ww: 
iD>bfkr. 5t^:n(cp.y.i37''). 

B 54, (said), ' seer, choose a boon.' Humbly the seer replied 
to him: ' I (wUl) enjoy, O Lord, simultaneously the fifty maidens* 
of the race of Kakutstha '', 

ngft^ br, ffgft'l fm', ?!^^fl; k. — qtTgff^ rn, WTJ^ b, IBTJT^: k. Wj: 
g?^: f. — qtarr: qqm^ fru. ^WT: M-4111^ b. ^ qwm^ k. — T^ bfkrn(h), 
<,l(^fl_ m^, '^inr n. — 54° . 53 omitted in x'. — The end of the vnr'ja is here marked 
by V\ in btk. 

' This most probably refers to the paScaiatam vadhinam mentioned above (51). Note 
the nom. paHeSiat used for the ace. This word is printed by Mitra as a vocative, 

but it ia impoBsible that this patTOTtymic should be applied to Indra. The vord in, 
however, probably used in the text owing to the clo^ie asaociation of Kakiitslhn with Indra 
(see St. Petersburg Dictionary, under kakvlstka). 

19. The booDS ohoseu by tha aeer. Story of Sobhari and Citra. 

B 55. {and choose) the assumption of many forms at will, youth, 
and everlasting enjoyment, the conch treasure ", the lotus treasure ^ 
always remaining in my house. 

*flflH ra'bfkr, giPlTi; r*. — W^j^^" m'r, Wjftl^' n, ^^t^* fk, g^* b. 

* Prosperity departs with itH diiiappearance: cp. PaBcalantra.ii. 10; Indls<'he SpriicLe, 
3950. '' That is, 100,000,000 piecen of money. 

B 66. May the famous {asau) ViiSvakarman fashion (for me) 
palaces of gold by thy favour, and a flower garden with celestial 
trees for (each of) those (spouses) separately ; 

BTOT^Tt. ni^fi n, H«m»l,bk. — "flF^T^ ni'bfkr. "^i^ ij n. — gi^fn in'bu. 

flrq\?[ fk, v^ I. — '^rti ^ m'kn, "v^zi ^ f, "^T^ ^ b, •^TTt^ r. — ^^^0: 


225] — vi 6 1 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. viii. 21 

B 57. and let there be no co-wife rivalry among these (fifty 
spouses).' And he (Indra) said, 'All this shall be (fulfilled)/ 

* Come hither ' (a ganta : viii. 20) is a hymn addressed to the 
Maruts; the next one, *We' {vaycmi: viii. 21), is addressed to 

58, 59. When * Sobhari, son of Kanva, was sacrificing with 
members of his family in Kuruk^etra, rats devoured (his) com and 
various oblations. (So) he (Sobhari) praised Indra, Citra, (and) 

B with the stanza * Or Indra ' {indro vd : viii. 21. 17), proclaiming 
(Citra's) power of giving b. 

^itif^ Am\ iPtif^f^ B.— ^JlTPl ^1^ m^, Jfm 11^ hd, Jf^J ^^HR 
bfk. — 69. •ggW IC'lt ^» •S^^T^ hdbfk. — 'm^m: Bn, ^ff^ "^ Am\ — 59**^ is 
not found in A, but in B and m^ only. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ 
in bfk. 

* 58* -62* are quoted in the NTtimafijari on EV. viii. 21. 18. * 59* seems 
necessary, as without it, there is no reference in A to stanza 17 being part of the 
ddnastuii (cp. San^ukrama^I : antye dvfce). 

13. Story of Sobhari and Citra (continued). BV. viii. 22*26. 

B 60. And the king of the rats, rejoiced at heart, from self- 
satisfaction himself, 

Citra, being praised like a god, gave, to the seer, of cows * 

#^lfthm^r^fkr^r*r\^^?ftr. — (^^ <VM^ ?J^Rf <^hm^r,1^n$tfrfl^1Tf 
^%ir f r'^r^n, tMt ^^ TT ^i^^Rf h, t^nJt ^T^ TR ^Pf^f^ ^k (^» k). 

* The wording of the Sarvanukramani, antye dvfce dtrasya ddnastutih, would seem 
to favour the reading of B {citro yad dadau tad dvfcena ha). 

61. a thousand myriads. Praising (him) the seer accepted (the 
gift). And rejoicing in heart (Citra) addressed the seer, * I do not 
deserve the praise of a seer, 

n. og 

RV. viii. 3I-] BRHADDEVATA vi. 62— [226 

^fW% hbr, UfM <J n. — f^raTITf in\ fflamif hd, fl^toif brn. — ^^TR 
hdm'r, Rtirm br*Q. — 'tf^: hdr, ^ m'b, ^f^ n, ft (^) fk.— This iloka is 
omitted in fk with the exception of thethr ee syllableB ft ^p[ (sic). 

62. having been begotten in an animal womb. Do you (rather) 
praise the gods.' And (yet) with the last (stanza, viii. 21. 18) he 
(the seer) praised him again. And with the hymn ' Hither that ' 
(0 tyam : viii. 22) (he praised) the A^vins ^ 

«^^ifl Am', Hg^fft Bn. — ^WI K ^flflK n, \^^V. f, ^^TTT: k, ^^ITt r. 
^ITSt hd (doubtleHs due to the preceding "^^X), ^ '^ r', ^'RV m'. — Inatead of 
62 and 63° as given id the text (according tu hdm'rbfk), r^r^r^ read: 

(^wt) ft^ ^: <n,f*3tH: I 

hd, hut not m*. add these throe pSdas after those in the text (irhich they have also), 
narking the lacuna of one [nda by six (h) and eight (d) short horizontal strokea at the lop 
of the line. These j^das are probably baaed on a marginal gloss with reference to 61 

' With 6a and 63" cp. Sairtinukraniam : lyam aivinam . . . ilUva . . agnfi/am. 

63. The (hymn) 'Laud thou' (ilisva: viii. 23) is addressed 
to Agni, and the next one 'O friends' {sakkdyak: viii. 24) is 
addressed to Indra, but the last triplet, 'As to Varo-su^aman ' 
(j/athd varo susdmne : viii, 24. 28-30), is addressed to Dawn *. 

*WT ^ g^TWir hdbfk ("^ fk), ^WT ^: ^Xk r. 

* The SarrSnuktamanl saya nothing about thia triplet being addressed to Uaai, but 
states that it ia a ddnastuti of Varu Sausamria, of which nothing ia said faere, 

64. Now it is these eight deities altogether who cleft Vala : 
Ufas and Indra and Soma, Agni, Surya, Brhaspati*, 

IT^ 5 hm'r, ^Tfft ^ b, ^HT ^ fk. — «fffll*jftfll hm'bfk, ^ftTTT IPTT r. — 
^?IJT.bk, ^?R^fr. ^UUhdm'. — «t*lfllfM: iidbfk, ^I^^JIfllfM: r (cp. r in vi. 33). 

' This remark is euggeated hj the mention of Vala in the laat stanza of RV. viii. 34. 

65. Angiras and Sarama. Now at the beginning of the next 
hymn ' You two as such ' {td vdm : viii, 25) there are nine (stanzaa) 
addressed to Mitra-Varuna, but the next twelve* 


227] — vi. 68 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. viii. a; 

The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in m^bfk, not in hd. 

* According to the San^ukramai^I only lo-ia (not zo-21) are addressed to the 

14. DeitiM of BV. viii. 26-31. viii. 29 is prthak-karma-stiiti. 

66. are addressed to the All-gods ; and the wealth which king 
Varu gave to the seer is proclaimed in the triplet * A bay from 
Uk^anyayana' (rjram uJc§anydyane : viii. 25. 22-24)*. 

^1^ hm^r, ^b, ^W fk. — ^H<[|^ hm^r, ^l^^T^ b, ^Vf^ (^) f, l|«l 

(H^) k. — After 66"^ r adds (apparently from r^r*r*) the Ime: 

which is not found in hdm^bfk nor in r'r'r^, and which B already has (with slight 
variations) as 59^ . The line in that place b found in B and m^ only (see note on 

vi. 59). — if^fifiT 5 g% («R«*0 ^°^^'» ^fNhr iifti% fk, 4H^RnTf?[ f^ b. — 

(afl|l«lhm^bfk, irflBF^r. — W^^WII^^ hdr, ^BHQV ^^1^ f» ^JW^T^"" 
^M^ k, V^tlWUTI^^ b. 

* The pratika must be read with vyiiha, fjram ukfai^iajifane, on account of the metre. — 
The SarvSnukramani makes no mention of a danastuii here. 

B 67. (What) the A^vins, being pleased, bestowed on Sn^aman, is 
told here*: (viz.) 

* Of you two ' {yuvoh : viii. 26) is addressed to the Afivins : * Do 
thou yoke^' {yuk§va: viii. 26. 20-25) (a^d) the (stanzas) which 
(come) next are addressed to Vayu. 

flf^fln br, Tfrf^f^ fk, Alfqfln m^. — ^[^Tirflr U ^TTRftT b, ^tn^iPi 
r. — &j is not found in A, but in B and m^ only. — '^^^^ r, ^^^^ fk, ^pft^g^ 
bm^, ^'ft^ ^hd (the fuller pratika of viii. 26. i). — ^TTflT VflTT^ ^TP hdm^r, 

fli*i*ii ^s^Prrt 5^ bf, ^pwryjncV 5^ ^ 

* This mast refer to the following hymn : SusSman is mentioned in the second 
stanza. ^ The pratika yukpja is necessary in A, as there would be no clue to the 
stanzas meant : cp. SarvSnukramani vitpiyadyd vayavya^ The reading of B, uttarau 
tfcau is, however, more definite. 

68. Manu, as he was named, whom Savarna ^ obtained as a son 
from Vivasvatb, uttered the five hymns (27-31) addressed to the 

RV. viii. a;-] 



All-gods {and beginning) ' Agni at the laudation ' [agnir ukihe : 
viii. 27). 

W^ bfkra, fTT^hdm^^JT^^all MSS., r (a, v.r.), JT^ TTO b. — The teit 
of 68* follows the reading of hdra'rbfk; the reading of r'r*r* ia : q^B^^Tlf'I ^ffilf*! 

' I have foUuwed B ia reading tavarjta, aa this is supported by Ssdgurusisya, p. 139: 
vumur noma vivasoala^ savarnai/djji iaranyuchayayari) jalah ; the metronf mie, too, of Hanu 
is savarni. Cp. BD. vii, i. '' 68"* is quoted by SadgurusJBja on RV. viii. 17. 

69. 'Brown is one' (habkrur ekah: viii. 29) — these are ten 
dvipadaa with characteristic marks {lihgatah) ; for in them the 
deities are praised, each separately, by their activities*. 

^TTT hm'r*B, ^ftPI, r. — 'Bn^ ^T^tH: hm'rhfk, KIUJ *lfll*i: r*r*r'. 

' Cp. above, iii. 40-43. 

70. Now where the deities are praised by their respective 
actions and qualities, there is what is called separate praise of 
action {^prtkak-karmob-stuti). Such a (hymn) ia addressed to the 

V^ 7n hm'bfk, ^^ tf^ r. — 70'"' followfi the reading of Am'; the reading of 
B is : <JVI34<jJ'i1^n nTSE^rT^^^^?!*!,. — The end of the varga is here marked by Vi 
in bfk, not in hd. 

IS. Detailed account of ST. viii. 29, 31. Deities of viii. 32-34. 

71. Now of these (dvipadaa) the first 'Brown' {hahhruh: viii. 
29. i) is addressed to Soma, but the next stanza (2) is addressed 
to Agni ; (then comes) one addressed to Tvaatr (3), and Indra (4) 
and Rudra (5), Pu^an (6), Vi^nu (7), a stanza addressed to the 
ASvins (8) ; 

72. the ninth is addressed to Mitra-Varuna (9), the tenth 
stanza is (in) praise of the Atris*. And in connexion with the 
institutor of the sacrifice (in) 'Who' {yah: viii. 31) the sacrifice 
{ijyd)^ is hei'e praised, 

ft^T^^^l^bfkr. ft^iq^tlH^JT^hdraV — ^H«if«*iwq: m', ^?l«TT^^ H^T^I 

h, <VMti^ fl'^ra: d, <nin fJTTO^ra: b, ^n«1 f«i?ra^ r, ^rpft to^: fk. — 


229] — vi. 75 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. viii. 32 

il^w r, ^ ^T^ ncitr^^i b, irti Vim ii4)rAfli f k. 

* The deities in the text of BY. viii. 29. 10 are in the plural: according to Sayana's 
comment they are the Atris. The readings mitra and ahi are undoubtedly corruptions 
of atrif every letter of which occurs in one or other of the corruptions. ^ The 
conjecture ' ya * ijyajtra b supported by the SarvSnukramanii, which describes the hymn 
thus : yo yajati • . atrajjyastavo yajamdnapra^amsd ca. The reading trayi atutd may be 
a corruption of prdktrtUd. 

B 73. In the couplet * Who sacrifices' (yo yajati : viii. 31. i, 2) 
Sakra, the Lord of sacrificers, is lauded. In the couplet * Glorious 
his ' (tasya dyumdn : 3, 4) the sacrificer (is praised), also in the 
four (stanzas) * Swiftly' {p/xk^ : 15-18). 

^nnrrnbr, ^nrniPim^fk. — Jiwn r, <i^i^b, jffj m\ inn f, ^u k. — 

^l^rfTT r, Hf^fil b, tir^lci fk, viljffn m^. — This sloka is not found in A, but in B 
and m^ only. 

B 74. The five stanzas * The couple who ' {yd dampati : viii. 
31. 5-9) are (in praise) of husband and wife* as sacrificers. 
* Hither protection' (d Sarma: 10) is a prayer. The two follow- 
ing 'May hither come' {aitu: 11, 12) are addressed to Pu^an^; 
while (in) ' Since ' {yathd : 1 3) Mitra, Aryaman, 

IJ^rtt^ br, ^Elft^nr^ ^k, <|flil^^ m^ — Jf\ ^irft ^W^: m\ J({ ^mH)^^: br. 

m ^^ - - '^r f. ^ i^rnft g^: k.— ^ ^B^M^tg r. ^ ^4i4^<fM g b, ^ 

l|4l^<Mi m\ ^^^4lft<^i1 fk (•ft k).— ifNft ^ b, ifNt ^ m^f, ifNft 

Vtf^ k. — ^fif^f^JUT bfkm^ fSnTn^TT r. — V[VJ bfkr, ITOT m^. — This s'loka is not 
found in A, but in B and m^ only. 

* Gp. SarvSnukrama^i, yaUyadi paHca doj^ipatyofi, which is probably based on the 
aboye, dtaj^pttiyol^ paUca yd dojppati fcafi, ^ Pusan is mentioned in 11 {aitu), but 
not in 12. 

B 75. and Varuna, the Adityas, are praised ; * Agni ' (agnim : 14) 
is to Agni. 

The three following hymns after this, * Forth the deeds ' {pra 
krtdni : viii 32-34), are addressed to Indra. 

^41^^ m^bfk, ^n^5Fl^ r. — 75" is not found in A, but in B and m^ only. — 
The end of the varga is here marked by 9A in hdbfk. — A has only two and a half 
slokas in this varga. 

RV. viii. 33- 



16. Indra and Vyaiiua'a sister. Deities of BY. viii. 3S-46. 

76. In ' Downward ' (adhah : viii. 33. 1 9) a girl addressed Indra 
(who appeared) with the characteristics of a woraan*; for the 
chastiser of Paka (Indra) made love to that Danava maiden ^, 

"«ra tW^ r, V9 ^W^ b. "Vsm TWH fk. ira tWTK hdm'. — ^RTT ^ bkr, 
«Wt H f. TmJ g hdm'.— ^tftnf%^(TT5TTt(T,hdm'br. ^nftHPI I TWW^ f, 

* That is, this sUnza is addreRsed by a DSnavi to Indra who haa aaaumed the form 
of a. vmmBin. According to &a;aiaa on RV. viii. 33. ig this stonsa is addressed to 
Asafiga Flajogi when be was a woman (cp. above, vi. 41]. And had aaaumed tho 
disguise of a woman because Yjraipia was Lis enemy. 

77. the eldest sister of Vyamsa, by reason of his (Indra's) 
youthful desire {yuva-kdmyd)^. 'By Agni* {agmnd: viii. 35) is 
a hymn addressed to the Afivins. Then follow two hymns (36, 37) 
addressed to Indra. 

^M^ r^r', Tg^rel r'r*r*, ^M^ h. ^ f, ^MV k. g^TO hdm^r^ — J^N 
hm'br, (TO ^ f, 71^^ k, 7T^ d. — <|q4l|M|t|| hdm'r^fkt^r'r', gqq||Urt|I b, 
^^*l*«»H r(=r'r*r*). — »ft; 7^: hdm'r, 7T7!: XI^ bfk (cp. vi. 25 and 79). 

* Tha reading of r, tatyatva badhokdmyai/a, eeema more natural : ' because of hia 
(Vyamaa's) desire lo slay (Indra),' or possibly, 'because of bis (India's) desire to slay 
(Vyanisa)'; hia making love to the sister being, in that case, a ruse. Xami/S at the end 
of a compound in the BD. otherwise guvema the preceding word in an objective eenie 
(^'desire for*). The urlginal reading here was, therefore, perhaps yuddhakamyayS. 

78. The following (38) is addressed to Indra-Agni, (then) one 
to Agni (39), one to Indra-Agni (40) ; the following two (41, 42) 
are addressed to Varuna ; but in the latter (42) Varuna hymn the 
last triplet ' Hither you two ' (o vdm : viii. 42. 4-6) is addressed 
to the Asvina. 

^^^(tlT'l) Am'.^li^T^nJlb, ^HfTJ'flTT^fkr. — \^W Am\ ^flfWIf b. 
■^^fF^n^ fk''- — 'H^ m^bfkr^r'r*. TT^ hdr'. 

79. The two hymns, ' These ' (ime : viii. 43), ' With fuel ' (sam- : 
viii. 44), are addressed to Agni ; the two which then follow after 
these (45, 46) are addressed to Indra. 

Now what Kanita Prthufiravas gave to Va^a A^vya * 

231] — vi 84 TRANSLATION 

Am'.— ^IJTOTOITO 8«, qS(l4l|4«ll<l hdm'r, qS(|<||«|«| bf, « l 4imi<i|Hl k. 

* 79"* and 80" are quoted by Sa4guru8uya on BY. viU. 46 and by l^ya^a on BY. 
viii. 46. 31. 

80. as a gift is here praised in the (stanzas) beginning 'Hither 
he' (a sa: viii. 46. 21-24). The two pragatha couplets * Hither to 
our* (a ndh: 25-28) are addressed to Vayu as well as the last 
(stanza) but one of the hymn (32). 

k. — •f^Rri Am^BS, •f?[fT B. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^§ in m^bfk, 
not in hd. 

17. IMties of BV. viii. 47-66. 

B 81, 82. In the couplet 'Well led indeed' (sunttho gha: viii. 
46. 4, 5), Mitra-Aryaman (and) the Maruts are praised. 

Pleased by (the hymn) containing forty-two stanzas (viii. 45) 
the Fort-destroyer (Indra), after cutting through the mountain 
with his bolt, gave to TriSoka the cows which had been carried off 
by the Asuras. The seer has stated this himself in the (stanza), 
*Who clave' (yoA krntat: viii. 45. 30). 

^r<Wt ^ r, ^wWt ^ m^bfk. — ffil^«|R^I|!dL br, fl[^WTfniWiT fk, •fni^ 
to}. — ^Sa. firft ftWW m^r, p(fK ftWW b, firf^ f*! " f, P(fK f*! " " k. — H^rtf 
m^r, ifirtr bfk. — ITTTJ r, l^TT bfk, flTR^mK — Vf^^ ^W^r, ^(M^^^^ b, 
Vfi|^ VQV^fk, Vfi|^ ^H^m\ — ^81, 8a are not found in A, but in B and m^ only. 

83. In (the hymn) 'Great' (mahi: viii. 47), of which the 
Adityas are the deities, Aditi is praised with the ninth (stanza). 
The last five (stanzas: 14-18) should be (considered as addressed) 
to Dawn as well (api) *. ' Of the sweet ' {svddoh : viii. 48) is 
traditionally held to be addressed to Soma. 

^f^W^^I^ hdm\ •f?[W^^ fbr, »f^A|^q<1l k. — ^I^KXRl ^prR, hm^r, 
* The SarvSnnkrama^i has borrowed the words antya^ paHcosase *pi, 

84. Now the following eight hymns (viii. 49-56), by seers of 
ardent brilliance, are addressed to Indra*; but the twenty- 

RV.viii.sH BRHADDEVATA vi. 85— [232 

sixth pragatha couplet here (vlii. 54. 3, 4) is addressed to many- 

'Ji l 'Wgl g Am'. Tn^ ^reV p.— fflJti^^ti l UL hm'r. rJ | 444^. ! *< I H. K IW' 

^Jf^flrt: hdm'bfk, ^V^qfl; r. 

" In the reading at'nrfrnBy abhi, the tatter word is of course the piatTlca of Ihe first 
Valakbilya bymn (viii. 49), Cp. below, 86, note *. 

85, The last stanza, ' Agni has appeared ' {acety agnik : viii. 
56. 5), is to Agni ; the last verse (pada) '^ sang of Surya (viii. 56. 5''). 
Whatever wealth Praakanva gave to Prsadhra, 

*J(Wl^i.* hm'r, «^|^U|« b, "flil'jtl' rk. — ^^$TT^ '^^ r'r', l1<J4in TR^ b, 
^I^SwiO ^^ f, ^aiflWm^t k, ^MWM^T bm'r, — In r'r^(.')r*r^ 85°* rends: ^I^- 

wf^f^fii w»aTii?i1ifiT: ^ iPT g. — ^vs^ bm'r, g^Tfl^ b, yrg^ f. 5^^ k, 

y«(Vl^ r'' (on Iho torruj.tiou of ^ to ^ and ^ cp. i. 92 ; iii. 6). — H^ f r, ^ ^ 
k, ^4^^ b, (I414| m'. 1^^ hd. — The end of tbe varga is here marked liy S'© in 
m'bfk, not in hd. 

• Or, with A, 'with the last verse (pad) he (the seer) sang of Surya'; pad, how- 
evGT, ia not elsewhere used in the BD. with this eense, while pada is often so uied. 

18. Deities of BV. viii. 60-67. 

86. all that is here praised with the two hymns ' Great indeed' 
{bhfirlt : viii. 55, 56}. 

A Now after {a hjuan) addressed to Agni (viii. 60)^ there follow 
here six addressed to Indra (beginning) 'Both' {ubkayam: viiL 

Bhaguri says that the stanza ' The giver to me ' (data me : 
viii. 65. 10) (contains) incidental mention [nipata) of the Gods; 

fl'^Clt^tflm'br, TT^rtfit fk. ^J^^fn 3 bd.^ — fwf «^nJT.Am', Hft.'^^fiJ- 
THT^B. — 86°'' is not fonad in brkr^r\ — ^HTTTlTTf bm'r, r«IMIAI*ll(J fkr^, f^niT- 

^^ r^r', Pnrnn^f^ b. 

* It is to be noted that the BD. makes no mention of the last ^^lakbilya bTmns 
(viii. 57-59). This is in agreement with the Kashmir Kbila collection, which (Adbj^ja 
iii. I-14) ddI; contains the first eight (viii, 49-56), introduced nith the words : balathOyak 
pare 't(au (ii. 19) ; ' in the following (adhyaja) the eight Valakhilya hymns (are given).' — 



233] — vi. 90 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. viii. 67 

The eleventh Yalakhilya hymn (viii. 59) has already been referred to above (iii. 119) 
as one (the sixth) of the eleven Supan^a bymns.-^-Only two of the MSS. of the 
SarvSnnkrama^I used by me notice the YSIakhilya hymns, and viii. 58 is omitted even 
in these two MSS. 

87. Yaska, however, considers this triplet (viii. 65. 10-12) 
to be addressed to the All-gods. But the hymn which here 
follows, *Now these' (tydn nu: viii 67), has the Adityas as its 

i VTW^ ^ hdm^r', ^^TRirapP^r, ^TRRtf ^f ^ ^ %"! r*, ^TRlit 
'C^^ g^ ^'f b, ^TRlit ^ ^ ^'f fk (f^ k). — Wlfi^M^ r, fl|pC|(l|^ hdm\ 

wiPiw^ b, wrftw 5 ^» wtW fn t 

B 88. Fishermen, having by chance seen fish in the water of the 
Sarasvati, cast a net, caught them, and threw them upon^ the dry 
land out of the water. 

^^iTP^m^r.^Wbfk. — ^Wn#m^r,HT%k,^b. — ^ifJ^^f^R'T^r, IfHT ^Trf^l^ 
in\ W^ ^if^^ f, TWIT ^rf^^ k, l|l4ll^niM*t b. — ^88-90"^ are not found in A, 
but in B and m^ only. 

* Udakfipan : cp. iamudaksipan in iv. 24. 

B 89. And they, frightened by the fall of their bodies, praised 
the sons of Aditi. And they (the Adityas) then released them, 
and graciously conversed with them (the fishermen), 

H(\iMM4)fllJi l br, ^ilMMi^ ^ imi k, IKIMMII^ ilWT f. 

B 90. (saying) ' O fishermen, be not afi^aid of hunger,' and ' Ye 
shall obtain heaven.' 

In that hymn {tatra : viii. 67), Aditi, the mother of these 
(Adityas), is praised with the triplet *And' {uta : viii. 67. 

^fNrr: fkr, '^!t^XJ b, ^^^TTPI m\ — ^^ Wn ^ft br, ^^ Wt'^t, ^^ 

^ ^ k, ^Vrrat m\ — ^ bfkr, Jjl w}. — I3|if r, ^ "^ mS ^|3J fk, ^rI b. — 

n^^i hdm^, ^^^ br, ^WTT fk. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in 
bfk, not in hd. 

n. H h 

RV.viii.68-] BRHADDEVATA vi. gi— [234 

19. Deitiea of BT. viii. 68-75. 

91. Because she is their mother she may be praised in every 
praise of them owing to (this) connexion. ' Hither thee as a car ' 
(d tvd ratham : viii. 68-70) are three hymns addressed to Indra ; 
(the stanza) 'Near to me six' {upa md §at: viii. 68. 14)" praises 
the seasons''. 

'B^reaTOTf hd^^ ^irHf l ^'M l j m', WfiRfVtTT^ r' r». ^ OT*^ r*. %^- 
^hiVT f, ^rfS^WIT k, [Wlgfll omitted] ^fSfl^aiT b, ll^^^'^c^ r.^^^Bj^^ r, 

^■^WT^H. b, ^ftWT^ fk. 

' Upa majti sat owing to the metre for upa ma tal Hi. The SBrvaitukreinBrii 

aays nothing of the RtuB in RV. viii. 68. 14, but includes that ataai& in the danaetuti 
(14-19). Sa^guruBiffa eiplaina the discrepancj aa due to the Devatauukramani (quoted 
by him, p. 141), which includes 14 in the danattali. In this coaneiion he quotes 91' 
and 92"^ (on EV. viii. 68). 

92, 93. The five following (stanzas) in this hymn (atra) are 
(in) praise of the gifts of Rkaa and A^vamedha (viii. 68. 15-19). 
The first hemistich (11°'') of the couplet 'He has drunk' {apdt : 
viii. 69. ir, 12) is (in) praise of Indra, Agni, and the All-(god8); 
the rest (11"', 12) hasVaruna as its divinity. 'Thou' {tvam : viii. 
71, 72) are two (hymns) addi-essed to Agni; or the latter hymn 
(72) is (in) praise of oblations, 

1i4l^*ly*ft<,^ bd (^TPH^V^t^ S), ^|^HI*ly*ri*.fl ra'r, TTT^rnB- 
'S^VT^ b, ^jnfriTara^Vra f. — ^ITT: hdm^bs, TTTT fkr. — VMtf<^<fl bm'r, 
Vrrt^Tf^ bfk. — 93. ^Tft q^m^qn: hdbfk, Ipft ^^CT^W: r^m'r*r°, ?tm 
^Vt^^TT: r. — ^BifJ'Hi, Am', gwgrft b, ^BW-tO, f, ^l«rtX k, ^ g^ r. 

94. and of milk, kine, and plants ; for it evidently (drSyate) has 
this character. 'Up' {ut: viii. 73) is addressed to the A^vins. 
The two following hymns, ' Of every house ' {viio-viiah ; viii, 74, 75), 
are addi'essed to Agni. 

tra:TBtTrat»Tt ^ hm'r, -^Wf m bfkr'r'.— 94*=iii. 76'*; iv. 18*; v. 87'; 
vui. 62"*. 

95. With the two stanzas 'I' {aham: viii. 74. 13, 14) the seer 
praises himself 


235] — vi. 98 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.viii.90 
B Having praised himself, he praises the gift of ^rutarvan <" 

9^^ and 96' are not found in A, but in B and m^ onlj. — The end of the varga 
is here marked by ^Q. in bfk. 

* 95^ was probably known to the author of the San^ukramapi : cp. antyas 
iisrafi . . irutarvai^ danastutif, 

20. DeitiM of BV. wiiL 76-00. 

B 96. and the great river Paru^nl in connexion with what he has 
received (dddna)\ 

With the following (stanza he praises) the Parueni^ (viii. 74. 1 5); 
Indra with the three hymns, * Now this ' {imain nu : viii. 76-78). 

VIWI<I^I* bfkr, ^ffW^TTT* m\ — 'TCTT M^^fi*^( Am^b, M<*jr ^TOSt" 
f%rf5fi{] f, Vf^yn MWi\UiJ^ k, YV^^' M<,i|] ^^ r. — fwrfff r, twfif hdbfk* 

* This line considered in connexion with the next seems very redundant and i» 
probably a later addition. ^ The SarvSnukramapii makes no mention of the 
Parus^I here. 

97. * This active ^ {ayam krtnuh : viii. 79) is addressed to Soma. 
The three following this (beginning) * Truly not' (nahi : viii. 80-82) 
are addressed to Indra. In the first of these (80) the stanza * He 
has exalted ' (avlvrdhat : 10) is addressed to the All-gods* 

^ B^R^ ^fW hm^b, Hjgf^ i^ f, ligftt ^^if k, ?5ft^I9 <«|<|f4{«H| 
r- — ^4«H.lR| ^TCniRT: hm^b, Mil^tJ^llUI ^Trf^T ?J r. — ^f|^4|4|q)^VR^ hdr, 

98. * Of the gods' {devdndm : viii. 83) is to the Gods ; the nextj 
* The dearest ' (pre^tham : viii. 84), is addressed to Agni. * Hither 
to my' (a me : viii. 85-87) are three addressed to the Afivins, and 
*Him' (torn: viii. 88-90) are similarly (iti) (three) addressed 
to Indra. 

thnrrttirairoT hm^rbfk. ^ifipi 

the reading of Am^ ; the reading of B, ^fiwrf^Trf'f ^pHTPf ^ f ^^JT^ftr ^ 'l^. 
seems preferable in itself. The second Xfif in A must be intended to mean 'so/ 
* similarly' (that is/ three '=:1T^ in B).-: — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 
in bfk, not in hd. — It is to be noticed that the varga has, even in B, the abnormally small 
number of three slokas. This is probably due to the intention of beginning the story of 
ApalS with a new varga^ 

RV.viii.9i-] BRHADDEVATA vi. 99— [236 

21. Story of Apala. 

99. a There was once a girl Apala, daughter of Atri, who suffered 
from skin-disease. With her Indra fell in love, having seen her in 
the lonely hermitage of her father. 

WT^Pntft hdr, Wl^ft'it b. WF^tftlfft tk. — ^^ hrbfk, IfHT 1^1*1'. 

* The following passage (99-106) is quoted in the NKiniaSjari on BV. viii. 91, 7 uid 
Ba^gamsisya on RV. viii. 91 (pp. I43f.) : see BD. vol. i, p. 135. Cp. Saysna in his in- 
troduction to SV. viii, 91, where he gives a proie version of the story, besides quotations 
from the SStySjana Brahmsi;ia in bis coniment on RV. viii. 91. i, 3, 5, 7. See also M. M., 
RV. vol. iii, pp. 33-3S, where extracts from the BD., 6a48U'''>*'syo '^^ the NTtimailiari are 
quoted; Aufrecht, Indiacbe Studien, vol. iv. p. iS. quotes and tranBlatea this BD. passage. 

100. Now hy penance she became aware of all Indra's intentions. 
Taking a water-pot she went to fetch water. 

ipjT'T^ snrra w\ hdr, inTTW% arim vn b, trrij wtto ^t^rer n, ^ wni ij 

^imtT^t, 8. — 100°'' (.■omes after 103"* in A; it is omitted in fk. 

B 101. Seeing Soma at the edge of the water, she praised him 
with a stanza in the forest. This matter is related in the (stanza) 
'A maiden to the water' {kanyd vdh : viii. 91, i). 

Wftnra?!: m'fn, mflin ^; bU, qtfqn: ^: r, — TUIs sloka is not found in A 
or s, but in B and n ; loi" is in m' alsu. 

102. She pressed Soma in her mouth ; 

B and having pressed it she invoked Indra with the (stanza), 
' Thou that goest ' (asau ya e§i : viii. 91. 2) ; 
and Indra drank it from her mouth, 

^fTr^g%bdni', «Tg^™g'?mr. wgrrag^r^bfk, ^^m^ irer n. 

5^T^ ^l^% a. — 'PR^ m' bfkns, XS^^ A. — 103*" are not found in A, but in B onlj. 
^Ik^uruiiiya has tvo entirely different ^idas in place of 103 ". 

103. after he had eaten cakes and meal from her house. And 
she praised him with stanzas, but with a triplet (viii. 91. 4-6) she 
addressed him (saying), 


237] — vi. 107 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. viii. 93 

Ss^gunuisya has these two lines in the following considerably modified form: 

f'fTTTO aff^i?^ «Tiif%i?Tr ^fw'l: 1 

The last pSda here is nearly the same as 104 . — The end of the varga is here marked 
by ^^ in bfk, not in hd. 

22. Story of Apila (oonoluded). Deities of BV. viiL 92, 93. 

104. ^ Make me, O Sakra, to have abundant hair, (and) to be 
faultless-limbed, (and) fair-skinned.' 

B Hearing this speech of hers, the Fort-destroyer was pleased 
with it. 

^Wl*ihm^n8, ^W^ br, ^tq^l f. — 5tf m^bfkr, ItI^ n. — 104*^ is not found 
in A or 8, but in Bm^n only. — ^adgurusisya omits 104' also, but has 104 in a slightly 
modified form (see note on 103). 

105. Indra passing {praJc§ipya) her through the carnage 
aperture (between the body) of the car and the yoke •, drew her 
for th three times. Then she became feir-sWed. 

mf^s(Q TFi. all MSS., r and n(hm), T^ffiC^ ^MIH,?. T^ "Vfl^Ull ITR^n. — 
^^[^ irr g TOV^T^ hm^rs, Wf: irr ^|W^W^ bfkr^r'n. 

* Without a knowledge of the construction of cars at the period when this passage 
was written, the exact meaning must be uncertain, but the wording indicates that the 
two genitives express the two parts between which there was an aperture (ratha'chidra), 

106. Her first skin which was cast off became a porcupine 
(Salyaka)^ but the next became an alligator {godha)^ and the last 
a chameleon {Jcrhaldsd). 

106 follows the reading of Am^; the reading of Bn is: 

^reit ^t^ ^^^^rraf iriNrt h^^^h^i (^ bfkn, ^ r) 

The reading of A is favoured by that of Sa^gurusisya : 

107. Yaska and Bhaguri call this hymn a story » {itihdsa)^ 
while ^unaka calls *A maiden' {kanyd : viii. 91) a (hymn) 
addressed to Indra ^, as well as the two which come next 
(beginning) *As one who drinks' {pdntam: viii. 92, 93). 

RV, viii. 93-] 



^rfHj l *ir*l< Am\l .rHtmr*<*< B.— <JHgi*) l <|O Ai.i'C^hd,°ft:ni^^r'rS*), 

^ TRrfl^ HI!: lit bfkr. 

* Cp. Vediache Studien, i, p. agj f. '' Tlio Sarvttnukramanl combine the two 
atatecnenta in describing the b/mn as an Uihasa eindroA. 

B 108. But the last (stanza) of the latter (viii. 93. 34) is pronounced 
in the Aitareya (Brahmana) " to be addressed to the 5.bhu8 ; for on 
the third Chandoma (day)** this hymn is chanted (Sasyate) aa 
one addressed to the Rbhus •^. 

WT^ m'b, ?n^T^ f, ^T^ r. — Vi'Tl<,^fl>,*ft br, l^ l,ftfl\<il« m\ 

(li^TIH) fl€lrtXfl'li f- — ^^"If'f^ r(m' ;), ^"^tfl* b, (t^tf«% f. ^^tfjftl k. 

Thia Bloka in not found in A, but in B and m onlf. — The end of Iho varga ii hots 
marked by ^^ in bfk, 

* AB. V. II. 12: cp. SarvlDukmnarii : arttyaindrarbhaTi. ** See chandoma and 
chandomika in the St. Petersburg Dictionaty; in the Emaller Dictionary Bohtlingk accepta 
the reading chandogiUa hern^Chandogya Brahmana. " Cp. BD. v. 175. 

23. Stor7 0f Soma'a fiigbt &om the godi. 

109, The following hymn, ' The cow ' (gauh ; viii. 94), is 
addressed to the Maruts ; the following six, ' Hither to thee ' 
(d tva : viii. 95-100), are addressed to Indra. 

B In the second hymn of these (96) they say there is a story 
{itikdsa) : 

*Soma, oppressed hy fear of Vrtra, fled from the gods ; 

W ^" br, ^ #» Am'fk. — ^fjI^TO fkr. ^fiTfT^T b. — lo?"* ia not found in 
Am\ but in B only. — IRflW TJ Ani^s, ira^HrTW B. 

' The following passage (log'^-iis) is quoted by Sayana on RV. viii. 96. 13 (cp. 
BV. i. 130. 8): cp. Tar. lect., M.M.. RV." vol. iii, p. 39f. See Vedisehe Stndien, vol. 
iii, p. 49 f. The story refers to RV. viii. 96. 13-15. 

110. and he betook himself to a river named Am^umati* in 
(the country of) the Kurus. Him approached, with Brhaspati 
onlyb, the slayer of Vrtra «, 

iTTO7hdm'bfk, Tr»nr'r^'r''n, («'Tft")*mg^r, »rm 8. — "«rt7re7i;hm'i Va, 

"WTfviBtVb, "Wrf^Hflf. "aifireFl r' r^* t^ ^ifif&TT n. — J^t. rS'ns, gp»JH^ b. JiTT f. 

5^1, Am*. — <%>! vff^rr^ r, 'i%»rn5>9TTrf hdm', •i*i*iM<ii^ b, •%qm<iT r. 

239] — vi. 1 14 TEANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. viU. 96 

* Op. BY. 'viii. 96. 13 : ava drapso aiji^matlm atifthat. ^ Op. viii. 96. 15 : 
bfhaspaUna yujendrafi sasahe ; cp. AB. vi. 36. 14 : bfhaspatinaiva yvja, ^ This 
•loka is quoted by the Nltimafijari on BY. viii. 95. 7. 

111. being about to fight* in company with the greatly rejoicing 
Maruts, armed with various weapons. Soma, seeing them ap- 
proachingy stood in array with his forces, 

hdrbk, l^flint r^r*r*. 

* The accusative yotsyttmanam cannot be right, as this would imply that Soma was 
already about to fight, and that he was accompanied by the Maruts, while dfs(va tan ayataf^ 
would then become unintelligible. The situation appears to be this. Indra, accompanied 
by Bfhaspati alone among the gods whom Soma had left, approaches the latter, while 
on a warlike expedition in association with his allies the Maruts. Soma, on seeing Indra's 
host, takes it for Y^tra's army and assumes the defensive. Bphaspati then comes forward 
and explains that it is Indra with his Maruts. 

112. thinking Vrtra was approaching with a hostile host, intent 
on slaying (him). To him, arrayed and ready with his bow, 
Brhaspati spoke : 

iFTnft g^*ll<<l* n hdm^rbfk, iTTR ^^nTRJTifT r^r*r^ 

113. 'This is the Lord of the Maruts, O Soma; come back to 
the gods, O Lord.' 

B Hearing the speech of the preceptor of the gods, which was 
unavailing because he believed it was Vrtra, 

?at^ Hff m^r, ^iAf% hdfb, €tSNrf| k. ?Eit«T S(f|[ r^r'r*r«, ?Eit«Tlrff s. — 113*^ 
is not found in A, but in Bm^ only. — "^PTq kr, ^ni4 b.^The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^^ in bfk. The varga has five and a half slokas, but 113' is probably 
a later addition ; for it is both superfluous and omitted not only by SSya^a but also by m^, 
which almost invariably has the additional readings of B. 

24. Story of Soma's flight (continuad). 

taking hux 
;hen) drank 

in due form. 

HV.viii.96-] BRHADDEVATA vi. 115— [240 

jM ^ A, ^Ht^^ m'a, ^t^#^ b, ^afl®^ f- — ^TTTPfni Am's, ^^11- 

115. And having drunk (him) they slew in battle nine times 
ninety * demons. All this is related in the triplet ' Down ' {ava : 
viii. 96. I3-I5)''- 

jC*!*^^ b. 

' Cp. vi. 51 : vii. gi. '' 109° -115 ia tranaUted in VediaeliB Studien, vol. iii, p. 50. 

B 116. (The seer praiBea)Indra, and the Maruta, and ako Brhaspati* : 
for these are the deities of the triplet ; Saunaka says that Indra 
alone (ia the deity). 

X.^ ^ bfkm'. — 5f^rf?T»tbkm', "TifJT f. — ri6"'' is found in bfkm' only. 

^?n hm^r^B, TTO r. 

* In connexion nith the foUowiDg line, 116° Beems Deces?<!uy. Mitra makes no 
reference lo it, though it must be ia hia B USS. aJao. As the namea are in the 
accusative in the MSS., I have asaumod the ellipse of slauli, which hoa frequently to be 
■upplied in the BD., though hardly ever in ao forced a way as here. 

B 117. But in the Aitareya (Brahmana)* it (the triplet) is said 
to be addressed to Indra-Brhaspati. 

With the triplet ' Here I ' {ayam : viii. 100. 1-3) Nema, son of 
Bhrgu, praised *• Indra without seeing him ". 

^W\ m'bfk, ^WT r. — 117°' ia found in B and m' only. — ^^'I'R'i, hrbfk. ^^- 
•I^^Hdr^r'. — «HlB7i hdm'bf, Vnff't.Tra, r'r', UTT^ k, ^T^^^m^r'r^r". 

' AB. VI. 36. 13. ' Tujfarii from ilS". ° Apaiyamt tarn is necesaary 

becauae it ia Nema 'nho doea not aee Indra. 

118. And Indra (then) with a couplet (4, 5) (says), ' Here I am, 
behold me, seer*' 

B For Nema, being alone (eka) while praising (Indra), had also 
said, ' There is no Indra *>.' 

1^*1 mubr, i^^TTfTt^ m' fk, irpflig iiii. — "Vi »m ^ wrg^ br, ^inji^ 

WT^ m', U^ xnB ^ in g^ f, V<Jf(IM\pT llftfir hd. — nS"' l* found in B and 
m' only. — i^^B^ r, ^q«l*i b, ^^%II m', <^fl(1*I f k. — The end of the varga is here 
marked by ^tt in bfk. 

' Cp. RV. viii. roo. 4 ; ayam aimi jarila^ paiya mqjha. Cp. ibid., 3 : nendro 

ailili nema u tva aha. 


241] — vi. 123 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.vm.ioo 

25. Details regarding BV. viii. 100. Tif^u helps Xndra. 

B 119. Indra, on hearing that, praised himself with two stanzas 
(4, 5) as he showed himself*. 

The seer on seeing him was greatly rejoiced, and in the couplet 
* All this of thee' {vihet td te : viii. 100. 6, 7)^ 

^li|«in,fkr, ^ij^q^ b. — 119" are found in B and m^ only. — ^^Sft^ ^ffT hdm^, 
^■ft^ f^ r, 1! fSHl^ br*r*r^ If fKlHt^ f. — ^rfWt bdr, ^Mtl?t fk, ^MWY b. 

* Though somewhat redundant 119' is probably original, as it appears to have been 
known to the author of the SarvSnukramapI; cp. the statement there: ay am iti dvf- 
eenaindra atmanam astaut. ^ This and the further details (119' ~ 124' ) as to 
BY. viii. 100 are passed over in the SarvSnukrama^i. 

120. lauds both the gift of Indra and his various deeds. But 
(the stanza) 'Swift as thought' {manojavdh: viii. icx). 8) is ad- 
dressed to the Bird {suparria), while * In the ocean ' {samvdre : 9) 
is (in) praise of the Bolt. 

^|l|4i^hm^rb, Mi«i*f^fk. — ^C^mfT hm^r, ift^VWT bfr"r\ ?ift^ffilf k. 

121. In the couplet 'When Vac' (yad vdk: 10, 11) he (the 
seer) praises the divine all-pervading Vac. 

Having* tormented these three worlds Vrtra remained (un- 
assailable) by reason of his fury. 

•HfilTPt, A, «gft*H«t r*r*r^ •fftift f, •5^!Tt*!t b, •J%irt k, •^ftlTPCs. — 
^rar hdm^s, ^rt r, ^^ bf, URI k. 

• The following three slokas (121* -124* ) are quoted by Siya^a on EV.viii. 100. 12: 
cp. M.M., EV.* vol. iii, p. 41. 

122. Him Indra could not slay. Going to Visnu he said, ' I 
wish to slay Vrtra ; stride forth to-day and stand at my side. 

If i||l|4Nl^^hds, If ^m4 f^p^r, IfimntS'l^* WfTiPi if ^k. — ff%% 
(Jl«^ f^WffW Am^s, fWR f^linV tifTCfW B. 

123. May Dyaus make room {antara) for my outstretched 
bolt.' Saying * Yes,' VLjnu did so, and Dyaus gave him an opening 

^nnf^hr m^, VSVA^^ hdr^r*r*, ^^Rf^ ?[ bfrs, B^TR^ IJ k. — X23** is omitted 
in fk. — ^The end of the varga Is here marked by ^M in bfk, not in hd. 
II. I i 

RV. viiJ. 10O-] BRHADDEVATA vi. 124- 


36. I}«taUi regarding tli« d«iti«a of ST. TiiL 101. 

124. All this is proclaimed in the stanza ' Friend Visnu ' (sai/ie 
visno: viii. loo. 12). But the first four stanzas of the hymn 
(beginning) 'Specially' {rdhak : viii. lOi. 1-4) are addressed to 
Mitra-Varuna ; 

rftW Bs, ^ A. — ^ftltftlB ?r%Mf^ A. ^% ftw!)fflf?r ^^ B. 5% ftgfftffi! 

125. and the three verses^ of 'Forth ' (^ra : 5"*°) are to Mitra**, 
Aryaman, and Varuna", the fourth (s"*) is to aU the Adityas: such 
is (here) the praise. 

^ m^'^r, Mr<9 A, m^ i'^) m', VF^W bfk. — ^T^ rhd, ("^) X^' 
r'r'r^r*, {'•^)-i-> m\ ("Wjlrf" b f k.—^nraJJ^: hdbk, ^^^l f, »I ^TO^: r, 

* The MS. evidence hvonrB the aingul&i {padai ea), bat this with the followiag trayak 
i» very forced ; pro is s verse to Mitra, (and odb) to Aryaman. (and one) to Vampa, 
(altogether) three.' The dative milraya ia probably used beside the genitivei 
aryamnoA and varunatya because the stanza begins with pra mitraya. ° According 
to the SarvaDukramani, Mitra and Vanina only. The name of Aryaman occurs in 5". 

126. But the following stanza (6) has the Adityas as its deities. 
' Hither to me ' (d Trie : 7, 8) is a couplet addressed to the Aivins ; 
there are (then) two addressed to Vayu (9, 10), two to Suiya 
(ri, 12), one to Usas (13), or (the seer here praises) the light* of 

the sun and moon. 

^r^ CTT^W hm^r, qail^n' b, <H.|«|f^ffl« f, ^tJ m', ^V^ (wrong aandhi 

for ^tItJ) br^B, ^t^ (dual of ^^t) S. ^^*< (^f^) r. — ^^^7 iifS, 95^11 
k. Hit^^rr r^r^r', giWT hdr^ W^ (^5^) r. — TWt ^ r^bfr^r*r', TWr ^ 

hd. mn '^ k, TiwT ^r\ m^ ( ^^jim i ^fflj i s).— ^Ts:^[iWt: hm'r'B, (iffhr^) 
flPi*! qrr r. 

* Another instance of the elliptiod nse of the accusative [prabkam) governed by 
ilauti to be supplied ; cp. note on I16" . 

127. 'Generations truly' {prajd ha: 14) is addressed to 
Pavamana, while with the two stanzas 'The mother' (mdtd ; 15, 16) 
the Cow is praised. ' Thou, Agni, great ' {tvam ague brhat : 


243] — vi. 131 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. ix. 67 

viii. 102, 103) are two hymns addressed to Agni. But in a stanza 
of the latter (pare) is praised Agni, 

128. the Middle, together with the Maruts and Budras, (viz. in) 
* Come, O Agni' {dgne yahi : viii. 103. 14). 

B Or in the first hemistich, * Grenerations truly ' {prqjd ha : viii. 
101. 14), Agni is here named, 

^ ^n^ r, ^1^ hdm^fk, ^|^ b. — 128^ and 129 are not found in A or m^, bat 
in B only. 

B 129. in the third verse (pdda), the Sun (dditya), and in the 
fourth the Middle (Agni) is praised ^r for so it has been explained 
in the esoteric (rahasya) Aitareya BrSJbmana^ also* 

bfk.-^The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk. 

* The SarvSnukrama^i makes no reference to this alternative of B. ^ That is, 
in the Aitareya Aranyaka, ii. i. 

27. Deities of BV. iz. 1-86. 

130. Now Soma Favamana is praised here in the ninth 
Mandala *. (In the hymn) * Kindled ' (samiddkah : ix. 5) the Apri 
deities (dpryah) are praised like Favamana \ 

Wfit ftrf inS% B, Wl^ M^mf^fiil Am^ (hdr^; •^{fi^: r*r*r*m^). — 

•^;^TWP5 hm^r, •^^Tfiw: f, •'i?5T#Nr: bkr*.— •^m: mss., •^: r. 

* Op. SarvSnokramai^I : navama^ ma^^ola^i pavamanani sawnyam, ^ That is, 
as if they were forms, not of Agni, but of Soma Payam&na. 

131. And in the three stanzas ' Agni, life ' {agna dyu7n§i : ix. 
66. 19-21), Agni is incidental (nipdtahhdj), while in the triplet 
*Our protector' (avitd nah : ix. 67. 10-12) he (Favamana)* is 
praised together with Fui^n. 

* Pusan is directly mentioned in 10, indirectly as kapardin in 11, and aghfi^i in la; 
ayatfi somafL pavate occnrs in 11, ay am . . pavate in 12 ; cp. Sarvanakramapi : atfitd nas 
tUrafi pauf^yo oo, that is, the three stanzas 1 0- 1 2 are addressed to Pusan or PavamSna. 

RV. ii. 67-] 



132. Then two later stanzas in this hymn (atru), ' which of 
thee ' (yat te : ix. 67, 23. 24), are addressed to Agni ; ' By both of 
these' {ubkdbhydm : 25) is addressed to Savifcr ; the nest stanza 
(26) is addressed to Agni and Savitr*. 

^rf^r^ irfti" r, ^rf^Wftt" hm^, ^ifq^mfM" a (but the a of '^Xn' la oblitpratef) 
with yellow pigment). BTfT^TF^n" bfk. The Sarvanukramani has ^TTf^ST^reTf'N^ 
(»l»o in Sajaija's qaotation). but -JjfM» is probably a niiflpiint, as my indei haa 

' According to the SarvSnutramaiji tho deity of ^5 is Agni or Savilf, of a6, Agni 
or Agni and Sftvitf. 

133. 'May they purify me' (punantu md: ix. 67. 27) is ad- 
dressed to the AU-gods, while the stanza ' Near to the friend * 
{upa priyam : 29) is addressed to Agni, and the two next, 
'Who' {yah: 31, 32), are (in) praise of the student of recitation * 


9i(T ^ ^ T^ hr^. ^TT^ ^ jj^ d, ><4-mr '^ ^w^ r, wsltru ^ ^w^ b. 

' Cp. Sttrvanukramanl ; le favamany-adhyetr-xtuti (RV. is. 67, 31, 3a begin with the 
words ; ya^ paoamaair adhyitt). With regard to the reading of the B MSS. in 133* cp. 
Meyer, Kgvidh&aa, p. zxiii (middle). 

134. In the hymn 'At the rim' {srakve: ix. 73), when inter- 
preted (niruJcte) *, the demon-slaying Agni ^ {is spoken of), and 
'The filter' {pavitram: ix. 83) is called a praise of the Kettle 
(gharma) as (representing) the Sun (surya) and the Soul 
{dtman) ". 

f»Hfl(hdm^r. Ol^J* b, HliJH fk. — ^I^ifq t. «Slf7! hdm', >b3r ^ bf, ^ 
^ k. — "^^Tft Am' (•q^fH r'r*r'), '^T( B. — ^^Bn^hrn'r, ^T^Irt bk. — The 
end of the varga ie here inarked by ^*S in m^bfk, not in d. 

* I was fur a long time inclined lo adopt the emendation niruklali, meaning ' in the 
hymn srakve the demon- slaying Agni is explained (ai the deity) ; * but I have retained 
nimite as the reading uf the beat MSS. and as giving an adequate sense. There 

is no mention of Agni raksohau here in the Sarvanukramani; but SSyana on BV. ix. 
73- 5 explains apa dhananli . . Ivacam atilcalm by raksaaam . . apaijhnanli, " There is 

no reference to this statement in the Sarvanukramani, Cp. NimktA xiv. 11, where 
gkarma is one of the concrete (bhuta) names of the Great Soul (atnuni). 


245] — vL 137 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. ix. 11a 

. DeitiM of BV. iz. 87, 96, 112. 

B 135. The verse 'Deft, wise* {rhhur dhlrah: ix. 87. 3^) should 
be held to be addressed to Rbhu*. Now three gods are here^ 
mentioned incidentally {nipdta) in three verses (pdda) ^ : 

^irffl^ r, ^^ni^rer fk, ^rt^^ m\ ^inhry b. — 4i^cmt< fr, iY^nr^ t, *!% 
r, t*rcn% ^rerar^fk, f<iMi7t^4isi<\ — tflf^^r: bfkr, i[|f^?n: m^. — 

135 is found in B and m^ only. 

* There is no reference to this pada in the SarvanukramanT. ^ This line must be 
an introduction to what follows in regard to RV. ix. 96. 6, stating in a more general way 
what is said in 136^ • It is not clear to me of what 135^ according to the reading of 
bfkm^ (which is one syllable short), is a corruption. • That is, BV. ix. 96. 6" . 

136. three (deities) are mentioned * with these three (verses), 
ea^h contaming a couplet b, (beginning) 'The Brahman of the 
gods' {brahmd devdndm : ix. 96. 6"**) ; or rather it is Soma who 
is (here) praised as (representing) the Sun and the Soul^. 

TirerniT^m'r, nwrnirrhd, nwrnirr b, T^raTw fk. — ^rwr^wns kr, TitH^nn 

m^, f^lfi!^^ h, gfSl^Tl d. f^fiV^^j^ b, •^it^ f. — |^ ^ hdm^ |^^^: r, 
^ lanr b, 1^^^ fk. — ^4^qi<M49irM hd, ^<iq'4l^^'4irM r^r*r*, ^^$q^- 
M4VNH.B. — ^ipR ICT ^ Am\ ?at^ l[lCrf^ B. — 136'= 134*. 

* Tisroktafi irregularly contracted for iiira ukiafi ; cp. i. 50 ; iii. 94, &c. ^ I under- 
stand this to mean that each p&da here consists, as it were, of a couplet : hrahma deva^ 
110171, padavi^ kavindm; ffir vipraf^mHf tnahifo mfgai^amj hfeno gfdhrai^Jii, svadhUir 
vananam, ^ RV. ix. 96. 5, 6 are commented upon in the Nirukta Farisis^a, ii. 13, 14, 
where Soma is explained as the Sun {surya) and the Soul (atman). The SarvSnukramai^i 
makes no reference to RV. ix. 96. 6. 

137. Now while a drought was prevailing, the Lord of Saci 
asked (the) seers*, *In this great time of distress, by what 
activity do you live^?' 

^^ifirt hdr, ^n^^ f, ^T^?^ k, ^^S?n b. — ^^^ b, ^fNWT fk, ^«q^ hdr. 

* That is probably, the seers of the ninth Man^ala : cp. 141. ^ This is meant as 
an introduction to RV. ix. iia ; but it misrepresents the situation, as there is no reference 
to a drought in the hymn. Op. Nirukta vi. 5 : indra jrnn papracha, durhhikse kena 
fioatUi: tefam ekafi. pratyuvaca. 

RV. ix. II a] 



B 138. 'A cart, a field, kine, tillage, water that does not flow 
away (asyandana)^, a forest, the sea, a mountain, a king — by 
theae means (evam) we live ^.' 

Bfft^ br, UR^ m', ^ fkr* (UTiniNir.). — ^RI^ bm'(Nir.), IRI^ fr, 
^^ff^ kr*. — ^^R,bfm'r(Nir.), ^flkr^.— fl^g;: all MSS.. ^^: Nir. — irflft 
brNir,, n4?II m'fk, — In place of IR =*\^Tfl% fPl.. tlie Nirukta hm «jfii^ ^^ 
^TTT. — Tbia n'lofea is not fouud in A. 

' I take atyandanam lo be a noun, as, according to the reading of the Kirukta, nino 
means of livelihood are here enumerated. ** This is, of course, the anairer of the 

seeiBi cp. 137, note''. The context indicates (hat thia tfloka, though found in Bm' 
only, is appropriate here, ivhile its obviously ud -Vedic character shows it to be out of place 
in the Nirukta. Hence there can be little doubt that it is an interpolation from the BD. ; 
this is more likely than that it should have been introduced into both vorks from some 
other common source. Durga does not comment on the s'loka. Cp. Indische Studien, ii, 
1581 Somewhat similar enumerations are found in Mana x. ii6 {data jroaiiakelavah) \ 
and Yajnaralkya iii. 43 [apatlau j'icandni) : cp. the MitSksarii on this passage. 

139. In praising (Indra) the seer Sisu, son of Afigiras, declared 
(this) to him with the hymn ' Variously ' {ndiiana/m : ix, 1 1 2) in 

the presence of the {other) seera. 

'^^n Am', VH g^ B. — 'WfV^ fk, r^Pr^ b, Wft^ bm'r. — ^ftUTT^ f, 
ftPnUT'lb, U^luilH^hm'r. — Tf^ Am', X^ B. — The end of the carffo is here marked 
by ^C in bfk, not in d. 

39. Indra and the aeers. Value of penance. 

140. Now to all of them Indra said : ' Do ye perform very severe 
penance ; for without penance this distress cannot be removed.' 

?^Tt «*r^ AmS Wa i qljHiim. bfk, (•^:) Hmin(^ i im^ r.— TITO hm'r, 

w^ b. TTO^ r. — 1 ^ ttto: n*flH^ b. »t ^?ifl THi; ^«tr<(^ fk, '^ ii?( 
•mwrro: ijwffliif r. — ?ri bfk, art^ hm'r. 

141. Now all of them, desirous of obtaining heaven, performed 
penance. Then in consequence of fierce austerity they pronounced 
stanzas relating to (Soma) Pavamana {pdvaTndni). 

5^ hm'r, !Wlb, ITO^ f, gaPT, k. 

247] — vi. 146 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. ix. iia 

142. One who is not envious, is studious, obedient, and 
practises penance, purifies ten ascendants and descendants as 
well as himself. 

: bf, ITT k. 

143. And whatever sin he has committed with mind, speech, 
body, and food — purified from all that, he enjoys the fixiit of Vedic 
study *. 

^WT* hm^r, inn* bfk. — •TR^^'ft^t r, •m^ffWlt f, •SHJf4l9|% b, 

* Or, according to the reading of B, ' will attain to the same world as seers.' The 
reading of A is somewhat favoured by. that of the BgvidhSna (iii. 2. 5), which with 
reference to the PSvam&nl verses says : tvadhyayapw^yam atiUaiii puiafi prapnoti eak^ayam. 

A 144. The Pavamam Guyatris* are the supreme Brahma, the 
bright, eternal light ^. He who here at his latter end {ante)^ 
restraining his breath ^5, intent on them, 

% m^r, 18^ hd. — This sloka is not found in B, but in A and m^ only. 

* Cp. ^tgvidl^na iii. x. l : 9vadis(hayeti gSyatrifi pavamantr japed dvijafi; cp. Nirukta 
V. 2, 3. ^ Op. BV. ix. 113. 6, 7 : yatra brahma . . . , yatra jyotir ajairam. ^ Cp. 
Rgvidhana iii. 3. 5 : prai^n ayamya ca dhyayed ante devan pUpi fsin ; cp. also iii. 4. a, 3. 

146. and he who should meditate on Favamana, the Fathers, 
the Gods, and Sarasvati* — to his fathers milk, melted butter, 
honey, and water will flow (upavarteta). 

U||<)qf| hm^r, ^n^)99^ fk, ^r^^V b. — •^t^wJhf hbfkr, ^^fllMfflla r^r'. 

* Cp. 9gvidh&na iii. 3. 6 : sarawatvfh carcaytta payo 'nUmmadhusarpisa ; and iii. 2. 3 : 
ahfoyyaifi ea hhaved dattatfi pitrbhyali paramatu madhu. 

B 146. This Mandala, addressed to Soma, containing one hundred 
and fourteen hymns, is called 'Favamana/ and seven lessons 
{anuvdka) are (contained in it)» 

^ ll?f bfkr. — MI44||i|H^r, ^ft^RT^bfkr*. — V^^l^il^j fkr, «1iTV b. — 
The end of the varga is here marked by ^<^ in bfk. 

RV. X. I-] BRHADDEVATA vi. 147— [248 

" Thit aloka is not found in A or m*, but in B onl;. Neverthelesa it is probabl; 
original, m the wording of the introdnctiOQ to the ninth MtL^dala in the SarTODulciamanT 
appears to be based on it : navamajn maii^olarri pavamaaa^ lauviyam. Aa the narga comeH 
at the dose of a Mapdala the abnormal number of seven slokas ie hardl; enfficient to 
thron' doubt on the genuincnesH of Bonie of the latter. (Cp. above, v. 101, note *.) If 
any of them is a later addition, 144 is the moat likely to be Bueh. 

Mandola z. 
30. Deities of ZIV. x. 1-8. Triiiras and Indra. 

147. Trita saw seven hymns addressed to Agni {begmning), 
'Before' {ogre: x. 1-7), but Tri^iras, son of Tva^tr, the next 
hymn (beginning) ' Forth with his banner ' (pra hetund : x. 8). 

WT5*3 hm'r, WT^ f, WHT^ k, ?J ¥)TU(t.h. 

148. Now six (stanzas) of this (hymn) are addressed to Agni 
(x. 8. 1-6), while with the triplet which follows, 'Of him' (asya: 
7-9), he praised Indra at the end of a dream : such is our sacred 

"^mt hdr, iTO br^— Thia sioka is omitted in fkr*. 

149. TriSiras, who could assume all forma {viharHpadhth), 
being the son of a sister of the Asuras, became the domestic priest 
of the gods from a desire of (rendering) a service (to the former)". 

«ff hm^rb, «f fkr^r^ — finWT'lRn Am', TW^TrWHTT B. — •^JJ^hdm' fk, 

* Or, aetording to B, "from a desire for their (the gods') deatniction.' 

150. Now Indra became aware that the seer (Trii5iras) had 
been sent by the Asuras among the gods. He then with his 
holt quickly struck off* those three heads of his. 

fl^Pl Hffrt bfr. fl^rV HfiE^ k, yi^q|*l, HffflH. r'r*r^, irfiJTT^ »*, Tl ^HH" 
fflRChd, ?! ^inStftro.!"'. — Hl^ '""'''■ f^rf^ '•fk. — TTWT^ hdbk, TWT^ 

^wg: r^r'', ifWraRft^ ng: f, vt^i«if*^fl(fl: b. 

* Tile expressiona used in BV. %. 8. 9 are : mabhinat and fri^i iirsa para vark. 


249] — vi. 155 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [.RV.x.14 

161. The mouth with which he drank Soma became a firanco- 
line partridge {kapinjcUa) ; that with which he drank Sur& (became) 
a sparrow (kcUavinka) ; while that with which he ate food became 
a partridge (tittirij *. 

^ilMmH^lidbfk, ^l^n^n^m^r. — ^The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 
in bmbfk, not in d. 

* For similar trantformations cp. what became of the skins of ApSlfi (above, vi. xo6) 
and of the members of Agni (below, yIL 78-80). 

31. IMtiM of BV. z. 9-14. 

152. Him (Indra) divine {hrdhml) Speech {vac) addressed : 
^ Thou art a Brahman-slayer, Lord of a hundred powers (Satakratu)^ 
since thou hast slain YiSvarupa who sought refuge (prapanna) with 
averted face *.' 

unit hm^rbfk, iftUT r^r*r*. — ^irVT^ hm^rbfk. H^ r^r*r*. 

* That is, who waa defenceleea and did not attack. 

158. Him (Indra) the seer Sindhud^pa ^ himself besprinkled, 
to the accompaniment of the hymn (suktena) ' O Waters ' {dpah : 
X. 9), for the removal of that unpropitious sin. 

^Sft^ bfkr, Bfi|^ Am^.— •M'IW€ M8S. and r (cp. variooi readings of 0*il" 
M^PH above, iii. XI4). 

* Alternative seer of BV.x. 9 ; see Arsanukrama^i z. 3 ; SarygnnkramapY on BV. x. 9. 

154. Yama rejects Yami who solicits him with a view to sexual 
intercourse : the dialogue/ Hither, indeed' (0 cit : x. 10), of those 
two children of Vivasvat is (descriptive of) that. 

11^ t'l^fil Am^, ^ f^Rirar^ (the fuller pratika) B. 

155. The two (hymns beginning) *The bull' {vr^d: x. 11, 12) 
are addressed to Agni. In the hymn (atra) * I yoke for you ' (yuje 
vdm : x. 1 3) the two oblation carts are praised together. In ' Him 
who has passed away' {pareyivdmsam : x. 14) the Middle Yama* 
is praised. 

^ ^Tini B, ^iHil^ Am^ (^^rtt* r^r'r*r*). — M^Hl^i^f^N^ ^^'. ^W^- 
^Wllirtt^hr^r*r«,*«m(?^) d, if^f^WW ^«t^m\— 156^, I66**^ and 

n. Kk 

RV. X. i4~] BItHADDEVATA vi. 156— [250 

V in isC* we omitted in r'r*r' (doubtleaa because 155** begins with *fltl(t and isS** 
begins with ^^^*(1). 

* Cp. Kirukia si. iS, where YSnka, in commentiug on the wordi madhyamoA pilarah 
in BY. 3. 15. 1, I'emarka : inadhyamiko yama Uy akut, Eiuman madhyam{kaii pitfn manyantt. 

156. Then the Atharvans, the Bhrgus, the Angirases, the 
Fathers are praised together in the sixth (stanza) there (x. 14. 6), 
as groups of gods {devagana) connected with heaven {dyvhhakti). 

fiT«: ftrrr:: tdm' (this is the order in RV. i. 14. 6), ft?rftifTT^- *"■• f^WO 
finn:: rk. — ^ hdm'bfk, ^ f r. — 7T^ hdkr, W^ hfm'. — The end of the varga ia 
here marked by ^^ in hm^bf, not in kd. 

33. DaitiM of BV. x. 14 (eoutiniisd), 16, 16. TIir«« Agni*. 

B 157. Yama is frequently seen praised with the Fathers and 
the Angirases in the formulas ; for in the verse ' Vivasvat ' {viva- 
svantam : x. 14. 5') he (himself appears as) a Father. 

«g<ft^OT* bfkr, ^pBTtw^lftm'. — JJ%5 ^Tlj: IT^bfkr, »fT^ ^JTHfll^ 

m'. — iSV-lSg"* are found in B and m' only. 

B 158. Yama is praised with the Fathers in conjunction with the 
deceased man who is to be hallowed {samskdrya). In the three 
(stanzas) 'Go forth, go forth' (prehi prehi : x. 14. 7-9) prayers 
for the deceased man are uttered. 

B 159, The god Yama is Lord of the Fathers ; therefore he owns 
the hymn [sukta-bhaj). 

In the triplet 'Run past' (ati drava: x. 14. 10-12) the two 
dogs * (are praised). The following (hymn) ' Let them arise ' 
{ud iratdm : x. 1 5) is addressed to the Fathers •>. 

^<1<,fll*i, Am^ ^^H'TH r, y^f^fliH b, 4^n,flH kr. 

* Cp. SarraDukramani : Ircah ivabhyam. ^ Cp. Sarvanukrama^i : udiratan .. 

A 160. But with the following hymn (the seer) proclaims the rite 
in the burning ground. 

There were three Agnis belonging (respectively) to the Fathers, 


251] —vi. 1 63 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.x.17 

the Gods, and the Asuras : the two who bear oblations (havya) and 
food offerings {kavya) and he who is called Saharak^as ^. 

^RilTir Jl hm^^^ 1^;%^ r. — i6o*^ is found in Am^ only, not in bfkr*r* (nor 
presumably r''). — ^ Vf* r, ^ ?T* hd, ^TR* fk, TR* b. — iffT^ ^ 'H^ ^» B, 

* That is, havyavahana is tbe Agni of the gods ; kavyavahanot of the Fathers ; and 
saharaksas, of the demons. 

161. Now with regard to these {tatra) the (hymn) *Not him' 
{mainam: x. 16) is (in) praise of the bearer of food offerings 
(kavya). Other (hymns), however, are (in) praise of the divine 
(Agni), not of this one (connected with the Fathers), nor of the 
demoniac one {dsura). 

^am^mf^H^Ui: Am\ ?nf ^^^If^ll^q g B (?| bfk, ^ r*r*r''). — ^^^^ 
hm^r^f, \^Hi br*, ^^^ kr. — •^T^ ^ Am\ •^J^ ^ B. — The end of the varga 
is here marked by ^^ in hm^bfk, not in d. 

33.. Story of Saranyu: BV. z. 17« 

162. Tva^tr* had twin children, Saranyu as well as TriSiras^ 
He himself gave Saranyu in marriage to Vivasvat. 

WiITT: iTf hm^bfks(BV.), (•^) P l flKlftf n. JSf^ ^ f r^r*r«, (•g^ 
WI[TT^ f s(AV.).— iTT^rsCBV.), ^TT^ hds(AV.), ^TT^bfk. 

* The following story, vi. 162-yii. 6, is quoted in the Nitimafyarl on RY. i. 116. 6 and 
by SSya^a on BY. vii. 72. 2 as well as AY. xviii. i. 53 (cp. the quotations from the BD. and 
the Nitimafijari in M.M.'s BY.^ vol. iv, p. 5 ; cp. vol. iii, p. 11). Eubn prints the text of 
the passage in Euhn's Zeitschrift, vol. i, p. 442. It is also translated by Muir, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, vol. v, p. 228. Cp. Nirukta xii. 10, 11 on the story of Sarapyu, and Both, 
Erlauterungen, p. 161. Sayana also gives a prose version of the story in his introduction 
to BY. X. 17. Cp. Lanman, Sanskrit Beader, notes, p. 381. 

163. Then Yama and Yami were begotten on SaranyQ by 
Vivasvat. And these two also were twins, but the elder of the 
two was Yama. 

«T^CB|f s, iR:^^ brVr\ ^BR?^ m\ ^IT'^ ^ ^^HC^ hd, iPC^ n. — 
^mt^ hm^rbfkn (Nirukta xii. 10), Wfll H s. — ift "411^40 hm^rbfk, ITRnjm 
8. — ^iraftf MSS. rs, Jl^ ^Ornfi « (AY.). — ^Wt hm^rs, iffh' bfk. The last pada in 
Sayana (BY.) reads: ITRTT ^^f^J ^ ^ ^TRJ- — The end of the varga is here marked 
by ^^ in hfk, not in m^bd.— -The last pada is repeated in b, not in f. 

RV. X. 17] 



1. Story of Sartuiyn (contiiLned]. 

1. Now Saranyu having created, in the absence of her husband, 
a female similar (to herself) and having entrusted to her the pair 

(of children), turned herself into a mare and departed, 

^ffT m'ra. ^^ bffc. ^ hd, fJT n8(AV.}. fBT r'rS*.— fSfyi MSS. rs. 
rt^ s(A,V.). — g^TTJ^H^ bfkrn, q^ IT^TB% s (cp. Nirukta xii. 10: HjJj^lflJ, 

2. But Vivasvat, in ignorance (of this), begot Manu on that 
(substitute). He (Manu) became a royal seer, like Vivasvat in 


crna, ?r^ mnRthd. — THtf^TT^Wtift Am', TTHf^- 

3, When, however, he (Vivasvat) had become aware that 
Saranyu had departed in the shape of a mare, he quickly went 
after the daughter of Tvagtr, having turned himself into a horse 
with similar characteristics (to hers). 

ft 111*1 m'br, PIVIUI hdr*, fqaHlfT*! t- — '^ra^ftwY hbrs (AV.). mT^T^fft 
fk, ^irai^ftufYa.— ^DftMSS.rB,^r^»(AV.).— «W^W: n 

4. And Saranyu, recognizing Vivasvat in the form of a steed, 
approached him for sexual intercourse, and he covered her there. 

*li«^ Atn\ WT'WW Bn, «^W^ s. )?K^^ b (AV.). — ft^WT Ain\ ft^TO 

5. Then in their agitation the semen fell on the ground. And 
the mare, through desire of ofispring, smelt the semen. 

^^ MSS.ra, ^ft^ a (AV.).— ^ fkdrus, ^ hm's (AV.). VW. b. — Wl- 
ftra^ bfr, ^qfareWlidk, 'OTftrBfTlr'r'r'a (A v.). — It^W rm, 7!^ d. 7W^ b, 
7np?t f, H^V bin's (AV.). — The end of the tiorfla is here mBrksd by ^ in bfk, not 

1 bdm 


253] — vii. 9 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. x. 17 

2. Story of Saranyu (eondliicLed). DeltieB of BV. z. 17. 

6. Now from the semen which had just been smelt there came 
into being two youths, Naaatya and Dasra, who are praised as 
' Aigvins ' * 

^ g fm^B (AV.), ^ g ift r^r*r*. — ^^irftPTPf^hdxn^bfkms, «Hf«l«H^y r*r*. 

* The quotation ends here in l^ya^a (BY. and AY.), but the Nitimafijan quotes 
7** also. 

7. Yaska regards this as a story* of Vivasvat and Tvajjtr 
together in the couplet 'Tva9tr* {tvdstd: x. 17. i, 2) which has 
Saranyu for its deity. 

^ hdm^rbfk, 1^ t^i^ 

* Yaska, who comments on both stanzas i and 2 of RY. x. 17, remarks in Nirukta ziL 
10: tatretihasam acaktate, 

8. The two verses (beginning) * Pusan * {pufd : x. 1 7. 3 ***) are 
addressed to Pu^an, but the two next (3***) to Agni*; even 
the third (3*) may optionally {vd) be addressed to Pu^an; and 
the other three (stanzas) which follow (4-6) are also ^ (addressed 
to him). 

fl[Fn^rtT\ r*r\ ^[T^T^tTR^ fk, flfPTI^TW^ b, ^ft (fllH*(l\ r. ^ft « 1^*11 

hd.— ifNrftrencRrr: ^in^ ^: hm^r, i^ ^fNwnBr: ^nrrf^: b, ifNr 

* The SarvSnukramai^i says nothing about the last two |^as of z. if. 3 being 
addressed to Agni. ^ The reading of B is somewhat more explicit : ' The third pBda 
also may optionally be addressed to Piisan ; the triplet which follows (para) that (third 
stansa) is addressed to Piisan/ 

9. But one (stanza) in this hymn {atra\ which follows the 
triplet addressed to Sarasvati (7-9), is (in) praise of the Waters 
(10), while in the next triplet, * The drop ' {drapsah : 1 1-13), Soma 
is praised indirectly (parok^a). 

«J[^^*I hr, ^JH^ d, g Tfinn b, ^ K^Wl r*r\ ^^ fkr*. 

RV. X. i8] B]EIHADDEVATA vii. lo— [254 

10. But the next (stanza), ' Rich in milk ' (payasvati : 14)*, has 
the waters for its deities or is a benediction. The (next) four** 
(stanzas: x. 18. 1-4) are (in) praise of Death and are applicable 
[klpta) in the funeral {antya) ceremony'^. 

TT^^TTT*' hm'r. TT^^WT" bfkr^r^^''.— "TT^ TT hm'r, "^Tf: b, "^T^: fk. — 
gWtr^ ni', ^kTH^S hd, ^«n<^ r. ^J^: ^Tift b, ^^ SJT'ft f. — ^HTO m'r, 
ttHl'4 bd, (Am^ br^, fffl^f^ f. — Tho end of tbe varga ia here marked by ^ in bfk, 

* The correct pratTka is panaavalih. ** Cp. SarvinuknunaQi : ealairo njlyu- 

drvalu^ ; AQS. iv. 6. lo. ' Cp. below, vii. 15 : antj/akaTtnani. 

3> Detailad accouit of tha ftmaral liymn B.V. x. IB. 

B 11. The (stanza) ' These ' (ime : x. 18. 3) prays for long life for 
those who have escaped death ; ' For the living this ' {imam 
jtvebkyah : 4) again prays (for It) for them in the ceremony with 
the barrier {paindhi)^. 

W^lQ m^fk, Ttnrr^ br. — ^5^ Stfpl^r, flft 3^ b. |T* iff in\ X^ T^ 
(aRfl*!) f. — '«[nrT%ni'kr. "^f, "(IHJHaT^ b. — ItWi: Mn.fy**5ftll br, ^^:Tif^- 
flrfftjfkm'. — Thia sloki ia found m B and m' only. 

' RV. X. 18. 4 : imaip jhebhyah paridhini dadhami; cp. Sayana ; AGB. iv. 6. 9. 

12, 'As' (i/athd: 5. 18. 5) is addressed to Dhatr; the next to 
Tvagtr (6), then with another (7), 'These wives' {imdh), he (the 
seer) utters a prayer for the women in the ceremony with coUyrium 
[afljaTia) *. 

Jf^^TSnW^ftr B, Ipn yfKN**^^!! A: the latter reading is probably due to 
a clerical error repeating tbe last word of the preceding eloka, which in that case (though 
occurring in B only) must have been original. The preceding stoka mentiona tho atanxa 
which refers to the paridhi, tbe present sloka mentions the one which refers to afijana.-^ 
Thia iloka is wanting in m'. 

• Cp. RV. I. 18.7: traa narir .. aaSjanma sarpUa ta>n viianta; AQS. ir. 6. II. ra. 

13. With the (stanza) 'Rise up, O woman' {ud irsva ndri'. x. 
1 8. 8) the wife ascends (the funeral pyre) after her dead (husband) « 
The younger brother of the departed, repeating (the stanza), 
prohibits (her). 


255] — vii 1 6 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. x. i8 

fiRr^T?^bfk, fSnnrr r^r*r*. 

* Had the MS. evidence not been bo strongly in favour of anurohati, I should have 
been inclined to adopt the corrected reading of b : mfiaiji patni^ tu rohathji, as giving 
a better construction : ' with BY. z. i8. 8 he prohibits the wife mounting the (funeral pyre 
of the) dead man' ; cp. Rgvidhana iii. 8. 4 : devaro 'hvdrurukfanfim ud trsveti nivartayet; 
and with rohatim cp. below, vii. 130 : tutyam arohaiirn patitn ; AGS. iv. 2. 18. 

B 14. The Hotr ought to perform this rite, should there be no 
brother-in-law. because a Brahmana enjoins that (the widow) 
should not follow the departed (husband)*. 

ThiB sloka is not found in A, but in B and m^ onlj. 

* That is, by burning herself with him on the funeral pyre. On the whole history 
of ScUi see JoUy, Becht und Sitte, in Biihler and Eielhom's Encyclopaedia of Indo -Aryan 
Research, vol. ii, part 8, p. 67 ff. ; cp. also Lanman, Sanskrit Reader, notes on RV. x. 18. 

B 15. This law regarding women may or may not apply to the 
other castes. 

In taking the bow (from the hand) of the departed man, one 
should mutter (the stanza) ' The bow ' {dhanuh : x. 18.9)* for the 
sake of averting evil. And because these (stanzas) are employed 
on the burning groimd at the funeral ceremony, 

The first line of 15 is found in B and m^ only. — The second line follows the reading 
of B ; the reading of Am^ is : 

irwr^ ^ w^wRif ^fiR^^fKr^^H. i (imw* r^rVr*, irtw* h). 

I have preferred the former, as it follows the text of the RV. (^fjllm^l^^l^ ^^^) 
and as l^f in A seems to make no sense. — ^^Ml^^lt (=^:) B, €|^|^^ (=V^:) 
Am': cp.nezt.'loka.-1?nn% ^TPRni^ B, VHlHl|Mmn4 ^ Am' (n^HIC hdm\ 
•Igpifo r^r^r*r*). — The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in bfk, not in hd. 

* Cp. AGS. iv. 2. 20. 

4. Formiilas in which no deity is mentioned. 

16. one should state the deity of this triplet (x. 18. 7-9)* to be 
Death {mrtyu). For in the formulas (in which it is) not expressly 
mentioned ^, one should state the deity from the ceremony. 


BItHADDEVATA vii. 17— 


* I h&Te preferred (he reading tfcatya to dofeasya, becatue, ttie deit^ of atanzi 6 
having been atatod (in 13), the nest three stantu (7-9} have been discnMed with 
refeieuce to thoir contents (in ia-15). The Suvanukrama^i atateB RV. x. iS. 7-13 to 
be pitjmedhtt/i. Cp. note * on i. 30. 

17. When there is lack (of a deity) from the (evidence of the) 
formula and the ceremony as well, Prajapati is (the deity)*. 

Now aa to the following four (stanzas: x. i8. 10-13) here, 
'Approach' (upa sa-rpa : 10) is addressed to the Earth. 

' Cp. SarvIaubraDiani on the last stania of RV. x. 18 ; antya . . ^rajapatya va 
taanirukta ; on nbicb Sadgurusiaya lemarka : sa eqanirukla .■ aprakdiadevatalkidhana. 
See hit further discoiision on the word anlnikta and mj eiplanator; note, p. 183. 

18. 19. Their application is in the ceremony of collecting the 
bones * of the departed. Now with the last (stanza) ' In the 
future' {pratidne: x. 18. 14) he (the seer) expresses a prayer {in 
saying), 'As having taken away (my) other days, the Fathers 
placed (me) in (past) days, 

B (so) they also restored me, about to die (prayantam), to life in 
days to come ' ''. 

18"' follows the reading of Am' (•fTf'l VI' r, '^Tanj' hdm'). The reading of 
B is; 

19. ^f:f Am', -Wf^ fkr^r^^ W9 !>.— ?!^ m', ^IJ^ r'.'r^ ^^ hdrbfk 

(RV. X. 18. 14: HtiV^'i umff'i . . ^:). — Twnn^ r, inirnrt% b, ^amiro 
f, Vflisilft Am'. — «*iiftl<(: r, WillPsK,: b, •(gmfiiv; f, *iHTfain: hdm'r*. 
— iri rf (RV.), jn m'bk.— inra: fkr», mra: b, ?pw: r.Jm: m'.— ^jwt^^bfr, 

•^1?^^ k. — 19' is found in B and m' only. 

* Cp. AGS. iv. 5. 7. ^ This is an attempt to interpret the obscure last stftua 
of EV. I. 18 : prallciTte mam ahanijfvdh parnam iea^ dadhvh, &c. If the reading of A 
is taken by itself, it probably means : The Fathers, having as it irere {yalha) taken 
away (my) other (past) days, have placed me in (future) days.' In that case the 
additional line of B would look like an explanation of this. I have preferred the reading 
dadha^ because it is the form nied in the RV. itself. 


257] — vii 23 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 27 

20. Now the (hymn) * Turn back ' {ni vartadhvam : x. 1 9) is (in 
praise) of Cows ; some regard it as (in praise) of the Waters. The 
latter hemistich of the first (stanza : i'^ is, however, addressed to 

fl?^ g A, fiSW g m\ l[;^ ^ B.— 1f^i?nirg Am\ IRRTOT^ B.— The 

end of the varga is here marked by () in hbfk, not in d. 

* Op. SarvSnnkrama^I : apai^ gavyatu va . • agnuomtyo dtHHyo *rdharcafi, 

6. Deities of BV. z. 10-27. 

21. The sixth (stanza) is addressed to Indra (x. 19. 6), while in 
the second both the gods* are incidentally mentioned (2). Now the 
hymn which contains a line of ten syllables^ (x. 20. i) is described 
as intended to avert evil (and) as connected with mind<^ {mdnasa). 

* ' Both the gods ' (ti^Aaii devau) is rather vague : the two mentioned in the second 
stanza are Indra and Agni. The SarvSnnkrama^i makes no reference to the deities of 
BY. z. 19. a and 6. ^ Meyer, Hgyidhana, p. zxviii^ thinks this line is here regarded 
as a whole hymn. ® This hymn begins with a single verse instead of a stanza : 
bkadrain no api vataya nuinafi. The SarvSnukramani remarks : adyajkapada, pada eva 
vd iantyatthadL. On this pSda op. Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 5x1. ai^sBgvidhSna 
iii. 8. 6' ; cp. the whole sloka there : 

daiakfarani tu ianiyartham bhadratfi na iti Bcainmaret; 
nityafu japec chucir bhutva : manoiai^ vindaie sukham, 

22. Now here after two hymns addressed to Agni (x. 20, 21) 
there follow three addressed to Indra (beginning) * Where?' {kuha : 
X. 22-24). Now in the last of the hymns to Indra there is one 
triplet ' Ye two ' {yuvcmi : x. 24. 4-6) addressed to the Aivins. 

tSTTOHl Am^b, "tt5[m 'k. Irtn^ r. 

23. 'Happy' {hhadram: x. 25) is addressed to Soma; 'Forth 
indeed' (pra hi : x. 26) is addressed to Pugan. The three following 
(beginning) ' It shall be ' {asat : x. 27-29) are addressed to Indra : 
with the first (27) of these (Indra), being exhilarated, proclaims 
his deeds; 

ij^wwR^hm^bfk, xiTTwm:r.— inr:^rb, inr: ir r^r*r«. niN f, jfitn k. 
n. l1 

RV. X. 27-] 



24. how he moves among beings, how he rains and protects* 
is told in this hymn with the eight stanzas (beginning) ' Thou 
becamest' (abkur u: x. 27. 7-14)'^. 

mfil Am', ^rfil B. — "fiSHElfwr: B, '^H^^ JJ Am". — »)jf^f?I Am', 
•^ftft B. 

* Cp. above, Iv. 34 : paras tu katkat/anti/ agtiii/i yatka varsali pali ca. Tbe 

details regarding x. 27 given in this and the foUowiog alokos (24-39) are altogether passed 
over in the Sarvanukrama^T. This indicates that the mention of details in passages 
peculiar to B cannot be uaed an an argument to prove that such pissagcs are later 
additions because unknown to the author of the Ssrvanukramapi. 

25. (The stanza) 'Seven' {sapta : s, 27. 15) praises the Manits, 
the next stanza (16) praises the Bolt; (the stanza) 'The fatted 
i-am' {j^lvdnam mesam: 17) adores Agni, Indra and Soma: 

JTOT ^fir hdbCk, W^'. ^ftfJI I. — ^ftf?I ^irH. A, TrN ^ttf^' B. — The end 
of the varga is here marked bf M in f only. 

6. ILT. x. 37 (ooatiaved). BT. x. 38: Sialoffne of Indra and Taankra. 

26. (that is) its first hemistich (does so : 17"*), while its second 
one (adores) Parjanya with Vayu (17"''). 'Crying aloud' {vi hro- 
iandsah : 18) (praises) Agni, but the next (stanza) Surya (19). 

^S^i^TT^ B, ii^fl^^. Am'. — ^^^ 5 Am', gjlj^T^fiT B. 

27. ' These two of mine ' {etau me: x, 2 7. 20) and ' This which ' 
{ayam yah : 21) — these two (stanzas) are (in) praise of Indi'a and 
the Bolt ; and ' To every tree' {vrk$e-vrk^e : 22) (praises) the Bow 
of Indra, But (in) ' Of the Gods ' (devdndm : 23) the thi-ee 

37° follows the reading ot hm'rbfk-, the reading of r'r*r* is: 

^ bfr. ^ k, (vq)eilfY hd, %ljft" r=. ^TT^ m'r'rS', 

28. bestowers of cold, heat, and rain, Parjanya, Wind (anila), 
and Sun ibhdskara), and in the last verse {pada : x. 27, 23**) both 
Sun and Wind are praised together. 

iral htn'r, ^Wt bfk. — ^|7[ ^ q^ r, ^J^ ^ V^ bfk, X|^ 9^]Qlt 


259] — viL 33 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x.30 

29. In the (stanza) * This is thy life ' {sd tejivdtuh : 24) either 
Indra or Siirya (is praised). But ' Every other ' (viivo hy any ah : 
X. 28) is a dialogue of the seer and of Sakra (Indra). 

TT ^ XW TT hm^rb, ^^ XW TT fk. — f^nft IPT^ Am*, f^Tft f^WW bfk» 
f'nft !pW^ r. — iNr^ ^J hm^r, iRT^^ f, #TRft ^ k, ^nT^ ^J b. 

30. The even (stanzas) are to be recognized as l§akra's, the other 
stanzas asYasukra's^ 

B The daughter-in-law of Indra ^, seeing the gods had come, but 
Sakra had not come 

30^ foUowB the reading of B ; the reading of Am* is : 

^'TT XW a tllHI ''■gnrr XW a 'Jpt* I (•'Wn^ hdm^). 

m*, •'nrt ^^ b, ^^nrr ^TT fk. — ^^^-Z^ are found in B and m* only. — ^The end of 
the varga is here marked by ^ in bfk, not in m*. 

* Op. SarvSnnkramani : indrasya yt^a^, Bs^a fseji ; A.ri'.anakramapi x. 12 : iiidro yujam 
feam ... ^fanatjfh vasukrah, ^ Cp. Ar>SnnkTamaiii x. II : indrasnusa vasukrasya patnt; 
SarvSnokrama^T : indrasya mtifS, 

7* Deities of BV. z. 30«^3. 

B 31. to the sacrifice, addressed (him) in the third person {paro- 
Tc^avat) * (sajring) : ' My father-in-law has not come ; should he 
come, he would eat grain and would drink Soma^.' 

^nt m^bfk, irtj r. 

* Op. SarvSnokrama^i : indroiya miff a parok^avad indram aha. This is clearly based 
on 30* and 31", both found in B only. ^ Cp. BV. x. 28. i : mama . . haiuro nd 
jagama : jakfiyad dhand uta somaiji papiyat, 

B 32. The Bolt-bearer on hearing this speech of hers, came that 
very moment, and standing on the northern altar {lUtard vedi)^ 
said aloud : ' He bellowing loud ' (sa roruvat : x. 28. 2). 

^Hn^ m^b, ^rant^ k, ^PTF^ f, ^Wl^ r.— ^WT^irC^imm^r, ^ITT- 

33. In the praise of Waters (beginning) * Forth to the gods ' 
{pra devatra : x. 30) the Middle Agni is praised by the name of 

RV. X. 31-] BEHADDEVATA vii. 34— [260 

' Child of Waters ' {apmti napdt) with the third and the fourth 

hm'r^B, ^fii: r, 

34. Now (the hymn) which (begins) 'Hither' (d : x. 31) is 
addressed to the Ali-gode ; the one next to that, ' Forth ' {pin : 
X. 32), is addressed to Indra. One (stanza) 'Onward me' {pra 
md : X. 33. 1) is addressed to the All-gods; the following couplet 
' Together me ' {sarn md : 2, 3) is addreased to Indra. 

1[RT hm^ f, Tpft b, 1[^ k, lrf?I r. — ^^^^ g Am', ^^^ W^^ B. — ^^TTHAm'. 
y-rtHHB. — ^^^hm'rbfk, ffiaT+j^Tft r'r'r'. — |^: m'rbfk, Jp^: hr'. 

35. The following two (stanzas) adore KuruSravana Trasada- 
Byava (x. 33, 4, 5)". On the death of king Mitratithi, the seer with 
the following 

V^'. b, ir^: r'^r^'r'', yt^ fk, V^Pd Am\ — V^ "^ hm'rbfk, TH^t: TO 
r'r*r*. — flm^*gfl*i,hm*r, TTO^^^ bf k. — flrimflH,hm'b, JTWIinn^fk, H IRT- 
jp^ r, — Tho end of the varga is here m»rked by 'O in btk, not in hdm'. 

' Cp. SarvanukramBni : "^ J^SiqUHH ^m^iafl*^ (^H^ffll I 

8. The hymn of Dice ; z. 34. 
36. four* (stanzas beginning) 

DeitieB of ST. x. 3S-44. 

'Of whom' {yasya: x. 33. 6-9) 
as**. The hymn 
34) is called the praise 

1 . The Sarvanukramai^i ti»s the former pratika. 
iasihkih. Tan-napalam from 35. Cp, KV. 

consoled his (Mitratithi's) grandsi 
which (begins) 'The lively' {prdvepdk 
of Dice. 

* Another instance of caturbhih^c 
X. 33. 7 ; vpamairavo napan mitialitker ihi. Sec alio Sarvlnukramani : mxle mitratithi 
rajfU . . Tfir upamafravaiani palram atya (fcuru/roronasyn) vyaiokayat. 

37. Here the twelfth (stanza) praises the Dice, the ninth, th 
first, and the seventh {x. 34. i, 7, 9, 12). 

A The thirteenth* praises tillage (13) and admonishes th 

But the remaining (stanzas) blame the Dlce*>. Two (hymn 

261] — vii. 40 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 44 

beginning) 'They are awake' {ahvdhram : x. 35, 36) are addressed 
to the All-gods. 

^^I^l'thdm^i.fl^l^l'tbfkr^r'^8*— 37* in SSyana reads: m 1[TipiraP^ftf?f .— 

&c.) is found in hdm'^rss only, not in bfkr^r*. — ^^1^ i^TTr CI^^RR hdm\ ^VWf^ 
1WTT*R[RI r, H^l^ ip r**, ^WT^ SUMs^W** f, ^WT^ h^ Wj^W* b. 

* The first fonr pSdas of 37 are quoted by Sadgurusisya, while the fifth is expanded 
by him as follows : HsfSbhir navabhia iv aksali kitavai caiva nindyante. SSya^a also quotes 
these lines in his introduction to BY. x. 34; cp. var. lect. in M.M., BY.' vol. iv, p. ii. 
^ The SarvSnukrama^I gives no details as to the deities of BY. x. 34, simply remarking: 
oksakfEipraiamaa cSk^akitavaninda ca, 

B 38. Some consider the praise at the end {para\ * Of the great 
Agni ' {maho agneh : x. 36. 12-14), to be addressed to Savitr ; the 
teachers Saunaka, Yaska, and GalaYa (consider) the last (14) 
stanza (to be such) ^ 

This sloka is not found in A, but in B and m^ only. 

* There is no reference in the SarvSnukramai^i to the last three stantas of RY. x. 36; 
nor does the Nirukta mention them. 

39. * Obeisance* {na/mah: x. 37) is addressed to Slirya, 'In 
this * {asmin : x. 38) to Indra. But (the deities) who are praised 
in the sixth (stanza) of the hymn to Surya (x. 37. 6) are incidental ; 
at the end of this {cUra) hymn there is a couplet addressed to the 
All-gods (x. 37. II, 12)*. 

4i14Si'RH m^kr, iTt^Sfit^KH. bhd, ^11^41^4^ f. — ^WfT ^ Vll ^^TT: m*r, 

^fwrr g vr ^?rr: hd, ^wit g fi^fii b, nwrt g ^i^i kr*r*r\ vni 5 ^1^ f. — 
HimRi^m! hdr, t*nnf?Rt ini m\ frmfinRrr: b. — ^mi^ b, ^wmit 

Am^. — %^^lft B, ^H^^ Am^. The form %^|^^» though used in the Nirukta, 
is found in no other passage of the BD., while q-V^«4 is extremely common. It may 
be due here to the end of the preceding word in A : ^WHIVt* 

* There is no reference in the SarvSnukramapI to the deities of RY. x. 37. 6, ix, 12. 

40. Now there are three hymns addressed to the Aivins 
(beginning) * Which' (yah: x. 39-41), and there are (three) 
addressed to Indra (beginning) 'As the archer far' {asteva su 

RV. X. 45-: 



pra-: x. 42-44), but in a hemistich (11"') of the last atanza of 
the Indra hymns (42-44)* Brhaspati** is praised. 

Am' (Wl^'bdm'). — 40°'^ and 41 in m' come after 48 (at the end oftliBBtory ofGhofil). 

The end of the varga ia here marked bj c in bfk, nut in bdm*. 

" That is, in the last stanza of each of these three hjmnB, that Blanza being a refrain. 
'■ The SarvanukramanT does not mention Brhaspati in the refrain of EV. x. 4»-+(. 

9. Deitisa of BT. x. 45, 46. Story of Oliofi. 

41. The two following (hymns), 'From heaven' (divas pari: 
X, 45, 46), are addressed to Agni, but with the last hemistich of 
the former (x. 45. 12"*) Heaven and Earth {12°) and the All- 
(gods : la**) are praised in the respective verses {pacchaK)'^. 

•^I^ g B, »'ffm g Tf Am'. — Tl^ Bhm'i*, XI^T" r. 

* The SorvaDukrnmani makes no mention of this hemistich. 

B 42. *Gho?a, daughter of Kak^ivat, was disfigured by an evil 
disease. In the days of old she remained in her father's house 
for sixty years. 

^fH fm\ ^fE" bkrn. — 42-48 are not found in A, but in B and m* only. 

■ The following story (42-47) is quoted in the NltimaDjari on HV. i. 117. 7. — Tha 
author here goes back to the AaVia hymns (39-41) mentioned in 40. 

B 43. She fell into great grief (thinking), 'Without son or 
husband I have leached old age in vain ; I (will) therefore resort 
to the Lords of Light {suhhaspati). 

*\%fCi f^-fli fm'bn, JTfrft (V(*fll r, JIft f^^ k. — WHl f m'tn(g), WA f 
b, imi(1 f fk, inWTT o. 

B 44. Since my father, by propitiating them, obtained youth, 
long life, health, power, poison for slaying all beings, 

?lWV ni'rn(g), ?l«i(ft fk, ITffT^ b. Jl^fH n. — t11M4(0lfl m'bfkrn(g). 
fltH*\ tTTfT u. — llKI*>(ll4m r, W<1U|i^I<J h, -VKIVIiqiJ fk. ^1.l4qt| m', 
Tn^T^^TfT n, ^ITTT^ Tni n[g). — »)jJliH'»l fkr, "Jjav* m'br*. — Pra*lm'fkT, 
fV'R.r*, f^^'l.b. — 44"^ ITH^TT* 4c.) omitted in n. 


263] — vii. 48 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 47 

B 45. I, his daughter, (would obtain) beauty and good fortune, 
if to me also were revealed formulas in which the AiSvins shall be 
praised* by me/ 

ipi^nit ^ rn, ^XV^RTf ^ b, ^SHTT ^^ f, ^Mfll %f m^k. — vn%l MSS. 
and r, fWWt* n. — % ^Ot^ bfkn, ift ^Ot^ m\ %: ^Ot^ r. — IRnftn'ft' bfrn(g), 
^^IHH^I kn. — Tbe end of the varga is here marked by Q. in bfk, not in m^. 

* Owing to the dropping of visarga before $i in the MSS. the reading is ambiguoufi, 
yai stosyete or yais iosyete; but the future being more appropriate than the present and 
the verb stu being constantly used with reference to deities, but never /uf , I feel no doubt 
that stosyete is the form intended (cp. 46 : gttUau • • aioinau . . pritau), 

10. Story of Ohosa (eondliided). 

B 46, 47. As she reflected thus, she saw the two hymns ' Your 
encircling * (yo vam pari- : x. 39, 40). The two divine Aivins 
being praised, were pleased. Entering her organ (hhaga) they 
made her ageless, free from disease, and beautiful {suhhaga). They 
gave her a husband and the sage Suhastya as a son. 

^WrfSf ^ftr ^ftvr b. — iPTRI^m^bfkmCg), «i«ii«n\ n. 

47. fq^<Hn<ii rn(g), ftqiOO^ii k, ft^^iO^n bf, ftqiiiO^iin. m\ ftir- 

TTft'T* n. — giRt m^rn, ^JTOT^fk, ^^RPl^b. — ^[f?5H f ^ rn, ^f^HV ^ U 
^P^ ^(P|?! m\ ^f^^^ b. — flfiin,m^bfkr, ^l n, ipSt: r*n(g). 

B 48. What the * Nasatyas ' by means of their two winged steeds 
{suparndbhydm)^ gave to Gho^a, daughter of Kak§ivat, is pro- 
claimed by the (stanzas), ' Not of that ' {na tasya : x. 40. 1 1) (and) 
' Of her that grows old at home' {amdjurah : x. 39. 3). 

«(1V^ m^bfk, ^^g^ih r. — ^illiflSird m^br, ^ WTO?^ f, ^ TRrt^ 
r*. — limn m^bfk, lITnin r. — ^mi^fl r, 41^14^1 fk, qi^lsni m*b. — If 

a^i^ii^O Ten f,% fl^i4< i ^0 wmm\ ir imi ^nift 'rar kr*r«r^ ir ?tot- 

irra^ K^lX b, TRTT ^^qO^^I ^ ' ^bis reading must be a conjecture of Mitra's ; for 

according to his note (p. 197, note ^) his A MSS. (r^r^r^r*) do not contain the passage, 

and his three B MSS. (r*r*r'') have the reading If TRTt TT^pCti'raT. This is the only 
BD. passage in which I have found evidence of a reading in r which has no MS. authority. 

* This b probably meant to express that the Asvins granted Ghosa's prayer at once. 

RV. X. 47] BRHADDEYATA vii. 49— [264 

49. There was an Asuri, daughter of Prajapati, Vikuntha by 
name. She, desiring a son like Indra, perfonued very severe 
auBteritiea *. 

%5^ hm'fk, %^fl) r { 1,4*1^ S). — 4f«(t^M: hmVk, ^MfHii: f, ^*l|41(]: 

b. — The end of the varga is here marked by SO in f only. It would have been more 

natural after the preceding e'loks, hut the begmning of a etoiy need not coinciiJe with 
the beginning of a varga. By thia divieion the tenth and the eleventh vargat contain 
four BlokiiB eaob. 

* Op. SarvSnukramani : vikujithd nSmdiuriindratvlyat!! pulram iehtma mafiat taptu 

11. Story of ludra TaUcnntlia. 

50. She then obtained from Prajapati her desirea (in the form 
of) various boons. And Indra himself was born of her % as he 
wished to slay the Daityas and Danavas. 

fffwffti* f, flrwifli^ k, TTTT^^ m\ wnri lift hd, ^fmr 5i^ b, wm W< 

r^r*r*. — ftf^VT't.^TT'^bfk, ^H^tIVI: A (probably an erroneout repetition of the 
end of the preceding line). — A4^j bdm'rb, ?!^11,fk(S). 

* Op. Garvanukramani : laiydh ttayam etendra^ pulro jajHr. 

61. Once he was engaged in battle with the Danavas. Of them 
he slew nine nineties <>■ and seven groups of seven. 

V*^ <H^: hdfk, m^IH^: m\ Tpltq ^T'l^l br'r^r": the reading of bdfk 
it the more probable, because the one ^ would easily drop out before the other (as in 
m ), and to write i[4^ would be an obvious way of replacing the lacking syllable. — 
^[Vresgn: b, 4lf44JU|^ fk, 91T^r^?t r, IKfC^ffl h din'. — ftV hm' r, %^i b f k. — ^TH- 
Vm. B, ^FVT Am'. 

* Withja^Aano UtSm navallr nava, cp, RV. i, 84. ly. jaghana navalir nava; the latter 
words recur in MahSbhSrata, ii. 34. 19 (see Hopkins, JAOS., xxii, p. 389). Cp. BD, \i. 

52. Having shattered with the might of hia arm their citadels 
of gold, Gilver, and iron, (and) having slain all (of them) in their 
respective spheres i^atkdstkdnam), as arrayed on earth and in the 
other (two worlds). 

265] — vii. 56 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. x. 47 

fNnrtft: Bm\ fWWnrift: r^r*r«, ^4|^^|€|in bd.— l^TT bdrfk, f^?^T b.— 
yr^mf^«il4^ hdm^bfk, ^|fW<VTf^^?^ r. Mr. A. B. Keitb BuggesU tbe very neat 
correction ^R|<qi f^^^ (i. e. diyiava®) owing to ^f^Wf and f^(c| in 53. I ha?e, 
however, retained tbe reading given in tbe text, because no MS. baa an aniisvSra, because 
^^f^n is used in an analogous passage (vi. iii, 112), and tbe distributive sense of m^\ 
in iimmi^ is well explained by the IRTf^ in gfil^ml^". — ^53* is wanting in r^r*r*. 

63. On earth he exterminated both the Kalakeyas and the 
race of Fuloma, the archers, and in heaven the notorious (tan) 
offspring of Prahlada. 

*3*H<*''**I^ hdm\ ^J^5T* r, <^AII<4M<$l^b, ^Cfcl<l|<M4l^rVr\ ^^^^ 
irfT^f k. — ^H^IT^ f kr. HITRE* ^i^ ^» 'JXT^ ^d- — f^f'T -A.m^, ^rfq r, ^i^ft b ; f k omit 
two syllables in the last pfida : l|^|^fli|f^. — This sloka in B comes after 55, but it is 
evidently in the right place here. Owing to this transposition the end of the varga is 
marked by ^^ in bfk after the next sloka (54); it is not marked at all in hdm^. 

12. Story of Zndra Vaikn^tha (oontiniied). 

64. Having obtained sovereignty among the Daityas (and) 
puffed up with pride by reason of his might, he began to harass 
the gods, being infatuated by the craft of the Asuras. 

XT*f ITW hm^fk, XT*r TR r, ^CT^I^ ^- — This and the following s'loka are 
omitted in r^r^r^r*, 

55. Now while they were being harassed by that same Asura 
of unlimited power, they fled for succour to Saptagu, most excellent 
of seers, in order that (the latter) should admonish him (Indra) ^ 

^TCqrTPn^ hdm\ 4|U|Hl^b, l^^iTRT^ r, ^(\|4||«||^ f,^rM4||«||^ k. — 
?NTt*r bfkr, H ^ m\ H ¥1^ hd. — WIRtVTO r, IRintVT^ b, «(|[^m4 fk, 

winrraro hdm\ 

* Cp. sa huddhva ea^imanttm in 57* 

66. Now the seer called Saptagu was a dear fiHiend of his, and 
(so) he praised him with the (hymn), * We have grasped ' (Jagrbhma : 
X. 47) % aa he took him by the hand. 

ir ^'fUhm^r, ^ HTH^bk, ^ ipW^f. 

* Op. SarvSnukrama^i : jagfhhma . . saptagur vaikuitfham indratii ius{ava, 

u. Mm 

RV. X. 48-] 



57. Then he coming to {buddhvd) himself (and) rejoiced at the 
praise of Saptagu, praised himaelf with the three * (hymns) ' I was ' 
(aham bhuvam : s. 48-50) ; 

imi^hm^rb, Tm^fkr^rM— ^3Tr, HTtfk, ^^T lidm\ JffT b.— jJET^ 
hm'bf, iJST^ ^ r^r^r'. ^ffT^ ^ k. 

* Cp. Sarvaaukiam&Dl on RV. i. 47: la saplaguilalUiuiihTffa atmanam ultarait tribhit 

68. proclaiming his deeds, which he performed in days of yore, 
and how he made king Vyan^a of Videha lord of Soma* — 

t^WO^ Am', <mi40rH br, C|IE|ie?l(U fk. — ^^ hdm^fr, 9^ r^r*r', ^TJ 
k. — iTl+iMfti hmV, ^«qfit^ r'r*r*. ^ VffH b, ^ "3Ilf7l (yi) fk, Wt^PrfS r'*. — 

The end of the varga is hers marked by ^^ tn bfk, not in hdm'. 

' Tbere seems to be no distinct reference to any such myth in these three hymns. 

13. Story of Indra Vaikimtha (concluded). Story of Agni and bis 
brotherB; BV. x. 51-53. 

59. by the curse of Vasigtha he in formerdays had become king 
of Videha, and by the favour of Indra he sacrificed with sessions 
) on the Sarasvati and others^^ — 

%^ft hm\ ^^ r^ ft^ft bfkr. — t^ ^ Am\ t^ « bfkr. — «1^91fllf^f*i: 
hm'rfk, y'ltafll f^lTi: b. 

* This stanza gives a parenthetical explanation about Vyaqisa, the construction 
ninniug on from 58 to 60. The curse of Yasiatha, it appears, relegated Yyaipsa to 
a remote Eastern region (Tirhnt) beyond the pale of orthodox Brahinaniam, but the 
favour uf Indra afterwards enabled him to perform sacrifices on the Sarasvati and so to 
become a ' lord of Soma,' like himself (somapati being an epithet of Indra). 

B 60. and (praising) his great power and his injury to foes, 

and his sovereignty among all men and his lordship in the 

worlds; but in the (stanza) 'Forth to your great' (pra w make : 

X. 50. i) his own imperishable might. 

5(fjl[*(-rti r, TTfin?^ b, !()fj|i«Wl m' f k. — "RJUlfiliqni b, "15 IT fin IR f. *Vm- 

ftran ii.\ "^rVftimf^r. — 5g v^ Am', ni'^fllftg fkr, ft'^^l^ b. — Tirarft 

Am', ^ifA^ (tT") B. — ^iSfl^IJJ^hm'r*, 'fll^q^qHf, "Trf^^TOH b, •^rt^t 


267] — vii. 64 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 51 

61. *When the brothers^ VaiSvanara, Agni Grhapati and 
Yavi^ftha, Favaka, and Agni Sahalpsuta^' had been shattered by 
the Ya^at call, 

^fiy^^ b, VrgTSf hdm^r'r^ ^T^^ERf (cp. v,r. vii. 1X6: ^m and m^ fk, 
^fTJ^ n, irrft ^ rp, ^rrft 3 r^r"^ W^ S). — iTftfSt b, ?| ^ p, iTf ^ fk, 
iTf ^pft hdm^r^r^ 5|rf9 ^ r*, ^f^l ^pft r, ^fW^^ n. 

^ The following passage (6i-8i^ ), as quoted by an old MS. (p) of Sa^gtmisisya 
(p. 184) on BY. X. 51, has been published by me in the JBAS., 1894, pp. 11-22. Parts 
of the stoiy are also quoted by the Nitimafljari on BY. x. 51. 8. Cp. SSyapa's introduction 
to BY. X. 51 (with var. lect. in M. M., BY.^ vol. iv, p. 16). ^ My expectation, expressed 
in the JRAS., p. 19, that when more MS. material had been collated, the correct reading of 
the text of the BD. would prove to be hhratffv agnau, is here confirmed. Only one letter 
(f) of that reading is wanting in the MSS., and if we take into consideration the reading 
of the Sarvanukrama^i (which borrows a whole pada and three syllables without alteration : 
vofofkareifa Vfh^esu bhrdtrsu), not a single letter is wanting. ^ Judging by the story 

in TS. ii. 6. 6, one would expect the names of three brothers only ; but here we have five : 
Vaisv&nara, Agni Grhapati, Agni Yavistha, Agni Kvaka, and Agni Sahasajji suta (shortened 
for the sake of metre to the compound form Saha^suta). The last four are mentioned 
together in the SarvSnukrama^i on BY. viii. 102 : agnih pavakafif sahasali ttUayor vagnyor 
gxhapaH-yoHfthayor vaanyatarah ; according to Sadgurusisya, Agni Grhapati and Agni 
Yavistha are sahotuimnafi putrau. 

62. Agni Saucika departed from the gods, so a Vedic text 
(relates). He on departing entered the seasons, the waters ^ (and) 
the trees. 

m^llTf Bn, irfirqirRT Am^ — ^^t B, liWWft Am^. — ^PWWVfft^ 
BS, iRTT^f^ Am^p. 

^ Op. SarvSnukramapi : saut^o *gnir apa^ pravi4ya. 

63. Then the Asuras appeared, when Agni the oblation-bearer 
had vanished. The gods, having slaui the Asuras in fight, looked 
about in quest of Agni. 

^ MSS., {f^n. — ^^(Wn br, «^^^^ hdm\ •^VT f, ^t^RI p. — ^TT fWT- 
^[^TH, hdfrn, fWT 4I^|^<I^ b. — ^f^ hrm^p, ^ fbn. — ^The end of the varga is 
here marked by 9^ in hm^, after the preceding line in b, not at all in dfk. 

14. Story of Agni's flight (oontinnea). 

64. Now Tama and Varuna * espied him from afar. Both of 
them, taking him with them, went to the gods. 

RV. X. 51] 


' On Varuna's poners of vision, ep. above, iii. 134. 

65. On seeing him the gods said : ' Agni, bear our oblations, 
and accept boons* from ub ; do thou, brilliantly shining one, 
attend upon us ; 

B do thou thyself graciously make the paths trodden by the 
gods easy to traverse.' 

^^^TT^^lidrp, ^gl't^ti m', ^flr^-ltibn, ^^T'. ^t fk. — ^ Am', ^TTt. 

T. — ^flyi*ll*l,m\ ^flTTntf, "^T*nrt, k, ^q^T*li bn. — gTRT'i: fm'n. ^JFT- 
»PT^: b. — The third line of 65 is found in btkm'n, but not in hdr. 

' Tha reading varan aeemB preferBble to varum, because several boons Siie asked by 
Agni (73, 74), and especially becausa the oipression $aTvan eva tiordn dadv^ is used in "jb. 

66. Agni then answered them : ' What all ye gods have said 
to me I will do ; but let the five races enjoy my priesthood ' " — 

"^ra WTlftl^ hrbk, "^ n^fq^TT^p, — ft% ^^ m'rbfkn,^^JI*H,["' r'r'r', 
ft% ^ hdr^, f^ ^ p. — TJ^ TTfl^b, ^^^ WT fk, CI^IVI WT^m'. <J<^|(1| 
TPlr, <Tr ^Tij «T r'r^r", ?J^1t1 Sni, p. ^PSTlTIfl, bdr^, H^I^P! n. — ij?^ ?J 
Am'p, ^SWt ^ B. — ft^ hdm'r'pD. ^|^ r. 

' Cp. RT. I. 53- 5 : pailca jana mama kotram jasanlaia. 

67. now the fire at the entrance of the shed (sdldmuhhya), 
that which is brought forward (pranita)^ the son of the Lord 
of the House ^, the northern and the southern fire, these are held 
by tradition {smrta) to be the five races. 

3JTWTfi<«: hdm'r^bp, ITTWTII^: fk. 3IT<«)]^: r. — The end of the varga ia 
here marked by ^tt in hfk, not in hdm'. 

* That is, the AhavanTya &re. ** That is, the Garhapatya fire. 

IS. Tha meaning of pnEca janah. 

68. Men, Fathers, Gods, Gandharvas, Serpents, Demons " ; 
B (or) Gandharvas, Fathers, Gods, Asuras,Yak?a8 (and) Demons'*: 

269] — vii. 72 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. x. 51 

«!^pn: fMflO ^^^T, Tf^for: ^irtt bfk. — ^t^^ttot: m^bf, (irfTT) tt^^- 

ni^l p* — 68^ Ib found in m'^bfk, but not in bd> nor is it mentioned in r. 

* The last two are probably meant to form one group so as to make five altogether. 
^ This alternative list represents the opinion of ' some ' quoted in Nirukta iii. 8 (on 
BY. X. 53. 4) except that the Taksas are there omitted : gandharvah pUaro devS asurd 
raksamgiity eke. (Cp. JRAS., 1894, p. 20.) Here also the last two, Taksas and RSksasas, 
are meant to form one group. The two lists in 68" and 68^ have four classes in 
common : pitarafif deval^, gandharvafi^ rakfcuafi ; but for iiuiiit»ya^ and uraga^ in the first 
we have yaksafi and asurafiL in the second. 

69. Yaaka ^ and Aupamanyava state these to be the five races. 
Sakatayana thinks they are the (four) castes with the Ni§fadas as 
a fifth. 

€||4ifm*i«*i<H^^I*l bdr, <H4Sin^444|qftflin^r^*r*m\ in^i?W»mf%m^ k. 

^rnaPrtfi^l^^n'^ p. *ii4grt<i*ifl,^^di«tb. 

* In Nirukta iii. 8, Yaska does not give his own opinion, but states the view 
of some (above, 68, note^) which is practically the same as that of 68^; while what he 
states to be Aupamanyava's opinion is that attributed to Sakatayana in 69^ . The opinion 
of the AB. iii. 31. 5 is nearly identical with that given in 68' (the raksatafi being omitted) : 
devdh, manusyaft, gandharvapsarasah, sarpah, pitaral^ ; see Roth, Erlauterungen, p. a8. 

70. Sakapuni, however, thinks they are the (four) priests {rtvij) 
and the institutor of the sacrifice {yajamdna). 

B Those (priests) they call ' Hotr/ . ' Adhvaryu/ 'Udgatr/ and 
' Brahman.' 

T^WR ^ b, ^T^nrnrV hdm^rfkp. — •^fl^^nftn* ni\ "^^^ ^UT* fkr^ 
•Hn§T^ b. — HIT %ft m\ ^mfit WP^b, irRR% WP^fkr*. — ^^pff WPCm\ ^^[f?| 
Wl'Cb, 'I^TfiT Wl'Cfkr*. — 70-72 are found in bfkr*m\ but not in A. 

B 71, 72. Eye, ear, mind, speech, and breath, say the theosophists 
{dtmavddin). They are stated to be Gandharvas and Apsarases, 
Gods, Men, Fathers, and Serpents in the sacred text of the 
Aitareya * Brahmana^ — 

'and (continued Agni) whatever other terrestrial creatures 
(prihivijdtdh) and other divine beings {devdh) there are that 
receive worship iyojniydh). 

RV. X. 51-] 



72. »TW%%^ b, unwind m'fkrl — ^ ilflim: b, ^ M^^ fkr^. «mfll«r: 
m' (cp. ^ifSnire: in RV. i. 53. 4). — The end of the varga is here marked bj ^M m 
bfm , not in k, 

' See above, 69, note'. 67-73" is a pBrenthetical oiplanation of paHea janili. 

16. StDT7 of Agni'B flight (contiiiTted). 

73. And let me have long life, and various oblations, and let 
my elder brothers enjoy safety at every sacrifice * ; 

in^i«^ hmV, ira^ ^ b. ^^ (only) f, TI^iTMt kr^ 
■ This and tlie following Bloka are based on RV. z, 51. 8. 

74. and let the preliminary (praydja) and the final oblations 
(anuydja), the ghee, and the victim in the Soma (sacrifice) have 
me as their divinity, and let the sacrifice (in general) have me 
as its deity.' 

^ ^; XJ^: hdm'r^bfkr^, TR: XJ^: r, (^fftl?) ^^'- ^TJItp. — W^flWlf*! ra'n, 
H^^WT ^ hdr^ % ^qiUlt'I fkr^ JT^^nHXf*! bpr'r^r*. — "^HTfti^ ^ m'krp. 
"^^ig ^ f, "^^ig ^ b. '\'^i^ ff n. o^^TI^: hdr'. 

75. This was accorded (pratydrdkt) with (the words) ' Thine, 
O Agni, the sacrifice ' {tavdgne yajnah : x. 5 1 . g") ; and he (became) 
Svistakrt (offering right sacrifice), to whom the three thousand, 
three hundred and nine 

is found in hdr^fkr'r'n, but is wanting in r'r^r'i 


76. and thirty gods * gave all (these) boons. Then Agni, 
well-disposed, pleased, honoured by all the gods, 

^ jj bm^r. ^ p, T^ra tf- — ^rfprt hm'r, *i4i^ni»(,bfp. — ^: y^ijfl: 

hra'r, ^^ ?rgTi; bfkn {"W f). 

" Op. RV. jt. ga. 6 ; see my 'Vedic Mythology,' p. 19 (middle). 

77. shaking ofi" his limbs, the divine-souled oblation-bearer, 
pleased in company with his brothers, unweariedly performed the 
of&ce of Hotr (hotram) at sacrifices. 


271] — vii. 8 1 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 55 

fq^<|4|ini k. — ft^lHbdm^r^bk, ift^R^fr: ^jtif is the word used in RV. x. 51. 4. — 

f^dllMI bdr, f<|4||<||| bfk.-*— The end of the varga is here marked by 9^ in m^bf k, 
not in hd. 

17. Story of Agni's flight (oonolnded). BV. x. 54-57. 

78. His bone became* the Devadaru tree ; his fat and flesh, 
bdellium ; his sinew, fragrant Tejana grass ; his semen, silver 
and gold ; 

^j|(^7)Qi«i hd, ^ir^ ^(9m b, ^iW ir^m (^^ii kr*) fkr*. — ^n^ hdm^p, wr^t 

bfr, Urg: kr«, ^ r^r*r«. 

* The earliest expression of the notion of parts of the body being united with or 
turned into something analogous in nature appears in one of the funeral hymns of the BY., 
X. 16. 3 : surytujt caksur gackatu vatam atrndf &c, Cp. BD. vi. 106, 151. 

79. the hair of his body {romdni) became KaiSa grass ; the hair 
of his head (keSdh), Ku6a, grass ; and his nails, tortoises ; and his 
entrails also (became) the Avaka * plant ; his marrow, sand and 

%in^ hd, %irrV bfkr. — ^IWrPl ^ hm^rbfk, <|lfl|lfll|| p. — ^IR^TTflir hdr, 
IJflTPf fk, lli^ini b. — ^q|U|44l bfkp, f)qm^<| hdm^r. — •mrfli^ hdm^bf 

kr*p, •inn^rcr: r', •?nrincT: r. 

^ Between the two readings caivdpy avaka (B) and iawaias tv eva (A), I have 
decided in favour of the former, as avaka is the older word (which occurs in the BY.), for 
which the later word iaivala (identical in meaning) would have been substituted as more 
familiar, the substitution being probably assisted by the similar beginning {caiva^) of the 
original reading. 

80. his blood and bile (became) various minerals, such as red 
chalk. Thus Agni and the Gods with the three hymns (beginning) 
' Great* * {mahat : x. 51-53) 

ftftW hdm^, filftV fk, ftftV br. 

^ Cp. SarvSnukramai^i : agnifi . . . devaih aamavadad uttarais tribhili, 

81. conversed. Now the two following (hymns) *That of thee ' 
{tdm su te: x. 54, 55)* after this are addressed to Indra. 

RV. : 



■ 55- 5) 

B In the (stanza) ' Who lonely runs ' {vidhum dadrdnam : 
Sun and Moon are praised. 

Tt^^hm^r, ^^^5^ fkp,lr^b. — !] (Tt ^ ?t bkr, ^ m ^ ^ f, ^fft ^ ?t 
h, ^ran ^ d. — 81"' and Sa"'' we not found in A, bnt in B and m^ only. 

* On the pratlka lam «u tt see toy note in Ihe JSA6.,iS94, p. 15, shuningthe conitant 
confuBioQ in the MSS. between saia and gtuta (cp. alao the various readings of sahakttUc, 
above, 61). 

B 82. The praise here also appears as of Breath and of Soul *. 

The two (hymns)' This' (irfcmi: x. 56, 57) are addressed to the All- 
gods. In the second (57) b there is a triplet (3-5) to Mind {inanas). 

^TI^ ^ hm^r, '^H^T b, »^fl«i fk. — f^jft^i^WH!^: bdr', f^!fl%ilS»nift 
ff^: r. fipftT^'fft Tm m*, ffllflttl PlR+ll ^f?i: fkr*, 'fipftq^IT^ ^f'fl b. — 

The end of the varga is here marked by V^ (instoad of ^'O) in bfk, not at all in hd. 

* RV. s. 55. 5 is commented on in this sense also in Ninikta liv. i8. Cp. BD, vL 
I34< I3<^- " ^'hia P^B (^''') i° B ia identical with 101'' in A and B, and mfty 
have been due to its occupying a aiinilar position on the following page in the original 
of B. In any case there is no mention of the Ahgirases in the text of KV. i. 57. Nor 
is there any tnce of Aryaman in it. On the other hand manas is invoked to Tetorn in 
X. 57. 3-5; I have accordingly made the emendation •i«i*m(cp. 85 ). ^•i<i| probably 
due to *K*mfI,, by the loss of one 9, becoming 4i«|(i_, the lacking syllable then being 
supplied by ^, with the consequent change of 1 to 1Q. 

18. Stor; of SnliaiidlLa : &V. z. fi7'59. 

83. The first (stanza) is addressed to Indra (x. 57, 1), the second 
to Agni (2), the last (6) has the Soma (mentioned) in it {}at) for 
its deity. 

B This (hymn) praises the Fathers * also (and) shoiild be recited 
(in that sense) by priests {drtvija)^. The hymn ° (beginning) 
' Which ' iyat : x. 58), coming next after that, 

««|Sl^ f^jftfTT^W^ hm^rbfk, Mfm\ ^'a^HC^ r'r*r^ — fl(Mt*l^fl*n 
hdm'rffc, WtT^^m b. — 83* in r'r*r* appears as ^[fifwiTflVt ?J ^. "bich 
ia practically identical with 83 . This indicates that though 83' does not occur in A 
(but in Bm^ only) it was known to the copjiato of some A MSS. — ^Wftt't Cltl^ b, 
^iH^MJ '^^ f, ^ifi^SU ^ ^ kr*, Tirfifof ^ ^ m'. — «tH,*<^ bm^fkr*. 

* The pitara^ are invoked in x. 57. 5. ^ Op. Sayai^a's introductory temsrk oo 
RV. X. 57 : mahapilryajlie 'py ttad pvtgbhir japyam. " Suktam belongs to 84. 


273] — vii. 87 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 58 

B 84. is connected with a story: hear it from me desirous of 
telling it. When he had lost consciousness from stupefaction, 
having been struck down by an enemy, 

fnfWHB^ b, ^RltfTV ftllW m^. — ^^UllfSif fl4<| m\ ^^\fi{%i{^ b, J(jp[i 

^(^fflHI fkr*. — g bfkr*, ^ m^. — This sloka is found in B and m^ only. 

85. Subandhu's life is (here) recalled* ijivdvftti) or (the hymn) 
is (in) praise of Mind {pianos). 

Bang AsamSti, of the race of Ik^vaku^, the Eathapro^tha®, 
cast off ^ {pytidasyd) his domestic priests 

^^igPn: bm^r, ^sft'lTJjW b, ^qi^fJf f, ^ftfT^ljNl k. — ^4<bh4l bm^b, 
^^•MI^I fk, 4l^^4l r. — frf^ TT bm^rb, IJ^ TT f , TR[ ^ k. — iRi[: ^^W m^r, 
Wn ^R: bdbfk (^ bfk). — •^enift bdrbfk. •^^(09: r^r*r*, •^^TPl m^ (cp. v.r. 

96). — ^T^^: br, ^^'irttHT: f, t^toVct: kr*, <mi1cti<v ^i^*, •v^ d. 

^ In order to keep 84 (B) separate from 85 I bave had to cbange the constraction ; 
literaUy : ' The hymn x. 58 (in 84) is (meant to be) a recall of the life of Subandhn (85) 
who had lost consdousness/ &c. (84). ^ Iks^^n is mentioned in BV. z. 60. 4 ; 

cp. SanrSnukrama^i : aiksvako rajasamatift. ^ Cp. BV. x. 60. 5 : (uamatisu rathapro- 

sfhefu. This word belongs to 86 ; cp. SarvSnukrama^i : puroMtaina tydktvd, 

86. Bandhu and the rest who in the Mandala of the Atris 
(v. 24) are seers of Dvipadas {dvaipaddh) *. The two crafty priests 
named Kir&ta and Akuli^ 

1t^^ IT hd, %q^ir b, 1t^R[T% m\ "^tqi^T^ f. ^q;^ k.— ftl^TmgRft bkr, 

fti^rarjflr f, f'l^nft' JPft hdm^r^s, irt^ r^r*r®r*. 

^ Cp. SarvSnukrama^i : ukia T^ayo dvaipade tv atrimof^le, ^ On these two names 
cp. 9B. i. 1. 4"^^ and the S^t^yanaka in M. M., BY.^ vol. iv, p. 167, and var. lect., pp. c-cvii. 

87. Asam&ti made his domestic priests ; for he considered them 
the best^. These two priests having become pigeons and having 
gone against the Gaupayanas, 

tjtt^sni hm^r, ^^Ct'nft fk, ^fWW* l>- — *l(\rf1 hm^r, €|R|8l fk. — iTWT hdr, 

^WT fk, wanting in b. — ^MI^^II^Rl hdm^r, ^Tt^TRnTUrf^ b, ^Hl«<«lll«l^ fk.— 
None of the MSS. mark the end of the eighteenth varga. 

^ Cp. Sarvinakrama^i: mayavinau ^resfhatamau matva pwrodadhe; cp. Sadgurusisya, 
P- 163- 

n. N n 




19. Story of Sabandlm (contiiiaed). 

88. fell upon Subandhu with their crafty power and their 
magical art {yoga). From the pain (caused) by their attack, he 
swooned and fell. 

^W»y»,hdm'rfk, ^f>«H b. — "fJT^: hdrb, ft^^: f. "fiT^^ k. 

89. When they had plucked out {dlucya) his spirit (asu)^, they 
went to the king. Then, after Subandhu had fallen lifeless to the 
ground, the three brothers^, 

iai^M,hm'rb. Ifltlfl, f. ^J^ k. — HT^W m'r, ^|<fl1^ hdr^r'*, HI^ r". 
*l(gU) b, WfH^ fb. — 1in*ft hdm^r, HTIffX bn, omitted in ffc. 

* Cp. Sarvanukramai>I : tubandhoh prolan SeikaipaluA. ^ 89* and 90" are 

quoted in the NitimsiljarT on EV, v, 60. 12. 

90. the Gaupayanas, all together muttered, as a spell for good 
luck, (the hymn) 'Not' {nm: x. 57); for bringing back hia soul 
{mana-dvartana) they had recourse to (abhi-yd) the hymn 'Which ' 
(i/a(; x.58)^ 

5|g: hm'r, ^: bfk. — «imi^<^»i Trer btk(S), ITT^T^^ ?TO r'. TTVT^- 
ipffti^ hdm^r.— »5g: hm'rb, V^'. tk. 

' Cp. S&rvSaukrtLmBnT : ma . . , gvastyayanatii japtva . . yal . . mana-Svattatiatii jvp^. 

A 91. And the following (triplet) which, (beginning) 'Let be pro- 
longed' (pros tdri: X. 59), they muttered with a view to remedies is 

the first triplet of the hymn (1-3) : it is there meant to drive 
away (apanodana) Dissolution (nirrti) *. 

^qm^hd, ft^irTiSm'r(ep. RV. s. 59. 9: ^^TT). — TRhdm^T'r*, Wf r, Wl 
bfk (the pratika of RV. i. 59, becaiu^e 91" is wanting in these USS.), 

' Cp. Surranukramarii : pro tari , , . «irr'«" apanodanartka^ }^<tii- 

92, Now the three verses ' Not at all ' (mo su : x. 59. 4"'*) are 
addressed to Soma, the last (4^ to Nirrti * : this whole stanza 
being addressed to Soma and Nirrti. The following two (stanzas : 
5, 6) are (in) praise of Asuniti. 


275] — vii. 96 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 60 

bfkr^. — •iftfif: ^[fif: ii^ h, •wrtfi^fii: ^^ d, •^ft ^fir: vjj r, •^IH^: ^ bf, 

* The statement of the SarvSoDkrama^i is : the first four stanzas they mattered for 
the purpose of driving away Nir^ti, in the fourth they praised Soma also. 

98. Now in (this) couplet Yaska * thinks the last verse (59. 6^) 
is addressed to Anumati. 

The end of the varga is here marked by 90. in bfk (not at all in hdm^) thus 
giving five and a half slokas to this varga (if 91' is included) and leaving five and 
a half for the next. 

^ Yftska comments on the preceding stanza (x. 59. 5) in Nirukta z. 39, but says 
nothing about x. 59. 6 . 

20. Bttailad aocount of BV. z. 59, 60. 

Earth, Heaven, Soma and Fui^n, Air, Fathya and Svasti 

94. are traditionally held (to be the deities) in the stanza 
* Again to us ' (punar nah : x. 59. 7) for the alleviation (Sdnti) 
of Subandhu. The triplet 'Blessing' {Sam: x. 58. 8-10) is to 
the Two Worlds (rodasl), while in the stanza 'Together' {scmi: 
X. 59. 10) the (first) hemistich is addressed to Indra. 

^itfV bkr, Wt f, ^t'?^ hdm^ — ^^gf^ ?J ^[HTJ hdr'm\ 1[fif ?J lyTT r, f^^ 

^^p(V b, ^i^ ^q^vt: f, w^ ^njif : k, 

95. Now they praised the Two Worlds for the destruction of 
infirmity (rapas) : * infirmity ' is stated to be a designation of sin 
or (bodily) trouble *. 

t^ hdm^r, ?t bfk. — ^WW hdr, %1| m\ fFS^T ^» (35^)^^^^ ^» 't^RT ^• 
^ Op. Nirukta iv. 21 : tapo ripram iti papanSmant bhavaia(i, 

96. Then with the four ptanzas * ' Hither ' (o : x, 60. 1-4) they 
praised the scion of Ik^vaku, and after praising him they uttered 
prayers for him with the stanza 'O Indra, dominion' {indra 
ksatrd : x. 60. 5). 

RV. X. 6c^] BRHADDEVATA vu. 97— [276 

"ftiflrgW^hdr, V^IJt^f.'^^T^ fc,Tt^H*^bm': ep. the various roadiogs aboTe, 
vii. 85 and v. 14, 

* Here jib have TS^hU eatatrbhi^, bat in vi. 41 fgbkU eaturhhih. 

97. And their mother * praised the king with (the stanza) ' Of 
Agastya ' (agastyasya : x. 60. 6). *> The king, having been (thus) 
praised, went to the Gaupayanas full of shame. 

HII+jWStdirnTT ^ Iidrbfk, 'fllHSH'a ^reTWTTTT n. — ^r^brn'ra, gsT:«fk, 
^pT^hd, — «tfl«lEl.liilr, Vflg^b, omitted in fk, g^^TTO, 9, {^JTltiHlTTf'r:) WfH: n. 

■ Cp. ArsanukrBniaiii x. 24: tvasaagaityaiya matajaam. *■ Tbe following pasasg* 

C97"'-I0i) is quoted in Siyaiift on RV. i. 60. 7. Parts of it (97-98**, 99"'-iOo''*) ara 
also quoted in the NitimaQjarl on RV. x. 60. IZ. 

98. As among the Atris* they had also praised Agni with 
a dvipada hymn (dvaipada), Agni, on his pai-t, said to them, ' Here 
within the sacrificial barrier ' (antahparidhi) ^ is the spirit 

^TTWbfkn. ^TT^r, ^*|qT Am^. — \^\^ M'U\Vi^ bm'rfkD(b)s, M^^y 
n, 1^55 n (m). %H;^ Hfl^f^g r'r*r', ^IJ^ IJfl^f^g b. — ^ftKU«" bdm', ^fq- 
frWS'r. imilfM^fl'bffl, ^'S|fM<ril k. — TPTT'l.ra, iprT't.m', %'n'l.b. ^, 
^^T'Llitlr'- — iftTffg: B. TTT^ng: Am'r', xr^W^ b, »JJI.W»J*I, fkm. — The end of 
the varga is here marked by ^0 in bfk, not in hdm^. 

* That in, in RV. v. 24. ^ Cp. Sajana on RV. 1. 60 and his quotation from tha 
^atjaysnaka in M. M., RV.^ toI, iv, p. 175. 

21. Story of SnbaDdha (oonoladed). Daitias of BT, z. 61-66. 

99. of Subandhu ; that of this scion of Ik^vaku also has been 
guarded by me desirous of the welfare (of both),' Having given 
(back) his spirit to Subandhu and saying ' Live/ tbe Purifier 

g?^tr^%^T^!t^r'r*r*br^ g^'Mt*,^ ^i^l^l fk, +|*(»Mll*a %?!IflFtTJ «, 
gW';^ ^^rrat^ hdm', *J^^<ig %^rrat r. — f^inNfr hm'ra, ffTtftfll b, 
tlllftflir fk.^H^nir^ hm'r'r'B, «?ITg bk, "^IT^ f. "IR^ r, "^TT^ n, "in^ 
n(hm).— arftigWT hm'rs, ^ WWT fkn, flRwJWT b. — ^ hm'r. 5 bfk. 

100. having been praised by the Gaupayanaa, went back 
pleased to heaven. They, rejoicing, summoned the spirit 


277] — vii, 104 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [~RV. x. 64 

of Subandhu with (the stanza) ' He as a mother ' {ay am mdtd : 
X. 60. 7). 

101. Pointing to the body of Subandhu prostrate on the 
ground, they sang the remainder of the hymn for the maintenance 
of his consciousness {cetas) \ 

^ According to tbe SarTannkrama^i, they summoned back his life with stanzas 7-1 1 : 
parabhtfL subandhor jivitam akvayan, 

102. And in the (stanza) ' This ' (ay am : x. 60. 1 2) they indi- 
vidually (prthak) touched him with their hands when he had 
recovered his spirit*. 

There are six (hymns) addressed to the All-gods (beginning) 
* This ' (idam : x. 61-66). In the second (62) there is praise of the 

IWT5 r, IWT^ f k, ^rron^bm^b (^RTOll 8). — fJKW^ bm^r, ^[llJTOrf bf k. — 
•^IJlllidrk, •^pnX^b. — •flfWr ^ft» bdrb, PlfX^ll ^ft: k, •f^fm ^ftt f 

(cp. 8a). 

^ Op. SarvSnukramai^i : tarn antyaya labdhasaif^Ham OMpfian, 

103. (The seer) praises (them), proclauning (their) birth, and 
activity, and friendship with Indra *. * May he now prosper ' {pra 
nunam : x. 62. 8-11)^ and the rest are a praise of Manu, son of 
Savarna {sdvarnya)^. 

%% irnrt f.— ^1*1^^ hm^fr (=EV. x. 62. 9), ^rrmq^ bk. — 103* -106 are omitted 

in r^r*r*. 

-The end of tbe varga is here marked by ^9 in bfk, not in hdm^. 

* Op. V. 164. ^ SSyai^a on BV. z. 6a. 7 quotes a sloka from Sannaka, and 

another in his introduction to x. 6a. 8 : neither comes from the BD. ^ The SarvS- 

nukramai^i has the metronymic form savar^ BY. x. 6a. 9 has savan^ya and 11 sivan^i. 
Op. BD.yii. i. 

Details of BV. z. 63-66. Deities of BV. z. 67-72. 

104. And for the sake of long life for him the seer praises the 
gods : (so) he came upon ' Her that well guards ' {sutrdmdnam : 
X. 63. 10) (and) 'Her that is great' {mahim u §u)\ *0f Dak^a' 
{dakfa^a : x. 64. 5) is (in) praise of Aditi. 

RV. X. 63-] 



«in«|M«|i;fN: lira'r, ^TBfHraTWft: bfk (ft* bk). — H^^^hm'bf, 7|f^ "% 

' AV. vii. 6. a ; VS. xsi. 5 ; TS. i. 5. 11* ; quoted in AB. i. 9. 8 ; AS's. iv. 3 (^. 
SSyana on RV. x. 63. 10). It does not occur in the Euhmir collection of kbilsa. 

105. ' The goddess of Welfare, indeed ' (svastir id dhi : x, 
63, 16) is (in praiae) of Pathya svasti^; 'Welfare to us' (svasti 
nah: 15) is (in) praise of the Marute^; for it is stated in the 
texts of the Adhvaryus ^ (with regard to it) ' He repeats the 
stanza addiessed to the Maruts.' 

a'fkr, Trerrafig hd. — Itpf^^J tt hdm'r, Tiw4% 

MlUIIMft b, nwiiyfM 
ift ff b, -Vl^^ ft fk. 

* Hete Patb}-i evaiti is one goddess ; otberwise P»thyS and Svasti are treated oa 
two goddeasee, ee in Nughantuka v. 5. According to the Sarvanukramani both 

15 and 16 are Bddreseed to PathyS svaiti ; but the Maruts are mentioned in 15 and the 
authority of the Yajar-veda is here adduced to show that 15 was ritually applied aa 
a Manit vene. ' This ia evident!; a passage from a BrShma^ of the Ysjur-veda. 

106. So also in the (stanza) ' The Cow that ' (yd gauh : x. 65. 6) 
the Middle Vac is praised ; ' To Mitra ' (mitrdya : 5) is addressed 
to Mitra -Varuna ; ' Bhujyu from distress ' {bkujyum amkcmih : 1 2) 
is addressed to the Aivins ", 

*ramT g m'. wwn "i hdrfk, ^i^irvx. b 

e of these details about 65 a 
e vaiivadeva. 

given in the Earvanukramaiji, irhere it is ainiplf 

A 107. He also praises Manu and the Middle Vac in the couplet 
containing svasti^ (x. 66. 14, 15). 

Then the two (hymns) ' This ' (ijndm : x. 67, 68) are addressed 
to Brhaspati ; ' The auspicious ' {bhadrdh : x. 69) is addressed to 
Agni ; (then comes) an AprI hymn (x. 70). 

^ftWTft "^ r, ^rtWT hdm'. — TT^ ^ JnTOTl m'r, qm*|imiT»thd. — Thi« 

line ie found in hdr, not in bfk. I assume from this that it in not in Mitra's B MSS, 
either, though he has no note. The line occun in m* alio, not bere, bowever, but between 
103"* and loa"^.— ^I^mt r, |in hdm'bfk (one syllable short).— JT^T hm'r. ^jfT 
r. (l|qi^Jim;()Tira: r'r*r'. 


279] — vii 111 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 71 

^ noiti dvfca appears to refer to x. 66. 14, I5i as the word svasti occurs in both 
these stanzas, VSc is mentioned and Manu might be considered to be alluded to in the 
words vasitthafi pitfvad vdcam akrata (14). Otherwise the reference might be to x. 65. 14, 15 
(the latter is identical with 66, 15), but neither svasH nor Yac occurs in 65. 14, though 
Manu, on the other hand, does. Possibly both 65. 14, 15 and 66. 14, 15 are meant, as 
the second stanza is common to both. 

B 108. In the first (hymn) addressed to Brhaspati (67)Brahmana- 
spati (appears) in a hemistich (7**^. In the hymn to the All-gods 
here (72) Brhaspati is also praised in a hemistich (2'^) : (that is) in 
the one beginning ^ Brahmanaspati ' (72. 2"^) by changing (vi- 
kdratah) the characteristic term (lingorvdkya) \ 

These three lines are entirely omitted in hdr ; m^ omits the second and third pSda; 
fk omit the second pSda. Thus b is the only MS. which has the lines complete. 

wfPiRi^ b (108^). — ftnprpwTfwrncH: b, flif mwfqiiKTt ft firf ttw 

^nrr^ m^. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk. 

^ That is, in both hemistichs Brhaspati is praised under the substituted alternative 
name of Brahmanaspatu 67. 7^ as well as 72. a' begins with brahmm^aapaiili, 

23. Detailed aocount of BV. z. 71. 

109. That knowledge which is immortal light and by miion 
with which one attains to Brahma, Brhaspati praised next 
(atha)^ with a hymn (71)^. 

H^ hdm^r, ^Wt bfk. 

^ That is, after the one last mentioned, the Apii hymn« in 107. ^ This sloka 

is quoted by SadguruiJisya on BY. x. 71 and by S&ya^a on x. 71. 12. 

110. Now the employment of formulas for the sake of a livelihood 
is forbidden. There appears here for the most part correct know- 
ledge of the essential meaning of the Veda (as the subject of the 

^Sil^hm^r, •TWbk,lftfinrfiff. — Ml^mi^ ff hm^r, •^JTini b, •HrHT^ f. 

111. Some teachers say that there is here praise of those 
who are wise in speech with some {dhhih) stanzas, but with 
others in this hymn the man who does not know the meaning 
(of the Veda) is blamed. 

RV. X. 71-] 



^^: hm'r, ^^ k, M^bf. — tUdlf+if'I'fllil liditi'r, TTOT ff f"!^?! b, TnUff 
hni^rfk, (^) "ntW^ b. 

112. And how the wise found that (speech) when she waa 
located among the seers*, and how they divided her at the 
sacrifice — all thia is here told in the third (stanza; x. 71, 3), 

ir^rrnT, bfk, ^ ^dTH. bm'r, % ^IIH, (i. — "•*fft«^*rt m'r, »^ft^^ bfk, 
«;qf^^7t b, <^ ftT^TT d. — ft^iyfiSlfl! Wftn bm', fflai«r^»FflT Wft'^ r*. 

f^ntraf^'nTT wft f, f^rjref^'mt «?ftH,hdr^. fMsjv vfvni iH^ r, — n^ ^ 

^33rt,fk, ^H^ ^ ajH*^b, ?raT ^ IPTTJ bdin'r. — fl^-fUi m'r, H^T^tW bfk, 
Ji'^V.W id. 

' Cp. BT.x. 71.3: 'am annavindant fiisu pravislanij lam abkrtya vy adadhaJi purutrd. 

113. But in the tenth the wise man is lauded (x. 71. 10), while 
in the last stanza he (the seer) states the distribution (viniyoga) of 
the (four) chief priests and of their rites at the sacrifice. 

Jiptn hm'r^f. ^31 HIT bkr. — WTT bm'r, Ijqi b, J^ fr*r'. — '^ hm'r, 
T^f.*l^^k, tl<|^f.b. — The end uf the carjoia here marked by ^^ in hm' bfk, not in d. 

24. Deitiea of B.T. z. 72-84. Khilaa. 

114. Now in the following (hymn: x. 72) Daksa* is praised 
and also the eight sons of Aditi ^ : Dhatr, Indra, Varuna, Mitra, 
AmSa, Surya, Aryaman, Bhaga ". 

ij ^^ ■4t»i8l bdra\ ?[ ^ra?! ^f^T ^r^ r. g ^nnt ^T^mrreV r*r*r', 

5 ^^T^T^ b, ?J ^^IWT^ f. — ^^Tfif^: m'r, %^Tf^: fk, %^f^: b. ^- 

f^bd, *(ifi{fl*) r^S". — ftRT-tii: ^pfi^TT hdm'r, ft^: ^jjratift ^ b, ^ni 

• The coTTUptioo of the text is heie probably due to a contraction, by which the 
MSS. nearly alnayg remove the hiatas between the [fidaa of a line. The verb, Jlupole, 
indicatcB that a nominative singular fullowa. The conjecture dakso cannot be said to hava 
paUeograpliical Eupjiurt, but I could see no other poesibility of emendation. Daksa ii 
mentioned in (lie fourth stanza : adiler dakso ajayala, daftsad v aditih pari ; and is invoked 
in the fifth : aditir hy njanli(a, dakaa, ya duhita lava. The SarvSnnkramani throira no 
light on the passage, the hymn being simply described as daivam. ** Cp. stimxa 8 : 

aflaa pulraso aditer ye jdla^. " Cp. the enumeration of seven Adityas in iv. 8a 

(where five of the above names occur) and the list of twelve (B) in v. 147 (where aevea of 
these names occur). On the namea of Adityas cp. my ' Vedic Mythology,' § 19, p. 43. 


281] — viL ii8 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 84 

115. The two hymns (beginning) * Thou hast been bom ' {jani- 
fthdh : X, 73, 74) are addressed to Indra ; but in (the hymn) which 
here follows (beginning) * Let well proclaim ' (pra su: x. 75) the 
streams {sravantyah) which flow east, and west, and south 

116. are praised together according to preeminence {pradhd- 
natdh) in seven groups of seven *. * Hither you ' (a vah : x. 76) 
is to the pressing stones ; the two * Of the sprinkling of the cloud ' 
(abhrapnL§ah : x. 77, 78) are traditionally held to be addressed to 
the Maruts. 

HH^^^* hm^r, 4IH^tff^ b, ^V%4l^ fkr*(r*?): cp. v.r. vii. 6i. — inTPHT: 

hm^r, ^iniRn f, ftpnW: kr^(r*?), ^^HW: b. 

^ This was doubtless suggested by the words of BV. z. 75. i : pra sapta-sopta tredha 
hi eakramuli, 

117. The two (beginning) *I saw' (apdSyam: x. 79, 80) are 
addressed to Agni ; the two * Who these' {ya vrad : x. 81, 82) are 
addressed to Vi6 vakarman ; the two * Who to thee' {yas te: 83, 84) 
are addressed to Manyu. But that which follows, * In my vow ' 
{phama vrate) * 

TRft r, WniPKl»» TPifiKd, TTRRt bfk. — Vn ift hm^r, H ifll bfk. 

^ This is the first of the two khilas which in the Kashmir collection come between 
BV. X. 84 and 85. It consists of 32 stansas, chiefly in the annstubh metre, and begins 
with the line mama vrate hfdayam te dadhami. It is thns described in the accompanying 
Anukrama^I: mama: prajapatyo hrdyo, vaiivadeva^ tu, vivaharthafy tv, anusfuhhatf^ tu, &c. 
Op. AV. vi. 94. 2 ; PSraskara GS. i. 8. 8 ; ii. 2. 6 ; ffSfikhSyana SS. iu 4. i. 

118. consisting for the most part of benedictions, praises the 
All-gods. That which follows (beginning) * Out ' (ut) *, consisting 
of eight stanzas, is (the hjrmn of) Parakadasa ^ (and) is addressed to 

M^I4i^l4l ^n^l^ Am^, M^I44.I4I ^11^)^ B.-^-The end of the varga is here marked 
by ^8 in bfk, not in hdm^. 

^ This khila consists of eight anuftubh stanzas and is addressed to Agni. It begins 
with the line : ut tudainatii, fffhapate ; and is thus described in the Anukrama^I : ud : 
asfaUf Paragadasah. ^ The hymn being designated by the name of the reputed author, 
as in the case of the two khilas called Praja^at and JTvaputra in v. 9a. Op. l^gvi- 
dhana iii. 21. 4 : parakaddsasya vidhim, and iii. 32. 2 : parakadaso dvesyartham, &c. See 
Meyer, op. cit.^ p. zxi, and Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 507. 

n. CO 

RV. X. 84-] BRHADDEVATA vii. 1 19— [282 

26. The Sarya hyiim ; RV. x. 85. Three forms of XTsas. 

119. The fourth stanza there is addressed to Mitra-Varuna*, 
while the last but one (x. 85. 7) is addressed to Indra and Agni^ 

Savitri and Surya" are one and the same wife of Vivasvat, 

' It begins with tbe {Ada: imarn me mitravarujiau. ** It begioB with the two 

p&daa : anena brahmanagne Ivam, ayai)i cettdro na ufilaA, This tnakea the correction of 
aindrany to aiadragny certain. ° Cp. Sarvarufcraniani : iSeiiri lirya. On the three 

forma of S\irja, aee BD. ii. 8-10; cp. M.M., RV." vol iv, p. ay. 

120. who is praised as Vrsakapayi and is called U§as. This 
Ugas having divided herself into three, goes to the Lord of rays 

H^ Am\ ft^ bfkr. — fw»I%f7I hm'r, ft»IWT^f?I fk. fqHm^^ b. 

121. Becoming U^as before sunrise, Siirya when midday 
reigns, and becoming Vrsakapayi at the end of days, she goes 

HTT: r^r<r«fk, H^ hdm'rb.— ^tt^^Ti^ b (=BD. U. 9), ^KJ^m f. ^^V^ 

hm'r. — JT«5f3fitt^iini'r(=BD.ii.9). gjarfijitf^gb, ^twrf^^rrfngrk. — gwr 

^•hdm^r, gtTT fm" bfk. — "^^ hm'r,»Tftf!! bfk. — H^tl'Slcl^fl^frt b, f^^- 
<t^ 'TOfTr fr^ ^m%^ »TCfn k. (^*llJSl«)*l«!r<ffl> hr, 'qftfrft dm^ 

122. Thefiret stanza here (x. 85. i) addressed to Sury a misstated 
to be connected with Satya, Siirya, Rta and Soma; but with the 
following three stanzas (2-4) Soma as a plant is spoken of. 

o^^o hm'bfk, •^t}^" r. — ^^^T^m hd, wtljl^i r, ^J^WT^ bm\ ^^- 
VT^ fk. — HJ]^^ hd, ffipuH r.fq^^m^ bfk. — wfnTVnt hdni'r, (fl^I^ft b, 

w^f^nt f. — ^^fV: hd. 'flMv: l^ ^t^v: r, ••i(^^^. b. '^nm fk. i have 

preferred tbe reading ^t^fv: because of RV. x. 85. 3 : ^t^ *t^H iftTTt IWPW- 

* The SarvSaukraniani deicribes thin hymn m atnuidaniatam, and Sadgumsivyft 
explaina that (he deity ia Siir^ except where any other deity is speciSed. 


283] — viL 1 26 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 85 

128. But the stanza which comes next to these (5) clearly 
adores the moon (candramas), while with the eight (stanzas) * The 
singer's' {raibhi : x. 85. 6-13) the evolutional section (pfidvor- 
vrttam) for Soryfi^ is expressed* 

The end of the varga is here marked by ^l| in bf, not in hm^k. 

* The pfida turyayai bkSoavfitcaii tu is identical with l^gvidhSna iii. aa. 3^, where it 
is stated that a father should recite suryayai hhaoavfUam in order that his daughter may 
procure a suitable husband. This was, therefore, probably a regular designation of these 
eight stanxas in the BrShma^a style (as gwrySyai here seems to hesssuryayaf) ; cp. Meyer, 
Bgyidlfina, pp. zi and xxviiL 

26. Aoooimt of Hhm 8ftry& liyiim (oontiniied). 

124. The couplet *When* (ya<: x. 85. 14, 15) praises the 
Aivins; the following (stanza) adores Suiya (16); the seventeenth 
is addressed to the All-gods (i 7) ; the following one is addressed to 
Sun and Moon (18). 

W hdr, omitted in bfk. — ^[JV'l^b, ^JEJ * * i| (^tH^T^ft) fk, ^JEJ hdm^r. — 
^4l^lf^^4\ b, ^l^^H^n hdm^rfk (this perhaps represents an original ^QT* 
^n^prit, with vrddhi of the second member only). 

125. Of the following (stanza : x. 85. 19) the first two verses are 
addressed to the Sun (19"^), while the following two (i9*'0 ^"^ ^ 
the Moon. Aurnav§,bha^ however, thinks that in this couplet 
the Aivins are praised. 

HWifV hdm'r, 1J ^J^b, g ^ f. — 414^141 hdm^b, ^li«ll41 r. — la^** 
(in addition to the preceding word ll^t and the following 4l4l^^^4l1) is omitted in f k. 

* Cp. Nirukta zii. i, where, according to some, the Asvins represent Sun and Moon. 

126. For those two (Asvins) are traditionally held to be Sun 
and Moon, and Prana (outward breath) and Apana (downward 
breath) ; and these two may be Day and Night, (or) these two 
(may be) the Two Worlds {rodasi)\ 

^Uftn^ hdm^r, Hfl^l^ bfkr*: cp. Vf^il^lf^liAi, Nirukta xiL i. 
^ The first, third, and fourth of these explanations are given in Nirukta xii. i. 

RV. X. 85] 

BRHADDEVATA vii. 127— 


127. For these two permeate {aSnuvdte) the world with light 
and moisture ; and they fare {caratah), each separately, to the 
eouth and the north *. 

^^^T% lidra'r, ^^fPt b, JJ^^lIt f. — wtflTT'l Iiclin\ WtSITBI^r, V^ bfk. — 
5^ ^^ '*t'!t b, 5^ ^^^ ^ift fk, ^W^5^i^<,g^hdm'r*, ^W^5^ 

* Thix is evidently a paraphrase at RV. x. 8$. l8 : paroaparan caralo noyaya . . ttau. 

B 128. Surya moves (sarati) among beings, or he instigates (vlra- 
yati) them well [su) : apportioning [samdadlial) all their functions 
{kdrydni) he goes among them in order to instigate (iryatvdya) 
them well ". 

^^WT^ ^rrSrt m', g i,4,<jtm tiiAly b, g i,nin\ vri&3 fkr'. — B^\ ^ra^ 

b, V ^^ fk, Jl ^^ r'. — ia8, 129 are omitted in A, but ore found in bfkr^m'. 

llie end of tlie varga u here marked by ^^ in bfk. 

' Thifl sloka is evidently based on Nirnkta lii. 13, where »iirya is derived from forh* 
or tuvali or nin/Bli [suryafi sorter va tavaler va iviryater va). The BD. follows the first 
and the third etymology : sarali^aarti. ta virayali and m Iryalva (condition of one v>ho is 
to be well inBtigated)=»i(Jrya(i. With Yaska's sutryati cp. hi« etymology (in Nirukta L 
7) of pica from virayali (probably = eijraya(i). 

37. Derivation of Candranuui. Contents of SV. x. 8S. 20-30. 

B 129, The Moon {caiidranidh) runs (dramati) beautifully {cam) 
or observing {cdyan), or {w(c() runs as one worthy to be observed 
(cdyanlya) ; (or) the prior (member of the compound comes) from 
(the verb) cam ; or {atha) he (candra) fashions (niV-wio) the aggre- 
gate of beings {sam-etdni) ". 

^T^ ^nfT! b, ^T^ 3^ft fki-, ^T^ ^ ^ m' |^T^ ^WfJl Nirukla si. 5). — 
TI '^T^'bfk, *rr^l1"l,rl — m«lW\ glTft TT *(I*i<ll<J^1 j(*J<gfl b (the line 
from m ^nK is ""ero repeated), ^T^f^T^g^ m', ^T^f»rsfgm^ f. fllflWj^g- 
g^nt kr^. lam doubtful whether I have succeeded in restorinft 129^ correctly. — ^^: 
V^ m' (^Mt 5J} Nirnkta xi. 5), ^TW 1R b, ^ ^ k, ^ ^ fr*. — flfftntW r', 

^it^iffl bfk, ♦iJiflifl m'. — f*rfSfl1^i^ ^^«t: m'. ftf^jftH 1 mcn: b. 
t'lfS'Tn! V ^ijfft: fk, f*rf*ifn ft ^Tfift: r'. 

' The above five etymologies of candTumoi are based on Nirnkta xi. 5, where six 
derivBtioDB are given : (l) eayan dramali ; (3) cam dramali; (3) cxraip dramaU; (4] com 


285] — vii 132 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV.x.85 

{drtttnati); (5) eandro mataj (6) candraiji manam aaya. The BD. adopts four of these 
(i, a, 4, 5), adding cayaniyo dramati which (if my emendation is correct) is only a modifi- 
cation of cayan dramaii. Thus TSska's ciroTi dramati (3) and eandro^ mdnam asya (6) 
are omitted; the latter, however, is only a modification of eandro mata in a passive sense. 

180. Now in the (stanza) * Bright, with KinuSnka flowers ' {su- 
HmSukam: x, 85. 20) (the seer) praises Surya mounting* (the 
car of) her husband, and in the next distich (21, 22) the Gran- 
dharva Vifivavasu. 

•^tflff hm^rb, •^Tl^ U •TTf^ k. — ^ hdm^r, ^(m bfk. 

^ The fem. from the weak base, arohoHm, is here perhaps used on account of the 
metre (cp. v. r. vii. 13). 

131. With the (stanza) *Thornless' {anrk§ardh : x. 85. 23) (the 
seer) here praises the wedded couple {dampati) who have started 
(ydtau)^, but with the following five (24-28) the wife as she 
reaches the house (of her husband). 

fft ift hdm^r, fjnft b, JuBt fkr^ 

^ I have preferred the reading yatau to yau tau, because the latter is almost meaning- 
less and ya° might easily have become yau owing to the influence of the following ^tau 
Mtatfij yatau, on the other hand, makes a very good sense (=' having started for the 
husband's house '), as contrasted with the following gfhon prapadyamdnSm {* reaching her 
husband's house '); cp. RV. x. 85. 23: anfkfara jjavah $aniu pantha ythkHk sakhayo yanii 
no vareyam, 

132. And (in the next : x. 85. 29) they declare (that) the pre- 
sentation by the bridegroom (varorddna) of (newly-married) wives 
(is expressed) ^ Then (30) the woman's garment, when indifierence 
prevails {vibhave sati)^, 

S^^li* hdm^r, <|^|4 f, M^^m b. — Wit f^(V\ b, flllRjlfil^ hdr, JRl f^ 

w}, ini f^T^ f. — r^iHIV bm^d, l|4<HIHI h, fSr^TTOT fk. — ^flpft hdm^rf k, f^Rf% 
b. — ^Between the two pSdas of 13a, fkr (not Am^b) add the four pSdas (thus giving five 
slokas to the varga) : 

^ij^fTT g<n«ji(i* * r, n^€iKi f. 

— The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in hdm^. 

^ Gp. the words of RV. x. 85. 29 : para dehi idlmulyaiji brahmabhyafi. See on this, 
AGS. i. 8. 12. ^ I am doubtful as to the emendation and interpretation of this line. 

nv. 1. 85] 

BRHADDEVATA vii. 133— 

38. KV. X. 85. 31-43. 

133, (that is), except at the time of intercourse, is forbidden 
to be taJfen hold of (harana) by the husband «. 

The stanza ' (The diseases) which ' (ye : s. 85. 3 1) is destructive 
of consumption (i/ai^a) l* ; in the couplet 'May not' (wia : 32,33) 
(the seer) praises the waylayers. 

?TTlj hdr, VTT'irni'.flnT'lifli. STT^ b. — tlfiffTOTt licJni'r.llf?ftvfi|lifk. — 
•tlfll^ hdkS, "^rrfir^' m^r, •^m^ Lf. — ^ JTT hdui'r, |^ bk, fl[^ f. 

' In order to keep 133 aiid 133 eoparate in translation, I have changed the con- 
Btruction, 'tlie taking hold, by the hiigband, of thu garment,' &o. — According to the 
SarvanukramanT 39, 30 are applied to release from the guilt of touching the wife's garment: 
Joe vadluaiatahMatiapaTiamocanyttji (see ^adgunisisya). According to the commentator 
Jagannatha thej ceoBure the touchiug of the wife's garment : vadhmsata^eparianiiida. 
Cp. Sarvanukrama^i : para yah^manaiim. 

134. But (the stanza) ' Rough is this ' (trstam etat : x. 85. 34) 
states what sort of man deserves (to receive) the bridal dress*. 
And various directions^ are given to her relations 

gt^nf^ft hd, fB^Trf^fil m^, f^8*r?lf^f?| fk. f^gWTTf^ft b, iire^ irf^fil(I) 
r. — ^Il|l*il bfkr, SlHlf*a Am^ — WfifWTF' hm'r, ailf(lf«<||» b, ^nt*!" 

fw^i" f, irrftrfw^T' kr'. 

' Cp. the text of RV. : 
•• Cp. the text of BV. x. fig. 

85. 34 : turydnt yo hrahma vidt/at, ea id vadkuyam arhati. 
J5 ; Situanaip viiatanam atko adhivikartanaia. 

135. by the woman, who is bounds And evolution'' (tAaixivrid) 
is here told, in the following (stanza : x. 85. 35). 
B With the stanza ' I grasp thy ' {grbhndmi te : 36), as he then 
takes her hand, prayers for wealth 

WVT hm'r. ^^ fk, ^ b.— ?t "W^ T^ m\ It ft^ Wt f^ bfkr* {jm f). — 

^ftiHA vrrfrr^: m', ^Criflitifsti: b, 55 vnnfiR: r*, gj vnnfiR: fk. — 135"* 

and 136"^ are found iu bfkr'm' only. 

* I have changed the active to the passive construction in order to separate 135 from 
134 in translation. ^ Cp. the nords of the text: lurgoya^ paJya rupatu, &c. 

B 136. are uttered (by the husband). In the following (stanza : 
X. 85. 37) are also prayers for her with the object of union. 


287] — viL 138 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV.x.85 

With the foUowmg (stanzas, the seer) utters prayers for the 
two both separately and together ; 

•Rni irr% f, •flppin% ^r*. — nTHrt b, ^rnrf f, irnit ^^ itwj hdm^r. — i(|^ 

^ hdm^r, ^ grf^bfkr*. 

B 137, m the triplet * Having no evil ' (aghora- : x. 85. 44-46) for 
her (alone), in * Together' {sam: 47) and *Here' (iha: 42) re- 
spectively for both. * Here for us ' (a nah : 43) is to PrajSLpati; and 
' Her here ' {imam : 45) is addressed to Indra^ ; the last (47) is to 
Brhaspati b. 

This aloka is found in bf kr'm^ only. The MSS. have the first seven syllables of 
the second line in common, vis. ^ m H^iH^l M« but m^fkr^ complete it with the 
corresponding part of 138, vis. ^irnTHT 'Qm^-^ f^Ht^* (which makes the first pfida 
end in the middle of a word, and gives the second two syllables too many) ; b alone 
completes it differently, vis. (M)«ll^|(Hfm ^^^^i* The variations of the MSS. are : 

Ijirnmr ^ frttwt m^, tiiii«iifi frtrr^ ftltvB f k (•?t^: f ), tlviprar ^rtn^ 

Pl^Hfl* r*.-*-l|H !• I take to be the first syllable of the preceding JimM^t repeated by 
a clerical error and afterwards combined with the pratika i^«ii«^. — The end of the varga 
is here marked by ^^ in b, not in f. 

^ The emendation imam, pratika of 45, and aindri seem probable, as India is invoked 
in that stanza. ^ I have made the best I could of the last pada from the reading 

found in one (b) incorrect MS. alone. Antya hrhaspatelL can only be correct if the khila of 
one stansa beginning dhrwva (which comes between BY. z. 85 and 86 and which forms the 
last stansa of the longer khila of six stansas, printed in Aufrecht, p. 68a) was regarded 
by the author of the BD. as the last stansa of z. 85. Cp. Meyer, l^gvidhSnai p. zziL 

29. S«marks on tlid SOryft hjam (oonoludad). 

138. Now these wedding formulas are recited for men also, 
being connected with the priests {drtvijcih) * and with the institutor 
of the rite {ydjamdndh) according to their respective form (and) 
their peculiarity {vi£e§a). 

finn% hdr, f«fi(«r% b. — ^^i«fr^ hdr, ^f||fi|f b. — Klf^WI hdm^r, 
mf^B^m b. — €||f^4||«||4| b, «|Q|4||<I|^ m^r, €|mi|<|4| hd. — This sloka is omitted 
in fk ezcepting the end, l||i||^ VI^I^M f^ilmi*, which, in all the MSS. (m^fkr^ 
but b, has been substituted for the correspondmg part of 137 ; cp. critical note on 137, 
and observe that m^ (which has these syllables here also) as well as f k has the plural 
termination ^manah there. 

* I have corrected arMjya of the MSS. to artvijaf as the former word could only 
be a neuter noun (' office of priest ') while an adjective is necessary to correspond with 

EV. X. 85-] 

BEHADDEVATA vii. 139- 

} lo be Doted, six out 

j/Sjamanafi. The adjective arMja oocnra above, vii. 83, wlier 
of eight MS8. reed arMjya; cp. critical note on vii. 83. 

139. And in those stanzas here in which respectively {praty- 
rca/m) deities aie proclaimed, one should state the one mentioned 
(tdm) to be the deity or should state that (the stanzas) are 
addressed to NaraJarnsa (nard^amsl)^. 

llftl^J^Wl hdm'r, TrfT^^rt?^ b. ^f^ fkr*. — ^flfll^ij ^0^ ^l hdro'r, 
^^TTT %3 ^ >ft<t b, ^^m ^ HT^^f, ^flfll Jtg Hlflfrl^: kr*. — ^^Tlt 
hdm'rb, ^^?Tt r'r^, %^ ITT f. — -^^WI JTT^ hdr. ^^TTt sg b. ^ iq fk. — 

TTTTTTB^ b, Trmi^ fk, ^nmrH^ hdm'r. 

* On Naiaa'amai Btaozas cp. above, iii. 154 ; cp. KV. x. 85. 6 : raibklSiiii anudiyl vSrS- 
taijiii nyocimi. 

140. And they declare that these stanzas addressed to Usas* 
form as a whole (sai-vathd) a (hymn) conceraed with evolution 
i}}hdvavrtta) ^ ; and in this hymn a verse {pdda) is also (thus) 
characterized with Surya'^. 

^tf^: b, ^5!^H7: f, ^^^: hm'r, 9^^1T: d. — W^VT ^TTT hdr, ^I^WT ^^ 
m'.^T^mbf. — Wr^fTT bfr, "Tff b, "^TWd. — IRTV* kdni'r. fipRITt bf. — HT^- 
n'. — The whole of 140 is omitted iu k, aud 140° in bf. 

■ Siirytt being a form of Usas; cp. above, vii. II9-111 on the three fonus of Usa» ; 
ulso ii. 79. The eight stanzas x. 85. 6-13 have already been stated to have thia 

character (taryayai bhavavTttam). " Thia seenia to mean that both tlie hjmn aa a whole 

and in it in parliculsr a aingle pada have this charaeter when SuryS ia mentioued in 
theni. The pada meant is proliably 35" : cp. above, 135, note ''. 

141. 'Away, indeed' {vi hi: x. 86) is a hymn addressed to 
Vreakapi ; for that brown (kapila) bull (vr^an) is Indra " and 
Prajapati : ' Indra is superior to all ' *•. 

^rat ff hdm'bf. ^wt ij r. — ^^ hdm'r, ^J^; bf. — 141"* is wanting in k. 

* Cp- ii. 67, where Trf^api is also explained aa vrfa kapilaA, and is stated to be one 
of the seven names of SiirTa or the celestial form of Agni. Cp. Mai Miiller, RV.* vol. iv, 
p. 37 (>ar. lect. on RV. x. 86). '' The refrain of RV. s. 86, which is also quoted above, 

ii. 67. 

142. (The hymn) beginning 'The demon-slayer' (rak^ohanam : 
X. 87) is addressed to Agni. The following one, 'The oblation' 


289] — vii. 145 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.r,9i 

{Jiavih : x. 88), praises the three Agnis, this (terrestrial) one, and 
the Middle one, and YaiiSvanara ^ who is that (celestial) one. 

hdm^r, cNTT^fTir bfk. — ^The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in m^bf, by ^^ 
in ky not at all in hd. 

^ Gp. above, i. 67, on YaisvSnara as the celestial form of AgnL 

80. Deitiefl of BV. z. 89-98. Stoxy of Fnrnravas and Urrafi. 

143. And after (a hymn : x. 89) addressed to Indra^ (comes) 
the Puru^a hymn (x. 90). With the last (stanza : 1 6) of (the 
hymn) addressed to Puru^a the circumstances {artha) are told in 
which the Sadhyas divided him for the purpose of sacrifice. 

^?t ^^» ^^ ™^» Vft '• "''^in^'' fl^'J^I^Vbkr*. — mj has probably been 
inserted because the pSda had become a syllable short owing to the contraction cantya, — 
a^M^Ti hm^r, mI^M ^ bfkr* (^ft^ S). — ^IJ mn^ r, TWRTT hdbfk. — ^ift^- 
^^ bfk, y^qni hm^r. — ^Rnp^r, V!W^hdm\ HiffR^bfk. 

^ Or, according to A, ' There is (a hymn) addressed to Indra (z. 89) and (then) the 
Pnmsa hymn (x. 90).* 

144. In the stanza addressed to Indra ^ 'He who gives zeal 
when imbibed' {dpdntcmianyuh : x. 89. 5), Soma is clearly praised. 
Soma is praised eith er because he belongs to the same world or 
because he is (Indra's) companion. 

^•Wt b, ^Wlf f, Jtjflk, iprt r", ^I^hm^r. — ^bW^^H hm^r'bfkr", ^M¥^ 
r. — 144^ = i. 19**; L 98**; V. 172** (cp. Ninikta zi. 5). — 144*^ and 145"* are omitted in 
bfk, which hare the following single line instead: 

f^i TrnsTRnft ^rnr ^: ^iWt t^nrRwr^ 1 

* I have preferred the reading aindryam to asyam, as the former seems to be sup- 
ported by the SarWLnukrama^iy which makes the express statement : paficamy aindraionu. 

145. Bathitara^ has said that in this (stanza) Soma is incidental 
{nipdtahhdj) ; for in (hymns) addressed to Indra there is here (such) 
incidental mention. In 'Together' {sam: x. 91) Agni is praised 
by Aruna. 

n. pp 

RV.x. 92-] BRHADDEVATA vii. 146— [290 

Ttg bfkr. 

* Cp. V. 14], where BlthTtara (not EatbTtara) it quoted a£ stating certain deities to 
be guktabhaj. The same authurit; ie, therefure, perhaps ineaut here also, aod the reading 
of m^ majr be the correct one. 

146, 'OfjouTBacrt&ae' (yajnasyavak: x, 92) are two addressed 
to the All-gods (92,93); but in that which (comes) next, 'Forth 
these' (praite : s. 94), Arhuda adores the Pressing-stone as if 

incarnate ; 

^^ hm'r, flfll^ftg b, fldl^f((«t f. 

B 147. and with the two stanzas 'Forth this to Duhsima' (pra 
tad duksime : x. 93. 14, 15) he (the seer) lauds the gift of kings •. 

^ Now in the days of yore the nymph UrvaSi dwelt with the 
royal seer Pururavas ; and having made a compact (with him), 
she lived in wedlock with him. 

147"' is found in B and m' only. — imj*,l»5^in W '""^'■' ^'^t* ^#5^ 1^ 
b, ■^nrrrr '^V^ ^TT f- — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 in hbfk, and by 
^0 ill m', not at all in d. 

* There is no reference to this danaituti in the Sar^nukraina^i. ^ The following 

passage (147" -153) ia quoted by M.M., EV.* vol. iv, p. 31; cp. Sadgunis'isja'* venion. 
PP- I55-I5^> quoted by Sayana in hie introduction to RV. x. 95; Sayaga also quotea the 
S^B. version of the story. The present passage is translated in Vedische Studien, vol. i, 
p. 256, by Oeldner, who treats the whole atory hiatorioally, pp. 343-384. 

31. StoiT of PuroraTaa and XTrvan (ooaoluded). 

148. And the Chastiser of Paka (Indra), being jealous of hia 
cohabitation with her and of Brahma's* {paitdmaha) and hia 
(Pururavas') passion (for her) as if he (Pururavas) were Indra '', 

^'qitrHtin'r, ^TI^bfkr'r*r*. ^O^^hm^r, irf»Wt b, ^I^t^'l. f t. 


■ Cp. Vedische Studien, vol. i, p. 356, nole ^. '' By usurping the rights of Indn. 

291] — vii. 152 TEANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV.x.94 

149. said to the bolt at his side with a view to separating 
them : * Destroy, O bolt, the alliance of these two, if you wish (to 
do) me a favour/ 

bfk. — fHP^ r, fiff^ m\ f3f^ r^ flff^ hd, t^W b, ftrfi^ fk. — fl^H^ hr^bfk, 
(PrW») ^Rt^ r. — W9 hr, ^U fk, VH b. 

150. *Very well,' said the bolt, and destroyed their alliance 
with its craft. Then bereft of her the king wandered about like 
one distracted. 

^fif^ b, ^f^ hdm^, ^n^ r, ?|^ fk. — V4tl<|<|| b, ^4||<|<|| fk, (•Rf) 
^TRRTT m*r, omitted in hd. — •if^T^ hm^r, •f\f t m b, •ifW ^ fk. 

151. As he wandered, he saw in a lake the beautiful {ahhi- 
rupdm) * Urvafii, as it seemed (iva), surrounded by five beautiful * 
maiden friends at her side. 

hdm^r, ^filVMW^w4^*i bfk (irt^T f).— llft^^Mlft t 
hdr, ^(Si%.M1 b, ^iPl^^Mlf)!^ f. — "^^^t ^TnWt gnw, hm^r, yif ^fl^Pl- 

^Rf : b, yn (^ f) ^7r9^ ^wr: f k, *ft: ^^nr; rK 

* In the light of the older form of the story in the S^B. it seems probable that the 
original reading in both cases was ati-rupd^ ' in the form of a swan,' and this conjecture 
is supported by the nse of the words sarasi and k>a. Geldner has made this emendation, 
as he translates * in Schwanengestalt.* 

152. To her he said, 'Come back.' But she sorrowfully 
(duhkhdt) answered the king, * You cannot now obtain me here ; 
in heaven you will obtain me again.' 

iw\% 4«i\i\f?i hd, wRTTf 5i*^i^f'' '» WT^^TS^nr: jfiftn bfk, ^pncrx'W 

Jiicqi m^. Mitra combines both readings, adding a third pfida, so as to make the following 
two lines: 

— ^Wn%f hdr, WVl ^ m^, 7!%fTW b, ?j%fTV f. If %fTO k. — iff ^l hm^r, 
^ ^ b, iff Wm fk. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in hbfk, not in m^d. 

RV. X. 95-] BRHADDEVATA vii. 153-^ [292 

82. Deities of BV. x. 96, 97. Stray of Denpi : z. 98. 

153. This reciprocal narrative {dkhydna)^ in connexion with 
a summons {dhvdna)\ Yaska^^ considers a dialogue, but Saunaka 
a story, 

^imi«l*i bfkr, ^TVnni^ Am*. 

^ Op. the example given abore, i. 53, for ' narrative*; akhyaiuufi tu hope jaye (x. 95). 
Geldner traDslatefl as if the text had pratySkhyana^ ea. ^ The SkoSma meant is 

probably that oontained in the first stanza of x. 95 : kaye jSye . . vacamH miira Itfi^avo' 
vahai fia. ® This view cannot be gathered from Nimkta v. 13 ; x. 46, 47 ; zL 36. 

154. (that is, the hymn beginning) *Ho' {Jiaye: x. 95). The 
following one, * Forth thy ' {pra te : x. 96), is addressed to Indra. 
* Which' {yah: x. 97) is (in) praise of Plants. 

B In (its) employment this (hymn) of Bhi^aj ^ is applicable to 
the cure of consumption {yak§mci). 

^firt^ftsw: m*r, ^iim(i4<i b, ipraNn f, ^SM^M^i hd (iim(%i^r?i: 

S). — (im^^A^ m*, ^nni^hT^ b, Rm^^H^ fk. — 154*^ is wanting in hdr, but 
is found in bfkm* (and probably in Mitra's B MSB., though he has no note). 

* Op. ArsSnukrama^I x. 45 : ya ofadki$ tu tMatya fHr atharvoffo bhitak ; see also 

155. A Now Devapi, son of E^ti^ena, and Saiptanu of the race 
of Kuru were two brothers^, princes among the Kurus. 

•^Hry hm^r, *iAT^ b, •^^ ff f, •^ ff k. — 41 i^^^ hm^r, 4l<4^%4 b, 
441^1^4 fkr*. — ^Ifnnct bkr^r'pn Nimkta, HT^lft Am^f. 

* The following passage, vii. 155-viiL 9, is quoted in an old MS. of ^adgurusisya and 
has been printed by me in the JRAS., 1894, pp. 22-34 ; it is also quoted, down to viiL 7' , 
in the Nitimal^jari on BY. x. 98. 8. It has been translated, Sagenstoffe, p. 130, by 8ieg, 
who has examined the whole story of Dei^pi in its various versions, pp. 129-142. ^ As 
the present passage is clearly based on Nimkta ii. 10 and bhratarau occurs there, I have 
preferred this reading to bharatau. 

156. Now the elder of these two was Devapi, and the younger 
Samtanu ; but the (former) prince, the son of E^ti^ena, was afflicted 
with skin-disease. 

293] — viL 157 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 98 

^mnn^ hm^rp, IWn^ b, ^l^m^l ^ fk. — ^g WIKMUI^AI rp, 1J UTTE- 
^Wf^ hdr'm\ aifS^HI^fll fk, mfcf^Ul^^fl b. 

167. When his father had gone to heaven his subjects offered 
him the sovereignty. Beflecting for but a moment, he replied to 
his subjects : 

't 5TT'^ bf, ^w^"'iiwrtrijTT'^ t M^^^n^inml 5 n. — ^3^ t, ^ 

gp^ m^pd, 3^ ^ bfk, 3^ ^ n. — ^ ^H^Hiq m^rbfkpn, {JJI^Riq ^ h, ^ 
d. — MN^mA hrbfk, IIN^mtl^ n. — ^The end of the varga is here marked by ^^ in 
bfky not in hd. — The last pfida is repeated in b only* 

RV. X. 98-] BRHADDEVATA viii r— [294 

1. story of DerSipi (eontiniittd). 

1. 'I am not worthy of the sovereignty : let Samtanu be your 
ruler.' Assenting to this, his subjecta anointed Samtanu king. 

The lecond lioe is aniitted in n. 

2. When the scion of Kuru had been anointed, Devapi retired 
to the forest. Thereupon Parjanya did not rain in (that) realm 
for twelve years. 

TT^ BlT^ ^ Wl fk. TT'^ 4T^V ^ WrfT n{h), X^ TT^T^reTl ^ITT: n, ^TW 
TTflTT^^: WHT: n(m), TT^ t^l^lt ^^iftf Nirukta. As the present passage is clearly 
buied on Nirukta ii. lo, I have preferred the reading 4,|it| ^|^i( to <,|jj Tjn. 

3. Samtanu accordingly came with his subjects to Devapi and 
propitiated him with regard to that dereliction of duty *. 

' That is, in passing him over and anointing his younger brother. 

4. Then, in company with his subjects, he offered him the 
sovereignty. To him, as he stood humbly with folded hands*, 
Devapi replied : 

^TT^f bm'rp, %irXrr^^brk. ^ TTW'Brr'r*r*. TTJ 3J niSflUftSflf^ 

r'fk, tfV^ HIWr'inaflH.r', WJ JJ HTSftf f^W^. b, HJ imiftrefTIWl.hdr, 

" Cp. above, v. 76 : ithitva prakvah kflSnjaHh, 

5. ' I am not worthy of the sovereignty, my energy being 
impaired by skin-disease ; I will myself officiate, O king, as your 
priest in a sacrifice for rain.' 

The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in hm^bfk, not in d. 

3. 8toT7 of Dertpi (concluded). D«itiu of BT. x. 9S-101. 

6. Then Samtanu appointed him to be his chaplain (puro 
'dhatta) and to act as priest {drtvijydya). So he (Devapi) duly 
performed the ritea productive of rain. 

Vlill^ hm'r. V^PK^:bfkpn. — « ^T9 IJTlthin'rp, ^l^T ifti^ bfkr'a. 


295] — viii. lo TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. loi 

7. And he sacrificed to Brhaspati with the stanzas, * Brha- 
spati, to ' (6f Aowpate prati : x. 98. 1-3)*. 

B When with the second (stanza) of this hymn Jatavedas ^ had 
informed him (podhite)^ 

^ !• — 'ftf^ m^fr, ^irf^ k, IJIfMAl b. — 7*^ and 8"* are found in B and 
m^ only. 

* The contents of the hymn indicate that the first three stansas are connected with 
Brhaspati, while the following four are connected with the gods (cp. below, 9). ^ As 

a messenger of B^haspatL ® Sieg would read bodhiio, agreeing with the subject 

(Bfhaspati) in 8^ : 'I, instructed by Jfttaredas, will place/ &c. 

B 8. * I will place brilliant speech in your mouth * : praise the 

then he (Brhaspati) being pleased bestowed on him (Devapi) 
divine Speech ; and therewith 

W^ br, ^r%(f7r) fkr", ^1% m^ — ^Wflf m\ W^ b, ^pifirj fr, ffl[«ffif^ 
kr*. — im Am^p, ffif B.^-^lff hm^rb, ^^ fkp. — ^ V bm^rp, g W* bfk. 

^ The words of RV • x* 98. 2 only slightly modified : dadkami te dyumafitu vaeam 

9. he in four stanzas (x. 98. 4-7) sang (in praise of) the gods 
with a view to rain only, and Agni with the remainder of 
the hymn (8-12). The next hymn *Whom?' {kam: x. 99) is 
addressed to Indra. 

ICT g bm^r, 1CT If bfk.— llW ^ hdr, llW g bfk. 

10. ^ O Indra, stand fast' {indra drhya : x. iod) is to the All- 
(gods); the following one, * Awake' {ut: x. loi), is (in) praise of 
the priests ^ : the application of rites (viniyoga) is here proclaimed 
by setting forth the powers of these (priests). 

HIPI hm^r, ITU bfk. — ^J|l||1(9Al|j Am^bfkr", ^l|l||9(i| TW r. — The end of 
the varga is here marked by ^ in m^bf, not in hdk. 

^ Sarvanukrama^i : ftvikstrntir vd; the option, according to §a4guru8i9ya, is owing 
to the statement of the BD. that this is a itvikstuti, while the Devatfinukrama^I states 
that it is addressed to the AU-gods. 

RV. X. ioa~] BRHADDEVATA viii. ii— [296 

3. SeitieB of BT. x. 103, 103. The Shila of HaJniU. 

11. 'Forth' (pra: x. 102), Sakatayana * considers a narrative 
hymn : Yaska ^ (thinks) that it is addressed to the Mallet {dnt- 
ffhana) or to Indra; but Saunaka, that it is addressed to the 

^ ^ l^ ^ftrra W( fW r^ — *l\*»\ s(^tJmH, hdm', TtT%^ la' r, 

• Cp. Qeldner, Vediscbe Studien, vol. ii, p. a. •* See Ninikta ii. 33, where Yfiskft 
commentB on BV, z. loa. 9, beginaing: drughaifo drumayo ghai^ai! laireliAatam acakfatt. 

12. By this (hymn) Mudgala Bharmyafiva in a contest overcame 
Indra and Soma, having yoked a bull and a Mallet belonging to 
Indra, to his chariot *. 

'«rt3^^'^'Ihm'^,llTWra%^Jfkr^^lT5ft^g^^. — HT^ SNir., *{ |(JTV hdra'. 
WT^T^ r. *n<Sl^ f, HI HIS kr*. «T»^|^ b, "Tpri^ r^. — fW r'r*btkr'Nir.. 
^TO tdm'r (cp. Vi^ S). — ^WT'%TJ r, g^i^ b, ^ff M^ fk, ^WT ^TT m', 

' Cp. Ninikta 11. 23 ; mvdgalo bharmyaha rfir Vftabhaifl ea dragka^aip ca yuklvi 
taipgrame vyavahftyaSjiin jigaya ; cp. also BT. 1. 103. 5 : tcna mudgalah pradhane jigSya. 
See Sarvanukimnai,!! and SadguTiktieya's metrical veraioa of the storj. 

B 13. Apratiratha Aindra desUing victory when fighting in battle 
sang {the hymn). 

'The swift' {dmh: x. 10^) is addressed to Indra: in the 
stanza ' Of those ' {amlsdm : 1 2) * the goddess Apva is praised. 

gwm, r, g^ b, VS f, ^nfT k. ^im m'. — 5^ kr, W^ f, ^[^^ h.—'v^i'Ofii- 
X^ P. ^^ ITfiTT'i m'r, ^r^ HfTPP* bfk. — iraT^^ r, IWI ^*Tt W hdm', 

^niT ^^b, ^in ^j. ^rar f^^k, (gtnwi) v^n^^ s. — 13"' is round in b 

* This sttuita ia commented on by YSaka, Nirukta ii. 32, as addreased to Apva. 
Cp. Saryanukrama^T and ^adguruaisja. 

B 14. The fourth (stanza) should be (regarded as) addressed to 
Brhaspati *, as well as (the stanza) ' The great one ' {mahd7i) 
in the hymn of Nakula*>. 


297] — viii 15 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 103 

Now there is a couplet addressed to the Maruts, * Advance' 
{preta : x. 103. 13) ®, the (first stanza being) optionally addressed 
to Indra. (The hymn) which follows (begins) * Brahma ' K 

^lipff ^iIhIWI bm^r (= S), ^[f[dn ^iIhIWI fk. — ^^imHTiTfTfiff?! r, WTJ- 
Iffj^lf ifiiril b, Wl^f^TSrafTf^VfTT f, TIjSj K^flfii ^ m\ — 14"^ is found in B and 
m^ only. — J^ IJ ^Pl^JK h^^ |^R| IPl^Jil m\ ffi(fi{ M\\^l d, |% ^ ^TCTt r, 

rr^ MW^l fkr", 1[T^ MW^l b. — ^fif ^1)^1 hdm\ 9ft ijfft r, Jn^ft^ 
b, lft8|^f3(t^ fk— 'Hr ^cM4,H bf. mr^ ^n?lk, in?? g ^hm^r. 

^ That 14^ is original is indicated by the recnrrence of the words caturthi barkas» 
patya in the San^ukrama^I. ^ This is the khila of ten stanzas by Nakula which 

immediately precedes RV. x. 104. It is thus described in the Anukrama^i of the Kashmir 
collection: brahmaj daiaj vamadevyo nakulasj sauri, gharfnoMtMr, barhaspatifa, savUri 
(asfir) : gharmapara etaa : sauryoM candramasasyai ca iesa, jagatyah. The first stanza : 
hrahma jajflamitfi prathamojfi purastdt is quoted in AB. i. 19 and elsewhere (see Aufrecht's 
ed., p. 421). The third stanza, beginning mahan mahl, which mentions the name of 
Bfhaspati, is also quoted in AB. i. 19 and ASS. iv. 6. 3 ; it occurs in TS. ii. 3. 14^. 
There can be little doubt that the pratlka mahan is the original of the corruptions in 
the MSS. ® By this couplet must be meant the last stanza of RV. x. 103, and the 

first of the khila of two stanzas, beginning asau ya sena marutal^ which immediately 
follows. RV. X. 103. 13 is described in the SarvSnukramaigii as antya[aindrt] marutt va. 
The stanza asau me occurs in the SV. and the AV., and in VS. xvii. 47 it immediately 
follows preta (RV. x. 103. 13). 

15. In it, at the beginning of the hymn, where no deity is 
specified (anirukta)^, one stanza (i) adores the Sun, that which 
(begins) *Unto* {ahhi: 4)^, Savitr, while the (first) four are 
closely connected with the Caldron {gharma'parah) ^. 

inrrf'TOir^WT^Tf'rtrr hm^r, inrrf'Rni^iB^ij^'iT b, ifTrf*nnfc ^'wpg^'iT 

f.— ^rt^TTV r, V^Sw^* fkr*r^ Wf ^^T ^ m\ ^ q^TJ^ hdb.— ^TO^ ^ 
hdrb, H^n^^i: fk. — ^The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in bfk, not in hdm^« 

^ In AB. i. 19. 1 hrahma in this mantra is explained as Bfhaspati. This stanza^ 
AV. iv. I. I. The second stanza {iyaifi vai pitre) is described in the Anukrama^i of the 
khila collection as gharmastutifi ; it is=:AV. iv. i. 2. The third stanza {mahan mahi= 
TS. ii. 3. 14^) has already been stated to be addressed to Bfhaspati and is so described 
in the khila Anukrama^i. ^ This stanza {abhi tyatfi devam saritarom) = A V. vii. 14. i; 
VS. iv. 25; TS. i. 2. 6^ ; SV. i. 464, is in the asti metre and is referred to in S^B. xiii. v. i^^ 
as an atichandas verse. ^ This agrees with the statement of the Anukramani 

(gharmapara etafi); it is also borne out by AB. i. 19. 1-4 and ASS. iv. 6. 3, where all 

n. Qq 

RV. X. 104-] BIIHADDEVATA vffl. 16— [298 

theae four staaiaa are quoted, in the aama order in which thsj occur in the khila coUeo 
tion, as mantras to be repeated in the Pravargya ceremon; (in which the ghanna vessel 
is uaed). 

4. DaitiM of B>V. z. 104;, 105, Bhntiuiua Eaayapa : SV. x. 106. 

16. The six stanzas of the rest of the hymn (adore) Sun and 
Moon together ". 

Now with the (hymn) which comes after this (beginning) 
'It has been pressed' (asdvi: x. 104) A^taka** praised Indra. 

^TI^^^ hm'r, 'S^^ bfk. — ^jl-m^W^fl M% hmV, 4tJ |' ^^«»n ^jfiH bfk. 

* With regard to thie khila, on the fonn and contents of which we can now speak 
with certainty, cp. Meyer, BgvidhSna, p. xxii, and Oldunberg, Prolegomena, p. 364 f. 
^ On Asfaka cp. SadgurudiByB on BV. x. 104. 

17. The descendant of Kutsa, by name Durmitra*, (saw) the 
hymn 'When, Glorious One?' {kada vaso: x. 105). Sumitra 
may also be his name, (while) the other word (Durmitra) would 
express an attribute (gwm) ^. 

qtV(^: hni'r, '^(^: fk, ^t(^ h. — W^ ^^: hm'r, ^1^ q«"ti, hfk. — ^fSf- 

hdm'r (cp. U. 73). 

' Aa to Durmitra cp. Sadguruaisya on EV. i. 105, and Oertel, The JaiminTja version 
of the DTrghajihvi Legend, in the Transactions of the Oriental Ooogress of Paris, Section 
Aiyennc, p. 329. Op. Sarvanakramani : kaiUso durmitra nStnna sumitro ganataft 

sumilTo vd anntnd durmitro ganatah, 

18. Now Bhutamfe Kafiyapa*, being desirous of oflfepring, in 
days of old performed rites ; for this most excellent of sages had 
not obtained any children. 

wan: ^rrf^ hdm'r, inrt%«bf, n^^k. 

' It is somewhat strange that Yaska in Nirukta xu. 40, on SV. x. ro6, should have 
the identical words, bhatamiafi kaiyapa aivinam, which are used in the Sarvauukramai^T 
to describe that hymn. This looks as if some sort of Anukramanl had already eziated 
in Yaaka's time. 

19. His wife said to Bhutam^a: 'I will bear as many sons as 
you wish ; (only) praise the gods in pairs.' 


299] — viii. 24 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 107 

fl^ bdm^fk, JJ^tf^ b, fjft^ r. — fl[»a[1I ^f|[ hdm^b, iPQ[^ ff r, ^^ 

20. Now all pairs came to him from desire of praise. Observing 
them he did so (praise them in x. 106) : the Aivins own the hymn 

M^^^ bdr, ni^ bf. — tf^iHii fl['fl[Tpf bdm^r, fl['fl[TfSf ^[^TfV bf k. — ^?rW- 

%1|rnV TO% bm^r, ^MM^V WH fkr", WIWRI^ ^W% b. — The end of tbe 
varga is here marked by 8 in bbfk, not in m^d. 

6. BV. X. 107. Story of Sarama and tho Paijds : BV. x. 108. 

21. This same hymn (x. io6) is stated to be addressed to the 
Aivins because of (their) occurrence (bhdvdt) at the end. For 
in this hymn the characteristic (name) of the deity does not 
appear till the last verse ^ (pada). 

TTRT^ hm^rfk, iTRI^ b. — ^ fP hm*rb, If W* fk. — ITRUTT^ f, IH^Pfk k, 
1TWWT b, HT^rtrnr bm^r. — Y^ 'WiTl'l ^ 'Vl^ ^EJ^^PCfk, ff 'f^ bm^r. 

* Op. Nirnkta xii. 40 (witb Botb's Erlauterungen), vbere Yfiska states that in this 
hymn the name of the deity is mentioned only once (ekaUAga), 

22. Now with the hynm here following, * There has appeared ' 
{dvir ahhut : x. 107), Dak^ina Frajapatya praised herself. 

IPI IPSW bm^r, Vf)l(J8iq bfk. — HIHIMdim bm^r, HIQIIMdim bfkr*. 

23. Some, however, say that the givers of sacrificial fees are 
here praised ; and that, because they are the givers of sacrificial 
fees, liberal donors {bhqjdh) are praised with four (stanzas) ^ 

^f^m^i ^ bm^r, f^f^nrnrf ff bfk. 

* That is, in RV. z. 107* 8-1 x where the rewards of the hkofa are described. The 
option as to the deity expressed by the Sarvinukrama^I with tbe words dahH^^mii tadda^ 
vatUnti is doubtless owing to the opinion of eke here stated. 

24. There were demons called Fanis who dwelt on the farther 
bank of the Easa. These carried off the cows of Indra and hid 
them away carefully *. 

RV. X. io8] BRHADDEVATA viii. 25— [30a 

^ Cp. Sarvanukramanl ; panibhir asurair nigulha gafi, 

25. Brhaspati saw (it was) thus ; and having seen it he 
reported it to Indra. Then the Chastiser of Faka (Indra) 
dispatched Sarama^ thither on a message. 

iTBrnnirf fkm^, mw inj b, Tr^fi ^vrf hd.— f8r«^ hdm^r^fkr", fiflf g r, 

^^n b. — The end of the varga is here marked by M in bf, not in hdm^. 
^ Cp. SarySnukrama^I : anveffwii saramani devaiwnm indrei^ prakUam, 

6. Btory of Sarainlii mad the Paijds (continued). 

26. In the (hymn) *What?' {kim: x. 108) the Pani demons 
interrogated her with the uneven stanzas*, (saying) * Whence 
(do you come) ? To whom do you belong, fair one ? Or what 
is your business here?' 

ftrfiTwrr^^T^rot m^fr, f^rfvnvTr^rot hd, flRRnn^in^rarr b. — miijt 

^^TT: hm^r, TWRi: ^ bfk. 

^ Cp. SarvSnukramaigii : ajfvghhili pa^ayo mUriyantah procuf^, 

27. Then Sarama addressed them: 'I wander about as the 
messenger of Indra, seeking you and (your) stall and the kine 
of Indra who is asking for them.' 

^RrnPftlTT'C hdm^, •W r, fll<IM4)l({ b, iil<lfl^(] fk. — ^^^^^ ft'KWfH. 
hm^r, f^ft^T^ ^TT'^rf'lbf (cp. RV. x. 108. 2 : f^^^ jftp^ . . ^RtPO- — Vi "^(f 
hdm^fk, ^nrr^TT* r. — f^W^ hm^r, f^I^^ bfk. — ^ll^'^^^fl ^^t f, ^TT^- 
J^ mfif k, 9rra'Ws[^ 5^: b, Q^iil^q i^^* bdm\ lt^ifHT%^ ^^fil r. 

28. On learning that she was the messenger of Indra, the 

wicked demons said : * Do not depart *, Sarama ; be our sister 

^pflf irrH. hdm^r, IH ^pft^ bfk. 

• With the words ma gas tvam, cp. iv. 73 : maapagas tvam, * Cp. 01denberg*s 

remarks, ZDMG., 1898, p. 414 f., on Oertel, JAOS., vol. xix, part ii, pp. 97-103, who deals 

301] — viii. 33 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. x. 108 

with this legend from the BD. in connexion with the Jaiminiya Brahroai^. — ^The wording 
of 28^' and 29^ is based on BY. x. io8. 9 : svasarani tvd kr^avaif md punar gd, apa te 
gavdifl suhhage bhajdma. 

B 29. Let us divide our share of the cows ; be not unfiriendly 
(ahitd) henceforth again.' 

And with the last stanza of this hymn (x. 108. 1 1), as well 
as with the even ones throughout *, 

iRT m\ Wit b, IRRT fk. — 4||ff<1| f m^, TftffWT f fk, 41ffdl^ b. — 29"* 
is found in bfkm\ not hdr. — ^HHII^lWtlT wIt b, ^in4<||(l|i|l wfl fk, ^W^ 
frnm^ ^^ lirv}T, ^nm^Mll^il r^r*r*. — «|444lPl^q hm^r, •Pf^^ bf, 

^ Cp. SarvanukiamanI : sd tdn yttgrndntydbhir . . pratydcasfe. 

30. she said, *I do not desire either sisterhood (with you) 
or (your) wealth ; but I should like to drink the milk of those 
cows which you are hiding there*.' 

fq^li hm^rbf, ftHTrfir r^r*r*. — IJ XTBRJ^hm^r, irenre(.fk, ^TQ^b. — The end 

of the varga is here marked by ^ in b, by ^^ in fk, not at all in hdm^. 

^ Oldenberg (loc. cit.) would read yds te, ' which (cows) you here,' but all the MSB. 
have ydi id; and even though the cows are hidden, the td^t might have a vaguely 
demonstrative sense = ' which you have hidden over there.' 

7. Story of Sarama mad the Paa^s (oonoluded). 

31. The demons saying ' yes ' to her, then brought her the milk. 
She having, from natural taste and greed, drunk the demons' milk — 

M^Vfl: hm^rb, IJT^nTt fk. 

32. excellent, charming, delightful, stimulating strength — ^then 
jBbgain crossed the Basa which extended a hundred leagues, 

lit bm\ Vm: hdr», ^ r, XTC* bfk. — WPm hdm^b, •if H^ fk. — imi hm^r, 
^ ^n^ bfk. — 32*^ is repeated in b. — •f^RTRJ'ihni^r, f^rafhfll^ bfk. 

83. on the farther a bank of which was their impregnable 
ptronghold. And Indra asked Sarama, ' You have seen the cows, 
I hope?' 

RV. X. 108-] BRHADDEVATA viii. 34— [302 

' That is, regarded fi-om nbeie Indn wbs. 

34, But she, under the influence of the demons' (milk), replied 
* no ' to Indra. He, enraged, struck her with his foot. She then, 
vomiting the mUk, 

^IIf^« hdm' r. VfTQ bfk.— g Am*, ft B,— W»: b. ^ hdm'r, «# fk. 

36. went, trembling with fear, back again to the Panis. The 
Lord of bay Steeds* (Indra) on his car, by the track which 
followed her steps •>, 

«T Jratftqr hm'r. ^ )TlTTft[qT fk, H i qtl l fim b.— M<l*I«lRm«l hdm'. 
yU*l»a*fl JI^TWTfkb, lI<|UU(fl *HrWT r. — fRflllllbm^r, g^JHSrer fk, g^- 
1MMI b. The end of the earga is here marked by "« in b, not in hdm'fk. 

' Or, according to B, ' easily and quickly.' ' Or, according to B, ' by her 

vomidng of the milk,' which made a track. 

8. Deitiei of BV. x. 109-130. 

36. went and smote the Panis and brought back the cows. 

Now Brahmajaya Juhu sang* (the hymn) 'They spoke' (te 
*vadan : x. 109) addressed to the All-gods. 

flrer'I ^ ^l^tf^hm'rb, — 'TT^ ?TT: hdr, ?TT9 TT: bfk. — 
•|^ ^bm'r, "^ ^TT^^br*, "^ ^TT f k. — flUfl^i-tUdfllflKj: hdr. flfjaiiqi ^- 

* This ia the reading of B j cp. Arfannkramani : U 'vadann iti tHklatj/a braktnajSsa 
ju&iir muni^. A'b reading of the last pada (37° being here omitted) meani '. (then 
come) also the Apri stanzas of Jamadagni' (s. 110). This reading haa the appearance 
of an abridgement of 37" . 

B 37, 38. After it follows the Apr! hymn of Jamadagni, ' Kindled 
to-day' {samiddho 'dya: x. no). 

The Vairupa seers simultaneously with the three hymns 
(x. 111-113) 'Ye Wise Ones' {mantsinah : x. in. i) sang to 
Indra as he set out against the Panis. The following hymn 
'Two caldrons' {gharma: x. 114) is addressed to the All-gods. 
Some, however, think* that here are praised 


303] —viu. 42 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. iij4 

37. ^l^<fM b, lllll^fM fkr", ^l^l^fMS m^. — •it ^TPft* m^, •ift m^ b, 
•Wt '^ 'ft? ff •n'^tfini* kr". — 37*^ i» found in bfkr'm^ not in hdr. — ^^P^ 
HHHl If hm^r, ir*l ^fWWW fkr*, ?nW gnPTOpJ b.— ^^^qj ^M^lfwfii: hdm\ 

38. if^tfiran bfkr', f^pftf^ hdm^r. — ^IfPC hdr, ^ b, ^ f k. 
* This word is taken from the next line. 

39. the Gods and Indra, the Metres, and the Middle Agni. 
The seer Upastuta uttered (the hymn) * Wondrous' {citrah: 
X. 115) which is addressed to AgnL 

«WT^Pi^ bm^r. ^^^4W^ bfk. 

40. * Drink' (jnha: x. 1 1 6) praises Indra ; *Not'(na: x. 117), 
Food. The next (x. 118) is demon-slaying (and) addressed to 
AgnL 'So, indeed' {iti vai: x. 119) is addressed to Laba^ 
'That' {tat: x. 120) is addressed to Indra: the Aptyas are 
incidentally mentioned in the sixth (stanza). 

<I^VII^*IH. fk. TTWWl^ni b, T^tn%«P^ bm^r (Iffit^ ^I^WH, S). 
^WW g ^ Wf5 r^r*r*. — ^ITTW'l^f* WT^bfk, if^hd, ?!FI^ r. — "VTFn: r, 
WfVT bdm\ HfflT f, i[Wrr k, Unr b. — HWjf m^bfkr, iqwJT h. — OlMlRlfli: bm^r. 
^ ^l^pTT b, ^ n^fll fkr'. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in bfk, not 

in m « 

* 40^ 18 quoted by j^^gimisisya on BY. x, X19; cp. ArsSnukramani x. 53^' also 
quoted by ^a^gurusisya, whose reading differs from that of the published text. 

9. Deities of BV. x. 121-129. Three Uilas. 

41. Then (comes a hymn) addressed to Frajapati (x. 121), 
one to Agni (x. 122), one to Vena (x. 123) in succession. *To 
this our' (imarn nah: x. 124) is (in) praise of Yaruna, Indra, 
Agni, Soma^ 

?BRR:hm^r'bfkr*,il^[f?r: r. — 4^%^lf^4n^l^lH^bm^rbfk,4n^lfM4Ml^i 
U r^r*r*. — flf ^ hm^r, ^f^ ^ fk, f^ l| b. 

^ Cp. SarvSnukrama^i : o^nt-vartt^a-Mwionofii . • . aindry uttama. 

42. Now the four stanzas here at the beginning of the hymn 
(x. 124. 1-4), Agni sang in praise of himself*; but Soma is 

RV. X. 1 24-] BKHADDEVATA viii. 43— [304 

praised with the sixth (6) and with the ninth in three verses 

^TTTO^Bf^ lim^, ^^im Jfii bfk.— ^ftirg hm^r, ^^ft^fTW fk, ^tfNW b.— ^WT 
Wf hm^r, HWrt IJ bfk. — ^^^ hm^r', 'Win bfkr*, 'RPTT^r. 

^ According to this, Agni is seer and deity of BV. x. 124. 1-4, while, according to 
the Sarv&nukramanl, Yarana and Soma are seers of i as well as Agni. 

43. But the remaining three (x. 124. 5, 7, 8) are addressed to 
Varuna*, while the last verse (9^ is addressed to Indra alone ^. * I' 
(aham: x. 125) is a hymn to Vac. To Aryaman, Mitra, and 
Varuna belongs 

firer m^br, firer fk, m hdr^ — -^^pNt^lf ^^hdm\ ll^4)q^V4J llT^r, 

f^jjlrtl^nft 'Wt bfkr^Cr^?). 

^ The SarvSnukramanl makes no specific statements about RV. x. 124. 5-8, simply 
remarking : iisfa yathanipatam, ^ According to the SanrSnukrama^i the whole of 9 

is addressed to Indra: aindry uttama. 

44. *Not him' {na tarn: x. 126)*. The following hynm is 
to Batri (x. 1 2 7). That which (begins) * To me ' {mama : 
X. 128) is addressed to the All-gods. The hymn addressed to 
Lightning * Obeisance to thee ' (namas te) ^ is a benediction. But 
that which follows, 

JJ^^T: hm^r, ^J^ bfk. — ^(^ hdr, ^^ b, ^^ fk. — ^l4\^l<* bfk, ?Tr- 
^Wt^J hm^r. — ^?|?^hm^bfkr^ K^t. 

^ According to the Sarvanukramai^I this hymn is addressed to the All-gods; but 
as the three names Aryaman, Mitra,Varu^ occur in all the stanzas of the hymn but the 
last, the statement of the BD. is more exact. ^ The two khilas which come at the 

beginning of the fourth adhyaya in the Kashmir collection, and precede BV. x. 128, are 
here passed over. The first consists of one stanza only, beginning a yasmin devavitttye. 
The second consists of four stanzas, beginning a rdtri pdrthivam, and corresponds to the 
first four stanzas in Aufrecht's xix. After RV. x. 128 comes a third, which consists of a 
single stanza, beginning arvaflcam indram amuto havamahe, and corresponds to the first stanza 
of Aufrecht's xx. Then comes the Lightning hymn of four stanzas, beginning nomas te 
astu vidyute, referred to above. Next follows a long khila of forty stanzas, beginning 
ydni kalpayanti no 'rayah and described in the accompanying Anukrama^I with the words : 
yoiji: catvarii^iat, pratyan-krityd-naianam, diih: pahktyantam. It is mentioned by its 
prattka yam kalpayanti in RgvidhSna iv. 6. 3 and described there, iv. 8.4, as kfiyd-suktam ; 
quoted also in Kausika Sutra xxxix. f (cp. Bloomfield, Atharva-veda, SBE.« xlii, p. 60a, on 
AV. X. i). Cp. Meyer, JE^gvidhana, pp. xxii, xxv ; Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 506 f. 

805] — viii. 48 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV, x. 135 

45. *(The spell) which our foes prepare' {ycim kalpayanti no 
^rayah), is destructive of sorcery*. * Bestowing length of life' 
{dyu^am)^ is (in) praise of gold for oneself <^. 'Neither non- 
being ' {ndsat : x. 1 29) is to Parame^thin. 

^i^: hdm^r, If 1[f?| b, iffll f, iffS k. — VTIVT* m^r, WHT hd, WFTT bfk. — 

Tnpfirranf: hdm^r, ^^if^j^A bfk. — wrevi^hdr, 'n%in^ f, wmK b, %f?i ^ 

t^t^T^9 Wrt)^?( k.^The end of the varga is here marked by Q. in bfk, not in m^. 

^ The same description, kftyanaianam, in the AnukramaQi of the khila collection. 
In AY. Parisifta 34. a, this and other hymns of the same character form the kfiyagof^, 
and are described as counteracting sorcery, kftyapratiharai^ni, ^ This khila im- 

mediately foUows yatji kalpayanti in the Kashmir coUection. It is described in the 
accompanying Annkrama^I as dyu$yajit : daia : dakfayanah . . . hiraf^ydtmastuti^. Its ten 
stansas (there is a lacuna in the first) agree with Au&echt's xx. a-ii; cp. Oldenberg, 
Prolegomena, p. 506, note ^. This khila is also mentioned in the l^gvidhSna iv. 9. i : 
ayufyam Syurvarcasya^ iuktatji dak§Syai^m ; cp. Meyer, p. xxiii. ^ The expression 

used in the khila Annkrama^i, kiraf^yatmastutiftf seems to mean ' self-praise in connexion 
with gold.' 

10. D«itiM of BV. X. 180-187. 

46. They call this (hymn) evolutional (bhdvavrtta) ; also the 
next*, *The sacrifice which' (yo yajfiah : x. 130). * Away ' (apa : 
X. 131) is addressed to Indra; here, however, the fourth and 
the fifth (stanzas: 4, 5) are traditionally held to be addressed 
to the AiSvins. 

^ hdm^r, ^ ?n bfkr*. 

^ Op. BgvidhSna iv. 9. 2 : hkavavftte pare tukte, 

47. 'The sacrificer' (ijdnam: x. 132) is addressed to Mitra- 
Vanina; in the first stanza Heaven and Earth are praised in 
the (first) hemistich (i^^), and the Ai^vins in the next (i^^. 

^jJilW hm^r, ^ ^ bfkr*. — irf^lft ^iVfft Wi: Am\ ^jftpiT ^nftlf 3 


48. * Forth, well' {pro fu : x. 133. i) are two (hymns) addressed 
to Indra (133, 134); but the stanza * Never, O Gods, do we 
transgress ' {nakir devd minimasi : x. 1 34. 7) is addressed to the 
All-gods*. In the (hymn) * Under which tree' {yasmin vrk§e: 
X. 135) the celestial Yama is praised. 

n. R r 

RV. X. 136-] 

BRHADDEVATA viii. 49— 


' Tbo SBTvanukranmnT has no Gtatement about thin atsnca. 

49. The hymn ' The Hairy One (bears) Agnl ' (ke^ agnim : 
X. 1 36) is addressed to the Hairy Ones ^ ; in that which follows, 
'And, O Gods' {uta devah: x. 137)^ the first stanza (1) should 
be (regarded as) to the Gods ; the following triplet (2—4) has 
Vata as its god, 

%Wftf r, %&^ bd. "^IJtW b. %Wra f. — ^fil'i bfk, ^rflpi: hdm'r (^ftpT 
S). — ^?T bf. ^ k. ^ bdr. ^ m'. — ^q|*nm ^TOT ^TT^ A. ^JTm 71^ 
^^HJ B. — mn^<1^M- TT' B, q|<l<4<fl^ HtI^; a. Ah the teit of the EV. natnas 
Tata in theae atanias, not Viyu, and the author of the BD. is likely to haTB followed 
that text, I have preferred the reading of B, 

' The readinR heiiaa^ would moan, ' is addressed to the Hairy One ' ; but aa the 
Barvanukramani has kaiHnam and Sayana (od x. 137. l) baa the explanation ngninirya- 
cagudnatakam, I have preferred to read kaUiaam as referring to the ' Three Hairy Onei' 
(cp. above, i. 95]. ** The SarvunukramaaT gives no details about this hymn, de- 

sciihing it limply aa vaiivadetiaia. 

60. The stanza 'May they protect' {trdyantdm : x. 137. 5) 
is addressed to the All-gods ; but the remainder (of the hymn) 
that follows (6, 7) has the waters as its divinity. This 
(hymn) may be considered aa containing universal remedies or 
as destructive of infirmity. 

'^^ 3 *"i^ "^^ «>'■ "t^ "^"^ b. »^aren (^TP) f.— "^I hin'b, 

"^^: r, "^^ fk. — ^^: bm'r, ^7t: b^^ ^H: fk. — I^T^ng hr^m', ^1% n^ t, 
^ ^TJ bf. — {qS(HM«i hdbr. fBlft^ fk, %^^^^ m', — {_Hli\ ^ f^TTIpWl. 
hro^r, <M4l^|tJlf1<«1H bfkr*. — The end of the varga is here marked by <\0 in b, by 

11. The khila • Bhamih.' Deities of ST. x. 138-142. 

51. The following hymn, 'The Earth' (bhumik)'^, is addressed 
to Liikga ''. The next hymn, ' Of thee ' {tava : x, 138), is addressed 
to Indra, In the (hymn) 'Sun-rayed' (suryaraimth : x. 139) the 
first triplet (1-3) is addressed to Savitr. 

^ ^ 


307] — viii. 54 TRAJJSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 14a 

Wrt bfk, WTWt hdw}r. — ^WftPlhrn^r, IPTO b, Ff^ fk. 

^ This khila, consisting of seven stanzas and beginning bhumir maid, nabhti^ pita, 
aryamd te pitamahafit follows yo?} kalpayanti in the Kashmir collection, llie pratlka of 
RV« X. 138 immediately following its last stanza indicates that its position is between 
BY. z. 137 and 138. ^ lSks& has been mentioned twice before, i. 129 and ii. 84* 

The reading lakfam, not lakfa, most be the correct one, as the BD. never mentions the 
deity in the nominative case. 

52. Now his own self is indirectly {parok§a)^ praised by 
Gkuidharva in the next triplet (x. 1 39. 4-6) : he is spoken of 
incidentaUy either aa Indra or Stiryab, 

ITCW^ hm^r, incW g bfkr*. — %^ hm^r, ^ b, %lf fkr*. 

^ That is, in the third person. ^ Indra is mentioned in 4 and 6, and Siirya 

in 4. The San^uinkramani has no reference to these two deities. 

B 53. In this hymn (x. 139) these three deities only are 
celebrated*. Now *0 Agni, thine' {ague t(wa: x. 140) is ad- 
dressed to Agni; that which follows, *0 Agni, to (us)' {ague 
acha: x. 141)^, 

ll4)ni<1U bfkr, g 4tfifwr: m^ — 11% ^ bfkr, IPIVI^ m^ — IJcq^m^f, 
qnf\#f^ b, ^CM^I^V kr. — This sloka is found in B and m^ only. 

^ That is, Savitf , Indra, Siirya. This line, which seems redundant even here, occurs 
twice again in B (after 59 and 79^ ) ; but this is the only position in which it might be 
genuine. ^ This line, as giving the pratikas of z. 140, 141, which seem almost 

necessary, may be original ; in that case the beginning of the next line, agneyaij% vaUvO" 
deveun ca, must have a different sense from that required in A. See note ^ on 54. 

54. is addressed to Agni and to the All-gods ». Now in the 
(hymn) 'This* {ay am: x. 142), the four Sarngas, as seers of 
couplets (dvrcdh)f adored Agni severally^. 

^ ^RP^m^r, ^^rnn^ hd, ^^IFli^b, (^Nl^)^Ti| fk. — ^ |Tr: m^r, g JJ^TR r', 
^^rr: hd, g ing^r: b, g m^WC t (|^: S). — ^Rfq^ r. f^MSS. — The end of 
the varga is here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in hdm^. 

* If 53^^ is not genuine, these words would mean : ' There is then a (hymn) addressed 
to Agni (140) and one to the All-gods (141)': cp. BD. vii. 143, note ^. This would be 
in agreement with the SarvSnukrama^I which describes 141 simply as vaUvadevam. On 
the other hand, as a matter of foot, Agni alone is mentioned in the first and the last 

RV. X. 143-] BRHADDEVATA viiL 55— [308 

stanzas of this hymn, and many gods in 2-5. ^ That Ib, each with a conplet. Cp. 

SarvSnukramani : aycm : astau; dvreal^ idrngaft . • . agneyam ; and see Sa^gumsisya's 
explanation of dvrca as ' seer of two stanzas.' 

12. Deitias of BV. x. 143-154. Zhila : ModluuiQkta. 

55. The (hymn) *Him indeed' {tyam cit: x. 143) is addressed 
to the Afivins. *This' {ay am: x. 144), following after that, is 
addressed to Indra. * This (plant) I dig' {imdrn khandmi : x. 145), 
the hymn which Indrani herself sang, 

WT5 ^T^hm^r, ^W: ^^bfk. — ^IWfl^lH^bm^r, V(^€|l(^hdfk. 

56. they declare to be an esoteric (aupanifoda) evolutional 
{hhdvavrtta) * hymn of six stanzas. 

B Now in (this) hymn she (the seer) praises the potent herb 
pdthd^ with its extended leaves <5. 

^ hm^r, IfJ f k, Iff b. — TT^^ hw? r, s^f^ 1J bfk. — ^^l«IM4f mTT ^ m^, 
^PHTTnfr ^T^m b, ^^KI^MUfr ^rrat g fkr^ — 4|f1l|fvv^bk^^ ifft^SrfM f, 
^Cl4^H^ m*, — ^56*^ is fotmd in B and m* only. 

^ Op. above, ii. I30> lai; y.87 &c. The term seems to be applied to this hymn aa 
it contams spells connected with wives. Otherwise the expression is used of hymns 
which are more directly evolutional, that is, connected with birth or cosmogony. The 
Sarvanukramai^i has no reference to this, but speaks of the hymn as upanifat (Sadgu- 
rubisya : upanisat'samjflam), ^ As the name of a plant the word pafha seems hitherto 

to have been noted by the lexicographers only. But the Rgvidhana, in referring to this 
hymn, has three times (iv. il. 3 ; 12. 1, 4) the form pafa, which also occurs in AV. ii. 27. 4; 
and this was perhaps the original form here. ^ The word tUtanapar^t M ui 

attribute of the herb, occurs in BY. x. 145. 2. 

B 67. Now the last stanza (x. 145. 6) is intended to win the love 
of a husband, while the rest are meant to repel a rival wife *. 

* O Aranyani ' {aranydni : x. 1 46) is (in) praise of AranyanL 
The next two (beginning) * Faith' {srat : x. 147, 148) are addressed 
to Indra. 

Mfnti^*!^ b, Mf^ii^«i4) fk, ^RreNlrtlf r*, xrfff ^Nfft m^. — ^WRTH b, 

^^^n^qr: fk. ^ vjm\: r*, ^ ^rr^ m^ — %iM<%^M< i 1f<^i m*b, nM<^M^1f<qiiH. 

fT\ W^iSri^f(f^^m,k. — ^If^ h, ^S^[^ d, TTf^ m*r, ^^Pft bfk. 

^ The SarvSnukrama^I has sapatntbadhanam, with which expression cp. ]^vidh5na 
iv. 12. 3: stratum hadkate tena. 

309] — viii. 60 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. x. 155 

58. *Savitr with bonds' {savitd yantraih : x. 147) is addressed 
to Savitr. * Enkindled even thou art fanned ' {somiiddhaA dt sam 
idhyase : x. 1 50) is addressed to Agni. * With faith ' {Sraddhayd : 
X. 151) is addressed to ^raddha. After that follows the hymn 
of Wisdom {medhd-sukta) ^. 

^NTfW^t IT^ bf kr, ?hrt %Vt^ g V^ hdm^ 

^ This is the khila which in the Kashmir collection comes next after hhwnili. It is 
there identical in form with Aufrecht's xxii, except that the last two stanzas are in inverted 
order. It is mentioned in the l^gvidhSna, iv. 14. i, hj the name of medhasuktam, Cp. 
Meyer, p. xxii, and Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 507. 

59. The (hymn) *May the Father come' (a sur etu)^ is ad- 
dressed to Agni. Then follow two (152, 153) addressed to Indra 
(beginning) *A ruler' {idsah: x. 152* i). The (hymn) 'Soma for 
some' {soma ekehhyah : x. 154) they declare to be -evolutional. 

^l^^*il^R«*l'^ hdm^r, ^m^ ifll^X^^ K ^ Wl^ftfl'* bf. — IfTO 
MSS. and r.— IT^f^ hm^r, Ififf'lf ^ hfkr^ — 59^=56 . — The end of the varga is 
here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in hdm^. 

^ This is the khila which in the Kashmir collection immediately follows the MedhS- 
siikta. Its position immediately before BV. x. 152 is indicated by the pratlka of that 
hymn being added after the last stanza. Consisting of seven stanzas composed in the 
last seven atichandas metres, it is thus described in the accompanying Anukramaigii : dsus: 
sapta; atharvai^ subhefajah; agneyatj^: prakftili, kftir, akftir, vikjrtis, 8aij%kftir, abhikftir, 
utkfiayafi [utkrtih']. The RV. PiSti^hya remarks (xvi. 35) that these seven metres are 
found, not in the BY., but only in Subhe^ja (explained by Uvata as the name of a seer). On 
this Weber, Indische Studieo, voL viii, p. 132, observes: ' Welcher Text damit gememt sein 
mag, ist einstweilen nicht klar, da die dafiir angefiihrten Belegstellen als solche nicht nach- 
weisbar sind.' There is no longer any doubt as to what text is meant. The Gopatha 
Bifihmana, v. 23, refers to these seven metres as saubhesaja, ' derived from Subhesi^a,* that 
is the seer who composed these seven khila stanzas. Both the khila text (a 9ur etu para- 
vdtaft) and the Anukrama^i (S sus) have u, which appears as « in all the MSS., probably 
in part owing to the metre, and in part to misunderstanding of the form. Suft is used 
of Agni in BV. i. 146. 5. 

18. Deities of BV. x. 155-159. 

60. *0 Arayi' {ardyi: x. 155) is destructive of bad luck*: 
in the couplet there * Driven away ' (catto : x. 155. 2, 3) Brahmana- 
spati is praised either as the chief deity or incidentally ; 

RV.s. 155-] BRHADDEVATA viii. 61— [310 

m hm'r. ^^ rk. ^ b.— Tf?f 1^ hdi, ft*! g ^ mS fRH|^ bfk. — Before 
60, bfkm'r insert the following s'loka : 

The second line haa already occurred aa Tui. 53° , where it ii appropriate, while here 
there is nothing to which 'these three deities' can refer. It occurs over again after 
79"' in several, if not all, the B MSB. With the first line cp. «ii. ll"'. 

* The SarvSnukramani haa the sanie expression, olaksmigknam ; cp. RgvJdhaaa iv. 
15. 3: alaJittiumhmrtham, 

61. and Indra {is praised) in the (stanza) 'When' (yat: x. 
'55- 4)) ^^^ All-gods in the stanza 'Around' {pari: 5). And 
the (hymn) ' Agni ' (agnim : x. 1 56) Is addressed to Agni, ' Now 
these indeed' (ma nu kam : x. 157) is addressed to the All-gods. 

VK^ lidm'r, ^ %^ bfk.— ^T^hdr, WfW^bfkr". 

62. Indra "■ is, however, here predominantly praised along with 
the All-gods, and the Adityas and the Maruts, For (the hymn) 
evidently has this character i». 

Mim'tlfl**'!'^ hdm'r, inVROft ?n b, TTOlflfll ^T^ fkr'. — ^ ^: hm'r, 
^ fl^: bfk. — 1^^9 hdbk, W^^^ r. 

* The SarvSaukramani simply describes 1. 157 aa vaUvadevaia tritbout any referenca 
to Indta. '' This pfida occura in four previous passagea: iii. 76; iv. 18 j v. 87; vi. 94. 

63. Now 'May us the Sun' {suryo nah: x. 158) is addressed 
to Surya ; but as to the (hymn) 'Aloft that' {ud asau: x. 159), 
Paulomi in it lauds her own virtues and (those) of her co-wives. 

^V^ g hr, ^ g m', ^ti ^T^ b, ^H ^TI fk. — ^T^TIf m^r, TRMt^ hfb, 
^ WTI^ k. — t^l'ajunn ra^i, ^ ap hd, ^npUT bfk. — TPT hfb, ?T^ r. — ^ l^rfTT 
hm'bfk, nii^Hl r. — Tha end of the carpa is heremaiked by ^^ in bfk, not in bdm^ 

14. Deities of SV. z. 160-164. The seer Kapota B'aiirta. 

64. 'Of the potent' [livrasya: x. 160) is addressed to Indra. 
'I release' (muhcdmi: s, 161) is a remedy destructive of con- 
sumption (i/aksma). This hymn of Prajapatya's * ia spoken of as 
destroying ' royal consumption ' (rdja-yak^ma) *>, 

311] — viil 68 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 164 

^linf hm^r, i)^ fk, omitted in b. — <m€|!9Jfl|i m^, •^ hdbfkr. 

* The seer of this hymn is stated by the Ai^nukiamai^I and the SarvSnnkramapI 
to be P^jSpatya YaksmanSsana. ^ The hymn is described in the SarvSnukramani 
as rajaydkpnaghfuau 

66. Yaska considers that the hymn Is addressed to Indra-Agni ; 
some, that it is addressed to the divinities expressed by name^ 
Now as to the (hymn) *With the prayer' {brahmarid: x. 162), 
it is said to be demon-slaying and addressed to Agni ^. 

<^VI^4fi|^A hm*r*r*k (cp. v.r, on viii. 40), ^441^ 4^^ A r. — ^-^n; m*f, 
in^lT^ hrk, M^Ui b (cp. v.r. on viii. 63). — *9f%f?f ^ ^™^'» •UWf ^ bk, •Hf?| ^ f. 

* 65' is quoted by l^a^gurusisya on BY. z. i6i. ^ Cp. aboye, yiii. 40. 

66. This is also recognized (drftam) sa a consecrating prayer 
for children issuing from the womb (sravatdm). * Vena saw that ' 
{venas tat jpa6yai)^ is addressed to Vena. *From the eyes' 
{akfibhydm : x. 163) is destructive of consumption {2/<^k§ma)^. 

66"^= V. 87*^.—^ m\ ^ b, ^ fk.— fW 5%«RR^iniR^hdr, JH^fV 
lit ^TIJ Bm^ (^Tlf m\ ^ kr*, ^ b). 

* This is the khila of three stanzas which comes before RV. x. 163. It is described 
thus in the Anukrama^I: venas : tjxofnj venoj bhavavrttofii tu. The reading of B refers 
to this khila less definitely by the latter description. ^ Cp. yakpnaghnam in the 

67. * Depart' {apehi: x. 164) is destructive of evil dreams: 
Indra and Agni^ are incidental. 

There was a seer, Kapota Nairrta by name, who practised 
prolonged auBt^ity. ^ ' ^ 

f^f^ ^ bfk, W^ 5 hm^r. — ^9(^^$iraT! m^r, •?RT b, ^HflMK r*r*r*, ;(H- 

iwrt hd, •inrr fk. 

* There is no mention of Indra and Agni here in the Sarvanukrama^i. 

68. A pigeon, we are told, placed its foot on his fire-receptacle 
in the forest ^ : the seer praised the pigeon, in words propitious 
to himself. 

RV. X. 165-] BRHADDEVATA viii 69— [312 

m^t^ hdm^r^r^r^ ^f% bfr, ^If k. Though the reading akarot giyes the p8da 
one syllable too many, I have retained it as an irregularity which is probably original, since 
there are other cases in the BD. — •RfVIl'^ bfkr, •^\Jn% hd, •fWfft m*. — ^ IfUm^r, 
^P^^,bfkr^ ^TTH.hdr^ — Wft^ ^Hm^fHl bfkr, ^Rt^^^dV^I Am\ — The 
end of the varga is here marked by ^(t in f, by ^1) in b, not at all in hdm^k. 

* Cp. the "words of BY. x. 165. 3 : as^ryafp, padcai^ kf^ute agnidhane. 

15. Deities of TLY. z. 165-174. 

69. with the hymn *0 gods' {devdh: x. 165) : it is stated 
to have the object of expiation * * (Make) me a bull ' {rsahham 
md: X. 166) is destructive of rivals. *By which this' (i/enedam)^ 
is addressed to Mind {mdnasa). 

In bfk, which read ^^ (^^ W f, ^^TT'lk, ^^ f?f b) ijtift ^f^fJlM there 
is a lacnna between the first two words of 69 and the last two of 70. 

* Op. SarrSnukramai^I : prayahiUam idam, adding fmivadeoatit, of which nothing is 
said here. ^ This is a khila of thirteen stanzas which precedes BY. z. 167 and which 
begins yenedaiit bhitairi bhuvanani bhavisyat. Each of its stanzas (excepting 6 and possibly 
9, where there is a lacuna) begins with a form of the relative pronoun, and each ends 
with the refrain tan me mana?^ Hvasatuhalpam astu. The first six stanzas are identical 
with VS. xxxiv. 1-6, except that the first and the fourth appear in inverted order in the 
VS. It is described thus in the Anukramani: yena: saptonaj matuwaf^ {manasaf^}) itca- 
sanikalpoj manasam. From the reputed author the khila is called ^asojpkdlpa and regarded 
as an Upanisad (see Indische Studien, ii. 51 ff.) ; it is quoted under this name in Manu 
xi. 251. The JfLgvidhSna, iv. ao. 3, quotes this khila by its pratlka (yenedam) ; cp. Meyer, 
p. XXV f.; Oldenbergy Prolegomena, p. 507. 

70. The two seers Qathina (Vifivamitra) and Bhargava (Jama- 
dagni) » saw (the hymn) addressed to Indra (beginning) ' To thee ' 
(tuhhya: x. 167). Varupa, Vidhatr, Anumati^, Dhatr, Soma, 
Brhaspati — 

RlMlfll^^ni^ hdr, f^^ini«i(n m^, lacuna in bfk, cp. critical note on 69. 

* Cp. ArsSnukrama^I x. 86 : vUvamUrqjamadagnt ( = Sarvanukrama^i) ffir [ff t] 
gathinabhargavau. ^ 70^ has one syllable too many ; cp. 68^. 

71. these six deities are there praised in the third stanza 
(x. 167. 3)*. With the following (hymn) 'Of Vata' (vdtasya: 
X. 168) Anila praised his father^. 

313] — viii. 74 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. i7« 

fjfft OTIf: fk. — Miim^^n^ hm^r, mX^uHvI^ bfk. — ^^rfifW: b, ^rfifir hdm'rfk. 

^ San^ukiamai^I : tfiiya Ungohtadevata; cp. Sadgurusisya. ^ Op. An&nu- 

kiamanl x. 87 : vatayano mwiift sukta^ vdtasyety anilo jagau, 

72. The seer Sabaxa* saw the hymn which (begins) * Refreshing' 
(niayohhuh : x. 169). Now various kinds of milch kine are there 
praised \ 

^ngW^hm^r, mqiRl^bfk. — If^ ^fi(^l r, ^^0 ^Sft* bdm\ ^if^ r*r*r^ 
^WTT ^BflfJ fk, ^WXT f^ftt b. — 7n 5 hm^r, m ^ bfk. — 72*= v. 92*. 

* The name of the seer is S^abara in the ArsSnukramai^I and the SarvSnnkrama^i. 
^ The SarvSnukramai^i simply describes this hymn as gavyam. 

73. 'Far-shining' (vihhrdt: x. 170) is addressed to Surya; 
*Thou this' (tvam tyam: x. 171) is addi*essed to Indra; *Come 
hither' (a ydhi: x. 172) is (in) praise of Dawn; and * Hither 
thee' (a tvd : x. 173. i) are two hymns (173, 174) for consecrating 
a king* who has been anointed^. 

^ ^mi^ b, ^ ^rrff* fk, WT ^Hft^ m^r, 5HT ^Trf^ h, fTT ^Trf^ d. — ^ 

^f?n hd, ^: ^f?r: m^r, •^ '^tni b, (•^)to'i: fk. — Tnlif^fNnii^ hm^rs, ''cniY 

iW^niRr bfkr*. — TT^pWirtJ hm^r, ^nfira^8f% bfk, l|fi|4|^^ s. — The end of 
the varga is here marked by ^1) in hbfk, not in m^d. 

* The Sarvanukrama^i describes these two hymns as rajHa stutili; cp. ]^tgvidhSna 
iv. 22. 4. ^ 73*^ is quoted by Sa4gurtisisya on EV. z. 173. 

16. Deities of &V. z. 175-181. 

74. Arbudi* saw the next (hymn) 'Forth you' {pra vah: 
X. 175) as (in) praise of the Pressing Stones. Now that which 
follows this (x. 1 76) is addressed to Agni : there the stanza 
'Forth the sons' {pra sunavah: x. 176. i) is addressed to the 

m^ hd, VPSIIIT bfk, VJ^ r. — •^jfif: hm^fr, •^f^: b, •^I k, V^l t\ — 
^nW: hm^bfkr, ^RHT: r^r*r«. — ^^Sl^ H hm^r, •^ H fk, «9N^ b. 

* Cp. SarvanukranuugiT : pra vafi . . arbudir gravis *8taut. 

n. 6 s 

RV. X. 177-3 

BRHADDEVATl viil 75- 


76. Now the seer Patamga sang the hymn which follows, 
'The Bird' [patamgam: x. 177) ; some regard this as addressed 
to Surya, whUe othera (think that it is) destructive of sorcery 
(mdydbheda *). 

q?ra^ hdbr, irt^ m\ fk. — Klflin"^ hm'r, ^mniX b, "^flUiX f^- 

' The Sarvanukrainani noes the Mine word to describe this hjmn ; cp. Rgvidhana 
IT. 33. 5 : miyS/hedanain etat. 

B 76, In (this hymn) destructive of sorcery, Saunaka says that 
in the second (stanza : x. 1 7 7. 2) is praised Vac, the goddess who 
cherishes in her heart * the speech which is well known (viditdm) ^. 

«I«II^ m'fkr, nrai^^ b. — ^aptWTf m', ^tWTf bfkr. — ^rt fSfflfS m', 
^'ft ftJlM b, ^^ fttrfTT f. »»J^Tft kr. — ^ m'bf, ^ kr. — ^T^ ft'^TTt V^if. 
ra' b, TT^ f*|(^i ^nft f, ^^I ftf^i Wft r. — This floka is found in B and m' onlj. 

* Cp. the vords of RV. x. 177. 3 : palamgo vacaip manaia bibharfi . . , dfolamSnSm. 
This perhaps allndes to the four kinds of speech spoken of in RV. i. 164. 45 : (ooi 
vidur brdkma^ah . . . iuriyam vaco maTtvtyS vadanti. 

77. The hymn ' Forthwith this ' {tyam m ju : x. 1 78), which 
has Tarkgya for its deity, they regard as a charm for good luck 
{svastyayana) *. ' Up ' {ut : x. 1 79) are two (hymns) addressed 
to Indra (179, 180), while that which follows, 'Both extension' 
(prathaS ca : x. 181), is addressed to the AU-gods. 

W^iJTP^^WSfm'fkr^ (TTTV kr^), W^^ JTHsl^^W b, Wigf^fn ?J ^^rij 

fa d r. The reading of the B MSS. is favoured by the SarvaiiukraiiianL, which describes the 
hymn as tW^H.- — ^?^ ^^- ^^ ™'. ^^ f. 'df<S^ b. ^^ r. — ^^^ J 
hdm'r, ^^^ ^Pl. bfk. — %f7I ^ hra^r, ^ft jj b, no particle in fk. 
' Cp. BgvidhSna iv. 33. 1 ; (yam u fp iU svaili/ayanam. 

78. In it the first three seers * have declared their own 
power : how the Rathamtara chant (stotra) and how the Brhat 

■^<^lim'r, •^^ft.b, *^^^fk. — TRT^ hrb, JnWT fk. — VHCimcj; hdr, 
Vmt^pi: fk, V^^^O: b. — The end of the varga is here marked bj ^% in bfk, not 
in hdm*. 


315] —viil 8 1 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RY.x.183 

* That is, DhStr, Sayitr, Vif^n, mentioned in the third pSda of each of the three 
stanzas of this hymn, as the source from which others (Yasistha, Bharadviga) derived 
the Bathaiptara, the Bf hat, and the Qharma. 

17. DeitiM of &V. z. 182-lM. 

79. and how the Gharma came into being from Savitr^ is 
implied. Now in the hymn 'Brhaspati' (hrhay^atih: x. 182) 
Brhaspati is praised. 

ippft hd, WJ^l w}, ll^pft hr, Wpn (^T^:) fk. — ^MilVTt hrhfk, ^Pl- 
inil% m^, (m^9)TnT flfl^ r*r*r*. — Instead of 79**^, given in the text according to 
the reading of hdr, m^hfkr^ have suhstituted a line which has already occurred twice 
before in B MSS.: 

b alone further adds the line— 

* Cp. BY. z. 181. 3 : a luryad abkaran gkarmam He. 

80. Some consider this praise (of Brhaspati) to be prayers 
for the institutor of the sacrifice (ycy'cmidna) \ 

The hymn of Prajavat Prajapatya, which (begins) *I saw thee* 
(apaSyam tvd : x. 183) ^, 

irairnr^ hm^r, fHRTPrnfr: b. — ^(M^<!i ^fif ft^t hm^r, %f^(^ l^ftf 
*. b. — ^80" is omitted in fkr*. 

* The word yajamana occurs in the refrain of the three stanzas of this hymn : atha 
karad yajamanaya i(Uf^ yoft* ^ 80^ =Ar^ukrama]^i z. 95* , except that the reading 

there is suktatu tat for yat suktam, 

81. praises in each stanza the deities here indicated by their 
chara<.teri8tics (Ivnga) : that is, the first (staoiza) utters pra/ers for 
the maa. desiring a son a, then ^ ' 

^^m MSS. and r. — ftrf^^THI irf^WTt bf, Rl%X^l4ilf^fll* kr*, firff^TR 
^^m: hdr. — mfTIT ff ^<N1| hm^r, Umillll^fq ^HTJ b, ll«|4(|<||^(^ Wfm 

f.— This sloka is omitted in r^r*r*. 

^ The respective deities for the three stanzas are the Yajamana^ his wifbi and the 
Hotf ; cp. SarvSnukramai^i : anvfcoj?! yajamanapatnlhotraiifalt. 

RV. X. 184-] BEHADDEVATA viii. 82— [316 

82. the second for the woman desiring a son, while the third 
(expresses) self-praise of the seer. Now the hymn which (begins) 
'VLjinu' {visnuh: x. 184) they declare to be addressed to the 
All-gods *. 

inni?t hm^r, iryU^t bfk. 

^ The SarvSnukramanI describes this hymn as lingoktadaivata, 

83. In it the seer utters prayers with a view to his wife's 
(obtaining) oflfepring *. Now the following (hymn) is * Nejame^a ' 
(nejamesa) \ It is stated to be optionally (applicable : vd) ^ with 
a view to oflfepring. 

^f^PC* hm^r, ^Tq[f^bfk. — ^I|t hm^rb, 11^ kr^ — 3|^lf^f7l hm^^*k^^ ?H(^fi|f?f 
b,iMl^ff r. — 9f4r9 W( Tiy^l?! hdm^r^^*^^ ^A[^ iTR^^ r, f^Tlpf^ ^ft^fft 
b, 'Wnjlf^ ^"^^ fk. — ^The end of the varga is here marked by ^'^ in bk, by ^^ 
after 83' in f, not at all in hdm^. Owing to the transposition of 84, 85, the figures 
indicating the end of vargas 17, 18, 19 have got shifted, but come right again at aa 

^ Cp. SarvSaukramai^i : garbhartha£ih. ^ This khila of three stanzas, coming 

before BV. x. 185 in the Kashmir collection, is identical with Aufrecht's zxiii. Between 
yenedam and this, the Kashmir collection has one of two stanzas beginning yasam udhai 
eaturhUam and coming before BV. x. 170. ^ I am uncertain as to the exact sense of va 
here. Perhaps it means that the hymn is addressed to Nejamesa, but may be ceremonially 
applied for the purpose of obtaining ofibpring. Its three stanzas are prescribed, along 
with five others, in the ritual during pregnancy, by the Gfhya Sdtras ; e.g. AGS. L 14. 3 : 
cp. Stenzler, pp. 35-37. This khila is also mentioned in Rgvidhana iv. 23. 3; cp. Meyer, 
p. xxiii. It is translated and examined with reference to its deity, Nejamesa, by Wintemitz, 
JRAS., 1895, PP« 149-155- 

18. The khila < Zrcdamem.' Deities of &V. z. 185-188. 

84. * To this (wife) of mine longing for a son do thou grant 
oflGapring which (shall be) male'* — ^with (this) half of the 
whole (first) stanza he^ means this whole combination (yoga) 
of prayer ^ : 

^[% bm^, ITEM r, these two and the following three syllables (^ H^) ^^^^^^^ ^ 
fk. — 4^Hmif|| m^r, H^HniTO b, ^Um^ fk.— ^RP^ fkr^r*r«, ^ijl Ipi^ b, 
^nif^ to}, ^^14^ ^ r. — ^R^f7n^fkm^r^r*r*, ^!|^JpnT^b, TR^pf^r. — ^^irflRt 
?fN^ ff aU MSS. and r. — ^jft m\ ^JJgtt r, ^ b, ^ f, ^Wt k, ^Wt r^ — 

317] — viii. 86 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 185 

i|Wf m^^^^*^^ 'ft^ fk, 'ff^ r*, ^^ b. — iRR^ all MSS. and r. — m^ is the 
only MS. that has this and the following sloka in the present position, which is obviously 
the proper one. The others (bfkr^r^r^r*) have them between 130 and I3i> where they 
are absolutely out of place, hd omit them altogether. 

* The second and part of the fourth pftda of 84 are so corrupt that I have little 
confidence in my restoration. I have made two assumptions : firstly, that the second pSda 
is a corruption of the second half of the khila line ; secondly, that this corruption is partly 
due to five syllables (sarvargardhena) of the fourth pada having been by mistake copied 
into the second. The meaning of the whole sloka would then be : ' this line {asyai me 
&c.) may be taken to represent the whole khila of three stanzas.' ^ That is, Ma^hara, 
whose view, in connexion with the Baskala school, is stated in the next s'loka. 
^ According to the nile of ASS. i. i^ if one pSda is quoted the whole stanza is meant; 
if the incomplete first pada of a hymn is quoted the whole hymn is meant ; if more than 
one pada is quoted, three stanzas are meant. Cp. Stenzler, AGS.» p. 49, note to § 9. 

85. the traditional teaching of Mathara is that in the name 
(Nejame^a) the letter e* is intended to (arouse) compassion ; 
while the Ba^kalas (say) that in the verb (ddadhe)^ the two e's 
{ay-oh) have the meaning of a past tense {hhutakarana) in (the 
sense of) au {dv-i)^. 

•Vqf^ m^kr, •ilFTRT b.— ifTPl m^rf. ifTftl k, ifTf^ b.— in^: r, iH^: 

m^bfk. — ^^vTWTit m^bf kr*, ^rrarnT* r. — ^imnrT b, irTgnTr, wr^prPT^f, 'IT'lWr 
k, ^iTOwrr m\ — ^ictKi^r^fj i b, 4{iai«ii^'ir<Pw f, Ni^Hi^tTlRfJ i k, ^efNnfhpf r, 

^^M^ffl m\ 

* That is, in Nejamesa instead of the regular Nagamesa; this bloka containing 
remarks on the use of e in both noun and verb in this khila. ^ This remarks refers to 
the verb used in the second stanza : yatheyam pfihivt • . garbham ddadhe and to its 
interpretation by the Baskalas as the 3rd pers. sing, perfect, not present. For, according 
to them, when there are two personal endings -«, that is, adadh-e, i. sing., and adadh-e 
3. sing., the latter form can be perfect only, not present, where we should have adhat-te, 
3rd pers., beside adadh-e, ist pers. ^ That is, adadh-e is here =ac2aiM-atf. This 
interpretation is very likely wrong, but I can suggest nothing better. 

86. The Mahitra (hymn) which (begins) *The great (aid) of 
the three' (mahi trlT^dm: x. 185) they regard as praise of the 
Adityas, Vanina*, Aryaman, Mitra. Now in very few^ other 
(hymns) addressed to the Adityas, 

9rrff^ hm^r, H\Vk^ b. J(Vf% fk. — ^4^^Uin{f||U|IH,hdm^r, M^MH^^HT" 
%^b, ^l i llfilQi^gl^ fk. — •^ 5 hm^rk, •^i^S ^ bf. — 86^* is omitted in r^r*r«. 


BEHADDEVATA viii. 87— 


' I have preferred this readmg becausa Varuns, and not Burra, ii mentiooed in 
RV. X. l8S; aud this identical pada (varunaryamamitra^Sm) has occurred twice befor«: 
iii. 108" sad v. 50'. ** ' Very fei* ' is taken over from the next line. 

87. except in this, are these three gods only praised. Thia 
hjnnn, according to sacred authority {Srutam), is intended for 
prosperity (Sdntyartham) and is also purifying. 

B It is recognized {dr^ta) as also benedictory in the valediction 
of travellers" (i/dtdm). 

^Ti:ni', ^TThhftt, mtHt. — ^ ^7ra;bdniSf^^t7THbr, ft^lfUfk. — ^iniTTf^ 

b, innwfy f, Tnrwft m'kr. 

' The emendation yatam ie supported h; the use of adhtiam in RV, z. 185. 3 and 
by the words of the Rgvidhona iv. 33. 3 : mahi Iri^am avo 'itv iti matti/ayane japtl. 
Cp. RY. viii. 83. 6 ; kixyanto ymto adhvann a lina vfdhaya humake, Thia byma is described 
as svastyayanam in the Sarv&aiikiamani also. 

88. (Then) Ula praised his father Vata* (in) 'May Vata' 
(vdtak: X. 1S6). The next (hymn) is addressed to Agni (x. 187). 
But in the ten books (of the Bg-veda) the (hymn which begins) 
' Forth ' {pra : x. 1 88) is the one (which is) clearly addressed 
to Jatavedas ^. 

^n! ^Xl*(4J-rt<,H,iidni', ^'Sii in^ q^bfkr. — ^nTTq^hdin'r, ^TO- 
n^tg r*, ^qnif\^ b, ^Tll'il^ f. — ij bm^rfk, ^ b. — The end of the varga ia marked 
at the end of the next ti'luka in bf, not at all in hdm'k. See note at the end of ths 

preceding varga. 

* Op. above, 71. Because JStavedaa ia the onl; name here mentioned; 

hymn is described as jalavedatyam in the Sarvanukramaiii aUo. 


19. ST. X. 189, 190. The khila ' Baiyj&anam.' 
89. Whatever elsewhere is spoken of as addressed to 
Jatavedas * is (really) addressed to Agni. As to the hymn 
'Hither this bull' {dyam gauh: x. 189), Sarparajm sang of 
heraelf (in it) b. 

"^SlRnrt hdm'r'brkr^ "^ WPllI r. — '^m ^P?( Am', flC^ ^niH_ B. 

'* In i. 67 Jatavedas is explained as tbe Middle Agni. Be.'iides i. 1S9, the Sairanu- 
kramani desciibes only one hymn. i. 99, as jatavrdaiyam ; and tbe BB. also i. 5S. g^j ii. 3, 
Cp. SarvSnukramn^i : tarparajHi: almadaivatam sauryavt va. 


319] — viii 93 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [-RV. x. 190 

90. Therefore she is the deity in it ; some declare Surya 
(to be the deity). Mudgala, Sakapuni, and the teacher oakatayana, 

1WRTWT ^^Wr Tn hm^r, 7!^ Ifll^q^ll ^'l b, 7!^ ^BT ^flflT ^R f. — ^ji^ 
hm^rfk, ^mS'^ b. The SarvSnakramftni has tll^n^* but this does not appear to be 
sufficient, in the present case, to decide against the prevailing reading of the MSS. — 
^ ^inn^ m^rbfk, ^H^h}: hd. — m^^l^l^i: hdm^r*bkr^ "^([^^^t r. 

91. consider that Vac, as occupying the three spheres, is (here) 
praised in every stanza. Next Aghamar^na saw the following 
evolutional (hhdvavrtta) * hymn (x. 1 90) ^ 

^ili^iM^f i iiu : hm^r, «j|i^M4< j (iu: b. «jIim44h : f. 

^ Cp. SarvSnnkramai^i : cighamarsaiy) ; bhSvavfttam, ^ With reference to this 

hymn, h has on the margin the following lines : 

92. to which no superior exists either for prosperity or 
purification*. As the horse sacrifice is the chief of oflferings, 
removing every infirmity b, 

iren^m\ 11^ ^TOT f, V[Wl hdbk, If^ r. — 92***, 93"^ are wanting in r^r*r*. 

* Op. BgvidhSna !▼• 23. 5: pavitra^^aiji pavitrtufi tu japed evdghamarsanam, ^ 92^ 
and 93' appear with slight variations of reading in Rgvidhana iv. 24. 2, being there 
introduced with the words evai^ tad ffir abravit ; cp. BD. vol. i, p. 147. 

93. SO the sin-efiacing {agha-marfana) prayer (hrahma) 
removes every infirmity. As to (iti) the (hymns) which follow 
it (x. 190), that which (comes) next (beginning) 'Unanimity' 
{sarnjndnam) ^ is (in) praise of knowledge. 

IR[nfWrt?f h, «*4^f*lf?| d, •^T^tfir fk, If^Ti^Wt b, fl^l^f^l m^, fl^l^fil ^ 

r, Nf 14)^1 Jl r^r*r*. — ^HfV^ JIJW4^m hm^r, ?3h|T HTf^WV b, iRWR #5R: 

f. — The end of the varga is marked by ^Q. in hbfk after the next s'loka (94), not at all 
in m^d. 

^ This is the first khila in the fifth adh^ya of the Kashmir collection. It is 
identical with Anfrecht's xzv. It is separated from nejamesa (83) by one khila of one 
stanza, antkavantam, coming before RY. x. 188 and identical with Anfrecht's xxiv. 

RV. X. 191] BRHADDEVATA viii. 94— [320 

20. Two khilas. &V. z. 191. MahftTiainnT stanias. 

94. Now as to the fourth (hymn) *0f the handless fiends' 
(nairhastyam), it is destructive of rivals *. * Together, together, 
indeed' {sam'Sam it: x. 191. i) and 'Forth, of sacrifices' 
(prq^dhvardndm)^ are traditionally held to be two (stanzas) 
addressed to Agni^. 

r^r*r*. — %?in^ ipi ^ hdm'r, ^n^NTT^ b, <fl|l)m'^7t f. — ^ hdm^frb, IflTT 

* This is the khila which in the Kashmir collection comes after satujHanam. It 
consists of three stanzas, and begins nairhasiya^ senadarmfam. It is thns described in the 
Anukramani: nairhasiyam; tfcam; nirhfutyafi {niraKastya MS.); Mapatnaghnof/i ienadara- 
^ani; anuB^ubham hfhatimadhyam. 1 assume that eaturtham means it is the fourth, counting 
from X. 190 : (i) aghmnarsaifa, (2) sam'Sam it, (3) saTnjHanam, (4) nairhasiyam. BY. x. 
191. 1 {saffl'sam it) is mentioned out of the order of the hymn of which it is the first stanza, 
so that it may be coupled with pradhvaratfiam as addressed to Agni. The order in which 
the Bgyidhana mentions these four khilas is : (i) aghamarsana, (a) nairhasiyam, (3) sam- 
sam ii, (4) satpjUSnam. Cp. Meyer, Bgvidhana, p. xzvi ; Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 507. 
This khila of seven stanzas, beginning pradhvara^wm paie vaso, follows nairhasiyam and 
is thus described in the Anukramani: praj sapia; kaiyapo jamadagnirj uiiama ia^yur: 
adyaagneyi gayain, dviilyaupottamaaiih pahktaffi, iftiyaaksarastutis sa^nusfupj oaiurihi 
saumi, paflcaml sauri. The last stanza is identical with the last of safpjfianam (iac chw^ 
yor a vr^tmaAe, &c.), and is at the same time the concluding stanza of the BY. according 
to the Baskala recension ; cp. Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 495. ^ Agneyyau must be 

the right reading, as from the above statement of the khila Anukramani and from that 
of the SarvSnukramani on BY. x. 191 : adyagneyl, only the first stanza of each of these 
hymns, not the whole of both hymns (agneye), is addressed to Agni. 

95. Now in the first » (stanza) of ' Unanimity,' Ufena, Varuna, 
Indra, Agni, and Savitr are praised, then in the second, the AiSvins. 

tlin«l b, iiUI«i hm^r, ^Nlffif fk. — IRTfinfV hm^r, HWrftpft bfk. — 95 is 
wanting in r^r*r*. 

^ The irregularity of declension in prathttmasyam is probably due to the following 

96. The third and the last two (3, 4, 5) express prayers. Indra 
(and) Puijan are praised in the second stanza of (the hymn) 
destructive of rivals *• 

321] — viii. 99 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [RV. x. 191 

^llfiRt*f8nii[Plf Wd hm^rbfk, if WTiMt^ ^Tfl^ r^r*r*. — 96**' and 97 aw 
tranting in r^r*r*. 

^ That is, of nairhasiyam ; cp. 94. These two deities are mentioned in the second 
stanxa of that khila. 

97. And the other (stanzas) which are chiefly concerned with 
benedictions are pronounced to be (addressed) to the Gods. They 
regard * Together, together' {sam-scmi: x. 191) and * Unanimity* 
{samjfidnam) to be the best (charm for) conciliation ^ 

^Rff f, Itfrt r*, VnW b, ti^«i«i hd, Wf^ to}. The name of the reputed 
seer in ArsSnukramai^i x. 99 and in the SarvSnnkramai^i is Saipyanana. 

^ Li BgvidhSna iv. 24. 4, 5 satH'Sttm is described as iOMbhraifkaranyttn makai, and 
saipjfianam as sandhikaram. 

98. The Mahanamni stanzas are mystical {gvJiya) and they 
are addressed to Indra : whosoever repeats (them) obtains a day 
of Brahma which lasts for a thousand years ^ 

*HI«H*^ W^ hdr, 4l|f|«l|f^ W^ f, *lfl«lH«H f^^ b. — jillH^m^r, J^t 
bf, 3irr hdk. — ^^^"ST^er ^ H^ hm^r, ^^fH^RI ^ b, (ut) ^si[IHil^ ^"^ 
f.— «t ff irrin r^r*r«, ^ i JJir hm^r, ^ f imf b, ¥T f ITTlf r^ ¥T f Willi f. 

Sadgnnisisya, who (p. 169, sloka 9) quotes nearly the whole line, has ^^filll* — H 
TT^ hdm^r, ^TT^ i^r*r«, ^fT^TTOt b, ^n:UJT% f, ^rNT% krl— In m^ this 
sloka comes after loi. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^0 in bfk, by ^0 in 
h, not at all in m^d. 

^ Op. BhagavadgitS viii. 17: sahasrayugaparyaniam diar yad hrahmai^ viduft, which 
appears in Nimkta xiv. 4 with the slight yariation yugasahasraparyantam^ It oocnrs 
again in Mann L 73 in the somewhat modified form : 

tad vai yvgasahasrantaii% brahmtan pw^yam ahar vidu^, 

21. Mahanamiif stanias: what constdtutes a liymn. 

B 99. The ritualists {judjViikd) say that a hymn {suktci) has 
a minimum of three stanzas ^ The deities which appear in 
praise^ therein, own the hymn [suktahhaj)^. It has, as is well 
known, been stated by Saunaka that the deities which own the 
hymn are always the chief object (of praise), 
n. T t 

Conclusion] BRHADDEVATA viii. loo— [322 

irftff m'''. — ^ift in', gift bfkr^. — ^uf% ^it: ^wwi^: m', ^wt i: 

4JTIi*11flI fltr^ ilsH ^: f[ ^AMiq 1). — irai1*J)li*(, bfkm', JWTT^IIR; r*. 

* According to this BV. i. 99 would sot be a sukla. Cp. iv. 143 : tlutau j/atj/eka 
dfiyale; Bee also m. 16. * 99 has one syllable too many, 

B 100. Now one should know that the Mahanamnis * are stanzas 
addressed to Indra, for such is the statement that appears 
[drstam) in a Brahraana^. The term hymn does not appear 
(applied to them) ; the expression {vdda) hymn (sukta) is (used) 
in connexion with the Nivida ", as one applies (dha) the designa- 
tion of hymn to the Praisas ^. 

Tl^-'d^l b, Ji^ ^rrt m'f.'^^^^kr^. — ft-Ult^ m'. f^rei bfkt*. — f^ 
m'bfkr''. — WJ^fSS b, Wimv fkr*. ^(^JS- n»^ — ^W^T^ f*lftw m^b, ^ini^ 
"^ftW fkr*. — ^Isllf T f kr*. 1tt|tic||f m*, "Bft^Tf b. 

* These atanzu (^Ait. Ar. iv) form the khila which follows pTadkvardfani in the 
Kaahmir cnlleclion. They begin oidd magha(va)n vida galum avuiaipiiio dita/i, and ue 
thus described in the AnukramanT : vida : data : . . . abtdram pavamdaam dnHilubham, Sec. 
They are described in the Rgvidhana, iv. 25, as constituting the end of the Bg-ved& 
fiaifihita. Cp. Oldeaberg, Prolegomena, p. 509 f. ^ Cp. AB. v. 7. a: indro eS rIaiUr 
mahan dimdnam nfra?nti7ufa, tatmdn mahdndmnyah ; cp. also KB. xxiii. 2. * That is. 
the NiFid-Euktas are so called as the principal hymns which at the midday libation have 
the Nivid inserted in the middle, or at the third libation before the last veiae of the 
SWra. Thus the Duroha^a hymn to Indra-VaruQa is treated as a Nivid (AB. vi. 35. 7). 
^ That ia, the praiiikam tvktam, which consists of twelve Praisas ; see above, ii. 153, 154. 

B 101, One should understand that these* constitute (in reality 
only) single parts of (what is technically called) a hymn, as well 
as other stanzas which belong to the Kuntapa (kuntya)^ and 
are separated by padaa °, as the Aitaia (pralapa) <* and the verses 
technically called Devanitha, &c. ; for in the Kuntapa (section) 
all that constitutes one hymn e. 

<j^*^HT m'fk^^ ^«^HT b. — jwi: m', gs»^: b, jwt: fkr*. — ftirr^TT: b, 
f*mi*iT: f, f'nrwT: k, f^rar^r: r^, fSmfTn: m'. — ii?f7TO^ m', ^^fl»rt f k r*, ^i^^ 

b.— ^ftrf*nnf^^^ fkr^ ^qfltllf^ti ^l m', ^qnlm i f^VJ lll b.— Jifff^ b, ijm^ 
fk. ««niil r^ Jflft m'. — H^ ff ^IVt. b, T(^ fWl fk^^ im^TII. m'- 


323] — viii 103 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Conclusion 

^ That IB the Kivids in the Nivid-miktas and the Piaisas m the praifikatii suktam. 
The word Ininiya, which ia not found elaewhere, must mean ' a stansa belonging to the 
EuntSpa section.' The hitter is defined as a hymn containing thirty stanzas (kuntapa" 
uamakain tpniadfcani tMam) by SSya^a on AB. vL 33. i (cp. ASS. viii. 3. la, 13). He 
enumerates the constituent parts in his commentary on AB. yi. 32. 3-25. On the Eun1£pa 
section (AY. zz. 127-136) cp. Bloomfield, SBE., voL zlii, pp. 688 ff. ^ The AB. states 
that the Aitasa pralapa {y\, 33. 14, 15) and the Devanitha (vi. 35. 33) are recited (/o^u), hke 
a Nivid, by padas with om after each. As the MSB. all have the prefix m and practically 
all a in the verb, I have retained the readbg niidstali, * separated ' (see St. Petersburg 
Dictionary under V4as), though greatly tempted to make the correction vi^astaft, 
* separately recited'; cp. AB. iii. 19. 8 : Mr nivida sukttuf^ viieofuet, ^ In the EuntSpa 
hymn SSya^a also takes to be included the (AY. xz. 129-132) Aitas'a pralSpa (which he 
states to consist of an aggregate of seventy pfidas : comm. on AB. yi. 33. i ; cp. 6 and 
Ass. yiii. 3. 14) and the Deranltha (AY. zz. 135. 6-10) which he states to consist of 
seventeen pfidas (cp. AS^S. viii. 3. 25) in hb commentary on AB. vi. 34. i. ^ This 

agrees with SSya^a's statement that the (whole) Euntapa hymn includes the Aitasa 
pralSpa, the Devanitha, and other groups of pSdas. 

102. Now the first supplementary passage {puri^Orpada) ^ 
of these (Mahanamni stanzas) should be (regarded as belonging) 
to Prajapati, (then) one is addressed to Agni, one to Indra^ one 
to VLjnu, and the fifth to Pu^an. 

^iret 5 lim^'f ^IWrt ^m fbk. — IfllAimMTt: hm^r, iflfM^^H^i bfkr^ — 
^l^^Sl^i ^'rt hdr, irtC ^ %^ ^'T b, ftj^ WT^^^TTT ^'l ftf^rft WT ^NPI 
%^ r*. — ^i;ft^ %^ 5 ^i^<R^ hdm^, 4W ^^ VI^^RK '» ^'^W ^^Wf» ^IT'l ^> 

^ These are supplementary pieces used to fill up (like rubble, punfa) in the recita- 
tion of the MahSnamnI stanzas. According to the reading of B, there would only be four 
of these, Pr^jSpati being omitted. According to the Eausitaki BrShma^a (zziii. 2), there 
are, however, five (connected with Praj&pati, Agni, Indra, Posan, Devfi}^) : etani paHeapadani 
purifam iti iamfonte. According to the Anukramai^i of the khila collection also there are 
five: purUa'padany dgneya^aififovajfrndra-pausi^a-^i^ omitting PngSpati, but adding 
Yis^u, like the BD., which omits the Devfi^ ; Mitra's reading, having both Prajfipati and 
De^^ includes siz deities. On the Punsa-padas see further Paficaviipsa BrShmai^a ziii. 
4. 12, 13; ASS. vii. 12 ; I^t^^yana iv. 10. 18, &c. 

103. To Agni belong the Prayajas and the Anuyajas, the 
Prai^as and the oblations. Now whatever may be the divinity 
of the oblations, must also be the divinity of the Prai^aa. 


BRHADDEVATA viii. 104— 


^n\ ^ ^ hdr, Itin ?^ ^ b, Trtt ^ ^ fk, ^^ TW m^ — fft^ ^TTthra^r. 

fft^^lI*T,b, fft^Wl fk. '•^flfll'H,tdm\"^qnn,bfk,''^fldmr. ^Bbbfkr', 

^ ^ m', ?| ?f r. — The end of tbe varga is hero marked bj ^^ in hbfk, not in m' d. Tha 
fact that h marks tbe end of the previoaa varga after 98 and of tbe present one here, though 
the twoDty-first varga would thus contain only two slokas, is an indication that 99-iai 
belonged to the orieinal test ; a conclusion corroborated by these lines being composed 
in the tris^bh metre. 

22. S«itieB of Vivids, ITlgadai, and metres. 
104. The deities of the Nivida and of the Nigadas^- (can be 
ascertained) by their respective characteristic names '' ; and those 
stanzas are recited with a Nigada which are (thus employed) 

in conformity with the ceremonial. 

ft^V ^^nrr: bdm'rbfk, finftW^WWr: r^r*r*. — f(| 11^*1 hdni'r, fl|q^^ 
bfkr*. — mwi5«T hm'r, ^WIT1I*(! K flraTPff f, ^^IT'l b. 

'' That is, by the name of tha 

* See St, Petersburg Dictionary, sub voce, 
deity occurring in the formulas employed an Nivids o 

105. Now to Agni are traditionally held to belong the Gayatris, 
to Savitr the U^nihs, to Soma the Anu^tubhs, to Brhaspati the 
Brhatis ^ 

^r«llf: m'bfr. <dfa|)f I hdi^, Vf^V! kr'. 

' On this and the following a'lokaa (io3'i09] are baaed the statements regmnUng 
the deities of metres in Katyayana's Sarvanukramani of tbe White Yajur-veda (Weber'a 
ed. p. Iv}: gaj/atryd agni^, usnihah lavita, aitiitfubhah tomafi, bjhatya bthaipati/i. Cp. 
BD. vol. i, p. 153. 

106. The Pahktis and the Tri^tubhs, one should know, belong 
entirely to Indra*; and all Jagatis'' whatsoever belong to the 

\iaM hr, Ttara d, "^jf^ f, trtf^ k, V3[9 b- — V\% hm'r, V[V fk. ^m b. 

' According to the VS. AnukramanT the Fafiktis belong to Varuna and the Triflubhi 

to Indra ; pahkler varvnas tritlvhha indrah. ^ VS. Anukramaiji: jagalya ttirfce deva^. 

107. The Virajes belong to Mitra, the Svarajes to Varuna*. 
The Nicrts are declared to be Indra's, and the BhurJjes are 
traditionally held to be Vayu's •> : 


325] — viiL i lo TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Conclusion 

'jnCnit br, ^TTTT fk, ^ Tjitt hdm\ — i^^^n fil^flt hdmMir3?T: b.l^'lf^- 
fil^fiB '• t^Vffl^ffl* fk- — fllft'l hdm^, flj^ ^^^^' — ^^^^ ^ omitted in r^r*r*. 
^ Op. VS. Anakrama^I : tnrqjo mitraftf narajo varwfoft. ^ No statement, VS. Anuk. 

A 108. or these two * may belong (to the god) in whose sphere ^ 
(they are), or they may (both) have Vayu for their deity ^. 

But all the Atichandas metres have Prajapati for their deity ^. 

H^IMlfl^^mS hm^rfk, H^IMffl^milS b. — io8*= laa*^. — The end of the varga 
IB here marked by ^^ in bfk, not in hdm^ 

^ That is, nicfi and bhurij each taken as a singular. ^ That is, each of these 

would belong to Indra or Y&yu according as the stanzas composed in these metrical 
forms happened to be connected with the one or the other. ^ This line (loS^ ) is 

found in A and m^ only. It has this position in m^, but comes after 107^ in A« 
I have placed it here because it seems much more naturally connected with loS'' , as 
adding an alternative referring to the same two deities (Indra and VSyu), than with 107^ ; 
and because we may infer from the silence of the VS. Anukrama^I about both, that the two 
lines are thus connected. If the alternative in 108' had any reference to 107' , it would 
probably have been mentioned in the VS. Anukramaijii, which makes the same statement 
about the viraj and narqf as the BD. in 107' • ^ Op. VS. Anukrama^i: atickanda$afi 


23. Beities of metraSf Vadas, Vftfa^Vara, Srihikftii. The Sraras. 

A 109. But formulas consisting of various metres (vichandas) 
belong to Vayu. As for those which are measured by padas, 

all Dvipadas are sacred to Puru^a, Ekapadas are traditionally 
held to be sacred to BrahmS.^ 

Ml^W lfllM<l Wl h, irrW 1IIM4I; Wl d, Mimi! lfllM<i: Wl m*r, ttV^ 

'^ft%A W^ bfkr*. — HTfll IPI* hm^r, WVfft HV bfkr*. — 109'^ is found in A and 
m^ only. 

^ Op. VS. Anukrama^T : vichandaao vayur, dvipadayah purufa, ekapadSyd brahma. 

110. All stanzas of the 9g-veda (re) are sacred to Agni* 
sacrificial formulas iyajui) are sacred to Vayu, all chants {sa/nMri^ 
and Brahmanas are sacred to Surya ^. 

^HR^^TT hm^r, iRHST W^ fk, iRRT^ b. — "^m^tljt hm^r, ^m^tlVT bfk. — 
%^ hm^r, ?rt fk, Wl b. — VTRTPf m^fkr, WRTrf'f hd, iTRTTPf b. 

^ Op. VS. Anukranuugil : $afva fca agneyyaft* ^ Op. ibid. : iomani sauri^i sarvaifi 
brdhma^ni ca. 




111. The call 'Vagat' is eacred to the AU-gods, (and) the 
sound ' him ' (himkdra) *. (The Agur formula) ' We who Bacri£ce ' 
{]/e yajdmake) •* is a form of the thunderbolt ° which is preceded 
by speech. The call ' Svaha ' has Agni as its deity. 

^ hdm^r, WJ b, ^ fk. — TWgjf bm^r. ^ gjf hfk. — "ftl^^: hdbr, 

* Hifokara is mentioned with vafafkdra in AB. iii. 33. 4. The formula uud 

at the begiaaing of the yajj/a. Bee Uaug, Aitareja BmhinanB, vol. ii, p. 133, note. 
' Cp. AB. ii. 28. 3: Sgir vajrali. 

112. To the Grods and the Fathers belong obeisance and 
oblation {svadkd). 

The shrill {kru^ta) tone {svara) Is to be recognized as in 
the head * ; the first tone belongs to the palate ^. 

^^ hmV, ^TW b, 71^ fkr*. — TTTVPf: hm^rb, flltim: f. — mK hro^fr, 

nvm bkd. 

' Op. below, 116. 

I. below, 117. SeeTS. Prati^khTaT: 

113. But the second belongs to the centre of the brows*, 
the third has its place {saniJrita) in the earl*, the fourth should 
be (regarded as) in the tip of the nose'', the low (tone) is 
stated to belong to the chest ■*; one pronounces the Atisvara® 
as formed by a protraction (karsana) of the low (tone). 

"*i(«lfl: hdm'r, "4J(^fl: b, "^^r fk, — "^ H^ T^nt hm'br, •*ft*i« 

^ — Uft^lt hdb. ^fagt f- — inrHftbm'r, ?I ?i firj: B. — Theeud oflhe 
varga is here marked by ^^ in m', after 115" in fk, also inb, but by ^^. not at all in hd. 
' Cp, below, 117. "^ Cp. below, 118. " Cp. below, I18. '' Cp. below, 119. 

* This furm of tbo name, used also in 116, i> not DthomiHe found; the urubI form of 
tbe name, atitvarya, is used below, lao ; cp. the definition given there : vikarit^ mait- 
dratya yuklah. 

34. Deities of the tones. 

114, The Gods speak in {vadanti) the shrill {krufta) tone, 
men in the first, all beasts in the second, Gandharvas and 
Apsaraaes in the (next) tone. 


327] — viii 119 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Conclusion 

^fgi hm' r b, irfl k, omitted in f. — i!^|^T! TUfif ^<*i hm^ r*, 4|<Jiqi: IRRI^TT'^ 

fk. f?pP HVn ^ST'lb, 4|i|mRjHI|^fVlfSl* r. — Vnfm hdm^r^bfkr*. '^^^: r. — 
This and the following two slokas (114-116) come before 113 in bfkr*. 

115. Egg-bom creatures, birds, serpents, employ the fourth; 
PliSacas, Bak^ases, and Asuras employ the low tone (mandra). 

W^P^ hdr, (•^)*1m^^^ f, ^^tmWl b, iflMflW^ r*, ^|P^fA m\ ^^V|7) 
r*r*r*.— i|^ b, 7K^ fk, Wl[j: hm*r. — us*** is omitted in r*r*r*. 

116. But the Atisvara is peculiar to everything that moves 
or is stationary. 

The shrill {kru§ta) tone, which permanently resides in the 
head, is sacred to the All-gods. 

^iflreiT^ bdm^r, ^fl|4IK^ bfkr", Hffllfllli^r^ r*r*. — ip|v hm' bf k,||irer 
r. — ^V^^I m^dbfk, ^<1|^4 hr. 

117. The first tone, belonging to the palate (and) peculiar 
to the Samans, has the Adityas for its divinities. The second 
tone, which has its location in the region of the brows, is con- 
nected with the Sadhyas. 

^lf<W^qn: hm^r. l||R[W^^fl : bfk, %fli IR 5 r^r^r«.— ^ifH^ iWlftm: 
hdm^r^fkr*, ^^^H4Wifilfl : b, y^l[nftn^^ V r. 

118. But the third tone here, which has its location in the 
ears, is sacred to the AiSvins; but the fourth tone here, which 
is nasal, is stated to be sacred to Vayu. 

^|rf%l|^ hm^rbfk, ^irtlT^r^'^r*- — ^wTl^db, ^pff fk, ^WJ* r. — W^hm^r, 
^R^ b, ^^ fk, f^ r^r^r^ — The end of the varga is here marked by ^8 in bfk, not 
in hdm^. 

26. D«itiM of tko tones (eonolndad). Doities of tlie Prastftvap Udgitliay 

Upadravap Fratiliara, Vidluuia. 

119. But the fifth tone, which is related to the eyes, is 
declared to have Surya as its divinity. But the sixth Saman 
tone the low (mandra) is stated to be sacred to Soma. 




'^\^V. hdr, "^T^: mV "^^ b. ^^ f, ^^ k. — ^^^qfll hd, ^tJ^^TT: 
bfkr. — 117°* ii omitted in r^*r«. — ^WI?t hdm'r, ■^ft«: b, ■^tW: fk. 

120, But that which is formed with the protraction of the 
low (tone) ia called Atisvarya : it is to be known as sacred to 
Mitra-Varuna. It is located '^ in the position of the low (tone). 

fira^ ^bm'A PTOS^ IJhd. f*ra5H ^Jftr^ qi^ijilq r'r*r*. — giltt-lfit- 
^tM m'r, gW^f*l»flT^ hd.^ft fit^T^ f , iaTt firaTO b. — « ftTT^^^ bm'fr, 

hdmV^ IH^^TPI WfTf*! ^ bfk. 

' Samahiia^ being used ia much the same sense as lamairilah ia 117 and 118^. 
The reading tamSni saf neeing to be a corrnplioa duo perhaps to the following taplSuiia. 

121. These have here been stated to be the gods of the seven 
Soman tones. But (the gods) of the other three * are the three 
Lords of the World \ 

*II«*fl"<,IUFi hm'rbfk, ^ft *fl<,Hi r'r*r'. — jfit ^^1 Xftf^jmi hdra'rbfk. 
"3WT: Vm^ ^Vftli r't*r'. 

' That is, of the three tones of the Rg-veda. '' That is, the three forms of 

Agni, spoken of in i. 73 as the three chief lords of the world, lokadipalat/as traya^, 

122. The Prastava in the Samans has Vac as its deity, or 
is sacred to Agiii ; the Udg^tha and the Upadrava are sacred 
to Indra, or they may have Vayu for their deity. 

^Tl^^Wt hdb, flN^^Wl m'fkr. — flfll^^i! hm'r. «(fllfll^': b, ^Rff^: f- — 

irarT^%^ hm'r. ■Brer?: ^ b, jran: w5 f— «(fl«nMsifli^*«n hd (•tfW* d). 

f. — TT TT^^^ hdm' r,q1*|l|^q(tb,^»n(^m?| fk. Thefeminine dual "^^ ih perhaps 

due to a mechanical repetition of the pSda '^Tdl IT m^^qfl occurring abo^e, 167 . 

123. Now the Response {pratihdra) should be (regarded as) 
sacred to Surya, the Finale (riidhana) to the All-gods, by pro- 
nouncing them with the sound ' him ' and with the sacred syllable * 
Om {pranava) at the beginning ''. 

fSlVihm'r, f«wf fk, T*1fl»l b. — 4il^*ll(l, hm'r, tJH fit 71*1. b. — las"* is omitted 
in fk. — The end of the varga is here marked by ?>| iu b, not in hdm' {uor iu fk as 
laa"* is wanting). 

329] — viii. 126 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Conclusion 

* In the BifthmaQS account of the division of the SfimanB into five parts all the 
ahoTe forms, (i) cm and Atm, (a) udgttha^ (3) praiiharat (4) tipadrava, (5) nidhana, are 
indnded ; see AB. iiL 23. 4; Hang, vol. ii, p. 198, note^*; op. SSyapa on AB. iii. 23. 4: 
hiinkaridaifati paflea famo^iiS vaUvadeowvayavit^ ^ Op. Sayafa, l.c.: udgaira pafki- 
tavyat^ $amna adau kim Up evo^i iabdo hniikarai. 

86. Tariom deitias incidontal in Tftiiyadeva liymiui. 

124. Thus he who knows the deities (of the Rg-veda) should 
here consider the divinity of the individual and the collective 
formulas in (their) application to all rites. 

irerammi hm^r, ^irenramf b. — 124"^ is omitted in fk. — ^^nnf^n^^^ 

hm*r, ^^m nfMlfl f, 4^111 H^hW k, ^^WT TflfMlfl b. 

125. The Seven Seers * the Vasus, the Gods, the Atharvans, 
the Bhrgus, Soma, Surya, and Surya*>, Pathya svasti, the Two 
Worlds for whom formulas are stated <), Euhu, Gungu, Aditi, 
Dhenu, Aghnya; 

iTHWt W^I^liM ^^T m*r, iTHWi W44VIUI ^^Jl hd, iTHWi ^^^TTW 
^^ fk, ^ ^m^ ^^T^nft ^W b. — URtItW^ m^r, ^R^Nft bk, H^'^l^ f, 
IIW^ hd.— 5|pr?Rf^: hdm'rfk. ift^^ b. ^hit«^ r^r*r«.— ^Rft br. ^iftl 
hdm^fk. — ^MH^ hdm^r, 4^114141 fk. — JJ^ hdfkr, J^ b. 

* With the names enumerated in this and the following three slokas (125-128) cp. 
those contiuned in i. 125-129. ^ As all the other names in the line are in the plural, 
and the MS. evidence strongly favours it, I have adopted the reading tom<iturya(i, 
assuming that it is intended for a condensed compounds Soma and Suryau, Moon and 
Sun and SiiryS (cp. RV. z. 85). ^ I take this dual to be added to Rodasi in order 
to distinguish the dual name rddasi from the singular rodoMt. All the other names in 
the line are, however, in the singular, and Rodasi in i. 129 is also meant to be singular; 
moreover one stanza of the BY. (vi. 50. 5) is stated in the BD. to be raudati (v. X17), 
where the goddess is doubtless meant, the name in the text of the BY. b^g distinctly 
singular and being mentioned with the Maruts ; cp. above, ii. 143. 

126. Asuniti and Ila», the Aptyas*>, Vidhatr, Anumati®, 
together with the Aftgirases, — these should be (regarded as) 
deities for whom formulas are stated <^. 

ll^^Piricbl h dm*, V^4)(flf\ill r, H^^l iK^Wi I b, M^lJclR^l k, ii^«iici^^i 
f. — W( WTf hdm^r'r*, HT ^m^f, W( WJ KW( ^: r, ^nWT b. — ^fll^HfJI^m r, 
II. U U 

Conclusion] BRHADDEVATA viii. 127— [330 

f. — nf^fTtft: fl^in: ^ hm'rb, wf^fxr: «fi|!n ^ k, ^Pn,i: M^ii\ ^ f. 

' Cp. NirukU xi. 48. '' Cp. i. 128, " The correction ha ya is supported 

by the same collocation, ka yo, lower down (130). The meaning of this enutners- 

tion aeems to be that, thoogh these are deities of rare occurrence, they all have formulaa 
addressed to them, and are found, with those that follow, in Vaiavadeva bymuB. 

127. VaiSvanara, Suparna, Vivaavat, Prajapati, Dyaus, Sudhan- 
van, Nagohya*, Apam napat, Aryaman, Vatajiiti*', Ilaspati, and 

"yRiflj: hdm'fkr^ »tif?nn b, "trfn I aft: f, "Mf?!^: r'r'r*r*. — gv^ 1*^*1(1: 

b, fW^ ^ ^ art^: f. ^^5^ ^ 1 ^t^; k, ^V^ W 5^: r*. ^yp^ ^ft^t: r'r*r'', 
^V^ TTO: hdm'^^ — "^Wf qifl«1fl<, hdm'r. <'^^?naf^b, "^ ^ '^"^ 
f. "^ ?ft Tng a ^ k. — "llfrtfllfll hdm'r^r'. "qfJT^q r, "irfff ^((ft bfk. 

* That is, Agohya, the fonn nagohya beiug used probably to ovoid coalescence with 
tudhanvd. Saudbanvana and Agohya are commented on in Nirukta xi. i6. " Thu 
seems to be a corruption, as there is no deity of thia name anywhere; it may staod for 
the epithet of some deity, like tuvijdia aa the name of an Aditya in BD. iv. Sz; see note 

128. the RbhuB, Pai^anya, Mountains, and the Females (gndh) ; 
Dak^a, Bhaga, the Wives of the Gods, the Regions (dUah) ; the 
Adityas, the Rudras, the Fathers, and the Sadhyas — all (these) 
are incidental in hymns addressed to the All-gods ^. 

VAV\ ^rr^ ^^ hdm'bfk, trflTT m^ yftO*. r. ^ ^T^^ Mdfli r'r*r". I have 
omitted Q^TT in the text because it makea the line redundant by two syllables ; it 
probably crept into the text as a gloss on QT-'- Besides. ^<|T||i|1\ occurs in the next 
line. — ^qilBllr^SI^ tr. ^ q^t t^TTO ™'. ^fl1<»*rt t^fi™ \ ^^^S^ f^ f, 
^^UnOt r^fn: k. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^ in bfk, not in hdm'. 

* Cp. above, ii. 130, on the character of Vaiavadeva hymns. 

97; ZtemarkB about daitiei and knowledge of them. 

129. The deities which own hymns and own oblations have 
(thus) been stated in succession, in both cases together with 
(those which occur in) incidental mention. Whether (this) be 


331] — viiL 132 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Conclusion 

so in both ways* or in the other way^, no formula is directly 
known {pratyak§a) to any one who is not a seer ^. 

^•l^i^ni hm^r, ^T^WnTT b, IRT^pirNrt fk. — •^RTT hm^r, •iTRrT b, ••T^ fk. — 
*3^^ brn^r, ^lyi^ bfk. — ^iWRRthm^, ^ d, ^^ bfk, iPPi: r. 

* That 18, whether the gods here indexed own both hymns and oblations. Cp. Nimkta 
vii. 13 ; X. 42. ^ That is, whether they are incidental. ^ That is, knowledge 
of the deities of a formula can only rest on sacred tradition. 

130. These deities are altogether to be adored with concentra- 
tion, assiduity, self-control, intelligence, deep learning, austerity, 
and by injunctions (to others). He who knows the stanzas (of 
the Bg-veda) knows the gods. 

A He who knows the sacrificial formulas iycijus) knows the 
sacrifices. He who knows the chants (scmari) knows the truth 

^T^tV hm^f r, ^I^IIT bk. — fUT r, ^lilT hm^bf k. — Wnr^SN hrbfk, ^jr4|8|«| 
m\ — PnilSh hdr, ^ni\^ bkr^ fiT» f. — ^MIHIIVI* hm^r'bfkr^ VMIVmir. — 
^^nrr ^ hdbfk. ^«nra r^r*r®. — Jt\ "V^ b, ^: ^B^ fk, in^n^ hdm\ 
frra^ r. — The words ^^ if ^t^ ^C||^ are omitted in fk (the lacuna being indicated 
by seven horizontal strokes in f, and by a space in k). — The third line of 130 is not found 
in bfk, but in hdm^r only. 

131. Of him who knowing the deities of the formulas ^ at 
any time employs a rite, the deities taste the oblation, but not 
that of him who is ignorant of (those) deities \ 

^ hdm^r, wS bk. — ^;^% hm^r, ^^9% b, 'TO?! fk. — ^^^RmRr A, J[^ ^- 
m^ bfk, ?rar ^'TOt m^ — ^fftrtr* hdmVr*r*r*, fft^T r, ^^f^^ bfkr*. 

* Cp. SarvSnukramani, introduction, § i ; mantran^am arfiyaehandodaieatavii. ^ Op. 
VS. Anukrama^i, loc. cit.: devaiam avijHaya yo juhoti^ devatas tasya havir na jusante. 

132. For an oblation assigned (pradi^ta) without correct 
knowledge a divinity would not desire (theta).' 

Therefore one should offer an oblation (only) after careftdly 
committing {samnyasya) the deity to mind ^ 

^ftm^* hdr, ^rf^nrni* bfkm^r^r*r®. — ffl^ ff hd, ff«i^ ^ m\ jfiPf- 

Conduflion] BRHADDEVATA viiL 133— [332 

i3Rn9 m^r, K^f^ ^ i^^h, ifST: laRW f. ir^ *w b. — ^^ hdin\ ^^m 

bfkr. — I have conjecturally placed ^^ here as the end of the varga, becanse that figure 
in bfk comes after 85, which occupies the position of 13a in those MSS. 

* Cp.VS. Anukramanl, loc. cit.: iaipnyasya matuui devataij^ haoir hHyote. 

88. Zmportane^ of knowing tlio deities. 

133. ^He who knowing the divinities of the formulaa, being 
pure, also devotes himself to study, is, like one seated at a sacri- 
ficial session in heaven, lauded even by those who are engaged in 
such a session^. 

^rWTTRft m^bfk, also h (but corrected on margin to •^^), •iftf d, •*I^fl 
r^r*r*. — •f^T^^: hm^r, •ftffRft: b, •fiwPfJ fk, ^f^T^l^t s. — « 11^41 f^q r, IT 
n^tif^q: bfk, ^nr^ir^f^ hdm^r', IT Tn ^^^^ 9 (w*). — il^4if)|iM)>U^ hm^B 
^h •'inW! r*r*r^ •invn r, Ijl^^UKRiVn b, iJl^ilRl^n fk. 

* This sloka is quoted by Sa^gurusisya, with a few slight variations, p. 167, xo, 11. 
^ That is, by the gods : cp.VS. Anukramanl, loc. cit: ivadkyayam api yo *dkite nuMtra- 
dawatajHafit $0 *mupnin loke devair apufyate, 

A 134. In muttered prayer and in offering an oblation this is 
a necessity — ^the seer, the metre, and the divinity * ; and apply- 
ing them wrongly one is here deprived of their fruit K 

II fM*^^ hd, Vfi)^^ m^r. — flfMMI^ r, WF^ hdm\ — This and the 
following four s'lokas (134-138) are found in Am^ only. 

* Op. the adaptation of 135^* in Sa^gurusisya, p. 166 : fsiehandodaioatadi vijHdtuim 
phalam ucyate. ^ Op. San^ukrama^I, introduction, § i. 

A 135. As to the knowledge of the seer, the metre, the divinity, 
and the rest^, acquired (Srutam) at sacrifices and the like, it 
should be understood that by resorting to it, the faculty of 
seeing the Spirit [prdTw) is here established (vihitaj. 

*nH«^[li(flfllI< rs, ^4^^114 hdm\ — JHIQfrSMl^ hdr, Ml^flB PT* m\ 

* 13^ is quoted by Sa^lgurusisya, p. 166, sloka 2. 

338] — viii 140 TRANSLATION AND NOTES [Condurion 

A 136. He who without knowing the seer, the metre, the 
divinity, and the application {]/oga) ^ should teach or even mutter 
(a formula), will fiEure the worse (pdplydrijdyate) \ 

* Yoga appears to be used here in the Bense of prayoga. ^ Thu sloka is 
quoted by 8a4garu8is7a, p. 57 (bottom), and by S&ya^a in his introduction, M. M., 
RV.' vol. i, p. 23 (middle). Cp. also Sarraiukrama^I, introduction, § i : papiyan bhavati; 
&B. ziii. I. 5^. 

A 137. In olden times the seers, desirous of wealth, resorted 
with metres to the deities^: it is for this reason (iti) that the 
great seers mention metre in the middle. 

* This s'loka was known to the author of the SarvSnukrama^I as most of it has 
been incorporated in the introduction, § ii. 7 : arihepsava ftayo devatdi chandohhir abhya- 
dhavan ; cp. ipa^gurus'isya, p. 60. 

A 138. Now one should 'first state the seer, next the metre, 
and then the deity of the formulae in regard to the rites in 
this order (evam), so says a sacred text. 

139. Distinguishing the Self in his self as the receptacle^ 
(ddhdra) and at the same time not the receptacle (of all things), 
one who knows the divinities should recite (the formulas) having 
an eye to hoth — the euphonic combination (somdhi) (and) the 
stanzas (themselves). 

irert d, IRnni W( V^IH^ «•. — ftft^rr* hm^rfk, ftf^WP b. — •Wfl hm^rb, 
•wit fk. — i^^liqt hdr, I^VHIiql m\ ql^^infl b, ^^RlTTIVt fk. — ^^^ hm*r, 
^^ bfk. — iH%n^hm^r, ^tf%| fk, ?lfli (ft^) b. — ^^IflftrMifl^hdbr, ^q^RlcMfiq, 
m\ ^'R^ "%?^ f, ^^n " ^ k. 

* Op. YedSntatfira, I : dtmanam akh^adhdram diraye\ BhagayadgitS iv. 13: tatya 
kartdram api ma^i viddhy akaridram avyayam. 

140. Such an one enters into the Brahma, the immortal, the 

Conclusion] BRHADDEVATA viii. 140 [334 

infinite, the permanent source of that which is and is not, both 
vast and minute, the lord of all, the light supreme. 

il<^fl1 ^ fk, ^tPr il^4l<1 irt b. — ^fffn^ ^ hdm^r, Hf^lfj ^ b, ^ff^- 

^IR ^, *I^^KW k. — ^f^T%lf bm'r, fWVi bf, ftlf IT k. — PmfH hdm^rfk, Pt^ffft 
b. — ^The last p&dA is repeated in hdbfk. — The end of the varga is here marked by ^V 
in m^bfk, not in hd. 

oxroRD, uffoukin): bobaci habt, mjl 


Books for the Study of Indo-Iranian Languages 

(Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, Avestan), 

Literatures, Religions, and Antiquities. 



JVhitney's Sanskrit Grammar. 

A Sanskrit Grammar, including both the classical language, and the 
older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana. By William D wight Whitney, 
[late] Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in Yale Uni- 
versity. Third (reprinted from the second, revised and extended) 
edition. 1896. 8vo. xxvi + 552 pages. Cloth: Mailing price, $3.20. 
Paper: $2.90. 

Supplement to Whitney s Sanskrit Grammar. 

The Roots, Verb-forms, and primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Lan- 
guage. A Supplement to his Sanskrit Grammar, by William Dwight 
Whitney. 1805. 8vo. xiv + 250 pages. Paper : Mailing price $a.oo. 

The fact that the roots are briefly and clearly defined, and the forms conveniently 
given, makes this work useful even in the early stages of Sanskrit study. 

Cappellers Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Based upon the St. Petersburg I-exi- 
cons. By Carl Cappeller, Professor at the University of Jena. 
Royal 8vo. Cloth. viii + 67a pages. By mail, $6.25 

Lanman^s Sanskrit Reader. 

A Sanskrit Reader : with Vocabulary and Notes. By Charles ROCK- 
WELL Lanman, Professor of Sanskrit in Harvard University. For use 
in colleges and for private study. Royal 8vo. Complete: Text, 
Notes, and Vocabulary, xxiv + 405 pages. Cloth : Mailing price, $ii*oo. 
Text alone, for use in examinations, 106 pages. Cloth : Mailing price, 
85 cents. Notes alone, viii + 109 pages. Cloth : Mailing price, 85 cents. 

This Reader is constructed with special reference to the needs of those who have to 
use it without a teacher. The text is in Oriental characters. The selections are from the 
Maha-bharata, Hitopadeqa, Katha-sarit-sagara, Laws of Manu, the Rigveda, the Brah- 
manas, and the Sutras. The Sanskrit words of the Notes and Vocabulary are in English 
letters. The Notes render ample assistance in the interpretation of difficult passages. 

Sanskrit Text in English Letters. 

Parts of Nala and Hitopade9a in English Letters. Prepared [by 
Charles R. Lanman. Royal 8vo. Paper, vi+44 pages. Mailing 
price, 30 cents. 

The Sanskrit text of the first forty-four pages of Lanman's Reader, reprinted in 
English characters. 

Perry's Sanskrit Primer. 

A Sanskrit Primer : based on the Leitfaden fur den Elementarcursus 
des Sanskrit of Prof. Georg Buhler of Vienna. By Edward Delavan 
Perry, Professor of Greek in Columbia University, New York. 1885. 
8vo. xii + 230 pages. Mailing price, $1.60. 

Kaegis Rigveda. 

The Rigveda : the oldest literature of the Indians. By Adolf Kaegi, 
Professor in the University of ZUrich. Authorized translation [from 
the German], with additions to the notes, by ROBERT Arrowsmith, 
Ph.D. 1886. 8vo. Cloth, viii + 198 pages. Mailing price, $1.65. 

Hopkins s Religions of India, 

The Religions of India. By Edward Washburn Hopkins, Professor 
of Sanskrit in Yale University. 1895. i^mo. Cloth. xvi + 6ia pages. 
Mailing price, $a.oo. 

This is the first of Professor Morris Jastrow's Series of Handbooks on the History of 
Religions. The book gives an account of the religions of India in the chronolo^cal 
order of their development Extracts are given from Vedic, Brahmanic, Jain, Buddhistic, 
and later sectarian literatures. 

Jackson's A vesta Grammar. 

An Avesta Grammar in comparison with Sanskrit. By A. V. WILLIAMS 
Jackson, Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages in Columbia University, 
New York City. Part I : Phonology, Inflection, Word-Formation. 
With an introduction on the Avesta. 1892. 8vo. Cloth. xlviii + a73 
pages. Mailing price, 82.20. 

The introduction gives a lucid account of the Avesta and of Avestan studies, of the 
contents and character of the Avesta, of the religion of Zoroaster, etc. In the treatment 
of the language, constant reference is made to the Sanskrit and to Whitney's grammar. 

Jackson s Avesta Reader. 

Avesta Reader : First Series. Easier texts, notes, and vocabulary. By 
A. V. Williams Jackson. 1893. 8vo. Cloth, viii+iia pages. 
Mailing price, $1.85. 

The selections include passa^s from Yasna, Visparad, Yashts, and Vendidad, and 
the text is based on Geldner's edition. The book is intended for b^[inners. 

Harvard Oriental Series. 




Published by Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 

United States of America. 

*«* A copy of any one of these yolames, posU?e paid, may be obtained directly anywhere within the limits 
of the Universal Postal Union by sending a Postal Order for the price as ifiven below, to 71k4 Publioafion Agtmt 
of Harvard Univtrsiiy^ Cambrtdgt^ MassaehustUs, United StaUs of Amsrica, 

Volume I. — The Jataka-mala : or Bodhisattvavadana-mala, by Arya9ura ; 
edited by Dr. Hendrik Kern, Professor in the University of Leiden, 
Netherlands. 1891. Royal 8 vo. Cloth, xiv + 254 pages. 

This is the editio princeps of a collection of Buddhist stories in Sanskrit. The text 
is printed in NagarT characters. An English translation of this work, by Professor 
Speyer, has been published in Professor Max Miiller's Sacred Books of the Buddhists^ 
London, Henry Frowde, 1895. 

The price of Volume I is one dollar and fifty cents ($1.50) =6 shillings and 2 pence 
=6 marks and 25 pfennigs =7 francs or lire and 70 centimes =» 5 kroner and 55 dre= 
3 florins and 65 cents Netherlandish. 

Volume II. — The Samkhya-pravacana-bhasya : or Commentary on the 
exposition of the Sankhya philosophy, by Vijnanabhik^u : edited by 
Richard Garbe, Professor in the University of Tubingen. 1895. 
Royal 8vo. Cloth, xiv+196 pages. 

This volume contains the original Sanskrit text of the Sankhya Aphorisms and of 
Vijiiana's Commentary, all printed in Roman letters. A German translation of the 
whole work was published by Professor Garbe in the Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des 
Morgenlandes^ vol. ix, Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1889. ' In spite of all the false assumptions 
and the errors of which Vijiianabhiksu is undoubtedly guilty, his Commentary ... is 
after all the one and only work which instructs us concerning many particulars of the 
doctrines of what is, in my estimation, the most significant system of philosophy that 
India has produced.' — Editor^ s Preface, 

The price of Volume II is the same as that of Volume I. 

Volume III. — Buddhism in Translations. By Henry Clarke Warren, 
1 896. 8vo. XX + 520 pages. 

This is a series of extracts from Pali writings, done into English, and so arranged 
as to give a general idea of Ceylonese Buddhism. The work consists of over a hundred 
selections, comprised in five chapters of about one hundred pages each. Of these, 
chapters ii, iii, and iv are on Buddhist doctrine, and concern themselves respectively 

with the philosophical conceptions that underlie the Buddhist religious system, with the 
doctrine of Karma and rebirth, and with the scheme of salvation from misery. Chapter i 
gives the account of the previous existences of Gotama Buddha and of his life in the 
last existence up to the attainment of Buddhaship ; while the sections of chapter v are 
about Buddhist monastic life. 

The price of Volume III is one dollar and twenty cents ($1.20) =4 shillings and 
II pence ==5 marks =6 francs or lire and 20 centimes « 4 kroner and 44 ore =» 2 florins and 
91 cents Netherlandish. 

Volume IV. — Raja-9ekhara's Karpura-manjarl, a drama by the Indian 
poet Raja-9ekhara (about gcx) A.D.): critically edited in the original 
Prakrit^ with a glossarial index and an essay on the life and writings of 
the poet, by Dr. Sten Konow, of the University of Christiania, Nor- 
way; and translated into English with notes by Professor Lanman. 
1901. Royal 8vo. Cloth, xxviii + 289 pages. 

Here for the first time in the history of Indian philology we have the text of a 
Prakrit play presented to us in strictly correct Prakrit. Dr. Konow is a pupil of Professor 
Pischel of Berlin, whose Prakrit grammar has made his authority upon this subject of the 
very highest. The proofs have had the benefit of Professor Pischel's revision. The 
importance of the play is primarily linguistic rather than literary. 

The price of Volume IV is the same as that of Volume I. 

Volumes V and VI. — The Brhad-Devata, attributed to ^aunaka, a 
summary of the deities and myths of the Rig- Veda : critically edited 
in the original Sanskrit with an introduction and seven appendices, and 
translated into English with critical and illustrative notes, by ARTHUR A. 
Macdonell, Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford, 
and Fellow of Balliol College. 1904. Royal 8 vo. Cloth. 

Volume V (or Part I) contains the introduction and text and appendices. Volume 
VI (or Part II) contains the translation and notes. 

The price of each Volume is the same as that of Volume I. 

Volumes VII and VIIL— Atharva-Veda Sarhhita, translated, with a 
critical and exegetical commentary, by William Dwight Whitney, 
late Professor of Sanskrit in Yale University. Revised and brought 
nearer to completion and edited by CHARLES ROCKWELL Lanman, 
Professor of Sanskrit in Harvard University. 1904. Royal 8vo. Cloth. 
About ex + 1050 pages. 

This work includes, in the first place, critical notes upon the text, giving the various 
readings of the manuscripts, and not alone of those collated by Whitney in Europe, but 
also of those of the apparatus used by S. P. Pandit in the great Bombay edition. 
Second, the readings of the Paippalada or Cashmere version, furnished by the late 
Professor Roth. Further, notice of the corresponding passages in all the other Vedic 
texts, with report of the various readings. Further, tne data of the Hindu scholiast 
respecting authorship, divinity, and meter of each verse. Also, references to the ancillary 
literature, especially to the well-edited Kaugika and Vaitana Sutras, with account of the 
ritualistic use therein made of the hymns or parts of hymns, so far as this appears to cast 
any light upon their meaning. Also, extracts from the printed commentary. And, 
finally, a simple literal translation, with introduction and inaices. 

3 tlDS DID b74 74D 




(4151 723-1493 

All boob may be recalled oFler 7 days 


f: ,i'ih*fw-j-^^ .