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ffff Oi Ll> Si Oi 





History and Literature. 

Barneses History of Rome. By J. Dorman Steele . $r.oo 

Chautauqua Text-Book on Roman History. Paper, .10 
Preparatory Latin Course in English. By W. C. 

Wilkinson, D.D i.oo 

College Latin Course in English. By W. C. Wil- 
kinson, D.D • . . . . z.oo 

A Day in Ancient Rome. By E. S. Shumway . . .50 

Philosopliy, Science, and Art. 

Political Economy. By George M. Steele, LL.D. . .60 
Human Nature. By Lyman Abbott, D.D. Paper . .ao 

General d.nd Religious. 

Pomegranates from an English Garden. By Rob- 
ert Browning 50 

The Bible and Other Ancient Literature in the 
Nineteenth Century. By L. T. Townsend, D.D 
Paper 30 

In His Name. By Edward Evbrbtt Halb. Paper . .30 

The Chautauquan x.50 











0^ c^ BY 






Copyright, 1884, 

Tke rehired ^ks of the C. L, S, C, are recommended 
by a Council of six. It must, however, be understood that 
recommendation does not involve an approval by the Council, 
or by any member of it, of every principle or doctrine con- 
tained in the book recommended. 




.* >. 


■♦ ■ * 

Under the title, "The Bible and Sci- 
ence," the substance of this little volume 
was put into shape, at the request of Dr. 
J. H. Vincent, and delivered in 1874 at 
the initial meeting of what is now the 
famous Chautauqua. 

Under the title, '' The Bible m the Light 
of Modern Science," it was preached before 
the society of the First Parish Church of 
Dover, N.H. ; and by that society was 
published in 1883. 

Under its present title, essentially the 
same subject-matter was delivered in a 


iv Preface. 

course of lectures before the " Free Baptist 
Association/' at Ocean Park, 1884, and 
requested for publication. This request, 
together with a second one from Dr. 
Vincent, is our justification for adding this 
treatise to the very large amount of existing 
Biblical literature. 

If the reader takes as much pleasure 
in perusing these pages as the author has 
taken in preparing them, the latter will feel 
amply compensated for the service ren- 


• ■ •■ 


The pivotal question 1 

Be-ezamination of Bible aathori1»y 2 

General propiosition 3 

The Bible responsible for its scientific errors • 4 

The Bible and the exact language of science . 9 

The Bible and scientific classification .... 14 
A hint that the Author of nature is the Author 

of the Bible * 17 

Supposed antagonism between science and the 

Bible 19 

An illustration of the supposed antagonism . 20 
Actual conflicts between science and the Bible; 

and science in error . • 22 

lUastrated by the statements of eminent men . 23 

An important rule 26 

Caution needed 27 

A fuller classification of Bible contents ... 28 
The same rule governs Bible interpretation as 

governs the interpretation of other literature . 90 

The connection is decisive 30 


vi Contents. 


Absolate truth 31 

The Bible and' other ancient literature brought 

together 31 

The art of healing, and the Bible 32 

From 1184 B.C. to 600 B.C 32 

From 600 B.C. to 320 B.C 33 

Medical practice in recent times 34 

The Bible, if divine, must not be in error . . 36 

The Bible found not to be in error 36 

Certain approved physiological revelations . . 37 

Testimony of eminent physicians 41 

Matters closely related to medical science . . 46 

An important question 61 

The human mind and the Bible 61 

Opinions of the ancients as to the mind ... 62 
What guarded the Bible-writers against false 

opinions? 64 

Not their supposed non-philosophical character, 64 
Correctness of Bible statements in the light of 

modem thought 66 

The moral argument derived from Bible influ- 
ence 67 

Mental methods in the Bible 69 

Examples of inductive reasoning 60 

Dependence of the modem method upon the 

Bible method 63 

How shall the correctness of Bible psychology 

be explained ? 65 

The Bible in its relation to government and 

civilization 66 

Contents. vii 


The Bible, if inspired, a court of nltimate ap- 
peal • 67 

The Bible and law 67 

The Bible revered by eminent lawyers ... 69 

Obligation of Roman law to the Bible .... 70 
The constitutional law of England, and the 

0)1016 •• ...a *•« ..•• .. IX 

The Bible and political science ...... 72 

The Bible indorsed by eminent statesmen . . 73 

Secret of England's greatness .74 

" The Holy Alliance " . 75 

Declaration of Independence 76 

Bepublican government 77 

Benefits of Bible faith and practice 77 

The Bible and the United States 80 

Opinions of Daniel Webster, William H. Sew- 
ard, and Professor Bowen 81 

The Bible and civilization 86 

^Learning and literature 86 

Architecture ........ .....90 

'Quotation from Buskin 93 

The Bible and the history of civilization ... 95 

Commonwealth of Israel . • . • 96 

Ancient civilizations 95 

Greece and Borne • « . 96 

Heathen lands 97 

MediaBval times 98 

Modern Europe 99 

Another important question • . 101 

The Bible and natural history 103 

viii ContevJti. 


Botany 103 

Zoology 105 

'Meteorology 107 

Opinion of Lieut. Maury HI 

The Bible and geology 113 

Teachings of the ancients as to the origin of 

things 114 

Sir William Thomson gives expression to mod- 
em opinion 117 

Opinions of eminent men as to the geology of 

the Bible . . . « 120 

The Bible and astronomy 130 

A test question 132 

Ancient astrology 134 

In Egypt 136 

In Babylon . 137 

In Ghaldasa 137 

In Persia 138 

In Arabia 138 

In Europe 138 

The Bible writers were familiar with these 

views, but never adopted them 140 

Ancient astronomy 143 

The earth: its shape, foundation, and composi- 
tion 143 

The moon: its composition, size, and distance . 146 
The sun: its character and size ...... 148 

The stars 149 

Comets 150 

The Milky Way VSi 

ContenU, ix 


Number and distances of the stars 161 

Why did not Bible-writers make similar state- 
ments? 153 

Other important revelations in the Bible . . .157 

The Bible; its morals and religion 163 

-Comparisons between Bible teachings and 

those of other ancient literature 163 

Unfavorable criticisms 167 

The rigorous measures enjoined in the Bible 

against the Ganaanites 171 

Imprecations in the Psalms 175 

David's command to execute Joab 177 

The Bible the text-book on moral science • . 178 
Objections to the purity of Bible morality . • 181 
Results of an abandonment of Bible morality, 

as in England and France 183 

Bible morality indorsed even by men in some 

respects sceptics 186 

Still another important question 189 

The Bible and theology 190 

Science confirms Bible Theology, but adds 

nothing essentially new . 192 

The Bible and religious truth 195 

Bible religion originated practical philanthropy, 196 
Bible religion adapted to all peoples .... 199 
Why did not some of the philosophers of the 

ancient world invent a universal religion ? . 200 
Concluding words 202 




»• * 

Was the Bible written and compiled 
by men providentially selected, directed, 
and illuminated by the Holy ^^ ^^^^^ 
Spirit or did it come into w8«on. 
its present shape somewhat by chance, 
having been written as other books are 
written, and compiled by irresponsible 
persons whose words and work may be 
accepted or rejected at the pleasure of 
every reader is essentially the twofold 
question which at the present time is 

much discussed and variously answered. 


The Bible and the 

It looks somewhat as if a re-exam- 
ination of the entire subject of Bible 
Be-examina- authority will be demanded, 

tion of Bible 

aathority. and quite generally and vig- 
orously entered upon, in the near 
future. If this is to be the case, we 
need not object : besides, our objection 
will be useless. But in this re-ex- 
amination and re-statement, one thing 
should be strenuously insisted upon: 
that the work done shall not be super- 
ficial, but thorough. The generally 
received views as to the origin and 
history of the Bible, its genuineness 
aud authenticity, its credibility and in- 
spiration, must not be decided against 
except for cause. The new investiga- 
tions must be patient and untiring. 
New views should not be adopted be- 

Nineteenth Century. 

cause a few men say they ought to be ; 
but, rather, the views adopted must be 
at least more reasonable than those re- 
jected. It is not a question of opinion, 
but of evidence, with the burden of 
proof resting upon the attacking party. 
We may add, that our personal inclina- 
tions in this impending controversy are 
conservative; and this pamphlet is de- 
signed as a contribution not merely in 
the interest of conservative orthodoxy, 
but equally in the interest of what we 
believe to be God's truth and man's 

It is scarcely possible, within the lim- 
its of the brief discussion intended, to 
canvass all the important oenemi 
questions involved in the p«»p<»«*«»- 
general subject. We therefore ask at- 


The Bible and the 

tention to a single proposition: The 
Bible, though not pbopessinq to 
teach science, is, when coerectly 
intebpebted, in habmony with all 
established pacts op science, and 
in this bespect dipfees widely 
pbom othee ancient liteeatubb. 

One or two preliminary thoughts 
claim a passing notice. The reader is 
The Bible Is awarc that the Bible, even 
fTrT!::!:.. ^y some of its professed 
tiflc errors, frfends, is said to be not a 
treatise upon science, and not, there- 
fore, to be held responsible for scientific 
errors. But can such a position be 
safely taken? If the Bible is a book 


of God, as is claimed, may it not be 
questioned — rigidly questioned — re- 
specting every thing upon which it ven- 

Nineteenth Century. 

tures to speak? Is the Bible a book 
that asks at our hands a cowardly de- 
fence, or any thing like special pleading? 
When, therefore, the man of partial be- 
lief in revelation says, " The Bible was 
not intended to teach science, therefore 
we can excuse its scientific inaccura- 
cies," we reply, "No; for if the Bible 
is filled with false teachings as to the 
facts of matter, or the facts of mind, 
then it no longer bears the impress of 
a book inspired of God, but bears the 
marks of human origin, and belongs 
among books which shortly may become 
obsolete and forgotten." 

If allowed at one point, there would 
be scarcely any limit in this process of 
excuse-making. For some one else, 
with just as great propriety, might say. 

The Bible and the 

"The Bible is not intended to teach any 
of the departments of human philoso- 
phy, therefore we may excuse its errors 
in philosophy." Another might say, 
"The Bible is not intended to teach 
history, therefore its historic mis-6tate- 
ments, of whatever character, may be 
allowed." Mr. Murray, in one of his 
Music-hall Sermons, employs this lan- 
guage : " The Bible is a book that should 
be read like other books, in a broad and 
comprehensive way. • . . The length of 
the creation period, the tonnage of the 
ark, Samson's strength, the guerrilla 
skirmishes of the Judges, the ramVhom 
signals in front of the walls of Jericho, 
— these are questions about which no 
sensible Christian cares a fig." 
Now, though the confession exposes 

Nineteenth Century. 

us to the charge of narrowness and dog- 
matism, still we do not see how any- 
devout and thoughtful Christian can 
help caring much, very much, whether 
or not these records of the Bible which 
purport to narrate facts are true or 
false. Their truthfulness or their fals- 
ity makes, and ought to make, all the 
difference imaginable concerning our 
faith in the book. " A man," Dr. Crosby 
puts the case, "might be imagined as 
making a mistake in his views of the uni- 
verse, and yet be true to his morals and 
philosophy ; but God, never. If God err 
anywhere, he is no God." That is, the 
eyes of the Infinite Being must have trav- 
ersed the universe through and through, 
and have seen beyond the range of the 
mightiest telescope, while the micro- 

8 The Bible and the 

scope can reveal nothing that has not 
first felt the finishing touch of his crea- 
tive fingers. If, therefore, there are 
scientific errors in the teachings of the 
Bible, it follows that the book is not in 
a special sense God's book, and, there- 
fore, its claims upon us are not supreme. 
Is not this position liberal enough ? But 
we repeat, the interests at stake are of 
such magnitude that our final judgments 
must not be hasty ; and before they are 
rendered, these matters called the facts 
of science must be well established, and 
there must be correctness in scriptural 

Another thought to be borne in mind 
is this: While, according to the views 
we seek to maintain, the Bible nowhere 
teaches what is scientifically false, nev- 

Nineteenth Century, 9 

ertheless it must be admitted that the 
Bible does not employ in its teachings 
the exact language of sci- TheBibie 
ence. Errors in science, and \l^^^^^ 
t^he non-use of scientific die- ■«*•■<*• 
tion, are things entirely different. If, 
therefore, the non-use of professional 
words and style is a fault, then of course 
the Bible is open to criticism. But are 
its diction and style upon these grounds 
objectionable? In these respects, does 
not the Bible speak as all scientific 
as well as all sensible people often 
speak ? Visiting the large observatories 
in this or any other country, would you 
expect to hear from the lips of astrono- 
mers any thing but "sunrise " or "sun- 
set " in refen nces to these phenomena ? 
When the great Herschel left orders for 

10 The Bible and the 

his servant to call him to observe the 
passage of some star, he did not say, 
"Sir, when, in the revolution of the 
earth upon its axis, the illuminated ray- 
shall be brought upon the earth's sur- 
face at the longitude and latitude of- the 
observatory at Greenwich, then call 
me;" nor did he employ any other 
scientific terminology: but he was ac- 
customed, like a sensible man, to say, 
" John, call me at sunrise," or " at sun- 
set," or " at midnight." 

Scientific men the world over have 
been speaking for a year or more of the 
unaccountable redness preceding the 
sunrise^ and of the blazing sunsets which 
have been reported from every part of 
the world. But, strictly speaking, such 
language is not scientific or correct: 

Nineteenth Century. 11 

the sun does not rise and set. Why, 
therefore, should not these men be con- 
demned for their inaccuracies of expres- 
sion ? If the sceptic insists upon scien- 
tific expressions, then there must be in- 
troduced a scientific nomenclature into 
pur ordinary conversation. The good 
housewife must speak of the " chloride 
of sodium " instead of salt ; of H2O in- 
stead of water ; and of C12H20O10 instead 
of starch. "Will you have a second 
piece of roast beef? " was the question 
asked of a young lady who had just 
returned from a boarding-school. "No, 
thanks," she replied : "gastronomical sa- 
tiety admonishes me that I have arrived 
at a state of deglutition consistent with 
dietetic integrity." Common speech 
would say, " Thank you, I have eaten 


12 The Bible and the 

enough." Is not that as well ? ** My 
perpendicularity suddenly became a hor- 
izontality," has recently been substi- 
tuted for '* I suddenly fell." The reply, 
therefore, to those who claim, that, be- 
cause the Bible speaks of sunrise and 
sunset, it thereby teaches, for instance, 
that the earth is stationary, is this : It 
no more teaches it than did Sir John 
Herschel when he spoke of sunrise and 
sunset. Indeed, a man must be very 
hard pressed for something to say 
against the Bible, when he allows him- 
self to use such unreasonable objections. 
A further reply to those who object 
to the use of unscientific terminology 
in the Bible is this: The Bible was 
written for the "care-crossed, toil- 
stained," suffering millions of the hu- 

Nineteenth Century. 13 

man race, — those who have no time to 
master the terms of the schools, — and 
for such people Bible language is per- 
fectly adapted: it is sweet, precious, 

But notice this singular additional 
fact: Some of the most distinguished 
scientists and philosophers of England, 
France, and Germany, at present more 
than ever before, are seeking to put 
their thoughts into expressions which 
may be easily comprehended by the 
American farmer, and mechanic. They 
are beginning to see that it is not best 
to lock up scientific truths in profes* 
sional nomenclature. But, in adopting 
this new method, they are employing, 
you notice, the language of literature, 
of poetry, of emotion, and of common 

14 The Bible and the 

life I which are precisely the Bible style 
and method. 

Again : while insisting that the Bible 
nowhere teaches what is scientifically 
The Bible i^^sB^ Still it is not claimed 

iieatioB. thing like scientific classifi- 
cation of the facts revealed. There is 
apparently no attempt at such classifi- 
cation. Indeed, upon a cursory exam, 
ination, there seem to be in Bible 
statements much confusion and many 

But it should be borne in mind, that 
nature too, at first sight, seems very 
unorderly and self-contradictory. Take, 
for illustration, the facts of geology. 
The data which nature gives are, upon 
a superficial view, often confusing. 

Nineteenth Century. 15 

Men have seen rocks; they have used 
fragments of them for walls, fortifica- 
tions, house-building, have twirled them 
from slings, and made from them arrow- 
heads ; they have, too, known some of 
the uses of loam, clay-banks, and gravel- 
beds. But they did not discover a 
classification of them. It has been only 
after years of patient investigation by 
sujch men as Professors Forbes, Lyell, 
and Hitchcock, and by noted French 
and German scientists, aided by many 
curious scientific appliances, that we 
are introduced to the wonderful order 
and arrangements of geological his- 
tory. We can now trace with almost 
unquestioned accuracy the different 
stages of the earth's development. In- 
deed, the geology of the stars is also. 

16 The Bible and the 

at present, a matter of study and of 

The same thought, too, may be ap- 
plied to the facts of Providence. The 
June morning brimful of gladness, and 
the dark December night when ships 
go down at sea ; nature, as she stands 
with one hand full of that which gives 
vigor and health, with the other full of 
that which paralyzes and agonizes be- 
yond description, — are facts that cannot 
be harmonized at short notice. The 
eye must be skilled, and the heart rev- 
erent, in order to discover, in such a 
system of things, harmony and unity. 

Thus, also, when our knowledge of 
the Bible is limited, and the methods 
of our interpretation are imperfect, con- 
tradictions may be found. One chapter 

Nineteenth Century. 17 

and verse may be in conflict with an- 
other, and much may be found that is 
in conflict with the various departments 
oi natural science. But when biblical 
scholars explore and ponder, when 
science and the Holy Spirit give their 
aid, then an internal harmony is dis- 
covered; and the remarkable agreement 
between the diflferent parts of the Scrip- 
tures, as between the truths therein 
revealed and those of nature, often 
dawns upon the mind in delightful and 
silent majesty. And may 

•* •^ "^ A hint that 

we not well ask how these the Author of 

things could be otherwise. Author of the 

if, as orthodoxy claims, the 

Bible is one book, and if the Author 

of nature is also the Author of the 



The Bible and the 

It is a well-known psychological fact, 
that every author puts his personal 
characteristics into each of his publica- 
tions. Titian paints like no other artist. 
Beethoven composes like no other mu- 
sician. Charles Lamb vmtes like na 
other author. Whatever is done by 
any person carries with it this "indi- 
vidual aroma." And it is likewise a 
divine individual aroma, found in na- 
ture and the Bible, that bespeaks for 
them a common authorship. Indeed, 
were the scientific facts of the Bible 
nicely classified, as in the works of Sir 
Charles Lyell or Professor Agassiz, we 
should have to confess that in that fact 
there is a stronger reason than any yet 
presented, for supposing that the Bible 
is of human origin. And, besides, were 

Nineteenth Century. 19 

there a studied arrangement and scho- 
lastic classification in the Bible, we 
should sadly miss that naturalness 
which makes it the charming book it is. 
It would be no longer as a Colorado 
park, but as a cabinet of scientific 

At this point some one asks if there 
are not certain positive an- 

*• Supposed 

tagonisms between the Bible ant»goni«m 

. between 

and science, — not mere dif- science nnd 

p .-,... 1x1 tlie Bible. 

lerences m diction and style, 
but differences in matters of fact. 

Men at various times, beginning as 
early as the days of Celsus, have so as- 
serted. But those objectors may have 
been in too great haste, over-pugna- 
cious, or not well informed. Their at- 
tacks may have been urged against 

20 The Bible and the 

some supposed teaching of the Bible, 
and not against any thing it really 
teaches. As a matter of fact, the at- 
tacks of sceptics more than once have 
been urged against incorrect statements 
of theologians and inaccuracies of trans- 
lators, while the real utterances of the 
Bible have remained unassailed. A 
single instance will be suflScient to 
illustrate this point. 

At the time our English Bible was 
translated, perhaps out of deference 
AniiiiMtni. to the prevailing opinion of 
™' iV. the times the Hebrew word 
tagoBiuB. rahiah was translated mto 
Greek by the word stereoma, and into 
Latin by the word firmamentum^ whose 
derivative "firmament" was employed 
by our English translators. Objectors, 

Nineteenth Century. 21 

finding this word in our English trans- 
lation, have more than once said that 
Moses meant -by " firmament " a " solid 
expanse," or a "firm vault." A scep- 
tical American writer upon " Myths " 
accordingly puts these words into the 
mouth of Moses : " And said the Gods, 
Let there be a hammered metallic plate 
in the midst of the waters." And in- 
stantly young and pretentious sceptics 
laughed at the scientific inaccuracies of 
the Bible. Now, what are the facts in 
the case ? Moses could have used He- 
brew words and expressions which pri- 
marily and invariably mean something 
solid and firm, as, for instance, such 
words as yathad and taraz ; but he did 
not. The word rakiah^ which was used, 
primarily means to spread out, like the 

22 The Bible and the 

Latin expan9u%^ answering to our Eng- 
lish word " expanse," and is thus trans- 
lated by nearly all our 'best Hebrew 
scholars. Here, therefore, as in many 
other instances, is a sceptical objection, 
raised, not against what the Bible 
teaches, but against what it cannot, by 
any fair means, be made to teach. 

But, again: From very early times to 
the present, men have declared that the 
Actual con- teachings of the Bible — not 
Il\«r.:r its supposed, but its actual 
*•*• ^^* ' teachings — and the teachings 
in error. of scieuce are in conflict. 
And we are willing to admit that 
Bible-writers and scientific men more 
than once have not been in agreement. 
But this admission does not carry with 
it the confession that the Bible is neces- 

Nineteenth Cevdury. 23 

sarily wrong. For, if science is wrong, 
and the Bible right, there would be a 
conflict all the same as if the reverse 
were true. Does any one suppose that 
science has always been free from error, 
or always in agreement with itself? 

" It is now thirty-five years," says 
Sharon Turner, "since my attention 
was turned to these consid- mngtp,ted 
erations. It was then the *!*'»•»«»*•- 

meiit§ of eml- 

fashion of science, and of a ■entM6«. 
large part of the educated and inquisi- 
tive world, to rush into a disbelief of all 
written revelation ; and several geologi- 
cal speculations were directed against 
the Bible. But I have lived to see the 
most hostile of these destroyed." At 
the date here referred to, there were 
conflicts between the teachings of sci- 

24 The Bible and the 

enc'e and those of the Bible ; that is, 
between the errors of science and the 
truths of the Bible. The Bible can 
hardly be condemned for not harmo- 
nizing with error, though the error is 
in strictest scientific garb, and sup- 
ported by able scientific authorities. 

Says the late Professor Lyell, a man 
justly regarded as one of the most noted 
geologists of the world, "In the year 
1806, the French Institute enumerated 
ho less than eighty geological theories 
which were hostile to the Scriptures; 
but not one of those theories is held 
to-day." That those French sceptics 
in the year 1806 saw discrepancies be- 
tween Bible-teachings and their own 
opinions, need not surprise us, their 
opinions having been wholly exploded. 

Nineteenth Century. 26 

It may also be said of some of the 
scientific opinions of our own day, that 
they are not established. Says Pro- 
fessor Tyndall, "The views of Lucre- 
tius and Bruno, of Darwin and Spencer, 
may be wrong. I concede this possi- 
bility, deeming it, indeed, certain that 
their views will undergo modification." 
We must not, therefore, decide matters 
hastily. We must be sure at least of 
two things, before pronouncing against 
the correctness of biblical statement; 
namely, correctness of interpretation, 
and the firm establishment of scientific 
fact. Had this rule governed sceptical 
thought and expression during the last 
half-century, much that has been said 
against the Bible would not have been 

26 The Bible and the 

The next and last preliminary 
thought to which we ask attention 
An impor. propeily belongs to the field 
tant mie. ^f interpretation, and may be 
expressed by this rule : One should 
carefully distinguish what the Scrip- 
ture saith, from what is said in the 
Scriptures. For instance, the friends 
of Job, in their conversations with the 
much-afflicted man, uttered many false 
sentiments. Those sentiments are re- 
corded in the Bible. But the Bible 
not does thereby vouch for their cor- 
rectness : it only vouches for the fact 
that they were spoken by those friends, 
and, for wise reasons, were compiled 
in the inspired volume. Thus, too, the 
ancient maxims of infidelity, " It is vain 
to serve God " (Mai. iii. 14) ; " Let us 

Nineteenth Century. 27 

eat and drink ; for to-morrow we die " 
(1 Cor. XV. 82), are found in the Bible, 
but are none the less false and perni- 
cious. They are not what the Scrip- 
ture saith, but are what is said in the 

Upon this same ground, caution is 
needed lest we read into the records of 
the Bible what does not prop- elation 
erly belong there. For in- "*^«*- 
stance, the words of David, "I have 
been young, and now am old ; yet have 
I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor 
his seed begging bread," are often read 
as if they were a promise that the seed 
of the righteous shall never be obliged 
to beg bread. But these words, upon 
a moment's thought, will be found to 
promise nothing : they simply state what 

28 The Bible and the 

David had not chanced to see, and what 

doubtless harmonizes with the ordinary 

observation of humanity; stiU, as a 

matter of fact, other men have seen 

good people, and the children of good 

people, left to beg for their bread. 

This thought will bear still closer 

inspection. There are found recorded 

A fniier i^ the Bible, false sentiments 

oilliw?**''" expressed by devils (Gen. iii. 
contenin. 4^ 5^ . gjgQ \^j wicked men 

(2 Kings xviii. 17-87 ; Mark xiv. 68) ; 
and even by good men (the friends of 
Job furnished many illustrations, and 
others can be found in the Book of 

There are, also, found recorded in 
the Bible, true sentiments expressed by 
good men (John vi. 68 ; Acts v. 84-39) ; 

Nineteenth Century. 29 

by wicked and worldly men (Mark ii, 
7; John vii. 46); and even by Satan 
and demons (Luke iy. 33, 34). Now, 
it must be ^ clear upon a moment's 
thought, that though these sentiments 
were inserted in the Bible by inspired 
men, they are not necessarily the senti- 
ments of inspired men; indeed, they 
are in some instances diametrically 
opposed to the sentiments of inspired 
men. They are a part of the inspired 
volume; but the reader is left, in all 
such cases, to judge of their truthful- 
ness or falseness upon the same grounds 
as are employed in testing words and 
statements found in any other litera- 

There will be found, for illustration, 
in the writings of Professors Huxley 

30 The Bible and the 

and Tyndall, and, indeed, in all his- 
tories of science and philosophy, the 
TheM»6 recorded opinions of distin- 

BiiTif lilt™ guished men ; but those opin- 
pretotio- M jQjjg jjj jjQ^ YiQ vouched for 

gOTemM tAe •' 

uterpretv j^y thosc scicutists who havo 

tion of other ^ 

utemtare. merely reported them. That 
they are thus recorded, is not their 
voucher ; that is, these modem writers 
are not held responsible for those re- 
Thecon- cordcd and false opinions, 

■ection is 

decisire. unlcss the conncctiou war- 
rants it, or unless there is explicit in- 
dorsement of them. Thus also with 
many of the records of the Bible. 

But, on the other hand, when we read 
the recorded words of the different per- 
sonations of the Deity, those of the 
Father (Luke iii. 22), those of the 

Nineteenth Century, 81 

Son (Matt, v.-vii.), and those of the 
Holy Spirit (Acts xxi. 11); or when 
we investigate the recorded j^^^i^^ 
words of inspired pei'sons in *'•**'• 
their inspired moments (Acts ii. 4), 
• — then, if the Bible is what evangeli- 
cal Christians claim that it is, we are 
dealing with absolute truth. The 
heavens and the earth, according to 
the Bible and the Church, may pass 
away; but these divine words shall 
not pass away. 

Having in these introductory remarks 
sufficiently guarded the discussion, we 
are now prepared to bring 

^ ^ ^ The Bible aad 

together the teachings of the other Mcient 

T»M 1 11 #• 1 lltermture 

Bible, and those of other bronght 

ancient literature, under the * 

light of modem science and philosophy. 

82 The Bible and the 

in order to test their correctness and 
their comparative merits. 

The field to be explored is a broad 
one, and our explorations must of ne- 
cessity be rapidly made ; but the haste, 
we trust, will not prevent the utmost 

As we are all familiar with the sick- 
Theurtof room, medical science may 
the Bible. ^^ allowcd to lead in fur- 
nishing facts and illustrations for our 

We have some account of medical 
science during the so-called mystical 
Prom period, extending from the 

1184 B*v« 

to500B.c. Trojan War, 1184 B.C., to 
the dissolution of the Pythagorean So- 

Nineteenth Century, 33 

ciety, 600 B.C. This period, too, wit- 
nessed the writing of quite a large 
portion of the Old Testament; not in- 
cludmg, however, the books of Moses, 
which were of earlier date. There is 
not time in this brief treatise to enu- 
mei-ate the vagaries and errors in physi- 
ology and medicine, found extending 
through those ages; the opinions held 
are freely confessed by modern medical 
authorities to be for the greater part 
false, crude, and senseless. 

The subsequent period, extending 
from 500 B.C. to 320 B.C., known as 
the philosophic era in medi- From 


cine, has an array of brilliant to sso b.c. 
names. Indeed, nearly all the scientists 
and literary men of that period had more 
or less to say as to physiology, anatomy, 

34 The Bible and the 

and the treatment of diseases. Such 
names as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Pla- 
to, and Aristotle are familiar. Some of 
their opinions are found to be correct, 
but for the larger part they are as un- 
scientific as those of the preceding primi- 
tive and mystic periods. In a word, there 
has been a well-nigh entire revolution 
of those early opinions, in the light of 
recent medical science. 

But more than this : even within the 
memory of persons now living, medi- 
Medical cal practice has undergone 
recent times, radical chauges. Fifty years 
ago, and even later, the physician (we 
speak extravagantly) was required first 
to bleed his patient to death ; and, if he 
could not succeed in this, then seem- 
ingly he would try to drug him to death. 

Nilfieteenth Century. 85 

But now the lancet is rarely employed, 
while milk, iced water, gentle nursing, 
and harmless diversions take the place 
of much of the contents of the drug- 
shop. The modem theories are, that 
nature must restore the sick man ; that 
medical practice is meanwhile to busy 
itself with removing such obstacles as 
are in nature's way, or, at most, is to 
render some aid to nature in her work 
of restoration ; and that the future, or 
at least the highest, mission of the med- 
ical profession, will be to prevent sick- 
ness by guarding against its causes. 

Turning our attention to the Bible, 
we take the position, that, though it 
was not designed to teach the science 
of medicine, still, whenever by hint, 
explicit statement, or commandment 

36 The Bible and the 

there is found in it any thing relating 
to medicine, disease, or sanitary regula- 
The Bible, tions, there must be no error; 
-r,r«fb. *l^a* '^ P'^^'^^ied the Bible 
in error. jn ^q exceptional scusc is 

God's book. Now, what are the facts 
in this case ? They are these : Though 
the Bible often speaks of disease and 
remedy, yet the illusions, deceptions, 
and gross errors of anatomy, physiology, 
and pathology, as formerly taught, no- 
where appear upon its pages. This, it 
must be acknowledged, is at least sin- 
The Bible gular. But more than this: 

found not to 

be in error, the various Uuts and direc- 
tions of the Bible, its sanitary regula- 
tions, the isolation of the sick, the 
washing, the sprinkling, the external 
applications, and the various moral and 

Nineteenth Century. 87 

religious injunctions in their bearing 
upon health, and the treatment of 
sicknesses, are confessed to be in har- 
mony with what is most recent and 

To be sure, the average old-school 
physician of a century ago would have 
blandly smiled at our simplicity, had it 
been suggested to him that his methods 
would be improved by following Bible 
hints. "What did Moses know about 
medical science ? " would have been his 
reply. But Moses, judged by recent 
standards, seems to have known much, 
or at least to have written well. A few 
illustrations are in point, certain 
" The life [sustenance] of ^Xic.! 
the flesh is in the blood" "▼•i»"o»»- 
(Lev. xvii. 11, 14 ; comp. Gen. ix. 4), 

38 The Bible and the 

are the words of Moses; but they are 
also the words of modern medical sci- 
ence. And if all that is implied in this 
fact had been felt, and acted upon, there 
would have been less blood-letting by 
the medical profession during the last 
three thousand years. The effort now 
in the ordinary run of disease, as every- 
body knows, is to keep up both the 
quantity and quality of the blood. 

^^Out of the heart are the issues of 
life " (Prov. iv. 23), is from the Book 
of Proverbs, and, taken in connection 
with Lev. xvii. 11, 14, affords at least 
a hint of the fact discovered by Har- 
vey in 1616, that the blood circulates 
through the human system, proceeding 
from the heart, and propelled by its 
muscular energy. 

Nineteenth Century. 89 

So, too, the artificial production of 
sleep during surgical operations ia 
thought to be a modern discovery ; but 
it was long ago hinted at in the Book 
of Genesis : "And the Lord God caused 
a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and 
he slept; and he took one of his ribs, 
and closed up the flesh instead there- 
of" (Gen. ii. 21). Here was a sug- 
gestion which, had it been followed, 
might have hastened what has been a 
very serviceable though tardy scientific 

The medical profession now an- 
nounces these directions for the pres- 
ervation of health : " Be free from 
anxiety ; be occupied ; be temperate." 
These injunctions, however, are but 
an echo of "Diligent in business," 

40 The Bible and the 

" Take no [anxious] thought for the mor- 
row," and be " temperate in all things." 
By following these Bible requirements, 
much, perhaps half, of the sickness of 
the world would be prevented. 

Then, too, the law which requires rest 
one day in seven from ordinary pur- 
suits is now admitted to be founded in 
a physiological necessity. And in order 
to save our fields from exhaustion, and 
our bodies from prostration, it may be- 
come necessary to re-enact, or at least 
re-observe, the sabbatical year of the 
Mosaic code ; that is, if our hard- 
worked professional and business men 
would one year in seven take relief 
from mental strain, nervous prostra- 
tion among them would not much 
longer be known. 

Nineteenth Century. 41 

There are other matters enjoiBed in 
the ceremonial law, hardly suitable, 
perhaps, to be presented in a popular 
treatise, which nevertheless are coming 
to be acknowledged as of great impor- 
tance. To the sanitary excellence of 
those regulations, the general health of 
the Jewish race is recognized as a stand- 
ing witness. Dr. Richard- Tegtimony 

of eminent 

son, in his work entitled physieinng. 
" Diseases of Modem Life," after speak- 
ing of the fact that the Jews, though 
persecuted and oppressed by every form 
of tyranny, enduring what no other peo- 
ple have been able to endure, are still 
potent and on the increase, uses this lan- 
guage: "From some cause or causes, 
the Jewish race presents an endurance 
against disease that does not belong to 

42 The Bible and the 

— ■ -■ -- ■ ■■ 

other portions of the civilized commu- 
nities amongst which its members 
dwell." We presume no reader need 
be told that this singular condition of 
the Jewish race is attributed by medi- 
cal authorities to its obedience to those 
health and religious regulations enjoined 
in the Bible. 

Of more general application are the 
words of two other writers, whose state- 
ments must carry with them great 
weight, especially to those who are 
inclined to disregard what clergymen 
might say upon these subjects. 

Renouard, in his "History of Medi- 
cine," translated by Dr. Comegys, 
makes these statements: "The writings 
of Moses constitute a precious monu- 
ment in the history of medicine, for 

Nineteenth Century. 48 

they embrace hygienic rules of the 
highest sagacity. ... In reading, for 
instance, those precepts designed to 
regulate the relation of a man to his 
wife, one cannot repress a sentiment of 
admiration for the wisdom and foresight 
which made such salutary regulations a 
religious duty. . . . Apart from the re- 
ligious ceremonies connected with them, 
might it not be said that they are ex- 
tracts from a modern work on hygien- 
ics ? " Mark those words, extracts from 
a modem work on hygienicB. "But," 
continues Dr. Renouard, "what more 
than this excites the astonishment of 
physicians, is the tableaux that Moses 
has made of the white leprosy, and the 
regulations he established to prevent 
its propagation." 

44 The Bible and the 

These certainly are highly compli- 
mentary words as to the correctness of 
Bible precept and regulation, especially 
as they were spoken, not for the pur- 
pose of defending the Bible, but from a 
point of view purely scientific. 

In this connection it may be re- 
marked, that leprosy, which no longer 
ago than 1700 prevailed in England to 
such an extent that leper-houses, num- 
bering a hundred or more, existed, has 
now disappeared. "It was stamped 
out of England," says medical history, 
"through a system of isolation." But 
that was the biblical method of dealing 
with leprosy three or four thousand 
years ago. 

The late Dr. Edward Clarke speaks 
thus in his work on "Sex in Educa- 

Ifineteenth Century. 45 

tion : " " The instructors, the houses 
and schools of our country's daughters, 
would profit by reading the old Leviti- 
eal law. The race has not yet out- 
grown the physiology of Moses." 
Surely a few statements like these will 
forever after relieve clergymen from 
the necessity of defending the physio- 
logical code of Moses. 

There are other correlated matters 
that need detain us but a moment. 
The anatomist, for instance, Matten 
dissects every part of the ^t'^.^ 
physical man ; the brain-cells «*•■<»• 
are explored, the nerve-centres located, 
the nice dependences and adjustments 
of part to part are traced : and when 
the work is done, the most skilful dis- 
secter can find no language that more 

46 The Bible and the 

fittingly expresses his surprise and emo- 
tion than the words of the Psalmist, " I 
am fearfully and wonderfully made." 

The anatomical chemist, with his 
many instruments and modern appli- 
ances, carefully analyzes the human 
body, but discovers no ingredient in its 
material make-up which is not found 
in the dust beneath his feet. In the 
Mosaic revelation we read: "And the 
Lord God formed man of the dust of 
the ground, and breathed into his nos- 
trils the breath of life ; and man became 
a living soul " (Gen. ii. 7). 

The geologist takes the body of man 
where the physiologist finds it, traces 
its lineage back in harmony with the 
great laws of historic continuity to the 
soil, and then to the solid geological 

Nineteenth Century. 47 

formations now known as the lower or 
the foundation strata of the earth. 
When his investigations are completed, 
he says, "There is beyond question, 
and under the eye of a divine intelli- 
gence, an unbroken historic connection 
between this physical body of man, and 
the granite foundations of the earth 
upon which he walks." 

The latest scientific statements of this 
fact are these : " From the lower strata 
of the earth have come the molecular 
constituents of the human body; and 
God, in building up our organic nature, 
has guided the contents of the soil 
through its many and intricate changes 
to its final and most sublime destina- 
tion in the human body. . . . We have, 
in all this, more than the idea of intel- 

48 The Bible and the 

ligent cause; we have an ever-acting 
cause : hence evolution, instead of 
pushing far back thd transcendental 
ground of being, reveals that ground as 
a present source of phenomena that 
surround us at every stage of our 
progress. Evolution could not go on 
without the constant action of this 
ever-present cause. Evolution, then, is 
simply a method by which the supreme 
cause acts. • • • Creation by law, evo- 
lution by law, development by law, or, 
as including all these kindred ideas, 
the reign of law, is nothing but the 
reign of creative force, directed by 
creative knowledge, worked under the 
control of creative power, and in fulfil- 
ment of creative purpose." 

Turning to a Psalm of David, we 

Nineteenth Century, 49 

read some of these same truths in their 
beautiful poetico-religious dress : — 

"Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? or 
whither shall I flee from thy presence ? 

" If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there : if 
I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. 

*' If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell 
in the uttermost parts of the sea ; 

"Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy 
ri^t hand shall hold me. 

" If I say. Surely the darkness shall cover me ; 
even the night shall be light about me. 

" Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee ; but 
the night shineth as the day : the darkness and 
the light are both alike to thee. 

" For thou hast possessed my reins : thou hast 
covered me In my mother's womb. 

" I will praise thee ; for I am fearfully and 
wonderfully made : marvellous are thy works ; 
and that my soul knoweth right well. 

" My substance was not hid from thee, when I 
was made in secret, and curiously wrought in the 
lowest parts of the earth. [Moll, Delitzsch, and 

50 The Bible and the 

Hitzig speak of this language as haying reference 
to man's origin from the dust.] 

'< Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being 
unperf ect ; and in thy book all my members were 
written, which in continuance were fashioned, 
when as yet there was none of them. 

'' How precious also are thy thoughts unto me, 
O God I how great is the sum of them I " (Ps. 
cxxxix. 7-17.) 

When David wrote those words, 
there was not a man on earth who 
understood the chemistry of life as it 
is now understood; and yet the ex- 
pressions are faultless as to both their 
great beauty and accuracy. 

Now, does any intelligent man con- 
tinue to insist that the Bible in these 
matters relating to medical and physio- 
logical science is an antiquated book? 
But why was it not long since anti- 

Ifineteenth Century. 61 

quated if written as other ancient books 
were written, by men liable to make 
mistakes ; by men, as we are ^n important 
told, who lived in a barbarous *"*'**^"- 
^g6 ; by men without supernatural rev- 
elations, and with no special authority ? 
Why is it that these Sacred Scriptures 
are so much superior to all else of an- 
cient date? and how does it happen 
that they have anticipated in pathology 
some of the most remarkable discoveries 
of modern times, if they are but a book 
among other books? Have we not a 
right to ask for an intelligent answer ? 

The transition from the human body 
to the human mind is a nat- The hmnan 

. mind and the 

Ural one, and brings us to our Bible, 
next field of inquiry, where we are con- 

62 The Bible and the 

fronted with this question: How com- 
pare the teachings of the Bible with an- 
cient and with modern mental science? 
That Bible-writers do not teach in 
opiniomsof harmonj with many ancient 
1^ the ''** philosophers, there is no qnes- 
"***• tion. For instance, Demoo- 

ritus, who flourished at the time when 
the last of the prophets were composing 
their writings, tells us that the substance 
of the soul, or the thinking part of man, 
is fire. Pythagoras held essentially the 
same opinion, adding that it is a ^^ self- 
moving unit" of fire. Diogenes the 
Cretan advocated the theory that the 
earth's atmosphere is intelligent, and 
that a section of this intelligent atmos- 
phere becomes at birth the intellectual 
part of man. The following conflict- 

Nineteenth Century. 63 

ing views were likewise held by the 
ancient philosophical world: that the 
thinking part of a man emanates from 
the stars ; that the mind is the blood ; 
that it is matter; that it is the deity. 
There were those who located the intel- 
lect in the blood ; others, in the heart ; 
others, in the abdomen ; others, in the 

brain ; and others, between the eyes. 

Now, is it replied that these philoso- 
phers were attempting, as best they 
could, an explanation of very difficult 
problems, and that they should not be 
too severely criticised or condemned? 
We have not criticised them. We 
have no disposition to criticise them. 
They did as well as could be expected. 
They frequently adopted these views as 
working hypotheses, which they had an 


The Bible and the 

unquestioned right to do. But a matter 

of fair inquiry is this : What 

guarded the was it that guarded the Bible- 


against false Writers in their statements 
against conflicting with one 
another, and against teaching what 
are now regarded erroneous views? 
Though they breathed an atmosphere 
loaded with crude and false specula- 
tions, still they are free from them. 

It is too late in the day to reply that 
the Jews were not speculative philoso- 
Hot their sup. V^^^ ^^^^ *^® Greeks, and, 
KpM«a therefore, these matters by 
character. them wcrc uot touchcd upon. 
They were touched upon; and the 
Jews had a philosophical as well as 
theological bent. The Book of Genesis 
bespeaks for its author ^ philosopher, 


Nineteenth Century. 55 

and one of the highest order. Solo- 
mon, too, was a philosopher ; and there 
were few in his day that equalled or at 
least excelled him. Philo was a Jew, 
yet a philosopher, and especially well 
drilled in the Platonic school of philoso- 
phy. The writings of Paul show that 
he had the philosophical tendency, and 
that he might have stood high in any of 
the ancient schools of philosophy. In 
a word, the supposed lack of the philo- 
sophical inclination or trend can never 
account for the absence from the Bible 
of the self-contradictory and false 
teachiDgs of ancient philosophers as to 
the relations and operations of the hu- 
man mind. Some other explanation, 
as every thoughtful person must admit, 
is needed to account for the fact that 

56 The Bible and the 

Moses did not teach that the soul is a 
section of the atmosphere ; that David 
did not sing of the emanation of the 
soul from the stars ; that Solomon did 
not locate the soul in the abdomen, and 
that Paul did not place it between the 

More than this: the Bible-writers not 
only escaped the errors of their contem- 
correetnem porarfcs, but their psychol- 
"LumLuin ogj. in the light of modem 
the light of thouffht, is couccded to be 

modem ^ 

thought. correct. Magnus Frederick 
Roos, the great pioneer in Bible psy- 
chology, may be taken as a representa- 
tive of his class in this statement : ^^ I 
take it for my guiding rule, that every- 
where in Scripture there reigns an accu- 
racy and validity worthy of God." 


Nineteenth Century, 67 

The union of the omnipotence of 
God and the free will of man; the 
nature and power of memory, imagi- 
nation, reflection, and conscience ; the 
supremacy of man, his special endow- 
ments, and, we may add, his excep- 
tional creation, as stated in the Bible, 
— are found to be in perfect harmony, 
we do not say with all the various philo- 
sophical hypotheses of modern times, 
but with all well-established data of 
the dominant philosophical and scien- 
tific systems of modern times. 

The argument, too, derived from the 
benefit of the Bible upon 

The moral 

the mind of man, is a special argament 
philosophical topic which of Bible Ibiiu- 
itself is sufl&cient to form 
an entire treatise. No one denies, and 

58 The Bible and the 

DO one can deny, that the precious 
truths of the Bible have carried into 
the humble cottage of the peasant, and 
into the homes of the city, a refine- 
ment of intellect and a tenderness of 
heart which otherwise would never 
have existed there; and that the history 
of America, of all Europe, indeed, we 
may say of the whole world, shows 
that national purity and enlightenment 
are always in proportion to biblical 
knowledge and practice among the peo- 
ple. Few if any thoughtful persons 
will question the statement that if the 
Bible is philosophically false its influ- 
ence could not have been followed by 
such beneficial results, nor have this 
quality and quantity of indorsement. 
In order to avoid a multiplicity of 

Nineteenth Century. 69 

subjects, we may, in this connection, 
speak of the mental methods Mental 

, method! of 

of the Bible. As eveiy meBibie. 
reader is aware, Aristotle, by what must 
be regarded as a powerful system of 
reasoning, held the world captive for a 
thousand years. Yet to-day his method, 
and other methods based upon it, are 
superseded by what is known as the 
inductive process of Sir Francis Bacon, 
which is the bringiDg together of sev- 
eral facts belonging to a class, and then 
drawing from them an inference or con- 

Now, is it not somewhat remarkable, 
that at the very time when the system 
of reasoning used and perfected by 
Aristotle held sway over the minds 
of men, the method introduced by 

60 The Bible and the 

Bacon was almost constantly employed 
by Bible writers ? Even before Aristotle, 
Examples of we find in the concluding 


reasoning, chapters of Job somc of the 
most perfect examples possible of Baco- 
nian reasoning : the glory and majesty 
of Jehovah are there inferred from the 
various works of creation, by the same 
methods now adopted by all distin- 
guished scientists the world over. 

Paul, too, in the Epistle to the 
Romans, gives the key to the inductive 
method as applied to both the visible 
and invisible universe when saying, — 

" For the invisible things of him from the crea- 
tion of the world are clearly seen, being under- 
stood by the things that are made, even his eternal 
power and Grodhead; so that they are without 
excuse" (Rom. i. 20). 

Nineteenth Century, 61 

Chancellor Dawson, in reviewing the 
school of thought represented by John 
Stuart Mill, and while speaking espe- 
cially of Mill's essay on Theism, says, 
**It is certainly a remarkable coinci- 
dence, that the only way in which Paul 
said that the heathen could, without 
revelation, attain to the knowledge of 
God, is precisely that which this scepti- 
cal English philosopher singles out as 
the only argument valid to his mind/' 

Our Lord also frequently employed 
this method of reasoning. Notably was 
this the case whenever presenting the 
claims of his mission and authority. 
For instance, he wrought his wonderful 
deeds before the people, and then said 
to them, The works that I do bear 
witness of me (John v. 36). It is as 

62 The Bible and the 

if he had said, " Look at these works ; 
test them : then draw your inferences." 
" Believe me for the very works' sake " 
(John xiv. 11), was, too, the inductive 
appeal ever upon his lips. How ad- 
mirably this is illustrated, when the 
disciples of John inquired, — 

''Art thou he that should come? or look we 
for another ? " (Luke vil. 19.) 

We read, that — 

*' In that same hour he cured many of their 
infirmities and plagues, and of evil spirits; and 
imto many that were blind he gave sight. 

" Then Jesus answering said unto them, Go 
your way, and tell John what things ye have seen 
and heard ; how that the blind see, the lame walk, 
the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead 
are raised, to the poor the gospel is preached. 

''And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be 
offended in me," (Luke vii. 21-23.) 

Nineteenth Century. 68 

We must pause in the midst of the 
many illustrations that present them- 
selves. In a word, the Bible abounds, 
almost to the exclusion of other meth- 
ods of reasoning, with those now recog- 
nized as the most valid and profound, 
though opposed to the methods em- 
ployed throughout the civilized world 
at the time the larger part of the Bible 

was written. The method Dependence 

adopted by Cousin in his «« »erod 
" Course of Modem Philoso- i??f *"*• 


phy," by Sir William Hamil- -ethod. 
ton in his " Metaphysics," by Spencer in 
his " First Principles," by John Stuart 
Mill in his various philosophical writ- 
iiigs, by Darwin, Huxley, and Tyndall 
in their treatises upon physical science, 
is the Bible method made ready for the 


64 The Bible and the 

use of these recent writers by Bacon, 
and made ready for his use by the 
prophets, the Master, and his apostles. 
This dependence upon the Bible can be 
easily shown. Bacon's estimate of the 
wonderful book is suggestive: ^^ There 
never was found, in any age of the 
world, either religion or law that did so 
highly exalt the publio good as the 
Bible." And be it remembered that 
Bacon did not become inductive and 
practical in his reasoning until, through 
his admiration and study of the Bible, 
his mind had become imbued with the 
inductive and practical theology of the 

Is there nothing, therefore, in all 
these matters to excite our surprise? 
How did it chance that the Bible in its 

Nineteenth Century. 65 

statements of psychological facts, and 
in its psychological methods, is so re- 
cent, and so different from „ ^ „^^ 

' How shall the 

other ancient literature? corrwstMM 

of Bible pay- 
Can any peculiarity of the choiovybe 

Jew afford explanation? If ^^ 
BO, a wonderful, a supernatural being, 
is the Jew. Such a supposition is, of 
course, untenable. If, however, it is 
admitted that the writers and compi- 
lers of the Bible were providentially se- 
lected, and were providentially guarded 
against introducing errors into the com- 
position of the Sacred Scriptures, and 
were providentially helped in their writ- 
ing, then we have an answer to a multi- 
tude of questions that seemingly, upon 
any other supposition, must remain un- 
answered if not unanswerable. 

66 The Bible and the 

With this division of our topic we 
cannot delay longer, but we pass for a 
-^ «. , . few moments to matters prop- 

The Bible !■ Mr r 

its reifttioB erly grouped under govern- 
to ffOTera- 

mentmnd meut and civilization. For 
Since these subjects are based 
upon general principles and truths, and 
are consequently included in the field of 
scientific investigation, they fall prop- 
erly within the limits of this discussion. 
Since no small amount of the teach- 
ing of the Bible is manifestly designed 
to set forth the rules and principles 
which should govern the conduct of 
men in their various relations with one 
another, it follows, that if it is what it 
claims to be, — a providential, excep- 
tional, and inspired book, — then, in its 
precepts relating to these matters, it 

Nineteenth Century, 67 

must not only be superior to what is 
generally taught in ancient 

^^ •/ & The Bible 

literature, but must be a if inspired 

j^-i -111 • court of 

worthy standard and a court aitimate 
of ultimate appeal as long as '^'^^* 
the world stands. Is it such a court of 
appeal ? 

Let us first, in this connection, ex- 
amine the teachings of the Bible as to 
the general principles of le- TheBiMe 
gal science and philosophy. »'»*^^- 
Of the world's judgment respecting the 
two tables of commandments, there is 
no ground for question. Perhaps an 
intelligent person cannot be found who 
will dissent from this statement, that 
these two tables recorded in the writ- 
ings of Mo$es contain in a general form 
the vital principles of all modern legal 

68 The Bible and the 

science, judicial, national, and interna- 
tional. Is not that a fact upon scien- 
tific grounds worthy of careful study? 
While a sceptical lawyer was read- 
ing these commandments, and while 
thinking of their accuracy, their pro- 
fundity, and their marvellous compre- 
hensiveness, he was led to reason thus : 
"I have read history. The Egyptians 
and the adjacent nations were idolaters; 
so were the Greeks and Romans: and 
the wisest and best Greeks or Romans 
never gave a code like this. Where did 
Moses get this law^ which surpasses the 
wisdom and philosophy of the most en- 
lightened ages? He lived at a period 
comparatively barbarous; but he has 
given a law in which the learning and 
sagacity of all subsequent time can de- 

Mneteenth Century. 69 

tect no flaw. Where did he get it? 
He could not have soared so far above 
his age as to'iiave devised it himself." 

It was through this sound . process of 
reasoning, that the lawyer was led out 
of his infidelity into the realms of 
Christian faith. 

And, too, is it not a forcible corrobo- 
ration of the exalted legal philosophy 
of the Bible, that such mas- The Bible 
ters in legal lore as Black- l^^,^^ 
stone, Somers, Marshall, ^^«"^ 
Story, and Kent, were reverent admirers 
of its sacred pages? But would they 
have been if its teachings were not pro- 
found and true ? 

Perhaps, however, the unbeliever 
points to the Roman law as a grand 
monument of human sagacity and wis- 


The Bible and the 


dom. In a measure it is such. But its 
obligation to Bible thinking and com- 
Obiigation of maudment, no scholar will 
to the Bible. Venture to question. In- 
deed, Roman law, which lies at the 
basis of nearly aU European law, never 
could have been what it is except for 
the influence of Christianity upon the 
Roman nationality. Dr. A. P. Peabody, 
in an article on " The Influence of 
Christianity upon Roman Law," thus 
wisely states the case : — 

^^ The actual reformers of the Roman 
law were, all of them, nominally Chris- 
tian. Constantine can hardly be termed 
a Christian in the interior, spiritual 
sense of the word; but he called him- 
self one, and his improved legislation 
was under the guidance, and I might 

Nineteenth Century. 71 

say under the direction, of the bishops 
whom he regarded as endowed with 
divine wisdom and authority. Justin- 
ian, the greatest legislator of all time, 
was a zealous Christian, — in some re- 
spects only too zealous, for he was an 
imrelenting persecutor of heretics, Jews, 
and Pagans. Of the series of Christian 
emperors, there was hardly one whose 
decrees did not bear the impress of his 
faith, and aid in vindicating the rights 
of long-depressed humanity." 

The present constitutional law of 
England, too, owes vastly more to the 
Bible than is generally sup- The constitu- 
posed. Every student of le- "n^i!dr»fd 
gal science and history knows ^^ ***»^*- 
that the laws of Alfred and of Edward 
the Confessor, and even those framed 

72 The Bible and the 

as late as the days of Coke, continually 
cited the Scriptures as ultimate author- 

These questions are, therefore, perti- 
nent: Have any of the general prin- 
ciples of the Roman law, and of the 
constitutional law of England, been out- 
grown ? Are they likely to be ? And, 
therefore, is not the Bible in a fair way 
to remain a court of ultimate appeal ? 

What is true of law is equally true 
in the allied fields of political science 
The Bible and civilization. Bible truth 

and political 

science. and Commandment, as already 
suggested, have been the great regula- 
tive and reformative power among the 
nations. No period or country has been 
visited by them without receiving both 
advancement and elevation. No nation 

Nineteenth Century. 73 

has received them into its heart without 
feeling the flush of health in its cheek, 
and the vigor of life throughout the 
body politic. The Bible has been a 
standing protestation against usurpa- 
tions and intolerances of every form, 
the world over, and history through. 
Such masters in political science as 
Grotius, Selden, Montesquieu, Raleigh, 
Burke, Pitt, the Adamses, The Bible 
and Webster never had a «»«»"«f»»y 


thought of questioning, in statesmeB. 
matters of political life and legislation, 
the correctness of Bible statement. 
Passages from the Scriptures were 
quoted by these men as though they 
were a final appeal, — ^^a decision from 
the highest, the supreme court of the 

74 The Bible and the 

An African prince sent an ambassa- 
dor to Queen Victoria, asking the secret 
of England's superiority among the na- 
tions. The Queen, handing the ambas- 
sador a copy of the Bible, said, ** Go tell 
Secret of » your princo that thiB is the 
grestness. sccret of England's political 
greatness." It is Bible knowledge and 
practice which makes England pre-emi- 
nent : it is a disregard of Bible precept 
and practice which has brought a blush 
to the cheek of some of her dearest 

Sept. 26, 1815, the three great mon- 
archs of the world, Alexander of Russia, 
Francis of Austria, and Frederic Wil- 
liam of Prussia, ruling seventy millions 
of people, signed and published in 
Paris, amid the clashing and din of 

Nineteenth Century. 75 

war, " The Holy Alliance," one of the 
most important state papers of modern 
times. In it, these rulers ««TiieHoi7 
solemnly recognized before ^^^•■^••'* 
the world the religion of the Sacred 
Scriptures as the only true basifl of po- 
litical relations, and the only safe legal 
directory for the nations of the earth: 
they pledged themselves "to act on the 
principles of the gospel, and to follow 
the rules of justice, charity, and peace." 

The world clearly saw, that if those 
professions were sincere, and if they 
should be followed, an improvement of 
inestimable advantage in national and 
international diplomacy and law would 
certainly result. 

Our own Declaration of Independ- 
ence, in which we have an honest pride. 

76 The Bible and the 

is but an echo of the majestic chrono- 
logical table which concludes thus: 
DMiaration " Who was the SOU of Adam, 

of Independ- 
ence, who was the son of God." 

When, therefore, our government dis- 
criminates against any people seeking a 
home upon these shores, it makes war 
against itself, and antagonizes laws 
more potent than those of gravitation. 
Sooner or later the penalty for such 
inconsistency, selfishness, and injustice 
must be paid. 

When any people are fit for self-rule, 
a monarchy, especially if inclined to ab- 
solutism, is not, according to the Scrip- 
tures, a desirable form of government 
(1 Sam. viii.) ; and this view, as every 
one knows, is in harmony with the 
drift of modern thought and effort. 

Nineteenth Century. 77 

We may add also, that at least one of 
the Hebrew prophets anticipated the 
coining among men of a rep- Bepuwicn 
resentative republican form »«^«™>«*- 
of government like the one under which 
we are now living (Jer. xxx. 21), — 
one in which those among the humblest 
classes may rise to positions of highest 

Lactantius, rejoicing over the conver- 
sion of Constantine, indulges in glowing 
anticipations of the approaching regen- 
eration of mankind, when the false gods 
shall all be overthrown, and He alone 
be worshipped whose temples are not of 
clay or of stone, but are men fashioned 
in the imas^e of their Creator. Benefits of 

, Bible faith 

"If God alone were worship- and practice, 
ped, then should war and dissensions 

78 The Bible and the 

be no more, for men would know that 
they are all children of the same Divine 

" Bound together in the sacred and 
inviolable bonds of heavenly truth, they 
would no more plot in secret against 
each other, when they should know the 
punishments prepared for the slayer of 
souls by an omniscient God, to whom all 
hidden evil and the innermost secrets 
of their hearts are revealed. Fraud 
and rapine would be no more ; for men 
would have learned of God to be 
content with what they have, and to 
seek for the lasting gifts of heaven, 
rather than for the perishable things 
of earth. 

"Adultery and prostitution would 
cease when they were taught that God 

Nineteenth Century. 79 

had forbidden disorderly appetites ; nor 
-would woman be forced to sell her virtue 
for a wretched subsistence, when men 
should control their passions, and charity 
should minister to all the wants of the 
poor. These evils would vanish from 
the earth if all were brought unto the 
law of God, and all should do what 
now one people alone are found to do. 
How blessed would be that golden age 
among men, if throughout the world 
were love and kindness and peace and 
innocence and justice and temperance 
and faith! There would then be no 
need of many and subtle laws, where 
innocence would need only the one law 
of God. Neither prisons nor the sword 
of the judge would be wanted, when the 
hearts of men, glowing with the divine 

80 The Bible and the 

precepts, would of themselves seek the 
works of justice." 

Such would be the inestimable bless- 
ings coming to any country, were the 
people governed by the precepts of 
Bible Christianity. 

It may not be out of place to remark 
in this connection^ that there are many 
The Bible f ricuds of our Republic who 
United* ^^®' ^* present, extremely 
states. anxious concerning its fu- 

ture welfare. The feeling is deepening 
in many hearts, that our country is 
already within circles whose centre 
is a destructive whirlpool; that our 
wealth, education, and material aggran- 
dizement afford not the slightest hope 
or help; that political corruption, and 
the antagonisms between capital and 


Nineteenth Century. 81 

^^— = '- " ■ W- I I Jl IT 

labor, which are our national bane, will 
become more and more threatening and 
perilous, and that before long the end 
will be reached. 

But can any one doubt, if the Ameri- 
can people would conform to the pre- 
cepts of the Bible, if they would make 
its teachings their rule of faith and 
practice, that blessing instead of curs- 
ing would be found within our borders, 
and that such a nation would rise on 
this continent as would fill with trans- 
ports of delight the heart of every true 
patriot ? Does this statement need con- 
firmation ? Says Daniel opinions of 
Webster, "If we abide by fterlwnuam 
the principles taught in the f^^^JoJes- 
Bible, our country will go on ^^ Bowen. 
prospering and to prosper; but if we 

82 TU Bible and the 

and our posterity neglect its instruc- 
tions and authority, no man can tell 
how sudden a catastrophe may over- 
whelm us, and bury all our glory in 
profound obscurity." 

Of wider application are the words of 
William H. Seward, whom all acknowl- 
edge to have been one of the ablest 
political philosophers this country has 
ever produced: "The whole hope of 
human progress is suspended on the 
ever-growing influence of the Bible." 

May I quote, too, from the pages of 
the late Professor Francis Bowen of 
Harvard College: "I have faithfully 
studied most of what the philosophy of 
these modern times, and the science of 
our own day, assume to teach. And the 
result is, that I am now more firmly 


Nineteenth Century. 83 

convinced than ever, that what has been 
justly called the 'dirt-philosophy' of 
materialism and fatalism is baseless and 
false. I accept with unhesitating convic- 
tion and belief the doctrine of the being 
of one personal God, the Creator and 
Governor of the world, and of one Lord 
Jesus Christ, in whom dwelleth all the 
fulness of the Godhead bodily; and I 
have found nothing whatever in the lit- 
erature of modem infidelity, which, to 
my mind, casts even the slightest doubt 
upon that belief. Not being a clergy- 
man, I am not exposed to the cruel 
imputation, which unbelievers have too 
long been permitted to fling against the 
clergy, of being induced by prudential 
motives to profess what they do not 
believe. Let me be permitted also to 


The Bible and the 

repeat the opinion, which I ventured to 
express as far back as 1849, that the 
time seems to have arrived for a more 
practical and immediate verification, 
than the world has ever yet witnessed, 
of the great truth that the civilization 
which is not based upon Christianity is 
big with the elements of its own de- 

And now, does some one afiSrm in 
face of all these facts and opinions, and 
of a multitude of similar opinions which 
could be given, that Bible Christianity 
is not a safeguard of civil and religious 
liberty in this country, or that it is a 
damage to the weal of our national and 
individual life and character? How 
utterly preposterous I 

Not, therefore, the theories of the 

Nineteenth Century. 85 

communist, or the nihilist, of the world- 
ling, or the formalist, of the enthusi- 
ast, or the ascetic, of the latitudinarian, 
or the bigot, of the Brahmin or the 
Mohammedan; but Bible Christianity 
in its inspired simplicity and pow^r, 
which more than any thing else known 
among men checks an impure fancy, 
arms conscience with a divine power, 
awakes religious sensibilities, refines the 
moral sentiments, evolves devout affec- 
tions, displays well-directed philanthro- 
pies, promotes determinations to do 
exactly right at all times and in all 
things; which leads to industry, in- 
spires courage, patriotism, and intelli- 
gence ; and whose tendency is to make 
of every man a loyal and a royal son of 
God, — is what, beyond any and every 

86 The Bible and the 

thing else, will aid in establishing the 
prosperity and perpetuity of the Ameri- 
can Republic. 

We next give attention for a few 
The Bible minutcs to the subject of civ- 
tion: ilization, which comprehends 

something more than government. 

Since the best human governments, 
and all countries which are advanced in 
civilization, foster learning, literature, 
and art, it will be no departure from 
our general subject briefly to speak, in 
this connection, of the relation of the 
Bible to these various topics. 

We are- not unmindful of the fact 
that it is sometimes said that the influ- 

Leamingsnd ®^^® ^^ *^® Bible, and of the 
literature, religion which it teaches, is 

adverse to advancement in learning. 

Nineteenth Century. 87 

Our reply is : Whatever the bigotry of 
some nominal Christians, or whatever 
the traditions of some of the elders, 
may have been, one fact is certain, — 
that Bible religion in its spirit has fos- 
tered every branch of human learning. 
If this statement is doubted, let the 
question be answered: Whence came 
the colleges and universities of the civ- 
ilized world ? The founders of Prague, 
of Vienna, of Heidelberg, of Leipzig, of 
Leyden, of Utrecht, of Jena, of Halle, of 
Tiibingen, of Gottingen, of Berlin, and 
of Bonn ; the founders of Salamanca, of 
Oviedo, of Valladolid; of Cambridge, 
of Oxford, of Edinburgh, of Glasgow, of 
St. Andrews, and of Aberdeen ; the 
founders of Harvard, of Yale, of Dart- 
mouth, of Union ; and, with the rarest 


The Bible and the 

exceptions, the founders of all other 
seminaries and colleges, — were men 
who had partaken of the spirit of Bible 
Christianity; who, with its divine im- 
pulses and inspirations upon them, had 
sacrificed and consecrated time and 
means to the establishment of schools 
where science and literature could be 
critically studied and thoroughly taught. 
Nay, more, "when all the rest of man- 
kind were caring either for the mere 
necessities of physical being, or for 
wars of aggrandizement, Bible men were 
holding up the torch of science, and 
striving by its light to read and under- 
stand the wonderful works of God. In 
the monasteries even, amid many dark 
and superstitious souls it is true, were 
found the Roger Bacons who were the 

Nineteenth Century. 89 

predecessors of the Newtons and Boer- 
haaves and Lavoisiers of later ages. It 
is vain to say they were persecuted. 
That makes only against their age ; not 
against themselves, or the Bible im- 
petus under which they acted. The 
universities were always on the side of 
liberal study, and opposed to the re- 
straints of superstition ; and to them, 
under God, science is indebted for the 
high ground on which she stands to- 

Is it to be wondered at, therefore, 
that the friends of the Bible are some- 
times impatient in view of the assertion 
of liberalists and sceptics, so often made, 
that Bible Christianity is a friend of ig- 
norance, and a foe to culture and intelli- 
gence? What mean these traducers? 

90 The Bible and the 

The facts in the case are, that, against 
the learning and literature of the last 
thousand years^ there is an indebted- 
ness to the Bible that can never be re- 
paid. The immortal Sir Walter Scott 
is not the only man of literature who 
has cheerfully confessed, " There is but 
one book." 

The influence of the Bible in the 
realms of architecture and art can re- 
ceive but a passing remark. 


It is a matter of fact, that no 
Parthenon, indeed, no beautiful architec- 
ture of any kind, is found in the world 
until after the building of the Temple in 
Jerusalem. There were massive struc- 
tures in Babylon and Egypt ; they were 
imposing, but not beautiful. In an 
essay by the accomplished architect 

Nineteenth Century, 91 

Wmiam Wilkins, entitled "The Tern- 
pie at Jerusalem the Type of Grecian 
Architecture," it is claimed that the 
finest specimens of architecture which 
adorned the Acropolis were manifestly 
suggested by the Temple on Mount 
Zion. And Robert Wood, in a treatise 
bearing the title, " The Origin of Build- 
ing, and the Plagiarisms of the Heathen 
detected," reaches essentially the same 

Now, we insist that any peculiarity in 
the make-up of the Jew utterly fails in 
accounting for the union of beauty and 
magnificence in the architecture and 
outfit of their temple. Indeed, the en- 
tire Semitic family seems to have been 
singularly destitute of architectural ge- 
nius. But if it is admitted that the 

92 The Bible and the 

plans of those structures, the tabernacle 
and temple, were given to the Jews 
by supernatural revelation, as is claimed 
to have been the case (Exod. xxv. 40 ; 
1 Chron. xxviii. 11, 12), then at least 
one form of the diflBculty vanishes. 

We may add that the world's great- 
est sculpture, painting, and music have 
found their inspirations and themes 
chiefly in the Bible, and that these de- 
partments of art can never throw off 
their direct and indirect allegiance to 
the pages of this wonderful book. 

We close our reference to these art 
matters with a quotation from Ruskin, 
the great master of aesthetics. All 
educated painters are aware of the al- 
most endless amount of discussion that 
has existed respecting the true founda- 

Nineteenth Century. 93 

tion of coloring. Ruskin, in " Modern 
Painters," chapter on "Turnerian 
Light," thus closes the sec- qaotatioB 
tion on " Color : " " Finally, ''^^ *«""■• 
the ascertainment of the sanctity of 
color is not left to human genius. It 
is directly stated in the Scriptures in 
the sacred chord of color (blue, purple, 
and scarlet, with white and gold), as 
appointed for the tabernacle. This 
chord," continues Ruskin, " is the fixed 
base of all coloring with the workmen 
of every great age, and the invariable 
base of all beautiful missal-painting." 

Is it not singular that the coloring 
and tapestry ordered for the tabernacle, 
as also, we may add, the blending of 
colors in the walls of the New Jeru- 
salem, as disclosed in the Book of 

94 The Bible and the 

Revelation, harmonize perfectly with 
the ideal conceptions of modern art 
and esthetics? 

Do some of these matters appear of 
small importance? Taken separately 
they may seem thus, but not when 
built with all other facts into a defence 
of the Bible as a book which, in its 
lesser as well as its greater and grander 
revelations, has been guarded against 
errors, ancient and modern. 

In order that the impression of nar- 
rowness as to our range of view, while 
discussing the influence of the Bible 
upon the world's civilization, may not 
be left upon the mind of the reader, 
we enlarge for a moment the circle of 
vision before passing to other mattery 

It is a fact in history which, perhaps, 

Nineteenth Century. 96 

no one will venture to dispute, that 
civil and religious liberty, national 
purity and advancement, The Bible 
have been coincident with "^*''* 

history of 

the knowledge and practice «i^*»tto"- 
among the people of Bible truths, or at 
least of such truths as are found in the 

That the Commonwealth of Israel 
throughout its history was Commoii- 

weftlth of 

prosperous m proportion to Israel, 
its adherence to Bible precepts, is an 
acknowledged historic fact. 

That the other ancient civilized 
countries of the world, notably those 
bordering upon Palestine, j^n^jent 
had been influenced by what «*^*i*»"on»- 
are termed sacred truths, received from 
Noah, Abraham, and Moses, and had 

96 The Bible and the 

been benefited by them, — truths which 
were religiously preserved by the patri- 
archs and prophets, entering subse- 
quently into the composition of the 
Bible, — is no longer a question in dis- 
pute. And, further, that the overthrow 
of those civilizations is traceable to 
practices which are antagonistic to those 
enjoined in the Bible, is a fact that can 
be easily established. 

That Greece and Rome, too, in the 
earlier periods of their history, were 
Greece and benefited by an acquaintance 
^"'** with the Jewish common- 

wealth and religion, can no longer be 
doubted. How much or how directly 
that acquaintance may have contributed 
to their greatness and glory, we may 
never be able to ascertain ; but that it 

Nineteenth Century. 97 

was in no small degree, will be cheer- 
fully admitted. And that their subse- 
quent overthrow resulted from the 
indulgence of practices which are op- 
posed to Bible commandment, is as clear 
as any other fact in their history. 

Also, that all heathen lands, ancient 
and modern, are anti-biblical in their 
faith and practice, is another Heathen 
fact so true that no one ^■"*** 
would think of calling it in question; 
indeed, such countries are and have been 
heathen and degraded because in their 
practices they are anti-biblical. 

In view, therefore, of all these facts, 
is there any room for doubt that the 
best civilizations of antiquity were, at 
least in some instances, directly bene- 
fited by Bible truth, and in every in- 

98 The Bible and the 

stance were made greater by their 
conformity to truths like those found 
in the Bible, and declined when that 
conformity ceased? 

But let us pass to later times. Bible 
Christianity succeeded Bible Judaism, 

Medi»Tai ^^^ *^® pcoplcs comiug Under 
**™**' its influence were blessed. 

But since the normal tendencies of 
humanity are downward, nominal Chris- 
tians, as might be expected, soon lapsed 
from their adherence to the pure and 
beautiful precepts of the gospel. Bible 
truth, therefore, was again hidden from 
the mass of the people; and their joy 
was turned to mourning, their light to 

Since those times there is no disput- 
ing the fact that light has been in pro- 

Nineteenth Century. 99 

portion to the prevalence of Bible faith 
and practice. When, for instance, in 
the fourteenth century, Wick- ^^^^^ 
liff and Huss translated the ^^^'^^p*- 
Bible, and preached its truths, they 
inaugurated almost a new era in the. 
world's history. 

When Luther, too, in the fifteenth 
century brought the truths of the Bible 
from the convent of Erfurth, and gave 
them to the people, he roused to mental 
and moral life not only the slumbering 
German nationality, but gave inspira- 
tion to every other country in Europe. 
"Gutenburg with his printing-press, 
Columbus with his compass, Galileo 
with his telescope, Shakspeare with his 
dramas, and almost every other man of 
note figuring during those times, are 

100 The Bible and the 

grouped, not around some distinguished 
man of science, or man of letters, or 
man of mechanical genius, or man fa- 
mous in war ; but around that monk of 
Wittenberg, who stood with an un- 
chained Bible in his hand." 

And when that other remarkable 
group of reformers during the sixteenth 
century re-enforced the doctrines of the 
Bible, European nations again started 
from their nightmare and anguish on a 
new and grand march of civilization 
and prosperity. 

The history of the Dutch Republic, 
too, shows that it was the recognition 
of Bible truth, and loyalty to it, which 
placed Holland, during the seventeenth 
century, in the fore-front of the civili- 
i^ion of the world. 

Ifineteenth Century, 101 

And Scotland, though peopled for 
centuries, had no prosperous national 
life until it was stirred by the inspira- 
tion of Bible thought and practice. 

" Bible faith and practice " was, too, 
the bold inscription upon the banner 
of the Puritans, and made New Eng- 
land what it is. And the present 
laxity and unrest of our country come, 
as men begin to suspect, from trailing 
that same royal banner in the dust. 

But we must pause in this historic 
review. Before doing so, however, we 
wish to ask those who are wont to say 
that the Bible is merely a book among 
other books, how it chanced Another 


that these Bible writers and question, 
compilers, who, for the most part, lived 
in a country of limited territory, whose 

^ I 

102 The Bible and the 

educational advantages were far from 
the best, whose nation during the greater 
part of its history was entirely destitute 
of political influence, could under such 
circumstances have given the world a 
book which in all matters of law, poli- 
tics, and government, likewise in mat- 
ters relating to what is highest, best, 
and grandest in modern civilization, 
stands without a peer in this world's 
literature ? 

Ah, wonderful book! Men, we trust, 
will some day acknowledge thy claims 
to special authorship. 

The next field of knowledge to 
which we ask attention is that included 
under natural history. One of the 

Nineteenth Century. 103 

principles governing this discussion, 
already announced, we repeat : that, 
while the Bible was not de- TheBiwe 

and natural 

Signed to be a treatise upon history, 
natural history, still, however numerous 
its statements or allusions in this de- 
partment of science, there must be no 
inaccuracy, provided the book is what 
orthodoxy represents it to be. 

Under the general head of natural 
history, we speak first of botany. Up- 
on examination it will be 


found that the Old Testa- 
ment alone contains more than two hun- 
dred and fifty distinct botanical terms. 
It speaks of the flora of all the ancient 
countries bordering upon the Mediterra- 
nean Sea ; the great cedar of Lebanon is 
described and extolled, and the little vine 

104 The Bible and the 

on the trellis is not forgotten : and yet 
no inaccuracy is found in any of its 
statements or allusions. Can this fact 
be other than a surprise to any one who 
is familiar with what Plato, Empedocles, 
Aristotle, and Plutarch have said as to 
the composition and nature of the plant- 
world? We are not criticising the 
ignorance or the crude and wild hy- 
potheses of those wise men : we are 
merely expressing surprise at the wis- 
dom of the " ignorant men " (?) who 
wrote the Bible. 

The latest botanists are classifying 
plants according to what is known as 
the seedrmethod. But this is the meth- 
od employed by Moses when speaking 
of the grass and herb yielding seed, and 
fhe tree yielding fruit whose seed is in 

Nineteenth Century. 105 

itself (Gen. i. 12). This, for a general 
classification, is perfect, and is modern. 
Even the geology of the plant-world, 
as to which other ancient literature 
abounds in all sorts of errors, is with ab- 
solute correctness disclosed in the Bible. 
Thus, too, of zoological science, 
which is another department of natural 
history. While many of the 

• A AX. K ^^''^' 

views advanced by Anaxago- 
xas, Pythagoras, Plato, Democritas, and 
Epicurus seem, according to modern 
view, to be needlessly and grossly at 
fault, yet, under the most recent and 
careful examination, the Bible, though 
describing all sorts of animal life, from 
the leviathan to the snail, from the lion in 
the forest to the moth upon the gar- 
ment, is found to be above reasonable 


106 The Bible and the 

criticism. Its accuracy in some respects 
is remarkable. It speaks of the vulture, 
not in the words of the poet, as scenting 
" the carrion from afar," but as finding 
its prey through the keenness of its eye, 
which is, as a matter of scientific fact, 
correct; it speaks of the industry and 
provident character of the ant, a state- 
ment once ridiculed, but now confirmed 
in the known habits of the " harvesting 
ant " of Syria ; it discloses the fact that 
animal life inhabited the sea before 
appearing upon the earth; it gives cor- 
rectly the geology of animal life, and 
enumerates the four great divisions of 
the animal creation in the order of 
nature, as now taught by the most ap- 
proved science, — beasts, birds, reptiles, 
and fishes. 

Nineteenth Century. 107 

So likewise the references of the Bible 
to the various meteorological phenom- 
ena are worthy of attention, 


though they can receive but 
a passing mention. Note the following: 
"All the rivers run into the sea; unto 
the place from whence the rivers come, 
thither they return again " (Eccles. i. 7) ; 
and, " The wind goeth towards the south, 
and turneth about unto the north. The 
wind returneth again according to its 
circuit" (Eccles. i. 6). These may be 
poetic statements, but that does not ex- 
plain how, as brief and accurate descrip- 
tions of water and aerial circulations, 
they chance to have scarcely a parallel 
in the literature of the ancient world, 
and can hardly be improved upon even 
in our own day. 

108 The Bible and the 

"He that fainteth not, neither is 
weary," is represented as the One who 
hath made " a decree for the rain, and 
a way for the lightning." He it is who 
"bindeth up the waters in his thick 
cloud, and the cloud is not rent under 
them ; " " he draweth up the drops of 
water: rain is condensed from his 
vapor." These also are held to be 
poetic expressions, but their accuracy 
is none the less a marvel. 

It is likewise the Infinite One, " who 
hath measured the waters in the hollow 
of his hand, and meted out heaven with 
the span, and comprehended the dust 
of the earth in a measure, and weighed 
the mountains in scales, and the hills 
in a balance " (Isa. xl. 12). This lan- 
guage is but another way of saying that 

Nineteenth Century. 109 

in the physical universe there are the 
nicest adjustments of part to part ; that 
"one grain more or less of sand," to 
quote from science, " would disturb, or 
even fatally disorder, except for some 
supernatural interposition, the whole 
scheme of the heavenly motions." 

The object we have in view in this 
treatise does not allow further discus- 
sion in the field of natural history. 
We, therefore, merely add that not- 
withstanding the Bible, as we have 
seen, refers to a multitude of phenom- 
ena belonging to this department of 
science; and notwithstanding the con- 
temporaneous or nearly contemporane- 
ous treatises of the Indians, the Chinese, 
the Greeks, and the Romans, abound 
ia the falsest speculations, — still no 

110 The Bible and the 

mistakes are found in the Bible. Its 
records in these respects are as immacu- 
late as if written by the best scholars 
of modern times. We do not claim 
that the Bible is as full as if it were 
designed to be a scientific treatise, or 
that its writers themselves understood 
all they said, or that in every instance 
they knew distinctly why they compiled 
into the Bible some materials, and re- 
jected others which were at their com- 
mand : we simply assert that thus far in 
our investigations we find the Bible free 
from the errors which everywhere pre- 
vailed at the time it was composed. 
The statement of the late Lieut. Maury, 
who is now recognized as having been 
one of the leading scientific men of his 
age, on account of both his valuable dis- 

Nineteenth Century. Ill 

coveries, and his contributions to scien- 
tific literature, i^n point, and is author- 
itative. In his "Physical Geography 
of the Sea," he employs this ^p,„,„„ ^, 
language: "The Bible fre- i-ient-Mmury. 
quently makes allusion to the laws of 
nature, their operation and effects. But 
such allusions -are often so wrapped in 
the folds of the peculiar and graceful 
drapery with which its language is oc- 
casionally clothed, that the meaning, 
though peeping out from its thin cov- 
ering all the while, yet lies in some 
sense concealed, until the lights and 
revelations of science are thrown upon 
it; then it bursts out, and strikes us 
with the more force and beauty." And 
elsewhere this distinguished writer re- 
marks, "I have always found in my 

112 The Bible and the 

scientific studies, that, when I could get 
the Bible to saj anjHhing upon the 
subject, it afforded me a fimi platform 
to stand upon, and a round in the lad- 
der by which I could safely ascend." 
These words read like those of the 
Psalmist when saying, ** Therefore I 
esteem all thy precepts concerning all 
things to be right." 

But can it be possible that in all 
these matters there should have been 
this freedom from mistakes, and in the 
light of modern investigation this won- 
derful accuracy of statement, unless the 
Bible writers and compilers were, as 
the apostle says, ^^pheromenoij^^ borne 
along by the Holy Spirit as a ship is 
borne before the wind? 

Nineteenth Century. 113 

At this point some one asks, Why- 
does the writer spend his time with this 
less-controverted subject-matter? Why 
does he not boldly take up matters 
found within the realms of geology and 
astronomy, over which the friends and 
the enemies of the Bible have been 
waging their fiercest warfare? The 
question is pertinent, and we at once 
and willingly accept the implied chal- 

Ancient literature bearing upon the 
origin of the earth is comparatively 
full, and not devoid of in- ^h© BiWe 
terest. "* »*^*^8^^- 

The Egyptians, as Plato informs us, 
taught that the earth and the heavens 
originated out of a kind of pulp, and 
that men w^re generated from the slime 

114 The Bible and the 

of the river Nile. Other sages of Egypt 

held that the world was hatched from a 

wmged egg. It may be too 

tkesBcieats bold to say that modem sci- 


•risbi 9t ence can disprove these theo- 
ries; but all friends of the 
Bible are well pleased that Moses did 
not say men were generated from the 
slime of the river Nile, and that Solo- 
mon did not say the world was hatched 
firom a winged egg. But why did not 
these Bible writers so teach? Was not 
Moses ^^ learned in all the wisdom of 
the Egyptians"? 

Lucretius, in his poem ** On the Na- 
ture of Things," affirms that "nature 
does all things spontaneously, without 
the intermeddling of the gods." But 
modem research announces that there 

Nineteenth Century. 115 

is not the slightest evidence that any 
form of life ever has been, or ever can 
be, produced by spontaneous generation* 

Aristotle claimed that matter pro- 
duced all things. But modern research 
finds not a shred of evidence that mat- 
ter can produce any form of life, even 
the lowest, except through the agency 
of antecedent life. 

Zeno held that the universe sprang 
into existence from its own inherent 
energy, and Epicurus taught that it 
happened to come into existence " by a 
fortuitous concourse of atoms." But 
"inherent energy,'* and "fortuitous con- 
course of atoms," are expressions which 
are now being set aside by science. 

Plutarch, after studying all the an- 
cient philosophers, arrived at this con- 


116 The Bible and the 

elusion : " The insectible bodies, or 
atoms, by a wild and fortuitous motioii, 
without any governing power, inces- 
santly and swiftly were hurried one 
against another, many bodies being 
jumbled together; upon this account 
they have a diversity in their figures 
and magnitude. . . . After this manner 
the principal parts of the earth were 
constituted." One need not be told 
that these words, in the light of modern 
investigation, are nothing but the sheer- 
est nonsense. 

Still cruder and falser, if possible, are 
the views that have prevailed in India 
and China. Of these we have no need 
or time to speak. 

These opinions and teachings of 
ancient literature bearing upon the 

Nineteenth Century. 117 

origin of things have, beyond contro- 
versy, no modern scientific support. 
The statement of Sir William „. „„„ 

Sir William 

Thomson, in his address upon Thomson 

gives expres- 

taking the presidential chair siontomod- 
of the British Association, at " ^ ° • 
the Edinburgh meeting, may be taken 
as representative of the best thought 
of the present age. Heinrich Frey, 
Lionel S. Beale, W. H. Dallinger, Lotze, 
Wundt, Helmholtz, and other of the 
profoundest thinkers of Europe and 
America, have given expression to the 
same opinion. 

"A very ancient speculation," says 
Thomson, " still clung to by many natu- 
ralists (so much so, that I have a choice 
of modern terms to quote in expressing 
it), supposes that, under meteorological 

118 The Bible and the 

conditions very different from the pres- 
ent, dead matter may have run together 
or crystallized or fermented into 'germs 
of life,' or 'organic cells,' or 'proto- 
plasm.' But science brings a vast mass 
of inductive evidence against this hy- 
pothesis of spontaneous generation, as 
you have heard from my predecessor in 
the presidential chair. Careful enough 
scrutiny has, in every case up to the 
present day, discovered hfe as ante- 
cedent to life. Dead matter cannot 
become living without coming under 
the influence of matter previously alive. 
This seems to me as sure a teaching of 
science as the law of gravitation." 

But what is this life that never had a 
beginning, that has life in and of itself 
eternally? this that commanded the 

Nineteenth Century. 119 

earth to "bring forth grass, the herb 
yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yield- 
ing fruit after his kind " ? that com- 
manded the waters to "bring forth 
abundantly the moving creature that 
hath life "? and that "giveth to all life, 
and breath, and all things " ? The 
Bible upon its every page declares that 
this antecedent Life and Maker of all 
things is a supreme Intelligence, called 
God; and modern science makes the 
same confession, or is dumb. 

From the origin of the earth to the 
history of its subsequent formations, is 
the next step in our investigations. 
Any attempt to treat all the various 
matters relating to the geology of the 
Bible in their fulness is manifestly out 
of the question. Such a treatment 

120 The Bible and the 

would of itself require a volume of 
many pages. The object we have in 
view may, therefore, be best accom- 
plished by quoting the opinions of those 
who are in every way fitted to judge 
in these matters. And certainly all 
thoughtful men, under the circum- 
stances, will justify this argument 
based upon authority. 

The first proposition to be estab- 
lished is this : While the Bible was not 
written to teach geological science, it 
has nevertheless, in a general way, es- 
pecially in the first chapters of Genesis, 
recorded the geoloffical his- 

° ° Opinions of 

tory of our globe ; and, ac- eminent men 

as to the 

cording to the testimony of geology of 

. ^.n the Bible. 

men emment as scientinc 
thinkers, it has made in its record no 

Nineteenth Century. 121 

mistakes. The following testimonies 
are presented in evidence. 

" The relation of geology, as well as 

, astronomy, to the Bible, when both are 

understood," says the late Professor 

Silliman of Yale College, '4s that of 

perfect harmony." 

Chancellor Dawson, who has be- 
stowed upon this subject the most 
patient and critical attention, thus 
expresses the result of his investiga- 
tions as to what is termed the geology 
of Moses : " The order of creation, as 
stated in Genesis, is faultless in the 
light of modern science, and many of 
its details present the most remarkable 
agreement with the results of sciences 
born only in our own day." 

Similar to these words, though not 

122 The Bible and the 

so explicit, are those of the late Pro- 
fessor Benjamin Peirce of Harvard 
College : *' Science and religion were 
born of the same house, and that house 
is not divided against itself. There is 
and will be an apparent conflict be- 
tween them ; but it is of human origin, 
arising from the defects of our knowl- 
edge and not from the greatness of it." 
Professor Arnold Henry Guyot, 
whose name is enrolled with almost 
every noted scientific association of the 
world, thus speaks of the harmony be- 
tween the Bible and nature's records of 
creation : " To a sincere and unsophis- 
ticated mind, it must be evident that 
the grand outlines sketched by Moses 
are the same as those which modern 
science enables us to trace. The same 

Nineteenth Century. 123 

divine Hand which lifted up before the 
eyes of Daniel and of Isaiah the veil 
which covered the tableau of time to 
come, unveiled before the eyes of the 
author of Genesis the earliest ages of the 
creation ; and Moses was the prophet of 
the past, as Daniel and Isaiah and many 
others were the prophets of the future." 
Hugh Miller, whose acute observa- 
tion, exact reasoning, and finished style 
have rendered him celebrated in science 
and literature, speaking of the geologic 
prophecies of the Scriptures, says, 
*' These latent scientific prophecies or 
anticipations of the word of God, of 
which we have been speaking, seem to 
have been so deeply embedded in the 
sacred text that the world has not seen 
them hitherto; nor, indeed, could see 

124 The Bible and the 

them now, were it not tliat our advan- 
cing science is revealing them. The 
geologic prophecies, though they might 
have been read, could not be under- 
stood till the fulness of the time had 
come. And it is only as the fulness of 
the time comes, in the brighter light 
of increasing scientific knowledge, that 
these grand old oracles of the Bible, so 
apparently simple, but so marvellously 
pregnant with meaning, stand forth at 
once cleared of all erroneous human 
glosses, and vindicated as the inspired 
testimonies of Jehovah." 

Professor Dana, whose scientific pub- 
lications have placed him in the front 
rank among philosophic naturalists, 
speaks thus while writing of the Mosaic 
account of creation : " The first thought 


Nineteenth Century. 126 

that strikes the scientific reader is the 
evidence of divinity, not merely in the 
first verse of the record and the succes- 
sive fiats, but in the whole order of 
creation. There is so much that the 
most recent readings of science have 
for the first time explained, that the 
idea of man as the author becomes 
utterly incomprehensible. By proving 
the record true, science pronounces it 
divine; for who could have correctly 
narrated the secrets of eternity but 
God himself?" Elsewhere this same 
professor has happily put his thought 
thus : " The grand old Book of . God 
still stands ; and this old earth, the 
more its leaves are turned and pon- 
dered, the more will it sustain aqd 
illustrate the sacred Word." 

126 The Bible and the 

Speaking of Psalm civ., Baron Hum- 
boldt says, "We are astonished •to find 
in a lyrical poem of such a limited 
compass the whole univeree — the heav- 
ens and the earth — sketched with a few 
bold touches. . . . This contrast and 
generalization in the conception of 
natural phenomena, and the retrospeo 
tion of an omnipresent invisible Power 
which can renew the earth, or crumble 
it to dust, constitute a solemn and 
exalted form of poetic creation." 

Now, must not testimony from so 
many authorities be respected? Of 
course it must. Therefore, young men, 
when the sceptic says to you that the 
teachings of science have demolished 
the Bible, it is your privilege with 
ISQcJesty, yet with firmness, to reply, 

Nineteenth Century. 127 

'' Some of the ablest scientific men of 
Hiis world think otherwise, and hold 
the Bible in supreme admiration." 

It is at this point that certain mat- 
ters should be carefully noted. When, 
for instance, these Bible accounts of 
the creation were committed to writing, 
modern science had not had its dawn ; 
and at that time, too, the now-rejected 
systems and theories of ancient scien- 
tists were in their development, and 
were holding sway over the thoughts of 
men. How, therefore, did it happen, if 
there is nothing exceptional about the 
Bible, that, without being in the least 
contaminated by opinions then preva- 
lent, it maintained from first to last a 
solitary path of scientific accuracy ? 

You who can make estimates, judge 

128 The Bible and the 

what are the chances, if the Bible is 
only an ordinary book, that Moses 
would have written widely different 
from all his contemporaries, and at the 
same time in harmony with that which 
is most recent in science ? How did it 
chance that the Bible reports that light 
was the first product of creative energy, 
and that man was the last; and that 
the creation of light, the creation of 
man, and the order of the intervening 
stages of creation as outlined by Moses, 
are not only not in conflict, but are in 
perfect harmony, with the most recent 
announcements of both astronomical 
and geological science ? 

Sublime are the representations as 
found in the original text: "In the 
beginning had God created the heavens 

Nineteenth Century. 129 

and the earth. And the earth had be- 
come a waste and a void, and darkness 
was upon the face of the deep : and the 
Spirit of God was brooding upon the 
face of the water " (Gen. i. 1, 2). This 
language covers the geological history 
of the world down to the darkness and 
devastations of the ice and drift epochs. 
Then follows an account of the Mosaic 
days of creation (Gen. v. 1-27), in an 
absolutely faultless order, as typified 
by those vast geological periods. 
Whence, therefore, this accurate ac- 
count of the creation, which, among all 
the other cosmogonies of antiquity, — 
the records and traditions of the Baby- 
lonians, the Egyptians, the Assyrians, 
the peoples of India, the masses of 
China, the writings of Herodotus, 

130 The Bible and the 

Thales, Pythagoras, Aristotle, Plato, 
Zeno, Epicurus, and other Greeks and 
many Romans, — stands alone, chal- 
lenging the world's acknowledgment 
and admiration ? Can these facts by 
any thoughtful person be set aside with 
a sneer ? 

But let us pass for a few moments to 
the field of astronomical science. You 
The Bible need not be told of the dis- 

and astron- 
omy, coveries that have been made, 

nor of all the appliances in use for 
making discoveries in the stellar uni- 
verse. There are now telescopes of 
such penetrating power that by look- 
ing through them you can read, in a 
clear atmosphere, it is claimed, ordinary 
print twenty miles distant. And there 

Nineteenth Century. 131 

are microscopes of such magnifying 
power that looking through them the 
edge of a razor, which is supposed to 
be the one-thousandth of an inch in 
thickness, appears, it is said, to have 
the breadth of three fingers on a man's 
hand; while a dot so small that three 
of them can lie side by side across the 
edge of the sharpest razor, may be 
magnified to the size of an English 
shilling. There are spectroscopes, too, 
which can tell you, beyond question, 
what are the materials now in a state 
of combustion, not only on the sun, but 
on stars so remote that the comprehen- 
sion of their distances is impossible. 
Telescopes have been, and are now, 
everywhere busy watching and search- 
ing the stars; and of late the spectro- 

132 Tlie Bible and the 

scope, too, is lifting up to them its 
curious eye. The Christian believer, 
meanwhile, is wont to ask, " What are 
the results of all these explorations in 
the physical heavens ? Are they harm- 
ful to the Bible, or otherwise ? " 

This, at the outset, will be conceded : 
that if the Bible is merely like other 
books, and if other books of contempo- 
raneous date, in the light of modern 
investigation, are filled with erroneous 
astronomical statements, then we may 
also expect to find in the Bible similar 

But, on the other hand, if upon ex- 
amination it shall appear that the Bible, 

A test having had many things to 

question. gg^y g^g ^Q ^\^Q origin and build- 
ing of the stars and the earth, though 

Nineteenth Century. 133 

not designed to be a special treatise 
upon world-building and astronomy, has 
escaped all the errors of the ancients; 
and if it is the. only book of ancient 
date that has thus escaped; and, fur- 
ther, if it shall appear that the Bible 
harmonizes with what is established and 
recent in astronomical science, and is 
the only ancient book that does harmo- 
nize with recent investigations, — then 
does it not follow that the Bible carries 
upon its pages incontestable evidence of 
a. high and matchless authority and au- 
thorship ? What, therefore, are the facts 
in the case? is the question confronting 

It is well known that telescopes, 
microscopes, and spectroscopes have 
played much havoc with most of the 

184 Tlie Bible and the 

ancient treatises and systems of astron- 
omy and astrology. They have fatally 
smitten the astrologers of Babylon and 
Assyria, the shasters of India, the as- 
tronomy of Ptolemy, the cosmogonies 
of the intellectual Greeks and Romans, 
the partially borrowed Koran of Mo- 
hammed, and the speculative scientific 
views of nearly all the church Fathers. 

But it is, or ought to be, equally well 
known, that telescopes, microscopes, and 
spectroscopes have not played havoc 
with revelations as to these subjects 
found in the Bible. The conclusion, 
therefore, seems to be inevitable. 

But perhaps these points need illus- 
Ancient tratiou. We, therefore, first 

•stroiogj. ^g^^ attention, for a moment, 

to certain views concerning the influ- 


* Nineteenth Century. 135 

ence, or, rather, the supposed influence, 
of the stars upon human interests and 

In early times the sincerity of man's 
belief as to the influence of the heavenly 
bodies in all the affairs of life cannot be 
doubted. The science of astrology was 
the outgrowth of that faith, and is 
coeval with the science of astronomy. 

Among the most civilized of ancient 
nations, and especially in those periods 
and countries where the stars were be- 
lieved to have life, astrology became 
almost an essential part of the national 
character and thinking. It shared the 
favor of the common people, and the 
patronage of kings and rulers. 
% Astrology was divided into natural 
and judicial. Natural astrology ob- 

136 The Bible and the 

served what were the diGferent aspects 
of the heavenly bodies, and decided 
upon the relative importance of star- 
appearances, and showed what natural 
phenomena, such as eclipses, winds, 
storms, earthquakes, and the like, would 
result from given appearances of^ the 
heavenly bodies. Judicial astrology, 
by the same observations, foretold what 
were called moral events, such as the 
successes and reverses, the plenties and 
famines, of nations and individuals. 
Egypt is supposed to have been the 
home of astrology, as it also 

In Egypt. 

was of astronomy: its sway 
in that country was imperial. 

Among the Babylonians, too, astrolo- 
gy was regarded, in matters of national 
welfare, as of primal importance. Judi- 

Nineteenth Century. 137 

cial astrology was allowed to decide in 
all matters, important and unimportant. 
Of earlier date than the palmy 

In Babylon. 

days of the Babylonian em- 
pire are some of the books of Babylon 
on astrology, — books that were extant 
in the days of Aristotle. 

In Chaldaea the sway of this science 
was also supreme. Astrologers formed 
the highest caste, and enjoyed 

In Chaldna. 

a prominent place in the 
royal court. No house could be built, 
no journey begun, no campaign under- 
taken, until the astrological diviners 
had examined the stars, and discovered 
the propitious time. 

The ancient Persians, no less than the 
Egyptians and Chaldaeans, also sought 
the supposed aid of astrology. Nothing 

188 The Bible and the 

was done by them without consulting 
the stars. The journey was 

In Persia. 

commenced, even the dress 
or coat was put on, only at the propi- 
tious astrological juncture. 

Thus also was it with the Arabs. 

They neither sowed nor 

In Arablft. 

reaped, undertook expedi- 
tions, nor engaged in business, without 
consulting the stars. 

Throughout Europe, too, the fascina- 
tions of astrology are found for cen- 
. turies well-nigh bewitching 

In Europe. 

the people. During the thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries, astrol- 
ogy was taught in the universities of 
Italy, and professors of astrology were 
appointed at Padua and Bologna. Cath- 
erine de Medicis of France allowed no 

Nineteenth Century, 139 

great enterprise to be undertaken with- 
out consulting and following the dicta- 
tion of the stars. During the reign of 
Henry III., and also that of Henry IV., 
astrology formed at court the engross- 
ing subject of ordinary conversation. 
And, says D'Alembert, " There is hardly 
an edifice in Constantinople and in all 
Greece that has not been erected ac- 
cording to the rules of apotelesmatic 

Such are the facts. The world was 
filled with these notions. It was be- 
lieved and taught, out of the schools 
and in the schools, that man's destinies 
were controlled by the stars ; that suc- 
cesses and reverses, national and indi- 
vidual, came at the caprice or dictation 
of those heavenly bodies. It was popu- 

140 The Bible and the 

lar to hold these views : it was popular 

to teach them. With these astrological 

notions the Bible writers were familiar. 

Those Bible men must have 

The Bible 

irriterswere kuowu that their popularity 

fftmllUr with 

these Tiews, would havc been enhanced 
adopter' i^ ^^^y ^^^ adopted the pre- 
*'**■»• vailing beliefs of those times. 

Had Moses, or David, or Isaiah, or 
John, or the other inspired men, intro- 
duced into their writings the astro- 
logical tables and maxims in vogue in 
their times, it would have given a caste 
and currency to their writings not 
otherwise attainable. Of this they must 
have been fully aware. There were, 
therefore, strong temptations to yield 
to these popular demands. But if they 
had yielded! Indeed, how easily in 

Nineteenth Century. 141 

those times the authority of the Bible 
could have been imperilled I For as- 
trology, in intelligent circles, is now 
laughed at. Modern thought has writ- 
ten over its grave this epitaph : " Made 
up of the greatest possible amount of 
error, mixed with the least possible 
amount of truth." And, too, would not 
that have been the epitaph written over 
the Bible had it taught the astrology 
and astronomy which were in vogue 
when it was compiled and authorized? 

But the fact in the case is, that, amid 
this condition of things extending from 
the days of Moses a long way past the 
days of John the Apostle, the Bible 
was not astrological. Indeed, from first 
to last it was emphatically anti-astro- 
logical* Is not this dead silence re- 


142 The Bible and the 

specting the star-theories of those who 
were contemporaries with the men whc 
wrote the Bible, a piece of very weighty 
moral evidence that in its origin and 
composition it is not like other books? 
Its voice in all these matters is modern 
rather than ancient ? But why ? is th& 
question requiring solution. Its teach- 
ings, as every reader of it knows, are 
uniform, and are these: Supernatural 
influences in national and individual 
affairs are solely in the hands of an in- 
finite Being " who makes for righteous- 
ness." "Dominion and fear are with 
him, he maketh peace in his high 
places. Behold even to the moon, and 
it shineth not ; yea, the stars are not 
pure in his sight" (Job xxv. 2, 5),— is 
the voice of one of the earliest writings 

Nineteenth Century. 143 

of the Bible composed in Arabia ; and 
" To the only wise God our Saviour, be 
glory and majesty, dominion and power, 
both now and ever. Amen" (Jude 
25}, — is the response that came from 
one of the last of the inspired writers. 

But let us advance a step farther. 
Ancient philosophers, teachers, and 
common people not only held ^n^ient 
erroneous views as to astrolo- •«t'0"»»™i- 
gy : they were likewise much mistaken 
in their other astronomical opinions- 
The following grouping will 
fully establish this statement : its shape, 

, fonndatlon, 

Anaximenes held that the andcom- 
earth is shaped like a table, ^^ 
and Leucippus said that it has the form 
of a drum ; but every child now knows 
that its shape is like that of an orange 

144 The Bible and the 

or an apple. Pindar taught that the 
earth rests upon columns and pillars of 
adamant; and other ancient writers 
maintained that it rests upon the back 
of a huge tortoise, which in turn is 
supported upon the coils of an immense 
serpent. Such is its resting-place (they 
seem to have reasoned); for, if not, upon 
what does it rest ? Most men appear to 
have been silenced, and let it rest there. 
There were still other teachers, in other 
countries, who advanced the theory that 
the earth is supported upon the backs 
of huge elephants, the motion of whose 
heads causes earthquakes. 

Do these notions seem crude? But 
we must not forget that those were 
crude ages, in which mistakes of this 
kind may well be excused. 

Nineteenth Century. 145 

Even Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle 
argued that the earth is a live being; 
and that the east, whence motion 
commences, is the right, and the west 
the left hand of our world. Even 
Christian theologians as late as Gali- 
leo's time taught that the earth is sta- 
tionary ; and Augustine, 400 A. D., 
declared that there are no inhabitants 
on the nether side of it. A different 
view at that time was theological 
heresy. What would be thought of a 
teacher in our day, if advancing any of 
these views? He would not only be 
dismissed from his position, but his in- 
sanity would perhaps be argued as of 
an incurable type. Philolaus had a 
theory that the earth's destruction is 
to come about by the waters of the 

146 The Bible and the 

moon being poured down upon it 
through a whirlpool in the atmosphere. 
But the probabilities are that the moon 
has not so much as a cupful of water 
with which to cloud its sky, to say 
nothing of deluging a world. 

The moon in its composition, accord- 
ing to Pharnaces, is " wholly a mixture 
Thtmoom: "^^ *''" *"^ "fiHA fire." But 
Its conoroBi- ^]jg fj^p(.g jipg ^Q^ ^g]j estab- 

■nd diiunu. lisbed, that there is no at- 
mosphere on the moon, and, further, 
that its fires were extinct thousands of 
ages ago, and that, therefore, it is noth- 
but a burnt-out slag. Alarchua 
that the face in the moon is a 
;tion of the ocean upon our earth. 
the outlines of that ia.e,Q are now 
vn to be the shadows cast by ita 

Nineteenth Century. 147 

lofty mountains into its own deep cav- 
erns. Some of the Stoics declared that 
the moon exceeds in magnitude the 
earth ; and Anaximander aflBrmed that 
it is nineteen times larger than the 
earth, being a circle filled with fire like 
the sun. But, as a matter of fact, the 
earth in volume exceeds the moon in 
the proportion of ninety to one. The 
shasters of India tell us that the moon 
is fifty thousand leagues higher up than 
the sun, that it animates our bodies, 
and shines with its own light. But 
the moon does not shine with its own 
light, and, instead of being more remote 
from us than the sun, is millions of 
miles nearer. 

Philolaus held that the sun is a crys- 
tal whose light is merely a reflection of 

148 The Bible and the 

the light of the earth. But no one 
no-w need be told that this is false, inas- 
Thesun: iti much as the sun is a globe of 

character /» t « 

and size. uro seudmg its names a hun- 
dred thousand miles up from its surface. 
As to the size of the sun, there were 
many conjectures. Heraclitus declared 
that the sun is no larger than the 
breadth of a man's foot. Epicurus said 
that he embraced all the opinions that 
had been held respecting the size of the 
sun; namely, "the sun may be of a 
magnitude as it appears, or it may be 
somewhat greater, or somewhat less." 
Anaxagoras taught that the sun was 
made from a mass of iron somewhat 
larger than the Peloponnesus, and the 
Peloponnesus has an area of only eight 
thousand five hundred square miles. 

Nineteenth Century, 149 

Anaximander was quite extravagant for 
his time ; claiming that the Bun is twenty- 
eight times larger than the earth, having 
a circumference which resembles a hol- 
low chariot-wheel filled with fire. But 
Parmenides opposed this view, insistiug 
that the sun ia only about the size of 
the earth. As a matter of fact, however, 
the sun is not like a chariot-wheel, and 
in volume exceeds the earth in the pro- 
portion of one million four hundred 
thousand, to one. 

As to the composition of the stars, 
there were various conflicting opinions. 
Diogenes thought that the 
stars resemble pumice-stones, 
and that they are the breathings ol 
world. Philolaus of Crotona contei 
that the stars are made of crystal n 

150 The Bible and the 

purer than diamonds. Plato thought 
that the stars are of a fiery nature, 
mixed with something resembling glue. 
Zenophanes taught that the stars are 
composed of inflamed clouds, which are 
kindled at night, but quenched during 
the day. Anaximenes said that they are 
fastened as nails in the crystalline firma- 
ment. Others, says Plutarch, taught 
that the stars are fiery plates of gold, re- 
sembling pictures. Heraclitus and some 
of the Stoics held that the stars depend 
for their illumination upon exhalations 
from damp places on the earth. The 
ancient Persians taught that the stars 
are the gods of the universe. 

By some of the philosophers 

ComeU. . 

m early times, it was main- 
tained that comets are the souls of good 

Nineteenth Century. 151 

men on their way to heaven ; others 
said that they are angels escorting right- 
eous souls to places of rest. And sev- 
eral of the Pythagorean philos- ^^ njj^y 
ophers taught that the Milky ^•'^* 
Way is an old disused path of the sun. 
Thus also there were differences of 
opinion as to the number and distances 
of the heavenly bodies. Some Nnmber and 

distances of 

of the ancients thought that the stan. 
there are about a thousand stars. Even 
Hipparchus and Ptolemy never hinted 
at their incalculable number. 

Hesiod affirmed that it would take a 
brazen anvil nine days to pass from the 
stars to the earth, and nine days to go 
from the earth to the infernal regions. 
Therefore, according to this estimate, 
only eighteen days would be required to 

152 The Bible and the 

travel the spaces occupied by the side- 
real heavens. But the fact is, that 
even light itself, moving at the rate of 
nearly two hundred thousand miles per 
second, cannot travel those sidereal 
spaces in a million ages. 

But in this review of ancient specu- 
lations, we must pause. As every child 
knows, they are utterly false. Still, as 
already suggested, those men must not 
be over-much condemned. They theo- 
rized as best they could with the light 
they had. The earth does appear to 
be shaped like a table ; and seemingly 
it must rest upon something, — either 
pillars, tortoises, serpents, or elephants. 
The moon really seems farther away 
than the sun, and apparently shines 
with its own light. The sun does not 

Nineteenth Century, 158 

seem larger than the estimates given by 
the ancients, and on the clearest nights 
the unaided eye can count only a few 
more than a thousand stars. The 
Milky Way can easily be imagined to be 
a disused path of the sun, and comets 
with their flowing robes might well be 
thought to be escorting angels. 

Now, while casting no reflections up- 
on ancient philosophers, we certainly 
have a right to ask how it why dw not 
chanced that Moses, instead B«we-writoni 

' make similar 

of limiting the stars to a •t*temeiit§i 
thousand, hints that their number is 
innumerable (Gen. xv. 5). How, too, 
did it chance that Job did not propose 
serpents, elephants, tortoises, or some- 
thing of the sort, for the earth's founda- 
tions ; instead of declaring, in that age 

164 The Bible and the 

of scientific ignorance and in direct op- 
position to the statements and specula- 
tions of his time, that it is God who 
stretcheth out the north over the empty 
place, and hangeth the earth upon noth- 
ing (Job xxvi. 7), — precisely where 
modern science hangs it? 

Or, vary the form of these questions. 
What if Isaiah, in his supposed inspired 
utterances, had said that the sun is in 
size equal to the Peloponnesus, that it 
is shaped like a chariot-wheel, and that 
in eighteen days a brazen anvil can pass 
the stellar spaces? And, if he com- 
posed his writings as other men com- 
pose theirs, why was he not liable to 
these or similar utterances ? Or, what 
if the Apostle Peter, instead of saying 
that fire, with great noise and melting 

Nineteenth Centurg. 155 

elements (2 Pet. iii. 10-12), is to be, 
as modern science hints, "the dread 
communist of the universe," had said 
that the earth is to be destroyed by the 
waters of the moon poured down upon it 
through a whirlpool in its atmosphere ? 
These mistaken opinions were common 
talk among the people living when and 
where this Bible was written. What 
was it, therefore, that guarded its writers 
and compilers against introducing into 
it these errors, almost any one of which 
would now be appalling to those who 
regard the Bible as the word of God ? 
Bear in mind, at this point, that 
these various disclosures of the Bible 
were placed on record at a time when 
even the names of some of the modern 
sciences had not been spoken. Chem- 

166 The Bible and the 

istry, geology, and mineralogy were 
hardly born before the beginning of the 
nineteenth century ; and astronomy has 
widened immensely the fields of her 
conquests within the last three-quarters 
of a century. 

It is only a little over a hundred and 
fifty years since the Ptolemaic theory 

— the theory that the earth is in the 
centre, and that the sun moves about it 

— was taught in so respectable an insti- 
tution as Yale College. Any alteration, 
therefore, of the Greek and Hebrew 
text of the Bible to suit the late dis- 
coveries of modern science, as was for 
a time claimed by a few unscholarly 
minds, has been rendered impossible. 
Now, in view of all these facts, can any 
man, in his reason, decide that this 

Nineteenth Century. 157 

Bible, freely referring as it does to the 
various phenomena of the physical uni- 
verse, could have escaped all these 
errors of ancient writers and philoso- 
phers, provided there were no super- 
natural influences controlling the minds 
of those who wrote and compiled it ? 

But we have not yet completed this 
part of our subject. There are scien- 
tific thoughts in the depart- other impor. 
ment of astronomy expressed ^ll^ll''^^ 
in the Bible, which seem far, ^*">^«- 
very far, beyond the possible ken of 
those who wrote them. The writer of 
the Book of Job speaks, for instance, 
of the loosing of the bands of Orion 
(Job xxxviii. 31). Until recently there 
was no intelligent interpretation for 
that passage. But astronomers have 

158 The Bible and the 

discovered of late the almost startling 
fact, that our planetary system is slowly 
drifting away from the constellation in 
which Orion is chief. Does some one 
reply that this Bible expression is 
merely a poetic fancy? Admit it. 
But what explanation can be given 
for the wonderful scientific accuracy of 
such a poetic fancy? Why were not 
Homer and Virgil equally correct in 

their fancies? This same Bible-writer 
also speaks of an empty place in the 
north (Job xxvi. 7). Poetic, is it said? 
Doubtless it is poetic, and perhaps the 
writer did not understand the full im- 
port of his words : but what is singular 
is the fact, that this expression, written 
in an age when errors iii science every- 
where prevailed, is, in the light of mod- 

Nineteenth Century. 159 

ern discovery, a marvel of scientific 
accuracy ; for modern astronomers now 
tell us that the only space in the stellar 
heavens where the telescope can dis- 
cover no stars is not east or west, but 

In view of these and many other 
Scriptural statements, need there be 
any surprise that the illustrious astrono- 
mer Sir John Herschel was led, in the 
rapture of his admiration for the Bible, 
to exclaim, "All human discoveries 
seem to be made only for the purpose 
of confirming more and more strongly 
the truths contained in the Holy Scrip- 
tures " ? 

And it is our own late and honored 
astronomer. Gen. O. M. Mitchel, who 
after passing in imagination beyond 

160 The Bible and the 

suns and systems towering on the right 
hand and on the left, and with thoughts 
expanded and aglow with sublimities, 
and struggling* for expression, in a pas- 
sage of rare beauty, exclaims, " Let us 
turn to the language of the Bible : it 
furnishes the only fitting vehicle to 
express the thoughts which overwhelm 
us, and we break out involuntarily in 
the language of God's own inspiration, 
* Have ye not known, hath it not been 
told you from the beginning, have ye 
not understood from the foundation of 
the earth ? It is he who sitteth upon 
the circle of the earth, that stretcheth 
out the heavens as a curtain, and 
spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell 
in. Lift up your eyes on high, and be- 
hold who hath created all tliese things, 


Nineteenth Century. 161 

that bringeth out their host by number? 
It is he who meted out the heavens 
with a span, and comprehended the 
dust of the earth in a measure, and 
weighed the mountains in scales and 
the hills in balances. It is he who 
stretcheth out the north over the empty- 
place, and hangeth the earth upon noth- 
ing. By his spirit he hath garnished 
the heavens. He telleth the number of 
the stars. He calleth them all by their 
names. He commandeth the sun, and 
it riseth not, and sealeth up the stars. 
He bindeth the sweet influences of the 
Pleiades, and looseth the bands of 
Orion. He bringeth forth Mazzaroth in 
his season, and guideth Arcturus with 
his sons. Lo ! these are a part of his 
ways; but the thunder of his power, 

162 The Bible and the 

who can understand?'" We do not 
hesitate to say that these closing sen- 
tences quoted from the Book of Job, in 
scientific accuracy and in poetic grand- 
eur, even under the intense blaze of 
the culture and civilization of the nine- 
teenth century, are unequalled by any 
page from the pen of any sceptic who 
has ever assailed the blessed Book, 
and will survive when every thing 
scepticism has produced which is not in 
harmony with its revelations shall have 
sunk forever into the depths of oblivion. 

What remains to be said may be 
classed under morality and religion. 
We have reserved these topics for the 
last, because there is no question that 


Nineteenth Century. 163 

the Bible in its entirety is designed 
chiefly to teach religion, and that in 
some of its parts its chief de- TheBiwe; 

its morale 

Sign IS to teach morality, and religion. 
Hence, if in these matters of morality 
and religion the Bible standard is not 
high and royal, even superior to all else 
found in ancient literature, we may well 
question its authority, and its claims of 
having been written and compiled by 
men who in their work were controlled 
by supernatural influences. 

Comparisons between the teachings 
of the Bible and those of other ancient 
literature, upon the subject comparisons 
of morals, first claim atten- we'tel^wigs 
tion. We presume at the "«*>»o«7' 

*^ other ancient 

outset that no intelligent per- ut«r»tnre. 
son will question this statement, that if 

164 The Bible and the 

some of the sayings of the great men of 
antiquity — such men as Zeno, Aris- 
totle, Quintilian, and even Plato — were 
put in practice, society would be robbed 
of its moral safeguards, and be led into 
speedy and universal mischiefs. Nor can 
any one doubt, that if the immoralities 
practised by the Egyptians, Babylonians, 
Assyrians, and by the peoples of India 
and China, and by those dwelling in 
Western Europe prior to the advent of 
Christianity, — immoralities in some in- 
stances authorized by law and recom- 
mended by the distinguished teachers of 
the people, — were in our Republic sanc- 
tioned by law or by the customs of so- 
ciety, there would be an end to chastity, 
homes would be robbed of their charms, 
and our country be no longer fit to live in. 

Nineteenth Century. 165 

We do not- say that all the maxims 
and teachings of all those distinguished 
men were of this degrading and danger- 
ous character. There are, in the writ- 
ings of some of those men, noble sayings 
that commend themselves to modern 
thought ; some, indeed, which are in 
every way superior to the teachings of 
certain noted men who have enjoyed 
the blessings of the highest recent civili- 
zation. Those ancient so-called Pagan 
hunters after truth found data in their 
consciousness to which, in many in- 
stances, they were faithful : they gleaned 
some facts from observation, and not a 
few thoughts from the religious writings 
of the Israelites both before and after 
those writings were compiled into the 
Bible, — thoughts which were recast. 

166 . The Bible and the 

■■ ^ ■»■— ^— ■^■^—i ^ ■■■■ .^ ■ PI II ■■■■■■■ .1^ .. M ■ !■■ I M^lM^M^^l^^i^^^^M^— ^ 

and have since passed, in more than 
one instance, for gems of originality 
in Pagan literature. This is, perhaps, 
especially true of many of the sayings 
of Seneca and Epictetus, who, though 
they may not have seen and conversed 
with either of the apostles, could not 
have failed of deriving ethical notions, at 
least indirectly, from Christian sources. 
Seneca was Nero's tutor, and prime 
minister at the emperor's court; and 
Epictetus was a slave of a prominent 
freedman of the empire. It is, there- 
fore, highly improbable that they 
were not at times brought under the 
" word-fall of Christian lips." But not- 
withstanding all these excellences, ori- 
ginal and borrowed, ancient writers 
upon ethical subjects were as a rule, 

Nineteenth Century. 167 

and in a high degree, defective. In- 
deed, we may safely say, that, if a few 
of the many false teachings found in the 
best ancient classical literature had been 
introduced into the Bible, there would 
be forever, in questions of moral life 
and character, an end to its authority. 

We are not unacquainted with a re- 
cent claim that has been urged, namely, 
that the morality of some unf»?onibie 
Pagan countries is, in cer- «^**«**™»- 
tain respects, superior to that of Chris- 
tian countries. Japan, for instance, is 
referred to as comparing favorably with 
countries under the sway of Bible mo- 

We freely confess that much which 
has been said upon this subject has 
truth in it. But this is the counter 

168 The Bible and the 

claim, that if the motals of Japan in 
certain respects are superior to those, 
for instance, of England, it will be 
found that in those rery respects Japan 
is more biblical than is England. The 
Bible, even in these instances, is recog- 
nized as the standard authority. 

We are aware, too, that now and 
then a person is found who affirms, out 
and out, that biblical as well as Pagan 
morality tends to immorality. This 
charge is always, or nearly always, 
based upon the ground that certain 
corrupt practices are, "with no prudent 
reticence," brought to oiur notice in the 

It is true that the Bible uses great 
plainness of speech, and conceals noth* 
ing. The Old Testament does not pre- 

Nineteenth Century. 169 

tend to be " an idyl of innocence : " it 
is rather an illustrated demonstration of 
what the sins of humanity are, and of 
the direful consequences of sin. There- 
fore it speaks of men as it finds them. 
If they have faults, it faithfully de- 
scribes them. How could its designs 
he accomplished without doing this? 
If the instructions of the Bible had 
been given in the abstract rather than 
in the concrete, and if all the characters 
portrayed in the Bible had been repre- 
sented as spotless; if Abraham had 
never falsified, if Jacob had never de- 
ceived, if David had never sinned, if 
Solomon had never acted unwisely, and 
if Peter had not denied his Master ; in 
a word, if Bible men, in a general way, 
had been represented as having no im- 

170 The Bible and the 

perfections, — then how much less for- 
cible would be Bible instructions, and 
how great would be the outcry from 
the infidel world! It would be forth- 
with announced that Bible histoiy is a 
fiction, and not a fact. 

This, however, must ever be kept in 
mind: that the Bible never for an in- 
stant, by sentenxje, word, or intimation, 
approves any form of immorality re- 
corded upon its pages. When the patri- 
archs transgressed, God in every in- 
stance reproved or punished them. 
"The thing which David did was dis- 
pleasing to the Lord," is the entire drift 
of its rebuke of sin and iniquity. 

We are also aware that it is some- 
times argued, in modern times, that the 
rigorous measures enjoined in the Bible 

Nineteenth Century^ 171 

against the people of Canaan, upon the 
return of the Israelites from The rigoroai 
Egypt, are in their moral in- eTi^,. 
fluence harmful; that they iJ*,|Jrt"\. 
*' make out God to be a very c»Ba««itei. 
monster of cruelty;" that, as to this 
feature, the Old Testament is at war 
with the New. 

In passing judgment upon these mat- 
ters, one thing must not be overlooked ; 
namely, that God builds for all time, — 
for eternity. Our range of vision, 
therefore, if we become self-appointed 
judges, must not be narrow. If our 
views are not captious, and are as 
broad as the subject demands, we shall 
easily discover that the spirit of the 
Old Testament is not, as some persons 
seem to think, entirely unlike that of 

172 The Bible and the 

the New. The severest denunciations 
found in the Bible are from the lips of 
Christ (Matt, xxiii. 18-33). 

We shall also make the discovery, 
that the Divine method as seen in the 
Bible is the same as is discovered in 
providence ; and is therefore to be jus- 
tified upon the ground of necessity in 
the nature of things, or possibly in 
view of the attainment of a greater 
good. There is an old saying, rough 
but forcible, which reads thus : — 

^^ God himself must be strong as well 
as good, or the Devil will shortly have 
the upper hand." The one attribute of 
good-naturedness can never constitute 
a God ; at least, does not constitute the 
God whom creation and providence as 
well as the Bible reveal* 

Nineteenth Century. 173 

That great law of science, the sur- 
vival of the fittest, though often mis- 
appUed in modern phUosophy, is simply 
an expression of what the Infinite Being 
is disposed to do, and has been doing 
through the ages. That law will for- 
ever stamp its approval upon the com- 
mand of Jehovah to Joshua to destroy 
the unfit, savage, and murderous Ca- 
naanites, who, but for their extirpation, 
would have destroyed the Israelites, to 
whom, as it appears, had been intrusted 
the truths upon which is based the reli- 
gious civilization of the world. The 
methods resorted to for their destruction 
needed also to be such as to strike terror 
to the hearts of all the surrounding tribes. 

The point of view occupied by 
Tennyson when he wrote the following 

174 The Bible and the 

words is the one to be taken whilf 
judging of the rigorous measures red 
ommended in the Old Testament: — 

" * So careful of the type ? ' but no. 

From scarped clifif and quarried stone, 
She cries, ^ A thousand tyx>e8 are gone : 
I care for nothing, all shall go.' " 

If, therefore, the ways of Providence, 
in building the "scarped cliff" and the 
"quarried stone," care nothing for the 
species or even for the genus, how much 
less care shall there be for the Amorite 
and the Hittite when standing in the 
way of building for the world a uni- 
versal civilization and religion ? 

" But," some one asks, " shall evil be 
done, that good may come ? " Yes, so 
far as this question is justified in the 
matter before us. Implacable enemies 

Nineteenth Century. 176 

»— -^— — ■ 

of righteousness, even at any cost, are 
to be prevented from carrying out their 
wicked designs and from hindering 
progress. It is this principle that leads 
modern society to build prisons, and put 
men into them ; to erect a gallows, and 
hang men upon it. Such prevention and 
death are no evil: they are rather an 
exalted good and mercy working in 
behalf of the well-disposed. 

The imprecations in some of the 
Psalms of David are also said not to 
breathe the spirit of the Gos- impreea- 

tlons in the 

pel, and to be harmful in Psaimt. 
their moral influence. No one, unless 
his range of view is narrow, would pass 
such a judgment. A careful study of 
the character of David and of the so- 
called harsh Psalms will disclose the 

176 The Bible and the 

fact that ia no instance is vengeance 
called down upon personal enemies. 
The imprecations are uttered solely 
against seditious spirits and public 
foes. David was forgiving and mag- 
nanimous to his personal enemies; no 
king or commander ever more so. In 
some instances he mourned over the 
death and misfortunes of his enemies as 
if they had been those of a friend. 
The entire spirit of David's administra- 
tion shows, too, that in his war upon 
the cruel and outlawed Amorites, and 
in his advice to Solomon as to Shimei 
and Joab, he was not prompted by per- 
sonal vindictiveness, but by considera- 
tions of public safety. 

The case of Joab may be taken as 
illustrative of this statement, Joab was 

Nineteenth Century. 177 

a nephew of David* He was a bold 
soldier, and in his successes was the 
Marlborough of the Jewish »*▼!«'• com- 

nmnd to exe- 

empire. But his disposition cvteJiMb. 
was thoroughly bad. His spirit of re- 
venge was implacable. He treach- 
erously, and out of pure revenge, 
assassinated Abner. He also treach- 
erously murdered Amasa. With ap- 
parently a friendly whisper upon his 
lips, he had killed the one of these two 
men ; and the other, while imparting a 
kiss upon the cheek of his victim at the 
very moment of assassination. Joab 
was not only sly and malignant, but he 
was bold. He was brave, he was de- 
fiant. He could almost say with the 
great politician in the time of Edward 
n., ^' I can make and unmake kings." 

178 The Bible and the 

Though for the most part obedient 
in times of war, David foresaw that 
this wild, ambitious, restless, implaca- 
ble, and revengeful spirit would be ut- 
terly unsafe in times of peace. Upon 
the ground, therefore, of political expe- 
diency, David enjoined upon the young 
king the arrest and execution of this 
dangerous man. 

But aside from the records of the 
falls and crimes of certain illustrious 
Bible men, — whose chastisements and 
poignant repentances are likewise re- 
corded, — and aside from some of these 
The Bible th« rigorous mcasurcs rendered 
^l^mond necessary upon the grounds 
Mienee. q{ political and military ne- 

cessity, not one word can be spoken 
against Bible morality. It is the great 

Nineteenth Century. 179 

text-book upon moral science. The 
profoundest modern moral philosophers 
never think of deviating from its teach- 
ing. Matthew Arnold states the case 
forcibly : — 

"Try all the ways to righteousness 
you can think of, and you will find 
that no way brings you to it except the 
way of Jesus. . . . Attempt to do with- 
out Israel's God that makes for right- 
eousness, and you will find out your 
mistake ! . • • Attempt to reach right- 
eousness by any way except that of Jesus^ 
and you will also find out your mistake ! 
This is a thing that can prove itself if 
it is so, and it will prove itself because 
it IS so. 

And, too, the uncompromising and 
solemn manner in which the Bible 

180 The Bible and the 

always enforces its claims of moralitj 
is in many respects exceptional in the 
world's literature. " Know ye not that 
the unrighteous shall not inherit the 
kingdom of God? Be not deceiyed: 
neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor 
adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers 
of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, 
nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor re- 
vilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the 
kingdom of God " (1 Cor. vi. 9, 10) ; 
and, ^^Who shall ascend into the hill 
of the Lord? or who shall stand in 
his holy place? He that hath clean 
hands, and a pure heart; who hath 
not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor 
sworn deceitfully. He shall receive 
the blessing from the Lord, and right- 
eousness from the God of his salva- 

Nineteenth Century. 181 

tion " (Ps. xxiy. 3-6), — are words 
never heard until spoken and written 
by Bible men. 

At this point, advocates of Bible 
morality are met by a somewhat unex- 
pected cross-fire; that is, a ofejeetioM 
few persons readily admit- ^wbie"**' 
ting that in many respects '■•»"*f* 
the character of Bible morality is excep- 
tional, have, upon this very ground, 
pronounced against it. With Aristotle 
(who must have spoken in an unguard- 
ed moment) they say, " When you can 
have a good thing, take it ; " and with 
the Spartans they will add, "Be sure 
you are not found out.'* With Quin- 
tilian (who also must have spoken 
in an unguarded moment) they say, 
** Truth, though generally, is not always 

182 The Bible and the 

defended." With David Hume they rea- 
son, that though adultery is condemned 
in the Bible, it must be practised if men 
would obtain the highest advantages of 
human life. And with Mr. Buckle 
they reason, that so-called crimes are a 
part of the fixed course of nature, as 
really so, though not so apparently, as 
the ebb and flow of the tides; that cer- 
tain natural causes, acting upon men 
as surely as the moon upon the ocean, 
produce in them certain conditions, 
from which some particular form of 
crime is the invariable result ; that 
men are, therefore, not responsible for 
the crimes they commit. 

We cannot, of course, reason much 
with such foes of morality and chastity : 
we can only appeal to the common- 

Nineteenth Century. 183 

sense of the great mass of the best peo- 
ple in our best communities, who hold 
these lax and unscriptural views of 
morals in utter detestation ; and to the 
world's history, whose pages are a sol- 
emn warning against any departure 
from the Bible standard of ethical con- 

Take, for example, the times fol- 
lowing the restoration of Charles II. 
In the re-action from Puri- Besoitsofan 

. t 't ji 1 c abandonment 

tan austerity, the morals of ofBibiemo. 
Christianity were discarded. J;*"*]^^",*"^ 
The results are too well *'"">ce. 
known to justify a full rehearsal. A 
word only is necessary. " Then," says 
the historian, " came those days, never 
to be recalled without shame ; the days 
of servitude without loyalty, and sensu- 


184 The Bible and the 

Ality without love, of dwarfish talents 
and gigantic vices ; the paradise of cold 
hearts and narrow minds; the golden 
age of the coward, the bigot, and the 

In France, too, in a re-action against 
priestcraft, the altars of Christianity 
were demolished, and Bible morality 
was despised. The results are well 
known. Then followed the "carnival 
of crime " and " reign of terror." 

"We are the only people in the 
world," writes a journalist of that time, 
"who ever attempted to do without 
religion. But what is already our sad 
experience? Every tenth day [the 
sabbath of the infidels] we are as- 
tounded by the recital of more crimes 
and assassinations than were committed 

Nineteenth Century. 185 

formerly in a whole year. At the risk 
of speaking an obsolete language, and 
receiving insult for response, we de- 
clare that we must cease striving to 
destroy the remnants of religion, if we 
desire to prevent the entire dissolution 
of society." 

Disraeli, after making a broad survey 
of peoples and countries, reaches a con- 
clusion which is thus stated : — 

" It will be observed that the decline 
and disasters in modern communities 
have generally been relative to their 
degree of sedition against the Semitic 
(the Old-Testament) principle. Eng- 
land, notwithstanding her deficient and 
meagre theology, has always remem- 
bered Zion. The great trans-Atlantic 
Republic, the United States of America, 


186 The Bible and the 

is intensely Semitic, and has prospered 

It is in view of a solid array of facts, 
that even sceptics who are intelligent 
Bible moral, and not corrupt hail the 
eTenlbT^men Bible as the beacon-light of 

!^8^s *^® ^^^^^ ^^^^^- ^^ liigher 
sceptics. words of Commendation of 

the moral purity and superiority of 
the Bible have been spoken than those 
which have fallen from the lips of Na- 
poleon, Rousseau, Diderot, Goethe, 
Huxley, and Theodore Parker. Says 
Professor Huxley, in an address upon 
education, " I have always been 
strongly in favor of secular education, 
in the sense of education without the- 
ology ; but I must confess, I have been 
no less seriously perplexed to know by 

Nineteenth Century. 187 

what practical measures the religious 
feeling, which is the essential basis of 
conduct, was to be kept up, in the pres- 
ent utterly chaotic state of opinion on 
these matters, without the use of the 
Bible. The Pagan moralists lack life 
and color; and even the noble Stoic, 
Marcus Antoninus, is too high and re- 
fined for an ordinary child. Take the 
Bible as a whole ; make the severest de- 
ductions which fair criticism can dictate : 
and there still remains in this old litera- 
ture a vast residuum of moral beauty 
and grandeur. By the study of what 
other book could children be so much 
humanized ? If Bible-reading is not ac- 
companied by constraint and solemnity, 
I do not believe there is any thing in 
which children take more pleasure." 

188 The Bible and the 

Would not those who object to Bible 
morality do well carefully to" weigh 
these words, coming from such an im- 
partial witness as Professor Huxley ? 

The fact is, that, in spite of all the 
small talk of sceptics, the lustre of 
Bible morality in the nineteenth cen- 
tury remains undimmed. Far, far 
above the fogs and mists with which 
immoral men and women, English free- 
thinkers, German free-livers, and Ameri- 
can free-lovers, have sought to fill the 
sky, Bible morality stands unrebuked 
and unchallenged; indeed, it never 
stood out so perfectly clear, serene, and 
triumphant as at this very day. 

At this point, the substance of the 
question repeatedly asked recurs, and 
is this : How did it chance that Bible- 

Nineteenth Century. 189 

writers who belonged to a "petty, un- 
successful, unamiable people, without 
politics, without science, stiii»noth«r 

without art, without charm," qaestion. 
and who lived in times and among com- 
munities which were ruled by immoral 
precepts and steeped in moral corrup- 
tions, produced and preserved a compre- 
hensive code of morals so faultless and 
universal that it can be practised by 
all nations, and upon which modern im- 
provement seems impossible? 

Has any explanation yet been given 
at all comparable with that claimed by 
the writers themselves, that they were 
aided, controlled, "borne along,'' by an 
agency supernatural and divine? (Exod. 
iv. 15, 16 ; Ezek. iii. 4-10 ; Jphn xvi, 
13, 14 ; Gal, i. 12 ; Rev. i. 10.) 

190 The Bible and the 

Theological and religious truth is the 
last department of knowledge to which 
in this treatise attention is invited. 

The reign of the Bible, especially in 
the realms of theology, is supreme. It is 
The Bible ^^^ basis of all modem theol- 
aad theoioffj. ogies : it is modem theology. 
Without the Bible, our knowledge of 
God seemingly would be almost total 
darkness. The Bible, in the field of 
pure and correct theological science, is 
the pioneer, the explorer, the beginning, 
the end. Since the days of John the 
Apostle, there has been revealed to the 
race, in the field of pure theological 
truth, not a particle of new subject-mat- 
ter. Modern thought has discovered 
not one additional attribute in the 
Divine nature ; we know not a syllable 

Nineteenth Cevitury. 191 

more respecting the end of the world, 
the coming of Christ, or of the final 
judgment, of the dead, of angels, of 
demons, of heaven and of hell, than 
was revealed in the Bible when it was 
completed, sanctioned, and committed 
to the Christian Church. The apostles 
knew as fully as do people of the nine- 
teenth century, dwelling in the most 
enlightened countries on earth, what 
are men's relations and obligations to 
God and to one another ; and it is the 
knowledge of these relations which 
constitutes the basis of all morality and , 
religion as well as theology. 

Modern science and philosophy, in 
the last eighteen hundred years, have, 
it is true, confirmed, and in some in- 
stances have made more vivid, many 

192 The Bible and the 

theological truths; archaeology has 
cleared away many difficulties : but, vre 
Sd«nee com- repeat, scicncc, philosophy, 

flnuB Bible r i j n j -i 

theology, but archaeology, and all the cor- 
adds Bothing related sciences, have added 

essentially ' 

'»«^* not one new fundamental 

truth to our theological knowledge, and 
have changed nothing. 

Other Bible truths, no doubt, will be 
more fully confirmed, or better illus- 
trated ; other difficulties, doubtless, will 
be cleared away : but to the theology of 
the Bible, judging from the past, there 
will henceforth be nothing essentially 
new or different added, and what may 
be, perchance, for a time taken away 
by venturesome theologians will after- 
wards have to be fully restored. 

In a word, the writers of the Bible 

Nineteenth Century. 193 

advanced so far into the field of pure 
theology, and revealed so much, that, 
from the nature of the case, theology 
cannot discover an essentially new 
truth, and cannot in this repect be a 
progressive science. The theology of 
the Bible came from the hand of God 
as the beautiful flowers come, complete. 
Science may name one part of the flower 
the filament, another part the anther, 
other parts the ovary, the style, and the 
stigma ; but this nomenclature contrib- 
utes nothing either to the perfection or 
to the beauty of the flower. Such, too, 
is Bible theology. There is a bare pos- 
sibility that theological nomenclature 
may be modified and be made more ex- 
act ; but modern skill and wisdom can, 
in these matters, go no farther. We 

194 The Bible and the 

say hare possibilitf/ ; for it is question- 
able if modem thought shall henceforth 
be able essentially to modify that expo- 
sition and expression of Bible truth 
which during the last eighteen hun- 
dred years have been thought and 
spoken by the average Christian con- 
sciousness of the world. 

In many respects, too, how radically 
exceptional is Bible theology! Other 
ancient theologies are half-truths: 
Bible theology, according to the best 
modern estimates, is the truth. Other 
theologies, even the best of them, are 
mixed with crudities, vagaries, and even 
vulgarities of the lowest sort: Bible 
theology is generally acknowledged to 
be pure, inspiring, and ennobling. 

The same essentially is true of the 

Nineteenth Century. 195 

religion of the Bible. "The grand 
peculiarity of the religion of the Scrip- 
tures," as President Woplsey The Bible 

and religions 

says, "is that it is intensely tmtii. 
moral and elevating." The only reli- 
gion of antiquity which "knows no 
compromise with sin, no pardon to this 
destroyer of mankind and its develop- 
ment, only deadly, deadly earnest com- 
bat till complete victory is gained," is 
that found in the Old and New Testa- 
ment Scriptures. Biblical religion, too, 
is the only one, ancient or modern, 
which "does not allow itself to be 
dazzled by a brilliant partial culture ; 
but looks with calm, clear eye at the 
death-germ concealed in the soul, and J 

says decidedly and earnestly, ' Ye munt 
be born again,' and then adds, 'Ye can 

196 Tlie Bible and the 

be born again,' and actually and truly 
provides the means whereby man and 
human society may be delivered from 
the dominion of the power inimical to 
culture, and thoroughly renewed." — 

Thus also in practical philanthropy 
the other religions of the world, as com- 
pared with that of the Bible, 

Bible religion ^ 

oriffinated show to the poorcst advan- 


phiian- tagc. Not at Athens or 

*'''''^'- Rome, the high places of 

civilization, of political wisdom and 
power, the chosen abodes of philosophy, 
eloquence, poetry, and artistic skill, are 
to be found such institutions as charity 
hospitals and asylums. The first hos- 
pital known in the world — unless an 
exception be made in case of a small 

Nineteenth Century. 197 

temple of Eseulapius on an island in 
the Tiber, where the maimed and sick 
were brought to be experimented upon, 
and then "left to struggle in solitude, 
or the pangs of death " — was buQt at 
Constantinople by a Christian bishop of 
that city. The dispensaries, convales- 
cent-homes, reformatories, alms-houses, 
orphanages ; asylums for the blind, the 
deaf, the dumb, the idiot, the insane, 
the inebriate; the refuges for the fallen; 
and other agencies for overtaking and 
alleviating the thousand ills of human 
life, — are the outgrowth of Bible reli- 
gion. "The outgrowth of modern civ- 
ilization," does some one say ? But, as 
already seen, the referring of these phi- 
lanthropies to modern civilization does 
not discharge their obligation to the 

198 The Bible and the 

Bible ; for modern civilization was ren- 
dered possible only through Bible faith 
and practice. As Judge Sir Allen Par- 
ker, at a public meeting in London, once 
said, " We live in the midst of blessings 
till we are utterly insensible of the source 
from which they flow. We speak of our 
civilization, our arts, our freedom, our 
laws, and forget entirely how large a 
share is due to Christianity. Blot it 
out of the pages of man's history, and 
what would his laws have been ? what 
his civilization ? Christianity is mixed 
up with our very being and our daily 
life. There is not a familiar object 
around us which does not wear a differ- 
ent aspect because the light of Chris- 
tian love is on it; not a law which 
does not owe its truth and gentleness 

Nineteenth Century. 199 

to Christianity ; not a custom which 
cannot be traced in all its holy, health- 
felt parts to the gospel." 

Think, too, how adequate is the reli- 
gion of the Bible. There are to-day, 
it is estimated, one billion Biwe 
three hundred thousand "^Zto 
souls on earth. And yet the ^ i^Rie*. 
Bible, if its conditions are complied 
with, is abundantly able to meet all the 
religious wants of all these millions. 
And it is the only book that can do 
this. It is the only book that attempts 
to explain to all their true relation to 
God and eternity. It is the only book 
that furnishes the prayer, the confi- 
dence, and the joy needed by the little 
child and the gray-haired man, the 
slave and the king. It is the only 

200 The Bible and the 

book that equally satisfies the man 
working in coal-pits or sweeping street- 
crossings, and such men as Francis 
Bacon, John Herschel, Michael Fara- 
day, and David Brewster. It instructs, 
and then wounds or heals, condemns or 
acquits, every man, woman, and child 
on earth. Wonderful book! 

But the question now confronts us : 
Why did not some of the philosophers 

Why did not -*^^'^ ^^ ^syp*' ^'^y^^^' 

some of the Babylou, Grcccc, or Rome, 


of the ancient who figured during the same 

world inrent .-i a *i j x-i -^ 

a nniTersai ^gcs that Witnessed the writ- 
reiigioni j^^ ^^^ compilation of the 

Bible — give the world books which in 
their theological and religious teachings 
might equal or even approach the Bible ? 
In a human point of view, those noted 

Nineteenth Century. 201 

men pf antiquity had the same sources 
of information that were available to the 
Hebrew prophets and New-Testament 
evangelists ; and they had, in many re- 
spects, even superior advantages : why, 
therefore, did they not make discover- 
ies equally valuable, and furnish data 
equally full and correct upon which to 
base theological science? How chanced 
it that those Hebrews alone rose in 
theological and religious knowledge 
not only above all their contemporaries, 
but so far as also to stand in advance 
of the best thinkers even in modern 
times ? The wisest men of the present 
century confess that they have not yet 
been able fully even to explore the 
profundity of Bible teaching, and that 
any improvement upon those subjects 

202 The Bible and the 

which the Bible was designed espe- 
cially to teach and settle is out of the 
question. Now, what is or what can 
be the explanation of this extraordi- 
nary scope and sweep of vision, and 
this grasp of theological and religious 
knowledge ? If Bible men were moved 
by a superior wisdom to write as they 
did, then the involved enigma is solved : 
otherwise does it not remain unsolved 
and apparently insoluble ? 

When, therefore, we ponder, as we 
ought, the teachings of the Bible ; as 
Concluding ^c think of the accuracy of 
^<»'^"- the Bible in departments of 

knowledge which in this treatise we 
have hardly touched upon, — history, 
chronology, ethnology, and archaeology ; 
when we take under review the entire 

Nineteenth Century. 203 

field over which, in these pages, we have 
tried to pass ; when we note the differ- 
ences, iji so many respects, between this 
boot and nearly all other ancient litera- 
ture ; as we trace the harmonies between 
its revelations and the most recent dis- 
coveries and facts of modern research : 
what shall be said of the narrowness, 
determined blindness, and wilful mis- 
representations of men who continue to 
rank its revelations with the myths of 
Egypt and Babylon, of Greece and 

In view, therefore, of what the Bible 
is and of what it has done, need there 
be any surprise that a wide-spread con- 
viction, which is more and more to 
deepen, has taken possession of the 
best minds in modern times, that noth- 

204 The Bible and the 

ing of so much value as the Bible has 
yet appeared in the majestic evolution 
of this world's history, except the One 
who is the chief glory of all its pages, 
Christ the Saviour and the King ? 

Need there be any hesitation in say- 
ing, if we may judge by the past, that 
after the philosophies and the sciences 
shall have run their small or mighty 
rounds of investigation, and after men 
of the broadest culture shall have re- 
turned from their most daring explora- 
tions, in the heavens above and in the 
earth beneath, even then the Bible will 
be found by curious hints or by ex- 
plicit statements to have anticipated, or 
at least to be in harmony with, their 
grandest discoveries ? Marvellous Book, 
thy conquest shall yet be complete I 

Nineteenth Century. 205 

But, among all these considerations, 
let no one be disregardful of the fact 
that it is this same Bible, wondrously 
correct in its revelations, which speaks 
of an endless life for all, of joy un- 
speakable for the righteous, of anguish 
unmitigated for the unrighteous, and of 
an atonement for those who comply 
with its sacred conditions. If, there- 
fore, these solemn announcements as to 
death and the judgment, heaven and 
hell, which^rom the nature of the case, 
can never in this world be disproved, 
shall at the end of things be found 
true, how, in that unexplored hereafter, 
will stand affairs with each one who 
now closes the perusal of these pages ? 

**A man never gets so much out of a book as 
when he possesses it." 

fuans is called to the tucom^nying announce^HtiM^ 

Members of the C. L. S. C. can in tic better way assist the 
Assembly in its efforts to broaden and strengthen the Chau- 
tauqua idea than to purchase y and ^rsuade their friends 
to invest in^ this beginning of what will /rove a very choice 
collection of the best reading. 

It is to be hoped the responses may be prompt and uni- 

y. H. VINCENT, Chancellor. 



In order to create a permanent library of useful and standard 
books for the homes of our C. L. S. C. members, and to reduce 
the expense of the Seal courses, we have organized the Chau- 
tauqua Press. 

The first issues of the Chautauqua Press will be "Thb 
Garnet Series/' four volumes in the general line of the " re- 
quired readings" (or the coming year, as follows: — 

READINGS PROM RUSKIN. With an Introduction by 
H. A. Bbbrs, Professor of English Literature in Yale College. 

This volume contains chapters from Ruskin on " The Poetry 
of Architecture," "The Cottage — English, French, and Ital- 
ian," "The Villa— Italian," and "St. Mark's," from "Stones 
of Venice." 

*'A man never gets so much out of a book as 
when he possesses it." 

i THE ESPECIAL A TTENTION ofaU loyal Chauiau^ 

I guans ts ctdled to the accompanying antumncenuiM, 
I Member's oy the C. L. S. C can in no better way aesist the 

I Assembly in its efforts to broaden and strengthen the Chau- 
tauqua idea than to purchase t and persuade their friends 
to invest in, this beginning of what will prove a very choice 
collection of the best reading. 
It is to be hoped the responses may be prompt and uni- 



y. H. VINCENT, Chancellor, 



In order to create a permanent library of useful and standard 
books for the homes of our C. L. S. C. members, and to reduce 
the expense of the Seal courses, we have organi2ed the Chau- 
tauqua Press. 

The first issues of the Chautauqua Press will be "Thb 
Garmbt Sekiss/' four volumes in the general line of the " re- 
quired readings" for the coming year, as follows: — 

READINGS FROM RUSKIN. With an Introductbn by 
H. A. Beers, Professor of English Literature in Yale College. 

This volume contains chapters from Ruskin on " The Poetry 
of Architecture," "The Cottage — English, French, and Ital- 
ian," "the VaU— Italian," and "St. Mark's," from "Stones 
of Venice."