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Full text of "The Bible in iron:"

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LIBKARY 

UNIVERSITY^ 

PENN5YL\^\NIA 




T39.4 



nS3S 



GIFT OF 
Dr. (S-HORGE E NITZSCHE 



i 



^Phe Bible in Iron 




OR 



The Pictured Stoves and Stove 

Plates of the 

Pennsylvania Germans 



BY 



HENRY C. MERCER 




Published for the 

Bucks County Historical Society 
Doylestown, Pennsylvania 







EA\9KIALL!BRARY^.sPvBUCArS3 



iF THE 



X^NIVERSITT^*- PENNSYL^/ANIAJ 





ACCE-SSISN 

^^ PRESeiNTED BY , 




PREFACE. 



The art of making iron stoves decorated with pictures and designs illustra- 
ting the teachings of the Bible was brought from Germany to the Anglo-Ameri- 
can colonies and survived for half a century on American soil. 

Cast in low relief upon the flat and often polished sides of the old stoves, 
continually confronting the settler and his family at one of the centres of house- 
hold comfort in winter, the singular patterns, generally explained with inscrip- 
tions, telling of the Miracles of Christ and the Prophets, the beauty of Holiness, 
and the lessons of Vice and Virtue must have impressed many minds. But the 
effort of the writer has been rather to explain and describe the casters' art which 
then, as an inheritance from Germany, gradually appeared and suddenly ceased, 
than to account for the influence of its teaching upon the lives of the colonists 
and their descendants. Yet. within the last few weeks, a new and unexpected 
significance has attached itself to these iron pictures, once so full of meaning in 
the pioneer household, so long forgotten and now at last rescued from the dust 
of ruins. 

For now 'October, 1914,) in the midst of the great European conflict, the 
ancestral land which made them is passing through an hour of trial. Germany, 
struggling against heavy odds, is cut off from telegraphic communication with 
the western world, and now when her enemies in America, misreading her 
history, accuse her of barbarism, these eloquent fragments of iron, made for and 
by the founders of our country, offer certain evidence of a virtue long ago inter- 
woven with the lives of Germans, who as ancestors of Americans of to-day, 
lived and died in our midst, yet with the old language on their lips, as devout 
followers of the teachings of Christianity. 

Not as barbarians they brought their heritage of religious Art to our shores: 
and though we fail to value these remnants of their forgotten work, how shall we 
forget that here first, across the threshold of race fellowship, they gave to the 
stranger their beautiful Christmas Tree, \vhich outweighing in influence the 
words of many Bernhardis, has spread its glittering branches over the whole 
Anglo Saxon world. 

HENRY C. MERCER, 

Doylestown, Pennsylvania. 

October 5th, 1914. 




OI. 

The Traders. 



Right plate of an ancient Pennsylvanian Jamb Stove. Size. H, 
29, W. 25. Bucks County Historical Society. Found while 
the following pages were in press, in October. 1914, on the 
premises of an old house, near Boyertown, Montgomery County. 
Pennsylvania, by Mr. A. H. Rice, of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

The remarkable plate, which is higher than wide, and the 
largest of all the stove plates herewith illustrated, is decorated 
with a large picture, carved in very flat relief, without canopy 
or border, which fills the entire middle of the pattern. 

We seem to be looking at one of the ancient wharves which 
the German mould carver has tried to represent from memory, 
or a sketch made, not in Europe, but in old New York, or 
Colonial Philadelphia, perhaps on the Delaware river, below 
Frankford, where the whole irregular water front, littered with 
casks and bales of merchandise, is built of logs rather than 
stone. A jumble of high wooden gables, with overhanging 
stories, warehouse doors and roof shelters for pulleys, looks 
out upon the water. We see a heavy pair of scales, a crane 
swinging a bale of merchandise into a lighter and two human 
figures busied in loading a moored sailboat. Another lighter 



under sail approaches a high-decked ship, which with fluttering 
flags and reefed sails lies moored in deeper water. Two more 
sailboats and three row boats appear on the water. 

To the distant left on a hillock and across an inlet spanned 
by a bridge, stands a barn and flanked by two clumps of trees, 
a house, perhaps a tavern, with extending signboard and the 
double-wall chimneys characteristic of old Philadelphia. 

A very long rhymed inscription filling the entire remaining 
space of the plate in four lines above, and four below the pic- 
ture, attacks the vanity, false religion and blindness of the 
greedy world. It reads. 

WAS. NICHT. ZU. GOTTES. EHR. 
AUS. GLAUBEN. GEHT. 1ST. SUNDE. 
MERK. AUF. DU. FALSCHES. HERTZ. 
VERLIEHRT. IHR. KEINE. STUNDE. 

DIE. UBERKLUGE. WELT. VER. 
STEHET. DOCH. KEINE. WAAREN. 
SIE. SUCHT. UND. FINDET. KOTH. 
UND. LAEST. DIE. PERLEN. FAHREN. 



III. 



Translated: 
That which not to Gods glory coiieth from creed is sin. 
Beware false heart, waste thou not an hour. 
The over clever world still understands not traffic. 
It searches and finds trash, and lets the pearls escape. 

When this plate is compared with the Fa-nily Quarrel, Fig. 
38. several points of similarity appear. Because both plates 
are higher than wide, lack canop es, show inscriptions both 
above and bdow the picture, are correctly and not phonetically 
spelled, and because both are designed upon a similar plan, 
very well lettered and with the letters, ncticcably the U's and 
T's si nilarly for.Tied on both, we n:ay reasonably suppose that 
the mould carver, probably fresh fro.-n Germany, who carved 
Figure 38. carved this plate also, but because the wocden 
warehouses and wharves, and particularly the tavern with 
double chi.Tineys in the style of an American Colonial inn. indi- 
cates a scene rather in oH Philadelphia, or New York, than 
Germany, v^e may infer that the plate, though without date and 
lacking its companion front, was probably carved in Pennsyl- 
vania (for the reasons given on page 42), between 1726 and 
1735. 




Judge, yea a Col that hath indignation every day." or perhaps 
as here more lit; rally translated by Luther, "God is a righteous 
Judge and a God who threateneth every day, ' 

Another interest ng feature of the pattern is the puzzling 
and as yet unexplained name Wilhel-n. Bortschcnt, filling the 
lower medallion which, as carved on the Tenth Com.-nandmenl 
plate. Figure 35, also cast in 1760, appears here almost in 
fac-sirrile, showing that the moulds f^r Figure 02, Figure 139, 
its companion, and Figure 35, were carved by the sane moul 1 
carver (for whose na-ne the initials T. B, n-.ay perhaps stand), 
possibly for Berkshire Furnace in the sane year, 1760, See 
Figures 35. 44 and 139. 



02. 

William Bortschent and X. B. 

Size W. 24, H. 22%. Bucks County Historical Society. Found 
while the present pages were in press, November 13, 1914. by 
Mr. A. H. Rice, of Bethlehem. Pennsylvania. 

Not only the general treatment of the tw stel columns, 
vaults, spandreb. tulip decorations, stars and wheat sheaves of 
the floral frame work of this plate, and the unexplained initials 
T. B. set under the canopy; but also the B blical quotation 
from Psalms 7: 12 in Luther's Bible (as identified by Dr. J. B. 
Stoudt) GOTT. 1ST. EIN. RECHT. God judgeth the righteous, 
or in the new version, God is a righteous Judge, begun on this 
plate and continued on the front plate. Figure 139, dated 1760. 
prove it to have been the companion left side plate for the 
latter, and cast in the same year. 

As explained under Figure 139, because the inscription 
thus begun on the left plate, and continued but not finished 
on the front, must have been coxpleted on the right side, not 
yet found, we may infer that three moulds instead of two were 
carved to cast this stove, and that when all three of its plates 
are discovered, the whole stern warn ng of the Psalmist: 

GOTT. 1ST. EIN. RECHTER. RICHTER. UND. EIN. 
GOTT. DER. TAGLICH. DROHET. 

"God judgjth the righteous, and God is angry with the 
wicked every day." In the new version, "God is a righteous 




03- 
Xlie Advice of Tobil. 

Front plate of Jamb Stove. Size W. 20, H. 24" j, Bucks County 
Historical Society. Found near Vacungie, Lehigh County, Penn- 
sylvania, by Mr. A. H. R ce, of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 
November, 1914, too late for insertion in its proper place. 

The very rusty inscription quoted fro.m the Apochryphal 
Bock of Tobit, 4th chapter, 6th verse, in Luthers Bible is one 
of the admonitions given by the dy ng Tobit to his son Tobias 
and reads in the transverse band or cartouche, DEIN. LEBEN. 
LANG. HABE. GOT. and (continued in the lower medallion) 
VOR AUGEN UND. IM. HERZEN., ending probably in the 
words obliterated by rust, D. BUCH. TOBIAS. 4 CAP. For 
thy life long, hold God before thine eyes and in thine heart. 
Book of Tobias, 4th chapter. 

When th s plate is compared with Figures 90 and 93, but 
more particularly with Figure 91, a marked similarity appears 
in the decorative treat.r.ent of the double arched canopy set upon 
twisted columns, the pendant locps decorated with stars, the 
tulip spandrels, the inscribed plinth or cartouch:. and the bent 
tulip branches at the lower corners flanking the oval frame or 
medallion, which here as in Figure 91 contains the continued 
inscripton: so that we may infer that the designer who carved 
the latter three patterns in 1751 and 1752, had carved this plate 
also at about the same time. 

Only one other plate in the collection quotes an Apochry- 
phal Book of the Old Testament, namely Figure 107 to 110, 
where the inscription there described is from Sirach 8 : 7 in 
Luther's Bible. 



IV. 




Left plate of jamb stove. Size H. 27. W. 22 

to the writer's attention by its owner, Mr. W. E. Montague, of 
Norristown. Penna.. who found it December 4, 1914. near 
Pottstown. Pa. 

The picture shows to the right a fcTiale figure with uplifted 
hands, seated upon and apparently bound by one leg to an 
anchor, while to the left a blacksmith hammers a sword upon 
an anvil set upon a block before which, on the ground, lie two 
crossed swords, a sickle, a third sword, a halberd, and a plow- 
share. 

The scene illustrates the passage in Micah 4: 3 and lEaiah 
2: 4: "And they shall beat their swords into plowshares and 
their spears into pruning hocks and Nation shall not lift up a 
sword against Nation, neither shall they learn war any mere." 

But the German rhymed inscription to the right of a circlet 
of rays, as from the sun. diverging from the upper left corner 
of the plate, and wh ch fills the remainder of the space above the 
picture, does not quote the Bible, but reads: 

ICH. HOFF. NOCH. EI. DA. SICH. WIRD. EN 

NER. BESERN. ZEIT. DEN. ALER. STREIT. 

(Translated) "I hope for a better time when all strife shall 
cease." 

A horizontal band divides the pattern into two panels, the 
upper of which shows warp cracks from the wooden mould run- 
ning both ways and in the lewder ofwhich a circular medallion, as a 
remarkable exception to all the other pictorial plates in the col- 
lection, contains an inscription, not in German, but in English, 



04. Xlie Hope of Peace. 

,. Kindly brought thus showing the two languages, German and English, on one 
plate. The English rhyme thus probably composed by a German 
workman who here quaintly uses the English verb HOPE in a 
transitive sense, reads 

I HOPE THAT BLESS WHEN HATRED WARRS 

SED TIME OF PEACE AND STRIFE SHALL CEASE. 

Micah 4. 
The undated plate lacks the typical old German bolt notches 
on its margin as seen upon Fig. 01, and must be of considerably 
later date than the latter. Real, rather than imaginary war, 
must have produced it and therefore, in sp^te of features of 
resemblance in its style and lettering to Fig. 01 and to Fig. 
31. of 1726, it was probably made at least twenty years after 
the latter, or when, during the French and Indian wars, between 
1744 and 1763, the Indians threatened the frontiers of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

But it is not questions of date or belingual inscription or 
similarities of lettering and composition that chiefly interest us 
in this remarkable pattern found latest of all in our collection 
and here inserted out of place at the last moment, but rather 
the almost startling coincidence of modern events, with th's holy 
message of a Germ.an heart, which thus long ago testing the 
truth of race brotherhood in a foreign land, turns in friendsh'p 
to the English language of a fellow colonist, and which out of 
the dark days of a past war sheds its ray of Divine HOPE 
upon the now clouded pathway of German and English peoples 
and their awful conflict of the present. 



The Bible in Iron 



or 



The Pictured Stoves and Stove Plates 
of The Pennsylvania Germans 



with 



Notes on Colonial Fire=Backs in the United States, the Ten= 

Plate Stove, Franklin's Fireplace and the Tile Stoves of the 

Moravians in Pennsylvania and North Carolina, 

together with a List of Colonial Furnaces 

in the United States and Canada. 



Profusely illustrated \\ ith plates from about 
220 original photographs. 



by 



HENRY C. MERCER, 

Author of— "Hill Caves of Yucatan," "Antiquity of Man in Eastern 
North America," "Light and Fire Making." "Tools of the Nation 
Maker." "Decorated Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans." 



V^e !■ , P ,9«v;_,?c,-i Published for the 

Bucks County Historical Society. 

McCinty, Doylestoun. 1914. 



To Benjamin Franklin Fackenthal, Jr. 

IN GRATEFUL MEMORY OF ABUNDANT AND KINDLY 
HELP, THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED BY THE AUTHOR, 
MAY, 1914. 



'^1 



CHAPTER I. 
INTRODUCTION. 



The Decorated Iron Stoves of Europe. 



Small numbers set above words in the text, refer to notes at the end of 
the volume. Abbrevations are used as follows: H. lieiicht; >V. \vidth; I.. 
lenKtb. These dimensions are ifiven in Inches when not slated in centi- 
meters. B.H.S., Bucks County Historical Society. The abbrevations for 
authors and -works cited under note i are there explained. 



A large number of remarkable castings in 

iron have recently come to light in Eastern 

Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. 

'^hey are heavy, flat rectangular plates, about 

vo feet square, covered with patterns in very 

■w relief, consisting of tulips, flowerpots, 

leaves of wheat, stars, medallions and pic- 

)rial designs, showing human figures, often 

■ nclosed in architectural canopies. Many of 

lem are dated in the later years of the 18th 

entury, and nearly all show inscriptions set 

1 panels or cartouches. 

Discovered among the rubbish of old 
arms, as make-shift chimney tops, stepping- 
stones, or gutter lids, buried under soot and 
ishes, as hearth pavements for still existing 
lireplaces where applebutter is cooked, soap 
boiled, or hams smoked, or rescued at the last 
■noment in the scrap-heap of the junk dealer, 
they at once arrest the attention, as perhaps 
the most interesting and instructive of any of 
the relics of colonial times which have sur- 
vived to us. ' 

Some of them were found to have been 
used in old houses, probably from the end of 
the 18th century, as fire-backs, that is, plates 
of iron set in the wall of an open hearth, back 
of the fire, but notwithstanding the fact that 
a number of their present owners continue to 
call them fire-backs, they were not made to be 
so used. The plates were found to fit together 
in grooves, five or six at a time, so as to form 
rectangular or box-shaped stoves, which could 



be reconstructed from the loose plates and the 
purpose and construction of which was en- 
tirely unlike that of a fire-back. 

American histories had overlooked them. 
Franklin in his Fireplace pamphlet of 1744, 
followed by Chamber's Encyclopedia of 1788, 
Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, Vol. 2, page 
34; Bishop's History of American Manufac- 
tures, Vol. 1, page 182, and J. M. Swank, in 
Iron and Coal in Pennsylvania, page 19 (see 
authorities listed with note 69), though noting 
the plates as parts of so-called "German" or 
"Jamb stoves" and of "Holland stoves," had 
not referred to their decoration. 

Popular tradition had forgotten them, 
and when J. H. Martin in his Historical Sketch 
of Bethlehem (Phila. J. L. Pile 1872, page 135), 
described the designs of six of them at the 
Young Men's Missionary Society in Bethle- 
hem, and when later in 1897 the writer tried to 
describe some of them in "Decorated Stove 
Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans," there 
seemed to be no general information on the 
subject." ' 

Their inscriptions were so rusted, ab- 
breviated or illegible, that for a while it was 
not learned that the language of them all was 
German, that the stoves represented by the 
plates, were the first cast-iron house-warming 
stoves ever used in America, and that the lat- 
ter were not invented here, but that a whole 
series of stoves, of the same kind and make. 




S\%'edish Five-Plate or Jamb Stove. 



(Satlugn) or non-ventilat * stove. Size, about 36 inches high 
by 12 wide. By kind p ion of Dr. S. Ambrosiani, of the 

Northern Museum at St*" .n. 

Now standing in a house at Bjoeverkeroed, Sweden. With- 
out smoke-pipe or fuel door in the room heated, fired from the 
open kitchen fireplace seen through the open door to the 

had flourished in Europe, long before the 
building of American furnaces, or the making 
of American stoves was thought of. 

Scattered over Northern Europe, where 
the subject has not yet been fully explained or 
understood, in Germany, Flanders, Holland 
and Scandinavia, the castings, which have re- 
cently come into the possession of museums, 
show at once that they are the counterparts 
and immediate predecessors of the American 
plates. Like the latter, they illustrate scenes 
from the Bible, and are covered with inscrip- 
tions, but at first sight, though of generally 
similar character, many of them appear much 
older than the American plates. The patterns 
and shapes are far more varied, with inscrip- 



right. Showing iron legs and loose, decorated corner rims 
bolted on. An abutment in the wall at the rear of the stove 
surrounds it above, below and at the sides. With its decorated 
panels cast in low rel-ef showing Adam and Eve in front, and 
the Last Supper on the right, it is, in construction, an almost 
exact counterpart of the American five-plate Jamb stoves de- 
scribed later. 



tions either in Roman, or Gothic letters, in 
German, Norse, Dutch or French and not 
rarely Latin. Some of the plates illustrate the 
lives of the Saints, some show rich armorial 
emblazonments, gorgeous arabesques, panel- 
lings, canopies and filigree unknown in 
America. Many are dated and become more 
ornate and significant as we approach the mid- 
dle of the 16th century. 

Compared with the foreign originals the 
American plates are crude, but their construc- 
tion and the religious spirit of their illustra- 
tions and inscriptions is the same ; and now, 
when the craft of iron casting, notwithstand- 
ing its great technical development, has so de- 
generated artistically that the modern stove is 
a monstrosity, they prove that the iron caster 




Decorated Loose Corner Rims of 
Ancient Norjie Cast-Iron Stoves. 

with longitudinal strips of wrought iron used inside as 
washers. (Size not given.) By kind permission of the North- 
ern Museum (Nordiska Museet). at Stockholm. 

1 and 2 (Museum No. 64694). front view showing diago- 
nal bolts for fastening top plates, and protruding ends of short 
bolts. 3. front view of longer similar rim with bolt holes. 4 
and 5, inside vertical wrought iron strips or washers with 
short bolts attached and diagonal top bolts in position. 

was still an artist a hundred and fifty years 
ago in the American Colonies, and in the 
German Fatherland. 

A study of them shows that their explana- 
tion, whether in America or Europe, forms one 
single story. Their history is that of German 
art, which was transplanted across seas and 
survived for awhile in colonial America, and 
we must turn back to Europe, and examine 
particularly the forms of stoves which were 
first brought to America, and introduced into 
the colonies, in order to understand the Ameri- 
can stoves and stove-plates, which are the 
subject of this paper. 

Only two simple forms of the Euporean 
decorated stoves wore thus imported and it 



\ 



[^ 



^ 



L 




71 



i 



Loose, Ciuttered Kin .•« for Fastening 

Corners of Kitlr r Draft or 

Janib t' 'es. 

with longitudinal strips of wrOL"., -on, used inside as washers, 
and diagonal bolts for clamping uown the top plate of the 
stove, from the Northern Museum at Stockholm. 

No. 6 (Museum No. 64094) shows the reverse of No. 1, 
Fig. 2. 

No. 7 shows the side view of No. 2. Fig. 2. 

No. 8 shows the reverse of No. 3, Fig. 2. 

Nos. 9 and 10 show the side and reverse of Nos. 4 and 
5, F.g. 2. 

will only be necessary to describe these mi- 
nutely. 

THE JAMB STOVE. FIVE PLATE 

STOVE, WALL STOVE, OR 

GERMAN STOVE.'-" 

The illustration (Figure 1) shows one of 
the old, richly decorated stoves of cast-iron 
which now (1914) stands, or stood, when 
photographed in 1905, in a peasant's house in 
Bjoeverkeroed, Brumley Parish, Luggede 
County, Scania, Sweden. 

Typical of the ancient European stoves 
in their simplest form, and of the American 
iron stoves here described, it is constructed of 
five rectangular plates of cast-iron, three of 




Left Plate of Cieniian Noii-Veiitilatiiig- 
Jamb Stove of tlie i6tli Century. 

Size. 109 centimeters h gh by 75 5/10 wide. At the Germanic 
Museum, Nuremberg. Museum No. A 570. 

The plate shows the broad margin for wall insertion to 
the left of the design, and a narrow right margin, with two 
notches, for the insertion of bolts, to fasten on loose, gutter- 
shaped corner rims not shown. The date 1540 appears in the 
large central panel. 

Above two portrait medallions, the six upper panels can- 
opied with architectural frame-work, represent in the splendid 

which, the front left and right plates are richly 
dscorat.d, and two of which, the top and bot- 
tom plates, edged with channels for the verti- 
cal insertion of the side plates (see Figures 36 
and 37), are plain. 

Standing upon two legs of iron, without 
fuel door, draft-hole or smoke-pipe, it is built, 
as is seen through the open door in the pic- 
ture, against the wall of a room, which wall 
forms the side or jamb of an open kitchen fire- 
place, and through which wall, fuel from the 
fire-place is inserted into the stove, and smoke 
escapes back into the chimney. 

The stove, lacking a plate on the wall or 
rear side, is held together by being thus built 



decorative style of the 16th century the parable of the Un- 
merciful Servant. 1. Pardoned by his niaster. 2. Throttling 
his undcrscrvant. 3. Condemned by his master. 4. Taken to 
pr son. 5. In the Stocks. 6. Paying his master in full; with 
the inscription: HER. HABE. GEDULT MIT M. BEZALE. 
MIC. W.ARF. EN. I. GEFENCKNIS. DER. HER. WARD. 
ZORNIG. U. UBER ANT WORTET. I. DE. PEINIGERN. 
B. E. IM. I. 

Luther's Bible. Matt. 18-25. 1. "Master have patience 
with me." 2. "Pay me." 4, "Put him in prison." "The 
master was angry and delivered him to the tormentors." 




Five-Plate Pioii-Veiitilatiiig- 'Wall or 
Jamb Stove. 

Christ "ania. Norway. No. 1137-97. As exhibited at the Mu- 
seum the stove shows the loose decorated corner rims each 
fastened with two bolts, to the upper of which the long diag- 
onal screw bolts hold down the top plate at the corners. 

into, or overlapped for from two to four inches, 
by the wall forming the fuel and smoke ori- 
fice above-mentioned, and is further fastened 
together by vertical, loose, gutter-shaped 
rims, generally decorated, as shown in Figure 
2, set vertically against the corners of the 
stove, and bolted on by short bolts held against 
longitudin:il washers, or perforated strips of 
iron, placed internally in the corners of the 
stove and shown loose in the illustration. 

If the stove were taken apart two peculiar 
characteristics would show in the loose plates 
owing to this method of construction. 

First the margins of the sideplates would 
be extra broad to the right of the pattern, on 



The right plate shows the Judgment of Solo-non with the 
inscription in German. KONICH. S ALAMOS. ERSTE. 
GERICHT. (King Solomon's first judgncnt). filling the cen- 
tral cartouche, and above a lower panel conta ning two por- 
trait medallions. The front plate shows the Death of Ab.*! 
with the inscription. CAIN. SCHLUG. SEIN. BRUDER. 
ABEL. DODT. (Cain killed his brother Abel), while a por- 
trait, of the Turkish Sultan probably, and the date 1641, appear 
in the lower panel The fact that the inscr ptions are in Ger 
man and not Norse, shows that this stove had been made in 
Germany and imported into Scandinavia. 




6. 

The European Xoti-Ventilatins: Jamb 
or 'Wall Stove. 

In its simplest form. Size in centimeters, high 86.5, wide 46.25. 
long 86.5. Forerunner of the American stoves described later. 
Without smokepipe or fuel door in the room heated, made of 
five plates, with loose corner rims, bolts and bolt holes, and 
broad margin on the right side plate for insertion in wall- Date, 
probably 18th century. Not in its original position, but as 
exhibited at the Norse Museum at Christiania. Norway. (Mu- 
seum No. 1135-97.) The decoration shows the adoration of 
the Magi and two Norse inscriptions on the right plate. 



the right plate, and to the left of it on the 
left plate (see Figures 21, 22, 23, etc), so as 
to permit wall insertion, without encroaching 
on the pattern, and second, there would be 
two notches, on the left or narrow margin of 
the right plate, and two on the right or narrow 
margin of the left plate (see Figure 4) coin- 
ciding with equidistant notches (four in all) 
on both right and left margins of the front 
plate (Figure 19) so as to permit the passage 
of the short bolts above-mentioned, seen in the 




Aneieiit Ciertnati Ca>>t-Iroii Five-Hlate 
Wall or Jamb Stove. 

Probably of the 17th century, with upper story of tiles for 
retaining heat- In its original pos tion at Halberstadt, Ger- 
many, size not given. Fro-ii photo-engraving in Jarnkake- 
lugnar Och Jarnugnar, by S. Ambrosiani 69. 

The illustration shows the method of wall insertion, the 
legs, possibly of earthen-ware, and the earthen heat-reta'ning 

illustrations (Figures 2 and 3). No doubt 
these notches often escape notice, but who- 
ever has collected stove plates, must have won- 
dered at the singular irregularity of the mar- 
gins as here described; one of which is always 
so very much broader than the other. 

This appears in the loose left plate of a 
similar ancient German stove dated 1520 (Fig- 
ure 4) from the Germanic Museum at Nurem- 
burg. Richly decorated in six canopied panels, 
underlined with inscriptions, and illustrating 
the parable of The Unmerciful Steward, of 



8 



superstructure of tiles, which was rarely used by the Moravians 
ir. America, but very frequent with five-plate stoves in Ger- 
many. (See Figs. 227 and 228.) The probably loose corner 
rims, and their bolt heads, are plainly shown. By kind per- 
mission of Dr. S. Ambrosiani. of the Northern Museum, 
Stockhol.Ti, Sweden. 




8. 
Six-Plate Draft Stove. 

Size. 73 centimeters high by 46 long by 28 wide. Rijks 
Museum, Amsterdam, By kind permission of Dr, Van Riemsdyk, 
The stove, probably of the 17th century, lacking its origi- 
nal legs, shows the fuel door and stove p'pe. A bolt hole 
near the top of the left plate shows where a diagonal bolt 
has extended upward through the perforated lip in the rim of 



the very heavy top plate to fasten down the latter. This 
diagonal bolt repeated on the reverse of the stove, was probably 
screwed upon the end of a long, horizontal bolt penetrating 
the stove from side to side. The corners are secured with the 
loose, gutter-shaped rims above described, each fastened with 
two screw bolts. The design shows Cupids with wreaths and 
scroll-work supporting a central shield showing the Paschal 
lamb. 




Side or Front Plate of Draft Stove. 

Size H, 1.04. meters W. 1.04. Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. 

At first sight, the plate, showing the creation of Eve and 
Nativity, with the emblems of the Evangelists, appears to be 
a replica of the beautiful patterns carved by the master Ph'lip 
Soldan, illustrated by Bickel (Eisenhutten des Klosters Haina 
Nos. 2 and 4). but though the grouping and composition of the 
large panels is the sa.ne, the details vary in all three plates 
showing that Soldan carved three moulds for the same sub- 
ject. 

Wh;ie the two latter plates are parts of Jamb or Wall 
stoves, the pattern on the orig nal mould for this plate has 
been made to serve for a Draft stove by mutilating the design 
with a hole for the fuel door, in the lower left corner. 



Matthew 18-26, it is characteristic of the more 
splendid work on iron stoves of the 16th cen- 
tury. Here the right margin notched for bolts 
is narrow, and the left unnotched, is broad, for 
insertion in the wall. 

The Norse Folks Museum found the 
stoves, Figures 5 and 6, and set them up tem- 
porarily for exhibition in the museum at 
Christiania, Norway. 

They are constructed exactly like Fig- 
ure 1, save that extra diagonal bolts pene- 
trating the corners of the top plates, and 
screwed upon the ends of the corner bolts 
above described, hold down the top plates, and 



steady the stove. These are lacking in Fig- 
ure 1 where the stove must depend entirely 
upon its insertion in the wall for steadiness. 

But in Figure 7 showing an ancient stove in 
situ at Halberstadt, in Germany, a large heat- 
retaining superstructure of tiles built upon 
the top plate of the iron box holds the stove 
together by its weight alone. In this form of 
construction, which appears to have been the 
rule in ancient Germany, while the simple box, 
without second story, was the exception, the 
top plate must have a hole in it, to admit the 
passage of hot air and smoke from the fire 
below into the earthen upper structure, which 



Here about the middle of the 16th century, besides the 
inscription of the name of the master Solian around the por- 
trait medallion, we have in the nature of an advertisement, the 
names of the caster and furnace set prominently above the 
naines of St. Luke and St. Matthew. The inscriptions without 
date read : 

GEGOSSEN. VON. KURT. SCHARFEN. ZU. HO 

JOHANNES. EVAN. SAN. MARCKS. LUCAS. SANCTUS. 
MATTHEUS. And around th- medallion. PHILLIPO. SOL- 
DAN. ZUM. FRANCKENBURG. GESCHNEIDEN. VON. 



by retaining heat after the wood fire goes out, 
adds greatly to the economic effect of the 
stove. 

A large and marvelous class of richly 
decorated ancient European stoves, ruined, 
rusting, forgotten, preserved in museums, or 
represented by loose plates, is thus described. 
However they may have varied in size, shape 
and appearance, they were all identical in 
principle. Built against the wall, and pro- 
truding like boxes into the room, generally 
without visible smoke-pipe and always with- 
out visible draft and fuel doors they may all 
be called non-ventilating stoves, because they 
procured the air necessary for combustion 
from outside the apartment heated, and hence 
failed to ventilate the latter. 

THE DRAFT STOVE, WIND STOVE. 
HOLLAND STOVE OR SIX PLATE 
STOVE. 
Less ancient, less numerous and widely 
distributed, less rich in decoration and less 
remarkable in appearance, another type of old 
European stove is represented by Figures 8, 
9, and 150. Photographed not in their original 
position, but as now on exhibition at the Rijks 
Museum at Amsterdam, these stoves are 
similar in general appearance to Figure 1, but 
very different in principle, and made of six 
plates instead of five. Standing free of the wall, 
with smoke-pipe and draft or fuel door. Figure 
8 is clamped at all four corners, not merely at 
two, with the loose gutter-shaped rims and 
short bolts just described. Moreover a per- 
forated projecting lip on the top plate just 
above a hole in the left side plate, shows that 
a diagonal bolt has been used to screw down 
the top upon the side plate. On Figure 150, 
however, where the gutter-shaped rims are 
cast solid upon the side plates, no such bolt 
hole appears, and we must suppose that the 



Translated — Cast bv Kurt Sharf at Ho- 



, John Evangelist. 
St. Mark. Luke. St. Matthew, Carved by Philip Soldan at 
Frankenburg. 

Another stove plate, the left of a Jamb stove, at the Louvre 
Museum, set in a fire place as if a fire-back, and illustrated on 
a postal card, October, 1911, shows two upper panels and 
other Bgures in replica of Bickel's illustrat'on No. 2, with 
replacements, om-s.ions of colu nns and border additions, 
proving the continued use of this gorgeous design by the Ger- 
man stove makers, together with the variations and shifting of 
patterns noted in the text as resorted to at the old furnaces. 

mere excessive weight of the top plate with- 
out the assistance of bolts, held the stove to- 
gether. 

These are the Draft Stoves or Wind 
Stoves (Vindugn) of old Sweden and Nor- 
way, which in the long and dark winters, 
radiated household comfort on the north 
rhores of the Baltic, and which in the milder 
climate of Holland, almost superseded the 
five plate non-ventilating jamb stoves above 
described. 

They differed not only in principle but in 
construction from the latter, and if the stoves 
were taken apart, peculiarities in the appear- 
ance of the loose plates of the draft stove 
would easily distinguish them from those of 
the jamb stove. The front plate would be un- 
mistakably perforated for the fuel door, and 
the top plate for the smoke-pipe. On the 
other hand, the loose gutter-shaped rims, and 
the rear plate, with its four notches for the 
piassage of the corner bolts, would be indis- 
tinguishable from the loose rims, and the 
front plate of a wall or jamb stove notched in 
the same way. But the peculiar extra broad 
margins, so typical of the jamb stove, 
adapted for insertion in masonry, would not 
appear on any of the plates. Further varieties 
of construction show in the old draft stoves. 
Some have fuel doors cut in the side rather 
than the front plates. Some have, and some 
have not hearth extensions. But all are alike 
in the important principle of their construc- 
tion. All derive the air for combustion from, 
and therefore ventilate the apartment heated. 

The ancient cast-iron stoves of Europe, 
so remarkable, so instructive, so artistic, so lit- 
tle known, as originals of the American stoves 
here described, were thus of two typical kinds, 
the air-tight non-ventilating, and the draft, 
wind or ventilating stove. Both took a great 



10 







^y/i<¥~ 






' ■ '■' > t ' I ' S ' ^ 

lO. 

Wooden Itlould for Iflaking- a 
Stove Plate. 

Size, about H. 30, W. 24 inches. Northern Museum, Stockholm, 
Sweden. No. 67040A. 

The design, with an upper panel representing a scene at 
a public banquet, a central transverse band, with the inscrip- 
tion "DEN. 27 FEBRUARU, 1829," and a lower panel, with 
an ill-balanced spray of leafage and fruit, and the words OHS. 
BRUK., is carved in relief on two boards about one inch thick, 
bolted together on two counter-sunk battens (one of which 
has been lost), shown on the reverse Figure 11. A crack 
between the boards, and a warp crack to the right, are crossed 
with four iron staples. Four bolt-heads fastening one of the 
battens, show in the line of the middle inscription, and several 

variety of shapes,'' but are only described 
here in their simplest form. The first, common 
in Germany, well-known in Scandinavia, but 
rare in Holland, as the direct predecessor of 
the American "Five-Plate" "Jamb," "Ger- 
man" or "Wall" stove,'"' the second, common 
in Holland and Scandinavia but rare in Ger- 
many, as the ancestor of the American "Six- 
Plate" "Holland" or "Draft" stove. 

The attention of European museums and 
collectors has been concerned rather with the 
art than the make of these stoves, but the pe- 
culiarities of their construction, as thus de- 
scribed, ought to be understood, in order to 
explain why notched or unnotched or broad 
margins, or pipeholes, hearth extensions, or 
fuel doors often fixing the date, class or origin 



heads of nails show on the marginal molding, which has been 
nailed on. A thin, transverse strip has been fastened to the 
bottom ends of the boards outside the rims, to prevent warp- 
ing. The whole top of the pattern has rotted away. 



I ' ' ^ - '1 


i 


^ 



II. 

'Wooden Caster's mould for a Stove 
Plate. 

Reverse of Figure 10. Size about H. 30 by W. 24. Northern 
Museum, Stockholm. No. 67040A. 

Made of two boards, planed or grooved with a drawknife 
across the grain. Two staples are seen, one crossing the in 
tersection of the boards, the other mending a warp cracit. A 
narrow batten is nailed across the ends of the boards at the 
bottom, and a heavy transverse batten is dovetailed, and 
bolted with four washered bolts, across the boards. The top 
of the framework showing the dovetail for the lost upper batten 
has rotted away. 

of the stoves, occur on some plates and not on 
others. 

We also ought to know how, when and 
where the stoves were originally made and 
used, and this brings us first to the technical 
processes by which most of them in Europe 
and America were designed and cast. 

ANCIENT STOVE CASTING AND 
STOVE MOULDS. 
The plates of both kinds of stoves vary- 
ing in size from two to three feet in diameter, 
are very heavy and thick, and generally never 
produced by the caster's process known as 
flask casting, which was not employed in mak- 
ing the plates of either wall or draft stoves, 
until the beginning of the 19th century, or the 



11 



last period of their use, upon the introduction 
of coal as fuel, and never, as thus far known, 
in America. If the authorities herein cited, 
had not asserted the fact, the irregular thick- 
ness, varying weight, and waived surfaces of 
the backs of the plates both in America and 
Europe, would prove that all the earlier plates 
were cast in the "open sand," that is to say, 
molten iron, either melted directly from the 
ore, or remelted from ingots, called "pig iron," 
previously so melted, was poured into the 
open unroofed cavity, formed by pressing the 
face of a pattern (Figues 10, 12 and 14) into a 
bed of properly dampened caster's sand (some- 
times mixed for strength with powdered char- 
coal or plumbago), so as to leave the upper 
surface of the impression exposed to the air, 
and so that the resultant cast stove plate, 
would be thicker and heavier, or thinner and 
lighter as more or less liquid iron was 
poured in. 

Up to the present time. May, 1914, none of 
the ancient casters' moulds for making either 
wall or draft stove plates, have been found 
in the United States. 

Beck," Wedding' ■• and Bickell'- who de- 
scribe the ancient German moulds as always 
carved in wood, give no illustrations, but Dr. 
Kassel (Oftenplatten im Elsass Strasburg, 
1901, with his Figures 110, 113, 114, 115, etc.) 
illustrates a number of them, without showing 
their reverse side or explaining their con- 
struction, as now existing in the possession 
of the furnace and foundry at Zinsweiler in 
Alsace. 

After a great deal of inquiry and correspond- 
ence the writer heard of Figures 10-11 from 
the Nordiska Museet at Stockholm, and Fig- 
ures 12-13 and 14-15 from the Norse Folks 
Museum at Christiania, Norway, kindly photo- 
graphed by Doctor Ambrosiani and Mr. L. 
Lindholm. Although unfortunately the pat- 
terns belong to the late decadent period of Eu- 
ropean stove-making, they clearly explain the 
construction of the moulds to the student who 
may have doubted whether they were made of 
wood, plaster of paris, wax, lead upon wood, 
or iron, or produced by loose stamps, as de- 
scribed by Starkie Gardner (in Archaeologia, 



Vol. 56, Part 1, page 133), in the casting of the 
oldest English firebacks at furnaces in the 
Kentish district known as the Weald. ' 

In Figure 10 shown in reverse in Figure 
11, we have a rectangular frame-work about 
two-and-a-half feet square, made of two 
boards, about an inch thick, fastened together 
originally across the back, by two stout trans- 
verse wooden battens (one of which is lost), 
dove-tailed into and bolted (with four bolts 
riveted on washers) against the back of 
the boards upon the flat front face of which 
the pattern is carved in very low relief with- 
out undercutting. 

Vertical warp-cracks entirely penetrating 
the boards, three times mended with staples, 
in Figure 11, and traversing the patterns in 
Figures 12 and 14, conclusively show that the 
designs have been carved directly upon the 
face of the boards in the usual manner of relief 
work, by cutting away the background, and 
that the margins have not been so carved, but 
nailed on in the form of loose strips, since the 
warp-cracks above-mentioned pass under but 
do not cut the margins. Further it appears 
that in Figure 14 the margin or moulding 
under consideration is of some composition 
such as that used in modern picture frames, 
since a broad crack crosses it at right angles, 
in a manner impossible across the grain of a 
wooden strip, and not coinciding with any 
crack in the board background underneath. 

The comparatively modern and artistic- 
ally decadent pattern shown in Figure 12, with 
its reverse Figure 13, presents the same con- 
struction throughout, namely a wooden pat- 
tern carved on two boards, bolted as before 
against three battens and trimmed with a loose 
moulding nailed on in four pieces. Both here, 
as also in Figure 10, the bolt-heads and mar- 
ginal nail heads show on the front of the pat- 
tern. 

The casting of the plates in open flasks 
is thus explained. But the loose iron rims 
(Figures 2, 3, and 151), convex in front, and 
guttered in reverse, have also to be accounted 
for. According to Bickell (Eisenhutten des 
Klosters Haina, page 10), these had to be cast 
in separate flasks, that is to say, boxes filled 



12 










^^ 



12. 

Carved >Voodeii Mould for Casting: 
a Plate. 

Size H. 0.56.5 centimeters, W. 0.50. From the National Mu- 
seum, at Christ ania, Norway. Museum No. 36005. 

Carved in relief on two boards fastened by twelve iron 
bolts upon three heavy battens shown in reverse in Figure 13. 
The raised marginal moulding is nailed on with twelve nails. 
The central crack between the boards, and a warped crack out 
of line, below the lion's fore leg, cross the raised parts of th? 
pattern, showing that the latter are not nailed upon the back- 
ground like the rim. 




Reverse of Figure 12. Size H. 0.56.5 centimeters W. 0.50. 
From the National Museum, Christiania, Norway. No. 36005. 

Three heavy battens are belted across the boards by 
twelve bolts, the heads of which plainly appear upon the face 
of the pattern, Figure 12. 




MToodeii Mould for Making: a Stove 
Plate. 



14. 

Carved Wooden Mould for Front Plate 
of Jamb Stove. 

or back plate of draught stove. Size H. 0.63.5 centimeters 
W. 0,35. National Museum at Christiania, Norway. Museum 
No. 358 05. 

The pattern dated 1782, with the advertisement of the fur- 
nace. BOLVIGS. WERK.. and the ancient metallurgical 
symbol for iron, is carved on a single board, with two nar- 
row strips bolted together upon two heavy transverse battens, 
as the reverse Figure 15 shows. The vertical warp crack 
crosses the whole pattern except the rim, which is therefore 
not part of the carving, but fastened on and made of some 
substance other than wood which has permitted it to crack 
across the grain. The high rims at the right and left are 
applied upon the back strips and held in place with bolts. 



13 



with damp sand, fitting one upon another so 
as to, as it were, roof the impression of the 
pattern and permit the hot iron to enter what 
might be Hkened to a cavern of damp sand, 
reprcEenting the complete impressions of the 
guttered rim on both sides. Where these rims 
were cast solid upon the margins of the side 
or front plates (see Figures 31, 44 and 150), 
what might be called partial flasks, overhung 
the margins of the large impressions, in such 
manner as to leave the main surface open to 
the air, and produce a plate, which is thus 
open sand cast in the middle, and flasked on 
the margins. 

This is shown in Figure 14 reversed in 
Figure 15 where the pattern is carved on a 
single wide board, held by two transverse 
bolted battens between two side strips, which 
latter are doubled in front by two convex 
longitudinal strips, nailed on, and intended to 
produce deep chasms in the caster's sand, to 
be roofed over longitudinally (flasked), with 
sand coated rods (not shown), so laid across 
the sand bed, as to form the gutter-shaped 
rims where, as in Figure 150, and in the 
American front plates (see Figures 31, 36, 44, 
54, etc.), it was desired to cast the latter solid 
on the plates. 

Figure 16 shows a loose figure cast in sil- 
houette in lead, perforated with nail holes, 
which, according to Ambrosiani, has been 
nailed upon a similar board framework, so as 
to form, either alone, or with other figures, a 
complete pattern. And Kassel (Plattenofen 
und Oftenplatten im Elsass, Figure 131), il- 
lustrates a whole pattern cast, not thus in 
silhouette, but, background and all, in the 
form of a thin sheet of lead fastened to the 
board. 

Either of these lead methods, the latter of 
which appear to have been introduced early in 
the 19th century in Alsace, would do away 
with wood carving altogether and permit the 
mould maker to make his designs in clay or 
wax, to be thus reproduced in the usual man- 
ner by casting in lead. But they belong not to 
the period of the artistic development of the 
stoves, but to that of their decadence and 
abandonment, and until moulds shall be found 



to prove the case, there is no ground for sup- 
posing that any such patterns were used to 
cast the earlier plates under consideration, or 
that during the period 1480 to 1800, heavy 
plaster of paris casts, undesirable on account 
of their softness and brittleness, were used, or 
that iron moulds, objectionable on account of 
their weight, cast from preliminary moulds 
of wood, wax or plaster, were employed. 
All of the evidence thus far indicates that the 
great majority of the ancient moulds in Ger- 
many, as in America, were made not by clay 
or wax workers, but in the usual way as de- 
scribed, by wood carvers, whose names appear 
frequently as "Formschneider" upon the old 
plates. 

A great number of the wooden moulds 
above described, must have been destroyed in 
the 19th century, as the old stoves fell into 
disuse, from the fact that they are so rare, 
but according to all the evidence, many of 
them when in use, warped, after the manner 
of the museum specimens shown in Figures 
10, 12 and 14, so as to show, vertical cracks 
running with the grain of the wood, or so as 
to spring away from the battens and raise the 
general surface higher in one place than an- 
other. Or the raised patterns or letters in the 
inscriptions may have broken off. In many 
cases, the boards must have been rebolted, 
nailed or screwed upon the battens, or fresh 
battens added. The bolt holes, if noticed in 
the wood, and the warp cracks, must have 
been filled with clay or wax to the general 
level, and the impressions of unmortised bolts 
or nails or wood welts, obliterated upon the 
sand. 

That the correction of these defects and 
the considerable mending of the patterns, as 
they wore down or warped, fell to the caster, 
or to assistant carpenters or cabinetmakers, 
or to the original pattern carver himself, the 
old furnace records of the Haina Abbey 
works quoted by Bickell show. 

On the other hand a number of American 
and European plates, some indeed of the finest 
of the 16th century designs of Philip Soldan, 
show uncorrected impressions of warp cracks, 
and of the heads of unmortised nails or bolts 



14 




15- 

'Wooden Mould for maUing; ttie End 

Plate of a Five- or Six-Plate 

Stove. 



or the loss of letters in inscriptions. Some- 
times these defects occur but once, but occa- 
sionally appear in a series of replicas, to show 
that the careless workman, who might have 
obliterated them with a touch or two of the 
moulder's trowel, did not scruple to repeat his 
error. 

Evidence of the mutilation of patterns, of 
inferior copying of older patterns, of bad res- 
toration, or of the interchange of parts of pat- 
terns so as to jumble designs and confuse au- 
thorship, also appears, as Wedding and Kassel 
show, especially where ancient patterns were 
held for a century or more at a single foundry. 
And it further appears that holes for the doors 
of draft stoves, or for the warming upper com- 
partments of jamb stoves were sometimes in- 
serted regardless of the design, as in Figure 9 
at the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, where a 



Reverse of Figure M. Size H. 0.63.5 centimeters W. 0.35. 
Norse Folks Museum. Christiania, Norway. No. 35805. 

One broad board, and two narrow side strips, are bat- 
tened together with two heavy transverse battens, each held 
with four bolts riveted upon washers. The vertical warp 
cracks crossing the carving in Figure M is here seen clearly 
in reverse on the back of the central board. 




i6. 

Part of Ancient Stove Mould. 

Figure of a horseman in silhouette about 10 inches long made 
of cast lead, used in the construction of a mould for casting 
a stove plate. The figure has been nailed upon a board back- 
ground, through several nail holes appearing upon the surface. 
Exact size not given. By kind permission of the Northern 
Museum at Stockholm, Sweden. 



magnificent pattern by Philip Soldan, made 
probably for a jamb stove, has been thus muti- 
lated for a later draft stove, and that where 
it was required to cast a plate or stove smaller 
or larger than the mould on hand, the latter 
was sometimes sawed ofT, design and all, or 
its margin reduced or enlarged to suit the 
case. 

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE 
ANCIENT STOVES. 

To have gone into these details as to stove 
moulds and the casting and construction of 
the ancient stoves seems justified in view of 
the rarity of information on these points both 
in Europe and America. But who knows any- 
thing as to the date of the invention of iron 
stoves or the range of their distribution in the 
Old World, or how and when decorated stove 



15 



plates have survived into modern times. At 
the risk of tiring the reader these questions 
ought also to be answered in order to explain 
the American stoves, which are hereafter de- 
scribed, and as an essential part of our sub- 
ject, which begins in Europe and ends in 
America. 

In the first place it should be explained 
that these stoves were not an invention, but 
rather a reconstruction in iron, of stoves in 
earthenware, raw clay or tiles, previously in 
use in Europe since Roman times.'" 

Dr. Ludwig Beck, in his Geschichte des 
Eisens, Vol. 2, page 294, supposes that they 
were developed in the first place by encasing 
the fireboxes of the previously existing 
earthen stoves with cast-iron plates. 

Dr. Ambrosiani supposes a similar evolu- 
tion, in his paper on Norse stoves, Om Jarn- 
kakelugnar, page 93, and Beck, page 294, 
cites Swiss stoves of clay or brick without 
chimneys fed with abundant wood through 
holes outside the walls of the house, and 
hence smokeless, as possible types of original 
earthen stoves thus experimented upon with 
iron plates. Beck, Siebenaler, and Fischer 
Perron (in works cited in the Appendix) de- 
scribe what might be called a radiating fire- 
back used in Luxembourg, called Taque de 
Foyer (and confused with the common fire- 
back) which, placed back of the open fire, in 
a fireplace like a partition, and with its deco- 
rated side turned away from the hearth, radi- 
ated heat into an adjoining apartment or closet 
called Taqueschaf, and which might therefore 
be called a stove made of one plate. (See Fig- 
ures 218 to 221.) 

But whatever might have been the nature 
of the earliest step the exact date of the first 
casting of stoves in iron is uncertain. Beck 
refers indefinitely to French writers who state 
that iron stoves were cast in Alsace in 1490, 
and quotes Lersners Chronicle of Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, Vol. 2, page 723, which refers to 
a person known as the "Master of the Mosel" 
who in the year 1490, "'can make iron stoves." 



There are, or in 1903 were, a few undated 
plates in the Clarier collection at Paris, Rue 
Gambetta 41, and at the Museum at Nancy re- 
ferred to by Dr. Kassel in his Ofenplatten in 
Alsace, page 3, which he infers to have been 
cast in the time 1431-1480 of King Rene of 
Anjou whose arms they bear. But this does 
not certainly follow, for they might have been 
cast after the king's death, and as they are 
firebacks, and not stove plates, would concern 
rather the doubtful antiquity of iron-c 
itself than that of stoves. The same thing 
may be said of an ancient grave slab of cast 
iron in a little English Church at Burwash in 
Sussex which Starkie Gardner in Archaeolo- 
gia, Vol. 56, Part 1, page 134, believes to have 
been made in the 14th century. While this 
grave slab has no date, a remarkable plate 
dated 1488, cited by Beck as found at the rec- 
tory at Ravengiersbach in Hesse, and unfortu- 
nately melted down as junk in 1855, was again 
a fireback and not a stove plate. 

The splendid cast iron double storied 
stove, elaborately constructed of many plates, 
shaped like the gable of a church, and decor- 
ated with figures of the Madonna and St. 
Christopher, now 1914, in the Castle of Co- 
burg in Hesse, has no date. But it neverthe- 
less stands for the oldest iron stove thus far 
found in situ in Germany, and must have 
been cast and set up, according to Beck, and a 
builder's inscription on the Castle walls, when 
the Castle was repaired in 1485. 

If a stove or stove plate could be found 
with a date upon it earlier than the year 1500, 
the evidence would be more satisfactory. But 
no such stove or fragment has been discov- 
ered. Nevertheless, though it is not until the 
second decade of the 16th century, or about the 
time of the beginning of the Reformation, 
that a great number of dated stoves and stove 
plates appear in Germany, -it may perhaps be 
reasonably inferred from the above data, that 
the invention of cast iron stoves, which no one 
denies for Germany, occurred somewhere 
about the time of the birth of Columbus or 
Luther, and the invention of printing, and 
vaguely within a century after the discovery 
of the casting of iron itself." 



16 

From the authorities mentioned, we learn 
that although in Britain, Southern France, 
Spain, and probably Italy and Greece, where 
houses were warmed by open fires, these 
stoves never existed, they were abundantly 
used in Germany, Scandinavia, Denmark, Hol- 
land, Belgium, Lorraine, Alsace and Northern 
France. 

In Transylvania, where a German colony 
has been isolated in the mountains among 
Slavic peoples for several centuries, there 
ought to be cast iron stoves. Dr. Ambrosiani 
writes us that they are rare in Russia, and 
the writer has been unable to learn of their 
existence in Northern Austria, Bohemia, Gala- 
tia, Hungary, Finland and Poland. Neither 
are we sufficiently informed as to the distribu- 
tion of the two types of stoves, namely venti- 
lating and non-ventilating, as described above, 
and whether the former or the latter were pre- 
ferred, or first used, in any given country. 

A great many of the loose plates of draft 
stoves in European Museums, studied thus far 
chiefly from an artistic point of view, have 
been mixed up with the plates of wall or jamb 
stoves, or with firebacks^* or with the peculiar 
kind of reversible fireback anciently in use in 
Luxemburg and Belgium called Taquede 
Foyer, above referred to, and it remains to 
be learned whether these draft stoves of iron 
which, it appears, were unquestionably pre- 
ceded by draft stoves made of tiles, were some- 
where contemporaneous from the first with 
the iron wall stoves of the 15th and 16th 
centuries or whether they were introduced long 
after the appearance of the latter." 

According to Ambrosiani"" the draft 
stoves appeared in Scandinavia late in the 
17th century and considerably after the iron 
wall stoves. Figure 8 from the Rijks Mu- 
seum at Amsterdam is dated 1660. Figure 
150, 1753, and Figure 9, the plate with a hole 
in it for a draft door, and hence necessarily 
part of a draft stove yet with the name of the 
artist, Philip Soldan (born about 1500, died 
about 1560) inscribed upon it, was therefore 
possibly made in the early 16th century. Con- 
sequently, without going farther into the an- 
tiquity of these draft stoves, there can be no 



question that they were not invented in the 
United States, but had existed in Europe long 
before their appearance in the British Colonies. 

Not a little of the information thus far 
collected has been obtained from the records 
or histories of the ancient ironworks which 
produced them. Wedding speaks of a furnace 
where a great number of beautiful stoves were 
cast, at Ilsinburg in the Hartz, in which prov- 
ince, according to him, they began to make 
stove castings in the second half of the 16th 
century (not before 1543), and produced their 
best work between 1560 and 1590. Fett gives 
the names of a number of old furnaces in Nor- 
way, Sweden, and Denmark, where both wind 
and wall stoves were made in the 17th, 18th 
and 19th centuries. Bickell notes ancient fur- 
naces working in the 17th century at Bieden- 
kopf, Rosenthal, Knickhagen, Veckerhagen, 
Butzbach and Bieder in Hesse, and heaps of 
slag, abandoned excavations, and the ruins of 
foundations of ancient walls on the banks of 
the Gilsa and Urfa, wild mountain streams 
flowing into the river Edder, mark the site of 
the furnaces of Densburg, or Rommershausen, 
Dodenhausen, Fishbach and Armsfeld, be- 
longing to the Hessian Abbey hospital of 
Haina, where the magnificent carvings of Sol- 
dan were cast into stoves in the 16th century, 
and other splendid designs executed a hundred 
years later, after the armies of Wallenstein, 
Tilly and Gustavus Adolphus had interrupted 
the work for a long time.*- 

Fortunately for the student, the old stoves 
were not constructed so as to present their 
vertical decorated sides in one solid piece of 
iron. If so, most of them would have disap- 
peared long ago. To entirely destroy the evi- 
dence of a given stove, not one but several 
flat, heavy rectangles of iron have to be lost, 
and as the stoves were cast in replica, out of 
a multitude of duplicates, a great many of the 
patterns, as single plates, survived the demoli- 
tion of the stoves, and are now being pre- 
served by collectors and museums throughout 
Europe. 



17 



STUDENTS AND COLLECTORS OF 
STOVES. 

Dealers in antiquities have sold loose 
stove plates for house adornment latterly 
(probably after 1890) in America, and earlier 
in England, where they have been used as 
firebacks, and where a few have been placed 
in the South Kensington Museum. If they 
had not been so elaborately adorned by artists 
now unknown, with patterns worthy to be 
compared with the rich wood carvings of the 
Cathedrals, illustrating a phase of household 
decoration that flourished at the end of the 
Middle Ages, and survived the Reformation in 
a striking series of illustrations of the Bible, 
this subject, as a purely ecomonic one, would 
have no more attraction for the student of art 
than a study of the modern inartistic coal, 
coke and turf burning stoves of Europe, now 
in use, and which are hardly less monstrous in 
design and decoration than their counterparts 
in the United States. But so remarkable is 
the decoration of the old stoves in question 
that it is a singular thing that, outside of a few 
casual notes in general histories and the pro- 
ceedings of scientific societies, no general 
notice should have been taken of them by 
students of art, until about twenty years ago. 

Then Dr. L. Bickell, keeper of the Hessian 
Historical Society, roused interest in the mat- 
ter in 1889 (see Eisenhutten des Klosters 
Haina, Marburg, 1889), by describing the 
splendid set of stoves and plates collected at 
Marburg in Hesse, and by rescuing from obliv- 
ion the forgotten name of Philip Soldan, of 
Frankenburg, the master who designed many 
of them in the early 16th century. Dr. Her- 
man Wedding who, previously in 1881, had 
called attention to the subject in a paper before 
the Hartz Verein, later in 1893 described and 
partially illustrated another lot of about three 
hundred loose stove plates, collected on loan 
at Ilsenburg in the Harz." " In 1865, W. 
Luebke in his paper on decorated tile stoves 



in Switzerland mentions three iron stoves."" 
Fisher Ferron, in 1890,"' followed by J. B. 
Siebenaler in 1899 and 1908' and the Baron De 
Rivitres in 1893" describe and illustrate a few 
stove plates, a great number of armorial fire- 
backs, and what might be called radiating 
firebacks, the so-called "taques" in lower 
Belgium, Luxemburg, and Lorraine."" 

Dr. Ludwig Beck in 1893, in a later edi- 
tion of his History of Iron, devotes a whole 
interesting chapter to the artistic description 
of old stoves and sto/e plates in Germany; 
and Dr. Kassel (Ofenplatten und Platten- 
offen im Elsass, Noirel, Strasburg, 1903) 
describes technically and artistically more 
completely than any one else a great number 
of these stoves and stove plates recently found, 
and still in 1903, in use in peasant houses in 
Alsace. Besides several museums and private 
collections containing stove plates in Germany, 
Holland, and France.^' a great number of 
the stoves, originally of German origin, have 
been recently collected and studied in Nor- 
way, where Mr. H. Fett describes and par- 
tially illustrates a large loan collection at the 
Norse Museum at Christiania. In Sweden at 
the remarkable Nordiska Museet, founded by 
Er. Herselius at Stockholm, there is a col- 
lection containing plates and stoves, the 
oldest of v^hich were imported into Scandi- 
navia from Germany in the 16th century, after 
which they continued to be made at Norse 
Furnaces until about 1820, and referring to 
which Dr. Ambrosiani, to whom the writer 
is greatly indebted, gives with illustrations, '■'•' 
a most valuable description of the internal 
construction of the stoves, which none of the 
other writers, except Kassel, appear to have 
thought of doing. 

SURVIVAL OF THE STOVES. 

But in Europe, as in America, the day of 
the ancient s<oves is past. Their art is dead. 
Discarded foi coal-burning stoves, apparatus 
for hot-air or steam heating, or supplanted by 



18 



modernized forms of the older tile stoves, they 
fell into disuse in the 19th century, towards 
the end of which a great number of the ancient 
iron plates were melted down for recasting, 
before museums and students had begun to 
value them, and when at certain times since 
1850 the price of old iron went up. 

But they were not suddenly abolished 
and destroyed as in the United States. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Ernest Kohler (Volkskunst 
and Volkskunde, Vol. Ill, 1909.) a number of 
ancient wooden patterns are preserved if not 
still used at the furnace at Obereichstatt on 
the Altmuhl in Bavaria,*' and though the 
majority of the old stove-making furnaces of 
the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries with their 
immense water wheels, blast bellows greased 
with lard or tallow, casters' benches and an- 
cient cisterns, as described by Bickell, are now 
in ruins or modernized beyond recognition, 
Kassel describes the ancient furnaces of 
Messrs. Dieterich & Co. at Zinsweiler and 
Niederbronn in Alsace, as still, in 1903, making 
modernized forms of jamb stoves with cooking 
improvements, inserted ovens, drying cham- 
bers, etc., and the stove works of Mr. George 
vun Collin at Hanover, according to the 
information of the latter, produced in 1910 
jamb stoves with insignificant scroll decora- 
tions, in five plates and sometimes with in- 
serted ovens. No doubt other furnaces or 
foundries still exist in Europe, where wall 
stoves or draught stoves of the old rectangular 
type, more or less modernized in their decora- 
tive patterns, are occasionally cast. Moreover, 
while all the American stoves thus far found 
have been dismantled, and can only be studied 
from their loose plates, not a few of the ancient 
European stoves remain in their original posi- 
tion in old houses,"' like Figure 1, and the 
director of the Museum at Stuttgardt informs 
the writer that few of the ancient houses in 
that vicinity are without their old decorated 
stoves. 

Kassel, in 1903, notes a large number of 
complete stoves in situ at farm houses near 
Hochfelden in Alsace,'" and besides the great 
undated Coburg stove above noted, supposed 
to have been built in 1485, they have at the 



Bavarian National Museum at Munich a 
smaller one of similar form, one meter and 
ten broad, by one and twenty high, dated 
1536, set on high legs with numerous decora- 
tive panels, and adorned with armorial shields, 
portrait medallions, and knightly figures, 
found in the Palsgraves guest chamber, at the 
castle of Grunau near Neuburg on the 
Danube. ^" 

What memories, what legends must have 
clustered about these monumental structures 
of black splendour, most magnificent and oldest 
as we learn, in the castles, and the sight of 
which has grafted upon the German language 
such phrases as "Tell it to the stove," or "Beg 
it from the stove," as if so remarkable an 
object with its pictures and inscriptions itself 
spoke, or listened to dangerous and impossible 
things told to it when no one was near. 

In such stoves as these Wilhelm Grimm, 
in his notes to the celebrated cycle of German 
Household Talcs, sees the dark and fiery sym- 
bol of the Nether World, or the ancient Orcus, 
with its chimney of Vulcan. By a freak of 
German fancy, incomprehensible to the mind 
of Old England, where stoves never existed, 
the stoves stand in enchanted forests, to be the 
dwelling-place or prison of kings' sons, or, as 
in the beautiful tale of the Goose Girl, from 
Schwerin, listen to unutterable secrets.^' 

STOVE PICTURES. 

The writers above quoted group the plates 
thus far studied in Europe, according to their 
subjects, as follows, into: 

First. Figures of Saints and Catholic sub- 
jects, with Gothic adornments and portrait 
medallions of knights and persons. These are 
the oldest patterns; they appeared exclusively 
at the beginning and continued in Catholic 
districts. 

Second. Classical Subjects. 

Such as Coriolanus and his mother, the 
Rape of the Sabines, Julius Caesar, the Sybils, 
etc. 

Third. Coats of Arms. 

Very abundant from the first. Made for 
nobles, towns and corporations. Far outnum- 



19 



bering all other patterns upon the firebacks 
and "taques" in England, France and Belgium. 
The arms of crafts emblazoned with imple- 
ments, etc., appear in the 17th century. 

Fourth. Allegorical Subjects. 

Frequently female figures, representing 
Justice holding scales. Faith, Virtue, etc., 
appear in the 17th century. 

Fifth. Patriotic and Warlike Subjects. 

Royal portraits, national arms, memorials 
of Bonaparte, royal emblems. Ordered, in 
France, Lorraine, etc., to be turned face to 
the wall, or inside the stove, by a decree of 
the National Convention, October 12, 1793. 

Sixth. Landscapes. 

Pictorial designs, churches and modern 
filagree, appearing in the 18th century, as 
casting in flasks, instead of open sand, begins 
towards the end of the 17th century. The 
patterns become more and more realistic, 
tasteless and meaningless in the 19th century 
and until the present time. 

Seventh. Bible Subjects. 

Beginning with the Reformation about 
1530, and by far the most important, inter- 
esting and widely spread of all the designs. 
Brought to America by German emigrants in 
the 18th century. Much finer in the 16th than 
the 17th century. Much retarded by the thirty 
years' war, 1618 to 1648, they become more 
pictorial in the 18th and 19th centuries, and 
sometimes consist of moral maxims and fila- 
gree alone. From the Old Testament: Crea- 
tion of Eve. Adam and Eve. The Expulsion 
from Paradise. Abraham and Isaac. Pharaoh 
at the Red Sea. Moses and the snake in the 
wilderness. Lot and his daughters. Joseph 
and his brothers. Joseph and Potaphar"s wife. 
Joseph interpreting the dream. Elija's miracle 
of the oil at Sarepta. Elisha"s miracle of the 
oil. David and Uriah. The Judgment of 
Solomon. David and Goliath. Jonah prophe- 
sying the end of Nineveh. The punishment 
of Haman. The fall of Sodom. Joseph and 
the five kings. The Moulten Calf. Death of 
Nahab and Abihu. Death of Absalom. Esther 
and Mordecai. Daniel in the Lions' Den. 



Susanna in the garden. From the Apochrypha: 
Judith in the camp of Holofernes. The binding 
of Achur by Holofernes. Judith with the head 
of Holofernes. The siege of Bethulia. From 
the New Testament: John the Baptist. Birth 
of Christ. Baptism of Christ. Last supper and 
Foot washing. Christ at Gethsemane. The 
capture of Christ. Visit of the shepherds. 
The Flagellation of Christ. Carrying the cross. 
Turning water to wine at Cana; most popu- 
lar of all Biblical patterns among the poorer 
classes in Germany, endlessly copied and re- 
peated. Conversion of Paul. Christ and the 
Woman of Samaria. The miraculous feast of 
the Five Thousand. Peter walking on the 
water. The Good Samaritan. The Prodigal 
Son. The Rich Man and Lazarus. History of 
the rich and poor. Christ in the temple. The 
Crucifixion. The Resurrection. The Last 
Judgment. Illustrations of the quotation, "He 
who climbs in not by the door is a thief and a 
robber." 

ARTISTIC TREATMENT. 

The comparatively few plates illustrated 
in the books above quoted, from the earliest, 
dated 1527, as shown by Wedding, to the latest, 
dated 1811, illustrated by Kassel, show a great 
variety in the treatment of their designs, bor- 
ders and inscriptions. 

As to design, although a few traces of 
Gothic decoration appear upon the earlier 
plates in the 16th century, it is the style of 
the German Renaissance that characterizes 
them from the time of the Reformation, when 
they came into general use, down to the be- 
ginning of the 19th century. From first to 
last, the tendency to produce a picture with 
foreground, distance and realistic rendering 
of natural objects, appearing rarely in the 
earlier plates, but very frequently in the later 
ones, is noticeable. 

On the other hand, true decorative designs 
where the whole pattern is conventionalized 
and balanced, and where foliage, natural ob- 
jects and inscriptions are arranged, not with 
regard to perspective or drawing, but rather 
to balancing of units of design, is very con- 
spicuous in the earlier plates, rare in the later 



20 



ones, and almost absent after 1800 upon plates 
which have not been directly copied from 
older models. 

Sometimes besides the main design, 
conveying ths chief meaning of the plate, 
secondary patterns, often paneled away from 
the main field, are filled with scroll work, 
knightly figures, classical heroes, portrait 
medallions, emblems, or large explanatory 
inscriptions or dates, and sometimes with the 
advertisement of the names of furnaces. 

A border of some sort is nearly always 
used, generally as a plain moulding or rim 
surrounding the pattern and sometimes cross- 
ing it so as to form the panels above men- 
tioned, though this is sometimes entirely 
absent. Besides this, Soldan and other masters 
frequently surround their designs with elabo- 
rate filagreed bands in the richest style of the 
Renaissance, which in themselves would serve 
to conventionalize the main pattern even if 
the latter were pictorial, and these borderings 
in the late 16th and 17th centuries frequently 
take the form of canopies overhanging the 
figures, often as arches sometimes pointed and 
adorned with Gothic fretwork, but generally 
of round classic pattern supported upon 
twisted or fluted columns. 

And here we pause with particular inter- 
est, for this latter type of design prevailing in 
Alsace and southern Germany in the 17lh and 
18th centuries crossed the seas as the imme- 
diate predecessor of the earliest American 
patterns. Above the main picture, which is 
placed immediately under the arches, the semi- 
circle within the vault is filled with elaborate 
pendant corbels, or curtains and tassels, while 
below it the inscription either fills a narrow 
cartouche crossing the entire plate, as a plinth 
below the columns, or a large minor panel 
framed within the general border, which in 
other cases encloses only scroll work or the 
date in large letters. 

DATES, INSCRIPTIONS, ADVERTISE- 
MENTS AND ARTISTS. 

What a great help it would have been to 
the student if the old casters had invariably 
dated the plates, but in many cases they failed 



to do so. Direct chronology is thrown out, 
and we are left to inferences from associated 
names, facts and styles of designs. 

Where dates appear, generally in Arabic 
numerals but sometimes in Roman letters, in 
the 16th and 17th centuries, they may refer 
either to the carving of the pattern or to the 
year of the casting of the plate. In the former 
case, according to Kassel, the date would re- 
main fixed on later stoves cast from the same 
pattern. On the other hand, the splendid Cru- 
cifixion plate by Philip Soldan appears in the 
Marburg collection, dated 1548, and in replica 
at Fritzlar, dated 1537 (see Bickell plates) and 
a plate representing the beheading of John the 
Baptist in Dr. Beck's collection, dated 1586, 
with a replica in the Weisbaden Museum, 
dated 1597 (see Geschichte des Eisens 2, 302) 
also illustrate the fact that different dates 
appeared upon replicas of the same pattern, 
showing that the date of casting had been 
changed to suit passing years. 

The inscriptions cast generally in Latin 
but sometimes in Gothic letters, as seen by the 
writer, in French, German, Dutch, Norse or 
Latin, spelled according to the fashion of their 
time, often abbreviated and unspaced between 
words, and therefore difficult to decipher, are 
generally explanatory of the main pattern. 
Sometimes, as above noted, they are enclosed 
in a bordered band crossing the plate imme- 
diately under the chief design, or they fill the 
whole lower part of the plate enclosed in a 
minor panel. More rarely they are set in the 
background above the design, or upon irregu- 
lar scrolls or cartouches. 

Soldan and some of the earlier Hessian 
makers placed their names or their initials 
upon the borders of minor portrait medallions, 
or upon the cornices of walls or well curbs, 
or open spots in the background, and many of 
the old German plates are stamped with one 
or more single letters, or monograms, or 
double letters, or names often abbreviated, 
sometimes defying explanation, sometimes 
standing for the pattern carver, caster, iron 
master, or for the name of the furnace. Some- 
times these names, symbols, or letters appear 
in the sky or outside the margin, or upon the 



21 




17 

Xhe Rich man 

Plate of Wall or Jamb stove, size not given. At the Museum 
of Hal or Porte de Hal.. 1908. near Brussels. Taken from an 
illustration in Taques et Plaques de Foyer, by J. M. Sibenaler. 
Arlon, 1908. P. 159. The margins of the plate and its lower 
panel have been cut off in the photograph. Sbenaler says 
that a replica exists at Sart, eighteen miles southeast of Liege. 
Belg um. in possession (1908) of M. Houyon-Requet, vi^ho had 
excavated it from an old house wall. 

As a masterpiece of design, the plate, without date and 
unmarked with the name of the artist, probably represents the 
highest point reached by the stove mould carvers of Germany. 
Maintaining all the flatness and conventional balance of a 
piece of fine brocade, it expresses in a manner foreign to a 
picture, what might be called a filagree, composed, not of 
geometrical forms, as in the panels of the Alhambra. or of 
birds and animals interwoven in foliage, as in the borders of 
the Italian Rena ssance. but of men. 

The modern believer in "Art for art's sake," while ad- 
miring the treatment, cannot overlook the meaning which the 
ancient des'gner, laboring for Christianity, has expressed with 
intense sincerity, like a sermon, and explained with inscriptions. 

Brutal and gorgeous, in the dress of a prince of the I6th 
century, the Rich Man with his noble spouse is seated at table 



broad empty space sometimes left between the 
pattern and the edge of the plate, showing 
them to have been pressed in the sand after 
the border was stamped, or that several 
smaller loose designs were pressed into the 
sand to make one pattern. Sometimes in the 
16th and 17th centuries, advertisements of the 
names of furnaces fill the entire lower panel. 



and Lazarus* 

in a splendid saloon. Behind him as if playing at the top 
of their bent, stand the musicians of an orchestra. The trum- 
peters puff their cheeks as they lean backwards, the flutist 
blows, the drummer rattles. A smirking jester stands behind 
the plumes of his master's hat. To the right and left two 
seated guests enjoy the fine fare. A servant carries the 
dishes and the Rich Man holds a goblet in his hand. He will 
taste Rhenish wine in a cup of Venetian glass. But it is no 
revel or orgie. The proud lady seated respectably at table is 
his w fe. The high living is not to be critic sed. according 
to law and order, either in the 16th or 20th century. 

But just below, and beneath what appears to be a stair- 
case behind a balcony, as a note of awful discord, a ragged 
figure, terrible in disease and misery, lies upon the earth 
grasping a crutch. Deserted by all. save the dogs that lick 
his sores, he holds out a bowl for food. As his mantle flutters 
in the cold wind, a cruel servant drives him off with a whip. 
DER. ARMER. BEGERT. VON. DEM. RICH EN. ZO. 
SPISEN. "The poor man asks to cat at the rich man's table." 

Then the scene changes ; lights, music, feast are gone. 
Close in space, but beyond a staircase whose steps are years, 
wc see the Rich Man in a pavilion with fretted ceiling which 

and a close study of the plates, stoves and old 
furnace records which, in Hesse, Bickell has 
recovered for the years 1553 to 1556, 1573, 
1576, 1591 and from 1606 to modern times, 
has enabled the writers above quoted to res- 
cue from oblivion the names of a number of 
pattern carvers, casters and iron masters.*' 
But we look in vain in encyclopedias and 



22 



seems to float in the air. He lies dying in a bed, upon which 
a fiendish beast climbs to seize his soul as in woman's form 
It flutters from his mouth. DER. RICH. STIRB., "The rich 
man dies." 

As pleasure ends, so ends misery. Still in the enchanted 
network of the designer, though but a few inches away, we sec 
the poor sufferer, Lazarus, nearing rest at last, as angels hold 
his head and carry away his soul to Heaven. 

Then, across the bounds of time and space, but enclosed 
with n the spell of the design, we see, first, the poor man 
cherished in the lap of the King of Heaven. LASERU. WRT. 
(WIRD) G. (GETROSTET). "Lazarus is comforted." And 
next into hell itself across the Great Gulf where writhing in 
devil-headed flames, the rich man touches his parched tongue. 
DER. RICH. GERICHTET. "The rich man is judged." Or 
perhaps as Sibenaler deciphers it, DER. RICH. ABER. 
NICHT. "The rich man is not (comforted)." 

Two other remarkable stove fragments, one a right plate 
in the Historical Society Museum at Marburg, dated 1550, by 
Philip Soldan. of Frankenburg in Hesse, illustrated by Bickell 
(Eiscnhutten des Klosters Haina, No. 7), the other a left plate 
undated and of unknown authorship, illustrated by Lasius, 
(Stahl und Eisen, March, 1912, opposite page 520, Figure 16). 
present the same subject, in more or less the same manner, as 
if an ancient original designer's pattern had dwelt in the mem- 
ory of the artist. Both plates show the orchestra and feast, 
the beggar and the dog, the two death scenes, diabolic and 
angelic, the spirits issuing from the mouth, and the vistas of 
Heaven and Hell in the same six panels similarly placed. But 
Soldan's plate with a heavy filigree above the pattern, intro- 
duces a violinist, an ape, a cup bearer and female servant at 
the feast, varies the composition of all the scenes and omits 
all but the last inscription. DER. RICHER. DES. ARMEN. 
VERGAS. BIS. ER. IN. DER. HELLE. SAS. LUCE. AM. 
16. ("The rich man forgot the poor man until he sat in hell." 
Luke, in the 16th chapter.) The Lasius plate, comparatively 
rude and clumsy, though far more closely following all the 
details of composition of the pattern here shown, omits one 
of the dogs, one of the trumpeters, and the flute and drum, in- 
troduces a third guest at the table, changes the inscription, and 
entirely recomposes the drawing of the servant with the whip. 

Nothing could show more clearly than a study of these 
patterns that the makng of a design and the production of 
a picture from the painter's point of view, are. as they always 
have been, two distinct arts; and when several writers have 
tried to discover or prove that the old stove-mould carvers 
were copyists of pictures, engraved or painted, or drawings 

dictionaries of artists for the name of Philip 
Soldan. of Frankenberg, who, in the early 16th 
century, at the beginning of the Reformation, 
while Luther was living (about 1537-1555), 
designed the magnificent patterns above noted 
for the furnaces belonging to the Abbey of 
Haina in Hesse, and there must have been a 
great number of masters as yet unknown to 
account for the multitude of designs of high 
artistic importance, yet to be studied in various 
parts of Europe, such, for instance, as the re- 
markable pattern of Lazarus and the rich man 
in the Museum at Porte de Hal in Belgium. 
(See Figure 17.) 



made by contemporary pictorial artists, they confuse decora- 
tive with pictorial art, and credit the designer where they 
should condemn him. 

Where, as Kassel shows, several stove plates appear to 
have been copied from pictures in old Bibles and song books 
examined by him, and, as J. Lasius illustrates (Stahl und 
Eisen, March 28, 1912, page 522). a castiron sepulchral plate, 
about the s ze of a stove plate, dated 1519. by Loy Hering, 
from the Carmelite Church at Boppard, on the Rhine, was 
copied from Durer's woodcut of the Trinity of 1511, which the 
designer has tried to balance by filling in with extra figures, 
the examples illustrated show at once their inferiority as de- 
s'gns. 

Why should the mould carvers of the 16th century have 
copied, as Beck says (Gesch ete des Eisens, 2-306), pictures 
by Albert Durer, Aldegrever, Solis and Amman, whose pic- 
torial sketches would have confused and mislead them (as 
painters of to-day mislead the designer) by tempting them to 
express atmosphere, distance and perspective in castiron? 

The fact that in an oil painting or engraving the fore- 
ground may consist of but one-third of the pictorial surface 
is no help to the designer, who must abandon perspective and 
distance. Here the foreground which comprises four-fifths 
or five-sixths of the surface of the pattern, tells everything. 
The figures are out of proportion. The drawing is conven- 
tionalized or cramped, so as to bring human and architectural 
forms into decorative balance. Distance, atmosphere and per- 
spective are abolished. The pavilions, staircases, columns and 
arches though floating in the air without support no less convey 
their meaning. The figures live, and move in splendid halls 
and sumptuous pavlions, vivid for the moment yet unreal as the 
panorama of a dream. Heaven and hell, death and life are 
brought together yet set apart in vanishing and elusive panels, 
not as a painter paints. Neither in the 16th or 19th century 
did pictorial artists make such things. If Durer had produced 
such patterns he would have departed from the conditions of 
his pictorial art, and nothing in his decorative panels known 
as the Triumphal Arch and Car of Maximillian can be com- 
pared to this masterpiece, which might rather be likened to 
mediaeval panels of stained glass or carvings in the Cave 
temples of India or certain examples of Chinese fretwork, 
where human groups clamber through pavilions interwoven in 
decorative forests. Art, remaining the servant of religion, 
maintaining its meaning as of the highest importance, ex- 
plaining it with inscriptions, deals skilfully with the aesthetic 
effect of balanced masses of decoration, and without the help 
of atmosphere, perspective or distance condenses a significant 
theme of Scripture into the smallest compass. 

If this splendid pattern, or the magnificent 
designs of Soldan, illustrated by Bickell, had 
been executed on any other material than 
black iron, they might have challenged more 
attention. Nevertheless, Germany might well 
be proud of Soldan and of the antiquary who 
saved his name from oblivion, while no need 
remains for Beck or Heger (guide book of 
the Bavarian National Museum for 1908, p. 
183) to speak of patterns for stoves borrowed 
from Durer, Aldegrever and other pictorial 
artists whose work in producing pictures 
rather than designs, would probably not have 
vied with the achievements of Soldan, or the 
unknown carver of the Lazarus plate. 



23 



CHAPTER II. 

The Decorated Iron Stoves of Colonial 

America. 



JAMB STOVES IMPORTED FROM 
EUROPE. 

The first cast-iron five-plate or jamb 
stoves used in the United States were un- 
doubtedly imported from Europe and con- 
structed like the German (Norse) stove shown 
in Figure 1, which is again illustrated here. 
(Figure 18.) 

This is well proved by the evidence gath- 
ered concerning two of the plates in the 
following collection, one of which, Figure 19, 
represents Christ in conversation with the 
woman of Samaria, as described in John, 4th 
chapter, 7-42 verses. 

First brought to the writer's attention by 
an undated illustration cut from the columns 
of the Metal Worker Magazine, this beautiful 
plate long eluded discovery and study. A 
description accompanying it was lost in the 
unindexed files of the magazine. A recast of 
the original plate by a former editor had been 
mislaid or stolen at the o.'fice, and the author's 
search was abandoned when an advertisement 
discovered the plate in the possession of Mr. 
John S. Eels, at Walton, N. Y., and traced it 
to the workshop of a hatmaker, who, about 
1830, had used it as the top of a warming box 
in the manufacture of hats. 

But the details of this search, lasting 
several years, and often abandoned and inter- 
rupted, were not so interesting as the later 
chance discovery, that a whole series of old 
stove plates in Hesse, illustrated by Dr. 
Herman Wedding, in his paper on Iron Stoves, 
in the Harzverein proceedings for July, 1892, 




x8. 
Swedish Kive-PIate or Jamb Stove. 

standing on its original position. See Fig. 1. 



with the seated figure of Christ, the well with 
its tile roof and pulley, the woman with her 
tankard dressed in the costume of the 16th 
century, the mediaeval city with towers bat- 
tlements and gateways in the background, the 
word "Christ" on the seat and "Jacob's Brun" 
on the well curb, with the longer inscription 
below, closely though not exactly resemble 
the pattern in question now in possession of 
Mr. Eels.*" 

At last Mr. George Von Collin informed 
the writer that an exact replica of the Walton 
plate, with its monogram AF and its initials 
A and B, exists in his private collection at 
Hanover. 

This settled the matter. The date of the 
Hanover replica alone, 1663, differs from that, 
1659, of the American plate. But that only 



24 




19- 

Xlie Woman of Samaria 

Front plate of Jamb stove. Size, about W. 22 by H. 27. In 
possession of Mr. John S. Eels, of Walton. New York. 

First described and illustrated by a wood cut in an un 
identified old number of the Metal-worker Magazine, of 14 
Park Place. New York, and long lest, but found at last in 
the un-indexed files of the journal, whose editor had made a 
r€-cast (by Rathbone Sard & Co., stove manufacturers, of 
Albany. N. Y.) of the plate, also lost. The original was 



finally traced, through the kindness of the later editor, Mr. 
F. K. Chsw, by advertisement, to its present owner, whose 
father. Henry Eels, had obta ned it about 1850-1860, from a 
hat maker (William Graves, at Walton. New York), who had 
bought it from another hat maker of Walton. Zerah Baldwin, 
who had used it set upon bricks, face downward, over a fire to 
heat hat irons. 

Thereafter, a series of illustrations in "Eiserner Ofen- 
platten." by Dr. Herman Wedding, showing several plates at 
the Marburg Museum ;n Germany, closely resembl ng. though 
not dupl eating the Walton plate, and another generally similar 
pattern, dated 1613, recently bought in Germanv, and now at 
the Metropolitan Museum in New York, showed that the 
Walton plate with its four characteristic marginal notches, 
had undoubtedly formed the front of a five-plate or "Jamb" 
stove, imported into colonial America from Germany, before 
the establishTient of furnaces in New York, New Jersev or 
Pennsylvan a. and that its design had followed an ancient 
German pattern closely similar in composition, copied with 
free variations in dress and details, at several old furnaces in 
the Hartz. 

Finally, in June. 1911, the writer received a letter from 
Mr. 0. Von Collin, of Hanover, to whom a photograph had 
been sent, stating that a replica, "With the monogram A. F., 
the letter B, and the letter A," but dated four years later, 
namely in 1663, existed in the collection of the latter. 

To the left of a well worked by a pulley, beneath a tiled 
roof, stands the Woman of Samaria, in a costume of the 16th 
century, a tankard in her rght hand, while her left holds the 
bucket handle, still fastened to its chain and resting upon the 
well-curb. Christ, seated to the right upon a stone bench, 
marked with the word "Christ," and leaning forward in con- 
versation, points with hs left forefinger, wh le his right hand 
clasps his chest. Above him stand three disciples, while 
behind him, a group of figures issuing from the arched gate- 
way of a mediaeval c ty. wth steeples, tiled roofs, gardens and 
battlements, fills the background. Over the disciples' heads, 
the monogram AF appears upon the pattern, and the letter B 
is cast upon the sky in the upper left corner. The words 
JACOBS. BRUN.. "Jacob's Well." appear on the base of 
the well-curb, while the words VOM. FROLIN. VON. SA- 
MARIA. JOH. 4., "Of the girl of Samaria. John 4," omitting 
the word "Historia" which appears on some of the European 
plates, extends across the base of the foreground. 

Below, in a much rusted separate panel, two flying angels 
hold between them the letter A, forming perhaps part of an- 
other monogram, the whole pattern being flanked by the 
figures of the date 1659, read horizontally from the four cor- 
ners. 



shows that the German founders, as is well 
known, redated their old patterns. 

If cast, according to its date, in 1659, and 
therefore before the construction of any fur- 
nace in New York or Pennsylvania, the 
Walton plate could not have been made here 
either directly from an older stove or from 
the wooden pattern brought over. Because 
of this, and because the same wooden pattern 
was used four years later in Germany, and 
because, on the other hand, it would be un- 
reasonable to suppose that an early American 
furnace recasting such a pattern from the iron 
original half a century later, would not have 
changed the date, we must suppose that one 
of the old furnaces in Hesse had cast the -Wal- 



ton plate, four years before the Hanover 
replica, and that the former had been ex- 
ported to America to be used in a stove by 
colonists, several years before any of the 
American furnaces which would have cast such 
a stove had existed. 

The details of the history of Figure 20. 
representing the miracle of the widow's oil 
blessed by Elisha, which first appeared as a 
doorstep at a farmhouse near Fegleysville, 
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, and then 
twice in replica, in the old Senate House and 
at 22 Fair Street, Kingston, New York, are 
hardly less interesting than those of the 
Walton plate, Figure 19, with its replica at 
Hanover. The style of the pattern is much 



25 




20. 

Miracle of t lie Widow's* Oil. 

l-eft plate. Size. H. 20 by W. 28-J4. In possession of Mr. Val- 
entine B. Lee. of Oak Lane, Philadelphia; found by him about 
1900. as a stepping stone at the porch steps of a farm house 
near Fegleysville, Montgomery County, Pa. 

The widow, blessed by Elisha's miracle, appears twice in 
the pattern. First, in the left vaulted canopy with a bucket 
upon her head, while her three children facing the right and 
left carry buckets, or wooden tygs. in their hands. The left 
child stands before the door of a tiled house or pavilion with 
two windows, while the other to the right, dressed in a flow- 
ing mantle, walks on the top of two vases. 

In the right canopy, or second picture, the widow again 
appears, pouring oil from one urn into another, while two of 
her sons, one holding a jar on his head, another in his hands, 
fill the remainder of the canopy. Below, in a medallion en- 
closed by scrolls, is the inscription, which, judging fro.-n the 
oval welt surrounding it, has been inserted in the mould out 
of level. Or ^ta : pei w.th a loose board upon the sand, IM. 2. 
BUCH. DER. KONIG. AM. JDG. 4 CAP. "In second book 
of Kings, JDG. 4th chapter." 

Three examples of the pattern, representmg parts of two 
stoves have thus far been heard of in America. (1.) The above. 



later than that of the Walton Hanover design, 
but the crowded, busy scene, under round 
vaulted canopies, the widow carrying a bucket 
on her head, appearing perhaps twice, as pour- 
ing oil from the miraculous jar, the sons and 
neighbors carrying jugs and buckets, the store- 
house with tiled roof to the left, with the 
inscription below, illustrate in a confused and 
fanciful, yet rich and beautiful manner, a 
theme repeated with endless variation, accord- 
ing to Kassel, by the German stove makers. 

The plate, unlike Figure 19, is not dated, 
but as its duplicate. Figure 21, is also a left 
plate, according to the method of construction 
explained in Chapter I. the latter proves con- 
clusively, though no front plate has yet 
appeared, that two complete stoves of this 
pattern existed in America. 




21. 
lYIiraele of tlie \Vi(l<»Av's Oil. 

(2.) F gure 21, a left replica, at the old State House Museum 
at Kingston-on-the Hudson. (3.) A right replica, in possession 
of M.ss Westbrook. at 22 Fair St.. Kingston. 

/ nother replica is figured by Kassel in h s "Plattenofen im 
Elsass. " F gure 88. as in the possession, in 1908, of Farmer 
Mat this, at Dun2enheim. in Alsace. The latter shows conclu- 
sively that the American plates were imported from Germany, 
or cast in America directly from German originals or fro.n a 
mould so imported. In the Dunaenheim plite. the monogram 
JDG, which iCassel supposes to stand for JD the castir's 
init.als. and G-GEISLAUTERN furnace in the Palatinate, are 
erased, throwing the inscription still surrounded by the welt 
noted above, out of center, and showing that the American 
plates came over seas in their original unmutilated form. 

The words, "Im 2 B.DES.KONIG.AM. 
JDG., 4 CAP." (in second book of Kings, in 
JDG., 4th chapter) filling the lower medallion, 
are surrounded by an oval welt, proving that 
the inscription has been separately stamped 
upon the casting sand, or that the original 
wooden pattern has been sawed out and refitted 
with an extra legend. 

But more interesting than these details is 
the fact shown by an illustration in Dr. 
Kassel's Ofenplaten und Plattofen im Elsass, 
Strasburg, 1903, Figure 88, that the plates from 
Kingston and Fegleysville are replicas of a 
plate now in the possession of Farmer Matthis 
at Dunzenheim in Alsace. 

Strange to say, in Matthis" plate the 
monogram JDG, which Dr. Kassel says may 
stand for the name of the pattern maker, or 



26 







22. 

Oil Itliracle of Braunfels. 

Size. W. 28 by H. 26. Dr. Joseph P. Tunis. St. Mart ns, 
Philadelphia. 

This beautiful plate with two bolt notches in German 
fashion on the narrow left margin, was found in 1909 upon the 
information of Mr. Wm. T. Bullitt, set as a fireback in the 
hall fireplace at the house. No. 1322 Locust street, Philadel- 
phia, built about 1875 by Dr. Caspar Wister. 

A replica of Figure 53. the David and Goliath plate, had 
been set in an upper chamber of the same house, and it ap- 
peared, after numerous inquiries among the relatives and 
friends of the late Dr. and Mrs. Wister, that the former had 
probably found the plate in an old house belonging to the 
Wister family in Germantown and removed it, about 1870. to 
its position as found by the writer. 

With its seven figures closely crowded, holding buckets, 
pots and jars, under vaulted pendants with tube-like key- 
stones, with its ovate fretted borderings. its pile of barrels, 
row of vases and storehouse to the left, it closely resembles, 
without dupl'cating. Dr. Kacssl's illustration. No. 85. in Ofen- 
platten im Elsass. 

The ancient rhyme reads: 
DAS. OEHL. GAR. REICHLICH. SICH. VERMEHRT. 
DER. SOHN. VOM. TODT. ZUM. LEBEN. FUEHRT. 
IM. TOD. SICH. GOTTES. GUHT. BEWEISSET. 
MIT. WENIG. BROTS. VIEL. MENSCHEN. SPEISSET. 
"The oil full richly increases. The son from death to life 
turns. In death God's kindness proves itself. With littl« 
bread many men eat," or very freely translated: 
The widow's oil did richly grow. 
God's mercy in the tomb did show. 
A boy to life rose from the dead. 
A hundred men on few loaves fed. 
It varies from the version given by Kassel in the word 
FUEHRT and the spelling of BEWEISSET and SPEISSET, 
while the inscription on the central cartouche, advertising the 
name of the caster, furnace and date, was recently deciphered 
by Dr. Kassel from a photograph, sent to him by the writer 
for comparison, as follows: 

WILHELM. MORITZ. G. Z. S. BRAUNFELS. 1707., 
WILHELM MORITZ, GIESSER, ZU SOLMS, BRAUN- 
FELS. 



(district of Wetzlar. province of Westphalia, formerly a 
furnace near Frankfort on-t he- Main, in the eld county of 
Solms). This settles the origin of the plate in Germany, but 
not the date of its importation. 

^fter modern American architects had revived American 
colonial architecture in the United States about 1885, and re- 
introduced the Icng disused open wood fireplace, a gradually 
increasing number of European stove-plates, such as the 
series recently purchased at the Metropolitan Museum, New 
Ycrk, have been i t ported by dealers and bric-a-brac lovers 
for hous^ adornment or use as firebacks. But all the evidence 
shows that this plate can not be thus accounted for, and that 
it ca ne to America, not as a piece of bric-a-brac in the late 
19th century, but as part of an original stove brought to Phila- 
delphia in the early 18th century, and probably used in Grr- 
n- an town, before any furnaces had been built in Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey or New York. 

The German plate above noted in Ofenplatten im Elsass, is 
dated 1661, anl clea-lv cast with the naTie H PHILIPS. 
SORG. HUTTENMEISTER. ZU. WEILMUNSTER. : and 
KasssI says that a very large series of German plates copied 
or plag arized from each oth^r. and cast in the 17th and 18th 
centuries at various old German furnaces, represent the same 
subject. 

The design may be regarded as a decorative theme with 
endless variat ons, to trace which back to its original, requiring 
a comparison of the plates now in the German Museums, would 
be very interesting. Bickell suggests (Eisenhutten des Klosters 
Haina. page 19). that Jost Schilling, an ancient pattern carver 
of Waldeck, who according to an item in the archives at Mar- 
burg, was ordered to carve several Oil Miracle stoves about 
1591, probably orig'nated the fashion, afterwards so universal, 
of setting the stove des'gns under vaulted Renaissance can- 
opies supported on pillars. But here we have to account for 
the fashion not only of the canopies, but for that no less 
marked of the grouping and the rhyme; and whether Schilling 
composed the rhyme or originated the group ng, Bickell do^s 
not say. But he does state that the style of the Renaissance 
vault'; ( represent ng the downfall of the older Gothic wood 
carving), with legends placed in the lower panel, was carried 
to excess at Weilmunster after 1580. Kassel (p3ge 54) is in- 
clined to derive all the oil plates in question, rhyme included, 
from Weilmunster; and if he is right in suppos'ng that his 
Figure 85 of 1661 is one of the Urplatten, or original patterns 
for the whole series, then we are justified in tracing not only 
our Figure, but all the other Oil Miracle plates here shown, to 
the old Nassau Furnace, and possibly to the authorship of either 
Peter Sorg, or H. Philip Sorg, his son or descendant, who 
were casters or ironmasters at Weilmunster in the 16th and 
17th centuries. 

Beck, who says (Geschichte des Eisens, page 314), that 
the first Peter Sorg was a well-known iron caster of the 16th 
century who cast many stoves marked with his name, once 
popular in Nassau and the M-iddle Rhine, illustrates a plate. 
Figure 82. showing the beheading of John the Baptist, with the 
inscription: N. PETER. SORGE. HUTTENMEISTER. ZU. 
CHRAFT. SOLMS. UND. GERTRUD. SCHERESS V. CAS- 
SEL. S. H. F. (Seine Hausfrau. Anno 1586). Another plate, 
also illustrated by Beck, set in a tile stove with the same 
pattern, dated 1597, but minus the advertisement, is in the 
Wiesbaden Museum. 

Beck further says that H. Philip Sorg was a son of Peter 
Sorg, and that the Bavarian National Museum has a plate, 
probably a replica of Kassel's Figure 85, with the same rhyme, 
and inscribed H. PHILIPPS. SORG. HUTTENMEISTER. 
ZU. WEILMUNSTER., and (Volume 2. page 1084). that 
Philip Sorg was at Weilmunster in 1657 and died in 1691. 



the caster, or with its final G for Geislautern, wooden pattern or erasing it in the sand 
a foundry in the Rhenish Palatinate, has been (probably by a rival foundry in recasting), 
erased, either by cutting the monogram off the so as to throw the inscription out of the 



27 




^3- 

Xlie Miracle of the Oil 

Right plate. Size. W. 29" 4 by H. 26'^. At the Berks County 
Historical Society. 

Found by Mr. B. F. Owen at the house of Mr. Garrion 
Guldin, near Monterey, Berks County. Pa., in 1909. standing in 
a barn yard lean'ng aga'nst a chicken house, its existence 
being unknown to the family. Three canopies with twisted 
columns, supporting decorated arches underhung with scrolls, 
festoons and curtains, divide the scene of Elisha's miracle with 
the Wi-iow's O 1, 2nd Kings. 4th chapter, into three parts. 
To the left, the widow, with uplifted hands, approaches the 
Prophet : in the middle the widow pours oil from the miracu- 
lous jug into one of three large vases, while another female 
carries a large jar. To the right, a man pours oil, while a 
wc.-nan carries a vase upon her head. The old rhymed in- 
scription so frequent m Germany as cast upon Figures 20 
to 28 is replaced by the inscription 

GOTTES. SEGEN. MACHT. REICH. 
"God's bless ng maketh rich" — in the central cartouche, while 
the legend 

II. REGUM. IV. CA. 

GOTT. ERNHERT. DIE. 

WITWEN. UND. VER. 

MEHRT. IHR. DEL. 
"2 Kirgs 4 Chapter, God nourishes the widow and increase! 
her oil," fills the medallion below. Kassel, who fin Ofenplat 
ten im Elsass. Strasburg, 1903) describes and illustrates seven 



varying patterns of the Oil Miracle, as expressing (or the 
household the all-powerful help of Christ an ity, and the divine 
reward of piety, in earthly food, health and riches, says that 
this thcT.e, indefin tcly varied in treafnent, has appeared more 
fiequently in Germany upon the ancient stoves, than any other 
Biblcal subject except that of the w ne miracle at Cana. 

The notches on the narrow left margin, for reasons ex- 
plained in the text, show that the plate was probably im- 
ported fron Germany about 1700, or before the establishment 
of American stove making furnaces. 




24. 

Tlie Oil Itlirafle. 

Fragment of r ght plate. Size. H. IZVj by W. 28. Bucks 
County Historical Society. 

The much rusted fragment showing the bolt notch in the 
left margin, is another version of the Oil Miracle series of 
patterns, described dy Kassel. above cited, without illustra- 
tion {Ofenplatten. page 56); and no doubt forms part of a 
stove imported from Ger.-nany in the early I8th century. It 
was found walled in the cellar window of a house belonging 
to Mr. Enos B. Loux, of HiUtown. Bucks County, Pa., in 1910. 

The general treatment of the plate and the inscription re- 
sembles that of the other miracle plate. Figure 23. Unfortu- 
nately, the break prevents us from tracing more than the 
base of two columns, several oil jars and the legs of the 
figures, just above the central cartouche filled with the in- 
scription, here quoted more exactly than in Figure 23. from 
Proverbs 10-22, m Luthers Bible: DER. SEGEN. DES. HER- 
REN. MACHET. REICH., 'The blessing of the Lord maketh 
rich." 

Below in a medallion framed with leafage, the inscription 
repeating that from Figure 23, but differently spaced and let- 
tered, reads: 

2. REGUM AM. IV. CAP. 

GOTT. ERNEHRT. DIE. WITWE. 

UND. VERMEHRT. IHR. OEL. 
"2nd Kings, in Fourth chapter: God nurtures the widow and 
increases her oil." 



center of the medallion, thus proving that the 
erasure was a secondary act, and that the 
plate came to America in its older original 
form, monogram included, from Germany. 

As none of these three American oil 
miracle plates, nor the German replica, are 
dated, it is impossible to decide whether the 
importation occurred before or after the estab- 
lishment of American furnaces (1720 to 1750) 
in Pennsylvania and New York, but it is safe 
to assume that the wooden pattern, which has 
undoubtedly been twice altered, as thus shown. 



remained in Germany, and that the plates here 
illustrated are either German originals, cast 
according to Dr, Kassel at Geislautern and so 
imported, or are direct recasts from imported 
German originals used in lieu of wooden pat- 
terns at one of the American furnaces. 

The evidence of these oil miracle plates 
in replica in both continents is conclusive, but 
besides them eight more similar plates and 
fragments of plates, Figures 22, 23, 24, 25, 
26, 27, 28 and 29, differing in construction 
from all the American plates hereafter de- 



28 




«5- 
The Oil miracle. 

Pragmelit of left plate. Size not learned. Berks County His- 
torical Society, 

The fragment Bhows a part of the usual scene represented 
upon Figures 20 to 28, with a part of the ancient rhyme 

DAS. OHL. GAR. RE. 

DER. SOHN. VOM, 

IM, T, 
It differs slightly from all the others above noted, and from 
all those illustrated by Kassel in Ofenplatten im Elsass, 



scribed, have come to lig.it during the writing 
of the following pages, which are hardly less 
certainly of original German importation and 
make. 

The similarity in composition, not only to 
each other, but to the oil plates illustrated in 
Kassel, is unmistakable, and though none are 
exact replicas of Kassel's cuts, there can be 
little doubt that replicas exist in Germany and 
can be found. Moreover, two of them are 
dated (1677 or— 71 and 1713) before the estab- 
lishment of Pennsylvanian furnaces; and the 
construction of the plates, all but one of which 
are side plates, and all notched in the old 
German manner, is German rather than Ameri- 
can, as explained in Chapter I, and differs from 



Norel, Strasburg. 1905, Nos. 83-88, though most closely re- 
sembling his No. 85, cast by Philip Sorg, Huttenmeister, at 
Weil.-nunster, in Nassau, in 1661. where, according to Kassel, the 
remarkable rhyme and pattern copied for two hundred years 
by many German furnaces with endless variations, probably 
or ginated. 

Here again the old sermon in iron referring to four of the 
miracles in Chapter 4 of Second Kings: yet, with its picture 
illustrating but one of them, which for centuries had encouraged 
the German peasant and with him crossed the Atlantic Ocean 
into colonial America, appears broken, rusted and forgotten in 
the ruins of an old house formerly belonging to Egleman, the 
astronomer, near Reading, Pa,, where Mr. B. F. Owen found it 
in 1910. 




26. 
miracle of Xlie Oil. 

Right plate. Size, H. 25^4 by W. 28. Senate House, Kings- 
ton-on-t he- Hudson. 

Under three canopies, supported on twisted columns, 
adorned with decorative bands marked with sockets, and backed 
with fringed curtains and tassels, three scenes appear to be 

that of all the later American cast plates here- 
with shown. 

Though alike in general treatment, they 
vary in details. Sometimes the scene appears 
to be divided into two panels and there is a 
great diversity in the details of the elaborated 
canopies which overhang it. Sometimes the 
oil cellar or storehouse with tiled roof, gen- 
erally appearing at the left of the pattern, is 
absent. Sometimes one, sometimes two or 
more persons appear in the act of pouring oil, 
and sometimes the widow herself seems to be 
duplicated, while in one plate the prophet him- 
self, generally absent, stands in the center of 
the pattern, staf? in hand. The inscription 
varies. Sometimes we have GOTTES. SEGEN. 



29 



represented. In the middle, one of the sons pours oil from the 
rr.irac ulcus jar into a wooden, hooped vessel, while anothrr 
person stands behind a cask lying on its side, and a third 
figure balances a jar on its head. 

In the left canopy, the widow with clasped hands, be- 
seeches the prophet, who stands, staff in hand, behind a cask, 
and above the woman's head a curious welt, as of the warping 
of the end of a board in the mculi, marks the background. 
In the right canopy, the prophet appears to be lifting up the 
dead son. 

All the other rhymed inscriptions for this subject in our 
collection, with variations in spelling, repeat the rhymes found 
in Germany as noted in Kassel. page 54. and Beck, page 314, 
But this inscription differs from them all. and from the others 
here illustrated, in the italicised wording of the first and third 
lines. 

DAS. OHL. IM. KRCG. SICH. REICHLICH. MEHRT. 

DER. SOHN. VOM. TOD. ZUM. LEBEN. KEHRT. 

JSDRM. SICH. GOTTES. GUT. BEWEIST. 

MIT. WENIG. BROD. VIEL. MENSCHEN. SPEIST. 

2. REGVM. AM. 4. CAPITEL. AN. 1713. 
"The oil in the jar richly increases — 
The sen fro.-n death turns to life. 
In which God's bounty proves itself. 



MACHT. REICH., OR DER. SEGEN. DES. 
HERREN. MACHET. REICH., from Prov- 
erbs, 10-22 (The blessing of the Lord, it maketh 
rich), or GOTT. ERNAHRT. DIE. WITWE. 
UND. VERMEHRT. IHR. OEL. (God nour- 
ishes the widow and increases her oil). 

But most impressive is an ancient rhyme, 
embodying three of the miracles in Second 
Kings, chapter 4, which, like the fire, which 
once burned in the old stove, seems to glow 
with a benign warmth : 

DAS. OEL. GAR. REICHLICH. SICH. VER- 
MEHRT. 

DER. SOHN. VOM. TODT. ZUM. LEBEN. 
KEHRT. 

IM. TODT. SICH. GOTTES. GUT. BE- 
WEIST. 

MIT. WENIG. BROTS. VIL. MENSCHEN. 
SPEIST. 

The widow's oil did richly grow. 
God's mercy in the tomb did show. 
A boy to life rose from the dead. 
A hundred men on few loaves fed. 

It is interesting to follow these varied 
renderings of the same subject back to Ger- 
many, where a perplexing confusion of the 
similar miracles of Elijah and Elisha in 1st 
Kings, 17, and 2nd Kings, 4, seems to have 
followed the pattern from the first. 



With little bread many men eat. 

2 Kings in 4 chapter. Anno 1713." 
Kassel traces the rhyme, as before noted, to the old 
Nassau furnace at Weilmunstcr and the probable authorship 
of Phil p Sorg in 1561. Whether this derivation Is correct or 
not, the rhyme docs not appear on any of Soldan's patterns 
illustrated by Bickell. nor upon the ancient Harz plates of a 
hundred years earlier illustrated in Wedding's book, although 
B;ckelt finds proof in the archives of Marburg that jost 
Schilling, of Waldeck. carved an oil miracle stove, undescribed 
as to pattern or rhyme, in 1591. Kassel points out the curious 
fact that though the inscription describes three ep sodes, namely 
the pcLring of ol, 2 Kings 4-5. the rais ng from the dead. 
2 Kings 4-35. and the miraculous feast. 2 Kings 4 44. the 
pictures on the plates as seen by him only illustrate one, the 
oil-pouring. Here however, as in some of the German pat- 
terns, we have illustrated the widow supplicating the prophet, 
not referred to in the rhyme, and perhaps, as a unique feature, 
the raising fro.Ti the dead. 

Again the notches on the left margin, indicating the Ger- 
man method of clamping, as explained in the text, as well as 
the date 1713. show that the plate was cast in Germany, and 
imported to America, before the establishment of stove-making 
furnaces in Pennsylvania. New Jersey and New York 

Wedding, in Eisenhutten des Klosters 
Haina, page 19, quotes an order from a 
Countess of Waldeck who, in ordering one of 
these miracle stoves during a famine in 1591, 
calls the narrative of 2nd Kings, 4, "The 
Miracle of Sarepta." Centuries later a writer 
in 1907 confuses the original widow of Elisha 
in 2nd Kings, 4, v/ith the Shunamite prophetess 
of Elijah in 1st Kings, 17, besides ascribing the 
whole representation to an advertisement for 
Colza oil. 

As Kassel shows, this mixture of two 
miracles so nearly alike, the misplacement of 
the word Sarepta, and of the names Elijah and 
Elisha, together with erroneous citations, and 
inscriptions which fail to describe the scene 
depicted, frequently occur in the presentation 
of the subject. 

Better perhaps than to hunt these anach- 
ronisms, or puzzle over inconsistencies, like 
the Hanau peasant, who, according to Kassel, 
often stands before his stove, Bible in hand, 
nodding his head in hopeless perplexity, let 
us repeat the memory haunting rhyme, whose 
sonorous words have so long and so often 
unfolded their quickening message. 

Shall we wonder that the German emi- 
grant brought it with him for heart's ease, in 
his conflict with the unknown dangers of the 
New World? Rather ponder on the changes 
which have removed the miracle stove from 
the household and buried it in ruins. The 



30 




27- 

Miracle of ttie Oil* 

Right plate. S ze, H. 263^ by W. 26^4. Mr. Joseph H. Doran. 
120 South Nineteenth street, Ph ladelphia. Bought by him 
about 1880 at Noble's Curiosity Shop, at Fifteenth and Chest- 
nut streets, Philadelphia, and traced to the sale of the col- 
lection of a traveling showman, in an old house near Trevose. 
Bucks County. Pa., from whom Mr. Noble had obtained it 
about 1890. 

Besdes the evidence of the two notches on the left rim, 
the superior workmanship of this elaborate plate and the 
form and spelling of its inscription, would prove that it was 
made in Germany or recast from a German original. Among 
the six figures in the picture, two of them, the widow in the 
middle canopy, and another person to the left, pour oil from 
one jar to another. Another figure carries a jar on his head, 
but otherwise, excepting these four jars, all the oil vessels 
in the picture are basket-shaped buckets, carried in the hands 
of the figures, or wooden casks, thirty-two of which are 
stacked in heaps upon the floor. 

The ridges mark where cracks in the wooden mould pass 
vertically down the right and middle canopy, and the heads 
of nails, used to fasten the carved boards to their battens, 
appear at various places in the inscription, in the middle and 
left canopies, and in the arches above. 

As upon several of the German plates illustrated by Dr. 
Kassel, and slightly varied from those upon Figures 22 and 26, 
the inscription is easily deciphered below. 

DAS. OHL. GAR. REICHLICH. SICH. VERMEHRT. 

DER. SOHN. VOM. TODT. ZUM. LEBEN. KEHRT. 

IM. TODT. SICH. GOTTES. GUT. BEWEIST. 

MIT. WENIG. BROTS. VIL. MENSCHEN. SPEIST. 

16.2. REGUM. AM. 4. CAPITTEL. 71.. 

Freely translated as follows: 

"The widow's oil did richly grow, 
God's mercy in the tomb did show, 
A boy to life rose from the dead, 
A hundred men on few loaves fed." 

2nd Kings, in 4th Chapter, 1671. 

dangerous forest has disappeared. The log 
house is gone. The tools and implements of 
the pioneer, cast aside ninety years ago, are 
things of the past. The ancient fireplace and 




28. 
miracle of the Oil. 

Right plate of Jamb Stove. Size, W. 24^4, H. 25^2. Bucks 
County Historical Society. 

The Plate is particularly interesting as part of a nearly 
complete Jamb stove, four pieces of which, namely, two sides, 
tht front and a top or bottom plate, were found in February, 
1914, by Mr. Horace H. Piatt, of No. 5548 Ridge Avenue. Rox- 
borough. Philadelphia, in an old house at Manayunk. 

More rude and simple than the other oil Miracle patterns 
here shown, the des gn set in the usual frame work, forming 
two canopies on twisted columns, with cornice and tasseled 
curtains, shows two scenes. In the left, the widow, standing 
behind a cask, pours oil fro.Ti one tankard into another, while 
her son carries a jar on h's head and a bucket in his hand. To 
the right, the woman, kneeling on a stool, beseeches the prophet 
Elisha, who stands before her with uplifted right hand. The 
plinth under the foothold of the figures is adorned with two 
large baskets with round bottoms, which may refer to the bread 
miracle referred to in 2 Kings, 4, 44, while the old Weilmunster 
rhyme seen upon bo many of these plates again appears, but 
here lacks the last two lines and reads: 

DAS. OEL. IM. GRUG. SICH. RE. 

ICHLIG. MERT. DER. SON. VOM. T. 

OT. ZUM. LEBEN. KERT. W 

AM. 2. KONIGE. AM. 4. CAP. 

The oil in the jar greatly increases. The son turns from 
death to life. W in 2nd Kings in 4 Chapter. 

L kc every other oil plate here illustrated, this specimen 
shows the two notches on the narrow margin, adapted for the 
ancient German method of belting with loose gutter shaped 
rims. But Mr. Piatt did not find these rims among the ruins 
of the stove, while the single top or bottom plate recovered 
lacks the projecting lip, characteristic of the American stoves 
here shown { see figures 36 and 37 ) perforated for the outside 
bolt, and proving therefore that no such bolt was used. As 
compared with the German plates, the two baskets and the 

its stove adjunct have been demolished. As 
the trolley rushes by the country road, or the 
talking machine sounds its incongruous song, 
the modern farmer, rich and prosperous, digs 



31 



tulip bearing vine stems, appearing as vertical "borders, ate 
pccul ar. The figures are comparatively rude. But notwith- 
standing the illiterate spelling of the inscription, the cutting 
of words regardless of syllables, the upsetting of the Z's and the 
misplacing cf G's for K's and CHs. the workmanship of the 
plate seems German rather than Amer can. The rude Cana 
patterns (figures 49 and 50). as compared with the front plate 
of this stove, might he called Pcnnsylvanian in style, but here 
wc see again the old German style of the old theme, unmis- 
takably if freely copied, and we may reasonably suppose that 
the whole stove was imported from Germany into Pennsylvania 
before 172D. 



If 




^r. 




29- 

Xhe miracle of Cana. 

Front plate of Jamb Stove. Si2e. W. 17'/2. H. 25V'a. Bucks 
County Historical Society. Found in 1914, with figure 28 in 
the hearth of an old house at Manayunk. Philidelphia. by Mr. 
Horace H. Piatt. 

The treatment with tw'sted columns supporting double 
vaults, the fring-d curta'ns. tassels, vine stem with tulips and 
tulip spandrels, is unmistakably that of figure 28. Only one 
guest, the bride, crowned, as in the German specimens from 
Zinswe ler. illustrated by Kassel, is seated at the table, which 
is of the cross-legged German pattern, and on which one dish 
and two smaller objects, not quite obliterated by rust, appear. 
Tc the right and left stand figures holding tankards, while 
Christ, with uplifted right hand, appears to the extreme right. 

The broad plinth below the picture is decorated with four 
tankards and the inscription, citing the Cana narrative in the 
Bible, set in a banded stripe below, reads : lOHAN. AM. 2 
CAPIT. John in second chapter. The much rusted and abbre- 
viated sentence in the small oval medallion beneath, set between 



sprays of tul ps. may prrhaps be deciphered as: GR. M. 
WASEK. ZU. WEIN. Gristus macht wasscr »u wein. Chrtatuft 
makes water into wine. 

As the right and left plates of th s stove arc replicas, we 
have here two d'stinct B-itliol scenes, the O.I Miracle upon th: 
sides, and the Cana Miracle upon the front, represented on ofie 
stove, which. !or the reasons given under figure 28. we miy 
suppcse was i nporled irom Ger.nany early in the e ghteen»h 
century. 




30- 
Sain$4on and tlie Lion. 

Left plate. Size not learned. In the "Cloister' at Ephrata. Pa. 
1910. 

With bared ar.-ns and dressed in a short-skirted Roman 
toga, the long end of which whirls in the wind above his head. 
Samson, with left knee upon the animal's back, and right leg 
laced in a buskin, t^ars open the jaws of the young lion. A 
scrolled canopy in rococo style resting upon corbels rather than 
columns, and adorned with a small pendant, overhangs the 
f gures, while below, and separated by a dotted 1 ne, the in 
scription. interrupted by a rust hole, and placed within a richly 
scrolled border, cites the Bible, Ju-Jges 14. I VDICVM.XIIII. 
not in German, like all the American-made plates in the collec- 
tion, but in Latin as in Fig. 23. Besides this, the dimensions 
of the casting, which, as a side plate to a five plate stove, 
narrower than its he'ght. reverses the shape of nearly all the 
other American plates, and the two notches in the right rim 
for the admssion of bolts in the Ger.-nan fashion previously 
described, sufr.ciently show that the plate, without ccnsiderinij 
the superior modelling of the figures, which is evidently done 
in the style of the 17th century, before the establishment of 
furnaces in Pennsylvania, was either made in Germany, or cast 
in America from a German original or mould. 

Mr. B. F. Owen found and photographed the plate in 1910 
in the so-called "Cloister'" at Ephrata. Pa., built by the sect 
of Seventh Day Tunkers, or Baptists, about the year 1740. 



32 




Front. 



31- 

The "Wheel of Fortujie. 

Size. H. 27xW. 18'/,. B. H. S. No. 16824. 



the iron picture from his cellar wall or ex- 
humes it from a gutter to be sold to ihe junk 
dealer. 

Is its message gone forever, where 
churches proclaim weekly that man's eternal 
struggle with the ills of life is waged fiercely 
as of old? Is the wonder cure lost where the 
disease remains? Well that the potent rhyme 
stamped on these rescued plates must survive 
for many years to come or that we repeat it 
here and scatter it abroad." 

The dates 1677 on Figure 27. 1707 on 
Figure 22 and 1713 on Figure 26 furnish no 
absolute proof as to when the stoves were 
imported into America or used there, since 
old stoves, as well as new ones, might have 
been brought over and sold to the colonists. 
But we may reasonably infer that some new 
stoves, dated and made within a year or two 
of their importation, came over, and that these 
plates like Figure 19 and the beautifully mod- 
eled Samson plate. Figure 30, found at the 
"cloister" at Ephrata, also notched in the same 
way, represent stoves which were probably 
first used by Dutch settlers in New York, if not 
by Swedish and Dutch settlers on the lower 
Delaware before the English settlement of 



A female figure, dancing upon a wheel, waves a long scarf 
in her left hand. In her right she holds a tasselsd cap, of the 
shape celebrated fifty years later, in the French Revolution, 
as the Liberty cap. Four points project from the end of the 
wheel, ending in what appear to be tongues of flame. The pic- 
ture "s not separated by a band or lower panel fro.-n the inscrip- 
tion : 

DU. FALSCHES. GLUCK. 

DU. GBST. UND. NMST. AUCH. 

DENE. GABEN. WAS. WILL. 

EIN. GLAUBENS. KND. MIT. 

DIR. ZU. SCHAFFEN. HABEN. 

"Thou false luck, thou givest and takest again thy gifts. What 
shall a child of faith have to do with thee?" 

But the remarkable feature of the pattern is the date. Anno 
1726. This, marking it as the earliest supposedly American 
plate yet found, is very clear, and shows that the plate, which 
is the front-plate of a Jamb stove, constructed like all other 
American plates with the guttered rims cast solid upon its 
margins, if not imported from Germany, must have been cast 
in Pennsylvania, for the following reasons: 

Notwithstanding the fact that Jamb stoves, decorated in this 
manner, were used in the early 18th century in the New York 
Colony by German and Dutch settlers, and notwithstanding the 
fact that plate stoves, though probably of the s>x-plate draught- 
stove type, and never decorated in German, were (according to 
Kalm, quoted by Swank. Iron in all Ages, pages 349-350) cast 
about 1749 at the Trois Rivieres Furnace in Canada (founded 



Pennsylvania, or by German colonists for a 
time after, namely, between the years 1659 and 
1720, or until the colonists built their own 
furnaces and made their own stoves. 

This brings us to an important point in 
the investigation, namely, the abandonment of 
European stoves and first manufacture of 
stoves in colonial America, and when we ask 
how when and where it occurred, for want 
of other evidence we must fall back on a few 
meagre data in old furnace records and the 
plates themselves, one of which. Figure 31, 
supplies important evidence, 

FIRST AMERICAN MANUFACTURE OF 
JAMB STOVES. 

This plate, first found in 1903 in use as 
a pavement under a water spout near Johns- 
ville. in lower Bucks County. Pennsylvania, 
and again as a broken fragment three years 
later in demolishing an old house on Mount 
Penn, near Reading, Pennsylvania, thus ap- 
pearing twice as a front plate and representing 
two five-plate or jamb stoves, rather than one, 
is adorned with the allegorical figure of Fortune 
dancing upon a flaming wheel, with flaunting 
scarf and liberty cap and with a rhymed Ger- 
man legend as described above, condemning 
those who trust their welfare to her favor. 



33 



1737. abandoned 1883). this plate could not have been cast in 
New York. Canada, Rholc Island. New Jersey, Virginia or 
North Carolina in 1726, since no furnaces then existed in the 
colonies named. 

Nor can we reasonably suppcse that it could have b;en 
made in Maryland, where no evidence has yet appeared that 
such stoves were ever cast or used in early Colonial timrs. 
notwithstanding the fact that the Mount Royal Furnace, founded 
1723 to 30; The Gwynns FalU. 1723 to 30. and the Principle. 
1724. were probably in blast in 1726. 

The ancient Massachusetts Furnaces of Hammersm'th, at 
Lynn and at Braintree. established in 164S and 1646, were 
abandoned in 1688 and 1653. respectively, and though the New 
Haven. Connecticut, Furnace, 1658, and though Kings Furnace, 
at Taunton. Massachusetts (1724), might have been in blast in 
1726, there is no evidence that any of them, at that t!me, ever 
cast plate stoves of any kind, much less stoves decorated and 
inscribed in a language generally unknown in the New England 
Colonies. 

For these reasons we may infer that this plate, if made in 
America, was cast in Penns>Uan-a at one of three or four 
furnaces then only existing in the Colony. Not probably at the 
short-l'ved Keith's Furnace, 1725 to 8, in Delaware (then Penn- 
sylvania), out of the zone of German settlement and house-warm- 
irg stoves, or at Christ'ne. alias Redding Furnace, then possibly 
in its first year, or at Kurtz's Furnace, 1726 (if such a furnace 
ever existed), but probably at Colebrookdale, founded in 1720, 
where the Furnace Ledgers, now in the possession of the Hon. 
S. W. Pennypacker. though the earliest are lost, show the cast- 
ing of stoves after 1728. 

On the other hand, the fact that the rims are here cast solid, 
does not prove the American or gin of the plate, since although 
all the American plates in the collection are so constructed, 
and all the German plates here shown are cast for loose rims. 
nevertheless, according to Ambrosiani (Jarnkakelugnar. page 
106), and as Johannsen illustrates (Stahl und Eisen, 29 Feb., 
1912, page 337, Figure 18). solid r.ms were introduced into 
Germany in the late 17th century. Moreover, the word "Anno" 
prefixed to the date, and appearing on no other plate of certa n 
American make, seems German rather than American, while the 
modelling of the well-spsUed and well-carved inscript on. with 
occasional rounded U's, resembles the work on the German 
orginals. Figures 22. 23 and 27. and the plates illustrated in 
the German books. 

Not unreasonably, therefore, we may infer that the mould 
at least was not made in America, and that the plate, which 
having appeared in repl'ca represents two stoves rather than 
one, was either imported itself from Germany, or cast at Cole- 
brookdale, directly from an imported original or mould, when 
at the earliest days of the Furnace it might have been found 
easier to recast a new stove from an old one. or import the 
mould itself from Germany, than carve the latter in the first 
place. 

The plate was presented to the Bucks County Historical 
Society in 1903 by Mrs. S.dney Montayne. of Johnsville, Bucks 



County. Pa., and found by her under the drip of a roof water- 
spout at a modern house at Johnsville, without clue to itt 
earlier history. 

A replica. Figure 32. less rusted, but with both rims broken 
oft. was found in July, 1910. by Mr. B. F. Owen at the farm of 
Thomas Steigerwalt. in Alsace Township, Berks County. Pa.. 
and is now at the Berks County Historical Society. 




32- 

Xlic Wheel of Fortune. 

Front plate. Size, H. 27 x W. IPj. Berks County Historical 
Society. 

This fragment of a replica of Figure 29, proving the ex- 
istence of two stoves of its kind, was obtained by Mr. B. F. 
Owen in July. 1910, from Mr. Thomas Steigerwalt. on Mount 
Penn. in Alsace Township, near Reading. Berks County. Pa. 
Some workmen (as described in the Reading Weekly Eagle for 
Saturday. January 4th, 1896) had, in removing an old log-house 
on Mr. Steigerwalt's property, found the plate in 1896, together 
with some smaller fragments, possibly of its side plates, sold by 
his sons to junk dealers. The date and inscription show more 
clearly than on Figure 28, and, for the reasons therewith given. 
we may perhaps ascribe the plate to Colebrookdale Furnace, 
built by Thomas Ruttcr and others in 1720 



Because it is not notched on the margin stoves cast in America, notwithstanding the 

Hke Figures 19 to 29 and because, like all the ^^^^ ^^^^ Johannsen illustrates a German plate 

. . . ^ , . . u u o^ this kind dated 1704 (Stahl und Eisen, 29 

other American front plates herewith shown, , a t • • 

Feb., 1912, Figure 18) and AmbrosianT* says 

it has been cast with the gutter-shaped rims ^^^^ ^-^^ ^^^ f^^^^ pl^^^^ ^^^ j^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

solid on its margins, it is not unreasonable to ;„ Europe before 1726, and therefore might 

suppose that it represents one of the first have been imported into America. 



34 

If this "Fortune Plate" of 1726 was made 
in America, we must believe that it was not 
cast in a stove factory of the modern type 
called "foundry," since, with a few possible 
exceptions in New England and Virginia, no 
foundries then existed, and all castings were 
made at blast furnaces direct from the ore.''' 
Moreover, if made in America we need not 
suppose that it was cast at any of the old 
furnaces (or foundries) then in blast in Massa- 
chusetts, or Rhode Island, or Connecticut, 
where, it appears, they had no such stoves and 
no German colonists to buy them, nor at the 
then existing iron works in Maryland, or in 
Virginia where fireplaces rather than stoves 
were in use, nor in New York or New Jersey 
or Canada, where no furnaces existed in 1726, 
unless at Tinton Falls or Shrewsbury, Mon- 
mouth County, New Jersey (1682-4, of doubt- 
ful age. Swank, 147), but rather in Pennsyl- 
vania, where it might have been cast either 
at Colebrookdale, near Pottstown (founded 
1720), or possibly at Redding, alias Christine, 
Furnace, in northern Chester County (founded 
1720 to 1728), but nowhere else, since no other 
Pennsylvanian furnace then existed. '- 

No certain records of Redding furnace 
have been found, but a lot of old furnace 
ledgers of Coventry Forge, associated with 
Redding-Christine Furnace and other furnaces, 
now in the possession of the Hon. S. W. Pen- 
nypacker at Schwenksville, Montgomery Co., 
Pennsylvania, rescued a few years ago from the 
cartload of a junk dealer at Pottstown, and 
noting the sale of numerous five-plate or jamb 
stoves early in the 18th century, unfortunately 
fail to include the earliest furnace ledgers, and 
therefore to reach back to the date in ques- 
tion.'' But as they begin entries of sales of 
five-plate stoves in 1728 at Coventry Forge for 
Redding Furnace, and in 1729 at Colebrook- 
dale, nine years after the latter furnace was 
founded, they reasonably fix the time of the 
casting of the first American five-plate stoves 
at about the date of our plate (Figure 31) in 
question. 

Because these ledgers, noting the casting 
and sale of the stoves in question, at the earli- 
est Pennsylvanian furnaces between 1728 and 



1770, make no mention anywhere of the loose 
gutter-shaped rims which must have been con- 
tinuously made and sold with the stoves, or 
separately for them, if they had existed, we 
may be certain that when the colonists began 
to make five-plate stoves generally resembling 
the old German originals above described, they 
either never used the loose rims, short bolts 
and notched margins shown in Figures 2 and 
3, or almost immediately abandoned them for 
the solid cast gutter-shaped rims shown in 
Figure 31 and introduced a method of fasten- 
ing on the top plate, as hereafter shown, ap ia- 
rently unknown in Europe, but invariably 
repeated on all the American stoves yet found. 

The furnace records above referred to, 
nowhere use the name "jamb stove" or "five- 
plate stove," but show that from the first 
entry at Coventry Forge in 1728 the five-plate 
stoves were continually called simply "stoves," 
in three sizes, "large," "middling" and "small," 
but rarely "Dutch" stoves, and very rarely 
"carved" stoves, and that they were made 
until about 1760 to 1768, when they were 
rapidly superseded by the "six-plate" (rarely 
called "English stoves") described later, and 
first mentioned in the ledgers in 1753.''' 

The ledgers further show that the five- 
plate or jamb stoves weighed about 448 
pounds (large), 373 pounds (medium), 320 
pounds (small) '', and cost about five, four and 
three pounds sterling, respectively; that loose 
plates sometimes referred to as "top plates," 
"bottom plates," "right plates" and "left 
plates" were often sold, sometimes by the 
ton, and that once a lot of stoves were sold 
with "holes in the top plates," as if for the 
construction of an upper story in the German 
fashion of wrought iron or brick.'" 

But beginning with the first entry of a 
stove plate sold at Coventry Forge on July 
25th, 1728, to the record of sale of a "Dutch 
stove" made at Pottsgrove on October 17th, 
1768, the meagre notes in the Potts manu- 
scripts which might have described everything, 
tell us almost nothing. Always in the English 
language, they make no reference to the in- 
variable German inscriptions upon the stoves. 
Two "Dutch stove moulds" which, judging 
from the price, have been decorated with carv- 



35 



ing, are bought for six pounds ten at War- 
wick in 1745, and five shillings are paid at 
Popodickon for mending "stove moulds" in 
1745, and five pounds to Henry Snyder, "the 
stove mould maker" at Warwick in 1755, but 
no hint is given as to the material or construc- 
tion of these moulds or patterns, and beyond 
this no reference made to payments made to 
mould makers for their remarkable work, nor 
is the slightest idea given of the varied interest 
or significance of the plates themselves, which 
thus appear to be a peculiar and unnoticed 
G' rman ("Dutch") product of furnaces gen- 
erally owned and managed by English iron 
masters.'- 

Though the earliest records are lost, it 
does not appear that one furnace devoted more 
attention to stove making than the others, nor 
that stove casting began on a large scale or of 
a sudden. All the early entries in the Potts 
manuscripts (Coventry Forge, acting as an 
agent for Christine, called later Redding 
Furnace, 1728-9), note only the sale of single 
plates until 1738, when at last a complete stove 
was first sold. A load of complete stoves was 
noted as sold at Pine Forge for Colebrookdale 
Furnace in 1731. 

From this we might infer that the making 
of stoves was suggested, as it were, or forced 
upon the English iron masters'' by German 
colonists, who having brought iron stoves 
with them from Germany, came to the 
American furnaces to replace their broken 
stove plates with recasts.^" 

COLONIAL FURNACES. 
The history of other furnaces, not in 
eluded in these records, such as Durham, 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1727; Cornwall, 
Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, 1742; Eliza- 
beth, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1750; 
Keith's, or Abington, in Delaware, then Penn- 
sylvania, 1725-28; Martic, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, 1751 ; Warwick, Chester County. 
Pennsylvania, 1738, and others listed in the 
Appendix, which existed at the time or within 
twenty years after, and may have made 
stoves, might explain much as to the manu- 
facture of the first five-plate stoves in Penn- 
sylvania, but their records have not been 



found, and very little light has been thrown 
upon the subject by colonial or later writers.'" 
Scattered statements in The Potts Me- 
morial, by Mrs. Potts James; Iron Manu- 
facture in the United States, by J. B. Pearse, 
and in Iron In All Ages, by J. M. Sv/ank, 
ignore the making of stoves, and give but a 
meager account even of the construction and 
equipment of any of the furnaces which until 
the introduction of coal about 1840 (Pearse) 
continued an extravagant devastation of 
forests vhich h-d been limited by law in 
England. Burning only charcoal at the rate 
of two and a half cords of wood, or one hun- 
dred bushels of charcoal, per ton of melted 
iron, ■ the two miles square of primeval wood, 
vhich, according to Mrs. Potts- James, any 
furnace was supposed to require in the first 
place, must have soon disappeared. Cleared 
first for a large area around the furnaces by 
the long tiuted European axes of the pioneers, 
the wood was stacked up in piles, fired into 
charcoal under earth-stopped fires, of Beech 
(best), black oak (most abundant), ash and 
white oak, continually smoking in the neigh- 
borhood, and sold or hauled to the furnaces, 
according to Pearse, in loads of 160 bushels 
each. 

These writers say that Colebrookdale, like 
Redding, Durham, Keiths, Mount Pleasant, 
Martic, Cornwall, Elizabeth, and other old 
Pennsylvanian furnaces, consisted of a stone 
furnace stack, thinned at the top, about thirty 
feet high, snd about twenty-five feet square at 
the base, enclosing an egg-shaped fire cham- 
ber with seven foot wall often lined with 
fire resisting slate, and about ten feet in the 
"bosh" or largest diameter,'' and that the 
blast was produced invariably by a huge 
overshot water wheel, about twenty-five feet 
in diameter, revolving so as to expand and 
contract one or two immense, wooden, 
leather hinged bellows, about twenty-five feet 
long by five feet wide, of the cominon fire 
place pattern, or sometimes in the form of 
two closely fitting wooden boxes ("blowing 
tubs"'') compressing into each other, and 
whose one or two nozzles (tuyers) were di- 
rected through the stack wall into the fire 
chamber, so as to produce the required cold 



36 



blast that would liquefy iron ore. Above this, 
on the top of the stack proper, but still sur- 
mounted by a thin smoke chimney, and 
reached by a bridge from a neighboring bank 
or a high platform, was the charging door, 
where the ore (mined in superficial or under- 
ground veins, or gathered in loose lumps in 
swamps, or fished out of ponds as the cele- 
brated "bog ore"''') was thrown. The charges 
of eighteen bushels of ore, alternating with 
twenty-four bushels of charcoal, with the 
limestone or oyster shell flux, were cast in 
from baskets, while at the base of the stack, 
the tap hole plugged with clay near the 
ground level, emitted the molten iron, about 
a ton at a time, every nine or ten hours, day 
and night for the sixteen or eighteen weeks 
that the blast continued. 

The glittering metal ran out upon a flat 
sand bed, near the furnace, generally into a 
series of gutters, so as to harden into the so- 
called "pigs" or "geese," and these trough- 
shaped bars of rough cast iron from 4 to 6 
feet long and 6 inches wide, shipped to neigh- 
boring forges to be re-heated and hammered 
into "bar" iron, as the raw material for all 
wrought iron manufacture, constituted the 
principal product of the furnace. 

When on the other hand, pots, or the so- 
called "country castings" or stove plates were 
wanted, the metal was ladeled, thus at the first 
melting, either into the roofed or enclosed im- 
pressions of sand moulds, enclosed in frames, 
called "flasks," or in case of the stove plates, 
into the open impressions of the flat, rectan- 
gular moulds stamped on the sand. 

Scorched and blackened casting sand, 
therefore, formed the floor of a lofty shed, 
built of logs, which surrounded the furnace, 
while outside, near by, stood the grist mill, 
blacksmith shop, sawmill, and carpenter shop, 
probably inside of which was the mould room, 
with its pot patterns, casters" tools, scorched 
sand flasks, and wooden stove moulds. Not 
far away stood the log stable, hay bins, char- 
coal house and masters' mansions with dwell- 
ings for indentured English, Irish and Ger- 
man workmen, negro slaves and a few Indian 
laborers. 



STOVE MOULDS AND STOVE CAST- 
ING. 

It seems remarkable that of the hundreds 
of moulds for casting the stove plates ex- 
isting about a century ago, none should have 
been heard of as recently found in the United 
States. Notwithstanding the demolition, 
abandonment or modernizing of all furnaces, 
we micht suppose that some of thsse interrst- 
ing wooden panels, easily transportable, 
would rather have been carried off as curios- 
ities by farmers, than in every case destroyed 
or lost, or that where the mould carvers 
worked independently at home and sold their 
products to various furnaces, some of the 
moulds would have remained in the houses 
of the workmen, or might have survived in 
some of 'he houses of their descendants, but 
no such discovery has been made. The Ger- 
man traveler. Dr. Shoep, in 1783, says that 
stove moulds were made of mahogany "be- 
cause it warps least." (Sw. 187.) A letter 
from Mr. B. F. Owen to the writer in 1913, 
says that at Reading, Mr. W. D. Smith, of 
Joanna Furnace, remembered that the designs 
for stoves were cast on thin sheets of lead, 
nailed or glued upon frames of mahojany, 
and that he had torn off the lead of disused 
moulds, as a boy, to cast bullets. This coin- 
cides with the information given as to the 
German stoves, but the account refers not to 
the old "jamb stoves" but to the later "Ten 
Plate" stoves cast after the Revolution and in 
the 19th century. Accrelius, who notices the 
casting of Six Plate stoves at Troys Rivers in 
Canada, in 1747, does not describe the moulds. 
(Quoted by Swank, Iron and Coal, 1878, page 
19.)-^ 

Bishop, in his History of American Manu- 
factures, page 555, speaks of the five plate 
stoves as jamb stoves made by Stiegel and 
Christopher Sauer, of Germantown, but says 
nothing of the process of casting. The Potts 
manuscripts above referred to only thrice re- 
cord sums of money paid to mould makers, 
and the special writers here variously 
quoted, Potts-James, Pearse, Swank, Fegley, 
Montgomery, Watson, etc., ignore the ques- 
tion of stove making, and scarcely mention 



37 



the existence o^ the stoves, much less the 
moulds used to cast them. We must there- 
fore fall back upon the inference that the old 
German iron "jamb" stoves were made In 
America, and cast in America, as they had 
been manufactured in Germany, that is to 
say that the moulds were carved in low re- 
lief by cutting out the background on a frame- 
work of two or three boards, backed with 
trans-, erse battens, that these moulds were 
stamped directly upon the open sand, and the 
cast made without flasks. 

Colebrookdale, Redding, Keiths and Dur- 
ham, established in the Pennsylvanian for- 
est sometime before the Indians had finally 
yielded up their soil, have long fallen to ruin. 
Heaps of slag, overgrown with brambles, de- 
serted shafts, or superficial diggings alone 
mark their sites. The moulds and patterns, 
tools and appliances are lost. The descend- 
ants of the carvers and designers, if they sur- 
vive, have no tradition of the work of their 
ancestors. No unmodified survival of the old 
casters' work exists at any of the modern stove 
foundries."* One of the old five plate or 
jamb stoves, found standing in a walled up 
corner of an ancient house in Philadelphia a 
few years ago, as described to the author at a 
lecture, was immediately pulled to pieces and 
melted, another, the stove illustrated in Fig- 
ures 33, 34, 36 and 37, probably the last re- 
maining in Pennsylvania in its original posi- 
tion, was demolished in 1907. The Pennsyl- 
vanian farmer who has saved the loose plates 
to use them for chimney tops, door steps and 
hearth pavements, has lost all recollection of 
their origin and meaning, and from a fruitless 
Series of inquiries at old farm houses, and 
searches in forgotten records, we turn back to 
the evidence of the plates themselves. 

AMERICAN FIVE PLATE OR JAMB 
STOVE DESCRIBED. 

The five plate stove shown in Figure 33 
as the most nearly complete example of its 
class thus far found, stood until 1907 in its 
original position in an old house near Read- 




33- 

Xhe Xentli Coiiiiiiaiidnieiit. 

Complete five-plate stove. The top. bottom, sides and front 
plates mounted for exhibition at the Berks County Historical 
Society. Size, front. W. 21 by H. 23'4 inches: sides. W. 2$'/, 
by H. 23'4: top, 27^4 by 21 inches. 

This stove, whose front and side plates with their inscrip 
tions are described under Figs. 34-37. had stood in its original 
position for about one hundred and forty years, until 1907, in 
a house formerly belonging to Samuel Schweitzer, in Brecknock 
Township. Berks County. Pa-, when, during alterations to the 
building, it was demolished and removed. Mr. Elner E, Bil- 
lingsfelt. of Adamstown, Lancaster County, hav r.g found the 
plates in a pile in the spring house, obtained them and pre- 
sented them to the Berks County Historical Society. 

The orginal bolts and legs are massing, and the bolt'ng 
here shown, intended to hold the stove together in the museum, 
has nothing to do with its original construction. 

ing. Pa., when it was demolished and its bolts, 
and legs, if it had any, lost, before Mr. B. F. 
Owen found it, and presented it to the Berks 
County Historical Society. 

As it is dated 1756, or thirty years after 
the first record of stove making in the Fur- 
nace Ledgers above noted, it is of late make, 
and its peculiar decoration to be described 
hereafter, is of a late type. But its construc- 
tion exactly represents that of all the five 
plate non-ventilating or jamb stoves of Amer- 
ican make hereafter described and thus far 
known to the writer. 

Protruding into the room like a box about 
two feet square, without fuel door and smoke 



M 





34-a. 



34- 
Tlie Xentli Commaiidnieiit. 

Front plate. Size. H, 23^4 by W. 21, Berks County Historical 
Society, 

Single canopy with pendant vault, aureole, flower-pots, tulps, 
stars, and the date 1760. Here, as shown more completely in 
Figure 33, we have a complete five-plate stove, the only one yet 
found, brought to light in 1909 in one of the enthusiastic 
searches of Mr. B, F. Owen, of Reading, through the instru- 
mentality cf Mr. E. E. Billing_felt. of Ada.Tistown, Lancaster 
County, Pa., who had rescued it after the unfortunate altera- 
tions in 1907, of an old house formerly owned by Samuel 
Schweitzer, in Brecknock Township, Berks County. 

This stove was in situ in 1907, and if the modernizers had 
let it alone, would have remained so to still fully illustrate the 
size of the wall hole and flue, position in the fireplace, method 
of propping up, etc.. as the only instance of a five-plate stove 
occupy rg its original position, thus far found in the United 
States. The motto begun on the left plate, Figure 35, herewith 
shown, from Exodus 20 17, LAS. DICH. NICHT. GELYSS- 
TEN (thou Shalt not covet) here ends with DEINES. NEST. 
STEN. GUT., "thy neighbor's goods," the word GUT, for 
goods, instead of HA USES (house) as in the original, supply- 
ing the fuller meaning of the co.Timandment. The sheep's 
heads, from which tulips sprout, on the side plate. Figure 35, 
have been here transformed into circles. 

The cracked replica, Figure 34A, in the Bucks County 
Historical Society, forms part of another similar stove, minus 
the right plate, found with a left plate and a top and bottom 
plate, together with other plates of other stoves, in the kitchen 
hearth and scattered about the mill, chicken house and tobacco- 
shed, at John Illig's old house, built in 1732, at MiUbach, 
Lebanon County, Pa., by Mr. B. F. Owen, in August, 1909. 






ny- 









35- 
Xlie Xenth Coiiiiiiaiidtueiit* 

Left plate of JaTib Stove. Size. W. 25i/4 by H. 2Zy^. BuJ 
County Historical Society. From Mr. B. F. Owen. Found I 
him in an old house belonging to the Illig family at Millbaj 
Lebanon County. Pa., about 1909. 

This is the companion side plate to Fig, 34, though 
ornamental deta Is of the aureole and floral caponies vary cl 
siderably. There is no difficulty in deciphering the inscriptf 
upon the central cartouche beginning the tenth Commandrrj _ . 
from Exodus 20-17 in Luther's Bible, LAS. DICH. NiCIj ' 
GELYSSTEND.. Thou shalt not covet— completed on the oj DCrefo 
plate, but the puzzling sentence on the lower medallion g| ||g 
the plate a provoking and peculiar interest. jfj. 



39 



So obscure are many oF these abbreviated, ill spaced, 
rusty and disjointed inscr ptions to modern, and even practiced 
«yes. that we may well ask whether the old mould carvers 
wanted them read, or whether the unlettered settlers could read 
them. But who that has studied them can deny the pleasure 
of their decipherment, or forget those solitary moments, when, 
half hypnotized by long concentrated gaze on the iron flashing 
in reflected light, the meaning, suldenly escaping from ti tic's 
oblivion, startles us like the voice from dreamland that wakes 
a sleeper. 

Here it is not the Biblical sentence, but the brief adver- 
tisement that defies explanation. We need not rub with kero- 
sene. poVsh w th beeswax, or twist the viewpoint in various 
lights. The letters are all clear. But no concentrated gaze, 
whether by the midnight O'l or in the fresh glow of morning, 
has availed to surely solve the secret of these two or three 
■words which are not at all obscured by rust. 

By analogy w th the other inscriptions, the key to the 
sentence, beginning with the word Wilhelm, and no doubt re- 



ferring to an ironmaster lies in the last syllable, where the right 
le^ of the final N. is unquestionably crossed for a T. makin]{ 
the word spell BORTSCHENT. But since the latter cannot, 
by any phonetic juggling, be considered to represent the nane 
of any known ironmaster, at any of the furnaces that could have 
cast the plate at its date in 1760, we must give it up. 

To regard the left leg ol the N as an I mfght seem to solve 
the difficulty by transforming the final syllable into the German 
word SCHEINT. meaning either (1) appears, or (2) shines, and 
leaving the first syllable BORT to stand for BIRD, there- 
fore explaining the sentence in full, as William Bird Appears, 
or Willam Bird Shines. 

But the first solution involves more difficulty, since we 
cannot suppose that William Bird "appeared" in 1760 if he 
founded Berkshire Furnace, not then. but. according to Fig. 45. 
in 1756. And the second hardly less, snce. though we may 
infer that stoves were polished so as to shine with lampblack 
and beeswax here as in Germany, Willam Bird would only 
occas onally, thus by metaphor, shine on a stove. 




36. 



Outside view of the plates of the Bortschent stove shown in 
_ ■'igure 33. Berks County Historical Society. 



1. Left plate. 

2. Front plate. 

3. Right plate. 
4 and 5 are interchangeable as the top and bottom plates 



The Five Plates of a Jamb Stove. 

Both show the waved surface peculiar to open sand-casting, pro- 
duced by the hardening of the molten iron in the open air and 
free of contact with the mould. The perforated lips for the in- 
sertion of the vertical bolts, fastening the stove together from 
top to bottom, appear at the outer marg n of these latter plates. 



ipe, fed through the wall from outside, and 
lerefore failing to ventilate the room heated, 
he stove is a representation of the first of 
American made iron stoves so singular to mod- 



ern eyes, so long forgotten, so meagerly de- 
scribed by Franklin and others, thus at last 
imperfectly set together from its five loose 
plates.'' ■ 



40 




37- 

Tlie Five Plates of a Jamb Stove. 



Reverse of Figure 36, showing the inside of the plates of 
the William Bortschent stove. Figure 33. Berks County Histori- 
cal Society. 

6. Left plate, reverse of 1. 

7. Front, reverse of 2. 

8. Right, reverse of 3. 

The gutter-shaped rims shown in front 
and reverse (Figures 36 and 37, Nos. 2 and 7), 
are cast solid on the vertical margins of the 
front plate, and a vertical bolt, unknown in 
the European stoves, not shown in the pic- 
ture, originally passing through perforated 
lips in the top and bottom plates (Figures 36 
and 37, Nos. 4, 5, 9 and 10), held the stove 
tightly together. 

Only three of its five plates, the front, 
with grooved margins to the right and left of 
the pattern (Figure 36, No. 2), the right, with 
broad margin to the right (Figure 36, No. 3), 
and the left, with broad margin to the left of 
its pattern (Figure 36, No. 1), are decorated. 
The top and bottom plates, bordered with 



9 and 10. interchangeable as top and bottom, reverse of 4 
and 5. Both the latter show the continuous channels for the 
vertical insertion of 6. 7 and 8. also the impressions of the heads 
of the bolts used in constructing the wooden mould, and un- 
erased from the sand in casting, also the perforated lips for 
bolting the stove together. The waved surface peculiar to open 
sand-casting is seen upon 6. 7 and 8. 

three rimmed channels on front and sides 
(Figure 37, Nos. 9 and 10), for the insertion of 
the three side plates, and each with a perfor- 
ated marginal lip (Figures 36 and 37, Nos. 4 
and 5, 9 and 10), for th; long exterior bolt, 
not here shown, are duplicates and inter- 
changeable. 

The whole series of five loose plates thus 
illustrated, on the outside (Figure 36), and on 
the inside (Figure 37), enables us to recog- 
nize at sight, the loose decorated plates here- 
after shown, as either front, right or left 
plates. They illustrate the fact that with a few 
exceptions (as noted under Figures 108 and 
139) the chief pattern on the right plate, was 
duplicated on the left while another pattern 
appeared on the front, thus presenting two de- 



41 



signs cast from two moulds, rather than three 
fcr each stove, and sho'ving that where the 
same design appears on two or more plates of 
a kind, right or left, two or more stoves of that 
pattern must have existed." 

It follows from this, that since in all 
stoves of a given size, the top plates duplicate 
the bottoms, and that as a general rule with 
few exceptions the rights (by alternating the 
broad margins), the lefts, several of the stoves 
here represented by front and side plates, and 
adjustable with any equal sized top or bot- 
tom plate can be restored by recasting. 

Unfortunately, however, these instances 
are few, since when replicas have been found 
for a given stove, often proving the existence 
of many of its kind, they hive rarely shown 
both its patterns, generally appearing as all 
sides, without fronts, or more rarely, as all 
fronts without sides. 

EARLIEST AMERICAN STOVE PAT- 
TERNS. 

No front plate has yet been found for 
the singular pattern shown in Figure 38, 
which appeared first, broken in half, at the 
forge of a blacksmith in Hilltown, Pennsyl- 
vania, next in the cellar of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, again in a house in 
Philadelphia, and lastly at a dealer's in Potts- 
town, thus four times in replica, but always 
not only as a side plate, but as a left side plate 
thus proving the existence of four stoves of its 
kind. 

The pattern without perspective or back- 
ground, and with its figures in the dress of 
the middle 18th century, shows a husband and 
wife fighting desperately, and infuriated by 
winged flying demons, who blow bellows into 
their ears. The man beats her with the 
tongs, as the woman with uplifted pot hook, 
pulls his hair. Pigs fight to the right and a 
dog and cat are set in decorative balance to 
the left, while the distressed children, as if 
standing in the air, a long coated boy with 
clasped hands, and a girl with uplifted arms, 
protest in vain. 




38- 

Xhe Faniilv Quarrel. 

Size. H. 29 by W. 24 inches. Left plate. Bucks County His- 
torical Society. 

A left fragment of this remarkable plate, found by the 
writer at New Galena. Bucks County. Pa., at the blacksmith's 
forge of William B. Funk, who, having found the complete plate 
in the hearth of an old inn at Hilltown nearby, had broken it in 
half to fit the forge pavement, was illustrated and described in 
Decorated Stove Plates. Figure 10. After being found again as 
a complete left plate in 1897, in the cellar of the Pennsylvania 

Below the striving figures, so singular 
yet so familiar, whose lesson must have 
forced itself on many a man and woman who 
saw the pattern when the old stove warmed 
the house, runs the inscription, from Matthew 
5-9, SELIG. SIND. DIE. FRIDFERTIGE. 
"Blessed are the peacemakers," while below 
like a sermon in rhyme, with its everlasting 
cure for the evil of the picture, is placed the 
legend: 

DURCH. STILLE. DURCH. GEDULD. 
DURCH. LIBEN. LIDEN. HOFFEN. 
UND. NIGHT. DURCH. ZANCKEN. 
1ST. DER. FEIND. AUFS. HAUPT. 
GETROFFEN. 

By silence, by patience. 

By loving, suffering, hoping. 

And not by quarrelling 

Is the devil struck on the head. 



42 



Historical Society, it again appeared as a left repl'ca (here illus- 
trated) in the hands of a gentleman in Philadelphia, who sold it 
to the writer in 1905. Another left replica, found near Potts- 
town, Pa,, and sold by Boone, the antique furniture dealer, to 
the writer in 1908, is now at the Bucks County Historical So- 
ciety, 

Husband and wife, both inspired by bellows-blowing demons, 
attack each other, he ar.med with tongs and she with an up- 
raised pot-hook, while with one hand she pulls his hair. The 
distressed children, a boy and a girl, stand near two fighting pigs 
to the right, and a fighting dog and cat to the left. The full 
legend from the Ser.-non on the Mount runs above the picture. 
SELIG. SIND. DE. FREIDFERTI GE. "Blessed are the peace 
rr.akers," Matthew 5-9, in Luther's Bible, while below in four 
rhymed lines, it continues; 



Oh do not rage and quarrel; 

But be patient and be still. 
To suffer, love and hope, 

Is to thwart the devil's will. 

The plate has no date, but the style of 
the inscription, with its carefully carved rec- 
tangular flattened letters, its U's with round- 
ed bases, its treatment of the word UND 
and omission of vowels in the words LIBEN. 
LIDEN. NCHT., etc., so closely resembles 
that of the Fortune plate (Figure 31) as to 
suggest the same hand. Besides this a re- 
markable series of welts, plainly seen sur- 
rounding the figures, show that the mould 
carver has in this case sawed his figures out of 
an older wooden mould. If he did this in 
America, we may wonder why he should have 
so mutilated a mould then freshly made or 
imported. If in Germany we may imagine the 
loose pieces brought over seas as stock in trade 
in an easily carried bundle, to be finally in- 
serted in a new board face, imperfectly orificed 
to fit them. 

But whether imported in pieces or not, 
whether made in America or Germany, we 
may suppose that the mould was used to cast 
the plate in question probably between 1726 
and 1735, and that the specimen like Figure 
31, represents one of the first stoves made in 
Pennsylvania by imported German workmen. 

For a period of fifteen years after the 
date of the Fortune Plate Figure 31, no dated 
plate appears, though we know from the 
Potts Ledgers above referred to, that numer- 
ous five plate stoves were cast at Colebrook- 
dale. Mount Pleasant, and Redding or Chris- 



DtJRCH. STILLE. DURCH. GEDULT. 
DURCH. LIBEN. LIDN. HOFFEN. UND. 
NICHT. DURCH. ZANCKEN. WRD. DER. 
FEIND. AUFS. HAUPT. GETROFEN. 
"By stillness, by patience, by loving, suffering, hoping, and not 
by quarreling, is the Devil struck on the head." 
"Oh. do not rage and quarrel. 
But be patient and be still. 
To su.Ter. love and hope. 
Is to thwart the Devil's wiU." 
As explained in the text, the plate made probaly in the 
early 18th century and at one of the first furnaces established 
in Pennsylvania, has been cast from a wooden pattern, possibly 
carved in Germany, and imperfectly fitted together in several 
loose pieces set at various angles. 

tine in the interval, and may infer that others 
were produced at Durham above mentioned, 
on the Delaware River at the mouth of Dur- 
ham Creek in northern Bucks County, if not 
at Keiths furnace and Abington in Delaware 
or the doubtful Kurtz's in Pennsylvania, which 
were in blast in 1728, But the early Ledgers 
of Durham are lost, and the evidence of the 
plates themselves, generally undated and un- 
marked, throws no certain light on the ques- 
tion until two interesting patterns appear, 
both dated 1741 and both probably cast at 
Durham. 

Buried in the mud as a stepping stone 
at the old property known as Painswick Hall, 
near New Britain, Pennsylvania, as described 
and illustrated in Decorated Stove Plates 
(Figure 5), found again in replica in one of the 
cellars of Durham Furnace, again at a dealer's 
in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, and finally in the 
ruins of a springhouse at Camp Hill, Pennsyl- 
vania, one of these patterns shown in Fig- 
ures 40 and 41 represents Adam and Eve in 
the Garden. By anachronism the woman 
clothed at the waist like the man, yet before 
the fall, receives the fatal apple from the 
mouth of a serpent, coiled upon one of the 
over hanging trees well fruited with apples. 
Some of the branches of the orchard seem to 
be pruned, and near a leafless tree and 
branchless trunk to the left, appear four ani- 
mals, a horse, an ox, and probably two sheep. 
Below the neatly carved pattern and sur- 
mounting the lower panel with its richly 
scrolled medallion dated 1741, runs the in- 
scription peculiarly produced in both large 




«-««Mi^MEMS«hN«J«^«4#^ ^ 



C^v ^1\' \;,.^,. 
4d4l7vl)t.TI;V I 



4^;)'^' 



S^ 






■A 



Adam and £ve. 

Right plate. Size. H. 26 by W. 26. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

Eve receives the apple from the mouth of a serpent coiled 
upon the trunk of a fruited apple tree, while Adam, holding 
another apple in his hand, stands farther to the right, under 
another tree. A smaller tree intervenes between the nearly 
naked figures, who, contrary to the Biblical narrative, wear 
waist-cloths before the Fall. To the left, a broken and branch- 
less tree-trunk rises between a horse and cow, standing b^low 
two other animals and a leafless tree. Another tree fills the 
left space. 

The inscription DIE. SCHLANG. ADAM. UND. EFA. 
BETRU. "The snake betrayed Adam and Eve", fills the central 
cartouche, while the date 1741, with its scroll work and medal- 
1 on patterned like that upon the Cain and Abel plate. Figure 
42, fills the lower panel. 

The pattern. Figure 40, shows a protruding welt, as of a 
warp-crack filled in, retouched and swollen out of level, verti- 
cally crossing the upper panel, which does not appear on Figure 
41, a much rusted replica, now at the Bucks County Historical 
Society, found as a pavement relic at Mr. Martin's farm, at 
New Britain. Pa., in 1897, and described in Decorated Stove 
Plates under Figure 5. 

Because Figure 40 (the first to appear) was found before 
1898 by Mr. B. F. Fackenthal, Jr., among the furnace heir- 
looms at Durham Furnace, it seems probable that the plate 
was cast at Durham. If so, the Cain and Abel plate. Figure 42. 
of equal size, with the same peculiar narrowness of the broad 
margin, with identical date, date medallion and scroll work, and 
particularly with the same mingling of small letters and capitals 
in the inscription, must have been designed by the same mould 
maker, who has not elsewhere shown his hand in the whole 
series of plates here described, and who probably carved both 
moulds for the same (Durham) Furnace. 



43 

An inscribed ilatc-stone in possession of Mr, B, F. Facken- 
thal. of Riegclsville. Pa., proves that the old charcoal furnace 
of Durham, on Durham Creek. Northern Bucks County, Pa,. 
founded by James Logan, Anthony Morris, William Allen, 
James Hamilton. Joseph Turner, and a company of ten others, 
was built in 1727. After a life of sixty-four years, it finally 
went out of blast in 1791. was pulled down in 1819, and after- 
wards rebuilt a mile away from the original site. 

The now deserted and decaying modern works, situated by 
the river, close to the mouth of Durham Creek, and near the 
remarkable Durham Cave, long since blasted down for lime 
stone flux, bears no resemblance to the backwoods furnace, here 
set up in the primeval forest, before the land was finally (1737) 
bought from the Indians, and which must have been, according 
to James Logan (Swank, 170). one of the four Pennsylvanian 
furnaces in blast in 1728. 

The ancient stone stack, thirty-five to forty feet square and 
thirty feet high, with its wheel race and water bellows, has long 
disappeared, and nothing but a heap of cinders remains to mark 
the site of the original furnace, which supplied three forges on 
Durham Creek and others nearby (account of Durham Township 
by H. C. Bell and B, F. Fackenthal, Jr.. Swank. 169), sent its 
pig iron down the Delaware in the celebrated Durham boats, 
cast numerous stoves about 1741 (Swank. 169). shot and shells 
for Washington's ar.my in the Revolution, and employed, as 
did the other furnaces, negro slaves in 1780, during the days 
of incons stent "freedom." 




41. 

Its early ledgers and records are all lost, and the sale of 
four stove moulds from Durham to the Hibernia Iron Works 
in New Jersey in 1778 (Fackenthal MSS.) refers no doubt to 
ten-plate stove moulds. Accordmg to Swank, Anthony Morris 
and Will am Logan owned the furnace in 1759, General Daniel 
Morgan before 1743, George Taylor, the Signer, before 1774, 
and Richard Backhouse still later, in the days after 1770, of 
ten-plate stoves. It was demolished in 1819 to built a grist- 
mill. Two anthracite coal furnaces were built in 1848 to 51, 
and these were pulled down in 1874 to build the present furnace, 
which was abandoned by Cooper and Hewitt in 1895. 



44 




42. 

Cain and Abel. 

Left plate. Size. H. 26 by W. 26. Bucks County Historical 
Society. No. 1199. 

The figures stand in low relief under a canopy supported 
by two Roman columns with double vault, under curtain loops 
and pendant flower. Floral scrolls flank the pattern to the 

and small letters, DIE. SCHLANG. ADAM. 
UND. EFA. BETRUG. "The snake betrayed 
Adam and Eve." 

The other pattern, Figure 42, represents 
the fratricide, Cain, who with uplifted club 
rushes upon his brother, as if in a spacious 
vaulted hall supported on fiuted columns, the 
details of which are more carefully worked 
out than in any of the other American plates. 
Decorative curtains are looped across the 
vaults overhead, and to the right and left 
foliate scrolls fill up the pattern. The missing 
central column is replaced by a corbel, and a 
pendant leaf. 

More curious than the heavy welts, as of 
warp cracks in the wooden moulds, or the out- 
lines of inserted wooden strips retouched in 
Figure 40, erased in Figure 41, and again ap- 
pearing prominently in Figure 42 which ver- 
tically cross both plates, is the striking simi- 
larity of both patterns. Notwithstanding the 
absence of the decorative framework above 
noted in Figures 40 and 41 where the trees, 
animals and figures of Eden appear as in an 



right and left. Furious Cain, uplifting in both bared ar.Tis a 
heavy club, advances upon his unar.-ned brother, who. standing 
beside one of the trees of Eden, makes a pretesting gesture. 

The costume, the apparent bareness of the legs, the roll 
of the long stocking below the knee, though probably intended 
to reproduce the garments of anc ent Ro.ne, suggeits the pecul- 
iar dress of the Scottish Highlanders. The date, 1741, with 
its medallion and scroll work. f.Ulng the lower panel, is a close 
copy, though not a recast, of the lower panel of the Adam and 
Eve plate, Figure 40. 

The inscription, like that of Figure 40. composed of a mix- 
ture of capital and small letters: 

CAIN. SEINEN. BRUTER. AWEL. TOT. SCHLUG. 
"Cam killed his brother Abel," fills the central cartouche. 

Discovered by Mr. Alexander Ralph at Camp Hill, Mont- 
go.-nery County, Pa., in pulling down a tenant house. 

Two left replicas are in the collection of Col. H. D. Paxson, 
at Holicong, Pa. 

This plate and Figure 40, for the reasons given under the 
latter, were probably both cast at Durham Furnace in Northern 
Bucks County. Pa., and that the design was produced by 
stamping in caster's sand, a mould like the Swedish mould. 
Figure 10. orginally carved on a framework of boards, is here 
plainly shown. 

A heavy welt, as of a board in the wooden pattern, warped 
above the level, and two ridges edging a depression as of an- 
other board warped below the level, where the caster has not 
taken the trouble to erase them in the sand, leave their mark 
upon the iron. They cross not only the background, but uplift 
and lower the carving itself, in the cartouche, the inscription 
across the word TOT, the date medallion, scroll-work, lower 
tree-trunk, right curtain-loop, and floral pendant. 



open picture, the same date, 1741, appears in 
an identical filigree in both plates. Besides 
this, the size of the plates, the peculiar nar- 
rowness of their broader margins, and the 
striking mixture of large and small letters in 
the inscription, is the same in both instances. 

This seems conclusive. If Figure 40 
found as an heirloom at Durham Furnace was 
cast there, we must suppose that Figure 42 
was cast there also and designed by the same 
hand. 

ART AND MEANING OF THE STOVE 
PICTURES. 

After 1745, doubts as to the origin of the 
American plates disappear. Besides Cole- 
brookdale, and the furnaces above noted, 
Cornwall, 1742, in Lebanon County; Eliza- 
beth, 1750, and Martic, 1751, in Lancaster 
County; Hereford, 1753, Oley, 1758, and 
Hopewell, 1759, in Berks County, were in blast 
in Pennsylvania or founded in time to make 
five plate stoves, and a number of plates ap- 
pear that were undoubtedly cast at some of 
them. 



45 




43- 
Tlie IVIolteii Calf. 

Front plate. Size, H. 2658 by W. 19' 2- In the State Library at 
Har.-isburg. Pa. Bought by Mr. L. F. Kelker along with Figure 
74, in 1907. at Kutztown. Pa., where the owner had preserved 
it with black paint and gilt as a parlor ornament. 

Out of all proportion to the pattern, and under a tree with 
lopped branches on the left, stands the miniature molten calf 
on a boat-shap=d stand, while two much-rusted, robed human 
figures. Aaron or Joshua, pointing to the image, and Moses, 
uplifting the tables of the law to break them, fill the foreground. 
The inscription, from Exodus 32-5, in Luther's Bible: 
IM. 2. B. MOSE. C. 32. V. 8. 
SIE. HABEN. IHN. EIN. GEGOS. 
SEN. KALB. GEMACHT. 
"In 2 book Moses, chapt-r 32. verse 8. they had made him a 
molten calf." and peculiar in having the cited text on the top 
instead of the bottom line, fills the lower panel without inter- 
vening bands. 

As m the case of the plow. Figure 52 ; Dance of Death, 
Figure 75; Absalom, Figure 77; Adam and Eve. Figure 40. 
and Wheel of Fortune, Figure 31, the familiar canopies, inher- 
ited from Gothic times, and characteristic of so many of the 
plate?, have been abandoned, while, as in the patterns above- 
mentioned, scrolls, trees or balanced inscriptions fill the back- 
ground. Here the des'gner, much in the style of the Prussian 
Grenadiers, Figure 67, and The Flight into Egypt, Figure 79. 
upholsters the sky in the rudest manner as with a quilted cur- 
tain, throwing in the date. 1742. on the left. 

The general treatment of the robed figures, the form of the 
M's and S"s in the inscr ption, the tree with lopped branches, 
and the waving foot-hold, suggest the workmanship of the 
Flight into Egypt, Figure 79. A replica is now in the collec- 
tion of Colonel H. D. Paxson. of Holicong, Pa. Another in 
that of the Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, at Schwenksville. Pa.. 
January, 1914. 




44- 

Xtie Iflaii «»ii IIorsot)aek. 

Front plate of Jamb Stove. S ze. W. 21 by H. 23;a. Mr. S. P. 
Patterson, at Robesonia Furnace, Berks County, Pa. 

The very curious, puzzling and much-rusted plate found 
with a replica of the Tenth Co.xmandment plate. Figure 33, and 
several others since lost, among the rubbish at Robesonia 
Furnace, probably rescued from the ruins of the older Berk 
shire Furnace nearby, and brought to Robesonia with scrap 
iron for remelting : shows, under a vaulted canopy filled in with 
a large rococo scroll, a man with a broad-brimmed hat. and 
probably holding a staff or sword on horseback. Below are 
cast the initials W. B., and in a small medallion the date 17S6. 

If pattern carvers ever ventured to cast their initials on 
stove plates, no evilence has yet proved it. In-tials thus far 
identified have stood for the names of furnaces or iron masters, 
three of whom. William Bird, of Berkshire Furnace ; WilKaro 
Benet, of Martick. and William Branson, of Redding, might be 
suggested to account for the W. B. on this plate, but if wc 
choose any of the three, it would not at first glance be the first 
or second, since Berkshire or Roxborough Furnace on Spr.'ng 
Creek, lower Heidelberg Township. Berks County, Pcnna.. was 
not fiiunded by William Bird, and William Benet did not (ac- 
ci^rding to Mr. B. F. Owen) become shareholder at Martic on 
Pequea Creek, near the present ColemansviUe. Lancaster County, 
Penna., unt 1 1760. four years after the plate was cast. 

But William Branson, founder and original share owner of 
Christine or Redding Furnace, on French Creek, in Northern 
Chester County, who was probably iron master there in asso- 
ciation with his son-in-law, Sa nuel Flower, ;n 1756. might have 
cast his initials on the plate in that year, at Redding Furnace, 
although Flower's name and initials. S. F.. appear on the 
Redding plate. Figure 79, in 1 754, and on Figures 82 and 83 
in 1756. 

On the other hand, the finding of the plate, together with 
Figure 33. marked with the name of Willam Bort (Bird), at 
Robesonia Furnace, at or near the site of Berkshire Furnace. 



But though several of the patterns, like and though a few like the David and Go- 

the uncouth Molten Calf dated 1742, the Temp- liath and the two Samson plates or Elijah 

tation of Joseph, 1749, or the emblematic and the Ravens (of Kingston, Figure 59), 

Pump, 1748, and the Plow, 1747, are dated, through similarity of detail, can be grouped 



46 

and possibly as an heirloom of the latter, thus far associates it 
not only with Berkshire, but with William Bird. 

The New Pine Forge Ledgers at the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society, quoted by Mrs. Longacre (Forges and Furnaces 
in Pennsylvania. Colonial Dames, Philadelphia, 1914, page 152) 
show that Swank and Montgomery are wrong in asserting that 
Berkshire was founded in 1760, and that it was in existence in 
1756. This solves the d.fficulty, unless impressed by the broad- 
brimmed hat of the rider, we go so far as to suppose, with Dr. 
J B. Stoudt, that W. B. might stand for a German wood- 
carvtrs phonetic rendering of the initials W. P. for William 
Penn. 

Swank says, page 175, that William Brd, founder of Birds- 
boro. Union Township, Berks County, Penna., and father of 
Mark Bird, was an Englishman, who was living in Amity Town 
sh p, Berks County, in 1728, and that he or his son, Mark Bird, 
built Hopewell Furnace in 1759 or 65. Montgomery says, page 
39, that he built Hay Creek Forge in 1756, owned 3.000 acres, 
founded Birdsboro in 1750, and built a house standing at 
Birdsboro in 1750. He bu It Roxborough or Berkshire Furnace 
about 1755 in Heidelberg Township, Berks County, Penna.; 
died in 1761, aged 55, and is buried at Douglasville, Berks 
County (Forges and Furnaces in Pennsylvania, Colonial Dames, 
page 76). 




45- 

Tlie mail oil Horseback.* 

Right plate of Jamb Stove. Size, W. 2OI2 by H. 23'2. Mr. H. 
K. Deisher. Kutztown, Pa., November 21st. 1913. 

This plate, though lacking the initials W. B.. must be sup- 
posed to be the right companion to the front plate. Figure 44. 

But the pattern is not a replica of the latter, though it 
appears so. The position and carving of the head, hat. neck, 
whip and bridle of the horseman, the tilted oval foothold, and 
the centering of the scrolled bracket over the date medallion, 
vary in the two plates, showing not that loose stamps were 
used, as might at first sight appear, but that two solid carved 
wooden moulds were employed, where we might suppose that 
one would have sufficed. One of these which must have been 
furnished with heavy marginal grooves for the side rims served 
for the front, and one for the two side plates. Moreover, 



though the figure 5 has been rusted away on Figure 44, we 
may reasonably guess that the same date, 1756, has been re- 
peated on all three plates, though the initials W. B., explained 
under Figure 44, appear only on the first. 

A replica also in Mr. Deisher's possession was found, but 
without the front plate, in the same house. Strange to say, 
instead of a left, the latter is also a right, and if we suppose 
it to have been used as part of the same stove — a misfit, bought 
by mistake at the furnace and never replaced, we must imag ne 
that the owner set it on the left side of his stove, upside down 
or inside out. 




46. 

Xeniptatioii of Josepli. 

Size. H. 25 by W. 26;4. B. H. S. No. 788. Described in 
Decorated Stove Plates, Figure 3. 

Potiphar's wife, springing from a canopied and curtained 
bed, seizes with both hands the cloak of the escaping Joseph, 
who holds the garment in his left hand, and uplifts his right in 
protest. A round column, behind which a tasseled curtain hangs 
from the upper corner of the design, fills up the pattern to the 
right. Under the picture, which lacks arches and canopies, the 
whole lower panel is filled with the rudely carved inscription 
which cites the wrong chapter in the Bible. 

DAS. WEIB. DES. SUCHT. 

JOSEPH. ZV. ENTZVNDE. 

IM. I. B. MOSE. 13C. 1749. 
"The woman who seeks to corrupt Joseph. In 1st Book Moses, 
13 chapter" (which should read 39th chapter). 1749. 

Two large knobs, one back of the woman's head, the other 
between the tassel and column marking the impressions of bolts 
or nails, used to keep the wooden mould from warping, appear 
on Figure 46, found by the writer in Emanuel Peterson's junk- 
heap, at Doylestown, in 1889, and previously used as a door- 
step by Mr. Henry P. Sands, of Doylestown. A replica was 
found by the writer in 1889 at Bethlehem, in use as a chimney 
top, in the possession of Mr. Robert Rau. The much-rusted and 
broken replica (1), Figure 47, was exhibited during Founder's 
Week, in Philadelphia, by Mrs. Hallam, a furniture dealer in 
Bristol, Pa. Then Mr. B. F. Owen, of Reading, found (2) a 
right replica, B. H. S., used as a fireback in the house of 
William Adam, now the property of the Mount Penn Water 
Company, near Reading, also (3) a left replica, B. H. S., and 



47 



(4) a right replica. B. H. S.. as a hearth pavement in an old 
house, once a Moravian School, near Reading. The lower haU 
of (5) a left replica was at the Historical Society of Pcnnsyl 
vania. in 1912. A right and left replica (6) and (7) were in 
possession of the Hon. S. W. Pennvpacker, at Schwenksville. 
Pa., in 1913: a left replica (8) (broken) was at Mrs. Cookerow's 




47- 

antique store, in Pottstown, August 30th, 1910, and another 
left replica (9) was. in 1912, in possession of Mr. J. H, Lynn, 
at Langhorne. Bucks County, Pa., from the Keira house, near 
Oley. Berks County. Pa. 

Thus ten examples of this interesting plate had come to 
light in fifteen years of search, six of which have served 
severally as a doorstep, a chimney-cover, a fire-back, a hearth 
pavement, and two dealers' relics, yet the front plate has never 
been found, and none of the castings have shown a change of 
the date, 1749. Both N's in the inscription are upside down, 
the Z's have the German cross bar on the diagonal outline, and 
the false Scriptural citation is never corrected. 




Set in the mud tor a gutter crossing when found at the farm 
of Mr. G. Martin, of New Britain, Pa., the interesting plate was 
rescued at the last moment, as a part of one of the origmal 
stoves used for warming the tannery of the Shewell family at 
•■Painswick Hall." Time and rust have not effaced the outlines 
of human figures, of the well and of water vessels, decoratively 
framed between two columns, and an acanthus leaf depending 
from a superincumbent arch now rusted away. To the left a 
figure works with both arms at the well pulley, behind whom, 
on a block, rests a larg: tankard. Between this and two similar 
vessels set upon the ground to the right, as containing the 
water changed to wine by miracle, stands the figure of Christ 
working the wonder, while below and across the entire plate 
runs the motto, JESUS MACHT AUS WASSER WEIN 
(■'Jesus makes wine from water"). From beneath this, in a 
scrolled oval, blurred by rust, are the words. lOHAN AM 2 
C.^P. (John in the second chapter.) The style of scrolls, col- 
umns and pendant acanthus seem to connect the undated plate 
with Figures 42 and 53. 

Dr. Hern-an WeJding. in Eiserne Ofcnplatten. Harzverein 
Festschrift. 1893, plate 5, illustrates two stove plates showing 
this subject, and Kassel says, in Ofcnplatten im Elsass. page 62. 
that no other theme so frequently appears upon stove plates in 
Alsace: that he himself has seen forty-one examples of wine- 
miracle plates, and that a book might be written on Cana stoves 
alone. They were popular in Germany because children and 
Bible students easily understood the picture, and because the 
thought of wedding feasts was pleasant to the German farmers. 




48. 



The Miracle of Caiia. 

Front plate. Size. H. 24 by W. 21. B. H. S. No. 1195. 



49. 

A variety of rhymed mottoes added to their interest, for 
example, as Kassel shows, in illustrating the wooden mould for 
hs Fig. 110: 

DAS. ERSTE. ZEICHEN. CHRISTUS. THAT ALS. ER. 
WASSER. IN. DEN. WEIN. GEWANDELT. HAT. 
and upon his Fig. 113. dated 1810: 

DAS. BRUNNEN. WASSER. WIRD. IN. GUTEN 
WEIN. VERKEHRT. 

DER. EDLE REBENSAFT. IM. WASSER. KRUG. 
SICH. MEHRT. 

But no such popularity seems to have followed the subject 
to America, where wine had ceased to be a common beverage, 
where marriage feasts were less gay among the pious settlers, 
and where only this one example of the subject, and the pat 
terns on the front plates. Figures 28 and SO, have come to the 
writer's notice in fifteen years* search. 

An example of the subject at Rothenburg-on-the-Tauber, 
seen by the writer in 1902, in the possession of a priest, who 



48 



had collected it for Mr. F. MoUer. Lutherstrasse 33, of Berlin, 
was inscribed with the words in the arches over the double 
canopy. CHRISTUS. FROMME. EHE. LEVT. TROST. UF. 
WEILMUNSTERER. EISENHUTTEN. 1697. JOHANN AM. 
2. CAP. Christ, the Trust of pious married people, Weilmunster 
Furnace, 1697. John in 2 Chapter. 

Kassel's Figure 107, dated 1713, showing a general similar- 
ity, has a very similar figure on the left close to the well curb, 
holding with both hands the pulley rope of a well. 

The American replica. Figure 49. now stands in the office 
fireplace, at Washington's headquarters at Valley Forge, and 
was photographed by the writer on June 30th. 1910. 

Replica, July. 1913 — Mr. B. F. Owen, Reading, Pa. 




'j:s>r>5^iw:*l/r>i>fB^S5vii;M*:' : 






v^ 




??; 



so- 

Cana Plate of 1742. 

Front plate. Size, H. 27 by W. 22',. Col. H. D. Paxson, Holi- 
cong. Pa. 

Four uncouth figures, the br-degrooTi clasping his bride, 
and the master and mistress, are seated at the wedding table, 
well laden with food and dishes, and apparently raised on a 
circular patform or dais. To the left, where a standing figure 
po nts to three wine jars set upon the floor, Christ enters to 
perform the miracle. 

together as products of one hand, none of these 
pictorial patterns advertise the name of their 
furnace, and most of them are unmarked with 
the name or initials of casters or ironmasters. 

Where the chief object of the stove maker 
appears to have been to express religious ideas 
by means of pictures and human figures, it 
seems strange to find Figure 64 decorated with 
meaningless rococo medallions, scrolls, fili- 
gree and a cherub's head with the date 1745, 
and Figure 61, dated 1749, adorned with a 
clumsy flower pot and meaningless scrolls. 
But both these patterns are front plates and 
lack the explanation of their side plates, which 



The inscription in the central cartouche reads: UND. ES. 
WAR. EIN. HOCHZEIT. ZU. CANA. "And there was a mar- 
riage at Cana" — and in the medallion below, JOHANN. A. 2. 
1742. "John in 2. 1742." 

Though, according to Kassel, no subject except that of the 
Oil Miracle of Elisha, has been so popular in Germany as that 
of the Cana wedding, only this rude version of it, the hardly 
Itss uncouth. Figure 49 and Figure 28, all on front plates, and 
therefore representing three dissimilar stoves, have appeared 
here. The composition of this pattern is unlike that of Figure 
49, but several details in the fra"nework indicate that it and 
F gures 35, 59 and 81 were carved by the same hand, and while 
all the other Oil Mracle plates thus far found appear to have 
been imported from Germany, this plate has undoubtedly been 
carved and cast in Pennsylvania- 




51- 

\V. B. of 1748. 

Right plate. Size, H. 24 by W. 24. In possession, 1913, of 
Mrs. A. J. Steinman, at Lancaster. Pa. Replica at the Berks 
County Historical Society. 

This singular plate, found in the iron-heap at Mr. Steinman's 
Foundry at Lancaster by the writer in 1910. and again in 
replica as a rght plate by Mr. B. F. Owen, at Adamstown, 
Lancaster County, Pa., may be classed as an intermediate pat- 
tern between the floral and the B.blical pictured designs. 



may have been more significant."" On the 
other hand, one armorial plate (Figure 65), 
the only heraldic plate in the collection, with 
a circular shield, a crow^n crest and four quar- 
terings, one of which appears to be the arms 
of Navarre, is a side plate without its front. 

Two patterns, the Pump and Plow, are 
emblematic. Several others without religious 
significance, such as The Man on Horseback, 
The Marriage, The Wedding Dance, The 
Prussian Grenadier, The Swarm of Bees, and 
the grotesque figure riding a goat, instruct, 
puzzle or amuse the observer. 



49 



Above the lower medallion dated 1 748. with wheat sheaf 
and tulip, and flanked with curved palmlike branches rather than 
tulips, the motto: GOTES. BRYNLEIN. HAT. WASER. DIE. 
FVLE.. frcm Luther's ver. ion of Psalms 65: 10. "God's wjll 
has water in plenty," fills the central cartouche. 

The palm-like waving twigs and mips suggest the similar 
ornaments en the John Pott plates. F.gurcs 89 and 90. while 
thr erg'.it-petaled flower in its circlet, and ths pump, recall a 
similar circlet and plow on the Plow Plate. Figure 52. 

A double canopy, supported on fluted columns with cross- 
hung curta n loops, enclos ng wheat sheaves, forms an upper 
pantl cons sting of scrcll-shaped trees, an eight petaled star- 
shaped flcwcr in a circlet, a pump of ch3ract:r!stic American 
pattern, lozenges, tulips and the initials W. B. ( possibly Wil- 
liam Branson, ironmaster) and K. T. F. — possibly standing for 
Christecn or Christien Furnace, the predecessor of Redding 
Furnace, and so denoted from a phonetic representation of the 
English word Christeen by a German workman. 

That the so-called Redding Furnace, named, according to 
Gilbert Cope, after Reading in England, near Branson's birth- 
place, owned and bu It by William Branson and Samuel Nutt's 
heirs, owners of Coventry Forge, and erected, in the first place, 
to supply the latter with p g iron, was often called Redding 
(in a road petition in 1736, Pennsylvania Colonial Records, Vol 
4. pages 152. 247. 269. 270, by Acrelius. in 1758, m an agree- 
ment of partnership in 1736, cited by James, and on Skull's Map 
in 1756), there can be no doubt, while that an earlier furnace 
whatever its name, existed at or near the same spot, was 
suspected by Swank and Mrs. James from the inventory of 
Samuel Nutt's will referring to an "old furnace" and a "ne-* 
furnace" in 1737. St 11 more certainly the Potts' manuscript 
(Coventry Forge) ledgers, established the fact, in noting the 
sale of stoves, necessarily made at a furnace, not a forge, 
between 1728 and 1738, but at last proved it positively (on in- 
For — ation received by the writer in October, 1913, from Gov- 
ernor S. W. Penny packer) by referring to a bell, a broom, 
can-'les and wooi for "the Furnace" in 1728, and twice to 
Christien or Christeen Furnace, by name, in April, 1729. 

Until the ne'ghboring rival Warwick Furnace was built in 
1 728. Christine and its successor Redd ng. were the only fur- 
naces in the French Creek iron region. Both were owned by 
William Branson, no doubt, the W. B. of the stove plate, and 
both were associated from the first with Coventry Forge. 
Whether this older Christien Furnace was bu It by Branson 
about 1720, when he built Coventry Forge, or earlier, thus 
rivaling in age or antedating Colebrookdale itself, and whether 
it for a t'me survived the building of Redding are as yet un- 
answered questions. Swank and Mrs. Jarres. ignorant of its 
nam.e. suppose that the older Furnace was abandoned in 1737 
when Redding was built, but show no evidence of the fact. 

Our explanation supposes, either that the later furnace of 
1737 officially called Redding, might unofficially have been 
called Christine in 1748, when the stove plate was cast and 
when William Branson was still ironmaster, or that the olier 



But the majority, like all the plates thus 
far described, are pictorial, and illustrate 
scenes in the Bible history, or convey moral 
lessons by means of pictures, generally placed 
in decorative canopies, and explained by 
legends. 

The latter, invariably set beneath the pic- 
ture, are often much abbreviated and difficult 
to decipher, as where we have on Figure 60, 
MAN. HAT. DICH. IN. EINER. WAGE. 
GFWOGEN. UND. ZU. LEICHT. GEFUN- 
DEN. abbreviated into MAN. HAT. DICH. 



furnace might have survived until 1748 and might have been 
still called Christien at that time. 

The old Ans.lo-American iron master, William Branion 
(according to Futhey, and Cope's Hi.tory of Chester County). 
son of Nathaniel Branson, of Soning, Berkshire, England, came 
to Pennsylvania in the Golden Lion Ship, in 1708, lived in 
Philadelph a ar shop-keeper and merchant. 1709 to 1726, bought 
land on French Creek. Chester County, in 1733, and probably 
together with Samuel Nutl, built Christine Furnace about 
1720-26. He reconstructed it or built a new one in 1736. and was 
in possession of Redd ng in 1742 (Swank. 173) between 1750 
and 1756 (as Acrelius says, quoted by Swank. 174). He built two 
so-called "Windsor Forges" on Conestoga Creek, near Church- 
town, Lancaster County, also supplied by Redding Furnace 
(Swank, Iron and Coal, page 21); sold the latter in I7<3 to 
Lynford Lardner, Samuel Flower and Richard Hockley, was 
three times married, and died in 1760 (Swank, Iron in All 
Ages. 174). He left no sons, and four daughters, to three of 
whom, with their husbands, Lardner, Flower and Hockley, 
above-named, his sons-in-liw. he gave quarter shares of Redding 
(History of Chester County. pa§c 346). Samuel Flower had 
married Branson's daughter Rebecca in 1744. and as the initials 
S. F. and the name Samuel Flower appear on several dated 
stove-plates here illustrated. Flower seems to have managed 
Redding furnace for his father-in-law in 1756. and after the 
latter's death in 1760. 




52- 
Xlie Plow. 

Left plate. Size. W. ZSJi x H. 26^/4 inches. At the Museum of 
;he Young Men's Missionary Society at Bethlehem. Pa. 

IN. EINER. WAGE. G. W. U. Z. L. F. 
Some are direct quotations, some para- 
phrases, as in the Raven plats, and one upon 
the Joseph plate, is a misquotation. In many, 
the spelling varies or is phonetic or the letter- 
ing is careless or illiterate, as in the David and 
Jonathan plate. Figure 74, vi^here the N"s are 
all upside down ; and sometimes gaps in words, 
owing to letters broken from the moulds, as in 
the Dance of Death plate. Figures 75-76, re- 
main uncorrected. 



50 



A cactus-like tree, with fluted stems, two medallions, three 
flowering stalks, the initials TM set under a lozenge, a basket- 
shaped design, with a plow, and the date 1747, together with a 
hanging, quilted curtain in the upper right-hand corner, com- 
plete the features of this most irregular and childlike of any of 
the stove patterns yet seen. 

The legend filling the entire lower panel reads: 

JESUS. ABER. SPRACH. ZV. IHM. WER. 

SEINE. HAND. AN. DEN. PFLUG. LEGD. UND. 

SEHT. ZURUCK. DER. 1ST. NICHT. GE. 

SCHICKT. ZUM. REICH. GOTES. LC. A. 9. 

"And Jesus said unto him : No man having put his hand 
to the plow, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God. 
Luke in 9th." 

If we ascribe the initials TM to Thomas Maybury. we may 
suppose that the plate was carved for and cast at Hereford 
Furnace, on the North Branch of Perkiomen Creek, in Here- 
ford Township. Berks County, Pa., where, according to a map 
of the township of the mid-1 8th century, and Old Charcoal 
Furnaces in Eastern Berks County, by Winslow Fegley. Thomas 
Maybury was ironmaster in 1753. The "ten-plate stove." 
Figure 180, marked Hereford Furnace, and dated twenty years 
later in 1767. also shows Maybury's name. 




53- 

David and Cioliatti, 

Left plate. Size H. 21 x W. 24. Bucks County Historical 
Society. No. 791. 

The double arched canopy, without columns, with under- 
hung looped curtains and large tassel-like pendant flower, is 
flanked with vertical scrolled bands. Within it, David, armed 
with a single barbed spear, twirls his sling at the giant Goliath. 
Below, the inscription, in three banded lines, reads: 

DEN. GROSEN. GOLIATH. HAT. 

DAVID. UBER. WENDEN. 

DAS. 1. BUCH. SAM. 17. CAP. 

In the American plates the carving of the 
figures, the details of the backgrounds, or 
canopies, and the lettering of the inscriptions, 
show that the technical skill of the designer, 
as displayed in the earlier imported patterns, 
has departed. The designs become rude and 
primitive, as if the German workman, secluded 



"The great Goliath hath David overthrown. First book 
Samuel, 17th chapter." 

Two broad welts, one of which crosses the inscription, as 
of boards set diagonally in the wooden mould, and warped out 
of level, show plainly in the design. Found by Mr. H. M. 
Ingersoll at the destruction of an old house at Springhouse, 
Montgomery County. Pa., in 1897. 

Several years passed before a replica was found, used as a 
fireback in a modern fireplace, at 1322 Locust Street, Philadel- 
phia, in a house built by the late Dr. Caspar Wister. The latter 
had presumably brought it there, together with the beautiful 
Oil Miracle plate. Figure 22. also used as a fireback in the hall 
fireplace of the same house. 

Replica (1) with rims sawed off, Mr. Robert Hays. Roxboro, 
Montgomery County, Pa., Aug. 30. 1910. (2) Left replica, Col, 
H. D. Paxson. Holicong. Pa., Aug . 1910. (3) Replica ditto, 
September 12, 1911. (4) Right replica, Mr, J. H. Lynn, Lang 
home, Bucks County, Pa., 1912. From an old tavern near North 
Wales, Montgomery County, Pa. (5) Left replica, Mr. Fred 
erick Eld ridge. 40 Harvey Street, Germantown, Pa. Informa 
tion Mr. Mantle Fielding, May 8. 1913; taken by Mr. Eldridge 
1880, from ruins of one of the oldest houses in Germantown 
then destroyed. 




54- 

Samson and tlie Lion. 

Front plate. Size. W. 17 "a x H, 21. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

Under a double canopy roofed with loops and central 
pendant. Samson tears open the jaws of the young lion. A long 
tail twirls in heraldic fashion over the animal's back, and on 
either side of the figure large leaf-scrolls fill the background. 

in the American forest, had become more 
earnest, childlike and direct than before. 

Where Absalom hangs by the hair in a tree 
as the spearmen rush upon him, or where the 
infant Isaac kneels in prayer, while an angel 
arrests his father's sword, or where a dog 
barks in the house of Jonathan at the stranger 



The inscr-ption in four lines, separated by bands, and filling 
the lower panel, is rusted beyond decipherment: 

ALS. SCH. ZU. THIMNATH. WOL. 

EIN. LOW. AN. SIMSON. 

CHEN. DAS. B. DER. RICHTER. 14. 

"As at Timnath a lion upon Samson" The Book of 

Judges. 14. 

That this is the long lost front plate belonging to the Sam- 
son plate. Figure 55. and which had been heard of by the writer 
in the possess'on of Dr. R. Lewis Davis, at Hatboro. and by 
him unwittingly sold to a junk-dealer and lost, as described 
under Figure 55. there can be little doubt, both because of the 
identity of the leaf scrolls, used to balance the pattern in both 
instances, the character of the pendant curtains under the 
arches, and finally the form of the letters in the rhymed inscrip- 
tion, which rhyme begins in both instances w!th the word ALS. 
The plate was found on the premises of Mr. Seth T. Walton. 
one mile east of Willow Grove. Montgomery County, Pa., 
where it had doubtless formed a part of an old stove used in a 
stone addit on or shop pertaining to the original house. A large 
fireplace had been perforated at the back with a hole about 
eight inches square, to the right of the fire, probably for the 
insertion of the stove. The plate when found was used as a 
stepping-stone in the "back yard." 




55- 

Samson and nelilah. 

Right Plate. Sue. H. 24;, x W. 2434- Bucks County Histori- 
cal Society. 

Two Corbels and a smooth central column, support the 
double canopy with underhanging horizontal curtains. Beneath 
the right arch. Samson carries the left wing of a vault doot 
cross-marked with two heavy strap hnges (The Gate of Gaza), 
w-hile. under the left vault, a much rusted figure (again Samson) 
reclines on the lap of a woman, seated on a chair, the back of 
which ends in a knob. A male figure approaches from the left, 
with extended arms, probably holding scissors, or a razor, as if 
about to cut the strong man's hair. Heavy foliate scrolls fill 
the background to the right and left, and the lower panel, 
divided into three horizontal bands. :s filled with the inscription: 

ALS. ENDLICH. DELIA. WUST. SIMSONS. KRAFT. 

ZU. ZWINGEN. LIES. SIR. AUF. IHREM. SCHOS. 
IHN. 

DM. DESELBE. BRINGEN. DAS. B. RICHTER. 16. 

"When at last Delilah learned how to overcome Samson's 
strength, she brought him to it on her lap." The Book if 
Judges. 16. 



SI 

For several years a much-rusted specimen of this plate, now 
at the Bucks County Historical Society, found by Mr. Webster 
Grim at the house of Jacob Sassaman. in Nockamixon Town- 
ship. Bucks County. Pa., in November. 1901. remained unique 
and undeciphered. Then four replicas suddenly appeared, (1) 
Right, Figure 55 here illustrated, set in the cemented pave- 
ment of R. W. Pathemore's garden at the corner of Sixth and 
Kelker Streets, Harrisburg, now in the Museum of the Bucks 
County Historical Society, (2) found in the foundry scrap- 
heap, in the possession of Mr. A. J. Steinman, at Lancaster: 
(3 and 4) a right and left replica, as a shield for a drip-spout 
and a cistern cover, in the possession of Dr. R. Lewis Davis, at 
Hatboro. Pa., one of which (the right) is now in the Museum 
of the Bucks County Historical Society; (5) Right. Col. H. D. 
Paxson. Holicong. Pa. 

All these plates were rusted beyond decipherment upon the 
area of the inscription, except the Lancaster specimen, which 




56. 



made certain the words UM. DESELBE. and D. RICHTER. 
on the last l!ne. Their appearance made it possible, after many 
guesses, pol'shings and rubbings by sun and gaslight, to de- 
cipher the full text on November 5. 1908. 

The first plate found was described by the writer in the 
Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of 
Philadelph a for 1899-I90I. page 171. 

After the writing of the above paragraph, two more replicas 
have appeared. (6) A left in possession of Mr. William H. God- 
shall, of Chestnut Hill, Pa., and found by him in demolishing 
an old house in German town in 1913. and (7), Figure 56, a 
right, the best preserved of all. plainly showing two vertical 
marks of cracks impressed from a warped mould, verifying the 
above decipherment of the inscription and remarkable from the 
fact that the single letter D has been cast in the background 
of the left canopy, just above the head of the seated woman. 

Thus far it has only been upon floral patterns cast after 
1750 that single letters have thus appeared set in the back- 
ground and then not as afterthoughts, but as parts of the orig- 
inal carving. Here we have a letter (or the first time thus 
produced upon a picture plate unquestionably cast not from a 
letter carved upon the mould itself, but from a loose stamp 
pressed into the casting sand, and we may well wonder why, 
when and where the casting was made and what may be the 
meaning of this tilted, unbalanced and exaggerated letter D, 
out of proportion to the rest of the inscription and which has 
not yet appeared on any other Samson plate. 



52 



If for the reasons given under Figure 81, this pattern and 
the Cana, David and Golath. Elijah, and Pharisee plates. Figures 
50. 53, 59 and 81, were designed by the same person, th's 
mould must have been carved about 1740 and the D inserted 
between then and 1760, and because D as an initial letter 
would not stand for the name of any iron master known to us 
of that time, and because Durham is the only furnace name 
then represented by D; we may not unreasonably guess that 
the strange misfitting init-al may have been stamped in the 
casting sand at the latter furnace. 




57- 
Elijah and the Ravens of B. S. D. W. 

Right plate. Size, H. 23% x W. Z6' 4. B, H. S. No. 1688. 

At the foot of two leafless trees. El jah ly.ng upon his back, 
Iticking his legs in the air. is fed by two fluttering ravens, 
wh le another bird perched upon the branches of a second 
leafless tree to the rght, seems about to fly to the rescue. A 
third bird sits upon a smaller tree to the left. Four hearts, in 
relief outline, are set above two lozenges in the upper back- 
ground, balancing the pattern, wh le above a medallion, flanked 
with two stemmed tulips and conuming the inscription 17. 
BSDW. 6. O., runs the text fill ng the transverse band, ICH. 
HABE. DEN. RABEN. BEFOHLEN. DICH. ZU. VERS. 1. 
B. D. K. 17. C. 

The inscription is an abbreviation of Luther's version of 
1 Kings 17 4, where in a description of the deadly drought of 
years, and the famine in Israel prophesied by Elijah, the 
prophet's life is saved by one of the most celebrated miracles 
in the Bible, "And I have commanded the ravens to feed thee 
there." 

In the German the word VERS, stands for VERSORGEn, 
and the following letters continued upon the lower line, broken 
by the upper rim of the medallion, stand for 1. Erste. B. Buch. 
D. der, K. Konige. 17. C. Capitel. The final C for "capitel." 
is balanced by a decorative scallop on the left, preceding the 1, 
while the BSDW. with n the date 1760, in the lower medallion, 
stand, according to Mr. B. F. Owen, for the initials of Benedict 
Schwoope and Dieterich Welcker, who were ironmasters at the 
old Shearwell Furnace at Oley. Berks County, Pa., in 1760. 

The left replica of this plate. Figure 58, at the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum at Fairmount Park, Philadelph a, here also 




58. 



illustrated, shows two welts marking cracks or warps in the 
board pattern, crossing the background vertically, one of which 
intersects the heart outlne, the date medallion and the letter 
S, without scormg the leg of Elijah. Both welts are wanting 
upon Figure 57. 




59. 

Elijali and the Ravens of Kiiig:stoii. 

Front plate. Size, H. 24 x W. 173/4. Mrs. James Van Buren, 
97 Green Street, Kingston, New York, In use 1913 as a fireback 
in the parlor fireplace. 



David, or Joseph leads the ass towards Egypt the rock carvings of ancient Asia or the wall 

with a long bridle, art seems to have forgotten pictures of Egypt in such patterns as that of 

its history and gone back to the infantile steps the Critic pulling a splinter (the mote) out 

of its beginning and we seem to be looking at of his eye (Figure 80), the warning of Bel- 



Many an exciting page in a book of this sort has to be 
suppressed. The plate, first seen by the writer in 1907. was 
photographed bv Mr. Wm. H. Long, of 166 Pine Street. Kings 
ton. in December. 1911, and the detiils of the effort to get the 
picture, with the long correspondence, often interrupted, last'ng 
through several years, the exasperating obstructions, misunder- 
standings, blunders, shifting of scene and persons, disappoint- 
ments and coincidences belong to that class of adventures 
which have to be oTiitted for fear of offending somebody. 

No replica cf th s interesting plate, which was undoubtedly 
cast m Pennsylvania, appeared until Mr. William H. Godshall 
found one in 1913 in pulling down an old house in German- 
town. Pa. 

Elijah, kneeling, reaches with his right hand to receive his 
food from two ravens, hold ng round and square morsels, in- 
tended to represent bread and meat, in their beaks. The frame- 
work and treatment of the figure, closely resembling that of the 
SaTison. Phar see and Publican. David and Goliath and Cana 
plates. Figures 55. 81. 53 and 50. betrays a co.Timon origin. 
The inscr ption reads: 

DAS. 1. B. DER. KONIG. AM. 16. 

NACH. DEM. ELIA. SICH. DORT. 

AM. BACH. CRITH. VERBORGEN. 

LIES. GOTT. MIT. FLEISCH. UND. BROT. 

DURCH. RABEN. IHN. VERSORGEN. 

The First Book of Kings, in 16. 

"After that El-jah hid himself there on the Brook Crith. 
God had him nourished by ravens with meat and bread." 




6o. 

Xhe Scales. 



shazzar shown by an angel carrying scales, 
or Elijah fed by ravens. But as in the work 
of savages, though the all-important meaning 
is first sought for, the decorative spirit still 
prevails in the balance of canopies and inscrip- 
tions and the framework of medallions. And 
though the rude pictures may halt in their 
execution, they never fail in their thought. 

The Moors emblazoned the name of God 
in the gorgeous filagree of the Alhambra. 



53 

Front plate. Size, H. 24 x W. 20. Pennsylvania Museum. Fair- 
mount Park. Mus. No. '08 — 693. 

Under a vaulted canopy, two flying angels, one of who-n 
holds a pair of scales in his left hand. coT.pose the exlre-nely 
simple pattern, the canopy cf which consisting of two striped 
columns with square capitals supporting a double vault cast in 
a smglc band, finds no counterpart among the more elaborately 
vaulted and decorated columns of the series. There appears to 
be no plate in the whole collection with which we may class 
this pri.-nitive pattern, unless it be Figure 57. In this latter 
case, however, the similarity of treatment in the legs of the 
figures, and in the formation of the letters of the inscription, 
with one N out of three upside down in Figure 60, and two out 
of three in Figure 57, and with the exceptional straight cross- 
arm in the A in both cases, is so strong that we might rea 
sonably suppose that the same mould carver made this pattern 
for Welcker and Schwoope at Shearwell Furnace about 1760. 

The inscription is evidently Luther's translation of Daniel 
5-27, etr.bodying the warning of the handwriting upon the wall, 
(during one of the most dranatic episodes described in the 
Old TcstaTT.ent). when Belshazzar's doomed banquet ends and 
Babylon falls at the om nous writing on the wall translated 
by the prophet. 

The English version, "Thou art weighed in the balances, 
and art found wanting" reads in the German "Man hat Dich 
in einer Wage gjwogen und zu leicht gefunJen," or as abbrevi- 
ated upon the plate, MAN. HAT. DICH. N. INER. WAGE. 
G. W. V. Z. L. F. D. v. C, the single letters after the word 
WAGE standing as follows: G. W. for gewogen, V. for und, 
Z. for zu. L. for leicht, F. with, the middle arm broken, for 
funden, D. for Danealis, V. for funfte, C. for capitel. 

We see manifest marks of the overflowing of hot metal in 
the loss of the I in Dich, in the single N. in the blurred word 
Einer, and in the tailless Z and armless F. Furthermore, the 
horizontal sand welt, below the lower line, shows that the in- 
scription, fastened upon a separate board, may have been 
pressed into the casting sand, as a separate piece, after th« 
general laying out of the pattern, while the vertical welt, mark- 
ing a warp in the board background, pertains only to the upper 
pattern, and does not undermark the inscription below. 

There are differences between this plate and Figure 57, 
however, which ought to be considered, namely, that the Latin 
numeral V on this plate is replaced by the Arabic figure on 57 
and nearly all the other plates, and that the W, with crossed 
ar.Tis on 57. is here without them. 

Thus far. without the elucidation of its side plates not yet 
found, the plate bought at Mrs. Cookerow's furniture store at 
Pottstown. and exhibited by her at Founder's Week Exhibition 
in Philadelphia, remains unique in the collection. 

Replica in possession of Gideon Hoch, Oley, Berks County, 
Pa.. June 30, 1912. 



The Gothic Cathedral, the tiles and stained 
glass of the Middle Ages speak in the same 
language. Here, too, the art is religious and 
holds to the same highest theme of decorative 
expression. As in the old farmhouse of Ger- 
many, so in the log cabin of the pioneer, or 
his later dwelling built of surface stones often 
laid in clay, these Bible pictures, produced by 
the pious child of the Reformation through the 
study of Luther's Bible, tell in a simple and 



54 




6i. 

Front Plate of 1749. 

Size, W. 183-^ X H. 243,^. B. H. S. 

A basket-shaped flov/er pot is filled with realistic flowers 
and flanked with heavy scrolls, above the date 1749. within a 
scrolled medallion in the lower panel. 

Lacking the religious inscriptions, with its meaningless 
filigree and inartistic jumble of realism and decorative clu.-nsi- 
ness. suggesting the stove patterns of 1880. the plate is never- 
theless remarkable as a sort of anachronis.Ti, apparently modern, 
yet belonging to the earlier and more interesting period of the 
history of American stoves, when Biblical scenes and religious 
inscriptions generally prevailed, and the conventionalized and 
emblematic floral patterns, described in the text, so common on 

direct manner of the guidance of Providence, 
the preservation of the just, the beauty of 
brotherly love, the punishment of the wicked, 
and the miracles of Christ and the Prophets. 

Dr. Kassel searched in vain for evidence 
that tlie German stove plate designs were 
copied from woodcuts in German Bibles, and 
no such proof has yet appeared here. 

When more German plates are collected 
for comparison, reminiscences or repetitions 
of ancient rhymes, or methods of treatment 
adopted a century or two earlier, by the old 
German mould carvers, may appear in the 
American patterns, as now we see the figure 
at the pulley-well of the German Samaria 
Plate (Figure 19), appearing again in the 
American Cana pattern (Figure 49), and find 
the Dance of Death rhyme, of Pennsylvania, 
rudely quoted from the Basel inscription nearly 



the latter stoves, had not yet appeared. It may be compared 
with Figure 64. dated 1745. also a front plate, and which, like 
this specimen. lacks the evidence of its co.mpanion side plates. 
But the latter, though also meaningless, is at least convention- 
alized with skill. 

(1) Figure 61 was bought by the writer from W. H. 
Boone, the antique dealer at Pottstown. in 1910. (2) Figure 
62 shows a replica in the possession of Mr. P. W. Wright, of 
Philadelpha. Another replica (3) is at the Pennsylvania 
Museum at Fairmount Park. Philadelphia. (Information. Mr. 
E. A. Barber. Director. July 25. 1913.) 




62. 



four hundred years old. Otherwise the Ameri- 
can desig^ns appear to be original. 

Besides the stove plates on exhibition at the 
Young Men's Missionary Society at Bethle- 
hem, Pennsylvania, collections of stove plates, 
sometimes including firebacks, and represented 
through the kind permission of their owners by 
the illustrations here shown, have been made 
since 1897, by the Bucks County Historical 
Society; by Col. H. D. Paxson, at Holicong, 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania ; by the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania 
Museum at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia ; b> 
Mr. B. F. Owen for the Berks County His- 
torical Society at Reading; by the Honorable 
S. W. Pennypacker at Schwenksville, Penn- 
sylvania; by the National Museum at Wash- 
ington; by Mr. H. K. Deisher at Kutztown, 
Pennsylvania, and by the Metropolitan 
Museum at New York. 



55 




63- 

Front of Jamb Stove. 

Size W. 19!/i X H. 22!s. Morav;an H:storical Society. Nazareth, 
Pa. Here we have a plate decorated in double panels and 
showing the date 1749. which belongs to a peculiar class of 
designs as yet appear ng on front and never on side plates. 
Dated at a time when the fine emble r.atical floral patterns had 
not yet appeared, when advertisement was as yet unknown and 
biblical pictures generally prevailed, they are nevertheless decor- 
ated not with the Bible pictures and religious inscriptions, or 
symbolic tulips, but with a floral filigree and scroll-work no 
less meaningless and decadent than that which appears later 
on the ten plate stoves, and which seems out of place in the 
chronology of the patterns here illustrated. 

Are these uninteresting designs to be regarded as make- 
shift fronts, companions for pictorial side plates whose fronts 
are not yet accounted for, or as companions to meaningless 
sir^es which yet remain to be found? (See note 117 and figure 
88-a.) 



But as remarked before, the series of plates 
thus far discovered is very incomplete, nearly 
all of them appearing as side plates without 
their fronts, or front plates without their sides, 
thus lacking the explanation of their com- 
panion patterns, and frequently showing 
interrupted inscriptions,"^ or imperfectly ex- 
plained designs. Until now, among all the 
pictorial patterns found, only three have 
appeared showing both pictures for a given 
stove. 

The Samson plate (Figures 55, 56), with 
its double canopy representing two scenes, and 
its inscription, for a long time undecipher- 
able, was first found in a log cabin near the 




64. 
Xhe ^'iiiKed Head. 

Front plate. Size, H. 26' j x W. aOfj. Berks County Histori- 
cal Society. 

A winged human head set between the figures of the date 
1745. rests on a curved bracket overtopping a filigree of scrolls, 
medallions and leafage, which f.lls the whole plate without 
panelling. Found in 1909 by Mr. B. F. Owen associated with 
the top and both side plates of the Joseph stove, Figure 46, 
standing in the kitchen fireplace of an old house, once a 
Moravan school and meeting house, now owned by Mr. Moyer, 
in Olcy Township. Berks County, Pa. Though it may have 

"Haycock Mountain," in Bucks County, Penn- 
sylvania, and described by the writer in the 
Volume for 1899 to 1901, of "The Proceedings 
of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society 
of Philadelphia." Next it appeared set in the 
cement pavement of a garden in Harrisburg, 
then in a junk heap in Lancaster, and twice 
as a cistern cover at Hatboro, Pennsylvania, 
but never with a fellow until Figure 54, found 
with it as a chimney top at Willow Grove, 
Pennsylvania, came to light, after an interval 
of nine years, as its long missing front plate. 

The Wedding plate (Figure 69), first 
seen by the writer at the Moravian Museum 
of the Young Men's Missionary Society in 



56 



been used in this instance as a makeshift front in the Joseph 
stove it can not have been originally cast as such, since, though 
no front plate for the latter has yet been found, all the side 
plates thus far known are dated 1749. 

Several other plates of jamb stoves were found in a hall 
fireplace in the same building, where the hall passed through 
the center of the house, with fireplaces (one of which was per- 
forated as for a five-plate stove) opening on either side, and 
the chimneys from which arched together on the upper floor and 
passed through the roof as a single flue. The two fireplaces 
in question were both backed by rooms, one of which, as the 
fireplace orifice indicated, was heated by a Jamb stove. 



are quartered with a horse, a rose, a net, (resembling the Arms 
cf Navarre) and a flower, A vertical warp-crack from the 
wooden mould crosses the design from top to bottom. 




65. 

Side Plate of Five- or Six-Plate Stove. 

Size, H. 25 '2 x W. 24. Bucks County Historical Society 

Unfortunately the rims on this plate have been so broken, 
worn or rusted that it cannot be decided with certainty whether 
the pattern has belonged to a five- or six-plate stove. 

Coats-of-arms are so common upon stove plates cast in 
Geimany in the 17th and 18th centuries that they form a class 
by themselves, but this and the Arms of Philadelphia. Figure 
39, are the only armorial stove plates thus far found or heard 
of by the writer, in Pennsylvania. The arms, enclosed in a 
circle flanked with scrolls, surmounted with a crown and rest- 
ing under a vaulted canopy supported on two plain columns. 

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and afterward found 
by Mr. B. F. Owen near Reading, Pennsyl- 
vania, long remained without a fellow, until 
Mr. Owen discovered (Figure 70) the Wed- 
ding Dance as its long lost front plate, in 
1910, in another old house in Berks County. 

The latest of the dated figure patterns, 
representing Elijah fed by ravens (Figures 
57-58) and marked 1760, appears by inference 
from its appended initials B. S. D. W. to have 
been cast at Searwell Furnace, at Oley, Berks 
County, Pennsylvania, where, according to 
Mr. B. F. Owen, of Reading, Benedict Swope 




66. 

Seal of Pliiladelpliia. 

Front plate of Jamb Stove. S.ze. W. 19 x H. 22. Mr. W. H. 
Godshall. Chestnut Hill. Philadelphia. 1914. Found by him 
in 1913 bedded in the walls of an old house denolished by him 
in Chestnut Hill along with the date stone marked 1734. 

One of the orig'nal seals of Philadelphia dated 1701, 
quartered with the clasped hands, scales, ship and wheat sheaf, 
appears here on a shield of identical shape with that upon the 
seal. The Englsh motto. SEAL OF PHILADELPHIA 1701 
is lacking, but instead is cast the rhymed inscription half 
effaced by rust ALS. PHILADELPHIA. ANFANGS. NAHM 
UM SE. DIS. WAPPEN. UBERKAM. Trans- 
lation: "When Philadelphia at first took these arms 

received." 

Both shield and inscription appear raised above the back- 
ground as if inserted separately into the wooden mould above 
the general level, if not stamped upon the casting sand with 
loose stamps. 

and Dietrich Welcker were iron masters at 
that time. If so, we must suppose that 
Figure 60, representing angels holding the 
fatal balance for Belshazzar, expressing un- 
mistakable similarity in design, was carved by 
the same hand about the same time, but there 
is no reason for supposing that because we 
have proved one plate to have been made at 
a given furnace, several others, showing the 
same peculiarities of style, were also made 
there, since the same mould carvers may have 
worked, and, as the evidence shows, did work, 
for different furnaces in the same year. 



57 




67- 



The Pnissiati 4;reiiadiers* 



In an Old House, at Dyers- 



Left plate. S ze. W. 25 x H. 23. 
town, Bucks County, Pa., 1914. 

Several side plates, replicas of this remarkable pattern, at 
the Kingstcn Museum, one of which is shown in Figure 68, 
together with one in possession of Mrs. Van Courtlandt. at 
Croton, N. Y.. were found in the area of Dutch settlement, in 
old houses at K:ngston-on-the-Hudson. where, singularly, no 
stove plates with inscriptions in the Dutch language, have yet 
been found, and all the evidence shows that the old house- 
holds were furnished with German stoves, either imported from 
Ger.Tiany before 1720. or after that time, made in Pennsylvania. 




68. 

The Pennsylvania Historical Society has three repl'cas 
( two left and one right) of this singular plate, all of which 
have apparently been used as firebacks, and are perforated with 
four holes at the corners as for clamping them against the back 
walls of fireplaces. From these plates, seen in 1897. the descrip- 
tion, without illustration, in "Decorated Stove Plates." page 22. 
was written. After a fruitless effort to get these plates photo- 



graphed in tim; for a pamphUt then writing, nothing further 
v.£s seen of the pattern, until the Kingston replicas appeared, 
after which in 1908 Mr. Grant Myers found a right and left 
rcpl ca (the orig nal of Figure 67J standing as firebacks in 
two parlor fireplaces in an old house at Dyer<town. Bucks 
Cour.ly. Pa. All efforts to find the front plate, co.npleting the 
inscription, or further explaining the picture, have fa led. A 
looped curta n flls the upper right corner, and two warp-cracks 
run vertically along the lire of the original board, across the pat- 
tern to the left, crossing the gunstock, background and lower 
panel border. The two tall men in po nted caps and queues, with 
swords, and hold ng grounded guns, no doubt represent the 
gigantic Grenadiers of Frederick William II, King of Prussia, 
so celebrated about 1740, while the short bearded men. with 
broad brimmed hats, and long hair, may represent, as German 
Mcnncnites. Schwcnckfclicrs. or Amish settlers of Pennsylvania 
m the 18th century, the friends of peace. The broken inscrip- 
tion reads: 

DEN. CRANETIR. GESTELT. ER. 

HEBT. WOL. AUS. DEM. SATEL. GAR. 

MANCHEN. BRAFEN. HELT. 

"To the grenadier is placed. He knocks out of the saddle 
full many a fine hero." 




69. 

The \VefIdiiij;>:. 

Right plate. Size H. 26 x W. 29 inches. Young Men's Mis 

sionary Society. Bethlehem. Pa- 

Under fluted columns and curtained arches, the minister, 
Bible in hand, from an elevated pulpit, marries the bride, 
carrying a nosegay, to the left, and the bridegroom on the 
right, as both figures seem to emerge from open doors. Below. 
and filling the entire lower panel, runs the legend, one of the 
few non-scriptural ones in the collection : 

WER. DAR. IBER. NUR. WIL. LACHEN. 

DER. MAG. ES. BESER. MACHEN. 

TATELN. KINEN. JA. SER. VIL. ABER. BESER. 

MACHEN. 1ST. DAS. RECHE. SPIL. 

"Let him who will only laugh at this make it better." 
"Many can find fault, but the real game is to do better." 
Whoever carved this undated pattern and its companion front 
plate. Figure 70. seems to have left no trace of his singular stylt 
and workmanship on any of the other patterns here illustrated, 
unless we find it in the lettering of the inscription on the Plow. 
Figure 52. Furthermore, the inscription, one of the few non- 
scriptural ones in the collection, is peculiar in not explaining 
the pattern, but rather defending it from critics. 



58 



For a long time, the plate first seen in 1897 by the writer 
at the museum of the Young Men's Missionary Society, and 
noticed by John Hill Martin in his Historical Sketch of Beth- 
lehe Ti, remained unique, until Mr. B. F. Owen, of Reading, 
found a replca. left plate, now at the Berks County Historical 
Society, in the bedroo-n fireplace of an old house formerly be- 
longing to the Muhlenberg family, at the mouth of Angelica 
Creek, Cumru Township. Berks County. Pa., in 1909, soon 
after which the remarkable dated front plate, figure 70, was 
found by Mr. Owen in possession of Mr. Paul K. Stoudt, where 
it had been used as a fireback in one of the parlours. 

3. Replica Mr. B. F. Owen. Found at oli Moravian Meet- 
ing House near Oley, Berks County, Pa. 4. RepLca. ditto. 
Fro.-n Dietrick House near Oley. 5. Replca Col. H. D. Pax- 
son. Holicong. Bucks County. Pa., May 27. 1913. 




70. 

Xlie Wedding: Dance. 

Front plate. Size, H. 26^4 x W. 22ii. Berks County His- 
torical Society. 

A man in broad-rimmed hat to the right, and a wo.Tian in 
the middle, clasp hands as they begn dancing to the music 
of a fiddler; also with hat on, and apparently keeping time with 
his right foot, who stands playing, to the left of a small table, 
set with a cup and tankard. Three semicircular curved lines 
suggesting canopies border the background overhead, and the 
date, 1746. without further inscription, and surrounded with 
leaf-scrolls, fills the medallion below. 

Though not found asioc ated with Figure 69, there can be 
little doubt that this plate, which Mr. Paul K. Stoudt. of 
Spring Township, Berks County, Pa , exhibited at the Berks 
County Fair in 1909, and later deposited at the Berks County 
Historical Society, and which is of the required s ze and sim- 
ilar in subject and treat nent, is, as Mr. B. F. Owen supposed, 
its companion front plate. 

The non-religious subject muit have pleased rather the 
Lutherans or Moravians than the more strict Mennonites, 
Dunkards, Schwenkfelders or Amish, who had abolished secular 
singing, forgotten the folk-songs of old Germany, and probably 
gave little countenance to fiddling and dancmg. 




71- 
The Swarm of Bees* 

Left plate. Size. H. 24 x W. 27''4. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

This curious plate, in two fragments with a corner missing. 
was rescued from destruction by the writer at the last mo.nent 
as it lay among the car loads of scrap-iron assorted for 
transport at Williams' junk yard in Harrisburg in 1910. 

The plate shows neither date nor inscription, and the lower 
panel, usually occupied by a medallicn, is here filled in with a 
thin, meaningless scroll. But its remarkable feature is its 
pattern, which classes it with the unusual category of designs 
devoted to amusement or caricature, rather than religion. 

A swarm of bees hangs upon the lower right foliage of the 
tree, under which, to the left, a man appears to be clapping his 
hands, while three heavily skirted wo.xen, on the right, one of 
whom stands up en a hillock, thereby helping to fill the back- 
ground, are ring ng bells. A curta n-like mass of quilted loops, 
resembling those upon Figures 43 and 67, fills the upper 
corner. There is no sign of the once familiar dome-shaped bee- 
hive in the picture, and the turban-like headdresses of the 
women give no suggestion of the common sunbonnet of a later 
d?-. 




; 






■ r 

* 


^ 



72- 

Xhe Four Hor*ieiiien. 

Left plate of Jamb Stove. Size, W. 24 x H. 221-4. Mr. H. 
Deisher, Kutztown. Berks County. Pa. November 21, 1913. 



59 



Three arg:ls fly ng in mid air direct or inspire two pairs of 
horsemen in the dress of about 1750. as they ride toward each 
other across a waved foothold, converging into a central hollow. 

The plate bears no date or inscription, but is divided as 
usual into two panels, in the lower of which, the large blank 
date medallion, shows cross cuts upon its included surface, as 
of the ix.press'ons of a wooden mould roughed for the inser- 
tion cf the inscript on. carved or otherwise made in a loose 
piece, and here intended to be set on with glue, mastic, or 
plaster of paris. 

Left replica in Bucks County Historical Society. Found 
by Mr. Patrck Trainor lying picture down as a stepping stone 
in a farmyard at Ottsville. Bucks County, Pa., in June. 1914. 



No evert en September 14, 1753. either in Pennsylvania, 
whrre James Hamilton (174854) was Governor, or in Germany 
or England, where Frederick the Great and George the Third 
reigned, appears to explain this joke or satire (the only carici- 
ture in th; whole collection), upon so.-ne p:rson. so publicly 
well known as to strike the popular fancy and increase the sale 
of a stove at that time. Though it may be suggested that 
according to Watson (AnnaU 2. page 256) a temporary jealous 
hostilty, against Governor Ha r.ilton. had arisen between the 
new Gern^an settlers, then pol tical friends of the Quakers, and 
readers of Christopher Sauers's Germantown Newspaper, in (ear 
cf overtaxation and a Militia conscription. 




73- 
Tlie >Iaii and Goat* 

Front plate. Size. H. 24 x W. 20. In possession of Messrs. 
Nieman and Saul, of the Keystone Foundry, State Street. Ham- 
burg, Pa. 

The picture is divided into two vaulted panels, separated 
by a vertical band, and adorned above with very curious scroll- 
work. In the left panel a man dressed in a long coat slashed 
behind with a button, carrying a sword in one hand, flourishing 
what resembles a pair of scissors in the other, and wearing a 
large three-cornered hat of the style of about 1750, rides a 
goat; while in the right panel, another grotesque figure, holding 
a sword in both hands, in similar costume, save for a plumed 
headdress, fills the space. Above, in the background, is the 
date 1753, while below, in the lower panel, spaced in four 
bands, increasing our curiosity, without explaining the meaning 
of the picture, is the rhymed inscription : 

SEHET. ZU. IHR. LIBEN. 
LEUT. WIE. DER. HERR. 
AUFF. DIESEM. PFRTE. 

REIT. D. 14. SEPTMBR. "See here good people how the 
gentleman (Herr) rides on this horse on the 14 September." 



iWb'\i\/iiHoWu\\/\Vi 



74- 

David and Joiiatliaii. 

Right plate Size. H. 26! , x W. 27! a- In the Museum of the State 
L.brary at Harrisburg, Pa. 

Bought by Mr. L. F. Kelker, together with Figure 43. in 
1907, at Kutztown. Pa. 

Under the drawn and heavily tasseled curtain of a canopy, 
supported on fluted columns, with pendant vault and chandelier, 
occurs the dramatic and eventful meeting between David and 
the son of hs worst enemy, as related in I Samuel 20. 3. The 
barking dog marks the intruding figure, with cloak and sword, 
as that of David, who with raised right hand, and two open 
fingers, asserts his danger on the Lord's life, while Jonathan, 
in long robe, to the left, with uplifted right hand, protests 
against his father's malice. It is the right hands of the figures 
that are raised, and the left that are grasped in friendship. 

Below, filling the entire lower panel, runs the clumsily 
carved inscription, all the N's of which are upside down. 

DAVID. UND. JONATHAN. 
WARLICH. SO. WAR. DER. HER. 
LEBT. UND. SO. D. I. B. SAMU. 20. 3. 

"David and Jonathan, but truly as the Lord liveth. and as 
the 1 book Samuel 20-3," from Luther's translation of the Bible, 
ending: 

"Und so wahr deine Seele lebet es ist nur ein Schritt 
zwischen Mir und dem Tode." "and truly as thy soul liveth. 
there is but a step between me and death." 



60 




75- 

Dance of Deatli* 

Right plate. Size, H. 22 x W. 23. Bucks County Historical 
Society, No. 879. 

A skeleton with uplifted left arm holding a leg-bone as a 
club, an j seizing his victim with his right hand, interrupts a 
d spute between a richly dressed person brandishing with both 
hands a sword, the curved scabbard of which hangs at his 
waist, and a gesticulating figure to the right dressed in a 
flowing cloak, and apparently wearing a helnet. The back- 
ground above and to the left is filled up with very clumsy leaf- 
scrolls, and the costume, particularly the slashed breeches of 
the victim, appears to represent the dress of the 16th century. 

The plate was described in "Decorated Stove Plates" as a 
survival in Amer;ca of one of the episodes of the mediaeval 
allegory known as "The Dance of Death," which as painted, 
written or printed, appeared in Europe in many versions after 
the 14th century, and illustrates in about forty pictures and 
rhymes the triumph of death over mankind. But the origin 
of this particular inscr ption and identity of the episode was 
not until recently accounted for, as the sixteenth of the cele- 
brated series of mural pictures with descriptive rhymes, known 
as the Basel Todtentanz, two versions of which existed, one 
painted by an unknown artist between 1439 and 1480 in a 
Dominican cemetery at Basel, and the other, about 1312, on the 
cloister walls of a nunnery known as Klingenthal, at Little 
Basel, a suburb of Basel. 

These versions, according to Massmann (Die Baseler Tod- 
tentanz, Stuttgart, 1847), together with six older versions 
known as the Munich and Heidelberg texts, as if expressing 
a single theme with variations, illustrate the series of about 
forty death scenes, in the same general sequence, and with 
variations of the same rhymed verses, in which Death as a 
skeleton challenges, and the victim answers. And it is these 
ancient rhymes in German and the simplicity of the pictures, 
in each of which only two figures, Death and his victim, 
appear, that distinguish these earlier Death Dances from the 
celebrated wood-cuts of Hans Holbein, executed a hundred 
years later in 1530, and in which, though the sequence of 
episodes is about the same, many figures and accessories are 
introduced into the drama, and Latin quotations from the Bible 
take the place of the German rhymes. 

The great Basel fresco, after having been repainted and 
restored several times, almost beyond recognition, was de- 
stroyed by a barbarous mob in 1806. and the lesser Basel 
pictures went to ruin before 1800. But both paintings had 
fortunately been copied before their total restoration and 
destrucion. the first, by John Hugh Klauber, of Basel, in 1568, 



and also by Matthew Merian the elder, in a series of engravings 
(Der Todtentanz. by Matthew Mertan. Frankfort, 1649). and 
the second or lesser Basel series, by Emmanuel Ruchel, in 
1766. 

Here we have undoubtedly the episode of Death and the 
Nobleman, the sixteenth in the great Basel series, and though 
the rude picture on the stoveplate bears no resemblance to 
either the great or little Basel originals, as thus preserved, the 
rhymed inscription : 

HIR. FEIT. MIT. MIR. DER. BITTER. TOT. 

ER. BRINGT. MICH. IN. TOTS. NO. 

"Here fights with me the bitter death 
And brings me in death's stress," 
is unquestionably a rude variation of the last two lines in 
"The Nobleman's Answer to Death." which according to Mass- 
mann reads in the older, or 1 ttle Basel text: 

NUN. FICHTET. MYT. MIR. DER. DOTHT. 

UND. BRINGT. MICH. IN. GROSE. NOT., 
and in the great Basel text: 

NUN. FICHT. MIT. MIR. DER. GRIMME. TODT. 

UND. BRINGT. MICH. GAR. IN. GROSSE. NOHT. 

The phrases "DER BITTER. TOD." and "TODTS. 
NOTH." occur in the answer of the Count and the Chorister 
respectively, in the great Basel text. TODT. rhymes with 
NOTH. in one of the Munich texts, and there is nothing un- 
usual in the variation between the American rhyme and the 
German original except the English word FEIT. for FICHT., 
where we may perhaps suppose that the German pattern carver 
who may have been born in America before 1745, the approx- 
imate date of the plate, had already begun to mix his mother 
tongue with English. 




76. 

No compan'on front plate, possibly extending the inscrip- 
tion, has been found, but several replicas of the side plate have 
appeared. (See note 117.) 

(1) Rght. in the possession of Mr. Theodore Bliss, of 
Flemington, N. J., in 1911. 

(2) Left, in the possession of Col. H. D. Paxson, Holi- 
cong. Pa., in 1912. 

(3) Right, at the Bucks County Historical Society. 

(4) In the collection of the University of Pennsylvania, 
obtained by Mr. Stewart Culin in 1897. 

(5 and 6) Left and right, at the Bucks County Historical 
Society, the latter two, presented by Mr. Jacob Clemens, of 
Doylestown, are parts of a complete stove, lacking only the 
front plate, shown in Figure 76, and were found, together with 
the top and bottom plates, scattered about the premises of Mr. 
Clemens, having been previously used as a pavement for a 



large, open kitchen fireplace. There the original hole for the 
construction of the stove, itself ventilated by a s.Tiallcr air 
hole, extending upward through the chimney wall from the 
cellar, and enter ng the chimney above, still exists. The stove 
had doubtless been built so as to project into and warm an old 
log house, formerly constructed, according to Mr. Clemens. 
against the back wall of the fireplace, although Mr. Clemens, 
whose ancestors bu It the house in the 18th century, had no 
knowUdge or tradition of the stove in use. or of the meaning 
of the hole in the wall. 

(7) Left replica. Bucks County Historical Society, pre- 
sented by Mr. John P. Ott. of 1525 South Eighth street. Phila- 
delph a. in August. 1913. and found in 1900 on the farm of 
James McCahan at Southampton. Bucks County, Pa. 

( 8 ) Replica, ditto. Bought by writer at junk yard. 605 
South Front street, Philadelphia. February, 1913. 



BE. 



AUF. BAUM. BLIEB. ABSOLOM. DER. BESE. 



61 

BUB. 




77- 
XHe Deatli of Alisaloni. 

Right plate. Size, H. 26'/2 x W. 28. At the Berks County 
Historical Society. Found in 1909 by Mr. B. F. Owen, laid 
inscription downward, together with its ccnpanion left plate 
and a top plate, as a pavement, in the kitchen hearth at Mr. 
John Illig's old house, built in 1752 at Millbach, Lebanon 
County. Pa. A series of eight other plates, with the front of 
I.ARB. the front of WILLIAM BORTSCHENT. and the left 
Sttcgel pl3te. Figure 124. with several broken fragnents, were 
found *n the old rr.ill. chicken house and tobacco shed. 

From the left branches of a large tree, growing in ths 
middle of the pattern. Absalom, hanging by his long hair, 
wh ch he vainly tries to pull loose with uplifted hands, kicks 
desperately in the air. His horse, saddled and bridled (mule 
in 2 Samuel. 18), gallops away to the left. A horseman in 
the middle. Joab. thrusts a spear into the hanging man. while 
another, one of the ten armor bearers, charges with a spear. 
A leafless tree, with lopped branches, stands to the left, while 
from the right margin of the picture apparently extend the 
shafts of three, possibly four, spears or lances adorned with 
pennants, either in general indicat ng the approach of the 
arxor bearers, or the idea of the three spears (verse 14) thrust 
by Joab himself and referred to in the explanation which fol- 
lows. The foliage is treated in quilted tufts like the sky 
filling of Figures 43 and 68. and below in three marg ned bands, 
leaving ^pace for a fourth unfilled line at the botto.-n, runs the 
much rusted rhymed inscription, deciphered with great difficulty: 



HANGEN. UND. MUS. DREI. SPIES. ALDA. IN. 

SEINE. BRUST. EMPFANGEN. DAS. 2. B. SAM. 18. C. 

"The bad boy Absalom stays hanging in a tree and must 
there receive three spears in his breast. The 2 Book of Samuel. 
18th Chapter." 

The left replica above noted is in the Museum of the Bucks 
County Historical Society. 

On the domolition of Jamb stoves, about 1770 to "80, the 
locsc plates useful for gutter bridgrs, chimney tops, drip stones, 
hearth pavements, etc.. were not universally cast aside as useless 
rubbish, but frequently remained upon the original premises, 
escap ng removal in subsequent sales. Between 1800 and 1850 
they were frequently bought by farmers for similar uses on 
other properties. Hence the mixture of tops, sides and ends 
of various stoves at certain farms as above noted. 




78. 
Atiraliain and I<>aac. 

Front plate. Size. H. 23 "4 x W. :0. Senate House, Kingston. 
New York, 

An angel stays the uplifted sword of Abraham about to 
slay the kneeing Isiac. The extraordinary rudeness of the 
fgures of Father, Son and Angel, the bonfire burning and 
smoking on the right, the st ffly crease-i and rope-belted tunic, 
coarsely carved bushes and leafless tree w th lapped branches, 
the size and lettering of the inscription and absence of canopy, 
almost certainly connect the style and workmanship of the 
plate with that of Figure 43. the Molten Calf, and Figure 79. the 
Flight into Egypt. The guttered rirs. cast sold upon the 
;rarg ns. in the American fash on. are. unlike any others in the 
collection, decorated with an incised diaper pattern and the 
inscription filing the entire lower panel reads; 

ABRAHM. UND. 

ISAC. 1. B. MOS. 22. C. 

"Abraham and Isaac. 1 Book Moses. 22 Chapter." 

A replica, lacking the hatchings on the grooved rims, 
bought at the Ke:m property, near Oley. Pa., in 1913. is in the 
possession (1914) of Mr. H. K. Deisher at Kutztown. Pa. 



62 



'^i,«tjS'>;H-.'«4 f M««i*:*W.i 






^dM^ 



~;r-^Sfe^ 






79- 

Flight into Kgypt. 

Left plate. Size. H. 24"4 x W. 24^4. Museum of Berks County 
Historical Society. Found by Mr. B. F. Owen aga nst the wall 
of an outbuilding in the yard of Solomon De Turk, in Smithy 
Township. Berks County. Pa., in the summer of 1909. 

Under the loops of an overhung curtain, and between two 
leafless trees w.th lopped branches, Joseph, with long rob-, 
staff and aureole, leads over a h.llock, the ass. astride of which, 
ridng man fashion, is seated Mary holding the infant. 

The inscription, clumsily carved, and irregularly spaced in 
two rhymed lines, reads: 

DAN. WI. lOSEPH. IM. TRAUM. 
BEFEHL. VON. GOT. BEKAMM. 

Then as Joseph in a dream received co.Timand from God. 

The treatment of the figures, extreme rudeness of the pat- 
tern, the lopped trees, looped curtain and waving foreground, 
associate the plate with the Molten Calf. Figure 43. 

The des gn appears to have been carved upon two very 
wide boards, the warped junction of which, not erased from 
the sand mould, passes vertically downward through the picture. 
The treatment of the foliage of the central tree unmistakably 
indicates the rude work of a wood carver's chisel, and here the 
above-mentioned warp crack passing through the foreground, 
does not appear on the tree root or foliage, showing that the 
crack had been filled up and corrected on part of the design 
at least, rather than that the carving had been glued upon the 
board background in the form of thin wooden figures cut out in 
silhouette. 

Compare the warp cracks in the 1745 front plate, Figure 64, 
the Pharisee and Publican. Figure 82, the Balance, Figure 60, 
Elijah, and the Ravens. Figure 58, and Cain and Abel. Figure 42. 

Replica, right, in collection of Col. H. D. Paxson, at Holi- 
cong, Pa. 




8o. 
Love Betteretli. 

Right plate. Size. H. 23I2 x W. 2^^ i. Bucks County His- 
torical Society. 

The celebrated injunction of Luke 6-42 is here illustrated 
by two robed figures facing each other, one of whom follows 
the Divine command to "cast out first the beam out of thine 
own eye" before correcting thy brother, by po nting to a large 
wedge-shaped splinter projecting from his face. The style of 
the extremely simple undated pattern, with its peculiar vaulted 
canopy set upon fluted columns far within the margin, and with 
the inscription DIE. LIEBE. BESSERT.. "Love bettereth." 
with its marg ned background set in slight relief as if stamped 
upon t^ie sand with a loose mould, has no counterpart in the 
whole series. 

The plate, upon the background of which the impressions 
of at least four bolt-heads have been stamped upon the sand, 
was presented to the Bucks County Historical Society by Mr. 
J. W. Lundy. of Newtown. Pa., who found it in 1910 among 
the rubbish of the now disused Mearns Mill, near Hartsville, 
Bucks County. Pa. 




81. 

Pharisee and Publican. 

Right plate. Size, H. 24i,j x W. 25?^8. Bucks County His- 



63 



tortcal Society. Bought by the writer at Boone's antique store 
at Pottstown. in 1908. 

The Pharisee with supercilious gesture kneels praying before 
an altar, upon which stand two canr^lis. while the Publican with 
clasped hands, and above whose head the word ZOELNER. 
Publican — is cast upon the backgrounH. stan''s near a vaulted 
door to the right. Above the picture two vaulted canopies with- 
out colur.ns are supported on Corbels with underhung waving 
curtains, while bsh.nd the altar the background is fill;d 'n 
with two columns and a scroll. The wholt lower panel is ap- 
propriated to the inscript on. ill balinced. rudely spaced, and 
set in four channels, divided by lines. 

ES. RUMHT. SICH. IM. GEBET. DER. STOLZER. 

PH-^RISAER. DES. NIDERN. ZOELNERS. HERZ. 

GEFELT. DOCH. GOTT. FHL. MEHR. 

LUCA. AM. 18. CAP. 1742. 

"The proud Pharisee glorifies hin:self in prayer, but the 
heart of the humble Publican pleases God much better." 
Luke in 18 Chapter. 1742. 

Though the front plate of this interest ng pattern has never 
yet been found, several replicas have appeared. 

1. Side plate : Seen by Dr. Sieling. of Manheim, about 
1880. near Le'canon. Pa., as described to the writer, but after- 
wards lost. 

2. Right: Fig. 82. Estate of the late Mr. C. J. Wister, 
of Germartown. This was dcscr bed by the writer in Deco- 
rated Stove Plates, as seen in 1837. placed in the wall of Mr. 
Wister's library. 

3. Left : Governor S. W. Penny packer, at Sch .venksville. 
Pa.. 1910. 

4. Left fragn-.ent. Bucks County Historical Society. 
Bought by the writer at Huber's junk yard. Lancaster, Pa.. 1910. 

5. Right in two pieces: B. H. S. Fro.Ti Mrs. C. Miliar. 
Macung e, Lehigh County, Pa. 

6. Mr. George Long, southwest corner Lemon and Con- 
cord streets. Lancaster. Pa., 1908. 

7. Two fragments : Mr. C. J. Wister's estate, German- 
town. Pa. (Information Mr. Albert C. Myers. 1910.) 

8. Left: Found and photographed by Mr. A. K, Hostetter 
near Lancaster. Pa.. February 12, 1912. 

9. Right: Mr. J. H. Lynn, Langhorne, Bucks County. Pa. 

10. Left: Ditto. 




curtains and the introduction of leaf scrolls in the background, 
with that of the DaviJ and Goliath plate. Figure 53. the EI jah 
and Ravens. Figure 59. the Samson. Figure 55. and the Cana 
plate of 1742, Figure 50. 

But th= discovery that alt these plates were made by the 
same hand or cast at a certa n furnace would not greatly help 
the invest gation, since the evidence elsewhere shows that pit- 
tirns by the same carver had been soli to different furnaces. 

What we wi-h to know here, as in all other cases, is not 
the nane of the furnace, or the iron naster. but something of 
the history of the mould makers who invented or carved the 
dcsgns. v. hose na-r.cs, nowhere it see.ms appearing upon the 
plates, have been forgotten by history. 




82. 

There is a noticeable similarity in the decorative frame- 
work of th's pattern, namely, in the acanthus adornments be- 
tween the vaults, the substitution of corbels for columns, the 
bandirg of lines in the inscription, the underhung horizontal 



83. 

Adam and Kve of 1745. 

Front plate. Size H. 24 x W. 20. In possession. 1910. of Mrs. 
Gouverneur. at an old house at Kingston-on-the-Hud-on. 

Under the tree of knowledge of good and evil, well fruited 
with apples, and from the branches of which hangs a snake 
Iiold ng an apple in its mouth, stand Adam and Eve, no longer 
naked but prematurely, according to the narrative, clothed in 
waist-bands cf leaves. Eve. to the right, seizes the apple from 
the serpent with her right hand, while Adam, standing by a 
short, leafless tree, with lopped branches, eats another apple. 
Just beh'nd Adam, a dog sitting upon his haunches in famil ar 
attitude with uplifted right paw, seems to beg for the forbidden 
fruit, while four animals, in two of which we recognize a horse 
and cow, fill the background behind Eve. and rise into the sky 
without regard to perspective. The large medallion below, 
flanked with leaf scrolls, encloses the words ADAM. UND. 
EFA. and the date, 1745. 

The treatment of the pattern differs entirely from that of 
the Adam and Eve plate of Durham, dated in 1741, but the 
curtain-1'ke qu Itings filing its upper corners connect it with 
the Molten Calf. Figure 43. the Absalom, F gure 77, the Prus- 
sian Grenadiers. Figure 67. and several others, where the regu 
lar conventional vaulted canopy has been abandoned. 

As in the case of the smaller figures in the "Fa.mily Quar- 
rel," Figure 38, the animal figures to the right, here show 
welts in the background, between the fore and hind legs, indi- 
cating that these figures had been inserted in the wooden 
mould out of level. If they had been impressed upon the sand 
as loose stamps, the posit ons of the impressions would have 
varied with that cf the same animals on the replica. Figure 84, 



64 



here shown, but no such variance appears e ther here or on 
any other plates, where, as on Figure 38. similar welts around 
isolated forms are repeated in replicas at exactly the same 
place. 




But we know from Gardiner. Archaeologia. Volume 56. Part 
I, and from Kassell. "Ofenplatten im Elsass," that loose stamps 
were sometimes used in producing patterns for the English fire- 
brcP-s and German stoveplates. And Figures 56. 66, 80 and 95 
pojsibly show evi'^ence of their occasional use here. 

The much rusted replica, F.gure 84. at the Bucks County 
Historical Society. No. 792. described in "Decorated Stove 
Plates," was found in 1897 by Mr. Matthias Hall in use as a 
door step, in possession of Mr. Burroughs Heston, of Solebury, 
Bucks County, Pa., who in making a fence, had dug it out of 
the ru-ned hearth of an old fireplace. 




Sa nt George on horseback, in a nondescript flowing cos- 
tume, rides against the open-.nouthed dragon, as he pierces him 
with a long lance held in his right hand. The date 1746 fills 
the sky to the l:ft. and upon a hill on the background to the 
right rise the trees cf a forest, where, upon a leafless branch, 
a b rd is perched. 

The picture without decorative framework or canopy, fills 
the whole upper panel, but the inscr ption below, originally in 
three lines, seems to have been mutilated by some person who, 
by boring a series of holes through the iron, has contrived to 
break oH the entire botto.Ti of the margin, and w th it the third 
line of the legend, unfortunately leaving us with two lines only 
and the words DER. STARCKE. RITER. 

lORG. DEN. TODTEN. 

The sturdy knight George, the Slain . 

The rude workmanship of this plate is so generally similar 
in style to that of the Moulten Calf, Figure 43, where the 
letters are cut, the panels arranged, and the date set in the sky 
in a s milar way, that we may reasonably infer that one hand 
carved both patterns, either for Colebrookdale. Durham, Redding, 
Warwick. Mount Pleasant, Cornwall or Popodickon, the only 
Pennsylvanian furnaces probably in blast in 1746. 






Saint Georg^e and tlie Dragfoii. 

Front plate of Jamb Stove. Size. W. 21", x H. 23. Mr. H. K. 
Deisher, Kutztown, Pa., November 21, 1913. 



86. 
The Sliearwell Plate 

Right plate. Size, about H. 23 x W. 24. Mr. H. K. Deisher. 
Kutztown. Pa. 

A singular feature of this plate is that the bird in the tree 
top of the left canopy seems to be without s'gnificance, that the 
flowering plant in a pot under the right canopy is not conven- 
tionalzed and that its flowers are not tulips ; furthermore, the 
religious motto is lacking. Instead, the advertisement SHEAR- 
WELL. FURNACE. IN. OLY. appears in the central car- 
touche, and the name DIETER. WELKER. in the medallion 
below. 

It has been known that there was an old furnace, known 
as Oley Furnace, near the town of Oley, Berks County, Pa.. 
owned by Christian Sower and Jacob Weiner, and built, accord- 
ing to a date stone from the furnace stack, now (1913) at the 
Berks County Historical Society, in 1772. after the abandonment 
of decorated stoves. But that an earlier furnace called Shear- 
well, built between 1744 and 1760, and still in blast in 1782, 
stood near the former upon the same property, was not known 
until Mr. B, F. Owen proved the fact, not only by title-deeds, 
but by discovering a replica of this interesting old plate. Figure 



65 



88, in 1910 in the outkitchcn fireplace of an old house at Olcy, 
known as the Udree Mansion, formerly the property of Col. 
Dan el Udree, iron.xaster after 1778 at probably both Oley fur- 
naces, the title-deeds of which show that the oiler Shearwell 
stood close upon the site of the latter, and further, that Bene- 
dict Swoope was part owner with the above Dietrich (Dieter) 
Welkcr in 17C0, at Shearwell, thus explaining the B. S. D. W. 
1760 on the El jah and Ravens plate. Figure 57. found in a 
neighboring saw m:ll. which therefore, together with the Balance 
plate, F gure 60, for reasons above given, ought to be ascribed 
to the same mould carver, and probably to Shearwell Furnace. 




87. 

Right plate. Berks County Historical Society. 





88. 



Left Ditto. 



88-a. 
The Owl. 

From plate. Size. W. 22. H. 20. Mr. H. K. Deisher. Kut2- 
town. Pa., September. 1914. 

Under the outstretched win^s of the figure of an Owl 
rudely conventionalized in the fashion of carvings on old Ameri- 
can gravestones of the eighteenth century, appears the dat; 
1747. Below it a curious balancing of stiff floral stalks, leaves 
and scrolling surrounds a medallion containing a central lozenge 
with divergent flutings and tulips. 

As if of workmanship by the same hand, several features 
of the very curious and rude composition, namely two wheat 
sheaves Hanking the owl's head, the trefoil leaves below the 
n-.edallion, the two leaf stalks with curved stems, the notchings 
on the medallion the decorative scallops and the divergent 
fluting on the latter and the medallion, unmistakably connect 
the design with the typical floral pattern presently to be de- 
scribed as appearing later upon the stove plates. 

The plate, though differing altogether in its decorative 
details, may nevertheless be classed with Figure 63, dated 1749. 
which has already been described as a front plate of similar 
meaningless character. 

While these pages were in press and too late for insertion 
in their proper place, we learn that a replica of Figure 63 has 
been recently found by Mr. A. H. Rice, of 35 South New 
street. Bethlehem, Pa., in an old house in New Jersey in close 
association with a top and bottom plate and two side plates 
of the Dance of Death Pattern. Figure 76. 

The probably complete jamb stove as thus found is described 
and illustrated in Note 117 where its uninteresting front plate is a 
great disappointment to the collector as it fails to further explain 
the Dance of Death picture or inscription. But it exactly fits the 
side plates, and its association with the latter, as long preserved 
with them in an old partition wall was such as to warrant the in- 
ference that figure 6.1 was originally used as a front plate for the 
Dance of Death stove. 

If so, not only Figure 63. but the entire class of these 
coir.par?tively merninsless plates here illustrated, namely Fig- 
ures 61, (2. 63, 64 and 88-a, all of which are front plates, may 
probably be regarded as makeshift fronts to pictorial stoves, 
inten 'e^ to take the plice of pictorial front plates, which eithei 
never existed, or which having been burned out or broken, 
could not be replaced on demand at the furnace. 



66 




88-b. 
Xlie Salutation. 

Left plate of Jamb Stove. Size, W. 231. by H. 22' 2- Mr. A. 
D. Mixsell. Twelfth Street an 1 Prospect Avenue, Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania. September 21. 1914. Found on the farm of Mr. 
Voorhees. at Lebanon. Hunterdon County. New Jersey, together 
with its companion right plate, a replica, and near its front 
plate. Figure 88-C. on an adjoining farm, in August, 1914. 

Surrounded by a border in the style called Rococco, or 
Louis XV. fashionable in Europe and America in 1760, a gentle- 
man and lady fashionably dressed stand upon a waved earthen 
foothoH. from which between them grows -a heavy leaved flower. 
The lady, with puffed skirt and high corset, holds up an open 
fan in her right hand, while the gentleman, slightly bowing and 
holding low his cocked hat, grasps her left hand in his right. 

The picture suggesting the beginning of a dance, or more 
probably a formal fashionable salutation, fills the upper panel 
of the pattern, below which the inscription THE SAUTAN in 
very large, well-carved letters, occupies the entire lower panel. 

The style of the non-religious pattern with the details of 
the figures, the elaboration of the Rococco filigree, and shape, 
size and style of the lettering resembles rather that of the 
Anglo-American fire-backs hereafter shown, than the workman- 
ship of the Pennsylvania German stove plates, but its inscrip- 
tion which the front plate dated 1760 does not explain, at first 
sight seems still more remarkable. It might seem to stand for 
the obsolete name of a dance, social greeting or dancing master's 
phrase fashionable in 1760, but for two small rusty ridges ap- 
pearing between the A and U. which may represent a smaller 
carved letter L there inserted and now nearly rusted away. II 
so. the whole inscription would stand for a wood carver's abbre- 
viation of the words THE SALUTATION, with three letters 
of the last syllable of the latter word, namely TIO omitted at 
the point marked by a period before the final L, thus neces- 
sarily cutting down the word to fit the space. 

But in any case the first word THE classes the inscription 
as in the English rather than German language, and as such 



standing for the only English inscription thus far found cast 
upon a Jamb Stove. 

As this plite and its companion front. Figure 88-C. were 
found not in Pennsylvania, but in New Jersey, near Lebanon, 
in Hunterdon County, and within about twenty-two miles of old 
Oxford Furnace, in the neighboring Warren County (founded 
about 1742. abandoned 1882) noted for the production of 
elaborately carved fire-backs (see Figure 213 and Note 7) we 
may therefore reasonably suppose that the plate was carved 
not by a Pennsylvania German but by one of the Anglo-Ameri- 
can mould carvers employed at Oxford, and that the plate was 
cast there in 1760. 

Right replica on a farm adjoining the site of the discovery 
of Figure 88-B. September 22. 1914. 




88-C. 
The Salutation* 

Front plate. Size, W. 18'4 by H. 22' 2- Mr. A. D. Mixsell. 
Bethlehem. Pennsylvania, September 21. 1914. 

The plate, designed in two panels, is decorated with mean- 
ingless scroll work in the style fashionable in Europe and 
America in 1760. known as Louis XV. or Rococco. The upper 
panel shows an empty scroll shield surrounded by elaborate 
scroll bordering, and the lower panel separated by a raised 
band shows a medallion containing the date 1760. 

Because the plate was found on a farm adjoining the site of 
the discovery of Figure 88-B. near Lebanon. Hunterdon County, 
New Jersey, in the summer of 1914. by Mr. A. H. Rice, and 
because the grooves of the plate exactly fit Figure 88-B. and 
because of the similarity in the style of the filigree in both 
plates, we may infer this to be the companion front plate of 
the Salutation pattern, and for the reasons given under the 
latter, may suppose that it was cast at Oxford Furnace in 1760. 



67 




89* 



Cross and Xulip of 1751* 

R ght plate. Size. H. 24 x W. 25f4- B. H. S. No. 1242. 

A glance at this interesting pUte found by the writsr in 
the hearth rubbish of an outhouse fireplace, with several other 
frag.r.ents, at the far.n of Thomas Sassaman near Ottsville, 
Bucks County. Pa., in 1897. dist'ng-jishes :t, with one exception, 
from all the other floral patterns !n the collection. The aureole 
is missing, the heart tulips, in the lower corners, are replaced 
with tulips with bent stalks. The space over the central colu.nn 
is adorned with a cherubim. But the remarkable feature of 
the pattern is the form of the tulips under the canopy, which 
spring not from leaved stems, but fro.Ti crosses. 

Above the date 1751. adorned with tulips in the lower medal- 
lion, the motto DAS. LEBEN. JESU. WAR. EIN. LIGHT.— 
"The Life of Jesus was a light," fills the cartouche, while the 
name lAHN. POT., ironmaster and part owner at Warwick 
Furnace in 1745, decorated with sprouting tulips, under the 
left canopy, enables us to ascribe the plate, as also Figure 90, 
of identical date, but with a different inscription to cither 
Warwick or Popadickon Furnace. 

According to Mrs. Potts James (Potts Memorial, pages 91, 
121. etc.), there were two persons of the name of John Potts 
living in 1751. (1) John Potts, son of John Potts, born 1738. 
died after 1784. a loyalist during the American Revolution. 
Judge in the Court of Common Pleas at Philadelphia, partner 
with Samuel Nutt at Mount joy Forge in 1764. who lived at a 
house called Stowe near Pott st own, afterwards confiscated, and 
rema ned some time in Nova Scotia. There he tried to intro- 
duce iron stoves of five different kinds, importing nine into 
Halifax in 1783, after which he returned to the United States 
and died soon after in the West. 

But the John Potts. lAHN POT. whose name occurs on 
the stove-plate, is undoubtedly the father of the former, namely: 
(2) John Potts, son of Thomas Potts, born at German town in 
1710, died at Pottstown in 1768. He married Ruth Savage, 



THE FLORAL PATTERN. 

This brings us to a remarkable fact in 
the history of the stoves, namely, that, be- 
ginning about 1753, their adornment with 
pictures was generally abandoned, and a very 
peculiar conventionalized floral pattern pre- 
viously unknown took its place. 



heircEs of the Rutter an:; Nutl ironTasters at Coventry, in 1731. 
He did not foun:l Pottsville. which was founded by another 
fanily named Putt or Pott, but founded Pottstown in 1752. 
He was Justice of the Peace for Philadelphia County in 1761, 
and by inheritance, inter narr age and hij own enterprise, be- 
ca-ne concerned directly in the manaKement of Warwick and 
Popadickon (alias Pottsgrove) Furnaces about 1751. 

Figure 90, with its co i panion front plate, found by Mr. 
B. F. Owen near Reading, so clcs;ly resembles th s plite in 
style, including the flowering crosses, that we may tuppjse 
that the satie mould carver made both moulds for Warwick 
or Popadickon, in 1751. 

Two replicas, right and left, om tting the broad margins, 
and possibly recasts, are at the Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
Philadelph a. where they had been peviously used in the old 
build r.g as firebacks. Two right replicas. Bucks County His- 
torical Society. 

Left replica. Col. H. D. Paxson. Holicong. Pa. Left replica 
at State Library Museum. Harrisburg. Pa. 




90. 

Judg-e Not Plate of 1751. 



26' 



W. 29' J 



Berks County His- 



Right plate. Size. H. 
torical Society. 

This very interesting plate, found in 1910 by Mr. Becker 
at an old house in Berks County. Pa., together with its com. 
panion front plate. Figure 91. rese.Tibles F gure 89 in a striking 
manner, and. though much less artistically balanced and grace* 
fully carved, may well have come from the hand of the same 
pattern carver. Both plates show the name. lAHN. POT. in 
the left canopy. Both show a cherubim between the arches of 
the canopy and both are dated in 1751. but the inscriptions 
d ffer and these and the ether apparent points of similarity, such 
as the flower pots with the tulips, and the corner tulips or 
twisted palm branches. Rank ng the date medallion below, arc 
nowhere duplicated exactly. 

This sudden innovation in design, which 
may be described as a theme of decoration 
endlessly repeated with slight variation but 
never duplicated, consists of an upper panel, 
showing the chief floral design, a central panel 
or cartouche with the inscription, and a lower 
panel with a medallion generally containing 
the date. The upper panel, still framed with 



68 



Further, the two plates thus resembling each other, have 
a general similarity to the set floral pattern frequently described 
as common upon the later stove plates, and no example of which 
has yet been found earlier than 1756. But the aureole is here 
missing, and we would not be warranted in regarding these 
plates as originals for the former paterns until more dated plates 
are found. 

Ne ther can we be certain that the plates were cast at 
Warwick Furnace, where heaps of slag and ruined walls now, 
1914. on the south branch of French Creek in Warwick Town 
ship, Chester County, Pa., about e'ght miles from Pottstown, 
n-ark the site of the ancient works. They were founded by 
Anna Nutt and her sons in 1736. but when, in 1751, these plates 
were cast, lAHN. POT., or John Potts was part owner and 
manager, not only at Warwick, according to the Potts MSS,, 
but also at Popadickon or Pottsgrove Furnace. 

The inscription from Matthew 7:1, in Luther's Bible, 
RICHTET. NICHT. AUF. DAS. IHR. NICHT. GERICHTET. 
Vi'ERT., "Judge not that ye be not judged," upon the central 
cartouche, appears four years later upon the beautiful stove of 
S. F., Figures 98 and 99, where it begins on the side plates and 
ends on the front. Here it is complete on the right plate, and 
the front plate. Figure 91, here shown, complements it with an 
explanatory rhyme. 




double canopies with fluted columns, tulips in pots and tulips 
springing from crosses above loops, generally match the pat- 
tern. Figure 90. The initials I. P., for John Potts, appear. ng 
in the upper background, indicate that the plate may have been 
cast at Warwick Furnace, and the whole rhymed inscr ption 
fill ng the cartouche, and completed in the lower medallion, 
reads: AUS. DEM. MUNDE. JESUS. QYLLET. WAS. DEN. 
DURST. DES. LEBEN. STILLET.. "Out of the mouth of 
Jesus springeth that which stills the thirst of life." 

Tulips springing from crosses appear upon three plates in 
the collection herewith illustrated, namely, upon this plate and 
Figures 89 and 90, and are possibly derived from Catholic 
symbolism. Figure 89 was described in "Decorated Stove 
Plates," page 6, in writing which in 1897 the writer supposed 
that it would be an easy matter to trace this beautiful pattern 
made by Germans in America, back to Germany. But nothing 
has seemed so surprising as the assurances received in 1910 
from the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, the Northern Museum 
at Stockholm, the Lorraine Museum at Nancy, and from Dr. 
Beck, Dr. Kassel and Mr. G. Von Collin, that not only these 
tulips springing from crosses, but in general the set designs 
with tulips under canopies, character'stic of so many of the 
Amercian jamb stoves after 1756, and of the six-plate stoves 
after 1760, are unknown and unheard of as castings upon stoves 
in Germany. 




91. 

Judge Not of 1751. 

Front. Size. H. 27^ x W. 22'2. Berks County Historical 
Society. 

Found by Mr. B. F. Owen in 1910 with Figure 90. for 
which it is undoubtedly the companion front plate, in an old 
house in Berks County, Pa. The rusting of the inscription in Front plate of Jamb Stove. Size, H. 24'; x W. 2D'4. Berks 
the lower medallion has made it difficult to decipher, but the County Historical Society. 



92. 

A. G. Plate of 1752. 



the familiar vaulted canopies of the pictorial 
plate no longer encloses a pictorial subject, 
but a set pattern, either half of which serves 
for the front plate and which appears in full 
on the side plate. This consists of a flower pot 
growing a tulip plant balanced with lozenges 



six-point stars and frequently what appear to 
be sheaves of wheat in the right canopy, and 
almost invariably in the left canopy a fluted 
circlet which may represent an aureole with 
divergent rays enclosing a heart from which 
spring several tulips and resting upon what 



69 



A tulip in a flower pot stands under each of the canopies, 
here supported on fluted columns, under the left vault of which, 
lacking the famil ar aureole, the initials A G plainly appear. 
The heart tulips are replaced by stem Tied tul ps on either side 
of the medallion below, which shows the date 1752. But the 
motto on the central cartouche is rusted beyond decipherment. 

For seme time no replica or corresponding side plate ap- 
peared to explain this much-rusted specimen, cons sting of 
fragments bolted together, which was found in 1909 by Mr 
B. F. Owen at Millbach. Lebanon County, Pa. But when, in 
1913. in an old vault at Fifth and Penn streets. Reading, Pa., 
Mr. Owen found Figure 93. also dated 1752. plainly marked 
AMOS GERET, and which, judging from si nilarity in the treat 
ment of the tul'ps. canopies and figures in the date, is undoubt- 
edly the companion side plate, the A was explained. 

We are therefore justified in guessing that the plate was 
cast at Cornwall Furnace, and that GERET was one of the 
coTipany Gurrt { Garret ) and Co.. mentioned by Acrelius as 
lessees of the works in 1756 (Swark. Iron and Coal, pa^e 26). 




93- 

Amos Oeret of 1752. 

R ght pUte of Jan-.b Stove. Size. H. 24 x W. 26. Berks County 
Historical Society. 

Found in 1913 by Mr. B. F. Owen in an old vault at the 
corner of Fifth and Penn streets. Reading. Pa. 

This is undoubtedly the companion side-plate to the A. G. 
plate of 1752, Figure 92. as is proved by the similarity of date 

appears to be a stand formed of the heads and 
forelegs of sheep. 

The central panel or cartouche is a narrow 
band or stripe, enclosing ihe inscription in a 
single line of well-modeled Latin letters. 
Though nearly always a verse from the Bible, 
or religious motto, this inscription sometimes 
advertises the name of a furnace or the full 
name or initials of one or more iron masters. 
Sometimes the inscription, incomplete upon 
the side plates, but nearly always (see Figure 
139) repeated upon them, is continued upon 



and s'ze. the treatTient of the canopies, the down-sprouting 
trefoil on the upper tulips and the name Amos Gcret on this 
plate explaining the in tials A. G. on the ether. 

Co.T.pared with all the other floral patterns here shown, the 
varied treatment of the branching tul ps. without flower pots, 
under the farr.il ar vaulted canopies in the upper panel, is pecul- 
iar. The aureole is missing altogether, but the lower tulips 
on bent stems flanking the date medallion, rese.Tble those on 
the John Pott plate of 1751 and the Stiegel plate of 1758, F.« 
urcs 89 and 1 19. 

According to Acrelius, quoted by Pearse, 218, Gurret ft 
Co. (Garret & Co.). were lessees of Cornwall Furnace in 
Lebanon County from the Grubbs in 1759, and if thr Amos 
G:ret and A. G. may be referred to the head of that fir.m. this 
plate and Figure 92 must have been cast at Cornwall Furnace. 
Th; inscription begun or ended with the illegible words on 
Figure 92 repeats that upon Figure 89. na-nelv. DAS. LEBEN. 
JESU. WAR. EIN. LIGHT. "The life of Jesus was a light." 




94- 
Samuel Flower of 1754. 

Front plate of five-plate stove. Size. W. 19^4 x H. 24. Bucks 

the front plate, or more rarely and occasionally 
in rhyme, extends into the lower panel. This 
latter encloses an oblong medallion, some- 
times framing the date, sometimes the adver- 
tisement or continued inscription above men- j 
tioned, and generally flanked with tulips I 
springing from hearts. 

The whole pattern, far more carefully 
carved than the old pictorial designs, is filled 
in with lozenges, wheat Eh:aves. six-point 
stars, hearts and tulips large and small, and 
letters or figures adorned with sprouting 



70 



County Historical Society. Given to the Society in October, 
1910, by Lewis Sigafoos, of Tinicum To'vnsh p, Bucks County. 
Pa. 

Under two vaulted canopies supported on the usual twisted 
columns, with pendant loops, stand two flower pots containing 
tulips, while the words SMWEL. FLAUR (Samuel Flower), 
spaced with little tulps. fill the central cartouche. The date 
1754, divided by a potted tulip, occupies the medallion below. 

Flower here discards the usual religious inscription upon 
the central cartouche for an advertisement of his own name, 
as he did later in 1764 on h s six-plate stove. Figure 156, and 
as Huber and Stiegel. see Figures 95 and 119 to 128. did at 
Elizabeth Furnace. 

The other noticeable features of this plate are the heart 
tulips set upside down, flanking the date medallion, and the 
eight-pointed stars in the upper canopies, which, judgng from 
the circular welts surrounding them, do not appear to have 
been carved in the regular manner on a wooden mould, but 
must either have been inserted into the latter out of level, or 
stamped loose upon the sand. 

Who carved the mould for this plate may never be known, 
but that the cast was made at Branson and Nutts ancient fur- 
nace, of Redding, in northern Chester County, Pa., there can be 
little doubt. Samuel Flower married in 1744 Rebecca Branson, 
daughter of Redding's original owner. William Branson, re- 
ceived then from Branson a fourth share of the furnace, and 
probably managed it in 1754 and during the later life of his 
father-in-law, who died in 1 760. 




95- 
Jacob Huber of 1755* 

Right plate. Size, about H. 24 x W. 26. In the cloister at 
Ephrata. 1909. 

Double canopy, twisted columns, tulips, flower pots, stars, 
lozenges and aureole on the left, with sheep legs as usual. The 

tulips. Though suggested by the designs on 
Figures 89, 90 and 91 (of 1751), 92 and 93 
(of 1752) and 94 (of 1754), it first clearly 
appears on the plate shown in Figure 95» 
dated 1755, before which time no certain evi- 
dence of its existence has yet come to Hght. 

What the design, repeated on so many 
of the illustrations herewith shown signifies, 
who invented it. what furnace first produced 
it, and why so many of them, as the illustra- 



date medallion is flanked by the usual heart tulips, and contains 
the date 1755. Two features of the des gn are remarkable : 
First, as in the case of the Treasure plate, F.gure 113, probably 
carved by the sa".e hand, the letter V. possibly standing for 
the name of the unknown mould carver, fills the heart in the 
aureole : and second, the religious or admon tory inscription is 
here supplemented by the advertisement of Hans Jacob Huber, 
ironmaster at Elizabeth Furnace, where the plate was undoubt- 
edly cast (see Figure 127). viz.: JACOB. HUBER. 1ST. DER. 
ERSTE. "Jacob Huber is the first," which fills the central 
cartouche. 

H the mould carver, working for an employer who prob- 
ably cared more for the profitable sale of the stoves than the 
decoration, had continued the inscription all around the stove 
so as to begin it on one side plate and end it on another, he 
would have had to carve three moulds for a jamb stove instead 
of two. But whether he did so in this instance or not cannot 
be known, since no front plate has yet been found, and we 
cannot tell whether Mr. Doster's replica, referred to below, 
with its rims sawed off. is a right or left. But it is more probable 
that the final words of the inscription have been crowded upon 
the front plate, since the evidence thus far found where the 
side plates, whether right or left, are nearly always replicas, 
inscription and all, shows that he only carved two, the larger 
for the side and the s-T^aller for the front plate. 

According to J. M. Swank, Iron and Coal in Pennsyl- 
vania. 1878, page 19, Hans (or John) Jacob Huber (called 
John by the author ). who founded Elizabeth Furnace in Lan- 
caster County in 1750 and sold it to his father-in-law, the so- 
called Baron Henry William Stiegel, in 1757, had the rhyme 
"(John) Jacob Huber. ist. Der. Erste. Deutsche. Mann. der. 
das. Eisen. werk. voUfuren. kann." inscribed upon the wall of 
the furnace. Therefore wc may infer that one of the missing 
plates of this stove, not yet found, may complete this or a 
similar trade rhyme. 

Many of the old German stove-plates o\ the 1 7in cent _ry. 
as figured by Kassel, Bickell and Wedding, show advertise- 
ments of furnaces, or names or initials of founders, ironmasters 
or pattern carvers, intermixed with the religious pictures and 
inscriptions, but here the pious inscription has been entirely 
discarded for the name of the ironmaster. The same substitu- 
tion of advertisement for religious inscription upon the central 
cartouche appears on the plates. Figures 119 to 1^8, of Stiegel, 
who, in no case yet found, has retained any religious motto 
or rhyme whatever upon his stoves. But we cannot, on our 
evidence, yet say that either Huber or Stiegel thus began to 
spoil the religious stoves, since John Potts, of Warwick, of the 
undated plate. Figure 114, and Samuel Flower, of Redding Fur- 
nace, in 1754 (see Figure 94), have done the same thing. 

Mr. J. H. Doster. at Lititz, has a replica of this plate 
built in the wall of his dining room with a replica of the Stiegel 
plate. Figure 121, but no front plate has yet appeared to com- 
plete the inscription. H Huber means to boast that he was 
the first German ironmaster in America, he may be right, for, 
although all the five-plate stoves were inscribed in German, 
and doubtless carved by German mould makers, the early iron- 
masters seem to have been English. 



tions show, rivaled each other in producing 
without directly recasting it, and why they 
abandoned the more interesting picture de- 
signs to make this, and almost nothing else, 
between the years 1756 and 1760, or during 
the last few years of the existence of the five- 
plate stove, are still unanswered questions. 

Its most interesting feature is the fluted 
circlet, with its heart tulips and sheep legs 
above referred to, which, with two exceptions 



71 



On the other hand, a similar rhyme not yet found on a 
stoveplate, but ascribed by Swank and others to Stiegel. also 
ironmaster at Elizabeth in 1757 to 1778. "Baron Sticgel ist der 
Mann der die Oefen machen kann," "Baron Stiegel is the man 
who can make stoves." appears less justified by fact, since the 
six- and ten-plate stoves made by Stiegel do not appear to be 
super !cr to those built at other furnaces, while the five plate 
stoves had been cast in the usual way long before Stiegel's time. 




96. 

S. F. of J756. 

Left plate. Size. W. 22 x H. 21. Bucks County Historical 
Society, No. 237. 

Typical floral pattern, double canopy, twisted columns, 
flower pot, and aureole with sheep legs, lozenges and wheat 
sheaves. 

The unknown patternmaker who carved this design for 
Samuel Flower, of Redd ng Furnace, in 1756, probably also 
carved the floral pattern. Figure 111, for Thomas Potts in 1758, 
since, as he no doubt intended to quote Romans 12:21. in 
Luther's Bible: "Las dich nicht das bese uberwinden.'" "Be 
not overcome of evil," he has. in both cases, misplaced the 
word "nicht" so that his inscription here reads: "LAS. DICH. 
DAS. BESE. NICHT." 

Two front plates have been found, but unfortunately the 
word "ueberwinden," which should finish the inscription, has 
Deen rusted beyond recognition on both. 

The plate is illustrated in "Decorated Stove Plates." page 
14. and since finding it in 1897, in the damp cellar of a house 
>n the summit of the high cliffs overlook ng the Delaware River 
n NockaT.ixon Township, Bucks County, Pa., a top and bottom, 
-ight and front, equally illegible (set up with this plate, see 
Figure 97), from an old house in E :;ylestown, Bucks County, 
Pa., have come to light. 

The finding of the nearly complete six-plate stove. Figure 
56, dated 1764. and inscribed: 

SAMUEL. FLOWER. RETING. FURNACE. 
4nd the six-plate stoveplate dated 1764, Figure 160. inscribed : 

M. SAMUEL. FLOR. REDIG. FURNACE.. 
.T3ke it probable that the initials S. F. on this plate and on the 
ront plate. Figure 99. refer to Samuel Flower, one of the iron- 
lasters at Redding Furnace in 1756 and later. According to 
^wank (Iron in All Ages, page 173), Samuel Flower became 
associated with Redding Furnace in 1742, when he as a 
member of an English company, together with Lynford Lardncr 
and Richard Hockley, leased its companion forge, Windsor (on 
Conestoga Creek, Lancaster County, Pa.), from William Bran- 
don, for th rty years. In 1744 Flower married Branson's daugh- 
ter, Rebecca, and together with Lardner and Hockley, who had 
n arried two other daughters of Branson, received from the old 



ironmaster a quarter share of Redding Furnace. Although, ac- 
cording to Acrelius, Branson held Redding in 1756, Flower, no 
doubt, managed it for him in that year, as the stove-plate 
shows, and must have had charge for some time previously, is 
is proved by the front plate inscribed with his name and dated 
1754, Figure 94. while that he certainly managed the furnac; 
after Branson's death in 1760, the later inscribed plates, Figures 
156 and 160. prove. 




97- 

Replicas are known as follows: 

1. Right: Col. H. D. Paxson. August, 1910. 

2. Right; Yard pavement at Isaac Bennet's. 1910. at Johna- 
ville, Bucks Countv. Pa. 

3. Right ; Bucks County Historical Society, from Snod- 
grass house, Doylcstown. above noted. 

4. Left: Mrs. Walter Cope, Germantown. Pa., December, 

1910, bought by her of Mrs. Cookerow. at Pottstown. Pa. 

5. Mr. B. F. Fackcnthal, Jr.. Reigelsville. Pa.. September, 

1911. obtained from Mr. Friesland. a photographer, in New 
Jersey. 

6. Left; Bucks County Historical Society. 





i'(7(^ 



.L 



98. 

Judge >Jot of 1756' 

Left Plate. Size. H. 24 by W. 2Sy,. Bucks County Historical 
Society, No. 709. 



72 



The pleased eye wanders from the hearts, tulips, stars, 
medallions, arches and columns of the usual floral pattern to 
the words. RICHTET. NICHT. AUF. DAS. IHR., "Judge not 
that ye." running its sequence NICHT. GERICHTET. WERT,. 
"Be not judged," from Matthew 7-1, in Luther's Bible, upon 
Figure 99. 

Because of the peculiar trefoil sprouting horizontally from 
the four corners of the date medallion, on this plate, and also 
on Figure 99, and which are only thus once duplcated in the 
whole collection, an^ notwithstaniing numerous other differ- 
ences in the detail of sheeps' heads, flower pots and lozenges. 
we must regard F gure 99 as its co.r.panion front plate. 

Figure 98 was found by Captain J. S. Bailey about 1890 
at an old farmhouse belonging to Clinton Callender, near 
Mechanics Valley, Bucks County. Pa., and was described in 
"Decorated Stove Plates." page 7. 



%ir sy --v- 






l^v^^- 






99. 

Judge Not of S. F. 

Front plate. Size. H. 24 x W. 21. Bucks County Historical 
Society. No. 1244. 

So completely had the memory of five-plate stoves passed 
out of general knowledge, that Mr. Emery, himself a collector 
of antiquities, had fcr many years lived within a few st^ps of 
this plate, without knowing of its existence, when in 1837, he 
led the writer, on inquiry, to T. Sassaman's outkitchen, at Otts- 
ville. Bucks County, Pa., and found to his surprise this beautiful 
plate, together with Figure 89, buried under several inches of 
wood ashes, on the hearth of a large fireplace, used for soap and 
applebutter cooking. 

Within the double vaulted canopy, with its pendant loops 
and twisted columns, rests the usual symbolic aureole, enclosing 

(Figures 119 and 121) invariably fills the left 
canopy in the upper panel, and frequently 
appears in the single canopy of the front plates. 
The author has been unable thus far to find 
its counterpart among the potters' designs or 
illuminated writing of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans, and all attempts to explain it by any 
known religious symbolism or to trace it 



a heart sprouting three tulips, and flanked by two flower pots 
wth tul'ps- Larger tulips fill the spaces below the vaults, and 
the lower medallion enclos ng the initials S. F., is filled in with 
tulips, and flanked with heart tulips. But the sheep's heads 
below the aureole are round, unmodelled lumps, and there are 
no stars or lozenges in the pattern. 

The inscription in the central cartouche, "NICHT. GE- 
RICHTET. WERT." "Be not judged," from Matthew 7-1. in 
Luther's Bible, completes the sentence. RICHTET. NICHT. 
AUF. DAS. IHR., "Judge not that ye," begun on Figure 98, 
which, as supposed in "Decorated Stove Plates," page 7, may 
be its companion plate, notwithstand ng many notable differ- 
ences in the treatment of the tulips, aureole, sheeps' heads and 
flower pots. But the initials S. F. doubtless stand for Samuel 
Flower, and fcr the reasons given under Figure 96 we would 
ascribe the plate to Redding Furnace, under Flower's manage- 
ment in 1756. 




lOO. 
The W^icUed Borrower. 

Left plate. Size, H. 23 x W. 2334. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

Floral pattern, w'th double canopy, twisted columns, flower- 
pot, grain sheaves, etc., with the words RETDING. FORNES. 
in the lower medallion. The -nscription in the central cartouche 
reads; DER. GOTLOSE. BORGET. UND.. from Psalms 37: 
21. in Luther's translation, "The wicked borroweth and." The 
words BEZAHLET. NICHT.. "payeth not again." remaining 
to complete the quotation on the front plate of the stove, which 
has not yet been found. 

Though based upon the evidence of the s'x-plate stove plites. 
Figures 156 and 160. we may infer that the plates. Fgures 96 
and 99. marked S. F., were cast at Redding Furnace under 
Samuel Flower as ironrraster. we cannot asiert that this plate, 

singly or in combination with the whole pat- 
tern above noted to Europe have failed. 

Following the introduction of the tulip 
into Europe by Conrad Gesner in 1559, deco- 
rative designs developed from tulips became 
common among the European peasantry, as 
painted upon houses, designed upon fabrics 
or pottery or as decorations on household 



73 




lOI. 

though made at Redding, was cast for Flower, until its missing 
frcnt plate shall show it. The pattern described wrongly as 
belonging to a six-plate stove, see "Decorated Stove Plates." 
page 26. was Frit seen by the writer in 1839 in an old chicken- 
house, at the colon'al residence of James Logan, known as 
S ten ten. near Philadelphia. The right replica. Figure 101, ap- 
peared ten years later at a junk yard in Pottstown. and a third 
r ght replica was plowed out of a field near a spring 1< juse "m 
the property of Mr. John Schweitzer, of North Earl Townshio. 
Lancaster County. Pa., and there found in the summer of 1909 
in the barnyard by Mr. B. F. Owen, of Reading, who gave it 
to the Berks County Historical Society. A fourth right replica 
f frag "rent of lower right corner) was found by Mr. A. K. 
Ho= tetter in possession of Mr. D. B. Landis. near Lancaster, 
Pa. 

The ancient charcoal furnace of Redding, built 1736, aban- 
doned about 1783, on French Creek in the (magnetic) iron 
ore region of the Schuylkill Valley, originally Coventry, now 
Warwick Township. Northern Chester Countv fnot named after 
cr associated with the town of Reading. Berks County, but 
originally from the English Read'ng and about ten years before 
the American town of Reading was founded), was built (accord- 
ing to Swank. Iron in All Ages : Ja Ties. The Potts Memorial : 
and Futhev and Cope. History of Chester County), by Samuel 
Nutt and William Branson in 1736-7 as a cicse neighbor and 
source of pig-iron supply to their well-known Coventry Forgt. 
also built by Nutt and Branson about 1718. 

But because the Potts Manuscript Coventry Forge Ledgers 
note the sale of stoves necessarily made at a furnace and not 
at a forge, between 1728 and 1738. because in 1728 and 1729 
they several times refer to a furnace, called twice by name, 
Christien or Christeen Furnace, associated with Coventry Forge. 
and because the inventory of Samuel Nutt's will in 1737 (His- 
tory of Chester County F. and C. ) refers to an "old furnace" 
and a "new furnace," it follows that Redding Furnace, built 
in 1737, was not the original or only furnace on that site, but 
that there were two furnaces there, an older called Christeen. 
and a later one called Redding, both built by Nutt and Branson 
about a mile apart (James, page 49), and near the lost site of 
Coventry Forge. 

Not possessed of this information in the Potts" Manuscripts, 
Swank, page 71. and Mrs. James, page 51, who had supposed 
that the first furnace was called Redding and was abandoned in 
1736. when the second was built, had necessarily given no evi- 
dence of either fact, but that the second furnace called Reddin:^ 
(in a road petition 1736, in an agreement of partnership 1736. 



on Scull's Map 1756. and by Acrelius 1756; see Swank. Jame« 
and the Hi-tcrv of Chester County), was oflically so na-ned, 
there is no doubt. 

Sa.'nuel Nutt. who owned half of the furnace and For^e 
prop'.rty at C'nristinc — Redding — Coventry, died in 1737. and 
the new furnace was erected by Anna Nutt, his wife, and 
Samu-1 Nutt, Jr., his son-in-law and nephew, and his oH 
partner Willam Branson, and managed by agreement of March 
15, 17:6. by John Potts (Swank, page 171). 

For several years, therefore. Redding (including its prede 
cessor, Christine) possibly sometimes called Cov:ntry Furnace, 
was the only furrace in the Mid-Schuylkill, French Creek iron 
region, on the right bank, and the only rival of the ne ghboring 
older Cobbrookdale Furnace, of Putter and Potts ownership, on 
the left (Manatawny Cre;k) bank. Then the partners dis- 
agreed, quarreled at law and separated, when Branson remained 
at Redding and Christine, and the Nutt heirs built the rival 
Warwick Furnace ten miles away on another (the south) 
branch of French Creek in 1738. while Thomas Potts founded 
Mt. Pleasant across the river near Colebrookdale in the same 
year. William Branson was in possession of Redding in 1742 
(Swank, page 173), between 1750 and 1756, according to 
Acrelius (Swank, page 174). and probably until his death in 
1760. Leaving four daughters, but no sons, he had given 
quarter shares of Redding Furnace and Coventry Forge to 
three of his sons-in-law. one of whom. Samuel Flower, married 
Branson's daughter Rebecca, in 1744. Flower probably man- 
aged Redding Furnace for his father-in-law in 1756. and cer- 
tainly after 1760, as his initials appear on the Redding plate. 
Figure 96, dated 1756. and his name on Figures 156 and 160, 
dated 1764. In 1772, and for a long time after, according to 
Swank. Iron in All Ages, page 180. Redding was managed or 
leased by James Old. but was at last absorbed by its old rival 
Warwick, and soon after the owners of the latter. Rutter and 
Potts, bought it in 1778 to 1783. and when noticed by the 
Gern-an traveler, Schoep. in 1783 (Swank, page 187). it had 
fallen into decay and was abandoned (History of Chester 
County. F. and C. page 345). 




I02. 

The Racing: Vear. 

Right plate. Size. W. 28 x H. 26. Bucks County Historical 
Society. No. 711. 

Found by Mr. I. J. Stover in use as a step set in a path 
near the house of Mrs. Anna Hoffman, near New Britain, Bucks 
County, Pa., in 1897. 



74 



No replica of this very symmetrical and carefully carved 
floral pattern has yet been found, nor a companion front plate, 
which would enable us to co.r.plete the unexplained inscript on 
wh:ch fills the central cartouche above the date 1756. namely: 
DIS. 1ST. DAS. lAHR. DARIN. WITET., "This is the year 
in which rages ." 




Treasure of 1757. 

Left plate. Size, about W. 24 x H. 24. Mr. George H. Danner. 
Manheim, Pa. Described in "Decorated Stove Plates," Figure 
23. 

This variatcn of ths usual floral pattern shov,^s the date 
1757. and the motto, from Matthew 6-21 and Luke 12-34. in 
Luther's Bible, WO. EUER. SCHATZ. 1ST. DA., "Where your 
treasure is there." — which must be continued on a lost front 
plate with the words 1ST. AUCH. EUER. HERZ., "will your 
heart be also," 

While this is the third plate with the treasure inscription 
thus far found, it dilfers widely frcm the treasure pattern of 
John Potts. Figure 113. On the other hand, save for the date. 
it is an exact replica of Figure 104. 




Right plate. 
Pa. 



W..^ 



X04. 

Treasure of 1758. 

Size. W. 24 x H. 24. State Library. Harrisburg 



Here we have, with its broken inscription from Matthew 
6-21. an exact replica of Figure 103, save for the last figure of 
the date, 17£8. which has been changed from 7 to 8. possibly 
by erasing the or glnal sand impression and re-stamping with 
a loose staxp. 

According to Kassel, the practice of re-dating stove patterns 
had been co.-nmon in Germany, but strange to say this is the 
only instance of it thus far found among the American plates. 
The repetition of warp cracks on replicas of a given date, 
proves, in many instances, that the patterns must have been used 
for a longer time than the twelve months indicated, and v/e 
are left to suppose that the furnaces continued to use the old 
patterns, without re- dating them to suit passing years. 




XO5. 

Hereford of 1757. 

Right plate. Size about H. 25 x W. 26'.. Col. H. D. Paxson. 
Kolicong. Pa. 

The plate with th= usual central cartouche clearly showing 
the inscription W. HEREFORD. FURNACE. M., and with 
the date, 1757, set in the usual manner in the medallion below, 
and thus far resembling the set floral patterns cast at this time, 
differs rr.arkedly from the latter in the upper panel, wher^, 
under a double canopy on twisted columns, the usual arrange- 
ment of aureole, flower pots, wheat-sheaf and lozenges is re- 
placed by a widened spray of three tulips, a meaningless cor- 
nice, two six pointed stars and several scrolls. 

Hereford Furnace, on the west branch of Perkiomen Creek, 
in Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., was in existence, 
according to Fcgley (in "Old Charcoal Furnaces in Eastern 
Berks County"), in 1753. 

The ten-plate stove. Figure 180. is marked with the nane 
Herefcrd. so is the six-plate pattern of Figure 169, showing a 
still greater weakness of design. Both these plates show the 
name, Thomas Maybury. in full, but here we have W. M , 
standing probably for Willam Maybury, father or relative of 
the former, and according to Mr. B. F. Owen, one of the 
shareholders of Shearwell Furnace at Oley in 1760. and one of 
the first Justices of the Peace in Berks County. Pa. 

Left replica in possession of Mrs. A. Haller Gross, Lang- 
horne. Bucks County. Pa.. May. 1913. 



75 




io6. 
Stiuel of 1758. 

Right p'.cic. Size, H. 23 x W. 25. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

Though the details are nearly obliterated by rust, we se; 
that this floral pattern of the usual set type, w th double 
cancpy, twisted arches, flower pots, aureole on the left, heart 
tulips, medall on with the date 1758, and illegible inscription, 
showing the letters LMS to the right is a replica cf the St egel 
plate. Figure 120. It proves that an abundance of these typical 
floral patterns had been carved in wood as moulds closely re- 
sembling, but never reproducing each other, all of which, strange 
to say. whether once in the pcssession of the old furnaces, or 
remaining anong the he rlooms of the unknown families of the 
forgotten pattern carvers, seem to have been lost. 

This plate, together with three more plates of Jamb stoves, 
and one of a draught stove in three fragments (see description 
of F gure 144). had been laid across two rows of stones, under 
the sod, so as to roof a drain for the porch pump in the front 
yard of Dr. Frank Shirk's far.n. near Lancaster, Pa. There 
the writer, in company with Mr. Albert K. Hostetter. excavated 
it on January U. 1909. 




Twisted columns, double cancpi:s. flower pots, and aureole 
of the usual floral pattern, in the background of which the 
I. P. ani S. P.. probably standing for the noted John Potii 
(son of Thoras Potts, born 1710, d ed at Potlsgrove, 1768), and 
Samuel Potts (h s son. born 1736. died 1793), ironmasters jt 
Warwick Furnace in 1758. are cast upon the background under 
the r ght canopy. The date 1758, alcrned in the usual way 
with tul ps. is cast in the lower medallion, and the central car- 
touche is filled with the motto: VER^CHTE. DAS. ALTER. 
NL "Never despise old age." Ident fied by Dr. John B. Stout, 
of Northa rpton. P3.. as from the motto. Verachte das alter 
richt denn du gedenkest auch alt zu werrlen. "Despi^ie not oil 
age. since thou rememberest that thou also shalt grow old," 
published en page 139 in the Lese buch fur Deutsche Schul- 
kinder, by George Gottfried Otterbe^n (printed by Conrad Zeit:r 
ani George Mentz, Philadelphia, 1813. second American edi- 
t en), and quoted from the Apocrvphal bDok of Jesus Sirach. 




107. 

Despise ^ot Old Age. 

Right plate. S ze. H. 22U x W. 24^- Bucks County Historical 
Society. 



108. 

The badly rusted plate, broken in two pieces, came to 
light as a surprise during an unsucces ful hunt for a lost plate 
said to have been dated 1674. mentioned in Dav s" History of 
Bucks County, page 432. When, after searching several old 
houses at Chalfont, Montgomery County. Pa., in 1909. the last 
clue in the meT.ory of a nurse at a farmhouse had failed, the 
far.mer's wife, hear ng the writer's questions, remembered an 
iron plate used in her girlhood at another farm as a step to a 
spring-house. On immediately searching the latter place, which 
had since changed owners, and where the step in question had 
been moved, a search in the garret of an old spring-house used 
for smoking ham, notwithstanding the owner's ignorance of the 
matter, resulted in the discovery of the plate bur.ed under 
nearly a foot of wood ashes in a large wooden ash box set in 
mid-floor as a hearth. 

Replicas have appeared as follows. (1); right, as described 
in "Decorated Stove Plates," page 26. in the cellar of Mr. 
Walter Cope's house, in Germantown. Pa., in 1899. in possession, 
1912. of Mrs. Albert Leeds, Germantown. (2); left fragment, 
see Figure 109. bought by the writer at a junk-yard at Potta- 
town. in 1908. (3): left (fragment), found by Mr. B. F. Owen, 
January. 1910. in the oH closter at Ephrata. (4); right, Mr. 
H. E. Deats, Flemington, N. J., see Figure 108. (5); left, 
together with front plate (see Figure 110), in possession of Mr. 
H. E. Deats. Flemington, N. J. 

There is no reason for connecting this plate with Chrij 
topher Sauer. as the writer has done in "Decorated Stove 
Plates." The initials I. P., associated with the name lAHN. 
POT. on Figures 90 and 91. and the complimentary S. P.. un- 



76 




I09* 

doubtedly refer th's plate, cast in 17£8, as dbove noted, to the 
Potts family of ironmasters, who owned Warwick and several 
other furnaces at that time. In other examples of their initials 
the letter A sprouts tulips, as do also the sheep heads. The 
star within the heart in the aureole is a peculiar variation. 




IIO. 

Despise Biot Old Ag-e. 

Front plate. Size. H. 22^2 x W. 19 inches. Mr. H. E. Deats, 
Flemington, N. J. 



The pattern, inscription and history cf this plate obtained 
with its cornpanion, F gure 108, by Mr. Deats in 1910 from a 
widow of Flemington, N. J,, whose husband, Andrew Crater, 
had bought both plates at a sale near Frenchtown, N. J., about 
irSO, show that it s the long sought for front plate of F'gures 
107 and 109. Two flower-pots with tulips and the usual 
vaulted cancpy, stand between the figures and the date, 1758; 
and the well-known nams of lAHN. POT.. John Potts, beau- 
tifully carved and adorned with tulips, fills the lower rr.edallion, 
while the words, long baffl ng decipher Tient, DAN. WIR. 
GEDEN., "since we remember," fill the central cartouche. 

As noted under Figure 107, Dr. John Bear Stoudt. of North- 
ampton, Pa., traced the inscription, there begun and here con- 
tinued, to a motto in Otterbeins Lese-buch Fur Schulkinder, and 
it would see n that we have here an adaptation, continued on 
this front plate in the plural, of the sentence from Otterbe"n 
begun on the left plate, Figure 108, and should therefore expect 
to find on the companion right plate the words KEN. AUC H. 
ALT. ZU. WERDEN., show'ng that three moulds rather than 
two had been used to make the stove. But the right plate, in 
the possession of Mr. Deats, and the right fragment here shown. 
Figure 109, does not so co— .plete the quotat'on, and is a replica 
of the left plate, Figure 108, ?o that we are Isft to suppose, 
e!th;r that the caster had several times stupidly used the left 
mould to cast the right plate, or that the carver had neglected 
to carve, or the furnace had refused to buy, the extra pattern 
with the final inscription required to finish the sentence. 




III. 

Good for Evil of 1758. 

Right plate. Size, H. 24'4 x W. 2524. In possession of Mr. 
J. L. Heacock, of 115 West Tulpehocken Street, German town. 
Pa., Fig. 112. Right. Bucks County Historical Society. 

This plate, showing the usual floral pattern, pecul ar in 
having a wheat sheaf set within the aureole heart, is a replica 
of Figure 112, and was found by Mr. Heacock in an old farm- 
house belonging to his family, near Rich Hill, about five miles 
southwest of Quakertown, in 1910. 

The same inscription, from Romans 12-21, in Luther's Bible, 
but slightly transposed, and incomplete, upon the side plate, 
LAS. DICH. DAS. BESSE. NICHT.. "Be not overcome 



furniture and utensils, in Germany, France, Cologne, Marburg, Amsterdam, Stockholm, 

Holland, Transylvania and Scandinavia. But Nancy and Christiania, this particular pattern 

notwithstanding this fact, according to infor- appears to be unknown in Central and North- 

mation given the writer from Museums at ern Europe. Dr. Beck and Dr, Kassel never 



77 



of evil." with the word UBERWUNDEN, "overcome." probably 
cast on the m.ssing front plate. ccci:rs on the S. F. plate. 
Figure 96, dated two years earlier, in 1756. 

The date I7£8. much rusted, on the replca. Figure 112. is 
here casly seen above the name of the ironmaster, THOMAS. 
POTS., to which the Gerran mould carver has added a final S. 
which docs not appear in any other spellings oF the name on the 
Jamb stoves thus far found. This name, highly adorned with 
sprout ng tulips and set under the date 1758, indicates that the 
plate was cast probably at Colebrookdale. 

The noted family of Potts, whose names so often appear on 
the floral patterns h:re shown, descendants of Thomas Potts, of 
Germantown (1680 1752J, founders cf Pottstown (not Pottsville), 
Pa., by t-ieir inter rarr ages In the 18th century with heiresses 
of the Nutt and Rutter family, became masters or part owners 
of several forges, together with the principal ancient furnaces 
in the iron-bear ng region of the Mid-Schuylkill Valley, namely, 
Colebrookdale and Popa:Iickon, (or Pcttsgrove or Pottstown) 
Furnaces on the Mana tawny Creel: on the left bank, and Cov- 
entry Forge. Warwick and Mount Pleasant Furnaces in the 
French Creek reg.on, on the r'ght bank of the river. 




112. 

According to disjointed state T-.ents in the Potts Menorial. 
by Mrs. Potts James. Iron in All Ages, by J. M. Swank, and -n 
the History of Chester County, by Futhey and Cope, there were 
three persons by the name of Thomas Potts concerned in the 
iron works of Pennsylvania, at the time of the making of 
decorated stoves, namely, 1. Thomas Potts (called Junior, and 
nephew cf a Welsh emigrant callei Thomas Potts), born 1680, 
probably in Wales, and the founder of the American Potts 
family of ironmasters. Brought up among Germans in Ger- 
mantown, Pa. He married, first, in 1699, Martha Kerlis, and 
second, about 1718, Magdalen Robeson, leaving a numerous 

heard of it. Owing to the sheep heads, we can 
see no suggestion of it in the description of 
the Ark of the Covenant, as explained in 
Exodus 25: 10, and if, according to Mr. George 
von Collin, of Hanover,- it might have been 
derived from decorative paintings on chests 
brought to America by emigrants in the 18th 
century, no such chest or painting has been 
found. 



family of ch t 'rcn. He was Sheriff of Germantown in 1702, con 
cerned with Tho.mas Rutter (the first ironmaster of Pcnnsyl- 
van a), and a co.npany. in bull I ng Colebrookdale Furnace in 
1720, was sharehol'Ier and probably manager at Colebrookdale 
after Rutter's death in 1718. partner at the rebui) I ng cf the 
furnace in 1731 to 1736, and foin:Ier of Mt. Pleasant Furnace in 
1738. but could not be the person referred to on the plate, since 
ht died at Ccl:brookdale in 1752, six years before the plate was 
cast (when in an inventory of his will ?ix stoves and some odJ 
plates, valued at 20 pounds, arc ment oned). 

Neither is it probable that the p:rson h.re referred to Is 
2. Thomas Potts, son of John Potts, born at Colebrookdale in 
1735 and who died in 1785. In 1757 this Thomas married hi\ 
cousin Rebecca Nutt. heiress of part of the Nutt iron proprrty 
on French Creek. Chester County. Pa., after which he man- 
aged Coventry Forge on buying out the interest of Robert 
Grace. He was an orig nal member of the American Ph lo- 
sophical Society in 17^8, lived at a house called Pcttsgrove, near 
Pottstown, was a member of Assembly for Philadelphia in 1775. 
a Colonel of the American Army in the Revolutionary War, 
concerned in the dit;covery and utilizat on of anthracite coal 
about 1784, in the Pennsylvania Legslature in 1785, died in 
1785, and was buried at the family graveyard at Coventry. But 
because Samuel Flower, whose name and nitials appear in 1756 
and 1 764 en stove plates cast at Redding Furnace (associated 
with Coventry Forge nearby), namely. Figures 96. 156 and 160, 
was no doubt manager of Redding in 1758, and because John 
Potts, Senior, or h s sons John and Samuel, and not Thomas, 
were managing Warwick Furnace in 1758. and because the 
initials I. P. and S. P., for John and Samuel Potts, appear on 
the plate. Figure 108. dated 1758. probably cast at Warwick, 
we may infer that th s Thomas Potts — who would have made 
the plate either at Redding or at Warwick, if at all, had nothing 
to do with it, but that it was cast rather by 

3. Thomas Potts, son of (1) Thomas Potts, the Welsh an- 
cestor, and uncle of (2), born about 1721. and died in 176?. 
This Thomas Potts was brother of John Potts, the founder of 
Pottstown. and after 1752 may have inherited a share of Mt. 
Pleasant Furnace from his father. But having married in 1742 
Rebecca Rutter, heiress of part of the Rutter property at Cole- 
brookdale, many of his interests lay at the latter furnace, of 
which he was a shareholder in 1742, and two-thirds owner in 
1752 at his father's death. Because the plate would not probably 
have been cast at Redding or Warwick Furnace by one named 
Thomas Potts, in 1758, and because Colebrookdale Furnace 
was and Mt. Pleasant furnace may have been in blast in 1758, 
and the former then managed by thU Thomas Potts and his 
brother-in-law, Thoir-as Rutter, whose name is on the Colebrook- 
dale plate. Figure 115, of the same year, we infer that this plat* 
was cait either at Mt. Pleasant or Colebrookdale furnace, by 
the Thomas Potts in question. 

Whoever designed Figure 111 followed very closely th- 
whole upper panel of the Treasure plate of Jahn Pot. Figure 
113, but he did not reproduce it by re-casting from the same 
model. Otherwise, the variance in the fluting of the flower 
pots, wheat sheaves, column twists and heart in the aureole, 
v.ould not appepar. The two plates indicate two wood carvings 
made from one design or drawing, probably by the same hand. 

The Popadickon (Pottsgrove) and Mt. 
Pleasant ledgers in 1743-4-5 speak of "Carved 
Stoves," which may refer to this pattern, but 
whatever furnace first produced it, it was 
immediately adopted, though never recast, by 
rival furnaces, and although it might have 
been easy to make a new stove from an old 
one by reproducing the iron original, no evi- 
dence of such pilfering or plagiarism has yet 



78 



for the two ironmasters, Thomas and John Potts, as brothers 
owning neighboring furnaces, rather than that one carving was 
altered by re-piecing and used twice. 

F gure 111, in possession of Mr. J. L. Heacock, August 
23. 1910. was found by him at the Heacock far.-n in Rockhill 
Township, near Rich Hill. Bucks County, Pa. Figure 1 12 was 
bought by the writer at a junk yard in Pottstown in 1909. 



other five-plate stove inscription yet seen, except in the Ger- 
man plates. Figures 20. 22, in Figures 31 and 38 of possible 
German make, and F gure 98. 

The plate was bought at Boons antique store, in Potts- 
town. in 1907. Left replica. Hon. S. W. Pennypacker. at 
Schwenksville. Right repKca. Ccl. H. D. Paxson, Holicong. 
Pa.. June. 1911. 




113. 

Treasure of Jaliii Pot. 

Right plate. Size. H. 235/4 x W. 26. B. H. S. 

The typical floral pattern, double canopy, twisted columns, 
flower pots, tulips, grain sheaf, eight pomt stars, chequered 
lozenges, pendant scallops and aureole with sheep legs on the 
left. 

Tul'ps sprout from the letters A. H. N. and O. in the 
name lAHN. POT. (for John Potts), probably the founder of 
Pottstown (not Pottsville), born 1710, d.ed 1762. and long 
ironmaster at Warwick Furnace, where the plate was probably 
cast about 1758 (see Figure 110). The inscription from the 
Sermon on the Mount, Matt. 6-21, Luke 12-34. in Luther'i 
Bible, WO. EUER. SCHAZ. 1ST. DA. 1ST. "Where your 
treasure is, there is " fills the central cartouche. 

No front plate has yet been found to complete the cele- 
brated sentence with the words AUCH. EUER. HERZ. "Also 
your heart," as also in the ca e of the side plate. Figure 103. 
where the Treasure legend, "For where your treasure is there 
will your heart be aho.'" likewise appears incomplete. 

The unexplained letter V, placed within the heart of the 
aureole, has no counterpart in the whole collection, save in 
the case of the Huber plate. Figure 95. On the other hand, 
the round-based U. in the word EUER. does not appear on any 

appeared. All the illustrations shown, though 
alike in composition, vary in details, showing 
that the same pattern did not appear year after 
year with changed date, as in Germany, and 
that the designs were not stolen or patched 
together, but invariably cast from original 
patterns carved for the occasion. 

No proof has yet appeared that any of the 
five-plate stoves, however decorated, which, 
as explained before, were made in three sizes, 
ever showed the same design in more than 




114. 
Company of I. P* 

S'ze. H. 23^4 X W. 19. Berks County Historical Society. 

Found by Mr. B. F. Owen in an old house in Millbach in 
Berks County, Pa., in 1910. The rust has almost obliterated 
the aureole and details of the familiar floral pattern, with the 
words UND. COMPAGNL and the initials I. P., probably 
standing for John Potts, the ironmaster, in the lower medallion. 

As John Potts (born 1710, died at Pottsgrove, 1768), son 
of Thomas Potts, was share owner or manager not only at 
Warwick, but also at Pottsgrove and Mount Pleasant Furnaces, 
this plate could not certainly be ascribed to Warwick, but it is 
the only instance yet found in which John Potts follows the 
example of St'egel. Huber and Flower, in substituting an 
advertisement for the usual relig ous inscription on the central 
cartouche. 



one size; neither does it appear that any of 
the stoves were furnished with heat-retaining 
or smoke-conducting upper stories of iron or 
brick,'' and with the exceptions noted at 
Nazareth, Pennsylvania and Winston-Salem, 
North Carolina (see Figures 227 and 228), no 
tile stove or loose stove tiles or potters' stove 
tile moulds, or other evidences have appeared 
to show that the colonists ever made these 
stoves after the old familiar European fashion 
of tiles brick or wattles smeared with clay. 



79 




115- 

Xlioiiias Rutter of 1758. 

Front plate of jaiib stove. Size, H, 24 x W. 20. Pennsylvania 
Museum. Fairmount Park, Philndelphia. Pa.. Museum No.. 13-61. 
The treatment of the date, 1758, appearing in the medallion, 
and cf the floral canopies with their aureole in the upper panel, 
suggests the handiwork of the carver of the Tho.-nas Potts plate 
of 17:8. Figure 111. and the William Bird plate. Figure 35. 
/ U three show a wheat sheaf in the heart of the aureole. Here 
the name of the ironmaster THOMAS ROTTER indicates that 
the plate was cast at Colebrookdale Furnace, under the manage- 
ment of Thomas Rutter who in this case has abandoned the 
religious inscription of the central cartouche for an advertise- 
ment of his own name. 




ii6. 
The Eyes of the I^ord. 

Size. H. 23^2 x W. 26. 



with the emblematic aureole set not in the left canopy, but in 
the right. The rusty inscription. DIE. AUGEN. DES. 
HERRN., "The eyes of the Lord." from Psalms 34; )6 in 
L-Jlher's Bible, is probably continued by the obliterated word 
SCHAUEN and the final worJs AUF. DIE. GERECHTEN.. 
cent nued on the lost front plate. "The eyes of the Lord are 
upon the righteous." 

In a much-rusted medallion b;low. the name Thomas pla nly 
appears, either for Thomas Potts, or more probably Tho-nas 
Rutter, because of the isolated R. no doubt stand ng for Rutter. 
m the upper left canopy, and though the rest of the inscription 
on the medallion is rusted beyond decipherment, there can be 
little doubt but that the plate, like Figure US, was cast at Cole- 
brockdale Furnace. 

Figure 112 is inscr bed Thomas Potts, and dated 1758. Ai 
we suggeste:!. it may have been cast at Mout Pleasant or Colc- 
brookdal-. If at the latter, here we have another plate, prob- 
ably cast at the saiie furnace in the ramc year for Thonas 
Rutter. a co ncidence cxplaine-l by the fact that Rutter was 
Thomas Potts' brother-in-law and that the two relatives might 
have been managing the furnace together in the year 1758. 

Thc.mas Rutter appears thus a^ain on Figure 115, which 
also may be ascribed to Colcbrookd.ile Furnace. 




Col. H. 



Left plate of five-plate stove. 
D. Paxson. Holicong. Pa. 

Here we have another floral pattern of the usual type, but 



117. 

The Masters of Martic. 

Right plate. Size W. 26 x H. 23';. Col. H. D. Paxson. Holi- 
cong. Pa. 

There can be no question that this plate, with its rusty left 
replica. F gi're 118. and the front plate. Figure 138. all three 
of which came into the possession of Col. Paxson together. for.Ti 
parts cf one and the sa^ne stove. The familiar quotation from 
Fsal.-ns 65-10. GOTES. BRYNLEIN. HAT.. 'God's well hath "— 
fillirg the central cartouche, is completed on Figure 138. but 
the in tials MC. TS. WS. WB. SW. in the lower medallion, 
remained for some t me inexplicable, until finally explained by 
Mr. B. F. Owen in 1910. He having found by analogy with 

Figures 134 and 152. 153 and 164. that the letters MC. stood 
for Martic. learned in the records of Berks County that Marti: 
Furnace, built in 1754 by the brothers Thomas and Willam 
Smith, was. in ITEO (the date of the front plate. Figure 138), 
owned by them, together with William Benet. for WB,. and 
Samuel Webb, of Maryland, for SW., with Ferguson Mcllvaine 
as furnace manager, the latter three having bought their shares 
in 1760. Notwithstanding the omisson of Mcllvaine's initials, 
this seems conclusive. 

A replica in possession of the Berks County Historical 
Society at Reading was found by Mr. B. F. Owen in 1910. in 
an old house in Berks County. Pa. A broken frag.ment (the 



80 




1X8. 

lower left corner) of a left replica was in possession (1912) of 
Mr. D. B. Landis, cf Lancaster, Pa. (Information of Mr. A. C. 
Hostetter.i 




119. 

Stieg:el of 1758. 

Right plate. Size, H. 26 x W. 28 inches. Mr. G. H. Banner. 
Manheim. Pa. The broad margin to the right has been cut off 
in the photograph. 

Much has been written of H. W. Stiegel. sometimes called 
Baron Stiegel, founder of Manheim. Pennsylvania (upon the 

DECADENCE IN DESIGN AND ABAN- 
DONMENT OF JAMB STOVES. 

With the advent of the new floral pattern 
a change appears in the significance of the 
plates. The carving is better, but the re- 
ligious spirit previously universal, occasionally 
yields to worldliness. Though quotations from 
Scripture frequently appear on the central 



rectangular model of Rhenish Manheim). constructor of its 
glass works and i-nporter cf its glass painters, builder of its 
"castle," master of its furnace, donor of lind to its Lutheran 
church (according to his deed, "For one red rose in the month 
of June, given to me, or my heir=. forever when lawfully de- 
manded"), energetic and lavish benefactor, shipwrecked in- 
vestor, ru ned prisoner for debt. 

Stiegel, who was probably born at Cologne, and was prob- 
ably not a baron (infor riation of Mr. Luth-r W. Kelker, his 
descendant. Harrisburg, Pa., 1910), arrived in America in the 
ship "Nancy," from Rotterdam, in 1750 (old style), and after 
marrying the daughter of Johann (Hans) Jacob Hubtr, ownT 
cf Elzabeth Furnace on Mid-lie Creek. Lancaster County, Pa., 
bought the furnace, with Charles Steadman and Alexander 
Stead man. of Philad:lph-a (who was also marr'ed to an Eliza- 
beth), as partners, in 1757- 

Of the group of dated plates of five-, six- and ten-plate 
stoves herewith shown, inscr bed w th his name, this pUte, cast 
the year after he became ironmaster at Elizabeth Furnace, is 
the earliest yet found. The inscription clearly reads (n the 
upper panel) H. WHELM. STIEGEL. UND. (in the cartouche) 
COMPAGNL FOR. ELIZABETH., and in the lower medallion 
the date 1758. 

Although this plate, with a double canopy, aureole, tulips, 
cartouche and date medall on. presents the usual, familiar tulip 
pattern, several unique details strike us. No other plate in the 
whole collection has removed, as here, the legs, whether as 
darts or sheep, from the aureole, or, as here, sprouted tulips 
from the shafts of the coluTns, and no other plate except Fig- 
ures 116, cast for Thomas Rutter, and 121, cast also for Stiegel, 
shows the ai:reole in the right canopy instead of the left. 

Furthermore. Stiegel, like Amos Geret. in Figure 93. and 
Jahn Pot. in Figure 89, places h s name in full in the back- 
ground of the pattern under the canopy. 

We have advertisements in Germany on stove plates of a 
hundred vears earlier, and Flower's plate. Figure 94, and the 
I. P. plate. Figure 114. are devoted to advertisements in 
America. Figure 89 also shows that Huber. Stiegels" father-- 
in-law and predecessor at Elizabeth Furnace, had. as above 
noted, abandoned the religious inscr'ption. which had invariably 
rrarked the five-plate stove from the beginning, but the old 
German plates had retained the religious motive together with 
the advertisement. Flower and Pott had repeated it abundantly 
on other plates, and whether Ruber, in whose name we have 
but a single plate, ever used a religious pattern or not, it is a 
remarkable fact that Stiegel has cast no religious inscriptions 
on any of his plates herewith shown, but has invariably sub- 
stituted an advertisement of Elizabeth Furnace, or of h"s own 
name in large letters, in the date medallion, decorated back- 
ground, or upon the cartouche itself. 

Though the inscriptions on the five-plate stoves remain in 
German to the last, and though we may bel-eve that in general 
the English ironmasters employed German pattern carvers, and 
left the mottoes and patterns to the taste of the latter, without 
gving much thought to the subject, Stiegel, himself a German, 
possibly preceded by Huber, another German, seems to havr* 
invariably interfered with the pious hand of the workman to 
introduce an eccentric change and abolish religion for adver- 
tisement. 



cartouche, the inscriptions, still always in Ger- 
man, archaic, frequently abbreviated, phoneti- 
cally spelled, sometimes inexplicable, and 
often substituting English words for their 
German equivalents, occasionally show adver- 
tisements in full of the names of furnaces, 
which though previously appearing in Ger- 
many had thus far been unknown in America. 



81 




I20. 

Stiejjel of 1758- 

Left pl3te of ja-nb stove. Size. H. 24 x W. 26. Co» H. D. 
Pax son, Holicong, Pa. 

Above the date, 1758, in the lower medallion, the broken 
inscr pticn filling the central cartouche and probably continue i 
on the missing front plate. HENRICH. WILHELM. STI 
omits the final syllable of the much-advertised name of the 
ironmaster. 

As suggested before, the letter V inserted in the heart of 
the aureole on this plate, occurring on the Huber plate of 175S, 
Figure 95. and the Jan Pott plate. Figure 113. and appearin:; 
always in the same place, may stand for the unknown name of 
a mould carver. 

The very rusty Figure 106 is undoubtedly a right replica 
of this plate. 




121. 
H. IfVillielni Stiesrel. 

Left plate. Size, H. 2334 x W. 2534- Col. H. D. Paxson. Holi- 
cong. Pa. 



This plate is remarkable as a copy of the floral pattern. 

Figure 122. with eccentric variations. We have Sticgel's adver 
tisement in the central cartouche. IN. COfWBANGNI. VOR. 
ELISA., "In co.Tpany for Eliza." with the words BETH. 
VORNES.. "Beth Furnace." cont nued on the broken front 
plate. Figure 126, and the naiie H. W. HELM. STIGCHELS.. 
H. Wilhel."n Stiegcl, in the lower medallion. 

Thus far the plate appears to be a recast of Figure 122. 
but on close comparison we find that the bases of the columns 
here panelled lack panels in Figure 122, that the initials I. B. 
under the canopy in Figure 122 arc h;rc absent, that the 
lozenge in Figure 122. within the heart of the aureole, is here 
replaced by a star, and that the two smaller tulips branching 
from the base of the heart of the aureole present in this plate 
are absent in the other. Furthermore, the upper construction 
of the vaults, loops, canopy, tulips and lozenges, though gener- 
ally similar, shows variations, while as a remarkable exception 
in the typical arrangement of the floral pattern the aureole 
appear ng as usual in the left canopy in Figure 122 has here 
been placed by Stiegel in the right. 

The plate signifies no more nor less than Figure 122, and 
why Stiegel went to the expense of having two patterns carved 
where one would have sufficed, remains unexplained. 








123. 

I. B. Sties:el Plate. 

Right plate. Size. W. 25 x H. 21 inches. Senate House. King 
ston-on- Hudson. New York. 1910. 

In the background of the usual floral pattern and between 
the tu'ips of the right canopy, the in tials I. B. appear, beneath 
which the inscript on IN. COMBANGNI. VOR. ELISA. H. 
W. HELM. STIGCHELS.. "In company for Elisa H. Wilhelm 
Stiegel," fills the cartouche and medallion. 

This plate was cast in 1760, as its companion front plate 
so dated, found with it, and complet ng the inscription with the 
words BETH. VORNES., see Figure 126. proves. 

Here again, as in his Figure 119, Stiegel abandons the 
usual religious motto and devotes the entire inscription, as 
Samuel Flower did on Figure 94. in 1754, to an advertisement 
of himself and his furnace. 

If the initials I. B.. clearly appearing on the background 
under the right canopy, had referred to the pattern carver, 
they would hardly have been deliberately erased in the left 
replica. Figure 123. as they appear to have been, and because 



82 




123* 

a sinilar erasure of the same in tials appears on another Stiegtl 
left plate. Figure 125, we rr.ay rather refer them to sO-Tie original 
partner at Elizabeth, who had resigned from the firm. 




124. 

Replicas have appeared as follows: (1) Right, from an old 
house at Millbach. found and photographed by Mr. B. F. Owen 
in 1910. (2) Left, ditto. Figure 123, Bucks County Historical 



Stiegel abandoned the religious motto on 
the central cartouche altogether. So did 
Huber at Elizabeth Furnace. Samuel Flower 
at Redding Furnace and several of the Potts 
iron masters place their full names or initials 
in the upper canopies, or the lower medallion, 
and numerous initials often unidentified, 
standing for the iron masters or carvers, 




Society. (3) Left, Bucks County Historical Society, Figure 
124, bought by the writer at Boone's, at Pottstown, 1908. (4) 
Left, Mr. H. K. Deisher, Kutztown, Pa., 1914, Figure 125. 




126. 

Frag;nieiit of Front Plate. 

Size. H. 14 X W. 15. Senate House, Kingston-on-Hudson. 

Above the medallion, showing the date 1760, the words 
BETH. VORNES. upon the cartouche, continuing the inscrip- 
tion. IN. COMBANGNI. VOR. ELISA., identify the plate as 

appear on the floral plates during the period of 
the last record of their manufacture. ' 

The Potts manuscripts show that five- 
plate, or jamb stoves, continued to be cast or 
sold at Pottsgrove in 1768, and the ledger of 
William Smith, stove dealer in Lancaster 
County, and once owner of Martic Furnace, 
notes the sale of them in 1765, after the bank- 



83 



the companion to Figure 122, with which it is associated at 
Kingston, arri although the inscription would serve as well for 
Figure 121. the fact that the square base of the twisted colunn 
of Figure 121 is here missing, classes the plate rather with 
Figure 122. 

Three dents on the column look like the countersunk cav- 
ities for nail heads, which the mouldmaker had neglected to 
fill in with clav, putty or mastic. 

If Dr. Sieling had seen this front plate he would not have 
asserted in his paper noticed in note 99. that these inscriptions, 
reading 

UND COMPAGNI. VOR. ELIZABETH, and 
IN. COMBANGNI. VOR. ELISA.. 

see Figures 119. 121. 125 and 126. were cast by Stiegel in 
griev ng memory of his deceased wife. Stiegel and his com- 
pany, then Alexander and Charles Stead -nan. thus appear, not 
in rr.ourn'ng for Elizabeth Huber. but in an advertisement of 
partnersh p for Elizabeth Furnace, as the last word VORNES. 
proves. The same error appears in Forges and Furnaces, by 
the Colonial Dames. Philadelphia, 1914. page 121. 




127. 

Henricti Willielni Klizaneth Plate. 

Left plate. Size, H. 23'2 x W. 25'2. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

Here again, as in Flower's plate. Figure 94. advertisement 
excludes religion. In the central cartouche, under the floral 
pattern with its domed canop es. aureole, flower pot, lozenges, 
wheat sheaves and tulips, we have, not the usual B.blical motto, 
but the name of the ironmaster. HEINRICH. WILHELM.. 
for Henry William Stiegel. ironmaster at Elizabeth Furnace in 
1757. 

The ruins of El zabeth Furnace, near Brinkersville. on Fur- 
nace Run, northwest branch of Middle Creek, a tributary of 
Conestoga Creek, in Lancaster County, Pa., mark the spot 
where the once celebrated iron works were founded, accord.ng 
to Pearse. in 1756. and according to Swank, in 1 750. by John 
or Hans Jacob Huber, who. Swank says, adorned its smoke- 
stack with the rhyme described under Figure 95 : 

"Johan Huber. der erste Deutsche Mann 
Der das Eisenwerk Vollfuren Kann." 

Stiegel, who was probably born at Cologne, and was prob- 
ably not a baron (information of Mr. Luther W. Kelker. his 



descendant. Harrisburg, Pa.. 1910), arrived in America in the 
ship "Nancy." fro.n Rotterdam, in 1750. old style, and after 
n-arrying Huber's daughter. Elizabeth, bought the furnace, with 
Charles Steadman and Alexander Stead. r.an. of Philadelphia 
(who was also married to an Elizabeth), as partners, in 1757. 

The statements in Ellis and Evans' History of Lancaster 
County (Ph.ladelphia. Everts and Peck, 1883. page 303). that 
Stiegel made the first wood-burning stove in the province; that 
it was a six-plate stove, and that the latter was built in thi 
wall and heated two rooms, are wrong and confusing ; neither 
have we found any evidence to prove that the book is correct 
in asserting that Stiegel introduced or invented the ten-plate 
stove, which Figure 179 shows that the ironmaster, George 
Ross, had cast in 1765. and wh ch Figure 185 proves, had long 
before existed in Holland. Unfortunately, no ten-plate stove- 
plate with the rhyme, in the style of the smokestack rhyme of 
his father-in-law. 

"Baron Stiegel ist der Mann, 
Der die Oefen machen kann." 
which, according to Swank, page 179. was set above the oven 
doer, has yet appeared. Mr. Danner's stove. Figure 182, cast 
for Stiegel and lacking this rhyme, is dated 1769. 

A noticeable feature in the pattern is the fact that the 
sheep heads in the aureole have disappeared to give place t J 
elongated necks ending in lozenge shaped darts, and that the 
whole aureole takes a form which, with similar details, soon 
after appears on several six plate stoves, and has led us to sup- 
pose, for the reasons given under F gure 160, that the Samu-1 
Flower. Carlisle, Curtis Grubb and Eschew Ev 1 plates. Figures 
160. 162. 163 and 159. have been made by the same carver. 

The words ELIZABETH FURNACE fill the lower medal- 
lion, where the word FURNACE, which replaced the German 
wcrd Eisenhutten in Pennsylvania and was generally spelled 
phonetically FORNEC or VORNES, is here spelled in the 
English manner correctly. 








\ W)- 'sy 



/ 



ZiiliitXUi ■;.'..,. U-f...v/ :M^ J 




128. 

stiegel and K. 

Front of Jamb Stove. Size, W. 21 'i x H. 23' i. Mr. H. K. 
Deisher, Kutztown, Pa-, November 21. 1913. 



84 



Because the inscription on the central cartouche of thi:; 
plate, STIGGEL. UND. K. (Steigel und Kompagnie). which 
is the second companion jamb stove front thus far found, made 
by Stiegel, continues the advertiseTient begun on the side plate, 
Figure 127, and because all the details in the aureole, heart, 
dart-headed sheep, twisted columns, flower pots, tulips and soffit 
ornaments are similar in style, we must suppose that it is the 
long m*ss ng front to the latter, notwithstanding the ten-pointed 
stars under the arches, absent on the other pattern. The broken 
lower fragment of the plate preserved, set together and photo- 
graphed by Mr. Deisher, shows the latest date (1765) yet found 
upon a jamb stove. 

The only other jamb stove front in the collection made by 
Steigel is the fragment, Figure 126, dated 1760. 




129* 

larb Plate. 

Right plate. Sire, H. 22 x W. 24. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

Under a double canopy with twisted columns, stand two 
tulips in flower pots, balanced with e ght po nt stars and grain 
Bheaves unexplained, while the initials I ARE fill the space 
midway between tuKp and columns. The inscription from 
Psalms 65-10. in Luther's Bible. GOTTES. BRINLEIN. HAT.. 
"God's well hath," continued in the words WASER. DIE. 

ruptcy sale of Martic Furnace. The last plates 
of a five-plate stove in the collection (Figures 
135 and 128) are dated 1763 and 1765. respec- 
tively, and this brings us to the end of the 
manufacture of these stoves in Pennsylvania, 
which had thus lasted about forty-eight years, 
or from 1720 to 1768. 

During this time, before the discovery of 
American coal, or the appearance of cooking 
stoves, when all cooking was done in the open 
fire, it may be said in general that these deco- 
rated iron boxes were the chief, if not the only, 
house-warming stoves existing in the colonies. 



FILLE.. "Water in plenty." on the front plate. Figure 131, 
fills the cartouche above the lower medallion. The latter Is 
adorned in the usual way and encloses the date 1759. 

This plate, together with its front. Figure 132. and a 
duplicate in three pieces (Figure 1301, together with several 
fragments of tops and bottoms of various five-plate stoves, 
placed in a long close ser'es. had lain across two parallel rows 
of flat stones, just under the sod, as the roof of a pump drain, 
in the front yard of Mr. Shirk's far nhouse near Lancaster. Pa., 
where the writer excavated them with a crowbar on January 11, 
1909. In the following August, the details of the pattern, badly 
rusted on the front plate. Figure 132, were settled by the dis- 




130. 

covery of another pair of plates, side and front in replica, by 
Mr. B. F. Owen, at Mr. J. E. lUg's old house at Millbach, in 
Lebanon County, Pa. 



Though never heard of among the English 
population in New England or the South, there 
is no doubt that the English colonists in 
Pennsylvania frequently used them, particu- 
larly in Philadelphia and Germantown. But 
the inscriptions were nearly always in German, 
( See figure 88-b ) and they appealed chiefly to 
the German colonists, who had long been famil- 
iar with them in Germany, rather than to the 
English settlers, who had never heard of them 
in England, and who maintained their ancestral 
preference for the open fire. 

This blaze of logs upon the open hearth, 
which, with the superabundant wood, was 



85 




131. 
larb Front Plate. 

Size. 22 X 18. Berks County Historical Society. 

Two flower pots with tulips under a double canopy oi 




13*. 

twisted columns balanced with diamonds and the initials lARB, 
The cartouche below contains the end of the inscription from 
Psalms 65-10, in Luther's Bible, WASER. DIE. FILLE.. 
"Water in plenty." begun on Figure 129. Another series of 
initials. C. A. W.. with an interplaccd snaller R. balanced with 
diamonds, sprouting tulips, and tulips sprouting from the A 
and W, fill the lower medallion. The aureole with sheep legs. 



so common on the other floral plates, has been omitted, and the 
date 1759, on the companion side plate, marks the stove as 
one of the later five plate stoves cast. No evidence has ap- 
peared to explain the meaning of the initials or guess whAn or 
by whom the stove was cast. Figure 132 was found by the 
writer in Dr. Shirk's gutter with its fellow Figure 129, as de- 
scribed under the former, and the better preserved replica, 
F gure 131, was rescued by Mr. B. F. Owen in 1910 from the 
rubbish of Mr. J. E. Illig's old house near Millbach, Lebanon 
County. Pa. 




133- 
William Beiiet of Hellam. 

Left plate. Size, H. 27 x W. 2834. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

The usual fioral pattern with double canopy, twisted col- 
umns, aureole with dart-headed sheep legs, flower pots, 
chequered lozenges, stars, grooved pendants, and grain sheaves, 
appears above the inscription from Luther's Bible, Psal.-ns 1-1 : 

WOHL. DEM. DER. NICHT. WANDELT., continued 
with the words IM. RATHE. DER. GOTTLOSEN.. on the 
companion front plate, not yet found. "Blessed is the man 
that walketh not (in the councils of the ungodly.") Below in 
the medallion, flanked with the invariable flowering hearts, 
appear the words WILEM. BENET. H. FURNACE., undoubt- 
edly meaning "William Bennett. Hellam Furnace." There was 
a well-known Hellam Forge on the south side of Codorus Creek, 
near its mouth in the Susquehanna, in York County, Pa., built 
by Willam Bennett in 1765. but the obscure and probably 
short-lived Hellam Furnace might have been overlooked by 
modern writers if Mr. G. F. Prowcll had not informed Mr. 
Swank ( Iron in All Ages, page 212) that William Bennett had 
built a Hellam Furnace with the Forge in 1765. 

We know from the Potts manuscripts and from William 
Smith's ledger, that five-plate stoves were sold as late as 1768, 
but if Bennett, who was part owner of Mart c Furnace about 
1759. built Hellam in 1765. then this plate, necessarily cast at 
Hellam then or later, excluding the Stiegel plate of 1765. Figure 
128. may be the latest example of a five-plate stove thus far 
found. 

The writer saw it set in cement in the yard pavement at 
Seventh and Kelker streets. Harrisburg. in 1909. where its 
owner. Mr. E. W. Pathemore. having bought it about 1895 it 
Mastersonville. Lancaster County, had placed it along with 
Figure 55. 



86 



iiS^% 



» 






'■^j^i^CTi^* 









134- 
M. C. Furnace in Laiicaj^ter. 

Right Plate. Size H. 22^ 2 x W. 24. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 

The badly rusted plate, dug by the writer, together with 
two other plates (Figures 100 and 132. and three fragments of 
Figure 153), from a drain at Dr. Shirk's farm near Lancaster, 
on January 11. 1909, shows the usual floral pattern with double 
canopy, twisted columns, sheaves, lozenges, flower pot, and 
aureole with sheep legs under the left arch. 

Below, the rusted inscription in the central cartouche reads. 
KEST. LICH. DING. This was for so.Tie time undeciphered. 
until Mr. A. K. Hostetter found a left replica in possession of 
Mr. D. B. Landis, near Lancaster, on which the unrusted let- 
ters clearly read, ES. 1ST. EIN. KESTLICH. DING. Kindly 
explained by Dr. John Bear Stoudt, of Northampton. Pa., as 
from Psalms 92-2. m Luther's Bible. DAS 1ST EIN KOST- 
LICHES DING DEM HERRN DANKEN. "It is a good 
thing to give thanks unto the Lord." 

The lower medallion is filled in with a repetition of the in- 
scription on Figures 152 and 153. namely, M. C. FORNES. IN. 
LANCT. CT.. standing for "Martic Furnace in Lancaster 
County." This decipherment being further elucidated by the 
fragment. Figure 164. As there explained, we have the name 
of Thomas Smith, known to have been ironmaster at Martic 
Furnace (near Martic Forge, founded in 1751. on Pequea Creek 
near the present [1914] Colemansville, Lancaster County), 
coupled with the initials M. C. E., meaning probably M. C. for 
Martic and E. for Eisenhutten (Furnace). 

According to information from Mr. B. F, Owen, of Read- 
ing. Martic Furnace was built in 1751 by the brothers Thomas 
and William Smith, descendants of several other Thomas Smiths, 
original land owners on Beaver Creek. Lancaster County. Both 
brothers were Sheriffs of Lancaster County. Thomas in 1752 to 
1756, and William from 1758 to 1762. When the latter married 
he moved to Earl Township in 1756. and held his partnership in 
the furnace till 1760. after which the firm became bankrupt. 
Then Martic Furnace, together with Martic Forge, four miles 
away, also belonging to the company, was advertised by Sheriff 
Webb's sale in 1769 (Swank. 188), with dwelling house, stores, 
counting house, coal house, eight shops, six long stables, four 
bays for hay, and a lot of pot patterns, flasks and stove moulds, 
which latter are unfortunately not described in the advertise- 
ment quoted. 

Pearse says (Iron Manufacture, page 220) that James Old 
had Martic Forge in 1755, and Thomas Smith, James Wallace 



and James Fulton were in possession in 1769 at the Sheriff's 
sale, and an old account book of William S.Tiith, in possession 
of Mr. Owen, is interesting as marking the date of sale of 
some of the latest jamb stoves made (undoubtedly at Martic) 
in 1765, or at the tixe of the latest dated plate herewith illus- 
trated, as follows, namely : One middl ng five-plate stove sold 
in 1760 at three pounds ten, one small ditto in 1765 at three 
pounds, two small ditto, 1765, at five pounds; three large ditto 
in 1765 at ten pounds ten, together with a large six-plate stove 
in 1767 at five pounds two-and-six. another large ditto in 1769, 
and a large ditto to a meeting houss in 1766 at four pounds two- 
and-six. 

Martic was in existence in 1793, but not active, and in 
1890 nothing but an old cinder bank marked its site (Swank, 
183). 




Ood's Sliield. 

Front plate of jamb stove- Size. W. I834 x H, 22. 



Valentine B. Lee. Oak Lane. Philadelphia. Pa. 
from a storekeeper at Frederick. Pa. 



Mr. 



Bought by him 




136. 

Nothing unusual appears in the flower pots, tulips and 
canopy of this familar floral pattern so frequently described, 



87 



but the aureole is without counterpart in the entire collection, 
as altcg;ther lacking the sheep legs, for whch leaf-scrolls and 
Iczenges have been substituted. 

If the plate represents the front of a jamb stove, rather 
than the rear of a six plate stove, its date. 1763, in the lower 
medallion, is. w th one exception, the latest thus far found on 
a ja-r.b stove. Here the very legible broken inscription, which 
begins the paragraph. Psalms 7. 11. in Luther's Bible (as indenti- 
ficd by Dr. J. B. Stoudt). reads: MEIN SCHILD 1ST BEI 
GOTT der den frommen Hertzen hilft. My defense is of God 
which saveth the upr ght in heart. Until the appearance of this 
plate, in 1914. the mutilated inscription on the two fragments, 
figure 136, at the Bucks County Historical Society, defied all 
efforts at decipherment. 

These pieces were found by the writer at Williams' junk 
yard, Harrisburg, Pa., on April 11. 1910. just as ths Jewish 
workmen were about to reload them, together with Figure 60. 
in a car for shipment and remelting. The fragTients. widely 
separated, lay -n mud under the wheelbarrow track among the 
heaps of "scrap" cast iron. They were weighed, bought at a 
cent-and-a-haU per pound as the yard was closing, wrapped with 
wire in two filthy sacks, carried to the ra Iroad station in the 
last junk wagon leaving that day, with a very lame horse, 
labelled at a neighboring warehouse with borrowed labels and 
left over night on the platform of the ra Iroad station, after 
the freight office had closed. 




^37- 
Frag^iiieiit of Front Plate* 

Of a five- or six-plate stove. Size. H. 14 x W. 20. Bucks 
County Histor cal Society, 

This plate, found in the scrap-iron heap at a junk yard at 
Pottstown in 1910, and unfortunately broken above the ins.rip- 
tion. shows two arched canopies with twisted columns. The 
aureole is omitted, and the tul ps are set in flower pots, which 
decorate both canopies and duplicate each other clcsely. but not 
exactly, as they would if sta:r.ped upon the sand from a loose 
mould. The lozenges with four chequers to the left, unlike those 
balancing thsm, with nine chequers to the right, are enclosed in 
ri.Tis. 

universal both for cooking and house warming 
in all American colonial houses whether Ger- 
man, Dutch, Norse or English, was never 
superseded by the stoves, and all the evidence 
shows that the German settlers used the latter 
always as adjuncts to the cooking hearth. 




^ \ 



klTflt-, 



138. 

God's Wen of 1760. 

Front plate. Size. W. 20 x H. 23. Collection of Mr. R. W. 
Steinman. 1910. Lancaster. Pa. 

The underscored words in the following text from Psalms 
65-9, "Thou visitest the earth, and waterest it. Thou greatly 
enrichcst it with the river of God. which is full of water,' 
would probably never have caught public attention as a maxim 
in English. On the other hand. Luther*s translation of the 
sa-ne verse. Psal.-ns 65-10. in the German verson. "Gottes 
Brunnlein hat wassers die Fulle." co.-nmands attention at once 
as a beautiful and insp-red sentence. According to F. R. Dif- 
fenderfer. of Lancaster, the sister of one of his friends had been 
taught by her German parents to repeat the sentence when a 
child, at the breakfast table, in about 1340 to 1850. Mr. Differ.- 
derfer hi.r.Eelf having been taught it by his mother about 1840. 

Under a vaulted canopy with pendant corbel and adorned 
with tulps wheat sheaves and chequered lozenges, stands the 
aureole flanked with two flower pots growing tulips, enclosing 
a heart tul'p and supported upon the usual sheep legs. 

Below, the words WASER. DIE. FYL. LE. complete the 
GOTTES. BRYNLEIN. sentence (see Figures 129, 131, 153 
and 154). begun on the side plate. 117. Although the usual 
double dot abbreviation occurs in the oil Miracle plate. Figure 
27, probably cast in Germany, it has not yet been found upon 
any American-made plate in the collection, where the letter Y 
often takes the place of the OE or UE, etc.. thus abbreviated 
with a double dot. Here the word "fiille" is spelled with a Y, 
though it appears otherwise in Figures 131 and 153, as FILLE. 
and FILE. 



rather than as independent centres of heat. 
The name "Jamb Stove" in Watson's Annals 
shows that they often opened into adjoining 
rooms through the jamb of a fireplace, like 
the Norse stove shown in Figure 1. at right 
angles from the fire, and a rectangular hole 



88 



The medallion below, adorned with a central tulip. Is 
flanked with the invariable heart tul ps, and clearly marked with 
the year 1760. adorned with a graceful S like tail to the nu- 
meral I. 

The plate found January 13. 1909, by the writer at Mr. A. J. 
Steinman's rolling mill in Lancaster, had come into the pos- 
session of the owner with the scrap iron bought for remelting. 
For some time it remained without the elucidation of its side 
plate. Then a replica, together with F gures 117 and 118 as 
its right and left side plates, in the collection of Col. H. D. 
Paxson, at Holicong. Pa., proved it to be the front plate of a 
five-plate stove, cast, according to Mr. B. F, Owen, at Martic 
Furnace when Thomas Smith. William Smith, William Benet 
and Samuel Webb were ironmasters. (See F.gure 117.) 




139- 
The X. B. Plate. 

Front plate of five- or possibly a six-plate stove. Size, W. 19 x 
H. 22K inches. Mrs. John Faber M:ller. of Chestnut Hill. Pa. 

The plate photographed August 30. 1910. had been formerly 
used as a step at a spring house on an old farm belonging to 
the Yeakel family at Chestnut Hill Park. Philadelph.a. Pa. 
After having been in their possession for about fifty-four years, 
it had been removed to its present position in about 1893 (in- 
formation of S. W. Reed, coachman). 

in the back of an old fireplace at the Clemens 
House, Doylestown, seen by the writer in 1912 
is evidence of their projection into adjoining 
lean-to sheds or workshops, built against the 
house wall back of the fireplace, where abun- 
dant shavings would have made the sparks of 
a fire dangerous. 

Thus the kitchen fire, always burning, did 
double duty. The hot embers or burning fuel 



Unfortunately no sde plate had been found or heard of 
by the Miller fannily to explain the inUials T. B. in the back- 
ground under the canopy, to determine whether the plate 
dated 1760 belonged to a five- or six-plate stove, or to co.iiplete 
the broken inscription DER. UND. EIN. GO., whch, however, 
as kinily explained by Dr. J. B. Stoudt, concides with the 
middle of the sentence from Psalms 7. 12. from Luther's Bible 
Gott ist ein rechter Rich TER UND EIN GOTT der taglich 
drauet. God judgeth the righteous and God is angry with tha 
wicked every day. 

In this case the inscription could not have been duplicated 
on the two side plates, but must have begun on the left and 
ended on the r ght. Therefore as a rare exception to the gen- 
eral practice, the stove must have been cast from three moulds 
instead of two. No other evidence of this sort has yet appeared 
except in the case of the Despise Not Old Age plate, Figure 
108. but there, for the reasons given, it is uncertain. 

This same date, together with so close a similarity in the 
treatment of the medallion border as to suggest the same pat- 
tern carver, appears upon the front plates of the Stiegel and 
Martic five-plate stoves, Figures 126 and 138. 










¥:^tn^ 




140. 

Tlie Xliaiiksg^iviii};. 

Right plate of Jamb Stove. Size. W. 22i2 x H. Z2"4. Mr. W. 
E. Montague, Norristown, Pa. 

Not the design which is the oft-described floral pattern, but 
the inscription, as identified by Dr. J. B. Stoudt. strikes us. 
This quotes the first verse of Psalms 106. 107 or 118 in Luther's 
translation. DANCKET. DEM. HERRN. DENN. ER. IST. 
FREUNDLICH. UND. SEINE. GUTE, WAHRET. EWIG- 
LICH. Give thanks unto the Lord for He is good and H's 
mercy endureth forever. 

thrust through the wall into the iron box 
beyond and raked out or replenished in a 
moment, might, in the imperfect draught of 
the stove, smoke and smoulder, as they would. 
No dangerous spark or stifling smoke escaped 
into the room heated, and no extra chimney 
was necessary. The stove, without iron legs, 
set upon a base of bricks, held together by 
one bolt, built against and into the wall, was 
safe from upset or collapse. 



89 



The words "For He is good" jeeii colti and stilted "in the 
English version, and no less so sounds the "Quoniam bonus" in 
The Latin Vulgate, but to praise God because he is "incndly," 
■warms the quotation with a life unknown in English, and which 
m ght account for its continued use accord ng to Dr. Stoudt 
as a tabl: prayer among the Pennsylvania Ger-tians. 

The Biblical sentence, beginn'ng on this right plate with 
the wor.is DANCKET. DEM. HERN. DEM. is continued on 
the front plate. Figure 141. and if the quotation ends there with 
Luther's bea-jt ful word FREUNDLICH, two carved moulds 
would have sufficed for this stove. But if the sentence has 
been corrpleted on the missing left plite. then three moulds 
would have been required. 

The init als Wl. WB. BH. and AD. on the lower medallion 
remain unexplained. 

The mould carver has blundered by carving the word DEM 
Jor DENN. 







141. 

The XUaiiUsgivinjf. 

Front plate of Jamb Stove. Size. W. 20 x H. 22'.;. Mr. W. E. 
Montague. Norristown. Pa. 

This plate, clearly dated 1762, is undoubtedly the front 
plate to Figure 140 and. as there explained, continues the in- 
script on fro.n Psalms 105. 107 or 118, 1, "for he is good" (or. 
as expressed in the Lat n Vulgate, Loch edition, Manz Ratij- 
bon, 1902, QUONIAM BONUS), with the more appealing Ger- 
n-an words of Luther's translation, ER. 1ST. FREUNDLICH. 
he is friendly. 



On the other hand, from the manufactur- 
ers' point of vie'w this simple stove with its 
five flat rectangular plates, cast in open sand 
without the trouble of flasks, was easily made. 
No perforation for stove door or hinge hooks, 
no iron framework for legs, no pipe holes, and, 
before the days of machine rolled sheet iron. 








M 



--^^;^ -a. 



i4i-a. 
Stevenson and R.os<4. 

Right plate. Size. H. 221 3 x W. 24. Mr. Albert Cook Myers, 
Moylan, Pa. 

The old floral pattern with its canopies, central cartouchft 
and lower medallion is here entirely devoted to advertisement. 
On the rim and central stripe of the lower medallion and under 
the arches above, appear uncorrected impressions of the heads 
of six or seven large bolts, as having held together the wooden 
mould which they rudely penetrate. The sheep heads of the 
aureole have become short points and the inscription, no 
longer Biblical, is balanced with decorative periods, set between 
the letters, regardless of syllables, and reads, in the central car- 
touche, Georgs Stevenson, and in the lower medallion. George 
Ros. Wiliam. Thorn, (for Tho-npson). 

We can imagine the German designer in the littered work 
shop of his log house, probably heated in winter by a jamb 
stove and lit at n:ght with a lard lamp, carving this plate, which 
rescues from oblivion a partnership of English ironmasters who 
probably took little interest in his work. His name is lost. 
His descendants, if he has left any, have forgotten him. His 
tools and designs have perished. But whoever he was, he 
must have carved the Carlisle plate. Figure 162. and the whole 
group of patterns there noted. A peculiar style common to 
them all seems to settle this fact. 

The work must have been done for Mary Ann Furnace, 
probably the first Pennsylvanian furnace west of the Susque- 
hanna, on Furnace Creek, West Manheim Township, Southwe>t 
York County, between 1761 and 1765. when, according to Colo- 
nial Forges and Furnaces in the Province of Pennsylvania, 

above all, no stovepipe of thin hammered iron, 
was necessary.'"*' 

Their end came suddenly when improved 
equipments in the American furnaces enabled 
them to produce stovepipes* and make the 
more elaborate castings required for the six- 
plate ventilating stove which next claims our 
attention. 



90 



Colonial Dames. 1914, page 160, George Stevenson, Georg; 
Ross ar.d William Thompson, founders of the furnace, were 
partners there. 

George Ross (1730 to 1779) was born in 1730, and was the 
son of George Ross, the "rector" of New Castle. Delaware. He 
was a lawyer at Lancaster in 1750, member of the Continental 
Congress, and signer of the Declaration of Independence. He 
declined a costly piece of silver plate as a public testimonial 
from the citizens of Lancaster. In Lancaster his house stood 
on the site of the present Court House, and his country house, 
"Rossmere," was in the suburbs. He was warden of St. James" 
Church at Lancaster, Judge of Admiralty of Pennsylvania, died 
in 1779. and is buried at Christ Church. Philadelphia. 

George Stevenson was born in Ireland in 1718. He studied 
at Trinity College, Dublin, and taught school at New Castle, 
Del. He was deputy surveyor of Lancaster County and went 
to York. Pa., in 1744. From 1749 to 1761 he held various legal 
offices in York County, and was Chief Ranger of Pennsylvania 
under Governor Hamilton in 1750. He went to Carlisle in 1765. 
and was owner of the site of Pine Grove Furnace (built by 
Thornburg & Arthur in 1770) for eight or ten years after 1764. 

William Thompson, born 1736, lived on a farm on the 
Conodoguinnet Creek, near Carlisle. He was Captain of Light 
Horse in 1758, and married first a sister of George Stevenson, 
and second a sister of George Ross. He was a Colonel of a 
battalion of riflemen in the Revolution in 1775, a Brigadier Gen- 
eral in 1776, and captured by the British in the attack on 
Quebec. After being paroled he was finally exchanged in 1780. 
He died in Carlisle in 1781, and is buried in the Old Grave 
Yard. (See Colonial Forges and Furnaces. Colonial Dames, 
page 160). which also illustrates another right jamb stove plate 
of a similar floral pattern, unfortunately mutilated in the illus- 
tration, dated 1763, with the inscription, George Stevenson, 
George Ross. Mary Ann Furnace and William Thompson, all 
spelled in full, the "enson" of Stevenson being set in the upper 
panel under the date, and the lower medallion being enlarged 
to fill the whole lower panel. 

DRAFT HOLLAND OR SIX-PLATE 
STOVE DESCRIBED. 

Figure 142 shows one of the American 
"Six Plate" stoves in the possession of Colonel 
H. D. Paxson, at Holicong, Bucks County, 
Pennsylvania. Constructed in principle like 
all modern American house-warming stoves, 
standing free of the wall on iron legs, with 
fuel door and stovepipe, and hence ventilating 
the room heated, the stove is easily distin- 
guished from the older non-ventilating "Five 
Plate" "Jamb" stoves just described. It is con- 
structed of six very heavy plates, cast, like 
those of the older stoves, in open sand, and 
which, examined one by one, differ so much 




142. 

Depart from Evil. 

Six-plate draught stove. Size, H. 24 x 26'i long x W. 14. Col. 
H. D. Paxson, Holicong, Pa. 

Front view, showing hearth extension on bottom plate, 
wrought iron fuel door in front plate, wrought iron base for the 
smoke pipe riveted upon the top plate (Figure 144), perforated 
projecting lips for the long outer bolt on the top and bottom 
plates, and cast iron legs. The side bolts are lost. The side 
plate with its typical floral design, date. Biblical inscription, 
and advertisement, is described under Figure 159. Cast at 
Warwick Furnace, on south branch of French Creek. Warwick 
Township, Chester County, Pa., for John Potts, ironmaster, 
in 1764. 



in shape and construction from the jamb stove 
plates that they are easily to be distinguished 
from them. 

Unlike any of the jamb stove plates, the 
top plate is perforated for a smoke pipe, and 
shows, not merely one marginal lip for bolting, 
but two. (Figure 144.) The bottom plate has 
a projecting hearth and again two perforated 
bolt lips rather than one. (Figure 145.) The 
interchangeable duplicate right and left plates 
lack the very characteristic broad rims of the 
older stoves for wall insertion (Figures 142 
and 143), and the front plate shows the un- 
mistakable fuel door. (Figure 146.) On the 
other hand the back plate of the six-plate 



91 







143- 

Depart from Kvil. 

Six-plate draught stove, rear view of Figure 142. 




144. 

Xop Plate of Six-Plate Stove. 

Size. W. 16 X L. 28^. Inside view of the top plate of Figure 142, 
showing the hole for the stovepipe, and the continual channel 
surrounding the plate for the insertion of the front, rear and 
two side plates. It differs from the top plate of a five-plate 
stove by the position of the two perforated lips for bolts on the 



sides, rather than the end of the plate, the perforation for the 
stovepipe, and the continuation of the channel for the vertical 
insertion of the side plates, entirely around the plate, rather 
than on three sides only. 




145- 

Bottom Plate of a Six-Plate Draft Stove. 

Size, W. 16 X L. 39. Loose plate belonging to Figure 142. 
It differs from the bottom plate of a five-plate stove by the 
position of the perforated lips fcr bolting, which are cast upon 
its sides rather than upon its end. and also by its circular exten- 
sion for a hearth. The continuous marginal channel for holding 
the vertical rear side and front plate, discontinued at the fuel 
door, is shown. 




146. 



Front Plate of a Six-Plate Draft Stove. 

Size. H. 24 x W. 14. The plate shown in reverse Figure 147. 



Stove and the front plate of the five-plate stove ure 148."') 

are constructed alike, are of about the same Thus constructed, the stove here shown 
size and with the guttered rims similarly cast illustrates the whole series of American six- 
solid on their margins may be confused. (Fig- plate stoves under consideration. All slightly 



92 




147- 

Belonging to Figure 142, is fitted with wrought-iron fuel door 
and draught wicket. 

The upper panel, showing the aureole with tulips, canopy, 
etc., is a close copy, though not a replica, of that on the rear 
plate. Figure 148, showing that a special mould had been carved 
for each plate. 



vary in size, all are made of six very heavy 
open sand-cast plates, and all are constructed 
and decorated, as described, in about the same 
way. As independent heating apparatus not 
attached to the ever-burning kitchen fire, they 
required special attention, and not being built 
solidly into the wall must at first have seemed 
more dangerous and liable to upset than the 
older stoves. 

On the other hand, they were portable, 
burnt better, and owing to their superior 
draught, warmed a room more quickly than 
the former. 

DECORATION OF THE SIX-PLATE 
STOVES. 
In Figures 142 and 143 four of the plates, 
the right, the left, the front, and the back, are 
decorated with the tulip pattern already de- 
scribed. The right plate (Figure 142) is 




148. 
Rear Plate of Six-Plate Draft Stove. 

Belonging to Figure 142. Size H. 24 x W. 14. Col. H. D. 
Paxson, Holicong, Pa. 

This plate, shown in reverse Figure 149, is the only plate 
in the six-plate stove which, in its construction, fis not distin- 
guishable from the front plate of a five-plate stove, the general 
shape and grooved rims being the same, 

interchangeable with, and being cast from the 
same mould, duplicates the left plate, shown 
in Figure 143 and the aureole with sheep's legs 
appearing as the whole pattern on the front 
and back plate, shows in the left canopy in the 
right and left plate, where the words John 
Pott (iron master in 1764) and Warwick 
Furnace, lAHN. POT. AND. WARCK. 
FVRNEC. appear with the motto: LAS. 
VOM. BESEN. UND. THUE. GUTES. 
Psalms 37: 27. 

The illustrations in the collection here- 
with shown, which present all the plates 
(Figures 142-178) which the writer has thus 
far heard of in Pennsylvania, show that the 
decorations of the stoves, in most cases, thus 
represent the tulip pattern with flowered 
aureole and sheep's legs above described as 
appearing on the latest five-plate stoves. 
Although the Biblical quotations still con- 



93 




fcur empty scallops, enclosing a chequered lozenge. Within the 
area thus bordered, impress ons of two bolt-heads appear, wh^ch 
the ironcastcr has neglected to erase from the sand. 

The reverse. Figure 149. shows th; unmistakable waved 
surface characteristic of iron castings in the open sand without 
flasks. 



#'1111 ill 



149. 

Here we have the aureole under a canopy supported on 
twisted colunins, with the sheep heads changed to darts. The 
date medallion and central cartouche with its inscription, seen 
upon the side plate, has disappeared, and in its place we have 

tinue (always in German and never in Dutch, 
notwithstanding the Dutch ancestry of the 
stove, as explained later), the old Biblical 
scenes, so frequent on the earlier jamb stoves, 
do not, perhaps with one exception, "The Con- 
queror" (Figure 166), appear on any of the 
six-plate stoves. Furthermore, it appears, that 
advertisements of the names of iron masters 
and of furnaces (using the English word 
Furnace, often spelled Furnec), latterly more 
frequent on the jamb stoves, become common 
upon the six-plate stoves. 

EUROPEAN ORIGIN AND VARIETIES 
OF THE SIX-PLATE STOVES. 

That these stoves were not invented in 
America, but like the jamb stoves described 
above, had existed long previously in Europe, 
is shown by the illustration (Figure 8) which 
shows one of them (not in its original position) 




150. 
Daiiisli Six-Plate Draft Stove. 

Size, about 26 high x 24 long x 18 wide. Rijks Museum, Am- 
sterdam. 

Through the kind permission of Dr. B. W. F. Van Riems- 
dyk. who informs us that the stove, probably made in Dane- 
mark, is dated 1753, and that the top plate, as in the Dutch 
ten-plate stove. Figure 185, is very heavy, and probably suffi- 
ciently so to hold the stove together without bolts. No sign 
of these appear either on the top plate or on the corner ri.-ns, 
which are here cast solid, not on the end plates as in America, 
but upon the side plates. 

The heads of double bolts, appearing on the side plate 
below the inscription, may represent so.ne method of holding 
the stove together by means of interior staples or bolts. 

in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, undated, 
but of the 17th century. Lacking its original 
legs, the stove, as described in Chapter I, con- 
sists of six rectangular plates, held together, 
as with the five-plate stoves before described, 
by loose gutter shaped rims and short bolts. 
The front plate shows a cast-iron fuel door, 
and the exceedingly heavy top plate with its 
stovepipe attached, has projecting perforated 
lips overhanging either side plate for the inser- 
tion of diagonal bolts, fastened to the project- 
ing ends of the long transverse bolt penetrating 
the stove from side to side as shown by the 
perforations in the picture. The bottom plate, 
also very heavy, is rectangular and lacks the 
circular hearth projection which appears in 
Figure 150. 

Figure 150 shows another six-plate draft 
stove from Denmark in the same museum, in 



94 



C5 



? 




Lroose Corner Rini«4 for a Jainto 
or Draft Stove. 

Each showing: two bolt holes for fastening the corners of an 
ancient stove whether of the jamb or draught-stove pattern. Size, 
about H. 30 and 27 inches by about W. 3I4. together with two 
of the loose bolts used for fastening them, and the longer diago- 
nal bolt used to secure the top plate to the side as in figure 5. 
The reverse side of the companion to the middle rim is shown 
at the right. The inside washers, or perforated iron strps, as 
in Figures 2 and 3. are not shown. From the Norse Folks Mu- 
seum at Chrlstiania. Norway. Museum No. 1178. 




and the date, 1761. The central cartouche, with its religious 
inscription, is wanting, and m the medallion below appears the 
inscription. 

M. C. FORNES. 
IN. LANGD. GT. 

The same inscription, with its last four letters varied into 
CT, CT., occurs on the jamb stove s de plate. Figure 134, and 
on the s;x- plate side plate, also dated 1761. Figure 153, which 
latter shows the Gottes Brinlein motto on the central cartouche. 

These inscriptions long remained unexplained until the 
clew was found in the frag.-nent. Figure 164, where the words 
Thomas Smith, known to have b;en ironmaster at Martic 
Forge and Furnace in 1765, are preceded bv the letters M. C. 
E., wh ch the writer deciphered to mean MC for Martic, and E 
for Eisenhutten, the German word for furnace, hence the full 
inscription would read, Martic Furnace (an annex of Martic 
Forge, on Pequea Creek, near Colemansville, Lancaster County, 
Pa., built, according to Mr. B. F. Owen, by Thomas and Wil- 
liam Smith in 1751, owned in 1765 by Thomas Smith, James 
Wallace and Joseph Felton, and advertised for sale, with the 
forge, mach nery. and a number of stove moulds, in 1769), the 
LANCD. signifying Lancaster, and the GT standing for county, 
or "gounty," as a German might spell and indicate it phoneti- 
cally. 

This plate, together with several fragments, now lost, and 
another side plate was found about 1906, in an old house for- 
merly belonging to the Funk family, on the Durham road, near 
Gardenville, Bucks County. Pa. 



niartic Plate of 1761. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size, H. 2A' , x W. 27 "4. Bucks 
County Historical Society. 

The usual floral pattern, with double canopy, twisted col- 
umns, aureole to the left, lozenges, sheeps' heads, wheat sheaves, 




153- 

Ood*s "Well. 

Size. H. 24' 



Bucks 



Side plate of a fi'x plate stove 
County Historical Society. 

Upon this fine variation of the usual and frequently de- 
scribed floral pattern, where tulips sprout from the heads of the 
very distinct sheep upon the aureole, the beautiful motto: 
GOTES. BRYNLEIN. HAT. WASER. DIE. FILE., from 
Psalms 65-10, Luther's Bible, "God's well hath water in plenty," 
or, in the common English version. "Thou greatly enrichest it 
with the River of God, which is full of water," is complete in 
the central cartouche. 

Appearing on both five- and six-plate stoves, but invariably 
with the floral pattern, and variously spelled, the motto lacks 
the word FILLE on the lAHN POT plate of 1762, Figure 154, 
the words DIE. FILLE. on the Flower-Redding plate of 1764, 



95 



Figure 160. and the words WASER. DIE. FILE., on Figure 
117, and on the I. A. R. B. plate of 1759. Figure 129. but is 
complete on this Martic plate. Figure 153. 

The most interesting feature of the present plate is the 
abbreviated inscription, appearing again in the varied form 
■ LANCT. CT„ on Figure 134'. which I have deciphered as 
follows: M. C. FORNES. Martic Furnace. IN. LANCD. (Lan- 
caster). G. T. (County spelled phonetically by a German work- 
man for "County"). 

Figure 164 shows that we may associate MC. with Martic, 
because Thomas Smith, whose name appears on the latter in 
the inscription MCE. THOMAS. SMITH., built Martic in 
Lancaster County in 1751. In this case the E before Thomas 
may stand for the German word E sen or E senhutlen. meaning 
furnace. 

The fragments of two replicas now in the Bucks County 
Historical Society collection were found by the writer in a 
wood house at Miss Krat^'s farm at Danboro. Pa., in Septem- 
ber. 1912. 




154- 
God's Well of 'Warwick. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Chester County Historical Society, 
West Chester. Pa. Figured in Centennial Souvenir of West 
Chester, published by the Daily News, 1899. Appendix, page 79. 

Two noticeable features mark the usual floral pattern so 
frequently described. The substitution of points supporting 
tulips for the sheep heads of the aureole, as seen also on 
Figure 157. and the insertion of the final E out of level within 
the right border of the date medallion (compare the E in 
Fgure 155). The inscription GOTES. BRYN. LEIN. HAT. 
WASER. DIE., from Psalms 65-10 in Luther's Bible {continuid 
on the end plate not yet found), "God's well has water in 
plenty." or. as in the English translation. "The River of God. 

this case with the guttered rims cast solid 
upon the side plates, with fuel door and stove- 
pipe as before, but with a circular hearth pro- 
jection, as in the American stoves, upon its 
bottom plate. It entirely lacks bolts, or per- 
forations for bolts, and, according to informa- 
tion from the Rijks Museum, is held together 
by the weight alone of the top plate. 



which ts full of water.*' lacks the last word PILLE. and the 
words WARCK. FORNACE. lAHN. POT.. "Warwick Furnace. 
John Potts." fill the lower medallion. The O in the word "Pot" 
is decorated with a lozenge within its circle. 

When the celebrated ancient charcoal furnace of Warwick, 
on the south branch of French Creek, in Warwick Township, 
Chester County. Pa. (built, according to Swank, page 172, by 
Anna Nutt, widow of Samuel Nutt, in 1738), was abandoned in 
1858, the massive stone furnace stack, originally 32 feet high 
by 21'i feet wide at the bas=. with TA feet boshes (interor 
oven d ameter). must soon have disappeared as building material. 
The old wooden bellows that cost nearly two hundred pounds 
(James, 29). and immense propelling water wheels, no longer 
exist, and nothing but ruined walls and cinder heaps mark the 
site of the pioneer furnace, which, mak ng twenty five tons of 
pig iron per week, destroyed about two hundred and forty acres 
of primeval forest (five to six thousand cords of wood) a year 
(James. 29). 

Young Samuel Nutt died before Arna Nutt. his moth-r, 
completed the furnace, and his w dow married, in 1741. Robert 
Grace (born 1709 and died 1766. the friend of Franklin), who 
for a time thereafter managed the furnace. Franklin presented 
Grace with the model of his celebrated cast-iron, down-draught 
Breplace. invented in 1742. and althoL-gh Grace cast many of 
the early Franklin apparatus at Warwick, as appears in the 
Potts MSS. (Warwick) ledgers, the Potts MSS. (Coventry) 
ledgers (Ledger 3. page 87) show that the first Franklin stove 
was cast, in account with Grace, not at Warwick, but at Red- 
ding Furnace. September 23. 1742, when "seven small new- 
fashioned fireplaces" were sold to Mr. George Rock, at North- 
east, Md. 

Nearly all the Warwick Furnace ledgers are in the posses- 
sion of Hon. S. W. Pennypacker at Schwenksville, Pa., but 
they throw little light upon the h story of the stoves here 
described, or their decoration and construction, notwithstanding 
the fact that probably more of them were cast at Warwick 
than anywhere else. 

The furnace was managed, according to Acrelius (quoted in 
Hist, of Chester County, Cope. 1. page 211). by a third Samuel 
Nutt in 1756. by John Potts, whose name appears on so many 
of the floral plates, for some time, and until his death in 1768 
(James. 110), by his sons, John Potts. Jr.. and Samuel Potts, 
with their father, before 1768. and for some time thereafter, 
and by Thomas Rutter and Samuel Potts in 1776, when, during 
the Revolution. Warwick cast Continental shot, shells and 
cannon, some of which latter were buried to prevent British 
capture. According to Mrs. James, page 110. two large "Mora- 
vian stoves" (probably the iron fire chambers for tile stoves like 
Figure 227) were sold there in 1774. five tons of stoves in 1779, 
and, in 1785, "Franklin stoves" at five pounds ten each, "Ten- 
plate stoves" at ten pounds each, and large six-plate stoves it 
six pounds, and five pounds ten each, respectively. 

The Franklin stove which Mrs. James found in an old 
house near Warwick, with the words Warwick Furnace in 2-inch 
letters cast upon it (James, 211). which lacks the sun and 
Latin motto of Franklin (see Figure 229). could not have been, 
as she thinks, an original. Neither is the stove figured by 
Lossing, from the Hibernia Furnace, New Jersey. Field Book, 
Vol. 1. page, 328. 



When we compare these European orig- 
inals with their American successors here 
shown, a far greater richness and variety of 
decoration appears in the former, besides 
which several constructive differences are 
noticeable. In the European stoves the rims 
(always solidly cast in America) are some- 
times loose. The bolting is different or absent 



96 




155- 
The E Plate of 1763. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size. H. lO^j x W. 22. Col. H. 
D. Paxson, Holicong, Pa. 

The usual arched pattern, with tulps and flower pots and 
the date 1763 under the canopies. The words COLEBROOK- 
DALE FURNAC fill the cartouche, and the inscription 
THOMAS RUTTER. THUE. RECHT. UND.. "Do right and." 
are cast in the lower medallion. 

The striking features of the pattern are the combination 
of T with H three times repeated, namely, in the word Thomas, 
Thue, and Recht. and the letter E of the word furnace, intro- 
duced out of balance and out of proportion with the otherwise 
beautifully carved inscription, which disturbs the eye in the 
background of the upper right canopy. 

A heap of cinders marks the spot where, according to 
several writers. Colebrookdale. the earliest furnace in Penn- 
sylvania, named after Colebrookdale Furnace in Shropshire. 
England, was built in 1720. Not to be confounded with the 
post- Revolutionary Colebrook Furnace in Lebanon County (on 
Conewago Creek, seven miles southwest of Cornwall Furnace, 
built by Robert Coleman in 1791, and abandoned in 1860) it 
stood in the midst of a valuable deposit of magnetic iron ore, 
eight miles north of Pottstown and three-quarters of a mile 
west of Boyerstown. Pa. 

Established by Thomas Rutter, a citizen of Germantown, 
and associated from the first with Pool Forge, the first iron 

altogether, the hearth extension, invariable in 
the American, is sometimes wanting in the 
European stoves, but the general construction, 
appearance and principle, the rectangular box 
shape, the six rectangular plates, the smoke 
pipe and fuel door are the same. 

Ambrosiani says that they were used in 
Sweden, where they are called "Wind Stoves" 
or draft stoves (Vindugen) in the 17th cen- 
tury, and Fett describes them as Vindoven, in 
Norway and Denmark, in the same period. 
In Holland, where it appears that five-plate 



works in Pennsylvania, and later with Pine Forge nearby, 
attacked by "French Miami" Indians in 1728, pulled down ani 
rebuilt in 1736. marked on Skull's map of 1753, and listed, 
but probably inactive, in 1793, it appears to have been aban- 
doned about 1765, or soon after the date of the plate In 
question. 

The name Rutter is associated w-th the furnace from first 
to last, since Thomas Rutter (died 1729) founded it in 1720, 
since members of the Rutter family continued to own it in 
part cr manage it together w^th their relatives of the wealthy 
Potts family, and since the name Thomas Rutter is here stanped 
on one of the last stove plates cast at the furnace. 

According to Mrs. Potts James, Memorial of the Potts 
Fam ly. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1874, there were four 
Thomas Rutters. all probably associated with Colebrookdale 
Furnace, and the person whcse name is inscribed upon this 
plate. Figure 155, is not. (1) Thomas Rutter. the founder, 
who died in 1729. nor (2) Thon::as Rutter, son of the founder, 
born 1690, d ed 1734. nor (3) Thomas Rutter. grandson of the 
founder, son of Joseph R., born before 1731, lived at Coventry, 
and died in 1808, but (4) Thomas Rutter, grandson of the 
founder, son of Thomas R.. born in 1731 and died in 1795. 

This last Tho.-r.as Rutter. at the death of h s father in 1734. 
inherited a share of Colebrookdale Furnace, was Justice of the 
Peace under the Crown, a share-owner of Warwick Furnace, 
lived at Pottstown at a house called Laurel Lodge, and was 
brother-in law to Thomas Potts, another share-owner of Cole- 
brookdale, who had married his s ster Rebecca. According to 
the stove plate, Rutter had charge of the furnace in 1763. and 
when Tho.x.as Potts died in 1762, appears to have continued its 
ranagement. He died at Pottstown in 1795. aged 64. and was 
buried there in the Potts-Rutter family graveyard.' 

The Furnace Ledgers in the possession of Governor Penny- 
packer show that these stoves were cast at Colebrookdale in 
the 1730's and 40"s, but no dated plates have been found to 
prove the fact, and if, for the reasons given under Figure 31. the 
remarkable Fortune Plate of 1726 is not to be attributed to 
Colebrookdale, then we are left with six comparatively late 
plates, namely, Figure 155. here illustrated : Figure 168. the 
front plate of 1758; Figure 115. the Thomas Potts plate of 
1758; Figure HI, and the fireback of 1763. Figure 215. as the 
only stove products of the oldest furnace in Pennsylvania. 

This plate may be a replica of the plate dated 1763, Cole- 
brookdale. exhibited at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 
of 1876 (see Swank, page 168). (2) Replica, figured, page 95. 
in Tulip Ware, by E. A. Barber. (3) Replica, presented to 
Bucks County Historical Society by Miss Burd. of the Burd 
School. Bucks County, Pa.. November. 1911. found by her at 
a house northeast of Gardenville along the turnpike, where the 
writer had previously seen it and tried in vain to get it. (4) 
Replica. Mr. Rutter, Philadelphia, given him by Col. H. D. 
Paxson. 



Stoves were not used, save upon the German 
frontier, they were so popular and common in 
the 17th and 18th centuries that Rees, in the 
Encyclopedia of 1788 in its general classifica- 
tion of stoves, calls them Dutch stoves. 

Very efficient, easily removable from one 
room to another, of superior draught and quick 
heat, desirable for ventilation, and well adapted 
to a region like America where wood was 
abundant, it is nevertheless a noteworthy fact 
that these stoves, which are the direct projeni- 
tors of all modern American house-warming 



97 




156. 

Samuel Flower of 1764. 

Side plate of six-plate stove, here shown set together with top, 
bottom and rear plates, but lacking the front plate. Size, 22 
long X 20 high x 14^2 wide. The usual tulip pattern, with the 
date. 1764, cast under the capon'es. As in Figure 152. the central 
cartouche with its religious motto, is omitted, and the medallion 
in the lower panel contains the words. S.^MEL. FLOWER. 
RETING. FURNACE.. "Samuel Flower. Redding Furnace." 
which, as appearing with various spellings of the words Flower. 
Redding and Furnace, on Figures 94. 100 and 160. explains 
the initials S. F. on the beautiful patterns. Figures 96 and 99. 
Two peculiar features of the design are the changing of the 
sheeps' heads in the aureoles to darts, and the replacing of the 
heart tulips on either side of the lower medallion with chequered 
lozenges. 

The writer found the loose plates of this stove, lacking the 
front plate, lying face downward, as a hearth pavement in a 
large kitchen fireplace in an old house near Cassidy's Rocks, on 
Tohickon Cr:ek, Bucks County, Pa., in 1907. after having previ- 
ously seen the pieces in the same place in 1898, and vainly 
tried to buy them from the former owner. 



Stoves, and which had been contemponries of 
the five-plate, non-ventilating jamb stove in 
northern Europe since the middle of the 17th 
century, did not appear in America until about 
forty years after the introduction and general 
use of the jamb stove. 

The fact may be accounted for by the 
difficulty of manufacturing the plates, perfor- 
ated fuel doors, the adjustable legs, and the 
stovepipes of sheet iron, but more probably 
by the fact that the stove fashion came to 
America from Germany where five-plate wall 
or jamb stoves were universal and six-plate 
draft stoves comparatively unknown, rather 
than from Holland, where the latter were the 
principal stoves in use. 




157- 
The Corrected K of 1763. 

Side plate of six plate stove. Size. H. 24 x W. 27. Berks 
County Historical Society. 

The pattern at first glance repeats that of the E plate. 
Figure 155. The date and inscription are identical, but the 
plates are not replicas. The aurtole with headless sheep as 
legs, appears in the left canopy, stars replace the lozenges above. 
Heart tulips flank the medallion below. The whole wooden 
pattern has been recut by the carver, who in spacing his letters 
for Figure 155, and learning too late that the English word 
furnace was spelled with a final e, took the old decorator's 
liberty of throwing the letter out of place and into the upper 
canopy. But here, probably on complaint of Rutter, he re- 
adjusted it to suit his employer's taste. 

Replica, Col. H. D. Paxson. Holicong. Pa.. 1913. 

Furthermore, it seems probable that these 
draft stoves reached America by way of Eng- 
lish ownership of American furnaces through 
England, where the six-plate stove had been 
probably introduced by the middle of the 18th 
century, rather than direct from Holland, 

Like the non-ventilating five-plate jamb 
stove, the ventilating stove in Europe appeared 
in various forms. Ambrosiani speaks of wind 
stoves, draft stoves (vindugen) built against 
the wall in Sweden and therefore non-portable, 
also of wind stoves with upper stories for 
heat retention of earthenware or of iron, and 
a plate in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam 
shows the fuel door of one of these draft 
stoves opening upon the side rather than the 
front plate. (See Figure 9.) Also the ancient 



98 



^■^-..^l 









158. 



JoHn Pctts of 1763. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size H. 19 x W. 211;. Mr. 
Charles A. Suddars. 122 South Sixteenth street, Philadelphia. 
May, 1914. Found by Mr. Suddars in 1913 in an old house ^t 
Churchtown, Lebanon County. Pa. Replica at ant que store. 
Gcr.x.antown avenue and Harvey street. Germantown. May 2. 
1914. 

Lacking the central inscription, the floral pattern is a 
copy with variat ons cf the larger plate of the year after, 
Figure 159. Here the advertisement in the lower panel varies 
the spelling to lAHN. POT. AND. WARK. FURNACE. 




159. 

*'Ilepart from Kvil " of 1764. 

Side plate. Size. H. 23^; x W. 26^2- Here shown set against 
its back plate. 

The usual floral pattern with var'ations. and the date 1764, 
is set under the usual canopies. The central inscription reads 
LAS. VOM. BESEN. UND. THUE. GUTES.. from Psalms 
37-27. in Luther's Bible; "Depart from Evil and do good.'" and 



the wcris "lAHN. POT. AND. WARCK. FURNEC," fill 
the lower medallion, thus showing the German UND and the 
English AND in the same inscription. It is further noticeable 
that the U's in the central cartouche are round, and that in 
the word FURNEC is pointed. 

The sheeps' heads in the aureole have turned to darts, and 
for the reasons given under Figure 162, we may suppose that 
this plate, the Carlisle plate. Figure 162. the two Samuel Flower 
plates. Figures 156 and 160, the Curtis Grubb plate. Figure 163. 
and the Elizabeth and Hellam plates, Figures 127 and 133, were 
carved by the same hand. The plate was found by Mr. J. 
Cheston Morris at an old house in Penllyn, Pa., and Figures 
142 to 149. inclusive, show a complete stove of the same pat- 
tern photographed from both sides, with its top. bottom and 
rear plates, as described in the text. 

Other replicas have appeared, as follows : ( 1 ) Side, Hon. 
S. W. Pennypacker, at Schwenksville, Pa.; (2) and (3) sides 
(besides the complete stove above mentioned). Col. H. D. 
Paxson, Holicong, Pa.; (4) side, Dr. J. E. Scott. New Hope. 
Pa, ; (5) side, Bucks County Historical Society, bought from 
Abram Pculton in 1910, who had found it in the old Leather- 
man house near Plumsteadville. Pa.; (6) side. J. O. K. Roberts, 
Phcenixville. Pa. (information of Mrs. Wynne James), in 1909; 
(7) side, in possession, June 4, 1911, of F. Cooper Pullman, of 
Wyncote. Pa. ; (8 and 9 ) sides. June, 1911. recently found in 
old fireplace at Washington Hotel, Sellersville, by Landlord 
J. S. Kline (informaton cf Mr. Thomas Ross); (101 side. Apr'l 
1, 1912, Mr. J. H. Lynn, Langhorne. Pa., recently bought at an 
old tavern near North Wales. Montgomery County. Pa.; (11) 
side, Bucks County Historical Society, bought at Pottstown. 
Pa. ; ( 12) fragment. Bucks County Historical Society, found in 
the kitchen hearth at Mr. Thomas Sassaman's house at Otts- 
ville. Bucks County, Pa-, in 1897, in association with thft five- 
plate stove plate. Figure 89. 




i6o. 
Samuel Flower of Redd 

Size. H. 2334 X 



Side plate of six-plate stove, 
County Historical Society. 



ing. 

W. 27. Bucks 



cylindrical stove standing free of the wall, "Pommerofen," are draft stoves, and no doubt 

figured in Siebenaler (page 170) as of the 17th still other forms are represented by loose plates 

century, but redated 1742, and the stove in in the European museums. 
Kassel, page 60 (of about 1830), called a Before 1760 no dated American plate of 



99 



upon the usual floral pattern with flower pot. aureol-r. 
heart tulips, eight-pont stars, sheeps' heads turned to darts, 
wheat sheaves, lozenges and twisted columns, the date. 1764. 
appears under ths canopy, and here perhaps cast for the last 
time upon a stove, the beaut ful quotation from Psal ns 65-10, 
in Luther's Bible, filling the central cartouche, reads GOTTES. 
BRINLEIN. HAT. WASER.. "God's well hath water." lack ng 
the f^nal wor:?s DIE. FILLE.. "In plenty." no doubt continued 
on the missing end plate. 

Several other Redding plates have appeared cast with the 
name or init als of Samuel Flower or the furnace, variously 
spelled, viz.: Figures 94. 96. 99, 100 and 156. Here the spell- 
ing of the ironmaster's name, in the medallion below, appears 
M. SAMEL. FLOR. REDIG. FURNACE., the prefixed M 
possibly standing for "Master" or "Mei^ter" of Redd ng Fur- 
nace, on French Creek, in Chester County. Pa. {named from 
the English, not the American, town of Reading), foL-nded. 
according to Swank, by Samuel Nutt. an English Quaker, before 
1728, with William Branson and Samuel Flower, according to 
court records, part owners in 1742. 

The plate, very much rusted, and showing a vertical warp 
crack in the pattern across the medall on. which docs not 
appear on Mr. Stewardson's replica. Figure 161. was bought 
by the writer at Boone's at Pottstown in 1907. 




i6i. 

There can be little doubt that this plate, the Warwick plate. 
Figure 159. the Redding plate. Figure 15b. and the Carlisle plate. 
Figure 162. described by Prof. C. W. Himes in "A Decorated 
Stove Plate East of the Susquehanna." Frankln Institute 
Journal. December, 1903. in all of which the style and details of 
the floral pattern above noted are closely copied, but never 
duplicated, were made by the same mould carver, who, as nn 
independent workman, in the same year. 1764. sold three moulds, 
closely similar, but with varied inscriptions, to three different 
furnaces. 

Replica, Mr. Emlin Stewardson. Abington, Pa.. October 12. 
1910, bought originally by Mrs. Walter Cope from the dealer. 
Mrs. Cookerow. at Pottstown, about 1905. Figure 161. 




162. 

The Carlisle Plate of 1764, 

Side plate of six-plate stove. S zt, H. 24I4 x W. 27^. Penn- 
sylvania Historical Society. The plate shows the typical floral 
pattern, with double canopy resting on twisted columns, and 
the date 1764. The sheep heads of the aureole on the left have 
turned to elongated darts, and, as in all the Stiegel plates and 
the Huber and Maybury plates. Figures 95 and 105. the cus- 
ton-.ary rel'g ous inscription on the central cartouche has be- 
come an advertisement of the names of the ironmaster and 
furnace, cont'nued in the lower medallion, M. R. THORNBRU 
GHA. M. SEANDSON. CARLILSE. FURNACE., for Robert 
Thornburg and Francis Sanderson, ironmasters in 1764 at 
Carlisle Furnace, or Carlisle Iron Works, at Boiling Springs oil 
Yellowbreeches Creek, Cumberland County, Pa., built in 1762, 

Prof. C. H. Himes (in "A Decorated Stove-plate of 1764 
froTi West of the Susquehanna," Frankl n Institute Journal. 
December, 1903). notices th s plate, of which they have a rusty 
replica at the Hamilton Library Association at Carlisle, Pa., and 
which was in 1903 the only pUte of this type thus far found 
and certainly cast west of the Susquehanna, as evidence of the 
extension of German art in a non-German community, where 
the German relig ous inscr pticn was abandoned because not 
suited to the taste of the region. 

Still more interesting is his observation of the striking 
similarity of the pattern to that of the "Depart from Evil" plate 
of Warwick, of 1764. F gure 159. which can be carried further 
by comparing the plate with the whole collection of illustra- 
tions here shown, in which five other plates, viz.. the Sa.muel 
Flower plate. Figure 161; the Stiegel plate. Figure 127: the 
Benet plate. Figure 133 ; the Salvation plate. Figure 163, and 
the Stevenson plate. Figure 141-A, bear it on equal resemblance. 

The similarity is not in the general detail of the d:s:gn, 
since all are floral patterns, but in the treatnent of ths aureole. 
None of the plates are duplicates, but because the sheep heads 
arc changed to darts on these six plates, because the aureoles 
are invariably accompanied here and nowhere else with pecular 
twisted leaves wreathng the upper circle of the nimbus, and 



this kind has yet appeared, nor has any men- 
tion been found of these stoves in the furnace 
ledgers above referred to. After 1760, in the 
Potts manuscripts, frequent mention of the sale 
of six-plate stoves, called at Warwick "Six- 
plate English Stoves." appears at Warwick 



and Pottsgrove ; but, though Franklin de- 
scribes them in 1744,"' no certain evidence has 
yet been found to show either, that like the 
five-plate jamb stoves, these stoves were im- 
ported from Europe and used here before the 
American furnaces were built, or were manu- 



100 



because the above unique combination is accompanied in all 
cases by wheat-sheaf adornments above the spring of the arches 
(the spandrels), we may suppose that all six plates were made 
by the same mould carver, who was an independent workman 
not in the exclusive e.r.ploy of any furnace, and having made 
the earlier five-plate stove moulds for Elizabeth and Hellam 
Furnaces, carved for Grubb at Cornwall, and sold three six- 
plate stove moulds to Thornburg at Carlisle, Flower at Red- 
ding, and Potts at Warwick, in the same year. 

Yet if we are to suppose that all the furnaces bought their 
patterns in this way, notes of such purchases ought to appear 
in their ledgers, and it is a very singular thing that only one 
such item has been found in all the Potts manuscripts, where 
at Warwick Furnace, on July 25, 1745, they paid six pounds 
ten shillings, or sixteen dollars and twenty-five cents apiece "for 
two Dutch stove moulds," "in account with Mr. Grace," but 
without mentioning the carver's name. 

The letter M, twice occurring before the names of the iron- 
masters, may stand for the word "meister" or "master," and 
the R. before the first name for Robert. Professor Himes sup- 
poses that the final A in "Thornburgha" may represent an 
abbreviation of the word "and," although if the name Thorn- 
burg had been pronounced to rhyme with the word Edinburgh, 
the fnal A would be accounted for, as the phonetic English 
spelling of a German or Ger.-nan-American workman, who, 
though a skillful designer, and fine carver of inscriptions in 
his mother tongue, misspells the, to him, barbarous names 
Thornburg, as THORNBRUGHA, and the word CARLISLE 
with a transposed S. The second letter in the second name 
may be an F, rather than an E, and in that case stand for 
Franc s, set incorrectly after, rather than before, the initial S. 
of Sanderson, so that the inscription would read: 

M (Master) R (Robert) THORNBRUGH (Thornburg). 

A (And I M (Master I F (Francis l SANDSON (Sanderson). 

CARLILSE (Carlisle) FVRNACE. 

In Forges and Furnaces, Colonial Dames, page 173, the 
A. and M. after THORNBRUGH are thought to stand for 
Armstrong and Morris. But there were two Morrises; and if, 
according to Professor Himes, there were six partners in the 
firm in 1764, this would only account for four of them, unless 
the others appear on the missing front plate. 




163. 

In God is my Salvation. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size, H. 24 x W. ZZYt. 
tion of Mr. A. J. Steinman. 1910 at Lancaster, Pa. 



"In God is my salvation," Psalm 62-7, is the theme of this 
floral plate, with its elaborate sheaf patterns above the twisted 
columns, lozenges, stars, heart tulips, and three-leaved branches 
unadorned by tulips, sprouting from the aureole. The sheeps' 
heads have been changed to spears and the inscription in the 
cartouche, Luther's translation of Psalms 62-8 (in the German) 
reads BEY. GOT. 1ST. MEIN. HEIL.. while the words 
CORTUS. GROB. FOR., standing for Curtis Grubb Furnace, 
fill the lower medallion. 

We may infer from the inscription that the plate was cast 
at the still existing Cornwall Furnace, on Furnace Creek, in 
Lebanon County, near Lebanon, Pa., where Curtis Grubb, prob- 
ably in 1765 or soon after (Swank, 182), was ironmaster. 

The well-preserved original, cast, therefore, after 1765, 
though without date, is set in a brick wall above the fireplace, 
in 1914, in the library of Mrs. A. J. Steinman. at Lancaster, Pa. 

While the other Colonial furnaces that made decorated 
stoves have perished. Cornwall Furnace, built upon its very 
valuable sulphurous and copper -bearing iron ore hills on Fur- 
nace Creek, in Lebanon County, Pa., and which still used char- 
coal in 1892, though modernized, is still (1914) in blast. 

According to Pearse. Iron Manufacture, 218, and Swank, 
Iron in All Ages, 182. Cornwall Furnace was built in 1742 by 
Peter Grubb (son of John Grubb, a Cornish emigrant) who, in 
1745. leased it for twenty years to twelve persons not named, 
who operated it as the Cornwall Company. This company ap- 
pears to have suh-let it. either, as Pearse confusedly states, to 
Jacob Giles, a Quaker of Baltimore (about 1755-65), or, accord- 
ing to Acrelius, quoted by Pearse, to Gurritt & Co., or Garrett 
& Co., about 1756. In the meantime. Peter Grubb having died 
intestate in 1754, the twenty-year lease fell by inheritance to 
his sons, Peter Grubb. 2nd, and Curtis Grubb, afterwards 
colonels in Washington's Army (Swank, 182; Pearse, 218). 

With its immense bellows twenty feet seven inches long, 
and five feet ten inches wide, supplying six forges with pig- 
iron and making twenty-four tons per week it was held by the 
Grubbs, including Peter Grubb, 3d. son of the 2nd Peter, till 
1798, when Robert Coleman, whose descendants still own the 
furnace, bought five-sixths of the valuable property from the 
Grubb family, some of whose heirs still hold the remainder. 










■H^ 
s 



CoUec- 



ir'i" I ^iii \-^^ 



164. 

Frag-ments of Stove Plates. 

Size, largest, 11 x 21 inches. Bucks County Historical Society, 
Nos. 789, 1514 and 1515, Described in "Decorated Stove 
Plates," page U. 



101 



All three pieces are remarkable. The lowermost, evidently 
the side plate of a six-plate stove, while showing the usual 
flower-pots, chequers and tulip leaves of the usual floral pattern, 
has o.-nitted the familar canopy altogether, and filled the center 
with a flower basket, like that on one of the small frag nents. 
but otherwise of unparalleled pattern, out of which spring unbal 
anced leaf scrolls set within the figures of the date. 1765. 

The inscript on on the upper left fragment, also probably 
part of a six-plate stove. 

M. C. E. THOM. 

MAS. SMIT.. 
I have deciphered as standing for "Martic Eisen (or Eisenhut- 
tcn). Thomas Smith" — as ironmaster and founder of Martic 
Furnace, on French Creek, in Northern Chester County, in 
1751. see Figure 134. The two smaller fragments found to- 
gether are evidently parts of one old stove, used in the last 
century at Nathaniel Shewell's Tannery, and were found by the 
writer in 1898 built into the spring-house wall at the Shcwell 
house known as "Painswick Hall." New Britain. Pa. The 
lower piece, found in the waste-iron heap of Mr. Kenderdine. 
near Dublin. Bucks County. Pa., in the same year, must have 
belonged to another stove. 





i66. 
The Conqueror. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. S ze H. 24ia x W. 26!/^ inches. 
Mr. Robert Rau. Bethlehem, Pa. 

Under a scries of clumsy decorative scrolls, only the fore- 
legs of a prancing horse, with the lowered standard of a war- 
rior, much obscured by rust, above the form of a small retreat- 
irg animal, possibly another horse, are seen to the r^ght. and in 
opposition to the advance of a kingly figure on horseback, hold- 
ing a drawn s'A'ord. These figures appear as if upon a narrow. 
undulating road, qua ntly indicated by diagonal lines set between 
parallel stripes. 

The plate, described in "Decorated Stove Plates," page 19, 
was found for the writer in 1897 by Mr. Robert Rau. in a 
lumber room in Bethlehem, Pa. 

Replica: Col. H. D. Paxson. Holicong, Bucks County. Pa.. 



165. 

Sixtv-Seveiitli P^ialtn. 



Bucks 



Side plate of six-plate stove. Size. H. 2414 x W. 31'4- 
County Historical Society. 

This unique pattern was found by the writer in a garden 
pavement near the gate at a farmhouse in Hilltown Township. 
Bucks County, Pa., in 1908, and bought for five dollars. 

Strange to say. the inscription like that on Figure 46 is a 
misquotation. The words GOT. SEI. UNS. GNADIG. PSALM. 
117.. "God be merciful unto us, PsalTis 117," should quote not 
Psalm 117, but Psalm 67. and the placing of the sentence across 
the top. instead of the middle of the pattern, the paneling of the 
plate into three rectangular decorated panels, chequered with 
three blank spaces, the wide swell of the two flower-pots, the 
thin petals of the flowers, and the extreme plainness of the 
whole carving, disconnect the plate from all the other patterns 
thus far found, and suggest rather the designs of old embroidery 
known as "samplers," or the decorative paintings upon emi- 
grants' chests. 




167, 

Xtie German Hunter* 

Back plate of six- or ten-plate stove. Size, H. 24^2 x W. 14^. 
Bucks County Historical Society. 



102 



The channeled marginal rims are here cast as two columns, 
but without the arched canopy. Between them a bearded man 
on horseback, w'th cocked hat, top-boots and sword or boar 
knife, holds a horn in his left hand. 

A dog runs below, and a realistic eagle wearing a crown. 
dates the plate as older than the era of American Independence, 
when the crown would not have been used. 

The eagle evidently stands for the single-headed heraldic 
eagle of Prussia, and the rider with the dcg, for a hunts r.an, 
rather than a soldier, while the sword stamps him as in chase of 
the deer or wild boar, rather than as an English fox-hunter, 
whose now famous sport had not become popular until about 
1750. The horn is neither bugle nor trumpet, but the melod ouj 
soft-toned brass hunting horn, the waldhorn of Germany, or 
Corne de Chasse of France, blown by vibration of the lips. ' 

Replica : June, 1914. found in an old house at Langhorne, 
Bucks County, Pa. 




167-a. 

Back Plate of Six-Plate Sto^e. 

Size. H. 23^4. W. I234. Mr. A. D. Mixsell. Twelfth Street and 
Prospect Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, September 21, 1914. 
Found at a junk dealer's yard in Bethlehem, where it had been 

factured contemporaneously with the jamb 
stoves by American furnaces in the first half 
of the 17th century. 

ABANDONMENT OF SIX-PLATE 
STOVES. 

Moreover, all the evidence shows that the 
existence of the six-plate stove thus con- 
structed and decorated was brief, lasting little 



discovered in a pile of scrap iron fifteen years ago, and nailed 
to a wall as a curiosity. 

The very uninteresting plate shows the date 1764 set upon 
a raised cornice between two hi'^eous shell-1 ke scrolls, ani 
because of the lateness of its manufacture and its extreme 
n?rrowness in proportion to its height, we may suppose it to be 
the rear plate of a six-plate stove rather than the front of a 
Jamb Stove. 




168. 

Xlionia«!i Rutter of Colebrookdale. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size. H. 19 x W. 23. Philadelphia 
Museum, Memorial Hall. Fair mount Park. Mus. No., '08 — 691. 
Repl ca. Col. H. D. Paxson (1911), Holicong, Pa. 

Probably a part of one of the last six-plate stoves, made in 
the ancient style after the introduction of ten-plate stoves, about 
1765, or about the date of the abandonment of the Colebrookdale 
Furnace. Nothing remains to suggest the familiar characteristic 
floral pattern, but the position of the central cartouche or 
rimmed stripe of inscription, cross ng the middle of the plate, 
and the larger medallion below it, shaped in the usual way. The 
inscription clearly spelled, as if by an English work.nan, with- 
out suggestion of Ger.xan adornment, abbreviation, or mis-spell- 
ing, COLEBROOKDALE FURNACE. (in Colebrookdale 
Township, Berks County, Pa., named after Colebrookdale Fur- 
nace in Shropshire, England, and the earliest furnace in Penn- 
sylvania, built in 1720), replaces the religious motto in the car- 
touche, while the name, abbreviated as in English, THO. 
RUTTER. (born 1731. died 1795, grandson of Thomas Rutter, 
the founder and ironmaster, in 1720, see Figure 157), fills the 
lower medallion. The plate closely resembles the tasteless Fig- 
ure 169, and was no doubt carved by the same mouldmaker. 
The lower background is bare, and clumsy scrolls and scallops 
take the place of the tulip-filled cavities of the upper field. 

more than ten years. The earliest American 
plates in the collection (Figures 152 and 153) 
are dated 1761 and the latest (Figure 172) 
1772, while the Potts manuscripts note them 
by name as made in 1760 at Warwick Furnace 
and last sold at Pottsgrove Furnace in 1768. 
The stove appears to have been an after- 
thought, appearing at the last moment, and, 
in its decorated form, as here described, aban- 



103 




i69* 
Xliotnas Mavbury of Hereford. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size. H. 20 x W. 25. Hon. S. W. 
Pcnnypacker. at Schwenksv;ne. June 30. 1910. 

Nothing of the familar floral pattern remains except ths 
general arrangement, showing three panels, in the lower of 
wh'ch th: large me:3allion is inscribed with the name of the 
iron.T.astcr, THOMAS. MAYBURRY.. while the central car- 
touche shows the words HEREFORD. FURNACE. Whoever 
carved the displeasing pattern. Figure 168. probably carved th s 
also, as both are arranged in the same way. A meaningless 
scroll and tv.o corner scrolls fill the upper p^nel. P. liars, arches, 
tulips, flower pots, religious mottoes and symboKc aureole have 
all gene. 

The ten-plate stove. Figure 180, is marked Thomas May- 
bury. Hercfcrd. while the eccentric five-plate pattern. Figure 
105, is cast v/ith the name Hereford between the initials W. M,, 
probably for William Maybury. and if it were not for these 
un'nt cresting plates, and an old piece of pig-iron found at the 
bottom of a well at Hereford. Berks County. Pa., now at the 
Berks County Historical Society, marked with the name Here- 
ford, the very existence of the obscure Hereford Furnace, on 
th; West Branch of Perkiomen Creek in Hereford Township. 
Berks County. Pa., might be doulited. Swank and Pearse make 
no n-.ent on of it, but, according to Old Charcoal Furnaces in 
Eastern Berks County, by Winslow Fegley, an old map. pub- 
lished in 1753. shows that the Hereford works, now long in 
ruins, stood there at that time. 

Swank speaks of a Thomas Maybury making sheet-iron it 
Mount Holly Forge, in New Jersey, destroyed by the British in 
1775, another Thomas Maybury building Green Lane Forge, on 
Perkiomen Creek, Montgomery County, in 1733. and another 
Thomas Maybury petitioning the General Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania, with a number of iron masters, for a protective duty on 
iron, in 1785. 

The William Maybury. of Figure 105. appears to have been 
a Justice of the Peace, shareholder at Shearwell Furnace, at 
Oley, in 1760. and early ironmaster in Berks County, accord- 

doned almost immediately upon its introduc- 
tion, but its principle, which is that of all 
modern house-warming stoves, whether burn- 
ing coal or wood, survives. 



ing to Mr. B. F. Owen, and Swank says that a Jonathan May- 
bury and Co. owned Fountain Forge in Donegal Townsh p. 
Westmcreland County. Pa., before 1812. 

Replicas; ' 1 i Bucks County Historical Society, bought Ht 
H. Worthington's furniture store. September 7, 1911. 

(2) Col. H. D. Paxson. Holicong. Pa.. Aug. 6. 1913. 




170. 

Sties:el of 1769. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size. H. 1 
H. D. Faxson. Htlicors, Pa. 



X W. 23. Col. 




171. 

The plate and its rusted companion, the replica Figure 171. 
with its spray of flowers springing from a three-pointed scroll 
wreathed in floral scrolls, and with the date 1769, and the 
words H. W. STIEGEL.. marks the appearance of a new and 
insignificant style, and the subversion of the old religious 
art of the pattern carver. 

Any stove with smoke pipe and fuel door, 
like all modern American house stoves now in 
use, may be called a draft stove, and it is 
probable that other exceptional and eccentric 



104 




172. 
lUark Bird of Hope^vell* 



H. 21 X W. 29. Col. H. D. 



Side plate of six-plate stove. Size, 
Paxson, Hol.cong, Pa. 

Upon a ribbon above the pattern, the ironmaster, MARK 
BIRD, has set his name with that of HOPEWELL FURNACE, 
on French Creek, Union Township, Berks County, Pa., erected 
according to Swank, by Will. am Bird, in 1759, or by his 
son, Mark Bird, about 1765. W.Iliam Bird died in 1761, and 
Mark, thereafter owner, a L-eutenant-CoIonel in the Revolution, 
became bankrupt in 1785 88. The meaningless plate with its 
mass of floral filigree, lacking all religious or emblematic signifi- 
cance, and all semblance of the older decorative style, is without 
interest save for its date, 1772. That shows that the plate 
was cast after the general introduction of ten-plate stoves, 
with interior ovens, and fixes the time of the downfall of the 
ancient art of stove decoration described in these pages. 

A complete stove, minus the legs, comprising this plate is 
illustrated in Colonial Forges and Furnaces, Colonial Dames, 
Philadelphia, 1914. page 156. 




173- 
Xlie Fox and Crane. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size, W. 22 x H. 1934. Young 
Men's Missionary Society, at Bethlehem, Pa. 

To illustrate ^sop's celebrated fable of the Crane who had 
been cheated out of a dinner by the greedy fox the picture 



shows the bird with uplifted wings feeding from a narrow 
necked vase, while the outwitted fox, sitting close to the left, 
looks hungr ly on. 

The figures are well modeled, but the vaulted canopies 
of the German stove plates are here abandoned for a framework 
of scrolls, which near the upper margin enclose the words 
BATSTO, showing that the heavy open sand cast plate, though 
found at Bethlehem, was made, strange to say, not in Penn- 
sylvania, but at Basto Furnace, on Little Egg Harbor River. 
Burlington County. N. J. (founded by Charles Read in 1760 and 
abandoned in 1846), where it may have been cast by William 
Reynolds who (according to Pearse, page 54) was employed 
there as founder in 1768 to 1784. 

If any jamb stoves were ever cast in New Jersey they 
would have been produced by furnaces in existence before 1760, 
namely either at Shrewsbury or Tinton Falls Furnace in South 
Monmouth County, founded 1682, at Mount Holly, or Hanover 
Furnace, Morris County, 1730 to 1776, at Ring wood or Ogden 
Furnace, Passaic County. 1740 to 1776. at Oxford. Warren 
County, from 1742 to 1782, or at Union. Hunterdon County, 
1750 to 1778. But all the jamb stove plates thus far found 
in New Jersey have been cast in Pennsylvania, and we have 
as yet only this plate and Figure 177. both side plates, not of 
the earlier jamb stove, but of the later six-plate or draught 
stoves, as the only evidence of decorated stove casting during 
the colonial period in question thus far heard of by the writer 
in New Jersey. (But see Figs. 88-b and 88-c.) 




174. 

The Hero. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size, H. 23 x W. 25. Pennsylvania 
State Library, at Harrisburg, Pa. 

The inscription. H. W. STIEGEL. ELIZABETH. FUR- 
NACE. 1769., appears plainly along the top of the plate, while 
in the lower corners the Masonic emblems, a rule and com- 
pass, on the left, are balanced by a square and what seems 
the rude, min-ature outline of a furnace with its smokestack 
on the right, possibly indicating an association of Stiegel and 
his furnace with the Freemasons. 

A human bust crowned with victorious laurels and enclosed 
in a laurel wreath, showing the berries of the Laurus nobilis, 
adorns the middle plate forming the center of the pattern. 

Nothing in the reign of George the Third in 1769. nine 
years after his accession, and six years after the ending of the 
French and Indian War by the Treaty of Paris in 1763, seems 
to justify the laurel wreath and the framework of the medallion, 
and if we do not ascribe the bust to the king we may per- 
haps more reasonably suppose that Stiegel, the prosperous 
manager of Elizabeth Furnace and Charming Forge, maker of 



105 



Manheim and fourder of the only glass works in ihe American 
■colonies, employer of two or three hun !red workmen, with his 
carriage and outriders, private orchestra, castles and mansions, 
here attempts to represent himself as a conqueror of d.fficult es 
or a pioneer of enterprise in the hcydey of his prosperity, six 
years before diaster and bankruptcy overtook him in 1774. 

According to Dr. J. H. Sieling's paper on "Baron Henry 
William Stcgel." before the Lancaster County Historical So- 
ciety. September 4, 1895. New Era print. Lancaster. 1896. and 
other authorities. Heinrich Wilhel n Stiegel came to America 
in the brij Nancy in 1750, lived unt 1 176S in Ph ladelphia. mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Huber. master of Elizabeth 
Furnace, in 1752. and in partnersh-p with Alexander and Charles 
Steadman bought the furnace of his father- n-law in 1757 (Swank. 
pcgz 180). 

Stiegel and his company pulled down the old furnace with 
its rhyme: 

■JOHAN HUBER DER ERSTE DEUTSCHE MANN 

DER DAS EISENWERK VOLFUHREN KANN." 

"Johan Huber. the first German man who can manage iron- 
works." inscribed upon the smokestack, and built a new furnace 
on or near the same spot, raned Elizabeth, after Stiegel's wife, 
and from v.-hich the township afterwards took its name. Eliza- 
beth Stiegel. who died February 3. 1758. leaving her husband 
two female ch 1-Jrcn. was buried in the Lutheran graveyard at 
Brickerv.lle. but the inscription H. W. HELM. STIGCHELS. 
IN. COMPANGNI. VOR. ELIZABETH. (Figures 121 to 126; 
is not. as Sieling supposes, in mourning for her. which is proved 
by the word VORNES on F.gure 126, but rather his advertise- 
ment as part manager with a company, for the furnace. Sieling 
asserts. p?ge 47, on the author ty of W Uiam Taylor, master of 
Char.Tiing Forge, living in 1896. that Stiegel's first stoves were 
jamb stoves with the inscr ption BARON STIEGEL. 1ST. DER. 
MANN. DER. DIE. OPEN. GIE^SEN. KANN. " Baron 
Stiegel IS the man who can cast stove=." but no such stove 
or plate has been found, neither is it probable that Stiegel was 
a baron; and though he once signed himself von Stiegel. -t 
appears that he never signed a documznt as baron. 

Sieling says that Dr. Joseph Dubbs. of Franklin and Mar 
shall College, found evidence that a Baron Stengel left Man- 
heim for America in the late 18th century, but failed to find 
the name Stiegel in the Manhei ti records. Mr. Luther M. 
Kelker. of Harrisburg. a descendant of Stiegel. supposes that 
he was not a baron and has a devotional book of St egel's 
brother. Anthony, inscribed GEBOREN AUS KOELLEN (Co- 
logne) AM RAEINN (Rhine), indicating that the family came 
from the latter city and not. as Sieling supposes, from Man- 
heim. 

In 1759 Stiegel married his second w fe, Elizabeth Holz. 
of Philadelphia. In 1760 he bought half of Charming Forge, 
and in 1762, in partnership with the Stead mans, above noted, 
founded Manheim. 

He visited the furnace from Philadelphia once a month in 
a coach with postillions and a pack of hounds, when cannon 
were fired off at his "castle" and an orchestra of workmen 
serenaded him from the cupola of his Manheim house. The 



latter, decorated with tiles and tapestry, with its chapel and 
pulp t. was built in 1763-65 with English imported brick. He 
had another mansion at Elizabeth Furnace, and had built a 
wooden tower seventy-five feet high on a high hill near Shafers- 
town. to entertain his friends, and. according to Sherman Day, 
had another tower or castle about five miles northwest of 
Eohrata. 

He bu It the glass works at Manheim in 1765-68. then th: 
only factory of its kind in the British colonies. He mortgaged 
his share of the company's property to Daniel Benezet in 1768 
and bought out the Steadman's share of the Manheim enterprise 
in 1770 for 107 pounds. He had brought 40,000 pounds sterling 
with h m from Europe and invested it in his enterprises, reach- 
ing the zenith of his prosperity in 1769. the date of the plate 
here illustrated. 

He was imprisoned for debt in 1774. but released and per- 
mitted to continue Elizabeth Furnace for his creditors until 1778. 
when his efforts finally failed. 

He moved to Brickerville. and taught school at the age 
of forty-e'ght in 1781 at Womelsdorf. In 1782 his second wife 
died, and his own death followed at the age of fifty-three in 
1783. He was probably buried at Brickerville church. 

Two holes have been bored through the plate here illus- 
trated, as if for the insertion of bolts, to hold the stove together. 
It was found in an iron scrap-heap about 1900 at R. Blicken- 
derfer's foundry in Lancaster. Pa. (Intorraation of Mr. S. M- 
Sener, Lancaster. Pa.. 1909.) 




175- 
Be Liberty Thine. 

Side plate of six- or ten-plate stove. Size. H. 25% x W. 32Vi. 
Col. H. D. Paxson. Holicong. Pa.. December. 1913. 

This is the boast characteristic of a time when men 
mistook their new Independence for Liberty, and with the 



forms of draught stoves, like Stiegel's "Pom- 
merofen," made at Elizabeth Furnace in Penn- 
sylvania in 1757 (Figure 225), which is an 
American copy of the Pommerofen of Ger- 
many above mentioned, existed as importations 
or were made at the colonial furnaces in the 
18th century.'' 

But it is the remarkably decorated rectan- 
gular, box-shaped, portable stove, standing free 



of the wall, without upper story, made of six 
heavy open sand cast plates, which alone con- 
cerns this investigation. 

A few box-shaped, rectangular, wood- 
burning stoves of six plates continued to be 
made during and after the American Revolu- 
tion,''" but there is no mistaking their plates, 
such as Figure 175 or Figure 177, made at 
Batsto Furnace in New Jersey and dated in 



106 

latttr word continually in their mouths, delighted to preach 
that which might not be practiced. 

An angel flying 'n clouds and hsliiTig a bl.iz rg torch, 
announces, with blast of trumpet, the motto, on a ribbon above. 
BE LIBERTY THINE to two seated figures, on the right 
an Indiin under tv.o stalks of reed or palm, with a dog like a 
greyhound, and with bow. arrows and quiver, on the left to 
Minerva wth her shield, or to the genus of Wisdom or 
America, rather than to the poor negro ilave, who is left out 
altogether. 

The two cross borders may indicate an attempt to balance 
in decoration an oven door opposite, and hence show that the 
plate belongs to a ten-plate rather than to a six-plate stove. Th; 
liberty procla.Taton would not have been produced before the 
Revolution, whde the classical details and curtained festoons in 
the Adam style, fix the date of the casting at about 1785 to 1800. 




176. 

Xlie Rising: Sun. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Size, H. 18'/, x W. 23"/2. Berks 
County Historical Society, 1913. Found walled in the chiTiney 
of a small house in Alsace township, Berks County, Pa. 

The artistically decadent pattern showing the name of the 
furnace, over a figure of the sun rising or setting upon the 
sea. marks the end of the period of stove decoration hsrewith 



1770, with their modernized patterns, English 
inscriptions or patriotic mottoes for the older 
original patterns here described. Neither is 
there any danger of confusing the ancient 
stoves, unmistakable in construction and deco- 
ration, with the other draught stoves of the 
post-Revolutionary period, of lighter make, 
with flask cast plates, of sheet iron or soap- 
stone, or of eccentric form, sometimes box- 
shaped and with the fire chamber in one piece, 
which as frequently embellished with hideous 



described, and proves that th- plate was cast at Berkshire Fur- 
nace near the site of the present Robesonia Furnace in Heidel- 
berg Township. Berks County, Pa., during the period of the 
ex stence of the former, viz: between 1756 and 1792 (see 
Montgorrery. 62, and Figures 44 and 45), probably about 1770, 
or possibly under the management of George Ege, who was 
master in 1789 and perhaps earlier.-' 




177. 

The Squirrel Hunt. 

Side plate of six-plate stove. Sze. H. 23 x W. 25 '/i. Mr. W. L. 
Lathrop, New Hope, Bucks County, Pa., who showed and 
described the plate at a meeting of the Bucks County Historical 
Society in 1913. 

Without religious sign ficance or trace of the conventional 
treatirent of the Bible plates, the des gn shows the figure of a 
hunter with a dog. as he points a gun at a squirrel in a tree, 
while three birds fly away overhead. 

The name and date on the scroll below show that th; 
plate which is one of four decorated stove plates thus far 
found and here illustrated as made in New Jers?y. was cast in 
1770 at Bat5to Furnace in Burlington County on the Little 
Egg Harbor River (founded, according to Pearse. page 54, and 
Swank, page 156, by Charles Read in 1766: abandoned in 1845), 
probably when William Richards, afterwards owner in 1784, 
was employed as founder. 

and meaningless filagree, survived them until 
the present time. 

The immediate cause of the disuse of the 
decorated six-plate stoves was not any im- 
provement in their casting, or the theory of 
their construction, but rather the introduction 
of an internal oven for baking, with a large 
oven door in one or both side plates, which 
suddenly transformed them from stoves which 
only warmed the house, into the so-called 
"Ten Plate" stove, which cooked food and 
warmed at the same time. 



107 




178. 
Xlie Xwo Swans. 

Side cf s x-plate stove. Size. H. 23^2 x W. 261,^. Colonel H. 
D. Faxson, Holicong. Pa. 

Two geese or swans swim in a pool between water plants, 
surrounded with a rococco scroll border, and above a ribbon 
scroll inscrbed with the words PINE GROVE FURNACE. 

If what appears to be a date with the figure 6 for its third 
numeral has been cast just below this scroll, standing therefore 
for some year in the 1760's. Pearse, 192, and Swank, 185. must 
be wrong in asserting that Pine Grove Furnace, in Cu nber- 
land County, was built in 1770. and the furnace may be a few 
years oHer. Sv/ark says that Thorburg and Arthur built it. 
and sold it bsfcre 1800 to Michael Ege. Sr., and Pearse, pag: 
192, nctes that it was the last furnace in Pennsylvania to blast 
with the old wooden blowing tubs, which it cont nued to do 
until abandoned about 1870. But Mrs. Rose says (Forges and 
Furnaces, Colonial Dames, 186) that Georgs Stevenson owned 
the property from 1764 to 1772. 

Prof. Charles F. Himes has a ten plate stove in the hall 
of the Har.ilton Library Association, at Carlisle. Pa., inscribed 
PETER EGE. PINEGROVE FURNACE. 




179. 

C^eorg^e Rosis of 1765. 

Size, W. 27 X H. 24. Side plate of ten plate stove. Dr. Park 
BrennTT.an. cf Lancaster, Pa. Found at the eld Fountain Inn, 
at Lancaster. 

The plat;, showing the opening for an oven door, is dated 
1765, and since, before that time, the Pennsylvanian colonists 
had cooked food in the open fire and not in stoves, the plate 
is of great economic impcrtance as showing the side of one 
of the frst effective cooking stoves used in the colonies. 

Here, as the illustration shows, a six-plate stove of the type 
cf Figure 180 has been fitted out with an internal oven for 
coohirg. and since the oven required four mere thin plates 
for its construction, the stove, named after the number of its 
plates, is no longer a "sx-platc" but a "ten-plate" stove, from 
1 the top. 2 bottom. 3 right, 4 left. 5 front. 6 back plates 
of its outride, and 7 the top. 8 bottom. 9 front, and 10 back 
plates of its inside construction. 

The name of George Ross, lawyer, of Lancaster. Pa., and 
signer of the Declaraticn cf Independence, is plainly cast above 
the oven door, on either side cf which appear the figures of the 
date, 1765, when Roes was ironmaster at Mary Ann Furnace, 
on Furnace Creek, Manheim townsh p. York County. Pa. 
(founded in 1763 by George Ross. George Stevenson. William 
Thompson, and Mark Bird), where the plate was probably cast. 
See Fig. 141-A and Note 26. 



THE TEN-PLATE STOVE. 

Few greater changes ever took place in 
the American household than when the once 
universal art of cooking food in the open 
kitchen fire was abandoned. This finally hap- 
pened when the coal-burning cooking stoves of 
cast iron, with adjustable lids exposing the 
fire for boiling, broiling and frying, appeared 
about 1840. 

The earlier decorated stoves, previously 
described, the soft coal heating grates, intro- 
duced when English coal was imported into 
the colonies about 1750; Franklin's down-draft 
fireplace of cast iron, introduced by him in 
1743, and several other later eccentric and 



exceptional forms of stoves, referred to in 
American books, letters, and newspapers of 
the 18th century, but not described here, used 
for warming houses and public buildings rather 
than for cooking, had no effect upon the pri- 
meval art of the open fire cook. But the stove 
known in Pennsylvania as the "Ten-plate 
Stove," which, though not prepared to boil, 
broil or fry by immediate contact of dishes 
with the fire, was equipped to bake meat, cakes, 
pics and bread on a small scale, and thus partly 
replaced the large household bread oven of 
masonry. For a long time it was used as an 
auxiliary to the open fire, near which it stood 
with its sheet iron stovepipe let into a hole 



log 

The shape of the large tuli'ps and the use of a small tuh'p 
for spacing the inscr ption are characteristics of the carvings 
on the decorated six-plate stoves, which were then still being 
cast, but the large foliate circle and eUborate quatrcfoil below 
are unique, and the whole design shows that the sudden intro- 
duction of the oven door has paralyzed the hand o£ the pattern 
carver. The chief point of interest in the plate is the fact 
that it marks the abrupt end of the ancieat art of stove decora 
tion. which originated in Germany in the I6th century, was 
transplanted to America, and survived here for about fifty years. 

It may appear later that the energetic Stiegel. well and 
justly praised for industrial activity and enterprise, who estab- 
lished the glass works at Manheim and copied the old German 
Pommerofen in 1759. was the first to introduce the ten-pUte 
cooking stove, but the evidence thus far found does not prove it. 

The confused statement in Watson's Annals. Vol. I, page 
218. that ten-plate stoves were invented and made in Pennsyl- 
vania before Franklin's fireplace, i. e.. before 1742, is undoubt- 
edly wrong. No one to the writer's knowledge has heard of an 
American ten-plate stove earlier than 1765, the date cast on this 
plate marking it as the earliest of its kind; or. in other words, 
as evidence of perhaps the first effective cooking stove thus far 
found in the United States. 

Figure 185. however, clearly showi that the ten-plate cook- 
ing stove had existed since the middle of the I7th century, at 
least in Holland. Therefore, neither Stiegel nor any other 
American ironmaster could have invented it. as Ellis and Evans* 
History of Lancaster County supposes Stiegel did. Neither 
can it be contended without further proof that Stiegel even in- 
troduced it. since William Smith, ironmaster of Martic Furnace, 
1751-1766. according to his ledger, in possession of Mr. B. F. 
Owen, of Reading, sold a ten-plate stove to Bangor Church, at 
Churchtowrt, Berks County, Pa., in 1766, for 4 pounds 2 shifl- 
ings sixpence, and since the earliest known Stiegel stove, dated 
1769, Figure 182, is preceded by the Maybury stove. Figure 
180. dated 1767, and this Ross stove of 1765. 




The bottom plate, with projecting hearth, is fastened to 
the top by three long bolts penetrating perforated mirginal 
1 ps. as in the case of the sngle bolt of the five-plate stove A 
door opens on either side of the oven, 14^ x 12 inches, and 
the front plate shows a wrought-iron door without draught 
wicket, and a small upper door for cleaning the flue above the 
interior oven, A stove-pipe hole appears in the top plate. Scroll 
work surrounds the side doer and decorates the back and front, 
as seen also in Figure 182. 

The stove thus photographed on both sides, see Figure 
181, is interesting, because certain of its decorative features 
have survived from the older five* and six-plate stoves; namely, 
the method of bolting the top to the bottom plate, the solid 
gutter-shaped rims on the front and back plates, the arrange- 
ment of the inscription in a central cartouche, with the words 
HEREFORD. FURNACE. 1767.. and the shape of the lower 
medallion enclosing the name Thomas Maybury. who was,. 
therefore, ironmaster at Hereford Furnace, in Hereford Town- 
ship. Berks County, Pa., where and when this stove was cast 
in 1767. 




i8o. 
Xhoina^ Mavbury of i7^« 

Ten-plate stove. Size 36 long x 34 high x 24 wide 
session. 1910, of the Michigan Stove Co.. of Chicago. 



In pes- 



i8i. 
Xhoiiias maybury of 1767. 

Reverse of Figure 180. 

A replica of this complete stove but with the date changed 
to 1768. is in the possession of Col. H. D. Paxson. at Holicong, Pa. 
and is illustrated in Forges and Furnaces, Colonial Dames, page 
133. 

We learn little of Hereford Furnace and of ■William and 
Thomas Maybury who owned it from the writers ' Swank, Pearse, 
Fegley. etc.) listed in the notes. Its three products here shown 
I see also Figs. 105 and 169* comprising all three kinds of ancient 
colonial stoves ("jamb," "Six-Plate " and "Ten-Plate) are all un- 
interesting. They show no religious and very little artistic 
motive. All advertise the Furnace, the last two showing also 
the name of Thomas Maybury, and the first (Figure 105 » the 
probable initials of William Maybury who may have founded 
the works. 



:i05 




182. 

Stiegel Stove of 1769. 

Ten-plate stove. Size about 36 long x 27 high x 15 wide. Mr. 
G. H. Danner. Manheim, Pa. Illustrated in "Decorated Stove 
Plates." Figure 20. 

Six very heavy plates of cast-iron surround the internal 
oven consisting of four plates. for.Tiing an internal box. coincid- 
ing with the side door, around and over which oven the smoke 
and flame pass. The whole stove is decorated with leaf scrolls. 
and the words H. W. STIEGEL cast above, and ELIZABETH 
FURNACE, and the date 1769. below the oven door. In front, 
below the little soot-cleaning door, and above the fuel door, 
which latter has a draught wicket, the pattern of a house with 
its chimney and porch, is encircled with scroll work. The legs 
are cast in the form of scrolls., and the grooved ri.-ns at the 
corners in the form of columns, as in Figure 167, are cast 
solid upon the front and rear plates. As in Figure 180. two 
side bolts and one rear bolt fasten the stove together. 

The very economic and ancient German method of utilizing 
the smoke heat, by including several lengths of the stove-pipe 
inside the stove, is here applied in the form of a heat-retain ng 
cylinder attached to the smoke-pipe on the outside. 

in the chimney above the hearth. But it 
never superseded the ancestral cooking fire. 
This latter continued, as before stated, until 
when towards the middle of the 19th century 
the coal-burning cooking range, with remov- 
able lids, finally extinguished it forever. 

But the ten-plate stove chiefly concerns 
this subject, because appearing suddenly about 
1765, it immediately displaced the ancient 
decorated stoves above described, put an end 
to the decoration of stoves in general, and 
therewith may be said to have marked the end 
of the artistic casting of iron. 




183. 
Ten-Mate Stove. 

Size about 28 long x 24 high x 20 wide. Pennsylvania State 
Library, at Harrisburg. 

The general form of the stove resembles that of F gure 182. 
but the decorative treatment is more modern, moreover it is 
clan-.ped together by four marginal bolts instead of three, and 
as the side plates are slightly curved they n-.ust have been cast 
in flasks. A design rese.T.bling the classic cera.mic patterns 
of Josiah Wedgwood adorns the side plate below the door, above 
wh-ch the words Elizabeth Furnace are cast in an cntirelv 
novel manner below the upper margin. A sheet-iron cylinder 
for retaining the heat, perhaps a later addition, is placed upon 
the smoke pipe above, as in Figure 182. The side door opens 
towards the back and the front door has a draught wicket. 
There is little about the stove to suggest its relationship to 
the five- and six-plate stoves which preceded it. The precise 
and small letters of the words ELIZABETH FURNACE cast 
over the oven door appear to have been glued upon the pattern 
in the modern factory manner, and have lost all trace of the 
hand carver's style of the elder stoves. 

Which American furnace introduced this 
stove and exactly when it first appeared, the 
writer has been unable to learn. The oldest 
plate (Figure 179) thus far in the writer's 
knowledge found in Pennsylvania, was prob- 
ably cast at Mary Ann Furnace in West 
Manheim Township, York County, Pennsyl- 
vania, and is dated 1765, v/han George Ross, 
whose name is cast on the plate, was iron 
master there. Thomas Maybury cast Figures 
180 and 181 at Hereford Furnace in 1767, 
Stiegel cast Figure 182 at Elizabeth in 1769, 
and these illustrations and figures show the 



no 




184. 

Ttrii-Hlate Stove. 

Size 3515 inches long by 15 wide by 27 high. Col. H. D. 
Faxson. Holicong, Pa, 

One oven doer opens frO.Tl left to right, the other fro-n 
right to left, while in the Mas bury stove of 1767 both doors 
cpen n the same way. Otherwise the boltirg, position of stove- 
pipe anJ of fuel and cleaning doors, is si-Tiilar. The plates 
of the interior oven and all doors but one are lost. 

The decoration has lost aH interest and significance. Over 
the oven door, the words COLEBROOK FURNACE are not to 
be confounded with old Colebrockdale, the for.-ner being a com- 
paratively modern furnace seven m les southwest of Cornwall, 
on Conewago Creek, Lebanon County, built according to J. M. 
Swank (Iron in All Ages, page 196), in 1791. by Robert Cole- 
man. Another ten-plate stove inscribed COLEBROOK. with- 
out date, is in possession of Mr. B. F. Owen, at Reading. 

American ten-plate stove in its earliest typical 
form. The whole construction is that of the 
six-plate stove, with the exception that an 
internal rectangular oven is inserted in the 
stove box, over the fire, consisting of four 
thin cast iron plates, fitted upon interior chan- 
nels (and coinciding with the openings of the 
oven in both side plates), so made as to per- 
mit the heat of the fire to pass entirely around 
the oven and to leave the stove through the 
smoke pipe set in the front end of the top 
plate. The front plate is perforated with a 
fuel door below, and a small door for cleaning 
the soot above the oven. The bottom plate 
has the hearth extension, as in the six-plate 
stove, and the stove is bolted together gener- 
ally with three, sometimes with five, vertical 




185. 
nutcli Xeii-PIate Stove. 

Size in centimeters, 0.54 long x 0.76 high x 0.31 wide. Rijks 
Museum. Amsterdam. By kind permission of Dr. B. F. Van 

Riemi'^'yk. 

outride bolts, in the fashion of the older stoves, 
and as described under the illustrations. 

But like the "Pommerofen" stove (Figure 
225) cast by Stiegel at Elizabeth Furnace in 
1769, this stove was not an American inven- 
tion, but had long been known and used in 
Europe, as is shown by Figures 185-186 from 
the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam. 

In this case the old and richly decorated 
stove equipped with its internal oven for 
baking, with its smoke pipe and its small door 
for soot cleaning, shows only one oven door 
on one side plate where an original design 
intended to cover the whole plate has been 
cut into or encroached upon by the iron 
caster for the insertion of the door. 

But the American stoves had oven doors 
on both sides and the technical difficulties 



Ill 



The stove, dztei 15£0, and showing the whol: constru'- 
t on of an American so calle I -tiin-p'.ate" stove, proves that the 
latter was not invented in the An-.erican colon es. but existei 
in Holland a hundred years before its introduction into Penn- 
sylvania. 

The bottom plate is without hearth extens on. and the top 
plate, perforated for a stDve pipe not shown in the photograph. 
The legs are missing and the corner rims are loose. The 
doors are lost, but the r orifices with the hinge hooks are 
drarly shown, namely, those for the right oven door, the fuel 
door and the soot door. For the inter or oven, which has no 
door on the opposite left side, see F gure 186. the plates are 
missing. Accord rg to Dr. Van Rie-rsdyk the style of deco- 
ration of the stove is of the late 16th century, or about a hun- 
dred years older than its date. 16£0. and the fact that the 
oven and scot door orifices have been introduced so as to cut 
across and obliterate the orig nal design shows that the caster 
has made a new stove fro.m old moulds by redating the latter 
and by cither sawing out holes n them, or correcting their 
impressions on the sand to suit the case. 




i86. 
Dutcli Xen-riate Stove. 

Reverse of Figure 185. 

^Vith interior oven for cooking. Size. 0.76 centimetres h-gh by 
0.54 long by 0.31 wide. In the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam. 
By kind permission of Dr. B. F. Van Ricmsdyk. who informs 
us that the stove is dated 1660, though probably made from a 
much older mould. The lower fuel door is original, but the 
cleanng orifice above it. and the large oven door shown in 
the reverse. Figure 185. have been cut or cast across the 
pattern, without regard to the design. The exceedingly heavy 

thus presented of mutilating the old patterns 
by cutting door holes in three of the vertical 
plates helps to explain why the new stoves 
were not decorated in the old way, and hence 



top plate, which shows no holes lor inscrl on of diagonal bolts. 
Wis probably hsld in place by its weight alone. The pipe hole 
in the top pl3te is net shown, the original legs are lacking, 
and the h ghly ornamenul corner rims showing each the headi 
of two bolts, are loose. 

Here we have a very early specimen of what is called 
in America a ten-plate stove, which appears to have been 
manufactured from patterns used in casting a six-plate draft 
stove, and which having been m^de in 1660 would precede the 
manufacture of the American ten-plate stoves herewith described, 
by a hundred years. 




187. 

Vndree and Company* 

Side plate of ten-plate stove. Size not given. Colonel H. D. 
Paxson, Holcong, Pa. 

The advertisement UDREE AND COMPANY shows that 
the plate, without date, was cast after 1778 at what has bien 
called by Montgomery and others. Dley Furnace, on Furnace 
Creek, Oley Township, near Friedensburg, Berks County, Pa., 
but the investigations of Mr. B. F. Owen, of Reading, show 
that two furnaces rather than one existed at this site, the first, 
called Shearwell built by Deitrich cr Deiter Welker, who had 
bought land at the site in 1744, probably between that t me 
and 1760. and who rerr.ained sole owner until 1760. when 
Bened ct Swoope bought a share and became part owner. See 
the stove-plate Elijah and the Ravens, Figure 57. 

Oley Furnace proper, accorc^ing to Mr. Owen, was bu'lt 
by Christian Sauer and Jacob Winey, in 1772, as is proved 
by the date stone so marked, now in the Berks County His- 
torical Society, and originally in the smoke-stack of Oley Fur- 
nace. Daniel Udree. probably with others, here referred to as 
the "company," bought Oley and probably Shearwell with it in 
1778. He built a fine mansion near the furnace and died in 
1838. 

Both furnaces, Shearwell and Oley, standing side by s de. 
were in existence in 1783, as when seen by the German army 
surgeon. Dr. John B. Schoepp. in that year, he speaks of two 
smokestacks rather than one. Mr. Owen has not learned the 
date of the abandonment or demol tion of Shearwell Furnace, 
but Oley. though now demolished and nearly forgotten, was in 
existence in 1884. 



since the new stoves superseded the old, why 
the old art of stove decoration came to so 
sudden an end. The American plate (Figure 
179) shows that in one at least of the earlier 



112 




i88. 
Xen-PIate Sto^e of Durliain. 

Size. H. 25'z X W. 32 "X. 

The inscription R. BACKHOUSE. DURHAM, set over 
the oven door and the date 1785 flankei by scroll-work on the 
side plate, show that the sto\e was cast after the Revolut on 
at Durham Furnace in northern Bucks County. Pa., when 
Richard Backhouse was ironmaster. Its side and the end plate 
are shown, the latter dec ated with a single tulip springing 
from meaningless scrolls, is '--ordered by two ornamental col- 
umns cast so as to cover the guttered rims. A repUca of the 
side plate, and also the fragment of a similar plate showng 
the words Backhouse and Durham are at the Bucks County 
Histcriral Society. 




189. 

Xeii-Plate Stove. 

Size, H. 27^4 x W. 37';- Penrsylvaria Museum, Fairmount 
Park. Ph ladelphia. Pa. Museum No.. '13. 64. 

The arms of Pennsylvania appearing below the wrought- 
iron oven door, show that the uninteresting stove was made 
after the Revolution. So does the advert'sement DISTRICT 
FURNACE en a scrcU above, showing also that the stove 
was cast at the post-colonial District or German Furnace oa 
Pine Creek, District Township, Berks County. Pa., erected, 
according to Montgomery, page 70. after the Revolution and 
before 1800, pass bly before 1784. and probably owned by John 
Lesher, his son. Jacob Lesher, and John Teysher. 




Canadian "Xliree Rivers" Stove. 

Size not given. Mr. John J. Drummond, Midland, Ontario, 
Canada, 1914. Bought by Mr. Dru.-nmond at Three R.vers 




191. 

about 1890, and kindly photographed by him October 25, 1913, 
showing its front, Figure 190. back Figure 191, right. Figure 
192. and left. Figure 193. 



113 



Like the ten-plate stoves of Pcrr.sylvan a. this stove is a 
draft stove, adapted for cooking, with fuel door, oven door, 
smoke p pc. legs and internal baking oven, made of three jr 
four inner plates- But several differences of construction ap- 
pear. The main box or body consists cf two differently sized 
stories instead of one. and hcr.cc the entire stove is made of 
fourteen or fifteen instead cf ten iron plates. The very massive 
doors, if not the hinge hooks, arc cf cast, not wrought iron, and 
the disk-shaped hearth extension is cast free of th: stove. The 
legs are of th; modern American type. Th=re arc no outside 
bolts and the side plates do not seem to be clasped by the 
grooved marginal rims, as in the Pennsylvanian stoves. 



designs on ancient carved gems, after drawings of Flaxmann 
(en-.ployed by Wedge wood in 1775), Adam and others about 

neo. 

Far more artistically designed than any of the Pennsylvanian 
ten-plate stoves, the well balanced decorat'on might have been 
made with loose stamps, but made thus late, the stove throws 
little light on the earlier French Three Rivers stoves, which. 




';' ^ 



192. 

As we do not know when stoves of th-s general type, which 
first appeared as ten-plate stoves in Pennsylvania about 1765, 
were introduced into Canada, we must infer the date of this 
stove, not from its construction, but from its decoration, which 
is of the very characteristic and prevalent style developed from 

Stoves of this class some effort was made to 
retain the ancient tulip pattern or reconstruct 
it so as to surround the door hole with a 
decorative framework. But attempts of this 
kind must have been soon abandoned. The 
American Revolution, occurring shortly after 
the introduction of the stoves, interrupted the 
traditional dependence of American furnaces 
on European processes. The ten-plate stove, 
as the first effective cooking stove, was a 
great novelty. Its usefulness widely extended 
its sale and introduced it to English colonists, 
who had not used the older stoves, and to 



Uv^; 




193- 

according to Peter Kaim. were in use all over Canada in 1749. 
which were seen by Frarquet as cast in six plates in 1752 
(quoted by Swank. Iron in All Ages, page 350). and none of 
which cculd have besn decorated in this then unheard-of style. 

Several inquiries have fa led as yet to infor.Ti the writer 
of the existence of loose plates of these ancient stoves, thus 
certainly maie at Three Rivers Furnace between 1737. the date 
of its establishment, and 1770. But as decorated stove plates 
of a si.milar date have survived in Pennsylvania, they must have 

whom the German art of stove decoration was 
unfamiliar and the German inscriptions mean- 
ingless. 

As time went on artistic deterioration 
increased with technical improvement in flask- 
casting, fittings, thinness of plates, and round- 
ing of forms, until the whole process of iron 
casting had so lost its art that for nearly a 
century no one in America has looked for a 
beautiful pattern in cast iron, and until the 
farmhouse stove, once so artistic, interesting 
and instructive, has become repulsive. 



114 



survived in Canada, wnere the stove fashion was probably intro- 
duced, not from Germany, but from northern France and 
Flanders. 

Whether these old stoves were all as Franquet describes 
them, of the draft or six-plate type, and so made from the 
beginning, or whether some of them were jamb stoves, whether 
any of them were decorated with inscriptions or more or less 
significant or religious pictures, are interesting questions which 
the writer believes cannot long remain unanswered. 

The old charcoal furnace of St. Maurice, about two milss 
west of the village of Three Rivers in the Province of Quebec. 
Canada, which used a very soft superficial ore found in the 
neighborhood, was built in 1737, and was abandoned on exhaus- 



tion of ore and fuel in 1883. It was n:anaged by a French 
company, Cugnet & Cie. 1737 to 1743. By the French Crown, 
1743 to 1760. owned and often underlet to various companies 
by the British Crown from 1760 to 1846, sold to Henry Stuart 
in 1846 and ownei by F. McDougall & Son in 1879. 

Peter Kalm. as above noted (quoted by Swank, page 349), 
says that they cast stoves there in 1749, in use all over Canada, 
and M. Franquet, reporting to the French Government in 1752, 
says that he sav; them casting stoves in six separate pieces. 
Josaph Bouchette, author, says that they were making "stoves 
cf all kinds, us^d in the province," at Three Rivers in 1815. 
(Swank, page 350.) 




Ancient Dutch Xeii-Plate Stove, dated 1660. 
At the Rijl^s 3Iu»seuni, Amsterdam. 

See Figure 185. 



CHAPTER III. 

Notes on Colonial Firebacks, Date Plates 
and Miscellaneous Stoves. 



115 



At the time of the settlement of the 
American colonies, firebacks, that is to say, 
heavy plates of cast iron (rarely of clay in 
Flanders) two or more feet square, generally 
decorated with coats of arms, dates, inscrip- 
tions, allegorical and mythological scenes, and 
placed against the wall in an open hearth back 
of the fire, had been in use in England, Hol- 
land, Flanders, France and Central Europe 
since the middle or end of the 15th century. 

Exactly where or when they were first used 
or invented are questions which remain in 
doubt, since no general or extended study of 
them has yet been made, but it appears from 
scattered and local collections in Europe that 
the oldest specimens are undated, that accord- 
ing to Beck (Geschichte des eisens. Vol. II, 
page 308) one dated 1488, afterwards de- 
stroyed, was seen about 1850 at Ravengiers- 
bach in Hesse, and that no dated fireback 
has been found in England earlier than about 
1580. 

Whatever their origin, they differ entirely 
in purpose and generally in appearance from 
stove plates. Though some of the old European 
specimens are square, most of them, and all 
thus far found in America have rounded 
scrolled or vaulted tops, and all, like the stove 
plates, appear to have been cast in open sand 
from carved wooden moulds. 




200. 

Xhe Goddesses. 

Fireback. Size. H. 26' 4 x W. 16!,4. Essex Institute. Salem, 
Mass. 

The much rusted pattern shows three classical figures in a 
central panel, under a vault adorned with dolphins, surrounded 
by a rich festoon of flowers. Below the date, 1697. encloses a 



With the exception of the remarkable Foyer described under Figures 218 to 221, 
radiating firebacks of Luxembourg, Taques De which may be called stoves of one plate, all 



116 



monogram with the letter W. and an indec'pherable inscription 
on the lower margin shows the letters PALA. and NOV. 

The ftreback was found in the cellar of a house where it 
could not have been used, in Sale.Ti, Mass , and must have been 
imported or cast from an imported original or mould. This is 
proved by the fact learned through the kind information of Mr. 
G. F. Dow. that a replica ir.perfectly illustrated by L. A. Shuf- 
frey. in The English Fireplace. London. B. T. Batsford, 1912, 
page 44, Is in the museum at Rochester, England, where the 
curator writes that the fireback is Dutch, or in the Dutch style 
then in vogue, that the lower inscription reads PALLAS. JUNO. 
VENUS-, explaining the figures in the picture, and that the 
monogram enclosed by the date is WM.. standing for William 
and Mary. 




20I. 

The Pickeriiii^ Firetoaclt. 

Sze. W. 28 X H. 22. Essex Institute. Salem. Mass. By kind 
permiss'on of Mr. G. F. Dow. 

The fireback was obtained about 1870 from Mr. John Pick- 
ering at the house 18 Broad street, Salem, known as the Picker- 
ing house, built in 1659-60. 

The pattern, undoubtedly cast from an imported English 
mould or carved in New England by an English mould carver, 
showing scroll work of the marked Elizabethan style, dated 1660, 
and with the initials I A P, stand ng for John and Ann Picker- 
ing, original settlers, shows a general similarity in the form of 
the vertical sp ndle-shaped ornaments to one of the designs 

have been constructed and used only as deco- 
rations for or protections to the w^all back of 
the open fire, and v^hile a stove may be called 
an economical necessity and a rival to the open 
fire itself, the iron fireback is a superfluous 
ornament not necessary for the retention of 
heat. 

Although long common in Holland, Flan- 
ders and France, and not unknown in Ger- 
many, the fashion of their use in the American 
colonies came, not like that of the stoves from 



illustrated by Starkie Gardener in Iron-casting in the Weald, 
Archaeologa, 2d Series, Vol. 5. page 158, Figure 24. as cast at 
English furnaces in the so-called Weald district of Kent, although 
according to a tradition in Mr. Pickering's family, it was cast 
by Joseph Jenks, an Englsh founder, at the old Lynn or 
Braintree, Mass., Furnace, founded in 1645 and in blast in 1660. 




202. 



Fragment of FiretoacU. 



Size. H. 22 X W. 17' 



Senate House, Kingston. N. Y. 



Th s lower right fragnent shows a King, with robes, sword 
and crown, who kneels with protesting gesture, under a curtain, 
framed in a heavy border of melons, pomegranates and fruit, 
enclosing the date 1661 set upon a scroll at the bottom. Not- 
withstanding the fact that the Lynn Furnace in Massachusetts, 
bu^lt 1645, abandoned 1688, and which probably cast the fireback. 
F;gure 201, in 16C0, was in blast at this time, no furnaces 
existed in 1661 in New York. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land or Virginia, and there can be little doubt that the fireback 
was made in Germany, HollanH, France or England and im- 
ported into the Dutch Colony which was not conquered by the 
English until 1664. 

Germany but from England, and while a few 
may have been introduced from Continental 
Europe, their patterns in the Anglo-American 
colonies followed that in England, where 
Starkie Gardner, in Archasologia, Vol. 56, 
Part I, page 133, notes several styles without 
fixed chronology, namely (1), Moulded from 
Loose Stamps until about 1640, (2) Coats of 
Arms, royal and private cast from single 
moulds, (3) Allegories, badges, illustrations of 
current events, satires, etc.. (4) Bible scenes 
introduced from Germany and Flanders, (5) 



117 




203. 

Adam and Eve Fireback. 

S ze. H. 241, X W. 2234. Essex Institute. Salem. Mass. 

Adam and Eve under the fatal tree with the serpent. 

Judging from the shaps of the casting, which lacks the 
character Stic arched tcp of English and American firebacks, 
from the style of the design, and in particular from the shape 
of the right and left margins, we might suppose that we have here 
a recast of the front plate of a German ja.r.b or wall stove of 
the 17th or early 18th centuries. If so. the pattern has probably 
been i r. ported to America from Continental Europe, modernized 
in date, and used as a 6reback. Unfortunately no definite 
infcr.r.ation as to its origin or acquisition has appeared at the 
Essex Institute. 

The figures of the dates 1770. repeated on either side of the 
tree, and the welts as of the edges of beards surrounding them. 
are not identical as they would bi in each case if these dates 
had been stax.ped upon the sand fro.n loose stamps. We infer, 
therefore, that the casting was made not from an iron plate, but 
from a wooden mould of the style of F gure 14. probably flat- 
tened on the high ridges and orificed to fit two boards carved 
with the date, which have warped above the back ground level. 

Flemish firebacks higher than wide, with rich 
borders, dolphins, cupids, flower pots, mytho- 
logical scenes, victories, emblems, satires, etc. 

It was after Flemish firebacks came into 
vogue in England, and after European stove 
plates had been introduced there to serve 
as firebacks, that the fashion sprung up in 
America, where the styles in vogue in Old 
England were repeated in New England and 
the other colonies to suit the fancy, not of 




204. 

Paiimw'ick. Hall F*ireback» 

Size, H. 35f4x W. 32. Bucks County Historical Society, No. 
1204. Found by the writer in 1897 in the parlour fireplace of 
the eld house formerly belonging to the Shewell family, known 
as Painswick Hall, near Doylestown. Pa. 

Under two dolphins forming the upper outer margin, two 
cornucopias from which fall festoons of flowers make the border 
of the central picture. But the handsome and well-designed 
pattern is too much rusted to justify its description in Deco- 
rated Stove Plates, Figure 15. as representing Esther before 
King Ahasucrus. We can hardly think that a pattern like this 
could have been designed at any of the Pennsylvanian furnaces 
after the beginning of the 18th century. The robed figures, 
curtains, flowers, cornucopias, roped border and dolphins (char- 
acteristic of Anglo-Dutch firebacks of the 17th century), are 
modeled in a style at least a hundred years earlier than the 
period of the establishment of furnaces in Pennsylvania or New 
Jersey, and indicate that the plate or its mould, if not designed 
in New England, was either imported from Europe or recast 
from a European original. 

A replica is at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, at 
Philadelphia. 1914. 

the comparatively few German settlers in the 
Middle States, but for the English-speaking 
colonists everywhere. 

Consequently as colonial blast furnaces 
existed throughout the whole colonial region, 
and as owing to the superabundance of wood, 
open household fires were universal even in 
the stove region of Pennsylvania, there can be 
little question that the ancestral English 
fashion of setting firebacks in fireplaces ex- 
isted everywhere, and that old firebacks can 



118 




205- 

Xlie Stag: Hunt. 

Fireback. Size not given. Senate House Museum. Kingston- 
on-the-Hudscn, 1912. 

Under a festoon cf flowers and above two decorative scrolls 
two horsencn, one of who:n hoUs a sword, riie towards each 
other, and threa dogs run across the lower foreground of the 
pattern, while the fleeing stag is scarcely seen in the upp.r 
right corner behnd one of the horsemen. 

Two seams n-.ark ng warps in the wooden pattern pass 
vertically down the design through the body cf the m ddle dog 
and across the lower scroll work. 

be found through nearly 'hs entire region of 
the original thirteen colonies. 

The oldest firebacks in the collection here 
shown are dated 1660 and 1651, and although 
we cannot prove that these particular speci- 
mens were cast in America, nevertheless, if 
as we have seen, the first American ds;orated 
stoves were cast in Pennsylvania (probably at 
Colebrookdale Furnace not before 1720), then 
American firebacks are older than stove plates, 
since we may suppose that some firebacks 
were cast at Lynn and Braintree Furnace in 
Massachusetts, founded about 1645, at New 
Haven, founded in 1658, or at Shrewsbury, 
N. J., in 1682, or about fifty years before the 
making of the first stoves in Pennsylvania. 




2o6. 

Cupids and V FiretiacU. 

Size, H. 29 x W. 20;i. 

Photograph obtained in 1912 by M ss Westbrook from an 
original at an old house at Kingston-on-the-Hudson. 

Above two very prettily modeled floral festoons, suspended 
from ribbons, two flying angels support a wreath abave the 
letter V. 

On the other hand, as the fireback was 
not adapted to open fireplaces constructed of 
cast iron for burning coal, but depended on 
the existence of the open wood fire, and as 
this latter was not generally superseded by 
soft coal grates in England until about 1740- 
1800 and by coal stoves and coal grates in 
America until about 1840, we must suppose 
that the American firebacks continued in use 
later here than in the mother country and that 
they certainly continued to be cast after the 
demolition (about 1770 to 1790 •, of the old 
decorated five- and six-plate stoves here 
described. 

A large and general grouping of the 
American firebacks would be needed to enable 



119 




207. 

Kiiig»<ton Fireback.. 

Size, about H. 27 x W. 24. Senate House, Kingston. New York. 
The plate 'n two fragments, with its four rosettes and spray 
of flowers ani curved top. has been cast in the open sand. 




208. 

The Graeme Parlt Fireback of 1728. 

Size. H. 26y2 X W. 19»4. In possess on. 1912. of Miss Mary 
M. Penrose at the old house known as Graeme Park, in Horsham 
Township. Montgomery County. Pa., built by the Colonial Gov- 
ernor. Sir William Keith, about 1721. 

With curved top. and the date 1728 set upon a raised car- 
touche between two floral festoons, the con;paratively snail 



plate has been cast without a flask, and shows three circulir 
spots just over the ("ate. v/hich seem to have been obi terated 
in the sand, or cut ofT the wooden pattern. 

The design is un nterestlng. but not so the date. That 
places it together with the Fortune stove plate, Figure 31. and 
the Stcnton Fireback. Figure a09, among the earliest t'atcd fire 
apparati s cast in Pcnrsyhania, at a ti.re when, according to a 
statement of James Logan, quoted by Swank, we have to ciioosc 
between four furnaces, namely. Colebrookdale. Christine-Red- 
ding, Ke ths and Durham, as the only ones then in existence. 
and therefore the only ones that couH have cast it. 

At first sght it appears to be a replica of the Stcnton fire- 
back of I. L. of identical date. Figure 209. but, closely inspected, 
differs from the latter in every detail. Moreover, when Mr. 
B. F. Fackentiial. Jr., formerlv manager of Durham Furnace, 
analyzed both plates in September. 1912. he found too much 
rr.arganese an 1 tco much coppsr in the Graeme Park specimen 
to class it with the Stenton P.reback. and s nee the latter, as he 
shows, was probably made at Durham, this was not, but rather 
at Ke-ths Furnace, on the Christiana River, -n Delaware, where 
Governor Keith, according to a lett:r of Emanuel Swcdenbo.-g, 
quoted by Swank, had established a furnace about 1725, and 
conducted it for three years thereafter, or until the ore ran out. 

If so. and as Davis says. History of Bucks County, page 
436. Sir Willia.m Keith returned to England in 1728, then th=s 
fireback which, according to a tradition cited by Davis, was 
placed in one cf the upper fireplaces by Dr. Graeme, Keith's 
scn-;n-!aw, on Keith's departure, r.:ay be one of the last castings 
made at the Governor's unsuccessful furnace. 




209. 

The ^teuton Kirebaek. of i 

Size, H. 27'4 x W. IS'^. At the Colon al House, 
ton. at Wayne Junction. Philadelphia, built by W 
Secretary, Jar.es Logan, in 1728. 

It would be unreasonable to suppose that the 
cast on this fir.:back above the date 1728. set on a 



728. 



callei Sten- 
illiam Penn's 



initials I. L. 
raised block. 



120 



and possibly stamped on the sand with a loose stamp, stand for 
anybody but JaTies Logan, Colonial Secretary for William Penn. 
who built Stenton in 1728, and probably placed the fireback in 
the house. 

When the latter, with its floral festoon, closely but not ex- 
actly resembling that on the Graeme Park fireback. Figure 208. 
was cast, only four furnaces were as yet in existence in Penn- 
sylvana then, including part of Delaware, namely, Colebrookdale. 
founded in 1720; Christine (predecessor of Redding), founded 
before 1728: Keiths, in Delaware, in 1725, and Durham, in 1727. 

This fact, based on a letter of James Logan, quoted in 
Swank, page 170, marks this otherwise uninteresting pattern as 
one of the first castings made in Pennsylvania. 

It belongs to a series of eight other firebacks, all adorned 
with the same, or a very similar festoon, and with or without 
initials, and the date 1728, and Mr. B. F. Fackenthal, Jr., 
formerly manager of Durham Ironworks, has shown that three, 
and therefore probably all of these castings, were made at 
Durham Furnace for the following reasons: Because all were 
found together in old fireplaces at Stenton, because James Logan, 
the I. L. of the initials, who built the house in 1728. and prob- 
ably set up the firebacks, was one of the original owners of 
Durham Furnace, founded by hm and others in 1727, the year 
before, and would not have had h's firebacks cast elsewhere in 
1728, and lastly, because Mr, Fackenthal's chcm cal analyses of 
the Stenton plates show that they agree in two decisive items 
with the peculiar ores of Durham, which latter, like the Stenton 
firebacks, contain almost no manganese and no copper at all. 




Dated 1734 and with its floral festoons somewhat resem- 
bling the Stenton fireback. Figure 209. the plate was said to 
have been found about 1895, set as a date plate in the outer 
gable of an old house about one m.le from Valley Forge, for- 
merly the headquarters of the American General, Lord Stirling, 
during the Revclutionary encampment of 1776. 

Another extremely heavy pUte of similar shape, at the 
Bucks County Historical Society, nearly 2 inches thick, re- 
moved about 190O from the gable of an old house destroyed by 
fire about 1890. formerly belonging to Joseph M. Laurie, at 
Yardville, near Trenton, N. J., shows that, as in this case, dated 
castings of this sort, whether or'g'nally intended for firebacks 
or not, were sometimes set in the outer walls of houses as date 
plates. 

Replica, Dr. Wm. T. Sharpless, West Chester. Illustrated, 
page CO. Forges and Furnaces in Province of Pennsylvania, for 
the Colonial Dames, Philadelphia, 1914. 




2IO. 

A'alley Korge Fireback. or Date Plate. 

Size W. 20 X H. 27. Washington's Headquarters. Valley Forge, 
1912. 



211. 
John Potts Fireback or Date Plate. 

Size not given. Col. H. D. Paxson, Holicong, Pa. 

The date, 1741. plainly appears above the name of the 
ironmaster. John Potts, here spelled plainly in the English 
manner at a t'me when Potts was ironmaster at Warwick Fur- 
nace, when the floral stove patterns had not yet appeared, when 
as yet no Biblical stove plate thus far found had advertised the 
name of master or furnace, and when the makers of jamb stoves 
at any of John Potts' furnaces would have spelled his name 
lAHN. POT. 



US to understand the subject and fix these warrant any general classification of their 

dates, but our meagre collection, made only styles or deduction as to their origin and age. 

in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New York Here we find, as yet, no square firebacks 

and New Jersey, is too small and local to and none made with loose stamps or bordered 



121 




212. 

Xhe lIor«^eniaii and Coiivict»»« 

Fireback. Size. H. 2334 x W. 17'-2. Essex Institute. Salem. 
Mass. Given by Mr. Nathan Pierce. 

As the most intsrestirg of all the firebacks herewith illus- 
trated, it seen*.s unfortunate that no definite information can be 
obtained as to the orig n and history of this singular, allegorical 
pattern, in which an elegantly dressed figure seated upon a 
prancing horse bran-'ishes a sword just drawn from its uplifted 
scabbard, and overrides a band of ten chained prisoners, pre- 
ceded by a small figure on horseback and a sentinel, and fol- 
lowed by two other sentinels holding the gang-cha n. 

The characteristic coat, cocked hat. laced cuffs and large 
queue bow of the horseman, reasonably place the date of the 
pattern between 1750 and 1776, and if it were cast in America 
we might infer that the sentinels with their pointed caps are 
British soldiers, and that some New England furnace ha^ 
ventured to satirize George the Third in his alleged attempt, 
after the landing of British troops at Boston in 1765. to "dra- 
goon" the colonies. 

If cast in Europe, the fireback may be a satire upon forced 
methods of military enlistment cither in England or under 
Frederick the Great in Prussia where only the sugar-loaf gren- 
adier caps were worn. 

But whether made in England, continental Europe or Amer- 
ica, the rich border is in the Flemish style, which, according 
to Gardner, above quoted, page 161. became fashionable at the 
English furnaces about 1689. 










0X1 OKL> 






213. 

Arms of Kiis^laiid FiretoacU. 

Size. H. 34 X W. 34. Bucks County Historical Society. 

The fine spirited carving with lion, unicorn, crest, crown 
and legend of the Garter, differing entirely in style and treat- 
ment from the workmanship of the Pennsylvania German stove- 
plates here illustrated, shows the word Oxford cast upon the 
lower left margin, for Oxfcrd Furnace, in Warren County. New 
Jersey, and the date 1746. when, according to Swank, Jonathan 
Robeson was ironmaster there. 

J. P. Snell. in his History of Warren and Sussex Count es. 
New Jersey, says (page 78) that he has seen several similar 
firebacks marked for Oxford Furnace and dated 1747 and later, 
and the writer has seen or heard of several replicas and close 
copies, as follows: 

1. Pennsylvania Historical Society, with words Oxford, 
1754, on the lower margin. 

2. Copy w!th variations, with words Oxford, but no date. 
Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

3. Figure 214. Copy with free variations. Photographed 
in 1908. when in possession of Mrs. Hallam. dealer (successor 
to "Noah's Ark"), at Bristol. Pa. (See Figure 214.) 

4. Copy with variations at Moon Hall, near Valley Forge. 
in possession of Mr. Henry Pennypacker. June 30. 1910. 

5. Ditto. 4 and 5. walled in outer wall of a back porch 
and found in pulling down an old wood-burning heater in the 
cellar. 4 and 5 possibly like 3. 

6. Replica, dated 1746. Col. H. D. Paxson. Holicong, Pa. 

7. Ditto. 

8. Copy or replica at Memorial Hall Museum. Philadelphia. 

9. Copy or replica as fireback in possession of Mr. Pen- 
rose, at Graeme Park, Montgomery County, Pa., 1912. 

10. Copy or replica in 1910 at Washington's Headquarters 
at Moorcstown. N. J. 

Figure 213 was found in one of the parlor fireplaces at the 
old Cox house near Bushington, Bucks County. Pa., in 1908. 
That the original pattern was made in England and brought over 
seems probable. Oxford Iron Works made their first pigiron 
on March 9. 1743. and soon after began casting firebacks. 



122 




214* 

Arms of Hns:laiicl FirebacU. 

S>e. about H. 35 x W. 33' z- G. M. Hallam. dealer. Bristol. 
Pa.. 1910. 

At a first glance this fireback appears to be a replica of 
Figure 213. but on examination all the details vary. Without 
the evidence of a poss ble inscrption on the lower margin, 
which is rusted away, we may infer that it, like Figure 213. 
was cast at Oxfori Furnace. Warren County, New Jersey 
(founde-l in 1742, abandoned 1882). and belongs to a series cf 
firebacks slightly varying 'n size, but of generally similar pat- 
tern cast there between 1745 ani 1758. Some are and some are 
not inscribed on the lower margin with the na-ne Oxford and 
the date. But the dates vary, and two moulds, at least, if 
not more, have been used in producing the series, so that if one 
was brought froTi England, others no less excellent were probably 
made here by an unknown mould carver whose beautiful work, 
differing widely from that of the rrore original stove plates, 
seems to surpass them in coTipos't'on and art'sric skill. 




Here we have for the first time the fam liar American 
floral pattern with the date 1763 and the inscription COLE- 
BROOKDALE. FURNACE, cast, net upon a stove plate but a 
fireback. A sun with divergent rays fills the upper semi- 
circular area, the sheep heads have become points, lacking the 
dart en'^s. and the lower panel is here feebly decorated, not 
w th the L'si:al medallion, tulips and inscription, but with a 
hatched Iczenge and four scallops, as upon the Warwick ten-pla*e 
stove. Figures 143 and 148. 

The ccUection has abundantly shown that this floral design, 
as we have called it, including the peculiar aureole and sheep 
l:;gs, for a few years after 1756, exercised a universal fascina- 
tion on the /'m^rican stove makers, who, with a few exceptions, 
embodied it on the front and side plates of their five and six- 
plate stoves, and because this pattern, as explained in the text, 
has not been heard of in Ger.nany, and because the lettering 
of the irscription. the modified sheep legs, the tulip flowers, 
and the decoration of the spandrels, closely resembles that upon 
the other Cclebrookdals stove plates, namely, F gures 155 and 
157, this fireback ought not to be ascribed to Colebrook^ale 
(now Coalbrookdale) Furnace, in Shropsh re, England, founded 
in 1709 and still existing in 1914, where, according to letters 
recently received from the maragement, no records or patterns 
are preserved to show the casting of any such design, but 
rather to Colebrookdale Furnace, in Berks County. Pennsyl- 
vania, founded in 1720, and therefore the earliest furnace in 
Pennsylvania where, according to the Potts manuscripts and 
our own collecticn, numerous stove plates and firebacks were 
cast at the date in question, and for many years before. 




Fireback of Colebrookdale. 

Size, H. 34 x W. 29'2. Metropolitan Museum, New York. 



2X6. 

Tlie Ilor!i*einaii. 

Fireback. Size. H. 30 x W. 23. Mr. Nathaniel T. Kidder, of 
69 Ames Building, Boston. Mass. 

A man in the dress of a clown stands on the saddle of n 
galloping horse, with a bridle in his right hand, and a horn in 
h's left, while he kicks with his right leg in the air. A balanced 
pattern of conventionalized fol'age. upon two stalks springing 
from the lower right and left corner of the plate, surrounds the 



123 



picture, above which are cast the words JOHN. SHIP. 
FAMOUS. HORSEMAN., while on the lower rim the initials 
BA and the date 1774 plainly appear. 

Mr. Kidder found the fireback near Boston, and there can 
be no doubt that the casting, which shows no resemblance to 
the Gcrran work herein described, was made by English work- 
men at one of the old Massachusetts, Connecticut or Rhode 
Island f'jrnaces then in blast (Taunton. 1725-1840; Plympton. 
17:0: Charlotte. 1758; Lennox. 1765-1881 : Hope [Rhode Island], 
17:5: New Haven, Conn., 1658; Lime Rock. Conn.. 1740-1890.) 




217. 

The Highlander. 

Fireback. Size. W. 21 x H. 32. Museum of the Huguenots. 
New Paltz. N. Y. 

Between two pedestals surmounted with conventional flowers 
stands a figure which, judging from the ribbed stockings, mili- 
tary frogged vest, cloak or plaid, buckled on the right shoulder, 
bare knees and apparent kilt, may be supposed to be a High- 

with the impress of waxed rope pushed into 
the sand. Neither are there any grave slabs 
of cast iron shaped Hke firebacks. but rather 
a series of date plates exactly resembling them 
set originally in the gables of old houses. As 
yet we find national rather than private coats 
of arms, amusing fancies, monograms, alle- 



lander in the uniform of the British Army of the 18th century. 
A heavy plume adorns hs bonnet, his broadsword drawn from 
its scabbard is uplifted in his right hand, while in his left he 
holds a remarkable object shaped like a sh eld, between the 
open bars of which his hand appears. Above appears the in- 
scription AT NEW YORK. 1767. The arched top is adorned 
with dolphins and the whole pattern is surrounded with a rich 
Flemish border. 

The plate was found in the State of New York, but dated 
long after the abandonment of the colony by Holland, and 
though adorned with a rich Flemish border, surmounted by 
dolphins, might have been made at one of the New York fur- 
naces in the Flemish style then in fashion in England and the 
Anglo-American colonics. 




y/ 



/ 



f^/O/ 




217-a 
Date !i»toiie. 

Size not given. State L brary. Harrisburg. Pa. Found in a 
fitH in Elizabeth Township. Lancaster County, Pa., and obtained 
for the Library by Mr. L. M. Kelker. 

The well-designed and balanced pattern, with its stars, 
hearts and tulips, shows no familiar feature in the decorative 
trcat.Tient. except the characteristic tail of the numeral I in the 
date, otherwise the pattern carved in stone which might well 
have adorned a stove plate, is entirely distinct from all the stove 
designs yet found. 

If used at Elizabeth Furnace, near the site of the discovery, 
its date, 1765, shows that it must have marked some other 
event than the founding cf the works, which Jacob Huber estab- 
lished in 1742. 

gories, mythological scenes, with here and 
there a pattern whose Flemish character shows 
not necessarily that it was imported direct 
from Holland, but rather that it might have 
come from England or might have been cast 
at one of the old American furnaces at a time 
when Flemish firebacks were the fashion here 



124 



ROOM 




KITCTHEW 



2l8. 
Radiating: FirebacU of Belgriuin. 

Sketch showing the reversible fireback known as Taque de Foyer 
of Luxemburg in its position. 

The drawing, kindly furnished by Mr. F. Loes. Librarian 
of the Archaeological Institute of Luxemburg, shows in vertical 
section the Taque de Foyer in its original position, walled in a 
hole back o£ the kitchen fireplace, so as to radiate heat and 
present its decorated side into the lower compartment of a 
wcoden cupboard constructed in the thickness of the partition 
wall. The decorated side of the fireback shows in the lower 
compartment cf the cupboard and the radiated heat passes into 
the room conta'ning the cupboard, when the double wooden 
doors or sometimes curtains of its lower compartment arc left 
open. The plain side of the fireback generally fronts the kitchen 
fire, but sometimes the cupboard. Mr. Loes says that wall 
hooks visible on the kitchen side were used to hold the taque 
flush with the wall back of the fire. 

A, B. C. Taqueschaf or cupboard or dresser in three ccm- 
partments in thickness of wall between two rooms. 

A. Upper compartment probably containing shelves, closed 
with double wooden doors. 

B. Middle compartment forming shelf or buffet with front 
single panel opening outward. 

C. Lower compartment closed with double doors or cur- 
tains and warmed with the fireback or Taque de Foyer D. AVhen 
the doors or curtains are open, the heat passes into the room H. 

F. Kitchen hearth and fire. 

G. Partition wall. 

H. Room opening upon taqueschaf. 
I. Kitchen. 
E. Fireplace. 

D. Taque de Foyer or taque or radiating fireback walled in 
or hooked against the partition wall back of the fire, often with 
decorated side facing the cupboard or taqueschaf. 

As to the exact shape of these firebacks or Taques de Foyer 
and whether as loose plates they can be distinguished at sight 



from ordinary English or American firebacks. whether th°y 
were invariably constructed w th extra broad margins for wall 
insertion, whether they were always square and never round, 
and whether all the firebacks illustrated in Sibenalers' book 
"Plaques et Taques de Foyer, Arlon Bruck 1904," where, unfor- 
tunately, most of the margins have been cut by the photogra- 
pher, were radiating frebacks of this kind, we arc left in doubt. 
Mr. Loes assures us that Sibenalers' mutilated Figure 17 with 
extra broad blank margins was so used. 



A 



B 




219* 

Belg:iaii Taqueschaf or Fireback 
Cupboard* 

From drawing kindly furn shed by Mr. F. Loes. 

Taqueschaf or wooden cupboard walled in the thickness of 
a partition wall immediately back of the kitchen fireplace, show- 
ing the original position of the reversible fireback known in 
Luxemburg as Taques de Foyer. 

A. Upper compartment closed with wooden doors. 

B. Middle compartment with front opening outward as a 
single panel, forming a shelf. 

D. Lower compartment, showing decorated side of the 
Taque de Foyer which, heated on the undecorated opposite side 
by the fire, radiates warmth into this compartment when its 
doors E are open. 

F. Partition wall. 



because they were the fashion in England. for the English colonist, and that fact helps to 

Just as the German stove plate was im- explain why stove plates have been, and are 

ported into England and used as a fireback, still called "firebacks," where every one is 

here the stove plate of the Pennsylvania Ger- familiar with an open fire, but not one person 

man served the same purpose in the fireplace in a hundred knows what a stove plate is. 



125 




220. 
Belgian Fireback Cupboard or Xaquescliaf. 

Showing radiating fireback in its original position at the Restau- The square plate, size not given, is emblazoned with the 

rant Schenken at Ansembourg. Luxemburg. Belgium. Photo- Armc ^( »h* f^m.i,, «f H...ii..„f-io t ^^a t . . 

Arms oi tne lamiiv ol rlollentels. L.ords ot an ancient castle so 
graphed May. 1914. by M. Lucien Sibenaler. by kind permission 

of M. J. B. Sibenaler. of Brussels. As explained under Figure named, still ..i preservation on a hollow rock in the Valley of 

219, the fireback acting as a heat radiator faces the lower .^^ ii>T„,^„t, n i ^^^,fT l . .. ^.. 

, . ' , , r V 1 ■ J '"^ Mersch. Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. A replica of this 

compartment of the cupboard or taqueschat. here lackmg doors 

or curtain. The fireplace showing the undecorated side of the P'^'« '= described and illustrated by J. B. Sibenaler in Taques 
plate in another room has been walled up (1914). et Plaques de Foyer. Arlon Bruck, 1908. page 22. 



The style and workmanship of the fire- designs illustrating events in Biblical history 

backs is generally superior to that of the stove and follovi^ing a fixed religious ideal accom- 

plates. But it is very diiTerent in character, panied by Scriptural mottoes — a sermon in 

The meaning is lacking. Instead of a series of iron, we have household decoration. 



126 




221. 
Firetiack Cupboard or Xaque^tchaf* 



Called also Placard in Northern France. Showing the radiating 
fireback or Taque de Foyer, size not given, in its original posi- 
tion in the Concierge's room at an ancient hospital at Longwy, 
department Meurthe et Mcselle, France. Photographed May, 
1914, by Dr. Coliez, of Longwy, by k!nd permission of M. J. 
B. Sibenaler. 

The square plate decorated with a class'c scene in the style 
of Louis XV shows its decorated side in the lower compart 
ment of the cupboard here furnished with wooden doors. When 
photographed, a ccat of white paint had to be removed. 

The writer learns from M. Siebenaler and Dr. Coliez th3t 
no radiating fireback of this sort has ever been found decorate') 
on both sides, and that the decorated side someti.-ncs faced the 



kitchen fireplace. It further appears that few, if any, of these 
plates are still, 1914, in use as radiators, or still remain showing 
both sides in their original position. In this case, the kitchen 
fireplace enclosing the undecorated reverse of this plate has 
been walled up. 

These interesting photographs I 22U and 221) as showing two 
of the last remaining examples of " Taques de Foyer" in their 
original position in Luxemburg and France, were taken in June. 
1914, probably at the latest possible moment, since the writer's 
correspondence concerning them with M. Sibenaler, then at 
Brussels, was suddenly interrupted by the stoppage of the Bel- 
gian mails on the outbreak of the great European War, when 
Belgium and Luxemburg were overrun, Longwy demolished by 
cannon and the quiet of Ansembourg disturbed by the roar of 
invading armies. 



127 



Miscellaneous Stoves. 




225. 

Stie«:el'i* Cannon Stove. 

Cylindrical draught stove cf cast iron. Size, diameter at base. 
18-2; he'ght. including l=gs. 57. Mr. James Spear. 1014 Market 
street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cast in three circular drums and supported on four legs, 
the stove shows the words H. W. STIEGEL 1759. upon the 
lower drum, in the rear of which is the fuel door not seen. The 
smoke pipe orifice enters the rear of the middle drum. Both 
the upper drux.s are adorned with tul ps. Here Stiegrl. two 
years after co.ming into control of Elizabeth Furnace, has re- 
proc'uced and cast in fiasks the stove known in Germany as the 
Pommerofen, which, according to Kassel, who illustrates one 
in Ofenplatten im Elsass. page 60. were ma-'e in Germany in 
the 18th century and probably earlier, and may have been 
named after Wolfgang Pommer. of Nur.T.berg, who obtained an 
Imperial privilege for a wood-sparing cook stove in 1582. 

Sibenaler 'Taques et Plaques de Foyer. Arlon. 1908. page 
170) illustrates another more elaborate specimen dated 1742, 
but probably cast from moulds made a hundred years earlier. 

The stove. Figure 225. was exhibited at the "Founders' 
Week" n Philadelphia in 1908. and was seen by the writer in 
IDIO at Spear's stove store. 1014 Market street. Philadelphia, 
Pa. Watson says. Annals. Vol. I. page 218, that "cannon 
stoves." "upright cylinders looking like cannon." came out in 
1752 at Colebrookdale Furnace, and the Potts manuscripts 
show that a "round stove." possibly a Pommerofen, weighing 
1921 pounds and costing two pounds eight shillings, was cast 
and sold at Colebrookdale in 1735, fifteen years before Stiegel 
came to America. 

According to a brief statement made by Esther Singleton in 

"Social L'fe in New York Under the Georges." New York, 

about 19C0. "Cast-iron stoves, round and square, were in use in 
New York about 1752." 




227. 

Tile and Iron Oraft Stove. 

Size, minus legs. H. 54. W. upper 33. legs IS'^^. Radiating; 
holes, lower. H. 12, W. 14. Upper. H. 9. W. 14. Moravian 
Historical Society, Nazareth. Pa. Removed from an unknown 
orig nal site and reconstructed in the Museum. October 6, 1871. 

The stove is n-ade n the style of similar stoves in Germany. 
Holland and Scandinavia, in use in the middle 18th century. 
It consists cf a fire chamber of iron, with an upp:r heat retain- 
ing story, perforated by two square heat radiating holes, and Is 
made of cornice-shaped and panrlled stove tiles, dished or hDl- 
lowed inside, broad r mmed, and probably punctured for wires 
to faciltate setting them up like so many bricks with lime and 
sand mortar. These tiles are, in simplsst form, in one plane 
with two stamped panels 7 inches high and B^'j inches wide, or 
longer with three panels, when they return in a single piece 
around the corners, and are all glazed in one color with brown 
manganese glaze on a red clay body. The fuel door is at the 
lower right corner above the iron hearth extension and the 
smoke pipe appears above. 



128 



The whole lower iron box is a fire chaTiber, from which 
through a hole at its Itft smoke and heat circulate around the 
radiating holes and through the entire interior of the upper 
heat-retain rg structure of tile. Through the kind informat on 
of Mr. T. M. Rights, of Nazareth, and the Rev. Albert Oerter 
of Nazareth. Pa., who quotes "an excursion into Bethlehem and 
Nazareth in the year 1799 by the Rev. John C. Ogden." we 
learn that in 1799 stoves thus constructed, either entirely made 
of t les or constructed thus of iron and tiles, were in common 
use. but "since the irrprovem;nt in stoves" were go ng out of 
fashion in public bu Idings and private houses in Bethlehem and 
Nazareth, that the first stove of the kind was made at a 
pottery "in the Swamp" (probably near Hanover. Montgomery 
County), by Ludwig Huebner. and set up by him in 1742. that 
later Huebner came to Bethlehem and built a kiln and potter's 
wheel near the "Abbott property," and the first log tavern, 
that this or another pottery was enlarged in 1756 and con- 
ta.ned lodgings for workmen in its second story, and that in 




228. 

1762 the pottery, then managed by Huebner, was in a stone 
building 32 by 35 feet in size. We learn further, that Huebner, 
after the Continental soldiers had used the brethren's house at 
Bethlehem as a hospital, had presented a war claim against the 
new government in 1789 for 12 pounds for the loss or damage 
of eight new tile stoves. 

It also appears that the brothers Martin and Leonard 
Dober, Swabians. of Austrian extraction, had helped to intro- 
duce pottery making into the Moravian settlement at Bethlehtm, 
and also, according to information from Miss Adelaide Fries, 
that a large pottery first conducted by the Moravian congre- 



gation, after 1829 by lessees, and after 1833 by the German 
Moravian potter, Herry Schaffner, of Neuwied, Germany, had 
continued to exist as late as 18^0 at the Southern Moravian 
community at Winston-Salem. North Carolina, where many 
do.-r.estic utens Is and tile stoves were made. Of these, accord- 
ing to Miss Fries, two of yellow tiles with tile fire chambers, 
set on iron bottom plates with iron legs, are now, 1914. pre- 
served at the Wachovia Historical Society at Winston-Salem. 
According to Mr. J. A. Linebach, Librarian of the Society, one 
of these came from the building now known as the Bshop 
house, see Figure 228, and the other from that called the Bagge 
house. Another tile stove exists at Bethabara. North Carolina, 
and a fourth in a private house at Winston-Salem. 




229. 

Front Plate of Franklin's Fireplace. 

Size. H. 16 X W. 24. Bucks County Historical Society. 

The orig ral pattern of 1742. as described and illustrated in 
Frank! n's parrphlet (An account of the new invented Pennsyl- 
vania n Fireplace, etc.. etc.. Philadelphia. Printed and sold by 
B. Franklin. 1744). possibly designed by Franklin himself. 

A sun as a human face with sixteen rays, surrounded by 
branching leafage, twisted at various angles, with the motto 
"ALTER IDEM." "Another like me," upon a scroll, as to which 
Frankl n publishes a poem on the last page, 33. of his pamphlet, 
as follows : 

f)n the DEVICE of the New FirePl.\ce A SUN with titis motto 
AI.TKR IDEM. /. c. 

A second Self or Another the Same. 
By a Friend. 

Another Sun! tis true; but not the same 
Alike I own, in Warmth and genial Flame 
Put. more obliging than his elder Brother, 
This will not scorch in Summer like the other 
Nor when sharp Boreas chills our shivering Limbs 
Will tliis Sun leave us for more Southern Climes 
(_)r in long Winter Nights, forsake us here, 
To cheer new Friends in tother Hemisphere; 
But faithful still to us this new Sim's fire. 
Warms when we jfiease, and just as we desire. 



129 




230. 

Fraiiltliii's Fireplace. 

Early modification of original pattern. Size. W. 24 x H. 32. 
Hearth, back to front. 34 inches. Bucks County Historical 
Society. 'Showing Figure 229 in position: > 

Found in loose pieces at the house of Mr. Seth T. Walton. 
one mile east of Willow Grove. Montgomery County. Pa. For- 
merly owned by Robert Roberts. The two sides and back pla*e 
were found by the writer on the top of the parlor chimney in 
1911. 

In general shape and appearance, the stove containing sev- 
eral of the original plates, as described by Franklin in the 
pamphlet previously named (under Figure 229). closely resem- 
bles the original Franklin stove, but when compared with the 
complete set of illustrations there shown, several differences 
appear. 

Here the very important hot air box is lost and the surviv- 
ing bottom plate, unl ke the original, lacks the holes for the 
blower, the hot-air box and down-draft smoke egress. The back 
plate is perforated for a smoke egress, while Franklin's is not. 
and the top plate, unlike Franklin's, has been perforated with 2 
circular hole equipped for a sliding lid. probably intended for 
warming water. 

On the other hand, the right and left plates with their a r 
holes, and grooves for the air box. and the front plate with its 
decorations, exactly resemble Franklin's models and stand in 
their original position. 

According to Franklin's complete set of illustrations, in the 
above-named and now rare pamphlet, the entire apparatus de- 
scribed was a down-draft portable fireplace, intended to be built 
against and into the fire opening of a common open fireplace 
of masonry, so as to emit its smoke, not at the top, but through 
a hole in the rear of the bottom or underfire plate, and equipped, 
as a particular novelty, with a hot-air box inserted immediately 
back of the fire, over and down back of which the smoke and 



flame passed, to escape at the down draft outlet. The air box 
being so constructed as to take in cold air from outside the 
house. throL-gh a hole in the hearth plate, and puff it out when 
heated into the room through two holes in the side plates of ihc 
apparatus, seen in the illustration. Figure 231. 

The whole fireplace was constructed of eight plates, an 1 
while the down-draught hole in the hearth plate, and the sun 
and motto design on the front plate, are distinguishing features 
of the original stove, the hot-air box is its most important 
characteristic. 

But this Fr3nklin did not invent, s-nce. as he admits in his 
pamphlet, cast iron hot-air boxes emitting heated air had been 
introduced into open fireplaces by Sieur Nicholas Gauger in 
France in 1709, and were describci in a book published by him. 
called "La Mcchanique de Feu." and described in English in 
1715 by Dr. Desaguliers ^see Fires Improved, etc.. etc.. from 
the French of Mons. Gauger made English, and improved by 
J. T. DesTguliers. Lonlon, J. Senex and E. Curll, 1715). Never- 
theless. Franklin's apparatus, if not an invent on. was an im- 
provement, since Gauger's Fireplace, of which Gauger describes 
seven varied arrangements, was up-:lraft, not portable, co.-npli- 
cated. and set with its air boxes, save in one instance, within 
the jamb mantle and back, while Franklin's apparatus was 
portable, down-draft, and with its air box constructed away 
from the wall, so as to present three sides to the heat, instead 
of one or two. 

Franklin, who presented the fireplace to Robert Grace. 
manager and part owner of Warwick Furnace in 1742. never 
patented it: and it appears that a great number of portable fire- 
places named after Franklin were thereafter cast at various 
furnaces in Pennsylvania. New England and the other colonies, 
but most of them only followed the orginal model in outward 
shape. 

The fact that no original Franklin stove has been recently 
heard of. wh le many of the modern for.ns minus the air box 
still survive, shows that the original apparatus was probably 
not a success. No doubt it smoked in many cases, either be- 
cause in certain chi-nreys the down-draft principle would not 
work, or because the smoke canal under the hearth was easily 
clogged with soot and d fficult to clean, without removing the 
air box. The rarity of remain ng parts of these air boxes also 
shows that the latter was soon discarded altogether, the down- 
draft flue abandoned, and the smoke egress or pipe hole put, in 
modern fashion, in the top of the stove. 

The Potts MSS. show the first sale of Franklin's apparatus. 
not in the ledgers of Warwick Furnace, but in those of 
Coventry Forge and of Mount Pleasant Furnace, as follows: 
"Sept. 23rd. 1742. Coventry, book B. page 87. charged to Mr. 
George Rock, of Northeast. M2ryland. 7 small new-fashioned 
fire-places, weight, 21 cwt.. no qr. and 6 lbs. 23 £. 3 shillings 
and 2d. Sent to Israel Pemberton per Will Wynn. Mr. Grace 
had them in town." 

The second entry that refers to a Franklin stove, appears 
in the ledger of Mount Pleasant Furnace (managed by John 
Potts and Thorras Rutter). for November 9. 1742. page 195. 
and reads: "Joseph Scull, to cash to your son 4 shillings, and 
a fire-place for Pascall's, 3£. 14 shillings.'* from which it ap- 
pears that Grace, who was then in charge of Warwick, had for 
some reason ordered the first stoves cast at Redding and Mount 
Pleasant, rather than at Warwick, where the casting of Franklin 
ureplaces. frequently credited to Grace, Franklin himself and 
others, often by the ton, accor;Hng to the first ledger entries. 
began three years later, viz., on June 12, 1745. 

There in the Warwick day book for 1747. September 29, 
parts of the fireplace noted, as follows: Eleven back*, seven 
bottoms, six tops, seven right sides, one air box and four 
matching plates for air box are credited to Robert Grace to be 
sent to Mr. Franklin in Philadelphia; and in that year one ton 
and in 1751. between July and October, seven tons of fireplaces 
are sold. 



130 



J. Durno, of Jermyn street. Picadilly. London (see A de 
scription of a new invented iron stove, J. Desagulisrs, London, 
1753). produced an altered version of Franklin's fireplace, 
adapted for coal instead of wood, and with a brick air box. 

And James Sharp, of 15 Leadenhall street (s=e an account 
of the Pennsylvanian stove grates, with additions and improve- 
ments, etc., by James Sharp. 15 Leadenhall street, London, 
sold by Benjamin White, 63 Fleet street, about 1781). varied it 
again with long stovepipes, made it more easily cleanable and 
rendered it independent of fireplaces. He describes it as very 
efficiently constructed in the damp St. John's Church, South- 
wark, and Draper's Hall, London. 

A great many of the so-called "FrankKn Stoves," first cast 
in open sand, and later in flasks, have continued to be manu- 
factured down to the present time, but because none of the 
older specimens preserved in ancient houses, or heard of by 
the writer, are made of eight plates, as they should be. but 
consist only of five, and because, like the stove illustrat::d by 
Lossing as an orig nal (see Field Book of the Revolution, Vol. 
I. page 328). or that described as found among the heirlooms 
of Warwick Furnace by Mrs. James (Potts Memorial), th;y 
lack the air box, down-draught hole, sun plate and motto, or 
are inscribed with names or advertisements not contemplated or 
described by Franklin; they are not originals. 




231. 

In the appendix called Sequence of Franklin Stoves 
( Forges and Furnaces, Colonial Dames, page 188). twelve 
Franklin stoves and one plate are illustrated, together with an 
unexplained reproduction of Frankl n's orig* nal stove cut of 
1744. But the interesting construction of Franklin's apparatus 
is overlooked and no original stoves are illustrated. All the 
stoves shown appear to be up-draft and many show inclined 
backs. No "sequence" appears. 

The Warwick stove shown may be pre-r evolutionary, bu+ 
whether it is down-draft or not does not appear in the blurred 
photograph. Furnace dates and the liberty motto prove that 
five of the stoves illustrated were cast during or after the Revo- 
lution. One front is dated 1772, while six other stoves illus- 
trated, decorated in the style of the late 18th century, appear 



to have been cast between 1780 and 1800, or later, though these 
are dated by the ladies without quoting authorities, between 
1750 and 1760. 

Here we have the original front plate and. as remarked 
above, the right and left plates with their air holes and grooves 
for the air box. but the original perforated bottom plate has 
been replaced with a solid new one : the top plate has been 
arranged for a kettle rest, and the back plate perforated for 
the smoke egress, as if the owner of an original Franklm Fire- 
place, having abandoned the down draft and air box, had re- 
placed several of the original plates with new ones, and con- 
tinued to use such of the old ones as served his purpose. 




Front Plate of FraiiUlin^s Fireplace* 

Size, H. 14'4 x W. 30»2. Pennsylvania Museum. No. 13-450. 

The plate, differing entirely in design from Franklin's orig- 
inal, Figure 229, must have been cast about forty years after 
the philosopher invented h.s fireplace. 

It is undated, but its pattern, the flying argel blowing a 
trumpet, the seated Indian with his dog and bow, and the alle- 
gor c al figure opposite, generally repeat, though with varying 
details, the liberty pattern of the stove plate. Figure 175. 
Therefore it must have been cast during or after th; Revolution, 
as no Euch plate would have been made before. Instead of the 
liberty motto, we have an advert semen t on the scroll of the 
na Ties of Peter Grubb and George Ege, which association of 
names shows that the plate may have been cast either at Corn- 
wall Furnace, in Lebanon County, where Peter Grubb was 
master between 1765 and 1785, or at Mount Hope Furnace, 
founded by Peter Grubb, 3d, 1785, and where the latter may 
have had Ege as a partner, or at a furnace unnamed by Pearse. 
page 193, in Dauphin County, managed by Peter Grubb in 1797. 

According to Swank, page 182, there were three Peter 
Grubbs. viz : Peter Grubb, 1st. who built Cornwall Furnace 
in 1742. and died in 1754. and who was the son of John Grubb, 
of Cornwall, England. 

Peter Grubb, 2d, son of 1st, who was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War and a brother of Curtis Grubb. He re- 
sumed the management of Cornwall Furnace in 1765, after its 
lease by his father, and was living in 1785. 

Peter Grubb, 3d, son of 2d. He was called Peter Grubb. 
Jr.. in the ironmaster's petition of 1785. Swank, page 496. Built 
Mount Hope Furnace in 1786 and had a furnace, unnamed, in 
Dauphin County in 1797. It is probably the latter whose name 
appears on this plate. 

According to Swank, page 176, George Ege was a nat've 
of Holland, and for fifty years, probably after the Revolution, 
a prominent ironmaster in Pennsylvania. He was a large land 
owner in Berks County, where he built Reading (not Redding) 
Furnace, on Spring Creek. Heidelberg Townsh-p. in 1794. This 
he held until his failure in 1824. He leased Berkshire Furnace 
in 1774. and held it as lessee or part manager between 1780 
and 1783. then bought it about 1790 (Montgomery, 62 and 73); 
He bought Charming Forge, in Berks County, in 1774. 



131 



He had a brother. Michael Ege. a prominent ironmaster in 
Cumberland County, early in the 19th century, who owned Pine 
Grove. Carlisle. Mt. Holly and Cumberland Furnaces, and 
died in 1815. He had a son. George Ege. 2d, and Peter Ege. 
who later owned Pine Grove Furnace. 

A similar pattern, but with the liberty motto, was de- 
scribed to the writer as part of a Franklin stove still existing in 
1898 in an old house at Front street and Gcrmantown avenue, 
Ph ladelphia. by Mrs. Martha Am Hance. of 2032 Camac street, 
Philadelphia, in 1908. 




According to articles in the Virg nia Historical Register of 
1853. Vol. I. pages 28 and 87. and Vol. VI. page 43. this stove 
was given to the Virginia House of Burgesses at Williamsburg 
during the ad.Tiinistration of Lcrd Botetout. received by them 
from his executor, the Duke of Beaufort, in 1770. and rc.-noved 
to Richmond in 1779. It was ma'e by or for a maker or stove 
merchant. Buzaglo. of London, from whom a s gned lett:r, 
dated August 15, 1770, referring to enclosed printed directions 
for setting up the stove, is quoted. The writer, Buzaglo. 
praises the workmanship of "the newly invented war.uing 
machine" as "do ng honor to Great Britain, and excelling in 
grandeur anything ever seen of the kind, a masterpiece not to 
be equalled in all Europe, and which has met with general 
applause, etc." 

The writers of the articles in the Virginia Register, one of 
whom signs himself GAM, discuss the Latin motto, "Endat 
Virginia quartam." under the Royal Arms of Great Britain, 
cast on the reverse, not here shown. 

The heavy stove with its massive decorated legs and its 
fire chamber, surmounted by two heat radiating tunnelled boxes, 
is decorated in the English Chippendale style of the middle 
18th century. The upper arch is surmounted with the legend 
Buzaglo fecit 1770. and the fire box shows a figure of Justice 
holding scales and lean'ng, with sword in left hand, upon .i 
scroll marked "Magna Charta," spread upon a stool above the 
motto "Pro Aris Et Focis." 

Mr. Miller Christy, of Chelmsford. England, supposes (in 
a letter to the author. January 7. 1914) that the stove may have 
been cast for Buzaglo at the old Carron Foundry, still existing. 
at Carron, Stirlingshire, Scotland. Established in 1770. 



Lord Botetout's Stove. 

Cast-iron draft stove of Continental European pattern of the 
middle 18th century. Size ab.ut 7 feet high by 3 feet wide. At 
the State Capitol, Richmond, Va. 



132 



NOTES. 



NOTE 1. 

COLONIAL FURNACES IN THE 
EASTERN UNITED STATES 
AND CANADA. 
The following is a very incomplete list of the 
American Furnaces or Foundries where iron stoves 
were or could have been cast, in existence in the 
Eastern United States and Canada, during the 
colonial period, or during the time, until about 1770, 
when decorated stoves were made in Pennsylvania. 
It is compiled from the inco.tiplete, disjointed ac- 
counts, frequently uninde> ed and too often un- 
substantiated by original authorities, in 

A. Iron in All Ages, James M. Swank, Phila- 
delphia, 261 South Fourth St., 1892. Chapters 9 to 16, 
21 to 25 and 40. Cited as (Sw.). 

B. History of American Manufactures, 2 
Vols. J. L. Bishop, Philadelphia. Young & Co., 
London. Sampson Low, 1864. Cited as (Bish.). 

C. Iron Manufacture in America. John B. 
Pearse, Philadelphia. Allen & Scott, 1876. (Pearse.) 

D. Early Furnaces and Forges of Berks 
County, Pa. By Morton L. Montgomery, Penna. 
Magazine of History, 8.56. Cited as (Mont.). 

E. Iron and Coal in Penna. J. M. Swank, 
1878. Cited as (Sw. I. and C). 

F. History of Chester County, Penna. J. S. 
Futhey and Gilbert Cope, Philadelphia. Everts, 
1881. (F. and C). 

G. History of Lancaster County. F. Ellis and 
S. Evans, Philadelphia. Evarts & Peck, 1883. Cited 
as (E. and E.). 

H. Memorial of Potts Family. Mrs. Potts- 
James. Cambridge, Mass., 1875. Cited as (James). 

I. Early Furnaces in Lancaster County. Wins- 
low Fegley. Transactions Berks County Historical 
Society, Vol. 2, page 25. 

J. Owen B. F. Correspondence with the 
writer. 

A is generally the authority where B. C. D. E. 
F. G. H. I. J. are not quoted. 

An account of the old Pennsylvanian Furnaces 
illustrated from photographs of several of the ruined 
Stacks, Masters' Houses, Stove Plates, Franklin's 



Stoves, etc. (Forges and Furnaces in the Province 
of Pennsylvania Prepared by the Committee on His- 
torical Research of the Colonial Dames of America, 
Philadelphia, 1914), appeared after the writing of 
the above pages. Its new information where used 
has been acknowledged by the writer. 

NOTE 2. 

FURNACES IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

LYNN FURNACE, 1645-1688. Masters or own- 
ers, Copley, Bond, Pury, Becx, Beauchamp, Foley, 
Greenhill, Weld, Pocoke, Beck, Hicocke, J. Win- 
throp, Jr. At Saugus Centre, head of tide water, 
site of old Ferry, north or left bank of Saugus River. 
Place called Hammersmith, near Lynn, Mass. 

Owners also Thomas Dexter, Robert Bridges, 
of Lynn, (Alonzo Lewis History of Lynn. Swank, 
108), Joseph Jenks, machinist and inventor; Henry 
and James Leonard, forge men. Blast furnace 
called foundry and refinery forge, not Bloomary. 
Till about 1850 furnaces generally called Foun- 
dries (Swank). "Stoves," pots, mortars, skillets 
cast at Lynn and Braintree Furnaces, 1647 (letter 
of Robert Child to John Winthrop, Jr., Boston, 
March 15, 1647. Sw., 113. Pearse 22). 

BRAINTREE FURNACE, 1646 to 1653. Nor- 
folk County, ten miles south of Boston, Mass. 
Masters, The Lynn Co. Employees, William Os- 
borne, Henry and James Leonard. (Sw., 113.) 

DESPARDS FURNACE, 1702. Mattakeeset 
Pond, Town of Pembroke. Plymouth Co., Mass. 
Lambert Despard and Barker family. Mark Des- 
pard. Abandoned on exhaustion of wood. (Sw., 
120.) 

KINGS FURNACE, 1724-5 to about 1840. On 
Little North Brook at Taunton, now Raynham, 
Bristol County, Mass. John King and Stock Com- 
pany, 1724. Bog ore, pots and kettles. Pig iron from 
New Jersey in 1816. 

SIX FURNACES, 1731. Properly Foundries 
recasting pig iron for hollow ware. (Swank, 121, 
quoting Douglass' British Settlement.) 

PLYMPTON (or CARVER) FURNACE, 1730. 
First cast iron teakettles, 1760-1765. 

POPES POINT FURNACE, 1733. South 
Carver, Mass. (Inf. Mr. Henry S. Griffith, 1913.) 



133 



CHARLOTTE FURNACE. 1760. South Car- 
ver. Mass. (Inf. Mr. Henry S. Griffith.) Lasted 
through War of 1812. 

LENOX FURNACE. 1765 to 1881. Berkshire 
Co., Mass. 

FURNACE VILLAGE FURNACE. Before 
1773. Furnace Village. Worcester County, Mass. 

FEDERAL FURNACE. 1794. Plymouth 
County, Mass. Made stoves and firebacks in 1804. 
Inf. Dr. James Thatcher. (Sw., 123.) 

NOTE 3. 

FURNACES IN RHODE ISLAND. 

HOPE FURNACE, 1735. North Branch of 
Pawtuxent River, Rhode Island. Nicholas Brown, 
Moses Brown, Samuel Waldo, Israel Wilkinson. 
(Sw.. 127.) 

THREE FURNACES in Cumberland Town- 
ship, R. I., in 1735. Abandoned before Revolution. 
Many pots and stoves cast at close of 18th cen- 
tury. (Sw., 128.) 

NOTE 4. 

FURNACES IN CONNECTICUT. 

NEW HAVEN FURNACE. 1658. Captain 
Thomas Clarke, J. Winthrop. 1658 to 1659. Blast 
furnace and refinery forge, pig iron and pots in 
1663. (Sw., 118.) 

LIME ROCK FURNACE. About 1740 to 1750. 
Active 1890. Litchfield County. N. W. Conn. 
Thomas Lamb. (Sw., 128.) 

NOTE 5. 

FURNACES IN NEW HAMPSHIRE 
AND VERMONT. 

According to Swank there were no furnaces or 
foundries in these States during the period in ques- 
tion (Chapter 11). SHAPLEIGH FURNACE. 
York County. Maine. Furnace at FURNACE VIL- 
LAGE, Exeter, New Hampshire, 1795. (Sw.. 132.) 
THREE FURNACES in Rutland County, Ver- 
mont, 1794. No furnaces before 1775. (Sw., 133.) 

NOTE 6. 

FURNACES IN NEW YORK. 

ANCRAM FURNACE, 1750 to 1837. Ancram 
Creek, Columbia County, fourteen miles east of 
Hudson River, near Connecticut "Ore Hill," Salis- 
bury Township, Conn. Philip Livingston, 1750. 
(Pearse, 46, and Sw., 136.) 

COURTLAND MANOR FURNACES. Two 
of them, begun and abandoned before 1756. 

STERLING IRON WORKS or WARD AND 
COULTON'S FURNACE, 1751. At Sterling Pond, 



Orange County, N. Y. Lord Sterling, 1750; Peter 
Townsend, 1776; 

FOREST OF DEAN FURNACE, 1756 to 
1777. On Ramapo Creek, Orange County, five miles 
west of Fort Montgomery, abandoned 1777. Stoves 
cast for American Governmen;, 1776. (Sw., 138.) 

QUEENSBOROUGH FURNACE. Probably 
after 1770. Near Fort Montgomery, six miles below 
West Point. Only pig iron; no castings. Aban- 
doned 1800. (Sw., 139.) 

CRAIGSVILLE FURNACE. During Revolu- 
tion. (Pearse, 48.) 

AMENIA FURNACE AND FOUNRDY. Dur- 
ing Revolution. In Dutchess County. (Pearse, 49.) 

HAVERSTRAW FURNACE. During Revo- 
lution. Rockland County. (Sw., 142.) 

PHILIPSBURG FURNACE. Westchester 
County. (Sw., 141.) • 

NOTE 7. 

FURNACES IN NEW JERSEY. 

SHREWSBURY or TINTON FALLS FUR- 
NACE, 1682. At Tinton Falls, South Monmouth 
County, N. J. Colonel Lewis Morris, 1682. (Sw., 
Chapter 13.) 

BERGEN FURNACE. Doubtful date. Mon- 
mouth County. (Sw.. 147.) 

MOUNT HOLLY or HANOVER FURNACE, 
1730 to 1776. Isaac Pierson, Mahlon Stacey, Johi' 
Burr. Destroyed 1776. 

RINGWOOD or OGDENS FURNACE. 1740 
to 1776. Near Greenwood Lake, formerly Bergen 
now Passaic County. Ogden family, 1740; Peter 
Hasenclever, 1764-1768. 

J. Jacob Faesch, 1770; Robert Erskine, 1772. 
Rebuilt by Peter Hasenclever 1768. Three fur- 
naces and forge. Destroyed 1776. 

OXFORD FURNACE, 1742 to 1882. Warren 
County. N. J. Johathan Robeson, 1742. Durham 
boats carried ore down the Delaware from Foul Rift. 
(Sw., 154.) Water blast or Trompe used at first. 

UNION FURNACE, 1750 to 1778. Hunterdon 
County. William Allen, Joseph Turner, 1750. Two 
furnaces, two forges. Abandoned 1778. 

ANDOVER FURNACE, 1760, about. Sussex 
County. Furnace and forge. Durham boats. 

HIBERNIA FURNACE or ADVENTURE 
FURNACE. 1765. Pequannock Township, Morris 
County. N. J. Lord Sterling. Benjamin Cooper, 
Samuel Ford, Anderson and Cooper, 1765; Lord 
Sterling alone, 1773; Joseph Hopp, manager, 1776. 



1. 134 

BLOOMINGDALE FURNACE, 1765. Passaic 
County. The Ogdens, 1755. 

BATSTO FURNACE, 1766 to 1846. Batsto 
river branch of the Mullica river, Burlington County. 
Charles Read, 1766; William Richards employed as 
founder, 1768; William Richards, 1784. Abandoned 
1846. (Pearse, 54.) 

ATSION FURNACE, Atsion river branch of 
the Mullica river, Burlington County, 1766. Charles 
Read, 1766. 

TAUNTON FURNACE, 1766 to 1773. Eve- 
sham Towfnship, Burlington County. Charles 
Read, 1766. Abandoned 1773. 

CHARLOTTENBURG FURNACE, 1767 to 
1776. West Branch of Pequannock Creek. Peter 
Hasenclever, 1767: John Jacob Faesch, 1770; Rob- 
ert Erskine, 1772. Burned, 1776. 

LONG POND FURNACE, 1768. Near Green- 
wood Lake, Passaic County. Peter Hasenclever, 
1768. (Sw., 150.) 

PCMPTON FURNACE, about 1768. Passaic 
County. Peter Hasenclever, 1768. (Swr., 150.) 

MOUNT HOPE FURNACE. 1772 to 1825. At 
Mount Hope, four miles N. E. of Rockaway. John 
Jacob Faesh, 1772. Abandoned, 1825. 

FRANKLIN FURNACE, 1770. Franklin, Mor- 
ris County. 

During or after the Revolution, about 1780, the 
following furnaces in S. and S. W. New Jersey. 
CUMBERLAND, DOVER, ETNA, FEDERAL, 
GLOUCESTER, MARTHA, HANOVER, MON- 
MOUTH, MELVILLE, SPEEDWELL, WASH- 
INGTON, WEYMOUTH, EIGHT FURNACES 
in 1784 and after. 

Note — Decorated Stove Plates of The Penn- 
sylvania Type seen about 1877, at Fillmore, Mon- 
mou'ih County, in a "scrap heap," by Mr. Patrick 
Trainor. Information Patrick Trainor, Doyles- 
town, 1913. 

NOTE 8. 

FURNACES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

COLEBROOKDALE FURNACE. 1720 to 
' about 1793. Ironstone Creek, branch of Manatawny 
Creek, eight miles wast of Pottstown, Colebrook- 
dale Township, Berks County, Pa. Thomas Put- 
ter founder; James Lewis, Anthony Morris, 1720; 
share owners, Anthony Morris, Alexander Wood, 
I Samuel Preston, William Atwood, John Leacock, 
'< Nathaniel French, George Mifflin, Thomas Potts, 
George Boone (ancestor of the pioneer), 1731; 
Thomas Potts associated, 1728; share owner, 1731, 
Thomas Rutter, 1733, 1736, 1763 (probably fourth of 
the name, died, 1763), (James, 38, 60); Thomas 
Potts, 1747, grandson of Thomas Potts, died 1762. 
First furnace in Pennsylvania named after Cole- 
(or Coal) brookdale Furnace, Shropshire, England. 



A, 

V 

I 
c 

V 

I 

c 
s 

d 
2 

\ 
1 



1 



Township named after furnace in 1736. Rebuilt, 
1733. Scull's map, 1759. Supplied Poole Forge, 
(first forge in Pennsylvania, founded. 1716). Sup- 
plied Pine forge, 1740; McCalls or Glasgow forge, 
1725; Spring forge, 1729. (Sw., 58; Mont., 63.) See 
Figures 111, 155 and 158. Abandoned about 1765. 
Listed, but probably inactive, 1793. 

NOTE 9— REDDING FURNACE, or more 
properly CHRISTINE-REDDING. Successor to 
CHRISTINE FURNACE. Date of origin doubtful, 
soon after 1720. certainly before 1728. (Potts Manu- 
script Coventry Forge Ledgers). Date of demoli- 
tion of Christine unknown. Redding built 1737 to 
1738; abandoned after 1783. (F. & C.) French 
Creek, East Nantmeal, now Warwick Township, 
Chester County, Pa. Founders, William Branson 
and Samuel Nutt, business partners in 1728. (F. & 
C, 324.) The former died, 1760. (Sw. I. & C, 
121.) Owners. William Branson, 1737, 1740 to 1742, 
1750 to 1755, 1750, with Linford Lardner and Sam- 
uel Flower, 1741; with Samuel Nutt's widow as 
Nutt & Co., and with John Potts as manager, 1737. 
Nutt having died in that year. 1737 to 1740 Nutt's 
widow and Branson quarrel in a lawsuit and sepa- 
rate; 1740 to 1741 (F. & C, 344) Samuel Flower, 
manager after 1750. (S. F. on stove plates in 1756- 
1764.) Part owner, Mr. Van Leer (Bishop, 553). 
James Old, 1772 and 1773 (Sw.. 180); Rutter & 
Potts, 1778 to 1783. Abandoned about 1783 (F. & 
C). Started after disuse, 1792. (Pearse, 152.) 

Christine Furnace in existence, 1728 to 1729. 
(Potts Manuscript.) Redding built 1737 (Road Pe- 
tition, 1735. F. & C.) agreement of management (F. 
& C. and James). Two furnaces about one mile 
apart. Inventory of S. Nutt's will, 1737 (James, 49), 
Sculls map, 1755. 

Christine and Redding Furnaces were asso- 
ciated with Coventry Forge, situated ten miles east 
at mouth of French Creek (Sw. I. & C, 121), also 
with Windsor Forge on Conestoga Creek, and with 
Vincent Steel Works. Exact site of first and sec- 
ond forges lost (James, 49). Samuel Flower, Bran- 
son's son-in-law, lessee of Windsor Forge in 1743 
for thirty years. 

NOTE 10— CHRISTINE FURNACE. Prede- 
cessor of Redding Furnace (see latter). 

NOTE 11— KEITHS FURNACE, 1725 to 1728. 
On Christiana River or Creek, Newcastle County, 
Delaware, then Pennsylvania. Sir William Keith, 
Governor of Pennsylvania. (Sw., 234.) 

NOTE 12— KURTZ'S FURNACE, 1725, doubt- 
ful. Lancaster County. No data given. See Pierce, 
218, Bishop, page 552, and Historical Collections of 
Pennsylvania Sherman Day, Philadelphia, 1843, 
page 388. Day, page 393, refers to probably the 
same Kurtz as an Amish Mennonite, who for con- 
scientious reasons, refused a grant of one thousand 
acres from the Proprietaries. 



135 



NOTE 13— ABINGTON FURNACE, 1727 
until about 1768. South bank of Christiana Creek, 
Delaware, originally Pennsylvania. Samuel James, 
Reece Jones, Samuel Nutt. Evan Owen, William 
Branson, Thomas Rutter, John Rutter, Caspar Wis- 
tar. 

NOTE 14— DURHAM FURNACE. 1727 to 
about 1897. Durham Creek, one and a half miles 
above its mouth, Durham Township, Bucks County, 
Pa. Founders a company of fourteen persons with 
Anthony Morris, Jeremiah Langhorne, William 
Allen, Joseph Turner, James Logan (Penn's secre- 
tary), and others. General Daniel Morgan, William 
Bird before 1744 (S reepy papers. Inf. B. F. Fack- 
enthal, Jr.): George Taylor, signer of Declaration 
of Independence, 1774, who cast a stove plate ex- 
hibited in 1892 at Easton Post Office; Richard 
Backhouse later. One of the four furnaces in blast 
in 1728, according to James Logan (Sw., 170). Many 
stoves cast about 1741. (Sw., 169.) Early records 
and ledgers lost. (Inf. Mr. B. F. Fackenthal, Jr.) 
Demolished. 1819; rebuilt, 1848 to 1851, and again, 
1874. Abandoned, 1897. Supplied several forges. 
Ore carried down Delaware in Durham boats. 

NOTE 15— MOUNT PLEASANT FURNACE. 
1738. Five miles west of Colebrookdale Furnace, 
near present Barto, West Branch of Perkiomen 
Creek, Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, Pa. 
Thomas Potts, Jr., 1738. John Potts, 1742 (Potts M. 
S. Furnace Ledgers). First blast on authority of 
Potts Family Papers, October 12, 1738. (Pearse, 
153.) Associated with Mount Pleasant Forge, 
built about 1743. David Potts manager until hij 
death in 1752. (Forges and Furnaces of Penna.. 
Colonial Dames, Phila., 1914, p. 75.) 

NOTE 16— WARWICK FURNACE. 1738 to 
1867. South Branch of French Creek, Chester 
County. Pa. Anna Nutt (Anna Nutt & Co.) founder, 
1738. (F. & C, 211.) Franklin fireplaces cast there. 
(F. & C, 211.) These first mentioned in Potts MSS., 
Coventry Forge Ledger, September 23, 1742, hence 
probably first cast at Redding. "Seven small new 
fashioned fire places on account Mr. Grace to Mr. 
George Rock, at Northeast, Maryland." Warwick 
sold Dutch oven and five tons of stoves in 1774. 
two large Moravian stoves in 1779, and five tons of 
stoves in 1785. Franklin's fireplaces retailed at fii^e 
pounds ten each in 1785, ten plate stoves at ten 
pounds each, large six plate stoves at six pounds 
each, and small six plate stoves at five pounds ten 
each in 1785, on authority of Potts Family Papers 
(Potts-James, 53). Managers 1740, Robert Grace, 
born, 1709; married Mrs. Samuel Nutt, Jr., about 
1741, died 1766. Samuel Nutt. 3d. in 1756 (Acre- 
lius writing in 1756, History of New Sweden. F. & 
C, 211 and 328); John Potts before and until 1768 
(James, 110); Samuel and John Potts, Jr., before 
and after 1768 (James, 110); Thomas Rutter and 



Samuel Potts during Revolution after 1776. War- 
wick Furnace supplied Mount Joy or Valley Forge. 
Built. 1751. 

NOTE 17— CORNWALL FURNACE, 1742, 
still existing 1914. On Furnace Creek, near Leba- 
non, Lebanon County, Pa. Founder Peter Grubb. 
1742. Cornwall Company of twelve persons, lessees 
for twenty years, 1745; Jacob Giles sub-lessee later 
(Bishop. 553); Peter Grubb died, 1754; Curtis and 
Peter Grubb 2d, 1754; Garrett & Co.. about 1756 
(Acrelius quoted by Pearse, 218); Peter Grubb 2d, 
again about 1765 till 1783, then Peter Grubb 3d, then 
with Robert Coleman; Robert Coleman five-sixth 
owner, 1785-1798. (Sw., 182.) (Forges and Fur- 
naces, Colonial Dames, 87.) 

NOTE 18— POPADICKON or POTTS 
GROVE FURNACE. Founded before 1745. Ex- 
isting, 1769. At or near Pottstown, Berks County, 
Pa. (Potts Manuscript.) Overlooked by Swank and 
Montgomery. Managed by John Potts. Stoves sold 
in the 1740's and furnace called Potts Grove after 
1750. 

NOTE 19— ELIZABETH FURNACE, 1750 to 
1856. Middlecreek Branch of Conestoga Creek, near 
Brickersville, Lancaster County, Pa. Hans Jacob 
Huber, founder, 1750; H. W. Stiegel, with John 
Barr and Alexander and Charles Steadman as part- 
ners (Stiegel & Company), 1757 to 1778; Stiegel died, 
1783; Daniel Benezet, 1775; Robert Coleman lessee, 
1776; owner, 1784-94. Rebuilt, 1757. Abandoned, 
1856. Furnace Ledger at Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania. (Sw., 179, and Forges and Furnaces, 
Colonial Dames, 119.) 

NOTE 20— MARTIC FURNACE, 1751 (In- 
formation Mr. B. F. Owen). A cinder bank in 1890. 
(Sw.. 183.) Existing but not active, 1793, near Cole- 
mansville, Lancaster County, Pa. Named after Mar- 
tock village. Somerset, England. Thomas Smith, 
William Smith, 1751-1769; James Wallace and James 
Fulton, before 1769; Willam Benet, Samuel Webb, 
Ferguson Mcllvaine, 1760 and later. Firm bankrupt, 
1766. (Inf. Mr. B. F. Owen, Reading, Pa.) Inven- 
tory of sheriff's sale, 1769, mentions stove moulds 
(Sw.. 188). Associated with Martic Forge after 1755. 
This was built by Thomas and William Smith, on 
Pequea Creek, six miles west. (Sw., 188.) James 
Old had Martic Forge in 1755. (Pearse, 220.) 

NOTE 21— HEREFORD FURNACE, 1753. 
West Branch of Perkiomen Creek, Hereford Town- 
ship, Berks County. On old map cited by Winslow 
Fegeley in "Cld Charcoal Furnaces in Eastern Berks 
County, Fa." William Maybury. 1757; Thomas May- 
bury, 1767-68. See Figures 105, 169 and 180. 

NOTE 22— SHEARWELL FURNACE. Fur- 
nace Creek, branch of little Manatawny Creek, 
Oley Township, near Friedensburg, Berks County, 
Pa. Built close to and managed with Oley Fur- 



136 

nace. Founded between 1744 and 1756 by Benedict 
Swope and Dio;rich, or Dieter, Welker (information 
of B. F. Owen, of Reading, Pa., and Figure 57). Con- 
fused with Oley Furnace. Owned probably by Wil- 
liam Maybury, 1765; John Lesher, 1768. Date of 
demolition not known. In existence, 1783 (informa- 
tion B. F. Owen). See Figure 187. 

NOTE 23— HOPEWELL FURNACE, 1759 or 
1765 to 1890, dates doubtful. (Montgomery, 60.) Ex- 
isting, 1884. Abandoned, 1892. Union Township, 
Berks County, Pa. William Bird, died, 1761; Mark 
Bird, after 1761 to 1785; Cadwallader Morris and 
James Old, 1788; Benjamin Morris, 1790 to 1791; 
James Old, 1793; Benjamin Morris again, 1800. 
(Mont., 60.) Many ten plate stoves made in early 
19th century. Account of later furnace and photo- 
graph of ruins, 1914. (Colonial Forges and Furnaces 
in Pennsylvania, Colonial Dames, 154.) 

NOTE 24— ROXBOROUGH or BERKSHIRE 
FURNACE. Renamed Reading Furnace and again 
renamed Robesonia. First name, 1755 to 1792. 
Heidelberg Township, two miles southwest of 
Wernersville, Berks County, Pa. William Bird, 
1755, died 1761 (Forges and Furnaces in Pennsylva- 
nia, Colonial Dames, p. 152, 76); Mark Bird, 1762 to 
1764; John and Bridget Patton, 1764; George Ege, 
lessee, 1764, owner, 1790 (Forges and Furnaces, 
152). Abandoned, 1792. Soon after rebuilt near old 
site and renamed Reading Furnace. Again renamed 
and now, 1913, Robesonia Furnace. Ledger and 
Journals of Furnaces after 1767 at Pa. Hist. Society. 
(Forges and Furnaces in Pennsylvania, Colonial 
Dames, p. 152.) See Figure 44. 

NOTE 25— CARLISLE FURNACE. Boiling 
Springs, Cumberland County. John S. Rigby, 1762 
(Forges and Furnaces, 172), later John Armsrong 
and Robert Thornburg, part owners. Finally Sam- 
uel Morris, John Morris, Francis Sanderson and 
Robert Thornburg, bought from Rigby in 1764. 
Later Michael Ege, Amos Stilwell, Robert Thorn- 
burg. In 1792 Michael Ege, sole owner. (Forges 
and Furnaces, page 172), Professor Himes says that 
six owners, five of whom were from Philadelphia, 
with Robert Thornburg and Francis Stevenson, of 
Carlisle, bought the furnace in 1764. (Decorated 
Stove Plate of 1764 West of the Susquehanna, Jour- 
nal of Franklin Institute, December, 1903.) 

NOTE 26— MARY ANN FURNACE, 1761-3 to 
1800. Furnace Creek, West Manheim Township, 
Southwest York County. George Ross, George 
Stevenson, William Thompson, Mark Bird, between 
1761 and 1763; Stevenson goes to Carlisle, 1765; 
George Ross and George Ege, 1774; John Steinmetz 
and John Brinton, of Philadelphia, 1790; later David 
Meyer. Cannon balls cast for American army during 
Revolution. Furnace abandoned about 1800. Cinder 
heap and frequently plowed up cannon balls mark the 



site on farm of Mr. Dusman, 1884. Remains of race 
and charcoal pits, 1914. (Gibson's History of York 
County, page 485.) Furnace Ledgers at Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. (Furnaces and Forges in 
Penna., 160.) 

NOTE 27— CODORUS or HELLAM FUR- 
NACE, 1765 to 1850. Codorus Creek, Hellam Town- 
ship, York County, Pa. Confused with Hellam 
Forge. Owners, William Benet, 1765 to 1771, see 
Figure 133 (Sw., 212); Charles Hamilton, 1771; 
later James Smith; Thomas Niel, 1778; Samuel lago, 
about 1793; Henry Grubb, 1810; various later own- 
ers. A furnace buil'; 1837, abandoned 1850. (Gib- 
son's History of York County, page 486.) 

NOTE 28— PINE GROVE FURNACE, 1770 to 
1870. Mountain Creek Branch of Yellow Breeches 
Creek, fourteen miles southeast of Carlisle, Cum- 
berland County, Pa. Robert Thornburg and John 
Arthur, 1770; later Jacob Simon; in 1782 Michael 
Ege and Thomas and Joseph Thornburg, sons of 
Robert Thornburg; in 1803 Michael Ege sole owner; 
Ege family until 1838. Abandoned about 1870. 
(Forges and Furnaces, Colonial Dames, 181; Bishop, 
559; Pearse, 192.) Site ownsd by Thomas Pope in 
1762 and George Stevenson, 1764 to 1772, but Swank, 
page 185. says that the founders ware Robert Thorn- 
burg and John Arthur in 1770. See Figure 178. 

NOTE 29— HOLLY FURNACE. Mount Holly 
Springs, Cumberland County. Built, 1770, by a Mr. 
Stevenson. (Sw., 185.) 

NOTE 30— OLEY FURNACE. Furnace Creek, 
branch of Little Manatawney Creek, Oley Town- 
ship, near Friedensburg, Berks County, Pa. Suc- 
cessor to Shearwell Furnace and confused with the 
latter. Probably built in 1772, according to date 
stone from its stack now at Berks County Histori- 
cal Society, by Christian Sauer and Jacob Winey. 
(Information of B. F. Owen, of Reading, Pa.) Dan- 
iel Udree, owner, 1778 to 1828. Furnace in opera- 
tion, 18S4 (Mont., 61), now, 1914, destroyed. Site 
nearly obliterated. See Figure 87. 

NOTE 31— POST REVOLUTIONARY FUR- 
NACES IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

MOUNT PLEASANT. NO. 2, 1783. FrankUn 
County, Pa. William Benjamin and George Cham- 
bers, 1783. 

DISTRICT or GERMAN FURNACE. Date 
of building doubtful. Before 1784 to 1797. Pine 
Creek, District Township, Berks County. Jacob 
Lesher, 1791; John Teysher, one-third owner, 1793; 
John Lesher, 1797. Abandoned, 1797. (Mont., 70.) 
See Figure 189. 

MOUNT HOPE FURNACE, 1786. Going, 1876. 
Big Chickies Creek, four miles from Cornwall Fur- 
nace, Lancaster County, Pa. Peter Grubb, Jr., 1786. 
(Pearse, 219; Bishop, 554.) 



137 



MARY ANN NO. 2. about 1789 to 1869. Eight 
miles west of Trexlertown. Longswamp Township. 
Berks County. Jacob Lesher. 1789; Reuben Trex- 
ler, 1808. Many stoves cast. First anthracite coal 
stove made here by Reuben Trexler about 1820. 
Cast in open sand. So-called "Lehigh Coal Stove" 
made till 1857. (Mont.. 72.) 

DALE FURNACE. 1791 to 1821. West Branch 
of Perkiomen Creek, two miles from Mount Pleasant 
Furnace. Thomas Pot's, Joseph Potts, John Smith, 
1791: Robert E. Hobarth, one-third owner, 1793. 
(Mont., 72.) See Figure 178. 

SALLY ANN FURNACE, 1791. Sacony Creek, 
Rockland Township, Berks County. Valentine Eck- 
ert, 1791. (Mont., 71.) Nicholas Hunter. 

JOANNA FURNACE, 1792. Hay Creek, Robe- 
son Township, Berks County. Thomas Bull. John 
Smith, Thomas May, 1796; Potts and Rutter, 1792 
(Mont., 71.) 

COLEBROOKDALE FURNACE No. 2 or 
COLEBROOK, 1792 to 1860. Eight miles south- 
west of Mount Hope Furnace, near Cornwall, Lan- 
caster County, Pa. Robert Coleman, 1792. 

READING FURNACE (not Redding), 1794 to 
1850. Spring Creek. Heidelberg Township, Berks 
County, Pa. Successor to Roxborough or Berkshire 
Furnace, and predecessor to Robesonia Furnace. 
George Ege, 1794. (Monl., 73.) 

GREENWOOD FURNACE, 1796. Schuylkill 
Gap, Sharp Mountain, Schuylkill County. Pa. Lewis 
Reese, Isaac Thomas, 1796; John Pott (not related 
to the Potts family of Pottstown), 1807. Demol- 
ished and rebuilt. (Mont., 73.) 

Note — Montgomery says, page 70, that Union, 
District, Sally Ann, Joanna, Dale, Mary Ann, Read- 
ing (not Redding), and Greenwood Furnaces were 
built during or after the Revolution and before 1800. 

WINDSOR FURNACE. On Conestoga Creek. 
near Churchtown, Caernarvon Township, Lancas- 
ter County, Pa. Furnace probably after Revolution, 
near old Windsor Forge. Built by Valentine Eckert, 
later owner George Reagan. Associated with Union 
Furnace in Albany Township. (Forges and Fur- 
naces, page 178, quoting Berks County, by M. L. 
Montgomery.) Fine castings were made here under 
the management of Jones, Keim & Co., early in the 
19;h century. See a Crucifix and a casting repre- 
senting the Last Supper, illustrated in Forges and 
Furnaces. 

NOTE 32. 
FURNACES IN DELAWARE. 

KEITHS FURNACE, 1725 to 1728. On Chris- 
tiana Creek, Newcastle County, Delaware, then 



Pennsylvania. Sir William Keith, Governor of 
Pennsylvania, 1725. (Sw., 234.) See Figure 208. 

ABINGTON FURNACE, 1727 to about 1768. 
South bank of Christiana Creek. Samuel James, 
Reece Jones, Samuel Nutt, Even Owen, William 
Branson, Thomas Rutter, John Rutter, Caspar Wis- 
tar, 1727. 

DEEP CREEK FURNACE, 1763 until Revolu- 
tion. On Deep Creek, tributary of Nanticoke River, 
Sussex County. Joseph Vaughan, 1763. 

PINE GROVE FURNACE, 1764 to about 
1785. On Deep Creek, tributary of Nanticoke River, 
near Concord, Sussex County, Delaware. 

NOTE 33. 
FURNACES IN MARYLAND. 

PRINCIPIO FURNACE, 1724 to 1780. Near 
mouth of Principio Creek, Cecil County, Maryland. 
English company. William Chetwynd, Joshua Gee, 
William Russell, Thomas Russell, Walter Chet- 
wynd. John Wrightwick, 1724 to 1734. John England, 
manager, 1724 to 1734. William Baxter, manager, 
1744. 

One of the most important of American Colo- 
nial Furnaces. Owned Accokeek Furnace in Vir- 
ginia, 1726. 

GWYNNS FALLS FURNACE, 1723 to 1730. 

MOUNT ROYAL FURNACE. 1723 to 1730. 

KINGSBURY FURNACE, 1744. Herring Run, 
head of Back River. Baltimore County, Maryland. 

LANCASHIRE FURNACE, 1751 until Revolu- 
tion. West side of branch of Back River, a few 
miles N. E. of Baltimore, near Kingsbury Furnace. 
Principio Co. Lawrence Washington, 1751; Thomas 
Russell general manager for Principio Company, 
1776. 

EIGHT FURNACES in Maryland, 1749 to 1756. 
(Sw., 240.) 

BUSH FURNACE, 1760. Harford County. 
Owner, John Lee Webster, 1767; Isaac Webster, 
1762. 

NORTHAMPTON FURNACE, 1760. Balti- 
more County. Ridgley Family. Cannon cast, 1780. 
(Sw., 253.) 

UNICORN FURNACE, 1762. Queen Anne 
County. Robert Evans and Jonathan Morris, 1762. 
(Sw., 253.) 

OLD HAMPTON FURNACE, 1760 to 1765. 
Near E.Timetsburg, Frederick County. Soon aban- 
doned. 

LEGH FURNACE, 1760 to 1765. Near West- 
minster. Owner, Legh Master. (Sw., 253.) 

ELK RIDGE FURNACE, before Revolution. 
On Patapsco River. Edward Dorsey. 



138 



YORK FURNACE. Site and da're unknown. 

STEMMERS RUN FURNACE. No date. 
Seven miles from BaUimore. 

CURTIS CREEK FURNACE, until 1851. 
Patapsco County. William Goodwin and Edward 
Dorsey. 

PATUXENT FURNACE, about 1734. Anne 
Arundel County. Thomas Rubard, Edward Snow- 
den and John England. 

GUNPOWDER RIVER FURNACE, before 
1769. Head of Gunpowder River. Stephen Onion. 
(Sw., 253.) 

GREEN SPRING FURNACE, 1770. Washing- 
ton County. James Johnson and Mr. Jacques. Soon 
abandoned. (Sw., 254.) 

MOUNT ETNA FURNACE, 1770. Antietam 
Creek, near Hagerstown. Samuel and Daniel 
Hughes. During Revolution. 

CATOCTIN FURNACE. 1774. Frederick 
County. James Johnson & Co. Rebuih, 1787 and 
1831. In blast. 1880. (Bishop, 588.) 

ONIONS FURNACE. 

NOTE 34. 

FURNACES IN VIRGINIA. 

FREDERICKSVILLE FURNACE, about 
1727. Spottsylvania County. Mr. Fitz Williams 
Governor Alexander Spottswood, Captain Pearse, 
Dr. Nicholas, Mr. Chiswell, 1727. (Sw., 260). 
(Bishop, 596.) Waterwheel, 26 feet in diameter. 
Bellows cos; a hundred pounds each. Dam, race 
and flume seen about 1880. (Sw., 263.) 

GERMANNA FURNACE, soon after 1727. 
Spottsylvania County. Colonel Spottswood. 

(Bishop, 596, and Swank, 261.) 

ACCOKEEK FURNACE or ENGLAND'S 
IRON MINES FURNACE, 1750 to 1753. Twelve 
miles from Fredericksburg, Stafford County. In 
1750 sent 410 tons of pig iron to England. 

MASSAPONAX FURNACE, Air Furnace or 
Foundry, 1732. Five miles below Fredericksburg, 
on Rappahannock. Colonel Alexander Spottswood. 
Melted Sow Iron to cast chimney backs, pots, skil- 
lets, etc. (Sw., 262.) 

THREE BLAST FURNACES in Virginia in 
1732. (Col. William Byrd, quoted by Sw.) 

RAPPAHANOCK FURNACE, about 1732. 
Ten miles above Fredericksburg. Built by Germans. 

ZANES FURNACE, before Revolution. Fred- 
erick County. Associated with a forge. 

ISABELLA FURNACE, 1760 to 1841. Page 
County, near Luray. (Pearse, 14.) 

MOSSY CREEK FURNACE, 1760 to 1841. 
Augusta County, near Staunton. Henry Miller and 
Mark Bird. (Pearse, 15.) 



WESTHAM FURNACE, about 1776 to 1781. 
Six miles above Richmond, on James River. 

OLDS FURNACE, 1777. Twelve miles from 
Charlottesville. Old Wilkinson and Trent. (Sw., 
269.) 

POPLAR CAMP FURNACE, 1778. Wythe 
County. (Sw., 268.) 

ZANES FURNACE, before 1781 to 1828. Cedar 
Cretk. Frederick County. (Pearse, 14.) 

ROSS FURNACE, before 1781. Beaver Creek, 
near Lynchburg. Called OLD DAVY ROSS FUR- 
NACE. Named OXFORD FURNACE in 1856. 
(Pearse, 16.) 

NOTE 35. 

FURNACES IN NORTH AND SOUTH 

CAROLINA, GEORGIA, ALABAMA, 

KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE. 

Furnaces in 1728. Names not given. Pig iron 
then exported. (Sw., 273.) 

JOHN WILCOX FURNACE. No date. On 
Deep Run. 

VESUVIUS FURNACE, on Anderson's Creek, 
1780 to 1873. (Sw., 273.) 

SEVERAL FURNACES on Cape Fear, Yad- 
kin and Dan Rivers. Before Revolution, according 
to Bishop. No:e on Moravian settlement near Yadkin 
River in Surrey County. (Sw., 273.) 

BUFFINGTONS FURNACE, 1773. N. W. part 
of South Carolina. Destroyed in Revolution. (Sw., 
276.) 

No furnaces existed in Georgia, Alabama, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, during the period of the manu- 
facture of decorated stoves in Pennsylvania. First 
furnace in Georgia, 1832; in Alabama, 1818; in Ken- 
tucky BOURBON FURNACE in 1791, and in Tenn- 
essee in 1790. (Sw., Chapter 28.) 

NOTE 36. 
JUNK DEALERS AND STOVE PLATES. 
With a few exceptions, no individual in Pennsyl- 
vania dwells in the house of his ancestors. Families 
multiply and continue, but the old dwelling, indi- 
visible among heirs, sold and resold, in a few gen- 
erations passes into new hands, who in turn soon 
Sill it again. Original family heirlooms, books, 
samplers worked by loving hands, toys of children, 
furniture, clocks, all of the agricultural implements, 
with the ancient tools and utensils are soon scat- 
tered. 

An immense mass of ancient objects became 
obsolete about 1860 to 1880 and were destroyed, or 
sold in the so-called "penny lots," at innumerable 
sales to native junk dealers, who, impelled by a de- 
sire to find scrap iron, or discover new uses for old 



139 



things, saved thousands of cast off utensils, and 
piled up what they did not destroy, in scattered 
heaps upon their premises. 

These men were followed about 1900 by Jewish 
peddlers fresh from Europe, who with lame horses 
and rickety wagons, traveled from house to house, 
as buyers of bones, paper, bottles, carpets and old 
iron, while a growing avaricious band of "antique" 
furniture dealers from country towns and cities 
sought out country sales as prominent buyers of 
tables, chairs, sideboards, "highboys," cupboards, 
clocks, etc., so that by 1914 a farm house possessing 
any considerable number of heirlooms has become 
a remarkable rarity. 

Notwithstanding these changes, the circum- 
stances of the finding of the stove plates show that 
many of them have remained in or near the prem- 
ises or original house of their first use. Very well 
adapted by their rectangular shape, flatness and 
great weight, to various service upon the farm, 
many of them were set up upon four piles of 
bricks as chimney covers. Many were used as flag- 
ging for kitchen porches, as gutter lids, as stepping 
stones, or as drip stones to protect the sod at 
house corners from the splashing of water spouts, 
or most frequently as hearth pavements in large 
ancient kitchen fireplaces, where these latter, fur- 
nished with wooden doors, and perforated with 
stove pipe holes, for modern coal stoves, remained 
on the premises as fixtures. When found by the 
junk dealer, they were wanted by their owner. When 
discovered by the collector lying face downward 
in the hearth ashes and pried up with staves or 
crow bars, their long buried pictures and inscrip- 
tions were as great a surprise to their owners as 
to any one else. 

Newspapers began to notice them and museums 
and collectors to gather and buy them at high 
prices, after about 1910. 

On the other hand a great many of the plates 
have been bought at sales by farmers, to be used as 
above indicated on new properties, and when found 
therefore, cannot be associated with the place of 
discovery. Neither should we without positive proof 
infer that a stove plate was cast at a certain fur- 
nace because found near it, since abundant evidence 
from the marked plates shows that probably all the 
colonial furnaces in Pennsylvania not only cast 
stoves but frequently imported their wares into the 
territory of their rivals. 

NOTE 37. 
EARTHEN STOVES. 

Throughout Northern and Central Europe, ex- 
cept Britain, recently or until about 1890, travelers 
have noticed in public buildings, hotels, dwellings 



and farm houses a great variety of house warming 
and cooking stoves built of tiles, bricks or plastered 
masonry, frequently lacking smoke pipes and fuel 
doors. 

With one or more second stories or heat re- 
taining apartments, frequently in close connection 
with horizontal or vertical or irregular and tortu- 
ous, internal smoke passages, or lacking the lat:er 
altogether, they are sometimes built in close con- 
nection through their fire chamber with the cooking 
hearth of kitchens in adjacent rooms. Through fuel 
doors or passages pertaining to these cooking ovens 
their fuel is fed from the outside of the room con- 
taining the stove and therefore the latter fails in 
ventilation like a modern American Radiator. Some- 
times on the other hand the fuel door is inside the 
room and therefore ventilates it as does an Ameri- 
can iron stove. 

Near Bielostok, in the Russian Province of 
Grodno, according to the information of recent 
American emigrants at Doylestown, Pennsylvania, 
themselves stove builders, these stoves are now, 
1914, consjructed of bricks, so as to form the entire 
partition between two rooms, thus heating both, 
and equipped with vertical or horizontal internal 
smoke canals, partitioned with long flat roof tiles, 
running back and forth, five or six times the length 
of the stove. In East Prussia, according to similar 
information, they are built of bricks set on edge 
with or without internal smoke canals. 

In Tyrol specimens are seen built of masonry 
or possibly iron rods or wattles smeared with clay 
or plaster. 

Where they are built of tiles the latter are fre- 
quently saucer-shaped for increased radiation of 
heat, or made with wide transverse rims pierced 
with holes to permit fastening together with twisted 
wire, so as to facilitate construction and minimize 
the frequently recurring cost of repair, while pre- 
serving the needed thinness for radiating heat. 

In many cases short, quick fires of about two 
hours' duration, after which the fuel door and 
smoke egress are closely and ingeniously damped, 
by inserting double lids through side doors in the 
flues, or by luting with sanded clay as in a potter's 
kiln, retain the heat in these stoves without fire for 
from ten to twelve hours. Furthermore fires built 
of small waste rubbish, inadequate with the old 
American quick cooling wood stoves, suffice to heat 
these heat-retaining earthen structures at a great 
saving of small fuel otherwise wasted. 

The tile stoves of the 18th and 17th centuries 
are frequently glazed with the translucent green 
glaze probably derived from copper known to the 
Moors, and surviving upon the modern peasant 
wares of Spain, and though the modern specimens 



140 



show the artistic degredation of the 18th and 19th 
centuries, and though those recently on sale in the 
warehouses of Vienna, Munich, Berlin, etc., seem to 
have reached the climax of ugliness in form and 
color, the earlier tile stoves of the 16th and 17th 
centuries, such as the beautiful example in the Castle 
at Salzburg, and some of the richly enameled stoves 
in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg, are splen- 
did examples of the potters' art. 

The Museums of Europe possess still older stove 
tiles of the 15th and 14th centuries sometimes 
modeled in high relief within deep concavities 
adorned with architectural filagree, and that 
/ earthen stoves were in use long before the inven- 
tion of cast iron stoves is well known. The loose 
stove tiles of concave gothic pattern excavated 
from the ruins of the Castle of Tannenberg "", near 
Frankfort-on-the-Main should unquestionably be 
dated from the time of the destruction of the 
Castle in 1399, but the general history of the sub- 
ject is complicated by the fact that there seem to 
have been no house chimneys in Europe before the 
Uth or 12th century, so that we would have to im- 
agine earthen stoves, if of older date, standing like 
braziers in a room free of its walls, and emitting 
their smoke through roof-holes, as did the open fires 
of that earlier time. Fur;her than this, earthen 
stoves have been found in sites belonging to prehis- 
toric time, though the evidence of chimneys in their 
case has gone. 

On the other hand, the probably very ancient 
Chinese hong, which are low brick stoves used for 
seats and beds, with tortuous internal smoke canals 
and fed with wood fuel from out or inside the room, 
have chimneys, in 1911, according to the information 
of Dr. Edgar Geil, as high at least as the low side 
walls of their houses. Beckman, in his History 
of Inventions, denies the existence of chimneys in 
ancient Rome, but there is no question about their 
use on potters' kilns and industrial furnaces before 
the Middle Ages, while it is impossible to suppose 
that the Roman hypocausts, which were large cel- 
lars used as ovens to heat the floors of houses and 
baths, had no chimneys and — hence, filled every- 
thing with smoke. 

There is a tile stove, Figure 187, at the Moravian 
Historical Society Museum at Nazareth, Pennsylva- 
nia, made by a Moravian potter at or near Bethle- 
hem, probably before 1800 and now regarded as a 
great curiosity. And some loose stove tiles pre- 
served in the Young Men's Missionary Society 
rooms at Bethlehem, indicate that, as Dr. Oerter 
informs the writer, numerous other tile stoves were 
in use among the Moravians in the 18th century near 
Bethlehem. 

Two other tile stoves still preserved in the 
Wachovia Historical Society at Winston-Salem, 
North Carolina, show that these stoves were also 
used there until about 1850 to 1860. 



The Russian stoves of earthenware introduced 
into Salem, Massachusetts, by Captain Solomon 
Towne (see Sidney Perley in Essex, Massachusetts, 
Antiquarian, December, 1897, page 183), did not 
appear until 1812. Otherwise no evidence has ap- 
peared to show that earthenware stoves were ever 
made in the American colonies before the Revolu- 
tion. 

The colonists and their descendants, though they 
continued to use wood-burning iron stoves until 
long after the introduction of coal-burning iron 
stoves about 1820-30, though they occasionally con- 
structed wood-burning furnaces for house heating in 
the 19th century, never ceased to waste wood. They 
had no occasion to economize it in stoves, and, ac- 
cording to the evidence thus far found, even after 
the Revolution never constructed an economic 
stove on the old European models; and the Ameri- 
can who abandoned iron wood-burning stoves and 
open wood fires for coal stoves, hot air and steam 
radiators, in the 19th century, while recently return- 
ing to the fireplace for ventilation, looks, or should 
look with admiring wonder on these earthen stoves, 
which embody several of the most valuable princi- 
ples of scientific heating. 

They illustrate the great superiority of clay to 
iron for heat retention, the conservation of the heat 
of smoke, the principle of holding heat without fire, 
impossible with coal on account of poisonous gases, 
the heating of two or more rooms with one stove, 
the use of one stove for cooking and house warm- 
ing, and the utilization of waste wood and rubbish 
not serviceable for the quick cooling iron wood- 
burning stove, as fuel. 

NOTE 38. 
VARIED SHAPES OF STOVES. 

In a great majority of stoves of both ventilat- 
ing and non-ventilating types the heating capacity 
was much increased by one or more upper stories, 
aufsatz in German, sometimes built against the wall 
through which the smoke passed before leaving the 
room; sometimes these upper stories were of iron. 
Sometimes, see Figure 7, of tiles or bricks, or, ac- 
cording to Dr. Kassel, of clay reinforced with wat- 
tles or straw. In Alsace again, according to Kassel, 
the upper s-tories were sometimes boxed or panelled 
away from the smoke so as to form smokeless dry- 
ing-boxes or ovens. Sometimes draft stoves were 
built against the wall and sometimes jamb stoves 
were supplied with a smoke pipe appearing in the 
room and entering the wall above the structure. 
And sometimes these Alsatian wall or jamb stoves, 
according to Kassel, included extra iron fire cham- 
bers, on the other side of the wall, outside the 
room heated, and used for cooking. 

Bickell says, page 6, thai in the 17th century in 
Hesse appeared Querofen — square stoves, Pyra- 
midenofen — pyramid stoves, and Windofen — wind or 



141 



draft stoves, and. according to Wedding, round, 
cylindrical stoves with one or more upper stories, 
sometimes called Pommerofen — Pomeranian stoves 
(see Figure 225, and as figured by Dr, Kassel as an- 
other type of wind stove), appeared about 1725-30. 
The great Castle stoves cited above at Coburg, 
Schmalkald, Rapperschwl, Spangenburg, etc., were 
probably made of a dozen or more plates with 
double or triple stories polygonal in for.Ti. while 
the later (1630 to 1700) stoves of rectangular box 
form with two stories (and rarely with one, as here 
chiefly described) consisted of from five to ten 
plates. 

NOTE 39. 

MOULDS FOR FIRE BACKS. 

In England a specimen has been heard of in the 
possession of the Hastings Museum and two men- 
tioned by Starkie Gardner (Iron Casting in the 
Weald, Archeologia, 2d Series, Vol. 5, page 152), 
as belonging, in 1898, to Mr, Willett, and to Lord 
Ashburnham (the latter used in the Penshurst 
foundry in 1811). All are moulds for firebacks, not 
stove plates. 

NOTE 40. 

IRON CASTING UNKNOWN TO THE 
ANCIENTS. 
That is to say, the pouring of molten iron into 
moulds of sand or clay. But this operation was un- 
known to the ancients, who were masters of the 
crafts of casting the alloy of tin and copper called 
bronze, and that the iron workers throughout the 
Middle Ages could only hammer and never cast iron 
seems a remarkable thing. The celebrated iron pil- 
lars at Delhi and elsewhere in India are of wrought 
iron, and no certain evidence exists that either the 
Chinese or Europeans had discovered the art of iron 
casting before the year 1400. 

NOTE 41. 

IRON STOVES IN GERMAN FAIRY 
TALES. 

In his notes upon an iron stove, which ap- 
pears in the old Schwerin fairy tale of the Goose 
Girl, into which the betrayed Princess creeps to 
tell her secrets, Wilhelm Grimm says nothing as to 
the kind of stove referred to, nor the date which 
any iron stove would fix for the incident if not for 
the whole tale. But because of the fact that the 
king listens at the stove pipe (ofenrohre) we must 
suppose that the original story teller meant a draft 
stove. On the other hand, in the tale No. 91 of the 
elves, the stove, which may have been of tiles, must 
have been a wall stove, since when the three 
princes relate their secret to it the king "went 
out" and listened at the door, as if the stove door. 



as in a five plate non-ventilating stove, was outside 
the room. 

NOTE 42, 

OLD GERMAN FURNACES, 
According to the guide book of the Bavarian 
National Museum, for 1903, page 183, there was an 
old stove-making furnace at Rothenburg on the 
Tauber, and another at Hohenaschau in Southern 
Bavaria which worked in the 16th century. 

According to Kassel, Beck and Wedding, old 
stove-making furnaces existed in Nassau at Nuen- 
kirchen, Saarbrucken, St. Ingbert, Halbergerhutte, 
Weilmuenster, Ottweiler, Siegen and Budigen; in 
the Palatinate at Quint, near Trier, at Fishbach, 
Schonau, and Geislautern, in Solm, at Usingen, 
in Flanders at Rienfronde, St. Dizier and Cousance- 
aux-Forges; and in Lorraine at Oettingen and Mut- 
terhausen, in Champagne, in Holland, and in Alsace 
at Jagerthal, Merzweiler and Zinsweiler, where they 
were still casting jamb stoves in 1903, 

NOTE 43. 

EUROPEAN COLLECTIONS OF STOVE 

PLATES. 

The private German collections of Messrs. E. 
Schott, at Ilsenburg in Hesse; George von Collin, 
at Hanover, and of Mr. G. Lueders, are noted by 
Beck, and museums containing stove plates at 
Munich (Bayrisches National Museum), Nurem- 
burg (Germanic), Berlin (Markish), Amsterdam 
(Rijks Museum), Weisbaden (Alterthums), and at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, Lubeck, Stuttgart, Altona, 
Flensburg, Zurich, Mayence, Osnabruck, Stein-Ant- 
werp, Utrecht and Erbach. 

The splendid plates designed in the 16th cen- 
tury by Philip Soldan at Frankenberg in Hesse, de- 
scribed by Bickell, appear in many museums, but 
probably the finest series of them, forming the most 
interesting collection in Germany, has been collected 
by the Hessian Historical Society at Marburg. 

Kassel notes collections in museums in Alsace 
at Metz, Colmar, Zabern, Strasburg, and Muhl- 
hausen, and others are referred to by Fisher, Per- 
ron, Sibenaler and Benoit, at Esch and Arlon in 
Luxemburg, at Metz. in Loraine. and in Northern 
France at Nancy, Luneville, Bar-le-duc, Poictiers, 
Beaume, Moulins, Montauban, Longwy, St. Die, and 
at the Louvre, Cluny and Carnavelet Museums in 
Paris. Many of the French and Flemish collections 
consist largely of firebacks, or the peculiar radiating 
fireback partitions called "taques." See Figs. 218 to 
221. 

NOTE 44. 

CONFUSION OF STOVE PLATES BY 
WRITERS. 
A good many of the writers have confined them- 
selves to the artistic side of the question almost ex- 



142 



clusively. Gardner, in Archeologia. Vol. 55. p. 133. 
confuses stove plates with fireback=, iron plates set 
in the open fireplace back of the fire, and fails to 
note th: existence of decorated stove plates of -his 
kind. Further confusion appears in the description 
of the Belgian and French writers, who sometimes 
refer ro stove plates as if thty wire firebacks. Some- 
times they present illustrations of the plates with 
edges trimmed by the photographer so as to ob- 
literate their disinctive character, or refer to the 
very curious kind of Flemish iron partition set back 
of an open fire in Flanders so as to throw heat 
through the wall into another roo.-n and so.-neti.-nes 
decorated on the reverse side away from the fire, 
as if it was a common fireback. See Figure 21S. 

NOTE 45. 

OLD FURNACE AT OBEREICHSTATT. 

Dr. Kohler, in Volkskunst und Volkskunde, 
Munich, Seyfried & Co., 1909, finds still in existence 
an old furnace at Obereichstatt, in the Altmuhlthal, 
near Treuchlichen, in Bavaria, where old jamb 
stoves had been cast until abou:: 1850. They were 
decorated with Catholic, classical and mythological 
subjects, and occasionally Biblical scenes. Pat- 
terns representing St. Hubert, Madonnas, Samson, 
Coats-of-arms, the Flight into Ejypt, or S;. George, 
filled the whole plate without borderings. A series 
of designs, adopted from carved gems in the wedg- 
wood manner, appeared after 1817. A wooden pat- 
tern, made in the last decade of the 17';h century 
probably, was found for the St. Hubert design, and 
the illustration shows that in the Samson plate, 
daed 1731, the 17 of the original mould and the 31 
had been stamped as loose stamps upon the sand 
before the impression of the main pattern, which 
crosses the line of the date. 

The earliest furnace r?cord3, beginning in the 
last decade of the 1/tn century, were lost, but the 
names of some of the old mould carvers in the 18th 
century were found to be Caspar Eychern, Franz 
Schwanthaler (father of Ludwig Schwanthaler). 
and Ignaz Breitenauer. One C. E. had been paid 
for carving six new letters "Zur schmalz." (Upon 
the grease.) 

NOTE 46. 
SURVIVAL OF ANCIENT STOVES. 

Kassel says that in 1905 there were a hundred 
and ninety-eight (jamb) stoves in situ in thirty- 
three villages near Hochfelden in Alsace, of which 
Dunzenheim had 51, Lasolsheim 20, Melsheim IS, 
and Waltenheim 14. 

The German magazine Volkskunst und Volks- 
kunde, of Munich, No. 6, 1909, page 78, has a notice 
with five illustrations of old iron stoves photo- 
graphed in situ, during the rebuilding of houses. 



for a csrp;nter's guild-house on the corner of the 
Obstmarkt and Carolinen Strasse a' Augsburg. Three 
of the s oves had second stories of tiles. Two were 
dated 1804 and 1805. Two of them were entirely of 
iron. All were presented to the Historical Society 
of Augsburg. 

Dr. Ludwig Beck, in his Geschicte des Eisens, 
Brunswick, 1893-95, page 307, describes the stoves 
referred to in the text and a number of inter- 
esting single plates at private collections and 
museums. He notes a complete ancient iron stove 
dated 1529, with two upper stories, decorated with 
the figures of Christ crowned with thorns, the 
Madonna, St. Christopher, angels, and the arms 
of Bavaria, under Gothic canopies, at the Castle of 
Trausnitz, near Landshut, in Bavaria. 

There is another complete stove with a figure of 
Lucretia and a Creation of Eve, dated 1564, in the 
Buttler Castle at Riede, and another, also dated, 
with the Woman of Samaria and Adam and Eve, 
in the Luther chamber at the celebrated Wartburg 
Castle near Eisenach, in Saxony. Patterns illus- 
trating the Judgment of Solomon, Daniel in the 
Lion's Den, and a number of armorial shields, dec- 
orate an immense iron stove with hexagonal upper 
story and polygonal base, dated 1572, in the grand 
saloon at the town hall of Rapperswyl, on Lake 
Zurich, in Switzerland. 

No lover of decorative art, who has the oppor- 
tunity, ought to miss seeing the splendid stove 
adorned with a Nativity and Creation of Eve, at the 
Castle of Spangenburg, thir:y miles southeast of 
Cassel. or another remarkable stove, with second 
story and a mixture of 17th century designs, with 
earlier patterns by Soldan, in the grand hall of the 
Williamsburg Castle at Smalkald. A splendidly 
decorated complete stove, upon which the master 
Soldan has repeated with variations a design on 
the stove at Spangenburg shows the Nativity and 
Creation of Eve, together with patterns illustrating 
the Siege of Bethulia, and the death of Holofernes, 
with the initials PS and JP. Probably cast at 
Usingen in Nassau between 1537 and 1555, it stands 
in the Rathshaus at Wolfach in the Black Forest 
(Beck 298). One of the richest of all the Soldan 
stove patterns, illustrating the Parable of the Rich 
Man and Lazarus, of which Bickell has illustrated 
a replica (Eisenhutten des Klosters' Haina. L. 
Bickell, Marburg. 1889, page 16, plate 7) in the 
Marburg collection, with medallions and the names 
of Peter Rosenhausen and Koret Scharpe, stood, in 
1889, in the church library at Fritzlar, near Cassel. 

NOTE 47. 

THE STOVE IN THE STORY OF THE 

GOOSE GIRL. 

As if no one would comprehend this stove in- 
cident in the story of the Goose Girl, the first trans- 
lator of Gri.mm's tales into English (see Popular 



143 



Stories collected by the Brothers Grimm, reprin' of 
the first English edition of 1823, with 22 illustrations 
by George Cruikshank, Frowde. London. 1905. page 
193). omi:s it altogether. 

The translator of the American edition (Ger- 
man Popular Tales, with illustrations by Edward 
H. Wehnert. Philadelphia. Porter & Coates, 1880, 
page 103) transforms the stove into a fireplace. 

NOTE 48. 

CARVERS OF STOVE MOULDS. 

As follows, namely, the carvers, Philip Soldan, 
of Frankenburg, in Hesse, about 1530; Jost Luppolt. 
1580 to 1600: Jost Shillink. of Imphausen. 1576 to 
1606; Reinhart Schenk. 1559 to 1573; Heinrich 
Gockler; Johannes Ludekind; Conrad Luckeln; 
Bastian Platzen. 1614; Her.Tian Mullern. 1624; Curt 
Bach. 1650; Master Aldar, 1650; Master Lipsen; 
Benedictus Shroder, 1680; Peter Sorg, Philip Sorg. 
of Weilmunster. in Nassau. 1561, previously at Kraft. 
Solms; the casters, Peter Rolshausen, Kurt or Con- 
rad Scharf; and the ironmaster, Johan Conrad, also 
caster at Braunfels in 1672. 

A number of double or single letters or mono- 
grams remain to be noted, as follows: F for Fish- 
bach. AZ for Aus Zinsweiler. where, according to 
Kassel. not one-tenth of the plates were identifiable 
by marks, and then generally after the middle of 
the eighteenth century; ZW for Zinsweiler Work, 
the sun or horn as armorial emblems of the Dieter- 
ich family of ironmasters at Zinsweiler; the word 
Niederbron. in recent years, after I860: W or I N 
W for in Weilburg: CS or Ks for Curt Scharf: H. 
RW. HP. SS. LB. AK. E. ST. HCH. FS. C. LL. 
1666. BL. 1684 and 1691. SH. GH. HW. on the 
Samaritan plate with W 97. GD. on another Samar- 
itan plate. GD. W 98 on a Pharisee plate. I SB and 
the interlocked monograms CIF. IS. HAF. on a 
Cana plate. 

Some of the Nassau plates, as illustrated by 
Wedding, and a great many of the Norse plates, 
described by Fett. show the circle with the cross 
or diagonal spear as the mediaeval symbol for iron. 

NOTE 49. 

SAMARIA PLATE AT METROPOLITAN 
MUSEUM IN NEW YORK. 

A Sa-naria plate, dated 1613. now in the Metro- 
politan Museum at New York, Museum No. 7789-1. 
though varying in all the details, closely resembles 
this plate in composition. Recently purchased in 
Europe, it lacks the characteristic marginal notches 
of the old German stove plates, and may be a 
modern recast. 

NOTE SO. 
THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS. 
Early in the 18th century, the people now 
called Pennsylvania Germans came to Pennsylvania, 



generally by way of Holland, from the Rhenish 
Palatinate, Switzerland. Southern Germany and 
Silesia, to escape religious persecution. They came 
to practice what Christianity preaches, to live ac- 
cording to the inner rule of conscience which could 
not be compromised with, without police, jails, legis- 
latures, elections or the outward forms of government. 

They refused to swear, fight or hold slaves; 
did not wish to vote, avoided law suits and took 
little interest in politics and the Anglo-Saxon gov- 
ernment around them. 

The religious sects, of which they were and 
are composed, should not be classed together, but 
might reasonably be divided into liberals and con- 
servatives. 

The former, as Lutherans and Moravians, have 
held to music, letters, history, a knowledge of Ger- 
many and a system of foreign missions. Continu- 
ally replenished by modern emigrants from Europe, 
they have adapted themselves more or less to Amer- 
ican life. 

But the latter class, as Mennonites. Amish, 
Schwenckfeldters. Tunkers, and other minor sects, 
isolated for two hundred years in the hills of the 
Alleghanies. have forgotten Ger.Tiany without be- 
coming Americans. They have forsaken the dec- 
orative arts brought over by their ancestors, and 
avoided letters, learning, architecture, music and 
the higher arts, but unlike the modern German 
emigrant, who seems anxious to forget German and 
learn English, they have maintained their ancient 
language, though rather as part of their religion 
than for love of Germany. 

Unlike the Boers in South Africa, these people 
avoided slavery, but. while the Quakers distin- 
guished themselves by opposing it. the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans exerted no shining influence upon 
the ideals of American life by their antagonism of 
the practice. On the other hand, as negroes avoided 
their country, their doctrine of human brotherhood 
has not been tested by contact with the black race. 
Farmers they came and farmers they have remained, 
good and thrifty, but not inventive. Where other- 
wise they have distinguished themselevs by riches 
or achievements, no rumor of sordidness. stinginess 
or hypocrisy has attached itself to them; but their 
lives and work pass into the tale of the general 
prosperity of the United States, and do not stand 
for the furtherance of the religious ideals of their 
ancestors. 

The English speech of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man betrays him with a genial and very marked 
accent and his original South Ger.man dialect cor- 
rupted with English words and divested of the 
gender and inflection of high German, echoes in a 
familiar and peaceful and what might be called a 
very non-Italian sing-song, free of harshness and 
anger to the ignorant English ear. 



144 



Because he called himself Deutsch, the early 
English settlers, without thought of Holland, called 
him "Dutch" and the name still clings. 

The worldly success and rapidly acquired 
riches around him, have tempted him, modern bad 
taste has seized him and American newspapers 
have encroached upon his ideals, but his high rule 
of conduct between man and man, which is the 
aim of all governments, remains. This is his great 
achievement. Nevertheless, remaining apart and 
still regarded as uncouth, he has failed to con- 
spicuously inspire or influence the Anglo-Saxon. 

The modern American flushed with success and 
seeing the future salvation of mankind in democ- 
racy, overlooks these Christian brothers, and the 
Socialist or so-called Progressive in 1914 presents 
as new problems to the world, civic questions 
which they have been living out for themselves for 
two hundred years. 

As Pilate asked, "what is truth?" the modern 
philosopher confronted by the materialism of life, 
may ask, what is success? and whether in the past, 
government without religion, or religion without 
government, have not both failed to teach man 
how to live. Nothing but profound wisdom grasp- 
ing the meaning of inner movements that have 
advanced the human struggle in past centuries, 
could venture to estimate the final effect of this 
high moral attitude, held generally without letters 
or learning, on the fate of the United States. 

Art had waned in Christendom before the 
United States was settled. Because where asso- 
ciated with religion, it either died as with the Catho- 
lic or Anglican, or was thrown out as vanity by 
the Protestant, the small but singular importation 
of decorative art in cast iron, here discussed, as 
brought over by the Pennsylvania Germans, is very 
interesting. Strange to say, it came out of the 
Middle Ages, not through the Roman Catholic 
Church, but through the Protestant Reformation 
and Luther's Bible. Essentially German, it is 
more varied and remarkable than the pottery and 
illuminated writing that came with it and though 
rude and uncouth in its decorative treatment, the 
style of its inscriptions and the arrangement of 
figures, it is plainly a survival of the ancient Ger- 
man craftsmanship of the 17th century. For one 
generation at least, it maintained in the American 
backwoods among the strictly religious settlers, a 
greater simplicity, directness and sincerity than it 
perhaps possessed in Germany. Nevertheless, per- 
taining only to the household and never applied to 
the decoration of churches or meeting houses, it 
was a non-essential and though always religious, 
did not have a lasting hold on the life of the people. 
Produced from moulds carved by German hands, it 
was generally made at English furnaces for Eng- 
lish ironmasters, who probably took little interest 



in the inscriptions or meaning of the pictures. Its 
life was short. With the improved technical skill 
of the iron caster, the art of the mould carver de- 
creased. Advertisement, and worldliness encroach- 
ing upon the ancient spirit, finally prevailed. When 
the imported German mould carver died, his suc- 
cessors adapted themselves to new conditions. New 
stoves appeared, which while becoming less Ger- 
man and more American, grew less artistic. 

The memory of an ancient and foreign art long 
the servant of religion, inspired the stove makers, 
but that passed away one hundred and fifty years 
ago, and though the story of the Bible thus told, 
might again ally itself wth the work of any church, 
no sign of the awakening of such an art at its origi- 
nal source, has appeared. The Pennsylvania Ger- 
man farmer may love the Bible as his ancestor 
loved it, but he has lost his old art, and his spirit- 
ual leaders of to-day, with a few exceptions, 
whether Lutheran, Moravian, Mennonite or Tunker, 
have forgotten the pictured stoves and the helpful 
meaning of their sermon in iron once widely 
preached in the pioneer household. 

NOTE 51. 

FURNACES AND FOUNDRIES 
DISTINGUISHED. 

It was the important process of smelting iron 
direct from the ore. as pigiron or raw material, 
rather than remelting the metal thus previously 
produced, that distinguished the blast furnaces 
properly so called not only from the secondary 
blast furnaces, called foundries or "cupolas," which 
did not smelt but remelted iron for manufatruring 
purposes, but also from the forge, where iron was 
hammered into the raw material for wrought iron 
work, known as bar iron. Because the forge was 
also built in the forest, equipped with a massive 
smoke stack and blast bellows on a waterwheel, it 
has sometimes been confused by the uninstructed 
with the furnace, but the forge as a blacksmith 
shop on a large scale, which only softened the 
metal without melting it, equipped with a huge ham- 
mer attached to another waterwheel which ham- 
mered the metal into shape either directly from the 
ore (a bloomary), or by reheating the previously 
smelted pig iron, had nothing to do with the cast- 
ing of iron, or with the manufacture of any such 
thing as a stove plate made of cast iron. And when 
the forge ledgers among the Potts Manuscripts, re- 
ferred to in the text note the sale of stoves (pro- 
duced only at furnaces), the entries only signify 
that forge and furnace were sometimes owned, 
managed and accounted for together. 

Though it appears that the "air furnace" of 
Colonel Spotswood, at Massaponax, in Virginia, 
working in 1732 (Swank, 261). may properly be 
called a foundry, and though the name foundry 



145 



was loosely, if not incorrectly applied to blast fur- 
naces in the United States until the middle of the 
19th century (Sw., 110). we learn from the informa- 
tion of Mr. B. F. Fackenthal, Jr.. that before 1820 
there were no true foundries in Pennsylvania, so 
that during the period of their artistic decoraion 
under consideration, the making of stoves was con- 
fined to the furnaces, that is to say. all the s ove 
plates here illustrated, were cast, not at stove works 
end foundries in small remelting furnaces called 
"cupolas," but direc; from the ore at its first melt- 
ing, in the original furnace, and close to the site 
of its excavation from the earth, so that the chemi- 
cal analysis of these plates, when agreeing with 
csr'ain deposits of ore, might sometimes show, 
without further evidence, which furnace made them. 

NOTE 52. 

LIMITED AREA OF STOVE MAKING 
IN COLONIAL TIME. 
The collection shows that a few decorated 
plates were made in New Jersey but otherwise the 
manufacture of the stoves in question, appears to 
have been confined to Pennsylvania, and no evi- 
dence has appeared to show that during the period 
here considered, namely from the settlement to 
about 1770, stoves of this kind were made in Mary- 
land, Virginia or Delaware, or the South, or in 
New York or New England, though some may have 
been produced in Canada. 

No furnaces then existed in Maine. New Hamp- 
shire or Vermont, and Massachusetts and Southir.T 
New England appear to have been the chief cen- 
ters of iron making in the American Colonies for a 
hundred years after the landing of the Mayflower 
emigrants, and as noted by Swank (page 111), and 
listed under Note 2. bog iron ore found on or near 
the surface, or dredged out of ponds and marshes, 
was smelted at the following furnaces: Lynn Fur- 
nace, 1645. abandoned, 1688. Braintree, 1646. New 
Haven. Connecticut, Furnace. 1658. Despards Fur- 
nace in Plymouth County, Mass. (1702. soon aban- 
doned). Six furnaces in Massachusetts in 1619. 
Kings Furnace at Taunton. Mass. (1724 to 1840). 
Several furnaces in Massachusetts for making hol- 
low ware in 1731. Plympton or Carver Furnace. 
1730. Hope Furnace, on Pawtuxent River. Rhode 
Island. 1735. Three Furnaces in Cumberland Town- 
ship. Rhode Island. 1735. abandoned before the 
Revolution. Lime Rock Furnace. Litchfield County. 
N. W. Connecticut, 1740 to 1750. Six furnaces in 
Massachusetts in 1750. Charlotte Furnace at Mid- 
dlebcro, Mass. 1758. Lakeville Furnace. Litchfield 
County, Connecticut, 1762 to 1830. 

Several of these furnaces, like that at New 
Haven or at Taunton or at the Cumberland Town- 
ship. Rhode Island Furnaces, gave particular at- 
tention to the casting of pots, firebacks and jambs. 



andirons, kitchen mortars, household utensils, etc., 
and some it appears were foundries proper, where 
pig iron previously smelted, was remelted and thus 
retast. The fireback shown in Figure 201 was pos- 
sibly cast at Lynn Furnace in 1660 by Joseph Jenks, 
who had made the mould for the ancient pot illus- 
trated by Swank, p. 112, cast at Lynn Furnace in 
1645. and in possession (1S90) of Messrs. A. and L. 
Lewis, at Etna Place. Lynn. Franklin's fireplace, 
as the advertisement in the original pamphlet 
shows, was introduced into New England about 
1742, and no doubt soon after made there. More- 
over there is a remarkable statement in a letter of 
Robert Child to John Winthrop, Jr., written in 
Boston, March 15, 1647, quoted by Swank, page 113, 
saying that "We have cast this winter some tons of 
pots, likewise mortars, stoves, skillets. Our potter 
is moulding more at Brayntree." But with the ex- 
ception of this passage, which according to Mr. 
Dow. of the Essex Institute, refers to small foot 
stoves, or boxes for hot embers, there is no evi- 
dence that any of the New England furnaces made 
any stoves at all before 1770, much less any deco- 
rated six plate stoves of the type here described, or 
five plate stoves thus adorned with Biblical pic- 
tures, floral patterns or mottoes in German. Numer- 
ous inquiries and ECorches recently made by the au- 
thor at the New England Historical Society, at 
Deerfield. and Springfield, at Northampton and 
Carver, among tne antique dealers of Eastern 
Massachusetts, at Fall River, Taunton, New Bed- 
ford; Litchfield, Conn., and Providence, R. I., have 
failed to find evidence of the existence or discovery 
of decorated stove plates in New England. No 
stove plate has been found at Lynn, or Newbury- 
port. or at Portsmouth. New Hampshire, or heard 
of at the Essex Institute at Salem. Mass.. where 
later in 1810 Captain Solomon Towne. of the ship 
Galataea. introduced Russian brick stoves (see S. 
Perley, in Essex Antiquarian. December. 1897), and 
incredible as it may seem, all the evidence thus 
far, though negative and liable to be upset at any 
moment by the discovery of a Colonial New Eng- 
land stove plate, shows, that as old England had 
done wl'hout stoves, so did New England, and that 
notwiths'anding the severity of their winter the 
New England settlers with firewood in superabun- 
dance, and loving the sight of the open flames as 
their ancestors had done, heated their houses, 
churches and public buildings, in Colonial times, 
not with stoves but with open fires. 

In Canada on the other hand, where still 
severer winters prevail, we learn (Swank, p. 348) 
that at the one and only ancient furnace there ex- 
isting, the St. Maurice, at Trois Riviers (built in 
1737 and abandoned in 1882), stoves were cast in 
1749 and then in use all over Canada made, as ob- 
served by Peter Kalm then visiting 'he furnace, 
in "six pieces separately moulded but fitted to- 
gether to form a stove about three feet high." 



146 



But these stoves, again referred to by Bou- 
chette in 1815, types of which still survive (see Fig- 
ure 190), known as "box stoves," in old Canadian 
houses, were undoubtedly not wall stoves of the 
German type but rather draft stoves with smoke 
pipe and fuel doors, of the general shape of the 
Pennsylvanian six plate or ten plate stoves here- 
with described. And they were undoubtedly not 
adorned with German inscriptions though we may 
reasonably suppose that some of the earlier ones 
may have been decorated with pictorial patterns and 
inscribed in French. 

According to Mrs. Potts-James, Potts Me- 
morial, page 162, a John Potts in 1783 to 1785, tried 
to introduce five different kinds of cast iron stoves 
apparently made in Pennsylvania and sent up to 
Halifax, into Nova Scotia. 

Swank notes the following furnaces in New 
Jersey as in existence during the period of stove 
decoration, namely Shrewsbury or Tinton Abbey 
Furnace, Monmouth County, 1682. Hanover or 
Mount Holly, Burlington County, 1730. Ringwood 
or Ogdcns, near Greenwood Lake, Passaic County 
(three furnaces and a forge), after 1767; rebuilt by 
P. Hascnclever, 1768; destroyed, 1776. Oxford, 
Warren County, 1742. Union, Hunterdon County 
(two furnaces), 1750 to 1778. Hibernia or Adven- 
ture, Pequannock Township, Morris County, 1764. 
Batsto, Burlington County, 1766 to 1846. Atsion, 
Burlington County, 1766. Taunton, Burlington 
County, 1766. Charlottenburg, on Pequannock 
Creek, 1767. Andover, Sussex County, 1760. Mount 
Hope, near Rockaway, 1772 to 1825. 

Figures 108 and 110 though cast in Pennsylva- 
nia were found in New Jersey. Mr. Patrick Trainor, 
of Doylestown, Pa., informs the writer that he saw 
decorated stove plates about 1877 in a "scrap" heap 
at Filmore. Monmouth County, N. J. Oxford Fur- 
nace made the fireback shown in Figures 213 and 
214 and Figures 173 and 177 were cast at Batsto. 

Though there was no German colony in New 
Jersey it seems probable that some of the other 
furnaces cast decorated stoves in the general style 
of those made in Pennsylvania, though the New 
Jersey Historical Society is ignorant of the fact, 
and no plates have been heard of by the writer to 
prove it. 

Neither have any decorated stoves, or stove 
plates of native make, and of the six plate or five 
plate type under discussion, been found in New 
York where all the plates. Figures 19, 21, 26, 59, 83, 
124 and 126, discovered at or near Kingston, were 
imported from Germany or Pennsylvania, though 
Ancram Furnace, Columbia County, 1750; the two 
Courtland Manor Furnaces, begun and abandoned 
before 1756; Ward and Coulton's Furnace, or the 
Sterling Iron Works, 1750; the Forest of Dean Fur- 
nace, near Fort Montgomery, Orange County 



(which cast stoves for the Government in 1776), 1755 
to 1777 (Swank, Chapter 12), might have made 
them. 

Maryland Furnaces are noted by Swank as fol- 
lows: Gwynnes Falls, 1723 to 1730. Mount Royal, 
1723 to 1730. Principio, Cecil County, 1724. Kings- 
bury, Baltimore County, 1745. Eight furnaces in 
Maryland, 1749 to 1756 and 1761. Lancashire Fur- 
nace, Baltimore County, 1751. Old Hampton, 
Frederick County, 1760 to 1765. Legh, near West- 
minster, 1760 to 1765. Gunpowder River, 1769. 
Bush, Harford County, 1769. Elk Ridge, on Pataps- 
co, 1759. Patuxent, Anne Arundel County 1769. 
York, 1769. Steiners Run, 1769. Green Spring, 
Washington County, 1770. Mount Etna, near 
Hagerstown, 1770. Catocton, near Frederick, 1774. 
Some of these may have produced stoves, but if 
so the Maryland Historical Society has heard noth- 
ing of it, and no decorated plates have come to the 
writer's knowledge. 

In Maryland as in Virginia, North Carolina 
and farther South where in the milder winters the 
need of stoves was less felt, open fires were uni- 
versal. In Virginia Fredericksville Furnace, 
Spottsylvania County, about 1727 (Swank, 260); 
Germanna or Rappahannock Furnace, Spottsylvania 
County, about 1729; Accokeek or England's Iron 
Mines Furnace, near Fredericksburg, about 1729 to 
1753; Massaponax Air Furnace, near Fredericks- 
burg, 1732; Zanes Furnace, Frederick County, be- 
fore the Revolution, and Isabella Furnace, Page 
County, 1760, existed during the period in ques- 
tion, but no evidence has appeared to show that any 
of them cast decorated stoves, which if made at 
all in Virginia, would have been probably produced 
at Colonel Spottswood's so-called "Air" Furnace, at 
Massaponax, above noted, which appears to have 
been a foundry, rather than a furnace proper, where 
after its establishment in 1732, according to Swank, 
sow or pig iron, elsewhere made, was recast into 
chimney backs, pots, skillets, household utensils, 
and the so-called "country castings." 

NOTE 53. 
THE POTTS MANUSCRIPTS. 

In about one hundred and twenty daybooks and 
ledgers of furnaces and forges in the library of the 
Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, at Schwenksville, Pa., 
examined for the author by Mr. W. S. Ely, in the 
summer of 1910, we find that numerous plate stoves 
were made and sold between 1728 and 1769 at Cov- 
entry Forge (representing probably Christine or 
Redding Furnace, on French Creek, Northern 
Berks County, founded between 1720 and 1736); 
Colebrookdale Furnace and Pine Forge, near the 
present Boyerstown, Berks County, founded, 1720; 
Mount Pleasant Furnace, near Boyerstown, 
founded, 1736; Warwick Furnace, on South Branch 
of French Creek, Northern Chester County, 



147 



founded, 1737, and Popadickon, later Pottsgrove or 
Pot^stown, founded about 1744. 

Because many of the stoves (five and six plate), 
are noted as sold in the ledgers of Pine Grove. Cov- 
entry Forge and other forges, rather than furnaces. 
we must infer that in these cases the furnaces, 
whether mentioned or not, where they were made. 
and the forge where they could not have been made, 
were under the same management. 

Sometimes the forge was built close to the fur- 
nace, as at Antrim, New York, founded, 1750; 
Shrewsbury, New Jersey; Ringwood, or Ogdens, 
New Jersey, which was founded. 1740; Union. New 
Jersey; Charlottenburg, New Jersey, founded. 1767, 
at Sterling. New York, 1751; Martic. Pennsylvania, 
1751; Lynn, Massachusetts, 1645. 

Until 1753 all the stoves referred to in these 
manuscripts must have been types of the five 
plate non-ventilating "jamb stove" under discus- 
sion, though the name "five plate" was never used. 
The stoves are noted generally as "stoves." without 
explanatory adjective, never as jamb stoves, and 
very often from tht oeginning. though no measure- 
ments are ever given, as "large, middling, and small" 
stoves; or, very rarely and latterly, as "Dutch" 
(meaning German) stoves: "large Dutch stoves" 
(Warwick, 1747); "small Dutch stoves" (Warwick. 
1760). and "Dutch stove" (Pottsgrove. 1768), no 
doubt intended occasionally to distinguish therr 
from the "English," or "six plate" stoves, which 
first appear in 1753. 

In that year eleven "small English stoves" are 
noted as sold at Warwick, followed by twenty "six 
plate English stoves" made there in 1760, and by 
numerous "large six plate and small six plate 
stoves," made at Pottsgrove between 1762 and 1768. 

NOTE 54. 
STOVES OF UNUSUAL TYPE. 

Once only we find "round stove" (evidently a 
Pommeroffen, or Pomeranian stove of the original 
German type, see Figure 225), weighing 1,921 
pounds, cast at Colebrookdale in 1735; once a "Ger- 
mantown stove" of unexplained construction at 
Warwick in 1754, costing two pounds ten, and "2 
Moravian stoves" at four pounds and four pounds 
sixteen shillings each, also unexplained but probably 
of the type of Figure 227. at Pottsgiove in 1768 and 
1769, and two at Warwick in 1767. 

Only a few doubtful references are made to the 
universal decoration of the stoves, as at Popadickon 
in 1745, and Mt. Pleasant in 1743 and 1744, the 
names "large carved stove and plain stove" appear, 
as if not only (carved) decorated, but (plain) un- 
decorated stoves cast from smooth undecorated 
board moulds, had been made at these furnaces 
though no evidence of the latter supposition has 
elsewhere appeared. 



A slab of open sand-cast iron, without mar- 
ginal border and moulding about two feet square, 
was found by the writer at Doylestown in 1912. 
But the plate may not be a stove plate, and no UD- 
decoratcd front plate with the unmistakable gut- 
tered rims has yet appeared. On the other hand, it 
must be remembered that thus far undecorated 
plates would not have been valued by collectors 
and dealers, and that as yet no decorated plate of 
certain American make has been found dated earlier 
than 1741. 

Sheet iron jamb stoves may have been used be- 
fore 1770. If so, they were made at the forges, not 
furnaces, and not decorated. 

No mention is anywhere made of casting loose 
rims, necessary to the construction of stoves in 
the German manner, as above explained, and we 
must therefore suppose that all these stoves were 
made with the grooved rims cast solid upon the 
plates. Neither is mention made of the wrought 
iron bolts, one of which was necessary for each 
stove, though at Valley Forge in 1764 "a door for a 
stove." evidently the fuel door of a six plate stove, 
and "two iron plates for a stove" are charged in a 
smith's book, and therefore must have been made of 
wrought iron. 

NOTE 55. 

STYLE AND WEIGHT OF STOVES. 

In 1747 six large stoves "with holes in the top 
plates" sold at Warwick, indicate that heat-retain- 
ing upper stories of brick, tiles, iron, etc., may have 
been constructed upon them, otherwise no evidence 
appears that non-ventilating stoves were ever built 
of more than five plates or with upper stories of 
iron or earthenware. 

The items show that the large five plate stoves 
generally weighed about 448 pounds, also varying 
from 406 to 560 pounds and costing generally five 
pounds Sterling to five pounds ten (Warwick and 
Colebrookdale). that the middling stoves weigheQ 
generally 373 and varying also between 356 and 35-' 
pounds, cost generally four pounds Sterling (War- 
wick and Colebrookdale). and that the small 
stoves, weighing generally 320 pounds and varying 
between 209 and 304 pounds (Mt. Pleasant and 
Warwick), cost generally three pounds ten Ster- 
ling, but sometimes three pounds and two pounds 
ten. 

When 2.240 pounds stood for a ton. 112 pounds 
for a hundredweight and 28 pounds for a quarter, 
loose stove plates in greater or less quantity, odd 
tops, bottoms and sides once referred to (Warwick, 
1747), as "top, front, right, left and bottom plates,' 
were sold by the ton or hundredweight or singly, 
weighing 42, 126, 80 pounds (Colebrookdale, 1733 
to 1736), 82, 89, 101 1 3, 151 pounds (Coventry, 1728 



148 



to 1729) 5514 pounds (Warwick), and a "large side 
plate" 101, and "a large plate" 98 pounds (War- 
wick, 1748). 

Sometimes individuals, for instance Jacob Le- 
vant, who, according to the Popadickon ledger, 
bought fifteen tons of stoves between 1749 and 1753. 
buy plates or stoves by the ton, or in such quanti- 
ties or so often, that we may suppose they were 
stove dealers. Namely. Marcus Hulings (Mt. Pleas- 
ant, 1740); Henry Snyder, also referred to as "The 
Stove Mould Maker" (Warwick, 1755); Philip Metz, 
shoemaker at Skippach (Warwick, 1750). 

NOTE 56. 
STOVES WITH UPPER STORIES. 

In a Warwick Furnace daybook for August 3, 
1747, page 59, the entry reads: "John Hookman, Dr. 
to 6 large stoves, per Randall Marshall. N. B. — He 
wanted top plates with holes in." 

The top plate of the lower iron fire chamber of 
the Moravian tile stove at Nazareth (Figure 227) 
has one if not two holes in it for the smoke egress. 

NOTE 57. 

IRON MASTERS GENERALLY 

ENGLISH. 

Pennsylvania was an English colony, and if it 
had not been for the German immigration early in 
the 18th century, these stoves would never have 
existed. 

Rutter and Potts, founders, of Colebrookdale; 
Nutt and Branson, at Redding; the first masters of 
Durham and Keith's, of Warwick, Mt. Pleasant, and 
if we may except the questionable Kurtz Furnace, 
were English. And though they must have been 
familiar with decorated firebacks had probably 
never heard of jamb stoves in England. But in a 
colony full of German settlers, they employed Ger- 
man workmen. Jamb stoves were wanted and they 
made them, putting their construction and adorn- 
ment into the hands of Germans from the first. 

NOTE 58. 

FURNACE LEDGERS AT THE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA AND NOTE 

ON CHRISTOPHER SAUER. 

About thirty original manuscript Furnace and 
Forge ledgers and account books called "waste 
books," "store books," "journals," "coal books," "day 
books," etc.. preserved at the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania in Philadelphia (1914) cover the fol- 
lowing intervals, in every case incomplete and with 
numerous breaks represented by missing books. For 
Elizabeth Furnace 1756 to 1770. For Mary Ann Fur- 
nace 1762 to 1765. For Berkshire Furnace 1767 to 
1768. For Tulpehocken Eisenhammer (Forge) 1754 
to 1760. For Charming Forge 1765 to 1785 and for 
New Pine Forge 1744 to 1788. 



As learned from the Potts Manuscripts we must 
examine, item by item, not only all Furnace but all 
Forge account books in order to exhaust stove in- 
formation from old items of sale, since both kinds of 
books note transactions in stoves. 

Here the forge ledgers of Charming Forge in 
Berks County (originally Tulpehoken Ei;enhammer, 
called "Charming" in 1763 by Stiegel) accounting for 
Elizabeth Furnace, and New Pine Forge in Union 
Township, Birks County, accounting for Berkshire 
Furnace, note the sale of stoves. 

A careful scrutiny of all items in all these books 
might reveal the names cf some of the mould carvers 
or throw further light on the manufacture of deco- 
rated stoves, but the twelve books searched (4 for 
Elizabe'.h, 1 for Berkshire, 2 for Mary Ann, 3 for 
New Fine Forge and 2 for Charming Forge) though 
revealing the usual stove sale items throw no new 
light on the subject. "Ten-Plate Stoves ' appear at 
Berkshire in 1767, and "Moravian stoves" (compare 
Iron fire chamber of Fig. 227). 'Seven-Plate stoves" 
(probably Franklin Fireplaces with double back 
plates), "Open Six-Plate Stoves" (probably ditto with 
single back and minus the air chamber), "Clay-Ware 
Round Stoves" (probably Pommerofen, s:e Fig. 225 
and note 54, lined with fire clay slabs), appear at 
Elizabeth in 1771. 

But we also learn that "Five-Plate stoves" (jamb 
stoves), "big." "middling" and "small," are sold at 
Elizabeth as late as 1771 and 1772. 

The Elizabeth Ledger for 1771 to 1772 gives the 
following list of weights and prices for stoves: 

Ten-Flate Stoves: Big. Weight 5 cwt. 2 qr. 10 
lb. Price 5 Pounds 10 shillings. Small. Weight 5 
Cwt. Price 5 Pounds. 

Six-FIate Stoves: Big. Weight 4 cwt. Price 
5 Pounds. Middle. Weight 2 cwt 3 qr 12 lbs. Price 

3 Pounds. Small. Weight 2 cwt. 25 lbs. Price 2 lbs. 
5 Shillings. 

Five-Plate Stoves (Jamb Stoves) : Big. Weight 

4 cwt. Price 5 Pounds. Middle. Weight 3 cwt. 1 qr. 
9'/4 lbs. Price 4 Pounds. Small. Weight 2 cwt. 3 qr. 
12 lbs. Price 3 Pounds. 

Moravian Stove: Weight 2 cwt. 3 qr. 12 lbs. 
Price 3 Pounds. 

Open Six-Plate Half-Stove: (Probably Franklin 
Fireplace minus air chamber. H. C. M.) Weight 3 
cwt. 3 qr. 21 lbs. Price 4 pounds 10 shillings. 

CHRISTOPHER SAUER. 
A series of vague, unsupported statements in 
Bishop's History of American Manufactures, Vol. 
1, page 182; Swank's Iron and Coal in Pennsylva- 
nia, page 19, and by later writers here noted, to the 
effect that Christopher Sauer. of Germantown, in- 
vented or introduced the jamb stove, appear to have 
been started by Watson, in his Annals, Vol. 2, page 
34, who asserts that (inferably about 1770) every 
house in Germantown "was warmed in winter by 
jamb stoves, and that Mr. Sauer, of Germantown, 



149 



the printer, "cast the first stoves, perhaps thus used 
in the United States. They were cast in Lancaster. 
None of them are now (probably about 1820) up 
and in use, but many of '.he old plates are often 
seen lying about the old houses as door steps, etc." 
Vol. 1. page 218, Waston says that Sauer invented 
the ja.T-b stove. 

But this cannot be true, since we know that 
jamb stoves existed in Germany since about 1500. 
and since imported stove plates found in the United 
States and dated before Sauer came to America, are 
here shown. 

Christopher Sauer, father and son, born near 
Marburg, in Hesse, in a region where decorated 
jamb stoves were abundant, may have advised the 
use of the stoves, and increased their sale, or pos- 
sibly introduced or invented the outside vertical 
belts htr; described. According to M. G. Brum- 
baugh (in the "Pennsylvania Gsr.-nan" for about 
1904.) Sauer came to America in 1724 and if he or 
his son, Christopher, Jr., had caused the first Ameri- 
can stoves to be cast the Potts MSS would prob- 
ably show it, but though the earliest furnace ledgers 
are lost, the books note the sale of stove plates in 
1728 and 1729 to other individuals. Sauer's name 
does not appear until 1743, when on March 30, at 
Mount Pleasant Furnace he is charged with eleven 
large carved stoves (bought at Marcus Hulings), 
five small stoves, and some single plates. 

NOTE 59. 

CONSUMPTION OF WOOD BY 

CHARCOAL FURNACES. 

In England they passed laws against the de- 
foresting by furnaces in Sussex, Surrey and Kent in 
1584, and prohibited the charcoaling of beech, oak 
and ash trees. Evelyn denounced the furnaces. 

At the Trois Rivieres Furnace in Canada they 
preferred deciduous wood charcoal for smelting in 
the furnace, but used evergreen for the forges. 

According to the Lake Superior Mining Insti- 
tute Proceedings in 1903, it took a hundred bushels 
of charcoal to a ton of pig iron, or two and a half 
cords of wood, at forty bushels of charcoal per cord, 
for a ton of pig iron. 

NOTE 60. 
DESCRIPTION OF OLD FURNACES. 

Pearse says, page 78, that the stack of Cornwall 
Furnace, built in 1742, was thirty-two feet high, 
twenty-one-and-a-half feet square at base, and 
eleven feet square at top. 

He shows a perpendicular section of a Lake- 
ville, Connecticut, Furnace, built in 1763, with its 
greatest diameter inside the egg or "bosh," nine 
feet, and a height of twenty-eight feet. It was 
lined with slate smeared with yellow clay, against 



which the outer wall was constructed of white lime- 
stone. The bottom of the interior was built of a 
special rtfractory stone. 

Swedenborg, quoted by Pearse, page 74, de- 
scribes the old furnace stacks in general as twenty- 
five feet high, with oblong openings near the top 
about four feet long for charging the ore, charcoal 
and flux. He says the largest bellows were five 
feet wide, that the ore was roasted at the rate of 
eighteen pecks to twenty-four bushels of charcoal, 
that oyster shells, when convenient, were used for 
flux, and that the furnace was tapped every eight 
hours. 

Swank says, page 87, that some of the lower 
hearths for about three feet up were lined with 
sandstone, higher with brick, and that every six 
days was a "found day." 

Dr. James Thatcher, quoted by Swank, page 
124, says that Federal Furnace, Massachusetts, 
built in 1794, had a stone stack twenty feet high, 
twenty-four feet square at base, seven feet thick, 
and with an inside diameter of ten feet. It was 
lined with soft slate called firestone and had a brick 
funnel at the top. It was arched on the oven front 
above the tap-hole and also on the side for the 
two tuyers of the two leather bellows. 

In Forges and Furnaces in the Province of 
Pennsylvania, Colonial Dames, Philadelphia, 1914, 
interesting halftone cuts from photographs are shown 
of the ruins cs now existing, 1914, of Pine Grove 
Furnace, Cumberland County, Pa., built 1770 (front- 
ispiece), Hopewell Furnace, Berks County, Pa., built 
1759-1765 (page 154), and Carlisle Furnace, at Boil- 
ing Springs, Cumberland County, Pa., built 1762 
(page 172). John B. Pearse. in Iron Manufacture in 
the American Colonies. Philadelphia, 1876, carelessly 
shows a wood cut (frontispiece), of one of the later 
western furnaces (unnamed) on the Conemaugh 
River, in Westmoreland or Cambria County, Pa., 
standing about 1876. 

NOTE 61. 
BLOWING APPARATUS. 

The blowing apparatus of the old blast fur- 
naces was of three kinds, 1, the leather bellows, 
first used: 2, the blowing tub, or wooden box bel- 
lows, and 3, the tromp, or water blast. Pearse, page 
101, says that two bellows, rather than one, were 
used, driven by water power communicated by 
means of a cam arrangement on the shaft of the 
great waterwheel. Swank, page 85, quoting Dr. 
Parsons, says that in the Forest of Dean English 
furnaces, they had two high pairs of bellows behin'J" 
the furnace, whose noses met at a little hole (the 
tuyer) near the bottom, and that they were com- 
pressed by certain buttons placed on the axle of a 
large overshot waterwheel so arranged that as the 
buttons slid off, counterpoised weights lifted the 
bellows and played them alternately. 



150 



In general, Swank says, page 89, that the 
leather bellows were twenty-two feet long and 
made of oak plank two inches thick, at the Scotch 
furnaces in 1809. 

2. The blowing-tub. This it appears was in- 
vented by Hans Lobsinger, of Nuremburg, about 
1550, used in England in the 18th century, intro- 
duced in Pennsylvania shortly before the Revolu- 
tion and continued in the United States in many 
furnaces as late as about 1870. Pearse and Swank 
carelessly fail to explain this interesting and oft 
referred to apparatus, which was held to be cheaper 
and more durable than the leather bellows, but it 
is however fully described and illustrated in the 
American edition of the noble old Reese's En- 
cyclopedia, article Bellows, plate 13, Pncu.matics, 
Figure 108, as consisting of two large close-fitting 
wooden boxes, one of which raised and lowered 
upon the other, and being kept air tight along the 
cracks by what rright be called very flexible wood 
and leather weather strips set on steel springs, 
forced out the air which had entered through valves 
in the bottom box through the tuyer or blast pipe. 

Pearse says that these tubs or boxes were of 
short stroke, three feet, that they generally had 
one tuyer and rarely two (page 101). 

3. The tromp or water blast. This was a very 
ancient invention by which air was forced or 
pumped in through a wooden pipe about eight 
inches square, by the down-rush of water from a 
tank above and forced into a box five feet long by 
two-and-a-half high by one-and-a-half deep, where 
incoming water compressing it, forced it out through 
the tuyer in a continuous steady blast. 

The apparatus had been long used in South- 
ern Europe in connection with the ancient so-called 
Catalan forge, but the writer cannot learn that it 
was ever utilized by the older Pennsylvanian fur- 
naces during the stove plate period. Professor 
Lesley in 1858 describes it as surviving in the South- 
ern States. 

NOTE 62. 
BOG ORE. 

Men in boats with an apparatus resembling 
oyster tongs used to pull the lumps of bog ore out 
of Assawamsett, Carver and Middleboro ponds in 
Massachusetts, the latter of which yielded from 
three to six hundred tons a year at six dollars a 
ton. 

Pearse, quoting Dr. Thatcher, page 31, says 
that bog ore occurred along the margin of ponds 
where there were springs and that it grew or 
formed in from seven to fifteen years, if the digger 
covered the hole with leaves and rubbish, but that 
it would not form if the water were drained off. 
Some other ore called "pond ore" was dredged out 
of ponds at depths of from two to twenty-five feet 



with tongs, and "grew" again in twenty-five years. 
A man could raise a half a ton a day, consisting of 
three kinds, the so-called "short," reddish brown 
and of the size of large bullets; the "pancake," re- 
sembling Turkey figs, and the "black," in cakes 
from the mud bottom. 

Dr. Forbes (Pearse 31) asserted in 1793 that 
"the time will come when it will be as easy to raise 
a bed of bog ore as a bed of carrots." 

NOTE 63. 

STOVE MOULDS AND MOULD 

MAKERS. 

According to information from Mr. F. S. B. 
Reeves, of 45 North Second street, Philadelphia, in 
1909, obtained from his grandfather, Benjamin F. 
Reeves, near Cumberland Furnace, New Jersey, 
open sand cast stove plates were there modeled 
(probably the plates of ten plate stoves, H. C. M.), 
about 1812 by hand upon the sand with little tools 
mostly of wood. The furnace burned charcoal and 
used bog ore, and the stove plates were sent to 
Troy, New York, to be mounted. 

The Potts MSS., Warwick Furnace ledger XLI, 
1755, page 306, notes "Potts and Rutter Dr. to one 
large stove. Hen Snyder, the stove mould maker, 5 
pounds." And the Popadickon ledger for 1745, 
Nov. 11. page 5 in account with Warwick Company, 
notes "To cash for mending stove moulds, 5 shil- 
lings." 

At the bankruptcy sale of Martic Furnace in 
1769 (Swank, 188), according to the inventory the 
sheriff sold, along with a good dwelling house, 
stores and counting-house, a large coal house, with 
eight dwelling houses for the laborers, a good grist 
mill, smith's and carpenters' shops, six good log 
stables, with four bays for hay, a number of pot pat- 
terns and some flasks for ditto, stove moulds, etc., 
etc. 

NOTE 64. 

ORNAMENTAL CAST IRON FENCES. 

With notable exceptions, such as some of the 
iron fences or balustrades cast in the form of con- 
ventional foilage or Renaissance filagree about 1840 
to 1860. and occasional decorative plaques, such as 
the small flasked casting of St. John the Divine with 
the poisoned chalice, about 14 inches square, in 
possession, 1913. of Miss Annie Bewley, at Forest 
Grove, Bucks County, Pa., and of which replicas 
have been heard of by the writer in Philadelphia, 
in Nantucket, and in Italy at Rome. Pearse says, 
page 155, that George Keim cast a decorative pat- 
tern representing the Last Supper in sand direct 
from the blast at Windsor Furnace, probably about 
1850. This and a cast iron crucifix are illustrated in 
Forges and Furnaces in Pennsylvania, Colonial 
Dames, p. 178. 



151 



NOTE 65. 

JAMB STOVE LEGS, BOLTS. WALL 

HOLES AND LUTE. FRANKLIN'S 

DESCRIPTION OF A JAMB 

STOVE. 

No American jamb stove legs or bolts have been 

found to the writer's knowledge, and as no student 

has discovered a jamb stove in its original position. 

we are in the dark, from actual observation as to the 

exact size and shape of the hole in the wall for the 

insertion of its fuel. 

We may reasonably suppose, however, that the 
vertical outside bolt was a thin hammered rod with t 
flattened head below and a thumb screw above, after 
the style of the shorter diagonal bolts on the old 
Norwegian stoves as seen in Figs. 5 and 6, and that 
the hole in the wall was rectangular, of the size of 
the end of the stove and without a door which would 
have obstructed the draught. 

An old kitchen fireplace, nine feet wide by four 
feet ten high by two feet ten deep, in the farmhouse 
of Mr. Lewis H. Clemens, at Doylestown (1914), 
shows in the lower left corner of its fireback stone 
wall a walled up rectangular recess nineteen inches 
high by fourteen inches wide, connecting within with 
a vertical mural orifice about two inches in diameter 
passing through it from the cellar as if to increase 
its draught. This wall recess is four inches from 
the corner of the fireplace and eleven inches above 
the hearth, and may well have been the wall orifice 
for the Dance of Death stove, the plates of which 
(see Fig. 75) were found on the premises, in which 
cas^ the stove if resting against the hole, would have 
probably stood about a foot above the floor of the 
opposite room. 

Since it would have been necessary to lift all 
jamb stoves above wooden floors for safety, and 
above stone floors for heat radiation, we may reas- 
onably infer that legs, either of pottery, of iron, of 
blocks of stone or of masonry, were always used if 
not at the walled-in end of the stove, certainly at the 
front where it required support. 

Stove legs or stands, truncated cones of red 
glazed earthenware, four inches in diameter and 
about six inches high (see Bucks County Historical 
Society, No. 725). were found by the writer in 1893 
at Headman's Pottery, in Bucks County, and there 
described as sold for use as leg rests for modern 
kitchen cooking stoves, probably intended to raise 
the level of the stove and prevent communication of 
heat to the wood floor. But these stove rests are 
comparatively modern and no ancient specimens of 
this shape have been found in association with the 
jamb stove plates. The Potts Manuscripts and Fur- 
nace Ledgers at the Historical Society of Pennsyl 
vania as examined for the writer, make no mention 



of jamb stove legs of cast iron or other material. 
But blocks of soapstone were used according to the 
infor.-nation of a building contractor in Philadelphia 
who. in 1889. at a lecture, informed the writer that 
in demolishing an old house in eastern Philadelphia, 
once belonging to Governor Mifflin, he had pulled 
to pieces a complete jamb stove discovered in a 
walled-up corner, the front of which rested upon two 
blocks of soapstone. 

Since the jamb stove fashion came to America 
from Germany so the method of equipment with 
legs must have come with it, and we may suppose 
that carved stone legs, in the old German style, as 




shown herewith, in Fig. 233-A, reproduced from Dr. 
Kassel's interesting picture, illustrating an old Alsa- 
cian stove in situ at Farmer Sieh's house, at Walten- 
heim. in Lower Alsace, in 1903. were sometimes used 
in Pennsylvania in lieu of simpler posts, props or 
under rests of bricks or stone. In the picture we se; 
a stove, according to Dr. Kassel, waxed and polished 
with beeswax, and luted at the corner cracks with 
a mixture of clay and barley grains, equipped with 
decorated loose corner rims, and an iron upper story, 
surrounded where built against the wall by a lintel, 
forming an upper shelf, but lacking the American 
outer bolt and supported on a single pair of heavy 
carved sandstone legs, for.Tiing the so-called "posta- 
ment," sometimes decorated with a date. 



152 



Kassel, page 10, s:e Note 8t, says that thess 
arched legs, several of which are illustrated in his 

valuable book, ware sometimes mcda of earthenware, 
sometimes of wrought iron, and when thus in arch 
form of sandstone often dacorated with carvings or a 
date, and sometimes waxed or brown or green 
painted or marbeled. In the Swedish Stove, Fig. 1, 
they appear as corner posts of iron. 

Franklin, who says nothing of legs, bolts, wall 
hole, lintel, stove lute, d:coration or inscription, de- 
scribes the old Pennsylvanian jamb stoves in his 
fireplace pamphlet of 1744 as follows: "The Ger- 
man Stove is like a Box, one Side wanting. "Tis 
composed of Five Iron plates scru'd together and 
fixed so that you may put the Fuel into it from 
another Room, or from the Outside of the House. 
'Tis a kind of Oven revers'd, its Mouth being with- 
out, and Body within the Room that is to be 
warmed by it. This Invention certainly warms a 
Room very speedily and very thoroughly with little 
Fuel. No Quantity of cold Air comes in at any 
Crevice, because there is no Discharge of Air which 
it must supply, there being no Passage into the 
Stove from the Room. These are its Conveniences. 

"Its Inconveniences are. That people have not 
even so much Sight and Use of the Fire as in the 
Holland Stoves, and are moreover obliged to 
breathe the same unchanged Air continually, mixed 
with the Breath and Perspiration from one an- 
other's Bodies, which is very disagreable to those 
who have not been accustomed to it." 

NOTE 66. 

SHEET IRON. 

According to Beck.man's History of Inventions, 
all sheet iron, whether tinnsd or not, before about 
1728, was hammered with heavy hammers run by 
waterwheels. Previously iron could be rolled in 
small narrow strips, or smoothed by rolling after 
hammering, but could not be squeezed out into 
broad fiat sheets, hot or cold, between rollers, as 
now. 

NOTE 67. 

FRANKLIN'S DESCRIPTION OF DRAFT, 
OR SIX-PLATE STOVES. 

Franklin, in his fireplace pamphlet of 1744. de- 
scribes them as follows: 

"The Holland iron stove, which has a flue pro- 
ceeding from the top, and a small iron door opening 
into the room, comes next to be considered. Its 
conveniences are that it makes a room all over 
warm, for the chimney being wholly closed, except 
the flue of the stove, very little air is required to 
supply that, and therefore not much rushes in at 
crevices, or at the door when 'tis opened. Little 



fuel serves, the heat being almost all saved, for it 
rays out almost equally from the four sides, the 
bottom and the top, into the room, and presently 
warms the air around it, which being rarified rises 
to the ceiling, and its place is supplied by the lower 
air of the room, which flows gradually toward the 
stove, and is there warmed and used in its turn, so 
that there is a continual circulation till all the air 
in the room is warmed." 

"The air, too, is gradually changed by the stove 
doors being in the room, through which part of it 
is continually passing, and that makes these stoves 
wholesome, and at least pleasanter than the Ger- 
man stoves, next to be spoken of. But they have 
these inconveniences — there is no sight of ':he fire, 
which is in itself a pleasant thing. One cannot con- 
veniently make any other use of the fire but that 
of warming the room. When the room is warm, 
people not seeing the fire are apt to forget to supply 
it with fuel till 'tis almost out, then growing cold, a 
great deal of wood is put in, which soon makes it 
too hot. The change of air is not carried on quite 
quick enough, so that if any smoke or ill smell 
happens in the room, 'tis a long time before 'tis dis- 
charged. For these reasons the Holland stove has 
not obtained much among the English (who love 
the sight of the fire), unless in some workshops, 
where people are obliged to sit near windows for the 
light, and in such places they have been found of 
good use." 

But this description (which reappears in Cham- 
bers' Encyclopedia with Reese's Supplement, Lon- 
don, 178S) may refer to the Holland stove as then 
used in England rather than in America. 

NOTE 68. 
STOVES IN VIRGINIA. 
Timothy Pickering saw what he calls "a Ger- 
man stove," no doubt a six-plate stove, in the house 
of a German woman at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1778. 
See Life of Timothy Pickering. Vol. 1, page 207. 

Lord Botetouts' stove (see Figure 233), now pre- 
served at the State Capitol at Richmond, was not 
made in Virginia, but imported from London in 
1770. 

AUTHORITIES. 

NOTE 69 — Ambrosiani. Sune. Cm. Jarnkake- 
lugnar. och. jarnugnar. Nordiska Museet, Stock- 
holm. About 1901. 

NOTE 70— Beck, Dr. Ludwig. Die Geschichte 
des Eisens. Braunschweig. 1884 to 1900. 

NOTE 71 — Benoit. Arthur. Notes sur une 
plaque de cheminee. etc. Montmedy Pierrot. No. 
date (not seen by writer). 

NOTE 72— Bickell, L. Die Eisenhutten des 
Klosters Haina. Marburg. Elwert. 1889. 



153 



NOTE 73 — Bishop, J. L. A history of American 
Manufactures from 1608 to 1860. By J. Leander 
Bishop. 2 Vols. Philadelphia, Edward Young & 
Co., 441 Chestnut street, 1854. London. Samson 
Low, 47 Ludgate Hill, 1864. 

NOTE 74 — Chambers' Encyclopedia. With 
Reese Supplement. 8 Vols. London, 1788. Article, 
Fireplace. German and Holland stove described. 

NOTE 75— Ellis and Evans. History of Lan- 
caster County by Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans. 
Philadelphia, Everts and Peck, 1883. 

NOTE 76 — Evans, Samuel. Early Furnaces in 
Lancaster County. Lancaster Intelligencer, Cen- 
tennial edition. 

NOTE 77— Fegley, Winslow. Old Charcoal 
Furnaces in Eastern Berks County. Transactions 
Berks County Historical Society, Vol. 2, p. 25. 

NOTE 78— Fett, Harry. Gamle Norske Ovne. 
Norsk Folk Museums, Saerudstillung No. 3. Kris- 
tiania Brydes, 1905. 

NOTE 79— Fischer-Ferron, Joseph. Taques. 
Description de Plaques dc Foyer et de Fourneau 
dans les pays luxembourgeois. Luxemburg, C. 
Praum, after 1890. No date. 

NOTE 80 — Franklin, Benjamin. An account 
of the newly invented Pennsylvanian fireplace, etc. 
Printed and sold by B. Franklin, Philadelphia, 1744. 

NOTE 81— Futhey and Cope. History of 
Chester County, Pennsylvania. By J. Smith Futhey 
and Gilbert Cope. Lewis H. Everts, 1881. 

NOTE 82— Gardner, J. Starkie. Iron Casting 
in the Weald. Archaeologia, Vol. 56, par; 1. J. B. 
Nichols, London, 1898. 

NOTE 83— James, Mrs. Potts. Memorial of 
Potts Family. Mrs. Potts James, Cambridge, Mass.. 
1875. 

NOTE 84 — Kassel, Dr. Ofenplatten und Plat- 
tenofen im Elsass. Strasburg, J. Noirel, 1903. 

NOTE 85— Kohler. Dr. Ernest. Alte Ofen- 
platten. Volkskunst und Volkskunde (Munich 
Magazine) No. 3, 1909. 

NOTE 86— Lossing, Benson J. Field Book of 
the American Revolution. New York. Vol. 1, p. 
328. 

NOTE 87— Luebke, W. Alte Oefen in der 
Schwciz. Zurich, Burkli, 1865. 

NOTE 88— Martin, John Hill. Historical 
Sketch of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. J. W. Pile, 
Philadelphia, 422 Walnut street, 1872. P. 135. 

NOTE 89— Mercer, Henry C. The Decorated 
Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans. Doyles- 
town. Pa. McGinty, 1899. 



NOTE 90 — Mercer, Henry C. Pennsylvania 
German Stove Plate. Proceedings Numismatic and 
Antiquarian Society, Philadelphia, 1899 to 1901. 
P. 171. 

NOTE 91 — Montgomery, Morton L. Early 
Furnaces and Forges of Berks County, Pennsylva- 
nia. Penna. Mag. of Hist. Vol. 8, p. 56. 

NOTE 92— Owen, Miss Addie C. Early Fur- 
naces in Gley Valley. Reading Eagle, May 12, 1912. 

NOTE 93— Pearse, John B. Iron Manufacture 
in America. Philadelphia, Allen, Lane & Scott, 
233 South Fifth street, 1876. 

NOTE 94 — Rivieres, Baron De. Les Plaques 
de Foyer. Publisher, Foreslier Montauban, 1893 
(cited by Kassel, not seen by writer). 

NOTE 95 — Sharp, James. An account of the 
principle and effects of the Pennsylvania Stove 
Grates, commonly known by the name of American 
stoves, with improvements, etc. Benjamin White, 
63 Fleet street, London, 1781. (Not seen by the 
writer.) 

NOTE 96— ShufTrey, L. A. The English Fire- 
place. London, B. T. Batsford, signed 1912. 

NOTE 97— Slbenaler, J. B. Quelques pagts 
dThistoire de Luxembourg, etc. Arlon F. Bruck, 
1903. 

NOTE 98— Sibenaler, J. B. Taques et plaques 
de foyer du Musee d'Arlon. Arlon, 1899. 

NOTE 99— Sieling, Dr. J. H. Paper on Baron 
Stiegel. Proceedings Lancaster County Historical 
Society, 1897. Vol. I. 

NOTE 100— Singleton, Esther. Social New 
York under the Georges, 1714 to 1776. New York, 
1902. 

NOTE 101— Spielman, M. H. Fire grates of a 
hundred years ago. Country Life (magazine), 27 
Tavistock street. Strand, London. February 6th, 
1909. Page xxxviii. 

NOTE 102— Swank, James M. Iron in All 
Ages. Philadelphia, 261 South Fourth street, 1892. 

NOTE 103— Swank, James M. Iron and Coal 
in Pennsylvania. J. M. Swank, Philadelphia, 1878. 

NOTE 104 — Burg. Tanncnburg. Dr. J. H. von 
Hefntr-Alteneck und Dr. J. W. Wolf. Frankfurt O. 
M.. 1850. 

NOTE 105— Wedding, Dr. Herman. Eiserne 
Ofenplatten. Festschrift des Harzvereins. Werni- 

gerode, 1893. 

NOTE 106— Wedding, Dr. Herman. Beitrage 
des Eisenhutten wesens im Harz. Zeit schrift, ditto. 
Vol. 14, 1881, pages 1 to 32. 



154 

NOTE 107 — Westchester Daily News. Centen- 
nial Souvenir, 1899. Appendix, page 79. 

NOTE 108 — Gauger, Nicholas. La Mechanique 
ds feu. Translated by Dr. Desaguliers, London, 
1716. 

NOTE 109— Himes, Prof. Charles F. A Dec- 
orated Stove Plate of 1764 West of the Susquehanna. 
Journal of the Franklin Institute, December, 1903. 

NOTE 110— Gibson, John. History of York 
County, Pa. Chicago, F. A. Battey, 1886. 

NOTE 111 — Johannsen, Dr. Otto. Die tech- 
nische Entwickelung gusseisenerner Ofenplatten. 
Stahl und Eisen, 29 Feb., 1912. 

NOTE 112— Lasius. J. Darstellungen auf alten 
Gusseisernen Ofenplatten vom Standpuncte des 
Kunsthistorikers. Stahl und Eisen, 28 March, 1912. 

NOTE 113 — Colonial Dames of America. Forges 
and Furnaces in the Province of Pennsylvania, 
prepared by Committee on Historical Research. 
Philadelphia, printed for the Society, 1914. 

NOTE 114. 

RIGHT AND LEFT PLATES NOT 
ALWAYS DUPLICATES. 

The extended Biblical quotations on the floral 
patterns for jamb stoves. Figures 108 and 139, would 
have required three plates for their completion; 
hence the right and left plates could not have been 
duplicates, but must have varied in their inscrip- 
tions. 

NOTE 115. 

The first stove plate ever seen by the writer 
(orobably the Judge Not Plate, Fig. 98, and prob- 
ably before 1895) was at the house in Buckingham 
of Captain J. S. Bailey, after which the S. F. Plate, 
Fig. 96, presented to the Bucks County Historical 
Society by Mr. Patrick Trainor, was described as 
par; of the Collection of Pioneer Implements made 
by the writer in 1897. In various notes on the col- 
lection, published in the Bucks County Intelligencer 
in 1898, and in particular "Durham Stove Plates," 
Intelligencer. March 23, 1898, soon after printed as n 
separate undated leaflet called "Decorated Stove 
Plates of Durham, Contributions to American His- 
tory by the Bucks County Historical Society, No. 
5," and in the catalogue called "Tools of the Nation 
Maker," printed for the Society, Intelligencer, 
Doylestown, 1897, the writer, ignorant of the con- 
struction of the ancient stoves, supposes all of them 
to have been made at Durham Furnace. 

But the construction of the stoves was soon 
afterwards explained by the writer in "Decorated 
Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans, Contri- 



butions to American History by the Bucks County 
Historical Society, No. 6," written for the Society by 
February 14 and April 7, 1899, and published by 
McGinty, Doylestown, in 1899. 

The subject is not discussed in the first edition 
of Davis's History of Bucks County, but in the sec- 
ond edition, Chicago, Lewis & Co., 1905, Vol. 2, page 
148, two pages of confused and mistaken statements 
(asserted to have been obtained from "records and 
correspondence compiled at the Furnace in its his- 
toric period") as to extra doors above the fuel doors 
in Franklin stoves, fuel doors in "Adam and Eve" 
stoves (Figure 41) and Swedish words or "Scanda- 
navian spelling" used in the stove inscriptions ap- 
pear. All four of the German inscriptions are either 
misread or mistranslated. 

The author of the history then, 1905, President 
of the Bucks County Historical Society, ignores the 
pamphlet, "Decorated Stove Plates," above noted, 
written for the Society six years before, but appropri- 
ates, without acknowledgment (page 150), one of its 
illustrations, a cut of the Cain and Abel Plate, ap- 
pearing on the first page of the pamphlet. 

NOTE 116. 

VARIOUS NAMES OF THE JAMB 
STOVE. 

As little has been written on the subject, these 
names originating in America are not sanctioned 
by much authority. All are unsatisfactory. 

"JAMB STOVE" was used by Watson in his 
brief notices in Annals of Philadelphia. But the stoves 
notices in Annals of Philadelphia. But the stoves 
were not always built into the jambs or side walls 
of fireplaces, but probably often into the "back," or 
wall back of the fire. The name "FIVE PLATE 
STOVE" appears in old furnace ledgers and ac- 
count books of the later Colonial period and accord- 
ing to information of the late I. J. Stover of New 
Britain was anciently used in Bucks County, Penn- 
sylvania. Nevertheless, stoves of this kind, if built, 
as often in Germany, with iron upper stories, 
would have consisted of more than five plates. 
"WALL STOVE" was coined by the writer In 
Decorated Stove Plates, written in 1897, for want 
of a better name and in ignorance of the fact that 
not only non-ventilating stoves of this type but also 
ventilating stoves, "draft stoves", had been built 
against the wall in Europe. 

The name "GERMAN STOVE" is used by 
Franklin in his Fireplace pamphlet of 1744 and in 
the later encyclopedias, but the cylindrical "pom- 
merofen" was also a German stove and "six-plate 
stoves" of the ventilating type were also used in 
Germany. As the English settlers called the Ger- 
mans in Pennsylvania "Dutch", they no doubt often 



155 



called this stove a "Dutch Stove" (see Note S3). 
For the sake of clearness, the writer has in 
nearly all cases used the names "FIVE PLATE 
STOVE" or "JAMB STOVE," as synonyms to de- 
scribe this stove in these pages. 

NOTE 117. 
After the foregoing pages had gone to press, the 
writer learned, on September 19, 1914, from Mr. A. 
H. Rice, of 35 South New Street. Bethlehem. Penn- 
sylvania, that the latter had found in August, 1914, 
at a house about two miles from Lebanon, Hunter- 
don County, New Jersey, rebuilt upon an older house 
in 1813 and remodelled in 1909. two side plates of 
the Dance of Death pattern together with a top and 
bottom, and a front plate (a replica of Figure 63) 
all fitting together as parts of one stove, here shown 
in Figure 234. 




234- 
Xtae Dance of neatli. 

Complete jamb stove. Size, height 22. w/idth 19'-, length 23. Mr. 
A. H. Rice. Bethlehem. Pa., September. 1914. 

One of the side plates stood as a fire-back in an 
open fireplace, and the other four plates had been 
sealed up at various intervals in the air space be- 
tween the lath and plaster crusts of certain interior 
partition walls. 

As no other stove plates were found in the house. 
we may reasonably infer that the front plate here 
shown as found by Mr. Rice (easily recognized as a 
replica of Figure 63) and set together with its fellow 
plates, was probably in this case furnished by the 
Furnace in 1745. its date, as the front plate to the 
"Dance of Death" stove and that if a more significant 
pictorial pattern had ever existed to fit the stove, 
the latter was not then in stock at the Furnace. 

If so, the entire series of meaningless front 
plates. Figures 61. 62, 63. 64 and 88-A, may probably 
be explained as makeshift fronts to pictorial stoves, 
which would have served any one of many stoves of 
proper size, regardless of design, and which were 



intended to take the place of pictorial front plates 
which either never existed, or which having been 
burned out or broken, could not be supplied on sud- 
den demand at the furnace. 

Front plates, though comparatively rare, prob- 
ably because half as numerous as side plates in the 
first place, and also because their grooved rim pro- 
jections made them objectionable as pavements, have 
nevertheless been found for several of the stoves, and 
without more evidence, we may not infer that no pic- 
torial front plate had ever been made in Pennsyl- 
vania to still further explain the gloomy subject of 
the Totdentanz, and that the uninteresting and insig- 
nificant Figure 63 was the only front plate ever 
made or used by the Colonists to fit the stove. 

In the well-preserved right plate here shown 
the word FEIT appears as usual in the inscription, 
but the words MIT and BRINGT are imperfectly cast 
or nearly rusted away. The Ns remain upside down 
and a suggestion of the final T (absent on all the 
other plates known to the writer) appears upon the 
final word NO for NOTH. 

NOTE 118. 
TWO MORE CANA PLATES. 
While the present pages are in press (Decem- 
ber, 1914) two more very interesting frag.ments of 
stove plates have been found and are here illustrated. 
Figures 235 and 236. Both are front plates of jamb 
stoves lacking the guttered margins and notched in 
German fashion at the sides as described on page 7. 
Both illustrate the miracle at Cana and having been 
probably imported from Germany before the estab- 
lishment of Pennsylvanian Furnaces are among the 
oldest plates shown in the collection herewith de- 
scribed. 




235- 

Xhe IVIiracle at Caiia. 

Fragment of front plate of Jamb stove. Size \V. 17 by H. 16. 
Bucks County Historical Society. Prerented Sept. 23rd. 1914. by 
Mr. A. H. Rice, of Bethelem. Pa. who had found it in August 1914. 
in an old fireplace on the farm of John Ruch near Springtown, 
Bucks County. Pa. 



156 



Found too late for insertion in its proper place the broken 
plate here shown should be classed with the earlier plates of 
Jamb stoves described in Chapter II. as probably made in Ger- 
many and imported into the American Colonies in the seven- 
teenth or early Eighteenth Centuries. 

The very rusty frag nent, which gauged by the distance 
(doubled) between the comparatively intact rght margin of 
the plate and the center of the lower oval medallion must have 
been a front plate, shows the remains of a row of wine jars 
into one of which an approaching figure pours water from a 
tankard while Christ near a twisted column of the canopy 
to the right points downward with extended left hand. To the 
left, not quite obliterated by rust, parts of the bodies of two 
Euests at the Marriage Feast, one bearing a tankard, appear 
below the break in the plate. 

In the central cartouche the letters ISTUS. ROMER. 
alone are legible, while the legend, in the lower medallion with 
its leaved border flanked by curved branches with scroll like 
leaves, has rusted away beyond decipherment. 

Because of the superior artistic grouping and modeling of 
the figures, the style of decoration of the whole lower panel 
and the bolt notch in the ancient German fashion on the right 
margin, we may infer that the plate, like Figures 19 to 30 was 
imported from Germany before the establishment of Pennsyl- 
vanian Furnaces. 

The writer has preserved a rough sketch of a stove plate 
described under Figure 48 as seen in 1892 at Rothenburg-on- 
the-Tauber which because of its closely similar treatment, 
because of its upper panel, canopied on twisted columns, its 
central cartouche and lower medallion must have been either 
a close copy or repKca of the plate Figure 235 here shown. 

The inscription on the central cartouche of the German 
plate read CHRISTUS. FROMMER. EHE. LEUTE. TROST. . 
"Christ The Trust Of Pious Married People." which unques- 
tionably explains the half effaced legend here shown, while the 
words on the medallion of the Rothenburg plate JOHAN. AM. 
2. CAP. CHRISTUS. MACHT. WASSER. ZU. WEIN. trans- 
lated, "John in the 2nd. Chapter Christ turns water to wine," 
might well have been duplicated here. 

If this plate Figure 235 is a replica of the Rothenburg 
plate, then it was cast at the old We Imunster Furnace in 
Nassau in 1697 (see Figure 49) since the German plate has the 
words UF. or AUS. WEILMUNSTERER. EISEN. HUTTEN. 
1697. translated "From the Weilmunster Furnace 1697," cast 
upon the frame work of the arches over the upper canopy. 




236. 

Xlie IVIiracle at Cana. 

(Another version.) Upper half of the front plate of a jamb 
stove. Size W. 20, H. 15. Isaac De Turck. Friedensburg, Oley 
Township, Berks County. Pennsylvania. Kindly brought to the 
writer's attention in 1914 by Dr. J. B. Stoudt, of Northan:pton, 
Pa. The plate was found face downward at the opening of an 
ancient bread oven in the kitchen fireplace, by him and Dr. 
Isaac Stahr, of Oley. Pennsylvania, at the old homestead of 
the De Turck family, at Friedensburg, now belonging to Isaac 
De Turck, in August, 1914. 

The rusty and broken fragment shows another version 
of the Cana Feast generally repeat ng. without copying, the 
grouping of Figure 235. The inscription is gone, but we see 
the wedding table spread with dishes and four seated figures, 
one of whom seems to be the bride, crowned in German fashion 
as shown in Figure 29. Three attendants appear in the fore- 
ground, one of whom pours the miraculous water from a 
tankard while Christ, seated at the right, points downward 
with his left hand. 

Life Figure 235 the plate, lacking guttered rims and notched 
for bolts in German style on both vertical margins, is a front 
plate, while the decorative treatment of its vaulted canopy, 
namely the floral festoons, looped curtains, cherubim spandrels, 
twisted columns and capitals closely resembling that of the well- 
preserved Oil Miracle plate. Figure 23, proves it to be the 
companion front plate to the latter, though it illustrates another 
miracle. 

Like F gure 23 it must have been imported from Germany 
in the late I7th or early 18th century and. like the other im- 
ported Oil and Wine plates, Figures 28 and 29. it shows that 
two different subjects, the Oil Miracle of Elisha and the 
Wine Miracle of Christ, were here again represented on the 
front and sides of the same stove. 



It should be remembered, at this momept, Oc- have appeared in the ruins of old American houses. 



tober, 1914. in the midst of Europe's great war, when 
Germany, fighting against heavy odds, with her 
submarine telegraph destroyed, is accused of bar- 
barism by enemies who ignorantly or wilfully have handiwork of pious Germans who lived and died 
misread her history, that these eloquent fragments in Pennsylvania rather as Christians than barbarians. 



Ill use and rust have not effaced their certain evi- 
dence of a virtue long ago expressed in the lives and 



157 



The writer acknowledges with gratitude assist- 
ance given him in Pennsylvania by Messrs. B. F. 
Fackenthal, Jr., B. F. Owen. Albert Cook Myers, A. J. 
Lynn, W. E. Montague, Gilbert Cope, T. M. Rights, 
G. H. Potts, V. B. Lee, John P. Ott, Clarence E. 
Beckel, Philip G. Wright, W. L. Lathrop, J. W. 
Lundy, William Sharpless, The State Librarian T. 
L. Montgomery, Dr. Albert Oerter and H. K. 
Deisher, and by Col. H. D. Paxson, Dr. John B. 
Stoudt, Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, Mrs. A. Haller 
Gross, Prof. C. F. Himes, Messrs. E. A. Barber, A. 
K. Hostetter and S. B. Patterson, also by Messrs. 
F. K. Chew, of the Metal Worker Magazine, and 
the late Mr. John H. Buck, of the Metropolitan 
Museum, New York; Mr. H. E. Deats, of Fleming- 
ton. N. J.; Mr. N. T. Kidder, of Boston; Mr. Henry 
S. Griffith, of Carver, Mass.; Mr. G. F. Dow, of the 
Essex Institute, Mass.; Mr. John J. Drummond, of 
Midland, Ontario, Canada; Mr. John S. Eels, of 
Walton, N. Y.; Mr. Edward H. Hall, of New York; 
Mr. Shoemaker and Mrs. Sophy L. Pratt, of Kings- 
ton, N. Y.; Miss Adelaide Fries and Mr. J. A. Line- 
bach, of Winston-Salem, N. C; Mr. Lewis H. Clem- 
ens, of Doylestown; Mr. A. H. Rice and Mr. A. D. 
Mixsell, of Bethlehem, Pa. 

In Europe, by Dr. Kassel, of Hochfelden in 
Alsace; Prof. Dr. Ludwig Beck, of Biebrich-on-the- 
Rhine; Dr. S. Ambrosiani, of Stockholm; Mr. 
George von Coelln, of Hanover; Mr. J. L. Sibenaler, 
of Brussels; the Abbe Loes, of Arlon, Belgium: 
Dr. CoUiez, of Longwy, France; Dr. Van Riemsdyk, 
of the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam; the Curator of 
the Loraine Museum at Nancy; Dr. L. Lindholm, of 
the Norse Museum, at Christiania, Norway, and Mr. 
Miller Christy, of Chelmsford, England. 



158 



INDEX. 



A. Page 

Aaron or Joshua 45 

Abandonment of Six-Plate Stoves 102 

Abington Furnace 35, 42 

Abraham and Isaac 61 

Absalom 45 

Abbreviations 49, 53 

Accrelius 36, 49, 69. 71, 95 

Adam, William 46 

Adam and Eve 4, 42, 43, 45 

Adam and Eve of 1745 63 

Adam and Eve Fire-back 117 

Advertisements 20, 69. 70, 81, 89 

Advertisement, excluding religion 78, 79, 83 

Advertisements in Germany 80 

Advertisement of Elizabeth Furnace 80 

Advertisements of Furnaces 70 

Advertisement of Iron Masters' Names, etc 82 

Advertisements of Stiegel 80, 81 

Advertisement on Stoves 70 

Advertisement, Stiegel, Huber and Maybury 

Plates 99 

Advice of Tobit iii 

^sop's Fable of the Crane 104 

A. G. Plate 69 

A. G. Plate of 1752 68 

Air Furnace 144 

Aldegrever 22 

Alhambra 53 

Allen, William 43 

Alsace Township 105 

Alsacian Stove 151 

Alsation Iron Stove, Ancient 151 

Ambrosiani. Dr. S. 4, 7. 8. 11. 15. 16. 17. 33, 96, 97 
American Five-Plate or Jamb Stove Described. . 37 

American Cana Pattern 54 

Amman, Jost 22 

Amish 57 

Amos Geret, of 1 752 69 

Amsterdam Museum 8, 16, 76 

Angel Carrying Scales 53 

Anno, the Word 33 

Ansembourg 125 

Apochryohal Book of Tobit, 4th chap iii 

Arabic Figure 53 

Arabic Numerals 20 

Ark of the Covenant 77 

Arms of England Fireback 121, 122 

Arms of Navarre 56 

Arms of Philadelphia 56 

Armstrong and Morris 100 

Art of Stove Decoration, End of lOS 

Artistic Deterioration 113 

Artistic Treatment of Stove Pictures 19 

Artists 20 

Aureole 68, 70, 72 

Aureole, Emblematic, Set in Right Canopy 79 

Aureole, in Right Canopy 80, 81 

Aureole. Lacking Sheep Legs 80. 85, 87 

Authorities 152 

Axes, Long-bitted European 35 



B Page 

Backhouse, Richard 43, 112 

Back Plate of Six-plate Stove 102 

Bailey, Capt. J. S 72, 151 

Balance Plate 62, 65 

Baldwin, Zerah 24 

Bangor Church 108 

Barber, E. A 54, 96 

Baron Stengel 105 

Baron Stiegel 105 

Basel 60 

Basel Inscription 54 

Batsford, B. T 116 

Batsto Furnace 104, 105 

Bavarian National Museum 18, 22, 26 

Beaufort, Duke of 131 

Beck, Dr. Ludwig .11, 15, 17, 22, 26, 68, 76, 116, 142 

Bee-hive, Dome-shaped 58 

Beeswax 151 

Be Libertv Thine 105, 105 

Belgian Fireback Cupboard or Taqueschaf 125 

Belgian Taqueschaf or Fireback Cupboard 124 

Bell, H. C 43 

Bellows, Immense, 20' 7 ' long, 5' 10 wide 100 

Bellows, Leather 150 

Bellows. Wooden 35, 95 

Belshazzar 55 

Belshazzar's Doomed Banquet 53 

Benet, William 45, 79, 85, 88 

Bennett, Will-am, of Hellam 85 

Benezet, Daniel 105 

Bennet. Isaac 71 

Berks County. Old House in 56 

Berks County Fair 58 

Berks County Historical Society 27. 28. 33. 37, 
38, 39, 48, 54, 55, 58, 61, 62, 65, 68. 69. 73. 78. 

79. 85 97. 106. Ill 

Berkshire Furnace 39. 46, 106. 148 

Bethabara, North Carolina 128 

Bethlehem. Pa 101. 102, 104 

Bewlev, Miss Annie 150 

Bible Subjects in Germany 19 

Biblical Pictures on Draft Stoves — not found 93 

Biblical Quotations (see inscriptions) 92 

Bickell. L 8. 9. 11, 13, 17, 18, 22, 26, 29, 70 

Billingsfelt Elmer E 37 

Biography, William Bird 46 

Biography. William Branson 49 

Bird. Perched Upon Leafless Branch 64 

Bird. Mark 46 

Bird, Mark, of Hopewell 104 

Bird. William 39. 45, 46 

Bird, WilTam Biography 46 

Bird. William. Plate 79 

Birdsboro 46 

Bishop 36 

Bjoeverkeroed. Sweden 4, 5 

Blickenderfer's Foundry, R 105 

Bliss. Theodore 60 

Blocks. Soapstone. as Stove Legs 151, 152 

Blowing Apparatus 149 

Blowing Tubs 107, 150 

Bog Ore 150 

Bolt-heads Not Erased 93 



159 



Bolt Holes 13 

Bolting of Maybury Stove 110 

Bolts, Diagonal 93 

Bolts, Five, Vertical Outside 1 10 

Bolts, Impressions of 13 

Bolts. Jamb Stove 151 

Bolts, Original 37 

Bolt, Outside 30 

Bolts, Short 34 

Boone, W. H 42, 54 

Boone's Antique Store 63 

Boppard-on-the-Khine, Carmelite Church 22 

Border, Flemish 12! 

Bort, V/illiam (Bird) 45 

Bortschent, Wilhelm iii 

Bortschent, William 40, 61 

Bortschent, William and T. B iii 

Bosh 35 

Bottom Plate of Six-plate Draught Stove 91 

Bouchette 146 

Bouetout's Stove, Lord 152 

Box Stoves 14o 

Boyertown " 

Braintree Furnace 118 

Branson Biography, William 49 

Branson, Rebecca 70, 73 

Branson, William 45 

Branson & Nutt's Furnace (Redding) 70 

Braunfels Oil Miracle 26 

Brennerman, Dr. Park 107 

Brickerville 105 

Brumbaugh, M. G 149 

Bucks County Historical Society ii, iii, 27, 

30, 31, 32, 33, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 
52, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 67, 69, 71, 
72, 73, 75, 76, 78. 82, 83, 84, 85, 85, 94, 96, 93, 
100, 101, 103, 106, 112, 117, 120, 121, 129, 151, 

154, 155 

Bullitt, Wm. T 26 

Burd, Miss 96 

Burd School, Bucks County, Pa 96 

Burwash, Grave Slab 15 

Bushington, Bucks County, Pa 121 

Buzaglo 131 

c 

Cain and Abel 43 

Callender, Clinton 72 

Cana Plates 52, 53, 63, 156 

Cana Plate of 1742 48 

Canada, Stoves in 114 

Canadian Stoves 145 

Canadian "Three Rivers" Stove 112 

Cannon Stoves 127 

Canopies. Vaulted 20 

Carlisle Furnace 149 

Carlisle, with a transposed S 100 

Carlisle Plate 89, 98 

Carlisle Plate of 1764 99 

Carmelite Church at Boppard 22 

Carron Foundry 131 

Carved Stoves 34, 77 

Carvers of Stove Moulds 143 

Carvina;, Method of 11 

Cassidy's Rocks, Tohickon Creek 97 

Cast Iron Fuel Door 93 

Castings, Country 36 

Castings Made in Pennsylvania, First 120 

Casting of St. John the Divine 150 

Casting in Open Flasks 11 

Casting in Open Sand 11 

Casting. Stove 10 

Casting Unknown to the Ancients, Iron 141 

Castle, Manheim 80 



Castle near Ephrata 105 

Castle of Tannenberg 140 

Castle of Trausnitz 142 

Cave, Temples of India 22 

Centennial Souvenir of West Chester 95 

Chalfont 75 

Charcoal Consumption 35 

Charlotte Furnace 123 

Charming Forge 104, 105, 148 

Chester County Historical Society 95 

Chew, F. K 24 

Child, Robert 145 

Chinese Fretwork 22 

Chinese Hong 140 

Christ Church 90 

Christeen or Christien Furnace 49 

Christine, alias Redding Furnace 33, 34, 35, 

42, 45, 119, 120, 146 

Christiania 11, 14, 76, 94 

Christy, Miller 131 

Churchtown 49 

Clarier Collection 15 

Clemens House, Doylestown 88 

Clemens, Lewis H 60, 151 

Cloister at Ephrata, Pa 31, 32, 70 

Coat of Arms 56 

Coburg. Castle of IS 

Coburg Stove 18 

Coellin von, George 23, 24, 68, 77 

Colebrook Furnace 96 

Colebrookdale Fireback 122 

Colebrookdale Furnace 33, 34, 35, 42, 44, 49, 

64, 73, 77, 79, 96, 102, 110, 118, 119, 120, 127, 

146, 147 

Colebrookdale Furnace, History 96 

Coleman, Robert 96, 100, 110 

Colemansville 94 

Coliez, Dr 126 

Cologne Museum 76 

Colonial Dames 46 

Colonial Furnaces 35 

Colza Oil 29 

Collection of Stov^es at Hanover 23 

Collection of Stoves at Nordiska Museet, Sweden 17 
Collection of Stoves at Norse Museum, Chris- 
tiania 17 

Collections of Stove Plates, American 54 

Collections of Stove Plates, European 141 

Columns Cast on Rims 102 

Columns, Twisted or Fluted 20 

Company of I. P 78 

Confusion of Stove Plates by Writers 141 

Cookerow. Mrs 47, 53, 99 

Cooking, Open Fire 84 

Cooking Stoves 84 

Conodoguinnet Creek 90 

Conqueror. The 101 

Consumption of Wood by Charcoal Furnaces... 149 

Contributions to American History 154 

Cooper and Hewitt 43 

Cope, Gilbert 49 

Cope. Mrs. Walter 75,99 

Copying, Inferior 14 

Copying of Patterns 97 

Cornwall Furnace 35, 44, 149 

Cornwall Furnace, History 100 

Cornwall, Lebanon County 110 

Corrected E of 1 763 97 

Cost of Jamb Stoves 34 

Covenant, Ark of the 77 

Coventry 96 

Coventry Forge 34, 49, 73, 77, 129, 146 

Coventry Furnace 73 

Coventry Ledgers 95 



160 

Cox House 121 

Crater, Andrew 76 

Cross and Tulip of 1751 67 

Crucifix, Cast Iron 150 

Crucifixion, by Soldan, at Fritzlar 20 

Crucifixion, by Soldan, at Marburg 20 

Cugnet & Cie 114 

Cumberland County 149 

Cumberland Furnace 131 

Cumru Township 58 

Cupids and V Fireback 118 

Curtains. Pendant 51 

Curtis Grubb Furnace 100 

D 

Danboro 95 

Dance of Death Rhyme 54 

Dance of Death Stove 45, 60, 151, 155 

Daniel 5-27 53 

Danner. G. H 74, 80, 109 

Dates Not Changed 78 

Dates 20 

Date of Casting 1785 to 1800 106 

Date of Firebacks, 1728, 1741, 1746, 1747, 1750, 

1754, 1776 119, 120, 121 

Date, Earliest of Stove Plates 15, 34 

Dates of Stove Plates: — 

1585 26 

1659 24 

1660 Ill 

1661 26 

1663 24 

1671 30 

1726 32 

1741 63 

1742 48. 63 

1745 55, 63 

1746 58 

1747 50, 65 

1749 54, 55 

1751 67, 68 

1752 68, 69 

1753 93 

1754 69 

1755 70 

1756 71, 74 

1757 74 

1758 75, 76 

1759 84 

1760 38 

1761 94 

1763 97, 87, 98 

1764 97, 98, 102 

1765 85, 107 

1766 101 

1767 108 

1769 103, 104, 109 

1770 117 

1772 104 

1780 113 

1782 12 

1785 112 

Date Plates 115 

Date Plates like Firebacks 120 

Date Stone 123 

Dated Draft Stoves, Earliest 98 

Dated Stove Plates 45 

Dates of Manufacture of Jamb Stoves 84 

David & Goliath Plate 26, 45 

David and Jonathan 59 

Davis, Dr. R. Lewis 51 

Davis. W. W. H 119 

Davis' History of Bucks County 75 

Day, Sherman 105 



Dealers and Bric-a-Brac Collectors 26 

Death of Absalom 61 

Deats, H. E 75, 76 

Decadence in Design and Abandonment of Jamb 

Stoves 80 

Decadence of Casters' Art 103 

Decorated Canopies Abandoned 45 

Decorated Stove Plates 41, 60 

Decorated Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania 

Germans 3, 100, 101, 154 

Decorated Stove Plate East of the Susquehanna 99 

Decoration of Six-plate Stoves 92 

Defense 87 

Deisher. H. K 46, 54 

Denmark 96 

"Depart from Evil" of 1764 98 

Depart from Evil 90, 91 

Desaguliers, J. T 129, 130 

Description of Old Furnaces 149 

Designs, Decorative 19 

Designs. Imperfectly Explained 55 

Designs, Rude and Primitive 50 

Despise Not Old Age 75, 76, 88 

De Turck, Isaac 155 

De Turk. Solomon 62 

Dietrick House 58 

DiiTenderfer, F. R 87 

Distribution of Ancient Stoves 14 

Distribution of Firebacks 117 

Dober, Leonard 128 

Dober, Martin 128 

Dominican Cemetery at Basel 60 

Doors. Cast Iron 113 

Doran, Joseph H 30 

Doster. J- H 70 

Double Bolts 93 

Douglasville 46 

Dow. G. F 116, 145 

Doylestown. Pa 61 

Draft Stoves 8, 9, 97, 98 

Draft Stove Complete 90 

Draft Holland or Six-plate Stove Described 90 

Drain, Stove Plates Excavated from 84 

Draught Stoves of Post-Revolutionary Period . 106 

Draught Wick-t 92 

Drummond, John J 112 

Dubs, Dr. Joseph 105 

Dublin, Bucks County, Pa 101 

Duke of Beaufort 131 

Dunkards 58 

Dunzenheim, Alsace 25 

Durham Cave 43 

Durham Furnace 35, 42, 43, 44, 52, 154 

Durham Furnace, History of 43 

Durham Stove Plates 154 

Durer, Albert 22 

Durno. T 139 

Dutch Inscriptions Never Found 93 

"Dutch Stoves" 34, 96, 147 

"Dutch Stove Moulds" 34, 100 

"Dutch Ten-plate Stove" 110, 111 

Dyerstown 57 



E Plate of 1763 96 

Eagle of Prussia 102 

Earliest American Stove Patterns 41 

Earthen Stoves 139 

Eels, lohn S 23, 24 

Ege, George 106, 130 

Ege. George, biography 130 

Ege. 2d. George 131 

Ege. Michael 131 

Ege, Sr., Michael 107 



161 



Ege. Peter 131 

Egleman 28 

Eisenhutten 83, 95. 101 

Eldridge. Frederick SO 

Elijah and Ravens 45, 62, 63. 65. Ill 

Elijah and the Ravens of B. S. D. W 52 

Elijah Fed by Ravens 53, 55 

Elijah Plate 52 

Elisha's Miracle 27 

Elizabeth Furnace 35, 70, 123, 148 

Elizabeth Furnace History 83 

Elizabeth Plates 98 

Elongated Necks, Ending in Lozenge-shaped 

Darts 83 

Ellis and Evans 83 

Ellis and Evans' History of Lancaster County.. 103 

Emery. Mr 72 

English Iron Masters 35 

English Ownership of American Furnaces 97 

"English Stoves" 34. 147 

"Enson" Plate 90 

Ephrata. Penna 70 

Erasure of Initials 81, 82 

Errors Repeated 14 

Eschew Evil Plates 83 

Essex Institute. Salem. Mass US, 116, 117. 121 

Esther Before King Ahasuerus 117 

European Collections of Stove Plates 141 

European Origin and Varieties of Six-Plate 

Stoves 93 



Evangelists, Emblems of 

Eve, Creation of 

Eve, Nativity of 

Example of Five-Plate Stove, Latest. 

Exodus 20: 17 

Exodus 32: 5 

Exterior Bolt 



8 
8 
8 
85 
38 
45 
40 



Fable of the Crane, .ffisop's 104 

Fackenthall, Jr., B. F 43, 119, 120, 145 

Family Quarrel iii. 41 

Farmhouse. Mr. Shirk's 84 

Fegley. Winslow 36, SO 

Fegleysville. Pa.. Stove Plate at 24, 25 

Felton. Joseph 94 

Fences. Ornamental Cast Iron 150 

Ferron. Fischer 15. 17 

Fett. Mr. H 17. 95 

Field Book of the Revolution 95 

Fielding. Mantle 50 

Figure, Arabic (Numeral) 53 

Figure. Lead 13 

Filigree. Meaningless 54 

Fireback. Adam and Eve 117 

Firebacks. American. Older than Stove Plates.. 118 

Firebacks. Anglo-Dutch 117 

Fireback Arms of England 121. 122 

Firebacks. Colonial 115 

Fireback. Kingston 119 

Fireback Dated 1 734 120 

Firebacks. Distribution of 117 

Firebacks. Flemish 117 

Firebacks in Europe US 

Fireback in House of Wm. Adam 45 

Firebacks in Pennsylvania. Earliest 119 

Firebacks Introduced from England 116 

Firebacks. Late Use of 118 

Firebacks. Not Found Sauare 120 

Firebacks. Not Made with Loose Stamps 120 

Fireback of Bel<jium. Radiating 124 

Fireback. of Colebrookdale 122 

Firebacks. Oldest IH 

Fireback, Painswick Hall 117 



Firebacks, Radiating 17 

Fireback. Reversible 16 

Firebacks. Square 115 

Firebacks. Stove Plates Used as 52. 117 

Firebacks. Styles of. in Europe 116 

Firebacks. Vaulted Top 115 

Fireplace. Down Draft 95. 107 

Fireplace. Franklin's 129 

Fireplace. Perforated as fTr Five-Plate Stove.. 55 

Five-Plate Stove Plates, Notched 23 

Five Plates of a Jamb Stove 40 

Five-Plate Stove 5, 10, 34, 37 

Five-Plate Stoves, Made in Thrse Si-es 78 

Flasks 11, 35, 37 

Flask-casting 11, 113 

Flasks, C pen 11 

FleTish Firebacks 117 

Flight Into Egypt 45, 61. 62 

Flower. Samuel 45 

Flower of 1754, Samuel 69 

Flower. Samuel, of 1 764 97 

Flower. Samuel, of Redding 98 

Flower Plate, Samuel 69, 80, 98, 99 

Flowering Crosses 67 

Folks Museum. Norse 8, 11, 14 

Forest Consumption 95 

Forges and Furnaces in Province of Penna 149 

Forges Near Furnaces 147 

For He is Good 89 

Formschneider 13 

Forms of Stoves, Eccentric and Exceptional .. 107 

Fortune Plate 42 

Fortune Plate of 1726 31 

Founders' Week 127 

Foundry. Blickenderf er's. R 105 

Foundry. Keystone. State Street. Hamburg, Pa. 59 

Fountain Inn, Lancaster, Pa 107 

Four Horsem :.! ."^S 

Fox and Crane 101 

Fox-Hunter. English 102 

Fragment of Fireback 116 

Fragment of Front Plate 82, 87 

Fragments of Stove Plates 100 

Frankenbera: in Hesse 141, 143 

Franklin. Mr 39, 95 

Franklin's Apparatus 95 

Franklin Describes Six-Plat- Stoves in 1744 ... 99 
Franklin's Description of Draft, or Six-Plate 

Stoves 152 

Franklin's Description of Jamb Stove 151 

Franklin's Down-Draft Fireplace 107. lOS 

Franklin's Fireplace 129 

Franklin's Poem 128 

Franklin Stove, First 95 

Franquet 113. 1)4 

Frederick, Penna 8t 

Frederick the Great 59 

Freemasons 101 

French Creek 9S 

Fretwork. Chinese 22 

Friedensburg. Pa Ill 

Friendlv. God is 89 

Fries. Miss Adelaide 128 

Fritzlar H2 

Front Plates 155 

Front Plate of 1749 54 

Front Plates. Meaningless 15S 

Front Plate of Franklin's '^'ireolace 128 

Front Plate of Six-Pla*:e Draught Stove 91 

Front Plate to th- Dance cf Death 155 

Front of Tamb Stove 55 

Fronts, Makeshift 155 

Fronts Without Sides 41 

Fuel Door 90, 110 



162 



Fuel Doors. Perforated 97 

Fulton, James.. ac. 

Funk, William B ''''.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 4° 

Funk Family g. 

Furnaces, Ancient, at Niederlsronn . . , . . . . . . . . ' ig 

Furnaces, Ancient, at Zinsw:iler 18 

Furnaces, Colonial, in the Eastern United States 

and Canada . 132, 133. 134, 135, 13S, 137 133 

Abmgton j35 J37 

Accokeek, or England's Iron Mines ' 138 

^™^"'3 133 

Ancram j33 

Andover .33 

^*f°" ■■■'•".■.■.■.■.■.'.•;;::;;;:;;::: 134 

Hatsto ,3. 

Bergen I33 

Berkshire 13g 

Eloomingdale 134 

Bourbon .30 

Braintree j32 

Bufifingtons j3a 

Bush j3^ 

^3""''^^ ::';';;'.'.'.v.v.'.;;;::;:: ue 

Catoctm ,30 

Charlotte ,33 

Charlottenburg 134 

Christine I34 

Codorus or Hellam 135 

Colebrookdale _ 134' 137 

Cornwall ' 135 

Courtland Manor 133 

Craigsville 133 

Cumberland 134 

Curtis Creek 138 

Dale j3y 

Deep Creek .........! 137 

Despards 132 

District, or German \ I35 

Dover ' ' ' ' ' 134 

Durham 13c 

Eight .■".■;■■ ■.'.'.■.■'■. 137 

Elizabeth 1 ^"i 

Elk Ridge '■■'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 137 

England's Iron Mines ...] 138 

Etna 13^ 

Federal ......'..'. 133 134 

Forest of Dean ' I33 

Franklin . I34 

Fredericksville 138 

Furnace Village 133 

Germanna 13g 

Gloucester 13^ 

Green Spring j3g 

Greenwood 137 

Gunpowder River 13g 

Gwynns Falls 137 

Hanover 13^ 

Haverstraw I33 

Hellam ,oc 

Hr . 136 
ereford I35 

Hibernia 133 

g°"y '■'■'.'.y-^'.'.'.'.'.'.:.:'.'.'.'..:: ue 

Hope 133 

Hopewell ' " 135 

Isabella 1 30 

.Joanna .07 

^F'^'^'s ..'.'.■.■.■,'.■.■.■.■. 134, 137 

Kmgs 132 

Kingsbury I37 

Kurtz ......'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..■' 134 

Lancashire 137 

j^^gh '■'■'.'■'.'.'.''.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..: 137 

i/enox 133 

Lime Rock 133 



Long Pond 134 

Lynn 132 

Martha " 134 

Martic 13c 

^^■■y Ann '.'.".'.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.'.■.■.'.■.'.'.■.136, 137 

Massaponax .... 102 

Melville y.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 134 

Monmouth 13; 

Mossy Creek 138 

Mount Etna 133 

Mount Holly, or Hanover 133 

Mount Hope '.■.'.'.'.■.'. I's^', 135 

Mount Pleasant 135 135 

Mount Royal 137 

New Haven 133 

Northampton 137 

°f^^"S .''.'.'.'■'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'..: 133 

Oley i3g 

Old Davy Ross 133 

Old Hampton 137 

o^^ ;;^ ■■.'.■.■.'.'.■,■.'.'.;::: u? 

0"l°"s i3g 

"^'°''a 133, 138 

Patuxent 130 

Philipsburg 133 

Pine Grove 135 137 

Plympton, or Carver 132 

Pompton '" • ■ ■ • • ■ J24 

Popadickon, or Potts Grove 135 

Popes Point 132 

Poplar Camp j3g 

Post Revolutionary 135 

Potts Grove 135 

Principio 137 

Queensborough 133 

Rappahanock i3g 

Reading ' 13^ 

Redding " .............. 134 

Ringwood, or Ogdens 133 

Ross i3g 

Roxborough, or Berkshire 135 

Sally Ann 137 

Shapleigh 133 

Shearwell 13c 

Shrewsbury, or "Tinton Falls .......... . . 133 

olX "I '3'y 

Speedwell 134 

Stemmers Run 133 

Sterling Iron V^orks 133 

Taunton 134 

Three 133 

Three Blast 133 

Unicorn '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.[ 137 

Union 133 

Vesuvius i3g 

Ward and Coulton's ......'... 133 

Warwick 135 

Washington ...........[ 134 

Westham 135 

Weymouth 134 

Wilcox, John 138 

Windsor 137 

^ork '■'.'.'.'.'.'.':::::::::'.[[ 133 

■^^nes i3g 

Furnaces in Delaware 137 

Abington 
Deep Creek 
Keith's 
Pine Grove 

Furnaces in Maryland 137 135 

Bush 

Catoctin 
Curtis Creek 
Eight 



163 



Elk Ridge 

Green Spring 

Gunpowder River 

Gwynns Falls 

Kingsbury 

Lancashire 

Legh 

Mount Etna 

Mount Royal 

Northampton 

Old Hampton 

Onions 

Patuxent 

Principio 

Stemmers Run 

Unicorn 

York 
Furnaces in Virginia 138 

Accokeek 

Fredericksville 

Germanna 

Isabella 

Massaponax 

Mossy Creek 

Olds 

Poplar Camp 

Rappahanock 

Ross 

Three Blast 

Westham 

Zanes 
Furnaces in North and South Carolina, Georgia, 

Alabama, Kentucky and Tennessee 13? 

Bourbon 

Buffingtons 

Vesuvius 

Wilcox, John 
Furnaces in Massachusetts 132 

Braintree 

Charlotte 

Federal 

Furnace Village 

Despards 

Kings 

Lenox 

Lynn 

Plympton 

Popes Point 

Six 
Furnaces in Rhode Island 133 

Hope 

Three 
Furnaces in Connecticut 133 

Lime Rock 

New Haven 
Furnaces in New Hamsphire and Vermont 133 

Shapleigh 

Three 
Furnaces in New York 133 

Amenia 

Ancram 

Courtland Manor 

Craigsville 

Forest of Dean 

Haverstraw 

Philipsburg 

Queensborough 

Sterling Iron Works 

Ward & Coulton's 
Furnaces in New Jersey 133, 134, 146 

Andover 

Atsion 

Batsto 



Bloomingdale 

Charlottenburg 

Cumberland 

Dover 

Eight 

Etna 

Federal 

Franklin 

Gloucester 

Hanover 

Hibernia, or Adventure 

Long Pond 

Martha 

Melville 

Monmouth 

Mount Hope 

Oxford 

Pompton 

Speedwell 

Taunton 

Union 

Washington 

Weymouth 

Furnaces in Pennsylvania 134, 135, 136, 137 

Abington 

Carlisle 

Christine 

Codorus 

Colebrookdale 

Cornwall 

Dale 

District, or German 

Durham 

Elizabeth 

Greenwood 

Hereford 

Holly 

Hopewell 

Joanna 

Keith's 

Kurtz's 

Martic 

Mary Ann 

Mount Hope 

Mount Pleasant 

Oley 

Pine Grove 

Popadickon 

Post Revolutionary 

Reading 

Redding 

Roxborough, or Berkshire 

Sally Ann 

Shearwell 

Warwick 

Windsor 

Furnaces, Date of 33, 34 

Furnace Described 35 

Furnaces in Blast in 1746 64 

Furnaces, Old, Denmark 15 

Furnaces, Old German 16, 141 

Furnaces, Old, Hesse 16 

Furnaces, Old, Norway 16 

Furnace at Obereichstatt, Old 142 

Furnaces, Old, Sweden 15 

Furnace, Abington 35, 42 

Furnace, Batsto 104, 106 

Furnace, Berkshire 39, 46, 106, 148 

Furnace, Christeen or Christien 49 

Furnace, Keith's 33. 35, 42, 119, 120 

Furnace, Kurtz's 33, 42 

Furnace, Lynn 118 

Furnace Ledgers at Historical Society of Penna. 148 
Furnace, Picture of 149 



164 



Furnaces and Foundries Distinguished 144 

Furnace Stack 95 

Futhey and Cops 77 

G 

Gardenville 94, 96 

Gardner, Starkle 11, 15, 64, 116, 121, 142 

Gate of Gaza 51 

Gauger, Sieur Nicholas 129 

Geil, Dr. Edgar 140 

Geislautern Foundry 26, 27 

G for Geislautern Furnace 25 

George the Third 59 

George the Third in 1769 104 

Geret, Amos 80 

Geret, Amos, of 1752 69 

German Art in a Non-German Community 99 

German Furnace 112 

German Household Tales 18 

German Hunter 101 

German Pattern Carvers 80 

German Samaria Plate 54 

German Stove 5, 10, 152 

Germanic Museum 6, 7 

Germantown 51, 53 

Germantown Houses, Destroyed 50 

Germantown Stove 147 

Gesner, Conrad 72 

Giles, Jacob 100 

Glass Works in the American Colonies, Only.. 105 

Glass Works, Manheim 80 

God Be Merciful Unto Us, Psalms 117 101 

God Righteous Judge Ill 

God's Shield 86 

God Threateneth Ill 

God's Well 94 

God's Well of 1760 87 

God's Well of Warvvrick 95 

Goddesses, The 115 

Godshall, William H 51, 53, 56 

Golden Lion Ship 49 

Good for Evil, of 1758 76 

Goose Girl 18 

Gothic Decoration 19 

Gothic Fretwork 20 

Gouverneur, Mrs 63 

Grace, Robert 77, 95, 129 

Graeme, Dr 119 

Graeme Park Fireback 119 

Grave Slabs 123 

Grave, Slab at Burwash 15 

Graves, Wm 24 

Green Lane Forge 103 

Grim, Webster 51 

Grimm. Wilhelm 18 

Grimm's Tales 142 

Gross, Mrs. A. Haller 74 

Grubb, Curtis 83 

Grubb, Curtis. Furnace 100 

Grubb, 2d. Peter 130 

Grubb, 3d, Peter 130 

Grubb Plate, Curtis 98 

Grubbs 69 

Grubb, Peter, Three of the Name 100 

Grunau. Stove from Castle of 18 

Guldin. Garrion 27 

Gurret & Co 69, 100 

Gwynns Falls Furnace 33 

H 

Haina Abbey 13, 16, 17, 22 

Halberstadt. Stove at 7, 8 

Hall. Mathias 64 

Hallam. Mrs 46, 121 



Hallam, G. M., Dealer 122 

Hamburg, Penna 59 

Hammersmith Furnaces at Lynn and Braintree, 

Mass 33 

Hamilton, James 43, 59 

Hamilton Library Association at Carlisle 99, 107 

Hanover Furnace 101 

Hanover Replica 24 

Harrisburg 45, 51 

Hartsville, Bucks County, Penna 62 

Hartz, Stoves in 16 

Hartz Verein 17 

Harz Plates 29 

Harzverein 23 

Hatboro, Pa 51 

Haycock Mountain 55 

Hay Creek Forge 46 

Hays, Robert 50 

Heacock, J. L 76, 78 

Headman's Pottery 151 

Hearth Extension 10, 110, 113 

Hearth Projection, Circular 93 

Hearth, Projecting 90 

Heart Tulips 70 

Heger 22 

Hellam Forge 85 

Hellam Furnace 85 

Hellam Plates 98 

Henrich Wilhelm Elizabeth Plate 83 

Hereford of 1757 74 

Hereford Furnace 44 

Hereford Furnace, Note on 103 

Hering, Loy 22 

Hero, The 104 

Herselius, Dr., at Stockholm 17 

Heston. Burroughs 64 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. . .41, 54, 117, 151 

Hibernia Furnace 95 

Hibernia Iron Works 43 

Highlander, The 123 

Hilltown Township 101 

Himes, Prof. Charles F 99, 107 

Historical Society Museum, Nazareth 140 

Hoch, Gideon 53 

Hochfelden in Alsace, Stoves Near 18 

Hockley, Richard 49, 71 

Hoff iv 

Hoffman, Mrs. Anna 73 

Holbein, Hans 60 

Holes in Top Plates for Upper Story 34 

Holland Stove 9, 10 

HoUenfels, Lords of an Ancient Castle 125 

Holz, Elizabeth 105 

Hope Furnace (Rhode Island) 123 

Hope of Peace iv 

Hopewell Furnace 44, 46, 149 

Horseman, The 122 

Horseman and Convicts 121 

Hostetter, A. K 63, 73, 75, 80, 86 

Houyon-Requet, M 21 

Huber 70 

Huber, Elizabeth 83 

Huber, Jacob 80, 82, 83, 105 

Huber, Jacob, of 1755 70 

Huber Plate 78, 81 

Huber's Junk Yard 63 

Huber's Rhyme 70 

Huebner, Ludwig 128 



I. A. R. B. Plate 84, 95 

Illig, J. E 38, 84, 85 

Ilsinburg, Stoves Cast at 16, 17 

Impressions of Unmortised Bolts 13 



165 



Indistinguishable Stove Plates 92 

Ingersoll, H. M 50 

In God is My Salvation 100 

Initials AG 69 

Initials B. S. D. W 65 

Initials C. A. W 85 

Initial D 52 

Initials I A P 116 

Initials I. B 81 

Initials I. L 119 

Initials I. P 68, 75, 78 

Initials I. P. and S.P 75 

Initials K.T.F 49 

Initials LMS 75 

Initials MC. TS. WS. WB. S\V 79 

Initials M.C.E 86, 94 

Initial, smaller R 85 

Initials S.F 45, 68, 72, 97, 99 

Initials T.B 88 

Initials TM 50 

Initials W.B 45, 46 

Initials WI. WB. BH. and AD 89 

Initials E for Eisenhutten 86, 94 

Initials G.T. for Gounty 95 

Initial M. Standing for Master 99, 100 

Initials M.C. for Martic 85 

Initial R. Standing for Robert 100 

Initials of Founders 70 

Initials on Plate, S.F 45 

Initials on Plate, W.B 45, 46 

Inscriptions 69 

Inscriptions Abandoned on Advertisement, Re- 
ligious 78, 79, 83 

Inscriptions Abbreviated 53 

Inscription ALS 51 

Inscription BSDW. 6. 52, 56 

Inscription, Continued on Companion Plates.. Ill 

Inscriptions, Decipherment 33 

Inscription, English 66 

Inscriptions, German 80 

Inscriptions, Imperfect 53 

Inscriptions, Interrupted 55 

Inscriptions, Latin 20 

Inscriptions, Obscure 39 

Inscription, Rhymed 51 

Invention of Cast Iron Stoves 15 

I. P. Plate 78, 80 

Iron, Sheet 152 

Ironmasters, Early English 70 

Ironmasters Generally English 148 

Ironmaster of Penna., First 77 

Isaac Kneeling in Prayer 50 

Isaac, Abraham and 61 

Inscriptions on Stove Plates: 

ABRAHM 61 

ABSOLOM 61 

ADAM. UND. EFA 63 

ALTER 75 

ALTER. IDEM 128 

ARMER 21 

AUGEN iii 

AUGEN. DES. HERRN 79 

AUS. WEILMUNSTERER 156 

AWEL 44 

R. BACKHOUSE. DURHAM 112 

BATSTO 104 

BAUM 61 

BENET. WILEM 85 

BESE 71 

BESE. BUB 61 

BESSERT 62 

BETH. VORNES 81, 82 

BEWEISSET 26 

BEY. GOT. MEIN. HEIL 100 



Inscriptions on Stove Plates: 

BEZAHLET 72 

BIRD. MARK 104 

BITTER. TOT 60 

BOLVIGS. WERK 12 

BORGET 72 

BORTSCHENT 39 

BRAUNFELS 26 

BRINLEIN 84 

BROTS 26, 30 

BRUNNEN. WASSER 47 

BRYNLEIN 79 

BRYNLEIN. WASER 49 

CAIN 44 

CANA 48 

CARLISLE. FURNACE 99 

CHRISTUS 47, 48 

CHRISTUS. FROMMER. EHE. LEUTE. 

TROST 156 

CHRISTUS. MACHT. WASSER. ZU. 

WEIN 156 

CCLEBROOK. FURNACE 110 

COLEBROOKDALE. FURNAC 96 

COLEBROOKDALE. FURNACE 102, 122 

COMBAGNI 81,82, 83 

COMPAGNI 78, 80, 83 

CORTUS. GROB 100 

CRANETIR 57 

CRITH 53 

DANCKET. DEM. HERRN 88 

DAVID 59 

DELIA 51 

DEN. 27. FEBRUARU, 1829 10 

DER. RICHER 22 

DIE. FILE 94, 95 

DIETER. WELKER 64 

DISTRICT. FURNACE 112 

DREI. SPIES 61 

DROHET iii 

DURCH. STILLE 41 

DURST 68 

EHE. LEVT 48 

EISEN. HUTTEN 156 

ELIA S3 

ELISA 82, 83 

ELISA. H. W. HELM. STIGCHELS 81 

ELIZABETH 80, 83 

ELIAZBETH. FURNACE 83, 104, 109 

EUER 78 

FALSCHES ii, 32 

FEBRUARU. 1829 10 

FEIND 41 

FEIT 60, 155 

FILE 87, 94, 95 

FILLE 84. 85, 87, 94, 95, 99 

FLAUR. SAMEL 70 

FLOR. REDIG 71 

FLOR. SAMEL. REDIG. FURNACE 99 

FLOR. SAMUET, M. REDIG. FURNACE. 71 

FLOWER. SAMEL 97 

FLOWER. SAMUEL. RETING FUR- 
NACE 71 

FCRNEC 83 

FORNES. M.C 86, 94 

FREUNDLICH 88, 89 

FRIDFERTIGE 41 

FROMMER 156 

FURNACE 83 

FURNEC 98 

FYLE 49 

FYL. LE 87 

GEDEN 76 

GEDULD 41 

GEDULT 6 



166 



Inscriptions on Stove Plates: 

GEFENCKNIS 6 

GEGOS 45 

GELYSSTEN 38 

GELYSSTEND 38 

GERECHTEN 79 

GERET. AMOS 69 

GERICHTET 68, 72 

GEWANDELT 47 

GLAUBEN ii 

GLUCK 32 

GOT 62 

GOTES. BRYN. LEIN 95 

GOTES. BRYNLEIN 94 

GOT. SEI. UNS. GNADIG 101 

GOTLOSE 72 

GOTT 27. 29, 63, 87 

GOTT. ERNAHRT. DIE. WITWE. UND. 

VERMEHRT. IHR. OEL 29 

GOTTES. BRINLEIN 99 

GOTTES. BRYNLEIN 87 

GOTTES. SEGEN 28 

GOTTLOSEN 85 

HEINRICH. WILHELM 83 

HELLE. SAS 22 

HELT 57 

HENRICH 81 

W. HEREFORD. FURNACE. M 74 

HEREFORD. FURNACE 103 

HERR 59 

HERRN 79 

HERRN. DANKEN 85 

HERTZ li 

HERZ 74, 78 

HERZEN iii 

HOCHZEIT 48 

HOFF iv 

HOPE iv 

HOPEWELL. FURNACE 104 

HUBER. ERSTE 70 

HUTTEN 156 

lAHN. POT 67, 68, 75, 76, 78, 92, 95, 98, 120 

lAHR 74 

lARB. FRONT. PLATE 85 

IN. LANGD. GT 94 

lOHAN. AM. 2. CAPIT 31 

lORG 64 

lOSEPH 62 

ISAC 61 

JACOBS. BRUN 24 

JESU 67 

JESUS 47, 68 

JOHANNES 9 

JOHN. SHIP. FAMOUS. HORSEMAN. .. 122 

JONATHAN 59 

JOSEPH 46 

JUNO 116 

KALB 45 

KESTLICH. DING 85 

KOTH ii 

KRAFT 51 

KRUG 47 

KURT 9 

KURT. SCHARFEN 9 

LACHEN 57 

LANCD 95 

LANCT. CT 86 

LANG iii 

LANGD. GT 94 

LAS. DICH 71 

LAS. VOM. BESEN 92, 98 

LASERU 22 

LEBEN iii, 67 

LEBEN. JESU. LIGHT 67, 69 



Inscriptions on Stove Plates: 

LEUT 59 

LEUTE 156 

LIBEN 41, 59 

LIGHT 67 

LIEBE 62 

LUCAS. SANCTUS 9 

LUCAS. SANCTUS. MATTHEUS 9 

MARK. BIRD 104 

MAS. SMIT 101 

MATTHEUS 9 

MAYBURRY. THOMAS 103 

M. C. FORNES 86 

M. C. E. THOM 101 

MCE. THOMAS. SMITH 95 

MORITZ. WILHELM 26 

MOSE 45 

M. SAMUEL. FLOR 71 

NEST. STEN. GUT 38 

NO 155 

NOTH 155 

OE. or UE 87 

OEHL 26 

OEL 27, 29 

OHL 28, 30 

OHS. BRUK 10 

OLY 64 

PALLAS. JUNO. VENUS 116 

PEACE iv 

PEINIGERN 6 

PERLEN ii 

PFLUG 50 

PFRTE 59 

PHARISAER 63 

PHILADELPHIA 55 

PHILLIPO. SOLDAN 9 

PINE GROVE FURNACE 107 

POTS. THOMAS 77 

QYLLET 68 

RABEN. B. D. K 52 

RATHE 85 

REBENSAFT. WASSER. KRUG 47 

RECHE 57 

RECHTER iii 

REDIG 71 

REGUM 27 

RETING 71 

RETING. FURNACE 71, 97 

RICHEN 21 

FICHTER iii 

RICHTET 72 

RICHTET. NICHT 68 

RITER 64 

ROTTER. THOMAS 79 

RUTTER. THO 102 

RUTTER. THOMAS 96 

SALUTATION. THE 66 

SAMEL. FLOR. REDIG. FURNACE 99 

SAMEL. FLOWER 97 

SAMUEL. FLOWER 71 

SATEL 57 

SAUTAN. THE 66 

SCHARFEN 9 

SCHATZ 74 

SCHAZ 78 

SCHILD 87 

SCHLANG. ADAM. UND. EFA 43 

SEANDSON. M 99 

SEGEN. DES. HERREN 29 

SELIG 41 

SHEARWELL 64 

SHIP. JOHN 123 

SIMSON 51 

SIMSONS 51 



167 



Inscriptions on Stove Plates: 

SMITH. MCE. THOMAS 95 

SOLDAN. PHILLIPO 9 

SPEISSET 26 

SPIL 57 

STIEGEL. H. W 103, 104, 103 

STIEGEL. WHELM 80 

STIEGEL. 1759. H. W 127 

STIGGEL 84 

STREIT iv 

TATELN 57 

THIMNATH 51 

THOM. M. C. E 101 

THOMAS. MAYBURRY 103 

THOMAS. POTS 77 

THOMAS. ROTTER 79 

THO. RUTTER 102 

THOMAS. RUTTER 95 

THORNBRUGHA. M. R 99, 103 

THUE. RECHT. UND 95 

THUE. GUTES 92, 98 

TIO 66 

TODT 26, 30 

TOTS 60 

TRAUM 62 

TROST 156 

UBERKLUGE ii 

UBERWUNDEN 77 

UDREE. AND. COMPANY HI 

VENUS 115 

VERACHTE 75 

VERGAS 22 

VERMEHRT 30 

VORNES 83 

WAGR 49, 53 

WANDELT 85 

WAPPEN 56 

WARCK. FORNACE 95, 98 

WARCK. FURNEC 98 

WARCK. FVRNEC 92 

WARK. FURNACE 98 

WARRS iv 

WASER 31, 49. 84, 85, 94, 95 

WASER. FYL. LE 87 

WASER. ZU. WEIN 31 

WASSER 47, 155 

WEIB 46 

WEILMUNSTER 26 

WEILMUNSTERER 48 

WEIN 31, 47, 155 

WELT ii 

WHELM. STIEGEL 80 

WILEM. BENET 85 

WILHELM. HENRICH 81 

WILHELM. HEINRICH 83 

WILHELM. MORITZ 25 

WITET 74 

WITWE 27. 29 

WITWEN 27 

WOHL. DEM 85 

ZETT iv 

ZOELNERS 53 

ZORNIG 5 

ZU 31 

J 

Jacob's Brun 23, 24 

Jamb Stove, American Five Plate or described.. 37 

Jamb Stove 34, 35 

Jamb Stove at Christiania 6, 7 

Jamb Stove at Halberstadt 7 

Jamb Stove complete 37, 39 

Jamb Stoves, destruction of 37 

Jamb Stove easily made 89 



Jamb Stove, German 6, 7 

Jamb Stove, how used 88 

Jamb Stoves imported from Europe 23 

Jamb Stove in Alsace 151 

Jamb Stove, Invention of 149 

Jamb Stove, Swedish 4 

James 49 

James, Mrs. Potts 35, 36, 73 

James, Mrs. Wynne 98 

Jan Pott plate 81 

Jarnkakelugnar. Om IS 

Jarnkakelugnar Iron Tile Stoves 7 

Jesus SO 

Jesus Sirach 75 

Joanna Furnace 35 

Johannsen 33 

John the Baptist, Beck's collection 20 

John the Baptist, Weisbaden Museum 20 

John Evangelist 9 

John, 2d chapter 31, 47 

(ohnsville, Penna 32 

Jonathan 50 

Joshua, Aaron or 45 

Joseph 52 

Joseph Stove 56 

Judge Not of 1751 68 

Judge Not of 1755 71 

Judge Not of S. F 72 

Judge Not Plate of 1751 67 

Judges 14. IVDICVM. XIIII 31 

Judges 14 51 

Judges 16 51 

junk Dealers and Stove Plates 138 

Junk Yard, Philadelphia 61 



Kalm, Peter 32, 113. 145 

Kassel. Dr 11. 13, 14. 15, 17. 19. 20. 22. 25, 

26, 27, 28, 29, 30. 31, 47, 48, 54, 54, 58, 70, 74, 

76, 98, 127, 152 

Keim House 47 

Keim property, near Oley 61 

Keith, Sir William 119 

Keith's Furnace 33, 35, 42, 119, 120 

Kelker, Luther W 45, 59, 80 

Kelker, Luther M 105, 123 

Kenderdine, Mr., near Dublin, Pa 101 

Keystone Foundry. State St.. Hamburg, Pa 59 

Kidder, Nathaniel T 122 

Kings 1st, 16 53 

Kings 1st, 17-4 29, 52 

Kings, 2d, 4th chapter 27 

Kings Furnace, at Taunton, Mass 33 

Kingston Fireback 119 

Kingston Museum 57 

Kingston. New York 116 

Kingston, New York, replica of plate at 24 

Kingston-on-the-Hudson 57, 63 

Khne, J. S 98 

Klingenthal 60 

Kloster Haina, Eisenhutten des 8, 22 

Kohler, Dr. Ernest 18, 142 

Kratz, Miss 95 

Kurt Sharf 9 

Kurtz's Furnace 33. 42 

Kutztown 59, 61 



Lakeville, Connecticut 149 

La Mechanique de Feu 129 

Lancaster 90. 107 

Landis. D. B 73, 80, 86 

Langhorne 63, 74 

Lardner. Lynford 49, 71 



168 

Large, Middling, and Small Stoves 147 

Lasius, J 22 

Last Supper 4, 150 

Lathrop, W. L 105 

Latin inscription 31 

Latin numeral 53 

Latin Vulgate 89 

Laurie, Joseph M 123 

Laurus nobilis 104 

Lazarus and Rich Man 21 

Lazarus, Porte de Hal 22 

Lead Moulds 13 

Leatherman House 93 

Lebanon, Penna 65 

Ledgers of Durham 42 

Ledger of William Smith 82, 85 

Lee, Valentine B 25, 85 

Leeds, Mrs. Albert 75 

Legs, adjustable 97 

Legs, Jamb Stove 151 

Legs, Sandstone 152 

Leg Rests 151 

Lennox Furnace 123 

Lersners Chronicle 15 

Lesher, Jacob 112 

Lesher, John 112 

Lettering 31, 43, 53 

Lettering Glued on 109 

Lettering of Inscriptions 47 

Letters, Broken Off 13 

Letters, Gothic 20 

Letters, Single 20 

Letter U, Round-based 78 

Letter V 70, 78, 81 

Letter V on Fireback 118 

Letter Y Abbreviated with Double Dot 87 

Liberty 105 

Liberty Cap 32 

Library at Fritzlar, near Cassel 142 

Lime Rock Furnace 123 

Limited Area of Stove Making in Colonial Time 145 

Lindholm, Mr. L 11 

Linebach, J. A 128 

Lintel 151 

Lips, Projecting Perforated, Overhanging 93 

Little Basel 60 

Lobsinger, Hans 150 

Loes, F., the Abbe 124 

Logan, James 43, 73, 119 

Long, George 63 

Long, Wm. H 53 

Longacre, Mrs 46 

Longwy 126 

Loose Corner Rims for Jamb or Draft Stove. ... 94 
Loose plates referred to as "top, bottom, right 

and left" plates 34 

Loose Rims 147 

Loose Stamps 63, 142 

Loose stamp, use of 51 

Lord Botetout's Stove 131 

Lord Stirling 120 

Lorraine Museum 68 

Loss of letters 14 

Lossing 95 

Lost Plate dated 1674 75 

Louis XV 66 

Louvre Museum 9 

Loux, Enos B 27 

Love Bettereth 62 

Luebke, W 17 

Luke 6-42 62 

Luke in 9th 50 

Luke, 12-34 74 

Luke, 18th chapter 63 



Lundy, J. W 62 

Lute, for Jamb Stove 151 

Lutherans 58 

Luther's Bible 45, 84 

Lynn, J. H 47, 50, 63, 93 

Lynn Furnace 118, 145 

M 

Macungie, Penna 63 

Magi, Adoration of 7 

Makeshift fronts 65, 155 

Man and Goat 59 

Man on Horseback 46 

Manayunk 30, 31 

Manheim, Pa 80, 105, 108 

Manufacture of Jamb Stoves, First American.. 32 

Marburg Museum 22, 24, 75 

Marburg Museum, stove fragments at 22, 24 

Marburg, Stove Collection at 17 

Margin, broad 10, 40 

Marginal lip for bolting 93 

Mark Bird of Hopewell 104 

Martic on Pequea Creek 45 

Martic Forge 94 

Martic Furnace 35, 82, 85, 85, 88, 94, 108, 150 

Martic Furnace, history of 86 

Martic Plate of 1761 94 

Martin, George 43, 47 

Martin, John Hill 3, 53 

Mary Ann Furnace 89, 107, 109, 148 

Mary Ann Furnace, History 89 

Maryland Furnaces 146 

Masonic Emblems 104 

Massachusetts Furnaces 145 

Massmann 60 

Massaponax, Virginia 144 

Masters of Martic 79 

Master of the Mosel 15 

Mastersonville 85 

Matthew 5 : 9 41 

Matthew 6:21 74 

Matthew 7 : 1 72 

Matthew 18 : 26 6 

Matthis, Farmer at Dunzenheim, Alsace 25 

Mabury & Co., Jonathan 103 

Maybury Stove 108, 1 10 

Maybury, Thomas 50, 74, 103, 109 

Maybury of Hereford, Thomas 103 

Maybury of 1767, Thomas 108 

Maybury, William 74, 103, 108 

M. C. Furnace in Lancaster 85 

Mearns Mill, Hartsville, Pa 62 

Mechanics Valley 72 

Meister 99 

Memorial Hall 102, 121 

Mennonites 57 

Merchants of Stoves 148 

Merian, Matthew 60 

Metal Worker Magazine 23, 24 

Metropolitan Museum 24, 26, 54, 122, 143 

Micah 4 iv 

Michigan Stove Co. of Chicago 108 

Millbach 69, 82 

Miller, Mrs. C 63 

MilUer. Mrs. John Faber 88 

Miracle at Cana 27, 31, 47, 155 

Miracles of Elijah and Elisha 29 

Miracle of the Oil 27, 28, 30 

Miracle Plate 87 

Miracle Rhyme 30 

Miracle of Sarepta 29 

Miracles, Mixture of Two 29 

Misplacement of Words, Elijah and Elisha 29 

Misquotations from the Bible 101 



169 



Mixsell, A. D 55, 102 

Moller. F 48 

Molten Calf 45, 51 

Monograms 20 

Monogram, A. F. and Letter A on Replica 24 

Monogram, A. F. and Letter B 24 

Monagra-n VM Standing f :r William and Mary 115 

Montague, W. E iv, 88, 89 

Montayne. Mrs. Sidney 33 

Montgomery .... 36, 106, 112 

Moorestown. N. J ■ 121 

Moon Hall, Near Valley Forge 121 

Moravians 58 

Moravian Historical Society 55, 127 

Moravian Meeting House, Oley 58 

Moravian Museum 55 

Moravian School, Reading 47 

Moravian Stoves 147 

Moravians, Tile Stoves of 8 

Moravian Tile Stove 148 

Morgan, General Daniel 43 

Moritz, Wilhelm 25 

Morris. Anthony 43 

Morris, J. Cheston 98 

Moses 45 

Moses, I Book. I3th Chapter 46 

Moses. I Book. 22d Chapter 61 

Moses. II Book, Chapter 32 45 

Moulds, Several by the Same Carver. 

43, 44, 48, 52, S3, 77, 98, 99, 103 

Mould Carvers 55, 100, 142 

Mould Carvers, Anglo-American 66 

Mould Carver, the Same for Several Plates... iii 

Mould. Christiania Museum 12 

Moulds. Carved Wooden 115 

Moulds for Firebacks 141 

Mould, Imported 42 

Mould. Imported English 116 

Moulds, Mahogany 35 

Mould Maker 148 

Moulds, Stove 10, 11 

Moulds. Three for One Stove iii 

Mould, Wooden 10, 14, 40 

Moulds. Wooden, at Obereichstatt 18 

Mould. Wood.=n. for Stove Plate 14 

Moulds. Wooden, How Constructed 63 

Moulten Calf 64 

Mount Holly Forge 103 

Mount Holly Furnace 104, 131 

Mount Penn. Pa 32 

Moyer. Mr.. Oley Township, Berks County, Pa. 55 

Mt. Pleasant 73 

Mt. Pleasant Furnace. 

42. 64, 77, 78, 79, 129, 146, 147, 149 

Mt. Pleasant Ledgers 77 

Mount Royal Furnace 33 

Muhlenberg Family 58 

Museet, Nordiska, Stockholm 5, 11 

Museums and Private Collections of Stove 

Plates in France 17 

Museums and Private Collections of Stove 

Plates in Germany 17 

Museums and Private Collections of Stove 

Plates in Holland 17 

Museum, Amsterdam 8, 16 

Museum. Bavarian National 18, 22, 26 

Museum, Christiania 6, 8 

Museum of the Huguenots 123 

Museum, Louvre 9 

Museum, Nancy 15 

Museum, Rijks, at Amsterdam 9 

Museum. Stockholm 4. 5. 14 

Museum of Young Men's Missionary Society of 

Bethlehem 49, 55, 58, 104, 140 



Mutilation of Patterns 14 

Myers, Albert Cook 63, 89 

Myers, Grant 57 

McCahan, James 61 

McDougaU ^ Son. F 114 

Mcllvaine, Ferguson 79 

N 

Nail Heads 83 

Name "Jamb Stove" 87 

Names of Founders 70 

Names of the Jamb Stove, Various 154 

Names of Stoves 10 

Names or Initials, Soldan 20 

Nancy 68 

Nancy Museum 15, 76 

Nancy, Ship from Rotterdam 80 

National Museum at Washington 54 

Navarre, Arms of 56 

Nazareth. Penna 127, 140 

Negro Slaves 43 

New Haven. Conn., Furnace 33 

New Hope, Bucks Co., Penna 105 

New Jersey Furnaces 146 

New Jersey, Jamb Stove Made There 66 

New Jersey, Stove Plates in 101 

New Paltz. New York 123 

New Pine Forge 143 

New York. 1767, at 123 

New York Furnaces 146 

Nieman and Saul 59 

Noble's Curiosity Shop 30 

Nockamixon Township 51 

NO for NOTH 155 

Nordiska Museet 5, 11 

Norse Folks I:iuseum, Christiania. 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 94 

Norse Furnaces 17 

Northeast. Maryland' 95, 129 

Northern Museum 4, 5, ID, 14, 68 

North Wales, Tavern Near SO, 98 

Norway 93 

Notches, Mcrginal 33, 34 

Note on Christopher Sauer 148 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Phila- 
delphia 51, 55 

Numerals, Arabic 20 

Nunnery, Kl'ngenthal 60 

Nuremberg: Museum 6, 7 

Nutt Family 77 

Nutt, Anna 73, 95 

Nutt, Samuel 49, 70, 73, 95, 99 

o 

Obereichstatt, Ancient Wooden Moulds at 18 

OE or UE 87 

Oerter, Rev. Albert 128, 140 

Ogden, Rev. John C 128 

Ogden Furnace 104 

Oil Miracle 27 

r-il Miracle of Braunfels 26 

Oil Miracle Stoves 26 

Old. James 73 

Oil Miracle Plate 50 

Oley, Penna 53 

Oley Furnace 44 

Oley Townshio. Berks County 55 

Open Fire Cooking 84 

Open Sand Casting 93 

Origin of Ancient Stoves 14 

Original Legs of Stove. Lacking Ill 

Ornamental Cast Iron Fences 150 

Otterbein, George GottfI^ed 75 



170 



Ctterbeins, Lesebuch 76 

Ottsville, Penna 59, 67, 72 

Oven Doors on Both Sides HO 

Owen, B. F 27, 28, 31. 33, 35, 37, 38, 45, 46, 

48, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 61, 62, 64, 
67, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 78, 79, 82, 

84, 85, 94, 103, 108, 110, 111 

Owl, The 65 

Oxford 104 

Oxford Furnace 66, 121, 122 



Painswick Hall 42, 47. 101, 117 

Painswick Hall Firebacks 117 

Paintings on Chests 77 

Pathemore, E. W 85 

Pathemore. R. W 51 

Pattern. Aureole Unknown in Europe 76 

Patterns, Several Carved by the Same Hand, 

43, 44, 48, 52, 53, 77, 98, 99, 103 

Patterns, Cana 31 

Pattern, Floral 67 

Pattern, Gothic 140 

Patterns, Original "Urplatten" 25 

Pattern, Typical Floral 65 

Pattern, Wooden 142 

Patterson, S. B 45 

Paxson, H. D 44, 45, 48, 50, 51, 54, 58, 

60, 62, 74, 78, 79, 81. 88. 

90, 92, 96, 97, 9?, 101, 103, 

104. 105. 107, 108, 110. Ill, 121 

Pearse, John B 35, 35, 69, 149 

Peinigern 5 

Penllyn, Penna 93 

Penn, William 46, 12J 

Pennsylvania Germans 143 

Pennsylvania Historical Society 57, 67, 99, 121 

Pennsylvania Museum 52, 53. 54, 79 

Pennypacker, Mr. Henry 121 

Pennypacker. Hon. S. W., 

33. 45. 47. 49, 54, 63, 78, 95, 95, 98, 103, 145 

Penrose, Miss Mary M 119 

Penrose. Mr.. Graeme Park, Pa 121 

Perforated Lips 39 

Perley. S 145 

Peterson. Emanuel 46 

Pharisee Plate 52, 53 

Pharisee and Publican 53, 62 

Philadelphia. Arms of 56 

Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 95 

Philadelphia Museum Memorial Hall 102 

Pickering. Ann 116 

Pickering, John , 116 

Pickering Fireback 116 

Pickering House 116 

Pictures on Stoves, Allegorical Subjects 19 

Pictures on Stoves, Bible Subjects 19 

Pictures on Stoves, Catholic Subjects 13 

Pictures on Stoves, Classical Suljjects IS 

Pictures on Stoves, Coats of Arms 18 

Pictures on Stoves, Landscapes 19 

Pictures on Stoves, Patriotic and Warlike Sub- 
jects 19 

Pierce. Nathan 121 

Pilfering or Plagiarism. No Evidence of 77 

Pig Iron 11 

Pigs Fighting 41 

Pigs or Geese Castings 36 

Pipeholes 10 

Pipehole in Top Plate Not Shown Ill 

Pine Forge 35, 145 

Pine Grove Furnace 90, 107, 131, 147, 149 

Placard 125 

Plate of 1752. A. G 68 



Plates, Earliest American 102 

Plates, Flask Cast 105 

Plates, Front 155 

Plate, Front, To the Dance of Death 155 

Plate Interchangeable as Top and Bottom 40 

Plates, Meaningless Front 155 

Plates, Names of 147 

Plates of Sheet Iron or Soap Stone 105 

Piatt, Horace H 30, 31 

Plow, 1747 45, 57 

Plumbago 11 

Plumsteadville, Pa 93 

Plympton Furnace 123 

Pommer, Wolfgang 127 

Pommeroffen 98, 105, 108, 110, 127, 147 

Popodickon Furnace 35, 64, 67, 68, 77, 147 

Popodlckon Ledgers 77 

Porte di Hal Museum 21 

Postament 151 

Posts, Props or Under Rests of Brick 151 

Pot, Ancient 145 

Pot, Jahn 77, 80 

Potiphar's Wife 45 

Potters' Stove Tile Mould's 78 

Potts. John 67. 70. 73, 74, 75, 78. 80. 95, 120, 145 

Potts, John (2) 95 

Potts of 1 763, John 98 

Potts Fireback or Date Plate, John 120 

Potts, Samuel 75, 77, 95 

Potts, Thomas 67, 71, 75, 77, 78, 79 

Potts, Thomas, Three Persons by Name of... 77 

Potts Family 77 

Potts Manuscripts 35, 73, 146 

Potts Manuscripts and Furnace Ledgers 151 

Potts Memorial 35 

Potts-Jam.es, Mrs 73, 96, 146 

Potts-Rutter Family Graveyard 95 

Pottsgrove 77, 78 

Pottsgrove Furnace 34, 68, 77, 82, 99, 102, 147 

Pottsgrove Ledgers 77 

Pottstown, Pa 54, 67 

Pottstown, Founders of 77 

Pottstown Furnace 77 

Pottsville 67, 77 

Poulton, Abram 98 

Prayer, at Table 89 

Principio Furnace 33 

Proverbs 10: 22 29 

Prowell, G. F 85 

Prussian Grenadiers 45, 57 

Psalms 1: 1 85 

Psalms 7:11 87 

Psalms 7:12 iii 

Psalms 34: 16 79 

Psalms 37:21 72 

Psalms 37: 27 92, 98 

Psalms 62 : 7 100 

Psalms 65: 9 87 

Psalms 65: 10 84, 85, 87, 94 

Psalm 67 101 

Psalms 92: 2 85 

Psalm 117 101 

Pullman, F. Cooper 98 

Pump. 1748 45 

Putt 67 

Q 

Ouakertown 76 

Quoniam Bonus 89 

Quotations, False 46 

R 

Radiating Fireback of Belgium 124 

Raging Year, The 73 



171 



Ralph. Alexander 44 

Range. Cooking 103 

Rapperswyl. Town Hall of 142 

Rathshaus at Wolfach 142 

Rau. Robert 46, 101 

Ravengiersbach 15, 115 

Read. Charles 104, 105 

Reading. Penna 69 

Reading, in England 49 

Reading Furnace 130 

Readin? Weekly E^gle 33 

Rear Plate of Six-Plate Draught Stove 92 

Recasts 35 

Records. Missing 35 

Red Rose 83 

Redding Furnace. .49. 64. 70, 71, 72, 77, 82, 95, 97, 119 

Redding Furnace Ff istory 49 

Redding Furnace. Note on 73 

Redding. C rigin of its Name 73 

Redding Plates 99 

Reed. S. W 88 

Rees Encyclopedia of 1788 95 

Reeves. F. S. B 150 

Religious Motive. Together with Advertisement 80 

Renaissance. German 19 

Renaissance Vaults 25 

Rene of Anjou 15 

Replicas of Arms of England Fireback 121 

Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Mrs. Hallam. 

Moon Hall, near Valley Forge. 

Mr. Henry Pennypackcr. 

Col. H. D. Paxson. Holicong. Pa., replica 
dated 1746. 

Memorial Hall Museum. 

Mr. Penrose. Graeme Park. Pa. 

Washington's Headquarters. Moorestown, 
N. J. 

Cox House, near Bushington. Pa. 
Replicas of Depart from Evil of 1764 98 

Hon. S. W. Pennypacker. 

Col. H. D. Paxson. 

Dr. J. E. Scott. 

Pucks County Historical Society. 

Abram Poulton. 

Leathermsn House. Plumsteadville. Pa. 

J. O. K. Roberts. 

F. Cooper Pullman. 

Washington Hotel, Sellersville. Pa. 

J. H. Lynn. 
Replicas of Pharisee and Publican Plate 63 

Dr. Sieling. 

C. J. Wister. 

Gov. S. W. Pennypacker. 

Bucks County Historical Society. 

Huber's Tunk Yard. 

Mrs. C. Miller. Macungie. Pa. 

George Long. 

Albert C. Myers. 

A. K. Hostetter. 

T. H. Lvnn. 

C. J. Wister's Estate. 
Replicas of S. F. of 1756 Plate 71 

Col. H. D. Paxson. 

Isaac Bennet. 

Bucks County Historical Society. 

Mrs. Walter Cope. 

Mr. B. F Fackenthall. Jr. 

Requet-Houyon. M 21 

Restaurant Schenken at Ansembourg 125 

Reynolds. William 104 

Rhymes 32, 62 

Rhyme for Children 87 



Rhyme of Huber 83, 105 

Rhyme of Stiegel 83, 105 

Rice. A. H ii, iii, 65, 66, 155 

Rich Hill 76, 78 

Rich Man and Lazarus 21 

Richards. William 105 

Richmond. Va 131 

Right and Left Plates Not Always Duplicates 154 

Rights. T. M 123 

Rijks Museum. Amsterdam. 

8. 9, 14. 16. 68. 93. 95. 97. 110, 111, 114 

Rims. Cast Solidly in America 95 

Rims, Grooved 147 

Rims. Guttered. Cast Solid upon Side Plates. . . 95 

Rims, Gutter-shaped 13 

Rims. Loose 13, 95, 147 

Rims. Loose. Gutter-shaped 30, 34 

Rims, Loose. How Cast 13 

F.im. Notched for Bolts 31 

Rims on Corners of Stoves 5 

Rims. Solid Cast 13 

Rims, Solid Cast. Gutter-shaped 34 

Ringwood Furnace 104 

Rising Sun. The 106 

River of God 94, 95 

Rivieres. Baron De 17 

Roberts. J. O. K 98 

Robeson, Jonathan 121 

Robesonia Furnace 45, 105 

Rock, George 95, 129 

Rococco Style 66 

Roman Letters 20 

Roman Toga 31 

Romans 12: 21 71 

Ros. George 83 

Rose. Mrs 107 

Ross. George 83, 90, 107 

Ross Biography, George 90 

Ross of 1 765, George 107 

Ross. Thomas 98 

Rossmere 90 

Rothenburg-on-the-Tauber 47 

Round Stove 127 

Roxborough Furnace 45 

Ruchel. Emmanuel 60 

Russian Stoves 139, 140 

Rutter. Mr.. Philadelphia 95 

Rutter Family 77, 95 

Rutter. Thomas 33, 77, 79, 80, 95, 96^ 102 

Rutter of 1758. Thomas 79 

Rutter of Colebrookdale, Thomas 102 

Rutter, Thomas. Three of the Name 96 

Rutter and Potts 73 



Saint George and the Dragon 64 

Salem, Mass US, 116, 121 

Salutation. The 65 

Salvation Plate 99. 100 

Samaria Plate at Metropolitan Museum 143 

Samson and Delilah 51 

Samson and the Lion 31. 50 

Samson Plate 45. 55 

Samuel, 1st Book. 17th Chapter 50 

Samuel I. 20: 3 59 

Samuel II. 18 61 

Samuel Flower of 1764 97 

S. F. of 1756 71 

Samuel Flower of 1754 69 

Sand in Casting 40 

Sands. Henry P 45 

Sandstone Legs 152 

Sassaman, Jacob 51 

Sassaman. Thomas 67. 72, 98 



172 



Sauer, Christian Ill 

Sauer, Christopher 35, 143 

Savage, Ruth 57 

Scales, The 53 

Scales, Angel Carrying 53 

Schaffner, Henry 128 

Scharf, Kurt 9 

Schilling, Jost 25, 29 

Schoep (1783) 73 

Schoepp, Dr. John B Ill 

Schwe.tzer, John 73 

Schweitzer, Samuel 37 

Schwenckf elders 57 

Schwenksville 103 

Schwoope, Benedict 52, 53, 56 

Scott, Dr. J. E 98 

Scottish Highlanders 44 

Scrap-iron Heap at Pottstown 87 

Scrolls, Foliate 51 

Scrolls, Leaf 51 

Scrolls, Shell-like 102 

Scroll Work 43 

Scull's Map, 1755 73 

Seal of Philadelphia 56 

Senate House, Kingston-on-the-Hudson, 

28, 61, 81, 82, 116, 118, 119 

Sener, S. M 105 

Sermon on the Mount 78 

Serpent 42, 43 

Shaferstown 105 

Shapes of Stoves, Varied 140 

Sharf, Kurt 9 

Sharp, James 133 

Shearwell 65 

Shearwell Furnace 52, 53, 55 

Shearwell Plate, The 64 

Sheep Heads 72, 83 

Sheep Heads of the Aureole 95 

Sheep Heads Changed to Darts 93, 99 

Sheets of Lead on Mould3 36 

Sheet Iron 152 

Sheet Iron Stoves 147 

Shewell, Nathaniel 101 

Shewell Family 47. 117 

Shirk, Dr. Frank 75, 85, 86 

Shoep, Dr 35 

Shrewsbury Furnace 104 

Shunamite Prophetess 29 

Sides, Without Fronts 41 

Side Plate of Five- or Six-Plate Stove 55 

Sibenaler, J. B 15, 17, 21, 98, 125, 125, 127 

Sibenaler, M. Lucien 125 

Sieling, Dr. J. H. 63, 83, 105 

Sigaf OSS, Lewis 70 

SimUarity of Plates 98, 99 

Similar Stove Plates 45 

Single Letter D 51 

Sirarh 8: 7 iii 

Six-Plate Stoves 9, 10, 34, 35, 99, 147 

Six-Plate English Stoves 99 

Sixty-seventh Psalm 101 

Size of Stoves, Large, Middling and Small.... 34 

Skull's Map 49 

S-like Tail 83 

Slabs, Grave 123 

Smalkald 142 

Smith, Thomas 79, 86, 88, 94, 101 

Smith, William 79. 86. 88, 94, 103 

Smith's Ledger, Wm 85 

Smith, W. D 35 

Smithy Township, Berks County 62 

Smoke Pipe 90 

Snell, J. P 121 

Snyder, Henry, Stove Mould Maker 35, 150 



Soapstone Blocks 151, 152 

Society, Young Men's Missionary, 

3, 49, 54, 55, 57, 58, 104, 140 

Soldan, Philip 8, 9, 13. 16, 17, 22, 29, 141, 143 

Soldan, Phillipo 9 

Soldiers, British 121 

Solis 22 

Solomon, Judgment of 7 

Soning, Berkshire, England 49 

Sorg, Peter 25 

Sorg, H. Philip 26, 28, 29 

South Kensington Museum 17 

Southampton, Penna 61 

Sower, Christian 64 

Spear, Mr. James 127 

Specimens, Undated. Oldest 115 

Spotswood, Colonel 144 

Springhouse, Penna 50 

Sprouting Tulips 85 

Squirrel Hunt, The 105 

St. James' Church, Lancaster 90 

St. Luke 9 

St. Mark 9 

St. Matthew 9 

Stack. Furnace 35 

Stag Hunt, The 118 

Stamps, Loose 46, 117 

State Capitol, Richmond, Va 131 

State House Museum 25 

State Library at Harrisburg 45, 59 

Statements. Mistaken 154 

Steadman, Alexander 80, 83, 105 

Steadman. Charles 80, 83, 105 

Steigerwalt, Thomas 33 

Steinman, Mr. A. J 83 

Steinman, Mrs. A. J 43 

Stengel, Baron 105 

Stenton 73 

Stenton, Built in 1728 120 

Stenton Fireback 123 

Stenton Fireback of 1728 119 

Stenton Fireback, Chemical Analysis of 120 

Stenton, Wayne Junction 119 

Stepping-stone 51 

Stevenson, George 89, 90, 107 

Stevenson Biography, George 90 

Stevenson and Ross 89 

Stewardson, Mr. Emlin 99 

Stiegel 35, 70 

Stiegel's Advertisement 81 

Stiegel, Baron 83 

Stiegel, Not a Baron 83 

Stiegel and K 83 

Stiegel Biography 80, 83, 105 

Stiegel's Cannon Stove 127 

Stiegel Plate. I. B 81 

Stiegel's Rhy.me 71 

Stiegel of 1 758 75, 80, 81 

Stiegel Stove of 1769 103, 109 

Stigel. H. Wilhelm 81 

Stirling, Lord 120 

Stockholm 68 

Stockholm Museum 4, 5, 14, 76 

Stories, Two Dillerentlv Sized, on Stoves 113 

Story of the Goose Girl 142 

Stoudt, Paul K 58 

Stoudt, Dr. J. B iii, 46, 75, 76, 86, 87, 88, 89, 155 

Stover, I. J 73 

Stoves, Box-shaped 105 

Stoves, Cannon 127 

Stoves Cast in 1749 145 

Stoves Cast in Six Plates 113 

Stove, lamb. Complete 155 

Stove, Cylindrical 98 



173 



Stoves, Earthen 139 

Stove Fashion from Germany 97 

Stove, First Franklin 95 

Stoves, Franklin 95 

Stoves in Canada 145 

Stoves in German Fairy Tales, Iron 141 

Stoves in Letter. Dated 1647 145 

Stoves in Virginia 152 

Stove, Lord Botetout's 131 

Stoves, Kinds of. in Germany 140 

Stoves. Miscellaneous 115 

Stoves. Moravian 95 

Stoves, Names of 10, 147 

Stoves, Popular With Germans 84 

Stoves, Price of 147, 148 

Stove, Round 127 

Stoves, Russian 139 

Stoves. Russian Brick 145 

Stoves of Unusual Type 147 

Stove, Tile and Iron Draft 127 

Stoves, Weight of 148 

Stoves with Upper Stories 148 

Stove Castings 35 

Stove Moulds , 36 

Stove Moulds. Sale of 94 

Stove Moulds and Mould Makers 150 

Stove Platcs, Decorated of the Penna. Germans 

3, 100, 101, 154 

Stove Plates, Used as Firebacks 45 

Stove Tiles 140 

Stovepipe Attached 93 

Stovepipes, Sheet Iron 97 

Stovepipe of Thin Hammered Iron 89 

Stove Works of Mr. George Von Coellin 18 

Strait iv 

Stuart, Henry 114 

Students and Collectors 17 

Stuttgardt, Old Stoves Near 18 

Style, Flemish 121 

Style. Rococco 65 

Style and Weight of Stoves 147 

Suddars. Chas. A 98 

Sultan, Portrait of 7 

Sun and Latin Motto of Franklin 95 

Sunbonnet 58 

Surface. Waved Peculiar to Open Sand-casting.. 33 

Survival of the Stoves 17 

Survival of Ancient Stoves 142 

Swank, J. M 32, 35, 35, 43, 49, 70, 71, 

73, 77, 83, 85, 100. 103. 105, 

107. 110, 113, 119, 121, 144, 145, 149 

Swank and Montgomery 46 

Swans. The Two 107 

Swar.Ti of Bees, The 58 

Swedenborg. Emanuel 119, 149 

Swedish Five-Plate or Jamb Stove 23 

Switzerland, Iron Stoves in 17 

Swords Hammered into Ploughshares iv 



Tannery. Nathaniel Shewell's 101 

Taques. Belgium 17 

Taques. Lorraine 17 

Taques. Luxemburg 17 

Taques De Foyer 15, 16, 115, 124, 125 

Taqueschaf 15, 124, 125, 125, 142 

Taqueschaf. Belgian 124 

Taunton Furnace 123 

Taylor. George 43 

Taylor. William 105 

T. B. Plate ■.■.'.■■.■■.; 83 

Temples of India. Cave 22 

Temptation of Joseph 45, 45 

Ten-plate Stoves 36. 50, 95, 107, ilO, 112 



Ten-plate Stove, Ancient Dutch 114 

Ten-plate Stove, Dutch 110 

Ten-plate Stove, Introduction of 108, 109 

Ten-plate Stove Not an American Invention.. .. 110 

Ten-plate Stove of Durham 112 

Ten-plate Stove. Origin of 83 

Ten-plate Cooking Stove 108 

Tenth Commandment, The 37 

Tenth Commandment Plate iii, 45 

Teysher, John 112 

Thanks Unto the Lord, for He is Good 88 

Thanks Unto the Lord, it is a Good Thing to 

Give 86 

Thanksgiving, The 89 

Thomas Maybury of 1767 108 

Thomas Maybury of Hereford 103 

Thomas Rutter of 1758 79 

Thomas Rutter of Colebrookdale 102 

Thom., William 89 

Thompson, Wm 90, 107 

Thompson Biography, William 90 

Thornburg and Arthur 90, 107 

Three Rivers 112, 114 

Three Rivers Furnace 113 

Tile Stoves 78, 140 

Tile Stove. Moravian 127 

Tile and Iron Draft Stove 127 

Tinicum Township 70 

Tinton Falls Furnace 34, 104 

Tobit, Advice of iii 

Todtentanz. Basel 60 

Tohickon Creek 97 

Tongs 41 

Tools of the Nation Maker 154 

Top Plates Duplicate Bottoms 41 

Top Plate of Six-plate Stove 91 

Top and Bottom Plates 40 

Town Hall of Rapperswyl 142 

Towne. Captain Solomon 140, 145 

Township. Alsace 106 

Traders. The ii 

Trainor. Patrick 59, 154 

Transylvan'a. Stoves in 16 

Treasure of 1757 74 

Treasure of 1 758 74 

Treasure of Jahn Pot 78 

Treasure Plate 70, 77 

Triumphal Arch and Car of Maximilian 22 

Trois Riviers 145 

Trois Rivieres Furnace, Canada 32 

Troys Rivers 36 

Tromp. or Water Blast 150 

Tubs, Blowing 35 

Tulip Design 72 

Tulip Introduced into Europe 72 

Tulips Sprouting 78 

Tulip Ware 96 

Tulpehocken Eisenhammer 148 

Tunkers, Seventh Day or Baptists 31 

Tunis, Dr. Joseph P 26 

Turner. Joseph 43 

Twisted Column 83 

Two Swans, The 107 

u 

U's. Round in Central Cartouche 98 

Udree. Daniel 65, 1 1 1 

Udree and Company Ill 

Udree Mansion 65 

Union Furnace 104 

University of Pennsylvania 60 

Unmerciful Servant 6 

Unmerciful Steward 7 

Upper Stories 78 

Urplatten 26 



174 



Valley Forge 48. 120 

Valley Forge Fireback or Date Plate 120 

Van Buren. Mrs. James 52 

Van Courtlandt, Mrs 57 

Van Riemsdyk. Dr. B. W. F 8, 93, HI 

Vaulted Canopies 63 

Vertical Bolt 40 

Vindugen 96, 97 

Virginia Furnaces 146 

Volkskunst and Volkskunde 18 

Von Coellin, George 23, 24, 68. 77 

Voorhees. Mr 66 

Wachovia Historical Society 128 

Waldhorn of Germany 102 

Wall Holes, Jamb Stoves 151 

Wall Stove 5, 10 

Wallace, James 94 

Walton. New York 24 

Walton. Seth T 51, 129 

W. B. of 1748 48 

Warehouses. Wooden iii 

Warning of Belshazzar 52 

Warp-cracks iv, 11, 12, 13, 55 

\Varp3 in Wooden Pattern 115 

Warwick 35, 99 

Warwick in 1755 35 

Warwick Furnace 35, 76, 96, 129, 146, 147 

Warwick Furnace, History 95 

Warwick Ledgers 95 

Warwick Township 73 

Washington's Headquarters, Valley Forge, Pa., 

48. 120 

Washington's Headquarters, Moorestown, N. J. 121 

Washington Hotel 98 

Water Blast 150 

Watson 36, 59 

Watson's Annals 108. 148 

Watson's Annals Mistaken 103 

Waved Surface. Unmistakable, Characteristic of 

Iron Castings 93 

Wayne Junction 119 

Webb. Samuel 79, 88 

Webb. Sheriff 85 

Wedding. Dr. Herman 11, 14, 17, 19, 23, 24, 29, 47, 70 

Wedding, The 57 

Wedding Dance 56, 58 

Wedgwood, Josiah 109 

Weight of Jamb Stoves 34 

Weilmunster 26, 28, 29 



Weilmunster Furnace 48 

Weilmunster Rhyme 30 

Weiner, Jacob 64 

Welcker, Dieterich 52, 53, 55 

Welker, Dietrich or Deiter 65, 111 

Welt, Vertical 53 

Westbrook, Miss 118 

Wharves. Wooden iii 

Wheat Sheaf 76, 79 

Wheel of Fortune 32, 33, 45 

Wheel, Water 35 

White, Benjamin 133 

Wicked Borrower 72 

Wicket, Draught 92 

Widow, God Nurtures the 27, 29 

Wiesbaden Museum 25 

Wilhelm, Bortschent iii 

Wilhelm, Henrich, Elizabeth Plate 83 

William Bortschent and T. B iii 

William's Junk Yard 58. 87 

Williamsburg Castle at Smalkald 142 

Willow Grove 51, 55 

Wind Stove 9, 96, 97 

Windsor Forges 49 

Windsor Furnace ISO 

Winey, Jacob Ill 

Winged Head. The 55 

Winston-Salem, N. C 78, 128 

Winthrop. Tr.. John 145 

Wister. C. j 63 

Wister. Dr. Caspar 26, 50 

Wolfach 142 

Woman of Samaria 23, 24 

Womelsdorf 105 

Wood-carvings. Two by the Same Hand 77 

Woodcuts in German Bibles 54 

Wood-fire, Open 118 

Worldiness 80 

Worthington. Harry 103 

Wright. P. W 5" 

Wrought-iron Fuel Door 92 

Y 

Yardville 12C 

Yeakel Family 8^ 

Young Men's Missionary Society. 

3, 49. 54. 55. 57, 58, 104. 140 

z 

Zeit iv 

Zinsweiler H, 31 

Zornig 6 



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