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Full text of "The Bibles in the Caxton exhibition MDCCCLXXVII : or a bibliographical description of nearly one thousand representative Bibles in various languages : chronologically arranged from the first Bible printed by Gutenberg in 1450-1456 to the last Bible printed at the Oxford University Press the 30th June 1877"

The Leonard Library 

Wptlitlt College 



Toronto 



Shelf No. 
Register No. .. 



THE BIBLES IN 

The Caxton Exhibition 

r 



* We mvit roote ovt Pryntingc 
Or Pryntinge will roote ovt vs. 

ttt 



THE BIBLES IN 

THE CAXTON EXHIBITION 

MocccLxxvn 

Or a bibliographical defcription of nearly 

one thoufand reprefcntative Bibles in various langu 

ages chronologically arranged from the firft Bible printed by 

Gutenberg in 1450-1456 to the laft Bible printed at the Oxford 

Univerfity Prefs the 3Oth June 1877 With an Introduction on the Hiftory 

of Printing as illultrated by the printed Bible from 1450 to 1877 in which is told 

tor the firlt time the true hiltory and myltery ot" the Coverdale Bible of" 1535 

Together with bibliographical notes and collations of many rare Bibles 

in various languages ami divers verlious printed 

Special edition revifed and carefully corrected with additions 

Flavoured with a squee/.e of the Saturday Review s homily on liibles 



By 



HENRY STEVENS GMB FSA MA Etc 

Sometimes Student in Yale College in Connecticut in New England Now refiding in London Bibliogra 
phcr and Lover of Books Fellow of the Royal Geogr& Zoological Societies of London Foreign Member 
of the Amer Antiq Society Correip Member of the H iftorical Societies of the States of Maliachuictts New 
York Connefticut Maine Vermont New Jeriey Mary land Pcnnfylvania&Wifconfm and Secretary 

nd American Minifter near Novioinagus I .lk I.ld Athm C lnh London 
Ami ratri.-iri.li of Skull .in. 1 Unites at Y.il,- rnivcrftty 




Bibliography 



Tree of Knmv a 



L 



O NDON HENRY STEVENS IV TRAFALGAR SQUARE 
SCRIBNER WELFORD & ARMSTRONG NEW-YOR 

Messrs Simpkin Marshall & Co Stationers Hall Court 

MdcccLxxviii 



Y 

RJX 




Entered at Stationers Hall, London, 

and 

Entered, according to Aft of Congrefs, in the year 1878, 
by Henry Stevens, of Vermont, Citizen of the United States, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congrefs, at Wafhington. 



TO 

THE ENLIGHTENED & LIBERTY LOVING 

BURGOMASTERS AND COUNCIL OF 

ANTWE RP 

OUR ANCESTORS OWED THEIR FIRST 

ENGLISH BIBLE 

AND THEREFORE 
TO 

THE BURGOMASTER AND COUNCIL OF THE 

SAME ANCIENT AND RENOWNED 

CITY WHICH 

ENGLISHMEN & AMERICANS 

MUST EVER REGARD AS THE 
CRADLE OF THEIR 

COVERDALE BIBLE 

THIS VOLUME IS APPROPRIATELY 
INSCRIBED BY 

HENRY STEVENS 

of Vermont 




Extratt from Het Leven van Emanuel van Meteren kortelijck befchreven door 
fijnen ghetrouvven Vriendt SIMEON RVYTINCK, folio 672 of Emanuel van 
Meteren s Nederlandtfche Hiftorie the edition in folio 0/^1614. 

[MANUEL van METEREN, die met grooten vlijt ende vernuft defen Boeck by een 
verfamelt heeft, was t Antwerpen ghebooren den 9. Julij 1535. 

Sijn Vader hiet Jacob van Meteren van Breda, Sone van Cornelius van Meteren. 
Sijn Moeder hiet Ottilia Ortels, dochter van Willem Ortelsvan Aufborch,die Groot- 
vader was vanden wijdt-beroemden Wereldt-befchrijver, Abrahamm Ortelius. 

Sijn Vader infijnleucht hadde gheleert die Edele Konfte van t Letter fetten, hy was begaeft 
met de kenniffe van veelderley Talen, ende andere goede wetenfchappen, wift van in die tijden t 
licht t onderfcheyden van duyfterniffe, ende bethoonde fijnen byfonderen yver in t bekoftighen 
vande overlettinghe ende Druck vanden Enghelfchen Bijbel binnen Antwerpen, daer toe ghe- 
bruyckende den dienft van een gheleert Student, met namen Miles Couerdal, tot groote bevorder- 
inghe van het Rijcke Jefu Chrifti in Enghelandt. 

Sijn Moeder was een Godvreelende ende trooftelijcke Joffrouwe, die infghelijcks de 
kennifle der Waerheyt outfangen hadde, ende met haren Man veel daer voor geleden heeft. 

t Is ghebeurt (haren Man om fijnen handel naEngelandt ghereyft zijnde) foofe fwangher 
was van defen Soone,datmen van d Overheyt weghe, haer Huys is komen befoecken,om Leonard 
Ortels haren Oom, die daer plach t huys te liggen, te vangen, om t puncl: vande Religie, ende 
met eenen to fien offer gheen verboden Boecken te vinden waren ; de wreetheyt van defe Onder- 
foeckers, beweechde de goede Joffrouwe den Heere vyerichlijcken te bidden, op datfe de felve niet 
vonden, t welck oock alioo ghebeurt is, al waft datfe verfcheyden-mael de handen op de Kifte 
leyden daer de Boecken in waren, Codes genadige hulpe ende befcherminge daer in fpeurende, 
heeft belooft (foofe een Soone baerde) den felven Emanuel it noemen, dat is, God met ons, welcke 
belofte fy oock volbrocht. Hicr uyt heeft Emanuel oorfake genomen, tot fijn Manlijck ver- 
ftandt gekomen zijnde, by t woordt Emanuel, ghemeenlijck te voegen, Quis contra nos? dat is, Is 
God met ons, ivie is tegen om? om aen die voorighe weldaet te beter te gedencken, ende in a lie 
gcvaer op den Heere te betrouwen. 

Sijnen Edelen Vriendt ende Coufijn Daniel Rogerfius, heeft daer op ditLatijns vers gedicht. 

AD SYMBOLUM 

EMANVELIS DE METERI : 
Nobifcum DEVS, quis contra nos? 

Cvius opem imploras ? hominum cui credis in Orbe. 

Emanuel ? Quae te fuftinet oro falus ! 
Quum mundo fit nulla fides : Pendentia filo 

Pelignus vere cuncta Poeta canit. 
Ingenio confide fagax : fruftrabere forma": 

Crede datis, anceps forma venufta bonum. 
Fidat equis alius, pedibus pernicibus alter. 

Mars equtem Bello, Mars peditemque premit. 
Spes armis nee certa, licit triplice firma 

Robore, glans mixto fulphure tranfit ea. 
Et quae praefidio comitum fiducia ? Salvo 

Milite faepe ipfi defperiere Duces, 
Viribus aft fidis, Goliath a Davide viclus, 

A puero validus dux fuperante perit. 
Gratia te Regum fpes eft fublimet in altum ? 

Non fe, non alios faepe juvare queunt, 
Ergo iftis alius fidat. Tu duke fecutus 

Emanuel nomen, fidere perge Deo. 
Quern fi tecum habeas, in eo fi Spemque reponas 

Certior Aufonio vivere rege queas. 



THE FLAVOUR 




HE CAXTON CELEBRATION EXHIBITION WAS OPENED 
at South Kensington on the thirtieth of June and 
closed on the first of September, 1877. During these 
nine short weeks the public had a rare opportunity 
afforded it of having some of its old popular notions 
respecting printing dissipated, others corrected, and 
not a few new ones inculcated. It is only fair, how 
ever, to the intelligent British public to state here 
frankly in their behalf that only a select few appear to have had any well 
defined ideas, convictions, notions, sentiments or intelligence, whatever, 
respecting the origin, development, progress, and present state of this 
1 Art preservative of all Arts, especially as it exists, and has existed in 
this country during the last four centuries. 

This circumstance is probably owing to the fact that in dear old 
merrie England reading and writing come by nature, while printing is no 
more considered an art or invention than breathing or drinking. We 
know it and that is enough. All these things are so familiar from in 
fancy that one scarcely ever thinks of accounting for them, or looking 
into their origin. 

As pleasure is said to be the absence of pain, darkness the absence 
of light, so printing may be simply the absence of primitive ignorance. 
The mind reads the newspapers and the Bible, feels, thinks, and knows 
intuitively. Like the eye the press sees not itself, yet is the organ by 
which all other things are seen, known, and organized. 

It was therefore a happy thought of Mr J. S. Hodson, Secretary of 
the Printers Pension Corporation, to celebrate the four hundredth anni 
versary of the introduction, in 1477, of the art and mystery of printing 
into England, by a " Caxton Celebration" in the year 1877, just for a 
moment to hold the mirror up to printing, to let the eye see the eye, 
and the press the press. 

The Secretary and his happy thought were particularly lucky in having 



2 The Caxton Exhibition 

Mr William Blades, Caxton s eminent biographer, to resort to for the 
needful historical foundation and literary coping of his proposed edifice. 

But it is not intended to give here the history of the Caxton Exhibi 
tion of 1877, for it is itself already a matter of history. Suffice it then 
to say, in passing, that in more meanings than one it was a success, and 
in no sense a failure. The Caxton Exhibition Catalogue as finally revised 
and published before the close of the Exhibition, with all its faults (and 
none knows them better than the writer), is a bibliographical record, taken 
as a whole and of its kind, that has never been surpassed in any country 
or period. Much of it is crude, ill-digested, and unfinished, yet the 
honest, intelligent, painstaking, and sharp-witted bibliographer will find 
recorded in it, though perhaps a little too hastily, materials for the 
history of books, printing, and printers, not alone of England, but all 
foreign countries, from the earliest period to the present time, which he 
will find no where else so well told and so conveniently packed. 

The results of the Caxton Exhibition, therefore, as booked in this 
Catalogue, are manifold and important, though they may perhaps have 
to be picked out, like the meat of the hickory-nut, with patience and 
discretion. At the same time it is to be remembered that by the Cam- 
panellan rule, as given by Master Prynne, generally such 

* Books either miss or hit, By scale of reader s wit. 

If the critic, historian, bibliographer, or simple reader, any of them, 
lack the capacity or wit to pick out and appreciate the new, true, and 
important matters recorded in the Caxton Catalogue respecting rare and 
beautiful books, early and fine printing, eminent printers, and kindred 
topics, it may be some consolation to somebody to know or to be told 
that it is not necessarily the fault of the Catalogue. 

On the other hand if the capacity or wit of the critic be better adapted 
to pick out the flaws, errors, mistakes, blunders, omissions, false state 
ments, and ignorances buried in the Catalogue, be its merits never so 
great, and if he be inclined to smack his lips over them in the Weakly 
as if he had found the very blue-mould of Stilton, or viewed the centre 
of decay, God help him and give him a long life, for what we, who are 
not critics, don t know is immense and immeasurable, in comparison 
with what we do know and can state correctly. 

In making these general and particular remarks, the writer excepts, 
of course, his own portion of the Caxton Catalogue, that is Class C, 
Printed Bibles, lest it may be too apparent that he is publicly crying an 
axe hammered on his own anvil. He is not unmindful, however, of the 
great interest expressed by many, and the commendations expressed by 
some, in his treatment of this department of the Catalogue. 

Nevertheless, it will be remembered that the department of Bibles in 
the Caxton Exhibition received more adverse criticism from some of 



The Flavour 3 

the intelligent London press, than all the other classes put together. 
This may be partially owing to the great, general, and blind interest felt 
in England, above all other countries, in reference to the Bible, the divine 
book, about which every one presumes to know so much, and of which, 
really, so few know anything. It is the commonest and most familiar of 
all our books. Wherever dust can penetrate, there is our Bible, but too 
many of us are like the swine seeking beechnuts among the fallen leaves 
of the forest, devouring them with a relish, but seldom looking up to see 
whence they came, what their origin, or how preserved for us. 

The subject of Bibles in the Caxton Exhibition, as a distinct Class, 
was really an after-thought. It required some stretch of the original 
plan of a Caxton Exhibition to include Bibles in all languages, 
though some few editions would naturally have fallen in as specimens of 
early and fine printing. The Exhibition, however, grew upon the hands 
of the Executive Committee, as did, also, the various departments of it 
grow upon the hands of the several Sub-Committees. 

Finally, notwithstanding the long list of distinguished names that 
graced the several committees, the real work, and all the work, by its 
own gravity, fell into the hands of some half dozen men, who, at first, 
having volunteered their free services, had not the courage, at last, to 
back down as many did in the critical moment when it was almost an 
even balance between uncertain success and certain failure. 

All this, I know, is indefinite and gossipy, and was intended to be so, 
but those who desire to pursue the subject further can. It is, however, 
only just and fair to my colleagues and collaborators to say here so much, 
and to relieve them as far as possible of any personal responsibility for 
the deficiencies and shortcomings of that department of the Catalogue, 
which was wholly mine and not theirs. I have, therefore, decided to 
separate my own portion of the work, as far as it relates to Class C, 
Printed Bibles, as given in the Catalogue of the Caxton Exhibition, and 
issue it separately under my own name, so that the work may stand or 
fall by itself without marring the good work of my colleagues in other 
departments. I say deliberately good work, for where can the lover of 
short-cuts to knowledge find in the English or any other language, the 
information so well arranged and so clearly expressed about Caxton and 
the typographical productions of himself and his contemporaries in 
England, as in the first thirty pages by Mr William Blades, under Class 
A, sections i v, of the Catalogue of the Caxton Exhibition? The great 
mass of conjecture of previous writers is abolished, and the whole inte 
resting story of all England s earliest printers, with the titles of their 
books, and where the books now exist, is briefly and clearly told by 
Mr Blades, in a masterly and modest manner never excelled. Sections 
vi and vii upon the subsequent development of printing in England 
and Scotland, both metropolitan and provincial, are chiefly by Mr 



4 The Caxton Exhibition 

R. E. Graves. One may hereafter enlarge the story to any extent, but 
after all, the enlargement will be only a bill of particulars. The vii Sec 
tions of Class A cover pretty much the whole ground. 

Almost the same may be said of Class B, filling pages 44 72 of the 
Catalogue, containing a brief history of Block Books, and the develop 
ment of the art of printing in foreign countries. Never probably was 
such a rich collection of rare books brought together as that described 
in sections i iv of this Class, and so far as I know, no single writer 
has before had so good an opportunity of covering the whole field of 
typography outside of Great Britain, in a single essay. How concisely 
and clearly Lord Charles Bruce has presented this important department 
of the Exhibition in the brief space of less than thirty pages, is manifest. 
He had at hand, it is true the whole bibliographical resources of Earl 
Spencer s library, as well as extraordinary facilities afforded by the British 
Museum and its custodians. He therefore made this road for the future 
historian direct, true, royal and roman. The curious reader will find 
his lordship s name modestly placed at the bottom of page 72. 

It will be noticed that there is a great difference in the modes of 
arranging the materials and presenting the history of printing in Classes 
B and C. It may as well perhaps be explained here as any where else. 
This divergence was fully discussed beforehand by Lord Charles Bruce 
and myself, and we came to the conclusion that it would be better, as 
our materials were abundant, and in some important cases duplicate, to 
present in the Catalogue, at one and the same time, two distinct views 
of the progress and development of printing. Accordingly it was agreed 
that while in Class B he should arrange and describe his materials under 
countries and towns geographically and chronologically each taking 
precedence by the dates of the introduction of printing into each, I, on 
the other hand, having only the One Book to deal with, was to present 
it in all languages and countries (including England) in one consecutive 
chronological list. This arrangement I strictly carried out, as the reader 
may see in the present volume. I submit that this arrangement between 
us was a happy thought, as it gave the historian two distinct views 
instead of one. Each system has unquestionably its own objections, 
but these melt away when both are used. It is a vast aid to the historian 
of the Bible, and a leveller to the patriotic scribbler, to have before 
himself in one chronological list the entire biblical work of all languages 
and countries, by which he can see at a glance what translation, com 
mentary and printing were going on at the same time elsewhere, as well 
as the comparative progress of Bible printing in different countries. 

I desire here publicly to acknowledge aid, comfort, sympathy, and co 
operation from my colleagues, especially Mr William Blades, Lord 
Charles Bruce, Mr George Bullen, Mr G. W. Porter, Mr R. E. Graves, 
Mr W. H. Overall, and Rev. W. H. Milman, who rendered our weekly 



Tlie Flavour 5 

bibliographical meetings of Sub-Committee N i so agreeable, friendly, 
instructive, and unforgetable. While giving them my cordial thanks, I 
should be very sorry to make any of them responsible for any of the 
many defects in my portion of the Catalogue, which the printers tell me, 
because of the quantity of small type in the notes, was spun out to nearly 
one-third the composition of the entire Catalogue. It might easily have 
been doubled, owing to the great and unexpected liberality of the exhi 
bitors, but I had some little conscience left about overloading Caxton 
with the Bible, inasmuch as it was a Caxton and not a Bible Exhibition. 
At another time, and that not far distant, I trust that we may have a 
Bible Exhibition. 

However, my colleagues were tolerant and patient, and the printer 
found type to put up my long introduction and bibliographical notes 
scattered throughout the work, without grumbling. Only one note, an 
essay of two pages sent in by me was suppressed by the Executive 
Committee (goodness knows why), but that is now printed in full under 
N 1450 in this edition, being a brief and circumstantial history of the 
Oxford Caxton Memorial Bible, at my suggestion printed at the University 
Press in Oxford and bound in London in twelve consecutive hours, on 
the morning of the 3oth of June. These pages were struck out by some 
body probably for other reasons than the want of space. 

The whole of Class C is, therefore, re-made up, repaged, and here re 
issued separately from the same type as the Catalogue, but with above 
three hundred corrections, alterations, and improvements in the list 
from N 611 to 1450, together with some forty pages of new matter 
not in the Caxton Exhibition Catalogue. I trust that these addi 
tions will give some flavour to this separate work and apologi/e for its 
separate appearance. This present edition is, I believe, the tenth 
revision of my portion of the Catalogue, and yet there are left many 
errors and oversights, which would have been emended but for my whole 
some dread of printer s corrections. I cannot, however, afford to carry 
this, my summer s plaything, any further. 

I admit that the motto of a well-arranged Exhibition Catalogue should 
be If twere done when tis done, twere well it were done quickly. In 
consequence of a severe illness of three weeks immediately after the 
opening of the Exhibition, when only the Rough Proof of the Cata 
logue had seen the light, I confess that I failed on the quickly ; but 
by the 25th of July my proofs had been read, omissions supplied, addi 
tions made, and the copy was in the hands of the printer, including the 
historical Introduction and many long bibliographical notes. Great 
pains had been taken to ascertain the true or approximate time of print 
ing the several editions bearing no date so that the whole might fall into 
a strictly chronological series, according to the well-digested plan agreed 
upon with the accomplished editor of Class B. I respectfully submit 



6 The Caxton Exhibition 

that my arrangement of the Bibles in Class C of the Catalogue was 
fairly up to the mark. The issue of it herewith presented, though 
somewhat polished and improved since August, will, I trust, corroborate 
this statement. This admitted, the arrangement of the Bibles in the 
cribs under glass and locks was of far less consequence. I never in 
tended to assume or monopolize this part of the arrangement, having 
enough on my hands already, but working volunteers were scarcer than 
talking ones, and so, notwithstanding only half the space required could 
be had, I sorted out the folios and placed them open under glass on the 
north side of the gallery, in the order of their dates of printing, begin 
ning at the far end with 1450 and coming down to the left of the 
entrance with the 1611 English Bible, the first edition of our present 
version. This was a simple arrangement such as even the unini 
tiated might grasp, but unfortunately the pressing want of room, the 
great value of the books, and the absence of safe lock-ups elsewh^*": in 
the galleries, compelled me to distribute the quartos, octavos, and smaller 
books among the folios, regardless of date and every other considera 
tion except size. Every crevice was filled. The duplicates and extra 
volumes were placed in the cases unopened, no other safe place pre 
senting itself. Well, some painfully orderly eyes could not stand this 
mixture, while others found consolation in the Catalogue. Each book 
being distinct and fully described, the rest was left to the general intelli 
gence of the visitors. It seemed to appear to most of them to be a 
matter of little importance whether the bugge Bible was on the right 
or left hand of the wicked Bible, or whether printed before or after. 

At first I consented only to arrange the Bible titles for the catalogue and 
prepare them for the printer, but later on, however, when I saw that 
many gentlemen whose names had been placed high up on the several 
Committees were doing but little ; and when my friend Mr Blades had 
bravely taken upon his own shoulders the work of the Executive at their 
request, I willingly placed my spare shoulder thereto and volunteered, as 
far as my abilities extended, to help him through. For nearly a month 
I did what a slow and busy man could do in twelve or fifteen hours a 
day and night, building up and furnishing the department of Bibles 
alone, and looking after nothing else. 

I do not ask or expect any special credit for what I then did prior 
to the opening of the Exhibition, and for a month subsequently, the 
hardest labour I ever undertook or underwent, but it is fair that I 
should, if possible, parry false criticism wherever I find it, and decline to 
receive as gospel the unjust and inconsiderate censure of the Saturday 
Review, for not performing the many other labours ignorantly and 
wrongfully assigned to me by it. My catalogue of the Bibles will, I 
trust, be taken as evidence of no little honest and voluntary work ; and 
that my summer leisure was not wholly thrown away. In making, 



The Flavour 7 

correcting and working up the Catalogue of Bibles and parts of Bibles 
I endeavoured to render it a book of permanent reference, as far as it 
goes, and one that would be useful after the Exhibition was over. 
I decided, after some hesitation, to use part of the materials I 
had been collecting for a larger work for more than a quarter of 
a century, with opportunities that have fallen to the lot of few 
bibliographers. Some of these materials I worked up into an elaborate 
Introduction presenting a comprehensive view of the history of the 
printed Bible, in all languages and countries, from 145010 1535; and in 
numerous long and short bibliographical and historical notes under 
various titles and languages from 1535 to 1877. All these the reader 
has before him re-issued in the present volume. The collations of the 
rarer Bibles in many languages are elaborate, and I trust generally 
correct and carefully done. They cost me a vast amount of labour, and 
I flatter myself that true bibliographers will find them useful. In the 
notes, as well as in the Introduction, many new points are brought for 
ward and discussed, wherein a great deal of the slop and conjecture of the 
historians of the Bible, even our latest ones, is spotted and, it is believed, 
for ever consigned to oblivion. 

Again, in the Introduction and notes I gave briefly the results of long 
and patient investigation respecting Coverdale and our first English 
Bible, and, I believe, to a great extent cleared up one of the most in 
teresting mysteries lurking in English history and literature. Indeed, 
for the last three hundred years the good old Augustine monk Coverdale 
had been lost in a tangle of misconception and conjecture, insomuch 
that the last two or three historians of our dear old English Bible have 
asserted positively, without a particle of decent historical evidence, that 
the Coverdale Bible was printed by Christopher Froschover at Zurich. 
It has been my good fortune to discover where, by whom, and under 
what circumstances it really was printed. I showed on unimpeachable 
authority that Coverdale went abroad in 1534, and that the Bible was 
printed by or for Jacob Van Meteren at Antwerp ; that Coverdale was 
not himself the translator, but that probably Van Meteren was, Coverdale 
aiding him, at his employer s cost, as a learned reviser, editor, proof 
reader, and general manager, with great prudence and discretion, and at 
the imminent peril of his life, both from the authorities of the Netherlands 
and of his own country at home. Any future historian of the English 
Bible must hereafter reject whole pages of conjecture, assumption, 
misconception, and frivolous speculation that fill the pages of Lewis, 
Anderson, Lee, Eadie, Westcott, and others, not alone in these matters 
pertaining to Tyndale, Coverdale, and Matthew, but many other points 
pertaining more or less to them and their times. 

With all its faults, this Catalogue is now given to the public. But in 
justice to the public, the most patient beast of burden known to the 



8 



The Caxton Exhibition 



press, and in justice to myself, I must notice here the Notice with which 
my old friend, the Saturday Review, honoured me. It is the last of five 
articles which that eminent review devoted to the Caxton Exhibition. 
They are all of like excellence, and could manifestly have come from no 
other periodical. The first was upon Mr Gladstone s opening speech, and 
appeared in the number for July 7. The others, divided into four parts, 
covering the entire Exhibition, appeared in the four numbers of July 28, 
August 4, 1 1, and 18. As the last mainly concerns me, and the Exhibition of 
the Holy Scriptures as described by me in the Catalogue, I have pleasure 
in reproducing it here verbatim and entire, simply adding a few small figures 
for convenience of reference in the subsequent pages of this Flavour. 



From the SATURDAY REVIEW of the iWi August, 1877. 
THE CAXTON EXHIBITION. IV. 



Though the Exhibition has now reached 
what may, with probable safety, be called 
"positively the last fortnight," the Bibles 
remain unarranged. 1 This will be a great 
disappointment to many ardent bibliogra 
phers ; but it may allay their regret 2 to know 
that, unless the present collection 3 had been 
largely supplemented, 4 it could not have 
been considered in any sense representa 
tive 5 of the history of Bible-printing. Mr. 
Stevens, 6 to whom the arrangement* of this 
part of the Exhibition was entrusted, 8 has 
neither done 9 it himself nor commissioned 10 
any one else to do it. He has, however, 
published an "Introduction," 11 in which 
he claims for Jacob van Meteren, an Antwerp 
merchant, 12 who is said to have learned to 
print 13 early in life, the honour of being 
the printer and translator of Coverdale s 
Bible. The passages quoted from Emanuel 
van Meteren s Historia Belgica do not justify 
these conclusions, 14 and, without further evi 
dence 15 we must withhold our judgment. 16 
Meanwhile, as Mr. Stevens s Introduction 
is not before us, 17 we may pass on to notice 
the Bibles actually displayed 18 in the Ex 
hibition ; since, whatever the shortcomings 
of the Committee 19 in their arrangement, 
they form an interesting collection, espe 
cially, if we include 20 among them the 
early specimens already described 21 from 
the German, the Roman, and the Paris 
presses. 

The first complete English 22 Bible, as is 
well known, was the edition of 1535, printed 



in all probability at Antwerp. 23 It is so 
scarce that no perfect copy is known, and 
one of the six 2i examples in the Exhibition, 
Lord Spencer s, 25 has a title-page inserted 
from a different edition. 26 Her Majesty s 27 
copy has part 28 of the title, but is very im 
perfect 29 in other places, as is Lord Leices 
ter s, 30 which, however, has the whole title, 31 
and is therefore unique. It 32 was finished, 
says the colophon, in 1535, " the fourth day 
of October." The Althorp 33 copy has a 
title from a Bible almost equally 34 rare, 
Raynalde and Hyll s, 35 1549, of which no 3t! 
copy seems to be in the gallery. The New 
Testament of Tyndale s version, lent by the 
Dean and Chapter of St. Paul s and almost 
unique, is perhaps 37 as much as ten 3 * years 
older than Coverdale s first Bible. Mr. Fry 
and others are of opinion that it was printed 
by Peter Schoeffer at Worms in 1 526. This 39 
would add to its interest, as Schoeffer was 
the successor 40 of the Peter Schoeffer of 
whom we have already made frequent men 
tion as the partner of Gutenberg 41 and Fust. 
A part, 42 at least, of the old Testament was 
printed in London from Wycliffe s version 
in or about 1532, by Robert Redman, 43 and 
a copy is in the Lambeth Library, and might 
perhaps have been lent for the present Ex 
hibition if asked for, but the managers do 
not seem 44 to have been aware of its exist 
ence. 4 " Tyndale s Pentateuch 46 is here, how 
ever, 47 printed at "Malborow in the land 
of Hesse," and lent by Mr. Fry. There 
are several other 48 Tyndale Testaments, 



The Flavour 



including, according to the " preliminary 
issue " 4 of the Catalogue, that of 1535, 
" whercunto is added an exhortacion to the 
same of Erasmus Rot, with an Englysshe 
Kalender and a Table, necessary to fynde 
easly and lyghtely any story contayned in 
the iiii evangelistes and in the Actes of the 
Apostles." The book itself is, 51 however, 
not to be found " easly and lyghtely " by a 
visitor ; and is, we suspect, among the 
closed 2 volumes in a bookcase which oc 
cupies the centre of the gallery. The " pre 
liminary issue" has become permanent, 53 a 
not unaccustomed fate of South Kensing 
ton M Catalogues. 

Next "" in interest after these the first 
English versions comes the first," 10 perhaps 
we should say the only 57 authorized edition 
that of Henry VIII., printed by r s Grafton 
and Whitchurch in 1539, and celebrated in 
history as the Great Bible. Of this there 
are several copies, and the wood-cut title 59 
said to have been designed by Holbein, 00 
is worth studying. At the top the King is 
seated on a throne, 1 1 ensigned 02 with his 
arms, and surrounded by his courtiers, to 
whom he distributes copies of the book. At 
either side Cromwell and Cranmer, each 
also identified by his shield, are similarly 
employed ; and round 3 the head of each 
person is a scroll, on which we read " Vivat 
Rex,"" 4 or, where the person represented is 
a child, 83 "God save the King," for children 
of course could not be expected to cheer in 
Latin." There is a tragic interest, too, 
about these curious pictures. 67 Among the 
copies exhibited is one in which the circular 
space previously filled with Cromwell s arms 
is left blank. The shield has disappeared 
in the interval between the issue of the two 6s 
copies ; 09 and, in the same interval, the 
great Vicar-General had lost not only his 
shield, but his head. There are copies of 
several later editions, but we fail 70 to find 
any special 71 notice of the sole 72 English 
issue of Queen Mary s reign. In 1553 I"-d~ 
ward Whitchurche published a Bible which 
would recommend itself to some of our 
modern educational agitators. It is literally 
"without note or comment," all the pre 
liminary matter printed with the Great 
Bible, including the Calendar and the Table 
of Lessons, being omitted. At least one 73 
copy appears in the Catalogue. Strange to 
say, those days of bigotry 74 seem to have 



been favourable to Bible-printing ; for the 
same year, 1553, witnessed the appearance of 
the first Spanish edition, 75 of which a copy, 

printed at Ferrara, comes from Althorp, and 
another is lent by the Bible Society. In 
1557 William Whittingham, afterwards 
Dean of Durham, but then an exile at 
Geneva, published a New Testament of his 
own translation, the first 76 divided into 
verses, and three years later came out the 
famous "Genevan, "or "Breeches Bible," 
which for nearly a hundred years continued 
to be the popular version. Copies of the 
first edition are very rare, but two 77 at least 
are in the Gallery. It is adorned with maps, 
ami has " moste profitable annotations upon 
all the hard places." It went through about 
two hundred editions, and was not super 
seded " 4 in the estimation of the Bible-read 
ing public until the profitable annotations, 
and even the headings of the chapters, ap 
peared in an edition of King James s version 
published in 1649 by the Stationers Com- 

!)any, 78 and made no doubt on purpose to 
ook as like the old favourite as possible/ 
Many liberties were taken with both text 
and notes, among which perhaps the most 
serious dealt with the heading of Psalm 
cxlix.,"" the same psalm from which Oba- 
diali" 42 Bind -their -kings -with -chains -and- 
their -nobles -with- fetters -of-iron took his 
memorable surname. In the Genevan 
Bible " this psalm was headed " An exhor 
tation to the church to prayse the Lord for 
his victory and conquest that he giveth his 
saints against all man s power." In the 
Authori/ed Version" 1 a very different mean 
ing was given to the psalm : "The prophet 
exhorteth to praise God for his love to the 
Church, and for that power which he hath 
given to the Church to rule (he consciences 
of men. 1 1 The new edition/ 1 printed in the 
very year which saw the downfall of all 
supremacy H ; but that of the saints, was 
altered ingeniously; the power given to the 
Church was " for the conversion of sin 
ners."" 7 And, strange to say/ H there has 
ever since been a certain doubt about the 
form of this heading, and it now stands in 
ordinary Bibles in a form which differs alike 
from King James s and the saint s, for it 
breaks off short at the word "Church." 81 

We do not recognize 90 a copy of the quarto 
of 1649 in the Gallery, nor and this is a 
much more serious omission do we find a 



10 



The Caxton Exhibition 



single perfect copy of the first issue of the so- 
called Authorized Version. 91 One, near the 
door, seems only to have its New 92 Testa 
ment title ; but in the Catalogue there is a 
long paragraph about "Hee" editions or 
"Shee" 93 editions which calls for some 
notice. 94 Two issues at least took place in 
1611, and their differences are easily seen ; 
but, except in the preliminary leaves, 95 it 
is seldom that the two issues are found se 
parate. 90 Sheets from one were constantly 97 
mixed with sheets from the other ; and any 
attempt to say that one set of sheets belongs 
wholly to the first issue and another to the 
second ends not only in confusion, 98 but in 
something worse. 99 When it has been ar 
bitrarily 100 determined which set belongs to 
each issue, the next thing is to make exist 
ing examples conform ; and a process takes 
place exactly analogous to that by which an 
enthusiastic architect is sometimes tempted 
to falsify the record in restoring an old build 
ing. 101 The collection of editions of the 
Authorized 102 Version is wretchedly poor, 103 
containing in fact only one volume of any 
importance 104 the Bodleian copy of the 
famous Bible of 1631 103 an octavo in which 
the "not" was omitted from the Seventh 
Commandment. 108 We failed to find a first 
Oxford 107 Testament, a first Cambridge 108 
Testament, a Lloyd s 109 folio, aBlayney s 110 
quarto, a first Irish, 111 a first American, 112 
an "immaculate" Bible of i8u, 113 or, in 
fact, with the one exception, 111 anything of 
great note 115 in this department. There is 
a poor 116 copy of the Scots Bible in octavo, 
with the plates by Bolswaert which were 
such an offence to the Puritans, and were 
specially charged against Archbishop Laud. 
The Psalm-books, too, are not remarkable 
for their rarity 117 except the American "Bay 
Psalm-Book," which enjoys the credit of 
being the first book printed in British North 
America, and of which the present copy, 
lent from the Bodleian, is unique on this side 
of the Atlantic. The Queen s Printers, the 
two University presses, and the Bible Society 
make great displays on the staircase, where 
copies may be seen of the "Gladstone 
Bible," 118 printed and bound at Oxford 119 
in twelve hours. The public was informed 120 
at first that the type had been set up within 
that time, and the curious in this kind of 
literature were on the look-out for a valu 
able crop 121 of misprints and the speedy 
suppression of the whole edition. But the 



type has been long standing, and the volume 
is of the ordinary 122 kind, and does not 
even, we believe, contain the Translators 
Preface or the Apocryphal books. 

The machinery is apparently the most at 
tractive part of the show. 123 Where is Mr. 
Buckmaster 124 that he does not lecture on 
it? All 125 the processes of paper-making, 
type-casting, composing, distributing, elec- 
trotyping, printing, and folding are carried 
on here. There are specimens of ancient 
types and woodcuts, and paper made on the 
old system is printed with a memorial of the 
Exhibition in a press of the slow, 126 awk 
ward 127 kind which Caxton 128 must have 
used. The various attempts at setting up 
type by machinery occupy some space, and 
are examined with great interest. Hatters- 
ley s machine appears to be very convenient, 
but it is only by a practical printer 129 that 
its merits or faults can be justly appre 
ciated. 130 The Clowes method differs from 
the Hattersley in the use of electricity ; but 
it is open to objections which, as far as we 
can judge, 131 must be fatal to its extensive 
use. 132 In fact, of six systems here exhi 
bited the Mackie steam composer, the 
Clowes electric composer, the Hattersley, 
the Kastenbein, the Muller, and the Heine- 
mann it may safely be said that not one 133 
is likely to come into extensive use in a 
printing house, although the Hattersley 
may be suitable fcr amateur work, and the 
others are all very pretty as toys. 134 The 
room in which the various processes of 
stereotyping are carried on will be found 
very attractive, especially as the plates cast 
are for actual use. Among the curiosities 
of the Exhibition are the machines of various 
kinds for arranging 130 sheets of paper for 
the press, some of them seeming to be fur 
nished with a human finger and thumb, and 
much more than human accuracy and regu 
larity. It is perhaps 130 a pity that the 
machinery could not have formed a separate 
exhibition, perhaps 137 in combination with 
bookbinding, 138 as it is, the staid bibliogra 
phers 139 above stairs complain much of the 
noise and the smell, 140 caring evidently very 
little as to how a book is produced so that it 
is produced ; and perhaps going on to think, 
since they set so much store by rarity, that 
when a press has issued a single copy of a 
book, the more seldom it repeats the pro 
cess 141 the better. 



The Flavour 1 1 

Thus spake the great public Umpire of Southampton Street. Not 
a question of any moment in law, manners, customs, religion, literature, 
history or politics turns up but this Oracle delivers its learned charge 
and pronounces judgment for its readers. When our Oracle speaks 
let no dog bark has been the bye-law of the community for years. 
To reply to a preacher-man, in his own tub, by the law of the land is, 
I believe, sacrilege ; while to attempt to answer the Saturday Review, by 
the law of custom and its own rules, not less binding, is, I suppose, 
scarcely anything short of blasphemy. Still a duty in behalf of the 
public is thrust upon me per force of circumstances, to try and bring- 
to this great self-elected Umpire with a blank cartridge and examine its 
papers. 

The Caxton Celebration and Exhibition was, probably, deemed a 
sufficiently important event for the Saturday to call together its faculty 
of wiseacres to set the community right upon the whole subject of Print 
ing and Books. One sees at a glance how these important topics must 
have taxed all the literary, antiquarian, historical, critical, judicial, biblical 
and bibliographical powers of the establishment. I have no idea who 
was the Head Centre or chief delegate chosen to superintend and work 
up these powerful pronunciamentos, but manifestly no one man of the 
staff could have done it alone. The five articles are in the highest and 
most elaborate style of the Saturday, and possess all the peculiar cha 
racteristics of that Review. Prick this article iv and one will do the 
public a service by letting its acrid midnight-oil out of it, and perhaps at 
the same time also out of the whole ambitious concern, for this privateer 
ing Weakly, it appears, is not constructed on the bulk-head principle. 

At first I confess that I felt even a sort of pride in being extinguished 
by such an all-powerful luminary, but on revising my portion of the 
Caxton Catalogue and re-reading the five articles, I soon perceived that 
this attractive light was only moonshine, thin, borrowed, and pale : and 
that so far from feeling myself demolished, demoralized and scorched, I 
could still afford, so far as the Saturday is concerned, to hold up my 
head and re-issue my little book. I, therefore, with some confidence, 
appeal from the Saturday to the general intelligence of the community, 
a judge on a higher level, and not at present under the spell of anony 
mous, irresponsible, reverend, and self-made critics. 

Biblical history and bibliography have run long enough in their present 
narrow groove, passing hand-in-hand from head to head down through 
many reverend and able writers since the days of Anderson, if not 
Lewis, without a particle of new and original investigation, until they 
have drizzled into the Saturday Review, and been summed up in a 
nutshell of common errors and commonplaces. This, perhaps, is 
rather strong, but the circumstances, as the reader will soon see, require 
something strong. By this article iv, here reprinted in full, I was either 



1 2 The Caxton Exhibition 

bound hand and foot in the meshes of these critics, fixed and fast, or 
the article is made of rotten tissues. Unless, therefore, I can manage 
to davenport-brothers myself from these mortal coils of theirs, I feel 
that I am done for. Now without further preliminary let us proceed to 
business and examine the examiner, and test the statements with our 
own critical litmus-papers. When the war between Acid and Alkali 
ceases, then and not till then, should one submit to this Saturdalian 
dribble of biblical stuff and nonsense built upon frivolous speculation. 

The opening of the Saturday s fourth broadside, i8th August, 1877, 
against the Caxton Exhibition, Class C, is a charge that up to about 
the middle of August the Bibles remain unarranged. 1 This is only 
about half true. There were two ways of arranging the Bibles, first, in 
the printed catalogue, as described above on page six, and second, in 
the thirty-five cases along the north and south sides of the gallery ; the 
first for a permanency and future reference, the second for a hasty peep 
of the multitude during the nine weeks of the Exhibition. 

We are told that many ardent bibliographers 2 were disappointed 
at first sight, but comforted themselves with the reflection that if the 
present collection 3 of Bibles had not been largely supplemented 4 it 
could not have been considered in any sense representative 5 of the 
history of Bible printing ; which I suppose means, if it can be interpreted 
to mean any thing, that if the arrangement of the Catalogue had not been 
completed by reading the proofs, enlarging and correcting the titles, 
there would have been a very poor catalogue and a worse collection, 
but as it was made all right and representative there was really very 
little left to grumble about. 

The critic, who it is presumed is the ardent bibliographer himself, 
now grows personal and complains that Mr. Stevens," to whom the 
arrangement 7 of this part of the Exhibition was entrusted, 8 has neither 
done " it himself nor commissioned 10 any one else to do it. Now Mr 
Stevens 6 was never entrusted 8 by the Executive Committee to do the 
arrangement 7 of this or any part of the Exhibition, nor had he 9 ever the 
power to commission any one else to do it. In fact the Saturday 
Reviewer is manifestly under some misapprehension as to the character 
of Mr Stevens connection with the Caxton Exhibition, for he gives it 
a prominence which Mr Stevens has no right to accept without protest. 
The simple truth is that Mr Stevens goodnaturedly consented, at the 
request of Committee N i, Mr George Bullen of the British Museum, 
Chairman, (which with Mr Blades from the Executive really did the 
literary work of the Executive Committee,) to arrange the Bible titles for 
the Catalogue, and prepare them for the printer. He undertook no 
responsibility whatever in the Exhibition, incurred no risk, and received 
no emolument. Nothing was entrusted 8 to him officially: he did what 
he undertook to do" cheerfully and at his own expense, and had no 



Flavour 1 3 

power, right, or desire to commission 10 any one else to do work for him. 
Yet this Saturday afternoon critic passes lightly over the Introduction 11 
with a sneer, calls Van Meteren an Antwerp merchant, 12 * who is said to 
have learned to print 13 early in life; says, also, that the authority I 
quoted does not justify these conclusions," and without further evi 
dence 16 he must withhold his judgment. 10 All this new historical matter 
the learned critic of the Saturday Review dismisses contemptuously in 
three lines. This may be all the room he had at his disposal, but 
he may be reminded that it takes no more space to tell the truth than it 
does to tell the other thing. Perhaps if he will condescend to re-read 
the Dutch extracts given on the back of the dedication of this volume 
he may come to a different conclusion. Meanwhile, what his judgment 
is worth will be better understood further on when we have weighed it. 
If the patient reader will kindly follow us through our numerical objec 
tions to this writer s loose statements and looser opinions, he will see 
that his judgment is just the light stuff balloons are filled with. I did 
not ask him to stop his press to notice and pat my dog, but if he stops 
it voluntarily, and goes out of his way to give him a kick, he need not 
be surprised if he in return gets for his pains a bite such as Isaac Walton 
never fished for. 

The next sentence, completing the first paragraph, is in the highest 
style of Saturday Reviewing, piquant, off-hand, self-asserting, and over 
whelmingly egotistical. Meanwhile, as Mr. Stevens Introduction is 
not before us, 17 we may pass on to notice the Bibles actually displayed IS 
in the Exhibition ; why, these" were the very ones one would expect 
him to notice, and if he had found time to read the Introduction 11 
before displaying his ignorance about the matters contained in it, and 
pronouncing his free verdict against it, he might possibly have saved 
his credit, if that was of any consideration. 

It was no fault of mine that the Introduction was not before him. 
It had been some days previously fully noticed by the Times and the 
Athenccum. But it is not necessary, I believe, for an experienced critic 
to see 17 a book he reviews. In this case, however, a cursory glance at 
the Introduction might have prevented our ardent bibliographer dis 
playing the profundity of his shallowness. The Introduction, filling pages 
25-42 of the present volume, is still commended to his perusal. In the 
second clause of the sentence he alludes to the shortcomings of the 
Committee la in their arrangement, apparently forgetting that he had 
already 7 castigated me for the same negligence. However, with be 
coming condescension, he pronounces it an interesting collection of 
Bibles, especially if we include* among them the early specimens 
already described 21 in article i, ii, and iii, in the S. R. Why not 
include them? Does the mere fact that the reviewer in his previous 
articles had briefly alluded to (but not described) some half dozen out 



14 The C ax ton Exhibition 

of hundreds of early Bibles in the Exhibition, fully described in the 
Catalogue, lift them out of the collection ? But this egotistic, pedantic 
and empty allusion to past services of self and partners is an old trick 
of these Saturdamalion critics to fill up their vacuums and to make all 
knowledge appear to cluster exclusively about their own brows. 

I now introduce our lofty Scholastikos, with his eyebrows above his 
temples, and with his historical brick, as the specimen of his house, the 
Coverdale Bible, 22 which he owns was printed in all probability at 
Antwerp. 23 This statement is precisely the chief item of the mysterious 
history of our first English Bible which a little above he declines to 
receive without further evidence. 15 I had discovered that it was printed 
at Antwerp by or for Jacob Van Meteren, instead of Zurich by Froschover, 
as generally accepted. It is not, I believe, an uncommon practice for 
reviewers who cut up historical books first to clip out for their own 
use the little telling historical points before they destroy their victims. 
However, I am glad that S. R. adopts Antwerp as the place of printing, 
for that fact simplifies and reconciles much. This point admitted, I 
have no fear as to Van Meteren s claims being also sooner or later 
acknowledged. 

The reviewer speaks learnedly of the six 24 examples of the Coverdale 
Bible of 1535 in the Exhibition. There are seven copies described in 
the Catalogue, viz. N 765, the Earl of Leicester s, from Holkham ; 766, 
Earl Spencer s, from Althorp; 767, from Sion College Library; 768, from 
the B. and F. Bible Society; 769, W. Amhurst Tyssen-Amhurst s copy; 
770, Dr Gott s; and N 771, lent by the Earl of Jersey. 

These seven fine books were among the chief glories of the Exhi 
bition, and should have awakened the latent intelligence of our ardent 
bibliographer. But behold what a learned muddle he makes of them. 
First he says that Lord Spencer s 2S copy has a title-page inserted from 
a different edition.- 15 The reader is referred to N 766 of the present 
volume for a corrected description of it. The title-page is made up in 
manuscript, like many other copies, by using the woodcut border of the 
title of the Petyt and Redman Bible of 1540, or that of 1549, both from 
the same woodcut as the original title of 1535, insetting blank paper in 
the cartouch and putting in by hand the title in facsimile. The copy is 
on the whole a very fine one. 

Scholastikos next informs us that Her Majesty s 27 copy has part 28 of 
the title, but is very imperfect ~ in other places, as is Lord Leicester s, 30 
which however has the whole title, 31 and is therefore unique. This is a 
lovely historical muddle, such as one rarely sees anywhere but in the 
columns of the Saturday Review, where ignorance is bliss and history is 
apparently taught by rote. It is indelicate perhaps to tell the naked truth 
after this, but to develop the smile it must be told that Her Majesty s 
copy of the Coverdale Bible was not at the Caxton Exhibition at all, nor 



The Flavour 1 5 

was it even asked for, for the good reason, that we had already copies 
that exhibited all the variations known except one, viz. the title-page in 
the copy belonging to the Marquis of Northampton. But I have seen 
Her Majesty s copy at Windsor Castle, and am able to say that it is a 
good one, far above the average in condition, quite complete in the text, 
and having all the preliminary leaves as they came from the press of 
Nicolson of Southwark. It wants the map, has no part"* of the original 
title, but the title is made up, like Earl Spencer s, by inserting a facsimile 
or manuscript title in the cartouch of the woodcut border from the edition 
of 1540 or 1549 from the original Antwerp block of 1535. Every state 
ment therefore respecting Her Majesty s copy is erroneous. 

For an account of the Earl of Leicester s fine and very nearly perfect 
copy see N 765. It is the only copy known with the original Antwerp 
title-page quite perfect. The text is complete and the copy contains the 
last of the original Antwerp preliminary leaves, the counterfoil of the 
title, in this respect also unique. The map and the other preliminary 
leaves are in facsimile by the elder John Harris. The only other copy 
known with even a part of the original title-page is that in the British 
Museum. It " was finished does not apparently mean Earl Leicester s 
copy, as one might suppose, but the Coverdale Bible generally. Our 
critic here is a little mixed in his grammar, as well as in his history, and 
does not seem to improve in the next sentence, beginning The Althorp" 
copy has a title from a Bible almost equally " rare, Raynalde and Hyll s 
1549 of which no" copy seems to be in the gallery. The reviewer 
here is manifestly trying to outdo himself in blundering ignorance, but 
he succeeds better farther on. He does not seem to be aware that the 
Althorp" copy is Earl Spencer s ; a5 one and the same ; see N" 766, and the 
remark 1 above about the title. He is mistaken also about the com 
parative rarity of the Coverdale Bible of 1535 and that by Raynalde and 
Hyll, 3:i 1549. The latter is not a very rare book, and usually may be pur 
chased complete for one tenth the usual cost of an imperfect Coverdale. 
This Solon is also mistaken about there being no" copy of the 1549 
edition in the gallery. There were two copies there from the opening of 
the Exhibition, both described in the Catalogue under N" S 853 and 853*. 

So much for the seven Coverdales, of which our sublime blunderer 
mentions only two, Earl Spencer s and the Earl of Leicester s, both with 
disparaging comments which are not true. The other five he pretermits 
though not intentionally. 

We now come to our critic s sage remark that the Tyndale s Testament 
of 1526 is perhaps : 7 as much as ten : 3 years older than Coverdale s first 
Bible of 1535. We let him off on the perhaps. But when in the 
next sentence he speaks of Schoeffer 3 who printed at Worms as the suc 
cessor 40 of the Peter Schoeffer of whom he has already made frequent 
mention (in his previous papers on the Caxton Exhibition) as the partner 



1 6 The Caxton Exhibition 

of Gutenberg 41 and Fust, he is manifestly beyond his historical and 
biographical depth. Fust took his son-in-law, Peter Schoeffer, as a partner 
after the famous lawsuit which terminated in the business being trans 
ferred from Gutenberg the inventor to Fust, who had lent him money. 
Schoeffer was not therefore, I take it, ever a partner of Gutenberg. 

The next four lines embody as many errors in one sentence perhaps 
as any man living, not an old stager in Saturday reviewing, could reason 
ably be expected to write out. It is moreover beautifully funny, irrele 
vant, pedantic, officious, and startling. It is to the effect that there 
exists in the Lambeth Library a part 4 " of the Old Testament of Wycliffe s 
version, printed by Redman 4 about 1532, which might perhaps have 
been lent for the present exhibition if asked for, but the managers do 
not seem 44 to have been aware of its existence. 45 I am not able to 
speak for the managers, or the Executive Committee, but I may say 
that this little book alluded to is perfectly well known and was well 
described by the Rev Dr S. R. Maitland more than a quarter of a cen 
tury ago in his List of some of the Early Printed Books in the Archi- 
episcopal Library of Lambeth, London, 1843, 8, N 529, p. 237, a 
work with which most English * ardent bibliographers are familiar. 
The little book, however, is not of Wycliffe s version, is not of much 
bibliographical importance, and would not probably have been accepted 
by the managers if offered, unless perhaps the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
as one of the prominent Patrons of the Caxton Exhibition, had par 
ticularly requested it. So much having been said, however, it is perhaps 
as well to give the title of the book, and some account of it here 
" Prayers of the Byble take out of the olde testament and the newe, as 
olde holy fathers bothe men and women were wont to pray in tyme of 
tribulation, deuyded in vi. partes. Imprynted at London in Fletestrete 
by me Robert Redman. Cum gratia et priuilegio Regali." In this 
Lambeth copy, otherwise fine, part iii is wanting, * An exposcayo vpo 
the psalme of Miserere .... made by Hierom Sauonarole. The book 
first appeared in Italy under the name of Savonarola, and was after 
wards printed in English by Frangois Regnault at Paris without date, 
probably in 1538, while Coverdale and Grafton were with him superin 
tending the printing of the Great Bible. It was reprinted by Redman 
in London about 1538 or 1539. Being all Scripture in English it would 
not, of course, have been licensed in 1532, but in 1538 or 1539, as the 
language is modern and good, there would then have been no difficulty 
about the translation. The word not is uniformly spelled nat, as in 
[Redman s?] Testament of 1536, folio. The separate parts, being without 
title-pages, but with new signatures, are sometimes found attached to 
service books. Regnault had a house in London from about 1498 to 
1540, and supplied many of the English Roman Catholic Service Books 
used in various Cathedrals. This little fetch about Wycliffe is one of 



The Flavour \ 7 

the Saturday s stock pieces of recondite lore, having appeared before and 
will probably appear again. What put this little irrelevant reprint into the 
head of Scholastikos no fellow can probably ever find out. It is one of 
those learned surprises, I suppose, that so abound in the columns of this 
review, put there to astonish us with by-path knowledge, to make fools 
ask questions and the uninitiated to stare. 

But the grammarian will stare sufficiently when he reads in the two 
following clauses that Tyndale s Pentateuch " is here however, 7 and 
* several other 4s Tyndale Testaments. 

This little slip is not so bad as one of my own which he brings 
home to me with the genuine tact and skill of a Saturday critic. In N 
779 of the revised Catalogue, the most splendid copy known of Tyndale s 
New Testament of 1536 in octavo, lent by Earl Spencer, the date in the 
rough proof and preliminary issue was erroneously printed I535- 50 
In my first-proof reading it was corrected to 1536, and has so stood in 
the last six or seven editions of the Catalogue. The precious little 
volume had a prominent place assigned to it among the rarest books, 
and as the date appeared on the title, which was exhibited, there should 
have been no difficulty in an * ardent bibliographer s " easly and 
lyghtely " finding the volume. However, this typographical error in the 
early editions of the Catalogue marked preliminary issue " :< made him 
feign that the book itself was not 1 to be found by a visitor, and he sus 
pected that it was among the closed " volumes in a bookcase near by. 
In his disappointment he declares that the preliminary issue has 
become permanent"" a not unaccustomed fate of South Kensington" 1 
Catalogues. Now all these erroneous statements are based on an un 
worthy quibble, a known typographical error, known to have been cor 
rected. The revised and corrected Catalogue had been issued some 
days before this article iv appeared, and hence it was necessary for the 
critic to go back to the preliminary issue. Had his common sense 
been rubbed up a little he might have perceived, or been informed, that 
the closed volumes }S J in the unused bookcase were duplicates, or spare 
volumes of sets not required, and were locked up for safe keeping till 
they could be returned with others to the exhibitors. It was very natural 
and boy-like to overlook what was before him and to wish to look over 
what was not intended to be seen. But the fling at a not unaccustomed 
fate (whatever that may be) of South Kensington" Catalogues is con 
stitutional and a chronic matter of course with a Saturdalian. It is 
well known that South Kensington with its Museum is the bete noire of 
the Saturday Review. No knight of the quill is qualified for its staff 
until he has had a successful tilt at S. K. The proprietors are presumed 
to keep an office Rosinante in their Southampton Street editorial stables 
with which each staff writer must from time to time try his hand, 
or do his best to donquixote the South Kensington Windmill. If our 



1 8 The Caxton Exhibition. 

unpractised witling has not here exactly hit the mark, it is to be hoped 
that he may live to fight another day. Meanwhile the South Ken 
sington Mill stands ! 

It is suspected that our Scholastikos in this last tilt against S. K. lost 
a leaf out of his note-book, for a distressing and damaging hiatus ap 
pears here in the most important part of his biblical disquisition. Not 
withstanding his words next 55 in interest after these, before coming to 
the Great Bible, he wholly omits to mention the first folio and the first 
quarto English Bibles printed in England by James Nicolson of South- 
wark, dated 1537. See N os 790 and 791. Nor has he thought to men 
tion the first edition of Matthew s Bible, also of 1537, N 779, or the 
Taverner of 1539, N 811. Then there lies neglected N 779, the first 
edition of Tyndale s New Testament printed in England in 1536 in 
small folio, to say nothing of the other editions of Tyndale s and Cover- 
dale s Testaments printed in England and abroad in the years 1536 to 
1539, mostly described in this Catalogue. All these are too interesting 
and important to have been omitted probably for any cause short of 
accident, a slip of fortune, to which we are all liable. He is therefore 
here credited with good intentions while he is charged with careless 
practice in his tilting. We are told that where ignorance is bliss it is 
folly to be otherwise, but in this case our critic cannot be congratulated 
on his bliss. The dropping of these important stitches in the meshes he 
was weaving for another is doubtless a pure mistake. It is always well, 
however, in this naughty world that something of our doings should be 
scored as pure. 

We come now to the veritable pons asinorum 58 of the English Reforma 
tion before which so many of our historians have shied or broken down ; 
I mean the Great Bible of 1539-1541, sometimes also called Cranmer s 
Bible, which, to use Mr Gladstone s language on another occasion, was 
the climax and consummation of the art of printing in England up to 
that time. Indeed, considering the times and state of the market, that 
it was wholly a private, individual, and mercantile enterprise, carried on at 
great personal peril and commercial risk by Marler, Grafton, Whitchurche, 
and other City merchants, in spite of ecclesiastical bigots not yet all dead, 
it may be considered the greatest effort of the press even to the present 
day. It was the culminating point of a great struggle for reform and 
civil liberty. When we contemplate the several steps of progress during 
the seven preceding years, we see now just how much this Great Bible 
was required to carry on, concentrate, and consummate the Reformation. 

These Great Bibles are the milestones that mark the advance of the 
English nation in civil liberty, civil law, refinement of language, personal 
freedom, statute law, popular election and legislation, the science 
of Government, public education, national self respect, domestic pros 
perity, and foreign influence. With the seven distinct editions, 1539- 



The Flavour 19 

1541, of these great and magnificent volumes scattered throughout the 
land, fifteen or twenty thousand copies, in the families of the nobility 
and gentry as well as in most of the eleven thousand parish churches, to 
say nothing of the precious seed planted on good ground by Tyndale, 
Coverdale, Rogers, Cranmer, and Cromwell, it was impossible for the 
English nation not to advance, though it might from time to time require 
a Philip and a Mary to steady its progress. We therefore hug these 
Great Bibles to our bosoms, and count them as the choicest gems of our 
libraries. It is for these reasons that I gave so much space to them in 
the Catalogue, N os 813-825, and made such prominent display of them 
in the Caxton Exhibition. 

There were certain preliminary steps, never to be forgotten, which 
contributed to this inestimable boon of free Scriptures, such as the fall 
of Wolsey, the divorce of Catharine of Aragon, the separation from 
Rome, the Royal Supremacy backed by Act of Parliament, the paving 
the road with the hardest and best heads, of More, Fisher and others ; 
the destruction of the monasteries, the force of royal proclamations, the 
Act of the Six Articles, the drawing of the fangs of Convocation ; and 
finally the Act of 1538 directing that all books of Scripture should have 
the sanction or licence of the King, the Privy Council or a bishop, which 
threw the whole matter, in spite of Convocation, into the hands of 
Cranmer and Cromwell. Some of these motions may at first sight 
appear retrograde, but if so, it was only the drawing back for a harder blow. 

The seven" 8 - 69 distinct editions of the Great Bible are identified and 
known by the several dates in their colophons. These are the editions, 
i, of April 1539; 2, April 1540; 3, July 1540; 4, November 1540; 
5, May 1541; 6, November 1541; and 7, December 1541. Besides 
these, the two November editions of 1540 and 1541 were both reissued 
with large portions of the volumes reprinted, thus making two more 
editions which I number 8 and 9. Five of these editions are very 
nearly alike and make up each other, viz. N i, 2, 3, 5 and 7. They 
are in large black letter, 62 lines on a full page, and on strong thick 
paper. The other editions of November are on thinner paper, 65 lines. 
The whole nine editions OT have a fine showy woodcut border to the first 
title, all alike from the same cut, except that in the 4th"" edition of 
November 1540 and all subsequent editions the arms of Cromwell, who 
was beheaded on the 28 July 1540, are obliterated." 7 It is the aim of 
true bibliographers to find copies pure and distinct, with no leaves of 
other editions mixed. Mr Francis Fry s elaborate book on these nine 
editions is the best and surest guide. The wood-cut first title-page 
has generally hitherto been ascribed to Holbein, but Wornum in his life 
of Holbein, 60 and others have recently so strongly pronounced against 
this opinion, that it is now generally abandoned. I give on p. 2 1 a reduced 
facsimile of it, 4 by 3 inches, the original measuring 14 by 9! inches. 



2O The Caxton Exhibition 

Let us now see how our learned Scholastikos treats this subject. His 

remarks, as usual, are worth quoting: "Next 55 in interest comes 

the first, 56 perhaps we should say the only 57 authorized edition that of 
Henry VIII, printed by 58 Grafton and Whitchurch in 1539, and celebrated 
in history as the Great Bible. Of this there are several copies [in the 
Exhibition], and the woodcut title, 59 said to have been designed by Hol 
bein, 00 is worth studying. At the top the King is seated on a throne, 61 
ensigned 62 with his" 3 arms, and surrounded by his courtiers, to whom he 
distributes copies of the book. At either side Cromwell and Cranmer, 
each also identified by his shield, are similarly employed; and round 63 
the head of each person is a scroll, on which we read Vivat Rex, 64 or, 
where the person represented is a child, 05 God save the King, for children, 
of course, could not be expected to cheer in Latin. 66 There is a tragic 
interest, too, about these curious pictures. 07 Among the copies exhibited 
is one in which the circular space previously filled with Cromwell s arms 
is left blank. The shield has disappeared in the interval between the 
issue of the two 08 copies. 69 

This is a masterpiece of packing a dozen crammers in a dozen lines ! 
and yet so cleverly told that it requires an expert to detect the deception. 
When a gentleman describes to us beautiful flowers as blue which we 
know to be red we generally let it pass, for we know that he is colour 
blind. In like manner, when a gentlemanly clergyman or Saturday 
reviewer tells us a string of historical facts which we know to be fictions, 
we either mentally wish Dogberry to write down his proper designation, 
or we regard him as truth-blind, and so let him parrotize at will. 

In this case it may be remarked that there is probably no evidence 
that the first edition of the Great Bible of April 1539 was ever ; author 
ized 57 beyond the words cum privilegio, etc. The book was a private 
mercantile venture, and the licence to print was as much a protection 
against rival printers as a privilege to publish. Great influence was 
used then and for the next four years to obtain royal recommendation 
to secure purchasers in families and churches. Again it was not printed 
by 58 Grafton and Whitchurche, although their names be on the title, but 
it is known to have been printed by Francois Regnault in Paris in 1538 
under the editorship of Coverdale. Grafton and Whitchurche probably 
paid most of the expenses and sold the books for their own profit. The 
April 1540, or second edition, printed in London (Anthony Marler ad 
vancing the money for printing, etc. and Grafton and Whitchurche, 
together or separately, acting as publishers), bore for the first time on the 
title the words Apoynted to the vse of the churches. The 3rd, 4th, 
5th, 6th, and yth editions of 1540 and 1541 had also the same line 
Apoynted, etc. Yet these words cannot be construed to mean author 
ized. They simply mean that in the almanac for every day in the year, 
and in the tables for Salisbury or other use, one may find the psalms, 



TIic Flavour 



21 



lessons, epistles and gospels, etc. pointed out or appointed for the use 
in churches. The Bishops Bibles after 1572 bore both the words 
authorized and * appointed, but never, I believe, was the word author 
ized so used before 1574. 

As to the description of the woodcut border of the title 5:) ~ Gn , a mere 
glance at the annexed reduced facsimile will show the incorrectness 
of it. Above the king 
the Almighty is seen 
among the clouds ; 
and the King, Henry 
VIII, with the royal 
arms at his feet, " 
seated in a large arm 
chair, 01 is distributing 
the word of God, with 
his right hand to the 
archbishops and bis 
hops (known by their 
mitres) representing 
the Church ; and 
with his left hand to 
the nobility, known 
by their coronets. Be 
low in the centre of 
the inner margin is 
Cranmer, designated 
by his arms at his 
feet, giving out the 
word of God to the 
clergy, while on the 
other side of the title, 
just opposite, stands 
Cromwell, at foot his 
arms, distributing the 
Bible to the gentry. 
So far, among all 
these figures there is 
not one Vivat Rex. 04 But in the double compartment at the bottom 
of the page under the title are crowds of the people both men and 
women standing and sitting between the two emblems of civilization, 
the pulpit and the prison, both fully occupied. The pulpit, apparently 
at Paul s Cross, is on the left side, occupied by a preacher with many 
listeners, mostly seated in the foreground, and standing crowded in the 
background. Among these are several scrolls with Vivat Rex, 61 but 




22 The Caxton Exhibition 

not round 03 the head of each person. Over the crowd of men and 
women at back is a single scroll with God save the King. On the 
right, opposite the pulpit is the prison, perhaps a tower of Newgate, 
across the precincts, with several prisoners looking at the crowd 
mostly facing them, some with * Vivat Rex as before, and in the 
foreground two youths 65 seated on the ground and a man kneeling, 
underneath a scroll with God save the King. There are no children, 
and therefore the poetic expression for children of course could not 
be expected to cheer in Latin 66 is a stroke of the imagination worthy 
the palmy days of the Saturday Review. Lest our Scholastikos may 
attempt to shield himself at the expense of confessing that he had 
savoyed this whole account of the Great Bible from a contemporary 
historian, even to the pretty fiction about the children cheering in 
Latin, I venture to give him the friendly advice that he had better not 
do that, because it will not look well, as a matter of taste, for his 
patron the Saturday to print beauties plagiarized from- a writer whom it 
is never tired of abusing, misquoting, and savagely reviewing. 

The reader will by these comments and the facsimile perceive how 
utterly void of truth is the whole of the reviewer s description of the 
Great Bible and its title, to say nothing of its many editions. It seems 
at first sight inconceivable that any writer can go on thus writing sen 
tence after sentence crammed with error, deceit, and all uncharitable- 
ness. I can account for it only on the supposition that if he be a 
parson or pastor he may have caught from his flock the foot and mouth 
disease, because as Williams of the Crown says, he has it bad, least 
wise, it is apparent that every time he opens his mouth he puts his foot 
in it. 

But lest my porch to this little catalogue may be mistaken for one 
intended for the Saturday Review itself, it becomes necessary to hasten 
to a conclusion. The reviewer now proceeds nearly a whole line without 
anything exceptional, until he stumbles into a hornet s nest of errors ; but 
we fail 70 to find any special 71 notice of the sole 7 " English issue of Queen 
Mary s reign. He then proceeds to say that in 1553 Whitchurche pub 
lished a Bible " without note or comment," all the preliminary matter 
printed with the Great Bible, including the Calendar and the Table of 
Lessons, being omitted. At least one 73 copy appears in the Catalogue. 
Strange to say, those days of bigotry seem to have been favourable to 
Bible-printing; 74 for the same year, 1553, witnessed the appearance of 
the first Spanish edition, 75 etc. In reply, the reader is referred to N os 
874 and 875 of this Catalogue for special 71 notices of two copies of this 
very Bible, both of which were in the Exhibition, and displayed from its 
opening. Indeed, our critic seems not to have failed 70 to notice one 73 
copy, and so contradicts himself. But the odd part of the joke is, that 
this plain and cheap edition of the Great Bible was issued by Whitchurche 



Tlic Flavour 2 1 * 

in Edward VI s reign and not in Mary s. It must have appeared before 
the 6th of July, 1553, when Edward died, for it is professedly a Protestant 
Bible, since we find at the end of it a table to find the Epistles and Gospels 
usually read in the Church, according to the boke of Common-Prayer. 
Scholastikos has thus managed, as usual, to misstate every fact, and then 
expresses surprise that in those days of bigotry 71 in England, a Bible 
should be printed in Spanish at Ferrara ! 

Of the notice of the Geneva New Testament first 76 divided into 
verses, 1557, he should have added in English, for this division into 
verses is copied from Stephens Greek and Latin Testament of 1551. 
Pagninus had also divided the whole Bible into verses as early as 1528, 
see N" 746. Three 77 copies of the Breeches Bible, first edition, were 
exhibited, one on large paper, see N os 909, 910, 91 1. I must here plead 
guilty to having led our critic into error as to the number of 200 distinct 
editions 7 * of this work. In writing my note under N 909, not remem 
bering the number of editions and for the moment not having time to 
look up my memoranda, I wrote the round number 200, charging my 
memory to count up the editions and correct the figures in the proof. 
The printer set it up in full and I never thought to correct the error. 
The true number cannot, I think, be more than 170. The critic has thus 
obtained this fact from the authority he disputes. 

For want of space I must omit to notice as it deserves the long rigma 
role of errors and irrelevant nonsense about the edition of 1649 by the 
Stationers Company. 71 " 1 There is nothing new in this long paragraph 
and very little that is true. There was a copy 1 " 1 of this edition belonging 
to myself exhibited, but by some mistake it failed to be entered in the 
Catalogue, a matter however of little consequence, inasmuch as it was a 
sole edition and a failure. I do not believe that this mixed edition had 
any influence in superseding the Genevan version or marking the period 
of its going out of use. The whole passage however is a fine display of 
useless information and might appear rather astounding to any one who 
did not know whence it was filched. 

Scholastikos next informs us with the air of a martyr that he does not 
find a single perfect copy of the first issue of the so-called Authorized 
Version. 511 One, near the door, seems only to have its New na Testa 
ment title; wrong again, for the copy next to the door was Earl Spencer s 
fine and perfect copy with not only the New"" Testament title but the 
original first title, with the woodcut border, and before the words " Ap 
pointed to be read in churches " were added. This is N 1036 of the 
present Catalogue. By its side was another fine and every way perfect 
copy of the same first issue of the 1611 version having the engraved 
copperplate title, N 1035, exhibited by myself. I refer the reader to my 
revised note under N 1035 fora full answer to the critic s sneers and 
arbitrary, 100 foolish and ridiculous dicta respecting the first two editions 



24 



The Caxton Exhibition 



should like to see in it hereafter a little less smartness, with a good 
deal more truthfulness. Its egotism and conceit might be lowered a 
peg with advantage to itself and the community. If there be virtue in 
this prescription for the Saturday s present weak les let us be content 
with the old saw, virtue is its own reward. It is not that I like the 
Saturday Review less that I have squeezed this flavour into my little 
book, but because its erroneous criticism afforded a good opportunity to 
expose some of the common errors entertained by recent historians and 
more recent writers concerning our printed Bible, that drifted into it. 
If I have failed this time, a little grape on the next occasion may 
perhaps suffice. 

HENRY STEVENS of Vermont. 

4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, 
London February 3, 1878 




INTRODUCTION. 



THE HISTORY OF PRINTING 

AS ILLUSTRATED BY 

THE PRINTED BIBLE, 

14501877. 

HE secular history of the HOLY SCRIPTURES is the 
sacred history of PRINTING. The Bible was the first 
book printed, and the Bible is the last book printed. 
Between 1450 and 1877, an interval of four centuries 
and a quarter, the Bible shows the progress and 
comparative development of the art of printing in a 
manner that no other single book can ; and Biblical 
bibliography proves that during the first forty years, at least, the Bible 
exceeded in amount of printing all other books put together ; nor were 
its quality, style, and variety a whit behind its quantity. 

The honour of producing the first, and, as many think, the most 
perfect book, is now ascribed to Gutenberg alone, Fust not coming in 

D 




26 The Printed Bibles in 

for a share of the credit of the invention until after his famous lawsuit in 
1455, when the Bible had been finished. We call it, therefore, the 
GUTENBERG BIBLE, and have no sympathy for any French name 
given to it simply because a copy found in a Paris library had the 
honour of being described by a French bookseller. After this suit, when 
Fust took over the business and associated Schoeffer with himself, there 
was probably a dispersion of the craft from Mentz to Bamberg, Strasburg, 
and other places, just as there subsequently was when Mentz in 1462 was 
besieged and taken by Adolphus, Duke of Nassau. 

As the Art spread from Mentz throughout Germany, Italy, France, and 
the Low Countries, the Bible was generally the first, or among the first 
books printed by each of the early printers, though unquestionably during 
the progress of these great volumes through the press the several presses 
threw off a variety of smaller pieces, especially Indulgences and other ty 
pical or typographical aids of the Church, some of which perchance might 
bear dates earlier than the Bibles themselves, which were on the anvils 
at the same time. 

Some half-dozen huge folio Bibles in Latin and German, besides the 
magnificent Psalters of 1457 and 1459, had appeared in type before a 
single volume of the Classics saw the " new lamp for the new learning." 
First and foremost of the ancient Classics came forth Cicero s De Offidis, 
in 1465, a little volume about the size of the Book of Genesis, followed 
soon after by his De Oratore and Epistolcz ad Familiar es. Then came the 
ever-popular Virgil and Caesar in 1469, and Pliny the Elder the next year. 
Ovid followed in 1471, and Valerius Maximusin 1472. Petrarch, Dante, 
and Boccaccio were fortunate enough among the modern classics to be 
set in type in 1470, 1471, and 1472, while the Canterbury Tales of 
Chaucer appeared some five or six years later from the press of 
Caxton. The first book in Greek came from the Milan press in 1476, 
followed by the first Greek classic author, dear old yEsop, in 1480, while 
the great Homer himself (reminding one of his own grim joke of Poly 
phemus) was held back and not devoured by the press till 1488. 

In a word, up to the time of the discovery of America, in 1492, Colum 
bus might have counted upon his fingers all the old classic authors 
(including Ptolemy and Strabo in their unbecoming Latin dress) who 
could throw any geographical light on the questions which the Great 



tlie C ax ton Exhibition 27 

Discoverer was discussing with the theologians of Spain ; while, covering 
the same period, the editions of the Bible alone, and the parts thereof, 
in many languages and countries, will sum up not for less than one 
thousand, and the most of these of the largest and costliest kind. 

We have been endeavouring for the last quarter of a century or more 
to compile as complete a list of printed Bibles and Parts of Bibles as 
possible from the earliest period to the present time, and the remarkable 
result is a table of some 30,000 titles, representing about 35,000 volumes. 
By throwing all this vast store of Biblical bibliography into one strictly 
chronological list, we see at a glance what Biblical work was going on in 
every part of the world under each year, or any given year, and compara 
tively how the production of the Holy Scriptures in one country or 
language ranged with those of another. We see, for instance, that all 
the earliest printed Bibles were in the Latin Vulgate, the first complete 
edition of the Septuagint not having been issued from the press of Aldus 
till the year 1518, the very year of the 141)1 German Bible. 

The earliest printed Bibles in the modern European languages were the 
first and second German Bibles by Mentelin and Eggesteyn, of Strasburg, 
of rather uncertain date, but certainly not later than 1466. In 1471 ap 
peared at Venice two translations into Italian the one by Malermi, 
printed by Vindelin de Spira, and the other by Nicolas Jenson. In 1477 
was printed the first New Testament in French by Buyer, at Lyons, and 
the same year appeared the first edition of the Old Testament in Dutch, 
printed at Delft by Jacob Jacobs zoen and Mauritius Yemants xoen. In 
1480 was published the splendid Bible in the Saxon or Low German 
language, from the press of Heinrich Quentel, of Cologne, followed by 
a second edition in 1491, and a third in 1494. The Psalms, in Dutch, 
first came out in 1480, in small octavo, and in Greek and Latin in 1481, 
while the first Hebrew Pentateuch appeared in 1482. The entire Bible 
done into French paraphrase was published by Guyard de Moulins in 
1487. A full translation appeared in the Bohemian language, printed at 
Prague in 1488. The same year appeared the entire Old Testament in 
Hebrew from the press of Abraham ben Chayim de Tintori, at Soncino. 

This chronological arrangement shows us also many noteworthy points, 
such as that nearly all the earliest Bibles were huge folios ; that the first 
Bibles printed at Rome and Venice appeared in 1471, and that the sixth 



28 The Printed Bibles in 

German Bible by G. Zainer, in 1475, at Augsburg, was the first with the 
leaves folioed or numbered ; that the first quarto Bible appeared in 1475, 
printed by John Peter de Ferratis at Placentia, which was also the 
first book printed at Placentia; that the first of Coburger s celebrated 
Bibles appeared in Nuremberg in 1475, an< ^ that by the end of the cen 
tury no less than thirteen large folio Bibles had come from this house 
alone ; that the four splendid Bibles printed in 1476 all bear the printers 
signatures, though it is difficult to say with certainty which was the first 
viz., that of Moravus at Naples, Jenson at Venice, Gering, Crantz, 
and Friburger at Paris, or that of F. de Hailbrun and N. de Frankfordia 
at Venice ; that the first Bible with a distinct title-page was printed at 
Venice, by George de Ravabenis in 1487, in small quarto ; and that the 
first Bible in small octavo, or " the poor man s Bible," was the earliest, 
or among the earliest books, from the press of Johann Froben, of Basle, 
in 1491, and is certainly one of the neatest and tidiest Bibles in our 
Collection. This splendidly illuminated and bound copy is lent us from 
the Bodleian Library. 

Prior to the discovery of America no less than twelve grand patri 
archal editions of the entire Bible, being of several different transla 
tions, appeared from time to time in the German language; to which 
add the two editions by the Otmars of Augsburg of 1507 and 1518, and 
we have the total number of no less than fourteen distinct large folio pre- 
Reformation, or ante-Lutheran Bibles. No other language except the 
Latin can boast of anything like this number. 

As the discovery of America was the greatest of all discoveries, so the 
invention of the Art of Printing may be called the greatest of all in 
ventions. But no sooner had Columbus reported his grand discovery 
through the press than the Pope assumed the whole property in the un 
known parts of the earth, and divided it all at once between the two 
little Powers in the Peninsula, wholly disregarding the rights and titles of the 
other nations of Europe. The same little game of assumption has been 
tried, from time to time, with regard to this great invention, but the press 
has a protective power within itself, which the Church can smother only 
with ignorance and mental darkness. 

From this rapid survey it will be apparent that our earliest Bibles, 
many of them printed most sumptuously on vellum, must have each cost 



the Caxton Exhibition 29 

the price of a farm. Later they could be had for a cow, but now a morn 
ing s milking of a cow will procure for a farmer a first-class well-bound 
Bible in his own language. 

At this late day it is difficult to arrive at the precise dates of several 
of the earliest and most important printed Bibles, most of the dates 
having been first assumed by bibliographers without sufficient authority, 
and subsequently followed by others without inquiry. From an inscrip 
tion by one Cremer, the illuminator and binder of the Gutenberg Bible, 
now in the National Library of Paris, we know positively that the book 
was printed before August, 1456. From another inscription in a copy of 
Pfister s Bible, also in the Paris Library, the work is assigned to Bamberg, 
before 1461, but the church register of Bamberg shows that this Bible 
was printed prior to March, 1460. More recently it has been announced 
and confirmed that the copy of the first of Mentelin s Latin Bibles, in the 
Library of Freiburg in Breisgau, bears an inscription by the rubricator 
showing that these important volumes had been printed prior to 1460 
and 1461. 

With these new data, and a new scrutiny by the light of recent biblio 
graphy, and new comparisons of our undated Bibles with books of 
positive dates and known printers, brought together, like the present 
Caxton Memorial Collection, to say nothing of the great aid derived from 
our recent photo-bibliography, or means of safely comparing books in one 
library with those of another, it is to be hoped that the day of more exact 
bibliography is at hand. It will not surprise us to find that the order of 
printing of the first seven of the great German Bibles, all of which are 
without dates, may be hereafter somewhat modified, or that our new 
scrutiny may even yet develop new or unrecognized editions in every de 
partment of Biblical research. 

We therefore, for the extraordinary opportunity afforded us for com 
paring and collating rare Bibles and other valuable books in this unique 
Caxton Memorial Collection, tender herewith our warmest thanks to each 
and all of our contributors, and more especially to Her Majesty the Queen, 
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, the Earl Spencer, Earl of Jersey, Karl 
of Leicester, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Curators of the Bodleian 
Library, the University Library, Cambridge, the University Library, Edin 
burgh, Sion College, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Advocates 



30 The Printed Bibles in 

Library, Edinburgh, the Signet Library, Edinburgh, Mr. W. Amhurst Tys- 
sen-Amhurst, Mr. Francis Fry, Mr. David Laing, Mr. Thomas Longman, 
Mrs. Jolyffe, the Rev. Dr. Gott, Vicar of Leeds, the Dean of St. Paul s, 
Mr. Henry White, Rev. Dr. Ginsburg, Mr. M. Ridgway, Mr. E. 
S. Kowie, Mr. C. D. Sherborn, Mr. J. Mathers, Mr. George Tawse, Rev. 
L. B. Kaspar, Sir Charles Reed, Mr. H. Cleaver, the University Press, 
Cambridge, the University Press, Oxford, Mr. Thomas Stapleton, Mr. 
A. Gardyner, Messrs. Bagster and Sons, Messrs. Spottiswoode and Co., 
and others ; but still more are our thanks due to Mr. Henry J. Atkinson, 
who has liberally lent us above four hundred editions of the Bible in all 
languages. Some of these editions are of very considerable rarity and 
value, while others, though not of the choicest or rarest kind, are, very 
many of them, of the middle class of Biblical Bibliography, which are so 
difficult to meet with and which are of such immense importance to the 
student in arriving at a clear history of editions, versions, and transla 
tions. Scores of these editions are not in our national library, and we 
know not where else to lay our hands upon them. 

Our collection boasts of nearly all the earliest and most famous Bibles 
and Psalters, together with representative editions of the later revisions, 
translations, versions, and languages down to the present time, to the 
extraordinary number of above one thousand editions. This unexpected 
and overwhelming liberality of our patrons has very nearly overwhelmed 
and buried the arranger and cataloguer, but he trusts that great biblio 
graphical good will eventually result from this rare opportunity of com 
parison, collation, and scrutiny. Rare Bibles, early New Testaments, the 
Psalms, and other parts of the Scriptures are, it is well known, scattered 
all over the country ; and we trust that people who possess them will 
bring or send up these lost children, and have them identified and pro 
perly registered. We shall willingly undertake this additional labour for 
the sake of the opportunity of discovering new and hitherto undescribed 
editions. 

The famous collection of Bibles in the Royal Library of Stuttgard is 
said to exceed eight thousand editions; but by comparison of the 
catalogue of our present Caxton Celebration Collection with the catalogue 
by Adler, printed in 1787, the patient and curious reader will see that 
more than one-half of our collection is not represented at Stuttgard. So 



the Caxton Exhibition 3 1 

likewise of the extraordinarily rich collection of some five thousand titles 
of Bibles in the library of Wolfenbiittel. The collection of Bibles and 
parts thereof in the Lenox Library of New York in all languages, is pro 
bably unsurpassed in rare and valuable editions, especially in the English 
language, by any library, public or private. Mr. Francis Fry, of Bristol, 
the indefatigable collector, has succeeded in bringing together above one 
thousand editions of the English Bible, Testaments, Psalms, c., most 
of them prior to 1700, to say nothing of above one hundred editions in 
ancient and foreign languages. The Rev. Dr. Ginsburg, of Wokingham, 
possesses a unique collection, astonishingly rich in early and rare Latin, 
German and Hebrew Bibles and parts thereof, including, we believe, the 
whole fourteen pre-Reformation German Bibles, and almost every edition 
of Luther s early Bibles and parts, the genuine as well as the counterfeit 
editions. Besides these his collection contains many other editions in 
other languages, both ancient and modern, to the extent, in all, of be 
tween two and three thousand editions ; and, what is of infinite import 
ance to Bible and bibliographical students, the Doctor makes his 
collection as free to them as to himself. But the Library of the British 
Museum to-day contains probably by far the richest collection of Bibles 
and Parts thereof in the world, numbering at present above sixteen 
thousand titles; but even this our Caxton Celebration Collection, so 
hastily brought together, contains very many editions not to be found in 
our national library. 

Notwithstanding the active research of many eminent scholars for the 
last three centuries, Biblical Bibliography is even now but in its infancy. 
The subject is so vast that no general bibliographer can more than 
indicate certain special and prominent editions. It is now more than 
one hundred and fifty years since Le Long published in Latin the last 
edition of his bibliography of the Bible. The work was excellent in its 
day, but very imperfect in many departments, especially English. About 
a century ago Masch re-edited and vastly improved certain parts of 
Le Long, especially the editions of the Bible in the ancient languages. 
He left the work, however, unfinished ; so that for Bibles in most of the 
modern languages we have still to refer to Le Long. 

In this brief sketch of the History of Printing, as illustrated by the 
reproduction of the Bible by moveable types, we have left ourselves 



32 The Printed Bibles in 

space merely to allude to the first five editions of Erasmus s New Testa 
ment in Greek and Latin, 1516-35, a work which marks the beginning 
of a new era in Biblical bibliography ; to the Psalter of Giustiniani in 
five languages, printed at Genoa in 1516, with the first life of Columbus 
in the long note on the nineteenth Psalm, in which are given some im 
portant particulars of Columbus s second voyage along the southern 
coast of Cuba, nowhere else to be found ; to the first Bible in Greek, 
the Septuagint from the press of Aldus of Venice, in 1518; and above 
all to the first Great Polyglot Bible of Cardinal Ximenes, printed at 
Alcala in six large folio volumes between the years 1514 and 1517, 
though not published till 1520, the most memorable monument of typo 
graphy the world had yet seen. Nothing less than the inpouring wealth 
of the Indies, combined with the overbearing power of Ximenes, at that 
time could have collected the manuscripts, collated and edited them, 
and printed these splendid volumes in such a sumptuous manner in the 
short space of fifteen years ! While Ximenes was building up this great 
monument in Spain, Wolsey was about building Hampton Court. Two 
Cardinal virtues ! It would be curious to inquire which cost the more 
money, the Polyglot or the Palace, and which won the greater honour ! 

This brings our running narration down to the time of Luther, Pro 
testant Germany, and Scripture-hungry England. The presses of Caxton 
and his successors had been more than half-a-century in operation, and 
yet not a chapter of the Bible had ever appeared, as such, printed in the 
English language. It is true that in his Golden Legend Caxton had 
printed in 1483 in English nearly the whole of the Pentateuch, and a 
great part of the Gospels, under the guise of the lives of Adam, Abraham, 
Moses, the Apostles, and others ; but all was mingled with so much of 
priestly gloss and dross that though probably read in churches it was never 
recognized as the Holy Scriptures. The Liber Festivalis of 1483 con 
tained also some Scripture paraphrases ; and in 1509 Wynkyn de Worde 
printed a fine edition of the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus. These 
were the nearest approaches that the English people made to the printed 
Bible in our own tongue. It is true that many copies of the Bible and 
New Testament translated into English by Wycliffe and his followers were 
scattered throughout the country in manuscript, and had given educated 
people and persons of quality a taste of the Book of Books. 



the Caxton Exliibition 33 

It is not unlikely that had not the bones of Wycliffe, buried in the 
little churchyard of Luttenvorth, been dug up and burnt, and his ashes 
cast into the Swift, by order of the Council of Constance, under the 
pious protective benevolence of the Church and priesthood, in the first 
quarter of the fifteenth century, Caxton in the last quarter of the 
same century might have begun in England his great work of printing, 
like most of the great printers of the Continent, with the Bible in his 
native tongue, and thus have modernized Wycliffe s Bible, and cast it 
into another and a rapider Swift. 

But Caxton was prudent and wise, as well as a man of business. He 
had witnessed the storm, and recognized the obstructive and selfish 
power which gloried in mental darkness, and taught ignorance as the 
peculiar knowledge and birthright of the people. It was a part of the 
same piece of priestly wisdom that a few years later gave itself utterance 
in a sermon at Paul s Cross, in these ever-memorable words : " We must 
root out printing, or printing will root out us." So Caxton and his suc 
cessors, taking the prudent and business-like course, printed what was 
most likely to sell in peace; and so the Scriptures in our vernacular tongue 
saw not the dawn in England, but awaited the broad daylight of the Re 
formation, in the second quarter of the sixteenth century, long after they 
were familiar to the Germans, the Italians, the Dutch, and the Bohemians. 

The educated of England, however, were not ignorant of the Scrip 
tures, for Coburger of Nuremberg, and probably other continental 
printers, had established warehouses in London, for the sale of Latin 
Bibles, as early as 1480, and perhaps earlier. There is an instructive 
letter in the Public Record Office from Coverdale and Grafton to Crom 
well, written from Paris the i2th of September, 1538, in behalf of their 
host, Francis Regnault, who was then printing the "GREAT BIBLE" for 
them: "Where as of long tyme he [Regnault] hath bene an occupier into 
England more than xl. yere, he hath allwayes provyded soche bookes for 
England, as they moost occupied, so y l he hath a great nombre at this 
present in his handes as Prymers in Englishe, Missoles w 1 other soche 
like : wherof now (by y e company of y c Booksellers in London) he is 
utterly forbydden to make sale, to the utter undoying of the man. 
Wherfore most humbly we beseke yo r lordshippe to be gracious and 
favourable unto him, y l he may have lycence to sell those which he hath 

E 



34 The Printed Bibles in 

done allready, so y l hereafter he prynte no moo in the english tong, 

onlesse he have an english man y l is lerned, to be his correcto r 

Yf yo r 1. shewe him this benefyte we shall not fare the worse in the 
readynesse and due expedicion of this yo r 1. worke of the Byble, which 
goeth well forwarde, and within few moneths will drawe to an ende," etc. 

From the time of Luther the Continent was filled with new and 
cheaper issues of the Bible and every part of it, not only in Latin and 
Greek, but in the modern languages. The history of Bible printing in 
Germany, Switzerland, and the Low Countries, though in many instances 
opposed and even prohibited, remains no secret or mystery. The French 
and Italians printed extensively in the ancient languages, but the Church 
managed to have small call for the Scriptures in the vulgar tongues which 
the people could read and comprehend. The history of Luther s own 
translations and publications of the Scriptures, 1522-34, first by instal 
ments as fast as he could get the parts ready, then by revisions and 
complete works in 1534, is well known. But the bibliography of Luther s 
early pieces, counterfeits, reprints, &c., requires careful revision. Again, 
much is to be still settled in the Biblical bibliography of the many edi 
tions of the Bible and parts thereof, in various languages, printed by 
Froschover of Zurich, from his little 161110 Swiss-German Bible, in five 
vols, 1527-29, and his folio revision of Luther in five parts, 1525-29, the 
Prophets and Apocrypha done by Leo Jude, Zwingle, and others. 

The story of the learned Robert Stephens and the printing of his 
Bibles and New Testaments in Paris, as told by the late M. Firmin 
Didot, is one of the most interesting in the literary history of printing 
and printers. Yet though encouraged, protected, and favoured by 
Francis as far as any king could protect a subject against the wiles of the 
Church, at last poor Stephens was driven in exile to Geneva for his Bibles 
and Testaments ; so that to this day the Bibles and Testaments of 
Robert Stephens remain the glory and the shame of France. 

Germany was not only boiling over for liberty and free Scriptures, but 
scholars of advanced thoughts flocked thither from all parts of the world. 
But Flanders was the paradise of printers, and Antwerp, at this time, the 
very centre of it, because it enjoyed some special privileges for its 
citizens within their own dwellings, by which the Burgomaster could 
resist imperial authority, and disregard imperial emissaries. Any 



tlie Caxton Exhibition 35 

Belgian could print what he liked, and sell it if he could at home and 
abroad. Hence, disregarding the counsel of St. Paul, according to an 
old translator, against " making marchandize of the Word of God," it 
became an extensive and lucrative business of the Low Countries to 
supply England and France with printed Bibles and Testaments in their 
own languages. Besides this, the Flemings themselves fanned the Re 
formation by producing a very large number of Bibles in their own 
language, for their own consumption, between 1520 and 1550, though 
the Emperor s Ordinance of 1529 was very stringent against heretical 
or Lutheran books and anonymous printing of all kinds, especially the 
Holy Scriptures in the vulgar tongues. 

Finally the high tide of the Reformation reached England in 1526 in 
the shape of a beautiful New Testament in English by William Tyndale. 
The people soon got a taste of the Word of God in their own language, 
and a Christian Association was formed in London to read and circulate 
the Scriptures even in the Universities. Here read the stories of Garret 
and Dalaber. Within the first ten years probably as many as fi fix-en dis 
tinct editions of Tyndale s New Testament in English, of not less than 
three thousand copies each, were printed and sold. Tyndale himself 
living abroad ran the gauntlet of persecution as few men had done, being 
driven from place to place for six or seven years, till he was found out 
and hunted down in 1534, imprisoned in May, 1535, and burnt in 
1536. The public demand for his Testaments was very great, and no 
power could check their importation, sale, and consumption. Edition 
after edition appeared silently in England, but from whence nobody 
cared to inquire. They were certainly not printed in England. Tyndale 
himself was scented and ferreted out by English emissaries sent abroad 
for the purpose, and run down like a wolf. Even his friends and fol 
lowers in England who could be proved to have read or to possess even 
a New Testament were also hunted through London and the Universi 
ties as the greatest of criminals; and this, too, even after the King had 
replaced the Pope and become the chief head of the Church of England. 
But all this raid and tirade of the learned doctors of divinity against 
Scripture readers only lowered the Church whilst it raised the people. 
Bibles, Psalms, Testaments, and other parts of the Bible thenceforth 
increased in England to an extent wholly unknown in any other country 



36 The Printed Bibles in 

or nation. Though late in getting possession of themselves and their 
liberties, the people of England succeeded to a surprising degree ; basing 
their rights and liberties more on their Bibles than anything else. No 
wonder, then, that the editions of the Bible in English, since 1535, 
have not only outnumbered those of any other nation, but in the aggre 
gate, including America, exceed those of all other languages. 

With all these vast accumulations of Bibles and Biblical history, 
what is at present the extent of our positive knowledge concerning the 
history and production of our early English Bibles and Testaments prior 
to 1550, or even later? More than a hundred industrious writers from 
the time of Lewis to to-day, have ransacked every corner of Christendom 
in search of facts respecting Tyndale, Coverdale, and Rogers. In 
a wonderfully small degree they have gleaned a few items respecting the 
persecuted Tyndale and his New Testaments, but many of these facts 
require confirmation. As to Coverdale and our first Complete English 
Bible, finished the 4th of October, 1535, THE MOST PRECIOUS VOLUME 
IN OUR LANGUAGE, what do we know ? Absolutely next to nothing. 
The volume itself tells us the day it was finished, but where it was 
printed, or by whom, or for whom, or under what circumstances, no his 
torian or bibliographer has as yet given us any trustworthy information. 
No literary mystery for the past three centuries has elicited so much 
inquiry, or so many investigators, especially of late and latest years ; yet 
up to the opening day of this Caxton Celebration, the 3oth of June, 
1877, all is but mere conjecture. Some have assigned the production of 
the volume to Lubeck, others to Frankfort, still others to Zurich, Ham 
burg, Cologne, Worms, Strasburg, and even Marlboro in the land of 
Hesse ; while some say that it came from the press of Egenolph, others 
detect in it the master hand of Froschover, and still others attribute it to 
Quentel or some one else ; but all to no purpose. The very variety of 
these conjectures proves their falsity, and shows that they are really and 
truly mere conjectures, without the slightest base or foundation. 

The woodcuts used in the " Coverdale Bible " have indeed been traced 
into the possession of James Nicolson, printer in St Thomas s Hospital, 
Southwark, in 1535, but not a scrap of the type used in that first English 
Bible has ever yet, so far as we can learn, been seen or identified in any 
other book printed at home or abroad. We have ourself, for more than 



the Caxton Exhibition 37 

a quarter of a century, spent much time in comparing translations, type, 
cuts, initial letters, and the general and particular style and make-up of 
various Continental printers, mousing and groping among old books of all 
sorts, in search of traces of Coverdale in 1534 and 1535. The results are 
numerous, but entirely negative. We have had the satisfaction, from 
time to time, of narrowing down the field of research, and positively con 
vincing ourself, first, that the book could not have come from the press 
of Egenolph, then of Froschover, and so on, but never a bit of positive 
testimony has greeted our eyes in favour of the true story. Hut at last, 
when all our researches for new bibliographical fields to explore had been 
exhausted, and just as we were forced to the conclusion that no analytical 
exploration was ever likely to reward us, the long-kept secret dropped 
into our open mouth of its own mere motion and ripeness, as if it desired 
to be in time for the Caxton Celebration. We comprehended the whole 
story in a minute, and realized it instantly with a thrill of delight we ran 
never attempt to describe, though it showed us how utterly vain and un 
profitable all our researches and comparisons of type, cuts, paper, water 
marks, inks, and other printer s etcetera had been. The naked facts 
were before us in all their simplicity and truthfulness before we had time 
to understand how tar away our historical and antiquarian investigations, 
primed by our so-called human reason, had drifted us. 

Let us now return to Coverdale and his Uible. In his Preface to 
the Reader, Coverdale says, " For the which cause (accordynge as I was 
desyred anno 1534) I toke the more vpon me to set forth this specyall 
translacyon." This important date, "anno 1534," was interpolated in 
Froschover s [Hester s] edition of 1550, no doubt on good authority. 
Coverdale also informs us, in the first paragraph of his Preface to the 
Reader, after alluding manifestly to Tyndale, or perhaps to (ieorge 
Joye, "which were not onely of rype knowledge, but wold also with al 
theyr hartes haue perfourmed that they beganne eyf they had not had 
impediment," etc. " These and other reasonable causes considered, I 
was the more bold to take it in hande." lie then tells us that various 
translations were put into his hands which he was glad to k followe for the 
most parte, accordynge as I was requyred. But to saye the trueth before 
God, it was nether my laboure ner desyre to haue this worke put in 
my hande ; neuertheles it greued me y l other nacyos shulde be more 



38 The Printed Bibles in 

plenteously prouyded for with y e Scripture in theyr mother tongue then we ; 
therfore whan I was instantly requyred, though I coulde not do so well 
as I wolde, I thought it yet my dewtye to do my best." Again, in his 
Dedication to King Henry VIII, Coverdale says, " as the holy goost 
moued other men to do the cost herof, so was I boldened in God, to 
laboure in the same." These and several other expressions and explana 
tions of Coverdale in some of which he speaks of the translation as his 
own, and in others of himself, as being employed or required to " set 
forth," that is, to see the translation through the press have been com 
mented upon scores of times, but always without satisfaction. 

But all these mysterious extracts will read much clearer when we add 
that there was at that time a certain young man of position living in Ant 
werp, a great linguist, of good education and natural endowments so 
high indeed as to enable him "to distinguish well light from darkness," 
that is, to be a Protestant, who was the "begetter" of this "specyall transla- 
cyon." In his youth he had been taught the art of printing; and in 
manhood his chosen profession or business, in which he manifested great 
zeal, was in producing at Antwerp a translation of the Bible into English 
" for the advancement of the Kingdom of Christ in England," says his 
biographer ; " and for this purpose Jie employed a certain learned scholar 
named MILES COVERDALE." 

This simple statement, which we believe to be perfectly authentic, and 
which has been lying under our noses in most of our libraries for two 
centuries and a half unnoticed, narrows the matter down to ANTWERP, and 
assigns the honour of producing our first English Bible to that city, an 
honour which will be acknowledged by coming generations of English 
men as well as Americans, who, while they inquire, with guide-book in 
hand, for the pictures of Rubens, will not forget the home of JACOB VAN 
METEREN, the probable translator of our first Bible, who employed Miles 
Coverdale to " set forth" and father " this specyall translacyon." All 
honour to Miles Coverdale, the learned scholar, the modest self-sacrificing 
student, the earnest simple-hearted Christian, who was unquestionably 
the best proof-reader and corrector of his age ; to whom, perhaps, more 
than any other one man of his time, William Tyndale himself not 
excepted, the English language owes a debt of gratitude for its clearness, 
pointedness, and simplicity. That he left in this our first complete 



tlie Caxton Exhibition 39 

English Bibles some few foreignisms and some inverted English is not 
surprising when we find that the dozen corps of revisers since have not 
seen fit or been able to exclude them. 

Coverdale s duties and responsibilities in revising and setting forth 
this special translation at Antwerp in 1534-35, at the cost and charges of 
Jacob van Meteren, who was also, we believe, its original translator 
out of " Douche and Latyn " into English, were, we take it, precisely 
the same as when in 1537-38 he revised and set forth the Great Bible 
in Paris at the cost and charges of Grafton and Whitchurch. In the 
latter case he was the nominee of Thomas Cromwell, and similarly, we 
suppose, when he was " instantly required" at Antwerp in 1534, he 
received his appointment through Cromwell, who, it is well known, since 
1510 had been in close and confidential personal connection with affairs 
of the English Company of Adventurers at Antwerp. From 1527 
to 1539 we know that Coverdale was on the most friendly and cordial 
terms with Cromwell, yielding his mind, his services, and his judgment 
to that great statesman, so much so that in 1535 he was probably the 
only man who would have been allowed to put his name to a dedication 
to the King, and Preface to the Reader of an English Bible. He was 
employed and required not only to revise and see the Bible through the 
press, but to father the translation. 

There are a few interesting circumstances which we may not omit 
even here, respecting Jacob van Meteren, his family and connections. 
About the year 1480 William Ortelius and his family, on account of 
their religion, removed from Augsburg to Antwerp, where the family 
became one of the most distinguished. Not long after there removed 
from Breda to Antwerp Cornelius van Meteren and his family. Jacob, 
the son of Cornelius van Meteren, married in 1534 (?) Ottilia, the 
accomplished daughter of William Ortelius, and aunt to the afterwards 
famous Abraham Ortelius, the Geographer. 

These two Protestant families were very intimate, and were soon after 
joined, by intermarriage, by an Englishman named John Rogers, alias 
Thomas Matthew. Rogers had nominally taken the post of Chaplain 
to the English Company of Adventurers, which had been held by Tyn- 
dale, and perhaps by Coverdale. Tyndale having had, as all the world 
knows, " impediment " in producing the Bible, Coverdale " was the more 



4O The Printed Bibles in 

bold to take it in hande." But Van Meteren soon found new and greater 
impediment. The London bookbinders and stationers, finding the 
market filled with foreign books, especially Testaments, made complaint 
in 1533-34, and petitioned for relief; in consequence of which a statute 
was passed compelling foreigners to sell their editions entire to some 
London stationer in sheets, so that the binders might not suffer. This 
new law was to come into operation about the beginning of 1535. In 
consequence of this law, Jacob van Meteren, as his Bible approached 
completion, was obliged to come to London to sell the edition. We 
have reason to believe that he sold it to James Nicolson of Southwark, 
who not only bought the entire edition, but the woodcuts, and probably 
the punches and type ; but if the latter, they were doubtless lost in trans 
mission, as they have never turned up in any shape since. All the copies 
of the Coverdale Bible, in the original condition, as far as we know, 
have appeared in English binding, thus confirming this law of 1534. 

While Van Meteren was absent in England, in 1535, the Imperial, 
authorities, instigated probably by some of the English emissaries at Ant 
werp, went to the house of Van Meteren to search it, ostensibly for the per 
son of Leonard Ortelius, the father of Abraham, and the uncle of Ottilia, to 
arrest him as a Lutheran, but really to search for forbidden books, such as 
English Bibles and New Testaments. The searchers, who were harsh and 
cruel, gave Madame Ottilia great alarm. She prayed fervently to Almighty 
God that they might not find what they were in search of, and promised that 
if she and her s were protected, she would so mark this great providence 
of God by naming the child she was about to give birth to, if a son. as to 
commemorate the circumstances. Though the searchers frequently laid 
their hands on the very chest that contained the hidden books, they did 
not find them. On the gth of July, 1535, a son was born to her, and 
keeping her promise she named him EMANUEL, that is, "Goo WITH us." 
This boy, twin brother of the Coverdale Bible, became a distinguished 
man, a scholar, and an historian. He passed most of his life in London 
as merchant and Belgian Consul. He died the iSth of April, 1612, in his 
77th year. He never forgot the circumstances preceding his birth, and 
frequently wrote his name " Emanuel Quis-contra-nos ? " "If God be 
with us, who can be against us ? " For this fitting appendage to his name 
he was indebted to his cousin, DANIEL ROGERS, the distinguished diplo- 




tlic C ax ton Exhibition 41 

matist and Latin poet, the eldest son of John Rogers, the proto-martyr, 
who, in 1536-37, "set forth" again at Antwerp for Jacob van Meteren, 
under the assumed name of Thomas Matthew, a splendid edition of the 
Bible, called now Matthew s Version, the whole edition of which was sold 
to Grafton, as before the Coverdale Bible had been sold to Nicolson. A 
mystery has long hung over " Matthew s Version," since it is well known 
that part of it is Tyndale s, part Coverdale s, and only a portion revised 
by Rogers himself. Matthew s New Testament has recently been proved 
by Mr. Francis Fry, of Bristol, to be a reprint of Tyndale s last revision, 
the edition of 1535-4, with the combined initials of Tyndale and Van 
Meteren on the title page. Mr. Francis Fry, under his No. 
4, calls this edition G II, but has hitherto been unable to 
explain the monogram. Our suggestion is that the G H 
means the translator, GUILLAUMK HYTCHIXS, the assumed 
name of William Tyndale; the other letters being the initials of the 
printer and proprietor, I v M, that is, JACOI; VAN MKTKKKN. If this be 
true, the fact reconciles much. The property or copyright belonged to 
Van Meteren, who, employing Rogers, had the right to produce Matthew s 
Bible by combining in it parts of Tyndale and Coverdale, which were his 
own property. 

These are only a few of the circumstances that have come to light. 
Further and more careful investigation may compel us to somewhat 
modify some of these details, and to qualify others; but, on the whole, 
we trust that our hurried account is substantially correct. We are in 
debted for the larger part of our statement to the Rev. Symeon Ruytinck, 
the bosom friend of our E.MANUKL Ouis contra nos ? who was, we believe, 
for a time connected with the Dutch Church of Austin Friars in London. 
It is contained in a brief biographical notice by him of Fmanuel van 
Meteren, appended to that distinguished writer s History of Hclghtm, 
published in the Flemish language at the Hague in 1614, and in French 
at the same place in 1618. 

In the precious volume of some 400 autograph letters, addressed by 
many of the learned of the world between 1560 and 1595 to Abraham 
Ortelius, belonging to this Dutch Church, and now preserved in the 
Guildhall Library, are two very long autograph letters of our Kmanuel 
van Meteren, one or two of Daniel Rogers, and something of Rev. 



42 Caxton Exhibition 

Symeon Ruytinck. Honour to them all, however remote and small the 
light they throw on our dear old Coverdale Bible, and treble honour and 
blessing on the memory of Jacob and Ottilia van Meteren, to whom we 
owe our first Bible. They lived together happily, finished their great 
work together, and perished together. Let their names become house 
hold words in England, and let them be loved and honoured together as 
long as the language of the Coverdale Bible lasts. Towards the end of 
the reign of Edward VI, finding Antwerp unsafe for them on account 
of their religion, they resolved to remove with all their effects and penates 
to London, and live under the young King, who had offered them an 
asylum. On their passage from Antwerp the ship that bore them was 
attacked by a French cruiser, burnt, and sunk ; and so perished Jacob 
and Ottilia van Meteren. Though the sea holds their bones, their names 
are now given up to be recorded with honour in England and America 
this Caxton Memorial Year. 

HENRY STEVENS. 
4, Trafalgar Square, London, 
July 25, 1877. 

Postscriptitm. For the continuation of these bibliographical Notes on the printed 
Bibles in English and other languages from 1535 to 1877, and for the fuller Notes on 
Bibles and parts of Bibles prior to 1535, of which the above is but an epitome, the 
courageous reader is referred to our forthcoming little book entitled OUR PRINTED 
BIBLES, 1450-1877. 




THE COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF 
THE ART OF PRINTING 

IN ENGLAND AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES, ILLUSTRATED 
BY SPECIMENS OF THE PRINTED BIBLE 

CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED, 1450-1877. 



No. 6 1 1. 

IIBLE (Latin). Ilegin. [With the prologue of Saint 
Jerome.] [FjRater ambrosias Uia michi nuimiscu- la 
perferens. detulit siml 1 suauissimas litteras : etc. 
[Genesis begins Fol. 5 recto col. i at the top. I]n 
principio creauit deus ceul et tcrram. End. [Fol. 
641 verso, col. 2] Gratia dni Firi ihesu cristi cu omnib; 
vobis ame. [Mentz, Joannes Gutenberg, 1450-55?] 
Gothic letters, first edition, 2 volumes, measuring 15? 
by 1 1 3- inches. Folio. Lent by Earl Spcjiccr. 

Without title-page, pagination or signatures ; 641 leaves printed in double columns, 
42 lines to a full column ; the initials and rubrics are in MS. throughout. The earliest 
book known, printed with moveable metal type ; was formerly styled, unjustly to 
Germany, the "Mazarine Bible," but is now properly called the Gutenberg Bible. 
Some copies, which may be called a second issue, have 40 lines on the first eight 
pages, forty-one on the ninth, and the rest forty-two, like the present copy. In this 
latter issue the three lines in red at the beginning are in type, and not in manuscript, 
as in the 42 line issue. 




44 The Printed Bibles in [1457 

612. PSALMS (Latin). Psalmorum Codex. Presens Psalmorum Codex 
venustate capitalium decoratus, rubricationibusque sufficienter 
distinctus, ad inventione artificiosa imprimendi ac caracterizandi 
absque calami ulla exaracione sic effigiatus, et ad eusebiam del 
Industrie est consummatus, per Johannem Fust civem maguntinum 
et Petrum Schoffer de Gernszheim anno domini MCCCCLVII. 
In vigilia Assumpcionis. [Mentz], 1457. Folio. 

Lent by Her Majesty the Queen. 

The Mentz Psalter on 138 leaves, the first book printed with a date and 
names of the printers. This large and sumptuous volume, probably the most 
magnificently printed book known, is on pure vellum. Indeed, we believe no 
copies are known printed on paper. It measures l6 by 12 inches. 

613. PSALMS (Latin). Begin. Beatus vir qui no abijt in cosilio impio?/. 
[The Psalms, with the sacred canticles, creeds, prayers, and eccle 
siastical Hymns.] End. PResens psalmo^z codex : venustate 
capitaliu. decoratus. rubricationibusq^ sufficienter distinctus. ad- 
inuencdne artificiosa imprimendi ac caracterizandi : absq^ ulla 
calami exaracdne sic effigiatus. et ad laudem dei ac honore sancti 
Jacobi est osuat . Per Joh em fust cive magutinu. et Petm 
Schoifher de Gernssheym clericu Anno dni Millesimo cccc.lix. 
xxix. die mensis Augusti. Large Gothic letter. On vellum. 
[Mentz], 1459. Folio. Lent by the Earl of Leicester. 

The second edition of the Mentz Psalter, without pagination, signatures or 
catchwords. 136 leaves, 23 lines in a page, with the plain chant noted through 
out. The large ornamental capitals are printed in two colours, the smaller in 
red only. Nearly all the known copies of the first and second editions have 
minute variations, especially in the subscriptions, which appear to have been 
adapted to the particular church or monastery for which they were intended. 
This volume contains the earliest printed text of the Athanasian Creed. 

614. BIBLE (Second Latin). Begin. [F]Rater ambro-/sius tua michi mu- 
nuscula p/ferens. etc. [Genesis begins Fol. 6 verso, col. i. at the 
top. I]n principle creauit deus celu 1 terrain. End. [Fol. 882 
verso, col. 2. lin. 6] bis amen. Gothic letter. [Bamberg : Albert 
Pfister, 1460?] Folio. 15! by n inches. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination or signatures ; 882 leaves printed in double 
columns, 36 lines to a full column. A copy in the Paris library has the rubrica- 
tion dated 1461, proving that this Bible was printed prior to that date. But 
the cover of the Church Register of Bamberg being composed partly of waste 
leaves of this Bible, and the Register beginning with 21 March, 1460, it fol 
lows that these leaves were printed prior to this latter date. 

615. BIBLE (Third Latin). Begin. [F] Rater ambrosius tua etc. [Genesis 
begins fol. 3 verso, towards the bottom of col. 2. I]N principio 
creauit deus celu et teram. End. [Fol. 477 recto col. i.] Gratia 
dni nri ih u xpi cu omibs vobis amen. Gothic letter. 2 vols. 
[Strasburg: Jo. Mentelin, 1460 and 1461?] Folio. 15! by nf 
inches. Lent by Earl Spencer. 



1462] tlie Caxton Exhibition 45 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 477 leaves, printed in double 
columns, 49 lines to a full column. The rubrics and initials are in MS. 
throughout. A copy of this Bible is preserved in the library of Freiburg in 
Breisgau, with the rubrications of the volumes dated 1460 and 1461, ranking 
this edition as the third Latin Bible. 

6 1 6. BIBLE (Fourth Latin). Begin. Incip epl asci iheronimi ad paulinu 
psbiteru : do ofiiib diuine historic libris. [Fol. 4 recto, col. i. 
lin. 7.] Expl . plogus. Jncip liber bresith que no? genesim dici- 
mis. [Fol. 242 verso, col. 2. end] laudet dominu. Alleluia. [VoL 
2. Begin.] Epistola sancti ieronimi .... de libris salomonis. 
End. [Fol. 239 recto, col. 2.] Gra dni nFi ihesu cristi cu omib 
vobis amc. [followed by the Colophon in seven lines.] Pns hoc 
opusculu Artificosa adinuentione imjmiendi seu caracteri/andL 
absc^ calami exaracon etc. 2 vols. Gothic letter. Per ioh ez 
fust ct Petru schoiffherde gerns heym, in ciuitate Maguntii. 1462. 
Folio. 160 by \2\ inches. Magnificent copy on pure vellum. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination or signatures ; vol. I has 242, and vol. 2, 
239 leaves, printed in double columns, 48 lines to a full column. The 
first edition of the Bible having date, name of printer and place. From a col 
lation of this with other copies on paper and vellum it appears that many of the 
leaves were reprinted, as for example, the first live in vol. I, and fol. 90-96, 
207-216, and 227-242; in vol. 2, fol. I, 51 recto, 121-124, an( l 233-239, etc. 
This magnificent copy is richly illuminated throughout in gold and colours. 

617. BIBLE (Fourth Latin). Begin. Incip epl a sci iheronimi ad paulinQ 

psbiteru, etc. Another copy printed on pure vellum. Per ioh ej 
fust ct Petru schoiffhcr de gerns hcym, in ciuitate Maguntu, 1462. 
Folio. Lent by Earl Jersey. 

This magnificent copy, a duplicate of No. 616, with some variations, is also 
splendidly illuminated throughout in brilliant colours, but the style of the 
illuminations of the two copies, though both exceedingly well done, is widely 
different. 

618. BIBLE (Fourth Latin). Begin. Incip epl a iheronimi etc. Per ioh e? 
fust et Petru schoiffher de gerns hcym, in ciuitate Maguntii, 1462. 
Folio. 1 6^ by ni inches. A superb copy printed on paper. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

This third copy is placed here as a good contrast with Nos. 616 and 617, 
printed on pure vellum. As many of the leaves have rough edges, they show 
that no copy on paper can be much taller or wider than this one, which is only 
a large fragment of this first Bible, with date, names of printers, and place. 

619. PSALMS (Latin). Psalterium, etc. 126 leaves, twenty long lines 
in a full page, no signatures, catch-words or numbering. Large fine 
type resembling [Albert Pfistcr s, Bamberg, 1462?]. 4to. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

620. BIBLE (First German). Begin. [BjRuder Ambrosius der hat, etc. 
[Genesis commences fol. 4 recto, in col. i. I]n dcm ancgang 



46 The Printed Bibles in [1466 

geschieff got etc. End. [fol. 400 verso, col. 2.] Die genade 
vnsero herren ihe/su cristi sey mit vns alien Amen, [followed by 
five leaves containing the titles and arguments of the Psalms] 
End. in nach d menig seiner grossung. Amen. [Strasburg : 
Joannes Mentelin, 1466?] Folio. 15-3- by ni inches. 

Lent by Her Majesty the Queen. 

Without title-page, pagination or register, 405 printed leaves in double 
columns, 60 lines to a full column ; there is a blank leaf at the end of the 
Gospels. A magnificent copy, richly illuminated in gold and colours. 

621. BIBLE (First German). Begin. [BjRuder Ambrosius der hat, etc. 
Another very fine copy. [Strasburg: Joannes Mentelin, 1466?]. 
Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

405 printed leaves, 2 columns, 60 lines in a full column. This is also 
a splendid copy, beautifully illuminated in gold and colours, but in a style quite 
different from No. 620, lent by Her Majesty the Queen. 

622. BIBLE (Second German). Begin. [BjRuder Ambrosius d hat vns 

brachtein deinegab etc. [preceded by two leaves containing the table 
of rubrics. Genesis begins in col. i on the recto of fol. 6. A]N 
de angang beschiiff got den hymel vii die erde. End. [fol. 400 
verso, col. 2.] ... Die genad vnsers herren jhesu cristi sey mit 
vns alien. Amen, [followed by five leaves containing the titles 
and arguments of the Psalms] End. in nach d meing seiner gros 
sung. Amen. [Strasburg: Heinrich Eggestyn, 1466?] Folio. 
1 6 by ii| inches. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination or register. 405 leaves printed in double 
columns, 60 lines to a full column ; foil. 2, 103, and 157 have the verso blank. 

623. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [F]Rater ambrosi tua etc. [Genesis begins 
fol. 4 verso, col. 2, lin. 10. I]N principio creauit deus celu 1 
terra. End. [Fol. 631 verso, col. 2.] vobis amen. [Followed by 
a table of rubrics occupying four leaves.] Gothic letter. [Stras 
burg : H. Eggestein, 1468?] Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 635 leaves, printed in double 
columns, 41 lines to a full column. The rubrics and initials are in MS. 
This is the first edition of the Latin Bible by Eggestein. This copy wants the 
four leaves of the table of rubrics. 

624. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [F]Rater ambrosius tua mi/chi munus- 
cula perferens, etc. [Genesis begins fol. 4, col. 2. I]N principio 
creauit deus celu t term. End. [Fol. 493 verso, col. 2, lin. 7.] 
mini nri ihesu cristi cu omnibis vobis ame. Gothic letter. 
[Strasburg: H. Eggestein, 1469?] Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 493 leaves, printed in double 
columns, 45 lines to a full column; the verses of foil. 124 and 330 are 
blank ; the initials and rubrics are in MS. throughout. This edition is some 
times attributed to J. Baemler of Augsburg ; but the type is the same as that 



147 1] The Caxton Exhibition 47 

of the edition generally attributed to Eggestein. The book contains the same 
paper-mark as that which is undoubtedly Eggestein, and is one of the marks 
ascribed to him by Sotheby in the Typography of the fifteenth century. 

625. BIBLE (Third German). Begin. Hie hept sich an die vorred oder die 
epistel des heiligen priesters sant Jeronimi xu paulinum von al en 
gotlichen historien d briider vnder der Bible Das erst capitel. 
End. Die genade vnsers herrn ihesu cristi sei mit vns alien. 
Amen. Deo Gracjas End. Hje hebt sich an cin Register iiber 
die biicher d Biblen, etc. [Augsburg? J. Pflanzmann? or C. 
Fyner? Eslingen ? 1470?] Folio. 15! by 10} inches. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, signatures, or pagination. Printed in double columns, 
54 lines in a full column. 

626. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [TjAbula omniu diuine scpture sen 
biblie libro^ [occupying twenty-eight leaves. Fol. 29 begins] 
Incipit epl a sacti iheronimi ad paulinu etc. [Fol. 33 recto, col. 
2.] Explicit plogus. Incipit liber bresith quern nos genesim 
dicim . End. [Fol. 724 recto, col. 2.] Explicit liber apocalipsis 
beati Johannis apostoli. Gothic letter. 2 vols. [Cologne : 
Ulric Zell, 1470?] Folio, u a by 8. j inches. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 724 leaves, printed in double 
columns, 42 lines to a full column. 

627. BIBLE (Latin). Another edition. [Cologne : Ulrich Zell, 1470?] 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 
Two columns of 42 lines to a full column. 

628. BIBLE (Italian). Begin. [Fol. 7 recto.] Prologo. Qvi comincia 
la solemne Epistola di Sancto Hieronymo .... reportata per 
prologo sopra tutta la Biblia. [Foil. 1-6 are occupied by tables of 
the books of the old Testament, and a table of chapters to the first 
part. Fol. ii verso.] Biblia in lingva volgarc tradutta : lo primo 
libro secondo la lingva Greca etc. [Fol. 316 verso.] Finisse il 
Psalterio di David. [Part 2, fol. i. J3egin^\ Prologo. di. San. 
Jeronimo. supra, ilibri. Disalomone. End. [Fol. 331 verso.] 
Qvivi finisse Lapocalipsis et e il fine del novo testamento 
M.CCCC.LXXI. In Kalende. de Octobrio. [followed by one leaf, 
containing on the recto : Tabula de testamento nouo.] Two 
parts. [Venice: N. Jenson,] 1471. Folio. i6| by u inches. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; part I contains 316, and part 
2, 332 leaves, printed in long lines, 50 lines to a full page ; the initial letters 
are either left blank, or printed in small characters throughout. Foil. I and 6 
of part I are blank on the recto and fol. 5 on the verso. Foil. 206 and 232 of 
part 2 are blank on the verso. 



48 The Printed Bibles in [1471 

629. BIBLE (Latin). [The Bible, Lat.^ Edited by J. Andreas.] Begin. 
[Vol. i, fol. i, recto.] lo. Anfdrese] Episcopi Aleriefi ad Paulum 
II. Venetum Pon. Max. epistola [verso], Sequitur tabula, etc. 
[Fol. 2, verso]. Paulo II. Veneto summo Pont. Mathias 
Palmerius fcelicitate. [Line 30.] Aristeas ad Philocratem fratem 
per Mathiam Palmeriu Pisanu e Greco in Latinu coversus [Fol. 
17, recto]. Incipit epistola sancti Hieronymi ad Paulinu presby- 
teru de omnibus divine historic libris [Fol. 20, recto, last line]. 
Incipit liber Bresith quern nos Genesin dicimus I. [End.] Finis 
Psalterii. [Vol. 2, fol. i, recto.] Epistola sacti Hieronymi 
psbyteri ad Chromatiu et Heliodorum Episcopos de Libris 
Salomonis [Colophon] Aspicis illustris lector quicunc^ libellos/ 
Sicupis artificum nomina nosse : lege./ Aspera videbis cognomina 
Teutona : forsun/ Mitiget ars musis inscia uerba uirum./ Coradus 
suueynheym : Arnoldus panartzc^ magistri/ Rome impresserunt 
talia multa simul/ Petrus cum fratro Francisco Maximus ambo/ 
Huic operi aptatam contribuere domum/ M.CCCC.LXXI. [On 
the recto of the following leaf], (Incipiunt interpretationes 
Hebraicorum Nominum). 2 vols. Rome : Sweynheym and 
Pannartz, 1471. Folio. 15-! by u^ inches. Lent by Earl Spencer. 
Without title-page, register, catchwords, or pagination. In vol. I there are 
279 leaves, and in vol. 2, 341. The preliminary matter in vol. I occupies 18 
leaves, foil. 15 and 16 being left blank. The "Interpretationes Hebraicorum 
Nominum " at the end of vol. 2 occupy 62 leaves. The first Bible printed 
in Rome ; only 275 copies were printed. 

630. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Incip expl a scl iheronimi ad paulinii 
psbiteru omibs divine historic libris. End. Piis hoc opus 

pclarissimu. Alma in urbe magutina Artificiosa quadam 

adinvencoe impremedi seu caracterizadi absc^ ulla calami 
exaracone sic effigiatu. et ad eusebiam dei industrie ecsumatii p 
Petru schoiffer de gernshez, etc. 2 vols. [Mentz] : Schoeffer, 
1472. Folio. Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

Without pagination, register, or catchwords ; 471 leaves ; printed in double 
columns, 48 lines to a full column. This edition very closely resembles that 
of 1462, but they are not identical, as has been supposed. 

630*. BIBLE (Fourth German). 2 volumes, 408 and 104 leaves, in two 
columns of 57 lines in a full column. [Nuremberg: Sensen- 
schmidt und Frissner, 1470-73. Folio.] 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

631. BIBLE (Fifth German). 2 vols., 553 leaves, 2 columns of 58 
lines in a full column. Augsburg : [Gunther Zainer?] 1473-75. 
Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 



1474] the Caxton Exhibition. 49 

632. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [F] Rater fibrosi tua mi, etc. [Genesis 
begins fol. 3 verso in the middle of col 2. I]N principle creauit 
de celu et terra. End. [Fol. 436 verso, col. i.] nostri ihesu 
cristi cu omnib vob amen, Gothic letter. [IJasle : Berthold 
Rodt(?) and Bernard Richel, 1473 (?).] Folio. 

Lent b\ tlic A i 7 . Dr. Ginsburg, 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 436 leaves printed in double 
columns, 50 and 48 lines to a full column. The first part, as far as the end of 
the Psalms, fol. 220 verso, is printed in a type used by Herthold Rodt, and 
the remainder in one used by llernard Kichel. The initials and rubrics of the 
first part are in MS., while some of the initials in the second part are from 
wood engravings. 

633. Bim,E (Latin). Begin. Incipit epistola sancti ihcronimi ad 
paulinum etc. [being the commencement of the table of rubrics, 
etc., which occupies fotir leaves, the verso of the last blank. Fol. 
5] begin. [F] Rater ambrosi tua mi, etc. [Genesis begins fol. 
8 recto, in the middle of col. 2. I]N principio creauit deus 
celtim et terra. End. [Fol. 537 recto, col. i.] (ira-cia dfii nri 
ih u x[)i cu oiiiibs vobis amen. Gothic letter. [Dasle : Berthold 
Rodt (?), 1474 (?)]. Folio. Lent by the Rev. J)r. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 537 leaves, printed in double 
columns, 47 lines to a lull column. The rubrics and initials are in MS. 
throughout. 

634. BIMI.K (Latin). Begi/i. Incinit epistola sancti iheronimi ad 
pauli-. num presbiterum de omnibus divine historic hbns. [Fol. 3 
verso, col. 2, I m. 11 from the bottom.] Incipit liber bresich <~j; 
nos gencsim dicim . End. [Fol. 461 verso, col. i] mini nostri 
ihesu cristi cum omnib vob amen. Kt sic est finis. [Fol. 462 
recto.] Vr.nerabili viro do- mino. Jacobo de ysenaro. Menar- 
dus, etc. [A general notice of the liible, ending fol. 465 verso, 
col. 2, with seven Latin verses, begin\ Oui ineinor esse rupit 
librorum bibliotece. [Fol. 466 recto . Incipit tabula canontim, 
etc. Gothic letter. [Hasle: Bernard Richel, 1474 (?).] Folio. 

Lent by Jlenry U hite, Es>j. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 460 leaves, printed in double 
columns, 48 lines to a full column. The initials are from wood engravings. 

635. BIKLE (Sixth German). Begin. [Fol. i.] H Hie hobet an die 
Epistel des heyligen priestcrs sant Jheronimi, etc. [preceded by 
one leaf, containing the register of the books on the verso. 
Fol. v. recto, col. i.] IT Kyn end hat die vorred vnd hebet an das 
biich Presith oder Genesis, etc. End. \ Fol. ex.] f Diss durch- 
leuchtigost werck der gant/en heyligen geschrifft. genandt die 
Bibel fur all ander vorgedrucket tcutsch biblen. lautcrcr. klarer. 



50 The Printed Bibles in [1475 

vnnd warer hat hie ein ende, etc. Gothic letter. Augs- 

purg : [Gunther Zainer, 1475 ( ? )] Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Without title-page or register ; numeration Old Testament, i-ccccxxj ; 
New Testament, i-cx. Printed in double columns, 58 and 59 lines to a full 
column. The first Bible with the leaves folioed (?) 

636. BIBLE (Sixth German). Another copy, very fine, measuring i8| 
by 13 inches. [Gunther Zainer, 1475 ?] Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

637. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Incip epl a scti hieronimi ad paulinu psbi- 
te?/ de olbs divine historic libris. [Fol. 4 recto, col. i, lin. 7.] 
Expt plogus. Incipit liber bhresit que nos genesim dicimus. 
End. Opus veteris nouk^ testameti. Impressum ad laudez & 
gloriam sancte ac indiuidue trinitatis, etc. Gothic letter. Per 
Anthoniu Coberger, in regia ciuitate Nurmbergen, 1475. Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 481 leaves printed in double 
columns, 48 lines to a full column. Koberger in 26 years printed 13 editions 
of the Bible, of which this is the first. 

638. BIBLE (Latin). Another copy. A. Coberger. Nuremberg, 1475. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

639. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Prologus in Genesim. Incipit epl a 
sancti Hieronymi, etc. [Fol. 3 verso, col. i, at the bottom.] 
Explicit pfatio. Incipit liber Genesis qui dicit hebraice bresith. 
End. [Fol. 421 verso, col. 2.] Explicit Biblia impressa Venetijs, 
etc. [Fol. 422 recto.] Incipiut interptatioes hebraicoru nominu, 
etc. Gothic letter, p Fraciscu de hailbrun & Nicolau de frank- 
fordia socios, Venetijs, 1475. Small folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 454 leaves printed in double 
columns (except the table of Hebrew names, which has three columns), 51 lines 
to a full column. The initials are in MS, and the verso of the last leaf is 
blank. This is the first Latin Bible printed at Venice. 

640. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Quia vestigia seqmur Joann. An. Epi 
Aleriensis que nihil reliqsse coperium quod ulteriori emendatione 
egeat, preter pauxilla q vicio compositorum litterar, viciata sunt. 
Ideoc^ epistola qua ipe pposuit omittere nolium, ne cuj doctrina 
imitamur, ejus odigna laude videamur supprimere. Joann[is] 
Anfdreae] Episcopi Alerienfsis] ad Paulu secudum Venetum 
Pon. Max. epistola. (Aristeas ad Philocrate fratrem per M. 
Pahneriu e Greco in Latinum conversus. Interptationes hebrai- 



1476] tlie Caxton Exhibition 51 

corum nominu.) Gothic letter. 2 vols. A. Frisner et J. Sen- 
senschmit i nuremberga, 1475. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 
Without title-page, register, or pagination ; printed in double columns, 60 
lines to a full column. The preliminary matter, including the prefaces of Saint 
Jerome, occupies II leaves. The " Interpretationes," etc., are placed at the 
end, after the imprint. Splendid copy on large paper, measuring 19 by 13 
inches. 

641. BIBLE (Latin), Begin. [F] Rater ambrosius tua mihi munuscula 
perferes : etc. [Fol. 3 recto, col. i, lin. 8 from the bottom] 
Explicit pfatio Incip. Liber Genesis qui dicit hebraice bresith. 
[Fol. 284 verso, col. 2. End.] Vet testametu a religiosis uiris 
ac prudentissimis correctii atc^ p me iohane petru d ferratis 
cremonese placetie impssus. Anno dfii Mcccc.lxx quinto felicit 
explicit. [Fol. 285 recto, col. i. />V(,7//.] Incipit ei)istloa sancti 
hieronimi . . . sup. libro quatuor euage-/lio?/ [Fol. 357 verso, 
col. 2. End.} Explicit liber actuum apostolo?^ cum reli-,quis 
noui libris tcstamenti etc. End. [Fol. 391 recto, col. 2.] Biblie 
uocabuloiy interpretationes expliciiit. Gothic letter, p iohane 
petru d ferratis, placetie, 1475. 4 to - Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 391 leaves, printed in double 
columns, 60 lines to a full column. This is said to be the first printed book at 
1 lacentia, and is believed to be the first Uible printed in quarto. 



642. BiiJi.K (Latin). Begin. [F]Rater Ambrosi tua mihi munus- cula 
perferens : etc. [Genesis begins fol. 3 verso, col. i. lin. 14 from 
the bottom 1]X principio creauit cle celtim ov tr fi. End. [Fol. 
425 recto, col. i.] doinini nostri ihesu xpi cu omibs vobis ame. 
[Strasburg? 1475?] Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 42^ leaves, printed in double 
columns, 56 lines to a full column ; the initials and rubrics are in MS. through 
out : fol. 7 verso, at the bottom of col. 2 two lines omitted in printing are 
supplied in MS. and fol. 300 verso, one line is similarly supplied at the bottom 
of col. 2. The versos of foil. 117 and 213 are blank. 

643. liiiu.K (Latin). Begin. [Sig. A i.] Prologus in Gcnesim. Feliciter 
incipit. Incipit epl a sancti Hierony-/mi etc. [preceded by one 
leaf, containing on the verso : an epistle to Thomas Taqui, from 
Blasius Romertis, with the answer of the former. Sig. A iii verso, 
col. T.] Explicit pfatio. Incipit liber genesis qui dicit hebraice 
bresith. [eighth leaf of sig. tt. verso]. Explicit Biblia. Incipiut 
interptationes he-/braicoru nominu, etc. End. Editum opus Ov: 
emedatu accuratissime ac deligeter, etc. Gothic letter. Impressit 
M. Morauus ... In urbe Neapoli, 1476. Folio. Printed on 
vellum. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page or pagination ; sign. A z & aa 11, 1m, mm yy, and 
z. Printed in double columns, except the table of names, which is in three 
columns. Query, is not this the first Bible with printer s signatures ? 



52 The Printed Bibles in [1476 



044. 



BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [Sig. A 2.] Prologus. Incipit epl a sacti 
Hieronymi ad Paulinu etc. [Genesis begins sig. A 5.] Incipit 
liber genesis q dicitur hebraice bresith. End. Biblia impressa 
Venetijs opera atq^ impensa Nicolai Jenson Gallic! etc. (inter- 
pretationes hebraicoru nominum etc.) Gothic letter. Printed 
on vellum. Venetijs: N. Jenson, 1476. Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page or pagination ; sig. a 2 z. & 3, 4, A X. The first 
leaf of sig. A and the last of sig. II are b ank ; at the end is a table of the 
register on one page in the copies on paper, but generally wanting like this 
one when printed on vellum. This copy, printed on the thinnest and purest 
vellum, is splendidly illuminated with gold and colours, including miniatures of 
high art. 

645. BIBLE (Latin). Another copy. Same edition as No. 644, but 
printed on paper. Venetiis : Nicolas Jenson, 1476. Small folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Es;/. 

This copy has the rare end leaf containing the register. It is still a question 
whether this, No. 646, the Naples or the Paris Bible, all of 1476, was the first 
Bible with printer s signatures. They all appeared with signatures the same 
year. 

645*. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Epistola beat! hieronymi ad paulinu 
psby-teru de onibus diuine hystorie libris incipit. [Fol. 4 recto, 
col. 2. lin. 7.] Incipit liber Bresith. que nos Gencsim dicimus. 
End. [Fol. 482 r-jcto, col. 2]. Finit liber apocalipsis beat! 
iohannis apl i. [followed by twenty Latin verses beginning :] 

Me ducc carpe viam ! qui celu ascendere gestis. 
[and ending] 

Jam tribus vndccimus lustris francos Ludouicus. 

Rexerat ! vlricus martinus item^ michacl. 

Orti teutonia, hanc mihi composucre figurfi. 

Parisij arte sua-mc correcta vigilantcr. 

Vcnalem in vico iacobi sol aurcus offcrt. 

[Fol. 483. sig. A. j.] Interpretationcs hebraicorum nominu 
fcliciter incipiunt. Gothic letter. Ulricus [Gering] Martinus 
[Crantz] Michael [Friburger]. Parisij, [1476]. Folio. 14! by 
1 1 inches. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page or pagination ; sign, to the table of names only, A C. 
509 leaves, printed (except the table of names) in double columns, 48 lines to 
a full column ; the table of names is printed in treble columns, 60 lines to a 
full Column. The initials are printed in small characters, the verso of fol. 
482 is blank. This is the first Bible printed in Paris. 

646. BIBLE (Latin). Begin, [sig. A 2.] Prologus in bibliam Incipit epl a 
sancti Hieronymi ad Paulinu etc. [Sig. A 4 verso, col. 2 at the 
bottom.] Explicit pfatio. Incipit liber Genesis qui dicit hebraice 
bresith. End. Explicit biblia ipressa Venetijs etc, (interpta- 



1477] the Caxton Exhibition 53 

tiones hebraicoru nominii etc. Gothic letter, p Fraciscu de 
hailbrun I Nicolau d frankfordia socios, Venetijs, 1476. Folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

Without title-page or pagination ; sign. A 2 y, j, 2 18. A C. Printed 
in double columns, 51 lines in a full column. The first Bible with a date 
having printers signatures? see Xos. 643, 645, 645*. 

Another copy, Lent by Henry y. Atkinson, Esq. 

647. BIBLE (Latin). Aurea Biblia. 1476. Folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

648. BIBLE (Seventh German). Begin [Fol. i, recto]. Die epistel Ihcro- 
nimi zu Paulinum. End. [Fol. 332 recto] Diss durchleicht 
igcst werck d gantz en heyligen geschrift genandt die bibel . . . 
hat hie eyn ende. Augspurg : [Gunther Zainer], 1477. Folio. 
2 vols. 321 & 332 leaves. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page, register, and catchword. Printed in double columns, 
51 lines to a full page. The first German Bible with a date. 

649. BIHLE (Italian). [The Holy Bible, with the history of the Septua- 
gint by Aristeas, translated into Italian by N. de Malermi.] 1 t. i. 
Kcgin. Rcgistro de la prima parte de la Biblia. 1 t. 2. Jicgin. 
Registro del secondo libro. 2 pt. Yenetia : Antonio Holognese, 
1477. Folio. Lent by Henry II hitc, J-^t/. 

Printed in double columns. Each part has a distinct register, without tilie- 
page or pagination. Aristeas is at the end of part I : part 2 commences with 
the Proverbs. 

Another copy, Lent by the />V< //</</// Library. 

650. r>n;i,K (Latin). J-legin. Incipit epl a sancti hieronimiad paulinu 
etc. [Fol. 3 verso, col. 3. lin. 8 from the bottom]. Ir.cipit liber 
bresith quern nos genesim dicimtis. End. [Fol. 461 verso, col. 2. 
lin. 3.] Finit liber apocalips beati iohanis a])l i. followed by the 
Colophon. Fol. 462 recto. Hcgin. Y]Kneabili viro duo iacobo 
de ysenaco. Menard solo noie monachus etc. [A general 
notice of the Bible, followed by the Canons of Kusebins ; the 
whole occupying six leaves.] Gothic letter. pAntonium Coburgcr. 
In regia ciuitate Nurnbergn, 1477. Folio. 

Lent by tJie. Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures ; 467 leaves printed in double 
columns, 51 lines to a full column. 

651. BIMLK (Latin). Begin. Epistola. Incipit epistola sacti hieronimi 
ad paulinu presbite 1 / de oil) diuine historic libris. [Genesis 
begins fol. 3 verso, col. i.] Incipit liber bresich cj^ nos genesim 
dici . End. [Fol. 390 recto, col. i] omibs vob amen. Ft sic 
est finis, [same page, col. 2 V]enerabili viro dno. Jacobo de 
ysenaco. Menard solo no-mie monach etc. [A general notice 
of the Bible, extending to the verso of fol. 393, col. i, and 



54 The Printed Bibles in [1476 

ending with seven verses. Begin.] Qui memor esse cupit libro^z 
bibliotece [and End. ] credentes verbis sacris saluare paratus I 5^ A3* 
Gothic letter. [Nuremberg? Jo. Sensenschmidt ?], 1476. Folio. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page, pagination, or signatures, 393 leaves printed in double 
columns, 57 lines to a full column; between fol. 17 and 18 half a leaf is 
inserted with part of a single column printed on the verso, to supply an 
omission at the end of fol. 18, col. 2. 

652. NEW TESTAMENT (French). Begin. Cy commence la table du 
nouuau testament. End. Cy finist lapocalipse et samblablement 
le nouueau testament [translated by G. des Moulins] veu et 
corrige par venerables personnes fres iullien macho et pierre sarget 
[sic. i.e. Farget.] etc. Bartholemieu buyer, lion, [1477?] 4to. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Without title-page or pagination, sign, a c ; a t and A I. 299 leaves 
printed in long lines, 28 lines to a full page, and two blank leaves, one at the 
end of the table and another at the end of the book. The first edition of the 
New Testament in French. 

653. OLD TESTAMENT (First Dutch). Begin. Hier beghlt dat prologus 
vader bible des ouersetters te duytsche vte latine. [Fol. 2, recto, 
L]Nden beghin sciep god hemel en aerde, etc. End. Hier 
eyndt cle prophect malachias, etc. Jacob iacobs soen en 
Mauritius Yemants Zoen van middelborch. Delf, 1477. Small 
folio. 2 volumes. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

The Book of Psalms was omitted in this edition, but appeared separately 
three years later. Without title-page, register, catchwords, or pagination ; 
printed in double columns, 38 lines to a full column. This is the first edition 
of the Old Testament in the Dutch language. See No. 669. 

654. OLD TESTAMENT (First Dutch). Hier beghlt dat prologus, etc. 
Another fine large copy. Jacob iacobs soen en Mauritius Yemants 
Zoen van Middelborch, Delf, 1477. 2 vols. Small folio. 

Lent by the Dutch Church in Austin Friars. 

655. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [Sig. A 2.] Prologus in bibliam. Incipit 
epistola sancti Hieronymi etc. [Genesis begins Sig. A 4 verso, 
col. 2 at the top. I]N princi-pio crea-uit deus celii & terra, 
(interptationes hebraico?/ nominu etc.] Gothic letter. per 
Leonardum vuild de Ratisbona expensis Nicolai de franckfordia, 
Venetijs, 1478. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page or pagination ; Sign. A 2 y, j, 2 i 8, A C; at the end 
is a table of die register on one page. 

656. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [Fol. A 2] Prologus in bibliam. Incipit 
epla sancti Hieronymi ad Paulinu pbrem d oib dine historic 



1479] the Caxton Exhibition 55 

libris. End. Biblia impressa Vcnetiis, etc. (Interptationes hebra- 
icoru nominu scdm orJinem alphabcti). Gothic letter. Opera 
atc^ impesa T. de Reynsburch 1 Reynakli de Novimagio. 
Venetiis, 1478. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsbnrg. 

Without title-page or pagination ; the " Interptationes hebraicoru nominu" 
arc at the end after the imprint. 

657. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Incipit epta sancti Hieronimi ad Paulinu 
presbite 1 ^ de oTb diuine historic libris. End. Anno incarnatonis 
dnice. Millesimo-quadringentesimoseptuagesimo octavo Mai vo 
Kl octauo dccimo. Q^ insigne veteris nouic^ testament! opus. 
Cum canonibs euagelistarumc^ concordantiis, etc. Gothic letter. 
Per Antoniu Coburger, In oppido Nurnbergn. Mai vo Kt. iS. 
1478. Folio. Lent by the Rev. J)r. Giiislwrg. 

Without title-page or register. Preceding the Kpistle of Saint Jerome is a 
leaf containing a table of the books ; the canons are placed after the imprint 
and have no pagination. This is Coberger s third Latin edition. 

658. BIBLE (Latin). Jn giu. [Fol. j.] Incipit epl a sancti Hieronimi ad 
Paulinu, etc. [preceded by one leaf containing an index of the 
books on the verso. Genesis begins ibl. iiij.] Liber Genesis. End. 

[Fol. cccclxj insigne veteris noting testamenti opus, cum 

canonibs euagelistarumc^ concordantijs .... finit feliciter. 
[Then follows : Vjencrabili viro domino Jacobo tie ysenaco. 
Menard . . monachus . . Rogatus nuper a vobis . . . qtenus aliqua 
generalem 1 .ipediosam libro?/ biblie oscriberem notitia etc. [and 
afterwards] Incipit tabula canonii, etc. Gothic letter. Per Antoniu 
Coburger, in oppido Nurnbergn. 1Y. Id. Nov. 1478. Folio. 

Le)it l>\ the Rer. J)r. Ginsburg. 

The collation of this, Coberger s fourth Latin edition, is the same as the 
third, but it is a distinct edition. 

659. NFAV Testament (Latin). Signature in eights. 2 cols. 1478? 
Svo. Lent by the HodU ian Library. 

660. Bim.K (Latin). Begin. [Sig. A 2] Incipit cpistola beati ?Iie- 
ronymi ad Paulinum presbyterum de omnibus divine historic libris. 
End. u Fontibus ex (irecis hebreorum q 93 libris." " I*>mendata 
satis et decorata simul. / Biblia sum pns supos ego testor et astra. / 
Est impssa nee in arbe mihi similis. / Singula (^ loca cu concor- 
dantib extilt. / Orthographia simul q; bene pssa manet." Gothic 
letter. [1479?] Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page or pagination. This is supposed to be the first of the 
editions distinguished by the appellation " Fontibus ex Gnecis," in which case 
it is of the date of 1479, or still earlier. 



56 The Printed Bibles in [1479 

66 1. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Incipit epl a Hieronimi ad Paulinu pres- 
bite^z de oibs diuine historic libris. End. Anno Icarnatois domi- 
nice. Millesimo-qdri ge tesimo septuagesimonono sexto die 
augusti. 1^ isigne veteris nouiq^ testameti op cu canonibs 
euagelistaruck 1 cordatiis, etc. (Interpretationes Hebraicorum 
nominum.) Gothic letter. Per Antoniuz Coburger, In oppido. 
Nurnbergn, 1479. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gimburg. 

Without title-page or register. Printed in double columns, 51 lines to a fail 
column. The " Canons " and " Interpretations " are without pagination. This 
is Coberger s fifth Latin Bible. 

662. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [Sig. A 2.] Prologus. Incipit epl a Hie- 
ronymi ad paulinum, etc. [Genesis begins sig. A 5.] Incipit 
liber genesis qui dicit hebraice bresith. End. Biblia ipressa 
Venetiis, etc. [Then follows, sig. Q] Incipiunt interpretationes 
hebraico ^z nominum, etc. [and on the last leaf] Registrum biblie. 
Gothic letter. Opera . . . A^enetus : Nicolai Jenson, 1479. Folio. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
Without title-page or pagination, signatures A z,t, o, ^. A v. 

663. BIBLE (Eighth German). End. Diss durchleuchtigest werck d ganc- 

zen heilige geschrifft. genannt die Bibel fiir all ander vorgedruckt 
teutsch Bibeln. lauterer. kliirer. vnd warer nach rechtem gemeyne 
teutsch dan vorgedruckt. hat hye ein ende, etc. 2 Th. Augspurg : 
Anthoni Sorg, 1480. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page or signatures ; each Th. is preceded by a register or index. 

664. BIBLE (First German, low). Begin. [D] le born der ewyger wijsheyt 
dat wort gcedes I de hogcste sprekz : etc. [Fol. 4 recto.] (Hijr 
beghynt Genesis dat crste boeck der vijf boeckere Moysi, etc.) 
End. Een salich ende hcfft dat bock der hemelike apenbaringe. 
sent Johans des ewangeliste . . vn dar mede de gantse bybel. dar 
van gade clank unde loff sy in ewicheyt. Amen. [Cologne, 
1480 ?] _ Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Printed in double columns, without title-page, register, or pagination ; 57 
lines to a full column. 

665. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Prologus in bibliam. Incipit epistola 
sancti^ Hieronymi ad Paulinum presbyterum : de omnibus diuine 
historic libris. (interpretatioes hebraicoru nominu, etc.) Gothic 
letter. Venetijs : per Franciscum de hailbrun, 1480. 4to. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 
Without title-page or pagination. Signatures a y, j, z. z, 4-18, A D. 

666. PSALMS (Greek and Latin). Begin. [Fol. 3, recto] AATIA 
nPOMTOr KAI EACIAEnC MEAOC. David prophetce et 
regis melos. [Preceded by Toannes [Crestonus] placentinus 



1481] the Caxton Exhibition 57 

Monachus Reueredo patri & domino. D. Ludouico Donato 
Episcopo Bcrgomensi, S. p. d. commencing on the verso of fol. 
i.] End. irodas ypuv ti$ bdov eipwy;. pedes nostrum in uiam pacis 
[Edited by J. Crestonus]. Mediolani, 1481. Folio. n| by 8\ 
inches. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Eighty-one leaves, sig. a i Z iii. This is the first of the editions 
printed at Milan in 1481, and is known by its colophon : " Impressum Medio 
lani anno Mcccc. Lxxxi. die. xx. Septembris." It is printed in double columns, 
containing 28 and 29 lines in a full column. No pagination or catchwords. 

667. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. IncipitepFa sancti Hieronimi ad Paulinu 
presbite^ de oibs diuine historic libris. End. Anno incarna- 
tionis duice. Millesimoquadringentesimooctuagesimo. Mai vcro 
Kl octauo decimo. Q^ insigne veteris nonic^ testamenti opus, 
cum canonib euangelistarumc^ concordantiis, etc. Per Anto- 
niuz Coburger, In oppido Nurnbergn, 1480. Folio. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Without title-page or register. Preceding the epistle of Saint Jerome is a 
leaf containing a table of the books ; the canons are placed after the imprint, 
and have no pagination. This is Coburger s sixth Latin edition. 

668. BIBLE (Latin). [The Holy B. in Latin, according to the Vulgate 
translation, with the Glossa Ordinaria of Walafridus Strabo, and 
the Glossa interlinearis of Anselmus Scholasticus.] Begin. Fpis- 
tola beati Hieronimi presbiteri ad Paulinum presbiteru . . . incipit. 
[Fol. 3 verso :] Glossa ordinaria incipit [Fol. 5 recto :] [I]N 
pricipio creauit de celum 1 terra, etc. Gothic letter. 4 vols. 
[Venice? 1480?] Folio. Lent by the Sion College Library. 

A manuscript note in Latin on the cover of vol. I. says that in 1480 this 
book belonged to Giles de Bresc, Rector of S. Mary the Virgin outside 
Malines, and that he bought it for 26 florins. 

669. PSALMS (Dutch). 278 leaves, 17 lines. End. Hier eyndet die 
duytsch Souter end es gheprent te Delf, 1480. i6mo. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

278 leaves, 17 lines. Signatures a 1) c d e f g h i k 1 mnopqrlfstv 
w x y z A li c D K F G n in eights and I in 6 leaves, in all 35 sheets, or 278 
leaves. This Bodleian copy has a separate printed title-page, added apparently 
some few years later. This little volume, with No. 653, completes the first 
Old Testament in Dutch. 

670. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Incipit epistola sancti Hieronymi ad ... 
divine historic libris. Sig. a 5 recto, col. 2.] In principio 
creavit de . . . t ra, etc. (Iterptatioes hebraicoru nominu s m ordi- 
nem alphabet!.) Gothic letter. 1481. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Without title-page, pagination, or catch woids. Sig. a y, A V, 1-13, 
570 leaves, printed in double columns, 47 lines to a full column. This is one 
of the " Fontibus ex Clrrecis" editions. The Colophon, which is at the end of 
the Apocalypse, is followed by the Rubric of the Proper Lessons and the "In- 
terpretationes." 

H 



-8 The Printed Bibles in [1481 

680. BIBLE (Latin). With Commentaries of De Lyra. 2 vols. Nurn- 
bergn : Anthonius Coberger, 1481. Folio. 

Lent by Matthew Ridgway^ Esq. 

68 T. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. Incipit epistola sancti Hieronym ad 
Paulinu, etc. [Sig. a 5 recto, col. 2] i N principle creavit de 
celu t tra, etc. (Iterptatioes hebraicoru nominu s m ordinem 
alphabete.) Gothic letter. 1481. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Without title-page, pagination, or catchwords. Sig. a y, A Y, 1-13, 570 
leaves, printed in double columns, 47 lines to a full column. This is one of 
the "Fontibus ex Gratis" editions. The colophon, which is at the end of the 
Apocalypse, is followed by the Rubric of the Proper Lessons, and the " Inter- 
pretationes." 

682. PENTATEUCH (Hebrew). ." ttH ttTlVEn Dl^pJlN Dim/1 DjJ t^OTF 
Begin. .JTt#JO3, On vellum. [Bologna : Abraham ben Chayim 
de Tintori, 1482.] Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

First edition of the Pentateuch in Hebrew. 

683. VORAGINE (James de). The Golden Legendc. [Colqphori\ 
Thus endeth the legende named/ in latyn legenda aurea, that is 
to saye/ in englysshc the golden legende, For/ lyke as golcle 
passeth in valewe alle/ other metallcs, so thys legende excedeth/ 
alle other bookes, wherin ben contey-/ned alle the hygh and grete 
festys of/ our lord, the festys of our blessyd la/dy, the lyues pas- 
syons and myradcs/ of many other sayntes, and other hys-/toryes 
and actes, as al allonge here/ afore is made mencyon, whiche 
werke/ I haue accomplisshed at the commaundemente and 
requeste of the noble and/ puyssaunte erle, and my special good/ 
lord Wyllyam erle of arondel, 1 haue/ fynysshed it at Westmestre 
the twenty/ day of nouembre, the yere of our lord/ M, CCCC, 
Ixxxiij, t the fyrst yere/ of the reygne of Kyng Rychard the/ thyrd 

O^g me tfcgttgan) Canton* Foiio. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

First edition. Four preliminary leaves, comprising the Prologue and two 
tables ; text in double columns, folioed I to ccccxliij. 

This book is, we think, fairly placed among Bibles, because it contains a 
translation into English of nearly the whole of the Pentateuch and a great part 
of the Gospels, and hence must have been read extensively by the people, or to 
the people, long before the Reformation, or the days of Tyndale and Cover- 
dale. Historians of the English Bible appear to have overlooked the numerous 
editions of this work. It was no doubt read in churches, anil though the text 
is mixed with much priestly gloss and dross, it nevertheless contains, in almost 
a literal translation, a great portion of the Bible ; and it became thus one of the 
principal instruments in preparing the way for the Reformation. The people 
demanded the Scriptures in a purer form. The modifications and changes of 
the text and form of the Golden Legend is a theme worthy the bibliographer. 



487] the Caxton Exhibition 59 

The future historian of our dear old English liihle should not fail to sift 

tf)g ftntibc tyc* tyat %?"%* 



ii nc r.r 
f cute and fetbety $cm toggdw for fo co# ii,,c ami V,.H,U- 

umtf)egr memtaee itj matter of 6rcOio/ 37" 



column. This may take precedence of the Genevan Version in being called 
the "Breeches Bible," as that was not published till 1560, more than three 
quarters of a century later. 

684. BIBLE (Ninth German). J>cgin. Das erst P.lat. Hie hebet an die 
Kpistel des hcyligen priesters sant Jheronimi etc. [fol. v. recto] 
Hie hebt sich an. Genesis etc. End. [fol. ccccclxxxiij. verso.] 
] )isz durchleuchtigist werck der gant/en heyligen geschrifft. 
genant dy bibel fur all and vorgetriicket tcutsch bible, lauterer. 
clarer vnd \varer nach rechter gemeyner teutsch . . . gege clem 
lateynischen text gerechtuertigt . . . mit vberschrifften . . . Vn mil 
srhonen liguren . . . hat hie ein ende. etc. Gothic letter. Nuren- 
l>erg : durch anthonium Koburger, 1483. Folio. 15 i- by iii 
inches. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Es>/. 

Without title-page or signatures; printed in double columns, 50 lines in 
a full column. The first German Bible printed at Nuremberg. With many 
extraordinary woodcuts. 

Another copy, Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

685. BIBLE (Ninth German). Begins. Das erst Blat. Hie hebet an die 
Epistel, etc. Another copy. Very fine. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

686. BIBLE (Latin). Begin. [Fol. a. 2.] Incipit epistola beati 
Hieronymi ad Paulinum presbyterum de omnibus divine hystorie 
libris. End. Kxactum est inclyta in urbe venctia?/ sacro sanc 
tum biblie volumen &c. (F. Moneliensis a genua in sacrosanctam 
ac sacratissima biblia Epl a. Interpretaciones nominu hebraico- 
rtim.) Gothic letter. Caracteribus Magistri Johanis dicti magni. 
Herbert de Siligenstat alcmani, in urbe venctia?/, 1483. Folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

Without title-page or pagination ; the epistle of Franciscus Moneliensis is 
on the verso of the first leaf, and the " Interpretaciones nominu hebraicorum" 
are at the end, after the colophon. 

687. BIBLE (French). In French paraphrase by Guyard de Motilins, 
or Comestor, 1487. Folio, with very many curious woodcuts. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

688. BIBLE (Italian). La Biblia en lingua Volgare (per Nicolo di 
Mallermi). End. Venetia : per Joan. Rosso Vercellese, 1487. 
Folio. Lent by Henry White > Esq. 



60 The Printed Bibles in [1487 

689. BIBLE (Latin). Venetiis : per Georgium rauabenis, 1487. 4to. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

This first Bible with a separate title-page is printed in two columns of 52 
lines each. 

690. BIBLE (First Bohemian). [The Holy Bible in Bohemian.] Begin. 
Poezinagi Prwnie Knihy Moyziessowy. Capitola I. etc. C Mjes- 
tie Starem Prazskem, 1488. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Printed in double columns, without numerals or catchwords, 47 lines to a 
full page; register a. iii z. v. A Z, v. A. A. C. C. iiii. a. a. m. m. iiii. 
At the end is a register of the Epistles and Gospels, printed alternately red 
and black, signatures i iiii. 



691. BIBLE (First Hebrew). [.D^nTDI DW13 rn\Tl] Begin, [fol. i 
verso] .JTttfN"n Editio Princeps. [Soncino : Abraham ben 
Chayin de Tintori, 1488.] Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

380 leaves without pagination, printed in double columns, 30 lines to a full 
page. The Pentateuch is followed by the Five Rolls, which have a separate 
register, as also the Prophets and the Hagiographa. De Rossi, Ann. Sec. 
XV. p. 54. This is the first complete edition of the Bible. The whole Bible 
had been printed previously in portions, viz., the Pentateuch, 1482, the Former 
Prophets, 1485, the later Prophets, 1486, and the Hagiographa, 1487. 

692. BIBLE (i2th German). 2 vols., 799 leaves, 2 columns, 48 lines, 
woodcuts. Augspurg : Hen. Schonsperger, 1490. Folio. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

693. BIBLE Picture Book (Dutch). Boeck van Ihesus Leven. Wood 
cuts. Zwolle: Peter van Os Breda, 1490. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

694. BIBLE (Second German Low). 2 vols., 2 columns, 66 lines in a full 
column. With large woodcuts. Lubec, 1491. Folio. 

Le?it by Earl Spencer. 

695. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia. (Epistola beati Hieronymi . . . de omnib 
divine historic libris. . . Translatores biblie. Epistole et Evan- 
gelia Per anni circulum Interptatioes hebriaco^ noum, etc.] 
Gothic letter. Impensis . . . Nicolai Keslers, civis Basilicu 
[Basle], 1491. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Without pagination. Sig. a z, t, & E, A Z, Aa G.g., a c. Printed 
in double columns, 56 lines to a full column. The Colophon, which is on the 
verso of sig. F. f. 7, is followed by the "Translatores biblie, etc." 

696. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Integra, summata; distincta: supemedata 
utriusq^ testameti rcordatus illustrata. [Fol. a 2 recto :] Incipit 
epistola beati Hieronymi ad Paulinu, &c. [New Test. Fol. i 
recto.] Incipit epistola beati Hieronymi ad Damasum, &c. [Fol. 



149?] the C ax ton Exhibition 61 

A. i recto.] Interpretationes Nominu Hebraico. Gothic letter. 
Per Johanem froben de Hammelburck, Basilee, 1491. 8vo. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

491 leaves, without pagination or catchwords ; register, beginning at fol. <5, 
a y, A Z, l-ll iiii, A E 7 in eights, except 1 1 which is in twelves. Printed 
in double columns, 56 lines to a full column. Fol. a I and E 7 are blank. 
This is said to be the first Bible printed in octavo, or in small form, and is 
hence called the first edition of the "poor man s Bible." It is also the first 
or one of the first books printed by Froben. This copy is splendidly illuminated. 

697. BIBLE (Latin). In title, "Tu es Petrus," emendata per Angelum 
de Monte Ulmi. Venetiis : per Hieronimum de Pagininis, 1492. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
The earliest Bible with an illustration on the title-page. 

698. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia [on woodcut "Tu es Petrus."] Another 
copy. Venetiis, 1492. Svo. Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

698^7. PSALMS (German). Dor Psalter/ zu Deutsch./ {Colophon} C Ge- 
truckt zu Vim vo Cun-/rad dinckmut. Anno salutis. M./cccc. 
Vnndim.xcii. Ulm, 1492. i6mo. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginsburg. 

Eight prel. leaves, the 7th and the recto of the 8th being blank ; Text, 17 
lines on a page, a to z and A to K 3 in eights. These Psalms are a literal 
translation from the Latin Vulgate, into High German of the fifteenth century, 
of a southern (Swabian) dialect. Added to the Psalms are the hymns of Isaiah, 
Ezekicl, Anna, Moses, Abacuck, the Three Children, Zachariah, St. Augustine, 
and the Athanasian Creed. This is a fine specimen of an early pocket edition of 
the Psalms in the language of the people. The size of the page is 3$ by 2^ in. 

698^. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia integra, etc. Finit p Johnnnem froben 
cive Basilic. 6 Kal Nov. 1495. 8. Lent by Sion College. 

699. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia, cum tabula noviter edita (Tabula alpha- 
betica ex singulis libris 1 capitulis totius biblie ... a G. Bruno. . . 
summa cura composita.) End. Exacta est biblia presens Venetiis 
summa lucubratione. (Interpretatioes hebraicorii nominu pm ordi- 
nem alphabet!.) Gothic letter. Venetiis: Bevilaqua, 1494. 
4to. Lent by Matthew Ridga ay^ Esq. 

700. BIBLE (Latin). Liber uite. Biblia cum glosis ordinarijs 
et interlinearibus ; excerptis ex omnib ferme ecclesie sancte 
doctorib ; simuk^ cum expositois Nicolai de lyra ; et cum con- 
cordantijs i margine. (End. Glosa ordiaria vna cu postill ve. f. 
Nicolai de lyra. . . feliciter fmit. . . . emedata . . . Bernardinu 
gadolu, etc. 4 vols. Gothic letter. Venetiis : p. Paganinu de 
paganinis, 1495. Folio. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

701. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Correcta per Petrum Angelu de monte 
ulmi. Venetiis: Hieronimus de Paganini, 1497. Svo. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 



62 The Printed Bibles in [1498 

702. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra Latina cum Glossa Ordinaria et 
Postillis Nicola de Lyra. 6 Parts. Basiliae, J. Petri de Langen- 
dorffet Joan. Froben de Hamelburg, 1498. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

703. BIBLE (Latin). 2 col., 52 lines. Venetiis : per Symonum dictum 
beuilaqua, 14.98. 4to. Lent by M. Ridgway, Esq. 

This is one of the Fontibus ex Gnccis editions. 

704. BIBLE (Latin). Liber Vitce Biblia correcta per Petru angelu. 
Venetia : Arte Paganini de Paganinis Brixiensis, 1501. 8vo. 

Lent by Earl Stanhope. 

705. PSALMS (English). ^[ This treatise concernynge the fruytful-Say- 
inges of/ Dauyde the kynge & prophete in the seuen penytccyal/ 
psalmes Deuyded in seuen sermons was made and com-/plyed by 
the ryght reuerente fader in god Johan fyssher/ Doctour of dy- 
uynyte & bysshop of Rochester at the ex-/ortacion and sterynge of 
the moost excellente pryncesse/ Margarete countesse of Ryche- 
moiite and Derby & Mo-/der to our souerayne lorde Kynge Hery 
the vij on who-/se soule Jesu haue mercy./ [ Colophon] Here endeth 
the exposycyon of y e .vii. psalmes. Enpryn/ted at London in the 
fletestrete at the sygne of y e sonne/ by Wynkyn de Worde. In the 
yere of oure lorde. M/CCCCC. viii. y e .xvi. day of y e moneth of Juyn. 
The/ xxiii. yere of y e reygne of our souerayne lorde kynge Hc/ry 
the seuenth./ London, 1508. 4to. Lent by W. Harrison, Esq. 

146 leaves without folios, pagination, or catchwords. Signatures aa to zz in 
eights and fours alternately, and && in six leaves. Colophon on the reclo of 
&& .iv. with Wynken de Worde s device on the reverse. This edition is dis 
tinguished from the others by the initial F at the beginning of the text having 
the Portcullis of Westminster, and by the signatures being in double letters in 
lower case. There are 32 lines on a page, and the Latin text is in larger letters 
than the English. 

706. QUINCUPLEX Psalterium. Gallicum, Romanum, Hebraicum, 
Vetus, Conciliatum. Parisiis : jHen. Stephani, 1509.410. Two 
copies. 

One lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq., the other by Earl Spencer. 

707. BIBLE (Latin). 6 vols. Paris: Wolfgang Hopyl, 1510. i6mo. 

708. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia, Pars scunda. Josue Psalter. Paris : 
Wolfgang Hopyl, 1510. 161110. Lent by Rev. J. B. Ebsworth. 

709. BIBLE (Latin). In Parrhisiorum vniuersitate arte Philippi pigou- 
chet Impesis Symonis vostre, 1512. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

710. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni : J. Mareschal, 1514. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1519] the Caxton Exhibition 63 

711. BIBLIA Polyglotta. Hebr. Chald. Gr. Lat. Cardinalis Ximencz. 
A. W. de Brocario. In Complutcnsi universitate (Alcala), 
1514-17. Folio. 6 vols. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

The first Polyglot Bible. Only 600 copies of it were printed, which were 
not published until 1520. The work occupied fifteen years in execution, and 
its cost was defrayed by Cardinal Ximenes. The first volume was completed 
the loth January, 1514, and the last the loth July, 1517. The Licence of 
Leo X. is dated 22nd March, 1520, but copies were not issued before 1522. 
The Cardinal died the 8th of November, 1517, and the hitch in the publica 
tion of the work was probably owing to this circumstance. 

715. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni per Jacobum Sacon, expesis Anthonij 
koberger, 1515. Folio. Lent by H. White, Esq. 

716. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni in officina Jacobi Sacon, 1515. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

717. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni: Jacobi Sacon, cxpensis Ant. koberger, 
1516. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

718. NEW Testament (Creek and Latin). Nouum Instrumentum 
Erasmi. Basilic: Froben, 1516. Folio. Two copies. 

One lent by Henry White, Esq., the other by Earl Spencer. 
The first Greek New Testament accompanied by a Latin translation is re 
ported to have been executed by Erasmus and Froben in five months. See 
Erasmus s twenty-sixth letter. 

719. NEW Testament (Greek and Latin). Nouum Instrumentum, etc. 
Basilirc : Froben, 1516. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

This is generally called the first New Testament in Greek, though it had 
been printed two years before in the Ximenes Polyglot, but not issued till 
1520. It had also been printed by Aldus, but in consequence of that printer s 
death, was not published till 1518. See No. 721. 

720. PSALMS (Polyglot). Psalterium. Hcbr. Gr. Ar. Chald. Studio 
Aug. Justiniani. Genme : P. P. Porrus, 1516. Folio. Splendid 
copy, printed on vellum. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

A note on the nineteenth Psalm gives a short account of the life of Christo 
pher Columbus, especially of his second voyage along the southern coast of 
Cuba, containing details of importance nowhere else told so fully. 

721. BlBLE (Greek). Havra ia xar ^oxw jta^ou^va BIBAIA &eia$ 
dViteSVj yfapw Trateuag TE, xai vtx$. Sacra Scripturac Vetcris 
Novaque Omnia. Venetiis in redibus Aldi et Andres soceri, 
1518. Februarius. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

First edition of the Septuagint. Contains the first Greek Old Testament 
published, though it had been printed the previous year in the Ximenes Poly 
glot. This is a sumptuous copy on large paper. Aldus Pius Manutius, the 
projector of this work, as well as its chief editor and printer, died in 1516, 
before it was completed. Hence his father-in-law Andreas Asolanus address 
to Cardinal /Egidius the friend of Aldus. 

722. BIBLE (Latin). Lily on title. Venetiis: L. A. de Giunta, 1519. 
Svo. With the earliest metal engraving (?) 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



64 The Printed Bibles in [1519 

7 2 2*. NEW Testament (Greek and Latin). Erasmus s second edition. 
Basiliae : J. Froben, 1519. Folio. Magnificent copy, printed on 
pure vellum. Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

In this second edition the text is considerably purified, and it contains 
the verse in I John v. 7, about the three that bear record in heaven, introduced 
here for the first time by Erasmus, though it had been printed in the Complu- 
tensian Polyglot in 1514 

723. NEW Testament (Greek and Latin). Erasmus s second edition. 
With the Annotationes. 2 vols. Basiliae : J. Froben, 1519. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

724. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni : J. Mareschal, 1519. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

724*. BIBLE (Latin). Another copy. Lent by the Earl of Beauchamp. 

725. BIBLE (French). La Bible en francois. Paris: Jehan Petit, 

1520. Folia Lent by Edwin S. Kowie, Esq. 

726. ACTS of the Apostles (German, Luther s). Printed on vellum. 

1521. 8vo. A fragment. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

727. CONCORDANCE (Latin). Basiliae: J. Froben, 1521. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson^ Esq. 

728. NEW Testament (Greek). Hagenoae : Thomas Anselmi, 1521. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

729. BIBLE (Latin). Bibliorvm Opvs integrvm. Printed in Italics. 
Basiliae: J. Wolf, 1522. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

730. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni: Jacob Sacon, 1522. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

731. BIBLE (Latin). Nurembergse : Fredericus Peypus, sumptu Joh. 
Koburger, 1522. 410. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

732. NEW Testament (Latin). 2 vols. Argent. : J. Cnobloch, 1523. 
8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

733. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni: J. Mareschal, 1523. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

734. NEW Testament (French). (Transl. par Jacques le Fevre 
d Etaples.) Guilaume Vorsterman, Anvers, 1523. 8vo. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

735. BIBLE (German). Das Alt und neues Testaments der Martin 
Luther. Gedrukt zu Nuremberg durch Frederichen Peypus, 1524. 
3 vols. Folio. Printed on vellum. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

These volumes want the Prophets and Apocrypha, which were not printed 
by Luther till 1532, to render this edition complete. This is the world- 
renowned copy printed on pure vellum, with the wood illustrations splendidly 
coloured like miniatures. 



1528] the Caxton Exhibition 65 

737. BIBLE (German). Das gantz neiiw Testamet (Luther s). Zu 
Strassburg durch Wolff Kopphel. 1524. 8vo. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

738. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Magna. Lugduni : Jacob Marcschal, 
1525. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

739. BIHLE (Hebrew). 4 vols. Venct. : Bomberg, 1525. 410. 

Lent by tJie British and Foreign Bible Society. 

740. BIBLE (Latin). Sacra Biblia ad LXX interprctum tralata. 
Basilic, per Andream Cratandrum, 1526. 410. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

741. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni : Jacob Marischal, 1526. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
Curious plates at the end of Maccabeus. 

742. HABACUC (German). Luther s. 1526. 410. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

743. NEW Testament (English). [The Ncwe Testament in Englysshe, 
by William Tyndale. Worms: Peter Schoeffer, 1526?]. 8vo. 

Lent by the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul s Cathedral. 
This is one of the rarest and most precious volumes in our language, being 
the first complete edition of the New Testament by William Tyndale. Only 
two copies are known, this and the one at Bristol. This one is very imper 
fect, while the Bristol copy wants only the title. 

744. NEW Testament (English). Tyndale s first edition, supposed to 
have been printed at Worms by Peter Schoeffer in 1526; a fac 
simile on vellum, illuminated, reprinted from the copy in the 
Baptist College, Bristol. With an Introduction by Francis Fry. 
1862. Svo. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

Mr. Fry has rendered a great service in reproducing this rare volume with 
so much care and fidelity. We ought here also to call attention to Mr. Arber s 
reprint of the quarto fragment of Tyndale s first edition of 1525. 

745. BIBLE (Latin). Habes in hoc libro utriusque instrument! novam 
translation^ zcditam a Sancto Pagnino. Lugduni : Ant. du Ry, 
1528-7. 4to. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

With Melancthon s autograph notes. 

746. BIBLE (Latin). Another copy. Lugduni : per Ant. du Ry, 
1528. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

First Bible divided into verses, but not divided exactly, as was afterwards 
done by Robert Stephens in his sixth edition of 1555, subsequently adopted 
by our English translators first in the Genevan version. 

747. BIBLE (Dutch, Protestant). To Bibel. Gheprint Thantwer- 
pen, Bi mi Willem Vorsterman, 1528-31. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



66 The Printed Bibles in [1528 

748. NEW Testament (German). Das New Testament, so durch L. 
Eraser. Leyptzick durch Valter Schuman, 1528. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

749. BIBLE (Latin, Vulgate). Colonise ex aedibus Quentelianis, 1529. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

750. NEW Testament (German). && Das gantz New Testament : So 
durch den *Ot?/ Hochgelerten L. Hieronymun Eraser verteiitscht, 
mitt sampt seincn zugefug-/ten Summarien vnd Annotationen 
vber yegliche capitel angezeigt, wie Mar-/tinus Luther dem rechten 
Text (dem Huschischen exemplar nach) seins gefal-/lens, ab vnd 
tzugethan, vnd verendert hab, Wie dan durch bitte etzlicher 
Fiirsten/ vnd Herren gescheen, das er wol dem gemeynen volck 
tzu niitz, das war/ vnd recht Euangelion, am truck ausz geen 
lassen./ C Item ein new Register vcrordent vnd gemacht, 
vorstetlicher dan vor gewest./ Auch dem kiiuffer vnnd gemeynen 
man tzu gutt sindt hynclen an getriickt, die/ Episteln ausz dem 
alten Testament, die man in der Christlichen kirchen durchs Jar 
helt, wol-/che dann der Eraser in seyner Translation nicht bey 
gesetzt hat, da rait nicht eyra jeglichen/ not sey eyn gantze Bybel 
tzu kauffen./ Anno M. cccc. xxix. Am. xxui. tag des Augst- 
monts./ \_Colophon\ Getruckt vnd volendet in der loblichen stat 
Collen I durch Heronem Fuchs, vnnd auffs new rait fleysz durch- 
leszen vnnd corrigirt/ vonn dem wirdigen doctor Johan Diten- 
berger. Mit verlag vnnd belo-/nung des Ersamen vnnd fiirsich- 
tigen burgers Peter Quentel. Ira/ Jaer nach Christi vnsers 
saiichmachers geburt M.CCCC. / xxix. Am xxui tag des Augst- 
mants. Collen, 1529. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Six preliminary leaves : text folioed from I to 204, and paged from 205 to 
227. This Translation of Kinser is opposed to Luther s, which is here pro 
nounced to be a falsification of the text. 

751. BIBLE (Dutch, Protestant). Antwerp, By mi Willem Vorsterman, 
1528-29. Folio. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

752. BIBLE (French). La Saincte Bible Franc.oys, translated scion la 
pure et entiere traduction de Sainct Hierome (par Jacques le 
Fevre d Estaples). En Anvers : par Martin Lempereur, 1530. 
Folio. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

This splendid volume was long regarded as the first complete Bible in the 
French language. It was translated by Le Fevre of Estaples from the Latin 
Vulgate, and was so faithfully done as to become the basis of all other French 
translations, both Roman Catholic and Protestant. It is however now rendered 
certain that the entire work had previously seen the light in six small octavo 
volumes, between the years 1523 and 1528, which volumes are so scarce that 
no library, as far as we know, possesses a complete set. The New Testament 
was printed by Simon de Colines at Paris in 1523, and again in 1524. By an 
order of the French Parliament, 28th August, 1525, the work was censured 



1534] the C ax ton Exliibition 67 

and rigorously suppressed. The New Testament was in 1524 and 1525 re 
printed in Antwerp by Vorsterman, and again in 1525 it was reprinted at Basle. 
In 1528 Martin Lempereur printed the Pentateuch and the Prophets in two 
volumes. The- I salms had been printed separately in 1525 by Colines at Paris. 
Lempereur again reprinted some of the volumes in 1529 and 1532, in octavo. 

753. PKNT ATKt CH (English). The fyrst boko of Moses called Genesis. 
By William Tyndale. Murlborow : Hans Luft, 1530. 8vo. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

The five books of the Pentateuch have each separate titles, and were probably 
issued separately. Genesis anil Numbers are in black letter, while the other 
three books are in Roman. 

754. BIBLE (German). Zurich: C. Froschover, 1531. Folio. 

Lent />} Jlcnry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Translated by Leo Jude and others. Woodcuts said to be by Holbein. 
See distaff of Eve and cannon and armour of Paul s escort. 

755. BIBLE (Latin). Paris: Robertus Stephanus, 1532. Folio. 

Lent by Jlenry f. Atkinson, Esq. 

This is Robert Stephens s second Uible, of which he edited and published 
eight distinct editions between 1528 and 1556-7. 

756. Hir.LK (Dutch). Gheprint Thantuerpen, By my Willem Vorster 
man, 1533-4. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

756*. Iii iu, K (German). Biblia, Getrurkt zii Fnmckftirt am Mayn, P>ci 
Christian Egenolph, 1534. Folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

This very scarce Uible in the type and woodcuts closrly resembles the 
Coverdale Uible of 1535, but from a careful comparison we confidently affirm 
that the type and the woodcuts are not identical with those of the Coverdale 
Uible. 

757. BIBLE (Latin). Paris: R. Stephanus, 1534. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
This is Stephens s third Uible. 

758. NKW Testament (English, Tyndale s). ^[ The ne- we Testament, 
dyly gently rorrerted and/ compared with the/ Greke by Willyam/ 
Tindale ; and fynes-/shed in the yere of on, re Lorde (iod./ 
A. M. D. 1. xxxiiij. / in the moneth of/ Nouember./" Antwerp: by 
Marten Emperowr, 1534. 8vo. 

Lent by W. Am hurst Tysscn-Amhurst, Esq. 

Sixteen preliminary leaves, viz. Title within a woodcut border ; on the re 
verse, " CI \V. T. vnto the Reader." 17 pages ; " C A prologe into the .iiii. 
Euangelystes "/ (**. ii.) 3^ pp., the remaining half-page being occupied by 
"CA warninge to y^ reader if ought be/ scaped thorow necligence of the 
prynter." Then comes, on ** .iiii./ " Willyam Tindale/ yet once more to the/ 
christen reader."/ 9 pages : next page blank. Then follows the second title 
C The ne-/we Testa-/ment, C Imprinted at An-/werp by Marten/ Emperowr./ 
Anno. M.I). xxxiiij./ On the reverse is " C The bokes conteyned in the/ 
newe Testament." 27 lines, the last 4 not numbered. The Text begins with 
folio I (so in error for folio ii.) on A. ii. with a small woodcut of St. Matthew 
tilling the space of 10 lines, nearly an inch wide. Revelations end on the top 



68 The Printed Bibles in [1534 

of the reverse of folio ccclxxxiii. with "The ende of the newe/ testament."/ 
Then follows on, "These are the Epistles ta-/ken O ute of the olde testament," 
ending on the bottom of the recto of folio cccc with " C Here ende the epistls 
of the olde/ Testament."/ Next come on the reverse of folio cccc. " C This is 
the Table/ whe/re in you shall fynde/ the Epistles and/ the Gospels/ after the 
vse of/ Salsbury." 18 pages, and 4 lines of the next page, followed immediately 
by, " These thinges have I added to fill/ vp the lesse with all."/ Occupying 
the remainder of that and the following page, ending at the bottom of the recto 
of Ee. viii. with "CThe ende of this/ boke."/ The reverse of the last leaf 
Ee. viii. is blank. The woodcut borders of the two titles are alike, except that 
while the shield at the bottom of the first is blank, that in the second is occu 
pied by armorial bearings between the initials of Martin Kaiser, the Flemish 
name of the printer, Martin Emperour. Preceding each of the four Gospels, 
the Acts, and most of the Epistles, are small woodcuts, representing the Evan 
gelists and Apostles, nearly one inch wide, and one and three-eighths inches 
high. In the Revelations are 22 woodcuts, two and three-eights inches by 3^ 
inches. This is Mr. Fry s No. 3, where it is fully described. 

759. PENTATEUCH (English). By William Tyndale. The fyrst boke of 
Moses called Genesis. Newly corrected and amended by W. T. 
(in roman type). [Marlborow : Hans Luft, 1534.] 8vo. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

William Tyndale s corrected copy of the Pentateuch of 1534 is usually called 
the second edition, but only the first book was reprinted; the other four books, 
all dated 1530, were not changed. The first edition of Genesis appeared in 1530 
[see No. 753]. A complete copy, comprising the whole five parts, like the 
present, is of the highest rarity. 

765. BIBLE (English). Biblia./ The Bible, that/ is, the holy Scripture 
of the/ Olde and New Testament, faith-/fully and truly translated 
out/ of Douche and Latyn/ in to Englishe./ M.DXXXV./ [Myles 
Coverdale.] \Colophon^\ Prynted in the yeare of our Lord 
M.D.XXXV./ and fynished the fourth daye of October./ [Antwerp : 
Jacob van Meteren], 1535. Folio, uf by 8 inches. 

Lent by the Earl of Leicester. 

Eight preliminary leaves. The title is in black within a beautiful border 
composed of four woodcuts. On the reverse, in a similar type to the text of 
the Bible, are " The bokes of the whole Byble, how they are named/" &c., in 
four columns under the headings, " Abbreuiacion," "Boke," "Chapters," 
and "leafe." Then comes, on +. ii- the Dedication " Vnto the most 
victorious Prynce/" &c. 5 pages, ending on the recto of + iiii. with " you re 
graces humble sub-/iecte and daylye oratour,/ Myles Couerdale."/ On 
the reverse begins, "A prologe./ Myles Couerdale Vnto the Christen 
reader."/ with the initial C, six lines deep, 6 pages ; next follows on 
the reverse of the leaf "The bokes of the hole Byble," occupying 2 pages ; 
then comes in a smaller black letter, on the reverse of the last preliminary leaf, 
"The first boke of/ Moses, called/ Genesis/" I page. The Text is in six 
parts, Genesis to Deuteronomy, Folios i to xc, recto, the reverse blank ; 
Title, "The seconde par-/te of the olde Testament./ The boke of Josua." &c., 
within a woodcut border composed of eight pieces, with "The boke of/ Josua./ 
What this boke conteyneth," on the reverse ; Text, Josua to Hester, Folios ij. 
to cxx. verso, Signature aa ij to vv in sixes : The third Part, without separate 
title-page, Job to Solomons Balettes, Folios i to lij, recto, Signatures Aa to 
Ii iiij. Title to the fourth Part, within a woodcut border of nine pieces, "All 
the Prophetes/ in Englishe./ Esay, Jeremy " &c., having on the reverse 



1535] the Caxton Exhibition 69 

"The Prophet/ Esay./ What Esay conteyncth," one page; Text, Esay to 
Malachy, Folios ij to cij verso, Signatures Aaa ij to Rrr vj. Title to the 
fifth Part, "Apocripha/ The bokes," &.c., within a woodcut border of 
eight pieces, having on the reverse "The transzlatoure vnto the reader." 29 
lines, and "The thirde boke of Esdras./ What this boke conteyneth." one 
page ; Text, The Third boke of Esdras to the Second boke of the Machabees, 
Folios ij to Ixxxiij (marked Ixxxi.) Signatures A ij to O v, followed by one 
blank leaf. Then comes the title to the sixth Part, "The new testament."/ 
Arc., within a border of eight pieces, having on the reverse "The gospell of/ 
S. Mathew./ What S. Mathew conteyneth," one page ; Text, Mathew to 
Revelation, Folios ij to cxiij verso, concluding with "The ende of the new 
testament." on the middle of the page. Underneath is " A faute escaped in 
pryntinge the new Testament." four lines ; and then comes the colophon near 
the bottom of the page, "Prynted in the yeare of cure Lorde M.D. \\.\v. / and 
fynished the fourth day of October." Between the first and second parts is a 
large woodcut map, 1 1 by 15$ inches square, entitled, "The desiripcion of the 
londe of promes, called Palestina, Canaan, or the holy londe."/ 

Let no Englishman or American view this and the six following Bibles with 
out first lifting his hat, for they are seven extraordinary copies of the COVKR- 
DALE BIHLK, containing, with one important exception (the Marquis of 
Northampton s copy), all the variations known of the most precious volume in 
our language. For the latest notes on its history the reader is referred to our 
Introduction to this collection of Bibles, pp. 36-42. Jacob van Meteren, of 
Antwerp, printer and proprietor, and probably the translator, by whom Cover- 
dale was employed to edit and see the work through the press, having sold the 
edition to James Xicolson, of Southwark, that English printer and publisher 
seems to have had as much trouble in working off his book as Simmons had in 
selling Milton s " Paradise Lost," if we may judge by the number of new titles 
and preliminary leaves found in different copies. First, we have here in the Earl 
of Leicester s copy, Van Meteren s original Antwerp title, as first issued, with 
part of the list of "The bokes of the hole Byble," ending with Malachi on the 
reverse. Of course the second leaf would be a continuation of this list of "The 
bokes" from the Apocrypha to Revelation, and hence we may infer that the 
volume originally contained no dedication to Henry VIII ami his "dearest iust 
wife," Anne [Bulleyn] or Jane [Seymour], for that would cause the dedication to 
commence on the verso of the second leaf. Besides, we have in this copy of 
the Earl of Leicester a unique leaf, containing the end of Coverdale s Prologue 
to the Reader, in the Antwerp type of the body of the book. If our calcula 
tions are correct, Coverdale s Prologue to the Reader would commence on the 
verso of the second leaf and end with this page in the Holkham copy, thus de 
monstrating almost to a certainty that there was originally no dedication to the 
King. This being the case, Nicolson, towards the end of 1535, finding the 
Convocation, Cranmer, Cromwell, and the King, more propitious towards free 
Scriptures in English than they had been in Sir Thomas More s time when he 
went over to Antwerp, had abundant reason for cancelling the Antwerp title 
and reprinting all the preliminary matter, so as to admit the long and rather 
fulsome dedication to Henry, which Coverdale probably concocted in London 
to suit the occasion and to pave the way to a royal licence. These two unique 
perfect leaves, the first and the last of the original four or six preliminary 
leaves, therefore render this (the Earl of Leicester s copy) of unspeakable im 
portance in the bibliographical history of the Book. 

Nicolson then, it seems, cancelling the originals, replaced them with eight 
preliminary leaves, inserting Coverdale s Dedication of five pages and leaving 
verso of title blank. A copy of Nicolson s first title with date 1535, the reverse 
blank, is in the library of the Marquis of Northampton ; very important as 



jo The Printed Bibles in [1535 

proving that there was no delay in issuing the volume, as some writers have 
claimed there was. Nicolson, it is well known, possessed the original wood 
cuts of the work, including the map and the title. The arrangement of the 
title is very beautiful, and Nicolson, we think, somewhat improved upon the 
original. He added two lines to the last motto so as to complete the sense, 
instead of leaving it to end with &c. like the Antwerp title, but as his type was 
larger than the foreign type, and the cartouche of the wood-block was confined, 
he was obliged to drop one line, and hence were omitted the only words he 
could well omit, "and truly .... out of Douche and Latyn," about which 
omission pages and pages of pure nonsense have been written for and against 
the honour and credit of Coverdale. It is true that the words left out tell 
strongly in favour of the translation being done by a foreigner, but in the 
London dedication Coverdale having mentioned his use of "fyue sundry inter 
preters" in "setting forth" the work, he and Nicolson avoided a seeming 
contradiction by omitting these words. The omission, however, was unques 
tionably and simply a matter of the printer s taste and convenience, the truth 
having been more fully and accurately explained by Coverdale himself, in his 
Epistles to the King and to the Reader. Nicolson s first or separate edition of 
the Dedication contains the name of Queen Anne, while the Dedication in his 
folio reprint of 1537 has instead the name of Queen Jane, who was married 
to the King, May 20, 1536, showing that it was printed after this date. 

Nicolson not only sold off this original edition in 1535 and 1536, but he im 
mediately printed two other editions in English type, the one in folio and the 
other in quarto, both bearing the date of I537> though probably printed mostly 
in 1536. It has been a much debated question as to which of these editions of 
Nicolson was the earlier. We are inclined to give the precedence to the folio, 
first because the preliminary leaves that appear in it were used to make up the 
Antwerp edition with a title dated 1536, like the Earl of Jersey s and the 
Gloucester Cathedral copies, having in the Dedication the name of Jane ; and, 
secondly, because neither the 1536 nor 1537 folio titles bear the words " vSet 
forth with the kinges moost gracious licence," which appear at the bottom of 
the title of the quarto edition. It is not unlikely that when Grafton obtained 
his licence to "set forth" the Matthew Bible in 1537, a similar favour was 
granted to Nicolson for his three editions of the Coverdale Bible, though it 
was too late to add these words to the titles. 

766. BIBLE (English). Coverdale s. Fynished the fourth daye of 
October, 1535. [Jacob van Meteren, Antwerp], 1535. Folio. 
I2i by 8 inches. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

This copy is slightly imperfect, wanting only the original title-page and the 
map. A title is made up in manuscript by using the woodcut border of the title 
of the Great Bible of 1539, reprinted in 1540 by Petyt and Redman for Ber- 
thelet, or that of Raynalde and Ilyll s Matthew s Bible of 1549, both from the 
same block as the genuine title of 1535, but differing in the setting of the texts. 
The dedication leaves containing the name of Queen Jane are the same as the 
second edition (folio) of the Coverdale Bible printed by Nicolson, of Southwark, 
No. 790. 

767. BIBLE (English). Coverdale s. Nearly complete. [Jacob van Mete 
ren, Antwerp]. 1535. Folio. Lent by the Sion College Library. 

A MS note pasted in the cover says this copy was borrowed by the British 
Museum, August 19, 1772, to complete their copy by facsimiles taken from it. 
Certain leaves then wanting in this copy have been added, since it appears now 
to want only the original title-page and map. The name of Queen Jane is in 
the Dedication. 



5 35] the Caxton Exhibition 71 

768. BIBLE (English). Coverdale s. Another copy. [Antwerp: Jacob van 
Meteren], 1535. Folio. Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

This is a good copy correctly made up with facsimiles. 

769. BIBLE (English). Coverdale s. Another copy. [Jacob van 
Meteren, Antwerp], 1535. Folio. i2-| by y-J inches. 

Lent by W. Amhnrst Tyssen-Amhurst, Esq. 

An excellent copy, having the title, the next three leaves, and the map in 
facsimile. 

770. BIBL$ (English). Coverdale s. [Antwerp : Jacob van Meteren], 

1535. Folio. 12$ by 7! inches. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 
This copy has the titles and map in excellent facsimile ; otherwise line. 

771. BIMLE (English). <* Biblia ,^ / The Byble : that/ is, the holy 
Scrypture of the/ Olde and New Testament,/ faythfully translated 
in/to Englyshe./ M.D. xxxvi./ S. Paul. II. Tessal. III./ Praye for 
vs, that the word of God/ may haue fre passage 1 be glorified./ S. 
Paul. Colloss. III./ Let the worde of Christe dwell in you/ plen- 
teotisly in all wysdomc, 1c./ Josue. I./ Let not the Poke of this 
Lawe departe/ out of thy mouth, but exercyse thy selfe/ therin 
daye and nyghte, y l thou mayest/ kepe and doe euery thynge ac- 
cordynge/ to it that is wrytten therin./ \Colophoii\ Prynted in the 
yeare of oure Lorde M.D. xxxv./ and fynished the fourth daye of 
October./ [Jacob van Meteren, Antwerp], 1535, and [James 
Nicolson, Southwark], 1536. Folio. 12^ by 7! inches. 

Lent by tiie Earl of Jersey. 

This is our seventh copy of the COVERDALE BIHLK, and though last by no 
means least. It is, we believe, the only copy known, perfect as it came from 
the hands of the publisher Nicolson ; that is, with the title, reverse blank, and 
the seven other preliminary leaves, together with the map as added by Nicolson ; 
while the rest of the volume is as it came from Van Meteren. The 1 >edication 
has the name of Queen Jane, showing that the seven leaves are the same as 
those in Nicolson s folio of 1537- The map has the descriptive line at the top 
in English type and not in the Antwerp type, showing that this impression 
was taken off the block in England. We can trace this same block of the map 
as late as the Bishop s Bible of 1574. We have said before that the blocks used 
in the title and in the body of the book by Van Meteren at Antwerp all passed 
into the possession of Nicolson, and can be traced in many books for many 
years in England. Mr. Francis Fry, in his admirable book called 77u- Hiblcby 
Cai cniale, 1535, has amply proved this. We do not, therefore, credit th* oft- 
repeated story that they are the cuts of Hans Sebald Behem of Nuremberg, or 
that they were the identical cuts used by Christopher Froschover of Zurich. 
There is a bare possibility that Froschover at Zurich got up the Coverdalc 
type, cuts, title, and map, and having used them in his folio German Bible of 
1534, sold them at once and secretly to Van Meteren of Antwerp in time for 
him to finish printing the Coverdale Bible by the 4th of October, 1535, and then 
sell the whole stock, books, type, cuts, <S:c., to Nicolson of Southwark, and so 
escape the lynx-eyed imperial emissaries and spies. Hut there are heaps of 
floating straws in the current against this argument, one of which is perhaps 
sufficient to show that these cuts never saw Zurich. The large cut of the 
Tabernacle, used twice, has the words OOST, NORD, and sMfn (the v and the j 



72 The Printed Bibles in [1535 

upside down), three unmistakable Flemish words, or such as would not have 
been used in Zurich, Lyons, or Frankfort, but are well suited to the latitude of 
Antwerp. We are rejoiced, therefore, to be privileged to place this world- 
renowned Osterly copy at one end of our rank of seven matchless Coverdales, 
with the equally celebrated Holkham copy at the other end. 

It remains now to give a brief history of the several vain attempts made during 
the last hundred years to satisfactorily complete our first Bible. In 1772 the 
British Museum and Sion College copies were used to complete each other in 
manuscript. About 1840 the late Mr. John Harris supplied the outer border 
of the title of the British Museum copy by piecing it, and adding a facsimile of 
the cuts from the same block title used in the edition of 1549, having the 
centre inscription in Latin. But when the Holkham copy was brought to 
light, in 1846, it was found that the original inscription was in English on the 
right side as it was on the left. The Osterly copy confirmed this, though dated 
1536. In December, 1849, Mr. Harris, having traced the Holkham title while 
it was in London being bound by Lewis, made an excellent lithographic fac 
simile of both the title and the list of books on the back of it. The late Mr. 
William Pickering in the meantime had a wood-cut made in facsimile of the 
title of the Museum copy, as first restored by Harris, with the English inscrip 
tion on the one side and the Latin on the other. The fourth facsimile is an 
off-tract from Harris s Holkham copy, made by him for Mr. George Offor, but 
somewhat inferior to his own. A fifth kind of restoration is to take the title of 
1540 or 1549, cut out the centre, and put in the Coverdale title of 1535, but this 
leaves the inscriptions all in Latin. The sixth facsimile is from Harris s original 
Ilolkham stone with the Osterly inset of 1536, the reverse being left blank. 
The seventh is from Harris s stone with the inset from the Marquis of Northamp 
ton s copy, with date I535 reverse blank. Collectors, being very properly 
puzzled how to use these several facsimiles to make up their copies, generally 
insert as many as they can procure. Harris s original stone is still in existence, 
together with the insets of the English titles of both 1535 and 1536. Nicolson 
issued two sets of the Dedication, Prologue, &c. , in seven leaves, one with the 
name of Queen Anne, and the other with that of Queen Jane. Mr. Triphook 
reprinted these leaves in old black letter, about 1825, in quasi facsimile. Mr. 
Pickering had a " seeming " facsimile of the Anne leaves printed on old paper 
at the Chiswick Press. Mr. Harris did them both in his best style, traced 
and lithographed. Mr. George Offor did them both also in his style, and both 
sets have more recently been reproduced in facsimile for Mr. Fry. All these 
issues are found in various copies, and, we believe, some copies have all of 
them, or as many as procurable. Still, after all is said and done, no one has yet 
seen of Van Meteren s original preliminary leaves any others besides the title 
and the last one, as described above in the Earl of Leicester s copy. 

772. BIBLE (French). La Bible en Francoys. Le Viel 

Testament de Lebrieu : 1 le Nouveau du Grec. [By P. R. Oli- 
vetan, assisted by J. Calvin.] Neufchastel : Pierre de Wingle, 
I 535- Folio. Two copies. 

One lent by H. White, Esq., and the other by Earl Spencer. 
The first Protestant French Bible, usually called the " Olivetan," from the 
name of one of its translators. 

774. NEW Testament (German). Das New Testament Deiidsch 
(Luther s). Widerumb fleissig corrigiert. Printed on vellum. 
Augspurg : Heinrich Stayner, 1535. 8vo. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 



i53 6 ] the Caxton Exhibition. 73 

7 74*. NEW Testament (German and Latin). C. Froschover, Zurich, 
1535. 4to. Lent by Mrs. J3. F. Stevens. 

This rare edition probably served Nicolson in 1537-38 as a model for his 
New Testament in English and Latin, to which with consent he put Cover- 
dale s name. See No. 798 and 800. 

775. NEW Testament (German). Luther s second edition. 153 . 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

776. BIBLE (English). The History of the Bible, circa 1535. 8vo. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

777. BIBLE (Hebrew). With marginal notes in Greek. Basiliai: Ex 
officina Frobeniana, 1536. 4to. Lent by Charles D. SJierborn, Esq. 

778. NEW Testament (English). Tyndale s. London [Thomas 
Berthelet?] 1536. Folio. Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

This fine and perfect volume is believed to be the first portion of the Holy 
Scriptures printed in England. 

779. NEW Testament (English). The newe Testament yet once agayne 
corrected by Wylliam Tyndall, whereunto is added an exhortacion 
to the same of Erasmus Rot. with an Englysshe Kalender and a 
Table / necessary to fynde easly and lyghtely any story contayncd 
in the iiii. euangelistes T: in the Actes of the Apostles. 1536. 8vo. 

Lent />v Earl Spencer. 

At the end of the New Testament in this edition there follow the " Epystles 
taken out of the Olde Testament / what are red in the Church after the use of 
Salsburye upon certen dayes of the year." This fine, large, clean, perfect 
and matchless copy is fully described by Mr. Fry under his No. 10. 

780. NEW Testament (English). C The Newe Testament yet once 
agayne corrected by Willyam Tyndale. [Antwerp?], 1536. 410. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

This is called the Engraver s mark edition. A fine perfect copy, measuring 
Si by 5 inches. It is Mr. Fry s No. 9. 

782. NEW Testament (English). C The Newe Testament yet once 
agyne corrected by Willyam Tindale. [Antwerp?], 1536. 410. 

Lent by the Earl of Jersey. 

This is called the Mole edition. A very fine tall copy on paper stained 
yellow. Measures 9^ by 5^ inches. Fry s No. 8. 

783. NEW Testament (English). C The newe Testament yet once 
agayne corrected by Willyam Tindale. [Antwerp ?], 1536. 410. 

Lent by IV. Amhnrst Tyssen-Amhurst, Esq. 

This is called the Blank-Stone edition, and measures 8| by 6 inches. A 
fine and perfect copy. It is Fry s No. 7. 

784. NEW Testament (Latin). Per D. Erasmum. Colonine propc 
Diuum Luptim, 1536. 321110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



74 The Printed Bibles in [1537 

790. BIBLE (English, Coverdale s). 2* Biblia <t*/ The Byble, that/ 
is the holy Scrypture of the/ Olde and New Testament, fayth-/ 
fully translated in Englysh, and/ newly ouersene t corrected./ 
M.D. xxxvii. / [3 mottos as before] 1 Imprynted in Southwarke 
for/ James Nycolson./ Folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

It is still a question whether this folio or Nicolson s 4to is the earlier impres 
sion. They both appeared in 1537- This reprint of the Coverdale Bible has 
impressions of the original woodcuts and the map, but the type is the regular 
black-letter English. Not a particle of the original Antwerp type has yet, as 
far as we know, been identified in any other book. As the blocks and maps 
came to England it is presumed the fount of type was lost or destroyed. 

791. BIBLE (English, Coverdale). The Byble that is the holye Scryp 
ture of the Olde and Newe Testamente faythfully translated in 
Englysh and newly ouersene and correcte. M.V C XXXVII. [the 3 
texts as before] Imprynted in Southwarke in Saynt Thomas Hos- 
pitale by James Nycolson. Set forth with the Kynges moost gra 
cious licence. 1537. 4to. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

This is generally considered the third edition of the Coverdale Bible, the 
second English Bible printed in England, but the first in the quarto form. 

792. BIBLE (English, Matthew s). C The Byble,/ which is all the holy 
Scrip-/ture: In whych are contayned the/ Olde and Newe Testa 
ment truly/ and purely translated into En-/glysh by Thomas 
Matthew./ C Esaye. j./ i^ Hearcken to ye heauens and/ 
thou earth geaue eare : For the/ Lorde speaketh./ M, D, xxxvn,/ 
Set forth with the Kinges most gracyous lycece./ \Colophon\ C The 
ende of the newe Testament,/ and of the whole/ Byble,/ C To the 
honoure and prayse of God/ was this Byble prynted and fy-/ 
nesshed, in the yere of oure/ Lorde God a,/ M, D, xxxvii [Ant 
werp ? printed by Jacob van Meteren ? and published in London 
by R. Grafton and E. Whitchurch,] 1537. Folio. Fine and 
perfect. Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

20 preliminary leaves, viz. Title, within an elaborate woodcut border, 
having on the reverse, "> These thynges ensuynge are ioyned with/ thys 
present volume of the Byble."/ The second leaf begins on *. ij. with "The 
Kalender," 4 pp., with " CT An Almanack for .xvi ij. yeares," at the bottom 
of the fourth page. The next leaf, *.iiij, begins " C An exhortacyon to the 
studyeof the/ holy Scripture," etc. I page, with large flourished capitals I R at 
the bottom nearly 2^- inches high ; on the reverse is " C The summe & con 
tent of all the holy/ Scripture," 2 pp. On the reverse of the fifth leaf begins 
" C Rogers Dedication " C To the moost noble and gracyous/ Prynce Kyng 
Henry the eyght," etc. 3 pp., ending with " Youre graces faythfull & true sub 
ject/ Thomas Matthew." beneath which are two large flourished capitals, H R. 
Then follows, on signature* *, " C To the Chrysten Readers." and " A table 
of the pryncypall matters conteyned/ in the Byble," 26 pp.; next comes " C The 
names ^pf all the/ bokes of the Byble," and "C A brief rehersall of the yeares 
passed" etc. I page ; on the reverse of which is a large woodcut filling the 
whole page, representing Adam and Eve in Paradise ; Text, Genesis to Solo 
mon s Ballet, Ccxlvij. folioed leaves, the reverse of the last being blank. Then 
comes a second title, in black and red, within a border composed of 16 wood- 



1538] the Caxton Exhibition 75 

cuts, "The Prophetes/ in English,"/ Esay to Malachy, having on the upper 
corners of the reverse R G, and on the lower corners E W, (the initials pro 
bably of Richard Grafton and Edward Whitechurch) in large flourished 
capitals, and in the centre a woodcut representing the angel touching the lips 
of the prophet with a coal of fire from the altar ; Text, folioed j to xciiij, end 
ing at the centre of the reverse, and having the large initials of William Tyn- 
dale below. Next follows the third title, in black and red, " C The Volume 
of/ the bokes called Apocripha."/ within a border of 15 woodcuts, having on 
the reverse a prologue "C To the Reader," in long lines ; Text folioed ij to 
Ixxxj. ending on the reverse, and followed by a blank leaf. Then comes in 
black and red, within the same woodcut border as the first title, " * The 
newe/ Testament of/ oure sauyour Jesu Christ,/ newly and dylygently trans 
lated/ into Englyshe with annotacions/ in the Mergent to help the/ Reader to 
the vnderstan-/dynge of the/ Texte./ C Prynted in the yere of/ oure Lorde 
God./ M.D. xxxvn. /" reverse blank ; Text, Matthew to Revelations, folioed 
ij. to Cix. ending on the recto. On the reverse begins "This is the Table/ 
wherin ye shall fynde the Epi-/stles and the Gospels, after the/ vse of Salis 
bury," 5 PP- > n the next leaf is the Colophon given above, reverse blank. 
Really edited by John Rogers, the first martyr under Queen Mary, 1555. It 
was printed abroad, the expense of the work being defrayed by R. Grafton and 
E. Whitchurch, two citizens of London. By Cranmer s and Cromwell s influence 
it received royal authority. It now appears tolerably evident that the enter- 

Iirising foreign citizen of Antwerp, Jacob van Meteren, who printed Coverdale s 
5ible and sold the edition to Nicolson, with cuts, map, and probably the type 
(lost), got up and printed this Bible also, and sold the whole edition to Grafton 
and Whitchurch, together with the special plant thereto belonging. Rogers and 
Van Meteren were relatives by marriage. See our Introduction, page 39. 

793. BIBLE (English). Matthew s. [Antwerp? Printed by Jacob van 
Meteren?] London: Grafton & Whitchurche, 1537. Another 
copy. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

794. BIHLE (English). Matthew s. Another not quite perfect copy 
[Antwerp ? Printed by Jacob van Meteren ?] London : Grafton 
and Whitchurch, 1537. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

795. BIHLE (English). Matthew s. Another copy, wanting title 
[Antwerp? Jacob van Meteren?] London: Grafton and Whit 
church, 1537. Folio. Lent by Samuel Hare ) Esq. 

7 95*. BIHLE (French). Illustrated. Paris, 1537-1538. Folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

796. BIBLE (German). Zurich : C. Froschover, 1538. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

797. NEW Testament (English, Coverdale s). > The new/ Testament 
of oure/ Sauyour Jesu/ Christ./ Faythfully translated, &/ lately 
correcte : wyth a/ true concordaunce in the/ margent, & many 
neces-/sary annotacions decla-/rynge sondry harde pla-/ces 
coteyned in the text./ C Eympret in the ycare/ of our Lorde 
M.d. xxxviii./ \Colophori\ C Imprynted at Antwerpe, by Matthew/ 
Crom. In the yeare of oure Lorde M.I), xxxviii./ 8vo. 

Lent by thf British and Foreign Bible Societv. 



The Printed Bibles in [1538 

Eight preliminary leaves, viz. the Title, in red and black, in a small com 
partment surrounded by a beautiful and elaborate woodcut border, having on 
the reverse "C An Almanack for xxxii. yeares. " The second leaf begins on 
*ij with the Kalendar which fills eight pages. The sixth leaf begins "C A 
Prologe vnto/ the newe Testament." 5 pp. with the running titles in red. 
On the reverse of the eighth leaf, above a woodcut, is " &* A prologe of/ 
Saynt Matthew." The Text in long lines, black letter, neither paged or 
folioed, Matthew to Revelations, signatures A to Z, a to m, in eights, and end 
ing on the reverse of m viij, with " The ende of the new Testament." Then 
comes " Here followe the/ Epystles of the olde Testament, whych are/ red in 
the Churche after the vse of Salisbury,/ vpon certayne dayes of the yeare."/ 



19 pp.; ending on the recto of o ij, followed by "$The Table,/ wherin ye 

all fynde the Ep 
and half of the following page, the rest of this and the next three pages being 



shall fynde the Epystles and/ the Gospels after the vse of Salysbury,"/ 9 pp. 



occupied by "C The summe &/ content of all the holy Scripture, both/ of the 
olde and new Testament," ending with the colophon ; making in all 16 sequent 
leaves. This is one of the most interesting of all the early editions of the New 
Testament. It possesses many peculiarities, and little seems to be known of 
its history. It is Coverdale s Version of the text, with Tyndale s Prologues. 
The prologues of each of the Evangelists are placed before the books to which 
they severally belong, and Coverdale s summaries of the chapters are placed 
not together before each book as in the edition of I535> but separately before 
each chapter. At the ends of a greater part of the chapters are Closes, 
or Notes, in a smaller type, which appear here, as far as I can learn, for the 
first time, and add considerably to the interest of this edition. They are quite 
different from the Notes of Matthew as given in the first edition of 1537. The 
woodcut illustrations are far more numerous than in any other edition, there 
being nearly 200 cuts, above twenty of which fill the whole page. Many 
of them are very spirited and beautiful. Matthew begins on the recto of A ; 
Mark on the verso of E. vij. ; Luke on the recto of H. v. ; John on the verso 
of II. iij ; Acts on the verso of Q viij ; Romans on the recto of X. vij. ; 
Timothy on the recto of e. v. ; Hebrews on the verso of h. iij ; Revelations on 
the verso of k. i. 

This copy appears to have belonged to Henry VIII, having the arms 
of that sovereign stamped on the covers. It corresponds in every thing but the 
imprint at the end with the Grenville copy in the British Museum. 

It was at one time stolen from the Library of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, and disposed of to a London Bookseller ; but it was afterwards recovered 
through information given by Mr. F. Fry to Mr. Bullen of the British Museum, 
who compiled the well-known Catalogue of the Bible Society s Library. 

798. NEW Testament (English and Latin, Coverdale s). The newe 
tes-/tament both Latine and/ Englyshe ech correspondent 
to/ the other after the vulgare texte, com-/munely called S. 
Jeroms. Fayth-/fully translated by Myles/ Couerdale./ Anno. 
M.CCCCC.XXXVIII./ Jeremie. xxn./ Is not my worde lyke a fyre 
sayeth the/ Lorde, and lyke an hammer that/ breaketh the harde 
stone ?/ Printed in Southwarkcl by James Nicolson./ Set forth 
wyth the Kyn/ges moost gracious licence./ 1538. 4to. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

Six preliminary leaves, viz. Title in black and red, within a border composed 
of four woodcuts, a column on each side supporting a head-piece containing in 
the centre a medallion with a male and a female head ; reverse blank : " C To 



i53 8 ] the Caxton Exhibition 77 

the moost noble,/ moost gracious, and oure moost dradde so-/ucraigne lord 
Kynge Henry y e eyght, etc. Sig. + ii. 3 pp. ; On the reverse begins, "To 
the Reader." 3 pp.; "An Almanack for .xviii. yeares." (the 1st, 3rd, and 5th 
words in red) and a Kalendar, in red and black, 4 pp. in double columns, the 
Almanack occupying only the first half of the first column. The text in double 
columns, the Latin in roman type occupying the inner, and the English, in 
black letter, the outer column, begins "CsANO/TVM IESV CHRISTI/ euange- 
liu secundu Matheii." (the N in the first word being printed upside down) with 
folio I [not marked] on A. i. and ends on the verso of folio 344, Vv. vi. fol 
lowed by, "C A table to finde the Epistles/ and Gospels vsually red in the 
Church/ after Salysbury vse," 4 pp. in double columns. This is Nicolson s 
first edition of Coverdale s New Testament, printed in Southwark while 
Coverdale was in Paris, superintending the printing of The Great Hible. It is 
a sightly volume, well printed, and on good paper ; but the proofreading was 
so exceedingly bad, and the blunders of all sorts were so numerous, that Cover- 
dale on receiving a copy in July 1538 was so mortified and annoyed, that he at 
once put to press in Paris another edition more correct, which was finished in 
November. His dedication to the King was written in Paris in Lent, 1538, 
and sent to Nicolson, who issued the volume in time for Coverdale to receive 
by chance a copy in Paris in July following. See No. 799. 

799. NEW Testament (English, Coverdale s). fl The new testament 
both in/ Latin and English after/ the vulgare texte :/ which is 
red in/ the churche./ Translated and corrected by My-/les 
Couerdale : and prynted in/ Paris, by Fraunces Regnault./ 
M. ccccc. xxxviii in Nouembre./ Printed for Richard (Jrafton/ 
and Edward Whitchurch/ cyte/ens of London./ Cum gratia 1 
priuilegio regis./ 153^. Svo. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

Another Copy, lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Es,j. 

Title in red and black within a very beautiful architectural woodcut border, 
reverse blank; Coverdale s Dedication " C To the ryght honorable lordc 
Cromwell 2 pages, -j- ij ; " C To the Reader." -f- iij, 2 pages ; "<[.-/;/ 
Almanack for .xvii. yeares" \ page; Kalender 6 pp. next page blank ; in all 
7 prel. leaves. Text, Matthew to Revelations, cclxxiiij folioed leaves, ending 
with the iSth line on the reverse. In the centre of the same page begins, 
"C A table to fynde the Epist-/Ies and Gospels vsually red in the/ Church 
after Salysbury vse," etc. filling that and the four next pages, concluding on 
the reverse of M M iiii, with "C The ende of the table." This is Coverdale s 
revised or authorixed edition, printed at Paris under his own eye, in conse 
quence of the errors of Nicolson s edition printed in London during his absence. 
The English text, the running titles, the folios, and the headings of the chap 
ters in English, are in a small black letter, while the Latin text occupying the 
inner column and the marginal notes is in small roman type. There are forty- 
nine lines in English, and sixty in Latin on a full page. There are no wood 
cuts, except one on the first leaf of the text. In his dedication to Cromwell 
Coverdale gives the following interesting details respecting this and his pre 
vious editions, reprinted verbatim. " Trueth it is, that this last lent I 
dyd with all hiiblencssc directe an Epistle vnto the kynges most noble 
grace : trustinge, that the boke (wher vnto it was prefixed) shulde afterwarde 
haue bene aswell correcte, as other bokes be. And because I coulde not be 
present my selfe (by the reason of sondrye notable impedimetes) therfore in 
asmoch as the new testsment, which I had set forth in English before, doth so 
agree wyth the latyn, I was hartely well contet, that the latyn and it shulde be 



78 



The Printed Bibles in [1538 



set together : Prouyded allwaye, that the correctour shulde followe the true 
copye of the latyn in anye wyse, and to kepe the true & right Englishe of the 
same. And so doynge, I was cotet to set my name to it. And euen so I dyd : 
trustinge, though I were absent & out of the lande, yet all shuld be well : 
And (as God is my recorde) I knew none other, till this last Julye, that it was 
my chaiice here in these parties at a straungers hande, to come by a copye of 
the sayde prynte. Which whan I had perused, I founde, that as it was dis- 
agreable to my former translacion in English, so was not the true copye of the 
latyn texte obserued, nether the english so correspondent to the same, as it 
ought to be : but in many places both base, insensyble, & cleane contrary, not 
onely to the phrase of cure language, but also from the vnderstondyng of the 
texte in latyn. Wherof though no man to this houre did wryte ner speake to 
me, yet for asmoch as I am sworne to the trueth, I wyll fauoure no man to the 
hynderaunce therof, ner to the maynteyning of anye thing that is contrary to 
the ryght & iust furtheraunce of the same. And therfore, as my dewtye is to 
be faythfull, to edifye, and with the vttemost of my power to put awaye 
all occasions of euell, so haue I (though my businesse be greate ynough besyde) 
endeuoured my selfe to wede out the fautes that were in the latyn & English 
afore : trustinge, that this present correction maye be (vnto them that shall 
prynt it herafter) a copye sufficient. But because I may not be myne owne 
iudge, ner leane to myne owne pryuate opynion in thys or anye lyke worke of 
the scripture, therfore (according to the dewtye that I owe vnto youre lord- 
shippes office, in the Jurisdiction ecclesiasticall of oure most noble kynge) 
I humbly offre it vnto the same, besechinge you, that (where as this copye hath 
not bene exactly followed afore, the good hart and wyll of the doars may be 
considered, & not be necligence of the worke : Specially, seing they be soch 
men : which as they are glad to prynt and set forth any good thyng, so wyll 
they be hartely well content, to haue it truly correcte, that they them selues of 
no malyce ner set purpose haue ouersene. And for my parte (though it hath 
bene daage to my poore name) I hartely remitte it, as I do also the ignoraunce 
of those, (which not long agoo) reported, that at the prynt ing of a right 
famous mans sermon, I had depraued the same, at the cloyng wherof I was 
thirtie myle from thence, neither dyd I euer set pene to it, though I was de- 
syred. Now as concerning this texte of latyn, because it is the same that is 
red in the church, & therfore comdly the more desyred of all men, I do not 
doute, but after that it is examined of the lerned (to whom I most hartely 
referre it) it shall instructe the ignoraut, stoppe the mouthes of euell speakers, 
& induce both the hearers and readers to fayth and good workes :". Marke 
begins on the recto of E iij, Luke on the recto of H, John on the recto of 
M vij, Acts on the recto of Q iij, Romans on the verso of V viij, Revelations 
on the verso of JJ viij. 

800. NEW Testament (English and Latin, Hollybush). The newe 
tes-/tament both in Latine and/ Englyshe eche correspondente 
to/ the other after the vulgare texte, com-/rmmeiy called S. 
Jeromes. Fayth-/fullye translated by Johan/ Hollybushe./ Anno. 
M.CCCCC.XXXVIII./ Jeremie. xxi./ Is not my worde lyke a fyre 
sayeth the/ Lorde, and lyke an hammer that/ breaketh the harde 
stone./ Prynted in Southwarkel by James Nicolson./ Set forth 
wyth the Kyn-/ges moost gracious lycence./ 1538. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Six preliminary leaves, viz. Title all in black, within a woodcut border like 
the preceding edition, reverse blank: " C To the moost noble,/ moost 



1539] the Caxton Exhibition 79 

gracious, and oure moostdradde so-/ueraigne lord Kynge Henry y e eyght, kyng 
of Englade/and of Fraunce. Defender of Christes true fayth, and vnder/ God 
the chefe and supreme heade of the church/ of Englande, Irelande, 1c./" 
3 P a g es signed by Afyles Coucrdale ; the <T at the beginning of this 
address is in red, while in the former edition it is black. On the 
reverse begins, "To the Reader", 3 pages; "An Almanack for .xviii. 
yeares." (These words are in black) occupying half of the first column, 
and the Kalendar, the rest of that and the three following pages, as in 
the first edition. The Text as in the first issue, begins " C SANC-" (the 
N here printed correctly) with folio I (not marked) on A. i. and ends on the 
reverse of folio 342, Vv. vi. " C A table to finde the Epistles/ and Gospels 
vsually red in the churchej after Salysbury vse." 4 pages in double columns. 
This is Nicolson s Second Edition of Coverdale s New Testament, and 
so closely resembles the first, that it is difficult to distinguish them without 
having both before you. They are however distinct editions throughout, 
though, being printed generally page for page, they are sometimes used 
to make up each other. Nothing is known of I lolly bush, whose name 
appears on the title page. It is probably a pseudonym adopted by the 
printer, in consequence of the complaints of Coverdale against the inaccura 
cies of the former edition. A great many changes were made in this edition, 
both in the Latin and English texts, yet, from new blunders, it cannot 
be called on the whole any more accurate than the first. 

809. NEW Testament (Latin). 1538. 4to. 

Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

811. BIBLE (English, Taverner s). The Most/ Sacred Bible,/ Which is 
the holy scripture, con-/teyning the old and new testament,/ trans 
lated into English, and newly/ recognised with great diligence/ 
after most faythful exem-/plars, by Rychard/Taverner./ $3" Harkcn 
thou heuen, and thou earth gyue/ eare : for the Lorde speaketh. 
Esaie. i./ 1^ Prynted at London in Fletestrete at/ the sygne of 
the sonne by John Byd-/dell, for Thomas Barthlet./ &r Cvm 
Privilegio/ ad imprimendum solum./ M. D. xxxix./ Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer, 

Title, within a border of four woodcuts, the top one having in the centre a 
male and female head within a circle, the whole surrounded with a double 
black line, reverse blank ; Dedication begins on tfaj". ij. " $& To the most 
noble, most mighty, and most/ redoubted prynce, kynge Henry the. VIII." 
etc. i page ; on the reverse, " , ( 5^ These thynges ensuynge are/ joyned w l this 
present vo-/lume of the bible.", and " 3? An exhortacion to the diligent/ 
studye of the holy scripture/ gathered out of the Bible "/ I page. The third 
leaf begins " The Contentes of the Scriptvre " 2 pp. in long lines ; The fourth 
leaf begins "The Names of the Bokes of the Byble.", I p. in two columns ; 
on the reverse, " iKT A briefe rehersall of the yercs passed, "etc. filling about 
a quarter of the page; then comes " I&T A Table of the principal maters/ 
conteyned in the Bible.", filling in double columns that and the next twenty- 
four pages : making in all 16 preliminary leaves. Text, in double columns, 
Genesis to Solomon s Ballet, ccxxx folioed leaves, with signatures A to Z, Aa 
to Oo in sixes, and Pp in eight leaves. Then follows a title without any border, 
" 4^. The Boke of/ the Pro-/phetes." etc. reverse blank ; Text, beginning on 
AA. ij. Esaye to Malachi, LXXXXI folioed leaves, sigs. AA. to PP. vij ; then 
comes on PP viij. a third title, also without any border, "<^ The Volvme of/ 



8o The Printed Bibles in [1539 

the Bokes cal-/led Apocripha."/etc. reverse blank ; Text, Third book of Esdras 
to Second Machabees, LXXV folioed leaves, followed by one blank leaf. Sigs. 
Aaa to Mmm in sixes, and Nnn in four leaves. Then comes the New Testa 
ment title, within a border the same as the first title, reverse blank ; Text, 
Matthew to Revelations, folios II to ci, ending near the centre of the reverse, 
sigs. A. ij. to R. v. Then follows " CThis is the Table wherin ye shall/ fynde 
the Epistles and the Gospels/ after the vse of Salisbury." 5 pp. in double 
columns, ending at the bottom of the fifth page with this Colophon, " C To the 
honour and prayse of God, was this Byble/ prynted : and fynyshed, in the yere 
of/ our Lorde God, a/ M. D. xxxix./ The last page is blank. This is generally 
known as Taverner s Bible, and is very seldom found quite complete. This 
copy, like all others I have seen, wants signature K, or folios 55 to 60 in 
the New Testament. This hiatus of six leaves was probably intended to be 
filled with a Prologue to the Epistle to the Romans. 

812. BIBLE (English). Another copy. Recognised by Richard 
Taverner. London : John Byddell for Thomas Berthelet, 1539. 
Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

813. BIBLE (English, "Great Bible"). C The Byble in/ Englyshe, 
that is to saye the con-/tent of all the holy scrypture, bothe/ of y e 
olde and newe testament, truly/ translated after the veryte of the/ 
Hebrue and Greke textes, by y e dy-/lygent studye of dyuerse ex 
cellent/ learned men, expert in the forsayde/ tonges./ C Prynted 
by Rychard Grafton t/ Edward Whitchurch./ Cum priuilegio ad 
imprimen-/dum solum./ I539-/ \Colophori\ The ende of the new 
Testamet :/ and of the whole Byble, Fynisshed in Apryll,/ Anno. 
M. CCCCC. xxxix./ A dno factu est istud,/ Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Six preliminary leaves, viz. I. Title, in black and red within Holbein s beauti 
ful woodcut border, having on the reverse " C The names of all the bookes of 
the Byble/ I the content of the Chapters," etc. 2. * ii, "The Kalender/ 
January,/ hath. xxxj. dayes. The mone .xxx./ (all these words in red) 2 leaves, 
in red and black, having C An Almanach for. xix, yeares./ on the last half of 
the verso of the third leaf, with three lines underneath in black, preceded by a 
C in red. 4. * iiij, " C An exhortacyon to the studye of the holy/ Scripture 
gathered out of the Byble."/ I page, the letter S in Scripture directly under 
the letter r in exhortacyon. On the reverse " <E The summe and content of all 
the holy/ Scripture, both of the olde and new testament." 2 pp. ; the fifth leaf 
beginning "lone to al me,". On the reverse " C A Prologue, expressynge 
what is/ meant by certayn signes and tokens that we/ haue set in the Byble . ./ 
the initial F filling the space of five lines, and the last line being "for euer. 
Amen." with "God saue the Kynge," in large letters 2^ inches below. 6. 
" C A descripcyon and successe of the kyn-/ges of Juda and Jerusalem," etc. 
beginning " Dauid raygned ouer Israel the .iij. c. xxix. yere " : On the middle 
of the reverse begins " C Wyth what Judgement the bokes of the/ Olde Testa 
ment are to be red." The text is divided into five parts, each with separate 
titles except the first : Part I, Genesis to Deuteronomiu, 84 leaves, Fo, j, to 
Fo, Ixxxiiij, Genesis beginning with the initial I nine lines deep, and Deute 
ronomy ending in the middle of the recto with " C The ende of the fyfth bo-/ke 
of Moses, called in the Hebrue/ Elle Haddebarim, and in/ the Latin./ Den- 



59] the Caxton ExJiibition 81 

teronomium," reverse blank : Title " C The second/ parte of the Byblc con-/ 
tayning these/ bookes. " within a border composed of 16 woodcuts, the lower 
left hand corner one representing three women kneeling before a man sitting, 
reverse blank ; Text, Josua to Job, 122 leaves, Fo. ij. to Fo. cxxiij. beginning 
" AFter the death of Mo- "/ and ending on the reverse of folio 123, followed 
by a blank leaf. Title " C The thirde/ parte of the Byble con-/taynyng these/ 
bookes."/ in a border of 16 woodcuts, the second one from the top on the 
right hand side representing an old man kneeling to the king sitting, with a 
soldier holding a halberd in his left hand standing behind the old man, reverse 
blank. Text, Psalmes to Malachy, 133 leaves, Fo. ij. to Fo. cxxxiij. ending 
on the middle of the recto with " synge. ."/ for the last line, reverse blank. 
The title of the fourth Part, unlike any of the other editions, is within the same 
woodcut border as the first title, " C The Volume of/ the bokes called Hagio- 
grapha."/ having on the reverse, " To the Reader." fifty-four long lines ; Text, 
The .iij. boke Of Esdras to The seconde boke Of the Machabees, 79 leaves, 
Fo, ij. to Fo. Ixj, so misprinted for Fo. Ixxx. ending at the bottom of the 
reverse with "now make an ende." for the last line. The title of the fifth 
Part, unlike that of any of the other editions, is within a border composed of 
six woodcuts. " C The newe Te-/stament in englyshe translated/ after the 
Greke, cdtaynlg/ these bookes."/ reverse blank ; Text, MathewtoThe Kevela- 
cyon, IO2 leaves. Fo ii, to Fo. ciij, ending with the fourteenth line in the first 
column of folio 103 with "Jesu. The grace of oure/ Lorde Jcsu Christ be 
with you/ all./ Amen."/ In the centre of the same column begins, " C A 
Table to fynde/ the Epistles and Gospels vsually red in the/ chyrch, after 
Salysbury vse," filling that and the three next pages, ending with the colophon 
given above near the bottom of the reverse of the icxjlh leaf. This is the first 
edition of The Great Bible, commonly called Cranmer s Bible, of which, during 
the years 1539, 1540, and 1541, there were seven distinct editions, reprinted 
throughout, but so closely resembling each other that of five of them the leaves 
of each begin and end alike, and are often used, ignorantly or dishonestly, to 
make up each other. The same similarity exists between the two other 
editions. There is little difference in the commercial value and bibliographical 
interest of the seven editions. Any one of them complete, genuine, and in 
good condition, is an ornament to any library, public or private. Indeed, 
perfect copies are much rarer than is generally supposed. Mr. Lea Wilson, in 
our days a most indefatigable collector of Bibles, was so extremely fortunate as 
to possess the whole seven editions, every one of them perfect, or very nearly 
so. It was a labour of years to complete them. But his labours were crowned 
with success, and six of these magnificent volumes (all but this edition of 1539, 
a perfect copy of which was already in the library) Mr. Panizzi added, after 
Mr. Wilson s death, to the Library of the British Museum, at the moderate 
price of /"So each. The other volume of Mr. Wilson s set, 1539, a truly mag 
nificent example, was sold by Mr. Pickering to Mr. Gardner, and in July, 1854, 
was resold in Mr. Gardner s sale by auction for \2\. Mr. Henry Huth is 
now the owner of it. This edition of 1539 differs from all the others in several 
particulars. I. Woodcuts are supported by a column or border on each side, 
which is not the case in any of the other editions. 2. The border of the title 
to the Apocripha is the same as that of the first title. 3. The New Testament 
title is surrounded by a border of six woodcuts, while in all the other editions it 
has the Holbein border. 4. There are pointing hands in the margins and text, 
all of which have ruffles about the wrist, while in the other editions a part of 
the hands are differently shaped with a aground the wrist. 5. The stars in 
the text of this edition are all six pointed, while in the other editions part of 
them are five pointed. There are, however, minute variations on eve 17 page. 
This splendid volume was printed in Paris by Francois Regnault, for Graf on 

I, 



82 The Printed Bibles in [1539 

and Whitchurch, in 1537 and 1538. Coverdale superintended the literary 
part and saw it through the press as reviser and corrector, while Grafton 
attended to the business matters. They were interrupted by the Inquisition 
just before the work was finished, so that they had to escape with what they 
could, and finish the work in London. The type and plant was apparently 
got up secretly for this edition (as before in the cases of the Coverdale and the 
Matthew Bibles at Antwerp), and after the interruption by the Inquisition, found 
their way to London and were used in producing the six immediately subsequent 
editions of the Great Bible. 

814. BIBLE (English). The Great Bible. Another copy. London: 
R. Grafton, April, 1539. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

815. BIBLE (English). The Great Bible. Third copy. London : R. E. 
Whitchurche, April, 1539. Folio. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

8 1 6. BIBLE (English, Cranmer s, April). C The Byble/ in Englyshe, 
that is to saye the con-/tet of al the holy scrypture, both/ of y e 
olde, and newe testamet, with/ a prologe therinto, made by/ the 
reuerende father in/ God, Thomas/ archbysshop/ of Cantor/bury, 
C This is the Byble apoynted/ to the vse of the churches./ fc 
Prynted by Edward whytchurche/ Cum priuilegio ad imprimen- 
dum solum./ M.D. xl./ \Colophon\ The ende of the newe 
Testament :/ and of the whole Byble, Fynisshed in Apryll./ Anno 
M.CCCCC.XL./ + A dno factu est istud./ Folio. Two copies. 

One lent by the Earl of Leicester, the other by Earl Spencer. 
Ten preliminary leaves : I. within the Holbein border, reverse blank. 2. 
The Kalender. " January." to " Julye." the fifth line in January reading " xix 
e , , v Sign. *ii (Star six points) : 3. The Kalender. " Augustus " to " Decem 
ber," (xixth day of August misprinted xxix,) the last half of the reverse being 
filled by "C Almanacke for, xviii, yeares." all in red except the C, which is 
black : underneath are three lines, one black between two red, the last reading 
" and syxe houres." 54. " C An exhortacyon to the studye of the holy/ Scrip 
ture gathered out of the Byble : / the S in Scripture being under n in An, and 
the signature being *iiii (in 1539 it is * mj, and in December, 1541, there is 
no signature) : on the reverse, " C The summe and content " etc. in the sixth 
line of the fourth paragraph " affeccyon " ; 5. " The contentes of the scripture, " 
[continued] beginning, " loue to all men, after the example of Chryst." 
On the reverse, " C A prologue, expressynge what is/ meant by certayn sygncs 
and tokens that we/hauesetin the Byble."/ the last line reading "and prayse 
foreuer. Amen."/ 6. "C A descripcyon and successe of the kyn-/ges of 
Juda and Jerusalem," etc. beginning, " DAuid rayned ouer Israeli the. iii. C. 
xxix. yere" etc. (the last line but one of the recto ending with "ad") and 
ending on the middle of the reverse, "into spayne." being the last line, the 
lower half of the page being blank. 7. "The prologue,/ C A prologue or 
preface made by the/ moost reuerende father in God, Thomas Archbyshop of 
Canturbury,"/the initial F filling the space of five lines, and the Latin quota 
tions printed in the same type as the text. 8. The second leaf of Cranmer s 
Prologue, beginning, "makers shulde be hadd in admiration for theyr hye 
styles and obscure maner of wrytinge,"/ and the last four lines beginning 
severally with the words "prestes," "dowes," "estate" and "beleue," catch 
words "as also ". 9. Third leaf of Cranmer s Prologue, the first line being 
"Thyrdelye where, and in what audience. There and amonge those that 
bene studious to le-"/ and the last line of the recto beginning, "God, to ende 



154] the Caxton Exliibition 83 

in matycrs of hygh speculatyd," ending in the centre of the reverse, the last 
being a full line. At the bottom of the page are large flourished capitals, 
II. R. 2^ inches high, and immediately above them are the same capitals \ of 
an inch square. 10. " C The names of all the bookes of the Byble/ and the 
content of the Chapters of euery booke, with the nombre of the leaffe "/ etc. 
reverse blank. Text, Genesis to Deuteronomium, 84 leaves, Fo. I [not 
numbered] to Fo, Ixxxiiij, the first Chapter of Genesis beginning with the 
initial I seven lines deep, " IN the begynnynge * God "/ and Deuteronomy 
ending on the centre of the recto of folio 84 with "C The ende of the fyfth 
boke of Moses, called in the Hebrue Elle/ Hadderbarim, and in the/ Latin./ 
Deuteronomium."/ reverse blank. Title, " C The second e/ parte of the Byble 
con-/taynyng these bookes." Josua to Hiob, within a border of 1 6 wood 
cuts, the lower left-hand corner one representing Moses with horns on his 
head standing before an army, the same as in the edition of December, 1541, 
but in this edition the twelfth line of the title reads, "The. i. booke of y c 
chronycles." ; Text, Josua to Job, 122 leaves, Fo, ii, to Fo, cxxiij, ending on 
the reverse with "the fourth generacion./ And so Job dyed,/ beyngc old &/ 
of a perfect age."/-f C Josua, Chapter I. begins with the initial A six lines deep, 
"After y c death of Moses the"/. Title, " C The thirde/ parte of the Byble 
con-/taynyng these bookes."/ in a border of 16 woodcuts, the second one from 
the top on the right-hand side representing the Genealogy of Alexander Mag 
nus. Text, Psalmes to Malachy, Fo, ii. to Fo, cxxxii, ending on the recto 
with " thers, that I come not ad/ smyte the earth with/ cursynge."/ reverse 
blank. Title, " C The Volume of/ the bokes called Ilagiographa. "/ within a 
border of 16 woodcuts, the second one from the top on the right-hand side 
representing a madman astride a hobby-horse. On the reverse, "To the 
Reader." Text, Esdras to The seconde Booke Of the Machabees, Fo, ij, to 
Fo. Ixxx, ending at the bottom of the reverse with "Je-/wes had the citye in 
possessi5 : And here will/ I now make an ende."/ Title, within Holbein s 
woodcut border, the same as the first title, "C The newe Te-/stamet in 
englyshe translated/ after the Greke cotayning/ these bookes."/ the arms of 
Cromwell being retained, and the word newe in the first line in red Text, 
Mathew to The Reuelacion, Fo, ij, to Fo. ciii, (marked Fo. ciiii.) ending with 
the I4th line on the first column of the recto of folio 103, " The grace of our 
I,or-/de Jesu Christ be/. , wyth you. ./all./ Amen."/ In the middle of 
the same column begins, "CA Table to fynde/ the Epistles and Gospels 
vsually red in the/ church, after Salisbury vse, wherof y c first/ lyne is the 
Epistle, & the other the Gospell :"/ filling that and the three next pages, ending 
on the reverse of folio 104 with the colophon given above, at the bottom of 
the page. 

The second edition of the "Great Bible," and the first containing Cranmer s 
Preface. The price of this Bible was fixed by Royal Proclamation at ten 
shillings unbound. Public copies were sometimes attached by a chain to one 
of the pillars of the church, with the King s injunction that it should be read 
with "Discretion, Honest Intent, Charity, Reverence, and Quiet behaviour." 
This is the first edition of the Bible in English with the words on the title-page, 
" Appoynted to the vse of the churches." The " appointment " may be found 
expressed in full in the Kalendar. The authorization of the printing, or the 
licence, is expressed in the words " Cum priuilegio," &c., instead of the words 
" set forth with the Kynges moost gracious licence " which appeared on Nichol 
son s first 4to and folio reprints of Coverdale s Bible in 1537. See Nos. 791 
and 792. 

817. BIBLE (English). Cranmer s. London: Richardc Grafton [or 
Edward Whitchurch], Fynisshed in Apryll, 1540. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. A thin sen, Esq. 



84 T lie Printed Bibles in [1541 

8 1 8. BIBLE (English, Cranmer s, May.) C The Byble in/ Englysh, 
that is to saye the content/ of all the holy scripture, both of the/ 
olde and newe Testament with a/ Prologe thereinto, made by/ 
the reuerende father in/ God, Thomas/ archbyshop/ , , of Cantor 
, , / bury. C This is the Byble appoynted/ to the use of y e 
churches/ Prynted by Edwarde Whitchurch/ Cum priuilegio ad 
imprimendum solum./ Finished the xxviii. daye of Maye/ Anno 
Domini/ M.D. XLI./ [Colophon} The ende of the newe Testa 
ment :/ and of the whole Byble, Fynysshed in Maye,/ Anno. 
M. CCCCC. XL i. / + / C A dno factu est istud. Folio. 

Lent by Mrs. Joliffe. 

Six preliminary leaves, viz. I. Title, within the Holbein border, Crum- 
well s arms effaced, with " C The names of all the bookes of the Byble," on 
the reverse ; 2. First leaf of "The Kalender."/ * ii (Star 5 points) ninth line 
in January reading "vb Joyce. , ix" ; 3. Second leaf of "The kalender."/ 
* iii (Star six points) the twenty-ninth line in August, "c Decalla. Jhon bapt. 
xxix " with " Almanacke for .xviij. yeares."/ occupying the lower half of the 
verso ; 4. " C A prologue or preface made by the/ moost reuerende father in 
God Thomas Archbysshop of Cantorburye"/ no signature ; 5. Second leaf of 
Cranmer s Prologue, signature * * ; 6. Third leaf of Cranmer s Prologue, sig 
nature * * ii. ending in the middle of the reverse with the last line, "the 
saluacyon of God."/ with the large initials H. R. below. Text, Genesis to 
Deuteronomium, Fo. i to Fo. Ixxxiiij, the first line of Genesis being, "IN the 
be-"/ and Deuteronomy ending on the middle of folio 84 with, "CThe ende 
of the fy/th booke, / of Moses, called in the Hebrue. Elle-/haddebarim, and in 
the Latin:/ Deuteronomium."/ reverse blank; Title, within a border of 16 
woodcuts, " C The second e/ parte of the Byble con-/taynynge these/ bookes."/ 
reverse blank ; Text, Josua to Job, Fo. ii, to Fol. cxxiii, ending on the reverse, 
and followed by one blank leaf; Title, within a border of 16 woodcuts, 
" C The thyrde/ parte of the Byble con-/taynynge these/ bookes."/ " Zachary. 
, ,/ reverse blank; Text, Psalmes to Malachy, Fo ij. to 133, falsely printed 
Fo. cxxxii. ending in the centre of the recto with "chyldren to their fathers, 
that/ I come not to smyte/ the earth wyth/ cursinge."/ reverse blank ; Title, 
within a border of 16 woodcuts, " C The volume/ of the bookes called/ 
Hagiographa."/ with " To the Reader " on the reverse in long lines; Text, 
Esdras to Machabees. Fo, ij. to Fo. Ixxx. ending at the bottom of the reverse 
with, "And here/ wyll I nowe make an ende."/ Then comes, within the 
Holbein border, the arms of Cromwell being effaced, " C The newe Te-/sta- 
ment in englyshe translated/ after the Greke, cotaynynge/ these bookes : "/ 
reverse blank ; Text, Mathew to Revclacyon, Fo. ij. to Fo. ciiij. (so marked 
for ciij.) ending with the fourteenth line in the first column of the recto with, 
"The grace of our Lord/ Jesu Christ be/ with you/ all/ , , Amen./ , ,/" In the 
centre of the same column begins, " C A table to fynde the/ Epystles and 
Gospels vsually red in the/ church, after Salysbury vse, wherof ye fyrst/ lyne 
is the Fpistle, 1 the other the Gospell : "/ filling that and the three next pages, 
ending near the bottom of the verso with the Colophon given above. 

819. BIBLE (English), with Cranmer s Prologue. London: Edward 
Whitchurch, Maye, 1541. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

820. BIBLE (English, Cranmer s, July). IThe Byble in/ Englyshe, 
that is to saye the con-/tet of al the holy scrypture, both/ of y c 



1541] the C ax ton Exhibition 85 

olde, and newe testamet, with/ a prologe therinto, made by/ the 
reuerende father in/ God, Thomas/ archbyshop/ .*. of Canter ../ 
bury,/ ^[ This is the Byble apoynted/ to the vse of the churches./ 
^f Prynted by Rychard Grafton./ Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum 
solum./ M.I), xl./ \Colophon\ The ende of the newe Testament :/ 
and of the whole Byble, Fynisshed in July,/ Anno. M. CCCCC. 
XL./ A domino factum est istud/ This is the Lordes doynge. 
Folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

Seven preliminary leaves, viz. I. Title, within Holbein s border, reverse 
blank : 2. The first leaf of "The Kalender" with signature *ii (star five points) 
the first line in January reading, iii A Circumcisyon , i " 3. Second leaf of 
"The Kalender," signature *iii (Star five points) the seventeenth line in 
August containing Rufe martyr. , , xxvii " ; On the reverse in the middle of 
the page, " Almanacke for .xviii. yeares "/ 4. First leaf of " f| A prologue or 
preface made by the/ moost reuerende father in God, Thomas Archbyshop of 
Canterbury "/ the initial F being twelve lines deep, the twelfth line reading, 
" se to reade, or to heare redde y e scripture in theyr vulgar to- "/ signature -f-; 
5. Second leaf of Cranmer s Prologue, -f- ii, the last line but one beginning, 
"estate or codicyon soeuer they be, maye I thys booke learne all"; 6. The 
third leaf of Cranmer s Prologue, + iii, the thirtieth line beginning "Cod at all 
auentures " ; ending on the middle of the reverse, the last line reading, 
" ryght : wyll I shewe the saluation of Cod." Underneath are the large 
flourished capitals H. R. 7. " ^1 The names of all the bookcs of the Byble,/ 
and the content of all the Chapters of eucry booke, wyth the nombre of the 
leafe/ where the bookes begynne."/ I page, reverse blank ; Text, Genesis to 
Deuteronomium, 84 leaves, Fo. i. to Fo, Ixxxiiii, the last line of the first 
chapter of Genesis reading " mornyng : was made the sixte daye." and Deu 
teronomy ending in the centre of the recto of folio 84. " f| The ende of the 
fyfth booke/ of Moses, called in the llebrue : Elle-/haddebarim, and in the 
Latin/ Deuteronomium."/ reverse blank ; Title, within a border of 16 wood 
cuts, " ^f The seconde/ parte of the Byble con-/taynyng these/ bookes. / the 
first line being black (except the j\, which is red) and the second line being all 
in red, reverse blank. Text, Josua to Job, Fo. ii to Fo, cxxiij, ending on the 
reverse, followed by a blank leaf; Title, within a border of sixteen woodcuts, 
" C The thyrde/ parte of the Byble con-/taynynge these/ bookes."/ the word 
" thyrde " being in black, reverse blank. Text, Psalmes to Malachy, Fo. ii 
to Fo. cxxxij, ending on the recto with "and/ smyte the earth with/ 
cm synge."/ reverse blank. Title, within a border of 1 6 woodcuts, " C The 
volume of/ the bokes called Hagiographa "/ the three words in the first line 
being in red, and the second woodcut from the top, on the left-hand side, re 
presenting Daniel in the lion s den ; on the reverse, "To the Reader." in long 
lines. Text, Esdras to Machabees, Fo. ii, to Fo, Ixxx, ending at the bottom 
of the reverse ; Title, within the Holbein border, Cromwell s arms still re 
tained, " C The newe Te- stament in Englyshe translated after the Greke 
cotaynynge/ these bookes."/ the first line of the title being all in black, except 
the C, which is red ; reverse blank. Text, Mathew to Revelacyon, Fo, ij. to 
Fo. ciij [not numbered] ending with the fourteenth line in the first column of 
the recto with "The grace of our Lord/ Jesu Christ be/ wyth you all./ , , 
Amen. , ,/" In the middle of the same column begins, " C A Table to fynde 
the Fpistles and Gospels vsually red in the/ church, after Salysbury vse," till 
ing that page and the three next, and ending with the colophon given above at 
the bottom of the verso of the last leaf. 



86 The Printed Bibles in [1541 

821. BIBLE (English, Cranmer s, December). ^[The Byble in 
Englyshe, that is to saye the con-/tent of all the holy scrypture, 
both/ of the olde T: newe testament with/ a prologe therinto, made 
by/ the reuerende father in/ God, Thomas/ archebysshop/ of Can 
ton/bury,/ ^[ This is the Byble appoynted/ to the vse of the 
churches/ ^[ Printed by Edward Whitchurch/ Cum priuilegio ad 
imprimendum solum./ An. do. M.D. xl./ \Colophon\ The ende 
of the newe Testament,/ and of the whole Bible, Finysshed in 
December/ Anno. M.CCCCC. XLi./f/A domino factum est 
istud/ This is the Lordes doynge./ Folio. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

Ten preliminary leaves, viz. I. The Title within Holbein s border, with the 
arms of Cromwell effaced, reverse blank ; 2. First leaf of "The Kalender." 
the fifteenth line in January reading, " A Maure Abbot. i?i xv," sign. * ii 
(star 5 points). 3. Second leaf of " The Kalender." Signature *iii (star 6 
points) with an " Almanacke for .xviij, yeares." occupying the last half of the 
reverse M.d. xlix, being misprinted "M. xlix." 4. " An exhortacyon to the 
studye of the holye/ Scripture gathered out of the Byble :/ " no signature 
(April 1539 has *iiij, and April 1540 has *iiii ;) on the reverse, " CThe summe 
and content of all the holy/ Scripture, both of the olde and newe Testament."/ 
sixth line of the fourth paragraph has, "affection"; 5. "The Contentes of 
the Scripture,"/ having on the reverse, "CA prologue/ expressynge what is/ 
meant by certayne sygnes and tokens, that we/ haue set in the Byble."/ Twelve 
lines with large initial F, the last line reading " lefte them oute."/ 6. " C A 
description and successe of the kyn-/ges of Juda and Jerusalem," etc. the initial 
1), seven lines deep, beginning, "DAuid raygned ouer Israel the .C. xxix. yere 
of theyr entrynge into the lande,"/ ending a little above the middle of the re 
verse with, "into Spayne." for the last line, the rest of the page blank; 7. The 
first leaf of Cranmer s Prologue, signature -f-, "CA prologue or preface made 
by the/ moost reuerende father in God, Thomas Archbysshop of Canterbury e"/ 
the third line beginning " entrye of this booke," ; 8. Second leaf of Cranmer s 
Prologue, signature + ii, recto beginning "makers shoulde be had in admira 
tion for theyr hye stiles and obscure maner and wrytynge,"/ and the verso end 
ing "se, and discerne what is truth."/ 9. The third leaf of Cranmer s 
Prologue, * iij, the first line reading, " Thyrdely where and in what audience. 
There and amonge those that ben stuclyous to "/ ending in the middle of the 
verso with, " wyll I/ shewe the saluation of God."/ with the large flourished 
capitals H. R. beneath ; 10. "C The names of all the bookes of the Byble,/ 
and the content of all the Chapiters of euery boke, with the nombre of the 
leafe/ where the bookes begyn."/ reverse blank. Text, Genesis to Deuterono- 
mium. Fo. i, to Fol. Ixxxiiij, Genesis beginning with initial I fourteen lines 
deep, " IN y e begyn-/nyng * god/ created hea-/uen t earth./ The erth/," and 
Deuteronomy ending near the centre of the recto of folio 84. " C The ende 
of the fifth booke/ of Moses, called in the Hebrewe Elle-/haddebarim : and in 
the latyn/ Deuteronomium."/ reverse blank ; Title, within a border of 1 6 
woodcuts, " C Theseconde/ parte of the Byble con-/tayninge these/ bookes./" 
reverse blank ; Text, Josua to Job, Fo. ii, to Fol. cxxiii, Josua beginning with 
the initial A seven lines deep, " Arter y e death of Moses ye/ seruaut of 
ye Lord/ / and Job ending on the reverse of folio 123 with "the fourth 
generacio./ And so Job dyed,/ beinge olde, t /of a perfecte/ age./ [] / followed 
by a blank leaf; Title, within a border of 1 6 woodcuts, " CThe thyrde/ parte 



1541] the Caxton Exhibition 87 

of the Byble con-/taynynge these/ bookes."/ reverse blank ; Text, Psalmes to 
Malachy, Fo. ii to Fo. cxxxii. ending near the middle of the recto with 
" fathers, that I come/ not t smyte the/ earth wyth/ cursinge."/ reverse blank ; 
Title, within a border of 16 woodcuts, "CThe volume/ of the bookes called,/ 
Hagiographia/" with, " To the Reader" on the reverse; Text, Esdras to 
Machabees, Fo. ii. to Fo. Ixxx. ending at the bottom of the reverse with, " Je-/w<js 
had y e cytie in possessyo : And there wyll/ I nowe make an ende. / Title, 
within Holbein s border, Crumwell s arms effaced, " C The newe Te-/stamet 
in englyshe, translated/ after the Greke, cotayning/ these bookes."/ reverse 
blank : Text, Mathew to Revelations, Fo. ii. to Fo. ciii. ending with the four 
teenth line of the first column of the recto with, " The ende of the newe/ Tes 
tament."/ Underneath in the same column is, "CA table to fynde the/ 
Epistles and Gospels vsually red in the/ church, after Salysbury/ vsc, when if 
y fyrst/ lyne is the Epistle, \ the other the Gospell": /tilling that and the three 
following pages, ending near the bottom of the reverse with the colophon 
given above. 

822. BIBLE (English). The Byble in Englyshe. Cum privilegio, 1541. 
Fynyshed in November, 1540. Folio. 

Lent by the University Library, Edinburgh. 

With Cranmer s Preface. Cromwell having been disgraced by Henry VIII, 
in July, 1540, his arms are erased from the title-page. The full collations of 
the two November editions of 1540 and 1541, together with the two other 
November editions partly reprinted, may be found in Mr. Francis Fry s excel 
lent book on the Great Bible. The present is a line large and perfect copy, 
the paper stained yellow after being printed. 

823. Bim,E (English). Cranmer s. London : Whitchurch, November, 
1541. Folio. Lent by the Rei\ Dr. Gott. 

824. BIBLE (English). Cranmer s. London : Edwarde Whitchurch, 
November, 1541. Folio. Lent by Mrs. Jol iff c. 

825. BIRLE (English), Cranmer s. London : R. Grafton. Finysshed in 
November, 1541. Folio. Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

826. NEW Testament (German). Freyburg, durch Johanncm Fabrum 
Juliacensem, 1539. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

827. BIBLE (Latin). Lyon : Gryphius, 1540. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

828. CONCORDANCE (Latin). Lugduni, apud lacobvm Givnctam, 1540. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

829. NEW Testament (English). Erasmus . 1540. 4to. 

Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

830. NEW Testament (First Islandic). Prykt uti konongluen stad 
Roschyld af mer Hans Barth. xii Dag Aprilis MDxl. Small 
Svo. Lent by the BritisJi and Foreign Bible Society. 

Excessively rare. This copy is imperfect, wanting all before signature D. 
and the end. Black letter, 33 lines on a page. 



88 The Printed Bibles in [1541 

831. BIBLE (Dutch). Den Bibel. Gheprint Thantwerpen By mi Hen- 
rick Peetersen van Middelborch. 1541. Folio. 

Lent by Henry f. Atkinson, Esq. 

832. BIBLE (Swedish). Biblia, Thet ar, All then Helgha Scrifft, pa 
Swensko. [Translated from the German version of M. Luther by 
O. Petri and L. Petri.] 6 parts. First edition. Upsala, 1541-40. 
Folio, with curious woodcuts. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

The Old Testament is in five parts, each with a separate numeration, and 
the four latter with distinct title-pages ; the first four parts are dated 1540. 

833. NEW Testament (Latin). Paris : Robertus Stephanus, 1541. 
8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

834. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni, Gryphius, 1542. 32mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

835. BIBLE (Latin). With woodcuts by Hans Springinklee. Lyon : 
Roville, 1542. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

840. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacrosancta Testameti Veteris & noui, e 
sacra Hebrseorum lingua Graecorumque fontibus, consultis simul 
orthodoxis interpretib. religiosissime translata in sermonem 
Latinum. [By Leo Juda, T. Bibliander and P. Cholinus. The 
New Testament revised and corrected from the translation of 
Erasmus by R. Gaulter. The whole edited by C. Pellican.] 
(De omnibus sancte scripture libris eorumque praestantia. . . H. 
Bullingeri expositio Argumenta in omnia tarn Veteris quam 
Novi Testamenti capita, elegiaco carmine conscripta per R. 
Gualth.) 3 parts. Tiguri : Ch. Froschover, 1543. Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

841. NEW Testament (Latin). Testamenti/ Novi/ seditio vvlgata./ 
Lugduni/ Theobald Paganus, 1543. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

842. NEW Testament (Latin). Mogvntiae in sedibus luonis SchcerTer, 
1543. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

843. BIBLE (Latin). Venetiis, de Tridino Montisferrati, 1544. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

844. BIBLE (Latin). Zurich: C. Froschover, 1544. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

845. BIBLE (German). Die gantze Bibel, das ist alle biicher allts unnd 
neiiws Testaments, den urspriinglichen sepraachen nach, auffs 
aller treiiwlichest verteiitschet. Darzu sind yetz und kommen 
ein. . . Register . . . liber die gantzen Bibel. Die jarzal und 
rachnung der zeyten von Adamen biss an Christum, mit sampt 
gwiissen Concordantzen, Argumenten, Zalen und Figuren. (Von 
alien bucheren heiliger und Gottlicher gschrifft ... an den Chris- 



1550] the Caxton Exhibition 89 

tenlichen Laser ein klarer Bericht [by H. Bullinger.] With 
woodcuts.] 2 parts. Ziirich : Christoffel Froschouer, 1545. 
Folio. Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

Each part has a distinct title-page, pagination, and register. Printed 
in double columns ; register in eights. 

846. BIBLE (Latin). Robert Stephanus. 1546. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

847. BIBLE (Italian). La Biblia [da Antonio Bruccioli]. Vineggia : 
Girolamo Scotto, 1547. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

848. NEW Testament (English). The newe Testament of the last 
translacion. By Wylliam Tyndall. With Prologes and Annota- 
cions in the merget. London : Wylliam Tylle, 1549-1548. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
This is Mr. Fry s No. 1 8, to which the reader is referred for a careful collation. 

849. NEW Testament (English and Latin). London : William Powell, 
1548-47. 4to. Fry s No. 1 6. Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

850. BIBLE (English). Matthew s version, revised by Becke. Lon 
don : Day and Seres, 1549. Folio. Sometimes called "the 
Bug Bible." See Psalm xci, 5. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

851. BIBLE (English). Matthew s version revised by Becke. London: 
Day and Seres, 1549. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

85 1*. BIBLE (English). Another copy. Lent by the Earl of Leicester. 

852. BIBLE (English). Matthew s version, revised by Becke. London : 
Daye and Seres, 1549. Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

853. BIBLE (English). Matthew s. London : Thomas Raynalde and 
William Hyll, 1549. Folio. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

The woodcut border of the title-page of this edition is from the same blocks 
as that of Petyt and Redman for Berthelet, folio, 1540, and the Coverdales of 
1535 and 1537, all differing, however, in the setting of the texts in the several 
cartouches. 

85 3*. BIBLE (English). Another copy. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

860. BIBLE (English). Cranmer s. London : Edward Whitchurch, 
1549. Folio. Lent by James Watkins, Esq. 

86 1. NEW Testament (English, and Latin of Erasmus). Lond. : 
W. Powell, 1549. 4to. Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

86 1*. BIBLE (ist Danish). Biblia, det er den gantske Hellige Scrifft, 
udsast paa Danske. [By P. Palladius, O. Gyldenmund, H. Sin- 
nesen, and J. Machabseus.] First edition. Kobenhaffn, 1550. 
Folio. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Ginslurg. 

M 



O The Printed Bibles in [155 

862. BIBLE (Latin). 3 vols. Lugduni : Gryphius, 1550. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

863. BIBLE (English, Coverdale s). C The whole/ Byble,/ that is the 
holy scripture/ of the Olde and Newe testament/ faythfully trans 
lated into/ Englyshe by Myles Couerdale, and/ newly ouer/sene 
and correcte./ M. D. L./ Pray for vs that the worde of God maye/ 
have free passage t be glorified, ii. Tes. iii./ Prynted for Andrewe 
Hester, dwellynge/ in Paules Churchyard at the sygne/ of the 
whyte horse, and are/ there to be solde./ Set forth with the 
Kynges/ mooste gracious licence. [Christopher Froschover, 
Zurich, printed] London, A. Hester, 1550. 4to. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

8 prcl. leaves, viz. Title in red and black, within an architectural woodcut 
border, reverse blank ; " C The bokes of the hole Ityble/how they are named 
in Englyshe and / Latyn, and howlonge they are/ wrytten in the allegations," 
I p.; on the reverse, ",<$<?- Vnto the moost victorious Prince & our moost/ 
gracious soueraigne lorde, kynge Ed ward e the syxte," 4 pp. signed "Your 
graces moost humble/ and faithful subiect, Myles/ Couerdale ; " on the reverse 
begins, " Myles Couerdale, to the Christen Reader." 5pp.; The Kalender, 
beginning with "An Almanacke for xiiii. yeares ;" (from 1550)4 pp. The 
Text begins with a woodcut representing the Creation of Eve on Signature A, 
folio I. and ends \vith the Second Hook of Machabees, with the tenth line on 
the recto of O O iv. folio rrrrxci I II. the remainder of that page and the 
reverse being blank ; then follows the Text of the New Testament, without 
separate title, on Signature a a. folio i. and ends on the reverse of folio CXXI. 
q q. i. Next comes The Table of the Epistles and Gospels. 5 pp. ending 
with "To the honoure and praysc of God, was this liyble prynted and 
fynished in the yeare of oure Sauoure Jcsu Christ M. D. L. the xvj. dayc of the 
moneth of August." the reverse blank. This second foreign edition of the 
Coverdale Bible is printed in double columns, in an angular German type, 
similar to that of the first Edition, I53S> l )U t smaller, and is now believed to 
have come from the press of Christopher Eroschovcr, of Zurich. The pre 
liminary leaves, however, must have been printed in England, as they are in 
an entirely different type, being in small Old English letter. It was again re 
issued in 1553, before the death of Edward VI. in July, by Richard Jugge, 
with a new title and new preliminary leaves. 

863*. NEW Testament (English, Tyndale s). London : Dayeand Seres, 
1550. Svo. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

This is Mr. Ery s No. 26. 

864. NEW Testament (English and Latin). Ci The new/ Testament in 
Englishe after/ the greeke translation anne-/xed wyth the transla 
tion of/ Erasmus in Latin./ Whcrcunto is added a Kalendar, 
and/ an exhortation to the readying of the/ holy scriptures made 
by the same/ Erasmus wyth the Epistles taken/ out .of the olde 
testamet both in Latin/ and Englyshe. wheruto is added a ta-/ble 
necessary to finde the Epistles and/ Gospels for euery sonday r t 
holyday/ throughout the yere after the vse of/ the churche of 
England nowe./ C Excusum Londini in ofncina Thornse 



i55 1] the Caxton Exhibition 91 

Gaultier. pro. I. C./ Pridie Kalendas Decembris anno/ Domini. 
M.D.L./ London, 1550. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
14 prel. leaves, viz. Title in red and black witKin a broad border, with the 
cypher of Edward Whitechurch at the bottom ; on the reverse C An almanacke 
for .xxii. yeares. " J. C. vnto the Christen reder. " I page, reverse blank ; 
" C An exhortacion to the diligent studye of scri-/pture, made by Erasmus 
Roterodamus." 9 pages; " C The summe and content of all the holye 
scri-/pture, " etc. 2 pages followed by one blank page; Kalendar 6 leaves; 
Text, in double columns, the English in black letter, occupying the outer, and 
the Latin in small roman type, the inner column, A to Hh. v. in eights ; then 
comes "C The Epistles of the old testament." 5 pp. reverse blank ; followed 
by "C A table to fynde the Epi-/stles and Gospels vsually reade in the/ 
Church, accordynge vnto the booke of/ Common prayer :" 3 pp. the reverse of 
the last leaf being blank, This is Tyndale s Translation, edited, as is gener 
ally, but erroneously, supposed, by Sir John Cheke, though I know not upon 
what authority. All Tyndale s Prologues are omitted, and there are no notes. 
The running titles and the contents of the chapters are in the same type as the 
English text. The references, which are only on the outer margin, are 
in small roman type, like that of the Latin text. There are 54 lines on a full 
page. The paper, ink, and press work are good. There are no woodcuts or 
ornamental capitals, except at the beginning of Mathew. 

865. CONCORDANCE (First in English). Marbeck s. London : Richard 
Grafton, 1550. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

866. NEW Testament (English). Coverdale s (really Tyndale s). 
Zurich : Ch. Froschover, 1550. i6mo. 

Lent l>y the Archbishop of Canterbury 

867. BIBLE (German). Wittemberg : Hans Lufft, 1551. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

86 7*. BIBLE (English). Matthew s [nicknamed the Bug Bible]. Lon 
don : Nicolas Hyll, for Robert Toy [and others], 1551. \Colophoti\ 
Imprinted at the coste and charges of certayne honest men of the 
occupacyon, whose names be upon their bokes. Folio. 

Lent by the Arch Ins hop of Canterbury. 

See Psalm XCT, 5- "So that thou shalt not nede to be afraid for any 
Bugges by nighte, nor for the arrow that flyeth by day." Our present version 
reads "Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night," etc. This reading, 
l-tttgges, is common to Coverdale s, Matthew s, and Taverner s versions, all of 
which might as fairly be called "Bug-Bibles." The Great Bible of 1539, 
Cranmer s, the Genevan, and the Bishops have tcrronr. 

868. BIBLE (English). Taverner s, revised by Becke, with third book of 
Maccabees. London: John Daye, 1551. Folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

869. BIBLE (English). Taverner s, by Becke, with third book of the 
Macabees. London: John Daye, 1551. Folio. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

870. BIBLE (English). London, 1551. Folio. 

Lent by Edward Poulson, Esq. 



92 The Printed Bibles in [1551 

871. NEW Testament (Greek and Latin). Avroana ra rvi KOUVYI$ dia(kxYi$. 
Nouum lesv Christ! D. N. Testamentum cum duplici interpre- 
tatione D. Erasmi et veteris Interpretis ; Harmonia item Evan- 
gelica [by A. Osiander. Edited by R. Estienne]. 2 parts. 
[Geneva] : ex Officina R. Stephani, 1551. Svo. 

Part 2 has a distinct title-page and pagination, and the harmony is separately 
paged. This is the first edition of the New Testament divided into verses 
according to our present use. 

872. NEW Testament (English). Tyndale s. Woodcuts. London : 
Richard Jugge, 1552. 4to. Lent by F. Fry, Esq. 

A woodcut in the I3th chapter of Matthew represents the Devil with a tail 
and a wooden leg, sowing tares. 

873. NEW Testament (Italian). II Nuovo Testamento. 2 vols in i. 
Curious engravings. Lyone : Gulielmo Rouillio, 1552. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

874. BIBLE (English). The Byble in English accordyng to the trans- 
lacio that is appointed to be read in Churches. London : Edwarde 
Whytchurche, 1553. Cum privilegio, &c. Folio. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

This and the small quarto edition of 1553 by Grafton are the last two editions 
of the Cranmer version issued in Edward VI. s reign. This edition has mar 
ginal references but no notes. It must have appeared before the 6th July, 
when Mary mounted the throne, for at the end are three pages containing " a 
table to find the Epistles and Gospels usually read in the Church, accordinge 
unto the boke of Common-Prayer." The 410 edition has a "Table to fynd 
the Epistles and Gospels &c. after Salysbury use." 

875. BIT.LE (English). Another copy. London: Edwarde Whyt 
churche, 1553. Folio. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

876. BIBLE (Italian). La Bibbia. 1553. 

Lent by the BritisJi and Foreign Bible Society. 

877. BIBLE (Spanish). Biblia en Lengua Espailola traduzida palabra 
por palabra de la verdad Hebrayca por muy excelentes letrados 
vista y examinada por el officio de la Inquisicion. Con priuillegio 
del ylmstrissimo Senor Duqtie de Ferrara. Con yndustria y 
deligencia de Duarte Pinel Portugues : estampada en Ferrara a 
costa y despesa de Jeronimo de Vargas Espanol : en primero de 
Marco de 1553. Black letter. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

First edition of the Bible in Spanish for the use of Christians. The only 
difference known between this and the version for the Jews is found in Is. vii., 
14. The Jewish having "la moca" instead of "la virgen." 

878. BIBLE (Old Testament). Biblia en lengua Espanola, traduzida 
palabra por palabra dela verdad Hebrayca por muy excelentes 
letrados, vista y examinada por el officio de la Inquisicion. 
[Edited by D. Pinel and A. Usque.] Gothic letter. Large paper. 
Ferrara, 1553. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 



1557] the C ax ton Exhibition 93 

On the verso of the title-page occurs the dedication All yllustrissimo. . . . 
Sefior . . . Don Hercole da Esteel segundo : quarto Duquede Ferrara." Sub 
scribed " Jeronimo de Vargas y Duarte Pinel." The Colophon ends as follows : 
" estampada en Ferrara a costa . . . . de Jeronimo de Vargas Espafiol : en 
prhnero de Mai^o de 1553." This edition does not contain the Apocrypha. 

First impression of the Bible in Spanish. This version was for the use of 
the Spanish Jews. 

885. BIBLE (Spanish). Biblia en Lengua Espanola. Ferrara, 1553. 
Folio. Large paper. Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

886. NEW TESTAMENT (Dutch). Antwerp : Hans van Ramundt, 

1553. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

887. NEW TESTAMENT (English). Tyndale s. London : Richarde 
Jugge, 1553. 4-to. Lent by tJie Archbishop of Canterbury. 

888. NEW Testament (German). Curious cuts. Coin : Van der 
Miilen, 1553. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

889. BIBLE (Latin). Petit Bernard s cuts. Lugduni : Johan. Tornaesius, 

1554. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

890. NEW Testament (Italian). Plates by Petit Bernard. Lione : 
Giovanni de Tornes e Guillelmo Gazeio, 1556. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

891. BIBLE Picture Book. Figuren, &c. Engravings by Petit Bernard. 
Lyons: J. van Tournes, 1557. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

892. NEW Testament (English, Geneva). The/ Nevve Testa-/ment of 
ovr Lord Ie-/sus Christ./ Conferred diligently with the Greke, 
and best ap-/proued translations./ With the arguments, aswel 
before the chapters, as for euery Boke/ & Epistle, also diuersities 
of readings, and moste profitable/ annotations of all harde places : 
wherunto is added a copi-/ous Table./ At Geneva / Printed By 
Conrad Badius./ M. D. LVII./ 161110. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

On the title page is a woodcut about l^ inches square, representing Time 
restoring Truth ; On the reverse in small italic letters is "The ordre of the 
Bookes of the/ Newe testament," Then follows on *. ii. "The Epistle declar 
ing that/ Christ is the end of the Lawe, by lohn Caluin."/ 8 leaves ; "To the 
Reader " **. ii. 4 pages and eight lines of the next ; then comes The Argv- 
ment " filling the remainder of that page and the next. The text. The Holy/ 
Gospel of lesvs/ Christe, writ/ by S. Matthew./ (a. i.) 430 folioed leaves ; 
"The Table of the Nevve/ Testament, "/folios 431 to 455, "The Ende " being 
on the recto, over the colophon. " Printed by Conrad Ba-/divs M. D. LVII./ 
This/ x. of Ivne."/ On the reverse in 23 lines, italic type, are " Fautes com- 



94 The Printed Bibles in [1557 

mitted in the Printing." Although this is the first New Testament in English 
printed at Geneva, it is not, as some suppose, that which is usually called the 
Genevan Version. That was published three years later. This edition was the 
work of William Whittingham, afterwards Dean of Durham, but at the time 
of its publication residing in exile at Geneva. It is beautifully printed in small, 
clear, roman type, and is remarkable for two characteristics for the first time 
here introduced into the English translations, viz. the division of the text into 
verses, and the use of italics to indicate those explanatory words not to be found 
in the original tongues. This is not a new translation, but a revision of various 
others, as the editor informs us in his epistle to the reader. " First as touchig 
the perusing of the text, it was diligently reuised by the moste approued Greke 
examples, and conference of translations in other tonges as the learned may 
easely iudge, both by the faithful rendering of the sentence, and also by the 
proprietie of the wordes, and perspicuitie of the phrase. Forthermore that the 
Reader might be by all meanes promted, I haue deuided the text into verses 
and sectios, according to the best editions in other langages, and also, as to 
this day the anciet Greke copies mencion, it was wont to be vsed. And be 
cause the Ilebrewe and Greke phrases, which are strange to rendre in other 
tongues, and also short, shulde not be to harde I haue sometyme interpreted 
them without any whit diminishing the grace of the sense, as our lagage doth 
vse them, and sometyme haue put to that worde, which lacking made the 
sentence obscure, but haue set it in such letters as may easely be discerned 
from the comun text." 

893. NEW Testament (English) translated by Whittingham. Geneva : 
Conrad Badius, 1557. 161110. Lentby the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

894. BIBLE (German, Weissenham). Ingolstatt : Ecken, 1558. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

895. BIBLE (Italian). Bibbia volgare. [Nicolao de Malermi.] Curious 
engravings. Venegia, 1558. Folio. Lentby Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

896. BIBLE (Latin). Paris: C. Guillard, 1558. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

897. BIBLE (French). La Sainte Bible. A Lyon par Ian de Tovrnes, 

1559. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

898. BIBLE (Dutch). Antwcrpen by die weduwe van Jacob van Liesueldt, 
I 553? I 5^ [ T 553 at end O. T.] Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

899. BIBLE (Dutch). Den Bibel. Antwerp : Hans de Last, 1560 
[date at end O. T. 1553.] Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

909. BIBLE (English, first Genevan). The Bible/ and/ Holy Scriptvres/ 
Conteyned in/ the Olde and Newe/ Testament./ Translated Ac- 
cor-/ding to the Ebrue and Greeke, and conferred With/ the best 
translations in diuers langages./ With moste profitable Annota-/ 
tions vpon all the hard places, and other things of great/ impor 
tance as may appeare in the Epistle to the Reader./ At Geneva. I 
Printed by Ro viand Hall./ M. D. LX./ 410. Lent by Earl Spencer. 



1562] the C ax ton Exhibition 95 

Four prel. leaves. Text, Genesis to II Maccabees, 474 folioed leaves ; New 
Testament, 122 leaves ; "A Briefe Table" HH.h. iii. to LLL iii. 13 leaves, 
followed by one page, "The order of the yeres from Pauls conuersion " etc. 
reverse blank. 

This Bible, the result of the labours of English exiles at Geneva during 
Queen Mary s reign, was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth and though never 
sanctioned by royal authority, or by Parliament, or even by Convocation, for 
public use in churches, yet it was not only extensively read in churches, but 
was esteemed the favourite version by many of the clergy, as well as theological 
writers, insomuch that it continued to be the household English Bible for 
three quarters of a century. It is commonly known as the " Breeches" Bible 
from that word occurring in Gen. iii. 7. From 1560 to 1630 it was the most 
popular Bible in England, and by far the most approved version in Scotland, 
exceeding in its number of editions all the other translations united. Probably 
as many as two hundred distinct editions of the Genevan Bible and New Tes 
tament were called for during this period. The version of 1611 was slow in 
breaking its popularity. Both versions, as well as the Bishops , were all printed 
by the same royal printers. 

910. BIBLE (English). First Genevan version. Another copy. Geneva: 
Rouland Hall, 1560. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Another copy, lent by Dr. Gott. 

911. BIBLE (English). First Genevan version. Another copy. Geneva: 
Rouland Hall, 1560. 4^0. Lent by Henry White, Esq, 

This is one of the very few copies known on large and thick paper, though 
somewhat cut down. 

912. NEW Testament (English), by Whittingham and others [the second 
issue]. Unique? Geneva, 1560. i6mo. 

Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

913. NEW Testament (Latin). Lyon, 1560. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

9 1 3*. PSALMS (English). The whole Psalter translated into English 
Metre [by Archbishop Parker]. London: John Daye, [1560?] 
4to. Lent by the Earl of Leicester. 

914. BIBLE (English, Cranmer s). The Bi/ble in Englishe ac-/cording 
to the translation of the great/ Byble/ 15 6 1./ \Colophori\ Im 
printed at/ London in Povvles/ Churcheyarde, by Ihon/ Cawoode./ 
Prynter to the Quenes Maiestie./ Anno. M. D. LXI. Cum 
priuilegio Regi?e /Maiestatis./ 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

915. BIBLE (ist Polish). Biblia To icst. Kxieigi Stharego y Nowego 
Zakonu, na Polski iexzyk, z pilnosciax bedlug Lac iriskiey Bibliey 
od Kosciola Krzescianskiego powssechnego prizyiethey, nowo 
wytozona [by J. Leopolita-Niez. With marginal references and 
woodcuts]. Gothic letter. W. Krakowie, 1561. Folio. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

916. NEW Testament (Latin). Many woodcuts. Parisiis, apud Jacobum 
Keruer, 1562. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



6 The Printed Bibles in [1562 

917. BIBLE (English, 2nd Genevan). The Bible translated according 
to the Ebrue and Greke, with most profitable annotations upon 
the hard places, etc. Geneva [no printer s name], 1562-61. Folio. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

A remarkable typographical error occurs in Matthew v. 9, " Blessed are the 
place-makers : for they shall be called the children of God." 

918. BIBLE (2nd Polish). Biblia S wieta, Tho iest, Ksi , gi Starego y 
Nowego Zakonu, wfasnie z Zydowskiego, Greckiego, y Lacynskiego, 
nowo na Polski iezyk z pilnoscia y wiernie wytozone [by S. 
Zaciusz, P. Statoryusz, G. Orsacius, J. Trzecieski, J. Lubelczyk, 
and others ; edited by M. Radziwit] W. Brzesciu Litewskim, 
1563. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

The second published version of the Polish Bible, made by Prince Radziwil 
and the Protestant Reformers of Pinczow. The first Polish Bible was pub 
lished in 1561 by the Catholics. 

919. BIBLE (Polish). Another copy. 1563. Folio. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

920. BIBLE (Dutch). Nicolaes Biestkeno, 1564. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

921. BIBLE (Latin). Antverpiae : Christ. Plantin, 1564. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

922. BIBLE (Greek). Basilias : J. Hervagius, 1565. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

923. NEW Testament (Latin). With full-page cuts in Revelation. 
Dilingce : Sebaldvs Mayer, 1565. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

924. PSALMS (English). The Form of Prayers etc. used in the English 
Church at Geneva, with the Psalms of David, in metre. Edin 
burgh : by Robert Lekprevik, 1565. 8vo. 

Lent from the Advocates Library. 

The earliest edition of the Sternhold and Hopkins prepared for the Church 
of Scotland. There are many subsequent republications. 

925. BIBLE (English). Cranmer s version. Rouen : C. Hamillon, at 
the cost and charges of Richard Carmarden, 1566. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

926. BIBLE (French). Geneve: Perrin, 1566. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry f. Atkinson, Esq. 

927. BIBLE (Italian). Bibbia Volgare. 2 vols. Venetia : Andrea Mus- 
chio, 1566. 4to. Curious engravings. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1568] the Caxton Exhibition 97 

928. PSALMS (Latin): Psalmorvm Da-/vidis Paraphrasis Poetica,/ nunc 
primum edita,/ Authore Georgio Buchanano/ Scoto, poetarum nos- 
tri saeculi facile/ principe./ Psalmi Aliqvot in ver-/sus item Graecos 
nuper a dieursis/ translati./ Anno M. D. LXVI./ \Colophon\ Argen- 
toratij Excudebat losias Rihelius./ M.D.LXVI./ 121110. 

Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

Sixteen prel. leaves and 352 pp. This is generally believed to be the first 
edition of this celebrated version of the Psalms, though Brunei thinks that the 
Paris edition, without date, by Henry Stephens, is anterior, notwithstanding 
the words " nunc primum edita " on this title-page. On this book rests in a 
great measure the high reputation of George Buchanan as a poet and scholar. 
He was born in I56, and died in 1582- While imprisoned in a monas ery in 
Portugal, by order of the Inquisition, about I55 ne beguiled the tedium of 
his confinement by translating the whole of the Psalms into Latin verse. 
There are no less than twenty-nine varieties of metre. On the reverse of the 
title is, "Index Festorum xxiiii. " In the Kalendar, which occupies nine 
leaves, there are twelve rude but exceedingly curious woodcuts representing the 
signs of the Zodiac, and the habits and occupations of the good people about 
Strasbourg. On the recto of B B iiij is the famous epigram of Buchanan to 
Mary, Queen of Scots, beginning : 

" Nympha, Caledonise quce nunc feliciter orce 
Missa per imiumeros sceptra tueris auos. " 

929. NEW Testament (the first Welsh). Testament Newydd cm Arg- 
hvydd Jesu Christ. Gwedy ei dynnu, yd y gadei yr ancyfiaith, au 
yn ei gylydd or Grocc a r Llatin, gan newidio ffurf llythyreu y gariae- 
dodi. Eb law hyny ymae pop gair a dibiwyt y vot yn andeallus, ai 
o ran llediaith y wlat, ai o ancynefindery devnydd, wedy ei noti ai 
eglurhau ar ledemyl y tu dalen gydrychiol. [Preceded by an 
" Almanach dros xxv. o vlynydden," &c. Translated by W. Sales- 
bury and R. Davies, Bishop of St. Davids ; edited by the former, 
with an Epistle by the latter, " i bop map eneid dyn o vewn ey 
escopawt." First edition.] Black letter. [London] : H. Den- 
ham, 1567. 4to. Lent by the BritisJi and Foreign Bible Society. 

In long lines, thirty-one to the full page. The text is not divided into 
verses. 

930. BIBLE (English). The Holie Bible. Richard Jugge, 1568. 2 
vols. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

The " Bishops " Bible, a revision of the "Great Bible" undertaken by 
Archbishop Parker, with the assistance of eight bishops. It appeared "cum 
privilegio region majestatis," and its use was sanctioned by Convocation in 
1571. It is sometimes called the treacle Bible, from Jeremiah viii, 22: "Is 
there no tryacle. in Gilead ? " rendered rosin in the Douai version, and balm 
in that of 1611. It is also sometimes called the " Leda Bible," from the use 
of one of a series of capital letters, designed after Ovid, used by Jugge in his 
other and previous books. 

931. BIBLE (English, first Bishops ). Another copy. London : 
Richarde Jugge, 1568. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



98 The Printed Bibles in [1568 

932. BIBLE (French and Latin). 3 vols. Paris: Sebastien Nyvelle, 
1568. 410. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

933. BIBLE (Latin). Lugduni : loannes Frellon, 1568. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

934. NEW Testament (Greek). 2 vols. Lvtitiae : Robertus Stephanus, 
1568-9. 32mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

935. BIBLE (English). Genevan. Geneva : John Crespin, 1568-70. 
4to. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

936. PSALMS (Dutch). De C.L. Psalmen Dauids. Tot Noorwitz 
Gheprint by Anthonium de Solemne, 1568. 8vo. 

Lent by W. Amhurst Tyssen-Amhurst, Esq. 

A work from the same press, entitled " Geneu Kalendaer Historiaal 1570," 
is bound up with this. These two books, with Nos. 281, 282, 283, together 
form a unique collection of productions from the Norwich Press. No. 281 is 
dated 1568. 

937. BIBLE (English). The Bishops version, the first edition in 4to. 
London : Richard Jugge, 1569. 4to. 

Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

938. BIBLE (English). Bishops version. First edition in 4to. 
Another copy. London : Richard Jugge, 1569. 410. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

939. BIBLE (Polyglot). Biblia Polyglotta. Antwerp : Plantinus, 
1569-73. 8 vols. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Edited at the command of Philip II by Arias Montanus, of the University 
of Alcala. Only 500 copies were printed, of which the greater part were lost 



940. BIBLE (Spanish). La Biblia. (C. de Reyna.) [Basle?], 1569. 
4to. Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

941. BIBLE (Spanish). Another copy, with new title dated 1622, date 
at end 1569. 4to. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

942. NEW Testament (Dutch). 1569. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry J, Atkinson, Esq. 

943. NEW Testament (Latin). Novvm lesv Christi Testamentvm. 
Antverpise : apud hseredes Arnoldi Birckmanni, 1570. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 
This copy belonged to Prince Henry, and has his monogram on the sides. 

944. GOSPELS (Anglo-Saxon). The Gospels, &c. London : John 
Daye, 1571. 4to. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

944*. NEW Testament (English). The/ Newe Te-/stament of/ ovr Lord 
lesvs/ Christ./ Conferred with the Greke,/ and best approued/ 
translations./ With the arguments, as vvel before the/ chapters, as 
for euery Boke and Epistle,/ Also diuersities of readings, and/ most 



1578] the Caxton Exhibition 99 

profitable annotations of all harde places : vvhere-/imto is added a 
co-/pious Table./ Imprinted at/ London by T. V. for/ Christopher 
Barker./ 1575. / Cum priuilegio./ \ColopJwn on page 813] Im 
printed at London by Tho. Vautroullier/ for Christopher Barker./ 
8vo. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

The title is within an elaborate woodcut border having the royal arms at the 
top, and " Cum priuilegio " in a compartment at the bottom ; on the reverse 
"The ordre of the Bookes "/ in small italics ; the next leaf begins on * ij. 
"The Epistle de-/claring that Christ/ is the end of the Law./ By lohn 
Caluin."/ 16 pp. Then comes on C ij. "To the Reader mercy/ and peace 
through/ Christ ovr Saviovr."/ 5 pp. ; on the reverse, in small italics, "The 
argvment of/ the Gospell, writ by the foure Euangelists." I p. Text in 
roman type, paged I to 813, ending with a tail-piece over the colophon. On 
page 814 begins "A declaration/ of the Table to the/ New Testament," i p. ; 
" A table of the principall things " etc. 815 to 850 in double columns. Then 
follows "A perfect Supputation " etc. 3 pp. the next page blank. It is 
very seldom that the last two leaves are to be found. The version, with some 
very slight alterations, is the Genevan, first printed with the Old Testament in 
1560; but Calvin s Epistle and Whittingham s Preface are taken from the 
Geneva edition of 1557, as also are the Declaration and the Table at the end. 
The translation and the notes differ very materially from Whittingham s edition. 

945. NEW Testament (Basque). lesvs Christ/ Gvre lavnaren/ Testa- 
mentv/ Berria./ Rochellan, Pierre Hautin, Imprimicale./ 1571. 
8vo. Lent by the Britisli and Foreign Bible Society. 

946. BIBLE (Latin). Heuteni. Venetiis, apud Ivntas, 1572. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

947. BIBLE (Latin). Antwerpise : Apud Viduam & Heredes loannis 
Stelsii, 1572. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

948. BIBLE (English). Bishops version. London: R. Jugge, 1573. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

949. BIBLE (English). The second folio, Bishops version. London : 
Richard Jugge, 1572. Folio. Lent by F. Fry, Esq. 

950. BIBLE (Latin). Venetia : Bevilaqua, 1574. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

951. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia advertissima exemplaria nunc recens 
castigata. Heutenus. Venetiis, apud Haeredes Nicolai Bevila- 
quae, 1576. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

95i*.NEw Testament (English) Genevan. Notes Englished by L. Tom- 
son. London: C. Barkar, 1576. Svo. Lent by George Tawse,Esq. 

960. BIBLE (English). Genevan. London: C. Parker, 1578. Folio. 

Lent by tJie Archbishop of Canterbury. 

961. BIBLE (English and Scotch). The Bible/ and Holy Scriptvres/ 
conteined in the/ Olde and Newe/ Testament./ Translated ac 
cording to the/ Ebrue & Greke, & conferred with the beste transla 
tions/ in diuers languages./ (. .)/ With moste profitable Annota- 



ioo The Printed Bibles in [1579 

tions/ vpon all the hard places of the Holy Scriptvre,/ and other 
things of great importance, mete for/ the Godly Reader./ Printed 
in Edinbrvghj Be Alexander Arbuthnot, Printer to the Kingis 
Maiestie, dwelling/ at ye Kirk of feild. 15797 Cvm gratia et 
Privilegio Regiae/ Maiestatis7 Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

Nine prel. leaves. On the title-page, above the imprint, is a woodcut re 
presenting the arms of Scotland, 3^- by 4^ inches ; on the reverse, "The 
names and order of all the Bookes/ of the olde & New Testament," I p. ; the 
second leaf begins on {. *.) ij. "To the Richt Excellent Richt/ heich and 
Michtie Prince lames the Sixt/ King of Scottis," etc. 3^ pp. dated at the end, 
"From Edinburgh in our ge-/neral assemblie the tent day of/ lulie. 1579." 
the rest of the page blank. Then comes "An dovble Calendared to wit, the 
Romane and the Hebrew-/ Calendare," etc. " Ane Almanake," etc. 7 pp. 
On the reverse of the seventh leaf is " C A table to find out in what signe the 
Moone is at any tyme for euer " page, under which is " Rvles for vnder- 
standing/ of this double Calendare," occupying that and half the next page, 
and signed " R. Pont :" the remainder of this page is filled with verses, 
" $}-$& Of the incomparable treasure of the holy Scriptures." On the reverse 
of the next, or eighth leaf, begins, " A Description and svccesse/ of the 
Kinges of Ivda and Jerusalem,"/ etc. i^- pp. ; then comes on the rest of the 
page "An exhortation to the studie of the holie Scripture ;" on the reverse, 
" Howe to take profile in reading of the holie Scripture " signed by T. Grashop, 
I p. at the bottom of which is Arbuthnot s device copied from Richard Jugg s, 
substituting his own arms at the bottom between the initials A. A. The 
Text, Genesis to Second Maccabees, 503 folioed leaves, ending with "The 
Third Poke of/ the Maccabees newlie translated out/ of the original Greke." 
This third book however is not added, but next comes the title of "The/ Newe 
Testament/ of ovr Lord Ie-/svs Christ./ Conferred diligently with the Greke, 
and best approved/ translations in diners languages./ [The arms of Scotland 
the same as on the first title.] At Edinbvrgh/ ,$> Printed by Thomas/ Bas- 
sandyne./ M. D. LXXVI./ Cvm Privilegio./" Reverse blank ; the text, A. ij. 
folioed 2 [misprinted l] to 125, ending on the middle of the reverse. Then 
comes " A briefe Table of the Pro-/per names which are chiefly founde in the 
olde Te-/stament," in double columns not paged or folioed, but beginning on 
the recto of X. vj. and ending at the middle of the verso of Y. iij. Then 
follows on "A Table of the principal/ things that are conteined in the Bible," 
etc. in treble columns, ending on the middle of the reverse of Z. vj. The rest 
of that page, and the next are filled with " $& A Perfite svppvtation of the 
yeres/ and times from Adam vnto Christ" brought down " vnto this present 
yere of/ our Lord God 1576." On the reverse is "The Order of the yeres 
from Pauls conuersion " etc. I p. The next leaf of this gathering is probably 
blank, as no copy is known to contain more. This is the first edition of the 
Bible printed in Scotland. It is the Genevan version, in roman type, in 
double columns, with the marginal notes in smaller type than the text. There 
are the usual woodcuts in Exodus, to be found in most of the early Genevan 
versions. At the thirty-third chapter of Numbers is a detached map, another 
at the fifteenth chapter of Josua, and at the end of Ezekiel is a plan of the 
Temple. The present copy is large, clean, pure, and perfect. Before the 
printing was completed Bassandyne died ; but in all the copies the title of the 
New Testament bears his name, with date 1576. In 1579 the complete 
volume was issued under sanction of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland, with a dedication to James the Sixth, and other preliminary leaves, 
printed by Alex. Arbuthnot. 



1585] the Caxton Exhibition 101 

962. BIBLE (English). London: Christopher Barker, 1579? 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

963. BIBLE (Latin). First edition of Tremelius and Jimius. London: 
Middleton, 1580. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

964. BIBLIA Sclavonica. H. Typis Joannis Theodori Jum-ex magna 
Russia. Ostrobia, 1581. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

965. BIBLE (English). Genevan. London : C. Barker, 1582. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

966. NEW Testament (English). The New Testament of JESUS CHRIST, 
translated faithfully into English, out of the authentical Latin. 
Cum privilegio. Rhemes : John Fogny, 1582. 4to. Two copies. 
One lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq., and the other by Earl Spencer. 

The Rhemes New Testament, the result of the labours of Roman Catholic 
priests, exiles from England in 1568. It is a secondary translation from the 
Vulgate. 

967. BIBLE Picture Book (Dutch). Figuren, etc. Van Borcht, 1582. 
Obi. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

968. BIBLE (Latin). Antwerp: Plantin, 1582. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

969. BIBLE (English). Genevan. London: C. Barker, 1583. Folio. 

Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

970. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra. Quid in hac editione a theologis 
Lovaniensibvs pnestitvm sit, eorum pnefatio indicat. Antwerp : 
Plantin, 1583. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

971. BIBLE (Wendish). Biblia, tu ie Vse Svetv Pismv, Stariga inu 
Noviga Testamenta, Slovenski, tolmazhena, skusi Jvria Dalmatina. 
Bibel, das ist, die gantze Heilige Schrifft, Windisch. Wittemberg, 
durch Hans Kraffts Erben, 1584. Many woodcuts. Folio. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

972. BIBLE (Icelandic). Biblia, ]>ad er, 611 Heilog Ritning vtlogd a 
Norroenu. [being the previous translations of various parts by O. 
Gottskalksson, G. Einarsson, and G. Jonsson, revised and corrected 
by G. Thorlaksson, and the remainder newly translated by him]. 
Med formalum M. Lutheri. First edition. Holum, 1584. Folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

With woodcut?, for the most part designed and engraved by Bishop G. 
Thorlaksson. Another copy lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

973. BIBLE (English). The Bishops version. Authorized and ap 
pointed to be read in Churches. London: Ch. Barker, 1585. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

974. BIBLE (Latin). Francofurt : P. Fabricius impensis Sigis. Feira 
bendi. 1585. 410. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



102 The Printed Bibles in [1585 

975. BIBLE (English, Genevan version). London: Christopher Barker, 
1585. 410. Black letter. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

976. BIBLE. Old Testament. H Kahaia Aiaflwn Kara Toug E5b/w?xovra. 
. . . Vetus Testamentum juxta Septuaginta, ex auctoritate Sixti V. 
Pont. Max. editurn. [By A. Carafa, P. Morinus, G. Sirletus, L. 
Latinius, M. Victorius, P. Dominicanus, E. Sa,P. Parra, A. Agellius, 
Lselius, F. Turrianus, P. Ciaconius, J. Maldonatus, P. Comitolus, 
F. Ursinus, J. Livineius, B. Valverda, R. Bellarminus, and F. To- 
letus.] L.P. Romce,F. Zanetti, 1586. olio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

First printed edition of the Codex Vaticanus. It has formed the model for 
every succeeding edition of the " Septuagint." 

977. NEW Testament (English). Beza s. Englished by L. Tomson. 
London: C. Barker, 1587. 321110. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

978. BIBLE (English). 2 vols. London : Christopher Barker, 1587. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

979. BIBLE (Bohemian). Vol. IV. Isaiah to Malachi. 1587. 4to. 

Lent by Pastor L. B. Kaspar. 

This Bible was printed for the ancient Bohemian Brethren Church at the 
private printing establishment of Count Zerotin in Kralice, near Brunn, 
Moravia, in the year 1587. The original binding was made in 1588. 

980. BIBLE (French). Geneve, 1588. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

981. BIBLE (French). First edition. 8 parts. Geneve, 1588. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

982. BIBLE (Hebrew). 2 vols. Hamburg : J. Wolfius, 1588. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

983. BIBLE (Latin). 2 vols. Lugduni, apud Gvlielmvm Rovillivm. 
1588. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

984. BIBLE (the first Welsh). Y Beibl Cyssegr-Lan, Sef yr hen Des- 
tament a r Newydd. London : Deputies of C. Barker, 1588. 
Folio. Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

984*.BiBLE (Second Danish). Biblia/ det er,/ Den gantske Hel-/lige 
Schrifft, paa Danske etc. [after Luther s]. Kiobenhaffn, Aff Matz 
Vingaardt, 1589. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

985. BIBLE (English, Genevan version). London : Deputies of Ch. 
Barker, 1589. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

986. NEW Testament (English). L. Tomson s. London : Deputies of 
Ch. Barker, 1589. 8vo. Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

990. NEW Testament (English). Genevan version. London : Christo 
pher Barker, 1589. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



i59 6 l the Caxton Exhibition 103 

991. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis tribvs tomis dis- 
tincta (ad concilii Tridentini prsescriptum emendata, et a Sixto 
V. P. M. recognita et approbata). [Edited by A. Carafa, F. No 
bilius, A. Agellius, P. Morinus, A. Rocca, and Laelius.] 3 torn. 
Romae : ex Typographia Apostolica Vaticana, 1590. Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

There are two title-pages, the first printed, and the second engraved. Com 
monly known as the Sixtine Bible. The first complete Latin edition pub 
lished by Papal authority. 

992. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia sacra Vulgatae editionis, Sixti quinti . . . 
jussu recognita atque edita [by M. A. Columna, W. Allen, B. de 
Miranda, R. Bellarminus, A. Agellius, P. Morinus, F. Nobilius, 
Laelius, B. Valverda, F. Toletus, A. Valerius, and F. Borromaeus.] 
Oratio Manassse, necnon libri duo qui sub libri tertij et quarti 
Esdrae nomine circumferuntur . . . sepositi sunt, ne prorsus inter- 
irent, etc. dementis VIII. auctoritate recognita. Romae : ex 
typogr. vaticana, 1592. Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

There are two title-pages, one printed and the other engraved : the " Oratio 
Manassae" and the third and fourth books of Esdras have a separate pagina 
tion. The Clementine Bible. The authentic text of the "Vulgate." This 
edition is said to considerably differ from the Sixtine edition, but infallibility in 
the church does not compass printer s stops and errors, or countenance them. 

992*. GOSPELS (in Arabic and Latin) with numerous woodcuts by Ant. 
Tempesta. Rome, 1590. Folio. Lent by A. Aspland, Esq. 

993. BIBLE (Latin). Londini, Impensis Gulielmi N., 1593-92. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson , Esq. 

993*. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra Vulgatae editionis Sixti Qvinti iussu 
recognita atque edita. Romae, 1593. 4to. 

Lent by Henry f. Atkinson, Esq. 

994. BIBLE (Latin). Tubingae : G. Gruppenbach, 1593. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

995. BIBLE (Latin). Romae : Typ. Apost. vat., 1593. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

996. BIBLE (Latin). Tubingae, Georgius Gruppenbachius, 1593. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

997. BIBLE (English). London : Deputies of Christopher Barker, 
1594. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

998. BIBLE (English). London: Deputies of Ch. Barker, 1594. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

999. BIBLE (Greek, Latin, and German). Biblia Sacra. Opera Davidis 
Walderi. 2 vols. Hamburg! : Jacobus Lucius Juni. excudebat, 
1596. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1 04 The Printed Bibles in [15 95 

1000. BIBLE (Hebrew). 4 vols. 1595. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 oo i. BIBLE (Saxon). Hamborch, dorch Jacobum Lucium den Jungen. 
1596. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

On the title of the New Testament is a representation of the Elector and 
Luther witnessing the baptism of Christ by John. 

1002. NEW Testament (Latin). 2 vols. in i. Morgiis (Switzerland) : 
Excudebat loannes le Preux, 1596. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1003. BIBLE (English). The Bible./ That is, the Holy/ Scriptvres 
Con-/teined in the/ Olde and New/ Testament./ Translated 
accor-/ding to the Ebrew and Greeke, and/ conferred with the 
best transla-/ons in diuers languages./ With most Profitable 
Annotations vpon all the hard places, and other things/ of great 
importance, as may appear in the/ Epistle to the Reader./ 
f[ Imprinted at London by the De-/puties of Christopher Barker,/ 
Printer to the Qveenes most excel-/lent Maiestie./ Anno 1597. 
Cum priuilegio./ Folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

6 prel. leaves, viz. Title, reverse blank; "To the most ver-/tvovs and 
noble Qveene/ Elizabith," 3 pp.; "To ovr Beloved in the Lord," I p.; "A 
Table conteining the Cycle/ of the Sunne," etc. 2 pp.; Kalendar, 3 pp.; 
" $& The Names and order of all the bookes," I p. Text, A. j., in double 
columns, in roman type, Genesis to Malachi 360 folioed leaves ; Apocrypha 
Aaaa. j. 77 leaves; New Testament, Title and 129 leaves; "CA breife 
Table," Yyyyy. iiij. 9 unnumbered leaves. This is the Genevan version of 
the text of both the Old and the New Testament, but the New Testament 
is what is generally known as L. Tomson s translation, or revision. This 
is, however, a popular error. The text is the Genevan version of 1560, which 
Tomson has not meddled with. He has only added a translation of Beza s and 
Camerarius Notes, Summaries, Expositions, and marginal references. The 
Arguments preceding the Gospels, the Acts, etc., are omitted, though ex 
pressly mentioned in the title. 

1004. NEW Testament (English). The/ Newe Testa-/ment of Ovr/ 
Lord lesvs/ Christ./ C Faithfully traslated out/ of Greeke./ 
Imprinted at London j by the Deputies of Christopher Barker,/ 
Printer to the Queenes most/ excellent Maiestie./ Anno 15987 
481110. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

A to Xx in eights. In clear pearl type. Size of page 2| X if inches. 
The reverse of the title is blank. Text begins on A 2, and ends on the 
reverse of Xx 8. This beautiful little volume is in the Geneva version. 
There are thirty-one lines on a full page. The headings of the chapters and 
the marginal references are in italic. 

1005. NEW Testament (Latin and Greek). Geneva, 1598. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1006. BIBLE (Dutch). Antwerp : Jan Newrentorf and Jan van Keuber- 
gen, 1599. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1600] the C ax ton Exhibition 105 

1007. BIBLE (English, Genevan). The/ Bible,/ that is,/ The Holy 
Scriptvres/ conteined in the Old and New/ Testament./ Trans 
lated according to the Ebrew and Greeke, and/ conferred with the 
best Translations in/ diuers Languages./ With most profitable 
Annotations vpon all hard places,/ and other things of great 
importance./ C Imprinted at London / by the Deputies of Chris 
topher Barker,/ Printer to the Queenes most/ Excellent Maiestie./ 
1 599-1 4-to. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

4 prel. leaves, including the woodcut and printed titles ; Text, Genesis to 
Job, 190 folioed leaves ; Psalms to Malachi, 127 leaves, one blank leaf; New 
Testament, 121 folioed leaves; A briefe Table, 1 1 leaves. Date of Colophon, 
I S99- There were no less than six or eight editions of the Bible with the 
date 1599, all purporting to be from the same printer, and so closely 
resembling each other that it is difficult to distinguish them without having 
them before you. This edition is described in Lea Wilson s admirable cata 
logue, under No. 84 of Bibles, and may be distinguished from the other by the 
third line of the first verse of the first chapter of Esther, reading : 

India euen vnto Ethiopa, ouer 

The version is the Genevan, with Tomson s revision of the notes of the New- 
Testament. It is in small roman type, in double columns, with the notes in 
smaller type on both the inner and outer margins. 

1008. BIBLE (Latin). Venetia : Apud Damianum Zenarum, 1599. 410. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1009. NEW Testament (English). The/ New Testament/ of lesus 
Christ faith-/fvlly translated into English,/ out of the authentical 
Latin, diligently conferred with the/ Greeke, and other Editions 
in diuers languages : With Ar/gvments of bookes and chapters : 
Annotations,/ and other helpes, for the better vnderstanding of the 
text,/ and specially for the discouerie of Corrvptions in di-/uers 
late translations and for cleering Controversies in Religion 
of these dayes : By the English/ College then Resident in Rhemes. 
Set Forth the second time, by the same College now/ returned to 
Dovvay./ With addition to one new Table of Heretical 
Cor/rvptions, the other Tables and Annotations somewhat/ aug 
mented. Printed at Antwerp! by Daniel Vervliet./ 1600. 
With Privilege./ 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

The title within a type-metal border, having on the reverse, the Approba 
tions of the first edition of 1582, and of the present edition. The next leaf a ij 
begins with " The Preface to/ the Reader," 1 1 leaves ; "A Table of cer-/taine 
Places of the New/ Testament corrvptly translated," 6 pp. in double columns ; 
"The Explication of Certain/ v^ordes in this Translation," 2 pp.; "The 
Bookes of the New/ Testament" 3 pp.; on the reverse, "The Signification or 
mea-/ning of the nvmbers and markes/ vsed in the New Testament," I p.; 
"The Svmme of the /New Testament," etc. 2 pp.; Text, Mathew to the end 
of Revelations, pp. 3 to 745. On the middle of page 745 begins "A Table 
of the/ Epistles and Gospels," Signature B bbbb, 4^ pp.; on the reverse of 

O 



io6 The Printed Bibles in [1600 

B bbbb iij "An ample and/ particvlar Table" of Controversies, 23 pp. in 
double columns. The book is throughout in roman type, except the headings 
of the chapters, which are in italics. The text is in large pica type in long 
lines of three inches and three quarters, and the notes and marginal summaries 
are in a smaller type. The annotations, which are very numerous and contro 
versial, are at the end of each chapter or book. The marginal summaries or 
catch-clauses are only on the outer margins, while the inner margins are occu 
pied by references to other places, and by a column indicating the division into 
verses. The matter is run on into paragraphs, but the beginning of each verse 
is indicated by this mark, f The Preface to the Reader is historical and 
critical, and of considerable interest on the important subject of translations 
into the vulgar tongues. This translation is from the old Latin Vulgate. At 
the end of the third chapter of Matthew is a slip pasted clown containing the 
words, "lurie, and from beyond Jordan. " the first three words having been 
omitted in the text. This volume should go with No. 1024 of this catalogue, 
so as to form a set of the complete Bible. 

i oio. NEW Testament (English). London : R. Barker, 1600. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

ion. NEW Testament (English). Bishop s and Rhemish version. Notes 
by Win. Fulke. London: R. Barker, 1601. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1012. NEW Testament (Greek). Franckfurt: Typis Wechelianis, 1601. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1013. BIBLE (English). The Bishops . Authorised and appointed to 
be read in Churches. London : Robert Barker, 1602. Folio. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

There appear to have been two different first titles issued with this last folio 
edition of the Bishops version ; one like that of the woodcut border of the 
New Testament title, and the other like that used in the first edition of the 
161 1 version. A recent writer says that the latter "had often clone duty before, 
notably in the Bishops Bible of 1602." This is probably a mistake, for we 
find this folio woodcut border of the 1611 version used in no other previous 
edition except this 1602 Bishops , and in only a part of this. This handsome 
volume was manifestly the model for the first issue of the 1611 version, and the 
revisions and corrections were probably posted on to a copy of this and then 
deposited as copv with Barker. This last folio Bishops differs almost as much 
from the first Bishops of 1568 as it does from the first 1611 itself, it had under 
gone so many changes and silent revisions. 

1014. BIBLE (Spanish). La Biblia, segunda edicion, por C. de Valera. 
Amsterdam, En casa de Lorengo lacobi, 1602. Folio. Two copies. 

One lent by H. White, Esq., the other by the B. and F. Bible Society. 

1015. NEW Testament (English). L. Tomson. Dort : Isaac Canin, 
1603. 8vo. Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

1016. BIBLE (English), Genevan version. London: R. Barker, 1606. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1609] the Caxton Exhibition 107 

1017. BIBLE (English). Genevan version. London : R. Barker, 1607. 
Folio. First title wanting. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
This copy belonged to Prince Henry, and bears his monogram on the sides. 

1018. BIBLE (English). Genevan. London: Robert Barker, 1606. 
8vo. Lent by Sir Charles Reed. 

1019. BIBLE (Italian). La Bibbia. Nuouamente traslatati da Giovanni 
Diodati, di nation Lucchese. Geneva, 1607. 4to. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1020. BIBLE (Latin). Venetia, 1607. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1021. BIBLE (Dutch). Leyden : Jacobszoon & Jan Bouwensszoon, 
1608. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1022. NEW Testament (Italian). II Nuovo Testamento. Geneva: 
Diodati, 1608. 161110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1023. BIBLE (English). Genevan version. London : R. Barker, 1609. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1024. BIBLE (English, Doway). The/ Holie Bible/ Faithfvlly Trans/- 
lated into English,/ ovt of the avthentical/ Latine./ Diligently 
conferred with the Hebrew, Greeke,/ and other Editions in diuers 
languages./ With Argvments of the Bookes, and Chapters :/ 
Annotations. Tables : and other herpes,/ for better vnderstanding 
of the text :/ for discouerie of Corrvptions/ in some late transla 
tions : and/ for clearing Controversies in Religion./ By the 
English College at Doway./ Printed at Doway by Lavrence Kel- 
lam,/ at the signe of the holie Lambe./ M. DC. ix. 410. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Two volumes. Vol. I. The title within a type-metal border, having on the 
reverse, in Latin, " Approbatio. " dated " Duaci. 8. Nouembris. 1609." 
Then comes on f2, "To the right/ vvelbeloved English/ Reader," 12 pp.; 
"The Svmme and Parti-/tion of the Holie Bible," 4 pp.; "The Argvment of 
the Booke/ of Genesis." 2 pp.; The text, Genesis to Job, 1114 pp., followed 
by "To the Cvrteovs Reader," I p., promising two Tables for this volume in 
the next. Vol. II. Title, dated M. DC. X. having the approbation on the 
reverse as to the first volume: " Proemial Annotations/ vpon the Booke of 
Psalms." pp. 3 to 14 ; Text, Psalms to the Fovrth Book of Esdras, pp. 15 to 
1071. "A Table of the Epistles," page 1072 ; "An Historical Table of the 
Times," etc. pp. 1073 to 1096; "A particular Table of the/ most principal 
Things," pp. 1097 to 1123; Censura," page 1124; Errata of the two 
volumes, I p. These two volumes are printed in a style nearly uniform with 
the New Testament, 4to, 1600, No. 1009. These three volumes should go 
together to make the complete Bible. This is the first edition of the Roman 
Catholic version of the Scriptures in English. It was translated about the 
year 1580, by some English exiles at Douai, to combat the various English 
protestant versions. It is a remarkable circumstance that though these volumes 



io8 The Printed Bibles in [1609 

bear the dates of 1609 and 1610, they had not reached the hands of the trans 
lators of the 1611 version when their long Preface was written. There is dis 
tinct allusion to this work, as if to disclaim any knowledge of it. Or perhaps 
the Preface may have been written before Nov. 1609, the date of the Approval 
of Vol. I. This is sometimes called the rosin Bible, from the reading of 
Jeremiah viii, 22, Is there no rosin in Gilead ?" The Bishops , and other 
early translations, had treacle. 

1025. NEW Testament (Greek and Latin). Aurelia Allob. apud lacobum 
Stoer, 1609. 321110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1026. NEW Testament (Icelandic). Pad Nijca Testamentum. Holum, 
1609. 8vo. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

1027. BIBLE (English, Genevan). The/ Bible :/ that is,/ The Holy 
Scriptvres/ conteined in the Old and New/ Testament./ Trans 
lated according to the Ebrew and Greeke, and/ conferred with the 
best Translations in/ diuers Languages./ C With most profitable 
Annotations vpon all hard places,/ and other things of great im 
portance./ C Imprinted at/ London by Robert Barker,/ Printer 
to the Kings most/ Excellent Maiestie./ 1610. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

3 prel. leaves ; Text, Genesis to Malachi, A to Qq 7, in eights ; New Testa 
ment, Aaa to Qqq I ; Table, Qqq 2 to Rrr, 4. date of Colophon, 1611. This 
is the Genevan version, with Tomson s revision of the notes of the New 
Testament, and with Junius s Annotations on the Revelations. It is in small 
roman type, closely resembling the six quarto editions of 1599. 

1028. Bir.LE (English, Genevan). The/ Bible,/ That Is,/ The holy 
Scriptures con-/tained in the Old and/ New Testament./ C Trans 
lated according to the Ebrew and Greeke,/ and conferred with 
the best Translations/ in diuers Languages./ d With most 
profitable Annotations vpon all the/ hard places, and other things 
of great/ importance./ Imprinted at/ London by Robert Barker,/ 
Printer to the Kings most Excellent Maiestie./ i6io./ Folio. 

Lent by Francis .Fry, Esq. 

4 prel. leaves in roman type, viz. Title within a broad woodcut border, with 
the royal arms at the top, and Cum priuilegio in a compartment at the bottom, 
reverse blank ; " $& To the Christian Reader." 2 pp. ; within a type-metal 
border. "C Of the incomparable treasure," etc. I p. ; "How to profile in 
reading," etc. I p. ; "C The names and order of all the Books," I p. ; on 
the reverse is a large woodcut, filling the whole page, of Adam and Eve in 
Paradise. Text in black letter. A to Mmmm 2, in sixes. "^^.Abriefe 
Table " 8 leaves in roman letter. This is the Genevan version with Tomson s 
revision of the notes of the New Testament. The text is in double columns, 
in large black letter. The arguments of the books are in small roman type. 
The summaries of the chapters are in italics, and the marginal notes are in 
small black, and the references in small roman letter. The woodcut borders 
of the titles of the Old and New Testaments are alike. At the beginning of 
the Psalms there is a title, "This Second Part of the Bible," within a broad 
woodcut border, with erect female figures on either side, reverse blank. 



i6n] the Caxton Exhibition 109 

io28*.BiBLE (English, Genevan). The Bible, that is, the Holy Scrip 
tures. London: Barker, 1610. 8vo. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 
This is, we believe, the last edition of the Bible of the Genevan version 
printed in England in octavo. 

1029. BIBLE (English, Genevan version). The Bible, that is, The 
Holy Scriptures contained in the Olde and New Testament, 
Translated according to the Hebrew and Greeke, &c. At Edin 
burgh Printed by Andro Hart, and are to be sold at his Buith, on 
the North-side of the gate. Anno Dom. 1610. Folio. Two copies. 

One lent by H. J. Atkinson, Esq., the other by David Laing, Esq. 
This was long the standard and favourite edition of the Genevan Bible, be 
cause it was a handsome, well-printed book, remarkably free from typo 
graphical errors. 

1030. BIBLE (English), Genevan and Tomson s. London : R. Barker, 
161 1. Folio. Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

1031. BIBLE (English). Genevan version. London: R. Barker, 1611. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1032. PSALMS (English). The Psalmes of David in Prose and Meeter. 
With Godly Prayers, &c. Printed at Edinburgh by Andro Hart. 
1611. 8vo. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

1033. PSALMS (Latin). Paraphrasis Psalmorum Davidis Poetica auc- 
tore Georgio Buchanano. Edinburgi, exct. Andreas Hart, 1611. 
181110. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

1034. PSALMS (English). Psalms in Prose and Metre with the Tunes. 
Edinb. : Andro Hart, 1611. 241110. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

1035. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible, newly translated out of the 
original! Tongues and with former Translations diligently com 
pared and revised, by his Maiesties speciall commandment. 
Appointed to be read in Churches. London : Robert Barker, 
1611. With the first title engraved on copper by C. Boel of 
Richmont. Folio. Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

This is the first or standard issue of the 1 61 1 version of the English Bible. There 
was another separate issue of it the same year distinct throughout every leaf. 
This pair, the parents of millions of our Bibles, we shall distinguish by calling 
the first the GREAT HE BIBLE, and the other the GREAT SHE BIBLE, from 
their respective readings of Ruth iii. 15, the one reading "he measured six 
measures of barley, and laid it on her : and HE went into the city." The 
other has "and SHE went into the city." These two editions, both standard 
but varying in many places, were manifestly deposited in two different printing 
houses as standard copy, because the subsequent editions in quarto and octavo, in 
roman and black letter, run in pairs, he and she, and as a general rule the faults 
of the one follow those of its own office-copy or parent. It is not difficult for 
a practical printer to point out the true original He Bible, and when that is 
ascertained many other arguments fall in peacefully. This he and she distinc 
tion is only one of a thousand. The first three or four editions were issued, 
some copies with an engraved copper-plate title, and others with a woodcut 



1 1 o The Printed Bibles in [161 1 

bordered title, but never with both. We have found the engraved title attached 
to its follower in both of the 1611 issues, as well as that of 1613. These titles, 
therefore, do not mark the edition ; nor do Speed s genealogies, with which the 
king saddled and most unjustly burdened the version, as a private sop to a 
favourite subject. Of the two distinct issues of 1611, some copies of each 
having the engraved and others the woodcut title, it is of great consequence 
to establish the priority of one or the other. Mr. Francis Fry after long and 
patient investigation has, in his exceedingly important work on the subject, 
pronounced decidedly in favour of the He Bible s being the original ; while Mr. 
Scrivener, in the introduction to his Paragraph Bible, reverses Mr. Fry s de 
cision, and sets up the She Bible as the standard by priority. Our own 
researches, both before and since Mr. Fry s opinion, have led us unequivocally 
to the same conclusion as Mr. Fry. We do not find any authority for calling 
it the Authorized Version, the words "Appointed to be read in Churches," 
meaning not authorized, but, as explained in the preliminary matter, simply how 
the Scriptures were pointed out or "appointed" for public reading. This 
" Appointment" was afterwards shunted into the Prayer-Book and left out of 
the Bibles ; but why the word appointed was left on some of the early title- 
pages and omitted in others, and how it got gradually to mean authorized, we 
leave to philologists, simply remarking that the 1602 Bishops Bible, on which 
our present version was modelled, had both the words " authorized " and 
"appointed." The Puritans and Presbyterians did not require this "appoint 
ment," and hence in many editions it was omitted. We have no objection to 
the modern suppression or omission by the University and Queen s Printers of 
the long Preface, the Genealogies, and the "Appointment" of Scripture Read 
ings in Churches. We could spare also the Dedication. But with all these 
omissions it is difficult to understand why the title is not also purified by 
leaving out the words "Appointed to be read in Churches." It being the 
Bible of all churches, denominations, and congregations in Great Britain and 
English-speaking America, Australia, and India (except the Roman Catholics) 
as much as of the Church of England, why by this misused word, appointed, 
should our common Bible any longer be even nominally limited to the Church 
of England, since there never was any exclusive right in the claim. It never 
was any more the Bible of the Church than of the Puritans. See Dr. Smith s 
Introduction on this point. Again, it was not a new translation, but about 
the twelfth revision of a work that belonged to the public, viz., (i, of Tyndale, 
2, of Coverdale, 3, of Matthew, 4, of Taverner, 5, of the Great Bible of 1539, 
6, of Cranmer, 7, of Becke, 8, of the Geneva New Testament, 9, of the 
Genevan Bible, 10, of the Bishops version, 1 1, of the Bishops version revised 
in the edition of 1602, 12, this of 1611,) at once the public repository of the 
English language and the birthright of Englishmen and the English-speaking 
people, of America, India, and Australia. This 1611 Bible has thus become 
indeed a marvel of perfection in the simplicity and beauty of its language, con 
sidering that at the time of the last revision there was neither an English 
grammar nor an English dictionary in the English language. It was never, 
we believe, formally aitthorized by Parliament, King, Privy-Council, or Con 
vocation, but it by slow degrees grew into use by a higher authority than any 
of these, viz., the universal law of superiority and the people s own choice. 

1036. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible. London: Robert Barker, 
1611. Fine copy of the He Bible, with the woodcut title. 
Folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

1037. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible, etc. Appointed to be read in 
Churches. London: Robert Barker, 1611. Folio. 

Lent by Edward G. Allen. Esq. 



1613] the Caxton Exhibition 1 1 1 

This is the GREAT SHE ^BIBLE of 161 1, differing in every leaf from the GREAT 
HE BIBLE. Like No. 1035 and 1036 it was issued, some copies with the 
engraved and others with the woodcut title. This is certain, because we have 
found both title-leaves attached to their followers. Neither title marks definitely 
the edition, but there are many reasons to demonstrate that this is the second 
or subsequent issue. It may have some better readings and some inferior, but 
the editions are totally distinct and unquestionably one is the parent of the 
other. It was probably necessary, in order to multiply copies fast enough, to 
have two standard copies in separate printing offices. The variations are 
generally not of much importance, and are such as usually occur in copying 
one book from another, with occasionally a slight correction, but oftener a 
slight blunder. 

1038. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version. London: Robert Barker, 
1613-11. Folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

This is generally a mixture of the sheets of the He and the She Bible, issued 
with a new first title, but the New Testament title remaining unchanged. 

1039. BIBLE (English). The/ Holy/ Bible,/ Conteyning the Old Testa 
ment/ and the New :/ Newly Translated out of the Originall/ 
tongues : & with the former Translations/ diligently compared 
and reuised, by his/ Maiesties special Comandement./ Appointed 
to be read in Churches./ Jmprinted at London by Robert/ 
Barker Printer to the Kings/ most Excellent Maiestie./ Anno 
Dom. i6i2./ 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

The title is beautifully engraved on copper by Jasper Isac, reverse blank. 
Dedication to King James, A 2, 3 pp. in italics ; on the reverse of A 3, " The 
Translators To/ The Reader," 9 pp. in small roman type; ".The names 
and order of all the Bookes," I p., reverse blank; "The Genealogies," by 
J. Speed, 1 8 leaves : "A Description of Canaan, and the bordering Countries," 
on the back of a woodcut map of the Holy Land, 2 leaves ; the text is in 
double columns, in roman type, Genesis to Revelations, A to Z, Aa to Zz, 
Aaa to Zzz, [A] to [M], all in eights. This is the first edition of the 1611 
Version of the Bible printed in quarto. It is a He Bible. 

1040. BIBLE (English). The second edition of the 1611 version in 4to, 
roman type. She went. London: R. Barker, 1612. 410. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1041. BIBLE (English). The first edition of the 1611 version in octavo. 
The He edition. London: R. Barker, 1612. 8vo. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

1042. BIBLE (English). The second edition of the 1611 version in 
octavo. The She edition. London: R. Barker, 1611. 8vo. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

1043. BIBLE (English). 1611 version. London: Robert Barker, 1613. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

This edition in smaller type cannot be confounded with either of the larger 
folios. Some copies appeared with the 1611 engraved title, but most of them 
have the woodcut title bearing the date of 1613. We have not observed in 
this edition the distinction of he and she in Ruth iii. 15, but it may exist. 

1044. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version, black letter, the He edition. 
London : R. Barker, 1613. 410. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 



1 1 2 The Printed Bibles in [1613 

1045. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version, black letter, the She edition. 
London: R. Barker, 1613. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1046. BIBLE (English). 1611 version, roman type. London: R. 
Barker, 1613. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1047. PROVERBS, Job, &c. (Hebrew and Latin). Ex officina Plantiniana. 
Raphelengi, 1614-15. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1048. BIBLE (English). The/ Bible :/ Translated according to the 
Hebrew/ and Greeke, and conferred with the best Translati-/ons 
in diuers languages : With most profitable Annotations vpon all 
the hard places, and other things of great/ importance, as may 
appeare in the Epi-/stle to the Reader./ And also a most profit 
able Concordance for the rea-/dy finding out of any thing in the 
same conteined./ d Imprinted at/ London by Robert Barker,/ 
Printer to the Kings most/ Excellent Maiestie./ 16157 4to. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

Title with verses on the back ; " C To the Christian Reader," C 3, I page ; 
" How to take profit" etc. I page. Text in black letter, double columns, 
Genesis to Malachi, 358 folioed leaves ; New Testament, 4 prel. leaves and 
Text folioed 441 to 554. This is the last edition in quarto of the Genevan 
Version printed in England. The Arguments, the notes and the running titles 
are in small roman type. The contents of the chanters are in small italics. 

1049. BIBLE (English). Genevan version. London : R. Barker, 1616. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

This is the last folio edition of the Genevan version printed in England. 

1050. BIBLE (English). London: R. Barker, 1616-15. 4 ta 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1051. BIBLE (English). Doctrine of the Bible. London: T. Snodham, 
1616. i6mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1052. BIBLE (English), 1611 version. London: Robert Barker, 1617. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1053. BIBLE (Latin). Tremellius and Junius. Genevan: Matthei Ber- 
jon, 1617. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1054. EPISTLES and Gospels (German and Bohemian). 1617. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1055. BIBLE (Hebrew). 4 vols. Genoa : Cepha. Elon, 1618. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1056. BIBLE (Latin). Per Andream Osiandervm. Francofurti, Sump- 
tibus Godefridii Tampachii, 1618. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1057. BIBLE (English). Black letter. London : Norton and Bill, 1619. 
4to. Lent by H. Cleaver, Esq. 



1629] the Caxton Exhibition 113 

1058. BIBLE (German). 3 vols. Liibec, Bey Samuel Jauchen, 1620. 
321110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1059. BIBLE (English). London: Bonham Norton and John Bill, 
1620. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1060. BIBLE (the second Welch). Y Bibl Cyssegr-Lan, etc. Bishop 
Morgan s version, revised by R. Parry and J. Davies. Llundain, 
Bonham Norton a lohn Bill. 1620. Folio. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1061. BIBLE (Latin). Romse : A. Brugiotti, 1624. 32010. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1062. BIBLE (English). London: Bonham Norton and John Bill, 1625. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1063. NEW Testament (Greek). Cambridge : T. Buck, 1625. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1064. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra Vulgate Editionis Sixti V. Venetiis, 
apud Juntas, 1627. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1065. BIBLE (English). London, 1628. Svo. 

Lent by James J. Parsloe, Esq. 

1066. NEW Testament (English). Printers to the University of Cam 
bridge, 1628. 321110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1067. NEW Testament (Greek). Sedani ex typog. loannis lannoni, 
1628. 321110. (Smallest.) Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1068. NEW Testament (Latin). Antverpise: Plantin, 1629. 32010. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1069. BIBLE (English). Microbiblion/ or/ The Bibles/ Epitome :/ In 
Verse./ Digested according to the/ Alphabet, that the Scriptures/ 
we reade may more happily/ be remembred, and things/ forgotten 
more ea-/sily recalled./ By Simon Wastell sometimes of/ Queenes 
Colledge in Oxford./ London,! Printed for Robert Mylbourne,/ 
and are to be sold at his shop/ at the signe of the Greyhound/ in 
Paules Churchyard./ i62g.j Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

6 prel. leaves, viz. Title, within a light border, reverse blank ; Dedica 
tion to Sir William Spencer, 2 leaves ; "To the Christian/ Reader," 2 leaves; 
Lines by George Wither, I page ; "The names of the Bookes," I p. Text, 
B 506 pages, followed by four leaves. 

1070. PSALMS (English), " with the Common Tunes in foure parts, by the 
most expert Musicians in Aberdene." Aberdene : E. Raban, 1629. 
241110. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

p 



1 14 The Printed Bibles in [1629 

1071. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version. Cambridge: T. & J. 
Buck, 1629. Small folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

The text of this fine edition appears to have undergone a thorough revision, 
but by whom or upon what authority is not known. The pains taken in the 
printing, proof-reading, punctuation, italics, etc. are manifest throughout. 
But a little typographical error crept in here, we believe for the first time, 
which, though corrected a hundred times, constantly reappeared for many 
years, viz., Tim. iv., 1 6. Take heed unto thyself, and unto thy doctrine, for 
the doctrine. 

1072. BIBLE (English), 1611 version, roman type. London: Bonham 
Norton and John Bill, 1629. 4to. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

1073. BIBLE (English), 1611 version, roman type. London: R. Barker, 
and assigns of John Bill, 1630. /j.to. Lent by F. Fry, Esq. 

A recent writer, though he finds some slight variations, pronounces this and 
the 1629 quarto practically the same edition, and that this one is without the 
Apocrypha. He is mistaken ; the two editions are totally distinct, and vary 
more than ordinary editions. His copy merely wanted the Apocrypha, as is 
apparent by the first four leaves of the Apocrypha being the counterfoils of 
Ccc 1-4, the last half-sheet of the Prophets. Besides, in the 1629 edition (No. 
1072) there is a small * at the end of almost every sheet, a printer s mark 
which we have observed in no other Bible. 

1074. BIBLE (Hebrew). Amstelodami, Sumptibus Henrici Laurentii, 
1630. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1075. BIBLE (English). The/ Holy Bible/ Containing the/ Old Testa 
ment/ and the New./ Newly Translated out of the Ori/ginal^ 
Tongues, and with the former/ Translations diligently compared/ 
and reuised : by his Maiesties/ speciall Commandement./ Ap 
pointed to be read in Churches./ Printed at London by Robert 
Barker,/ Printer to the Kings most Ex-/cellent/ Maiestie : and by 
the/ Assignes of John Bill./ Anno 16317 8vo. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

The WICKED BIBLE. Title, within the woodcut border of 24 small and 4 
larger oval medallions, with the royal arms on the reverse. Dedication to King 
James, I p. ; " f[ The Names and order of all the/ Bookes," in a border, I p. ; 
Text in small roman type, double columns, Genesis to Revelations, A 3 to K kk 
in eights. In 1855 Mr. Henry Stevens exhibited at the Royal Society of Anti 
quaries a fine and perfect copy of this long-lost, but much bescribbled-about 
Bible, and at that time nick-named it " The Wicked Bible," from the fact that 
the negative had been left out of the Seventh Commandment by a typographical 
error. Selden and Collier, of our old writers, and many others since have failed 
to name correctly the year of its publication, 1631. Four copies are now known, 
one in the Lenox Library, New York, one in the British Museum, this one 
from the Bodleian, and one in Glasgow. There were four octavo, roman type, 
distinct editions the same year, 1631. This was suppressed, and Laud inflicted 
a fine of ,300, with which it is said he bought a fount of Greek type for 
Oxford. Mr. Scrivener in his Paragraph Bible, Introduction, page xviii gives 
the date 1632, and says that a single copy is said to survive in the Library at 



1640] the C ax ton Exhibition 115 

Wolfenbiittel. On inquiry we are informed that no such book exists there, 
or as far as known ever has, but on looking into the matter, the librarian 
found a German edition of just a century later with the same extraordinary 
omission, which makes Germany also to boast of its "Wicked Bible." We 
have not been informed that a like authority exists in France. This is no 
doubt a purely typographical error, and there are some ten or twelve others in 
the same sheet. It is probably the wickedest error of the kind that ever 
occurred ; but we have always had great sympathy for David in his agony over 
proof sheets, ever since we learned from Cotton Mather that a blundering typo 
grapher made him exclaim in a Bible printed before 1 702, Printers have 
persecuted me without a cause." Psalm cxix. 161. 

1076. BIBLE (English). London: R. Barker and Assigns of John Bill, 
1631. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1077. NEW Testament (Greek). Cambridge: T. Buck, 1632. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson , Esq. 

1078. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible. With engraved title and 
frontispiece. Edinburgh : Printed by the Printers to the King s 
Majestic. Anno Dom. 1633. 8vo. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

The 1611 version and the earliest edition of it printed in Scotland. This 
copy has at the end "The Psalmes of David in Meeter as they are sung in the 
churches of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1633. But the tunes are not given. 

1079. BIBLE (English). Cambridge: Printers to the University, 1633. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1080. NEW Testament (English). Fourth edition, Rhemish version. 
[Rouen]: John Cousturier, 1633. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1081. NEW Testament (English). London : R. Barker, 1633. 321110. 

Lent by Miss Cole. 
Bound back to front with Sternhold and Hopkins Psalms of same date. 

1082. NEW Testament (Greek). Amsterdam!, apud Guil. Blaeu, 1633. 
321x10. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1083. NEW Testament (Greek). Londini, apud Richardvm Whittakervm, 
1633. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1084. BIBLE (English). London: Robert Barker, 1634. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1085. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version. London: R. Barker and 
Assigns of John Bill, 1634. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1086. PSALMS (English). The Psalms in Prose and Metre. Edinburgh, 
1634; with the title, 1640. i8mo. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 



1 1 6 The Printed Bibles in [1635 

1087. PSALMS (English). Another edition, with the tunes in foure parts 
or mo. Edinburgh : Heires of Andro Hart, 1635. 8vo. 

Lent from the Signet Library. 

1088. PSALMS (English). Both prose and Metre. London : by T. C, 
1635. i6mo. Lent by W. H. Sheehy, Esq. 

1089. NEW Testament (Greek). London: R. Whittaker, [1635 ?] 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1090. BIBLE (English). London : Robert Barker, 1635. 410. 

Lent by Thomas Stapleton, Esq. 

1091. BIBLE (English). Douay Old and Rhemes New Testament, 3 vols. 
Rouen: John Cousturier, 1635. 410. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

For the New Testament see above, No. 1080. 

1092. BIBLE (French). Amsterdam : Laurents, 1635. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1093. BIBLE (English). Cambridge : T. Buck and Roger Daniel, 1637. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1094. BIBLE (English). Edinburgh, 1637. Svo. 

Jeremiah, iv. 17. "Because she hath been religious against me, saith the 
Lord," for rebellious. 

1095. BIBLE (Latin, Vulgate). Lugduni, Ex typog. Claudii Devilliers, 

1637. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1096. BIBLE (Dutch). Leiden : Paulus Aertsz van Ravestyn, 1638. 
Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1097. BIBLE (English). London : R. Barker and Assigns of J. Bill, 

1638. Folio. With Psalms. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1098. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible [revised]. Cambridge : Tho. 
Buck and Roger Daniel, 1638. Folio. 

Lent by the University Press, Cambridge. 

This, perhaps the finest Bible ever printed at Cambridge, being revised at 
the time and carefully printed, has served as standard for many subsequent 
editions. There are, however, some extraordinary errors in it which have led 
smaller sheep astray. The famous typographical error that is said to have 
cost Cromwell a 1,000 as a bribe in the Roundhead times, is found here in 
Acts VI. 3, " whom ye may appoint," instead of we, which, of course, clears 
Cromwell. 

1099. BIBLE (English). London: R. Barker and J. Bill, 1638. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1641] the Caxton Exhibition 117 

1 1 10. PSALMS (American). The/ Whole/ Booke of Psalmes/ Faithfully/ 
Translated into English/ Metre./ Whereunto is prefixed a dis 
course de-/claring not only the lawfullnes, but also/ the necessity 
of the Heavenly Ordinance/ of singing Scripture Psalmes in/ the 
Churches of/ God./ Coll. in./ Let the word of God dwell plen- 
teously in/ you, in all wisdome, teaching and exhort-/ing one 
another in Psalmes, Himnes, and/ spirituall Songs, singing to the 
Lord with/ grace in your hearts./ lames v./ If any be afflicted, 
let him pray, and if/ any be merry let him sing psalmes./ Im 
printed/1640./ 410. Lent from the Bodleian Library. 

Eight preliminary leaves (Signatures, *, **, in fours) viz. The title, within a 
light type-metal border, reverse blank ; "The Preface," 12 pp., and 7 lines 
on the next, the remainder of the twelfth page and the reverse being blank ; 
Text, "The Psalmes/ In Metre"/ A to Z, and A a to LI 3, in fours, ending 
with the fourth line on the reverse of L 1 3. The rest of that page (LI 3 verso) 
is occupied with "An admonition to the Reader." On the recto of the last 
leaf, LI 4, is "Faults escaped in printing," reverse blank. In all there are 148 
leaves. Signatures * ** ABCDEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTVWXYZ 
Aa Bb cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh li Kk Ll, in all 37 sheets, or 148 leaves. 

This first book in the English language printed in America is usually called 
THE BAY-PsALM-BoOK, from Massachusetts Bay. It was translated by 
John Eliot, Thomas Welde and others, in Boston and Roxbury, and was 
printed by Stephen Daye at Cambridge in New England. It is very rare even 
in America, and this fine clean and perfect copy is believed to be the only one 
known in Europe. Here is a sample : 

O Blessed man, that in th advice 4 And all he doth, shall prosper well, 

of wicked doeth not walk : the wicked are not so : 

nor stand in sinners way, nor sit but they are like vnto the chaffe, 

in chayre of scornfull folk. which winde drives to and fro. 

2 But in the law of lehovah, 5 Therefore shall not ungodly men, 

is his longing delight : rise to stand in the doome, 

and in his law doth meditate, nor shall the sinners with the just, 

by day and eke by night. in their assemblie come. 

3 And he shall be like a tree 6 For of the righteous men, the Lord 

planted by water-rivers : acknowledged! the way : 

that in his season yeilds his fruit, but the way of vngodly men, 

and his leafe never withers. shall vtterly decay. 

Psalm I. 

mi. BIBLE (English). London: R. Barker and Assigns of John Bill, 
1640. 4to. Black letter. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson^ Esq. 

1 1 12. BIBLE (English). London: R. Barker and J. Bill. 1640. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson ;, Esq. 

1113. BIBLE (English). London : R. Barker and Assigns of John Bill, 
1640. 410. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1114. BIBLE (Italian). Diodati s second edition. La Sacra Bibbia. 
Geneva, per Pietro Chovet, 1641. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1 1 8 The Printed Bibles in [1642 

1115. NEW Testament (Greek). Paris: Typ. Regis, 1642. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 1 1 6. BIBLE (second Icelandic). With extraordinary woodcuts. Hoolum, 
1644. Folio. Lent by Henry White, Esq. 

1117. BIBLE (Polyglot). Biblia Polyglotta. Lutetise Parisiorum. Exc. 
Antonius Vitre. 1645. Large Paper. 9 vols. Folio. 

Lent by Earl Spencer. 

The Paris Polyglot, published under the patronage of Guy Michael Le Jay, 
who rejected Cardinal Richelieu s offer to re-imburse him for the sums spent in 
the undertaking on condition that the Cardinal s name should be affixed to the 
Bible instead of that of Le Jay. The first printed edition of the Samaritan 
appeared in this Polyglot. 

1118. BIBLE (Latin, Vulgate). Antverpiae, ex officma Plantiniana, 1645. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

m8*.BiBLE Picture Book (French). Figures, &c. Paris: Guillavme 
Le Be, 1646. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1119. BIBLE (English). London: Robert Barker, 1647. 8vo. 

Le?it by the Bodleian Library. 
With a fine view of London on the title-page. 

1 1 20. NEW TESTAMENT (French). Le Nouveau Testament (with the 
metrical Psalms). Charenton, Par Pierre des Hayes, 1647. 241110. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

1 121. BIBLE (French). Geneve : J. & P. Chouet, 1647. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 1 22. NEW TESTAMENT (Latin, Vulgate). Colo. Agr. Gualterr, 1647. 
3 2 mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1123. BIBLE (English). Annotations (with text) by Diodati. Second 
edition. London: Miles Flesher, 1648. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1124. BIBLE (Latin). Amstelodami, apud loannem Janssonum, 1648. 
8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1125. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra Vulgatseeditionis. Venetiis, apud Juntas 
et Baba, 1648. 8vo. Woodcuts. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1126. BIBLE (English). The Holy/ Bible/ Containing the/ Old and 
New/ Testaments/ Newly Translated/ out of y e Original!/ Tongues, 
and/ with the former/ Translations dili/gently compared,/ and re 
vised/ London! Printed/ by/ John Field/ Printer to the/ Parlia 
ment. 16537 3 2 mo. Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Title engraved by W. V., reverse blank. Text in double columns, pearl 
type ; Genesis to Malachi, A 2 to Q q 2 in twelves ; New Testament title is 
Q q 3 ; Text Q q 4 to D dd 1 1 ; ending with the colophon on the recto. 



1657] the C ax ton Exhibition 1 19 

Kilburne informs us that 20,000 copies of this Bible were dispersed. It is 
full of errors of the press, both by omitting words and sentences, and by change 
of readings. Many of these errors were corrected, as they were discovered, by 
cancelling the leaves. This copy possesses about half of the cancels. This 
edition may be distinguished from the following by the whole of the first four 
Psalms being upon the recto of folio A a 8, and by the running titles being in 
capital letters. A very pretty little pearl Bible, measuring 45- by 2^ inches. 
Among the typographical errors in some of the copies are such as these : 
" Know ye not that the unrighteous shall inherit the kingdom of God." 
I Cor. vi. 9. "Ye cannot serve and Mammon" {God\zi\. out). Matt. vi. 24. 

1127. BIBLE (English). The Holy/ Bible/ Containing y e / Old and New/ 
Testaments/ Newly Translated/ out of y e Original/ Tongues, and/ 
with the former/ Translations/ diligently com-/pared and/ revised./ 
London,] Printed by/ lohn Field, Printer to the/ Parliament,/ 
16537 3 2 mo. Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Title engraved by L. Lucas, with the names of the Books on the reverse. 
This is probably a Dutch counterfeit of the preceding. The running titles are 
in lower case letters, and only the first two verses of the first Psalm are on the 
recto of A a 4. 

1128. BIBLE (English). London: J. Field, 1653. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
The edition with the first four Psalms all on one page. 

1129. BIBLE (English). London: John Field, 1653. 321110. 

Lent by the Rev. Dr. Gott. 

It is difficult to find two copies to correspond throughout, there were so 
many cancels. Very many copies of some of the editions were seized and de 
stroyed, so the story goes ; but others say only faulty sheets were cancelled and 
destroyed. 

1130. BIBLE (English). London: Giles Calvert, 1653. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1131. NEW Testament (English). London: Giles Calvert, 1653. 8vo. 
In same book, Concordance, R. Barker, 1579. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1132. BIBLE (Greek, Septuagint). Londini : Roger Daniel, 1653. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1133. BIBLE (English). E. T. [Evan Tyler] for a society of Stationers. 
London, 1655. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1134. BIBLE (Latin). Londini: E. T. and A. M., 1656. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1135. BIBLE (Polyglot). Biblia Sacra Polyglotta. Edidit Brianus 
Waltonus. Londini : imprimebat Thomas Roycroft, 1657. 6vols. 
Large folio. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

One of the 12 copies struck off on large paper. By Cromwell s permission 
the paper for this work was allowed to be imported free of duty, and honour 
able mention is made of him in the Preface. On the Restoration this courtesy 



1 20 The Printed Bibles in [1657 

was dishonourably withdrawn, and the usual Bible dedication sycophancy 
transferred to Charles II at the expense of several cancels ; and in this, the 
"Loyal" copy, so called in contradistinction to the "Republican," Crom 
well is spoken of as "maximus ille Draco." This is said to have been the first 
work printed by subscription in England. 

1 136. BIBLE (Dutch). Eerst t Antwerpen by Jan van Moerentorf en nu 
by Pieter lacopsz Paets, 1657. Folio. 

Lent by Henry f. Atkinson, Esq. 
Curious engravings by C. van Sichem. 

1137. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible. London : John Field, 1658. 
With Psalms by Sternhold, Hopkins, and others. London : John 
Field, 1658. 3 2 mo. Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

The first page of the Psalms in the Bible ends with the second line of the 
6th verse of chapter iv. With a fine view of London on the title-page. 

1138. BIBLE (English). The Holy/ Bible/ Containing the/ Old Testa 
ment/ and the New/ Newly translated/ out of the originall Tongues/ 
and with the former/ Translations diligently/ compared and re 
vised/ by his Majesties specall/ Command./ Appointed to be read 
in Churches/ London,! Printed by John Field, one of His/ High- 
ness s Printers, i658./ 321110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Engraved title (Moses on the left, Aaron on the right, and a view of Lon 
don at the bottom), with the order of the books on the reverse ; Text in pearl 
type, double columns, A 2 to D dd in twelves. 

1139. BIBLE (English). The Holy/ Bible/ Containing the/ Old Testa 
ment/ and the New./ Newly translated/ out of the originall 
tongues/ and with the former/ Translations diligently/ compared 
and revised/ by his Maiesties speciall/ Command./ Appointed to 
be read in Churches./ London,] Printed by John Field one of His 
Highness s Printers 1658. 321110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

What has been written above about Field s pearl Bibles of 1653 applies 
equally well to these of 1658. They abound in typographical errors, but owing 
to repeated cancels, some copies are far less faulty than others. They are 
collected now chiefly for their errors ; the more numerous and gross they are, 
the higher the price. 

1140. NEW Testament (French). With Psalms, 1666. Charenton : 
Lucas, 1658. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1141. NEW Testament (Greek). Editio nova. Studio S. Curcelbei. 
Amsterdam: Elzevir, 1658. 161110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1142. PSALMS (Gaelic). The first 50 Psalms and Shorter Catechisme; 
translated into Gaelic by the Synod of Argyle. Glasgow : Aindra 
Anderson, 1659. 181110. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

1143. BIBLE (English). Cambridge, 1660. Folio. 

Lent by Henry White, Esq. 



1 666] the Caxton Exhibition 121 

1144. NEW Testament in Shorthand, by Rich. London, 1660? 321110. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1145. BIBLE (English). London: H. Hills and John Field, 1660. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1146. BIBLE (Spanish). Amsterdam: J. Atkins, 1660. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1147. PSALMS (English). David s Harp strung and tuned. London: 
William Leake, 1662. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1148. BIBLE (English). Good plates. Cambridge: John Field, 1663. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1149. NEW Testament (Syriac). Hamburg, 1663. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 149*. BIBLE Picture Book (Latin). Theatrum Biblicum. Piscator, 
1674. Obi. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1150. BIBLE (English). London: Bill and Barker, 1665. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1151. BIBLE (French). Leyde : Philippe de Croy, 1665. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1152. BIBLE (French). J. A. and S. de Tournes, 1665. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1153. BIBLE (German, Churfurst version). Die Propheten, etc. Wittem- 
berg : Balthasar-Christoph Wustens, 1665. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1154. NEW Testament (Italian). Haerlem, Jacob Albertz, 1665. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1155. NEW Testament (Italian). II Nuovo Testamento (Diodati s). 
Haerlem, 1665. i6mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1156. BIBLE (English). "The Preacher s Bible." Cambridge: J. Field, 
1666. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1157. NEW Testament (French). Beautiful plates. Paris: Francois 
Muguet, 1666. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1158. PSALMS (English). A separate edition of the Common Psalm 
Tunes. Printed at Aberdeen, 1666. Oblong 4to. 

Lent by David Laing, Esq. 
This probably never had a title-page. 
Q 



122 The Printed Bibles in [1666 

1159. PSALMS (Greek and Latin). Cambridge: J. Field, 1666. 410. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 1 60. BIBLE (English). Cambridge: John Field, 1668. 4to. 

Lent by Sir Charles Reed. 

1161. BIBLE (French). La Saincte Bible. Amsterdam: Louis et 
Daniel Elzevier, 1669. Folio. 2 vols. Lent by Earl Spencer. 

A magnificent copy on large paper. 

i i6i*.BiBLE (French). Another copy. Small paper. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1162. BIBLE (Latin). Col. Agrip. Balth. Egmond, 1670. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1163. BIBLE (English). [First title] The Bible. [Second title] Verbum 
Sempiternum. Aberdene : John Forbes, 1670. 64to. 

Lent by A. Gardyner, Esq. 

A good specimen of the "Thumb Bible," measuring about one inch square 
and nearly half-an-inch thick ; probably the smallest book in the exhibition. 

1164. NEW Testament (German). Nuremberg: Christoph Endters, 
1670. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1165. BIBLE (English). London: John Bill and C. Barker, 1671. 410. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1166. NEW Testament (English). J. Bill and R. Barker, 1673. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1167. BIBLE (English). The Holy, etc. Oxford, 1675. 4to. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

The first edition of the Bible printed in Oxford. A very neat and tidy 
edition, but will not stand criticism. It is full of typographical errors and 
changes in spelling, punctuation, and the use of italics. 

1 1 68. NEW Testament (English). London: J. Bill and C. Barker, 
1675. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1169. NEW Testament (French). Amsterdam, chez la Veuve de 
Schippers, 1677. i6mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1170. BIBLE (French abridgment). Paris: Jean Couterot, 1678. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1171. BIBLE (English). The Holy, etc. By his Majesty s Command. 
Oxford, 1679. 4to. Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

The second edition of the Bible printed at Oxford ; a very difficult book to 
find quite perfect. 

1172. BIBLE (Latin). Colognke : apud J. Naulseum, 1679. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1690] the Caxton Exhibition 123 

1173. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra. Lugduni, Sumpt. Pet. Guillimin, 
& Ant. Beaujollin, 1680. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 1 74. BIBLE (Latin). Londini, exc. R. Norton, prostant Nath. Ponder, 
1680. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1175. BIBLE Picture Book (Latin). Icones, etc. Genevas: S. de 
Tournes, 1680. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1176. BIBLE Picture Book (German). Figuren, etc. Augsburg: Kysel, 
1680. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1177. NEW Testament (French). London: R. Bentley, 1681. 8vo. 
With Psalms, 1686. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1178. BIBLE (English). Oxford, 1682. With Prayer and Psalms. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1179. BIBLE (Latin). Colonioe : Balth. ab Egmond, 1682. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 1 80. BIBLE (English). Cambridge: John Hayes, 1683. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1181. NEW Testament (Dutch, French, and English). Amsterdam: 
S. S. Jacobus s widow, 1684. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

n8i*.BiBLE (Irish). Le a Bhuir, etc. The Books of the Old Testament 
translated into Irish by Dr. William Bedel, late Bishop of Kil- 
more. London, 1685. 4to. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1182. BIBLE (German). Ulm, Bey Matthaeo Wagnern, 1688. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1183. PSALMS (Gaelic). The Psalms, translated into Gaelic by Robert 
Kirk. Edinburgh, 1684. 121110. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

1184. BIBLE (Latin). Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis. Venetiis, aptid 
Nicolaum Pezzana, 1688. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1185. NEW Testament (Swedish). Stockholm: Nicolas Waukife, 1688. 
Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 1 86. NEW Testament (French). Amsterdam: P. & I. Blaeu, 1690. 
Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1187. BIBLE (Irish). W. Bedel s and W. O Donnell s Irish Bible, re 
vised and printed at London by R. Ebheringtham in 1690. 

Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

A small volume for the use of the Highlanders, by the Rev. Robert Kirk, 
M.A. at the expense of the Honourable Robert Boyle. 



124 The Printed Bibles in [1691 

n87*.BiBLE (English). The History of the Old and New Testament, 
with sculptures. London: Richard Blome, 1691. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 1 88. BIBLE (German). Zurich, by David Gessner, 1691. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson , Esq. 

1189. BIBLE Picture Book (English). London : Richard Blome, 1691. 
Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1190. BIBLE (English). London: C. Bill and T. Newcomb, 1693. 
Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1191. BIBLE, New Testament, and Psalms in Shorthand, by Abdy. 
London, 1695. i6mo. Lent by George Unwin, Esq. 

1192. BIBLE (Latin). A Sebastiano Schmidt. Argentorati, J. F. Spoor, 
1697. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1193. NEW Testament (French). Charenton : Collier, 1697. 161110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1194. NEW Testament (French). Amsterdam: P. & I. Blaev, 1697. 
161110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1195. BIBLE (English). With Canne s preface and notes. London: 
C. Bill and T. Newcomb, 1698. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1196. NEW Testament (Greek). Amsterdam: Wetsten, 1698. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
With Hebrew Bible, 1701, &c. 

1197. BIBLE (English). With John Canne s notes. London: Charles 
Bill and Executrix of Thomas Newcomb, 1700. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1198. GOSPELS (Greek and Latin). Harmonica Evangelica (J. Clarier). 
Amsterdam: Huguetanorum, 1700. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1199. NEW Testament (English and Dutch). Amsterdam, By de Widuwe 
van Steven Swart, 1700. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1200. BIBLE (English). Bishop Lloyd s, with additional marginal refer 
ences. London : C. Bill and the Executrix of T. Newcomb, 1701. 
Folio. Lent by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

1201. BIBLE (German). Nurnberg : Luther, 1702. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1202. BIBLE (Latin, Vulgate). Venetiis : Jacob Bertani, 1702. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1716] the Caxton Exhibition 125 

1203. BIBLE (English). London: C. Bill and T. Newcomb, 1703. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1204. BIBLE (English). Oxford: Printers to the University of Oxford, 

1704. i6mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1205. BIBLE (German). Stuttgart: Augustus Metzler, 1704. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J, Atkinson, Esq. 

1206. NEW Testament (English). University Printers, Oxford, 1704. 
3 2 mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1207. BIBLE (German). Historischer Bilder Bibel. Augsburg : Kraussen, 

1705. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1208. NEW Testament (English). University Press, Oxford, 1705. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1209. BIBLE (English). London: C. Bill and T. Newcomb, 1707. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 2 10. BIBLE (English). London : C. Bill and T. Newcomb, 1708. /jto. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1211. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version with Genevan notes. Lon 
don: [Holland printed ?] 1708. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1212. BIBLE (Latin, Vulgate). Venetiis, N. Pezzana, 1709. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1213. NEW Testament (French). Paris: Jean de Nully, 1709-10. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1214. NEW Testament (Greek). Amsterdam: Wetsten, 1711. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1215. BIBLE (Italian). La Sacro Santa Bibbia. Norimbergo : Mattia 
d Erberg, 1712. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1216. BIBLE (Dutch). Antwerp: Jan Moerentorf, 1713. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1216*. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible [the first edition of the 1611 
version printed in Ireland]. Dublin : A. Rhames, for William 
Binauld, 1714. Folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

1217. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible. Edinburgh : James Watson, 
1716. 24mo. Lent by David Laing, Esq. 

1218. NEW Testament (Greek). Lyon : Sacy, 1716. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1 26 The Printed Bibles in 

1219. PSALMS (English). London: Heptinstall, 1716. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1220. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version. Oxford: J. Basket!:, 1717-16. 
Imperial folio. 2 vols. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Nicknamed the " Vinegar Bible," because the headline of Luke, chapter 20 
reads, " the parable of the Vinegar, " instead of the Vineyard. Of this most 
sumptuous of all the Oxford Bibles three copies at least were printed on vellum, 
but as it was soon after its appearance styled "a Baskett-t\$\. of printer s 
errors," its beautiful typography could not save it. Indeed it is now mainly 
sought by collectors for its celebrated faults. 

1221. BIBLE (English). The History of the Old and New Testament. 
In verse. 3 vols. 330 sculptures by J. Sturt. London : John 
Hooke, 1716. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1222. NEW Testament (Latin). Venetiis, apud Nic. Pezzana, 1720. 
321110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1223. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible, &c. By his Majesty s special 
Command. Appointed to be read in churches. Edinburgh : 
James Watson, 1722. Folio. 

Lent by the Signet Library, Edinburgh. 

This is a choice copy, on large paper, of perhaps the finest Book ever printed 
in Scotland. 

1224. BIBLE (English). London: John Baskett, T. Newcomb, and 
Henry Hills, 1723. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1225. BIBLE (French). Basle: Jan Hoff, 1724. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1226. NEW Testament (English). London: J. Baskett and H. Hills, 
1725. Svo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1227. BIBLE (Latin). Venetiis, apud Nic. Pezzana, 1727. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1228. BIBLE (Hebrew). With Italian notes and curious plates. 1730. 
4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1229. BIBLE (German). Kupfer Bible. 4 vols. Augsburg : Scheuchzer, 
1731. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1230. PENTATEUCH (Portuguese). Amsterdam, 1732. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1231. BIBLE (German). 2 vols. Wien : Georg Lehmann, 1733-34- 
Folio Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1756] the Caxton Exhibition 127 

1232. BIBLE Picture Book (French). 2 vols. Paris: Royaumont, 

1736. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1233. BIBLE (Latin, Vulgate). Venetiis, apud Christophorum Zane, 

1737. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1234. NEW Testament (English). Fifth edition. Rhemish version. 

1738. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1235. BIBLE (English). Oxford: J. Baskett, 1739. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1236. BIBLE (French). Cologne, 1739. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1237. BIBLE (German). Sandershausen : Bock, 1740. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1238. BIBLE (Latin). Venetiis, ex typ. Hertziana, 1740. 3 vols, 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1239. BIBLE (French). La Sainte Bible, 2 vols in one. Amsterdam: 
M. C. le Cene, 1741. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1240. BIBLE (English). London: Thomas and Robert Baskett, 1744. 
8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atki?ison, Esq. 

1241. BIBLE (Italian). La Sacra Biblia tradotta da G. Diodati. Lipsia, 
Giacomo Born, 1744. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1243. CONCORDANCE (English). A Rational Concordance, or an Index 
to the Bible. By Matthew Pilkington. Nottingham : George 
Ayscough, 1749. 410. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1244. BIBLE (Dutch). Utrecht, etc. : J. van Poolsum, etc., 1750. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1245. BIBLE (Latin). Ex Castellionis interpretatione. Leipzig: B. C. 
Breitkopf, 1750. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1 246. PSALMS (English). A New Version of, &rc. Translated by John 
Barnard. Boston: J. Draper, 1752. 8vo. 

Lent by the Bodleian Library. 

1247. BIBLE (English). London: T. Baskett, 1756. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1 28 The Printed Bibles in [1757 

1248. BIBLE (Portuguese). Old Testament printed at Trangambar, 
1757, and New Testament, 1765. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1249. BIBLE (Sclavonic). 1757. Folio. 

Lent by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

1250. NEW Testament (Greek). Glasgow: R. et A. Foulis, 1759. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1251. BIBLE (Latin, Vulgate). 2 vols in i. Venetiis, ex Typog. Re- 
mondiniano, 1758. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1252. BIBLE (English). 2 vols. Oxford: Thomas Baskett, 1760. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1253. NEW Testament (English). London: A. & C. Corbett, 1761. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1254. BIBLE (Latin). 6 vols. Vindobon^e : Joh. Tho. Trattner, 1761. 
8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1255. NEW Testament (Greek). Typis Joannis Baskerville [Birming 
ham], Oxonii e Typ. Clarend. 1763. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1256. NEW Testament (Greek). Typis Joannis Baskerville [Birming 
ham], Oxonii, Typ. Clarend. 1763. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1257. NEW Testament (Latin). Novum Testamentum. Juxta Exemplar 
Millianum. Typis Joannis Baskerville. E Typographeo Claren- 
doniano Sumptibus Academise Oxonii, 1763. 

Lent by the Oxford University Press. 

1258. BIBLE (Latin). 2 vols. Venetiis, N. Pezzana, 1765. Folio. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1259. BIBLE Picture Book (French). Les Peintures Sacrees, etc. Paris : 
De Summaville, 1665. Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1260. BIBLE (Hebrew). Cura J. Simonis, Hallae, 1767. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1261. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version [edited and revised by Rev. 
Dr. Blayney] with new marginal references. Oxford : Wright and 
Gill, 1769. Folio. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

This and the quarto edition, commonly called Dr. Blayney s Revisions, were 
adopted as standards by the University Press, Oxford, in 1769, and are still the 
Oxford Standard with some slight modifications. 



1 790] the Caxton Exhibition 129 

1262. BIBLE (English). The 1611 version [edited by Dr. Blayney]. 
Oxford : Wright and Gill, 1769. 4to. Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 

1263. DANIEL (Greek and Latin). Romae : Typ. Prop. Fidei, 1772. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1264. BIBLE (English). Bristol: William Pine, 1774. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
With notes at the bottom to be retained or cut off. 

1265. BIBLE (English). London: Pasham, 1776. 32mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
With notes at the bottom of the page to be retained or cut off. 

1266. NEW Testament (Greek). 2 vols. in i. London: J. D. Cornish, 
1776. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1267. NEW Testament (Latin). A Sebastiano Castalione. Lond. : C. 
Bathurst, 1776. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1268. BIBLE (Dutch). 2 vols. Haarlem : Enschede, 1778. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1269. GENESIS (English). The 5ist chapter of Genesis, "Abraham 
and the Stranger, or the Parable against Persecution." Written 
in Scripture style by Dr. Franklin about 1769, while residing in 
London as agent of some of the Colonies. Privately printed by 
Franklin, at his private press at Passy, near Paris, about 1780. 
8vo. Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

This is one of the original single leaves which Franklin used to insert in his 
Bible at the end of Genesis, and read to his friend when they were discussing 
toleration and persecution. He first gave a copy of it to Lord Kames in 1769, 
who had asked Franklin for whatever he had published. Though then pro 
bably in manuscript, Lord Kames first printed it in his " Sketches " in I774> 
greatly to the annoyance of the Doctor, because it spoilt his little joke. This 
copy is much worn and is slightly imperfect, but it is believed to be the only 
genuine copy known, it having long been used by Franklin himself. The 
authorship of the chapter and Franklin s part in it are fully told by Dr. Jared 
Sparks in his Life of Franklin. 

1270. BIBLE (English). 2 vols. Edinburgh: A. Kincaid, 1784. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
With Scotch Psalms. 

1271. BIBLE (English). London: Scatcherd, 1790. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
The notes at the bottom cut off in the binding. 
R 



130 The Printed Bibles in [1792 

1273. BIBLE (English). A curious Hieroglyphick Bible; or select 
passages in the Old and New Testaments, represented with 
emblematical Figures, for the Amusement of Youth: the nth 
edition. London: T. Hodgson, 1792. i2mo. 

Lent by J. F. Thorpe, Esq. 

1274. BIBLE (English). History of the Bible by way of Question and 
Answer. By Dr. Isaac Watts. Hull : Innes and Gray, 1793. 
8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1275. BIBLE (English). 2 vols. Edinburgh: Mark and Charles Kerr, 
1795. 161110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1276. BIBLE (Dutch). Haarlem: Enschede, 1795-6. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry /. Atkinson, Esq. 

1277. NEW Testament (Greek), Jo. Jac. Griesbach. 2 vols. Londini 
et Hallae, 1796-1806. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1278. BIBLE (French). Amsterdam, ches F. G. onder de Linden, 
1797-6. 161110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1279. BIBLE (English). Cambridge : John Burges, printer to the Uni 
versity, 1798. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

With Wilberforce s autograph. 

1280. NEwTestament (English). From the Greek, by Nathaniel Scar 
lett. London : T. Gillet, 1798. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
See curious table of time for reading each book, &c. 

1281. BIBLE (English). University Press, Oxford, 1801. Svo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Proverbs xxvii. 2, " Let another man praise thee, and to thine own mouth," 
for not; Zech. vi. I, "There came forth chariots out from between two 
mountains," fo\ four, and repeated in the Svo. edition of 1810; Zech. xi. 17, 
"Woe to the idle shepherd that leaveth the flock," for idol ; John xx. 29, 
" Blessed are they that they have not seen," they added ; Rom. xvi. 18, "And 
by good works and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple," for words ; 
Jude 1 6, "These are imtrderers," for murmurers. 

1282. BIBLE (English). The King s Printers, London, 1802. 4to. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 
I Tim. v. 21. "I discharge thee before God," for I charge thee. 

1283. BIBLE (Welsh). Caerfyrddin : Joan Evans, 1802. Svo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1284. BIBLE (English). Bristol: Farley, 1803. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1813] the C ax ton Exhibition 131 

1285. BIBLE (English). University Press, Oxford, 1804. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

An Oxford Bible, pre-eminently distinguished for its typographical errors, 
some few of which are the following : Numbers xxxv. 1 8. "The murderer 
shall surely be put together" for to death. I Kings viii. 19. " Out of thy lions," 
for loins. Gal. v. 17. " For the flesh lusteth offer the Spirit," for against. 

1286. BIBLE (English). University Press, Cambridge, 1805. izmo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

This is the famous " to remain Bible." The reader is said to have had a 
doubt about a comma, and on sending to the proper authority to inquire, the 
answer came back that the comma was to remain. On this message being 
sent up, the foreman, rinding the two words written in pencil in the margin, 
took out the comma and put in the words, to remain, which fortunately 
happened neither to make sense or nonsense. The passage was in Gal. iv. 29. 
" Persecuted him that was born after the Spirit to remain even so it is now," for 
"Spirit, even so it is now." This same error appeared in an 8vo edition, 1805-6, 
printed for the Bible Society, as well as in another 121110 edition of 1819. 

1287. BIBLE (English). King s Printers, London, 1806. 4to. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Ezekiel xlvii. 10. "The fishes shall stand upon it" [the river] for fishers. 
Repeated in the 4to edition of 1813 and the 8vo of 1823. 

1288. BIBLE (English). University Press, Oxford, 1807. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 
Matthew xiii. 43. " Who hath ears to ear, " for hear. Hebrews ix. 14. "How 

much more shall the blood of Christ purge your conscience from good 

works to serve the living God ? " for dead works. 

1289. BIBLE (English). University Press, Oxford, 1810. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Luke xiv. 26. "If any man come to me, and hate not his father 

yea, and his own wife also, he cannot be my disciple," for life. 

1290. NEW Testament (English). Wycliffe s version by Baber. London: 
Edwards, 1810. 4to. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1291. BIBLE Picture Book (English). Designs by Thurston and Craig. 
Engraved by Bewick. London, 1810. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1292. BIBLE (English). Edinburgh: Blair and Bruce, 1811. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 
Said to be the smallest Bible ever printed in Scotland. 

1293. NEW Testament (English). London: R. Edwards, 1811. 32mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson. Esq. 

1294. NEW Testament (Italian). Shacklewell : T. Rutt, 1813. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



132 The Printed Bibles in [1813 

1295. NEW Testament (Greek). London: S. Bagster, 1813. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1296. BIBLE (English). King s Printers, London, 1817. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 
John xvii. 25, "Righteous Father, the world hath known thee," not omitted. 

1297. BIBLE (English). University Press, Cambridge, 1819. i2mo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Malachi iv. 2, "Shall the Son of righteousness arise with healing in his 
wings ; and shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall," for Sun, and ye 
shall go forth. 

1298. BIBLE (English). University Press, Oxford, 1820. i2mo. 

Isaiah Ixvi. 9, " Shall I bring to the birth, and not cease to bring forth," for 
cause, 

1299. BIBLE (English). London: Porteusian Bible Society, 1820. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1300. BIBLE (English). King s Printers, London, 1822. 24mo. 

Curious for its typographical errors. Psalm xviii. 50. "And sheweth 
mercy to his appointed" for anointed. 

1301. BIBLE (English). The King s Printers, London, 1823. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 
Genesis xxiv. 6l. "And Rebekah arose, and her camels" for damsels. 

1302. BIBLE (Italian). Bibbia Sacra. Rome, 1823. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1303. BIBLE (English). University Press, Cambridge, 1826. 241110. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Psalm xlii. i. "As the heart panteth after the water-brooks," for hart. 
This error repeated in the 241110 and 121110 editions of 1830. 

1304. NEW Testament (Welsh and English). Dolgelley : Jones, 1827. 
161110. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

I 35- NEW Testament (Greek). London: Pickering, 1828. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1306. BIBLE Picture Book (French). Amsterdam : Jan Luiken, 1729. 
Folio. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1307. BIBLE (Italian). Bibbia Sacra (Child s Bible). Naploli, Vedova 
di Salvati, 1830. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



1848] the C ax ton Exhibition 133 

1308. BIBLE (Irish). (Bedel.) Dublin : Godwin, 1830. i6mo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1309. NEW Testament (Welsh and English). Rhydihain, 1831. 8vo. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1310. BIBLE (English). The Holy Bible, an exact reprint, page for page, 
of the authorized version published in the year 1611. Printed at 
the University Press by Samuel Collingwood and Co., printers to 
the University. Oxford, 1833. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1311. BIBLE (English). Another copy in Oxford case. Oxford: Uni 
versity Press, 1833. 4to. Lent by the University Press, Oxford. 

1312. BIBLE (Dutch). Biblia. dat is, de Gantsche H. Schrifture en 
Apocryphe Boecken. By der Nedrl : Bybel Compagnie, Am 
sterdam. Haarlem, 1843. Folio. 

Lent from the Guildhall Library. 

This beautiful stereotyped folio edition in the old Dutch black letter and 
orthography, with engravings, is the work of Messrs. Enschede en Zonen, of 
Haarlem. 

1313. BIBLE (Hebrew). Van der Hooght, & Hahn. Leipzig : Tau- 
chnitz, 1833. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1314. BIBLE (English). The King s Bible, printed for presentation to 
King William the Fourth. Cambridge: University Press, 1837. 
4to. Lent by the University Press, Cambridge. 

1315. BIBLE (Hebrew). Van der Hooght, & Hahn. Leipsise : Tau- 
chnitz, 1838. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1316. BIBLE (English). Douay version. Belfast: Simms & Mclntire, 
1839. i6mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1317. NEW Testament (English). Reprint of the Geneva New Testa 
ment of 155 7. Large paper. Samuel Bagster, 1842 ? 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1318. BIBLE (English). Douay and Rhemes version. Dublin : Coyne, 
1846. 8vo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1319. NEW Testament (English). Wycliffe s version. London: Chis- 
wick Press for W. Pickering, 1848. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 



134 The Printed Bibles in [1849 

1320. GOSPELS (English). The four Gospels, published under the 
superintendence of C, Heath. London, 1849. 4to. 

Lent by ArtJiur George Hockley, Esq. 

This copy is printed on India paper and mounted on the leaf, to preserve 
the level tissue paper is pasted round the India paper. Each page is sur 
rounded by a border illustration of the contents of the page. The borders and 
engravings were designed by French artists. The engravings were made 
ready and worked by the late Mr. Henry Hockley, of Hammersmith, at the 
printing office of Mr. Strangeways, Castle Street, Leicester Square. This 
copy is unique, being the only one worked on India paper. 

1321. BIBLE (English). Wycliffe s version. The Holy Bible, containing 
the Old and New Testaments, with the Apocryphal Books, in the 
earliest English versions made from the Latin Vulgate by John 
Wycliffe and his followers; edited by the Rev. Josiah Forshall, 
F.R.S., etc., late Fellow of Exeter College, and Sir Frederic 
Madden, K.H., F.R.S., etc., Keeper of the MSS. in the British 
Museum. Oxford: At the University Press, 1850. In 4 vols. 
Royal 4to. Lent by the University Press, Oxford. 

1322. BIBLE (English). The Seven Seals Broke Open : or, the Bible 
of the Reformation Reformed. By John Finch. London : 
James Rigby, 1853. i2mo. Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1323. NEW Testament (Greek). H KCUVYI Aflw>i. Novum Testamen- 
tum. Accedunt Parallela S. Scripture Loca necnon Vetus Capi- 
tulorum notatio et Canones Eusebii. E Typographeo Claren- 
doniano. Oxonii, 1863. Lent by the Oxford University Press. 

1324. NEW Testament (German). Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1864. 4to. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

1325. NEW Testament (English), with Engravings on Wood from 
designs of Era Angelo, Pietro Perugino, Francesco Francia, 
Lorenzo di Credi, Fra Bartolommeo, Titian, Raphael, Gaudenzio 
Ferrari, Daniel di Vol terra, and others. London : Longmans, 
1864. Large paper. 4to. Lent by Thomas Longman, Esq. 

Only 250 copies of this most exquisite specimen of English printing and high 
art were taken off for this original impression, all on large paper. The work 
was partly set up at the Chiswick Press, and wholly printed by Messrs. Clay. 
The artists concerned are all named in the work, while Henry Shaw, F.S.A., 
had the general supervision. On the wall adjacent Mr. Longman also exhibits 
a large frame containing choice proofs of the title and eight of the finest pages 
of this New Testament illustrated after the old masters. 

1326. BIBLE. A description of the Great Bible, 1539. . . . also of the 
Editions, in large folio, of the Authorized Version of the Holy 
Scriptures. Printed in the years 1611, 1613, 1617, 1634, 1640. 
By Francis Fry, F.S.A. London, 1865. Folio. 

Lent by Francis Fry, Esq. 



1877] the Caxton Exhibition 135 

1327. NEW Testament (Hungarian). Pesth : Reicharal, 1866. 321110. 

Lent by Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. 

Bibles (English] exhibited in separate glass case on the stairway, by the 
University Press, Cambridge. Printed 1877. 

1328. CAMBRIDGE Bible. Imperial 4to. 

Great Primer type, marked in sections wherever any lesson begins and ends. 

1329. CAMBRIDGE Bible. Imperial 4to. 

Great Primer type, printed in red and black. 

1330. THE Lectionary Bible. With Apocrypha. Crown 8vo. 

Nonpareil type. Marked in sections wherever any Lesson begins and ends. 

1331. BIBLE. 161110. 

Nonpareil type, with marginal references. 

1332. BIBLE. Crown 8vo. 

Minion type, with marginal references. 

1333. BIBLE. Fcap. 8vo. 

Pearl type, with marginal references. 

1334. CAMBRIDGE Paragraph Bible. Crown 4to. 

Printed in paragraphs, the text revised, references remodelled, with notes, 
and introduction by the Rev. F. H. Scrivener, M.A., LL.D. 

1335. THE Student s Edition of the above. Crown 410. 2 vols. 

Printed on good writing-paper, with wide margins for MS. notes. 

1336. CAMBRIDGE Prayer Book. Imperial 410. 

Double Pica type, with the rubrics printed in red. 

1337. PRAYER-BOOK. Crown 8vo. 

Bourgeois type, with rubrics, &c., in red. 

1338. PRAYER-BOOK. Royal 241x10. 

Long Primer type, with rubrics, &c., in red. 

1339. PRAYER-BOOK. Imperial 32mo. 

Bourgeois type, with rubrics, &c., in red. 

1340. THE Complete Book of Church Services. Crown 8vo. 

Brevier type. Containing the Prayer-Book, Proper Psalms, and Lessons 
for Sundays and Holy Days, and the Daily Lessons of the Calendar, printed 
in full. 

1341. THE Book of Daily Lessons. Crown 8vo. 

Brevier type. Containing the Daily Lessons of the Calendar printed in full. 



136 



The Printed Bibles in 



[1877 



1342. 



1343- 

1344- 
1345- 
1346. 

1347- 
i 34 8. 

1349- 

135- 



1352- 
1353- 
1354- 
1355- 
1356. 
1357- 
1358. 

1359- 
1360. 
1361. 
1362. 

1363- 
1364. 

1365- 



OFFICES of the Church. 8vo. 

With rubrics, &c., in red. 

Oxford University Press Bibles and Prayer Books. 

OXFORD Reference Bible. Royal 4to. 1877. 

This is the Standard Edition from which all the smaller Bibles are verified. 

OXFORD Reference Bible. Medium 4to. 1875. 

OXFORD Reference Bible. Post 4to. 1877. 

OXFORD Reference Bible. Royal 8vo. 1876. 

OXFORD Reference Bible. Demy 8vo. 1876. 

OXFORD Reference Bible. Crown 8vo. 1877. 

OXFORD Reference Bible, with border lines and headings in red. 
8vo. 

OXFORD Reference Bible, printed from old stereo plates, 1876. 
The only Oxford stereo edition. 

OXFORD Reference Bible. 161110. 1877. 
OXFORD Reference Bible. Fcap. Svo. 1877. 
OXFORD Reference Bible. i6mo. 1876. 
OXFORD Reference Bible. i6mo. 1875. 
OXFORD Bible. Folio. 1867. 
OXFORD Bible. Royal 4to. 1873. 
OXFORD Bible. Medium 4to. 1872. 
OXFORD Bible. Royal Svo. 1876. 
OXFORD Bible. Svo. 1875. 
OXFORD Bible. Svo. 1877. 
OXFORD Bible. i6mo. 1877. 
OXFORD Bible. Svo. 1859. 
OXFORD Bible. Paragraph. 1859. 
OXFORD Bible. i6mo. Square. 1865. 
OXFORD Bible. i6mo. 1877. 



:86 4 ] 



the Caxton Exhibition 



137 



1366. OXFORD Bible. 24010., with border lines. 1876. 

1367. OXFORD Bible. 241110. 1876. 

1368. OXFORD Bible. 241110. 1877. 

1369. OXFORD Bible. i6mo. 1866. 

1370. OXFORD Bible. 24010. With border lines. 1877. 

1371. OXFORD Bible. 24010. 1876. 

1372. OXFORD Bible. 241110. Thin. 1877. 

1373. OXFORD Bible. 48010. Printed by hand at the University 
Press, 1849. 



1374. OXFORD New Testameot. 

1375. OXFORD New Testameot. 

1376. OXFORD New Testament. 



8vo. 1872. 
Svo. 1876. 
161110. Square. 



1877. 



1377. OXFORD New Testameot. 241110., with the marginal readiogs of 
1611. 1829. 

1378. OXFORD New Testament. 241110., in 12 parts. 1876. 

1379. OXFORD New Testament. 32010., in 12 parts. 1876. 

1380. OXFORD New Testament. 32010. 1876. 

1381. OXFORD New Testament. 321110. 1876. 

1382. OXFORD New Testameot. 32010. 1876. 

1383. OXFORD New Testameot. 48010. 1874. 

1 383. # OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. Royal folio. 1865. 

1383^. OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. Demy folio. 1861. 

1383^-. OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. Royal 410. 1875. 

1 383^. OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. Demy 4to. 1875. 

1383^. OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. Royal Svo. 1874. 

1 383^ OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. Demy Svo. 1876. 

1 283^. OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. Svo. 1876. 
i383//.OxFORD Baskerville Prayer Book. 1864. 



138 



The Printed Bibles in 



[1876 



^ OXFORD Victoria Prayer Book. Red rubrics. 1876. 
1383; . OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. 241110. 1876. 
i383/.OxFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. 32010. 1877. 
13837. OXFORD Prayer Book. Red rubrics. 32010. 1876. 
Prayer Book. Red rubrics. 481110. 1877. 
Communion Service. Royal 4to. 1876. 
Communion Service. Red rubrics. Royal 8vo. 1876. 
1 383^. OXFORD Prayer Book. Not rubricated. Folio. 
1 383,7. OXFORD Prayer Book. Not rubricated. 4to. 
1383^. OXFORD Prayer Book. 8vo. 
1 3835. OXFORD Prayer Book. 8vo. 
1383^. OXFORD Prayer Book. Small 4to. 

1384. OXFORD Prayer Book. 161110. 

1385. OXFORD Prayer Book. 241110. 

1386. OXFORD Prayer Book. 24010. 

1387. OXFORD Prayer Book. 24010. 

1388. OXFORD Prayer Book. 321110. 

1389. OXFORD Prayer Book. 321110. 

1390. OXFORD Prayer Book. 32010. Square. 

1391. OXFORD Prayer Book. Royal 32010. 

1392. OXFORD Prayer Book. 32010. 

1393. OXFORD Prayer Book. 48010. 

1394. OXFORD Prayer Book. 48010. Thin. 

1395. OXFORD Prayer Book. The smallest Prayer Book in the World. 

1396. OXFORD Communion Services. Not rubricated. Royal 4to. 

1397. OXFORD Communion Services. Demy 4to. 

1398. OXFORD Communion Services. Imperial 8vo. 



i6n] the Caxton Exhibition 139 

1399. THE Book of Offices and Ordination Services. Crown 8vo. 

1400. OXFORD Bible. Welsh folio. 

1401. OXFORD Prayer. Welsh folio. 

1402. OXFORD Altar Service. Welsh 8vo. 

Bibles, 6^., lent by Messrs. Bagster and Sons, exhibited in 
glass case on staircase. 

1403. BIBLIA Sacra Polyglotta. 

1404. THE Comprehensive Bible. 

1405. THE Bible of every Land. 

1 406. BIBLIA Ecclesiae Polyglotta. 

1407. THE Hexaplar Psalter. 

1408. THE English Hexapla. 

1409. BIBLE (English). Coverdale s. 

1410. NEW Testament. Tyndale s. Published in 1526. 

1411. THE Commentary wholly Biblical. 

1412. THE Codex Zacynthius. 

1413. BIBLE (Hebrew and English). 

1414. THE Septuagint, with an English Translation. 

1415. THE Vulgate New Testament. Compared with the Douay ver 
sion of 1582. 

1416. NEW Testament (Greek and English). 

1417. NEW Testament (Syriac), with a Literal English Translation. 

1418. COMMON Prayer, The Octaglot Book of. 

Lent by Messrs. Eyre 6 Spottiswoode. 

1419. CRANMER S Bible, printed by Whitchurch. 1541. Folio. 

This book is considered a very fine specimen, not having been washed or 
cleaned. 

1420. BIBLE, printed by Barker, King s printer, with Calendar in red 
and black, illustrated Genealogy. 1611. Folio. 



1 40 The Printed Bibles in [1613 

1421. BIBLE, printed by Barker, King s printer. 1613. Folio. 

1422. PRAYER Book, Bible, and two Concordances by R. F. H., in one 
vol. Printed by Barker, King s printer. 1614. 4to. 

1423. BIBLE, with Calendar in red and black. 1617. Folio. 

1424. BIBLE, printed by Bonham Norton and John Bill, King s printers. 
1625. 

1425. FIELD S Bible. 

1426. HOLY Bible, with "Annotations on the hard places." The first 
Bible with annotations. 1683. 

1427. COMMON Prayer, printed from engraved silver plates by permission 
of Mr. John Baskett. With curious illustrations. 1717. 

1428. HOLY Bible, printed by Baskett, King s printer. 1753. 

1429. BIBLE, printed by Charles Eyre and William Strahan, successors as 
King s printers to Baskett, and founders of the present firm of Eyre 
and Spottis woode. 1772. 

1430. MINIATURE Prayer Book, printed by C. Eyre and W. Strahan, 
1774- 

1431. MINIATURE Bible, on India paper. (See the thin Bible of 1875.) 
1816. 

1432. THE whole volume of Statutes at large, which at anie time heere- 
tofore haue beene extant in print, since Magna Charta, Vntill the 
xxix yeere of the reigne of our most gratious souereigne ladie 
Elisabeth xxx. &c. &c. London Christopher Barker Printer to 
the Queene s most excellent Maiestie 1587. 

1433. PRINTED Statutes of Elisabeth. 1589-1593. 

T434. THE Lectern Bible, with the Lessons marked with red lines at the 
side of the text. 

1435. THE Bible, with various Renderings and Readings by the best 
Scholars. 

1436. THE Student s Bible. Printed in red and black, on writing paper, 
with wide margin for notes. 

1437. THE Sunday School Teacher s Bible (with Appendix for Teachers). 
Small 8vo. 

1438. THE Sunday School Teacher s Bible (with Appendix for Teachers). 
Fcap. 8vo. 



1877] the Caxton Exhibition 141 

1439. THE Sunday School Teacher s Bible (with Appendix for Teachers). 
Pearl i6mo. 

1440. THE Sunday School Teacher s Bible (with Appendix for Teachers). 
Pearl 241110. 

1441. THE School Bible, with the proper names divided and accented 
for pronunciation. 

1442. THE Smallest Complete Bible, on India paper, date 1816. 

1443. THE Smallest Complete Bible. (The miniature edition), 1875. 

1444. THE Pica 4to. Reference Bible (fine paper). 

1445. THE 410. Bible in Welsh. 

1446. ROYAL 4to. Prayer Book (fine paper). 

1447. THE Imperial 8vo. Altar Service (red rubricks). 
i447.*THE Smallest Prayer Book. 

1448. THE Diamond 481110. Prayer Book (red rubricks). 
1 448*. THE Bourgeois 3 2 mo. American Prayer Book. 

1449. BIBLE (six versions). The Hexaglot Bible, comprising the Sep- 
tuagint, the Syriac (of the New Testament), the Vulgate, and the 
authorized English and German, and the most approved French 
versions. Edited by Edmund Riches de Levante. London : 
R. D. Dickinson, 1876. 6 vols. 4to. 



1450. BIBLE (English). [In Memoriam Gul. Caxton.] The Holy 
Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments : Translated out 
of the Original Tongues : and with the former Translations dili 
gently compared and revised, by His Majesty s special Command. 
Appointed to be read in Churches. Oxford : Printed at the Uni 
versity Press ; London : Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press 
Warehouse, 7, Paternoster Row; New York : 42, Bleecker Street. 
June 30, 1877. Cum Privilegio. Minion 161110. 

Lent by Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Facing the title is " Wholly printed and bound in twelve hours, on the 3Oth 
day of June, 1877, for the Caxton Celebration." Only loo copies were printed. 
The last Bible printed called the "CAXTON MEMORIAL BIBLE." 

Our list opens with theyfo j/ Bible printed with moveable metal types, 1450- 
1455, and we close it with this last Bible printed with moveable metal types on 
the 30th of June, 1877, the day of the opening of the Caxton Celebration Ex 
hibition. As the circumstances and facts connected with this Memorial Bible 



142 The Printed Bibles in [1877 

have been somewhat misunderstood and not a little misrepresented, I may perhaps as 
well tell the true story here. 

Taking my hint from Caxton himself, who, in The Recuyell of the Histories of 
Troye, 1471, in Epilogue to Book III, wrote: "Because I haue promisid to 
dyuerce gentilmen & to my frendes to addresse to hem as hastely as I myght this sayd 
book/ Therefore I haue practysed and lerned at my grete charge and dispense to 
ordeyne this said book in prynte after the maner & forme as ye may here see/ and is 
not wreton with penne and ynke as other bokes ben/ to thende that euery man may 
haue them attones/ ffor all the bookes thus empryntid as ye here see were begonne in 
oon day/ & also fynyshid in oon day/ which boke I haue presentid to " &c. What 
ever idea Caxton by these quaint words may have meant to convey, I resolved, 
if possible, to have a Bible printed in Oxford and bound in London on the 3Oth of 
June, 1877, in time for Mr Gladstone s after-dejeuner speech. Accordingly, some 
four or five days before, I made application to Professor Bartholomew Price and Mr 
Henry Frowde, representing the University Press, Oxford, and through them the hint 
was suggested. They both apparently favoured the idea, though at first some doubt 
was expressed as to the possibility of performing the feat. Professor Price asked if I 
could give a few hours for consideration. The answer was, " yes, till twelve to-morrow ; 
but you must keep the secret, so that in the event of your declining to undertake the 
enterprise, it may be offered to the University Press, Cambridge, or to the Queen s 
Printers, London, or, as a last resort, by cable to the American Bible Society, New 
York," for, as I told them, I was resolved, if possible, to have a Bible honestly and 
fairly printed and bound on the morning of the 3Oth of June. So we separated, Mr 
Frowde urging the Professor to bring about the accomplishment of the feat if possible. 
The next morning Professor Price telegraphed from Oxford, "it shall be done." 

It was subsequently arranged between Mr Frowde and myself that there should be 
one hundred copies printed, and no more ; that they should all be numbered in print 
from I to ico, and all be exactly alike in binding and ornament ; that all the copies 
should be presented in the name of the University Press to Libraries, Societies, distin 
guished individuals and others, in all parts of the world, and that no copies on any ac 
count should be sold ; that the first, or N I, should be reserved for Her Majesty the 
Queen, and the last, or N 100, should be for Mrs Henry Stevens. A list of one 
hundred numbers was next made, and it was agreed that the nominations of the presentees 
should be divided into three parts, that is, Bible N I and every third number there 
after should be allotted by the University Press ; N 2 and every third number there 
after should be in the nomination of Mr Henry Stevens ; and N 3 and every third 
number thereafter to be at the disposal of the Delegates of the University Press and 
the Dons of Oxford. And finally, that, before the end of the year, when the majority 
of the presentations would most likely be made, a list be printed with the numbers and 
names of presentees as far as then settled. 

All these plans having been made and definitely settled, early on Saturday 
morning, June 3Oth, the chief particulars were briefly written out by myself, and sub 
mitted personally to Mr Gladstone at his house about nine o clock, with the offer that 
Mr Gladstone was at liberty to make a point of them in his forthcoming speech in the 
afternoon if he liked, with a copy of the projected Bible in hand. Mr Gladstone at 
first expressed great doubts about the possibility of carrying out the project in time ; 
said that he had once dined with a gentleman in the North of England, who presided 
at the dinner table in the evening in a dress-coat that had been made from cloth made 
from the wool of a sheep sheared that morning on the lawn before the house in the 
presence of some of the guests ; but, added he, " if our Oxford friends accomplish this 
feat to-day with their Bible, they will outdo the enterprise of my northern friend." Mr 
Gladstone entered fully into the spirit of the enterprise, and, well knowing Professor 
Price, expressed his entire confidence in the honour and squareness of the transaction. 
He was distinctly told by me that the book was to be printed in Oxford from standing 



1877] the Caxton Exhibition 143 

moveable type, and the whole of the one hundred copies to be bound in London, all 
on that Saturday. The overcoming of the distance of the sixty- three miles between 
Oxford and London was to be considered as an essential part of the feat. Mr Glad 
stone was then, I submit, "properly instructed," and I should perhaps here add that 
he did not in his speech say that this Bible was set up or composed that day, as 
one of the five or six morning papers which reported him erroneously declared that he 
did. 

A parcel containing ten copies of the Caxton Memorial Bible reached Mr Stevens 
at the Western Gallery, South Kensington, precisely at 2 o clock that day, so that 
when Mr Gladstone, accompanied by Mrs Gladstone and the Emperor of Brazil, came 
to the table at about half-past two, a paper was placed before him with the words in pencil, 
" the parcel has arrived all right and just as planned," and then, by way of confirma 
tion, three copies of the Memorial Bible were placed in his hands, inscribed N I, to 
Her Majesty the Queen, N 2, to Mrs Gladstone, and N 10, to His Majesty the 
Emperor of Brazil. So far there had not been a hitch, and the point that Mr Glad 
stone made of the " Caxton Memorial Bible " in his speech about four o clock is known 
to everybody, while he held it up in the presence of the " Six Hundred "as " the climax 
and consummation of the art of printing." During the short time that Bible N I was 
on the table before Mr Gladstone, a small drop of wine accidentally fell upon the gilt 
top edge of the book, and, before I had time to wipe it away, had made a slight but 
beautifully coloured purple star on the gilding. Not deeming this suspicion of Glad 
stone claret by any means a blemish, the stain was allowed to remain as an additional 
and unique souvenir of the day. The Book so marked was therefore, after being dis 
played under glass during the Caxton Exhibition, sent, enclosed in a morocco case, to 
Her Majesty. 

The volume was printed at Oxford, bound in London, and delivered at the South 
Kensington Exhibition Buildings literally within twelve consecutive hours. The book 
was printed, not from stereotype plates, as has been erroneously stated by some of the 
morning papers, but from moveable type set up a long time ago, and not used for years. 
To guard against any fraud hereafter, it was thought best to take the forms of an edition 
that was entirely out of print. The printers commenced to make their preparations 
soon after midnight, and the printing actually commenced at two A.M. ; the sheets were 
artificially dried, forwarded to London by the nine o clock express train to the Oxford 
University Press Binding Establishment, Barbican, where they were folded, rolled, 
collated, sewn, subjected to hydraulic pressure, gilded, bound, and taken to South 
Kensington before two P.M. The book consists of 1,052 pages, i6mo, minion type, 
and is bound in turkey morocco, bevelled boards, flexible back, gilt-lettered on back 
and inside cover, with the arms of the Oxford University in gold on its obverse side ; 
and is free from the "set-off" or blemish which its hasty production might well have 
excused. One hundred and one persons, I have been told, were engaged in the Oxford 
University Press Binding Establishment, Barbican, London, that day on this Memorial 
Bible, all of whom received extra wages, besides a holiday the following Monday. 
The volume contains an explanatory inscription and an extra title : "In memoriam 
Gul. Caxton," with the occasion and date of the edition printed at the bottom of each of 
its thirty-three sheets, thus : "The Oxford Caxton Celebration Edition, 1877." 

Mr Gladstone concluded his interesting speech with the following words, 
which are given as reported in "The Times "of July 2nd, with a few slight corrections : 
"If you look at the list of works produced by Caxton and compare them at the 
same time with the works produced in the Continental Press, you will be struck by 
their great difference of character. The works produced by Caxton appear mainly to 
belong to a low stage of civilization. He did not print the Bible, because the trans 
lated Bible, then popular among the people, was the translation of Wycliffe, and the 
translation of Wycliffe had been proscribed by the Church ; but he never attempted 
to print any one of the great standard classical works of antiquity. Are we to con- 



144 The Printed Bibles in [1877 

demn him on that account? Not at all. His proceeding was an eminently English 
proceeding. Caxton conceived in his own mind that idea which we consider to be an 
eminently English idea that he would make his great enterprise independent and 
self-supporting. Caxton seems to have determined to throw himself as far as he could 
upon the sympathies and intelligence of his countrymen to do all he could by trans 
lations to bring learning near to their comprehension, and having brought them as 
near as he could, to trust them to do the rest. And the industry of this man was 
marvellous. We are told that by the time he died he had translated nearly 5> folio 
pages for the benefit and instruction of his countrymen. Printing, too, was not looked 
upon by him so much as a mere manual art or accomplishment as that it was his 
business to develope the art as a link between the literary works on the one side which 
he had printed and the minds of his countrymen on the other side, and thus of bringing 
them into contact. This is a very remarkable and interesting history, and I venture 
to say that those who have not had the opportunity of closely examining it will find 
that the career of Caxton, considered as a biography, had a deep interest for any reader 
interested in the history of literature, and for most civilized of English readers it is a 
subject that will well repay any amount of diligence and care bestowed on it. 

"Well, ladies and gentlemen, I will not detain you much longer. My wish is 
gained if those who have not made his character and career a special subject for ex 
amination shall happily be induced to look a little into the matter. The relatively 
backward condition of England at Caxton s time was evinced by the fact that after his 
death he had no English followers. Here I must say one word to point to the good 
sense and sagacity of Caxton. As I have said, he determined to make his press self- 
supporting, and he did so ; and I dare say when he died, if he was not a wealthy man, 
he was a man of substance. And he was not a "high flying" printer. He took a 
hint from those who preceded him. Those Germans, Sweynheym and Pannartz, who 
were first established [at Subiaco] in the neighbourhood of Rome printed a great 
number of magnificent editions of the Greek and Latin Classics, and what was the 
consequence ? They became bankrupts. That was a very melancholy end of a noble 
enterprise, but it enables us to understand the modesty, good sense, and sagacity of 
Caxton when we see how he steered clear of those rocks. He saw there would not be 
demand enough in England for what may be called an ideal press. He limited him 
self to practical objects, and thus laid a sound foundation of what was a progressive 
work." 

Mr Gladstone here took up a bound volume, and continued, " I now call atten 
tion in a few words to the progress of this art, and I hold up a volume in my hand to 
which I beg every one to direct his eye, because I think it may be called the climax 
and consummation of the art of printing. This volume is bound, as you see, and 
stamped with the arms of the University of Oxford. It is a Bible bound in a manner 
that commends itself to the reader ; I believe in every respect an excellent piece of 
workmanship, containing more than one thousand pages. Well, you will say, That 
is very commonplace, why bring it before us ? I do so in order to tell you that the 
materials of this book sixteen hours ago did not exist. The book was not bound, it 
was not folded, it was not printed. Since the clock struck twelve last night at the 
University Press in Oxford the people there have printed and sent us this book to be 
distributed here in the midst of your festival. They have sent several copies, one of 
which will be presented to the Emperor of Brazil, who has but just left our table. 
This shows what can be done, and is what has been done, and it shows the state to 
which this great art is now happily arrived. If I began with a humiliating confession 
on the part of my countrymen as to the small share we could claim in contributing to 
the early history of printing, we may leave off, ladies and gentlemen, in a better spirit, 
because I think that such a performance as this is one that will be admitted to be a 
credit in any portion of the world. (Applause.) Now I will trouble you no longer, 
but will ask you to drink with me to the memory of that valued and honoured name, 



1877] the Caxton Exhibition 145 

William Caxton the first English printer, and for a while the solitary printer in this 
our beloved country." 

The paper was made at the Oxford University Press Paper Mills at Wolvercote, 
near Oxford, specially for this edition, only a day or two before it was printed. It 
might have been made (and is perhaps a matter of regret that it was not) on the morn 
ing of the 3Oth of June in time for the printing of this Memorial Bible. 

It has been said that scores of houses might have done the same thing. But they 
didn t, and the possibility of any other house in England doing it depends upon the 
single fact whether any other printing-house out of Oxford keeps the Bible standing 
in moveable type. It could not probably have been printed from stereo-plates in the 
time, and it has been estimated by the compositors of one of the largest printing estab 
lishments in London, that it would have taken 2,000 compositors and 200 readers to 
have set up and properly read the Bible in these same twelve hours, to say nothing 
of the press-work and binding. Unquestionably the Bible, with all its points, capitals, 
italics, and small capitals, is the most difficult of all books to print with perfect accuracy. 
Again no inconsiderable part of the enterprise was in overcoming the sixty-three miles 
between Oxford and London. 



A List of the Oxford Caxton Memorial Bibles allotted up to Christmas, 

MDCCCLXXVII. 



N.D. The 33 Numbers printec 



I Her Majesty the Queen. 

ii Mrs William E. Gladstone. 

3 The Marquis of Salisbury, D.C.L. Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 

4 

v James Lenox, Esq. for the Lenox Library, New York. 

6 The Archbishop of Canterbury, for Lambeth Palace Library. 

.7 

viii 

9 Mr John Henry Stacey, Oxford University Press. 

10 His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil. 

xi The Hon. Stephen Salisbury, for the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 
Massachusetts. 

12 Mrs Combe. 

13 Ex-President General and Mrs Ulysses S. Grant. 

xiv Mrs Edwards Pierrepont, Wife of the United States Minister at London. 

15 The Reverend J. E. Sewell, D.D. Warden of New College, and Vice-Chancellor 

of the University of Oxford. 
16 

xvii The Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, N.E. 

18 The Reverend Mark Pattison, B.D. Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford. 

J 9 

xx The Library of the Parliament of Victoria, Melbourne. 

21 The Reverend John Griffiths, D.D. Warden of Wadham College, Oxford. 

22 The Right Hon. the Earl of Beaconsfield. 
xxiii The Library of the British Museum. 

24 Mr H. E. P. Platt, M.A. Fellow of Lincoln College and Junior Proctor, Oxford. 

25 

xxvi Mr J. S. Hodson, Secretary of the Caxton Celebration, 1877. 

T 



146 List of the Caxton [1877 

27 The Reverend Henry Octavus Coxe, M.A. Bodley s Librarian, Oxford. 

28 
xxix The Library of Parliament, Dominion of Canada. 

30 

3* 
xxxii 

33 The Reverend Bartholomew Price, M.A. Sedleian Professor of Natural Phi 
losophy, Oxford. 

34 

XXXV 

36 The Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

37 The Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, London. 
xxxviii The Library of the American Bible Society, New York. 

39 The Reverend William Bright, D.D. Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History, 

Oxford. 
40 

xli Mrs John Carter Brown, Providence, Rhode Island, N.E. 
42 Mr Francis Fry, F. S.A. Cotham, Bristol. 

43 

xliv J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D. for the Watkinson Library, Hartford, Con 
necticut, N.E. 
45 The Reverend H. G. Woods, M.A. Fellow of Trinity College, Senior Proctor, 

Oxford. 
46 
xlvii 
48 

49 

1 The Very Reverend H. G. Liddcll, D.D. Dean of Christ Church, Oxford. 
51 Mr II. J. S. Smith, M.A. Savilian Professor of Geometry, Oxford. 

5 2 

liii Henry J. Atkinson, Esq. Gunnersbury House, Acton, Middlesex. 

54 The Reverend William Stubbs, M. A. Regius Professor of Modern History, 

Oxford. 

55 The University Library, Cambridge. 

Ivi The Library of Congress, Washington, United States. 

57 The Reverend Edwin Palmer, M.A. Corpus Professor of Latin, Oxford. 
5.8 

lix William Blades, Esq. Author of the Life of William Caxton. 

60 The Archbishop of York, 
61 
Ixii 

63 John Walter, Esq. 

64 The Reverend Newman Hall. 

Ixv The Library Company, Philadelphia, 

66 The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. 

67 The Library of the Hibernian Bible Society, Dublin. 

Ixviii George Bullen, Esq. British Museum, Chairman of Caxton Committee No. 1, 
69 

70 His Grace the Duke of Devonshire. 
Ixxi 

72 The Library of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London. 

73 The Reverend G. G. Bradley, M.A. Master of University College, Oxford. 
Ixxiv Samuel Christie-Miller, Esq. Britwell House, Burnham. 

75 Mr Edward Pickard Hall, M.A. Oxford University Press. 



[8 7 7] 



Memorial Bibles 



76 The Right Hon. the Earl Spencer, K.C.B. 

Ixxvii Mr Heniy Frowde. 
78 

79 The Library of the Academic Fra^aise, Paris. 

Ixxx Prof. Dr Reinhold Pauli, for the Library of the University of Gottingen. 

8 1 F. Max M tiller, M.A. Professor of Comparative Philology, Oxford. 

82 His Royal Highness Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte. 
Ixxxiii The Library of Harvard University, Cambridge, N.E. 

84 Mr William Nelson. 

8 5 
Ixxxvi M. de Lisle, for the Bibliotheque National, Paris. 

87 
88 

Ixxxix Mr Alexander Macmillan. 
90 

91 
xcii Chancellor J. V. L. Pruyn, for the New York State Library, Albany, N.Y. 

93 
94 

xcv The Library of Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut, N.E. 
96 M. Alfred Chaix, Paris. 

97 
xcviii The Newberry Library, Chicago. 

99 

100 Mrs Henry Stevens, Vermont House, 13, Upper Avenue Road, N.W. London. 





Bibliography The Tree of Knowledge 



APPENDIX. 

An Act for prynters & bynders of bokes. 25 Hen. 

VIII. c 15. A.D. 1533-4. Statutes of the 

Realm, Vol. ii. p. 456. 




HEREAS by the pvysyon of a statute made in 
the fyrst yere of the reigne of 
Kynge Richard e the thride it was 
pvyded in the same acte, that all 
strangers reparyng into this Realme 
myght lawfully bryng into the seid 
Realme pryntyt and wrytyn bok^ to sell at theire 
liBtie and pleasure ; by force of which pvysyon 
there hath comen into this Realme sithen the 
makyn of the same a marveylous nombre of 



Proviso in Stat. 
I Ric. IIIc. 9, 
as to importa 
tion of Books. 



Increase of 
Printing in 
England since 
that time, &c. 



pryntyd bokes and daily doth ; And the cause of the makyng of the same 
pvysion semeth to be, for that there were but fewe bokes and fewe prynters 
within this Realme at that tyme which cold well excercise 
and occupie the seid science and crafte of pryntyng ; Never 
the lesse sithen the makyng of the seid .pvysion many of 
this Realme being the Kynges naturall subjectes have 
geven theyme soo dylygently to lerne and excercyse the 
seid craft of pryntyng that at this day there be within this Realme a 
greatt nombre conyng and expert in the seid science or craft of pryntyng 
as abyll to exercyse the seid craft in all poynt^ as any Stranger in any 
other Realme or Countre ; And furthermore where there be a great 
nombre of the Kynges subject^ within this Realme which [leve] by the 
crafte and myslie of byndyng of bokf and that there be a great multy- 



150 Appendix. 

tude well expert in the same ; yet all this not withstondyng there are 
dy^se psones that bryng frome [behonde] the See great plentie of pryntyd 
bokes not only in the latyn tonge but also in our maternall englishe 
tonge, some bounde in bourdf some in lether and some in pchement 
and theym sell by retayle, wherby many of the Kynges Subject^ being 
bynders of bokes and having none other facultie wherwith to gett theire 
lyvyng be destitute of worke and lyke to be undon, except some refor- 
macion here in be hade ; Be it therefore enacted by the Kyng our 
Soveraigne Lorde the Lordes spirituall and temporall and the Comons 

in this present parliament assembled and by auctoritie of 
viso repealed" the same > tnat tne se ^ provyso made the furst yere of the 

seid Kyng Richard the thride frome the feast of the 
natyvytie of our Lorde [Good] next comyng shalbe voyde and of none 
effect. 

II. 

And further be it enacted by the auctoritie aforeseid that noo person 

or persones recyant or inhabytaunt within this Realme, 

None shall buy after the seid feast of Cristemas next comyng, shall bye 

foreign bound to se ]j a g a y n an y prynted bokes brought frome any partes 

again 8 - Penalty out of ~ the Kvn g es obeysaunce redy bounden in bourdes 

6s 8d. per lether or perchement, uppon payne to lose and forfett for 

Book. every boke [bounde] out of the seid Kynges obeisaunce 

and brought into this Realme and bought by any person 

or persons within the same to sell agayne contrary to this Acte v]s. v\\]d. 

III. 

And be it further enacted by the auctoritie aforeseid that no person or 
persones inhabytaunte or reciaunt within this Realme. 
Like penalty after the seid feast of Cristemas, shall [by] within this 
BooSAlTens R ealme of any Stranger borne out of the Kynges obedyence 
by Retale. other then of denyzens, any maner of pryntyd bokes 

brought frome any the parties [behonde] the See, except 
only by engrose and not by retayle uppon payne of forfayture of 
vjj-. v\\]d. for every boke soo bought by retayle contrary to 

the forme and effecte of this estatute : The seid forfaytures 
to be alwayes levyed of the beyers of any suche bokes 
cont a ry to this Acte, the one half of all the seid forfaytures to be to the 
use of our Soveraigne Lord the Kynge, and the other moytie to be to 
the partie that wyll sease or sue for the same in any of the Kynges 
Courtes, be it by byll playnt or informacion wherein the defendaunt 
shall not be admytted to wage hys lawe nor noo proteccion ne essoyne 
shalbe unto hym allowed. 



Appendix. 1 5 1 

IV. 

Provided alway and be enacted by the auctoritie aforeseid, that yf 
any of the seid prynters or sellers of prynted bokes, inhabyted within 
this Realme, at any tyme hereafter happen in suche wyse to enhaunce 
and encrease the prices of any suche prynted bokes in sale or byndyng 
at to high and unreasonable pryces, in such wyse as com- 
playnt be made thereof unto the Kynges Highnes or unto Lord Chancel- 
the Lorde Chaunceler Lord Tresourer or any of the chefe lo ^ &c * a y 
Justices of the one benche or of the other, that then the p^fc^of Books 
seid Lord Chaunceler Lorde Tresourer and two chefe and binding. 
Justices or two of any of theym, shall have power and 
auctoritie to enquyre thereof as well by the othes of twelf honest and 
discrett psones as otherwyse by due examynacion by theire discreacions ; 
And after the same enhaunsyng and encresyng of the seyd pryces of the 
seid bokes and byndyng shalbe soo founde by the seid xij men, or other 
wayes by examination of the seid Lord Chaunceler Lord Treasourer and 
Justices or two of theym, that then the same Lorde Chaunceler Lorde 
Tresourer and Justices or two of theym at the least frome tyme to tyme 
shall have power and auctoritie to reforme and redresse suche enhaun 
syng of the pryces of prynted bokes from tyme to tyme by theire dis 
creacions and to lymytt pryces as well of the bokes as for the byndyng of 
theym ; and over that the offender or offenders thereof being convicte 
by the examynacion of the same Lorde Chaunceler Lorde Tresourer and 
two Justices or two of theym or otherwyse, shall lose and 
forfett for every boke by theym solde whereof the pryce Penalty on sell- 
shalbe enhaunsed, for the boke or byndyng thereof plces-^ L? 
\\}s. \\\}d. the one half therof shalbe to the Kynges High- per Book. 
ness and the other half unto the parties greved that wyll 
complayne upon the same in maner and forme before rehersed. 



TsAos, I a us Deo. 




1 



PRINTED BY JOHN C. \\TLKINS, g, CASTLE STKK1 
CHANCERY LANE.