Skip to main content

Full text of "The Bible word-book : a glossary of old English Bible words"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 


^ arvatd Depository 
Bnttle Book 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC , ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by VJiOOQIC 








ZottDon anH 0amidlig[f: 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


V ^i, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


It is the object of the fcdlowing Glossaiy to ezpUdn 
and illustrate all such words, phrasefs, and oonstruo* 
tionsy in the Authorized Version of the Old and New 
Testaments and the ApooiTpha^ and in the Book of 
Common Prayer, as are either obsolete or archaic. 
In books which have become so familiar, and which 
have so leavened our language^ it is somewhat difficult 
to fix a standard by which to decide whether a word 
is partially or entirely obsolete, whether the phrase of 
which it is part is &Ilen into disuse, and whether the 
construction in which it is found is such as no modem 
writer would employ. In endeavouring to form an 
opinion for myself on these points, I have excluded 
from the comparison all such works in modem Eng- 
lish literature as are immediately or indirectly derived 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


from the books in question; I mean all sermons, de> 
votional writings, and the so-called religious newspapers 
and periodicals. Their language is to so large an 
extent made up of unconscious quotation from our 
Authorized Version that, while they keep alive much 
that \a valuable, they create the impression that the 
language has imdergone far less change than has in 
reality befallen it. Setting aside therefore all litera- 
ture of this kind, I have endeavoured, in the case of 
each word, or phrase, or construction, to ascertain 
whether it would find a place naturally in the usual 
prose writing of the day: I say 'naturally,' because I 
wish to exclude all conscious and intentional employ- 
ment of archaisms. It is necessary, moreover, to 
take prose as the standard, because in all languages 
poetry has dominion over the words of many genera- 
tions. By this subjective process I may have ex- 
cluded some expressions which others would have 
inserted, and I may have inserted some which they 
would have excluded. I will only ask any reader, 
before pronouncing a judgement upon this point, to 
consider carefully the context of the passages which 
are in each case selected for illustration. There are 
of course instances in which there will be differences 
of opinion, but I hope I shall have succeeded in 
making these as few as possible. 

• Digitized by VjOOQIC 


In considering the language of onr English Bible, 
we must bear in mind that it has become what it is 
by a growth of eighty-six years, from the publication 
of Tyndale's New Testament in 1525 to that of the 
Authorized Yersion in 1611. Further, it must be 
remembered that our translators founded their work 
upon the previous versions, retaining whatever in them 
could be retained, and amending what was faulty. 
The result was therefore of necessity a kind of mosaic, 
and the English of the Authorized Yersion represents, 
not the language of 1611 in its integrity, but the 
language which prevailed from time to time during 
the previous century. It is in the writings of this 
period, therefore, that illustrations are to be sought, 
and from them the examples given in the present 
volume are chiefly derived. All these examples, ex- 
cept where the contrary is expressly stated, have 
been gathered in the course of independent reading, 
and in the few instances where quotations have been 
borrowed they have been carefally verified. 

At the end I have added, for convenience of refer- 
ence^ an index of the editions of books most frequent- 
ly quoted. In the case of works not included in this 
index, as they are less frequently referred to, the date 
of the edition is given with the quotation. I may 
take this opportunity of mentioning a curious biblio- 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


graphical fact with regard to Udal's translation of 
Erasmus's Paraphrase, which I have not seen else- 
where mentioned. Of the first volume of this work, 
printed in 1548, three editions at least were issued^ 
all bearing the same date. Before describing the 
differ^ices between them it will be as well to state 
that the volume contains the Paraphrase of Erasmus 
on the four Crospels and the Acts of the Apostles, 
that each book is preceded by the translator's dedica- 
tion, and by Erasmus's preface, and that, in all the 
editions of 1548, each book has the folios separately 
numbered and a separate set of signatures. The three 
copies bearing the date 1548, which I have examined, 
are roughly distinguished as follows : 

In (1) the folios are not numbered in the transla- 
tor's dedication or in Erasmus's preface, but in the 
paraphrase alone. 

In (2) the system of numbering the folios is so 
irregular that it can best be distinguished as agreeing 
neither with (1) nor (3). 

In (3) the numbering of the folios includes both 
the translator's dedication and Erasmus's preface. 

In the edition of 1551 the folios are numbered 
continuously throughout the volume. 

As I only recently discovered these variations, I 
used for purposes of quotation copies of the editions 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


nmrked (1) and (3) indiscriminately. All the quota- 
tions in the letters A — C are from the latter. In the 
rest of the volume the quotations are all from (1). 

It has fallen to my lot to finish this work alone. 
A portion of it was published some years ago in a 
periodical for Sunday Schools called *The Monthly 
Paper/ under the title of 'Notes on Scriptural and 
Liturgical Words, by the Rev. J. Eastwood, M.A/ 
but this did not extend beyond the letter H. 

Mr Eastwood is known as the author of ' The His- 
tory of the Parish of Ecclesfield, Yorkshire,' and was 
deservedly esteemed by the late Mr Herbert Cole- 
ridge as one of the most indefatigable contributors to 
the English Dictionary projected by the Philological 

He had completed the work on the same plan, 
and his manuscript was then put into my hands for 
revision. With his consent I modified the treatment' 
of the words, in which he aimed more especially at 
the instruction of Sunday School children, and en- 
deavoured, in most instances by recasting each article, 
to render the work a contribution to English lexico- 
graphy. Besides this, I added a large quantity of 
examples from my own reading, arranging them in 
chronological order, and more than trebled the num- 
ber of words in Mr Eastwood's original list. For 

Digitized by CjOOQIC ^-^^ 


sucli etymological notes as occur in the course of 
the volume I am alone responsible. I would will- 
ingly have avoided speaking so much as I have 
been compelled to do in the first person. Had my 
colleague lived to see the completion of the book iii 
which he took so much interest, it would have had 
the advantage of his careful revision, which now has 
been given only to the first few sheets. Wanting hie 
friendly counsel, it has been my endeavour to carry- 
out his wishes to the full, and with this end in view 
I have bestowed much time and labour, in the midst 
of many interruptions, upon the completion of what 
would have been the better for his superintendence. 

To other labourers in the same field I have to 
express my obligations for the assistance I have 
derived from their works. I woxdd especially men- 
tion the following : 

A Short Explanation of Obsolete Words in our 
Version of the Bible, <fec. By the Rev. H. Cotton, 
D.C.L. Oxf. 1832. 

Scripture and the Authorized Version of Scrip- 
ture, <fec. By Samuel Hinds, D.D. Lond. 1845. 

' A Glossary to the Obsolete and Unusual Words 
and Phrases of the Holy Scriptures, in the Author- 
ized English Version. By J. Jameson. Lond. 1850. 

A Scripture and Prayer-Book Glossary; being an 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


explanation of Obsolete Words and Phrases in the 
English Bible, Apocrypha, and Book of Common 
Prayer. By the Rev. John Booker, A.M. 4th ed. 
Dublin, 1859. 

On the Authorized Version of the New Testament, 
&a By R. C. Trench, D.D. 2nd ed. Lend. 1859. 

Motes upon Crystal: or Obsolete Words of the 
Authorized Version of the Holy Bible, &c.. Part i. 
By the Rev. Kirby Trimmer, A.B. London, 1864. 

It is my intention at some future time to extend 
the plan of the present work to the other English 
Versions of the Bible, so as to form a complete Dic- 
tionary of the archaisms which they contain, and to 
illustrate a well-marked period in the history of the 
English language. For this, however, I must wait 
for more leisure than I can at present command. 



23 Jan, 1 866. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1. At the time of the printing of our Authorized 
Version (i6i i) the usage of a or an before words b^ghming 
with h was by no means uniform. Thus we find ^a half 
(Ex. xxT. lo), *a hurt* (Ex. xxi. e.\ 'a hairy man* (Gen, 
xxvii iiX *a hammer' (Jer. xxiii. 29), *a hole* (Ex. xxxix. 
23*), *« bard thing* (2 Kings ii lo), ^a harp* (i Chr. xxv. 
3), *a high wall* (Is. xxx. 13), * a horseman* (2 Mace. xiL 
35), 'a hot burning* (Ley. xiiL 24), and so on ; while, on the 
odiet hand, we more frequently meet with ^an half* (Ex. 
xxxvii. 6*), *a» hammer' (Judg. iv. 21), 'an hole* (Ex. 
xxYiiL 32), 'an hairy man' (2 Kmgs i. 8), 'an hard man* 
(Matt xxY. 24), 'an harp* (i Sam. xvi. 16), 'an high hand' 
(Ex. xiv. 8), 'an horse* (rs. xxxiii. 17), 'an hundred' (Gen. 
XL 10), 'an hot burning oven' (2 Esd. iv. 48). The former 
usage appears on the whole to be exceptional, and we may 
infer thiat at the beginning of the i7tn century the sound* 
of h had much less of the aspirate in it than it has at the 
present day. 

2. A or An is used with participles in a manner which 
is now obsolete. Thus 'a dying* (Luke viii. 42), 'a fishing* 
(John XXL 3), 'an hungred* (^Matt. iv. 2), as in the following 

"When the prophet came unto him, and said 'Set thy 

house in order, for tbou sbalt surely die, and not live' (2 Kings 
zz.), it struck him so to the heart that he fell a weeding. Latimer, 
Serm, p. 221, 

^ * Altered in. modem editions. 

Digitized by GoOgie 


On a time the king had him out a hunting with him, he made 
him see his mother, with whom he grew familiar. North's Plu- 
tarch, Themistocles, p. 139. 

Whereas in the meantime we s^e Christ's faithful and lively 
images, bought with no less price. than with his, most precious 
blood, (alas, alas !) to be an-hungred, o-thirst, o-cold, and to lie 
in darkness. Latimer, Serm, p. 37. 

Thou now a dying say'st thou flatterest me. 

Shakespeare, Rich. IL ii. i. 

This prefix a- or aw- is generally said to be a corruption 
of the An^lo-Saxon particle on-y but more probably the two 
are essentially identical and only different dialectical forms 
of the same. An^- with its abbreviation Or is said to cha- 
racterize the dialect of the southern counties, while on- 
and 0- mark the northern dialect In many instances the 
two forms remain side by side, as in aboard and on hoard, 
agrcmnd and on ground (Shakespeare, 2 Hen, IV, rv. 4), 
a high* and on high, afoot and on foot, adeep and on deep 
(Acts xiii. 36; A.S. on sleep), aloft and on loft (Chaucer, 
Man qf Law^s Tale, 1. 4697), abed and on bed (Chaucer, 
Wife of Bath's Tale, L 6509), apart and on part (Chaucer, 
Shipman's Tale, 1. 14667), alive and ow iive (Chaucer, 
W%fe of BatNs Prd, 1. 5587). Compare also the A.S. 
forms on-ginnan and arginnan, to begin, on-weg and 
Orweg, away. On the other hand, most of the words which 
formerly had the prefix have rejected it. Of this class are 
ahow, acool, adaunt, adraw, afire^ &c. &c. In a work 
(2 Chr. IL 18) the prefix is the "same as in ado. Compare 
Shakespeare, 2 Hen. IV, iv. 3. 

So that skill in the weapon is nothing without sack; for that 
sets it a-work, 

3. Used with numerals (Luke ix. 28). 
And everich of these riotoures ran, 
Til thay come to the tre, and ther thay founde 
Of florins lyn of gold y-coyned rounde, 
Wei neygh a seven busshds, as hem thought. 

Chaucer, Pardoner's Tale, 141 86. 

* One heaved a high to be hurl'd down below. 

Shakespeare, Rich, III, iv. 4. 

Digitized by Vn«^JV.J VIC 


And there were not found a two hundred men slaine, and 
eight knights of the round table iu their pavilions. King Arthwry 
c. 63, voL Lp. \iu 

Edward 4 left much fayre yssue^ that is to witte, Edward the 
Piynce a thirtene yeare of age, &c. Sir T. More, WorJcs, p. 35. 

4. Bedundantly^ in the phrase ' in a readiness ' (2 Cor. 

When al thynges were prepared in a redynes and the day of 
departinge and settynge forwarde was appoynted...the whole 
armye went on shypboorde. Hall, Bkh, III, fol. 166. 

Abate, vX (Lev. xxvii. 18 ; Deui xxxiv. 7 ; Wisd- xvi. 
24; Ecclas. xxY. 23 ; i Mace. v. 3). Literall;^, to beat down^ 
from Fr. abbattre; hence to lower, depress, diminish, weaken 
the force of anything. In this sense it is equivalent to 
'bate,' which is merely an abbreviated form. 

Tou would abate the strength of your displeasure. 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Ven, v. i» 

Haply, my presence 
May well ahate their over-merry spleen, 
"Which otherwise would grow into extremes. 

Id. Tom. of Shrew, Ind, i.. 

It is true, that Taxes levied by Consent of the Estate, doe 
abate Mens Courage lesse. Bacon, £88, 29, p. isi. 

Abhor,' 1?.^. (Te Deum). Lat. ahJuyrreo^ Ho have th^ 
hair stand on end with terror' (from horreo *to bristle*); 
hence ' to shrink from with dreaa.' In the old canon law, 
according to Nares, it was technically employed in the sense 
of ' to protest against, reject solemnly.' In Calvini Lexi- 
con Juridicum we find ' Abhorrere^ alienum esse. Thus 
jShakespeare, Hen» VJIL 11. 4 : 

Therefore I say again 
I utterly ahlwr, yea, from my soul 
Hefuse you as my judge. 

It is used in the A. V. to express several diflferent Hebrew 

Digitized by Vj^^W V tU 


words, most of which inyolTo the idea of loathing or dis- 
gust But in ProY. xxii. 14, 'he that is abhorred of tho 
Lord' would be better rendered 'he with whom Jehovah 
is angry' (see Ps. vii. 11 ; Mai. i. 4), and 'despised' would 
be better than abhorred in Deut. xxxii. 19 and i Sam. 
ii. 17. 

Abhorring, «&. (Is. Ixvi. 24). An object of abhorr^ce. 

Rather on NIIqb* mud 
Lay me stark naked, and let the water-flLea 
Blow me into ohhorring. 

Shakespeare, Ant. and CI. v. 1, 

Abide, vX (Ps. xxxyii. 9, P. B.; Acts xx. 23). To wait 
for, await ; from A. S. atidan. Mr Wedgwood {Diet, of 
Eng. Etym, s.v.) observes that in old English "the active 
sense of looking out for a thing was much more strongly 
felt in the word abide than it is now.** He quotes in 
illustration of this Wiclifs version of 2 Pet. iii. 1 1, " What 
manner men behoveth you to be in holi livings abiding 
and highing unto the coming of the day of our Lord." In 
the sense of awaiting it is used by Shakespeare : 

Abide me, if tbon darest. 

Mid, Night*8 Dream, iii. 1, 

So also in Gower {Conf, Am, i. p. 220) ; 

This Perseus as nought seende 
This mischef which that him abode. 

And Tyndal {Doctr, Treat, p. 37) ; 

While I abode a faithful companion, which hath now taken 
another voyage upon him. 

In Ps. xxxvii. 7, P. B. 'abide upon' is used in the sense 
of 'wait upon,' as in Gower {Coi%f, Am* i, p. 71) ; 

She wolde in Ysis temple at eve 
Upon her goddes grace abide 
To serven him the nightes tide. 

From this idea to that of simple endurance the transition 

Digitized by Vn«^V.J VIC 


is easy (^nm. xxxL 23; Joel iL 11). Compare Shake- 
speare, 3 Hen. VL iv. 3 : 

What &teB impose, that men must Aeedd aJbid^, 

And Cymb, i. 2; 

You must be gone, 
And I shall here abide the hourly shot 
Of angry eyes. 

This fear of death was the bitteirest paib that ever h« ii>od€, 
Latimer, Serm, p. 22.3. 

Abject, 8h, (Ps. xxxv. 15). From Lat. a^tjectm^ cast 
aside; a worthless, despioable person or thing. 

Finallie, sturgion and pike, which fishe, as in times paste, it 
hathe ben taken ioi an aijectef soe now thought verie predus 
emonge ilnglishemen. PoL Vergil, Hist. YoL I. p. 25. 

Yet farre I deem'd it better so to dye 
Then at my enmies foote an abject lie. 

Mirror for Magistrates^ fbl.- ro6. 

Yf hir majesty fayle with such suplye and maintenance as 
shalbe fytt, all she hath donn hetherto wylbe utterly lost and 
cast away, and wee hir pore subiectes no better than aJbiectet. 
Ltycester Corregp, 5 Dec. 1585. 

Not for my selfe a sinfull wretch I pray, 
That in thy presence am an abiect vilde. 

Fairfax's Tasso^ xii. 27. 

We are the queen's dtjectSf and must obey. 

Shakespeare, Ri<^. IIL I. i. 

* Abject' was formerly lused as a verb, in the sense of 

Comyn wytte doothe full well electe 

What it should take, and what it shall abjtcte. 

Hawed, Pastime of PUasiire, cap. 8. 

Abroad, adv. (Judg. xiL 9 ; i Kings IL 42 ; Lam. i. 
20). Away from home, out of doors as opposed to indoors ; 
not necessarily out of the comitry. It occurs in the forms 
<rf>rorf (Rob. of Glonic. p. 542), a&r(w<^ (Wicli^ Matt xxiii. 5 ), o» 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


hrede (Chaucer, Rom. qf the Eose), from A.S. on brwdan. 
After a verb of motion it is used simply for *out' or * forth/ 

When any did send him rare fruites or fish from the countries 
neare the seaside he would send them abroad vnto his friendes. 
North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 729, 

To 'come abroad/ in the sense of ^get abroad,' 'become 
known,' is found in Mark iv. 22, Rom. xvi. 19. 

Abuse, v.t. (Judg. xix. 25 ; i Sam. xxxi, 4; i Chr. x. 
4). To misuse, deceive, mock, as in the margin of the two 
last passages ; from Fr, abuser, Lat. abtUi. Sir T. More 
says of Jane Shore: 

But when the king had dbvsed her, anon her husband... left 
her vp to him al togi&er. Works, p. 56 h, 

Whe'r thou beest he, or no, 
Or some enchanted trifle to ahtise me. 

Shakespeare, Temp, V. i. 
That blind rascally boy, that abuses every one's eyes, because 
his own are out. Id. As You Like It, iv. i. 

'Misuse' is employed in the latter sense in Mtich Ado, 
II, 2 ; 'Proof enough to misuse the prince.' 

Accept, «. t (Gen. xxxii. 20, &c.). From Lat. (tccipere, 
accepttis. In the sense of 'to approve, receive with favour,' 
the Biblical usage of this word corresponds with that of 
its Latin original, and still clings to the root in the com- 
mon word 'acceptable.' The following are instances of its 
former use: 

What fruite is come of your long and great assemble ? What 
one thing, that the people of England hath beene the better of 
an heare; or you your selues, either more accepted before God, 
or better discharged toward the people committed vnto your 
cure. Latimer, Serm, p. 45. 

Sweet prince, accept their suit. 

Shakespeare, Rich. III. rv. 7. 

Shall wee not think, that God above,... doth not disceme, 
that fraile men, in some of their contradictions, intend the same 
thing; and a^wptetk of both. Bacon, Ess. in. p. 11. 

And our request accept, we you beseche. Surrey, Yirg, 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


Acceptable, €tdj. (Beat, xxxiii. 24; Bed. xii. 10). 
Used like the Lat. accepUMlis of that which is worthy of 
acceptance or approval, and then in the secondary sense of 
'agreeable, dehgntful.' It is employed in the if.T. fre- 
quently as the equivalent of the Gk. €vap€(rros, elsewhere 
rendered * well-pleasing/ The following example from 
Holland's Pliny (xxxvn. 9) will illustrate the usage of the 

The Jacint also at the first sight is pleasant and aeeeptahh. 

Access, sb. (Fr. accSsy from Lat accederey acceisvmX 
Occurs in the sense of accession or increase in the heading 
of Isa. xviii. 

Besides infinite is the access of territory and empire by the 
same enterprise. Bacon, Adv. touching an Holy War, 

Halliwell {Arch. Diet, s.t.) quotes from Lambardc'd 
PerambtUatioriy 1596, p. 301: 'Brought thereunto more 
aceewe of estimation and reverence than all tiiat ever wiis 
done before or since/ 

Accurse, v.t. To curse. This word of which the 
participle 'accursed' is now the only part in common usC) 
occurs in the heading of Gal. i. 

Hii inygte acors the fole quene, that Seynt Edward slon. 

Bob. Gloucester, p. 296. 

He <icorsede alle thulke men, that he had north ibrougt. 

IWd. p. 474. 
Brede is at the laste 
Lest Grist in consistorie 
A-corse ful manye. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 198. 
lliey decreed also, that all the religious priests and women 
should ban and acevrse him. North^s Plutarch, Aleib, p. 222, 

Acquaint, v, r^, (Job xxii. 21). To make oneself 
acquainted with, accustom oneself to. The etymology of 
the word is doubtful. There is an old French word a<?- 
cointer corresponding to the Prov. accoindar, the former 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


being from coint=lAi. cognittis. On the other hand there 
is the Germ, kund, kundig akin to O. E. couth, ken^ can. 
Most probably the word came to us through the former 

Aequeinte the with cbarite, 
Which IB the virtue sovereine. 

Gower, Conf, Am. i. 177. 

Acquaini you with the perfect spy o' the time, 
liie moment on't. 

Shakespeare, Much, ill. i. 

To bring them therefore by his example to acquaint them- 
selves with hardnes, he tooke more paines in warres and in hunt- 
ing. North's Plutarch, Alex, p. 743. 

Acquaintance^ to take (Gen. xxix. c). To be- 
come acquainted. 

So it befell upon a chaunce 

A yonge knight toJte her acqueint(mnce, 

Gower, Conf. Am. I. p. 505. 

Acquainted with (Is. liii. 3). Familiar with, ac- 
customed to. 

For their purses being full, and they acquainted^wUK finenes, 
were become so dull and lasie, that they could endure no paines 
nor hardnes of warres. North's Plutarch, Alex, p. 562. 

' To acquaint with/ in the sense 'to accustom, make fa- 
miliar,' is used by Bacon. 

The illiberalitie of parents, in allowance towards their children, 
is an harmefull errour; makes them base; acqwiints them with 
shifts. Ess, Yii. p. 24. 

Adamant, sh. (Ezek. iiL 9; Zech. vii. 12). From the 
Greek ddofuigy *the unconquerable.' The word has now 
assumed the form of * diamond' (G. demant, Du. diamant), 
which is the hardest known stone. In the old writers, and 
in one instance in a modem work (the Arabian NighUt 
Entertainments)^ the word adamant is erroneously used 
to mean 'loadstone,' or 'magnet' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


You draw me, you hard-hearted adamant; 
But yet you draw not iron, for my heart 
Is true as steeL 

Shakespeare, Mid, N, '« Dr. n. «. 
If you will have a young man to put his travail into a little 

roome when he stayeth in one city or towne, let him change 

his lodging, from one end and part of* the towne, to another ; 
which is a great adama/rU of ' acquaintance. .Bacon, Ess. xvui. 
p. 73. , 

That diamond and adamant were the same is clear from 
a passage in Ben Jonson's Alchemist, iv. i. 
Mam. Does not this diamant better. on my finger 

Thsm i' the quarry? 
2)oi. Yea. Mam. Why you are like it. 
You were created lady for the light I 
Here you shall swear it; take it, the first pledge 
Of what I speak, to bind you to believe me. 
Dol. In chains of Adamant. 

Abjure, V. t. (Josb. yi. 26 ; Matt. xxvi. 6^, &c.). To bind 
by oath, solemnly entreat, conjure ; from Lat. adjurare. 

Then I adiure you by the faithe that you owe to God, by 
your honour and by your othe made to Saincte George patron of 
the noble ordre of the gartier &c. Hall, Mich. Ill, f ol. ix. a. 

Admiration, sh. (Rev. xvii. 6). Like the Lat. ad- 
tniroHoj used in the sense of simple wonder, astonishment, 
whether accompanied by approval or disapproval of the 

Your behaviour hath struck her into amazement and admirO' 
lion.- Shakespeare, Hamlet, xii. 1. 

In the same sense Milton uses admire; 

The undaunted fiend what this might be admired; 
Admired, not feared. Pa/r. Lost, II. 677, 678. 

Ado, 9h. (Mark v. 39). This is only once used in 
Scripture, but can hardly be said to be an uncommon word 
80 long as 'Much Ado about Nothing' remains in the lan- 
guage. Examples are idmost needless, as they may be 
foond in great numbers. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


All the most adoe was like to be bow the pietious creature 
might come to be in y^ sight of Jesus, Udal, Erasm, Luk. y. 

A man that is busy, and inquisitive, is commonly envious: for 
to know much of other mens matters, cannot be, because all that 
iidoe may conceme his own estate: therfore it must needs be, that 
he takelJi a kinde of plaie-pleasure, in looking upon the fortunes 
of others. Bacon, Ess, ix. p. 30. 

It is used by Latimer like the InfinitiYe *to do/ which 
has still the same sense in provincial dialects. 

I have had ado with many estates, even with the highest of 
all. Serm, p. a 16, 

Adventure, v.t. and i, (Deui xxviii. 56; Jndg. ix. 
17; Acts xix. 31). From Latin advenire *to arrive, hap- 
pen/ is derived 0. Fr. advenir to happen, and aventure a 
chance, accident, which passed into Old Eng. in the form 
aunter {in aunter=m case, Gower, Cor^, Am.i .344) ; thus 
the ^Aunturs of Arthur' (Camd. Soc), and is preserved in 
the compound peradventure^ perchance. In the above 
passages the word * venture' would now be used, but * ad- 
venture' was formerly common. Bacon uses 'adventures* 
in the sense of 'fortunes/ 'casualties.' 

It is... a pleasure to stand in the window of a castle, and to see 
a battaile, and the advemtwrea thereof, below. Ess. i. p. 3. 

Jesus did not auenlwre himself emong the common sort, 

lest the peples affeccions should bee so diunly altered, whereby 
some comocion wer lyke to ryse. TJdal, ErcLsm, Joh. ii. 

I wiU adventwre my hedd of it, that her majestic shall haue 
what peace she will. Leycester Corresp. p. 247. 

The onely waye was by adventuryng of soom horssmen to 
staye the enemies martche. Ld. Grey of Wilton, p. 14. 

I am almost afraid to stand alone 

Here in the church yard ; yet I will adventurt. 

Shakespeare, Bom. and Jul. Y. 3. 

Adventures, at all (Lev. xxvi. 21, m.). At random, 
haphazard, by chance. In Wisd. ii. 2 'at all adventure' is 
the translation of the Greek avroirxtbios. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To buy at all adrtentures or to buy a pigge in the poke. Emere 
aleam. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. Poke, 

I'll* say as they say, and pereever so, 
And in this mist at all adventures go. 

Shakespeare, Com. of Err. n. 2. 

Adversary, adj. Adverse, opposing; from Lat. ad- 
v&rmrius. The phrase 'armed against all adversary 
powers' occurs in the heading of 2 Cor. x. In Todd's 
Johnson the following example is quoted : 

The Lord yphold for euer and keepe from dilapidation and 
decay these sides of the house, and make them as an vnuanqnish- 
abie fort against the impressions and assaults of all aduersary 
forces. Bishop King's YUi8 PalaiinOy p. 30. 

The late Mr Herbert Coleridge gives it in a MS. list 
of Widif words, but without reference. 

Adversary, sh. (Job xxxi. 35 ; Matt. v. 25 ; Luke xii. 

jS; xviii. 3). An opponent in a lawsuit It is so used 

by Shakespeare, Taming of Shrew, i. 2; 
And do as adversaries do in law. 
Strive mightily, but eat and drink as friends. 

In this passage however the term refers rather to the 
plaintifrs and defendant's counsel. 

I am sorry for thee; aft thou come to answer 
A stony adversary. Mer. of Ven. rv. i. 

Advertise, v.t (Num. xxiv. 14; Ruth iv. 4). To 
inform, to give notice generally without reference to time : 
like Ft. advertir, which is explained by Cotgrave {Fr. 
Diet. 8. T.) ''to informe, certifie, aduertise." This sense is 
common in Shakespeare, who lays the accent on the middle 
pliable. Thus, "As I by friends am well advSrtised,'^ 
Rich, III, IV. 4. ** To one that can my part in him adv&r- 
tise,* Meaxfor Meas. i. i. So also Ben Jonson, 

I therefore 
Advertise to the state how fit it were, &c. 

Volp. rv. I. 
May it please the whole generation of my auditours to be 
oduertiMd. Nashe's Lenten Stuffe, p. 7, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Advise^ t)' refl, (i Chr. xxi. 12). To advise oneself 
is to consider, reflect. From Lat. mderi, visum, comes 
It viso, 0. Fr. vis, and thence again Fr. a«rw, and O. E. 

For whan that I advise me wele 
And bethinke me every d«le. 
• •••»• 

Alas than am I overoome. 

Chaucer, Booh of the Dwihtss, 697. 

Advise you what you say: the minister is here. 

Shakespeare, Tw, NighL IV. %. 

There's for thy labour, Montjoy, 
Go, bid thy master well adisvae Umsdf. 

Id. Het^. V. m. 6. 

Advisement, sh. (Chron. xxi. 19 ; Prov. i. 4, m.). 
One of the words which Occur only once in the Bible ; and 
retained by our translators from the Geneva Version. It 
is now seldom or never used, though it might well take 
its place with ' consideration/ ^ deliberation,' &c, to which 
it comes close in meanings Sanderson uses 'advisedness' 
in the same sense. 

Nowe, when as no sufficient occasion Was geuen to the Pha- 
risees eyther to rebuke Jesus or to bee cruell agaynste the manne, 
whyche had spoken warely and with good adAiisementef they were 
turned backe agayne to their former interrogatories. Udal, 
Efasm, John, f. 69. 

And ryffht before take good advpMment 
Of all the matter that ye wyl her shewe. 

Hawes, Pctst. of PUas. tssp. 16. 

K'one love they but of some hastie violence, 
Without advisement, without discretion. 

Barclay, Edogy, p. Iviij. 


Ne mid her realme with lawes but policie 
And strong advizement of tax wizards old, 
That with their counseUi bad her kingdome did uphold. 

Spenser, jP. Q. L 4, § i«. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


' Ayiflement ' is an older form of the word. 

And be without amteiMfiU 
Ayein Jimo gaf jugement. 

Gower, Cimf. Am, i. p. 304. 

Sodeyn ire or hastif ire without avyiemeat and conBenting of 
resoirn. Chaucer, Panon*$ T<Ue, 

Afkr off, adv. (Ps. cxxxyiii. 6 ; Jer. xxxi. 10). Far 
off, at a distance. J/ar is probably from c^faren the pp, of 
A, 8. afarauy to depart. 

For which cause he motied Gatesby to proue wyth some words 
cast oat afarre of. Sir T. More, Worhes, fo. 536. 

I should first tell thee how the prince, Glaudio and my master, 
planted and placed and possessed by my master Don John, saw 
afar off in the orchard this amiable encounter. Shakespeare, 
Much AdOf III. 3. 

The conditions of weapons, and their improvement are ; first, 
the fetching a farre off: ifor that outruns the danger. Bacon, 
£tt, Lvii. p. 237. 

Affect, vJ. (Gal iv. 17; Ecclus. xiii. 11). From 
Lat. c^ectare, to aim at, strive after, earnestly desire. 
The usage was formerly very common. 

The nobles do not so greatlie afftcle citties, as the com- 
modious nearenes of dales and brookes. Pol. Vergil, I. 4. 

No profit grows where is no pleasure ta'en; 
In brief, Sir, study what you most affect. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of Shrew, I. i. 

And the one of them said, that to be a secretary, in the de- 
clination of a monarchy, was a ticklish thing, and that he did 
not affect it. Bacon, Em, xxii. p. 94. 


Use also, such persons, as affect the businesse, wherin they 
employed; for that quickneth much. Id. Eta, xlvii. p. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ^ 


I go from hence 
Thy soldier, servant; making peace or war 
As thou agecVst, Id. Ant, and CI, i. 3. 

Pray him aloud to name what dish he affects, 

£. Jonson, AUK m. 4. 

Affectioned, pp. (Rom. xiL 10). Affected, disposed. 
It is used for 'affected' in Shakespeare, though not in the 
same sense. 

An afftctwned ass, that cons state without book and utters it 
by great swarths. Tw. Night, 11. 3. 

Affiance^ »b. (Litany). Erom the Lat. JideSy faith, was 
derived the medieval c^ffidare (whence affidavit), which 
passed into the Fr. affii^, as conjier from confidere; and 
nrom this was formed affiance, trust, confidence, reliance, 
properly, a pledge of fEuth. 

This way the devil used to evacuate the death of Christ, that 
we might have affiance in other things, as in the sacrifice of the 
priest. Latimer, Serm, p. 73. 

From the Fr. affisr is derived the 0. B. qffis or affy, 
which Sh^espeare used both in the primary sense of 'to 
pledge or betroth,* as 'assure* is frequently employed ; 

And wedded be thou to the hags of hell, 
For daring to affy a mighty \aA 
TJnto the daughter of a worthless king. 

1 Hen. VI. IV. i. 

and in the secondary sense of 'to trust, confide.* 

Marcus Andronicus, so I do affy 

In thy uprightness and integrity. TiJt. And,i, i. 

Other instances are ,*— 

Myn afiaunce and my feith 

Is ferme in his bileve. P. Ploughman's Vis. 1 1^90. 

She is fortune verelie 
In whome no man should <^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Nor in her yeftes have JUmnee 
She is BO f ul of variaunce. 

Chaucer, Bom, of Bote, 5481. 

But now chaunce hathe soe served, that I showlde fall into 
thie handes, to this intente that I... ...might the better under- 

Btande how miche affiance I owght to have in humaine casual- 
ties. PoL Vergil, L 68. 

Tour hole affyawMt and trust ye well ye may 
Into me put, for I shall not vary. 

Hawes, PoMt, of Pleas, cap. i5. 

If it be so presumptuous a matter to put affiance in the merites 
of Christe, what is it then, to put affi^nu in our owne merites. 
Jewel, D^* of A^. p. 76. 

Affinity, sK (i Kings liL i ; Ezr. ix. 14). Relationship 
by marriage ; the Lat. affinitaB. with which is contrasted 
eoffncUio, blood relationship. ^To ioin affinity^ (2 Chr. 
xviiL i) is to contract relationship by marriage, as Jeho- 
shaphat did with Ahab, his son Jehorani marrying Ahab's 
daughter Athaliah. 

But the French kyng that manage vtterly refused, saiyng he 
wolde neuer ioyne afinytie with the Englishe nadon, because that 
the aliance had so Vnfortunate successe. Hall, Men, IV. fol. 16 a. 

The Moor replies 
That he, you hurt, is of great fame in Cyprus, 
And great affinity, Shakespeare, 0th. III. i. 

Aflfrlke, sb. Africa. 

For the same causes also it (i. e. the Greek tongue) was well 
▼Dd«stood in many places of Europe, yea, and of Affrike too. 
Tke Traiulator$ to the Beader. 

Me thinkes our garments are now as fresh as when we first 
put them on first in Affricke, Shakespeare, Tempest, u. i. (ed, 

Afoot f adv. (Acts xx. 13). On foot. So in the later 
vermon of Wicli^ Mark vL 33 : * Thei wenten cffoote fro 
aile citees, and runnen thidur, and camen bifor hem.' 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV H^' 



The earlier version has * on feet.' See what is said under 
* A/ on the usage of * a-' and * on.* 

Come, neighbour; the boy shall lead our horses down the 
hill; we*ll wi^ afoot awhile, and ease our legs. Shakespearei 
1 Hen. IV. n. 2. 

Afore^ prep, (i Esd. vi. 32 ; Athan. Creed). A. S. wt- 
foran, * at the fore/ as hi farauy * by the fore,* * before,' 
which has now replaced it, except as a provincialism ; it is 
common in Suffolk. In JKng, Paraph, of Erasmus (Lnk. 
fol. 97) both afore and be/ore occur in consecutive Hues : 
'Leat hym not bee ashamed to professe my doctrine 
c^ore all the worlde ; for whosoever shalbee ashamed of 
me and my wordes b^ore men,' &c. And Latimer {Re- 
mains, p. 80) says, 

It is a great fault to be rashly offended, and to judge our 
neighbours' doing to be naught and wicked, afore we know the 
truth of the matter. 

Aforehand, adv. (Mark ziv. 8). Beforehand. 

The prophets, long aforehand, had prophesied of these works, 
which Christ, when he should come, should do. Latimer, Bern. 
p. 72. 

Aforetime, adv. ( Jer. xxx. 20 ; Neh. xiii. 5). In old 
times, of old. 

I would wish that patrons and bishops would see more 

diligently to it than has been done aforetime. Latimer, Serm. 
p. 291. 

After, prep. According to ; as in the Litany, * Deal not 
with us cyfter our sins,' &c. It is the A.S. wfter. In Ps. 
xxviii 4, the Hebrew particle is twice rendered * according 
to,' and once * after,' in the same verse. But the passage 
in which this word is most liable to be misunderstood is 
Ps. xc. IS (Pr.-Bk.), * Comfort us again now €^ter {i.e. in 
proportion to) the time that Thou hast plagued us,* &c. 

For mannes sone schal come in glorie of his fadir with his 
aungelis and thanne he schal yelde to every man aftir his workis. 
Wiclif, Matt. xvi. 27. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Their deeds are afiet as they have beene aocuBtomed. BacoD, 
Ess, zxxix. p. 162. 

* After * for * afterwards * is found in Gen. xxxiiL 7. 

The stile of Emperor, which the Great Kings of the World 
after borrowed. Bacon, Ess, xxix. p. 129. 

It still remains in ' soon after/ 

In Gen. i. 25, 26, the same word after is made use of to 
render two distinct Hebrew particles, in a manner which is 
likely to lead to some confusion. In the former passaffe, 
where it is said the animals were created each ^^fter his 
kind,' the Hebrew particle has a distributiTe force ; while 
in the latter, ^ after our likeness/ it is the particle of com- 

Afterward, adv, (Gen. xv. 14). Afterwards. Com- 
pare beside and oesides, toward and totoards, which were 
formerly used interchangeably. 

Both in the heat of blood, 
And lack of tempered judgement afterward, 

Shakespeare, Metu, for Meas, v, u 

Or swear before you choose, if you choose wrong. 

Never to speak to lady afiertrntrd 

In way of marriage. Id. Mer. of Ven. n. i. 

Against, used with reference to time (Gen. xliii. 25 ; 
Ex. vii. 15). 

The presence fila against the prince approacheth. 

Marston, The Fawne, I. a. 

Agone, adv, (i Sam. xxx. 13) ; the old form of the 
past participle of the verb to go ; it is now usually written 
' ago.' Or it may be A. S. agan^ gone, past. 

Hadame (quod he) it is so long agon, 

Chaucer, Leg, ofO, Worn, L 443, 

Chaucer uses ago, agoo, and agoon for the past par- 
ticiple. I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC2 


The vital strength is lost and all agoo. 

Kmght's^Tale, L 2804. 

Whan that here housbonds ben from hem ago. 

Ibid. 1. 2815. 

Whan he wiste that Ardte was agoon. Ibid. 1. 1278. 

The Messias that was long agone promised by the prophetes. 
Udal, Erasm. Luk. f. 184. 

* It was long agon prophecied in the Psalme. Ibid. Joh. f. 88. 

About three hundred years agone, Grindal, 2iem, p. 48. 

Thus our thre powers were joyned in one, 
In this mighty giaunt many dayes agone, 

Hawes, Past, of Pleas, cap. 33. 

For long agone I have forgot to court, 
Besides the fashion of the time is changed. 

Shakespeare, Two Gent, of Ver, in. i. 

Agree j v,i, (Mark xiv. 70; Acts v. 40, xr. 15), fol- 
lowed oy to or unto; like the Fr. agr^er cl. 

Therefore he will rather have us to choose the sword, that is, 
to strive and withstand their wickedness, than to cbgree unto them. 
Latimer, Sefrm, p. 377. 

Ail, V. t. From A. S. eglan^ eglian to prick, torment ; 
hence, io grieve, trouble. The only reason for mentioning 
this common word is that in the seven times where it 
occurs in the Auth. Vers, there is no verb in the original 
to correspond, but only a preposition meaning * to.' * What 
to thee V i. e. ' what aiUth thee % ' In two of these pas- 
sages the word is in italics, and would be as well to be so 
in all. It occurs also in 2 Esd. ix. 42 ; x. 31 . In Gower's 
Gonf, Am, i. p. 356, it is found in the form eile. 

Albeity conj, (Ezek. xiii. 7 ; Philem. 19). This word, 
though somewhat antiquated, can hardlv be called obsolete. 
The meaning is * although it be,' in which sense Chaucer 
uses the simpler forms ' albe ' and ' all,' as well as ' albeit.' 
Al telle I nat as now his observances. 

Chaucer, KnighCs Tale, 1. «a66. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Bitwise you ther moot som tyme be pees 

Al he ye nou^t of 00 complexioun, 

That like day causeth such divisioun. Ibid. 1. 4477. 

Al he it that this aventure was falle. Ibid. 1. 2705. 

Shylock, albeit 1 neither lend nor borrow, 
By taking nor by giving of excess. 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Ven. i. 3. 

A foller form is found in Chaucer : 

And <U he it 80 that God hath create all thing in ordre and 
nothing withouten ordre. Parson's Tale (Tyrwhitt's ed.). 

Alien, sb, occurs nine times in the A.Y.; it is from 
the Lat. {uienua, belonging to another country, a foreigner. 
So Shakespeare {Mer, qf ven, iv. i), 

If it be proved against an alien 
That by direct or indirect attempt, 
Qe seek the life of any citi2sen. 

And Wiclif (John x. 5) ; * But thei suen not an alien but 
fleen fro him; for thei not knowen the vols of aliens,' 
' Alien' has gone out of common use, but ' to alienate' = to 
estraoffe, stUl remains. Latimer has a substantive, 'alien- 
ate ;' ^Keep us from invasions of alienates and strangers.' 
iSmn. p. 390. 

All, in the phrase 'without all contradiction' (Beb. vii. 
7), is literally from the Greek. It appears however to be 
used in conformity with English idiom for * any* or 'every.' 

The trade of monkery, which was without all devotion and 
understanding. Latimer, Serm. p. 339. 

Our tyme is so farre from that olde discipline and obedience, 
as now, not onefie yong jentlemen, but even verie girles dare 
without all feare, though not without open shame, where they 
list, and how they list, marie them selves in spite of father, 
mother, God, good order, and all* Ascham, The Scholemasler, 
p. 38. 

So in Beut. xxii. 3, 'and with aU lost thing of thy bro- 

Digitized by VjQ QQl g 


All the whole. A redundant expression, wbich is 
found in the remarks ^ Oonoeming the service of the Church ' 
prefixed to the Prayer-Book. " For they so ordered the 
matter that aU the whole Bible (or the greatest part there- 
of) should be read over once every year." It occurs more 
than once in Shakespeare. 

AU Hit whole army stood agazed on him. 

I ffen. VI. I. I. 
If Kichard "will be true, sot that alone. 
But all the whole inheritance I give, 
That doth belong imto the house of York. 

Ibid. m. I. 

Alle^e^ V. t f Acts xvii. 3). To adduce proofs, to prove 
by quotation, and nence to quote, from Lat. allegare, a law 
term. Not as now simply * to assert.' 

For shame, nay for conscience, either allege the scriptures 
aright, without any such wresting, or else abstain out of the pul- 
pit. Latimer, Rem. p. 321. 

Declaring that the dissention among the Grecians did increase 
king Philip's power, alledging these verses: 

Where discord reignes in Beahne or towne 
Euen wicked folke do win renowne. 

North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 746. 
And Ambrose Thesius dUeageth the Psalter of the Indians, 
which be testifieth to haue bene set forth by Potken in Syrian 
characters. 2%e Trans, to the Beaden. 

Allied, pp. (Neh. xiii. 4). Connected by marriage. 
From the Fr. aUi^y Lat. alligatus. 

The others called him {i. e. Leonidas) Alexander's gouemour, 
because he was a noble man, and allied to the Prince. North's 
Plutarch, Alex. -p. 719. 

AII0W5 v.t (Luke xi. 48; Baptismal Office; *He 
favourably a//o«j«^^, &c.). From the Fr. allouer, which is 
derived from the Lat. allaudare, 'to praise.' To praise, 
approve ; which is the common sense in old vmters. It is 
not to be eonfounded with aUow, 'to assign/ which is from 
the Lat allocare through the Fr. allouer. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOO^, 21 

And some liikkede my life, 
AUowed it fewe. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 1. 9594. 

The which opinion Pomponius Lsetus dothe well 

alowe. Polid. Verg. Rist. p. 27. 

NotMdthstanding that Nathan had before aUowtd and praified 
the purpose of David. Latimer, Rem. p. 308. 
. Thoa shalt hold the opinion of Pythagoras ere I wiQ aUow of 
thy wits. Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, iv. a. 

The word is used in a kindred sense (Rom. xiv. 22 ; 
I Thess. ii 4) as the translation of what in Greek signifies 
* to approve after triaL' So also in Pr. Book, Ps. xi. 6, * The 
Lord cUloweth (A.V. 'trieth') the righteous.' In Acts 
xxiy. 15 the orignal means ' to expect,' and in Bom. yii. 15, 
' acknowledge with approbation,' following a Hebrew idiom. 
See Shakespeare, Eich. IL v. 2 : 

To Bolingbroke are we sworn subjects now, 
Whose state and honour I for aye allow. 

Allowance^ sb. Approval. 

Humbly craving of your most Sacred Maiestie, that since 
things of this quality haue euer bene subiect to the censures of ill 
m.eaning and discontented persons, it may rbceiue approbation 
and Patronage from so learned and iudidous a Prince as your 
Highnesse is, whose allowance and acceptance of our Labours, 
shsdl more honour and incourage vs, then all the calumniations 
and hard interpretations of oUier men shall dismay vs. The 
Epittle Dedicatorie. 

Item, you sent a large commission 
To Gregory de Cassslis, to conclude, 
Without the king's will, or the states' allowance, 
A league between his highness and Ferrara. 

Shakespeare, Ben. VIII. m. 1. 

All to (Judges ix. 53). All to pieces. It is a disputed 
pdnt whether this passage should be read 'all-to brake' 
or ' all to-brake,' the prefix to being in very common use 
in old authors to convey the idea of destruction. Thus 
this very word 'break,' so compounded, occurs in Piers 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



And do boote to brugges 

That to-broke were. Vis, 1. 4520. 

The haggea and the bigirdlea 

He hath to-hroke hem alle. Vis. h 5073. 

For first though they beginne lowe. 

At ende they be nought mevable, ^ 

But all to-broken mast and cable. / 

Gower, Con/. 4f»> !• P- 79> 

Whereof the sheep ben al to-tore. Ibid. p. 15. 

Al iB to-broken thilke regioun. 

C&aucer, Knighfs Tale, 1. 2759. 

So also 'to-cleve,' *to-rende.' In Erasmus' Paraphrase 
(Q. Kath. Parr's transL), * shall heal to crashed' (Luk. fol. 
dx. ob.); *all to bruised' (ib. Ixxxix.) ; ^ all to rated him* 
(John Ixix. rev.). On the other hand, there are many 
passages which seem only to admit of the reading all-4o 
m the sense above given of all to pieces. 

Thou farest as frute, that with the frost is taken. 
To day redy ripe, to morrow al-to shaken. 
'JsJ:' cJl tc ' -Uv cha^J'i ioC . <rl S<^Ve4^Surrey, Sonnet 9. 

For that in Durtwych and here about the oEtme we be fallen 
. jt into the dirt, and be ail-to dirtied, even up to the ears. Latimer, 
,' '' i20f».p. 397. 

Smiling speakers creep into a man's bosom, they love and . 
all-to love him. Id. Serm, p.. 2 80. /fY»v'^^ ^^nCC "to -^erv^' 

The fcilowing ^xamfples of words compounded with 
' all to' are taken from the Glossary to Forshall and Mad> 
den's edition of the Wicliffite versions: 

'Al-to-brasten* (2 Chr. xxv. 12), 'al-to-breke' (Bent, 
xxviii. 20), *al-to-brende' (Fs. cv. 18), * aJ-to-feblid ' (Is. 
xxxviiL 14), 'al-to-kut' (i Chr. zx. 3), 'al-to-trede' (Dent, 
vii. 24). 

Alms, sb. (Acts ill 3). The English word ^ alms' is 
singular, and, with O. E. almesse, A. S. admesse, G. almoseny 
and Sc. awmous, is derived from the Gk. cXci^/A^crvyi}. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


The p«trimonie and the richesie, 
Which to Silvester in pure almiue 
The firtte ConstantinaB lefte. 

Grower, Conf, Am, prol. I. p. 18. 

And he should it were on alvM to hang him. 

Shakespeare, Mwck Ado, 11. 3. 

Beggars that oome nnto my father's door, 
Upon entreaty have a present alm». 

Id. Tarn, of Shrew, iv. 3. 

Chancer uses the plural 'almesses' (oomp. rieheise, pi. 

These ben general altnestes or werkes of charity. Parion*9 

In Acts X. 4 'alms' is oaed as a plural. 

Almsdeed, 9b. (Acts ix. 36). An act of chanty ; and 
so charity in its narrower sense ; A. S. cBlme»9e-dwa, 

In vertu and in holy cUmes-dede 
They lyven alle. 

Chaucer, Man of Law*i Tale, 1. 5576. 

Now ben ther thre maner of €dme$dede. Id. Panon*8 Tale. 

He loveth thee with his hands, that will help thee in time of 
necessity, by giving some altMdeede, or with any other occupa- 
tion of the hand, Latimer, Serm. p. 2 1 . 

Murder is thy aliM-deed; 
Petitioners for blood thou ne*er put'st back. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen. VI. v. 5. 

Aloft, adif. (i Esd. viii 92). In the passage 'and 
now is all Israel cUo/t,^ the last word is the rendering of the 
Greek evavm. Chaucer (Ags. o/Fotols, L 203) uses 'on loft' 
in the same sense. 

Therewith a wind, unneth it might be lesse, 
Made in the leaves grene a noise Boft» 
Accordant to the foules song on loft. 

The root is the A. S. lyft, the sky, air, G. lujt, 0. E. 
li/l; so that 'aloft' is literally, in the air, on high. 

♦ Digitized by V:i«^V.J VIC 


* To be alqft^ seetns to mean 'to have the upper hand,' 
and 80 Latimer uses it : 

We esteem it to be a great thing to have a kingdom in this 
world, to be a ruler, to be alofty and bear the swing. Bern, p. 64. 

It is used redundantly in Gower, Gof{f, Am, i. p. 284: 

And as they shulden pleid hem ofte 
Till they be growen up cUofte 
In the youthe of lusty age. 

Along, adv. (Judg. yiL 13). At full length; in the 

?hrase *to lie along. ^ See the quotation from Holland's 
liny under IfOaden. 

Alway, adv. (Ex. xxv. 30 ; Phil. iv. 4). Always ; A. S. 
eaUne woeg, ealle wasga. So cUgate, cUgates^ beside, besides, 
betime, betimes, sometime, sometimes, toitard, towards, 
which were onoe used indifferently. 

Sire, ye ben not oZtoa^ in lik disposidoun. Chancer, TaU of 

For the book saith, Axe thi counseil alwey of hem that ben 
wyse. Ibid. , 

That on may se his lady day by day, 
But in prisoun he moot dwelle altoay. 

Id. Knight^i TaU, 1352. 

Amailly adv. (2 Mace. xii. 22) occurs in the Bible this 
once only; where it means with vehemence or precipita- 
tion ; from A. S. mcegen, mighty power, connected with 
ma^an to be able. 

Great lords, fix>m Ireland am I come aoMmfh^ 
To signify that rebels there are up. 

Shakespeare, 1 Ben. VI. III. i. 
Oo, myrmidons; and cry you all amain, 
Achilles hath the mighty Hector slain. 

Id. Tr. and Cr. v. 9. 
Pliny says of the lion; 

But having gained the thickets and woods and gotten into 
the forests out of sight, then he skuds away, then he runneth 
amain for life. HoUand*8 trans. Tin. 16. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Amazed, pp. (Judg. xx. 41 ; Mark xiv. 33). Con- 
founded, bewildered by fear or any strong emotion. Like 
'abashed/ which occurg in place of * amazed* in Tyndale's 
version of Mark xiv. 33 ; this word is now used in a much 
narrower sense. 

But when they were aduertysed of the kynges puissance, or 
elles amcued with feare,...dep{urted from thence to Barckam- 
atede. Hall, Ren, IV. fol. 13 b, 

Vpon the walles the Pagans old and yong 
Stood husht and still, amated and amased. 
At thdr grave order and their humble song. 

Fairfax, Tasso, XI. 12. 
Bear with me, cousin, for I was amazed 
Under tfie tide. 

Shakespeare, K. John^ vr. 2. 

Compare the use of 'amazing* in Rich. II. i. 3 ; 

And let thy blows, doubly redoubled. 
Fall like atnazing thunder on the casque 
Of thy adverse pernicious enemy. 

^ Amazementy »b. (i Pet. iii. 6). Confusion or be- 
wilderment of mind from whatever cause ; not, as now, 
simply astonishment. The O. E. form * amay ' for * amaze' 
connects the latter with the Fr. s'esmaier and It. smagare 
and the root oi dismay. Amaze is further akin to the 
Ppov. esmagar through the provincial French s^esmiger. 
Diez refers the forms $m^are and esmoffanne to the Gothic 
root m^agan^ to be able, with the negative particle (Wedg- 
wood, Diet, of Eng. Etym.). With the two forms am>ay 
and amaae may be compared apay and appease^ allay and 

Alas I what sorrow, what onuuemen^, what shame was in 
Amphialus, when he saw his deere foster father, find him the 
killer of his onely sonue? Sidney, Arcadia, p. 40, L 39. 

Ambassage^ 9b. (2 Chron. xxxiL cont.; Luke xiv. 
32 ; I Mace. xiv. 23). An embassy. The root of the word 
is doubtful It is immediately from the It. amJbasciata, 
which again is from the Med. Lat ambascia, ambactia, 
and this is connected with the Gothic andbahU^ a servant 

J, Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


(comp. ambacttu, Gees. B. G. vi. 15), A. S. ambihtj and Germ. 
ampt In A. S. ambiht-scBcg is an ambassador. Like the 
more modem ^embassy/ ambassage is used both of the 
mission of an ambassador, and of the persons through 
whom the.mission is sent. 

But now for the fault of unpreaching prelates... They are so 
troubled with lordly living, they be so placed in palaces, couched 
in courts, rujBUng in their rents, dancing in their dominioDS, 
burdened with ai^HMsages,, that they cannot attend to it. Lati- 
mer, Serm. p. 67, 

Before his throne as on ambassage Bent, 
■* Spenser, Mother ffubbercPs Tale, 1. 472. 

Yonder men are too many for an ambassage, and too few 
for a fight Bacon, Ess, xxix. 

In Shakespeare it occurs in the form 'embassage.' 

Their herald is a pretty knavish page, 

That well by heart hath conn'd his emibassage. 

Lovers Labour^s Lost, v. 2. 

Ambush j «&. (Josh. viii. 2). Men lying-in ambush. 
The verb is derived from the Fr. embuscher, rroY. embog- 
car, which are from It. bosco, Prov. bosc, a bush, thicket. 

The amJbush then let fly 
Slew aU their white fleec'd sheep and neat. 

Chapman, Hom, II. xvin. 479. 

Ambushment, «&• (2 Chr. xiii. 13; xx. 22). An 

Judas, the twelfth,... was providing among the bishops and 
priests to come with an amhushm^nt of Jews, to take our Saviour 
Jesu Christ. Latimer, Serm, p. 2 1 7. 

Marcellus was intrapped and slaine, by an amhushm^ent lying 
in wayte for him. Marcellus insidiis interfectus est. Cic. 
Baret, Alvea/rie. 

'Bushment' is used in the same sense by Latimer 
(Serm, p. 220) ; compare Gk)wer, Cof^. Am, i, p. 349. 
Horestes wist it by a spie 
And of his men a great partie 
Ho made in busshemerU abide. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Amerce, v. t (Deut. xxiL 19). To impose a pecuniary 
peualty upon an offender. Blaekstone and Speiman say 
' to be amerced, or d. mercie, is to foe at the king's mercy 
with regard to the fine imposed.' An amercement differs 
from a fine proper, in that the latter is fixed by statute, 
but this distinction is not implied in the Hebrew. Tlie 
author of Piers Ploughman has evidently this etymology 
in view ; 

And though ye mowe amercy hem 

Let mercy be tazour. 

VisUm, 3871, 

Shakespeare keeps up the true meaning of the word. 

Bnt 111 amerce you with so strong a fine, 
niat you shall all' repent tiie loss of mine. 

Jtom. and Jtd. ni. i. 

Millions of spLrits, for his fault amerced 
Of heaven. 

Milton^ Paradise Lott, I. 609. 

Amiable, adj. (Ps. Ixxziv. i\ Loveljr; from Fr. 
aimabUy Lat amabUis, of which we naye retained Gslj the 
actiye, sense of ' loving.' 

Amiable^ or woorthy to be loued. AmabiUs. . .AmiabU ou digne 
d^eitrc awiS, Baret, Alvearie, 8.y. 

Come, sit thee down upon this floweiy bed, 
While I thy amiaMe cheeka do coy. 

Shakespeare, Mid, N.''i Dr. TV. i. 

If it be true, that the principall part of beauty, is in decent 
motion, certainly it is no marvaile, though persons m yeares, 
seeme many tunes more amiable. Ba^on, Ess. XLUi. p. 177. 

Amity^ 9h. (i Maoc. xii. 16). Friendship, especially 
between nations, political friendship; from Fr. amitiS, 
Lat amicitia. 

As well the Bomaines, than great lordes of the worlde, an 
Persiaiis, and diuers other realmes, desyred to haue with theim 
amtee and aliance. Elyot's Oovemour, i, fol. 8 a. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


First, to do greetings to thy royal person; 
And then to crave a league of amiiy: 
And lastly to confirm that anUty 
With nuptial knot, 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen. VI, ill. 3. 

Ancientj d>. (Is. iiL 14; Jer, xix. i ; Ez. Tii. 26, &c.). 
An elder. 

For as much as our duetie is to worship and adore the gods, 
to honour our parents, to reverence our cmcienU, to obey the 
lawes, Holland's Plutarch, Morals, p. 9, 1. 23, 

Ancientest, adj. Most ancient. 

The Apostle excepteth no tongue ; not Hebrewe the ancient- 
est, not Greeke the most copious, not Latine the finest. The 
TrdnskUors to the Reader, 

Let me pass 
The same I am, ere andent'st order was 
Or what is now received. 

Shakespeare, Winter^ s Tale, iv. i. 

And all (Jud^. xvL 3, 'bar anddU'), Halliwell and 
Hunter {HaUamshire Gloss) put this down as a provin- 
cialism, and it certainly is very common in Yorkshire. 

To vs of Syon that ben borne 
If thou thy favoure wolt renewe 
The broken sowle, the temple tome, 
The walles avd all shalbe made newe. 

Croke's Vers, of 5irf Psatm. 

Yea and this citie here of Hierusalem... together with the 
temple and oZZ... shall bee trodde vnder fete by the Gentiles. 
Udal's Erasmus, Luke xzi 

In that respect we must hate none, we must love our enemies 
and all, Peter Smart's Sermon, p. 3. 

He raased townes and threwe downe towers and all, 

Sackville, iThdttetion, 

See also the example from Ascham's Scholemaster, 
quoted under All. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

I WORD-BOOK. "^ »' 29 ' 

^ And if (Matt xxir. .fe). 'And if' or 'an if/ for 
'if' simply, is a redundant expression of Terr common 
odCarrence in old writers. (Compare or ere.) Mr Wedg- 
wood regards both as fragments of the same English word 
even. On the other hand Home Tooke derives an from 
the A. S. unnan, and if froxa gifan, both signifying *to 

five.' The latter, though plausible, is rendercKl extremeW 
oubtful by the analogy of the old Norse </*, from (/a 
to doubt. On the other hand the usage of gif in old 
English and of gin in Scotch seems to support Holne 
Tooke's etymology. We find and constantly u^ for {f, 

O swete and wel biloved spouse deere 
Ther is a couoseil, and ye wold it heere. 

Chaucer, and A'un'f Tale^ L 11073. 

So wole Crist of bis curteisie, 
And men crye hym mercy, 
Bothe foigyve and foigete. 

Piers Ploughman's VU. 1. 11 849. 

Yhit suld him thynk, and he toke kepe, 
His lyfe noght bet als a dreme in slepe. 

BoUe, The Pricke of Conscience, I. 8075. 

And you love me, let's do 't: I am dog at a catch. Shake* 
speare, Tw. Night, n. 3. 

And certainly, it is the nature of extreme selfe-lovers, as they 
will set an house on fire, and it were but to roast their egges. 
Bacon, Ess. xxin. p. 97, L 21. 

'And if' as frequently occurs. 

But and if we have this livery, if we wear his cognizance 
here in this world, that is, if we love our neighbour, help him in 
his distress, be charitable, loving and friendly unto him, then we 
shall be known at the last day. Jjatimer, Serm. p. 451. 

I pray thee, Launoe, and if thou seest my boy, 
Bid lum make haste, and meet me at the North gate. 

Shakespeare, Two 0. of F. III. i. 

Yes but you will my noble grapes, and if 
My noble fox could reach them. 

Id. AWa WeU, 11. i. 

Digitized by VJV.JVJ VIC 


Anger, v. t. (Ps. cvi. 32 ; Bom. x. 19). To make angry, 
provoke to anger, enrage. 

The chiefest cause as it is saied that angered Pyrrus most 
grew upon this. North's Plutarch, Pyrrus, p. 424. 

Not as compelled or driuen thereto for any perill that he 
seeth hut angred at their folly that assaUe or set vpon him. HoU 
land's Pliny, vni. 16. 

Angle, sb. (Is. xix. 8 ; Hab. i. 15). A fishing rod with 
line and hook ; from A. S. angel a fish-hook. One of the 
treatises in the Boke of St Alban's (1496) is ^of fysshynge 
with an angle* 

Give me mine angle,— we^U to the river: there, 
My music playing far oS, I will betray 
Tawny-finn'd fishes. 

Shakespeare, Ant. and CI. il. 5. 

The Temple church, there have I cast mine angle. 

Ben Jonson, Alchemistf II. i. 

* Angil-hoc' occurs in Wiclif, Is. xix. 8. 

Anon. adv. (Matt. xiii. 20 ; Mark i. 30). Immediately, 
at once. Several derivations have been proposed. ^ An one 
soil, minute vel instant^* Junius. A. S. on-dn, Minsheu. 
(See quot. 3.) 

Anoon I swowned after. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, L 1083 1. 
Right now the highe windes blowe 
And anon after they ben lowe. 

Grower, Conf. Am. prol. I. p. 34. 
So it by-felle hym sonne onone. 

Sir Immbras, 1. 521. 
There issued out of Him as I shall entreat anon drops of 
blood. Latimer, Serm. p. 222. 

It occurs in the form in one or in oon, which probably 
led to the etymology proposed by Junius. 
That ever in one aliche hot 
Me greveth. 

Gower, Conf. Am. 1, 297. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


But ever in oon y-like sad and kynde. 

• Chaucer, Cltr1s^9 Tale, 1. 8478. 

It is written also ^ among/ 

But ever among they it assaile 
Fro day to night aod so travaile. 

Gower, Conf. Am, 1. 348. 

The idea inyolved in anon is that of unbroken continua- 
tion. Compare the common exprestsions ' on and on/ and 
* an end,' as in Massinger, A very Woman, iil i : 

For she sleeps most on end; 
that is, without intermission. 

Answer, is used in the A. Y. with considerable 
faititnde of meaning. It does not necessarily imply that 
a question has been previously asked, though there is 
usiudly reference to something that has gone before. One 
of the most marked instances is Acts v. 8, where St Peter 
is said to have answered Sapphira though apparently she 
had not spoken, and he really asked a questlou. Other 
noteworthy instances are i Kings xiii 6 ; Is. Ixy. 24 ; Dan. 
ii 14, 15, 26; Matt. xi. 25; xii. 38; xvii. 4; xxii. i; 
xxvL 25, 63; Mark ix. 5; xi. 14; Luke iii. 16; xxii. 51 ; 
Bey. vii. 13. In 2 Tim. iy. 16 it is used as a substantive 
to denote an apology or defence in a court of justice. 

Anything (Num. xviL 13; Judg. xi. 25; i Sam. 
xzL 2 ; Acts xxv. 8). At alL 

After whych tyme the prince nener tyed his pointes, nor any 
Ihyng rought of hym selfe. Hall, Rick, III, f. 3 h. 

Any while (Mark xv. 44). For any length of time. 
See "While. 

Apace, adv. (Ps. Ixviii. 12 ; and Iviii. 6, P. B.). From 
Fr. pas, a pace, step : at a great pace, swiftly. 

And in hire hour he walketh forth a paaa 
Unto the lystes, ther hir temple was. 

Chaucer, KnigMs TaU, 1. m^. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Themistocles made Xerxes king of Persia post apcux out of 
Grsecia. ^ Bacon, Essay of Fame. 

Small herbs have grace, great weeds do grow apace, 

Shakespeare, Rick. III. n. 4. 

Gallop apace^ ye fiery-footed steeds. 

Id. Bom. and Jul. m. 1. 

The full phrase was probably *a great pace/ like Fr. 
a grands pas, for we find 'pace' as in the following pas- 
sages qualified by an ac^yectiye. 

This messanger, whan he awoke, 
And wist nothinge how it was. 
Arose and rode tlie great pax 
And toke his letter to the kinge. 

Grower, Conf, Am. 1. p. 191. 

And riden after softe pas. Id. p. 210. 

Our escouts rode as neere Paris as was possible, the which 
were often beaten backe to our watch, and eftsoones (the enimie 
on their backe) as far as our cariage, retiring sometime a soft* 
pace, and sometime a fast trot. Philip de Gommines, trans. 
Danett, p. 19. 

Apparel, sh. (2 Sam. xii. 20 ; Is. ill. 22 ; i Tim. ii. 9 ; 
Jam. u. 2). Clothing, dress, from Fr. appareUj equipage, 
attire. The Fr. pareil is, like the It. parecchto, mm the 
Med. Latin parictdtu, diminutive of par, equal, like; 
whence are formed Fr. appareiUer and It. apparecchiarey 
to couple, join like to like, fit, suit (see Diez, Etymol. 
Worterhuch der Bom. Spr. p. 252). Like the more com- 
mon word ^ dress J apparel had formerly a much wider 
signification than in later times: it is now seldom used. 

I could find it in my heart to disgrace my man's apparely and 
to cry like a woman. Shakespeare, As Tou Like It, u. 4. 

I was never manned with an agate till now ; but I will set 
you neither in gold nor silver, but in vile apparel, and send yoa 
back again to your master for a jeweL Id. 2 Hen. / F. l 3. 

Apparelled^ pp. (2 Sam. ziii. 18; Luke vii. 25). 
Clad, dressed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


They met with a coach drawne with fonre milke white horses 
funiisbed all in blacke, with a blacke a More boy upon euery 
horse, they all appareUed in white. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 56, 
1. 22. 

Chaucer uses the verb 'apparel' in the sense of 'to 
dress' meat. In enumerating the species of gluttony he 

The f erthe is curiosite, with gret entent to make and appa- 
rayle his mete. The Parson's Tale, 

And also in the sense of 'to prepare/ generally like Fr. 

Thanne say I, that in vengeance takinge, in werre, in bataile, 
and in warmstoringe of thin hous, er thou bygyime, I rede that 
thou apparaiUe the therto, and do it with gret d^beradoun. 
The Tale of Mdibetis, 

Apparently, adv. (Num. xii. 8). Manifestly, clearly, 

And therefore I saye and affirme yt you do apparcmUy 
wrong, and manyfest iniury to precede in any thinge agaynst 
kyog Richard. Hall, Hen. IV. fol. 10 a. 

I would not spare my brother in this case^ 
If he should scorn me so apparently. 

Shakespeare, Com. of Err. iv. i. 

Hall {Hen. IV. fol. 11 a) describes an abbot in West- 
minster in the time of Henry lY. as 'a man of apparant 
vertues.' Bo in Shakespeare's K. John, iv. 2 : 

It is apparent foul-play; and 'tis shame 
That greatness should so grossly offer it. 

Apple of the eye (Deut. xxxii. 10 ; Ps. xvii. 8, &a). 

" " "" . A.r ■ 

The eye-ball. The A. S. wpl or ceppel is used in the same 
way, and edg-osppd is the apple of the eye. 

Gmoeming the signs of life and death which may be found 
in man, this \b one, l^t so long as the patients eie is so cleare 
that a man may see himselfe in the apple of it, wee are not to 
despaire of life. Holland's Pliny f xxvni. 6. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV lU 



None liane th^ eyes all of one color: for the bal or apple in 
the midst is ordinarily of. another oolor than the white about it. 
HM, ZL 37. 

Appoint, D, i. (Qen. xxx. 28). The Hebrew Kterally 
signifies ' to prick, expressly name ;' thus corresponding to 
the 0. E. ' pnck out ' as used in Shakespeare {Lov^s Z. JMt^ 
V. 2); 

The whole world again 
Cannot prick out five such. 

Prom 0. Fr. d poinct, * aptly, in good time, folly,* comes 
appoinct, 'fitness, &c,' and appoincter, 'to pronounce fit- 
tmg, determine.' Hence in Snakespecure the expressions 
to point and at point; 

Hast thou, spirit, 
Performed to point the tempest that I bade thee? 

Tem^, I. 3. 

A figure like your father, arm'd at point 

The latter of these passages illustrates the usa^ of 
'appointed' in the sense of ' equipped' in Judg. xviii. 11. 
(Heb. 'girt\ In the sense 01 expressly naming^ as in 
the verse of Genesis above quoted, it occurs in Latimer 
(Rem, p. 308); 'I name nor appoint no person nor 

^ Appoint out ' in Josh. xx. 2, is the transition of what 
is elsewnere rendered 'assign^' as in t?. 8 (see also Gen. 
xxiv. 44). In this sense 'appomt' is used in Gen. xxx. 28, 
and by Latimer (Serm. ^. 304) ; ' But who shall appoint 
him a sufficient living ? mmself ? Nay. Who then ? you f 
Nay, neither. The kmg must appoint him sufficient to Uve 

The king would vndoubtedly yf he had entended that thtnge 
haue appointed that boocherly office to some other then his owne 
borne brother. Sir T. Morels Rich, III. {Works, p. 37 ^f). 

AU Wales and the landes beyond Seueme westward, were 
appoyneted to Owen Glendor. Hall, Sen, IV, foL ao 6. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


Among these captainB, lords, and knights of skill. 
Appoint me ten, approued most in fight. 

Fairfax's Tomso, iv, 63. 

Appointed^ ic»p. (Judg. xTiii. 11). Equipped. 
It shall be so my care 
To have you royally appointed as if 
The scene you play were mine. 

Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, IV. 4, 
And so I do, and with his gifts present 
Your lordships^ that whenever you have need, 
You may be armed and appoi'nied well. 

Id. Titus Andron. TV, 2, 

Apprehend, «.^. From the Latin ^apprehendo' 
literally means to lay hold of, to take by the hand, in whicn 
sense it is used in Phil, iii 12. The passage throughout 
has reference to the Grecian games; apprehend in the 
first part of the sentence meaning to lay hold of the goal, 
and so receive the prize ; in the second part, meaning take 
hold of by the hand and introduce to the course, as was 
customary. Johnson quotes from Jeremy Taylor, Holy 
Living, 11. 6; 

There ^ nothing but hath a double handle, or at least we 
have two hands to apprekend it. 

Approve, v,t From Lat. probus, 'honest, good,' 
comes prdbarey * to deem good;' YfherMOQ approhare, and 
Fr. approver. It is used in two senses in the I^ew Testa- 
ment : — I. To prove, demonstrate ; Acts ii 22 ; 2 Cor. vL 4, 
Tii. 1 1. So Shakespeare (Mer. of Ven, m. 2) : 

In religion. 
What damned error, but some sober brow 
Will bless it and approve it with a text? 

2. To put to the proo^ test, try; as in Bom. ii. 18 ; Phil, i 

l^ay task me to the word, approve me, lord. 

Id I Hen. IV. iv. i. 

He is of a noble stram, of appromd valour and confirmed 

honesty. Id. Muck Ado,n. u 

Digitized by G0?5gft ^H 


Apt, adj. From Lat. aptus, ti, adapted. (2 Kings 
xxiy. 16; I Tim. iii. 2 ; 2 Tim. ii 24.) In the phrase ^apt 
to melt,' Wisd. xix. 21, it seems to come near to the modem 
sense of ^inclined or disposed.' 

The earthe is not a^te for wines. PoL Vergil, I. 20. 

Any fish that takes salt; of which the herring is the apUst. 
Nashe, LenUn Stuffe, pref. 

No man that putteth his hand to the plough, and looketh 
back, is apt for the kingdom of God. Luke ix. quoted in Lati- 
mer, Serm, p. -59. 

So are there states, great in territorie, and yet not apt to 
enlarge, or command ; and some, that have but a small dimen- 
sion of stemme, and yet apt to be the foundations of great 
monarchies. Bacon, Ess, xxjx. p. 120. 

Ark. «&. (Ex. ii. 3). Lat. area; A.S. arc, eare, a chest, 
coffer. In this literal sense it was used in old English. 

In the rich arhe Dan Homer's rimes he placed. 

Surrey, Sonnets. 

You have beheld how they 

With wicker arks did come, 
To kisse and beare away 

The richer cooslips home. 

Herrick, Mesperides, I. p. 147. 

It is generally applied exdosiyely to Noah's Ark, and 
the Ark of the Covenant. The meal-ark, made of stout 
oak boards, often beautifully carved, is still an article of 
furniture in oldfashioned farmhouses in Yorkshire ; and at 
one time the fitbrication of such arks was a trade of suffici- 
ent importance to have originated the surname Arkwright. 
The pfuish-chest is called an ark in some old accounts ^ 
'1744, pd. Wm. Yates for setting up ark* Ecdesfidd, 
Yorks, Hunter {ffaUams. Gloss.) says, that the strong 
boxes in which the Jews kept their valuables were anciently 
called their arks; so that our translators had good preced- 

Digitized by VjV^JVJ VIC 


ent for so terming the sacred coffer in which were kept 
the two tables of stone written by the finger of Oodj and 
other things, which if lost could never be replaced. 

Array^ 9b. (i Tim. iL 9). Dress, raiment 

Albe it she were out of al aaray saue her kyrtle only. Sir 
T. More, Works, p. 56/. 

Arrogancy^ «&. (i Sam. ii. 3 ; Prov. Till 13 ; Is. ziii. 
1 1 ; Jer. xlviii 29). Lat arrogantia from arrogare ' to 
claim/ and then ' to claim more than one*8 due.' The old 
form of ^arrogance,' as 4nnocency ' for 'innocence,' 'inso- 
lency' for ^insolence/ &c. 

But your heart 
Ib crammed with a/rrogancy, spleen and pride. 

Shakespeare, Hen, VIII. n. 4. 

Notwithstanding, so much is true; that the carriage of 
greatnesse, in a plalne and open manner (so it be without arro- 
gancy, and vaine glory) doth draw lesse envy, then if it be in a 
more crafty, and cunning fashion. Bacon, E98, IX. p. 33. 

Artificer, sb, (Gen. iv. 22 ; i Chr. zxix. 5; Is. iii. 3). 
A skilled workman, artisan ; Lat Artifex, 

Thither 0. e. to Delos), as to a mart or fair, there was great 
resort of chapmen from all parts of the world ; and specially of 
those ao'tificers who were curious in making of table feet, trestles, 
and bed-steads. Holland's Pliny , ZXKIV. a. 

Another lean, unwash'd wrttfioer 

Cuts off hia tale, and talks of Arthur's death. 

Shakespeare, K, John, iv. a. 

Artillery, sh, (i Sam. xx. 40; i Mace. vi. 51). From 
Lat. ars, and artifidumy which were used in Med. Lat. to 
denote an implement^ and especially an implement of war 
(just as from ingemwm is derived engine)^ were formed 
artUiaria a workshop (Fr. atelier), thence an implement 
in gener^ and the Fr. artUlerie. The word artiUery was 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


used long before the invention of gunpowder to denote 
missile weapons in general. 

Caractaou8...choosiiige suche place for the planting his a/rtU- 
lerie, Polid. Vergil, p. 67. 

Of the great serpent 120 feet in length killed by Uegulus 
in Africa, it is said that he 

Was driven to discharge vpon him arrowes, quarrels, stones, 
bullets, and such like shot, out of brakes, slings, and other 
engins of arWlery, Holland's Pliny, vm. 14. 

And even after the introduction of cannon into warfare, 
before archery was entirely stiperseded, there appears to 
have been a distinction between ordnance and artilleryj 
the former being specially applied to the new weapons. So 
Latimer^ of the devil : 

He is a great warrior, and also of great power in this world ; 
be hath great ordnance and artillery, Serm, p. 97. 

In I Mace. vi. 51, the marginal reading is 'mounds to 
shoot;' Geneva Vers, 'instruments to shoote.' 

In his French Dictionary (161 1) Cotgrave gives, " Artil- 
Her: m. A Bowyer, or Bow-maker; also, a Fletcher; or 
one that makes both bowes, and arrowes." 

Art magfc, sh. (Wisd. xvH. 7). Magic; lit fh>m 
Lat. ars magica, as 'arsmetrike/ by a false etymology 
( = ars metrica), for arithmetic (Chaucer, Knighfs Tcue^ 
1900). There is no doubt that 'art, magic,' in the fol- 
lowing passage from Latimer's Sermons, (p. 349) printed 
for the rarker Society, should be art-magic; in the edition 
of 1 571 it is 'art Mag^e.' 

We require that all witchcrafts be removed ; that art, ftuigic, 
and sorcery, be pulled out, necromancy taken away. 

Asp, sh. (Dent xxxii. 33; Job xx. 14, 16; Is. zi. 8; 
Rom. iii. 13). Gk. d<nrls; Lat. asms, A sniall serpent^ the 
Gohiber Nqja of Egypt^ whose bite is said to be so poi- 
sonous that it kills almost instantly. At the time of the 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Anth. Vers, the word €up was scarcely natnnlized Lati- 
mer uses aspis as a foreign word : 

But the children of this world have worldly policy, foxly 
craft, lion-like cruelty, power to do hurt, more than either (Upif 
or haailiflcus. Serm, p. 47. 

And in Gower aspidis occurs in a passage of ' A ser- 
pent which that aspidis Is cleped.' embodying the popular 
belief with regard to the animal's deafness to the voice of 
the charmer: 

He lith down his one ere al plat 
Unto the ground and halt it faste. 
And eke that other ere ala faste 
He stoppeth with his tail so sore, 
That he the wordes lasse or more 
Of his enchauntement ne hereth. 

Om/. Am. I. p. 57. 

Shakeeroeare has the form aspick (Ant and CI,y,2\ 
0th. m. 3), which is like the modem Greek form of the 
word, dinruc 

Assay, vX (Deut ir. 34 ; i Sam. xrii. 39 ; Job iv. 2 ; 
2 Mace iL 23 ; Acts ix. 26, xri. 7 ; Heb. xi 29). To at- 
tempt, try. From Med. Lat. exaffium 'a test,^ which is 
derived from eaigere, comes Fr. essayer, ' to try, put to the 

The second of the passages in which the word occurs 
is iUustrated by the following from Hall's Chronicle, de- 
scribing an alarm in the camp of the Earl of Kichmona ; 

With which newes the armie was sore troubled, and euery man 
aasakd bis annure; and proued his weapon. JUch, III. f, 37 a. 

And whan that he was thus arraied, 
And hath his harness all auaUd. 

Grower, Gonf. Am, m. p. 57. 

He rode a course to at»y his stede. 

Sire EglamoWf 571. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


In this sense it is of common occurrence : 

Good is that we oMoye, 

Wher he be deed or noght deed. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, 122 13. 

Assaylik expugnation of divers castells. PoL Verg. p. 78. 

If this should fail, 
And that our drift lack through our bad performance, 
'Twere better not assayed, 

Shakespeare, Ham, iv. 7, 

It is now chiefly used of the testing of precioas 

Assemble, v.refl. (Num. x. 3 ; Is. xlv. 20, &c.). Used 
as a reflexive verb originally, as endeavour, repent, retire, 
tubmit, and many others. 

The mayre with all the aldermen and chiefe comeners of the 
dtie in their beste manor apparailed, assenibling themsdf together 
resorted vnto Baynardes oastell where the protector lay. & T. 
More, Works, p. 65 J. 

The phrase 'assemble into' opcurs in Jer. xxi. 4. 
Shakespeare uses the construction 'assemble to.' 

To me and to the state of my great grief 
Let kings assemble. 

K. John, m. I. 
And transitively ; 

Assemble presently the people hither. 

Coriol. UL 3. 

Assure, v, t, (Ps. Ixxxi. 9, Pr. Bk.}. ' I will assure 
thee, O IsraeV is the translation in the Prayer-Book Ver- 
sion of what the A. Y. renders, ' I will testify unto thee, 
O Israel/ and the Geneva Version, 'I will protect unto 
thee; Israel' 

And eche of hem ctssureth other 

To helpe as to his owne brother 

To vengen hem of thilke outrage 

And winue agein her heritage. 

Gower, Oo^f, ^m. i. p. 339, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


This sliall (isswre my constant loyalty. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen, VI, m. 3. 

In the contents of John xiv., xvi., it is used for 'ensure.' 

Burgundy hath been privy to this plot; 
Conspir'd with Lewis and the English king, 
To save his own stake, and aaawre himself 
Of all those seignories I hoped for. 

Hey wood, a Ed, IV, I. 5. 

Assuredness, sh. (Deut. yii. c). Assurance, security. 

But suche persones as vtterly mistrustyng their owne oMm-- 
ednesse, that is to saie, al worldly ayde and maintenaunce of man, 
dooe wholly depende of Grods defense and helpe : suche and none 
others are liable to stande sure^ Udal's Eraam, Luke, c. 22. 

Assi^age, v.i, (Gen. yiii. i). From Lat. suams, 
* sweet/ and O. Pr. soe/, sott^, * sweet, soft/ is derived cts- 
touager,' *to soften, allay/ as abreger from brevis, O. B. 
agregge firom gravis, and cdegge from levis. 

In Gen. viii. i it is used intransitively, 'the water as- 
ttoaged^ ie. subsided. So in Gower, Conf, Am, i. p. 333 ; 

My sone, attempre thy corage 

Fro wrath, and let thin hert assuage. 

In Job xvi. 5, Ecclus. xviii. 16, and 'Visitation of the 
Sicl^' it occurs as an actiye verb; so Piers Ploughman, 
ri*. 2716; 

May no sugre ne swete thyng 
Aswage my swellyng? 

And Shaikespeare (Goriol, Y, 2), 'The good gods as- 
mage thy wrath.' The form 'swage' is also of frequent 

Astonied, pp. (Job xrii. 8 ; Jer. xiy. 9, &c.). O. Fr. 
ettonn&r. Astonished. Astonied is one of a numerous 
class of words derived from the Norman French, which 
had two coexistent forms, one of which only has survived. 
For instance, abash and abay or ahawe; burnish and 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


humy; betray and betrash; chasiie and chastise; obey 
and obeisse or obeyshe, are sJl found in contemporaneous 
writers, and often in the same page. Custom appears to 
have followed no law of selection in determining which 
form should remain. Many instances might be given. 

The anncient fighting menn cuUmied at the first commotion 
of the Britains, &o. PoL Yeig. p. 71. 

The word appears in yarious shapes ; — (ist(med(Chaxicer), 
astoined (Spenser and SackviUe), stoynde (Sackrille), from 
which the transition is ea^ to &e form stunned^ wmch is 
etymologically the same. For instance, Alexander^ fighting 
against the Mallians, 

Had a bloVe with a dart on his necke that so cutonied him, 
that he leaned agamst the wall looking ypon his enemies. 
North's Plutarch, Alex,]p, 751. 

At which oeason were left at Yannes ahoute the nombre of 
in. Englishmen, whych not beyng called to councell and Tnware 
of this enterpiyse, but knowyne of the erles sodeyne departure 
wer so incontinently cuUmned, j*ia maner they were all dispayre. 
Hall, Bieh, III. fol. 22 b. 

Wiclif uses 'stoneyng* for 'astonishment.' "Thei 
weren abayschid with a great stoneyng*' (Mk. y. 42.) 

At, prep. In the phrases 'to hold one's peace €U' 
(Num. XXX. 4), *to come at^ (Ex. xix. 15). 

Madam, he hath not slept to night; commanded 
None should come at him. 

Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, n. 3. 

At one (Acts vii 26). 'To be at one* is to be nnitedy 
reconciled ; ' to set at one' is to reconcil& 

So beene they both ai one, Spenser, F, Q. n. i, § 99. 

If gentihnen, or other of hir oontre. 

Were wroth, sohe wolde birnge hem at oon, 

dbauoer, Clerk's Tale, B313. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


The rerb iiUme means to reeoneUsj make one, Shake- 
speare uses atone mtransitiYely; as well as transitiYely; 

Sinee we cannot alUme yon, we shall fee 
Justice design the victor's duYalry. 

Biek. IL L I. 

There is mirth in heayen. 
When earthly things made even 
Atone together. 

A9 Tau Like It, T. 4. 

I am glad I did atone my ooimtryman and you. 

Cytrib. I. 5. 

The process by which we arriye at the form cttonement 
is illustrated by the following passage from Bishop Hall 

Ye witlease gallants, I beshrewe your hearts. 
That set such discord 'twixt agreeing parts. 
Which never can he set at onantnt more. 

In the sense of 'reconciliation' it occurs in SirT. More ; 

Hauyng more regarde to their olde variaunce then their newe 
tMonement. JUch, J II. p. 41 0. 

And in Shakespeare (2 Hen. IF, iy. i) ; 

If we do now make our atonemmt well 
Our peace will, like a broken limb united, 
Be stronger for the breaking. 

Attonement, a louing agame after a breache or fftlling out. 
Baret^ Ahearie, s. v. 

For hereof is it [Sunday] called in the commune tongue of 
' the Grermanes Soertdaehf not of the sonne as certayne men done 
mteiprete but of recondlynffe, that if m the other weke dayes 
any spoite or fylthe of synne be gathered by the reason of worldly 
bnsynesse and occupations, he shold eyther on the Saterdaye in 
the enentide or els on Sundaye in the momynge reconcile hym- 
selfe^ and make an <me7newt with God. Eraem. on the Command' 
1533, fol. 163. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC > 


Ortwo is very common in old writers, compare also 
* atwixt/ * atwain/ &c. 

At the last (Proy. y. 1 1, &a). At last ; an antiquated 
nss^e. The article was frequently inserted in phrases in 
whidi it is now omitted, e.g. '^A^ which/ for 'which,' &€. 
(Gen. i. 29). So Piers Ploughman ( Vis, 9614) : 

I coDJured hym at the laste, 

and Sackyille {Indtiction) : 

Till at the laste 
Well eased they the dolour of her mmde^ 
As rage of rayne doth swage the stormy winde. 

It frequently occurs in the form ate laste; so Gk>wer: 

But ate laste 
His slombrend eyen he upcaste. 

Conf. Am,TL'p, 103. 

At the length (Proy. xnx. 21). At length; like 
'at the last/ an antiquated usage. 

So that a^ the lengthe eiuill driftes dryne to naught, and good 
plain waies prospere and florishe. Hall, Ed. V. f. 2 b. 

Yet at the length he had compassion on them, and raised up 
Gideon to deliver them. Latimer, Serm, p. 31. 

So Bacon uses 'at the first* {Ess. xlv. p. 182), 'at the 
least' {Ess, xxix. p. 126), 'at the second hand' [Ess, liy. 
p. 217). 

Attendance j sb, (i Tim, iy. 13). Attention; from 
Lai attendo, ' to bend towards,' first applied to a bow, and 
then generally ' to direct, aim at' 

Attendaunce doth attayne good favour. 

Hawes, Pastime of PUasure, Cap. ai. 

So in Latimer (Bern, p. 326) ; 

But rather he will blame the people for that they took no 
better heed and aUendance to Paul's speakiog. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


In I Kings x. 5; 2 Chr. ix. 4; i Mace. xv. 32, * atten- 
dance of serrants/ i. e. retinue, establishment, statf, is used 
ia a sense not altogether obsolete. In Heb. vii. 13, ' atten- 
dcmce at the altar, i e ' act of attending,' is the most usual 
meaning. The phrase 'to give attendance' occurs in Hall 
(Hen. VIII. foL 75 6) ; 

The Dukes, Marques and Earles, gauA aUendanee nexte the 

Attent, ac(), (2 Chr. Ti. 40; yii. 15). Lat. cUtentm. 
Attentiye, as the Heb. is elsewhere rendered. 

Season your admiration for a while 
With an aUent ear. 

Shakespeare, ffam. L i. 

Attire, sh. (Jer. ii. 32 ; Frov. vii 10 ; Ezek. xxiii 15). 
O. Fr. ataur, attouTy a hood, or woman's headdress (see 
Tire). The word afterwards acquired the more extended 
meaning of 'dress' generally; but that it was used in the 
above passage in its original sense is evident from the fact 
that the same Hebrew word is in Is. iii 20, trandated 
* headbands.' The forms attour and attire both occur in a 
passage of Chaucer's Eomaunt qfthe Rose, 3713 — 18 : 

By her attire so bright and shene^ 

Men might perceve well and sene 

She was not of religioun, * 

Nor I nill make mentioun 

Nor of robe, nor of treasour 

Of hroche, neither of her rich cMour, 

To tel you the apparel of the ladies, their rych attyi^es, their 
smnptuous juelles, their diuersities of beauties, and the goodly 
behauyor from day to day syth the first meeting, I assure you 
ten mennes wyttes can scace declare it. Hall, Hen, VIII. fol. 

Attire, v. t (Lev. xvi. 4). To put on a head-dress. 

Audience, €b. (Gen. xxiii. 13; i Sam. xxv. 2, 4, &c). 
Lat audientia. Hearing. The Hebrew is literally 'ears.' 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV U' 



In Acts xiii. i6, 'give aadienoe' is the rendering of what 
in the Greek is simply ' hearken.' The word is found in 
Chaucer, in the same sense: 

I dar the better ask of yow a space 

Of audimce. Clerics Tale, 7980. 

and in 77ie Tale qf MeHbeiu: 

Uproos tho oon of these olde wise, and with his hond made 
countenaunce that men schulde holde hem still and given him 

To every wight comanndid was silence 
And that the knight schuld telle in audience 
What thing that worldly wommen loven best. 

Chaucer, The Wife of Bathes TcUe, 6614. 

Aul, »b, nSx. XXL 6; Deut xy. 17X The old 

'awl:' A. S. cbI, al, awel, or awtd^ G. ahle. But in 
Uotgraye's French IHcti<mary, printed in the same year 
as the Authorized Version we find: 

Alesne : f. AsiAwU; or (Shoemakers) bodkin. 

On the other hand, in Withal's IHcHonarp^ p. 180 (ed. 1634) 
we find: 

An Aule, Subula> ». 

The last is the spelling in the A. V. of 161 1. 

Autentike, adj. Authentic. 

And all is sound in substance, in one or other of our editions, 
and the worst of ours farre better than their autenUhe vulgar. 
The Tranelaton to the Beader. 

Avenge, v,t (i Sam. xxiy. 12; Is. i. 24; Luke xviiL 
3). The construction ' to avenge of occurs in the pre&ce 
of the TraiulatorM to the Reader: 

That pietie towards God was the weapon, and the onely 
weapon that both preserved Conetantinei person, esaXxmatged him 
of iuB enemies. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Snch as Socrates was, who being greatly abused by an inso- 
lent^ audacious and graoelesse youUi, that spared him not, but 
had spumed and kicked him with his heeles, seeing those about 
him to be very angrie and out of patience, stamping and faring 
as though th^ would run after the partie, to be avenged of such 
indignitie. How now, my masters, (quoth he,) what if an asse 
had flung out, and given me a rap with his heeles, would you 
have had me to have yerked out and kicked him againe? Hol- 
land's Plutarch, p. 12, L 33. 

ATengement, sb. (2 Sam. xzii. 48, m,; Ps. zviiL 47, 
!».). Yengeance. 

Yindice : /. Keuenge, awnffementf vengeance, punishment. 

CSotgrave, Fr, IHct* 

Avoid, v.i, (i Sam. xvlii. 11 ; Wisd. xvii 17). Fr. 
vuider, mder, to make empty, clear out. Intransitively to 
depart, escape. Webster marks as improper the usage 
of the word in i Sam. : * David avoided out of his presence 
twice,' but it is supported by ;many examples in old Englii^ 

He woulde neuer haue sufiered him to auoyd his handes or 
escape his power. HaU, Rich, III, f. 6 h. 

Well done, avoids no more. 

Shakespeare, Temj^. iv. i. 

Void is used in the same sense in Chaucer: 

AUe the rokkes blake 
Of Breteigne were y-vaided everichon. 

Chaucer, FramMin^s Tale, 11471. 

The following example illustrates the usage of the word 
as it passed from its onginal to its present meaning : 

One time it happened that he met him so in a narrow street 
that he could not avoid but come near him. Latimer, Serm, 
p. 441. 

Avouch, v,t, (Deut. xxvi. 17, 18 ; Lukexx. c; Acts iv. 
c), Lsitadvocare, through Fr. voucTier. To acknowledge, 
avow. The original is simply ^ caused to say.' * Thou hast 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


this day made Jehovah to say or promise, and Jehovah 
hatii made thee promise ;' i. e. * ve have mutually promised, 
accepted and ratified the conditions, one of the other.' 
Such is the explanation which Gesenius gives of this dis- 
puted passage. The process by which avouch arrived at 
the sense in which it is there employed is explained by 
Mr Wedgwood {Diet qf Eng, Etym, s.v.). * Under the 
feudal system, when the right of a tenant was imputed 
he had to call upon his lord to come forwards and de- 
fend his right. This in the Latin of the time was <^ed 
advocare, Fr. voiicher a garantie, to vouch or call to 
warrant. Then as the calling on an individual as lord of 
the fee to defend the right of the tenant involved him in 
the admission of all the duties implied in feudal tenancy, 
it was an act jealously looked after by the lords, ana 
advocarCf or the equivalent Fr. avouer, to avow^ came to 
signify the admission by a tenant of a certain person 
as feudal superior. Finally with some grammaticsd con- 
fusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouchy came to 
be used in the sense of performing the part of the vouchee 
or person called upon to defend the right impugned.* 
Hence to assert, mamtain : 

And though I could 
With barefaced power sweep him from my sight, 
. And bid my will avouch it. 

Shakespeare, Mcuib, m. i. 

The secte of Saducds who denied the resurrection of bodyes, 
auouchyng manne wholy to peryshe after deathe. Udal's Erasm. 
Mk. xii. 1 8. 

This thynge do I auouck vnto you. lUd, xiii. 28. 

The full force of the word will be seen in the following 
examples from Cotgrave's Fr. Diet, 

Advouiiteur: m. An aduower, awmcher; answerer, vnder- 
taker for; also, one that acknowledges, and challenges his beast, 
taken dammage-fesant. . 

Advouer. To aduow, CMMmdl;... acknowledge, confesse to be, 
take as, or for, his owne. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Await, sh. (Acts ix. 24). Ambush; connected with 
Tr. guet. Obsolete as a substantive. 

The lyoun syt in his awayt alway 
To Blen the innocent if that he may. 

Chaucer, FrioAr'i Tale, 7139. 

For hate is ever upon atpait, 

Gower, Conf. Am» i. p. 311. 

He watcht in close awayt with weapons prest. 

Spenser, F. Q. Yi. 6, % 44, 

So wait is found in Gower (Conf. Am, i. p. 260^ : 

And therupon he toke a route 
Of men of armes and rode oute 
80 longe and in a waite he lay. 

Awaked, for Atcoke, the past tense (Gen. xxviii. 16, 
&C.), and past participle of Awake* It is the common form 
in Shakespeare. 

In which hurtling, 
From miserable slumber I atvahed. 

Ai Tou Like It, iv. 3. 

'Faith, not for me, except the north-east wind, 
Which then blew bitterly against our facen, 
Awdked the sleeping rheum. 

Rkh, IT, I. 4. 

Peace, ho! the moon sleeps with Endymion, 
And would not be avjaked, 

Mer. of Ven. v. i. 

Away Withj v.t. (Is. i, 13). To endure, suffer, 
put up with, 

Hauing been long accustomed to the olde soureswygof Moses 
lawe, they conlde not av}aie with the muste of euangelical cha- 
ritee. Udal's Erasmus, LukCy f. 74 r. 

Latimer uses the same expression: 

** Trouble, vexation and persecution, which these worldly 
men cannot suffer nor away withal. Rem. p. 303. 

Digitized by VjOOQ 14" 


I looked on the episUe : tush, I could not away with that 
neither. Id. Serm, p. -247. 

For we are afrsude forsoothe lest, if wee shoulde speake that 
he would be offended which cannot away with the truth. North- 
brooke, Poor Man's Garden (1573), fol. 8 b. 

She never cotild away with me. 

Shakespeare, 2 ffen. IF. m. 2, 

This creature {i. e. the ass) of all things can worst away with 
cold. «[olland*8 Pliny, vm. 43. 

In the phrases ^away with him,' ^away toith such a 
fellow,' the meaning is entirely different, and corresponds 
with the A.-S. origmal wt-wegan, *to take away.' Thus 
Latimer (Serm, p. 344) ; 

Let us not make a shew of holiness with much babbling, for 
Gro^ hath no pleasure in it ; therefore away with it. 

', y A-WOrk (2 Chr. ii 18). A compound formed like 

€ido, abroach^ oMeep. 

So that skill in the weapon is nothing without sack^ for that 
sets it a-worh. Shakespeare, 2 Hen. I V. iv. 3. 

I now perceive, it was not altogether your brother's evil dis- 
position made him seek his death, but a provoking merit, set 
a-work by a reproveable badness in himself. Id. Lear, ni. 5. 

We should use in such phrases either * working' or 
* to work.' 


Babbler, sb. (Eccl. x. n : Acts xvii. 18; Ecclus. xx. 
7). A prater, foolish talker. The word is eyidently imi- 
tative, like the Fr. hahUler. Mr Wedgwood says it is 
derived '^ from ha, ha, representing the ineffectual attempt 
of a child at talking." 

The secret man, heareth many confessions ; for who will open 
himselfe, to a blab or a bailer f Bacon, Ess, vi. p. 19. 

Babbling, sh. (Prov. xxiiL 29; i Tim. vL 20; 2 Tim. 
ii 16 ; Ecclus. xix. 6 ; xx. 5). Idle talking. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I speak of faithful prayer: for in times past we took bibling 
hobbling for prayer, when it was nothing less. Latimer, Serm. 
p. 507.. 

I hate ingratitude more in a raan 
Than lying, vainness, hahhlingy drunkenness, 
Or any taint of vice whose strong corruption 
Inhabits our frail blood. 

Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, nr. 4. 

We have adopted Steevens's punctuation of this pas- 
sage. In the Folios it is not certain whether 'babbling' is 
to be taken as a substantive, or as an adjective with the 
uoun following. 

Backbite j v, t, (Ps. xv. 3). To slander, calumniate. 
The A.-S. bac^litol, i.e. back- slitter, is used to denote a 
slanderer, and 8hakspeare [JHeas./or Meaa. lu. 2) applies 
the epithet backwounding in the same sense : 

hackwounding calunmy 
The whitest virtue strikes. 

Gower {Conf.Am. i. p. 173), in sketching the character 
of the detractor, says: 

Of such lesinge as he compasseth 
Is none so good, that he ne passeth 
Betwene his tethe and is backbited, 
And through his false tunge endited. 

To backbite and to bosten 
And here fals witnesse. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 1043. 

'Eyebite' is used in Holland's Plutarch (Morals, p. 
723) of the effects of the evil eye, and those who bewitch 
>vith their eyes are called * eye-biters.' 

Backbiter j sh, (Rom. i. 30). A detractor, slanderer. 

Homicide is eek by bakbytyng, of whiche bakbitera saith 
Salomon, that tliay have twaye swerdes with whiche thay slen 
here neighebors. Chaucer, Pa/rsorCa Tale. 

u.Vre not some men themselves meere poisons by nature J for 

Digitized by VjQC^lC 


these slanderers and hcuMiiera in the world, what doe they else 
but lance poison out of their black tongues, like hideous ser- 
pents. Holland's Plmy, xvn. i. 

Backbiting, sh. (2 Cor. xii. 20 ; Wisd. i. 1 1). Slander, 

Of these tuo spices cometh hachityng; and this synne of 
hahbytyrhg or detraccioun hath certein spices. Chaucer, Paraon's 

And many a worthy love is greved 
Through backMtinge of false envie. 

Gower, Conf. Am, I. p. 175. 

Backside, d>, (Ex. iii. i ; xxvi. 12 ; Bey. y. i). The 
back part, the rear. 

But what meane I to speake of the causes of my loue, which 
is as impossible to describe, as to measure the backside of heaven ! 
Sidney, Arcadia, 66, 1. 47. 

To the end that the points of their battell- might the more 
easily bowe and enlarge themselues, to compasse in the Bomaines 
on the haxike side. North's Plutarch, Sylla, p. 508. 

Used still as a provincialism. See * Glossary of provincial 
words used in Herefordshire, and some of the acyoining 
counties,' by the late Sir G. C. Lewis. 

Bakemeats, sh, (Gen. xl. 17). The margin renders 
literally, * meat of Pharaoh, the work of a baker or cook.' 
Chaucer, in describing the Franklin's hospitality, says: 

Withoute ha^e mete was never his hous 
Of fleissch and fissch. 

Prol. to C. Tola, 345. 

And in The Parson^ 8 Tale he inveighs against the pride 
of the table, which consisted among other t£ings in 

Suche maner of haJce m^tis and dische metis, brennyng of wilde 
fuyr, and peynted and castelid with papire. 

It occurs in Shakespeare in the form * baked meats : * 

The funeral haJced meals 
Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables. 

Ham, 1. 1. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

word-book. 53 

Baken, jE>p. (Lev. ii 4). Baked 

Band^ fb.'ixom (A.-S. hamd or bend). A bond, or 
cord ; it is of frequent occurrence both in the Bible ( Judg. 
XY. 14 ; 2 Kings xxiiL 3^, Sic.) and as a provincialism, lite- 
rally meaning anything that binds ; thus in Yorkshire^ string 
or twine is <^led hand. 

By Abraham, I maie understande 
The father of heaven that can Younde 
With his Bonnes bloode to breake that hande. 
That the devill had broaghte us to. 

Chnter Play, I. p. 75. 

For some in the daunce hir pincheth by the hande 
Which gladly would see him stretched in a bande, 

Barclay, Edog. p. zzii. 

But release me from my hands 
With the help of your good hands. 

Shakespeare, Tempest, epil. 

Be thou a prey unto the house of York, 
And die in bands for this unmanly deed. 

Id. 3 ffen. VI. 1. 1. 

The form 'band' for 'bond,* in the sense of an obliga- 
tion, is common in Shakespeare. 

Old John of Gaunt, time-honourM Lancaster, 
Hast thou, according to thy oath and band. 
Brought hither Henry Hereford thy bold son. 

Jtich. II. I. I. 

Band^ tb. (Acts x. 1 ; xxvii. i, &c.). A'body of soldiers. 
(It. banda; according to some from Med. Lat. bandtis, a 
standsu*di, banner) ; in the passage quoted, the Greek pro- 
Iwibly signifies *a cohort.' 

For amongst others, were the bandes which they called the 
Fimbrian bandes, men giuen ouer to selfe wiil, and very ill to be 
ruled by martiall discipline. North's Plutarch, LucuXlva, p. 544. 

A legion of the Bomaines (as Vigetius reporteth) contained 
6000. warriours or moe : which legion^ was deuided into tenne 
bandes. Stow, AnncUs, p. 14, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The word may however be connected with hindy G. 
hinden; compare league from ligare. 

Band, v, i. (Acts xxiii. 12). To combine. 
The bishop and the duke of Gloucester's men, 
Forbidden late to oarry any weapon, 
Have fill'd their pockets full of pebble-stones, 
And banding themselves in contrary parts 
Do pelt so fast at one another^s pate , 

That many have their giddy brains knock'd out. 

Shakespeare, i If en. VI, in. i. 

The etymology is nncertain. Mr Wedgwood is inclined 
to derive it from Sp. and It. banda, a side ; hence * to band' 
is to take sides in a &Ction. ' Bandy' is used in the 1 

Banquet^ v.i. (Esth. vii. i, &c.). The Hebrew in the 
first passage is literally *to drink,' and 'banquet' was 
fonnerly applied not to feasting in general but to the 
dessert after dinner. 

Bring in the banquet quickly; wine enough 
Cleopatra's health to drink. 

Shakespeare, Ant. and CI. i. 2. 

* Feasts' and 'banquets ' are distinguished in Mctcbeth, 
III. 6 : 

Give to our tables meat, sleep to our nights; 
Free from our feasts and banqtiets bloody knives. 

And as verbs in i Hen, VL i. 6: 

Dauphin, command the citizens make bonilrefi, 
And feast and banquet in the open streets. 

The word is derived from It. banchetto, the diminutive 
of bancOj a bench. 

Barbarian^ sb. (i Cor. x«. 11). A foreigner. 

The word here used in the original is in all other pas- 
sages of the N. T. rendered by ' barbarian' and is in every 
instuice used in its strictly classical sense of foreigner, one 
who speaks a different language, without any idea of bar- 
Digitized by Vn«^JV.JVlC 


barism in the modem sense necessarily attaching to it 
This is curiously illustrated in the Translators' Preface to 
the A. V. 

The Scythian counted the Athenian, whom he did not ynder- 
stand, barbaroQB : so the Komane did the Syrian, and the lew, 
(euen S. Hierome himselfe calleth the Hebrew tongue barbarous, 
belike because it was strange to so many) so the Emperour of 
Ck>nstantinopIe calleth the Latine tongue, barbarous^ though Pope 
Nicolas do storme at it : so the lewes long before Christ, called all 
other nations Lognazim, which is little better then barbaro^. 

Barbarous people, sib. (Acts xxTiii.2). Barbarians, 

Then he returned from the chase, and found the Macedonians 
sacking and spoiling all the rest of the campe of the barbwrous 
people. North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 727. 

Bare, Bore; past tense of 'bear* (Gen. iv. i, &c.). 

For the loue that Vortiger bare to Rowen the Saxon, he was 
diuorced from his lawfull wife. Stow, Annals, p. 55. 

Base, adj. (i Cor. i.28; 2 Cor. x. i). From Fr. haSy 
low, humble, not necessarily worthless or wicked. So in 
Polyd. Vergil : ' which the baser sorte doe som time super- 
stitiouslye note as signs and wonders' (i. 70); and again 
(I. 24\ * schaddes... being veri base bothe in relishe and esti- 
mation.' And Shakespeare {Rich. II. ni. 3): 

My lord, in the baxe coxirt he doth attend 
To speak with you. 

I cannot range in a lower degree vnto these, the three Chari- 
ties or Graces, which are to bee seen in the Basse court before 
the citadell of Athens. Holland's Pliny, xxxvi. 5. 

And * Lower Egypt' is called 'Base Egypt' in Holland's 
Pliny, xvin. 18. 

BatUebow, sh. (Zech. ix. 10; x. 4> Simply means 
' the bow used in battle.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Bdellium, «&. (Gen. ii 12 ; Num. xi. 7). According 
to Celsius (Hieroibotanicon) the white, transparent, oily 
gum, which flows from a tree about the bigness of an olive. 
It is brought from the East Indies and Arabia. 

The right BdeUium when it is in the kinde, should be cleare, 
as yellow as wax, pleasant to smell vnto, in the rubbing and 
handling fatty, in taste bitter, and nothing soure. Holland's 
Pliny, XII. 9. 

Be, 1 and 3 p. pi. ind. of the substantive verb *to be.' 
A.-S. beon; O. B. ben; as doon becomes do^ and goon, go. It 
frequently occurs in Latimer, e.g. : 

Which works he of themselves marvellous good and conve- 
nient to be done. Serm. p. 23. 

"Voluntary works he called all manner of ofFering in the 
church, except your four offering-days and your tithes. Id. 

In Judg. xvi. 9, &c. * the Philistines be upon thee,' would 
be less ambiguous if are had been inserted by the trans- 
lators instead of be, and so made it unmistakeably a simple 
announcement of fact, and not, as it is now often understood, 
as if it were a wish for Samson's enemies to prevail over 

Be. The subjunctive mood of tlie substantive verb 
(A.-S. bed). In that sentence in the Litany, ^ That those 
evils. . be brought to nought,' modem usage would require 
the insertion of * may' before * be.* The usage is not at all 
uncommon in old authors. Other instances occur in both 
the Bible itself, and in the Prayer Book. * That he main- 
tain the cause of his servant' (i Kings viii. 59). ^ Speak 
to my brother that he divide the inheritance with me' 
(Luke xii. 13) ; * That we shew forth thy praise not only with 
our Ups but in our lives' (Gen, Thanksgiving). 'Unto 
which he vouchsafe to bring us all' (Commination). 

And after this short and transytorye lyf he hring hvm and vn 
into his oelestyal ^lysse in heuene. Amen. Caxton, Mirrour of 
the Worlde. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC > 


Offer your oblations and prayers to our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who will both hear and accept them to your everlasting joy and 
glory ; to the which he bring lis, and all those whom he suffered 
death for. Amen. Latimer, Serm. p. 24. 

By the grace and aid of Almighty God; who gfdnt unto 
every one of us that when the uncertain hour of death shall 
come we may be found vigilant and well prepared. Grindal, 
HemainSf p. 31. 

ffe grant that His name may be glorified in you. Ihid. 
p. 238. 

Bear^ occurs in several phrases which have become an- 
tiquated or obsolete. 

To bear rule, to hold office, rule (Esth. 1. 22 ; Prov. 
xii. 24, &c.). 

God is the great Grandmaster of the king's house, and wiU 
take account of every one that beareth rule therein, for the exe 
eating of their offices. Latimer, Serm, p. 93. 

To bear record, to testify (John viii. 14; Rom. 
X. 2, &c). 

If Grod's word bear record unto it, and thou alFo feelest in 
thine heart that it is so, be of good comfort and give God thanks. 
Tyndale, Doctr, Treat, p. 44. 

To bear witness, to witness, give evidence (Ex. 
XX. 16; I Kings xxi. 10, &c.). 

The Bible bereth wUnesse 
That the folk of Israel 
Bittre a-boughte the giltes 
Of two badde preestes. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, 6187. 

Beast, sK (Lat. bestia) is frequently used collectively 
in the singular number, like the Lat. pecusy where the plural 
would be more strictly correct. See especially Gen. i. 24, 
25 ; Ex. xxiii. 29 ; Judg. xx. 48, where the Hebrew idiom 
exactly corresponds. So Polydore Vergil (p. 9) speaks of 
*the wilde beeste and fyshes.' In Rev. iv. v. &c. and Dan. 
viL the original words mean 'living creature' of any kind. 

Digitized by VJV.JV.J VIC 


Dot * beast' in the modern sense. In Gower the usage is 

the same: 

That ilke ymage bare likneRse 
Of man and of none other heste, 

Conf, Am, proL I. p. 34. 

Piers Ploughman, in allusion probably to the four beasts 
in the Revelation being assigned as symbols of the four 
Evangelists, has the following quaint usage of the word: 

Grace gaf Piers * teeme 

Of foure giete oxen: 

That Don was I^uk, a large leett, 

And a lowe chered; 

And Mark, and Matthew the thridde, 

Myghty heestes bothe; 

And joyned to hem oon Johan, 

Moost gentil of alle, 

The pris neet of Piers plow, 

Passynge alle othere. 

Fmon, 13479—88. 

In Ps. Ixviii. 30 (Pr. Book) ^5«a^^«' of the people* (A. V. 

* calves of the people*), is explained by Bythner to mean 

* chiefs or princes of the people.' 

Compare the following curious passages: 

A heeMli [Auth. Vers, natural] man perseyueth not the 
thingis that ben of the spirit of God; for it is foli to hym. Wiclif 
(2), I Cor. ii. 14. 

It is sowun a heestli bodi, it schal rise a spiritual bodi. If ther 
is a heestli bodi, ther is also a spiritual bodi. Ibid, i Cor. xv. 44. 

Because, conj, (Matt, xx. 31 ; Wisd. xi. 23). In order 
that. The etymology of the word ly cause^ or as spelt in 
Pol. Vergil, bie cause (Lat. catisd), evidently shews that the 
word may as properly be applied to mark the intention of 
an action as the reason for it Chaucer uses ' by the cause' 
in the same way: 

But hy the cause that they schuln arise 
Erly a-morwe for to see that fight, 
Unto their rest wente they at nyght. 

Chaucer, KnigkVs Tate, 2490. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Compare also Shakespeare (2 Hen. VL m. 2) : 
Becofuse thy flinty heart more hard than they 
Might in thy palace perish Margaret. 
It is the care of some, onely to come off speedily, for the 
time ; or to contrive some false periods of businesse, became they 
may seeme men of dispatch. Bacon, Ess. xxv. p. loi. 

Beeves, sb. (Lev. xxii. 19, 21 ; Num. xxxi. 33). The 
genuine plural of beef, itself a corruption of hceiif, which 
still in French means the living animal. In like manner, 
'ffealy mutton^ and porky correspond to the Norman or 
French names of the animals whose flesh only they are now 
used in English to denote. But the original usage was not 
obsolete even in Shakespeare's time: 

A pomid of man's flesh, taken from a man. 
Is not so estimable, profitable neither, 
jys flBBJi ai. Tiitfaina httAL at flMite. 

Mer. of Ven. I. 3. 
Ther was sent her mony grett gyftes by the mayre and 
aldermen, as beyffes, mottuns, velles, swines. Machyn's Dia/ry, 
p. II. (1551.) 

The hcBufs of India are as high by report as camels, and foure 
foot broad they are betwixt the horns. Holland's Pliny , viil. 45. 

Sir Walter Scott, in his Ivanhoe, alludes to the fact of 
the animals of a conquered country retaining their ancient 
names so long as they were alive, and required care and 
tendance; but when dead, and become matters of enjoy- 
ment, receiving names taken from the language of the 

Beforetime, adv, (Josh.xx. 5 ; i Sam.ix. 9 ; Neh.ii. i). 
Before, in time past. 

To the execucion wherof he appointed Miles Forest one of 
the foure that kept them, a felowe fleshed in marther heforebime, 
ISir T. More, Rich. III.; Wwhs, p. 68 e. 

Beguile, v, t. (Gen. iii. 13 ; xxix. 25, &c.). To deceive. 
This dronken Myllere hath i-tolde us heer, 
How that hygiled was a carpenter. 

Chaucer, Reeve^sprol, 391^* 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.J VIC j 


He thought he could have beguiled God too. Latimer, Serm, 
p. 259- 

Subtil, deceitful persons, which have no consdenoe to defraud 
and beguile their neighbours. Ibid. p. 375. 

But now seemde best, the person to put on 
Of that good knight, bis late begviled gjuest. 

Spenser, F. Q^ I, 2, % 11. 

You have beguiled me with a counterfeit 
Besembling majesty. 

Shakespeare, K. John, in. i. 

Behoof, sb. Profit, advantage; G. hehuf: A. S. he- 
Mfian or beh^an, to be fitting, needful; connected ety- 
mologically with hcibeo and have. 

For the behoofe and edifying of the vnleamed which hungred 
and thirsted after righteousnesse, and had soules to be saued as 
well as they, they prouided translations into the vulgar for their 
countreymen. The TranalcUors to the Reader. 

This tongue hath parleyed imto foreign kings 
For your behoof, 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen. VI. rv. 7. 

Belief^ sb. (Catechism). The Creed. A.-S. led/a, gdedfa, 
connected with the Germ, glauben. 

Ye, blessed be alwey a lowed man 
That nat but oonly his bUeeve can. 

Chaucer, Miller's Tale, 3456. 

Latimer, on the education of children and servants, says ; 

You ought to see them have their beliefs to know the com- 
mandments of God, to keep their holydays, not to lose their 
time in idleness. Serm. p. 14. 

On the prefix &«-, which has taken the place of the Saxon 
augment ge- in the formation of participles and verbs, see a 
valuable note in Mr Craik*s English of Shakespeare^ 390. 
The instances which he gives are beloved^ A.-S. gdiifed; 
believe, A.-S. gelyfan; beseech, A,-S. gesecan; betoken, A,-S. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Belike^ adv. Perhaps. 

Bdike he had charged them with some leaies, and tronbled 
them with some cariages. The Trantlators to the Reader, 

Bdikef for want of rain ; which I could well 
Beteem them from the tempest of mine eyes. 

Shakespeare, Mid. N,'i D. I. i. 

Bemoan^ v. refl. (Jer. x2xL i8). Used reflexiyely, to 

Ton shall obseme that the more deepe, and sober sort of poli- 
tique persons, in their greatnesse, are euer bemoaning themseluet, 
what a life they lead. Bacon, Ess, IX. p. 31. 

Beside, cuiv. (Lev. xxiii. 38 ; Josh. xvii. 5 ; xxii. 19). 
A.-S. besidian, from side, a side. Frequently used for 'be- 
sides, in addition to,' not ' by the side of,' which is the more 
modem sense. * Beside,' and 'besides,' were probably 
identical and employed indifferently. So Chaucer : 
But eek lynde in many a regioun, 
If oon sayd wel, another sayd the same. 

Ckrh's TaUy 829^. 
And Latimer, Serm. p. 37: 

Beside all this they are to be lighted with wax candles, both 
within the church and without the church. Serm. p. 37. 

On the other hand, besides is used in Wiclif for 'be- 
side;' 'forsothe other bootis camen fro Tiberiadis bisidis 
(A. V. ' nigh unto') the place where thei eten brede' (John 
vL 23). 

Besides, prep. (Ley. Ti. 10). Beside ; in the ed. of 

And sche set doun her waterpot anoon 
Bisides the threischfold of this oxe stalle. 

Chaucer, Clerk's Tale, 8167. 

In the first quarto of Shakespeare's 2 Hen. IV. iii. i (1598), 

the same usage occurs: 

In faith my lord you are too wilfull blame. 

And since your comming hither bav^e done enough 

To put him quite besides his patience. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Besom^ fib. (Is. xiv. 23). A.-S. Jyesem^ hemi, 'airod, 
broom.* *In Devonshire the name bisam or hassam is 
given to the heath-plant, because used for making besoms^ 
as conversely as a besom is called broom, from being made 
of broom twigs' (Wedgwood, Diet, of E. Etym. s. v.). The 
word is still common as a provincialism. 

I am the hesom that must sweep the court clean of such filth 
as thou art. Shakespeare, 2 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 

The tamariake, good for nothing but to make heesoms of. Hol- 
land's Pliny, XVI. 26. 

Bestead, adj. (Is. viii. 21). Situated. A.-S. stede, a 
place, stead (as in steady, instead, homestead, &c.). Tyr- 
whitt calls it an Anglo-Saxon past participle. *' Hardly 
bestead," in the above passage, therefore, signifies "placed 
in <^fl5culty," and thus corresponds with the Hebrew. 
Many examples might be given: — '^bestad, or withe- holdyn 
yn wele or wo, in hard plyt set." Promptorium Parcu- 

Have ye not seye som tyme a pale face, 
Among a prees, of him that hath be lad 
Toward his deth, wher him geyneth no grace, 
And such a colour in his face hath had, 
Men mighte kiiowe his face was so bystad, 
Among alle the faces in that route. 

Chaucer, Man of Law's Tale, 5069. 

She saith, that she shall nought he glad. 
Till that she se him so hestad. 
That he no more make avaunt. 

Gower, Conf. Am. I. p. 129, 
As a mariner that amasid is in a stormy rage^ 
Hardly hestad and driven is to hope 
Of that the tempestuows wynde wyll aswage. 

Skelton's Works, i. 395, ed. Dyce. 

Thus ill hestedd, and fearefull more of shamei, 
Then of the certaine perill he stood in. 
Spenser, F. Q. 1. i. % 24, 

T never saw a fellow worse bestead, 

Or more afraid to fight, than is the appellant. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen. VL n. 3. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Others are ao hardly lested for loading that they are faine to 
retaile the cioders of Troy. Sidney, Jntrod. to AUropIiel and 

I had lever. Comix, go supperlesse to bed. 
Than at such a feast to be so hefted. 

Barclay, £clog. p. xlvi. 
So y-stade was used : 

He was never so hard y-atade 
For wele ne for wo. 

Sir Begrevant, 1631. 

Bestow^ v.t (i Kin. X. 26; 2 Kin. v. 24; 2 Chr. ix. 
25; Luke xii. 17, 18). From A.-S. stow *a place,' which 
still exists in the names of towns, as Stowe, ^tow-md^xkeiy 
Waltham-*^o«7. Hence * bestow' signifies *to put in a 
place, stow away, dispose of.' 

The care of prouidlnge for a familie, of gettinge, manageinge, 
and hestowinge an estate. The Autobiography of Sir John Bram- 
ston, p. 2, 

Then was the Archebishop of Yorke and doctour Morton 
bishoppe of Ely and the lorde Stanley taken and diners other, 
whiche were bestowed in dyuers chambers. Hall, Bd. V. foL 
xiv. h. 

Hence and bestow your luggage where you found it. 

Shakespeare, Temp, v. i. 

It is used by Latimer in a sense which seems to mark 
the transition to the now more usual meaning, 'give, 
confer, impart ;' 

Evermore bestow the greatest part of thy goods in works of 
mercy. Serm. p. 23.^ 

Bacon uses * bestowing' as a substantive, for placing or 
settling in life : 

Men have their time, and die many times in desire of some 
things, which they principally take to heart ; the bestowing of a 
ckuld, the finishing of a worke, or the like. Bss. xxvii. p. 114. 

Bethink, v. refl, (i Ban. viii. 47 ; 2 Chr. vi. 37). A.-S. 
belpencan *to call to mind, remember.' Halliwell calls it 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 



a north-conntry word: it certainly is common in Yorkshire, 
and probably elsewhere. 

Kyng Wyllam hy^o^te hym ek of Jje vole J>at was verlore. 

Rob. of GUmc. 368. 
Yor hii hy\>enche]j hem ywys 
Hou hii xnyjte best fle. 

Ibid. 458. 
In Widif it is used intransitiyely : 

Tberfore f if thou offiist thi f ift at the auter, and there shalt 
bythenhe that thi brother hath sum what a^eins thee^ leeue there 
thi jift before the auter. Wiclif (i), Matt. v. 23. 

Betimes, adv. Early, in good time. It occurs sever- 
al times in our translation (Gen. xxvL 31 ; 2 Chr. xxxvi 
15, &c.), but has no corresponding word in the original; 
the idea of early is incluoed, however, in the two roots 
which it helps to render, viz. shakhaVy * to seek early,' and 
shacamj *to rise early.* 

Shakespeare uses betime in the same sense. The etymo- 
logy seems to be * by time, i. e. good time ;* thus, 

By tyme ychabbe yjjojte. Bob. of Glow. p. 313. 

If he bi tyme had gon. Bob, Branne, p. 364. 

If men he so negligent that they descharge it nought by 
tyme. Chaucer, Pwrson's Tale. 

Bettered, pp. (Mark v. 26). Made better. The 
word is antiquated though not obsolete. It is from A.-S. 
hStrian or bSterian. 

Christe on euery ade fensing those thai are his, turneth the 
deiuelishe attemptates of the others, to the profiting and bettering 
of the pordon that is vncorrupted. Udal's Erasmus, Jjuie, 
f. 65 r. 

The works of nature do always aim at that which cannot he 
bettered. Hooker, Eccl. Pol. 

Left solely heir to all his lands and goods 
Which I have bettered rather than decreased. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of Shrew, n. i. 

Digitized by VJVJV.J VIC 


He is famished with my opinion : which^ lettered with hii 
own learning (the greatness whereof I cannot enough oommend), 
comes with him. Id. Mer. of Ven. iv. i. 

Bewray, v.t (Ptot. xxvii 16; xxix. 24; I«. xyi 3; 
Matt xxtI 73). From A. S. wrSgan or foreian to aocase ; 
connected with Goth, wrohjan and G. rUgen. To accaae, 
hence, to point out, discover; sometimes used synonym- 
ouslj -milioetray, though the idea of treachery involyed in 
the latter is not implied in bewray. In the aboye passages 
the original words are respectively /roc^tfii, tell, aueoper, 
and make evident, which are each of them sufficiently well 
expressed by bewray. 

Bewreye not yonr oonnoil to no person. 

Chancer, TdU of Mdibeui. 

And when the fortune is hewreied 
How that Constance is come about. 

Gower, Conf, Am. I. p. a 10. 

The hoylyng smoke did styl bewray 
The persant heate of secrete flame. 

Surrey, Son. 3. 

Here comes the queen whose looks "bewray her anffer. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen. vl. I. i. 

In the following passage from Hall {Rich, IIL foL 
16 a), bewray and betray are used interchangeably: 

Whether thys Banaster bewrayed the duke more for feare ths 
covetous many men do doubt : but sure it is, that shortly after 
he had betrayed y^ duke his miuster, his sonne and heyre waxed 

The simple wreye, or wraie, is used in Chaucer in the 
same sense^ 

Thou schalt upon thy trouthe swere me heere, 
That to no wight thou schalt this counsel toreye, 

MilUr'e Tale, 3502. 

Bewrayer^ sb. (2 Mace. iv. i). An informer. Baret, 
{Alvearie^ s. v.) gives, ^A bewray er or discoverer. Index,' 

Digitized by N^VJVJV IVg 


Bibber. $1. (Prov. xxiii 20; Matt. xi. 19; LukeTii 
34). A drinW, in the compound ^ ynn&-bibberf from the 
Lat hibere to drink. 

For bee was thought to he a greater hibiber then he was, he- 
oause he sate long at the bourd, rather to talke then drinke. 
North's Plutarch, ^Zeac p. 729. 

Chaucer uses the verb ' bib : ' 

This meller bath so wysly hibhed ale, 
That as an hors he snortith in his sleep. 

Reeve^t Tale, 4160. 

Bidden, pp, i. Asked, invited (i Sam. ix. 13; 
Matt xxiL 3, 4, 9, &C.) ; A. S. heden. 

And he sente his seruantis for to clepe men leden to the wed- 
dyngis and thei wolden nat cume. Wiclif (i), MaU. xxii. 3. 

Some were of opinion that Socrates began it, who perswaded 
Aristodemus upon a time, being not hidden to goe with him to a 
feast at Agathons bouse, where there fell out a pretie jest and 
a ridiculous. Holland's Plutarch, MoraU, p. 753. 

2. Commanded, ordered (2 Sam. xvi. 11; Matt i 24). 

If he will not stand when he is Udden, he is none of the 
prince's subjects. Shakespeare, Muck Ado, ni. 3. 

Bide, vX (Wisd. viil 12). To abide, await; A. S. 

Well, sir, for want of other idleness I'll Ude your proof. 
Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, i. 5. 

Bile, «&. (Ley. xilL 18, 20). A boil; in the ed. of 
161 1. See tiie quotation from Cotgraye's Fr. Diet under 


Laid to as a cerot with pitch, it resolueth pushes and hiU». 

Holland's Pliny, xx. 13. 

Bittemesses, «5. (Lamu iil 15 th.). A Hebraism. 

Blain. «5. (Bxod. ix. 9, 10). A. 8. Ucegen, a boil, 
blister. The word is commonly used in the West Biding 
to denote a large pustule or boil 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The Lazare man beeyng full of botches and hlaina. Udars 
ErasmuB, I/akey fol. 138 r. 

Myne old sores do breake out agayn. 
And are corrupt and putrefie, 
Bycause the daungier of the blayne 
My folyshnes could not espie. 

Croke*s Vers, of Pz. ocxxviii. 

Grod doth neuer leaue his ordinarye meanes vnoccupied and 
Tnprouided, whereby the vlcers and blames of man's corrupt 
minde may be cured and healed. Poore Mcm'i Oarden (1573). 

Itches, hlains. 
Sow all the Athenian bosoms ! 

Shakespeare, Tim. of Ath. TV. i. 

BUurting, sb. (Dent xxyiii. 22 ; i Kin. yiii. 37 ; Am. 
iv. 9). Blight. 

A severall kind of blaatmg or mortification there is besides in 
Tines, after they have done blooming. 

Holland's Pliny, xvii. 14. 

Blaze, v.t (Mark i. 45). To spread far and wide: 
A. 8. Ncesan to blow ; whence blast. The more usual form 
is hiazon. 

The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes. 

Shakespeare, Jul. Cobs. ii. 2, 

Where thou shalt live, till we can find a time 
To blaze your maniage. 

Id. Itom. arid Jul. in. 3. 

Spenser uses the sabstantive ^blazer.' 

Bablers of folly, and blazers of cryme. 

F. Q. n. 9. § 35. 

*Blow,' occurs in the same sense in Latimer {Serm. 

It shall be Uown abroad to our holy father of Kome's ears. 

And ' bla^t' is found in Hall ; 

'Which thynge yf it had bene trewe as it was not in dede, 

^ Digitized by \^V.SCTO?C 


euery good and naturaU child would haae rather mummed at, 
then to haue UcuUd a broade and especiallj she beyng alyue. 

Rich. HL fol. 86. 

Blood-guiltinesB^ tb. (Fs. 11 14). The guilt of 
murder or bloodshed. 

Ne wote I, but thou didst these goods bereaue 
From rightfuU owner by vnrighteous lot, 
Or that blood guUUnesae or guile them blot. 

Spenser, F» Q. n.. 7. § 19. 

Blood-Shedding, tb. (ficdus. xxviL 15}. Shed- 
ding of blood. 

They be the enemies of the cross of Christ, of his passion and 
bloodshedding, Latimer, Serm, p. 520. 

yf^ Bloom, v.t, (Num. xvii. 8). A. S. Uowian and &/of- 

fnian; G. UuJien. As an intransitiye yerb ^ bloom' is 
sufficiently common, but instances of its usage in an actiye 
sense are less frequent. Johnson quotes from Hooker, 
'Charital^le afEection bloomed ihemf and Milton (P. Z. 
lY. 219) has 

And all amid them stood the tree of life, 
High eminent, blooming ambrosial fruit 
Of vegetable gold. 

Blotted, pp. Aspersed. 

To be short, the most learned Emperour of former times, (at 
the least, the greatest politician) what thanks had he for cutting 
off the superfluities of the lawes, and digesting them into some 
order and method f This, that he hath been blotted by some to 
bee an Epitomist, that is, one that extinguished worthy whole 
volumes, to bring his abridgements into request. The Trcma- 
lators to the Reader, 

Blow up, v.t (Fs. Ixxil. 3). To blow loud; used 
also intransitively. 

Then vp blewe the trumpettes, sagbuttes, clarions, and all 
other minstrelles on bothe sides, and the kynges descended doune 
towarde the bottome of the valey of Andern. Hall, Hen, VIII . 
ol. 76 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Boast^ to make (Ps. xxxiy. 2). To boast The 
Hebrew is elsewhere rendered *to glory' (Ps. Ixiii 11; 
Is. xli 16). The same expression is found in Shakespeare 
((7y»»ft. n.3); 

which I had rather joa felt 
Than moJceH my hocut, 

Body^ «&. (Ps. liii. I, Pr. Bk.). A persoa 
Mani was the gode hodi that ther was ibro^t the doiine. 

i2o6. of Olouc. p. 547. 
Ah, sir, a hody would think this was well counterfeited. 

Shakespeare, As You Like Ity iv, 3. 

This did wonderfully conceme the Might and Manner-hood of 

the Kingdome, to haue Fermes, as it were of a Standerd, sufficient 

to maintaine an able JBody out of Penurie. Bacon, Hist, of Hen. 

VII. p. 74, ed. 1622. 

Body of heaven, the (Exod. xxiy. lo). A He- 
braism for Hhe heaven itself/ 

Boiled. ^i9. (Exod. ix. 31). Btymologically connected 
with haUj boil, bole, botol, belly, billow; Lat btdla, *a 
bubble, boss,' &c.; G. bolle, *a bulb, ball;' A. S. boUa. 
The root expresses the idea of roundness, swelling. Hence 
* boiled' signifies * swollen, podded for seed.' The Promp- 
torium Parvidorum gives * bolnyd, tumidus ;' and the ear- 
lier of the Wicliffite Versions (i Cor. v. 2) has ' je be bolnun 
with pride.' 

Lest perauenture stryuyngis, enuy eay...holnynge8 hi pride, 
debatis be among f ou. Ibid. 2 Cor. xii. 20. 

But this welle, that I here of rehearse, 
So holsome was, that it would aswage, 
Bollen hertes. 

Chaucer, Blach Knight, 10 1. 

His necke shorte, his sholders stode awry, 
His breste fatte and bolne in the wast. 

Hawes, Past, of Pleas, cap. 29. 

In the later of the WicliflBte Versions ^bolnyd with 
wit of his fleisch' in CoL ii. 18, corresponds to ^ynblowyn 
with witt of his fleisch' in the earlier version. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Bondmui^ «&. (Gen. xliii i8; xliy. 33^ &c.). A 

Shall we wilfully make onr self their "bondeTtvenf and with them 
wretchedly liuing, more wretchedly die. Sir T. More, Life of 
Picus; WorhSf p. 12. 

Shall I bend low and in a bondman's key, 
With bated breath and whispering humbleness, 
Say this. 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Yen, I. 3. 

You showM your teeth like apes, and fawn*d like hounds. 
And bow'd like hondmenj kissing Caesar's feet. 

Id. Jul, CCB8. V. I. 

Bondmaidy «&. (Lev. xix. 20; xxt. 44; GaL iy. 22). 
A female slaye. 

Good sister, wrong me not, nor wrong yourself. 
To make a bondtnmd and a slave of me. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of the Shrew, n. i. 
Semiramis, who of a bondmaiden came to be a queen. Hol- 
land's Pliny, XXXV, 10. 

Bondservant, sb, (Ley. xxy. 39). A slave. 
Bondservice, £&. (i Kin. ix. 21). Slavery. 

Bondwoman, sb, (Gen. xxi 10, &c.). A female 

The barbarous nations for the most part (and spedaUy the 
Persians) are of a very strange nature, and maruellous iealous 
ouer their women, and that not onely of their wiues, but also of 
their bond women, and concul^ines. 

North's Plutarch, Themut. p. 137. 

Bonnet, sb, (Exod. xxviii. 40, &c.). Fr. bonnet, Mr 
Wed^ood traces the word to a Scandinavian origin: GaeL 
bonaidy and Irish boinSad: the latter 'is referred to beann 
the top or summit (equivalent to W. penn) and eide 
dress.* A head-dress generally, whether worn by men or 
women; now, except in Scotland, confined to the latter. 
The Hebrew wora of which it is the representative is 

Digitized by \^«^VJV IC 


ai^lied to denote the mitre worn by the inferior priests. 
As denotiag a man's head-dress it is used by Hall ; 

And after a lytle ceason puttyng of hys hwuth he Bayde: 
O Lorde Grod creator of all ihynges howe muche is this realme 
of Eaglande and the people of the same houndea to thy good- 
DCS. Rich, III. fol. 9 a. 

It is frequently found in Shakespeare: 
I think he bought his douhlet in Italy, his round hose in 
Franoe, his honnet in Grermany, and his behaTiour every where. 

Mer, of Ven, L a. 

Then your hose should be ungartered, your honnet unhanded, 
your sleeve unbuttoned, your shoe untied, and every thing about 
yon demonstrating a careless desolation. 

As Tou Like It, m. 2. 

OS goes his honnet to an oyster- wench. 

Rich. II. I. 4. 

That usurers should have orange-tawney honnets, because they 
do ludxuze^ Bacon, Esa. XLI. p. 168. 

Book, «&. (Job xxxi. 35). Any formal writing was 
called a book, as in Shakespeare, i Hen. IV, lu. i : 

By this our hook is drawn ; we'll but seal 
And then to horse immediately. 

In the passage of Job above quoted the ' book' is the 
formal indictment. 

Booties, «&. (Hab. il 7). Plunder; not used in the 
plural G. heute. 

If I had a mind to be honest, I see, fortune would not suffer 
me; she drops booties in my mouth. 

Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, iv. 3. 

The Pictes then, and long time after, kept themselues quiet 
at home, saue onely they woulde nowe and ^en make inuasions 
into the lande, and driue away booties of cattell. Stow, AnnaU, 
p. 53- 

Bom, «&. (Job XV. 26). From Fr. bosse, * a bunch, or 
hump^ Du. boise or busse, 'the knob of a shield.' The 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV li' ^ 


Germ. ho9$en, * to emboss/ is comiected with batuch, ' a tuft, 
hump* (Wedgwood). 

A knob or protuberant ornament ; generally applied to 
the knob of a snield, but not exclusively, as will appear by 
the instances which follow : 

A broch ache bar upon hir loue coleer, 
As brod as is the bos of a bocleer. 

Chaucer, Miller's Tale, 3166. 

And every hosse of bridle and of paitrell 
That they had, was worth, as I would wene, 
A thousand pound. 

Id. Flower and Leaf, ^46. 

Whose bridle rung with golden bels and bosses braue. 

Spenser, F. Q. I. 2. § 13. 

^Boss,' also occurs as a verb, equivalent to 'emboss;' 

Fme linen, Turkey cushions, hoss'^d with pearl. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of Shrew, n. i. 
And thickened so their targets boss'd, 

ChEtpman, Bom. Tl. xvi. 913. 

The noun is now chiefly used to denote ornaments 
placed at the intersection of ribs and groins in the roof of 
a building. 

Botch, «5. (Dent xxviii. 27, 35). From It bozza;^ 
connected with bocda, 'a bubble, bud.' Mr Wedgwood 
derives it from the Dutch boUen or butseriy 'to strike' 
(comp. Eng. biUt) ; whence boUef butse, 'a contusion, bunm, 
t>oil, botch;' observing (s.v. Boss) that 'the words signi^- 
ing a lump or protuberance have commonly also the sense 
of striking, knocking.' A boil; as the Hebrew word la 
elsewhere translated (Exod ix. 9 — 1 1, &c.). The orifipnal 
properly denotes a burning ulcer, or carbuncle, breaking 
out in pustules or blains: it is applied to the ulcerous 
eruptions which accompany the elephantiasis (Job ii 7). 
The Prompt Parv, gives *bohche, sore, ulcus.' 

For he was all full of sores and botches in his bodye, euen 
suche an other in manier as it is read in scripture, y* Job was. 

Udal*s Erasmus, Lvhe, foL 138 r. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Bosse: f. A bunch, orlumpe; any round swelling, Tpiisingor 
puffing yp; hence a wen, hotchy bile, or plague sore. Ck>tgrave^ 
Br. met. 

Bough, v.t (Dent. xxiv. 20 m.). *Thoa shalt not 
hough it after thee' is the literal rendering of the Hebrew, 
which oar translators have given 'thou shalt not go over 
the boughs again.' 

Bought of a sling. This phrase which occurs in cM 
the margm of i Sam. xxv. 29 is so completely gone out of 
use, that in ordinary editions of the English Bible ' bow 
of a sling' is unnecessarily, if not ignorantly, substituted 
for it. It means the bowed or bent part of a sling on 
which the stone was laid. 

Gambreure: f. A bought, vault, arch. Cotgrave, Fr, Diet, 

Conrbe: f. A. bought; also, a crooked, or bowing peece of 
tymber. Id. 

Flechissure: f. A bought^ or crookednesse. Id. 

Johnson gives several instances of the word 'bought' 
not only in this sense, but in that of the curvature of the 
knee or elbow, and the folds or bends of a serpent. 

The following is from Spenser {F.Q.i. 1 1. § 11): 

Bjb huge long tayle, wound up in hundred foldes, 
Does overspred lus long bras-scaly back, 
"Whose wreathed boughtes whenever he unfoldes, 
And thick-entangled knots adown does slack, 
Bespotted as with shieldes of red and blacke, 
It sweepeth all the land behind him farre. 

Bounden, pp. This old form of the participle of 
tbe Yerb ' to bind' occurs more than once in the Prayer- 
Book. The termination en has disappeared from many 
similar words, whilst it keeps its place in others, there 
being no rule but caprice to account for the retention or 
r^ection in each case. 

There is no earthly creature to whom I am so much bownden 
as to your Majesty. Grindal, Remainiy p. 376. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


I am much hounden to your majesfy. 

Shakespeare, K, John, in. 3. 
See also the example from Hall, quoted under Bonnet. 

Bow, 9,t. (Ps. Ixii 3; Mark xy. 19). To bend; still 
used in Devonshire. 

After that, hauing by good happe gotten Bessus into his 
hands, he tare him in peces with two high straight trees which 
he howed downewards, and tyed his legs to each of them. 

Norfii's Plutarch, AUx. p. 741. 

For it is a rare thing, except it be from a perfect and entire 
frend, to have coimsell given, but such as shalbe howed and 
crooked to some ends, which he hath that giveth it. 

Bacon, Ess. xxvn. p. 113. 

Bowels, «&. (PblL 1 8 ; il I &c.). Compassion. The 
'bowels' were supposed by the old anatomists to be the 
seat of the affections. The usage was transferred to our 
language from the translations of the Bible. Thus in the 
letter of Hen. V. to the French King, given by Hall [Hen, 
r.fol. 11&); 

We exhort you in the howdUs of our sauiour Jesu Christe, 
whose euangelicall doctrine willeth that you ought to render to 
al men that whiche you ought to do. 

Bowman, «5. (Jer. iy. 29). An archer. 

And the how-men being pressed so neare by the Bomaines, that 
their bowes would do no good: tooke their arrowes in their 
handes in stead of swordes. North's Plutarch, SyUa, p. 511. 

Bow shoot, sb. (Gen. xxi 16). The old form of 
'bow shot' in the ed. of 161 1. 

A shot a fine shoote: lohn a Gaunt loued him well. Shake- 
speare, a Hen, IV, in. 2 (4to, 1600). 

The ditches, and the keepe hill of Thong Castell appears on a 
little wood a two flight shoote by south from Thong Church. 
Stow, AnncUSf p. 55. 

Brag, t».t. (Jud. xvi 5 ; 2 Mace. ix. 7). Fr. hraguer, 
Mr Wedgwood says its primary meaning was 'to crack, 
make a noise;* hence, Ho boast' In the same sense 

Digitized by V:i«^JV.JV IC 


'cra(^' is used in Old English. He traces it through both 
the Romance and Teutonic dialects, and if the pedigree 
which he assigns it be correct it is connected with break. 
Brag is used in Wiclif fJosh. vi. 5, 20) in the sense of 
to bray as a trumpet. The word can hardly be called 
obsolete^ though it is considered coUoquiaL It is very 
common in old writers : 

Bat when Christ asked him his name, he calleth himself 
Legion, which imports a multitude, as if he should brag of his 
number ; and here he calleth himselEe the possesser of the earth, 
as if he should hrag of his possessions; and in the same he 
calleth himselfe the giuer of the earth, as if he should hrag oi his 
liberalitie. SL Smith, Sennons (1594), p. 516. 

Stow uses the word as an adjectiye: 

In this yeare (1189) the Jewes were very hrug here in thys 
reabne, for that theyr number was so great, fol. 69. 

And Skelton (i. 125, ed. Dyce) as an adyerb: 

Ye here you bold and hrag 
With othyr menys charge. 

Brag, sb, (2 Mace. xy. 32). A boast. 

The eorle purveyede him an ost, 

And com in at another cost, 
Wyth his hra^ and his host, 

Wyth many a fferres knyght. 

Sir Degrevant, 231. 

The kynge of Englande nothynge vexed nor yet moued with 
the presumptuous saiynges and proude bragges of the vnordered 
and ▼nmanerly Bysdiop...coldely and soberly aimswered the 
bysshop saiyng. 

Hall, Hen. F. fol. 10 b. 

But for my part, I take it neither for a brag, nor for a wish ; 
hut for a truth as he limiteth it. Bacon, Adv. touching am Holy 

In Lewis's Hertfordshire Glossary we find, 

'To make his 6ra^«' is to brag, to boast,, to threaten to do 
great things^ in a presumptuous and confident manner. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Brake, Broke ; past tense of ' break.' 

Alia and Gifisa his sonne, after long siege, IraJce into the dtie 
of Andredsester, and slew the inhabitants from the greatest to 
the smallest. Stow, AnndU, p. 58. 

Brakest, 2 sing, past tense of 'break.' . (Ex. xxxiv. i, 
&c). So also 'satest/ 'spakest/ Hhoughtest/ &c., which 
are now antiquated forms and seldom used. 

' Brass, sb. (Matt. x. 9). Copper or brass money. Both 
Greeks ana Romans used this idiom, which still prevails in 
many parts of England. In Lewis's Hertfordshire Glossary 
'Brass' is explained as 'copper coins.' In Yorkshire, 'brass' 
is a common term among poor people for money in gene- 
ral In some parts it is used as a dang word for money. 

Withouten pit^ piloar, 
Povere men thow robbedest; 
And bere hire bras at thi bak 
To Caleis to selle. 

Piers Ploughman's Fit. 1749. 

Bravery, sb, (Is. iii 18). From Fr. braver; It. 
bravarey to swagger, vaunt; connected with brag, Fr. 
braguer, Scot<± braw. Finery, splendid attire. 

Doting upon their mother's beauty... haue laboured to restore 
her all her robes and iewells againe, especially her looking-glasse 
the Masse, in which she may behold all her bravery, Sen/^. by 
P, Smao'tj p. II. 

With scarfs and fans and double changQ of bravery. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of Sh/rew, vr. 3. 

The glories of them, are chiefly in the chariots,... or in the 
bravery of theur liveries. Bacon, Ess, xxxvii. p. 158. 

So Massinger, The Picture, il 2 : 

Have done 
More hurt to the kingdom by superfluous bravery. 
Which the foolish gentiy imitate, than a war. 
Or a long famine. 

Nares gives several instances. Baoon uses the word 
also for ' ostentation, display.' 

3^ C^LxJUU^ XiL^UdA^ fe**'*'^^ , Lctj^ X.,^. 

word-book. 77 

Saoli as love biuinesse rather upon confloieDoe, then upon 
Iraivery, En, xzxvi. p. 155. 

Brave, tor fine, tcelL hearty is a common proYindalism, 
especially in Sussex and Hampshire. 

Brawling, adj. (Proy. xxL 9; zxr. 24). Noisy, 
qnarrelsome ; Fr. braiUer, 

I know ehe ia an irlLBome, brawling aoold ; 
If that be all, masters, I hear no harm. 

Shakespeaze^ Tom, of Shrew, 1. 1. 

Bray, v.t (Prov. xxm 22). Fr. hrcyer, Sp. hregar^ 
to knead; connected with dreak, ftruise, &c Webster 
gives the Welch hriwaw 'to grind, rub in pieces,' and 
breyan 'a quern.' To braise, b^t orpound. The word is 
stiU in conmion use in some parts of x orkshire. 

Brayyn as baxten her pa8tyB...jBrayyfi or stampyn in a mor^ 
tere. Prompt. Parmd, 

And whanne he cam nygh, the devel hnrtUde him donn and 
to hrayde him. Wiclif, Luke ix. 41 (ed. Lewis). 

m burst him, I will bray 
His bones as in a mortar. 

Chapman's Homer, 77. xxin. 586. 

Nay, if he take you in hand, sir, with an argument^ 
Hell bray you in a mortar. 

B. Jonson, Alch, 11. 3. 

Break up, f>. t. (Mia ii 13 ; Matt xxiy. 43 ; Mark 
ii. 4). To break open, as a door or a house. 

Break up the gates, I'll be your warrantize. 

Shakespeare, i Men, VI, I. 3. 
Break up the seals and read. 

Id. Winter's Tale, ill. 2. 
The lusty Kentishe capitayne hopyug on more frendes, brake 
rp the gayles of the Kinges benche and Marshalsea. Hall, Hen^ 
VI. foL 786. 

breathe out, v.t. (Acts ix. i). Used metaphori- 
cally, as in Sackyille's Indtiction: 

Out breathing nought but discord euery where. 

^ _ Digitized by \^VJ0QIC_ 


Brickie, adj. (Wisd. xv. 13). The old form of < brit- 
tle' in the ed. of 161 1. 

Fraile: hriekle: soone broken. Fragilis. 
Brickie glass was quickly dashed a sunder. Futilis glades 
ictu dissiluit. Virg. Baret, Alvearie, s. y. 

Nor shining gold, nor mouldring clay it was ; 
But much more rare and pretious to esteeme 
Pure in aspect, and like to christall glasses 
Yet glasse was sot, if one did rightly deeme, 
But being fure and brickie, likest glasse did seeme. 

Spenser, F. Q. iv. 10. § 39. 

Brief, «5. (Rubric in Com. OffA This word literally 
means any compendioos statement, out is used in the Ft. 
Bk. to denote the particular form of order by yirtae of 
which collections for various objects were formerly made in 
churches. These collections were very numerous, but un- 
productive, being farmed out to persons who often for- 
warded but a small proportion to the purpose intended. 
Lists of these briefs occur very commonly in churchwar- 
dens' accounts. 

Brigandine (Jer. xlvi. 4; li. 3). From Pr. hrigan- 
dine. A kind of scale armour or coat of mail, so called 
from being worn by the light troops called brigandsy the 
name given to light-armed skirmishers (Wedgwood). 

But the Dukes of Berry and Britaine were mounted vpon 
small ambling nags, and armed with slight hrigandines, light and 
thin. Philip de Conmiines, trans. Danett, p. 23. 

Thei hadde these weapons... helmet, and brigantine, or oote of 
fense of linnen sowed faste with a great manie wrappings. PoL 
Verg. I. 50. 

It occurs in the form hrigantaiUe in Gower {Conf, Am. 
I. p. 11), and briganders is used by Hall {Ed. V, fol. 156) ; 

Hym selfe with the duke of Buckyngham stode, harnessed in 
olde euil fauoured briganders. 

In course of time the It. brigante came to mean a 
robber^ pirate; and hence brigandine denoted a light 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


piliiiaoe used for piracy. In this sense it is used by Nashe 
{Lenten Stuffe, p. 32), 'foystes, gallies, and Jyrigandines* 

Shall we constraioe our youth to goe aboord into the briffon- 
time or barke of Epicurus? Holland's Plutarch, Morals, p. 19. 

Of this word the modem * brig' is an abbreyiation. 

Brim, tb. (Josh, iil 15). The brink or margin of a 
river; A. S. hrymme. 

Into the flood I leapt far froin the trim. 

Fairfax, Tomo, xn. 34. 
In Aganippa's fount, and in Gastalia*s hrirMf 
That i^ten haue been known to bathe your crystall lims. 

Drayton, Polyolbion, v. 87. 

Bring, v.t. (Gen. xviil 16; Acts rri. 5 ; 2 Cor. i. 16). 
To accompany, escort. 
Prytheey honey-sweet husband, let me hring thee to Staines. 

Shakespeare, ffen. V, ii. 3. 
I pray you, hring me on the way a little. 

Id. OtheUo, nr. 4. 
In Palmer's Devonshire Glossary, 'to bring gwain' is 
'to accompany another person partly on the road.' 

Broided. pp, (i Tim. ii 9). Braided. Altered in ^-^ 
the modem emtions to ' broidered.' [Bboidebed.] 

Broidered, pp. (Bzek. xvi. 10/ 13, &c.). Fr. broder, 
Sp. hordar; the latter perhaps connected with hordey 
hordo, a border, edge. Embroidered. The Hebrew word 
rendered ' broidered work' is elsewhere translated *needle- 
woriL' ( Jndg. V. 30), * of divers colours* (i Chr. xxix. 2), 
and 'raiment of needlework' (Ps. xlv. 14). 

In I Tim. ii 9, 'broidered' is used for 'braided;' the 
margin ^es 'plaited.' Wiclif has 'writhen heeris,' the 
Geneva version and the A. V. of 161 1, 'broyded,' which 
last is an old form of * braided' used by Chaucer (ed. Tyr- 


Hire yelwe here was hroided in a tresse 
Behind hire back. 

KnigJU's TdU, 105 1. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Bruit, 9b. (Jer. x. 22; Nah. iii 19). Prdm Pr. hruU^ 
noise, report, romoor. Bacon {Eis, liy. p. 216) quotes the 
Prench proyerb: 'Beaucoup de bruit, pen de fruit:' which 
he renders " much bruit, httle fruit" 

The hnUe of their canning thua traueling, &c. Naahe, 
TerTor8 of the Night, Eg. b. 

When St Augastine came to Milan... he was yery desirons to 
hear St Ambrose, not for any loye he had to the doctrine that he 
taught, but to hear his eloquence, whether it was so great as 
the speech was, and as the hrwit went. Latimer, Serm. p. aoi. 

So in numerous other passages. The Earl of L^cestGr 
uses the plural, 

The bruUt of your treatinge vnderhande. Corm, p. ^47. 
He (the Pope) shall send forth his thunderbolts upon these 
brwU. Latimer, Serm, p. 153. 

The Iruxt is Hector's slain, and by Achilles. 

Shakespeare, Troil, ds Oreu, Y, 10. 

Buckler, sb, (2 Sam. xxii. 31; Job xy. 26, &c.). 
From Fr. bouclier, a shield with a boucle or knob. The 
Med. Lat. has buctUa in the sense of ' the boss' of a shield. 
As the thing of which it is the representative has gone out 
of use, the word buckler has become antiquated. 

I am eight times thrust through the doublet ; four through 
the hose ; my buckler cut through and through ; my sword hacked 
like a handsaw. Shakespeare, i Men JV, n. 4. 

Buffet^ V. t (2 Cor. xii. 7, &c). To strike, beat The 
noun is derived from It. buffetto : connected with E. r^buff^ 
G. puff, and Fr. bouffer * to puff, blow f words signifying^ 
to stnke being frequently connected with others denoting^ 
to blow. Examples of this are found in E. blow, and Fr. 
soufflet from wiiffler to blow (Wedgwood). 

The torrent roared and we did buffet it 
With lusty sinews. 

Shakespeare, J id. Cat, I. 1. 
Burets for ^ boxing' is used by Chapman ; 

I beat 
Great dytomedeus, Enops' son, at huffett, 

Horn. n. xxin. 552. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Both 'buff' and 'buffet' are found in Lewis's edition of 

Whanne he hadde seid these thingis oon of the mynystiis 
fltondynge nygh gfaaf a luffe to jhesus and seide, anawerist thoa 
•o to the biaediop ? John xriii. ii. 

And thai ghauen to him huffeiM, John xix. i. 

Builded, pp. (Gen. iy. 17, &c.). Built. 

When he began to preach at Nazareth amongst his kinsfolks, 
he displeased them so that they went and took him and were 
minded to east him headlong from the rock, whereupon their 
city was buUded, Latimer, Scrm. p. 34. 

Bulwark, sb. (Deut. xx. 20; 2 Chr. xxyL 15, &c.). A 
fortification, or strong work ; from Du. bol-werck, of which 
the Fr. boulevard is said to be a corruption through Med* 
JLat balaortut. 

The other fine, fine sundry wayes he set. 
Against the fiue great bulwarloBa of that pile. 

Spenser, F, Q. u. 11. § 7. 

Bunch, 9b, (Is. XXX. 6)» A hump* Of camels, says 

Two kindes there be of them, the Bactrians and the Arabick: 
differing herein, that the Bactrians haue two bunches vpon their 
backs ; the other but one apiece there, but theV haue another in 
their brest^ wherupon they rest and ly. Holland's Pliny, vni. 1 8. 

Now desippus, the founder or brader that sold it her, was 
mishapen and McncA-backt. Ibid. xxxiY. 3, 

Bursting, sb, (Is. xxx. 14). A breaking in pieces. 
A. S. bersting, from berstan or byrstan, which is the same 
as 6. bersten and 0. E. brest or brasty to break in pieces. 
'Burst' was originally used in the same sense, and the 
Hebrew of which 'bursting' is the rendering signifies 
* beating^ crushing to pieces' (2 ELih. xvilL 4; 2 Chr. xxxiv. 
7; Mic. 1. 7). Instances of this sense of the verb 'burst' 
are found in Shakespeare ; 

Ton will not pay for the glasses you have hturst. 

Tarn, of ShreWy Ind. 

Digitized by VjV^VJV 16 


How the horses ran away; how her bridle was hunt. 

Id. IV. 4. 

m be sworn he never saw him but once in the Tilt-yard; 
and then be Imnt his bead for crowding among the marshal's 
men. 1 Hen. IV, ni. 2. 

But^ conj, (Ps. xix. 3, Pr. Book). A. S. hutan^ Jmta, 
hutey * without, except.* Butan and hinnan * within* are 
exact opposites. The latter is equivalent to the Scotch 
beny and G. binnen. 

In this its original sense *but* is used in the passage 
above quoted: 'There is no speech nor language bit;t their 
voices are heard among them, where the A. V. has ' where 
their voices are not heard.* Instances of this usage in old 
writers are exceedingly common ; the following may suf- 
fice : * Treuli, treuli, Y seie to thee, hut a man be bomn 
ajen, &c.' (Wiclif (i), Joh, iii. 3) ; * But a com of whete felle 
into the erthe, &c.'' {Ihid. xii. 24). Gawin Douglas apostro- 
phizes Chaucer as 'principal poet hut peer.' 

Grod fadres and godmodres 
That seen hire godchildren 
At myseise and at myschief 
And nowe hem amende 
Shul have penaunce in purgatorie 
But thei hem helpe. 

Piers Plonghman^s Fm. 5313. 

But your highness, 
That are not to be parallel'd, I yet never 
Beheld her equal. 

Masednger, The Btnegado^ x. a. 

Bichard shall live to make the Earl of Warwidc 
The greatest man in England hut the king. 

Shakespeare, 9 Hen, VI, q. <2. 

It is still used as a proyincialism and pronounced bout^ 

By his exquisite rendering of the passage in Ps. _. 

Addison has immortalized a mistake almost pardonable on 
account of its beauty. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


What though no real voice nor soxind 
Amid their radiant orbs be fottnd ! 
In reason's ear they all rejoice, 
And utter forth a glorious voice. 
For ever singing as they shine, 
'The hand that made us is divine.'. 

By oocims in i Cor. iv. 4, Trhere the Greek shews that «^ 
it must mean 'against,' 'with reference to :' 'I know nothing 
by myself/ i.e. ' am not conscious of guilt in the things laid 
against me, yet am I not justified by that consciousness of 
rectitude, &c.' 

Bi the BiBchop of Londone thulke word he sede. Thomas 
Beket, 87 1« 

Ac it is noght ly the bishope 
That the boy precheth. 

Piers Ploughman's Vit, 159. 

I am exceedingly sorry that such faults can be proved ly the 
queen, as I heard of their relation. Oranmer, Let, to Hen, VIII, 

If so be thou hast spoken to or ^ thy neighbour. Latimer, 
Serm. p. 17. 

How think you hy the ceremonies that are in England oft- 
times... contemned. Ibid. p. 52. 

I think St Paul spake these words [who mind earthly things] 
hy the clergymen that will take upon tiiem the spiritual office of 
preaching and yet meddle in worldly matters too, contrary tu 
their calhng. Ibid. p. 529. 

And sayd hy the blessed breade thys is my bodye, and agayne 
ly the holy wyne, thys is my blonde. EUzabeihan TrcuiM. of 
JElfriSt Epigt. 

By, in the sense of ' during,' is used several times in 
the phrase ' by the space of.' 

And he so dude; and she dwelte in the cyte hy many days. 

Oeata Romanorum, c. 69, p. 955, ed. Madden. 

Gladly therefore will I render vnto him of the things which 
be hath giuen me, and for this cause I glue this gifte Z^ my life 
time. Stow, AnnaU, p. 87. 



As may well be seene in Spune ; which hath had, in one part 
or other, a veteran armie, almost continually, now ly the space 
of siz-soore yeares. Baoon^ Ess, xxix. p. ii8. 

By and by (Matt. xiiL 21 ; Luke zxL 9). Imme- 

As soone as ever tliei eskaped into safetie, thei hU and Ue 
sent embaBsadoars. PoL Yerg. I. p. 53. 

Edward lY. on his death-bed is reported to have said; 

I wote not whether any prechers woordes ought more to 
moue you then I that is goyng by and by to the place that they 
all preche of. Hall, Ed. V. fol. 11 b. 

King David remembering himself, swore, 'As sure asGrod 
liveth, Salomon my son shadl reign afler me;* and by and by 
commanded Nathan and Sadoc, and his guard, the Cherites and 
Phelethites, to take Salomon his son, and set him upon his mule, 
and anoint him king. Latimer, Serm, p. 1 14. 

By that (Ex. zxii. 26). By the time that 

By-way, sb. (Judg. ▼. 6). A secret way or road. 

These were good men, and would not walk by-waya* Latimer, 
Serm, p. 114. 

A servant, or a favorite, if hee be inward, and no other 
apparant cause of esteeme, is commonly thought but a by-way^ 
to dose corruption. Bacon, Em, ix. p. 41. 

Thy bounteous Lord 
Allows thee choice of paths: take no by ways; 
But gladly welcome what he doth afford. 

Herbert, ITie Church Porch^ 14. 

By-word, sb, (2 Chr. vii. 20; Job xvii 6, &c). A 
proverb : A. S. big-word, and bi-word. 

His lovingkindness shall we lose, no doubt, 
And be a byword to the lands about. 

Fairfax, TasWy i. 26. 

X knew a wise man, that had it for a by^word, when he saw 
men hasten to a conclusion ; Stay a little, that we may make an 
end the sooner. Bacon, Est, xxv. p. loi. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Calamus, «5. (Ex. xxx. 23; Cant. iv. 14; Ezek. xxrii- 
19). From laL calamtis, a reed. The Calamtis aromat- 
iau or Aconu cdlamtu of Linnseus, which grows in India 
and Arabia, and is exceedingly fragrant both whilst grow- 
ing and afterwards when cut down and dried. 

Galame aromat. The sweet Arabian reed, or cane, tearmed, 
CalamuB odoratus, or the Aromaticall reed. Cotgrave, Fr. Diet. 

Calamo odorato, sweet Calwmm. Florio, Ital, Diet, 

Moreoner, within Arabia there growes also the sweet Cola- 
miuB, which is common to the Indians and Syrians likewise. 

Holland's Pliny ^ xii. 11, 

In Wiclif the forms ccdamy and choudamy are fonnd. 

Camp, «.t. (Nah. iii 17). To encamp; from Lat. 
compute a plain: used in this sense in Shakespeare,. both 
transitiyely and intransitively ; 

Had onr great palace the capacity 

To cam/p this host, we all would sup together. 

AnU arid 01, iv. 8. 

I, his despiteful Juno, sent him forth 

From courtly fiiends, with campi^ foes to live. 

AWs WeU, ni. 4. 

Camphire, «&. (Cant. i. 14; iv. 13). The old form of 
'camphor/ It is an inaccurate rendering of the Hebrew, 
which probably denotes the hennarplant. 

Camphre: m. The gumme tearmed, CampUre, 

Camphre artificieL Artificiall Camphire, is such, as hath 
i refined, and whitened in the Sunne, or by fire. 

Camphre en rose. Natnrall Oamphire, va such, as hath not 
beene touched by fire. Gotgrave, Fr, Diet, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Canker^ d>, (2 Tim. iL 17). A cancer or corroding 

Oancre: m. A crab-fish; also, the signe in the Zodiacke, 
teurmed Cancer; also, a canker; or, a bard, and vneuen swelling, 
of an ougly, blackish, or blewish colour. Gotgrave, Fr. DicL 

In another place St Paul corapareth their doctrine unto a 
sickness, which is called a canker; wbich sickness when she once 
beginneth at a place of the body, except it be withstood, will 
run oyer the whole body, and so at length kiU. Latimer, Serm, 
p. 525. 

The canker gnaw thy heart Shakespeare, Tim, of Atk, lY. 3. 

Cankered, pp. (James y. 3). Rusted, corroded. 
Canker in many proyincial dialects signifies the rust of 
metals. * Canker frett,* is giyen in Forby's Vocabulary of 
Ea$t Anglia, as * Verdegrise. The rust of copper or brass.' 
'Canker' is found in the same sense in Hunter's Hallam- 
ihire Glossary^ Brockett's North Country Words, Carr's 
Craven Dialect, and Baker's Northamptonshire Glossary. 

Nay, I tell you it is old truth, long rusted with your canker, 
and now new made bright and scoured. Latimer, Serm. p. 50. 

Wbat is this but a new learning ; a new canker to rust and 
corrupt the old truth ? Id. p. 31. 

For this they haye engrossed and piled up. 
The cankered heaps of strange achieyed gold. 

Shs^espeare, 2 Hen, ZV, IT. 4. 

Oanker-worm, sb, (Joel 1. 4; ii. 25 ; Nah. iii. 15). 
A kind of cateri)illar. Miss Baker in her Northampton- 
shire Glossary gives ' Cankers, Caterpillars.' 

And seynge that we do dayly see boo many miracles in the 
workes of nature, as for exaaple,...of a Eruca, (id est) ecmher- 
worme redy to dye, to lepe forthe a lusty and a swyfte Papi- 
lionem i butterfly: why sholde ony thynge seme ynbeleueable, 
which, God that is almighty dothe worke contrary to the lawes 
and course of nature ? Erasmus on the Crede, f . 85 a. 

Eruoe: f. The hearbe Bocket ; also, the Canker-wofme. 

Cotgraye, Fr, DitL 

From the same cause proceed the eamherwormes or cater- 
pillan (a most daungerous and hurtfull Idnde of yermine to trees) 

Digitized by Vj«^JVJVlC 


which will eat out the greene bud, knot and all. Holland'a 
PUny, xvn. a 4. 

The layrest rose has his canker, the brauest brauneh his 
Gsterpillan. Greene, Mourn, GanMnt, p. 19, 

Captivate, v.U (i Sam. xiv.a; 2 Kiiu xvii.c. ; 2 Chr. ^ 
xxviii. 3 ; Jer. xxxix.c.). In its literal sense of 'to take 
captiya* So Shakespeare, 

How ill beseeming is it in thy sex , 

To triumph, like an Amazonian truH, 
Upon their woes, whom fortune ca'ptivaUB. 

3 Hen, VI, I. 4. 

And when the captivated king would have fallen upon his 
knees, &c. Bland, Soldier's March to Salvation, p. 38. 

They that are wise, had rather h&ue their iudgements at 
libertie in differences of readings, then to be caplivcUed to one, 
when it may be the other. The TranskUort to the Jteader, 

OarefVil, adj. (Dan. iii 16). Anxious. 'To be care- ^^ 
ful,' to cara The phrase in the original is elsewhere 
tnuuLated 'there is no necesnty' (Ezra vi 9), 'that which 
ibej have need oV (yii. 20), 'whatsoever more shall be 
neec(ftd/ so here it means 'we do not think it needful;^ 
or, as we sometimes say, ' we do not care to answer.' 

The eagle Buffers little birds to sing, 

And is not ca/refvl what they mean thereby. 

Shakespeare, 7^t. And, TV, 4. 


Chancer and Milton use it in its literal sense of 'fall of 
< ^anxious.' Compare Jer. xvii 8; Luke z. 41 ; PhU 

Than wolde sche sit adoun upon the grene, 

And pitously into the see biholde, 

And seyn right thus, with careful sikes colde. 

Chaucer, FranUin'a Taie^ 11167. 

The careful plowman doubting stands, 
Lett on the threshing floor his hopeful sheaves 
Fiove chaff: P. L. IV. 983. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


CareftilneBB, «5. (Ezek. zii. i8, 19; i Cor. viL 32; 
2 Cor. yiL 11). Anxiety, care. 

This petition is a remedy against this wicked cor^/tcZnesf of 
men, when they seek how to liTe, and how to get their livings, 
in such wise, like as if there were no God at all. Latimer, Se!n^. 
p. 400. 

Careless, adj, (Judg. xyiii. 7 ; Ezek. xxx. 9). In its 
literal sense of 'void of care/ corresponding to the Lst. 
9ecwnia and E. iecure, 

Baise up the organs of her fantasy. 
Sleep she as sound as cetreless infancy. 

Shakespeare, Merry Wives, V. 5. 

Carriajre, sb, (Judg. xyiii 21; i Sam. xTii. 20, 22; 
xxvi. 5 ; I Chr. xv. 22 ; Is. x. 28 ; xlvi. i ; Acts xxL 1 5). 
It. carreaggiOy carriaggioy from carro a car. ^Baggage, 
luggage^ something requiring to be carried,' not 'the act of 
carrying/ or * the vehicle whereon anything is carried.' 

In the myddle parte of the armye he appoynted the trafBcke 
and cariage apperteignynge to the aimye. Hall, Bich, TIL f. aSb. 

It occurs in the same sense in the mai^gin of "Stuo. iv. 
24; I Sam. xrii. 20. 

Yp they gotte theyr heauie cartage to the house roufe in the 
outsyde, and the tylyng pulled away, they let down the sicke 

man with chordes. Udal*s Erasmus, LuJee, f. 69 r. 

John Fastolf...had intelligence of his oomming, by meane of 
Bcurryers, and forthwith caused the oariage to stay, araying his 
men in order rounde about the same. Pol. Vergil, ii. ai. 

Cast, «5. (Luke xxii. 41). A throw; a stone's cast is 
a stone's throw. 

But when we came to enter with our barge and wherries 
thinking to haue gone yp some fortie miles to the nations of the 
Gassipagotos, we were not able with a barge of eight oares to 
rowe one stones cast in an hower. Balegh, Otdana, p. 80. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Cast^ v,U (Luke L 29). To oonnder^ plan. 

Tho mov'd with wrath, and shame, and ladief uke 
Of all attonoe he ea$t avenged to be. 

Spenser, i^.Q.!. 5. {19. 

They did not eatt the streets, nor proportion the houses in 
comely fashion, as had bene most sightly, and convenient. 
The Translaion to the Header. 

Cast. pp. (Jer. xxxriii 11). Cast off. Still tused ^k 
pttmnciaQy ; so Shakespeare {Am You Like It, m. 4); 

He hath bought a pair of out lips of Diana. 

CBMt about, to (Jer. xli. 14). To go round, turn, ^ ^ 
The Hebrew is elsewhere translated 'go about,' 'compass,' 
'compass about,' 'fetch a compass,' 'turn,' 'turn aside.' &c. 
The phrase 'cast about' is found in Gower {Co^f, Am, i. 

Than east I all the worlds ahout. 

Mnsidorns conld doe no more but perswade the mariners to 
eoMt about againe, assuring them that he was a man, although of 
most deuine excellencies, and promising great rewards for their 
paine. Sidney, Arcadia, i. p. 4. 

Castaway, <5. (i Cor. ix. 27). An outcast. 

And she whom mighty kingdoms court'sy to, 
Like a forlorn and desperate castatpay, 
Do shameful execution on herself. 

Shakespeare, Tit. And. Y. 3. 

Catholic, adf. (i John iy. c). In its original and 
literal sense of^' universal,' which is the sense in which the 
word is always used in the Prayer Book. 

liOt it therefore be taken for a point of catholic religion, not 
to bring in or admit anything in our expositions whidi others 
haye alleged against the received articles of our faith. 

Bullinger, Decades, I. p. 76, 

Digitized by V^VJVJ VIC ^^^^ 


Caul, «&. (Is. iii 1 8). Fr. caite, a small cap; wheace 
calotte, a skull cap. Properly a net. 

Let 86, which is the proudest of hem^'alle. 
That werith on a coverchief or a caMe, 

Caiaucer, Wife of Bath's Tofe, 6600. 

Then when they had despoild her tire and caU^ 
Such as she was, their eyes might her behold. 

Spenser, F. Q, 1, S. % 46. 

The marginal reading for 'cauls' in the above passage 
is * networks.* 


Causey^ «6. (i Chr. xxvL^iS; Prov. xv. 19, m. 

9f^ut-i^r^ni] Is. vii. ^, m.). From the Fr. chaussSe, *a paved 

-^4. ^'>^. road,' which is the same as the Med. Lat. ccUcea, calceatay 

l,,'^:i or calcetuniy a road paved with chalk or flint stones (Lat. 

' * calx, chalk). Our word is also written in the form 

' ' * causey way,' probably from an impression that the syllable 

m.r<,v»._^^y m 'csiuseway^ was part of the root, whereas it is 

' simply a corruption of * causey.' * To keep the crown of the 

fiauseu* and ' to take the crown of the cavseyj are common 

Scotch phrases. See Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, 

This plam aforesaid named Laborise, is confined on both 
sides with the great cameii or high waies raised by the oon- 
sals. Holland's Pliny, xviii. 11. 

Cavillation, sh. Scoffing, cavilling; Lat caviUatio. 

Yet it seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to them, to take 
that which they found, (the same being for the greatest part 
true and sufficient) rather then by making a new, in that new 
world and greene age of the Church, to expose themselues to 
many exceptions and cauiUatUms, The Translators to the Header. 

Then she knelide downe vpone hir knees, ande saide, *'Lorde, 
for his love that hinge vpone the crosse, do tel me in oertene 
whiche of hem is my sone, with oute cemt^Zooone." 

QttlUk Bomanorvmy ed. Madden, p. 190. 

Certain, adj. (Num. xvi 2; Neh. i 2, 4). Used in- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


For wldch this marchaand is to Paris goon, 
To borwe of certeyn frendes that he hiidde 
A oerkin firankes. 

Chaucer, The Shipnum'a TdU, 14745. 

We read how Judas Machabeus, that hearty captain, sendeth 

certain money to Jerusalem, to make a sacrifice for the dead. 

Latimer, Serm, p. 515. 

Certain, a. ' Know for a certain' occurs i Kin. ii. 42 ; 
where we should now use either 'a certainty/ or ^ certain.' 
See under A, p. 3, for other examples of the redundancy 
of the artida 

Certify, f5.t. (Ps. xxxiv. 5, Pr. Book). To assure. 

Besides Antonio cerUfied the Duke 
They were not with Bassanio in his ship. 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Yen. n. 8. 

ChafSed, pp. (2 Sam. xTii. 8). From Lat. caiefacere^ 
*to make warm,' through the Fr. ichauffer and chauffer. 
In its primary sense 'heated or inflamed with anger.' The 
Heb. for ' chafed in their minds' is literally, as the margui 
of our version gives it, * bitte? of soul.' The following pas- 
sages illustrate the original and derived senses of the 

Fain, would I go chafe his paly lips 
With twenty thousand kisses. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen. VI, m. 1, 
So looks the chafed lion 
Upon the daring huntsman that has gall*d him. 

Hm, VIIL III. a. 
Tile Cardinall peromved that y* queue euer the longer the 
farther of, and also that «fae began to kyndle and chafe. 

Hall, Ed. F. fol. Jia. 

Ye «W1 3iaue other such like vermin engender likewise in 

Hk -very grain of the corn, namely, when the ear doth glow 

within, and is chafed with sultry hot rains. Holland's PUnyy 

xvni. 17* 

The steps by which the word has acquired its modem 
sense seem to be the following; first, to warm; then to 
warm by rubbing ; and finally, to rub generally. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC .--" 



Challenge, v.t. (Ex. xxii. 9). To claim. 

I am a subject, and I ehallenffe law. 

Shakespeare, Bieh, II. n. 3. 

He is a good one, and bis worthiness 
Does chcUlenffe much respect. 

Id. OthdlOy n. f . 

In Shakespeare (i Hen. VI. v. 4), 'challenge' is used as 
a substantive m the sense of 'daim.' 

Of benefit proceeding firom onr king, 
And not of any choUlenge of desert. 

Chambering, 9b. (Rom. xiii. 13). Latimer in his 
remarks on this passage tnus explains the word: 

St Paul useth this word 'chambering;* for when folks will 
be wanton, they get themselves in comers. Bern. p. i8. 

And again; 

By this word * chambering ' understand the circumstances of 
whoredom and lechery and filthy living, which St Paul forbiddeth 
here. Ibid. 

Chamberer, originally a chamberlain, is used by Shake- 
speare to denote a person of luxurious and sensual habits : 

Haply, for I am black 
And have not those soft parts of conversation 
That chamberers have. 

Oihdla, ni. 3. 

Champaign, d>. (Deut. xi. 30 ; EK.xxxvii. 2 m.). From 
Lat. campuSy * a plain,' through Fr. champagne and It. 
campagna. Other modes of spelling are champion^ ehan^ 
pain, and champion. 

For, nothwithstandinge to the beholder afarre of it appear- 
ethe verie champion and plaine, neverthelesse it hathe manye 
hills. Pol. Vergil, I. p. 4. 

Called also Trachonitis, of the roughnesse of the moontaiiis, 
because y* countrey is f ul of vphilles and downehiUes, and ahnott 

Digitized by V:i«^JV.JVli' 



no parte of it etien, or plain cAaumpion ground. Udal's Eras- 
mus^ Luke, foL 41 r. 

Of all these bounds, even from this line to this, 
With shadowy forests and with champains rich'd. 
We make thee lady. 

Shakespeare, King Lear, i, i . 

Champian, «&. (Ez. xxxviL 2 m.). The old form of ^ 
'cfaampaigir in the ed. of 161 1. 

Daylight and champkm discovers not more. 

Shakespeare, Twelfik Night, n. 5 (ed. 1613). 

Champion, sb. (Deut. xi 30). The old form of the <^ 
preoedmg in the ed. of 161 1. 

Good land that is severall, crops may have three^ 
In champion country, it may not so be. 

Tusser, Oct, Hiu^cmdry. 

Chance, v.i, (i Cor. xv. 37). The verb is formed 
from the noan 'chance,' which is itself derived through the 
Fr. chance^ O. Fr. cMance from cheoir=\Ai. coders^ 'to 
&II9' as (useoir from aatidere. Hence 'to happen,' 'befall.' 

I may chcmee have some odd quirks and remnants of wit 
farofceon on me. Shakespeare, Much Ado, ii. 3. 

In the same way 'accident' from Lat. accidere is from the 
same root 

It may chance cost some of us our lives. 

Shakespeare, 2 Ben, IV. 11. 1. 

In Old English cas = ¥r. cos, Lat. casus, was used in 
the sense of chance: so in Gower, Cor^, Am. l p. 291, 

How that whilom Tiresias 
As he walkend goth par cos 
Upon an high mountein, &c. 

Where par<;a«= perchance, Lat casu, from the same 
root coder e. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC jj^M 


Chanel-bone, sb. (Job xxxi. 22 m.). An old term 
for the collar-bone. The word is found both in the form 
chandl hone and cannd hone. Thus in Hall's Anatomy 
(1565^ the first chapter of the Second part is 'Of the 
shoulaer and the chandl honej while in the text (p. 60) it 
is described as follows : 

In the former parte of the shoulder, is ordained a hone called 
Clauis, or lugulum, in Greke Gleis, and in English y^ furcule or 
cand hone, which is tyed with the broade bone, beinge the 
seconde of the iii. bones of the shoulder. 

^f Changeable, adj, (Is. iii. 2i). In the passive sense 
' of 'that which may be changed/ a meaning not now common. 

Chapiter, sb. (Ex. xxxvi. 38; i Kin. vii. 16, &c.; 
Amos ix. I ; Zeph. ii. 14). The capital of a column ; Fr. 

In the middes of the Xinges palace was a marble piller reysed 
hollowe yppon steppes, on the toppe whereof was a gilte Egle 
placed, vnder whose feete in the chapiter of the piller, diuers 
kindes of wine came gushing forth, at four seuerall places. 

Holinshed, Chron. p. 1006, ooL 2. 

Chapman, d>. (2 Chr. ix. 14). A. S. cedpmann, G. 
havfmann^^i. merchant The A.S. ceap^ 'price, sale, goods, 
cattle,' is connected with Goth, haupon and G. kauferiy Ho 
buy;' and from the same root are derived cheap^ chop^ 

In Surrie dwelled whilom a companye 

Of chAvgmen riche, and therto sad and trewe. 

Chaucer, Man of Law^s TcUe, 4555. 

You do as chapmen do, 
Dispraise the thing that you desire to buy. 

Shakespeare, IPr, and Or. TO. 1. 

Put off others cunningly that would be better chapmen. 

Bacon, Ess, xxxiY. p. 146. 

Digitized by VnV.JV.JV IC 


Nashe uses the word chapmanabU: 

Whether he be merchant and choLpmanaJbU or no. TVrrorf of 
the Night 

Chapmanhode is found both in Chancer {Man qfLaw^$ 
Tale, 4563), and Gower {(Jonf- Am. l p. 262). 

Chapt, «&. ( Jer. xiy. 4). Cracked ; not now uaed of 
the ground. 

The earth chaypelh, or goeth a sunder for drongth* Diasilit 
onme solum. Quid. Baret, Alvtwrie. 

Chapped, douen or chinked. Scissus, Hiuloiu, Flsrai. Ibid. 

Charet, «&. (Ex. xiv. 6, 7, &c.). The old form of 
^chariot' in the ed. of 1611 ; Fr. charette. It is retained 
from the Geneva version, for the form * chariot* was com- 
mon in 161 1, as appears from Cotgrave (Fr. Diet); 
'Charette: /. A chmot, or waggon.' Adonijah, says 

Woulde not consent to his fathers frendes but gat him a 
charret, and men to runne before it. Serm, fol. 32 h (wi. 15 71). 

Charge, to give a (2 Mace, xi 11). To charge. 

And Muraena following king Tigranes at the heeles, spied an 
occasion to ffiue the change as he passed a long and narrow vally. 
North's Plutarch, Lueullus, p. 558. 

Notwithstanding, their number continually increased, which 
tlus wise knight Monseigneur de Contay perceiuing, came and 
told his master the Earle of Charolois, that if he would obteine 
the victorie it was time to giue the charge. Conmiines, trang. 
Danett, p. 1 2. 

Then the people of the towne who kept common watch and 
ward, not knowing of this secrete deuise, were greatly terrified 
therewith, in so much that they taking weapon in hand, began 
to gvue a cha/rge against the casteU. Stow, Annals, p. 389. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Charge, to give in (i Tim. v. ^). To duuge, 

Porter, remem1>er what I gcme in charge; 

And when you have done so, bring the keys to me. 

Shakespeare, i Hen. VL n. 3. 

Charge, Charges, sb. (Aq^s xxl 24; i Cor. ix. 7). 
From Lat. carrus ^a car' are derived carica 'a ship of 
burden' and carricare * to load ;' whence B. cargo, and Fr. 
charger, *to load.' A 'charge' lA therefore something laid 
on, a burden, impost, commission ; and in the above paft- 
sages 'oost^ expense.' Thus, 

The leves weren faire and large. 
Of fruit it bore so ripe a charge, 
That alle men it mighte fede. 

Gower, Conf. Am. i. p. 137. 

Unnethes ariseth he out of sinne that is charged with the 
charge of evil usage. Chaucer, Panon*$ Tale, 

His hebnet, farre aboue a garlands charge. 

Surrey, Somiet on Sardanapalut. 

From this primary meaning of 'burden,' 'load,' the 
special sense of 'cost, expense' is easily derived. 

If the revenues and yearly rents of thy patrimony be not 
enough nor sufficient for thy finding, and will not suffice thy 
charges, then moderate thy expenses. Latimer, Serm. p. 108. 

To be at part of the charges. In partem impenss venire. 

Baret, Alvearie. 

Hence 'charge' in the sense of 'accusation,' and tiie 
phrase 'to lay to one's charge,' = ' to chaise, accuse' (Ps. 
XXXV. 11). 

Yet hear I not that his ordinary layeih any contempt to mj/ 
charge, or yet doth trouble the curate. Latimer, Rem. p. 324. 

Chargeable, a4j. (2 Sam. xiii. 25; i Thess. ii 9, 
&G.). From charge, in its ori^al sense of 'a load, bur- 
den,' is derived chargeable, 'burdensome.' The original 
words in the above passages involve the idea of weight, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Warre, whiche requyreth preparacion of many iDstrumentes 
and thinges chargeable. Hall, Rick, III, fol. 270. 

The strength of a veteran armie, (though it be a chargeable 
bnsinesse) alwaies on foot, is that, which commonly giveth the 
law; or at least the reputation amongst all neighbour states. 
Bacon, Est. xxix. p. 128. 

Charger, sh, (Matt. xiv. 8 ; Mark vi. 25). From Fr. 
cJiarger, and O. E. charge, * to load/ comes charger, * that 
on which any thing is laid, a dish,' as the Hebrew word 
thos rendered (Num. vii. 13, &c.) is elsewhere given (Ex. 
XXV. 29). In the Promptorium ParmUorum we find 
' Chargowre, vesselle, catinum.^ 

A charger ^ or great platter, wherein meate is cary6d. Mazo- 
nomum. Baret, Alvearit. 

In this one charrger he serued vp at the table all kind of birds 
that either could sing or say after a man. Holland's Pliny, x. . 

Chariot man, *&. (2 Chr. xviii. 33). A charioteer. 
A chariot mam a carter. Quadrigarius. Baret, Alvearit, 
B.v. Cart. 

Charity. «&. (i Cor. xiii. i, &c.). From Lat. caritax, 
through Fr. chariU. In the sense of * love,' which is the 
meaning of the Greek, this word is used throughout by 

Neithir deeth, neithir lyf,... neither noon othir creature mai 
departe us fro the c^arito of God that is in Jesu Crist oure Lord 
(Rom. viii. 39, ed. Lewis). 

It is now almost confined to one characteristic of 
brotherly love, viz. almsgiving. 

I did euer allow the discretion and tendemes of the Rhemish 
, tmnslation in this poynt, that finding in the originaU the word 
irf^-rn Axid never %pw%, doe euer translate Charitie, and neuer 
Laue, because of the indifferencie and sequiuocation of the word 
with impure love. Bacon, Certair^e ContideraUona touching the 
Ckureh of England, ed. 1604. 

I Digitized by VjV.JV.JVIi 


Chaws, sb, (Ezek. xxix. 4 ; xxxviii. 4). Jaws ; as the 
word is found in the modem spelling. The antiquated 
form chaw {chewey in Surrey's Sonneti), connects the word 
with chetD or chaw, 

I wyll gene my self e to death, by that means to abate the 
woulaes violence : and to deliuer my obedient shepe out of his 
chatoea, Udal's Erasmus, JohUy fol. 73. 

Euen and leuel-ranged teeth, be either in both chaws alike, as 
in an horse ; or els they be wanting before in the vpper chaVf 
as in kine, buls, oxen, sheep, and all such as chew cud. 

HoUand's Pliny, xi. 37. 

Cheap, adf. (2 Esd. xvL 21). From A.-S. ceap^ price, 
sale. The original idea involved in the word is that of 
turning or exchange, which is still retained in the pro- 
vincial cAop, * to barter,' and the same word as appUea to 
the wind. So in Surrey's Sonnets : 

Wherat full oft I smilde, to se, how all these three. 
From boy to man, from man to boy, would chop and change 

*Good cheap '=Fr. hon marchS; we now use * cheap' 
alone in the same sense : but the full phrase was formerly 
common. Latimer enumerates among the duties of a 

To study God*s book; to provide for the poor; to see 

victuals good cheap. Serm. p. 315. 

And Shakespeare ; 

But the sack thou hast drunk me would have bought me 
lights as good cheap at the dearest chandlers In Europe, i Hen. 
/r. III. 3. 

We fdso find better clieap for the comparative ; 

Which otherwyze hee myght have gotten better cheape {Life 
of L<yrd G*ey of WiUon) : 

and the superlative best cheap; 

They (the prioresses and nuns) regularly made choyce of such 
stipendiary priests to execute the cures whom they could hane 
best cheape f whom they called vicars. Nashe, ^aiernio, p. 208. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


From the same root chepynge *a market place' occurs 
inWiclif(Matt.xl i6); 

It ifl like to children sittynge in chepynge that ciien to her 

* To cheap' was used as a verb in the sense of ' to bar- 
gain, beat down in price.' 

I see you come to cheap and not to buy. 

Heywood, i Ed. IV, iv. 3. 

Cheeky 8b. (Job XX. 3), Eeproof, rebuke. Generally 
derived from the same term as used in chess, Fr. ichecy 
which is itself from the Persian shah, * king ' used in the 
game to call attention to the danger of the king, as sTiah- 
mdt, 'check-mate,' signifies Hhe king is dead.' That this 
was believed to be the etymology is clear from the follow- 
mg passages: 

But gane me snche ynkynde weordes, wyth suche tauntes and 
retauntes, ye in maner checke and chechemate to the vttermoBte 
|»ofe of my pacience. Hall, Mich. Ill, fol. 10 b. 

Although I had a check. 
To geue the mate is hard. 

Surrey, Sonnet 21. 

But whatever be the derivation, the meaning is obvious 
from the manner in which the noun and verb are used. 

I never knew yet but rebuke and check was the reward of 
valour. Shakespeare, 2 ffen. IV. iv. 3. 

It is difficult however to accept the above etymology. 
The A.-8. ce<icheting, * a rebuking,' seems to be connected 
with cedca, * a cheek, jaw,' as we find chawl^ * to chide,' in 
O. E. from chawl or jowl (A.-S. ceafi^ whence 0. B. cha'oU 
ing\ and check has probably a similar origin. 

Check, v.t. (Ex. V. c). To rebuke, reprove. 
And they that were crucified with hym, checked hym also. 
XJdal's Erasmus, Mark xv. 32. 

I have elieckcd him for it and the young lion repents ; marry, 
not in ashes and sackloth, but in new silk and old sack. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen. IV. 1. 2, 

Digitized by Vjii y 2 


Cheek-teeth, ^. (Joel i. 6). The molar teeth. 

As for the farthest chetk-teeth in a mans head, which he 
called G«nuini, \i. the Wit-teeth] they come about the time that 
he is about 20 yeares old, and in many at 80 yeares of age. 
Holland's Pliny, xi. 37. 

Cheer, *&. Fr. chere, * the couBtenance, aspect :' faire 
bonne chere, *to be cheerivl^ as in Latimer (JSerm, p. 56) : 

While we live here, let us all make hone cheer. 

In the original sense of 'face, countenance/ it occurs 
frequently ; 

But he that king with eyen wrotbe 
His chere aweiward fro me caste. 

Gower, Conf, Am. i. p. 46. 

She cast on me no goodly ckere. 


All fancy-sick she is, and pale of cheer 

With sighs of love, that cost the iresh blood dear. 

Shakespeare, Mid. N.^s Dr. iii. 2. 

He ended; and his words their drooping cheer 

Maton, P. L. VI. 496. 

Hence, Ho be of good c^^r'=to be cheerful, is to 
exhibit in the countenance the signs of gratification and 

Be of good cheer. 
You are fallen into friendly hands, fear nothing. 

Shakespeare, Ant. and Cleop. V. 1. 

And this literal sense of the word Latimer evidently 
had in his mind when he said ; 

Come not to thy neighbour whom thou hast offended, and 
give him a penn3rworth of ale or a banquet, and so iruike kim 
a fair countenance; 

and immediately after, 

I grant you may both laugh and maJte good cheer. Serm. 
p. ^o. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Chested, pp. (Gen. 1. <:.)• -^--S. cut^ a chest, coffer, 
coffin = Germ, histe^ Lat. cista. Coffined, placed in a coffin. 
Chest is frequently used for coffin in Chaucer, e. g. 

Let him farwel, God give his soule rest. 
He is now in his grave and in his chest. 

Wife of Bath's Prol, 6084 . 

He is now deed, and nayled in his chest. 

Clerk's Frol, 7905. 

Sythen your body is nowe wrapte in chesty 
I pray God to gyve your soule good rest. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleax. cap. 14. 

M. Yarro reporteth, that Marius Maximus, and M. Tullius, 
were but two cubits high, and yet they gentlemen and knights 
of Borne : and in truth we our selues haue seen their bodies how 
they lie embalmed and chested, which testifieth no lesse. Hol- 
land's PZiny, VII. 16. 

First after his departure his body was well seared, wrapt in 
lead, and chested. Funeral of the E. of Derby y 1574 (Dallaway). 

Chief city, «6. (Acts xvi. 12). Metropolis, capital. 

When Alexander was before Gaza, the cUiefe city of Syria, 
there fell a clodde of earth vppon his shoulder, out of the which 
there flew a bird into the aire. North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 731. 

Chiefest, cuij. This and other instances of the double 
saperlative are very common in our version, as they are in 
the writings of that period generally. Thus we have in the 
Psalms 'most highest,' *most mightiest/ &c. 

He toucheth all men hymselfe beeyng moste purest: he heal- 
eth all men as one moste myghtiest. Udal's Erasmus, LuJce, fol. 
62 r. 

He hath lost his chieftest capten and greatest souldier he had. 
Leyceder Corresp. p. 245. 

The chiefkst wisdome is, either in ordering those things, which 
are generall, and wherein men of severall factions doe neverthe- 
less agree ; or in dealing with correspondence to particular per- 
aooB, one by one. Bacon, Ess. Li. p. 207. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Chlefljr, adv. (Tob. iv. 12). Fr. ch^, with the adverb- 
ial termination. First, in the first place; for Gr. irpwrw. 
As in Milton, P. Z. i. 17 : 

And chi^y Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer 
Before all temples th' upright heart and pure, 
Instruct me, for Thou know'st. 

Chief priest, sh. (2 Kin. xxy. 18, &c.). In the Old 
Test a chief priest denotes both the high priest, and also 
the hssA of a priestly house. 

Thus Alexander in the end, hauing passed through this wil- 
demesse, he came vnto the temple he sought for : where, the 
prophet or chief e priest saluted him from the god Hammon, as 
from his father. North's Plutarch, AUx. p. 732. 

Chimney, sh, (2 Esd. vi. 4). From Fr. chemirUe, 
which is itself derived from Med. Lat. caminata^ a room 
with a fire-place {camimb8\ just as £ng. stove and G. stuhe 
denote a room with a stove in it. Thus Fuller {Holy StcUe, 
xn. 7) ; ^ though there be no fire seen outwardly, as in the 
English chimneys^ it may be hotter within, as in the Dutch 
stoves.' In the passage quoted from the Apocrypha, the 
word is the translation of the Lat. camtnus, a fire-place or 
oven. Jamieson (Scottish Diet.) gives ^chimla-lug, the 
fire side.' So in Piers Ploughman {Greedy 415), 

Chambres with chymenei/s, 

And chapeles gaye. 

For it was to no purpose for a man that esteemed rootes and 
parsenippes to be one of the best dishes in the worlde, and that 
did seeth them himselfe in his chimney , whilest his wife did bake 
his bread, to talke so much of an Asse, and to take paiues to 
write by what art and Industrie a man might quickely enrich him- 
self. North's Plut. Arist* and Cato, p. 390. 

Chode (Gen. xxxi. 36). Past tense of chide, A.-S. 
ddafiy p. edd. 

Choice, sb, (Gen. xxiiL 6). The most excellent of 

So full replete with choice of aU delights. 

Shakespeare, i Men. VI. v. 5. 

Digitized by Vj»JVJV IC 


Choler, sb. (Dan. yiii 7 ; xi. 1 1 ; Ecclos. xxxvi. 30). 
Anger, rage. The Greek word xo^^ (from which mdarir 
choly) literally signifies MU^ from a superabundance of 
which fluid anger was formerly supposed to be produced. 

CholUr naturalle, or the gaule, called in Latyne Fel, and 
Biiis, in Greke x^^i '^ of all iuyces ia euery liuiDg thioge the 
whottest. Hall, Expositive Tahle, p. 37 (ed. 1565). 

Except the princes coU&r presse him to seeke revenge, where- 
of I haue noe great feare, speciallye yf he continue coUerick. 
Leycester Corresp, p. 245. 

For ang^ husbands find the soonest ease 
When sweet submission ckoler doth appease. 

Greene's Penelope's Web. 

Christen, v,t (Rub. in office for Priyate Baptism). 
A.-S. cristnian. It is evident from the following passages 
that 'christen' and * christian/ used as a verb, were for- 
merly regarded as synonymous. Latimer (Eem. p. 341) 
speaks of 

the false apostles, which were not heathen and unchristianed 
but ehritUaned, and high prelates of the professors of Christ ; 

and in the next page he asks, 

and, I pray you, what mean your friends by a christian congre- 
gation I all those, trow ye, that have been christianedi... dor it is 
not enough to a christian congregation that is of God, to have 
been christened. 

And as baptism is the ordinance by which the Christian 
is acknowledged as such, 'to christen' and 'to baptize' 
were used interchangeably, as in Chaucer : 

For though his wyf be cristened never so white, 
Sche schal have node to waissche away the rede, 
They sche a font of watir with her lede. 

Man of Law'' 9 Tale, 4775. 

Thonne Jhesus came fro Galilee in to Jordan to Joon, for to 
be chrutned of hym. Wiclif (i), Matt. iii. 13. 

Digitized by CnOOQ IC 


Chrysolite, sb, (Rev. xxi. 20; Ezek. xxviii. i3,marg.) 
Gr. xpt;(r6\i^os. 

The golden color in the topaze gaue it the name Chryaolith. 

Holland's P^tny, xxxYii. II. 

The cedar is beautifoll but beares no fruite, the ChrUtoUte of 
an orient hue, yet of a deadly operation. Greene's Mourning 
Garment, p. 44. 

If heaven would make me such another world 
Of ODe -entire and perfect chrysolite, 
I'd not have sold her for it. 

Shakespeare, Othello, v. 2. 

Chrysoprasus, sb. (Rev. xxi. 20), or Chrysoprase 
(Ezek. xxvii. 16 m, ; xxviii. 13 m.), Gr. xpwr6'irpa(ros. A gem 
similar to the above, whose exact nature is miknown. 

A third kind there is approching neere to this, but that it is 
more pale (howsoeuer some do think it is no kind of beril, but 
a gem by it seH) and this they call Ohrysopratos. Holland's 
Pliny, XXXVII. 5. 

The grasse green of a leeke was occasion of the name Chry- 
topraaos. Ibid, xxxvu. 11. 

Church, sb. (Acts xix. 37). Used of a heathen 

And this he vttred with fell rage and hate, 
And seemed of lanus church t' vndoe the gate. 

Fairfax, Taato, II. 90. 

There was a yong rauen hatched in a nest vpon the church 
of Castor and Pollux. Holland's Pliny, x. 43. 

Churl, «6. (Is. xxxiL 5, 7). The A.-S. ceor/ (0. E. carle, 
G. kerl) meant originally notning more than * rustic, coun- 
tryman, serf.' Thus in the Promptorium Parvulorutn, 
cherelle or charl is rendered by rusticus, rusticanus. And 
in this sense it is used in riers Ploughman's Vis, 6831 ; 

For may no cherl chartre make, 
Ne his catel selle, 
Withouten leve of his lord. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


From the fact, however, of rustics heing usually more un- 
mamierly than citizens {urhani\ the word very early re- 
ceived the signification which is attached to it by Chaucer 
in describing an unmannerly gentleman ; 

He is nought gentil, be he duk or erl, 
For viieyn synful deedes maketh a cherl. 

Wife of Bath's Tale, 6740. 

Hence it was applied in a more limited sense to express 
the rough and repulsive manners of the miser, and is thus 
used by our translators, in accordance with the Rabbinical 
interpretation of the word of which it is the rendering. 
So in Shakespeare {Rom, and Jul, v. 2) ; 

churl! drink all, and leave no friendly drop 
To help me after? 

Churlish, adj, (i Sam. xxv. 3). From the preceding. 
The Hebrew of which it is the translation signifies ' hard, 
harsh, austere,' as in our Lord's parable of the talents 
(Matt. xxv. 24), where the same Greek word (<r/cXi;/)6s) is 
used as is employed by the LXX. in the above passage. 
So Chaucer; 

A cheerlissch wrecchednesse 
Agayna fraunciiis of alle gentiiesce. 

Franklin's Tale, 11827. 

And Shakespeare {As You Like It, 11. i) : • 

The icy fang 
And churlish chiding of the winter's wind. 

Chuse. V. t. (Deut. xii. 5). The old form of * choose' 
in the ed. of 161 1. 

1 cannot chuse, sometime he angers me 

With telling me of the moldwurpe and the ant. 

bhakespeare, i Hen. IV, in. i (4to. 1604). 

Cieled, pp, (2 Chr. iii. 5 ; Jer. xxii. 14; Ezek. xli. 16 ; 
Hag. L 4). Panelled, wainscotted. The etymology of this 
word is obscured by the spelling which seems to connect it 
with the Fr. dd. It. cieh, * a canopy.' To seel or ^eele a 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


room was to cover it with boards, or wainscottiog, like 
Fr. plancher. To seel the eyes of a hawk or dove (Fr. siUer 
les yenx) was to sew up their eyelids, and ia this sense is 
used by Shakespeare {Ant and Chop, iii. 1 1); 

But when we in our viciousness grow hard, 
(O mercy on't!) the wise gods ud our eyes. 

And Chapman {Homer y II. xvi. 314) ; 

• And cold death with a violent fate his sahle eyes did ted. 

Wliat we now call the ceiling was formerly called the upper- 
seeling, Fr. sus-lambris, to distinguish it from the teeUng or 
wamscotting on the walls. Wedgwood, Btym, Diet, 

That this was the sense attached to the word by our 
translators is evident from a reference to the originaL In 
2 Chr. iii. 5, the word rendered *cieled' is in the same 
verse, and w. 7, 8, 9 * overlaid;' the same root is else- 
where translated Ho cover' (2 Sam. xv. 30; Ps. Izviii. 13, 
&c.). Again, the original in Jer. xxii. 14 and Hag. i. 4, is 
elsewhere translated 'covered* (i Kings vL 9; vii. 3, 7). 
In the remarkable passage of Deut. xxxiii. 21, 'sealed' in 
the text has * cieled' in the margin. 

Cieling, sb. (i Kings vi. 15; Ezek xll 16 marg.). 
Wainscotting : see the preceding word. 

Lambris: m. Wainscot, seeling, Cotgrave, Fr. Dict^ 

Circuity, V, t. As a verb meaning to 'go on a circuit' 
(Lat. drcumire) occurs in the margin of i Sam. vii. 16; the 
usage is obsolete, and seems never to have been common. 

Circuir : To circuit; enuiron,. incompasse, or goe about. Cot- 
grave, Fr. Diet, 

Cise^ sb. (Ex. xxxvi. 9, 15). Size: so printed in the 
ed. of 161 1. 

Cithern, «ft. (i Mace. iv. 54). A.-S. citere, G. zither, 
which are both from Gr. KMoa, Cittern (Shakk), gyteme 
(Piers Ploughman's Vis. 8493)* the modem guitar and the 
Chaldoe kathros (rendered *harp' in Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10), are 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


forms of the same word. The precise constmction of the 
ancient instrument *is a matter of dispute. In Holland's 
Pliny (xxxiv. 8) the word is found in the form * dtroa' 

Clave (Gen. xxii 3 ; Ruth i 14). The past tense both 
of * cleaye,' to split> and of * cleave/ to adhere. 

Clean, adv, (Josh. iiL 17; Ps- IxxyiL 8; I& xxiy. 19, 
&€.). Entirely. 

The following are early instances : 

Therefore ich fulde th^ up here al cUne the chanoelme. 
Thomas Beket, 359. 

They arm themselves with the sign of the cross... and go clean 
oootrary to Him that bare the cross. Latimer, Serm. p. 29. 

This fauH is clean contrary to the first. Ascham, The SchooU 
matter, p. 37 (ed. Mayor). 

Clean, adj. (Ps. xix. 9). Pure; A.-S. dwn, 

A thousand of men tho 
Thrungen togideres, 
Cride upward to Crist, 
And to his, clene moder. 

Piers Ploughman^s Vis, 3526. 

And tho wolde Wastour noght werche. 

But wandren aboute, 

Ne no beggere ete breed 

That benes inne were. 

But of coket and cler-matyn. 

Or eUis of clene whete. 

Id. 4410. 
A statue of Mithridates, all of deane gold, sixe foote high, 
with a rich target set with pretious stones. North's Plutarch, 
LucuUu$, p. 568. 

Cleanness, sb. (2 Sam. xxii. 21, 25, &c.). Purity. 

Whan men carpen of Crista 

Or of clennetee of soules, 

He wexeth wroth and woi noght here 

But wordes of morthe. 

Piers Ploughman's Fw. 8843. 

Digitized by VjVJVJVIV:: 


Clear, adj. (2 Sam. xxiii. 4; Cant. tL 10). Bright. 

Thanne shaltow come to a court 
As da* as the soime. 

Piers Ploughman's Yi». 3677. 

Clear, adj, (Gen. xxiv. 8, 41). Innocent. 

As for sedition, for aught that I know, methinks I should not 
need Christ, if I might ho say; but if I be dear in anything, I 
am dear in this. Latimer, Serm, p. 135. 

Besides, this Duncan 
Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been 
So dear in his great office, that his virtues 
Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against 
The deep damnation of his taking off. 

Shakespeare, Mad). I. 7. 

Clear, v. t (Ex. xxxiv. 7). To acquit. 

Let us be cleared 
Of being tyrannous, since we so openly 
Proceed in justice. 

Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, m. a. 

Clearer, adj\ (Job xi. 7). Brighter. 

CleamesB, sb. (Ex. xxiv. lo). Brightness. 

This said, he vanisht to those seats aboue 
In height and deemea which the rest excell. 

Fairfax, Tasso, I. 17. 

Cleave, v. i. (Gen. ii. 24). From A.-S. cU6Jlan or 
di/an, O. B. dyven, G. Meben, to adhere, stick. In this 
sense the word is only partly obsolete. It was formerly 
common, e. g. 

Fear them not but deave to God, and he shall defend you. 
Latimer, Serm. p. 264. 

For ever may my knees grow to the earth. 
My tongue cleave to my roof within my mouth, 
Unless a pardon, ere I rise or speak. 

Shakespeare, Bich, II. v. 3. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Clerk, «&. (Rubric in Morning Prayer, &c.). Lat deri- 
eui, A.-S. cleric, clerc. * By the clerks in this and other 
rubrics/ Wheatly supposes * were meant such persons as were 
appointed at the beginning of the Reformation to attend 
the incumbent in his performance of the offices ;' answer- 
ing, in fact, to our present parish-clerks. In earlier eccles- 
iastical writings, however, the title is confined to ordained 
ministers, as being chosen by lot (/cX^pos) in many cases, as 
Matthias was ; or as being in a special manner the lot pr 
inheritance of God, as the Jewish nation under the old 
dispensation (cf. Deut iv. 20; ix. 29), and the Christian 
community under the new covenant, were sometimes caJled. 
Thus I Pet. V. 3, which in the A. V. is rendered * not as 
being lords over God's heritagey' is in Wiclif, * neither as 
having lordship in the clergie' In the middle ages the 
clergy were almost the only persons who could write ; hence 
the term 'clerk' came to have one of its most common 
modem significations. Oaxton speaks of ^ that noble poete 
and grete clerke Virgyle' (Ames^ Diet i. 68). In Thonuu 
Beket, we have many such passages as the following : 

So that he was withinne monek, withoute clerk also. ver. 267. 

If bituene tuei lewede men were eni stiivinge, 
Other bituene a lewde man and a clerc, 573. 

If eni clerk as feloun were itake, 
And for feloun iproved and ne mi^t hit no^t forsake 
That me[n] scholde him furst desordeyny. 619. 

In the 1 6th century it had acquired the same meaning 
as that in the Rubric. Thus in Hall's Rich. IIL ; 

Honours change manners, as the Parish Priest remembereth 
not that he was ever Parish Cla/rke, 

And 80 Shakespeare ; 

God gave the X^ing! Will no man say, Amen? 
Am I both priest and clerk! well then, Amen. 

Rich. II. IV. I. 

Clift, sh. (Ex. xzxiii 22 ; Is. xxxii. 14 w. ; Ivii. 5). The 
as d^y as the Hebrew in the former of these two 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JVli' 


passages is elsewhere rendered (Is. ii. 21). It is derived 
from cleave, *to split/ A.-S. cUfan, and connected witli 
cliff, for which it stands in Is. xxxiL 14 m., as in Fair&z, 
Ta890, XI. 73 : 

Eande nature first vpon the craggie clift, 
Bewrai'd this herbe vnto the mountaine goate. 

Cloke^ i. t (Exhortation in Morning Prayer, &e.). 
From doak, Flem. Jdocke, a cloak or covering ; the verh me- 
taphorically signifies *to hide, conceal.' Thus in Hawes* 
Pastime of Pleasure; 

As was the guyse in olde antiquitie, 
Of the poetes olde, a tale to surmyse 
To chke the truthe of their infirmitie. 

By such cloaked charity, where thou dost oflfend before Christ 
but once, thou hast offended twice herein. Latimer, Serm. p. 10. 

They chke the truth their princes to content. 

Barclay, Eclog. p. xxiv. 

With this metaphorical usage of 'cloak* may be com- 
pared that of * palliate' (from Lat. pallium, a cloak). The 
idea conveyed by the two words was originally the same; 
that of covering or concealing, generally of covering or con- 
cealing a fault ; but the meanings have diverged in modern 
usage, and 'to palliate' now signifies 'to excuse' or take 
somewhat from the grossness of an offence, not to hide it 

Closet J sh, (Matt. vi. 6). JjSii. claudo, clatcsum, whence 
close, cloister. A private apartment, generally a bedroom : 
Latimer uses it with a punning allusion to its derivation : 

Shall any of his sworn chaplains? No, they be of the closetj 
and keep close such matters. Serm. p. 98. 

Ah ! Gloster, hide thee from their hateful looks. 
And, in thy closet pent up, rue my shame. 

•Shakespeare, 2 E'en. VI, ni. 4* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

WORD-BOOK. 1 1 1 

Clouted, pp, (Josh. ix. 5). Patched ; from the fol- 

Spare none but such as go in clouted shoon. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen, VL rv. a. 

Latimer uses the verb frequently ; 

Paul yea^ and Peter too, had more skill in mending an old 
net, and in douting an old tent, than to teach lawyers what dili- 
gence they should use in the expedition of matters. Serm. 
p. no. 

And again; 

if the minister should have no living but at their appointment, 
he should not have clouting leather to piece his shoes with. Id. 
p. 304. 

Clouts, «5. (Jer. xxxviii. 11, 12). A.-S. deoty ciHl, *a 
patch;' properly, according to Mr Wedgwood, a swelling 
from a blow, connected with Du. klotsen, to strike, as 
* botch,' with Du. botsen. Hence clout, originally a patch, 
appears to have come to signify a rag generally, as m the 
following passage from Sackville's Induction; 

Tot on his carkas rayment had he none, 
Save cloutes and patches pieced one by one. 

And Shakespeare {Ant. and CL iv. 7) ; 

Had we done so at first we had driven them home 
With cUmts about their heads. 

Coast^ sh. (i Sam. v. 6 ; Matt. viii. 34, &c.). From Lat. 
coita^ *a nb, side,' through Fr. coste. Hence *a border' 
generally, though now applied to the sea side only. So in 
Piers Ploughman ; 

The countre of Coveitise 

And all the costea aboute. Vision^ 1054. 

These blasts, these wicked planets, that sindge and bume the 
froits of the earth, besides the influence and power of the moone, 
proceed from other causes, and twaine especially, and those not} 
to be found in many coasts and quarters of the heauen. Holland^s 
PVmy, xvni. 29. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



From this comes costeaunt in the sense of 'bordering' 
used by Gower {Conf, Am. l p. 245). 

Coat, sb, (Cant. v. 3). Obsolete as part of a woman's 

She ne had on but a Htraite old sacke. 
And many a cloute on it there stacke, 
This vras her cote, and her mantele. 

Chaucer, Rom, of the Rote, 459. 

And she had on a coate of grene 
Of cloth of Gaunt, withouten wene. 

Ihid. 573. 

Cockatrice, »&. (Is. xi. 8 ; xiv. 29 ; lix. 5 ; Jer. viii. 17 ; 
Prov. xxiii. 32 marg.). The word itself is a corruption of 
crocodile, through Fr. cocatrix, Sp. cocatriz, cocaariz, co- 
codriUo; the last form 'corresponding with 0. E. cokedriU. 
An imaginary animal supposed to have been hatched by a 
cock from the eggs of a viper, the fable having been in- 
vented to account for the name. It is represented in he- 
raldry by a cock with a dragon's tail. But our translators 
could not have intended the fabulous animal to be under- 
stood, for in four out pf the five passages, * adder' is given 
either in the text* or margin as the equivalent of * cocka- 
trice.' The probability is that they considered * cockatrice' 
and 'basiUsk' synonymous. Ancient belief attributed to 
both the power of killing by a glance of the eye : e. g. in 
Shakespeare {Rom. and Jtd. lu. 2) ; 

And that hare Vowel I shall poison more 
Than the death-darting eye of cockatrice. 

while in Cymb. n. 4; 

It is a bcLsilisJs unto mine eye, 
Kills me to look on't. 

Chaucer {Parson's Tale) in one word identifies the ba- 
silisk with the fable of the cockatrice; 'as the bcuUicok 
sleth folk by venime of his sight.' The Promptorium Par- 
tndorum gives, 'cocatryse, basiliscus, cocodrillus.' 

Digitized by VjUOQIC 


Cocker, v. U (Ecclus. xxx. 9). This word is connected 
by Mr Wedgwood with cockney, i. e. one pampered or deli- 
cately reared; the Du. kokelen or keukden, and Fr. coque- 
liner, to pamper. In Sir T. More's Supplication of ISotds, 
certain women in purgatory are made to say, 

Woe be we there and wishe that while we lined, ye neuer 
had folowed our fantasies, nor neuer had so cockered vb, nor 
made vb so wanton. Worhi, p. 337 d» 

And Shakespeare {K. John, v. i) ; 

Shall a beardless boy, 
A cockered silken wanton brave our fields? 

See also the quotation from ^North's Plutarch under 

Cockle, sb, (Job xxxi. 40). A.-S. coccel, cocel; Fr. 
coquiole, a weed which grows in cornfields/ called also 
com-campion : its botanical name is agrostemma githago, 
Shakespeare {Love's L. Lost, iv. 3) has the proverb, 

Sow'd cocHe reap'd no com. 

Who is able to tell his diligent preaching, which every day, 
and every hour, laboureth to sow cockle and darnel. Latimer, 
Serm. p. 72. 

The Hebrew word thus rendered is by some supposed 
to denote the same plant as the ' tares' of Matt. xiii. 30: 
the old translators render it Hhorn' or 'bramble;' Dr 
Lee, 'hemlock,' and Celsius, 'aconite.' 

This loller here wol prechen us somwhat. 
Nay, by my fathers soule that schal he nat. 

He wolden sowen som difficultee 

Or springen cockle in our clene come. 

Chaucer, Shijftman*8 ProL 14404. 

Why growe the wedea and cokyU in the come. 

Barclay, Eclogue V. 

Digitized by V:i»._;V.JVlg 



Cogitations, sb, (DaxLYiL 28). Thoughts, reflectioiis; 
Lat. cogittUiones. 

For first of all, wanton and vain cogitatwns, which always 
lie wide open to the inspirations of Satan and talk of naugli 
men, are plagues to the word of God. Bullinger, Decades, p. ( 

Collops. sb, (Job ZY. 27), Lumps or slices of meat; 
still used m Y orkshire, but generally applied to rashers of 
bacon, whence the Monday before Ash Wednesday is there 
called Collop Monday. According to Mr Wedgwood's in- 
genious etymology, it is an imitative word ^from dop or 
colp, representing the sound of a lump of something soft 
thrown on a flat surface.' He connects it with Du. Mop, 
It. colpo, a blow^ and compares the similar words dab, pat, 
in which both sindfications are combined. To these may 
be added slcib and slap, 

A morcell, gobbet, or peece of flesh, a steake or colU^, or any 
like peeoe. Ofi^ Baret, A Ivearie, 

God knows, thou art a collop of my flesh. 

Shakespeare, i Men, VI, v. 4. 

Colour, sb. (Acts xxviL 30). Pretext ; Lat. color in 
the same sense. 

I fere, lest those that hane not letted to put them in duresse 
with out colour, wil let as lytle to procure their distruccion with- 
out cause. Sir T. More, Rich. Ill, Workt, p. 49 g. 

Vnder a colour to make sport and set the company in a laugh- 
ing; but indeed to mocke Gegania the mistresse of the house. 

Holland's Pliny, zxziT. 3. 

Notwithstanding his Boyall heart was not daunted or dis- 
couraged for this or that colour, but stood resolute. The Ttomm- 
l€Uor8 to the Header. 

Colt, sb. (Gen. xxxii. 15; Zech. ix. 9, &c.). A.-S. colL 
Applied to the male young of the ass and camel, but now 
onlv to a young male horse. The Swedish kiUt denotes 
both a young boar and a boy. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Come at, t?. t. (Num. yi. 6). To oome near. 

Madam, he hath not slept to-night; commanded 
NoHe should come <U Iiim. 

Shakespeare, Wint, Tale, IL 3. 

Come by, v,t (Acts xxvii. 16). To get, acquire. 
Still used colloquially. 

This office he committed to him, that he might the more 
easely by him, as by a faithful messenger, releue the necessitie 
and misery of poore nedie people, such as him selfe happehr coulde 
not come by the knowlage of. Sir T. More, Life 0/ Picusj 
Works, p. 6 d. 

But how I caught it, found it, or came by it, 
What stuff 'tis made of, whereof it is bom, 
I am to learn. 

Shakespeare, 3f. of Venice, i. i. 

Translation it is... that remooueth the couer of the well, that 
we may com^ by the water. The Translators to the Eeader. 

ComelinesSi ih. (Ia.liii. 2; Ezek. xvi. 14). Beauty, 

Comelinesse: seemelinesse. I>ecentia...condecentia. Baret» 

When youth with comdiness pluck'd all gaze his way. 

Shakespeare, Coriol. I. 3. 

Comely, 043- (Ps. xxxiii. i; Eccl. T. 18). Becoming, 
graceful, from A.-S. cymlic; like the Lat. deems. It is 
now only applied to external grace or beauty, but had once 
a moral sense. 

Meseems it were more comely for my lord (if it were comely 
for me to say so), to be a preacher himself. Latimer^ JUm. 
p. 328. 

O what a world is this, when what is comely 
Enyenoms him that bears itl* 

Shakespeare, As You Like It, n. 3. 

Digitized by Vn«^J\.8***e2 


The root of the word is connected mth the A.-S. cweman, 
to please, and G. bequem. 

Comfort^ v.t. Fr. comforter; ecclesiastical Latin 
cor^orto, from li&t/ortis * strong.' Properly *to strength- 
en.' The Hebrew word thus rendered in Job ix. 27 ; x, 20, 
is elsewhere translated *to recover strength' (Ps. xxxix. 13) 
and * strengthen' (Am. y. 9). The idea of strengthening and 
supporting has been lost sight of in the modem usage of 
the word, which now signifies Ho console;' and the sub- 
stantive * comfort,' when employed in a material sense, does 
not convey the idea of needful support so much as of that 
which is merely accessory. In the 7th art. of the truce be- 
tween England and Scotland in the reign of Rich. III. it 
was provided that neither of the kings ^ shall maintayne, 
fauour, ayde, or comfort any rebell or treytour' (Hall, 
Hich. III. fol. 19 a). And shortly after we read, *King 
Charles promised him aide and comfort, and bad him to be 
of good courage and to make good diere' (fol. 23 a). 

Lord Campbell, in his * Essay on Shakespeare's legal 
acquirements' (p. 82), remarks upon the passage in J^. Lear, 
III. 5, * If I find him comforting the king, it will stuff his 
suspicion more fully ;' " The indictment against an acces- 
sory after the fact for treason charges that the accessory 
^comforted' the principal traitor Mter knowledge of the 
treason." But the most striking passage of all is in Wic- 
lif 's translation of Is. xlL 7: 

And he coumfortide hym with nailes, that it shulde not be 

(A. V. * fastened'). And again, in Phil. iv. 13, the earlier 
version has, 

I may alle thingis in him that comfortiih me. 

Comfortable, adj. (Communion Service). Comfort- 
ing, consoling. Thus Latimer, describing Bilney's agony of 
mind {Serm. 222) ; * As for the comfortable places of Scrip- 
ture, to brin^ them unto him, it was as though a man 
would run hmi through the heart with a sword.' And 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Chapman (Preface to Homer, II, l p. Ixir. ed. Hooper) in 
his noble defence of Poetry, says ; 

To all sciences, therefore, I must still prefer it as being a 

perpetual commerce with the Divine Majesty, embracing and 
illustrating all His most holy precepts, and enjoying continual 
discourse with His thrice perfect and most cofnfortahle Spirit. 

Commandment^ 9b, (2 Kings xvliL 36). Command, 

Eaen those fayle me, and at my commoLtundemenU wyll do no- 
thyng for me. Sir T. More, Rich. Ill,; Works, p. 67 X. 

Sextilius went to doe his c<ymmauvdementy but he was compel- 
led to fight. North's Plutarch, LucidluSf p. 558. 

Commandment, to give in (Ex. xxxiv. 32). To 


Whence it is, that in suche cases, Phisiciani geue in com- 
mav^idemeTU to feele the pulce of the passionate partie, reheer- 
sing, and, remembryng the names of many, and among theim 
the partie also beloued. The Forette or Collection of HUtoritt, 
trans. Eortescue, foL 131 a (ed. 1571). 

Commend, t. t. (Acts xiv. 23). From Lai eommendoy 
lit. Ho commit to one's charge;' used several times in the 
sense in which * recommend' is now conmion. Thus in 
Shakespeare {Two Gent of Ver. i. 3) ; 

Are journeying to salute the emperor 
And to commend their service to his will 

T commend rather, some diet, for certaine seasons, then fre- 
quent use of physicke. Bacon, Ess. xxx. p. 132, 

And in the sense of * commit' simply: 

His glittering arms he will commend to rust. 

Shakespeare, Rich. II. ill. 3. 

Commendation, sb. (2 Cor. Hi. i). Recommenda- 
tion. Epistles of commendation mentioned in the above 

Digitized by Vj«^VJV IC 


passage, and in early Canons, were ^letters commendatory 
by which the bearers, when leaving their own congrega- 
tions, were recommended to distant churches, as guaran- 
tees of character\(Blunt, Hist of the First Three Centu- 
ries^ p. 25). As commend above is used for * recommend,' 
so commendcttion is replaced in modem usage by * recom- 

The duke hath offered him 
Letters of commendation to the king. 

Shakespeare, All's Wdl, IV. 3. 

Under the Feudal System C(ymmendati(m had a tech- 
nical significance. " The vassal was said to c(ymm>end him- 
self to the person whom he selected for his lord." (Craik, 
English of Shakespeare, 279.) 

Commination. sK (Pr.-Bk.). Lat. comminatio, lite- 
rally a threatening y from minari, to threaten ; hence aj)- 
plied to the recital of God's threatenings to be used on 
certain days, of which the first day of Lent is one. 

Common, adj. Used by all^ serving for all. Thus, 
the * Book of (fommon Prayer,' as distinguished from pri- 
'tote or family prayer. Latimer, in his first Sermon on 
the Lord's Prayer, makes the same distinction; 

I told you the diversity of prayer, namely, of the common 
prayer, and the private. Serm, p. 326. 

In the prayer of St Chrysostom, ^common supplica- 
tions' are supplications in which all join. In like manner 
we read ; Hhe believers had all things common (Acts ii 44), 
and in the phrases ^commfwn faith' (Tit. i. 4), and ^commmi 
salvation' (Jude 3), the word is used in l^e same sense, 
which is not altogether obsolete. Other instances are found 
in Shakespeare {Tim, qfAth, rv. 3); 

Common mother, thou, 
Whose womb unmeasurable, and infinite breast. 
Teems and feeds all. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


And in Bacon {Ess, rv. 55) ; 

Princes, that ought to be common parents. 

* Common/ in the technical sense of 'profane' or spol- 
iated,' as defined by the ceremonial laws of the Jews, is 
used (Acts X. 14, 1 5 ; Deut. xxviiL 30 marg.) and Jer. xxxi. 5. 

There is a curious use of this word in the phrase 'com- 
mon sense,' which is now taken almost uniyersaUy to mean 
such sense as men of the most ordinary intellect may be 
supposed to be endowed with, but Archbishop Trench (aS'^ 
led Gloss, p. 42) has pointed out that it is a technical term, 
derived from the Greek metaphysicians, meaning an inward 
sevise, which is the common bond of all the outward senses ; 
as if the latter merely acted as channels to convey informa- 
tion to the 'common sense.' 

Thus comyn wytte worketh wonderly. 
Upon the v. gates whyche are receptatyve 
Of every thynge for to take inwardly, 
By the comyn wytte to be afi^rrmatyve 
Or by decemynge to be negatyve; 
The comyn ^cytte, the fyrst of wyttes all, 
Is to deceme all thinges m generall. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleas, cap. 24. 

Commune, v. i, (Gen. xxiii. 8 ; i K. x. 2 ; Luke vi. 
1 1 ; xxii. 4, &c.). In accordance with its derivation from 
Lat. communis, 'common,' 'to commune with,' originally 
signified ' to share in,' as for instance ; 

Laertes, I must commwM with thy grief. 
Or you deny me right. 

Shakespeare, Haml, vr. 5. 

And hence 'to commune' acquired the meaning which 
it most frequently has, 'to share with another in the com- 
munication of ideas, to converse, consult.' So Sir T. More, 

And when we had eommwned a little concerning her son. 

Rich. Ill, 

Communicate, Lat. com/munico, from the same 
root as the two preceding words. It is used both trans- 
Digitized by VjV.JV.JVIC 


itively in' the sense of Ho impart' to others (Gal. ii. 2), 
and intransitively *to share,* * participate' (PhiL iv. 14; 
2 Mace. y. 20), and in a technical sense in the Rubrics and 
Exhortation to the Communion office, * to partake of the 
Lord's Supper.' In the sense of *to share' it occurs in 
Shakespeare {Com, qfErr. il 2); 

Thou art an elm, my husband, I, a vine, 
Whose weakness, married to thy stronger state^ 
Makes me with thy strength to communicate. 

Compact, pp. (Ps. cxxiL 3). Firmly united, strongly 
built; Lat. compactus^ which has the same meaning. The 
form * compacted' occurs in Bph. iv. 16. 

The caelestiall bodies, which make and frame the world, and in 
that frame are com'pact and knit together, haue an immortall 
nature. Holland's Pliny, ii. 8. 

The French King willed his Chauncellor or other minister to 
repeate and say ouer Fraunce as many times as the other had 
recited the severall dominions, intending it was equivalent with 
them all, and beside more compacted and vnited. Colours of 
Good and Evil, 5, 

Company, «. i. The etymology of this word has 
given rise to many conjectures. The noun companion (Fr. 
compagnon, It. compagno) has been variously derived from 
Med. Lat. compaganus, ' one of the same village,* or com- 
pants, 'a messmate,' whence companium, 'an association,' 

* in analogy with 0. H. G. gi-mazo or gi-leip, board-feUow, 
from mazo, meat, or leip, bread' (Wedgwood). Webster 
suggests another origin for company , *from cum and pan- 
mis, cloth, Teutonic fahne, or vaan a flag. The word de- 
notes a band or number of men under one flag or standard.' 

* To company with' (Acts i. 21 ; i Cor. v. 9) in the sense of 

* to associate with,' occurs in Latimer {Serm, p. 63) ; 

How many such prelates, how many such bishops. Lord, for 
thy mercy, are there now in England ! And what shall we in 
this case do ? Shall we company toith them ! 

Digitizedly Google 


Compass. Fr. compos, It compasso, a compass, cir- 
cle ; compasget* to compass, encircle ; from Lat . cum — pcusug. 
The word is used both as (i) a noun and (2) a verb. i. In 
the sense of * circumference ' (Ex. xxvii. 5 ; xxxviii. 4) ; * cir- 
cuit ' (2 8am. y. 23 ; 2 Kings iii. 9; Acts xxviii. 13). In the 
latter passages ' to fetch a compass^ is simply ' to make a 
dreuit/ * to go round/ The phrase was formerly common. 
Thus in Greene's Groans worth of Wit; *And from thence 
fetch a winding compasse of a mile about* (Sig. 4. rev.). 

And Heywood {Fair Maid qfthe Exchange, n. 3), 

For ^tis his custom, like a sneaking fool, 
To fetch a compass of a mile about» 
And creep where he would be. 

2. The verb Ho comi)afis' is used for the modem * en- 
compass/ to surround; as in Shakespeare {Mid, N!8 Dr. 

IV. I), 

We the globe can compass soon 
Swifter than the wand'ring moon. 

In Sam. xxiv. 2, marg. it is used in the sense of Hra^ 
verse' or *go through.' 

The rest compassed him in round about a horsebacke, with 
»ong8 of victory and great rushing of their hamesse. North's 
Plutarch, BnU, p. 1073, 

The word occurs as a noun in Chaucer in the literal 
sense of a 'circle.' In describing the amphitheatre built 
by Theseus, he says, 

Bound was the schap, in maner of compass. 

KnigMs Tale, 1891. 

Bacon uses it for 'border/ 'circumference;' 

Host of the kingdomes of Europe, are not meerely inland, but 
girt with the sea, most part of their comipasse. Ess, xxix. p. 129. 

Compose, v,t To settle, arrange, as quarrels, &c.; 
Lat componere. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC ^ 



Demaratus of Corinth aduised a great King, before be talked 
of the dissentions among the Grecians, to compose his domestick 
broiles. The Translators to the Header. 

Conceit, v, ^. To conceive, imagine; formed from the 
substantive conceit, Lat. conceptum. 

If any man conceit, that this is the lot and portion of the 
meaner sort onely, and that Princes are priuiledged by their high 
estate, he is deceiued. The Translators to the Reader, 

Concerning, prep. (Lev. iv. 26). The phrase 'as 
concerning' is equivalent to * as regards.' 

God is their father, 08 concerning their substance, for he 
giveth them souls and bodies. Latimer, Serm. p. 544. 

Concupiscence, sb. (Bom. vii. 8 ; Col. iii. 5 ; i Thess. 
iv, 5). From Lat. concupiscentia, 'eager desire, lust* 

And this concupiscence, whan it is -wrongfully disposed or 
ordeyned in man, it makith him to coveyte, by covetise of 
fleissch, fleisschly synne. Chaucer, Pa/rson^s Tale. 

And in the end, the horse of the minde as Plato termeth it, 
that is so hard of raine (I meane the vnreyned lust of concupi- 
scence) did put out of Antonius head, all honest and commend- 
able thoughtes. North's Plutarch, Antonius, p. 985. 

Confection, sh. (Ex. xxx. 35). A compound; Lat. 
confectio, from wnich also, through the French, we have 

A confection, mingling, putting, or setting diuers thinges 
together, facture, proportion, or msSdng. Coropositio...(rui^^eo-if. 
vt compositio vnguentorum. Plin. Baret, Alvearie, b.v. 

Confectionary, »b. (i Sam. viii. 13). That this, and 
not confectioner, is tne origmal form of the word, is shewn 
by the Med. Lat. cor^ectionariuSf through which it has 
come to us from cor^fectio, ' a compound.' It occars in this 
sense in Shakespeare {Tim. qfAth, iv. 3); 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


But myself 
Who had the world as my confectwruxry. 

Bat it is also found, instead of confectionery^ for things 
made by the confectioner. Thus iN^ashe speaks of 

Tart and galingale, which Chaucer preheminentest enoo- 
mionizeth aboue all iunquetries or confectUmarks whatsoeuer. 
Lenien Stuffe, p. 23. 

Confer, v.i, (i Kings i. 7; GaL L 16). To consult: 
Lat. con/erre, lit. to bring together. This word is but 
little us^^ though still intelligible : it was formerly com- 

Alcibiades found means to ioine all their three factions in 
one, becomming friends one to another: and hauing conferred 
with Nicias about it, he made Hyperbolus selfe to be banished. 
NortVs Plutarch, Alcib, p. 215. 

Confidences, sb. (Jer. ii 37). 

For this is too high and too arrogant, savouring of that which 
Ezekiel saith of Pharaoh: Dicia : fiuuius est meu8 et ego feci memet 
ipmm: or of that which another prophette speakeih: That men 
offer satnifices to theire nettes and snares, and that which the 
poett ezpresseih, 

Dextra mihi Beus, et telum qiu>d mimU Itbro, 
Nwnc adsint: 

For these confidences were euer vnhallowed, and unblessed. Bacon, 
iidtf. o/X. II. ^3, §8. 

Confound, t.U (Jer. i. 17). From Lai confunderey 
lit to pour together, and hence, to mix in disorder, to 
throw into conmsion (e.g. Athan. Creed). In old writers 
the word was used in a much stronger sense than at pre- 
sent, and was almost synonymous with 'destroy.' In the 
passage above quoted from Jeremiah, the maiginal reading 
IS 'break in pieces,' and this usage is illustrated by the 
following from Hall {Hen. IV, fol. 11 a); 

For diuerse lordes which wer kyng Bychardes frendes, out- 
wardly dissunuled that whyche they inwardly conspired and de- 
tennined, to cxynfovmdt this kynge Henry. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The more common sense of the word in our version is 
*to put to deep shame;' as Latimer (Serm, p. 258) 
speaking of notable offenders ; 

For no man is able to devise a better way than God hath 
done, which is excommunication, to put them from the congreg- 
ation till they be confounded. 

Confiision, sb. In Is. xxiv. 10, xxxiv. 1 1, this word 
appears to be used in the stronger sense of * destruction* 
(see Confound), as in Hall {Hen, TV, fol. 14 &), referring 
to Piers Exton and his companions ; 

Kyng Rycharde perceiuyng them armed, knewe well that they 
came to his confusion. 

Coney (Lev. xi. 5; Deut. xiv. 7; Ps. civ. 18; Prov. 
XXX. 26). The 0. E. form was cunig (Coleridge's Gloss, 
lnd.)y or amyng, as in Piers Ploughman's VU, 384. ; 

The while he caccheth conynges. 
He coveiteth noght youre caroyne. 

and coninghis, cuning, axidcunyng are given in Jamieson's 
Scottish dictionary. But conies is also found in Chaucer 
(Ass, qf Fowls, 193); 

The little pretty conies to hir play gan hie. 

The etymology of the word is very doubtful. We have 
it probably direct from the Fr. connll (= It. conigliOy Sp. 
conejo), which is itself apparently derived from Lat. cunic- 
ulus. On the analogy of the Bohemian kraljky * a rabbit.' 
literally ' a little king,' Mr Wedgwood suggests that cunic- 
vlus may be a diminutive of the Germ, kdnig, 'a king/ 
Certainly the 0. E. conyng and the Germ, kannichen look 
as if they might have had some such origin. The word 
conies is of frequent occurrence. Thus, in Polyd. Vergil's 

Allmoste the third part of the grownde [in Britain] is lefte 
unmanuredy either for. their hertes, or falowe deere, or their 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


wnUs or their gotes (for of them allso are in the northe partes no 
SDiall number). Vol. I. 5. 

And in 7%^ Freiris of Berwick, attributed to Dunbar, 
we find 

And fatt cunyngU to a fyre did scho lay. 135. 

Conscience, sb. (i Cor. viii. 7; Heb. x. 2). Con- 
udonsness; like the Lat. conscientiay which occurs in the 
Vulgate of both passages. 

Merit, and good works, is the end of mans motion ; and con- 
science of the same, is the accomplishment of mans rest. Bacon, 
Em. zi. p. 40. 

Consecrate, pp. Consecrated; as in Shakespeare 
[Tit. And. i. i); 

And suffer not dishonour to approach 
The imperial seat to virtue consecrate. 

This is one of a numerous class of words, partly accen- 
toated on the last syllable, from Latin participles in -ttigy 
which appear to have retained their original form but 
slightly modified (e.g. consecrate, from Lat. consecratus), 
till tbej were finally adopted into the language and re- 
ceived the English participial termination. The object in 
the first instance was to avoid the recurrence of the dental 
soond. Of some words we retain both forms, as for in- 
stance, corrupt and corrupted, content and contented (Ba- 
con 1ms discontent. Essay xxxvi.) ; while others remain in 
their original condition, as contrite, resolute, &c. (See 

Consent unto (Acts viii. i; Rom. vii. 16). This 
phrase, which is not' of uncommon occurrence, appears to 
mvolve the idea of approval in addition to that of mere 
agreement. So in Shakespeare ; 

The bad revolting stars. 
That have consented unto Hemry's death. 

I ffen. VI. I. I. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


And again, 

Betire into your trenches; 
You all consented unto Salisbury's death, 
For none would strike a stroke in his revenge. 

Id, I. 5. 

Conserve, «?. t To preserve ; Lat conservare. 

The first Boman Emperour did neuer doe a more pleasing deed 
to the learned, nor more profitable to posteritie, for eonseruing 
the record of times in true supputation ; then when he corrected 
the calender. The Translators to the Header, 

Thou art too noble to conserve a life 
In base appliances. 

Shakespeare, Meas. for Meas. HL i. 

Consort, v.i. (Acts xvii. 4). From Lat comors, one 
who casts in his lot with others^ and shares in common 
with them. To associate with. So Shakespeare (iftks?. iVl'» 
Dr, WL 2) ; 

They wilfully themselves exile from light. 

And must for aye consort with bl&ck brow'd night. 

Constantly, adj, (Acts xil 15; Tii iii. 8). From 
Lat corutanter, consistently, nniformly. 

He slewe with his owne handes king Henry the sixt, being 
prisoner in the Tower, as menne constantly saye. Sir T. More, 
Jiich, III,; Works, p. 37/. 

And verfly, our antient chronicles doe all of them most con- 
stantly affirm, that had they not been thus forewarned and taught 
what to say, Ac. Holland's Pliny, xxvin. a. 

Contain, v. t. (i Cor. vii. 9). The meaning of 'to be 
continent, restrain oneself/ is derived from the usage of 
the Lat. cMitineo with the reflexive pronoun in the same 
sense, by which the Vulgate represents the Greek. In the 
sense of 'restrain' it occurs in Chapman's Horn, II, il 
comment ; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The reverence of the scholar might well have contained 

their lame censures of the poetical fury from these unmannerly 
and hateful comparisons. 

In most of the old English Tersions of i Cor. yii. 9, the 
word used is * abstain ;' Wiclif*s earlier version has, "for if 
ihei conteynen not hem silf (or ben not cha8t\*' and the 
omission of the reflexive pronomi is certainly uncommon, 
though there are many analogous instances in which it is 
omitted, e. g. in the usage of refrain, remember, and re- 
pentj which were formerly all reflexive verbs. 

Lascivious wantons can not conteine, but in the end they will 
offer abuse and vilanie to the most holy and sacred bodies that 
be. Holland^s Plutarch, MoralSy p. 725. 

How shall he contain f The very tone of some of their voices, 
a pretty pleasing speech, an affected tone they use, is able of 
itself to captivate a young man. Burton's Anat. of Mel, pt. 3. § 2. 

Content; cuij. (Judg. xix. 6; 2 Kings v. 23; vi. 3; 
Job vi 28). Lat. contentus, from contineo, to hold within 
bounds. The phrase *be content/ which occurs in the 
above passages and also in Shakespeare, 

Gassius, he content, 
Speak your griefs softly, 

JtU. Cces, TV. a, 

18 explained by Mr Oraik as signifying *be continent; con- 
tain, or restrain, yourself' {Eng. of Shakespeare, 519). 

Again in 0th. it. 3; 

I pray you, he content, 'tis but his humour; 
The business of the state does him offence. 

The Hebrew, however, scarcely bears this sense, and is 
translated elsewhere, Met it please thee' or 'be pleased,' 
as in 2 Sam. vli 29 and mia.rgin. The meaning of tne word 
ttpproaches more nearly to that of the Fr. content. 

And in Holland's Pliny, xxxiv. 5 ; 

lolius Cssar verily the Dictator, toas weU content (passus est) 
that his image should be set vp in the Forum or common place 
at Boine, armed with an habargeon or coat of male. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Continency, sK (Mar. Ser.). The old form of * con- 
tinence,* which preserves more than the modem word its 
connection with Lat. continentia, * the holding in of one's 
desires.' It was of frequent occurrence ; e. g. Shakespeare 

In her chamber 
Making a sermon of contiTiency to her. 

Tarn, of Shrew, iv. i. 

For neither those gates that be shut in a city do guard the 
saine and secure it for being forced and wod, if there l^ but one 
standing open to receive and let in the enimies: nor the tem- 
perance and co7itiriencie in the pleasures of other senses preserve a 
yoong man for being corrupted and perverted, if for want of 
forecast and heed taking he give himselfe to the pleasure onely 
of the eare. Holland's Plutarch, Morals^ p. i8. 

So 'arrogancy/ Mnnocency,' *insolency/ are found for 
arrogance, innocence, insolence, which follow the French 
form of ending. Many words still exist with both termin- 
ations; e.g. excellence and excellency; fragrance and 
f vagrancy^ &c. 

Contrariwise, adv. (2 Cor. ii. 7; Gal. ii. 7; i Pet 
iii 9). On the contrary. The termination wise ( = guise^ 
gtiess) which is found in several English words, is the same 
as ways: thus likewise^ in liko ways; otherwise, in other 
ways; nowise, in no ways, or, by no means, &c. 

But contrariwise, at all times, when ye shall have leisure, ye 
shall hear or read some part of holy scripture, or some other 
good authors. Grindal, Injunctions to Clergy, 1571 {Rem. p. 130). 

Unworthy persons, are most envied, at their first commingin, 
and afterwards overcome it better; wheras contrariwise, persons 
of worth, and merit, are most envied when their fortune con* 
tinueth long. Bacon, Ess. ix. p. 52. 

Controversy^ sh. (i Tim. iii. 16). Dispute; used in 
a sense somewhat different from the present 

S. Hierome, a most learned father, and the best linguist with- 
out controuersie, of his age, or of any that went before him. The 
Trantlatora to the Header, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Convenient, adj, in accordance with its etymology, 
from the Lat. conveniens^ signified originally, ^fitting, be- 
coming, suitable,' and in this sense is used several times in 
our version (Frov. xxx. 8 ; Bom. i. 28; Eph. v. 4; Phiiem. 
8). Thus Latimer speajcs of 

Toluntary works ; which works be of themselves niarvellouB 
good and conveniemi to be done. Serm. p. 23. 

Maintained with such a proportion of land unto them, as 
may breed a subiect, to live in convenient plenty, and no servile 
condition. Bacon, Eu, xxvi. p. 111, 

Convent, 9. t (Jer. xlix. 19 m. L 44 m.). From the 
Lat convenire, to summon to a tribunal, to convene. 

He hath commanded, 
To-morrow morning to the council board. 
He be convented. 

Shakespeare, Ben, VIII. v. i. 

Conversant, to be (Josh. viii. 35 ; i Sam. xxv. 15). 
From Lat. conversor, to dwell or abide with; hence to 
associate with. In tne original the word signifies simplv 
* to walk.' So " while he was yet conversant in the world" 
(South, Serm. m. 190.) This is one of numberless instances 
of the common metaphor by which a man's course of con- 
duct is in many languages compared to a road or path. 
Thus ' way' is used for a mode of life. Hence 

Conversation occurs twice in the Old Testament 
(Ps. xxxvii. 14, 1. 23), where in both cases the literal ren- 
dering would be 'a p«kth«' In the New Testament it means 
general deportment or behaviour, especially as regards 
morals ; ana, in all but two passages, correi^nds very ex- 
actly to the word in the original {cufaarp^rj). In Heb. 
xiii. 5, however, tibe Greek word means 'disposition;' and 
in PMl. iii. 20, ' citizenship,' as if in the last passage the 
Apostle had said, '^ The community to which we belong is 
in heaven." Bacon (Ess. xrvn. p. 106) speaks of "a love 
and desire to sequester a mans selfe, for a higher con 

And Latimer (Serm. p. 51 7) 5 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 


So it appears, partly, that we are not bound to follow the 
conversations or doings of the saints; 

and shortly after he adds ; 

By this word 'walk * is signified onr conversation and living. 

But all are banished till their conversation 
Appear more wise and modest to the world. 

Shakespeare, a ffen. IV, v. 5. 

Converse j v.i. (Acts ii. c). From the same root as 
the preceding. To associate, be familiar. Thus in Shake- 
speare (As You Like It, v. 2) ; 

I have, since I was three years old, conversed with a magician, 
most profound in his art. 

They are happie men, whose natures sort with theu* vocations ; 
otherwise they may say, multHm incola fuit anima mea: when 
they converse in those things, they doe not afifect. Bacon, £ss. 
XXXVIIL p. 161. 

The Tinker, according to Sir T. Overbury {Characters)^ 

embraceth naturally ancient custome, conversing in open fields 
and lowly cottages. 

Convert, vA. (like the Lat. converto, which is used 
both as a transitive and as an intransitive verb) in the sense 
of *be converted,* occurs Is. vL 10; but in the New Test:i- 
ment quotations of this passage the more common * be con- 
verted' is used. Instances of the former usage are Tery 

Salomon, in dedicating of his temple, testifieth that if we 

do convert unto God, and ask mercy, that we shall obtain it. 
•Grindal, Remains, p. 103. 

O London!... I think if Nebo had had the preaching that 
thou hast, they would have converted, Xatimer, Serm, p. 64. 

Convict, pp, (Act of Unif. Eliz.). Convicted. 

Before I be convict by course of law. 

To threaten me with death is most unlawful. 

. Shakespeare, Mich. Ill, i, 4. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


ConTTince, ^.t (John yiii. 46 ; Rom. iii. c). Like the 
Lat. convincere, from which it is derived, it si&nifies 
*to convict/ which itself is formed from the participle of 
the same 'word. In this sense it is found in the dramatists 
frequently. Thus Shakespeare (TV. and Cren, il 2) ; 

Else might the world comnnee of levity 
As well my undertakings as your reasons. 

And Webster {Appius and Firg. v. 3); 

From this deep dungeon 
Keep ofiF that great concourse, whose violent hands 
Would ruin tlus stone building, and drag hence 
This impious judge, piecemeal to tear his limbs 
Before the law convince him. 

In the sense of *to refute' in argument it is used in 
Job xxxii. 12 ; Acts xviii. 28 ; Tit. i. 9 ; and in the headings 
of Mark iii xii. ; Luke xx. 

In its literal sense of 'overcome/ it occurs in Hall 
{Rich. Ill, f 0133 a); 

Wbyle the two forwardes thus mortallye fought, eche en- 
tending to vanquish and conuince y® other, king Bichard was 
admonished by his explorators and espialles, y* therle of Bich- 
mod accompaigned with a small nombre of men of armes was 
not farre of 

Convocation, sb. (Ex. xii. 16, &c.). Lat. convocatio, 
an assembly, convoked, or called together. 

Daiphantus making a generall conuocation spake vnto them 
in this inaner. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 25, 1. 23. 

Copie, ^, Plenty, abundance ; Lat. copia. 

We, if wee will not be superstitious, may vse the same libertie 
in our English versions out of Hebrew & Greeke, for that copie 
or store that he hath giuen vs. The Translators to the Header. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ 




The efficade of preaching did bring in an affectionate 
studie of eloquence, and copU of speech, which then began to 
flourish. Bacon, A&o, of I^anming, i. 4 § 2. 

Cora (John adi. 24). A.-S. com, a grain ; whence cir- 
nel, a kernel. The word is retained in the Auth. Vers, 
from Wiclif. An example from Chaucer is sufficient for 
illustration; he says of Chaunticlere, 

He chukkith, whan he hath a corn i-founde^ 
And to him rennen than his wifes alle. 

Nun's Priest's TaU, 16668. 

Cotes (2 Ghron. xxxii. 28), and Sheepcote (i Sam. 
xxiv. 3 ; 2 Sam. vii. 8 ; i Chron. xviL 7). Vote, especially 
in composition with the name of one of the smaller animals, 
is still in common provincial use for 'hut, shed, or en- 
closure;' thus, sheepcote, dovecote, pigcote. hencote, rab- 
bitcote, and kidcote (by which latter name tne village lock- 
up is sometimes called in West Yorkshire). It is connected 
with cot and cottage, all being derived from A.-S. c6te, and 
was once in good use, thus : 

God hath such favour sent hir of his grace 
That it ne semyd not by liklynesse 
That sche was born and fed in rudenesse, 
As in a cote, or in an oxe stall, 
But Boiischt in an emperoures halle. 

Chaucer, Tke Cleric's Tale, 8^74. 

Suche persones will not the euangelicall shepeheard despise or 
disdeigne, but rather seke al waies possible vntill he shall eftsons 

haue restored theim to the sh^ecotes of the church. Udal's 

Erasmus^ Luhe foL lao a. 

When I saw a shepherd fold 
Sheep in cote to shun the cold. 

Greeners PhUom. Ode 4. iL 303 (ed. Dyce). 

And cotes that did the shepherds keep 
From wind and weather. 

Chapman, Bfom, II. xvm. 535. 

Couch, T.i. (Deui xxxiiL 13). To lie; Fr. coucher. 
Like the French word, 'couch' was formerly used in a 
transitive sense. 

' Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 

word-book, 133 

The maiesty/that kings to people beare, 

The stately port, the awefull cheere they showe. 

Doth make the meane, to shrinke and comh tor feare. 

The Mirror for Magistrates, fol. 260 h. 

As for those panements called Lithostrata, which be made of 

diqers coloured squares (xmched in works, the inuention began by 

Syllaes time, who ysed thereto small quarrels or tiles at Preneste 

within the temple of Fortune. Holland's Pliny, zxxvi. 25. 

The Hebrew word of which it is the rendering in Deut. 
xxxiil 13 ig generally applied to wild beasts and animals. 

Count, used both as a noun (Ex. xii. 4) and a verb 
(Is. V. 28 ; J am. v. 1 1 ) for the modem ' account' It is de- 
rived through the Fr. compter, from Lat. computare, to 
compute, reckon ; and in this sense is used in Shakespeare 
(2 Ben. VI. n. 4) ; 

Trow'st thou, that e'er IH look upon the world 
Or count them happy that enjoy the sun 9 

As a noun 'count' occurs in Shakespeare, in the sense 
of ' reckoning :' 

O by this count, I shall be much in years 
Ere I ag$dn behold my Borneo. 

Rem, and Jul, in. 5. 

Countervail^ t, t, (Esth. yii. 4). Lat. contravalere, 
to prevail against, counterbalance. Thus in Gower (fionf. 
Am. proL L p. 28) ; 

Where Borne thanne wolde assaUe 

There mighte no thing contrevaUe. 

And Shakespeare {Rom, and JuL, il 6) ; 

But come what sorrow can, 
It cannot countervail the exchange of joy. 

The wit of one man, can no more counteruaile learning, than 
one mans meanes can hold way with a common purse. Bacon, 
Adv, of Learning, i. a § 3. 

Courage, good (Num. xiil 20; 2 Sam. x. 12). This 
phrase requires no explanation. The following are exam- 
ples of its occurrence. 

Therefore it is not in vain that St Paul would have us hearty 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 

134 ^^E BIBLE 

and strong, and fight with a good cov/roffe, Latimer, Serm. 
p. 493. 

He began to be of a good courage againe, and deteiinined 
with this good fauourable oportunitie of time, to come before 
tne counsdl. North's Plutarch, Alcib, p. 220. 

Course, out of (Ps. Ixxxii. 2). Out of order. 

But these standards, to be kept'with cutting, that they grow 
not otU ofcowne. Bacon, Ess. XLVi, p. 193. 

Covenant, v.i. (Gen. xxix. e,; Matt. xxvi. 15; Luke 
xxii. 5). To agree, make a covenant. 

When she first entertained them she promised them her soule, 
and they couenanted to doe all things which she commanded 
them, &c. A WonderfuU Discouerie of Witcli-craft, sig. D verso. 

Covert, «&. (i Sam. xxv. 20 ; Job xxxviii. 40). Shelter, 
biding place ; Fr. convert, from couvrir, the Lat. cooperire. 
Now spelt c<yDery and applied only to a hidingplace for 
game. Baret (Alvearie, 8.v.) has, *a couert for deere or 
other beastes. Latibulum. . .Dumetum. . . Ymbraculum . . .^a>- 
\€6s' And again, 'a denne or burrowe : couert to hide in. 
Latibulum . . .vne cachette.' 

So early walking did I see your son: 
Towards him I made ; but he was ware of me, 
And stole into the covert of the wood. 

Shakespeare, Bom. and Jul, L i. 

Covet, «?. f. (i Cor. xii. 31 ; xiv. 39). To desire; from 
Lat. cupidtiSy through the Fr. convoiter, in which the n 
has been inserted from a false idea of the etymology. The 
Italian has cubitare. That the n does not really belong to 
the Fr. convoiter is evident from the compound encomr, 
which was used in old French. In the original use of the 
word in English there was not necessarily any idea of wrong. 

We cotteted to ankor rather by these Bands in the riuer, than 
by the maine, because of the Tortugas ^ges, which our people 
found on them in great abundance. Balegh, Disc, of Guiana, 
p. 68. 

Cracknel, »5. (i Kings xiv. 3), a kind of cakei so 
called from the sharp noise made when breaking. The 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Hebrew root means, to prick or mark teith points, and U 
rendered in Josh. ix. 5 — 12, mouldy, Le. spotted with 
mould. Richardson quotes. 

And whan the plate is hote they caet of the thyn past ther- 
on, and so make a lytle cake in maner of a crakenell or byaket* 
Berners* Froissart, I. c. 17. 

A simneU, bonne, or craekneU, CoUyra. Baret, Alvearie^ 

Craft, sb. (Acts xyiii 3 ; xiz. 25, 27 ; Ecclus. xxxyiii. 
34), originally * strength' (A.-S. crc^. Germ. kr<tft\ is one 
of those words which, like * cunning,' have degenerated in 
meaning. In its literal sense it occurs in Chaucer {Tale cf 
Melibeus) ; 

After here craft to do gret diligence unto the cure of hem 
whiche that thay have m here govemaunce. 

From the orif^nal meaning of 'strength' it comes to 
signify that in which a man puts forth his strengthi and so 
his work or occupation. 

The same Yarro praiseth also Praxiteles, who was wont to 
say, that the craft of potterie and working in dey, was the 
mother of Founderie, and of all workes that are cut, engrauen, 
chased and embossed. Holland's Pliny, xxxv. 12. 

Craftsman, sb, (Deut. xxvii. 15; i Ghron. iv. 14; 
Acts xix. 24, 38). From the preceding ; an artisan, or skil- 
ful workman, an artist 

In al the lond ther nas no craftys man, 
That geometry or arsmetiike can. 

Chaucer, Knighfs Tale, [899. 

In sum, this man (Dibutades) gaue the original! name Plastica 
to the craft, and PlastcB, to the craftsmen in Uiis kind. Holland's 
Pliny, XXXV. 12. 

Crave^ v. t (Mark xv. 43). To ask for ; A.-S. crafian. 

This is the cause that I, poor Margaret, 

With this my son, prince Edward, Henry's heir, 

Am come to crave thy just and lawful aid. 

Shakespeare, 3 Een, VI, m. 3. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Creature^ «&. (Rom. L 25; yiiL i^; i Tim. iv. 4; 
Jam. i 18). From the Lat creiUura in its orifinal sense 
of ^any thing created,' not limited to living things. The 
same word is rendered 'creation' in Rom. viii. 22, which is 
translated 'creature' in yerses T9, 20, 21, 39. Burton, in 
his Anatomy qfMdancJidyy calls Aristotle's work on Na- 
tural History, his ' History of Creatures,^ And Bacon says 
{Adv. of Learning^ l 4 § 4) ; 

The wit and minde of man, if it work vpon matter^ which is 
the contemplation of the ereatwrn of Gk^d, worketh according to 
the Btuffe, and is limited thereby. 

Credence^ sb. This word, which was formerly in as 
common use as 'credit,' which has superseded it, now is, 
occurs in the Pr.-Bk. version of Ps. cvi. 24 ; 

Feting lest their mocions might with y« Lord Hastingee minishe 
hiB credence. Sir T. More, Works, p. 53/. 

Of all Buche thinges have I experience. 
Then mayst thqu surely geve to me credence, 

Barclay, Echg, Inirod, p. x. 

Another ecclesiastical word of precisely similar form, 
used to denote a small table or otner receptacle for the 
bread and wine before being placed on the Communion 
Table, is from an Italian word, meaning a ' cupboard,* and 
has nothing to do with the above. 

Crib, %b. (Is. i. 3). A manger for cattle ; A.-S. eriby 
cribb; which is the same as the D. krybbe, and G. krippe. 

Let a beast be lord of beasts, and his crib shall stand at 
the king's mess. Shakespeare, JSaml. Y. a, 

Criminoiui, (idj. Blameworthy, Lat. criminosus. 
This now seldom used word occurs in tiie Office for the 
Consecration of a Bishop; Biduurdson gives the following 
example among others. 

Consider also, good readers, that by the lawes afore made, 
there was not only forboden to beare witnes, he that appeared to 
be once forsworn, but also many other maner of cryminous per. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


sons, for the generall presmnpcioD that they wer Tnwoorthy 
credence. Sir T. More, Works, p. 1003 b. 

Crisplng-Pins^ gb. (Is. iii 22). Curling-irons. In 
2 Kings v. 23, where the same Hebrew word occurs, it is 
rendered bcigg; and such is probably the meaning here. 
In the two other places where words from the same root 
occur the^ are rendered (Exod. xxxiL 4) 'graying tooV 
and (Is. viii. i) 'pen.* 

To crifipe and courle the haire with an yron pinne, 'CapiUos 
torquere ferro, yel calamistro. ' Ovid. ]3aret» Alvearie, b. v. 

' Crisping-iron' is used in the same sense in Beaumont 
and Fletcher. 

For nerer powder, nor the eriaping-iron 
Shall touch these dangHng locks. 

The Queen 0/ Corinik, iv. i. 

Crudle, «?.«. (Job x. 10). To curdle, the form in 
which the word appears in modem editions of the Bible. 

Cruse^ <&. (i Kings xiy. 3; 2 Kings iL 20I The 
Dutch kroea and kruyse and Dan. kruus, a cup or drinking 
yessel, approach most nearly in form as in meaning to our 
word, which is connected by Mr Wedgwood with cracky 
cresset, crust, and cruciMs. The Scottish cruisken is prob- 
ably jfrom the same root, and is equiyalent to Fr. creuse- 
qutn, from creuser, to hollow. In Holland's Pliny (xxxni. 
5) we read of the Borax, that 

Euer as they haue reduced any into ponder, they put it into 
sundry pots or crmes. 

And Moses sayde vnto Aaron : Take a crtcM, and put a gomor 
full of Man therin. Ex. xyi. 33. Coyerdale. 

Chaucer {Canon^s YeomavUs Tale) uses crotd^t (13045), 
and croUlet (13081) for crucible. 

Cubit, ab. from the Latin cvMttu, elbow (and that from 
eumboy to lie down, as being the part on which persons 
supported themselyes when reclining at meals), or more 
probably 'from a root cub, signifying crook or bend,' 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


(Wedgwood), just as eCboWy G. ellenbogen, is the bow or 
bend of the arm), was a measure of length, originally de- 
noting the average distance from the elbow to the tip 
of the middle finger. It belongs to a dass of measures 
taken, as was natural they shoi3d be in the first instance, 
from dimensions of parts of the human body. Compare 
foot, span, palm, handrbreadth, fathom (lit. an embrace, 
the space of both arms extended) ; French, potice (thumb, 
or inch) ; Latin, vlna (arm's-length, or eU), &c. 

Cumber^ v, t. (Luke x. 40 ; ziiL 7). Apparently con- 
nected with G. hummer, trouble*, to which its usage in the 
sense of vex, trouble, annoy, seems to point. As in the 
case of 'compass' and 'encompass,' 'camp' and 'encamp,' 
the compound form remains while the simpler has disap- 
peared, and we retain ' encumber' (Fr, encombrer), though 
'cumber' is nearly obsolete. In tiie i6th century it was 
still common. 

The. archers in the forfroot and the archers on the side wbiche 
stode in the medow, so wounded the fotemen, so galled the 
horses and so combred the men of armes that the fotemen durst 
not go forward, the horsmen nme in plumpes without ordre. 
Hall, iTcn. 7. fol. 176. 

Latimer describes the children of this world. 

Which as Kimrods and such sturdy and stout hunters 

deceive the children of light, and cutnber them easily. Serm, p. 47. 

And Shakespeare {Jul, Ccbs. in. i) : 

Domestic fury, and fierce civil strife 
Shall cumber all the parts of Italy. 

Cumbrance, sb. (Dent i. 12). Encumbrance. The 
Hebrew is elsewhere rendered ' trouble,' as in Is. L 14. 
Hold ;ow in unite, and ;e thtft hojy' wolde 
Is cause of all combraunce. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, p. 85 (ed. Whitaker). 

* Du Gauge gives a Med. Latin word eutnbrius or eombrus, 
which denotes a pile of obstacles, such as trees, placed in a road 
to block, up the passage. This is the same as Port, combro or 
Comoro, both of which are from Lat. cumtUus^ 

Digidzed by Google 


Cannin^j «&. (A.-8. cunnan^ to know, ken) is used in 
Scripture (as is also the woi*d cr({f£) in its original simple 
sense of knowing, knowledge, or ikiU, and not, as it is now, 
in a bad sense (Ps. cxxxvii. 5! So Caxton, speaking of the 
Earl of Worcester, calls his death 

A greie losse of Buche a man, conBideryng his estate and 

No man can attayne perfecte connynge 
But by longe atody and diligent lernynge. 

Hawes, P(ut. of Pleas, cap. ^4, 

Of Pamphilius the Macedonian artist Pliny says : 

He taught none his cunning vnder a talent of silver for 10 
yeares together. Holland's Pliny , xxxv. 10. 

Cunning^ adj. (Gen. zxv. 27 ; i Sam. xvi. 16, &c.). In 
its original sense of knowing, skilful 

Saynt Austyn^ saynt Hyerome, saynt Basyle, saynt Gregory, 
with 80 many a godly connynge man, as hath ben in Crystes 
chyrche from the begynnyng hytherto. Sir T. More, IHal, fol. 

Planto, the connynge and famous clerke^ 
That well expert was in phylosophy. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleasv/re, cap. 14, 

A man so connynge and so wyse that no manne wotteth better 
what he shuld do and say. Hail, Ed, V, fol. 216. 

Curate is used in the Prayer-Book in its literal sense 
of *one who is intrusted with the care (Lat. curd) or 
cure of souls,' and is applied to all the parochial clergy as 
distinguished from the bishops. This, which is the correct 
usage, is retained in France, where cure answers to our iw- 
cumbent, 2iSi^ mcaire, as the name strictly implies, denotes 

* Digitized by Vj«^tJ VIC 


what we usually mean by curaU, Piers Ploughman calls 
them curators: 

For persons and parissh-preestes 

Thai sholde the peple shryye 

Ben curaJtoura called. 

Fwion, 14487. 

Abp. Grindal (p. 452, Parker Society) speaks of * cured 
benefices ;' so also in the Coventry Mysteries (Shaks. Soc. 
p. 71) their incomes are thus i)ortloned out: 

So znld every cwrate in this werde wide 

feve a part to his chauncel i-wys ; 

A part to his parochoneres that to povert dyde ; 

The thryd part to kepe for hym and his. 

Chaucer says of the friar {ProL to Cant. Tales, 218), 
describing his superiority over the ordinary clergy, 
For be hadde power of confesaioun, 
As seyde himself, more than a curate 
For of his ordre he was a Ucentiat. 

And Latimer (Serm, p. 525) uses the term in the same 
sense : 

For if there be any man wicked because his curate teaoheth 
him not, his blood sbali be required at the curo^'8 hands. 

Cure^ sb. (Ordin. of Priests). This word now re- 
stricted to pastoral or spiritual care (see Curate), was 
formerly used for * care' of any kind. 

Madam, I sayde, to learn your science 
1 am comen nowe me to applye, 
With all my cv/re and perfect study. 

Hawea, Pastime of Pleaswre, cap. 4. 

Curiosity^ sb. Excessive scrupulousness. 

The Scripture then being acknowledged to bee so fuU and so 
perfect, how can wee excuse our selues of negUgence, if we doe 
not studie them, of curiositUf if we be not content with them f 
The Translator's to theJteader. 

Now, as concerning the funerals and enterring of her, . . .1 pray . 
you, let the' same be performed without all cvaiositie and super- 
stition. Holland's Plutarch, Morals, p. 533. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Curious, Curiously. From Lat curiosus (adv. 
curiose)y 'wrought with care and art;' especially applied 
to embroidery. The ^curious girdle' of the epnod (Ex. 
xxviii 8, see marg.) was a richly embroidered belt, and the 
expression ' curlotts works' (£x. xxxy. 32} is used to de- 
note embroidery or works of skill, and is elsewhere ren- 
dered ' cunning work' (ver. 33^. In this sense the word is 
found in Shakespeare : 

His body couched in a curious bed. 

3 5«l. VI. H. 5. 

He, sir, was lapp'd 
In a most turiom mantle, wrought by the hand 
Of his queen mother. 

Oymh. V. 5. 

Latimer {Rem. p. 348) applies it to skilful music: 

The true kind of loviug, which is now turned into piping, 
playing and cwrums singing. 

In the active sense of ^skilful' it occurs in Holland's 
Pliny. See the quotation under Abtifioer. It is also 
found in the sense of ' careful.' 

Give me thy grace that I may be a curious and prudent 
spender of my time. J^. Taylor, Hcity Living. 

In Psahn cxxxix. 15 (^curiously wrought in the lower 
parts of the earth') the word is the same which is usually 
translated 'embroidered;' the adjue^ng and formation of 
the different m^nbers of the human body being by a bold 
and beautiful metaphor compared to the arranging the 
threads and colours in a piece of tapestry {Taylor^ s Con- 

The translation of Acts xix. 19, ^curious arts,' in the 
sense of magic, is an imitation of the Vulgate, ' qui fiie- 
rant curioia sectati.' It was afterwards adopted into the 

When I was in France, I heard from one D'. Pena, that the 
Q. mol&er, who was given to curiam anrU, caused the kins: her 
husbands nativitie, to be calculated, under a false name. Bacon, 
Ess. xxxy. p. 150. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Custom, «&. (Ezr. iv. 13, 20, &c.). Tax. 

Let there be freedomes from customer till the plantation be of 
strength. Bacon^ Ess, xxxin. p. 142. 


Damnation occurs eleven times, and damned three 
times, as translations of words connected with the Greek 
Kfilvta, * to jadge, pass sentence, condemn.' Another pas- 
sage in which the kindred word damnable occurs is 2 Pet. 
ii. I, * damnable heresies,' which literally means * heresies 
of perdition, or destruction.' In the commonly misunder- 
stood sentence in the Communion Office taken from i Cor. 
xi. 29, 'eat and drink our own damnation^ this latter 
word is used in its simple sense of judgment^ as may be 
seen in the margin, and by examining the whole passage. 
There the words rendered damnation, discerning, judged y 
and condemnation, are all, in the original, parts or derivar- 
tives of one and the same word mentioned above ; and so 
Wiclif admirably rendered them into the language of his 
day by words connected with one and tJie same English 
verb, thus in the later version: 

He that etith and drinkith Ynworthili, etith and drinkith 
doom to him, not wiseli demyng the bodi of the lord.... And if 
we demyden wiseli vs silf we schulden not be demyd, but while we 
be demyd of the lord we ben chastisid, that we be not dampnyd 
with this world. 

And that by dampnyd he means simply condemned, we 
may learn from his applying the term to our blessed Lord 
in Matt, xxvii. 3 : 'Tnanne Judas that beliraiede him say 
that he was dampned* The fact is, the Apostle is refer- 
ring to temporal judgments, * divers diseases and sundry 
kinds of death,' as being the consequence of unworthily 
communicating ; the object of such judgments being, not 
damnation, but that men might be driven to judge and 
examine themselves, and repent and forsake their evil 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


ways, in order to escape what is now nsually meant by 
damnation. In illustration of this, which was once the 
ordiDary meaning of the word, as it is also of the Latin 
word from which it is derived, take the following pas- 

Dampnyd was he to deye in that prisoun. 

Chaucer, Monk*8 Tale, 15901, 

Againe in some partes of the land these seruing men (for so 
be these dampned persons called) do no comon worke. Sir T, 
More, Utopia, fol. 22 (trans. Bobynson). 

The statute of the third yeare of King Henry the seaventh 
beginning thus ; that all ynlawfull chevisances and vsury be 
damned, and none to be vsed vpon paine of forfeiture of the 
Talue of the money so chevised and lent. Quatemio, p. 197. 

Damosell^ sb, (Dent. xxii. 15, &c.). Damsel; in the 
ed. of 161 1. 

Which the King willingly, but vnaduisedly graunted, and 
espoused the damoseU, Stow^ Annals, p. 55. 

Dandle^ v. t. (Is. Ixvi. 12). To rock or toss as a child ; 
Pr. dondeliner, It. dondolare; connected with dctde. 

So be thought hee dreamed one night that he had put on his 
concubines apparell, and how shee dandling him in her armes, 
had dressed bis head, friseling his haire, and painted his face, as 
be had bene a woman. North's Plutarch, Alcib, p. 234. 

Danger, sK The phrase * in danger qf the judg- 
ment' is the translation of the Greek ivoxos, * liable to.' 
The history of the word danger is most curious and in- 
structive. The following is, in brief, the explanation given 
by Mr Wedgwood. Damnum in Med. Latin signified ' a 
legal fine/ whence ' damages' It was thence applied to 
the limits within which a lord could exact such fines, and 
so to the enclosed field of a proprietor. In this stage it 
was represented by the Fr. dommage, whence our damage. 
Damage then acquired the sense of trespass, and the Fr. 
damager signified to impound cattle found in trespass, 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


whence the abgtract domigerium, which denoted the power 
of enacting a damnum or fine for trespass. From doml- 
gerium to danger the transition was natural, and tiie 
latter ' was equally applied to the right of enacting a fine 
for breach of temtorial rights, or to the fine or the rights 
themselves.... To be in the danger of any one, estre en son 
danger^ came to signify to be subjected to any one. to be 
in his power or liable to a penalty to be inflicted by nlm or 
at his suit, and hence the ordinary acceptation of the word 
at the present day.' The following passages will illustrate 
what has been said : 

In daunger he hadde at his owne assise 
The yonge gurles of the diocise. 

Chaucer, Prol. Cant. TdUt, 665. 

That every of you schal go wher him lest 
Frely withouten raunsoun or daungeer. 

Id. KnigMs Tale, 185 1. 

Here we may see how much we be bound and in danger unto 
God. Latimer, Serm, p. 7. 

You stand within his danger, do you not? 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Ven. rv. i. 

And, finally, in the sense of a close, or enclosure : 

Narcissus was a bachelere, 

That Love had caught in his daungere, 

And in his nette gan him so straine. 

Chaucer, Bom, of the Bote, 147a 

From the meaning of 'penalty or fine,' danger came to 
signify the licence (n>taiued for avoiding such penalty, or 
the price paid for permission to the person possessed of 
the power of enacting it 

Darling. «&. A.-S. deSrling (diminutive of deSr^ dear^ 
would hardly oe used now in any religious writing; but it 
occurs in Ps. zzii. 20; xxxv. 17. 

To alle that ben at rome derlyngis of god and clepid hooli. 
^cli^ Bom, I. 7 (ed. Lewis). 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


In the form dearling the etymology of the word is 
evident. Thus in B. Jonson, Alch, iii. 4: 

He swears you'll be the dearling of the dice. 

And in HaJPs Hen, IF. f. 12 a: 

Oae ware on his head pece his Ladies sleeue, and another bare 
on hys hehne the gloue of his dearlynge. 

Daysman, ib, (Job ix. 33). An arbitrator or umpire. 
Dr Hammond ooserves, in his annotations on Heb. x. 25, 
that the word da^ in all languages and idioms signifies 
Jtuigment; so i Cor. iv. 3, which we render ' man's ^'t<^- 
menly is really 'man's day;^ and so Wiclif (ed. Lewis) renders 
it : 'And to me it is for the leeste thing that I be domed 
of ghou or of mannys daV From Lat. dies^ a day, came 
Med. Lat. dieta, a diet. Mr Wedgwood observes: 

'In the judicial language of the middle ages the word 
day was specmlly applied to the day for hearing a cause, 
or for the meeting, of an assembly/ 

For what art thou, 
That mak'st thy selfe his dayea-man to prolong 
The vengeance prest? 

Spenser, F. Q,li.S,% 48* 

In Latin, ' diem dicere,' to name a day, means to im- 
plead; and so daysman might mean one who appoints a 
day on which to hear and decide. Eichardson gives the 
following quotations : 

If one man synne agaynst another, dayseman may make hys 
peace ; but yf a man sinne agaynst the Lord, who can be hys 
dayseman f 1 Sam. 11. 35 (1551). 

A more shameful precedent for the time to come : namely that 
vmpiers and daies-men, should convert the thing in suit unto their 
own and proper vantage. Holland's Livy, p. 137. 

Dayspringj »b. (Job xxxviiL 12; Luke 1. 78). The 

Digitized by VjVJV^VII'O 


dawn, daybreaJc, or snnrising, as the margin of the latter 
passage gives. Thua Gover {Gomf. Am. u. p. 97) : 

For till I 86 the daies ipring, 
I sette slepe nought at a risshe. 

And MUton (P. L. v. 139) : 

Soon as they forth were oome to open sight 
Of dayspring. 

Shakespeare (2 Ben. IV. iy. 4) uses a similar expres- 

As sudden 
As flaws congealed in the spring of day. 

< Spring' by itself occurs in the sense of ' dawning :* 

JTirst sprisig of his decay. 

Chapman, Horn. II. ZI. 537. 

Day-star. tib. (2 Pet. i. 19). The morning-star; A.-S. 
doeg-Heorrd. rliny (11. 8, Holland's trans.) says of the planet 

For all the while that she prenenteth the morning, and 
riseth Orientall before, she taketh the name of Lucifer (or Day- 
star) as a second sun hastning the- day. 

Deal^ sb. (A.-S. dcHy G. theU, Sansc. dala, a part, 
portion) occurs several times in passages treating of Levi- 
tical arrangements, and always with t£e word tenth joined 
with it; tenth deal meaning tenth part, or tithe. 

The tithe deel 
That trewe men biswynken. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, 10573. 

For every climat hath his dde 
After the tominge of the whole. 

Gower, Cor^. Am. Prol. I. p. 8. 

' A great deal,' meaning ^a large portion,' occurs Matt, 
vii. 36; X. 48, and is still in common use. Hence also 
dole, * a portion decdt out/ is from the verb to deal, A.-S. 
dcBlan, to divide. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Deal, V. i. This Terb (A.-S. cUBlan, to distribute) is 
constantly used in the sense of ^to act' Its literal mean- 
ing is, * to give to each his deaij dole, or share/ and hence 
it is applied to mutual intercourse generalR The follow- 
ing are a few illustrations of its use in old English r 

Seztus Pompeius had dealt Yerj friendly 'with Antonius. 
North's Plutarch, Anton, p. 98^. 

Come, come ; deal justly with me. 

SOiakespeare, ffanU, n. a. 

60 to, go to; peace t peace t -we must deal gently with him. 

Id. Twelfth Night, ill. 4. 

Jkal plainly, sir, and shame the fairies. 

Ben Jonson, Alch. in. 5. 

Baret (Alvearie, s. v.) gives. 

What haue you to deale, or doe with him ? Quid tibi cum 
illo est commercij, yel negotij t 

Dealing, sb. (i Sam. ii. 23; Ps. vil 16; John iv. 9). 
Action, intercourse ; from the preceding. 

Euery houre he was to look for nothing, but some cruell ' 
death : which hitherunto had only bene delayed by the Captaines 
yehement dealing for him. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 16. 1. 5. 

In this passage 'dealing' corresponds to the modem 
' entreaty,' just as ' deal' is used like the old word ' entreat' 
and the modem 'treat' 

Dear, adj. (from A.-S. deSre, G. (hetier), like the Latin 
word carusy has two meanings, 'costly or precious,' and 
' beloved or endeared.' In the former sense it is used in 
the Prayer-Book version of Ps. cxvi. 13 and Ixxii. 14, 
where it is not meant that the death or blood of the saints 
is wdl-pleasing to God, but that He accounts it precious, 
and ym not let it go for nought. 

So in Shakespeare (AlPs Well, i. r) : 

Thy life is dear, for all that life can rate 
Worth name of life, in thee hath estimate. 

Compare Acts xx. 24. 

Digitized by VjO^QTc - 


Debate, sh. (Is. IviiL 4). From Fr. dSbattre, to beat 
down, contend (as abate from Fr. abhattre), * debate' is used 
in the strong sense of contention, strife. Lye gives }>ate as 
an Anglo-Saxon word with the same meaning, and this is 
seen in the compounds breed5aif&, make5a^^. 

The dtees knewen so debate, 

Gower, Conf. Am, Prol, I. p. 7. 

Of tales, both of pees and of debates, 

Chaucer, Mom of Law's Tale, 4550. 

No where finde we so dcdly debale as emongest theim whyche 
by nature and lawe moste ought to agree together. Hall, Edw, 
K. fol. 3 a. 

But Jove hath order'd I should grieve, and to that end hath cast 
My life into debates past end. 

Chapman, Horn, II. n. 331. 

Baret (Alvearie) has, 'Debate: variance: discord: 
breach of friendship. Dissidlum. ,.(rrcuns. Debat' 

Decease, v. i. (Matt, xxil 25). To die. 

After infinite victories obtained, and an incomparable renowme 
amongst all men for the same, he deceased at Florence being 
then an olde man, and was most honourably buried in the great 
church of the same citie. Stow, Annals, p. 498. 

Deceivableness, «&. (2 Thess. ii. 10). Deceptiye- 
ness. 'Deceivable' is frequently used for 'deceptive* in 
old writers. 

But they have a Jidem mendacem, a false faith, a deceivable 
faith; for it is not grounded in God's word. Latimer, JSerm, 
p. 504. 

It is good to consider of deformity, not as a signe, which 
is more deceivahle ; but as a cause, which seldome faileth of the 
elitct. Bacon, Ess. XLiv. p. 178. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Decent, adj. (Rubric) and Decently, adv. (i Cor. 
TJY. 40). From Lat. decens, becomingy proper. Thus 
Latimer {Serm. p. 93): 

God teacheth what hoDour is decent for the king. 

Shakespeare makes Queen Katharine commend her 

For virtue and trae beautj of the soul, 
For honesty and decent carriage. 

Em. VIII. IV. 1. 

In which passage both * honesty' and 'decent' have a more 
elevated significance than that now assigned to them. So 
also Bacon {Ess. xlhi. p. 176) : 

In beauty, that of favonr, is more then that of colour, and 
that of decenJt and gracious motion more then that of favour. 

Deck. r.^. From A.-S. ]>eccan, G. decken, to cover; 
whence A.-S. ]>cec, thatch ; G. Dock; connected with Lat. 
tegere, tectum. In Prov. vii. 16 alone, * deck' appears to 
be used in the literal sense of covering, overspreading ; in 
all other passages where it occurs the idea of beauty or 
ornament is involved in the original. Hence the 'deck' of 
a ship is that which covers it in. 

Declare, v.t. (Gen. xli 24; Deut. i. 5). To make 
clear, tell plainly ; like Lat. declarare. 

Wherfore he sent Christopher declare the earle 
of EicbemSd how al the decepte & crafty working was con- 
ueighed and compassed. Hall, Rick, III. fol. 12 a. 

And again (fol. 21 5): 

ThSglishe ambassadoures moued their message and request 
to Peter Landoyse, and to him declared their maisters commaund- 

' Decline, v. %. (Ex. xxiii. 2). To turn aside. 

Constans then ruled Br3rtaine, which he administred with 
great iustice : but after, whg he failed of his healthy he associated 

Digitized by Vn«^V.J VIC 


ynto him in steed of friends, euill disposed persons to assist him, 
through whose euill counsell he declined into horrible vices. 
Stow, Annals, p. 48. 

Dedicate^ pp. (2 K. xii. 1 8 ; 2 Chron. xv. c). Dedicated. 

All dedicate 
To closeness and the bettering of my mind. 

' Shakespeare, Temp, i. 3. 

He that is truly dedicate to war 
Hath no self-love. 

Id. a ffeiu VL v. a. 

Deed, sb. The phrase Mn Yerj deed' signifies ' really,' 
* truly.' The wicked 

Which in very deed do forget God, their mind being so ooca- 
pied with other business. Latimer, Serm. p. 364. 

Defenced, pp. (Is. xxv. 2, xxvii. 10, xxxyL i, &c.). 
Fortified; applied to walled towns. The Hebrew word is 
in most passages rendered ' fenced.' 

On all parts else the fort was strong by scite, 
With mighty hills defenat from forraine rage. 

Fairfax, Taseo, xi. 96. 

Degree, sh. (i Chr. xvii. 17). From Fr. degrS, O. Fr. 
degrat,LB.t grcuius, which appears in O. £ng. in the form 
gris or greese (Rah. ii. i, Wiclif); literally, a step; hence, 
station, rank. Whatever was the form of the smi-dial of 
Ahaz, the 'degrees' upon it were literally 'steps,' as the 
Hebrew shews (2 Kings xx. 9). Chaucer, describing the 
amphitheatre built by Theseus, says. 

Bound was the schap, in manor of compaas, 
Ful of degr^f the height of sixty paas. 

KnigMi Tale, 1899. 

But seeing that the people cried out, and made a great noise, 
because they would not heare him, and that there was no likely- 
hood they would pardon him: he ranne ouerthwart the Theater, 
and knocked his head as hard as he could driue, yppon one of the 

Digitized by Vjl^VJV IC 


decreet whereon ihej sate there to see their Bpoftes. Korth't 
Plutarch, TimoUon, p. 30a 

Scomtng the baee dtgrtu 
By which he did asoend. 

Shakespeare, Jid, Con, XL t. 

In the 86066 of 'rank' it was more common: erery one 
18 familiar with 'the squire of h)W degree;* and Shake- 
speare has (i Hen. VL iy. i ) : 

Because unworthily 
Thou wast installed in that high degrte. 

Dehort, v.t.(^i Mace. ix. 9). Lat. dehortari, to dis- 
saade, the exact converse of 'exhort,' which rooains ; while 
dehort, 'a word whose place neither dissuade nor any 
other exact^ supplies, has escaped us.' (Trench, English 
Past and Preeent^ p. 137.) It occurs in the headings of 
seyeral chapters, Prey. yii. ; Luke xxii. ; i Pet ii 

With a setled resolution hee (Atticus) desired againe they 
would iq)proue of his good intent, and not seeke to aehort him 
from it. Burton, Anat. of Mel, Pt. I. Sec. 4. Mem. I. 

The places of exhorting, and dekorting are the same which 
wee vse in perswading and disswading. Wilson, JUuitoriqybef 
p. 64 (ed. 1585). 

Delectable, adv. Us. xUt. 9). Delightful ; Lat. de- 
lectabilis. The words * delightful' 'and ' delightsome,' which 
have the same meaning, are attempts to naturalize a foreign 

And yet your fair disoourw hath heen as sugar, 
Making the hard way sweet and ddectahle. 

JUck. II, n. 3. 

In this passage the accent is on the penultimate, and 
in Spenser, words in -(Me are commonly so accentuated. 

DeUctaitle: fiare to behold : pleasant. Amconus. Baret, AU 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

152 ^HE BIBLE 

Delicately, adv. (i Sam. xr. 32). ' Agag came nnto 
him delicately I is variously miderstood : * mincingly * (Bishop 
Patrick); 'walking in state, haughtily' (Kimchi). The 
Hebrew word is literally pleasantnesses; so may mean 
cheerfully or pleasantly, as the Geneva Version has it, as 
not fearing much harm from an unarmed old prophet, when 
he had been spared by the rough soldiers. In Prov. xxix. 
21; Lam. iv. 5; Luke vii. 25, it occurs in the sense of 
* luxuriously,' representing the same Hebrew word in the 
first two passages as in i Sam. xv. 32. 

His friends and familiars hauing wealth at will, as men 
exceeding rich, they would needes Hue delicately and at ease. 
North's Plutarch, Alexander, -p. 740. 

Delicateness, sb, {Dent xxviii. 56). Luxury, deli- 

After this sorte, ddicatenes that wanted many things that 
entertained it, began by litle and litle to vanish away, and lastly, 
to fall off from themselues. North's Plutarch, Lycurgus, p. 50. 

Delicatenesse: tendernesse. Muliebritas, Baret, Alvearie, 
Delicates, sb. (Jer. 11 34). Delicacies, dainties. 

Who is he that is not sorry, to see in so many holidays rich 
and wealthy persons to flow in ddicateSy and men that live by 
their travail, poor men, to lack necessary meat and drink? 
Latimer, Serm. p. 53. 

And in Shakespeare (3 Hen. VI. 11. 5) the king apos- 
trophizes the shepherd's homely curds as *far beyond a 
prince's ddicates! 

Deliciously, adv. (Rev. xviii. 7, 9). Luxuriously, 

This noble January, with al his might 
In honest wise as longith to a knight^ 
Schop him to lyve ful deliciously. 

Chaucer, The Merchant*s Tale, 9899. 

^Deliciousness' was formerly used for * luxury.' 

He thought with him selfe to banish out of the citie all inso- 
lencie, enuie, couetousnesse, & ddiciousnesse. North's Plutarch, 
Lycutyus, p. 49. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Delightsome, adj. (Mai. ill 12). The termination 
fid has now taken the place of some (G. sam, A.-S. sum) 
in this word, though this latter termination is retained in 
numbers of similar words, e,g, noisome, wholesome, cum- 
bersome, troublesome, &a 

Fowling is more troublesome, bnt all out aa detightfome to 
some sorts of men. Burton, Anat, of Mel. Pt. n. Sec. 9. Mem. 4. 

The termination -some^ like the IceL -scmit, -mmr^ -torn, 
expresses a disposition or quality. 

Chapman {Horn. II, n. 235) uses the adverb ddighU 

And all the prease, though grievM to be denied 
Their wish'd retreat for home, yet laugh'd deligktsomdy, and spake 
Either to other. 

Demand, v,i, (2 Sam. xi. 7). Like Fr. demander, to 
ask. simply; not as now in the stronger sense of 'to ask 
with authority, or as a right/ 

I coniure you to tell mee the storie of your fortune herein, lest 
hereafter when the image of so excellSt a Ladie in so strange a 
plight come before mine eyes, I condemne my selfe of want of 
consideration in not hauing demanded thus much. Sidney, Ar^ 
<^^V- 37,1. «i. 

Denounce, vJ. (Dent. xxx. 18). To announce, de- 
clare, proclaim; Fr. denouncer, Lat denuntiare. Baret 
(Alvearie, s. v.) gives : 

To denounce and declare himselfe to be an enimie. Inimicitias 
uidioere...To denounce or proclame warre. Indicere bellum. 

The Geneya Version has * pronounce' in the above pas- 
sage. With 'denounce' and 'announce' compare * delay' 
and 'allay,' which were formerly used in the same sense. 
Wiclif has 'denoumbren,' to number. 

Depart, v.t formerly used in the Marriage Office. 
The response has been corrupted into 'till death us do 
part.' It was in good use in old writers : 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



And so the! ben not now tweyoe but o fleiscb; tberfor a 
man deparle not that thing that God hath iojned. Wiclif {i), 
MaU. zix. 6. 

Wkaa that I heaide ferre off sodainlj. 

So great a noise of thundering trumpes blow, 

Ab though It should have departed tiie skie. 

Chaucer, The Flower and the Leaf, T95. 
Til that the deth departen shal us tweine. 

KnighCt Tide, 11 36. 

The conquerors at the first departed the Bond betweene them. 
PoL Verg. i. 36. 

Deputy^ sb, (Acts xiii. 7, xviii. 12, xix. 38). Appro- 
priately used by onr Translators as the rendering of the 
Greek av^vntn-or, the proconsul or governor of a sena- 
torial province. In the i6th century the Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland was called the Lord Deputy. 

Plague of your policy t 
Tou sent me deputy for Ireland. 

Shakespeare, Hen, VIII, m. 1. 

X)6praTing, «&. (Act of Uni£ Eliz.) DepreciatioB. 

Depraving, shame, untrust, and jelousie. 

Chaucer, Cuckow and Nightingale^ 1 74. 

Derision^ to bave in (Job xxx. i; Ps. 11 4). To 


Whyche two thynges if ye woulde resemble togither, bo might 
ye blaspheme and haue in derysion all the deuout rytes & 
cttrimonies of the church. Sur T. More, Works, p. 121 d. 

Describe, tfJ. (Josh, xviii. 4, 6). Like the Lai de- 
scrihere, in its literal sense, 'to mark, trace out' Our 
Translators followed the Vulgate in their rendering. So 
the word is used by Milton (P. X. iv. 567) : 

I described his way 
Bent on all speed and marked his aery gait. 

The word is still used in a technical sense as applied to 
the drawing of geometrical figures., 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Deserving, ^. (Jadg. ix. i6). Desert 

And yet to be afeard of my duerving 
Were but a weak disabling of myself. 

Shakespeartip Mer, of Ven, n. 7. 

It was more of his courtesy than your duerving. 

Id. 2 Hen. IV. Vf.s* 

Desire, v.t. (2 Chr. xxi. 20). Like the Lai dender- 
are, from which it is derived^ this word signifies 'to 

She that hath a wise husband must entice him to an eternal 
dearness by the veil of modesty and the grave robes of chastity, 
and she shall be pleasant whUe ehe^ lives, and dmred when she 
dies. J. Taylor, The Marriage Ring, Sermon 18 (quoted in 
Trench's Glossary). 

Chapman uses the substantiye in the same way, as equi- 
valent to decider ium: 

With passionate desire 
Of their kind manager. 

Horn. 21, XVIL 38a 

Despite, sb, (Heb. x. 29). The Lat. degpicere, to 
look down upon, despise, became in O. Fr. despire (^s from 
conficere was formed cofifire\ whence the noun despit, con- 
tempt, contumely. 

God sayth by the prophet Jeremie, The folk that me despisen 
shal be in despite. Chaucer, Parson's Tale (ed. Tyrwhitt). 

And again in the same Tale 

Inobedient is he that disobeye 
iuts of God. 

So SackyiUe {Induction, 426) : 

his host de 
^ despite ha 
I ouercome. 


Inobedient is he that disobeyeth for despit to the command- 
ments of God. 

Cyrus I saw and his host dead, 
And how the Queene with greate despite hath flong 
JTJB head in bloud of them bhee ouercome. 


Hence the adjectiye despitotis, which is found in 

Despitous, is he that hath desdayn of his neighebour. 

ParsoTCa Tale, 

Despite, vX To treat with contempt. 

The Bomanistes therefore in refusing to heare, and daring to 
bume the word translated, did no lesse then despite the spirit of 
grace. The Translators to the Header^ 

Despiteflil (Rz. xxr. 15) and Despiteftilly (Matt 
V. 44) are respectively the adjective and adverb from tho 
preceding : 

My navy.... 

....with which I mean 
To scourge the ingratitude that despiteful Rome 
Cast on my noble father. 

Shakespeare, Ant, and 01, n. 6. 

Determinate, pp. (Acts ii. 23). Determined; Lat. 
determinattis, marked off by boundsoies, and so, definite, 

Like men disused with a long peace, more determinate to do, 
then skilfull how to do. Sidney, Arcadia^ p. 21, 1. 10. 

The following passage of Chaucer is a better illus- 
tration : 

Have ye a figure than determinate 
In helle, ther ye ben in your estate ? 

The Friar's Tale, 7041. 

'quod the Sumpnour* to the Devil. 

Die the death (Matt. xv. 4). This phrase occurs in 
Sackville*s Induction, 55 : 

It taught mee well all earthly things be borne 
To dye the death. 

Or else he must not only die the death, 
But thy unkindness shall his death draw out 
To lingering sufferance. 

Shakespeare, Mea;s, for Mtas, n. 4. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


Either to die the deaih, or to abjure 
For ever the society of men. 

Id. Mid. N:8 Dr. I. I. 

Digged (Gen. xxi. 30; xxvi. 15, 18, &c.). This weak 
fonn of the past tense and participle of ^dig' is used 
throughont the A. V. in preference to the stronger form 
'dug/ and in accordance with the custom of contemporary 

For euen so did Xerxes in old time caase the mountaine Atho 
to be cut in sunder, and a channell to be digged there to passe his 
fihippes through. North's Plutarch, Ducullus, p. 569. 

The Scripture says, Adam digged : could he dig without arms. 
Shakespeare, Ham. v. i. 

Maiy, in any case this same toad must be digged out of the 
ground againe before the field be mowed, els will the millet proue 
bitter in tast. Holland's Pliny, xviii. 17. 

Diligence^ 8b. The phrases *do diligence' (2 Tim. 
iv. 9, 21), and *give diligence' (2 Pet.i. 10), are frequently 
found in old writers. Thus Chaucer (Tale of Melibeus) 
Bays the office of physicians is 

After here craft to do gret diligence unto the cure of hem 
wbiche that thay have in here govemaunce. 

Now wepe nomore, I schal do my diligence^ 
That Palamon, that is myn owen knight, 
Schal have his lady, as thou him bihight. 

The Knight's Tale, 2472. 

And ech of hem doth his diligence 
To doon unto the feste reverence. 

The Clerk's Tale, 8071. 

Baret {Alvearie, s. v.) supplies the following illustra- 
tion : 

To giue all diligence, to procure aduancement. Ins^ruire honori- 
bu8. Gic 

DisaUoWj V, t. (Num. xxx. 5, 8, 1 1 ; i Pet. ii. 4, 7). To 

Digitized by VjOOQIC ^ 

158 TffF BIBLJE 

disapprove, reject ; literally, to dispraisei Fw the etymo- 
logy see Allow. 

All that is humble he disaloweih. 

Gower, (7<w/. Am, 1, 83, 
AUawing that that is good, and diaaUomng the ocmtrary. 

Latimer, Serm. p. 316, 
What follows, if we disallow of this ? 

Shakespeare, JT. John I. i. 

Disannul, v.t (Job xL8; Gal. iii. 15). The affix 
dU-^ contrary to custom, has not a ne^tive or priyatiTe but 
an intensive force in this word (as m dis6Gver\ which is 
merely a stronger form of annul, from Fr. anntder^ Lat. 
annihilare, to annihilate, bring to nothing. 

Then Warwick disannuls great John of Gaunt. 

3 Hen, VI. ni. 3. 

The word is also found in the form ' dysnuIL' 
Your hole desyre was set 

Touchynge the trouthe by covert lykenes 
To dysnutt yyoe and the vycious to blame. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleasure, cap. 8. 

DisannnlHng, sh. (Heb. vil, i8). From the pre- 

Disciplinei sb, used in Job xxxvi 10, in its true 
meaning (Cat. disciplinay from disco, * to learn') of instruc- 
tion. In the Commination Service it means the * execution 
of the laws by which the Church is governed, and infliction 
of its penalties.' 

For th^n haue they longed, vnder the prayse of holy sciypt- 

ure, to set out to shew theyr own study. Which by cause they 

wold haue seme the more to be set by, they haue fyrst fallen to 

' the dysprays & derysyon of all other dyscyjplynes. Sir T. More, 

JHal. f. 38(?. 

Discomfit, v.t (Ex. xvii. 13; 2 Sam. xxir. 15, &c.). 
Fr. dSconfire, It. sconfiggere, to rout; whence the substantive 
Bconfitta, the original of all being Lat. confgere, to £5usten 

Digitized by Vn«^JV.JV IC 


together ; whenee discomfit primarily Bignifiea to unfasten ; 
then to disintegrate: or break up a mass into the parts of 
which it is composed; and as applied to an army, to break 
up, disperse. 

Thrioe hath this Hotspur, Mars in swathCng dothes, 
JHtcomJUed great Douglas. 

Shakespeare^ i ffen, IV, nr. «. 

Hanmbars army, by snch a panick fear, was ducomfited at 
the walls of Borne. Burton, Anat, of Mel, Pt. i. Sec. 2. Mem. 
4. Subs. 3. 

Discomfltare, ^* (i Sam. zir. 20). From the pre- 
cedii^. Rout, defeat. 

The pilours diden business'e and cure 
After the bataile and diseomJUure. 

Chaucer, The Kmgkft Tale, 10 10. 

Discover, v, t (Ps. xxix. 9; Is. xxii 8 ; Mic. i. 6). To 
tmcoyer, lay bare ; from dis- negative and c(yeer^ Fr. coutrir^ 
It coprire, Lat cooperire, *The Toice of the Lord dU- 
eovereth the forests/ i,e, strippeth off their leaves. 

Whether any man hath pulled down or discovered any church, 
cbsnoel, or chapel, or any part of them. Grindal, Art, of En* 
2»«>y, 1576, No. 50. 

And Shakespeare {Mer, of Ven, n. 7) : 

€ro, draw aside the curtains and discover 
The several caskets to this noble prince. 

In this passage the word appears to have a sense in- 
tennediate between that in which it is now used and its 
original meaning. 

DiBpenBation, sb. (i Cor. ix. 17; Eph. i. 10; iii. 2; 
Col. L 25). Lat. dispensatio, from penso, to weigh. Literally, 
the act, or office of weighing out or distributing as a stew- 
ard dispenses or weighs out to each dependent his proper 
allowance. The Greek word {oUovoyJxk) used in the above 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


'l6o THE BIBLE' 

passages is that from which eccmomy is derived, and for 
whidi Dean Alford confesses himself miable to find an 
exact English equivalent. 

Emonff thynges of most high perfeccion, deuout praier hath 
the first place: the nezte place hath the special choosyog out of 
theim, to wh5 the diapengacum and stewardyng of goddes woorde 
Is to bee committed* 

XJdal*a Erasmus, Luke, foL 6i h. 

Dispositioili sb, (Acts vii. 53). Appointment, arrange- 
ment, ordinance. Wiclif 's, Tyndale's, and the Geneva ver- 
sions ffive the last mentioned word. The Great Bible of 
1539 has * mynistracyon/ Our translators followed the 
Biieims version. 

Aprochen gan the fatall destine. 
That Joves hath in disposicioun, 

Chaucer, Tr, and Cr, v. i. 

Dissolve, T,t. (Dan. V. 16). To solve. 'Resolve': 
used frequently in the same sense in Shakespeare. 

I am on the rack: 
JHssolve this doubtful riddle. 

Masbinger, The JhJce of Milan, rv. 3. 

A riddle, 
And with more difficulty t« be disaolved. 
Than that the monster Sphinx from the steep rock 
Offer'd to (Edipus. 

Id. The Boman Actor, in. a. 

Distaff, sb, (ProY. xxxL 19). A.-S. dista^, the staff 
on which the flax or tow was rolled in spinning. The in- 
strument is obsolete, though the word is still well under- 
stood. The Hebrew conveys the idea of roundness, and is 
again used in 2 Sam. iii 29 for a (^round) staff, and three 
times by Nehemiah (iii 12, 14, 15) tor the circuit or region 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


ronnd abont Jerusalem. Chaucer has embodied in rerse 
a common proverb of his time : 

For he hadde more tow on his distaf. 

The Miller'8 Tale, 3773. 

And in Shakespeare (Twelfth Night, i. 3), Sir Toby com- 
pares Sir Andrew Aguecheek's hair to ^ flax on a distaf' 

Divers, Diverse, adj, (Dent. xxv. 13 ; Ez. xvL i6 ; 
Dan. vii. 3, 7, &c.). From Lat diversus, literally, turned 
different ways ; hence dififerent, various. These senses are 
illustrated by the following examples: 

Wherfore he sent to tbe quene beynge in sanctaarie^ diueru 
and often messengers. Hall, Rich. III. fol. 24 a. 

Therefore dotb heaven divide 
The state of man in divers functions. 

Shakespeare, Hen. V. I. 1. 

Myself and diven gentlemen beside 
Were there surprised and taken prisoners. 

I Hen. VL iv. i. 

Every sect of them, hath a divers posture, or cringe by them- 
selves. Bacon, Ess. m. p. 9. 

Divert, T.t literally means to turn aside, but is now, 
with its substantive * diversion,' almost exclusively used in 
the figurative sense of turning aside a man's thoughts from 
grave or laborious occupation. Trench moralizes upon it 
to the effect that the world, by the uses of this and simil- 
ar words for amusement and pleasure, confesses that ^1 
which it proposes is, not to make us happy, but a little to 
prevent us from remembering that we are unhappy, to 
pass away our time, to divert us from ourselves (Study of 
Words, p. 9). The word is used in its original sense when 
we speak of * diverting' the course of a stream, and in the 
heading of 2' Kings xvi, 

Ahaz diverteth the brazen altar to his own devotion. 

Digitized by VjUOQ^ 


As knots, by the conflux of meeting sap, 
Infect the sound pine, and divert his grain 
Tortive and errant from his course of growth. 

Shakespeare, Tr, and Cr. I. 3. 

Divide untOj v.t (Num. xi. c,\ Luke xt. 12). To 
divide among. 

Divination, ^. (Num. xxiL 7 ; Jer. xiv. 14X {jai 

JHuinoHon, or Southsa3ring, & telling things by coniecture. 
Mantice. . . vpofjuiprevfia. Baret, A IvearUf s. v. 

Meton, whether it was for the feare of the successe of the 
ioumey he had by reason, or that he knew by diuinaMon of his 
arte what would follow, he counterfeited the mad man. North's 
Plutarch, il^5ia(2e8, p. 219. 

Diviner, 8b. (Deut. xviii. 14 ; i Sam. vi. 2). One who 
by divination predicts future events; Lat. dimnarey to 
foretell, predict. We have naturalized the word by adding 
a Saxon termination. 

Among the Komanes a Poet was called Vates, which is as 
much as a Diuiner, foreseer, or Prophet. Sidney, Defence of 
Pome, p. 493, 1. 20. 

Olenus GalenuB, who was reputed the most famous duUnor 
and prophet of all the Tuscanes. Holland's Pliny, xxvin. 2. 

Divorcement, sb. (Deut xxiv. i). Divorca 

Though he do shake me off 
To beggarly divorcement 

Shakespeare, 0(h, JY. 3. 

Do. v.t. To cause or make, as in the phrase, 'to do 
to wit,' i.e. to make to know, like the A.-S. don to 
witanne. Thus Gower {Cor^. Am. i. 46) : 

Now do^ me pleinly live or die. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


He doihe us somdele for to wiie 

The cause of thilke prelacie. Id. Frol. p. 15. 

For sche, that doth me al this wo endure, 
Ne rekketh never whether I synke or flete. 

Chaucer, The Knight's Tale, 2398. 

And do to mom that I have the victorie. Ibid. 2408. 

Doctor, sb. (Luke ii. 46, v. 17 ; Acts v. 34), in its 
primary sense is ' a teacher' (Lat. docere, doctus). It need 
nardlybe said that it applies to one skilled in any branch 
of Bcience or philosophy, but it is so commonly used by 
members of the medical profession only that the places in 
Scripture where the word occurs are liable to be misunder- 
stood by uneducated persons. The author of the * Thorn- 
ton Romances' calls Austyn, Gregory, Jerome, and Am- 
brose 'the foure doctorus^ (Sir Degrevant, 1447). So 
ak) Piers Ploughman terms the Evangelists: 

Of this matere I myghte 

Make a long tale, 

And fynde fele witnesses 

Among the foure doctours; 

And that I lye noght of that I lere thee, 

Luc bereth witnesse. 

Vision, 5305. 

You may imagine, what kinde of faith theirs was, when the 
chiefe doctors, and fathers of their church, were the poets. 

Bacon, £ss. in. p. 8. 

Dootrine, »b. Literally ^teaching,' usually means 
the substance of what is taught, but in some passages (e.g. 
Mark iy. 2) it means ^ act of teaching/ and in others (Matt, 
vii. 28, &c.) ' manner of teaching.' 

Terfore thapostle saith all that is wreton ig wreton for our 
doetryne. Caxton, JtecuyeU of Troy, Epil. to B. ill. 

Domination, sh,, is used once in the Prayer-Book 
version of Ps. xlix. 14, where the Auth. Vers, has the more 

Digitized by VjVJv54tX"2 


common word ' dominion.' Milton uses the word for one of 
the gnuies of the angelic ranks (P. L. v. 6oi). The word 
was common in the time of Uen. VII. It occurs often 
in Hawes' jPastime of Pleasure, e.g. 

And forasmucbe that he made nature 

Fyrst of all to have domyncuryon. 

The power of her I shall anone dyscure. cap. 23. 

Dominion^ to have (Gen. 1 26). To rule. 

And though Jerusalem be builded again, yet the Jews shall 
have it no more, they shall never have dominion over it. Lati- 
mer, Rem. p. 47. 

Baret (Alvearies s.v.) gives, 

To haiie dominion, or mastership ouer an otber; tobeare rule, 
DonnDor...Aiu>irla maistriae, et Seigneurie sur vng autre, Z>ominer» 

Dote, v.i. (Jer. 1. 36; I Tim. vi. 4). To be mad or 
foolish ; Du. doten, dutten in the same sense. The derired 
meaning 'to be foolishly fond' occurs in Ez. xxiii 5, 7, 
9, &C. 

To dote, or waxe foolish. I>eliro...Desipio... i?a<7o^. Baret, 

Unless the fear of death doth make me dote, 
I see my son Antipholus, and Dromio. 

Shakespeare, Com. of Err. v. i. 

The river hath thrice flow'd, no ebb between ; 
And the old folk, time's doting chronicles. 
Say, it did so a little time before 
That our great graudsire Edward sick'd and died. 

Id. 2 Men. IV. iv. 4, 

Double to (Job xi. 6). An example of this con- 
struction is found in Bacon's Historie if tJie Raigne qf 
King Henry the Seuenth (p. 76) : 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


About the same time, the King had a Loane from the Gtie 
of Foure thousand pounds ; which was double to that they lent 

Doubt. v,t The phrase 'to doubt of^ occurs in the 
preface of The Translators to the Reader: 

But was that his magnificence liked by all ? we dovht of it. 

Wherfore if the BysbopS and Oardinalles be of the same 
opinion, and that suche doctrine be taughte at Rome, then is it 
no longer to be doubted of, but that Kome is the very seate of 
Antechrist. Sleidan's Commentaries, foL 2 a. (Eng. trans. 1560.) 

Drag^ st>. (Hab. i. 15, 16). A.-S. drcege. Three other 
words, akm to that which is thus rendered, are all trans- 
lated net (Ps. cxli 10 ; Is. xix. 8, li. 20). The margin has 
Jtue^net (Flub). A drag^iet is a net to be drawn or dragged 
along the bottom of the water, a dredge; d John xxi. 8, 
'dragging the net with fishes.* 

Nor ye set not a dragge-net for an hare. Wyat. 

Minsheu gives 'a dra^gge or sweep-net. B. dregh-net.' 

Draught-house, sb. (2 E. x. 27), and Draught 

(Matt. XV. 17; Mark vii. 19), a privy, from Icel. draf^ dregs, 
dirt, connected with A.-S. drahbe, drife^ drof. 

For vpon this pages wordes king JEtichard arose. (For this 
communicacion had he sitting at the draught, a conuenient 
carpet for such a counsaile). Sir T. More, Bick, III,; Works, 
p. 686. 

Hang them, or stab them, drown them in a draught. 

Shakespeare, Tim. of Atk. Y. i. 

There was a goddes of idlenesse, a goddesse of the draught or 
Jakes. Burton, Anat. of Mel. Ft. 2. Sec. i. Mem. 3. 

Wiclif uses draft in the sense of ^ dregs,' Ps. xxxix. 3. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC - 


Drave, past tense of Drive (Josh, xvi lo, &c.). 

There is a straunger knight, 
Th» which for promise of great meed^ vs drm»/t 
To this attempt. 

Spenser, ^. Q. vi. 7. § 12. 

Drawen^ j^p. (Num. xxii. 23). The old form of * drawn' 
in the ed. of 161 1. 

For thei are not drawtn to murdremete, but to health and 
safetie. Udal*8 Erasmus, Luke, foL 53 a. 

Dredge^ «&. (Job xxiy. 6 m.). 

DraggCt menglyd come. Prompt. Parvulorum. 

Sow barly and dredge^ with a plentifull hand, 
Least weed stead of seed, ouergroweth thy land. 

Tusser, Hmhandry, Sept. 

Thy dredge and thy barlie goe thresh out to malt. 

md, Nov. 

In that kind of come which comprehendeth wheat, there is 
to be reckoned that grain which serueth for .prouender and for- 
rage, and is sown for beasts, & namely, that which they call 
d-ndge or baliimong. Holland's Plmy, xvni. 7. 

Dress^ v,t (Gen. ii 15 ; Ex. xxx. 7). To trim. 

What pity is it 
That he had not so trimm'd and dress'd his land 
As we Uiis garden. 

Shakespeare, Bich. II, m. 4. 

Dllke, «5. (Gen. xxxvi^ 15, &c.). A leader, ehieftain. 
The modem limitation of this title to the highest rank of 
nobility has caused its ancient usage as applied to any 
leader or general (Lat. dtuc) to sound strange to our ears. 
The following are curious usages according to present 
notions : 

Dvka of this dymme place. 

Piers Ploughman's Vmon^ 1^71 7« 

And thou Bethleem, &c....for of thee a duyh schal go out, 

Digitized by Vn«^V.J VIC 


that schal ^ueme my puple of Israel. Wiclif (2), Matt, ii. 6. 

The great Ihike, that (m. dreadfuU aw) 
Ypon Mount Horeb leam'd th' etemall law. 

Sylvester's Du BartoB, p. 10 (ed. 161 1). 

Gaxton speaks of 'the puissant dtic Cato, senatour of 
Borne ;' and of * ditc Josue tnat noble prynce.' 

Be that bryght blod that he xulde blede 
He xal us brynge fro the develys drede, 
As a duhe most dowty in dede 
Thorwe his dethe on rode. 

Coventry My at, p. 157. 

Gideon a duke which God raised up. Latimer, Serm, p. 31. 

Dulcimer, ^. (Dan. iii. 5, 10, 15). The original word 
is eumponyah, which seems to be only the Greek ffvfiiMovla 
in a Chaldaic form, and which is restored by Wiclif in the 
form symphony, after the Vulgate tymphonia. See also 
the margin of Auth. Vers. 

Doulcimer, an instrument of musicke so called. Sambuca. Ba- 
ret, Alvearie, a. v. 

Gesenius explains it, ' a double pipe with a bag.' The 
modem dulcimer is a rude kind of harpsicord or pianoforte, 
the wires being struck with a rude hammer*. 

Ihire, v.i. to last, endure, occurs Matt. xiii. 21. 
Compare the still common word * during,' which is really 
a participle of the same verb : 

This thei dured that ^ere 
Thre quarterns and mare. 

Sir Degrevantt 1 5 5 1 . 

Huge almesful and piteful deedis, summe perpetuel, summe 
for a tyme to dure, \ Pecock's Repressor, p. 356. 
He that can trot a courser, breake a rush. 
And arm'd in proofe, dare dwre a strawes strong push. 

Marston, Sat. 1, 30. 

• The dulcimer diflfered chiefly from the psaltery in the wires 
being struck, instead of being twitted with a plectrum or quill, 
and therefore requiring both hands to perform on it. Chappell, 
Popular Music of the Olden Tiirie, i. 35. n } 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ear, in the phrases 'give ear,' 'incline the ear,' in 
the sense of ' listen,' * attend,' occurs in Ex. xv. 26 ; Ps. v. i, 
xyIL 6, and many other passages. 

Break the neck of the wax, and every one give ear, 

Shakespeare, Love's L. Lost, iv. 1. 

Whereto if you'll a willing ear incline. 

Id. Meets, for Meas, v, i. 

The latter is an imitation of the Latin idiom, as in the 
Vulgate of Ps. xvL 6, * Inclina aurem tuam mihd, et exaudi 
verba mea** ♦ 

Elar^ v.t, (Deut. xxi. 4; i Sam. viii. 12; Is. xxx. 24). 
Used as a verb this word is more likely to be misunder- 
stood than almost any other word in our present version. 
It is derived from the Lat. arare, to plough, through the 
A.-S. eriariy and is constantly used by old writers. 

All that hise oxen eriede, 
Thei to harewen after. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, 13491* 

I have an half acre to erie 
By the heighe weye: 
Hadde I eryed this half acre. 
And sowen it after, 
I wolde wende with yow. 

Ibid, 3800. 

But who of jou hath a seruaunt erynge or lesewynge oxis, &c. 
[Auth, Vers,: 'plowing or feeding cattle']. WicM (2}, LvJos 
xvii. 7. 

Men were compelled iot savegarde of life not to ere th^ 
grounde, but of necessitie to serve in warres. Pol. Verg. 11. 54. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


And let them go 
To ear the land that hath some hope to grow. 

Shakespeare^ Bick, II, m. 9. 

He that eart xny land spares my team. 

Id. AlVt WeU, I. 3. 

Earing, sb. (Gen. xlv. 6; Ex. xxxiv. 21). From A.-S. 
eriung, ploughing. 

Certis thou; there growe manye wedis bi occafdoun of his 
planting) deluyng, ering and sowing, jit he wole not ceese. 

Pecock's Repressor, p. iiS* 

Elamesty sb. (2 Cor. 1 22, v. 5 ; Bph.i. 14). A pledge, 
security. In all three passages the word is a translation 
of dfi^a^Qv, which is merely a modification of a Hebrew 
word, and occurs again in Gen. xxxviiL 17, 18, where the 
A. V. has 'pledge.* The etymology is not quite certain. 
Richardson connects it with the acUective earnest (A.-S. 
eomost from yman^ to run: hence, to be eager after); but 
the connection is more apparent than real. With greater 
probability Mr Wedgwood {Proc, of Phil. Soc. y. 33) sug- 
gests the Welsh ernes, emest (whence ernaw, to give ear- 
nest-money), connected with the Gaelic arra, and Latin 
arrTuii which last seems to point to the Hebrew. 

But the usage of the word is common. Thus, in Shake- 
speare's Two Gent, of Ver. u. i, is a play upon its double 
sense : 

Speed. No believing you indeed, sir; but did you perceive 
her earnest? 

Vol. She gave me none except an angry word. 

And again, i Hen. VL Y. 3 : 

I'll lop a member off and give it you 
In earnest of a farther benefit. 

And Fuller says of younger brothers: 

Many of them have adventured to cheapen dear enterprises, 
and were only able to pay the earnest. Holy State, xv. § 3. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Ebrew, adj, (Dout xv. c). Hebrew; in e<L of 1611. 

You rogue, they were bound, every man of tbem ; or I am a 
Jew else, an Ebrew Jew, Shakespeare, i Hen, /F. n. 4. 

Edify, v,t Derived through Fr. Sdifier from Lat. 
oBdificare, to build. This .word does not occur in the Old 
Testament, but is often used in the New Testamentj where 
it is an exact rendering of a word literally meaning 'to 
construct a house, to build up;' but from the Christian 
Church being called the temple or house of God, it ac(|uired 
a metaphori^ and spiritual meaning, and is applied, m the 
Kew Testament and in modem limguage, to mental or 
spiritual advancement. Old English writers used the word 
in its original sense oi build; e.g. 

I shal overtume this temple. 
And a'doun throwe it; 
And in thre daies after 
Edifie it newe. 

Piers Ploughman's Fu. 1 1068. 

He did, moreover, at London cedefle a gate on the bancke of 
the river Thames, which, accordinge, to his name, of the pos- 
teritee, was called Belinsgate. PoL Verg. I. 46. 

We retain this literal meaning in edifice. 

So Spenser, who affected archaisms: 

A little wyde 
There was an holy chappell tdifydt, 

i!'. Q. L I, § 34. 

In Acts XX. 32 the metaphor is retained, but the Greek 
word is translated. Compare also Col. ii. 7, and Jude 2a 

EftsoonSy adfi, (Act of Unif. Eliz.). Soon after; 
A.-S. <j^86na. 

Hiey go ahord, 
And [he] rftsoonet gan launch his barke forthright. 

Spenser, i^. Q. Ii. 1 1, S 4* 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


The Giant, wiping with his hand his wound, 
Cries, tush, 'tis nothing : but efiM(yM9 the ground 
Sunk vnder him. 

Sylvester's Du Bartas, The TropheU, p. 523. ed. 161 1. 

And Terily this carefull regard of the fathers, will worke also 
greater diligence in the masters themselves, seeing that by this 
meanes they are called efUooneSf as it were to account and ex- 
amine how much they plie their schoUers, and how they profit 
onder their hands. Holland's Plutarch, Morals, p. 11. 

l^ight, (Ex. xxiL 30). Eighth, in the ed. of 161 1. 

Now his Sonne, 
Henry the Eight, Life, Honour, Name and all 
That made me happy ; at one stroake ha's taken 
For euer from the world. 

Shakespeare, Sen. VIII, n. i (ed. 1623). 

Ejither, A.-S. osgtTier, for 'each of two,* occurs Lev. 
X. I ; 2 Chron. xviii. 9; John xix. 18; Rev. xxii. 2. It was 
formerly in good iise, and may still be heard as a proviu- 

The fursto dunt that he him ^af he smot out aither eje. 
Lift of St Brandan, 434. 

And craked bothd hire legges 
And the armes after 
Of either of tho theves. 

Piers Ploughman's Vit, 19220. 

If it may not be found in one man, combine two of either 
sort. Bacon, £88, xxx. p. 133. 

I'onre and foure to either side. Ibid, XLVI. p. 189. 

* Either to other y in the Marr. Sery., means ' ec^h to the 

JBither despiseth itother. Piers Ploughman's Vis. 276^. 

^yther of you are so fond of otfier, Greene's Groatsworth of 
Wit, Mg. C2, venio. 

HiTHEB is also used in Luke vL 42, where we should 
now write or. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Either make the tree good and his fruit good also, either 
make the tree bad and his fruit bad also. Matt. xii. 33, quoted 
by Tyndale, Doct, Tr, p. 50. 

Ellect, adj. (Lat. dectus), simply means ^chosen,' in 
which sense it was first applied to the Israelitish nation, 
and then, in the early Church, to the whole body of Chris- 
tians, as being chosen from the world of the ungodly. * JSlect 
angels,* in i Tim. y. 21, seems to mean, Hhe angels, God's 
chosen ministers.' 

Saint Paul, that elect instrument of God, taketh muster of 
God's warriors, and teacheth Christian people to war. Latimer, 
Serm. p. 490. 

Shakespeare employs it in a sense in which we now use 
the Fr. Slite; 

Of singular integrity and learning. 
Yea, the elect of the land. 

If en. VIII. n. 4. 

Ellse^ redundant in Gen. xlii. 16, as in Latimer (Serm. 
p. 52): 

Shall you often see the punishments assigned by the laws 
executed, or else money redemptions used in their stead? 

Emerods, *&. (i Sam. v. 6, &c.). From It. emorroidi 
and Fr. hemorroides, which are both derived from Gr. 
aifioppotbes, we have the two forms emerods and hcBmor- 
rfvoids, a painful disease known now commonly as the piles. 
In Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy , we find the word in 
the forms hasmrods and hemroids. 

Emulation^ sb. (Gal. v. 20). Jealousy, rivalry in a 
bad sense; Lat. cemidatio, 'Emulations' is the rendering 
of the Gk. i^Xoi, and is illustrated by the following pas- 
sage from Baret's Alvearie (s.v. Enuie), 

To haue enuie to som man, to be angrie with an other man 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


which hath that which we couet to haue...AemiiIor...and Aemu- 
latio,.,is such a kind of enuie. 

I was advertised their great general slept, 
Whilst emidaUon in the army crept. 

Shakespeare, Tr, and Or. n. 1, 

Men have a foolish manner (both parents, and schoole- 
masters, and seruants) in creating and breeding an emulation 
between brothers, during childhood, which many times sorteth 
to discord, when they are men ; and disturbeth families. Bacon, 
E9$. vn. p. 34, 

XSnable^ T.t. (i Tim. i. 12). Like the Fr. JiabiUer, to 
make able {hdbilu) for any purpose, to qualify. 

Feare breedeth wit, anger is the cradle of courage, ioy 
openeth and endbUth the heart. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 44, I 31. 

So Fuller, speaking of commerce : 

No work can be base prescribed in reference to a noble end, 
as theirs is that learn an honest mystery to eTidble them for the 
service of God and the coimtry. 

And just before he uses disenable in the sense of 'dis- 

Neither doth an apprenticeship extinguish native nor disenO' 
hie to acquisitive gentry. Holy State, xv. 5. 

Enchantment^ sb. (Ex. vii. ii ; Lev. xix. 26; Eccl. 
X. 11). Incantation; from the Lat. incantamentum, the 
chanting a magical verse or formula which was supposed to 
have a potent influence. 

There are not a few who are persuaded for certaine, that 
enen the very serpents, as they may be burst by inchantment, so 
they can vnwitch themselues. Holland's Pliny, xxvin. 2. 

And in another passage, speaking of eclipses (xxv. 2) : 

The most part of the common people haue bin and are of 
this opinion (receiued by tradition from their forefathers) that 
all the same is done by inchantmenU, & that by the means uf 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 

174 ^^^ BIBLE 

some sorceries and herbs together, both sun and moone may 
be charmed, and inforced both to lose and recouer their light. 

End, in the phrase *to th& end, ior *in order that/ 
occurs in Ex. viii. 22. Polybius, when with Scipio in Africa, 
saw some lions 

Crucified and hanged vj>, to the end that vpon the sight of 
them other Lions should take example, and be skarredfrom doing 
the like mischiefe. Holland's Pliny, viu. 16. 

Endamage^ vX (Ezr. iv. 13; i Esd. vi 33). From 
Fr. endommager. The word is essentially the same with 
endanger both in oiigin and meaning [Danger], and is 
now represented by the shorter form damage. In the 
same manner we retain treat, while entreat has become 
obsolete ; while on the other hand encompass has survived 
compass, and encourage the unusual form courage found 
in Latimer: 

"Where your good word cannot advantage him. 
Your slander never can endamage him. 

Shakespeare, Two Gent, of Yer, m. 1. 

Hence endaifnagement=62imBi;gQ in (iT. John, 11. i). 

Endeavour j connected with Fr. devoir, duty, which 
is from Lat. dehere, is used as a reflexive verb in the Col- 
lect for Second Sunday after Easter, in the preface to the 
Confirmation Office, and in the Office of Ordering of 

I haue endeuoyred me to make an ende. Caxton, Golden 
Legend, 2nd prol. 

That euery man in his partye endeuoyre theym vnto the resist- 
ence a foresayd. Id. ProL to Godf. of Boloyne. 

This is called in scripture 'a just man' that endeavcureth 
himself to leave all wickedness. Latimer, Serm. p. 340. 

And Shakespeare [Twelfth Nighty iv. 2): 

Endeavour thyself to sleep. 
Even when employed according to its present usage the 
word endeavour had a much greater intensity of meaning, 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


implying ' the highest enei^gy that could be directed to an 
object* (Maurice, Lincoln^ $ Inn Sermons, p. 156). The 
force of such passages as Eph. It. 3, ^ endeaixmring to keep 
the unity of the Spirit," and 2 Pet i. 15, is greatly weakened 
by giving to endeavour its modem sense. 

If we attach to * endeayour ' its present meaning, we may too 
easily persuade ourselves that the Apostle does no more than 
bid us to attempt to preserve this unity, and that he quite recog- 
nizes the possibility of our being defeated in the attempt. 
Trench, On the Auth. Vers, of the N, T. p. 44. 

ESndironSy «5. The more usual form of this word, 
which only occurs Ezek. xL 43 (marg.), is andiron (in 
Prompt. Parvul, awndeme and awndyryn) ; otherwise it 
might be thought to be derived from the position and 
material of the instrument it denotes, viz. iron standards, 
one at each end of a fireplace, to support logs of wood while 
being burnt ; they were in common use until displaced by 
the modem fire-grate. But the termination -iron has pro- 
bably no more to do with the root than -wood in wormtroo^ 
(A.-8. wermod, G. wermiUh), Mr Wedgwood gives Med. 
Lat andenay andela, andeda, Fr. landier^ and adds, * The 
Flemish wend-yser probably exhibits the true origin, from 
wendeUj to turn ; wend-^ser, brand^ser, cratenterium, fer- 
rum in quo veru vertitur, — Kil., i. e. the rack in front of the 
kitchen dogs or andirons, for supporting the spit.' For the 
insertion of the *r' compare 'vagrant' from 'vagans.' In 
Caxton's Boke for Travellers, quoted in Prompt, Parv, 
p. 19, note 2: 

Thingis that ben vsed after the hou8...vpon the herthe belong- 
eth woode or turves, two andyrons of yron [brandeurs], a tonge, 
a gredyron. 

And again, in Hormani Vulgaria (15 19), fol. 154 3; 
I lacke a fyre pan, and andi/ars to here vp the fuel. 

Awnderne (awndyryn , wunndyrn), Andena, ipoporgium. 
Prompt. Parvul. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Her andirons 
(I had forgot them) were two winking Cupids 
Of silver. 

Shakespeare, Cymh, n. 4. 

Endow, v.t from Lat. dot, a dowry (Med Lat. do- 
aliumy whence Fr. dotiaire, B. dower and the verbs endo- 
airer and endou4rer\ and so literally *to furnish with a 
dowry;' thence 'to furnish with any gift or qualification.' 
This is certainly the sense in Gen. xxx. 20; Ex. xxiL 16; 
and in the Marriage Service, 'with all my worldly goods I 
tliee endow^ 

Engine, sb. occurs 2 Chron. xxvi. i5;.Ezek. xxvL 9, 
and three times in the margin, denoting, in each case, 
* military machine, implement of warfare.' Strictly speak- 
ing, it means any instrument showing contrivance and skill 
(ingenium) in its construction. It is defined in Du Cange 
as 'Machina bellica ingenio et arte adinventa.' 

So that the ram that batters down the wall, 
For the great swing and rudeness of his poise, 
They place before his hand that made the engine, 

Shakespeare, Tr, and Cr. I. 3. 

In an old poem of the thirteenth century the word 
occurs as a verb, * to plot against :' 

Ho may more trayson do, or is loverd betere engine. 
Than he that al is Crist is to. 

Debate of the Body and Soul, 115. 
Dekker nses enginous. 

The word occurs in one of its earliest stages in Chau- 
cer's Parson! s Tale: 

The goodes of natm^ of the soule ben good wit, scharp nn- 
derstondmg, subtil engyn, vertu naturel, good memorie. 

In the old Norman French life of S. Edward the Con- 
fessor, 1. 3997, edited by Mr Luard, it occurs in the sense 
of *a machine:' 

Purpensez 8*e8t de im i^n]g%n 
Par quel s'enva par le chemin. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


See GiK. 

Engrafted, pp, (Jam. i. 21), for the more usual 'graft- 
ed.' Tne root of grqft is the same as that of grave, boUi 
being from A.-S. grafan, to carve, dig. This word is ano- 
ther instance out of many in which of two forms the longer 
has been rejected and the shorter retained. Thus Gower 
{C(ynf. Am, i. p. 66) uses entamed for tamed, and sample 
has taken the place of ensample. Bee ENDAMAGa 

And 'tis the only way, as by marriage they are engrafted to 
other families, to alter the breed. Burton, AncU, of Md, Ft. z. 
Sec. a. Mem. 4. Subs. i. 

XSnlarge, f>.t (2 Sam. xxii. 37; Ps. iv. i). To set at 
lai^e or at liberty, to set free. 

This yere also the kyng enlarged Elyanoure his mother, 
whiche loDge before at the commaundement of his father her 
husbande, was as a prysoner kepte in secrete kepynge. Eabyan's 
Chron, Rich. I. p. 6, col. 2 (ed. 1516). 

Xalisample, sb. (Lat. exemplunC), the more usual form 
of examfiple m old authors, occurs several times both in 
Bible (i Cor. x. ii; Phil. iii. 17, &c.) and Prayer-Book. 

Ac I may she we emampUa 
As I se outher while. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, 2353. 

Gloryons Prynoes and bye men of noble and vertuouse courage 
shold take ensampU tempryse werkys leeful and honneste. Cax- 
ton, Prd. to Qodf, of Bohyne, 

Bot do not as thai doun, thereof take good hede, 

Bot f if thai showe ^oue good emsampU to the soule hde. 

Audelay, Poems, p. 42. 

A bishop, not alonely giving good ensam^le, but teaching 
according to it, rebuking and punishing vice. Latimer, Serm. 
p. ^4- 

Digitized by \^VJVJvl2 


We retain the shorter form sample which was formerly 
used for * example/ 

And as simple as that mumple is, yet is there lesse reason in 
our case, then in that. Sir T. More, Rich. III.; Works, p. 48 d. 

Bnsign, sb. (Nmn. 11. 2 ; Is. y. 26). A standard, or 
flag ; Fr. ensdgne, Lat. insigne. Formerly corrupted into 

Which Sylla perceiulng, lighted straight from his horse, and 
taking an ensigne in his hand, ran through the middest of his 
men that fled. North's Plutarch, SylUi, p. 511. 

This Golden Cluster the Herauld delivereth also to the Tlr- 
san, who presently delivereth it over to that Son that he had 
formerly chosen to he in house with him ; who beareth it before 
his Father as an Ensign of Honor when he goeth in publick 
ever after, and is thereupon called The Son of the Vine. Bacon, 
N. Atlantis, p. 254 (ed. 1651). 

Bnsue, v.t. From Fr. ensuiere, which again is from 
the Lat. inseqtior. As an active verb, it occurs Ps. xxxiv. 
14 (Prayer-Book) ; quoted also i Pet. iii. 11, in its original 
sense of * follow after and overtake.' It is now obsolete in 
this sense ; but in Wiclif and writers of his age stie was the 
word almost invariably used for 'follow;' thus in the above 
passage Wiclif (ed. Lewis) has, 

Seke he pees, and parfytli site it. 

So in Matt viii. i : 

Whanne Jhesus was come doun fro the hill myche puple 
suedm him... Sue thou me and lete the dede men biiie her dede 

Faste he suede after hem: he and othere mo. Life of Tkonuu 
Beket, 51. 

The pley he suede of hoondes: and of hauekes also ynoa|r. 
Ibid, 191. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Latimer uses ensue in the same way: 

If it be truthy why may not I say bo, to courage my hearers 
to receive the same more ardently, and ennte it more stu- 
diously. Rem, p. 336. 

Let not to-morrow then entue to-day. 

Shakespeare, Rich. II. ii. i. 

Enterprise, v.i. (Man*. Serv.) from Fr. entreprendre^ 
to undertake. The verb was in good use formerly : thus, 

I have emprysed and fynyshed this sayd lytil werke and 
boke, Besecbynge Almyghty god to be his protectour and defend- 
our agayn alle his Enemyes, and gyue hym grace to subdue 
them, and inespeciall them that haue late enterprysed agayn right 
and reson to make warre wythin his royamme. Caxton, Epil. to 
Mirrour of the Worlde. 

Ne have we ever enterprised any thing against them of trou- 
ble, vexation, or displeasure. Bishops' Reply to Henry VIIL 
A.D. 1529. 

Alas! madame, yf I have enterprysed 
A thyng to hye truly for my degre. 

Hawes, Past of Fleas, cap. 18. 

On the other hand, 'undertaking' is used by Bacon 
{JSss. IX.) in the sense of 'enterprising.' 

Enticiilg, adj. (i Cor. il 4; CoL ii. 4). Persuasive: 
the margin of the former passage gives ' persuasible.' 

This Menestheus was the first that began to flatter the people, 
and did seeke to winne the fauour of the communaltie, by sweete 
entising wordes. North's Plutarch, Thes. p. 1 7. 

Entirelyj adv. (Communion Office). 

We Thy servants entirely desire Thy fatherly goodness. 

It is used as the equivalent of the Lat. integr^. fiilly, 
perfectly. The adjective entire is derived through the Fr. 

Digitized bvVJi,JV.yA i^: o 


entier=L2Lt. integer, and is used in the sense of the latter 
by Spenser {F. Q. ii. lo, § 31) : 

He to Oordeliii him selfe addrest. 
Who with entire affection him reoeau'd. 

Wherefore I pray you entUrly, 
With all mine herte, me to lere. 

Chaucer, Bom. ofiheBo^e, p. 64. 

Sntreat| v.U where we should now nse treaty occars 
several times m our version. The following passage 81k>ws 
both usages, the obsolete and that still current : 

I intreated you in my last to bum my letters sent unto you 
for the argument sake;... and if you entreat this postscript in 
the same manner, you shall not erre a whit. Letter of Mr Secre^ 
twry Davison, a.d. 1586 (Nicolas's Idfe of Davison, p. 151). 

Scotland is the other parte of Brytainee whereof I will some- 
what at large entreate in this place. PoL Vergil, i. 5. 

Galled to this convocation, as I see, to entreat here of nothing 
but of such matters as both appertain to the glory of Christy and 
to the wealth of the people of England. Latimer, Serm, p. 44. 

But formerly to entreat had the stronger salification 
*to prevail by entreaty,' just as now *to persuade,' which 
origmally signified simply ' to use persuasion,' is aooording 
to present usage ' to prevail upon by persuasion.' BAlegh 
{Guiana, p. yj), says of the old chief of Aromaia : 

I desired him to rest with vs that night, but I could not 
inl/reat him. 

Entiing, sb. (Josh. viii. 29). Entrance. 

Prayeng us to take our entryng 
And come unto the ladies precence. 

Hawes, Past, of Pleasure, cap. 8. 

Before the dore, and in the very eniring. Antb ipsum vesti- 
bulum, primdque in limine. Yirg. Baret, Alvearie, 

This Camalet sometime a famous towne, or castle staadeth at 
the south end of the church of south Gadbury, the same is ntuat 

Digitized by Vn«^V.J VIC 


on a very tor or hil, wonderfolly strengthned by nature, to the 
which be two entringB vp, by very steepe way, one by borth, an 
other by southwest. Stow, AnncUs, p. Do. 

Entiing in^ <&. (Ex. xxxr. 15). Entrance. 

Bnvy, sb. (Matt, xxvil 18; Acts viL 9; Rom, L 29, 
&c.) Malice, iU-will, spite. 

Envye proprely is malice, therfore is it proprely agayns the 
bounty of the Holy Gost. Ohauoer, PomfyrCs Tale. 

Enuie, hatred, malice, ill will, spite. Inuidia & Inuidentia. 
Baret, Alvearie, 

But since he stands obdurate, 
And that no lawful means can carry me 
Out of his envy^a reach, I do oppose 
My patience to his fury. 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Ven, iv, i. 

Not Africk owns a serpent^ I abhor 
More than thy fame and envy. 

Id. Chriol I. 8. 

Our course will seem too bloody, Caius Cassius, 
To cut the head off, and then hack the limbs; 
Like wrath in death and envy afterwards. 

Id. Jul, CcBS, III. I. 

Troilus shall be such to Cressid, as what envy 
Can say worst shall be a mock for his truth. 

Id. Tr. and Cr, III. a. 

Env3ring, sb. (Bom. xiiL 13; James ill 14, &c) 
Envy; as above. 

Equal, f.^. (Lam. ii. 13). To make equal, compare ; 
Lat. cequa/re. Not used now as a transitiye yerb. 

Ere, adv. (Ex. i. 19; Num. xiv. 11, dtc.). A.-S. €Pr, 'be- 
fore,' is common in old writers, and stiU in use. 

To use too many circumstances, ere one come to the matter, 
is wearisome; to use none at all, is blunt. Bacon, Eta, xxxu. 
p. 138. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Cruden refers to six passages, to which add i Sam. 
iii. 3- 

Sit, 'oA, from Lat. err are, to wander, or stray; hence, 
to stray from the path of duty, to transgress. The follow- 
ing passage from Wiclif (Matt xviii ed. Lewis) well illus- 
trates the phrase in the General Confession, 'We have 
erred and strayed:' 

What semeth to you, if ther weren to a man an hundrid 
scheep and oon of hem hath errid wher he schal not leve nynty 
and nyne in desert, and schal go to seche that, that erridef 

And in his version of Jude 13, 'wandering stars' or 
planets are called * erringe sterns.* It is worth noting, 
that most of the words used to express sin contain the idea 
of departure from the right path : e.g. the word sin itself 
is from A.-S. syndrian, to separate, sunder; wrong is 
wrung, twisted; evil has the same meaning; trespass and 
transgression both mean, overstepping due bounds; tm- 
guitj/f tibat which is not equal, leaning to one side more 
than the other ; unrighteousness, not going in right vyise 
{i.e. ways) ; and so on. A great many of the Hebrew and 
Greek words for sin are of the same nature ; indeed, the 
common word in the New Testament, and that which 
occurs in every place where our version has «n, is a word 
(ofiafyria) which literally means ^missing a mark, deviation, 

My Lord, the Commons sends you word by me,... 
That they will erre from your highnesse person. 

The First Part of the Contention^ Ae, 
(Cambridge Shakespeare, v. p. 379.) 

Bscaper, «&. (0. Fr. eschapper, to escape), 'one that 
escapes,' occurs in margin of 2 Kings ix. 15. 

Eschew. v,t. (Job i 1, 8 ; ii. 3 ; I Pet iii. 1 1 ; Ps. xxxiv. 
14, Pr.-Book, &c.) is from the old Norman eschiver, to flee 
from, shun, avoid. The Fr. esquiver and It. sehivare or 
schifare are connected with the G. scheueuy 0. H. G. «JkV 
han and E. shy. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


For every wight esckeweth thee to here 
Thy songs be so elenge in good fay. 

Chaucer, Cuchow and Nightingale, 114. 

Than is it wisdom, as thenketh me, 

To maken vertu of necessity. 

And take it wel, that we may not eschetoe. 

Id. The Knight's Tate, 3045. 

It sit thee well to taken bede 
That thou escheue of thy manhede 
Tpocrisie and his semblaunt. 

Gower, Conf. Am. 1. p. 8*2 . 

Caxton nses the word twice in the conclusion to the 
Gams at Chess, ist. ed. : 

That synne may be escheund. 

That every man eschewe synne. 

And Shakespeare's version of the common proverb, 
'what can't be cured must be endured,' is, 

What cannot be eschewed must be embraced. 

Merry WiveSy v. 5. 

Espy, v.t. (Gen. xlii. 27; Josh. xiv. 7). From Fr. 
espier, 8p. espiar, which are modifications of the Lat. 
(upicere. The origin of the word was indicated in the old 
form (upy or aspiey which occurs in Pecock's Repressor, 
p. 92; 'unto tyme thei mowe aspie the defaut of the 
same oounseil.' The abbreviated form spy is still used in 
the same sense, but Gower has the noun espie ifloinf. 

Simon, whiche made was here evjgie 

Withinne Troie. 

When his love he doth esipy, 
Let her shine as gloriously 
As the Venus of the sky. 

Shakespeare, Mid. N.*s Dr. m. 2. 

Securely I espy 
Yirtue with valour couched in thine eye. 

Id. Rich. 11. 1. 3. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Bstate, sb. (Gen. xliii. 7; Esth. i 7; Ps. cxxxyL 23, 
&c.). This word, in the Bible and Prayer-Book, and old 
writers generally, is not restricted to the meaning now 
usually pat ujjon it, but has the same breadth of signi- 
fication which is still given to the word ' state.' Some of 
the sentences in which the old word occurs sound strange 
to modem ears: thus, 

But to thentent that other of what estate or degre he or they 
stande in. may see in this sayd lityll book, yf they gonemed 
themself as they ought to doo. Caxton, ProL to Game of Chm, 
iBt ed. 

Queen Elizabeth, in a letter to Sir Thomas Heneage 
(Leicester Gorr. p. 241), speaks of a ' counsell of estate f and 
Lord Bacon constantly uses this form of the word in the 
sense in which it is used in the collect for Grood Friday, 
' for all estates of men.' 

Latimer defines as part of the duty of a king, 

To see to all estates; to provide for the poor ; to see victuals 
good cheap. Senn. p. 215. 

As weU we know your tenderness of heart, 
And gentle, kind, efieminate remorse, 
Which we have noted in you to your kindred. 
And equally indeed, to aU estates, 

Shakespeare, Rich. IIL m. 7. 

Estimation, sh, (Lev. y. 15 ; vi. 6). Estimate, valua- 
tion, rating. 

Ethnick, «&. A heathen ; Lat. ethnicus, Gk. iBviKos. 

For the learned know that euen in S. Hieroms time, the 
Consul of Bome and his wife were both Etknicks, The TfWMla- 
tors to /Ae Reader, 

Evangelist, sb, G^terally, *a messenger of good 
tidings'), which is now almost exclusively applied to the 
writers of the four Gospel narratives, is not so applied in 
any of the three passages (Acts xxL 8 ; Eph. iy. 1 1 ; 2 Tim. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


iv. 5) in which it occurs ; but to ministera of the Church 
who assisted the Apostles in spreading the Gospel, or 
Erangel, of our Lord Jesus Christ, and who were sent from 
place to place to execute such particular commissions as 
the Apostles thought fit to intrust to them. In some of 
the old writers, &e word is Englished into Ghspeller, 
though this last word came afterwards to be applied to the 
person who r^d the 'gospel' in the Communion Office. 

With the Pocalyps of Ion, 
The Powlus Pystolus everych(m. 
The ParaboluB of SaUmon 

Payntyd ful ryjth. 
And the foure gospeUorua 
Syttyng on pjlloruB, &o. 

Sir Begrevcmt, 1441. 

Even, adv. In the phrases 'even now' (i Eines xiy. 
14), ^even so' (Lukex. 21), the usage of even is old fashioned 
and is replaced in familiar English by the equivalent word 

A rhyme I learned even now 
Of one I danced withal. 

Shakespeare, J2om. and Jul. I. 5. 

Hifl face thou hast, for even so looked he 
Acoompliah'd with the number of thine hours. 

Id. Mick IL n. I. 

Eveilj ^. (Josh. T. 10, &c.). A.-S. c^eny the eyening. 

Fathers that, like so many Alexanders, 
Have in these fields from mom till even fought. 

Shakespeare, Sen, F. III. i. 

Even-song, «&. ( A.-^. e^en-sang, yespers), is given in 
the calendar prefixed to the Prayer-Book to denote ' even- 
ing service,' in distinction to matins, or * morning service ;' 
canTing us back to the time when intoning the services 
was almost the universal custom. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


We find the word in the old ballad of Chevy Giace: 

This battell begane in Chyviat, 

An owar befor the none, 
And when even song bell was rang, 

The battell was nat half done. 

For though the day be never so longe 
At last the belles rin£:eth to evensonge. 

Hawes, Fast of Pleas, cap. 42. 

Bven-tide. sb. (Gen. xxiv. 63; Josh. vii. 6), and 
EvENTNa-TiDE, *&. (2 Sam. xi. 2; Is. xyii. 14). A.-S. w/m- 
tidj the evening. 

As when a swarme of gnats at euentide 
Out of the fennes of A^an do arise. 

Spenser, F, Q. n. 9, § 16. 

Everlastingly, adv. (Athan. Creed). For ever and 

I warrant you he is in this opinion, that with his own works 
he doth merit remission of his sins, and satisfieth the law through 
and by his own works ; and so thinketh himself to be saved ever- 
lastingly, Latimer, Serm. p. 520. 

Every, pr. (2 Esd. iii. 10), was formerly used where 
'each,' of which it is a compound, would now be found. 
The old forms are everich, everech, everilk. 

Everich of hem schal hate other with dedly hate. Chaucer, 
Parson's Tale, 

Everich of you schal bryng an hundred knightes. Id. 
Knight* s Tale, 1853. 

Everich in otheres bond his trouthe laith. Id. Fria/r's Tale, 

The kyng satte in the roidle, and the quene on the lefte hande 
of the table, & on ev^ry side of her stoode a couDtesse holdynge 
a clothe of pleasaunce when she liste to drynke. Hall, Rich, JIL 
f. 2 a, 

Every of them, is carried swiftly, by the highest motion. 
Bacon, Ess. xv. p. 56. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Evidency, «5. (Prov. viii. c). See Arbooanot. 

Evil, adj, (Ex. V. 19; Deut. vii. 15). Bad, ill; A.-S. 
yfd, G. tid>el. Sir T. More says of Richard the Third: 

None emil capiaine was hee in the warre. Works, p. 37 <£. 

And again (p. 37 g) : 

In case that y" king his brother (whose life hee looked that 
tvM dyete shoulde shorten) shoulde happen to decease. 

This usage of evU is obsolete, as is the following. Alex- 
ander's friends 

Beganne a litle to finde fault with Alexander, and to tpedke 
emU of him. North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 740. 

Evil, adv. (Ex. v. 22 ; Acts xiv. 2). Ill, which is merely 
a contracted form of the same word. * To evil entreat' is 
'to treat iU.' 

I am a stranger in these parts, set vpon (without any cause 
giuS by me) by some of your seniants, whom because I haue in 
my iust defence euUl entreated, I came to make my excuse to 
you. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 37, 1. 6. 

EvilfkvourednesB, sb. (Deut. xvii. i). Ugliness, 
deformity. The Heb. has * any evil thing.' See Favour. 
Latimer {Serm. p. 220) uses evil-favoured: 

He (Achitophel), when he saw his counsel took no place, goes 
and hangs himself, in contemplation of this evU-favovi/red face of 

Exactress^ «5. (Is. xiv. 4 m.). 

Exceeding, adv. (Gen. xv. i ; 2 Sam. viii. 8, &c.), 
like pasnng, used as an adverb. Wolsey is described by 
Shakespeare {Hen. VIII. rv. 2), as 

A scholar, and a ripe and good one ; 
Exceeding wise, fair-spoken, and persuading. 

They did exceeding ill, and God was angry with them for so 
d<nng. Latimer, Serm. p. 516. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Excellency, «6. Lat. excellentia, which occars very 
often, is one of a large class of words derived from the 
Latin which formerly ended in -y (Lat -id), but which have 
been superseded to a great extent by the simpler termina- 
tion in -e. Comp. conti'nency^ innocencyy penitency, &c 
Bacon {Ess. xlul p. 176) speaks of nature being 

Bather buaie not to erre, then in labour, to produce exedlency. 

Excellent, adj, (Dan. iL 31; 2 Pet L 17}. ExcesslTe, 
surpassing; Lat. exceuens. 

Why are not the starres scene as well in the day, as in the 
night. Because they are darkened by the excellent brightnesse 
of the Sunne from whome they borrowe their chiefest light 
Blundevile, ExercUea, fol. 156 a, ed. 1594. 

Except, vA. To make exceptions or objections. 

None of them feare to dissent from him, nor yet to except 
against him. The I^anslators to the Reader, 

Pale trembling coward, there I throw my gage, 
Disclaiming here the Idndred of a king; 
And lay aside my high blood's royalty, 
Which fear, not reverence, makes thee to except, 

Shakespeare, Rich, II, I. i. 

For perhaps, they have heard some talke; such an one is 
a great rich man; and another except to it; yea, but he hath a 
great charge of children. Bacon, Eee, Yin. p. 26. 

Except, pp. (Art. xv). Excepted. 

Item that all other castelles, holdes and fortresses, shall 
peaceably remain in the hSds of the possessor and owner vrithout 
chalenge or demaunde durynge the savd truce, the castel of 
dumbarre onelye excepte, (whyche was deliuered into thenglishe 
mens handes by the apoinctment of the duke of Albany when he 
fled into Fraunce). Hall, Rich, III. fol. 19 a. 

_ Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Exchanger^ «&. (Matt zxy. 27). A money changer, 

Such an «xcAan^er, or banker. Collybiste8...Trapezita...Men- 
sarins... jcoXXv/3t<m^ J, rpaxeitriyt. Baret, Alvtarie, s. v. 

Sxcommunicate J pjt?. (Med. Lai excommunicatwi) 
(Art xxxni.), belongft to another large class m which the 
terminations hare been almost nniyersally altered, but this 
time in the opposite directioiL by lengthening instead of 
shortening, this and many similar wor(& now ending witiii 

Now the reproning that the chnroh repronetb, if the partye 
that bane done tbe wrong when he is reproued thereof, set not 
thereby, is ye wote well in conclusion to be excSmunicate out 
of the christen company. Sir T. More, Works, p. 790 e. 

Thus Latimer nses alienate for alienated: 

Most farthest from the world, most alienate from it Serm, 
p. 43. 

Exercised^ j9p. in 2 Pet. ii. 14, where the Ynlgate 
has exerciiatum, means 'made familiar.' 

An hastie fortune maketh an enterpriser, and remouer,...but 
the exercised fortune maketh the able man. Bacon, Eu. XL. 
p. 166. 

Exigent^ eb. Exigency, extremity. 

Therefore as one compbuneth, that alwayes in the Senate of 
Rome, there was one or other that called for an interpreter: so 
lest the Church be driuen to the like exigent, it is necessary to 
haue translations in a readinesse. The Translators to the Reader, 

Why do you cross me in this exigent f 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cos, T. i. 

In the literal sense of 'extremity' it occurs in Shake- 

These eyes, like lamps whose wasting oil is spent, 
Wax dim, as drawing to their exigent. 

T Hen. VI. 11. 5. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Exorcist^ sh. (Acts xix. 13). From the Greek opKos, 
an oaUi ; the original meaning of the verb exorcise was to 
adjure, as in St Matt. xxvi. 63. Hence exorcists were 
those who pretended to raise or cast out devils by adjuring, 
or commanding them in the Divine Name to come forth. 

Thou, like an exorcist, hast conjured up 
My mortified spirit. 

Shakespeare, JiU. Ccbs. ii. i. 

If a dumb devil possesseth a servant, a winding cane is the 
fittest circle, and the master the exorcist to drive it out. Ful- 
ler, Holy State, vin. 5. 

Bxpect, v.t, (Lat. expecto), used in its original mean- 
ing, to look out for, wait for, occurs Job xxxii. 4 m. ; 
2 Mace. ix. 25, and, Heb. x. 13. 

It was truly observed by one, that himselfe came very hardly 
to little riches, and very easily to great riches. For when a 
mans stock is come to that, that he can expect the prime of 
markets, and overcome those bargaines which for their gieat- 
nesse are few mens money,... he cannot but encrease mainely. 
Bacon, Ess. xxxiv. p. 146. 

So Shakespeare (Mer, of Fen. v. i.): 

Let's in and there expect their coming. 

And Fuller says of Julius Scaliger: 

AVhilst he expected the tides and returns of business, he filled 
up the empty places of leisure with his studies. Holy State,xxJU. 

Bxpress, adj. (Heb.i. 3), from LKtexpressttSyihe par- 
ticiple of exprimere, which has for one of its meanings 'to 
model, moidd, pourtray.' Sir T. More uses it in the same 
sense as in the passage above quoted : 

This is (quoth he) y* fathers owne figure... y* playne exprme 
likenes of that noble Duke. Rich. III.,' Works, p. 01 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Ejctinct, pp. (Is. xliii. 17), approaches more nearly in 
form to its Latin original extinctiLS than extinguisfiedy 
which is deriyed through the French and has partly sup- 
planted it. 

My oil-cUied lamp, and toil-bewasted light, 
Shall be extinct with age and endless night. 

Shakespeare, Rich, II, I. 3. 

Eyeservice. «5. (Eph. yi. 6; Col. ill 22). This is 
one of the words ror which our language is indebted to the 
translation of the Bible. It is the literal rendering of the 
Greek 6<f>BaKfjLobov\€La, seryice done under the mastei^s eye 
only. From the same source we haye ^ eye seryants/ as in 
Latimer" (/St^rw. p. 390): 

The most part of seryants are bat €ye servcmts; when their 
master is gone, they leaye off from their labour, and play the 


Faculty^ sb, in Pr.-Book, means 'power granted by 
the ordinary,' the original meaning of the word bemg 
power or ability in general, like the Lat faczUtas from 
which it is deriyed. Faculta* and facilitas (whence Eng. 
facility) were originally the same {facrd being the old 
form oifacU-e). 80 in Wiclif's forcible rendering of i Cor. 
yii. 35, 'not that I caste to fou a snare, but to that that is 
honest, and ?yueth factdte (or esynesse), &a' where the 
Yulgate is ' quod facultatem prsebeat.' 

There be some people that ascribe their gains, their increase 
gotten by Knjfacultyy to the deyiL Latimer, Serm. p. 215. 

Besides, this Duncan 
Hath borne bis faculties so meek. 

Shakespeare, Mac^. i« 7. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 

102 , . THE BIBLE 

/€;>>', /v. 3fj 
Fain, adj. (a Mace. vi. 54; Ps. Ixxi. 21 Pr.-Bk.), glad: 
and adv, (Job xxvii. 22; Luke xv. 16), gladly. From A.-8. 
foBgn Qv/cegeny 'glad.' The word is constantly found in 
old writers. 

As fayn as foul is of the briglite sonne. 

Chaucer, The KnigMs Tale, 9439. 

And of another thing they were as fayn. 
That of hem alle ther was noon y-slayn. 

ibid, 2709. 

The knyghte was fayne, a feste made 
For a knave childe that he hade. 

Sir Perceval, 109. 

I wolde also fayne wytte, whyther these heretyques wyll 
be contente that the blessyd name of Jesus be had in honoure 
and reuerence or not. Sir T. More, Dial, f oL 8 a. 

A plaier, that being out of his part at his first entrance, is 
fazTte to haue the booke to speake what he should performe. 
Greene, Oroattvoorth of Wit, Sig. C2, recto. 

A passage in Shakespeare (Lear, iv. 7) illustrates the 
usage of fain in Luke xy. 16 : 

And wast thou /a«n, poor father. 

To hovel thee with swine, and rogues forlorn. 

In short and musty straw ¥ 

In Bacon (Em. xix. p. 80) it occurs almost in the sense 
of * compelled. 

For the nobility, though they continued loyall unto him, yet 
did they not co-operate with him, in his businesse. So that in 
effect, he wMfaine to doe all things, himself e. 

Fair^ adj. (Is. lir. 11 ; ZecL iil 5). From A.-S. fcBffr 
or fcBoer, beautuul, in which sense it was once common. 
Thus rliny says, Quoting from Varro, that there was * (me 
Lsela, a Cyzecene Dome,' whose 

Delight was principally in drawing women ; and yet there is 
a Neapolitane of her pourtraying in 21, f aire long table. Holland's 
Pliwy, XXXV. II. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Faint, v,i. (Luke xviiL i ; 2 Cor. ir. 16}. To be dis- 
couraged, lose confidence. 

It appeareth in nothing more, that Atheisme is rather in the 
lip, then in the heart of man, then by this ; that Atheists will 
ever be talking of that their opinion, as if they fonnted in it, 
within themselves, and would he glad to be strengthned, by the 
consent of others. Bacon, En, XYi. p. 65. 

Faithless, adj, (Matt xrii 17 ; Mark ix. 19). Unbe- 

If e'er the Jew her father oome to heaven. 
It will be for his gentle daughter's sake ; 
And never dare misfortune cross her foot. 
Unless she do it under this excuse. 
That she is issue to Afaithleu Jew. 

Shakespeare, Afer. of Vm. n. 4. 

Fall, v.i. To happen, chance (Ruth iiL 18) ; the latter 
word being derived from Lat. cadere, used in the same 
metaphorical sense. 

Because hee thought whatsoeuer busines shoulde faUe be- 
twene them* hymselfe should alwaye bee hable to rule bothe the 
partyes. Sir T. More, Jlich. III. ; Wiyrkty p. 38 d. 

In the sense of 'belong' it occurs in Luke xv. 12 ; the 
full phrase being preserved in ' fiedl to one's share.' ^ 

And of hir clothing took he the mesure, 
By a mayde y-lik to hir of stature, 
Ajid eek of other omaqientes aile 
That unto such a weddyng schulde/aZfe. 

Chaucer, CUrVi Tale, 8135. 

Fall, v.i, (Jer. xxxvii. 14) in the phrase 'to fall away' 
= ' to desert/ while a literal translation of the Hebrew u 
in accordance with the English idiom. 

Thoa shalt not need. England, I will faU from thee. 

Shskkespeare, Kinff John, in. i. 

Digitized by VjV^VJV id 3 


If he will recant 
And faU from Lewis again. 

Haywood, 2 Ed, IV, I. 6. 

Well witiinge tbat yf hee deposed the one brother, all the 
realme woulde fcUle to the tother. Sir T. More, i2tc&. ///.; 
Worht, p. 45 a. 

Fallings occurs in ^e margin of Job xli. 23, heing a 
literal rendering of the original. The text has the more 
intelligible wordf ' flakes.' 

Fame, sb. This word is nsed in many places, but 
especifdly Gen. xlv. 16; i Kings x. 7; Jer. vi. 24, in its 
pnmai^ sense of * report, tidings,' from the Lat /amay 
which is deriyed from Gr. d^fjuj. a voice, and was therefore 
applied to any report, good or bad. 

And by this pollecy y" fame is sone blowen to eaery dtle 
& touiie. Hall, Bich, III. fol. 26 a. 

All telling fame 
Doth noise abroad. 

Shakspeare, L<me*8 L. Lo9t^ u, J. 

It is now generally applied to the reputation derived 
from the report of some great action. jBacon uses it in 
the plural: 

Yiigil givinjp; the pedegree oifame, saith, she was sister to the 
giants.... As iS. fames were the leliques of seditions past. Ete, xv. 
p. 55. 

Familiar spirit, sb. (i Sam. xxviii. 3, 7, &a). A 
spirit or devil wno was supposed to be in attendance 
upon the old necromancers, obey their commands, and dis- 
chai^ge tiieir conmiission like a servant (famtdtu). 

Now, ye familiar spiritej that are cull'd 
Out of the powerful regions under earth, 
Help me this once, that France may get the field. 

Shakespeare, i Hen, VL V. 3. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Such a one was Ariel to Prosporo in The Tempest 
I. 2, whom ' the foul witch Sycorax^ for disobedi^ce did 

Bj help of her more potent rainiBten, 

And in her most unmitigable rage. 

Into a doren pine. 

Allusion to such spirits are oonstantW found in writers 
of the 1 6th and 17th centuries. In Holland's translation 
of Plutarch's Mordk the heading of one of the sections is 
* Of the DaBmon or familiar spirit of Socrates.' 

He would have 
(I told you of him) a favMliar 
To rifle with at horses and win cups. 

Ben Jonson, Alch, 1. 1. 

And Fuller says of Paracelsus, 

He was not only skilled in natural magic. .but is charged 
to converse constantly with famiUars, Holy State^ XTin. 

Familiars, sb. (Jer. xx. 10). Intimate friends; Lat. , 

When he [Alexander] saw it, bee asked his familiars that 
were about him, what they thought fittest, and the best thing to 
be put into it. North's Plutarch, J ^. p. 731. 

Far spent (Mark vi. 35 ; Luke .xxiv. 29 ; Rom. xiii. 
12). Far adyanced. At first sight it looks as if 'fiir 
spent' were the participle of the A.-8. verb for-spendan, 
to consume; it is not impossible that this may have been 
the origin (d the phrase, though it is not necessarily so. 

Now, the night being farre spent, Brutus as he sate bowed 
towards CUtus one of his men, and told him somwhat in his eare, 
the other answered him not, but fell a weeping. North's Plutarch, 
Brutus, p. 1077. 

An example of 'forspent,' in the sense of 'exhausted,^ 
occurs in Shakespeare, 3 Hen, VL n. 3 : 

Forspent with toil, as runners with a race. 

Digitized by Gof^l^ 


Fare «?. ». from A.-S. fasran^ G. fahren^ to go, 




peace/ as in Gen. xxxvii. 14, and similar passages. The 
root of the word is retained in ' thorougVar^, way/arer, 
farevfQW {%, e. go in peace)/ &c. In Luke xvi. 19, ^ fared 
sumptuously' accords with modem usage. 

Gertis, that salle I never mare 
Agayne Ciystyndomme fyghte no fare. 

Sir Isumbras, a8o. 

In its original sense it occurs in Piers Ploughman ( Vis, 


Ac er I hadde faren a farlong, 
Feyntise me hente. 

And in Gower {Cor{f. Am. i. p. 81) : 

,And forth they wenten into ship 
And croBsen sail and made hem yare 
Anone as thoagh they wolden fare, 

Shakespeare uses it in the same sense as in i Sam. xyii. 

How fares my hrother ? Why is he ro sad f 

3 Hen, VI, n. i. 

Fashion, sb, (Fr. fa^on, literally 'make/ from Lat. 
facere, whence also It fattura and £ng. feature), Mako, 
shape, manner, custom (Gen. vi 15; 2 K. xvi 10; Luke ix, 
29 ; Phil, ii 8), such being the original sense of the word, 
though now applied almost exclusively to dress. It is 
common in the wider sense as a provincialism. 

Howbeit they beare a fruit at the last, like gourds mfa»k%im, 
and as bigge as quinces. HoUaiid's PUny, xn. la 

If you would worke any man, you must either know his 
nature, and/a<ftton«, and so lead him ; or bis ends, and so per> 
8 wade him ; or his weaknesse, and disadvantages, and so awe hun ; 
or those that have interest in him, and so goveme him. Bacon, 
E99. XLVII. p. 196. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


In Shakespeare's Hen, VIIL it. 2 Capucius swean to 
Qaeen Katharine, 

By heavoD, I -vnll. 
Or let me lose the fatkion of a man. 

And the king describes Hamlet's madness as caused by 

This somethiog-Bettled matter in his heart. 
Whereon his brains still beating puts him thus 
From /(uAion of himself. 

HamUt, m. i. 

The verb is now rarely used. Baret (Alvearie) gives : 
'he that /ashionethy instructeth, or maketh. Formator.' 
It occurs in Ex. xxxiL 4; Job xxzi. 15, &c. 

Faat, adv. (Ruth iL 8, 21). Close, near. 

It is weV^ when nobles are not too great for soveraignty, nor 
for justioe ; and yet maintained in that heigth, as the insolencie 
of inferiours, may be broken upon them, before it oome on too 
fast upon the maiesty of kings. Bacon Ets, ZIY. p. 52. 

Fast, adv. (Ps. lxxxYiii» 9 ; Izxzis. 36, P.-Bk.). Firmly 
fixed ; A.'^/cBst ' Stec^o^^' signifies ' firm in its stead or 

So now by this abide sure and fast, that a man inwardly in 
the heart, and before God, is xigliteous and good through faith 
only, before all works. Tyndale, Doctr, Treat, p. 61. 

Fat, sb. (Joel ii. 24; iii. 13). From A.-S. fcBt, a 
vessel, vat; the latter being the modem spelling. The 
Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered * winepress' (Hos. ix. 
2, marg. 'win^at'), *prea^at' (Hag. ii. 16), and * press' 
simply (Prov. iii. 10; Is. xvi. 10). In fleywood's i Ed. IV. 
V. 5, the Tanner of Tamworth says, 

Had she as many twenty pound bags as I have knobs of bark 
in my tan/oC 

A fat, or vat. Orca. Baret, A Ivtarie. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Come thou monarch of the vine, 
Plmnpie Bacchus, with pinke eyne: 
In thy f(Ute$ our Oares be drown'd. 

SbakeBpeare, ArU, dt CL il. 7 (ed. 1613). 

In Mr Coleridge's Glo99ary it is found in the form feL 

Fat^ v.U (Luke xy. 23). To fatten; ^•%. foettian. 
Compare white and whiten. 

To fat a beast, to franke. Sagino. Barety Alvearie, 

A fatted hogge. Saginatus porcus. Ibid, 

The fold stands empty in the drowned field. 
And crows are fatted with the murrain flock. 

Shakespeare, Mid. N.'s Dr, ii. 2. 

Manhood and honour 
Should have but hare-hearts, would they but fat their thoughts 
With this Gramm'd reason. 

Id. Tr, ^ Cr. n. a. 

Fauchion^ sb. (Jnd. xiii. 6). A sword. The form 
falchion or fatUchion ia more common, but both are now 
out of use. The root Of the word is the LaLfalx, a sickle. 

Is neither Peter the porter. 
Nor Poul with his fauchen. 
That wole defende me the dore. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, 9639. 

AFalehon: a wood knife, or sword. Machsra...Sica...Gladiua. 
Baret, Alvearie. 

, I have seen the day with my good biting fatdchien 
1 would have made them skip. 

Shakespeare, Lear, Y. 3. 

In the two quartos of 1608, the word is spelt fauchion 

Skelton (Vol, i, p. 297) uses *fawchyn' as a verb in the 
sense of * hew.* 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Holde thy hand, dowe, of thy dagger, and stynt of thv dyn, 
Or I ahalfouoeh^ thy flesshe, and iorape th^ on the skyn. 

Magnificence, 12x6. 

Favour, sb, (Ptot. xix. 6; xxix. 26; Pb. xIf. 12; 
cxix. 58), from Fr. faveur, is the rendering of a word 
meaning 'face, countenance, or appearance,' in which sense 
it constantly occurs in old writers, and is retained in the 
a43ectiTes m'/at>oured, weil-ffwoured. 

In heanty, that oifnvowr, ii more tbsn that of oolour, and that 
of decent and gracioiu motion, more then that of favour, Baoon, 

£88, XLHI. p., 1 76. 

As S. lames saith, they are as men, that looke sometimes into 
a glasse, and presently forget their own shape, & favour. Id. 
E88. xxvn. p. 113. 

And in Shakespeare (TV. and Or, iy. 5), Hector says, 
I know your favour. Lord Ulysses, welL 

Compare also Jtd, Ccbs, i. 2, 

I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus, 
As well as I do know your outward favour. 

On which Mr Craik {English qf Shakespeare) observes ; 

Favour seems to be used for face from the same confusion or 
natural transference of meaning between the expressions for the 
feeling in the mind and the outward indication of it in the look 
that has led to the word oountenomce, which commonly denotes 
the latter, being sometimes employed, by a process the reverse of 
what we have in the case of favour, in the sense of at least one 
modification of the former. 

Fealty, sb. (Josh. i. e). 0. Ir.featdti, from an adj. 
feal, fiutiifiu (}j9X.fidelis\ whence /o^ or feiaul, *a vassal.' 
Under ftdelitas, Du Cange has 'Anglis Fealtie^ nostris 

Kyng Arthure also the glory of the Brittons erected Angosile 
to the scepter of Scotland and receaued of hym homage and 
fealHe. Hall, Hen. V., foL 6a, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


And let my soyereigD, virtuous Henry, 
Command my eldest son, nay, all my Bons^ 
As pledges of my feaUy and love. 

« Hm, YL V. I. 

Fear, »i. (Wisd. xvii. 9). From A.-S. fcbran^ to 
frighten, terrify. The proyincial <5/k»rrf=' afraid' is A.-S. 
a-feredy the participle of the verb o-feBran^ yast as 'afraid' 
itself is * afrayed/ or more properly *aflfrayed/ the participle 
of 'affray." Arcmbishop Trench has oonfhsed of ear d with 
affeered^ the law term, which is an entirely different word 
{Eng, Past and Present, 4th ed. p. 124). The active sense 
of the verb fear has become obsolete, but was once com- 
mon. Thus in Sir T. More's Dial. fol. 1 14 &. : * Which fere 
1 promyse you nothingy^e^A me ;* and Shakespeare {Tarn, 
(if the /Shrew, I, 2\ 

Tush, tush ! fear boys with bugs. 

Feerd= afraid, occurs in Pecock's Repressor, p. 51. 

Fear, sK (Gen. xxxi. 42, 53; Prov. i. 26, 27), in the 
concrete sense of * cause, or object of fear.' Thus Shake- 

Or in the night, imagining some fear. 
How easy is a bush supposed a bear! 

Mid,N:9Dr.yr. i. 

And Jul, Cobs, n. i : 

There is no fear in him : let him not die. 

Fearfill, adj, in the sense of 'timorous, faint-hearted,' 
occurs Deut. xx. 8 ; Judges vii. 3 ; Isa. xxxy. 4 ; Matt. viii. 
26 ; Bey. xxi. 8, &c. ; and is also common as a proyincialism \ 
the more usual sense is, ' that which causes fear.' 

And yet (God knowetb) the man was wc^ fearful, that he durst 
not be known unto us where he preached, though we sought it &t 
his house. Griudal, Rem, p. 303. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Edward and Richajrd, like a brace of greyhounds 
Having the fearful flying hare in sight. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen* VL il. 5. 

In the same way 'dreadfal/ which is now applied to that 
which canses dread, is used for Himorous' in Gower {Cof\f, 
Am. I. p. 247), 

Wherof the d/redfvU hertes tremblen. 

And in Chaucer's Aisembly of Fowls (195) we find 
* the dred^til roe.' 

Fearfiilness, 9b. (Ps. ly. 5). Fear. 

SimuLiktion and dissimulation, commonly carry with them, a 
shew of fearftdnesaef which in any bnsinesse, doth spoils the 
feathers, of round flying up to the mark. Baoon, £88. VI. p. 22. 

Feller, «ft. (Is. xir. 8). From A.-S. feUan, to fell; a 
cutter of wood. 

Felloes, sb. (i Kings vii. 33). From A.-S. /edge, the 
pieces which compose the circumference of a wheel. 

In Chapman's Homer (II. iv. 525), it is written in the 
form fell]fs : 

The felVffe, or out-parts of a wheel, that compass in the whole. 
The common form now is fellies. 

Fellows, sb. (Ps. xlr. 14; Bar. vL 43). From A.-S. 
felaw, the etymology of which is uncertain: many, with 
Hickes, deriye it from feligean, JUgian, or Jilian, to follow, 
vrh&aooJUgestre, a female follower. The Auth. Vers, of the 
Psalms has 'companions/ and this was the original meaning 
of the word. 

When one pulleth down his feUow, they must needs down both 
of them. Latimer, Serm. p. 271. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

202 THE BIBLE . 

Thy silver is turned to dross, thy princes are un&iihfal, and 
fdlowe (A. V. * companions ') of thieves. Is, i. 23, 1^ quoted 
by Latimer, Serm, p. 381. 

In old English, 'companion' was used in the same con- 
temptuous sense as ' fellow' now. See Shakespeare, 2 Hen, 
VL IV. 10: 

"Why, rude companion, whatsoe'er thou be, 

I know thee not ; why then should I betray thee ? 

Fenced, pp. (Num. xxxiL 17, 36, &c.). Fortified, 

Where he went abrode, his eyen whirled about, his body 
priuily/cnced. Sir T. More, Rich. III., Works, p. 69 c. 

' The brother that is holpen of his brother, is a sure and well- 
fenced city, and a strong tower,* he is so strong. Latimer, Serm. 
p. «7i. 

Fortified, fensedf and made strong. Munitus, & com- 
munituB... i^or^^, munie, Baret, AlvttMrie, s.v. Fortifit. 

Fennowed, pp. Mouldy; k.-^. fennig,yf\ieac& fen- 
now, finnow, vinney. Junius (Etym. Angl.) makes the 
two former peculiar to Kent and the last to Devon and 
Cornwall. The Scripture, say the Translators, Ms a 
Fanary of holesome foode, against fenowed traditions.' 
The Translators to the Reader. The form vinued occurs 
in Baret, {Alvearie^ 8.y,MQtUdie). 

Mouldie: mustie: hoarie: vinued. Mucidus. 

To be vinewedy or hoarie. Muceo. Id. s. y. Hoarie. 

To waxe viMtoed, or hoarie. Mucesoo. Ibid. 

In the Folios of Shakespeare the form ichiniiTst occurs, 
which is altered in modern editions into mnewedst: 

Speake then, you whimd'st leaven speake^ I will beate thee 
into handsomenesse. Tr, db Or, n, i. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Pet, pp. (2 Sam. ix. 5, xi. 27; i K. m 13, ix. 28 ; 2 K. 
xi. 4; 2 Ghr. xii. 11 ; Jer. xxvi. 23; Acts xxviii. 13). 
Fetched, in ed. of 161 1. 

And therupon the wyn was fet anoon. 

Chaucer, Cant. TdleSy Prol. 8^1. 

Til that the Thebanes knyghtes bothe i-liche 
Hououred weren, and into paleys fet. 

Id. The Knight's Tale, 2Sag, 

On, on, you noblest English, 
Whose blood is fet from fathers of war-proof! 

Shakespeare, Hen. V, ui. i. 

And followed with a rabble that rejoice 

To see my tears and hear my deep-/e^ groans. 

Id. 1 Hen. VI. n. 4. 

Though there be none fax-fet, there will deare-bought 
Be fit for hidies. 

Ben Jonson, The Silent Woman, ProL 

The form 'fetched' or *fetcht' was in use as early as 
1597, for in Shakespeare's Rich. III. u, 2, 

Forthwith from Ludlow let the young prince be fetched, 

'fetcht' is the reading of the quartos and 'fet' of the folios. 

Fift, adj. (Ley. xxvii 13; Num. xxix. 26). Fifth; in 
the ed. of 161 1. 

King Henry the Fifi, too famous to liue long. 

Shakespeare, i Hen. VI. i. i (ed. 16^3). 

Fill, sb. (Dent xxiii. 2^). The phrase Hhou mayest 
eat i^rapes thy fill,* that is, tili thou art satisfied, is a literal 
; of tl^ Hebrew. 

Fine, Finer, Fining, where we should now use 
r^ne, refiner ^ &c., occur in Job xxviii. i; Prov. xvii. 3, 
xiY. i^ xxvii. 21. The origin of the a(\j. fine^ which is the 

Digitized by V:i«^JV.J VIC 


same as Sp. and Port. Jino^ Fr. fin, and G» fein, is traced 
by Diez {Etym. Wdrterb. p. 14JI) to the Lat finitvsy 
finished, perfect In Wiclif 's version of Is. xxv. 6 we read 
of *vyndage YfeYLfyned! 

Fined, deane from the dregges. Defaecatus. Baret, AU 
vearie, s. v. 

Fire finelh mettail, or consumeth and purgeth^ fto» Ignis 
excoquit vitdum metalli Ibid. 

Firstling, tb. (Gen. iv. 4 ; Ex. xiii 12, &c.). The first 
offspring ; used generally of animals. 

The very firstlings of my heart shall be 
The firstlings of my hands. 

Shakespeare, 3fac6. iv. x. 

To tell you, fair beholders, that our play 

Leaps o er the vaunt and firstlings of those broils, 

'Ginning in the middle. 

Id. Tr. <fe Cr. prol. 

Fitches, 9h. (Isa. xxviii. 25, 27; Ezek. iv. 9). The 
word itself is now written vetches (Lat. vicicBX (compare 
/at and vcU) ; but in none of the passages is tJie modem 
tetch to be understood : the ^fitches of Isaiah beinff a kind 
of cummin, Nigella meHanthium; those of Ezekid a sort 
of bearded wheat or spelt, translated ' rie* in Isa. xxviii. 
25 ; Ex. ix. 32. In the earlier of Wiclif's versions of Is. 
xxviii. 25 the word is written ficche^ and in the later 
fetchU, Baret (Alvearie) gives: * Miches. Vlcia...Plin. 
/Siictov. A vinciendo vt Yarroni placet' 

This is said by hem that be not worth two fetches. 

Chaucer, FroU, ds Ores. m. 887. 
Some countries are pinched, of medowes for hay, 
Yet ease it with fiAches, as well as they may : 
Which inned and threshed, and husbandly dight, 
Keepes labouring cattle, in verie good plight. 
In threshing out fitches, one point will I shew. 
First thresh out for seed, of the fitches a few. 

Tusser, Hu^ndiy, Decern. 

' Fitches' represents still the pronunciation of the word 
in Suffolk. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Flag, «&. (Ex. ii. 3, 5; Job viii. ii; Isa. xiz. 6) is 
the English name of a kind of iris, or flower-de-luce, use I 
by our translators to express the word suph, which in 
Jonah ii. 5, 6, is rendered *■ weeds,' and from which also is 
derived the Hebrew name of the Red Sea, Yam Suph, or 
Sea of Weed, from the weeds with which it aboundeo. In 
Exed. the plant meant is doubtless the Egyptian papyrus- 

The water Flcigge, or the yellowe wild Iris, or the Flowre 
deluce : this groweth moat oonmionly in moist plaoes, and lowe 
medowes, the roote is cold and drie in the third degree. Baret^ 
Alvearky s. y. 

This common body. 
Like to a vagabond JUig upon the stream, 
Goes to and back, lackeying the varying tide. 
To rot itself with motion. 

Shakespeare, Ant. ds CI, I. 4. 

Flagon, ^. (2 Sam. 19; Cant. ii. 5). A large bottle 
or flask; ¥r,Jhcon, 

In all this army, there was neither helmet, pike, dart, nor 
target scene ; but gold & siluer bowles, cups, k JUupns in the 
sotUdiers hands, a& the way as they went. Northed Plutarch, 
Alex. p. 753. 

Fleshhook, sb. (Ex. xxvii. 3 ; i Sam. ii. 13, &c.). 
An implement in ancient as in more modem cookery, the 
name of which suggests its use. 

Ful hard it is, with fieUchhoJs or with oules 
To ben yclawed, or brend, or i-bake. 

Chaucer, Sompnour't Taky 731 '2. 

The word is retained from Wiclif 's version. 

Flit, t?.i. (Jer. xlix. 30, marg.) is still used as a pro- 
vincialism for * remove^ (^^soiQid one's abode,' and is evi- 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


dently connected with flee and fl^eet. From the same root 
came 0. E. and provincial flittermow&Q, a bat, G. fleder" 
maus. It was once in good use : 

Bedly synne js, as saith Seint Austyn, whan man tometh 
his hert from God, which that is verray soverayn hount^, that 
may not chaunge and fiiUtf and give his herte to a thing that 
may chaunge and^ttte. Chaucer, Pa/raorCa Tale, 

For yet stode styll the lyght of fayth in our lady... without 
fleyng ovfiyttyng. Sir T. More, Dial, fol. 33 a. 

To fiitie from place to place, Is no poyncte of lightenesse of 
man : but an euident signe of the charitee, that suche as folowe 
the steppes of the Apostles ought to haue. XJdal's Erasmus, 
Luke, fol. 5 1 6. 

Hence the substantiye 'flitting' (Ps. Ivi. 8, P.-Bk.), 
where the A. V. has * wandering.' Jamieson {Scot Diet) 
gives the Dvai. fly tier ^ to change one's abode, which exactJy 
corresponds to the meaning of the word in Scotch. *• Fools 
are fond of flitting and wise men of sitting' is a Scotch 
proverb. The word occurs both in Gower and Chaucer. 

Flix, 9ee Flux. 

Flood, 8b. (Josh. xxiv. 2, 3, &c.). From A.-S./dd; a 
flowing, river, connected with Lat. fluo; applied to any 
stream, not merely to an overflow. 

What need the bridge much broader than the flood f 

Shakespeare, Much Ado, i. i. 

Three times they breathed, and three times did they drink. 
Upon agreement, of swift Severn's /ood. i Hen. IV, I. 3. 

And Milton (P. Z. i. 419): 

With these came they, who from the bord*ring /oo<2 
Of old Euphrates, &c. 

referring to Rev. ix. 14, whicfi in Wiclifs earlier version is 

Foure aungels that ben bounde in the greet /(kh2 Eufrates. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.J VIC 


Flote, «5. (I K. V. 9 ; 2 Chr. ii. 16.) A.^. Jl6t, a float, 
raft. For the spelling compare doke and doak. 

Flowers^ ib. (Ler. xy. 24, 33). The menstrual dis- 
cbarge; ljsX.fiuore8. 

Comeolos mitigateth the heate of the mind, and qualifieth 
malice, it stancheth bloudie fluxes, speoiallie of women that are 
troubled with their jfower^. Reginald Scot^ Diacauerie of Witch' 
craft, B. 13, c. 6, p. ^94, ed. 1584. 

Flue net, «&. (Hab. 1 15 m.)* A^S^Jleoge^net, a fly net 
This word is only found in one or two dictionaries ; it means 
a kind of net, as appears from the Promptorium Parvur- 
lorum, where is a note that in 139 1 Robert de Ryllyngton 
of Scarborough bequeathed to his servant ^iflew cum war- 
rap et flot,' directing his two boats to be sold, and the 
price b€«towed for the good of his soul. ^Flewe, a nette, 
retz k pecher.' Palsgrave (quoted by Mr Way in his notes 
to Promptorium Parv,), 

Flux, sb. (Acts xxviii. 8). From lAtJitumSy a flow- 
ing, issue. ^ Bloody fliLx^ is the translation of the Gk. 
dva-evTcpiOj whence our * dysentery.* In Holland's transla- 
tion of Pliny's Natural History (xxvL 8) we read, * the juice 
of Housleeke or Sengreene. . .staieth the Uoudyjlix,* And 
again, ' Water-specke or Pondweed, caUed in Greek Pota- 
mogeton, is singular good for the dysentery or Noudyflix.* 
The earlier of WicliTs Versions of Matt. ix. 20 is, * And 
loo! a womman that sufiride the flix or renn^ge of 
blood twelue veer, cam to byhynde.* In the later version 
it is 'blodi jlux,^ Archbishop Trench has noticed the 
iteration of the older form 'nix' iu the modem editions 
of our Authorized Version (On the Auth, Vers, of the 
N, T, p. 66). Fluke or flook is Scotch for the 'diarrhoea.' 
At Strasburg, according to Foxe {Acts and Man, m. 790, 
ed. 1684), Dr Sands 

Fell 8ore sicke of a fiux, which kept him nine months, and 
brought him to deaths door. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Daily it reined and nightly it fresed, of fuell was skacenes 
and of fluxe» was plenty, money they had ynough but comforte 
thei had none. Hall, Hen, V, foL 14 5. 

The same again in the gospel speaketh notably of the wo< 
man^s faith which was sorely plagued with the bloody /ux. 

Bullinger, Decada, L 92. 

Fold. The termination -fold in *a hundred/o/^/, 
mani/o/rf*, &c. is the K.-^.-feald, and G. -faUy used m 
forming mnltiplicatives. 

Folk, sK (Mark vi. 5). Used as a plural, of which it is 
the correct form, like A.-S. folc* An example is given 
under Dote. 

Follow on (Hos.vL 3), Follow upon (Ps. xviii 37, 
P.-Bk.X and Follow after (Prov. zy. 9}. In all these 
phrases the preposition is redundant. 

WhereupC.he told both his doubt and cause of doubt to 
Palladius, who (considering thereof) thought best to make no 
longer stay, but to follow on, Sidney, Arcadia, p, 36, 1. 11, 

And the hart swam over, and as Sir Gawaine would have 
followed after, there stood a knight on the other side aijd said, 
' Sir knight, come not over after the hart, but if thou vnlt^ust 
with me.' Emg Arthur, c. 50, p. 100. 

Therefore he daily studied how to preuent them, and how to 
see to the safetie ot Grece, and before occasion offered, he did 
exercise his dtie in feates of warre, foreseemg what should 
folow after. North's Plutarch, Themitt, p. 125. 

Fond, adj,, is used in Article xxii in its old and still 
provincial sense of * foolish, weak, or silly.' Jamieson 
(Sc. Diet. S.V. Fon) derives it from Isl. faanej fatuus. 
Pecock (Repressor, p. 145) uses fonned in the sense of 
' befooled,' and describes Solomon in his old age as ^fonned 
and bedotid with hise wyfis.' Chaucer and writers of his 
age constantly Vi&Qfonne for fool. So WicUf (ed, Lewis) ; 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


But God chees tho thingis that hcufonnyd of the world to 
oonfounde wise men. i Cor. i. 17. 

ThS deuysed we some doctour to make a sermon at oar masse 
in oar monthys mynde, and there preohe to our pravae wyth some 
fond fimtesy deuysed of our name, ^. Sir T. More, Supply- 
oacyon of SouUs, foL 41a. 

. With these fond ceremonies is the tyme consumed awaie 
therewhyle, so that there is no tyme to leame any thyng at all. 
Udal's Erasmus, LuSse, foL 115 6. 

It is a fond thing: I will not tany in it. Latimer, Serm. 
p. 229. 

^dley did acknowledge his fault to Hooper ; and when they 
wonld have put on the same apparel upon him, he said, they 
were abominable and too fond for a vice in a play. Grindal, 
Memain8, p. in. 

Thoufond mad man, hear me but speak a word. 

Shakespeare, Rom. and Jul, m. 3. 

And for his dreams, I wonder he is so fond 
To trust the mockery of unquiet slumbers. 

Id. Rich, III. ni. 7. 

Skelton {Works, vol. i. p. 259, ed. Dyce) uses fonnysshe 
in the same sense, o, c O \4 > u •/ / I • 1 

Footmen, sh, (Num. xL 21 ; Jer. xii. 5, &c). Foot- 
soldiers, infantry. 

They had men enough in Italic, and were able to bring an 
army into the field... of twenty thousand horse, and three hundred 
thousand /ootomen being all assembled together. North's Plu- 
tarch, Pyrrhuiy p. 430. 

The other princes put on hamesse light, 
Ajufootemen use. 

Fairfax, Tomo^ xi. 15. 

For because (Gen. xxii. 16). A redundant ei- 
pression in which the two words are e(iuivalent in meaning ; 
the combination of the two being employed to make tfie 
whole more forcible. Compare * an if/ * or ere.* 

Digitized by VjVJVJVJM 



And why rail I on thia oommodity? 

But for because he hath not woo'd me yet. 

Shakespeare, A. John, U. 4. 

Force, *5. (Deut xxxiy. 7). Physical Tigonr. 

By Jove, 111 play the hunter for thy life. 
With all mj force, pursuit, and policy. 

Shakespeare, Tr. dt Or. 17. i. 

Were I the fairest youth 
That ever made eye swerve, had force and knowledge 
More than was ever man's, I would not prize them 
Without her love. 

WvnUrs Tale, IV. 4. 

Forecast^ v. t (Dan. :d. 24, 25). To devise before- 

To forecast, IVospicere, prouidere^ procognoscere, Baret, 
Alvearie, s. v. 

Foreft*ant, «6. is the translation of three Hebrew 
words, signifying literalljr 'tooth or crag' (i Sam.xiv. S), * face^ 
(2 Sam. xi. 15), and 'head' (2 Chr. xx. 27). In describinff 
Richard's preparations for the battle of Bosworth-fiela 

In y* fore frount he placed the archers like a strOg fortified 
trSch or bulwarke. Bick, III, f. 30 a. 

The word itself is an instance of those half Saxon, half 
Norman composites which are so frequently to be found in 

Foreknow, v, t. (Rom. viii. 29). To know before- 

True it is, I confesse, that the inuention of the Ephemerides 
{\^ fore-know thereby not onely the day &; night with the eolypses 
of Sun &; Moon, but also the vexy hours) is antient. 

HoUand*s Pliny, xxv. i. 

Foreknowledge. «&. (Acts ii. 23; i Pet L 2). 
Previous knowledge. The Greek word in these two pas- 
sages is the origin of ouf prognostication^ and in acme- 
Digitized by vj«^v.j vie 


thing of this sense foreknowledge was also used. Leontiiis 
of Athens had a fiwr daughter Athenais : 

He gaye her no portion but her bringing np, oeeulto forma 
prouagio, out of some secret fore-knawUdffe of her fortune, be- 
stowing that Utile which he had, amongst his other children, 
burton, Anat. of Md, Pt. lU. Sec. a. Mem. 6. Subs. 5. 

Foreordained, pp. (i Pet L 20). Ordained before- 

That he, preohinge ihe/or-onlefieeie John, Zakaries sone, sent 
out in Yois of an aungel teUynge. Widif, Ma/rk^ Prol. L 

Forepart, <5. (Acts zxviL 41 ). The bow of a ship. 

Amidst the spoiles taken from the Brytaines, he fixed on the 
top of his pallace a crowne of gold beset with stemmes and fort- 
porta of snippes, in token he had yanquished the Brytish Ocean. 
Stow, Ann. p. 35. 

Foreprophesied occars in the heading of 2 Eonga 
zxiiL, where the simple yerb would be sufficient The ex- 
istence of the word shows that the foretelling of future 
eyents was not considered the special office of a prophet 
It is formed upon the model of the A.-S. fore-wU^ian^ to 
prophesy, fi'om tettegay a prophet^ but not necessarily a 
foreteller of future eyents. 

Foreronnerj 9h. (Heb. yi 20) is the literal transla- 
tion of the Greek vp6ipofio£, and corresponds to the A.-S. 
fore-rynely a messenger sent in adyance to announce 
another's coming. 

There's a fortrvnner come from a fifth, the prince of Mo- 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Ven. i. 2. 

In the sense merely of a 'predecessor' it occure in 
K. John, n. i, where the French king addresses Arthur: 

Arthur, that great /otierunner of thy blood, 
Bichard that robb'd the lion of his heart, 
And fought the holy wars in Palestine, 
By this brave duke came early to his grave. 

In Widif the word is 'foregoer.' 

Digitized by ^^^^QSA% 


Foreship, sh, (Acts xxviL 30). The bow of a ship. 

Foreivardy sK (i Mace. ix. 11). The yangoard of an 
army. At the battle of fiosworth-field, 

Kyng Bichard... ordered his /ortmircf in a maniejloas length. 
Hall,i?tc^. ///. f. 296. 

Forgat (Gen. xl. 23, &c.). The old form of the paat 
tense oi forget, like A.-S. forgitany f orgeat; compare G. 
vergessen, vergoufs. 

And there is no doubt but many a father goeth to the devil 
for his child's sake:, in that he neglected God's oomuiandment, 
scraped for his ehild, and forgat to relieve his poor miserable 
neighbour. Latimer, Serm, p. 41Q. 

Forgiven unto (Matt xii. 31). Forgifan in A.-S., 
like G. vergeberiy governs a dative, and the preposition is 
redundant Compare 'obey to.' 

That his in^ickedness shall be forgiven unto him, this he 
believeth not, X>atimer, Rem, p. 10. 

Former, i^.' maker' (Jer. x. 16, 11 19), thongh not 
obsolete, is seldom used. 

And as my fust is fol hand 
Y-holden togideres; 
So is the Fader a ful God, 
Formow and shappere. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 11707. 

Fomace, sb. (Dent, iv. 20). The old form of 'furnace * 
in the ed. of 161 1. Retained by our tranfdators from the 
Geneva version, in which it is the common, though not 
uniform, spelling. 

His eyen steep, and rollyng in his heed, 
That stemed as a fomeys of a leed. 

Chaucer, Cant, Tales, prol. 102. 

Forswear oneself, v. r^, (Matt v. 33). To 
forswear oneself is to commit perjury; from A.5. for- 
swerian, G. verachwdren. 

Digitized by VjOOQIE 


Bat there be a great many of ns whick consider not that, but 
rather deceive the king, or fomoear themselves^ or else rebel 
agBinst the king. Latimer, Serm. p. 513. 

^ Forswearing' is used in the sense of perjury. 

The craftsman or merchantlnan, teacheth bis prentice to lie 
and to utter his wares with lyipg and forswearing. Ibid. p. 500. 

Forth of, prep. (Gen. viii. 16; Am. yii. 17). The 
A.-S. and O. E. of was frequently used after verbs of motion, 
where we should now find out of or from. Thus in Shake- 
speare (7W^. v. i): 

I am Prospero, and that very duke 
Which was thrust forth of Milan. 

Even then that sunshine brew'd a shower for him 
That waahed his father's fortunes /ortA 0/ France. 

3 Ben. VI. n. 5. 

Beshrew thee^ cousin, which didst lead me forth 
Of that sweet way I was in to despair! 

Hich. II. nu 2. 

I have no will to wander forth of doors. 
Yet something leads me forth. 

Jul. Cobs. ni. 3. 

For to (Gen. xxxi 18 ; Ex. xvi. 27). In order to. 

They were woont to cast their seed-come vpon the floten 
grounde, and presently let in their swine after for to trample it 
with their feet into the earth whiles it was soft and drenched. 
Holland's PUny, xvni. 18. 

Forwardneflflj «&. (2 Cor. viii 8^ ix. 2). Readiness, 

Pillare of our common-wealth, whose worth, bountie, learning, 
forwardautae^ true zeale in religion, and good esteeme of all 
schoUera, ought to be consecrated to all posterity. Burton, Anat. 
of Mel. Pt. I. Sec i. Mem. 3. Subs. 15. 

Four squarei o^/. (Ex. xxvii. i^ xxxviii. i, &g.). 

Digitized l^y Google y— ^ 

214 ^^^ BIBLE 

Upon the same riuer [Thames] is placed a stone bridge, a 
worke verie rare and maraellousy which bridge hath (reekonmg 
the draw bridge) twentie arches made of fcuruquafre stone^ <^ 
height threescore foote, and of breadth thirty foote, distant one 
from another twentie foote. Stow^ Annals, p. a. 

Tovrl, »b, (Gen. i. 20, 21. 22, &c.). From ihe A.-S. 
jftigel. G. vogel, a bird generally ; though the term is now 
restncted to those which are domesticated. Thus in Bobert 
of Gloucester, Chron. p. i ; 

(HfmUes and of bestes of wylde and tame al so. 

Blisse of the briddes 

Broughte me a-slepe 

And under a lynde upon a launde 

Lened I a stounde, 

To lythe the layes 

The lovely foweUs made. 

Piers Ploughman's Via* 5031. 

Chaucer describes Spring as the time when 

Smale fowles mak^ melodie, 
That slepen al the night with open yhe. 

Prol, toC.T.g. 

And his Assembly qf Foules (323—328) included 'the 
foules of ravin,' or birds of prey, 

'And than the foules smale,... 
But water fatde sat lowest in the dale. 
And foules that liye by seed sat on the grenei 

Again, in Sackville's Induction, L 12, 

And smate/ottZes flocking, in theyr song did xewe 
The winters wrath. 

Fowler, sb, (Ps. xd. 3; Prov. vL 5). From A.-S. 
Jugelere, a bird-catcher. 

As wild geese that the creeping /m9^ eye. 

Shakespeare, Mid. N.*s Dr. m. 3. 

Frame, v.t (Judg. xii. 6). From A.-S. fremman. 
to form, nmke^ effect It is used in the sense of 'contriYe 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.J VIC 


in the passage quoted ; 'he could not frame to pronounce 
it rightiy/ In Shakespeare's 2 Hmi, VL m, i, Suffolk 
cfaaiges Uloucester that he 

Bid instigate the bedlam brain-nck duohefls 
By wickMl means to/ra«ie our sovereign's fiJL 

In this sense it is common in south Yorkshire. 

In the Suffolk dialect 'to firame^ means 'tospeak af- 

Frankly, adv, (Luke vii 42). From 'Pr, franc, which 
Grimm traces to an old a4jective from the Gothic frei$=^ 
G. /m, free. Used in the passage quoted in its literal 
sense of 'freely/ as in Shakespeare {Hen, VIIL il i): 

I do beseech your grace, for charity, 

If ever any malice m your heart 

Were hid against me, now to forgive me franUy, 

In somuche that she faithfully promysed to submyt & yelde' 
her selfe fully and frcmkdy to the kynges wyll and pleasure. 
Hall, .Bm^///.£ 940. 

Nor shar'd the faymem such fat yenison 
So frankly dealt this hundred years before. 

Greene, Friar Bacon, L x. 

He that his almes JraneMy did bequeath. 

Id. MownUng Oarmant, st. 33. 

According to those bookes of the Scriptures we yi<^ francldy 
of all other writings whether they be of the faithf uU or of the 
▼nfiuthfuU. Northbrooke^ Poor Man's Qa/rden, 1573, foL 70 r. 

O, were it but my life, 

I'ld throw it down for your deliverance 

As frankly as a pin. 

Sliakespeare, Meai,for Meaa, m. i. 

Fray, v. t. (Deut xxviii. 26 ; Jer. vii. 33 ; Zech. L 21}. 
This word, though marked obsolete in the dictionaries, is 
still common enough as a proyindalism, though sometimes 

Digitized by Vn«^JVJVlC 


pronounced >S^^. It is the root of the verb affray ^ of which 
(j^raid is the participle. Comp. Udal's Erasmus : 

Frayed with the ihreAteningeB of menne. Marh, foL 62 a. 

With this ensftmple, JeeviB frcnyed his discyples from couetoos- 
nease. lb. fol. 65 a. 

Chaucer uses affray in the same sense^ e. g. 

Nedelos, God wot^ he thought hir to affrceye. 

Clerics Tale, 8331. 

Mr Wedgwood derives it from * the imitative root /ra^, 
representing a crash, whence hut frOgor, and Fr, fracas, a 
crash of things bresJdng. a disturbance/ I^ay, to mb, or 
wear out by rubbing, is tne Fr. frayer, from Lat. fricare. 
So in Wiclif brag=hray is used of a trumpet (Josh, vi 
5, 20). 

Frenchmen, «&. (i Mace. viii. 2 m.). Gauls : retained 
from the Geneva Version. 

Fret, «. t (Lev. xiii. 55). From A.-8. fretan, G. 
fresseny to devour, eat as a beast; hence 'to corrode' like 
an ulcerous sore. Probably connected with these is A.-S. 
freo^ariy to rub, O. J^^frotCi *Fret* in the passage above 
quoted is the participle. Compare the following from 

Who saved Daniel in thorrible cave, 

That every wight, sauf he, mayster or knave, 

Was with the lioun frete, or he asterte? 

The Man of Law's Tale, 4895. 

The sowe freten the child tight in the cradel. 

The Knight's Tale, 7021. 

I sangh how that his hoondes han him canght, 
And freten him, for that they knew him naught. 

Ibid. 907a 

In a blacke banner was written Envy, 
Whose hart ever inwardly is fret, 

Hawes, Past, of Pleas, cap. 35. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


And, erth, for erth why hast thou envy t 
And the erth upon erth to be more prosperous 
Than thou thy bqMq fretting the inwardly. 

Ibid. cap. 42. 

Oenothera by it selfe, healeth those vntoward and frettmg 
Tlcers, which are the worse and more angry for the handling. 
Holland's Plinyy xxvi. 14. 

I would 'twere something that would fret the string, 
The master cord on's heart. 

Shakespeare, Hen, VII L m. 1. 

Frontlets, «6. (Bxod. nil i6; Dent vi. 8, xL 18), in 
the Hebrew, bands^ JiUets, The Jews, taking these Terses 
literally, used to write certain texts (viz. Ex^. xiii. i — 10, 
xiii. II — 16; Deut vi 4-— 9, and xi. 13 — 21) on four pieces 
of parchment, which they made into a square packet with 
an outer covering of calf-sldn, and bound about their fore- 
heads. Others were fastened on the arm. These were 
called tephiUifiy or (in Greek) phylacteries^ and are still 
worn by the Jews. The word ' frontlet ' was already in use 

in "Rn gliah , 

A Frontlet, also the part of a hedstall of a bridle, that oommeth 
over the forehead. Frontale. Baret, Alvearie, 

Frontlets are known to every good wife, rose-water and 
vinegar, with a little womans milk, and nutmegs grated upon 
a rose-cake, applied at both temples. Burton, Anat. of Mel. 
Ft. 2. Sec. 5. Mem. i. Subs. 6. 

Froward, adj. (Deut. xxxii. 20; 2 Sam. xxii. 27, &c.). 
Cross, perverse ; from A.-S. fram-toeardy the opposite of 

That no man may to-gider serve 
God and the world, but if he swerve 
Froward that one and stonde unstable. 

Gower, Conf, Am. Prol. p. 31. 

St Paul noteth this fault and saith, that they shall not be 
murmurers nor froward answerers, Latimer, 8erm, p. 550. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


A man must deal like a rough nune, and fright 
Those that anfroward to an appetite. 

B. Jonson, Alch, ii. 5. 

Frowardly, adv. (Is. lyii 17). Perversely. 

Froufordly: peraersly, onerthwaiily. Peniers^, pertinadter, 
obstinate. Baret, Alvearie, 

FrowardnesB, *ft. (Proy. ii 14, vL 14, x. 32), Per- 

The lighter sort of maHgrntie^ tnmeth but to a croaneas^ or 
frovmrdnetae, Baoon, Ess, xiii. p. 49. 

Fulfil; ff^t. (Conmramon Service). In its literal sense, 
to fill to the fuU ; A,^./ui/yUan. 

Bleaaid be thei that hungren and thirsten rigtwisneaae: for 
thtt Bchal hefulJUlid, Wiclif, Matt. v. 6 (ed. Lewis). 

The bridale was fuyUd with men sittynge at the mete. 
Matt. xxiL 10. 

And coueytide to be fuJfittid of the crummys that feDen 
doun fro the liche mannes boord. Luke zvi. ii. 

Hongaiye, nedye, wantinge grace, 
With good he hath fuffiOed. 

Cluster Plays, L 97. 

With grete gyftes to fuyUle, 
fie gaSfo his sister hym tille. 

Bir Peroevalj 99. 

On the other hand Wiclif uses 'fill' where we should 
use 'fiilfiV e.g. John xix. 

That the scripture schulde hefilid. 

Fuller, sh. (Mai. ill. 2; Mark ix. 3). From A.rS. 
/Ullere, lAtfuUoj a bleacher, or scourer of cloth. 

The spinsters, carders, fullers, weavers. 

Shakespeare, Ben, VIII. L 3. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


The A.-S. fidlian is nsed for 'baptise* in Aelfric'B 
Epistle (Ronth's Optue, n. 172, ed. 3), and the participle 
yvoUedy < baptized/ is found in Robert of Gloncestery 
p. 239: 

;if f e wolde, quap pe byssop, m ^fCMire fader dude, do^ 

And be yuoUed in holy water. 

John the 'Baptist' is caUed the ^JuUuhtere' hi the 
A.-S. Gospels. In Piers Plooghman's Vuion^ 13037, /t«^ 
/yn^^= baptism. 

Furniture, sh. (Gen. zzxL 34). Yr.foumiture from 
foumir to fiimidi. Formerly used in the general sense of 
*■ equipment," accoutrements.' 

I'ld give bay Curtal and his fumUwrtt 

My mouth no more were broken than these boys'. 

And writ as little beard. 

Shakespeare, AW9 WeUy XL 3. 
The Queen of martials 
And Mars himself conducted them ; both which, bemg foig'd of 

Must needs haye fgMea fwrnitare. 

Chapman, Horn, II. xvnL 471. 

In Moryson's Itinerary (p. 10, ed. 1617), 'fbmished' is 
used for * harnessed.' 

Oadj v.i. (Jer. ii. 36; Ecclus. zzy. 25), meaning, as it 
still does in some dialects, to roye about without any good 
purpose, gossiping, sight-seeing, and the lika 

In Boetia they bume the axletree of a cart before the doore 
of the bryde after she is married, signif^g that she ought not 
to gctdde abroade. AntUomie of Ahturdttie, sig. B. 

How now, my headstrong t Where haye you been gadding f 
Shakespeare, Rom. and Jul, iv. i« 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.J VIC 


Enuy is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets, and doth 
not keepe home. Baoon, Es9, ix. p. 30. 

It is perhaps a frequentatiye of go. 

Gadder, «&. (Ecclus. xxvi. 8). One who gads about ; 
a gossip. 

Gain a loss (Acts zzTii. 21). The Greek is here 
literally traoslated; but the English phrase conveys an 
erroneous idea, as if it meant to incur danger, whereas it 
can be proved by numerous examples to mean escape or 
avoid danger. The Geneva version renders it, ' So should 
ye haue gayned this hurt and losse/ and adds in a note, 
'that is, ye should haue saued tlie losse by auoyding the 

Gainsay, v,U (Luke xxi. 15). To speak against^ to 
contradict, resist 

'Will any body gainsay ixuQ doctrine, and sound doctrine! 
Well, let a preacher be sure that his doctrine be true, and it is 
not to be thought that any body will gainsay it.' If St Paul had 
not foreseen that there should be gainsayert, he had not need to 
have appointed the confutation of gainsaying, Latimer^ Sen^ 
p. 129. 

In Jude II Wiclif has a^enseiyng for gaintaf^ng ; and 
Pecock {Repressor y p. 130) coined the word vna^en* 
seiabUy for 'inoontrovertibly.* In 0* E. icithsay is used in 
the same sense. 

There may no man his hap withsain. 

Gower, Co^f, ^m. x. p. 313. 

Shakespeare {Ham. v. 2) uses 'gain-giving' for ^mis- 

Oainsayer, sb. (Tit i 9). An opponent See 

Gallant, adj. (Is. xxxiii. 21). Splendid, magnificent 
In this sense the word is almost obsolete. From Fr. 

Digitized by VJVJV.J VIC 


gaiant, It. and Sp. gcdante^ which are deriyed from galoy 
which in It., Sp. and Port, signifies *gay, fine ;' 0. Fr. gcUe, 

Where we, in all her trim, freshly heheld 
Our royal, good and gaUant ship. 

Shakespeare, Temp, ▼. i. 

But these recreations were interrupted by a delight of more 
gallant shew. Sidney, Arcadia, B. L p. 55. L 39. 

Gallant^ sb, (Nah. ii. 5 m. ; Zech. zi a m.). A fine 
braye fellow. 

Scarce blood enough in all their sickly yeins 
To give each naked curtle-axe a stain. 
That our French gaUaaits shall to-day draw out, 
And sheathe for lack of sport. 

Shakespeare, Hen. V, ly. 9. 

OallejTf «&. (Is. xxxiii. 21). A rowing barge with a 
low deck. The It. gaUa^ 0. Fr. galiey and Eng. gcMey are 
referrod to the Lat gaha, a helmet, as galhre to gaterus. 
In Med. Lat. g(Jsa is a galley, but it is not easy to see how 
the later meaning is deriyed from the earlier. 

Thus he was compelled to take the seas with his other com- 
panions, hauing in their nauie about a hundred and fortie galleys, 
all hauing three owers to a bancke. North's Plutarch, Al^, 
p. aio. 

In Ralegh's Dtscov. qf Guiana (p. 44) the Spanish word 
galego is used as the equivalent of galley which had long 
been in the language. 

In the mean time fearing the worst I caused all the carpenters 
we had to out down a GaUego bote, which we meant to cast off, 
and to fit her with banks to row on. 

And again (p. 53) ; 

The third day that we entred the riuer our OaUey oame 
on gruund. 

Garden-house, sh. (2 E. ix. 27). The literal ren- 
dering of the Hebrew, which is probably, the name of a 

Digitized by VnVJ^^JVli' 


place. At the time of the A. V. a 'garden house' was 
a summer house. The word is of frequent oocurrence in 
the old dramatists. 

Look yoa, Master Graenahield, because your sister is newly 
come out of the fresh air, and that to be pent up in a narrow 
lodging here i' the city may offend her health, she shall lodge at 
a gar&a-houM of mine in Moorfields. Webster, Northward Ho^ 
U. 1. 

Gamer, *&. (Ps. cxlir. 13, Joel L 17 ; Matt iii. 12 ; 
Luke iii 17). An old form of granary , like Sc. gimaly or 
gamely from Lat. granaria, a place for storing grain 
(jgranum\ Chaucer says of the Reeye, 

Wei cowde he kepe a gemer and a bynne. Prol, to C, T. 595. 

The foweles in the f eld, 
Who fynt hem mete at wynter t 
Have thei no gemer to go to. 
But Grod fynt hem alle. 

Piers Ploughman^s VU. 4751* 

Earth's increase, foison plenty. 
Bams and go/men never empty. 

Shakespeare, Temp, T7, I. 

For the transposition of the r, compare com, G. kemy 
which are both akin to granum; also grin and gim* 

Oamishi v, t (2 Chr. iii 6 ; Job xzvi 13 ; Luke 
XL 25, &c). To adorn, furnish ; Pr. gamir, 

Bycause as he sayth that there is so moohe golde nowe 
bestowed aboute the gamyashynge of the pecys of the croase, 
that there is none lefte for pore folke. Sir T. More, IHal, £. 11 a. 

Ownuth^d and deck'd in modest complement. 

Shakespeare, Hen. V. n. a. 

Oat, pret of Get (Fs. czvi 3, &c), as geat of the 

A.-S. gitan. 

The king himself scant escaped, and with great danger and 
fear gat him home. Latimer, Sirm, p. 387, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Chudngstock, ib. {Nah. liL 6 ; Heb. x. 33). This 
word, of which the meaning is obvioas, has become obso- 
lete, though we retain latighingstock, Latimer (Rem. p. 16) 
has mockingstoek. 

Hy thynketh that god hath shewed vs which are apostles, 
for the hynmost ofF all, as it were men apoynted to deeth, for we 
are a goiyng-ttocke Yiito the worlde, and to the angels, and to 
men. i Cor. y. 9, Tyndale's version. 

Gender, v.t. To be^t, produce, engender (Job xzi. 
ip, xzzyiii. 29 ; 2 Tim. ii. 23), and v, i. to copulate (Lev. 
xix. 19). From Lat. generare, to beget> engender, as tender 
from tener, throuj^h the Fr. tendre. In WidlTs earlier 
Tersion of Zech. ziii. 3 we find : 

His fader and moder that gendriden hym, shuln saye to hym, 
Thoa shalt not lyue, for thou hast spoken lesyng in name of the 
Lord; and his fadir and modtr, gefuirers of hym, shuhi to gidre 
fiocbe hym, whanne he hath prophecied. 

And the later version in Gen. iv. 18 has; 
Forsothe Enoth gendride Irad, &c. 

Oenerally, adv, (2 Sam. xvii. 11). In the sense of 
'together.' It is expressed in Hebrew by the infinitive 
of the following word, an idiom which is commonly used to 
intensify t^e meaning. Sir Philip Sidney {Areadict, B. i. 
p 44, L 33), speaking of the several passions of love, fear, 
anger, joy and sorrow, and the effects they produce, adds, 

And so all of them generaUie haae power towards some good 
by the direction of reason. 

Chapman has 'in general' in the same sense {Horn. 

From all these coasts, in generalf fully fifty sail were sent. 

GeneratioiiB, ib, (Gen. ii. 4, &c.). A Hebraism for 
history, genealogy; thus Hhe p^enerations of Noah' signi- 
fies the account of Noah and his family. 

CtetUngj 9b. (Prov. iv. 7). Gain, winnings. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


And ther he pyght bye standerd dowyn 
Hys gettyng more and lease. 

BaMU of OUerbaume, I. 74 (Percy's Rdiques). 

Ghost, «ft. From A.-S. gdst, G. geist; spirit breath, 
opposed to body. Hence ghastlyy aghasty &c. The word 
has now acquired a kind of hallowed use, and is applied to 
one Spirit only, but was once common. 

As wel in body as gooit chaste was sche. 

Chaucer, Jhctor of Physic's Tale, 13458. 

It liketh hem' to be dene in body and gost. 

Id. Wife of Bath's TaUy ProL 5679. 

Fowles in the ayer flyeinge 

And all that ghoste hath and Hkynge. 

Chester Plays, i. 23. 

But this man that I have made, 

With ghoste of life I will hym gladde. /&• 

And Surrey's Sonnets, fol. 1 1 & ; 

A thousand troubles grow 
To vexe his weried ghost 

'To give up the ghost* ^io expire, die (Qem. xxv. 8, 
17, &C.). 

This holy monk, this abbot him mene I, 

His tonge out caught, and took awey the greyn ; 

And he gc^ v/p the gost f ul sof tely. 

Chaucer, Prioress's Tale, 15083. 

W^ that be citizens of Borne, have a sacred and solemne 
manner and vse among vs, To close up their eies that lie a dying, 
and are giving vp the Ghost, Holland's Pliny, xi. 37. 

Ghostly, o^'. From A.-S. gdstlic, spiritual, in which 
sense it is used m the Pr.-Book more than once: thus, 
* our ghostly enemy' is our spiritual enemy, the devil. The 
following instances sound somewhat strange to modem 

The foure gospellers ben undurstondun bi foure fignxis of 
goosUi piyuyte. Wiclif, Prol» to Matt* (ed. Le\n8), 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


That I maye feythfully renne with perfecoyS i this deedly 
way with very obedyence and with the lyghte of holy feythe, 
with the whiche lyghte me semeth thou hase made me now lately 
ghostly drunke. Wynkyn de Worde (Ames, I. p. 159). 

And as it is necessary for to have this ploughing for the sus- 
tentation of the body, so must we have also tlie other for the 
satisfaction of the sou), or else we cannot live long ghostly. For 
as the body wasteth aud consumeth away for lack of bodily meat, 
so doth the soul pioe away for default of ghostly meat. Latimer, 
Serm, p. 66. 

Hence will I to my ghostly father*B cell. 

Shakespeare, Jiom, A JvX. n. 9. 

Gier-eagle, *&. (Ley. xi. 18; Deut xiy. 17). The 
German geier denotes a vultare, and Holland in his trans- 
lation of Pliny constantly uses geir in the same sense. On 
the authority of Umbricius the augur, Pliny (x. 6) says 

The maner of the Geires is to foresee a carnage, and to fly two 
or three daies before -vnto the place where there wil be any 
carions or dead carkasses^ 

Gin, «ft. (Lai wgenium\ snare, device, engine, is now 
found five times in the Auth. Vers. (Job xviii. 9; Ps. cxl. 5, 
cxli. 9; Is. viii. 14; Am. iii. 5), having, in at least three 
passages, taken the place of the unused Anglo-Saxon word 
grin or gym (Geneva vers., grenne) of the same meamng, 
though not etymologic^ly connected. 

They dradde none assaut. 
Of ginnCf gonne, nor skafiaut. 

Chaucer, Jtom, of the Eose, 4176. 

Grin is common in early authors. 

And Dauyd seith, be the boord of hem maad into a gryn 
bifore hem. Wiclif, Bom, xi. 9 (ed. Lewis). 

Satan neuer more eamestelypitcheth and setteth his 

snares and grinneSf then whan he perceiueth the mynde and solle 
of man with notable endeuour to encline and drawe towardes 
heauSly liuying. XJdal's Erasmus, Luke iv. fol. 37 b. 

Digitized by V^VJV^^IC 


In the old metrical version of the Psalms (Stemhold 
and Hopkins, 1599) both words are nsed, thus : 

Then trap them in the gin. 

Pi, Ixix. 13. 

With cordes in my path wayes and gins, 

Fi. cxL 5. 

Even as a bird, 

out of the foulera grin, 
Escaped away, 

right so it fareth with us. 

Pa. cxxiv. 7. 

The connexion of gin with engine is shewn in the 
following passage : 

For Grigas the geannt 
With a gyn hath en^yned 
To breke and to bete a-doun 
That ben ayeins Jhesus. 

Piers Ploughman's Via, 11582. 

And of the magic horse in the Squires Tale (10442), 
Chaucer says, 

He that it wrought, he cowthe many a gyn. 
Girded, pp. (Lev. xvi 4). Girt 

Give place (Gal. ii 5 ; Eph. iv. 27), To give way, 
yield. "^ 

A dide or twoo before the lord Stanley hauynge in hys bande 
ahnoste fyue thousande men, lodged in the same towne, but 
herynge that the Earle of Bichemonde was marshynge thether- 
ward, gaue to hym place. Hall, JRidt. Ill, foL 28 a. 

Then after they had called to God for aide, they beganne the 
battell, fought fiercelie, neither of both parts giuing place till the 
daie was farre spent. Stow, AnnaU, p. 131. 

But there is no sickenesse of the myode so grieuous, them is 
none so great a multitude of great offenses, but it geuetk jplac€ 


and departeth at the eommaundemente of Jesiuu Udara Erai- 
mus, Luke, foL 80 &. 

Glad, V. t (Ps. XXL 6 m). To gladden. 

Hence I took a thought, 
This was a judgement on me ; that ray kingdom, 
Well worthy the best heir o* the world, should not 
Be gladded In't by me. 

Shakespeare, Hen, 7III. u. 4. 

Glass, sb, (i Cor. xiii. 12 ; 2 Cor. ill. 16; Jam. i. 23). 
Lookiog-glass, mirror. 

So that I saw my chaunce as perfeotely as I sawe my awne 
image in a gUuse, Hall, Bich, JII,, fol. 10 5. 

The gloM of fashion and the mould of form. 

Shakespeare, Ham. in. i. 

Glede, «^ (Dent. xiv. 13). A.-S. glida^ a kite; still in 
local use. 

What is this, an owle or a glede f 

By my trouthe, she hathe a grete hede. 

Skelton, i. p. 359, ed. Dyce. 

The Kites or Gleeds are of the same kind of Hawkes or birds 
of prey, only they be greater. Holland's Plinyj x. 10. 

Olistering, adj (i Chr. xxix. 2 ; Luke ix. 29). From 
DiL glistererij G. glitzern, to glisten, glitter, by which in 
modem usage it has been supersedecL Thus Gower de- 
Boribes the wooden horse at Troy as placed upon wheels, 

Upon the whiche men inowe 

With craft toward the town it drowe 

And goth glutrend ayein the sonne. 

Conf, Am. i. p. 80. 

Pompoos spectacles, glistering pictures, and histrionicall 
gestures. /Sermon by Peter Smart, p. 24. 

In Shakespeare we find the common proyerb 'All is not 
gold that glitters ' in the form 

All that glisten is not gold. 

Mer. of Yen, 11. 7. 

Digitized by C^Q^C 


Glout upon, V, t. To glare upon, look eagoly at^ 
Now glocU. 

Wbosoeuer attempteth any tbing for the publike (specjallj 
if it pertaine to Religion, and to the opening and clearing of the 
word of God) the same setteth himselfe vpon a stage to be glovted 
vpon by eaery euil eye, yea, he casteth himselfe headlong ypon 
pikes, to be gored by euery sharpe tongue/' The Translaton to 
the Reader^ 

Go about; v.t. (Rom. x, 3) is a translation of the 
Greek (r)T€iv, to seek, endeavour, and in this sense is of 
frequent occurrence. Gower says of the religious hypo- 

But yet his herte in other stede. 
Among his bedes most devoute 
Goth in the worldes cause ahoute^ 
How that he might his warison 

Conf, Am. i. p. 64. 
So in Latimer : 

I go about to make my fold : you go about to break the same, 
and kill my flock. 8erm, p. 19. 

And again, 

They rise for the commonwealth, and fight against it, and go 
about to make the commons each to kill other, and to destroy the 
commonwealth. Ibid. p. 29* 

Go aside (Num. v. 12). To swerve from the path of 

Go beyond (i Thess. iv. 6). To overreach. 

While he still thought he went leyond her, because his heart 
did not commit the idolatrie. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 57, L 38. 

The king has gene beyond me ; all my glories 
In that one woman I have lost for ever. 

Shakespeare, ffen, VIII, m, ^. 

Go it up, which occurs Is, xv. 5, seems to be only 
a transpositron of the preposition and its case, of which 

i ■ . Digitized by Vn«^V.J VIC 


instances ar& sufficiently nnmerous. The original is 'go 
up in it' The following are almost identical usages : 

yeaeegof hym al a houte, he stont as an yU. Bob. Gloua 
p, I. 

The 8ee goth the vroride aboute and alle othere goth 

therto. St Brandan, iS. 

Compare also, 

Because that now it Ua yon <m to speak 
To the people. 

Shakespeare, Cor. iii. i. 

Oo to occurs (Oen. xi. 3, 4, 7; xxxviii. 16; 2 K. ▼. 5, 
&c.) as a kind of interjection, answeriug to the Lat ag4* 
dum ! and the Greek 2yc wv. 

Go ye to, good brethren and fathers, for the love of Grod, go ye 
to. Latimer, Serai, p. 51. 

Wiclif uses * lo now' and ' doith now' in his yersion of 
James iv. 13 5 7. i. 

Go to : peace. Mouldy ; you shall go. 

Shakespeare, a Een. IV. m. 7. 

Ay, fashion you may call it; go to, go to. 

Id. ffam. I. 3< 

€k>d forbid (Gen. xliy. 7, 17; Josh. xxii. 29; Rom. 
iii 4, &C.). A strong exclamation, which in the original 
Hebrew and Greek does not take the form of an appeal to 
the Deity. It is of frequent occurrence. 

Godde forbydde that anye manne shoulde for anye thynge 
eartblye enterpryse to breake the immunitee, and libertye of that 
sacred Sainctuary.' Sir T. More, Bich. III.; Works, p. 46 5. 

€k>d speed (2 John 10, 11). A salutation, signifyiug 
literally, good speed or success* In A.-S. g6d-sp4dig signi- 
fies prosperous, successful. 

God tpeed, fair Helsna 1 whither away t 

Shakespeare, Mid, N.^i 2>r« i. i. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 

Gk>ing fbrth, ab. (Ez. xliy. 5). An outlet. 

For gardens... the contents^ ought not well to be, under thirty 
iMsres of ground ; and to be divided into three parts : a greene 
in the entrance ; a heath or desart in the gi>ing forth ; and the 
maine garden in the midst Bacon, E», XLVi. p. 189. 

Goings^ 9b, (Job xxxiy. 21 ; Ps. Ixviii. 24, &€.) Moye- 

For these winding, and crooked courses, are the goings of the 
serpent ; which goeth basely upon the belly, and not upon the 
feet. Bacon, Ess. I. p. 3. 

Good, sb. (i Chr. xxix. 3). Goods, possessions; A.-S. 
gSd in the same sense. 

For who was there of you all, that would recken hym selfe 
Lorde of his own good. Sir T. More, JRich. Ill, ; Works, p. 61 A. 

We shall increase our good in doing our duties to the king. 
Latimer, Serm. p. 513. 

Good as, Ab. This somewhat homely phrase, mean- 
ing * the same as,' * no better than,' occurs Hebrews xi. 12. 
The word there translated 'as good as dead' is used in 
precisely the same sense in Bom. iv. 19 : 'He considered not 
nis own body now clecui,' 

Goodlier, adj, (i Sam. iz. 2). Comparatiye of goodly. 

My affections 
Are then most humble ; I have no ambition 
To see a goodlier man. 

Shakespeare, Temp, 1. 1. 

Gtoodliesty adfj- (i S&m* ^* i^)* Superlatiye of 

Then the kyng of England shewed hymselfe somedele for- 
warde in beautie and personage, the moste goodliest Prince that 
ever reigned oyer the Eealme of Englande. Hall, Hen. VIII. 
f. 76 a, 

Gk>odline88, sb. (Is. xl. 6). Beauty. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Goodly, adj, (Gen. xxxix. 6; i K. i. 6; Rev. xyiii. 14, 
&C.). Fair, handsome; A.S.g6dUc. 

And in sncli sort that his offering might he acceptable to 
Inpiter, and pleasant to his citizens to behold : did cat downe a 
goodiy straight growen young oke, which he lighted on by good 
fortune. North'9 Plutarch, Somulus, p. 30. 

But as he was speaking more, Kalander came, and brake off 
their discourse, with inuitmg them to the hunting of a goodly 
Btagge. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 33, 1. 10. 

And, but he's something stained 

With grief that's beauty's canker, thou mightst call him 

A goodly person. 

Shakespeare, Temp, i. a. 

Ctoodman, sK nsed (Proy. yii. 19; Matt. xx. 11, xxiy. 
43 ; Luke xii. 39) to denote the master of the house, was 
formerly in common use, especially when speaking of per- 
sons under the rank of gentry, though the glossaries call it 
a proyincialism. Goodman is probably a corruption of the 
A.-S. gumw/inn or guma, a man ; whence hr^dgumaj a 
bridegroom, G. brauti^am. Goodwife would then be a 
compound in imitation of goodman. In the MS. of the 
* Seven Sages,' the term is applied to one who 

Was a knygt of thys contr^. 
And a nobleman was he. 

The godemaru hert was fulle sore. 

Thornton Mom, Introd. XLIV. 

No howsholde or ferme in the countrey hath fewer than si. 
persones, men and womS, besydes two bondmen, whyche be all 
vnder the rule and order of the good man So the good wyfe of the 
house. Sir T. More, Utopia, p. 48. 

Ther the good-man of the howse was [killed] and ikegood-wyf 
sore hurt. Machyn*s JHary, p. 34. 

The good-man of [the] Yolsake with-owt Algatt. Ibid. p. 91. 

€k>rget, ^. (i Sam. xvii. 6 m.), A piece of de- 
fensive armour worn about the throat. From Fr. gorge. 

Digitized by VJV.JV.J VIC 

232 THE BIBL^ 

the throat, connected with Lat. gurges; just as eoUar is 
from Lat coUum, It was frequently used for a collar 
simply, as in the stage directions to Heywood's i £d. IF, 
I. 3 we find : 

Enter the Lord Mayor, Shore, and JoBselin, in thdr velyet 
coats and gorgets, and leading staves. 

And in Chapman {Horn, II. yil 12) : 

Hector*s dart struck Eioneus dead ; 
Beneath his good steel casque it pierced above his </or^«t-Btead. 

The form gorger is found in Coleridge's Glossary; 
compare It gorghiera and Sp. gorjal, and for the two 
forms gorger and gorget compare lancer and lancet 


Gogpeller. sK (Old rubrics). He who reads the 
gospel at the altar in the Communion Office. In one of 
the Thornton Romances the Evangelists are called the 
*^fo\ire gospellorus' {Sir Degr. 1441J, from A.-S. godspel- 
lercy an evangelist. Latimer says of false preachers : 

They be gospeUers no longer but tiU they get riches. Serwk, 
p. 529. 

Gk>t bim out (Gen. xxxix. 15). Escaped. 

Gotten f Job xxxL 25). The old form of the past 
participle of tne verb get. Thus in Latimer's Sermon on 
the parable of the niarriage- feast : 

For ye know it is commonly seen, that at a marriage ths 
finest meat is prepared that can be gotten, Serm, p. 457. 

Who, travelling towards York, 
With much ado at length have gotten leave 
To look upon my sometimes royal master's face. 

Shakespeare, Bich, II, v. 5. 

The word is now used onlv in the compound ill-gotten. 
The form igotte is given in Coleridge's Glossary, and Skei- 
ton uses gotted : 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


What bast thou gotied in faythe to thy share f Magnificenct, 
5188 (i. p. ^96, ed. Dyce). 

But he has besides the form gete^ which is nearer the 
A.-S. geteUi pp, of gitan : 

. To wete yf Malkyn, my lemman, haue gete oughte. Th4 
Bowgt of Cwt/rt^ 401 (j. p. 45, ed. Dyce). 

Oovemance, «&. (2 Esd. xL 32 ; i Mac. ix. 31; Col- 
lects, &c). GoYemment, directiou, or authority. 

Eteme Grod, that thorugh thy purveance 
Ledest this world by certein governance. 

Chaucer, Franklin's Tale, 11178. 

Ther wiste no man that he was in dette. 

So estately was he of govemaunce, 

With his bargayns, and with his chevysaunce. 

Prol, ^83. 

He gaf me al the bridil in myn hand 

To hftve the govemaunce of hous and land. 

Wife of Bath's Prol 6396. 

I will say nothing to thee, of the most wise gouemaunce of 
the bees, for that there are so many among you, whoo haue con- 
tained their best yeares in discribinge their life. Gello, OirceSf 
tnuis. Iden, 1557. sig. n8, verao, 

Ooremor, «6. (James iil 4). A pilot; li^^ber- 
nator, the man at the helm who governs the ship. Thus 
in Wiclif s earlier version of Acts xxvii. 1 1 ; 

SothH centurioun bileuede more to the gouemourf and to the 
lord of the schipp, than to these thingis that weren seid of Poul. 

Sayling and tossyng in a desperate shippe without good 
nuuster or youemour. Hall, Rich, III, fol. 9 a. 

Grace, sb. (Ruth il 2, 10). Favour; the literal sense 
of the word : Lat. gratia. 

But aftir wo I rede us to be merye. 
And thauke Jubiter of al his grace. 

Chaucer, MiUer'a TaU, 3071. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV li' 

234 ^WJ? BIBLE 

Yon Lave of late stood out against your brother, and he 
hath ta'en you newly into his grace, Shakespeare, Muck 
Ado, I. 3. 

Blunt not his love, 
Nor lose the good advantage of his grace 
By seeming cold or careless of his will. 

Id. 2 Hm. IV. IV. 4. 

Gracious, adj, (ProT. xi. 16; Jer. xxii. 23). In the 
passive sense of filled with grace, graceful ; now generally 
used in the active sense of imparting grace or favour. 

In voices well divulged, free, leam*d and valiant, 
And in dimension and the shape of nature 
A gracious person. 

Shakespeare, Tib. N, I. 5. 

For since the birth of Cain, the first male child. 
To him that did but yesterday suspire. 
There was not such a gracwM creature bom. 

Id. K, John, III. 3. 

So hallow'd and so gracUyas is the time. 

Id. Ham, I. i. 

In beauty, that of favour, is more then that of colour, and 
that of decent and gracious motion, more then that of favour. 
Bacon, Ess, xliii. p. 176. 

GrafT^ v,L (Rom. xi. 17—24), from Fr. greffevy is now 
usually written graft. Udal uses both forms : 

At this tyme it is inough for you to be grafted in the stocke, 
from whence through fayth ye may receiue life.... Ye be y* 
branches of this vine, wherein ye are freely graffed, Udai's 
Erasmus, John xv. fol. 89 6. 

I was som tyme a frere, 
And the coventes gardyner 
For to grajfen impes. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 2746. 

Nay, you shall see my orchard, where, in an arbour, we wiH 
eat a last year's pippin of my own graffing, Shakespeare, 1 Hem. 
J V. V. 3. 

.Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORI>-BOOK. 235 

The participle grc^ for graced occurg in Rich. Ill, 
in. 7. 

Her royal stock graft with ignoble plants. 

- The word is probably derived from A.-S. grqfan^ to 
dig, carve, grave. 

Grave, v.t, from A.-S. grafan^ G. grdbeny to diff 
(comp. Gr. ypad>a>\ occurs in Ps. viL 16 (Pr.-Bk.), in which 
sense it is still used provincially. It was once common : 
thus, in Promp. Parvtd, : 

Gravyn, or gnibbyn yn ^e erthe. Fodio. 
Gravynge, or delryoge. Fossio. 

So Chaucer : 

That benched was on tnnres fresh ygrave. 

Legend of Good Women, 704. 

And next the shrine a pit than doth she grave. 

Ibid. 678. 

In Is. xxii. 16 {*graveth an habitation in the rock'), the 
idea of cutting out or carving is predominant (comp. Ex. 
xxviii 9), 

Men mowe so longe graven in a stone, 
Til son figure theiinne emprinted be. 

Chaucer, Franklin* 9 Tale, 11 141. 

Greaves, sb,{i Sam. xvii. 6). Plates of brass, or other 
defensive covering, for the front of the legs, well known as 
X>arts of ancient armour; Wiclif has * leg-hameis/ From 
the Fr. greve, which means the shin of the leg. 

My selfe haue seene one named AthanatuR, do wonderfull 
strange matters in the open shew and face of the world, namely, 
to walke his stations vpon the stage with a cuirace of lead 
weighing 500 pound, booted besides with a pair of buskins or 
greiues about his legges that came to as much in weight. Hol- 
land's Pliny, VII. 20. 

Whether of two, and men at armes divise. 
The greaues, or guyses were the surer guard. 

Drayton, Battle of Affincourt, 285. 

In a marginal note Drayton explains ' greaves' as * Arm< 
ings for the thigh and legge.' 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

236 • THE BlBLlt 

OteciSLjSh. (Dan. viii. 21 ; x. 20; xi. ±). Greece. 
As when the Romans made a warre for the libertie of Gftaa* 
Bacon, E»9* xxix. p. 127. 

Grecians, «6. (Joel iii 6 ; Acts yL i, iz. 29, xL 20). 

One of the later schoole of the Grecians, examineth the matter, 
and is at a stand, to thinke what should be in it, that mea 
should love lies. Bacon, Ess. L p. i. 

GreeMshj adj. (2 Mac. Iv. 10). Greek. 

And such again 
As venerable Nestor, hatch'd in silver, 
Should with a bond of air, strong as the axletree 
On which heaven rides, knit all the Greekish ears 
To his experienced tongue. 

Shakespeare, Tr. dk Or, l. 3. 

Greet, v.^. (i Sam. xxy. 5; Rom. xvi. 3, &c.). A.-S. 
gritan, to go to meet, welcome, salute ; Germ, grussent 

' Louerdinges,' he sede, ' habbep nou god dai. 
And grete^ wel mi fader pe king. 

JUbert of Gloucester, p. 554. 
Go pronounce his present death. 
And with his former title greet Macbeth. 

Shakespeare, Ma6b, I. 3. 

Greeting, sb. (Matt, xxiii. 7; Acts xy. 23, &c.}. Salu- 

And you are come in very happy time 
To bear my greeting to the senators. 

Shakespeare, Jid, Cos, II. 1. 

Grief^ «&. (Is. liii. 3, 4). Used of bodily as well as of 
mental pain. The Hebrew word rendered ' grief in the 
passages quoted is elsewhere translated 'sickness* (DeaU 
YiL 15, xxYiiL 59, 61, &a) and 'disease' (2 K. 1. 2, &c). 

This hearbe Tabaco, hath pertiouler vertue to heale grief es of 
the heade. Frampton, JoyfuU Newes out of the New-found 
Worlde, fol. 35 a. 

Can honour set to a leg f no: or an arm? no : or take tMtj 
the ^We/ of a wound ? no. Shakespeare^ i Men. IV, y, i. 

Digitized by VJVJV.J VIC 


Grieve, v. t (Gen, xlix. 23). To inflict bodilj pain, to 
wound. See Gkibf, Grievous, Grievously. 

GrrievoilS, adj, (Gen. xii. 10 ; Jer. x. 19). Painful, 

Girding witli grievous siege castles and towns. 

Shakespeare, Ben. F. i. 2, 

Why then let grietouSy ghastly, gaping wounds 
Untwine the sisters three 1 

lA.^ Hen, IV.u. 4. 

Grrievouslyj adv, (Matt viii. 6, xv. 22). Severely; 

There dyed in all vpon jr" kings side sixteene C. and foure 
M. were greeuoudye wounded. Holinshed, p. ri40. 

Orin, V, i. (Ps. lix. 6, 14, Pr.-Bk.). To snarl like a 
dog: an imitative word. The l%\,grenian is to roar like 
a lion (I Pet. V. 8). 

Small curs are not regarded when they griUf 
But great men tremble when the lion roars. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen, VI, ill. r. 

It also occurs in the form gim ; 

But the gardiners litle curres that bald and barked beneath, 
had wakened the greyhound with their barking, who at the first 
began to answere them with a soft giming. North's Plutarch, 
AratiUf p. 1084. 

Grin, sd. (Job xviii. 9; Ps. cxl. 5 ; cxil 9). The old 
form of * gin ' in the od. of 161 1. See Gin. 

Grrinders, ift. A.-S. gHndere i^^, molars, or jaw- 
xteeth, so. called from the part they take in masticating the 
food. In Eccl. xii. 3, the word is a literal translation of 
the Hebrew. In Job xxix. 17, where the margin has 
'grinders,'* the word m the original means jaw-teeth, or 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



The great grinders which stand beyond the eye-teeth, in no 
creature whateoeuer doe fall out of themselues. Holland's 
Fliny, xi. 37. 

Grisled, pp. (Gen. xxxi. 10, 12; Zech. vL 3, 6), of a 
greyish colour; G. greis, gray, Fr. gris: it is now spelt 
grizzled. As a parallel instance of change of spelling com- 
pare puzzled^ which in Bacon's Essays is constantly spelt 

Growen, pp. (Gen. xxxviiL 1 1^ &c.). The old form 
of 'grown 'in the edl of 161 1. 

I commend rather, some diet, for certaioe seasons, then fre- 
quent use of physicke, except it be grotoen into a custom. Bacon, 
£t». XXX. p. T32. 

Grudge, v. L (Ps. lix. 15). To grumble, murmur, and 
like both these an imitative word. In 0. E. it occurs in the 
form grtcche, grucche, 

Som tyme cometh grueching of avarice, as Judas grucched 
agens the Maudeleyn, whan scbe anoynted the hed of oure Lord 
Jhesu Crist with Mr precious oynement. Chaucer, ParaorCi Taic 

After bakbytyng cometh gruccking or murmuracioun. Id, 

In this I might murmur and grudge against God. Latimer, 
Hem, p. 361. 

And in Shakespeare's Tempest, l 2, Ariel reminds 
Prospero that he had 

Without or grudge or grumblings. 

Ghiestchamber, sb. (Mark xlv. 14; Lukexxii 11). 
A room for the accommodation of guests. 

A guestes chamber, Hospitale cubiculnm. Baret, Alvearie, 

8. V, 

Gllilty Of (Num. xxxv. 27,31 ; Matt. xxvi. 66; Mark 
xiy. 64). This phrase in the two last passages must be 

Digitized by VJV.JVJ VIC 


distingnished from the usa^e of the same in Nam. zxxv. 
' Gtdlty q/" blood' and ^guuty of death ' in the latter w- 
nify simply guilty of murder or blood-shedding; while m 
Matthew and A£ark'^tti% (^Z" death' denotes 'deserving 
death/ like the Latin 'reus mortis' of the Yulffate, of 
which it is an imitation^ having been retained from Wiclifs 


Habergeon (Ex. xxviii. 32^ xxxix. 23; 2 Chron. 
xxvi 14; Neh. iv. 16; Job xlL 26). A little coat-of-mail 
covering the head and shoulders. The hauberk and haber- 
geon are apparently the same in derivation^ but they are 
distinct terms in old writers. 

And next his schert an aketoun. 
And over that an haberjoun, 
For persyng of his hert ; 
And over that a fyn hauberk, kc. 

Chaucer, Sire Thopae, 

Some dond a curace, some a corslet bright, 
An hatoberke some, and some a haJberion, 

Fairfax, Tauo^ L 73. 

Clothid with the hahvHoun of rightwysnesse. Wiclif, J^es . 
vi. 14 (ed. Lewis). 

And tiiei hadden habwriouni as yrun lidburumns, Apoe, ix. 9. 

^ And be ye apparelled or clothed,' saith Paul, * with the haber- 
geon or coat-armour of justice,' Latimer, Semi, p. 29. 

With the Jaoke or haberion made of the righteousnesse of all 
the vertues euaugelycalL Udal's Erasmus, Li3x, fol. 183 b. 

The word is from the Fr. haubergeon, A.-S. Tieals-b&orga^ 
* neck-covering,' 0. Germ, halsberc, 0. Fr. Judberc, havn 
bere. It. usbergo, and overgo (Diez). Gotgrave gives 

Hanbergeon: m. (The Diminutiue of Haubert;) a little coat 
of maile ; or, only sleeues, and gorget of maile. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

240 TEE BIBL^ 

Had, pp. (Acts xxY. 26). A singula!* usage of this 
participle, correspondiug to lliat of the Lat hoi>Uti8^ was 
once common. 

And after secrete meting k cSmmiicacion had. Sir T. More, 
mck. III. ; Works, p. 6^^f. 

From which I could not rise but with dishonour, 
Unless upon some composition had. 

Hey wood, i Edw, IV, 1, 4. 

Haft, sb, (Judg. iii. 22). A-.S. hwjty from hcefedy 
p. part. 01 habban to have or bold ; that by which anything 
IS held, a handle. 

But yet ne fond I nought the haft, 
Which might unto the blade accorde. 

Gower, Conf. Am. n. p. 31. 

When I am in bad estate, I flesh my selfe on euill and 

abandon my selfe through dispaire, and run to a downefall, and 

(as the saying is) cast l^e Jiaft after the hatchet. Montaigne's 

Essays, Florio's trans, iii. 9, p. 566 (ed. 1603). 

The ffaftf hilt, or handle of any toole, or weapon. Manu- 
brium. Baret, il Arcane, s, v. 

Hale, v.t (Luke xiL 58; Acts yiii. 3). From Fr. 
holer, to pull with force; now common in the form haul. 

Diseases that -violently hale men to death euerlasting. Udai's 
Erasmus, LuJcCf pref. 

Cassandra yet there sawe I how they kcUed 
From Pallas house, with spercled tresse vndone. 

Sackville, Induction, 4ol, 214 a. 

Even like a man new haled from the rack. 
So fare my limbs with long imprisonment. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen, VI, n. 5. 

The plebeians have got your fellow-tribune 
And hale him up and down. 

Id. Cor, V. 4* 

Halt, adj, lame, crippled, from A.-S. healt, i,e, held; 
.restrained, occurs Matt. xYiii. 8; Mark ix. 45; Lukexir. 21, 
John V. 3. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Halt, t?,t. (Gen. xxxiL 31 ; Ps. xxxviii. 17). To limp, 
walk lamely ; A.-S. heaitian, ^ 

Before he could determine, comes in a fourth, halting on 
foote, who complained to Basiliua. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 63, L 39. 

The king would haue giuen vnto him [Simon de Sentliz] 
Judith the widowe of Earle Waltheofus, but sbee refuged him 
because that hee halted on the one legge. Stpw, AnncUs, p. 155! 

Hand, sb. In the phrases 'on this hand and on that 
hand' (Ex. xxxviii. 1 5) ; * on either hand.* We should now 
use ' side.* Among the works of the sculptor Scopas was 

The fierie goddesse Vesta, sittiDg in a chaire, accompanied 
with two hand-maidens set vpon the ground of each hand of her. 
Holland's Pliny, xxxvi. 5. 

Handjp sb. ' To fall in hand with ' is used in the sense 
of 'to take in hand, undertake.' 

For not long after Christ, Aquila feU in hand with a new 
Translation, and after him Theodotion, and after him Symma- 
chus. The Translators to the Reader, ' 

Similarly, *to be in hand with' = to have in hand, or to 
take in hand, to deal with. 

Like as therefore, Thales the wise, being importuned by his 
mother (who pressed hard upon him) to roarrie ; pretily put her 
off, shifting and avoiding her cunningly, with words : for at the 
first time, when she was in hand with him, he said unto her : 
Mother, it is too soone, and it is not yet time : afterwards, when 
he had passed the flower of his age, and that she set upon him 
the second time, and was very instant : Alas mother, it is now 
too late, and the time is past. Holland's Plutarch^ p. 691. 

But because we a/re not in hand with true measure, but with 
popular estimation & conceit^ it is not amisse to speak some- 
what of the two former. Bacon, Adv, of L* i. 3. § i. 

Hand, in the phrase 'at your hand' (Is. i. 12), is 
apparently a Hebraism. It is found however in old EngUc^ 
writers. Alexander provided for the family of Darius, 

Digitized by Vn«^V^^|g. 


That they should |[aue ai his handes all that thej had of 
Darius before, whMi he had his whole kiugdome in his handes. 

North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 728. 

Hand, at no. By no means. 

Axkd in what sort did these assemble) In the trust of their 
owne knowledge, or of their sharpenesse of wit, or deepenesse 
ei iudgement, as it were in an anne of flesh? At no hand. 
The TrcmslcUora to the Reader^ 

Handbreadth, «&. (Ex. xxy. 25 ; Ps. xxxix. 5). A 
measure of length now rarely used : a palm ; A.-S. hand- 
JyrcBd. [See Cubit.] Horses are still measured by hands; 
compare Ez. xl. 43. 

Others have thought, that it [the grape of Amomum] oommeth 
from a shrubbe like Myrtle, & carieth not aboue a hand-bredth, 
or 4 inches in height. Holland*s Pliny, xiL 13. 

Handle, v, t, (Prov. xvi. 20 ; 2 Cor. iv. 2). To treat ; 
A.-S. handlian : like Lat. tractare, which has the same 
metaphorical sense. 

Tour now handling of me giues me reason to confirme my 
former dealing. Sidney, Arcadia^ p. 45. 1. 46. 

I did in the beginning separate diuine testimonie, from 
humane ; which methode, I haue pursued, and so handled them 
both apart. Bacon, Adv, of Learning, T. 8. § 6, 

Handmaid (Gen. xvi. t, &c) or Handmaiden 

(Luke i. 48), sb, A female servant 

With that she broke the silence once againe, 

And gaue the knight great thanks in little speach, 

She said she would his handmaid poore remaine, 
So far as honours lawes receiu'd no breach. 

Fairfax, Tasao, rv. 85. 

Pliny enumerates among the works of the sculptor 
Scopas a statue 

Of the fierie goddesse Vesta, sitting in a chaire, accompanied 
with two hand-maidenB set vpon the ground of each hand of her. 
XXXVI. 5. Holland's Trans. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


HandstaTeSy 9b. (Ez. xxxiz. 9). Weaponi (^ gome 
kind. The margin gives Mavelins/ but the word itself is 
a literal rendering of the Hebrew, 

Handweapon, sb. (Num. xxxy. 18). A literal ren- 
dering of the Hebrew. 

Handywork, 9b, (Fs. xix. i). Workmanship; A.-S. 

In the chappell of luno, (here is the goddesse her selfe curiona- 
ly made in marble, the handy worke of Dionysios and Polycles. 
Holland's Pliny, xxxvi. 5. 

Hap, «&. Like the Icelandic happ and Welsh hap, 
in the sense of ' chance, fortune/ occurs Ruth ii. 3. It is 
now seldom used except in composition, as in mishap^ 
perhap9y haply, haple99f &c. It was once common. 

For evermor we moste stond in drede 
Of hap and fortun in our chapmanhede. 

Chaucer, Shipman's Tale, 14649. 

Blissed is that man wbicbe shall baue the happe to eate breade 
in the kyngdome of God. Udal*8 Erasmus, ZuJce, fol. 116 b. 

It was Theseus happe to light ypon her, who caried her to 
the citie of Aphidnes, because she was yet too young to be 
maried. North's Plutarch, Thee, p. 17. 

Each day still better other's happiness; 
Until the heavens, envying earth's good Aop, 
Add an immortal title to your crown ! 

Shakespeare, JRich, II. i. t. 

By Him that raised me to this careful height 
From that contented hap which I enjoyed. 

Id. JRkh, III. I. 3. 

Haply, adv, (i Sam. xiy. 30 ; Mark xi. 13). Perchance, 
perhaps ; derived from the preceding. 

Lest Tiaply by occasion of that commendation those duties 
should come to be neglected, which are to be performed on peril 
of damnation. Latimer, Rem. p. 354. 

Digitized by VjOCY^"— 2 

244 Tff^ BIBLE 

Hard, adv, (Ps. Ixiii. 8 ; Acts xviii 7). Close, near. 

For it is as a tongue or a great barre of earth, broad enough, 
that separateth a great lake on the one side, and the sea on the 
other, Uie which doeth ioyne hard to a great hauen. North's 
Plutarch, Alexander, p. 731. 

Indeed, my lord,, it follow'd hard upon. 

Shakespeare, Ham, L a. 

It still remains in use in the phrase hard hy : 

This thing did the centurion well apperceiue and marke, wha 
purposely stood hard by the crosse. tTdal's Erasmus, Luke, fol. 
173 «• 

The idea is from hard substances being usually com- 
pact, close in texture. In its still common meaning of 
* austere, strict in money matters* (compare near, close), it 
occurs Matt. xxv. 24. 

Hardly, adv. (Matt. xix. 23). With diflSculty ; which 
is its literal meaning. 

So hardly he the flitted life does win 
Vnto her natiue prison to retoume. 

Spenser, -F. Q. I, 7. ;§ 21. 

Hardness, «&. (2 Tim. ii. 3). Hardship. 

The cause of my desier to have them ys, for that they be hard, 
and wyll abyde more pains than our men, tyll they have byn 
well trayned with hardnes as they have byn. Leycester Corre- 
spondence, p. 26. 

It was a pittifull thing that Perseus was driuen to do and 
suffer at that time. For he came downe in the night by ropes, 
out of a litle straight window vpon the wals, and not only him 
selfe, but his wife and litle babes, who neuer knew before what 
flying and hardnes ment. North's Plutarch, Paulus ^milius, 
p. VS- 

The men are very strong, of able bodyes, and full of agility, 
accustoming themselves to endure hardnes, Strachey, Bist. of 
Trav, into Virginia, p. 68. Hakluyt Soc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


It is also found in Skelton (Vol. i. p. 146, ed. Dyce) : 

Now, Jesu, for thy greftt goodnes. 
That for man suffred great hardnei, 
Saue V8 fro the deuyla cruellies, 
And to blys vs send. 

Harness, sb. formerly signified accoutrements in 
general, whether for man or horse, like the Fr. hamois. 
G. harnitch, It. arnese. The etymology of the word is 
doubtful. Diez refers it to the Welsh ?Caiam, iron, whence 
haiamaez, instruments of iron, from which through the 
Eng. harness the word was adopted into the Romance 
languages. In the Promptorium Parvtdorum four mean- 
ings are given : raiment, weapons, utensils for household 
use, and horse-trappings. 

Have heere my trouthe, to morwe I nyl not fayle, 
Withouten wityng of eny other wight. 
That heer I wol be founden as a knight. 
And bryngen Jiameya right inough for the. 

Chaucer Knigkt't Tale, 161 5. 

And therwith a doore clapped, and in came mshyng men in 
kameye8 as manye as the chamber could hold. Hall, £dw, V, 
fol. 14 b. 

He was able, and did find the king a harness, with himself and 
his horse, while he came to the place that be should receive the 
king's wages. I can remember that I buckled his ha/nust when 
he went unto Blackheath field. Latimer, Serm, p. loi. 

The word occurs in the sense of armour i E. xx. 11, 
xxiL 34 ; 2 Ohron. xviii 33, ix. 24; Ps. Ixxviii. 9 (Fr.-Bk.). 

Harnessed. j?p, (Ex. xiiL 18). Armed; the mar- 
ginal reading is 'five in a rank,' from a doubt as to which 
of two similar roots the Hebrew word belonged. The 
meaning in the text is still preferred; the same Hebrew 
word being translated armed m Josh. i. 149 i^* 12 ; Judges 
vii II, with the same mar^al reading in two cases. 
In J Mace. iv. 7 harnessed is applied to a camp, the 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


Greek being r^BfupaKuriuvriVy 'provided with a hreast-work ' 

And at their commyog liYin selfe with the duke of Backyng- 
ham stode, hameswd in olde euil fauoured brigandera. Hall, 
Edw. V. fol. 15 6. 

* Haip, V. L (i Cor. xiv. 7 ; Rev. xiv. 2). To play upon 
the harp ; used now only in a metaphorical sense ; A.-S. 

Robert of Gloucester (p. 272), describing Anlaf s visit 
to the camp of Athelstane, says : 

Menestral he was gode ynou, & harpare in eche poynte 

To A))el8ton panylon myd ys harpe he wende, 

And so wel wy|70ute harped^ ))at me after hym sonde* 

Manye hundred of aungeles, 
Harjpedm and songen. 

Piers Ploughman's Fm. 12903. 

Hart, sb, (Deut. xii. 15, Ps. xlii. i). The stag, or male 
deer ; hind bemg the female : Du. hart, A.-S. h^irL 

And the hjart swam over, and as Sir Gawaine would have 
followed after, there stood a knight on the other side and said 
' ^ knight, come not over after the hart, but if thou wilt just 
with me.* King ArthWf c. 50, Vol. I. p. loa 

HastCi v. i. (Gen. xviiL 7). To hasten. Obsolete in 

She ran, and hcuted after him that fled. 
Through frost and snow, through brier, bush, and thome. 

Fairfax, Tom, xvi. 39. 

Hatte, V. t (Ex. V. 13). *T To hasten, hurry. 

Good my brother Troilus, 
Tell you the lady what she is to do. 
And hcute her to the purpbse. 

ShakespearQ, Tr, and Cr, iv. 3. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Haunts «. U (Ez. zzvi. 17). To frequent^ use fre- 

While ye love lordes 
That lecherie hautUen, 
And lakketh noght ladies 
That loven wel the lame. 

Pien Ploughman's Vis, 1469. 

The Doke & his armye the zxr. day of the sayd moneth 
remoued to a ullage called Lyhome, & had there great pillage : 
for this toune was mnche haunted of marchauntes and there kept 
great markettes. Hall, Hen, VIII. f. 119 a. 

He, redundant (Josh. xxii. 22). 

Christ our Saviour he sheweth us how we shall make ready 
ourseLves, Latimer, JRem, p. 60. 

The Dauphin is preparing hitherward, 

Where heaven lie knows how we shall answer him. 

Shakespeare, K, John, Y. 7. 

Headband, tb. (Is. iii. 20). A band or fillet worn 
on the head. 

A riband : lace, or headba$id, Tseniola. 
\ Baret, Alvearity s. V. 

Headstone, tb, (Zecb. iy. 7). The chief or topmost 
stone of a building. 

Head-Ure, «&. (i Esd. iii 6). A head-dress. See 

Heady, adj, (2 Trnu iii. 4). Headstrong, restive ; 
used of horses. 

Quicke wittes also be, in most part of all their doinges, over- 
[uicke, hastie, rashe, headU, and brainsicke. Ascbami Th4 
lemmter, p. 13 (ed. Mayor). 

Headie, vnbridled, or vnrulie. Eflfrsenus. 

Baret, Alvearie, a, v. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Headier is used in Shakespeare, Lear, n. 4. 

Ill forbear ; 
And am falFn out with my more headier will. 
To take the indisposed and sickly fit 
For the sound man. 

Healthy sb. (Ps. Ixvii. 2). A.-S. hoBl^, connected with, 
G. Heil, Eng. heal, Jiail, hale, whole, and 0. E. heil or hele. 
In this passage quoted, * saving health * is the rendering of 
the Hehrew word which is more frequently translated 
'ssJvation.' So in Eph. yi. 17 *the helmet of salvation' 
was in our older version 'the helmet of health,' as in 
Latimer {Serm. p. 3 ^ ) • 

' Take also the helmet or headpiece of hedtth,* or true Kealtk in 
Jesus Christ ; for there is no healtk in any other name: not the 
hectic of a grey friar's coat^ or the health of this pardon or that 

And in Gower {Conf, Am, Prol. i p. 39) : 

So may he winne worldes welthe 
And afterwarde his soule heUhe, 

The A.-S. hwlend, 'healer/ is used to denote 'the 

Heat, pp. (Dan. iii. 19). The old form of 'heated' 
in the ed. of 161 1. 

The iron of itself, though Tieat red-hot, 
Approaching near these eyes, would drink my tears. 

Shakespeare, K, John, IV. i. 

HeaTiness, sb. (Ezr. ix. 5 ; i Pet. i. 6). Sadness : 
from the following : 

Who feleth double sorwe and hevj/nette 
But Palamon? 

Chaucer, Knighfa Tale, 1456. 

Clar, I am here, brother, full of heawneu. 

Siiakespeare, 2 Hen. IV, TV, 5, 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


You promised, when you parted with the king, 
To lay aside life-harming heaviness. 
And entertain a cheerful disposition. 

Id. Rich. IL n. 2. 

Heayy, adj, (i K. xiv. 6, xx. 43, &c.). Sad, pensfve. 
A.-8. hefig, connected with hedf, and hiof^ mouining. 

Whan the king awoke, hee was passing heavy and right pen- 
sive of his dreame. King Arthur, c. 17, vol. i. p. 43. 

Hell, sb. (Pa xlix. 14, Pr.-Bk). Rarely used with 
the definite article. Coverdale's version of Frov. L 12. is : 

Let us swalowe thS vp like y® heU^ let us deuoure the quycke 
and whole, as those that go downe into the pytt. 

Helps, sh. (i Cor. xiL 28). The plural is used in the 
same way by Bacon {Ess. xL p. 41) ; 

Embrace, and invite hdps, and advices, touching the execution 
of thy place ; and doe not drive away such, as bring thee informa- 
tion, as medlers ; but accept of them in good part. 

HelTe, sh, (Deut. xix. s\ A.-S. Jielf, the handle, 
or wooden part of an axe. The Heb. is simplv 'wood.* 
'To tiirow the Jielve after the hatchet,' is a proverb used of 
those who give up a thing in despair, or who, having gone 
into one extravagance, recklessly rush into another. 

When I am lean, I feed upon mischief; I abandon my self 
through despair; let my self go towards the Precipice, and, as 
the saying is, Throw the Helve after the Hatchet, Montaigne, 
Ess, B. m. c. 9. Cotton s trans, p. 272, ed. 1685. 

The word itself is still in use in some parts of England. 

Her, »row. (Gen. xxxviii. 14). Used for the reflexive 
pnmoun' herself' 

Herdman, ^. (Gen. xiii. 7, i Sam. xxL 7). A herds- 
ID, o| which word it is the older form. (Compare bond- 
man and bondsman) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The people beyng now amased and comfortles, as Bbepe with- 
out a shepeberd, or beastea without an herdman, HalL iTen. 1 V, 
fol. 15 J. 

Hewen, pp. (Ex. xx. 25). The old form 0f ^hewn' in 
the ed. of 161 1. 

And kynge Eicharde iimi adfe -wn slaine in felde hacked 
and iaam idJkam maaoBB. Hall, Rich, III,, fol. 4 a. 

, High, <w^. (Proy. xxi. 4). Haughty. 

How far brought you high Hereford on hia way? 

Shakespeare^ Bich, II, I. 4. 

But, with a proud majestical high scorn, 

He answer'd thus: * Young Talbot was not bom 

To be the pillage of a giglot wench.' 

Id. I Hm, VI. IV. 7. 

High day, (Gen. xxix. 7). Broad daylight. Shake- 
speare uses 'great' in the same way. 

It is great morning, and thia hour prefixed 
Of her delivery to this valiant Greek 
Comes fast upon. 

Shakespeare, TV. and, Cr. TV. 3. 

It is great morning. Gome, away ! 

Cfym, IV. «. 

Hi^hmindedi adj. (Rom. xi. 20; i Tim. vi 17; 
2 Tim. lii. 4). This word appears to have been introduced 
into the language by means of the translations of the Bible; 
*to be high-minded* being the literal rendering of the 
Greek v^\o<l>povtiv which occurs in the first two passages 

From all these spirites is the holy ghoste separated and 
disseuered, whiche maketh men for proude and high-mynddd, 
meke and mylde. Erasmus on the Gr^ed, Eng. tr. fol. 95 a. 

The magistrates were wicked, lofty, and highnUnded, Jjftti- 
mer, Serm, p. 356* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


We have a common saying among«t us, when we see a fellow 
sturdy, lofty, and proud, men say, *Thi8 is a saucy fellow'; sig- 
nifying him to be a high-ndnded fellow, which taketh more upon 
>iim than he ought to do, or his estate requireth. Ihid, p. 464. 

Hind, 9b. (Gen. xGx. 21 ; Pa. xyiii. 33). The female 
deer ; A.-S. Hynd, G. Hinde, 

As when a chased hinde her course dotli \mi 
To seek by soile to finde some ease or good. 

Fairfax, Tauo, Ti. 109. 

Hindermoft, adj, (Gen. zxxilL 2, Jer. 1. 12). Hind- 
most. Compare, for the form of the word, innermosty 
nethermost, uppermost, in whidi the saperlative termina- 
tion is gn^ted upon the comparatiye form. Chaucer ubob 
hynderest in the same sense \Prol to C7. T, 624). 

In the hindermott, or furthermost part of the house. TJlti* 
mis in sedibus est conclave inttis. &c. Baret, Alvearief s. T. 

Hire. sh. (Gen. xxx. 18 ; Mic. i. 7). A.-S. Ayr, wages, 
pay. Latimer {Serm. p. 62) says of good prelates : 

Great is their business, and therefore great should be their 

In the earlier of Widif 's versions Rodl tL 22 is ren- 
dered : 

lYeuli the hfpris of synne, deeth. 

Hiflj where we should now use its, occurs frequently 
in the Bible; indeed, the latter usage does not occur at aU 
in the A. Y. of 161 1, and very sparingly in old writers 
generally. Examples are almost unnecessary, but the fol- 
lowing may be taken: 

For this cause the Turkes banish learning from amongst 
them, because it is euerie day setting men together by the eares, 
mouing strange contentions and alterations, and making his pro- 
fessors faint-hearted and effeminate. Nashe, Terrors of the 
Night, foL ij. rev. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


His brandish'd sword did blind men with hu beams. 

Shakespeare, i Hm, VI, I. i. 

Learning hath his infancy, when it is but beginning, and 
ahnost childish: then his youth, when it is luxuriant and 
iuveuile : then his strength, when it is solide and reduced : and 
lastly, his old age, when it waxeth dry and exhaust. Bacon, 
Ess, LViii. p. 238. 

So Caxton's Myrrour cf the Worlde treats, amongst 
other thiligs, of: 

Europe and his contrees ; of Affricque and his regyons and 

In Maft. vL 33, ^his righteousness,' and i Cor. xv. 38, 

* every seed his own body/ the antiquated usage causes 
ambiguity, there being nothing in the English to prevent 
our taking his to refer to God in each case, whereas in one 
case it refers to 'kingdom of God/ and in the other to 
' seed.' 

His, as the sign of the possessive case, occurs in the 

* Prayer for all sorts and conditions of men;' also Deut. 
X. 6; Judith xiii. 9; i Esdras iii. 8, and probably in otlier 

The form (*8) is merely a contraction of the old Saxon 
genitive termination -e^. 

For that same Brute, whom much he did adnaunce 
In all his speach, was Syluius his son. 

Spenser, F. Q. m. 9. § 48. 

Mars his true moving, even as in the heavens 
So in the earth, to tins day is not known. 

Shakespeare, i ffen. VI, I. 2, 

And left us to the rage of France his sword. 

Id. I ffen, VI, IV. 6. 

Once in a sea-fight 'gainst the count his galleys 
I did some service. 

Id. Twelfth Night, in. 3. 

Digitized by Vj«^VJV IC 


you, my lord! By Mars Ids gauntlet, thanks. 

Id. Tr. and Or, iv. 5. 

Bat by the forge that stithied Mars hU helm, 
111 kill thee everywhere. 

Ibid. IV. 5. 
In characters as red as Mars hU heart 
Inflamed with Yenus. 

Ihid, V. 3. 
Edward the Second of England, hU queen, had the principall 
hand, in the deposing and murther of her husband. Bacon, 
E$9. XXIX. p. 78. 

In Ruth iii. c. we find ' By Naomi her instrnction Ruth 
lielli at Boaz his feete.' 

Hifherto, used as an adverb of place (Job. xxxviii. 1 1). 
Up to this point. 

England, from Trent and Severn hitherto, 
By south and east is to ray part assigned. 

Shakespeare, i Hen. IV, ill. 1 . 

Ho ! (Is. ly. I, &c.). An exclamation used for the 
purpose of calling attention. 

What, are you up here, hoi speak. 

Shakespeare, Tr. and Or. v. 2. 
Soi bid my trumpet sound. 

Ibid, V. 3. 

Stand, lio I yet are we masters of the field. 

Ihid. V. 10. 

'BLoBTj ac(}. (i K. ii. 6; Is. xlyi. 4). Hoary, white; 
A.-a hdr. 

And thanne mette I with a man, 
A myd-lenten Sonday, 
As hoor as an hawethom, 
And Abraham he highte. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, 11154. 

£|e shftU dye and thy seruautes shall brynge his here heares 
witb sorowe to his graue. Erasmus on the Creed, Eng. tr. fol. 
81 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The leaves [of Mouse-ear] be small and little, and white 
h4)art next to the ground, and hairy also. Lyte's JlerhcU, p. 95. 

Hoisei vJ. (Acts xxviL 40). To hoist; from Fr. 

Finally, that beyng hoigheed yp vp5 the crosse, he should 
bee pute to death. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, fol. 175 a. 

He, mistrusting them, 
Homd sail and made away for !l^ttany. 

Shakespeare, BicK. Ill, iv. 4. 

We^ll quickly Tioise Duke Humphry from his seat. 

Id. 1 ffen. VI. I.I. 

The fonn 'hoist' was in use at the same time. 

For this is that same house, y* prouoker, with whome God 
dooeth by his Prophetes so often tymes chyde and bralle, h 
which so ferrefoorth fel from theyr Grod, that his onely soCne 
they hoihsted vp and nayled on the crosse. Udal's Erasmus, 
Zuke, fol. 181 &. 

ffoist me this fellowe on thy backe Bromo, and carrie him in. 
Baret, Alvearie, a. v. 

Hold^ V, t In the phrases ' Tiold guiltless' (Ex. xx. 7), 
\fiold innocent^' (Job ix. 28), and as used in Matt xxi. 26 
is like G. halten. 

But if by chance in some places they range a litle to boldly 
out of the boundes or limites of tnie apparance, and haue no 
manner of conformity with any crediblenes of matter: the 
readers in curtesie must needes hold me excused. North's Plu- 
tarch, Thes. p. 2, 

Holdj sb. (Judg. ix. 46, 49; i Sam. xxii. 4, &c.). A 
fortress. The origin of the word is analogous with that of 
the more usual ke^, but it is now only found in the com- 
pound Bironghold. In the 4th Article of the treaty be- 
tween England and Scotland in the reign of Riduun tkb 
Third, it is provided : 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


That all oilier castelles, hMet and fortrenses, shall peaceably 
lemain in the hSds of the possessor. Hall, Rich, III, foL 19 a. 

In aorae editions of Chaucer the word appears in the 
form holte in one passage {Man ofLaw'g Tale, 4927). 

lil atte last 
Under an Kolte, that nempnen I ne ean, 
Fer in Northumberland, the wawe hir cast. 

He threats to bume Arontes forteresse, 
And murder him ynlesse he yeeld the KM, 

Fairfax, Ttmo, iv. 59. 

Hold batUe (i Maccl ▼!. 52). To engage. 

Holden (Luke xxiy. 16). The old form of the past 
participle ended in -en (A.-S. healden)\ one of the many 
inflectionB that are £Eust disappearing. 

Ne han martired Peter ne Poul, 
Ne in prison holden. 

Piers Ploughman's VU, 10145. 

I summon your grace to his majesty's parliament, 
Holden at Bury the first of this next month. 

Shakespeare, a Hen, YI, n. 4. 

Hold tO| meaning 'ding' or 'cleaye to/ occurs Matt. 
YL 24, Luke xyI. 13. 

Men are accustomed, after themselyes and their owne faction 
to incline to them which are softest, and are least in their way 
in despite and derogation of them that hold them hardest to it. 
Bacon, Colours of Good and Evil, i. p. 248. 

The similar phrase hold with occurs Acts xiy. 4; 
Dan. X. 21. 

For it is a desperate case, if those, that hold with the pro- 
ceeding of the state, be full of discord and faction. Bacon, 
Ess. xy. p. 62. 

Holpen, pp, (Ps. Ixxxiii. 8; Dan. xi. 34, &c.). 
Helped. The old form of the past participle of the verb 
hdp; K,-^, helpan, pp, kolpen. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


If there be no third place, prayer for the dead is in vain ; for 
those that be in heaven need it not ; those that he in hell cannot 
be holpen by it. Grindal, Mem. p. 25. 

Ye have no need to be holpen with any part of my labonr in 
this thing. Latimer, Serm. p. 54. 

The fonn ' holp ' is also common. 

Heo hath ?iolpe a thousand out 
Of the develes punfolde. 

Piers Ploughman's Vit. 3756. 

By foul play, as thou say'st, were we heaved thence. 
But blessedly holp hither. 

Shakespeare, Temp, i. 3. 

Homebom, adj. (Ex. xii. 49, Jer. ii. 14). In the 
fonner passage it signifies ^ native ' as opposed to 'foreign' ; 
in the latter it is used of a slave born in the house, and 
corresponds to the vernactUtis of the Yulgate. 

Honest, adj. occurs frequently, in its original sense 
of * honourable, comely,' (Lat. honestus). This is more 
strongly brought out by Wiclif : 

And tho membris that ben unhonest han more honesUe. for 
oure honeste membris han nede of noon, i Cor. xii. 23 (ed. 

And euery hoTieste officer of the kynge was richely appareled, 
and had chaynes of golde. Hall, Hen, VIII. fol. 75 b. 

The Greek word in almost every passage is KokoSftL 
word which is applied to moral as well as to physical 
beauty, and to whatever is elevated in virtue. 

HonestYi sb. (i Tim. ii. 2). Becoming deportment. 
Shakespeare uses it, when applied to a man, in the sense of 
' honour ' ; and, when applied to a woman, in the sense of 
'chastity, virtue.' 

He is of a noble strain, of approved valour and confirmed 
honesty. Much Ado, 11, i. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Bcnuty coupled to beauty is to have honey a sanoe to sugar. 
4f yotf like it, in, 3. 

Horselitter, tb, (2 Mace. ix. 8). 

lliat whereon one is borne, a honelitter, a waggOD« Gesta- 
toriQm...0op€cbf'. Baret, Alvecme, s. v. LitUr, 

Themperonr leadeath home the newe Cardinal! from the 
chuidie, and sendeth him preeentes, that is to saye a Princelyke 
hyndUter^ wythe horses, and many ryche and costly hangynges. 
Sleidan^s Ccmmentariei, trans. Daus, fol. a h (ed. 1560). 

The Greek and Latin equivalents given by Baret are 
those winch occur respectively in the lxz, and Yulgate of 
2 Maccabees. 

Hoseilj 9b, (Dan. iii. 21). The old plural of liote 
(A.-S. hose) which formerly denoted not stockings only 
but breeches or any covering for the l^gs. Thus in 
Massinger's Great Jjitke qf Florencey iii. t, Galandrino is 
luade to say, 

I have all that^s requisite 
To the making up of a signior; my spruce ruff. 
My hooded cloak, long stocking, and paned hose. 

And Shakespeare i ffen, IF. n. 4; 

Fal, Their points being broken— 
Poiru. Down fell their Aoce. 

In Chaucer's description of the Wife of Batii we read : 

Hire hotm were of fyn scarlett reed. 

Ccmterbwry Tales, prol. 458. 

Another form of the plural occurs in Wiclif (Acts xii. 8, 
ed. Lewis) : 

And the aungel seide to him girde thee & do on thin Kotis, 
and he dide so. 

Where the Latin has caligas and A. V. sandals, 
ton (i. p. 43) uses Jwse in the singular ; 

This hose was garded with a liste of grene. 

258 ^^^£ BIBLIB 

Hough, «. t (Josh. xi. 6, 9; 2 Sam.idii 4). To cut the 
hamstrings or back sinews ( A.-S. hoh) of cattle-so as to dis- 
able them. In the hiter yersion of Wiclif the first quoted 
passage is given, 

^Fhott^Bdhalt ^acs'the honds of htfin. 

While in the earlier yendon it is : 

Th« h6rs of hem ^cm sfaalt hu of^^tjfnmk mt'ike Xmai. 

* Hex' is the form found in Shakespeare : 

To bide upon % thou art not honest, or 

If thou indinest that way, thou art a coward, 

Whiiih haxes honesty behind, restraining 

From counie required. Wini. Taie, I. 4. 

The Sootch hoeh is used in the same way. 

HoWjadv, in the phrase 'haw think ye' (Mattxyiii. 12), 
like the Greek ircar boKtls ; 

Who is the bonestest man in the city? or how thinkest thou 
by that such a one did t North's Plutarch, Lycurgus, p. 57. 

Howbeit, adv. (Judg. iy. 17; Is. x. 7). Notwith- 
standing, neyertheless. 

Howibtit they brake and ouerthrew the left wing wbere Oassius 
was, by reason of tbe great disorder among tiiem, and also 
because they had no intelligence how the right wing had sped. 
North's Plutarch, Brutus, p. 107a. 

Huge, adj. (2 Chron. xyL &). Large, implied to a 

Afterward they consulted together howe to gene battaile to 
kyng Bicharde yf he woulde abide, whom, they linewe not to be 
farre of with an houge army. Hall, Bich. III. fol. ay h. 

HumblenesSi »&. (CoL iii. 12). Humility. 

And in lijk manere also Joon, the apostle, for humJbUneue, in 
his epistle, for the same skile sette not his name tofore. Wiclif, 
Prol. to Helyr, (later Torsion. The earlier version has mUkeMne), I 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Shall I bend low and in a boiidman*8 kej, 
With bated breath and whisperiiig h%mkUnutf 
Bay this. 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Ven, t> 3. 
An instance of the naturalization of a foreign word by 
the addition of a Saxon termination. 

Hundreth, adj, (Juds. zviiL 17). The old form of 
'hundred' in the A.V. of 161 1. 

There were also within a few hund/reth yeeres after Christ, 
translationg many into the Latine tongue. The Trantlatort to 
the Header . 

There were not slaine aboue fine thousand men : but yet there 
were three hvndretk shippes taken as Octauius Oiesar writeth 
himself e in his commentaries. North's Plutarch, Ant. p. 1000. 

This monument fiue hundreth yeares hath stood. 

Shakespeare, Tit, And. i. i (ed. 1600). 

Hungerbitten, adj. (Job xyiiL 12). Famished; A.-S. 

But it is so poore. 
So weake, so htmger-bitten, evermore 
Kept from his foode, meager for want of meate. 

Marston, Scourge of VUlcmie, xi. 214. 

Richardson quotes from Sir J. Cheke's Hurt qf Sedi- 
tion (Sig. G. \j. a, ed. 1569) : 

And where the riche wauteth, what can the pore finde, who 
in a common scarsitie, lyueth most scarsely, and feeleth quickliest 
thesharpenesse of staruing, when euerye man for lack is hunger- 

Hunger^tarven was once common, and formed the 
intermediate stage through which the word 'starve' passed, 
before it came to have its present limited meaning. 

Ye may no easelier kyll a poore shepe then destroye them 
beyug abedy sicke & huingerttaruen. Hall, Hen, V. fol. 16 a. 

Husbandman, sb. (Gen. ix. 20, &c.) A fanner. 
'Husband' (A.-S. husbonda) was also used in the same 

Digitized by VjQQ^lC- 


And that the thyng should so bee, Chryst hymself had 

signyfied tofore by the parable of the housebandmen or fermers. 

Udars Erasmus, Zuhe, fol. 1886. 

He prayeth for all ploughmen and husbandmen, that God 'will 
prosper and increase their labour; for except he give the in- 
crease, all their labour and travail is lost. Latimer, Semi, 
p. 396. 

Husbandry, sb, (2 Chron. xxyi. 10; i Cor. iii. 9). 
Tillage, cultiyation. 

The Ordenance was, That all houses of htuihandry, that were 
vsed with twentie acres of ground, and vpwards, should bee 
maintained and kept vp for euer; together with a competent 
proportion of land to be vsed and occupied with them. Bacon^ 
Zdfe of Sen. VIL p. 74. 

And ail her husbandry doth lie on heaps. 
Corrupting in its own fertility. 

Shakespeare, Hen, F. v. 2. 

Jf 80 be (Josb. xiv. 12 ; I Cor. xv. 13). It 

But */ 80 he 
Thou darest not this, and that to prove more fortunes 
Thou art tired, then, in a word, I also am 
Longer to live most weary. 

Shakespeare, Cor. iv. 5. 

Ignorances, «&. (Litany). Acts or sins of ignorance. 
Ps. XXV. 7 is translated by Sir T. More {WorkSy p. i3«.) 
from the Vulgate, 'The offences of my youth, & myne 
ignorances (ignorantias) remembre not good lorde/ This 
plural, which has now gone out of use, is employed, though 
m a slightly different ^ay, by King James I, in his 
DcBmonologie, i. 7 ; 

For we must vnderstand, that the Spirit of Grod there, speaking 
of sciences, vnderstands them that are lawf ull, for except they be 
lawfuU, they are but abusiui called sciences, and are but ignorcuiets, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOO^. 261 

ni-fkvoiired. adj. (Gen. xli. 3, 4, &c.). Literally, 
bad-looking. [See Fatoub.] 

If the vlcers proue to be Ufauoured cankers, it is thought, 
that the ashes of sheeps dung mixed with salnitre, is an effectuali 
ponder for the same. Holland's Pliny, zxx. 13. 

But this I willingUe oonfesse, that it likes me much better, 
when I finde vertue in a faire lodging, then when I am bound to 
seeke it in an Ufauored creature, iSce a pearle in a dunghill. 
Sidney, Arcadia^ i. p. 45. 

Illuminate^ ff*t. (Heb. x. 32). To enlkhtea The 
translators of the A. V. nave in ^is passage Allowed the 
Vulgate {in quibtu Uluminatt), though the Geneva Ver- 
sion alr^y in use had a more intelligible rendering, 
'after ye had received light.' The same Greek word ui 
translated 'enlightened' in Heb. vi 4, where Wiclif has 
' illumyned,' though in z. 32 he gives 'lightened.' 

For howBoeuer kinges may haue their imperfections in their 
passions and customes ; yet if tiiey be illuminate by learning, they 
haue those notions of religion, polide, and moralitie ; which doe 
preserue them, apd refraine them from all ruinous and peremptory 
errors & excesses. Bacon, Adv, of Learning, i. 7, § 3. 

Imagery, sh, (Ezek. viiL 12; Eoclus. xxxviii. 27). Tlie 
'chambers of imagery' in the former passage are supposed 
to have been rooms of which the walls were decorated with 
various devices or painted figures (imagines) as in the 
palaces and temples of Nineveh. There is considerable 
doubt as to the exact meaning of the original, and our 
translators have followed the rendering of Junius and Tre- 
mellius, ' Gonclavia JigurcUa' A good example of the use 
of tiie word in English occurs in Shakespeare (Rich, IL 
Y. 2): — 

You would have thought the very windows spake, 
So many greedy looks of young and old 
Through casements darted their desuing eyee 
Upon his visage, and that all the walls 
With painted imagery had said at once 
'Jesu preserve thee 1 welcome Bolingbroke !* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


And there beside of marble stone was built 
An altare, caru'd with cunning ymagery, 

Spenser, P, Q., i. 8, j 36. 

In the Romance of King Alisander (Weber, Metr, 
Rom, VoL L p. 313) it appears in the form ymagoure. 

This ymage is mad after th^; 
Y dude Mt in ymagovre^ 
And caste hit after thy vygoure. 
1. 7688. 

Imagine^; 9 J, (Gen. xl 6 ; Job xxi. 27 ;. Ps. il i,.xw 2). 
To devise, fashion, contrive ; from Lat imaginare. 

I^ot onely his frendes but also his preuv enemies knewe, that 
was but a title and that this title was by muentours of misohife 
fayned, imaffenedk published. Hall, Hen, IV, fol. 96. 

For he whom I made gouemour to withstande the powef 
and malice of myne outward enemies, compasseth and tma^tMetiV 
ho¥W to' destroy myne issue. Ibid, fol. 37 b; 

J, sb. (Ps. xL c). The old form of 'in^a- 
om Lat. impcUientia. [See AnBoaANor.] 

Impatienza^ tntpctcieneie, 

Florio, Worlde of Wordn. 

Im^eadi «. t. ( Aets xix. 38).' To indict, accose ; Fr. 

Whereupon Stephen Fitz-Beniiet, Simon of the Wood, Wil- 
liam Theyden, and Ralph of the Bridge, in the name of all the 
rest, implead the abbot for appropriating their commons to hha- 
self. Fuller, Hid. of WaUham Abbey, § 16 (p. 10, ed. 1655). 

Impenitency. ib. (Is. ix. c). The old fomof 'imr 
penitence/ from Mea. Lat impenitentia. 

Impotent^ adj. (John v. 3, 7 ; Acts iv. 9, xiv. 8). 
Strengtnless, weak, invalid; Lat impotens. 

Alexander would haue sent the sicke and impotent pereons, 
which had bene maimed in the warres, into the low eountrey. 
North's Plutarch, Alex, p. 755. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Importable, adj^ (Pray. oC ManaeaM). Insnflmble ; 
Lai importdbUis, 

To the importable griefe and dii9>IeMure of the kingM royall 
nuuertie.. Sir T. More, Mck. II L ( Worhsy p. 48 g,) 

Hietro, Moynes' fftther in lawe, coniwaUed hym to departe bys 
impoTlahU labors in contbiaal iudfremente, vnto the wise men, that 
were in his company. Sir T. Elyot^a (TovemoKr, f<^. % h, (ed. 

Impndency^ «& (Is. iiL ey The QkLfolnii of 'ixnpa- 
denooy' nrom Lat tmpuaentia. 

Which some do eaXt boldnes, and oorage-, bsliig no better 
indeede then plune impwUnqf, extreme inadnes». & desperate 
folly. North's Plutarch, AldbladeB, p. a 15. 

lit. with the present partidple, used like the Latin 
genmd, as in the phrases * in building' (i K. ▼!. 7), ' in de- 
parting' (Qen. XXXV. 18), 'in seething' (i Sam. ii. 13). 

He fel downe therefore at the fete of Jesus, desiring that be 
would Touchesalue to come home to his house and to helpe bis 
daughter which eaen at that present laie in dpi/n^ Udal's 
EEMmus, LuhCf foL 8k 5. 

far the pure herte^ yeai eu8 of euerie poore bodye^ is a more 
poriely and govgeoua temple to God, then, was the said most 
sumptuous temple of Hierusalem whiche had been so numy yeres 
in edifying^ Ibid. foL 1566. 

lOyjmpi i^ Inta (Dent xxiit. i)« 

First telleth it, whan Scipion was come 
In AfFricke, how he meteth Massinisse. 

Ghauoen, Th§ Ai$embljf of J^k^ 37. 

Dost thou come here to whine ?; 
To outfkce me with leaping t» her graye? 

Shakespeare, ffarnl, ▼. r. 

And bubbling from ber breast, it dotlx divide 
Jn two slow fivers. 

Id Ln0r, 173IBL 

Bvb first I'U turn yon feUoii^ to biS' grave. 

lA JSich. UI. I. 4. 

Digitized by V^VJOQIC 

264 ^BS mSL^ 

2* On (Geu. i. 22; Matt. vi. io). 

Mars his true movlDg, even as in the heavens 
So in the earth, to this day is not known. 

Id. I Hen. VL 1. 1. 

pit and 
leelin^ c 
Of here and every where. 

Tying her duty, beauty, wit and fortunes 
In an extravagant and wheeling stranger 

Id. Oik, I. I. 
Bacon {E$8. xxn. p. 94) uses < in guard' for * on guard.' 

Incline^ v,L (Ex. x. c). To be inclined* 

Submissive fall his princely feet before, 
And he from forage will incline to play. 

Shakespeare, Lovers Lab. Lost^ iv. i. 

Incomprehensible, adj. (Athan. Creed). That 
which cannot be comprehended or contained within limits ; 
the word in the creed being a translation of the Lat. im- 
menms, ' that which cannot be measured.' God cannot be 
measured, having no local habitation, nor circumscribed, 
being everywhere undivided, everywhere present, every- 
where powerful. Fortunatus' comment about a.d. 570: 
^ ubique totus, ubique prsesens, ubique potens.' Erasmus 
on the Greed (fol. 100&, Eng. Tr.) has. 

It is more prouable k lykely, that the holy spiiite, whiche 
as touchynge to his diuine nature, fyUyng aU thynges dothe 
oontynue and abyde vncomprehended ; was there after a oer- 
tayne speciaU and peculiare manor. 

It [the essence of Grod] is also without body, inuisible, occu- 
pieing no place, incCprehensible, immutable, impassible, incor- 
ruptible, immortall, vnspeakeable, perfect and euerlasting. Mus- 
culus^ ComTnon PlaceSf Eng. tr. 1573, ^ol* 5^* 

Inconaiderationj sb. (Job t. c). Inconsiderate- 
ness, thoughtlessness; Lat. inconsidercUio, 

Inconsideration : 1 Inconsideration, indiscretion^ Vnaduised- 
nesse, rashnesse. Cotgrave, Ft, Diet, s.v. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Incontinent, adj. (2 Tim. ill 3). Unrestrained, in- 
temperate. Our translators have followed the Vulgate 
incontinentes. This word, now restricted in its usage, was 
once employed with reference to the unchecked indmgence 

Incorporate, pp* (Commun. Serv.) Incorporated. 
See CoNSBCEATE. In Holland's Pliny (xxxiv. 12) among 
the virtues of Cyprian vitriol is mentioned that, 

Being incorporat with line-seed, it is singular good to be ap^ 
plied aloft upon plasters, for to mitigat pain. 

Increase, sb. Produce (Gen. xlvii. 24 ; Lev. xxvL 4, 
20, &C.) ; interest (Lev. xxv. 36). 

He prayeth for all ploughmen and husbandmen, that God 
will prosper and increase their labour ; for except he give the 
ineretue, all their labour and travail is lost. Latimer, Serm, 

Earth^s increase, foison plenty. 
Bams and gamers never empty. 

Shakespeare, TVmp. iv. i^ 

IndlfRsrent, adj, (Ecclus. xlii. 5). Impartial. From 
Lai indiferens, without difference or distinction. In the 
passage quoted the * merchants' indifferent selling' signi- 
fies their seUing their goods at the same price to all with- 
out distinction. The Act of Attainder of 1 Hen. VII., 
wsed against the Yorkists who had taken part in the 
Battle of Bosworth Field (quoted in Brooke's Visits to 
f^lds qf Baitle in England, dc, p. 309), commences as 

Foiasmoche as every king, prince, and liege lord, the more 
hie that he be in estate and preheminence, the more singularly 
he is bound to the advancement and preferring of that ind^erent 
vertue justice, &c. 

Nicholas... proposed openly suche lawes of league as for the 
present state of thinges he adjudged indifferent for both parties. 
Polydore Vergil, n. 55. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

266 TSB BIBLm 

JuBt^ mdiffertni, sVewmg no inore£ftiiocir to oiiei.thaaiit0 an 
other. Aeqam. Baret, Altfearie, &.▼. 

For men are too conning, to suffer a man, to keepe an ind^ 
ferent oarriage, betweene both, and to be secret, without Sfmying 
the ballance, on either side. Bacon, Ess, vi. p. 90. 

Indifll^rently^ adif. (PirayeF ibr Ghwdl Mifiltait}, 
Without distinction, impu-tiall;. 

I did nothing else but monish all judges tndifferenUy to do 
right* Latimer, Mem^ p. 330. 

Hyssellf with the men at armes coomes an oother space bee- 
hynde, indyjftremtly in the myddest of thoae twajne.. ]Jf$ of 
Lord Grey of WUUm, p. 12. 

Indite, t?. t (P& xlv. i). Literally, to dictate; then, to 
write from dictation, and hence, to compose ; 0. Fr. endietery 
from Lat dictare. Baret {Alvearie 8.y.) gives 

To indUe and pronounce to another some thing that he shall 
write. Dicto...^a7oy>ei;w. Nommeretdickr d,mAavUrt,qud^ 
chose, qa^il eseriue. 

Who couthe telle, or who couthe endite. 
The joye that is made in this phiee 
Whan Theseus hath don so fair a gmoet 

Chancer^ Khis^'s Taie^ x874« 

Influence^ sb, (Job xxxviii 31). This word oontaiBS 
a trace of the Imgering astrological belief of tihe ^ecta pro- 
duced by the stars upon human destiny. 

Influence, or constellation of starres. Aspiratio BteUanmu 
Sidenun afiectio. Baret, Alvearie s.t. 

The astrologers, call the evill u^umeu of the staxiw, evill 
aspects. Bacon, Ess. ix. p. 39. 

Shakespeare calls the mocm 

The moist stas. 
Upon whose influence Keptune'a emj^ staada 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


Man is his own star; and the tool thM oan 
Bender an honest and a perfect man, 
Cbnunands all light, all injluencey all fate; 
Nothing to him falls early, or too late. 

Fletcher, Upon an Jffonest JUarCs Fortune, 35. 

Inhabiter, df, (Rer. yiii 13 ; xii. i^); An inhabitant. 

A stiwigei' that dWelletb with vs^. whicsh fis oome tt> dWell 
witfi V8, flx>m some other conntrie or towne, waAnkabiUT, In- 
oohk. liabitatewr. Baret, A hfeoarie a.T. 

^InhabitreBs' occars Jer. x. 17 m. 

Ii^urioiis, adj, (i Tim. l 13; Bcdus. TiiL 11). 
Mischievous, and^ as applied to persons, insolent. The 
following passages from Shakespeare justify the use of 
the wora as the rendering of the Greek vfipum^s. 

Injurious Hermia! most ungrateful maidl 

Have you oonspired, have you with these contriyed 

To bait me with this foul derision ? 

Shakespeare, 3ftd, /V.'« Dr. lit. 4. 

Not half so bad as thine to Eng]and*s king, 
Injurious duke, that threatest whereas no cause. 

Id. 4 Hen. VI, I. 4. 

Can* me their traitor ! thou injurious tribune I 
Within thine eyes sat twenty thousand deaths, 
!in thy hands olutch'd as many miilions, in 
Thy lying tongue both numbers, I would say 
'Thou liest' unto thee with a voice as free 
As I do pray the gods. 

Id. Cor, III. 3. 

Inkhom, «&. (Ezek. iz. 2, 3, 1 1). The word, with Uie 
thing, has become obsolete. In Shakespeare {2 Hen, VI, 
Vf, 2) Cade passes sentence on the Clerk of Chatham, — 

Hang him with his pen and ikkkom about his neck. 

An inkekomt, or any other thing that holdetii inke. Atra- 
mentarittBEU Baset^ Alvtarity b.v. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


It occurs as an adjective : 

As if a wise man would, take Halles Chronicle, wliere moch 
good matter is quite marde with indenture Englishe, and first 
change strange and iTikhonie tearmes into proper and commonlie 
used wordes. Ascham, The Schoolmcuter, p. 127, ed. Mayor. 

Bishop Hall (Sat. i. 8) uses inkhomUms, 

Inn^ sb. (Oen. xliL 27, xliii. 21 ; Ex. iy. 24). A 
lodging. In tms sense the word was nsed in Old Ihiglish 
(comp. Lincoln's Inn, &c)j and so it represents the Hebrew 
of which it is the rendering: 'inns' in the modem sense 
of the word being of course unknown in the East 

Arcite anoon unto his inne is fare. 

As fayn as foul is of the brighte sonne. 

Chaucer, Knighfs Tale, 3438. 

Anon go gete us fast into this in 
A knedyng trowh or elles a kemelyn. 

Id. Miner's Tale, 3547. 

Hence the verb 'to inn' = to lodge : 

This Theseus, this duk, this worthy knight^ 
Whan he had brought hem into hiB dt^, 
And ynned hem, everich at his degr^ 
Be festeth hem. 

Xd. Knighfs Tale, 3194. 

Innocents^ «&. (Jer. iL 34, xix. 4). Innocent persons. 

Those witnesses were simple men, innocents, just, tellers of 
truth, without deceit or subtilties, and in all points holy and 
good. Bullinger, Decades, i. p. 52. 

Innocency, 9b, (Gton. xx. 5; Ps. xxvi 6, &c). The 
old form of ' innocence, from Lat. innocentia. 

And if he had onoe deered himselfe of all things, and had 
published his innocencie: he should then haue nothing in his hemd 
to trouble him. North's Plutarch, Ale8>, p. sao. 

Like rivers of remorse and innoceney. 

Shakespeare, K, Joht^, IT. 3. 

Digitized by Vj».JVJVlC 

WORD-BOO^. 369 

Innovate^ v. t (Of Ceremonies ; P. Bk.). To make new, 

Inquisition, sb. (Dent. xix. 18; Esth. ii, 23 ; Fb. iz. 
12). ^ajch, inquiry; Lat inquisitio. 

Do this suddoDly, 
And let not search and inquintion quail 
To bring again these foolish runaways. 

Shakespeare, As you like it, ii. 2. 

Ayoid envie ; anxious feares ; anger fretting inwards ; subtill 
and knottie inquintUms, Bacon^ JEss. zxx. p. 133. 

Insolency^ sb, (Ez. xxv. c). The old form, of which 
insolence (Lat. tnsolentia) is the abbreviation. Compare 
arrogancy^ innocency, and many others. 

Having delivered sufficient authority unto your lordship, and 
others joined unto you, by virtue of her commission ecclesias- 
tical, warranted by the laws of this reahn, whereby you might at 
all times have repressed the intolency and corrected the disobe- 
dience of such as therein should have presumed to offend. Grin- 
dal, Rem,, p. 419. 

Inspire^ v.t. (Wis A xv. 11). To breathe; Lat in- 

First he breathed light, upon the face, of the matter or chaos ; 
then he breathed light, into the face of man ; and still he breath- 
eth and tfurptre^ light, into the lace of his chosen. Bacon, 
Et», I. p. 3. 

Instant, <idj, (Luke xxiii. 23 ; Rom. xii. 12; 2 Tim.iy. 
2). Urgent, imprtunate, persevering; instare^ *to urge, 
press upon, follow up' and, as apphed to business, 'to 
transact it with great diligence.' 

I preached in Kent also, at the instant request of a curate. 
Latimer, Rem. p. 324. 

We must to it again. We must be importune upon Grod. 
We mast be iniUmt in prayer. Id. Sena, p. 12^. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


See alBO the quotation from Holland's Plutarch,^. S^i, 
under the word Hand. 

Iiurtantly, adv, (Luke yii. 4 ; Acts xxtL 7 ; Fa. Iy. 18, 
F. Bk.). Ui^gently, importunately ; from the preceding. 

He prayeth now the third time. He did it so instomUy, so 
fervently, th&t it brought out a .bloody sweat. Latimer, Serm. 
p. asi. 

Let us pray tMtanUy to €k>d, the giyer of all good gifts. 
Ormdal, Bern. p. .19. 

Insilltatlon^ sb. (Is. xiv. c). From Lat inndUUtOy 
a taunting, insulting. 

InteUigence, to have (Daa xi. 30). ,To hvre «ii 
understanding, agree. 

For whereas it hath beene well said, that the aroh-flattcvsr, 
with whom all the petty flatterers have intelligence^ is a mane 
selfe; certainly, the lover is more. Bacon, £m. x, p. 37. 

Intend, v.t, (Ps. xxi. 11). To meditate, plot; from 
Lat intenderej to stretch towards, strive after, a sense 
which appears in the following passage from Baoon: 

But it is so plaine, That every man profiteth in that 'hoe 
most intendeth, that it needeth not to be stood upon. Ess, xxix. 
p. 126. 

Intent, sb, (2 Sam. xviL 14, &c.). To the ifUent 
that = in order that 

And furthermore, to (he intent that they should be without 
any hope of recovery, he changed the name of the city, and 
caUed it ^Slia. Latimer, Bern. p. 48. 

Intent, sb, (Jer. zxx. 24; John xiiL 28}. Intention, 

Tet my stem looks shall not 
Discover my intents, " 

Massinger, Gt D. of F lor, in. r. 

Digitized by V:i«^V.J VIC 


Intermeddle^ v. i, (Pr. xhr. 10; xtuL i). To mingle, 

In this elanse he inUnnedlah thanksgiuing with his prayer. 
Calvin, on Ps. zL 18 (trans. Groldingy 1571). 

Hie stone Alabastrites is found about Alabastrum a <nty in 
and Damasoo in 3yria, white of colour <it is, and itUer- 
with sundry colours. Holland's Pliny, XXXYU. 10. 

Invitatory^ «6. (2nd Pref. to P. Bk.). 

The 95th Psalm " has been generally termed the Inyitatory 
Psalm. The InvUatory was an anthem sung before it, and 
repeated, in part, or entirely, after each verse. Therefore Uie 
rubric (i 549) directed it to be said or sung without any Invita- 
toqr." Procter, On the Booh of Common Prayer, p. »i3. 

Inward, adj. (Job xix. lo). Intimate, as in the fol- 
loinng passages of Bacon ; the uteral meaning of both words 
being tne same. 

A servant, or a favourite, if hee be inward, and no other appa- 
rant cause of esteeme, is commonly thought but a byway, to 
close corruption. En, xi. p. 49. 

Those vnward counsellours, had need also, be wise men, and 
especially true and trusty to the kings ends. Eu, xx. p. 85. 

Inwards, ih, (Ex. xxix. 13, 22, &c.). The entrails, 

The invtardet of man, or beast. Interanea La entraillea 

d'homme, ou de besU, Baret, Alvearie, s. v. 

The vpmost inwards of a man, to wit, the heart and lungs, 
are diuided from the other entrails beneath, by certain pellicles 
or rims of the midriffe. Holland's Pliny, xt. 37. 

Irreligloiisness, sb, (Mai L c). 

Irreligiositk, irreligioiisnesse. Florio, Jtal. Diet. 

Issue of blood, 9b, (Luke viii. 43, 44). A discharge of 
blood. The Equisetum or Horsetail was used medicinally 
by tbe Greeks and Romans: 

And they report a wonderfuU vertue thereof; and namely, 
thftt if it doe but touch a man, it wil stanch any iwve of blood 
(ssnguinis profluvia). Holland's PUniy, xxvi. 13. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


It, pr<m» (Lev. xxv. 5). Its. The possessive pronoun 
'its' does not occur in the A. V. of 161 1. The verse 
.quoted stands in that edition as follows: 'That which 
groweth of it owne accord of thy haruesl^ thou shalt not 
reape, &c/ 

It has been asserted that its is not found in any writer 
before Shakespeare, and then only in three passages. Mr. 
Craik {English of Shakespearey 54) has shown from the 
first folio that instances of its occurrence, though not 
numerous, are yet more frequent than has been supposed.. 
It, which according to Dr. Guest (Phil. Pro, i. 280), was 
used sometimes for its in the dialect of the N. Western 
counties, is found in Udal's Erasmus (a.d. 1548), and in 
the form hit in the Anturs qf Arther, of a stiU earlier 

For I wille speke with the sprete, 

And of hit woe wille I wete, 
Gif that I may hit bales bete. 

Anturs, vm. 11, 12. 
For loue and deuocion towardes god also hath it infancie, and 
it hath it c5myng forewarde in groweth of age. Udal's Erasmus, 
Luke, fol. 70 a. 

The euangelicall simplicitee hath a politique cast of it owne 
too. Ibid. foL 153 a, 

Wheras it [the air] was for this purpose firste ordeined & 
set for manes vse, that w* it holsome breath it should botbe 
geue & nourishe lyfe vnto all creatures. Ibid, foL 157 ^* 

This worlde hath it glorie, but it is neyther true glorye in 
dede, nor yet perpetuall to endure for euer. lb. foL 177 6. 

They came vnto the yron gate, that leadeth vnto the citie, 
which opened to them by it owne accorde. Acts zii, 10, Geneva 
version (ed. 1579). 

Much like a Candle fed with it owne humour^ 
By little and little it owne selfes consumer. 

Sylvester's Du Baaias, The Second Day of the first Week, p. 
36 (ed. 1605). 

n n'est si petit crin qm ne porte son ombre: Prov. The 
smaUest haire hath it shadow. Cotgrave, Fr, Diet. b.v. Crin, 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


The following examples from Shakespeare are from the 
Folio of 1623, and are all which are known to exist tiiere. 

But Nature should bring forth 
Of it owne kinde, all foyzon, all abaudanoe 
To feed my innocent people. 

Tempest, n. i. (p. 76.) 

And that there thou leaue it 
(Without more mercy) to it owne protectioo. 
And fauour of the Climate. 

Wintei^e Tale, n. 3. (p. 185 h.) 

My third comfort 
(Star*d meet vnluckily) is from my breast 
(The innocent milke in U most inzLOceut mouth) 
HaL'd out to murther. 

Ibid. m. 2, (p. aS'ja,) 

Doe childe, goe to yt grandame childe, 

Giue grandame kingdome, and it grandame will 

Glue yt a plum, a cherxy, and a ngge. 

King J^n, II. i. (p. 4 5.) 

It hath il originall from much greefe ; from study and per- 
turbation of the braine. 2 Men. IV. I. a. (p. 77 a.) 

And all her Husbandry doth lye on heapes. 
Corrupting in it owne fertilitie. 

ffen. F. V. «. (p. gih.) 

And yet I warrant it had ypon it brow, a bumpe as big as a 
young Cockrels stone ? JRom, and JvX, I. 3. (p. 50a.) 

Feeling in it selfe 
A lacke of lemons ayde, hath since withall 
Of it owne &11. 

Tim. ofAih, v. i. (p. 966.) 

It lifted vp it head, and did addresse 

It selfe to motion, like as it would speake. 

Ham. L 3. (p. 1550.) 

This doth betoken 
The Coarse they follow, did with disperate hand. 
Fore do it owne life. 

Ibid, V. I. (p. 2786.) 

Digitized by GoOglQ 8 


For yoa know Nnnckle, the Hedge-Sparrow fisd the Cackoo 
90 long, that it's had it head bit off by it yoang. 

King Lear, I. 4. (p. a886.) 
It is iust so high as it is, and mooues with U owne oTgaos. 

il»«. and CI, n. 7. (p. 3506.) 
The Handmudes of aU Women, or more truely 
Woman it pretty selfe. 

Oym, m. 4. (p. 3836.) 
' Its * was in nBe before the end of the i6th oentury, as 
win be seen from the following examples. 

Spontaneamente, willingly, natarally, without compnisdon, of 
himselfe, of his free will, for it» owne sake. Florio, A Worlde 
of Wordet (1598). 

Tea but my olde fellow Nolano tolde me, and taught pub- 
likely, that from translation all Science had iCs of -spring. 

Montaigne's Essayi, trans. Florio (1603). To the cnrteom 
Reader, sig. A 5. 

Little power had I to performe, but lesse to refuse what yon 
impos'de : for his length you gave time : for his hardnesse yon 
advised help: my weaknesse you might bidde doe Ws best: 
others strength you woold not seeke-for further. 

Id. The Epistle Dedicatorie. 

Oh foolish and base ornament. The Italians have more 
properly with if 8 name entitled malignitie. Ibid. p. 3. 

It was a right remooving of Heaven and Earth together, yet 
nothing remooveth from ii'i owne place. Ibid. p. 61 a. 

For like as in man's Little- World, the braine 
Doth th* highest place of all the frame retaine, 
And tempers with it's moist-full coldnes so 
Th' excessiue heate of th* other parts below. 
Sylvester's Du Bartas, Second day of the fint Week, p. 7^ 
ed. 1605). 

In Shakespeare Mts' occurs ten times. 

My trust 
Like a good parent, did beget of him 
A falsehood in it's contrarie, as great 
As my trust was. 

Temp, I. 3. (p. ih) 

Digitized by VnOO VIC 


Allaying both their huy, and my pasnon 
With t<'a sweet ayre. 

lUd. 1. 1, (p. 5 a.) 

Heauen grant ts iU peace, but not the King of Hungaries. 

Mesu. for Mecu. i. a. (p. 6a a.) 

How sometimes Nature will betray if$ folly? 
/t'« tendemesse? 

Winter*s Tale, i. a. (p. a786.) 

My Dagger muzzel'd. 
Least it should bite Wa Master. 

Ibid, L 3. (p. 379 a.) 

Let me know my Trespas 
By Ws owne visage. 

Ibid, L 3. (p. a79&.) 

I do beleeue 
Hermione hath 8u£Eer'd death, and that 
Apollo would (this being indeede the issue 
Of King Polixenes) it should heere be laide 
^ther for life, or death) vpon the earth 
Of it'a right Father. 

Ibid, m. 3. (p. 1886.) 

As milde and gentle as the Cradle-babe, 
Dying with mothers dugge betweene it^s lips. 

a Hen, VI. th. 3. (p. 136 6.) 

Each following day 
Became the next dayes master, till the last 
Made former Wonders, it*8. 

Ben, yilL l i. (p. ^056.) 

Iterate. v,t (Frov. xxvil. 11 m.\ Ecclus. xli. 23). 
To repeat ; irom Lat. iterare. The verb has given place 
in modem usage to reiterate. In Marlowe's Doctor Fatistus 
(Vol. II. p. 35, ed. DyceX Mephistopheles says, *The ite- 
rcUing of these lines brings gold.' Shakespeare uses ite- 
rati<yn in the same way. 

Truth tired with iteration. 

Tr, and Or, in. 1. 

Digitized by VjOO ^C ^ 

376 TffE BIBLS 

And Bacon has both the verb and the noun : 

lUraiioTM are commonly losse of time ; but there is no such 
gaine of time, as to Ueraite often the state of the question. Eu, 
XXY. p. loa. 

Its. See It. 


Jacinth^ sb. (Rev. ix. 17 ; xxi. 20). Contracted from 
* h^adnth/ a precious atone forming one of the twelve found- 
ations of the new Jerusalem. It seems to correspond 
with the Hebrew word rendered figure ' (Ex. xxviii. 19), 
wMch was one of the stones of the high priest's breastplate. 
The 'ligure' has been identified with rubellite, a red yari> 
ety of tourmaline, but there is great uncertainty about it. 
Puny distinguishes it from the amethyst ; 

The braue violet colour, which in the amethyst is ful and rich, 
in the ladnt is delaied and weaker. Holland's Ttxtnt. xxxvn. 9. 

In Rev. ix. 17 the hyadnthine, or dark purple, colour, is 
referred to and not the stone ; as in Sidney^s Arcadia (B. i. 
p. 59,1. 28); 

It was the excellently-f aire Queene Helen, whose lacirUh haire 
curled by nature, but intercurled by art (like a fine brooke 
through golden sands) had a rope of f aire pearle. 

In Wiclif 's earlier version of 2 Chr. ii. 7, it appears in 
the form iacynte; 

Sonde thann to me an taujt man, that kann wirchen in gold, 
and slluer, brasse, and yren, purpur, cocco, and iacynte. 

The later version has iaci/net Another form of the 
word is found in Ben Jonson (Alch. 11. 2) ; 

Dishes of agat, set in gold, and studded, 
With emeralds, saphyrs, hycicintht, and rubies. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


A property which the jacinth was supposed to possess 
is alludea to in Greene's Alcida (Works, u. 317, ed. J)yce) ; 

The brightest jiacin^ hot becometh dark. 

Skdton {Works, n. p. 18) has the singular form jo- 

Maters more precious than the ryche j<icounce, 

Janglin^^ sb, (i Tim. i. 6). AJangler or jongleur in 
the midme ages was a teller of tale&^ and as these were 
frequently of a trifling character, ^an^/in^ became the equi- 
valent of prating, babbling, idle talking. Chaucer describes 
the Miller {Prol, to Qint, Tales, 562), as 

A jangler, and a golyardeys. 
And that was most of synne and harlotries. 

And in the ParsorCs Tale, he gives the following defin- 

Jangdyng, is whan a man speldth to moche bifom folk, and 
clappith as a mille, and taketh no keep what he saith. 

Dunbar in his poem on 'The Tod and the Lamb' 
{Poems, L p. 84, ed. Laing), has 

I will no lesingiB put In verse, 
Lyk as thir jcmgUiru dois reherss. 

In Wiclif 's earlier version of Ex. xvii. 7^ ianglyng is 
used in the sense of wrangling, as the equivalent of the 

And he depide the name of that place Temptynge, for the 
ianglyng of the sones of Yrael. 

And so in Shakespeare {Mid. NJs Dr, m. 2) : 

This their Jangling I esteem a sport. 

Jongleur, in Old Fr. jogleor, is derived from the Med. 
Lat. jugvlator, which is a corrupted form of joculator; 
whence It. giocokUore. From jocularitts, are derived It. 
gioeolaro. Span, joglar, Germ, gaukler and our own jug- 
gler. Under the head Juglatores, Du Gauge quotes from 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


a Latin-French Glossary, 'Histrio, jongleur. Jocnlari, 
jongloier, Joculatrix, jengleresse,* 

Jaw teeth^ <&. (Frov. zxx. 14;. Molar teetL 
Les dents maschelieres. The cheeke-teeth, Jaw-teeth, grinders. 
Cotgrave, Fr. Diet, 

Jeopard, v. t (Judg. v. 18 ; 2 Mace. xi. 7). To hazard, 
risk. The etymology of the substantive ^'^opar^y, from which 
it is formed, is extremely doubtful. It has been suggested 
that iJie derivation is from the French fai perduyl have 
lost ; or from jeu perdu, a lost same ; or again from 
jeu parti, an even game, in which the chances are equal. 
Chaucer uses the forms jeopardye, jeupardye, jeupartye 
BJid jupartye, the last of which favour the third etymology 
proposed, which seems most probable. In Du Cange (Gloss. 
S.V. Jocus) Jocus partitus is explained as *an altern&tive/ 
equivalent to the Old Fr. €riu parti. Hence partir le 
giu, or un jeu, is 'to offer an alternative.' The risk in- 
volved in accepting an alternative is taken as the represen- 
tative of any risk whatever, and hence jeopardy has the 
general meaning of ' hazard.' The verb is not very com- 
mon. It occurs in North's Plutarch: 

Messala, I protest vnto thee and make thee my witnes, that 
I am compelled against my minde and will (as Pompey the Great 
was) to ieopard the liberty of our countrey to the hazard of a 
battelL BrvtU8, p. 1071. 

O hypocrites 1 the zeal of righteousness is to hunger and 
thirst for righteousness, as it is alMve described: that is, to care, 
and study, and to do the uttermost of thy power, that all things 
went in the right course and due order, both through all degrees 
of the tempor^ty and also of the spiritualty, and to jeopard life 
and goods thereon. Tyndale, Expoe, p. 34. 

We must not often ieopard the good state of the common 
weale depending vpon one man. Non est ssepius in vno homine 
gumma salus periclitanda. Baret, Alvearie, s. v. 

Jeopardy, sb. (2 Sam. xxiii. 17; Luke viii. 23; i Cor. 
XV. 30). Danger, risk. [See Jbopaed.] 

Then my harte was heauye, my lyfe stoode in ieopevrdie, and 
my combe was clerely cut. Hall, Hen, 7 F. f . 1 2 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Tea» why did the Catholicks (meMiing Popish Eomanists) 
alwajes goe in ieopardit, for refusing to goe to heare it t The 
TramlcUori to the Reader. 

Another form of the verb and noun appears in Sir T. 
More ( Workiy p. 49 f.) : 

While I am here, whiche as yet intende not to oome forthe 
and ivhwrde my selfe after other of my frendes : which woolde 
god wer rather here in suertie with me, then I were there in 
tttfton^ with them. 

Jesu (Prayer Book frequently). The form of the 
name Jesus when used in the oblique cases, or with the 
optative mood, or in exclamations. 

Now, quod 8che, Jhesu Crist, and king of hinges, 
So wisly helpe me, as I ne may. 

Chaucer, Frian^e TdU, 7172. 

Many a time hath banish'd Norfolk fought 
For Jesu Christ in glorious Christian field. 

Shakespeare, Rich. 11, IV. i. 

Jeeu preserve thee ! welcome, Bolinghroke. 

Id. mdh. IL V. «. 

Have mercy, Jeeut — Soft! I did hut dream. 

l^:BicK III. V. 3. 

Jewtff 9b, (Dan. t. 13; John vii. i; Ps. IxxvL i, 
Pr. Bk. ; and Apocr. frequently). Judaea properly so called : 
the part of Palestine occupied by the tnbes of Judah 
and Beigamin after the captivity. In Dan. v. 13 the same 
word in the original is also rendered * Judah ^ the A. Y. 
in this following Coverdale, Tyndale and the Qeneva Bible 
Joseph also ascended from Galilee, out of a citie called 
Nazareth, into Jewrie, vnto the citie of Dauid whiche is called 
Bethleem. TJdars Erasmus, Luke ii. 3. 

Benowned for thdr deeds as far from home. 
For Christian service and true chivalry, 
As is the sepulchre in stubborn Jewry. 

Shakespeare, Rich. II. n. i. 

It was applied in the middle ages to the Jews' quarter 
in a city; as in Chaucer {Priarets't Tale, 14900): 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Ther was in Acy, in a greet citee, 
Amonges Cristen folk a Jewerye. 
The name is still retained in ' Old Jewry, ^ 

Jot, *6. (Matt. V. 1 8). In the Hebrew alphabet yod ( = 
Gk. lora) is the smallest letter, and therefore the most likely 
to be omitted or overlooked. Hence it is applied to any 
small quantity whateyer. 

Bather than they would lose one^'o^ of that which they have, 
they will set debate between king and king. Latimer, Letter to 
Hen. VIIL Rem, p. 301. 

Nor doth he dedicate one jot of colour 
Unto the weary and all-watched night. 

Shakespeare, Hen, V. IV. chor. 

The origin of the word is seen more clearly in the form 
in which it appears in the following quotation : 

Bat the limits of his power [i. e, the devil*s] were set downe 
before the f omidations of the world were laide, which he hath 
not power in the least iote to transgresse. King James I. 
Ikmonologie, n. 1. 

Journey, v, i, (Josh. ix. 17, &c.). To travel 
It shall be moon, or star, or what I list, 
Or ere I journey to your father's house. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of the Shrew, TV, 5. 

My Lord, whoever journeys to the prince, 
For Grod^s sake^ let not us two be behind. 

Id. lUch. III. n. «. 

Joy, V, i, (Ps. xxi. i; 2 Cor. vii. 13). From "Fr^joutr, 
to rejoice, which is itself derived from the Lat gaudere (as 
wAr from videre, rire from ridere, &c.J. As a verb it is 
but rarely used. In Wiclif 's earlier version of Gen. xlv. 16, 
we find: 

And Pharao ioyede, and al the meyne of hym. 

And Shakespeare (Etch, IL n. 3) : 

And hope to joy is Utile less in joy 
Than hope enjoyed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Judge, V. t (Luke xix. 22). To oondenm. 

In oonduBion, the gonemonr shewed to the kyng how diuerse 
penones traiterously had murdred hym whiche were aprehended 
and iudgtd to die. Hall, Sen, IV, f. 37a. 

Judgement-seat, sb, (Matt xxrii 19, &c.). Tribunal. 

The iudgement secUe, Tribunal... /9^/mi. Ze tiege, dt parquet du 
granda iuget, tiege vudickU. Baret, Alvearie, a. v. 

Kerchief, sb. (Es. xiiL 18, 21). In the form kever- 
chtfAa which it is written in Chaucer, the deriyation from 
the Ft, couvrechef^ ' a covering for the head,* is obvious. 
In the description of the Wife of Bath it is said {Cant, 

Here hewerchefi weren ful fyne of grotmde. 

In The Assembly qf Fowls (272) the shorter form 

The remnannt, covered well to my paie, 
Bight with a little kerchefe of Yidence. 

In the Scotch curch the origin of the word is stiU more 

Ane fair quhyt ewrch scho pattis uponn hir held. 

Dunbar, PoemSy u. p. 8, ed. Laing. 

Blindly, adj. (Litany). Natural, from kind (A.-S. 
eynd\ which was most commonly used in the sense of *' na- 
ture.' Thus Gower {Conf* Am. proL p. 28) : 

As steel is hardest in his leinde 
Above al other that men finde 
Of metals. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


And agsiiii: 

He mot by v«rry Icindt dk. Id. p. 35. 

For love doth haten, as I finde, 

A beautie that commeth not of Idndt, 

Chaucer, Bm^, of the Bote, 1388. 

The adjective kinde (A.-S. cynde), 'natural,' occurs in 
Piers Ploughman ( Vis, 10940) ; 

Thanne bereth the crop hynde fmyt. 

The *Jnndly fruits ' are the * natural fruits/ those which the 
earth according to its hind should naturally bring forth, which 
it is appointed to produce. Trench, English Past and Present, 
p. 184, 4th ed. 

The hypocrites who 'disfigure their faces' (Matt tL 16) 
in Widif *s earlier version, 

Putten hir facis out of Teyndly termyg. 

In the same version, Rom. i. 26 is rendered: 

Forwhi the wymmen of hem chaungiden the hynddy yss 
in to that vss that is a^rens hynde. 

On the other hand. Bacon uses 'nature' where we should 
use ' kind : ' 

The couslip ; flower-deUces, &; lillies of all nxUures. 

Bacon, Ess, XLVi. p. 187. 

Kindreds^ «&. (Ps. xxii. 27 ; xcvi. 7, &c.). Fani]lie& 
From A.-S. cyn or cynn, whence cynren, a family. The 
Ueb. word is elsewhere rendered 'families.' Widif's 
earlier version of Gen. x. 20, gives : 

Thes ben the sonys of Cham, in hynredxs^ and tangia, and 
generaciouns, and erthis, and hir folkis. 

Yes, in good sooth, the vice is of a great hindred; it is well 
allied. Sbid^espeare, Mea*. for Meas, ni. 3. 

In the ed. of 161 1 the word is printed ' Idnreds.' 

Digitized by V^VJOQIC 


BUne, 9b, fGen. xxxii 15, &a). The old plural of cow, 
as the A.-S. cy is of cA, The Scotch use kye to this day. 
In Wiclif'tt earlier version of Gen. xxxii. 15, it appears in 
an intermediate form, ' kien fourti, and bullis twenti.' 

They must haye other cattle : as horses to draw their plough, 
and for carriage of things to the markets ; and hine for their 
milk and cheese^ which they must live upon and pay their rents, 

says Latimer (Serm, p. 249), speaking of the requirements 
of the commons. Puny hazards the following etymology 
of Boa; 

This serpent liueth at the first of hines milk, and thereof takes 
the name Boob. Holland's Traru. viu. 14. 

Kinsfolk, s&. (i K x?i 11 ; Luke ii. 44). Relatives, 
those of the same kiru 

Remember therefore, that all that do his will are his hinsfblk. 
Latimer, Serm. p. 384. 

The Italians make little difference betweene children, and 
nephewes, or neere Untfolkei, Bacon, Bb%. vil. p. 24. 

Kinsman, $1, (Num. v. 8 ; Ruth ii. i ; John xviii. 
26). One who is near of kin. 

Among those, Leonidas was the chiefest man that had the 
gouemement & charge of him, a man of a seuere disposition , 
& a hintenutn also vnto the Queene Olympias. North's Plu- 
tarch, Alexander^ p. 719. 

Kinswoman, 9b, (Lev. xviii 12, 17). A female re- 

• Sir Knight,' said the one, ' I shall tell you. This lady is my 
nigh kintwomanf mine aunts daughter.' King Arthur, Vol. 1. 
p. no, c. 56. 

Knap, V. t, (Ps. xlvi. a Fr. Bk.). This expressive old 
word (1= Qerm. knappen) has been superseded in modem 
usage oy ' snap.' Both of these appear to have been imit- 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 

fl84 V ^SE BIBLE 

ative words. ' Knap' is still common in Yorkshire in such 
expressions as ' it knapped like a icle/ to denote a sharp 
fracture. And Shakespeare {Merch. qf Fen. in. i ) haa : 

I would she were as lying a gossip in that as ever hnapped 

But Calamus is the hetter of the iwaine^ and hath a more 
pleasant smell ; for a man may wind the sent of it presently a 
great way off: besides, it is softer in hand : and better is that 
which is lesse brittle, and breaketh in long spils and shiuers, 
rather than hnappeik off like a radish root. Holland's Pliny, 
xn. 33. 

For similar instances compare 'crawl' and * scrawl,' 
'lightly' and 'slightly/ *top* and *stop;' 'qninsey'and 
' squinancy/ * scratch' and * cratch.' 

Knit, pp. (Judg. XX. II; I Sam. xviii. i). Firmly 
fastened; A.-S. cnytan. 

The co&lestiaU bodies, which msbke andfirame the world, and in 
that frame are compact and knit together^ haue an immortal! 
nature. Holland's Pliny, n. 8. 

Knop. «5. (Ex. XXV. 31, 33, 36, &c.). Properly, a bud, 
like Swed. hnoppe and Germ, knospe. It is connected with 
A.-S. cnxep, G. knopfBsaA E. knob, the last of which is writ- 
ten in the same form in Wiclif 's earlier version of Ex. 
xxvi. II : 

And fifti hnoppU of bras with whiche the oyletie mowen be 

The adyective knoppit is found in Gawine Douglases 
Police qf Honour y proL § 9. 

The hnoppU Syonis with leuis agreeabilL 

In Piers Ploughman's Greed, 843, knqppede= knobbed; 

With his Jsnoppede shon 
Clouted ful thykke. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

WORD-BOOK. .' 185 

' Knap' is also used of a hill-top : 

And both these riners runoing in one, carying a swift 
streame, doe make the knappe of tiie said hill very strong of 
situation to lodge a campe vpon. North's Plutarch, SyUa^ 
p. 507- 

Compare Fr. bouton, a button, and also a bud. 

Knowen (Ex. xxxiiL 16; Lev. y. i). The old form of 
^ known' in the ed. of 161 1. 

I became in a little tune hnotoen to Duke William, and was 
of him verie well beloued. Stow, AnnaU, p. 155. 

Knowledge, to have (Matt. xiv. 35; Acts xvii. 
13). To know, be aware, be informed; as in Shakespeare 
(I Hm. VL n. i) : 

Iiet us have knowledge at the court of guard. 

These be the words of the Pharisees, which were sent by the 
Jews unto St John Baptist in the wilderness to hcvoe hnovh 
ledge of him who he was. Latimer, Serm, p. 3. 

Knowledge, to take (Acts iy« 13, xxiy. 8). To 
take notice, know. 

Therfore to avoid the scandaU, and the danger both; it is 
good to take knowledge, of the errours, of an habit so excellent. 
Bacon, £88ay xm. p. 48. 


Lace, sb. (Ex. xxviii. 28, 37). A band. Written also 
lacu in Gbiancer ((7. T, 2391); from Lat. laqtietis, a snare ; 
Fr. laci. 

As he that hath often ben caught in his lace. 

Chaucer, KnigMs Tale, 1819. 

A Xoce, or band. Taenia. Baxei, Alvearie. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


When they goe to chnroh, or to visit any friend, they pot on 
very costly apparrell, with bracelets of gold, & rings vpon their 
amies, all beset with costly Jewels & pearles, and at their 
eares hang laee9 full of Jewels. Liuschotten's Voyages, p. 59 
(trans. Wolfe). 

laackj v,t and i, (Gen. xyiii. 28; Ps. xxxiv. 10). To 
want, be wanting ; probably from A.-S. lecariy to diminish, 
deprive, according to Lye, which is the same as tiie Do. 

80 it appeareth most manifestly, that there hicketh neither 
goodwill nor power in him. Latimer, Serm, p. 333. 

Therefore St Paul commanded us that we shall have the 
whole armour, nothing laekirtg, lUd. p. 491. 

Our foster-nurse of nature is repose, 
The which he Jmki. 

Shakespeare, Lear, iv. 4. 

Lain^ pp. of Lie (Job iiL 13). A.-S. legen, from 

Here's a skull now ; this skull has lain in the earth three 
and twenty years. Shakespeare, Ham, T. i. 

laancer. «6. (i K. xviii. 28). This word, which is foond 
in the ed. of 161 1, has been replaced by 'lancet' It is 
found in Cranmer's, the Bishops', and the Geneva Bibles. 
' Lancet ' is at least equally old, for in the later Widiffite 
version of the passage quoted we find ' launcetis.' 

Large, adj. (Judg. xviii. 10; Ps. xviii 19, xxxL 8). 
Wide, spacious, ample. 

t kyng B 
tinew in a large prisone. Hall, Hen, IV, fol. 

In Matt.xxviii. 12, * large money' is used to denote 'an 
ample present,* * a largesseJ 

Then did Alexander offer great presents unto the god, and 
gaue money large to the priests. North's Plutarch, Al^, p. 73a. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


' Large' in Chaucer denotes * liberal/ ' extravagant ;' 

'Now, wif,* he sayde, ' and I forgive it the ; 
And by thi lif, ne be no more so large.* 

8hipman*9 TdU, 1 4843. 

Latchet, «&. (Is. r. 27; Mark 1 7). A lace^ thong; 
It iaccietto, Fr. lacet, from Lat. laquew, a snare. 

And a grete gyrdell of golde : wit oute gere more 
He leyde on his lendes : wit lachettes fall monye. 

Seffe of Jerusalem (quoted in Guest's 
£ng. Jlhythma, 11. 160). 

A little bande: a garter: a latehtt wherwith they fastned 
their legge hameys. Fasciola. Barety AhkarU, s. v. Bcmde, 

Latter end (Xnm. rdv. 20). A redundant ex- 

He tripped a litle in his tongue, because the Greeke was not 
his naturatl tongue, and placed an s for an n, in the later endy 
saying, o Pai dis, to wit, O sonne of lupiter. North's Plutarch, 
AUx. p. 732. 

laaud^ v.t (Bom. XV. 11; Ps. cxxxv. i, Pr. Bk.). To 
praise ; from Lat. laudare. As Caxton in his Prologue 
to JDictes of Philosophers ; 

It lawdea vertu and science. 

Even as they which thou readest of in the gospel, that they 
were possessed of the devils, could not lattd God till the devils 
were cast out. Tyndale, Doctr. Treat, p. 50. 

The substantive laud was formerly common. 

To thentent that thei, which shall here his yertue, maie haue 
occasiS therby to geue especial! laude & thanke therfore to 
ahnightie god. Sir T. More, Works, p. 6 a. 

Iiaugfa upon, to (i Esd. iv. 31). To laugh at. 

sm to their shame 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

All the world shall lat*gh upon them to their shame which 
are worldly-minded. Latimer, Serm. p. 539. 


laaver, «&. From Lat. lavcLcrum^ Med. Lat. lava- 
riuniy anj vessel for washing. In the 0. T. the word is 
used to denote certain vessels of the temple used for the 
priests' ablutions and other purposes, especially the great 
taver described Exod. xxxviii. 8, i K. vii. In Piers Plough- 
man's Greedy 389, the 'Prechoures' house is described as 

With hwoures of latun 

Loveliche y-greithed. 

And Chaucer's Wife of Bath {Cant Tales, 5869) charges 
one of her husbands with this heresy, 

Thou saist, that assen, oxen, and houndes, 
Thay ben assayed at divers stoandeSi 
.3A9ynB, lavov/n eek, er men hem bye, 
Spones, stooles, and al such housbondrie. 
Also pottes, clothes, and array. 
But folk of wyves maken non assay. 

Iiay to, v.t (Ps. cxix. 126, Pr. Bk.). To apply; as in 
Shakespeare {Temp, iv. i): 

Lay to your fingers ; help to bear this away. 

Lay to both thine ears ; 
Hark what I say to thee. 

B. Jonson, Every Mwn, in his Humowr, TV. 6. 

laeam, v.t f Ps. xxv. 4, 8, cxix. 66, cxxxiL 13, Pr. Bk). 
As an active Vero in the sense of ' to teach' (like the A.-S. 
Ideran^ G. lehren\ it was formerly common, and is still in 
use as a provindaJism. ' 

Peter, as me thynketh, 
Thow art lettred a litel : 
Who Umed thee on boke ? 

Piers Ploughman's Vu, 4756. 

Wiclif uses the form leeren, Latimer says of his &ther^ 
he 'was as diligent to teach me to shoot, as to ^m me any 
other thing' {Serm, p. 197). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


laeasing, sb. (Ps. iv. 2, v. 6). A lie, falsehood ; from 
A.-S. leasung, a lie, which is itself from lecu, false. It occurs 
frequently in Piers Ploughman: 

TeU me no tales, 

Ne lesynge to laughen of. 

For thi lesyngesy Lucifer, 
Lost is al oure praye. 

Fw. 21 13. 

Id, 12699. 

Leeaynge, or lyyiDge...mendaciuin. 

Promptorium Parvidorum. 

Charmes and sorcery, leaynges and flatery. 

Chaucer, KnigJWa Tale, 1929. 

And aU that fained is, as leasings^ tales, and lies. 

Spenser, F. Q. 11. 9, § 51. 

Latimer {Serm, p. 237) uses * ;«a*^monger,' and Wiclif 
(i Tim. i. 10) ' lesf/nffmongenB* 

Iieastwise, adv, ^At the leastwise' occurs in the 
preface of The Translaton to the Reader. 

So the first Christened Emperour {at the leastunae that openly 
professed the faith himselfe, and allowed others to doe the like) 
for strengthening the Empire at his great charges, and prouiding 
for the Church, as he did, got for his labour the name PupUlus, 
as who would say, a wastefiill Prince, that had neede of a 
Guardian, or overseer. 

Leathern, adj. (Matt. lii. 4). Of leather ; A.-S. le^- 
em. In this and similar adjectives we now drop the 
termination -n, or -en; e.g. gold is more frequently used 
than golden^ silver has supplanted silverriy and glaes has 
taken the place of glassen. 

Leave, v. t. (Gen. xxix. 35 ; Acts xxi 32). To leave off 

The adversaries sodenly abashed at y" matter, & mistrustinge 
Mime fraade or deceyte, began also to pause and left strikyng. 

Hall, J2ic^.///. fol. 33 a. 

Digitized by Vn^^V^VJ C 



laeaven^ sh, (Ex. xii. 15, 19, &c.). From Fr. levain 
(Lat. levare, to raise) ; that which raises the dough and 
maJkes it light. Of * cheste^' or strife, says Gower (Cor{f. 
Am. I. p. 294) : 

He is the levein of the hrede. 

Which soureth all the past about. 

The meale of millet is singular good for leumns, if it be 
wrought and incorporat in new wine. ' Holland's Pliny, xvni. 
II. • 

Lees, sb. (Is. xxv. 6; Jer. xlviii. 1 1 ; Zeph. i. 12). Sed- 
iment, dregs ; A.-S. leak, Fr. lie, connected with En. lie, 
and A.-S. licgan, that which lies or settles at the bottom 
of a liquid. 

Verily the lees of wine are so strong, that oftentimes it oner- 
oommeth and kUleth those, who go downe into the vats & vessels 
wherin the wine is made. Holland's Pliny, xxiii. 3. 

laesser^ adj. (Gen. i. i6; Isa. yii. 25 ; Ezek. xvi. 46m., 
xliii 14). Smaller. A double comparatiya 

Thy death-bed is no lesser than thy land 
Wherein thou liest in reputation sick. 

Shakespeare, Mch. 11. U. i. 

Iiesson^ sb. Like Fr. le^n, from Lat.*/^^i6, a read- 
ing. In its technical sense, a portion of Scripture appointed 
to be read in the course of the service. Chaucer, describ- 
ing the 'gentil Pardoner of Bouncival,' says among his 
numerous accomplishments, 

Wei cowde he rede a lessoun or a storye 
But altherbest he sang an offertorie. 

Cant. Tales, prol. 711. 

Hooker uses ^lesson' for the reading of Scripture in 
opposition to ' sermon.' 

Wherein, notwithstanding so eminent properties whereof 
leisons are haply destitute, yet lessons being free from some in- 
conveniences whereunto sermons are more subject, they may in 
this respect no less take, than in other they must giye^ the 
hand which betokeneth pre-eminence. Eccl. Pol, v. 22. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


Let, 9b. (Dent. xy. c). Hindrance. 

And my speech entreats 
That I may know the let, why gentle Peace 
Should not expel these inconyeniences 
And hlesB us with her former qualities. 

Shakespeare, ffen, V. v. a. 

Iiet, ^. t (Ex. V. 4; Nnm. xxil i6f».; Is. xliii. 13; 
Bom.L 13; 2 Thess. ii 7; Wisd. vii. 22). To hinder; from 
A.-S. lettan. To let, 'to permit/ is from A.-S. IcBtan. 

The flesh resisteth the work of the Holy Ghost in our hearts, 
and kU it, lets it. Latimer, Serm, p. 128. 

Ill make a ghost of him that lets me. 

Shakespeare, ffam. I. 4. 

But there must he, no alleys with hedges, at either end, of 
this great inclosure : not at the hither end, for letting your pro- 
spect upon this faire hedge from the greene ; nor at the further 
end, for letting your prospect from the hedge, through the arches, 
upon the heaUi. Bacon, Essay xlyi. p. 190. 

Let alone (Mark xv. 36). In the first Quarto of 
Titits Andranicus, iv. i, the reading is 

Tou are a young huntsman, Marcus, let cUane. 
The other editions have let it alone. 

Let be (Matt, xxvii 49). To cease. 

Sonne (said he then) let he thy bitter scome. 

Spenser, F. Q. n. 7, § 18. 

Lewd^ ady. (Acts xvii. 5). From A.-8. leSde, people 
(G. leute); it was originally applied to denote one of the 
common jpeople, and hence signified 'ignorant, unlearned.' 
From this it came to have the meanii^ of ' lay ' as opposed 
to ' clerical f lay in fact springing from the same root. 
This contrast will be seen in the following passages: 

The Uude man, the grete clerke 
Shall stonde upon his owne werke. 

Gower, Conf. Am, l. ^74. 

For if a prest be foul, on whom we truste, 
No wondur is a lewid man to ruste. 

Chaucer, O. T, prol. 504. 

Digitized by VjVJ WVI ^ 


How thow lemest the peple. 
The lered and the Uwed, 

Piera Plonghman^s VU. iico. 
They thrust him out of the Synagogue as a Uude masters 
leude disciple. XJdal's Erasmus, John, fol. 63 a. 

When we take orders of the Bishops, charge is given to reade, 
and preach Gods word, not to sing : any lewd lay-man can doe 
that, without laying on of a Bishops hands. Peter Smarts Set- 
mon, p. '21 (ed. 1640). 

But at the same time that it was employed to point to 
one characteristic of the common people as ignorant and 
unlearned, itwajs also used to signify 'vicious' generally, 
and even in its more modem sense, in which, according to 
Abp. Trench, it has ' retired from this general designation 
of all vices, to express one of the more frequent, alone.' 
(Glossary, p. 118, ist ed.) Thus in Chaucer's Merchants 
TaZ^ (10023); 

Such olde Uwed wordes used he. 

And in Sir Thomas More {Dial, fol. 796) : 

Wyll you mende yt lewde maner or put awaye Whytsontyde ? 

laewdness. «&. (Acts xviii. 14). Like the adjective 
from which it is rormed this word has passed through some 
changes of meaning. Its original signification was simply 
rusticity; ignorance, as in Piers Plou^iman : 
Shal no lewednesse lette 
The leode that I lovye. 

Ftff. 14 19. 

It was then applied to denote vice generally, as in the 
passage in the Acts of the Apostles, where ^ lewdness* ia 
the translation of the Greek pabiovpyrnuu 

Ye speke of lewdnes vsed at pylgrymages. la there trowe ye 
none vsed on holy dayes? Sir T. More, 3i<d, foL 796. 

From this usage the transition was easy to its more 
modem application to a special vice. 

JABf f>, i. (Josh. ii. im.). To lodge, dwell. 
He [John of Gaunt] therefore taking leaue of the king, departed 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


from the court toward Lincolne, where Katharine Swinford then 
Usji. Stow, Annals, p. 503. 

I remember at Mile-end green, when I lay at Clement's inn, - 
I was then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show. Shakespeare, 2 Hen, 
IV, UL 1. 

The TirtuouB lady, countess of Auyergne, 

"With modesty admiring thy renown, 

By me entreats, great lord, thou wouldst vouchsafe 

To visit her poor castle where she lies, 

lb. I Jlen. VI, II. -2. 

In Othello, ni. 4, the use of the word by Desdemona 
giTCfl the Clown an opportunity of punning upon it 

Lie along (Judg. vlL 13). To lie at full lengthy flat, 
be prostrate. 

Abo we may number among the faults incident to come, 
their rankenesse ; namely, when the blade is so ouergrowne, and 
the staike so charged and loden with a heauie head that the 
oom standeth not vpright, but lieth along, Holland's Pliny, 
xvin. 17. 

When he lies along, 
After your way his tale pronounced shall bury 
His reasons with his body. 

Shakespeare, Cor, v. 6. 

Lien, pp, (Gen. xxvi. lo; Ps. Ixviii. 13). This form of 
the past participle of the verb to lie (A.-S. licgan, pp. legen) 
was common in the i6th century. 

From whose deep fount of life the thirsty rout 
Of Thespian prophets have lien sucking out 
Their sacred rages. 

Chapman, Homer's Odyssey, epist. dedic. 
I have heard 
Of an Egyptian, ,had nine hours Uen dead. 
By good appliance was recovered. 

Shakespeare, Pericles, ni. 2 (ed. Malone). 

Lieth, as much as (Bom. xii. 18). 

Tea, and beside all this, they will curse and ban, as much as 
in them lieth, even into the deep pit of hell, all that gainsay 
their appetite. Latimer's Letter to Hen, VIII, Rem, p. 301. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

294 Tflj^ BIBLE 

Uft, pp. (Gen. vii. 17 ; xiv. 22 ; Ps. xciii. 3). The 
shortened form of lifted, the past pajrticiple of the verb 
*to lift' 

Gloster says of Henry V. 

He ne'er Uft up his hand but conquered. 

Shakespeare i Hm, YI. I. i. 

Light, adj, (Jud^. ix. 4). Idle, worthless. 

Light, vnconstant, of no estimation. Leuis. Baret, Al- 
vecme, s.v. 

Bacon uses the comparatiye. 

Here is described the great disaduantage which a wise man 
hath in yndertakiug a lighter -perBon then himselfe, which is 
such an ingagemente, as whether a man turoe the matter to ieast, 
or tunie it to heate ; or howsoeuer hee change copye, hee can 
no wayes quitte himself e well of it. Adv, 0/ X. n. 23, § 5. 

laight, sb. (i Kings viL 4, 5). An ai>erture for the 
admission of light Bacon^ in his description of a model 
palace, says, 

And let all three sides, be a double house, without thorow 
^ ~ !8, on the sides, that you may have roomes from the sunne, 
both for fore-noone, and aftemoone. £88, xly. p. 183. 

Light, vd. (Bath ii. 3 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 12). LiteraUv, to 
come down, settle ; hence 'to light npon' is to &11 in wito by 
chance, happen with. The metaphor is evidently from a 
bird settling after a flight, and the word 'light' (A.-S. 
lihtan) is probably related to lie (A.-S licgan), as in Lat. 
sido to sedeo. 

It was Theseus happe to light vpon her [Helen], who oaiied 
her to the citie of Aphidnes, because she was yet too young to be 
maried. North's Plutarch, !%€«. p. 17. 

And in such sort that his offering might be acceptable to 
lupiter, and pleasant to his citizens to behold : did cut downe a 
goodly straight growen young oke, which he lighted on by good 
fortune. Id. JRomulu8, p. 30. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Uehten, «.^. (2 Sam. xxii. 29 ; Luke ii. 32). From 
A.-S. UJUian^ to illuminate, enlighten. In the Coventry 
Mysteries we find (p. 103), of the Psalter, 

It lytenyth therkenesse and pnttyth deyelys away. 

But from this lady may proceed a gem 
To lighten all this isle. 

Shakespeare, Hen. VIII. ii. 3. 

All the rest from one end of the streete to the other was of a 
flame, and though it was darke and within night, lightned all the 
place thereabout. North's Plutarch, Alex, ^, 737. 

Lighten upon (Te Deum). This phrase would be 
expressed in modem English by ^ alight,' or * descend upon ;' 
it 18 from the A.-S. liktan of the same meaning, and has 
nothing to do with light or brightness. The original words 
in the Te Beum are, 

Fiat misericordia tua... Super nos. 
Let thy mercy be done upon us. 

LlghtljTi adv, (Gen. xxvi. 10; Deut. zxxii. 15; Mark 
ix. 39). Eanly, slightly, carelessly. 

That ther hath be ful many a good womman, may UgkUy be 
proeyed. Ch*ucer, Tale of MdiboRus, 

Tbej chuese the Tranibores yearly, but lightlie they chaunge 
them not. Sir T. More, Utopia, fol. 546. 

Sometimes it falleth out, that the planets and other stars are 
bespred all ouer with haires : but a Comet lightly is neuer seen In 
the west part of the heauen. Holland's Pliny, 11. 35. 

The traitour in faction lightly goeth away with it. Bacon, 
£u, LI. 

Lightness, $b. (Jer. xxiii 32; 2 Cor. i. 17). Fickle- 
ness^ levity. 

The ArcheHshoppe of Torke fearing that it wold be ascribed 

(as it was in dede) to his ouermuch lightnesae secretely sent 

for the seale againe. Sir T. More, Rich, III.; Works, p. 43^- 

Lightnesse, vneonstancie. Leuitas. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. 
Edward the second... was fedre of bodie, but ynstedfast of 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


manDers, and disposed to lighines, haunting the company of vile 
persons. Stow, AnnaU, p. 327. 

laign-aloes^ sb. (Num. xxiv. 6). A kind of odori- 
ferous Indian tree, usually identified with the Aquilaria 
AgaUochum which supplies the aloes-wood of commerce. 
Our word is a partial translation of the Latin lignum aloes, 
Greek ^XaKorj. The bitterness of the aloe is proverbial. 
The wofiill teares that they leten fall. 
As bitter weren out of teares kind 
For paine, as is ligne aloes, or gall. 

Chaucer, Troil. <k Cru, IV. 1 109. 
Bacon (Sylva, cent. x. 962) recommends, for corrobora- 
tion and comfortation, 
beads of Lignum Aloes, macerated first in Eose- water and dried. 

laigure. sb. (Ex. xxviii. 19, xxxix. 12). Our transla- 
tors have followed the LXX. Xiyvptov and Vulg. liguritu in 
translating the Heb. lesTiem by ligure, which is a precious 
stone unknown in modern mineralogy. Mr King {Antique 
Gems, p. 422) considers ligurius to be a corruption of 
lyncurvus and to denote some kind of Jargoon or tf adnth. 

laike^ v.t (Deut. xxiii. 16; Esth. viii. 8; Amosiv. 5). 
To please, be pleasing ; used either with or without a pre- 
position. > 

Ther may no thing, so God my soule save, 
LUcen to yow, that may displesen me. 

Chaucer, Glerlc'9 Tale, 8382. 

It liketh hem to be clene in body and gosi 

Wife of Bathes Tale, proL 5679. 

Well, I looked on the gospel that is read this day : but it 
liked me not. Latimer, Serm. p. 347. 

laike, adj. ( Jer. xxxviii. 9). Likely. In this sense the 
word is seldom used except as a provincialism. 
Brutus had rather be a villager 
Than to repute himself a son of Home 
Under these hard conditions as this time 
Is like to lay upon us. 

Shakespeare, Jul, Ccn. I. 2. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


The same Jbad like to haue happened a second time, as we 
may see in the Becords and Monuments of old date. 

Holland's Pliny, xxvin. a. 

laike unto (Ex. xy. u ; Matt. yi. 8, &c.), a construe- 
tion DOW antiquated. 

But we may not :|;ake up the third swonf, which is Mahomets 
sword, or like unto it ; that is, to propagate religiou, by warrs, or 
by sanguinary persecutions, to force consciences. Bacon, Eas. ill. 
p. 12. 

laiked, pp. Approved ; in the phrase 'liked of.' 
But was that his. magnificence liked of by all f We doubt of 
it. The Translators to tlie Reader, , 

laiken. v.t, (Is. xl. 18; Matt. vii. 26, xiiL 24). To 
compare ; G. gleichen, 

Lewed men may likne yow thus, 
That the beem lith in youre eighen. . 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, 6i8i. 
The wrinkles in my brows, now fiird with blood, 
Were likened oft to kingly sepulchres. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen, VI, v. 2, 

laikewlse. adv, (Ex. xxxyL i i ; i Ejngs xi. 8 ; Luke 
iii. II, X. 37). In its literal sense, 4n like manner.' [See 

For likewise as he had the spirit of science and knowledge, for 
him and his heirs ; so in like manner, when he lost the same^ his 
heirs also lost it by him and in him. Latimer, Serm, p. 6. 

laiking, sb, (Job xxxix. 4). Condition, plight 

If one be in better plight of bodie, or better liking. Si qua 

habitior paul6, pugilem esse aiunt. Ter. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. 
Well, 1*11 repent, and that suddenly, while I am in some 

liking, Shakespeare, i Men. IV, in. 3. 

laiking, 8b. Approval. 

We shall be maligned by selfe-conceited brethren, who runne 
their owne wayes, and giue liking vnto nothing but what is 
framed by themselues, and hammered on their Anuile. The 
Epistle Dedicatorie. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


lalking; ac^. (Dan. i. 10). * Worse liking' signifies 'in 
worse condition/ and is the translation of a Hebrew word 
elsewhere rendered * sad ' (Gen. xl. 6). * WelH/Am^* oc- 
curs in Holland's Pliny (xxxm. 5) : 

The excellent Borax is known by thiB mark especially, If it 
resemble perfectly in colour the deep and full green that is in the 
blade of com wel liking, 

Lyhyngt^ or lusty, or craske. Delicativus, crassus. Prompt, 

Lineage, «&. (Luke iL 4). Family; Fr. lignage. 

lohn Picus of the fathers side, descended of the worthy 
lii\ctge of themperoure Constantyne. Sir T. More, Life of Picu»; 
Worhf p. I. 

See the quotation from Bacon's New Atlantis mider 


laintel, «&. (Ex. xii. 22, 23). The upper part of the 
frame-work of a door. The Sp. lintel and Fr. linteau are 
both derived from Lat. limentellum, the diminutive of 
limentum, an old form of limen. 

In old time it was an ordinary thing to make of brasse, the 
sides, lintdSf sils, and leaues of great dores belonging to temples. 
Holland's Plinyy xxxiv. 3. 

Iaist| v.i. (Matt. xvii. 12; Mark ix. 13; JohniiiS; 
James iiL 4). To will, please, like ; generally, as the A.-S. 
Ipstan (G. l&sten), from which it is derived, it is used im- 

She ledeih the lawe as hire list. 

Piers Ploughman's Fw. 1673. 

If he had listed he might have stood on the water, as well as 
he walked on the water. Latimer, Serm. p. 205. 

There is an olde phUosophicall common proverbe, VnusgfMqtie 
fingit fortunam nbi, Everie one shapes hys owne fortune as he 
liaU. More aptly may it be said, euerie one shapes his owne 
feares and fancies as he lists, Nash, Terr, of Night, sig. Gj* rev. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Chancer uses the forms teste and Itigt. 

Strong was the wyn, and wel to drynke us teste. 

Cant, Tales, proL 752. 

A Teroan had he, and servantes Domoo 

At that tyme, for him Ivst ryde boo. Jhid, loa. 

And we find lust in this sense as late as Latimer. 

Bat I tell thee whosoever thou art, do so if thou Itut, thpu 
ehalt do it of this price. Serm. p. 401. 

Lively, adj, (Ex. i. 19 ; Ps. xxxviii. 19 ; Acts vii. 38 ; 
I Peter i. 3, ii. 5). The Hebrew and Greek words seve- 
rally rendered 'lively,* in the above passages, literally; 
sigDify ' living,' that is, fnll of life, and so vigorous, strong^ 

LysistratUB of Sicyone, and brother to Lysippus, of whom I 
haue written before, was the first that in plaster or alabaster 
represented the shape of a mans visage in a mould from the 
lively face indeed. Holland's Pliny, xzxv. 12, 

That liveth a long time> Utiely, strong of nature. Yiuaz. 
Baret, Alvearie, s.v. 

Thus in Spenser {F, Q, ni. i, § 38), of Adonis, 

Him to a dainty flowre she did transmew, 

Which in that cloth was wrought, as if it liuely grew. 

laivlng, sb. (Mark xii. 44; Luke viii 43, xv. 12, 30, 
xxL 4). Possessions, property. 

Where a man hath a great living laid together, and where he 
IB scanted. Baoon, Ess, ZLV. p. 181. 

And therefore men whose living lieth together in one Shire, 
are oonmionly counted greater landed then those whose livings 
are dispersed though it be more, because of the notice and com- 
piehension. Id. Colours of Good and Evil, p. 254. 

Loaden, pp, (Is. xlvi. i). Loaded, laden. 

Also we may number among the faults incident to come, 
their lancknesse ; namely, when the blade is so ouergrowne, and 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.J VIC ^ 


the stalks so charged and loden with a heauie head that the com 
standeth not vpright, but is lodged & lieth along. Holland's 
Pliny, XYin. ry. 

laOdge. v.i. (Qen. xxiy. 23 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 16 ; Job xxiv. 
7 ; Is. Ixv. 4). To pass the night ; from Fr. logeVy which 
again is from loge. The latter together with It. loggia is 
derived by Diez from the G. lavbe, an arbour or bower, 
0. H. G. lavJbja, Compare the usage of * bower* for 'cham- 
ber/ so common in old English ballads. The original 
meaning of the verb * to lodge' is illustrated by the follow- 
ing passage from Heywood's 2 Ed. IV, in. 2, 

P, Ed, I pray you, teU me, did you ever know 

Our father Edward lodge within this place ! 
Bra, Never to lodge, my liege ; but oftentimes, 
On other occasions, I have seen him here. 

Care keeps his watch in every old man's eye, 
And where care lodges j sleep will never lie. 

Shakespeare, Rom. and Jul, n. 3. 

Lodge, Bh, (Is. i. 8). A hut. See the preceding. 

A lodge: a little house, or cotage. Ligellum. Baret, Al- 
rearie, s.v. 

I found him here as melancholy as a lodge in a warren. 

Shakespeare, Much Ado, u. i. 

laOit; sb, (i Bangs xTii. 19; Acts xx. 9). An upper 
room ; not as now, of an out-house only. 

A Zoftf a floore boorded in a sollar, or chamber. Tabulfttum. 
Baret, Alvewrie, s.v. 

And if there be a mother, from whose body the whole lineage 
is descended, there is a traverse placed in a loft above on the 
right hand of the chair,... where she sitteth but is not seen. 

Bacon, New AUantk, p. 354, ed. 1677. 

Loftiness, sb, (Is. n. 17; Jer. xlviii. 29). Haugh- 

Another exposition is, to make this a proper mean to keep 
and conserve unity, rather than a way only to diminish lofHneu 
and pride. Sandys, Serm, p. 107. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


IfOfty, adj, (Ps. cxxxi. i ; Prov. xxx. 13 ; Is. ii. 1 1, 12). 

We have a common saying amongst us, 'when we see a fellow 
sturdy, loftyy and proud, men say, 'This ia a saucy fellow;* signi- 
fying him to be a high-minded fellow, which taketh more upon 
him than he ought to do, or his estate requireth. Latimer, Senn* 
p. 464. 

With loftie eyes, halfe loth to looke so lowe 
She thajiked them in her disdainefull wise. 

Spenser, F. Q. I. 4, § I4. 
Lofty and sour to them that loved him not. 

Shakespeare, Hen, VIII, iv. 1. 

laook, v.i, (Acts xxvilL 6). To expect. 

Certain of my friends came to me with tears in their eyes, 
and told me they looked I should have been in the tower the 
same night. Serm. p. 135. 

Lover, sb, (Ps. xxxviii. 11). An intimate friend, 
not necessarily of the opposite sex. Menenius says, 
I tell thee, fellow, 
The general is my lover. 

Shakespeare, Cor. v. 9. 

Lovingklndness, «&. (Ps. xvil. 7, &c.). The Hebrew 
word of which this is the good old Saxon representative is 
elsewhere rendered * goodness/ * kindness/ * mercy,' 'merci- 
fdl kindness.' 

His lovinghindm^ shall we loose I dout, 
And be a byword to the lands about. 

Fairfax, Tatao, 1. 16. 

Lucky sb, (Ps. xly. 5, cxviiL 26, cxxix. 8, Pr. Bk.). 
Fortune; Du. Iticky Dan. lykke, G. gluck. Hence * good luck ' 
is * prosperity.' The word has now become colloquial, and 
in tiie A. Y. of the above passages yarious equivalent 
expressionfl are substituted. 

It wan yood luche that I went downe here : or I came hether 
in a good hoare. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


God will Bend with thee his angell which shall prosper thee 
this ioumie : or bring thee good lucke therein. Jbid, 

Be opposite all planets of good luck 

To my proceediDgs, if, with pure heart's love, 

Immaculate devotion, holy thoughts^ 

I tender not thy beauteous princely daughter ! 

Shakespeare, Rich, III, iv. 4. 

lalicre, Bb, (i Tim. iii. 3, 8 ; Titus i. 7> 1 1). Gain; Lat 
lucrum. Hence ' filthy lucre '.is sordid, base gam. 

The loss is had, the lucre is lore. 

Gower, Conf, Am, n. p. 88. 

Some, out of that insatiable desire of fiMiy lucre, to be 
enriched, care not how they come by it. Burton, AntU, of Mel, 
pt. I. sec. 2, mem. 3. subs. 15. 

The stratagems of prelates for their own ambition and lucre. 

Bacon, Esi, xvn. p. 69. 

laUSt, v,L (Ps. xxxiv. 12, Ixxiii. 7. Pr. Bk.). To desire ; 
A.-S. luitan. See examples under List. 

lalist, »&. (Ps. X. 2, xcii. 10, Pr. Bk. ; i John il 16, 17). 
Strong desire, pleasure, like A.-^. lust; not restricted as 
now to one passion only. 

Of prikyng and of huntyng for the hare 
Was al hu htstf for no cost wolde he spare. 

Chaucer, Cant, Tales, proL 192. 

Nought oonly, lord, that I am glad, quod sche, 
To don your lust, but I desire ^o 
Tow for to serve, and plese in my degre. 

Id. Clerk's TdU, 8844, 

To seke in armes worschipe and honour, 
For al his lust he set in suche labour. 

Id. The Franklin's Tale, 11 114. 

Ohaucer uses also the forms lest and list. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOOK, 303: 

In curtesie was sett al hire Utt. 

Cant, Tola, prol. 132. 

He nolde suffire nothing of my list. 

Wife of Batk'B TaU, proL 6«i 5. 

Lustiljr, adv. (Ps. xxxiii. 3, Pr. Bk). Vigorously ; the 
word is retained from Coverdale's version. 

I do not desire he should answer for me ; and yet I determine 
to fight hutily for him. Shakespeare, Sen, F. iv. i. 

Lusty, adj. ( Judg. iii. 29 ; Ps. Ixxiii. 4, Pr. Bk.). Stout, 
Tigorous, rail of energy. 

With him there was his sone, a yong squyer, 
A lovyer, and a luuty bachelor. 

Chaucer, Cant Tales, proL 80. 
A! welcome hedyr 1 blyssyd mayster, we pasture hem ful wyde, 
They be lusty and fayr and grettly multiply. 

Coventry Mysteries, p. 74. 
Let me be your servant: 
Though I look old, yet I am strong and lusty; 
For in my youth I never did apply 
Hot and rebellious liquors in my blood ; 
Nor did not with unbashful forehead woo 
The means of weakness and debility ; 
Therefore my age is as a lusty winter, 
Frosty, but kindly. 

Shakespeare, As You Like It, n. 3. 

It sdso has the meaning of 'cheerful, merry,' like the 
Qerman bistig. 

And fro his courser, with a lusty herte, 
Into the grove ful lustily he sterte. 

Ch&VLcer, KnigJWs Tale, ISIS* 
It is derived jfrom the A.-S. lust in its primary sense 
of eager desire, or intense longing, indicating a corre- 
apondmg intensity of bodily yigour. The idea of strong 
passion has crept into the word in its degeneracy ; that it 
was not necessarily implied in it is shewn in the A.-S. 
lustlic and G. ItuHg which simply mean merry, joyfuL The 
Hebrew in both passages above quoted is uterally 'fat,' 
as is given in the margin of the A. Y. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The Scotch lusty hsA the sense of 'beautiful, handsome.' 
Thus Gawin Douglas' translation of the followinsr line of 

Sunt mihi bis septem prcestanti corpore nympbae, 

I have, quod scbe, lu8ty ladyis fourtene. 

lallte, «&. (Ps. xxxiii. 2, Ivii. 9, Ixxxi. 2, xcii. 3, cviii. 
2, cxliv. 9, cl. 3, Pr. Bk.). A stringed musical instrument 
(G. Laute, from latUen to sound, connected with A.-S. 
Mad, loud). In the A. V. the Hebrew nabel in the above 
passages is rendered psaltery ; but that the two instruments 
were not identical is clear from the following passage from 
Chaucer's Flower and the Leaf, 337 : 

And before bem went minstreles many one, 
As barpes, pipes, lutes and sautiy 
Alle in greene. 

The trembling lute some touchy some strain e the vioU best. 

Drayton, Polyolbion, iv. 356. 

It resembled the guitar, but was superior in tone, * being 
larger, and haying a convex back, somewhat like the vertic; 
al section of a gourd, or more nearly resembling that of a 
pear... It had virtually six strings, because, although the 
number was eleven or twelve, five at least were doubled, 
the fins, to treble, being sometimes a single string. The 
head in which the pegs to turn the strings were inserted, 
receded almost at a right angle.' GhappeU, Poptdar 
Mtisic of the Olden Time, i. 102. 

Ia3ringly, adv. (Jer, xxvii. 15 m,). Falsely. 

Mentitamente, falsely, vntruly, leasingly, lyingly» Florio, 
W(yrlde of Wordes. 

Mensongerement. Lyingly, fabulously, falsely, vntruly. 
Gotgrave, Fr» Diet, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Magnifical, adj, (i Ghr. zzii. 5). Magnificent ; Lat. 

There is no respect of persons "with God : neither ought we to 
be carried away with external shews of magnificcU pomp, of glo- 
rious titles, of great authority, much leamiog, nor in matter of 
religion to respect the messenger, but the message. 

Sandys, Serm, p. 278. 

Magnify, v.f. (Josh. iii. 7; Job vii. I7;xix. 5, &c). 
From Lat. magnificare^ Fr. magnifier^ in the literal sense 
of * to make great' The earlier of Wiclif 's versions of Matt, 
xxiii. 5 is as foUows : 

Therfore thei don alio her werkis, that the! be seen of men ; 
forsothe thei alargen her filateries, that ben smale scrowis, and 
riMgn^ hemmys. 

There was never law, or sect, or opinion, did so much f/Mff- 
mfit goodnesae, as the Christian religion doth. Bacon, Em, xiii. 
p. 48. 

Maid-child, «6. (Ley. xii. 5). A female child. 

At sea in childbed died she, but brought forth 
A maid-child called Marina. 

Shakespeare, Per, v. 3. 

Make, 9.^. (Josh. viu. 15, ix. 4; 2 Sam. xiii.6 ; Lnke 
xziy. 28). To feign, pretend. 

Master chancellor also said, that my lord of London nudeeth 
as though he were greatly displeasod with me. Latimer, Rem. 
p. 3^3- 

Make, v.t. (Judg. xyiiL 3). To do. 

And what mdke you from Wittenberg, Horatio? 

Shakespeare, ffamUtf I. 1. 

Thou frantic woman, what dost thou make here? 

Id. Rich. IL V. 3. 

She was in his company at Page's house ; and what they 
made there, I know not. Id. Merry Wives, u. i. 

Digitized by CjOOQuSO 


Make occurs in various phrases whidi bare now 
passed out of use. 

1. Make for (Rom. xiv. 19). To be for the advan- 
tage of. 

For none deny there is a God, but those, for whom it maketh 
that there were no God. Bacon, E»8. xvi. p. 65. 

2. Make mention (Gen. xl. 14; Jer. iv. 16). To 
mention, tell, proclaim. 

And though he make no mention of Andrew, yet it was like 
that he was amongst them too, with Peter, John, and James. 
Latimer, Bern. p. 25. 

How is it, that in making rnenUon of those that be dead, we 
speake with reuerence and protest that we haue no meaning to 
disquiet their ghosts thereby, or to say ought preiudiciail to their 
good name and memoriall*? Holland's Pliny, xxvili. 3. 

3. Make merry (i Esd. vii. 14). To be merry. 

I intend to make m^erry with my parishioners this Christmas. 
Latimer, Rem. p. 334. 

4. Make moan (Ecclus. xxxviii. 17). To moan. 

This word, ' Father,' came even from the bowels of his heart, 
when he made his m^mn. Latimer, Serm. p. 226. 

Makebate, sb, (2 Tim. iii. 3 m), A causer of strife. 

Satan, the author and sower of discord, stirred up his instru- 
ments (certain Frenchmen, tittivillers, and mahebaita about the 
king), which ceased not, in carping and depraving the nobles, to 
inflame the king's hatred and grudge against them. Foxe, Booh 
of Martyr9y an. 131 2. n. 648, ed. Cattley. 

Maliciousness^ «6. (Rom. i 29; i Pet ii 16). 
Malice, wickedness. 

He called for water to washe his handes and testifying the 
innocencie of Jesus, & condemnyng the frowarde m^jUcumtnetae 
of the Jewes, he gaue sentence of death against Jesus. Udal's 
Erasmus, LiiJce^ fol. 170 h. 

Seke ye not therefore helpe at mannes hSde, that ye male 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


therewith arme and defende your self against the violence, and 
maUcUmsnesse of the eiuil, nor take you no care ne thought for 
your liuyng or thynges necessarie. Ibid. fol. 90 a, 

Man of war, *6. (Ex. xv. 3 ; Josh. xvii. i ; Is. lii. 2 ; 
Lnke xxiii. 11). A warrior, soldier. 

How far is it to Berkley? and what stir 

Keeps good old York there with his men of war ? 

Shakespeare, Jiich. II. n. 3. 

Kings have to deale with their neighbours ;... their merchants ; 
their commons ; and their men of warre. Bacon, Ess. xix. p. 77. 

Man-child^ sb. (Gen. xvii. 10, 14, &c.). A male child : 
A.-S. man-cild, 

Lucina came : a tnaiichild forth I brought. 

Spenser, F. Q. U, i, § 53. 

I sprang not more in joy at first hearing he was a man-child 
than now in first seeing he had proved himself a man. Shake- 
speare, Coriolanus, I. 3. 

Mandrake, sb. (Gen. xxx. 14, 15, 16 ; Cant. vii. 13). 
The English word is a corruption of mandragoras, the 
botanicsS name of the plant oeing atropa mandragoraj 
anciently used in love-charms and potions. The gathering 
of the mandrake was believed to be attended with danger, 
the ^oan which it uttered when torn from the earth being 
&taL To this there are constant allusions in the old poets. 

And shrieks like mand/rakes^ torn out of the earth. 

Shakespeare, Rom. and JuL, iv. 3. 

By the Mand/raJces dreadf ull groanes, 
By the Lubricans sad moanes. 
By the noyse of dead mens bones 
In chamell houses ratling. 

Drayton, Nymphidia, 417. 

In Ben Jensen's Masque of Queens, the third hag says : 

I last night lay all alone. 
On the ground, to hear the mandrake groan ; 
And pluck'd him up, though he grew full low ; 
And, as I had done, the cock did crow. 

20 — 2 

Digitized by VjOvJV IC 


> The ceremonies to be observed in digging for the man- 
drake are thus described by Pliny : 

In the digging up of the root of Mtmd/rage, there are some 
ceremonies observed : first they that goe about this worke, looke 
especially to this, that the wind be not in their face, but blow 
upon their backes'^ then, with the point of a' sword they draw 
three circles round about the plant: which done, they dig it np 
afterwards with their face into the west. Holland's Pliny, xxv. 13 
(ed. 1601). 

Manner, sb. (Rev. xviiL 12). From Fr. maniere, 
' manner, sort, kind.' The pecoliarity in the passage quoted 
above is the omission of tne preposition ^ of/ * aU manner 
vessels of ivory/ an ellipsis of frequent occurrence in old 

But she no maner joie made, 

But sorweth sore of that she fonde 

Ko christendome in thilke londe. 

Gower, Corrf, Am. I. p. 184. 

A mamer Latyn corrupt was hir speche, 
But algates therby sche was understonde. 

Chaucer, Man ofLaw*s Tale, 4939. 

Wei can the wise poet of Florence, 

That highte Dant, speken of this sentence : 

Lo, in swiche numer rime is Dantes tale. 

Id. Wife of Bath's Tale, 6709 (ed. Tyrwhitt). 

In the Percy Society's edition the reading in the last line 

This maner murmur is swich as whan man grucchith of good- 
nes that himself doth. Chaucer, Parson's TctU, 

According to the saying of St Paul, where he saith that 
* faith is of hearing,* and not of all manner hearing, but of hear- 
ing of the word of God. Latimer, Bern, p. 319. 

Fal. What manner of man is he! 
Sosi, An old man. 

Shakespeare, i /Ten. IV. n. 4. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Other examples are given in Jamieson's Scottish Die- 
tionaryy s. v. maner. 

Manner, 8b. (2 E. xi. 14 ; John xix. 40). Cnstom, 

For when they had sown their grounds, their maner was, of 
an other come to bring back with Siem out of the fieldes some 
beanes: for good luck sake. Holland's Pliny, xviii. is. 

Manner, in a (i Sam. xxi. 5). In some sort 

Nay, it is m a maTvn&r done already. ^ 

Shakespeare, K. Johrif v. 7. 

Manner, on this (Gen. xxxii 19}. In this way. 

Manner, with the (Num. v. 13). The meaning of 
this phrase will appear from the followmg extract : 

Mainow, alias ManouVy alias Meinotbr, From the French 
Marnier y i. manu tractare: In a legal sense, denotes the thing 
that a Thief taketh away, or steajeth. As to be taken with the 
Meinour, PL Cor. fol. 1 79, is to be taken with the thing stoUen 
about him: And again, fol. 194, it was presented, That a Thief 
wag delivered to the Sheriff or Viscount, together with the 
Maiawwr, Cowel's Interpreter ^ ed. 1701. 

The manner of it is, I was taken with the mamner. 

Shakespeare, Lovers L. L.l. i. 

O YiUain, thou stolest a cup of sack eighteen years ago, and 
wert taken wUh the manner. Id. i Hen. IV, 11. 4. 

^ In the manner/ is used in the same way. 

Prendre au faict flagrant. To take at it, or in the manner; 
to apprehend vpon the deed doing, or presently after. Cotgrave, 
Fr. Diet. s.v. Flagrant. 

How like a sheep-biting rogue, taken t* th* m>a/nner, 
And ready for the halter, dost thou look now ! 

Beaumont & Fletcher, Rule a Wife and Jia/ve a Wife,y. 4. 

Manpleaser, sb. (Eph. vi. 6 ; Col. iii. 22). For this 
word, which is the literal rendering of the Greek dvOpoyir- 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


apeo-Kos, we are indebted to the translation of the Bible. It 
first occurs in Tyndale's version. 

Now this Doeg being there at that time, what doeth he? Like 
a whisperer, or manpleoMr, goeth to Saul the king, and told him 
liow the priest had refreshed David in his journey, and had given 
unto him the sword of Goliath. Latimer, Serm. p. 486. 

Mansions, sb. (John xiv. 2). Like the mansiones of 
the Vulgate, which our translators followed, this word is 
used in its primary meaning of * dwelling places,' ' resting 
places' (Gk. fwvai) ; especially applied to halting places on 
a journey, or quarters for the night. Bearing this in mind 
the application of the word in the above passage becomes 
singularly appropriate. It was afterwards used for a dwell- 
ing house generally (whence Fr. maison, Sc. manse)j and 
later for a building with some pretensions to magnificence, 
which latter is now the prominent idea of the word. 

In his Advertisement touching an Holy Warre (Mis- 
cellany Works, p. 126, ed. Rawley, 1629) Bacon says, 

And the Pyrates now being, haue a Beceptacle, and if osMum, 
in Algiers. 

And so in Shakespeare {Tim, o/At?uY.2): 

But say to Athens 
Timon hath made his everlasting mantum 
Upon the beached verge of the salt flood. 

Manslayer, sb. (Num. xxxv. 6, 12 ; i Tim. i. 9). A 
good native word, superseded by 'homicide' of Latin 

And ^e wolen do the desyris of ^oure fadir. He was a man- 
sleeve fro the bigynnyng. Wiclff (i), John viii. 44. 

In Wiclif 's translation of Mark vi. 27 it denotes an 

Many one (Ps. iii. 2, Pr. Bk.). Many a one : retained 
from Coverdale's version. 

With him ther wente knyghtes many oon, 

Chaucer, KnigMs TcUe, 1120. 

Digitized by Vj«^VJV IC 


And at the brondes end out ran anoon 
As it were bloody dropea many oon. 

Ibid. 234. 

Mar, f),t (Lev. xix. 27; Ruth iv. 6; Mark ii. 22). To 
spoil, waste ; perhaps from Ai-S. myrran or amyrran^ to 
scatter, squander. 

The whiles her lonely face 
The flashing bloud with blushing did inflame. 
And the strong passion mard her modest grace. 

Spenser, i?. Q. IL 9, § 43. 

But if you be remembered, 
I did not bid you mar it to the time. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of Shrew, iv. 3. 

Marish, ^. (Ez. xML ii). A marsh; Fr. maraisy 
vfldch is comiected with E. mere, M. Lat. mare, and A.-S. 
merge. It occurs in Chaucer in the form marreys, or m^areis 
in some copies. 

And sins sche dorst not tel it unto man, 
Doun to a marreya taste by sche ran. 

Wife of Bath's Tale, 6552. 

Before the time of Augustus, 

The wine Csecubum was in best account ; and the vines which 
yeelded it, grew to the poplars in the marish grounds within the 
tract of Amyche. Holland's Pliny, xiv. 6. 

A fenne, or mariae, a moore often drowned with water. Palus. 
Baret, Alvea/iie, s.y. Fenne, 

Marvel, sb, (Ex. xxxiv* lo; 2 Cor. xL 14). A won- 
der: Fr. merveilley It. maraviglia, which latter is easily 
seen to be the Lat. mirabiliay wonderful things. 

And what marueiU though the apostles thus did in their speche 
afore infidels. SirT. More, World, p. 1596. 

Marvel, t>,i. (Mark t. 20). To wonder; from the 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


He 80 lightli turned from him and so highly conspired against 
him, that a man would fiM/rueil wherof jr chaunge grew. Sir 
T. More, Works, p. 69 g. 

Masterbuilder, sh, (i Cor. iii. 10). An ardiitect. 

The rest is left to the holy wisedome and spirituall discretion 
of the mojSterAywilders and inferiour builders in Ohristes Church. 
Bacon, Certaine Considerations Umchtng the Church of England, 
p. 10, ed. 1604. 

Mastery, sb. (Ex. xxxii. 18). From the Lat magiste- 
rium, the office of magister or master; hence generally, 
* superiority.* 

If a wif have maisirie, sche is contrarious to her housbond. 
Chaucer, TdU of Mdibeus. 

I my self haue seen them fight one with another for the 
mastne, Holland's Pliny, vrn. 45. 

For Hot, Cold, Moist, and Dry, four Champions fierce^ 
Strive here for mastery, 

Milton, P(ur, Lost, n. 899. 

See also the quotation under Mids. 

Matrix, sh, (Ex. xiii. 12, 15, xxxiy. 19, &c). 

The matrice, matrix, or place in the wombe where the chUde 
is conceived. Minsheu. 

Written matrice in Numb. iii. 12 in the ed. of 161 1, 

Maul, «&. (ProY. xxY. 18). Yr.maU from Lat. malleusj 
a mallet, mace, or heavy hammer. Maul is still used in 
Yorkshire to denote a wooden mallet. Tall-McUl is so 
called from being the place where a game of ball was played 
with mallets or maces. 

With mightie maU 
The monster merdlesse him made to fall. 

Spenser, F, Q. I. 7, § 51. 

Marsilius Ficinus puts melancholy amongst one of those five 
principal plagues of students : 'tis a common maul unto them 
all. Burton, Anat, of Mel. Pt. i. Sec. 2. Mem. 3. Subs. 15. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Vpon the French what Englishman not falls, 
(By the strong bowmen beaten from their steeds) 
With battle-axes, halberts, bills, and maule». 

Drayton, BaMle of Agincourt, 1513. 

Maw, sb. (Dent xviii. 3). The stomach ; A.-S. maga. 

Who kepte Jonas in the fisches matDe^ 
Til he was spouted up at Nineve? 

Chaucer, Man of Lav^s Tale, 4906. 

There thirstie Tantalus hong by the chin. 
And Tityus fed a vulture on his maw. 

Spenser, F, Q. I. 5, § 35- 

Mean, acff, (Prov. xxii. 29; Is. 11. 9, v. 15, xxxl. 8; 
Acts xxl. 39 ; Rom. xii. 16 m). This word was origin- 
ally used in the sense of ' common, lowly/ without the Idea 
of baseness which now attaches to it, and which has pro- 
bably arisen from a confusion of two A.-S. words gemcBne, 
'common,* (G. gemein\ and m<^ne, 'false,* from man, *sin,' 
which appears in theG. Meineid=A..S. mdn-d^, 'perjury.' 

It might please the king's grace now being to accept into 
his favour a mean man, of a simple degree and birth, not born 
to any possessions. Latimer, Serm, p. 4. 

Well, come, my Kate ; we will unto your father's^ 
Even in these honest mean habiliments ; 
Our purses shall be proud, our garments poor. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of the Shrew, iv. 3. 

Measure, sb. The phrases ' above measure' (2 Cor. xi. 
23), and 'beyond measure' (Gal. i. 13), in the sense of 'ex- 
cessively,' are imitations of the Latin supra modum. Sir 
T. Overbury, in his character of the ' Jesuit,' says : 

His order is full of irregularitie and disobedience : ambitious 
above all measure. 

Meat, sb. (Gen. 1. 29, 30 ; Deut. xx. 20). In the ^ner- 
al sense of 'food;' compare A.-S. mete, Dan. mad, m the 
same sense. In no passage of the A. Y. has this word the 

Digitized by Vjl^VJV IC 


exclusive meaning of 'flesh,' to which it is restricted in 
modem usage. It denoted all kinds of victuals except 
bread and dnnk. Thus in Baret's AlveaHe: 

Meate, cates, whatsoeuer is. eaten except bread and diinke. 

The following passages from the same old dictionary 
illustrate phrases in the A. V. in which the word occurs; 

To sit downe to meaie, Accumbere epulis. 

Broken meates, Fragmenta. 

Indeed so far from meat being used to signify * flesh' 
exclusively, it is remarkable that in the 'meat-offering^ 
there was nothing but flour and oil. The word render^ 
' meat' in Ps. cxi. 5, is more correctly *prey.' 

* Is this not a great labour,* say they, *to run from one town 
to another to get our meatf* Latimer, Serm. p. 376. 

Meet^ adj. (Ex. viii 26 ; Heb. vi 7, &c.). A.-S. gem^t, 
fit, proper. Of the clergymen who went so 'gallantly' in 
his time, Latimer says: 

I hear say that some of them wear velvet shoes and velvet 
slippers. Such fellows are more r/ieet to dance the morrice-dance 
than to be admitted to preach. I pray God amend such worldly 
fellows; for else they be not meet to be preachers! Latimer, 
Rem. p. 83. 

Meetest, sb. (2 K. x. 3). Fittest. 

This, he thought the meetest place that could be, to build the 
city which he had determiaed. North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 731. 

Memorial, sb, (Esth. ix. 28 ; Ps. ix. 6). Memory. 

How is it, that in making mention of those that be dead, we 
speake with reuerence and protest that we haue no meaning to 
disquiet their ghosts thereby, or to say ought preiudiciall to &eir 
good name and memoricUU Holland^s Pliny, xxvin. 2, 

Merchantman, «&. (Gen. xxxvii. 28 ; Matt xiii 45). 
A merchant. 

The craftsman, or merchantmanf teacheth his prentice to lie. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


and to ntter his wares with lying and forswearing. Latimer, 
Serm. p. 500. 

Mess^ 8h, f Gen. xliii. 34 ; 2 Sam. xi. 8). A dish of meat ; 
derived from O. H. G. mazo, meat. Speaking of the mar- 
riage of Lionel Duke of Clarence with the daughter of the 
duke of Milan, Burton says ; 

He was welcomed with such incredible magnificence, that 
a kings purse was scarse able to bear it ; for besides many rich 
presents of horses, arms, plate, mony, jewels, &c. he made one 
dinner for him and his company, in which were thirty-two 
messes, and as much provision left,... as would serve ten thousand 
men. Anat. of Mel. Pt. 3. Sec. 2. Mem. 6. Subs. 5. 

A messCj or dish of meate borne to the table. Fercnlum. 
Baret, Alvearie. 

Mete, v.t (Ex. xvL i8; Ps. Ix. 6; Matt. vii. 2). To 
measure; from A.-S. metan, Goth, mat; comi)are Lat. 
fnetirif Gr. uerpclv, which have a common origin in the 
Sansc. md. The earlier of Wiclif 's versions of Matt vii. 2 
is, 'in what mesure ?e meten, it shal be meten to ?ou.' 

Their memory 
Shall as a pattern or a measure live, 
By which his grace must mete the lives of others. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen, IV. iv. 4. 

Meteyard, sb. (Lev. xix. 35). From A.-S. met-geard, 
a measuring rod. 

Take thou the bill, give me thy meteyard, and spare not me. 
Shakespeare, Tam. of me Shrew, rv. 3. 

Neither is it the plaine dealing Merchant that is vnwilling to 
bane the waights, or the meteyard brought in place, but he that 
vseth decdit. Translators' Preface. 

Me thinkethy v. imp. (2 Sam. xviii.27). The old form 
of methinks, ' it seems to me,' which is not unfrequent. The 
A.-S. me j>inc^y which it represents, corresponds with the 
G. mich dunkt. 

Me thinheth God is the to guede. Body and Souly 20. 

Digitized by VjVJOQIC 


Surely, me&dnketh it is a great benefit of God, to be a servant 
Latimer, Serm. p. 351. 

In A.-S. other pronouns were used with this impersonal 
verb; ^4 ]>inc^^ *it seems to thee.* For 'him thought' see 
quotation from Sir T. More under Rase. In Ghauoer the 
order of the words is changed : 

Than is it wisdom, as thenkeOb me. 
To maken vertu of necessite. 

Knight^ $ TaU, 3043. 

Middest^ sb, (Deut. xzL 8 m). Midst; in the edi- 
tion of 161 1. 

The middle, or middest Medium. Baret, Alvearie, 

The nUddea of summer. Aestas adulta. Id. 

See quotation from North's Plutarch, under Prove. 

Middlemost/ 0(3^^ (Ez. xUi. 5, 6). Nearest the 

Midland, sb, (2 Mace. viii. 35). The interior of a 
country. We still use the word as an adjective in speaking 
of the * midland counties.' 

MidSy sK (Ex. xiv. 16, xv. 19). The old form of 'midst' 
in the ed. of 161 1. 

But here lieth all the maistrie and cunning, as well in this as 
in all things else, namely, to cut even in the mida, and to hold 
the golden meane. Holland's Plutarch, Morals, p. 8, L 46. 

Might. The auxiliary might is used for may in Luke 
viii. 9 ; John v. 40. Thus in Gower {Goiif. Am. IL p. 109) 
PhcBDUs is apostrophized as 

Thou, whiche art the dales eye 
Of love and might no counseil hide. 

Mighty^ sb, (i Chr. xi 1 2, 24). A mighty or valiant man. 

Milch^ adj, (Gen. xxxlL 15 ; i Sam. vL 7, 10). Milk- 

Then, at my farm, 
I have a hxmdred mUchAsxae to the paiL 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of the Shrew, n. i. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


For feede them they will with greater affection, with more 
care and diligence, as loving them inwardly, and (aa the proverbe 
saith) from their tender naHes^ whereas mUch nources and foster- 
mothers carie not so kinde a hart unto their nourcelings. Hol- 
land's Plutarch^ Morals, p. 4, 1. 23. 

Mincing, acfj. (Is. ill 16). This word happily ex- 

Eresses the meaning of the original, the root of whicn signi- 
es to trip, or to walk with short steps like children. It 
is apparently derived from the A.-S. minsian or Lat minuOf 
to ihake small. 

A mincing tripping pace, as the prophet doth note, aigaeth 
a proud and an unstable heart. 

Sandys, Serm, p. 137. 
Turn two mincing steps 
Into' a manly stride. 

Shakespeare, Mer» of Ven, in. 4. 

Mind, V, i. (Acts XX. 31). To intend, purpose. 
The Lorde had alreadie entred his ioumey, and shewed euen 
plainly by his countenatlce, that he was bounde towardes Hieru- 
salem as one that purposely mynded to bee in the waie against 
the occasion of his death should come. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, 
fol. 89 a. 

To mind, or purpose. In animo habere. Baret, Alvearie, 
We do not come as minding to content you. 

Shakespeare, Mid. N*$ Dr, V. i. 

Minded, pp, (Ruth L i8; 2 Ghr. xxiy. 4; Matt i. 
19). Indineo, determined; like the Greek <t>pow»y. 

I have been minded many times to have been a friar, namely 
when I was sore sick and distressed. Latimer, Rem, p. 333. 
One mmded like the weather, most unquietly. 

Shakespeare, K, Lea/r, nz. i. 

Minishf V, t. (Ex. y. 19 ; Ps. crii. 39 ; Ps. xii. i, Pr. Bk.). 
From Lat. mtntiere, to diminish, through the 0. Fr.menuiser^ 
which corresponds with the It. minuzzare. The compound 
diminish has now superseded it. In Chaucer we find nunuse 
and amenuse in the same sense. Even in Wiclif's time 
menuse appears to have required explanation, either as a 
novelty or an archaism. The earlier version of John iii 30, is; 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


It bihoueih him for to wexe, forsoth me to be menusid, or 
maad lease. 

Customable vsage of lyght wordes, dothe by lytle and lytle 
mynishe in the myndes both of the speakers and also of the 
hearers, the reuereDce that is due to god. Erasmus, On the Ten 
Commandments^ fol. 153a. 

Miniffteri sh. Like the Lat. minister, this word 
had several shades of meaning, from that of a simple attend- 
ant or servant to that of an officer of state or of religion. In 
the A. Y. the first of these only occurs, while in onr present 
usage the last two only have remained. Thus in Ex. xxiv. 
13; Josh. 1. I, Joshua is called Moses' minister, while in 
Ex. xxxiii. 1 1 ; Num. xi. 28, the same Hebrew word is ren- 
dered servant, and in 2 K. iv. 43, servitor. In i K. x. 5, 
and 2 Chr. ix. 4, the same word occurs, and the rendering 
ministers suggests the modem idea of ministers of state 
A similar confusion is likely to arise in Luke iv. 20, when 
' minister' simply denotes the attendant in the synagogue: 
who had the charge of the sacred books. The word ap* 
pears to have been introduced into our language by means 
of the translations of the Bible. 

Be thou consentynge to thin aduersarie soon, the whijle thou 
art in the way with hym, lest perauenture thin aduersarie take 
thee to the domesman, and the domesman take thee to the 
mynystre, and thou be sente in to prisoun. Wiclif (i), MaM. v. 25. 

The modir of him seith to the mynystris, what euere thing 
he schal seie to ^ou, do ^e. Id. John ii. 5. 

The eldeste (as I sayde) rulethe the familye. The wyfes bee 
ministers to theire husbandes, the children to theire parentes, 
and to bee shorte the yonger to theire elders. Sir T. More, 
Utopia, 62 b. 

Minister, v. t (2 Cor. ix. 10). To supply, furnish ; 
like Lat. ministrare. 

The people of the countrees there aboute hearyng of hys 
straight iustice & godly mynd, ministered to hym bothe vitailes 
& other necessaries. Hall, JTen. F. fol. 14 b. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Misdeem, v,t (Matt.i. <?.)• To misjudge, or judge 
wrongly, from mia- and demdriy to deem, judge ; connected 
with doom, judgment, sentence, doomsmariy dempster or 
deemer, a judge. 

That taketh -well and scometh nought, 
Ne it misdeme in hir thought, 
Through malicious intention. 

Chaucer, Home of Fame j ppol. 92. 
Yet, being matcht with plaine antiquitie, 
Ye will them all but fayned showes esteeme, 
Which carry colours faire, that feeble eies misdeeme. 

Spenser, F, Q. vi. prol. § 4. 

Miserably, adv. (Matt, zxi 41). Used with an 
actiye verb. 

The Kentishmen, by casting of fire, did cruellie bume Moll 
the brother of Cedwall king of the West Saxons, and twelue of 
his knightes with him: wherewith Cedwall being mooued to 
furie, did miserablie harrie and spoile all Kent, so that by the 
space of 9AS.Q yeere, there was no king in that countrey. Stow, 
AnnalSy p. 68. 

Mislike, v,t {Trans, to the Reader). To dislike, 
which is more commonly used. 

We have cause greatly to mUlike of too poynts in your pro- 
ceding there. Ley cater Correspondence, p. 242. 
Midihe me not for my complexion, 
The shadowed livery of the bumish'd sun. 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Ven. 11. i. 
If he mislike 
My speech and what is done, tell him he has . 
HipparchuSy my enfrancbed bondman, whom 
He may at pleasure whip, or hang, or torture. 
As he shall like, to quit me. 

Id. Ant. and CI. ill. 13. 

Mite, sb. (Mark xii. 42). A very small coin: Fr. mite, 
firom Lat. minutum. In Suffolk it was used for a half- 

Thomas, that jape is not worth a myte. 

Chaucer, Sompnowes Tale, 7543. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Myne hoste ye haue money for the purpose, see to this man 
at my cost and charge. That if ye shall bestowe any thyng 
aboue this smnme that I hane deliuered you, ye for your parte 
shall not bee a loser of a myte by it. tfdal's Erasmus, Lvbke, 
foL 93 a. 

Mock, «&. (ProY. xiy. 9). A taunt, jeer. * To make a 
mock' is 'to mock.' 

One Hyperbolus...of whQ Thucydides maketh mention, as 
of a naughty wicked mS, whose tongue was a fit instrument to 
deliuer matter to all the comicall poets of that time, to powre 
out all their taunts and mock» against them. North's Plutarch, 
AlcSb, p. 915. 

Besides, it were a mock 
Apt to be rendered, for some one to say 
' &eak up the senate till another time. 
When Caesar's wife shall meet with better dreams.' 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cass. n. 1, 

Mock, v,t, (Judg. xyi 10; Matt. ii. 16). To scorn, 
ridicuJe, and hence to delude; Fr. moquer, connected with 
the Gr. fi&Kos and fuaKoofitu, 

He disdayning to bee mocked k deluded of his money, with 
his wyfe and family, fled into England. Hall, Hen, IV. foL 17 a. 

Sometime we see a doud that's dragonish; 
A vapour sometime like a bear or lion^ 
A tower'd citadel, a pendent rock, 
A forked mountain, or blue promontory, 
With trees upon % that nod unto the world, 
And mock our eyes with air. 
^ Shakespeare^ Ant, and CI, IV. 1 4. 

Mocking, «6. (Ez. zxii 4; Heb. xi 36). Mockeiy. 

They are worse fools to purchase m/)cking so. 

Shakespeare, Lovers L. L. ▼. 7, 

It is a pretty mocking of the life. 

Id. Tim, of Ath. i. i. 

Mockingstock, sb. (2 Maoc. yil 7). An object of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I wovld bare you to oougider well the causes wherefore they 
were cast away from God and were made a mockingstock unto 
the whole world. Latimer, Rem, p. 49. 

To be a mocking Oocke to one...Ludibrio esse alicui. Baret, 
Alwarie, a. v. 

In XJdal's Erasmus* Ltike^ fol. z8i b, we find 'talkyng 

Moe^ adj, (Ex. L 9; Num. xxii. 15, xxxii. 54; Deut. i. 
11). In the edition 6f 161 1, *moe' la the comparative of 
'many/ and is altered to * more' in the later editions. It 
does not seem to have been used in the A.Y. for the adverb. 

For elles had I dweld with Theseus 
I-f etered in his prisoun for evere moo, 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1231. 

Jifoe things like men I Eat, Timon, and abhor them. 

Shakespeare, Tim. of Ath. iv. 3. 

Trust not the PhyBitian, 
His antidotes are poyson, and he slayes 
Moe then you rob. 

Ibid. (ed. 1623). 
Bru, Is he alone ? 

Zuc. No, ai, there are moe with him. 

Id. Jvl, CcBs, II. r. 

MoUiQTf ^ ^* (Is* i- 6). From Lai moUifico, to soften ; 
an old medical term. 

All tumors and hard swellings, which had need to be moUified, 
are made soft and brought downe most effectually with goose 
grease, or the fat of a swad. Holland's Pliny, zxx. 12. 

Molten, W» (Ex. xxxii. 4 ; Job xxviii. 2 ; Mic. i. 4). 
The old strong form of the past participle of the verb ' to 
melt,' now almost obsolete. [See Holpbk.] In Shake- 
gpeare (i Hen, IV. v. 3), Falstaff sQ,y8, 

I am as hot as molten lead and as heavy too. 

Monarchy, sb. Sole role. There is a carious usa^e 
of this word (as pointed oat by Mr Booker), in the margin 

Digitized by VjVJV^VIc2 I 


of 2 K. XT. I ; where it is api)lie(l to the time that Jero- 
boam II. reigned alone, he having reigned several years iii 
Pership with his father. The marginal note appears to 
been added about the end of the 17th cent., and it 
IS noD impossible that the meaning here given to * monar- 
chy' may have been derived from the emplovment of the 
word in the controversies of the period on the subject of 
the Trinity, in which it was apptied to the sole ride or 
supremacy of God. Dionysius, bisnop of Rome, savs Bishop 
Bull, ^' after he had refuted the doctrine of Sabellius, thus 
proceeds to discourse against the contrary heresy of those 
I who divide and cut asunder, and overthrow the most' 
sacred doctrine of the church of God, parting the monarchy 
into three certain powers and hypostases, separated from 
each otiier, and consequently into three Deities'" (Bull's 
'Works f II. 2, ^d. Burton). Waterland was censuim by 
Oarke for translating the word fiovapxia in another passage 
of Dionysius, not by 'monarchy' but by * unity,* and de- 
fended himself by saying that ^*fiovapxla, in this subject^ 
sometimes signifies, not monarchy, but unity of headship. 
or principle, source, or fountain, as in Athanasius 
( Works, IV. 92 n, ed. Van Mildert). It will be easily seen 
how the sense of * sole rule ' became attached to the word 
as in the marginal note in question. 

Moneth, sb. (Ex. xvi. i). The old form of 'month' 
in the edition of 161 1 ; A.-S. mSndiS, 

I doe hold it, in the royall ordering of gardens, there ought 
to be gardens, for all the moneih* in the yeare. Baocn, En, 
XLVI. p. 186. 

Monition, «&. (Ordering of Priests). Admonition, 
warning : Lat. monitio. 

Monition : /. A monition, admonition, monishment ; an ad- 
vertisement, information, warning, summons. . Cotgrave^ Fr, 

Monster, sb. (Ps. Ixxi. 6, Pr. Bk.). A wonder, marvel ; 
Lat. monstrum, 

" ' Digitized by VjOOQIC 


' Allafl r qaod sche, 'tbat ever tius achulde happe I 

For wend I never by possibilite, 

That such a monslre or merveyl mighte be ; 

It ia agayna the proces of nature.' 

Chaucer, FranJoUn*s Tale, 11656. 

For certes Nature had soch lest, 
To make that faire, that truly she 
Was her chiefe patron of beaute. 
And chiefe ensample of all her werke 
And numtter. 

Id. Book of the Ducheu, gii. 

More, adj. (Nmn. xxxiii. 54; Acts six. 32,xxTii 12). 

As though... children could not play but w* their kyndred, 
wit[h] whom for the more part they agree much worse then wyth 
■traungers. Sir T. More, Rich. Ill,, Works, p. 50 d. 

Of these woordes the Apostles conceiue a good hope, the 
more parte of whom had leaft altogether whatsoeuer it was that 
ihei wer owners of tofore. Udal's Erasmus, Lake, foL 138 a. 

And for any longer stay to hane brought a more quantity 
(which I heare hath bin often obiected) whosoeuer had scene or 
prooued the fury of that riuer after it began to arise... would 
perchance haue turned somewhat sooner than we did. Kalegh, 
Gitianct, p. 59. 

O take his mother's thanks, a widow's thanks. 

Till your strong hand shall help to give him strength 

To make a more requital to your love i 

Shakespeare, K, John, n. i. 

A man cannot tell, whether Apelles, or Albert Durer, were 
tlje more trifler: whereof the one would make a personage by 
geometricall proportions : the other, by taking the best parts out 
of divers faces, to make one excellent. Bacon, Eas, XLiu. p. 177. 

Morian, ib. (?8. Ixviii. 31, IxxxviL 4, Pr. Bk.). *Th© 

, Morians* land,' is in the Heb. Cush, which is rendered 

> Ethiopia' in the Auth. Version. *Morian' is nsed by old 

writers for 'moor, blackamoor:' thus in a procession in the 

year 1557, there were 

Digitized by Vj^_»iLJViC 


A ^leyant with the castyll, and the sauden and yong^ mortnt 
wil^ targattes and darttes, and the lord and the lade of the 
Maye, Machyn's Dia/ry, p. 137. 

First the golden Tunne, 
Borne by that monstrous murrian black-a-mooie. 

Munday, John d, Kent, p. 17 (Shakespeare Soc. e4.). 

In vain 'gainst him did hell oppose her mighty 
In vain the Turks and Morians armed be*. 

Fairfax^ T<uao^ I, u 

Morrow^ 9b. (Josh.T. ii). Morning. 

The busy larke, messager of daye, 
Salueth in hire song the mortoe gray. 

Chaucer, KnighCi TaU, 1494* 

Hence * a-morwe' is ' next morning.* 

And thus they ben departed til a-morwe 
When ech of hem had leyd his feith to borwe. 

Ibid. x63i« 
But by the cause that they schuln arise 
Erly a-morwe for to see that fight, 
Unto their rest wente they at night* 

Ibid. 3491. 

On the morrow' is used in the same way ; 

And on the morwe whan the day gan spzyng. 
Of hors and hemoys noyse and clateryng 
Ther was in the oostes al aboute. 

Ibid. fl493. 

Mortify y v.t (Rom. viii. 13; Col. iii 5). From Lai 
martifico, to kill, put to death, in a metaphorical sense. Of 
the 'stubborn Turks of ire/ says Latimer, 

This second card will not only that they should be mortyied 
in you, but that you yourselves shall cause them to be likewiBO 
mort^d in your neighbour. Serm. p^ 1 7. 

* This passage is quoted from Knight's edition. In Capell's 
copy of the original of 1600 the whole stanza in which it ocean 
is replaced by another which is pasted over it. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOOK. 325. 

And agun, speaking of Bilney^ 

I cannot but wonder, if a man living bo mercifully, flo chari* 
tably, 80 patiently, so continently, so studiously and virtuously, 
and killing his old Adam (that is to say, mortifying his evil afiOelc- 
tions and blind notions of his heart so .diligently) should die an. 
evil deatiu Bern, p. 331. 

The literal sense of the word is obvious in the following 
passage from Shakespeare {Hen. F. 1. 1); 

The breath no sooner left his father's body. 
But that his wildness, mortified in him, 
Seemed to die too*. 

Ghrift was mortified and killed in dede as toucbynge to his 
fleshe: but was quickened in Bpir[i]te. Erasmus, On the Creed^ 
Eng.. tr. foL 8z a. 

Mote, sb, (Matt. vii. 3, 4, 5 ; Luke vi. 41, 42). A.-S. 
mot, a small particle, like ^ose which are brought to light 
by a ray of sunshine. 

For many a mote shall be sene. 
That woU nought cleve elles there. 

Gower, Conf, Am.i.'p, 179. 

Like motet and shadows see them move awhile. 

Shakespeare, Per. TV. 4. 

A mote it is, to trouble the mind's eye. 

Id. Mam, I. i. 

The proverb in the gospels is thus rendered by Chaucer; 

He can wel in myn eye see a stalke. 

But in his owne he can nought seen a balke. 

Jleeve'8 ProU 3918, 9. 

Motion^ v.U To move. 

In seme Common-weales it wad made a capitall erf me, once ta 
wmotum the making of a new Law for the abrogating of an old, 
though the a^une were most pernicious. The TransUttore to the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Motion^ «&. Order, direction. 

As that person mentioned by Emy^ to whom when a sealed 
booke was deliuered, with this motion, Reade this, I pray tku, hee 
was faine to make this answere^ / cannot, for it is sealed. The 
Trandators to the Reader, 

Motioner^ «&. A promoter. 

That no man would lift vp the heele, no, nor dogge mooue 
his tongue against the motioners of them. The TransUAors to tkt 
Reader, ^ 

Moteur: m. A mouer, stirrer; persuader, prouoker; a flno- 
twner, Cotgrave, Fr, Diet, 

A motUmery one that pricketh, or moueth forward. In8ti< 
g&tor. Baret, Alvearis, • . 

Motions^ 9h. (Rom. yii. 5). Emotions, impnl8e& 

I withstand these ill moUons^ I follow the ensample of thai 
godly young man, Joseph. Latimer, Rem, p. 8. 

He that standeth at a .stay, when others rise^ can haxdly 
avoid motions of envy. Bacon, Ess, xrv. p. 53. 

Mount, sb. (Jer. tI. 6, xxxii. 24, xxxiii. 4; Ez. It. 2, 
xxi. 22). An embankment or mound of earth ; A.-S. munt^ 
from Fr. mont^ Lat. mons. 

And Alexander did honour his funerals: for all the army in 
their armour did cast vp a mount of earth fashioned like a tombe. 
North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 748. 

Mouths, 8h. (Pb. xxxy. 15, Pr. Bk.) ' Making months' 
is a corruption of ' making mows,' %,e. grimaces indicating 
contempt. The original reading ^mowes' or 'mows' re- 
tained its place in the Prayer Book at least as late as 1687. 

To make a moe like an ape, Distorquere os. Baret^ Ahea- 
tie, s. V. 

Grimasseur : m. A jnaker of fvumtftc^ or faces. Ootgrayoi 
Pr, Diet, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

word-book. 527 

The two expressions were in nse at the same time. 

It is not very strange ; for mine uncle is king of Denmark, 
imd those that would miht niow9 at him while my father lived, 
give twenty, forty, fifty, an hundred ducats a-piece for his picture 
in little. Shakespeare, Ham, 11. 2. 

Witness this army of such mass and charge 
Led by a delicate and tender prince, 
Whose spirit with divine ambition puff'd 
Maku VMfUhs at the invisible event. 

Ibid. IV. 4. 

in the former passage * mowes' is the reading of the 
folios, and 'mouths' or *mouthes' that of all the qnartos 
except the first which has * moes.' 

Move, r. t (Dent xxiii. 25 ; Job il 3). To stir, excite. 

The fifte maner of contricioun, that moeveth a man therto, 
is the remembraunoe of the pasnoun that cure Lord Jhesu Crist 
pnffired. for uM and for.oure synnes. Chaucer, Panon's Tale. 

Were it that the Duke of Gloucester hadde of olde foreminded 
this conclusion, or was nowe at erste thereunto moused, ^r T. 
More, Rick, III. ; Work8y p. 38 b. 

For indeed, every sect of them [heretics], hath a divers pos- 
ture, or cringe by themselves, which cannot but nwve derision, 
in worldlings, and depraved politickes, who are apt to contemne 
holy things. Baoon, Eu. UL p. 9. 

Mows. See Mouths. 

Much, adj, (Num. xx. 20). Used of numbers in the 
sense of 'ffreat,' aa 'more' is used for * greater.* Con- 
nected wiui A.-8. mycel (comp. wench with A.-8. V3encle\ 
and the Sc. muckle. The sameroot is found in G. macht, 
K mighty Gk. lU^-asy Lat mag-ntu, and Sans, nuiha, which 
appears in the title mokhar(0ah, or * great king.' 

These lordes had much people folowyng them. Hall, £[e». 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


You well knosr 
That, three years since^ to our mticA grie^ we lost 
Our duchess, 

Massinger^ Qi. JhtlxofPlor. 1. 1* 

Much, adv, (Pha. 8). Very, greatly. 

The father had not yet the vse of his toungne, although it 
was uow muche necessarie for him to sale his mynde. Udal'a 
Erasmus, Lukej fol. 14 a. 

Bear with me, good boy; I am mack forgetfuL 

Shakespeare, Jul, Ocu, lY. ^ 

And now my sight fails, and my brain is giddy ; 
O me 1 come near me, now I am mueA ill. 

Id. 2 Hen, IV, IV. 4. 

X am mvcA ambitious (though I shall 
Appear but as a foil to set her off) 
To be by her instructed, and supplied 
In what I am defective. 

Massinger, Gi, Dvke of Fhr. zii. 1. 

Muffler, sb, (I& iii. 19). A wrapper or oovermg for 
the neck and lower part of &e face, as the kerchief was for 
the head. *' It would oppress the reader by citing autihori- 
ties to prove that the muffler was a contriTance of various 
kinds to conceal a part of the face, and that even a fnatJt 
was occasionally so denominated. From an examination of 
several ancient prints and x)aintings, it appears that wlien 
the muffler was made of linen it only ooverea the lower pcurt 
of the face" (Douce, lUtutr. qf Shakespeare, l 75). The 
hat, muffler and kerchief completed Falstaff's disguise. 

A kerohiefe, or like thing that men and women vsed to '^ 
about their necke & cheekes, it may be vsed for a «iif|lnr. 
Focale. Bsnet, Alveeirie, a,Y, 

He might put on a hat, a mt^ffler and a kerchiaf, sad bo 
escape. Shakespeare, Merry Wives, iv. 2, 

Oaohe-museau. A kind of flawne ; or, as Cassemfsean ; also^ 
a muffler^ or maske, for the face. Gotgrave, Fr, Diet, 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 

WORD-BOOS^. 329 

Multiply upon. This phrase occurs in the Collect 
for the 4th Sonday after Trinity, * Increase and multiply 
upon OS thy mercy,' and is illostrated by the following 
passage from Bacon {Ess. xxxix. p. 164) : 

The great mvUvplicatlon of vertaes upon humane nature, rest* 
eth upon societies well ordained, and disciplined. 

The phrase ^multiply on' occurs in Chaucer (C7. T, 15100, 
The Prwresis Tale) : 

Pray eek for us, yre synful folk unstable^ 
That of his mercy God so merdable 
On us of his grete mercy multiplier 
For reverence of his mooir Marie. 

Munition, sb, (Is. zxix. 7, xxxiii. 16; Nah. iL i; r 
Mace. xiv. 10; Dan. xi 15, 38, 39 m). From Lat munitio. 
a fortress, means of defence, which is the substantive formed 
from the verb munire, to furnish, equip, fortify. 

A munition, or fortification, a fort, or strong hold. Monitio. 
Paret, Alvearief s. v. Forte, 

There, finding but a few to defend, whom they discomfited in 
the turning of a hand, they brake into the rampier and mtmitionSj 
without conflict or skirmish. Holland's Livy, p. 137. 

The modem ammunition has the same origin, but is ap- 
plied in a more restricted sense to means of defence of a 
special kind. The Hebrew words translated by * munition,' 
are elsewhere rendered 'stronghold' (Jud. vi. 2), 'castle' 
(I Chr. XL 7), *hold' (i Chr. xii 8, 16), *fort' (Ez. xxxiii 
27), and 'fortress' (2 Sam xxii. 2). The verb ' munite* is 
found iu Bacon (Ess. iii. p. 12) ; 

Men must beware, that in the procuring, or munitiT^g, of reli- 
gious unity, they doe not dissolve and deface the lawes of charity^ 
and of humane society. 

Munition for 'ammunition' occurs in Hall [Hen. IV. 

King Henry forgat not his enterprise into Wales, but made 
prouision for menne, munidons and artyliary mete and conuenient 
tor so great a businesse* 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Mured/ lit 'walled up,' from Lat. murm^ a wall, 
occurs in Josh. x. c. Gold and silver in vessels, &G. were 
discovered * mured up in walls, vaults, and other secret 
places' {State Papers, quoted by Froude, ni. 434, 3rd 
ed.). The word is now superseded by immured. 

At last when as he found his force to shrincke^ 
And rage to quaile, be touke a muzzell strong 
^ Of surest yron, made with many a lincke ; 

Therewith he mured vp his mouth along, 
Ai^d therein shut vp his blasphemous tong. 

Spenser, F. Q,, VI. ii, § 34. 

Shakespeare. (2 Hen. IV. iv. 4) has the substantive 

The incessant care and labour of his mind 
Hath wrought the mure that should confine it in. 
So thin that life looks through and will break out. 

-Murrain, sb. (Ex. ix. 3; Ps. Ixxviil 50 m.). Ap- 
parently from A.-S. amyrran, to mar, destroy, and con- 
nected with Gk. frnpaivoi, Lat mdrcere, and so again with 
mori and Sansc. mri. A peculiar disease among cattle, 
caused by a hot dry season, which produces an inflammation 
of the blood. 

Murrein among cattell, pestilence among men, great death, or 
destruction. Lues...Tabifica lues...Xot;i6f. Baret, Alvearitj a, v. 

In the following passage of Spenser (jP. Q. m. 3, § 40) it 
is used of a disease which attacks men; 

For heauen it selfe shall their successe enuy, 
And them with plagues and murrint pestilent 
Consume, till all their warlike puissaunce be spent. 

Shakespeare uses it as an ac^'ective in the form 'mur- 
rion ' ; 

The fold stands empty in the drowned field. 
And crows are fatted with the murrum flock. 

Mid, N:» Dr. n. «. 

Muse, T,i. (Ps. xzxix. 3, cxliii. 5; Luke iiL 15). To 
meditate, reflect : Fr. muser^ It miMore. The etymology 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 

WORD-BOOK. 331: 

of the word be;^ond this is not certain. Skinner connects 
it with the Gk. /iv^tfi>,an imitative word, signifying to 'mur- 
mur, to moan/ and in support of this there is the analogy 
of the Hebrew word of which * musinff ' is the rendering in 
Ps. xxxix. 3, the root of which originally signifies * to moan.' 
and iis rendered * mourn' in Is. xvi. 7, xxxviiii. 14 ; Jer. xlviii. 
31, and 'mutter' Is. lix. 3, Others derive it from miua^ 
but without reason. 

Whan they. upon the reson muaen, 
Horestes alle they excusen. 

Gower, Conf» Am. i. 351. 

For then thought he, that Ti^hyle men mused what the matter 
meant... it were best.hastely to puisne his. purpose. Hall, Ed. V, 
toL iTh. 

Bather muse than ask why I entreat you. 

Shakespeare, AlVt Well, ii. 5. 

In Shakespeare it occurs simply in the sense of 'to 

I mute your majesty doth seem so cold, 
When such profound respects do pull you on. 

Id. K, John, ni. I. 
I mute my mother 
Does not approve me further. 

Id. Cor, ni. 4i 

Muted, p/?. (Tob. ii. 10). From Fr. mtair, the mean- 
ing of which is sufficiently evident. The word is still used 
of a natural action of birds, and occurs in the following pre- 
scription of Pliny (xxx. 12, Holland's trans.) ; 

Also the dung of cocke or henne (that which looketh reddish 
^specially) tempered with vineger Jt laid to a fellon, healeth it; 
but the said dung ought to be fresh and newly ineutecL 

Napkin, sb, (Lnke xix. 20 ; John xi 44, xx. 7). A 
handkerchief, literally a little cloth: ftom It. nappay a 
table-cloth ;. napkin being a diminutive. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

33i I^HE BIBin 

And they would go and kiss dead Cadsar^s wonDds— » 
And dip their ws^kyM in his sacred blood. 

Shakespeare, Jul. Ccb^ ui. i» 

Here, Hamlet, take my napkin^ rub thy brows. 

Id. Hcm» V. -i* 

Nardy sb. (Mark xiv. 3 9».). An aromatic plant; Lat. 
nardus, Heb. w^rrf. [See Spikenard.] 

The good, sincere, and true nard is known by the lightness 
red colour, sweet smell, and the taste especially. Holland's 
Tliny, xii. 12. 

• Naughty adj, (2 K iL 19 ; Prov. xx. 14). From A.-8. 
ndhtj < worthless, bad,' which is said to be a contraction of 
ne dhty so that it is etymologically the same with nought; 
in fact in Coverdale's Pr<Xoge to his Bible, 'naught' ia 
used for 'nought.' 

In the first boke of Moses (called Grenesis) thou mayest leme 
to knowe the almightye power of god in creatynge all of nomght, 
his infinite wysdome in ordryng the Bame» 

And again ; 

He that can do better then another, shulde not sd him at 
naught y^ vnderstondeth lesse. 

And they whose works be nauglU, dare not come to this 
light. Latimer, JRem, p. 303. 

But John's disciples did naught, in that they enyied Chiisi. 
Id. p. 70. 

In respect of itself, it is a good life ; but in respect that it ia 

* shepherd's life, it is naught, Shakespeare, As You Like It, UL «• 

Naughtiness, sb, (i Sam. xvii. 28 ; Prov. xi 6 ; Jam. 
i. 2 1 ). Wickedness. Latimer says of evil spirits ; 

They be amongst us, and about us, to let us of good things^ 
and to moye us to nantghtiness^ Serm, p. 493. 

The inestimable wisdom of GU>d, which can use our naugkti^ 
neu to the manifestation of his unspeiE^ble goodness, iSem. p. 336» 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


/> «4/- (Prov. vi. 12). Bad, wicked; from the 
same root as the precediDg. In modern usage it is almost 
confined to the nursery, but in its original sense it is fre- 
quent in old writers. 

It is, a naughty fellow, a seditions fellow ; he makeih trouble 
and rebellion in the realm ; he lacketh discretion. Latimer, Serm. 
p. 240. 

So shines a good deed in a naughty world. 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Veh, v; I. 

Necromancer, sb. (Deut. xyiii. 1 1). One who raises 
the dead for the purpose ot divination : Gk. vcKpofMovris, and 
in the LXX. vcKvofiavris, whence the Old Fr. necyomance, 
necromancy. We probably had the word through the 
Italian negromanzK^ for it was at first written nygro- 
mancer and negromancer, as in the following passages mna 
Sir T. More: 

Kor they that gone on pilgrimage do nothinge like to those 
nygromimcertf to whome ye resemble them that put theyr confy- 
dence in the roundell and cercle on the grounde. Worksy p, 12 1 e. 

As negromdcen put their trust in their cercles, within which 
thei thinke them self sure against aU y' deuils in hel, Ibkl« 
p. 120 b. 

Needs, in the phrases 'must needs^ (Gen. xyii 13), 
*will needs* (Gen. xix. 9), * would needs* (Gen. xxxi. 30), is 
the genitive used adverbially, as in A.-S. neddes^ of ni&* 

A man moot needea love maugre his heed. 

Chaucer, KnigMs Tale, li7l« 

Or if my destyne be schapid so. 

That I schal needea have on of hem two^ 

So send me him that most desireth me. 

Ibidi 2396W 
These most needs be worse at the latter end than at the bo* 
ginning. Tyndale, I>octr, Tr, p. 53. 

It is a hard pilgrimage, an uneasy way to walk: but we most 
needs go it; there is no remedy, Latimer^ Sem^ p. 490* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Neesing. #5. (Job xli. i8). 'Neeso/ which formiBrly 
occurred in 2 K. iv. 35, and * neesing,^ are the old forms of 
* sneeze* and ^ siieezing ;' from A.-S. niesan, G. niesen. Other 
analogous instances are ^knap.' and * snap/ ' top* and * stop/ 
'lightly* and * slightly;' and an example of the opposite is 
found m * quinsy* and * squinancy.' Like the Heb. dtisMK of 
Which it is a translation, neesing is probably an imitative 
word. The verb occurs in Shakespeare {Mid, N.'s JDi*. 
n. I) : 

And waxen in their mirth to neeze and swear 
A merrier hour was never wasted there. 

Widif has the curious form ' fhesynge' in Job xli. 18, 

Neighbour^ adj, (Jer. xlix. i8, 1. 40). Neigh- 

I have heard, and grieved, 
How cursed Athens, mindless of thy wortib. 
Forgetting thy great deeds, when fmghJbowr states^ 
But for thy sword and fortune, trod upon th'em. 

Shakespeare, Tim. of Ath, 17. 3, 

Thei strength of a veteran armie, (though it be a chargeable 
husinesse) alwaies on foot, is that which commonly giveth the 
law ; or at least the reputation amongst all Tieighbour states. Ba- 
con, Ess, XXIX. p. 128. 

Nether, conj, (2 Sam. xiv. 7). The passage in whidi 
this word occurs is an instance of the use of the double 
negative which was common in old English; 'shall not 
.leave neither name nor remainder.' Thus in Ohaucer^s 
Tale of Mdihem ; 

Bywreye nought youre counseil to no persone. 

The husbandman cannot command, neither the nature of the 
'earth," nor the seasons of the weather: no more can the physition 
' the constitution of the patiente^ nor the varietye of aoddehtes. 
Bacon, Adv, of L* yl aa, § 3. 

Neither— neither (Gea xxL 26; Matt xiL 32), 

Digitized by Vj«^JVJ VIC 


And whaisoeuer had l)ene done by the Kings Maieeties 
anthoritie, that woulde by right haue remayned for euer, and 8(5 
taken in law^ that the contrarie partie, neither could by iustioe, 
neither would by boldenesse, haue enterpriscd the breake thereof. 
Sir J. Gheke, Hurt of Sedition^ sig. I. ij. recto. 

NepheWj «6.(Judg. xii. 14; Job xviii. 19; Is.xiv.22; 
I Tim. V. 4). A grandson, from Lat. nepos, through It. 
nepote, and Fr. neveu. In Gen. xxi. 23, the same Hebrew 
word, which in Isaiah and Job is rendered ' nephew,' is 
translated ' son^s son,' The usage of the word in this sense 
is common in old English. 

For in my dreme it is warned me 
How that my nevetoe shall my bane be. 

• Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, 2656-. 

So the grandfather's offence redowndyd nnto the nqiJietos, PoL 
Verg. n. 154. 

Grod saith, as neither they, so neither their sons after them» 
n(v their sonnes sons, their sonnes nephewes shall escape. An* 
drewes, On the Second Commandment^ p. 287, ed. 1642. 

You'll have your nephews neigh to you. 

Shakespeare, 0th, X. I* 

C. Grispinns Helarus a gentleman of Fesulse, came with so- 
lenme pompe into the Oapitoll, attended vpon with his nine 
childreD, seuen sons and two daughters; with 27 nephewes the 
sonnes of his children, and 29 nephewes more, once remoued, who 
were his sons nephewes, and twelue rieeces besides that were his 
cfaildrens daughters, and with all these solemnly sacrificed. &0I- 
land's PZtfi^, VII. 13. 

The Emperor Augustas among other singularitiefl that he 
had by himselfe during his life, saw ere he died the nephew of hifi 
neece, that is to say his progenie to the fourth degree of lineaU 
descent. Holland s Pliny, vn. 13. 

In the same way neece is used in Wiclif for granddaugh- 
ter, Gen. xxxi. 43 ; Lev. xviii. 10 ; and this usage prevailed 
in the banning of the 17th century. 

Nether, adj, (Ex. xix. 17; Deut; xxiv. 6). Lower; 
A,-S. ny^era^ or ned^rcu . 

Digitized by CjOOQIC "" 



That thou art my son, T haye partly thy mother's word, partly 
zny own opinion, but chiefly a villanoas trick of thine eye and ft 
foolish hanging of thy nether lip, that doth warrant me. Shak^ 
speare, i Hen. IV. u. 4. 

Nethermost, adj. (i E. vi. 6). The snperlatiTe of 
vether; A.-S. ni^emesta, lowest. 

Ynto that shee had already, he added the prouinoes of Phoe- 
luda, those of the nethemiost Syria^ the He of CypruS| and a great 
part of CUida. North's Plutarch, Anton, p. 985. 

^Nethermore' is also found. 

Thou haste delyuered my soule from the nether more helL 
Brasmnsy On the Creed, Eng. tr. foL 80 5. 

Never a, as in the phrases ^nevera^ord^ (Matt 
xxvii 14), ^ never a woman' (Judg. xiv. 3), ^ never a son' (2 
Ohr. XXL 17), still exists in the provindal 'nany,' as it is 
given by Halliwell, which is simply 'ne'er a.' It is a oom-> 
mon Americanism. 

The selfe same night, it is reported that the monstroas spirit 
which had appeared before vnto Brutus in the citie of Sardia, 
did now appeare againe ynto him in the selfe same shape & 
forme, and so vanished away, and said never a word. North's 
Plutarch, Brutus, p. 1075. 

Never bo (Ps. Iviil 5). 

No, these be so lost, as they themselves grant, that though 
they seek them never to diligently, yet they shall not find them* 
liatimer, Serni, p. 51. 

Newfongled, pp. (Pref. to Pr. Bk.). New fieksbioned, 
and also, desirous of novelty. The etymology is doubtful, 
perhaps connected with fing-ere, Shakespeare uses the 
word/angled alone {Cymb. y. 4), in the sense of fieishioned : 

O rare one! 
Be not, as is our fikngled world, a gann«iit 
Nobler than that it covers. . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


'Newfangled' is of frequent occurrence, and not yet 
altogether obsolete: 

So newefcmgd be thei of her mete. 
And loveu non leveres of propre kinde. 

Chaucer, Squire's Tale, 10932. 

For the frute of stryfe among the herers and persecucyon 
of the precher can not lyghtly growe amon^e crysten men, but 
by the prechynge of some straunge neweltyes, and bryngynge yp 
of some new fangdl heresyes, to the infeccyon of our olde &yth. 
Sir T. More, BiaX, f. 39 a. 

At Christmas I no more desire a rose. 

Than wish a anow in May's new-fangled mirth. 

Shakespeare, Xove*« L. L, I. i. 

Newfonglenes (Translators' Pref.), or Newfang- 
ledness, «&. (Pref. to Pr. Bk.). Novelty; as in Chaucer 
{Squires Tale, 10924) ; 

Men loyen of kynde newefangilnease. 

In a greene gowne he clothed was full faire^ 
Vniich vnderneath did hide his filthinesse. 
And in his hand a burning hart he bare, 
FuU of vaine follies, and new fanglenease. 

Spenser, F. Q. I. 4, § 25. 

If eW8, sh (i Pet. i. c), ' No news/ in the sense of 
'no new thing,' or * novelty.' So in Burton's Anat, of 
Md,^ Democritiis to the reader^ p. 43 ; 

At the battle of Cannas, 70000 men were slain, as Polybius 
records, and as many at Battle Abbye with us ; and 'tis no news 
to fight from sun to sun, as they did, as Constantino and Lici- 
nins, &c. 

Ni^h, adj. (Lev. xxi. 3, xxv. 49 ; 2 Sam. xi. 20). Near ; 
A.-S. nih^ or neahy of which near is the comparative form. 

But was not this nigh shore? 

Shakespeare, Tem^. l. 2. 

It is a common provincialism in Suffolk. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Noctum, 9b, (2nd Pref. to Pr. Bk.). 

Matins were divided into two parts, which were originally 
distinct offices and hours ; namely, the nocturUy and matin lands. . . 
In later times... the nocturnal service was joined in practice to 
the matin lauds, and both were repeated at the same time early 
In the morning. Hence the united office obtained the name of 
matins ; and afterwards this name was applied more especially to 
the noctumtf while the ancient matins were distinguished by the 
name of lands. Pahner, Origines'LUurgiccBj i. 3oa, 203 (ed. 1832). 

Noise, v.t, (Josh. vi. 27). To ^ noise abroad,' is to 
report, spread a rumour, proclaim. 

My office is 
To noiae abroad that Harry Monmouth fell 
Under the wrath of noble Hotspur's sword. 

Shakespeare, 2 Sen, IV, indue. 

Noisomei ac^\ (Ps. xci. 3; Ez. xiy. 15, 21). Hurt- 
ful, noxious, ii^urious ; from Lat. nocercy to hurt, through 
Fr. nuir (whence nuisance), and 0. B. noy, to annoy. The 
termination is A.-S. -sum, G. sam, Latimer describes 
Bilney as ^noisome wittingly to no man' (Rem, p. 330). 

I will go root away 
The naiwrne weeds, which without profit suck 
The soil's fertility from wholesome flowers. 

Shakespeare, Bich, II, ni. 4. 

A second defect or imperfection there is also incident to com, 
which hath some neer resemblance to the otes aforesaid ; namely, 
when the graine being formed and newly come to the iust propor- 
tion of bignesse (howbeit, not full and ripe) before that it is firm 
and bard, is smitten with a noisome blast, and so, like an abor- 
tiue fruit, decaieth and windereth away within the eare in such 
sort, as there is no substance left therein, but appeareth void and 
emptie. Holland's Pliny ^ xyiu. 17. 

Chaucer (House o/Fame, n. 66), uses noyotu in the 
same sense; 

And said twice. Saint Mary, 
Thpu art a noyous thing to cary. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


No— nor (Deut. riv. 27). 

No not (Gal. ii. 5). A strong form of negation. 

Wherin veraily he signified hymself to be the foundaciS of y* 
churche, against whom no not the gates of helle are hable to 
prenaill. Udal^s Erasmus, Luke^ foL 180&. 

None. Used for 'no ' -in the phrase 'of none effect ' 
(Matt XV. 6; Mark yii. 13, &c.). 

They hadde none ordre nop no stedfastnes, 
Tyll rethoricians founde justyce doubtles, 
Ordeynyng kynges, of ryght hye dygnite, 
Of all comyns to have the soverainte. 

Hawes, PcuHme of Pleasure^ cap. x. 

Not, adf), (i Thess. iv. 8). Not only. 

And that not in the presence 
Of dreaded justice, but on the ministers 
That do distribute it. 

Shakespeare, Cor, ill. 3. 

You may salve so, 
Not what is dangerous present, but the loss 
Of what is past. 

Ibid. ni. 3. 

Not— nor (Deut. xii. 32). 

How he ordered or misordered himself in judgment, I oan97.o^ 
tell, nor will I meddle withal. 

Latimer, Jtem. p. 330. 

O horror, horror, horror! Tongue nor heart 
Cannot conceive nor name thee ! 

Shakespeare, M<id», 11. 3. 

Not— nor— neither (Luke xiv. 12; John i. 25). 

Notable, adj. Worthy of note or mention^ from Lat. 
rwta, a mark or brand, used with four modifications of this 

Digitized by Vj i 22 2 


meaning : Dan. viii. 5, 8, * conspicuous, easy to be noticed ;' 
Matt, xxvii. 16, * remar^ble, notorious ;' Acts iL 20, * glori- 
ous, dazzling;' and Acts iv. 16, 'well known.' 

This is a notMe example to signify that He abhors all idle- 
ness. Latimer, Serm, p. 2i4< 

The cardinals of Borne, which are theologues, and friars, and 
schoole-men, have a phrase of notable contempt and scome, to- 
wards civill businesse: for they call all temporall businesse, of 
warren, embassages, judicature, h other emploiments, sbirreiie; 
which is, under-riieriffries ; as if they were but matters for under- 
sheriffes and catohpoles. Bacon, Ess. LUI. p. 215. 

So sure I am persuaded we shall find 
Some notahU piece of knavery set afoot. 

Hey wood, 3 Ed, IV, i. 6. 

Nothing, used as an adverb (i K. x. 21 ; i Tim. iv. 4 ; 
Jam. 16). In no respect. This usage points us to the origin 
uf *not,' whidi is only the contracted form of * nought.' 

They nothing doubt prevailing and to make it brief wars. 

Shakespeare, Cor, i. 3. 

Nought, set at (Prov. i. 25 ; Mark ix. 12). lite- 
rally to value at nothing, to despise. 

Whs an other man offired him [Picus] great worldly pro- 
mocion, if he wolde go to the kynges court : he gaue him suche 
an aunswer, that he sholde wel know, that he neither desired 
worship, ne worldly richesse: bat rather tet them at nought. 
Sir T. More, TTorib, p. 7 a. 

Tancred he saw his Hues ioy 9d at nought, 
So woe begon was he with paines of love. 

Fairfax, Tasao, I. 9. 

Nourish, V. t (Gen. xlvii. 12 ; Bsth. ii. 7 m; Is. vii. 
21; Ps. Iv. 23, Pr. Bk.). From Fr. nourrir. as banish 
from banir,fumish from foumir, &c To bnng up^ rear, 
as a nurse a child ; hence, to support 

There is appointed in scripture how the man ahaU nouriA his 
wife, rule her with all lenity and friendliness. Latimer, Hem, p. 6. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.J VIC 


Nouxisher, sb. (Ruth ir. 15; 2 E. x. i 971 ; Is. xlix. 
23 m). One who nourishes, nurses, or rears. 

Ydehies mother and noristiher of all vices. Hall, RUh, III, 
f oL 8 a. 

Chief nourisJier in life's feast. 

Shakespeare, Mcuib. n. i. 

Novelty y sb. Innovation ; like Fr. nouveatUS, 

The first Bomane Emperour did neaer doe a more pleasing 
deed to the learned, nor more profitable to posteritie, for con- 
seruing the record of times in true supputation ; then when he 
corrected the Calender, and ordered the yeere according to the 
course of the Sunne: and yet this was imputed to him for 
ntmeUie, and arrogancie, and procured to him great obloquie. The 
Translators to the Header, 

Among the causes of superstition Bacon reckons 

The favouring too much of good intentions, which openeth 
the gate to conceits and novelties. Ess, xvu. p. 69. 

Novice, sb, (i Tim. iii. 6). One newly planted or 
admitted into the church. The Greek word of which it is 
the rendering has been Englished into neophyte. In the 
Roman Catholic church it means a probationer in a religious 
house, one who has not yet taken uie final vows. 

For we do instructe a nouyce newely conuerted, and not a 
diuine. Erasmus^ On the Creed, Eng. tr. fol. 72 b. 

For if the yoong schoolers and nouices begin to bee lyghtencl 
at their first enterance, what will comme to passe when a man i=j 
let in vnto full knowledge? Calvin, Comm, on Ps. cxix. 130 
(Pt. 11. p. 182, Gelding's trans.). 

Now-a-days (i Sam. zxv. 10). A colloquial ex- 

There be many reeds now-a-days in the world, many men will 
go with the world ; but religion ought not to be subject unto 
policy, but rather policy unto religion. Latimer, Jtem, p. 82. 

Digitized by V^VJVJ VIC . 


When all this is doue, yet haue they not that whitenesse of 
their owne, for which cause they are so much esteemd; as 
namely, those that are come now adays from Alexandria. Hol- 
land's PW»y, xvm. u. 

Nursing fkther, sb, (Num. xi. 12; Is. xlix.23). A 
foster father. In the dedication of the A. Y. the translators 
describe James I. as 

Caring for the Church as a moat tender and looing nourcing 

Nurture, sb. (Bph. vi. 4). Training, cultivation; Fr. 
nourriture, from nourrir, Lat. nutrire. 

Sire Johan of Boundys was his right name, 

He cowde of norture ynough and mochil of game. 

The Cook's Tale of Qamdyn, 4. 
Yet I am inland hred. 
And know some nwture, 

Shakespeare, At You LUoe It, li. 7. 

Obeisance^ sb. (Gen. xxxvii. 7, 9, ?liii. 28; Ex. xviii. 
7; 2 Sam. i. 2, XIV. 4, xv. 5 ; i K. i. 16; 2 Chr. xxiv. 17). 
Derived from the French form of the word obeir *to obey,' 
as 'obedience' is from the Latin obedire. Wiclif (Matt, 
viii.) uses the form dbeischen, *to obey/ with which the con- 
nection of the present word is obvious. From the simple 
meaning of obedience which literally belongs to obeisance, 
it is applied to denote the act of obedience or homage, 
and the outward symbol by which that act is indicated. 
The Hebrew word which is rendered *did obeisance' or 
'■ made obeisance,' is literally 'bowed or prostrated oneselT 
and is elsewhere translated 'bowed himself (Gen. xviii. 
2), 'worshipped' (Gen. xxiv. 26), 'fell flat' (Num. xxii. 31), 
' did reverence' (2 Sam. ix. 2). 

So reverently 
They unto it do such obeisaunce. 

Chaucer, Flower and Leaf , 542. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


That done, conduct him to the drunkard's chamber; 
And call him ' madam/ do him obeisance, 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of Shrew, Ind. i. 

Chaucer {Parson^ s Tale) uses oheissant for 'obedient/ 

For as moche as the resoun of a man ne wol not be subject 
ne obeiasant to God. 

Obey, v.t (Rom. tl i6). In the phrase ''his servants 
ye are to whom ye obet/" a construction is used which 
was common in old English, in accordance with the deri- 
vation of the word. 'To obey to' is the literal render- 
ing of the Fr. obeir a, and not a servile copy of the 
Greek in the passage quoted. Thus in Gower (<u<mf. Am, 
I. p. 344) : 

And how Fgistus, as men saide, 

Was king, to whom the loade oheide. 

For the flit barke, obaying to her miod, 
Forth launched quickly, as she did desire. 

Spenser, F, Q. n. 6, § 20, 

Lo now the heauens obey to me alone. 

And take me for their loue, whiles loue to earth is gone. 

Ibid. ni. II, §35- 

Oblation, sb. (Lev. vii. 38, Jer. xiv. 12), in its simple 
sense means anything offered {oblatio from Lat. qfero, 
obktttui) to another, specially any thing offered or solemnly 
devoted to God, and still more especially anything offered 
in sacrifice. In the Prayer for the Church Militant, where 
both alms and oblations are mentioned, the latter are by 
most commentators taken to mean the "elements'' of the 
Lord's Supper which, in the rubric immediately before the 
Prayer, are ordered to be then put on the table. However 
it must not be denied that in the Scotch Liturgy the Rubric 
calls the offerings of the people, oblations: 

And when all have offered, he shall reverently bring the said 
bason, with the cblations therein, and deliver it to the Presbyter. 
L'Estrange's Alliance, p. 167. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


And now was the tyme come, that the religion of the same 
material temple with the sacrifices and oblaciaa to the some be- 
longyng should cease. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, foL 156 b. 

Of the stone in the ring of Polycrates, says Pliny, 

This stone (as it is wel known) was a sardonyx ; & if we 
may beleeue it, the very same it is, which at Home is shewed in 
the temple of Concord, where Augusta the empresse dedicated it 
as an obUUion, HoUand^s Pliny, xxxvn. i. 

Latimer {Serm. p. 17) defines oblations as follows: 
Ohlationa be prayers, almsdeeds, or any work of charity. 

Observation, sh. (Neh. xiii. 14 m). Observance, 
ceremony. From tne following. 

Go one of you, find out the ^forester ; 
For now our observatix>n is perform'd. 

Shakespeare, Mid. N.*8 Dr, JV. i. 

Observe, v.t. (Mark vi 20). To respect, treat with 
reverence or ceremony. The Latin observare was used in 
the same sense. The earlier English versions, except 
Wiclif's and the Rheims version, have 'gave him reverence.' 

Blunt not his love, 
Nor lose the good advantage of his grace. 

By seeming cold or careless of his will: 
For he is gracious, if he be observed, 

Shakespeare, 2 ffen. IV. iv. 2. 

I shall observe him with all care and love. 


Hinge thy knee 
And let his very breath whom thou 'It observe 
Blow ofif thy cap. 

Id. Tim. IV. 3. 

Must I budge? 
Must I observe you ? must I stand and crouch 
Under your testy humour? 

Id. Jul. Cobs. iv. 3. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOOK. . 345 

Obtruded to. Thrust npon. This constmction 
occurs in the Preface of the Translators to the Reader. 

Was their Translation good before? Why doe they now 
mend it 1 Was it not good ? Why then was it obtruded to the 

There is an herbe growing euery where called Pseudonardus, 
or bastard Nard, which is obtruded vnto vs and sold for the true 
spikenard. Holland's Pliny, xii. 12. 

Occidental, adj. In the Dedication of the Bible 
Queen Elizabeth is called *that bright occidental Star,* 
l£at is the star of the West (Lai occidens, the setting Sun, 
the West; whence occidentcdisy western). So Shakespeare 
{AlTs JV6ll,n.i); 

Ere twice in murk and occidental damp 

Moist Hesperus hath quench'd his sleepy lamp. 

Each planet hath a seuerall colour: Satume is white, lupiter 
cleare and bright, Mars fierie and red, Venus orientall (or 
Lucifer) faire, ocddentall (or Vesper) shining^ Mercury sparke- 
ling his raies. Holland's Pliny, II. 18. 

Occupier, sb. (Ez. xxvii. 27). A trader. 

The occupiers and shopkeepers call the very setling and 
grounds of their ointment and compositions, by the name of 
Myrobalanon. Holland's Pliny, zii. 22. 

A Bouthe or tente that any occupier maketh in a faire or 
other places. Velabrum. Baret, Alvearie, s. v. Bouthe, 

Occupy, t?.^.(Ex. xxxviii 24; Judg. xvi 11 ; Bz. xxvii. 
9, 16, 19, 21, 22; Luke xix. 13; Heb. xiii 9). From Lat. 
occupare; literally, to lay hold of ; then, to use, employ, 
trade with; and, in a neuter sense, to trada The Prayer 
Book Version of Ps. cvii. 23 is, *' which occupy their busi- 
ness in deep waters;" while the Authorized Version has 
simply ^ WisAtdo business in great waters." This use of the 
word was once common. 

But now must men occupy their goodn otherwise. Ijatimer, 
Serm, p. 125. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The good man shall never perceiye the fraud, tiU he cometh 
to the occupying of the com. Ibid. Serm. p. 401. 

So he that occupieth usury^ though by the laws' of this realm 
he might do it without pvnishment, (for the laws are not so pre- 
cise,) yet for all that he doth wickedly in the sight of God. Ibid. 
p. 410. 

These two [Polycletus and Myron] were rare imageurs, lin- 
ing at one time, and preutises at the art together : but they in- 
deauoured to surpasse one the other in diners mettalls which they 
occupied. Holland's Pliny f xxxiv. 3. 

As for the grape of Amonium, which is now in vse and much 
occupied, some say it groweth vpon a wilde vine in India. Id. 
XII. 13. 

For, the pure cleane witte of a sweete yong babe, is like the 
newest wax, most hable to receiue the best and fayrest printing: 
and like a new bright siluer dishe neuer occupied, to receive & 
kepe cleane, anie good thyng that is put into it. Ascham, 
SchoUmaster, p. 31, ed. Mayor. 

Occurrent, sh. (i K. v. 4). *Bvil occurrenV is the 
rendering, apparently suggested by the Vulg. occursti^ 
maltis, of the Heb. which signifies ' evil chance.' The word 
occurs only once besides in Eccl. ix. 1 1 and is there trans- 
lated * chance.' * Occurrence* from the same root (Lat. 
occurrere lit *to run against') has now taken the place of 
* occurrent.' The latter is met with in Shakespeare {Ham. 
V. 2); 

So tell him, with the occuiTcntSj more and less. 

And in Burton (Anat qf Mel. pt. 2. sec. 2. mem. 4); 

When that great Gronsalva was upon some displeasure con- 
fined by King Ferdinand to the city of Loxa in Andalusia, the 
onely comfort (saith Jovius) he bad to ease his melancholy 
thoughts, was to hear newes, and to listen after those ordinary 
occfurrenJlXt which were brought him, cfwm primis, by letters or 
otherwise out of the remotest parts of Europe. 

This oceurrent fel out in Lacetania^ the nearest part ynto vb 
of Spain, Holland's Pliny, xxv. 2. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Odd, adj. (Num. iii 48). The Hebrew, of which 'odd 
number' is the rendering in this passage, is in Ley. xxy. 27 
translated * overplus/ and in Num. iii. 49 ' them that were 
over and above. Odd is said to be connected with the 
IceL oddVf Dan. odd^ and Swed. udd, a point; the notion 
thus involved in the word being that of projection, and 
hence of surplus. "When numbers are considered as odd 
or even, they seem to be considered as placed in rows, — 
and if the ends of the rows are even with each other, we 
call the number even; if one row projects bevoud the other 
it is an odd number; and the Icelanders have yddia to 
prcject from udd" (Note by Mr. Wedgwood in Gamett's 
Essays, p. 38). Mr. Gamett connects odd with ort: in the 
Bavarian dialect " ort oder eben is exactly our odd or even. 
In odd, the idea is that of unity, a single point, hence one 
over ; orts are waste or superfluous ends or leavings. The 
latter is the German form, the former the Scandinavian, in 
which the r is assimilated to the following consonant, by a 
very common process in Icelandic" {Essays, pp. 37, 38). 

Odds, ^. Inequality; and so, disagreement, dissen- 

Now, when the father of their Church, who gladly would 
heale the Boare of the daughter of his people softly and sleightly, 
and make the best of it, findeth so great fault with them for 
their oddes and iarring; we hope the children haae no great 
cause to vaunt of their yniformitie. Tfte Translators to t?ie 

I cannot speak 
Any beginning to this peevish odds. 

Shakespeare, Oth. n. 3. 

Of, prep. Like the A.-S. c^f, this preposition occurs in 
phrases where its place is now occupied by others. It 
sometimes represents the Lat. a or ab, and sometimes de. 
Thus in Ruth ii. 16 "of purpose'' is in the Vulg. ^^de in- 
dnstria;*' so in Drayton's Nymphidia, 292 : 

This Puck seems but a dreaming dolt, 
Still walking like a ragged colt. 
And oft out of a bush doth bolt, 
Of purpoH to deceiue vb. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Whereas wise men will rather doe sacrifice to envy ; in suf- 
fering themselves, sometimes of purpose to be crost, and over- 
borne in things, that doe not much conceme them. Bacon, Ess, 
IX. p. 33- 

Examples of this usage are frequent (Luke xiv. 8; i Cor. 
xi. 32). 

I left my goods that I have evermore most highly esteemed, 
that is, my word and sacraments, to be disposed of you. Lati- 
mer, Serm. p. 39. 

That the scripture of God may be read in English of all his 
obedient subjects. Id, Rem, p. 240. 

The phrase *in comparison of^ (Judg. viii. 2) was once 

This Proto-Sebastus, a better stallion than war horse, was a 
perfect epicure (so that Apitius, in comparison of him, was a 
churl to * starve himself). Fuller, Holy and Profane State, 
xvni. 2. 

'A zeal of God' (Rom. x. 2) is the literal rendering of 
the Greek objective genitive, but the same phrase occurs 
in Shakespeare (2 Hen. IV. iv. 2); 

You have ta*en up, 
, Under the counterfeited zeal of God, 

The subjects of his substitute, my father. 

In the phrase 'compassion of the poor' (Lev. xxv. c) 
it also marks the objective genitive. 

In a partitive sense =" some of" (Lev. iv. 16). 

And send oft of them, over to the country, that plants, 
that they may see a better condition then their owne, and com- 
mend it when they returne. Bacon, Ess. xxxiii. p. 142. 

In the phrase 'q/* long time' (Acts viii. 11). 

But the yonge man, hauing his hert alredy wedded to his 
frend Titus, and his mynde fixed to the studye of philosophy, 
fearyng that manage should bee the occasion to seuer hym bothe 
from the one and the other, refused of longe tyms to be per- 
8 waded. Elyot, Oovemovr, B. n. p. 122 5. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Therefore, let penall lawes, if they have beene sleepers of 
long, or if they be growne unfit for the present time, be by wise 
judges confined in the execution. Bacon, Eu, LVi. p. 934. 

After a verb of motion, as in James iv. i. So in Bacon 
{Ess. LI. p. 208) ; 

The even carriage betweene two factions, proceedeth not 
alwaies 0/ moderation, but of a truenesse to a mans selfe, with 
end to make use of both. 

Oft. adv, (Job xxi. 17; Matt ix. 14, &c). Often; 
A.-S. oft. The old form of the word which now exists only 
in the language of poetry. 

Yet before we end, we must answere a third cauill and ob- 
iection of theirs against ts, for altering and amending our Trans- 
lations so oft. The TranskUora to the Reader. 

And send oft of them, over to the country, that plants, that 
they may see a better condition then their owne. Bacon, £88, 
xxxui. p. 142. 

Often, adj. (i Tim. v. 23). Frequent. 

Wherfore he sent to the queue beynge in sanotuarie diuerse 
and often messengers. Hall, Rich, III. foL 24 a. 

The madnes of the Welshemen and Scottes (whose often incur- 
sions and robberyes he wel had in his fathers daies experimented 
and assaied) he studied to assuage and represse. Id. Men. V. 
f ol. 2 a. 

Oil olive, sh. (Ex. XXX. 24; Deut, viii. 8 ; 2 K. XYiii 32). 
Olive oil. 

Aristseus the Athenian inuented the making of oyle oUut, 
as also the presse & mill thereto belonging. Holland's Pliny, 
VII. 56. 

Ointment, sh. (Cant L 3, ir. 10; Amos vi. 6).' An 
unguent, perfume; in Chaucer oynement^ from Lat. ungere 
through It. ugnere and Fr. oindre, pp. oint. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The odours of oyntmmtSy are more durable, then those of 
flowers. Bacon, Ess, Liii. p. 213. 

Oldness, sb. (Rom. vii. 6). Old age, antiquity; A.-S. 

This policy and reverence of age. makes the world bitter to 
the best of our times ; keeps our fortunes from us till our oldneas 
cannot relish them. Shakespeare, LeoTj i. 2. 

Prepaire ye vnto God a ghostely temple, whiche neither old- 
nesse male eate Tp with rottyng, neither any tempeste maie ouer- 
throwe. Udal's Erasmus, Xu^e, fol. 156 b, 

Omnipotency, 9b. (Is. xL xliv. xly. c). Like espcel- 
lency and other words already noticed, omnipotence (Lat. 
omnipotentia) has been displaced in modem usage by 
'omnipotence.' Bacon (Adv. qf Learning , i. 6, § 14) 
praises philosophy and human learning as 

Drawing ys into a due meditation of the omnipotencie of God^ 
which is chiefely signed and in^rauen vppon his workes. 

On. prep, (i Sam. xxvii. i ^. Used as we should now 
use ' of. Instances of this usage are common in Shake- 

Were such things here as we do speak about? 
Or have we eatea on the insane root 
That takes the reasoa prisoner? 

ifoeft. I. 3. 
I will advise you where to plant yourselyes, 
Acquaint you with the perfect spy o*the time, 
The moment onH. 

Ibid. m. 1. 
I tell you yet again, Banquets buried ; he cannot come out 
(wi'a grave. Ibid. v. i. 

That this tempest, ' 
Dashing the garment of this peace, aboded 
The sudden breach on*t, 

ffen. VIIL I. I. 

You to your beauteous blessings add a curse, 
Being fond on pnuse, which n^es your praises worse. 

Sonn, 84. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


And be not jealous on me, gentle Brutus. 

Jul. Cobs, i. 2. 

Did forfeite (with his life) all those his Lands 
Which he stood seized on, to the Conqueror. 

Ham. I. I (ed. 1623). 

In the last-quoted passage the Quartos read 'of.' 

Once^ adv. Used in Jer. xiii. 27, of an uncertain 
future period. 

But to what end this chiding between the children of the 
world and the children of light will come, only he knoweth that 
once shall judge them both. Latimer, Serm. p. 51. 

We must die, Messala : 
With meditating that she must die once, 
I have the patience to endure it now. 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cces. iv. 3. 

I thank thee ; and, I pray thee, once to night, 
Give my sweet Kan this ring. 

Id. Merry Wives, ni. 4. 

Only, cujy. In such phrases as * of whose only rift it 
cometh' (Collect for i3tn Sunday after Trin.) we should 
now use *gift alone.' In the Leycester Correspondence, 
p. 237, we find " The (mly transportatyon will cost a loooli." 

The night hath no perfecte iudgemSt of thynges, but...ofte 
tymes in stede of the thinges selfes, it sheweth the yie the oneUy 
shadowes and vayne coUnterfaytes of thynges. Udal's Eratimus, 
Luhe, fol. 236. 

That th' ondy breath him daunts, who hath escapt the stroke. 

Spenser, F. Q. i. 7, § 13. 

Open, t.t (Acts xvii. 3). To explain, make plain: 
from A.-S. opnian or ippian. Thus in Pecock's Repressor, 
p. I, 

Of which correpcion first openyng or doing to witte^ thanne 
next blamyng, and aftirward biseching ben parties. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The same writer (p. 56) used the adjective open in the 
sense of * plain;' 

For he was not delyuered fro the bondis into his deeth, as is 
open bi the ij® Epistle to Thimothie. 

She opened the fault of her son^ and hid it not. Latimer, 
Serm, p. 243. 

And in regard of causes now in hand, 
Which I have opened to his grace at large 
As touching France. 

Shakespeare, Hen, F. I. i. 

Or, prep, (Ps. xc. 2 ; Prov. viii. 23 ; Cant, vi 12 ; Dan. 
vi. 24). In the sense of ere^ 'before' this word is fre- 
quently used. It is connected with the A.-S. or, beginning^ 
(Germ, ur-), and with cer which remains in the form ere. 

And to a plesaunt groue I gan passe, 
Long or the bright sonne up risen was. 

Chaucer, Flower and Leaf, 27 (ed. 1598). 

Cleer was the day, as I have told or this. 

Id. Knight*8 Tale, 1685. 

And therfore saith Job to Grod, suf&e, Lord, that I may a 
while biwayle and wepe, or I go withoute retoumynge to the 
derk lond, covered with derknes of deth. Chaucer, Par»on^8 

The great man was gone forth about such affairs as behoved 
him, or I came. Latimer, Serm. p. 255. 

The reduplicated form or ere, sometimes or ever (com- 
pare an if), IS frequently found. 

Thys man of likelyhod is of great age, & or ere the clergy 
began was wonte to sit at saint Sauours with a sore legge. Sir 
T. More, Works, p. 300 c. 

Or rather then set forward, for *twill be 

Two long dayes ioumey (Lords) or ere we meete. 

Shakespeare, K. John, nr. 3 (ed. 1633). 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOO^. 353 

Had I byn amy God of power, I would 
Haue suncke Uie Sea within the Earth, or ere 
It should the good Ship so haue swallow'd. 

Id. Temp. i. i (ed. 1623). 

"Would I had met my dearest foe in heaven 
Or ever I had seen that day, Horatio. 

Id. Ham, 1, 2. 

'Erever* is used in the same sense (Eoclus. xxiii. 20), 
and in fact the reading of the last quoted line in the first 
Quarto is^ 

Ere euer I had seene that day Horatio. 

And byanby ereuer it can any thyng settle in their myndes, 
commeth the deiuil, and puttyng into them contrarie thoughtes, 
taketh out of their mynde all that thei heard. Udal's Eras- 
mus, Lukej foL 78 5. 

Order^ vJ. (Judg. xiii 12 ; i K. xx. 14). To set in 
order, arrange ; and in the Prayer Book, to ordain. Lati- 
mer, Serm, p. 377 » 

Let us, therefore, order ourselves so that we may say it wor- 
thily, as it ought to be. Latimer, Serm, p. 377. 

If I know how, or which way, to order these affairs, 
Thus thrust disorderly into my hands. 
Never believe me. 

Shakespeare, Rkh II, n. 2. 

In the technical sense of ordaining or admitting to holy 
orders it is found in Grindal (p. 353) ; 

I think it will fall forth that he [Lowth] was never ordered 
or minister ; and yet hath he these £bheen or sixteen years exer- 
cised that function. 

Thou schalt considre what thou art that dost the synne, 
whethir that thou be mal or femal, old other yong, gentil or 
thnd, fre or servaunt, hool or seek, weddid or sengle, ordrid or 
unordred, wys or fool, clerk or seculer. Chaucer, Parson's Tale, 

Ordering, ^. (i Chr. xxiv. 19). Arrangement. 

Digitized by Vj».J*.J VIC ^3 

354 ^^^ BIBLE 

I doe hold it, in the royall ordering of gardens, there ought 
to be gardensi for all the moneths in the yeare. Baoon, Eas, 
XLVi. p. 1 86. 

After they grew to rest upon number, rather competent, then 
vast : they grew to advantages, of place, cunning diversions, and 
the like: and they grew more skilful in the ordering of their 
battailes. Id. LViu. p. 237. 

Ordinary. »b, (Rubric before Comm. Off. &b). The 
Bishop or ArchDishop, who has the ordering of all disputed 
or doubtful points. 

Lord, sefne petydons I beseche fow of here, 

• ••••• 

The fyfte to obey the ordenaryes of the temple echeon. 

C&v, Mys. p. 87. 

Ordinaire : An ordinarie; a bishop (or his chauncelor, &c) 
ivithin his diocesse. Cotgrave, 'Fr, Diet, 

Originali sh. Origin. ' The incestuous originall of 
Moab and Ammon' (Gen. xix. c). 

It hath it originall from much greefe ; from study and perturb- 
ation of the braine. ShakespearCi 2 Hen, IV, 1. 2 (ed. 1623). 

Ossifrage, sh. (Lev. xi. 13; Deut. xiv. 12). The 
bearded vulture : Lat. ossifragay Uterally, the bone-breaker. 
Ospray is the same word. 

This said, away she flew, formed like the fowl 
Men call the otslfrage. 

Chapman's Homer, Odyt. ni. 506. 

In Chapman's Homer, //. xyiii. 557, it appears in the 
form * osspringer.' 

Other, pr(m. (Josh. viii. 22 ; 2 Chr. xxxii. 22 ; Job 
xxiv. 24; Luke xxiii. 32 ; Phil. ii. 3, iv. 3). The plural of 
other; A.-S. o^ere. 

As occasion ascked eatche troupe whole toogeather too healp 
ooiker withowte breakyng. Lord Grey of Wilton, p. 13. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


Whether they be of the nobility, or else oiker his grace's 
subjects. Latimer, Serm, p. 40. 

It is no marvel that they go about to keep oUur in darkness. 
Ibid. p. 47. 

Captain Calfeild in his wherrie carried ten more, and in my 
barge Uher ten, which made vp a hundred. Balegh, Ouiana, 
p. 45- 

Compare Gen. viii 10, 12; Matt xxy. 17. 

Ouches, «&. (Ex. xxTiii. xxix .). The sockets or frames Xxx 
in which precioos stones are set ; hence applied to tiie 
jewels themselves. 

Those partelettys and those owchia hang heuy abowt our 
nekkys, and cleue fast fyre bote, that wo be we there and wyshe 
that whyle we lyued, ye neuer had folowed our fantasyes, nor 
neuer had so kokered ys nor made vs so wanton, nor had geuen 
vs other ouckyi than ynions or gret garlyk heddys. Sir T. 
More, Supp, of Souls, fol. 42 b, 

With three scarfes, bracelets, chiuns and ouches, Nashe's 
Lenten Stuffe, p. 34. 

Your brooches, pearls, and ouches, Shakespeare, 3 Hen, IV. 
II. 4. • . 

Chaucer uses the form nowches: 

A coroun on hir heed they han i-dressed. 
And set hir ful of rurujches gret and -smale. 

Clerk's Tale, 8258, 

Compare the double form in the words, neap (A.-S. nep) 
and ebb (A.-S. ep), newt and e/t, nook and hook, napem 
sjxd apron, nedder and adder, noumpere and umpire, 
nounce and ounce. 

Out of, in the passage i Sam. xyiii. 1 1, ' and David 
avoided otit of his presence twice.' Compare Latimer, 
(/2^m. p. 321): 

For shame, nay for conscience, either allege the scriptures 
aright, without any such wresting, or else abstain out of the 

Digitized by VjV^kUi!!^ ^^^ 


Out of course (Ps. Ixxxii 5). Disordered, out of 

The staodards to be roses ; iiiniper ; holly ; beare-berries (bnt 
here and there, because of the smell of their blossome ;) red cur- 
rans; goose-berries; rose-mary; bayes; sweet-briar; and such like. 
But these standards, to be kept with cutting, that they grow not 
out of course. Bacon, Ew, XLVi. p. 193. 

Out of hand (Num. xi. 15). Instantly. 

I had rather haue it presently, or out of hand^ than to be 
thought to haue it. Numerato malim, qukm aestimatione. Gic. 
Baret, Alvearie, s. v. Present. 

Outer) adj. (Matt, viil 12). Utter; A.-S. ^ter, com- 
p&rative otHt. 

Outgo, V. t, (Mark vi. 32). To outstrip. 

Xenocrates was apprentice to Tisicrates, or as some say, to 
Euthycrates ; but whether of the twaine soeuer was his master, 
he otUtoent them both in the number of statues and images that 
he wrought, and besides compiled bookes of his owne art and 
workemanship. Holland's Pliny, zxxiv. 8. 

Outgoings, 8h, (Josh. xyii. 9, 18 ; Ps. Ixv. 8). A 
Hebraism. In the passages of Joshua and 2 Esd. iy. 7 it 
signifies the extremities or utmost limits. In Ps. Ixr. 8 the 
Geneva Version has : *' thou shalt make the East and the 
West to rejoyce," adding in the margin, ^Ebr. the going 
forth of the morning and of the evening.'* The Yiugate 
has exittis in all passages. 

Outlandish, adj, (Neh. xiii. 26). Foreign; A.-8. 

Now at this present, of all those kinds of outlandith wheat 
which are transported by sea into Italy, the lightest is that 
which commeth out of France and Chersonesus. Holland's 
Pliny, xvni. 7. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


If Bome one have been a traveller in Italy, or as far as the 
emperours court, wintered in Orleance, and can court his mistris 
in broken French, wear his clothes neatly in the newest fashion, 
sing some choice otdlandish tunes, discourse of lords, ladies, 
towns, palaces and cities, he is compleat, and to be admired. 
Burton, Afiat. of Mel. Pt. I. sec. 2. mem. 3. subs. 15. 

Outmost adj, (Dent xxx. 4). Utmost ; A.-S. i&tmost. 

All the wise men in the whole world (I mean those which 
lived in his time) did reverence Salomon, a king and so great a 
prophet, and came unto him from the very outmost ends of the 
world. Bullinger, Decades, h 50. 

Outroad, sb. (i Mace. xt. 41). An excursion. 

Overcharge, v,t. (Luke xxi. 34; 2 Cor. ii. 5). To 
overburden. [See Chabgb.] 

Sometime he calls the king 
And whispers to his pillow as to him 
The secrets of his overcharged soul. 

Id. 2 ffen, VI. hl 1, 

So that you may conclude ; that no people, over-cha/rged with 
tribute, is fit for Empire. Bacon, Ess, xxix. p. 122. 

Overflow, v. t (Deut. xi. 4). To flood, submerge. 

I would be loath to have you overjlown with a honey-bag, 
signior. Shakespeare, Mid, N,*s Dr, lY. i. 

Overlive, v,t, (Josh. xxiv. 31). To outlive, survive, 
from A.-S. o/er-libban; compare Germ, iiberleben. 

Concludes in .hearty prayers 
That your attempts may overlive the hazard 
And fearful meeting of their opposite. 

Shakespeare, 2 ffen, IV* iv. i. 

I love the man so well, as I wish he may over-live me. 

Bacon, Ess, xxviK p. log. 

Overpass, v.t, (Jer. v. 28; Ecclus. xiv. 14). To pass 
over or by, neglect. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


To thentent to saile forward shortely, and to se do conueni- 
ent tyme slackely overpcused nor be pretermitted. Hall, Rich. 
///. fol. 176. 

Overpastj pp. (Ps. Ivii. i ; Is. xxyL 20). Passed 

But wheD the furious fit was (merpcut. 
His cruell facts he often would repent. 

Spenser, F. Q. I. 4. § 34. 

Overmilj sb. (2 Sam. xviii. 23). To outran. 

We may outrun, 
By violent swiftness, that which we run at, 
And lose by over-running. 

ShaJcespeare, Hen, VI I L i. i. 

Oversee^ f. f. (i Chr. ix. 29 ; 2 Ghr. 11. 2). To look 
over, survey ; A.-S. qfersedru 

When Kyng Henry had (mersene their articles and defiaunce, 
hee auDSwered the esquiers that he was redy with dent of swerde 
and fierce battayll to profe their quarell false and fayned. Hall, 
Hen^ IV. fol. 22 o. . . 

Owe^ v,t, (Lev. xlv. 35). To own ; In the ed. of 161 1. 

This is no mortal business, nor no sound 
That the earth ovm, 

Shakespeare;, Temp, I. 2. 


Paddle, sb, (Deut xxiii. 13). An instroment broad 
and flat like the blade of an oar ; a small spade ; probably 
the same word as spaddle, of which Richardson gives an 
example. [See Knap.] * Padella' In Italian Is a frying-pan. 

Pained, pp, (Rev. xli. 2). In pain or labour. 

Digitized by VjVJOQIC 


Painful adj. (Ps. Ixxiii. i6). In the passiye sense of 
full of pain or labour, hence toilsome, laborious. Thus in 
the Sydney State Papers (ed. Collins, i. p. 280) : 

Be suer of a juste and pamfull man, to be gentleman of your 

And again, 

The man laste named I ever fownde painfvU, skilfulle, and 

I think we have some as painful magistrates as ever was in 
England. Latimer, Serm. p. 142. 

One that cares for thee, 
And for thy maintenance, commits his body 
To jpamfvl labour both by sea and land. 

Shakespeare, Tarn, of Shrew, v. 2. 

All besmirched 
With rainy marching in the painful field. 

Id, ffen, F. iv. 3. 

PainflilnesB^ sb. (2 Cor. xi. 27\ Labour, toil; from 
the preceding, which is itself derived from * pain ' in the 
sense of ^ lalK>ur, difficulty.' Johnson gives the following 
from Hooker : 

Painfulness by feeble means shall be able to gain that, which 
in the plenty of more forcible instruments is through sloth and 
negligence lost. Ecd, Pol. v. 22. 

The wife is indebted unto her husband to honour him... to be 
not only an help, but a credit unto him, by her keeping home, 
by her industry and painfalness, by her sober, holy, and discreet 
behaviour* Sandys, Serm, p. 202. 

Pair of gallows (Esth. y. c). Obsolete ; though 
we still speak of a * pair ' of steps or stairs. 

What talkest thou to me of the hangman? if I hang, 111 
make a fat pair of gaUows; for if I hang, old Sir John hangs 
with me, and thou knowest he is no starveling. Shakespeare^ 
I ffm. IV, II. I. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Palestina, sb, (Ex. -xv. 14 ; Is. xiv. 29, 31). Palestine 
in its original sense of the country inhabited by the Philis- 

The Israelites drank water in the wildemesse; Sampson, 
David, Saul, Abrahams servant when he went for Isaacs wife, 
the Samaritan woman, and how many besides might I reckon up, 
^gypt, Palcsstina, whole countries in the Indies, that drink pure 
water all their lives. Burton, Anat. of Mel. Pt. 2. sec. 3. mem. 3. 

Yea, sometime it the shamefuU spoyl hath been 
To sacrilegious hands of Palestine. 

Du Bartas, Judith, p. 5 (trans. Hudson, ed. 16 ri). 

In the Table of words at the end of this poem, ^ Pales- 
tine ' is explained as ^ The Land of the Philistins,' and in 
this sense it is constantly em{)loyed by Milton, as has been 
pointed out by Mr Grove in his article * Palestine' (Smith's 
Diet qfthe Bible, 11. 606). 

Bagon his name, sea-monster, upward man 
And downward fish : yet had his temple high 
Rear'd in Azotus, dreaded through the coast « 

Of Palestine, in Gath and Ascalon, 
And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds. 

P. L. I. 465. 

Palme-crist. sb. (Jon. iv. 6 m). The BicinuSy or 
castor-oil plant, called also Palma Ghristi. 

The greene leaues of Palma Ckriati pound with parched 
Barley meale, do mitigate and asswage the inflammation and 
swellmg sorenesse of the eyes. Lyte^s Herbal, p. 412. 

Palmerworm^ sb. (Joel. i. 4, ii. 25; Am. iv. 9). A 
caterpillar. The word is still retained in Dorsetshire. 

Also, against Palmer-worma or Caterpillars, and to keepe 
Apples from rottiug, they giue order for to annoint the top 
twigs and branch ends of trees with the gal of a green Lizard. 
Holland's Pliny, xvii. 28. 

It is also called a 'palmer.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Eruche, stalkes or stems of coleworts or cabbages. Also 
the worme called a canker or palmer. Also the herbe rocket. 
Florio, Worlde of Wordes. 

Millepieds: m. The worme, or yermiae^ called a Palmer. 
Cotgrave, Fr, Did, 

Palpable^ adj. That may be felt; Lat. palpdbilis. 
In the Dedication of the A.Y. the translators allude to 
'* some thicke and palpable cloudes of darkenesse," with 
eyident reference to Ex. x. 2 1. Gomp. Milton, P. X. xii. 1 88. 

Palsy, «&. (Matt. iv. 24, ix. 2 ; Mark ii. 3, 4, &c.). 
Paralysis: contracted from Yx. paralysie ; Gk. TrapoXvo-ty. 
In Wiclif the word appears in the forms pala^ne, palesie. 

The distilled water of the floures of spike or lauender, heal- 
eth members of the palaie if they be washed therewith. Lyte*s 
Herbal, p. 300. 

Paralitico, one that is sicke of the palsve, Florio, Worlde of 

O then, how quickly should this arm of mine, 
Now prisoner to the paUy, chastise thee 
And minister correction to thy fault! 

Shakespeare, Bick. II. n. 3. 

The pdUy, and not fear, provokes me. 

Id. 2 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 

Panary, sb. A bread-basket : Lat. panarium. Of 
the Scriptures the Translators say : 

In a word, it is a Pavary of holesome foode, against fenowed 

Papj sh. (Luke xi. 27 ; Rev. i. 13). The nipple of the 
breast; comysLve IjsA. papilla, 

Sainct Jherom, whiche saieth that when he was yong, he sawe 
in Fraunce certain Scottes of the isle of Britayne eate the fleshe 
of men, and when they came into the woodes findyng there 
greate heaxdes of beastes and flockes of shepe, lefte the beastea 

Digitized by V3V.JV.JV IC 


and cut of the buttockes of the heardmen and the pappes and 
brestes of the shepehardes women, extemying this meate to be 
the greatest deinties. Hall, ffen. V, fol. 8 a. 

Paper reed^ sK (Is. xix. 7). The papyrus plant 

Divers sorts of sieues and bulters there be... In -^gypt they 
made them ofpapyr reed and rushes. Holland's Pliny, xviii. ti. 

Parcelj sb. r Josh. xxiv. 32 ; Ruth iv. 3). Piece, por- 
tion ; Fr. parcelle which is from Lat. particula, a small 
part, particle. Still used as a law term. 

But yit was that a pa/rcel of hir wo. 

Chaucer, Franklin't TaU, 11164. 

Many a thousand, 
Which now mistrust no parcel of my fear. 

Shakespeare, 3 Men. VL v. 6. 

'Parcel-meal* is used for 'piece-meal': 

For thise are men on this molde 
That moost harm wercbeth 
To the povere peple 
That percel-mele buggen. 

Piers Ploughman's Fw. 15 19. 

For that nothing parcell of the world, is denied to mans 
enquirie and inuention : bee doth in another place rule ouer ; 
-when bee sayth, The spirits of man is as the lampe of God, 
wherewith he searcheth the inwardnesse of all secrets. Bacon, 
Adv. ofL. I. 1, § 3. 

Parle^ sb. Parley, talk, conversation. 

Briefly, by the fourth being brought together to Aparle face 
to face, we sooner compose our ditferenoes then by writings, 
which are endlesse. The Tranalaturt to ike Reader, 

Behold, the French amazed, vouchsafe a parle, 

Shakespeare, K, John, ii. i. 

You loving men of Angiers, Arthur's subjects. 
Our trumpet called you to this gentle parU, 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

. WORB'BOOJ^. 363 

Partaker^ sb. (Ps. 1. 18). An accomplice. 

For your partaker Pole and you yourself, 
I'll note you in my book of memory. 

Shakespeare, i Hen, VI. ii. 4. 

The king being well aduertised, that Perkin did more trust 

Tpon friends and partakers within the realme, then vppon for- 

raine armes, thought it behooued him to applie the remedie, 

where the disease lay. Bacon, Hen, VIL p. 130. 

Particularly^ adv. (Acts xxi. 19; Heb. ix. 5). In 
detail^ one by one. * 

My free drift 
Halts not particularly, but moves itself 
In a wide sea of wax. 

Shakespeare, Tim, ofAtKx. i. 

PaSB^ v.t. (Eph. iii. 19; Phil. iv. 7). To surpass, ex- 
ceed ; Fr. passer in the same sense. 

There is one that paasetk all the other, and is the most dili- 
gent prelate and preacher in all England. Latimer, Serm. p. 70. 

Bo you not see the grasse, how in colour they excell the 
emeralds, euery one striuing to passe his fellow, and yet they are 
all kept of an equall height ? . Sidney, Arcadia, Bk. I. p. 32, 
1. a. ed. 1598. 

But I have that within which passeth show. 

Shakespeare, Haml, I. 2. 
A quiet life doth pass an empery. 

Greene, Alphonsus^ Act I. p. 10, ed. Dyce. 

PasB^ v.i. (Ps. cxlviii. 6). To pass away. 

Heaven and earth shall passe, but my word shall not passe. 
Matt. xxiv. 35, quoted in Bacon's Adv. cf L, n. 25, § 14. 

Passage^ sb. (Judg. xil. 6; I Sam. xiii 23, xiv. 4; 
Is. X. 29; Jer. xxii. 20, U. 32). A pass over a mountain; 
a ford of a river: ¥r. passage. 

The kyng had so stopped the passages that nether vytayll 
nor succour could by any way be conueighed to thS. Hail, 
Hm. IV, fol. 186. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

364 . THE BIBLE 

The Welshemen knowyng the passages of the countrey, toke 
certayne catiages of his laded with vitayle. Ibid. fol. 19 a. 

Passion, «&. (Acts 1 3 ; Ps. ex. c). From the Lat. 
passio in its literal sense of ' suflFering ;' it is commonly, 
though not exclusively, applied to the suffering of our 
Saviour, as is evident from the following passage of Lati- 
mer (Serm. p. 232): 

All the passion of all the martyrs that ever were, all the 
sacrifices of patriarchs that ever were, aU the good works 
that ever were done, were not able to remedy our sin, to make 
satisfaction for our sins, nor anything besides, but this extreme 
passion and bloodsheddiiig of our most merciful Saviour Christ. 

If much you note him, 
You shaU offend him, and extend his passion; 
Feed and regard him not. 

Shakespeare, Macb. ni. 4. 

Pastor, sb. ( Jer. xxiii. t, 2). A shepherd. The same 
Hebrew word is rendered 'shepherd' in Jer. xxiii. 4. 

Beg we at the hands of the Lord of the harvest, to send 
more pastors and fewer hirelings, more ^boiu^rs and fewer 
loiterers. Sandys, Serm. p. 149. 

Pasteur : m. A pastor, or sbepheard ; one that goiiemes, or 
takes charge of, a flocke. Cotgrave, Fr, Diet. 

Pate, 8b. (Ps. vii. 16). The crown of the head. This 
word, which is now restricted to vulgar or comic usage, 
is retained from Coverdale*s Version. 

He was pashed on the pate with a potte. Scyphus ei im- 
pactus est. Baret, Alvearie. 

I'll come behind, and break your enemy *s pate. 

Greene, James IV. Act ni. (vol. IL p. i^a, ed. Dyoe). 

My invention 
Comes from my pate as birdlime does from firize; 
It plucks out brains and all. 

Shakespeare, Otk, n. i. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


Peace^ used as an interjection (Mark iv. 39) to en- 
force quiet. 

Go to, go to; peace, ^^toux; we must deal gently with him. 

Shakespeare, Twelfth Nighty iii. 4, 

Peace, to hold one^s (Ex. xiv. 14; 4, 
&c.). To be silent. 

Satoumus seyde: Doughter, hold thy pees, 

Chaucer, Knighfs TcUe, 2670. 

Philip heard what he said but held his pecu;e. 

North's Plutarch, Alex^ p. 719. 

Peculiar, adj. (Ex. xix. 5 ; Deut. xiv. 2). Belonging 
to one's self^ as a chattel ; one's own, Lat. pectdiarU from 
peculium, which in the technical sense denoted the private 
property which a child or slave was allowed by parent or 
master to possess. 

But the Perciea affinuyng them to be their owne propre pri- 
soners and their pecuHa/r praies, and to deliuer theym vtterly 
denayed. Hall, Hen. IV. fol. 196. 

Peeled, pp. (Is. xviii. 2, 7; Ez. xxix. 18). The same 
word as * pilled,' or *pylled' as it is written in Coverdale. 
In the passages of Isaiah which are quoted it was probably 
suggested by the 'depilatus' of the Vulgate, with which, 
according to some who derive it from puum, * hair,' it is 
et^ologically connected. Others derive it from pellis, 
' skin,' and explain it as signifying ^ stripped of skin.' If 
the former etymology be correct it would signify * stripped 
of hair,' but the derivation is uncertain. In this sense 
it occurs in the description of the miller of Trumpington 
in Chaucer ((7. T. 3933); 

As pyled as an ape was his skuUe. 

In provincial language * peeled' certainly means 'strip- 
ped of skin.' * Brayed nettles is the best cure for a pilled 
skin,' was an old boatman's prescription given in the 
writer's hearing some years ago. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Peepj v.i, (Is. viii. 19, X. 14). To cry like a young 
bird. The word is an imitative one. ^ The most natural 
imitation of a sharp sound is made by the syllables peep, 
keep, keek or teet* In Latin accordingly we find pipire, 
pipiare, to peep or cheep like a chicken, to cry like a chick, 
or small bird; hence pipio, a young bird; It. pippione, 
piccione, a pigeon, properly a young one ; to pipe, to make 
a shrill sound, to cheip (Jamieson), to squeak with a shrill 
and feeble voice, — to creak, as shoes or a door ; cheiper, a 
cricket ; Isl. keipa, to cry as a child' (Mr Wedgwood in 
Proc, qfPhU. Soc, iv. p. 129). 

Piauler : To peepe, or cheepe (as a young bird ;) also, to pule^ 
or howle (as a young whelpe). Cotgrave, Fr. Diet, 

By the 20 day (if the eggs be stirred) ye shall heare the chick 
to peepe within the verie shell, Bolland's Pliny, X. 53. 

The following is an illustration of ^ the wizards that 
peep and mutter;' 

As touching the maner of worshipping and adoring flashes of 
lightening, all nations with one accord and conformity do it with 
a kind of whistling or chirping with the lips. Jlnd. zxviu. 2, 

Penance, sb, (Art. xxv.). The Douay version uses 
' penance' and * do penance' in almost if not in every in- 
stance in which our A. V. has ' repentance' and * repent' 
The word formerly was the representative of the Lat. 
pcenitentia from which it is derived, as is clear from the 
following passages ; 

Seint Ambrose sayth That penance is the plaining of man for 
the gilt that he hath don, and no more to do any thing for which 
him ought to plaine. Chaucer, Parson^s Tale (ed. Tyrwhitt). 

In the Percy Society's edition the reading is 'penitence/ 

Penance id a turning from sin unto God, a waking up from 
this sleep, of which St Paul speaketh here. Latimer, JUm, p. 9. 

Peny, sb. The word in this form only occurs in the 
Prayer Book, having been altered to ^ penny' in the Bible. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 



It is the A.-S. penig, and represented the Roman denarius 
vrhich waa worth about j^d. of our money. 

For, sire, I wil npt take a peny of the 

For al my craft, ne nought for al my travayle. 

Chaucer^ FravMirC$ Tale, 11920. 

People, sh. (Num. xx. 20 ; Josh. xi. 4 ; i Mace. y. 
A multitude, host; Fr. peuple from Lat populus, 

!uch people ' is used for a large force or multitude, as 
'little people* for the reverse. Wiclif writes it pople^ 
Chaucer poeptd ^(7. T, 2563). 

These lordes had much people folowyng them. Hall, Sen, 
/r.foL 136. 

He is so couragious of himselfe that he is come to the field 
with little 2>eop^. Kiin^g Arthur, c. 6if Vol. r. p. 119. 

Peoples J sb, (Rev. x. 11, xviL 15). Races, tribes. 

Peradventure^ adv, (Gen. xxx. 31, 1. 15; Ex. 
xxxii. 30). Literally, bv chance or adventure; 'perhaps* 
has the same meaning but is oddly compounded of Nor- 
man and Anglo-Saxon, whereas 'peradventure' is consist- 
ently formed. It appears in the form * paraunter' in Gower 
{Covf.Am.1. 178); 

Thou shalt nought be so gracious 
As thou pwrawnler shuldest be elies. 

In Wiclif and Chaucer it is written parauenture, 

Peradoenture if he\ad been a flatterer, as some be now-a- 
days, then he might have gotten such gear. Latimer, Bern. p. 82. 

PerfectnesB^ sb. (Col. iii. 14). Completeness, per- 

God endued him [Bilney] with such strength and perfectnesa 
of faith, that he not only confessed his faith, the gospel of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, but also suffered his body to be burnt for 
that same gosp^'s sake. Latimer, Rem, p. 52. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Perfitedj pp. Perfected; from "EY.parfaity perfect. 

As nothing is begun and perfited at the same time, and the 
later thoughts are thought to be the wiser. The Translators to 
the Reader. 

'Perfit' is an old form of * perfect/ the one being de- 
rived from the French, the other from the Latin. Thus in 
the Geneva version of i Cor. ii. 6; 'And we speake wis- 
dome among them that are perfit^ 

Persuade, v. t. (Acts xix. 8, xxviii. 23). To use per- 
suasion, advise; not necessarily to prevail upon by persua- 

To perswade, or counsell. Suadeo, Persuadeo. Baret, Al- 
vearie, s. v. 

It was a notable obsenration, of a wise father, and no lease 
mgenuously confessed; that those, which held and perswaded, 
pressure of consciences, were commonly interessed therin, 
themselves, for their owne ends. Bacon, Ess. III. p. 1 3. 

Persuasible, adj. (i Cor. ii. 4«i). Persuasive; from 
the persudsibilis of the Vulgate. It is found in the text 
of the Rheims version. 

Picking^ «&. (Catechism). Pilfering, petty thieving; 

I had of late occasion to speak of picki ng and stealing^ where 
I shewed unto you the danger wherein they be that steal their 
neighbour's goods from them. Latimer, Serm. p. 452. 

Pie, 8h. (Pref. to Pr. Bk.). *The number and hard- 
ness of the rules called the Pie.' 

The Ordinale regulated the whole duty of the Canonical 
Hours, and was generally known about the fifteenth century as 
the Picay or Pie. The priest by referring to this might learn, 
according to the dominical letter, what ^stivaLs he was to ol^ 
serve, and the proper office appointed throughout the year, at least 
so far as any changes were required in the common office of the 
day. Procter, Hia. of the Book of Cominon Prayer, pp. 8, 9. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


The etymology of the word is uncertain. Some con- 
sider it an abbreviation of the Greek iriva^, a table, but this 
is not probable. 

But these Tables were generally made with red initial letters : 
and 89, from being party-coloured, their name in Latin waa 
Pica, Procter, p. 9, note. 

Saying in their talke privilie, and declaring by their deedes 
openlie, that he was felow good enough for their tyme, if he 
could were a gowne and a tipet cumlie, and have hys crowne 
shome faire and roundlie, and could turne his portesse and pie 
readiiie. Ascham, The SchoolmaateTy p. 164 (ed. Mayor). 

Piety, sb. (i Tim. v. 4). Pietas in Lat. meant espe- 
cially filial affection, as is explained by Erasmus {On the 
Creed, fol. 1636, Eng. tr.)j 

To the loue of god & to the loue of our parentes, is gyuen 
one commune name in the Latyne, that is to wyte pietas. For 
pietas proprely is called the affection or loue towardes god and 
towardes our parentes, & towardes our countre, which is as it 
were a commune parente of many men, lykewyse as God is 
the father of all men. 

Eliodorus, for this exccadinge joietee towards bis brother, was 
surnamed afterward Pius, that is to say, godlie, piteus, or 
natural!. Tol. Verg. I. 39. 

In the following example it is used of the affection of 
friends : 

O cruel piety, in our equal danger 

To rob thyself of that thou giv'st thy iinend! 

Massinger, The Bashfvl Lover, ii. 6. 

From the same pietas our 'pity* is derived, as is evid- 
ent from the following: 

ITet notwithstandyng himself beyng a Jewe, sawe one that 
-was a Jewe, & beyng himself a man of Hierusalem, sawe one 
of Hierusalem spoiled, wounded, and liyng half for dead, and 
ycft passed by, no wjiit moued with any drop of pietie or coum- 
passion. Udars Erasmus, Luke, fol. 93 a. 

Fill, t?. t. & i, (Gen. xxx. 37, 38; Tob. xi. 13). To strip 
off the skin or bark, to peel. 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 


Whilst snailing gusts nibble the jayceles leayes. 
From the Dak't shuddring branch; and pi/« the skinne 
From off the soft and delicate aspectes. 

Marston, Antonio*8 Revenge, prol. 
The skilful ^epherd piUed me certain wands. 

Shakespeare, M. of Yen. i. 3. 

It is also used as a snbstantiYe 1 

Now that part therof which is vtmost & hext to the ^iU or 
rind, is called tow or hurds. Holland's Plinyt xiz. i. 

Pilled, pp. (Lev. xiii. 40 m). Bald. See example 
from Chaucer under Peeled. 

]^ scalpe all pUd, and hee with eld forlore. 

Sackville's Induction, foL 210 a. 

Pipe, Vui, (i K. i. 40; I Cor. xiv. 7). To play on the 

Thanne pipede Pees 
Of Poesie a note. 

Piers Ploughman^B Vis. 11906. 

Pitch, v.i. (Josh. viii. 11, xi 5). To encamp; the full 
phrase ))eing to pitch a tent 

On either hand thee there are squadrons pitched. 

Shakespeare, i ffen. VI. TV. a. 

Pitieth, it (Ps. cii. 14, Pr. Bk.). A construction in 
imitation of the Lat. piget, tojdet, and other impersonals, 
retained from Coverdale's version. Compare 4t repenteth' 
(Gen. vi. 7; I Sam. xv, 11). We still use *it grieves or 
pleases me/ for ^ t am grieved or pleased.' 

At the first, the king laughed to see the childe: but after U 
pitied him againe, because the ohilde seemed like an humble soter 
that came to seeke sanctuarie in his aimes. North's Platazch, 
Pyrrhm, p. 423. 

PitiAll, adj. (Lam. iv. 10; Jam. v. 11 ; i Pet iiL S). 
Full of pity, compassionate ; in an active sense. 

Because I speak here of orphans, I shall exhort you to be 
pitiful unto them. Latimer, ^SSsm, p. 391. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Place, 9b, (Acts viiL 32). A passage of an author or 
book, and hence, a topic, which is deriyed from the Greek 
Toiros, a place^ used in the same sense. 

Afterward the Latin was taken yp when it was brought into 
the forme of a province, about the time of Domitian, according 
to that notable place of Tacitus, where he reporteth that lulius 
Agricola governour heere for the Bomans, preferred the Britans, 
as able to doe more by witte, then the Gaules by studie, Cam- 
den, Bemains, p. 13. 

There is not, in all the politiques, a place, lease handled, and 
more worthy to be handled, then this of fame. Bacon, Bssay of 
Fame, p. '240. 

Place, brought in. A phrase which occurs in the 
Translators' Prefaca 

Neither is it the plaine dealing Merchant that is -^niwilling to 
haue the waights, or the meteyai^ brought in place, but he that 
vseth deceit. 

Plain, adj. (Gen. xxv. 27). Simple, honesi 

For he [Antonius] was a plaine man, without subtiltie, and 
therefore ouerlate founde out thd foule faultes they committed 
against him. North's Plutarch, Antonius, p. 979. 

Spenser (F, Q. i. 6, § 20) describes Satyrane as 
Plaine, faithfully true, and enimy of shame^ 

Flainlier, adv. More plainly» 

Alb^t, the^ were iiL no other sort enemies, then as S. Paul 
was to the Galatians, for telling them the trueth : and it were to 
be wished, that they had dared to t^U it them plainlier and 
of tner. The Tramlatora to the Beader. 

Plainness, sb. (2 Cor. iii. 12). Sincerely, frankness. 

He found some of his answeres (as a dog sure if he could 
Bpeake, had wit enough to describe his kennell) not ynsensible, 
and all vttered with such rudenesse, which he interpreted plain- 
neste (though there be great difference betweene them) that 
Basilius conceiuing a sodaine delight, tooke him to his court. 
Sidney, Arcadia, p. 11, L 25. 

Digitized by V^JV.. 24""'2 


Plantation^ sb. (Pref. to Pr. Bk.). A colony; liter- 
ally, a planting, from Lat. plantatio. Bacon's 33rd Essay 
is * Of Plantations.' Among other advice he says, p* 141 ; 

Let not the government of the plantation, depend upon too 
many counsellours, and undertakers, in the counliie that plant- 
eth, hut upon a temperate numher. 

Platj sK (2 K. ix. 26). A plot or small portion of 
ground ; connected with the G. plattj and the Fr. plcU, flat, 
which again are akin to the Gr. TrXarus; so that a 'plot' 
probably signified originally a flat, level place. 

Wherupon thei laied the corpse in a toumbe whiohe stood in 
a gardine platte thereby. Udal's Erasmus, LvJce, fol. 174 a. 
So three in one small jUnt of ground shall ly, 
Antbea, Herrick, and his Poetry. 

Herrick, Hesper. I. p. 10. 

Platter^ sh. (Matt, xxiii. 25, 26; Luke xi. 39). A dish. 

And that they should make a greater shew in the platter, 
they slit them along the chine. Holland's Pliny , x. 50. 

Play, fi.i. (Ex. xxxii. 6; 2 Sam. ii. 14, vi. 21). To 
sport, amuse oneself ; not restricted to children. 

For which he hath to Paris sent anoon 
A messanger, and prayed hath dan Johan 
That he schuld came to Seint Denys, and play 
With him, and with his wyf, ^ day or tway. 

Chaucer, The Shipfnan^t Tcde, 14470. 

For sweeter place 
To pHayen in, he may not finde. 
Although he sought one in tyl Inde. 

Id. Bom. of the Bote, 633. 

In 2 Sam. ii. 14, the word is used in the tedudcal sense 
of playing at fence, fencing. The marginal note in the 
Geneva version is, 'Let us see how they can handle their 

He sends to know if your pleasure hold to play with Laertes^ 
or that you will take longer time. Shakespeare, ffam, v. 2. 

. - Digitized by V^VJVJ VIC 


Play the man (2 Sam. x. 12). To behave manfully, 

For playing tTte menne as we ought to doe, better it is to dye 
in battell for the common weaJthes cause, than through coward- 
like feare to prolong life, whiche after shall be taken irom vs, by 
sentence of the enemie. HoUnshed, Chron, p. J1386. 

All France will be replete with mirth and joy, 
When they shall hear how we have plaifd ike men, 

Shakespeare, i Hen, VI, I. 6. 

Pleasure^ v.t (2 Mace. xii. 1 1). To please, gratify. 

For when the way of pleasuring and displeaauriog, lieth by 
the favourite, it is impossible, any other should be over-great. 
BacoD, E$8, XXXVI. p. 154. 

Nay, conceive me, conceive me, sweet coz : what I do is to 
pleasure you, C025. Shakespeare, Merry Wives, i. i. 

Plenteous^ acfj. (Gen. xll 34; Deut. xxviii. il, &c.). 
Plentiful, abmidant. 

But Plcus, of whom we spake, was himself so honorable for 
the great plenteous abundace of al such vertues. Sir T. More^ 
Life of Picas, Works, p. 2 b. 

Plenteousness^ jr&.(]. 53; Prov.xxi.5). Plenty, 
abundance ; formed with an A.-S. termination from * plente- 
ous,' the adjective from 'plenty,' originally * /?/^w^^,' 'ful- 

Even as Paul in the ninth chapter of his Epistle to the 
Bomans, was drunk in love, and overwhelmed with the plerUeouS' 
ness of the infinite mercy of God. Tyndale, Doctr, Tr, p. 58. 

Plucky fi,t (Ex. iv. 7; Ruth iv. 7; Prov. xiv. i; Mark 
V. 4). To pull, tear ; A.-S. pluccian, G. pflucken. 

And therewith he plucked vp hys doublet sleue to his elbow 
vpon his left arme, where he shewed a werish withered arme 
and small, as it was neuer other. Sir T. More, Rich, IlL^ 
H'orib, p. 54 c. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

374 ^SE BIBLK 

Their bats are plucVd about their ears. - 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cces, il. i. 

Point out, vX (Num. xxxiv. 7, 8, 10). To assign. 

And the temple whiche I have poynted and marked out to my 
naniie, I shall caste out from my syght. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, 
fol. 181 b. 

Poisonflll, adj, (Deufc. xxix. i8«i). Poisonous. 

This Prouince of Amapaia is a yerie low and a marish ground 
ne^re the riuer, and by reason of the red water which issueth out 
in small branches thorow the fenny and boggie ground, there 
breed diners poytonfull wormes and serpents. Balegh, Guiana, 
p. 32t 

Poll, sb, (Ex. xvi. 16 m\ Num. i. 2, 18, 20, 22, iii. 47 ; 
I Chr. xxiii. 3, 24). A head ; Du. hoi whi^nce holsterj G. 
polster (compare 0. E. holeax and poleax\ Sc. pow; con- 
nected etymologically wjth bdl, ball, the latter of which was 
used for * head* (Coleridge, Gloss,). The word survives in 
jE>o^-tax or head money, and the poll at elections, in which 
voters are counted by their polls or heads. 

If the gentlemen be too many, the commons will be base ; 
and you will bring it to that, that not the hundred poll, will be 
fit for an helmet. Bacon, Ets^ xxix. p. 122. 

Poll, p. t. (2 Sam. xiv. 26 ; Bz. xliv. 20 ; Mic. i. 16). 
From the preceding, to cut the hair of the head. 

When the duke of Norfolk^ and the bysshope of Elye came 
to the towne of Galeis, all the townsmen and sowldiars of Calleis 
powled theyr heads, becaws all the ambassadors' men werpowled,. 
Chron, ofGalais, A.n. 1535, p. 45. 

If thou wilt needs shew thy hahr, and have it seen, go and 
poll thy head, or round it, as men do. Latimer, Serm, p. 254. 

Trees are called pollards which have their branches 

Polonie, sb, Poland. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

WORD'BOOJ^. 375 

So that, to baue the Scriptures in the mother-tongae is not a 
quaint conceit lately taken vp, either by the Lord Cromwell in 
Eogbmd, or by the Lord Itadeuil in PoUmie, The Translatars 
to the Reader 4 

Pommel, sb. (2 Chr. iv. 12). From lAtpomum an 
apple, though the ¥r,' pommeau, as * rounder from ron- 
deau; an apple or l>all-shaped protuberance; now most 
commonly used of a sword or saddle, but formerly of more 
general application. 

And or that Arcyte may take keep, 
He pight him on the pomel of his ^eed, 

Chaucer's KnighCa TaUy 269 c. 

The pommel of Csesar's falchion. Shakespeare, ^ove*< V9 
Lost, V. 2. 

In architecture ' pomel ' or * pommel ' is 

A boss or knob used as an omameutal top of a couical or 
dome-shaped roof of a turret, ^, Weale, Pkt, of Terms of 

Ponder, v. t. (Pror. iv. 26, v. 6, 2T ; Luke ii. 19). To 
weieh; Lsii. ponderare: hence, metaphorically, to weigh in 
one^ mind, to reflect upon. The following are instances of 
the literal and metaphorical usage. 

An innocent with a nocent, a man vngylty wfth a gylty, was 
pondered in an egall balaunce. Hall, Sen, IV, fol. 14 a. 

Which thing deeply considered, and pondered of my lord, 
might something stir lum to charitable equity. Latimer, Rem, 
p. 333. 

Populous, <idj. (Deut. xxvi. 5). Numerous; like the 
Lat. populosus used of natioQs and armies and not confined 
to dties or countries. 

Yt was shewed hym that kynge Rycharde was at hande 
wyth a stronge powre and a poputoua armye. Hall, Rich, III, 
fol. 19 a. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Nay, the dust 
Should have ascended to the roof of heaven, 
BaUed by your populous troops. 

Shakespeare, Ant. and CI. iii. 6. 

Port, 9b. (Neh. iL 13; Ps. ix. 14, Pr. Bk.). In the 
literal sense of 'agate' from L&t. porta, whence 'porter' 
a gatekeeper. The word occurs also in Coverdale's Ver- 
sion of Pa. ix. * Port* in seBrport is from portus, a har- 

The forgate of the same palays or place with great and mighty 
masonry by sight wiets arched, wilh a tower on euery syde of 
tame port rered by great crafte. Hall, Hen, 7 I II. fol. 73 a. 

The knights past through the castles largest gate, 
(Though round about an hundreth porta there shine). 

Fairfax, Tomo, xvi. 1. 

So, let the ports be guarded \ keep your duties. 
As I have set them down. 

Shakespeare, Cortol. J, 7. 

Keep the porta cldse^ and let the guards be doubled. 

Massingdr, The Virgin Martyr, i. 1. 

Porter, sb. (2 Sara, iviii. 26 ; John x» 3, &c.). A gate- 
keeper; lidX. portarius from porta. The word is still of 
familiar use in our colleges and inns of court 

But they were virgins all, and love eschewed 
That might forslack the charge to them foreshewed 
By mighty Jove ; who did them porters make 
Of heaven's gate (whence all the gods issued). 

Spenser, F. ^ vn. 7, § 45. 

Portesse, «6. A portable breviary. The word accord- 
ing to Nares {Gloss, s. v.) is variously spelt portasse, par- 
tise, porthosBy portos, portuse, portace, and portal. 

For on my portoa -here I make an oth, 
That never in my life, for li^f ne loth, 
Ne schal I of no counseil you bywray. 

Chaucer, Shipman's Tale, ^454^. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOOK. 2>77 

For what varieties haue they, and what alterations haue they 
made, not onely of their Seruice bookes, Porteases and Breuiai*ies, 
bat also of their Latino Translation? The Translators to the 

At the sight of a woman, the holiest hermits portasse hath 
falne out of his hand, and his calendar from his girdle. Florio, 
Second Fruit s, p. 171. 

It was also called ' portiforium.' 

In latter times the Breviary was divided into two parts, one for 
the summer, and the other for the winter half of the year, and 
sometimes it was divided into four parts, so that it was more 
portable and convenient for the use of those clergy and monks 
who were accustomed to recite the offices for the canonical hours 
at some tim6 in tne day. From this cause also it was sometimes 
entitled Portiforium, Palmer, Origines Liturgicce, i. 208 (ed. 

From this came the old Fr. portehora from which are 
derived the other varying forms of the word. Mr Maskell 
maintained that it was changed from its original significa- 
tion, until it came to be nothing more nor less than a syno- 
nym of Breviary. Monum, Rit, i. lxxxviii. 

Pose, v,t, (Matt. xxii. c). To puzzle ; Fr. poser from 
Lat. ponere, which is used in the sense of * putting* a ques- 
tion or a case; whence posit, and poser (Bacon, Ess. 32), 
the old term for examiner, till recently in use at Cam- 
bridge, and still employed at Eton and Winchester. A 
trace of the old meaning remains in 'suppose/ and* puz- 
zle' itself is from the same root. In Chaucer {Knighfs 
Tale, 1 164), Arcite defending himself against the charges 
of Palamon, says 

I pose, that thou lovedest hire hifom. 

From *to put a question' the transition was easy 'to 
puzzle with questions' and then 'to puzzle* generally. 
Fuller, speaking of Paracelsus, says ; 

As for bis religion, it would as well pose himself as others 
to tell what it was. Holy State, xvili. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


'Appose' occurs in Piers Plooghman in the same 

Lewed men many times 
MaiatreB thej a/pponn. 

Fm. 7893. 
Id. 8470. 

Pacience apposed hym first 
And preyde he sholde hem telle. 

And in the Coventry Mysteries^ p. 9, 

In the xviiij. pagent we must purpose, 
To shewe whan Cryst was xij. ^er of age, 
How in the temple he dede qppo$e 
And answerd dpctoris ryth wyse and sage. 

Possess J V, t (Num. xiiL 30; Acts xvi. 16). To seize, 
take possession of; I^at posndere in the same sense. 

It chanceth in process of time, that by the singular acquaint- 
ance and frequent fq,niiiiarity of this captain with the French- 
men, these Frenchmen give unto the said captain of Calais a 
great sum of money, so that he will but be content and agreeable 
that they may enter into the said town of Galus by force of 
arms ; and so thereby possess the same unto the crown of France. 
Latimer, Serm, p. 5. 

But Kalander seeing him faint more and morp, with oarefull 
speed conueyed him to the most commodious lodging in bis 
house : where being possest with an extreame burning feuer, he 
continued some while with no great hope of life. Sidney, Ar- 
cadia, p. 8, L a. 

Possus it, York; 
For this is thine and not King Henry*s heirs'. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen. VL I. i. 

Post^ 9b, (2 Chr. XXX. 6; Esth. viiL 14; Job ix. 25; 
Jer. li. 31). The Hebrew in all these passages signifies 
' runner.' ' Post' as a substantive is not now used in this 
sense, though it exists in post-haAi^, It is derived from the 
Fr. poste^ It. posta^ which again are from Lat. positum^ 
anything fixed or placed, and so originally signified a fixed 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


place, as a military post; then, a fixed place on a line of 
road where horses are kept for travelling, a stage, or 
station; thence it was transferred to the person who tra- 
velled in this way, using relays of horses, and finally to any 
qtdck traveller. 

But through a valley as he musing road, 
He saw a man, that seem'd for has^e a j^sjt. 

Fairfax, TasBo, VII. 27. 

Your native town you entered like a pott, 

Shakespeare, Coriol, v. 5 . 

A cripple in the way out- travels a footman, ov a po»t out of 
the way. B. Jonson, Sylva, 

Pottage^ 8b, (Gen. xxv. 29; 2 K.iv. 38). Broth, soup; 
¥T,pot€tgey Itpotagffio, something prepared in a, pot. 

Potage: grueH, Ius...Iusculum. "Baret, Alvearie, b, y. 

All kind of meate sod in potage, lurulentum opsonium. 

Pourtray^ v. t. (Ez. iv. i, viii. 10, xxiii. 14). To draw, 
depict; from ¥r, pourtraire^ Lat. protrahere, whence j3or- 

As for Theon the painter, hee described with his pensill the 
madnesse of Orestes, and pourtrayed Tamyras the Harper or 
Musitian. Holland's P^iny, xxxv. ii. 

* Portreyour' occurs in Chaucer's Knight** Tale, 1901. 

Power^ sb. (2 Chr. xxxii. 9). A force; used of an 
armj, B» puusance is frequently in old writers. 

So soon as we had gathered us a power 
We dallied not. 

Heywood, i Ed, IV, ii. 2, 

Howard fetch on our poweri/ 
We will not stir a foot till we have shewn 
Just vengeance on the Constable of France. 

Id. «. -Fd. 77. I. 4. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


At Yorke there came fresh and more certaine adaertisement, 
that the Lord Level was at hand with a great jpower of men. 
Bacon, Hen, VI L p. 17. 

Power, *&. fGen. xxxii. 28). In the phrase ^to have 
power with/ which signifies * to have influence over.' 

And this was the man, that had power with him, to draw him 
forth to his death. Bacon, Ess. xxvii. p. 108. 

Practise, v,i, (Ps. xxxviL 12 m), To plot 

Yet, if you there 
Did practise on my state, your being in Egypt 
Might be my question. 

Shakespeare, Ant, Und CI, n. 3. 
A sort of naughty persons, lewdly bent, 
Under the countenance and confederacy 
Of Lady Eleanor, the protector's wife, 
The ringleader and head of all this rout, 
Have practised dangerously against your state. 

Id. 2 Hen, VI, n. i. 

Precedent, adj, (Rubric before the Comm. Off.) 

Neither is the opinion, of some of the schoole-men, to be 
received ; That a warre cannot iustly be made, but upon a pre- 
cedent iniury, or provocation. Bacon, Ess. XIX. p. 78. 

Prefer, t^.t. (Esth. 11. 9; Dan. vi. 3 ; John i. 15, 27). 
From Lat. preserve, to advance, exal^ give pi^erment 
to ; literally, to put before. 

Because he neither promoted nor preferred me, as I thonghte 
I was worthy & had deserued. Hall, Bich. III. fol. gb. 

Fuller (Holy State, xxiil) says of Julius Scaliger, 

Scarce any one is to be preferred "before him for generality of 
humane learning. 

Speaking of the sardonyx In the celebrated ring of 
Polycrates in the Temple of Concord at Rome, Pliny says, 

It is among many other there which be preferred btfore it. 
Holland's Pliny, xxxvn. i. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Let use bee preferred before uniformitie. Bacon, Sm. xlv. 
p. 180. 

It were disproportion enough, for the servants good, to be 
^gref erred before the masters. Id. E»s, xxiii. p. 97. 

Prelation, sb. (i Cor. xiii. c). Exaltation, prefer- 
ence; from the same root as the preceding. * Prelate* (Lat. 
prwlatus) is literally one who is advanced or preferred 
before others, but now confined to one having episcopal 

Premonish, v.t In *the Form for the ordering of 
Priests/ among the duties of a priest the Bishop enumer- 
ates * to teach, and to premonish^ to feed and provide for 
the Lord's family.' Lat. prcemonere to advise beforehand, 

Present, at this (Absol. Pr. Bk.). Now; at this 

But, in the mean time, Caphis that was our country man, 
deceiuing the barbarous people, guided Hortensius an other way 
by mount Parnassus, and brought him vnder the citie of Tithora, 
which was not then so great a citie as now at this present it is. 
North's Plutarch, Sylla, p. 506. 

Kings in ancient times, (and at this present in some coun- 
tries,) were wont to put great trust in eunuchs. Bacon, £ss, 
XLiv. p. 179. 

Bacon (Hen, VIL p. 14) uses 'at that present' in a 
similar way; 

For that it was in eueiy mans eye, what great Forfeitures 
and Confiscations he had at that present to helpe himselfe. 

Shakespeare uses 'present' elliptically for 'present 

Thy letters have transported me beyond 
Thi« ignorant present, 

Shakespeare, Macb, I. 5. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 



Presenfly, adv, (i Sam. n. i6; Matt. xxvi. 53). In- 

Draw forth three hundred bowmen and some pikes^ 
And presently encounter their assault. 

Hey wood, i Ed. IV. Ii. 2. 

Where is Metellus Cimber? Let him go. 
And presently prefer his suit to Caesar. 

Shakespsare, Jul. Cces. m. i. 

The good master 

Never threatens his servant, but rather presently corrects 
him. Fuller, Moly State, yii. 4. 

Press^ t?.t. & t. (Mark ill. 10; Luke vili 45, xvi. 16 ; 
Phil. iii. 14). To throng, crowd, hasten eagerly. 

Unto the setes preseth all the route. 

Chaucer, Knighfs Tale, 3582 (ed. Tyrwbitt). 

The pepul presetk thider-ward ful sone 
Him for to seen, and doon him reverence. 

Ibid. 2533 (Percy Soc. cd.). 

Your statue spouting blood in many pipes, 
In which so many smiling Bomans bathed. 
Signifies that from you great Borne shall suck 
Beviving blood) and that great men shall prts» 
For tinctures, stains, relics and cognizance. 

Shakespeare, Jul. Caa. o. a. 

O thou untaught! what manners is in this, 
To press before thy father to a grave ! 

Id. Rom, Js Jul, V. 3. 

Press j th. (Mark ii. 4, V. 27, 30; Lnke viil 19, xix. 3). 
A crowd. 

And how he fled, and how that he 
Escaped was from all the press. 

Chaucer, HouKof Fame, 1. 59, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


At Troie whan King Ylixes 
Upon the siege among the prea 
Of hem, that worthy knightes were^ 
Abode long time stille there. 

Grower, Conf, Am, n. 6. 

Whose footsteps Bladad following, in arts 
Exceld at Athens all the learned preace. 

Spenser, F. Q. ii. to, § 25. 

But now the gay-arm'd Antiphus, a son of Priam, threw 
His lance at Ajaz through the press. 

Chapman's Homer,'/^. iv. 533. 

Who is it in the press that calls on me ? 

ShAkespeare, Jul. Coes, I. 2, 

Pressfkt, 9b, (Hag. ii. i6). The vat of an olive or 
wine press, for receiving the liquor. 

Presume^ v. u (2 Mace. viiL e). To undertake ; the 
Lskt prcBsumere is used in the same sense» Webster quotes 
the following example : 

Bold deed hast thou presumed, adventurous Eve. 

Milton, P. L. IX. 931. 

Prevent, 'o,L (Ps. cxix. 147; i Thess. iv. 15, &c.). 
From \^\fpr(Btenire^ to go before; and hence, to anticipate, 
like the Fr. pr^venir. It occurs in this sense frequently, 
as in Wisd. xvL 28, and in the Collects. 

This is verye he of whome I tolde you before that men toke 
hym to be myne inferiour, and to cum after me, but in dignitie 
he did preuent and excel me. Udal's Erasmus, Jolmf foi. 9 a. 

He doth 'prevent our conuersion by his mercy ; he helpeth on 
conuersion by his grace; he doth accSplish our ending with 
glory... neither can we begin any good thing before we be pre- 
uented by mercye, or to do any good thing vntil we be holpS 
by grace, or that we can ende in goodnesse vntill we be filled 
with glory. Northbrooke, Poore man's garden, fol. 39 r, 1593. 

So shall my anticipation prevent your discovery. 

Shakespeare, Nam, n. i. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Plmy (11. 8, Holland's trans.) says of the planet Venus ; 

For all the while that she preuenteih the morning, and riseth 
orientall before, she taketh the name of Lucifer (or Day-star) as a 
second sun hastning the day. 

Milton uses prevention in a sense derived from this, and 
the following example shews how the idea of hindrance 
became attached to the word ; 

Half way he met 
His daring foe, at this prevention more 

P. 129. 
Trench remarks ,^— 

One may reach a point before dnother to help or to hinder 
him there ; may anticipate his arrival either with the purpose of 
keeping it for him, or against him. 'To prevent* has slipped by 
very gradual degrees, which it would not be difficult to trace, 
from the sense of keeping for to that of keeping against, from 
the sense of arriving first with the intention of helping, to that 
of arriving first with the intention of hindering, and then gener- 
ally from helping to hindering. Select Oloss. p. 174. 

Prey, sb, (Num. xxxi. 12, 26). Booty, plunder; like 
Lat. prceda, whence Fr. proie. 

He with no smal nombre of prisoners and greate babound- 
ance of pi^y as wel in shippes as prouision for the sea, returned 
into England wyth great triumph and glory. Hall, Hen. F. foL 
112 b. 

Price, sb. (?rov. xxxi. 10; Matt. xiii. 46). Yalne, 
worth; from Lsi. pretium, through Fr.prix. 

And craft' of mannes hond so cnrionaly 
Arrayed had this gardeyn trewely, 
That never was ther gardeyn of suche prtSf 
But if it were the verray paradis. 

Cliaucer, Franhlins Tale, iia33« 

From Gurcinan, and from Acise, 
Him come knyghtis of gret prise. . 
King Alexander, 1470. Weber's Jfirfr. Horn. I. p. 65. 


But from that which hath his price in composition if yoa * 
take away any thing, or any part doe fayle aU is diegraoed. 
Bacon, Colours of Gw>d and EvU, 5. 

If I do so, it will be of more price^ 

Being spoke behind your back, than to yoar face. 

Shakespeare, Rem, and JuL, nr. i. 

Prick, «&. (Nam. xxxiiL 55; Acts iz. 5, xxyi. 14). A 
thorn, prickle ; A.-S. prica a sting ; in the Acts it signifies 
a goad, and was commonly used for 'a spur;' whence ' to 
prick' m the sense of 'to spur/ as in Piers Ploughman (Fif. 


' I may no longer lette,* qnod he; 
And lyard he prikede, 
And wente awey as wynd. 
And therwith I awakede. 

Esquillon : m, A pricJte, a goad, a sting, a spurre ; a prouoca- 
tion ; any thing that incenaeth, stirreth, or vrgeth forward ; also, 
an inward gri^e, pinch, or biting hurt. Gotgraye, /V*. J)iet. 

Prick, v,t (Ps. IxxiiL 21; Acts il 37). To stingy 
spur, urge ; A.-S. priccian, Chaucer {KnigMt Taie^ 1045) 
says of May, 

The seasoun priheth every gentil herte. 
And maketh him out of hu sleepe st^rte. 

And so furth on their way go the shepeherdes with al hast, 
deuocion, and godly zele was a spurre to tbeyr heartes to pricke 
them forwarde. IJdal's Erasmus, Luke, fbl. 19 6. 

Principality, sb, (2 Mace. iv. 27). The chief place : 
in this i)assage the oflice of high-priest. 

Privily, adv. (Judg. ix. 31 ; i Sam. xxiv, 4, &c.). Scr 
cretly ; from the following word. 

And on the morwe, or it were day light, 
Ful prively two barneys hath he dight. 

Chaucer, KnighCe TaU^^ 1632. 

And fyrst he sent priuely CO, archers into a low medowe 
whicbe was nere to the forward of his enemies, but seperate 
wyth a great diche. Hall, Hen. V. foL 16 a. 

Digitized by dOOgt& 


Privy, a<(;. (Litany, *pW«y conspiracy')- Secret; and 
in an active l^ense, aware or cosnixant of a Becret^ as in 
Acts y. 2. From Lat. privatus, wrough the Fr. pfHvS, 

Whanne god scbal deme the priuy thingis of men aftir my 
gospel. Wiclif, Horn. ii. i6 (ed. LewiB). 

The groyning, and the pryve enpoysonyng. 

Chaucer, Knight $ Tale, 4462. 
Prive penaunce is thilk that men doon alday for prive synnes, 
of whiche we schryve us prirely, and receyven prive penaunoe. 

Id. Parson's Talt, 

The preuye and secrete storehouse of y" scriptures. ]£!raBmns, 
On the Creed, fol. 1276, Eng. tr. 

These buildings to bo for privie lodgings, on both sides ; and 
the end, for privie galleries. Bacon, Ess. xly. p. 184. 

Proflt| V, t & i. (Job XXX. 2 ; Prov. x. 2 ; Mark viiL 
36; John vi. 63 ; GaL v. 2). To be of advantage to, benefit; 
Fr. profiter^ It projittarejrom. Lat. prqficere^ through the 
substantive prqfectus, 'rrofiteth nothing' is simply an 
imitation of the Lat. nihU proficit 

Confident in nothing but my bow. 
That nothing prcfits me. 

Chapman*s Homer, 21, v. 209. 

Profiting, sb. (i Tim. iv. 15). A translation of the 
Xvl^te prqfectziSj in the sense of progress or proficiency. 

Prognosticatory sb. (Is..xlvii. 13). A predicter 
of future events ; especially, a weather prophet. 

The soothsayers and prognosticators liked it well, and said it 
was a good signe for Dion, that he trode that sumptuous building 
and 'workemanshippe of the tyrant vnder his f eete^ when he made 
his oration. 

North's Plutarch, Dion, p. 1040. 

Proper, adj, (i Chr. xxix. 3 ; Acts i. 19 ; i Cor. viL 7). 
From Lat. proprius, through the Fr. propre ; one's own, 
and so, peculiar: hence property, that whidb belongs to 
any one. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


The motions of factions, under kiogs, ought to be like the 
motions (as the Astronomers speake) of the inferiour orbs; 
-which may have their yrofper motions, but yet still, are quietly . 
carried, by the higher motion, of primum mobile, Bacon^ Ess. 
LI. p. 269. 

In Heb. xi. ^i, it signifies 'fair, handsome.' -^^Z 

O, Charles the Dauphin is a proper man. 

Shakespeare, i ffen. VI. v. 3. 

He and his crew, a company of proper men. 
Are sure to die. 

Heywood, 2 Ed. IV. u. r. 

Prophesy, vA. (i Cor. xi. 5, xiv. 3, 4). Not simply 
' to foretell future events,' but to * expound,' as the foUoir- 
ing passage shews. 

Upon this point, I ground three conaiderations : first, whether 
it were not requisite, to renew, that good exercise, which was 
practised, iu this church, some years;... and was commonly called 
propktcymg. Which was this; that the ministers, within a 
precinct, did meet, upon a week day, in some principall town ; 
where there was, some ancient, grand minister, that was presi- 
dent; and an auditory admitted, of gentlemen, or other persons 
of leysure. Then every minister, successively, beginning with 
the youngest, did handle one, and the same part, of Scripture, 
spending, severally, some quarter of an hour, or better, and, in 
the whole, some two hours : and so, the exercise, being begun, 
and concluded, with prayer ; and the president, giving a text, for 
the next meeting, the assembly was dissolved. Bacon, ConsUl' 
ercUionB touching the Edification and Pacification of the Church 
cf Engloind {Rmueitatio, p. 947, ed. 1657). 

Prosper J v.t. (Gen. xxiv. 40, 56). To make prosper- 
ous ; Lat prosperare. The verb originally was transitive 

That man that is so called of God to any office, no doubt 
God will work with him ; he wUl prosper all his doings. Lati- 
mer, Rem, p. 32. 

Digitized by G0§:gk2 

388 TffJS BIBLE 

Prove, 9,t (Ex. xvi 4; I Sam. xvii. 39, &c.). To test> 
try, put to the proof: from Lat prohare through Fr. 

He had scantly finished his BaTenge, hut the one army 
espyed the other, lord how hastely y' souldyoures hnckled their 
healmes, how quikly the archers bent their bowes and fruahed 
their feathers, how redely y® bihnen sboke their billes and praiud 
their staves. Hall, RicK Ill.'fol 316. 

He sendeth us trouble and adversities to prove us, whether 
we wiU hallow his name or no. Latimer, Serm, p. 545. 

The following is curious ; 

It is commonly reported, that Alexander prouing to vndoe 
that bande, and finding no ends to viidoe it by, they were so 
many folde wreathed one within the other: he drew out his 
sworde, and cut the knot in the middest. North's Plutarch, 
Alex. p. 726. 

Provender, sb. (Gen. xxiy. 25, 32, &c). Proyinon ; 
generally for beasts: Fr. provende. It. profenda, from Lat 
providenda, things to be provided or purveyed. In Ger- 
man the word appears in the form proviant, and in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher {Martial Maidj 11. i) provant is used 
for a soldier's rations, a sense wmch is familiar to the 
r^ers of A Legend of Montrose. 

Those of the citie of Ghio, furnished him with prwtander for 
Hs horse, and gaue him muttons besides, and other beastes to 
sacrifice withall. North's Plutarch, Aldh, p. 214. 

Of all other lining creatures, they ^the Elephants] cannot 
abide a mouse or a raC snd if they peroeiue that their prouander 
lying in the manger, tast and sent neuer so little of them, they 
refuse it uid wil not touch it. Holland's PZiny, vm. 10. 

Provoke, v. t. (2 Cor. ix. 2 ; Heb. x. 24). Literally, * to 
call forth,' ftom Lat provocare; hence * to challenge, in< 

Therefor sayirte Panle prouohyng the Galathians from ven- 
geance to humanite and gentylnesse doth inculke and oft repete 
&e name of the spirite. Erasmus, On the Creed, 99 a, Eng. tr. 

Digitized by Vj«^JVJ VIC 


God by his soonne Messias, shall descende down into the 
yearth, to lure and prouoke all penones in generall. IJdal's 
flrasmuB, lAthe, fol. 7 a* 

I haue doen the oJ9ice of a goer before : I haue alnred and 
prouohed men to penatLce, warning theim that the kingdome of 
heauen was at hand. Id. John, fol. 31a. 

They hauing for their captaine and leader, the foresaid Am- 
brosius Anrelius, assembled themselues togither, and prouoking 
the -victors to fight, through Gods assistance atchieued Uie yic- 
torie, and from that day forward, were the men of the country. 
Stow, AnnalSf p. 57. 

Nay we reade, after Otho the emperour had slaine himselfe^ 
pitty, (which is the tenderest of afFections) provoked many to die, 
out of meere compassion to their soveraigne, and as the truest 
sort of followers. Bacon, Esi, n. p. 6. 

Psaltery, sb. (i Sam. x. 5 ; Ps. xxxiii. 2, Ivii. 8, &c.). 
From Gk. iftakTrjpiov, a stringed instrument to accompany 
the voice. 

The harp is like to the Psalterie in sound, but this is the 
diuersitie & discord betweene y* harpe and the psaJtery, in y* 
psaltery is an holow tree, and of that same tree the sound com- 
meth vpward : and the strings be smit downward, and soundeth 
vpwaid: and in the harpe^ the hollownesse of the tree is beneath. 
Batman yppon Bartholome, foL 4^5 6 (ed. 1582). 

Why, hark youf 
The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries and fifes. 
Tabors and cymbals and the shouting Romans 
Make the san dance. 

Shakespeare, CorioL v. 4. 

In Chaucer it appears in the form 'sautrie* or 'saw- 

Than robus riche, or fithul, or sawtrie. Prol. to C, T, 298. 

And al above ther lay a gay sa/u3irye, MiUev^s Tale, 3213. 

Bothe harp and lute, extern, and sauterie. MaflncipWs Taie, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Publican, sh. (Matt. v. 46, 47, &c.). From li9.t,pnb- 
licanuSf one who farmed the public taxes. The word came 
into English with the translation of the Bible. 

How like a fawning publican he looks 1 Shakespeare, M. of 
Yen, I. 3. 

Puff at, V. t. (Ps. X. 5, xii. 5). To blow upon with 
contempt ana scorn. A Hebraism. 

Puff up, V. t. (i Cor. iv. 6, 18, 19, viii. i). To inflate, 
used metaphorically; G.pufferiy Fr. boufer, both imitatiye 


Puffed vp with great hope and conrage. Spe atqne animis 
inflatus. Baret, Alvearie, b. v. 

To puffe vp both his cheekes. Inflare ambas buccas. Ibid, 

Alcibiades being puffed vp with vanitie and opinion of him- 
selfe, as oft as Socrates tooke him in hande, was made fieist and 
firme againe by his good perswasious. North's Plutarch, A leib. 
p. 212. 

Pulse, sb. (2 Sam. xviL 28; Dan. i. 12). L^^omi' 
nous plants, such as beans, peas, and their fruit. The de- 
riyatioD of the word is uncertain. The Heb. pol, a bean, 
contains most likely only an accidental resemblanca It 
signifies, according to Mr Wedgwood, 'grain contained in a 
pod or case,' from Sw. pyha, a sacK (comp. O. B. pilch, a 
scabbard, A.-S. pylce). In this case pidse and purse would 
be connected, as Span, holsa and Med. Lat. byrsa. 

They have noe other kinde of graine nor other puUes then 
beaens and peason. Pol. Verg. i. 20. 

Euen so the custome which they vse at this day to seeth all 
manner of puiUe, commeth of this. North's Plutarch, Theseus, 
p. 12. 

There was a custome in Africk to bring pulse bread and 
wine to the monuments of dead saints. Fuller, Moly State, n. p. 
6, ed. 1652, 

Purchase, v.t (i Tim. iii. 13). In its original sense 
of to win, acquire, obtain ; as in Bacon {Ess, it. 14) ; 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


There is no man, doth a wrong, for the wrongt sftke; but 
therby to pu/rduxM himselfe, profit, or plea9i|rey or honour, or the 

This day Argantes strong and Soliman 

Strange things haue done, and purcTiast great renowne. 

Fairfax, Tasso, xn. 3. 

TJie Fr. pourchasser, to purchase, from which it is de- 
rived, is connected with the It. procacciare, which Diez 
deriyes from Lat. capitis, whence captiarey and then cacd- 
are. This conjecture is supported by the old Spanish form 

Purge, f),t. (2 Chr. xxxiy. 3 ; Is. iv. 4; Heb. L 3). To 
purify, take dean away ; Pr. purger, from Latin purgare. 

He came into the world with his passion to purge our sins. 
Latimer, Serm, p. 2«3. 

The king hauing by this ioumey pwged a little the dregs 
and leauen of the Northeme people, that were before in no 
good affection towards him, returned to London. Bacon, Hen. 
VII , p. 18. 

Purpose J *&. (Jer. xlix. 30). Design; like Lat. pro- 

It was spread abroad (whether by errour, or the cunning of 
jnale-contents) that the King had a purpose to put to death 
Edward Plantagenet closely in the 'Tower. Bacon, Hen. VII, 
p. 19. 

Purtenance, «5. (Ex. xii. 9). The intestines of an 
animal. The Hebrew word so rendered is in every other 
instance, except Lev. iii. 3, translated by * inwards.* Cover- 
dale has ^pertenaunce'inBx. xji. 9, and elsewhere 'bowels,' 
with the exception of Lev. iii. 3. In Palsgrave's Lesclair- 
cissement de ta langue FrancoyseyfQ find * Portenaunce of 
a beest— fressevre s. f.' 

The duke here, for fault of a better, and myself-r-Guckoo 
fly not hence— -for fault of a better, are to lay you by the heels 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


if you go thas with fire and sword ; for the duke is the head, and 
I^ Blurti am the j)icrtenanc6. 

Middleton, Blurt, Master-dmstdble, y. $. 
{Works, I. 3Q3, ed. Dyce.) 

Johnson quotes. 

The shaft against a rih did glance. 
And gall him in the pturtenance* 

Butler, ffudibras, pt. 1, c. 3, 1. 318. 

IPut, v,t, in the phrases 

Put away (Ley. xxL 7 ; Matt i 19, &c.). To divorce. 

Yet he hare -withaU a T?hile for her brothers sake, but at the 
length grew wearie of her, and put her atoay as he had done 
Clodia. North's Plutarch, Zucullus, p. 568. 

To put awcUe his wife, &c. Bepudio. . Baret, Alvearie, 8.y. 

Put forth, as leaves, blossoms, or fruit (Cant. ii. 13 ; 
Matt. xxiv. 32). Of the * Asarum or Fole-fooV Pliny (xn. 
13, Holland's trans.) says, 

It piUteth forth a purple floure, and hath a root Hke vnto the 
French Nard. 

To-day he puts forth 
The tender leaves of hope ; to-morrow blossoms. 
And bears his blaslung honours thick upon him. 

Shakespeare, Mm. VI IL m. 9. 

In Ez. xvii. 2; Matt. xiiL 24, it signifies 'to propose,' 
and in Matt. ix. 25 ; Acts v. 34, *to remove.' 

Put to (Bzr. vi. 12; EccL x. 10). To apply. Baret 
{Alvearie^ s. v.) gives, 

To putf or set to. Appono. 

To desire the kinges attoumey to put to his hande. Gognitoris 
regij subscriptionem implorare (s. v. Attoumey). 

Put to the worse (2 E. xiv. 12 ; i Chr. xix. 16^ 19). 
To worst, defeat. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To cast Vnder foote> to put to the wortef to cast awaie, to 
Tndoe, to cast to the ground, as an horse doth his ride^. 
Pessmuio. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. Underfoote, 

And yet he eaer wanne mor^ honor in recouering of those 
battels which his captaines lost, than his enemies did that had 
piU them to the toone. North's Plutarch, Sumenes, p. 633. 

Quake J v. {. (Et. xix. 1 8 ; i Sam. xir. 15; Heb. xii. 2 1 ), 
To snake; A.-S. cwacian, whence ^quagixnre^ 

This Sompnour in his styrop up he stood, 
Upon the Frere his herte was so wood, 
That lyk an aspen leef he quoh for ire. 

Chaucer, Sompnour^s TcUe, prol. 7249. 

Anon the damosell brought the sword unto Moi^gan with 
qwiking hands. King Arthur, c. 72, voL I. p. 138. 

Quaternion, sb. (Acts m 4). A party of foar, a file 
of fear soldiers. Our A. V. has followed the Vulg. qiui' 
temio; from Lai qitatisor four. Johnson quotes from 
Milton(P.Z. V. 181). 

Aire, and ye elements the eldest birth 
Of natures womb, that in quaternion run. 
Perpetual circle, multiform; and mix 
And nourish all things. 

Quick, a^. (Lev. xiii. 10; Nud^l xvi. 30; Ps. It. 15, 
cxziv. 3). Living, alive; from A.-S. ctoic or ctouc, 

Nat fully quyh, ne fully deed they were. 

Chaucer, Knight^s Tale, 10 17. 

So y* all the people not of the towne onely, but also of the 
<x>antrey aboute toke her for a very quydoe saynt. Sir T. More, 
Dial. fol. 256. 

^TiB for the dead, not for the ^ick. 

Shakespeare, Hand* V. 1. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 

394 ^SE BIBLM 

Quicken, t.t. (PB.cxix. 50; i Cor. xv. 36; Eph. ii. i). 
To make aliye; A.-S. ctoician; from the preceding. 

The mistress which I serve quickens what's dead 
A^d makes my labours pleasures. 

Shakespeare^ Temp. m. i. 

Qulety at (Judg. xviii. 27). Quiet, at rest. The same 
word is rendered 'quiet* in Judg. xviii. 7. 

Neither could I for theyr moste earnest desyres, hecU any rest 
or guietf yntyl I had fully ended and finished all that euer ther 
was of the epistles apostolycal. 

Udal's Erasmus, Pref, to Matthew [foL i o]. 

In which matters, how easilie might we haue bene at guiet, 
if this knaue had bene quiet ?...Quibus quidem quam fadl^ pote- 
rat quiesci, si hie quiescit? fiaret, Alvea/rie, s.y. 

Gome in, tailor; here you may roast your goose. Knock, 
knock; never at quiet t Shakespeare, MaJb. n. 3. 

In the same way ' at help' is used with the force of an 
ac^ective in Ham. iv. 3 : 

The bark is ready, and the wid at help. 

Quietness, sb. (Judg. viiL 28; i Chr. xxii. 9; Acts 
xxiv. 2). Quiet, tranquillity. 

The duke of Orleaunoe was restored not onely to peace and 
quietnes with al persones saue the duke of Bourgoyne: but also 
fell in suchefauour with the kyng and the realme, that he was of 
al men welbeloued. Hall, Hen, IV. fol. 39 a. 

Quit| v.t.{i Sam. iv. 9; i Cor. xvi. 13). Used reflex- 
ively * quit' occurs in the sense of 'acquit;* * to quit one- 
self' is to behave, to discharge a duty, and so to free or 
acquit oneself from the obligation of it The Fr. quitter. 

Seem to defend yourself ; now quit you well. 

Shakespearey Zear, JL i. 

Quit, p.p. (Ex. xxi. 19, 28 ; Josh, ii 20). Set free, ac- 
quitted; from the previous word, which coincides with 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


' acquit' in signifying ' to set free ;' as in Chaucer^ Knighfs 
Tale, 1034, 

Ther may no gold hem guyte. 

We are never quit of this debt, we can nerer discharge onr- 
seWes of it. Latimer, Hem. p. i. 

He that dies this year is quit for the next. 

Shakespeare, 2 ffen, IV, m. 2. 

In Guest's History of English Rhythms (i. 35) many 
examples are given of words which have lost the imtial 


Ragged, a4}, (Is. ii. 21). Rugged. 

Those things seme to be of great effecte: which be both of 
their owne nature good, and also be spoken of such a master, as 
is c5uerted to the waie of iustice, fr5 the croked and ragged 
path of voluptuouse liuyng. Sir T. More, Works, p. ^g. 

The splitting rocks cower'd in the sinking sands 
And would not dash me with their ragged sides. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen, VI, in. 1. 

This have I rumonr'd through the peasant towns 
Between that royal field of Shrewsbury 
And this worm-eaten hold of ragged stone. 

Id. 2 Hen, IV. lud. 

Rail on, v.t. (i Sam. zxv. 14; 2 Chron. xxxiL 17;. 
To revile, insult, from Fr. railUr, to rally, jest, scoflf. 

To raile, or speake spltefuUie against one. Gonuitior. Baret, 
A Ivearie* 

Why do I rail on thee. 
Since thou, created to be awed by man, 
Wast bom to bear. 

Shakespeare, JUd^ II. T. 5. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Raiment, »5. (GeiL zxir. 53 ; Dent. Tiii. 4, &c.). Ar- 
rayment) dress. 

HiB raymenti, though they were meane, yet reoeiaed they 
handflomenesfie by the grace of the wearer. Sidney, Arcadia, 
B. I. p. 65, 1. II. 

He's truly valiant that can wisely suffer 

The worst that man can breathe, and make his wrongs 

His outsides ; wear them like his raiment carelessly. 

Shakespeare, Tim. ofAth^tn. 5. 

* Ray' was formerly used for 'array/ as in North's Phi- 
tarch {Alcib. p. 229), 

They put themselnes in battell ray, & went to meet them. 
Raise J vX (Job xiv. 12). To rouse. 

Get weapons, ho ! 
And rain some special officers of night. 

Shakespeare, 0th, I. i. 

Those are the raised father and his friends. 

Ibid. I. «. 

Neither my place nor aught I heard of business 
Hath radaed me from my bed. 

Ibid. I. 3. 

Ramping, pr. p. (Ps. xxii 13, Pr.-Bk.). Tearing, 
pawing, rampant; the A.V. has 'raveninff;* Yolg. rapien$. 
The It. rampare and 0. Fr. romper, to cfimb, are generally 
derived from the It. rampa, a paw; more probably the 
substantive is derived from the verb, and rampare, as 
Diez suggests, may be the same as It rappare, Sp. and 
Port rapar, which are from Lat rapere to sdze, snatch, 
and are akin to the G. rauben, raffen, and Enff. rob. The 
tn appears in the Bav. ramp/en, but is omitted in the Pro- 
Ten9al rapar which is the Fr. ramper. 

Their bridles they would champe, 
And trampling the fine element, would fiercely rampt, 

Spenser, /. Q. i. 5, § 38. 

It occurs also in Spenser F,Q l 8, § 12. 

Let vs therfore fight like inuindble jgiantes, & set on our ene- 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


mies like vnto timerous tigers & banjah al feare like raping 
lions. Hall, Bich, IIL foL 32 6, 

Under whose shade the ramping lion slept. 

Shakespeare, 3 Jffen, VI, Y. 9. 

Others did foolishly rage and rampy mustering whole legions 
of curses, as if therewith to make the axe turn edge. Fuller, 
Profime Stale, xviii, 

Instanoes of the insertion of the m are found in Fr. 
remplir from Lat. replere, rempart from Lat reparare^ 
remparter from Lat. reportare, &c. Compare also rendrs 
fit>m redder e. 

Range, vA. (Proy. xxviii. 15). To roam, especially in 
search of prey : of micertain etymology. 

Seyng his purpose sore diminished as well by the slaughter 
of sache as ranged abrode in hope of spoyle and praye, as by the 
furious rage of the vnmeroifull see and hydeous tempest, HalL 
Mm.IV,ioL 186. 

So let high-sighted tyranny range on. 
Till each man drop by lottery. 

Shakespeare, Jtd, On. n. i. 

Banger. j5. (i Chr. xiL 33 m.). "" Bangers of battle, 
or ranffedin Sattle'' is the marginal reading for '^ expert in 
war." To * range' in this sense is to arrange or set in array ; 
Fr. ranger, 

Tor the maine garden, I doe not deny, but there should be 
some faire alleys, ranged on both sides, with fruit-trees. Bacon, 

£u, XLYl. p. 194. 

They were more ignorant in ranging and arraying their bat* 
tailes. Id. £ts. lyiil p. 237. 

Ranges, sb, (Ley. xi. 35). Chimney racks. Halliwell 
giyes ranger in the same sense; and Richardson quotes 
Spenser's {F, Q. n. 9, § 29) description of the kitchen in 
the House of Temperance ; 

It was a Taut ybuilt for great dispenoe, 
With many raunget reard along the waJl; 
And one great chimney. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


In 2 K. xi. 8, 15, 'ranges' signifies -'ranks' of soldiers, 
according to Gesenius, following the Chaldee, Syriae, and 
Arabic versions. In the sense of a rank, or row, it was com- 
monly used. 

And in two renge» £aire they hem dresse. 

Chaucer, Knighfs Tcde^ 2596. 

In many of these alleys likewise, you are to set fruit-trees of 
all sorts; as well upon the walles, as in ranges. Bacon, Ess. XLVi. 
p. 193- 

Rase, v.t. (Ps. cxxxvii. 7). To level with the ground ; 
from Fr. raser, Lat. radere, literally to scrape. 

Famine and fyer he held, and therewithal! 

He razed townes, and threw downe towres and all. 

Sackville, Induction, fol. 21 1 a. 

When BeUona storms, 
With all her hattenng engines, bent to rase 
Som capital city. 

Milton, Par, Lost, 11. 923. 

r In Ohs^man's Homer (11. v.) it is written 'race.' 

She that raceth towns, 

In its literal sense of 'scrape' it is found in the fol- 
lowing passages : 

He [Lord Stanley] had so fereful a dreme, in which him 
thoughte that a bore with his tuskes so raced the both bi the 
heddes, that the blood ranne aboute both their shoulders. Sir 
T. More, Rich. III. Works, p. 54^. 

Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased, 
Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, 
Maze out the written troubles of the brain 
And with some sweet oblivious antidote 
Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that perilous stuff 
Which weighs upon the heart ? 

Shakespeare^ Mach. v. 3. 

It occurs in the sense of 'graze,' to touch lightly. 

Digitized by VnV.JV.JV IC 


The horses being trised Tp in this maner, their riders came 
with loude cries behind them, and some with whippes in their 
handes to lash them, that the horse being madde withall, yerked 
out behinde, and sprang forward with his formost legges to 
touch the ground, that they did but euen roM it a little, so as 
euery vaine and sinew of them were strained by this meaues. 
North's Plutarch, JaumeneSj p. 644. 

Ravlllj v.t. (Gen. xlix. 27; Psal. xviL 12 m,). To 
prey with rapacity ; fh)m A.-S. reafian, which is the same as 
the Gterman rauben, raffen, E. rciby Lat. rapere. See 

The cloy*d will. 
That satiate yet unsatisfied desire, that tub 
Both filled and running, ravening first 
The lamb, longs after for the garbage. 

Shakespeare, Cymb, i. 6.- 
Bapin&re, to rape, to ravm, to rob, to pill and pole, to snatch, 
to commit all maimer of rapine. 

Florio, Worlde of Wordu. 
But now, if a man can tame this monster, and bring her to 
feed at the hand, and govern her, and with her fly other ravening 
fowle, and kill them, it is somewhat worth. Bacon, Euay of 
Fame, p. 240. 

Shakespeare uses ravin as an adjective {AlVs Well, 
in. 2); 

Better *twere 
I met the ravin lion when he roarM 
With sharp constraint of hunger. 

The substantive ravin (Nah. iL 12) is the rapina of 
the Vulgate. 

As when a gryf on seized of his pray, 
A dragon fiers encountreth in lus flight. 
Through widest ayre making his ydle way. 
That would his rightfull rauine rend away. 

Spenser, F. Q. i. 5, § 8. 

Ravish, t.t. (Ps. X. 9, 10, Pr.-Bk.). To seize with 
violence ; from Pr. ravir^ which again is from Lai rapere, 
Coverdale's version of Gen. xlix. 27, is ^^Ben lamin, a 
rauyihing4 wolfe." 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


But superstitioii, hath beene the confusion of many states ; 
and bringeth in a new Tgrimum mMUf that ravithetk all the 
spheres of government. Bacon, En, xvii. p. 69. 

Readiness, in a (2 Cor. x. 6). In readiness, ready. 

When aL thynges were prepared in a redynea and the day of 

departinge and settynge f orwarde was appoynted the whole 

armye went on shypbonle. Ilall, Eich. Ill, foL i6 6, 

And Macer supponng that all men were than in a redyne»t 
departeth out of Mulhuse w* thre hundreth, and ioyned vdth 
them of Francuse. Sleidan*s Commtntortes, trans. Dans, fol. 56 a, 

Ready, adi, (Ezr. tIL 6; Ps. xlv. i). Swift, quick; 
from A.-S. hroBdy connected with G. gerade, and O. E. 
greythe, to make ready. In Piers Ploughman {Creed, 1054)^ 
gragihliehe is used for quickly. 

Rear, vA, (Ex. xxvi. 30 ; Lev. xxvi i, &c.). To raise ; 
A.-S. rckran. Rear and raise are probably connected as 
ure and tue. The former is not obsolete, but its usage is 
much more limited than formerly. 

And when I recur my hand, do you the like. 
To fall it on Gonzaio. 

Shakespeare, Temp, n. i. 

Reason, vA. (Acts xxiy. 25). To converse. 

Bagionare, to reason, to discourse, to talke, Xq speake, to 
parlie. Florio, Worlde of Wordes, 

I reasoned with a Frenchman yesterday, 
Who told me, in the narrow seas that pKci 
The French and English, there miscarried 
A vessel of our country richly fraught. 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Ven. n. 8. 

Reason, «&. (Acts vi. 2). Used where we should now 
employ the aqjective ' reasonable.' Thus in Bacon ; 

Nay, retire men cannot, when they would ] neither will ^ey, 
when it were reason. Ess. xi. p. 39. 

Those that are first raised to nobility, are commonly more 
vertuous, but lesse innocent, then their descendants ; for there 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


is, rarely, any rising, but by a commixture, of good and evill 
arts. But it is recaon, the memory of th^eir yertues, remaine to 
their posterity; and their faults die with themselves. Ess. xiv, 
p. 52. 

Then 'tis but reason that T be released 
From giving aid which late I promised. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen. VI. in. 3. 

So * doubt' for ' doubtful' occurs in Shakespeare {Rich. 
II. 1. 4, 20), and 'danger' for 'dangerous' in Bacon, E%%. 
xLvn. p. 195. 

Reason of, by (Gen. xli, 31 ; Ex. ii. 23, &c.). In 
consequence of. 

' For he [Theseus] brought all the inhabitants of the whole 
prouinoe of Attica, to be within the cittie of Athens, and made 
them all one corporation, which were before disparsed into diuers 
villages, and ly reason thereof were very hard to be assembled 
together. North's Plutarch^ TkeeeuSy p. 12, 

Receipt, sb. (Matt, ix.9; Mark ii. 14; Luke y. 27). 
A place for receiving, receptacle. 

His two chamberlains 
Will I with wine and wassail so convince 
That memory, the warder of the brain, 
* Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason 

A Umbeok only. 

Shakespeare, Mac^. I. 7. 

Fountaines I intend to be of two natures: the one, that 
sprinckletb or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of water, 
of some thirty or forty foot square, but without fish, or slime, 
or mad. Bacon, JEss. XLVi. p. 191. 

Reckon, v. t. (Rom. yiii. 18). To account, regard ; 
A.-S. recnan. 

For that they reckened this demeanoure attempted, not so 
specially againste the other Lordes, as againste the kinge hym- 
selfe. Sir T. More, Rich. III., Works, p. 43 flr. 

Digitized by CjOOQI^ 


Reckoning, sh. Estimation, value. 

TaDti vitream, qnanti verum margaritum (saith Tertullian.) 
if a toy of glasse be of that rehoning with vs, bow ought wee to 
value the true pearle ? 

The Trandaton^ to the Jieader, 

Recompenfley v.t. (Prov. xx. 22; Jer. xvi. 18; Rom. 
xii. 17; Heb. x. 30). To requite, repay; used both in a 
good and bad sense originaUy. Fr. recompenser, from Iiat. 
pendere, pensum, to weigh out, pay. The last quoted pas- 
sage appears thus in Latimer (Serm, p. 422) : 

Mihi viiidieta, ego retribuam, 'yield unto me the vengeance 
and I shall reconvpenae them.* 

Reconcilement, «&. (Ecclus. xxvii. 21). Recon- 

Contrariwise, certaine Laodiceans, and luke-warme persons, 
thinke they may accommodate points of religion, by middle 
waies, and taking part of both; and witty reconcilements; as if 
they would make an arbitrement, betweene Grod and man. 
Bacon, Esi. in. p. lo. 

Yet there resteth the comparatiue: that is, it being granted, 
that it is either lawfull, or binding, yet whether other things be 
not to be preferred before it ; as extirpation of heresies ; recon- 
cUements of schismes, pursuit of lawfull temporall rights, and 
quarrels; and the like. Id. Of an Holy War, p. io6, eid. 1629. 

Reduce. t>.t (James v. c). In its literal sense 'to 
bring back f Lat reducere. Thus in Sackville's Induction, 
fol. 206 b; 

The sodayne sight reduced to my mynde. 
The sundry chaunges that in earth wee fynde. 

All springs reduce their currents to mine eyes. 

Shakespeare, Rich, III. n. 3. 

Refirain, v,t. (Prov. x. 19). To bridle, restrain, hold 
in check: Lat. r^roenare, A figure from horsemanslup. 

We will first speake, how the naturall inclination, and habit, 
to be angry, may be attempred, and calmed. Secondly, how 

Digitized by Vjl^V^V IC 


the particular motions of an^er, may be repreesed, or at least 
refrained from doing mischiefe. Thirdly, how to i-aise anger, or 
appease anger, in another. Bacon, Ess. lyii. p. '228. 

So as Diogenes opinion is to be accepted, who commended 
not them which absteyned, but them which sustayned, and could 
refraine their mind in precipitio, and could giue ynto the mind 
(as is ysed in horsmanship) the shortest stop or turne. Id. Adv. 
ofL, n. 20, § II. 

Rehearse, v.t (Judg. v. 1 1 ; i Sam. xvii. 31). To tell, 
narrate, recite ; not necessarily with the notion of repe- 
tition, which originally belonged to the word. From Fr. 
reherger, to harrow over again (Wedgwood). 
And reheree thow nevere 
Gounseil that thow knowest 
By contenaunoe ne by right. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 2836. 

Reins, *ft. (Job xvi. 13 ; Ps. vii. 9, &c.). From Lat. 
renes the kidneys, to which the Hebrews ascribed know- 
ledge, joy, pain, pleasure, &c. 

Bognoni, the kidneies or raines of any bodies backe. Florio, 
Worlde of Wordes. 

Bowling is good for the stone and reines. Bacon, Ess. L. p. 205. 

Relation, sb. (Josh. ii. c). Narrative, that which is 
related or told; Lat. relcUio. 

I'll believe thee, 
And make my senses credit thy relation, 

Shakespeare, Per. V. i. 

The traveller into a forein countrey, doth commonly know 
more by the eye, then he that staid at home can by relation of 
the traveller. Bacon, Neio Atlantis, p. 248, ed. 165 1 . 

As for the other losses, the poets relation^ doth well figure 
them; that he that preferred Helena, quitted the gifts of luno, 
and Pallas. Id. Ess. x. p. 37. 

Religion, »&. (Acts xxvL 5 ; Gal. L 13 ; James L 26, 
27), ** Not, as too often now, used as equivalent tor god- 
Digitized by V:i^.2.6w+^ 


liness; but like Bpria-Keia, for which it stands Jam. £27, 
it expressed the outer form and embodiment which 
the inward spirit of a true or a false devotion assumed " 
(Trench^ Select Glossary), So *a religious' or * man of re- 
ligion' m old English signified a member of a monastic 
onler, as the following example shews: 

Bdigious folke ben full coyert, 
Secular folke ben more apert : 
But nathelesse, I woll not blame 
Religious folke, ne hem diffame 
In what habite that ever they go : 
Religion humble, and true also, 
WoU I not blame, ne dispise, 
But I n'ill love it in no wise, 
I meane of false religious. 
That stout been, and malicious, 
That woUen in an habite go, 
And setten not hir berte thereto. 

Chaucer, RorMmmt of the Rose, 6152 — 63. 

He [Picus] was wont to be cSuersant with me, and to breake 
to me the secretes of his heart in which I percdued, that he 
was by priuey inspiraci^ called of god Vnto religion^ Sir T. 
More, Life of Picus, Works, p. 9/. 

For rdigiony pure religion, I say, standeth not in wearing of 
a monk's cowl, but in righteousness, justice, and well doing. 
Latimer, Serm, p. 392. 

Religious, adj. (Jam. L 26). Professing religipn in 
the outward form ; especiaUy belonging to a monastic order 
(see Religion). Phihp and Olympias, the parents of Alex- 
ander the Great, " were both receiued into the misterie and 
fraternity of the house of the religious/' in the isle of Samo- 
thrada (Nor0i*8 Plutarch, Alex, p. 717). 

For though the king of his noblenesse gaue*charge vnto the 
Friers of Leicester to see an honourable interrment to be grioen 
to it, yet the religious people themselues (being not free from the 
humours of the vulgar) neglected it. Bacon, Hen. VII. p. 2, 
ed. 1622. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


BeligioUBness, sb. (Ley. xxvi. c), A roference to 
this passage wilL shew that the word is used of outward 

Bemember themselves (Ps. xxii. 27, Pr.-Bk.). 
Eeiuember, as in the A. V. Compare Fr. »e souvenir. 
Many other words in English^ as * acknowledge/ 'assemble/ 
'endeavour/ * repent/ * retire/ 'sport/ * submit/ were once 
used reflexively. 

Fetch Malvolio hither: 
And yet, alas, now I rtmember me. 
They say, poor gentleman, he's much distract. 

Shakespeare, Twelfth Nighi, v. i. 

Remembrance, tb, (Job xiii. 12; Is. Ivii. 8). Me- 
morial, record. Used by Shakespeare of a love-token. 

This was her first remembrance from the Moor. 

Oih, III. 3. 
You are jealous now 
That this is from some mistress, some remembrance. 

Ibid. in. 4. 

Remembrance^ book of (Mai. iii. 16). A record, 
memorandum book. 

Oftentimes also for his pastime he would hunt the foxe. or 
catch birdes, as appeareth in his booke of remembrances for euery 
day. North's Plutarch, Alex, p. 739. 

Remembrance, have in (Lam. iii. 20}. To re- 

That for her trowth is in rememhraunce had. 

Skelton, L p. 398, ed. Dyce. 

When the devil is busy about us ever we should have in 

remembrance whither to go, namely, to God. Latimer, Serm. 
p. 43«. 

Remembrance, put in (Is. xliL 26; 2 Pet 1. 12). 
To remind, put in mind. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



I must put you in remembrance to consider how much we be 
bound to our Saviour Christ. Latimer, Serm, p. 327. 

Moses now beynge olde, rehearseth the la we of god vnto y® 
people, 'putMh them in rem^mhraunce agayne of all the. wonders 
& benefites that god had shewed for them. Coverdale's Prologe. 

Monished: aduertised: warned: put in remembrance, Com- 
monitus. Baret, Alvearie. 

Render, v. t. (Prov. xxvi. i6 ; Tob. ii. 13). To give ; 
obsolete or archaic in the phrase * to render a reason.' 

He renderetk also a reason inducing him thus to do, because 
the inhabitants of Capua, alleadged, that they could not make 
good AUca or frumenty without that mineral of chalke. Hol- 
land's Pliny, XVIII. II. 

Let each man render me his bloody hand. 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cobs. in. i . 

Renoumedy p.p. Renowned; Fr. renomm^. 

Either in King Henries time, or King Edwards (if there were 
any translation, or correction of a translation in his time) or 
Queene Elizabeths of ener-renoumed memorie. The Translators 
to the Reader. 

In Shakespeare, Rich. III. iv. 5, where the other edi- 
tions have 

Sir Walter Herbert, a renovmed soldier, 

the second, third, fourth, and fifth Quartos read 'renowmed.' 
Fam<580, famous, renoumedy glorious. Floiio, It. Diet. 
Benowmed, famous. Nominatus. Baret, Alvearie, s. y. Fame. 

Renowme, sb. The old form of ' renown' in Gen. vi. 
4 in ed. 161 1. Fr. renom. 

For gentilnesse nys but renomS 

Of thin auncestres, for her heigh bounty. 

Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Tale, 6741. 

She knew by the folke that in his shippes be, 
That it was Jason full of renomee. 

Id. Leg, of Good Woman, 1509. 

Digitized by VJVJV.J VIC 


A man of great renowvM, Illustris Vir. Baret, AlveariCy a. v. 
Eima, fame, rmouriM, bruite, report. Florio, It, Diet. 

Renowmedy p.p. (Is. xiv. 20 ; Ez. xxiiL 23). The old 
form of ' renowned' in the ed. of 161 1. See Benoumed. 

Rent, V. t ( Jer. iv. 30). The old form of * rend ' ( A.-S. 
rendan, hrendan), which only occurs in one passage of the 
A. y. in modern copies. In older editions it is fomid in 
Ex. xzxix. 23 ; Ps. vii. 2; Eccl. iii. 7 ; Is. Ixiv. i ; Ez. xiii. 1 1, 
13, xxix. 7; Hos. xiii. 8; Joel ii 13; Matt. vii. 6; John 
xix. 24. 

He must needs be a good guid and an upright judge, which 
feedeth upon innocent blood, and breathing in the bodies of 
godly men, doth rent and tear their bowels. Foxe, Aet8 and 
Mon., I. p. 103, ed. 1684. 

I wonder that the earth 
Doth cease from renting underneath thy feet. 

Greene, Alphonsvs (Vol. 11. p. 53, ed. Dyce). 

To rent, or teare: to pricke: to thrust thorough. Lancino. 
Baret, Alvearie, s.v. 

And will you rent our ancient love asunder % 

Shakespeare, Mid. N.^9 Dr, iii. 2. 

Where sighes, and groanes, and shrieks that rent the ayre 
Are made, not mark'd. 

Id. Mach. IV. 3 (ed. 1623). 

The two forms 'rent' and 'rend* were used contempor- 
aneously. For instance, in Shakespeare^ Rich, III, i. 2, 

If I thought that, I tell thee, homicide, 

These naUs should rend that beauty from my cheeks, 

' rend' is the reading of all the Quartos, and ' rent' of the 

Repent oneself (Deut xxxii.36; Judg. xxL 6, 15; 
Joel ii. 13, &c.). * Repent' like * assemble,* * endeavour,' 
* retire,' * remember,' 'submit,' * sport,' and many other 
verbs, was originally reflexive. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I ought not to excuse or repent my self of this subject, on 
which many grave and worthy men have written whole volumes. 
Barton, Anat, of Md, pt. 3, pref. 

Replenish, v.t. (Gen. 1. 28, ix. i, &c.). To fill; not 
to fill again. From O. Fr. replmer, which is the modem 
remplir and Lat. replere. 

And after that she came to her memory and was reuyaed 
agayne, she wept and sobbyd and with pitefuU scriches she re- 
pleneshyd the hole mancion. Hall, Jtich, III., fol. 4 5. 

For it is reported that when he [Alexander] had conquered 
Egypt, hee determined to builde a great city, and vo repUitish it 
with a great number of Grecians, and to call it after his name. 
North's Plutarch, Alexander, p. 731. 

Report, sb. (Acts yi. 3, x. 22 ; Heb. xi. 2). Fame, re- 

That other men seynge thy good workes & the frutes of y*^ 
hooly goost in the, maye prayse the father of heauen, 80 geue 
his worde a good reporte, Goverdale's Prologe, 

Fama» fame, report, brute, renowne, reputation, credit. 

Florio, Worlde of Worde». 

Reprobatei adj. (Jer. vi. 30). Applied to metals, 
that which will not stand the proof and is therefore rejected 
as spurious. Our translators followed the Vulgate repro- 
bum in Jer. vi. 30. The margin has r^vse. The Lat. repro- 
bus is used of spurious coin. 

Then please alike the pewter and the plate ; 
The chosen ruble, and the reprobate, 

Herrick, I. p. 283. 

Reprove, v. t (Job vi. 25). From Fr. reprouver, 
Lat. reprdbare; to prove the contrary of a statement, re- 
fute, disprove. 

Reprove my allegation, if you can ; 
Or else conclude my words effectuaL 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen, VI, m. i. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC . 


Donne (n. 88, ed. Alford) has the following remarks: 

This word, that is here translated to reprove, arguere, hath a 
douhle use and signification in the {Scriptures. First to repre- 
hend, to rebuke, to correct, with authority, with severity and 

secondly, to convince, to prove, to make a thing evftent, by un- 
deniable inferences, and necessary consequences ; so, in the in- 
structions of God's ministers, the first is to reprove, and then to 
rebuke; so that reproving is an act of a milder sense, than re- 
buking is. 

Require, vJ. (Ezr. viii. 22 ; Ps. xxxviiL 16, Pr.-Bk.). 
From Lat. requirere, to ask ; without the idea attached to 
it by modem usage of asking or demanding as a right. 
Thus in Pecock's Repressor y p. 92; 

Whanne euer oon man requirith and sechith and askith an 
other mannys counseil in eny mater, 

Therfore whan I was instantly requyred, though I coulde not 
do so well as I wolde, I thought it yet my dewtye to do my best, 
and that with a good wyll. Coverdale's Prologe, 

So far from any idea of right or authority attaching to 
the word, Shakespeare uses it of asking as a &Your. 

Lord of his fortunes he salutes thee, and 
Requires to Uve in Egypt. 

Ant, and CI, m. 12. 

^ Demand ' was formerly used in the same way. 

Rereward. sb, (i Sam. xxix. 2 ; Is. liL 12, lyiiL 8). 
The rearguard 01 an army ; guard and ward being rel ed 
as guise and wise, Fr. guerre and E. toar, * Rearguard' is 
a corruption of the Fr. arri^re-garde, as vanguard for 
avant-garde; or rather the first pfirt of the word is formed 
from the 0. Fr. riere (Lat. retro). 

The rerewarde it toke aweie, 
Came none of hem to londe drey. 

Gower, Conf, Am. i. p. 220. 

A' came ever in the rearward of the fashion. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen. IV. III. 2. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Now in the rearward comes the Duke and his. 

Id. I Hen. VL ill. 3. 

But with a rearward following Tybalt's death 
Bopieo is banished. 

Id. Born, and Jid, iii. 2. 

Resemble, v, t. (Luke ziiL i8). To liken, compare ; 
from Fr. ressemilerj which is derived from Lat. nmularej 
iu its first sense of 'to make like* (similis). The & is in- 
serted as in F. combler, Lat. cumtdare; F. trembler from 
Lat tremulus. , Gower {Conf. Am. il p. 135) says of 
avarice ; 

Men tellen, that the malady, 

"Which cleped is ydropesy 

Besembled is unto this vice. 

Yea, he allowed no other library than a full stored cellar, 
r&tembling the butts to folios, barrels to quartos, smaller runlets 
to less. volumes. Fuller, Profane StaUy xvui. i. 

Residue, *&. (Ex. x. 5; Is. xliv. 17; Ez. xxxiv. 18). 
Best, remainder ; Lat. residuum^ which has itself become 

The residue of the conntrimen passed ouer also, and tooke 
the other that came with the childe, and conueyed Uiem ouer as 
they came first to hand. North^s Plutarch, Pyrrhus, p. 423. 

Resolution, sb. (Pref. to Pr.-Bk.). 'Resolution of all 
doubts ' = solution, from the following. 

Resolve, f>. t (Mark x. xii. c). To ' resolve' a person 
is to sdve his difficulties for him. 

I doubt not but you can retolve 
Me of a question that I shall demand. 

Greene, Alphonsua (Vol. n. p. 47, ed, Dyoe). 

My lord the emperor, resolve me this : 

Was it well done of rash Virginius 

To slay his daughter with his own right hand. 

Shakespeare, Tit, And, v. 3. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


At pick'd leisure 
Which shall be shortly, single I'll resolve you, 
Which to you shall seem probable, of every 
These happen'd accidents. 

Id. Tempest, v. i. 

Respecty sb, (Ps. xxxix. 6, Pr.-Bk.). The phrase * in 
respect of has been superseded in modern usage by ' with 
respect to.' 

Your lordship may minister the potion of imprisonment to 
me in respect 0/ poverty. Bbakspeare, 2 Hen, IV. I. 2. 

The wan'os of latter ages, seerae to be made in the darke, in 
respect o/the glory and honour, which reflected upon meu, from 
the warres in ancient time. Bacon, Ess. xxix. p. 129. 

Respond, sh, (Pref. to Pr.-Bk.). In the Roman 
Catholic Churcn, a short anthem interrupting the middle 
of a chapter, which is not to proceed until the anthem is 
ended (Wheatley). From Fr. reponSy Lat responsum^ liter- 
ally, an answer. 

Retractate, fi.t To retract; Lat. r^^roo^ar^, to touch 
or handle again. 

The same S. Augustine was not ashamed to retractate^ we 
might say reuoke, many things that had passed him, and doth 
euen glory that he seeth his infirmities. The Translators to the 

Revengement, sb. (Ez. xxy. 12 m.). Revenge, ven- 

Other thiDgs they commit to God, unto whom they leave all 
revengement, Latimer, Serm. p. 48. 

I know not whether God will have it so, 
For some displeasing service I have done, 
That, in his secret doom, out of my blood 
He'll breed revengement and a scourge for me. 

Shakespeare, i Hen. IV. m, 2. 

Reverence to, do (i K. 1. 31). To bow to^ salute. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


We will not serue thy goddes nor do reuerece to the ymage 
which thoa hast set vp. Coverdale; Dan. iii i8. 

This coinpaignie nxle about the title* and did reuerence to 
the Queoes & so abode to thend of the same. 

Hall, Hen. VIII, fol. 79 a. 

Reverend, acfj, (Ps. cxi. 9; 2 Mace. xy. 12). Like 
the Lat. reverenditSy awful, inspiring awe ; and then, vene- 

You haue broke the reuerend authoritie of Legacies, and the 
common lawe of all nations. Sacra legationis & &s gentium 
rupistis. Tac. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. 

His retierend haires and holy grauitie 

The knight much honord, as beseemed welL 

Spenser, F, Q. I. 8. § 32. 

ludges ought to be more learned, then wittie ; more reverend, 
then plausible ; and more advised, then confident. Bacon, Est. 
LVi. p. 222. 

It is a reverend thing, to see an ancient castle, or building 
not in decay. Id. Ess. xiv. p. 52. 

Revive, v.i. (i K. xviL 22; Rom. xiv. 9). In its 
literal sense, to come to life again. It is also used 

It is more probable by the deade to vnderstonde those that 
haue departed from theyr bodies afore the daye of iudgemente 
(for an sone as they shall be reuiued & risen agayne : they shall 
be iudged). Erasmus On the Creed, fol. 89a, Eng. tr. 

Reward, v.t. (Deut. xxxii. 41 ; Ps. liv. 5 ; 2 Tim. iv. 
14). To requite, recompense, without reference to good or 
evil. O. Fr. regarder^ to allow ; regardes^ fees, dues. 

Which heaven and fortune still rewards with plagues. 

Shakespeare, Two Gent, of Ver, IV. 3. 

Rewarding them with trait'rous recompence. 

Hey wood, a Ed. IV, n. i. 

• Plrobably a misprint for 'tilte.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Rhinocerot, sh, (Is. xxxiv. 7 m.). A rhinoceroe, in 
the edition of 1 6 1 1 . 

Riches, «&. (Rev. xviii. 17 ; Wisd. v. 8). In these two 
passages the original use of ' riches' as a singular noun (Fr. 
richesie) is preserved. The old plural was richesns. The 
two forms are seen in the following examples. 

Ne how Arcyte lay among a1 thin, 
Ne what HcJieste aboute his body is. 

Chaucer, Knighfa Tale, 2942. 

Rynges with rubies 
Ajid richesses manye. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 1402. 

But sithen it is so, that ricchesm ben not causis of the vicis 
whiche comen fro and bi*hem, but the freel wil of the man which 
usith tho richesm is the making cause of tho synnes, and the 
ricckes is not more than an occasioun of hem oonli, therfore the 
firste argument and skile is not worth. Pecock's Eepressor, p. 326. 

And of al these, there is so great quantitie, that there oom- 
meth euerie yeere, one hundred ships laden therewith, that is a 
great thing,, and an incredible riches. Frampton, Joyfidl Newcs 
out of the new-found Worlde, fol. i 6. 

Rid, *. U (Gen. xxxvii. 22 ; Ex. vi. 6 ; Lev. xxvi. 6). 
To remove, take off ; also, to deliver. The same English 
word represents both the Danish rydde, to clear away (Sc. 
red)y and the Danish redde, to save (Germ, retten), all 
which may still be etymologically connected. 

What could we doe more, in the horriblest kinde of faultes, 
to the greatest transgressours, and offendours of God and mS, 
then to loke straightly on them by death, and so to rid them out 
of the common welth by seuere punishment, whome ye thought 
vnworthy to liue among men for their doings. Sir J. Cheke, 
Bwt of Sedition, sig. E ija. 

The red plague rid you 
For learning me your language. 

Shakespeare, Temp. I. 2, 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 

414 THE BIBL^ 

I'll give you gold, 
Rid me these villains from your companies. 

Id. Tim. ofAihem^ v. i. 

Therefore, it ivas great advantage, in the ancient stateii of 
Sparta, Athens, Borne, and others, that they had the use of 
slaves, which commonly did rid those manufactures. Bacon, 
Ess. XXIX. p. 125. 

The modem ' despatch' most nearly corresponds to ' rid' 
in these passages. 

Right, adv. (Ps. xxx. 8, xlvi. 5, liii. 8, cxvi. 3, &c. Pr.- 
Bk.). V ery. As an intensive adverb not yet quite out of 

I am right glad that he's so out of hope. 

Shakespeare, Tem/p, ni. 3. 

I know thy constellation is right apt 
For this affair. 

Id. Tw. Nighty I. 4. 

Your lordship is right welcome back to Denmark. 

Id. Hand. v. i. 

Righten, v.t. (Is. i. 17 m.). To set right, from A.-S. 

RighteouBly, adv. (Litany). From A.-S. rihtwislice, 
rightly, justly. 

If the truth of thy love to me were so righteously tempered 
as mine is to thee. Shakespeare, As You Like It, i. 2. 

Itightness, «&. (Eccl. iv. 4 m.). Rectitude, perfection. 

Ringstraked, adj. (Gen. xxx. 35, 39, 40; xxxL 8, 
10, 12). Marked with rings. 

Rioty sb. (Tit. L 6 ; I Pet iv. 4). Dissolute, or luxuri- 
ous living. The etymology is uncertain, and has not been 
traced l^yond the old Fr. riote. In his Alvearie, Baret 
gives da-cyria as the Oreek equivalent of riot, and this is 
the word so rendered in the above-quoted passages of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

WORDBOOK. . 415 

Geoen wrholie to riot. Efiiisus in luxum. Tac. Ibid. 

His companies unletter'd, rude and shallow, 
His hours fill'd up with rioU, banquets, sports. 

Shakespeare, Hen. F. I. i. 

When thou dost hear I am as I have been, 
Approach me, and thou shalt be as thou wast, 
The tutor and the feeder of my riots. 

Id. 2^(5». /F. V. 5. 

The revenue of all Egypt and the eastern provinces was but 
a little sum when they were to support the luxury of Mark 
Antony, and feed the riot of Cleopatra. Taylor, Holy Dying, 
p. 317, ed. Bohn. 

Riot J v,%. (2 Pet. ii. 13). The verb from the preceding. 

I wrote to you 
When rioting in Alexandria. 

Shakespeare, Ant, and 01. ii. 2. 

Rioting, «&. (Rom. xiii. 13). In the same sense as riot. 

Riotous, ac^. (Prov. xxiii. 20, xxviii. 7; Luke xv. 13). 
Luxurious, dissolute. 

To be riotous in eating, or drinking, in haunting harlots. 
PergrsBcor, Nepdtor, Perbacchor. Baret, Alveariej s. v. 

A riotow and prodigall person, a reueller, a spendgood. As<5- 
tus. Ibid. 

So the gods bless me, 
When all our offices have been oppress'd 
With riotouLS feeders, when our vaults jiave wept 
With drunken spilth of wine, when every room 
Hath blazed with lights and bray'd with minstrelsy, 
I have retired me to a wasteful cock, 
And set mine ^yes at flow. 

Shakespeare, Tim, ofAth, n. 2, 

Bacon uses 'rioter' in the sense of a dissolute person. 

On the other side our Saviour charged with neerenes of pub- 
licaues and rioters said, The phisitian apr)rocheth the sicke, rather 
then the whole. Colours of Oood and EvU, vn. p. 259. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Rising, «&. (Ley. xiii. 2, 19). A swelliog. 

Being boiled in wine, it [the nettle] discusseth and driuetfa 
down rmngs m the groine. Holland's Pliny, zxii. 13. 

mthme, «&. Ehythm, yerse; Lat. rythmus, Gk. 

YaldO) Bishop of Frising [is reported] by Beatns Rhenanas, 
to haue caused about that time, the Gospels to be traDslated 
into Dutch-W^»»€, yet extant in the Library of Corbinian. The 
Translatora to the Reader. 

Roady sb. (i Sam. xxyii. 10). A riding, especialW a 
plunderiDg excursion, a raid, as the Scotch have it. The 
word still remains in the same sense in the compound in- 

Him hee named, who at that time was absent, maJdng roade$ 
ypon the Lacedemonians. Sidney, Arccuiia, p. 20, 1. 17. 

The Scottes made a rode into Korthumberlande, and burned 
diuerse tounes in Bamborough shere. Hall, Betu IV. fol. 176. 

So then the Yolsces stand but as at first, 

Beady when time shall prompt them to Ttiahe road 

Upon 's again. 

Shakespeare, Cor. ni. i. 

Wherefore the King of Scotland seeing none came in to 
Perkin, nor none stirred any where in his fauour, turned his 
enterprise into a rode. Bacon, Hen. VII. p. 160. 

Room, sb. (Ps. xxxi. 8 ; Luke xiy. 7). From A.-S. rum, 
G. ruum, space, place. 

To whome the Duke of Buckingham saide, goe afore gentle, 
menne and yomen, kepe youre rowmes. 

Sir T. More, Bich. III., Worlcs, p. 42 c. 

They soke after salutacions in the market place, k the pre- 
ferment of the chiefe seate in assembles : and in all feastes, .and 
bankets the first place or vppermost roume of the table. 

Udal's Erasmus, Mcurk, fol. 78 ft. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


The priesthood... wherin at that tyme twoo notable vngodly 
men, Annas and Gaiaphas had the highest & the chiefest roumet* 
Id. Ltike, fol. 29 a. 

Wherefore, I beseech your lordship to write for him your let- 
ters to the Warden of the Guild there and his brethren, which 
bath the collation of the said school, that he may continue in his 
room and be schoolmaster stilly notwithstanding that he hath left 
the priesthood. Granmer, Worh, I. p. 266 (ed. Jenkyns, 1833). 

Lucentio, you shall supply the bridegroom's place ; 
And let Bianca ta^Le her sister's room, 

Shakespeare, Tam. ofShrew^ m. i. 

Ruinated, pp, (Jer. xxxix. c). Euined, destroyed. 
The word is formed upon the model of the Latin par- 

The howse of Yorke part detestyd the presumptuous boldnes 
of duke Richard as a very pestylence that fynaliy wold consume 
and utterly ruynat that howse. Polyd. Veig. n. 186. 

But God forbid, madam, that you should open your ears to 
any of these wicked persuasions, or any way go about to dimi- 
nish the preaching of Christ's gospel: for that would ruincUe 
all together at the length. Grindal, Rem. p. 382. 

I will not ruinate my father's house. 

Shakespeare, 3 ffen, VI. y. i. 

Ruiiagate, sb, (Ps. Ixviii. 6, Pr. Bk.). A runaway; the 
A. -8. gdt or gedt signifying * way.* Todd considers it a cor- 
ruption of *renegwie. The A. V. has 'rebellious' as in 
Js. XXX. I, which is quoted by Latimer {Rem. p. 434) in this 
form: , 

Wo be unto you runcLgate children, who go about to take 
advice, and not of me, and begin a work, and not of my 

I wyll not playe the runagcUe and goe euerywhere, but I re- 
toume agayne to my father. Udal's Erasmus, John, fol. 88 6. 

Iij the Coventry Mysteries, p. 384, it is written refiogat; 
Ys there ony renogat among us fer as ye knawe. 

Digitized by VjUOQTc 



Sackbtlt, sh, (Ban. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15). The Fr. saqtie- 
bute was a wind instrament, resembling the modem trom- 
bone. In Spanish, sacoibuche denotes a sackbut and also a 
tube used as a pump. The latter part of the word is ap- 
parently the Lat. bttxuSy though Diez would connect bucha, 
a chest or money box, with bucke, the crop, maw ; the first 
part is from Sp. mcar, to draw or pull out; so that the 
whole word denotes a tube that can oe drawn out at will, 
and as applied to a musical instrument it describes one re- 
sembling the trombone. The Heb. sdbbecd (Gr. a-ayJ^vKj}, 
Lat. sandmca)^ of which it is the rendering, is supposed to 
have been a stringed instrument. 

viij trompeters blohyng; and when they had don plahyn^ 
and then be^e the tagbottet plahyng. Maohyn's Diary, p. 78. 

Why, hark you! 
The trumpets, mckhuUt psalteries and fifes. 
Tabors and cymbals and the shouting Bomans, 
Make the sun dance. 

Shakespeare, Oct, t. 4. 

The hoboy, aaghut deepe, recorder, and the flute. 

Drayton, Polyolhion, iv, 365. 

The sackbut was a bass tnimpet with a slide, like the modem 
trombone. Chappell, I. 35. 

Sackcloth, ab, (Gen. xxxvii. 34; Is. iil 24, &c.\ 
Coarse cloth used for sacks, and worn in times of mourning 
and self-mortification. 

He swears 
Never to wash his face, nor cut hiB hain: 
He puts on tackcloth, and to sea. 

Shakespeare, Per. TV, 4. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


Safeguard, 9b, (i Sam. xxii. 23). Guard, safe keep- 
ing, security. 

For it was not f jtting that the mfegarde of Peter ahoulde he 
occasioD^ that the innocentes ahoulde suffre the paynes of deathe. 

XJdal's Erasmus, Acts, fol. 45 a. 

I am in this, 
Tour wife, your son, these senators, the nohles ; 
And you wUl rather show our general louts 
How you can frown than spend a fawn upon *em^ 
For the inheritance of their loves and safeguard 
Of what that want might ruin. 

Shakespeare, Cor. in. 1. 

Saint, sh, (Pb. cvi i6; Dan. viii. 13). A holy person; 
from Fr. saint, I At. sanctus, holy. Chaucer uses it as an 
adjective in its literal sense. 

And sle me first, for seynte charity. 

KnigJWs Tale, 1723. 

Also wher the prophete saide, that his flesh shuld rest in 
hope, he sheweth the cause, saying: Nee dabis sanctum tuum 
videre corruptionem. Nor thou shalt not suffre thy saint to see 
corrupcion. Sir T. More, Works, p. 20 e. 

All faithful Christ's people, that believe in him faithfully, are 
saifite and holy. Latimer, Serm. p. 507. 

Saving, (idv. (Neh. iv. 23). Except ; like save from Fr. 

Titus then graunted him peace,' and deliuered to him his 
realme of Macedon, and commaunded him he should giue oner 
all that he helde in Grece, and besides, that he shouhi pay one 
thousande talentes for tribute, taking from him all his armie by 
sea, sawing onely tenne shippes. North's Plutarch, Flaminius, 
p. 411. 

The old form sai^f appears in Chaucer {KnigMs Tale, 

An hundred lordes had he with him ther, 
Al armed fia/u^ here hedes in here ger. 

Digitized by KjKj(Zf^TT2 


Savour, «. t, (Matt xvi. 23 ; Mark viii. 33). A render- 
ing of the Greek f^^vCw to think, suggested b^ the Lat 
Mapere, which is found in the Vulgate, and retained from 
Wiclif s version. Thus i Cor. xiii. 1 1 is quoted by Latimer 
{Serm, p. 1 78) in this form ; " when I was a child I savoured 
as a chud." 

Loke eek what saith seint Pool of glotouns ; many, saith he, 
gon, of whiche I have ofte said to yow, and now I say it wepyng, 
that thay ben thenemyes of the croe of Crist, of whiche thende is 
deth, and of whiche here wombe is here God and here glorie ; in 
confiisioun of hem that so Maveren erthely thinges. Ohanoer, 
Parson's TcUe, 

To sauowr, or to hane a good, or bad sanour and tast in the 
moutb^ also to be wise. Sapio. Baret^ Alvecirie, s. y. 

The word is derived from the substantive savour^ Fr. 
saveur, Lat. sapoTf which again is from mpere, the origin 
of Fr. safxnr. 

And fortherover thay schul have defante of alio maoere 
delices, for certis delices ben the appetites of thy fyre wittes ; as 
sight, hieryng, smellyng, savoring, and touching. 

Chaucer, Parson*s Tale. 

Savour, sb. (Ex. v. 21; Lev. xxvi. 31; Ezr. vi 10; 
Matt. V. 13). Taste, flavour; also, scent; the Hebrew word 
is metaphorically applied to ^reputation/ 

* With body dene, and with unwemmed thought, 
Kepeth ay wei these corouns tuo,* quod he^ 

* Fro paradys to you I have hem brought, 
Ne never moo ne schul they roten be, 
Ne leese here swoote savour, trusteth me, 
Ne never wight schal seen hem with his ye^ 
But he be chast, and hate vilonye.' 

Chaucer, Second Nun*s Tale, H157. 
Alexander peroeiuing on a thne, that his friendes became 
very dissolute & licentious in dyet and life, ...and that there were 
also that vsed pretious perfumes & sweete sa/uors when they bathed 
them selues, more then there were that rubbed themselues with 
plaine oyle, and that they had fine chamberlaines to rubbe them in 
the bath, and to make their beddes soft and delicate : he wisely 
and courteously rebuked them. North's Plutarch, Alex, p. 739. 

■ ■ Digitized by Vj«^VJ VIC 


Sasring", sb, (Gen. xxxvii. 1 1 ; Num. xiv. 39 ; 2 Chr. 
xiii. 22, &c.). A speech. Before the Battle of Bosworth 
field, Richmond adoressed his soldiers, and 

He had sbantly finished his saymgty hut the one anny espyed 
the other. HaU, JZicA. ///. fol. 3a 6. 

Scall, «&. (Lev. xiii 30 — ^37). An emption of the 
skin, tetter. The etymology is uncertain. The A.-S. scyly 
shell, from scylan to divide or separate, has been sugsested 
as the origin of the word. In this case it would be ludn to 
^ scale.' 

A fomentation with oxycrat or water and Yinegre...ciireth 
the leprosie, scurfe, and dandruffe, running vlcers and acah, 
bitidgs of dogs, stinging with scorpions, scolopendres, and hardi- 
shrewB. Holland's P^tnj^, xzni. 1. 

Chaucer {Prd. to C. T, 629) describes the * Sompnour ;' 
With skalled browes blak, and piled herd. 

Scant, acb'. (Mic. vi. 10; Jud. xi. 12). Scanty, defident: 
etymology uncertain. The word is connected with scantle, 
or caruS, and scantlingy a bit or small portion of anything. 

I assure you that tyme should rather fayle then matter 
shoulde wax slant. Hall, Sen, F. f oL 4 a. 

Scant j, T,t (2 E. iv. 3 m). To limit, straiten, take a 
small quanuty of. 

In measure rein thy joy ; icant this excess. 
I feel too much thy blessiog: make it less, 
For fear I surfeit. 

Shakespeare, Mer, of Yen, iii. 2. 

'Tis not in thee 
To grudge my pleasures, to cut off my train, 
To bandy hasty words, to scant my sizes, 
And in conclusion to oppose the bolt 
Against my coming in. 

Id. LeoTf n. 4. 

Digitized by Vj«^i.J VIC 

422 ^HE BIBLE 

Scarce, adv. (Gen. xxvii. 30; Acts xiv. iS). Scarcely; 
from Prov. egcars, It. scarsOy Fr. ichars, which Diez connects 
with Med. Lat. excarpsiLS or scarpstiSy the participle of ^ar- 
carpere for ejccerpere, in the sense of * to narrow, contract.' 

These are now the fashioii, and so berattle tbo common stages 
— 80 they call them — that many wearing rapiers are afraid of 
goose-quills and dare icarce come thither. 

Shakespeare, Haml. ii. 1. 

Scarceness, «&. (Beut. yiii. 9 ; Ps. Ixyiii. 6, Pr. Bk.). 

The more that cloth is wastid, the more most it coste to the 
poeple for the %car9me;is. Chaucer, PanonU Tale, 

School-authors, sb. (Art. 13). The Schoolmen. 
Latimer {Serm. p. 335) calls them ^ the school-doctors.' 

Scorn, 8b. The phrases *to think scorn, laugh to 
scorn,' are now fallen into disuse. The former occurs in 
Esth. iii. 6 in the sense of *to scorn;' the latter in 2 Chr. 
XXX. 10, Neh. ii. 19, Job xxii. 19, and other passages. The 
following are. instances of both. 

Therfore thought thei ahome to bee baptised of Jhon, vnto 
their confusion and castyng awai. Udai's Erasmus, Luke, lol. 

I as then esteeming my selfe borne to rule, and thinking fotile 
tcome willingly to submit my selfe to be ruled. Sidney, Arcadia, 
. I. p. 37. 

Come, come, no longer will I be a fool, 
To put the finger in the eye and weep, 
"Whilst man and master laugh my woes to scorn, 

Shakespeare, Com. of ^rr, 11. a. 

Oar castle's strength 
Will laugh a siege to »com. 

Id. Macb, V. 5. 

They asking him at the first twenty talents for his ransome, 
Caesar lauahed them to scome, »s though they knew not what 
a man they had taken, & of himselfe promised them fiftie 
talents. North's Plutarch, JxU. Caaar, p. 759. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


Diez gives the O.H.G. skiSi^^ which is evidently the 
same as scorn, as the origin of the It gchernOy Sp. escamio^ 
and 0. Fr. eschern. 

Scourge^ sh. (Josh, xxiii. 13; John ii. 15). A whip; 
from Fr. escourg^By It. scoreggia, which are both derived 
from Lat corrigia a leather thong. It eoreggia. The word 
is now most commonly used metaphorically. 

A $couTg% or whip. Flagrum. Baret, Alvearie, a. v. 

A small loBg stick», twig, or w«od, a sooufge, or whip. 
Verber. Ibid, 

A ioourgtf or whip made with lether thoDgs. Setitioa. Ibid. 

And where *tis so, the offender's swwrgt is weighed, 
But never the offence. 

Shakespearei Ham, xv. 3. 

Scrabble, v. i. (i Sam. xxi. 13). To scratch, or make 
marks, scrawl. Probably connected with the D. krabbden, 
to scrape, scribble, and with E. scrape, G. kratibdm The 
word is found in Baker's Northamptonshire Words and 
Phrases, and is there explained, ^ To write in an unooutk 
and unsightly manner; to make unmeaning marks, as boys 
often do with chalk on a wall or gate." To scrah. meaning 
to scrape or scratch, still exists in the Su^Bdlk dialect 

Scrip, sh. (i Sam. xviL 40; Matt x. 10, &c). A wallet 
or small bag; from Sw. skr&ppa; the W. ysgrap, ysgrepan 
has the same meaning. It was characteristic of a traveller ; 
thus in Piers Ploi^hman's Vis, 3573, 

I seigh nevere palmere, 
With pyk ne with serippe. 

With staffe id hand, and sprip on shoulder cast, 
His chiefe defence agaynst the winters blast. 

Sackville, Induction, fol. 209 a. 

Though not with bag and baggage, yet with scrip and scrippage. 
Shakespeare, Af you like it, lu. 1, 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Sear, v.t (i Tim. iy. 2). To dry up, scorch; A.-S. 

Thou art too like the tspirit of Banqno, down! 
Thy crown does nar mine eye-baUs. 

Shakespeare, Madt, nr. i. 

I would to Grod that the inclusiye verge 
Of golden metal that must round my brow 
Were red-hot steel, to Ho/r me to the brain! 

Id. Rich. III. IV. I. 

In old Bargical language ^ searing' was used for * can- 
terizing/ The heading of one of the chapters in 'The ques- 
tyonary of Cyruigyens,' printed in 1541, is, 

Here foloweth the fourthe partycle, where as be moned and 
soyled other dyffjrcultees touohyng tiie maner of canterisynge or 

I tert with a hoote yron, as a smyth or cymrgien doth. 
Je brusle de fer chault. Palsgrave. 

Hence the word ^seared' is used metaphorically to 
denote that which is devoid of feeling, like fl4h which has 
been cauterized. 

Yet shalt thou feel, with horror 
To thy war'd conscience, my truth is built 
On such a firm base, that, if e'er it can 
Be forc'd or undermiu'd by thy base scandals. 
Heaven keeps no jniard on innocence. 

Beaumont k Fletcher, The Lwtri Progreu, m. 6. 

Season, »b. (Gen. xl. 4; Deut xvi. 6 ; i Chr. xxi 29\ 
From Fr. saison^ Sp. sazon, the etymology of which is 
doubtful. Any period of time, not restricted as now to the 
four seasons. 

I read once a story of a holy man, (some say it was St 
Anthony,) which had been a long 9eason in the wilderness. lAii- 
mer^ Serm, p. 391. 

Those which scrape and gather ever for their children, and m 
the mean tecuon forget the poor. Id. p. 409. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

'Word-book, 425 

Sorrow breaks sectaons and reposing hours, 
Makes the night morning, and the noontide night. 

Shakespeare, JUch. Ill, i. 4. 

Moreouer, considered it would be, that these studies wee follow 
at Yacant times and stolne houres, tiiat is to say by night KOitm 
onely. Pliny*s EpiA,'to T, Veitpanan, Holland's trans. 

Secondarily, adv. (i Cor. xii. 28). Secondly. 

When we consider that, first, who he is that commandeth it 
unto us ; secondarily, what he hath done for us that biddeth us 
to obey^ no doubt we shall be well content withal. Latimer, Serm, 
p. 513- 

Secure, adj, (Judg. vilL 11, xviii. 7, 10; Jobxi. 18, 
xii 6). In its literal sense of ^ careless, void of care ;' Lat. 

But we be tecure and uncareful, as though false prophets coald 
not meddle with us. Latimer, Mem. p. 365. 

Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem, caused it to be taken away, 
because it made the people aecurty to neglect their duty in calling 
and relying upon God. Burton^ Anat. of Mel, Pt. u. sec. i, 
mem. 3. 

This happy night the Frenchmen are tecure, 
Having til day caroused and banqueted. 

Shakespeare^ i Hen. VI. n. i. 

Securely, adv. (Prov. iii. 29). Carelessly, without 
care or anxiety. 

We see the wind sit sore upon our sails, 
And yet we strike not, but tecvrdy perish. 

Shakespeare, Rich. II. 11. i. 

See to, to (Josh. xxiL 10). To behold. 

Faire to see to, goodlie to behold. Ad aspectum pneclarus. 

Baret, Alvearie, s. v. 

If tucih rank come be once cut down with the syth, & no 
more^ certain it is that the grain in the eare will be the longer to 
tee tOf howbeit void and without any floure within it. HoUand*s 
Pliny, X7in. 17. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Seeing (Gen. xv. 2 ; Job xix. 28; Ps. L 17). Used as 
a conjunction for 'since/ * because.' 

For smng that we be certain that danger and peril shall oome 
upon ua, all they that be wise and godly will prepare them- 
selves. Latimer, Bern. p. 44. 

Seek, v.t (Deut xii. 5 ; i E. x. 24; Is. viii. 19, xix. 3). 
' To seek to' in the sense of * to resort to, have recourse to/ 
was formerly common. 

We are all as one to him ; he cares for ns all as one ; and 
why should we then uek to any other but to him? Burton, Anal. 
o/Md. Pt. II. sec I, mem. 3. 

As if the husbandman, the mason, carpenter, goldsmith, 
painter, lapidarie, and engrauer, with other artificers, were 
bounde to sedse vnto great dearkes or linguists for instractioiw 
in their seuerall arts. Preface to Holland's Pliny. 

Seek, to. * To be to seek' in the sense of 'to be at 
a loss/ occurs in the Translators' Preface. 

Lastly, that we might be forward to seeke ayd of our brethren 
by conference, and neuer scorne those that be not in all respeetfi 
so complete as they should bee, being to teeke in many things our 

For if you reduce usury, to one low rate, it will ease the 
common borrower, but the merchant will be to seeke for money. 
Bacon, Es$, xu. p. 171. 

Seem, v. t, (2 Sam. xviii 4). From A.-S. seman, G. 
ziemen. This verb was originally impersonal and followed 
by a dative, as in the expressions me seemeth, him geemsth, 
&c. ; compare me thinketh, you thinketh, &c. which are 
common in Chaucer. Of the magic horse in the Squir^M 
Tale (105 1 5), Chaucer says: 

It was of fayry, as the poeple temed. 

For when it uemtd him good, he brought him out again of 
the prison, and made him lord and ruler oyer all Flgypt. Lati- 
ma:. Rem, p. 30. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Mt seemeth good, that, with some little train, 
Forthwith from Ludlow the young prince be fetched 
Hither to London, to be crown'd our king. 

Shakespeare, Rich. III. il 2. 

Seemly, adf. (Prov. xix. lo, xxvi. i). Comely, be- 
coming; G. zienUich, from ziemen to become. 

A sandy man oure ooste was withalle. 

Chaucer, Prol. to C. T. 753. 

The erle buskyd and made hym yare 
For to ryde ovyr the revere, 

To see that semely syght. 

Sir Bglamour, 198. 

Tou know I am a woman, lacking wit 
To make a teenUy answer to such persona. 

Shakespeare, Ben. VIII. ill. i. 

Seethe, v. t. (Ex. xvi. 23, xxiii. 19; 2 E. iv. 38). To 
boil; from A.-S. sed^an, G.sieden. The past participle is 
sodden (A.-S. soderi or gesoden). Chaucer, describing the 
Cook {Prol. to a T. 385), says: 

He cowde roste, teikCy broille, and frie. 

See the quotation from North's Plutarch under Pulse. 

Seething, pr. p. (Job xli. 20). Boiling; from the 
preceding. Pliny, speaking of the skill of the Egyptians in 
staining ''doth after a strange and wonderful manor," 

These clothes they cast into a lead or cauldron of some colour 
that is aeething and scalding hot. xxxv. 1 1, Holland's trans. 

Selftame, pr. (Matt. viii. 13; I Cor. xiL 11). Very 
same; compounded of A.-S. sylfBud same. 

[A faithful steward] spendeth even the selfsame that he had 
of his Lord, and spendetii it eren as his Lord's commandment 
is. Latimer, Serm. p.. 36* 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The tdftamt heaven 
That frowns on me looks sadly upon him. 

Shakespeare, Rich, III. Y. 3. 

The ulft tame night, it is reported that the monstrous spirit 
which had appeared before vnto Brutus in the dtie of Sardis, Hid 
now appeare againe vnto him in the telfe tame shape & fomoe, 
and so vanished awaj, and said neuer a word. North's Plutarch, 
Brutut, p. 1075. 

Serve, v,t (Wisd. xix. 6). To keep, observe; Vulg. 

We have not only to strive with a number of heavy pre- 
judices deeply rooted in the hearts of men, who think that herein 
we terve the time, and speak in favour of the present state, be- 
cause thereby we either hold or seek preferment ; but also to 
bear such exceptions as minds so averted beforehand usually 
take against that which they are loath should be poured into 
them. Hooker, Ecd, Pol, i. ch. i. § i. 

Servitor, sh, (2 K. iv. 43). A seiring-man, personal 
attendant. Lat. servitor. 

Come, I have heard that fearful commenting 
Is leaden tervilor to dull delay. 

Shakespeare, Bich, III. nr. 3. 

And therefore, at the first breaking of the day, G-rumbates 
king of the Ghionites, to performe his diligent service in this 
behalfe, boldly approched the walls, having a strong guard about 
him of right expert and nimble tervitourt. 

Holland's Amm. Mare. p. 133. 

Set, pp. (Gen. Tm. 21, xxL 2; ActBxiL2i,&c.). Fixed. 

And in the grove, at tyme and place isette, 
This Arcite and this Palamon ben mette. 

Chaucer, KnighPt TaU, 1637. 

Ste. Brink, servant-monster, when I bid thee : thy eyes are 
iJmost tet in thy head. 

Trin. Where should they be Mt else t 

Shakespeare, Temp. m. 9. 

O he's drunk, sir Toby, an hour agone, his eyes were tet at 
eight i' the morning. Id. Tw, Night, Y. i. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

word-boos:. 429 

Set, pp, (Matt. V. i). Seated. 

Furthermore, after the birth of euery boy, the father was no 

more master of him, to cocker and bring him vp after his will: 

but be himselfe caried him to a certaine place called Lesch^, 

vhere the eldest men of his kinred being set, did view the childe. 

North's Plutarch, LycurguSf p. 55. 

Set by, v,t (i Sam. xviii. 30; Ps. xv. 4, Pr. Bk.). To 
value, esteem. 80 in Deut. xxvii. 16, *to set light by^ is to 
value lightly, despise. 

Set nought hy golde ne grotes, 
Theyr names if I durst tell. 

Skelton, WorJcs, I. 317. 

Thier lawes were had in contempte, and nothing set ly or 
regarded. Sir T. More, Utopia^ trans. Bobynson, fol. 31 a. 

What so euer thynge man doth preferre afore god, and more 
jiet hy, than by god : that same thynge he maketh a god to hym- 
selfe. Erasmus, On the Creed, Eog. tr. fol. 44 h. 

For no man setteth any thing hy his promise. Latimer, Serm, 
p. 451. 

Set fire on ( i Mace. x. 84). To set on fire. 

The Duke of Exceter beyng in an other inne with y* Erie 
of Gloucester set fier on diuerse bowses in the towne. Hall, 
Hen. IV. fol. 136. 

Set forth (Ez. xxvii 10; Jude 7; Litany). To pro- 
mote, further, set off to advantage ; also, to publish, declare, 
put prominently forward. 

Se how the deuyll is as redy to setfurth mischief, as the good 
angel is to au&ce yertue. Hall, ffen. IV. foL 1 1 a. 

But the wonderfuU good successe he had, running a longst all 
the coast of Pamphilia, gaue diuerse historiographers occasion to 
set fixrrih his doings wiUi admiration. North's Plutarch, Alex, 
P- 725. 

To garnish, or make faire, to apparell richly, to set forth, 
Ezomo. Baret, Alvea/rie, s. v. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To Mtj or pat forth: to laie out: to set out to adaefnturey or 
hazard : to expound, or declare. Expono. Ibid. 
Gret substantial worth: 
Boldness gilds finely, and will set it forih. 

Herbert, The Chmch Porch, no. 

Set forth (Num. ii. 9). To set out on a journey. 
I must away this night toward Padaa, 
And it is meet I presently set forth. 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Few. iv. r. 

Set forward, i. To forward, further, promote 
(i Chr. xxiii. 4; 2 Chr. xxxiv. 12; Ezr. iii. 8, 9; Job 
XXX. 13). 

I set fonflarde a person, or avaunce him to promocyon. 
Jaduance. Palsgrave. 

2. To set out OR a journey, march (Num. ii 17, iv. 
15, &c.). 

Hang him ! let him tell the king : we are prepared. I will 
tet forward to-night. Shakespeare, i Hen. IV, ii. 3. 

Set forwards (Priest's Exam.). To forward, further. 

Set on (Acts xyiii. 10). To attack. men that were freshe and lusty, ranged 
them selues again in aray both prest and redy to abide a iiewe 
felde, and also to inuade and newly to set on theyr enemies. Hall, 
HtfL V. fol. 186. 

Then did we two set on you four; and, with a word, out-faoed 
you from your prize, and have it ; yea, and can show it you here 
in the house. Shakespeare, i Hen, IV. 11. 4. 

Set to (John iii. 33). To affix, as a seal, in the passage 
quoted. Hence * to set to his seal* is * to attest,' as a doca> 
ment is attested by affixing a seal. The expression is 
retained from Coverdale's version. It occurs in a MS. 
quoted by Mr Napier in his Memorials qf the Marquis 
of Montrose^ i. p. 1 1 1 ; 

If it be so, they must set to their hands, and shall ut to their 
hands. « 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Setting ibrth^ sb, PublicatioD. 

So the Syrian translation of the New Testament is in most 
learned mens libraries, ofWidminstadius hha 9eUing forth. The 
Tratialators to the Header, 

Settle^ 8b. (Ez. xliii. 14, 17, 20, xlv. 19). A bench or 
seat ; A.-S. setl, setel. The word is still in use as a proTin- 
cialism, applied to an ale-house bench. 

A Setde: a stooL Sedile... ^/>6po$. Baret, Alveaiie, s. v. 

Seven stars, the (Amos v. 8). The Pleiades, a 
cluster of seven stars in the constellation Taurus. 

The reason why the seven stars are no more than seyen is 
a very pretty reason. Shakespeare, Lear, i. 5. 

We that take parses go by the moon and the seven stars. 

Id. I If en, J V.J. 2. 

Flelade : f. One of the seuen starres, Gotgrave, Fr. Diet. 

Several, adj. (Num. xxviii. 13, 29; 2 K. xv. 5 ; Matt. 
XXV. 15). Separate; from sever, Lat. separare. Common in 
<iid writers. 

The seruinge men of euerye seuercdl shire be distincte and 
knowen from^ other by their seiterall and distincte badges. Sir T. 
More, Vtopiaf trans. Kobynson, fol. lib. 

These thre last wer cast ther into severall prisons. Pol. Verg. 
n. 181. 

Pages and lights, to conduct 
These knights unto their several lodgings I 

Shakespeare, Per. 11. 3. 

These properties of arts or policy, and dissimulation or close- 
nesse, are indeed habits and faculties, severall, and to be distin- 
guished. Bacon, Ess. vi. p. 18. 

Severally, adv. (i Cor. xii. 11). Separately; from 
the preceding. 

Howe therefore doestthou separate them that be inseparable? 
and with seueratt syghte desirest to see them seuenMy. Udal s 
Erasmus, John, fol. 86 a. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


He writet.h generally, to them all ; and in the foirmer chapiera 
he teacheth them severally how they should behave themselyes, in 
every estate, one to another. Latimer, Serm, p. 15. 

Shadow, sK (Is. iv. 6; Jonah iv. 5). In these pas- 
sages we should now use the synonymous word ^ shade/ as 
in the following: 

Nay, retue men cannot, when they would ; neither will they, 
when it were reason : but are impatient of privatenesse, even in 
age, and sicknesse, which require the thudow. Bacon, Em*, xi. 

Shaked (Ps. cix. 25). Shook. 

The partie himselfe who was in danger, felt his hart onely to 
leape, as if he had beene (I assure you) to wrestle for the best 
game, or to run a race for the prize: but they that saw him, 
trembled and shaked all their bodie over, for feare of the perill 
wherein their prince was, and for kind affection that they bare 
unto him. Holland's Plutarch, Morals, p. 39. 

Shamefost, adj. (Ecclos. xxvi. 15). Bashful, mo- 
dest; A.-S. %cearnf€B9t, In modem editions of the A.V. 
the word is altered to ' shamefaced.' 

Depeynted ben the walles up and doun, 
Of huntyng and of schrnkfast chastite. 

Chaucer, KnigMs Tale, 2057. 

Shamefkstnesse, sb, (i Tim. ii. 9; Ecclns. xli. 16). 
Bashfulness, modesty, from A.-S. sceamfcestnes. In modem 
editions of the A. V. it is altered to ' sliamefacedness.' (See 
Trench, Study cf Words, p. 88, n.) Compare stec^fasinesSj 
a word simihu'ly formed. 

Schamefast sche was in maydenes schamfcatnesse. 

Chaucer, Doctor of Physic*s Tale, 13470. 

y ertuouB dispoeicion & shamefastnesse commonly goe together. 
Udal's Erasmus, Luke, fol. 8 a. 

She is the fountaine of your modestee; 

You shamfast are, but Shamefastnesse itself is shee. 

Spenser, i? Q. n. 9, § 43. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Shapen^ pp. (Ps. li. 5). Formed, fashioned; the old 
participle of shape; A.-S. scapan^ pp. scapen; compare G. 
sehc^en, gescho^en, 

Jlb, whaa a thing is $chapen, it shall be. 

Chaucer, Knighfi Tale, 1468. 

As the births of liying Creatures, at first, are ill thapen: so 
are all innoyatioDS, which are the births of time. Bacon, Ess. 
XXIV. p. 99. 

Shawm^ sb. (Ps. xcviii. 7, Pr. Bk.). A musical instru- 
ment resembling the clarionet. 

The modern clarionet is an improvement upon the shawm, 
which was played with a reed, like the wayte, or hautboy, but 
being a bass instrument, with about the compass of an octave, 
had probably more the tone of a bassoon. Cbappell, i. 35, 

Mr Chappell in the same note quotes one of the 'pro- 
verbis,' written about the time of Hen. VII. on the waifs of 
the Manor House, at Leckingfield, near Beverley^ York- 

A shawme maketh a swete sounde, for he tunythe the basse. 
It mountithe not to hye, but kepithe rule and space. 
Yet yf it be blowne witiie to vehement a wynde. 
It makithe it to mysgoverne out of bis kinde. 

It also occurs in the forms shalmy ahalmie; compare 
G. schalmeief a reed pipe. 

The shreyffes and the althermen toke barge at the iij Cranes 
with trumpets and skcUmes, and the whetes playhyng. Machyn's 
Dwry, p. 96. 

With thjommja^ & trompets, & with clarions sweet. 

Spenser, F. Q. i. 12, § 13. 

Euen from the shrillest skmomt vnto the cornamute. 

Drayton, Polyolbion, iv. 366, 

Sheepmaster, sb. (2 K. iii 4.). An owner of sheep. 

I knew a nobleman in England, that had the greatest audits, 
of any man in my time : a great grasier, a great aheepe-ftiasterf 

Digitized by VjV^VJvSO 


a great timber man, a great colliar, a great come-master, a great 
lead-maD, and so of iron, and a number of the like points of 
husbandry. Bacon, Ess. xxxiv. p. 146. 

Sherd^ sb. (Is. xxx. 14: Ez. xxiii. 34). Shred, frag- 
ment; A.-S. sceard from scSran, to shear. It remains in 
^^Uherd^ for which it was sometimes used. 

For charitable prayers, 
ShardSf flints and pebbles should be thrown on her. 

Shakespeare, ffatn. v. i. 

SheW| 9b. (Ps. x?xix. 6; Is. iii. 9). Appearance; A.-S. 

The roses added such a ruddy shew vnto it, as though the field 
were bashfull at his owne beautie. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 68, 1. 43. 

SheWj V. i, (Job xxxtL 33). To report, represent. 

And when he was with hastye rappyng quickly letten in, hee 
skewed vnto Pottyer that kynge Edwarde was departed. Sir T. 
More, Bick III., Works, p. 38 a. 

Shewed, pp. (Gen. xix. 19; Num. xiv. 11). Shewn. 

Howbeit Cinna and Marius committed as horrible cruelty in 
this victory, as could possibly be shewed. North's Platarch, 
Sertorius, p. 624. 

Shine, sb. (Ps. xcvii. 4, Pr. Bk.). Sheen, lustre, splen- 
dour; A.-S. seine, G. schdn, 

I saw a grett lyght with bryght shyne. Cov. Myst. p. 156. 

Than Venus in the brightest of her Mm. Greene, Works, 
I. 74 (ed. Dyce). 

Shined (Beut. xxxiii. 2 ; Job xxix. 3 ; Is. ix. 2, 4ba}. 
Shone ; the past tense and past participle of ' shine.' 

Now let us go forward to the rest ; that is, to add the histoEty 
of the proceeding of the word of God, and by what meaDs it 
shined ever and anon very clear and brightly unto the worid. 

BuUingef, Decades^ i* P* 49- 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Her face was veilM ; yet to my fancied sight 
Love, sweetness, goodness, in her person shin^d 
So clear, as in no face with more delight. 

Milton, Sonn, xxin. ii. 

Shipmajterj 9b, (Jon. I 6 ; Bey. xTiiL 17). The cap- 
tain of a ship. 

By this meanes he made the people strong against the nohility, 
and brought the comminalty to waxe bolder then they were 
before, by reason the rale and anthoritie fell into the handes of 
saylers, mariners, pilots, shippemaisterSy and such kinde of sea- 
faring men. North's Plutarch, Themkt. p. 133. 

Shipmen, sb. (i K. ix. 27; Acts xxvii. 27, 30). Sail- 
ors; A,^. scipmenn. 

The dreadful spout 
Which ahipmen do the hurricane call. 

Shakespeare, Tr, and Cr. y. 1. 

Shipping^ sb, (John yi. 24). ^To take shipping' is 
' to embaA:^ go on board ship.' 

Take, therefore, shipping; post, my lord, to France. 

Shakespeare, i Ren. VL y. 5. 

He iohe shippyng with .xzx. sayle at the mouthe of Seine. 
BaXi,ffen.JV. fol. 18 a. 

Shoelatchet^ sb. (Gen. xiy. 23). The lace or thong 
of a shoe. Latchet (Is. y. 27 ; Mark 1. 7) is from Fr. tac^^ 
a lace, which again is deriyed from lacs^ the Lat laqueus, 
a noose (comp. Sp. lazo , a lasso), in which sense lace is 
used in Chaucer {Knighfs Tale, 18 19): 

As he that hath often ben caught in his lace. 

Thus shodatchet is half A.-Saxon and half Norman: the 
A.-S. term was sced-ytoang, shoe-thong. With laqvsus is 
connected the A.-S. loBccan, to catch. 

It was now therefore thought fit to restore them \i.e. the 
records] again without the losse of a shoo-lati^t to the Uniyer* 
Bity. Fuller, HUt, of Cambridge, yu. 4 (ed. j655). 

Digitized by V^JV,. ^ft - j 


Shred^ «.^. (2 K. iy. 39). To cut in shreds; A.-S. 

The helmes ther to-hewen and ixy^chrede. 

Chaucer, Knight* s Tale, 261 1. 

Let that which yon cut or $hredf be so little k short withal, 
that it resemble a mans fist, rather than a bough, the thicker 
will it come again. Holland's Pliny, xvi. 37. 

Fuller's General Artist is 

Acquainted with cosmography, treating of the world in 
whole joints; with chorography, shredding it into countries ; and 
with topography, mincing it into particular places. Holy State, 
XXU. §8. 

Shroud^ d>. (Ez. xxxi. 3). Cover, shelter; literally, a 
garment, from A.-S. scrHd. The part of St Paul's called 
the shrowds ^sas 

A covered space on the side of the church, to protect the 
congregation in inclement seasons. Pennant, London, p. 343 
(ed. J790). 

But it would warm his spirits^ 
To hear from me you had left Antony, 
And put yourself under his shrowd, 
The universal landlord. 

Shakespeare, Ant, ic CI, m. 13. 

Where like a mounting cedar he should beare 
His plumed top aloft into the ayre; 
And let these shrubs sit vndemeath his throwdes. 
Whilst in his armes he doth embrace the dowdes. 
Drayton, England's Her, Ep, (Q. Marg. to D. of Suffl 1. 79). 

Sick, adj, (Gen. xlviii. i ; i Sam. xix. 14, xxx. 13, 
&c.}. Ill; a sense of the word which is still common in 
some parts of England and in America. 

I have thought in times past, that if I had been a friar, and 
in a cowl, I could not have been damned, nor afraid of death ; 
and by occasion of the same, I have been minded many times to 
have been a friar, namely when I was sore tick and diseased. 
Latimer, Rem, p. 332. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Is Bnitus dcki and is it physical 
To walk unbraced and suck up the humours 
Of the dank morning ? What, is Brutus tickf 
And will be steal out of his wholesome bed. 
To dare the ^ile contagion of the night 
And tempt the rheumy and unpuiged air 
To add unto his sickness? 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cobs. ii. i. 

In a note on JuliuB CcBsaVy n. i, Mr R. G. White 

For 'sick/ the correct English adjective to express all de- 
grees of suffering from disease, and which is universally used in 
the Bible and by Shakespeare, the Englishman of Great Britain 
has poorly substituted the adverb *ilL* 

Sicknesses^ sb, (Deut. xxviii. 59, xxix. 22, &c.). Dis- 
eases ; generally used in old English to denote plagues or 

No doubt it is an unwholesome thing to bury within the city, 
specially at such a time when there be great sicknesses, so that 
many die together. Latimer, Hem, p. 67. 

Side^ sb. 'On the other side' was frequently used 
where we should now say ' on the other hand.'- 

Or if on the other side, we shall be maligned by selfe-con' 
ceited brethren. The Epistle DediccUorie, 

And on the other side, Counsellours should not be too Specu- 
lative, into their Soueraignes Person. Bacon, Ess, xx. p. 86. 

Signet j sb. (Gen. xxxyiiL 18, 25 ; Ex. xxi. 36, xxxix. 6). 
A seal, as the Hebrew is elsewhere translated (i E. xxi. 8 ; 
Job xxxriiL 14 ; Cant. viii. 6). The word remains in ' signet 
ring^ but is rarely used alone. 

I had my father's signet in my purse. 
Which was the model of that Danish seal. 

Shakespeare, HaniUt, v. 1. 

Silence^ to keep (Job xxix. 21; Lam. iii. 28, &c.). 
To be silent; Fr. garder le silence^ 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Proclamation was then made by sound of trumpet in the 
assembly, that euery man should hee^ silence. North's Plutarch, 
Fkminius, p. 411. 

Silly, adj, (Hos. vii. 11 ; 2 Tim. iii. 6). Literally, sim- 

Ele, harmless, guileless, from A.-S. swlig, G. selig, lucky, 
appy. Kot originally used in a bad sense. 

This child the j hit were ?ung : wel hit understod, 
For sell child is sone ilered : ther he wole beo god. 

Tho. Beka, p. 158. 

O sely woman, full of innocence. 

Chaucer, Leg. of Fair Wofnen, 1152. 

Who made thee so bold to meddle with my siUy beasts, which 
I bought so dearly with my precious blood? Latimer, JSerm. 
p. 19. 

Wiclif uses unceli for * unhappy' (A.-S. unsoBlig): 
I am an unceli man, who schal delyuer me fro the bodi of this 
synne. Bom. yii. 24 (ed. Lewis). 

SUverllng^ sb, (Is. vii. 23). A piece of silver, as it is 
rendered in the Geneva Version. The Hebrew word is 
used for a * shekel,' like the G. silberling. SilveHing oc- 
curs in Tyndale's Version of Acts xix. 19, and in Cover- 
dale's of Judg. ix. 4, xvL 5. The German sUberling is 
found in Luther's version. 

Similitude^ «&. (Eos. xii. 10). Likeness; hence com- 
parison, parable : Lat. simUittido. 

Christ told them a tirmlUude, that the kingdom of heaven is 
like to a king that made a bridal to his child. Latimer, Serm. 
p. 284. 

For, as it addeth deformity to an ape, to be so like a man ; so 
the similitude of superstition to religion, makes it the more de- 
formed. Bacon, Ess. xvn. p. 69. 

Simple^ adj, (Rom. xvi. 19). Artless, guileless; Lai 
simplex, which is said to be from sine plied without fold, 
and so open, undesigning (Trench, Study qf Words, p. 44). 
Compare A.-S. dip-fecUd, one-fold, simple. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Slmpleness^ ^, (Ps. Ixix. 5, Pr. Bk.). Simplicity, in 
a bad sense, folly. The A.V. has 'foolishness.' 

God's will, 
What aimplenesa is this ! 

Shakespeare, Mom, and Jul. iii. 3. 

Sincere j (tdj. (i Pet. ii. 2). Pure, unadulterated. 

But the good, tincere, & true Nard is known by the light- 
nes, red colour, sweet smell, and the taste especially: for it 
drieth the tongue and leaueth a pleasant rellish behind it. Hol- 
land's Pliny f XII. J2. 

Singular j adj, (Lev. xxvii. 2). 'A singular vow;' 
Coverdale has ^ specially and the margin gives 'when a 
man shall separate a vow.' The Heb. word is elsewhere 
rendered 'accomplish' (Lev. xxii. 21), 'perform' (Num. xv. 
3, 8), and ' separate' (Num. vi. 2). In the passage of Levi- 
ticus quoted, * singular' seems to be used for 'particular,' as 
in the following from Chaucer : 

For certis the repentance of a singuler synne, and nought 
repente of alle his other synnes, or elles repents him of alle his 
othere synnes, and not of a singuler synne, may nought availe. 
Parson's Tale. 

And God forbede that al a company e 
Schulde rewe a singuler mannes folye. 

Canon*8 Yeomun's Tale, 12925. 

For Jesus is a propre name of a singulci/re persone, that is 
to witte of that man, whiche alone of all mS, was borne of a 
virgine. Erasmus, On the Creed, foL 516. (Eng. tr.). 

Sirs (Acts vii. 26, xiv. 15, xvi 30^ &c.). A common 
form of appeal to an audience. 

Sirs, 1 will tell ye what ye shall do : consider every one with 
himself, what Christ hath done for us. Latimer, Serm. p. 513. 

Sirs, strive no more : such withered herbs as these 
Are meet for plucking up, and therefore mine. 

Shakespeare, Tit. And. in. i. 

Sirs, you four shall front them in the narrow lane; Ned 
Foins and I will walk lower : if they 'scape from your encounter, 
then they light on us. Id. i Men. I V. U. 2, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Now, nrt; bj*r lady, you fought fair; so did you, Peto; ao 
did you> Bardolph. Ibid. XL 4. 

Sithj conj, (Bz. xxxy. 6; Rom. y. <j). A.-S. 9^, smce> 
which is only a contraction of the 0. E. sithence, 9, corrup- 
tion of A.-S. sii^an. The distinction between 'sith' and 
< since ' in later writers appears to be that *sith' is only used 
as a causal particle, and not as an adverb or preposition of 
time, while 'since' is used for both. Mr Marsh {Lectures 
on the English Langiuige, p. 584 — 586) maintains that in 
the latter half of the sixteenth century " good authors 
established a distinction between the forms, and used sith 
only as a logical word, an illative, while sithence and gince, 
whether as prepositions or as adverbs, remained mere nar- 
rative words, confined to the signification of time <\fterr 
But this distinction is not observed uniformly either in 
Shakespeare or in the A.Y. of 161 1. 

Gilbert 'was Thomas fader name : that true was and god, 
Aud lovede God and holi churche : siththe he wit understod. 

TJio, Beket, 1. 
Thou hast one son; for his sake pity me. 
Lest in revenge thereof, sUh God is just. 
He be as miserably slain as T. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen, YI. i. 3 

Latimer {Serm, p. 43) uses sithens: 

Which the world long sithens had by his dear wife I>ame 

And Shakespeare has ' sithence :' 

SiiheruXf in the lost that may happen, it concerns you some- 
thing to know it. AlVs Well, i. 3. 

Sixt. adj, (Gen. xxx. 19 ; Ex. xvi. 5 ; Lev. xxv. 21). Sixth ; 
in the ed. of 161 1. 

Skill, v.i, (i K. v. 6; 2 Chr. ii. 7, 8, xxxiv. 12). From 
A.-S. scylan to discriminate, or distinguish; hence to un- 
derstand the difierences of things, and so, to xmderstand, 
generally. Bacon {Adv, of Learning, i. 7, § 12) trans- 
lates a passage from Suetonius {Jid. Cobs. c. JUi 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Sylla could not sktll of letters {SuUam nescisse literat), and 
therefore knew not how to dictate. 

Panicke is eaten in some parts of Gaule, and principally in 
Aqnitane or Gaien: in Plemont also, and all about the Po, it is 
a great feeding, so there be beanes among ; for without beans 
they canot skill how to dresse any thing, for their daily food. 
Holland's Pliny, xyin. 10. 

Slackj adj, (Deut. yii. 10). N^ligent, dilatory. 

By heavens, the duke shall know how alack thou, art! 

Shakespeare, Rich, III, I. 4. 

Slacks v.t and i, (Josh. z. 6). To slacken^ relax; 
A.-S. sldBcan from the adjective ^/c^c; used also intransi- 
tively, to delay (Deut. xxiiL 21). 

What a remorse of conscience shall ye have, when ye re- 
member how ye have docked your duty! Latimer, Serm, p. 231. 

Say that they slack theur duties, 
And pour our treasures into foreign laps. 

Shakespeare, Oth, iv. 3. 

But afterwards when chariiie waxed colde, all their studie 
and trauaile in religion slacked^ and then came the destruction of 
the inhabitantes. Stow, Annals, p. 133. 

Slackness^ iR>, (2 Pet. ill. 9). Negligence. 

A good rebuke, 
Which might have well becomed the best of men, 
To taunt at slackness, 

Shakespeare, ArU. and C7. m. 7. 

Slaughtermen^ sb, (Gen. xxxvii. 36 m), ^Chiefe of 
the slaughtermen, or executioners,' is the marginal render- 
ing of what stands in the text, ' captain of the guard.' It is 
the literal rendering of the Hebrew. 

Slaughter weapon^ sb, (Ez. ix. 2). 
Sleepj on (Acts xiii. 36). Asleep. 

po he hadde hys Ijope y do, he fel on slepe rijt pere. 

■^ Robert of QloucesUr, p. 14. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 



The stiward percejvid it, and went in, and fond alle on alept, 
Gesta Bomanorvm, c. 69, p. 254, ed. Madden. 

They went in to his chamber to rayse him, and comming to 
his beds side, found him fast on 8leq>e. Gascoigne, Works, p. 224. 

Sleight, sb, (Eph. iv. 14). Artifice; possibly con- 
nected with G. schleichen, to creep, and E. sly. 

Thus may we see, that wisdom and riches, 
Beaute ne sleight, strengthe ne hardynes, 
Ke may with Venus holde champartye. 

Chaucer, KrdgMs Tale, 195a 

As Ulysses and stout Diomede 
With sleight and manhood stole to Khesus' tents. 
And brought from thence the Thracian fatal steeds. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen. VI. iv. 2. 

My good honest servant, 
I know thou wilt swear any thing to dash 
This cunning sleight 

Massinger, New Way to pay old Debts, v. i. 

Slice, sb. (Lev. ii. 5 m), A frying pan ; and, generally, 
a flat iron shovel. 

Paletta, any kind of fire shoouell, slice, trowell, scoope or 
batledar to play at tenis with. 

Paletta da fuoco, a fire shoouell or slice. 

Paletta di spetiale, a lingell, a spoone, a tenon, a spattle or 
slice as Apothecaries vse. Florio, Worlde of Wordes. 

Friquet : m. A little slice, or scummer, to tume fish in a fry- 
ing-pan. Cotgrave, Fr, Diet. s.v. 

Slime, sb, (Gen. xi. i, xiv. 10; Ex. ii, 3). The ren- 
dering of the Heb. word chSmdr, which unquestionably 
denotes what Is now called bitumen. The following pas- 
sages justify our translators in their use of the word. 

The nature of bitumen approcheth neere vnto brimstoDe : 
where it is to be noted in the first place, that the bitumen whereof 
I speake, is in some places in manner of a maddy sUme; in 
others, very earth or minerall. Holland's Pliny, xxxv. 15. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


The very clammy alime bitumen, whiob at oertaine times of 
tlie yere floteth and swimmeth vpon the lake of Sodom, called 
Asphaltites in lury. Id. Vii. 15. 

Smoke J on a (Ex. xix. i8). Smoking. We say still 
*on fire.' 

Smooth, sh, {Gen. xxtH. 16). The smooth part : ad- 
jective used as substantive. 

Snatch, used as a substantive, in the preface of The 
Translators to the Reader. 

Thus not only as oft as we speake, as one saith, but also as 
oft as we do any thing of note or consequence, we subiect our 
selues to euery ones censure, and happy is he that is least tossed 
vpon tongues; for vtterly to escape the snatch of them it is im- 

Sober, a^Ij, (2 Cor. v. 13 ; i Tim. iii. 2). In its original 
sense as derived from Fr. sdbre, Lat. sobriv^^ it signified, as 
it does still, *not drunk;' hence 'temperate, regular/ and 
as applied to the deportment or character, * grave, discreet, 

Your long experience of her wisdom^ 
Her sf^er virtue, years and modesty, 
Plead on her part some cause to you unknown. 

Shakespeare, Com, of Err, in. i. 

Soberly, adv, (Rom. xii. 3; Tit. ii. 12). From the 
preceding; gravely, seriously. 

Let any prince, or state, thinke sobvrly of his forces, except 
his militia, of natives, be of good and valiant soldiers. Bacon, 
E88. XXIX. p. 121. 

Sod (Gen. xxv. 29; 2 Chr. xxxv. 13) and Sodden 
(Ex. xii. 9), the prsBterite and past participle of seethe, 
corresponding to the A.-S. sed^y soden, respectively. 

Ich makede me fur wel faste. 
And seoth me fisch a Godes name that threo dayes i-laste. 

Leg, of St, Brandan, 643. 

Digitized by Vj«^Ji.JV IC 

444 T^S BIBLE 

Hi makede fur, and toden, hem fiscli in a caudroxin fisete; 
Er this fish were i-aode, somdel hi were agaste. 

Id. 158, 159. 

Sodering^ sb. (Is. xli. 7). The old spelling of 'sol- 

The decoction of Veronica dronken, doth 9oder and heale all 
fresh and old wounds, and clenseth the blood from all euill cor- 
ruptions, and from all rotten and aduste humors. Lyte's Herbal^ 
p. 31. 

As if the world should cleaue, and that slaine men 
Should aoader vp the rift. 

Shakespeare, Ant. and CI, m. 4 (ed. 1623). 

So flu* forth. So far. 

Also S. Augustine was of an other minde: for he Hghting 
vpon certaine rules made by Tychonius a DonatLst, for the better 
vnderstanding of the word, was not ashamed to make vse of 
them, yea, to insert them into his owne booke, with giuing com- 
mendation to them 80 fwrrt foorth as they were worthy to l^ com- 
mended. The TranslcUart to the Reader, 

In sutes of favour, the first comming ought to take little 
place: so farre forth consideration may bee had of his trust, that 
if inteUigence of the matter, could not otherwise have beene 
had, but by him, advantage bee not taken of the note, bnt the 
partie left to his other meanes ; and, in some sort, recompenoed 
for his discoveries Bacon, Eu, xlix. p. 202. 

Softly^ adv, (Gen. xzxiii. 14; Is. viii. 6). Gently 

A.-S. %^tUc, 

He commaunded certaine captaines to stay behinde, and to 
rowe %ofidy after him. North's Plutarch, ^fcfiw p. ««7. 

For where a man cannot choose, or vary in particulars, there 
it is good to take the safest and wariest way in generall; like the 
going iofUy by one that cannot well see. Bacon, Eaa, vi. p. 19. 

Sojourn. f>. i. (Gen. xii. 10, xix. 9, &c.). To dwell for 
a time, literaUy to stay the day; from Fr. 8^four9wr» It 

Digitized by VJV.JV.J VIC 


soggiomare, which are both from the Med. Lat. jbr»tw= 
diumusy whence It. giomo, Fr. jour. The word is espe- 
ciallj applied to denote residence away from home. 

The advantage of his absence took the king. 
And in the meantime sojourn'd at my father^s. 

Shakespeare, K, John, i. i. 

Sojourner^ sh. (Lev. xxv. 23). A temporary resid- 
ent ; from the preceding. 

Keport what a $ojoumer we have; you'll lose nothing by 
custom. Shakespeare, Per. rv, 2, 

Some j pron, (Rom. v. 7 ; Ecclus. vi. 8, 10). One, some 
one : obsolete in the singular as applied to persons. In the 
first of the three passages quoted it is the rendering of the 
Greek tis> 

Som man desireth for to have richesse, 
That cause is of his morthre or gret seeknesse. 
And som man wolde out of his prisoun fayn. 
That in his hous is of his mayne slayn. 

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1257 — 60, 

For of other affections, there is occasion given, but now and 
then : and therefore, it was well said, Invidia festos dies non 
agit. For it is ever working upon some, or other. Bacon, Ess. 
IX. p. 35. 

Sometime^ adv. (Col. i. 21, iii. 7; i Pet, iii. 20). 
Once, once upon a time; with reference to time past 

And fortherover, it [contricionn] makith him that somtyme 
was sone of ire, to be the sone of grace. 

Chaucer, Persones Tale, 

After the destruction of Pictland, it [Scotland] did extende 
even to the ryver Twede, yea sumetifme unto Tine, the uncer- 
teyne chaunce of battayle shewinge like mutabilitie in that 
pointe as it dothe in all other thinges. PoL Verg, I. 5. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


As ' By ihe Bword of God and Gideon* was sometime the cry 
of the people of Israel, so it might deservedly be at this day the 
joyful song of innumerable multitudes. 

Hooker, Ecd, Pol. ep. ded. 

Chaucer also uses ^sometime' for 'sometimes.' 

Sometimes j adv. (Eph. ii. 13). Once ; like sometime. 
Compare beside, oendes, toward, towards, &c. 

Farewell, old Gaunt : thy sovMtimes brother's wife 
With her companion grief must end her life. 

Shakespeare, Bkh, II. I. i. 

Soothsayer, sb. (Josh. xiii. 22 ; Is.ii.6; Ban. iL 27, &c.]l 
Literally, *a trutn-sayer,' from A.-S. s6^ truth, like G. 
Wahrsager; hence foreteller, diviner. From the same 
root are ' forsooth/ * in sooth/ &a The origin of the word is 
alluded to by Gower (CoT{f. Am. i. p. 305); 

That for he wiste he saide soth, 
A soth'Saier he was for ever. 

The wise southsayer seeing so sad sight, 

Th' amazed vulgar tels of warres and mortall fight. 

Spenser, F. Q. i. 5. § 8, 

A soothsayer bids you beware the Ides of March. 

Shakespeare, Jul. Cces. I. 3. 

Soothsaying, sb. (Acts xvi 16). Divination, prog- 
nostication of mture events. 

Sope, «&• (Jer. ii. 22 ; Mai. iii. 2). The old form of 
* soap ' ( A.-S. sdpe, Lat. sapo), as in Piers Ploughman ( Vis. 

891 0, 

With the sope of siknesse. 
That seketh wonder depe. 

Compare doke^flote. 

Sorcerer, sb. (Ex. vii. ii ; Jer. zxvii. 9; Acts xiii 6, 
8). From Pr. soreier, Sp. sortero, Lat. sortiaritis; literally 
one who predicts the future by casting lots (Lat. sors, Ft, 
sort, a lot;; hence, a fortnne-tdler^ or oo]\jurer generally. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


A torcerer that by his cuniiing hath cheated me of the island. 

Shakespeare, Temp, in. i. 

Sorcerers are too common; cunning men, wizards, and white- 
witches (as they call them), in every village, which, if they be 
sought nnto, will help almost all infirmities of body and mind— 
senxUorea in Latine. Burton, Aruit. of Mel, pt u. sec. i. mem. 
I. subs. I. 

Sorceress^ sh, (Is. IyIL 3). A female fortune-teller; 
from the precedmg. 

Pucelle, that witch, that danmed sorceress, 
Hath wrought this hellish mischief unawares. 

Shakespeare, i Bm, VJ. in. 2, 

Sorcery^ sb, (Is. xlvii. 9 ; Acts yiii. 9). The art 01 
practice of fortune-telling. ; from O. Fr. sorcerie, 

I fear me there be a great many in England which use each 
sorceries, to the dishonour of Q-od and their own damnation. 

Latimer, Serm, p. 349. 

The magitians say, that the gaU of a blacke dog... is a singular 
coantercharme and preseruatiue against all sorceries, inchant- 
mentB, and poisons. 

Holland's Pliny, xxx. 10. 

This word of sorcerie is a Latine word, which is taken from 
castiDg of the lot, and therefore he that vseth 1%, is called sortia- 

King James I. Damonologie, n. 1. 

Sore. a4f. (2 Chr. xxi 19; Job 11. 7; Ps. iL 5, &c.). 
Literally, heavy, severe; A.-S. 8dr,stDCBr,Q,schwer,^, sair, 

I will persevere in my course of loyalty, though the conflict 
be sore between Uiat and my blood. 

Shakespeare, K. Lear, m. 5. 

Sore, adv. (Gen. six. 9,&c.) Prom A.-S. sdr, sore, heavy, 
painful, whence A-8. sdre, G. sehr; connected with the 
preceding. As an adverb it is used as an intensive, 'griev- 
ondy, severely/ as iorely in Gen. zliz. 23 ; Is. zxiiL 5. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Ther ib no wight parfytly trewe to him that he to sore dredetb. 

Chaucer, Tale of Mdibeus. 

Sorer, ac(f, (Heb. x. 29). Comparatiye of 'sora' 

Then oometh in St Paul, who saith, Magis atUem. lahoret ut 
det incUgentdma; 'Let him Uhour the sorer^ that he may have 
wherewith to hdp the poor.' 

Latimer, Sertn, p. 408. 

Bortj «&. (Acts xvii. 5 ; 2 Cor. vii. 11 ; 3 John 6). Kind, 
manner; Fr. sorts, from Lat. sors a lot; hence, a lot or 
condition of life; and iso, d^ree or manner generally. 

So forth they marchen in this goodly sort. 
To take the solace of the open aire. 

Spenser, F, Q.1. 4. % 37. 

The meaner sort are too credulous, and led with blinde zeale, 
blinde obedience, to prosecute and maintain whatsoever their 
sottish leaders shall propose. 

Burton, Anat. of Mel. pt. 3. sec. 4, mem. i, subs, a. 

But whosoeuer knoweth any forme knoweth the vtmost pos« 
ribilitie of superinducing that nature vpon any varietie of matter, 
and so is lesse restrained in operation, either to the basis of the 
matter, or the condition of the efficient : which kinde of know- 
ledge Salomon likewise, though in a more diuine sort elegantly 
describeth, Non arctabuntur gressm tui, Sb currens non hahdis 

Bacon, Adv, of L, n. 7, § 7. 

BottUh, adj. (Jer. iv. 22). Foolish ; A.-S. sot^ Fr. %(A 
a fool, Sp. zote, Med. Lat. sottus, to which Diez following 
Junius assigns a Hebrew origin, but without much pro- 

All's but naught. 
Patience is soi^itk, and impatience does 
Become a dog that's mad. 

Shakespeare, Aid, Whd, CI, TV. 15. 

See example from Burton under 'Sobt.* 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

WORD-BOO^K. 449 

Bound forth^ v.U To proclaim. 

Therefore the word of God being set foorth in Greeke, bo- 
commeth hereby like a candle set vpon a candlesticke, which 
giueth light to all that are in the house, or like a proclamation 
sowndedjborth in the market place. 

The Tramlators to the Reader^ 

Sowen (Ex. xxiii i6). The old form of ' sown' in the 

Space, «&. (Bzr. ix. 8 ; Acts v. 34 ; Rev. ii 21, xvii 10). 
An interval of time ; Lat spatium in the same sense. 

He hath to hem declared his entente 
And seyd hem certejn, but he might have grace 
To have Constance withinne a litel ipacCf 
He was but deed. 

Chaucer, 3fan of Law*8 TaU, 4628. 

Thus they continued a long sfpace, the one crying, the other 
listning, yet could they not understand one an other. 

North's Plutarch, Pyrrus, p. 423. 

Plutarch (in the life of Artaxerxes) hath such a like story, 
of one Chamus a souldier, that wounded King Cyrus in batfcel, 
and grew thereupon so arrogant, that in a short space after, he 
lost his wits. 

Burton, Anoet. of Met, pt. I. sec. 1, mem. 3. subs. 15. 

Spearmaii, sb. (Ps. Ixviii 30; Acts xxiii. 23). A 
man armed with a spear ; a lancer, ^^Speare men, Milites 
hastarii." Baret, Alvearies s. v. 

The expert spea^-men, every Myrmidon, 
Led by the brave heir of the mighty souPd 
Unpeer'd Achilles, safe of home got hold. 

Chapman's Homer, Odys. m. 250. 

Specially, adv. (Deut. iv. 10; Acts xxv. 26; i Tim. 
iv. 10, V. 8; Tit L 10; rhilem. 16). Especially. 

Wherewith they were maruellous angry, & specially when he 
receiued an ambassador from Philip, and gaue eare vnto a treatie 
pf peace which he ofEred. North's Plutarch, FlamimuSf p. 411. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV 


450 TffS SIBLS 

8ped^ pp, (Judg-. V. 30). Succeeded; A.^ Mpidan, 
to prosper. 

But els neither in behAuiour, nor action, accnrin^ in hmuelfe 
«Dy great troable in mind, whether he tped or no. 

Sidney, Aroadha^ P- 57» !• ^^ 

Howbeit they brake and ouerthrew the left ^wing -vthsK 
GasBius was, by reason of the great disorder among tbem, and 
also because they had no intelligence how the right wing had 
tped. North's Plutarch, Brutm, p. 1072. 

Speedy «&. (Gea zxiv. 12). Fortune. 

The prince your son, with mere conceit and fear 
Of the queen's ifpted, is gone. 

Shakespeare, Wint, Tale^ m. ?. 

Spend up, «.f. (Prov. xxi. 20). To use up, oonsome: 

Many instances may be given of the use of 'up' to add 
intensity to an expression which is already complete with- 
out it. 

Why, universal plodding poisons up 
The nimble spirits in the arteries. 

Shakespeare, Lov^s L, Zott, iv. 3. 
Put but a little water in & spoon. 
And it shall be as all the ocean, 
. Enough to $tyU such a villain up. 

Id. K. John, IV. 3. 
For I knew the young count to be a dangerous and lascivioas 
boy, who is a whale to virginity and devours up all the fity it 
finds. Id. AWs Well, IT. 2. 

To fright the animals and kiU them up 
In their assigned and native dwelling-plaoe. 

Id. As You Like It, n. i. 
Forty times five, five times forty, two hundred days hUt 
them all up by computation. B. Jonson, Every Man in hit 
Humov/r, iv. 5. 

Whereas a wholesome and penurious dearth 
Purges the soil of such vile excrements^ 
And hiUs the vipers up. 

Id. Every Man^ out of his Bumour, i. i. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Spent, pp. (Gen. xxi. 15; i Sam. ix. 7 ; 2 Cor. xiL 15). 
Consumed ; A.-S. spendan, 

Whyche by reson that thpir yitsull is cSsamed & tfpent, are 
by daily famyn sore wekened, oonsmued & almost without spi- 
rites. Hall, Hen. F. fol. 156. 

For the phrase * far spent' see under * Fajbl' 
Spewing, sh, (Hab. iL 16). Vomiting. 

For ye trespasaen so ofbe tyme, as doth the honnd that tom- 
eth to ete his upewyng, Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 

Spicery, d>. (Gen. xxxvii. 25). Spices, aromatics; G. 
spezerei, Fr. Spicerie, formerly espicerisy which are both 
fW>m Lat. speciesy in its medieval usage of ' aromatics of 
different kinds* 

In Surrie dwelled whilom a companye 

Of chapmen riche, and therto sad and trewe, 

That wyde where sent her spy eerie, 

Chaucer, Mam> of Lav^s Tale, 4556. 

Spikenard, «&. (Cant i. 12, iv. 13, 14; Mark xiy. 3; 
Mm xiL 3}. Lat sptca nardi; the Nardostachys jator 
mann of DecandoUe, ^ a highly aromatic plant growing in 
the East Indies" {Imp. Diet.). 

There is an herbe growing euery where called Pseudonardus, 
or bilstard Nard, which is obtruded vnto us and sold for the true 
Spikenard,., Bvit the good, sincere, & true Nard is known by 
the lightnes, red colour, sweet smell and the taste especially ; for 
it drieth the toogue, and leaueth a pleasant rellish behind it. 
The Spike canieth the price of an 100 Roman deniers a pound. 

Holland's Pliny, xn. 12. 

In the same chapter it is said, 

The head of nardos spreads into certain spikes {aristcs) or 
eares, whereby it hath a twofold vse, both of spike (spica) and also 
of leaf. 

Spitted, pp. (Luke xviiL 32). Past participle of ' spit.' 

religio est. Bs 

d by Google 

To be spetted vpon. Vbi nunc oonspui religio est. Baret, 

452 ^SE BIBLE 

SpoiL vX (Gen. xxxiv. 27, 29; Ex. iii 22, &c.). To 
plunder; Lat. spoliare. 

So tbey chased them, beating them into their campe the 
which they spoyled, none of both the chieftaines being present 
there. Norm's Plutarch, BrtUus, p. 1072. 

Spoken for, pp. (Cant. viiL 8). Asked in marriage. 

Sport, (Is. Ml 4; 2 Pet ii. 13). Used as a re- 
flexiye verb in a sense in which ' disport' is now employed. 

So many hours must I sport mysdf. 

Shakespeare, 3 ffm. VL n. 5. 

These are tbey that dance on heaths and greens, as Lava- 
ter thinks with Trithemius, and, as Olaus Magnus adds, leave 
that green circle, which We commonly find in plain fields, which 
others hold to proceed from a meteor falling, or some accidental 
rankness of the ground ; so nature sports Jierself, . 

Burton, Anat, ofMeL pt L sec. 2, mem. i, subsL a. 

Spring, f.t. (Judg. six. 25). To rise, as the son: 
applied to the day, to dawn; A.-S. springan. Thna in 

A morwe whan that the day bigan to sprynge 
Up roos oure ost. 

ProL to C. T. 834. 

But thus I lete him in his jolit^ 
This Gambinskan his lordes festeyng, 
TU wel neigh the day bigan to spryng. 

SquMa TaUy 1066a 

Springy 9b. (i Sam. is. 26). The dawn. 

As sudden 
As flaws congealed in the spring of day. 

Shakespeare, 2 ffen. IV. TV, 4, 

See DAY-sPBma. 

Spue, v.t. (Lev. xviii 28 ; Rev. iii 16). To spit, vomit; 
metaphorically, to reject with loathmg as nauseous food: 
A.-S. spitcan. iN^ow become a vulgarism. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Adde thereto Contentious Suits, which ought to be tpewed 
out, as the Surfet of Courts. Bacon, Eaa. LVI. p. 223. 

Spy, fi,t, (Ex. ii. II ; 2 E. ix. 17, xiiL 21, xxiii 16, 24). 
To see, Dehold; contracted from espy or cupy^ which is the 
Lat. aspicere. [See Espt.] 

In whom yf thou put thy trust, & be an vnfayned reader or 
hearer of hys worde with thy hert, thou shalt fynde sweetnesse 
theryn, & apye wQderous thynges. Coverdale's Prologe. 

Wherefore lift up your heads, brethren, and look about with 
your eyes, and spy what things are to be reformed in the church 
of England. Latimer, Serm, p. 52. 

StablenesB^ tb. Stability, firmness. 

The effects [of the study of Scripture are], light of vnder- 
■tanding, staMeneMe of perswasion, repentance from dead workee, 
newnesBe of life, holinesse, peace, ioy in the holy Ghost. 

The Trarulaton to iht B/eader. 

Stabliflhj vX (2 Sam. yil 13; i Ohron. xyii 12). The 
shortened form of estdtdishj to make stable, or firm ; as 
state of est€Ue ; from O. Fr. estMiVj Sp. estMeeer, Lat. and 
It. stabilire, as banish from banir. 

They go about more prudently to stdbUah men's dreams, 
than these do to hold up God's commandments. 

Latimer, Serm, p. 38. 

To stop effusion of our Christian blood 
And stahlUh quietness on every side. 

Shakespeare, i Hen, VI. v. r. 

A great state left to an heire, is as a lure to all the birds of 
prey, round about, to seize on him, if he be not the better <to- 
blMed in yeares and iudgement. Bacon, £88, xxxiv. p. 148. 

Stagger^ v,i. (Rom. iv. 20). To stumble, hesitate; 
DiL staggeren, connected with stick. 

To sbagger, as dronkerds do, and sicke men : to faile in speak- 
ing, as when the tongue doubleth, to stammer, to stumble. 
Titubo. Baret, AlvtOflnt^ s. v. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

454 TffB BIBLS 

To stot : to Hagffer in Bpeaking, or going : to stumble. Iltabo. 
Id. 8. V. Stui. 

For Hippol3rt», 
And fair-ey'd iEmily, upon their Imees 
Begg'd with such handsome pity, that the duke 
Methouffht stood staggering whether he should follow 
His rasn oath, or the sweet compassion 
Of those two ladies. 

Beaumont & Fletcher, 2%e two NdUe Kintmm, it. x. 

It was formerly written * ttacker^ as in Tyndale's, Cnin- 
Bier's and the Bishops' Bibles. 

After that, saith he, ' Abraham fainted not in faith, nor 
stobckered at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strong 
in faith.* There are two kinds of Btackering in mankind ; the one 
is that, which, b^ng overoome by evil temptations, doth bend to 
desperation, and the despising of Gk>d's promises. Such was the 
BtcKkering of those ten spies of the holy land, of whom mention 
is made in the thirteenth and fourteenth chapters of Numbers. 
The other stackering is rather to be called a weak infirmity of 
faith, which also is tempted itself. 

Bullinger^ J>ectui€$, i. 8&. 

Stanch j v,t. (Lnke Tiii. 44). To stop, cease to flow, 
as blood : obsolete as an intransitiye yerh. Fr. ^9t€uicher. 

Standi «.t. (i Cor. ii. 5 ; Jad. ix. 11). To oonsiBt. 

And this [verray penitence] stondith in thre thinges, oon- 
tridoun of hert, confessioun of mouth, and satisfaocioun. 

Chaucer, ParaonU TaU. 

Our rerye righteonsnesse it selfe is so great in this life that it 
standeth rather in forgiuenesse of our sinnes, than in perfection 
of righteonsnesse. 

Northbrooke, Poare MoxCz Churden, 1573, foL 46 rev. 

Luke xiL 15 is quoted by Latimer (Serm, p. 277) at 

For no man's life iUmdeth in the abundance of the things 
which he possesseth. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Stftnd to, v,U (Deat. xxy. 8; 2 K. zxiii. 3; 2 Ohr. 
xxziy. 32). To agree to, abide by. 

That all men ought to sUmd to mine act, and defend it as 
good. Ea conditipne geaseram, ut meum factum semper omnes 
pisestare et tueri deberent Gic. Baret, Ahea/rie, a, y. 

Stand upon, vX (2 Bam. L 9, 10). To attack: a 
Hebraism. The Geneya yersion has ' come upon.' 

Stay, v.t (2 Sam.xxiy. 16; Job xxxvii 4, xxxyiii 37; 
Cant. iL 5;. From O. Pr. estayer, Sp. caviar, which are from 
the L&t gtcUmre. i. To stop. 

Wee ttaide vb strait, and with a rufull feare, 
Beheld this heauy sight. 

Sackville, InducUon, fol. ^130. 

We gtay*d her for your sake, 
£]ae had she with her father ranged along. 

Shakespeare, A9 You Like It, I. 3. 

2. To support. 

Who (for his skill of things superior) 9tay8 

The two steep colunms that prop earth and heaven. 

Chapman's Homer, Od, I. 93. 

And like as good husbandmen and gardeners are woont to 
pitch props & stakes close unto their yong plants, to atay them 
up and keepe them streight : even so, discreete and wise teachers 
plant good precepts and holesome instructions round about their 
yoong scholiers. 

Holland's Plutarch, Morals^ p. 5. 

Stay I sb. I. A stead, state, fixed condition; that in 
which one stays or stops. Thus in the Burial Service^ 
^neyer continueth in one stay,^ 

Amonge the Utopians, where all thinges bee sett m a good 
ordre, and the common wealthe in a good e^yty it very seldom 
chaunceth that they oheuse a newe plotte to buyld an house vpon. 

Sir T. More, Utopia, fol. 57 b. 

2. A support (Is. iiL i; Ps. xyiii. 18, 4?c.), Stiil used 
as a nautical term, like A.-S. st^eg, G. stag, . 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


3. A standHstall, in the phnwe ' to be al a gtay* (Lev. 
»ii. 5,37); !•©• to stop. 

He that standeth at a stay, when others rise, can hardly aToid 
motiona of envy. Bacon, Ess. Xrv. p. 52. 

The nunde of man is more cheared, and refreshed, by pro- 
fiting in small things, then by standing at a stoof in great. 
Id. Et8, xn. p. 76. 

Steady 9b. (i E. L 30 ; i Chr. y. 22). Literally^ a place, 
standing-place; A.-S. stede^ G. staU, 

So doe they looke from enery loftie skd. 
Which vn&L the surges tumbled too and fro, 
Seeme (euen) to bend, as trees are scene to doe. 

Drayton, BattU ofAgmeauH, 638. 

The sonldier may not moue from watchfull tied. 
Nor leaue his stand, yntill his captaine bed. 

Spenser, F, Q. X. 9, § 41. 

Fly therefore, £y this fearefnll stead anon. 
Least thy foolhardize worke thy sad confusion. 

Ibid« II. 4, § 41. 

Sticky ff.i. (I Esd. iv. 21). To hesitate. 

But for the ladders, Euphranor that was a carpenter and 
maker of engines, did not sticke to make them openly. 

North's Plutarch, Aratus, p. 1083. 

Else will it be like the authority, claimed by the Church of 
Rome ; which under pretext of exposition of Scripture, doth not 
sticke to adde and alter. Bacon, Eis, LVi. p. 221. 

Stir, 8b. ris. xxii 2; Acts xii. 18, xix. 23). Commo- 
tion, tomnlt; m>m A.-S. styrian, to stir^ mova 

He should seeke to winne the barbarous people by gentle 
meanes, that had rebelled against him, and wisely to remedy 
these new stwrres. 

North's Plutarcb, Alex. •^. 722. 

Stomach, «&. (P8.cL 7, Pr. Bk.; 2 Maoc. Tii 21). 
Pride, courage. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


For monnefl bolde gUmMcht is good for noihyng elB of it selfe, 
but to make the synner more oultragiousely to offend. 

XJdal'a Erasmus, Ma/rk, fol. 88 a» 

He was a man 
Of an unbounded stomach, ever ranking 
Himself with princes. 

Shakespeare, Em, VIII. iv. a. 

Stomacher. »b. (Is. ill. 24). An article of women's 
dress, worn over tne bosom. It was once worn by men also. 

''The 'Stomachers' were coverings for the breast, of cloth, 
velvet, or silk over which the doublet was laced" (Fairholt, 
CoaLwme in EngUmd, and ed. p. 182). 

Stay, Ursula; have you those suits of ruffs, 
Those stomachers, and that fine piece of lawn, 
Mark'd with the double letters C and S? 

Heywood, FcUr Maid of the Exchange, i. i. 

To conceal such real ornaments as these, and shadow their 
glory, as a milliner's wife does her wrought stomacher, with a 
smoi^y lawn, or a black Cyprus ! 

B. Jonson, Every Man in Mis Humowr, I. 3« 

StoneboWf «&. (Wisd. y. 22). A bow for throwing 
stones, as the name indicates. 

0, for a stonebow, to hit him in the eye ! 

Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, ii. 5. 

The drawer, for female privatenes sake, is nodded out, who 
knowing that whosoever will hit the mark of profit must, like 
those that shoot in sUme-hovjet, winke with one eye, growes blind 
a the right side and departs. 

Marston's Dutch Courtezan, L i. 

Stony, adj, (Ps. cxli. 6; Ez. xl 19, xxxvi. 26; Matt 
xiiL 5, 20). Rocky. 

He was driuen to disperse his army into diuers companies, in 
a itony and ill fauored country, ill for horsemen to trauell. 

North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 717. 

The maine banks being for the most part stonie and high. 

Balegh, Ouiana, p. 69. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Store, «5. (Gen. xrn. 14). Plenty, abundance; A.-S. 
^r, great, vast. The phrase rendered 'a great 9tore of 
ants' is in Job i. 3, *a very great househc 

servants' is in Job i. 3, *a very great household.' 

Stort^ or plentde of monie & riches. Ntbnorum factiltas. 

Baret, Alveariti 8. v. Plenties 

All wallowd in his owne f owle bloudy gore. 
Which flowed from his wounds in wondrous store. 

Spenser, F, Q. i. 8. § 94. 

Pitch and torre, where riort of firres and pines are, will not 
faile. Bacon, Ebs, xxxul p. i4i, 

Stoxy, sb, (2 Chr. xiii. 22; xxiv. 27; Deut. ii.iii. c, &a). 
In its onginal sense of ' history/ of which it is merely a 
contraction like the It. storia. 

And sevene fere he was fully thore 
With huDgre, and thriste, and bones sore,, 
In 8torye thus als we rede. 

Sir J$wmhra8, 514. 

It is sayd also he [Crassus] was very well studied in ttorMi, 
and indifferently seene in philosophy. 

North's Flutareh, CrassuSy p. 597. 

This will easily be granted by as many as know story^ or 
haue any experience. The Translators to the Betider, 

Stoxywriter, 9b. (i Esd. ii. 17). A historian, chro- 

Stout, adj. (Job iy. 1 1 ; Is. z. 12 ; Mai. iii 13). Str(»^; 
metaphorically^ stubborn. 

I knew once a great rich man, and a covetous fellow ; he had 
purehased about an hundred pound : that same stout man came 
once to London, where he fell sick, as 8tout as he was. 

Latimer, Serm. p. 541. 

Commonly it is seen, that they that be rich are lof^ and 
stout. Ibid. p. 545. 

Aratus wrote ynto him, & wished him in any wise not to 
meddle with that iorney, because he would not haue the AobMaas 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


to deale with Oleomenes king of LacedaBmon, ihat wai a ootira- 
gious and stovt young prince, and mamellousiy growen in short 
time. North's rlutarch, -4ra*iM, p. 1097. 

8toutne88, sb. (Is. ix. 9). Stubbonmesa. 

He that will be a Christian man, that intendeth to come to 
heaven, must be a saucy fellow; he must be well powdered 
^ith the sauce of affliction, and tribulation ; not with proudness 
and stoutness, but with miseries and calamities. 

Latimer, Serm, p. 464. 

Straightway, adv. (i Sam. ix. 13, xxviiL 30; Prov. 
vii. 22, &c^. Directly, immediately. 

Blood will I draw on thee, thou art a witob. 
And straightway give thy soul to him thou servest. 

Shakespeare, i Hefn, VL i. 5. 

^ Straightways' was always used in the same sense : 

None of the three, could win a palme of ground, but the other 
two, would straightwaies balance it. Bacon, £ss, xix. p. 78. 

Another suddenly came hehind him, and called him by his 
true name, whereat straightwaies he looked backe. Ibid. i?u, 
XXII. p. 93. 

Strait, «&. (Jud. xiy. 1 1). A pajss. 

The barbarous people lay in waite for him in his way, in tho 
straight of Thermopyles. North's Plutarch, Sylla, p. 506* 

Strait, 0^. (2 K. vi i ; Is. xlix. 20; Matt. vii. 13). 
Literally, narrow, from Lai strictm, close drawn; and so 
used metaphoricalli^ like the modem ' strict,' in ike sense 
of rigid, severe. The entrance of the temple of Mars 
is described by Chancer {KnigMa Tale, 1986) as 

Long and stfteyt, and gastly for to see. 

- To leaue that lodging for them, because it was to sh'eiglvte 
for bothe ooumpani^s. Sir T. More, Bich. IIL Wfyrks, p. 42 c. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Thej shall give a atraU account for all that peiiaheth through 
their negligence. Latimer, Serm, p. 193. 

Straitly, adv. (Gen. xliii 7; Josh. tL !)• Strictly, 
cloBely ; from the preceding. 

His majesty hath straiily given in charge 
That no man shall have private conference. 
Of what degree soever, with his brother. 

Shakespeai e, RUh, III, I. 3. 

Fyrste he sent menne of warre to all the next portes and pas- 
sages to kepe atreyghtly the sea coast Hall, JSich, III, fol. 15 b. 

Then they oommaunded him straighMy to leade them against 
these tyrannts, who had vsurped the libertie of the people of 
Athens. North*s Plutarch, AlcUn€tde9, p. 226. 

8traitne88^ sh, (Dent xxviii. 53, 55, 57; Job xxxvi 
16; Jer. xix. 9). Liteiully, narrowness; henoe, distress or 

Strake (Acts xxvii. 17). The past tense of ^ strike.' 

Tet whs the tother answered him that there was in eaeiy 
mans mouth spoke of him much shame, it so strake him to y* 
heart that wHn fewe daies after he withered & oonsilmed away. 
Sir T. More, Bich, III. Works, p. 61/. 

But he would not attend his words, but still straJke so fiercely 
at Amphialus, that in the end (nature preuailing aboue determ- 
ination) he was faine to defend himself e. Sidney, Arcadia, 
p. 40, L 16. 

Strake^ sb, i. (Ez. i. i8 m). The felloe of a wheel 

The strake of a cart, the iron wherwith the cart wheeles are 
bound. Canthus. Baret, Alvearie, s. v. 

2. (Gen. XXX. 37; Lev. xiv. 37)., A streak. 

Each floure bdng of three diners colours, whereof the highest 
leaues for the most part are of a violet and purple colour, the 
others are blewish or yellow, with blacke and yellow strokes 
alongst the same, and the middle hairie. Lyte*s Jaerbal, p. x66. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


Strange, adj, (Gen.xlii. 7; Ex. xxi.8; Ps. cxiv. i,&c.). 
Foreign; Fr. strange, formerly written estrange, which is 
from Lat. extraneus. The Hebrew word rendered ' made 
himself strange' in Gen. xlii. 7 might with more force be 
translated 'played the foreigner/ or * pretended to be a 
foreigner ' in consequence of which Joseph's brethren were 
still less likely to recognize him. 

Thanne longen folk to gon on pilgrimages, 
And palmers for to seeken straunge strondes. 

Chaucer, C, T, prol. 13* 

For amongst other honours that he [Ptolemy] did him [Lu- 
cullus], he lodged him in hi& conrte, and defraied his ordiuarie 
diet, where neuer strange captaine was lodged before. 

North's Plutarch, Xuctt22t<«, p. 541. 

Btrawed (Ex. xxxiL 20; Matt. xxi. 8, xxy. 24, 26). 
The prseterite and past participle of the verb *to straWy 
the old form of * strew* The forms of the A.-S. verb vary 
between streawian, strewian and streowian, which corre- 
spond to straw, strew and strow respectivdy. 

Biyght helmes he fonde strawed wyde, 
Ab men of armys had loste ther pryde. 

Sir Eglamov/r, 376. 

It is difficult to say which is the older form. Wiclif 
(Matt. xxL 8 ed. Lewis) uses strewiden; 

And fulle myche peple spredden her clothis in the wey, 
other kitteden braunchis of trees and stremden in the weye. 

Stricken^ pp, (Is. liii. 4). Part participle of ^strike.' 

We have drawn our swords of God's word, and stricken at 
the roots of all evil to have them cut down. 

Latimer, Serm, p. 149. 

Stricken in years (Luke L 7). Advanced in years. 

areSj maried a y< 
lia, p. 9, L 48. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

He being abready well striken in yeares, maried a young 
Prinoesse named Gynecia. Sidney, Arcadia, p. 9, L 48. 


Compare Ben Jonsoii, S^anus^ in. i ; 

Our moih«r, great Augusta, tinuik with tima 

We say the king 
la wise and virtaous, and his noble queen 
Well ihvek in yean, fair, and not jealous. 

Skakespeare, Bieh, III. I. i. 

Compare the phrase * stepped in years:' 

Againe being ^tqpped in yearu, and at later age, and past 
marriage : h^ st^ awaye Helen in hur minoritie. North's Plu- 
tarch, Thaeut and Bonwlus, p. 45. 

Strike, if.t (2 K. ▼. 11). To stroke. 

Strike hands (Job xviL 3; Prov. xvii. 18, xzii 26). 
To become surety for any one. A Hebraism : the ceremony 
of sUiking hands indicating the conclosion of a compact 
The English phrase *to strike a bargain/ and the Lat 
/adtu/erire or ic&rs have a different origin. 

Stripe, 9b. (Ex. zxL 25; Deut xzy. 3, &c). A stroke, 

Euery one geue but one sure stripe, & surely y* iomey is 
ouies. Hal^ Bich. III. foL 31 a. 

The decoction of wilde Tansie, cureth the vlcers, and sores 
of the month, the hot humors that are fallen downe into the 
eies, and the itri^pes that penSh the sigh^ if they be washed 
iharewithaU. Lyte's Herbal, p. 94. 

Striplinffi «5. (i Sam. xvii. 56). The diminntiTe of 
strip; used, Iulo ^ip, scion, &c« to denote a youth. 

There was among the twelue, a oertayne young siri/plyng that 
loued Jesus more then the reste, & folowed hym. 

Udal's Erasmus, Mark, foL 88 a. 

But the fame of luHus Gssaar did set yp his friends againe after 
his death, and was of such force, that it raised a young strip- 
lingy Octauius Cssar (that had no meanes nor power of himselfe) 
to be one the greatest men of Borne. North's Plutarch, IHm 
and BruttUf p. 1080. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Strowed (a Chr. sdy. 4). See Strawed. 

StufT, sb. (Gen. xxxi. 37, xly. 20; i Sam. x. 22, xxy. 13, 
&c.). Furniture, baggage of an army or traveller. 

The Frencbemen whicbe by all Bymilitude had knowledge 
df tbe kynges passage entered amongest the kynges nauie and 
toke fowre vesselles nexte to the kynges shippe, and in one of 
them Sir Thomas Bampston knight the kynges vioechamber- 
liun >vith all his chamber stvffe and apparelL 

Hall, ^c». 7F. fol. 16 h. 

^Agg&gO) Ib borrowed of the french, and signifieth all such 
vtvffe as may hinder or trouble vs in warre or traueling, beyng 
not woorth cariage. Impedimenta. Baret, Alveariej s.y. Bag' 

Therefore away, to get our stuff aboard. 

Shakespeare, Com, of J&rrors, iv. 4. 

Submissly, adv. (Ecclus. xxix. 5). Submissiyely. 
Richardson quotes the following: 

Some time he spent in speech; and then began 
Submissdy prayer to the name of Pan. 

Browne, Britanma*i Pmtorah, B. ii. Song 5, 1. 652. 

8ubmit| 9. r^, (Gen. xyi. 9; 2 Sam. xxii. 45, &c.). Like 
^ repent' and other words, ^ submit' was once tuied reflex- 
ively, and is so found throughout the A. Y., like Lat. $e 

They for very remoroe and dread of the diuine plage wil 
dther shamefully file or humbly suhmitte tkemMdfe» to our grace 
and mercye. Hall, Rick, III. fol. 31 a. 

So long as they [tbe Achsuans] could tubmit (hem aduei to be 
ruled by the wisdome and vertue of their captaiue, and not enuy 
and malice his prosperity and souerainty :' they did not onely 
maintaine them selues as free men... but did also deliuer many 
other people of Greece from their tyrants. 

North's Plutarch, Aratui, p. 1085. 

Success, sb. (Josh.! 8; I Sam.xyiiLe). Issue, re- ^ 
suit, whether good or bad^ and therefore used formerly 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


always with a quali^g adjective; Fr. iucc^s from LaL 


But the Frenche kyng that mariage vtterly refused, saiyng 
he wolde neuer ioyne affiuytie after with the Englishe nacion, 
because that the aJianoe had so ynfortunate succeste, 

HaU, Hen, IV, fol. 16 a. 

He neuer answerd me, but pale & quaking, went straight 
away; and straight my heart misgaue me some euil atecoesse. 

Sidney, Arcadia, p. 39, L 41. 

So his enterprise had so good mccoesse, that there was none 
of his owne company slune he brought with him. 

North's Plutarch, AraJtut^ p. 1085. 

Succour. t?.f. (2 Sam. viil 5, xxi. 17; 2 Cor. vL 2; 
Heb. ii. 18). Literally, to ran up to for the purpose of 
fissistmg; hence, to help, assist; from Lat. %uccurrere^ ¥t. 
secourir. Not much used now. 

God, our hope, will siiecour U8. 

Shakespeare, 1 Hen, VI. TV, 4. 

Succour, 17. ^. (Catechism). To support 

This order he must obserue the firnt fifteene daies, except hee 

baue some notable weaknesse, and in such case hee must bee 

succoured with giuing him to eat of a young Chicken^ iointly, 

with the rest of the diet. 

Erampton, Joyfull Newea out of the Newfound Worlde, foL 12 &. 

Succourer, sb, (Roni^xyL 2). A helper. 

Such like (Bz. xviii. 14; Mark vii. 8, 13; GaL v. 21). 
A reduplication used in phrases where we should now em- 
ploy ^ such' idone, or ' the like.' 

Sucking childj (Is. xi. 8, xllx. 15). An m&nt at tiie 
breast: A.-S. s^icenge. 

For it was Icetes that caused Arete, the wife of Dion, to 
be cast into the sea, his sister Aristomache, and his son that 
was yet a tucking child. North's Plutarch, TifmoUon, p. 399, 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Suckling, «&. (Dctat. xxxii. 25 ; i Sam. xy. 3, &c.). An 
infant at the breast ; G. sSLugling, 

The niirceis sitte seuerall alone with theyr younge suehdinges 
in a oertaine parloure appointed & deputed to the same purpose. 

ISir T. More, Utopia, fol. 64 a. 

Androctides and Angelus in the meane time stole away Pyr- 
rus, being yet but a mckling babe. 

North's Plutarch, Pymja, p. 442. 

Suddenly, adv, (i Tim. y. 22). Hastily, rashly. 

Sweryng iodeynly without a-vysement is eek a gret synne. 

Chaucer, PanovCi TaU, 

Suffer hunger (Ps. xxxiv. 10), 

For you must vnderstand, y* kepe an EnglishmS one 
moneth from hys warme bed, fat befe and stale diynke, and 
let him that season tast colde and mffre hunger^ you then shall 
86 his courage abated, hys bodye waxe leane and bare, and euer 
desirous to returne into hys own countrey. 

Hall, Hen. V, foL 16 a. 

SuflBLce^ v.t, (Num. xi. 22; Ruth iL 14, 18; John xiy. 
8). To satisfy, be suflacientfor; Fr. suffire^ Lat. gufficere. 

I do no fors the whether of the two. 
For as yow likith, it mffisiih me. 

Chaucer, Wife of BoOCb TaU, 6817. 

Now when the hungry knights sufficed are 
With meat, with dx^ik, with spices of the best. 

Faufaz, Tasio, xi. 17. 

SuflBLciency, sb, (Job xx 22; 2 Con iii 5, ix. 8). 
Power, ability, capacity. 

The -wisest princes, need not thinke it any diminution to their 
greatnesse, or derogation to their tuffictericy, to rely upon ooun- 
selL Bacon, Bss, xx. p. 82. 

The fourth, negotiis pares ; such as have great places under 
princes, and execute their places with sufficiency. Id. Ea, ly. 

p. 121* 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 



Summer J vA, (is. xriii 6). To pass the summer; G. 
. sommem, 

Estivare, to tommer in some ooole place. Florio, Worlde of 

Estivfer, to Summer, to passe the Summer in; to rest in 
Summer. Cotgrave, Fr. Diet, 

A'estivate, to Summer in a place. Cockeram, EngUth Diet, 

Sunder J v,t. (Job xli. 17). To sever; A.-S. syndrian 
or sundriaru 

No, Grod forbid that I should -wish them severM 
Whom God hath join*d together ; ay, and *t were pity 
To sunder them that yoke so well together. 

Shakespeare, 3 Men. VI. iv. i. 

Sunder in (Ps. xM. 9, cvii. 14, 16, &c.). Asunder. 
Compare * on sleep/ * asleep/ ' on board,* ' aboiEU-d,' *on foot>* 
*■ afoot,' &c. 

In like manner, faith is not therefore changed or cut m mfiuier, 
because one is called general fidth, and another particular faith. 

Bullinger, Decades, i. 99. 

Sundry^ adj, (HeUi. i). Separate, different; A.-& 

It was neuer better with the congregadon of god, then whan 
euery church allmost had y^ Byble of a sondrye tra«lacion. 

Coverdale's Prologe, 

Sunrisingi sb, (Josh. xix. 12, 27, 34). Sunrise. 

And y* earle at the eonne rysyng remoued to harfford west» 
beyng distant from dalle not fuUy ten myle. Hall, Bich, III. 
fol. 27 a. 

They entred into the hole, and were closed in at the sunne 
set, and abode there all the night, and the neict morning issued 
out againe at the eunne rising. Stow, AnnaXSf p. 499. 

Sup, V, t (Hab. i 9). To sip ; A.-S. tupan. Compare 
snuff and sniff 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To mppe, as one suppeth potage. Sorbec.To mppe up aU. 
Obsorbeo. Baret, Alvetirie, s. v. 

Supple^ v.t (Ez. xyi. 4). To make snpple or pliant 

To haue a full and cleare voice, much heat is requisit to 
enlarge the passages, aDd measurable moisture which may 8v^f>pU 
and soften them. 

Huafte, Examen de Ingemoi, Eng. tr. p. 137 (ed. 1594). 

Touching the bitter almond tree, the decoction of the roots 
thereof, doth supple the skin and lay it euen and smooth -without 
wrinckles; it imbeUsheth the visage with a fresh, liuely, and 
cheerfull colour. Holland's Pliny, xxni. 18. 

I'le drink down flames, but if so be 
Nothing but love can supple me; 
I Me raUier keepe this frost, and snow, 
Then to be thaw'd, or heated so. 

Herrick, ffesperidea, i. p. 6. 

Supposei v.i. (Wisd zyii. 3). The construction in 
this passage is unusual ; 

For while they supposed to lie hid in their secret sins, they 
were scattered under a dark veil of forgetfulness. 

The Geneva yersion has ' And while they thought to 
be hid,' &c. 

Supputation^ «&. Beckoning, computation; Lai 

The first Eomane Emperour did neuer doe a more pleasing 
deed to the learned, nor more profitable to posteritie, for con- 
seruing the record of times in true supputation; then when he 
corrected the calender. The Translators to the Reader, 

At the end of the Geneva Bible of 1579 is a chrono- 
logical table with the following title: 

A perfite supputation of the yeeres and times from the crea* 
tion of the world, vnto this present yeere of our Lord God 1 579 
proued by the scriptures, after the collection of diners authors . 

Digitized by Vjii._ 



468 ^HE BIBin 

Surcease, «. %. (Office for Ordering Priests). To cease ; 
from Fr. tut and cesser. 

And thus I sureecuse with my vain taike any longer to de- 
teine your highnesae from the fruictef uU reading of Erasmus. 

UdaFs Pref. to Erasmus, Luke [fol. 6 b}. 

For thei haue now abreadie surceassed any longer to bee car- 
nal, and to bee subiect to the inconmioditees of this worlde. 
Udal's Erasmus, LvJce, fol. 153 6. 

I perswaded with my selfe to haue sureectsed from this kinde 
of trauel wherein another hath vsed to repe the fruits of my 
labours. Stowe, Pref. to his Sumtnarie, 

The Trojans instantly surcecue, the Greeks Atrides stayM. 

Chapman's Homer, II, vu. 45. 

Sure. adj. (i Sam. ii. 35 ; Prov. xi 15 ; Is. xxiL 23). 
Secure; Fr. ^r, the old form of which was segur, from Lat. 

Whose loue of hys people and theyr entiere affeccion towarde 
him, hadde bene to hys noble children... a meraailouse forteresse 
and sure armoure. Sir T. More, Hich. III. Works, p. 36 e. 

For thies wysefooles and verye archedoltes thought the 
wealthe of the whole coQtrey herin to consist, if there were 
euer in a redinesse a stronge and a siMre garrison, specially 
of old practised souldiours, for they put no .trust at all in men 
ynexercised. Id. 27topta, fol. 13&. 

As negromacers put their trust in their cercles, within 
which thei thinke them self ntre against all y** deuils in hel. 

Ibid. p. 1 30 6. 

Surely^ €idv. (Proy. x. 9). Secm*ely; from the {we- 

For by this knot thou shalt so surely tie 
Thy now unsured assurance to the crown. 

Shakespeare^ K. John^ XL i. 

SuretiBhip, sb. (Proy. xi. 1 5). The office of a sorely, 
or secmity. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


As a man desperately swimmiog drowns him that comes to 
help him, 'by sttretUhip and borrowing they will willingly undo 
all iheir associates and allies. Burton, Anat, of Mel, Part i. 
sec. 2. mem. 3. subs. 13. 

SuretYi «5. (Gen. xliii. 9, xliv. 32). Security in the 
legal sense. The two words are of the same origin, but the 
latter is more generally used. 

One that confirmeth an other mans promise, a sttretie, Ap- 
promissor. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. Sure, 

fldeiussor...A ffire^ie, or borrowe. Ibid. 

In the ordinary sense of * security' surety is also found : 
They desired that if there were not roome enough for them 
in the towne, that yet they might encampe vnder the walles, and 
for iurety haue their prisoners (who were such men as were euer 
able to make their peace) kept within the towne. Sidney, Ar- 
eadiay p. 32, 1. 18. 

Surety, of a (Gen. xv. 13, xviii. 13, xxvi. 9 ; Acts xii. 
11). Surely, certainly, for certain. 

But if it were requisite, and neoessarie, that the matter shoulde 
also haue bene wrytten eloquentlie, and not alone truelye : of a 
Bueretie that tbynge coulde I haue perfourmed by no tyme nor 
studye. Sir T. More, Utopia, The Epistle, sig. A. iiij. verso. 

Snrfeitillg. sb, (Luke xxi 34). Gluttony, and also 
the loathing produced oy it 

Colewortes taken before meate keepe awaie dronkennesse, 
and alter meate also driue awaie aurfeUmg, Baret, Ah. s. v. 
We are all diseased, 
And with our autfeiting and wanton hours 
Have brought ourselves into a burning fever. 

Shakespeare, a Hen. IV, IV, 1. 

SlirplUBage, sb, (Ex. xxvL 13 m). Surplus. 

If then thee list my offi^ed grace to use. 
Take what thou please of afi this surplutage, 

Spenser, P, Q. n. 7, § 18. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Swaddle, t?. t (Lam. ii. 22; Ez. xvi. 4). To swathe, 
bandage; from A.-S. swe^el or *ti?««i7 a bandage, espe- 
cially a swaddling band. With the custom of bandaging 
the limbs of new-bom infants the word also has gone out of 
use. One old form of the word was swedle, as in Cover- 
dale's Version of Bz. xvi. 4. 

The nuroea also of Sparta vse a certaine manner to bring vp 
their children, without tTvadUngf or binding them vp in clothes 
with Bwadling bandes, or hauing on their heads any crosse 
clothes. North's Plutarch, Lycurgus, p. 55. 

Swaddlingbandi «&. (Job xxxviii. 9). A bandage 

used for infants. 

For many times it falleth out that very infants even from 
their cradle, inherite the realmes and seignories of their father ; 
like as Charillus did, whom Lycurgus his unde broght in his 
moadling bands into the common hall Phiditium, where the lords of 
Sparta were wont to dine together, set him in the roiall throne, 
and in the stead of himselfe, declared and proclaimed him king 
of Lacedffimon. Holland's Plutarch, Morals, p. 127 7- 

Swaddling-clofheSi «&.(Liikeii. 7, 12). The band- 
ages used in swaddling infants, called also 'swaddling- 
bands' (Job xxxviii. 9), and 'swaddling-clouts,' as in Shakes- 
peare {Ham. II. 2); 

That great baby, that you see there, is not yet out of his 

Sware, past tense of swear. 

SweaTi v,t (Ex. xiiL 19). To make to swear, abjure. 

If study's gain be thus and this be so, 

Study knows that which yet it doth not know: 

Swear me to this, and I will ne'er say no. 

Shakespeare, Lovers L, Lost, i. i. 

Ask him his name and orderly proceed 
To swear him in the justice of his cause. 

Id. Bieh. II. i. 3. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Sioear prieets and cowards and men cautelous. 
Old feeble carrions and such suffering souls 
That welcome wrongs; unto bad causes awew 
Such creatures as men doubt. 

Id. Jul, Ccu, IL I. 

Now, by Apollo, king. 
Thou Bwear'a thy gods in vain. 

Id. Lear, i. i. 

Whom after under the confes8ion*s seal 
He solemnly had 8wom^ 

Id. ffm. VIII. I. «. 

Sweat| sb, (Rubr. for Comm. of the Sick), The sweat- 
ing sickness. 

For sodeynely a deadely bumyng twecUe so assayled theyr 
bodies, and distempered their bloud wyth a moste ardent heat, 
that scarse one amongst an hundred that sickned did escape 
with hfe: for all in maner as soone as the Wfeat tooke them, or 
within a short tyme after yelded rp the ghost. Holinshed^ 
Chron. p. 1426 h. 

If a man on the daye tyme were taken with the wweate, then 
should he streight lye downe with al his clothes and garments, 
and continue in his sweat .xxiiij. houres, after so moderate a sort 
as might bee. Ibid. p. 1497 a, 

Swellingi adj. (2 Pet li 18; Jude 16}. Inflated, 
proud, haughty. 

Orgueilleuz: m. euse: f. Proud, surUe, nodling; puft vp 
with a conceit of his owne worth ; statelie, hautie, lo^ie-minded ; 
soomefull, disdainefulL Cotgrave, Fr, Diet, 

Tis not unknown to you, Antonio, 
How much I have disabled mine estate, 
By something showing a more ttoeUvng port 
Than my faint means would grant contmuance. 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Ven, I. t. 

There shall your swords and lances arbitrate 
The iwdlmg difference of your settled hate. 

Id. M:K. II. I. I. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Beeide, I fear me, if thy thoughts were sifted. 
The king, thy sovereign, is not quite exempt 
From envious malice of thy nveUing heart. 

Id. I Mm. VI, UL I. 

Swelling, <&. (2 Cor. xii. 20). Inflation by pride. 
In Wiclifs version we original is rendered 'bolnyngis bi 

$ride.' Among the twigs of pride enumerated in Ghaucei^s 
^arson's Tale, 

Ther is inobedienoe, avauntyng, ypocrisye, despit, ana- 
gaimce, impudence, sweUyng of heii;, insolence, elacioun, im- 
patience, strif, contumacie, presumpcion, irreverence, pertinade, 
veinglorie, and many another twigge that I can not tell ne 

declare Swellyng of hert, is whan a man rejoysith him of 

hann that he hath don. 

Swine, «&. (Lev. xi. 7; Prov. xL 22). A pig; A.-S. 
sicin : obsolete in the singiilar. 

For like as when we heare the grunting of a mrinef the 
creaking of a cart wheele, the whistling noise of the winde, or 
the roaring of the sea, we take no pleasure therein, but are trou- 
bled and discontented: but contrariwise, if a merie fellow or 
jester can pretily counterfeit the same, as one Parmeno oould 
grunt like a swine, and Theodorus creake like the said wheeles, 
we are delighted therewith. Holland's Plutarch, Moralt, p. 13. 

Swomj pp, (Ps. di. 8). Bound by an oath. 
Were you noom to the duke, or to the deputy? 

Shakespeare, Meeu, for MeoM, IV. 3. 


Taber, v, i, (Nah. ii. 7). To beat as a taber or tabret 

Ich can nat tabre ne trompe. ne telle faire gestes. 

Piers Ploughman's Vu.y p. 253 (ed. Whitaker). 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


For m your court is many a losengeonr... 
That tabouren in your eares many a souo. 

Chaucer, Legend of Oood Women, ^^$4^ 

Shakespeare {Winter^s Tale, 1. 1) uses virginalling in 
a similar way; 

Still virginalling 
Upon his palm! 

The taber and pipe were once common in England, but 
used only in rustic dances. They are associated by Drayton 
{PolyoWionj iv. 368) ; 

The tciber and the pipe, some take delight to sound. 

Tabernacle, sb. (Num. xxiy. 5; Jobxi. 14; Matt, 
xvii 4). A tent or moveable dwelling ; Lat. tabernaculum. 
Our language is indebted for this word to the Vulgate, 
and in most instances the force of the original is destroyed 
and an imnecessary obscurity introduced by the substitu- 
tion of ' tabernacle' for the simple and more expressive 
' tent.' The word used to denote ' the tabernacle' or sacred 
tent which sheltered the ark of the covenant, is Utei^ly, 
' a dwelling,' ' the habitation of Jehovsdi,' as it is rendered 
in 2 Chr. xxix. 6, where his honour dwelt (Ps. xxvi. 8 marg.). 
Coverdale uses ^habitacion' constantly in this sense; see 
Ex. :ptvi I, &c The word translated * tabernacle' in Ps. 
IxxvL 2 is *den' in Ps. x. 9, 'pavilion' Ps. xxviL 5, and 
* covert' Jer. xxv. 38. * The feast of tabernacles was simply 
the feast of booths, when all Israelites dwelt in booths 
seven days (Lev. xxii. 42^ 43). 

Table, sb, (Hab. ii 2; Luke i. 63 ; 2 Cor. iii. 3) A 
writing tablet. 

Zacharle as soone as he vnderstoode the matier made signes 
to haue wrytyng tahleSt to thentente he might by dum letters, in 
wrytyng signifie vnto theim, the thyng, whiche he had as yet 
no power with liuely voice to expresse. Udal's Erasmus, Lake, 
fol. 14 a. 

After Cleopatra had dined, she sent a certaine table written 
and sealed vnto OBBsar. North's Plutarch, Antonius, p. lOoS. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Yea, fix>m the tahle of my memoiy 
I'll wipe away all triyial fond records. 

Shakespeare, ffemU, L 5. 

Tabreti sb. (Gen. xxxi. 27 ; Job xvii. 6). A small dram, 
perhaps like the tambourine ; Fr. tabouret The taber was 
the same instrument and derived its name from the Prov. 
tabor, which is the Fr. tambour, Diez traces it in the Per- 
sian and Arabic : it is probably an imitative word. 

And then gonnes and skuybes, and trompets and bagespypes, 
and drousselais and flutes... and then the mores danse dansyng 
with a tabret. Machyn's Diaryy p. 13. 

Tache, sh, (Ex. xxvi 6, 1 1, &c.)« A fastening or catch. 
The word is the same as ta>ck, and connected wiw attach; 
Fr. attacker, It attaccare. In Old English the k and soft 
ch sounds were often interchanged; thus we find beseke 
and beseech, and in Chaucer ' seche' rhymes with ' besedie' 
and 'churche' with *werche.' The former characterizes 
the northern dialect; the latter the southern. ' Kirk' and 
^church' are examples in point: compare fdso 'make/ 
'mate/ and 'match;' 'nook' and 'notch;' 'i»rake' and 

A buckle: Sbtaehe: aclaspe. Fibula. 

Baret, Alvearie, 8. v. Buckle. 

A claspe or tache: also a woodden pinne, or thing made to . 
clench two peeces togither. Confibula. 

Id. B.V. Clatpe. 

A tache: a buckle: a daspe: a bracelet. Spinter. 


Takei v.t, (Prov. vi 2, 25). To catch, entrap. 

To the intent that my lord himself, or some other pertaining 
to him, were appointed to have been there, and to have taken 
me, if they could, in my sermon. Latimer, Bern. p. 394. 

Taken, pp. (i Mace. ix. 55). Seized : used of the at- 
tack of a disease. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Old John of Gaunt is grievous sick, my lord. 
Suddenly taken, 

Shakespeare, Rick, II, i. 4. 

For, good youth, he went but forth to wash him in the Hel- 
lespont and being taken with the cramp was drowned. 

Id. As Tou Idke It, iv. i, 

^ To take' is also used in Shakespeare for ' to infect' 

Then no planets strike. 
No fairy taJees, 

Ham, I. I. 

And ^ taking' occurs as an adjective in the sense of ' in- 
fectious/ and as a substantive in the sense of ' infection.' 

Strike her young bones. 
You taking airs, with lameness! 

Lear^ n. 4. 

Bless thee from whirlwinds, star-blasting, and taMng / 

Ibid. m. 4. 

Take order^ to (2 Mace. iv. 27). To take measures. 

For if they rise not with their service, they will taJke order 

to make their service fall with them. Bacon, Ess, xxxvi. p. 153. 

Take wrongs to (i Cor. vL 7). To endure wrong. 

Take one's Journey^ to (Deut.ii.24). To travel 

Wherfore the Lantgraue standing in this perplexitie, whan 

he sawe no better remedy, trusting to the assurance of Duke 

Maurice and the Marques of BrandSburg, he taketh hia iovrney, 

and the xviii daye of June, he corameth to Hale in the euening. 

Sleidan's OommentarieSf trans. Daus, foL 9890. 

Tale^ «5. (Ex. v. 8, i8 ; i Sam. xviii. 27 ; i Chr. ix 28). 
That which is told or counted, a number; A.-S. tai, G. 

He hath eu5 the verai heares of your heades noumbred out 
by taie, XJdal's Erasmus, iMbe, fol. 103 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


And eveiy shepherd tells his taley 
Under the hawthorn in the dale. 

Milton, VAUegrOy 67. 

Target, sh, (i Sam. xviL 6 ; i K. x. 16). A shield ; 
A,-8. targey 0. Norse targa, from 0. H. G. zarga a weapon 
of defence ; possibly connected with the same root as tarry. 
Speaking of the statue of Pallas made by Phidias, Pliny 
refers for proof of the artist's skill to 

The shield or targuet that the said goddesse is portraied with ; 
in the embossed and swelling compasse whereof he ingraued the 
battell wherin the Amasons were defeated. 

Holland's trans. , xxxvi. 5. 

I made no more ado but took all their seven points in my 
targa, thus. Shakespeare, i Hen. /F. n. 4. 

Tarry, «.i. (Gen. xix. 2, xxvii, 44, &c.). To stay, wait ; 
said to be derived from the W. tariarif to strike against 
anything, to stop, which again is probably connected with 
Lat. tardare to delay: 

Studying, preaching, and tarrying the pleasure and leisure of 
God. Latimer, Bern. p. 332. 

Now he went thither and sought him out, and fell in ac- 
quaintance with him, and tarried with him three or four days to 
see his conversation. Id. Serm, p. 392. 

We'll rest us, Hermia, if you think it good. 
And tarry for the comfort of the day. 

Shakespeare, if id, N,*8 Dr. n. 1. 

Our enemies have beat us to the pit: 
It is more worthy to leap in ourselves, 
Than tarry till they push us. 

Id. Jid. C<B9. v. 5. 

Tanyingi sb. (Ps. xl. 17, Ixx. 5). Delay. 

For al be it so, that alle taryinge is anoyful, algates it is no 
reproof in gevynge of juggement, ne of vengaunce takyng, whan 
it is suffisaunt and resonabie. diiaucer, Tcde of MeUbws, 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Taste^ «. t (Ps. xxxiv. 8 ; Matt. xvi. 28 ; John viii. 52 ; 
Heb. iL 9, vi. 4, 5). Used metaphorically for * experience,' 
in a manner common to many languages. 

Let pftrents and tutors do their duties to bring them up so, 
that as soon as their age serveth, they may taste and savour God. 

Latimer, Serm, p. 391* 

In eveiy where or sword or fyer they to«te. 

Sackville, Induction, 460. 

Cowards die many times before their deaths; 
The valiant never taste of death but once. 

Shakespeare, Jul, Caa, n. a. 

Besides, we'll cut the throats of those we have. 
And not a man of them that we shall take 
Shall Uute our mercy. 

Id. Em, V. IV. 7. 

See quotation from Hall under Suffsb hunger. 

TaTems. sb. (Acts xxviii. 15). Shops; Lat. tdberruB, 
The ^' Three Taverns" was a station on the Appiau road, 
ten miles nearer Rome thui the Appian market. 

Tell, v.t (Gren. xv. 5 ; Ps. xxii. 17, xlviii. 12; Jer. xv. 
2). To coimt ; A.-S. tellan in the same sense. 

Compter. To count, account, reckon, teH, number. 

Cotgrave, Fr. Diet, 
When usurers ieU their gold i' the field. 

Shakespeare, Lear, m. 2. 
While one with moderate haste might tell a hundred. ^ 

Id. Hwnd, L 2. 
And every shepherd tells his tale 
Under the hawthorn in the dale. 

Mflton, U Allegro, 67. 

Temper, v,t, (Ex. xxix. 2, xxx. 35). To mix, com- 
pound ; Lat. temperare. 

The queen, sir, very oft importuned me 
To tem^r poisons for her. 

Shakespeare, Cym, v. 5. 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


This is altogether artificiall, and is made of Cyprian T^erde- 
gns or rust of brasse, the vrin of a yoDg lad, and salnitre, 
ttm/pered all together & incorporat in a brasen morter^ stamped 
with a pestill of the same mettall. Holland's Pliny, xxxni. 5. 

Temperance, <&. (Acts xxIt. 25 ; GaL v. 23 ; 2 Pet 

i. 6). This word has lately assumed almost exclusiyely the 
meaning of moderation in the matter of drink : its origmal 
sense wa£ that of self-restraint (Lat. temperantid) or mode- 
ration generally. 

Doctor Barnes, I hear say, preached in London this day a 
very good sermon, with great moderation and temperance of him- 
self. Latimer, Bern. p. 378. 

He ghest his nature by his countenance, 
And calmd his wrath with goodly temperance, 

Spenser, F. Q. I. 8, § 34. 

Be by, good madam, when we do awake him; 
I doubt not of his temperance. 

Shakespeare, Zear, iv. 7. 

The vertue of prosperitie, is temperance; the yertue of ad- 
Tersity, is fortitude. Bacon, Ess, v. p. 17. 

Chaucer (Parson'9 Tale) uses attemperance in the same 

The felawes of abstinence ben attemperance, that holdith the 
mene in alle thinges. 

'Temperate' in the sense of 'moderate' is found in 
Bacon {JEss. xxxul p. 142) in ^temperate number/ 

Tempt, v.t (Gen. xxiL i ; Ex. xvii. 7; Num. xit. 22, 
&c.). To try, put to the test; Lat tentare. Thus in John 
vi. 6 Wiclif 's earlier version has 

Sotheli he seide this thing, temptinge him. 

Who shall tempt with wandring feet 
The dark unbottom'd infinite abyss. 

Milton, P. L, n. 404. 

The comp|Ound 'attempt' has preserved more of the 
original meaning. 



Tender^ vX (2 Mace. iy. 2). To care, be golidir 
OQs for. 

If it bee the persone that ye esteeme, then ought ye more to 
tendre the preseruyng of one soleman, then of a right great 
notLbre of oxen or asses. Udal's Erasmus, Lukey fol 1 15 a. 

Tentation. sb, (Ex. xvii 7 m). The old form of 
* temptation' in the ed, of 161 1. 

TerriblenesB, sb. (Deut xxvi. 8 ; i Chr. xvii. 21 ; 
Jer. xlix. 16). Terror, dread. 

Tetrarch^^^. (Matt.xiT. i; Lnke iii. i, lo; Acts xiiL 
i), A ruler over a fourth part of the country ; Gk. rerpdpxns. 
The v^ord has never become English, although 'heptar<3iy' 
has been naturalized. 

Tetrarches, that is to sale in EngUshe, the fewer princes, or 
the fower head rewlers. For the name of a kyng was long afore 
abolished by a lawe of the Bomaines, who would haue no kynges. 
(Jdal's Erasmus, Luke, foL 29 a. 

Than both they (EccL iv. 3). An nnusual con- 

Coverdale has * the they both,' and the Geneva version 
* then the both.' 

Thanky sb. (Luke vL 32, 33, 34). Thanks. 

He that thus should haue sayed like Tindall, shoulde haue 
gotten lytde thamke. Sir T. More, Works, p. 496(2. 

Compare 'pain' for 'pains.' 

Ye see by daily experience, what pcdn fishers and hunters 
take. Latimer, Hem. p. 24. 

Thankworthy, cu^'. ( i Pet. ii. 19). Beservmg thanks. 
A.-S. yanctoeor^liCy meritorious. We have still 'praise- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


That, pron. (Ruth ii. 17; Neh. v. 9). That which: it 
is either the A.-S. yat-te which is compounded of ^cet and 
the indeclinahle ye used as a relative ; or it is simply the 
demonstrative yast used as a relative. It is of frequent 

That laborers and lowe folk 
Taken of hire maistres, 
It is no manere mede, 
But a mesurable hire. 

Piers Ploughman's Ft». 1877. 
And wonnen thtU wastours 
With glotonye destruyeth. 

Ibid. 43. 
For he wold have that is not in his might. 

Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Tale, 677a 
No man when he hath rashely there spokS that commeth to 
his tonges ende, shall then afterwarde rather studye for reasons 
wherwith to defende and maintaine his first folissh sentence, 
than for the comoditie of y^ comonwealth. Sir T. More, Uixh 
pia, 556. 

That you may do that Grod commandeth, and not that seem- 
eth good in your own sight without the woid of God. Liathner, 
Bern, p. 308. 

If you dissemble somethnes your knowledge, of thai joa are 
thought to know ; you shall be thought another time, to know 
ihaty you know not. Bacon, Eas, xxxn. p. 137. 

The redundant. 

The life = life (Ps. Ixiii 4, Pr.-BL) Compare the phrase 
' die the death.' 

*It nere,' quod he, *to the no gret honour. 
For to be fals, ne for to be traytour 
To me, that am thy cosyn and thy brother, 
I-swore ful deepe, and ech of us to other. 
That never for to deyen in the payne, 
Til that deeth departe schal us twayne.' 

Chaucer, Anight a Tale, 1135. 

The same redundancy occurs in the expressions ' at the 
least/ 'at the length' (see p. 44), 'in the which,' 'of the 
which,' 'at the least,' &c. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Now seeing the devil is both author and ruler of the dark- 
liess, in the which the children of this world walk, or to say 
better, wander; they mortalK^ hate both the light, and also the 
children of light. Latimer, Serm, p. 41. 

lliis alonely I can say grossly, and as in a sum, of (Ae which 
all we (our hurt is the more) have experience, the devil to be a 
sentine of all vices. Ibid. p. 42. 

Of the which two, if the one be not false, yet at the least it is 
ambiguous. Ibid. p. 37. 

Then = than, in Ex. zxx. 15 and elsewhere in the ed. 
of 161 1. See example from Herrick under Supple. 

Thereafter (Ps. xc. ii, cxi lo, Pr.-BL). Accord- 
ingly; from A.-S. )fCBr -after. 

They may be good and fruitefull instruments to farther 
your service^, (which if you finde) use them tketafUr, 

Lord Grey of WiUon, p. 71. 

The numerous combinations of there with a preposition 
are almost all antiquated ; most of them however are to be 
found in our A. V. * Thereabout' (Luke xxiv. 4), * thereat' 
(Ex. XXX. 10; Matt.Tii. 13), * thereby' (Gen. xxiv. 14), * there- 
from' (JosL xxiii. 6), * thereinto' (Luke xxi. 21), * thereout' 
(Lev. ii. 2; Judg. xv. 19), * thereupon' (Ez. xvi 16; Zeph. 
ii. 7 ; 1 Cor. iii. 10, 14^, are instances, besides ' therefore,' 
* therein,' * thereof,' * tnereon,* * thereto,' * thereunto,' * there- 
with,' which are of frequent occurrence. 

Therefore (Rub. in Comm. of Sick). On that ac- 

This John Grene dyd his errand to Brakenbury, knelyng 
before cure lady in the Towre, who plainly answeredUhat he 
woulde neuer put the to deathe to dye therefore. Hall, JRich. Ill, 
foi 30. 

I think not the contrary, but that many have "these two 
ways slain their own children unto their damnation ; unless the 
great mercy of God be ready to help them when they repent 
there- for, Latimer, Serm. p. 15. 

Digitized by V^VJVJ' 



Think much. To reckon highly as an act of im- 

Neither did wee iJiifikt muck to consult the Translators or 
Commentators, ChaZdee, Hebrewe, Syrian, Greeke, or IkUinc. 
The Translators to the Beader. 

Thou ihinh'st 'tis mtLch that this contentious storm 
Invades us to the skin. 

Shakespeare^ I,ear, ui. 4. 

Thirst after (Matt. v. 6) in its metaphorical sense 
has passed into the language from the translations of the 

He to sore thirsted after the croune and scepter royall that 
he cared litle though the kyng his brother, and his two aonnes 
had bene at Ghristes fote in heauen. Hall, lien, I V, f ol. 26 6. 

So that from point to point now have you heard 
The fundamental reasons of this war, 
Whose great decision hath much blood let forth 
And more thirsts after. 

Shakespeare, All's Well^ m. i. 

This. pr. (Gen. xxxi. 38). Used with a numeral where 
we should now employ the plural. In the passage quoted 
it happens to be the exact rendering of the Heb. idiom^ bat 
is nevertheless properly English. 

This seven yeer hath seten Palamon. 

Chaucer, Enighfs Tale^ I451* 

I have maintained that salamander of yours with fire any 
time this two and thirty years. Shakespeare, i Hen, IV. in. 3. 

I have ventured, 
Like little wanton boys that swim on bladders. 
This many summers in a sea of glory. 

Id. Hen. VIII. m. «. 

Thitherward, adv. (Jer.l. 5), In that direction; 
A.-S. \>tdertceard. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


But in the bale ihilJwrward it was shole and but six foote 
water. Biftlegh, Guiana, p. 45. 

Thorow, prep, (Ex. xiy. 16). Tho old forn^ of 
through' in the ed. of 161 1. 

Ijively describing Christian resolution; that saileth, in the 
f raile barke of the flesh, thorow the waves of the world. Bacon^ 
E88, V. p. 17. 

Thorowout, prep, (Num. xxyiii. 29). The old form 
of * throughout ' in the ed. of 161 1. 

Thought, 8b, (i Sam. ix. 5 ; Matt. vi. 25). Anxiety, 
melancholy: hence *to take thought' is *to be anxious, 

Care thought — chagrin s, m. ; soing z, m. PaJsgrave. 

He will die for sorrowe and thought, Morietur prse doldre. 
Conficietur moerore. 

Taike you no thought. Tu modb, anime mi, noli te macerare, 
Ter. Noli te solicitudine conficere. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. 

' That I know well,* said Merlin, ' as well as thy selfe, and of 
all thy thoughts, but thou art but a foole to take thought, for it 
will not amend thee.' King Arthur, c. 18, 1, p. 45. 

If he love Caesar, all that he can do 

Is to himself, taJx thought and die for Csesar. 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cax, n, i. 

And thus the native hue of resolution 

Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought. 

Id. Sam. in. i. 

Hawis, an alderman of London, was put in trouble, and 
dyed with thought, and anguish, before his businesse came to an 
end. Bacon, Sen, VJI. p. 230. 

* Think' is used by Shakespeare in the sense of giving 
way to moody reflection and despondency. 
Cleo, What shall we do, Enobarbus? 
£no, Ihink, and die. 

Shakespeare, Ant, and CI, in. 13. 

31 —2 

Digitized by VnOVJV IC 

484 . THE BIBLM 

If swift ikoughi break it not, a swifter mean 

Shall outstrike ikoughi: but thought will do't I feel. 

Ibid. IV. 6. 

Thought (Num. xxiv. ii ; Judg. zx. 5 ; i Sam. xviiL 
25 ; 2 Sam. xxi 16). Intended. 

Then when she saw Procnleias behind her as she came from 
the gate, she Ihought to have stabbed her selfe in with a short 
dagger she wore of purpose by her side. North's Plutarch, An- 
Umiuif p. 1005. 

Throng, v, t, TMark iii 9 ; Lnke viii. 45), To crowd ; 
A.-S. \>rtngan, Q. dringen. 

To fight hand to hand they were so pestered behind, that 
one tJironged ^ ouerlald an other. North's Plutarch, Fla- 
miniut, p. 410. 

Here one being ihrong*d bears back, all boU'n and red. 

Shakespeare, Imct, 14 17. 

Throughaired, ac(j. (Jer. xxil 14 m). Airy. 

Throughly, adv. (Matt. iiL 12; Luke iii. 17). Tho- 
roughly. The two words through and thorotigh or thorow 
are the same; A.-S. \>orhy or \>urhy G. durch. Thus in 
Shakespeare {Mid. N.'s Dr. 11. i) : 

Over hill, over dale, 

. Thorough bush, thorough briarj 

Over park, over pale, 

Thorough flood, thorough fire. 

I humbly thank your highness; 

And am right glad to catch this good occasion 

Most throughly to be winnowed. 

Hen, riII,T. I. 

And the best time, to doe this, is, to looke backe upon 
anger, when the fitt is throug?Uy over. Bacon, £88, LYU. p. 228. 

' Throwen (Ex. xv. i). The old form of * thrown* in, 
theed. of 1611. 

Digitized by Google 



Thrum, ah, (Is. xxxviii. 12 m). This word is still in 
local use for the end of a weaver's web, the fringe of threads 
by which it is fastened to the loom, and from which the 
piece when woven has to be cut off. It seems to be the 
same as the Icel. thraum, G. trum, an end or fragment 
of a thing. 

And tapestries all golden fringed and cnrVd with thrumbs behind. 

Chapman, Horn. IL xvi. 220. 

O fates, come, come, 
Gut thread and ihrwm, 

Shakespeare, Mid, NJ's Dr, v. i. 

The ^thrunCd hat' was part of the attire of the fat 
woman of Brentford {Merry Wives, iv. 2). According to 
Mr Fairholt {Costume in Englandy p. 597), silk thrum- 
med hats " were made with a long nap like shaggy fur." 

Till, f)X (Gen. ii. 5, &c.). To cultivate; A.-S. tUiafiy 
to labour. 

And the same Salomon saith, that be that travaileth and 
besieth him to tUye the lond schal ete breed. Ohauoeri Pa/norC» 

To iMf or husband the ground. Terram moliri. Baret, 
Alvecvriey s. v. 

Hereof comes it that Prince Harry is valiant; for the cold 
blood be did naturally inherit of his father, he hath, like lean, 
sterile and bare land, manured, husbanded and ULUd with excel- 
lent endeavour of drinking good and good store of fertile sherris, 
that he is become very hot and valunt. Shakespeare, 3 Hen, 
/r.iv. 3. 

Tiller, sb, (Gen. iv. 2). A cultivator. A.-S. tilia. 

But ere he it in his sheves shore. 

May fall a weather that shall it dere. 

And make it to fade and fall. 

The stalke, the graine, and floures all. 

That to the tiUer is fordone. 

The hope that he had too soone. 

Chaucer, Rom, ofiht Rose, 4339. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Tillers of the ground; free servants; & handj-crafts-men, 
of strong, & manly arts, as smiths, masons, carpenters, &c. ; 
not reckoning prof essed souldiers. Bacon, £88, xxjx, p. 135. 

Timbrel, «&. (Ex. xv. 20; Judg. xi. 34). The Sp. tam- 
boril, a small tambour or drum, approaches most nearly in 
form to this word which is from the same root as the Fr. 
tambourin, tambour y and our taber, tabrel, which are all 
probably from an imitative root preserved in Gk. rwr-T». 
E. tap, thump, 

Tyiup&iiy ^-t ^ timpan, or tirnbreU; also a taber. Cotgrare, 
/v. Dkt. 

Apion the famous grammarian, euen hee whom Tiberius 
Caesar called the cymball of the world (whereas indeed hee de- 
serued to bee named a timhrill or drum rather, for ringing and 
sounding publique fame) was so vain-glorious, that he supposed 
all those immortalized, vnto whom hee wrote or composed any 
pamphlet whatsoeuer. Pliny's Epist. to T, Vespamtn, Holland's 

Tire, sb. (Is. iii. 18; Ez. xxiv. 17, 23 ; Jud. x.3, xvi.8). 
A head-dress. The Persian tiara from which this word is 
supposed to be derived appears in A.-S. in the form tyr. 
Milton spells it tiar ; 

Of beaming sunnie raies, a golden tiar 
Circrd his head. 

P. Z. in. 635. 

It may be doubted however whether it is not the same 
as the G. zier, an ornament. The word is of freciuent 

Ne other tyre she on her head did weare. 
But crowned with a garland of sweete rosiere. 

Spenser, F, Q. n. 9, § 15. 

I think, ' 

If I had such a tire, this face of mine t 

Were full as lovely as is this of hers. 

Shakespeare, Two Gent, of Ver. it. 4, 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


WORD'BOO^, 487 

Tire, v. t (2 K. ix. 30). To attire, deck, adorn with 
a tire ; possibly connected with the G. zieren. See Attike. 

Attour^, m., 4e, /., tired, dressed, attired, decked^ trunmed, 
adorned. Cotgrave, Fr. Diet, 

Tithe, v.t (Dent, xiv. 22; Luke xvi. 17). To give 
the tithe or tenth of. 

To tiih: to take the tenth part. Decimo. Baret, Alvecme, 

I tythe, I gyve, or pay the tythe of tbinges. Je disme. 

Dismer, to iytTte, or take the tenth of. Cotgrave, Fr, Diet, 

Title, sb, (2 K. xxiii. 17; John xix. 19, 20). A sign, 
inscription, or inscribed tablet; such especially as used to 
I be carried, according to the custom of the J^omans, to 
whom we owe the word (Lat. tittdus), before those who 
were condemned to death, or was affixed to the instrument 
of their punishment. 

There was set vpon the toppe of the crosse the (yile of the 
cause wherfore he suffered. Udal*s Erasmus, Marhf fol. 92 a. 

Tittle, sb. (Matt. v. 18; Luke xvi. 17). Apparently a 
diminutive of tity small. It is used to denote the tiniest 
thing possible, and in the passages quoted refers to the 
little points or corners by which some of the Hebrew letters 
are distinguished from each other. 

For fear least some words should be either left out, or pro- 
D ^ nounced out of order, there is one appointed of purpose as a 
prompter to read the same before the priest, out of a written 
A ^t booke, that he misse not in a tittle. Holland's Pliny, xxvin. 2. 

^ ' To, prep. (Matt, iil 9; Luke iii, 8, &c.). Like the 

A.-S. to this preposition is used where we should employ 

* for.' In Anglo-Saxon the construction with two datives, 

gjeit. , the latter governed by to, corresponds to the Lat. double 

^ It ^'dative. For instance in the above-quoted passage, "we 

have Abraham to our father," is in tne A.-8. version "we 

• habbap Abraham us to feeder." The construction is com- 

• mon in Old English and in the northern dialects. 

('■ i Digitized by VjUOQIC 


Thou mftyst hire "wyime to lady and to wyf. 

Chaaoer, Knight* 8 Tale, 1391. 

For he that hath the devil to his father, must needs have 
devilish children. Latimer, Serm. p. 41. 

And in that prayer we pray for our cattle, that God will 
preserve them to our use from aU diseases. Ibid. p. 397. 

Tongue^ sb. (Gen. x. 20, 31 ; I& Ixvi* 18, &c). Lan- 
guage ; by the figure metonymy. 

Ye have condemned it [the Scripture] in all other common 
tongues, Latimer, Item. p. 320. 

Tormentor^ sK (Matt xviii. 34). A torturer, exe- 

Thre strokes in the nek he smot hir tho 
The tormentour, but for no maner chaunce 
He might nought smyte hir faire necke a-tuo. 

Chaucer, Second Nun's Tale, 11455. 

Yet yf one should can so lyttle good, to sbewe out of sea- 
sonne what acquaintance he hath with him, and calle him by his 
owne name whyle he standeth in his magestie, one of his tor- 
mentors might hap to breake his head, and worthy for marring of 
the play. Sir T. More, Rich. IJL Works, p. 66 g. 

There were but foure persons that could speake vpon know- 
ledge, to the murther of the Duke of Yorke : Sir lames Tiitel 
(the employed-man from King Richard) lohn Dighton, and 
Miles Forrest, his seruants (the two butchers or tormentors) and 
the priest of the Tower, that buried them. Bacon, Ren, VIL 
p. 123. 

Tom (Mai, L 13). Stolen. 

Touching (Num. yiii. 26), As touching (Gen. zxyiL 
425 Matt, xviii 19). Concerning, with regard to. 

As touching the words that our Saviour Christ spake to his 
disciples. Latimer, Mem. p. 302. 

As touching the Faleme wine, it is not holesome for the bodies 
either very new, or over old ; a middle age is best, and that 
begins when it is fifteene yeares old, and not before. Holland's 
Pling, xxni. I, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


We wiQ adde this, in generally touching the affection of envy. 
Bacon, Eas. ix. p. 35. 

Touch-stone, 8b, "Touch, «&. was often used for 
any costly marble ; but was properly the hasanites of 
the GreeKs, a very hard black granite, such as that on 
which the Adulitic inscription, and that from Rosetta, now 

in the British Museum, are inscribed It obtained the 

name from being used as a test for gold, thence called 
tofichstoner Nares, Glossary, 

Sure we are, that it is not he that hath good gold, that is 
afraid to bring it to the touch-stonej hut he that hath the counter- 
feit. The Translators to the Reader. 

The fifth, an hand environed with clouds. 
Holding out gold that's by the touchstone tried. 

Shakespeare, Per. IL 2. 

Shakespeare also uses Houch'.in the same sense. 

O Buckingham, now do I play the touch, 
To try if thou be current gold indeed. 

Rich, III, IV. 2. 

To-ward, prep, (A.-S. to-weard). The phrases *te 
God-ward,* *to us- ward,' in which the subject is placed 
between the two parts of the preposition are obsolete. 
[See Ward.] 

They taken here leve, and hom-ward they ryde 
To Thebes-toarc^, with olde walles wyde. 

Chaucer, Knighfs Tale, 1883. 

Christ is our Redeemer, Saviour, peace, atonement, and 
satisfaction ; and hath made amends or satisfaction to Godward 
for all the sin which they that repent (consenting to the law and 
believing the promises) do, have done, or shall do. Tyndale, 
Uoctr. Treat, p. 52. 

Trace, v,t, (Ecclus. xiv. 22). To track out, follow a 
track; Pr. tracer, It tracciare, from Lat. tractus. 

And bring him out that is but woman's son 
Can troM me in the tedious ways of art 
And hold me pace in deep experiments. 

Shakespeare, i Hen. IV, in. i. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Chaucer uses it as a substantiye for a track or path. 

This like monk lette olde tbinges pace, 
And held after the newe world the trace. 

ProL to C. T, 176 (ed. Tyrwhitt). 

Trade, vX (Ez. xxvii. 13, 17). To traffic with'; fol- 
lowed by the accusative of the object of traffic. 

Now the Brytainea began first to paie tolles and tribute with- 
out grudging, for all wares which they traded. Stow, AnnaLs, 
P- «3- 

Traffickers, <&. (Is. xxiii. 8). Merchants. 

Your mind is tossing on the ocean; 
There, where your argosies with portly sail. 
Like signiors and rich burghers on the flood. 
Or, as it were, the pageants of the sea. 
Do overpeer the petty traffickers. 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Ven, i. i. 

Translate, f)Jt. (2 Sam. iiL 10 ; Heb. xi. 5). To remoYe, 
transfer from one place to another; now only applied to a 
bishop. 'Transfer' and 'translate' are from the same root, 
Lat. transferrer pp. translatus. We are indebted fbr the 
word to the Vulgate, " quia transttdit ilium Deus." Cover- 
dale has '* because God had taken him awaye." 

Consider how muche thy selfe art beholden to God, wbicfae 
hath illumined the sytting in the shadow of death, and tranalatinff 
the out of the company of them (which like dr5ken mS with- 
out a guide wandre hether and thether in obscure darkenes) hath 
associate the to the children of light. Sir T. More, Woria^ 
p. 16 d. 

Wherefore (partly out of courage, and partly out of policie) 
the king forthwith banished all Flemmings (as well their persons, 
as their wares) out of his kingdome ; commanding his subiects 
likewise (and by name his merchants-aduenturers) which had a 
resiance in Antwerpe, to retume; transkUing the mart (which 
commonly followed the English cloth) vnto Calice, and embar- 
red also all further trade for the future. Bacon, Ben, VII. p. 130, 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Translation, sb, (Heb. xi. 5). Removal ; the sub- 
stantiye from the preceding, also derived from the Vulgate 
'* ante translationem^^ which Coverdale renders " afore he 
was taken awaye." So in the heading of Gen. v. we read 
'^ the godlinesse and translation of Enoch." 

Travail, «&. (Gen. xxxviii. 27 ; Ps. xlviii. 6; Is. liii. 11). 
Labour, toil ; applied especially to the * labour* of a woman 
in childbirth. Dies connects the Fr. travail, It. travaglio, 
Sp. trabajo, with the Rom. travar, to hem in, stop, and 
traces from this the original sense of the word ' oppression.' 
In the general sense of ' labour* it was formerly common. 
Sackville thus describes Sleep ; 

The bodies rest, the quiet of the hart, 

The traucdlea ease, the still nights feere was hee. 

Induction^ f ol. 209 5. 

For you may be sure we shall never be without battle and 
tramciil, Latimer, Serm, p. 360. 

Let all these abuses be counted as nothing, who is he that is 
not sorry, to see in so many holidays rich and wealthy persons to 
flow in delicates, and men that live by their travail, poor men, to 
lack necessary meat and drink for their wives and their children. 
Ibid. p. 53. , 

Generally, all warlike people, are a little idle; and love dan- 
ger better then travaile, £acon. Ess, xxix. p. 125. 

* Travel' is the modem form of the word, though that 
which was once labour has become pleasure. 

Travail, v.i. (Gen. xxxv. i6; xxxviii. 28, &c.\ To 
be in labour; from the preceding (Fr. travailler). Its 
original sense was *to labour' generally. Thus Wiclifs ear- 
lier version of John iv. 38 ; 

I sente f ou for to repe, that that ?e traueliden not ; othere 
men traudiden, and ^e entriden in to her Praudis, 

In Chaucer's description of the statue of Diana {Knight's^ 
Tale, 2085) it is said; 

A womman travaUyng was hire bifom. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


In Gen. xxxv. c, we find in the ed. of 1611, ^Bachel 
traueileth of Beniamin.^' 

Travel, sh, (Num. zx. 14 ; Lam. iii. 5). Labonr, toO. 

Those that have ioyned with their honour, great travels, 
cares, or perills, are lesse subiect to enuy. Bacon, Ess. JX. p. 3a. 

The Latin translation has labor es^ [See T&ayail.] 

TrespaJIB, v.i. (i K. viii. 31 ; 2 Chr. xix. 10, &a). To 
transgress, with whicn it is analogous both in origin and 
signification. (Comp. G. uehertreten ; A.-S. qferstcepparu) 
The 0. Fr. trespasser is literally 'to pass beyond;' henoe to 
trespass is to overstep a boundary, and in this sense it is 
stUl used. As appUed to moral actions it is obsolete. 

'I am right sorry and loth,' sayd Sir Tor, ' of that gift which 
I have graunted you ; let him make you amends in that which 
he has trespctss&i against you.' King Arthur, c. 55, YoL I. 
p. 10. 

If e'er my will did trespass 'gainst his love. 

Shakespeare, 0th. iv. i. 

Trespa4iB. sb, (Gen. xxxi. 36, &c.). Transgression ; 
from the preceding. 

Not a party to 
The anger of the king nor guilty of, 
If any be, the trespass of the queen. 

Shakespeare, WitU, Tale, n. 3, 

Lay not that flattering unction to your soul. 
That not 37 our trespoM, but my madness sp^kks. 

Id. Ham. m. 4. 

Troth, sK (Marr. Serv.). Truth, good faith; A.-S. 

It is a good shrewd proverbe of the Spaniard ; Tell a lye, and 
finde a troth. Bacon, Ess, Ti. p. 21. 

Trow, v.i. (Luke xvii. 9). To think, betieve, suppose ; 
from A.-S. tredwian to trust, G. traiten. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The kjDg biholdez the vesage free, 
And eyenuore trowed bee 
That the childe scholde bee 
S^r Percyvelle sonne. 

Sir Percevaly 586. 

The whych y irowc jn for thy love and no mo. 

Sir FglamouVf 78. 

Where lawe lacketh errour groweth. 
He is nought wise who that ne iroweth. 

Grower, Conf, Am. i. p. 21, 

The lady trowid the traitonr, and went to the ship; and 
when she enterid the ship, the traytour seraaunt aboode withe- 
oute. Gesta RoTnanorum, c. 69, p. 256 (ed. Madden). 

And, trow ye, we shall not find them asleep. Latimer, Serm, 
p. 228. 

What became of his blood that fell down, trow ye? Id. 
p. 331. 

True, (u^. (Gen. xlii. 11). Honest; A.-S. treSwe; con- 
nected with trow, to trust. 

And 'twere not as good a deed as drink, to turn true man 
and to leave these rogues, I am the veriest varlet that ever 
chewed with a tooth. Shakespeare, i Hen. I F. u. 2. 

The thieves have bound the true men. Ibid. 

If the tag-rag people did not clap him and hiss him, accord- 
ing as he pleased and displeased them, as they use to do the 
players in the theatre, I am no true man. Id. Jul, Cos. L 2. 

Trump, 8b. (i Cor. xv. 52; i Thess.iv. 16). Trumpet; 
Fr. trompe. 

Whan that I hearde ferre off sodainely, 

So great a noise of thundering trumpes blow. 

As though it should have departed the skie. 

Chaucer, Flower and the Leaf, 192. 

Trufh, of a (i Sam. xxi 5 ; Matt. xiv. 33, &c.). Truly, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Try out (Ps. xxvi. 2, Pr.-Bk), To try thoroughly. 
Retained from Goyerdale's Yersioii. 

Bat.if it chaClce that any of their men in any other coimtrey 
be maimed or killed, whether it be done by a comen or a priuate 
counsel, knowyng & trying out the trueth of the matter by 
their ambassadoars, onlesse the offenders be rendered vnto them* 
in recompenoe of the iniurie, they will not be appeased. Sir T. 
More, Utopia, trans. Bobynson, fol. 103 a. 

Turtle J sb. (Cant. ii. 12). A tnrtle-doye. 

lliere mighte men see many flockes 
Of turtles and of laverockes. 

Chaucer, Rom. of the Rote, 662, 

TQurterelle, /^ & turtUf or turtle doue. Gotgrave, Fr. 

Turks, 8b. (Coll. for Good Friday). Mohammedans. 

Now when we be shod, we must have a buckler; that is, 
faith ; and this must be a right faith, a faith according to Grod's 
word : for the Turkt have their faith, so likewise the Jews have 
their faith. Latimer, Serm. p. 504. 

Peace shall go sleep with Turks and infidels. 

Shakespeare, iSicA. //. iv. i. 

Tush, int. (Ps. X. 6, xii. 14, Pr.-Bk.). An exclamation 
of scorn or impatience. It occurs frequently in Goverdale's 
Version. Thus in Ez. xx. 49, 

Then sayde I: O Lorde, they wil saye of me: Tuah^ they are 
but fables, that he telleth. 

Well, I looked on the gospel that is read this day: but it 
liked me not. I looked on the epistle : tusk, I could not away 
with that neither. Latimer, Serm. p. 247. 

The latter will be iudged to be the better horse, and the 
fourme as to say, Tusk, the Ufe of this horse is but in the spurre, 
will not serue as to a wise iudgemente. Bacon, CoUjuts of Good 
and EviU m* p. 250. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


'Tushing' occurs as a substantive. 

Now afler a peruerse kynde of iudgemSt (as it wer, settyng 
the carte before y® horses) y^ flaterest & pleasest thy self in 
thyne owdo good qualitees, as though thei wer singular, & at 
another manes thou makest muche tushyng, & many excepciOs. 
Udars Erasmus, Luheyi6\. 66 a. 

Twain, adj. (i Sam. xviii* 22; Ez. xxi. 19, &c). Two; 
A.-S. tw4gen. Chaucer uses the forms twayne, tweyne, 
tweye (comp. G. zwei). 

And forth they yede togider, twain and twain. 

Flower wnd the Leaf, 295. 
Till that deeth departe schal us twayne. 

Knight*8 Tale, 11 36. 
The batayl in the feeld betwix hem tweyne. 

Ibid. 1634. 
This Palamon gan knytte his browes tweye. 

Ibid, 1 1 30. 

Gret was the stryf and long bytwixe hem tweye. 

Ibid. 1 1 89. 

After his mpder quene Eleine 

He sonde, and so betwene hem tweine 

They treten. 

Gower, Conf. Am. i. p. 176. 

With the expression 'both tioain' Ez. xxi 19, compare 
Gower, Cor^, Am. i. p. 275; 

He hath him clensed hothe two 
The body and the soule also. 

I behelde ryght well hothe the wayes twayne 
And mused oft whyche was best to take. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleaarvre, cap. i. 

Twinned, pp, (Ex. xxvi. 24 m ; xxxvi. 29 m). The 
text of the A. Y . has in both instances * coupled/ and the 
reading of the margin is the literal rendering of the 
Hebrew. In modem editions it is misprinted 'twined.' 
This word must not be confounded- with the Old English 
' ttoinriedy separated; from ttoinne to divide in two, part. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Hath nature giren them eyes 
To see this vaulted arch, and the rich crop 
Of sea and Lmd, which can distinguish 'twixt 
The fiery orbs above and the twinrCd stones 
Upon the numbered beach? 

Shakespeare, Cymh. i. 6. 


UnadTisedly^ adv. (Ps. cvi. 33; i Mace. v. 67). In- 
considerately, Tvithout forethonght. 

AH thinges that seemeth to vaine and foolishe men, in all 
naturall thinges to be done imaduisedly or by chaunse, are not 
done but by His worde and prouidence. Northbrooke, Poort 
Mans Oarden, 1573, fol. 12 r. 

Unawares, at (Num. xxxy. ii; Josh. zx. 9; Ps. 
XXXV. 8). Unexpectedly. 

like vassalage at unawares encountering 
The eye of majesty. 

Shakespeare, Tr. and Cr, in. a. 

So we, well cover'd with the night*s black mantle. 
At unawares may beat down Edward's guard. 

Id. 3 Hen. VL IV. 3. 

Out of this conceit, Cato surnamed the censor, one of the 
wisest men indeed that euer lined, when Cameades the philoso- 
pher came in embassage to Rome, and that the young men of 
Bome began to flocke about him, being allured with the sweet- 
nesse and maiestie of his eloquence and learning, gaue oounsell 
in open senate, that they should giue him his dispatch with all 
speede, least hee should infect and inchaunt the mindes and 
affections of the youth, and at vnawares bring in an alteration 
of the manners and customes of the state. Bacon, Adv. of L. 
I. 2, § I. 

Uncapable, adj. (Ez. xliv. c). Incapable. 
I am sorry for thee: thou art come to answer 
A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch 
Uncapable of pity. 

Shakespeare, Mer. qf Fat. iv. i. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Uncomely, adj, (i Cor. xii. 23). Unbecoming. 
Besides (to say truth) nakednesse is uncomely, as well in 
minde, as body. Bacon, Ess, YL p. 20. 

Uncomely^ adv, (i Cor. yii. 36). In an unbecom- 
ing manner. 

Uncorraptness, sb. (Tit ii. 7). Somidness, purity. 

Uncreate, pp. (Ath. Creed). Uncreated. On this 
form of the past participle see Consecbate. 

Unction, sb» (i John ii. 20). Literally^ 'anointing/ 
as the word is rendered in i John ii. 27. It is applied to 
^e spiritual influence of the Holy Ghost The word still 
exists in its literal sense in the phrase "extreme unction,'* 
the ceremony of anointing with oil in cases of dangerous 
sicknessy reckoned among the seven Romish sacraments. 

Undenetten, «&. (i K vii. 30, 34). Props, supports. 
The verb is used by Sir T. More (Works, p. 38^), in 
describing the death of Edw. lY. ; 

When these lordes with diuerse other of bothe the parties 
were comme in presence, the kynge liftinge yppe himselfe and 
vndeneUe with pillowes, as it is reported on this wyse said vnto 

Understanded, je?p. (Art. xxiv.). Understood. Many 
verbs which were formerly regular are now irregular and 
vice versd. 

Whan the Lorde had thus muche sayd, because he knewe 
that the woordes whiche he had spoken wer not perfeictely vnder- 
stdded of euerie bodye...he cryed with a loude voice. Udal's 
Erasmus, Luke, foL 78 a. 

But this was sufficiently vnderstonded of the worde resurrec- 
tion or rifiyug.agayn that wSte nexte before. Erasmus, On the 
Creed, Eng. tr. foL 256. 

When these oracles were vnderstanded, the priestes prepared 
all things for diuine seruice, and the people went about the water 
of the lake to tume it againe. North's Plutarch, Camillut, 
p. 144. 

Digitized by V^i^VJ^fiC 


Understanding, adj. (Deut L 13, iv. 6; i E. iii.9, 
&c.). Used as an adjectiye in the sense of ' intelligent.' 
Was this taken 
Bj any understcmding pate but thine? 

Shakespeare, Wint. Tide, I. 2. 

On the other side, an ancient clerke, skilfull in presidents, 
wary in proceeding, and understanding in the businesse of the 
court) is an excellent finger of a court. Bacon, Eu. LVi. 
p. a26. 

Undertake, f>.i. (Is. xxxyiiL 14). To be surety. 

To be suretie for, to vndertake, to will one to doe, or deliuer 
to a certaine man ypon the assurance of his vndertakLng. f ide- 
iubeo. Baret» AlveariCf s. ▼. Sure, 

Undressed, j>p, (Lev. xxv. 5, 11). Uncultivated. 

[See Deess.] 

Uneasy, adj, (2 Mace. xiL 21). Difficalt. 
Uneaeiej damageable, hurtfull, noisome, vngainfull, vnhand- 
some. Incommodus. 

Baret, Alvearie, b.v. 

Ungracious, adj. (2 Mace. iv. 19, viii. 34, xv. 3). 
Graceless, wicked. 

Whan he espyeth that, he gooeth his waie & taketh vnto 
hym seu6 other spirites, more vngracious tha himself euer was. 
Udars Erasmus, Imke, fol. 98 h. 

Ungodlie, wicked, vngraXwus. Impius. Baret, Alvearie,. 

Wicked: vngratwus: naughtie. Impius. Ibid. 

Z/ngraiious, mischiefous, vengeable, full of naughtinesse. 
Scelestus. Ibid. 

Ungradoue wretch. 
Fit for the mountains and the barbarous caves. 
Where manners ne'er were preach 'dl out of my sight 1 

Shakespeare, Tw. Night, iv. 1. 

I am no traitor's uncle ; and that word 'grace' 
In an ungracious mouth is but profane. 

Id. Bich. II. n. 3. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


Bat, good my brotlier, 
Bo not, as some ungracious pastors do, 
Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven ; 
Whiles, like a puff *d and reckless libertine, 
Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads, 
And recks not his own rede. 

Id. ffamZ. L 3. 

Unicom, sb. (Num. xxiii. 22, xxiv. 8, &c.). The 'reem* 
of the Hebrews, of which 'unicom' is a translation, was 
probably a bison. The following passage explains what 
the unicorn was believed to be. 

The "CTnicome, as Lewes Yartinian testifieth, who saw two 
of them in the towne of Mecha, is of the height of a yoong 
horse or colt of 30. moneths old, which is two yeares and a halfe 
olde, hee hath the head of a Hart, and in his forehead he hath a 
sharpe pointed home three cubites long, hee hath a long necke, 
and a mane hanging downe on the one side of his necke, his 
legges are slender, as the legges of a goat, and his feete are 
clouen much like to the goate, his hinder feete are hairy, and his 
haire in collour is like to a bay horse. This beast in counte- 
nance is cruell and wilde, and yet notwithstanding mixt with a 
certaine sweetnes or amiablenes. His home is of a merueilous 
greate force and vertue against venome and poyson. The Uni- 
pome is founde in ^^thiopia, like as the Indian Asse is found in 
India, which hath likewise one onely home in his forehead. 

Blundevile's Exercises, fol. -260 a. 

Unity, at (Ps. cxxii. 3, Pr.-Bk). United; hence 'to 
set at unity' is 'to unite.' 

I would wish they would endeavour themselves rather to be 
acemakers; to counsel and help poor men; and, when they 

* of any ^cord to be between neighbours and neighbours, to 
aet them together at unity, Latimer, Serm. p. 486. 

Ul\iU8tj adj, (Luke xvi. 8). Dishonest 
Such as indeed were never soldiers, but discarded unjust 
fierving-men, younger sons to younger brothers, revolted tapsters 
and ostlers trade-fadlen. Shakespeare, i Hen, IV, iv. 2. 

Unlearned, adJ, (Acts iy. 13 ; i Cor. xiy. 16). Un- 
taught> illiterate. 

Digitized by V^VJv3^'Tt"2 


And though the curate be unUamtdt and not able to do his 
duty, yet we may not withdraw from him, of pri^rate authority, 
that thing which is appointed unto him by common authority. 
Latimer, Serm, p. 503. 

DhUamed, without knowledge, or good letters, Illiteratus, 
Indoctus, InerudituB. 

iBaret, AlvearU, &.▼. 

Unmeasurable j ac(f, (Bar. ill 25 ; Prayer of Ma^ 
Basses). Immeasurable. 

For that in one place, God himselfe saies, that it was bee 
which planted the piUers which support the earth: giving vs to 
vnderstand (as S. Ambrose doth weU expound it) that the vnmea&- 
urable weight of the whole earth is held vp by the hands of th« 
divine power. Acosta^ ffUt, of the Indies, Eng. tr. p. 10. 

Common mother, thou. 
Whose womb unmeaaurobble, and infinite breast^ 
Teems, and feeds all* 

Shakespeare, Tim, of Ath, iv. 3. 

Unmoveable^ <idj, (Acts xxyii. 41 ; i Cor. xv. 58). 

Owen Glendor a squire of Wales, perceiuyng the realme to be 
vnquieted, and the kyng not yet to be placed in a sure and vn- 
movMbU seate, enuegled entised and allured the wilde and 
vndiscrete Welshmen, that they toke hym as their prince. Hall, 
Hm,\. 166. 

But Ptolomie, Aristotle, and all other olde writers affirme 
the earth to be in the middest, and to remaine vnmooueabU and 
to be in the very center of the world. Blundevile, Exerciaet^ 
foL 181 a, ed. 1594. 

Thus it alone resteth vnmojuedble, whiles the whole frame of the 
world tumeth about it : and as it is knit and vnited by all, so aUl 
rest and beare upon the same. Holland's PUnyj u, 5. 

Unpassable, adj. (Esth. xvi. 24). Impassable. 
Impassabile, that cannot be passed, vnpassable. 

Fiorio, Worlde of JTordtt. 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Unperfect, adj, (Ps. cxxxis. i6). Imperfect. 
/ But they consyder not what God is, and how great his diaine 
maiestie is, which is not divine in dede, if it be vnperfect, Mu8« 
cuius. Common Places, trans. Man (1563), fol. 56. 

This is the true wisedome of a man, to knowe him selfe to 
be vnperfect, and as I might saye, the perfection of all just men 
lyuing in the fleshe is vnperfect, Northbrooke, Poore MaiCz 
Garden^ p. 44. 

Unprofitable, ado, (Matt xxv. 30; Luke xvii. 10). 
XJseless, good for nothing. 

And for the moste parte it channceth, that this latter sorte is 
more worthye to enioye that state of wealth, then the other be : 
bycause the ryche men be couetous, craftye, and vnproJUable, 
Sir T. More, Utopia, trans. Bobynson, foL 42 a. 

Thereupon, Philip being afrayed, commaunded them to cary 
him [Bucephalusl away as a wild beast, & altogether vnprojit- 
ahle* North's Plutarch, Alex. p. 719. 

Unrebukeable, adj. (i Tim. id. T4). That cannot 
be rebuked, blameless. 

Unrepentance, sh. (Matt xi. c). Impenitence. 

Impenitenza, vnrepentanee, Florio, Ital. Diet. 

Unreproyeable, adj. (Col. i. 22). Blameless. 

And in my selfe this covenaunt made I tho, 
That right such as ye felten wele or wo^ 
As ferforth as it in my power lay, 
Unreprovahle unto my w^ehood aye, 
The same would I felen, life or death. 

Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, 691. 

Furthermore, touching the warres : Dion- alway shewed him- 
selfe a captaine vnreproueahle, hauing wisely and skilfully taken 
order for those things, which he had enterprised of his owne head 
and counselL NorUi*B Plutarch, Dion wnd Brutus, p. 1079. 

Irreprehensible : eom. Irreprehensible, blamelesse, vnreproua- 
hie, Cotgrave, Fr, Diet, 

Irreprou^uole, vnreproueahle. Florio, Ital. Diet, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Unreslstable^ adj. (Is. idii. e). Irresistible. 

If his golde now indaunger vs, hee will then be vnreaitltiie* 
Ralegh, wiana, p. 15. 

Unxight, adj, (Wisd. xii. 13). Unjust, imrigiiteoiiflL 

UnsaTOUry, adj. (2 Sam. xxii. 27). This word appears 
to have been forced upon our translators by the exigencies 
of the text, which is here corrupt. The true reading is pre- 
served in Ps. xviii. 26, " with the froward thou imt shew 
thyself froward." The following passage from Baret's Al- 
vearie will shew the met^horical meaning attached to the 
word at the end of the loth century, by adopting which a 
certain sense is to be extracted from the clause in question. 

Unsattouriey foolish, without smacke of salt, without wiso- 
dome, that hath no grace, that hath no pleasant fashion in 
wordes or gesture, that no man can take pleasure in. Insnlsns... 
dyvd>fMi, AveipSKaXos, &i'alff$ijroi. 

Unseemly, adv. (i Cor. xiii. 5). In an unbecoming 

One will say, peradventnre, you speek unseemly and inoonve- 
niently. Latimer, Serm. p. 185. 

Uraeemltef after an yncomelie sort. deiKws. Messeamment^ 
jndecentement. Baret, Alvearie, s.v. l^nteeminff. 

Unto, prep. (Num. xxxv. 25). Until. 

And now thou woldest falsly ben abonte 
To love my lady, whom I love and serve, 
And evere schaJ, unto myn herte sterve. 

Chaucer, Enighfs TaU, 1145. 
The Chaldees, Assyrians, Persians, Grecians and BomanB, 
the mightiest princes on the earth, oft subdued the Jews, for* 
saking their God : but the Lord, their old Saviour, ever restored 
them again when they sought him, unto they utterly refused 
Christ their Saviour. Pilkington, On Obadiah, pref. {Worki, 
p. ^05, Park. Soc). 

Unto, prep. Used like 'for* in the phrase, " Unto 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


Adam also^ and to his wife, did the Lord God make coates 
of skinnes, and cloathed them" (Gen.iii. 21). The idiom is 
common in the north. 

Untoward, adj, (Acts ii. 40). Penrerse, intractable; 
forward. 'Toward' is used in Suffolk of animals in the 
sense of ' tame, manageable.' Thus a colt is said to be 
* toward/ Bacon uses 'towardness' for 'docility' {Ess, 
XIX. p. 79). 

Thou shalt goe afore him, to prepaire mens hertes to the 
receiuyng of suche a great ealuaciou, leste if thesame commyng 
of the Lorde ahoulde fynd the hertea of men slouthfuUy slug- 
gjTOig, and vtterly vrUowarde, the health that is now offred, 
might percase be turned into a manifold castyng awaie & perish- 
yng of the soUe. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, fol. 16 a. 

Unwitting, adv, (i Sam. xiv. c). Unknown. 

Unwittingly, adv. (Lev. xxii 14; Joel xx.3}. With- 
ont knowing. 

If I unwittingly^ or in my rage, 

Have aught committed, that is hardly home 

By any in this presence, I desire 

To reconcile me to his friendly peace. 

Shakespeare, Rich. III. Ii. i. 

UlJ (Ps. xiL 6, Pr.-Bk.). In the phrase ' I will «;> ' the 
preposition is used without the verb of motion. Instances 
of tnis omission are common. 

Thei plainly menyng good feith, vp k declare at laige ynto 
Jesus the summe of all the wholle matier, as to a stratigier, and 
one that was ignoraunt of all that had been dooen. Udal'a 
Erasmus, Lvke, fol. 1766. 

Tyburce answerde, and sayde, ' Brother dere, 
First tel me whider I sckalj and to what man.' 

Chaucer, Second Nun's Tale, 12231. 

So ^forth' and 'in' are used by Shakespeare with 
the same jellipsis. 

■ Digitized by VjOOQIC 


So soon as dinner's done well forik again. 
My Alcibiades. 

Tim, ofAtk. n. a. 

Nay, more, 
Some parcels of their power are forth already. 
And only hitherward. 

Car. I. 7. 

Good nuncle, tn, and ask tby daughter's blessing. 

Lmt, nr. 1. 

Upon, prep, (Gen. xxxi. c). In phrases where we 
should now use ^ out o^' or * in consequence of.' 

It were good not to use men of ambitious natures, except it 
be upon necessitie. Bacon, Eu, zxxvi. p. 153. 

Many examples of the same idiom wiU be found in 
Bacon's Essays. 

Uprightnemies, sh, (Is. xxxiii. 15971). ^In upriight- 
nesses'' is the literal rendering of the Hebrew, for which 
our translators have more properly given in the text ' up- 

Uprising^ sb. (Ps. cxxxix. 2). Rismg. 

The Lordes and Princes of his campe comming to waite 
vpon him at his vprising, maruelled when they found him so 
sound a sleepe. North's Plutarch, Alex, p. 735. 

Use^ v.i. (Ex. xxi. 36). To be accustomed. 

So that it is, in truth of operation upon a mans minde, of 
like vertue, as the alchymists use to attribute to their stone, for 
mans bodie ; that it worketh all contraiy effects, but still to the 
good, and benefit of nature. , Bacon, Eaa, xxvii. p. t 1 1. 

Besides, of her own nature she ever loved privacy and a 
sequestered life, being of the pelican's nature, which use not to 
fly in flocks. FuUer, Holy State, xi. {Life of Paula). 

Use, v.t. (Lev. xix. 26 j 2 K. xvii. 17). To practise; as 
in the phrases ^ use divination,' ^use enchantments^' &c. - 

Digjtized by VjV.JV.JV IC 

Word-book, 505 

If I may escape this misadventure I shall destroy all where 
I may find these faire damosels that use inchantmenis. King 
Arthur, c. 67, Vol. i. p. ia8. 

Use of Sanun, &c. (Intr. to Pr.-Bk.) refers to the 
differ^t Liturgies in existence before the Reformation. 
The offices according to the Use of Sarum (Salisbury) were 
used in the South ; those of York in the north ; those of 
Hereford in S. Wales; and in N. Wales those of Bangor. 
Osmund, Bp. of Salisbury, about a.d. 1070, is said to Imre 
compiled the Use of SarunL 

Usury^ sb. (Ex. xxii. 25 ; Lev. xxv. 36; Matt xxy. 27). 
From Lat ttsuraj Pr. tuure; it formerly denoted 'in- 
terest,* or a sum of money paid for the imb of money, but is 
now applied to excessive and illegal exactions of that kind. 
Thus Bentham [Dtf, qf Umny, Let. n.) says, 

I know of bnt two definitions that can possibly be given of 
usury. One is, the taking of a greater interest than the law allows 
of: this may be styled the political or legal definition. The other 
is, the taking of a greater interest than it is usual for men to 
give and take: this may be styled the moral one. 

Since there must be borrowing and lending, and men are so 
hard of heart, as they will not lend freely, umry must be per- 
mitted. Bacon, Eu, XLi. p. i68. 

Utmostj adj, (Num. xxii. 36, 41). Outermost. 

Kiccio, curled, crisped, frizled, shagged, bushie, hairie, rough, 
curled cipres, Crispin, vnshome veluet, the vtmost huske or 
prickles of a chesnut. Florio, Worlde of Wordes, 

Now that part therof which is vtmott & next to the pill or 
rind, is cabled tow or hurds, Holland's Pliny, xix. i. 

TJ^^Tf v,t (Lev. V. i; 2 Maoc. lii. c). To give out, ' 

disclose ; *' Simon uttereth what treasures are in the temple. 

all men as theirs 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

For their madnes shalbe vtUrtd vnto all men as theirs was. 
1 Tim, m. 9 (Tyndale). 


God worketh not sins in us, but utterdh the sins which we 
have by the corruption of our nature, and which lie hidden 
in us, when and where and how it pleaseth God. Bradford, 
Writings (Park. Soc.), p. 321 marg. 

This is the key that solveth all their arguments, and openeth 
the way to shew us all their false and abominable blasphemous 
lies upon Christ's words, and uttereth their sly juggling over the 
bread, to maintain antichrist's kingdom therewith, l^ndale, 
Anawtr to More, p. 240. 

I am glad to be constrained to utter that 
Which torments me to conceal. 

Shakespeare, Cymb. y. 5. 

Utter, adj, (Ez. x. 5, xlii. i). Outer; A.-S. 4Ur. 

The next daye he gaue a sore assaute againe, and with great 
force entered the vtter court of the castle. Hall, Hen, IV, 
fol. 236. 

Achilles left that vUer part where he his zeal applied. 
And turn'd into his inner tent. 

Chapman's Homer, IL xvi. 346. 

Uttermost, adj, (Matt. v. 26). Utmost, last; A.-S. 
sternest; compare nethermost from A.-S. ni^emest. 

The Father of heaven will not suffer him to be tempted with 
this great horror of death and hell to the uttermost, Latimer, 
tSerm, p. 233. 

Therefore the lord called him, and cast him into prison, there 
to lie till he had paid the uttermost farthing. Id. p. 42 q. 

It doth certainely belong vnto kings, yea, it doth specially 
belong vnto them, to haue care of Keligion, yea, to know it 
aright, yea, to professe it zealously, yea to promote it to the 
vitermost of their power. The TranslatorB to the Reader, 

Though the Cornish-men were become like metall often fired 
and quenched, churlish, and that would sooner breake then bow ; 
swearing and vowing not to leaue him, till the vttermosi drop of 
their bloud were spilt. Bacon, Hen, VII, p. 183. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



Vagabond^ sb. (Gen. iv. 12, 14; Ps. cix. 10). From 
Lat. vagabundits, a wanderer, fugitiye. The word has bjo- 
qaired a disreputable sense from the character of those to 
whom it was originally applied. 

For he did not thinke he shotdd incontinently please and 
gratifie them in all things, though they had made him now their 
generall ouer all their ships, and so great an army, being before 
but a banished man, a vacahond, and a fugitiue. North's Plu- 
tarch, Alcib. p. 226. 

Vain, ady. In its original sense of ' empty, worthless' 
(Lat. vanus); of frequent occurrence (Judg. ix. 4, xi. 3; 
Ex. y. g, &c. 

This Andrew, a worshipfull man, and an especiall frende of 
Picus, had by his letters geuS him counseill to leaue the study 
of philosophie, as a thing, in whiche he thought Picus to haue 
spent tyme enough : and which, but if it were appHed to y^ vse 
of some actual besines, he iudged a thig vaine & vnprofitable. 
Sir T. More, Works, p. 14 a. 

I trust I may not trust thee; for thy word 
Is but the vain breath of a common man. 

Shakespeare, K, John, ill. 1. 

To laugh at gibing boys and stand the push 
Of every beardless vain comparative. 

Id. I Sen. IV. m. a. 

Valiantly, do (Num. xxiy. i8; Ps. Ix. 12, cxvilL 15, 
* 16). To behave gallantly. 

Then ranne agayne the .ij. noble kynges, who dyd 90 valiantly 
that the beholders had great ioy. Hall, Hen. VIII. fol. 78 6. 

Valiantness, sh. (Ecclus. xxxL 25). Valour, courage. 

Then sodainely, one of the chiefest knights he had in all his 
armie called C^ulatius, and that was alway maruellously 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


esteemed of for his valiantnease, vntill that time : he came hard bj 
Brutus on horsebacke, aud rode before his face to yeeld himselfe 
vnto his enemies. North^s Plutarch, Brutus, p. 1076. 

Valiants, sh, (2 Sam. xxi. c). Heroes, yaliant men; 
originally ' strong men' from Lat. valere, to be stroi^, 
whence Pr. valoir and vaUlant. * Valiant is still used in 
Northumberland in its literal sense of 'strong.' 

Vanitites, lying (Ps. xxxi. 6). Empty falsehoods. 

Whateuer also is written as touching the vertues medicin- 
able of Lyncurium, I take them to be no better than fables, 
namely, that if it be giuen in drink, it wi] send out the stone of 
the bladder: if it be drunk in wine, it will cure thejaundise 
presently, or if it be but carried about one, it wil do the deed: 
but ynough of such fantasticall dreames and lying vaniUn. 
Holland's Pliny, xxxvn. 3. 

Vaunt, v.refi. (Judg. vii. 2; i Cor. xiii. 4; i Mace 
X. 70). To boast; from Fr. ranter, used reflexively se 
vanter, It vantarej and these again from Lat vanitare 
used by Augustine in the same sense. All are derived 
from the Lat vantiSy * empty.' 

The other syde was russet veluet pondered w* gold or 
purpled with gold, enbrodered with a great rocke or moun- 
tayne, & a picture of an armed knyght on a courser barded, 
vauntynge himself vpon that hil. 'Ra^l, Ben, VIII. fol. 810. 

Vauntingi sb. (Wisd. v. 8, xvii. 7). Boasting. 

You say you are a better soldier : 
Let it appear so; make your vaunting true, 
And it shall please me well. 

Shakespeare, Jul, Cces. iv. 3. 

Vehement, adj, (Cant viii. 6; Joa iv. 8). Violent, 
strong; Lat veJiemens, Used now with reference to the 
passions^ but not to the elements. 

For if the daye folowyng shall bee faire and drye, and that 
the bees maye issue out of their stalles, without pearyll of rayne. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


or vehement wynde, in the momynge erely he calleth them, 
roakynge a noyse, as it were the sowne of a horne, or a trumpet. 
Elyot, Govemour^ fol. 6 6. 

Vengeances J sb, (Ez. xxy. 17 m). The plural^ in 
accordance with the Hebrew, not the English usages 

Venison, sK (Gen. xxv. 28, xxvii. 3, 5, 7, &c.). Flesli 
of beasts taken in hunting, game ; Fr. venaison, Lat. vena- 
tio in the same sense. 

So, likewise, the hunter runneth hither and thither after hia 
game ; leapeth over hedges, and creepeth through rough hushes ; 
and all this labour he esteemeth for nothing, because he is so 
desirous to obtain his prey, and catch his venison. Latimer, 
Hem. p. 24, . 

Venison. Ferina...Ferina caro....^i7p(£7pa...& Aprugna caro. 
Veniton of a wild bore. Baret, Alvearie, s. v. 

Venture, at a (i K. xxii. 34; 2 Chr. xviii. 33). At 
random. The phrase was originally and properly *' at aven- 
ture, or adventure." 

But at aventure the instrument I toke. 

And blewe so loude that all the toure I shoke. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleasure, cap. 26. 

Sence that tyme, they haue imagined caltrappes, harowes 
and other new trickes to defende the force of the horsmen, so 
that if the enemies at auenture ninne against theyr engines, 
either sodeinly theyr horses be wounded wyth the stakes, or 
theyr feete hurt wyUi the other engines. Hall, ITen. F. foL 16 6. 

He was some hilding fellow that had stolen 
The horse he rode on, and; upon my life, 
Spoke a>t a venture. 

Shakespeare, a Hen. IV. i. i. 

In this passage the Quarto has 'at a venter;' the Folios, 
' at adventure/ 

Certes, I am not able to say, whether strange, forraine, and 
ineffable words hard to be pronounced, are more auailable to the 

Digitized by Vn«^JV.JV IC 


effecting of these incredible things, or our Latin words, coming 
out aJL a venture ynlooked for and spoken at random. Holland's 
Pliny, XXVIIL 2. 

Verily, adv. (Catechism). Truly ; from 'very' in its 
original sense. In the Ifl, T. it is the rendering of the Heb. 
word 'Amen* 

And he that synneth, and verrOtUy repenteth him in his last 
ende, holy chirche yit hopeth his savacioun. Chaacer, ParwtCt 

Verity, *&. (Ps. cxi. 7; i Tim. ii. 7; Athan. Creed). 
Truth ; Fr. veritS, from Lat. Veritas, 

Veryf ^J' (Creii- xxvii. 21 ; John vii. 26). In the 
phrases '^very and eternal God;" "wry God of very 
God;" "art thou my very son Esau?!' vety has its origi- 
nal sense of *true;' from Fr. vrai, 0. Fr. veraty which 
again are referred by Diez to the Lat veraciu, not verax. 

He that holdeth him in verray penitence, is blessed, after the 
sentence of Salomon. Chaucer, ParaorCe Tale, 

Nor the flocke of cryst is not so folysshe as those heretyques 
here them in hade, that where as there is no dogge so madde, 
but he knoweth a very cony fro a cony earned & paynted, 
cryste peple y* haue reason in theyr heddys, & therto the 
lyght of fayth in theyr soulys, shold wene that thymages of our 
lady were our lady her selfe. Sir T. More, Dial. foL 14 a. 

It could not be lost, but by the discorde of his verye frendes, 
or falshed of his fained frendes. Id. Rick^ III, Works, p. 6oe, 

We must be clothed or armed with the habergeon of tw^ jus- 
tice or righteousness. Latimer, Serm, p. 30. 

He did such miracles which no man else could do but only he 
which was both very God and man. Id. Rem, p. 71. 

This gentleman, the prince's near ally. 
My very friend, hath got his mortal hurt 
In my behalf. 

Shakespeare^ Rom. wid JhL in. i. 

Digitized by VnV.JV.JV IC 


VeflKture, sh. (Gen. xli. 42; Ps. xxii. 18). Dress, 
clothing, garment; Lat vestis. 

The courser whiche hjB grace roade on, was trapped in a 
naraeilous vutwre of a newe deuised fashion. Hall, Hen, VIII, 
foL 76 a. 

None of these are seene to weare any owches, or chaines of 
gold, but being clad with thin white vestureSf they shewe the 
countenance of mourners. Stow, Annals, p. 41. 

Vez, v,t, (Ex. xxii. 21 ; Num. xxv. 17 ; Matt xv. 22, 
xvil 15; Acts xiL i). To torment, harass, oppress; from 
Lat. vexare, Fr. vexer. The word had formerly a stronger 
sense than at present; it now signifies to irritate by little 

The yonger, which besides his infancie that also nedeth good 
loldng to, hath a while ben so sore diseased vexed with sicknes. 
Sir T. More, Rich, III, {Works, p. 496). 

This yeere master lohn Wicliffe, sometime student in Can- 
terbury Colledge in the Vniversitie of Oxford, parson of Lutter- 
worth in Leicestershire, hauing beene vexed with a palsey by the 
space of two yeeres, died, on the last of December, and was 
buried at Lutterworth. Stow, AnndU, p. 474. 

Victual, «&. (Ex. xii. 39; 2 Chr. xi. 23). Victuals; 
Lat. victticUia, Compare thank and thanks. 

For thei costrued with themselfes that their vitaUe would 
8one fayle becaus'e of the ayre of the sea and smell of the water. 

Hall, Hen, V, fol. 13 a. 

In a country of plantation, first looke about, what kinde of 
victtudl, the countrie yeelds of it selfe, to hand. Bacon, £88, 
XXXIII. p. 140. 

View, v,t. (Josh. viL 2; Ezr. viii. 15). To review, 

Before whose arriuall the kyng was departed from Wyndsor 
to Winchester, entending to haue gone to Hampton and to 
haue vetoed his nauie. Hall^ Hen, V, foL 10 a. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


Therefore, I say 'tis meet we all go forth 
To vvtw the sick and feeble parts of France. 

Shakespeare, Hen, F. n. 4^ 

VigilSj, *6. (Pr.-Bk.). This word, which is derired 
from Lat vigilice^ * night watches,' is used in the Pr.-BL 
to denote the eves of certain festivals which the church 
directs to be solemnly observed with fasting and p-ayer, in 
imitation probablv of the whole nights which our Saviour 
used to spend in devout exercises; Qiough some think they 
took their rise from the necessity the early Ghristians were 
under of meeting in the night during times of persecution, 
a practice which they continued when the necessity had 
ceased, before certain festiyals, in order to prepare their 
minds for a due observation 01 them. The actual custom 
of watching or spending the night in religious exercises has 
long ceased to be usual, though the name is still retained. 

Vile, adj. (Jer. xxix. 17; Phil, iii 21 ; Jam. IL 2). 
Literally, cheap, worthless, contemptible; Lat vilis. 

Edward the second... was faire of bodie, but vnstedfast of 
manners, and disposed to lightnes, haunting the company of 
vUe persons, and giuen wholly to the pleasure of the bodie, not 
regarding to goueme his common weale by discretion and ius- 
tice. Stow, Annals, p. 327. 

Viol| sb. (Is. V. 12, xiv. II ; Am. v. 23, vi. 5). From 
Norm, vieley which is the same as A.-S« Ji^ele, and K 
fiddle, A six-stringed guitar; Sp. viguela. 

Viols had six strings, and the position of the fingers was 
marked on the fingerboard by frets, as in guitars of the present 
day. Ghappell, J'op, Mus. I. 246. 

Cleopatra's barge is described in North's Plutarch {At^ 
fonius, p. 980) ; 

The poope whereof was of gold, the sailes of purple, and the 
owers of silver, which kept stroke in rowing after the sound of 
the musicke of flute, howboyes, cythems, vyolls, and such other 
instruments as they played vpon in the baige. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Virtuei sb. (Mark v. 30; Luke tI. 19). Mighty power ; 
Lat. virtust literally, manliness or that which is excellent 
in man ; applied first to physical excellence, in the sense 
of courage, and then to moral excellence in the sense in 
which it IS now commonly used. The following are exam- 
ples of the former usage, which is not yet entirely obsolete. 

For so astonied and asweved 
Was every vertue in my heved. 

Chaucer, ITouae of Farm, 11. 42. 

Be bold, and comforted ' by our Lord, and by the power of 
hia virtue,* Latimer, Serm. p. 25. 

The general end of God's external working is the exercise of 
his most glorious and most abundant virtue. Hooker, Ecd, Pol, 
I. ch. 2, § 4. 

Or have ye cho8*n this place 
After the toy I of battel to repose 
Your wearied vertue, 

Milton, Par, Lo»t, i, 320. 

Vocatioili «&. (Matt. xxii. c ; Eph. iy. i). In its ori- 
ginal sense of * calling' (Lat vocatio, from vocare), i.e. to 
the knowledge of salvation. 

We should tarry our voecUion till God call us; we should have 
a calling of God. Latimer, Btm. p. 26. 

Void| adj, (Gen. i. 2; i K. xxiL 10). Empty; like 
Fr. vide. Thus in Wiclifs Version of Luke xx. 10 (ed. 

And in the tynie Of gadering of grapis : he sente a servaunte 
to the tilieris : that they schulden gyue to hym of the fruyt of 
the yyneyerd, which beeten him, and letten him go voyde. 

Their hosen, cappes, & cotes, were ful of poises & H. & K, 
of fine gold in bulliS, so that the grotld could scarce apere k 
yet was in euery voyde pUce spangels of gold. Hall, lien, VIII. 
foL 106. 

Here the street is narrow: 
The throng that follows' Caesar at the heels. 

Digitized by VjVJV^V l33 



Of senaton, of pnetora, common suitora. 
Will crowd a feeble man almost to death: 
1*11 get me to a place more voidf and thero 
SpeadL to great CsesKr as he comes along. 

Shakespeare, /tt2. Ccn. ii. 4. 

80 Nashe {Lenten Stuffe, p. 14) speaks of **voide 
ground in the towne." 

Volume, «&. (Ps. xl. 7 ; Heb. x. 7). Literally, some- 
thing rolled up, a roll (Lat. volumen from 'cohere), as the 
MSB. of the ancients usually were (compare Jer. xxxvi 2). 

Voyage, sb. (Jud. ii 19; 2 Mace. y. i). A journey, 
whether by sea or land ; Med. Lat viagium or voiagitmi, 
Fr. voyage. Now restricted to the former. 

This is the poynt, to speken schort and playn, 
That ech of yow to schorte with youre weie. 
In this viage, shal telle tales tweye. 

Chaucer, Prd. to C, T., 784. 

Yet were the greyhoundes left wyth me behynde, 

Whyche did me comforte in my great vyage 

To the toure of Doctrme, with their fawnynge courage. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleasure, cap. 1. 

Vulgar, a€()\ (Baptismal Office, &c.). From Lat. vul- 
gariSy that which is used by the vulgtts, or great body of 
persons in the state; not necessarily carrying with it any 
depreciatory meaning. The * vulgar' tongue is simply the 
common language of the country. 

A noble lady... hath desired & required me to trSslate & 
reduce this said book out of frenssh into our vulgar Englissh, 
to thsde that it may the better be vnderstode of al snche as 
shal rede or here it. Gaxton, Knyght of the Towre, Prol. (Her- 
bert's AfMS, I. 51). 

And in this blindenesse had England still cotinued, had not 
God of his infinite goodnesse & botomelesse mercie reised vp vnto 
vs a newe Ezechias to confound all idolles, to destniie all hille 
altares of supersticion, to roote vp all countrefaict religions, & 
to restore (as muche as in so litell time maie bee) the true re- 
Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


ligion & wurship of God, 7* sincere prei^hyng of gods worde, 
& the booke of the lawe, that is to saie^ of Christes holy Tes- 
tamente to bee read of the people in their vulgarc toungue. 
XJdal, Fref. to Luke, sig. iiij. 6. 

J wald prelatis, and doctouris of the law, 
With us lawid pepill wer nooht discontent; 
Thocht wo in oar vtdga/re Umng did knaw. 
Of Christ Jesu the lyfe and testament. 
Sir D. Lyndsay^ The if onorcAte (Works, ii. p. 351, ed. Chalmers). 

For flouldiers, I finde the generalls commonly in their horta- 
tiyes, put men in minde of their wives and children: and I 
thinke the despising of marriage, amongst the Turkes, maketh 
the vtUgctr souidier more base. Bacon, JSss. Yiu. p. 27. 

Vulgar, sb. The vulgar tongue, or common language 
of a country. 

They prouided Translations into the vulgar for their Conntrey- 
men. The TramdoUors to ike Reader, 

Therefore, you clown, abandon, — ^which is in the vulgar 
leave, — the society, — which in the boorish is company, ~ of this 
female, — which in the common is woman. Shakespeare, J< You 
Like It, T. I. 


Wait| »&. Ambush, watdi ; like Fr. guef. It occurs 
in the phrases ' laying of waiV (Num. xxxy. 20), ' lie in foait^ 

That the spittle of a fasting man slayeth serpents and adders, 
and is venim to venomous beasts, as sayth Basilius super illud 
▼erbum in exameron: He shall bruse thyne head, and thou shalt 
lie in a waxie vpon his heeles and steppes. Batman vppon Bart/iO' 
lomew, foL 466 (ed. 1582). 

Wait upon, v.t. (Ps. cxxiil 2). To watch, attend. 

Digitized by Vj».JV^Tr"2 


After his sotildien had beard his oration, they were all of 
them pretily cheared againe, wondering much at his g^reat 
liberality, and vfoUed vpon him with great cries when he went 
bis way. North*8 Plutarch, Brviua, p. 1074. 

Comets, out of question, have likewise power and effect, 
over the grosse and masse of things : but they are rather gazed 
upon, and waited wpoii in their ioumey, then wisely observed in 
their effects; specially in their respective effects. Bacon, Eu, 
LVlii. p. «33- 

It is a point of cunning ; to wait upon him^ with whom you 
speake, with your eye ; as the lesuites give it in precept ; for 
there be many wise men, that have secret hearts, and trans- 
parant countenances. Id. Eta. xxii. p. 93. 

Sero, There is a gentleman 

At door would speak with you on private business. 
Clarangi. With me ? 

Serv, He says so, and brings haste about him. 
Clarangi. Wait on him in. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Loven' ProgresSj n. i. 

See quotation from Coverdale under Wealth. 

Wake, f.t. (Mai. ii i2fi»). To watch. 

Wanton, sh, (Prov. viL c). One dissolute or licen- 
tious: etymology uncertain. 

A man shall see, where there is a house full of children, 
one or two, of the eldest, respected, and the youngest made 
wantons. Id. Ess, Yii. p. 24, 

Wantonness, sb. (Rom. xiii. 13; 2 Fetii. 18). Licen- 
tiousness, dissolute uving. 

I rather will suspect the sun with cold 
Than thee with wantonness, 

Shakespeare, Meny Wives, TV, 4. 

If he outlive the envy of this day, 
England did never owe so sweet a hope. 
So much misconstrued in his wantonness. 

Id. I BTen. IV. v. «. 

Digitized by VnOO VIC 


Of Paracelsus Fuller says {Holy State, p. i. c. 3, p. 53, 
ed. 1652), 

Guilty he was of all vices but wanUmneM; and I find an 
honest man his compurgatour, that he was not given to women. 

WaXi V, t. (Josh. zxiy. 9). To make war. 

Morgan, the eldest sonne of Dame GonoriUa, claimed Bry- 
tain, and warred on his nephewe Cunedagius, that was king of 
Camber (that no we is Wales; & of GornwalL Stow, AnnaUt 
p. 15. 

Ward, adv. Used as a termination to denote motion 
towards a place ; " Uy-ward^^ signifying " with regard to," 
when used of an action, and '^towards'' when actual direc- 
tion is indicated. Thus " to us-ward" (Ps. xl. 5 ; Eph. i 19 ; 
2 Pet iii. 9), "to thee-ward" (i Sam. xix. 4), "to you- 
ward" (2 Cor.xiii.3 ; Eph. iii 2), "to the mercy-seatward" 
(£2. xxxyii. 9). It occurs frequently in Udal*s Erasmus: 

Whiche wheras vnto the ^GriAwarde they were reputed for 
abiectes, yet neuerihelesse had a perfeict zele of godly deuocion 
in theyr brestes. LakCy foL 33 a. 

Jesus... begS to take his ioumey to Jewrjtoard, Id, Mark, 
foL 596. 

Who so euer, saith he, putteth awaye his wife, and maiyeth 
an other, oommitteth aduoutrye to herward. Agayne if the wyfe 
forsake ^e husband, and marye an other, she committeth aduou- 
try to her former husbandtmir^ Id. Mark, foL 63 b. 

Ward, sb, (Gen. zl. 3, 4, 7, zlL 10, &c.). Guard, prison ; 
A.-S. weard. 

To commit one to vHird, or prison. In custodiam tradere. 
Baret, Alveark, s. v. 

I know, ere they will have me go to ward. 

They ^11 pawn their swords for my enfranchisement. 

Shakespeare, 2 Hen, VI, y. i. 

Digitized by V:i«^V.J VIC 


Ware, *6. (iJelu x. 31, xiii. 16, &c.). Merchandise; 
A.-S. «?drt*. 

The crafteman, or merchantman, teacheth his pirentioe to lie, 
and to utter his wuru with lying and forswearing. Latimer, jSSmn. 
p. 500. 

Ware, adj, (Acts xiv. 6 ; 2 Tim. ir. 15). Aware; lite- 
rally wary, cautious; A.-S. erc^r, connected with G. warteny 
E. ward^ gtuird. 

And as I stood and cast aside mine eie, 
I was ware of the fairest medler tree, 
That ever yet in all my life I sie. 

Chaucer, FUmer and Ltaf, 86. 

The darke had dimd the day ere I was iMii*e. 

Sackyille, Inditction, foL 206 a. 

Bat rather he intendeth to spy such a time that no man shall 
be ware of him. Latimer, Bern, p. 60. 

Ware (Luke viii. 27). Past tense of wear. 

Warfkre, go a (i Cor. ix. 7). The *a' in this 
phrase appears to be used as in the expressions 'a 
coming' (Luke ix. 42), &c 

In January followyng, the kyng came to Paris, and to ap- 
pease Grods wrath, he goeth a pylgrymage to diuera sainctes, 
with an vncredible nombre and concourse of people. Sleidan's 
Commentaries, trans. Daus, fol. laoa. 

l^othing but to show you how a king may go a progresB 
through the guts of a beggar. Shakespeare, Hand, IT. 3. 

Warrantv, sb. (Art. xxn.). Guarantee, security, 
confirmation; vvl waarande, Fr. garantie, the root of 
which is the same as that of tiie A.-S. wdrian, and E. ware, 

Washpot, 8b, (Ps. Ix. 8, cviii. 9). A vessel for wash^ 
ing in. 

WastenesB^ 9b. (Zeph. i. 15). Devastation, 

Digitized by VjVJOQIC 



Waster, 9b. (Prov. xviiL 9; l8.1iv. 16). A spendthrift, 

Some putten hem to the plough, 

Pleiden fal selde, 

In settynge and sowynge 

Swonken ful harde, 

And wonnen that wastours 

"With glotonye destruyeth. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis. 43. 

A destroier, a conqueror, or waster of a countiie. Populator. 
Baret, Alveane, s.v. Destroie. 

A waster, spoiler, or destroier. Vastator. Ihid, 

Wasting, sb. (Is. lix. 7, Ix. 18). Devastation. 

A wasting: a destroying by c5quest : a pilling, or robbing of 
a countrie. Populatus. Bajcet, Alvearie, b,y, Destroie. 

Watch, sb. Before the captivity the night was di- 
vided into tnree parts or watches ; the Jlrst watch occurs 
in Lam. ii. 19; the middle watch Judg. vii. 19; and the 
morning watch Ex. xiv. 24. These probably varied in 
length according to the time of year. In Matt. xiv. 25 a 
fourth watch is mentioned, having been introduced among 
the Jews by the Romans. Watch and wake are the same 
word ; hence a watch is the portion of time during which 
one watches or remains awake. 

Neither may the citizens fortifie the towne, nor vse red waxe 
in ^eir publike scales, nor winde a home in their night watches, 
as other cities doe. Moryson, Itinerary, p. 7. 

Watchingj pr. p. (Luke xii. 37). Waking, awake. 
Of those who are struck by lightning Pliny says,- 

He that is stricken watching, is found dead with his eies wink- 
ing and close shut ; but whosoeuer is smitten sleeping, is found 
open eied. Holland's Pliny, u. 54. 

Watching, «&. (2 Cor. vl 5, xi. 27). Wakefulness, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

520 TffB BIBLE 

It is reported, that the Thasiens do make two kinds of wine 
of oontrarie operations ; the one procures sleep, the other watch- 
ing, Holland^ Pliny, xiv. i8. 

Water brooks. »&. (Ps.xlii. i), and Water springs, 
$ib. (Pb. cvii. 33, 35). In these compounds, the word ' water,' 
which is apparently redundant, is literally from the Hebrew. 

Waterflood, ^. (Fs. Ixix. 15). A flood. 

In the moneth of May, namely on the second day, came 
downe great -iMitfr fiovds, hy reason of sodaine showres of haile 
and raine that had fallen, which hare downe houses, yron milles, 
the prouision of coales prepared for the said milles, it bare awaie 
cattell, &c. in Sussex and Surrey: to the great losse of manie. 
Stow, Annals, p. 1277. 

WaX| «.i. (Ex. xxii. 24; Lev. xxt. 47 ; i Sam. iii. 2, &c). 
To grow; A,-S. weaxan, G. wachsen, probably connected 
with the Gr. avfeiv, av^av€iv, and Lat. augere, 

Al 80 wroth as the wynd 
Wtex Mede in a while. 

Piers Ploughman's Fm. 1033. 

Biholde ye the lilies of the feeld hou thei wexen, ihei tra- 
veilen not neither spynnen. Wiclif, Matt. vi. ^8 (ed. Lewis). 

And othere seedis felden among thornes, and thomes weacen 
up and strangliden hem. Id. Matt. xiii. 7. 

Certainly, if a man will keep but of even hand, his ordinary 
expences ought to be, but the halfe of his receipts; and if he 
thinke to waa^ rich, but to the third part. Bacon, J5!ss. xxvin. 
p. ii6i. 

Waxen, pp, (Gen. xix. 13; Ler. xxy. 39). Grown; 
A.-S. weaxen: the past participle of the preceding. 

Way, fib, (Gen.xTi. 7; i 12; Mark x. 32, &c.). 
Road. Mr Grove (Smith's Diet, of the Bible, Art '* Way**) 
has pointed out that many passages would be made clearer 
by substituting * road * for * way.' 

For thei would goe walkyng vp and down in their philsc- 
tenes : thei would stade praiyng in the open stretes where soon- 
drie waiea mete. Udal's Erasmus, Lvke, fol. 1 15 a. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


But all the vmet he kept, by which his foe 
Might to or from the citie, come or go. 

Fairfax, TcMO, ni. 6$, 

Neither is it ill aire onely, that maketh an ill seat, but ill 
wayes, ill markets ; and, if you wiU consult with Momus, ill neigh- 
1>ours. Bacon, Esa. XLV. p. 180. 

In Chaucer 'way' is opposed to 'street^' as a country 
road to the street of a town. 

I schal him seeke by toay and eek by sirete. 

Pa/rdoner's TcUe, 14 109. 

Way, sb. (Luke x. 3 : John xi. 46). The phrases " go 
your ways," and " come your ways," are still common in 
Yorkshire; the former is used to a troublesome person 
whom you want to get rid of, the latter enticingly to one 
whom you wish to induce to come near. They were once 
of frequent occurrence. 

Sche kyst hir sone, and hom sche goth Mr weye, 

Chaucer, Mem of Law* 8 Tale, 4805. 

Come yow waits (saieth he) for now are ^11 thynges in a 
readinesse. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, fol. 117 a. 

He declared to his friend that he was never guilty in the 
murdering of the man: so he went his ways. Latimer, Serm. 
p. 191. 

When Aire to Caldor calls, and bids her come her wayes, 

Drayton, Polyolbion, xxviii. 76. 

' Ways* in this case is probably the old genitive. Com- 
pare the Germ. * er zog seines Weges,' * he went his ways.' 

* Went his way' (Gen. xviiL 33, xxiv. 61). 

Theseus who would not Hue idlely at home and doe nothing, 
but desirous therewithall to gratifie the people, went his way to 
fight with the bull of Marathon. North's Plutarch^ Theseus, 
p. 7. 

* By the way ' = on the road (Gen. xlii. 38, xlv. 24 ; Josh. v. 
4 ; Luke x. 4, &c.). 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


And trewely, thus moche I wol yow say, 
My newe wif is comyng by the way. 

Chaucer, Cflerl^s Tale, 858 r. 

For when a man rideth by the way, and cometh to Ids inn, 
and giveth unto the hostler Ins horse to walk, and so he himself 
sitteth at the table and maketh good cheer, and forgetteth his 
horse ; the hostler cometh and saith, ' Sir, how much bread shall 
J give unto your horse!* He saith, 'Give him two penny- 
worth.' I warrant you, this horse shall neyer be fat. Latimer, 
Serm. p. 395. 

Waji sb. (Acts xix. 9, 23). Used metaphorically for 
a course of life. 

Hear me, Sir Thomas: you're a gentleman 
Of mine own way; I know you wise, religions. 

Shakespeare, ITen, VIII. v. i. 

Men of his way should be most liberal. 

Ibid. I. 3. 

Have these my daughters reconciled themselves. 
Abandoning for ever the Christian way. 
To your opinion! 

Massinger, Virgin Martyr, L i . 

Wayfluing, adj. (Judg. xix. 17; 2 Sam. xii. 4; R 
xxxiii. 8, XXXV. 8). Travelling; A.-S. wegf^rende, from 
far an, Q.fahren, to fare, travel 

A traueller by the waie: a waifaring man. Viator... oJfnyf. 
Voiagier, viaieur. Baret, Alvearie, s. v. TraudL 

Moreover for the refreshing of waifaring men, he ordained 
cups of yron or brasse, to be fastned by such dearewels and 
fountaines as did runne by the waies side. Stow, Annah, p. 91. 

Wajrmaxkj sh. (Jer. xxxi. 21). A guide-post 

Ways, sh. (Lev. XX. 4; Num. xxx. 15; 2 Chr. xxxii 
13X The phrase " any wayz^ is equivalent to "any voM^ 
(i.e. in any manner), of which it is possibly a cormptioiL 
Latimer uses * other ways* for * otherwise' : 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


We may not put God to do any thing xniraculousljj when it 
may be done other wayt, Serm. p. 505. 

Bacon uses 'no wayes' for 'in no way' (Ess, x, p. 38, 
XXII. p. 95). 

Wealth, sb. (2 Chr. L 12; Ps. cxii 3; Litany). Weal, 
or well-being generally, not as now applied exclusively 
to riches. In this sense it is used in the Litany, ^ In all 
time of our tribulation, in all time of our fcealth;'* and 
*' commonio^o/^A" is ''common weal," bonum publicum. 
But, fye on that servant which for his maister's v>ealth 
Will Bticke for to hazarde both his lyfe and his health. 

Udal, Bouter DoitteTf it. i. 

Somwhat (as menne demed) more faltly thS he yt wer hartely 
minded to his welth. Sir T. More» Eieh, IIL; Works, p. 37^. 

What office speuer thou hast, wayte vpon it, .and execute it, 
to the mayntenance of peace, to the welth of thy people. Cover- 
dale's Prohge. 

Wealthy, adj. (Ps. Ixvi. 12 ; cxxiii. 4, Pr.-Bk.). Pro- 
sperous, well to do. See Wealth. 

As for this same ryche and weUhie citee' of whiche the Jewes 
at this present take an high pryde, and in whiche thei thinke 
theimselues to bee kynges felowes: shall bee eaen from the 
fonndacion destruied by the Gentiles. Udal's Erasmus, Zuke, 
foL 158 a. 

Wedlock, to break (Ecclus. xxiii. i8). To com- 
mit adultery ; like Germ, ehe brechen. 

And he sayeth voto them : whosoeuer putteth awav his wyfe, 
and marieth an other, breaketh wedlock, to herward. Udal's 
Erasmus, Mivrk x. 11. 

Ween^ vA. (2 Mace. t. 21). To think, imagine. A.-8. 

Ween you of better luck, 
I mean in perjured witness, than your master. 
Whose minister you are, whiles here he lived 
Upon this naughty earth ? 

Shakespeare, Hen, VIIL v. r» 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Weening to redeem 
And have install'd me in the diadem. 

Id. I Hen. VI, n. 5. 

Well, adv, in the phrase ^well-m^* (Ps. IzxiiL 2) for 
* Teiy near.* 

O wicked, wicked world! One that is well-nigh worn to 

Sieces with age to show himself a young gallant ! Shakespeare, 
ferry Wives, n. i. 

' Wdl near' was also used in the same sense. 

His pulse did scant beat, and his sences were wel neare taken 
from him. North*s Plutarch, Alex. p. 737. 

Well. «5. (Cant. iv. 1 5 ; John iy. 14). The force of these 
passages is greatly increased by remembering that 'well' 
(A.-S. foyly well) originally signified a spring or fountain. 
It springeth up as doth a vtelle, 
Which may none of his stremes hide, 
But rennetii out on every side. 

Grower, Conf. Am, i. 293. 

Here from when scarce I could mine eyes withdrawe 
That fylde with tears as doth the springing loell. 

Sackville, Induction, foL 712 h. 

Well, in the phrases 'well is him' (Ecclns. xxy. 8, 9), 
'well is tnee' (Ps. cxxviii. 2, Pr.-Bk.), for 'it is well with 
him or thee.' 

He loved hir so, that toel him wot therwith. 

Chaucer, Nun's PriesVs Tale, 16363. 

And wel was him, that therto chosen was. 

Id. Knight* 8 Tcde, siii. 

Well flEtVOUred. cuiy. (Gen. xxix. 17, xxxix. 6, xli. 
2, &c.)' Good-looking, nandsome. Used generally of beauty 
offaca [See Favour.] 

Then to her yron wagon she betakes, 

And with her beares the fowle wel-fauoured witch. 

Through mirkesome aire her readie way she makes. 

Spenser, F, Q. i. 5, § a8. 

Digitized by Vj«^JV.JV IC 


Well liking, adj, (Ps. xcii. 13, Pr.-Bk.). In good con- 
dition. See Liking. 

At that time, the poor was wonderfully preserved of God ; 
for after man's reason they could not live, yet God preserved 
them, insomuch that their children were as fat and as well-liking^ 
as if they had been gentlemen's children. Latimer, Serm, p. 527. 

Moreover, this is obserued in perusing the inwards of beasts, 
that when they be wd liking^ and do presage gfood, the heart 
hath a kind of fat in the vtmost tip thereof. Holland's Pliny, 
XI. 37. 

Wellspring, sb. (Prov. xvi. 22, xviii. 4). A spring, or 
fountain ; A.-S. wellgespring. 

In the wilderness also there shall be well-springs. Is. zzxv. 
6, quoted by Latimer, Bern, p. 72. 

The word of God is truth : but God is the only well-spring of 
truth: therefore God is the beginning and cause of the word 
of God. Bullinger, Decades^ i. 38. 

Wench, ah, (2 Sam. xvii. 1 7). A girl ; applied gener- 
ally to one of low birth. Derived from a root of which A.-S. 
wencle is the diminutiye (compare Sc. muckle and E. much). 
Lord, lady, groome and wenche, 

Chaucer, House of Fame, i. 98. 

I am a gentil womman, and no wenche. 

Id. Merchant's Tale, 1007$. 

Leontiscus, says Pliny (Holland's trans, xxxv. ii), 
Painted also a minstrel wench playing vpon a Psaltry, and 

seeming to sing to it ; which was thought to be a daintie piece of 


What, J9r. used for 'why,' like Lat. quid. 

But whai mention wee three or foure vses of the Scripture, 
whereas whatsoeuer is to be beleeued or practised, or hoped for, 
is contained in them ? The Translators to the Reader, 

Bru. But since he hath 

Served well for Kome, — 
Cor. WhaJt^o you prate of service? 

Shakespeare, Cor. in. 3. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


AIm, vikaX need you be so boisterous-roaght 
I will not struggle, I will stand stone-stiU. 

Id. K, John, IV. I. 

But what shoald I speake of these painters, when as Apelles 
surmounted all that either were before, or came after. Holland's 
Pliny, XXXV. to. 

What, pr. (Num. xxvL lo; Job vi. 17; Ps. lvi.3). In 
the phrase 'what time '= at what time, for 'when.' 

Therefore let our king, what time his grace shall be so minded 
to take a wife, choose him one which is of God ; that is, which 
is of the household of faith. Latimer, Serm. p. 94. 

What timie the shepherd, blowing of his nailsy 
Can neither call it perfect day nor night. 

Shakespeare, 3 Hen, VL n. 5. 

He shall conceal it 
Whiles you are willing it shall come to note, 
WhfU time we will our celebration keep 
According to my birth. 

Id. Tw. Night, iv. 3. 

Shakespeare uses 'which time' for 'at whidi time' in 
the same way: 

Which time she cbanted snatches of old tunes. 

HamL iv. 7. 

What man (Ps. xxv. 12, xxxiv. 12). Who. 

And what man is i- wounded with the strook 
Schal never be hool, til that you lust of grace 
To strok him with the plat in thilke place 
Ther he is hurt. 

Chaucer, SqiUrt^s Tale, 10474. 

What time as (Fs. Ixxxi. 7, cv. 13, Pr.-Bk.}. When. 
? ./^CtML^ , When as (Matt. i. i2^ When. 

< • ^ • But leaving all these reasons, it seemes that the Moone is saf- 

ficient in this case, as a faithfull witnesse of the heaven it selfe, 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


seeing that her eclypse happens, but when as the roundnesse 
of the earth opposeth it selfe diametrally betwixt her and the 
sanne, and by that meanes keepea the sunne-beames from 
shining on her. Acosta, Hint of the Indies, Eng. tr. p. 6. 

And now by night, when as pale leaden sleepe 
Vpon their eye-lids heauily did dwell. 

Drayton, Barons* Wars, n. 4 (ed, 16 19). 

The first line was altered from the od. of 1605, where it 
stood thus : 

Where now by night, euen when pale leaden sleepe. 
See quotation from Holland's Pliny under What. . 
Where, sb. Place. 

As for example, if we translate the Hebrew or Greeke word 
once by Purpose, neuer to call it Intent; if one where lourneying, 
neuer Traueiling; if one where Thinke, neuer Suppose; if one 
where Paine, neuer Ache &o. The Translators to the JReader. 

Bid them farewell, Cordelia, though unkind: 
Thou losest here, a better where to find. 

Shakespeare, K, Lear, I. i. 

See quotation from Sackyille under Taste* 

Where-through, adv. Through which. 

These are the two golden pipes, or rather conduits, where- 
through the oliue branches emptia themselues into the golde. The 
Translators to the Header, 

Whereunto, adv. (Acts r. 24; Priest's Exh.). Unto 
which; and so, for what purpose, to what end. As the 
compounds formed by prefixing t?iere- to prepositions, there- 
by, thereof, &c. may generally be replaced in modem kn- 
guage, by by it, qf it, &c. ; those which are formed with 
where-, such as wJiereby, wJiereqf, &c. may be replaced by 
by which, qf which, &c. 

Now when Andrew heard whereunto Christ was come, he 
forsook his master John, and came to Christ. Latimer, Rem, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Whet, pp. (Ps. bdv. 3, Pr.-Bk.). Sharpened. 

Whether, pr. (Matt xxi. 31). Which, of two ; Msbso- 
Goth. hvatJiar, A.-8. hwcs^er^ used, like the Icel. hfxyrt 
and Sans, kataras, when the question is of two things or 
persons. The following passages illustrate the usage. 

And weper of hem al so lengore were alyue, 
Were ojyer's eyr, bote he adde an eyr by hyg wyue. 

Robert of Glouceiter, p. 424. 

And thus byhote I yow withouten fayle 
Upon my troutbe, and as I am a knight. 
That whethir of yow bothe that hath mighty 
This is to Beyn, that whethir he or thou &c. 

Chaucer, KnighV% TdU, 1858. 

Cheaith yourself which may be most pleasuuce 
And most honour to yow and me also, 
I do no fors the whether of the tuo. 

Id. Wife of Bath's Tale, 6816. 

Whether of both he shall attempt I am ready to releue them, 
and if he doe nether, then d4>e I hope to sett these parts freer 
and in better securitie then theie were these vij yeres. Leycester 
Correspondence, p. 262. 

It shall be tried before we do depart, 

Whether accuseth other wrongfully. t 

Hey wood, i Ed, IV. n. 3. 

Whetter, «&. (Gen. iv. 22 m). A sharpener; from 
A.-S. hwettan, G. wetzen, to sharpen. Richardson quotes 
from Beaumont and Fletcher (VcUentinian, iv. i); 

No more ; I have too much on't. 
Too much by you, you whetters of my foUies, 
Ye angel-formers of my sins, but devils I 
"Where is your cunning now ? 

Which, pr. (Lord's Prayer). Commonly used for the 
relative wAo, applied to persons: A.-S. hwUc, O.H.G. 
htiSlthy Mseso-Goth. hvSleih, literally who-like. The G. 
welch and Sc. whilk are other forms of the word. 

Digitized by VjVJOQIC 


And al alone, save oonly a squyer, 
That knew his piyvyt^ and fd his cas, 
Which was disgysed povrely as he was. 

Chaucer, Enighfa Tale, 14 14. 

Whosoever loveth God, will love his neighbour, which is 
made after the image of God. Latimer, Serm, p. 338. 

While, sb. Hme; A.-S. htciL Of the Seventy, our 
Translators say, 

They did many things well, as learned men ; but yet as men 
they stumbled and fell, one while through ouersight, another while 
through ignorance. The Translators to the Reader, 

All dinneT-while he talked of these affaires : but I and diners 
others marked with what appetite those that sate at the table 
dined. Philip de Commines, trans. Danett, p. 176. 

Season your admiration for a while 
With an attent ear. 

Shakespeare, ffanU, i. «.^^ 

Whiles, adv, (Matt v. 25). While. It is the genitive 
sinff. of whiley which was originally a substantive, used ad- 
vemally. Comj^are needs and others. In Gothic -is is a 
common adverbial termination, and in Icelandic also the 
genitive expresses an adverbial sense (Rask, Icel, Ghr. p. 165, 
tr. Dasent). So also 4$ is the common termination of 
adverbs formed from nouns. 

The wonded knyghte hym downe sett. 
And for his wyfe full sare he g^^tt, 
Whils he ti^aire schipe might see. 

Sir Isumbras, 357. 

Look round about you, and whiles you quake at the plagues 
so natural to our neighbours, bless your own safety and our God 
for it. Adams, DevWs Banquet, p. 348; 

Such men as he be never at heart's ease, 
Whiles they behold a greater than themselves. 

Shakespeare, JiU, Cces. I. 2. 

Whirlpool, sb, (Job xli. i m). Perhaps the cachalot 
or sperm-whale, which is distinguished from its congeners 
by its peculiar manner of blowing. 

Digitized by VnOO^C^ 


The fish also called Musculus Marinus, which goeth hefore 
the whale or whirlpoole as his guid, hath no teeth at alL Hol- 
land's Pliny, XL 37. 

The Indian sea hreedeth the most and higgest fishes that are: 
among which, the whales and whirlepooUs c^led Balsens, take 
vp in length as much as foure acres or aipens of land. Id. ix. 3. 

• In the French ocean there is discouered a mighty fish called 
Physeter, \i. a whirle-poole\ rising yp aloft out of the sea in man- 
ner of a columne or pillar. Id. ix. 4. 

Tinet : m. The Whall tearmed a Horlepoole, or whirlepooU. 
Cotgrave, Fr, Diet. 

Whisperer, sb. (Prov. xvL 28 ; Eom. i 29). A secret 

Now this Doeg being there at that time, what doeth he ? 
Like a whisperer^ or man-pleaser, goeth to Saul the king, and 
told him how the priest had refreshed David in his journey, and 
had given unto him the sword of Goliath. Latimer^ Serm, 
p. 486. 

But yet their trust towards them, hath rather beene as to 
good spialls, and good whisperers; then good magistrates, and 
officers. Bacon, Ess, XLIY . p. 1 79. 

Whispering, sb, (2 Cor. xii. 20). Secret and ma- 
licious informatioiL 

Whit, sb. (i Sam. iii. 18; John vii. 23, xiii. 10; 2 Cor. 

xi. 5). A.-S. wiht, literally, thing. The word enters into 
the composition of aught (O.H.G. Sowiht, A.-S. dviht) and 
nattghtf A.-S. nd^wiht. What in somewhat is the same, 
and is used by itself in Wiclif (John vi. 7); "that echo man 
take a litil whatJ' Sir T. More {JVorks, p. 37/) uses 
'muche what,' 

Frende and foo was mvehe what indifferet. 
One garmente wyl serue a man mooste commenlye ij. yeares. 
Por whie shoulde he desyre moo? seinge yf he had thS^ he 
should not be the better hapte or couered from oolde, neither in 
his apparel anye whitte the comlyer. Sir T. More, Utopia, trans. 
Bobynsoo, foL 62 &. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Neither do I see or perceyue ony whitte at all, \7bat laude 
or prayse I shall gete by this my laboure. Erasmus, On the 
Creed, Eng. tr., Pref. 

Mahomet cald the hill to come to him, againe, and againe ; 
and when the hill stood still, he was never a whit abashed, but 
said ; If the hill will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet wil go to 
the hil. Bacon, Ess, xii. p. 45. 

Whit is used adverbially like A.-S. wihte, at all. 

White, 'c.t, (Matt, xxiii. 27; Mark ix. 3). To whiten. 
* Whited' is the A.-S. hwUod from hioitian. 

TFAt^e(2 ; appareled in white. Albatus-.-XeXei/Arw/i^os. Vesi/iik 
de hlanc* Baret, Alvearie, s. v. 

Blanchi: m. ie: f. Blanched, whited, whitened. Cotgrave, 
Pr, Diet, 

Who, used as an indefinite pronoun, like the Latin 

So the first Christened for his labour the 
name PupUlus, sub who would say, a wastefull Prince, that had 
neede of a Guardian, or ouerseer. The Translators to the 

She hath hem in such wise daunted, 
That they were, as who saith, enchaunted. 

Gower, Conf, Am, I. p. 285. 
As who should say, here no cost can be too great. Latimer, 
fkrm. p. 37. 

There is neither mean nor measure in making new holidays, 
as who should say, this one thing is serving of God, to make 
this law, that no man may work. Ihid, p. 52. 

And speaking it, he wistly lookM on me ; 
As who should say, *I would thou wert the man 
. That would divorce this terror from my heart.' 

Shakespeare, Rich, II, Y. 4. 

Who (Acts xxi. 37). The construction in this passage 
is archaic. Compare the following : 

The Lacedaemonians wished for him often when he was gone, 
and sent diuers and many a time to call him home : who thought 

Digitizedby VJVJV^'™■-" 

JWglC ' 


their kings had but the honour and title of kings, and not the 
vertue or maiestie of 4 prince, wherby they did exoell the com- 
mon people. North's Plutarch, Lycurgua, p. 46. 

About this time Sir lohn Froisart Chanon of Chimay in the 
Earledome of Heynault, as himselfe reporteth, came into England, 
h^ demaynded of Sir William Lisle (who had been wtth the King 
in Ireland) the manner of the hole that in, Ireland is called Saint 
Patricks Purgatory, if it were true that was said of it, or not : 
noho answered, that such a hole there was, and that himselfe and 
another knisht had been there while the king lay at Dubline. 
Stow, AnncUt, p, 499. 

Wbo. With the construction in the phrase ' I know 
thee who thou art' (Mark 1. 24; Luke iv. 34), compare 
Blud^espeare, Lear, 1, i. 

I know you vfJiat you are: 
And like a sister am most loath to call 
Your faults as they are named. 

WHole, adj, (Josh. Y. 8; Matt, ix, 12 ; Luke yiL 10). 
Hale^ healthy, sound ; A.-S. h4l. 

Bight so men gostly in this mayden free 
Seen of faith £e magnanimity. 
And eek the demess hool of sapience. 
And sondry werkes, bright of excellence. 

Chaucer, Second Nun's TdUy 12039. 

And therfore, if ye wil truste to my counseil, I schal restore 
you youre doughter hool and sound. Id. TaU of MeHbeus, 

I had else been perfect, 

Whole t^ th^ marble, founded as the rock. 

Shakespeare, Mcu^. m. 4. 

MasSy 'twill be sore law, then ; for he was thrust in the month 
with a spear, and *tis not whole yet. Id. 2 Hen, VI, I v. 7. 

A piece of work that will make sick men whole. 

Id. Jul, CcBs. n. I. 

Wholesome, ac(f. (Ps. xx. 6, Pt. Bk.; ProT. xv. 4 ; 
r Tim. vl. 3), Healthy, healing, health-giving, salutary; 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


G. heilsam, Sc. haihome. The root of course is the same 
as that of heed, hcde, hail. 

The Lord© therefore, who had with onely touchyng healed the 
man that had the dropsie, was verai desh'ous to cure these 
mennes disease also, with y® medicine of hoUome woordes and 
doctrine. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, fol. 115 a. 

In Chaucer's TaU of Mdibeus, Pror. xvi. 24 is thus 
alluded to; 

I se wel that the word of Salamon is soth ; he seith, that the 
wordes that ben spoken discretly by ordinaunce, been hony- 
combes, for thay geven swetnes to the soule, and holsomnes to 
the body. 

Whosesoever, pr. (John xx. 23). Of whomsoever. 

Whoso, pron, (Prov. xxv. 14, &c.). Whoever. 

And that's the wavering commons : for their love 
Lies in their purses, and whoso empties them 
By so much fills their hearts with deadly hate. 

Shakespeare, Mich, ll. ii. 2, 

And irAo so is out of hope to attaine anothers vertue, will 
seeke to come at even hand, by depressing an others fortune. 
Bacon, Ess. ix. p. 30. 

Whot, adj. (Deut. ix. 19). Hot ; so printed in the ed. 
of 161 1. 

And heare ale of Halton I have^ 
And whotte meate I hade to my bier. 

Chester Plays, 1. p. 133. 

Wiliness, sb. (Ps. X. 2, Pr. Bk.). Cunning, from 
A.-8. vyUe, wile, craft. 

For whyle thei dooe with their subtile vyylynesse striue against 
the purpose & weorkyng of God : thei haue bothe bewraied their 
owne foolishenesse, & also vnawares renoumed the sapience of 
God. Udars Erasmus, Lvke, fol. 12 6. 

Will^ V. t (Mark vi. 25; Rom. ix. 16; Tit. iii 8). To 
desire, wish, A.-S. willan. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Then he sent into the city to his friends, to wiU them to oome 
ynto him. North's Plutarch, AratuSj p. 1084. 

For in evill, the heat condition is, not to wiU/ the second, 
not to can. Bacon, Ess. xi. p. 40. 

For it is common with princes, (saith Tacitus) to wiU contra- 
dictories. Id. Ess, XIX. p. 77. 

Will-worahip, sb. (Col. ii. 23). A literal rendedng 
of the Greek cOcXodprjcrKcta, The Geneva version has "volun- 
tarie religion,*' and in the margin '^such as men bane 
chosen according to their own fantasie." 

Wimple, sb. (Is. iii. 22). A covering for the neck ; 
A.-S. winpel. It occurs in Chaucer's description of the 
Prioress {Prol. toG.T. 151); 

Ful semely hire vympU i-pynched was. 

And of the Wif of Bathe it is said; 

Uppon an amblere esely sche sat, 
Wymplid ful wel, and on hire heed an hat. 

Ibid. 472. 

Gower (Cor^f. Am, i. p. 326) describes Thisbe's flight 
from the lion. 

And she tho fledde away. 
So as fortune shulde falle, 
For fere and let her wimpel falle 
Nigh to the wel upon therbage. 

For she had layd her moumefuU stole aside^ 
And widow-like sad wimple throwne away. 

Spenser, F. Q. I. ii, § 39. 

Win, V. t. (Prov. xi. 30 ; Phil. iii. 8). To ^ain, which is 
radically the same word. The A.-S. vsinnan is, originally, 
to contend, labour; hence, to gain by labour. Bacon (.£Skr. 
L. p. 204) says of books ; 

For they teach not their owne use ; but that is a wisdome 
without them, and above them, won by observation. 

Digitized by VjVJOQIC 



Winebibber, sb, (Prov. xxiii. 20; Matt. xi. 19; Luke 
vii. 34). A drunkard. 

Now who knoweth not, that short sleepes agree not to those 
that drinke meere wine, neither will they serve their tume: also 
when as he contested with Agamemnon, and reviled him, at the 
first word hee gave him the tearme olpo^dpes, mne-bibber or 
drunkard; as if drunkennesse and wine-bibbiog were the vice 
which his heart abhorred most. Holland's Plutarch, MorcUa, 
p. 720. 

See Bibber. 

Wine filt- sb. (Is. Ixiii. 2 ; Mark xii. i). The vat or ves- 
sel into which tne liquor flows from a wine-press. See Fat. 

By which meanes the Delphians had respite to lay for them- 
selues, and manned the towne by the helpe of their neighbours, 
or euer the Frenchmen could be called from the loine fat to the 
standard. Stow, AnnaU, p. 17. 

Wink, V. i, (Acts xvii. 30). To connive ; A.-S. wincian, 
literally, to close the eyes. 

Were it not better for us, more for estimation, more meeter 
for men in our places, to cut away a piece of this our profit, if 
we will not cut away all, than to wink at such ungodliness. 
Latimer, Sei-m, p. 53. 

To loinke with the eies, to make as though we did not see 
and perceive some thing: to beare patiently, to let it passe as 
though we knew nothing. Gonniveo. Baret, Alvearie, s. v. 

I know my envy were in vain, since thou art mightier far. 
But we must give each other leave, and wink at cither's war. 
Chapman's Homer, II, iv. 66, 

Wise, sb. (Matt. L 18). Manner, way, guise; the 
latter being the Norman form of the same word. It ap- 
pears in the compounds ]iketDisey othenri^^, croaswisey 
contranwise. The termination gates in the obsolete an- 
other^a^^« and the Somersetshire gess or gtiess are ana- 
logons. ' On this ioise^ is 'in this way.' 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


The nexte hour of Mars folwynge this, 
Ardte to the temple walkyd is, 
To fyry Mara to doon his sacrifise, 
IfVith al the rightes of his payen wise. 

Chaucer, KnigMs Tale, 2371. 

He would in no ante retire his armie nor breake his iomey 
but would with all diligence entre into the realme of Fraunoe 
& destroy the people. Hall, Hen, V, fol. 10 a. 

Thou shalt well perceive how thou shalt make answor unto 
it, which must be made on this wise. Latimer, Serm. p. 4. 

The priest or minister, call him what you will, hath powe 
g^ven unto him from our Saviour to absolve in such wise as he is 
commanded by him. Ibid. p. 423. 

Wish, v.i. (Acts xxvii. 29}. To long; A.-S. tnscan: 
a stronger sense than now belongs to the worcL 

The Lacedaemonians wished for him often when he was gone, 
and sent diuers and many a time to call him home, Korth's 
Plutarch, Lycurgtu, p. 46. 

Wist, (Ex. xtI. 15; Mark ix. 6). Knew; wUte ]& 
the past tense of A.-S. witan to know (G. wu8en\ which 
remains in tJie phrase 'do to wit;* i.e. 'cause to know.' 

Whanne sche hadde seid these thingis sche tumyde backward 
and sigh jhesus stondynge, and vnatt not that it was iesus. 

Widif, John xz. 14 (ed. Lewis). 

Scho wiiU never whare to wonne, 
Whenne scho wiste her ^onge sonne 
Horse hame brynge! 

Sir Perceval, 35a 

See quotation from North's Plutarch in the next article. 

Wit, 8b. (Ps. cvii. 27; Intr. to Pr. Bk.). Knowledge, 
understanding; A.-S. wit^ from witan to know. 

But other again which knewe better the suttle wU of the pro- 
tectour, deny that he fuer opened his enterprise to the duke, 

Digitized by VjVJVJ VIC 


vntill he had hrought to passe the thinges before rehersed. Sir T. 
More, Rich, III, ; Works, p. 52 a. 

The farmers hearing him say so, were at their witiea ende, 
and wiste not what to doe. North's Plutarch, AleiJnadeg, p. «I2. 

Wit, v.i. (Gen. xxiv. 21 ; Ex. ii 4; 2 Cor. viii. i). To 
know, from A.-S. witan. *To do to wit' is *to cause to 
know.' [See Do.] 

He doihe us somdele for to toite 
The cause of thilke prelacie. 

Grower, Conf. Am. i. p. 13. 

The protector as hee was very gentle of hymselfe, and also 
loged sore to wU what they mente, gaue hym leaue to purpose 
what hym lyked. Sir T. More, Rich. III. ; Works, p. 65 «. 

With, sb. (Judff. xvL 7, 8, 9). A twisted branch of 
a tree, like the willow, used for a band ; from A.-S. Ki^ie 
or wi^iie. 

Brydille base he righte naUe; 
Seese he no better wane, 
Bot a wythe has he tane. 
And kenylles his stede. 

Sir Percwalf 42 t. 

The Greek willow is red, and commonly is sliuen for to make 
tnths, Holland's Pliny, xvi. 37, 

An Irish rebell condemned, put up a petition to the deputie, 
that he might be hanged in a vfith, and not in an halter, because 
it had beene so used, with former rebels. Bacon, Ess. xxxix. 
p. 163. 

With, prep. (Wisd. xix. 1 1). Used in a construction 
in which we should now employ *by.* 

Alexander was bred and taught vnder Aristotle the great 
philosopher; who dedicated diners of his bookes of philosophie 
vnto him ; he was attended with Callisthenes, and diners other 
learned persons, that followed him in campe, throughout his 
ioumeyes and conquests. Bacon, Adv. of L. i. 2, § 11. 

He is attended vjvOk, a desperate train. 

Shakespeare, Ltw, II. 4. 

Digitized by Vn«^JV.JV IC 


Rounded in the ear 
With that same purpose-changer. 

Id. K. John, n. i. 

Withal, adv. (i K. xix. i ; Ps. cxli. lo; Acts xxv. 27). 
Used adverbially in the sense of likewise, besides, at the 
same time; and also (Lev. xi. 21 ; Job ii. 8, &c.) where we 
shoidd use tdth simply. The A.-S. mtd-ecUle has the same 

A maydene scho tuke hir loithdUe, 
That scho myf t appone calle, 
Whenne that hir nede stode. 

Sir Pereeml, 182. 

When the religion formerly received, is rent by discords ; and 
when the holinesse of the professours of reUgion is decayed, and 
full of scandall ; and withaU the times be stupid, ignorant, and 
barbarous ; you may doubt the springing up of a new sect. 

Bacon, Ess* LTin. p. 234. 

I'll tell you who time ambles wWud, who time trots vnihaly 
who time gallops withal and who he stands still withal, Shake- 
speare, Ai You Like It, iii. 2. 

Withdrawen, pp. (Deui xiii. 13). The old form of 
'withdrawn' in the ed. of 161 1. 

Without, prep. (2 Cor. x. 13, 15 J. Beyond ; a£ in the 
phrase * without our measure/ which in the Geneva version 
of 2 Cor. X. 15 is rendered * without e the compas of our 

His mother was a witch, and one so strong 

That could control the moon, and make flows and ebbs. 

And deal in her command without her power. 

Shakespeare, Temp. v. i. 

Our intent 
Was to be gone from Athens, where we might, 
Without the peril of the Athenian law. 

ld,Mid.N.*tDr.iY. 1. 

Things without all remedy 
Shotild be without regard: what's done is done. 

Id. Macb. III. 2. 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


So in the culture and cure of the mynde of man, two thinges 
are vMovt our commaund: poyntes of nature, and pointes of 
fortune. Bacon, Adv, ofL,iL2i,^ 3. 

Witness, «?. i. (Deut. iv. 26 ; Is. iii. 9 ; Matt. xxvi. 62 ; 
Rom. iii. 21). To testify, give evidence, attest; from A.-S. 
witnesy literally, knowledge. 

All other tokens witnessed them to bee of the lowest calling. 
Sidney, Arcadia, p. is, 1. 50. 

The Scripture wttnesseth that when the book of the Law of 
God had been sometime missing, and was after found, the king, 
which heard it but only read, tare his clothes. Hooker, £ccl. 
Pol, y. § 22. 

When I came hither to transport the tidings, 
Which I have heavily borne, there ran 4 rumour 
Of many worthy fellows that were out; 
Which was to my belief witness'd the rather, 
For that I saw the tyrant's power a-foot. 

Shakespeare, Jfcuib. iv. 3. 

Witness, sb, (Mark xiv, 55}. Evidence, testimony. 

An evil soul producing holy tritness 
Is like a villain with a smiUng cheek, 
A goodly apple rotten at the heart. 

Shakespeare, Mer. of Ven, I. 3. 

Ween you of better luck, 
I mean in perjured wUnesSy than your master. 
Whose minister you are, whiles here he lived 
Upon this naughty earth ? 

Id. ffen. VIIL V. i. 

Wittingly, adv. (Gen. xlviiL 14). Knowingly; A^. 

And yf it happen that the preest made the sacrement of wyn 
without watre* it shal be reputed veri sacrement but the prest 
ahold synne moche greuously yt he left the watre wetyngly. And 
yf he made it of watre without wyn, that ahold be noo sacre- 
ment. Doctrinal of Sapience, Caxton, 1487 (Herbert's Ames, 
p. 1768). 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Nor yet do I account those judges well advised, which wiu 
tingly will give sentence after such witnesses. Xiatimer, Rem» 
p. 3^5. 

Witty, ddj, (Pr. viii. 12 ; Jud. xi. 23). Skilful, inge- 
nious, clever: from A.-S. witig. Like cunning and crcifty 
this word has become degenerated. 

He thought polecie more meter to be vsed thS foroe, and 
some wittie practise rather to be ezperymented then manjfest 
bostilitie or open warre. Hall, Hen, IV. fol. 116. 

Contrariwise, certaine Laodiceans, and luke-warme persons, 
thinke they may accommodate points of religion, by middle waies, 
and taking part of both ; and wiity reconcnlements ; as if they 
would make an arbitrement, betweene God^ and man. Baoon, 
Em, III. p. 10. 

Woe worth (Ez. xxx 2). ' Woe worth the day!' is 
simply * woe be to the day ! ' worth being the A.-S. weor^auy 
G. werden, to be or become, imperatiye weor^. 

But *wo iDorihe wykkyde armour!' 
Percyvelle may say. 

Sir Perceval, 139. 

Go to Job, what saith he?...Tro worth the day that I was 
bom in, my soul would be hanged. Latimer, Serm, p. a 21. 

Wo worth that such an abominable thing should be in a Chris- 
tian realm! Ibid. p. 232. 

In Piers Ploughman ( Vis. 13823) we find well worth; 

And wel worthe Piers the Plowman, 
That pursueth God in doynge. 

Womankind^ sb. (Lev. xviiL 22). Women. 

So easie is, t* appease the stormie wind 

Of malice in the cahne of pleasant toomanhind. 

Spenser, F. Q. n. 6, § 8. 

Digitized by Vn«^V.J VIC 


My passions are corrected, and I can 
Look on her now, and womankind, without 
liove in a thought. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Night Waiker, v. 2. 

Wonderflll^ adv, (2 Chr. ii. 9). Wonderfully. 

And this his coming shall be wonder/til comfortable and joy- 
ful unto them which are prepared, or chosen to everlasting life. 
Latimer, Rem, p. 54. 

Wonderfidl like is the case of boldnesse, in civill businesse ; 
what first ? boldnesse ; what second and third ? boldnesse. Bacon, 
En, zn. p. 44. 

Wont, adj. (Ex. xxi. 29; Mark x. i). Accustomed. 
It is projyerly the participle of the old word *to «?on,' 
A.-S. wunian, G. wohneriy * to dwell/ whence A.-S. wune, 
habit, custom. 

In which they whilom woned in rest and pees. 

Chaucer, KniyMt Tale, 3929. 

And outher while he is woned 
To wenden on pilgrymages. 

Piers Ploughman's Vis, 9985. 

There was the hert y-wont to have his flight. 

Chaucer, Kniffhfs Tale, 1694. 

Chancer {KnigMs Tale, 1066) also uses the substan- 
tire foone; 

And Palamon, this woful prisoner, 
As was his wone, by leve of his gayler 
Was risen. 

Work, V, t (Rom. It. i|, v. 3 ; 2 Cor. Til 10). To pro- 

TloB communicating of a mans selfe to his frend, worlks two 
oontraxie effects ; for it redoubleth ioyes, and cutteth griefes in 
halfet. Bacon, £s9, xxyit. p. no. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The lowest vertaea draw praise from them ; the middle 
vertues worke in them astonishment, or admiration ; but of the 
highest vertues, they have no sense^ or perceiving at alL Id. 

Et8, LIIL p. 313. 

Worshipi T, t (Marr. Senr.). To honour, without re- 
gard to the oDject ; now only used with reference to €k)d, 
except in metaphor. The original form of the substantiye 
* worship' was * worthship' (A.-S. weor^scipe), which deariy 
shews its derivation from tceor^y worth, honour. Abp. 
Tren^ has a note upon this word in his English Past and 
Present The following examples will illustrate its use^ 
both as A yerb and as a substanuve. 

Whanne thou doist almes, nyle thorn irumpe bifore thee as 
ypocrites don in synagogis and stretis, that they be tDorachipid of 
men. Wiclif, Matt. vi. 2 (ed. Lewis). 

A profete is not ¥dthouten worachip but in hia owne cuntre. 
Ibid. ziii. 57. 

Worschipe thi fadir and thi modir. Ibid. xiz. 19. 

If ony man seme me> my fadb schal vfonckipe him. Id. 
John zii. 26, 

'To do worship* (Josh. v. 14) is to show honour and 
reverence by an outward act : the Heb. is simply * to bow 
down/ and is elsewhere rendered ' to do obeisance.* 

Worthy, ad^, (Deut. xxv. 2 ; Luke xii. 48 ; Rom. i 32 ; 
2 Mace. iv. 25;. Like the A,-S. tvyr^e or weor^e it is used 
simply in the sense of 'deserving* whether of good or ilL 
Compare 'success* and other words. The construction 
'worthy the high priesthood' in 2 Maoc. iv. 25 is illustrated 
by the following passage from Sir T. More ( Works, p. 12 e); 

Which whan they dayly see the iustice of God, yet vnder- 
stande they not, that such as these thinges committe are wocrtAy 

Certainly my lorde if they haue so heinously done, thei be 
worthy heinouse pimishement. Id. p. 54 «. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


He that steleth any part of a mans substaunce, is worthy to 
lose his lyfe. Sir J. Cheke, Hurt of Sedition, sig. jE.iij h. 

And if the besetting of one house to robbe it, be iustly deemed 
worthy death, what shall we thinke of them that besiege whole 
cities for desire of spoile ? Id. sig. F.i a. 

Having already declared vnto you such things worthy memorie 
as we could collect, and gather of the life of Pericles ; it is now 
good time we should proceede to write also of the life of Fabius 
Mazimus. North's Plutarch, Pabitts, p. 190. 

Worthy, sib. (Nah. ii. 5). An honourable man, a 
hero. The *nine worthies^ were famous characters in the 
old plays. 

There to the Lord his welfare they commended, 
And with him left the worries of the crew. 

Fairfax, Tasao, XJ. 16. 

The senate house [at Hamburg] is very beautifull,' and is 
adorned with carued statuaes of Ihe nine worthies, Moxyson, 
Itinerary, p. 3. 

Worthily, adv. (ColL for Ash. Wed.). Deservedly. 

They would not leave their sins, they had a pleasure in the 
same, they would follow their old traditions, refusing the word 
of God : therefore their destruction came worthily upon them. 
Xiatimer, Hem, p. 51. 

Wot, Wotteth (Gen. xxL 26, xxxix. 8, xliv. 15, &c.). 
The present tense of wit, A.-S. toitari to know, of wluchthe 
ist and 3rd persons sing, are wdt, 

Wei I tooot he wepte faste. Piers Ploughman's Vis. 3433. 

We wote nevere what thing we prayen heere. Chaucer, 
Knights Tale, 1262. 

Because, sayeth he ye perceiue not what maner a thyng the 
^ngdome of God is,, tiierefore ye wotte not what ye desyre. 
Udal's Erasmus, Mark, fol. 67 b. 

He that hath not this faith, is but an unprofitable babbler of 
faith and works ; and wotteth neither what he babbleth, nor what 
he meaneth. Tyndale, Doctr. Tr. p. 55. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Ye nobTemen, ye great men, I wot not what rule ye keep. 
Latimer, Serm. p. 255. 

Would C3k)d! (Num. xi. 29; Deut xxviii. 67; 2 K. 
V. 3). An exclamation, purely English; it has no exist- 
ence in the original. 'Would to God' (Ex. xvi 3 ; Josh, 
vii. 7 ; Acts xxvi. 29) is similarly used. 

While I am here, whiche as yet intende not to come forthe 
and iubarde my selfe after other of my frendes: which woulde 
god wer rather in suertie with me, then I wer there in iubardy 
with thS. Sir T. More, Rich. IIL \ WorJa, p. 49/. 

Would God that any in this noble presence 
Were enough noble to be upright judge 
Of noble Kichard, 

Shakespeare, Rich IL rsr. i. 

I frou2c{ Co Qodf my lords, he might be found. 

Ibid. V. 3. 

I would t0 G^d some scholar would conjure her. 

Id. Much Ado, n. i. 

Wreathen. pp, (Ex. xxviii. 14, 22. 24, 25 ; 2 K. xxv. 
17). Twisted; A.-S. wri^en. 

The hegge also that yede in compas, 
And closed in all the greene herbere. 
With sicamour was set and eglatere; 
Wrethen in fere so well and cunningly. 
That every branch and leafe grew by mesure. 

Chaucer, The Flower and the Leaf, 57. 

We have in Scripture express mention de tortis crintbw, of 
wreathen hair; that is, for the nonce forced to curl. Latimer, 
Serm. p. 154. 

Wrest. V, t (Ex. xxiii 2, 6: Deut. xvi. 19; Fs. IvL 5; 
2 Pet. iii. 16). To twist, pervert; A.-S. wrcBstan, 

Lest thou be a knower of personnes in iudgmSty and wrttt 
the righte of the straunger. Coverdale's Prologs 

Digitized by V^uOQIC 


Wretchlessness, sh. (Art. xyit.). Recklessness, 
carelessness; A.-S. reccaleasnes. The Latin Articles of 
1562 have * securitateni.' Eecheless, wretchless and reck- 
Ip^s are forms of the same word, which is the A.-S. reccekas 
from r^j or recc^ reck, care. 

And this is frnytful penitence agayn tho thre thinges, in 
whiche we wraththe oure Lord JheKu CriHt; this is to i^ayn, by 
delit in thinking, by recheleane* in speking, and by wicked synful 
werkyng. Chaucer, Parsons Tale. 

Some lesing cometh of rechdesnes withoute avisement, and 
semblable thinges. Ibid. 

The form retcheles occurs in Erasmus, On the Com- 
fnandment8y Eug. trans, fol. 155 &. 

Such maner persones (as thou doste saye) eyther do not 
beleue tbat god is, or els they du beleue that he is dull and 
foolyshe, tbat he dotbe not kiiowe what men done, or els they 
beleueu, that he is slepy and retcMes. 

Where Death, when bee the mortall coips bath slayne^ 
With retchUase hand iu graue di)th couer it. 

backvilie, Induction^ fol: 110a. 

For the interchange of the sounds of k and soft ch com- 
pare wake, watch, 0. E. inake and match, 0. E. biseke and 
beseech and many others. 

Wringed (Judg. vi. 38). Wrung. 

Writ (Judg. viii. 14 m\ Wrote. 

For some, vetily, writ an history of the words and deeds of 
Christ, and some ui the words and det»d8 of the apostles. JBul* 
linger^ Decadai, 1. 53. 

Yet, for I loved thee. 
Take this along ; 1 tvrit it lor thy sake, 
And would have sent it. 

Shakespeare, Cor, T. a. 

Digitized by Vj»^VJVlt35 


Bat that seZ/hand, 
Which iBfii his honour in the acts it did, 
Hatb, with the courage which the heart did lend it, 
bplitted the heart. 

Id. AiiA, and CI. T, i. 

Wroth; adj, (Gen. iv. 5; Ps. Ixxxix. 38). Wrathful, 
angry; A.-S. wrdU, 

For he was nether wrothf nor murmured against Christ, but 
went his waye wyth moumyng chere and silence. Udal*8 
JSrasmusy Mark, fol. 65 a. 

Whereat Gadwallin wroth, shall forth issew, 
And an huge hoste in Northumber lead. 

Spenser, i*. Q. m. 3, § 39. 

Wryed, pp, (Ps. xxxviiL 6 m). Twisted. 

But preachers slie &; wilie men followynge youre counsel 
(as I suppose) bicause they saw men euel willing to frame theyr 
manners to Cbristes rule, they haue wrested and wriedt his doc- 
tryne, and like a rule of ieade haue applyed it to ifiens manners. 
Sir T. Moi*e, Utopia, trans. Robynson, fol. 39 a. 

At such tyme as the croune was set vpob the protectours hed, 
his eye could neuer abyde the sight therof, but vjryed his bed 
another way. Hall, Rich, III. f o£ 6 h. 


7ea and Nay were originally the answers to questions 
framed in the amrmatiye; Yes and No the answers to 
questions framed in the nc^ati^e, according to the famous 
passage of Sir T. More ( Works, p. 448, ed. 1557), in which 
there is an odd misprint, repeated fh)m the edition of 1532. 

No aunswereth the question framed by the affirmatiue. Am 
for ensample, if a manne should aske Tindall bymsdfe : ya an 

Digitized by V^VJVJV IC 


heretike mete to translate holy scripture into englishe. Lo to 
thys question if he will aunswere trew englishe, he muste aunswere 
nay and not no. But and if the question be asked hym thus lo : 
Is not an heretyque mete to translate holy scripture into english. 
To this questiS lo if he wil atiswer true english, he must aOswere 
fu> & not nay. And a lyke difference is there betwene these two 
aduerbes ye, and yea. For if the questeion bee framed vnto Tin- 
dall by thoffirmatiue in thys fashion. If an heretique falsely 
translate the newe testament into englishe, to make hys false 
beresyes aeeme y* worde of Godde, be hys bookes worthy to be 
burned ? To this question asked in thys wyse yf he wil aunswere 
true englishe he must aunswere ye, and not ye». But nowe if the 
question be asked hym thus lo by the negatiue : If an heretike 
falsely translate the newe testament in to englishe, to make hys 
false heresyes seme the word of God^ be not bis bokes well wor- 
thy to be burned ? To thys question in thys fashion framed if he 
wyll aunswere trew englyshe, he maye not aunswere ye, but he 
must aunswere yes, and say yes mary be they, bothe the transla- 
tion and the translatour, and al that wyll holde wyth them. 

As the passage in Tyndale*s version npon which this is 
a criticism, is '* Arte thou a prophete. And he answered 
no," it is evident that in the first line we must read 'Nay' 
for 'No/ 

Team, t?.t. (Gen. xliii. 30; i K. iii. 26). To stir with 
emotion; A.-8. gimatif literally to long for, desire eagerly; 
connected with G. gier, gem. 

No; for my manly heart doth yearn, 

Shakespeare, ffen. F. n. 3. 

Used also transitively; 

Oh I how it yearned my heart when I beheld 
In London streets, that coronation day, 
When Bolingbroke rode on roan Barbary. 

Id. JUch, II. V. 5. 

Yer, adv. (Num. xi 33, xiv. 11). Ere; in the ed. of 
161 1. 

Digitized by ^^Ogl^j 


Ter EuruR l>lew, yer moon did wax or wain, 
Yer sen had iisli, yer earth had grass or gra.n, 
God was not void of sacn d exercise; 
He did admire Lis glorie's m) steries. 

Sylvester's Du Bartas, p. 3 (ed. 16 11). 

Sylvester also uses 'yerst' for 'erst.* Compare the 
forms *ean' and *yean.* 

Testemight, sb. (Gen. xix. 34, xxxi. 29, 42). We 
retain * yesterday' thougli yesternight has become obsolete. 
In old English many other such compouuHg are found; 
yestermomy yster^en^ yesterem, &c, and Holinshed uses 
yest&rfang. The first part of the word is the A.-S. gys- 
trariy or gyrstariy G. gestern, Lat. hesternua; whence gys- 

My lord, I think I saw him yestemighJt. 

Shakespeare, Hand. I. 4. 

' Since Martini hath begunne to refine that, which was ya- 
temight resoiued ; I may the better haue lea'ie (especially in the 
mending of a proposition, >fchich was mine owne,> to remember 
an omission, which is more than a misplacmg. Bacon, Of an 
Holy War^ p. 112, ed, 1629. 

Yokefellow^ sb. (Phil. iv. 3). Comrade. 

Yokefellows in arms. 
Let us to France! 

Shakespeare, JTm. V. ii. 3. 

Thou robed man of justice, take thy place; 
And thou, his ynJcefellow of equity, 
Bench by his side. 

Id. Lear, iii. 6. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



He condemnetli the CsiHinall of vntroth, accnseth hym of 
dissiiiuilation, ahhorrefh his practises, as by y® whiche he lost 
the fruition of the K. of Englande bis friemlahip, and might no 
longer enioy it. Holinshtd, Chron, p. 15176. 


It [Anime] is of a v*»ry acreptcihle and pleasannt smell. Framp* 
ton, Joyful News out of the New-found Worlde, fol. 2 6. 

Adventures, at all. 

Although thei^e thynges seme in apparence to bee dooen by 
ehaunce & at all aduentureSy yet sha 1 tlirre nothyng chaunce 
vnto you, but by the perini'oion of your father who careth for 
all thynges belongyng vnto you. Udid's Erasmus, Luke, fol. 


The dedication of Drayton's Battle of Agincourt, &c. 
(ed. 1627) is signed 

By your truly affectioned 


Michaell Drayton. 

*Kvil affectioned^ U founil in the Geneva Version of 
2 Mace. iv. 21, where the Auth. Vers, has 'not well af- 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Aliant, d>, (Job xix. 15 ; Ps. Ixix. 8 ; Lam. v. 2) aod 
Alient (Is. IxL 5), the old forms of 'alien' in the ed. of 
161 1. Compare ' tyrant ' from rvfMwos. 

Appoint. The following is an example of the phrase 

Bat if the inhabitauntes of that lande wyl not dwell with 
them to be ordered by their lawes, thS they diyue them oat of 
those boundes which they haue limited, and apointed out for 
them selues. Sir T. More, Utopia, trans. Robynaon, foL 62 a 
[64 a]. 

Are not (Matt ii. 18). Do not exist 

Men create oppositiona, which are not. Bacon, Ets. m. p. 1 1. 

So Bacon nses ^were not' in the same way: 

All which may be guides to an outward morall yertae, though 
religion vert not. Est. xvu. p. 68. 

At one. 

l^is kyng & )>e Brut were <U on, ]>a.t to wyf he tok 
Hys dorter Lmogen, ao hys loud he for sok. 

Eobert of GUmouier, p. 13. 

The following are good instances of the early use of the 
word ' atonement :' 

For it is more honestee for suche an one before battaille bee 
ioyned to make treactie of aUmementtf then after the receiuyng 
of a great plague to bee glad to take peace. Udal*s Erasmus, 
LuJee, foL 118 a. 

And finally in suche wyse qualifiyng and appeasyng all the 
troubleous affiMscions of the mynde, that eueiy man nude be at a 
perfeict staigh of quietnesse, and of atonement within himself. 

Ibid. foL 16 ft. 

Attire, sb. 

Also noblewomen vsed high attire on thdr heads, piked like 
homes, with long trained gownes, and rode on side saddles, after 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 


the example of the Queene who first brought that faRhion into 
this land, for before, women were vsed to ride astride like men. 
Stow, AnnaU, p. 471. 

And Goldcliff of his ore in plentious sort allowes. 

To spangle then: attyet's, and deck their amorous browes. 

Drayton, Polyolbum, iv. «oo. 

Attire, f)X 

But when they had opened the doores, they found Cleopatra 
Starke dead, layed ypon a bed of gold, attired & arayed in her 
royall robes, and one of her two women, which was called Iras, 
dead at her feete : and her other woman Charmian halfe dead, 
and trembling, trimming the diademe which Cleopatra ware 
ypon her head. North's Plutarch, ArUoniua, p. 1008. 

Boast, to make. 

That man, how dearly ever parted, 
How much in having, or without or in. 
Cannot make boast to have that which he hath. 
Nor feels not what he owes, but by reflection. 

Shakespeare, Tr, and Or, m. 3. 


We maie now seme no mo maisters but hym alone, (to whom 
onely we are bounds debtours for all the goodnesse that euer we 
haue) where in tymes paste we had been bondeteruauntea to 
ambidon. Udal's Erasmus, Luke, foL 16 a. ' 

Break up. 

But where as his audience encreased daylye, requeste made, 
that the churche myght be open for hym, or els should the dores 
be broken vp, Slfddan's Commentaries^ trans. Daus, fol. 137 6. 

In Ez. xviii. 10 m we find ' the breaker up of an house.'' 

For, the iron they occupied for their coyne, they caAt vinegar 
vpon it while it was red hoate out of the fire, to kill the strength 
and working of it to any other vse : for thereby it was so eger 
& brickie, that it would bide no hammer, nor could be made, 
beaten, or forged to any other fashion. North*8 Plutarch, Ly- 
cwgus, p. 49. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Brim is used by Shakespeare for the edge of a clift 

Brin^r mo but to the very brim of it. 

** Lear, iv. i. 


Belike he had charged them with some leuies, and troubled 
them with some cariayts. The TranstcUors to the Readet\ 

Certify. For Ps. xxxiv. read Ps. xxxix. 


Huesso de la garganta, the channell bone. Minsheu, Sp, J>icL 
In Chaucer it is written * canel bone :' 

It was white, 8m«ioth, streight, and pure flatte. 

Without hole or canel bone. 

And by tieuiing, she had none. 

Booh of the Duchess, 943. 


Bv that same way the direfuU dames doe drive 
Their mournefull charet, fild with rusty blo«Ki. 

Spenser, P, Q. I. 5» § 3^- 

Charmer, sb. (Deut. xviii. 1 1 ; Ps. Iviii. 5 ; Is. xix. 3). 
An enchanter, a worker by spells and charms {carmina). 

That handkerchief 

Did an Egyptian to my mother give; 
She was a charmer, and could almost read 
Ihe thoughts of people. 

Shakespeare, 0th, in. 4. 


And thei schulen sonde hem into the chymnfy of fier. there 
Bchal be wepyng and gryntyng of teeth. Wiciif, MaU. xiii. 50 
(ed. Lewis). 


For when he was but a yong man, and scantly knowen, he 
earnestly intreated one Epic'e» borne at Ht-rmionna, an excellent 
player of the citheme, & counted at that time the cui.n»ngtst 
man in all Athens at that insirument, that he would come and 
teach his art at his house. North's Plutarch, Themist, p. 125. 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


Close, adj. (2 Sam. xxii. 46 ; Ps. xviii. 45 ; Luke ix. 
36). Sjcrct, conceale.l ; Lat. clausus from clnudere to shut. 
It occurs in Sliakcspeure butli in un active and a passive 

And T, the mistress of your charms. 
The clo*t c»>iitriver of all harms, 
Wan never c.iUM to hear my part, 
Or Bho.v the glory of our art. 

Siiakespeare, Jfoci. m. 5. 
That do»t aspect of his 
Doth show the muod of a much troubled breast. 

Id. K. John, IV. «. 
Not all so much for love 
As for another secret cLotte int -iit, 
By marrying her which I must reach unto. 

Id. Rich. III. I. I. 
Xnow^st thou not any whom corrupting gold 
Would tempt unto a close exploit 01 deaih? 

Ibid. IV. 2. 
I will take order for her keeping dose. 

Ibid. IV. 2. 
Will you do this, keep close within your chamber. 

Id. Haml. iv. 7. 
A servant, or a favorite, if hee be inward, and no other appa- 
rant chuhc of estefme, U commonly thought but a by-way, to 
dose corruption. Bacon, Ess. xi. p. 42. 

Commune. For * Sir T. More ' read * Hall.' 

Comprehend^ v.t. (Is. xl. 12). In its literal sense, 
to take in, include; Lat. compre/iendere. 

Moses, who, at God's commandment, did in writing compre- 
hend the hintory and traditions of the holy fathers. Buili:.ger, 
Decades, i. p. f,6. 


There was one S^bafltian Gabato, a Venetian, dwelling in 
Bristow, a man seeneand expert in coMmographie and n:iu gation. 
This man seeing the succeHse; and emulating perhaps the enter- 
prise of Chrihtopherus Columbus ii that foduuate discouerie 
towards the suuthweht, which had beeue by him made some sixe 

Digitized by VjV.JV.JV IC 

554 ^TJy^ BIBLE 

yearea before ; conceited with himselfe, that lands might 1 

bee dlBcoaered towards the northwest. BacoD, JSen, VII, p. 187. 


Who wo eoer not regardynge god, doth obaye his oonettpisoenee 
and loste, doth he not after a certaine manor forsake god & i his 
place set vp his owne concupiicence. Erasmus, On the Creed, 
Bng. tr. foL 45 a. 

Consecrate. Add reference, Judg. xviii. e. 


All the oonspiratours, but Brutus, determining ypon this 
matter, thought it good also to kill Antonius, because he was a 
wicked man, and that in nature fauoured tyranny : besides also, 
for that he was in great estimation with souldiers, hauing bene 
conuersani of long time amongest them. North's Plutarch, 
BruttUj p. 1061. 


Octavia is of a holy, cold, and still convenaHon, 

^akespeare, Ani. and CZ. n. d. 


A singular counterpoison is new wine in the lees, against al 
serpents... it helpeth those who are in danger of crudUd milk 
within the body. Holland^s Pliny, xxin. i. 

Curious arts. 

At this time the king began againe to be haunted with sprites, 
by the magicke and curious arts of the Lady Margaret: who 
raysed vp the ghost of Richard, Duke of Yorke, second sonne 
to king Edward the Fourth, to walke and vex the king. Bacon, 
Ben. F//. p. 11 a. 


It will one daie peraduenture repente theim, whan thei shall 

nee the delicates, with the goodly furniture and seruioe of the 

feast, and thei shall haue enuie at suche persones, to whom their 

skomefull lothyng of it, hath made roume to sitte in their stedes. 

Udal's Erasmus, Luit, toL X17 6« 


In the kingdom of Temates, among those nations, which wee 

Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 


%o fdll-mouthed, call BarbarouSy the custome beareth, that they 
xiever vndertake a warre, before the bubs be detuAijuxd, Mon^ 
-taigne's Essays, tra^s. Floiio» p. 1 1. 


I remember in the begimung of Queene Elizabeths time of 
IBngland, an Irish rebell condemned, put up a petition to the 
deputies that he might be hanged in a with, and not in an halter, 
l>ecau8e it had beene so used, with former rebels. Bacon, £s8^ 
3:xxix. p. 163. 

In Udal's Erasmos, Matt xxvii Pilate is called 'the 
ddntie' and TyndaJe {Matt xxvii. 2) has * Poncius Pylate, 
the deJyyteJ 


Hauing therefore first with a staffe set out and dacribtd (as 
it were) the modell and forme of a Temple, ypon the ground 
which lay before him ; bee came about the Roman embassadors 
beforesaid, and questioned with them in this wilie manner : Is it 
so, Eomans, as you say? and are these your words indeed? Hol- 
land's Pliny, xxvm. 9. 

Descry, ^ .^. (Judg. 1 23). To observe, in a military 
sense, to reconnoitre. 

Who hath descried the number of the foe? 

Shakespeare, Rich, III. T. 3, 

Edmund, I think, ia gone. 
In pity of his misery, to dispatch 
His nighted life; moreover, to descry 
The strength o' the enemy. 

Id. Zeor, iv. 5, 

Discern, vX (Gen. xxvii. 23). To recognize; applied 
formerly to recognition by any of the senses^ and not as 
now restricted to vision bodily and mental. 


But Jesus by meane of a parable whiche he propouned vnto 
iheim, taught theim that in dede the Jewes wer called in y* first 
place, to ^ ende thei might not coplaine or fvnde fault yt thei 
wer naught sette by. XJcUl's Erasmus, Lake, fol. 116 &• 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Envy. Shakespeare uses 'envious' in the sense of 
* malicious.' 

The ruthless flint doth cut my tenrler feet, 
And when I start, the etivioua people laugh 
Ahd bid me be advised bow I ti*ead. 

a Hen. VI. IT. 4. 

Err. Telemachus, addressing Menelaus, says of Uljs- 

To thy knees therefore I am come, t*attend 
Belatioii o. the nad juid wretchtd end 
My erri7tg father felt. 

Chapman *8 Homer, Od. iv. 435. 
Erring Grecians, we 
From Troy were turning homewards. 

Ibid. IX. 362. 
The extravagant and erring spirit hies 
To bis coniiue. 

Shakespeare, ffanU. I. i. 

Fervent, adj. (2 Pet. iii. 10, 12). In its literal sense 
of * burning.' 

Ire, after the philosofer, is the fervent blood of man i-quiked 
in his hert, thurgh which be wulde harm to him th»t him hatith. 

C.iaucer, Parson^s TaU. 

Like him that with the feruent feiier striues 
When sicknesse seekes hi.s Civsteli* health to skale. 

Sackville, Inducti<m, fol. 207 h. 

Fervent: m. enter f. Feruent, hot, ardent, scaulding, scorch- 
ing, burning; chafed ; eager, augrie, fierce; vehement, earnest. 

Cotgrave, Fr. Diet. 


The (tarce made of horse haire, was a deuise of the FrenA- 
men. Hullaiid*^ Pliny, xviit. 11. 

' French ' for * Gauls ' also occurs: 
V In adoring the gods and doing reuerence to their images, wee 

• So in the editions of 1563, 1610. Misprinted 'calsteU'in 
the editions of 1571, 1587. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


to kisse our right hand and tume about with our whole 
"body: in wl ich gesture the French obserue to tume toward the 
left haml ; and they beleeve that they shew mure deuotiun in so 
doing. Hollauti's Pliny, xxyui. 2. 

Pull, adv. (John vii. 8). Fully. 

The first suit is hot and hasty, like a Scotch jig, and fvU as 
fantastical Shakespeare, Much Ado, 11. i. 

Glorious, adj. (Bsth. xvi. 4). Boastful. 

Sought they to diminishe his aut' oritie, or to bridge him that 
iie should not vst- the authoritie of a kinj<? I thinke no, and to 
say the truth how could they? though diners gloriotis fooles said 
they might. Philip de Cominines, trans. Dinett, p. 198. 

Go it up. The following are other instances of the 
same construction : 

Notwithstanding, when they came to the hilles, they sought 
forcibly to clime them vp. 

North's Plutarch, Pelopidas, p. 324. 

In the second quarto of Shakespeare's Lear, iv. 6, the 
reading is, 

You do climbe it vp now. 


I coulde nothyng beholde the goodlines 

Of that palaice where as Doctrine did wonne. 

Hawes, Pastime of Pleasure, cap. 3. 

Halt, adj. 

Now if they were not at I'bertie, and had not void space 
enough, but sliould beat against s- me hard thing in their way, 
they would soone be lame aud halt witiiall. 

Holland's Pliny, viii. 43. 

Hastily, adv. (Gen. xli. 14; Judg. ii. 23). Quickly; 
not of nec^sdity hurriedly, which is the luoclern meaning of 
the word. 

The other condicioun of verray confessloun is, that it Tuutily 
be done. Chaucer, Parson's Tale. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Health, #5. (Ps. cxix. 123, Pr.-Bk.). In the A. V. of 
this passage the Hebrew is rendered ' salvation/ and in a 
spiritnal sense the two words were once synonymous. 

Now no man can gene euerlastyng Ktliht and salnation: sane 
on«lye god. ErasmuB, On the Creed, fol. 51 5, Eng. tr. 

Kowe bothe these tytles or names are agreynge to Christe, 
whiohe is called a preste acoordynge to the ordre of Melchise- 
dechy and whiche as a preste dyd ottce hym selfe a very vn- 
spotted lambe» vpon the aultare of the crosse, for the kelthe and 
valuation of the worlde. Ibid. fol. 52 a. 

See also the quotation from Erasmus under ' Uktowabi^.' 

Fop I wol aske if it hir wille be 

To be my wyf, and reole kir after me. 

Chaucer, Cflerh't Tale, 8203. 

It. In the first quarto of Lear, rr, 2 (1608), we find. 

That nature which contemnes it origin, 
Cannot be bordered certaine in it selfe. 

Justify, V. t (Proy. xvii. 1 5). To acquit : a legal tom. 

I cumoi juttify whom the law condemns. 

Shakespeare, a Hen. VI, n. ^ 

Iiast end (Num. xziii 10). A redundant expression. 

And he that synneth, and verraily repentith him in his loMt 
endc, holy chirche yit hopeth his savadoun. 

Chaucer, Pareon^s TdU, 

Like, vX{i Chr. xxviii. 4). To prefer, approve ot 


The citizens Uhed not of this forme of proceeding in the 
Dukes matter, bycause the K. was yong, and coulde not giue 
order therein, but by substitutes. B!oliiuhed, p. 1004, col. 9. 

Make him away (i Mace. xvi. 22). To make away 
with him. 

In former time, some countreys have been ao chary in this 

Digitized by V:i«^V.J VIC 


behalf, so Btem, that, if a child were crooked or deformed in 
body or mind, they Tnade him away. 

Burton, Anat, of Mel, Pt. I. sec. i, mem. i. subs. 6. 

Matter, sb, (Jam. iii. 5). Fuel ; like the Lat materia. 
But for youre synne ye be woxe thral, and foul, and membres 
of the feend, hate of aungels, sclaunder of holy chirche, and 
foode of the fals serpent, perpetuel matier of the fuyr of belle. 

Chaucer, Parson^s TaU. 


What migTit be toward, that this sweaty haste 
Doth make the night joint-labourer with the day: 
Who is't that can inform me? 

Shakespeare, HamZ, I. i. 


To the number of two and thirtie of those rebels entred 
a seller of the Sauoy, where they drauke so much of sweet 
wines, that tbey were not able to come out in time, but were 
shut in with wood and stones that mured vp the doore, where 
they were heard crying and calling seuen daies after, but none 
came to helpe them out till they were dead. 

Stow, AwnaUf p. 455. 

Neither— neither. 

For neUher circumcision neUher uncircnmcision is any thing 
at all, but the keeping of the commandments w altogether. 

Tyndale, Doct. Tr. p. a 19. 

Negligences, «&. (Litany). Acts of negligence. 
As some froward and peevish persons are woont to take 
holde of such oversights and negligences of their friends. 

Holland's Plutarch, MoraU, p. 753. 

Of, in the phrase 'of a child' (Mark ix. 21). 
I entreat you both, 
That, being of so young days brought up with him 
And sith so neighboured to his youth and haviour, 
That you vouchsafe your rest here in our court 
Some little time. 

Shakespeare, ffcmil. n. 9. 

On, prep, (Tob. x. 7). In the phrase ^<m the daytime ' 
for Hn the daytime.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


On a day (2 EL iy. 8). Upon a certain day. Compare 

*■ on a time.' 

On a time the king had him oat a hunting with him, he made 
him see his mother, with whom he grew familiar. 

North's Plutarch, Themid. p. 139. 

Other some, adj. (2 Esd. xiii. 13). Some others ; still 
in use as a provinciidism. 

For he [Lycurgu-*] saw so great a disorder & vneqoality 
among the inhabitants, aswell of the countrie, as of the citie 
Lacedaemon, by reasou some (and the greatest nuniber of them) 
Were so poore, that they had not a handiull of ground, and other 
some being least in number were very riche, that had alL 

North's Plutarch, Z/ycurgus, p. 49. 

Her distraction is more at some time of the moon than at 
other some, is it not? Bv^umont & Flew^her, The Two Noble 
Kinsmen, iv. 3. 

Ought. The old form of 'owed' in the A. V. of 161 1 

(Matt xviiL 24, 28; Luke viL 41). 


Lady reserued by Ihe h[e]au'n8 to do pcafors company honor, 
loyning your sweet voice to the rurall muse of a deserte. 

Sidney, Arcadia, p. 79, ]. 36. 


For who would robhe, steale, pirke, take away, hyde, procure, 
or whorde vp any thing, that he had no great occaKion to desire 
nor any profit to possesse. nor would be any pleasure to vse or 
imploy. North's Piutaich, Lycurgus, p. 49. 

Question, vA, (Mark viii. 11, ix. 16). To ai^gue, dis- 

Disarm them, and let them qaestinn: let them keep their 
limbs whole and hack our English. Shakespeare, Merry Wives, 

UL I. 

I pray you, think you question with the Jew. 

Id. Mer. of Fe». in. 5. 

Question, sb. (2 Tim. ii. 23). Discussion. 
I met the duke yesterday and had much question with him. 
Shakespeare, As You Like It, m. 4. 

Digitized by Vj«^V.J VIC 


Where meeting with an old religious man. 
After some question with him, was converted 
Both from his enterprise and from the world. 

Ibid. V. 4. 

Snick. ' Wick ' is still used in Yorkshire in the sense 
re.' See GomhUl Mag, ix. 95. 

Ray, «&. (i Sam. xvil 20 »i). Array. See quotataon 
from North's Plutarch under Raiment. 


To take, 
For the reso^tcfion of his fears, a cotirse 
That is by holy writ denied a Ghristiau. 

Massinger, Tht Picture, v. 2. 

Rhinocerots. This appears to have been the usual 
form of the plural of ' rhinoceros/ and no instance of a sin- 
gular 'rhinocerot' has yet been met mtK The foUowing 
are instances of both plural and singular from the same 

In Bengala arefomid great numbers of Abadas or JRhino- 
cerotes, whose home, (growing vp from his snowt) teeth, fleshy 
bloud, clawes, and whatsoeuer he hath without and within his 
body, is good against poyson, and is much accounted of through- 
out aJl India. I^urchas his Pilgrimage, p. 472 (ed. 1614). 

Of the BJUnoceros is spoken before: the best are in Bengala. 
Ibid. p. 503. 

Sith occurs as an adverb of time in Shakespeare. 

That, bdng of so young days brought up with him. 
And sith so neighbour'd to his youth and haviour. 

Shakespeare, Hamd, n. 9. 

'Sith' is the reading of the Quartos^ 'cdnce' of the 

Smooth. Compare Shakespeare, Zoo^f Cbm/>/m9tf, 

Like unshorn velvet on that termless skin 
Whose hart out-bragg'd the web it seem'd to wear. 

Digitized by VjV^VJVK 


Threescore and ten (Ps. xc. 10, &c). Seyenl^. 
On this time-honoured and as he calls it ^patriarchfJ' 
phrase, Mr Thomas Watts has remarked : 

"It 18 to the pen of Coverdale, the early English translator 
of the Bihle, that we appear to have heen indebted for an ex- 
preesion so happy. In the original it does not occur. . .Coverdale 
has been accused of making too much use in his English of the 
Grerman translation of Luther, which preceded his ; but in that 
Tendon also, nothing but the ordinary * siebensdg * appears. It has 
not been supposed that he consulted the French translation, but 
in that language the turn of phrase which in ours is a beauty or 
a blemish, is a strict necessity, and the ungraceful 'soixante-dix' 
may possibly have suggested the fortunate paraphrase" {Proc, of 
the PkUologictd Society, Yh p. 7), 

Euery one of these parts was such, as might yeeld vnto the 
owner yeerely, three score and ten bushels of barley for a man, 
and twelue bushels for the woman, and of wine and other liquide 
fruites, much like in proportion. North's Plutarch, LycurguMy 
p. 49- 

Thrteteore and ten I can remember well. 

Shakespeare, Macb. 11. 4. 

Eight yards of uneven ground is threescore and ten miles 
afoot with me. Id. i Hen, IV, n. 2. 

Turn again (Judg. xi 8; Ruth i. 11 ; i Sam. xv. 25, 
&c.). To return. 

O holde the fro me, let me alone, that I maye ease myself 
a litle: afore I go thyther, from whence I shal not tume agayne. 
Co7erdale, Joh x. 21. 

Though a body might pleate with God, as one man doth with 
another, yet the nombre of my yeares are come, & I must go 
the waye, from whence I shal not tume agayne. Ibid. xvi. 12, 

Wicked, d>, (2 Thess. ii. 8). A wicked person. 

There lay his body vnburied all that Friday, and the morrow 
till afternoone, none daring to deliuer his body tp the sepulture, 
his head these wicked tooke, and nayling thereon his hoode, they 
fixe it on a pole, and set it on London Bridge. Stow, Ann, p. 458. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Aooeta^ The naturaa and moraU Hit- 

torie of the Indies, Eng. tr. 1604. 
Ames. Typographicai Antiquities, ed. 

Ammianuii HaioellinuB, trans. Hoi- 
land, 1609. 

Antura of Arthur, ed. llotnon (Three 
early Eng. Metr. Aom. Camden So- 

Arthur (King), ed. T. Wright 

Ascham, The Bcholematter, ed. Mayor, 

Audelay. Poem, (Pergr Society). 

Bacon. Advancemento/Leamina, 1605. 

Historp of Hen. VII. 1622. 

— - Advertisement touching an 
Holy Warre, 1629. 

Essays and Colours of Oood 

and EvU, ed. W, Aldis Wright, 1862. 

Baret, Alvearie^SO. 

Beamnont and Fletcher, ed. Dyce. 

Belcet (Thomas), Lifeof, { Percy Society). 

Blondevile, Exercises, 1594. 

Body and Soul. Dialogue of the, (Cam- 
den Society). 

Bramston. Sir J. AutcMograj^y, (Cam- 
den Sodety). 

Brandan, (Si) Legend of, (Percy Soc.). 

Bullinger. Decades, (Parker Society). 

Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, 2 volL 
8vo. 1818. 

Camden, Remaines, 1605. 

Chancer, Canterbury Tales, ed. T. 

Wright, (Percy Society). 
Min " 

}iinor Poems, ed. Singer, 
(Pickering, 1846). 

Cheke (SirJ.), Hurt ofSedUion, 1669. 

Chester Plays. (Shakespeare Society). 

Chronicle of Calais, (Camden Society). 

Commines (Pliilip de), trans. Danett, 

Cotgrave, French Dictionary, 1611. 

Coventry Mysteries, (Sliakespeare So- 

Coyerdale, Trans, of Bible, (Bagster's 

Cranmer, Semains and LOters, (Parker 

Croke. Version of the Psalms, (Percy 

Doufflas ((}awin), PaUiee of Honour, 

Drayton, Polyolbion, Books I— XVni. 
1618. The other hooks are quoted 
from the edition of 1622. 

BcUOe ofAgineourt, Nymphi- 

dia, &C. 1627. 

EngkmdTs Heroical Epistles, 


Dunbar. Poems, ed. Laing. 

Elyot* The Govenwur, 1566. 

Erasmus, Paraphrase, YoL I. trans. 
Udal, 1548. 

On the Creed and the X, Com- 

mandmetits, Eng. tr. London, Bed- 
man, n. d. 

Florio, A Worldeqf Wordes, 1598. 

Italian Dictionary, 1611. 

Frampton, loyfull Newes out of ^ 
new-found Worlde, 1596. 

Fuller, Holy and Profane State, (Pick- 
ering's ed. 1840). 

Gasco&ne. Works, 1587. 

Oesta Bomanorum, ed. Madden. 

Gower, Confessio Amantis, ed. FaulL 

Greene, Works, ed. Dyce. 

_- ^ Mourning Oarment,lB/dO. 

Grey (Lord) of Wilton, Idfs of, (Camden 

Grindal. Remains, (Parker Society). 
Hall, Chronicle, 1560. 
Hall, Satires, ( Anderson's Brit. Poets). 
Hawes, Pastime of Pleasure, (Percy 

Herrick, Hesperides, rPickering's ed.) 
Heywood. Dramatic Works, ed. Field, 

(Shakespeare Society). 
Holinshed, Chronicle, 1577. 
Homer, trans. Chapman, ed. Hooper. 

Hooker, Ecdesiastieal Polity, ed. 


Digitized by VjVJVJV IC 



James L Works, 1616. 
JoDion. Ben, ed. GiUbrd. 
King $p.). VUUPalatina, 1614. 


Leyceeter Oorreqiwndenoe, 

Lhuchoten's Vovagei, Bng. tr. 159S. 

LiT7, tnuis. HoUaod, 1600. 

Lyte, Herbal, 1595. 

Machyn'B Diary, (Oamden Society). 

Marlowe, ed. I>7oe. 

Manton. ed. HalliwelL 

Haadnger, ed. Gilford. 

MUton, Poetical FTorA*. ed. Todd, 1809. 


Hinshea, Spanish Dictionary, 1623. 
Mirror for Slaglstnite>, 1587. 
Montaigne. i£rMw«, trans. Florio,1608. 
More (Sir T.), Works, 156T. 

XXoiflOW, 158a 

. 8iij^keatiUm<tfB(mk, foL 

ITtopfo, trans. Bobynaon, 


2nd ed. Lond. Vele, n. d. 
Moryson, Itinerary ASl^. 
Kuh, Qwatemfo, im 
Naatie, Lenten Sti/{ffcjm, 
Overbury (Sir T.), Works, ed. Bim* 

Palsgrave. Usdaircissemetd de la 

kmaue Francoyse (ed. Qiiain, Paris, 

Peoock[s Represser, ed. Babington. 
Piers Ploughman'^ Vision and Creed, 

ed. T. Wright, 1841 
Pliny, trana^olland, 1684. 
Plutarch, Lives, trans. North, 1595. 

- MoraU, trans. Holland, 1608. 
1, ed. Wa 

Balegh, Disc, of Ouiana, (Hakluy 

Bobert ct Bnmne, ed. Heame, (Bag- 

Bier's reprint, 1810). 
Bobert of Gloucester, ed. Heame, (Bag- 

ster^ reprint, 1810). 
Bolie, l%e Pricke qf Conseienoe, ed. 

Morris, 1868. 
SaokviUe. Induction, 1587. 
Sandys, Sermons, (Pariter Society). 
Shakespeare, Globe edition. 
Sidney, Arcadia, Astrophd and Stella, 

D^ence ofPoesie, 8rd ed. 1596. 
Skelton, ed. Dyce. 
Sleidan's Commentaries, trans. Daus^ 

Smart, Sermon, 1640. 
Spenser. Fairy Queen, z— n. 1596. 

The other works are qboted from the 

ed. of 1617. 
Stow, Annals, 1601. 
Surrey, SonneU, 1557. 
TasM, trans. Fairfax, 1600. 
Thornton Romances. Sir Perceval, Sir 

Isumbras, Sir glamour. Sir Degre- 

vant, (Oamden Society}. 
TnsBer. rive hundreth points of Qoed 

Uua>cmdrie, imi. 
Tyndale, Doctrinal Treatises emd An- 
swer to More, (Parker Society). 
Udal, Boister Doister, (Shakespeare 

Promptorium Parvulomm, < 
(Oamden Society). 


_ . ^ e), English History, 
(damden Society). 

Webster, ed. Dyce. 

WicUf, Translation of the Bfblfl^ ed. 
Forshall and Madden. Except ^en 
otherwise stated, this edition Is used, 
and tiie eariier and later verdona are 
distinguished as Widif a) UMi Wiclif 



Digitized by VJV.JV.J VIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

3 2044 023 296 221