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rr:^^ « iiii«wi 













/ • 


A Cottv in tHe fMnteo, 










iCtam wyn, dan mancftM andmrt gaekek*n 
Jeh hab't mm einmahl m getekn. 



Wangbaml Intiet, W.Oliphant, and White nod Co. Edinbui|(h i M.Ogle, and 
Cluilmers and Collins, Glasgow ; and R. M.TIiim, Dublin. 


» < 




POBuc l: 

J. Dmiimic, UadMr Uat. Holburii. 

• • • • 

• • • • • . 

• • 

• •• • • 

• • • 

• • • • ■ 

• . • -■ 

• " • • 

• • • • • 

• \ 


The foUpwing pages contain the narrative of a 
journey performed by the author, in the years 
1821 and 1822, in company with his friend Dr. 
Paterson, and, in part, with .Mr. Serof, Assistant 
Secretary to the Russian Bible Society. They 
embrace a period of eleven months, and carry the 
reader through twenty governments of the Rus- 
sian empire. 

The object of the Tour being to advance the inte- 
rests of the Bible Society, a greater degree of pro- 
minence is given to its proceedings than is common- 
ly to be met with in books of travels. At the same 
time, as much of the detail has already appeared in 
the Eighteenth Report of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, it has been deemed unnecessary to 
swell out the present work by tedious repetition ; 
but, in its place, the reader is presented with the 


results of certain investigations instituted by the 
author, during his residence in Russia, on the sub- 
ject of the Finnish, Karelian, Slavonic^ Russian, 
Tatar, Persic, and Georgian versions of the Scrip- 
tures, which, he flatters himself, wiU, to a certain 
extent, go to supply a desideratum hitherto found 
to exist in Britaixi^ in raferew^e to this department 
of Biblical literature. 

Much of the ground here traversed has already 
been described by British travellers — a circum- 
stance which, to some minds, might appear to su- 
persede the observations contained in this volume ; 
but as different men, having different objectB in 
view, and habituated each to his own peculiar mode 
of observation, may be expected to oontempkite 
the same things in a different light, it may not 
be deemed presumptuous to a£Brm, that at least 
some new matter is here presented to the public. 

The author has only to add, that recent inform^ 
ation amply confirms his anticipations relative to 
the speedy emergence of the Russian Bible So- 
ciety from that obscurity which, for a time, has 
brooded over its existence : the most rigid scru- 
tiny in regard to the conspirators having proved, 
that not one individual w1k> took any part in the 
affairs of that Institution was, in any way, im-* 
plicated in the late plot against the government. 

May fie by whom kings reign, and princes 
decree justice, incline the heart of the Emperor 


NICHOLAS to promote the interests of that 
*' kingdom" which " is not of this world," by re- 
moving the obstacles that prevent the free circula- 
tion of the word of (xod, by which alone, in the 
hand of the Divine Spirit, it is set up, maintained, 
and governed in the hearts of men ! And may 
the happy period speedily arrive^ when no region, 
people, or tongue within the widely extended 
boundaries of Russia shall remain destitute of this 
life-giving word ! 


ApnL Vlth, 182G. 




Leave St. Petersburgh— The Tchudi, or Finns— Their Language— 
Uisto^ of the Finnish Bible^Post-stations, and Posting in Rus- 
sia— ^Origin of the Russians— Foundation of the Russian Monar- 
chy — NoTogorod — Auxiliary Bible Society established — Schools-- 
Russian Dissenters— Krestzi— Branch Bible Society — Tumuli- 
Valdai . 1 


Illustration of Eccles. xii. 6— Vishnei Vololchok— Superstition re- 
specting Houses burnt by Lightning — Torsbok— Mednoi Yam— 
The Volga— Tver— Description of the Town— Bible Society- 
Karelian Language, and Gospel of Matthew— Klin— Arrival in 
Moscow 32 

Moscow— General Features— Divisions — Population— Public Insti- 
tutions— Kreml— Great Bells— Cathedral— Patriarchal Library- 
Printing Office and library of the Holy Synod— New Edition of 
the LXX.F->Greek and Slavonic MSS«— Armenians— Chinese 
Christians— The Holy Oil 43 


The Slavonic People— Name— Language — Alphabet— Biographical 
Sketch of Cyrill and Methodius — Their Translation of the Scrip- 
tufes— Papal Bull — First Editions of the Slavonic Scriptures — 
The Ostrog Bible— Character of the Version— The First Moscow 
Edition— Peter the Great's Slavonic-Dutch Edition— Revision of 
the Texty and recent Impressions .60 




Of Russian Versions of the Scriptures— Franciscus Skorina— His early 
Version and Editions— The Version of Gliick— The Modem Rus- 
sian Translation— The New Testament — ^Psalms — Octateuch— Pre- 
sent State of the Russian Bible Society— Opposition of the Jesuits 103 


Leave Moscow— BoroTsk-^Maloi laroslavetz-^Distress of Napoleon 
—•Kaluga— Auxiliary Bible Society— Excellent State of the Prison 
— Character of the Town— Passage of the Oka— Alexin —Tula- 
Roads in Russia— Profanation of the Sabbath— Orel— Bible So- 
ciety—Aged Priest— Imprisoned Actresses — Kursk— Bielgorod— 
Grand Procession— Bishop Eugenius— Kharkof— Pultava— Tcher- 
nigof— The Dnieper • 1 36 


Kief— Its Antiquity — Size— Appearance — Divisions— Petcberskoi 
Monastery— Cathedral— The Catacombs— Old Town->Podole — 
Baptism of the Russians->Kief Bible Society .-Hospitality of the 
Metropolitan. • 176 


lieave Kief— Jitomir— Eagerness of the Jews to receive Hebrew 
New Testaments— Jewish Synagogue and Worship— Auxiliary 
Bible Society — Novograd Volinski— The Petchenegi— Khoretz^— 
Ostrog-^Lutsk — Dubno — ^Veneration ibr Hebrew MSS.— Jewish 
Scribe— Rules observed in copying Hebrew MSS. — Editions of 
the Hebrew Bible— The Bog— Podolia— Emigration of the Jews — 
Kamenetz— Jewish Wedding— Dominican Monastery — Bible So- 
ciety , • 196 


On the Jews in Russian Poland— Whence they came— Their persons 
described— Dress— Marriages— Aversion to Agriculture— Attach- 
ment to Palestine—Education— The Talmud— Oral Tradition- 
Cabbala— Superstitions— Depravity— Hatred of Christ— Oppres- 
sion • 



The Jews, continued— Different Sects-Rabbanists-Chasidim-. 
Habadim-Zobarites-Jewish Missions -Qualifications of a Mis- 
sionary to the Jews-Arduous Nature of the Work-Plan of Ope- 
raUon-Necessity of Caution-Support of Converts 





The Dniester— Khotia^HUls of Moldavia- Moldanan or WalU- 
chian Bible— The Goths^The Version of Ulphilas—Bretchani^ 
Turkish Frontier- Affecting Quarantine Scene — Potemkin's 
Monument— Banditti of Robbers — Kishenef— The Gypsies— Be»> 
sarabian Bible Society— Bulgarians — Bulgarian Language, and 
Version of Matthew— Serbian New Testament —Greek Metropoli- 
tan in a Cask — Trajan Walls— Bender— Tiraspol— Mongolian 
Tumoli—Odessa Bible Society— Funeral of the Greek Patriarch . 246 


Journey from Odessa — Nikolaief— Ruins of Olbiopolis*— The Se'rab, 
or Mirage— Howard — His Character and Monument— Kherson— 
Berisla?— Perekop-^The Crimea— Arrival at Akmetchet . • . 275 


Description of Akmetchet — ^Baghtchisarai-^Palace of the Khans — 
The Harem— History of the Crimea— Baghtchisarai—Mohamme* 
dan Mosque —Mohammedan Worship— Greek Funeral .... 293 


Visit to Djufut-Kalb— Greek Con9ent~Djufut:-Kafe -Valley of Je- 
hoshaphat— The Karaim— Their Origin— JPrinciples— Their Syna- 
gogue and Worship at Lutsk— Karaite Tatar Targum described . 306 


Tour along the South Coast— Akhtiar—Chersonesus — Ruins of Cher- 
sonesus — Ctenus— Caverns of Inkerman- -Hermit and Psalter — 
Ruins of Inkerman— Monastery of St. George— Balaklava— Chapel 
of St. John— Tatar Hospitality— Valley of Baidari->The Metdo- 
van—Alupka—Yuisttf—Parthenit—Alushta—Tchatir-dagh— Tatar 
Funeral • 340 


Karasubaiftr— Visit to the Mufti— Kaffii—Theodosian Bible Society— 
Arabat--Tbe Putrid Lake— Nogai Taurs— The Moloshnaia— 
Duchobortzi—Mennonites— Missionary Zeal— Tumuli of the Scy- 
thian Kings— Tatar Feeling— Mariupol— Hurricane— Taganrog . 370 


Leave Taganrog— Armenian Town of Nakhitchevan— Tcherkask— 
Kosak Bible Society— The Kozaks— Cross the Don into Asia— 
The Boundary of Asia and Europe— The Volga— Tiaritan— Sap 
repta— Moravian Colony^ and MissiOuary Efforts —Kalmuck New 


TestameDt— Banks of the Volga-* Atd— A Jewish Monarchy on the 

Volga^Khazaria, and Khaiarian Language-^Arrival at Astrakhan 399 


History of the Karass Turkish New Testament— Difficulties imped- 
ing its execution— Its Character and Dialect>«Subaequent Impres- 
sions— Orenburgh Tatar Version— Dickson's Turkish Version.-- - 
Martyn's Persic New Testament— Glen's Persic Psalms— Scottish 
Mission 420 


Journey from Astrakhan to Karass— Astrakhan Steppe— Salt Lakes-- 
Kara Nogai Tatars— Bed of the Kuma—Kizliar— Vineyards— In- 
security of the Inhabitants— Kizliar Steppe — Mosquitos— Na^r-- 
Mozdok — Jekaterinograd — Soldatskaia — Caucasian Mountains — 
Georgievsk — Arrive at Karass 433 


Scotch Colony of Karass— History of the Mission — Its Importance — 
Missionary Qualifications — Kabardian Village— German Colo- 
nists—Hot Springs^Elbiirz— Mountain Excursion— Acidulated ' 
Spring— Karass 446 


Return to Mozdok— Armenians — Ossetinians— Spiritual Christians 
—Town of Mozdok— Passage of the Terek— Alexandrovskoi Re- 
doubt—Caucasian Cararan— Hills of Kabardia— Constantinskoi 
and Elizabetinskoi Redoubts— Arrive at Vladikavkaz .... 466 


Visit to the Ingush— The Rev. Mr. BIythe— Ossctinian Ploughing— 
Nasran— The Ingush— Avenging of Blood — Religious Notions — 
Habitations Mausoleum — Ingush Burying Ground-^Ingush Mis- 
sion—Return to Vladikavkaz 481 


Leave Vladikavkaz— Novink^—Balta—Maximka— Lars -Porta Cau- 
casia— Dariel—Kasbek—Kobi— Cross Mountain— The Aragon, or 
Aragvi— Kushaftr— Passanftr— Ananar— Dushet— M'zhet— Tiflis . 493 


Narcissus, the Armenian Archbishop— New Sect of Ali— Abdul- 
ghune— Casiphia, Ezra viu. 17— Georgian Literature * Georgian 
Bible— Ossetinian Gospels— German Millennarians--Tiilis— Re- 
cross the Caucasus— Return to PelPrsburgh 512 


8^c. %c. 


Leave St. Peienhurgh^The Tckndi, or F%Mit— Their Language 
"^Hiticry of the Finnish Bible^^Pagt-ttations, and Posting 
in Rasna — Origin of the Rnsskau^^Faandatian of the Russian 
Manarehjf — Novogorod — Auxiliary Bible Society established'^ 
Schools^^Russian Dissenters — Krestzi — Branch BiUe Society 

Previous to our departure from the Russian 
metropolis, we were occupied for some time in 
making the different preparations and arrange- 
ments, that were necessarily required for a journey 
of such extent as that we had projected. From 
His Excellency Prince Alexander Nicolaevitch 
Galitzin, Minister for iflcclesiastical Affairs and 
National Instruction, and President of the Russian 
Bible Society, we were not only favoured with 
letters of introduction to the principal civil and ec- 
clesiastical authorities of the governments through 



which we were to pass, but also with an open 
letter^ to be used in case any obstacles might be 
thrown in the way of our progress at any of the 
posting stations. Through the same kind influence 
we obtained a free podoroshnaia, or order for post 
horses, which also serves the purpose of a pass- 
port to any part of the empire. This order other- 
wise stands the traveller in two copecks for each 
verst, computing from the point at which he starts, 
to the limit of his journey. 

Committing our families to the gracious provi- 
dence of God, in whose cause we were about to 
embark; and having been commended in prayer 
to his all-pervading and ever-present aid, we left 
the Bible Society House about three o'clock in the 
afternoon, of the 2d of March, O. S, 182K As 
we set out with the hope of reaching Moscow be- 
fore the breaking-up of the winter roads, we had 
our carriage mounted on a sledge, the wheels 
lying horizontally below the vehicle, and ready to 
be used, should the state of the roads render it 
necessary. It was our intention to travel with three 
holies, which is by far the most convenient and 
expeditious mode, but we ordered four fo? the first 
stations, in consideration of the quantity of snow: 
that haji fallen a few days before we started. We 
had, however, only proceeded a short way through 
the city, when, we found it necessary to procure 
two. more, a circumstance which occasioned u& 
some detention, so that it was past four o'clock ere. 
we reached the gate. In the immediate vicinity of 
the capital we werie subjected to conaiderable in- 
convenience from the deep indentations made in 


ttie snow by the immense number of sledges that 
were continually passing and re-passing, which 
occasioned a motion in the carriage precisely si- 
milar to that produced by the dashing of the bil- 
lows against a boat in a gale of wind. 

Our first station was a village called Ishora, 
from a river of the same name, and corresponding 
in Russ to Ingria, the designation of the province 
which now forms a considerable part of the go- 
vernment of St. Petersburgh. Upwards of a cen- 
tury before the time of Peter the Great, the whole 
of this province, with several of the neighbouring 
districts, was attached to the Swedish conquests 
in the East Sea provinces, but was re-con- 
quered by that monarch in 1703 ; and, having 
subsequently become the seat of government, is 
now gradually rising in value and importance. 
Since the building of the capital, numerous co- 
lonies have been formed by Russians and Ger*-' 
mans ; and, though the marshy nature of the coun- 
try has greatly impeded the progress of culti- 
vation, yet there is every prospect of a rapid, 
improvement, from the recent introduction of the- 
system of draining, and other causes necessarily 
called into operation by the continually increasing^ 
wants of the metropolis. 

The greater proportion of the inhabitants of this 
province consists of Finns, who are called, in their 
own language, Suoma^lainen, or, '* the inhabitants 
of fenhs," — a name strikingly descriptive of the: 
country, inhabited from time immemorial by the 
different tribes of Tchudic origin. In contradis- 
tinction from the Finns proper, those about the 

B 2 


village of Ishora give themselves the appellation 
of If^ricot, and belong to the Russian Church ; 
the rest^ forming by far the greater part of the 
population, are Lutherans. Their colloquial dia* 
lect has some admixtures of the Russian ; but its* 
predominating characteristics are Finnish proper, 
which language they perfectly understand, and 
such of them as can read have thus access to the 
treasures of Divine Revelation, through the me- 
dium of the editions of the Finnish Bible, now 
currently printed and brought into circulation by 
the Russian and Finnish Bible Societies. 

The Itnnish language, which, independently 
of its collateral branches, the Esthonian and Lap- 
paman, conaists of not fewer than twelve subcMr- 
dinate dialects, differs, in its essential characterise 
tics, and the whole of its structure, from the Gothic 
and Slavonic; and is peculiarly remarkable on 
account of the number of its cases, which amount 
to thirteen,* and are not mere modifications of the 
ablative, as has been imagined, but really ex- 
pressive of the different relations of the nouns to 
which they are postfixed. Neither substantives 
nor adjectives exhibit any distinction of gender ; 
and, instead of our full and separate possessive 
pronouns, the Finns generally append certain ab- 
breviated forms of the pronoun, after the man- 
ner of the Semitic dialects* The verbs have otily 
two tenses, the past and the present: it being 
only possible to express the future, by adding to 

• Some writers reckon fourteen; but erroneously, as the 
nominative and vocative are alike. 



the form of the present some word indicative of 
a future action, or state of being. The principal 
accent is invariably placed upon the first syllable ; 
and the last is as invariably left sdtogether unac- 
eented. The language possesses a singular beauty, 
arising from the number of its vowels and diph- 
thongs ; and it has this peculiarity, in common 
widi the Mongolian, and other Asiatic languages, 
that there is always one principal vowel in a word, 
which is said to govern the other vowels that occur 
in it, on which account they must always be of 
the sanie class. 

At one time, this language was thought to 
be nearly allied to the Hebrew; but the words 
that have been produced to establish the con- 
nection are neither so striking in point of resem* 
blance, nor so numerous, as those which might be 
furnished from any of the other European lan- 
guages. It possesses a number of words adopted 
from the Russian and Swedish languages, especi- 
ally the latter; which is easily to be accounted 
for, by adverting to the relations in which the 
Finns have stood to the nations by whose in- 
habitants these languages are spoken. But of 
the three cognate dialects above specified, the 
Lappoman has been most inundated, owing, in all 
probability, to the paucity of native words for ex- 
pressing religious objects, or, indeed, any objects 
not strictly connected with their uncivilized mode 
of life. In the Lapponian version of I Tim. iii. 
16, not fewer than six of the words are of foreign 
origin ; and, of these six, not fewer than ^e are 


Certain resemblances between words occulring 
in these dialects, and the Gothic of Ulpbilas, are 
also deserving of notice ; although they must be 
accounted for on some other priuciple than that of 
genealogical relationship. But the affinity exist-* 
ing between them, and the Hungarian and Turkish, 
demands a more profound application of philo^ 
logical reseai*ch, than has hitherto been bestowed 
on a subject so intimately connected with lucid 
ideas relative to the family dependencies sub-* 
sisting among the nations of Europe. So much* 
however, appears certain, from the essential dif? 
fer^ibe between tbe Tchudic and the other Euro- 
pean languages, that the original stock, by whom 
the former were spoken, must have struck off from 
the primeval seats of the human race, by a route 
entirely different from that followed by tht^ other 
tribes which settled in this quarter of the world : 
that is to say^ they must either have passed along 
the western shores of the Caspian, and up the 
Fblgaj to the regions to the west and north of the 
Uralian mountains ; or^ which is more probable, 
they prosecuted their nomadic course through the 
countries now known by the name of Independent 
Tatary, till they were ultimately arrested in .their 
progress by the Arctic Ocean, the North Sea, and 
the Baltic. On this hypothesis, it is easy to con* 
ceive how the Tchudic, Hungarian, and Turkish 
should be, more or less, related to each other. 

Into Finnish the New Testament was translated 
soon after the introduction of the principles of the 
Reformation into Finland, and printed at Stock** 
holm, in quarto, 1548. Besides Luther's Preface, 


it contains another by the translator, MicHael 
Agricola, at that time Bishop of Abo ; in which he 
states, that the trsmslation was niade from the ori-^ 
ginal Greek, with the assistance c^the Latin Y ulgate, 
and the German and Swedish versions. AboQt the 
same time, a version of the Psalms was undertaken 
by Paul Jgst^n, rector of the High School in Abo ; 
in which work he engaged his scholars, by way of 
exercise^ and which, after having been revised by 
Agricola, was published at Stockholm, in the year 
1551. It contains a curious address to the reader^ 
composed in rhyme, and is, perhaps, the. most 
ancient printed specimen of the kind in the Fin- 
nish language-; in which a description Is given of 
the pagan idolatry of the Finns, especially that 
practised by the inhabitants of Tavastahus and 
KareKa:, or that part of Finland which compter 
hends the governments of Viborg and Olonetz; 
from the termination of the Gulph, and the shores 
of the Ladoga^ to those of the White Sea. 

In the course of the same year, seversti de- 
tached portions of the Old Teistament left tha 
press ; in his preface to which, the Bishop regrets 
the impossibility of his publishing more at that 
time, owing to the want of funds, but pledged 
himself to proceed with the translation' of th€^ 
remaining books, and to publish liiem, in case 
he met with encoui^gement from the sale of these 
editions. In consequence, however, of certain 
political obstacles, neaiiy a century passed away 
before . the natives of Finland were furnished with 
an edition of the entire Bible in their vernacular 
language. At length, in the year 1636, the Fin- 


nish clergy petitioned her majesty . Christina, 
Queen of Sweden, to confer upon them this boon ; 
on which, orders were given to prepare an accu- 
rate version, and the task was committed to Es- 
chillus Petraeus, Divinity Professor in Abo, and 
afterwards Bishop of that see, Martin Stodius, 
Professor of the Oriental Languages, together 
with Henry Hoffman and <yregory Favorinus, two 
Finnish clergymen, whose general learning, and 
critical knowledge of the Finnish language, pecu- 
liarly qualified them for being associated in the 
work. It was printed, in folio, at Stockholm, 
1642.* Of this version, another edition was 
printed at Turusa (Abo), 1683 — 5, in quarto, 
chiefly owing to the zealous exertions of Bishop 
GezeUus, #ko obtained from government an order 
for the appropriation to this important object of 
certain com-tythes, which have since been known 
by the name of Bibel Tryck-Tunnan. 

Of the New Testament, editions were printed, 
in 1732, in octavo ; 1740, in duodecimo ; and 1774 
and 1776, in octavo ; but, excepting two quarto 
editions, printed in 1758, and 1776, the latter of 
which was published by subscription, no further 
attempt was made to print the entire Scriptures, 
till the introduction of the Bible Society's opera- 
tions into Finland, in the year 1811. For twenty 
years previous to this period, no copies were 
exposed for sale ; and it is stated, in a document 
drawn up at that time by authority, that there was 
not then a copy to be obtained at any price. 

* Stiermann's Aboa LiteraU^ Holmiae, 17 Id* P* 19* 


With a view to carry into effect certain reso- 
lutions of the Committee of the British and Fo- 
reign Bible Society, which had been formed in 
consequence of representations made to them on 
the subject of Finland, my friend and colleague. 
Dr. Paterson, proceeded, in the Autumn of 1811, 
from Stockholm to Abo, where he was cordially 
received both by the civil and ecclesiastical au- 
thorities; and, following up his proposition, rela- 
tive to the formation of a Finnish Bible Society, 
with an offer of £500., which he had been em- 
powered to make by the Committee in London, he 
had the satisfaction to find, that the object of his 
mission was warmly approved of by the leading 
persons in the town. On a report of the pro- 
ceedings being forwarded for the sanction of his 
Imperial Majesty, he was pleased, not only to 
grant them permission to act agreeably to the plan 
of biblical operations which had been presented to 
him, but also a donation of 5,000 rubles from 
his own private purse, with a view to promote the 
distribution of the Finnish Scriptures. This act 
of Imperial generosity encouraged the parties to 
proceed still farther in the establishment of a 
Finnish Bible Society, the eventual formation of 
which took place in the Spring of 1812. 

It was in this way that Finland was made the 
avenue, and my esteemed friend the instrument, 
through which the grand subject of the Bible So- 
ciety was first oflBcially introduced to the notice of 
the Emperor Alexander, and the primary link 
formed of that chain which was destined to com- 



pr^end within its benevotent compaiss the whole 
extent of the vast empire of Russia. 

On the formation of a Bible Society in the 
Russian metropolis, in 18 13, some of the first 
measures adopted by the Committee consisted 
in making preparations, along with the Committee 
in Abo, for issuing a number of copies of the 
Finnish Bible and New Testament, in some measure 
adequate to the urgency of the demand ; in conse* 
quence of which, editions of both, in octavo, left 
the press in 1816 and 1816. Complaints, how^ 
ever, having been made of the inability of the 
Finns to read so small a type, owing to the weak- 
ness of their eyes, it was proposed to publish an 
edition in quarto ; towards which the British and 
Foreign Bible Society contributed £500., and his 
Imperial Majesty granted to the Finnish Society 
a loan of 30,000 rubles, free of interest, to be 
repaid in the course of five years, reckoning from 
the time that the said quarto edition should be 
ready for distribution. 

Owing to the divine blessing on the enlight^ 
ened zeal and indefatigable exertions of the aged 
Archbishop, and other directors of this Society, 
ramifications of which now exist in every part 
of the country, there is great reason to hope 
that the time is not distant, when every hut in 
Finland shall be enriched with the treasures of 
Divine Revelation. 

With the exception of Pomerania and Spaskaia 
PoKsi, the post-stations between Petershurgh and 
Novogarod furnish few or no accommodations for 


travelleFs ; being merely the houses of the smotri* 
tels, or posting-agents, and in no respect differing 
from other houses in the village, except it be in 
the noise occasioned by the incessant call foir 
horses. At the two villages just mentioned, how- 
ever, the post-houses have more the appearance of 
palaces than inns ; and, on entering them, you cost 
gratified by fioding that the expectations raised by 
the exterior are by no means disappointed. The 
rooms are kept in good order, and almost any 
thing that is called for may be obtained. These 
houses, of which there are a few more on the 
Moscow road, were built by order of the Empress 
Catharine, and have recently undergone a thorough 

The stages in Russia are, in general, from 
twen^ty to thirty versts * in length ; but in some 
more uncultivated parts of the empire they are 
nearly forty. At each station is an agent of the 
post-office, who registers the passports of tra- 
vellers, and gives orders for the necessary supply 
of horses ; and a head person among the boors^ 
called the starost, or " elder," who sees the 
orders executed. On the road from Petershurgh 
to Moscow, the horses are furnished by peasants, 
who, besides the allowance paid by travellers, 
enjoy certain privileges, such as freedom from 
taxes, &c. In other parts of the country, where 
fewer horses are required, the posting-establish- 
ment is farmed out to the lowest bidder, who 
18 obliged to provide a guarantee, that he will pay 

* A verst is equal to about three-quarters of au English mile. 


the rent to government, and supply the necessary 
number of horses. In addition to the two copecks 
per verst, which the traveller pays on taking 
out his podoroshnaia, he pays at every station the 
progoftt/ or posting-money, which is rated at J^ 
copecks per versf for each horse, except on the 
road between the two capitals, and in the Polish 
provinces, and those of New Russia, where it is 

Having proceeded without halting during the 
night, we descried Novogorod about four o'clock 
the following afternoon; and, as we approached 
it, the imposing appearance of its churches and 
spires, upwards of sixty in number, forced upon 
our minds the conviction, that the accounts we 
had read of its ancient extent and grandeur were 
by no means exaggerated. 

This city, known in the Icelandic annals by 
the name of Holmgard,^ was the original metro- 
polis of Russia. The Slavonians, a people of Sar^ 
matian extraction, appear on the page of history 
as early as the fifth century of our era, inhabit- 
ing the countries to the north of the Danube. 

• The name of Hclmgard, or " Insular Town,** was most 
probably given to this city by the Scandinavians^ from its local 
situation ; for there is every indication of its having been for- 
merly surrounded by water. Even at this day^ the narrow tongue 
of land towards the north is intersected by a small river, con- 
necting the neighbouring lake with the Volchqf, The word gard, 
or goTody is common both to the Gothic and Slavonic dialects, 
signifying a city or town ; hence, from the numerous towns in 
Russia compounded in part of this word, the inhabitants of the 
north gave it the name of Garda^riki, or the '^ kingdom of 
towns," and not imfrequently Garda, without any other desig* 


In the coutse of two or three centuries later, a 
branch of them struck off through what the classical 
writers of antiquity accounted the regions of im- 
penetrable night; and driving back the Tchudi, 
or Finns, their original inhabitants, possessed them- 
selves of the country to the south of the Ladoga, 
where they formed a medium of communication 
between their kindred tribes in the south, and the 
di^erent nations of the north. About this period 
the Varagiy a Scandinavian people, inhabiting the 
coasts of the Baltic, and distinguished for their 
maritime habits, held the different nations in this 
quarter in a state of tributary subjectiop. To them 
the Slavonians also submitted for a time; but, 
becoming impatient of the yoke, they ultimately 
threw it off, in the hope of enjoying a noble in- 
dependence. It was not long, however, ere they 
were taught by experience, that the principal foe 
to the repose and happiness of unorganised society 
is to be found in its own bosom, and that the feuds 
and quarrels of native chieftains are more to be 
dreaded than the rule of foreigners, conducted ac- 
cording to the principles of universal law. Dis- 
tracted by internal commotions, it cannot be mat- 
ter of surprise, that they should follow the sage 
counsel of Gostomisle, the first recorded magis- 
trate of Novogorod, and invite foreign princes to 
come and establish a regular government among 
thenu The invitation was accepted by Ruric, a 
Varago-Russian prince,* who, with his two bro- 

* Vartig(hRu9naH: The origin of this name has not yet been 
exactly determined; but it is beyond dispute, from the connec* 
tion in which it occurs in Nestor's annals, and the comment he 


thers, Sineus and Tfuvor, repaired to the i»faores of 
the Ladoga, and after remaining some time in a 
town of the same name, fixed his residence in 
Novogarod, where, in the year 864, he founded 
the Russian monarchy, the sceptre of which con- 
tinued to be swayed by his descendants upwards 
of seven hundred years. In consequence of the 
settled form of government which now obtained, 
and the extensive rule which these northern Sla- 
vonians, and such of the Tchudi as were leagued 
with them, exercised over the surrounding re- 
gions, this city acquired such a tremendous im- 
portance, that the saying became proverbial— 

laakes upon it, that it belonged, not to any divimcn of people 
inhabiting the country now known by the name of Russia, but to 
some Scandinavian tribe, from which, in all probability, as Sclilo- 
zer conjectufes, the Swedish district Ros-l&gen derives its name. 
At one time it was fashionable for interpreters of Scripture 
to trace, in Rash and Mtshech, (Ecek. xxxviii^ 2. in the Hebrew) 
the names of Russia and Moscovia, but a more intimate ac- 
quaintance with history has suggested the importance of sounder 
prindples of interpretation. The fact is, both names are mo- 
dem: the latter takes its date from the building of Moscow, 
in the twelfth oentury : and the former was imported along 
with Ruric and his Scandinavian associates, and from them, in 
process of time, derived upon the principal branch of the Sla- 
vonic stock, in the same way as the name of the Angles was 
given to the inhabitants of South Britain* The absurdity of ap* 
plying the name Mtsheck to Russia cannot be better exposed 
than it is by the fact, that, about half a century ago, it was so 
applied by a Jewish Rabbi, when reading Ps. cxx. 5. '^ Woe ia 
me that I sojourn in Meshech :" the consequence of which was, 
tfiat the prayer for the Emperor, which was printed in the Jewish 
liturgies up to that date, has been omitted in subsequent 
editiona, and is never used in their synagogues, except some 
Christian be present, who, they have reason to believe, under* 
stands Hebrew ! 


^' Who can withstand God and 6r4l8^Nov<^rod ?" 
Nor was its power unfelt during the period of its 
existence a$ a republic » For centuries it kept the 
Russian princes in the souths whither the seat of 
government had been removed, in a state of per« 
petual alarm ; and it was not till the iron sceptre 
of Ivan Yasilievitch almost levelled it with the 
ground in 1578, that its- political injBuence was 

Towards the middle of the thirteenth cen^ 
tury, the merchants of the north of Germany 
began to enter into extensive commercial re^ 
lations with the Russians^ and, among otbM 
places, frequented Novogorodt which their ves^ 
sels reached by the Neva^ the Ladoga, and the 
Vokhsf. Here, about the year 1277, they esta- 
blished a regular factory and consulate, which soon 
rendered it . one of the most flourishing and im- 
portant of. all the mercantile stations supported by 
the Hanseatic league. Whatever importance may 
have attached to it, as a point of transition in the 
trade at that time carried on overland between- 
Asia and Europe, there can be little doubf , that the 
principal basis of the Novogorodian commerce 
eoiQisisted in the native productions of Russia, 
which abounded in the greatest profusion, and 
were oblaijied at so extremely low a price> that it 
became one of the^most lucrative sources of wealth 
to embark in the operations of Hanseatic enterprise. 
When at the zemth of its . glory, Nwogarod 
i^/reported to have contained nearly 400,000 inha^ 
hitants ; but it is probable this estimate includes 
the vast concourse of strangers who frequeated it 


for the purpc^S^ of trade, during some of the sum- 
mer months, but left it again before winter. At 
present, the number, including the military, does 
not exceed 15,000. The town is divided by the 
Vokhof into two parts : that on the left side of 
the river is called Sophiiskaia, from the cathedral 
of St. Sophia; and the other, on the opposite side, 
Torgavaia, from Targ, *' a market-place," ** trade,'* 
&c., being the spot where the Hanseatic com- 
merce was carried on. The streets are of con- 
siderable width— a circumstance which, besides 
contributing to the healthiness of the place, must 
prove of 'great advantage in case of fire ; but the 
houses, with the exception of the residences of the 
Governor, the Archbishop, and some few others, 
wear but a paltry appearance, and are mostly 
built of wood. In summer, the town is rendered 
agreeable by the number of gardens, abounding 
in fruit-trees, which are attached to the houses. 

In the Torgovaia, a considerable space, part of 
which is occupied by old baz^s, still marks the 
scene of ancient trade; close behind which are 
some very old churches and palaces, some of 
which, from the frequent repairs they have under- 
gone, have lost almost every vestige of their primi- 
tive appearance. Between the two divisions of 
the town stands the Krem'l, or citadel, which is 
surrounded by a ditch, a high' rampart, and a 
brick wally with round towers in the ancient style. 
It contains the cathedral church of St. Sophia, 
the most ancient in Russia, next to that in Kief, 
having been founded in the year 988 ; that of the 
Ascension of the Virgin ; the archiepiscopal pa- 



Ince, with several ancient chapels attached to it ; 
the houses for the courts of law ; and a new pri- 
son. To the construction of the last the governor 
has paid particular attention, for the purpose of 
introducing the laws and regulations of the Society 
for the Amelioration of Prison-discipline. 

In the vaulted apartments above the Sancta 
Sanctorum of the cathedral, ate preserved the 
antiquities of Novogorod ; but, at the season we 
visited them, the rooms were too cold to admit 
of our spending any time in examining them, 
though it had been at our command. The more 
remarkable are some sacerdotal habiliments of 
Grecian workmanship, sent hither, in the tenth 
century, for the use of the first bishops of this 
city. The account given us of them was, that, 
after having been interred with the bodies of 
the bishops for more than seven hundred years^ 
they were dug up, and deposited in these apart- 
ments! A mitre of asbestos, richly bestudded 
with gems, interested us more than any thing 
we saw. The library, in the other end of the 
church, contains several thousand volumes, vawi 
of which are in the Slavonic language, and relate 
to ecclesiastical affairs. Two. Slavonic MSS. of 
the four Gospels were shewn us; one of the 
thirteenth, and the other of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. They are both written on parchment, and 
well executed; especially the latter^ which is 
adorned with a painting of the Evangelist John. 
We also inspected a number of Greek MSS. ; but 
none of them was of any great antiquity, and they 
contained scarcely any thing but homilies. 

18 NOV(kK)HOD. 

It dMerves the notice of the antiquary, that, 
notwithstanding the early intercourse which ex^ 
isted between Nwagorod and SeamUnavia, and 
the reign of Scandinavian princes in these parts^ 
no Runic inscriptions have yet been discovered. 
Among other coins recently dug up near the 
Ladoga, many of which were with Cufic cha- 
racters, was one with the inscription, ETHEL-^ 
RED REX ANGLORUM ; in all probability, 
part of the Danen-Geld raised by the Danes in 
England, and conveyed through diannels of com- 
merce to this remote quarter. Numerous tumuli 
are found along the banks of the Fekhof, and on 
the shores of the Ibnen lake ; in some of which,, 
human bones, rings, &c. have been discovered. 
At the house of the Governor we observed an iron 
helmet, of tremendous weight, which had been 
extracted from one of these tumuli, and a coat 
of m«l, consisting of minute iron rings, neatly 
fastened together with small rivets. 

That part of the Soph'iiskaia which is separated 
from the citadel by a small branch of the river, 
^>pears to have been more recently built, and 
eontains a number of good wooden houses. Here 
. the principal market is held every Friday. In the 
western suburb is an extensive sail-cloth manufac- 
toryi belonging to the Admiralty, which employe 
about 2,000 hands. 

The river VohJiof is supptied from the lake 
Hmen, at the distance of about two y^sts above 
the town. At the bridge^ which is constructed of 
wood, and rests on piles, it is about six hundred 
feet in breadth, and is navigable in Spring, through 


the whole of itd course, to the Ladoga, into "fAxich, 
it faHHs, near a town of the same name. It seldom 
freezes, although the current does not appear to 
exceed two versts an hour. After a long winter, 
it was pleasing to the eye to view the gentle flow- 
ing of the water, the blackness of which was finely 
contrasted by the whiteness of the snow on the 
banks of the river. 

The day after our arrival, we delivered the 
introductory letters which we had to the suffragan 
'Bishop, and the Governor ; from both of whom we 
received the most friendly and hospitable atten- 
tions during our stay. Although Novogorod be 
only 185 versts distant from St. Petersburgh, and 
nearly 400,000 copies of the Holy Scriptures had 
passed through it, on their way to different parts 
of the empire, scarcely any provision had hitherto 
l>een made for its inhabitants, or those of the 
government ; the number of which is estimated at 
upwards of 900,000 souls. So great was the scar- 
city of Bibles, that, as we were informed, many of 
the priests had never so much as seen a copy ; and 
instances were to be found, in which they were 
destitute even of the Lessons, or extracts from the 
Gospels and Epistles. It was, therefore, viewed 
as an object of no small importance to establish 
a local Biblical Institution in the government- 
town, by which the wants of the inhabitants might 
be accurately ascertained, and fully supplied. We 
accordingly adopted the necessary preliminary 
measures, in which we received every possible 
assistance from the authorities above-mentioned ; 
and, on the afternoon of the 7th, after dining with 

c 2 


the Governor, we had the pleasure to witness the 
establishment of an Auxiliary Bible Society^ in 
the presence and with the aid of the Bishop, the 
principal Archimandrite, and a number of the 
most respectable of the inhabitants, whom his 
Excellency had invited to his house on the occa- 

After going through the usual routine, in the 
election of office-bearers and directors, it was re- 
solved, that 1,000 copies of the Scriptures should 
immediately be ordered from St. Petersburgh, and 
that a room in the cathedral should be appropri- 
ated for their public sale. It was farther agreed, 
that Branch Societies should be formed in the 
district towns of the government, the number of 
which amounts to ten ; and we pledged our ser- 
vices towards carrying this resolution into effect 
in such of these towns as lay in the route of our 

In Novogorod, where laroslav founded the 
first public school, in the year 1054, at which 
three hundred children received their education, 
there are at present three principal elementary 
institutions : a spiritual academy ; a public school 
for the children of the citizens in general; and 
another for those of the military. In each of the 
district towns are two schools : the one spiritual, 
and the other secular. A few years ago, the se- 
cular schools did not contain more than 200 
scholars ; but at present the number amounts to 
900, all of whom receive a free education. In 
the spiritual schools are upwards of 2,000. There 
are, besides, in every village, some poor peo- 


pie, wbo gain their livelihood by teaching chit- 
dren to read ; so that, although this government 
may be considered as one of the most back- 
ward in the empire, owing to its soil and the 
scattered state of the population, its progress, in 
regard to mental culture, is increasing from year 
to year. 

On the 8th, we drove out to the monastery of 
St. Anthony, which is pleasantly situated on the^ 
right bank of the Volchofy about three versts be- 
low the town. We were here kindly welcomed 
by the Archimandrite Ambrosius, a friendly, open, 
and intelligent monk, whose acquaintance we had 
previously formed at the table of the Bishop. 
After partaking of a collation, which he had pro- 
vided for us, and conversing some time on the 
subject of the Bible Society, and certain points 
connected with biblical literature, we were con- 
ducted to see the academy, of which he is rector, 
where we found about 300 students, divided into 
classes, and taught in different rooms, according 
to their different degrees of. proficiency. From 
the account given us by the rector, their num- 
ber was on the increase; and he expected, in 
consequence of arrangements now going forward 
that it would soon amount to 450. Of these young 
men, 160 have free board, as well as education ; 
the rest pay 80 rubles, or about £3. sterling, per 
annum. The course of instruction is divided into 
three classes — ^the Philological, the Philosophical, 
and the Theological, in each of which the students 
spend two years ; so that six years are allotted to 
the whole course. We heard one of the young 


Bieti^ in tlie fewest or j^ological class, parse a 
passa|;e ki the Gredc Collectanea, which he did 
in the same language without difficulty. They 
learn Hebrew with the points, according to the 
prononciation of the Spanish Jews, from a Hebrew 
grammar, published some years ago, by the Rer. 
Dr. Pavsky, of Pe^ersburgh, whose zeal for the 
cnkivatioa of this department of oriental literature, 
among the Russian clergy, has been crowned with 
such success, that not fewer than /arty of his 
disciples are at present teaching Hebrew in as 
many different academies, or seminaries, through- 
out the empire. For the use of those who study 
this language, a new edition of Stockii Clavis 
Vet. Test, is at present printing in the metropolis, 
under the direction of the spiritual academy of 
that city. 

In a separate building is contained the library 
of the academy, consisting of about 4,000 volumes, 
among which we noticed the earlier English 
edition of the Arabic If. T., Kiister's edition of 
Mill's Greek Test., Trostii Syriac N. T., the 
Poljrglotts of Reineccius and Hutt^r, Origeni 
Hexapla, by Montfoucon, the edido prinoeps of 
the Greek Fathers, Maraccii Alcoran, Whiston's 
Moses Choronensis, a Chinese and Latin Lexicon, 
beautifully written, and several Armenian wad 
Greorgian works. Attached to the libniry we were 
diewn a separate^ room, destined, by the Archi- 
mandrite, for the use of the Bible Society, as a 
depository from which copies of the Scriptures 
might be forwarded, agreeably to the orders 
received from different parts of the government. 


On our return to town, we took leave of fbe 
Bishop and GoTemor, and, after an early dinner^ 
proseonted our journey across the marshy ground 
to the north of Nwagerod. Beyond the little 
V^hofj which we crossed by a wooden bridge 
of nearly half a verst in length, we found the 
road extramely bad, from th^ continuance of the 
thaw ; and, before reaching the station, our 
carriage stuck so fast in the snow, that with all 
the strength we could command, in addition to 
that of two peasants from a neighbouring hut, 
we found it altogether impossible to move it. At 
last a female, pwceiving our distress, brought us 
a long pole, by means of which we raised the 
hinder part of the sledge, and, what with the 
division of our force between this pole, and dif- 
ferent parts of the carriage, and the frightful 
shrieks of the woman^ which seemed to produce 
a more powerful effect on the horses than the 
whip of our driver, we succeeded in bringing the 
vehicle once more into motion. 

Close to the post-station, Bronnitzkoi Kam, 
we crossed the 3fsta on the ice, not without 
strong apprehensions of danger, owing to the 
darkniess of the night, and the advanced state of 
the season. In summer the passage is effected 
by a bridge of boats. This river, which is here 
of considerable breadth, takes its rise in the 
district of Fishnei FoUdchok, in the government of 
Tver, and running first in a northerly, and then 
in a south-westerly direction, falls into the Ihnen, 
a little above Novogorod. 

We put up all night at the house of 'a 


yamshtchik, ^ one of that cla^s of Russian 
peasants, who support themselves by furnishing 
horses for the post, acting as carriers in conveying 
goods, and forwarding travellers who may wish 
to travel at a slower and more economical rate 
than it is possible to do by post. In general their 
houses are fitted up on a larger scale than those of 
the other peasantry, and bave attached to them 
immense stables, or rather sheds, round the three 
sides of the court, behind the house, many of 
which are capable of containing upwards of a 
hundred carts with the horses belonging to them. 
Our host we found an intelligent man, and posr 
sessed of a number of religious books, and sq 
great was the interest excited in his mind, by a 
part of the Slavonic and Russ New Testament, 
which we put into his hand, and so eager was he 
to become acquainted with its contents, that he 
sat up most of the night reading it aloud : — a cir* 
cumstance which, although it rather interrupted 
our sleep, afforded us an unspeakable pleasure, as 
an instance of that avidity with which the scrip- 
tures are read by such of the Russian peasantry 
as can peruse, and are able to procure them. His 
joy in the morning, on being told that the book 
was his own, was indescribable, and we had the 
greatest difficulty to prevail on him to accept any 
remuneration for the trpuble he had been at in 
accommodating us. 

* This word^ like manj others in common use among the 
Russians, is adopted from the original Turkish uJjjar«b yamfik, 
** a coarser, post-horse, &c." The word Jj yam, is not only 
used in Russia and Tatary, but also in China, to denote a poet- 
station. See Marsden's Marco Polo^ p. 366. 


Leaving the village next morning, a little after 
break of day, we observed, on the right side of the 
road, a remarkable conical height, on the summit 
of which is a church, that is said to occupy the 
identical site of an ancient heathen temple, of 
gpreat oracular fame among the nations of the 
north. Some have supposed that this hill has 
been raised by human labour, but its size is such, 
as altogether militates against the opinion, and 
leads us" rather to ascribe it to the operation of 
physical causes. 

About noon we reached the small district-town 
of Kresfzi, and stopping in the suburb, close to 
the post-house, we were shewn into a good-look- 
ing habitation, on the opposite side of the street. 
The peasant to whom it belonged was absent, but 
the reception we met with from his wife, convinced 
us that we should not have been made more 
welcome had he been at home. With the whole 
population of the suburb, amounting to upwards 
of 1,000 souls, the family consisted of Starovaertzi, 
or dissenters of the old faith, the rigidity of whose 
principles operates as powerfully on their inter- 
course with all whom they consider to be members 
of the orthodox Greek church, as the contracted 
spirit of the ancient Jews did in preventing them 
from having any " dealings with the Samaritans.'* 
One of our number happening to have metal 
buttons on his travelling coat, and another having 
a tobacco-pipe in his hand, the prejudices of the 
mistress of the house were alarmed to such a 
degree, that all the argiiments we could use were 
insufficient to prevail on her to make ready some 


dinner for us. When compelled to do any service 
of this kind, to such as are not of their own sect^ 
they consider themselves bound to destroy the 
utensils used on the occasion ; to prevent which 
loss, those who are more exposed to the intrusion 
of strangers, generally keep a set of profane 
vessels for the purpose. As the proprietor of the 
house we had entered appeared to be in affluent 
circumstances, it is not improbable that he might 
have furnished it with something of the kind ; but 
the tobacco-pipe proved an insuperable obstacle 
to their use. So great, too, is the aversion of this 
people to snuff, that if a box happen to have been 
laid on a table belonging tb them, the part on 
which it lay must be planed out before it can b0 
appropriated to any further use. They live in a 
state of complete separation from the church; 
only they cannot marry without a licence from 
the priest, for which they are sometimes obliged 
to pay a great sum of money. The sacrament, as 
it is usually called, they never celebrate ; and 
baptism is only administered to such as are near 
death, on the principle adopted by some in the 
early ages of the church, that such as relapse, after 
receiving this rite, are cut off from all hopes of 

The only copies of the Scriptures hitherto in 
use among them, are of the first, or Ostrog edition 
of the Slavonic Bible, printed before the time 
of the Patriarch Nicon, when the schism, wiuch 
had long been forming, was ultimately completed 
by the alterations which that learned ecclesiastic 
introduced into the liturgical and other books of 


the Greek church in Russia. It has been asserted, 
that there exist, among the Staroveertzi, reprints 
of this Bible, in which every jot and tittle is 
religiously copied^ but the pertinacity with which 
they secure the continuance of the old Bibles in 
their families, and transmit them as the most 
precious treasure to their posterity, renders it 
difficult to obtain copies for collation. It is a 
curious fact, and to it perhaps may be traced any 
disposition at present existing among this people 
to co-operate in the labours of the Bible Society, 
that when the first stereotype edition of the 
Slavonic Bible was printed in St. Petersburgh, 
numbers of them, mistaking the word stereotype, 
and pronouncing it starotype, (old type) supposed 
that it was a new impression of their ancient 
Bible, and purchased a considerable number of 
copies, at the different depositories. Their pre- 
dilection for copies of the old edition has rendered 
them extremely scarce in Russia; and when it 
happens that a copy is exposed to sale, it fetches 
several hundred rubles. 

Fortunately, the proprietor of a small inn, 
being a member of the Orthodox Church, was not 
influenced by the contracted principles of his 
neighbours ; and, had we known of his house 
before we entered the other, we should not have 
put these principles to the test. We were here 
furnished with a comfortable dinner ; after which 
we carried into effect the measures we had pre* 
viously concerted with the post-master, for the 
establishment of a Branch Society, in subordina- 
tion to the Auxiliary Bible Society we had just 


formed in Novogorod. In the Committee we 
effected the junction of the Protopope, or prin- 
cipal clergyman, the Burgo-master, and the Post- 
master, with one of the most respectable of the 
dissenters, who readily accepted the office of 
Director, and expressed his conviction that se- 
veral of his brethren would become subscribers 
to the Society. To the honour of the Post- 
master, it deserves to be noticed, that owing to 
his individual exertions, copies of the Holy Scrip- 
tures had already been circulated in this district, 
to the amount of upwards of 1,500 rubles. 

Having again seated ourselves in our carriages, 
we drove through the tovm, which wore rather a 
diminutive appearance, compared with the populous 
suburb we had left. Several large stone buildings, 
which have been erected at the expense of govern- 
ment, have been almost entirely burnt dovm, but 
, must, when new, have given an air of respecta- 
bility to the place. Between this town and 
JTcgelbitzi, the second station beyond it, we 
became sensible of a considerable rise in the 
surface of the earth, and indeed every thing 
around us seemed to indicate our approximation 
towards an interruption of the continued flat over 
which we had been travelling ever since we left 
St. Petersburgh. 

What particularly attracted our attention, was 
the exhibition of numerous groups of circular 
heights, on both sides of the road ; most of which 
bore so exact a resemblance to the sepulchral mo- 
numents we had been accustomed to see scattered 
over different parts of Scandinavia, that we could 


not but conclude them to be the tumuli of such as 
had fallen in tlie battles in which the ancient inha- 
bitants of these northern regions were frequently 
engaged. The situation, however, and enormous 
size of many other heights, perfectly like these in 
shape, which presented themselves as we ad- 
vanced, seemed at first to overthrow the con- 
clusion we had drawn ; but, just before we reached 
the station, we discovered some smaller elevations, 
close to the road, which were identified with the 
Scandinavian monuments, by the stones placed at 
difierent distances round their base— a circum- 
stance which completely satisfied our minds, that 
although the formation of some of those heights is 
to be referred to the action of the elements of 
nature, yet many of them are incontestibly the 
efiects of human labour. It was to this place, as 
the farthest point towards the north, that the 
Tatar army, under Batu Khan, penetrated in the 
year 1238. Though that prince had carried every 
thing before him in his progress, sacking the 
towns, and butchering their inhabitants, instead 
of giving battle to the Novogorodians, against 
whom he was marching, he all at once ordered his 
army to retreat, and, returning to Bukharia, di- 
rected his attention to the consolidation of his 
Asiatic conquests. 

At the village of JTa/e/AiV^sf,. where we passed 
the night, we were ofiered some beautiful pearls, 
of about the size of a pea ; but the price demanded 
for them was exorbitant They are found in con- 
siderable quantities, at certain times of the year, 
in the rivulet which runs through the village. 


At an early hour, on the 10th, we set forward 
orer the Valdai hills, which here stretch acrosil 
the cotintry in a north-easterly direction, and may 
be viewed as forming the connecting link, in the 
general structure of this part of our globe, be- 
tween the Carpathian mountains and those of the 
grand Uralian chain. They have been supposed 
by some to be the AXa^vov opoc of ancient geo- 
graphy ; but Mannert* is of opinion that they are 
rather ra 'Piiraca, the Ripaeus mans, or the Riphaei 
tnontes, of Ptolomy and Pliny. None of these hills 
are of any great height ; but they are divided by 
numberless abrupt indentations and valleys, con- 
taining several considerable lakes, from which the 
rivers of this part of Russia are supplied. With 
the exception of some blocks of granite, which 
we could now and then discover rising above the 
snow, it was impossible for us to form any idea of 
their composition ; but they are reported to con- 
sist chiefly of sand and lime-stone, the latter of 
which exhibits curious concretions of marine pro- 
duction. An inferior kind of coal has also been 
found in some parts; but it has never been 
wrought to any extent. 

The town of Valdai, which we reached about 
ten o'clock, is agreeably situated at the foot, and 
along the face, of a gentle slope, on the west- 
em shore of a fine lake of the same name. It con- 
tains four churches and several large stone edi- 
ficei?, erected by government, and occupied by 
the Commandant, the courts of justice, &c. It 

• Dcr Norden dcr Erde, Leipsig, 1820, p. 26l. 


appears to be a place of considerable trade, par- 
ticularly in smith-work and the founding of bells. 
The number of its inhabitants is rated at ^,000* 
Their dialect is distinguished by a number of ano- 
malous peculiarities; which is accounted for by 
their being chiefly the descendants of Polish and 
Finnish prisoners, who settled here in the reiga of 
the Tzar Alexei Michailovitch. 

While my two travelling companions waited on 
the Protopope, I hired a sledge, and drove across 
part of the lake to the Iberian Monastery, which 
here presents a beautifully picturesque appear- 
ance, being situated on oiie of the wooded islands 
in the middle of the lake. It was founded by the 
Patriarch Nicon, and is a great resort of pilgrims 
from the neighbouring governments, on accomit of 
the thaumaturgical image of the Virgin, brought 
hither from Mount Athos. The object of my 
visit was to call on the Archimandrite, who had 
circumnavigated the globe with Krusenstern, and 
who, from this very circumstance, there was rea- 
son to expect, would approve of an Institution 
which has for its object to communicate the words 
of eternal life to the whole family of man. Nor 
were my expectations, in this respect, disap- 
pointed. I found him already acquainted with 
the exertions of the Society ; and he engaged to 
co-operate with the priests and others of the 
town in carrying them forward in this part of the 
country. My time being limited^ it was out of my 
power to inspect the library attached to the nK>- 
nastery; but it is said to contain many works 
of great rarity and value. 


Bbutration of Eoeles. xii. e—VUinei VolottAok—SuperstUum 
retpecting Hmuesbumthy Lightning — Tonhoh — Mednoi Yam 
—The Volga— Tver— Description of the Town^Bible So' 
eietg — Karelian Language, and Oospel of Matthew — Klit 
Arrival in Moscow. 

Having spent the night of the 10th at a small 
Tillage, at some distance beyond Valdai, we en- 
tered the government of Tver at an early hour the 
following morning, when we became almost in- 
stantly sensible of an improvement in the appear- 
ance of the villages on the road ; the houses being 
larger and better built, and the inhabitants evi- 
dently in better circumstances, than those of the 
government we had left. On passing through 
them, we were particularly struck with the num- 
ber of wells on both sides of the street, ovet each 
of which is built a large wooden apparatus, con- 
sisting chiefly of a windlass, with a wheel about 
six feet in diameter, which is turned round by the 
hand, and by this means the water is drawn up 
in a bucket. It is, obviously, to a machine of this 
kind that Solomon refers, in his highly figurative 
portraiture of old age, Eccles. xii. 6 : '' Ere the 
pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel 
broken at the cistern." 

About nine o'clock, we arrived at the town 


of Vishnei Volotshohy a place of rising importance, 
owing to the canal which is opened here to unite 
the rivers Msta and T\}ertza, and thereby facili- 
tate the water communication between the Baltic 
and the Caspian Sea. This canal is, at present, 
receiving considerable improvements; and the 
number of barks, of different sizes, which passed 
through it last season, amounted to not fewer than 
7,000. Besides some good wooden houses, we 
observed several of stone ; and a large square, 
with a bazAr, in front of which is a neat church 
of recent erection. Even in winter, the town 
wears a lively appearance ; but in summer it is 
completely crowded with merchants from diffe- 
rent parts of the empire, and the peasants, who 
here find a ready market. for their produce, and 
are supplied with such articles of foreign trade 
as the limited nature of their means will allow 
them to purchase. A more eligible spot for a 
dep6t of the Holy Scriptures could not easily 
be found ; and it gave us great pleasure to find 
the Protopope cordially disposed to estabUsh one, 
and to charge himself with its management. He 
had already formed a Bible Association, and 
raised upwards of 1,000 rubles in the course of 
the year ; but, owing to the want of proper ar^- 
rang^ments^ they had not yet received any copies 
of the Holy Scriptures, aldiough he described the 
anxiety to obtain them as very great. We en* 
gaged, on . our arrival in Tver, to take such mea- 
sures as would secure a regular supply in future ; 
while he, on his part, undertook to open a room 
for their sale, in the church facing the grand baz&r; 


Sooa after leaying the town, we passed a foui> 
tain, which had originally been dug for the accooEi* 
modation of travellers ; but, having been conse^ 
crated to some saint, at whose shrine, on the op- 
posite side of the road, small wax candles are 
kept constantly burning, it is now regarded w 
possessing peculiar virtues, and is held in great 
veneration by the peasants. A little farther on, 
we passed a monastery dedicated to St. Nicholas^ 
where we had sevnal very narrow escapes from 
being overtunfied, owing to the extreme badnesflr 
of the road. Towards evening, we came to the 
village of Fodova, where we obtained lodgings 
in the house of a peasant. The inhabitants of this 
village belong to a subdivision of the sect known 
by the name of Bezpopwlchinh or '' the Prieatr 
less," because they conduct thetr worship without 
the assistance of any regularly ordained ptiest. 
Oa inquirmg into their circumstances, we found 
Uiat the village had recently been burnt down by 
lightning, which our host termed '' burnt by the 
will of God." The same superstitious idea, rela* 
tive to the efficacy of milk in quenching fires that 
have been kindled by lightning, prevails here, as 
in some parts of Germany; the consequence of 
which is, that, owing to the smallness of Ibequanr 
tity of that liquid which it is possible to procure^ 
compared with the exigeucy of the case, it not 
unfrequently happens that, vrfaen it is resorted to,, 
instead of a plentiful supply of water, whole vil* 
Jages are consumed, and the inhalntants reduced 
to circumstances of great misery. The house in 
which we lodged had been recently fitted up> aiid 


co6t not 1688 than 3^000 rubles, or about £120. 
sterling. The peasant seemed an intelligent young 
man ; yet, though he received a copy of the Gos- 
pels from us with every demonstration of grati- 
tude, we could discern a certain degree of shyness 
in the manner in which he spoke on the subject of 
religion, which we attributed to the presence of 
his parents, who, perhaps, suspected that we had 
some design of reclaiming him to the orthodox 
faith. According to his avowal, however, after 
reading a portion of one of the Gospels, he was 
convinced it was a book which, if perused and 
followed, would rectify many mistakes in religion. 

The following morning, before reaching the 
town of Tarshok, we passed two beautiful country 
seats, on the banks of the T\)ert%a, and were the 
more struck with their appearance, as they were 
the only gentlemen's houses we bad seen since 
leaving the vicinity of the metropolis. 

As we approached the town just mentioned, 
the sun shone in full splendour on its gilded 
spires, and gave it an appearance vastly superior 
to any thing we had expected to find in a country 
place. It lies on the river Tvert%a^ by which it is 
divided into two parts ; and contains a monastery, 
a nunnery, and upwards of twenty churches ; some 
good stone buildings, such as the Imperial palace, 
die couits of justice, &c. ; and an exc^ent mar- 
ket-place. On <tfe right bank of the river are 
still visible the remains of an ancient fortification, 
which gave to the place no ordinary degree of im- 
portance during the civil disputes of the Russians, 
the Polish wars, and the incursion of the Tatat 



hordes under Batu, by whom it was taken, after 
a siege of fourteen days. Most of the inhabitants 
of Torshok, the number of whom is estimated at 
16,000, are engaged in different kinds of trade; 
and the place is famous for its manufactories of 
Morocco leather, which is made up into boots, 
slippers, &c., and sent to different towns of the 

After visiting the Archimandrite, we prose- 
cuted our journey across an immense plain, en- 
tirely covered widi snow, and arrived a little be- 
fore dark at Mednoi Vam, where rather a serious 
altercation took place between two of the inhabit- 
ajqts, in regard to our lodgings. We first stepped 
into the house appropriated to the accommodation 
of travellers ; but, not being satisfied with its ap- 
pearance, we repaired to that of a peasant, where 
we found we were likely to be much better served. 
The proprietor of the inn, enraged at the pre- 
ference given to the house of his neighbour, col- 
lected nearly half the village against the poor 
man, who, having but lately come to reside in the 
place, seemed to possess no great interest, and 
was totally unprepared to defend himself, or the 
strangers he had taken under his protection. At 
one time, the mob were so loud in their threats, 
and appeared so determined to wreak their ven- 
geance on the house, that we actually began to 
consider ourselves in circumstances of danger; 
but, after spending nearly an hour in noisy delibe- 
ration, they began to disperse, and we were per- 
mitted to repose in quiet. Such' frays are often 
attended with very disagreeable consequences. 

TVER. 37 

especially if any attempt be made by travellers 
to interfere in settling the dispute. 

On the morning of the 13th, after travelling 
nearly thirty versts through a woody country, we 
espied the churches and spires of the government 
town of Tver, situated on the Volga, which we 
crossed on the ice, close to the spot where, in 
summer, the passage is effected by a bridge of 
boats. This noble river, one of the largest in 
Europe, known to the ancients by the name of 
Rha, and to the Tatars by that of Atel, takes its 
rise in the lake Volga, which is supplied by a 
number of small streams and lakes, near the wes- 
tern boundary of the government of Tver, and only 
a few versts distant firom the sources of the Dvina* 
At first, it flows in a N.E. direction, till it reaches 
the Mahga, when it receives the waters of that 
river, and follows its course to Kazan. Here it 
turns almost due south, which direction it more 
or less follows till it passes Tzaritzin, when it 
almost immediately divides into a number of 
branches^ and, pursuing its course towards the 
S.E., discharges its accumulated waters into the 
daspian, at the distance of about seventy versts 
below the town of Astrachan. Its whole course is 
computed to be little short of 4,000 English miles. 
At the time we crossed it, we found its surface 
very low ; but we were informed, that, in the be*- 
gmning of summer, it sometimes rises to the 
height of thirty*five feet, inundating parts of the 
town^ and carrying away whatever is found on its 

The town of Tper is chiefly situated on the 

38. TV£E, 

rigbt hmk of the f^o^ga, and is divided into three 
parts by the Tvertza and Tmaka, which here fall 
into that river* It is considered to be one of the 
finest towns in the empire, being regularly built of 
brick/ and containing a number of fine squares 
and stately edifices* It has a .beautiful cathedral 
of Gothic architecture, twenty*eight churches, 
three monasteries, a magnificent palace, and other 
public buildings, which, altogether, give the town 
a very imposing and agreeable appearance. It is 
an archiepiscopal see ; but the Archbishop, being 
a member of the Holy Synod, generally resides in 
St. Petersburgh. The clerical seminary in this, 
place cmtains about 600 students, who are taught 
the difierent sciences by upwards of twenty diffe*. 
rent professors and teachers. There is likewise 
an institution for the children of the nobility,, 
erected and maintained at their joint expense ; ai 
gymnasium, which is well attended; a district 
school; and an establishment for the children of 
the military. The number of inhabitants is esti- 
mated at 20,000. 

On the evening of the 15th, we repaired to the 
house of his Excellency the Governor, to assist at 
a meeting of the Auxiliary Bible Society; when, 
among other subjects proposed for discussion, we 
felt much interested by the question relative to 
the best mode of distributing the Karelian Gospel 
of Matthew, recently printed by the Parent So- 
ciety in the metropolis. Of the Karelians, not 
fewer than 100,000 live in the government of 
Tver. Certain parts of the Russian church-ser-^ 
vice had been translated into their language, and 


exwts among them in manuscript ; but the Oospel 
just mentioned is the first book ever printed Ibi 
their use* 

The Karelian in use here is a distinct dialect 
of the Finnish^ in many respects differing front 
that spoken in the government of Ohndtz, the 
proper Kyrialand (Karelia) of the Scandinavian 
historians ; chiefly owing, I conceive, to thci 
greater distance of the people from Finlandi and 
the consequent influence of the Slavonic and mo- 
dem Rubs on their colloquial dialect. The male 
part of the population speak Russ, being accus« 
tomed to it when visiting the towns, or transacting 
any business with the Russians ; but the females, 
who remain mostly at home, are unacquainted 
with any langfuage but the Karelian. It is, there- 
fore, an object of great importance to provide 
them with the Holy Scriptures in their native 
tongue. How this numerous Finnish tribe ori- 
ginally settled in this government ; whether they 
are a remnant of the aboriginal inhabitants, who. 
have been cut off from the kindred tribes during 
the period of the Novogorodian republic ; or, whe- 
ther they were separated from tbe inhabitants of 
Karelia, and transplanted here in the reign of 
Peter the Great, are questions yet to be solved in 
the history of nations. That the latter hypothesis 
is the more probable, would appear from the cir^^ 
cumstance that certain Swedish words, as Herra, 
Kunnung (Konung), are found in their language ; 
which could not possibly have obtained among 
them, had they not been connected with Finland 
subsequent to its subjugation to Sweden. 


The Gk>spel of Matthew, in this dialect^ was 
printed at St. Petersburgh in 1820, and occupies 
ninety-six octavo pages. It is printed in the mo* 
dem Russ ' character, with the addition of some 
few accents, marking certain diphthongal sounds 
peculiar to the Karelian. The choice of these 
characters, in preference to any others, is to be 
ascribed , to the insulated situation of the people, 
who never come into contact with any that employ 
the Latin or Gothic alphabet, and their close al- 
liance with the Russians, as an integral part of the 
Greeco-Russian Church. This latter circumstance 
will also account for the occasional use of Slavonic 
words in the version, such as watot, '' holy ;" 
prorok, ^* prophet ;" zakon, ** law ;" whereas, in 
Finnish, they are pyhd, propheta, lai. In render- 
ing the word Kvpi«c» the translator has proceeded 
upon the principle, that when used* of the Divine 
Being, without any other epithet, it is to be given 
by IwnalUy the word otherwise uniformly em- 
ployed to express Oebc; when a human master is 
referred to, the Swedish Herra is adopted ; and 
the Slavonic Gospod is used in those passages in 
which Kvptoc is used of our blessed Saviour. On 
the other hand, when Kvpi#c and 0eoc are joined, 
the translator uses Herra lamala, after the exam- 
ple of the Finnish translators. For ^ucotoc, the Ka^ 
relians appear to use the word ogie; and for 
iucato^vyfi, ogcgusk ; but, in some passages, such as 
chap. i. 19, Sucatos is rendered lomaJan varatia, 
'* God-fearing,"* the translator conceiving, that the 
word is here used to express the general character 
of Joseph, as influenced in all his actions by the 


highest and best motives, rather than the simple 
principle of strict equity in a more limited point 
of view. A critical review of this version, by Dr, 
Sidgren, is to be found in the Mnemosyne, Abo,» 
1822, p. I4L 

Finding that we could not proceed to Moscow 
in our carriages, without great danger and incon- 
venience, owing to the thaw^ which now appeared 
to have completely set in, we had them forwarded 
slowly by one of our servants, and proceeded, on 
the 16th, in common sledges, which we found 
both easier and more expeditious. In the long 
village of Zavidova^ which we reached in the 
dusk, we found a good inn, where we stopped all 
night; and, starting early the following morning, 
we passed through the small straggling town of 
KUhj and advanced with all possible speed, in 
order to reach the termination of the first grand 
stage of our journey before dark. 

The ancient metropolis of the Tzars presented 
itself before us just as the last rays of the setting 
sun were reflected from the numerous groups of 
domes and gilded spires, which formed an almost 
uninterrupted line from the one end of the city to 
the other. Nothing can be more complete than 
the contrast which presents itself to the traveller, 
the moment Moscow bursts upon his view. For 
several versts to the north, nothing is visible, on 
either side of the road, that indicates the vicinity 
of a metropolis, more than the wildest parts of 
Siberia; but not far from the gate stands the 
Petrovskoi palace, a huge building of brick, in the 
Gothic style, behind which is. a village with gar- 


dens, from which the inhabitants of the city are 
in part supplied with vegetables and milk. 

Having had our passports examined by the 
officer on guard at the zastava, or barrier forming 
the entrance to the city, we were admitted, and 
drove up to the house of the Moscow Bible So- 
ciety, where we were invited to spend a few 
days, till we should be accommodated with more 
convenient lodgings. Nothing could be more op- 
portune than our arrival in Moscow ; for only two 
days afterwards, the Institution celebrated its an- 
niversary. It was held in a large hall, belonging 
to the University ; and, although the weather was 
extremely unfavourable^ there were about 600 
persons present, among whom were several indivi- 
duals of the first respectability. What particularly 
attracted our attention, was a numerous company 
of Russian, Armenian, Greek, and Georgian clergy, 
who seemed to take a deep interest in the pro- 
ceedings. After an anthem had been sung by 
a choir in the gallery, the business of the day was 
opened by his Grace the Metropolitan, in a lumi- 
nous speech ; a translation of v^hich will be found 
in the Eighteenth Report of the British and Fo- 
reign Bible Society, Appendix, p. 4, to which the 
reader is also referred for an account of the 
progress of the Moscow Institution. 


Moscow — General Features — Divisions — Population — Public 
Institutiim9 — KremU — Great Bells — Cathedral — Patriarchal 
LUrtrary'-'^PriuHng Office and Library of the Holy Synod — 
New Editum of the LXX,— Greek and Slavonic MSS.—Ar^ 
wunians — Chinese Christians — The Holy CHI. 

Though we ilpent nearly a month in the ancient 
capital of Russia, being obliged to wait till the 
summer roads were rendered in some degree pass- 
able> yet such was the state both of the streets 
and weather, that we were confined most of the 
time to our rooms, and consequently had but 
few opportunities of visiting or examining the 
numerous objects of research which are here pre* 
sent^d to the inquisitive traveller. The leisure 
hours thus afforded, I endeavoured to turn to s<xne 
account for a future part of our journey, by pro- 
secuting the study of the Turkish language, and 
commencing that of the Armenian, in acquiring 
Hie elements of which I was ai^aisted by a young 
priest of that communion, recommended to me by 
bis Archimandrite. 

When at all able to go out, we were struck 
with the strange medley of European and Oriental 
forms, which every where caught our eye. With 
the exception of Jews, we codd recognize the 
phymognomies: of people of all nations, from dis- 


tant India to the shores of the Atlantic, in most 
of which was depicted the various anxiety to ob- 
tain a portion of this world s wealth, which had 
brought them together in the centre of the most 
extensive empire in the world. When we re- 
flected, that little more than nine years had elapsed 
since this large metropolis had been converted 
into a heap of ruins, and that not more than 
3,000 houses had been left unconsumed by the 
flames, it was with astonishment we contemplated 
the rapidity with which numerous magnificent 
edifices had again risen into view. 

The extent of surface occupied by the city 
and suburbs of Moscow is greater than that of any 
city in Europe, its circumference being generally 
estimated at nearly twenty-seven English miles. 
Much of this space, however, is devoid of houses, 
and is either left entirely waste, or appropriated 
to gardens, market-places, or fields for military 
exercise. Previous to the conflagration in 1812, 
the houses are described as being built in a 
straggling manner, and exhibiting a striking con- 
trast of grandeur and insignificance, the utmost 
profusion of wealth and the extreme of poverty and 
want ; but since that period^ great attention has 
been paid to the improvement of the city; and 
although the irregularity of many of the streets 
cannot be corrected, greater symmetry is observed 
in the construction of the buildings, and even the 
houses of the poor have . assumed a more modern 
and cleanly appearance. The majesty and ele^ 
gance of many of the palaces built by the nobility 
exceed any thing of the kind we had ever seen. 


with the exception of the Imperial edifices in St. 

Moscow is divided into five qaarters, or circu- 
lar 4>arts. 1 • The Krem'l, or fortress^ which is 
constructed on an elevation in the very centre 
of the city, and contains the ancient palace of the 
Tzars, the Patriarchal residence, the senate-house, 
the arsenal, and a vast assemblage of churches 
crowded together within a small space. — 2. Ki- 
tai'g6rod, which forms a kind of oblong square on 
the east side of the Krem'l, and is principally 
filled with magazines, baz&rs, shops, &c. It also 
contains the printing-office of the Holy Synod, a 
Gre^k monastery, and several ancient churches 
and chapels.— •S. Beloi-girod, containing the Uni- 
versity, Bank, Post-office, Mint, Foundry, the 
Foundling and other Hospitals, and the best- 
looking streets and houses in the whole city. In 
this division stands the house of the Bible Society, 
.presented by his Imperial Majesty, in 1817. It 
is most conveniently situated in one of the princi- 
pal streets leading to the Krem'l, and the busy 
Bcene of mercantile occupation. This house was 
formerly that of the State Inquisition ; and it is a 
singular £Btct, that one oC the servants of the So- 
ciety, now resident in it, was, during a long suc- 
cession of years, immured in one of its cells.—- 
4. ZemUafm-gdrod, which comprises upwards of 
sixty churches, with a number of palaces and 
convents, the public cemeteries, &c.— 5. Shbodi, 
the slobodes, or suburbs, and quarters inhabited 
by German and Tatar settlers. They also con- 
tain, hospitals, barracks, and monasteries, in con- 


siderable numbers. The whole is sttrroimded by an 
earthen rampart, called the Kammer-'hoUeshahoU 
vail, in which are not fewer than fourteen gates» 
forming so many entrances to the city. Each 
division has anciently been defended by a wall ; 
but in modern times, and more especially since 
the French era, the walls have fallen into decay, 
and it is likely that, in the course of a short time^ 
the three outer divisions will entirely coalesce, 
and leave the Krem'l, with its massy walls and 
turrets, to perpetuate the memory of the far- 
famed residence of the Patriarchs and Tzars. 

The population varies according to the season 
of the year. In summer, the usual number of 
4nhabitants does not exceed 260,000 ; but in win- 
ter, when the nobility and landed proprietors 
repair to town, with their numerous train of ser- 
vants and dependants, it falls little short of 

The provision made for the intellectual im^ 
pfovement of the Russian and foreign youth, resi- 
dent in Moseow and the adjacent country, is wor- 
thy of the Imperial munificence from which it 
emanates. At the University, not fewer than 
forty Professors and Lecturers are supported, who 
are divided into feur faculties, and deliver lectures 
on Moral Philosophy, Political Economy, N&- 
tsral History, Mathematics, Medicine, and the 
JLiberal Arts. To the University are attached a 
i3Mmfy, which was entirely consumed in the fire 
of 1912y but again contains upwards of 8,000 vo- 
lumes ; anatomical and veterinary lecture-rooms ; 
flOD interesting cabinet of natural curiosities ; a che- 

TH£Ka£M'L> 47 

mical laboratory; and a botanical garden. In 
connection with the direction of these institutions, 
are also an academy for the children of the no* 
bility, a gymnasium, and a seminary for preparing 
teachers of schools. There eicistj besides, several 
learned Societies, an excellent medico-siirgical 
academy, a spiritual academy, and a seminary for 
the sons of the clergy. The hospitals are of the 
first order. That founded by the late Princes«» 
Galitzin cost not less than 800,000 rubles, of 
about £32,000. 

One of the first places we visited was the 
Kremlf which, although its circumference does 
not exceed three versts, contains a greater ccrilec- 
tion of curio^ties than all the other parts of the 
city taken together. It is of a triangular shape^ 
defended by a deep moat, and high brick walls, 
with towers ; and is situated on a rising ground^ 
on the left bank of the Moskva, from which the 
city derives its name. Entering at the right hamd 
gate from Kitai-gorod, the first object that meets 
the view is the arsenal, which still remains in the 
jMtB^e dilapidated state in which it was left by the 
J^jrepch, In front, and along the <Kie end of tfab 
boikiing, lie between eight and nine hundred 
pieties of cannon, of difierenst calibre, all regularly 
ampged in rowsi, ai>d destined to be piled tip in 
ike shape of an obelisk, in one of the public 
squares, to commemorate the victories which Rus* 
sia obtained over the allied armies, from which 
tbey were taken. To the left stands the Semite* 
house, an immense new bpilding of three stories, 
containing several departments of the Imperial 


Senate^ in which business is transacted for the 
convenience of such as live in or near Moscow. 
Passing on, you have full in view the noble edi- 
fice of the Treasury, or Imperial Museum^ in 
which are preserved the regalia of the empire, and 
numerous objects of curiosity. On the same side 
with the Senate-house, is the Hall of the Spi* 
ritual Consistory, widi a church containing some 
very ancient paintings and inscriptions ; and con- 
Hected with it, in the same line, is a fine modem 
building, intended to be a metropolitan palace, 
but at present appropriated as the occasional resi- 
dence of the Grand Duke Nicholas. 

Almost directly opposite to this palace stands 
the immense octagonal belfry, known by the name 
of Ivan Velihiy or ** John the Great," in which 
are suspended upwards of thirty bells, of different 
sizes, which are rung in peals on holidays or other 
public occasions. The largest of these, mea- 
suring forty feet nine inches in circumference, 
and weighing 127^36 English pounds, was tolled 
on Easter morning ; and though we were several 
versts distant, the sound was tremendous, and 
produced a powerful effect on the nervous system. 
Large, however, as this bell is, it is merely a sub- 
stitute for one still more stupendous, which is 
interred in the open area, at a little distance from 
the belfry. As it formed the remotest object of 
this world s wonders that I remembered to have 
read of in my youthful days, I naturally felt a 
strong desire to examine it minutely; but the 
quantity of snow and water by which the greater 
part of it was enveloped, rendered this imprac- 


licable. It is indisputably the largest bell in the 
world ; measuring sixty-seven feet four inches in 
circumference round the lower part of the barrel, 
by twenty-two feet five inches and a third in 
height — the whole weight amounting to 443^772 
pounds. In the lower part is a ' fracture of seven 
feet two inches and a half in height, which ad- 
mits of persons entering the bell, when there is 
no water in it, and surveying the immense metal 
vault overhead. Its value has been estimated at 
£65,681 ;* but this estimate is founded merely on 
the price of ordinary bell metal; and the real 
value must be much greater, owing to the profu- 
sion of gold and silver which the nobility and 
other inhabitants of the city threw into it when 
casting. According to tradition, it was founded 
in the same pit where it now lies, and was raised 
by means of a prodigious wooden apparatus, on 
a large beam, on which it was suspended ; but a 
fire breaking out some years after, in some adja- 
cent part of the Krem'l, it communicated to the 
wooden building, designed to serve as a belfry, 
on which the whole of the mountainous mass fell, 
and sunk to its present situation. It was rung by 
forty or 'fifty men, one half on either side. 

From Ivan Veliki we commanded a view of 
the city, the most extensive and picturesque ima- 
ginable. Beneath our feet lay the KreniU with 
its two and thirty churches ; the magnificent edi- 
fices above described, and the ancient palace of 
the Tzars, with its numerous domes and spires, 

* Hanway'8 Travels, vol. L p. 93. 



which^ together with those of the cathedral, 
shone with the most dazzling splendour. From 
the west flowed the Moskva, forming a beautifUl 
curve in front of the Krem'l, and again pursuing 
its course amidst innumerable^ churches and spires^ 
tiU lost in the distuice ; while all round us lay 
scattered a prodigious number of edifices, in all 
the various styles of Asiatic and European archi- 

On the 30th we met the Archdeacon of the 
Uspemkai S<Aare, or Cathedral of the Assumption^ 
by whom we were shewn its antiquities* Here, 
cm an elevated platform in the middle of the 
churchy is the spot where the Imperial coronatiaa 
is performed, and a little in front of it are three 
boxe8» or thrones, the middle one of which used to 
be filled by the Patriarch, while the other two were 
appropriated to the use of the Tzar and the Tzar* 
it:^. From the roof is suspended a large silver 
chsxidelier, but it is said, to be vastly inferior to 
that which formerly hung there. In 1812 the 
French erected a furnace in one end of the chorch, 
in which they proceeded to melt all the candle^ 
sticks and other articles of gold and silver which 
they could collect ; but being surprised in the act 
by the sound of retreat, they were obliged to 
parry off many of the articles whole, which the 
Cossacks afterwardi» recovered to the amount of 
18i poods* of gold^ and 320 poods of silver. la 
this temple the coffins of the Russian Patriarchs, 
with the exception of Nicon, are deposited in re* 

* A pood 19 equal to thirty-iix pounds English. 


gulaf order along the south side, and the end op^ 
posite to the adytum. Among other ancient and 
richly ornamented paintings, of which there is here 
the greatest profusion, we were shewn one exhi^ 
biting a head of Christ, which is said to have been 
presented by the Greek emperor, on the introduc- 
tion of Christianity into Russia. It suffered some 
injurry in 1812, but has since been retouched. We 
were also shewn the cross and other insignia used 
at the baptism of Vladimir the Great, and a rariety 
of priestly habiliments, presented by the Tzars^ 
and richly studded with precious gems. In an 
upper compartment of the adytum, we found a 
beautiful MS. copy of the Four Gospels, in Greeks 
and anotiier in Slavonic, written by one of the 
Tzaritzas. In the same place is preserved the 
oopy of an edition of the Slavonic Gospels, in ex^ 
tra folio; only a few copies were printed. It is 
supierbly bound, and ornamented with the richest 
profusion of precious stones. 

The Cathedral of the Archangel Michael, which 
we also visited, contains the tombs of the Tzars, 
built of brick, and having each a silver plate, with 
B» inscription specifying the name of the deceased, 
and the year of bi9 death. 

The other gate, leading from the KremU to JK- 
iai-gerod, m called the '* Holy Gktte,'' awl is singular 
ftoto the custom, that every person going in or out, 
must pass^ with h«» head uncovered. It is reported 
to have originated in a vow made by Ivan VasiKe- 
vitch, on the subjixgation of the Tatar kingdom df 
Kazan. Immediately without this gate stands the 
P6krwshoi Sobore, or Cathedral of St Basil, built 

E 2 


by Italian architects, and remarkable for the cir«- 
cumstance of its comprising within its walls a 
cluster of more than twenty distinct churches or 
chapels^ in all of which service may be performed 
at the same time, without the sound of what is 
going forward in one penetrating at all into another. 
Amongst other remarkable places in the Krenil, 
we also visited the Patriarchal residence, a very 
ancient building, which stands immediately behind 
the Treasury, and contains the library which be- 
longed to the Patriarchs, the dresses they wore, 
and a variety of costly utensils appropriated to the 
use of the church ; such as the vessels used for 
preparing and preserving the consecrating oil, &c. 
In the library we could willingly have spent a 
considerable part of the time we remained in Mos- 
cow ; but the coldness and dampness of the apart- 
ments only permitted us to glance at a few of its 
treasures. The most interesting of these, which 
attracted our notice, was a very ancient Greek 
MS. containing the Four Gospels. It is. written 
in cursive characters, and wants the first eleven 
verses of the 8th chapter of John. We also ob- 
served an old MS. copy of the works of Josephus, 
but had no time to examine whether it contained 
the much disputed passage about our Saviour. 
The rich and valuable collection of Greek MSS. 
in this library, was made by the Patriarch Nicon, 
about the middle of the seventeeuth century, with 
a view to enable him to correct the Slavonic ver- 
sion of the Holy Scriptures, and the church books, 
in which many things had been discovered, which 
did not agree with approved copies of the originals. 


Animated by an ardent zeal in this laudable un- 
dertaking, the learned prelate applied to the Pa- 
triarch of Constantinople, and other dignitaries of 
the Greek Church, from whom he obtained not 
fewer thanjSve hundred Greek MSS., among which 
were several of the Septuagint, and a considerable 
number of the whole, or certain parts of the 
New Testament. As most of these treasures were 
brought from the libraries of Mount Athos, which 
have long been famous for the supplies of this de- 
scription it has yielded to Europe, the text they 
contain is that of the Byzantine, or Western edi- 
tion. Accounts of them have been given to the 
world by Professor Matthasi,* who most diligently 
improved the opportunities afforded him during 
his residence in Moscow, for collecting such as 
were of importance in the criticism of the New 
Testament, and published the result of his inves- 
tigations in his critical edition of the Greek New 
Testament, Riga, 1782-88, in twelve volumes 
8vo. The scurrility which the Professor mingled 
in his opposition to Griesbach's system of classifi- 
cation, tended greatly to injure the work at the 
time of its appearance, and to lower the author in 
the esteem of the candid and moderate ; but now 
that the heat of the controversy has cooled down, 
the value of his labours begins to be more highly 
appreciated, and more impartially appealed to, on 
the subject of the various readings of the Greek 

* Notitia Codd. MS.torum Hoequensium, Mosquae, 1776 
Fol. And Index Codd. MS.torum Graecorum Bibliothecarum 
Mosquensium, &c. Petropoli, 1780, 4to 


Much, however, as was effected by the enmi* 
nation instituted by Matthcei, in reference to the 
New Testament, there is still an ample field for 
critical research presented by the MSS. of the 
Septuagint contained in this library, as well as 
those of the Slavonic version, both of the Old and 
New Testament, none of which have yet been fully 

The only other library we ' inspected, was that 
connected with the Printing-office of the Holy 
Synod. This office consists of an extensive and 
splendid edifice in one of the streets leading 
through the Kitaigorod to the KreniL It is of re- 
cent erection, is quite in the Gothic style, and, sin- 
gularly enough, exhibits the British arms in firont. 
It employs twenty^five presses, connected with 
which are a foundery and binding establishment, 
and the whole is carried on by people belonging to 
the church. Besides church-books in cpnstant 
demand, we found them printing a Greek Collec<- 
tanea for the Spiritual Schools, and an edition of 
the Septuagint and the New Testament; partly 
at the expense of a rich Greek of the name of 
Zozima, and partly at that of the Bible Society. 
The text adopted for the Old Testament is that of 
Breitinger, and for the New^ the Textus Receptus, 
as printed in the common editions; which latter 
circumstance is the more remarkable, as the text 
they exhibit differs so widely from the readings of 
the Slavonic version. The edition is in quarto, 
and consists of 5,000 copies, which are principally 
intended for distribution among the clergy in 
Greece, where the most deplorable want of copies 

AftM^IANS. 55 

of the Greek Bible » found to exist. The correc- 
tioD of the press has been committed to the Arch- 
deacon of the Uspenskoi Cathedral, Jacob Dime- 
trievitcb, one of the first Hebrew and Greek 
Mholars in the Russian church. 

The library of the Holy Synod is preserved in 
the upper story> and contains a considerable num- 
ber of Greek and Slavonic volumes, both printed 
and in manuscript, many of which are* of great 
rarity. Among others, we observed several Greek 
Evangi^arii in manuscript, some old editions of 
the Classics, an Ostrog Bible, and the first edition 
of the Slavonic Gospels, printed at Ugrovallachia, 
1612. We were also shewn some curious speci- 
mens of the hand-writing of Peter the Great, and 
a small printing-press, which he carried about 
wi^ him on his expedition to Derbend. 

One of the more interesting visits we paid in 
Moscow, was to the Armenian Archimandrite 
Seraphim, a most affable, intelligent, and well- 
informed monk, who, besides his native language, 
speaks the Russ, Turkish, French, and English. 
He has travelled extensively, and resided a consi- 
derable time in India. His present charge is a 
seminary for the tuition of Armenian youths, in 
which about fifty receive the elements of a polite 
education. He has recently begun to print some 
Armenian books for the benefit of his countrymen. 
In 1819, he published an elementary Encyclopaedia, 
and, in the present year, a Russian and Armenian 
Dictionary. According to the estimate he gave, 
Che number of Armenians scattered through diffe- 


rent countries amounts to nearly fwr miHioiw. 
Multitudes have recently joined the Roman com- 
mimion; and the efforts made by the Catholics, 
with a view to effect such conversions, are inde* 
fatigable. Subsequent to the late catastrophe at 
Constantinople, three monks have been sent by 
the Patriarch of that See^ as candidates for the 
episcopal dignity; but none of them has been 
accepted. The Bishop, against whom the Arme- 
nians have been so greatly enraged, has sent one of 
his partizans to Etchmiadzin, in order to plead his 
cause before the Patriarch; and a conference is 
now holding at Tiflis, to decide on the matter. 
About thirty years ago, 25 or 30,000 Armenians 
were trained to the use of arms in the north of 
Persia ; but Ihey have long ago been dispersed, 
and little of true patriotic feeling is now left among 
that people. Till about the time just referred to, 
a great number of ancient and important MSS. were 
preserved at the monastery of Etchmiadzin ; but 
few now remain, the most part having been con- 
veyed to Venice, which may be considered as 
forming, at present, the principal seat of Armenian 

On putting some queries to the Archimandrite, 
relative to the state of the Armenian Text, he in* 
formed us, that, having once begun to collate the 
printed editions with MSS. of acknowledged anti- 
quity, he found such numerous and important dis- 
crepancies, that his curiosity was more than ever 
excited ; but he was compelled, by the multi- 
. plicity of other engagements, to abandon the re- 


search. From what he stated, it would appear, 
that it was only in certain instances that Uscan 
rendered the Armenian Text conformable to the 

On the 6th of April, we called on a Georgian, 
who had been twice overland to India, by whom 
we were informed, that in the towns of //a, Kujja^ 
jfksu, Kashgar, and Verkent, in Chinese Tatary, 
he found a number of Chinese Christians, banished 
thither in chains, because of their zeal in propa- 
gating the religion of the cross*. They now enjoy 
greater liberty, and still adhere to their profession 
of Christianity. In 77a, they have a pater, or 
priest, who is a native Chinese, and received his 
ordination from the Catholic Missionaries. The 
l>ook8 in his possession are chiefly Latin, and he 
reads the service in that language to his Chinese 
brethren ! According to the accounts he gave us, 
any person travelling through those parts as a 
merchant, is allowed to pass without difficulty, 
and the language principally spoken is Turkish, 
with some considerable admixture of Persic. 

The same day we went to the Patriarchal Hall, 
to see the ceremony of the preparation of the holy 
oi/. Here, over a stove constructed oh purpose, 
we found two large kettles, in which the different 
ingredients were mixed, and kept in constant mo- 
tion by six deacons, who stirred them with long 
rods of cypress, the handles of which were covered 
with red velvet. This was the third day since the 
ceremony commenced, and another day would still 
be required ere the oil would be ready. This oil. 


which consists of the ingredients prescribed in the 
Levitical law, is not prepared every year, bat only 
every third or fourth. When the fire is kindled, 
and also when the ingredients are put into the 
kettles, the Metropolitan is present to give his 
benediction ; and this he repeats in a most solemn 
manner when the ceremony is about to be com^ 
pleted. During the whole time of the preparation, 
a succession of deacons keep up the reading of the 
Gospels, and should they read through the Evan- 
gelists, they commence afresh. To us, it was 
most interesting to behold a crowd of poor people 
leaning forward over each other, and listening to 
the words of eternal life. 

At the east end of the hall rose a stand, resem- 
bling that used in rooms for receiving flower-pots ; 
the steps or shelves reclining and diminishing as 
they approached the top. On these was placed a 
great variety of gold and silver cups, and flagons 
of various sizes, among which, at certain distances, 
was a vast profusion of lighted candles, which gave 
great brilliancy to the scene. The most remark- 
able object in this splendid exhibition of sacred 
utensils, was a large flagon, made of mother of 
pearl, which still contains some of the oil brought 
from Constantinople, on the introduction of Chris- 
tianity into Russia, in the tenth century. It is 
preserved with great care, so that when only a few 
drops are taken from it, as on the present occasion, 
their place is supplied by some of that which had 
been prepared at a former period, by which means 
its perpetual virtue is supposed to be secured. 


Close to the store, we observed an immensely 
large silver urn, and on a table on the opposite 
side of the hall, sixteen smaller ones, resembling 
the common tea-urn, only much larger. The oil 
thus prepared and deposited in these utensils, is 
sent to all parts of the empire, to be used for sa- 
cramental purposes. 


I%c Shwmie People — Name — ZMnguage-^Aij^abei — Biogra- 
phical Sketch of CgriU and MethodimM— Their Tramlaiiom of 
the ScripturcM — Papal BuU — Fint Editumi of the Slawmie 
Scriptures — The Ostrog Bible — Character of the Venim^^^ 
The First Moscow Edition^Peter the Great's Slawmic- 
Dutch Edition — Revision of the Text, and recent Impressions. 

Ha VINO in the preceding chapter adverted to 
the ample collection of Slavonic MSS. still pre* 
served in the ancient Patriarchal library, and that 
of the printing office of the Holy Synod in Mos- 
cow, it may not be unacceptable to such as culti- 
vate biblical science, to be furnished with a detailed 
account of the Slavonic Bible, interspersed with 
such remarks on Slavonic and Russian literature 
as the investigation of the subject may suggest. 
Although the Slavonic Version of the Scriptures 
cannot rank in point of importance with the more 
ancient versions, such as the Syriac, Armenian, 
Coptic, &c. it is, nevertheless, entitled to a distin- 
guished place among the materials of sacred criti- 
cism, as it affords very essential assistance in 
determining what were the readings of the Byzan- 
tine text at the time it was made; and having 
been constantly preserved, and read in the Russian 
Church, must be regarded as one of the most 
authentic documents handed down to us from her 


parent^ the ancient Greek Church, into whose 
dogmas and rites, she was exclusively initiated, 
and to which she has adhered with the most scru- 
pulous rigidity to the present day. 

The earliest notice we have of any tribe of 
Slavonic origin, is that of Herodotus, whose 
KpofivCoi inhabiting the country beyond the Ister, 
can be none other than the Krivitzi or Krivitchij 
so famous in Slavonic history. They are also 
mentioned by Scymnus of Chios, Strabo, Pliny, 
and by Stephanus Byzantinus, in the sixth century, 
as living to the north of the Danube ; and Constan- 
tine Porphyrogenitus assigns them their place in 
the regions about the sources of the Volga, the 
Dmna, and the Borysthenes. Mention is made by 
Ptolomy of the Serhi, one of the most celebrated 
tribes ; but the first accounts we have of the ShtM^ 
mans under this identical name, are in Jordanus,* 
who describes them as existing in the year of our 
Lord 376, at which time they subjugated Her- 
manrik. King of the Ostrogoths: and Procopiusf 
speaks of them under the year 494, as granting a 
free passage through their country to the Heruli, 
when worsted and pursued by the Longobards. 
It is generally agreed, that they foim a branch of 
the Sarmatae, or Sauromatse, a people of Median 
origin, who, passing the defiles of the Caucasus, 
possessed themselves of the vast steppe between 
the Black and Caspian Seas, thence called *^ the 
Sarmatian Plains ;" and crossing the Don, pene* 

* De Gothorum origine, cap. xxiii. 
t De Bello GotUco. 


tnted into those regions, where the Slavi first 
came into notice.* 

The Slavonic language is generally understood 
to signify that into which the Holy Scriptores, 
and tne liturgical books of die Russian Church are 

* With respect to the origin of the name given to thii people^ 
a grest diftrence of opinion has existed among the learned. 
Thiit it ia Dot to be written Sciavanian, it agreed on aU handv; 
for, altiMMgh the Greeks wrote IicXa/Scyoc, it arose tircm necM- 
sity—^here not being any such combination, as ^X in their la^ 
goage ; and it is evidently from them that the Latins adopted 

their Sclavi, and the Arabic geographers their u^IL^}. The 
attention of native etymologists has been principally directed to 
two words in their own language : Stow, '' word, speech;" and 
Siava^ " gtoiy, renown." In fiivour of the itmour, it has baea 
alledged, that the Slavonians appropriated the name to them* 
selves in contradistinction from foreigners, to whom they gave 
tho nanse of NUmhi, or ** the speechless/ because their language 
was anintelHgible to them ; and this is the epithet by which they 
•till distinguish the Germans in the preaent day. The psortial 
use of the o in the names of certain tribes of this people, such as 
the Slovaks, Slovens, &c. would seem to confirm this derivation; 
but, on the other hoid, the frequent occurrence of the syllable 
slav in proper names, at a very andent period of Slavonic hfstory . 
and th^ ai^ority of the earliest ftireiga writers, who haw oeca* 
sion to mention them, seem to decide the question in favour of 
Slava, which, with a certain modification, is adopted by 
Dobrovsky, m an interesting dissertation on this subject, in the 
ntLtk volume of tbe Transaetaoiis of a private Soeietf in Bobomis^ 
This profound Slavonic scholar considers the word, whoa occinv 
ring as part of a compound in proper names, to be equivalent t9 
the Greek termination uwfiog, so that Svaloslav Blagoslav, are 
msnly e^mologieal translations of UpwyvfiOQ and ivwyvfwc. 
The reason, he conceives^ why the Slavoatano asiumed the name 
as a people, was their being aceu«tomed .le g^ve names tor dMi 
places of which they possessed themselves agreeably to the 
received usage of words in their own language. All foreigners 
and foreign places they r^parded as anonymous, on account of 
the insignificancy of their names to people of Slavonic (nrigiii, 


traaslated* and which is still used in the puUic 
services of that communion. It would be con- 
trary, however, to the first principles of history 
and philosophy, to maintain that these documents 
exhilHt any proper specimen of the primitive Ian* 
guage spoken by the Slavonians ; or that many of 
the idioms, combinations, and derivations, with 
which they abound, ever formed a part of the ver- 
nacular dialect of any of the tribes of that people* 
A critical examination of these works, combined 
with a knowledge of the circumstances connected 
with their translation, puts it beyond a doubt, that 
whatever may have been the state of the language^ 
as spoken at the time the translation was executed, 
the servility with which every Greek form was 
copied, both as it regards the composition of words^ 
and the construction of sentences, must necessarily 
have introduced important changes into it, not to 
insist on the vast accession and numerous associa*^ 
tions of ideas imparted by the new system of reli- 
gious belief. 

That the original Slavonic possessed a consi* 
derable affinity with the Sanscrit, may be gathered 
from the numerous traces of this ancient Indian 
language still to be recognized in the ecclesiastic 
cal dialect of Russia, notwithstanding the changes 
which entered into its formation in the ninth cen- 
tury. But of this common and primeval Slavonic 
dialect, no monument has reached our times. 
Long before the translation of the Bible was made, 
that people had separated into a number of dis- 
tinct tribes, and spread themselves over an im- 
mense extent of country ; by which means, a num- 


ber of idiomatical modifications were formed , 
many of which maintain their distinctive character 
in the present day. These dialects have been 
divided into two classes : — I. The Oriental di- 
vision, comprising the Russian, Serbian, Croatian, 
Bulgarian, and the dialect spoken, with certain 
minor diversities, in Carniola, Stiria, and Carin- 
thia ; and, II. The western class, which compre- 
hends the Shvakian, Bohemian, Polish, and the 
two SoraJnan or IVendish dialects, spoken in up- 
per and lower Lusatia. But many of these con- 
tain a number of subdivisions ; as, for instance, 
under the general name of Serbian is compre- 
hended the Slavone, Dalmatian, Bosnian, Ragu- 
sian, and Siebenburgian dialects. Numerous, how- 
ever, as these dialectical branches are, and widely 
as some of the tribes by which they are spoken 
are separated from each other, the general affinity 
is still abundantly predominant, and is, indeed, so 
great, that the inhabitants of the different countries 
have little difficulty in making themselves under- 
stood to each other. 

It being a fact, therefore, that an idiomatical 
diversity obtained, to a greater or less extent, 
at the period when the Slavonic version of the 
Scriptures was made, it becomes a subject of 
inquiry — In which of the dialects was it exe- 
cuted? Were we to argue a priori, from the 
quarter to which the translators proceeded from 
Constantinople, and where they appear to have 
executed their task, the conclusion would irre- 
sistibly force itself upon our minds, that it was 
the language spoken in Moravia ; for it was with 


an immediate view to the instruction of the Mora- 
vians that it was undertaken. But the language 
spoken in that country is a subordinate dialect 
of the Bohemian, between which and that dis- 
coverable in the Slavonic version there exists a 
very perceptible distinction. We are, therefore, 
obliged to adopt the other alternative; namely, 
that the translators made use of the peculiar dia- 
lect the knowledge of which they had acquired in 
Thessalonica and the vicinity of the Euxine, where 
a number of Serbian tribes had settled, some of 
which had penetrated as far as the Peloponesus. 
This dialect would be sufficiently understood by 
the Moravians ; and as the work of translation 
commenced immediately on their arrival, if not, 
as tradition reports, before they left the Greek 
metropolis, they would naturally make little ac- 
count of the trivial differences of idiom. This hy- 
pothesis accords with those comparisons which 
have been made by eminent Slavonic scholars, ail 
of whom agree in the opinion, that the ecclesiasti- 
cal dialect, or that used in the translation of the 
Scriptures, belongs to the Oriental class of Sla- 
vonic dialects, and comes nearer to the Serbian 
than to any of the other divisions of the lan- 

The more ancient Slavonic MSS. exhibit the 
language as moulded into the Greek forms by 
the translators of the Sacred Writings, and other 
religious books, in which it is still preserved, as 

* Trudi Obstschestva Liubitelei Busskoi Slovetnosti, Tshast VII. 


well as in the Annala of Nestor, aiid other old 
chronicles written in the same dialect. About the 
thirteenth century, the MSS. began to conform to 
the vernacular language in its characteristic forms 
and modes of expression ; and even such as we 
,merely copies of more ancient manuscripts furnish 
abundant proof of the liberties taken by tran- 
scribers, who changed the more uncommon forms 
into such as were then in use.* 

Though it be a fact clearly established in his- 
tory, that the invention of the Slavonic alphabet 
was coeval with the introduction of Christianity 
among the tribes forming the south-western divi- 
sion of this people, it is equally indubitable, that 
.they were acquainted with the Runic characters 
^while yet in a state of paganism. That the an- 
cient Vends, a Slavonic tribe, made use of runes 
4s proved by the testimony of Ditmar, Bisliop 
of Merseburgh, who lived in the end of the tenth 
century; and his testimony is corroborated by 
the inscriptions found upon their idds.f With 
these characters they were, in all probability, fiir- 
nished by their Gothic neighbours; but, as they 
were only sixteen in number, they were iniMffi- 
cient to express all the sounds of the Slavonic 
language ; and, being thus unfit for any general 
purposes of writing, their use was confined, as 
it always has been among the Gothic tribes, to 
inscriptions on wood and stone. 


' * Trudi Obdtflcbestva Liubitelei Russkei SloTemosti, Tshast 
t Karamsin's Hutory of the Russian Empire, Vol. I. p. 109. 


The inyentio!! of Slaronic letters is unani-^ 
inously-ascribed to Cyrill or Gonstantine, sir- 
named the Philosopher, on account of his learn- 
ing; but, it is manifest, this invention consisted 
in nothing more than the adaptation of the Uncial 
characters of the Greek alphabet, so far as they 
went, to express the sounds of the new language, 
with the addition of certain other letters^ borrowed 
or changed from other alphabets, to'make up the 
deficiency. He also substituted Slavonic for the 
l^enician names of the letters; on which ac- 
count, the alphabet has been called the CyrilUc, 
after his name. That the Greek characters form 
its basis, must be evident to every one who is at 
the trouble to compare the most ancient Slavonic 
MSS. with the specimens of Greek penmanship, 
from the ninth century, as exhibited in the PalsBO- 
graphia of Montfaucon. It has been attempted, 
indeed, to trace the common Slavdnic alphabet to 
the characters known by the name of the Gla- 
golitic or Hieronymean alphabet, still used among 
the Slavonians in Dalmatia. But the hypothesis 
of the* priority of the Glagolitic characters to the 
Cyrillic, is equally groundless with the assertion, 
that Jerome was tiie author of a Slavonic tnwsia- 
tion of the Bible. Both have cmginateid in the lu- 
cubrations of some Dalmatian monk, who amused 
himself with an attempt to beautify, as he fancied^ 
the Slavonic characters; but which attempt, in 
fact, only deformed them, and rendered it neces- 
sary for him to ascribe the offspring of his own 
brain to Jerome, in order to procure for them a 



ready reception among the Slavonians of the 
south. To give an air of probability to his po* 
sition, he was obliged to explain the well-known 
fact/ that Jerome did make a version of the Scrip- 
tures, of a Slitvonic translation made by that Ei- 
ther; but he was ignorant of the circumstance 
that Dalmatia was not inhabited by people of Sla» 
vonic origin for more than three centuries, sub- 
sequent to the time of Jerome. The most ancient 
monument we possess of the Glagplitic is a Psal- 
ter of the thirteenth century ; whereas/ in the 
common Slavonic or Cyrillic charact^er, we hav« 
manuscripts of the twelfth, and even of the efe* 
t)enth. • • • 

The following tables, taken from Dobrovsky's 
Institutiones Linguae Slavicse, will enable the 
reader to form an idea of both alphabets. It 
must be observed, however, that these are not the 
only alphabets in use apiong the nations df Sla- 
vonic origin. This is far from being the case. 
The common characters, formed after the pattern' 
of the Cyrillic, and employed in printing the books 
of the Greeco-Slavonic Church, obtain in Russim, 
Servia, Bulgaria, Moldavia, and fVaUachia ; ijk 
Poland, Hungary^ lUyria, Croatia, and CathoKc 
Servia, the Roman letters are used ; while . the 
Slavonians in Moravia, Bohemia, Lausatia, and 
Silesia, make use of the German alphabet. 



:, i -^ ■ 

'• « *";, 

i rr^.'^*' 







i*5wUu*| aJ[^^ ^gkr-^^ 









»W 3 




^« y<v 




/^^ - 



J^wo 2«#. 





.4^r, J 




iwtrdt iot 




,«« < 




ui **»■ 

I F 



^vOe^ 7 




fir* Sat 

f 1 



^ rf 




e/Ur ft>» 




f^* 9 




Ot JtO 

I 1 



its fi> 




stiM *«. 




i to 




» f" 




> V 


B/jtrw foot 




««4<> «9 







^CM^ J^ 








mifiiu ^1 

Oi b 






»UC.^ 7' 

m [pI*? 


Com^0n9ia> ^U*r-»'-u.ryi ec~4C.S- J^ohm^wC. 

^ |ta OS d£i eai ini£ A r^^^yi^,^ 

J ^ 

I., ^i a A I 





In order to obtain a rational account of the 
circumstances connected with the translation 
of the Holy Scriptures into the Slavonic lan- 
guage, we must distinguish between the idle 
and legendary tales of later annalists, and those 
more ancient and unadorned relations which bear 
the genuine' stamp of plain and unsophisticated 
historical truth. The only documents on which 
any dependence can .be placed, in regard to this 
subject, are the Bulls issued by the Roman Pon* 
tiff, John VI 11. relative to the ecclesiastical afl^rs 
in Moravia, towards the close of the nintii century ; 
the celebrated annals *of the Russian monk, Nes- 
tor; the Chronicle of the Prebyter Diocleas ; and 
that part of the Russian Lives of the Saints, quoted 
by Schlozer, in the third part of his critical edition 
of Nestor. Whatever there may be in this last 
work, analogous to the Acta Sanctorum of the 
Roman Church, the author just mentioned^ much 
as he was inclined to scepticism on such topics,, 
found it impossible to withhold the expression of 
his conviction, that the account it contains is 
possessed of internal probability, and agrees, on 
the whole, with the history of the period to which 
it refers.* 

According to these sources^ the version was 
made by two brothers, Cyrill and Methodius, the 
sons of Leo, a Greek nobleman of Thessalonica. 
The name of the former was originally Constan* 
tine, and he assumed that of Cyrill, along with the 
monastic habit, at Rome, only a few days before 

* See also Kohlii Introductio in Hist, et Rem Literar. Slavo- 
ronL Alton. 17^9>Svo. 


his death. Although the younger of Uie two bro- 
thers, he appears to have been the more distin- 
guished for his abilities, and his profound know- 
ledge of the Holy Scriptures, and the writings of 
the Greek Fathers. Of these, his farourite was, 
Gregory Nazianzen, many portions of whose works 
he knew by heart. In his youth he enjoyed the 
best education, as companion to the young Prince 
Michael — a connection which held out to him the 
most flattering prospects of worldly honours and 
gratifications; but on its being proposed to him to 
make an advantageous matrimonial alliance, he 
appears to have taken the alarm, lest the company 
into which it might introduce him, should encroach 
on the time he ought to devote to nobler objects. 
He now retired from court, and for some time shut 
himself up in a monastery in the vicinity of the 
Black Sea. Having, about the year 857, been 
again prevailed upon to vint Constantinople, he 
engaged in a warm dispute with the patriarch 
Photius, respecting the whimsical notion of two 
souls in man, which that prelate attempted to de- 
fend ; and shortly after proceeded on a mission to 
the country of the Khazars, where he confuted the 
Jews and Mohammedans, who were attempting to 
proselyte the Khakan to the peculiar tenets of 
tiieir respective creeds; and prevailed upon this 
prince, his nobles^ and a considerable part of the 
nation, to embrace the profession of Christianity. 
The assertion of Milner,* that ^'it is certain he 
translated the Sacred books into that (the Khaza-t 

* Church Hifltory, A.D. 866. 

MsraoDius. 71 

Tian) language," is equally groandless with die 
statements, that this language was '' the sam6 
with the Slavonian/' and that ''the Slavonian 
tongue was the invention of Cyrill and Methodius." 
The mistake has arisen from the different divisions 
of the labours of these missionaries being con- 
founded with each other* On leaving the country, 
the Khakan was desirous of testifying his grati- 
tude, by lavishing presents upon the two brothers; 
but they manifested a noble disinterestedness in 
refusing them> and only requested the prince to 
restore to liberty those Greeks who had been de- 
tained as prisoners in his dominions. Cyrill now 
undertook the conversion of the Bulgarians, and 
baptized great numbers of them into the Christian 

Methodius had originally an appointment in 
the army, but was afterwards promoted to be 
Voievod, or Governor, on the Slavonian frontiers, 
which office he filled for the space of ten years, 
and had thus an excellent opportunity of acquiring 
a knowledge of the Slavonic language. Having 
retired from the bustle of public life, he entered a 
monastery on Mount Olympus, whence he pro- 
ceeded with his brother, on the mission to the 
Khazars* He afterwards accompanied him to 
Moravia, as we shall see presently, and to Rome ; 
and, after the death of Cyrill, returned to Moravia, 
where he prosecuted the labours they had jointly 
begun, and died in the year 880 ; but whether in 
that country or at Rome, is uncertain. 

Such was the celebrity of these brothers for 
their sanctity, learning, and zeal, that when special 


application was made to the Greek emperor, by 
the Moravo- Slavonian princes^ Rostislav, Sviato- 
polk, and Kotzel, for teachers to instruct their 
people in the truths of Holy Scripture, the learned 
men about the court at once referred the emperor 
to CyriU and Methodius, as the fittest persons to 
embark in the undertaking. They were accord* 
ingly appointed to the charge, and after spending 
four years and a half in translating the Scriptures^ 
and instructing the inhabitants of Moravia, \dio 
had previously been baptized by German priests 
of the Roman communion, they visited Rome, at 
the invitation of Pope Nicholas I. on which occa- 
sion Cyrill became a monk^ and died there shortly 
after, in the year 871. 

Having accepted the commission, Cyrill (with 
the assistance, some think, of his brother Metho- 
dius,) invented an alphabet adapted to the lan- 
guage of the Slavonic tribes to which he was sent, 
and both applied themselves, with all assiduity, to 
the translation of the Scriptures; convinced that 
but little progress could be made in teaching the 
all-important truths of the Gospel^ while the people 
remained destitute of immediate access to the in- 
fallible source from which they are derived. 

{t is ma^tter of doubt, however^ whether these 
missionaries translated the whole of the Sacred 


Code, or whether their labours only comprised the 
books of the New Testament and the Psalms of 
David. The most important testimony we have 
on the subject is somewhat ambiguous. In his 
Annals, Nestor states, that ''they translated the 
Apostle and Gospel ; and then they also translated 


the Psalter, the Octoich, and the other books."* 
. The division of the books of the New Testament, 
here made use of by the Russian Annalist, ob- 
tained at a very early period of the church : to 
EvayyeXioF, Comprising the' Four Gospels; and 
oAirooroXoc, the Acts and Apostolical Epistles. 
The Apocalypse, not being publicly read in the 
churches, was not taken into the account. By the 
" other books,'* some understand the rest of the 
books of the Bible; but others, with greater pro- 
bability, conclude, from their being mentioned after 
the Octoich, a celebrated liturgical work, com- 
posed by John Damascene, and other Greek 
, fathers, that Nestor only meant the other books 
necessary for ecclesiastical purposes. It is the 
opinion of Dobrovsky, who has confessedly be- 
stowed more pains on the critical study of the 
Slavonic^ Scriptures than any person now living, 
that, with the exception of the Psalms, no part of 
the Old Testament was translated at so early a 
period.f So much, however, is certain, that the 
book of Proverbs must have been translated before, 
or in the twelfth century, as the frequent quota- 
tions made from it by Nestor agree^ on the whole, 
with the common text. The books of Job, on the 
other hand, the Prophets, and the Apocryphal books 
of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, appear to have 
been done in Servia in the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century; and the Pentateuch and remaining books 
in the fifteenth, either in Russia or Poland, at 
which time the whole have been collected into 

* Sckldzer*s Nestor, Dritter Tbeil, p. 185. 

t Instifut Linguae Slavicae, Vindobon. 1822. 8vo. Introd. p. Ixx. 


one volume, and arranged according to the order 
of the books in the Bohemian Bible, printed in 
1488 or 1489.* 

What greatly corroborates this hypothesis re- 
specting the late execution of the Slavonic version 
of the Old Testament^ is the extreme scarcity, and 
the recent date of manuscript copies of the whole 
Bible. Not more than three are known to exist in 
all Russia, and of these the most ancient was 
written in the year 1499, and is preserved in the 
library of the Holy Synod in Moscow, , Of die 
Gospels, on the contrary, the Epistles, or select 
books of the New Testament, numerous MSS. are 
preserved, both in the Russian and other libraries in 
Europe: but the most precious document in this 
department of Slavonic literature, is unquestion- 
ably the MS. of the Four Gospels, written in the 
year 1056^ by the Deacon Gregory, for Ostromir, 
chief magistrate of Novogorod, and at present de- 
posited among the MSS. belonging to the public 
Imperial Library in St Petersburgh. A critical 
description of this valuable codex may soon be 
expected from the pen of Dobrovsky. 

The attempts of these missionaries to dispel 
the mists of ignorance which had so long covered 
those regions of the shadow of death, by lightings 
up, in the vernacular language of their inhabitants, 
the torch of divine truth,, had no sooner begun to 
take effect, than such as were inimical to the light 
became loud in their complaintSj and maintained, 
that 'Mt was unseemly that any nation should 

* Dobrovskj, ut sup. 


possess^ a peculiar alphabet except the Hebrewsi 
Greeks, and Latins^ whose languages Pilate had 
caused to be inscribed on the cross of our Lord."* 
That it was the Romanists who made use of this 
foolish argument, there can be little doubt, as it was 
generally in the mouth of priests of that communion, 
when any exertions were made to lay open the 
treasures of divine truth in the vulgar tongue. 
Nor were they unsupported by the influence of 
Papal authority t In a Bull sent by John VIII. to 
Methodius, in the year 879, he finds fault with 
him for making use of such a barbarous language 
as the Slavonic in public worship, and interdicts 
the practice in future. 

This prohibition, so repugnant to every prin- 
ciple of common sense, so diametrically opposed 
to the dictates of inspiratioUi and so directly at 
variance with the noble and important object for 
which Methodius had come to Moravia, mu«t ne- 
cessarily have produced a stroi^ impression on 
his mind ; and, situated as he was^ nothing could 
be more natur^tl than to bring the subject before 
his secular superiors. That he actually did so^ 
and that, in consequence, strong representations 
were sent to Rome, is in the highest degree pro- 
bable : for the same Pope reversed his prohibitory 
decree the following year, and iahis Bull to Sviato-^ 
polk, not only sanctions^ but commands and or- 
dains, that the Gospel should be promulgated in 
the Slavonic language! This document is too re- 
markable, especially as coming from such a quarter 

* Nestor's Anpals. 


and so powerfully contradictory, on the ground of 
Scripture authority, of the usual language of the 
Popes, on the question of translating the Bible 
into the common tongue, not to merit insertion 
in this place. 

" Finally. That the praises due to God should 
be resounded in the Slavonic letters invented by 
a certain philosopher Constantino, we highly 
commend; and we ordain, that the sermons and 
works of Christ our God shall be made known 
in this language : for we are moved by sacred 
authority to praise the Lord, not in three lan- 
guages only, but in every tongue, according to 
the tenor of the precept : Praise the Lard, all ye 
nations ; and laud him, all ye people. And the 
Apostles, full of the Holy Spirit, spoke in all Ian- 
guages the wonderful works of God. Hence Paul, 
when blowing the celestial trumpet, teaches us 
that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ 
is Lord, fo the glory of Ood the Father. Of this, 
too, he admonishes us in his first Epistle to the 
Corinthians, how that, speaking with tongues, we 
ought to edify the church. Nor can it be any de- 
triment to sound doctrine, either to celebrate 
mass, or read the divine lessons of the Old and 
New Testament rightly translated and interpreted, 
or to sing all the other parts of the service in the 
Slavonic language: for He who made the three 
principal languages, viz. the Hebrew, Greek, and 
Latin, created also all the others for his own praise 
and glory. "^ 

* Baronii Annal, ad An. 880. 


We are not to conclude, however, that the 
Slavonic was permitted to expel the Latin, or 
occupy that place in the public service which had 
^ been allotted to it, and whereby a bond of union 
was kept up with Rome. Notwithstanding all 
the concessions made by the Pope, he brings in a 
restrictive clause at the close of his bull, ordering 
the Gospel to be read in Latin in all the churches, 
in nuoorem honorificentiam, and, afterwards, in a 
Slavonic translation, to such of the people as did 
not understand Latin.* 

It has been affirmed, that a new version of the 
New Testament was made into Slavonic by the 
Meti'opolitan Alex'ii, who flourished in the thir- 
teenth century, and is said to have been deeply 
skilled in Greek ; and that a MS., containing this 
translation, is preserved in the Tchudov Monas- 
tery in Moscow; but those who have critically 
examined this MS. maintain, that it is only the 
common Slavonic text, corrected according to 
those Greek codices to which the Metropolitan 
had access. 

Previous to the invention of printing, the trouble 
and expense connected with transcription ren- 
dered it impossible for any but such as were in 
circumstances of opulence^ to procure a copy of 
of the Holy Scriptures. Like other versions, the 
Slavonic was long confined within the narrow 
limits of this mode of transmission ; but scarcely 
had the providence of God brought that discovery 

* Baronii Aniuil. ad An. 880. 


into operation, when measures were taken to issue 
forth thousands of copies into the diffisrent regions 
inhabited by people of Slavonic origin. 

The first printed book of the Bible in Sla-\ 
Tonic of which we have any account, is the Psal- 
ter, printed at Cracau, in Poland, 1491 ; of which 
a reprint appeared at Montenegro, 1495. The 
first edition of any part of the New Testament is 
the Four Gospels, printed at Ugrovallacfaia, 1512, 
the very year in which the first Greek Gospel ap- 
peared, and four years before the publication of 
the first edition of tlie Greek New Testament A 
copy of this extremely rare edition I examined, in 
the library belonging to the printing-ofiice of the 
Holy Synod. It is in small octavo, and wdl exe^ 
cuted. The text, as far as I compared it, seemed 
to agree with that of the Ostrog Bible. Its pulSM- 
lication was undertaken by order of John Basa- 
raba, the Gospodar of Ugrovallachia, and the edi- 
torial care of the vdiume was committed to a monk 
of the name of Macarius, as may be gathered from 
the advertisement prefixed to it. 

Before any part of the Scriptures was pub- 
lished in Russia, two other editions of the Sla- 
vonic Gospels appeared: the first at Belgrad, 
1552, in fdio; and the other at Negreinont, 
1562. Both editions were designed for the use of 
the Serbian churches.* In 1561, a second edition 
of the Psalter was printed at Venice; and the 
impressions that have since been carried through 

* Dobrovflky, at sup. xlvi. 


the press at Wilna, Moscow, Ostrog, Kiev, Pe- 
tersburgh, and elsewhere, are too numerous to ad- 
mit of specification. 

On the subjugation of the Tatar kingdoms of 
Kazan and Astrachan, and the restoration of the 
empire to its ancient independence, the Tzar Ivan 
Yasilievitdi directed his attention to the civili- 
zation and illuminatitm of his subjects, and or- 
dered schools to be opened in the principal towns, 
for the instruction of youth. Having also erected 
a number of new churches, and repaired those 
that had been injured by the Tatars, he caused 
measures to be taken for supplying them with 
those parts of the Scriptures which were ap- 
pointed to be read in the daily services. In 
-executing this order, it was found that, owing to 
the ignorance and carelessness of transcribers, 
numerous faults had crept into the text; to re- 
medy whidi, as well as to establish a standard 
text, the Tzar resolved, in the year 1553, to esta- 
blish a printing-office in Moscow, and authorized 
Macarius, the Metropolitan of all Russia, to select 
such persons as he should find best qualified for 
conducting the work. With a view to encourage 
and facilitate the undertaking, his Majesty or- 
dered a house to be built for the office, at his own 
private expense, and allotted an annual sum for 
salaries, and the purchase of paper, types, and 
other materials. The direction of the work was 
committed to Hans Bogbinder, a native of Den- 
mark, who was sent on purpose by liis Danish 
Majesty, Christian III., during whose reign si- 
miultaneous efforts were making for furnishing that 


country with the Scriptures in the verqacular lan- 
guage. The printing was committed to Ivan Fe- 
doroff. Deacon of the Hostun Cathedral, and Pe- 
ter TimofeefF; but, owing to a variety of obstacles, 
' connected with the acquisition of the necessary 
materials, the printing did not actually commence 
till ten years afterwards, and in 1664 appeared 
the first-fruits of the typographical art in Russia, 
consisting of the Acts of the Apostles, the Catho- 
lic Epistles, and the Epistles of Paul. The vo- 
lume is of the folio size, and the typography tole- 
rably well executed ; but the text is full of ortho- 
graphical errors. The version is the Cyrillic, and 
was, no doubt, taken from the best manuscripts at 
that time existing in Moscow. 

Although this primary attempt to put the Rus- 
sians in possession of the word of God, through 
the medium of the press, was patronized by the 
highest authority in the empire, there were not 
wanting those who were hostile to its dissemi- 
nation ; and the printers, having been accused of 
heresy and magic, were obliged tc^ emigrate from 
their native country, and took refuge, the former 
in Leopolstadt, where he republished the Acts 
and Epistles, in folio, in the year 1573 ; and the 
latter in Wilna, where he published an edition of 
the Slavonic Gospels, in 1576, also in folio. 

The first portion of the Old Testament printed in 
Russia was an edition of the Psalms, which issued 
from the* Moscow press in the year 1 577, in quarto ; 
and it does not appear that any measures were in 
contemplation for an edition of the whole Bible in 
that metropolis; but, about this time, Constan- 


tine, Duke of Ostrog, desirous of furnishing the 
inhabitants of the Polish pcpvinces with the most 
effectual means of deciding the controversies then 
in agitation between the Greek and Roman 
Churches, formed the noble design of publishing, 
at bis own expense, an edition of the entire Scrip- 
tures in the Slavonic language. 

In order to obtain a correct text, the Duke assi- 
duously collected all the MSS. he could find; butj 
although he succeeded in obtaining a number of 
copies of the New Testament, and certain parts of 
the Old, he was not able to procure any codex, 
containing the whole of the Scriptures in the 
Slavonic language. In the persuasion, however, 
that a translation of all the books of the Old Testa- 
ment did exist, he was induced to apply to the 
Tzar Ivan Vasilieviteh, who sent him, through 
Michael Haraburd, pronotary to the Grand Duke 
of Lithuania, '' a complete copy of the Bible done 
from the Septuagint into the Slavonic language, 
upwards of five hundred years before that period; 
on the introduction of the Christian religion int6 
Russia in the reign of Vladimir the Great."* The 
Duke procured, at thie same time, many other 
copies of the Bible in different languages and cha- 
racters, which he ordered to be examined and 
compared, that a perfect agreement might exist 
between the text of the edition about to be pub- 
lished, and that of the Scriptures in other tongues; 
but such were the discrepancies and faults detected 

* Preface to tbe Bible. 


by the odlation, that not only was the mind of the 
benevolent projector of the work filled with anxiety 
and distress, but those who were hostile to it 
took occasion to magnify these blemishes, in order 
to disparage smd counteract the whole undertaking. 
Yet these difficulties and impediments, so far from 
filling him with despondency, or inducing him to 
abandon the work, only stimulated him to greater 
activity — in the certain hope, that by the Divine 
blessing on his efibrts^ he should be enabled eveiH 
tually to surmount them all. He, therefore, wrot^ 
fetters, and sent messengers to many (Ustant parts, 
to IttsAy^ the Islands of the Archipelago, to many 
Gre^^ Serbian^ and Bulgarian monasteries, and 
even to the head of the Oriental Church, the most 
Rev, Jeremiah, Archbishop of Constantinople, and 
Ecumenical Patriarchy earnestly requesting, /diat 
persons might be seat him who were skilled in the 
Greek and Slavonic languages, and that they 
might bring with them correct and authenticated 
eopies of the Sacired Text. His application wa& 
not without success. Both labourers and MSS. 
were forwarded to Ostrog ; and by mutual consul- 
taXixm and aid,^ they prepared, in the course of 
some years, a copy of the whole Bible for tke 

The copies having beea^ duly collated, and 
the necessary typographic^ arrangements made^ 
the printing commenced, and in the year 1580^ 
was published, in 8vo., the ^rst edition of the 
Slavomc New Testament, accompanied with the 
Psalms in the same language. It was printed by 


Ivan Fedoroff, the deaeon origiiMjly mnploy^d to 
soperintend the priatiog office in Mp9cew> smd m 
of extreme rority .^ 

In 1581» the Mdido Princeps of the J^lcfv^frif 
Bible left the Chtrog press. It is priot^d in fotio, 
oa strong peeper, and eii[hibits the text in two 
eoluQuia on each p^ge. la certain copies the last 
leaf differs from the rest : some bearing the dJBtt^ 
1580, June 12; and others, 1581, August 13* 
Those having both are exceedingly scarce. This 
difference of date has most probably arisen from 
the employment of the same composition, for the 
concluding sheet of the New Testament in this 
edition, that had been used the year before for the 
separate edition of the New Testament. 

The title of the copy before me, which has both 
dates, l>egins thus, in red ink : — 

^' The Bible, that is to say, the books of the 
Old and New Testament in the Slavonic language.'* 
Then follows^ in black ink, a statement of the trans* 
lation, being done with the utmost diligence and 
care, from the Greek of the Septuagint, and now 
published in the year of our Lord 1581. In the 
middle of the reverse, are the Duke s arms, and 
both above and below it, are three stanzas of 
Slavonic poetry, each consisting of tep lines. 
Then follow two advertisements by the Duke ; the 
first in Greek ^d Slavonic, and the other in 
Slavonic alone, stating the circumstances con- 
nected with the publication of the edition ; after 
which, we have a long pre&ce, occupying seven 

* Dobrovsky, ut «iqp. p. L and SopikoS^s Rum. BiUiography, 
No. 70S. 





pages, on the importance ana utility of reading 
the Holy Scriptures ; concluding with upwards of 
a page of eulogistic poetry on the edition, and the 
Duke, its patron and promoter, by Gerasim Daniel- 
ovitch, who appears to have superintended the 
work. The following is a list of the canonical and 
apocryphal books, which I here present to the 
reader, that he may be apprized of the order of 
their arrangement in the Slavonic Bible. 
















First Kings, (1 Samuel.) 
Second Kings, (2 Samuel.) 
Third Kings, (1 Kings.) 
Fourth Kings, (2 Kings ) 
First Chronicles. 
Second Chronidles. 
First Esdras. 










Second Esdras. 

First Maccabees. 

Third Esdras. 

Second Maccabees. 


Third Maccabees. 








Proverbs. . 




Song of Solomon. 


Wisdom of Solomon. 
Jesus Sirach. 

First Peter. 





Second Peter. 
First John. 


Second John. 

First Thessaloniatis. 

Third John. 

Second Thessalonians. 




First Corinthians. 

First Timothy. 
Second Timothy. 

Second Corinthians. 







To the end of Second Chronicles, the ** Prayer 
of Manasseh" is appended, and the usual interpo- 
lations are found in the books of Esther and Daniel. 
The book called the '' first book of Esdras/' is no 
other than the canonical book of Ezra. It is al§o 
deserving of notice, that the addition at the end of 
the Septuagint Version of the book of Job, reypanrac 
2e, avToy waKiy, &c. though afprescnt found in the Sla- 
vonic Bible, was not inserted in this edition ; but it 
contains the additional 151st Psalm, on the combat 
of David with Goliath. Prefixed to the different 
books of the New Testament, is an account of the 
writers, and the principal subjects of which they 
treat, by Theophylact, Archbishop of Bulgaria; 
and at the end are two tables, containing a speci- 
fication of the daily lessons, and those of the par- 
ticular feasts of the Greek Church* The whole 
closing with an eucharistic prayer in Greek and 
Slavonic,^ followed by the printer's mark, the date, 
place, and printer's name in the same languages. 
The compartments at the beginning of each book, 
as well as the initials of the chapters, are done 
.from wooden blocks. The volume is divided into 
six parts, the leaves of which are separately num- 

86 ciuRAcreR of the text. 

bered with the letters of the alphabet. In the Old 
Testament, the text is divided into chapters, but 
neither into paragraphs nor verses ; in that of 
the New, the Apocalypse excepted, there ob- 
tains, besides the chapters, a minor division, 
marking the sections read in the churches. Some 
references to parallel passages are found in the 
margin, but they are sparingly ' introduced.-— 
The letters of the alphabet are also used in the 
text itself, instead of full-length numbers, as 
Dan. ix. 24. J u 6 for "sixty-two; and Rev. xiii. 
18. 5f, {, T for " six hundred and sixty-six." 
Many of the more remarkable words are contract- 
ed, in imitation of Greek usage ;. and, owing to 
the negligence of the corrector of the pres^s, nu- 
merous words are divided, and others, to the num«» 
ber sometimes of four or five, are joined together 
as if they were one word. 

The slightest examination of the text of the 
Old Testament, in this edition, corroborates the 
historical notices respecting its preparation above 
stated, and leads to the conclusion that the edi- 
tors did not print an exact copy of the Moscow 
MS. but compared it with the Greek MSS. ob- 
tained from Greece, and, most probably, with 
other versions in different languages, although 
they would naturally pay great deference to the 
Byzantine text. It is consequently to be regarded 
more in the light of an ectectic text, than as form- 
ing any independent authority in determining the 
question relative to the ^tate of the Septuagint, 
from which it professes to be made. On com- 
paring it, however, with the later and current edi- 


tioDfl of the Slavonic Bible, it is found to i^free 
^th the Alexandrian MS, in many places where 
they follow the readings of the Codex Vaticanu& 
Thus : 

Gen* ii. 14. idmuhUhi* woptvdfuyo^, the leading of 
the Cod. Alex, and the Complat. Ed. ; but the present 
text has prockodiiuhUkaia, corresponding with irpoirs- 
^v6ft€vos of the Vat. 

iv. 9. (msheretshe^ Cod. Alex, h & live* Cod. Vat 
^cal Itxev. i rtUke* 

In other passages, both the Ostrog and the 
modem editions agree with the Alexandrian against 
the Vatican copy, as. 

Gen. ii. S3, v'ziata bist ci. Cod. Alex, chifii^ri Atrrf • 
The Cod. Vat omits ^r^. . 

ill. 14. mierii zemnich, r&y ^piwr rijfc yi^- The 
Cod* Vat has r6y dtiflitp rdv hrl r^ y^c* 

V. 20. iako la m'ti. Cod. Alex. Sri kvril,jji^Ttip. The 

• Vat omis Avriy. 

IT. 11. na zemUf Cod. Alex. M rijfc y^c- Cod. Vat 
At^ rrJQ yjc, agreeaUj to nmivrfJD of the Hebrew 


Of the various readings peculiar to this edition 
the following are examples : 

Gen. i. 26, £6. adda tmermi, mu r&v di^pi^y* to rUt^ 

lii. 9% Repeats Ahufji ^^'4»dam€, admit 

15. iposredie ciemenem ivoim iposrtdie Urn, to; • 
** and between thy seed and between her's, it" &c. 
The Com. Text has t meshdou ciemenem iota : ioi: " and 
between her seed, be" Ac. 

* I have been under the necessity of expressing both dM 
Slawoaac and Rasa quotations in Italics, lor want of pioper typ«s« 


Oen« iv. 17* 1 menova imia gradou, xai krt0y6fia9€ 
ri orofAa r$c iroX£ci»c> confonnably to the Heb. Mipn 

22. Sellofherodi Thovcla cie hiashe — ZeXXa Ik erece 
rhv Q6Pe\. ivrog Ijy : but the Cod. Alex, has IcXXa ^k 
irtKeiAi dvn) r. 0. and the Vat. 2cXXa dk Kal dvr^ ireKE, 

That the Slavonic text was made with the as- 
sistance of the Vulgate, or some ancient Latin 
MSS. found in the Bulgarian monasteries, or that 
it was at least revised and altered according to 
them, is proved by the following instances, out 
of many that might be adduced : ^ 

Gen. xlix. 1. tchemou hilt v' vas. Vul. "qux venlura 
sunt vobis." LXX. tI lncayrii<rei vfiiy. Mod. Slav, tchto 
sriashishei vas. 

Job i. 1. Moush bie v' zemU chous^ Vul. " Vir erat 
in terra Hub.*' LXX. "Aydpiairos tIq ijy ky x^P^ rjf ^i^- 

Jer. xlvL 25. nagi louk (na gloukj Aleaandrtiskii, 
*' on the Alexandrian tumult.*' The Vul. has super 
iumuUum AUxandriaSy in accordance with the Chald. ; 
but the text of the LXX. reads roy 'AfifjMy rby vcov 
&vr^c : the translator taking poM to be a proper name, 
and reading hjd, or having it recited to him, as nJ2. 

Ezek. xlvii. 12. na koskdii miesiatz, Vul. per singulas 
mensis. LXX. r^c icaifcJrjyrac. 

Dan. ix. 24. dondeska okeisltaet c'grieshenie, agree- 
ably to the ancient Lat. version, published by Sabatier: 
quoad usque invsterelur delictum. The LXX. has rov 
avyreXetrOriyan iLfiapriay. Thus also, instead of <r<l>payi» 
aai, the Slavon. has skonlchaetsia, utjinem accipiai. 

There can be no doubt, that were this edition 
carefully collated, it would yield a rich harvest of 
various readings, some of which might prove of 
essential service to some future editor of the Sep* 


tuagint. It is true we are not acquainted with the 
age or quality of the Greek manuscripts which 
were consulted previous to its publication; but 
the same doubt remains respecting those accord- 
ing to which the Slavonic version has subsequently 
been corrected. By mature reflection on the na- 
ture and mutual dependencies of the readings,, 
and especially by weighing them with those of 
the different editions and manuscript copies of the 
Septuagint, much light may yet be thrown on 
this important branch of sacred literature. 

With respect to the Slavonic version of the New 
Testament, the learned have had better opportu- 
nities of appreciating its merits by the use which 
Griesbach has made of it in his critical edition 
of the Greek Testament. For the important con- 
tributions of which he availed himself, he was in- 
debted to Dobrovsky, whose judgment on the sub- 
ject of the version is as follows : — 1. In the Gos- 
pels it agrees with the Codex Stephanus 17 or L of 
Wet. and Gries. more frequently than with other 
MSS., as also very often with Lambecii 28. 
— 2. It leaves the Codex L. as often as several 
witnesses are opposed to it. — 3^ In the Catholic 
Epistles it chiefly follows the Codex A.— 4» In 
the Acts and the Epistles of Paul it also follows 
ancient MSS, but sometimes one and sometimes 
another, yet, with a peculiar predilection, the Cod. 
E. and Lamb. 28. — 5. The Apocaljrpse appears to 
be done chiefly from the Alexandrian Codex. — 6. In 
general the Slavonic version is done from old 
Greek MS S., and even in the recent editions it 


deriates from the commoQ (Jreek text. It con* 
taios at least ikr^-foarths of the readings which 
Oriesbach has adopted into his text. Where be 
has few authorities, the Slavonic mostly oorrobo* 
rates the authority of the Textus Receptus ; and 
where a great agreement obtains among the an- 
cient MSS. in favour of a reading, it joins .tiiem 
against the common editions. It varies from 
Theophylact as often as it agrees with him, and 
has neither been altered from him nor the Vul- 

A carsory comiMirison of the readings exhibited 
by the Ostrog edition, with the quotations and 
references in Griesbach's Testament, will convince 
the biblical scholar that a much more minute and 
complete collation must be instituted, ere any 
accurate view can be obtained of the real state of 
the Slavonic version, or an unqualified reception 
be given to the authorities subjoined by the great 
Critic to his corrected text. As far as they go, 
they may be depended on as correct; but they 
are chargeable with considerable deficiency. Thus 
I John iv. 2, the Slavonic should be adduced in 
support of yiywffK€T€f and the reading icai n^ev/m rf c 
irXaf^c should have been quoted ; v. 1, the Ostrog 
edition has this remarkable reading, Sri 'InirovQ hpiv 
6 vioc roo Oeov, yet no notice is taken of it, although 
Oriesbach not unfirequently quotes singular read- 
ings of minor importance ; ver. 6, H ^daroc mI iUfta- 

* Mkhadis Neud Orknt and £xeg«t Biblioth. VII. Tbeil. 
Na ISl. 


ro€ r«t ntptiptari^e is the reading both of the Ostrog 
text aod of the current editions; ver. 10, vt^ is 
supported by both ; ver 12 has to^ Oeoo in the first 
clause, as well as in the following proposition. 

It is already known to the learned, that the 
controTerted passage 1 John v. 7, is omitted in this 
edition. In all probability, it never formed part of 
any MS. of the Slavonic version. From a note 
from Poletika, inserted by Michaelis in his Intro-* 
duction to the New. Testament,* it would appear; 
that it was first inserted in a printed edition of the 
Acts and Epistles, in the time of the Patriarch 
Nicon; but that gentleman does not inform us 
whether the insertion was in the text, or merely 
the margin. Yet there is reason to suppose that 
the latter was the case, for in the second edition 
of the Slavonic Bible, printed in 1663, which was 
ten years afterwards, it is still left out of the text^ 
and only occupies a place in the margin. At all 
events, the passage not being found in any of the 
Moscow MSS. of the Greek Testament, it must 
have been introduced merely on the authority of 
the Textus Receptus, which by that time had ac- 
quired great celebrity throughout Europe. 

The Slavonic version, as contained in the ear- 
lier editions, and, indeed^ in the modem, notwith- 
standing the changes Which have been introduced 
into it, may be considered as one of the most 
verbal ever executed. Not only is every word 
and particle scrupulously expressed, and made» in 
gen^aly to occupy the same place in the trans- 

• Vol. H. p. 164- 


lation that it does in the original ; but the deriya* 
tives and compounds, as well as the grammatical 
formsy are all successfully imitated. 

During the space of nearly a century, this was 
the only edition of the entire Slavonic Bible, 
brought into circulation in Russia and the adja* 
cent countries, in which the Slavonic had been 
adopted as the liturgical language. Yet, in the 
course of this period, besides several reprints of 
the Gospels and Epistles, not fewer that seven 
editions of the New Testament were issued from 
the press: viz. at Evie, near Vilha, 1611, oc- 
tavo; Filna, 1623, octavo — the text of this edi- 
tion is, in many places, corrected according to the 
Greek ; Kuteinshy Monastery^ 1632, quarto ; Enie^ 
1635, quarto; Ibid. 1641, octavo; Kut. Mon., 
1652, quarto; Kief, 1658, octavo. The impres- 
sions of 1632 and 1658 had the Psalms of David 
printed along with them. All these editions are 
of extreme rarity. 

. About the middle of the seventeenth century, 
the learned Nicon, whose talents had raised him 
from the lowest situation in life to the Patriarchate 
of all Russia, availed himself of the advantages 
and influence connected with this exalted dignity, 
to introduce a number of improvements into the 
church, and, among others, directed his attention 
particularly to the correction of the church books ; 
and there can be no doubt that it is to him we are to 
ascribe the proposition to reprint the Ostrog Bible. 
'Being obliged, however, to give way to the ran- 
cour of his enemies, and subsequently degraded 
from the Patriarchal dignity, he was not honoured 



to carry his noble purpose into effect; which is 
the more to be regretted, as there is every reason 
to believe that, qualified as he was by his eru- 
dition, and having at his command upwards of five 
hundred Greek manuscripts, which he had pro- 
cured from Greece, he would have furnished the 
Slavonic Church with an edition of the Holy 
Scriptures, in as perfect a state as it was possible 
to produce at that period. Professor Miiller,^ 
indeed, asserts, that the text was actually cor^ 
rected by Nicon ; but a critical collation of the 
Ostrog edition with that published in his time, 
affords the most satisfactory proof, either that he 
did not perform the emendatory labour ascribed 
to him, or, what is more probable, that it was not 
deemed advisable to make use of his corrections, 
lest a still greater handle might be given to those 
who had already taken alarm at the alterations 
he had introduced into the books appropriated to 
ecclesiastical use. 

This edition, the second of the Slavonic Bible, 
was published, in folio, at Moscow, 1663, in the 
reign of Alexie Michailovitch. It professes to be 
corrected as carefully as possible, ^* with the help 
of God ;"t but only a few of the more trivial faults 
have been removed,^; and these are almost.exclu- 
sively sucli as relate to the typography. It re- 

• Sopikofi; p. 49. t Title. 

X III editione Mosquensi 1663, in qua textus Ostrogiensis re« 
custis fuit, non nisi pauci, iique leviores errores sublati sunt 
LongejJures et graviores mansere incorrectly qai tamen vel obiter 
inapedo textu Gneco facile emendari potoissent.^-Dobrovskj 
Inatit. Slav. Introd. p. liii. 


tains tke reading 6 v^c roc 8^00, 1 John v. 1 , only, as 
observed above, the testimony of the heavenly 
witnesses is received into the margin. Some fo- 
reign words, and such as were considered as im-' 
properly expressing the sense, are exchanged ibr 
others more adapted to express the meaning ; but 
these alterations are extremely scanty. It has 
been asserted,* that various renderings fai^ving 
been found in the former edition to favour the pe- 
culiar tenets of the Roman communion, and op- 
posed to the doctrines of the Greek Church as 
established in Russia, they were expunged, and 
the passages corrected in that published in Mos- 
cow ; but no such instances have ever been speci* 
fied, and the si:ipposition is totally irreconcilable 
with the fact, that Constantino was a faithful son 
of the Gneek Church. 

Among others engaged about this time in laud- 
able attempts to purge the Slavonic version from 
the imperfections with which it was chargeable, 
one of the most distinguished was Epiphanius 
Slavinetzky, who had received his education in 
the monastery of the Catacombs at Kief, and wan 
employed, together with some other monks, in 
translating a number of useful works from the 
Goredc Fathers into Slavonic, which appeared in 
Moscow in the years 1664 and 1665. The incor*- 
rectness of the Bible, which had already gone 
through two editions, becoming more and more 
apparent, the Tzar was induced to appoint this 
monk tp make a new translation, und^r the eye of 

• ■ 

* Kohl. p. 21. 


die Metropolitan, and with tlie asflistaiice of some 
of thie more learned priests, who had a solitary 
but agreeable retreat assigned them near Moscow, 
where they might prosecute their laboare nndis- 
turbed by the bustle of the world. They com* 
menced with the New Testament, and had finished 
a rough copy, when a stop was put to the work> 
by the death of the Metropolitan. The translatioii 
is said to be very literal^ but it has never been 

No further steps appear to have been taken in 
Ae correction or printing of the H(^y ScriptoreSy 
till the time of Peter the Great. This extraordii- 
nary monarch, during the thirty-six years of whose 
reign the Russian em{»re made greater pn^resB 
in civilization than it had done for the space of two 
whole centuries, issued an ukase in the year 1712^ 
ordering the printed Slavonic text to be carefully 
compared with the Greek of the SepUiagint, and 
rendered in every respect conformable to it. The 
revision was committed to Theophylaot LopaJtinsky, 
Archimandrite of the Zaikonospaskian monastery, 
and a monk of the name of Sophtonius Dikoudieff, 
and certain others as assistants. They were paiw , 
ticnlarly charged to render the chapters, verses^ 
and punctuation conformable to the division ob- 
taining in the LXX ; and where they found any 
verses omitted, a confusion of chapters, or any 
passages that seemed to give a sense opposed to 
that of the LXX, they were directed to consult 

* Opk' Kratkoe Iitori'i Ruskoi LiterAtari. St Petersburgb, 
1823, 8vo. p. 75. 


Stej^an labordiy, a dignitary of great learnings 
who entered with all his soul into the plans of his 
augast monarch, and was successively Metropolis 
tan of Rasan, Administrator of the Patriarchate, 
and Protector of the Spiritual Academy of Mos- 
cow; and in 1721, on the opening of the Holy 
Synod, he was appointed its President. He lived 
chiefly with Peter, and was eelebr^ated for his 
pulpit eloquence, and his general erudition.* His 
decision on every difficult point connected with 
the correction of the Slavonic version was to be 
XK>nsidered as a law to those engaged in its amend* 

While the work of revision was in progres4^ 
the Tzar undertook his second grand tour through 
foreign countries, and, during hb residence ip 
Holland, where he had already, in the year 16989 
granted to Tessing, a printer^ the privilege .of 
printing and vending books in the Russian Ian* 
guage for the term of fifteen years, he entered 
into an agreement with Johannes van Durei|» 
printer at the Hague, and Daniel van Leven, in 
Amsterdam, by which they bound themselves to 
furnish hi& majesty with an edition of the Dutc^ 
Bible, in folio, leaving the one half of each page 
blank, to receive an impression of the Slavonic 
text; so that both versions might appear in paral- 
lel columns. When finished, the whole was for- 
warded to Petersburgh, and sent to the printing- 
office of Alexander Nevsky, where the Slavonic 
was ordered to be supplied. These orders appear 

* Opit' Kratkoe Istorii Ruskoi Litenturi. St. PeterAurgh, 
18S5| 8vo. p. 106. 


to have been obeyed with great alacrity, as it re* 
gards the New Testament; for, according to the 
title-pages, the Dutch part was finished in 1717, 
and the Slavonic by the 31st of October,* 1718. 
When ready, copies were immediately distributed 
among the nobility and other personal friends of 
the monarch, with the view, it is supposed, of ren- 
dering his subjects familiar with the language of 
Holland, the flourishing state of the arts and sci- 
ences in which country he so much admired, and 
between which and Russia, he was desirous of 
establishing a closer connection, in order to ame- 
liorate the condition of his people, and perfections- 
ate his naval prowess. From some expressions in 
the dedication by van Duren, it would seem, that 
one object of the edition was, the distribution of 
the Scriptures on board the ships of war ; which, 
being commanded and manned partly by Russians 
and partly by Dutchm^sn, it was conceived their 
wants would be more suitably supplied by a Bible 
in both languages. 

It is of this work that Millar writes, in his 
History of the Propagation of Christianity :* " The 
Czavy as we are informed, has lately ordered the 
Bible to be printed in the Rtissian language, that 
copies thereof may be had in every family; that 
every person should learn to read the Scriptures of 
the Old afid New Testament^ and, that none be 
allowed to marry, but those %vho can read the 
same. And by letters from Hamburgh, of Decem- 
ber 12th, 1722, we are told, that advices from 
Petersburgh say, that printed Bibles have been 

• Vol. 11. p. 516. Edin. 1723, 8vo. 



distributed to every family there, and the li}(e will 
be done throughout all Russia."* 

The assertion, that the language in which the 
Tzar caused the Scriptures to be printed wi|s the 
Russian, is the more excusable, as little distinc- 
tion was made at that time in foreign countries 
between the Slavonic and the common Russian, 
and, especially, as the Slavonic title-page itself 
contains the erroneous statement: NapetshatacA 
iaztkom Rossiskom\ '* printed in the Rtissian lan- 
guage/' The fact is^ that the version is that of 
the Slavonic Bible, previously printed in Moscow. 
A copy of this curious and scarce edition is pre- 
served in the Library of the Academy of Sciepce9 
in St. Petersburgh, where I have had an oppor- 
tunity of examining it. Of the two columns, that 
forming the inside one is occupied by the Dutch, 
printed in Roman capitals ; in the opposite column 
is the Slavonic, in an old fashioned character, with 
all the abbreviations of the common Slavonic 
Bibles. A great discrepancy is observable in the 
space taken up by the contents of the two columns ; 
the Dutch language not admitting of that concise- 
ness with which the Slavonic has imitated the 
original. The order of the Books is different from 
that of the Slavonic New Testament^ and is ren^ 
dered conformable to that adopted in the Dutch^ 
and most of the western versions. 

On proceeding to print the Slavonic part of the 
Old Testament, it was found, that, independently of 
the difference arising ftom the order of the Books, 
and the rejection of the Apocrypha by the Dutch^ 

♦ Vol. IL p. 516. Eclin. 1723, 8vo. 

sLavonicdutch bible. 99 

numerous discriepancies existed between the two 
▼ersions; the one being done from the translation 
©f the Seventy, and the other from the Hebrew 
original. In consequence of this discovery, the 
Holy Synod presented a memorial to the Tzar, 
shewing, that as the Bible, translated by the Re- 
formers, did not agree with the confession of the 
Oriental church, it was unsuitable to join it to a 
translation acknowledged to be authentic. Orders 
were accordingly given to desist from printing the 
Old Testament ; and, from the extreme scarcity of 
the copies of the New, it would appear that their 
distribution was, in a great measure, suppressed. 
Sopikoff* states, that the edition was destroyed. 

The revision of the Slavonic version proceeded 
so slowly, that it was not brought to d. conclusion 
before the end of 1723, neariy twelve years from 
the time of its commencement. On tjie 5th of 
February, 1724, his Majesty ordered the revised 
copy to be put to the press, and again gave the 
strictest injunctions, that it should be perfectly 
conformable to the text of the LXX. Id Septem- 
ber following, he also ordered a separate and 
correct edition of the Psalms to be printed: but 
his death, which took place a few months after- 
Wards, piit a stop to the execution of both these 
Works. His successor, the Empress Catharine, 
had scarcely assumed the reins of government, 
when she issued an ukase, ordering the Synod, 
in corpore, to give their testimony to the correct- 
ness of the version; but the measures adopted for 

* Russ. Bibliography, No. 716. See also Catalog, de la 
BAlioih. de W C. de Boutoarlii)> Paris, 1805, p. 15. 


761213 A 

100 EDITION OF ELIZABETH, 1 7 5 1 . 

its publication, were again rendered abortive by 
her decease. And when they were revived, ten 
years afterwards, by order of the Empress Anna,, 
such were the obstacles thrown in the way of their 
execution, by the members of the Holy Synod, 
that the work sunk into oblivion till the time of 
Elizabeth, who would brook no longer delay ; and 
accordingly, in 1751, ^appeared the edition, the 
text of which had been in a course of revision for 
near a century, and which forms the basis of all the 
succeeding editions of the Slavonic Bible. It was 
printed in St, Petersburgh, and forms a ponderous 
folio, being executed in a large type, and containing^ 
besides the text, long and elaborate prefaces, and 
tables of contents, together with a table of the 
lessons for every day in the year; and a catalogue 
of Hebrew and Greek names occurring in the Bible, 
arranged in alphabetical order, with brief expla- 
nationst The copy lying before me is that used 
by the Prefect of the Academy at Kief, Gideon, 
the principal corrector of the press ; and contains, 
besides his final corrections, an attestation, with 
his name and the date at the foot of every page, 
that it had been read along with the originals, and 
was permitted to be printed. The text is divided 
into two columns, as it had been in the preceding 
editions, and is presented to the view of the reader 
in one unbroken whole, excepting the division into 
chapters. The numbers of the verses are in- 
serted in the margin, a plan now generally approv- 
ed of, as greatly facilitating the understanding of 
the sacred volume. 

In finally preparing the text of the Old Testa* 


ment for the press^ recourse was had not only to 
different editions of the LXX, but also to the 
Greek text of the Polyglott ; and the apocryphal 
books of Tobit and Judith, which had formerly 
been translated from the Vulgate, were now re- 
translated from the Greek. One of the prefaces 
contains a detailed account of the changes intro- 
duced into the text, and an explanation of the 
various marks employed to point out the nature of 
these emendations. 

Slow as was the progress made in publishing 
the Holy Scriptures for the benefit of the Russians 
during the seventeenth and the former half of the 
eighteenth century, editions were now rapidly 
multiplied, so that between the year 1751, when 
the Bible of Elizabeth appeared, and 1816, when 
the first stereotype edition, printed by the Russian 
Bible Society, left the press, not fewer than twenty^ 
one impressions of the whole Slavonic Bible, be- 
sides numerous editions of the New Testament, 
were put into circulation. The following catalogue 
exhibits the place, the date, and the size of each 
edition of the Bible : 

MoBCow 1766 FoL 

St Petereburgh 1766 Do. 

Moscow 1767. Do. 

Kief 1768 Do. 

St Petereburgh 1769 Do. 

Moscow 1760 Svo. 4 yoll. 

Ibid ...1762 Fol. 

Ibid 1763 Do. 

Slovanka 1766 

Moscow 1778 Syo. 6 yoll. 

Kief 1779 Fol. 

Moscow ,1784 ft. ..Do. > '• • 


Kief .1788 8vo. 6 ?olI, 

Moscow .1790 Fol. 

Ibid 1797-08. ...Do. 

Ibid IBOa Do. 

Btida 1804 8to. 6 voll. 

Moscow 1806. .large 8to. 

Ibid 1810 Fol. 

Ibid 1813 8vo. 4 voH. 

Ibid 1815 8vo.» 

From the printing-office of the Russian Bible 
Society, in St, Petersburgh, the following stereo- 
type editions of the Slavonic Bible have beeo 

The 1st Edition 1816. 

2d and 3d 1817. 

4di» 6th» and JStfa 1818. 

7tiir 8tii, and 9th 18ia 

10th, nth, and 12th.. .1820. 

13th 1821, 

14th 1828. 

Uth and 16th 1824. 

Besides these editions, which are all in 8v^.> 
the Society published, at St. Petersburgh, the fol^ 
lowing 4to. edit^>n8, also in stereotype. . 

1st and 9d Editions ...1819. 

3d and 4th 1820. 

6th 1821. 

If we include 15^000 copies of the Bible, and 
10,000 New Testaments, printed at the office of 
the Holy Synod in Moscow, the total number of 
Slavonic Bibles and New Testaments issued by 
the Russian Bible Society, during the ten years of 
its active existence, will amount to 205,546. 

* Sopikoff, No. 1 12— ld9. Dobrovsky, ut sup. LVI. Eigh* 
teenth Report of the B. and F. Bible Society, App. p. 132. 
Compare with the above catalogue the statement contained in 
the Third Report, App. p. 151. 


Of Buman Versions of the Scriptures-^Franciscus £%oHiui— 
His early Version and Editions — The Version of Gluch — The 
Modem Rtissian TVanslation — The New Testament^^Psalms 
^Ociateuch — Present State of the Russian Bible Society — 
OpposUian of the Jesuits. 

Tn most of those works which have been pub- 
lished on the History of Biblical Translations, 
both in Britain and on the Continent, and in our 
most approved Introductions to the study of the 
Holy Scriptures, a considerable degree of obscurity 
and confusion is foun4 to exist on the subject of 
the Slavonic and Russian Versions. Thus, it is 
almost universally maintained,* that either the 
first edition of the Slavonic Bible, or at least the 
Pentateuch in that language, was printed at Prague, 
in the year 1519. Yet, in an interesting little work, 
published by the Rev. James Townley, under the 
title of ** Biblical Anecdotes," London, 1813, in 
12mo. p. 111. this volume is distinctly and accu- 
rately stated to be ** the oldest printed edition of 
the RusAan Scriptures." 

About the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
considerable changes were introduced into the 

* Michaelisy Eichhom, Jahn, Augusti, Horne, Marsh's Hist, of 
Tnms. p.2. Pinkerton*s Greek Church, p. 81. 


Russian language, in consequence of the relations 
subsisting between Russia and Poland, the pro- 
gress of the Poles in grammar and lexicography, 
and other powerfully operative causes, whereby 
a peculiar Polish Russian dialect was formed, 
which continues to be spoken to this day by the 
common people inhabiting the provinces, compre- 
hended under the name of White Russia. It was 
into this dialect in the early stages of its formation, 
that the' Pentateuch and other detached portions 
of the Scriptures were published about the period 
above specified. 

It is cause of regret, however, that, with the 
.exception of the works themselves, no documents 
have been handed down to us, from which we 
might collect some information respecting the 
translator, the circumstances which originated his* 
version, or those attending its publication and cir- 
culation. All that we know is, that his name was 
Franciscus Skorina; that he was bom in the an* 
cient town of Polotsk, situated on the Dvina and 
Polota, that he was Doctor of Medicine, and that 
his version was made in Vilna, while he resided 
in the house of Jacob Babitch, burgomaster of 
that town. It is conjectured by Dobrovsky,* that 
he undertook the work at the suggestion of Sigis* 
mund. King of Poland, and that, accompanying 
the monarch to Vienna in 1615, it was easy for 
him to procure in that city the Slavonic types 
necessary for printing his translation. Be this 
as it may, so much is certain, that in the year 

* literary Tour through Sweden and Eussia. 


1617, he printed the Book of Job, the Proverbs of 
Solomon, and the Apocryphal Book of Ecclesias* 
ticus ; in 1518, the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, 
the Canticles, and the four Books of Kings ; and in 
15 1 9> the five Books of Moses, the Books of Joshua^ 
Jadges, Ruth, Judith, Esther, the Lamentations of 
Jeremiah, and the Book of Daniel. These Books 
were all carried through the press at Prague^ 
where it is likely Skorina would have published 
the whole Bible ; but, certain political differences 
having taken place between the Bohemian and 
Polish Courts, he was obliged to leave that tovni 
for VUna^ where he published the Acts of the 
Apostles, and the Apostolical Epistles^ in the year 
1525. From several of his prefaces, (for each 
book has its separate preface,) it would appear, 
that he not only had translated all the Prophets, 
but that, if he did not, it was at least his intention 
to translate and publish the whole Bible. The 
Books above specified are all that have yet been 
discovered. The copies appear to have been all 
sent into Litthuania and White Russia, as every 
attempt to find one in Bohemia has proved abor- 
tive. An account of several of those still preserved 
in public or private libraries, will be found in 
Sopikofi^s 'Russ. Bibliography, No. 108, where 
most of the prefaces are given at full length. 

Of a copy of the Pentateuch, belonging to the 
Library of the Academy of Sciences in St. Peters- 
burgh, I have lately been favoured with the perusal, 
by the State Counsellor and Professor Krug, from 
whose profound historical and antiquarian re- 
searches we may soon expect much light, botti 


in r^ard to the Sla^rono and Russian Scriptures^ 
and the state of the Slavonic dialects, as spoken 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century. It coti- 
sists of 688 pages, in 4to. and is printed on strotigf 
paper, with a good type, and is still in an excellent 
state of preservation. A number of historical 
pictures are interspersed, done from wooden 
blocks, and representing the tabernacle, the ^ ark, 
the altar, the high priest, &c. The initial of each 
chapter is also ornamented with images from 
blocks. In the frontispiece, inclosed within a de- 
corated border, is the title, of which the following 
is a fac simile : 


k3oa«)Mro fpioLii no 

i. e. " The Russian Bible, translated by Dr. 
Franciscus Skorina, of the celebtaited town of 
Folotzk, to the glory of God, and the advance- 
ment of the people in good instruction.'* The 
second page of the title is ornamented with a plate, 
representing the expulsion of the rebel angels from 
heaven, above which is a gross representation of 


the Trihityi Then follows a general preface to the 
Bible^ occupying ten pages, besides which, a sepa- 
rate prefeu^e is prefixed to each book ; the chapters 
also have each a brief table of contents, and in the 
margin are a few scattered references to parallel 

With respect to the version itself, it is evi- 
dently done from the Vulgate, and not from the 
Slavonip, although the readings of this latter ver- 
sion, or of the LXX. from which it was made, have 
been adopted in particular instances. Sometimes 
differing from both, it gives a rendering peculiar 
to itself. Of its coincidence with the Vulgate, 
the following will serve as examples : — 

Gen. i. 2. t Itni bili potferchou bezdnL Vul. el /e* 
nebrceerant super faciem abj^u Slav, t ima verckou 
bezdrU^ agreeably to xal ins^ros eruvw rffg ii(itia<rov of 
the LXX. 

V. 5. t naretche. Vul. appelUwUque, Slav, i nn- 
retche Bog» LXX. ical iu&Kefftp 6'0eoc. 

Ibid, t bisl veicher i ouiro den edm. Vul. factum* 
que est tespere et mane, diet unns, Slav, t bist veicher 
i biel outro den edin* LXX. koI kyivero ienr^pa Kal 
eyivero irpwt, iifivpa fiia» 

6. vodi ot vod. Vul. aquas ab aquis. Slav, vodi t 
vodt4 LXX. i/^aroQ Kal ifdaroQ. 

ii. 3. ichske solvoril Bog dabi tchinil. Vul. quod 
creavit Deus ut JacereL Slav, ichshe nnichat Bog 
ivoritu LXX. iv tig^aro 6 0eoc iroi^erai. 

4. SUa sotU bilia. Vul. IsUb sunt generaliones, 
Slav^ SUa kniga bUHa, LXX. "Avrri ^ B/j3Xo£ yev^- 

8. Rai KochaivUa iznatchala, Vul. ParainUsum vo^ 
lupiatis a ^principio. Slav. Rai tfo Edeme na vos-^ 
iotneck* LXX. irapadec^oy kv EiSkfJi Kar* &yaTo\as* 


Gen. iu 12. BdMmm i kamm Onkkm. YnL Uel^ 
Hum, et lapis onifchinus. Slav, anthrmx i kamen zekriiL 
LXX. 6 ayBpa^ icai o X/6oc 6 irpdaivoc* 

25. Skorina has imitated the paranomasia virago — 
otr, by which the Vul. expresses that of the Heb. tt^m 
aiid ritt^H : whereas it is entirely lost both in the 
Slav, and the LXX. The latter has y vv^ and iiy^po^ ; 
the former^ shena and mausha ; but Skorina, " She 
shall be called moushaiaia, because she was taken from 

iii. 15. Omi and eia, Ske, Vul. ipsa. Slav, ioi. 
He, LXX. iiVT^. 

viii. 4. nagorack JarmenMch. Vul. super numUt 
ArmetwE. Slav* na gorack Araraiskich. LXX, iwt 
ra opif rot 'Apapar. 

xli. 45. Spacitei zende, '' Saviour of the land,"* in 
imitation of the Vul., Sahatorem tnundi. The Slav, 
has merely transcribed the "^ovdop^vnx ^^ ^^ 

xlix. 10. ne otimeicia dosloinoH tzareva ei Jaudi ni 
kniaz ot bedr ego donele priidet omke posilaetn est, 
i toi boudei tchaianie narodani, ** The regal dignity 
shall not be removed from Judah, nor a prince from 
his loins, until he come who is to be sent, and he 
shall be the expectation of the peoples." Vul. Non 
auferelur scepirum de Juda, ei dux de femore ejus, donee 
venial^ qui mitiendus est, ei ipse erit expeetalio geniiunu 
Slav, ne oskoudieet kniaz ot Joudi, i voihd ot tchresl ego 
dondeshe priidout otloshenaia emou : i toi tchaianie iaxi* 
kov» LXX. ovK eKXelyj/et hp')(^y e( lov^a, ical ^yov- 
|icvoc iK r£v fATip&y iLvrov, cwc iay iXdri rd AwoKiiixera 
hvTfy Ka\ kvToq vpotrSoKia cOyuty. 


To multiply instances would be superfluous, 
as these are sufficient to prove that the Vulgate 
formed the basis of Skorina's version ; yet it will 
be necessary to adduce a few examples to shew 
that he did not follow it universally, but some- 


times adopted the renderings of the Slavonic, or 
the LXX. Thus : 

Gen. i. S. Where the Vul. has vacua, Skorina reii« 
dere it neoukrasheHnaf ** nnadorned/' or ** not ar- 
ranged," agreeably to the hKurafrKtvairroQ of the 
LXX., and the earlier editions of the Slavonic version. 

ii. 2. dnia shesiago. Slav, v' den shestti: both 
" on the sixth day.'' The Vul. die sepiimo, agreeably 
to the unanimous testimony of Heb. MSS. 

iv. I. Boga rhdi, "for the sake of God," which is 
also the rendering of the Slav. ; but the Vul. has per 

v. 22. t augodi Enoch Bogou* Slav, ougodishe 
Enoch Bogou: both agreeing with the LXX. Iv- 
Tlpiirrriire M '^vitx ff Ocy. Vul. Et ambulavit Henoch 
cum Deo, 

xi. 9* The Vul. retains the Hebrew name, BabeL 
Skorina and the Slav, have smeshcfiie, " confusion/' 
answerable to orvvx^flrcc, the rendering of the LXX. 

zviii. L vpohudnu LXX. fteerffifiplaQ, " at noon." 
Vul. in ipeo firvore diet. 

To these examples, I shall only add a few for 
the purpose of shewing, that, although Skorina 
drew chiefly upon the Vulgate, as the source of 
his version, and availed himself, at times, of the 
assistance afforded him by the Slavonic, or the 
LXX., yet he did not uniformly follow these 
translations, but ventured, in several instances, to 
differ from all three. 

Gen. ii. 10. Heb. s»VHn nvanHV. LXX. lie r^^- 
^apac ^px^^* ^^l* *" V^^^ capita. Slav, v' tche* 
iiri naichala: but Skorina gives it properly, vo tche-* 
Hri reki glavnUe, ** into four principal rivers." 

IS. For 'm^^ the LXX., Vul., and Slav, have Eihi^. 


opia* Skorinay uemlio mautiiukauio^ '* the land of 
the Moors/ which is also the rendering of the PoUeh 
version, and that of Luther. 

Gen^zxxi. 13. The VuL, agreeably to the Ueh., 
Ego sum Deus BetheL The LKX. and Slav., '' I 
am God who appeared to thee in the plaoe of God." 
Skorina, laz em Bog iavimicia tobie namesie BelhiL 
'' I am God who appeared to thee at the plaoe Be* 

xlix. 26. The words vriK IMJ ipip^% are thus ren* 
dered by Skorina : t naverchou pocviashtshennago mtshi 
hratieio ego, " and over him who was consecrated 
among his brethren :*' whereas, they are translated by 
the LXX. Kai hrl Kopvi^flQ ay iiyrj<raTO ddeXfiiy, and 
in the Vul. ei m vertice Nazarcei inter Jraires suos* 
The present Slav, text has, t na versie (glavi) bratti, 
imishe obladaske, '* and over (on the heads of) bre- 
thren whom he governed;" but the Ostrog editioo 
exhibits the following rendering : i na verse ego iashe 
list star'ii bradia, " and over him who was the elder 
of the brethren." 

In his preface to the Acts, the translator being 
himself a physician, could not help adverting to 
the professional character of Luke, and no doubt 
rejoiced to find, that he could shelter himself under 
such a noble precedent from the accusations 
brought against him as a layman, for intermeddling 
with what was considered at that time to bekmgf 
exclusively to the priests. And in that prefixed 
to the book of Daniel, be meets the objection 
which he knew would be brought against his 
publishing the Scriptures in his vernacular lan- 
guage, by the statement, that that book, originally 
written in Hebrew and Chaldee, had not only been 
translated into Greek by Theodotion, and into 


Latin by Jerome, but also i&to the Syrian and 
Egyptiaii languages.* 

The next attempt that was made to furoiflb 
the Russians with a version of the Scriptures io 
their vulgar tongue, was tiiat of Ernest Gliick, 
Dean of the jLutheran Church in Livonia. Thi« 
clergyman, a native of Saxony, after going through 
a course of study at Altenburg, Wittemberg, and 
Leipsig, proceeded to Livonia to promote the in- 
terests of religion among its inhabitants. Finding 
that they were still destitute of the Holy Scrip- 
tures, he formed the noble resolution of furnishing 
them with a version done immediately from the 
original texts ; and in order to qualify himself fully 
for the task, he returned to Hamburgh, where he 
spent some time with Edzardi, the celebrated 
Hebraist, whose time was divided between his 
two fisLvourite objects, the conversion of the Jews, 
ai)d a course of gratuitous instruction in the Orien* 
tal languages, with a view to prepare others for 
that work, as well as for the spread of the Gospel 
generally. On his return to Livonia in the year 
1680, Gliick commenced the Lettonian translation^ 
a work which occupied the greater part of \m 
time for eight years ; but while he was engaged 
in it, his attention was also directed to the desti-* 
tute condition of the Russians (mostly Dissenters) 
inhabiting the East Sea Provinces, for whose bene* 
fit he proposed the establishment of schools, trans^ 
lated and printed a number of elementary books 
in the Russian language, and, with the assistance 

* Sopil|Loff> ut sup. No. 106. 


of a Russian priest, whom he maintained in his 
house at considerable expense, he proceeded to 
prepare a version of the whole Slavonic Bible, into 
the dialect at that time most generally spoken 
in Russia, in which he was encouraged, as he 
states/ in the year 1699, by the beneficial effects 
resulting from his Lettonian translation, which had 
left the press the preceding year. 

It has been erroneously supposed, on the au- 
thority of a Francfort catalogue, referred to by 
Lelong,* that this Version of Gliick's was printed 
in Holland, at the expense of Peter the Great, in 
the year 1698.t That it would have been pub- 
lished at the Russian printing office of Kopievitch, 
in Amsterdam, there is little reason to doubt, bad 
it survived the siege of Marienburg in 1702 ; but 
it was destroyed, with the whole of Gluck's library 
and papers, on that occasion. The impossibility 
of its being printed in the year 1698, is proved by 
the language of Gliick himself, who in the year 
1699, represents the translation as still being in 
hand. " Yet I have not been idle, but confiding 
in the Divine goodness, I have prepared school 
books in the Russian language, and maintain in 
my own house, though at ho small expense, an 
aged Russian priest, whom I employ as my assis- 
tant in translating the Slavonic Bible into the com- 
mon Russian language; and I confidently hope, 
that the Lord God will also bless this work for his 
own glory, and the salvation of men, as he has 

*BibL Sacra. p.441. 

t Marsh's Hist, of Transl. pp. 6. 28, 29. 


done what has been effected for the use of the 
Lettonians. In this I am encouraged by letters, 
both from Germany and Moscow, especially those 
from Golovin, the Ambassador of the Tzar."* 

Besides proving the point in reference to which 
I have adduced this document, it furnishes us with 
the following interesting facts ; that a version of 
the Scriptures into the vulgar language of the 
Russians^ actually was undertaken by Gliick; 
that the Slavonic text formed the basis of his trans- 
lation; that he wisely availed himself of the assis- 
tance of a native Russian priest ; and, that he was 
sanctioned in the undertaking by the Russian 
Ambassador, who no doubt countenanced it with 
the express approbation of Peter the Great. 

Having been driven by the horrors of war to 
Moscow, Dean Gliick was kindly received by the 
Tzar, who knew how to appreciate his abilities, 
and employed him in founding a Gymnasium in 
that city ; but it does not appear, that he ever 
succeeded in any renewed attempts at Biblical 

In Adler*s Bibliotheca Biblica, No. 4001. 8. 
notice is taken of a '' Novum Testamentum Russi- 
cum, Moscuae, 1702 ;'' but it is nothing else than 
the text of the old Slavonic Version. 

Owing to the more successful cultivation of 
literature in Russia, subsequent to the time of 
Peter the Great, and especially since the reign of 

* Siiin Otetchestva, 1 821, No. 4 1. p. 24^ 



Vemne more die lobject of study among the higher 
claQfies tk^xi their own ancient dialectj the #tyle ii^ 
the Scriptures ooDtipaed to be familiar only to 
eccl^aiastics, to antiquaries, or to such of the pea- 
sants And others, as made conscience of re^^jlaily 
9ttendiiig the offices q( the cbvrcta# or mere m the 
htibit of rstfidi^g tbe Slav.omc Bibk» and other 
bwks coBB^osed in the cbwch laogaag e« Whew^ 
therefore, public atte&tioa was roused to the am- 
poEtwoe lof ^ Holy Scriptoicea, by tfie estaldieh- 
B^ent of ^ Rwsian BiUe Society, it "was soon 
ibvnd,, Itiat, taotwithstoodinf <the aindij^ with^bftdl 
ffspies of the iVMieiat rersiMi ware faanotetted^ 
numerous ^usands must he delmrmd ^ prifii* 
^geiof acqwiag a knowledge of seaealed tmth^ 
we^ ^wne weasunes were adopted to profile 
^fttm^ mth. a trans^atioft jn Jbeir varaaeular idiHr 
}^t S«dki koweveir, wm the Tsoemlioa in wfaiok 
the Slavonic ww Jwdd, and so seiims were tk* 
ppcfM4ipes which, it was conceived^ the |>r«)piosi» 
tion of such a measure would necessarily escite.«a 
tlie iBupLds .pf many of the eccleaiasiicfii, that not 
even the mf^t san^ime aod powerfid of the fi ria>4f 
(if the InstittttioDi dared to make it, 

Under these .pifcuiMta»«es« nethiQg Jess jth^H 
an imperial ukase could give birth to such an un- 
dertaking. And it pleased the Most High, by 
fwhpm '^ kings .reignj Mid forinoes decree jadg- 
wesit," ajt this ^ery juncture, to suggest the bv^gkA 
to the miad of the Emi^eror in so very powc^l 
a manner, that he instantly gave orders that the 
translation should be executed. The President of 

MODfiHII RVWIAll V<»!BK»9. H^ 

tte Society havings in tke begimimg of 1819;' 
fMrwented his Majesty with « copy «f eadi editioBf 
of the Holy ficriptuves, piibttri>ed in diifereftt Ian 
goagee by the Society, he was particularly struck 
with the circumfitancei that, while meaaures were 
adopting to prepare veraacalar visions for severat 
of the rudest tribes ia the empire, simultaneously 
with the exeitions made to translsfte the oracles of 
God into the languages of so many distant nations, 
his own Russians stiH remained destvtute cf tiie 
bocm merci&lly designed to foe freely communicated 
to all. He therefore ordered the President to 
acquaint the Members of the Holy Synod with his 
wish, that a venrioa of the New Testament should 
forthwith be undertak^i in the Modem Buss* 
This order was forwarded to the Synod on the 
33d of February, 1816 ; ai^d, on their part* 'A was 
resolved* that* as the undertaking was calculated to 
he useful* it should be recommended to the Mran* 
bers of the Conumttee of Spiritual Schools* to 
aeleoi such iodiriduals bdonging to the Spiritual 
Aoadeby of St. Petersburgh* as appeared most 
competent to the discharge of so important a lask* 
and wiien ibe versioQ was made* to submit k in 
levisioQ to the Clerical Members of the Bible 
Society. Thus* to borrow the words of Priaoe 
Gftlitein* the Emperor himself '' opened die seal 
oif a laagfuage* wfaieh* ifrom its being less iaftd* 
hgihle* bad veiled from many Russians the Gospdl 
of Jestts* and laid it open to children* from whom* 
not design* but the etfects of time* had hitherto 
concealed it." 

When the four Oospels were peady* a Cflosr 



mittee of Revision was formed^ which held its 
weekly sittings in the Nevsky Monastery; and 
the first edition appeared in 1819, in a thick octavo 
volume, the Slavonic text being printed along with 
the modem translation in parallel columns. Such 
Was the demand for this work, that the Committee 
were obliged to print, in the course of the same 
year, two editions, consisting of 15,000 copies* 
In 1820, not fewer than 50,000 of the Gospels 
and Acts were issued from the press, which only ' 
tended to increase the desire of the Russians to 
obtain the whole New Testament in their common 

To these portions the Epistles were successively 
added, as they passed the Committee of Revision ; 
but it was not till 1 823, that ihejirst edition of the 
entire Testament appeared. This events on which 
are suspended such infinitely important conse* 
quences to millions of the human family, may 
justly be considered as forming an epoch, not only 
in the history of the Russian Bible Scrciety, but in 
that of the empire among the inhabitants of which 
the copies are now in a course of widely extended 
circulation. It is neatly printed in 1 2mo«, with«> 
out the accompaniment of the Slavonic text, from 
which, indeed, it differs in so many instances, that 
it wa& deemed prudent not to place them before the 
public in such manifest opposition to each other. 
The title, which is embellished with a vignette re* 
presenting an open Bible, surrounded with a glory^ 
is as follows : Gospoda nashego Isausa Christa iVb- 
vii Zaviet. Pervim izdaniem Sanctpeterhurg^ v'lyp(H 
graphii Rosstiskago Bibleiskago Ohshtshestva^ 1823. 


i. e. ** The New Testament of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. First edition. St. Petersburgh, at the 
printing office of the Russian Bible Society, 1823.''' 
Next follow three distinct prefaces; the first of 
which contains the blessing of the Holy Synod, 
and the names and titles of the Imperial Family, 
as uniformly prefixed to editions of the Holy 
Scriptures in Russia. The second is an address 
to the Christian reader, printed verbatim from that 
prefixed to the first edition of the Four Gospels 
in Modem Russ, which, after pointing out the 
incalculable value and importance of the Holy 
Scriptures, famishes the reader with a succinct 
account of the languages in which the Bible was 
originally written, and of the subsequent transla- 
tion of the Old Testament into Greek. The Sla- 
vonic Version is next adverted to ; and, after de-r 
scribing the changes which the Slavonic language 
had undergone, and the necessity thence arising of 
a new translation, the authors insert the Imperial 
mandate, in consequence of which the present 
work had been undertaken, and conclude with an 
earnest call to *' read, give ear, believe, fulfil, be 
made wise, and be saved." It is signed by Michael, 
Metropolitan of Novogorod and St. Petersburgh ; 
Seraphim, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna ; 
and Philaret, Archbishop of Tver. 

The third preface contains an address to the 
reader, with special teference to the present com- 
plete edition. Having once more adverted to the 
necessity of a new translation^ the vn'iters proceed 
to account for the entire* omission of the Slavonic 
text, which, considering the authority it had ac^ 


Squired from the stactioD of nearly ten oentMries,. 
some mig^t regard as onwarrantably shghted by 
sueh an act— ^daring, that it was solely with a 
¥iew to co&yenienee and utility^ that the inesti^ 
mable treasures of Divine truth might be pkced 
within reach of the poor» and that even childrea 
might beinatructed in the knawtedge of the Divii)e> 

With respect to the execution of the version, 
the fi[dlowing avowal is made ; that, althongh the 
translators would not obstinately defend every 
part of it ; yet, having ccxitinuaUy laid it at the feet 
of the hypostaticid Word, they felt confident thst 
he would defend his own truth, correct their imper« 
fections, and enlighten their darkness ; and in this 
hope, they proceeded anew to the examination of 
every word in the version that had at all beeii called 
in question, endeavouring, as much as possible, to 
present the reader with an exact, and at the same 
time, perspicuous representation of the original^ 
uninfluenced by any false principles of interpreta- 

In answer to the query, why the Russian trans- 
lation did not more exactly correspond with the 
Slavonic text ? it is stated, that it was the object 
of the translators to follow, with the utmost pos- 
sible exactitude, the readings of the original Greek, 
as contained in the most ancient and. ai^entic 
MSS., from which the Fathers of the church made 
their quotations, or which are still preserved to 
the present day.^ To make this more plain to the 
reader, an instance is adduced from. Luke ix. 23^ 
where the word " dmhf' is omitted in the Slavonic; 



boir mB ifUptt» beisg fdumd iu: aBtoDiy ancieiit; MISS., 
and bebig: quoted by Ghrysottomy it yna dotted 
proper, on this authority, to receive the re^Iiiig^ 
aa part of the original text. The Metropolitan^ 
MichaeU bemg deceased, thn pra&ce im signed 
by his successor. Seraphim^ and the Archbishops 
<rf* Moscow and Tver, Philaret and Jonahj^ and 
bears the date of 25th of October, 1823. 

Notwithstanding the reference made in^ this 
last preface to the authority of MI^S., the number 
of alterations made on this ground is not by any 
means so great as might haver been expected« 
Thusy, both the Slavonic and Russian, texta retain 
the felluwing veadingB : 

Matt. vi. I. ikeii^Tvyiiy. Matt, xztii. 8* Xpiordc. 

IS. The Doxolbgy. Luke ii. 25. Iwaif^. 

18* €v Tf farepf. Jobn i. 28. hfiBcLJi^pf, 

' viif. 51. ivlrptrlfoy ^/uy Rom. i. t6« roif XpicfroV. 

HireXdkiy. I Cor. i. 25. iXkn^i. 
ix. 4. iiQ ^er&yoiay* vi. 20. vac iy rf TK^/Miri, 

95. iy r6 \af. ftc 

lit'. 8. «a2. 

Sometimea readings ace retained, thougb the 
tranriajfa9is wwe doubt&il respecting their genuine- 
ness. In disease they are ineloeedwithn brackets: 
for example — 

Matt. xvi» 20« Iq^vc* 

Luke z. 22. leal orpa^iiQ wpot 
rovi jiadffrdt, lore. 

JohnxUu.35.. khI. 

Acts ix. 5^ 6. aK\jiip6y aoi wpoc 
Kirrpa Xaxr/^eiv. ^pifiwy 
r^Koi dafAfiAy {iire* icvpte, rl 
fie 6/Xcic voififfoi ; xal 6 
Kwpio^ wpoc ^vroy. 

Eom. vill. 1. fui Kord aapKa 

trepiwaroy^iM, iiWd Korh 

XI. G. ec 32 e£ ipyt^yf ivxiri Jcr2 

j^aptfi* iirei to ipyoy ovKkri 

ivrly ^pyoy, 
I Cor. X. 26*. T^v ydp Kvpiov 

^ yff Kal ri nXrjpiafia dvrfc 
Gal. iii«. 1. rp iiXifitia fi^ wit- 


Besides the various readings specified in the 
prefitce, the following are some of those we have 
noticed : 

M«rk ziv. 7S. SIat. t vtoroi akkior vosgtoiu ** And 
tbe teocmd time the cock crew/' The Rom adds, ' M- 
choif ** Aod immediately the cock crew the second 
time ;** which is supported by very respectable autho* 
rities, and is quite in the style of Mark. 

John viL 26. where the Slavonic has, simply, iako 
cei est Christas, ** that this is Christ;*' the modem Russ, 
foUowinjg dXifO Jc, renders the passage thus : tikto On 
podUnno Christos? " that He is indeed Christ ?" 

1 Cor. vii. 3. The Slav, has dolshnouio liobov, ''due 
love,** corresponding to oipeiXofUyfiy ivyoiav of the 
Greek Vulgate : but the Russ, on the very best autho- 
rity, has only doUhnoe, " that which is due:" yet, in 
the 5th verse, where the identical uncial MSS., ABC 
D E F G, with more cursive ones, the very same 
versions, and many of the Fathers, all agree in reject- 
ing Tp vticreiq, Kol; the Russian translators have not 
ventured to expunge the word '*Jasting/* but give the 
passage as in ocir common version. 

Acts i. 4. Slav, c' nimishe i iadii, '' And eating with 
them," from the reading ffvyav\i(6fjL€voQ ; but the 
Russ, i gobrav yich^ " and having assembted them," ac- 
cording to the true reading, €nfyaXi(6fieyot. 

ii. 44. The Slav, follows the reading, ^^i^ re fUyut 
jfK M w&rrae iLVTo^g, whereas, in the Russ, it is en* 
tirely omitted. 

1 Tim» vi. 19. Slav, ''that they may receive, vietch" 
nouio shizn, ** eternal life." Russ, istinnoi shizni, 
" real life," adopting 6yriag instead of imaviov. 

1 Pet. iv« 14. The Slav, omits icai Swa/jLetae, and 
reads simply " the Spirit of glory and of God," but 
the Russ adopts the fuller reading, and repeats the 
word " Spirit" thus : Douah slavi i «/t, Douch Boshti — 
*' The Spirit of glory and of power — the Spirit of 

Other instances of a difference in the transla- 


tion, arising from the adoption of various readings, 
might here be produced ; but we must omit them, 
to leave room for the insertion of a few other pas- 
sages, in order to shew in what light they were 
viewed by the translators. 

Matt. xiz. 28. Istinno govorio vam vi posUedovavshie 
za Mnoio, t/ talabitie^ kogda siadet S*in tchelovietcheskii 
na prestole slavi svoei, siadete t vi, Sec " Verily I say 
unto you, you that have followed me, in the regene* 
ration, when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of 
his glory, ye also shall sit, &c. The Slavonic word 
here retained as a translation of vaXiyyereina, properly 
signifies a new or second state of being, and being 
connected both in the Slavonic and Russ versions with 
the following words, and not with those immediately 
preceding, no such difficulty attaches to the passage 
as occurs in some other versions, and in most editions 
of our own. ^ 

XXV. 14. Ibo On postoupU podobtio tchdomehm, ** For 
He shall ad like a man," Ice. filling up the ellipse from 
the immediate antecedent, '' the Son of man," instead 
of adopting the wordfe, " the kingdom of heaven," from 
the first verse of the chapter. 

82, SS. In our' common version, the action of the 
shepherd is limited to the separation of the sheep from 
the goats; in the Russ it is 'extended to what follows, 
thus: ''As a shepherd divideth the sheep from the 
goats^ and placeth the sheep on his right hand and the 
goats on his left." 

xxvi. 45. Ft v*ce esktshe spile i potchivaele. **Ye 
' jure all still sleeping and taking your restl Behold the 
hour," &c. 

xxvii. 52, 53. / mnof^a iiela ousopshick svielich vo5- 
kresU i viskedshi w grohov, po voskresenti Ego, voshli 
vo svielH grad. " And many bodies of deceased saints 
arose; and coming forth out of the graves, after his 
resurrection, they went into the holy city,'' &c. Ac- 
cording to this punctuation, which is coilfirmed by the 
Slavonic version, these saints resuscitated immediately 
on the death of Christ, but remained still in their se* 

yaSk MOiMBMr waseiM nbw Taxuaaan. 

sleq^ in death. 

Mark liL 19. In th6 Russ^ this vene doses with the 
words, " who-aBk) betrayed htm," and ver. 20tti beginr, 
'^Th^ eatenMl iito an hocat^* Seci^^-^i, niiefa mare 
■atund divisiaii than that obtaiBiiif in the oammott 
editions of the English New Testament. 

iv. 56. The SUvonic has poiashUha ego, iakoshe hie 
v^korahU, ''They took him as he was in the ship.*^ 
The Rass, oipravUis c' Nim v' hdkie, n* Kolaroi On bS; 
** they set off with him in the boat, in which he was." 

Ti. 20. f* bcreg egq: " and he took care of him.'' 

vii. 5. The Russ, omitting icvyiiti altogether, simply 
renders the passage, ^ For the Pharisees and all. the 
Jews eat not, without having washed their hands;'' 
but the Slavonic has in the text trUoshUhe *' by throw- 
ing up a little,'' and in a note at the foot of the page^ 
do lakoi, " up to the elbow." 

19* The Slavonic, by retaining the Greek word 
ii^Sfmy, riders the passage absolutely unintelligible; 
the Rusa,. t vichodU wnt ichian otdielaxtcia netchutoe U 
vsiakoi pUhlshi, the force of which cannot be given in 
any translation, but the meaning is, " and passeth or 
goeth out, by which is separated the impure parts of 

xiv. 56. Ruas. "The testimonies ne bUi dostaiotcknif 
were not sufficient,^ agre^bly to the rendering of the 
most approved translators. The Slav, has ravna; 
"^were not equaL" 

72- Slav, i natchen plakashecia. " And he began 
to weep." Russ. t tnshedshi sUU glakaU " And going 
01U9. he wept." 

Luke ii. 1. xaoay nyv owovfiiyfiv is rendered v*cei 
xemke, " all the land:" but the Slav, baa vceimnouiOf 
" the inha/nted gtbbe.'* 

2S. Slav. €ioj *^ha> purification." Rusa. jf^K 
" theii." 

vi. 1.. f^ wMoiou pervauio po vtorom d'n€ Pajtehi, 
" On the first sabbath after the second doj^qf ibe Fuur 
overJ* The Siax», only gives SeMrepowfuz^ etj^»- 


LukM tvii* tl. Botk Shv. and' Bxm, 1mit» wonir, 
** ib% kingdom of God is wUhm jaaJ* 

John ill. 5. ** Except a man, rodUiia inova, be Bom 
agnrnf The dlav. baa tmhe, *^fram above J^ 

Acta xiii. aC Sorni, fi tvoe wremla pstkmkm imf^m 
hM»B0ikio,poi€kil^"Dmd having, id hia tiaar,. served- 
the will of God, fell asleep.'' 

48. £01 bili predouHmdem F vitichnoi sUzni, ** that 
ytwerpredetthted to eternid life.** 

iAv.9i» Rwiapobtkh iakgke yihm ptemfiiera§. ''And 
having Und hands om presbyters,)^ tiiem.^^ 

■vii. 2S. otchen naboshni, " very reiigiaits/^ 

SO, Bog popousiiv biL ** God having suffered the 
(Smes of ignorance to 5e.* 

Col. L 15* MsMeii freshie Wsakai ivari; ** Begotten 
befovt every creature:''—- a rendering evidently Ibii&dad 
ott the dogma of the eternal generation. The Slavonic 
gives the passage literally: pervorothdm tfceia Ivari. 
^ The itr^hofo oT every creatare." 

1 ThaM. L 5. Iy T\ff^0fopi^ voXX^ ia r g ad ered m 
wmogami svidieiilsham dosievafrnostif '' vdtb mmf 
credible testimonies." 

1 Tim. in. 15, I6. SMp i ouivershdenie islini i 
iezpreJbshnmo veUkaia UagotchestHa Mna: Bog iafrilsa 
mpUii, ftc '' The Pillar and eataUtshaoantof thetmlh, 
and ineantiovcrt&ly great ia the mystery of godlinasac 
God manifested himself in the €esh/' &c. This con- 
struction of the passage given, as it is by the sanction 
of the principd dignitaries of the Greek dinreh in 
Buasia,. niaat ha regarded as poaaessing conaiderBble 
importaaca in the questioD at issue between the Ca» 
tholics and Protestants: via. Whether the church he 
the. pillar and ground of the truth ? or, the truth, the 
pflhor and gvound of tile chureh ? Aceording to the 
akawr iataqpretatian^ or ntlier punctaBtBao,.no ooiam^ 
teaanca ia given, to eithar party by this partion of 
divine truth. This punctuation is- adopts in the cri- 
tical editions of the Greek Testament, published by 
Gtieabadi, Kn ap p iua, and VaDer. 

Oa coixipaffmg parallel paasageA ia tba different 


Grospels, or such phrases as are parallel in the 
same Gospel, the reader must be sensible of a 
greater want of uniformity than is allowable in 
translations of the Sacred Scriptures. Certain 
liberties also, which cannot admit of justification 
at the bar of impartial criticism, will now and 
then be found, such as the omission of rai kyiyero, 
''and it came to pass," the undue limiting of cer- 
tain general expressions, or the imparting of a 
greater degree of perspicuity' to the version than 
what is found in the original ; but, as a transla- 
tion, it may, on the whole, be placed on a level 
with the most respectable productions of the kind, 
that have been published in modern times. While 
its character has been more or less determined by 
the results c^ various critical discussions to which 
a spirit of biblical research in the nineteenth cen- 
tury has given rise, it has happily remained un- 
tainted by the influence of that daring system of 
interpretation which fritters down into absolute 
insignificance some of the more expressive and 
characteristic terms in the New Testament, and 
converts the sacred dictates of inspiration into a 
mere charade, to exercise the powers of human 
ingenuity, or furnish a fimd for literary amuse- 
ment. The Russian New Testament not only 
forms a bright gem in the imperial crown of Alex- 
ander, by whom it was suggested, but is a monu- 
ment to the learning and abilities of those who 
prepared the translation. 

In the course of eight months after it was 
finished, the whole was carefully stereotyped, and 
20,000 copies struck off for immediate distribu- 


tion. Great was the joy of the Russians on re- 
ceiying so precious a boon ; and glorious have been 
the effects resulting from its impartation : — effects 
which may be expected to increase in proportion 
as the light of Divine truth shoots its piercing 
beams across the empire^ 


If it was necessary that the Russians should 
be furnished with a modem version of the New 
Testament, the necessity was still more impe- 
rious in regard to the Old. The Slavonic being 
a servile metaphrase of the Septuagint, naturally 
inherits all the faults of that ancient version, and, 
in addition to these, possesses many peculiar to 
itself. Numerous passages, especially in the book 
of Job^ are wrapped up in impenetrable obscu- 
rity : so that the most learned ecclesiastics have 
found it utterly impossible to attach to them any 
meaning whatever. This fact being made known 
to the Emperor, he ordered a trianslation of the 
books of the Old Testament to be undertaken, to 
correspond with that which had been made of 
the New ; and, as no part of the ancient Scrip- 
tures was more generally read, or likely to prove 
of greater utility, than the Psalms of David, it was 
resolved, that a version of that book should be 
published without delay. 

The principal labour in the preparation of 
this version devolved upon the Rev. Dr. Pav- 
sky, of the cathedral in St. Petersburgh, the first 


Hebrew schofatr ia the empire ; aod, tdtkough it 
eonunenced kmg after the transiatioa of the Hew 
TestameBt, it was ready before it, aad was pub- 
lished^ in duodecimo, 1822. The editioa consisted 
of 1^,000 copies ; yet, so great was the demaaA 
for the book, that it was found necessasry to uutA* 
ply them to a degree unprecedented in any coun- 
try, so that, within the space of two years, up^ 
wards of 100,000 copies left the press. The fol* 
kwing wiU serre as specimens of the version :— 

Psalm 11. 12. PotchtUe S*ina. " Honour the Son.** 
The Slav, is a literal translation of the Greek, Ipafy.vBe 
^rm^etac, " Receive correction.** 

Kvi. 1. The words i»^yVa •naie, which die LXX. 
ffcnder rmy &yaS6r fiov dv xptlav l;^cic» sad the Vsi 
bonorrim mearum nan eges, and with which the SUw. 
agrees, are thus given in the Russ : niet mnie blag kr^ 
mie Tebia, ** There is no good to me besides thee.* 
The tCBBslator appears to have followed die rendering 
of SywUMghvm, AyoSoy f$ov (or /um) ovk lr<rcy dyev ovv; 
thus rendered foj Jerome : 6ofittm mihi non est sme tei 

Ixxxiv. 7« Prochodia doUnoio platchuy oni pre^ 
vrashtshaioui ee t/ istotchnik, i doshd odievaet ee bla^ 
goiloveniami, ** Passing through the vallej of weep- 
.ing, they ooovert it into fountains, and the mui dothei 

ciii. 5. Nasishtshaet Magami sbelanie iove. ** Wkfa 
good things he satiafieth thj desire,'' following the 
rendering of the LXX. nr^v/iiay trov, 

ex. S. ^* den rati 'TSxm narod I\foi gotov vo hlagc^ 
tupii meikMennom. Kak rosa w t^eva fari, Uh 
ou Tebia ionoshestvo Tvoe, " In the day of thy oem« 
bat, thy people are ready in sacred pomp. As the dew . 
trom the womb of Aurora, so with thee are thy 


The translation of the other books of the Old 
Testament having been committed to the learned 
members of the Spiritual Academies of St. Pe- 
tersburgh, Moscow, a&d Mie/^ it waA expected 
that this division o£ labour would hasten its com- 
pletion. At the begitming of 1822, the Penta* 
teuch, and the books of Job^ Proverbs, and Eccle- 
siastes were translated, and forwarded to the 
Committee of Revision ; and the Archbisbpf) Phi- 
laret had commenced the Iranslalion ^ isaiah. 
The Committee of the Bible Society, finding that 
the first edition would make several volumes^ 
urged the propriety of sending the first volume to 
the press; which proposal, though it met with 
some opposition, was tdtimat^y carried, and an 
edition, consisting of 10,000 copies, of the Five 
Books of Moses, Joshua, Judges^ and Ruth, was 
accordingly undertaken. 

This edition, though ready for publication at 
Midsummer, 1 824, has not yet made its appear- 
ance ; pot having obtained the scmction and bles- 
sing of the Holy Synod. Nor is it likely soon to 
see the light, unless the ^uccesaor of Alexander 
act in the spirit by which that illustrious monarch 
was guided when he ordered j;he translation to be 

Having brought over a copy of this edition with 
me to this country, and as it is still problematical 
what may be the fate .of the work, I shall here pre- 
sent the biblical student with a few of the more 


remarkable renderings to be found in the Penta- 

Gen. ii. 2. if sedmomou dnio. ** By the seventh 
dsLj.'' The Slav., following the LXX., has " the iixth 

10. tcheiire rieki, ** four rwenJ* 

12. nVni it rendered oniib, •" the cwyxJ* 

iii. 15. ono boudei poraduU tebia t^ goiovou, a H ten* 
deih shaUt ego v' piatou, ** He shall crush thy head, 
but thou shalt sting his hcel.^ 

iv. 1. mn»Tiil is rendered ot Gospoda, ** from the 

3. Q*D* Tpo, a Jine dierum, is here given by Spoui^ 
Ha niesMko Vremeni^ ** After the lapse of some 

V. 22, 24. Enoch chodil pred Bogom, " Enoch 
walked before God.*' To justify this translation, the 
original should have been, o*nVH UB^ "i^nnn, or -]Vn: 
whereas, the words are *nM "i^nnn, and have a much 
more emphatical signification. 

vi. 3. Ne vietchno Douchou Moemou bit prenebre^ 
gaemou tcheloviekanU (dmi)* " My spirit shall not be 
eternally treated with despite by (these) men.'' 

zx. 16. A Sarre skazal : vot^ la dal bratou tvoemou 
iUiatehau siklei serebra ; vot, eio tebie pohrivalo dUa 
otchei^ pred i/ siemi wxchodiasktshimiia s' toboio, i pred 
t;' siemi protchxmi tchobi znaii tebie. " But to Sarah he 
said, Behold, I have given to thy brother a thousand 
shekels of silver : Behold, it will be a veO for thine 
eyes, before all who are found with thee, and before 
all others, that they may know thee." 

xziv. 63. V* pole progouliatsia, " to walk in the 
field." This rendering, though countenanced by the 
Syriac, and the interpretation of Aben-ezra, is not sup* 
ported by the other versions, or Scripture use. LXX. 
aSoXes'^^ai. Aquila, bfAikfitfau Symraachus, XaXif- 
If at. 


Gen. xlix. 5. aroucUa shestokasti metchi ykkf ** In- 
struments of cruelty are their swords" 

10. Ne otnimetsia shipetr ot Joudi, i shezl ot nog ego, 
poka ne pridei Primiritel, i Emou pokoriatsia narodu 
** The sceptre shidi not be taken away from Judah^ nor 
the staff iVom his leet, until the Peacd'^naker came, tod 
to him shall the peoples submit/' 

IS. Q*D* t\\n, rendered in English '' a haven for 
ships^" the Russ gives by beregack moria, " the sea 
• shores.'' 

21. Nephthalmterpm^HnvieivuAifrdspcuskaioskts^ 
prekrasntia vietvi, '* Nephtalim is a branchy tere« 
binth, spreading forth beautiful branches/' 

1. 19. ibo la boios Boga, " for I fear God." The 
rendering of Onkelos, HJH »n Vfhm nH, and of the 
ancient Samaritan, according to a Greek scholiast in 
the Vatican^ ica2 ydp ^oPo^fAeroc 9eiy It/it tyd^ 

Ezod. i. 21. Bog oustroial cemeittv Evreiamit " Ood 
built up the fiimilies of the Hebrews" This ti^ansla- 
tion is according to the interpretation of Krafft, Men- 
delsohn, Michaelisy and Dathe, but renders the passage 
forced^ and the construction unnatural. 

iii. 14. TJ^ny^ imn n*nM| laetm Tot, kotofii esm, ** I 
am what I am." 

xvii. 16. Potomou tshto, skazal (m, znamia Jehovi v* 
roukie moeiy bran ou Gospoda protiv Amalika iz roda 
rf rod* ** Because," said he, " the banner of Jehovah 
is in my hand» there shall be war with the Lord 
against the Amalakites from generation to genera- 

Deut. xxziii. 1 6. % na tiemia naUoutchshago iz brafev 
svoich, •* and on the crown of the choicest of his bre- 

The version being done immediately from the 
Hebrew, necessarily presents a text, in numerous 
instances diifering from the Slavonic; but no- 
where is this more observable, than in the chrono-- 
logical statements in the fifth of Genesis, there 



being a difference of a hundred yean^ with minor 
discrepancies^ between the numbers as found in 
the Hebrew and Gre«k Bibles. This want of 
agreement is noticed ija a note to the third verse, 
which is all that was required ; but the tranGdators 
have also given in numerals, within brackets, in 
each verse, the computation of the Septuagint, 
which not only makes the text look awkward, bat 
preseuls the subjeel with an mdu^ degree of pro- 
minenee to the imkamed reader* 

I caDuot conclude this chapter without ex* 
pressing a confident hope» that thi^ noble biblical 
undwtnUciogs, so auspiciously begun in RuMia, 
will not bet p^fmitted to fiitt t^ the gfomd;. A 
gloomy clood ha9 kideed horered over tiie Bible 
Society in that empire for the last two years; by 
which its bright and. continually, extending pros- 
pects have beeft ob«eured^ and ia consequence 
of wbid!i, its exertions have of late become almost 
entirely paralyzed. But it only requires, under 
God»^ the return of Imperial favour, to give to the 
Instittttion eien more than iter foriMr vigour and 
prosperity. It still exists in all the plenitude of 
its official sanction, in all its various ramifications^ 
throughout the empire, and in all its mechanical 
prepa^ralipw for attaining the ^^and,. though/sim- 
ple, end of its establishment. That the high au- 
spices under which it was formed should have 
in any measure diminished, even in appearance, 
must prove a source of deep regret to^ every one 
who wishes well to the immortal interestsr of tfte 
numerous mflhons which constitute the population 
of Russia ; but, if i mistake not, the causes c^- 


tfttii^ lo produce that diiiakitttiei^ ar« nat of a 
nature peculiarly calculated to excite any sericais 
alarm as to the permaneut inactivity of the So« 

Having beea frequently asked, since my return 
irom Russia, what these causes might be, I hqsi*- 
tate not to express the following, as my decided 
personal conviction relative to the subject : 

It 18 not unknown to the reading world, that, 
prwious to the instituti(m of the Bible Society in 
St Petersburgh, the Jesuits had made such pro- 
gress in imbuing the minds of Russian youths, and 
other members of the orthodox churchy with strong 
predilections in favour of the dogmas of Rome^ as 
aecf ssarily to excite the attention o( government, 
and lead to a closer and m(xe unremitting inspect 
tton of their proceedings. It was not, however, 
titt they had succeeded in corrupting the prin-* 
eiples of a young nobleman of distinguished rank, 
aiul framed a system of intrigue against the Bible 
Society, that measures were taken to expel them 
fiook the empire. Possessing a magnificent col^ 
lege lA the Sadov'ii street, close to the house pre« 
airnted by his Majesty to the Society, they were 
so chagrined at the mark of Imperial favour dis-* 
played in that gift, that they became quite cla^ 
ttoroQs in their opposition to its principles and 
proeeediog^ ; in consequence of which, smd their 
other ddinqueMiss^ a& ukase was issued^ similar in 
itlB efiects to that of Darius the king,r i& which 
it was ordered ; '' Now therefore Tatnai^ 6o« 
veroos beyond the f iver» ^lethar-bozoai and yow 
^mpanions, the Apbarsachites^ which are beyond 



the river, be ye far from thence ; let the tvork of 
this house of God alone ; let the Governor of the 
Jews, and the elders of the Jews, build this house 
of God in his place." Ezra vi. 6, 7. In less than 
two hours after their college had been surrounded 
m the dead of night by the gens dVmes, their pa* 
pers were secured ; and, being wrapped in sheep- 
skin shubes, which had been provided for them^ 
and placed in the sledges in waiting at the door, 
they were speedily conducted over the frontieri^. 

Conceiving these measures as originating with, 
or at least powerfully supported by his Excellency 
Prince Galitzin, then Minister for Ecclesiastical 
Affairs and Public Instruction, the Jesuits formed 
designs of the most deadly hatred against that 
worthy nobleman, and left no method untried by 
which they might lower him in the opinion of. his 
Imperial Majesty, and precipitate him from those 
stations of high official trust, which he had so long 
and so honourably filled. As the President and 
most cordial supporter of the Bible Society, he 
became the object of their insidious attacks. 
Failing in their attempts to make any powerful 
impression on the minds of the Russian clergy, 
who, in proportion as they are versed in the wri- 
tings of the Greek Fathers, must perceive the in« 
eongruity of any opposition being made to the 
reading of the Scriptures by the laity, on the part 
of those who profess so unbounded a reverence 
for these writings, the proscribed sect resolved to 
try what might be effected by political intrigue. 
l%e revolutionary spirit which had appeared 
in some countries of Europe^ and the desire so 


Strongly expressed iu others of having certain 
ancient institutions re-modelled to suit the exi- 
gencies of modern times, appeared, to their minds, 
to furnish a powerful handle by which to gain 
their object. They now set every engine at work 
to impress the public mind, and especially those in 
power, with the belief, that between the members 
of the Bible Society and the Carbonari of Italy, 
the Burschenschaft of Germany and the English 
Radicals^ there existed a real and systematic con- 
nection. While their emissaries were secretly 
active in conducting the wheels of the machine, by 
which numbers of the students were, deluded 
throughout Protestant Germany, they were unre- 
mitting in their attempts to corrupt the public ve- 
hicles of information, introducing inuendoes into 
the statements given of popular movements, and 
harping on the tendency of Protestantism and 
Bible Societies to foment divisions, and produce 
civil and religious discontent. Nor did they stop 
here. By their agents in Russia, with which 
country they still maintain a powerful, though 
covert, alliance, and especially through the instru- 
mentality of certain leading politicians, at the 
Conferences of Laybach and Verona, they did 
every thing in their power to lodge in the mind of 
Alexander a conviction, that Bible Societies are 
politically dangerous; that the reading of the 
Scriptures by the laity cannot fail to disseminate 
revolutionary principles ; and, that the real, though 
concealed, object of their members and abettors, 
is the dismemberment of organized society. 

The mind of the august Monarch was too en- 


lightened* end he wm too well acquainted 
the distinguished individuals in his own empire 
who had established and were carrying on the 
operations of the Society under his own public 
sanction^ to belieye that there could be any real 
ground for such accusations. But* as the Jesuits 
ultimately succeeded in forming a strong party ib 
the Russian metropolis, to re-echo their crimina- 
tions, it was deemed politic, that the object of 
their inveterate enmity should resign those high 
posts in which he stood peculiarly exposed to the 
shafts of their malice. The Institution, by this 
measure, lost its noble and most indefatigable 
President; but, although its operations have not 
been subsequently carried on as heretofore, no- 
thing in the shape of an attempt has been made to 
put it down: not even the slightest shadow of 
evidence against any of its members, as desirous 
of interfering with political arrangements, has been 
alleged, and the abettors of the mis-named So- 
ciety of Jesus must first flatter the Greek clergy 
into the belief that they are wiser than Chrysos- 
tom, Basil, Damascene, and others of the Fathers, 
ere they can lead them, as a body, to act in fla- 
grant opposition to such high and venerated au- 

Let the Divine Word only have free and un- 
restricted circulation among mankind, and, be- 
sides accomplishing its higher and more impor- 
tant design, the eternal salvation of the soul, it 
wrll secure, by the influence of an Invisible, but 
Omnipotent Authority, as a present part of that 
salvation, the conscientious discharge of every 



relative duty. " Submit yourselves to every or- 
dinance of man, for the Lord's sake : whether it 
be to the king, as supreme ; or unto governors, as 
unto them that are sent by him for the punishment 
of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do 
well. For so is the will of God, that with well- 
doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of 
foi^sh men ; as free, and not using your liberty 
for a cloak of maliciousness, but as the servants 
of God. Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. 
ii. 13—17. 


Leave Moicow — Borevsk — Matoi laratiaveiz — DUheu of Napo- 
leon — Kaluga — Auxiliary BibU Society — Excellent State 
of the Priton'^^Character, of the Town — Pauage of the 
Oha^^Alexln — 7\c/a — Roadt m Ruuia — Profanation of the 
jSab^th-^Orel-^BUfle Society — Aged Prieit — Imprisoned 
Actresses — Kursh — Bielgorod — Grand Procession — Bishop 
Eugenius — Kharhof-^PtUtava — Tchemigof'—The Dnieper. 

Having spent nearly a month in Moscow, in 
anxious expectation of the summer roads, we 
again proceeded on our journey on the 13th of 
ApriL Besides other civilities shewn us by the 
Postmaster General, we were kindly furnished 
with a regular government postillion, armed with 
sword and pistols, who generally drove on before 
us, to have the horses waiting our arrival at the 
different stations. From the recent and still con- 
tinued melting of the snow, we found the roads in 
a most wretched state, and had scarcely lost view 
of the city, ere we were convinced that we had 
been by no means too precipitate in leaving it. 

The route we pursued was that leading to 
Kcdtiga, which town we expected to have reached 
the following day; but an inevitable detention, 
occasioned by the want of horses, greatly retarded 
our progress^ In the small town of Boravsk, which 
is pleasantly situated on the elevated banks of the 


Protva, and contains dbout 5000 inhabitants, we 
'dined at the house of the Agent for the Post, 
whom we found to be a Tatar, and his wife a 
Kalmuc — their little daughter furnishing us with a 
specimen of the Diixed race, which afterwards 
attracted so much of our notice in the south of 

We next passed through Maloi larosiavetz, 
which is rather romantically situated on the sum- 
mit of a steep hill, on the eastern bank of the Lot^ja, 
and will ever be memorable in the annals of 
Europe, as the spot where Napoleon lost his firet 
battle on the disastrous retreat from Moscow.* 
His object was to gain Kaluga, which, if he had 
attained it, would have saved his . army, as he 
would have found a fine open road towards a more 
genial clime, and the most abundant stores of pro- 
visions for his troops ; but the resistance he met 
with at^ this place from Kutuzof s army^ obliged 

* About half « league from the town, at the commenoetnent 
of the bend of the Louja, in the habitation of a weaver, an old, 
crazy, filthy, wooden hut, and in a dirty dark room, parted off 
into two by a cloth, the man, who had made Europe to tremble, 
waa reduced to a Btate of the most complete despondency. 
Crowing his anns, with a look of consternation, when he heard 
the report of the unassailable nature of the Russian position, he 
bung his head, and remained as if overwhelmed with the deepest 
dejection. Absorbed in an abyss of profound reflectton, he 
fell into such a stupor, that none of those about him could 
draw from him a single word. Scarcely could a nod of the bead 
be obtained from him by dint of importunity. He spent the 
night in great agitation, — now rising, now lying down again, 
and calling incessantly, yet not a single word betrayed his dis« 
tress.— -See Segur s History of the Expedition to Russia, Book ix. 
Chap. iii. 


bim to atnke ofF towards the tovm of Medgn, and 
BO forward to Smolensky where aothing awaited hia 
men but famine and death, in its most horrid fomm. 
Soxoe idea may be formed of the condition to 
which the town of Maki lansiavetz was reduced, 
when it is stated^ that it was successively taken 
and retaken seven times in the course of three days* 
'* Never," says Segur» '' was field of battle more elo- 
quent. Its marked features ; its ruins covered with 
blood ; the streets, the line of which could no longer 
be recognised, but by the long train of the dead, 
whose heads were crushed by the wheels of the 
cannon ; the wounded, who were seen issoing from 
the rubbiahp and crawling along, with their gar* 
meats, their hair, and their limbs half consumed 
by the fire» and uttering lamentable cries-^-^Ii 
attested the extreme obstinacy of the ooaflkt/* 
The gate of a monastery on the left side of the 
ravine^ and the adjacent parts of the wall, stiU 
exhibit marks of the balls, as do also the sides of a 
fintme, inclosing a head of Christ, which is placed 
above the gate, while the head itself is reported to 
have remained uninjured. It may easily be con- 
ceived what an additional degree of sanctity has 
been attached to it, in consequence of this oijrcum- 

Having transacted some Bible Society busi- 
ness with the Protopope, and procured a fresh 
relay of horses, we set out for Ktdugay but were 
benighted before reaching one of the adjacent sta- 
tions. How to pass the night, it was difficult to 
determine — as we found it impossible to cross a 
small river that intercepted our progress, the 

KALUGA. 130 

bridgt over which had been carried away by thfe 
ice, and we could hear of no houae near ns in the 
ahape of an irni. At length we procured admit- 
tance into one of the most wretched cabins we 
erer recollect to have visited ; the inmates of which 
had not tasted milk or animal food for upwards of 
a year, but subsisted entirely on tchi, or soup 
made of sour cabbages— -a dish of which the. Rus- 
sians in general are exceedingly fond. In the same 
room, common both to the rational and irrational 
members of the family, we erected our portable 
beds with all possible dispatch, in order to relieve 
our minds from the alarming apprehensions of fire, 
unavoidably forced upon them, by the seeming 
indifference with which the peasant's wife every 
now and then made the sparks fly from a flaming 
brand of wood*- the only substitute she had for a 
candle. Having procured a raft in the morning, 
we crossed the river without any difficulty, and 
reached Kaluga a little before noon. 

The day after our arrival, we delivered our 
letters of introduction to the Governor and Bishop, 
from whom, and other leading men in the Com- 
mittee of the Kaluga Auxiliary Bible Society, we 
obtained the most satisfactory accounts of the pro- 
gress of this infant Institution. It had nqt existed 
much above a year ; but in this short space> it had 
remitted to the Petersburgh Committee not less 
than 20,000 rubles^ and engaged twenty-five cor- 
responding agents to carry its views into efi*ect, 
in the sphere marked out for its labours* The 
population of the government is estimated at 
866>000 souls. Several thousand copies of the 

140 KALUGA. 

Scriptures had already been -disposed of amoDg 
them, and a fresh order had lately been forwarded 
for a more plentiful supply. We strongly recom- 
mended to the Committee the importance of forming 
Branch Societies and Associations, and were happy 
to find them cordially disposed to adopt the plan, 
and take measures for establishing one of these 
minor institutions in each of the eleven districts 
into which the government is divided. In the 
Bishop and two Archimandrites residing here, we 
found zealous and active advocates of the Bible 

From the Governor, we received the most 
polite attentions during the whole of our stay. 
On the 1 8th, after returning from a visit to the 
Bishop, who resides at a monastery about three 
versts from the town, we waited on his Excellency, 
according to appointment, in order to accompany 
him to the prison, which we had expressed a wish 
to visit. We had scarcely started from his resi- 
dence, when the whole town seemed to be in mo- 
tion; the Master of Police, and seyeral of the 
■police-officers having set off at full speed to an- 
nounce the approach of the Governor. 

The prison is a heavy stone building, at the 
lower end of the town^ but was in such an admi- 
rable state of order, cleanliness, and discipline, 
that it might almost have served as a model for 
that about to be constructed by the Prison Society 
of St. Petersburgh. A proper classification had 
been made of the prisoners, according to their sex, 
age, and degree of criminality. The cells, were 
roomy and well-aired. The hospital, apothecary's 

KALUGA. 141 

shop, chapel» bath, kitchens, &c. were all executed 
in a style that quite astonished us. Among other 
arrangements tending to promote the improve- 
ment of the prisoners, we were happy to find a 
library and reading-room — to. which, although^ it 
was dready partially supplied with the Scriptures, 
we appropriated a few copies of the Gospels and 
Apostolical Epistles in Slavonic and Modern Russ, 
in the hope they might, by the' Divine blessing, 
prove the means of directing some of the prisoners 
to Him who came into our world to *^ proclaim 
liberty to the captive, and the opening of the prison 
to them that are bound." The whole of these ex- 
cellent arrangements is to be attributed to the 
humanity and public spirit of the Governor, which 
have not escaped the notice of the Emperor, by 
whom he has been openly applauded as a pattern 
to all who occupy similar stations. 

Having visited the town hospital, a large and 
magnificent building, in an elevated situation, where 
the air itself is medicine, the foundling, and lying- 
in hospitals — all of which wore the same marks of 
order and cleanliness ; we proceeded to the house 
of the Vice- Governor, where we found a largo 
dinner-party assembled, most of whom we had 
previously met at the table of the Governor. I 
had here the pleasure of sitting next to a young 
Archimandrite, whose conversation discovered him 
to be a man of learning, and apparently of no 
ordinary attainments in piety. On this occasion, 
as on many others, it gave quite a glow to Chris- 
tian afiection, to recognize, amid the difference of 
outward forms, that oneness of feeling and pur^ 

142 KALUGA. 

suit which distingoishes the disciples of ^le lU^ 

Kalmga ift justly considered to be one of the 
more important towns in Knssia. It is situated 
on the left bank of the Oka, is about eight versts 
in circumference, and contains 26^000 inhabitaBts* 
The streets are regular, and the houses, in general^ 
wear a re^>ectable aj^earance. The number o£ 
churches amounts to thirty, some of which are 
occupied by the Starobnadgif or Old Ceremociial- 
ists, whose priests receive regular ordination in the 
national church, although the sect obstinattdy 
refuses to comply with its received forms* The 
exterior of the cathedral presents an elegant spe^ 
cimen of modern architecture, and the inside ex- 
hibits a display of magnificence, perhaps scareely 
surpassed by any church in Russia. The dova* 
tions made to it by the merchantsy who in general 
are. very opulent, are said to have been immense. 
The three sides of the square in which it iskitmted, 
are occupied lyf a large edifice, containing gment^ 
meat stores, with two long wings,, reaching' to the 
banks of the Oka, one of which comprises the 
Courts of Justice, and the other the Spiritual 
Academy." This institution, which only nwobered 
forty students when it was opened afamrt six 
years ago, now affords instruction to Jimr kmmdrtd 
and sixty. A little to the west of this building, 
^is an excellent stone bridge, four hundred feet in 
length, by sixty in height, whiclt has beeo raised 
across a guUey , the sides of which being^ cowred 
with gatdens and huts,^ gTeatiy enbaoee die m* 
mantie appearance of the sceaery* The elevated 

THE OKA. 143 

fftiiation of the town, the BoUe riew of tlie flrer, 
and other diversities of prospeet, combine to ren- 
der Kaluga one of the most agreeable and healthy 
plaees in the empire. 

Instead of prosecuting the high road to the 
south, we judged it expedient to proceed by way 
of T\ila; and accordingly set out for that town on 
tbe afternoon of the 19tb. After passing a park 
of artillery, we were interested by the remains of 
tn ancient fort, which appeans to faaye commanded 
tte river, and a pass to the right, dose to which 
we cotmted a number of tumuli, that bespoke the 
contests and carnage of former times. About 
seventeen versts distant from Kaluga we passed 
over one of the estates of the Princess Gralitzin of 
Moscow, where the omly people we observed at 
work were females — some breaking hemp, some 
laendiiig the roads, and others managing the plow. 
More robust pictures of health we never recollect 
to have seen in any country. 

We arrived, considerably after dark, at the bank 
of the Oha, which, after flowing nearly due east 
from Kaluga^ turns towards the north, and runs 
past the town of Alexin, which here occupies a 
commanding situation on ita eastern bank. Ac- 
cording to the statonent given us at the ferry, the 
mer is at this place 1000 feet in breadth, by 72 
in depth. Ft 9^>ounds in fish, and is navigable 
almost to its source, in the government of Orel 
The rirft being at the opposite side, our postfifion 
fired one of his pistols as a signal, which soon 
'brought it over for our usej and, although owing 
to the darkness of the night, vre fotmd some (fifll- 

144 ALEXIN. 

culty in getting our carriages safely conveyed into^ 
it and ont again, as well as in climbing the steep 
and narrow defile which Leads up to the towa, we 
ultimately succeeded in reaching the summit of 
the bank about midnight. 

Alexin is a poor looking place, but from its 
very elevated situation at the passage of the Oka, 
it is of considerable importance in a military point 
of view. The object of the Bible Society seemed 
scarcely to be known among the inhabitants, whom 
we found in the most destitute circumstances 
with regard to the Scriptures^ and were glad we 
had the prospect of bringing their case before the 
Tula Auxiliary Committee^ Alexin being the fron- 
tier town of that government. 

The following day we proceeded across a fine 
thriving country to Tula, which we reached about 
six in the evening. We here spent the greater 
part of three days in making the necessary ar- 
rangements with the principal persons in office, 
for introducing a regular and expeditious mode of 
conducting the business of the Society. But little 
had comparatively been done, though we found 
the bishop and his clergy hearty in the cause. 
The possession of a copy of the Scriptures is now 
made an indispensable pre-requisite to the ordina- 
tio% of priests and deacons in this diocese, as well 
as in that of Kaluga^ which circumstance, while it 
argues the deplorable state in which many of the 
congregations must be, augurs well, from the stress 
thus laid on the infallible standard of truth, in 
respect to the future improvement and illumina- 
tion of the people. 

TULA. 145 

The town of Tula is situated in a beautiful 
valley, intersected by the river Upa, the water of 
which is employed for driving the works of the 
manufactory of arms, but is found insufficient for 
keeping them constantly going. The streets are 
regularly paved, and the different quarters of the 
town are connected with each other, by bridges 
thrown across the river. Like all the other towns 
in the empire, it abounds in churches, nearly thirty 
of which are visible from the rising ground on the 
south side of the valley. It has an excellent Gym- 
nasium, containing two hundred and^/teen 8Cho\BX&, 
a Lancasterian school, recently introduced, in 
which we found nearly a hundred children ; and a 
Spiritual Academy, aJSbrding instruction to nearly 
wp hundred students. Tula is not unaptly called 
the Shield of Russia. Here hardware of all 
kinds is manufactured, but the place is principally 
celebrated on account of the Imperial manufactory 
of arms, in which upwards of nine thomand people 
are generally employed. 

The public institutions, offices, &c. which we 
visited alongpr*yith the Governor, displayed all, more 
or legs^^^e same attention to order and method 
which we had witnessed in Kaluga. The prisoners 
we found decently clothed, and supplied with 
nutritious food. • 

As we bad reason to suspect that were we to 
remain over the Sabbath in the town, the sacred 
hours would be subject to much interruption, we 
resolved to prosecute our journey on the Saturday. 
The afternoon was uncommonly fine, as, indeed, 
the weather had been in general since we left 


JlfeAMw* The roads were also improved, and we 
had now a fair specimen of their size, which is 
such as necessarily fills a foreigner with surprise. 
They are formed by digging six ditches, that run 
parallel with each other, and leave intermediate 
spaces, the middle one of which is about /arty 
feet in breadth, and is appropriated for the use of 
the military, the posts, and travellers. On either 
side of this is a fine walk, lined on both sides with 
a row of young trees, which, when grown, will 
afford an excellent shelter from the rays of the 
sun ; and withput the walks are two ordinary sized 
roads for the boors, carriers, &c. Having been 
once made, the roads in Russia are maintained at 
tittle comparative expense, as they consist merely 
of the soil, which is either sand, or a kind of har* 
detied turf; and excepting some places where the 
wet is collected, afford the most agreeable and easy 
travelling of any in the world. That between the 
two capitals used to be extremely bad, as, indeed, 
part of it still is, consisting of planks or branches 
of trees, laid across the road ; but a fine chauss^e, 
almost' equal to any in Europe, is now forming, 
which will greatly facilitate the intercourse be- 
tween those large cities. 

Having reached the third station beyond Tuia,^ 
about eleven o'clock at night, we retired to rest, 
in hopes of rising to spend a quiet and retired 
Sabbath in a remote country village; but the 
reader may judge of our disappointment, whea 
he is informed, that by five in the morning our 
sleep was disturbed by the noise of carts ; and, 
on getting up, we found the streets thronged by 


boofs, wlio bad arrived witb hay, aad idl kindB of 
country produce, which they were exposing to 
skle. The scene, in iact, exhibited a complete 
conntry baiidr. Stiil we entertained the idea 
that it would foe in our power to avail ourselves of 
this assembage of people for distributing 'among 
thefti, to a certain extent, portions of the Sacred 
Scriptures. But in this our expectations were 
also blasted; for, as we were aboat to commence 
the distribution, after breakfast, we> found our- 
selves so completely surrounded by peasants^ who 
had already become noisy through liquor, that to 
have proceeded would only have been to '' cast 
our pearls before swine." Our stay at the um also 
became very uncomfortable, it bcdng impossible 
for us to enjoy any thing like quietude or retire- 
ment, so that towards noon we set forward, and 
obtained that edification from reading and medita- 
tion in our carriage, which we must have sought 
for in vain had we remained in the village. It 
was the first Lord's Day in the month according to 
the new style, a circumstance which greatly added 
to the contrast between our situation aad that of 
thousands and tens of thousands of the disci- 
ples of Jesus, who were assembled round the 
commemorative board of their Divine Master, 
undisturbed by the noise and bustle of a sinful 

At one of the stations, we found, on inquiry, 
that none of die people could read, except the 
servant of the post-office, in whose possession 
we were happy to observe a copy of one of the 


148 MTS£lfSK.<-OR£L 

earlier editkms of our SlavoDic N^w Testament, 
which had been conveyed to him by a Kief pilgrim. 
In the evening we arrived at the town of Sftsensk, 
and put up at an inn^ equal in accommodations 
to any we ever recollected to have seen in the 
North of Europe. 

M'tsensk is a place of considerable trade and 
opulence, and though the number of its inhabitants 
is only rated at 5,000, it contains not fewer than 
twelve churches and a convent. One of these is 
very romantically situated on the summit of an in- 
sulated elevation, which has formerly been fortified, 
and employed to advantage in defending the 
passage of the Zausha, by which the town is di- 
vided, and which falls into the Oka a little below 
this place. 

On the 25th we proceeded to Orel, the capits^ 
of the government of the same name, situated at 
the confluence of the OrUk with the Oka, on both 
sides of which latter river the principal divisions 
of the town are built. On the southern bank, which 
consists of an elevation, stand the edifices appro* 
priated as government offices, the prison, military 
barracks, and hospital, and the principal monastery, 
which forms the residence of the bishop. It con- 
tains twenty churches, and upwards of 15,000 in- 
habitants, most of whom are employed in carrying 
on the corn-trade; Orel being the grand mart. to 
which the peasants of Little Russia convey their 
grain, and from which it is transported to Moscow 
and other parts of the empire. 

On approaching the monastery to deliver our 


letter to the Bishop (Jonah), we fell in with a 
number of workmen, constructing an inclosure, 
under the superintendence of a monk, whom we 
passed without taking any particular notice of him; 
but we soon found that this individual was no 
other than his Eminence, though dressed in the 
simplest monastic habit, and supporting himself 
on a stick rudely cut from the tree, instead of the 
ornamented episcopal crozier. He received us in 
the most affable and cordial manner, and, conduct- 
ing us into the monastery, entered at once into the 
subject of the Bible Society, in the prosperity of 
which we previously knew he took a most lively 
interest. Having been in Germany, and spent 
several years as Chaplain of the Russian Embassy 
in Copenhagen, he has had more intercourse with 
foreigners than any other prelate in the empire, 
and speaks both the German and Danish lan- 
guages. We dined with him twice during our 
stay, and had much interesting conversation re- 
lative to the object of our journey. The number 
of churches in his diocese amounts to nearly nine 
hundred; but, owing to their extreme poverty, 
o<M(nparatively few of the priests are possessed of 
the Scriptures. Some of them are so poor that 
they have never had so much as six rubles (5s. 
sterling), at one time, in the whole course of their 
lives. The clergy have, nevertheless, distinguished 
themselves by their activity in promoting the cir- 
culation of the Sacred Volume; and during the 
three years that have elapsed since an Auxiliary 
Society was formed in this diocese, it has remitted 
nearly 16,000 rubles to the Parent Institution. 


On the evening of the 28th, the Bishop convened a 
meeting of the Committee, at which we assisted^ 
and were truly delighted with the spirit and ability 
with which the members entered into the different 
topics of discussion. One of the more important 
of these related to the most eligible mode of gra- 
tuitous distribution; a subject always attended 
with considerable difficulty, but possessing pecu- 
har claims on the attention of the Orel Committee, 
owing to the great indigence of multitudes in- 
cluded within the sphere of its operations. 

Among other gentlemen of rank that were pre- 
sent, was the father of the celebrated General Jar- 
moloff, a veteran of eighty-five, the wisdom of 
whose hoary head had no small degree of influence 
on the decisions of the* Committee. We were 
also, in no ordinary degree, interested by a vene- 
rable priest, turned ninety years, who spepds his 
time in prayers and well-doing. At present he 
has upwards of a hundred poor* people living at 
his house, and entirely depend^it on him for their 
subsistence. Sometimes the number amounts to 
nearly three hundred. While nourishing them 
with the perishable food, provided by the alms 
given him for this purpose, he reads and expounds 
the Bible to them, prays with them, and endea- 
vours, by personal conversation, to direct their 
attention to the " Bread of life," ai^d the infinitely 
important concerns of eternity. As persons of 
very different descriptions of character flock to 
him, it happens not unfrequently, that he is re- 
primanded t)y the police-officers for harbouring 
those who are not furnished with passports, but he 


invariftbly answers, that it is their business to look 
after that; his consists in doing good to all within 
his reach. His prayers are considered to be pe- 
culiarly efficacious ; and on parting, the Bishop 
repeatedly desired him to remember us and the 
object of our journey at the throne of grace. Every 
morning, at four o'clock, the good old man is re- 
gularly found at his devotions in the church, and 
not even the rigours of a Russian winter are able 
to cool his zeal. 

The town being at the time without a governor, 
we were greatly disturbed at night by popular 
noise, a thing very uncommon in Russia; From 
the commanding officer we obtained leave to visit 
the prison, which we found in a wretched state, 
and imperiously demanding inspection and refor- 
mation by the Prison Committee, which has re- 
cently been formed, and which only waits for his 
Majesty's sanction in order to commence its exer- 
tions.* As we passed through one of the streets, 
on our way to the military hospital, we were struck 
by the appearance of a large house, the windows 
of which were secured with iron bars, and filled 
with the heads of females, who conducted them- 
selves, as we passed, in a style which forced upon 
our minds the conviction, that they w^ere confined 
for bad conduct in a house of correction. On 
mentioning the circumstance to the bishop, we 
learned, to our no small surprise, that they be- 
longed to a theatrical band, supported and super- 

* It has since published one of the moA interesting reports 
diat have appeared in the annals of Prison Discipline, (1823.) 

152 KURSK. 

intended by one of the nobility. Our mistake 
wonderfully pleased his Eminence, as it furnished^ 
him with an additional argument on the demo- 
ralizing tendency of the stage. 

We left Orel on the morning of the 29th, and 
reached Kursk the following day. The country 
through which we passed is rich, and appeared to 
be generally cultivated ; and, though in general flat, 
it is diversifiedly intersected by deep glens, whose 
sides were Covered with hazel, wild apple, pear, 
and cherry trees, in full blossom, which presented 
altogether a very pleasing and animating landscape. 
Of the appearance of Kursk, I feel my inability to 
give any adequate description. It is built on two 
hills, or rising grounds, divided by the Kurct, from 
which it takes its name, and consists of two prin- 
cipal streets, diverging at nearly a right angle, 
having regular cross streets branching off to the 
sides; and yet presenting scarcely any thing to 
the view but one immense garden, with here and 
there a house, a church, or a spire rising above the 
variegated foliage and blossoms of the trees. The 
quantity of fruit produced here is immense, and 
is, for the most part, sent to Moscow and Peters- 
burgh for winter preserves. From the higher of 
the two hills you have a most commanding pros- 
pect beyond a beautiful valley to the east, which 
is delightfully intersected by the serpentine wind- 
ings of the river; while, towards the west, the other 
division of the town wears a bold and imposing 
appearance. The population is estimated at 12,000, 
and trade is carried on to a considerable extent. 
Besides other public institutions, which we found 

KURSK. 158 

in a tolerably good state, we visited the house of 
correction, which appeared to be admirably con* 
ducted, and an hospital for insane persons, where 
we witnessed some affecting cases of the most 
dreadful of all maladies. Behind these buildings, 
on the brow of the hill, is a public garden, the 
walks of which are disposed with considerable 
taste, and every now and then terminate in some 
beautiful prospect. 

From his Excellency the Governor, we met 
with the kindest reception, and dined with him 
every day during our stay. He is a warm friend to 
the Bible Society, and lends his powerful co- 
operation to the exertions of the Kursk Auxiliary 
Committee, with several of the members of which 
we had interviews, and found them deeply inte- 
rested in the progress of the institution. This 
Auxiliary is, in fact, one of the best in Russia. 
Since its formation in 1818, it has sold copies of 
the Scripture to the amount of 10,000 rubles, and 
remitted to Petersburgh, for the general purposes 
of the Society, upwards of 20,000. Besides the 
sound judgment, zeal, and activity of those who 
manage its business at the centre, it owes much of 
its success to the effective exertions of its associ- 
ations, of which there exist not fewer than thirteen 
within the bounds of the diocese. The excellent 
Bishop Eugenius, of whom more presently, makes 
a point of visiting each of these Associations on 
the day of their annual meeting; a measure which, 
it is easy to conceive, must greatly tend to keep 
alive their zeal, and stimulate them to persevering 
efforts in supplying the Biblical wants of those for 


whose benefit they have been established. It gave 
us peculiar pleasure to be made acquainted with 
a plan which had been conceived by this worthy 
prelate, and which will shortly be carried into 
effect, viz. the celebration of a Biblical festival at 
the annual fair of Korennaia Pustin, a monastery 
situated at the distance of twenty-seven versts from 
the town of Kursk. Having been rendered famous 
by the discovery of a thaumaturgic^l image of 
the Virgin, between two and three hundred years 
ago, this spot became the resort of an immense 
number of pilgrims from all parts of the empire ; 
when merchants and others, taking advantage of 
this great concourse of people, ultimately con- 
verted it into a fair. The number of those who 
have of late years frequented it, is estimated at 
600,000; so that a more favourable opportunity 
could not have been chosen for the purpose of 
diffusing information, concerning the object and 
operations of the Bible Society. It is also the 
intention of the Bishop to open shops, for the sale 
of copies in different parts of the fair. 

As we delayed our departure from Kursk, on 
the 3d of May, till near evening, we were under 
the necessity of stopping at the first station. 

About noon the following day, we reached the 
town of Oboian, the capital of a district of the 
same name, but found it scarcely possible to enter 
it, owing. to the concourse of people, who were 
assembled to witness the consecration of a new 
well in one of the principal streets through which 
we had to pass. The priests, in their ecclesiasti- 
cal robes, with crosses and banners,. were ranged 


in regular order in the centre of the multitude, 
who not only filled the street, but covered the roofs 
of the houses, and the brow of the hill on which 
the town is built. Being an annual fair, the place 
was crowded with peasants from all parts of the 
adjacent country. 

As we approached Bielgorod, the soil began to 
assume a whitish appearance, and the hills ap- 
peared to consist entirely of chalk. It is, I belieTe^ 
generally ascribed to this circumstance, that the 
town has obtained the name of Bielgorod, or 
" White Town," though it is justly entitled to it 
from its general aspect — the houses, churches, and 
spires being all nicely white- washed. 

It being rather late before we arrived, and 
finding the town crowded with pilgrims, who had 
come to attend a celebrated procession the follow- 
ing day, we were rather afraid it would be difficult 
to procure lodgings ; but we bad scarcely begun 
to inquire for them, when we were accosted by 
one of the officers of police, who informed us, that 
lodgings were already provided for us, by order of 
the Governor of Kursk. Thus were we followed 
by the kindness of this gentleman to the very 
frontiers of his governmait. 

The following morning presented a spectacle 
to our view, which quite overpowered our feelings. 
' — ^At an early hour, the people who had collected 
firom all parts of the government, and many of 
them from the governments adjacent, begap to 
assemble in and around the cathedral ; and after 
mass had been performed by the Bishop, and an 
oration pronounced by one of the pfiests, an 


image of the saint, whose festival they were cele^ 
brating, was taken down from its niche, to be 
carried in solemn procession to a monastery at the 
distance of about thirty versts, where it was to 
remain during the fair about to be held in that 
place. Some of the priests, dressed in robes of 
yellow silk, embroidered with gold, carried a copy 
of the Gospels, richly gilt, and thickly studded 
with gems ; others the banners ; numbers sup- 
ported crosses of silver and gold ; and, last of all, 
followed the image, placed in a large ark, or car, 
borne upon the shoulders of four of the priestsi 
As the procession entered the grand square in the 
middle of the town, it was joined by the pilgrims; 
to the number of twenty thousand, who aJl moved 
forward, with sticks or branches of trees elevated 
in the air ; and on their leaving the town, an im- 
mense cloud of dust, carried up into the atmo- 
sphere, marked the direction in which they pro- 

Having driven a little beyond the gate, the 
Bishop (Eugenius) returned in his coach and six; 
and did us the honour -to call, in order to convey 
us to his residence in the monastery, which is 
situated close to the cathedral. We, of course, 
politely declined proceeding in the same carriage 
with his Eminence ; but as he insisted upon our 
driving, we were obliged to capitulate, and pro- 
mised to avail ourselves of bis kindness, if he 
would send the carriage for us after it had first 
conveyed him home. On entering his parlour, we 
found the whole Committee of the Bielgorod Bible 
Association assembled to meet us, with which we 


engaged almost imniiediately in a most lively and 
interesting conversation, on the subject of the Bible 
Society. Having presented the Bishop with a 
copy of the Gospels, the Acts, and ten of the 
Apostolical Epistles in modern Russ, along with 
the Slavonic text ; his joy was so great, that he 
could not refrain from instantly imploring a bles- 
sing on it; and solemnly declared, that could he 
only clasp in his arms the whole of the Sacred 
Scriptures, in his native language, as Simeon of 
old did the blessed subject of their testimony, like 
him> he would say, " Lord ! now lettest thou thy 
servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have «een 
thy salvation/' For upwards of thirty years, he 
assured us, it had been his anxious prayer, that 
such a translation Alight be effected, as there exist 
so many passages in the ancient Slavonic Version, 
that are perfectly unintelligible. In the semi- 
nary at this place for the instruction of the sons 
of the clergy, are upwards of seven hundred stu- 
dents, and the total number attending the Spiritual 
Schools in the diocese, amounts to nearly ttvo 
thousand. In all these schools, the Bishop has 
recently ordered three chapters of the Bible to be 
read every day ; one chapter of the Historical 
Books of the Old Testament ; one of the Proverbs 
of Solomon ; and one of the New Testament. So 
great was the destitution of the sacred oracles in 
this part of the empire, that when an inquiry was . 
recently instituted, to ascertain what number of 
copies would be wanted for the churches and 
clergy of the diocese ; it was founds that out of 
eight hundred and eighty churches, about seuen 


hundred required to be ftopplied. The Bielgorod 
AMoeiation, in the Committee of which the good 
Bishop is contented to fill the place of a simj^e 
member, had ahready collected 4,461 rubles, and 
Bold copies of the Scriptures to a considerable 

At one end of the parlour stood a table, loaded 
with several kinds of fish, raw, boiled, dried, and 
pickled, with different liqueurs, all of the very best 
quality. We; naturally expected, that after some 
conversation we should be invited to partake of 
them ; but what was our surprise, when one of the 
servants entered the room with teai which he pre- 
sented to us, with cream, rum, or lemon, accord- 
ing to our choice. The ' reason assigned for this 
custom was the extreme heat. Having drunk a 
cup, we were invited to take what the Swedes 
call ** the dram of appetite ;" and on the doors of 
the grand hall being thrown open for dinner, his 
Eminence begged we would not be astonished at 
his asking tas to dine in a church. The primitive 
Christians, he 6aid> held their agapse in their 
places of worship, and he could not express the 
pleasure it gave him to be able to oelebrate an 
agap^ OQ the present occasion. The fact was, 
the private church of the monastery undergoing 
certain repairs, the Bishop had been under the 
necessity of converting his large dining-room into 
a domestic chapel. Between the table, and that 
division of the apartment forming the temporary 
holy of holies, a large green screen was drawn, so 
that, if he had not apprized us, we should never 
have guessed to what purpose it was consecrated. 


Besides a Tariely of dishes, mostly of fish, we were 
served with roast beef; and, last of all, a plum- 
puddiog enveloped by the blue flames of ignited 
rum^ was introduced upon the table. The wines, 
of various kinds, were excellent. 

After dinner, we were conducted by the Mayor 
to see different parts of the town. Its situation is 
low, being built on the small river Ziolka» which 
falls into the Donetz a little below. It is divided 
into two parts, the old and new town ; has thirteen 
churches, two monasteries, and a population of 
about 8,000 inhabitants. 

On the morning of the 6th, we took leave of 
the Bishop, and were not only accompanied with 
his blessing, but he also sent us a present of bread 
and wine for our jouroey. We now prosecuted 
our course towards the south, through a fine fertile 
and variegated country ; but, as it rained heavily 
during a considerable part of the day, we but 
partially enjoyed the landscape. Having crossed 
the boundary of the government of Kursk, we 
entered the luxuriant pasture grounds of the 
Ukrmne, which furnish such abundant supplies of 
oxen to the markets of Petersburgh, Moscow, and 
other towns in the empire. The large herds that 
were grazing in every direction ; the peasants en- 
{[aged in agricultural pursuits; the number of 
carriers passing on the road ; and the constant 
sQCcession of hill and dale, with beautiful copses 
of different sizes, afforded altogether an interesting 
and delightful prospect 

It was near midnight before we reached 
KLharkof, where we had some difficulty in procuring 


a lodging, but were at last received at an inn kept 
by a Jewess, with whose nation we now first came 
into contact — a proof that we had passed into that 
part of the empire, where they enjoy greater privi- 
leges than in those governments more adjacent to 
the metropolis. 

The town of Kharkof is the capital of the 
government of the same name, but which was for- 
merly known by that of the Shbodes of the Ukraine, 
from its being the territory of the Slobodian regi- 
ments, which were formed in-order to defend the 
frontiers against the predatory inroads of the Cri- 
mean Tatars. It is situated partly on an eleva- 
tion between the rivers Kharkof and Z^opan, which 
unite a little below the town, and partly along 
their banks upon the plains. It is not of ancient 
date, having been first built in the year 1653; 
but it is of some consequence, on account of the 
college founded by the Empress Ann, in 1731, for 
Divinity, Philosophy, and Rhetoric, and the 
Greek, Latin, and German languages; and more 
especially by reason of its University, founded in 
1803, in which the sciences are taught by dif- 
ferent Professors, according to the method gene- 
rally adopted in Germany. Besides a Gymna- 
sium, it possesses a military school, containing 
about 2,000 children; three boarding-schools for 
boys, and two for girls, the terms of which are 
rated at 1,200 rubles per annum. The town co- 
vers a considerable extent of ground, and con- 
tains about 17,000 inhabitants. 

On the 7 th, we delivered our letters of recom- 
mendation to the Vice-Presidents of the Bible So- 


ciety, and waited on his Excellency, Privy Coun- 
sellor Karnief , Chancellor of the University ; from 
whom, as well as from the Professors, we met 
with the kindest reception. Our arrival at Khar- 
kof was most opportune, as the following morning 
had been fixed for, the formation of a Bible Asso- 
ciation among the students. At an early hour, a 
deputation was sent to invite us to assist on the 
occasion. We accordingly waited on the Chan- 
cellor, and repaired with him, and the Rector of 
the University, to the Grand Hall, where we found 
the students all assembled, together with the 
Professors, and some of the other inhabitants of 
the town. On the Chair being taken by the 
Chancellor, one of the students ascended the ros- 
trum, and delivered a speech of considerable 
length, in which he discovered much ability, 
especially when expatiating on the difference be- 
tween sacred and profane literature, and the im- 
portance of having the young mind guarded by 
the securities of Divine Revelation, when brought 
into contact with the writings of men, the result 
of whose researches too frequently leads to nothing 
more than ^* oppositions of science, falsely so 
called.'^ In connection with this, he made some 
forcible appeals to the hearts of his fellow-stu- 
dents, and insisted on the duty of giving as ex- 
tensive a circulation as possible to the Sacred 
Scriptures. The laws and regulations of the As- 
fiMMsiation were then read ; among which, we were 
much gratified to find one by which the students 
bind themselves not only to apply diligently to 
the reading of the Bible themselves, but also to 



correspond with their friends in different parta 
of the country, and endeavour, by every means in 
their power, to excite attention to the value and 
importance of Divine Truth, and promote its dis- 
semination among all within the sphere of their 
influence. The proceedings of the meeting closed 
with a speech by another of the students^ which . 
consisted principally of an exposition of the 67th , 
Psalm, with a direct reference to the circulation 
of the Sacred Volume. Our prqinising to furnish 
them with a number of copies of the Russian 
Scriptures for immediate distribution, and to ordef . 
a set of our versions to be forwarded from Peters- 
burgh, for the use of the students, contributed, in 
no small degree, to encourage these young m^n in 
the good work they had undertaken. It was. 
with pleasure we learned, that another Associ-, 
atioh had lately been formed at the Divinity Col- 
lege, among the students of the Greek Church, 
or the importance of such juvenile institutioQ^^ 
there can be but one opinion among the friends of^ 
the Bible Society; and the prospect of the bene- 
ficial effects, which, by the blessing of God, myst . 
result from the direction thus given to the minds 
of the rising generation, cannot but prove ani- 
mating to those who are more advanced in years^, 
and must soon quit the present field of labour. 

As we left the hall, our ears were struck with 
the sound of psalmody in one of the side buildings 
of the University ; on entering which, we found a 
congregation of Germans engaged in divine wor-*, 
ship. The preacher, who was a young man, and 
only preached occasionally, delivered a most faith- 


fol and impressive discourse from Rom. i. 16. 
" For I am not ashamed/* &c. It was quite a 
cordial to us to hear a sermon, and especially such 
a sermon, after so long an interval of time. 

Next day, we attended a numerous meeting of 
the Kharkof Bible Society, convened under the pre- 
sidency of the Bishop, in the Divinity Hall. The 
Governor, the Marshal of the Nobility, the Clergy, 
and all the Professors, were present on the occa- 
sion. The statements made by the Secretary and 
Treasurer furnished us with satisfactory proofs of 
the progressive zeal and activity of this Auxiliary ; 
abd we have every reason to hope, that, in conse- 
quence of the hints which we threw out, relative 
to the most efficient means for affording a speedy 
and plentiful supply of the Scriptures to every 
part of the government, still more active measures 
will be adopted by this Auxiliary Committee. 

It sometimes happens, that travellers discover 
persons and objects that pass entirely unnoticed 
by thode who live upon the spot. On sending for 
ataylor to do a small job for us, whose sign oppo- 
site to the inn attracted our notice, we were in 
no small degree surprised to find in him an enter- 
prising traveller, who, in the course of the past year, 
bd,d visited Constantinople, Tiflis, and the ruins of 
Petsepdiis, in company with Professor Raskl The 
cominuhication of the fact equally astonished and 
aifiUBed the Professors. 

From Kharkof, the main road from the metro- 
polis proceeds in a southerly direction, by way of 
lekaterinoslav, to the Crimea; but as it was our 
object previously to visit Kief, and other towns 

M 2 


towards the Polish frontiers, we struck off towards 
the south-west, by a road which, although not 
laid down on the same scale, nor so much fre- 
quented as the former, proved at first far more in- 
teresting; for, instead of ushering us all at once 
into those vast plains known by the name of 
steppeSy over which the eye wanders in vain in 
search of some object to relieve the tedious mono- 
tony, it literally conducted us through an orchard — 
the woods, which consist almost entirely of fruit- 
trees, being only here and there broken by cul- 
tivated fields and pasture-grounds of limited extent. 
Passing through Valid, a neat country town on 
the small river M'ja, about eleven o'clock on the 
11th, we entered Little Tatary by a breach in the 
earthen wall, raised, in former times, by the Rus- 
sians as a line of defence against the Tatars. It 
is eight feet in height by twelve in thickness, and . 
runs from the south-west to the north-east, to the 
distance of 700 versts. Here the scenery com- 
pletely changed ; every vestige of wood disap- 
peared, and we soon found ourselves in the vast 
steppe which stretches, without interruption, to 
the M aeotis, the Black Sea, and the mountains of 
the Caucasus, and from the Austrian frontiers to 
the grand Uralian chain. To whatever side we 
turned, nothing presented itself to our view but 
sepulchral heights, and the' remains of ancient 
camps and entrenchments, so that we literally tra- 
velled over an immense Aceldama, the awful me- 
mento of human depravity. The tumuli are easily 
distinguishable by the conical rotundity of their 
form : the fastnesses, on the contrary, consist, in 

TUMULI. 165 

general^ of two circular circumvallations, one of 
which is twice the size of the other, and which are 
connected together by a passage of communica- 
tion, defended on either side by an earthen wall, 
of equal height with the rest of the fortification. 
Sometimes, a number of these places of defence oc- 
cur in groups ; at other times, you can observe them 
forming a regular chain of forts, at the distance of 
a quarter of a verst from each other. Many of 
them are still in the most perfect state; others 
have been levelled by the effects of time ; and, in 
making the roads, some have literally been di- 
vided, and you pass close to the half which still 
remains, and exhibits, in the freshness of the in- 
cision, numerous projections of the small stones 
that have been cast into the mound while forming. 

These sepulchral mounds, which are scattered 
in such profusion in this part of Russia, are, more or 
less, continued towards the east, exactly in the di- 
rection in which the Tatar hordes proceeded into 
Europe, and are found bearing the same character 
in the vicinity of the lenesei and the Ulu-tau, that 
they exhibit here. In the steppe between the fshin 
and Karasuy which fall into the lenesei, an im- 
mense number of these monuments present them- 
selves, intermixed with fosses, arid walls several 
hundred feet in length, in every respect resembling 
' those just described.* 

Proceeding across this level country, at some 
distance from the continuous termination of the 
high land to the north, we began, towards evening, 

* Ritter'a Erdkunde, I. Theil. p. 545. 


to descry the spires of Ptdtava p&\fi% above the 
horizon ; and, as we approached it, the woodless 
steppe was exchanged, first for brush-wood, and 
then for trees, which thickened as we advanced. 
At the distance of a few versts from the town, we 
were again delighted with an interesting prospect, 
the high bank of the Vorshla^ which lay direct be- 
fore us, being clothed with fine forests, intersected 
in difierent places by deep ravines, and alternately 
disclosing to the view a house, a aiona9tery, or a 
church, which, as they were surrounded by gar- 
dens, produced a very picturesque effect. The 
ancient fortifications, too, boldly raised on the 
precipitous bank of the river, and the appearanqe. 
of decaying batteries on both sides of the town, 
forcibly tended to revive in our recollection tho^e 
associations which the page of history had taught 
us to connect with Puliava. 

It was at this spot where Charles the Twelfth 
of Sweden, after a series of the most remarkable 
successes, with which he had been uninterruptedly 
favoured for the space of nine years, at gnce lost 
the fruit of them all, in the disastrous battle of ti\e 
27th of June^ 1709, when he was obliged to aban- 
don his brave, but vanquished warriors, and take 
refuge, with a few select followers, in the do- 
minions of the Grand Seignor. The ipemory of 
this event is still perpetuated by a large tumulus, 
twenty-five feet in height by a hundred in circum- 
ference round the base^ which has been raised pn 
the field of battle, a few versts to the north-west 
of the town, and to which the inhabitants repair 
annually to celebrate the victory of the Russians, 


and perform a mass for the sotrls of the slam. The 
victory of Pultava was of the utmost consequence 
to Russia, ft Bot only laid at the feet of the ^rst 
Peter 1&,000 of the finest soldiers any nation ever 
produced, and a treasure of upwards of six millions 
of dollars, but it delivered the empire from its 
inost formidable enemy, and raised it to that com- 
manding attitude ^ *e kingd«n» of E»»pa 
which, with increasing energy, it has maintained 
to the present time. 

The ascent up one of the gulleys we found 
rather formidable, and only to be eflfected by our 
stepping out, and assisting the horses to draw up 
the carriage. The town itself is regularly built; 
but the houses are constructed of wood, with the 
exception of those recently raised by Government 
iii the form of a circus^ in the middle of which 
stands a magnificent monument of granite, com- 
memorative of the achievement gained here by 
Peter the Great. From the fort, which is rapidly 
going to decay, but, from its position, is capable 
of being turned to considerable account, a most 
extensive prospect is presented to the eye, though, 
with the exception of that part furnished by the 
windings of the Vorshla immediately below, it is 
totally devoid of interest. The population is 
reckoned at 6,000, among whom are several hun- 
dred Jews. 

The Auxiliary Bible Society of this place was 
formed by the Postmaster, who is still one of its 
most zealous and active supporters. Owing, how- 
ever, to the operation of various local causes, its 
endeavours had hitherto been greatly champed. 

168 NIEJIN. 

and few copies of the Scriptures brought into cir- 
culation. To do what lay in our power to effect 
the removal of these causes, occupied the most of 
our attention during our stay ; and, on the mom* 
ing of our departure, we attended a special meet- 
ing of the Committee, convened by the Governor, 
who presided on the occasion, and made such 
propositions as were deemed most essential to the 
prosperity of the Institution. 

From PuUava, we travelled in a north-westerly 
direction, through the towns of Khorol, Lubny, 
Pi/ratin, Prilukin, and Niejin, all of little con- 
sequence, excepting Luhny^ which contains about 
5,000 inhabitants, and is celebrated for its dep6t 
of medicine, founded by Peter the Great ; and 
Niejin, a beautiful flourishing Greek colony,* 
inhabited also in part by Armenians, Russians, 
and Kozaks. Besides a citadel, it has for its 
defence a circumvallation, the dilapidated state of 
which, however, happily indicates the peaceful 
security of the country at the present day. The 
trade is principally in the hands of the Greeks and 
Armenians, who travel into Turkey, Poland, and Si- 
lesia to dispose of their goods. Excepting a sup- 
ply of Greek New Testaments, which had been 
forwarded for distribution by the Parent Society, we 
found that no effective measures had been adopted 
to relieve the biblical wants of the inhabitants, and 
accordingly resolved to bring the subject before 
the Committee of the Tchernigof Auxiliary. 

* The Greeks settled here aboat the beginning of the eigh- 
teienth century, and had peculiar privileges conferred upon them 
by Peter the Great. 


On the road from Kkarhof to Puliava, we had 
but just touched upon the grand southern steppe ; 
by changing the direction of our route, we again 
entered the charming and fertile regions of Little 
Russia. The inhabitants are known by the name 
of Mahrassianif or ** Little Russians/' and speak a 
peculiar dialect, which holds nearly the same re- 
lation to the Russ as the. Scotch does to the Eng- 
lish, or the Low to the High (xerman. In their 
habits and mode of life they exhibit many peculi- 
arities. Instead of the horse, they employ the ox 
as their principal beast of labour ; yet they furnish 
the best cavalry in the Russian army. Their 
houses, which are mostly of wood, are uncommonly 
neat and clean, and being all white*washed, present 
themselves very agreeably to the eye of the travel- 
ler. When wood cannot be obtained, they con- 
struct them of reeds or straw, the interstices of 
which they fill up with a mixture of cow-dung and 
clay, and after coating them within and without, 
with the same composition, they white- wash them. 
Slender as this defence may appear, it is quite 
sufficient for the climate, which knows nothing of 
the rigours of winter in the more northerly parts of 
Russia. The Malo-Russians seem more disposed 
to cultivate the comforts of life than the generality 
of their neighbours; their manners are simpler, and 
their morals more incorrupt, and a considerable 
degree of mental cultivation is discoverable in their 
ordinary intercourse. 

While fresh horses were providing at one of 
the stations, we had an opportunity of visiting 
a Jewish family, and giving a copy of the 

no Tii£ DI£SlffA. 

Hebrew Nti^ Testament to a very iDtelltgent 
young man, who manifeated an nncominon degtee 
of anxiety to become acquainted with its contents* 
Having directed his attention to our Saviour's 
sermon jQn the Mount, he was particularly struck 
witjiii tbe pia^sage, '' jBlessed are the jmrem hearty 
fgr they shall see God ;" but expressed his lear, 
that according to this doctrine, which be could 
not but allow was perfectly just, few would ever 
be admitted into the Divine Presence. Before 
leaving the room^ we had the pleasure of seeing 
It fiU^ed with Jews and Jewesses, all of whom 
seamed greatly desirous of ascertaining the natare 
of the new book in ^'^prt \w^, loshen hakkodtsh, 
^* the holy language," with which the family had 
been enriched. May they find him of wtiom 
Mo^es in the law and the Prophets did write, 
Jesus of Nazareth, the true Messiah t 

As we approached Tchendgof, we received «l 
fredi confirmation of a remark we had already 
repeatedly made, that in this part of Russia, 
where the rivers all run to the south, their western 
bank is invariably the higher, and has generally 
been selected as the site of towiis, both in ancient 
and modem times. After waiting some time for 
the ferry-boat, we crossed the DieMa, a river df 
considerable magnitude, which takes its rise in 
the government of Smolensky and discharges its 
water into the Dnieper ^ about seven versts above 
the town of Kief. It is navigable for upwards of 
800 versts ; and, at an average, not less than thirty 
thousand logs of wood are annually floated dowA 
ita stream to the south of Russia. The junction. 


which it is proposed to effect hetw^n thvs river 
a^d the Qka, by means of the Folva aod the 
Zifihora, will, should the plaa be carried into exe- 
cution, greatly facilitate the inland trade. 

Ichemigqf is one of the more aucieuit towns 
in jKussia, having been probably founded by a 
tribe of Slavonians at the time of their £rst 


immigration into these parts. The first mention 
that is 11194.0 of it, is in the articles of the treaty 
of p^e9ce concluded between Oleg and the Oreek 
Smpcror in the year 945 ; and it frequently x>ccurs 
i]QL the Bysaixtine historians, under the name of 
T^epr«7<^a. li occuplcs part of the elevated plain, 
behind a high mount on the right bank of the 
Diema, which has been regularly fortified, and 
often defended the place against the attacks of 
iiiv9der9. Having nevertheless been repeatedly 
taken and pillaged, now by the Polovtzi, and now 
by .tiie Tatars, Tchemigof presents but few marks 
of antiquity. Only the cathedral, built of stone, 
fDom the eleventh century, and the rampart sur- 
SQunding the town, still remain as monuments of its 
former greatness. It possesses an archiepiscopal 
palace of two stpries, most romantically situated 
on the precipitous bank of the Diesna, a little to 
the south, but which is at present occupied by a 
bishop, who takes the title of Tchemigof and 
Niejin. The population amounts to upwards of 
7^000, mnong whojn is a considerable number of 
Jews, a poor, ragged, miserable-looking set of 
human beings, as are to be seen any where in the 
world. During our stay here, the musquitoes 


began to be very troublesome, and the atmo- 
sphere was exceedingly oppressive, Fahrenheit's 
thermometer being from 80^ to 84** in the shade. 
Towards evening the inhabitants repaired in great 
numbers to the Diesna, where they sought for a 
temporary relief beneath the cooling stream — ^men, 
women, and children plunging into it indiscrimi- 
nately in a state of complete nudity. 

The day after our arrival, we waited on his 
Eminence, the Bishop Laurentius, whom we found 
perfectly acquainted with the routine of Bible 
Society business, having been some time both 
Secretary and Treasurer to the Society in Moscow, 
which city he but recently left, on his instalment 
into this see. Short as the time had been of his 
residence in the diocese, he had already investi- 
gated its wants, and taken measures that^ in the 
first place, none of the churches should be desti- 
tute of a Bible. On the 18th, he convened a 
Meeting of the Committee, and a little before the 
hour, sent his carriage for us, drawn by six beau- 
tiful greys, in which we had the honour to drive 
to his palace, where we found a number of priests 
and gentlemen in office, all apparently desirous 
of lending their aid in promoting the object of 
the Society. Owing to the existence of a famine 
for some time in this government, a great propor- 
tion of the inhabitants bad been reduced to cir- 
cumstances of great indigence ; and while a Com- 
mittee was sitting for the purpose of devising and 
adopting the best measures for supplying them 
with the bread which perishes, we could not 


possibly view any object as more imperiously, 
demanding the prompt attention of the Committee 
of the Bible Society, than that of making proper 
provision for their spiritual wants^ by furnishing 
them with the word of God, which directs men to 
the true bread that came down from heaven, of 
which whosoever eats shall live for ever. Our 
proposition, that a gratuitous distribution, to the 
amount of between three and four thousand rubles, 
should instantly take place, was most readily 
agreed to ; and the Bishop, besides pledging his 
services for the execution of this measure, engaged 
to form associations on his ensuing visitation, and 
iateaded to commence with Ni^in^ where he ex- 
pected that the Greek priests and the members of 
the Colony would cheerfully co-operate in the 
laudable endeavour to give general circulation to 
the Sacred Volume. 

At an early hour on the 19th, we again left 
Tchemigofy and after proceeding to the distance 
of a few versts to the south, re-crossed the Diestia, 
and prosecuted our journey towards Kief. The 
oply town we passed in the course of the day was 
Kozeletz, which is the capital of a district, and is 
surrounded by an earthen wall, by way of fortifica- 
tion. It is situated on the small river Oster, 
which falls into the Diesna, near a town of the 
same name. The country is pretty generally 
covered with wood, especially towards Kief, from 
which, as viewed in the prospect, it appears as a 
vast forest, and undoubtedly forms the northern 
termination of the " woody region," which Hero- 
dotus describes as lying between the Borys- 

174 Tlffi DNIEPER. 

thenes^ and tiie country of the AgriculturaV 

Having spent the night at a Jewish inn« we 
arrived the following morning in the vicinity of 
the Dnieper, but had considerable difficulty in 
reaching its margin, owing to the number of pools 
of stagnant water, which still occupied themorassy 
space usually covered by the river during the 
period of its vernal inimdatioii. When thus over- 
charged, it presents a surface of nearly fire versts 
in breadth ; but its ordinary breadth at this place 
is about two. This magnificent river (the Borjfs-- 
thenes and Danapris of the ancients), which has 
justly acquired a high degree of celebrity in Greek 
and Slavonic geography, takes it^ rise near the 
small village Gorodki, in the district of BeUk, in 
the government of Smolensk, and running in a 
southerly and south easterly direction, till it reaches 
lekdterinoslav, it turns towards the south west, 
and falls into the Black Sea between the fortresses 
of Otchahof and Kinbum, after having formed the 
Liman, or large estuary on the north side of the 
dromon of Achillis. Its whole length is estimated 
at fifteen hundred versts. Owing to the sand, 
clay, and chalk, which compose its banks, its 
waters are whitish, and of a hard quality; but 
abound in carp, sturgeon, pike, and other kinds 
of fish, affording a plentiful supply to those who 
live in the vicinity. It is considered as navigable 

• *Arap iiafi&yri roy "Bopvtrdiyea, itird iaX&ff^ric tr^Qroy fih^ 
^ Tkaifi* Ato ik rwhfiCf ivt^^ 6uciovffi Ivi^ai yeopyo^— Mel- 
pom. 18. 


as far north as Smolensk, but its passage is greatly 
obstructed, partly by moveable sands, and partly 
by cataracts, to the number of thirteen, within the 
distance of 60 versts, which can only be passed 
during a few weeks in spring, when the flood- water 
in a great measure destroys the falls. 

During the summer, the passage across the 
Dnieper is effected by means of a floating bridge ; 
but as it was yet too early for its re-establish- 
ment, we had to cross in a ferry-boat, and landed 
a little below the Petcherskoi Monastery. 


Kief-^Iti Antiqtutj^ — Size — Appearance — DwuiemM — Petcken^ 
koi Monastery — Cathedral — The Catacombs — Old Town — 
Podole — Baptism of the Rumans — Kief Bible Sociefy— 
Hoepitdlity of the Metropolitan. 

The town of jK7e/'is incontestably one of the most 
ancient in Russia. According to some antiquaries, 
its origin is to be traced as far back as the fifth 
century, while others ascribe its foundation to a 
Sarmatian tribe, antecedent to the birth of Christ; 
but we have no certain accounts of it reaching 
beyond the middle of the ninth century, at which 
time it is introduced to our notice as belonging to 
the Khazars. The Slavonians, tired of the oriental 
yoke, requested Ruric to send them assistance 
firom Novogorod, a request which was instantly 
granted ; and, after the expulsion of their oppres- 
sors, they formed a separate state, and in the year 
882, Kief became the metropolis of southern Rus- 
sia. During the reigns of Vladimir and several of 
his successors, the Grand Dukes, it greatly in- 
creased in size ; but the statement, that about the 
beginning of the eleventh century, ft contained 
400 churches, really exceeds all belief; and it is 
more likely, as Professor Krug conjectures,* that 

* Frehn*8 Ibn-Foeshm, p. 1 58. 


Ditmar, on whose authority that statement is given, 
wrote quadraginta, and not quadringentce. In con-* 
sequence of the devastations to which it has been 
repeatedly subject from the plague, the Tatars, and 
other hostile visitors. Kief has lost much of its 
ancient grandeur, although it still continues to be 
one of the most remarkable places in the empire. 
Its present population is about 20,000. 

The eastern approach to Kief presents a view 
in a high degree picturesque and striking. Direct 
in front, on the lofty bank of the Borysthenes, 
stands the far-famed Petcherskoi Monastery, the 
churches and gilded spires of which reflect with 
dazzling splendour the rays of the sun; the bold 
and commanding fortress and bastions with which 
it is surrounded, convey the idea of strength and 
security; the cathedral of St. Sophia, and other 
churches, occupying elevated situations in the 
'* Old Town,'' some of which are from the earliest 
periods of the Russian church, create in the mind 
a certain kind of religio hd; while, at a distance 
to the right, close to the water's edge, stretches 
Podole, or the "Town in the Vale" — the busy 
scene of mercantile enterprise. The varied surface 
of the ground too, now rising into pointed heights, 
now indented by deep ravines, and in many parts 
covered with gardens and extended patches of 
copse, greatly tends to heighten the interest of the 

The town itself is divided into three parts ; the 
southern takes its name from the monastery of 
Petchersk, and, besides the fortress and convent, 
contains another celebrated monastery, dedicated 



to St. Nicholas^ and six churches, some of which 
stand near the margin of the river, where is also 
a number of houses, chiefly occupied by the lower 
classes of the inhabitants. Near to the fortress is 
a baz&r, behind which the houses assume the ap- 
pearance of a regular town, having one principal 
street^ with several cross streets, terminating to 
the west in a deep gulley, the sides and brink of 
which are prindpally inhabited by Jews. Beyond 
this^ in a northerly direction, is a subdivision, coin 
taining the houses of the Governor and othenr 
persons of distinction, delightfully shaded by Ic^ty 
trees, some of which appear to be of great age. 

In this part of the town is a tolerably good inn. 
Where we took up our abode r and, after waiting 
tipon the Metropolitan Serapion, the Governor, and 
several of the other inhabitants, with whom we 
rnade arrangements relative to the object of ovr 
jeuilney, we repaired to the monaetery, in order to 
H^iew a place equally infe^esting to the historimi^ 
as the residence of Nestor, the invaluable annafist 
of Russia, and to the members of the Greek 
Church, as the repository of those relics and 
«ibn«menis which have been held in high religious 
veueratdon during many successive centuries. Hav^ 
ing enteved the gate of the fortress, which con- 
sists of regular ramparts and bastions, and is 
Massed in the first rank of Russian fbrtifi^cations, 
we passed the barracks and arsenal, and, had we 
•not been previously apprised of the existence of 
the monastery, we should not have expected to 
meet with a reclusion in the midst of so much 
military apparatus and noise. As we advanced. 


howerer, we soon came within si§^t of a magnifi-* 
Gfvit gate, ornamented with full length representa* 
tknu of Anthony and Theodosius, the two first Ab«- 
bats of the monastery^ imd other objects of popular 
Teneration, before which a crowd of pilgrims were 
bowing and crossing themselves, according to the 
usual forms. We here gained admittance at a 
small wicket, and soon found, from the solitude 
and sombre appearance of every surrounding ob* 
ject, that we were now within the precincts of 
what the Russians call the laureate cloister. Pas^ 
sing along a fine alley, on either side of which are 
the cells of the monks, we arrived at the cathedral 
dedicated to ^Vthe Ascension of the Virgin," the 
esterior of which is greatly calculated to operate 
on the feelings of the spectator, and produce Bea^ 
Mtions of a very solemn and contemplative nature. 
It is ereeted in a style of grand architectural ele^ 
gaace, and many parts of the walls are decorated 
with beautiful representations of the most inte* 
resting scenes of Scripture history. Its seven cu- 
polated turrets are richly gilt, and, together with 
the belfry, which stands at some distance, and is 
upwards of 300 feet in height, greatly add to the 
magnificent appearance of 4:be place. 

Towards the usual hour df vespecs, the court 
of the monastery began to fill with worsbqipers, 
who rashed forward with great eagerness, as the 
sonndoftheeveningbell, and the openingof the grand 
western, door of the cathedral, announced the com- 
mencement of the service. We now proceeded from 
the house of the Prior, by whom we had been 
courteously entertained, to survey the int«tk)r of 



the church, which we found indescribebly splendid : 
the whole of the walls seemed covered with pic^ 
tares of martyrs and saints, encased in richly 
gilded or silver-covered frames; but the most pro* 
minent of all was one of the Virgin, above the 
doors which open into the ** holy of holies," before 
which burned an inmiense profusion of lights, 
whose effect, superadded to that produced by the 
tapers burning before the different shrines, was 
but just sufficient to light up to our view the highly 
ornamented ceiling of the edifice. 

As we were contemplating this curious assem* 
blage of human inventions, our notice was attracted 
by one of the most unearthly sounds we ever re- 
collected to have heard^ which, on inquiry, we 
ascertained to proceed from a female pilgrim, who 
had been seized with convulsions, but was re** 
garded by the multitude as a demoniac. On 
coming out of the church, we found she had been 
carried out, and laid on the north side of the ves- 
tibule, precisely in the Statio Dcemomacarum, as 
represented by Ludolf, in the Ichnographia Ecde* 
siae Graecae, at p. 37 1 of his Commentary. At the 
soath side of the church is a large hospitium, or 
place of entertainment for the pilgrims who resort 
hither for purposes of devotion; and, close by, 
we visited one of the cells which had recently been 
converted into a depository for the sale and dis* 
tribution of the Holy Scriptures. Besides the 
Cathedral, there are three other churches attached 
to the monastery, but none of them exhibiting any 
thing remarkable. 

The following morning, at eight o'clock, we 


again visited this place, according to appointment, 
in order to make the tour of the Catacombs, or the 
extensive domains of the dead, consisting of sub- 
terranean labyrinths of great extent, which are 
excavated in the precipitous declivity of the hill 
forming the bank of the river. These remarkable 
dormitories are divided into two classes ; the nearer 
and the more remote, — ^the distance being reckoned 
from the principal church within the precincts of 
the monastery, in the gulley to the south of which 
the two churches are situated, whence the descent 
into " the nether parts of the earth" is effected. 
Following a young monk, who had been selected 
to conduct us, and who shewed every disposition 
to gratify our curiosity, we made our egress from 
the convent by a small wicket gate in the massy 
stone wall by which it is surrounded; and, pro- 
ceeding down a small steep lane, paved with 
stones, we came to a covered walk, or gallery of 
wood, about 500 feet in length, which led us to a 
magnificent chapel, with three gilded turrets, de- 
dicated to " the Elevation of the Holy Cross," and 
designed to receive the devotions of those who 
descend into the gloomy abodes below. While 
our guide and the servants were lighting the 'can- 
dles, which were to render in some measure visible 
to us the darkness of the caverns, we viewed a 
large painting on the wall of the vestibule, repre- 
senting a motley group of good and evil spirits, 
abiding the departure of the dying, in order to 
convey their souls to the regions, either of felicity 
or of wo. The latter were depicted in the midst of 
vivid flames ; and the arch-fiend, having been ren- 

182 Tfi£ CATACX>MB& 

dered more oxispicuous than any of the other- 
figurefi GomposiDg the scene, a boy, who was sta&d- 
ing by, infuriated with rage, ran up and gave him 
some hard blows with the sharp leathern front of 
his cap. From the battered appearance of the 
head, and that of some of the fiends that were near 
him, it appeared this was not a solitary instance of 
this kind of treatment. Would that men were 
equally enraged at the cloven foot, when presented 
in the multiform shapes of temptation ! 

Our lights being provided, we descended into 
the passage leading to the Catacombs, known by 
the name of St. Anthony's, the founder of the mo* 
nastery, whose relics are preserved in a cubitory at 
the extremity of the labyrinth. This passage is 
about six feet in height, but so extremely narrow, 
that it is with di£Bculty two persons can pass each 
other. Like all the other apertures and subter- 
raneous galleries to which it leads, it is dug put of 
the hill, which seems to consist of a mixture of 
sand and clay, possessing a considerable degree of 
adhesion, but too soft to be entitled to the charac- 
ter of stone. The sides and roof are, for the most 
part, black from the smoke of the torches which 
are incessantly conveyed through the passage; 
and, where there is any turn or winding in it, the 
projecting angle is partly smoothed and worn away 
by the friction occasioned by the numerous com* 
panics of visitors. 

We had not proceeded far, when we came to a 
niche on the right side of the passage, containing 
a coffin without the lid, in which lay the mummied 
body of one of the saints, wrapped in a s^en 


«lv0ttcU with Que of the stiffiuked handi {d«ced in 
siidL a postttie, as easily to receive the kisses of 
those who visit the cemetery for pvrpoaes 6t de- 
"votioii. This token of respect was paid foy ow 
guide, ]M>t only to this relic, but to all we passed, 
the number of wbich» in this dormitory, amounCb 
to ^hty-two. After advancing to the distance <^ 
about twenty yards, in a north westerly direotioil, 
we turned round suddenly to the east, by a some- 
what circuitous passage, and then proceeded again 
towards the north; observing, as we passed, the 
numerous niches on both sides, containing bodies, 
er parts of the bodies of those who have acquired 
renown by the degree of austerity and mortification 
to which they attained in reducing to practice the 
rules of ascetic discipline. Besides these niches^ 
we came every now and then to separate domito^ 
tones, HI ^' the sides of the pit^-^little chambers 
having been dug in the sand, and after the bodies 
had been deposited in them, again closdd up by a 
thin wall, parallel with the side of the gallery, in 
which, about four feet from the ground, a small 
glass window is inserted, discovering, on a candle 
being held to it, the funeral attire of its unghostiy 
inhabitant. In one of these little chambers we 
were shewn the remains of a rigorous ascetic of the 
name of John, who, as the legend goes, constructed 
his own dormitory, and, after building himself in 
by a waU with a small window, as above described, 
he inten'ed himself up to the waist, and in this 
posture performed his devotions, till death left 
him in possession of the grave he had made. A 
figure representing him is visible through the small 


aperture, but whether his mummy, or merely hiB 
eSSigy, we could not determine. Another of these 
sepulchres is said to contain the relics of the twelve 
friars who first addicted themselves to the severi- 
ties of the monastic life in this place, one of the 
bones of the protoms^rtyr Stephen, and some of the 
children of Bethlehem, murdered by order of King 

After penetrating to the northern extremity of 
this '^ region and shadow of death," we came to 
the sepulchre of Nestor, the celebrated father of 
Russian history, who flourished in the Petcherskoi 
Monastery from about the middle to the end of the 
eleventh century, and was contemporary with An 
Frode, the first Icelandic historiographer. This 
monk appears to have been gifted with a large 
share of natural understanding; and, to judge firom 
the style of his writings, he must have been fami- 
liar with the Scriptures; for he not only quotes 
them frequently, but seems to have adopted their 
narrative style as the model of his own composi- 
tions. His intercourse with the reigning family, 
his perusal of the Byzantine historian^, the oppor- 
tunities he enjoyed of collecting the current tra^ 
ditionary accounts from the mouth of his country- 
men, and the numerous historical monuments which 
Kief and its immediate vicinity presented to his 
view ; all furnished advantages of which he happily 
availed himself, and has thereby transmitted to us 
the knowledge of important historical facts, con- 
nected with the ancient history of Russia, which 
must otherwise have perished with the lapse of 
time. Of his Annals, a truly critical edition, in the 


original Slavonic, accompanied with various read- 
ings, a German translation, and valuable historical 
commentaries, was published by Professor Schlozer, 
of Gottingen, 1802-9. 

From the dormitory of Nestor, the dreary 
avenue turned round by a gradual descent towards 
the Borysthenes ; and, after leading us past a num* 
ber of dead bodies, brought us to two subterra- 
neous chapels ; the first, only at a short distance 
from the river, is dedicated to Anthony, who here 
lies enshrined in a coffin covered with silver ; and 
the other, situated nearer to t6e entrance, is dedi* 
cated to the Purification of the Virgin. Both are 
richly ornamented, and are used for the per- 
formance of mass on such days in the calendar 
as are appropriated to these festivals. 

We now returned to the spot whence we had 
descended, and were glad to exchange the con- 
fined air, and melancholy gloom of this sepulchral 
labyrinth, for the fresh breeze ascending frpm the 
river, and the exhilarating prospect supplied by 
the surrounding scenery. 

'At a short distance to the south, are situated 
the ^* farther'* Catacombs, or those of Theodosius, 
but they are neither so sinuous, nor so extensive as 
the former; nor is the celebrity of the saints, 
whose relics they contain, equal to that of those 
entombed in the caverns of Anthony. Besides 
the chapel and tomb of the founder, we visited 
two chapels dedicated to the Virgin, and the eleva- 
tion of the cross, but found nothing remarkable, 
after what we had seen in the others. The number 
of bodies, or parts of bodies, contained in the latter 


Catacombe, and which are venerated as relies po8* 
sessed of wonder-working powers, amounts to 

Our visit to these *' dark places/' in '* the 
nether parts of the earth/' where we literally were 
'' amofi^ those that be dead of old»" tesded, ia no 
small degree, to furnish us with lively recollections 
of those passages of Scripture, which represent 
the grave as a pit^ or cavern, into which a descent 
is necessary. Psalm xxviii. 1.; cxliii. 7.; Piot. 
i. 12 ; where there are deep recesses, containing 
dormitories, or separate burying-places, Isaiah 
xiv. 15; Ezek. xxxii. 23., so that each dead body 
may be said to ^'lie in its own house," Isai»h 
xiv. 18; and '' rest in its own bed," chap. Ivii. 2. 
The idea, also of a vast subterraneous abode ne- 
cessarily presented itself to our minds«— an idea 
frequently to be met with in the Sacred and other 
oriental writings. Hence Solomon, when treating 
of the end of man's mortal existence, calls the 
grave, his '' long home," Eccles. xii. 5 ; to which, 
as the family residence, descendants are said to 
*' go," or *' be gathered" at death. Gen. xv. 16; 
2 Kings xxii. 20; and on one of the aneiedt 
Phenician inscriptions, found on the island of 
Malta, the same idea of the grave, as a place of 
residence, is evidently conveyed; iapp^arn:&*inn, 
which, if properly divided, is, lap o^jr na Tin, « the 
chamber of the long abode—- the grave." 

The origin of the catacombs of Kief is to be 
traced ta the introduction of the ascetic life into 
Russia. Hilarion, Presbyter of Berestof, a learned 
and devout man, abandoning his church, and the 


intercourse of tbe world, dug a cell, two fatboms 
in depth, in a sequestered and woody part of the 
hill, close to the spot where the monastery now 
stands^ where he iinposed upon himself numerous 
acta of mortification, till called by laroslar to bo 
the Metropolitan of Rus«a. The cell, however, 
was sooa re-occupied by a native of Liubetch, 
who, after perfi3rming a pilgrimage to Mount 
Athos, where he received the tonsure, and assumed 
the name of Antonius, endeavoured to settle in 
some monastery ; but not finding any sufficiently 
strict in its rules of discipline, he repaired to the 
cave of Hilarion. Here he led a most retired and 
austere life, addicting himself to prayer and fast- 
ing, and, in a short time, acquired such reputation 
for sanctity, that immense crowds of devotees, 
among whom the Grand Duke Iziaslav himself 
came to his cell, in order to obtain his blessing. 
Other ascetics now associated themselves with 
him, and enlarged the subterraneous reclusion; 
a regular monastery was at length formed ; churches 
and chapels were erected for the accommodation of 
those who visited the place ; and, in the course of 
time, after miraculous powers were ascribed to 
the relics of the original founders and others, who 
had rendered themselves famous for the rigour of 
their discipline, the spot obtained that celebrity 
which it still retains in the present day. What 
Jerusalem was to tbe Israelites, Kief is to the 
Russians ; and the veneration in which the grand 
cathedral of the Petcherskoi Monastery, with its 
sunrounding '^ holy places" is held, is, at least, 
equal to that paid to the temple oo Mount 


On this accouDt, it is the great resort of pilgrims 
from all parts of the empire, not even excepting 
Kamstchatka, and other distant regions of Siberia, 
who, as they proceed hither, collect money from 
those who are not able to come in person, with 
which they purchase candles to be placed before 
the images of the saints. The average number of 
those who annually perform this pilgrimage, is esti- 
mated at 50,000. 

The second or middle division of Ktef^ consists 
of the '* Old Town," which is separated from that 
already described by a deep ravine, intersecting 
the hills on which they are situated. It forms the 
site of the ancient Slavonic Pantheon, where Perun^ 
Horsa, Lado, Fohsa, Mokosha, Kupala, and other 
objects of idolatrous worship, had altars erected 
for the celebration of their respective rites. It is 
surrounded by immense earthen walls, and con- 
tains, within a small compass, not fewer than five 
churches, of which the principal is the Cathedral 
of St. Sophia, built by laroslav in the year 1037, 
on the spot where he had gained a signal victory 
over the Petchenegi. In the magnitude and 
grandeur of its structure, it exceeds the Petcherskoi 
Cathedral, and is remarkable for a colossal mosaic 
representation of the Lord's Supper, according to 
the mode of its administration in the Eastern 
Church, together with other representations on a 
grand scale. The whole of the walls and ceiling 
was covered with the same exquisite workmanship, 
interspersed with Greek inscriptions; but being 
in many parts richly gilt, many of these monu-^ 
ments of ancient art were destroyed by the Tatars 


nhder Batu Khan, by whom the town was taken 
and pillaged in the year 1240. This church con* 
tains also the tomb of its founder, which is built 
of white marble^ and measures about seven feet in 
length, by three in breadth, and three and a half in 

Close to the Cathedral is the residence of the 
Metropolitan — a sombre building, shaded by vene- 
rable trees^ and exhibiting, in the interior, the 
most striking vestiges of ancient art. On the 
identical spot where Perun, the Jupiter of Russia, 
had a fane consecrated to his worship, stands the 
church of St. Basil, built by Vladimir,- on the in* 
troduction of Christianity into the empire ; and, 
near the northern termination of the elevated 
ground forming the site of the town, is part of 
another church, erected by the same prince, in 
the year 996, and called Desatinnaia, or ** the 
tythe-chuTcW from the circumstance that he not 
only endowed it with a tenth part of his own pri* 
vate property, but also with a tenth of the public 
revenues. In the cemetery belonging to this 
church were discovered, by the Metropolitan Pe* 
ter, in the year 1636, two marble coffins, which, 
according to the inscriptions upon them, contained 
the bones of Vladimir and his spouse, the Greek 
Princess Ann. The skull of this monarch was 
taken the same year, and deposited in the Pet* 
cherskoi Cathedral, where it is still preserved. 

We next visited the church of St. Andrew, 
which is built at a short distance from that just 
mentioned, and being situated on a projecting point 
of the hill, commands one of the most extensive 

190 PODOLE. 

prospects of asiy place abont Mhrf. It owm ks 
Bflune to a tradition that the Apostle Andrew^ in 
the course of his missionary excursicms among the 
Sc^hians, planted the cross on this hill, and pre^ 
dieted, that, at a future period, it would become 
the site of a city, and of numerous churches dedi- 
cated to the honour of his Divine Master. 

Almost directly below this church, where the 
high bank of the rirer gives way to a narrow (Jain* 
stands Podok, *' the low town," or " the tawa 
of the vale," which is chiefly inhabited by mer<> 
chants, but is also celebrated for its magnificent 
Academy, founded in 1631, by the Metropolitan 
Peter Mohila, in which upwards of twelve him^ 
deed students are taught the sciences, according 
to the forms oi the' old German universities. It is 
built of. stone ; stands close to the Friars' Monaa- 
tery, the Archimandrite o€ which is Rector of the 
Institution; and is provided with an ezoeUent 
library and hospital. This division of Kirfy con- 
sisting of streets and buildings laid down accord*^ 
ing to a regular plan, forms a perfect contrast to 
the other parts of the town, and, abounding in 
large and fruitful gardens, presents a very agree- 
able perspective to the view. 

A little below the road leading down to the low 
town from the Petcberskm division, the attention 
of the traveller is attracted by a fine monument, 
raised, by order of his Imperial Majesty, over the 
Kireshtshaiik, or fountain in which the children of 
Vladimir the Great were baptized, in the year 
989. It consists of an obelisk of stone, about a 
hundred and fifty feet in height, terminating at the 


fop in a globe atid cross ; and at the foot, elose to 
tile pedestal on which it rests, is a wooden cmci- 
fix, with the mscription Jesus of Nazareth^ the 
King of the Jews, in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. 
H was near this spot that the general baptism of 
the Russians took place, the same year. On the 
preceding day, the idols had been either broken 
i& pieces or burnt, and Perun, the chief of the 
gods, a huge monstrous piece of wood, with a 
bead of massive silver, and a beard of gold, had 
been tied to the tail of a horse, and drawn to one 
eS tile highest precipices, whence it was thrown 
into the Dnieper. Whatever violence was thus 
offered to the objects of idolatrous worship, it does 
not appear that any coercive measures were em- 
ployed to induce the pec^le to submit to baptism. 
They docked in crowds to the margin of the Dnie- 
per, to which Vladimir and the Greek priests 
repaired in solemn procession, and, on a sign being 
given, the whole multitude plunged into the river, 
the adults standing up to the breast and neck in 
the water, while such as had infants supported 
them above it in their arms. Of the mode in 
which the rite was administered, whether by im- 
mersion or pouring, history is silent ; but it is not 
improbable that they baptized themselves, t. e. 
they phmged their heads into the water. It is a 
fact which, I believe, is litde known, that in the 
Greek Church both forms obtain ; and although im- 
mersion be the more common, yet when the pjstrents 
desire it may be done by pouring, their request is 
complied with. In Little Russia, this mode is the 
more common of the two. The Slavonic word 


** krestit,'^ to baptize, has no reference whaitever 
to the application of water, but is derived from 
krest, *' cross/' and, like our English christen, 
signifies to mark with the sign of the cross. Ac« 
cording to this, its strict and etymological signi* 
fication, John the Baptist is improperly called 
loantC Krestitel, in the Slavonic version, as we 
may be assured this sign formed no accompani- 
ment of the rite from which he derived his desig- 
nation, however common it be to furnish him 
with the banner of the cross as a badge of dis* 
tinction, in the representations given of him iu 

It is related by the historian, that Vladimir 
was so overjoyed at the sight of the public profes* 
sion made of Christianity by his subjects as the 
national religion, that he lifted up his eyes to hea*- 
ven, and pronounced aloud the following prayer : 
** Creator of heaven and earth ! Bless these thy 
new-bom babes I Grant that they may know thee, 
the true God; confirm in them the right faith; 
and be my help in evil temptationsi that I may 
worthily glorify thy holy name !"* 

During our stay in Kief, we had frequent in-> 
terviews with the venerable Metropolitan Sera- 
pion, the Governor, and other leading men in the 
town, whom we endeavoured to impress with the 
importance of more vigorous measures being em- 
ployed for extending the benefits resulting from 
the operations of the Bible Society. His Excel* 
lency the Governor, having been but recently ap- 

* Karamsin^ Vol- 1, p. 218. 


pointed to this province, had not had time to use 
his influence with the civil officers and others 
within the sphere of his jurisdiction ; but, having 
already lent his patronage, as Vice-President of 
the Astrachan Auxiliary, and accepted the same 
office in that of Kief, we had every reason to hope, 
that it would derive most essential aid from his 

On the 23d, we attended a special meeting of 
the Committee in the grand hall of the Metropoli- 
tan Palace, in the Petcherskoi Monastery, at 
which his Grace himself presided, ^nd which con- 
sisted of nearly thirty of the monks and superior 
dergy, the Grovemor, several Generals, and other 
gentlemen resident in the place. As the sale 
of the Scriptures had hitherto been confined to 
the retired cell in the grand Monastery above 
described, it was submitted to the consideration 
of the Meeting, whether it would not be eligible 
to give it a greater degree of publicity, by open- 
ing a separate depository in each of the three 
divisions of the town ; which proposition was cor- 
dially agreed to, and immediately carried into 
effect. Reference has been made above to the 
numbers who annually flock to the Monastery and 
the Catacombs. To direct the attention of such 
^wwiry pilgrims, most of whom are excited to pro- 
ceed hither from a concern about the salvation of 
their souls, to that book which alone reveals HIM 
-who is the true way to eternal life, we could not 
but regard as an object highly deserving the con- 
sideration of the Bible Society, and accordingly 
took the liberty to propose, that dep6ts of Bibles 


and New Testaments should be established iuttlie 
chambers, where all the pilgrims purchase an4 
light the caudles with which they proceed into the 
Catacombs. It gave us pleasure to find that our 
proposition was instantly approved, and two very 
appropriate inscriptions, which had been drawn 
up by the Secretary, were read, adopted, and or- 
dered to be fixed in the most conspicuous peaces 
at the entrance to the tombs. In consequence of 
this measure, many a poor fatigued pilgrim may 
retrace his steps, laden with the precious treasures 
of Divine Revelation, and perhaps not a few wit^ 
their minds savingly illuminated by its contents. 
Qavinjs^ disposed of the town, the Committee next 
took under their consideration the measures nece^- 
sary for effecting the more extensive circulation of 
the Scriptures throughout the province ; when it 
was unanimously agreed, that two of the members 
of the Committee should be deputed to visit the 
principal district towns and villages, for the pur- 
pose of making the inhabitants acquainted with 
the object of the Bible Society; obtaining cor- 
respondents or active agents; and establishing 
Branch Societies and Associations. This impor- 
tant service was voluntarily undertaken by the 
Governor himself, being otherwise about to pro- 
ceed on an official visit to different parts of the 
government ; and his exertions were seconded by 
the Rev. Mr. Semenofsky, the Clerical Secretary 
of the Kief Auxiliary Society. The business of 
the evening was concluded by a fresh proof, on the 
part of the Metropolitan, and the other members 
present, of their resolution to continue their vigo- 


rotis support to the Institution, by increasing their 
subscriptions to the amount of seven hundred 

After the meeting closed, i^e were ushered into 
an adjoining apartment, where we were served 
with tea, different kinds of the most exquisite 
fruit, and wines both of domestic and foreign 
preparation, from the cellars of the Metropolitan. 
The kindness of this aged prelate exceeded any 
thing we had ever met with. He not only sent 
us a carriage and four, to be at our service during 
our stay, but with difficulty accepted our refusal 
of his offer, that we should change our lodging, and 
occupy apartments in the Monastery ; and when 
we called for our account at the inn, we found 
that he had given the strictest orders that it 
should be presented to him for payment. Nor 
was this all. On our taking leave of him, like 
Melchizedek of old, he '' brought forth bread and 
wine,'* of which he begged our acceptance for the 



Leave Kief-^Jiiamir'^Eagerueu of the Jews to reeewe Heirem 
New TeOamenU — Jewish Synagogwe and Worship — AuxiUary 
Bible Soeieig—Nocograd VoUnski—The PetchcMgi—Kh^ 
retc — Ostrog — lnOsh — IhUmo — Veneratum for Hebrew MSS. 
— Jewish Scribe — Rules observed in copying Hebrew MSS."^ 
EdUioHs of the Hebrew Bibk^Uie Bog^Podolia—Emigra^ 
turn of the Jews^Kamenetz^ Jewish Wedding — JDomtnicom 
Monasterg — B^le Society, 

Wk left Kief on the 24th of May, and proceeding 
through the small town of Radomisl, we arrived on 
the 25th in Jitomir, the provincial town of Volhi- 
nia, one of the most fertile of the Russian govern- 
mente, and containing a population of nearly a 
million and a half of inhabitants. Of these the 
greater proportion are Russians, the rest is made 
up of Poles, Germans, Lithuanians, Jews, and 
Gypsies. The number of Jews is estimated at 
forty thousand. 

Jitomir is a place of considerable extent, but is 
at present in a wretched state, having for the most 
part been recently consumed by fire. It is situated 
on the left bank of the Teteref^ which here flows 
through a deep valley defended by high perpendi- 
cular rocks; the first appearance of the kind we 
« had seen since entering Russia. It is the see both 
of a Russian and Roman Catholic bishop, and the 
seat of the Governor, and the different departments 

JEWS. 197 

of government. The number of inhabitants amounts 
to twelve thousand^ of whom nearly ten thousand 
are the descendants of Abraham, crowds of whom 
surrounded us the moment we entered the town; 
and, during our stay, we scarcely found it possible 
to walk out of our lodgings without being exposed 
to their importunate clapiours on the subject of 
this world's gain. Having anticipated frequent^ 
opportunities of intercourse with them in the course 
of our journey through these parts, we had pre- 
viously ordered regular supplies of Hebrew New 
Testaments to be forwarded to us from St. Peters- 
burgh for distribution at the principal stations ; and 
in this town, as well as in other places in the pro- 
vince, we were furnished with the most convincing 
proofs of their eagerness to receive copies, and 
the avidity with which many of them read the 
Gospel records. Nor did the Rabbins discover 
that shyness which we had been led to expect ; on 
the contrary, two of them called on us for Testa- 
ments, and entered with apparent interest into an 
argument on the sufferings of the Messiah. At 
one time we were almost literally besieged by the 
Jews, and we could not biit entertain a hope, that 
the copies we distributed might be made instru- 
mental, by the agency of the Holy Spirit, in open- -i 
ing the eyes of some of them, and turning them ^ 
from darkness to light, and from the , power of 
Satan to God. Before giving away any of the 
copies, we previously ascertained their ability to 
read and understand the Hebrew, and the proba- 
bility of their making a proper use of the gift. 
That our feeble attempt at this place was not 

198 J£ws. 

without some effect, will appear from the follow* 
ing extract of a letter from the Clerical Secretary of 
the Kief Bible Society: 

•' Kicf, July 6, 18?l. 

^ " The travellers, Paterson, Henderson, and 
Seroff, on proceeding from Kief to Ostrog, through 
the town of Jitomir, visited the Jewish Synagogue, 
where they distributed, gratuitously, six copies of , 
the New Testament in the Hebrew language. 
Their visit to this synagogue, and the distribution 
of these New Testaments, have not been in vain, 
but already begin to produce dehghtful fruit. One 
of the Hebrews, S. by name, into whose hands one 
of the copies fell, began to read it with attention, 
and was struck with the doctrines and precepts of 
the Gospel, particularly the passages. Thou shaU 
love thy neighbour as thyself; and. Love your ene- 
mies, do good to them thai hate you, &c. He could 
not help reflecting, how very opposite this w;^ to 
the doctrine of the Talmud, according to which it 
was accounted no sin in a Jew to deceive Christians, 
treat them ill, injure them in every possible way, 
and even murder them, though it was diametrically 
opposed to the sixth commandment. Thou shalt 
not kill, which the Jews are bound to fulfil. These 
reflections left on his mind the conviction, that the 
doctrines of the Talmud were altogether false and 
illusory, that they were drawn up with the view of 
deceiving, and were perfectly irreconcilable with 
every principle of right reason. He therefore 
came to the resolution to reject them, and embrace 
the doctrine of Chust our Saviour, as that alone 



which is consonant with truth, and capable of 
effecting the salvation of the soul. He now brings 
forth fruits meet for repentance, and the answeris 
which he gave to the Metropolitan when he applied 
to him for baptism, were in a high degree intelli- 
gent and interesting." 

The day after our arrival we went to one of 
the synagogues, about the time of the morning 
service. Worship had already commenced, and 
the place was crowded with old and young, but the 
.scene was altogether of such a stamp, as to con- 
vince us of the awful propriety of applying to it the 
prophetic language, ** The calling of assemblies I 
cannot away with ; it is iniquity, even the solemn 
meeting," Isaiah i. 13, if, indeed, the term .solemn 
chn at all be used in regard to a noisy rabble, 
chattering and making grimaces^ more like buffoons 
in a common show, than a company of rational 
and accountable beings, professedly assembled to 
adore the Holy One of Israel. It was extremely 
painful, also, to observe the intense agony into 
which the Chasan (pn), or minister, v^rro'ught up his 
whole frame, while repeating the public prayers, 
shaking his elapsed hands as he elevated them 
before the eastern wall of the synagogue, and 
raising his voice like a person in a state of the most 
dreadful desperation. How truly emblematical of 
the miserable condition of this people, while the 
wall of unbelief separates between them and the 
God of their fathers ! 

After standing for some time at a little distance 
within the door, we were observed by some of the 



rulers, who came and showed us up into the . 
Bimah (nou), a square wooden pulpit, situated in 
the middle of the synagogue, to which the book 
of the law was soon conveyed from the ark of 
the covenant, which is erected for its reception 
in the centre of the eastern wall, at the height of 
three or four feet above the level of the floor. If 
we suppose Paul and Barnabas to have been seated 
in such a Bimah in the synagogue at.Antioch, in 
Pisidia, it must have afforded them an excellent 
situation from which to address the assembly. 
It consists of a platform raised about three feet . 
from the ground, is surrounded by a rail, and has 
a cupolated covering — all of wood. Prayers being 
ended, the book of the law was taken out of the 
chest, or ark, which consisted of wood, with fold- 
ing doors in front, and a kind of ceiling, over whichr 
was the inscription mm nna, ** The crown of the 
law/' The law itself was covered with a rich 
silken wrapper, and kept in a bag, called Mappa 
(kbd), of the same material, richly embroidered 
with gold. It was written on a large roll of parch-, 
ment, which was fixed at each end to a small 
roller, the ends of which project so' far out from 
the volume, as to admit of their being held in the 
hands of those who support the roll while it is 
unfolding, or again rolled up after reading. Having . 
been conveyed in a kind of mock solemnity to the 
Bimah, it was deposited on the table, and three 
or four of the congregation were called up to read 
in succession, which they did under the direction . 
of the Ckasan, who pointed out the lines to them 
by means of a silver hand ; but some of them per- , 


f(¥rmed the task so badly^ that they required to be 
turned back to the words, like a child at its first 
lessons. When the lection was finished, the roll 
was again carefully covered with the wrapper, and 
OD its being exhibited in this state, all who were 
in the vicinity pressed forward to kiss it, while a 
serious altercation took place in the separate apart- 
ment, appropriated for the use of the females, 
which arose from their eagerness to peep through 
the holes in the partition, that each might catch a 
glance of the law, before it was carried back to the 
ark. In the concluding prayer, we were not a 
little astonished to hear our names mentioned after 
some others of high consequence, and the blessing 
of heaven implored upon us individually. It was 
meant, no doubt, as a compliment ; but it natu- 
rally excited in our bosom a tender and compas- 
sionate feeling in behalf of the poor Jews, and 
forcibly reminded us of our duty to remember 
them in our daily prayers. 

In Jitomir, we found a prosperous Bible So- 
ciety, the successes of which were to be ascribed, 
next to the Divine blessing, to the efficient zeal 
of the Russian Bishop, and his Archimandrites, 
whose active exertions in this good cause are 
indeed above all praise. Considerable opposition 
had been made by many of the landholders, who 
are Poles, and members of the Romish Church ; 
yet such had been the effect produced by the 
amiable character of these dignitaries, and their 
prudent and enlightened exertions, that numbers 
of the Polish inhabitants had been gained over to 



the Society, and were anxiously waiting for the 
completion of the new edition of the Polish Bible, 
one thousand copies of which had been ordered by 
the Committee to be distributed, as soon as it 
should leave the press. Due measures had dso 
been adopted by the Bishop for supplying his 
clergy with the Scriptures, and no certificates 
are given to the students, by the Rector of the 
Spiritual Academy, except they possess the 

Besides the Auxiliary Society, we were happy 
to find that three Associations had been formed 
in the province, one of which is in the town of 
Bereditchefy which is inhabited by upwards of 
10,000 Jews, several of whom have aided the 
funds of the institution by voluntary subscrip- 
tions, and not only purchased copies of the Old, 
but seem anxious to obtain the New Testament 

Not finding the Bishop in the government 
town, we resolved to proceed to Ostrog, his usual 
place of residence, and accordingly set out for 
that town on the morning of the 27th. The face 
of the country presented, on the whole, an agi'ee- 
able variety, especially about the Sloutch, which 
we crossed at the small town of Novograd Folinski. 
While waiting for dinner at this place, we had 
much conversation with the Jews, who seemed to 
compose a large proportion of the population. 
Their surprise at our entering abruptly on the 
subject of a suff^ering Messiah, and the necessity 
of faith in his atonement, made it evident, that. 


though they live in the midst of professing Chris- 
tians, their attention had never been seriously 
directed to this grand and fundamental point. 

Between this town and that of Khoretz, we 
passed an immense number of small tumuli, sup^ 
posed to have been raised over such as were slain 
in a battle, lost here at an early period of Russian 
history by the Petchenegi, a people of Turkish 
extraction, who originally inhabited the steppes 
between the laik and the f^olga. Crossing the 
latter river and the Don, they committed great 
ravages in the south of Russia, and ultimately 
penetrated as far as the Danube, by which they 
were separated from the Bulgarians. They appear 
to have led a nomadic life ; and shortly after their 
defeat by the Po/ot;/;si, about the middle of the 
eleventh century, they entirely vanish from the 
page of history. Whether this decisive battle was 
fought here, 1 have not been able to ascertain, but 
the appearance of the tumuli, suggests the idea of 
a dreadful and extensive carnage. 

We reached Khoretz in the dusk of the evening, 
just in time to escape a tremendous storm of thun- 
der and rain, and were comfortably lodged at the 
house of a Jew. Next morning, on driving through 
the town, which was anciently defended by a 
brick wall, we observed no object worthy of notice, 
e;^cept a large porcelain manufactory, belonging to 
Prince Tchartorisky. 

Our approach to Ostrog was greatly impeded 
by the sandiness of the road, which, as it lay through 
an impervious wooded region, it was impossible for 
us to avoid by striking off to either side, as we 

204 OSTROG. 

often did when travelling across an open coun- 
try. On ultimately reaching the termination of 
the wood, we descended into a broad swamp, di- 
vided by the river Horin, which was formerly the 
boundary between Red Russia and the princi- 
pality of Kief. 

Being desirou3 of visiting a Colony of Karaite 
Jews, settled in and about Lutsk, a town situated 
upwards of a hundred versts to the north-west of 
Osirog, I left my fellow-travellers to transact our 
biblical business with the Bishop, and set off about 
two o'clock in the afternoon, in the expectation of 
reaching the scene of my intended visit the follow- 
ing morning. In order to perform this journey 
with greater expedition than I could have done in 
one of our travelling carriages, I ordered, from the 
post-office, one of the common light carts used by 
couriers and other posting travellers, and drawn 
by three horses. Not being suspended on springs, 
it almost shook me to pieces ; but such was the 
velocity with which I was conveyed, that, on reach- 
ing DubnOy the place where I had intended to 
spend the night, I found that, at the same rate of 
travelling, it was in my power to gain the limits of 
my journey the same evening. Fresh horses were 
accordingly ordered, and I performed nearly one- 
half of the remaining part of the trip with as much 
comfort as could be expected* from so uneasy a 
seat; but it now began to grow dark, and the 
thunder-clouds, which I had observed gathering 
in the western horizon, soon spread over a great 
part of the heavens, and a^ length broke in one of 
the most tremendous thuniier- storms I ever re- 


LUTSK. 205 

collect to have witnessed. The lightnings played 
ip almost one continued flash, and at times the 
horses seemed perfectly stunned by the effect; 
while the darkness was so great, that between the 
flashes it was impossible to descry the road. By 
ten o'clock, I reached the town of Lutsk, where I 
soon found lodging in the house of a Jew, and 
in less than a quarter of an hour, the rain began 
to pour down in torrents, and continued inces- 
santly great part of the night. 

It had been remarked to me^ before I visited 
Russia, that next to the velocity of a bird cutting 
the air, is the speed with which a Russian Cabinet 
Courier hastens to the place of his destination ; 
but I now had a specimen of the quickness of tra- 
velling in this empire, having gone over upwards 
of eighty English miles within the space of eight 
hours, including stoppages. It was such a speci- 
men, however, as I should never choose to repeat, 
the violence of the motion having nearly proved 
too much for my frame. 

The 29th I spent, for the most part, among the 
Karaites; but, as I intend to devote a chapter 
or two to this interesting Jewish sect, when I 
come to describe our visit to their principal settle- 
ment in the Crimea, I shall reserve for that occa- 
sion what particulars I collected respecting them 
during my stay in Lutsk. The town itself is 
chiefly inhabited by Rabbi nists, by whom the 
Karaites are held in contempt and abhorrence. 
My landlord, who was of the former sect, could 
scarcely hear their name mentioned without stamp- 
ing with rage. The Karaites have only one small 

206 DUBHO. 

place of worship; while the Rabbmists have one 
principal, and four inferior synago^^es. The pre- 
dominant religion of the place is the Roman Ca- 
tholic, the Bishop of which communion resides in 
a magnificent and princely palace, at the eastern 
entrance to the town. It is surrounded by a high 
wall, and was also the seat x>f a Jesuit College 
previous to the expulsion of that sect from the em- 
pire. Although the whole population of Lutsk 
amounts only to about three thousand inhabitants, 
it contains monasteries and churches belonging to 
the several orders of Bernardine, Trinitarian, Ca- 
puchin, Bonifratrian, Carmelite, and Dominican 
friars. These edifices, together with an extensive 
and romantic old castle, impart an air of grandeur 
to the town, which ill comports with its appear- 
ance in other respects. 

The following day, on my return through Dubno, 
I stopped a few hours in order to visit some of the 
Jews, by whom it is chiefly inhabited. Their 
number is estimated at upwards of 10,000, and 
many of them appear to be in affluent circum- 
stances. They have a great number of syna- 
gogues; the principal one of which I found 
greatly resembling our oldest Seceding Meeting- 
houses in Scotland, having high arched windows, 
brass chandeliers, and the pulpit, wainscotttng, 
doors, &c. all of unpainted wood. In the ark of 
this synagogue were preserved several beautiitil 
copies of the law, some written with large, and 
others with smaller characters. I here made en- 
quiry, as I did in other places, relative to ancient 
MSS. of the Hebrew Scriptures, but found n<me 


of {my great age. The fact is, when no longer fit 
for public use in the synagogue, instead of being 
sold, or kept as objects of curiosity, they are care- 
fully inclosed in a box, and deposited in the bury* 
ing-ground, it being deemed a most heinous of- 
fence to eraze or obliterate a single letter of the 
law, or expose it to the profane gaze of the Gen- 
tiles. Some may smile at this custom of interring 
the Scriptures, and regard it as a superstitious 
veneration for the mere letter of the word ; but it 
must certainly be viewed as praiseworthy, when 
contrasted with the manner in which many pro- 
fessing Christians treat mutilated and worxi-out 
copies of the Bible, by using them in a variety of 
ways as waste-paper, in total absence of reverence 
for that sacred name which stands forth so pro- 
minently in every page. How laudable the prac- 
tice adopted by the Scbleswig-Holstein Bible So* 
ciety ! In order to prevent defective copies from 
falling into the hands of the grocers, the Com-- 
xnittee buy up all the old Bibles to be found, and, 
s^er endeavouring to complete them from each 
other, they collect what is no longer fit for us^ 
and, with becoming solemnity, consume it in a 
fire kindled for the purpose. 

Having expressed a wish to obtain some He* 
brew manuscripts, my Jewish guide conducted 
me down a narrow lane to the house of a Saphetj 
or scribe, whose employment consists in multiply- 
ing written copies of the law, according to the 
established rules of Hebrew calligraphy. His 
small apartment presented quite a novel scene to 
my view. On the table before him lay developed 


an accurate ezem|dar from which he was taking 
his C^opy ; rolls of parchment were lying about in 
every direction ; the walls were hung with com- 
passes, iokbottles, and other implements ; and in one 
comer of the room, a number of skins were in a 
process of preparation for the use to which they 
were to be appropriated. As I entered, he looked 
up with all that absence and discomposure which 
generally characterises those who are abruptly 
roused from the absorption connected with deep 
study, or occupied about some object requiring 
the application of profound attention. Some re- 
marks, however, on the nature of his occupation, 
interspersed with a few technical phrases in He- 
brew, soon excited his curiosity; and, laying aside 
his pen, he readily entered into a conversation 
respecting his business, and the difficulties insepa- 
rable from its proper and conscientious execution. 
Unlike other employments, that of a Jewish 
copyist absolutely and religiously excludes all 
improvement. He is tied down to perform every 
part of the work exactly as it was done twelve or 
thirteen centuries ago, at the period of the compo- 
sition of the Talmud, to the laws of writing pre-, 
scribed in which, he must rigidly conform, even in 
the smallest minutiae. The skins to be converted 
into parchment must be those of clean animals; 
and it is indispensable that they be prepared by 
the hands of Jews only. Should it be found that 
any part has been prepared by a Groi (a name by 
which Christians and all who are not Jews are de- 
signated), it is immediately thrown aside as unfit 
for use. When ready they are cut even, and 


joiBed together by means of thongs made of the 
same material. They are then regularly divided 
into columns, the breadth of which must never 
exceed the half of their length. The ink iemployed 
in writing the law, generally consists of a compo* 
aition made of pitch, charcoal, and honey, which 
ingredients are first made up into a kind of paste^ 
and after having remained some time in a state of 
induration^ are dissolved in water with an infusion 
of galls. 

Before the scribe begins his task, and after 
every interruption, he is required to compose hisf 
mind, that he may write under a sensible impres- 
sion of the sanctity of the words he is transcribing. 
Particular care is taken that the letters be sdl 
equally formed; and so supreme is the authority 
of antiquity, that where letters are found in the 
exemplar of a larger or smaller size than the rest, 
or such as are turned upside down, or suspended 
above the line, or where a final-shaped letter 
occurs in the middle of a word, these blunders are 
to be copied with as great fidelity as any part of 
the text. Is it not passing strange, that eveii 
Christian editors of the Hebrew Bible, should have 
servilely followed these Jewish puerilities? It is 
well known what importance the genius of Rab^ 
binical superstition has attached to such anomalies ; 
and it is a fact, that many of them are interpreted 
in a manner highly reproachful to the religion of 
Christ. For instance, in Psalm Ixxx. 14, the 
word "urnd, ** from the wood," is written and printed 
n'no, with the letter ain suspended, because it is 
the initial of the word X9, *^ tree," explained 



by the Jews, of the cross ; while die wild boar re- 
fer^d to in the contest, they blasphemoasly inter- 
pret of our blessed Saviour. Yet this error of 
transcription is printed in the editions of Opitius, 
MichaeUs, Van der Hooght, Frey, ^Leusden, and 
Jahn, although corrected in Menasseh Ben Israel's 
edition of 1635! 

Faults that creep in during transcription may 
be rectified, provided it be done within the space 
of thirty days ; but if more time has, elapsed, the 
copy is declared to be posel, or forbidden— a word 
<Vde}) used in Scripture to denote a graven image,, 
which the Israelites were taught to hold in utter 
detestation. Should Aleph- Lamed (^k) or Jod- 
H6 (n») be wrongly written, it is unlawful to correct 
or eraze them, be^cause they form the sacred 
names ; nor is it permitted to correct any of the 
Divine names, except when they are applied in an 
inferior sense. Of this an instance occurs. Gen. 
iii. 5^ where the name q^h^m, Elohimf is used 
twice. The Rabbins, regarding it as employed 
the second time to denote false objects of worship, 
permit its erasure ; but prohibit it at the beginnings 
of the verse, as being undeniably used of the true 
God. When transcribing the incommunicable 
name mns Jehovah^ the Scribe must continue writ- 
ing it until it be finished, even although a king 
should enter the rootn ; but if he be writing two 
or three of these names combined, such ^ rwrv 
lY^iy ^Th\^i Jehovah God of Hosts, he is at liberty, 
jafter . having finished the first, to rise and salute 
his visitant. Nor is the copyist allowed to begin 
"the . iqcominunicable name immediately after he' 


has dipt his pen in the ink ; when he i& approaoh- 
ing it, he is required to take a fresh supply whra 
proceeding to write the first letter of the preced- 
ing word. 

Shackled by canons of such exquisite mi- 
nuteness, it cannot be matter of surprise that the 
Dubno Scribe should exhibit an emaciated ap- 
pearance, and affix a high price to the productions 
of his pen. For a copy of the law, fairly written 
in small characters^ he asked ten louis-d'ors, and 
assured me that he had been sometimes paid at the 
rate of fifty. To the intrinsic value and spiritual 
beauty of the law of the Lord he appeared totally 
insensible ! 

Turning round the comer of a square, my 
attention was arrested by an immense number 
of books that were lying open on the ground. 
Conceiving that they were exposed for sale, and 
finding, on reaching them, that they were Hebrew, 
I eagerly commenced an examination of the more 
bulky and respectable looking volumes ; but I was 
soon undeceived by a Jew, who seemed to be 
watching them, by whom I was informed, that 
they belonged to the Synagogue, and were not to 
be sold. Besides several copies of the Talmud, 
there appeared to be a complete collection of all 
kinds of works in Rabbinical literature. 

The country between Lutsk and Ostrog is very 
fertile ; and though nothing mountainous is pre- 
sented in the prospect, yet the general appear- 
ance, especially towards the west, and the in- 
equalities of the surface over which the road 



that the Hypanis of that historian, and of Strabo, 
was no minor or tributary stream to the east of 
the Borysthenes, but one of the principal Scythian 
rivers, and situated between the Borysthenes and 
the Tyras, or Dniester.* Like other rivers of 
heathen antiquity, it was the object of religious' 
veneration, and this accounts for its Slavonic name 
Bog, which signifies, *' God." It receives several 
considerable streams in its course, and is navigable 
by large vessels upwards of one hundred and fifty 
versts above^its junction with the estuary of the 
Dnieper, into which it falls about thirty velrsts 
above the fortress of Otchakof. 

The neighbouring regions are still famous for 
the wild horses celebrated by Herodottts,t only 
their white colour has, in the course of ages, been 
changed into a mouse-grey, and they have black 
streaks along the back. They live in troops, and 
are caught by means of a noose. 

Between, Staro-Constantinqf and Proskurqf, 
we entered the government of Podolia, which, on 
account of its climate, its fertility, and the beauty 
of its scenery, may not unaptly be called the 
Devonshire of Russia. Its population is esti* 
mated at upwards of one million five hundred 
thousand inhabitants, most of whom profess the 
religion of the Greek Church. It contains, how- 
ever, a very considerable number of Roman Ca- 
tholics, besides united Greeks, or Russians^ who 
acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope, and 

• Tavra fih^ vdpa ror'^irayiv rora^ €9ri iOvea wpog l^ir^pifc 
' rov BoptoO^i'eoc.—Melpoin. 17» 

^ Tfiv wepti vifwyrai irriroi Hypioi Xcwicot.— Ibid. 52. 


Jews. "With respect, indeed, to this latter people, ^ 
their namber seems to increase in proportion 
as we approach the Turkish frontiers ; and there 
is every reason to believe, that had we proceeded 
diieet towards Palestine, we should have found 
tbem growing upon us as we advanced ; for, accord* 
ing to all that we could learn, there has been, of 
late years, a very sensible movement among them, 
and a constant effort to regain the limits of the 
beloved land of their ancestors. Nor can it ad* 
mitof a moment's doubt, that, should the Ottoman 
power be removed out of the way, and no obstacles 
be presented by those who may succeed in the 
dominion of the intermediate regions, they will, 
to a man, cross the Bosphorus, and endeavour to 
re-establish their ancient polity. To this all their 
wishes bend ; for this they daily pray ; and, in 
Older to effect its accomplishment, they are ready 
to sacrifice any, the most favoured advantages they"^ 
may possess in Europe. 

At the last station to the north of Kamenetz, 
we were charmed with the view of a regular chain 
of hills, which here runs across the Austrian fron* 
tier into Russia. They form a branch of the 
Carpathian range, and are clad with verdure till 
near the summit, where there is a fine display of 
cliflb risisg in castled grandeur above the hori- 

The town of Kamenetz^ or, as it is sometimes 
cjedled, Kamenetz- Podolskoi, is curiously situated 
on a romsBtic peninsulated rock, formed by the 
river Smotritza, which, after describing a curve. 


winds round the rock, and returning almost into 
its own bed, just leares sufficient space for a 
long, but narrow passage, which conununicatea 
between the town, and a regular fortificatimi on 
the rising ground to the south-west. The rock 
is in general from seventy to eighty feet higk^ 
and is in some places completely perpendicular, 
while in others, it rises more in a sloping direc* 
tion, and is covered with houses, which overtop 
each other in a very fantastic manner. The prin^ 
cipal houses, with a number of fine-looking churches 
and spires being built on the summit, furnish a 
panorama of singular interest and beauty. 

Passing a camp of 10,000 warriors, which 
occupied the height to the north of the town; we 
descended into the valley, and were obliged to 
ford the river, as the bridge was undergoing repair. 
The ascent we found excessively steep and di£* 
cult, although it winded up one of the most acces- 
sible parts of the rock. It was some time before 
we procured lodgings ; but at length succeeded, 
with the assistance of some Jews, who are always 
forward to offer their services on these occasions^ 
and are generally hired by travellers, under the 
honourable $ippellation of factorsy whidi word, 
however, as thus applied, signifies agents capable 
of executing any .commission, whatever may be its 
nature or demerit, provided they be remunerated 
for their trouble. 

Before retiring to rest we were stunned, by the 
noise of a procession, Jed oa by a band of musi- 
cians playing on tambourines and cyrafaakr, ^^riiich 



passed our windows. On inquiry ,-we learned that 
it consisted of a Jewish bridegroom, accompanied 
by his young friends, proceeding to the house of 
the bride^s father, in order to convey her home to 
her future residence. In a riiort time, they re- 
tsmtd widi such a profusion of lights, as quitch 
ilhiminiated the street. The bride, deeply veil^; 
was led along in triumph, accompanied by her 
virgins, each with a candle in her hand^ who, vritb 
the young men, sang and danced before her and 
the bridegroom. The scene presented us with am 
ocular illustration of the important parable re« 
corded in the twenty-fifth chapter of the Gospel of 
Mottbew; and we were particularly reminded of 
the appropriate nature of the injunction which pur 
Saviour gives us to watch and be ready, for the 
re-procession must have commenced immediately 
mi the arrival of the bridegroom. 

By the Roman Catholic Bishop, and the Ob^ 
vemor, who also belongs to that communion, we 
were leeeived in the kindest and most liberal 
manner; On the 2d of June, after dining with the 
Bishop, we proceeded with him in his carriage, 
^danmix by six -beautiful white steeds, to the Domi^ 
mean Mmiastery, to attend a meeting of the I'odo- 
iiaa AuxiUary Bible Society, of which both the 
abovC'^mentioned gentlemen ate Vice-Presidenti^. 
Being rather early, we stepped into the church of 
the monastery, and as we were admiring the pulpit, 
which, with the stanr leading up to it, is entirely of 
marble^ we were filled with no small degree of sar^- 
pdae to .fidd the following Arabic inscription oter 
^6 door of the stair-case : 



What agreement there could be between the 
pulpit of a church, professedly Christian, and the 
Vatch^word of Islamism, we Vere at a loss to 
conceive ; but the Bishop soon unravelled the mys* 
tery, by informing us, that the church had former- 
ly been a Mohammedan mosque, and the pulpit 
appropriated to the propagation of the doctrines of 
the Koran. 

The meeting consisted for the most part of 
Roman Catholics, but there were also present the 
Russian Archimandrite, and two of the principal 
Russian priests, and all seemed animated by a 
spirit of harmonious co-operation. Among odier 
subjects proposed for the consideration of the 
Committee were, the procuring of active agents, 
and the formation of associations in suitable places 
throughout the province; the sale of the Scriptures 
in buildings attached to the churches of both com- 
munions; their circulation in the army encamped 
Above the town, and the distribution of an address 
published by the Parent Committee in St. Peters- 
burgh, recommending the perusal of the word of 
God. The first of these measures the Goi^eraor 
himself undertook personally to carry into e£fect. 

The town of Kamenetz was first founded by 
the Lithuanians in the sixteenth century, and has 
been considered as the bulwark of Poland; but as 
a fortress it is of no great importance, being com- 
pletely commanded by the surrounding heights. 



After being repeatedly besieged, it was taken by 
the Turks in 1672, and remained in their hands 
till 1699, when it was delivered up to the Poles 
by the treaty of Carlo vitz. The Roman Catholic 
Cathedral is a noble edifice, close to which rises a 
tall minaret, with a gilded statue of the Virgin, 
treading on the crescent, having her head encom- 
passed by a circle of nine large and glittering stars. 
The population consists of Poles, Russians, Anne** 
nians, Greeks, and Jews. 


penons de$cnbed — Dresi — Marriaget-^Avertimi to AgrimA^ 
ture^AUachmeiU to Palestine— Educatum-^'ne TabnMd— 
Oral Traditum — CkMala — Supentition§ — Depravity — Bo' 
tred of ChrtMt — Opprestum. 

The attention of the reader having, in the course 
of th|3 preceding chapter, been more than once 
directed to the state of the Jews, I shall here 
collect, under one view, the results of those obser- 
vations which we made on our tour through the 
Russian-Polish provinces, as well as the accounts 
that were then, and have since been communicated 
to us, relative to that singular^ degraded, and . 
miserable people. Towards Poland, the exertions 
of British benevolence in behalf of the Jews, have 
of late been more particularly turned; and it is 
the duty of all who have any opportunities of 
becoming acquainted with the situation, circum- 
stances, numbers, opinions, rites and customs of 
the natural posterity of Abraham in these parts, to 
lay it before the public, that they may be better 
enabled to judge of the imperious call there is for 
the employment of every measure that can be 
brought into speedy and efficient operation, for the 



pwpoie of dijeikipating their ignoranee, -removing 
'tiieir prejudices, alleviating their misery, and in- 
troducing them into the holy and blessed fellow- 
ship of the true Messiah. Such as have never 1 
Gome into actual contact with them, can form no 
idea of the depth of moral degradation to which 
they are sunk, or the numerous and almost invin- 
• cible obstacles which impede the introduction and 
progress of the Gospel among them. ^ 

The number of Jews subject to the Russian 
sceptre, has been variously estimated, but accord- 
ing to the most accurate accounts I have been 
able to collect^ it falls little short of ttvo miUiens. 
In the kingdom of Poland they are to be seen 
swarming in every direction ; and in the provinces 
recently incorporated into the empire, their rapid 
increase is the subject no less of alarm than 
surprise to the other inhabitants. You-cannof^ 
enter a town or a village, how small soever its size, 
.where you are not met by them. Almost every 
thing is in their hands. They rent the estates of 
the nobility and gentry, farm the public taxes, 
manage the distilleries, keep the inns and brandy- 
shops; and so completely monopolize both the 
wholesale and retail trade, that it is scarcely pos- 
sible for those who profess the name of Christ, to 1 
do any thing in tlie way of business. In Poland 
' they have long enjoyed peculiar privileges, whii^h 
has led some to give that country the name of 
- ParadUus Judoe&rum, or the Jews' Paradise. We 
are not in possession of any authentic historical 
data, on which to build an opinion relative to die 
quarter whence they proceeded into the Polish 


territory; but^ to jodge frmn tbe j^reat prepmide 
ranee of German in their colloquial jargcua, it seeiaa 
in a high degree probable^ that whatever numbeiB 
may have emigrated in this direction from Persiay 
and other parta of the east, they came chiefly from 
the west, during some of those dreadful persecu- 
tions which were raised against them in the middk 
ages. Their first protector was one of the princes 
of Kalitsh. In 1264 they obtained regular privi- 
leges and immunities from Boleslaus, Duke of 
Halish; and about the middle of the following 
century, these privileges were greatly extended by 
Casimire the Great, at the instance of JBsther^ a 
Jewess of distinguished beauty, with whom he was 
enamoured. In return for these political advan- 
tages, the Jews often rendered the government 
powerful pecuniary assistance, taking care, how- 
ever, always to stipulate such terms as ultimately 
confirmed and extended their own influence. 

The Polish Jew is generally of a pale and 
sallow complexion, the features small, and the hair, 
which is mostly black, is suffered to hang in 
ringlets over the shoulders. A fine beard, cover- 
ing the chin, finishes the oriental character of the 
Jewish physiognomy. But few of the Jews enjoy 
a robust and healthy constitution; an evil result- 
ing from a combination of physical and moral 
causes, such as early marriage, innutritions food, 
the filthiness of their domestic habits, and the per- 
petual mental anxiety, which is so strikingly de- 
picted in their countenance, and formd jthe most 
onerous part of tbe curse of tbe Almighty to whieh 
they are subject in their dispersion. Their breath 


k absoltttely mtolenble ; and the ofiensive odour 
of their apartments is such, that I have more than 
once been obliged to break off interesting discus^ 
sions with their Rabbins, in order to obtain a fresh 
supply of rarefied air. 

Their dress commonly consists of a linen riiiit 
and drawers, over which is thrown a long black 
robe, fastened in front by silver clasps, and hang^ 
ing loose about the legs. They wear no hand- 
kerchief about their neck, and cover the head 
with a fur cap, and sometimes with a round broad- 
brimmed hat. In their walk, the Jews discover 
great eagerness, and are continually hurrying to- 
wards some object of gain, with their arms thrown 
back, and dangling as if loose at the shoulder. ^ 

ITiey generally marry at thirteen and fourteen 
years of age, and the females still younger. \ J. have J 
heard of a Rabbi, who was disposing of his house- 
hold preparatory to his departure for Palestine, 
that gave one of his daughters in marriage, who 
had but just completed her ninth year. As a . 
necessary consequence of this early marriage, it 
often happens that the young couple are unable to 
provide for themselves, and, indeed, altogether in- 
capable, from youth and inexperience, of ma- 
naging the common concerns of domestic economy. 
They are, therefore, often obliged to take up their 
abode at first in the house of the husband's father, 
<d&cept he be in reduced circumstances, and the 
-fttther of the bride be better able to support them. 
•The young husband pursues the study of the Tal- 
mud, or endeavours to make his way in the world 
by the varied arts of petty traffic, for which this 


people are so notorious. It is asserted to be no 
uncommon thing among the Jews for a father to 
choose for his son's wife some young girl who 
may happen to be agreeable to himself^ and with 
whom he may live on terms of incestuous famili- ^ 
arity during the period of his son's minority. 

Comparatively- f/BW of the Je^s learn any 
trade, and most of those attempts which have been 
made to accustom them to agricultural habits have 
proved abortive. Some of those who are in cir* 
cumstances of affluence, pos^ss houses and other 
immoveable property ; but the great mass of the 
people seem destined to sit loose from every local 
tie, and are waiting with anxious expectation for 
the arrival of the period, when, in pursuance of 
the Divine promise, they shall be restored to, what 
they still consider, their own land. Their attach* 
ment, indeed, to Palestine is unconquerable ; and 
it forms an article of their popular belief, that» die 
where they may, their bodies will all be raised there 
at the end of the world. They believe, however,- 
that such as die in foreign parts are doomed to 
perform the Gilgul Mehiloth (m^nn ^ij^j), or truur 
-dling passage through subterraneous caverns, till 
they reach the place of *' their fathers' sepul* 
chres;" on which account, numbers sell all their 
effects, and proceed thither in their life time, or 
remove to some of the , adjacent countries, that 
they may either spare themselves this t<^l, or, at 
least, reduce the awkward and troublesome pas- 
sage within the shortest possible limits. In- 
stances have been known of their embalming the 
bodies of their dead, and sending them tp Pa- 


lestine by sea; and in Buch veneration do they 
hold the earth that was trodden by their ancient 
patriarchs, that many of the rich Jews procure a 
quantity of it, which they employ in consecrating 
l^e ground in which the bodies of their deceased 
relatives are interred. 

Being acquainted with the fact, that their sacred 
books contain the most ancient written documents 
extant^ they naturally pique themselves greatly on 
Hebrew learning ; and in such honour are their 
Rabbins held, that it passes as a proverb among v 
them : " He that marries his daughter to a Ha- 
cham, or learned man, contracts a matrimonial 
alliance with heaven/' Their children are all 
taught to read Hebrew ^ at an early age ; but this 
reading consists merely in the rapid pronunciation 
of the words, without the smallest regard to their 
meaning. Such is the extent of the education 
afforded to their female children. Of the boys 
greater care is afterwards taken; on which account, 
among others, it forms part of their daily prayer— 
" Lord of the world) I thank thee that thou hast • 
not made me a woman." They are generally 
sent while young to the house of a Rabbi, who 
first teaches them to repeat with propriety the 
usual forms of prayer, and other pieces commonly 
printed in their manuals of devotion. They next ^ 
commence the study of the Torah, or five books 
of Moses, which most of them learn by heart. At 
the age of ten years, they are admitted to the 
study of the Talmud, which may not improperly 
be termed the Jewish Encyclopedia, as it treats 
of every subject in which a Jew can be supposed 


t0 be mterested, md, for tbia rwson^ is regard^ 
by him as th^ ne plu$ uUra of humao scieiice. 
When it is considered that thU cQUectlcKn of the 
i^^fMt frivolous aod ioi^ipid fragments of huimvi 
thought coMists of not fewer tiiau fwrteen folio 
volumes^ we cannot be surpiiaed. at the time ue* 
aes^artly OQHsiMiied in acqoiriag a knowledge of 
Mik QOAteAts^ or the direltil efiects of such a atui^y 
on the physical m well as mcoital groiwtb of Um 
Jlewish youth. 

It is well kncxwtt tt^ the Eftbb^iilqal Jew« ac* 
knowled^ a two-fold law-^'^ the written law'' 
CMPftv rn\tiy^ and ^' the trs^^iti^nairy of wal hrar'^ 
9i^^ra« nnrn); maintaaiBg, thai besides the widtteis 
law of dommandmente^ which Alosts r^eeived fron 
God Oft Moifii^t Sinai^ he was also favoitred witht a 
private iatecpretatioai of its contents^ wfaioh htb 
dfillvered by tradition to Aarw and his sons, bys 
whom it was handed down to the profAets^ andb 
by the prophets to whab is. called tbe Gneat Syna-- 
goguQ^ and so fi>fward till the time of Rabbit 
Jodab the Saint, by whom it waa first committed* 
tOi writing, about a hundred and ninety years afters 
the birth of Christ. Tbe cQostitutiws. and de- 
cisions, of this traditionary system of law ace atjU 
considered by the Jews to be paramouAt to th« 
wnttea law, which, is as completely made of oonjOr 
^fect by them, as it was by the Pharisees io. the^ 
days of our Lord. Every doubtful point, both o£ 
doctrine and practice, must be decided by a. 
learned. Rabbi according to. the rules and defi- 
nitions of the Talmud. Nor do they at all scruple 
to speak of it in higher terms of commeodfttion 

CABBAtA.-SUPERSfrnoSs. 227 

fhcrj^ do of the writteh Word — c6m{)aring the 
former to wine, and the lattet to water. 

The highest kind of Talmudic science is that 
Kif6#Q by the nafne of the Cabbala, a most absurd 
doctrine of mysfieal interpretation^ which consists 
in tlie transposition of the letters composing the 
#ords of Scripture, assigning to them arithmetical 
Talne, and taking each letter as the initial of a 
'#o)'d ; thus bringing out senses the most recon- 
dite and marvenous, from the simplest and plainest' 
parts of the sacred text. Such as hare become 
adepld in this occult science are regarded by the 
rest of the Jews as a species of demi-angelic 
beings. They arrogate to themselves the title — 
cMm ^bn, '' Possessors of the Name f pretending 
that they have received the true mystery and sig- 
Mfication of the incommunicable name of Jehovah^ 
by whSch is conceded to them the power of work- 
rag, miracles. 

That a people generally inclined to yield un- 
bouiided credence to the doctrines of such idipbs- 
^rs; efhould be in the highest degree superstitious^ 
caKttoi excite the least surprise. In nothing, how- 
ever, il^ this superstition more apparent than in: 
their use of the amulets, which they wear next 
flieir bodies, and affix to the doors of their 

TK^^'ltfSfer are generally inserted in an encase- 
ri&i^nt^ covered with glass, and are kissed by the 
Jews on eiitering or leaving the house. Such, 
indeed, is the importance they attach to them, 
that they firmly believe neither demons, ghosts, 
nor any power of magic can enter their habita- 



tions ; and that, when they touch the small piece 
of glass, inclosmg the Divine name, with the tip 
of their finger, and then stroke their eyes with 
it thrice, repeating the prayer, •^^•ir» nr unor* m^ 
unir nw, " The Almighty preserve me ! The A1-: 
mighty deliver me ! The Almighty assist me !'' — 
no harm of any kind can befal them. The name 
nm Shaddai, or its initial' v^, the Jews use as a 
talisman almost on every occasion. Even the 
butcher, when killing an ox, cuts this letter with 
his knife, in all the principal parts of the animal, 
to prevent any infernal influence from being ex^- 
erted upon them before the purchasers have con* 
veyed them to their houses. 

Many of the Rabbins gain their livelihood by 
writing talismans, which they sell at an enormous 
price to the deluded multitude. They also teach 
them the cabbalistic or hidden meaning of the 
Psalms, and how to apply them for the prevention 
or removal of different diseases with which they 
may be attacked. Thus, the first Psalm, written 
on parchment, and suspended round the neck of a 
female, while in a state of pregnancy» prevents 
abortion and premature delivery ; the second is an 
antidote for the head -ache, &c. 

Dupes of the most absurd superstitions^ and 
destitute of those principles, which alone are able 
to curb human depravity, the Jews are naturally 
abandoned to the perpetration of crimes, tl^ 
turpitude and demerit of which are modified or 
palliated by rabbinical sophistries, and the pow:er- 
ful impulse of cupidity and pride. 

The love of money, which is the root of all 


evil, is tbe predominating vice of the posterity of 
Abraham. Every thing is estimated by this 
standard. If you point out to a Jew an exqui- 
site piece of workmanship, he instantly discovers 
the ruling bias of his mind, by asking — ^not, who 
was the artificer, or how it was executed; but, 
what did it cost ? If he sees a statue, instead of 
his attention being called forth in admiration of 
its beauty, it is exclusively confined to the golden 
inscription — calculating how many ducats it would 
bring him, if placed at his disposal, instead of 
being fixed to the stone, where, in his opinion, 
its place might have been equally well supplied 
by iron. 

Their habits of illicit and unrighteous trade 
are proverbial. No means are regarded as sinful, 
^at promise to secure the acquirement of money ; 
cheating, lying, stealing, and even murder, if the 
'persons on whom they are practised be not Jews, 
are hallowed by the sanctions of the Rabbins. 
They make a point of stealing from a Chris- 
tian, whenever they have the smallest prospect 
of escaping with impunity. Nor is this pilfer- 
ing disposition confined to the more abject and 
wretched part of the community ; the well-dressed 
Jew is not unfrequently a thief in disguise — ^flat- 
tering himself with the hope, that his superior 
appearance will, make him pass without suspi- 

It has often been asserted, and not without 
foundation, that the Jews are awfully addicted 
to incontinency. Various causes have been as- 


signed for the preva^eqce of thvif ^^A ^P^<^ tiiem ; 
|)ut, if I mistake not, it may b^ trac^cl to t^e leiigth 
^nd minuteness of detail with which the Rabbins 
have discussed the subject of m^vwnj in boo^ to b^e 
found in every Jewish family, af^d to which th^ir 
youth have uurestrained access. For proofs of tl^ 
^ruth of this r^nark, the learned res^d^r is re.ferr^ 
tq the chapter, entitled mr^^ in th^ part vp^n n-u| 
of the Shulhan Aruch. 

To a Christian mind, i)o crim^ Mrith which ^v^ 
people are chargeable, will appear more atrocious 
than their unbelief, and the obstinacy with which 
they reject the glad tidings of reconciliation through 
the crucified Messiah. This, in effect, is the ft'uit- 
ful source of all their other sins; and, till tb^y are 
brought as hvunble penitents, to. ^* look upon Him 
whom they have pierced," and mourn witl^, a spirit 
of godly sorrow, over the indignities ^^ blas- 
phemies which they have uttered against him, it is 
in vain to expect any radical moral or po^iticsd 
improvement. Till then, the ttem^endou^ curse, 
impreca,ted by their apcestors, ** His bipod b^ 
on us, ai^d on our children," must continue tQ 
press with unalleviated weight upo^ t)^^ con* 

Not being al)le to meet the argijuneets. by 
which the Christians have prov^ froi^ their ow9 
Scriptures, that the Messiah must be coQie, ^gp^ 
that Jesus of Nazareth is the true Messiah,, tt^ 
Rabbins have declared it to b^ a sin fojr ^ny Jew 
to read Christian books ; and the great^l cwre is 
taken to prevent their children from li^if ip^ a^y 



it^tereouHe with thos6 Of Ghfi^tlaui. Ih ohtet 
tA6fe <^omplefeIy to b^rrie^de theii" minds agilinEft 
the entrance of truth, they teadh Ihettt a vocab«t^ 
hrty of blasphetxiidfi against mi blei^ed SaViotjft 
ateributing to him all the n^mes of idolatry tthd 
abotnitmtioti l^ecofded in the Old Testament, ieliid 
never mentioning even the abbreviated fc^m of 
his name w» Jesku, (for on no account will they 
pronounce it with the j?— yw* Jeshua, ** the Sa- 
viour,") without spitting three times on the 
ground, and expressing the obsecration, that it 
may perish from the earth. On Christmas eve, 
aware that it is customary among the Christians 
to institute a feast for 'their children, and read 
or relate to them the history of the birth of 
our Saviour, the Jews read in their families 
the infamous work, intitled Toldoth Jeshu, 
with the view of inspiring their offspring with 
the most inveterate prejudices against his cha- 

Besides the state of mental slavery in which 
the poor Jews are kept to the Rabbins, they are 
also greatly oppressed by a species of syndics, or 
magistrates, called Kakalsy who are appointed to 
act as organs of communication between them 
and government. They give in lists of the 
number of Jews belonging to the synagogues 
of the towns in which they hold their office, 
collect the poll- money, and publish and enforce 
the regulations enjoined by the civil power. In 
short, they seem to answer exactly to the an- 
cient PuhUcans, whose character they very gene- 


rally sustain, both amcmg their brethren, and 
all who possess any knowledge of their proceed- 
ings. Iliey rigidly extort the tax from the 
poorest wretch, whom they suffer to live in the 
place where they reside; and by reducing the 
number in the lists they give in to government, 
they enrich themselves at the expense of both. 



^^Habadim^^ZoharUeM — Jewish MutUm$ — Q^alificatum$ of 
a MisgUmary to the Jews — Ardutms Nature of the Worh — 
PUm of Operatum — Necessity of Caution — Support of Con- 

The most popular sect among the Jews, is that 
known by the name of Rabbifiists, or TcUtnudists, 
i. e. such as yield implicit obedience to the doc- 
trines and institutions of the Rabbins, as delivered 
in, or deducible from the Talmud, and who, ac- 
cording to the general acceptation of the term, may 
be accounted the orthodox. They are also some- 
times called BaaU Mishnah, or possessors of the 
Mlshnah, because its decisions obtain among 
them, as the sole and infallible interpretation of 
the law. They are precisely, in the present day, 
what the Pharisees were in the time of our Lord ; 
and it requires but tittle acquaintance with them, to 
be sensible of those features of character which are 
so strongly marked by the Evangelists, as distin- 
guishing that ancient sect. But, although the 
Rabbinists compose the great body of the Jews 
in Poland, there exist other denominations, the; 
numbers and peculiarities of which are too consi- 
derable not to strike the inquisitive traveller. 


^ , These are the Karaites, the Chasidim, and the 

Zoharites, or followers of Sabbathai Tzevi. As 
the first of these sects^ will form the subject of 
investigation in a subsequent part of this work, I 
here pass on to 

The Chasidim, or ** Pietists/' whom we must 
not confound with the party who took the same 
name in the time of the Maccabees, and rendered 
themselves famous by the zeal with which they 
contended for the national institutions. The sect 
to which I here refer, dates its origin no farther 
back than the year 1740, when its doctrines were 
first broached by Israel Baalshem, in the small 
oountry town of Flussty, in Poland. In the course 
of about twenty years, bis fame, as an exorcist, 
and nmster of the Cabbala, spread to such a de« 
gree, that he obtained a great number of followers 
in Poland, Moldavia, and Wattachia. This Rabbi 
gave out, that he alone was possessed of the true 
mystery of the Sacred name ; that his soul at cer- 
tain times left the body, m order to ireceive revela* 
tioBs in the world of spirits ; and, that he was 
endowed with miracrfows powers, by which he 
was able to eontrol events, both in the physical 
and intetlectnai worid. His foBewers were taitrght 
to look to him for rtrct absolwtion^ of every crime 
they might commit; to repregje CTOry thing like 
reflection on the doctrines of relfgioti ; fo- expect 
the immediafte appearance of the Messis^ ; dnd^ 
in sickness, to abstain from the use of medicine— 
asisnired, that their spiritual guides, of wIkm^ several 
made their appearance on the death of the fomider, 
were possessed of such merits, as would procure 

THE chasidim: 295 

for them inttant recovery. The accusations of 
gross immorality brought against the members of 
this sect by the Lithuanian Rabbi, Israel LoebeU 
have been called in question,* and are supposed 
ratber to have originated in prejudice, than tp have 
any foundation in truth ; but I have been informed 
by one, who has had the best opportunities of in- 
vestigating the subject, that their morals are most 
obnoxious, and that the representations that have 
been given of them are by no means exaggerated. 
They are not only at enmity with all the other 
Jews, but form the bitterest and most bigotted 
enemies of the Christian religion. They believe, 
that the Messiah, whom they are hourly expect* 
iiig, will be a mere man, but will come with such 
an effulgeBce of glory, as to produce a complete 
regeneration in the heart of every Jew, and deliver 
them thenceforth from every evil. To their 
Rabbins, whom they honour with the name of 
Zadiksy or ** Righteous,'* they pay almost divine 
homage. The extravagance of their gestures 
during their public service, entitles them to the 
appellatipn of the '* Jewish Jumpers." Working 
themselves up into extacies, they break out into 
fits of laughter, clap their hands, jump up and 
down the synagogue in the most frantic manner ; 
and turning their faces towards heaven, they clench 
their fists, £»d, a3 it were, dare the Almighty to 
withhold from them the objects of their requests. 
This sect has so increased of late years, that in 
Musam^ Poland and European Turkey, it is re- 

[hire's Histoira cles Swtes Religieusea, tom. ii. p. 348. 


ported to exceed in number that of the 
in these parts. 

Of this sect there exists a subdivision founded 
by Rabbi Solomon, in the government of Mohilef. 
They are distinguished by the name of Habadim^ 
a word composed of the initial letters of the three 
Hebrew words, njn nx*^ nmn, ** wisdom, intelligence, 
and knowledge/' They may not improperly be 
termed the '' Jewish Quietists," as their distin* 
fishing peculiarity consists in the rejection of 
external forms, and the complete abandonment of 
the mind to abstraction and contemplation. In- 
stead of the baptisms customary among the Jews, 
they go through the signs without the use of th« 
element, and consider it their duty to disengage 
themselves as much as possible from matter, be* 
cause of its tendency to clog the mind in its ascent 
to the Supreme Source of Intelligence. In prayer 
they make no use of words, but simply place 
themselves in the attitude of supplication, and ex- 
ercise themselves in mental ejaculations.^ 

The ZoharUes, so called from their attachment 
to the book Zohar, are properly to be regarded as 
a continuation of the sect formed by the famous 
Sabbathai Tzevi. Their creed is briefly as fol- 
lows: 1. They believe in all that God has ever re- 
vealed, and consider it their duty constantly to 
investigate its meaning. 2. They regard the letter 
of Scripture to be merely the shell, and .that it 
admits of a mystical and spiritual interpretation. 
3. They believe in a Trinity of Parzufim, or 
persons in Elohim. 4. They believe in the incar- 
nation of God ; that this incarnation took place in 


Adam, and that it will again take place in the 
Messiah. 5. They do not believe that Jerusalem 
will ever be re-built. 6* They believe that it^is 
vain to expect any temporal Messiah; but that 
God will be manifested in the flesh, and in this 
state atone, not only for the sins of the Jews, but 
for the sins of all throughout the world who believe 
in him. 

This sect was revived about the year 1750, by 
a Polish Jew, of the name of Jacob Frank, who 
settled in Podolia^ and enjoyed the protection of 
the Polish government, to which he was recom- 
mended by the Bishop of Kamenetz, in whose 
presence he held disputes with the orthodox Jews, 
and who was astonished at the approximation of 
his creed to the principles of Christianity. On the 
death of the Bishop, he and his adherents were 
driven into the Turkish dominions ; and being also 
persecuted there by the Rabbinists, they resolved 
to conform to the rites of the Catholic Church. 
Frank at last found a place of rest at Offenbach, 
whither his followers flocked by thousands to visit 
him, and where he died in 1791. Their number 
does not appear to have increased much of late; 
but they are to be met with in different parts of 
Hungary and Poland. 

Such is the substance of what I have collected 
relative to the state of this remarkable people in 
the. East of Europe. I doubt not but there are to 
be found among them many honourable exceptions 
to the darker parts of the picture; but such, 
as far as my observation goes, is generally the 
outline of their character, their habits of thought. 

298 QUAUFiCATiom or a jswiw missionaby. 

and their deportmeiik in society. Many evils^ 
aimilar to those which have been tei'e prominently 
exhibited, certainly do exist auMHig those ^h0 
profess the name of Christ; and it would be 
palpably m^just to expose that in a Jely which is 
witiked at, or suffered to pass with impunity in the 
professor of Christianity. But my object is not 
to expose merely for the sake of exposure. I 
conceive it to be our duty to bring to puMie Aotice 
the obliquities of our fallen nature, only in so far 
as there exists a rational probability that^ by 
the blessing of God, the disclosure may lead to 
the adoption of measures suited to curb or eradi- 
cate the evil. 

The work of a Mission^ary to the Jews is of the 
most arduous and trying nature, and requires a 
more diaa ordinary degree of personal piety, stes^ 
zeal, and determined perseverance, accompanied 
l¥ith literary qualifications of a kind seldom to be 
met with among those who have not, at an early 
period, been habituated to t^e study of HebY6\t 
literature. The Missionary who would nhafke any 
impression upon this people, must not only bevCri- 
tic^y skilled in their ancient dialects, and possess 
such a local familiarity with their sacred writiings, 
as to be a living concordance, but he must maifie 
himself master of the Rabbinical Hebrew, and be 
able to convei«e and argue with them> in theif 
common colloquial jargon. To a knowledge of 
the Talmud,, he must add a critical acquaintanee 
with the best Jewish commentators, such as Abem 
e2ra, and David Kimchi, and especially Solomon 
Jarchi, commonly known by the name of Raski, to 


whose authority the Jews oonstantly. refer, and 
whose deciskm they consider as superseding all 
further tqppeal. His comaientary has often been 
reprinted; and, it may safely be affirmed, that 
there is scarcely a Jewish house in which some 
part of it is not to be found. As his expositions 
of the Hebrew text are chiefly founded on the 
sense given in the Targums, it is requisite that 
such parts of these ancient paraphrases as are 
lijosly to-be brought forward in controversy, should 
be particularly studied by the Missionary; and, in 
order to set aside the absurd traditionary fictions 
of many of the Rabbinical interpreters, he ought 
especially to avail himself of the less prejudiced,, 
aad strictly grammatical commentary of Aben-ezra. 
in Kiiachi and Abarbanel he will find the strongest 
arguments ever employed by the Jews against 
Christianity, which it will be useful for him to 
have at his command, as he will thereby have it 
in his power to cut short the long-winded state- 
ments- of the modem Rabbins, and be prepared 
with the most appropriate and cogent refutations. 

It may, however, be asked by some, why enter 
at all into any discussion about the doctrines and 
opinions of men? Ought not the Christian Mis- 
ttoaary to cca^ne himself simply and solely to the. 
ti^mony of Scripture, and the moment the Jew 
leaves this ground, either to recall hb attention 
to it> or drop the subject altogether? The objection 
sounds plausible, but the method proposed cannot 
possibly be reduced to practice, without infallibly 
bringing matters to the latter alternative, in which 
CM6 a total cessation of missionary labour must 


necessarily ensue. If the Jews are not in some 
measure reasoned with on their own principles, 
you will find it impossible to convince them of the 
truth of any proposition you may exhibit to their 
minds. They are, in general, totally incapable of 
comprehending any thing like a logical argument, 
but are well supplied with the quirks and subter- 
fuges which have been invented for them by the 

In the true spirit of his office, wherever the 
Missionary meets with a Jew, he enters into con* 
versation with him about the concerns of his im- 
mortal spirit. The Jew immediately excuses 
himself, or brings forward objections. These ob- 
jections the Missionary endeavours to meet; but, 
while he is doing this, other ,Fews join them, and 
not unfrequently object, in almost the same terms 
employed by the individual with whom he was 
already engaged. Of course he is obliged to go 
over the same ground; and thus he is sometimes 
kept from morning till night, when, after the 
exhaustion of the day, he throws himself upon his 
couch, grieved at the hardness of their hearts, and 
more than ever convinced, that, except the Al- 
mighty power of Jehovah be exerted, all human 
endeavours must prove fruitless. Who does not 
perceive, that those who are appointed to such a 
field of labour, ought to be pre-eminently gifted 
with a patient and persevering spirit, such as will 
not be disheartened, though daily foiled in their 
attempts to bring some poor ignorant Jew to a 
saving acquaintance with himself, and the great De- 
liverer whom God hath sent ,to Zion; and who will 


go on in the exercise of unshaken faith, lively 
hope, and fervent prayer — exhibiting the Divine 
testimony both in season and out of season, in 
the morning sowing their seed, and in the evening 
withholding not their hand; seeing they know not 
whether shall prosper, this or that, or whether 
they may not be alike good. Except they be men 
of God^ having their minds deeply influenced 
by the realities of an approaching eternity, and 
thoroughly imbued with the conviction, that the 
conversion of the Jews is to be effected by means 
of human instrumentality, they will never be able 
to sustain the numerous assaults with which every 
Jewish Missionary must lay his account — assaults 
from within and from without, from Jews and from 
men calling themselves Christians, bijt who are 
altogether destitute of the spirit and influence ojf 
genuine Christianity. 

Most of the attempts hitherto made to convert 
the Jews have been confined to itinerant labours^ 
in the prosecution of which the missionary con* 
verses with such of the descendants of Abrahjam 
as he has access to in the different places he visits ; 
distributes among them copies of the Hebrew 
New Testament, and religious tracts ; and endea- 
vours, where he finds opportunity, to excite atten- 
tion to the state of this outcjast race, among those 
who not only profess, but> in some measure, act 
conformably to the Gospel of Christ. That such 
journeys ought to be undertaken by all who engage 
in the work, I am fully convinced ; but then, I would 
advise it, not so much with a view to any exten- 
sive good that might be expected to result from 

242 , PLAN OF OPERAtiO!! . 

them to tlie Jews, as what ittay accrtie to the M»* 
sionary himself. He will learn more on a short 
tour of this nature^ of the real state of the field 
he is desirous of cnltiyating, and the means re** 
quisite for its su^^cessful cultivation, than he ever 
could acquire from books, or through the medittm 
of oral tuition. But it is my settled conviction, 
founded not only on personal observation, but also 
on the statements of those who have been engaged 
in this department of labour, that, in order to giv^ 
rt any thing like permanent efficiency, proper sta<- 
tions ought to be selected for the ordinary resi« 
dence of the Missionaries, and a course of regular 
instruction imparted to such Jews as may feel ao 
much of the importance of religious truth as to be 
willing to tearch for it wherever it may be founds 
and listen to it by whomsoever it may be com- 

If the Missionaries live devoted to the service 
of God, and possess those qualifications by which 
^ey shall be able to confound the Jews, ** shew* 
ing by the Scriptures that Jesus is the Messiah,'' 
it will soon be rumoured through every town and 
village ; by which means, those who may preri* 
ously have had convictions awakened in their 
bosom, by a tract or a copy of the New Testa^ 
ment, will be directed to what quarter to proceed 
in order to obtain information and advice respeet* 
ing the way of life. Not that future itineraoies 
are to be abandoned by those who settle at such 
stations. They will still find it useful, at certain 
intervals, to undertake a short journey, for tlie 
purpose of exciting fresh attention, giving away 


new tneto, and yia&ting ihm brethren at some of 
ik^ €f(her stations for mutiial conferejace jand edi- 
ficatum. With this view, it is advisable that at 
least two be appointed to each station, that one 
«Qay always be on the spot to receive inquirers, 
while the other is absent. 

It is highly necessary that those who engage 
in the ministry of the Gospel acDong the Jews 
should possess a profound knowledge of human 
Jiature. Without this they will not be able to dis- 
criminate character, or prevent themselves and 
others from being imposed .upon by such aa 
«nerely feign a concern about divine things, and 
profess to receive the truth, while they remain ia 
the .gall of bitterness and in the bond of iniquity; 
They will find it necessary to examiqfi minutely 
iota the motives of the proselyte, and ascertain 
whether some irksome or dishonourable circum^ 
«tanees among the Jews are not the cause of his 
ileairii^ them ; whether he be not induced to take 
fmb a step by poverty, or from the prospect of 
reoeiviDg temporal support among Christians ; or, 
&Mi£|y, wrhether he :be not aotoated by a desire of 
aequiiing knowledge, in order to qualify him for 
fiUkkg some learned profession by which jbe may 
itope to irise to celebrity and hononr. There k 
^^reat Feason to ifnr thart this last mentioned mo^ 
4iv0 is of very exteasiw operation in iadocing 
ymrag Jmts to »ake a professioa of\€hiMtiamty. 

\Gvnt icaw mmt also be taken in the distrUw- 
.tmn of the New Testament Soriptores, and otlier 
rei%ious boohs among the Jem»; for it:ha8;C(iMe 
to OUT: knowledge -that, in some <)f -those instaaiDes 



in which they have discovered an uncommon de- 
gree of eagerness to obtain copies^ their only ob- 
ject has been to collect them for the purpose of 
their being burnt by the Rabbi. 

One of the most serious difficulties connected 
with all attempts to convert the Jews, is the tem- 
poral support of the converts. The moment it 
becomes known to their brethren that they have 
embraced the Christian faith, not only are the ties 
of natural affinity between them and their rela- 
tions disclaimed, but the whole of Jewry is up in 
arms against them, and every prospect of assist- 
ance from that quarter is for ever cut off. From 
mere professors of Christianity they meet with 
contumely and reproach. Few of them have 
learned hipdicrafts ; and what little learning any 
of them may possess, being entirely confined to 
the Hebrew department, cannot be turned to any 
practical or pecuniary account. In these trying 
circumstances, to whom are they to look but to 
the Missionary, and such as may be associated 
with him, or by whom he has been sent out? 
Yet, much as these may be inclined to pity them, 
and administer to their relief, it has been doubted 
whether rendering them pecuniary or temporal 
aid would not hold out a strong worldly motive to 
outcast Jews to profess the faith of Christ. To 
present any such inducement would certainly be 
inconsistent with the spiritual nature of Christ's 
kingdom ; but, on the other hand, it would be no 
less opposite to its grand characteristic feature, 
and the most prominent of its standing laws — 
brotherly /bve— to abandon to absolute starvation 


those who make a credible profession of having 
forsaken all for the sake of Christ. 

The only plan which it seems eligible to 
adopts is the institution of an asylum into which 
the converts might be received, and instructed 
in various useful professions or trades, by which 
they might not only support themselves, but con- 
tribute to defray the expenses incurred by its 
establishment and maintenance. With this Insti- 
tution should be connected the cultivation of those 
branches of agricultural labour which might be 
found necessary for supplying its domestic wants, 
and those of such as live in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood. As at least a couple of Missionaries 
would constantly reside at such an asylum, be- 
sides enjoying the privileges connect^ with the 
celebration of weekly worship, all the member^ of 
the establishment would assemble for morning 
and evening devotions ; and in the school attached 
to it would be different departments, according 
to the different ages and degrees of proficiency in 
the scholars. It ought, in short, to be somewhat 
on the plan of a Moravian Settlement. 


!%€ Dme$ier—Khoiin—HiUi of Moldama—Moldmnan or Wal^ 
tachian BUUe—T^ Goth$—The Veniam of Ulpk%la9-^Bret- 
thani^Turkiih Frontier— Affectimff Quarantine Scene— Pa^ 
iemkin^i Monument— Banditti of Robberi—Kitkenef—Tk^ 
Offpsies — Betearahian Bible Soeiky — BnigdrioM^ — Bnlgarimm 
Lafiguage, and Venion of Matthew — Serbian New Te$tauieni 
— Greek Metropolitan in a Cwtk — TVo/on fFo/b — Bender — 
Tiratpol — Mongolian TunhUi — Odeaa Bible Societtf — Fune- 
ral of the Greek Patriarck. 

Our apprqyh to Moldavia, and the first stage of 
our journey in that province, were not of the most 
agreeable nature. We had scarcely left Kame^ 
netz, on the morning of the 4th of June, when it 
began to rain ; and it continued, with little inter- 
mission, the whole day. Passing through Ivanetz^ 
a small fortified place about seventeen versts from 
Kamenetz, we arrived at the bank of the Dniester, 
where we were detained nearly an hour by the re- 
gistering of our passports at the Custom-house; 
and, after we had crossed the river, we found 
nobody on the opposite side, but a few Kozaks 
stationed to protect the passage. While one of 
them was dispatched to the first station to pro- 
cure horses, we ascended the rising ground form- 
ing the right bank of the river, whence we com- 
manded an extensive view of the Russian and 
Austrian frontiers, which are here divided by the 


mnalt river ZbrutcK falling mto the Dniester close 
behind the Custom-house, situated on its northern 
bank. We could discover a number of Austrian 
farms, the houses on which seemed more to wear 
the appearance of what we bad been accustomed 
to in Germany, than any we had seen in Russia* 
The country to the north and west abounded in 
wood, and assumed more of a mountainous aspect 
the further it stretched in those directions. 

At our feet flowed the Dniester, the Tyros, 
and Danastus of antiquity, which takes its rise 
from a lake in the Karpathian mountains, and falls 
into the Black Sea, after forming an estuary be- 
tween Akkerman and OvidiopoL Its waters are 
white and muddy ; it abounds in different kinds of 
fish, particularly the sterlet and sturgeon, and is 
navigable by barks pretty high up into the Aus- 
trian territory. It is chiefly remarkable on account 
of its having anciently divided Dada from Sarma- 
tia : and, till within these few years, it formed the 
boundary between the Russian and Turkish do- 
minions. Since the annexation of the eastern 
part of Moldavia to Russia, this boundary is 
formed by the Prut. 

After waiting upwards of four hours, we had 
at last the pleasure of seeing our horses arrive; 
but they were such poor-looking animals, with 
no other harness but a piece of sail-cloth oiji 
the breast, and small ropes with which to draw 
the carnage, that we could not help forming a 
most unfavourable idea respecting the new terri- 
tory on which we bad entered. The roads being 
heavy from the rain, we were obliged to put all 


the eight horses to one of our carriages, before we 
could reach the summit of the eminence to the 
south of the river. At the distance of a few versts, 
we passed to the right of the fortress of Khotin, 
originally constructed by the Genoese, and latterly 
fortified by the Turks. It stands on the bank of 
the Dniester^ which it completely commands; 
but, although it exhibits high walls, it does not 
appear to be of great strength. A beautiful mina- 
ret, built on a mosque, which is now converted 
into a place of Christian worship, betokens the 
recent domination of Moslem influence. We now 
entered the town, which is situated a little above 
the fortress, and were presently furnished with a 
specimen of the Turkish style of building. The 
houses are^of wood, in general low, with covered 
terraces towards the streets, which are narrow 
and irregular beyond description. It is chiefly 
inhabited by Jews, to the number of about 2,000. 
Desirous of reaching the next station, we passed 
through Khotin without stopping, but had scarcely 
reached the summit beyond, when our carriage 
stuck fast in the mud ; the horses obstinately re- 
fused to proceed ; and, as the rain poured down 
impetuously, we were necessitated to return into 
the town. We had often found it diflicult to pro- 
cure lodgings in the Russian Polish towns; but 
our difficulties now increased, and we were at last 
obliged to take shelter in a Jewish billiard-roam ! 

The following morning, we prosecuted our 
journey across the Moldavian hills, surrounded by 
scenery totally difierent from any we had seen in 
Russia. It is made up of high broad eminences, 


irregularly intersected by charming valleys, the 
whole surface of which is covered with the richest 
vegetation, and exhibits the most delightfully va- 
riegated botanical carpet imaginable. Herds of 
cattle, to the number of six or seven hundred, 
were seen grazing in various directions; and, at 
long and distant intervals^ we fell in with a Mol- 
davian village, consisting of a few scattered huts, 
with a church, nearly resembling in size and ap- 
pearance what I had seen in Iceland. The in- 
habitants seem to have been in great poverty 
during the period of their subjection to the Turks, 
and the priests are scarcely distinguishable from 
the common peasants; but their circumstances 
are beginning to improve, and measures are adopt- 
ing for accelerating the amelioration both of their 
physical and mental condition. They are the de- 
scendants of the Daci, and of the Roman colonists 
who were planted here by Trajan ; and their lan- 
guage, commonly known by the name of the ff^al- 
lachian, presents a curious mixture of foreign 
words. Of these, a very great proportion is Ita- 
lian, or vulgar Latin, a considerable number Sla- 
vonic, and the rest are Grothic, Greek, or Turkish. 
The peasants still call themselves Rumanie, or 
Romans, a name they inherit from their ancestors, 
who actually enjoyed the title and privileges of 
Roman citizens. 

I'revious to the year 1648, no part of the 
Scriptures existed in Uie Wallachian language^ the 
Greek or Slavonic being used in the church-ser- 
vice^ and the only Bibles in use were in these 
languages ; but in that year the New Testament 

260 lUEOOTUS. 

was printed at Belgrad. A copy of this extremely 
scarce edition is still preserved in the Bodleian 
library, and is found among the MSS. No. 5225.* 
Of the Bible four editions have been printed. 
The two first were printed at Bukharest^ in 1668 
and 1714 ; the thirds at Blaje, in Transylvania^ ia 
1795 ; t ^i^d ^^ fourth, by the Russian Bible So«- 
ciety, St. Petersburgh, 1819. The two first are 
both in folio; the last is in royal octavo; but 
the size of the Blaje edition I have not been able 
to ascertain. A copy of the edition of 1714 is 
in the Royal Library of Dresden, and an account 
of it is to be found in Willer's Altes obus alien Thei-^ 
len der Geschichte, Th. 2, 8. 833. The trans- 
lation was made by the Metropolitan Theodosius, 
by order of Jo. Scherban Woivoda, a Prince of 
Wallachia. An edition of the New Testament was 
also printed at St. Petersburgb, in 1817. The 
number of those by whom this language is spoken 
has been estimated at nearly two millions. 

It was not without feelings of melancholy in- 
terest that we travelled through a territory once 
inhabited by a literary Christian people, who have 
now totally perished from the face of the earth. I 
refer to the Goths. Abandoning their original 
seats, they made inroads into the Roman pro-, 
vinces, and established themselves on both sides 
of the Dniester. Those who dwelt to the east 
of that river obtained the name of Ostro-Goths, 
and those who inhabited the region on its western 

' * Le Long, p. 370. Dr. Mar$h'$ History of Trand. p. S. 
t Bible Society Report for 1817, p. 80. 


bank, that of Visi or We0t Goths. In Dacia, they 
not only found the Romana rusiica, which con- 
skletobly affected the purity of their language, 
but the Cfariatiaa religion, which they adopted, 
and in which they were instructed and confirmed 
by learned presbyters, whom, among other pri- 
soners, they took captive during their irruptions 
into Uie eastern parts of the Roman empire. Their 
Metropolitan, Theophilus, was present at the Ni- 
eean Council, in the year 325 ; and his successor, 
Ulphilas, invented an alphabet for their use, and 
translated the Scriptures into their vernacular Ian* 
guage. Of this precious philological and critical 
work the most valuable monument is preserved in 
the Ubrary of the University of Upsala, and is 
well known by the name of the Codex Argenteus, or 
^' the Silver Book." It contains the greater part 
of the Four Gospels, and has gone through several 
editions. Fragments of the Epistle to the Komans, 
in the same version, were discovered by Knittel 
in the library of Wolfenbiittel ; and, in 1817, the 
Abate Mai discovered the Paulinian Epistles, with 
the exception of the Epistle to the Hebrews, in 
the Ambrosian library at Milan. He further dis- 
covered some parts of the Books of Ezra and Ne- 
hemiah, and there is reason to hope that, in the 
course of time, we may be put in possession of the 
whole of the Scriptures in this ancient language 
and version. 

Our route lay at the distance of twenty versts 
from the Prut, and about thirty from the Dnie^^ 
ster. At the small country town of Bretchani, we 
observed a number of Jews and Armenians, and 


learned, that the former constitute the chief part of 
the population, amounting to a hundred and fifty 
families. The Armenians have inhabited Mol- 
davia and Wallachia since the year 1418. At the 
post-house, we first observed the use of divans 
instead of chairs ; and several smaller diversities in 
the customs and dress of the inhabitants indicated 
a kind of transition from European to Oriental 
manners. Passing through the small town of 
Biltzi, which was filled with military, we pro- 
ceeded, as we conceived, in the direction of Kishe- 
neff the provincial town ; but, after changing 
horses at the next station, and gaining the summit 
of a mountain-pass, we were rather surprised to 
discover a delightful valley opening before us to 
the right, intersected by a meandering river of 
considerable size, beyond which stretched a noble 
range of blue mountains, vastly superior to any 
thing we expected to behold before reaching the 
Caucasus. On inquiring of the postillion, we found 
that we were on the frontiers of Turkey, and, as 
matters then stood, within a few versts of horrid 
scenes of warfare and devastation. Instead of 
sending us forward by the direct route, the In- 
spector of the Post at Biltzi (a Greek) turned us 
round by this devious course, in order to gain the 
difference of a couple of rubles ; but, though we 
were at first rather mortified on detecting the im- 
position, we could not but feel a considerable 
degree of interest in the reflection, that we had 
reached another of those grand political divisions 
which partition this quarter of the globe. 

Descending into the valley, we passed several 


Tillages, mostly occupied by military, and ad- 
vanced to the quarantine of STadani^ which is situ- 
ated on the left bank of the Prut, within a few 
hours ride of the town of Icissy. Here a scene 
was presented to our view of the most novel and 
motley description. Wallachians, Moldavians, 
Serbians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Jews, and Gypsies, 
to the number of 20,000, of every rank and con- 
dition of life, were in the act of emigrating from 
the principality of Moldavia, in order to escape the 
vengeance of the Turks, in case the latter should 
retrieve the losses they had sustained in the late 
insurrection. Below the village, every hole and 
corner of which was filled, stood the Quarantine, 
which ordinarily consists of a few houses properly 
adapted to the purposes of the institution; but, 
at this time, it occupied a space of several versts, 
surrounded by a regular cordon of soldiers, within 
which we could descry tents and carriages of all 
descriptions, with men, women, children, horses, 
cows, sheep, goats, dogs, swine, cats, and, in short, 
every thing the poor emigrants could take along 
with them 'from their natal country. Better 
materials for the pencil of a master cannot well be 
imagined. On the opposite bank of the river 
stood several thousands more, contending with 
each other who should first get into the ferry-boats, 
which were passing and repassing without inter- 
mission. Beyond the valley, on a hill partially 
covered with wood, stood a noble mansion, be- 
longing to the dowager lady of a Moldavian Bojar, 
. or nobleman^ at that time occupied by a detach- 
ment of five hundred soldiers belonging to the 


forces raised by YpsilaiBd. The ppoprietreas we 
saw driving about in SJciftkni in great style^ in fi 
carriage and four, with two riders in front and 
a couple of footmen behind, all dressed in the 
Turkish costume. Incon&aderable as the viUage 
otherwise appeared, it possessed at this time an 
importance not to be equalled by many towns, 
containing treasures to the amount of several mil- 
lions of rubles. 

The destitute circumstances of the great pro- 
portion of the emigrants, loudly called for some 
exertions on the part of the Bible Society, to 
supply them with tiiat blessed Book which alone 
affords effectual consolation under liie vicissitudes 
of life, by inspiring the mind with the joyful hope 
of an inheritance incorruptible and nndefiled, and 
that/adeth not away^ and the firm conviction, thst 
the present light afflictions of believers, which arc 
only momentary, work out for them a far move 
exceeding and eternal weight of gloty. We 
therefore resolved to bring their case before the 
Bessarabian Committee, to which the cape of sup- 
plying the wauUs of this district properly be- 

Having slept all n^ht under the veranda of 
the post-house, .we set off early on the 7th acvaas 
the hilly regions to the east, from many parts of 
which wa obtained delightful views of the iH'oad 
valley stretching itself between the two empiras of 
Bussia and Turkey; which was beautifiiHy divided 
by the serpentine course of the Prai^ and bound- 
ed on both sides by mountain ranges, consisting of 
diversified tracts of forests pasturage, and cultivated 


grcimd. As we descended into ade^ valley « in 
the midst of this mountain scenery, our attention 
was arrested by a monument on the left side of 
the road, which, on our coming up to it, proved 
to be that erected by order of the Empress Cathe- 
rine, on the spot where Prince Potemkin ter- 
minated a life the most splendid for honoors, 
dignities, and riches, that perhaps ever fell to the 
lot of a courtier. It consists of a round pillar, 
standing on a pedestal, and exhibiting on two 
sides of a square tablature, near the summit, a 
Russian inscription, the letters of which, owing to 
Ae softness of the stone, are beginning to become 

Having reached the foot of the hill, we were 
astonished to find one of our number, who had gone 
on a little before us, surrounded by a number of 
people armed with muskets and pikes> and others 
running to join them from a neighbouring cabin. 
On reaching them, we ascertained, that owing to 
the mountains before us being infested with a 
band of robbers, they had been appointed by 
government to escort travellers across it, and came 
to tender us their service ; but as they looked so 
much like robbers themselves, we were averse to 
engage them, and agreed only to take two of 
them beyond the pass. Our fowling pieces were 
already loaded; we now loaded our pistols^ and 
unpacked our swords, which had hitherto lain 
well secured in the bottom of the carriage, and 
thus putting ourselves in the best state of defence, 
being able to discharge twelve balls at the first 
attack, we proceeded up the hill, which was ex- 


ceedingly Bteep, and covered on both sides of the 
road with the darkest forest Excepting a single 
Kozak, however, whom we met returning from 
the next station, we did not see a human being, 
but our feelings were naturally kept in a state of 
considerable excitement till we descended into 
the inhabited tract on the other side of the moun- 
tain. Here the accounts we received corroborated 
the statements of the escort; and we afterwards 
ascertained it to be a fact, that the banditti con- 
sisted of twelve well-armed men on horseback, 
and that they had killed and robbed a traveller 
only a few days before we passed. They are a 
party of freebooters from Turkey, who, swimming 
their horses across the Prut, had escaped the 
vigilance of the Russian pickets. 

The scenery was romantic beyond description, 
and the remainder of our journey to Kishenefyv?^ 
exceedingly pleasant, being performed through a 
fertile valley, presenting villages, fields, meadows, 
and vineyards ; and, on either side, a chain of moun- 
tains covered with wood. As we approached the 
town, the mountains gradually became lower, and at 
length every vestige of wood disappeared ; but, just 
before we entered it, we were interrupted by the 
discovery of a long row of pointed stones, evident- 
ly of remote erection, and forming part of one of 
the walls which the Emperor Trajan caused to be 
built through Dacia, and extending as far as 
the Tauridian Peninsula. 

As is frequently the case with travellers in 
these parts, we found it difficult to obtain lodg- 
ings in Kishenef. While we stopped in the street 


till our postillion went in quest of tbern^ we were 
exposed to the rude insolence of the postmaster, 
(a Greek), who abused us in such style for detain- 
ing his horses, that we could not but feel our 
greater proidmity to Constantinople than Peters- 
burgh, and regretted that he had profited so little 
by his change of masters. 

Kishenef, which a few years ago was only 
an inconsiderable village, has now risen to some 
importance, being the seat of government and 
the residence of the Exarch, and other dignitaries 
of the Moldavian, Serbian, and Armenian churches. 
It is situated on the small river Buik, and is 
divided into three parts, according to the variation 
in the surface of the ground on which it is built. 
It contains nearly 20,000 inhabitants of different 
nations and habits of life. Next to the Jews, 
who have a fine synagogue, and amount in number 
to upwards of 4,000, the most remarkable race that 
arrests the eye of the traveller is the Tckiganies, 
or Gypsies, who inhabit a particular quarter of 
the town, and are distinguished by habits, occupa- 
tions, and a polity peculiar to themselves. 

The first time we observed any of this singular- 
looking class of men was at Kursk ; they increased 
upon us as we proceeded southward ; and towards 
the Turkish frontiers, they became exceedingly 
numerous; but it was only at this place that 
we found any of them stationary. Their houses 
are built of wood, within small courts inclosed by 
wattled fences, in the same manner as those of the 
Moldavians, and exhibit more of cleanliness and 
order than might be supposed from the general 

258 THE QYP9IU. 

appearance ctf the people. Their femtloi are 
exceediDgly fond of drese* and generally adorn 
tbemselyes with a profusion of trinkets. Some of 
them possess a considerable share of beauty ; but 
with all their efforts to brighten their skin by 
the gloss whidi they contrive to give to their 
faces, they find it impossible to eradicate the 
unequivocal marks which they exhibit of remote 
Asiatic origin. Some of the men practice handi* 
crafts, but the greater number deal in horses, and 
are frequently absent a great part of the year. 

Of the strolling Gypsies we saw great numbers 
encamped with their waggons and baggage, io the 
vicUuty of the town. Their look was haggard and 
miserable in the extreme. They had reeenUj 
wrived from Turkey, and appeared to be in cik»^ 
cumstances of great poverty. They mostly sub* 
eist by juggling and fortune-telling, and are no- 
torious for pilfering and dissolute conduct. 

Not only the physiognomy, but the language of 
this remarkable people, proves them of Indian 
ori^n; but at what period, or by what means they 
first penetrated into Europe^ in almost every 
country of which they are found to exist* is a 
problem yet remaining unsolved in the history of 
our species. 

Separated from the rest of the town is a large 
green square^ formed by insulated irtcme buildings, 
at different distances, scmie of which, such as tlie 
residence of the Exarch, the government offices, 
4Mid others, present a stately superior appearance. 

By the death of the late Exarch Gabriel, the 
<»i)8e of the Bible Society lost a warm and zealous 


friend^ but it is cordially espoused hy his Vicar and 
present successor, Demetrius, Bishop of Akkerman 
and Bender, than whom, we did not meet with any 
more devotedly active in the whole course of our 
journey. It also gave us great pleasure to find he 
had most valuable coadjutors in Ireneus, Archiman^ 
drite and Rector of the Spiritual Seminary, and 
his Excellency General Insof, the Stadtholder, 
and Governor of all the colonies in the south 
of Russia. On the 10th, we attended a meeting 
of the Bessarabian Committee, and were quite 
delighted to observe the spirit which appeared in its 
members, and the manner in which they transacted 
the business that came before them. Besides the 
personages just mentioned, there were present 
the Governor and Vice-Governor, the Armenian 
Archbishop, and the Metropolitan of Adrianople. 
With the deepest attention they listened to the 
monthly report of the transactions of the Parent 
Cwnmittee in St. Petersburgfa, which were not 
only read at full length, but many of the more 
interesting parts were ably commented on by the 
excellent and worthy Demetrius. 

In discussing the various topics which arose 
out of our proposal to provide for the wants of the 
numerous refugees who had lately come to this 
country from Turkey, the attention of the Com*^ 
mittee was naturally directed to the subject of 
the Bulgarian version of the New Testameatt 
by which the information was elicited, that com* 
paratively few of the Bulgarians speak or read tho 
Bulgarian language, but that they make use of ^ 



Turkish, in the same way as the Greeks and 
Armenians, who are subject to the Turkish goYera- 
ment. It was^therefore suggested by the Arme- 
nian Archbishop, that a Turkish version of the 
New Testament, in Slavonic characters, would be 
much more useful than the Bulgarian, thou^, 
perhaps, it ought not altogether to supersede it. 
To this opinion the Committee fully acceded ; and 
though, owing to present circumstances, it was 
unpossible to do any thing for Bulgaria proper, 
they conceived it was their duty to attempt some* 
thing for supplying the wants of the 30,000 Bul« 
garians, who are settled as colonists in Bessarabia; 
and accordingly resolved to recommend the print- 
ing of 2,000 copies of the Gospel of Luke, by way 
of experiment. 

The Bulgarians are the descendants of a power- 
ful nation, which formerly inhabited the regions 
along the eastern bank of the Volga (from whidi, 
in all probability, they derived their name), from 
the junction of the Sura with this river, to the 
shores of the Caspian Sea. They are frequently 
mentioned by the Arabic writers, Ibn-*Haukal 
Bakuvi, &c. ; and the extensive ruins of their cele- 
brated city, Bolghar, are still visible on the bank of 
the Kama, at the distance of 145 versts to the south 
of Kazan. About the end of the fifth century, some 
of the tribes effected a separation from the parent 
stock, and pursued a nomadic course beyond the 
Don and the Dnieper, where their descendants con- 
tinued for more than a century; and, towards 
the end of the seventh century, they crossed the 


Danube, and took possession of the country in 
European Turkey, still known by the name of 

They were originally pagans, but the eastern 
Bulgarians were converted, in the ninth century, 
to Islamism, and were swallowed up by the 
Mongolians and Tatars under Dchingis-Khan and 
Timur; while the tribes that pushed their way for<- 
ward to the frontiers of the Greek empire, were con* 
Yerted to the Christian faith by Greek missionaries, 
about the middle of the ninth century. They 
maintained a kind of independent kingdom, though 
subject, at times, to interruption by their most 
potent neighbours, till the year 1396, when they 
were conquered by Bajazet I., and their country 
has ever since formed one of the provinces of the 
Turkish empire.f 

The primitive language of the Bulgarians is 
supposed to have been a dialect of the Turkish^ 
but in their progress towards Moesia, and in con- 
sequence of their intermixture with the Slavonian 
tribes, that were already in possession of that 
country, they gradually exchanged it for the 
Slavonic, which they also received as their written 
language about the time of their conversion to 
Christianity. Since that period, the only version 
of the Holy Scriptures in use among them is 
the ancient Slavonic, adopted by the Russian and 
Serbian churches. 

* Frahn's Ibn«Fo8zlaii, &c. Berichte iiber die Russen alterer 
Zeit, p. 154. Erdman*8 Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Innern von 
Rassland, Enter Theil, pp. 880, 291. 
. t Sddteer't Angemeine Nordiache Gesdiichte, p. 840* 


Previous to the period of the abore interview 
with the Bessarabian Committee, measures had 
been taken for procuring a translation of the New 
Testament into Bulgarian, and the execution of 
the typographical part of the work was subse- 
quently thrown into the hands of the Russian 
Bible Society; but, after printing the Gospel of 
Matthew, it was deemed advisable to put a stop 
to its progress, as the strongest doubts were 
entertained of the competency of the translator, 
especially as it respected the purity of the lan- 
guage. This portion of the version appeared at 
St. Petersburgh, 1823, in a thin 8vo. volume, 
the pages of which are divided into two column^; 
the left hand column containing the Slavonic, and 
that on the right, the Bulgarian text. The lan- 
guage appears to approximate much nearer to 
the Slavonic than any other of the dialects, while, 
at the saine time, it exhibits many of the common 
Russ forms; but, as the translation is built upon 
the versions in both these languages as its basis, 
there is reason to fear, that they have had too 
much influence on its character to admit of its 
reception as a genuine specimen, from which 
philologists would be warranted to -draw any 
conclusions respecting the peculiarities of the Bul- 
garian dialect. 

As it regards the Serbians, they still remain 
destitute of the Holy Scriptures in their vernacular 
dialect. A version of the New Testament was, 
indeed, executed some years ago; but its merits 
were not of such a description as to warrant the 
Committee of the Russian Bible Society to carry 


k tkrough the prees; yet, as they were deeply 
convinced of the importance of the object, they 
were induced to engage n natit e Serbian, of the 
name of Athanasius Stoikovitch, to make a new 
trMslation, the printing of which was completed 
€ftrly in the year 1 826, but owing to the cessation 
of the Society's operations, the distribution of the 
copies has hitherto been retarded. 

At the time of our visit to Kishenef, it was 
much thronged by Moldavian and Wallachian 
noblemen, together with Greek and Armenian 
merchants, who bad taken refuge in this province 
from the dangers to which they were exposed 
ifi. the principalities. Several of these we met at 
a grand dinner, quite in the Turkish style, which 
was given by the Chief Justice, and were greatly 
struck with the rich and gorgeous appearance of 
their oriental dresses. The Boiars, or nobility, 
atfect great state, and maintain, within the sphere 
of their influence, a degree of austere and despotic 
authority, little short . of that displayed by the 
Turkish Pashas. Of the emigrants whose ac- 
quaintance we formed, none interested us so much 
as Daniel, the Metropolitan of Adrianople, a man 
of very short stature, and of a lively, active, 
and pious turn of mind. On receiving intelligence 
of the execution of the Constantinopolitan Patri- 
arch, Gregory, he concerted measures of escape 
from his see, as there was reason to apprehend 
that he might be the next dignitary on whom the 
Turks would exercise their wanton barbarity; 
but, sucb was the strictness with which the Greeks 


of Adrianople were watched, that he founcl no 
possibility of effecting his purpose, except by 
suffering himself to be confined in an empty eask^ 
in which he was conveyed on a cart^ drawn by 
oxen, in the midst of a caravan that had been 
hired to carry a large quantity of wine to the coast 
of the Euxine. In this aukward situation he re? 
mained for three days, till safely shipped for 
Russia, The account he gave us of the destitute 
state of his countrymen, in regard to the Holy 
Scriptures, was lamentable in the extreme. 

During our stay in Kishenef^ we met with the 
greatest kindness from General Insof. He is a 
warm friend to the Bible Society, and is beloved 
by all the colonists, who are placed by Govern- 
ment under his special protection and management* 
Besides introducing agriculture, these colonists are 
usefully employed in working the salt lakes, which 
they do by forming extensive dams ; and, after the 
salt has chrystalized, they let the water off, and 
collect it. The quantity obtained in this manner, 
brings in annually a revenue of 320,000 rubles, 
paper money. The province abounds in anti* 
quities ; the most remarkable are, the Trajan 
Valls^ of which, one crosses the country from 
near Kent, on the Prut,' to Tiraspol; a se- 
cond runs from the north of Reni, till it joins 
one of the salt lakes connected with the Black 
Sea; and a third runs in a serpentine direction, 
from the Black Sea to Tiraspol. They were 
raised to defend the Roman territory against the 
Sarmatians, their powerful eastern neighbours* 

BENDER. 265 

Other antiquities we saw at the house 
of the General, was a beautiful collection of 
Tangute, or Tibetan prayers, in the best state of 
preservation, lliey are written with silver letters 
on black paper. They were found by a peasant 
wbile digging the ground, and have, no doubt, 
been left here in the grand Mongolian expedition, 
under Dchingis-Khan. 

On the 10th, after dining with the Bishop, we 
set off for Odessa, but the roads were so bad, 
' owing to the rain that had fallen in the morning, 
that we made but little progress, and were obliged 
to stop at the first station. Here, for the first 
time, we took up our nightly abode in a zemUanky, 
or subterranean hovel, the dirt and smell of which 
were of the most offensive nature; and, in the 
morning, on pulling on one of my boots, I felt 
something in the foot of it, like raw flesh, which, 
on examination, turned out to be a frog. 

The following morning we ascended a con- 
siderable elevation, running parallel with the Dnie- 
9ter, and assuming more of a mountainous ap- 
pearance to the south of Bender, in all probability 
th6 commencement of the Macrocremnii Monies, 
which Pliny* places between the Dniester and 
the Danube. As we proceeded, an extensive 
prospect burst on our view into the Tyrigetic 
desert,! to the east of the first-mentioned river, 
which here pursued its rapid and beautifully me- 
andering course past the fortress^ of Bender, a 

•IV. 12. 

t *£irccra hi Tvpiyiroi, Sirabo VII. cap. iii. p^ 89. Ed. Stereol. 

286 BENDER. 

plaoe of considerable strength, and fiunous in liisi* 
tory from the asylum which Charles XII* of Swe^ 
den found in its vicinity after the disastrous battle 
of Pultava. On approaching the town^ we were 
shewn the village of Vamitza, where that singular 
monarch, with a handful of men, defended him^ 
self witk a display of heroism scarcely to be 
found in the fictions of romance.* In this village, 
there was still alive (1821) an aged man who used, 
in his boyish days, to carry milk to the fugitive 
king. The town, which lies directly behind the 
fortress, no longer posMesses the importance it 
claimed while one of the principal entrances into 
Turkey. It then contained 18,000 inhabitants; 
but its present population does not amount to one 
half of that number, the Turks having all left it, as 
well as most of the Jews. Of its twelve mosques; 
scarcely any are now appropriated to the celebra«- 
tion of Mohammedan rites. On a hill to the 
south appears an immense tumulus, which is not 
improbably that mentioned by Herodotus, as raised 
by the Scythian kings over those who had fallen 
victims to an intestine broil, iv. 11. 

We only stopped in Bender to change horses, 
and then passed under the walls of the fortress to 
the ferry, where we found the waters of the Dnie^^ 
ster, which at Khotin were spread over a con^ 
siderable surface, now compressed within a space 
so narrow as to admit of the ferry-boat running cm 
cables thrown across from bank to bank. On 
reaching the opposite side, we were put under 

* Miller's Universal History, Vol. iii. p. 199. 


a military escort, to prevent our having any com- 
munication with the inhabitants, or proceeding 
farther into the empire, till we had passed the 
quarantine, situated at some distance to the north* 
On our arrival at the quarantine, we received the 
joyfol intelligence that it would only be neces* 
sary for us to submit to an expurgatory fumiga- 
tion, which was performed by our stepping over 
the fire, while our clothes were unpacked, and 
hung upon poles which were fi^ed transversely 
from wall to wall, so as to receive the smoke. 

Our next station was the town of TiraspoL 
Before reaching it, we passed an extensive forti* 
fication, which formerly served to defend the fron- 
tier, but is now of little use. The town itself, 
which is regularly built on the left bank of the 
Dniester^ with fine wide streets^ contains a mixed 
population of Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Mol- 
davians, Gypsies, and Jews. 

We now entered the extensive steppe between 
the Dniester and the Bog^ the Strrs desertus of the 
Pentigerian Table, where, with the exception of 
the post-houses, the only objects that relieved the 
dreariness of the scenery were a number of sculp- 
tured monuments, erected as way-marks, at irre- 
gular distances on both sides of the road. They 
consist of large male and female images, hewn in 
stone, whose physiognomy, shape, and costume 
evidently prove them to be designed to represent 
a people of Mongolian origin. They are executed 
with considerable taste, the features, limbs, and 
ornaments being all distinctly marked. Some of 
them ard erect, and others in a sitting posture. 


Tbey hold with both hands, in front of their body, 
a small box or pot, and are generally raised to 
some height above the stone forming the pedestal 
by which they are supported. They were found 
on the tumuli, which are scattered all over the 
steppe, and are, in every respect, the same with 
those described by Pallas,* of which we had after- 
wards numerous specimens in our progress through 
ancient Scythia« The fact that these regions were 
inundated in the thirteenth century by the Mongo- 
lian hordes, under Dchingis Khan^ might naturally 
suggest the idea that these monuments are to be 
ascribed to that period; but this hypothesis is 
overthrown by the mention made of their ex- 
istence by Ammianus Marcellinus, a writer of 
the fourth century, t whose observation, that the 
features they exhibited were of the same cast with 
those of the Huns (Xoi/koc), forces upon us the con- 
clusion that tbey were erected by the Mongolian 
tribes distinguished by that name, which were 
driven over the Volga by the Sien-pi, in the year 
374, and spread alarm through all the nations 
inhabiting the eastern frontiers of the Roman em- 

As we approached Odessa, we fell in with some 
of the German colonies which have recently been 
established in this quarter. They are peopled 

* Travels through the Southern Provinces of the Russiaii 
Empire, vol, ii. pp. 456—459. 

t LeComtePotocki's Fragments HistoriquesetGeographiques 
•ur la Scythie^ la Sarmatie, et les Slaves. Livre zxvii. p. &Q» 
' X Hulleman Gesduchte der Mongolen, p. 109. Deguigne's 
Histoiro Generale des Huns, Tom. i. Sec. Partie, pp.^89-^S95. 

ODESSA. 269^ 

partly by Catholics and partly by Protestants, and 
are likely ere long to transform the face of a fine 
fertile country, which has been suffered to lie 
waste since the time of the Milesians, and other 
Greek colonists, having only served as a land of 
passage, or a temporary residence, to different na- 
tions of purely nomadic habits. Their proximity 
to the Black Sea, by which the productions of 
agricultural labour may be transported to different 
parts of the Levant, affords the most encouraging 
facilities to the colonists, who have settled here 
with the view of enjoying, under the protection of 
the Imperial sceptre, that religious toleration which 
was denied them in their native land. 

On leaving Moscow, we had fixed on Saturday 
the 11th, as the time of our arrival in Odessa, ad 
arrangement we should have kept, had it not been 
for the bad state of the roads ; but we so far sue* 
ceeded as to reach the next station, only fourteen 
versts distant from it, by eleven o'clock in thd 
evening. Next morning, as we wished to enjoy 
once more the privilege of public worship, we set 
off at an early hour, and reached Odessa in time 
to take breakfast and change our apparel, before 
the commencement of divine service. It was truly 
a day of rest and spiritual refreshment In the 
morning we attended at the German Church, 
where we heard a sermon from the Lutheran Su- 
perintendent, the Rev. Mr. Bottiger, and went in 
the afternoon to hear the Rev. Dean Lindel, who 
preached in one of the Catholic churches to an 
overflowing and most attentive congregation. This 
excellent man, whose public ministrations are ac- 

270 ODESSA. 

compenied with eui unction peculiar to himself, has 
been the object of great persecution since his arri<- 
val in this town ; and, were it not for the vigilance 
of the Russian authorities, fears might be enter* 
tained of the security of his life. 

Odessa furnishes a striking specimen of the 
rapidity with which the modern towns of Russia 
have risen into notice. Little more than thirty 
years have gone by since it formed only a mi- 
serable looking Tatar village and fort, of the name 
of Hagibey, but it now contains upwards of 2,000 
stone houses, besides a number built of wood, 
with a population of nearly 40,000 inhabitants. 
The streets are wide and regular; and the edi- 
fices^ built in general of a stone composed of mine- 
rals and sea-shells, sawed and cut witli the axe, 
are such as entitle it to the name of Little Peters^- 
burgh. What greatly adds to its beauty are the 
tall poplars which line both sides of the streets, 
and the inequality of the ground on which it ia 
built, about two hundred and fifty feet above the 
level of the Black Sea. Most of the streets are 
paved ; but in wet weather the squares and mar-* 
ket*places form a complete mire ; and it was truly 
amusing tp see, in the centre of a town exhibiting 
such a display of modern elegance, what is called 
in j^orth Britain a peat-mass, the accumulated 
mud having been all regularly cut, and stacked ap 
to dry, exactly like peat in the midst of a moras8« 
Immediately below the town is the harbour, with 
which there is a communication through a deep 
giulley that separates the town from the fortress^ 
which lies at a short distance towards the south. 

- , ODESSA. 271 

and commands the roads, and the quarantine which 
18 situated on the shore close to the harbour. 

The foundation of this town was laid by Ad* 
miral Ribas, who was induced to give it the name 
of Odessay after the ancient '0?f|<r9oc» or "Opi^ooQ, on 
the supposition that that flourishing Milesian co^ 
kmy was situated about this spot ; but it is evi* 
dent from the statements of Pliny, Ptolomy, and 
the Periplus, that it lay much further eastward, at 
the mouth of the Beresan, near the fortress of Ot- 
ehafco^ and that it is rather in the vicinity of this 
^ace that we are to seek the hiacorum Partus 
(IffUMcdK XifM^v), as described by Arrian and other 
ancient writers.^ The principal consideration 
which induced Government to select this spot as a 
commercial dep6t, appears to have been its salu^ 
brity, and its lying so near the open sea — advan* 
tages which, it was discovered too late, couM 
never be enjoyed either in Kherson or Nikolaief, 
which were otherwise intended to answer all the 
purposes of important maritime stations. Much^ 
however, as had been done to raise the importance 
oi Odessa in the scale of mercantile towns, it con- 
tinued to languish, till the appointment of the 
. J>uke of Richelieu to the government, in 1804, 
when the intellectual energies of that able and 
accomplished statesman were brought to bear 
upon its prosperity; and such were the effects 
resulting from the measures he adopted to extend 
and secure its domestic and foreign relations, that» 
in the year 1816, the exports amounted to the im* 

* MAonen'f Geqgraphic^ iv, pp. 241, 24S. 


tnense sum of 49,364,704 rubles* In 1819, not 
fewer than 667 vessels arrived in the harbour, and 
662 left it with various articles of Asiatic and Eu- 
ropean produce* 

The memory of the Duke is perpetuated by the 
Richelieuan Lyceum, which the Ahh6 Nicole, a 
French clergyman, has raised to the rank of one 
of the first institutions in Europe, in which are 
taught the different branches of public instruction. 
There are also several other schools ; but what in* 
terested us most, was one founded by the Super^ 
intendent Bottiger, in which we observed children 
of Jewish, Greek, Armenian, Russian, Slavone, 
Moldavian, German, French, and Italian ejrtrac- 
tion, most of whom are daily engaged in reading 
the Holy Scriptures in their native tongues. Many 
of them were bom in distant parts ; and two inte* 
resting young girls were pointed out to us, who 
had come from Grand Cairo. 

Few places are possessed of greater impor- 
tance, in a Biblical point of view^ than Odessa. 
The number of foreigners by whom it is visited ; 
its riBlations with the different ports of Anatolia, 
the Archipelago, and the Mediterranean ; and the 
facilities afforded for visiting the various naticms 
inhabiting the regions between the Caspian and 
Black Seas, all point it out as a desirable station 
for a Bible Society Agent. An Auxiliary Institu- 
tion was formed here in 1816, the Committee of 
which we met during our stay, and with them con- 
certed measures for furnishing an adequate supply 
of Greek New Testaments to the Greek refugees 
then in the town. This proposition was suggested by 


intelligence of the provision that had just been 
made for the relief of their temporal necessities, 
by the munificent gift of 100,000 rubles, which 
had been sent for this purpose by his Imperial 
Majesty. It gave us much satisfaction to learn 
that effective means had been employed to supply 
the wants of such of the colonies in the south 
of Russia as stand in any way connected with 
Odessa; as also that there existed a flourishing 
Juvenile Biblical Association, formed among the 
youths of the Lyceum. 

The 19th of June was a remarkable day in the 
history of this town, being the day on which the 
corpse of the late Greek Patriarch Gregory was 
interred, with all the pomp and splendour with 
whiofa it was natural to expect the Russians would 
honour the principal dignitary of a Church from 
which the light of Obristianity was first intro- 
duced into this country, and to which they still 
msintain the most zealous and devoted attachment. 
We were honoured with a card of invitation from 
the Governor-General, but should have considered 
ourselves bound to attend uninvited^ in considenk 
tioii of the countenance that had been given to the 
Sociejty in whose interests we were embarked, by 
that venerable Prelate, who fell a sacrifice to the 
baii)aroci6 fury of the sworn enemies of our moflft 
holy iaith. 

The body, which had lain some time at the 
Quarantine, was conveyed, in solemn procession, 
up to the principal church two days before, and 
placed on a large catafalk, erected for its re- 
ception in the centre of the church. It was richly 



ornamented with various trappings of silver and 
gold» and surrounded by a great profusion of 
candles, which, together with the crowd, rendered 
the heat of the place almost suffocating. After the 
usual mass ibr the dead had been performed at 
the altar, by the dignitaries of the Russian, Molda- 
vian, Bulgarian, and Greek Churches, who had 
been convened on the occasion, Gonstantine, a 
Greek monk of distinguished talents, who had 
been the Patriarch's chaplain and steward, ascend- 
ed an elevated scaffold^ at the opposite end of the 
church, and delivered a most eloquent and pa- 
thetic funeral oration, in modem Greek, from the 

words, '£r 7^^4 ikvrot kiofjiff&iif koI ^ io^a iivrov 6itK <gflX«t 

f (H^mrac, which he selected, and adapted to his sub- 
ject, from the 8th and 13th verses of the xlivth 
chapter of the apocryphal Book of Wisdom. 

The whole scene was calculated to rouse the 
indignant feelings of the Russians against the 
Turks ; and as it had been noised abroad that the 
Jews of Constantinople had treated the dead body 
of the Patriarch with the greatest indignity, the 
rage of the populace was directed against the poor 
Hebrews in Odessa, to such a degree, that most of 
them had their windows broken; many, who 
were out in the streets, were most cruelly pelted 
with stones and mud ; and it was reported that 
several actually lost their lives in the tumult. 


Journey from OdeMUL—NikoUdtf—Rnnu of OUnopohB—Tke 
Serab, or Mirage — Howard — Hi$ Character and Monument — 
Khenjgn — Beridaxy — Perekop — The Crimea — Arrival at 

On the 20th, we prosecuted our journey eastward, 
through the classical regions trodden by the foot 
of Herodotus, whose accurate and interesting de- 
scriptions are manifestly the result of what he him- 
self examined, and the accounts he obtained from 
credible witnesses, who had visited different parts 
of ancient Scythia for purposes of trade. Having 
passed the Custom-house, which is situated at the 
distance of a few versts from the town, we turned 
round the head of the bay, leaving on our left some 
large lakes, which have formerly been connected 
with the sea, but are now separated from it by 
sand-banks, and present a surface of water several 
feet above its level. One or other of these lakes 
must have formed the Axiaces of the ancients. It 
is placed hereabouts by Mela, Pliny, and Ptolomy. 
The ground over which we travelled was beau- 
tifully diversified, and it created no ordinary de- 
gree of interest in our minds to observe numbers 
of German colonists beginning the harvest in fields 



cultivated, at a remote period, by Grecian far- 
mers. The sun shone upon us with great power ; 
but its enervating influence was, in some measure, 
counteracted by a fine breeze from the Euxine, 
towards which we had every now and then a most 
extensive and delightful prospect. 

Early in the afternoon we arrived at the wes- 
tern bank of the Telegnl, ihejlumen Rhode CPo^yoc) 
of the ancients. It is of considerable breadth, and 
is crossed by means of a ferry. Our course now 
lay round the termination of the two arms of the 
Berezan^ the Sirms Sagaricus of Pliny, an inlet of 
a similar description with those just mentioned, 
and led us into one of the richest steppe countries 
we had yet seen. Considerable herds of cattle 
were grazing in different directions ; but the prin- 
cipal riches of the inhabitants consist in their 
sheep, the breed of which has of late years been 
greatly improved by the importation of Merinos. 
Numerous tumuli, as usual, presented themselves 
along the horizon. 

A little after dark we reached the Bog, which 
.we had crossed by a small bridge at Proskurqf, 
but now found it swelled into . a mighty river, 
upwards of three versts in width, and in depth 
sufficient to receive the largest ships of war. We 
crossed it in a ferry-boat, and after waiting some 
time for horses, drove into Nikolmef, which is 
situated close by, at the junction of the Ingul and 
the Bog. Like Odessa, this town is only of re- 
cent erection. To remedy the inconvenience re- 
sulting to the Admiralty establishment at K/iersan, 
from the sapids in the liman of the Dnieper, it was 


judged proper to select a station further down; 
and accordingly, in 1791, this spot was fixed on 
as a seat for the naval magazines and docks. It 
contains a number of elegant houses, such as the 
Admiralty, Custom-house, &c. and two fine 
churches; and the streets are wide and regular. 
The number of its inhabitants amounts to upwards 
of 9,000. It is the residence of the Admiral of the 
Black Sea. 

From this place, our journey lay through the 
Hyppolaic country, inhabited in the time of Hero- 
dotus by the CaUipedce, a mixed race of Greeks 
and Scythians. Owing, most probably, to the 
advantages origiually accruing to them from Gre^ 
cian commerce, they abandoned their nomadic life, 
and with their neighbours^ the Alazones, adopted 
agricultural habits;, but were distinguished from 
the regular agricultural Scythians, by their raising 
grain for home consumption, while the latter 
furnished it for the foreign market.^ Of the five 
Grecian towns specified by Herodotus, as existing 
on the coasts of Scythia, the most celebrated was 
Olbwpolis, *0\(ii67ro\i4:, the Ox/Jm of Strabo,t to 
"which also the name of Bopvifd^pie was given from 
the large river in its vicinity. Its ruins are still in 
part visible to the left of the Bog, near the spot 
where that river falls into the Dnieper, about 
eighteen versts below the town of Niholaief. It 
bad a famous temple dedicated to ApoUo, and 
formed a great emporium of trade.:}; Various Greek 

* H^rodoL Book IV. 17. t Ibid. p. 89. 

X fiiya kfiirofkiov. Ibid. 


medals and inscriptions have been found of late 
years among its ruins, most of which have already 
been described by travellers and numismatologists. 
The best collections of Pontic antiquities are tiiose 
of the Imperial Hermitage at St. Petersburgh, 
that of the Empress Dowager at Pawlovsky, and 
those of Odessa, Nikolaief, and Theodosia. It is 
said to have been built by the Milesians during 
the empire of the Medes, and existed in a flourish- 
ing state so late as the sixth century.* Such was 
the state of learning among its inhabitants, that in 
the reign of the Emperor Trajan, they were 
addicted to the reading pf Plato; they knew the 
Iliad by heart, and repeated its martial verses 
when engaged in combat. 

The only object that attracted our notice as we 
pursued our journey towards Kherson, were the 
immense tumuli which lay scattered in every 
direction, the more distant of which, with now 
and then a straggling hut, seemed elevated above 
the horizon, like so many ships resting on the 
smooth and shining surface of the ocean. Similar 
phenomena, produced by saline vapours, exhaled 
by the excessive heat of the sun, we had after- 
wards frequently occasion to admire; presenting 
to the view, islands, castles, and a thousand fancied 
shapes, rising above the water, and exhibiting a 
curious undulating motion; yet, with all the ex- 
perience we had of the deception, we were more 
than once imposed on by the speciousness of their 
appearance, and x^onceived that we were approach- 

* Jornandes. De Get. cap. v. 


iog a lake, or an arm of the seai wh^i in reality 
in the midst of a dry and arid steppe. 

It is to an optical deception of this nature 
that reference is made in that beautiful prophetic 
description, given by Isaiah, of the blessings of 
Messiah's reign, chap. 35-7. 

:o*D •j^noV pHDtn ojM^ xwr\ n*ni . 

The imagimny water ahall become a lake. 
And the thirsty toil foantains of water. 

What had existed only in appearance, and thus 
deceived the beholder, should now be converted 
into reality; an image highly calculated to pro- 
duce an impression on the mind of an oriental 
reader, who is accustomed to witness the pheno- 
mena, and has often been disappointed by the 
vain expectations it excites. This lusus natural is 
what the French call mirage. It is seen in 
Provence and the department of the Rhone, and 
has often been described by travellers. The 
Hebrew name nnu^, Sharab, is supposed to be 
originally Persic, u^ly- /acies aquas; and has 
also been adopted into the Arabic language. It 
occurs in the twenty-fourth Surah of the Koran: 

The works of the infidela are like the Serai in the plain. 
The thirsty imagines it is water, till he comes and finds it is 

It is also used in the Arabic Proverb: 

260 HOWARD. 

He is hunting the prey of the Setab.* 

Aad in the CouceMUs of Hariri the caution is given: 

Be not deceived by the quivering of the SercU?** 

Surrounded by innumerable sepulchral bills, 
which have now proclaimed to more than twenty 
centuries, that here lie interred those men who 
'' Aiade the world as a wilderness, and destroyed 
the cities thereof, and opened not the house of their 
prisoners " with what melancholy pleasure does 
the Philanthropist and the Christian espy the 
simple pyramid erected to the memory of him 

Whose was an empire o'er distress, 

The triumphs of the mind! 
To burst the bonds of wretchedness. 

The friend of humankind ! 
Whose tiame through every future age. 
By bard, philanthropist, and sage. 

In glory shall be shrined ; 
While other Niblds and Venninos show 
That still bis mantle rests below.f 

At the distance of £v6 versts to the north of 
Kherson, stands the original monument of the 
Prince of Christian Philanthropists — the great, the 
illustrious Howard; who, after travelling 50,T)00 

* The reader who wishes to see more on this subject, inay con- 
salt Geseni^s Comment on Isaiah, and Gilbert's Annalen. B. 28. 
St. 1« S. 1. which contains some interesting obtermlions by 
Professors Erdmann and Frahn. 

t Wiffen's " Acudati Hoiirs*'-^«lUred. 

" 1 


British mile3» to investigate and relieve the suffer- 
ings of humaDity, fell a victim, near this place, to 
his unreniittiDg exertions in this benevolent cause^ 
It is situated a little to the east of the public^rbad 
leading from Nikolaief to Kherson, near tb^south- 
ern bank of a small stream which hpf^ diffuses a 
partial verdure across the steppe^^n the oppo- 
site bank are a few straggliAg^ and ruinous huts, 
and close by, is a large garden, sheltered by fine 
lofty trees, which have been planted to beautify 
the villa once connected with it, but now no more. 
The spot itself is sandy, with a scanty sprinkling 
of vegetation, and is only distinguishable from the 
rest of the steppe by two brick pyramids, and a 
few graves, in which the neighbouring peasants 
have interred their dead— ^attracted, no doubt, by 
the report of the singular worth of the foreign 
friend whose ashes are here deposited till the 
resurrection of the just. As we approached the 
graves, a hallowed feeling of no ordinary descrip- 
tion grew upon our minds, and forced upon us 
the conviction, that the scene before us was indeed 
privileged beyond the common walks of life. One 
of the pyramids is erected over the dust of our 
countryman, and the other has subsequently been 
raised over the grave of a French gentleman who 
revered his memory, and wished to be buried by 
his 'side. As we had no person with us to point 
out which of them was designed to perpetuate the 
memory of the Philanthropist, it was impossible 
for us to determine^ otherwise than by confiding in 
the accuracy of information obtained by some 


former admirer of his yirtoes, who haa cot into the 
brick the very appropriate inscriptioQ: 


It was impossible to sunrey this simjde obelisk 
without reflecting on the superiority of principle 
which impelled the great friend of his species, in 
that career of disinterested benevolence, which 
he so unremittingly pui^sued. His was not mere 
animal sympathy, dignified and refined by its 
existence in human nature, though he doubtless 
possessed that quality in no ordinary degree ; nor 
did his charities flow from an ambition to be ad- 
mired and extolled by his fellow creatures; his 
toilsome pilgrimages and unnumbered acts of self-* 
denial were not performed with the slightest idea 
of atoning for his sins, or meriting a seat in the 
mansions of bliss-— the very thought he abhorred; 
but his whole character was formed, and his 
practice regulated by the vital influence of that 
Gospel which reveals the Divine Philanthropy 
expending itself upon human weal. Conceiving 
himself, to be an eternal debtor to the blessed 
Saviour, who stooped to the lowest depths of 
sufiering in order to rescue him from the horrors 
of immortal death, he was sweetly and powerfully 
constrained to imitate his bright example, the 
characteristics of which are strikingly depicted in 
the simple declaration : who went about doiko 


Such was Howard, the most virtuous, and yet 
the most humble of our race. How justly he 


might have taken for his motto what he wrote a 
few months before his death: In Oois hand no 
instrument is weak, and in whose presence no 
Jksh must glory J'^ He was enabled to effect great 
things^ yet he utterly renounced dependance upon 
himself. ** My immortal spirit I cast on the Sove- 
reign mercy of God, through Jesus Christ, who 
is the Lord my strength, and my song; and, I 
trust, has become my salvation. My desire is to 
be washed, cleansed, and justified in the blood of 
Ghrist, and to dedicate myself to that Saviour who 
has bought us with a price."f Firmly resting 
upon this foundation, he was well prepared to 
address his last earthly friend and attendant. Ad- 
miral Priestman, in these words: " Priestman, 
you style this a dull conversation, and endeavour 
to divert my mind from dwelling upon death; but 
I entertain very different sentiments. Death has 
no terrors far me: it is an event I always look to 
with cheerfulness, if not with pleasure; and be 
assured, the subject is more grateful to me than 
any other.^J 

His genuine humility prompted him to choose 
this sequestered spot for the reception of his 
mortal remains; and it was his anxious desire, 
that neither monument nor inscription, but simply 
a sun-dial should be placed over his grave. His 
wishes were at first so far complied with, that no 
splendid monument was erected to his memory; 

• Brown's Memoirs of the Public and Private Life of John 
Howard, the Philanthropist. London; 1 8 1 S. 4^to. p. 6 1 5. 
t Ibid. p. 591, 581. t Ibid. p. 627, ««. 


but tho august Monarch, io whose territory so 
many of his benevolent acts were performed, and 
who nobly patronized the attempts made to follow 
out the plans of Howard for the improrement 
of the state of prisons, has borne a public testi- 
mony to the respect he entertained for his virtues, 
by ordering a conspicuous monument to be built 
in the vicinity of Kherson, the town in which he 
died*. This cenotaph, which attracted our notice 
as we approached the gate of the town, is erected 
at a short distance from the Russian cemetery, 
and close to the public road. It is built of a 
compact white freestone, found at some distance, 
and is about thirty feet in height, surrounded 
by a wall of the same stone, seven feet high by 
two hundred in circumference. Within this wall, 
in which is a beautiful cast iron gate, a fine row 
of Lombardy poplars has been planted, which, 
when fully grown, will greatly adorn the monu- 
ment. On the pedestal is a Russian inscription 
of the following import : 


Died January 20th, 1790, Aged 65 : 

the simplicity of which is in strict accordance, witb 
the orders the great Philanthropist more thfttk 
once gave, and which, with the rectification of tli^ 
dates^* only requires the all-emphatic addittqiiij,- 
Christ is my Hope, to render it perfectly coiii<: 
formable to the inscription dictated by his owb 

* The inteription at CardiDgtOQ, afloovdtng to Mr»- Brtma, k 
January 21at, 1790, Aged 64. 

H© ■WARE) '3 M H) F" nrjffl B Pf T . 



■ \ \ 



pen, and placed under that to the memory of his 
wife in Cardington Church, near Bedford. Agree- 
ably to his request, a sun-dial is represented near 
the summit of the pillar, but with this remarkable 
circumstance, that the only divisions of time it 
exhibitSi are the hours from ten to two, as if to 
intimate that a considerable portion of the morning 
of life is past ere we enter on the discharge of its 
active duties ; and that, with many, the perform- 
ance of them is over at an early hour after the 
meridian of our days. 

It was cause of regret, that in connection with 
the public testimony thus borne at Kherson to the 
character of Howard, we did not find a branch of 
those noble institutions in which, had he lived to 
witness their establishment, he must have taken 
the most lively and active interest. The principal 
obstacle, however, having been removed, a short 
time before our arrival at the place, we embraced 
such opportunities as offered, to recommend the 
subject to those in power, and met with the most 
encouraging prospects as to the ultimate formation 
of an Auxiliary Bible Society; but, as the new 
Governor had only been a few days in office, and 
he was much occupied with business, we found it 
impossible to carry any such plan into effect 
during the limited period of our stay. 

The town of Kherson is situated on the face of 
a rising ground, on the right bank of the Dnieper, 
and consists of the Admiralty, which is defended 
by a regular fortification, and contains an immense 
dock, in which seven first-rate ships of war may 
be built at the same time ; a fortress of con- 


siderable strength ; and the town itself, which has 
more the appearance of suburbs^ and is inhabited 
by tile officers of government, soldiers, and mer- 
chants. Among the latter are many Greeks, who 
carry on business with Turkey. The commerce 
of Kherson received a complete check by the foun- 
dation of Odessa, and were it not for the partial 
trade in timber, and the vast number of Jews that 
are found here, the place would wear a most 
deserted appearance. Its situation is the most in- 
salubrious of any in Russia, owing to the exha- 
lations from the marshes and stagnant waters con- 
nected with the Dnieper. The number of inhabi- 
tants is estimated at 10,000. 

At Kherson we intended to recross the Dnieper, 
and strike directly across the steppe to the east of 
the Dromon of Achilles into the Crimea ; but, learn- 
ing that there would be some difficulty in procuring 
a sufficient number of horses on that route, we pro- 
ceeded a few stages further up the right bank of the 
river. At the distance of about fifteen versts, we fell 
in with the Inguletz, a river of considerable mag- 
nitude, which here falls into the Dnieper ; beyond 
which, we discovered numerous stone figures, of 
the same character with those we had seen be- 
tween Tiraspol and Odessa. They generally stand 
on the sepulchral heights ; but many of them have 
been removed by the present inhabitants of the 
country, and appropriated to various purposes of 
utility. One of an enormous size we remarked at 
the post-station near Berislav, M'here we arrived 
a little before midnight, and, with difficulty, ob- 
tained lodgings in a baking-house belonging to a 


commoa inn. This town, not improbably the 
ancient site of Serimon (Lepifwp) of Ptolomy, is 
built on a regular plan, on . the high bank of the 
Dnieper, with wide streets, and about a couple of 
hundred houses, but most of them of wood, and 
extremely paltry in appearance. It is the great 
thoroughfare between the western provinces of the 
empire and the Crimea. 

On the morning of the 24th, we descended to 
the margin of the Dnieper, which we crossed in a 
ferry-boat, the floating bridge not being yet in 
order; but, as the waters had not subsided to 
their usual summer boundary, we had to drive 
through extensive pools and some dangerous quick- 
sands after leaving the boat. Having changed 
horses at the small village of Kakavka, we stretch- 
^ across the region of Little Scythia (MiKpoy 
£cv6ca), called by* ancient geographers Hylasa (4 
TXuiJi), or the *' Woody Region," which, in the 
days of Herodotus, abounded with all kinds of 
trees,* but is now a barren steppe, entirely desti- 
tute of any thing in the shape of a bush. It is, \ 
for the most part, sandy and fit only for pasturage. 
The day being excessively hot, and there not 
being a breath of wind, we felt much oppressed 
during the first part of the journey, but came at 
noon to a small Russian village, with a church, 
where we found a garden with some cherry- 
trees, — the only exception to the woodless sce- 
nery, — beneath the shade of which, we enjoyed 

•— *YXo/f|f» • 4 3' €9Ti fikv irapo rhv 'AxtXXiy'cov dtp^iwv, rvy- 
Xayti it va^a iovaa itvipiiav imLrToiwy irXli|.-— 'Melpomeiie, 76, 


a delicious dinner on the bout milk furnished by 
the peasants, superadded to our travelling stock 
of dry provisions. 

About four o'clock we arrived at Perekop, the 
entrance to the Tauridian Peninsula, which con- 
sists of an irregular fortress, erected on the south 
side of a deep ditch, and defended by a high wsdl 
built of free-stone, stretching from the bay of 
Carcinites to the Putrid Lake, called the Ickuvash, 
which is connected, on the east, with the sea of 
Azof. The isthmus is only eight versts and a half 
in breadth at this place, and exactly corresponds 
with the statement of Strabo, who estimates it 
at forty stadia.* The fosse and wall are of consi- 
derable antiquity^ having been formed by the in- 
habitants of Tauridia^ to defend their peninsula 
against the incursions of the neighbouring Scy*- 
thians. The Taphros (Ta^po^) of the more ancient 
geographers, and the New Wall (Scoy Teixo^) of 
Ptolomy lie further south, about two versts within 
Perekop. According to Pliny ,t the Crimea was 
originally an island; and certainly the natural 
appearances which here present themselves to the 
eye of the geologist, go to corroborate his state- 
ment. It is stated by Constantine Porphyroge- 
nitus, that in the tenth century the wall was razed 
to the ground, and a thick wood planted from sea 
to sea, through which lay two roads, one leadmgto 
the Bosphorian emporium on the east, and the other 
to the ancient town of Chersonesus, near the south* 

* Kara fxiariv h* 6 tov ivOfiov Av^^f, Sffoy reevapaKorra 
<n€b^ii0v^^ Lib. vii. cap. 3. 

t QnoncUnn tnari circomfaBa. Nat. Hiet. cap* 126. 

P£REKOP. 289 

western point of the peninsula. The fosise, however, 
was cleared out afresh, and a stone wall with 
towers erected, by the Tatar Khans, about the 
end of the fifteenth century* The fortress^ to- 
gether with the whole line of fortification, was first 
taken by the Russians in the year 1698, and finally 
in 1783, when the Crimea was united to the em- 

The Russian name Perekop properly signifies 
U ditch, or fosse, cut across a road, to prevent any 
further passage, and was substituted for the Tatar 
Orkapi, which denotes the Gate of the Neck or 
Isthmus. Mr. Heber, deceived by the French 
appearance of the word, gives the place the name 
of The Golden Gate, and argues, in support of his 
etymology, from the well-known use of the phrases 
the Golden Horde, the Golden Tent, &c»» as sig- 
nifying roj/al among the Tatars; but the Tatar 
word for ^Id is altun (^\), and not or (^)). 

Passing the bqdge here thrown across the 
fosse, we entered the gate, which is built of stone, 
and presents rather an interesting appearance as 
seen from the north. On either side are a few 
straggling houses, inhabited by Tatars, Jews, and 
Russians, most of whom derive their support from 
the salt lakes in the vicinity. The principal part 
of the town is at the distance of about three versts 
further south, and goes by the name of the Ar- 
menian Bazdr, from its being chiefly inhabited by 
that people. It contains a custom-house, and 
comptoirs for the brandy-distilleries and salt-ma- 
gazines, a number of shops, and about 900 inha- 
bitants. On passing it, we descried two minarets, 


290 TH£ CRIMBA. 

and a Biimian and ArmeniaD chufch. The quaii* 
tity of salt exported by this route to Kussia is im- 
mense. According to Vsevolovsky,* more than 
20,000 waggons are annually employed in the trade* 
Tbey are drawn by oxen, and generally form large 
caravans, the sight of which often affords an agree- 
able relief to the eye of the traveller when wearied 
by the continuous monotony of the steppe. The 
aalt is produced on the surface of the lakes, by 
tiie chrystalization formed by evaporation. Some 
t>{ these lakes have a circumference of upwards of 
twenty versts, are in general shallow, and have 
formerly had a communication with the sea. The 
soil is also strongly impregnated with the aame 
saline properties, which it necessarily communis 
cates to the vegetation ; yet the Tatar cattle are 
fond of it, and the sheep fatten equally with those 
fed on the produce of common earth. The horses 
are strong, but small, as in the time of Strabcf 
The camel we first saw in these regions. 

The Crimea, to which the Russians have again 
restored its ancient name of Tauridia^ appears 
originally to have been inhabited by a people 
of piratical habits, who treated their prisoners with 
the greatest barbarity. Tbey are called by the 
ancient geographers Tauri (Tavpoi), and are sup* 
posed to have been a remnant of the Cimmerians, 
who, on being worsted by the Scythians, took 
refuge in the fastnesses of the peninsular moun* 
tains ; from which they gradually made encroach'^ 

* DictioDairs Geogr. Hist Article Pereoofx 

t Ok rk iinroi fiucpal, to. ik wpbliara /icydXa.— Lib, vii. cap. 3. 


meats on thechanipaigQe c6imtr3r> till th^y founded 
the Bosphorean kingdom, which attained »uch ce^ 
lebrity under Mithridates, and was perpetuated 
through a raat number of vicissitudes till the 
fomth century of our era. From that period, it 
became a scene of incessant conquest and occupa- 
tion by the Alans, Goths, Romans, Huns, Kba^ 
sars, and Tatars, which latter people retained 
possession of it, from the year 1238, till it was 
conquered by the Russians, as above stated, in 
1783. Of the famons Greek colonies established 
in different parts of the peninsula, we shall have 
occasion to treat in the sequel. 

Having procured a fresh relay of horses at 
tile stage of TerehH-tehusun, we reached that of 
DunMn, where we stopped all night, and in the 
morning prosecuted our journey towards Akmei- 
shet. Near Durmen, a road strikes off to the 
right, which leads to Koslof, a place of great trade, 
and containing nearly 5,000 inhabitants, of whom 
the greater part consists of Tatars and Jews. The 
latter are of the sect of the Karaites, and amount 
to upwards of 700 souls. Many of them are .very 
rich, and carry on an extensive commerce with 
Odessa, Constantinople, and other parts of the 

The first view we obtained of the Crimea but 
ill accorded with those paradisaical ideas we had 
formed of its beauty; the country being a com- 
plete steppe, without either a tree, streamlet, or 
hill to diversify the prospect; but after passing 
the next stage, where the Tatars were watering 
their flocks at troughs connected with a large well, 



qinte in the patriarchal style, we were sensible of 
a gentle rise in the surface of the ground. The 
soil also improved from its general sandy and 
saline character, and assumed the appearance of a 
fine black mould, with here and there conside- 
rable quantities of marl ; and, on reaching the sum- 
mit of the elevation which here stretches across 
the peninsula, we obtained a delightful view of 
Tchatirdagh, and the noble range of mountains on 
the south coast. We now began gradually to de- 
scend; over an undulating surface, into the plains 
to the north of Akmetchet ; and, after passing 
through a beautiful Tatar village, with a mosque 
and minaret, situated on the left bank of the Sal- 
gir, and beautifully adorned with poplars and fruit- 
trees, we arrived in that town, where we alighted 
at an inn kepi by a Greek. 


JkKripium ofAkmeiekeiSasfhiddtmrai'^alaeB <^the MOmu 
— 7%« Harem ^^ BUtorff of the Chrimea — Baghichiiorai — 
Mohammedan Mosque — Mohamimedan Worship -^ Oreek JW- 
neral-^Scoitish Missionaries. 

The town of Ahmetchet (White Mosque), or, as 
the Russians call it, Simpheropol, was formerly the 
residence of the Kalga-Sultan, the first dignity 
in the Tatar empire next to the Khan, and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the army ; and forms, at pre- 
sent, the capital of the Crimea, being the residence 
of the Russian Governor, and the seat of the courts 
of justice and other offices of government. It 
is situated on the left bank of the Salgir, at the 
distance of twenty versts to the north-west of the 
mountain of Tchatirdaghj which rises majestically 
above the hills immediately behind the town. It 
is divided into the old and new towns. The for- 
mer consists almost entirely of houses built in the 
Tatar style, presenting nothing to the view but the 
high lime-stone walls which inclose their courts^ 
a baz&r, a Russian, Greek, and Armenian church, 
and four Tatar mosques, the minarets of which are 
carried to a considerable height, and admit of the 
voice of the Muezzins* being distinctly heard all 

^ The Muezzin is the person appointed among Mohamme- 
dans* to ascend the minaret, or steeple^ at the regular canonical 


over the town. The streets are unpaved and irre- 
gular, and exhibit a true picture of Asiatic filth. 
What is called the new town lies to the north 
of the old, from which it is separated by a wide 
road or street, and contains a few modem houses 
in the European style, extensive barracks, and the 
walls of a magnificent cathedral, which have now 
stood many years in a ruinous state, and will likely 
never be completed. The population is estimated 
at 18,000, 

The Sabbath we spent in retirement, in the 
upper chamber of our inn ; and» on the 27th, vi<^ 
sited the leading people of the Tavridian Bible 
Society, and dined with the President, Privy 
Gounselior Schegulin, at his beautiful seat, about 
two versts distant from the town. Fkiding it 
would be more convenient to have a meeting of 
the Committee after the lapse of eight days, we 
resolved to spend the interim in a tour round the 
most interesting part of the south coast of the 
peninsula, and accordingly set ofi*, on the 28tfa, in 
a south-westerly direction, by the route leading 
to Baghtchisarai and Akhtiar. 

The road lay, at first, up a rude hollow, be-* 

boors of pniyer, wbibh occur five timos in the day, Co announcf 
to the faithful that the time is come when they ought to abstract 
their minds from every earthly object, and direct them towards the 
cxdusive object of adoration and praise. The proclamation is 
cbauQted with the utmost deliberation and gravity ; and tliat the 
erier may not be interrupted by any earthly sound* be puts a fiiK 
ger in each ear, and standi with his face towards Mecca, exc^t« 
ing when he utters the words. Come to prayer — Come to the tern* 
pie ofsalvatioTif when he turns to the right and lef^ to indicate 
the universality of the invitation. 


tw#en the first and secotid ranges of calcareous 
hills which form the commencement of the moun* 
tainous region^ and brought us/ after travelling 
about seventeen versts, to the Almaf a beautiful 
meandering stream, which takes its rise in the 
vicinity of Tcliatirdagh, and here flows through 
a delightful valley full of villages^ with vineyards 
and gardens filled with fruit-trees of every de^ 
scription. Its waters were low at the time we 
passed it ; but it often swells to a great size after 
nia, or a considerable thaw in the winter. Cross- 
ing another stream, we came to an elevated plain, 
covered with rich vegetation, and about five o'clock 
descried, almost direct before us, an extensive 
range of Tatar houses, with a mosque, and, at 
different distances, stately mausoleums, which led 
us to conclude that we were approaching the 
ancient residence of' the Khans ; but, on oi)r ar^^ 
riving at the termination of a terrace which rose 
gently towards the south, and while we were stea* 
diiy looking out for a development of the palace 
in the direction of the group before us, the road 
all at once turned round into a deep valley op the 
left, where, to our inexpressible surprise, the town 
of Baghtchisarai burst at once upon our view. 

Driving up the principal street, which is lined 
6n both sides with wooden booths or shops, we 
arrived at the gate of the Khan s palace ; and, 
having been favoured with a letter of introduction 
to the Governor from Kaia Bey, a Tatar prince 
descended from one of the first families in the 
Crimea, and now a General in the Russian army, 
we obtained admittance, and had apartments as- 


signed us on the right side of the court. TStwexy 
thing around us inspired the mind with ideas and 
feelings altogether novels and more resembling thote 
produced by reading the airy fictions of romance, 
than ,wj we had ever experienced in contem- 
plating the objects of natuml or artificial reaJiity,- 
The transition was nearly as great as that a per- 
son would be conscious of, could he be transported 
in a moment from any European town, and set 
down in the midst of Bokhara or Sarmacand— so 
completely did every object wear an Asiatic ap- 

The palace is situate on the left bank of the 
Dshuruhsu, a small rivulet which divides the val- 
ley and the town ; and, except in fronl:, where the 
principal entrance is formed by means of a stone 
bridge and gate, it is surrounded by gardens, the 
tall poplars of which raise their beautiful spiral 
tops amid the turrets and minarets of the royal 
buildings. Within this gate is a spacious courti 
overgrown with grass, and bounded in the distance 
by an orchard; but, being almost entirely in* 
closed, it presents a dull and melancholy appeac* 
ance. Immediately on the left hand is the Dchami, 
or Grand Mosque, with two beautiful minarets* 
It is an elegant edifice, with two gates ; one from 
the street, close to which is a beautiful fountain, 
with numerous spouts, where the Mohammedans- 
perform their ablutions previous to engaging in 
worship ; and another from the palace, which was 
exclusively appropriated to the use of the Khan^ 
Attached to the temple is an extensive cemetery, 
filled with mausoleums and tomb-stones, which 


have been efected to the memory of the deceased 
Khans, and other members of the royal family, 
from Batyr-Gherei, who died A. H. 1051, to Korim 
Gherei, who died in 1182, or the year of Christ 
1768. They are all ornamented with a turban on 
the top. The entrances to what constituted the 
residence of the Khans is formed by a gate com- 
municating with an inner court. We were here 
first shewn into a large hall, which formed the 
divan, or council-chamber, and contains a gallery 
and aperture, where the Khan» unseen, might wit- 
ness and hear all that was transacted below. We 
then passed through a great variety of apart- 
ments, covered with carpets, and surrounded with 
Turkish divans, mostly covered with red cloth, but 
some with green silk. The walls were curiously 
decorated with rude views of Constantinople, and 
other places famous in Turkish history. One of 
the rooms contains a beautiful bath, constructed 
for the accommodation of the Empress Catharine. 
It is also surrounded by a divan, and the bath 
itself is lined with white plush, exquisitely soft to 
the touch. 

Close to this place is the Harem, the rooms of 
which have immured many thousands of Christian 
females, stolen from the bosom of their families^ 
and destined to minister to the gratifications of sen- 
sual desire. As its name imports, it was a place 
of interdicted seclusion, being defended by a 
high stone wall, and consisting of several apart- 
ments, the windows of which are darkened by thick 
lattices. In the garden is a bower, where the 
wretched creaturei; used, at intervals, to assemble 


for the purpose of drinking ooffee ; on which oc^ 
oasions the Khan was afforded an opportunity of 
eyeing them from a latticed window in the Kiosk, 
or round wooden edifice erected over the Harem. 
Between this place and the Khan's sleeping apart^ 
ment, is a communication by means of a narrow 
passage and stair- case, at the foot of which there 
used to be stationed a guard to prevent any person 
from entering or leaving the place. 

From the Harem we proceeded to visit the 
royal garden, which consists of four terraces raised 
one above another, and delightfully ornamented 
with jetting fountains and vines, the branches of 
which are carried round artificially, bo as to form 
the most delightfully refreshing arbors. It also 
contains a number of fine fruit-trees, such as 
apple, pear, apricot, mulberry, and cherry; and 
well supports the name of the palace and town^ 
Baghtchisaraif the " Paradisaical Palace." 

Behind this division, at some distance, stands 
a large edifice, which we were told had been 
appropriated to the accommodation of the Persian 
Ambassadors; and, .at the remote corner of the 
Palace grounds^ to tbe left hand from the outer 
court, we were shewn a magnificent mausoleum, 
said to contain the body of a Georgian feoaale 
of great beauty and accomplishments, whom the 
Khan Krim Gherei made bis ckatun, or spouse, 
and to whom he was so greatly attached, that 
he permitted her to profess the faith of her an^ 

On the Qonquest of the Crimea by tbe Russians, 
orders were given by Government, to kee]^ up 


every thing about the palace in the same oriental 
style in which it was left by the Khans; but the 
effects of time have been irresistibly felt by many 
parts of it, and the impression which the view of 
the whoie^ leaves upon the mind, is that of the 
departed magnificence of an Asiatic Court. The 
death*like silence and sombre aspect of every sur- 
rounding object, is perfectly indescribable. 

The Crimea was first subjected to the Mon- 
golian yc^e, and added to the kingdom of Kapt- 
chak, by Batu, the grandson of Dchingis-Khan, in 
the year 1238. It was again separated, however, 
from this kingdom by Hadji Gherei, the forty-first 
in the line of the Kaptchak Khans, who erected it 
into an independent kingdom, and introduced the 
name of Gherei into the family, the descendants 
of which continued on the throne till the termina- 
tion of the Tatar rule, in 1783. This name is still 
a proud badge of distinction in many' families 
in the Kabardian country, with whom is connected 
the Sultan Katte Gherei Krim Gherei, a character 
weO. known to the religious public of Britain. 

In the skirmishes which took place between the 
Tatars and Genoese, in the thirteenth century, 
Mengti, the son of Hadji Gherei, was made pri- 
soner by the latter, who stretched every nerve 
to preposses him in their favour, taught him the 
Italian language, and sent him on an embassy to 
Mohammed IL to solicit his assistance in securing 
th^r mercantile independence in the Crimea. The 
Grand Saltan received him in the most gracious 
manner, loaded him with favours, and so completely 
attachad fain to has own interest, that on receiving a 



deputatioa from the Tatars, requesting him to ap- 
point them a Khan, he fixed on Mengli Gherei^ 
whom he solemnly invested with his new dignity 
in the grand hall of the Divan, and sent him back 
to the Crimea, where he was joyfully received by 
his countrymen. He had not, however, been long 
among them till they discovered that the object of 
his rule was to seduce them to a istate of vassalage 
to the Sultan, in consequence of which they re- 
sisted his authority; but, on the appearance of the 
Turkish troops that were sent to support his claims, 
they submitted, on the conditions that, in future, 
their mursas, or nobles, should enjoy the privilege 
of choosing their own Khans, whom they would 
submit to the Sultan for confirmation, and that 
in case the Ottoman issue should ever become 
extinct, the Turkish throne should fall to the 
reigning Khan of the Crimea. 

The situation of Baghtchisarai is exceedingly 
picturesque, being overhung on the north side by 
a precipitous and fantastic mountain, and shut 
in on the other by one somewhat lower, on which 
we observed the ruins of two palaces, formerly 
occupied by some of the royal family. The houses 
are spread over the naiTow valley, formed by 
these mountain-ranges, to a length of three versts, 
and are built of brick or wood, and covered with 
red tiles. With the exception of the shops, in 
which are manufactured and sold all the variety of 
small wares requisite for the support of Asiatic 
luxury, superadded to a few articles of necessary 
consumption, all the houses are surrounded with 
stone walls, and have generally in firont a wooden 


Tpiazi% in which the inhabitants are fond of loanging 
for the sake of the firesh air. The immense number 
of poplars rising from the orchards^ around which 
the houses are built, greatly enhances the romantic 
S4)pearance of the town. The inhabitants are well 
supplied with the finest water, by ^ small covered 
conduit running along one side of the principal 
. streets, from which it is conveyed into the houses. 
With the exception of a few Greeks and Arme- 
nianSy it is wholly inhabited by Tatars and Jews; 
and contains a population of 9,000 souls. The 
Tatars are the most numerous, and have not fewer 
than thirty-three mosques, three medresses, or 
schools of divinity, and a hundred and fifty Mol- 
lahs, who are attached to the mosques and schools, 
and are supported partly by the contributions 
of those whose children ^ey instruct, and partly 
by voluntary contributions, and perquisites obtain- 
ed at marriages and oliier civil transactions. They 
are prepared for their office by a course of in- 
struction; or, if' they have been previously en- 
gaged in trade, by abandoning it, and submitting 
to an examination by the 3fufii, or chief priest, 
living near KarasuhtMor^ 

In the ev^iing we visited the principal mosque 
while th^ Mohammedans were engaged in per- 
forming their last public devotions for the day. 
It was already dusk, and the temple was lighted 
by lamps, but so feebly, as barely to render vi- 
sible the objects by which we were surrounded. 
From the entrance, which forms an elegant porch, 
we proceeded into an anti-chamber, the floor of 
which wa? covered with the slippers of the wor- 


shippers^ it not being conmstait with Islamic 
ideas of consecrated places to pollute them with 
the dust or dirt of the streets; and indeed^ it 
would argue a total destitution of all sense of 
decency, to deny to a place where intercourse is 
sought with the Deity, that common mark of 
respect which is universally shewn by the TataM 
when entering the houses of their fellow^creatares. 
From this room we had an opportunity of observ- 
ing how the worship was conducted, without 
mingling with the worshippers or attracting their 
notice. The body of the mosque appeared to be 
a perfect square. The floor was covered with 
straw mats of Turkish workmanship) and upon the 
walls were hung, in various places, tablets with 
inscriptions, containing, most probably, favourite 
passages of the Koran. At the inner end is a 
large niche, decorated with similar inscriptions, 
in which the officiating Mollah had taken his 
station during the. service. The Tatars all sat on 
.their heels in the oriental manner, while he recited 
to them certain Surahs, or chapters of the Koran; 
and .when he came to the end of a section, or 
where any direct reference was made to the object 
of worship, they bowed themselves twice, so as to 
touch the ground with their foreheads. During 
prayer they covered their faces with both bande, 
following .the Mollah with low and solemn sighs, 
manifesting throughout the most profound reve- 
rence and veneration. Much has been said in 
defence of pompous and splendid forms of worship, 
and many have insisted on their absolute necessity 
in order to interest the vulgar; but I will venture 

MOHAlftMSDAlV WOfiSHlP. 303 

to afihrm^ that all the dazzling splendour of ex- 
ternal ceremonies, superadded to the Christian 
system, never produced a solemnity to be com- 
pared with that resulting from the simple adora- 
tion here exhibited in a Mohammedan mosque; 
every sense seemed closed against earthly objects, 
and a high degree of self*annibilation appeared to 
inspire the mind of every worshipper* How 
humbling the reflection that so little real devor 
tkm, and so feeble a sense of the presence of the 
great Jehovah, is often to be found in assemblies 
professing to worship him in spirit and truth! 

The following evening we received a visit from 
one of the head Mollahs, who entered pretty 
freely into conversation with us respecting the 
doctrines of Christianity ; but at a moment when 
he seemed most deeply interested about a subject 
of his own starting, he rose suddenly and left the 
room^ without assigning any reason for the abrapt^ 
oefls of his departure. On following him to the 
door, we found him in the piazza in the attitude of 
worship, his face directed towards Mecca, and 
his whole soOl seemingly absorbed in devotkm. 
Here again it was impossible not to draw a con^* 
trast between this Mohammedan priest, and the 
oonduot of thousands and tens of thousands, called 
by the name of Christ, of whom multitudes never 
pray at all, while many suffer the merest trifles to 
joetle out their religious duties, and would be 
afraid of incurring the charge of unpoliteness, were 
they to shew, by their conduct, that they preferred 
communion with God to the frienddiip and inter* 
coorM of their fellow^creatures. 

304 ORlfiR FUNERAL. 

Besides two 'synagogues, there are in Baght- 
chisarm an Armenian and a Greek church. From 
the latter we saw a corpse conveyed to the public 
cemetery of the Christians. It had not been put 
in a coffin, according to the manner of burials con*- 
ferred upon even the poorest perscm in Europe, 
but was simply wrapped round with a white cloth, 
laid upon a bier or board, and borne by four 
men to the grave. This mode of performing the 
funeral obsequies obtains equally among the Jews, 
Christians, and Mohammedans in these parts, 
with the exception of the European families, who 
naturally conform to the rite of their ancestors. 
Such appears to have been the manner in which 
Abner was interred, 2 Sam. iii. 31; for it is said 
that David followed the bier, in Hebrew hdd, ndttah, 
a " bed or board," and not li'iw, aron, " an ark or 
coffin," such as that in which the body of Joseph 
was laid. Gen. 1. 26. It has been supposed' that 
what was done to Joseph, was designed as a mark 
of distinction by the Egyptians; but there is no 
proof from the text of Scripture, that the rite was 
performed by the Egyptians at all; and it seems 
more natural to conclude that his body was thus 
deposited, in order to its being preserved until 
such time as it could be conveyed to the land 
of Canaan. The £opoc, or bier, on which the widow 
of Nain's son was carried, and which commen- 
tators generally interpret area retecta et aperta^ 
was most probably nothing more than what we 
saw in the Crimea. 

During our stay in BagfUckisarai, we were 
treated with every endearing mark of Christian 


hospitality by our friend^ the Rev. Mr. Carruthers, 
at whose house we had the pleasure of meeting 
the Rev. Messrs. Glen and Ross, who had recently 
arrived here from Astrakhan, in order to make 
the tour of the Crimea, investigate the state of its 
Mohammedaix. population, and ascertain the prac- 
ticability of establishing an Institution for the 
instruction of Tatar youth. 


Virii to DjufuUKaU— Greek {huoeiU—DjufiU^KaU—yaUey 
of Jehothaphat — The Karaim — Their Origin — Principk» — 
Their Synagogue and Worship at Lutsk — Karaite Tatar T^ur- 
gutn described. 

An object of no ordinary interest which we hoped 
to attain by our visit to the Crimea, and which we 
had long regarded with pleasing anticipations, 
was a personal interview with the Karaite Jews 
inhabiting an ancient fortress at the distance of a 
few versts from Baghtchisarai. The antiquity of 
the sect, the reasonableness of their grounds of 
separation from the great body of the Jevidsh 
people, their purely oriental habits, the little in- 
tercourse that any of the leartied in Europe have 
had with them, and the fact, long known yet but 
little investigated, that they possessed the books 
of the Old Testament in a peculiar dialect of the 
Tatar language: — all tended to excite our curiosity, 
and render them the subject of Biblical and lite- 
rary research. 

Accordingly, the day after our arrival in 
Baghtchisarai, we proceeded in company with 
the Rev. Messrs. Glen and Ross, towards Dju/ut- 


Kald, or the Jews* Port,* the road to which led ud 
further up the deep and narrow valley in which 
the ancient capital of the* Crimea is situated. The 
rocks on our left were high and precipitous, and 
often projected over-head, exhibiting large excd- 
nations and grottos, many of which seemed to be 
used by the Tatars, partly for residence and partly 
for sheltering their cattle. Our ride through the 
upper end of the town, among mesjeds, medresses, 
minarets, and majestic poplars, was singularly 
picturesque and interesting. Near the site of a 
palace, in the valley called MMama-derk, that 
was razed to the foundations on the fall of the 
Tatar empire, we turned to the west, and entered 
another narrow defile^ known by the name of 
Manam-derd, or Mary's Vale, from a Greek Con- 
vent dedicated to the Virgin, which has been cu« 
riously excavated in the precipice on the right, and 
looks like a large covered balcony at the height of 
several hundred feet from the valley below. Leav- 
ing our horses to graze on the verdant bank of the 
rivulet, we ascended to the monastery by a narrow 
flight of steps ; and, on reaching the entrance in 
" the crag of the rock," the view of the precipice 
over which we were suspended was so tremendous, 
that we instantly receded with sensations of awe. 
The church measured fifty feet in length by 
twenty-four in breadth, yet small as were its 
dimensions, its darkness was but dimly enlighten- 

* Tnrkiflh ^^ AmU ^yk^ The Karaites themtelTM call h 
nyVp KalS, which is only the Afabic ward in Hebrew letters. 



ed by a lamp banging before a painting at the 
inner end. All was sombre and silent, and widi 
the exception of a single religious solitary, we 
saw nothing to remind us of the world of mortals. 
We were informed, however, that scarcely a day 
elapses on which the convent is not visited for pur- 
poses of devotion ; and on the day of'the ascension 
of the Virgin, numbers of visitors, to the amount 
of several thousands, collect from all parts of the 
Crimea, and even from the Russian districts 
beyond Perekop. As only a few can be admitted 
at once, the passage of steps communicating 
between the valley and the monastery, presents 
a curious scene of ascent and descent, while both 
sides of the rivulet are diversified by small groups, 
renewing their old acquaintances, or contracting 

new ones. 

Conceiving this convent ^to be a proper place 
for a depdt of the Holy Scriptures, we made an 
agreement to this effect with the Inspector, whom 
we found cordially desirous of forwarding the 
object; and in consequence of a subsequent ar- 
ningement with the Tauridian Committee, this 
place was supplied with the . Scriptures in the 
Greek, Armenian, Russian, and Turkish languages. 

Directly below^ on the opposite side of the 
d6fi,le^ we observed extensive ruins, marking the 
site of a town formerly inhabited by Greeks, but 
laid desolate on the subjugation of the Tatars. 
From this, romantic spot we prosecuted our ride, 
and passing two beautiful fountains, to which the 
Jewish damsels, like Rebekah and Rachel of old. 


*'come out to draw water/'^ we reached the foot 
of the predipice, on the summit of which Djufiit- 
KaU is situated. The road now became exces*- 
sively steep ; and, as it forms a complete zig^-zag, 
we were surprised to find, that when we supposed 
ourselves near the entrance of the fort, the path- 
way appeared all at once to be terminated by 
a rugged inaccessible rock. We were the more 
^disconcerted at this discovery, as a thunder-storm 
had just commenced, and 'the rain began to pour 
down with violence ; but on turning another angle, 
we came to several caverns in the side of the 
precipice, where we found a temporary shelter, 
and from which we contemplated the flashes of 
the lightning, and listened to the awfully rever- 
berating roar of the thunder in the valley below. 

When the storm was over, we again com- 
menced our ascent, and soon came to the gate 
of this ancient fortress, through which we were 
admitted into a narrow street running from one 
end of the town to the other. The houses are all 
constructed in the oriental style, with the windows 
looking into the courts, and are surrounded by a 
high stone wall. Besides the defence formed by 
these walls, rising perpendicularly from the brink 
of the precipices on either side, a regular fortified 
wall has been raised to protect such places as had 
not been rendered strong by nature. The streets 
had been washed by the rain, which was running 
down in torrents, but we walked on a fine broad 

* The general supply of water is omveyed on the backs of 
horses or asses. 


parem^nt leading to the principal Synagogue^ 
wbere we met the chief Rabbi, a venerable old 
man of the name of Isaac, by whom we were 
received with great courtesy^ and conducted to 
the residence of Rabbi Benjamin, which appeared 
to be the house destined for the reception of 

On entering the guest chamber, or ^'uppers- 
room/' which was beautifully covered with carpets^ 
we were obliged to pull oiBT our boots, and recline 
in the oriental fashion, on bolsters, which were 
placed round the sides of the room. While en* 
gaged in a friendly interchange of questions and 
answers with our host, a large tray was placed 
on the floor in the middle of the room, covered 
with bread, butter, dates, pears, mulberries, 
brandy, and wine, of which we were invited to 
partake at pleasure* The conversation was carried 
on in Turkish and Hebrew; and the ^Rabbins 
seemed no less anxious to satisfy our curiosity 
than we were to obtain information respecting 
the history and distinguishing peculiarities of the 
Karaim. In Benjamin's library, besides the Tal- 
mud, and a considerable collection of other He- 
brew books, we found a good copy of Bomberg's 
Rabbinical Bible. Besides the Tatar Targum^ 
of which more presently, he shewed us sevend 
Karaite Commentaries in Hebrew, and assured 
us that they had them on the whole Bible; but 
that entire ^ copies were very scarce, and high in 
price. A commentary on the Pentateuch alone 
costs 150 rubles, or about £6. sterling. 

From the house of the Rabbi we proceeded 

DIUFirr*KALB. 311 

to the Syiiagogv»es» which are two in nimibei^ 
a larger and a smaller, the former 6f which is 
elegantly fitted np, and is ornamented in the 
inside with a large stcMie monument, erected on 
the accession of his Imperial Majesty to the throne. 
The iDScription contains some beautiful laudatory 
lines in the Hebrew language. From the Ark c^ 
the Covenant, several elegant, and one or two 
apparently very ancient MSS. of the law, in rolls 
of parchment, were brought out, and exhibited 
to us, some of which had been writt^i on the spot^ 
and the rest brought from ConstantilLople and 
Poland. The body of the Synagogue was filled 
with reading desks, on each of which lay Hebrew 
Bibles, Prayer-books, and parts of the Tatar 
Targum. The Bibles were chiefly of the Vene- 
tiaa editions, such as are mostly in request among 
the Spanish Jews in Constantinople, whence they 
have been conveyed to the Crimea. 

The number of families resident in Djufut^ 
Kal^, amounts to about twa-hundred and Jifty, 
many of the members of which are absent during 
certain seascms of the year, transacting business in 
Odessa, and other towns in Russia and Poland. 
Others of them regularly repair every morning 
to Baghtchisarai, where they have shops, and 
return to the castle in the evening. 

Passing through the southern gate, we ascendr 
ed a small eminence, from which we had a coih<- 
manding view, not only of this '' munition of rocks^" 
but of the romsmtic scenery by which it is sur- 
rounded. Towards the east the Tent mountain 
(Tckatir^dagh) , rose majestically above the intei:- 


yemng chams of rugged and precipitoos rocks^ 
and almost directly . south, we caught a distant 
prospect of the fortress of Mankup. This ancient 
castle, once in the possession of the Genoese, is 
now in ruins ; but it was inhabited till within these 
few years by Tatars and Karaite Jews. Being 
situated on the summit of a high insulated rock, it 
is almost inaccessible, and presents a singulariy 
prominent object in the perspective. Djujut-Kah 
itself, we now found to be constructed on the 
summit of the narrowest part of a high ridge of 
rocks, which here projects towards the norths 
and terminates abruptly on meeting the valley 
of Ashlama, above Baghtchisarai. The strength 
of the place is mostly from nature, the rocks rising 
perpendicularly on either side, and the ridge, not 
being of any breadth, it required little labour to 
fortify the town at its southern termination. The 
continuation of the ridge is covered with grass, 
and used to afford pasture to a fine herd of deer; 
but we were informed by the Jew who conducted 
us, that their number is now reduced to three. 

We now descended into the " Valley of Jeho- 
shaphat," or the Karaite burpng-ground, con* 
sisting of a deep recess, covered with lofty trees, 
to the sombre shade of which, the white slabs 
placed over the graves of the deceased, presented 
the most interesting contrast. A pleasing melan- 
choly seized our minds as we entered this hallowed 
spot; and were it not for the distressing idea of 
the obstinate unbelief of Judaism, associated with 
the general amability of the Karaite character, 
it is scarcely possible to conceive any scene more 


cakulated to soothe the miod of a contemplative 
spectator. The tomb* stones, mostly of white mar- 
ble, are regularly arranged in rows, somewhat after 
the manner of the Moravian graves ; and the more 
modem have an additional monument at either 
end, consisting likewise of a marble slab, some 
with and some without Hebrew inscriptions. Being 
uixious, if possible, to discover from these monu- 
mental annals, how far back the residence of 
the Jews in Djufut-Kal^ could be traced, we 
requested our guide to point out to us the oldest 
grave, which he readily did, assuring us that it 
was held in great veneration by his brethren. 
It consists of a plain slab, which has been par- 
tially fractured on the surface; but, on clearing 
away the moss which had filled up the incisions 
of the letters, the following inscription was brought 

won xMm^ 

The reader will observe, that the last letter 
in the first line has been considerably efiiatced, 
but to judge from its present appearance, it must 
have been a Mem. The rest of the letters nw, I 
take to form the initial word of the sacred motto 
of the Jews, ^hiv* nm, ^^ Hear, O Israel, Jehovah 
our Elohim is one Jehovah." Deut vi. 4. This 
inscription is also defective at the close, something 
having been effaced after the Daleth, which the 
sculptor, not versed in the laws of Massoretic 


caligraphy, has divided, aiul placed the plwral 
feminine termination at the beginning of the 
following line. The word has, most probably, 
been the poetical form mw : so that the whcde in- 
scription will read thus : ** Hear^ O Israeli 8g€. The 
Grave of Geez, Joseph Ben David. In the year 
five thousand and Four, That is, according to the 
Christian era, the year 1364, an epoch somewhat 
more than a century later than the commence- 
ment of the Tatar dynasty in the Crimea. 

The Karaim have no written document to 
prove at what time they first occupied this fort» or 
develop the circumstances which originated ot 
attended their immigration into the peninsula. 
Peysonel, in his work on the Commerce of the 
Black Sea, states, that a tradition obtained among 
them, purporting that their ancestors inhabited the 
city of Bukhara in Great Tatary, and that they 
accompanied the Tatars in their memorable expe- 
dition into Europe. The circumstance that the 
Karaites dress much in the Tatar style, and speak 
a dialect to which they give the name of Djagah 
taif might seem to give some weight to this ac- 
count ; but no such tradition is known to the pre- 
sent generation, and their conformity to the Tatars 
in language and habits is easily accounted for, by 
the length of time they have lived under their 
dominion. In consequence of inquiries made on 
the spot, as well as subsequent epistolary comnHi- 
nications, it appears, that they have no recollection 
of any bond of union ever having existed between 
their ancestors and the Bukbarian Jews ; that, as 
far as their knowledge extends, there exist no Ka- 


raim in that quarter; and the only traditionary 
account current among them is, that their ances-< 
tors came from Damascus^ and settled here about 
500 years ago, under the protection of the Khans 
of the Crimea. Their language, too, as exhibited 
in their ancient books, approximates more to the 
OsmatiU, than to the Oriental Turkish.* ' 

About the beginning of last century, in the 
reign of the Khan Hadji Selim Gherei, they had 
peculiar privileges conferred on them, in conse** 
quence of a successful cure performed by one of 
their physiciani; on Ulu Khani, a sister of the 
Khan, who was dangerously ill. Instead of any 
longer, performing certain drudgery- work at the 
palace, and paying a heavy capitation-tax, in 
common with their neighbours, the Greeks and 
Annenians^ they were taken under the protection 
of the princesses of the above rank, and only sup- 
plied their establishment with wood, coffee, and 
other articles of domestic use, which they fur* 
nished not so much by way of tribute, but as a 
token of gratitude for the immunities that were 
granted them. 

With respect to the sect in general, it claims a 
very high antiquity, and seems originally to have 
been the same with that of the Sadducees, one of 
the three principal sects which divided the Jewish 
nation about two hundred years before the incar* 
nation of our Saviour. One of their distinguishing 
tenets is known to have been their strict ad-* 

* It appears, from the Travels of Babbi Petachia, that there 
were Karaites in the Crimea about the year 1180, which was con- 
sfderaUy prior to the arrival of the Tatars. 


herence to tlie letter of the law^ to the entire ex- 
clusion of traditionary interpretation ; and, indeed, 
it has not unnaturally been conjectured by some 
authors of note, that the errors which that sect 
taught in the time of our Lord formed no part 
of their primitive creed, and that it was the adop- 
tion of these errors by the disciples of Sadok, that 
gave birth to the Karaim ; whom, in common with 
Hettinger, Altingius, Triglandius, and others, Pri- 
deaux takes to be Scribes so frequently mentioned 
in the New Testament. This opinion, however, 
seems totally irreconcilable with Matt. xv. 1, 2, 
where the Scribes are represented as equally te- 
nacious of the traditions with the Pharisees. It is 
not improbable that the number of the reformed 
party of the Sadducees was extremely small in 
the days of our Lord, as, in fact, that 6f the Ka- 
raim has comparatively 'been in every succeeding 
age. According to Mordecai, one of their own 
writers, they are sprung from Judah Ben Tabbai, 
and were originally denominated, after him, the 
Society of J. B. T., but afterwards changed their 
name to that of Karaim. 

But whatever obscurity may remain, as to the 
exact period or the particular occasion of their 
origin, so much is certain, that the sect was not 
formed by Rabbi Anan, as Morinus and others 
have erroneously supposed; but that it only un- 
derwent a reformation by that celebrated Rabbi, 
during the period of his opposition to the introduc- 
tion of the Talmud as a rule of manners, and his 
enforcement of the paramount authority of the Di- 
vine Law. In proof of this, I shall quote a pas- 


sage from the Karaite Ritual, at the commence- 
ment of the chapter entitled nijnDTi or the service 
ia memory of the dead ; in which we find Anaa 
occupying the first place, but only as one who 
had effected a radical reformation of manners, and 
reduced the Karaites to the primitive observance 
of the law. The prayer begins thus : — " May our 
Qodf and the God of our fathers, have mercy on 
our dead, and your dead, and all the dead of all 
his people of the house of Israel I And, first of 
all, on Anan our Rabbi, the prince, the man of 
Grod, chief of the captivity, who opened the way of 
the law, Oiul enlightened the eyes of the" Scrips 
turists, [literally, Sons of the text,'] and turned 
many from iniquity and transgression, afid caused 
us to walk in the right wayT* The same Ian* 
guage, with an accumulation of laudatory epithets, 
is used respecting him by Mordecai ; and Rabbi 
S. ShuUam, agreeably to this, declares that Anan 
cD*Hnpn nj)DH ptn, ** confirmed the faith of the Ka- 
raites." Jucharin, foL cxiix. col. 2. According to 
Makrizi,t Anan came from the east, under the 
Caliphate of Abu Djafar Mansur, about the mid- 
dle of the eighth century, and brought along nrith 
bim copies of the law, professedly taken from 
the architypal exemplar, written by the hand of 
Moses. His great learning, and the favour he en- 
joyed with the Caliph, gave him peculiar advan- 

inpD ua u»y "i»«m nmnn yn n» nne irr^w rhiT\ w«t o»n^Hn 

: m»» ima uamni mayoi pro a»wn o»ni 

t De Sacy*8 Chrestomathie Arabe. Vol. ii. p. 176* 


tages ia his diiputes with the Talmudists, whom 
he taxed with the introduction of usages contrary 
to those inculcated by the saicred books in his 
hands ; and it would appear, both from liie state- 
ments of Makrizi, and those of Abulfeda,* that 
Anan, as well as some of his followers^ spoke with 
the highest respect of Jesus of Nazareth, and con- 
denmed the Jews for treating him as an impostor, 
and putting him to death, without weighing tiie 
justice of his pretensions^ and his claims of excel- 
lence and merit 

If the accounts that obtain among themselves 
may be credited, the first place where a Karaite 
synagogue was established, after the destructioa 
of Jerusalem, was Grand Cairo, in which city they 
have always kept up a separate community, and 
where> according to the most recent accounts, 
they still exist at the present day. The Karaite 
Rabbi Samuel states, in his Itinerary, that besides 
fourteen copies of the law, the Karaite synagogue 
at Cairo possessed a great number of books written 
by their wise men, in the Arabic language. In 
the village of ELaskioI, near Constantinople, they 
have long been esttv^blished, and maintain that 
they are descendants of such Karaites as settled 
there in the time of Constantine the Great. When 
visited by Biorpstahl, in 1776, their number 
amounted to about two hundred ; but Dr. Scholtz, 
who was there in 1821, states their number at 
1,600. They were in possession of MSS. con- 
taining the Hebrew Text of the Five Books of 

• Chrest. Arabe, p. 207. 

TlOt RARAIM. ai9 

Moses^ with the Targnm ^f Onkelos^ written A. D. 
1240. He also found among them a Tatar TersioD^* 
m all probability a copy of that in xise among the 
CrimeanKaraites, and of which a particular account 
will be given at the close of this chapter ; but, ac* 
ctarding to earlier accounts/ the translation in com* 
mon use among them is in the vernacular Greek^f 
and is doubtless the same that was printed in the 
Constantinopolitan Polyglott, in the year 1547. 
According to a letter addressed to Hottinger,:}; by 
Professor Legerus of Geneva, there existed, about 
the year 1049,. in Poland, 2,000 Karaites ; in 
donstantinople, 70 ; in Theodosia, 1,200 ; in Cairo^ 
300 ; in Damascus, 200 ; in Jerusalem, 30 ; in 
Babylonia, 100 ; and in Persia, 600. At the pre- 
sent day, they are found in different parts of Rus- 
sia, Poland, Lithuania, Austria, the Caucasus, 
Turkey, Egypt, Abyssinia, India, and the Holy 
Land; but their numbers have not been ascer- 

As has already been observed, the principal 
point of difference between them and the Rab- 
binists, or Pharisaical Jews, consists in their re^ 
jection of the oral law, and their rigid appeal to 
the text of Scripture as the exclusive and only 
infallible source and test of religious truths It is 

* Michaeli's Orient, and Exeget. BibL zy. pp. 92, 95. 

t Tela Ign. Satanae, p. 596. 

i Thesaur. Philol. p. 583. Compare Rabbi Benjamin's Iti- 
nerary ; according to which^ that author found at Constantinople 
above 500 Karaim; at Askalon, 40; at Damascus, 200. He tr»» 
veiled about the middle of the twelfth century. 


on this account that they are called Karaites,^ or 
Scripturists, which name they glory in, as clearly 
and honourably expressive of the fundamental pe* 
culiarity of their creed, though, in all probability, 
as is the case' with the epithets by which most 
sects and systems of opinions have been charac- 
terized^ it was given them at first by their ene- 
mies. I'he reader will greatly err, however, if he 
supposes that, in their zeal for the exclusive au- 
thority of the Scriptures, the Karaites carry their 
enmity to the Talmud and, other Jewish writings 
so far as never to consult them, or have them in 
their possession. This is by no means the case. 
On our visit to the principal Rabbi in Dju/ut 
Kald, we found some of the ponderous volumes in 
his library; and the answer he gave to our ex- 
pression of surprise was singularly characteristic 
of the moderation and good sense of the sect in 
general :•— '' We do not admit that the Talmud has 
any binding authority over our consciences, and 
there are many things in it which we cannot ap- 
prove ; but should we, on this account, reject what 
is good in it, and not avail ourselves of such state- 
ments as are consonant with the text of Scrip- 

Another remarkable point of disagreement be- 
tween the two sects, is their different methods of in- 
terpreting Scripture. While the Talmudist chiefly 
applies the Cabbalistical art to bring out recon- 

• C3»Hnp, Karaim^ from wip, Kara, " Scripture." Thej are 
-also frequently called Hnpo ua, bene-nukra, sons of the texty and 
H^ipo *V]^l, batM-mikra^ masters or possessors of the text. 


dite and mysterious meanings from the sacred 
text» the Karaite maintains that the Scripture is 
its own interpreter, and that the sense of a passage 
is to be determined by the grammatical mean* 
ing of the words, the scope and connection, and 
a comparison of parallel passages. 

The necessary consequence of this close at- 
tachment to the letter of the law is visible, in vari- 
ous ways^ both in their personal conduct, and in 
their ritual observances. For example : it is com- 
manded in the law of Moses, '^ Ye shall kindle 
DO fire throughout your habitations on the Sab- 
bath day," Exod. xxxv. 3. ; yet every traveller 
must be struck, on entering a Polish village during 
the night of the Jewish Sabbath, to find it com- 
pletely illuminated by the profusion of candles 
that are burning in the houses of the Jews, all of 
which have been lighted a few minutes before the 
Sabbath commenced ; and as to the keeping up of 
iires, every difficulty is removed by laying the 
emphasis on the word thou, concluding, that it is 
not unlawful for the Jews to get Christian servants 
. to do these offices for them. In the houses of the 
Karaim, on the contrary, you will neither see a 
candle nor fire, from sunset on Friday evening till 
the same time the evening following. They eat 
nothing but cold meat during the whole of this 
period. The only instance of evasion on their 
part that I have heard of, is their leaning over the 
window to light and smoke their ^pipes ; but my. 
iA&rmatioQ was firom a Rabbinist, and is thevefope 
to be suspected. 

The Karaim also sanctify the Sabbath by 


rigid abstinence, and a close application of the 
mind to the duties of religion. At Dju/ut-kaH, 
the gates of the fort are shut at sunset on Friday 
evening, and never, on any occasion, opened till 
sunset on the evening of the Sabbath, in strict 
conformity with the ordinance Neb. xiii. 10. This 
was one of the privileges conceded to them by the 
Khans of the Crimea. The Rabbinists, on the 
contrary, in direct violation of Isa. Iviii. '' If thoa 
turn away thy foot from the Sabbath — from doing 
thy pleasure on my holy day," convert it into a 
season of carnal delight, making it a day of feast- 
ing, conviviality, and sensual enjoyment. 

The Karaim are free from many of the super- 
stitions to be found among the Jews in general, 
such as the transmigration of souls, the power of 
talismans, &c. ; and, as might naturally be ex* 
pected from their principles, the standard and tone 
of morals which their general deportment exhibits 
is quite of a different stamp from those of the 
Rabbinists. In their persons they are tidy ; their 
domestic discipline and arrangements are correct 
and exemplary ; and their dealings with others 
are characterized by probity and integrity. It is 
one of their favourite maxims, that ^' Those things 
which a man is not willing to receive himself, it is 
not right for him to do to his brethren,"* — ^a maxim 
literally corresponding with that which our Lord 
pronounces to be the sum of what the law and 
prophets taught as the duty of man to man. Matt, 
vii. 12. How far the Karaim act up to this prin- 

vnW? anwy^ nm p« p ^mJfh otkh a^ap* W?m C3»j»jyn • 



ciple» may be ascertained by the fact» that they 
are universally respected by all who know them ; 
and I never yet heard any person speak ill of 
them, except he was a bigoted adherent of the 
Talmud. In the south of Russia, where they %re 
best known, their conduct is proverbial; and I 
cannot place it in a stronger light than by record- 
ing the testimony borne to it by a Polish gentle- 
nuin in Dubno, who informed me that, while the 
other Jews resident in Lutsk are continually em- 
broiled in suits at law, and require the utmost vi- 
gilance on the part of the police, there is not on 
record a single instance of prosecution against the 
Karaim for the space of several hundred years, 
during which they have been settled in that place ! 
By the RabbinUts they are held in perfect abi- 
horrence. Eisenmenger relates* that he was eye- 
witness of this in Frankfort on the Maine, where 
be found a Karaite in the Jews' street, to whom 
they had been kind at first, taking him to be of 
their own sect ; but the moment they discovered 
that he was one of the '' Sons of the Text," they 
hissed him out of the street with contempt In 
the time of Rabbi Benjamin,! there existed a 
literal wall of separation between them in Con- 
stantinople ; and I was struck, when visiting them 
at Lutsk, to find that they lived in a separate 
qiiarter of the town, altogether distinct from the 
other Jews, who never spoke of them without con- 
tumely ; and they even declared, that if they saw 

* Entdecktes Judenthttm. Vol. i. p. 305. 
t nv»nD cD'oan n»D^n isnm a>mn pai anuoi— Itiner. 
ed. EIz. p. S8. 

y 2 


a Christian in danger of being drowned, it would 
be their duty to make a bridge of a Karaite in 
order to rescue him. In short, they carry Uieir 
enmity to such a pitch, that they will not receive a 
Karaite into their communion until he has pre- 
viously made a profession of the Mohammedan or 
Christian faith. 

The Karaim, on the contrary, though they 
execrate the traditions of the Rablnnitis^ never 
speak of their persons with contempt, but com*- 
monly give them the fraternal appellation u»rw 
cyjam, ** our brethren, the Rabbinists." 

It may not be amiss, in this place, to fiiniisfa the 
reader with some account of the mode of public 
worship in use among the Karaim, an oppor- 
tnnity of observing which was presented, on my 
visit to their synagogue in the town of Lutsk^ 

This visit took place on the day of Pentecost, 
182L The synagogue, which is situated in the 
back part of the town, is a square wooden build- 
ing, capable of containing about two hundred 
people. The entrance is from the east, and leads 
immediately into the outer court, which is appro- 
f^riated to the use of the females, and is divided 
from the rest of the synagogue by a thin partition, 
m which is a chink to admit of hearing and ob- 
#i»ving what is transacted within. Directly in 
front of th» entrance, and fixed to the western 
wall, is the Ark of the Covenant, containing the 
book of the law* the front of which is covered ¥rith 
a veil about eight feet in length by two and a half 
in breadth. Besides this veil are two smaller, one 
on each side, covering the prayer-books and other 


thiQgs reqvbite for the Vfte pf the offici^iting Kabbi^ 
CI08Q to the ark is a PPiaU reading^desjk, f^pi^-* 
what ID the shape of a inusic-stand, where thq 
Levite, or mioister, assists at certain parts of thQ 
service ; and in front, near the middle of the syna* 
gogue, stands a square table, painted bli|e, and 
adorned with two coverletp» one of woollen stuff 
of various colours, and the other of silk richly 
embroidered apd ornamented. On eaph si4e 9^ 
this table stands a large candle9ticki vvrith seveq 
branches, filled with wax candles; and, at ^ift 
ferent distances, round the synagogue, stand c^ 
number of reading-desks, each of which has a box 
containing such books as are used in the tiiue of 

Instead of the larger and smaller Taliih (n'Vp)| 
or white woollen garments, which the other Jfsws 
put on when they go into the synagogue, the Kar 
raim use two long belts of woollen stijff, whicl^ 
are thrown oyer the shoulders, and joined behind 
by a square piece of the same material, whioli 
is more or les^ prnamentec^ according to the cir^ 
oumstapcgs of the owner. To the corners of thi^ 
pi^ce arp att^phed the Tzitzith (n'x»»), or long 
fd^)g9s, or OFpamenjted strings, which the wearer 
put# together at different parts of the serv^cOi 
especially before th(^ reading of thp J^w, ^n4| 
b^v^ng kissed them, places them upoQ his eyei;, aiff 
fk §jgn that the divine commandments, of wl^icji 
these strings aje symbpl^al^ are the Qn)y mpdiun^ 
of light to the ^ind. T'J^e custom i^ founided on 
Number^ ipv. 38-r^4p. 

The Eabbi vf^^ dre^iipd in a lopg ro^e qf bl^ck 


silk, over which a large wliite Talith was thrown, 
which covered his head, and huDg dovm nearly to 
the bottom of his robe. The prevailing dress of 
the people was a long blue top coat, lined with 
lambskin, and large lambskin caps, in the Tatar 

The service of the day had commenced before 
I went, so that I found them already advanced to 
the reading of different parts of the Scriptures. 
I am not aware that it is known among Christians, 
but it is certainly deserving of notice, that the 
celebrated Prophecy quoted by the Apostle Peter, 
on the day of Pentecost, from the 'prophet Joel, 
chapter ii. 28 — 32, forms a part of the Pentecostal 
service of the Karaite Jews. Such, however, is 
the fact, and may we not conclude, from the 
pertinacity with which this ancient sect have ad- 
hered to their primitive institutions, that the same 
coincidence took place in the Apostolic age; that, 
in the Divine prescience, those who selected the 
Haphtorahs or sections from the prophets to be 
read in the Synagogues, were directed to choose 
this passage from Joel for the particular feast on 
which it was to receive its proper and remarkable 
accomplishment; and, that the Apostle Peter, 
in quoting the lesson for the day, had recourse 
to one of the most powerful arguments which 
he could possibly have usedr in order to convince 
a Jew of the divine nature of the transactions 
exhibited on that stupendous occasion? 

Nearly two hours were spent in repeating 
prayers, and reading passages out of the Psalms 
and the Prophets, in all of which the congregation 


took a greater share than the Rabbi, who, at 
certain intervals fell down on his knees, and 
bowed with his face to the ground. At length 
that part of the service commenced, which is 
preparatory to the manifestation of the law. It 
consisted chiefly in prayers, which were repeated 
with uncommon earnestness; the congregation 
lifting up their bands, and elevating their voice, 
while, at regular intervals, the words, " Hear, O 
Israel, Jehovah our Elohim is one Jehovah," were 
repeated with much solemnity. The Ark was 
then opened, and the law brought out with great 
reverence, and placed endways upon the table of 
testimony. The upper end of the roll was orna- 
mented with a crown, on the top of which was 
infixed a precious stone, and at different distances 
hung small silver tablets, the gifts of zealous mem- 
bers of the congregation. The numerous wrappings 
were no sooner taken off, than the worshippers 
pressed forward to kiss them ; after which, a de- 
putation of three little boys came in fi-om the outer 
court, and receiving them into their extended arms, 
conveyed them out to the females, who also kissed 
them and placed them on their eyes, in the same 
manner as the men had done. 

The law was now laid flat on the table, and 
the minister addressed the officiating priest in the 
following words : 

" ThoUf therefore, my father, O Priest, the 
crown of my head, give glory to the law, and 
approach to read in the book of the law : approach 
with reverence.'' 

On which the congregation repeated, in He- 


brew, the Divine promise to Phiaehfts: ^* And 
it Jskatt he to km amd Ms seed after kim^ a covenami 
^ et>erlasting priesthood; because he tvas zealous 
for his Gody tmd made an atonement for the chil- 
dren of Israel'' Num. xxv. 13^ and in Chaldee: 
'* And the children of Israel, the priests, md the 
Levites, and the rest of the children of the captivi^, 
kept the dedication nf the house of God with jog.'^ 
Ezra, vL 1 6« 

Having repeated certain introductory <8entenc€8 
from the 1 19th Psalm, the Rabbi began the lesson: 
''In the third month of the exodus of the children 
of Israel from the land of Egypt," &c. Exod. xix. 1. 

When he had finished this portion, he quoted 
the words: '* Blessed he Jehovah God, the God 
^Israel, &c. Psalm Ixxii, 18, 19, and the minister, 
turmsg to a young man that was standing by, 

" And thou my hrother, O Levite, give glory to 
the law, and approach to read in the hook of the 
law; approach with reverence'' 

To which the congregation gave in response: 

'* And to Levi he said: Let thy Thummim and 
thy Urim be with thy Holy One, whom thou didst 
prove at Massah, and with whom thou didst strive at 
the waters cf Meribah." 

The Levite then came forward and repeated 
several passages from the Psalms, Job, and the 
book of Proverbs, and read several verses of the 
fesson, concluding with the words: *' Blessed he 
Jehovah God, the God cf Israel; and Messed be 
his glorious name for ever." 

The rest of the lesson was read by certain 


mdiyiduals from the congregation^ who were in 
like manner summoned in turn by the minifiter, 
with the words : 

** j4nd thou my brother, O Israelite, give glory 
to the law, and approach to read in the book of the 
law; approach with reverence.'' 

Having read to the commencement of Exodus 
XX. the whole congregation stood some time in 
silence, till the Rabbi began to repeat, in Hebrew^ 
the ten commandments^ which the congregation 
immediately repeated after him in Tatar, each 
commdndment apart. The concluding part of the 
chapter was then read; and after a general as- 
cription of glory to t^ Supreme Lawgiver, during 
which tiie law was rolled up and replaced in the 
Ark, the minister turned Xd one of the people, and 
addressed him thus : 

And thou, my son, O Dismisser,* give glory to 
the law, and (xpproach to read the lesson ; approach 
with reverence^. 

To which the congregation replied: 

** Hear, my son, the instruction, of thy father; 
«nd forsake not the law of thy mother^ Hear, 
O my son, and * receive my sayings ; and the 
years of thy life shall be many." 

This Maphtir was a fine-looking boy, about 
thirteen years of age, who read the prayer of 
Habfaakuk ia Hebrew, with a path^o^ and beauty 
wiiAch qtuiie astonished me. 

The aervioe ended with the repetition of a long 

* VBfio, llapAi!tr-«-4« called becanse he finisbee tibe k^aoa 
^seviiMui to ibe ^isBussion of tbe congrf^^oo. 


metrical prayer ; on which the congregation, after 
a few silent aspirations, retired to the outer court, 
where they had left their shoes, and went away 
with great decorum. 

Having addressed one of the Karaim who 
stood next to me, in Turkish^ his countenance, 
which had formerly expressed surprise at my look- 
ing over the service-book, now brightened up as 
if he had discovered a brother ; and, after exchang- 
ing a few sentences, he introduced me to the 
Rabbi, who kindly invited me to visit him at his 
house in the afternoon. I accordingly went at the 
time appointed, and found his room filled with 
Karaites of both sexes, who had assembled to 
listen to our conversation. He gave me a hearty 
** Come in peace ;" and, without reserve, entered 
into an explanation of the peculiar dogmas of their 
faith. Instead of manifesting that disquietude 
which generally seizes the mind of a Rabbinist, 
the moment the subject of the Messiah is intro- 
duced, my host discovered no alarm, but assured 
me that he is the object of their daily expectation. 
Such passages as I quoted from the Old Testa* 
ment he explained much in the same way as the 
more ancient of the Jewish Rabbins, and appeared 
to have little or no knowledge of the numerous 
subterfuges to which the modern Talmudists have 
recourse in controversy with Christians. On my 
referring to the Hebrew New Testament, a copy 
of which I intended to present to him, he rose 
and produced one from his library, which bore 
evident marks of having been read, and which he 
handed to the people to read without atny re- 


kictance. *^They had read," he said, "the ac- 
counts it contained respecting Jesus of Nazareth ; 
but they were not convinced that he was the 
Messiah promised to the fathers." 

It was peculiarly interesting to behold a com- 
pany of the seed of Abraham, listening with deep 
attention to the discussion of that important sub- 
ject which their law typified, their prophets 
predicted, their poets sang, and all the ancient 
worthies of their nation realized by a believing 
anticipation; and as I left them, my prayers 
ascended on their behalf, that as on that blessed 
day the effusion of the Holy Spirit effected the 
conversion of three thousand souls, for a wave- 
offering of first fruits to the Lord— so the ge- 
neral ingathering might speedily commence, 
and all Israel be saved with an everlasting sal- 

That the Karaim of Poland^ and the Crimea 
possessed a Targum, or version of the Old Testa- 
ment in a Tatar dialect, has long been known to 
the literary world. Qustavus Peringer not only 
notices it, but gives a specimen of its manner, 
consisting of the three first verses of Genesis, in 
his epistle relative to the affairs of the Karaim in 
Lithuania, inserted in Tenzel's Monthly Accounts, 
1691. From this source Wolfius derived his in- 
formation respecting it, which is contained in the 
fourth volume of his BibliothecsD Hebrseee, page 
167. It is also referred to by the Swedish traveller, 
Biomstahl, in his account of the Karaim inhabit- 



ing the villagiQ of Haskiol, near Constuitiiiople, 
where be was shewn a copy of the Pentateuch 
in the year 1776.* 

Of this version a copy was purchased for the 
sum of 200 rubles by Dr. Pinkerton, on his visit 
to Djufut-Kal^, in the year 1816, who forwarded 
it to Petersburgh with a view to its being printed 
along with the translation of the New Testameat 
made by the Missionaries at Karass. It was* 
however, deemed advisable by the Committee 
of the Russian Bible Society, that, previous to 
their undertaking a work of sgcb magnitude, the 
MS. should be forwarded to Astrakhan, to be 
examined by the Mii^sionaries resident in that 
city. It was accordingly submitted to their judg* 
ment, and, on its being found to exhibit a dialect 
of the Tatar very different from any with which 
they were acquainted, the idea of associating the 
version with that of the New Testament executed 
at Karass, was entirely abandoned, and it was 
resolved, that an edition of the Book of Genesis, 
with such alterations as the Missionaries might 
deem proper, should be printed by way of trial* 

Having had an opportunity of cursorily in-r 
specting this MS. during my stay in Astrakhan, 
I here present my biblical resuders with the w^ 

The MS. consists of four volumes^ in quarto, 
strongly bound in red goat's skin, and gilt on the 
back and sides. Two of the volumes hava been 
so much cut by the binder, that they rather rer 

* Midaelifi Orient, u. £««get. BtMiothck. xy. Thcil. p. 95. 


fiemble royal octavos than -quartos. The first 
yoitune contains the Pentateuch, with the follow- 
tog title : 

44 44 4 

oSir H^iai V nnva «yoin cwn 
minn caiinn ainaV ^nn» y, m»»Ha 


Le. ** Blessed be God ! My help is from Jeho- 
vah^ who made heaven and earth. In the name 
of Him who is found in adversities, and who 
created the world by his word. Here beginneth 
the writing of the Targum of the Law : In the 
beginning Grod created the heavens and the earth.*' 
To the five books of Moses are appended the 
five Megilloth, or the Canticles, Rutii, Lamenta- 
tions, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. 

The second volume contains cviwH*) c3>H>aj, the 
former prophets, i. e. the books from Joshua, to 
2d Kings inclusive; the third ounnM o>Haj, the 
"Latter," or the *' Prophets," strictly so called; 
and the fourth, the Hagiographa, with the excep- 
tion of the two Books of Chronicles. 

The' MS. is neatly written in the Rabbinical 
character, with the addition of certain marks and 
points in connexion with some of the letters, in 
order to maJce them suit the Tatar alphabet. 
Thus the Saghir Nun is expressed by j, and the 
Hha by a. It is also pointed throughout, agre^ 
ably to the pronunciation of the Crimean Tatars. 
All the chapters and verses have the initial Hebrew 
word prefixed to them, exactly as in the early 
Targums; and, at the beginning of every chapter. 


or* principal division, a space is left in tlie aeooad 
line to receive the lower part of the Hebrew word, 
which is written in large square characters. The 
end of each book is generally made to occupy the 
greater part of a page, the words being so arranged 
as to diminish the length of the lines, and make 
them terminate in a point at the foot. 

Wherever the sacred name mn% occurs in the 
original, its place is supplied in the version by the 
abbreviated form n i. e. cD»n, ** the Name ;" Q»nVn 
is uniformly given by nls Tangrif the old Tatar 
word for God ; and the use of Aliah seems studi* 
ously avoided altogether, in order to prevent any 
thing like an assimilation to the religious phrase- 
ology of Mohammedanism. Numerous Hebrew 
words are retained, such as pnr, a just person, 
i»Dn, a saint, jr»i, wicked, nn, generation, nn», a 
gift, nnjo, an offering, &c. 

It has been affirmed, that the dialect in which 
this MS. is written constitutes what has been 
termed Djagatai, or, as the Tatars pronounce it, 
ShagaUai; but the assertion is purely hypothe- 
tical, and in perfect contradiction to the united 
testimony of history and experience. The name 
Djagatai is evidently derived from one of the sons 
of Djingis-khan, who, on the death of his father, 
obtained, as his share of the Tatar empire, the 
countries to the east of the Caspian, known by the 
names of Transoxiana, Ugoria, Kashgar, Bedak- 
shan, Bukharia, and Balk, and vvhich, by some 
geographers, have been comprised under the ge- 
neral name of Zagatai ; but there never appears to 
have existed a people to whom this name was 


exclusively appropriated. Were it a fact that the 
dialect of the MS. ever formed the language of 
any nation or tribe to the east of the Caspian, or 
in central Asia, it would throw great light on the 
question relative to the ten tribes, as it is incon- 
trovertible that none but Jews ever spoke any 
such language. The words, indeed, in general, 
are not Hebrew; but every thing else is. Not 
only is the same order of the words retained which 
exists in the original, but every idiom and gram- 
matical form ; and every particle of the Hebrew is 
so rigidly expressed, that, with little trouble, the 
whole might be rendered back again into Hebrew, 
so as to fiimish an exact copy of the exemplar from 
which it was made. Indeed, its servility is such, 
that, besides now and then suggesting a proper Ta- 
tar word to a translator, it is of no practical use 
whatever — ^the Tatar and Hebrew languages differ- 
ing so entirely in their structure and conformation. 
It is accordingly found that, though portions of 
it have been transcribed into Arabic characters, 
it still remains a sealed book to every Tatar or 
Turk into whose hands it is put. And even Jews 
from the west of the Caspian, who speak the 
Tatar as their vernacular language, are not able to 
make out its meaning, not being acquainted with 
the Hebrew — a circumstance which makes it evi- 
dent that no person who is not conversant with the 
original language of the Old Testament can possi- 
bly understand it. 

It is therefore only in a critical point of view 
that the Karaite MS. can be considered as pos- 


y ^ue. The rigidity with which the 
^^^(L whose use it was made^ profess to adhere 
tte text of Scripture, naturally leads to the 
coDcluBion, that it will be found faithfully to ex- 
jiibit the readings of the manuscript from which it 
^irafl taken. But even here our expectations are 
only partially met. For it turns out, on examina- 
tion, that the translation is not independent^ or 
constructed on any principles of interpretation 
peculiar to the Karaite school ; but that the trans- 
lator has not unfrequently followed the Chaldee 
Targums, and those renderings which are to be 
met with in the Rabbinical commentaries. 
The. following will serve as a specimen : — 

Gen. 1. 2. CD»nVH nn is rendered 3»jn5tD '^♦♦, ** a 
wind of God ;** but in the spedtnen which Wulfius 
Airnishet from Peringer, the phraae Is given thus: 
b>^ >^yi3, '^ A mighty vrind/* From this it appears 
that the Karaite MSS. differ in the interpretation ihey 

27, and v. 1. the words (pmv) «ia o^nVw tzsVira 
inM are thu« translated : UH •ODT luib -]mVd kK^Dfi*D» 
** in the attributes of the angels created be him." 

ii. S. caripo. Eng. ver. '' eastward." Tatar, MiViiM, 
" in the beginning/' 

18. n:iJ3 "according to his own rank." Tatar: 
ni'D»»"Jp *' opposite to him" Targ. Jonath. rrVapa. 

iv. IS. niwiD ^i'W ^113. Eng. ver. '* My punish- 
ment is greater than I can bear," Tatar: nmVm 
f^pxMDVU D'nJUy ^' My sin is greater than can be for- 

26. Tat. I^in |^»a»iD« non»pv, " to proclaim with 
the name of (Jehovah). 

V. 22, 24. j»jnlD h^n m^hv ^w ^ijn nnvn, " And 
Enoch walked in t^ic way of God." 


Geo. vi. 9. Heb. o»nVMn-ua " sons of God.** Ta- 
tar: nyfojnw Vw nViVaiH *^ nans of the judget.'* 

3. Heb. •nm " my Spiriti" Tatar: C3»Dn^« "my 

xi. I. Heb. p»n-^3 " all the earth." Tatar: nvna 
i»iT ^i« n^wo " all the people of the earth.** 

xlix. 10. The Heb. n^»w «3»-»3 ly ia thus rendered 
in the Tatar : 3unV»w »d31 u^3 »3 nSui " till the pe- 
riod of the coming of Shiloh." 

£xod. vii. 1. nj?iD^ a»nV« yryni Eng. ver, " I 
have made thee a god to Pharaoh." Tatar: snna 
njinj^iD 3>a *J*]M^d UD " I have given thee an angel to 
King Pharaoh.*" 

Joshua ii. 1. Heb. n^lt nm^H'no Eng. ver. " an 
harlot's house.'* Tatar : j*JJ*t03 »rnD pn3 niim ** the 
house of a woman that kept a caravansary/' 

Ps. ii. -11 '' the Son," is translated U^nH *^ purity.'* 

xxii. 17. The ^rux criticorum^ nM9 which most 
Christian translators render, ''they have pierced/' is 
here given precisely as in the writings of the Rab- 
binists, 3*30 \hon ** like a lion." 

mVd Selah, is uniformly rendered k3«n forever^ cor- 
responding to del of Aquila, eic rir 6,wva of Symma- 
chus, and the Chald. \^Toh9 ^thph. 

Isai. i. 27* n*lV Eng. version : ** her converts.** 
Lowth : ** her captives." Tatar : iV»irvD»»p mnawn 
" the penitents.** 

ii.6. ipr^n*! "house of Jacob." Tatar: •ej^D:i 
a*J3pjr* " congregation of Jacob.*' 

vi. 1. lu n fn^aa hw omiai " and I saw the 
glory of Jehovah, agreeing with the Chald. *n H'lp* D* 
and the quotation, John xlL 41 , Tavra eTwtv 'H^atac^ 
St€ liBe TT^v ACySAN «i;ror«. 

2. o»Diw " seraphs," "i^afc^^D iVtDin '^Jlery angels," 
which coincides with it^M O^Vo^the interpretation 
given by David Kimchi. 

5. *n>DiJ m is rendered in Aquil., Symm., Theod., 
the Vul., Kimch., Lowth, Michaelis, (and the same 
idea Oesenius supposes the LXX., Arab., and Syr. to 
have had in view,) " for / am nlent,^ not being wor- 



tbytojoioin 8ii^«xal^|iniiie; bat Geaenias ahews 

that neitbor the textual, nor the variona readhig ^noTi, 
has any other tignification, than that of being cut off, 
or lost. Abenezra accordingly renders it *nn3i, and 
the Karaite MS. has on^«D3 *3 '' for I tan cut off/* 
with which agrees our Eng. ver. " I am undoneJ' 

Isai. vii. 14. |»DDKn haiK inum nnVon vp h^vi njio 
^HUDJ^ 1*01^ ** Behold the damsel shall be pregnant, 
and bear a son, and thou sbalt call bis name ImmA- 
nuel." vp is properly " a young girl," or woman of 
tender age. Where n^ini occurs in the MS., it is ren-> 
dered by vp Ml " a great girl.'' The n emphatic is 
given by the Turkish h^» the or that damsel. In ren« 
dering riHip ** thou shall call," the translator has read 
the words as the second person masculine, and not the 
^urd person feminine, as it is pointed in the common 
Hebrew Bibles, and rendered in most modem versions. 
The fbrmer punctuation is in three of De Rossi's Codd., 
and has been in another originally. It is that of the 
Socin» and Brix. edit., and is the reading followed hf 
tile LXX.^ Aq., Symm., and Theod. MaldMw has 
KoXe^ovo't, '* tliey shall calL" 

In the other classical passage^ chap. ix. 6, the 
names which the prophet declares should be given 
to the child forming the subject of his prediction, 
are inserted without any attempt at translation. 
Did the Karaite translator not fully understand 
them ? Or, was there something of a secret fear 
in his mind, that a translation equally servile with 
the rest of the work could not fail to throw most 
important proof into the Christian scale? The 
names " Father of Eternity,'* and " Prince of 
Peace," are written without any division, as pro- 
per names : Abiad, Sarshahm. The Mem in nn-io^ 
is open^ and not the shut or final Mem, as in the 
common Massoretic text; consequently, it may 


be assumed that the Karaim are ignorant of the 
recondite and Bublime mysteries which have been 
elicited from it by Jewish and Christian Rabbins* 

The name upny mn* Jehovah our Righteousness, 
Jerem. xxiii. 6, and xxxiii. 16> is also left untrans- 

As the specimen given by Wolfius is far from 
being correct, I shall conclude this review of the 
work by inserting the first five verses of the Book 
of Genesis : 

n Jio moi -inn : py-^^ n^m pn» 

»*Avai "Tb ♦Toii «ppibujipT 113 HP pn» 
: n»a p3 menu nVun i»r« 


' iT 


Tour along the South Coast — Ahhtiar — Chersonesus — Ruins of 
Chenmesus^-Ctenus — Caverns of Inkerman — Hermit and 
Psalter — Ruins of Inkerman — Monastery of- St, George--^ 
Balaklava — Chapel of St. John-^Tatar Hospitality — Valley 
of Baidari — The Merduvan — Alupka — Yursuf—Parthenit 
— Alushta — Tchatir-dagh — Tatar Funeral. 

On Friday, tljie 1st af July, accgmp^mied fay 
Messrs. Glen, Ross, and Carruthers, we left 
Baghtchisartu for the Heracleotic Chersonesus, and 
passed, at the distance of two versts from the 
town, the beautiful Tatar village of Dosis, contain* 
ing several houses of superior appearance, some 
fine gardens, and a large mosque. It is situated 
on the banks of the small stream which flows 
through the capital, and is particularly remarkable 
on account of the mausoleums in the vicinity, 
known by the name of EsTd Fburt, or " the An- 
cient Domain or Habitation," a circumstance which 
seems to indicate that the original residence of the 
Khans of the Crimea was fixed on this spot. 
These mausoleums stand isolated in the plain, to 
the south of the village ; are of an octagonal shape, 
with vaulted or cupolated roofs; and giv6 con- 

AKHTIAR.. 341 

siderable interest to the beautiful amphitheatre 
formed by the surrounding mountains. 

At the distance of five or six versts, we crossed 
the Kashta by a wooden bridge, which is almost 
completely hid by the delightful plantations be- 
longing to Admiral Mordvinof ; and, after pene- 
trating a deep pass between the mountains, we 
obtained a distant view of the ancient Gothic 
castle of Mankup, which here wears a most ro- 
mantic and formidable appearance. The road now 
led us intb an enchanting valley, irrigated by the 
Balbek, and thickly bestudded with villages, or- 
chards, and vineyards. The village of Duan-hoy 
attracted our peculiar notice. It is large, contain- 
ing a hundred and thirty families, many of which 
are, apparently, in affluent circumstances; and 
here a series of the most charming vineyards com* 
mences, and continues for several versts down the 
valley, 'which gradually opens till the Euxine 
bursts upon the view. 

Passing to the right of a fortification, raised 
on an elevated position to defend the entrance 
to the harbour of AkhHar, or Sevastopol, on the 
opposite side of the large bay^ which runs about 
twenty versts into the peninsula, we descended to 
the shore, and crossed the water in a boat. 

The town of Akhtiar is built on a rising ground, 
between two creeks ; that to the east is appropri- 
ated to the reception of men of war, and the other 
to that of vessels repairing thither for purposes of 
trade. The former of these possesses a fine inner 
dock, in which a number of ships of war were laid 
up. Besides one principal street of considerable 


breadth^ the town consistfi of odq or two others, 
running parallel with it, and several cros^-streets, 
in which are some handsome houses^ It contains 
two churches, a fine admiralty, two hospitals, an 
arsenal^ with magazines and barracks for the ma- 
rine. The population, with the exception of the 
military, marine, &c., amounts to about two thou- 
sand. At the time of our visit, part of the Black 
Sea fleet was lying at anchor in the roads ; and 
part we could descry on a cruise off the coast. 

The day after our arrival we devoted to the 
classical regions in the vicinity. Having hired 
a boat, we sailed down past one inlet on the south 
side of the Ghersonesian Bay Qufaiv ^pporrfmrw), 
called Artillery Bay, from the barracks near its 
termination, and another of a sinall size, called 
Quarantine Bay, where we landed on a spot no 
less celebrated in ancient Grecian history, than 
famous for its connection with the introduction of 
Christianity into Russia. Here stood the popu- 
lous city of Chersonesus, or Cherronesus^ which 
name it had in common with the promontory, or 
minor peninsula, formed by a narrow isthmus be- 
tween the bay and the port of Balaklava, and, in- 
deed, the whole of the Crimea.* It was built by 
Greek colonists from the city of Heraclea, in Bi- 
thynia, in conjunction with the Delians, about 600 
years before the birth of Christ, and, with the pen- 
insula on which it stands, forms to the antiquary by 
far the most interesting part of the Crimea. Ac- 

♦ — T-^v fjLiKpay \€pi^yriaoy, ijv e^a/iev rijc fieyoXiyc Xeppovi'/cov 
fUpOQ, ej(ovaay kv Ai/rpf r^v ofjitanifuac Xeyofiiytfy wOXiy \eppoyif' 
way* StrabOf Lib. VII. cap. iv. 


cordiDg to ancie&t writers^ Ghersoneras WM one of 
the most magaificent and flourishing cities of any 
in this part of Europe. . Its inhabitants were long 
independent of the kings of the Bosphorus ; but, 
being greatly annoyed by the Scythians, they at 
last threw themselves into the arms of M ithridates. 
During the period of the Roman conquest, they 
formed themselves into a free republic, and after-* 
wards rendered the Imperial arms essential ser* 
vices, by making a diversion in favour of the 
Romans in unexpected attacks on their eastern 
neighbours. In the time of Diocletian, they sent 
an aimy against the Sarmatians, and thereby 
secured the tranquillity of the eastern frontier of 
the empire; and they afterwards assisted Con- 
Btantine the Great by an expedition against the 
Goths on the Danube. 

It was originally governed by a president (6 
ir(^arw%kv) of their own; but, in the year 835, the 
Emperor Theophilus sent a military ruler (^r^rnyoc) 
to regulate their afiairs, and especially to conduct 
their expeditions against the Khazars, who now 
began to infest the southern parts of Scythia. 

In the days of paganism, this city was re* 
nowned for the worship of the l^aurian Diana, who 
had a temple in it ; and, according to Mela,* there 
was, in the citadel, a cave sacred to the celebra^ 
tion of her rites. In consequence, however, of the 
progress of Christianity on the opposite coast of 
the Pontua, and in Greece, its doctrines were also 
preached here . at an early period ; in the year 



839 it became the seat of a Greek Metropolitan ; 
and^ as late as 1333» there resided here Archie- 
piscopal Dignitaries attached to the See of Rome. 

It was here that Vladimir, the first Christian 
prince in Russia, submitted to the rite of baptism, 
in the year 988. Having proceeded thus far with 
a numerous army against the Greeks, he laid siege 
to the town of Chersonesus, threatening that if the 
inhabitants did not surrender, he would not raise 
it for three years ; but the citizens rejected all his 
propositions with disdain; defended themselves 
with the utmost intrepidity ; and, being well sup- 
plied with all kinds of stores and provisions, might 
have wearied out the besieging army, had it not 
been for a traitor, who shot into the Russian camp 
an arrow with the inscription, " You will find he^ 
hind you, towards the east, the fountains which 
supply the city with water by means o/ subterranean 
canals. You have only to make yourselves master 
of them, and your point is gained.'' Vladimir in- 
stantly availed himself of the advice, and the city 
was obliged to surrender. 

Flushed with success, nothing would now sa- 
tisfy the hero, but an alliance with the Imperial 
family of Byzantium, and accordingly, he sent 
an embassy to the Emperors Basil and Constan- 
tine, with the declaration, that if they did not 
send him their sister Anne, he would come down 
with his fleet and take Constantinople. The 
distracted state of the empire, and the news of the 
unexampled success of Vladimir, induced these 
princes, however contrary to their inclination, to 
accede to his wishes; while every revolting feeling 


in the mind of the princess was overcome by the 
devout expectation of being made instrumental 
in the conversion of the heathen monarch and 
his subjects to the faith of the Gospel. It was 
accordingly stipulated, that Vladimir should re* 
ceive the initiatory ordinance, a condition to which 
he agreed without any scruple; and Anne left 
Constantinople, accompanied with a vast retinue 
of courtiers and dignified clergy. On her arrival 
at Chersonesus, she was received with the most 
Jively demonstrations of joy by the people, who 
regarded the event as a prelude to their liberty; 
and, not long after, the rite of baptism was admi- 
nistered to Vladimir, in the edifice of St. Basil, 
according to the mode of the Greek Church.* 
His zeal for the conversion of his subjects has 
already been noticed in the account given of Kief, 
in a preceding part of this volume. 

The town of Chersonesus was immediately 
given back to the Greeks, and continued to enjoy 
the extensive advantages of its mercantile relations, 
till the rise of its two rivals, Soldaia and Theodo- 
sia, on the south coast of the Peninsula, in the 
eleventh century, diminished its trade >and laid the 
foundation of its ruin, which was completed by 
the Mongolians and Tatars on their taking pos- 
session of the country. 

In spite, however, of the dilapidations of time, 
and the liberal use made of the marbles and other 
stones composing the buildings of Chersonesus 
by the Tatars, and latterly in the construction 

* Raramsin, Vol. I. p. 



of the modern town of Sevastopol^ there is still 
sufficient of the ruins left to mark the site of the 
city, and confirm every account left on record of 
its ancient extent and magnificence. 

The first thing that struck us on landing, was 
a flight of stairs leading from the sea up to the 
city; they descend at present within three feet 
of the water's edge, and have evidently been 
constructed to facilitate mercantile operations. 
We now found ourselves surrounded by immense 
ruins^ which lay scattered about in every direction. 
In many places the streets are distinctly visible; 
but the territory is in general so covered with 
rubbish, and deranged by the efforts (hat have 
been made to dig up the large stones forming the 
foundation of the houses, that nothing like a re- 
gular plan of the buildings can any longer be 
traced. About the middle is an immense motmd 
or heap, the ruin of some stupendous edifice; 
but whether it was the temple of Diana,* or 
the church of St. Basil, no data have yet been 
discovered to enable us to determine. The whole 
is surrounded by a wall of prodigious strength and 
thickness, consisting of double layers of large 
stones, the space between which is filled up with 
broken bricks and pottery, and the whole is power- 
fully cemented together. It is most complete on the 
west side, and presents several irregular angles, 
with corresponding indentations in the surface of 
the ground beyond them. From the south-west 
angle, the wall has run to the distance of several 

* To rijc irttpdivov Upw, Strabo. VII, 


versts in an easterly direction^ and large masses of 
it are still standing near its termination at the 
Quarantine Bay. The circumference of the city, 
as given by Pliny, at five miles, nearly corre- 
sjponds with the dimensiouB of these walls. 

Gigantic, however, as this part of the ruins 
of Cbersonesus appears, it is merely a point com^ 
pared with the extent of surface covered with the 
fragments and vestiges of buildings, which stretches 
from the wall into the minor peninsula. In fact, 
one should almost conceive that what is here so 
prominently presented to the view, only served as 
a citadel or fortification, and that the rest of the 
city was spread over the regions behind it, where 
the traveller is astonished to find an area of up- 
wards of forty versts, or nearly thirty British 
jniles in circumference, Exhibiting, in every di- 
rection, the marks of streets, pavements, walls, 
towers, ramparts, inclosures, aqueducts, sepul- 
chres, tombs, &c. It is not merely, however, in im- 
mediate connection with this interesting spot, that 
dilapidated monuments of ancient edifices appear; 
they are found throughout the greater part of 
the peninsula, and indicate this to have been one 
of the most crowded and populous districts in the 
world. But those days are long since gone by; 
and while the Christian gazes with melancholy 
feelings on the desolated scene^ and repeats the 
poet's remark: 

** The works of man inherit, as is just, 
Their author's frailty, and return to dust:*' 

he cannot help reflecting, that the many hundred 

348 CTENUS. 

thousande of immortal souls that once built or 
inhabited, or visited, or assisted in the devasta- 
tion of this vast city, are still in a state of con- 
scious existence, and have engraven on the tablet 
of their memory, the transactions in the Annals of 
Chersonesus, in which they had any part, and 
which, though unregistered on earth, are preserved 
in the records of Omniscience, against the final 
day of universal development. 

Having returned to our boat, we sailed past 
Akhtiar, and proceeded towards the ruined fortress 
of Inkerman, at the termination of the bay. To 
the east of the present harbour is a small bay, 
most probably that forming the ancient harbour 
of Ctenus, which Strabo* describes, as being at 
the equal distance of forty stadia, or five miles 
from the town of Chersonesus, and the Partus 
Symholorum, or the harbour of Balaklava, on the 
south coast. From this place a wall was carried 
across the isthmus formed by the projection of the 
one bay towards the other, by which the Hera- 
cleotic Peninsula was inclosed and defended against 
the attacks of the Scythians. The vestiges of this 
wall are stiir visible in the mound which here 
stretches across the territory, and which we after- 
wards passed on our way to Balaklava. 

At the end of the bay of Akhtiar, we entered 
a small river, in which we were completely hid 
by the high reeds growing on either side, and 

• VII. p. 94. To 5' 1.(T0v TO Krero0c ^Uxei ttjq re rHy yLcppoyrf" 
oiTWv wo\€u>Q, Kai Tov ^vf-^Xuv Xificyog, 

p. 9^* ^Ovroc (Xi/ucK Xi//u)3oX(iik) ^k iroiei irpoc 6XKoy Xifiiva 
Kr^yovyra NroXoi/fievoy, nrrcipaKoyra trra6ltay Mfidy. 


where nothing occurred to interest us eiccept sea 
serpents and tortoises, which every now and then 
plunged into the water from the northern bank, on 
which they had been basking in the sun. After 
rowing to a short distance up this river, we landed 
on the south side, where we found a delightful 
shade in a grove of trees, and after taking some 
refreshment, proceeded to examine the curious ex^ 
cavations in the rocks to the right. 

Several of these grottos were inaccessible, and 
must have been entered by their inhabitants by 
means of a long ladder from the foot of the rocks. 
Others we reached without any difficulty ; but to 
the most interesting we were conducted by a long 
winding passage, regularly hewn out of the rock. 
The entrance to this cavern is from the east side^ 
and consists of a large aperture, within which is an 
excavated stair, from which, at certain distances^ 
large perforations, terminating in darkness, pre* 
sented themselves; and at times a grotto, cut 
towards the exterior part of the rock, admitted 
a few rays of light upon our path through the small 
opening serving for a window. After ascending 
to the height of about a hundred feet, we were 
admitted into a fine chamber, with apertures or 
windows facing the bay; and immediately on 
turning to the right we discovered an excavation, 
the construction of which indubitably proved it to 
have been an ancient chapel. On one of the walls, 
which are black from the smoke of the fires that 
have been kindled here in later times, we observed 
evident vestiges of an inscription, the letters of 
which appeared to be either Gothic, or Greek 


uncials; but their height from the floor, and the 
partial light thrown upon them from the window, 
rendered it impossible for us to determine to which 
alphabet they belonged. 

It has been conjectured, and not without foun- 
dation, that these, and similar excavations, of 
which the greatest profusion exists in the vicinity, 
as well as in other parts of the Crimea, owe their 
formation to the Christians who fled hither in 
the persecutions which took place in the earlier 
ages of the church. According to Procopius, 
the Tetraxitic Goths, on being driven from their 
insulated situsltion on the Bosphorus, took refuge 
in this quarter; and when the Emperor Justinian 
proposed to erect castles for their protection, they 
objected to the confinement to which it would 
subject them, and preferred living in the open 
country, to which they gave the name of Dort.^ 
Many of the small cells have doubtless been ap- 
propriated to the austerities of monastic life; yet 
may we not indulge the hope, that amidst the 
gross spiritual darkness of those ages, of which 
the gloom of the caverns was only faintly emble- 
matical, the Holy Book not unfrequently lighted 
up a torch, which guided the solitary son of the 
rock to a blessed immortality? This idea was 
forcibly impressed upon my mind, by a scene 
which I witnessed on the opposite side of the 
valley. Here, also, an immense number of ca- 
vities are found, many of which are still inhabited. 
Being desirous of seeing how they could be ap- 

• Procophifl dc Aedf. III. 7* 


propriated to die dwellings of men^ I climbed 
up one of the precipices, and entered a chamber 
about four feet in height, by six in length, and 
four in breadth, in which I found a small couch, 
and a few articles of wearing apparel hanging on 
the walls. Close to the door, at a small aperture, ' 
sat an aged Russian^ poring over a Slavonic 
Psalter, and apparently deriving much enjoyment 
from the devotional strains of the sweet singer 
of Israel. As his back was turned, he did not 
€>bserve me for some time, which afforded me 
an opportunity of marking the fervour with which 
he read the portion of Divine truth that en- 
gaged his attention. I allowed him to finish the 
Psalm, and after saluting him, asked whether 
be understood what he had been reading. " Not 
ail," he replied, '^ but much of it is plain to me.** 
He knew there was such a book as the Bible, 
but the Psalms formed the only part of it in his 

We now visited the caverns and ruins situate 
on the north side of the rich but insalubrious 
valley in which the bay terminates. They occupy 
one of the projecting angles of the adjacent moun- 
tain, and present the curious combinations of 
hoary antiquity with modern effort, the silence 
of death with all the activity and bustle of active 
life* Along the summit of the rock extend the 
ruins of the ancient fortress of Inherman; below 
it the whole precipice appears completely per- 
forated with caverns, many of which are inhabited 
by Russian peasants, and others employed at 
work in the vicinity. Passing a number of these 


in our way up the ascent, we came to a narrow^ 
passy ^hich led us to a large excavation, forming^ 
a beautiful chapel, twenty-four feet in length, by 
ten or twelve in height. At the inner end is a 
small elevation of the floor, containing an altar- 
piece within a niche, over which, in the roof, is 
a cross, cut out of the rock, and still distinctly 
visible. Two sarcophagi, of Grecian workmanship, 
occupy the sides of this adytum. From the chapel 
we turned round by the cell of a Jew, whom 
we found stationed here, as a dram-seller, and 
commenced the ascent of a narrow flight of steps, 
which ultimately brought us within the breast* 
work of the fortification. It has been a place of 
great strength, being defended on the north side by 
a deep fosse and a high thick wall, part of which, 
together with some of the towers, is still standing; 
In front, it has also been surrounded by a wall, but 
inferior in size, as the place was completely pro* 
tected on this side by the perpendicularity of the 
precipice. As Greek inscriptions have been found 
on the gates and buildings, and it otherwise ex- 
hibits traces of Grecian workmanship,, it must 
have originally been raised in the time of the 
Ghersonesian or Bosphorian rule; but was most 
like seized and re-fortified, at a subsequent period 
by the Genoese. 

The Lord^s Day we spent at Ahhtiar in exer* 
cises of social and private devotion; and the 
following morning directed our course across the 
minor peninsula, to the Monastery of St. George. 
As the road lay through the extensive ruins of 
Chersonesus, stretching beyond those we had 


fiHtnerly visited, 6ur progreM was but slow; but 
the regioH beingf somewhat elevated, and the 
atmosphere clear, with a light breeze of wind, the 
ride proved highly agreeable and interesting. In 
the remote distance, towards the west, appeared 
Cape Fanary, immediately south of which lay the 
rains of the ancient Ghersonesus of Strabo.* To 
the south east as we advanced, the Aia Burun, or 
Sacred Promontory, rose boldly into the prospect, 
and on reaching the high coast, we obtained a 
view of the Euxine, bounded only by the horizon. 

The Monastery of St George is situated on a 
smfttl terrace among the rocks, and consists of a 
church, with a number of cells, inhabited by Grreek 
Monks, whose industry has greatly ornamented 
tbe spot by laying it out in vineyards, plcmting 
poplar ukl fruit-trees, and collecting the waters of 
a fine spring in the vicinity, so as to form a beau- 
tifttl pond. Immediately below the Monastery, at 
the depth of eight or nine hundred feet, is the 
shore ef the Euxine, to which we descended by 
a winding path, and enjoyed a delightful dip 
beneath its waters. The spot in which we bathed, 
oonsisted of a fine oompact sand, but extended only 
a few feet in breadth, when it gave way to an 
invisible profundity, Froon this low situation, 
ihe appearance of the coast is romantic in the 
extreme, and some of the impending and half* 
dislooated rocks-^-mountainovs in s]2e~*are truly 
tenifle, and may easily be conceived to have 
eontnbuted in no email degree io complete the 

* li& ii iroXcua Xefip&mntfpt icare4rica/i/i^n|. Lib. vii. ca^« iy« 

A A 


frightful pieture formed ia the imagioation <^ the 
ancient Greeks, respecting the inhospitable shor^ 
of this Peninsula. Somewhere in the vicinity of 
the monastery, the bloody rites of Orsiloche, the 
Tauric Diana, were celebrated. The walls of her 
temple were hung with the sculls of her victims, 
and no foreigner who had the misfortune to be 
wrecked on the coast was ever suffered to. escape 
her vengeance. 

From the Greek Metropolitan of Thermopylae^ 
who has travelled through almost the whole of 
Asia, and is now resident in the monastery, we 
met with a very different reception; and afler 
some refreshment, provided for us by his hodpita* 
lity, we prosecuted our journey across the hills be« 
hind the Aia Burun, and descended by a winding 
road into the enchanting valley of Balaklava, 
Here we could have fancied ourselves in some 
part of Greece; the valley, which is extr^nely 
fertile and well cultivated, being entirely inhabited 
by Greeks, as is also the town of BalaJchwa itself 
one of the most beautiful and interesting places in 
^he Crimea. It is built on the eaiA side of the 
harbour, to which Mela very appropriately givea 
the name of KaXoc Xi/i?)i', or the *' Beautiful Port,*^ 
but which was most generally known to the an* 
eiente by that of l,v^^\mv Xifiny, Partus Synd^hrum, 
the Harbour of Mutual Consultation. The en- 
trance is of great depth, but so extremely narrow, 
as scarcely, to admit a ship of war between the 
high precipitous rocks en both sid^s;* yet the 

* The narrowness of this strait is particularly noticed by 
Strabo : Xifi^v orrev^orofioc.' Lib. vii. cap. iv. 


moment she has passed the strait, the harbour 
opens into a large basin of four or five versts 
in circumference, which, being closed in by high 
mountains, affords an excellent shelter to vessels in 
all weathers. 

A short way to the south of the town rises a 
broken mountain, the summit, and different parts 
of the sides of which exhibit the extensive ruins 
of a fortification, supposed to be the IlaXaKior of 
ancient geographers. It was taken possessfon 
of by the Genoese in the fourteenth century, and 
several stones in the walls still contain the arms 
of their native city. Between one of the principal 
walls, which descends to the water, in the 
direction of the present town, and the entrance 
of the harbour, the whole space along the shore 
consists of the ruins of houses, the walls of which, 
in many places, retain vestiges of the different 
colours used in the painting, whence it may be 
concluded that they have been inhabited at no 
very remote period. The higher parts of the 
ruins are greatly excavated, and are particularly 
remarkable on account of an immense vaulted 
reservoir of water, supplied by a covered aqueduct 
from a fine spring, on one of the mountains several 
versts distant. 

At Bakdclava we dined with a noble Spartan, 
Colonel Keveliotti, of the regiment of Amautes, 
or Greeks, who are here stationed for the protec- 
tion of the south coast against piratical depreda- 
tions. He had already distributed a considerable 
number of modern Greek New Testaments, and 
pressed us to supply him with more, %» (be w*nt9 

A A 2 


•f fais cbmbryAien in thii qotrter #ere cot nearly 

Having procured carts to convey us to the next 
station^ we left Balaklava about five o'clock in the 
afternoon, and commenced the tour of the south 
eoast, so justly celebrated for the delightful and 
romantic nature of the scenery, and well support- 
kig the character of the Oarden, or Italy of Russia. 
It ccmsisiB of the grand laiiay or chain of moud^ 
tMBB, stretching from the harbour of Balaklava to 
that of Kajfhf terminating in almipt and stu-*^ 
pendous precipices towards the sea, but extending 
in soft yet majestic ridges, intersected with deep 
Tallies, into the interior, till they are gradually 
lost in the steppe.* Passing the beautiful Greek 
viHage of Kadikci^ the vineyards of which yield 
not fewer than 50,000 gallcmd of wine annually, 
we ascended the hill on which is situate another 
village, with a Greek church, where we had a 
eommalnding prospect of the landscape, now rising 
into rocky mountains, relieved by woody terraces, 
and now stretching into deep vales, irrigated 
by small streams, and^ at distant intervals, pre- 
senting to the view a country seat, a village, or 
a cottage. In the midst of a bushy tract we found 
a solitary chapel, dedicated to St. John, at the 
east end <>f which is a large fountain of chrysta- 
line water, famous, in connexion with the chapel, 
for its medieibal qualities. The chapel is entirely 

* Strabo, Lib. vii. cap. iv. Mcra ^e rov r&w IvfApiKtay XtfuivU 
To^ov fJ^€')(pi Qeoio&iag iroXttas 4 Tavpijo) irapaXiu, j(i\lwr iroy 
Vruiliify TO fifficoQ, rpa^eca Kal 6pnyil koI Karatyi(ovaa role jSopeuic 

empty> with the exception of mn imik^e ftt the 
inner end. Before the door stands a cherry tiee» 
completely huog with rags of various colours^ 
which have been fixed to its branches by devotees 
who have resorted to the spot* The rags are 
held so sacred by the Greeks, that our drirar 
would not suffer us to touch them« According 
to his account, the monk who officiates regulaiiy 
at this chapel on St. John^s Day, is an anchocite, 
and lives in a cave in one of the adjacent moim** 

In the dusk of the evening we descended into 
the vallies of Miskonda and Vamuthu, in which are 
two Tatar villages of the same name, with about 
forty families in each. On our arrival at the latter 
village^ we were met by a Yusbashi^ or Centurion^ 
who had been sent to bespeak lodgings for us, 
by whom we were conducted to one of the prinei*- 
pal houses, and ushered into a pretty large hall, 
the floor of which was covered with carpets, and 
the walls surrounded by a low platform, with 
cushions on which to recline^ Our host we fouad 
to be a Tatar peasant^ plain in his appearance, but 
exceedingly frank and desirous to please us. Being 
much fatigued by the jolting of our carts, we quite 
enjoyed the luxury of the oriental cushionsi and. 
would soon have sunk in sleep, bad we not been 
roused by the entrance of our landlord, with the 
announcement of supper, which the females bui 
been preparing for us in a separate division of die 
house. We expected that* in this sequestered 
vale, the mistress of the house might perhaps 
make her appearance, CQOti'ary to the rule univer- 


sally* obtaining in Mohammedan towns; but thd 
only sight we had of her/ was in the morning 
before our departure, when curiosity drew her 
to a small aperture in the gynaceum. It was 
impossible not to recollect the attitude of Sarah 
listening at the tent-door;* while the alacrity 
with which the master of the house served us at 
sapper, reminded us of the manner in which Abra* 
ham performed the rites of hospitality to the 
heavenly messengers. He was assisted by some 
of his sons^ but placed and removed the dishes 
himself, apparently on the principle, that the 
greatest honour is connected with the greatest 
service. Our repast was simple, consisting of 
boiled mutton, killed for the occasion. It was 
served up on a tray, which was placed on a small 
table, raised only a few inches above the floor, 
around which we all squatted or reclined, and, 
in the true Turkish style, commenced our opera- 
tions, without either knife or fork. 

The following morning we prosecuted our 
journey, conducted by a new Yushashi^ whoin 
we found uncommonly frank and conversable, 
and who expressed himself much pleased, because 
we talked with him on the subject of religion 
and other matters: all former travellers having, 
according to his account, only saluted his ears with 
the reiterated sound of poshol, i. e. *' get on." The 
road at first lay through a beautiful valley, and was 
delightfully shaded with wood: after which we 
struck across some fields and parks, till falling in 

* bnrkn nnfe r\9im. Gen. 1 8; 


with the grand southern chain, we gradually 
began to climb the zig-zag ascent, by which we 
intended to reach the coast. When near the 
summit of the pass, we turned about, and comr 
manded an extensive view of the enchanting valley 
of Baidari, intersected by numerous streamlets^ 
studded with Tatar villages, and covered with the 
richest foliage and verdure. Proceeding through 
the mountain pass, we were introduced into a 
narrow defile, whence we commanded the view of 
a panorama, the most astonishing and majestic 
imaginable. On either side rose bold perpendicu- 
lar limestone rocks, to the height of more than 
two thousand feet, the brows of which were 
broken into the most horrific and threatening 
forms; at our feet presented themselves the 
prodigious natural stairs, known by the name 
of Merduvan, below which appeared, amongst 
immense detached masses of rock, two inte« 
resting Tatar villages, while the surface of the 
Euxine, unru£3ed by a single breath of wind, 
stretched from beneath us into the wide expanse 
towards Anatolia. Along the coast, at an incon* 
siderable distance, we could discover several ships^ 
but owing to their being at so great a depth below 
us, they appeared extremely diminutive in size. 
At the summit of the stairs is an enormous insu« 
lated rock, on which we stood some time, expres* 
sing to each other our mutual sentiments of wonder 
and dehght. Round the west side of this rock 
the path winds down a dangerous passage, formed 
parUy by the cragginess of the precipice, and 
partly by steps made by the hand of man. Altor 

getb^r^ from the oooimcttiMttieiit «f th« dxAbetH M 
the bottom of the steps, it may be ab^ut 600 fMt» 
The Tatar horBes, being accastomed to the dedceat^ 
succeeded far beyond our expectations; bat w« 
had often to swing burselres down by the boughul 
of trees from one tei'rac^ to anotheir, till we WeM 
|>ast the worst patt of the declivity. Owing to thd 
nimbleaess of our steeds, they reaehed the bottonl 
before us; and taking various directions iA th6 
bushy regiobs below> it was tiot Without ookidid«ir^ 
able diflScUlty that we collected them. 

We now made fot- the village Of Katchuk-koii 
through a hideous region of trap and shistose rock, 
eichibiting the most palpable indications of a dis* 
rupture which took place in the year 1766, when 
the territory sunk, and vast masses being dislodged 
from the superincumbent mountain, the coast Wa* 
i^moved to the distance of from fifty to eighty 
fathoms ftirther into the sea. Deep hollows and 
glens have been left, along the sides of which ii 
a narrow path^ of great danger, along which W6 
passed on horseback. On our arrival in the viUagei 
we took shelter from the scorching rays of an 
almost vertical sun> under the wide-^spreading 
branches of a large walnut-tree^ and enjoyed A 
delicious repast on the mulberries, pears, plumbs, 
and fresh figs, with which the Tatars Supplied 
us in great abandancie. 

From Kiitchmk'^k)i we ttiLvelled over a rocky 
Mountainous traet, part of what Gonstantine ^or^ 
j^yro^enitus ^lls the tnarrpa Hfp icXxfitsrvt, which a 
ttvery now atid th^n broketi by xiAm^tDuik tndetitil<> 
ti^hii, and sloping rhpidly to the seb, into Whieh 


it Mfe by a prcdpitoiis dedcent. On the north, 
towered the high poiDted Bummit§ of the mooQtaiii 
range, and the intervening i&pace was beautifully di^ 
yefsified by luxuriant fieldsi groves, villages, and 
gardens, which finely contrasted with the rugged- 
Dess of the surrounding scenery. Passing through 
the beautiful villages of Kikenis and Simeus, we 
arrived in the evening at the charming valley of 
Abipka, the xdpaf of Ptolomy, and lodged in the 
konak*house of the village of the same name. It 
id situated close to the shore, on the banks of the 
amall river Stauris-otan, amidst immense masses 
of dislocated rock, interplanted with laurel, olive, 
pomegranate, mulberry, and other trees. The 
houses being all low and flat^roofed, are almost 
Completely hid by the vineyards and orchards* 

On the 6th, we travelled as far as Fursu/. 
Crosiung alternately variegated undulations stretch^ 
ing down towards the sea, where they generally 
terminate in steep promontories, and delightful 
valleys, covered with villages and gardens^ we 
arrived, about noon^ at the village of Vaba,* whetA 
we were hospitably treated by a Greek officer, to 
whom we had a letter from the Colonel at Balak* 
kva* In the bay were several small vessels* 
chiefly used in fishing oysters, of which aeveral 
irich banka are found at this place. About two 
Versts above this stadon, we passed through the 
Tatar village of D^ekoi, on the river Yalta, and 
iSiA» reaching the eummit of a pass on the op^ 
postte aide of the vaUey> fell in with exten* 
site wooda^ interrupted at times by beautiful 

• \ayvpa of PtolokHy. 

362 YUBSUF. 

villages^ inhabited partly by Greeks and partlj 
by Tatars, and almost entirely hid from the view 
by the luxuriant vineyards by which they are sur* 
rounded. In the neighbourhood of Nikita. we 
visited the Imperial garden, to which we were 
conducted by a lane delightfully shaded by differ- 
ent kinds of trees. It is situated close to the 
coast, is laid out with admirable taste, and abounds 
in botanical productions from every part, of the 
world. We were particularly interested by the 
tea-plant, which had just been introduced, and 
was likely to succeed. The whole is kept up 
at the Imperial expense, and owes its perfection 
to Mr. Stephens, an eminent botanist, whose ac- 
quaintance we formed at Ahmetchet. 

Behind the promontory of Nikita, we passed a 
terrific rocky hill^ the whole of which has been 
subjected to the most violent disruptions; and 
it was with difficulty that we evaded the huge 
stones which projected into the path. We reached 
Yursuf in the dusk of the evening, and had the 
honour to lodge all night in the large and magnifi- 
cent mansion belonging to the Duke de Richelieu^ 
a nobleman to whom the Crimea and the south 
of Russia is under the greatest obligations, for the 
benefits resulting from the wisdom of his adminis* 
tration while Governor General of this part of the 
empire. The Tatar who had the charge of it 
kindly furnished us with the accommodation. It 
consists of two stories, and is most romantically 
situated in a spacious valley, behind which recede 
a number of lofty mountains, while in front, to* 
wards the S. E., projects the lofty promontory of 


Aiu^dagn^ or Hofy Mountain, supposed to be the 
Kpiov fjtertoxor, OF Rams head, of Strabo,* and the 
K6pof a^poy of Ptolomy. The valley is extremely 
fertile, aad abounds with villages, gardens, and 
cultivated fields. 

Our journey the following morning lay over the 
high ground immediately behind the promontory, 
from which we obtained a view of the whole coasts 
from the high precipitous mountains in the vicinity 
of Balaklava, to those near Sudak, which gradu- 
ally diminish till they terminate at Theodosia, and 
give place to. the Gimmerean Bosphorus; after 
which, the chain again rises in the lofty but dis* 
tant Caucasus. The entire region is described by 
Strabo as extending to the length of one thousand 
stadia, t On the rock we plainly descried the 
ruins of a monastery, said to have been dedicated 
to Constantine the Great and his mother Helena, 
and supposed to have occupied the identical site 
of a temple sacred to Diana. Immediately below 
it, on the east, we came to the village of Parthenit, 
famous on account of its being the birth*placeof 
John, Bishop of the Goths, where we rested some 
time under the shade of a spreading walnut-tree, 
and had some interesting conversation with the 
Mollah, a young man of good parts, and re- 
markable for his shrewdness and the wittiness 
of his observations. Along the whole of the south 

* Some have placed the Kriou Metopon near Bakklava, but 
the connection in Strabo proves that it must be ccmsiderablj 
further east, and this is the only mountain of any note in that 

t Lib. vii. cap. iv. 


coasts we were Mosible of a Btriking difi^rence in 
the physiognomy of the Mohammedan inhabitants, 
but nowhere more so than in this village. Their 
features are almost entirely European, and the nu- 
merous peculiarities of their dialect leave no room 
to doubt, that they are the descendants of the Ge- 
noese and other Europeans, who had possession 
of these coasts at no very remote period. What 
corroborates this statement, is the fact, that the 
names of their ancestors, in the third generation, 
were Christian, such as Peter, Andrew, &c. 

Beyond Parlhenit we passed through two 
beautiful villages called the Greater and Lesser 
Lambat, close to the river and bay of the same name, 
the Aafiwac of ancient geography ; and after cross* 
ing the heights above them, descended to the 
shore, where we bathed; and prosecuting our 
route, having the margin of the sea on the right, 
-and high basaltic, or trap rocks to our left, we 
came early in tiie afternoon to Alushta (Akowrrov\ 
one of the places which, according to Procopius,^ 
were fortified by the Emperor Justinian towards 
the end of the 6th century. It is at present a 
miserable Tatar village, but exhibits considerable 
vestiges of the fortress in the towers and walls 
surrounding the houses. 

We had now terminated our journey along the 
coast, and proceeded up the bank of the river 
Mesarlik, in a north west direction, till we arrived 
at the base of TcJutHr-daghj which we had re- 
solved to climb on our way back to Akmetchet 

• Dc Edific. iii. 7. 


At j^Sushl0y the grand ooasting chain of mountains 
is interrupted, to leave room for the throne of that 
lofty Alp ; and two valleys run back, the one due 
norths between Tchatir-dagh, and the eastern 
continuation of the range known by the name of 
Temirdshiy and the other between the same moun- 
tain and Babagan Vaila, or the liigh Alp to the 
west of Alushta. The former of these valleys 
leads to the sources of the Alma, and the other, 
in which is a road for carriages, leads to the capi- 
tal of the Crimea. 

The name Tchatir-dagh, is Turkish, ^^^dbUo ^[^ 
amd signifies the Tent mountain; but in the time 
of Strabo, it was known by that of 'O Tpairefovc, or 
Table Mountain.* It lies between the two Alps 
just mentioned, and rests upon an immense base, 
stretching from south to north, the sides of which 
are partly covered with wood, and partly culti* 
Tated and inhabited by the Tatars. Ascending 
the southern declivity from the river Mesarlik, we 
reached, after a fatiguing ride, a romantic village, 
intuated on both sides of a deep glen, where we 
Jrtopped for the night, and slept under the piazza 
of one of the houses. The inhabitants appeared 
much more rustic than those of the coast, and the 
females ran about catching fowls to kill for our 
supper, without the least appearance of reserve. 
On the morning of the 8th, we re-commenced the 
ascent. At first the path lay up a steep rocky 
region^ relieved at times by patches of cultivation, 

• 'Ey ^€ r^ opetrfl rfiv TavpwF xal rb opO£ etrriy, 6 Tpaire^'ovc, 
ofitivvfioy Tfl ToXci, TTJ irepl Tif^apyfvlaVy Koi H^v KoX^^ida. Lib. vii. 
cap. iv. 


and at length ginng way to a dark forest of beecth 
trees, in which we found a beautiful fountain of 
cold chrystalline water, surrounded by herds of 
cattle lying under the shade of the trees. Leaving 
the wood, we encountered a rough stony region, 
near the summit of which we were attacked by a 
number of dogs, belonging to a house built for 
receiving the daily milk of the sheep and goats 
which graze on the mountain. The noise of the 
dogs soon brought out the Tatar shepherds to 
our protection ; and after refreshing ourselves with 
a draught of sour milk, mixed with water, we 
continued to mount; but owing to the extreme 
steepness of the ascent, we were obliged to pro- 
ceed in a zig-zag direction, till we reached an 
extensive platform, bounded on the north by 
another division of the mountain. We now as- 
<;ended this platform, and found at its western 
termination a bulky peak, the east side of which 
consists of a fine grassy dale, where we left our 
horses, and in the course of a short time gained 
the summit, which has been ascertained, by ba- 
rometrical observations, to rise 790.3 toises above 
the level of the Black Sea.* . 

Frotn this elevated situation, a prospect the 
most extensive and magnificent is presented to 
the view. Direct south stretches the spacious vale 
of AUishta^ terminating in the Euxine, from whicb^ 
on either side, rise the lofty Alps on the coast; 
here broken into rugged and majestic precipice^ 
and there covered with black forests, intersected 


* Engelhardt and Parrot's Reise. Erst. Theil, p. 17. 


by deep BixA fertile valleys. On the east the 
prospect is made up of the TtTnirdshi, with an 
immense group of minor Alps, in the direction 
of Tkeodosia; while towards the north you look 
down upon the termination of the mountain re- 
gionsy the towns, the beautiful valleys and plains 
watered by the Salgir, the Bosphorian Chersonesus, 
the Putrid Sea, that of Carcinites, and the whole 
Steppe as far as Perekop. The whole peninsula, 
in fact, seems spread out like a vast picture at 
your feet. 

Books doth'd with flowers, groves filled with sprightly sornids, 
. The yellow tilth, green meads, rocks, rising grounds. 

Streams edg*d with osiers, fatt'ning every field, 

Where'er they flow, now seen and now conceal'd; 

From the blue rim, where skies and mountains meet, 
' Down to the very turf beneath thy feet, 
. Ten thousand charms; that only fool's despise. 

Or Pride can look at with indifi*erent eye$ — 

All speak one language, all with one sweet voice. 

Cry to the universal realm. Rejoice! 


Kindling a fire in a cleft on the summit of the 
mountain, we had coffee boiled, with which, and 
dome cold chickens we brought with us, we satisfied 
our craving appetites, which had been strongly 
whetted by the fatigues of the ascent, and the 
temperature of the atmosphere, which proved a 
complete contrast to the sultriness of our coasting 
journey. Immediately below our feet lay the most 
terrific precipice of any about the mountain, ter- 
minating in the woody valley of the Mma, and 
other sylvan regions between us and Baghtchisarai. 

398 TATAR rUlttlUL. 

The morning ba4 been exoeedfaigly fine^ and s 
perfect calm, which greatly facilitated the attaia- 
ment of our object; but now it began to blow» 
the neighbouring alps shrowd'ed their heads in 
threatniog clouds; and we had scarcely reached 
pur horses when a hurricane commenced, which 
must have proved extremely annoying to us, if 
not dangerous, had we not taken refuge in the 
northern declivities of the mountain* Descending 
from one terrace or platform to another, we uU 
timately succeeded in reaching a road, which 
brought us, in about two hours, to the Tatar village 
<^ JTengi Kai, *tbe inhabitants of which were all 
collected at the funeral of a young woman, the 
daughter of one of the principal people in the 
place, who had died the preceding day. 

Like other inhabitants of the east, the Moham- 
medans use great expedition in burying their dead. 
It is customary for the Tatars to inter them eight 
or ten hours after their death, which they do by 
removinjg; the body, wrapped up in white linen, 
and laid upon a flat bier, to the door of the 
mosque. Here the attendants join the MoUafa in 
a prayer, after which they proceed to the grave^ 
where prayers are again repeated; on^ of tbe 
relations then stepping down into tbe grave, re* 
eeives the body, which he de|K)sits so that the 
ftice may be opposite to Mecca. They use no 
coffin, but merely place the body in a niche in 
the side of the grave, which is then built up with 
brick^ and the whole filled with earth. When 
this is performed, the MoUah, addressing himself 
towards the grave, asks the interred, by name^ 


whether he or she died a genuine Moslem ; to which 
the nearest relation^ as proxy, replies^ ** I died a 
Moslem." They a^re the more anxious about this 
confession, from the idea that immediately on the 
closing up of the grave, two angels, Munkir and 
Nekir, descend into it and interrogate the dead 
person respecting the object of his worship, his 
religion, and his prophet, and according to the 
answer given, adjudge him either to the enjoy- 
ment of felicity, or a state of purgatory, in which 
he is supposed to expiate his prevarications by 
proportionate degrees of suffering. . 

We now parted from our dear Missionary 
friends, who turned off in a westerly direction 
towards Baghtcfusarah while we proceeded along 
the yerdant banks of the Salgir to Ahmetchet, 
where we arrived about nine o'clock in the even* 

B B 


Kmratuhazfir—Vigit to the MufH^Kaffa—Tkeodman Bible 
SdtUty^Arabdt^Th^ Putrid Lake^-Nogai Tatan^The 
M^l4i^uai»^IhidMb(/rtxi'^Metmtmite^ ZeaU^ 

Tvmuli of ike Sctfthkm KiMgw-^TiUar Fmtmg-^3tafii^pU^ 

. Hurriuaut — Tagmirog. 

On the 9th of July we met the members of the 
Tauridian Bible Society, with whom we concerted 
measures relative to the establishment of Branch 
Societies at Akhtiar^ and other towns of the Cri- 
mea, the increase of active correspondents, and 
the opening of a dep6t of Bibles at the Greek 
Monastery near BaghtchisaraL 

After a sumptuous dinner, to which the Prince 
Kai Bey had also invited several of the principal 
gentlemen in the town, we set off for Karasubazdr, 
which we reached about dusk, and obtained lodg- 
ings at the house of a Jew. The following day 
being tbe Lord's Day, we spent in our room, with 
the exception of a visit we paid .to an Armenian 
priest (Father Aucher), whom we engaged to 
circulate our Turkish New Testament, in Arme- 
nian characters, among his countrymen in the 
peninsula. He is a learned man, and has only 


ktely arrived in the Gricaea from the famous 
Monastery of St. Lazarus, near Venice. It is to 
him the learned world is indebted for the valuable 
edition of the Chronicle of Eusebius, in Armenian, 
Greek, and Latin, printed at Venice, 1818, in 4to. 

Karambazdr, or the ** Black Water Market,'* 
is situated on the Karasu, from which it takes its 
name, and is chiefly inhabited by Tatars, Jews, 
and Armenians. The latter are mostly Catholics, 
and have a church of their own; besides which; 
there are, one genuine Armenian church, one Greek, 
a Synagogue, and twenty-three mosques. From 
this statement, the reader may conceive how large 
a proportion of the population are followers of the 
false prophet. An immense stone edifice still 
marks the site of a Royal Tatar palace, and on the 
high bank of the river are barracks, and somt 
houses of a superior appearance. The town itself 
looks mean, from the narrowness of its streets; 
but. when viewed from the neighbouring heights; 
the numerous poplars and fruit*trees give it an 
interesting appearance. 

On Monday morning, we drove out to the coun- 
try seat of Kai Bey, beautifully situated in a fine 
luxuriant valley on the north side of the moun^^ 
tains. Our principal object in making this visit, was 
to have an interview with the Mu/ti, or Supreme 
Judge^ and High Priest of the Mohammedans ih 
thid part of Russia. He lives on the prince's 
estate, and made his appearance some time after 
our arrival. We found him an aged man, of dig- 
nified manners, and much given to taciturnity. 
It was, indeed, but seldom that he spoke^ except 

B B 2 

372 KAFt^A. 

in reply to some question that we put to him ; but 
he once asked us, in connection with a conversa- 
tion about the distant land of our nativity, where 
was our Kiblah, or the point toward which we ' 


turned in worship? Our answer, 'Uhat it was 
Heaven, but that we considered it of small mo- 
ment how the body wa3 turned, if only our heart 
and affections were properly fixed on the Great In- 
visible Object of adoration,'* appeared to strike him, 
and give rise to a train of reflection on the subject. 
He had in his possession a copy of the Astrakhan 
edition of the Turkish New Testament, which 
he said would be perfectly understood by the 
Tatars of the Crimea. We gave him a copy of 
Mr. Dickson's translation of the Psalms, which he 
pronounced to be pure Turkish, but so plain as 
to be easily understood in these parts. He was 
also much pleased with a present we made him of 
anrArabic New Testament, only he had several 
objections to make to the impurity of its style. 

After an early dinner, we took leave of our 
kind host, and returned to the mouth of the valley,* 
and prosecuted our journey towards Kaffa. To 
the left^ the low mountains, which had appeared 
on the road from Karasubazdr, dwindled away 
as we advanced, till we perceived nothing but 
a bare steppe; but at some distance on our right, 
the coasting range presented some majestic sum- 
mits, though even these indicated that the chain 
was approaching its termination. At some dis- 
tance in this direction lie the extensive ruins of 
,E^ki, or Old Crim; and close to the road, on the 
opposite side, we passed a fine farm^ belonging to 

KAFFA. 373 

Mn Young, son of the late Arthur Young, Esq., 
who was not more distinguished by bis profound 
knowledge of agricultural science, than his attach* 
ment to and exemplification of the holy influence 
of the religion of Christ. We arrived in Kaffa^ or 
Theod/tma^ in the evening, and procured lodgings 
at a tcderably good inn, kept by a Greek and one 
of the German Colonists from the vicinity. 

Great hopes were excited by the formation 
of the Theodosian Bible Society in 1815, and no 
less a sum than £500. was transmitted in aid of its 
funds by the London Committee, but scarcely any 
thing has been effected, further than the establish- 
ment of a Bible Dep6t, in which the copies of the 
Scriptures that have been forwarded to this place, 
are carefully preserved in elegant wainscot presses. 
We did every thing in our power to create some 
interest in behalf of jthe cause, and procured a 
meeting of the Committee, but we had reason to 
fear that little good would result from our visit 
X]!onsidering the proximity of Theodosia to the 
opposite coast of Anatolia, and those of Abhasia, 
Mingrelia, and Guria, and the constant intercourse 
kept up between this harbour and all parts of the 
Black Sea, as well as the Archipelago and Egypt, it 
is certainly much to be regretted, that the facilities 
it ofiers for the circulation of the Scriptures in so 
many different languages are not embraced, and 
turned to the best account. 

Theodma* was first built by the Milesians, 
several hundred years before the birth of Christ, 

* The Oeojo^/a of Strabo, and Ocv2<^9ia of Demosthenes, Scy* 
lax, and Steph. Byzan. 

874 KARA. 

fmd was a place of such eartensive trade^ that in 
the time of the Bosphorian emperor, Leucon, one 
of its kings sent from thence to Athens not less 
tl^uti two millions one hundred thousand medimni 
of com. According to the Periplus of Arriaa^ it 
was destroyed in the first half of the second cen- 
tury; but the Byzantian historians state, that 
it waa in part rebuilt about the year 350, when 
it obtained the name of Kii^a, Kaffb^ by which it is 
still known at the present day. In the Uiirteenth 
century, the ground m the Ticinity of the harbour 
was purchased from the Mongolian Khans^ by the 
Genoese, who surrounded it by wails, and rendered 
it such a flourishing and powerful emporium, ilML 
it planted other colonies in different par^ of the 
.Crimea and the shores of the Palus Meotis, and 
at length became formidable to the Khans, by 
whose permission it^ had been founded. Nor 
was it without ftason that the Tatars gave it the 
name of Kritn'StambouH^ ^'The Crimean Con- 
stantinople," and KUtchuk-StambouU, ** Little Con-- 
stantinople;" for, in a memorial s^it to Pope 
Calixtus III. by the Directors of the Bank of St. 
George, in Genoa, in the year 1454, it is stated, 
that although Kaffa could not be compared with the 
Turkish capital in point of circumference, it might 
in respect of the number «f its inhabitants.* In 
1475, it was taken by the Turks, who plaoed it ift 
the custody of a Beglerbeg, or Governor, with 
a. garrison of 3,000 Janisaries, yet it still continued 
to be a place of considerable trade, till it was 

* Mannert^s Norden der Erde. p. 304. 

i^Q^u^rad by tha Biwsi«ii aims k the reiga t>f tbe 
Empresg C&tberii^e. 

The pre^qnt town ei^hibita some vestiges of it3 
former s^ppearance, in the ino^quep, bath», walhi, 
aod towers which are Btijl st^<}ing; hut moat of 
the ancieaat buiLdings have beea (iilapiclate4* ps^rt- 
ly by the devastations of war^ ^nd partly with 
a view to cQpstruct a. fine quay, stfid other work$ of 
modem taste and utility. The ^^reateet exhibition 
of theiQ is fijeen in the vicinity of the Quarantine, 
joiind whii?h are e^^ten^ive walls, built by the 
Genoese for the protection of their trade. With 
the Q;(ception of the bouse of the Governor, a^d 
«ome belonging to the merchants, the buiiding« are 
.mostly in the Turkish style, and* are inhabited 
hy Armenians, Greeks, Tatars, and Jews« of whom 
a considerable number are Karaites^ and live in 
js^ separate part pf the town. 

In con^sequence of the eMablishment of thp 
Cfenoese in Theodosia, it becamOi in the yeai* 
1320, the seat of a Homan C^tbplic Bishop, whose 
aparchy extended from the town of Sarai,' on 
the Volga, to that of Farna^ in Bulgaria. It 
.W£is also early inhabited by Armenians; and ^b 
late a^ the middle of last century, they had not 
fewer than *u?e»(y-ypar churches,* The Armenians* 
in conneption with tjj^ Romish church, had also 
a Bishop of their owui and of these several still 
live in the place. At the distance of $t few versts 

on the mountain to the west of the town> i% a 


colony of Germans, but like most pf the emigrants 

* PeyaMnell, p. fi7 


in this quarter, they are in circumstances of great 
poverty, chiefly owing, I believe, to their want of 
management, and their ignorance of agricultural 
economy. The whole number of settlers in the 
Crimea amounts to 273 families. They have 
long been like sheep without a shepherd, but 
have recently obtained a faithful labourer in the 
Gospel, in one of the Missionaries sent out by the 
Basle Institution, 

At^ four o*clock on the morning of the 14tb, 
we left Kqffh, and after proceeding a few versts 
along the coast into the ancient Bosphorian terri- 
tory, we struck across the isthmus to the fortress 
of Arahat^ situate at the south-eastern termination 
of the Putrid Lake. Excepting some Tatar villages 
which we passed,' the country wore every appear- 
ance of a steppe, but possesses the richest black 
soil, and perfectly answers to the description given 
of it by Strabo.* At the distance of sixteen versts, 
behind the Tatar village of Koisan, we passed over 
the remains of the wall which that geographer 
ascribes to the Bosphorian Prince Asander. It 
stretches across the isthmus from the west of the 
bay of Theodosia, to the sea of Azof, and ex- 
hibits, at regular distances, enormous circular 
mounds, which are doubtless the ruins of J;he 
towers erected for its defeace.f It formed the 
boundary of the Bosphorian empire, an empire 
famous in ancient history for its military prowess, 
and its long protracted duration, for the period 

* Lib. vii. cap. iv. wtiia^ koI IvyaioQ ktrn waffa, ffitm ik iroi 
e^ipa, Sec 

t JswiirHifftiyTa iri^pyovc Kaff ixaffror tnitiiov Hxm, Ibid. 

ABABAT. 377 

of eight centuries. It was founded about three 
hundred years before the birth of Christ, and 
lal9ted till the time of Constantine the Great. Its 
capital was Panticapeum, where the present town 
of Kertch is situate, on the west side of the Bos- 
phorianstnit, which here divides Europe from Asia. 
It was the granary of Athens and many other parts 
of Greece. Here reigned Mithridates the Great, 
whose arms not only subjugated the numerous 
tribes of Scythia, but conquered Greece, and 
obliged Rome herself once more to struggle for 
the empire of the world.* His tomb, with other 
antiquities of the remotest ages, have recently 
been discovered. in the vicinity. 

About nine o'clock we arrived at Arahaty a 
small Russian station, with a fort consisting of 
several bastions, with a fosse supplied with water 
from the Maeotis, across which a wooden bridge has 
been erected for the accommodation of travellers. 

Before proceeding on the sands, we bathed in 
the Palus Meeotis, called by the ancients the 
Mother of Pontus, f and sacred to the honour of 
the prolific goddess of antiquity. Its water is 
fresh, a fact known to Polybius,;]: and accounted 
for by the number of large rivers which run 
into it. Strabo estimates its circumference at 
nine thousand stadia, or somewhat more than 
eleven* hundred miles, in which he includes the 
sinuosities of the Putrid Lake; but its greatest 

» Miiller's Univenal History, Vol. i. p. 207. 

t KaXiovci ik fiffripa Tlorrov. — Dionys. Pericg. v. l65. 

X IvTi Xifirn YXi/ic€ca.— -Polyb. Hist. cap. iv. 59. 


depth IB not more than fourteen feet, it consiatiDg 
almost entirely of ehoals, which greatly impede 
the navigation. 

The Putrid Lake, (ly T^^pa Xc^i^ Strabo,) or as 
it 18 called by the Tatars, TchuvMh Dengiz^* 
presents a pretty straight margin, running in a 
parallel direction with the western shore of the 
Mceotis, but branches out into numerous fanys and 
creeks towards the p^nsula. Its waters afe 
considerably impregnated widi salt, from (he 
salt lakes in the vicinity, some of which connect 
with it. In some places they are stagnant, and 
produce a disagreeable and insalubrious amdl, 
. whence the appropriate name by which it is de- 

Between these two seas stretches an isthmus, 
supposed to be the Zenanis CherMnesus of Ptole- 
my. It is a hundred and ten versts in length, but 
extremely narrow, in some places scarcely a verst, 
and consists alnH)st entirely of a sand bank, 
high and precipitous towards the east, but sweep- 
ing softly along the Tchuvashf where, in some 
places, it presents a scanty patch of vegetation. 
Our journey along this arid tract occupied the 
greater part of two days, during the whole of 
which time, with the exception of three or four 
houses designed to serve as post-stations, two 
of which only could furnish us with milk, and 
scarcely any of them with drinkable water, we 
were not gratified by the sight of a single human 
habitation. Yet in this barren wd solitary situ- 

* In modern geographies this word h iitiproperly spdt SfeoiA. 


ation, we had the pleasure of meeting a Russian 
officer, who possessed and valued the Slavonic 
Bible, apd at whose house we also found a copy 
of a very scarce book — Amdt's True Christianity, 
translated into Russ, and printed at Halle, by 
Canstein, the founder of the Biblical Institution 
in that town. Reaching the termination of the 
isdimus, we ferried the small but deep strait,^ 
by which the two seas are here joined, and ar* 
rived in the dusk at Jenitchi, an old fort, aiKl still 
tiie occupation of a small garrison. 

Our route on the 16th lay towards the N.E., 
through a region inhabited partly by colonies of 
Russian Dissenters, and partly by Nogai Tatars, a 
people who, till within these few years, led a life 
exactly corresponding to that of the nomadic Scy* 
.thians^ described by Herodotus as covering the 
Bteppes on the northern shores of the Maeotis. In 
oonsequence of the wars carried on during the last 
century in the south of Russia, this division of the 
great Asiatic body, that passed into the wei^t under 
Djinghis Khan, was necessitated to quit the coun* 
try, and emigrated partly across the Dniester into 
Turkey, and partly across the Kuban into the 
regions of the Caucasus. These latter, however, 
finding themselves annoyed by the Tcherkessians, 
returned and submitted to the Russian sceptre, in 
the year 1701, and had their residence allotted 
^btem between the river Mohshnaia and the Sea qf 
A%of. From the time of their return till the year 
1812, they continued to follow the same erratic 
mode of life they had ever been accustomed to, 
dirftllttig in. tents, moving their iflloek^ and herds 


from place to place, according as pasturage and 
water rendered it necessary. But between the 
years 1805 and 1812^ a series of attempts were 
made to civilize them^ by erecting mosques in dif- 
ferent places, and holding out premiums to such as 
would build houses in their vicinity, so as to form 
villages for their mutual advantage and accommo* 
dation. Little, however, was effected till the ar- 
rival of the Count de Maison, as Governor^ m 
1808 ; who, after fixing on a place of residence, 
gave orders that the Armenians and Karaite Jews, 
who had been in the habit of supplying them with 
various articles of foreign produce, should, in fu- 
ture only be allowed to trade on condition that 
they settled in the vicinity of the Government- 
house; the consequence of v^hich was, that the 
Tatars were obliged, for the sake of convenience, 
to gather round it as a centre ; and certain regula- 
tions having been enforced, such as the appoint- 
ment of elders and other magistrates, the villages 
began to rise in the steppe, and, towards the end 
of 1812, the whole population was brought into 
a settled and orderly state of society. The total 
number of Nogais of both sexes amounted, in the 
year 1818, to 32,000, inhabiting seventy- three vil- 
lages, each of which has its own duly-elected 
magistrate, who regulates its internal policy by 
means of a couacil composed of officers chosen 
from every tenth family. Their territory is di- 
vided into five Kadiships, over each of which is a 
Kadi, or judge ; and they have altogether eleven 
mosques, each of which has its Effendi, Iman, and 
Crier. The residence of the Governor is at Obi- 


Mcknei, or Nogcdsk, on tbe small river Terendolga, 
at a short distance from the spot where it falls into 
the sea of jizqf. It is regularly built, and is 
likely to become a place of considerable com- 

Having reduced the Nogais to some kind of 
external order, the Count de Maison next pro- 
ceeded to adopt measures for their mental culture ; 
but, fearing lest the introduction of Christian prin- 
ciples among them might excite their prejudices 
or alarm their fears, he proposed that such ex- 
tracts should be made from the Koran as were 
in accordance with the spirit and precepts of the 
Gospel, and printed for circulation in the villages ; 
but, owing to the existence of certain obstacles, he 
has not been able to effect his purpose. A num- 
ber of copies of the Tatar New Testament, Psalms, 
and separate copies of the Gospel of Luke, were 
forwarded to Obitotcknei for distribution ; but one 
of us, (Mr. Seroff) who paid a visit to the Count, 
found that few of them had been circulated, and 
that the Tatars manifested little disposition to re- 
ceive them. 

Such of the villages as we paseed through 
seemed to be laid down according to a regular 
plan; and one, containing a large mosque, wore 
quite a superior appearance. While waiting for a 
change of horses, our attention was attracted by a 
subterranean mill, the first thing of the kind we 
had seen, but which we were told was quite com- 
mon among the Nogais. Its mechanism was much 

* Noavelles Annales det yojageB^ p. S9S. 


in the usual -etyle, but it was moved by a horse 
going round on the surface of the ground, at a suf- 
ficient distance from the centre to prevent any 
pressure upon the roof of the place in which the 
machinery was erected. 

At another village we had some conversation 
with an interesting young Tatar, who seemed ex- 
tremdy eager to gain information, and immedi- 
ately committed to paper whatever we told him. 
On asking him whether he knew how many books 
the Koran declared to have been sent down from 
heaven, he instantly replied, '* JRwir," and speci- 
fied their names-^the Koran, the Pentateuch, the 
Psalms, and^ the GospeL We then asked if he 
had ever seen the Gospel, and on his rejoining 
that he had net, we shewed him the Gospel of 
Luke in Turkish, and informed him that this was 
the Gospel which he said had descended from 
heaven. The moment he heard this, his eyes 
brightened, and he was all anxiety to learn what 
it contained. We then read together part of the 
first chapter, with which he seemed much pleased ; 
and on being told that he might keep the volume, 
he was qnite in an extasy of joy. May he find in 
it the pearl of great price, and part with all his 
present religion for its possession ! We also gave 
away a copy of the Psalms, and another of the 
Gospel of Luke, to an aged Tatar, who instant- 
ly kissed them, and pressed them to his fore- 
head and breast, and, after expressing his grati-^ 
tude, rode off apparently very happy at the gift. 
At the last of their villages, however, we did 
not meet with the same success: those who had 


r^eived copied from u9 were oi:dered by the MqU 
lab to return them, and tell Ufl from him that they 
had sufficient instructiiXQ in the Koran, which had 
superseded all other books of Divine Revelation. 

We now made for the JUb/wAnaia, or A^ilky 
River ; but the darkness of night gathered around 
us before we left the Nogai steppe, and, suspicions; 
arising in our mind that we had missed the road, 
our situation became highly irksome and per** 
plexing* Our Tatar driver was unwillii^ at first 
to discoyer any signs of fear ; but when he found 
that we considered ourselves in perilous cir-^. 
Gumstaoees, his courage failed him, and he frankly 
confiM»ed that it was the first time that he had 
erer driven this stage. We were, in fact, so com-f 
pletely bewildered, that we knew not to what 
hand to turn; and to remain all night in the 
desert, exposed to the Tatars, seemed highly im^ 
prudent. We therefore kept veering about in 
search of the road, which we could only ascertain 
by feeling, and, after some time, succeeded in re^ 
gaining it ; but soon found ourselves in the most 
imminent danger, from the driver's approaching the 
brink of a precipice, where, if we had not been 
providentially arrested by a strong mental excite-? 
ment, which tnade U9 leap out of the carriage and 
seize the horses, one step further must have ter- 
minated our journey. Having succeeded in pull* 
ing our carriage again into the proper track, we 
proceeded on foot down a sharp declivity, which 
led us to hope that we were in the vicinity of sqme 
river ; and in a few minutes we were relieved from^ 
our anxieties and. fears by the music — for such it 

^ I 


was to our ears— of the dogs and catUo io tbe 
Russian village of KizU-jar, close by, where we 
obtained lodgings at a Jewish inn. 

The following day, we skirted the Molosknaiat 
in all probability Gerrkus (X^ppoo). the seventh 
of the principal streams specified by Herodotus,^ 
and that which formed the boundary between the 
nomadic and royal Scythians. As has already 
been observed of most of the Russian rivers in 
these parts,f its western bank is the higher, and 
exhibits, in some places, a free-stone projecting 
through the mould. We also passed a remarkable 
assemblage of rocks in a valley, standing quite iso* 
lated, but evidently connected with others which 
we could descry in the high bank at no great dis* 
tance. The Moloshnaia flows in a southerly di* 
rection, and empties itself , into a liman connected 
with the sea. 

Tbe right bank of this river is inhabited by the 
Duchobortzi, a sect of Russian Dissenters ; and 
the left, by the Mennonites. The former of these 
people eight villages, to which are attached 37,114 
desatines of land, independently of an island called 
the Isle of fFohes,X which makes about 1,000 
desatines more, and affords excellent pasturage 
for their cattle in the winter. Their number, in 
1816, amounted to 1,153 souls. § We spent a few 
hours at one of their villages, and endeavoured 
to elicit some information relative to their peculiar 

• Book IV. 56. t Page 170. 

X It is not unworthy of notice, that Ptolomy places a riyer 
called the Avkoq worafio^ in this qoarter. 
{ Nouvelles Annates, as above, p. 30S. 


isfentim^nts and practices, but found them uncom^ 
monly close, and evidently influenced by a sus- 
picion that we had some design against them. 
They have been called the Russian Quakers ; and 
much as the enlightened members of the Society 
of Friends would find to object to among this 
people^ as opposed to their views of divine truth, 
it cannot be denied that many points of resem- 
Uance exist between them. Their name, fFrestlers 
with the Spirit, indicates the strong bearing their 
system has on mystic exercises, in which they 
place the whole of religion, to the exclusion of 
all external rites and ceremonies. All their know- 
ledge is traditionary. On our urging upon them 
the importance t)f being well supplied with the 
Scriptures, they told us we were much mistaken if 
we imagined they had not the Bible among them 
—they had it in their hearts : the light thus im- 
parted was sufficient, and they needed nothing 
more. Every thing with them is spiritual. They 
apeak indeed of Christ, and his death ; but they 
explain both his person and sufferings mysti- 
cally, and build entirely upon a different foun- 
dation than the atonement. They make no dis* 
tinction of days and meats ; and marriage, so 
far froni being a sacrament with them, as in the 
Greek Church, is scarcely viewed as a civil rite, 
and it not unfre^juently happens, that proofs are 
given of a conjiection between tlie parties previous 
to any announcement of their mutual determi- 
natioa to marry. 

Directly opposite to the villages of the Du- 
chobortzi is the first settlement of the Mennomtei, 



from whom we met with the frankest reeeptioo, 
and almost fancied ourselves in the heart of Prus- 
Bia. Their industry, and the prosperity and neat- 
ness of their villages, which are thirty-three in 
number, and contain about 8,000 inhabitants, have 
frequently called forth the panegyric of the tra- 
veller; but, although we could not but admire 
these features in their colonies, we felt disposed 
to contemplate their establishment in a much 
higher point of view. Placed in the centre of 
an extensive territory, where they are surrounded 
by Russians of various sects, Germans, Greeks, 
Bulgarians, Tatars, and Jews, we could not but 
regard them as destined by Divine Prpvidence 
to shine as lights in a dark place, and took an 
opportunity of pointing out to their Elders, and 
other leading men, their obligations to use their 
endeavours to enlighten all around them, by pro* 
moting, to the utmost of their power, the circula- 
tion of the Holy Scriptures among them, in their 
different languages. Our proposal, that they should 
establish a Moloshnaia Bible Society, they cheer- 
fully acceded to, and have since carried it into 
effect; in consequence of which^ copies of the 
word of (rod in all the above-mentioned languages 
have been forwarded to them for distribution. As 
Hiey live on habits of friendship and intimacy with 
their Tatar neighbours, and one of their principal 
men speaks the Tatar with fluency, we furnished 
him with a good supply of New Testaments, and 
other portions of Scripture, in that language, that 
they might commence their operations without de- 


The Menoomtes in thk quarter are desoend- 
ante of those to whom Frederick the Great granted 
peculiar privileges on the banks of the Vistula, 
in East Prussia, where they were raised, by the 
blessing of God on their industry, and the sobriety 
of their habits of life, to circumstances of pros* 
perity and ease. Here they remained till the year 
1805, when the Prussian Government found it ne* 
cessary to raise a powerful army against the 
French, and, contrary to their, well-known principle 
of non-resistance, proceeded to enrd them among 
the new conscripts. On refusing to comply with 
the order, they were informed that there was 
no other alternative but to sell their property, pay 
ten per cent, of their capital, and leave the country. 
The only country to which they could flee as an 
asylum was Russia ; and accordingly, in the above- 
mentioned year, disposing of all their immovaUe 
property, they quitted Germany; and, taking 
along with them the greater part of their live 
stock, they arrived in these regions, where they 
bad the most liberal grant of land, and privileges 
allowed them by the Russian Government.* 

From a small book, which they presented us 
svith, containing a confession of their faith, it 
appears, that the denomination by which they cha* 
racterize themselves, is that of '' Those known 
by the name of the United Fiemmingian, Frisian, 
and High Grerman Baptists, oxMennonitesJ' Their 
views of doctrine are perfectly consonant with 
those expressed in the confessions of the Re« 

* NouTelles Aimalef, &c* p« 301, 5<^. 

c c 2 


formed Churches ; and it is cmly with regaid to 
certain external rites, or circumstantial obser- 
vances, that they differ from the great body of 
professing Christians. They baptize none but 
adults, but differ from the English and American 
Baptists in the mode of administering the rite, not 
performing it by immersion, but by pouring. They 
reject all ideas both of transubstantiation and con^ 
substantiation in the Lord's Supper, and consider 
it as an external visible act, consisting in the par- 
ticipation of bread and wine according to the com- 
mandment of Christ and the usage of the apostles, 
and declaratory of his sufferings and death in the 
room of sinners. At the same time, they maintain 
that, while this outward act is attended to in faith, 
it is the means of imparting spiritual nourishment 
to the soul ; raising the thoughts and affections to 
heaven ; inspiring the heart with gratitude for the 
divine mercies in Christ ; and uniting the partici- 
pant in the bond of love and peace with all true 
believers. They symbolize with the strict Bap- 
tists in admitting none to their communion who 
are not previously baptized according to their own 
views of the initiatory ordinance. That of the 
feet«>washihg they consider to be binding, in imita- 
tion of the example of Christ, and as a proof of 
Christian humility and love. It is not practised, 
however, as a public rite, on such as may have 
washed their own feet the night before, but is per- 
formed on strangers who visit them in their houses, 
and who may really be benefited by it. . The ap- 
pointment of marriage is rigidly enforced among 
them, and the choice of the parties is mutually 


voltmtary, and not the effect of the influence of 
any third party ; only, it must be confined to ** he^ 
lievers of the church of God." They consider 
themselves bound to obey magistrates in every 
thing that is not contrary to the word of God ; but 
they refuse to confirm their testimony by an oath, 
regarding this as 'peculiar to the Old Testament 
dispensation. They have a regular but simple 
system of church-discipline, founded upon Matt, 
jcviii. 15—17, and other passages of the New Tes- 
tament ; and keep no company with any who have 
been excluded ftom their fellowship, excepting so 
far as they may be called to exhortation and re- 
pentance. When they have reason to believe that 
the professed repentance of any excommunicated 
member is sincere, they again receive him, by 
a solemn act of prayer, into their communion. 
The last question put to any one desirous of join- 
ing them is, fVhether he he inclined^ with his whole 
heart, to live conformahly to the will of his Saviour 
and Redeemer, Jesus Christ ; to deny himself, and' 
all sinful lusts ; and to endeavour, as long as he 
lives, to maintain, hy the grace of God, in true 
faith and genuine humility, a pious, godly, and 
holy life* 

They elect their Elders and Deacons from 
among themselves by unanimous choice, and an 
appeal to the Searcher of hearts to guide thenf 
aright, and discover to them, by inclining their 
heart towards them, those whom he hath destined 

* Confession, ausgegeben durch die Gemeimen in Preusscn 
Elbing, 18 19. 12mo. 


for the office. Seveml of these we saw, and have 
scarcely ever met with more excellent men. 

An excellent school-house, with accommoda- 
tions for a master, had been recently provided; 
but as they had not succeeded in their applications 
to Germany for a teacher, we engaged to use our 
influence with the directors df the Basle Insti* 
tution to send out a pious young man, who might 
impart to their children the necessary instruction, 
and, at the same time, by acquiring the Tatar 
language, prepare himself for usefulness among 
their Mohammedan neighbours. In consequence 
of our application to Basle, an excellent person 
was appointed to fill the station ; but, owing to 
the success of some of their former applications 
for a schoolmaster^ his' services in that department 
were not required. Actuated, however, by a true 
missionary spirit, Mr. Schlatterer (for this is his 
came) proceeded to the Mohshnaia Fodi, partly 
on foot, and partly by such cheap conveyances 
as presented themselves ; and on his arrival at the 
colony, renouncing all the conveniences and com- 
forts of civilized life, he went into the service of a 
common Tatar, with the view not merely of learn- 
ing the language, but of acquiring a thorough 
knowledge of the peculiar ideas and habits of life 
which obtain among that people. According to 
the most recent accounts, he had made great pro- 
gress, and so completely gained the confidence of 
his master, that, on his returning on a temporary 
visit to Germany, he furnished him with a horse to 
carry him on his way. 


Besides the Mennonites settled on the Molosh- 
ncua, there are about 250 families who have re- 
ceived grants of land in the goveminents of Jeka- 
terinaslav, Tchemigqf, BXkd Folhinia. 

On the right bank of the Mohshnaia are 
twenty-one colonies of Germans, partly Protest- 
ants and partly Catholics, forming a total number 
of 486 families ; and not fewer than 500 families 
of emigrants from Wirtemberg are residing in the 
vicinity, in expectation of receiving similar privi- 
leges as have been granted to the other colonists. 

The regions peopled by these colonists form 
the commencement of the Royal • country (ra xa- 
Xeifieva Ba^iKjj'ta), which extended ten days' journey 
to the eastward, and in the remotest ages of pro- 
fane history was occupied by a division of the 
Scythians^ called Royal (BaeMfioi iKvBai),* on ac- 
count of the greater extent of their territory, and the 
distinguishing excellencies of their character. From 
an immense tumulus, forming one of the boundary- 
marks of the Mennonite territory, we obtained an 
extensive view of the country ; but, with the ex- 
ception of several of the colonies and a few Tatar 
villages, nothing modem was presented to the 
view. The tumulus, however, on which we stood, 
and numerous others of an extraordinary size, 
which appeared in the surrounding horizon, almost 
tempted us to conclude that this must be the spot 
sacred among the Scythians for the interment of 
their kings.f They may be about twenty feet high, 

• Herodotus, iv. 20. 

f Ibid. 71* Ta^ac 2« tUv ftaax\yi4ity Iv fippoiTi etr/. 


and two hundred in circumference. If they be 
indeed the identical sepulchres, their enormous 
appearance still bears testimony to the barbarous 
rites of paganism at that distant period of time*. 
On the death of any of their kings, his body was 
instantly embalmed, and sent round to aU the 
nations of Scythian origin, each of which, in its 
turn, conveyed it, in solemn procession, to the 
others, till, after having gone round them all, it 
was conveyed to the vicinity of the Gerrhus, where 
a large square pit was dug, in which was deposited 
not only the royal corpse, but also the golden gob- 
lets used at the royal table, the ministers of the King, 
his principal wife, and his horse, all of whom were 
slain on the occasion. A great quantity of earth 
was then heaped over the whole, till it became an 
immense tumulus, the size of which was still aug- 
mented by a fresh accession of earth the following 

On the 20th, we bid farewell to the excellent 
Mennonites, and proceeded in the direction of 
Mariupol Passing, in our way, a large field of 
arbuses, or water-melons, we requested the Tatars 
who were cutting them to sell us some ; but they 
returned for answer, that they would not sell any 
under a ruble a-piece. Not being willing to pay so 
exhorbitant a price, we were about to continue our 
journey, and gave the young Tatar who came from 
the field a copy of the Gospel of Luke^ which he 
immediately conveyed to his companions. We 

fuyoi, Kal irpoOvfitSfievoi IID METllTON xoc^irac* 'Eyravroi/ S^ 
Ttp^epofiiyov, avTic tousv^i roi^vJc— Herod. iy. 71 • 


had not driven far* when we heard a person hal^ 
looing after us, and, looking back, we were sur- 
prised to find our Tatar with his arms full of the 
finest melons, which his master had sent in re- 
turn for the book we had given him. We now 
presented him with the Psalms, in the same Ian* 
guage, and drove off, not a little pleased with this 
instance of Tatar feeling. 

Having crossed the small river Berda, by means 
of a bridge we constructed for our carriage, from a 
large wooden gate and some deals that we found 
in the vicinity, we once more reached the regular 
post-road, and were delighted to find, at the first 
station, a number of boys sitting on the ground, 
on the shady side of the house, each with a book 
in his hand, from which they were reading by 
turns to the post-office agent, who had undertaken 
their tuition. We left with him a couple of 
New Testaments, in Slavonic and Russ, for the 
use of his pupils. A little before dark we passed 
a fine large village of the name of Mangtish, chiefly 
inhabited by Greeks, to the number of nearly 
1,000, many of whom were returning from the 
fields, while others were busy collecting the 
flocks and herds, the lowing and bleating of which 
greatly augmented the rural character of the 

It was late before we reached Marivpolf where 
we procured but a sorry lodging at the house of a 
Greek; but the stirring appearance of the town, 
next morning, the neatness of its houses, mostly 
built of free-stone, and the commanding view we 
obtained of the river Kalmius, which here flowsf 


into a small bay of the Meeotis, soon made us forget 
the disagreeable impression of the preceding night. 
It is built on part of the high ground which rises 
from the right bank of the river. The streets are 
wide and regular, and there is a good market-place. 
It is almost exclusively inhabited by those Oreeks, 
or their descendants, who emigrated from the 
Crimea, on the withdrawment of the Russian 
troops after the conquest of that peninsula. The 
population is estimated at nearly 2,000 of both 
sexes, who are chiefly employed in trades, fishing, 
and the cultivation of the mulberry tree, the great 
favourite of the silk-worm. Of these about forty 
thousand are in a thriving state in the vicinity, and 
are very productive. 

From Mariupol we travelled up the right bank 
of the Kalmius^ which we crossed at a ferry about 
six versts above the town. While in the boat, we 
fired at a large water-serpent, that was swimming 
close to us, and which, after tinging the water 
with the blood it lost in consequence of the shot, 
and rearing its head for some time above the 
water, and hissing at us with its forked tongue, 
disappeared in the stream. The heat to-day was 
extreme, Fahrenheit 100^ in the shade; and we 
could procure nothing to refresh us till late in the 
afternoon, when,. on arriving at a Kozak village, 
we were furnished with the most delicious cold 
inilk from an ice-cellar, of which I had the im- 
prudence to take too copious a draught, and 
thereby brought on an ague, which proved so 
inveterate, that it was nearly a year before it 
finally left me. As we proceeded over the steppe. 


the air from the ground resembled the glow from a 
baker's oven; but before reaching the station 
whero we intended to stop for the night, the 
heavens were covered with the most threatening 
clouds ; it blew quite a hurricane ; the luxuriant 
plants which had been completely exsiccated by 
the heat of the sun, were broken off by the roots, 
and driven along, or tossed up into the air; while 
the circulating clouds of dust that were raised at 
different distances from the road before us, were 
rolled up in the most curious manner imaginable. 
The whole scene was strikingly illustrative of the 
grand imagery employed by the Prophet Isaiah, 
when describing the discomfiture of the Assyrian 

Chased like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, 
Or Hke the whirling dust before the storm. 

Isaiah zTn. 15. 

The wind continued great part of the night, 
and as the only bed we could command consisted 
of a shake-down of hay, in the shade attached to 
the stables of the Kozaks, it may easily be con- 
ceived that we only enjoyed a partial repose. 

Next morning it still blew fresh, but as there 
was no appearance of rain, we set off-at an early 
hour for Taganrog y which we reached about eleven 
o*clock, after crossing, in a ferry boat, the long 
liman which here runs up into the country, and 
forms a narrow isthmus, defended by an entrench- 
ment of ancient origin, but enlarged and fortified 
in later ages. It is in all probability the Tai^v, or 
fosse mentioned by Herodotus ; and Kremni, 
Kptjfiroi, the principal emporium of the Scythians 



in this quarter, must hare been situated at or near 
Taganrog, where also some geographers place the 
village of Karaia (Ko^ia c<ifiif), specified by Ptolo- 
my. The town and fort were constructed by order 
of Peter the Great, in the year 1706, but the latter 
was again demolished in 171 1^ in consequence of a 
treaty with the Turks. From that time the town 
lay almost desolate till 1769, when it was rebuilt; 
regular fortifications were erected, and every mea- 
sure was taken that promised to render it a place 
of strength and extensive mercantile enterprise. 
It is built on the high shore of the bay into which 
the Don discharges itself, and commands an ex- 
tensive view of the river, and the sea of j^zqf, 
together with the opposite coast, where, in the 
evening, the town and fortress of jizof presented 
themselves to our view. That part of the town 
which is of more modem erection, consists of 
spacious and regular streets, and a fine large 
market place. Its inhabitants, about 10,000 in 
number, belong to many different nations, and 
have been collected by the prospects of trade, 
which the situation of Taganrog presents to the 
view of the merchant, and which are increas- 
ingly realized from year to year, notwithstand- 
ing the inconveniences arising from the shall6w- 
ness of the sea of Azof, and that of the harbour 
immediately below the town. The shallowness 
of the latter is so great, that goods must be driven 
in carts, or conveyed on horseback, several versts 
into the bay, ere they can be received by the 
barks, which again convey them to the vessels 
lying at anchor still farther off. In the year 1817, 


not fewer than 1^391 vessels left this port for 

During our stay in Taganrog^ we not only had 
several interviews with the Governor, in whose 
cabinet we found a sm^U Bible dep6t, and other 
leading men, but had also the pleasure of meeting 
the Bible Committee in the grand hall of the 
Gymnasium, a spacious buili^ing, in which a con- 
siderable number of boys are taught the languages 
and the first principles of the most important 
branches of science: The field of labour marked 
out for this Committee is almost entirely confined 
to the town and the small district attached to 
it; but its members have been distinguishingly 
zealous, in cultivating that field. Russians, Greeks, 
Armenians, Tatars, and people of various other 
nations, have been furnished with the word of God 
in their vernacular languages. The laudable ex- 
ample of the Governor had been followed by 
the other members of the Committee, all of whom 
make it a point to keep a few copies by them, to 
dispose of as occasion offers. A depdt had been 
established at the Custom House, and another was 
about to be formed in the Quarantaine, for supply- 
ing the wants of sailors and others who visit 
the port. Nor had the schools, hospitals, and 
prisons been neglected. In a word, we found 
the arrangements of this Committee so complete, 
that, with the exception of suggesting the expe- 
diency of establishing associations in the towns of 
Mariupol, Rostof, and Nakhitchevan, nothing re- 
mained for us to do but encourage them to per- 



severe in the good work to which they had ad- 
dicted themselves with so much energy, and to 
]»my God that he would cause the precious seed 
of Divine TruUi, sown by their means, to spring 
up and produce an abundant harvest. 


Xmm Taganrog — Armenian Toum of Nakhitehevan — Tckerkoik 
^-Kozak Bible Society — The Kozakt — Crou the Don inio 
A$ia—The Bomdary of Ana and Earope—The Volga— 
Tzaritzim — Sarepia — Moravian CoUmg, and Mimonary Bf- 
forti— Kalmuck New Teeiameni— Banks of the Yolga^Atel 
— A Jewish Monarchy on the Volga — Khazaria, and Khaza- 
rian Language — Arrival at Astrakhan. 

On the 25th we left Taganrog^ and, travelling in 
an easterly direction, north of the mouths of 
the Don, we proceeded as far as Nakhitehevan, 
before reaching which, we passed the fortress of 
Rostof, situated on the Don, the cathedral and 
other edifices of which^ reflecting the beams of the 
setting sun, wore an interesting appearance. 

Nakhitehevan is entirely inhabited by Armeni- 
ans, and is nsmxed after a town situated near the 
A raxes in Armenia. Its inhabitants were origi- 
nally inhabitants of the Crimea, but emigrated at 
the same time with the Greeks of Mariupol, and 
have here founded a flourishing town, the appear- 
ance and police of which are quite oriental. Within 
the town are three churches ; and at a short dis- 
tance is a fine convent of free-stone, the seat of an 
Archbishop, who is, at the dame time, Patriarch of 


all the Armenians resident in Russia. There is also 
an Armenian school, and a printing-office, in which 
elementary books for the instruction of Armenian 
youth are printed. It has a large Bazdr, and about 
12,000 inhabitants. The only house in the shape 
of a public inn being full, we had little prospect 
of being able to procure quarters ; but were agree* 
ably relieved from our perplexity by the kindness 
of one of the first merchants, who introduced him- 
self to us in the street, and invited us to his house. 
Here an excellent supper was prepared for us ; 
and next morning, before setting off, we were 
entertained with a sumptuous breakfast. 

Our next halting-place was Novo or New 
Tcherkask, the present capital of the l>on Kozaks. 
^t is situated at the distance of aboift six versts to 
the N.E. of Old Tcherkask, on an elevated position 
on the banks of the Aksai and Tuslu, with a com- 
manding view across the Don into jisia. Its ap- 
pearance, from the western approach, is noble, 
and worthy of the brave people by whom it is 
inhabited. It is only of recent erection, and is 
intended to supersede the old town, as a place of 
residence ; which, being situated on a matshy 
island on the low bank of the river, was subject to 
great annual inundations. Several of the houses 
are of stone, and stately in appearance, especially 
that built for the celebrated Plato/, and occupied 
by the present Ataman, or Commander-in-chief, 
of the Kozaks. It has also an elegant cathedral ; 
a gymnasium of a superior description, in which 
are taught Russ, Latin, French, German, history, 
philosophy, and mathematics ; a large chancery, 


bospital^ arsenal, and other buildmgs of public 

A severe attack of the ague confined the author 
to his room the whole time of our stay in this 
town ; but his travelling companions had frequent 
interviews with the Ataman^ and attended a meet- 
ing of the Committee of the Don Kozak Bible 
Society, which they described as one of the most 
novel and interestinfr assemblies they had ever 
witnessed. The members were officers, some of 
them of high rank, dressed in full uniform, and all 
«ager and zealous in their exertions for the pros* 
perity of the institution. Since the formation of 
the Society, they had collected not less than 
33,168 rubles, and brought into circulation about 
3,000 copies of the Holy Scriptures. Five shops 
.had been opened for the sale of Bibles, in diffe- 
rent parts of the town ; and in ten of their most 
important villages, dep6ts have been formed for 
bft* the same purpose, as well as at three other places, 
and seven of the principal authorities, in different 
parts of the Kozak territory, had charged them- 
selves to act as gratuitous agents of the Society. 
.But the attention of this Committee has not been 
confined to people of their own stock : they have 
also endeavoured to circulate the Scriptures among 
the Tatars and Kalmuks in their vicinity. The lat- 
ter people, in particular, have shewn so much eager- 
ness to procure the Gospel in their own language, 
that they have even paid a silver ruble for a copy. 
More than one*fifth of those nomadizing in the op- 
posite steppes are able to read ; and, as the Ko- 
zaks are exceedingly zealous in calling their atten^ 

D D 


tioQ to the word of God, there is ground to hope 
that much good will be done, in this way, among 
these poor deluded votaries of Lamaic super- 

The Kozaks are distributed into eleven grand 
divisions, and ate known by the names of the 
places or countries they inhabit. These are aB 
follows: 1. llie Don— 2. The l^olga—3. Terek 
4. The Grebenskicy or Mountain Kozaks — 5. C/ra- 
lian — 6. Siberian — 7. Those of the Ukraine— ^ 
8. Zaporogian, near the Cataracts of the Dnieper 
—•9. Tchomomorskie, or Black Sea Kozaks — 
10. Bugskie, or those of the Bog — ^and, 11. Those of 
Tchuguief. All the last-mentioned divisions are 
only so many colonies or branches of that on the 
jDon, which is to be regarded as the prolific parent 
^ of the whole race ; and which, for riches, influenee, 
and numbers, still maintains a distinguished pre- 
cedency above the rest. 

. Mannert, in his Norden der Erde, endeavonrs 
to prove that the Kozaks are descendants of the 
Royal Scythians, whom Herodotus describes as 
occupants of the regions inhabited by the prin- 
cipal division of this pfeople at the present day. 
It cannot be denied that a variety of particulars 
may be traced in that ancient geographer which 
very properly apply to the Kozaks ; but the gap 
that remains unfilled up by history, and the sweep- 
ing inundations of Asiatic hordes^ more tremendous 
than those of the mighty Don, which have repeat- 
edly spread devastation and almost total extermi- 
nation over these regions, must ever leave the sub- 
ject open to scepticism. The passage in Constan- 


tine Porphyrogenitus^ which states that ^ Beyond 
Sechia (Ztixia, near the Chersonesian Bosphonis,) 
lies the country of Papagia ; and beyond the coun- 
try of Papagia^ that called Casachia ; and beyond 
Casachia, the Caucasian mountains/'* is the first 
document in which any thing like the name occurs. 
Constantine lived about the year of our Lord 950, 
and treats largely of the countries bordering on the 
Greek empire. The position he assigns the country 
of Casachia, is part of Circassian or, as it is called in 
these parts, Tchercessia, between which and Tcher- 
kask, ^e name of the Kozak capital, the reader 
will perceive a resemblance, which never could 
be accidental, and which cannot easily be ac- 
counted for on any other principle than that of a 
relationship between its inhabitants and those of 

The general character of the Kozaks, their fea- 
tures, constitution, and nH)de of life, at once prove 
them not to be of Russian origin. They speak, it^ 
is true, the Russian language, but not in a pure 
state ; for, besides the predominance of the Little 
Russian dialect, their language contains a great 
number of Tatar words, and others of foreign de- 
rivation. They are, in fact, a mixed race, made 
up of Circassians from Casachia, Russians, Poles, 
Tatars, Greeks, and other people ; a considerable 
proportion of whom, especially in the later periods 
of their amalgamation, being Mah- Russians, ac^ 
counts for the use of the Russ as their colloquial 
and written dialect. 

This amalgamation seems to have been par- 

* De Admiu. Imper. cap. 4?. 
D D 2 

404 TH£ KOZAKS. 

tic0larly strong in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, and was occasioned by the emigration 
which took place in consequence of the Polish and 
Tatar conquests, and other troubles within the 
Russian empire. Crossing the Don, the refugees 
intermingled with the Circassians in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Kuban ; and receiving continual 
accessions from the various nation^ by which they 
were surrounded, they grew exceedingly power- 
ful, and, in a short time, became so formidable, 
that, if measures had not been taken to gain them 
over by presents and flattery, Russia might have 
found it no easy matter to rid herself of a most 
dangerous enemy. The old capital was built about 
the year 1570; since which time the Kozaks have 
enjoyed a regular political constitution, under the 
government of the Ataman, or Commander-in- 
s The number of the Don Kozaks is estimated at 
nearly half a million. Besides the old and new 
capitals, they inhabit one hundred and nineteen 
Sianitzas, or principal villages, many of which 
have other villages attached to them. They are 
mostly built on the banks of the Don, the Donetz, 
and other rivers within their territory ; and each 
is governed by its own magistrate, or subordinate 
Ataman, who is chosen by the suffrages of the 
people, but subject to the authority of the chan- 
cery at Tcherkask . 

Their constitution is completely military. Their 
chief Ataman has the rank of a General, and is 
appointed by the College of War, to the minister 
of which department he is amenable. All the 


subordinate officers are chosen by the inhabitants 
of the Stanitzas to which they belong. For the 
military service, in which they have so greatly 
distinguished themselves, they are bound to fur- 
nish, at all times, an army of 25,000 men, whom 
they equip and maintain at their own expense ; 
but, in case of emergency, all who are capable of 
bearing arms must take the field. For this ser- 
vice, they enjoy peculiar privileges, and live, in 
most respects, as an independent people ; yet they 
are distinguished for their patriotism, and will go 
any lengths in defence of the Emperor and their 
native country. 

In their persons the Don Kozaks are generally 
taller than the Russians, and have something 
strongly Asiatic in their physiognomy. They are 
remarkable for the cleanliness of their habits. 
Their houses, which are either built of wood, or 
constructed of wicker-work, are extremely neat, 
and bespeak industry, frugality, and plenty. Their 
principal occupations at home consist in the care 
of their herds, agriculture, fishing, and weaving. 
In this last branch the females are remarkably 
expert. They also cultivate the vine, and their 
vineyards produce excellent wine, of which the 
best is a kind of Champaigne, known by the name 
of Zemliansky. 

Having finished our business in Novo^Tcher- 
kask, our travelling companion, Mr. SerofiV parted 
from us, to return to St. Petersburgb ; and, on the 
30th, we prosecuted our journey eastward, along 
the northern bank of the Don. On the 31st, we 
crossed the Donetz, a little above its confluence 


with that river^ but very different in size from 
what we saw it, about three months before, at the 
town of Bielgarod; and stopped all night at the 
beautiful village of TroiUnskaia, where we were 
hospitably entertained at the hous6 of the Ata- 
man. During the two following days our course 
lay sometimes near, istnd at other times further 
from the river ; but, in general, at a distance from 
the villages which are built along its numerous 
sinuosities. The post-stations, in general, consist 
merely of four poles, driven into the ground, and 
covered with reeds, as a shelter for the young 
Kozaks, who act as postillions ; consequently, the 
traveller can absolutely procure nothing in the 
way of nourishment. The water, too, in many 
places, is not drinkable } add to which, the feeble- 
ness of the horses, and inexperience of the drivers, 
and the reader may imagine that, with all our pre- 
possessions in favour of the Don Kozaks, we were 
heartily tired of travelling through their country. 
In fact, it required us six days to perform a jour- 
ney which^ if we bad had Russian horses and pos- 
tillions, we could easily have accomplished in 

At the station of GolMnskaia^ on the after- 
noon of the 3d of August, we passed out of Europe 
into Asia, by crossing the Dan, well known in 
ancient geography by the name of Tanais (To^dTc 
voraiioQ). It takes its rise in Ivan-Osero, a 
lake in the government of Tula, and pursues 
its course, first in a southerly, and then in an 
easterly direction, till it approaches within sixty 
versts of the Folga, where it turns towards the 


south-west) and, flowing past the town of Tcher- 
kaskj empties its waters, by a number of channels, 
into the Sea of Azof. Vessels of war, of a consi* 
derable size, have been brought down the D(m 
from Tavrovsk, a little below the town of Pln*o- 
nesh ; but, cowing to the increase of sand-banks in 
various places, it is at present navigable only by 
barks, or small vessels in ballast. At Goluhins- 
hma, it is spread to the breadth of more than a 
verst, and well answers to the etymological deri- 
.vation of Dr. Murray, " Tana, the spreading or 
broad stream." Few names, perhaps, have been 
more generally applied to rivers than the one in 
question. It is found in 7anais, Danapris, Dan- 
aster, Daitubius, Dwina, ^vidan, Soa^b/i, Donetz, 
all rivers in the east of Europe, or in the Cau- 

That the ancients considered the Tanais, or 
Don, as forming the boundary between Europe 
and Asia, is well known to all acquainted with 
ancient geography.* In latter times, indeed, the 
frontiers have been extended by some as far as 
the river Ob ; but most geographers seem inclined 
to consider the Uralian Chain, the Caspian Sea, 
and the Caucasus, to be the more natural limits. 
To this change of division there would be nothing 
to object, were it borne out by a correspondence 
in the origin, languages, and character of the peo- 
ple inhabiting the vast steppes between the Don 
and the Caucasus, and the Caspian and filack 

• T^ a* l^vp(oirri <rvve^j)c tori ?; 'Atria Kara roy Tayaiv await- 
Touaa Aurijf. Strabo, Lib. xi. caj). 1. — Toy Tavaiy, oyvep Tijg 
Aff/ar k'ai rtj^ 'EvpwV^c opioy vTreOi^ieOa, Ibid. 


Seas. But from the one extremity of diis region 
to the other, if we except a scanty sprinkling of 
Russian or German colonists, the military and 
civil officers, the population's exclusively Asiatic, 
being composed of KcUmuks, Tatars, Armenians, 
Georgians, and part of the Caucasian tribes : so 
' that, however plausible a theory we may form on 
the subject, when sitting at home in our study, it 
is impossible to enter the ancient Sarmatian 
plains, or maintain the smallest degree of inter- 
course with its present occupants, without feeRng 
ourselves in Asia. The proper national boundary, 
therefore, is described by the Tanais ; by an ima- 
ginary line from the most easterly turn of that 
river, to the corresponding projection of the Volga ; 
by the Volga, as far as the Kama; and then by 
that river and the Uralian Chain. 

The first stage of our Asiatic journey was per- 
formed with great difficulty, owing to the depth of 
the sand on the southern bank of the Don ; but, 
as we advanced towards the Volga, the ground 
began to rise, and, being, mixed with clay, af- 
forded a more compact arena, over which we pass- 
ed with increasing velocity. About ten o'clock in 
the morning of the 4th, we gained the grand post- 
road leading from Tamhof to Astrakhan; and 
passing an ancient line of defence, consisting of a 
high earthen wall, with a fosse, and stretching 
across the isthmus, between the Volga and the 
Don^ we entered the beautiful, cultivated country 
about Tzaritzin, intersected by deep woody glens^ 
commencing in the steppe and terminating in the 
Volga. Of this immense river, which we had be- 


fore crossed at Tver, we commanded a noble 
prospect from the heights above the town just 
mentioned ; where, after having previously sent 
off a collateral branch, called the Akhtuba, it di- 
vides into two grand arms, forming the Sar- 
pinskoi island, and, taking a majestic turn, runs 
in a south-east direction towards Astrakhan. The 
precipitous bank on which we stood ; the town and 
fortress of Tzaritzin, at our feet ; the heavy rolling 
waters of the Volga, spread out like a sea before 
us ; the islands, meadows, and woods, by which 
it was variegated ; the far-famed Moravian colony 
of Sarepta^ in the southern distance ; and the ex- 
tensive plains stretching towards the east, pre- 
sented altogether a panorama equally unexpected 
and magnificent. 

In Tzaritzin, which is fortified, and contains 
a population of about 3,000 inhabitants, mostly 
Russians, we dined on excellent sterlet and water- 
melons, which grow here in such abundance, that 
a whole cart-load of them may be purchased for a 
shilling. They are extremely juicy, and as sweet 
as sugar. Being the most refreshing of any fruit 
that grows in hot countries, it cannot be matter of 
surprise that it formed one of those objects of 
keen desire which the Israelites remembered, when 
their soul was " dried away" in the wilderness. 
Num. xi. 5, 6.* 

Having once more procured Russian post- 
horses, we set forward across a deep ravine on the 
west side of the town ; on leaving which, we de-. 

•.Heb. a»n»»3« Cucurbita Citrullus Linn. They still abound 
in Egypt. Sec Gcscn, in voc. 


scended into the narrow plain, extending between 
the Volga and the adjoining heights, which con- 
tinue to follow the direction of the river, till they 
approach the Sarpa, a small stream which- joins 
it at Sarepta ; when they turn round to the south- 
west, and are gradually lost in the steppe. The 
afternoon ' was excessively hot, and we still felt 
greatly fatigued, notwithstanding the refreshment 
we had procured at Tzaritzin ; but there was 
something indescribably soothing in the prospect 
of Sarepta, which beautifully opened on our view 
as we approached it, and inspired us with the de- 
lightful, hope of enjoying a season both of physical 
and spiritual resuscitation. Passing the country- 
seat and village of Otrada, the church and houses 
of which are sweetly surrounded by poplars and 
vineyards, occupying a break in the eminences to 
our right, the road led us near a neat little farm, 
belonging to the Moravians ; and about five 
o*clock we had the pleasure of stepping into the 
Gemein Logie, an excellent inn, fitted up quite in 
the German style. From the time we left the 
capital of the Don Kozaks, we had only slept one 
night in a house, and enjoyed nothing like a regu- 
lar meal; it may therefore be .easily conceived 
how the comforts of polished life were now doubly 
enhanced to us. 

SareptU, so called from the resemblance that 
Scripture name bears to the river Sarpa, on which 
it is situated, wa^ first founded by the Moravian 
Brethren, in the year 1765, in consequence of an 
edict is3ued to that efiect by the Empress Catha- 
rine. Several companies of brethren and sisters 

SAEEPT A. 4 1 1 

having gone out to join the original settlers, the 
number of its inhabitants soon increased, and, in a 
short period, it became a very flourishing colony. 
Its valuable mineral spring, which, was discovered 
at the distance of a few versts from the town, 
proved an additional source of prosperity ; and 
the number of. visiters which resorted thither for 
their health, rendered it necessary to extend the 
establishment far beyond what the Unity originally 
projected. They accordingly erected dwelling- 
houses; mills, tanneries, and distilleries; planted 
orchards, vineyards, and culinary gardens ; and 
brought into operation an extensive system of 
agriculture. The town is regularly laid out ac* 
cording to the plan of the Brethren's towns in 
Germany, with wide streets ; a fine large square, 
with a fountain in the centre ; a capacious place of 
worship^ the houses belonging to the elders, the 
unmarried brethren, sisters, and widows, and those 
occupied by the different families, together with 
the workshops for the different handicrafts carried 
on in the place. Fine tall poplars line the streets, 
aud ornament the square ; and the vineyards and 
gardens give it an appearance most enchanting 
to the eye that has been accustomed to wander in 
vain in quest of a single bush for hundreds of 
versts in the surrounding steppe. 

[This flourishing colony has since been almost 
entirely destroyed by fire.] 

The establishment of a mercantile colony was 
not the primary object of the Brethren. To this 
they submitted only as an unavoidable condition, 
without which they could not effect their design of 


oommeDciiig a series of efforts for the conversum 
of the pagan Kalmuks in the Ticinity. From their 
published accounts, however, it would appear that, 
next to the Nicobar islands, the Sarepta mission 
has been the most unproductive of any they have 
established. With the exception of a £ew girls, 
who '' gave encoura^ng evidences of a work of 
the Spirit of God in their souls,"* and who were 
baptized and admitted into the congregation, they 
do not appear to have made any converts; and, 
indeed, they suspended all missionary labours, till 
the year 1815, when, in consequence of a proposal 
made by Dr. Paterson, they appointed two bre- 
thren, Gottfried Schill and Christopher Heubner, 
to itinerate among the Kalmuks, originally at 
the expense of the London Missionary Society. 
Through the labours of these missionaries, a num- 
ber of that people were brought to embrace the 
Gospel ; but, on their not obtaining permia- 
sion from the Russian Government to baptize 
them, they have again abandoned the mission alto* 

We had here an opportunity of once more 
meeting Mr. and Mrs. Rbamn, who, on account of 
Mrs. R«'s ill health, had been obliged to leave an 
important and interesting field of labour among the 
Buriat tribes, on the lake Baikal, in Siberia. As 
Mr. R. had made considerable progress in acquir- 
ing the Mongolian language during his stay in that 
distant region, he found little difficulty on com- 
mencing his operations among the Kalmuks — their 

• Holines*8 Historical Sketche$, p. 448. 


dialect approximating so very much to that of the 
MoDgolians. We found him busily engaged in 
copying Kalmuk MSS., and constructing a gram- 
mar and lexicon, with a view not only to facilitate 
his own labours, but also to lay a foundation for 
the studies of future missionaries. 

This zealous and devoted servant of Christ, by 
birth a Swede, and a regularly ordained minister 
of the Swedish Church, has since been compelled 
to leave Russia altogether, and is at present resid- 
ing in London, where he is employing his talents 
in endeavouring to recommend the momentous 
concerns of religion to his countrymen, and other 
foreigners to whom he has access. 

Into the Kalmuk language a considerable part 
' of the New Testament has been translated by Mr. 
Schmidt, the Treasurer of the Russian Bible So- 
ciety. whose residence, at a former period, among 
the tribes on the Volga afforded him an oppor- 
tunity of acquiring a knowledge of the language. 
The work is still in progress ; and with the inde- 
pendent efforts of the missionaries in Siberia, 
whose qualifications for the work are of a very 
superior order, and who have undertaken a trans- 
lation of the Old Testament into Mongolian, will, 
it is to be hoped, ere long, furnish the tribes ad- 
dicted to the Lamaic superstition with the means 
of becoming acquainted with divine truth.* 

The proximity of Sarepta to the German co- 
lonies^ planted on the banks of the Folga^ and its 

* For an interesting account of the Kalmuks, see Klaproth'a 
TrtttdB in the CauoiStti and Geotgia, &o. pp. 88—144. • 


connections with the different Kalniuk hordes 
which nomadize in the surrounding steppes, ren- 
dered it highly desirable, that a Branch Bibla 
Society should be established th^re; and we act 
cordingly embraced the opportunity of recomr 
mending the subject to the Bishop and Elders of 
the congregation, and pointing out to them the 
steps it would be. necessary to take in order to 
carry the plan into execution. From the ready 
manner in which they entered into our views, 
we had every reason to conclude that the subject 
would be taken up with zeal. 

Having it in view to institute more particular 
inquiries relative to the Kalmuk nation, language, 
religion, &c. on our return from Persia, we only 
remained in Sarepta till the morning of the 10th, 
when we prosecuted our journey towards Astra- 
khan, the route lying sometimes close to the high 
bank of the Volga, and sometimes at a consider* 
able distance back in the steppe. With the 
exception of the two fortified towns, Tchemciar 
and Jenotatevsk, and now and then a Russian 
village, the inhabitants of which chiefly gain their 
livelihood by fishing, we met notliing to relieve the 
eye to our right but Kalmuk tents and herds, 
or, at distant intervals, a small solitary hut covered 
with mats, in the fields appropriated to the growth 
of the water-melon, which forcibly reminded us of 
the deserted state of Zion, compared by the pro- 
phet to a lodge in a Jield of cucumbers. Is. i. 8. On 
the left we had generally a pleasant prospect of 
the Volga, here rolling on in one niajestic stream, 
there divided into numerous branches, the banks 

ATEI.. 415 

of which, and the beautiful islands they form, 
being covered either with wood, or the richest 
vegetation, presented a very exhilarating and 
delightful prospect. Sometimes the postillions 
drive along the hard sand within the high bank 
of the river; but we found it extremely dangerous, 
the left wheels of the carriage frequently approach- 
ing within a couple of inches of the water, which, 
although clear, discovered no bottom. 

About twelve versts to the north of Astrakhan, 
we passed the ruins of an ancient city, in all pro- 
bability JItet, part of the famous metropolis of 
Khazarki, from which the name was transferred to 
the Volga, and is the only one by which it is still 
known to the Turks. These ruins lie scattered in 
numerous heaps on a gentle eminence of consider- 
able extent, and have likely been still more ex- 
tensive, previous to the encroachments of the 
river, which appears to have washed away a con- 
siderable part of them. Our attention was first 
attracted to them by the discovery of bones, 
fragments of pottery, &c. projecting through 
the perpendicular bank of sand by which the 
river is bounded. It has been surrounded by 
an earthen wall, the remains of which are still 
distinctly visible, especially towards the south- 
west, where the place has received an accession 
of strength from a small lake which here stretches 
to a" short distance in a westerly direction. 

According to the Arabic authors, Ibn-Foszlan 
and Ibn-Haukal, in Jakut's Geographical Lexicon, 
the city was divided by the river into two parts; 
that on the eastern bank being chiefly occupied by 


Mohammedans and the merchants who resorted 
thither for purposes of trade ; whereas the west^n 
division formed the residence of the king and 
his courtiers, and was garrisoned by a strong body 
of military. The royal palace stood at some 
distance back from the river, and the entrance to 
this part of the city, which was surrounded by 
.a wall,, was by two gates, one towards the river, 
and the other towards the steppe. The Khazars^ 
of whose country Atel formed the metropolis, 
are celebrated in history on account of their wars,* 
or alliances with the Greeks and Russians on the 
one hand, and the Persians and Arabs on the 
other. In the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries, 
they appear *to have been in possession of the 
whole extent of the ancient Sarmatian plains, from 
the Black to the Caspian Sea, and from the Don, 
as their general boundary towards the north, to 
the iron gates of Derbend, which pass was repaired 
by Anushirvan, or Chosroes, in order to senre as a 
. bulwark against their incursions into Persia. Be- 
sides Atel, they had three other principal cities, 
Belenjer, Semiender, and ChamUgCy situated be- 
tween the mouth of the Volga and the southern 
frontier of the kingdom. Of these the second still 
exists, and is known by the name of Endery, 
exhibiting at this day a specimen of the same 
diversity of population for which the Khazarian 
kingdom was distinguished. 

What creates a peculiar degree of interest in 
regard to this people, is the circumstance of their 
being subject to a series of Jewish kings, a perficct 
anomaly in the history of the Jews. It is well 


known to the learned, that Buxtorf published a 
Hebrew work, accompanied with a Latin transla- 
tion, entitled, Sepher Cosri, purporting to contain 
a detailed account of certain disputations between 
the king of the Khazars and a Jew, on the subject 
of religion, which issued in the conversion of the 
king and a great part of the nation to Judaism. 
The whole has been treated as a fiction; but a 
more intimate acquaintance with the history of 
this people, as given by the Arabic writers, has 
put it beyond a doubt, that whatever there may 
foe of the fictitious in the book, it was originatedby 
a knowledge of the various circumstances con« 
nected with the history and geography of these 
regions, which we cannot easily conceive it possi- 
ble for the Jews of the west to have been possessed 
of, except on the supposition of some such inter- 
course as that described in the preface. It is 
true, their learned Rabbins were conversant with 
Arabic literature, and may have read the accounts 
of the KLhazarian kingdom; but the whole state- 
ment bears a stamp so completely different from 
the common style of their writings, at the same 
time that it agrees with fact, that we must regard 
it as drawn from an altogether independent source. 
King Joseph, the thirteenth in the succession of 
Jewish kings, describes his kingdom, and the 
place of his residence, in a manner strongly corro- 
borative of the testimonies of the writers above 
referred to. He specifies the number of cities 
to be three^ but states, that the one he resided 
in was smaller in size, that it was situated near 
the entrances of the river (nnjn nit^an hi), and that 


the river passed through between its walls, which 
implies the &ct stated by Ibn-Foszlan, that it was 
built on both sides of the Volga.* 

Though the greater number of this people were 
Mohammedans and Christians, yet they suffered 
their king to profess the Jewish religion; and^ 
as was naturally to be expected, his courtiers were 
addicted to the same faith. Multitudes of idolaters 
also abounded in Khazaria; but the professors of 
the different religions seem to have exercised a 
greater degree of toleration towards each other, 
than might be expected in such a remote state 
of society. The royal title of the monarch was 
that of Chakan, who, by a singular law, was never 
permitted to reign more than forty years. If he 
lived a day longer, the CQurtiers and citizens 
conspired to put him to death. According to Ibn* 
Haukal, when a new king, or viceroy was elected, 
a process of strangling was commenced with him, 
during which he was asked, how many years he 
wished to preside over the affairs of the kingdom ; 
and whatever period he specified in the agony 
of death, was immediately registered, and witnesses 
taken, so that when he reached it, he was not 
only obliged to lay aside hb office, but to surr 
render life itself, probably with the view of pre- 
venting him from making any use of his aequain* 
tance with public affidrs to the detriment of his 

With respect to their language, it has been 
generally affirmed, that it was a dialect of the 

* Liter Com, BaflilM, 1660. i. pm& 


Turkish, but Ibn-Foszlan expressly declares that 
the language of the Khazars not only differed 
from that of the Turks, but that it had nothing 
in common with the language of any other people.* 
From Professor Frahn, who is at present engaged 
in an elaborate investigation of the subject, some- 
thing decisive may, ere long, be expected by the 

On the 13th we obtained a full view of Astra** 
khan, rising before us on the opposite side of the 
river, the churches and spires of which, upwards 
of thirty in number, naturally confirmed the ideas 
we had previously formed of its importance and 
extent. As we approached it^ other large buildings 
crowded into the prospect, but nothing looked so 
attractive as a beautiful monastery, most roman-» 
tically situated on a small tongue of wooded land, 
projecting in a simicircular form into the river. 
At the ferry the river is nearly three versts in 
breadth, and presents an exceedingly busy scene, 
the Tatars and Kalmucks, who live on the west 
side, being coiUinually passing and repassing; 
About 12 o'clock, we reached the bouse of the 
Scottish Mis$ionary Society, where we met with 
the kindest reception from all the families, soom 
of the heads of which we had known before leav«- 
ing our native country in 1806, and others we had 
aeen in St. Peteraburgb, on their way to this town. 

* Iba^FowElim, p. 585. 

K £ 2 


Hisiary of the Karass Twrkish New Testament— Difficultiet 
impeding its exeeutiom — Its Character and Dialed — SMbse* 
quent Imprestianf — Orenlmrgh Tatar Verstan^^IHdktan^s 
Turkish Versionr^MartpCs Persic New Testamemi— Glen's 
Persic Psalms — Scottish Mission, 

It was with feelings of no ordinary interest that 
the author entered the gates of Astrakhan. Fop 
nearly three years his attention had been directed 
to that town, as the centre of an important sphere 
of Biblical operations; his furniture and library 
had been forwarded from St. Petersburgh the 
preceding summer, and commodious rooms in the 
Mission-house had been kindly allotted for his 
residence. He was, therefore, naturally aasious 
to turn his temporary stay in the place to the best 
possible account, by inye8tigating[ the state and 
character of its inhabitants, and the iiacilities which 
might be presented for the attainment of his object^ 
by the connections established between them and 
the inhabitants of different parts of Asia; * bot 
he had not been more than two or three days in 
the town, when he was again attacked vrith the 
ague, from which he was bat just convalescent. 
With the exception of a visit, which, in company 
with his fellow-traveller, and their mutual friend. 


Mr. Mitchell, he paid to the vineyard of the 
Archbishop, whither they were conveyed, after 
dining with his Grace, he scarcely left the walls 
of the Mission-house during the period of his stay. 

The subjects which principally engaged our 
attention, were those relating to the translation 
and circulation of the Scriptures in the Turkish 
and Persic languages. 

Excepting the Turkish New Testament, pub* 
lished by Seaman, in 1666, and certain parts of 
the same reprinted at Halle about the beginning 
of last century, no other portions of the Sacred 
Volume made their appearance in that language, 
till the exertions of the Scottish Missionaries at 
Karass were brought to bear on the important 
object of difiusing the light of Divine Truth among 
the deluded followers of Mohammed. These ex* 
ertions were commenced by Mr. Henry Brunton, 
who having previously spent some time in the 
west of Africa, had acquired a knowledge of the 
Arabic, and was thereby, to a certain extent, 
prepared for the field which he was afterwards 
sent to cultivate, in the vicinity of the Caucasus. 
He had only been two years at Karass, when his 
knowledge of the Turkish was so matured, as 
to warrant his undertaking a translation of the 
New Testament into that language. In executing 
this work, Mr. B. received considerable assistance 
from the version of Seaman, which may, indeed^ 
be said to form the ground- work of his translation ; 
but he had his eye constantly on the Greek Text, 
and diligently consulted the English, German, and 


such other translaticHis as were accessible in the 
peculiar circumstances in which he was placed. 

It is impossible to take into consideration the 
next to insuperable difficulties with which the 
translator and his brethren had to contend, without 
feeling convinced, that, as it originated in the 
suggestions of tiiat Divine Agent who worketh 
inwardly in his servants, directing them to the 
suitable application of their talents, so it was 
accomplished by the special aid of his grace, in 
order to form the basis of a series of operations, 
which are, no doubt, destined one day to eradicate 
the noxious weeds of Mohammedan growth, and 
supply their place with <' the trees of righteous- 
ness, the planting of the Lord, that he may be 
glorified." The place at which he was stationed, 
the character of the surrounding tribes, the un- 
settled state of public affairs, the distance to which 
the Missionaries were removed from the necessary 
materials of typographical labour, the embarrass^ 
ments in which they were frequently involved, 
and the limited and continually interrupted inter- 
vals of time, which could be devoted to the work, 
all tend to excite our admiration of the manner of 
its execution. The houses erected in the colony 
were by no means of a substantial or comfortable 
nature; and the printing-office in particular was 
so superficially constructed, that during the frost 
in winter, a trough of water, used for wetting the 
paper, though placed close to the stove, froze into 
a solid mass in the course of twenty-four hours, 
and all the iron -work of the press was white with 


frost. The cold prevented the ink from spreading 
properly, owing to which and similar causes^ the 
execution of the press-work was very indifferent. 
Being often alarmed by the Tcherkessians, the 
Bfissionaries were obliged to secure the types 
by interring them. Add to this, that the workmen 
were continually changing, so that they never rose 
higher than learners ; and it may safely be affirmed, 
that there never was an edition of the New Testa* 
menty or of any other book, carried through the 
press under such a multitude of untoward cir- 
cumstances. The invaluable Missionary, Mr. 
John Mitchell, who conducted the printing, after 
adverting to these difficulties, adds, '' It is wonder- 
ful that we were able to accomplish it at all. Let 
us give the praise to God» who in bis adorable 
providence enabled us to go through with itl*' 

In the summer of 1 807, an edition of five han* 
dred copies of the Gospel of Matthew left the 
Karass press. It is printed in folio, and the paper 
being blue, it presents rather an uncommon ap* 
pearance. A specimen of it having been forwarded 
to Britain, it was submitted to the Committee of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society; which^ 
after its being examined by the Rev. Dr. Clarke, 
voted a grant of a fount of types to the Mission* 
aries, and a quantity of paper, sufficient to print 
5,000 copies of the whole New Testament. 

On receiving information of this grant, the 
MissiiHiaries deemed it advisable not to proceed 
any further with the printing of the edition in 
the iblio size, but began the Gospel of Mark in 
octavo, and after completing the remaining books. 


reprinted the Gospel of Matthew. Mr. Bruntfin 
lived to finish the translation, but the reprintiDg 
of Matthew was only commenced, when he waa 
seized with an ilhiess which terminated in his 
death. The correction of the press now devolved 
on Mr. Frazer, who made such alterations in the 
text as were deemed necessary to make it corres*^ 
pond with that adopted in other parts of the 
volume. These alterations chiefly related to the 
division of the text into verses, according to a plan 
laid down by the translator, which differed con- 
siderably from that on which the vulgar division is 

The edition appeared in 1813, and the copies 
soon obtained an extensive circulation among the 
Tatars inhabiting the southern provinces of the 
Russian empire. It is to this New Testament 
that the name of Nogcd has been given; and 
I must here acknowledge, that before commencing 
the study of the Turkish language, I was induced 
thus to apply it. My visit to Karass^ however, 
and a slight comparison of the different dialects, 
convinced me, that the dialect in which this 
version is written, is very different from that 
spoken by the Nogai Tatars. It is, indeed, per- 
fectly intelligible to them, and though differing 
from their colloquial language, is precisely in the 
style of such books as are to be found in cir- 
culation among the Tatars in the south of Russia. 
It was not designed by the translator to exhibit 
the peculiarities of any Tatar dialect, but to form 
a kind of medium between the more elevated 
Turkish^ and that spoken by the Tatars. It was 


aeeordingly founds that whea inquiries were made 
of people of the different tribes respecting it, some 
said it was good Turkish, others that it was the 
Tatar spoken at Kazan, and others, that it was 

Of the difference existing between the style of 
the New Testament, and the dialect in use among 
the Nogais, I received the most couTincing proof, 
from a sermon which I heard preached to a con* 
gr^fation, composed partly of people of that ex- 
traction, and who spoke the language. Many of 
the words and phrases, which were quite familiar 
to me as existing in the version^ I scarcely found 
it possible to recognize, in the new garb with 
which they were clothed in a popular discourse. 

It may only be necessary farther to observe 
here, that the New Testament in question has 
sometimes been called the Turkish, and sometimes 
the Tatar New Testament. Tatar is, in fact, 
nothing else but Turkish^ as spoken by those tribes 
which are generally known by the name of Tatars. 
How different soever the dialects in use among 
them may be, they give to them all the general 
name of Turki; and the language, as existing 
among these tribes, is much purer than as spoken 
at Constantinople: i.e. it is not so inundated 
by Arabic and Persic words. The version of 
the New Testament, consisting chiefly of such 
words as belong in common to Turks and Tatars, 
has of late been more generally, and perhaps 
with greater propriety, designated, the Tatar- 

Of this versioD, two subsequent editions have 


appeared at Astrakhan, whitlier the printing-pfws 
had been removed on the establishment of a new 
mission here in the year 1815. The former of the 
two is little else but a reprint of that published at 
Karass; such alterations as were introduced , by 
Mr. John Dickson, who edited it, are to be viewed 
simply in the light of a few partial amendments, 
made without entering into any critical investiga- 
tion of the texU The typographical execution of 
the work bears evident marks of improvement in 
the circumstances of the mission ; 5,000 copies 
' were printed on this occasion. 

The other edition, published in 1 820, was pre* 
pared by Mr. Charles Frazer, who, in revising the 
translation, has accommodated the language to 
the orthography and idiom of the Kirghisian 
Tatars, in the vicinity of Orenburgh, from which 
circumstance it is commonly called the Orenburgh- 
Tatar New Testament. The impression con- 
sisted of 5,000 copies. 

In the course of the correspondence carried on 
between Dr. Paterson and the Missionaries, a 
translation of the Old Testament, to correspond 
with that of the New, naturally became the subject 
of discussion; and, as Mr. Dickson had made 
great progress in the acquirement of the Turkish 
language, it was strougly recommended to him 
to undertake it. To this proposal he acceded, and 
in the course of some time, prepared a version of 
the Psalms, Job, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the 
Song of Solomon, and a considerable part of the 

Of the Psalms in this version, two editions 


hare left the Astrakhan press : the first in 1-615, 
consisting of 1,000 copies; and the second in 
1818, consisting of 3,000. 

There have, besides, been prbted, at the same 
press, the Gospel of Luke^ in an editicm of 6,000 
copies, in the year 1816 ; 2,000 copies of the Gos- 
pel of Matthew, in the Orenburgh Tatar, in 1818 ; 
and in 1819, 2,000 copies of the Book pf Genesis, 
principally taken from the Crimean Karaite MS., 
but having the order and construction of the 
words, in some measure, altered to suit the Tatar 

Besides these copies of the Scriptures pre- 
pared by the missionaries, and put into circulation 
among the Mohammedans in these parts, they 
have published and circulated a prodigious num- 
ber of catechisms and tracts, forming, with the 
Scriptures, a total of more than 100,000 copies. 

For some years past, Mr. Dickson, who has 
become quite familiar with the work of transla- 
tion, has been engaged in preparing an edition 
of the entire Scriptures, in the Tatar-Turkish lan- 
guage, in a style somewhat more polished than 
that employed in the version of Mr. Brunton. 
Having obtained such parts of the Turkish ver- 
sion of Ali Bey* as had left the press at Berlin 
and Paris, he conceived that, rejecting the in- 

* For an account of this yersion, eee the authoi^a *' Appeal 
to the Members of the British and Foreign Bible Society,'* Sec. 
London, Holdsworth, 1824, 8vo.; and *• The Turkish New 
Testament incapable of defence, and the True Principles of Bib- 
lical Translation vindicated ; in Answer to Professor Lee's Re« 
marks. Sic. By the Author of the Appeal." Rivingtons, X925, 


verted and circumlocutory forms^ the pompooB 
and high-sounding phrases, and the profusion of 
Arabic and Persic words, introduced by that trans- 
lator, correcting the errors with which the version 
abounds, and employing such words only as wouhl 
be easily understood by the Tatars, he could ele- 
vate the style of his translation a few degrees 
above that made at Karass, and give it more the 
torn and air of a native production, than it was 
possible on any other plan. Of this version, which 
does great credit to the abilities of Mr. Dickson, 
the New Testament, and a considerable portion of 
the Old, is printed ; but no part of it has yet been 
published. In making it, Mr. D. has availed him- 
self of Walton's Polyglott, the most approved mo- 
dem versions, and such lexicons, and other cri- 
tical aids, as are in highest repute both in Britain 
and on the Continent of Europe. 

Next to making provision for the supply of the 
Biblical wants of the Tatars, no object appeared of 
greater importance than the procuring of the same 
boon for the Persians, who, in considerable num- 
bers, frequent Astrakhan, and other parts in the 
south of Russia. It is true, an edition of Henry 
Martyn's Persic version of the New Testament had 
been printed at St. Petersburgh, specifically with 
the view of meeting this case ; but the egregious 
blunders with which it abounded, and the general 
incorrectness of its execution, had led the Mis- 
sionaries to hesitate whether they could consci- 
entiously proceed in distributing the copies that 


bad been forwarded to them for that purpose. 
The result of an impartial investigation, on their 
part, and that of the Swiss Missionaries, induced 
the Committee of the Russian Bible Society. to 
order the remaining copies of the impression to be 
suppressed; it being found that many passages 
were exhibited in a manner the most blasphemous 
and absurd imaginable. It is but justice, how- 
ever, to the character of Henry Mart]^ to state, 
that, having carefully collated these passages m 
the Petersburgh edition, with the edition of the 
same translation taken from the MS. forwarded 
from Shiraz to India, and printed at Calcutta, 
in 1816, 1 only find one of the faults, and that one 
of minor importance, occasioned by a transposition 
of letters in one of the words. 

Not being aware that any Persic version of tiie 
Old Testament was likely &oon to make its ap* 
pearance in India, and feeling perfectly assured 
that there existed no person in Russia whose 
talents, and habits of study, better fitted him for 
the task than the Rev. William Glen, we strongly 
recommended the subject to the attention of that 
gentleman, after his return from the Crimea ; and 
ultimately succeeded in prevailing upon him to un* 
dertake a version of the Psalms. In preparing 
this version, Mr. G.'s first business was to give 
a literal version of the Hebrew text, which be sub- 
mitted to his Persian teacher, explaining to him 
the sense intended to be conveyed, when be found 
it obscure, aad pointing out the shades of meaning 
suggested by the original, in cases where he was 
aware the Persic word served rather to convey the 

430 scomsH Missroiv. 

general import of the proposition^ than the images 
presented to the mind in the Hebrew. When this 
was done, the teacher was requested to give as 
literal a representation of the sense as it was 
practicahle for him to furnish in classical Persk: ; 
selecting, in general, words in common use, whea 
they gave the sense, in preference to such as were 
scarcely known, except among the learned* la 
revising the translation, Mr. G. endeavoured to 
introduce greater uniformity in the raidering of 
words of frequent occurrence, than was found 
practicable in preparing the first copy. His grand 
aim was, as much as possible^ to combine the 
literal with the classical. 

A copy of this version having been forwarded 
to the Russian Bible Society, it was submitted to 
the opinion of the Baron Silvestre de Sacy ; but 
before any communication could be received from 
him on the subject, the active exertions of that 
Society had become paralyzed, and, for the pre** 
sent, no measures can be adopted for the [printing 
of tiie version. It is with pleasure^ however, I 
observe that the Committee of the British and Fo* 
reign Bible Society repose that confidence in Mr. 
Glen's abilities to which they justly entitle him^ 
having engaged him to proceed with the trans* 
lation of the whole Old Testament into the Persic 

As noticed above, a branch of the Scottish 
Misrion was commenced in Astrakhan in the year 
1S15. It consisted at first of Messrs. Dickson 


and MitchelU with their families ; but was after- 
wards augmented by the arrival of Messrs. Glen, 
Ross, Macpherson, and Selbie. Their field of 
labour lay partly among the Tatars residing in the 
suburbs, or in the villages, in the vicinity of the 
town, and partly among the Persians resortiog 
to Astraklum for purposes of trade. The reeef)- 
tion they met with from the Tatars was far from 
encouraging* Sometimes they found few of the 
inhabitants at home ; ^t others, those whom they 
did meet would scarcely listen to them. Some* 
times they treated their message with mockery 
and scom ; hooted them with the utmost rudeness, 
and ordered them away. But, on other occasions, 
they listened with considerable attention ; and 
some, who visited Mr. Dickson, acquired a pretty 
extensive acquaintance with the doctrine and pre* 
cepts of the New Testament, though they still ap* 
peared as firm as ever in dieir bdief of the doc- 
trines and precepts of the Koran.* 

Their labours among the Persians seemed, for 
some time, much more promising ; and the conver* 
sum of the noble Persian, Alexander Kaasem Bey^ 
has greatly tended to stimulate them to persevering 
exertions among that people. It must give every 
aincere friend of the Gospel much delight to 
learn that, according to the most recent accounts, 
that convert remains steady in his attachment to 
Christy and is making rapid progress in the know- 
ledge and experience of divine things. 

* Brown's HisUiry of the Pft>piigaao» of Chmtkohy . Vol n. 
p. 621. 


The house purchased by the Scottish Mission- 
ary Society, and occupied by its Missionaries^ 
is situated on the west side of the grand square, 
and is, beyond comparison, the best looking house 
in Astrakhan. It was built by a Greek, and dia* 
posed of by him to the Society, on the most ad- 
VSantageous terms. The ground and first floors are 
occupied by the Missionaries, and the third sup- 
plies room for the domestic chapel and school. 
In the former of these, public worship is held 
every Lord's day, and all the members of the 
missionary family assemble in it for worship every 
evening during die week. Several of the children 
had made considerable progress in the Persic and 
Tatar languages, and some specimens that they 
shewed us of Persic caligraphy were exceedingly 

It is certainly cause of deep regret, that the 
Directors of the Edinburgh Missionary Society 
should have come to the determination of partially, 
if not entirely, abandoning Astrakhan as a mis- 
sionary station. Their want of success has been 
very discouraging; but if certain causes, which 
have hung as a dead weight on their missions in 
Russia, could be effectually removed, and more 
vigorous measures brought into operation, there 
are, perhaps, few places which present greater 
facilities for missionary labour than that town. 
Of this the Basle Society seem, in some measure, 
to be aware, and are sending out labourers into 
that quarter. May their efforts be crowned with 
an abundant blessing ! 

!• " ♦. • » 







A. * 

• »' 

k • 





J^mmey from Atirakhan to Karau — Atirakhan Stepp^^Sali 
Lahi»^Kara Nogai Taiart—Bed of the Kuma^Kizliat— 
\ Ymafmrd$-^lnteefiiriiif of the JnhabUante — KvtUar Sieppe^^ 

Jfagy mV o i ■ Na&r — Mozdoh — Jekaierimograd'- Soldatihau 
Cancatian Mowfiam$ — Chorgiewk — Arrioe ai Koran* 

The author having sufficiently recovered to admit 
of our proceeding on our journey, we left Astra- 
khan on the 2d of September, accompuiied bv 
several of our kind friends ^rom the Mission- 
house^ and after seating ourselves once more in 
the carriage, which was waiting our arrival on the 
opposite bank of the f^olga, we proceeded in a 
south-westerly direction, along a number of sipall 
ridges, on both sides of which are inlets of the 
river, or pools of stagnant water, which are left in 
the low grounds when the river subsides in spring. 
Passing a number of salt-lakes, we came to one 
near the Tatar village of Kurutchkina, which ap- 
peared as if covered with snow or ice. It is very 
productive; and the salt which had been taken 
from it we found piled up in large pyramids, dose 
to the road. They are covered with earth, to 
prevent injury from the weather ; and aire - de* 

F F 


fended from the rapacity of thieves by centinels^ 
or watchmen, at different distances from each 
other. At the third station, we saw some beauti- 
ful objects of chrystalized salt, formed by deposit- 
ing figures in wood within the margin of the lake. 

From this places the whole way to KizUar, we 
had Kalmuk or Tatar drivers, who were by no 
means inferior to the Russians in the discharge of 
their duty ; but their horses were generally in a 
miserable plight^ and, the country bei^g in isany 
ploces feaody, we did not mate that pi^dgress wdiich 
we expected. The post-houses are better than 
we met with in most parts of the interior ; and^ 
with the exception of a few Tarakans, or domestic 
beetles, which we found at one or two of the sta- 
tmb» wt ic^raerved ndne of fibose veimin by wiacli 
im hAd ibftea 'SO much annoyed tm the preceding 
pttrtiof tmc journey. ]>ai;ing the whole course ti£ 
the Tdtte gust ^apeeified^ vo houses, besides thaae 
beloftgiiig 4o the post, were visible. To tiie tmrth 
of the ancient bed of 'the Kntna, the eteppe -consmts 
of tndkbfa^g bnt arid and literile steppes, ttbemnd^ 
llig with 'BMdy kM% n&ny of wfaiioh wbsb ibnndng 
kjf the violent east wind which blew as wie passed* 
and iciseni^elely ffitled tip the K)ad, thai;, in many 
jpkaottkt fit was wkh 4he iitmcaat difficnby. we .pna«- 
tseeded. To tiro siHstb^ wie encomttered onby a iew 
•of these eaady liidges^ &e ^steppe gnidindly im^ 
prered; and 'dw view, ^ifhteh had hmg been inue- 
fewd 'by tbe tapfteavande of lany tiving oihgoota, 
wah ndw ^bligfated ^ the aDtmnftnoais ^ecks mfl 
dtecds fbelongiiigte ike JGnta^ txr JBlack. Nipgai His- 
-tws, isie of mhoae ^encampiDeBt^, consifikHig tof 


^hol^ fifty Jcibitkies, or fi|0Mjde«, we left aJt die 
disjtauKGfe of }x9lf a yexc^t to th.e left. Of these 
Tatars, nearly 20,000 Qoqtiadize in the steppes to 
tfi§ north of Ki^liar and Mozdo]^ ; and nearly as 
i^oy Trukmanns frequent those between the Kuma 
and Mantish. Why these people are called Kara 
Kogais yife could not learn. Their visage does 
Qot exhibit a more sable hue than that of the other 
tribes ; but as they are regarded as the inost un- 
cultivated of all the Tatars, the name may have 
originated in the circumstance, that, in Turkish, 
the lower orders are called Karen Judk, or '' the 
black people/' 

JA;i4g;ing froo^ our maps, we .expected to have 
h^ to cross several branches of the Kuma ; but, 
9yi;i ^rriviijig at the spot, we .were agreeably sur^ 
prised to fyoA, that iv;^ river of this name is any 
lo^g^er known to exist in that quarter. We were 
sh^wn, qlpse to tl;ie ppst-statioji Kumskaia, the 
cb^nel in which tJivait jiver ainciently flowed ; but, 
fp^ a great i^umber of years, it has disappeared 
to 4he distsud^ pf mqre .th^n -a hundred versts back 
Ml tJ^p steppe. 1 

On our j^rrival at J^firoz^iwhoia, we found it 
9^$^sf^^ 4o ti^rn :0ff the road leading to Mazdok, 
990 ^iye intp Kis^liaryyf)»ch is fifteen versts distant, 
ifx 9X^ef t9 procure 0;9W thetCo^snandant an order 
^j^n^cort.qf ^zaks, at suoh places ak>ng the 
T^eft /as .sure considered moat exposed to attacks 
from <jhe Cauca^isA freebooters on its opposite 
^mlk. B^one reaching tiie town, we had to cdqss 
l^wo {Smf^l l^ianohes of this ; Hie ferry-boat 
Hi, 4he laU^r of ??vhich conaist€id of. deals thtown 

F F 2 


across four small boats, made of the trunks of 
trees hollowed out, and rounded so as to answer 
the purpose to which they were appropriated. 
Close to the ferry, we noticed a mill built on two 
rafts, and driven by the current, which seems to 
be a plan well adapted to rivers like the Terek at 
this place, where there is no fall, and which are 
liable to rise and subside at irregular periods. 
The road now led us through the midst of vine- 
yards, of which there are not fewer than twelve 
hundred around the town ; but the discovery that 
their proprietors, as well as the day-labourers em- 
ployed in cultivating them, had each a musket 
slung over his shoulder, forcibly conveyed to our 
minds an idea of our being in very different cir- 
cumstances from those promised in Scripture, in 
which '' every man shall sit under his vine, (md 
under his fig-tree, and none shall make him 
afraid." Micah iv. 4, Our driver pointed out se- 
veral places to the right, through which the free- 
booters from the Caucasus not unfrequently make 
incursions to the north of the Terek. A great 
part of the country about Kizliar being covered 
with high reeds, it abounds with lurking-places, 
whence the robbers rush forth, and carry off both 
men and horses in broad day-light. Owing to the 
lowuess of its site, and the numerous poplars and 
other trees abounding in the gardens^ the town 
was not visible till we came close to it. On en- 
tering it, our first object was to secure lodgings ; 
but we found this a matter of greater difficulty 
than we had anticipated. After waiting some 
tinte in the street, we were obliged to apply to 

KIZUAR. 437 

the Master of Police ; but he was not at home, 
and there was do person in his office. We nejct 
called at the house of the principal Russian priest, 
but he also was invisible. The Commandant, too, 
was out of town, on a visit to his vineyard. In 
short, every person we could at all think of as 
being likely to assist us was absent. At last, we . 
found out one of the subordinate police-offices, 
and prevailed on a Georgian, who was connected 
with it, to ride off in search of quarters. After 
sitting an hour in our carriage, in the middle of 
the street, in addition to one we had already 
spent previous to this stage of our progress, we 
had the satisfaction of receiving intelligence that 
he had found accommodations for us, and immedi- 
ately repaired to the house of an Armenian, on 
whom we had been billeted. The landlord was 
absent, and his good lady did not seem pleased, 
at first, that the police had ordered her to receive 
us ; but a little conversation soon brought her 
into good humour. On learning that we came 
from England, she made the sign of the cross; 
but whether it was to try if we would make it 
after her, and thereby prove to her that we were 
Christians, or merely to express her surprise at 
seeing Englishmen for the first time, we did not 
ascertain. Her husband and sons returned in the 
evening, and, with the rest of the family, shewed 
us every mark of kindness and hospitality. 

The town of Kizliar is built almost entirely in 
the Asiatic style. The houses are constructed of 
wattles covered with dried mud. The roefs consist 
of the same material. Few of the houses have any 


windows tdwsirds the street; liidc^d ntme; btit 
such as belong to Individuals who hive lived with 
Europeans, and have tasted some of the sweetb 
of European liberty. Most of the latter deScriJ>- 
tion belong tb Armenians ; but thbir houises^ which 
are built of Ivood, come very high, as they are 
obliged to procure the wood froni Astrakhan, tb 
which town it is floated down the Volga and other 
riviers, frbni thb regions in which it grovt^s. The 
town is divided into three parts ; the town prbper, 
the fortress, and the suburbs. The town itself 
comprises eight minor divisions, i;vhich are in- 
habited by the following eight classes : Arttie- 
niahs, Georgians, Mohammedan Nogais, baptized 
Nogais, Kozaks, Kalmuks, Kazan-Tatars, and Cir^ 
cdssians. The entire population amounts to nearly 
9,000, of which about 1,600 are Tatiairs. Thfe 
fortress is regularly constructed, and capable of 
resisting any attack that may be made upon it 
by the mountaineers. 

Having obtained from the Coinihandaht an 
Otkriti list, or *' open order" for Kozaks to escort 
us along the frontiers, we left Kizliar the following 
day about 'noon. Between the first and second 
stations, our driver, who proved to be a kind xX 
half-witted Tatar, completely missed the track; 
and it was not till after we had driven backward and 
forward for nearly two hoiirs, that we again fell iA 
with it. The detention hereby occasioned thtev^ 
us so late, that we were obliged to stop, at the 
first station we afterwards came to, as we did not 
deem it advisable to expose ourselves to aberi'd- 
tions in the steppe, especially as we were so con- 


t^fuottft to th« moimtains of tlie Oaucwua. While 
eoftlriviog how to ap^id the night at the stsitiM, 
yM€k merely eowiated of a low and filthy auh^ 
t«rraiieotiB room, the Kosak who was statioDed 
to keep order among the driven, and praewe 
the neeesnry eeeort to travellers, made his apr 
pearaaoe with a small tent, which he eontrired 
to erect, by fasteniag it between the two hiad 
wheels of our carriage, and those of one of the 
common post-carts, so as to keep it in a state 
of complete distension above us. Being greatly 
annoyed by mosquitos, we endeavoured, as quieki 
ly as possible, te retire from their attacks ; but we 
1^ scarcely lain down, when we found that a 
number had been admitted into the tent while our 
servant was making our beds. These we at first 
tried to get rid of by singeing them with a candle, 
and th6a by filling our. tent with the fumes of 
tobacco; and succeeded so well by this latter ex^ 
pedient, that, after placing oqr muskets between 
the beds, and our pistols under our beads, we 
efideavoared to compose ourselres to sleep. Jn 
about half an hour, howe¥er, a German traveller 
was announced^ as desirous of an inverview with 
«s ; tsid, while we left our tents for a iittle, tjhe 
tmwbBT of mosquitoe that were admitted WM m 
great, that we Iband it utterly imposeible :tp steep j 
so that, after having been sadly tormewted J^y 
their bites till about ofte o'clock in the morning, 
we were obliged (o get up, and ;set Co^SDd on 
<eur gomntey. Our faces wane swelled to jm feo.orr 
moos vsize, and the |aan ^occasioned by tlie kii^ 
was .exoesMve. 

440 NAUR. 

The road led us through a vast number of 
sandy hills, with here and there some scanty 
patches of vegetation, on which we found eidier 
Kalmuk or Nogai tents, and, in the immediate 
vicinity, extensive fields of water-melons. On 
approaching NoAr, the sandy hiUs began to disap- 
pear ; and when within a few versts of that place, 
we came to a descent, which conducted us into a 
level country stretching along. the left bank of 
the Terek, and which seemed to consist of excel- 
lent soil ; but, to judge from the numerous tumuli, 
and remains of ancient fastnesses, that are scat- 
tered over its surface, it must have been more 
celebrated for warfare and battle, than the cultiva- 
tion of the agricultural arts. 

We had been given to understand that Naiir 
was defended by a regular fortification; but, on 
reaching it, we found it consisting merely of a 
large stanitza, or village of Kozaks, surrounded by 
a low earthen wall, and a ditch not exceeding in 
size those generally used for inclosures. We here 
obtained two Kozaks to escort us to the next sta- 
tion, where we lodged all night in the house of a 
Kozak. On our left flowed the Terek, in a wind- 
ing direction; and on our right ran a regular line 
of heights, which evidently follow the sinuosities 
of the river, and appear to have served as posts 
for piquets, or small fortresses, along the Sarmatian 
frontiers, which it was necessary to guard against 
the predatory incursions for which the tribes im 
habiting the opposite mountains have been noto* 
rious from the most ancient times. Numerous 
hills, or small circular mounts, are also visible on 


the aouth side of the river ; but, owing to the dis- 
tance, it was impossible to determine whether 
they had been raised for a similar purpose, or whe- 
ther they were merely sepulchral monuments, of 
which a great abundance are scattered, in all di- 
rections, in the vicinity of the regular chain of 
heights that have just been described. 

The following morning we proceeded, under 
protection of the necessary escort, to Mozdpk, 
which we reached a little past nine o'clock ; and, 
having procured a fresh order for Kozaks, set off 
without delay towards Georgievsk, purposing to 
revisit Mozdok on our way to Georgia. In order 
to render ourselves as secure as possible, we 
joined company with a Russian officer, who was 
travelling. in the same direction, by which means 
we had the protection of his Kozaks, as well as our 
own. The afternoon being fine, and the road good, 
we advanced as far as Soldatskaia, the third station 
beyond Mozdok. On our way, we passed the 
town of Jekaterinograd, which is strongly de- 
fended by a fortress, constructed on the high and 
precipitous bank of the Malka; and every now 
and then we were met by piquets, or guards, on 
horseback, who, on ascertaining that we were not 
enemies, returned to their posts. The road lay, 
for the most part, close to the brink of the river, 
which is here of considerable breadth, and runs 
with a pretty strong current. On the Russian 
side, the wood which formerly grew on the banks 
has all been cut down, to prevent its harbouring 
the banditti who might cross the stream ; but the 
opposite bank, which is in the possession of the 


Tchetchmtzi^ abounds in forest, which, in some 
|>)«<!e8, extends back to the projecting and lowest 
range of the Caucasus* Towards -evening, we 
kept a sharp look-out towards the windings of the 
river ; not knowing but some of the daring free- 
booters might burst forth upon us from the bushes 
in which they frequently lurk. 

On entering SoldaUshaia, we found it so com- 
pletely filled with military, that had' it not been 
for the commanding officer^ who turned out two of 
hiB Kozaks in order to accommodate us, we should 
in all probability, have found it impossible to pro- 
cure lodgings. The soldiers were to cross the 
Malka the following morning, in order to chastise 
the Kabardians for some depredations which they 
had made a few days before on the north of the 
line, and every thing wore the appearance of 
hostile preparation. Under the impressions na- 
turally produced by the circumstances in which 
we were placed, we fell asleep, but were awaken- 
ed about midnight, by the sound of a female 
voice giving the alarm: •* Toherkess! TcherkessT 
through the window of an adjoining apartment. 
We instantly started from our couches, imagining 
that an actual attack had been made upon the 
village by the Circassians; but, on enquiry, ^e 
found that the word had been used in order to 
rouse our landlady, whose presence was wanted 
«t a wedding that wiks being celebrated in one 
of the neighbouring houses. 

On rising in the morning, we obtained our firat 
view of the lofty snow-clad mountains of t!ie 
Caucasus, rising in the most majestic grandeur 

GKOReilrfeslt. 448 

itdm behihd the loWeir kaA e^ondwfy fabgeil, 
iMrhich stretch alobg their base^ I90 as to hide h 
completely from the view. The first ray& of the 
mcntiihg bdn were just beginning to be reflected 
frDin their sutnmits, stud the ruggedness of their 
fttru)!ture, together Mrith the altitude to which they 
faised their bold and pointed tops, presented a 
ftcene in some respects novel, though, to my eye, it 
seemed only &n exhibition of the Icelandic Yokuls 
on a grander scale. What greatly contributes to 
deet)en the impressions of admiration produced on 
the mind by the first view of the Caucasian mouti^ 
tains, is the suddenness of the transition from (hb 
petfect level over which the traveller may have 
been passing for months, in Russia, without meet- 
ing with a hillock to diversify the tedious uni- 
formity of the scene. 

Our route now lay across a steppe, which ex- 
tended towards the north as far as the eye could 
reach. After crossing a small stream, called th^ 
R6dktira, we came to the Kura, which We found 
flowing through a deep and winding valley, abound- 
ing in brush-wood and gardens. Having changed 
horses at Pavlovskaia, we proceeded forward to 
Georgievsk, which we reached after crossing the 
Podkuma, on the left bank of which it is situated. 

Georgievsk is the government town of th6 
CJttttcasus, but the noble associations which w6 
naturally incline to connect with any thing relating 
to that majestic name, are far from being strength- 
ened by the appearance of the fortress and the houses 
of whteh the town is composed, tts inhabitants 
being mostly military, who areccmstantly liable to 


change of habitation, they have no inducement to 
build good and substantial houses ; and the pre- 
valence of intermittent fevers, (of which nearly 
two-thirds of the inhabitants were ill at the time of 
our visit,) necessarily deters numbers from settling 
in it. With the exception of the house occupied 
by the commanding General, the court-houses, 
barracks, and hospital, all the rest are constructed 
of wattles, coated with clay, and white-washed. 
There are two churches in the town, one for the 
Russians, and another for the Armenians. It is 
surrounded by fortifications, which appear rapidly 
going to decay, except on the bank of the river, 
where it is well defended by nature* The number 
of inhabitants is estimated at 3,000. 

In the evening we waited on his Excellency 
General Stahl, Commander-in-chief of the Rus- 
sian troops on the Caucasian lines, and made the 
necessary arrangements with him for a meeting 
of the Caucasian Bible Society. Next morning 
we set oflF for the Scotch colony of Kara»s^ ac- 
companied by our Missionary friends, Messrs. 
Jack and Galloway, whom we unexpectedly met 
at the General's, and escorted by a guard of eight 
Kozaks. The road lay across a rising steppe 
covered with hay-ricks, leaving on our left a 
considerable village, inhabited partly by Kabar- 
dians, and partly by Abhazians ; and after chang- 
ing horses at the Lyssagorski Cordon, we ascended 
to an elevated level, having on the left the calca- 
reous mountain Berelik, beyond which, towards 
the south and west, rose the Meshuka, or Hot 
Water Mountain, the Beshtow, and others more 



diminutive in size; but all combining, by the 
relative positions^ and the distinct peculiarities of 
each, to present an interesting appearance. 

After proceeding to the distance of several 
versts across this plain, we reached its southern 
termination, when all at once the colony burst 
upon our view; the village of Karass, situated 
on the sloping base of the Beshtow, between 
which« and the spot where we stood, intervened 
a fine valley^ watered by a beautiful meandering 
rivulet, called the Yamucha, the verdant banks of 
which were covered with flocks and herds; while 
further to the right appeared the Tatar village of 
Naiman, a name long familiar to us from the pub- 
lished communications of the Missionaries. De* 
scending by a winding path into the valley, we 
crossed the stream, and reached the colony about 
five o'clock, where we were conducted by Mr. 
Jack to his house, in which he had kindly pre- 
pared us lodgings during our stay. 


Scotch Colony </ K(ira$$--History of the Mission — lis fmppr^ 
tanco — Missionary Qualifications — Kabardian Village — C?er- 
»«» Colonists^M[fi Springsr^EUmra^^Momtain Exmrsum 

Kjfi49&9 or as it is designated ip the gpver^ime^t 
papers, "The Scotgh Colony/' is situated on a 
gi^ptle decjivitjr, jaqar the north-ea^t^ru ba?e of the 
Beshtowp the cpptral ancj highest of a seipicirculftr 
isuige of moufttaing. o,ccupy.ijQg the high level 
betw^.en th^ rivers Kuma anjl Podki/L^a, and forfpri- 
ing the terminatipg pjro|e.ctio;i> of the QquQgswi ip 
this direction. It derives its name from a Tatar 
Sultan, who, with several of his sons, lies interred 
a few versts north from the village. When first 
visited by the Missionaries in 1802, it contained a 
population of more than 500 inhabitants, all of 
whom were Mohammedans, natives of the sur- 
rounding regions, and speaking six or seven differ- 
ent languages: but in the spring of 1804, the 
plague, having broken out among the Kabardians 
and Tatars, made the most dreadful ravages both 
here and in the vicinity, and, together with the 
war, almost completely depopulated the neigh- 
bourhood, and dispersed the survivors into dif- 



Dsscnrxiorf of kaaass. 447 

fefeot parte of the swrfOUOiltQg oomAry. I a 1810^ 
the miiober of ttiMa rnhmbfttiiotg tbe settlement, 
aittouDted only to tbirty-nioe; but eince thut time 
it has been coastdenahly augmeolied bj the arrivid 
of Germaa coloiii3t«t who are ainutted tp live on 
tbe privikigieft; and at preteot the population* 
ooBsistiog of the mieatonariesi the Geriaan aettlers, 
and the ransomed natives, amousts to upwards 
of a faundired, exclusive of a company of soldiers 
and a party of Kozaks^ 8to.tioaed here for the pro- 
t0cla0n of the place. 

The village connats of one principal streeit* 
which is of great widths and is divided in tibuo 
middle by a amall stream of water, and at eiibn 
end a smaller street erosBes it, containing the 
houses vid stables of the aiilitary* The dnreUing^ 
bouses are constraeted of wood, and hsf^e krge 
gwdefis Attached to tbeai, behind which, a diJbcJu 
mAh a strimg dead hedge, $ufjx)unde Ifee whole 
vaUage, for a defence against tbe ^edatory attacks 
of the mountain tribes. Near the middle of tbe 
village is a guard-house, be&)re wUch stands a 
oannon ready to be used on any case of <emefl?gency. 
Qn an elevation to the norths the -Geiimans have 
built a smaH oharcb, and near tbe iipper end of 
the principal str^^, is the (bouse appropriated iosr 
|HibUc woorsh^p by the Missionaries, nthose dwtdi*- 
li^g-bouseB are in the immediate vicinity. 

Attached to the mission are upwards of 7,009 
acres of arable land, which government has garadt- 
jod ^0 &om t^ees ibr tikwfcy years, &aA after the 
ie^sfMiration of that cpisnodi 4he settlers ane oiil^ito 
jpajjT £iv^ eopeoks ranntaally per acre. There we 


besides, about 3,000 acres more, which are deemed 
unfit for (Cultivation, covered with brush-wood, &c. 
of which the colony has the free use without ever 
being subjected to any charge for it. The most oi 
the soil consists of a deep black mould, in many 
places intermixed with clay and saltpetre. The 
meadow grounds are extensive, and the grass 
is extremely luxuriant. The principal crops raised 
by the colonists are, tobacco, potatoes, cabbages, 
and various kinds of vegetables, which are dis- 
posed of to great advantage at the hot waters 
in the vicinity. Wheat, rye, and oats, are also 
raised, but not in quantities sufficient for the 
consumption of the colony. In good years, the 
land yields from ten to twelve fold. The climate 
in general is good, but the seasons variable. 
In summer the nights are cold, but at noon, 
Fahrenheit's thermometer sometimes rises to 98^ 
in the shade. Owing to the vicinity of Karass 
to the mountains^ it is subject to fogs and wet 
weather, but, upon the whole, may be considered 
as a healthy situation. 

The colony is governed by its own laws in 
every cause of a civil nature, and its affairs are 
conducted by a Committee of the Missionaries, 
and a subordinate court, which is composed of 
three of th^ Germans, and is charged with th» 
immediate police of the settlement. In all criminal 
cases, the colony is subject to the usual courta 
of justice. 

The mission was commenced by Messrs. Brun- 
ton and Paterson in the year 1802; in the spring of 
the year following a reinforcement was sent out« 


iionsisting of Messrs. Hay, Dickson, Hatrdie, Cou-^ 
sib, and Frazer ; and in 1805, the Society added to 
the number, Messrs. Mitchel, Pinkerton, M*A1- 
pine, and Galloway.* Of these, the only persons 
bow remaining at Karas^, are Messrs. Paterson 
and Galloway, to whoili the Rev. Mr. Jack has 
since been added, as pastor of the Missionary 
Church, and Missionary to the Mohammedans. 
The rest have either been removed by death, 
or are labouring in other situations. f 

The first object of the Missionaries, on their 
arrival in these parts, was to acquire the Tatar 
language, that being most generally understood by 
the different tribes in the vicinity; to translate the 
Scriptures and religious tracts into it; and to 
Converse with the natives on the leading doctrines 
of the Christian religion. Finding numerous ob- 
stacles presented to their communication of any 
tiling like regular instruction to those around them, 
they formed a plan for ransoming Tatars and 
others who were in a state of slavery ; and accord- 
ibgly, about thirty have, at different times, been 
br(Jught by this measure, under the immediate 
6i4re of the Missionaries ; but the effects that were 
eipfected' to result from it not having been realized, 
and the principle on which it was conducted 
biding disapprdved of by the Directors, it has 
since been abandoned, and the labours of the 
Missionaries are confined to casual visits to the 
Circassian, Abliazian^ and Tatar villages near 

• Brown's History of Misiiions, Vol. i.p. 535, 539, 
f Mr. Jade has since returned to Britain. 

O 6 


the colony^ and excurBions among the Jambuluk^ 
Jetzan, and Trukman Tatars, the two former of 
which tribes inhabit the steppe between the Kuban 
and the Kuma^ and the latter, that to the north of 
the Terek. They have also opportunities of con- 
versing about the Gospel, with such natives as 
visit the colony; but this advantage has become 
exceedingly limited of late, owing to the removal 
of the Tatars to othe;* parts of the country, and 
the extension of the Russian lines in the direction 
of the mountains, by which the intercourse be- 
tween their numerous tribes and the colony is 
cut off* Hitherto, little real progress has beea 
made by the mission ; but there can be no doubt, 
that were the temporal concerns of the colony 
entirely abandoned to the care of pious men of 
agricultural habits, and a sufficient number of able 
and devoted Missionaries sent to labour among 
the Mohammedans in this quarter, a very con- 
siderable abandonment of the delusions of the 
Arabian prophet might be expected to ensue. Of 
the importance of these two subjects, the Directors 
of the mission cannot entertain too high an idea. 
Except the Mohammedans behold an exhibition of 
the Christian system in the holy and heavenly con- 
versation of its professors, or if they have the 
conviction forced upon their minds, that, in point 
of moral excellence, the followers of Jesus are 
not superior to themselves, they never will be 
persuaded to listen^ without prejudice, to the doc- 
trine of the cross. 

Nor must those who are sent to labour among 
them, be men of ordinary talent. The system 


which the Missionaries have here to combat, is 
not one of gross paganism, the absurdities of which 
may easily be demonstrated to the very senses 
of its votaries, but it consists of a number of 
metaphysical subtleties, which can only be ex- 
posed by the application of true principles of 
ratiocination. They should, therefore, be men 
hot merely well instructed in the nature and prin- 
ciples of the kingdom of Christ, but possessed 
of a manly and powerful intellect, {irveviia ivyafietat,) 
capable of detecting and refuting all the false 
reasonings of Islamism, and distinguished by their 
aptitude to communicate the truth, in a manner 
suited to the different classes of their hearers. To 
employ men of weak minds and scanty attainments 
in such a field, would only be to confirm the enemy 
in the persuasion that Christianity is incapable 
of defence. 

One radical defect in the qualifications of the 
Missionaries hitherto sent out by the Society, 
(Mr. Brunton excepted,) is unquestionably their 
ignorance of the Arabic language. This has been 
most severely felt by such of them as are other- 
wise well qualified for the work to which they 
have been called, and they now seek to repair it 
by sacrificing a portion of their precious missionary 
time to the acquirement of a critical acquaintance 
with the original of the Koran, an evil which 
might have been prevented by timely attention to 
the subject previous to their leaving Britain. What 
should we think of a Mohammedan Effendi, who 
should settle in any part of Scotland, and attempt 
to convince the inhabitants that the doctrines 

G G 2 


of the Bible, were, falee, aii4 y^ kn^ew i^othing ol 
the langusiges in which it M^as written? Equally 
s^$urd is it to expect that the votaries of a false 
system will coocleacend to li$tQn to a^^ exposure of 
it^ ej^rors h^y soen, incapable of inve^tigatikig itft 
oirigUial documents. 

The imp<^t9Ace of this position must be the 
iftore ajpparent^ whea it is considered, that how 
much spever the Bfiendiest may boasjt of their 
l^no^ledge of the Koran,, and whatever degree, 
of popularity they may have acquired qql this, 
account^ it is a fact, that they are in geMrai 
^ miserably defective in philologiqaji learnjjog. Kow 
we can scarcely conceive apy thing more calcu-^ 
l^ted to stagger their confidence in their owfib' 
systenv* to shake the faith of their blinded (tisr 
ciplesj^ or to raise in their minds a feeling of re** 
spect for the character of the Missionary, and a 
disposition to give his doctrines and arguments 
an impartial hearing, than the discovery, that he ia 
letter aqquainted with the language and contents 
of their sacred code^ than those who professedJy: 
m^aj^e it tli^ir st^udy^ and submit to its decisions as 
the infallible source of their creed* and the sole 
directory of their moral conduct. 

It must, however, be at all times kept pro*- 
minently in view« that the first rate literary attain- 
Tf^ji% in a' Missionary, will never compensate 
fpr the want of genuine piety, and devotedness to. 
tfi^.c^use. of the Redeemei;. Upon this point the 
Pirectors of Missionary Societies can never be 
U^o scrqpK^Qpsly cautious. InsteM of cpntenting^ 
tjhfiipfielws withjan unimpeach8blQ>moi»J.Jifet.they: 



otiglit to have, aft fat A^ iHan can judg^e, the th6st 
unequivoca! evidence of vital Christianity. Noir 
is it isafficient to constitute any Aian a fit mission- 
ary subject that his mind be really imbued ^vith 
the principles of the Gospel; these principles 
ought to exist in vigorous exercise, enlightening 
the judgment with spiritual truth, cohtt-olling the 
will, and regulating the tempets and aflfectioiis 
in no ordinary degree. The observation of Mt* 
Newton, that London Christians require London 
grace, will apply with tenfold force to thosfe who 
leave the profusion of Gospel means^ and cbme into 
immediate ' contact with error, indifferedce, and 
vice* In their intercourse with Mdhfammedans^ 
every part of their conduct ought 1o inspire thd 
mind \¥ith the feelings that they are meii who 
are seeking to promote the interests of no earthly 
establishment^ but that they are i^flaenoed by 
a habitual sense of the presence df God^ and this 
importance of eternal thifags. Their words, theit 
dispositions^ their actions, ought at all timed to 
breathe a celestial influence, and impress the 
miftds of those atound them With the conviction; 
that they are really actuated by diffef ini principled 
from other men. 

Dulring oUr dtsy^ We had freqdent opportunitite 
of assembling with the missionary families, l&t 
tbe purposes of devotion. Public prayers arfe 
made every evenings in Eaglish, nli the Missioitary 
Chapel; and on tbe Lord's Day are ihreci services^ 
^]te of which is for the purpose of prayei*^ aM 
uisteuctiog the ransolndd. Oil £beVe bcoasidhs. 


I obtained ample proof of a fact I had previously 
been acquainted with, but which has been obsti* 
nately disputed, that the language of the Karass 
Turkish New Testament, is not written in the 
Nogai dialect of that language. On hearing it 
read, I observed that the words of the text were 
uniformly pronoimced, not according to their ortho- 
graphical value, but in conformity to the peculiar 
pronunciation of the Tatars who live in these 
parts. Thus, (Jjo) itlan, '*a serpent,** is pro- 
nounced, (IxsS) jilan, (\jXoJii) geturmeJu " to 
bring,** (ju^JJi) kelturmak, &c. 

The German colonists have no person to preach 
the Gospel to them, but meet regularly once on 
the Lord's Day, when a sermon is read by the 
schoolmaster, and the other parts of woirship are 
gone through, according to the printed forms 
common in Germany. At their earnest request,- 
we preached to them during our residence in 
the place, for which they seemed exceedingly 
grateful, and expressed an ardent wish that we 
should recommend their destitute condition to the 
sympathy of the Missionary Societies in Edin- 
burgh and Baisle. The importance of providing 
these people with eflScient means of religibus in-» 
struction, must be obvious to all who reflect on 
the influence which their conduct, if not governed 
by Christian principles, must have in deterring the 
Tatars from embracing the truth. 

On the 26th, while my friends were occupied 
about some of the colonial affairs, I rode up to the 
village of Hadgikdbah, distant about two versts^ 

kabahdian village. 466 

to visit a Kabardian Uzden, of the name of Shora, 
whose acquaintauce I had formed at Karass. Being 
a complete stranger, the inhabitants were surprised 
to find I had ventured among them quite alone, 
and seemed anxious to convince me that the 
confidence I put in them should be answered by 
corresponding marks of friendship on their part. 
The young nobleman had been called off* early in 
the morning to act as interpreter to a party of 
Russians, who were gone in search of some des- 
perate depredators; but I was conducted into his 
house, and kindly received by his mother-in-law, 
but his young bride was invisible, and i^ so, as^ 
I was informed, even to her own mother, till the 
birth of her first child. The other females about 
the village manifested nothing of that shyness 
usually characteristic of Mohammedan manners, 
but stood in the doors of their houses, or walked 
about without any reserve. Few in the vicinity 
have enjoyed better opportunities of becoming 
acquainted with the doctrines of Christianity than 
Shora, but in spite of the powerful convictions 
of their truth, which he appears at times to be 
under, he has not yet professed his belief in 
the Divine Sonship of Christ. This, indeed, is 
the doctrine at which the followers of Moham- 
med universally stumble. They no sooner read 
the Gospels, than they join issue with the Jews 
in maintaining, that Jesus assumed to himself the 
title, "the Son of God," in a sense totally in- 
applicable to any creature. They perceive it 
written in legible characters in the very face 
of the narrative, and it is uniformly one of the 

456^ HOT SPiUNGS. 

first objections they bring forward against th^ 
New Testament. 

On the 15th of September we drove in to 
Georgievsk, and attended the annual meetiag 
of the Caucasian Bible Society. It was held 
at the house of his Excellency G^nera^ StahU 
immediately after the celebration of publip prayers 
for their Imperial Majesties, this being the day of 
their coropation. 

Having been joinied by Qur friends, Messrs. 
Glen and Ross, who arrived here on their way 
from the Crimea to Astrakhan, we made two 
excursions to the Mineral Springs, which hav§ 
become, of late, so famous throughout the empire^ 
and which, from the attention paid by gpyern- 
ment to the protection, convenience, and ac- 
commodation of tliose who visit them, are likely, 
in a great measure to supersede the necessity of 
invalids proceeding into foreign countries for the 
restoration of health. 

Our first visit was to the Hot Springs, situated 
at the distance of seven versts from KarasSy and 
issuing from a narrow ridge of stratified tophusj^ 
which stretches in a westerly direction froni the 
mountain of Meskuha, and which we reached after 
crossing the elevated ground that forms the es^^tem 
base of the Beshtow, and connects it with tha( 
mountain. Ascending the south-western tenpipa^ 
tion of this ridge, we reached the bath, which con- 
sists of a large wooden house, constructed near the 
spot where the hot water leaves the rock, and i^ 
commodiously divided into a number of apairt-, 
m0nts, some of which are ^propriated to bath^ng^ 


others to sweating, &c. The one we used c<m* 
sisted of two divisions : the bath, which is hewn 
out of the rock, may be about four feet in depth ; 
and a kind of anticbamber, with benches ali round/ 
for the accommodation of the guests. The ^mell 
of the sulphur ; the rushing of the hot water out of 
the springs ; the beautiful white calcareous tophus, 
which is spread over the whole ridge, and de- 
scends in smooth curyated lan^ina into the valley 
below, presented to the view some faint adumbra- 
tion of those scenes which had afforded me such 
exquisite gratification in Iceland, while the tower-' 
ing summits of the snow-clad Elburz forcibly 
recalled to my recollection the Yokuls, which I 
had, oftener than once, found associated with the 
effects of subterraneous heat. Proceeding further 
up the ridge, and pursuing a pathway which leads 
to its j unction with the Meshuka, we found that it 
is split into two parts, presenting a chasm of irregu-^ 
lar width, and, in some places, of invisible depths 
through which the hot water is conveyed to the 
baths. This cleft is supposed by Engelhardt and 
Parrot to have beeq produced by the steam arising 
from the hot waters ; but others are disposed to 
ascribe its formation to earthquakes, which some- 
times happen in this quarter, and of which some 
shocks, in the year 181 2, affected the principal 
springs to such a degree, that they ceased for 
some time to emit their water, but afterwards 
it flowed as before. At different distances afong 
the south side of thi$ chasm, we fell in with hot 
apriijigs of various temperature, frpm 70'' to 120^ of 
f ahrenheiti is)ome of which are atiU used for bath.- 


ing ; and at some distance from the spot wher^ 
the ridge leaves the Meshuka, on climbing a decli- 
vitous and woody part of this mountain, we reached 
a circular aperture or abyss, about fourteen feet 
in diameter by sixty in depth; at the bottom of 
which a considerable quantity of water rushed, 
with a constant but irregular roar, from the in- 
terior of the mountain, in the direction of the 
baths. The sides of this pit are perfectly perpen- 
dicular, and that next the mountain rises to the 
height of thirty feet above the gravel surface of the 
ground at the opening. We attempted to look stea- 
dily down into the awful abyss, but were repelled 
partly by a sense of danger, and partly by the flocks 
of wood-pigeons which flew out on our approach- 
ing it. These birds build their nests in its sides. 

On returning from this interesting spot, we 
crossed the ridge, and descended into the valley 
on the opposite side, passing, in our way, several 
springs, the margin of which was surrounded by 
sulphureous depositions. In this valley, close to 
the bath, is situated a small village, built for 
the accommodation of visiters; and at the dis- 
tance of some versts stands the fort of Constanti" 
nogorsk, on the left bank of the Podkuma, which 
flows here at a short distance below the springs, 
and, after winding round the eastern base of the 
Meshuka, runs between that mountain and the 
Berelik towards the steppe. 

The next excursion we made was of greater 
extent, and afforded us an opportunity of trying 
the CircsLSsian steeds which we had just pur- 
chased for our Persian journey. We obtained 


them in one of the neighbouring villages, for 
eighty rubles each. They were beautiful animals, 
easily rode, sure footed, and of great swiftness. 
This latter quality is chiefly esteemed among the 
mountain tribes, as it enables them to commit 
their depredations with greater alacrity, and gene- 
rally to efiect their escape when pursued by the 

On the 21st of September, after equipping 
ourselves, and procuring a guard of Kozaks, we 
set off for the mineral spring of KislavodsJc, situ-* 
ated about forty-five versts distant from the co- 
lony. On our arrival at the fort of Constantmo- 
gorshy we delivered our order from General Stahl, 
and obtained an officer, with an escort of ten Ko- 
zaks, our road lying through a region greatly 
infested by bold and enterprising banditti from 
the mountains. At the distance of every two or 
three versts, we fell in with a piquet of Kozaks, 
stationed on small elevations to keep a look out 
into the surrounding country, and give the alarm 
on the approach of an enemy. On coming within 
a verst of them, one of the Kozaks mounted his 
horse, and, riding down into the plain, performed 
a number of evolutions, which were answered by 
one of our escort riding off in an opposite direc- 
tion, and giving a sign, by turning in the same 
manner. The Kozak from the piquet then came up 
to us, and raising his hand to his cap, quite in the 
military style, delivered to one of our number whom 
he took for the principal person in the company 
his report that all was mfcy and that we might 
proceed to the next piquet without danger. On 

450 ELBURZ. 

the face of the low devatton which stretched Vmest^ 
ward on our right, we could descry, from the dif- 
ference ia the appearance of the vegetation, un^ 
equivocal marks of recent cultivation ; and, at 
different places on both sides of the road, we 
passed the ruins of houses, and a number of 
graves, marking the site of a Circassian or Abha- 
zian village. About fifteen versts distant from 
Cohsidntinogorsk, we came to a cordon, situated 
on the river Essenshuk, and defended by a strong 
wattled fence, where we changed Koxaks, and 
had our escort increased to the number of^teen, 
in consideration of the greater danger to which 
travellers are exposed in the region beyond it. 
The plain through which we had passed termi*' 
sated here, and was succeeded by calcareous 
mountains on both sides of the Podkuma, the sur- 
face of which was, in general, covered with rich 
grass, or dangerous thickets of brush-wood ; and 
now and then we had presented to our view a fide 
exhibition of the lime*stone strata, running hori- 
zontally across the face of the hills. On the 
neighbouring heights Kozaks were stationed as 

Reaching the summit of a pass on the right 
bank of the river, we had the grand Caucasian 
Alp, the far-famed Elburz, fuU in view, at the 
distance of little more than forty versti^ due sontk. 
Its great height, estimated at upwards of 16,000 
feet above the level of the Black Sea ; the ever- 
diiruig snows with which it was ekd, and whic& 
shone with resptendent glare ff om the rtys of the 
meridian 6«in ; add the noble sweei^ of its broad 

ELBUSZ. 461 

extendhig bases, wem ftU calculated to niae in t&a 
mind sensations of the grandest and most sublime 
description. The Sncefell and Oroefa Yokuls, 
whose size I bad admired as stupendous, because 
they far exceeded any thing of the kind I had 
previously seen^ sunk^ in the remembrance, into 
mere pigmies, in comparison of the gigantic king 
of the Caucasian range. 

In the opinion of the ancient Persians, Hie 
Elbmtz (Pers. • J) Alburs^ from y sublime, shin" 
ingy) is the highest and most ancient of all moua*- 
taias in the world ; the throne of Ormuid ; the 
mount of the congregation of the celestial spirits ; 
the pure region of light, where ther^ is neither 
enemy, darkness^ nor death, but all is light, peace, 
and felicity. Hence the remarkable passage in 
the Zendavesta : '' Praise be ascribed to the ever^ 
watchful guardian Mithra, whom the great Or- 
muzd created to be Mediator on Albordj^ (ano- 
ther orthography of AUfiirs,) for the salvation oS 
the innumerable spirits of the earth. Vcmder on 
Alborj. is neither gloomy night, nor cold wind, nor 
heat^ nor corruption the effect of death, nor evil 
Ishe creature of wicked genii : Yonder the enemy 
dare not ascend, as the domineering l^Mrd; for 
yonder walks the great King^^he Sun> who is 
appointed Amshaspand over all things—the source* 
of peace and life: he walks there for ever. O 
that I, who lead a pure life in this vast world, 
may attain to this Albordj /" Carde 12.-^Accord- 
ing to the same mythological system, it was on 
this* mountain that Zoroaster received the law, 
and ta which he- retiFed> after having fulfilled hie 


mission, to spend the remainder of his existence 
in the contemplative vision of the Supreme. 

Hitherto every attempt to reach this momitain 
has proved abortive, owing to the savage dis- 
position of the tribes inhabiting the region around 
its base. It still remains a task to be performed 
by the adventurous naturalist, when the success 
of the Russian arms shall have secured a passage 
to its snows. 

Having ag^in changed our Kozaks at another 
Cordon, we proceeded into a fine valley, beyond 
which, towards the west, we descried an immense 
number of hay-ricks, belonging to the hostile Cir- 
cassians beyond the Russian line. We now forded 
the Podkuma, and ascending its right bank, reached 
the beautiful elevated plain where Klaproth*s party 
were attacked, and obliged to desist from their 
attempt to reach the springs. On our left we had 
mountains of a considerable height; and, towards 
the west, an extensive view presented itself down 
the valley, watered by one of the branches of the 
Kuma : but what particularly attracted our notice 
was, a deep fosse, or entrenchment, which we 
crossed in the plain, and which seems to have 
formed an ancient boundary of considerable im- 
portance. At a short distance to the right, several 
monumental stones rise to the height of seven or 
eight feet above the surface of the ground ; but we 
could not discover any inscriptions on them, from 
which to gather information respecting the true 
object of their erection. 

Pursuing the road in the direction of the Elburx^ 
we reached the fort oi Kislavodsh ^\>o\xi five o'clock 


in the afternoon^ and easily obtained lodgings, all 
the company being gone by whom the place had 
been filled in the summer. Besides the forts, and 
the adjoining huts belongiug to the soldiers, the 
place consists of a number of wooden houses, bailt 
in the valley below, by an Armenian merchant of 
Astrakhan, for the accommodation of invalids, the 
number of whom had been so great the past sum- 
mer^ that, for a single room and sleeping apart- 
ment, no less a sum than 800 rubles was paid 
monthly. Close by, at the confluence of the small 
rivulets Kosada and Elkoshu, is the famous asci- 
dulated spring, called by the Circassians Nar^ 
tzana, ** the drink of the giants." The bason of 
this spring is about fourteen feet in circumference, 
by twelve in depth. The water, which . is per- 
fectly cold, and clear as crystal, is in a constant 
state of violent ebullition ; and is so strongly im- 
pregnated with air, that, when bottled and well 
corked, it instantly breaks the bottles, except they 
be of uncommon strength. Having been furnished 
with glasses, we drank a considerable quantity of 
this natural Champagne ; and, to judge both from 
the taste and smell, it must contain much of the 
oxid of iron, and a great proportion of carbonic acid. 
Its strength is said to be such, that in the neigh- 
bouring bath, into which it is conducted by a sub- 
terraneous pipe, its natural effervescence prevents 
a person from sinking when lying flat on its sur- 
face. Near the spring, on the east side, are some 
large masses of tophus, exhibiting beautiful petri- 
factions of leaves, shells, &c. ; and, as they evi- 
dently appear to have been dislodged from a su- 

464 KARASS. 

peiior situatioB, tbftre mttdt hUve been springs 
higher up the mountain, at dome remote period 
of time. 

In the course of the evening, a considerable 
party of Kozaks arrived at the fort, from the direc- 
tion of the Elburz, towards which they had pro- 
ceeded in pursuit of a number of mountaineers 
that had crossed the Hoes the preceding day, and 
carried off a number of horses. We arrived again 
at Karass the following day. 

Before leaving this place, we paid a visit ta 
a small hill, at the distance of nearly a verst from 
the village, which constitutes the cemetery of the 
colony, and where lie interred not fewer than four 
Missionaries, with several females, who left Britain 
with a view to assist in the evangelization of the 
Mokonmedans. It was- with feelings of no com^ 
mon, but melancholy interest, that I had pointed 
out to me the grave of Douglas Cousin, with whom 
in eady life I had taken sweet counsel about the 
things of God, and joined in the prayers regularly 
piesenced by an association, of which we were 
members, for the spread of divine truth, and the 
extension of the kingdom of God among men. At 
that time, neither of the Societies by which we 
were sent into Russia hdd sprung into existence, 
nor did we entertain the smallest conception that 
eiliier of us should ever visit these parts. Yet, in 
the inscrutable providence' of God, he was con*- 
ducted to this scene of missionary labour, and 
after spending about a year with his brethren, 
died on the 10th of October, 1804 ; whil6, after 
th& lapse of seventeen years, I was spared to visit 

KARASS. 465 

his grave, and shed a tear over departed worth ! 
He died, his brethren observed in, their letter an- 
nouncing the event, " like a true Christian," Being 
asked, a little before he expired, if he wished any 
thing to be written concerning him to an old 
christian friend in Scotland, whom he greatly 
esteemed ? he thought a little, and then said, with 
a peculiar and expressive tone : " Yes ; tell him 
I died in the /aith—'JuU in the /aith" 

For a detailed account of Karass and its vici- 
nity, I refer with pleasure to the *' Journal of 
a Tour from Astrakhan to Karass," by my friend 
the Rev. Willian Glen. Edinburgh, 1822. l2mo. 

H H 


Return to Mazdok-^Armeniant — 0»nt%nicats^~>-S'pfhitiial Ckrig^ 
iunu — Taum of MmA)k-^Pmmtt0§ nf the I^k^-^Attxan- 
dpovtkoi Redoubt — CaueaMn Carawmn^HilU ^ Kabardut^^ 
ConUantimkoi and Elizabeiinskoi Redoubts — Arrwe at Via- 

On the 27th of September, O, S., we bid adieu to 
our worthy host, and other kind friends at Karass, 
and arrived, in the dusk of the evening, at Geor- 
gievsk, where we stopped till , noon the following 
day. We then retraced our steps to Mozdok, ac- 
companied by our friends, Messrs* Glen and Ross, 
and, on our arrival in that town, took up our 
lodging in the house of the Jesuits, where we met 
with the most hospitable treatment from Pater 
Henry, a character well known to sdch of our 
countrymen as have crossed the Caucasus, and 
have here enjoyed a temporary refreshment, either 
before or after performing the passage of the 
mountains. Mozdok has long been the seat of 
a Jesuit mission. The Catholic church in this 
place was first erected in 1765, by the Capuchin 
missionaries, and, on their death, fell into the 
hands of the Jesuits, whom the Propaganda sent 


here for the conversion of the mountain tribes* 
especially the Ossetinians : but, the conversion of 
this people having been ostensibly taken up by 
the Greek church* the missionaries have not been 
able to carry into effect the plans they had con- 
certed. Their attention was next directed to the 
Armenians^ in consequence of which upwards of 
twenty families have been introduced info the 
Boman communion. According to the accounts 
given ua by the Pater, the Armenians* in these 
parts* are grossly superstitious. At one of their 
festivals they sacrifice a sheep* which has previ* 
onsly been fattened on purpose. It is killed* with 
much ceremony, at the church door, and divided 
among the worshippers. When any person in a 
family ia taken ill* the Bible* and every kind of 
mligiouei book, is reimoved out of the house* in 
order to propitiate the evil spirit ; and sometimes 
tliey will pk^ee flesh and other articles of food 
undeir the floors to serve as a peace-offering* and 
piievienfi any ii^ury being done to the family. They 
are described as la^y in the esctreme* very li^ 
l$!g;k)us, and so little inclined to pity^ that, should 
any person who happens to lodge with them b^ 
taken ill* they instantly turn him out of the house* 
\mt soeie plague should be mflioted upon it for his 

In Mozdok are three Armenian and four Rus- 
atan.churchies* with one Ossetinian place of wor- 
ship, a little to the west of the town* close to a 
small village of that peo{rfe* who have been bap- 
tized* and have service performed in their own 
language* by a Georgian iciest who resides anHmg 

II H 2 


them for the purpose. The village is, on the 
whole, well built; the houses are low, but neat 
and clean. The Ossetinians are, in general, short, 
and somewhat inclined to corpulency. Their dress 
resembles that of the Kabardians ; consisting of a 
top-coat, reaching to the knees, and pantaloons 
of coarse wooUen stuff, and commonly of a black 
or light brown colour. They wear on their heads 
a sheep- skin cap, which fits close, and is almost 
entirely flat. The females wear their hair in one 
large plait, which hangs down their back. They 
have mostly a coarse handkerchief round their 
head^ and go barefooted, with trowsers whidi 
descend nearly to the ankles. Their houses are 
made of wattles, covered with clay. Most of the 
stables and other out-houses appeared to be plais- 
tered with cow-dung. The roofs are all flat, and 
serve for winnowing the com. 

While visiting this village, we were surprised 
by the singular appearance of a regiment of fe- 
males passing through it, sitting four by four, in 
carts, in which they and their baggage were con- 
veyed. On inquiring, we found that they bad 
come from the government of Woronesh, and were 
proceeding to join their husbands, who had passed 
a little before on foot. They had just been mar- 
ried, and were going to form a military colony 
in the vicinity of the Caucasus, where numbers 
of the same description have been formed; by 
which means the Russian power is daily becoming 
more consolidated in these regions. 

The day after odr arrival at Mozdok, we re- 
ceived a visit from three members of the Russian 


sect of Dissenters, known by the name of Makh^ 
katd^ or '' Milkites/' but who give themselves 
that of '' Spiritual Christians.!' The former ap- 
pellation is given them by way of reproach, be- 
cause they make use of milk, and food prepared 
of milk, during the fasts of the church. They 
came from a village at the distance of twelve 
versts from Mozdok, containing upwards of sixty 
families, who are all of the same persuasion, and 
enjoy the free exercise of their own peculiar 
rights, unmolested by the members of the do- 
minant church. In the course of a long conver- 
sation, in which they manifested the utmost rea- 
diness to satisfy us on every point we proposed, 
we obtained such information as tended to ex- 
cite the highest degree of interest in their be- 
half. We particularly interrogated them re- 
specting the ground of their hope before God; 
which they declared, in the most explicit manner, 
to be solely the sufferings and death of the Son of 
Grod. They are also sound in the doctrine of the 
Trinity, believing, as they expressed themselves, 
in the three hypostases in the Divine Essence. 
They reject the worship of images, and disapprove 
of all rites and ceremonies not of divine institution. 
Having always heard baptism and the Lord's Sup- 
per described by the priests as possessing an in- 
herent power to save the soul, and perceiving 
no such saving effects to result from the obser- 
vance of these rites, they have been driven to 
the extreme of rejecting them, as outward or- 
dinances, altogether ; yet they strenuously main- 
tain the necessity and importance of their internal 


and spiritual meaning. The first day of the >pveek 
they keep holy with the utmost strictness, arrange 
mg every thing about their houses with siich scru- 
pulosity on the Saturday evening, as to leave them 
at liberty to devote the whole of that day to the 
important purposes of devotion and edification. 
Of such importance do they consider it to enter 
on the duties of that day in the possession of a 
spiritual frame of mind, that they meet for prayer 
on Saturday evening, and mutually implore that 
preparation of the heart which proceeds from 
God only. 

Their public service consists in singing, prayer, 
reading the Scriptures, and exposition, which last 
is usually performed by their teacher, or elder, to 
whom they give the name of ** Presviter," and 
who is only distinguished from his brethren in the 
congregation by his superior gifts, which, as tlrey 
expressed themselves, God has put into his heart. 
Prayer is performed partly on their knees, and 
partly in prostration. They observe the strictest 
discipline with respect to any of their number 
who transgress any of the commandments of 
Christ. They receive offending members again 
into communion a first and second time; but, 
when any have been excommunicated the third 
time, the door of their fellowship is closed ag;ainst 
them for ever. Marriage is solemnized among 
them in the following manner: — ^The bride first 
kneels down in the presence of her father, who 
lays his hands on her head, and presents a prayer 
for the divine blessing on the intended union. 
She is then led to the place of worship, where the 

ife '/1I n; 


bridegroom meets ber^ and tliey join their right 
hands, promising to each other love and fidelity, 
in the pre9ence of God and the congregation. 
The oUigations which tliey thus come under ane 
rsgavded as biodiDg till the death of one of the 
pttrties. The Scripture law ooocerning adultery 
they do not seem to nndenstand : when a female 
has been guilty of this crime, she is expelled from 
the congregation^ but not separated from her hus^ 

It gave as much pleasure to receive the most 
favourable accounts of the excellence of their mo'- 
ral character from a Russian officer, resident m 
Mozdok, who had had every opportunity of be- 
coming thoroughly acquainted with them* 

Mozdok is a town of confiiderabte extent, with 
Wide and regular streets, a bazdr, one Russian 
church, one Catholic and two Armenian churches, 
a hospital, and quarantine. The number of its to- 
habitants is reckoned at upwards of 4,000. They 
consist of Russians^ Kozaks, Armenians, Georgi- 
ans, Tatars, Ossetiniaas,' and Circassians, besides 
officers, of different European nations, serving in 
the Russian army. It is the frontier town on the 
Caucasian line, and is 2,711 versts distant from 
St. Petersburgh. The numerous gardens and vine- 
yards, and the plantations of mulberry-trees for 
the support of the silk-worm, by which the town 
is surrounded, give it a considerable degree of 
inters ; and, being the spot where all those tra- 
vellers meet who cross the Caucasus, it is ge- 
rally a place of considerable bustle and noise. 
The fortiftcations are in bettar .cruder than most 


to be met with on the line ; but they would m^e 
but a sorry defence against a regular army. 

On Saturday, the 1st of October, about two 
o'clock in the afternoon, we left Mozdok; aad» 
proceeding in a south-westerly direction towards 
the Terek, we passed^ at the distance of about 
three versts, the quarantine, in which all who pass 
from the south are obliged to remain a certain 
number of days, before they are permitted to pro- 
ceed into the empire. When widiin two versts of 
the ferry, we came to a made road, with deep 
ditches on either side*^the first of the kind we 
had seen since entering the government of Astra- 
khan ; the roads in which government, and that of 
the Caucasus, being simply made by the track of 
the carts ; but they are, in general, equally as good 
as those that have been made in the usual way. 
On arriving at the bank of the Terek, we were oblig- 
ed to wait some time, while our passports were 
being signed, at a small military office established 
for the purpose ; but we were, in the mean time, 
greatly amused by witnessing the manner in which 
the Russians and Ossetiniaus drive their oxen 
across the river, which runs, at this place, with 
considerable velocity, especially towards the south- 
ern bank. After stripping themselves to the skin, 
they drive the oxen into the water, wading after 
them as long as they can keep their feet ; but, as 
soon as the oxen begin to swim, they are carried 
down with great rapidity by the current, and 
generally endeavour to reach the shallower side 
of the river, which they have just left. To pre* 
vent this, the men plunge in after them; and. 


tddag hold of the tails of such as are nearest 
the bank* or most likely to decoy the rest which 
are ferther in the river, they advance towards 
the lieads of the animals, when they seize them by 
the seek with one hand, and beat them with the 
other, in ^rder to keep their heads towards the 
middle of the river. Sometimes they take hold of 
them by the horns, while swimming with them, 
and turn them completely about, by which all the 
rest of the drove are induced to follow. The time 
it takes to get oxen ieicross in this way is scarcely 
credible. Out of eleven, which we saw driven in 
together, only four reached the opposite bank ; 
the remaining seven were carried down nearly 
a verst by the current. We were told by an 
Armenian, who has the direction of the ferry, that 
not unfrequehtly both men and oxen are lost 
in this way. 

At the time we crossed, the Terek flowed only 
in a narrow channel close to the southern bank; 
but, in order to reach it, we had to ride over a 
space of more than a quarter of a verst, covered 
with small stones, and pools of water — the deposit 
of the river when last swelled, at which time the 
whole channel, from bank to bank, had been filled. 
Oor horses, which had never been in a ferry-boat 
before, were rather shy, and it was with some 
difficulty we got them embarked; but we succeeded 
in getting them safely to the opposite bank; when, 
mounting them, we rode across a narrow plain, 
and ascended an acclivity, which brought us to the 
Alexandrwskai Redoubt, a fortified place, con- 
struicted to defend the passage of the Terek. 


Oil ftfypltcntioii to the Commandaat/ we obt- 
tained quarters in a kind of. aabterraiiaouB bar- 
rack, t^onsidting of a room, about fifty feet ia 
length, by eighteen in width, with bedstnda of 
wattle-work, raised about two feet from the 
ground, and extending about siic from the waU^ 
along the whole length of the apartments After 
enjoying a cup of tea, and having had hay brought 
in and spread over the wattles, on whjch to sleeps 
we were about to engage in evening worship, 
supposing we were to be the only occupants ef 
the place, when we were molested by a Polish 
officer who had got intoxicated, and who, we had 
the moitification to find, was to sleep in an 
adjacent part of the room. Being annoyed by tte 
noise made, both by this person and a number 
of Armenians, who followed him into the room, 
and took possession of the wattles close by us, 
we threw ourselves down on our hard couch, 
in the hope that balmy sleep would close oar 
senses upon a scene, which we could not oon- 
template without feelings of disgust and aTersioo. 
In this, however, we were also disappointed, for 
we had scarcely reclined our head, when we found 
that we had still more disagreeable inmates than 
the Polish officer, the place being quite alive with 
fleas and bugs, the bites of which we were 
obliged to submit to, till one o'clock in the 
morning, when the sonnd of the drum proved as 
welcome to our ears, as it was no doubt annoy- 
ing to the soldiers, wfaom it sammoned from 
their quiet repose, to commence the Mdb of another 


We had only an hour to preipape for oot march^ 
and as we had never before been subject to 
militaiy rule, h eaonot be matter of surpnse 
tiiat, ivhat with repackiag our ba^fage, and what 
with pisepariijig and taking tea, we exceeded 
the time; but the Commandant had kindly pro* 
Tided for our safety, by retaining four Kodaks, 
by whom we were eacorted^ and in the course 
of a quarter of an hour, we came up with the 
caravan. We now proceeded at a slow pace 
across the plains till break of day, when we 
reached the foot of the first range of hills, com* 
monly csJled the Kabardian Mountains. We had 
BOW a full view of our cavalcade, which presented 
a scene, not only novel and abhorrent, as it re* 
garded the sacred day on which we had entered, 
but to as, the first thing of the kind we had ever 
witnessed. At the distance of two versts before 
us rode two Kozaks, while four or five of the same 
daring warriors reconnoitered the heights on both 
sides of the road. A train of infantry, with a 
band of music, formed the van, and were followed 
by a cannon, with four artillery-men, and the 
caononier with a burning match, ready to be 
apphed at a moment's warning. Next the cannon 
followed the mail, with a separate guard of 
soldiers, a colonel of artillery, an elegant carriage> 
in which rode the lady of a genial then serving 
in Georgia, a number of baggage waggons, and 
tipwards of 350 yoke of oxen, with military stores, 
which were being conveyed to the different small 
forts in the Caucasus. In our train were several 
Armenian and Georgian merchants, some Jews 


riding on asses, and a Georgian prince, who 
was returning from a ten years' exile in Siberia, 
Another cannon brought up the rear, followed 
by a double guard; and, besides the force already 
mentioned, we had an escort of eighty soldiers and 
fifteen Kozaks. 

After two or three halts, we began to enter 
the valleys lying between the rising grounds, par* 
tially covered with hay on both sides of the road ; 
and at last, came to a very steep ascent, towards 
which ran a considerable number of intricate 
glens, that render the place peculiarly dangerous, 
as they furnish excellent ambushes to the Kabar- 
dian banditti who infest these regions. Our Ko- 
zaks were now dispatched to reconnoitre these 
glens, and the surrounding country, from the 
highest points, and the projecting angles of the 
hills, and we had not proceeded far up the ascent, 
when the alarm was given that a party of con- 
siderable strength appeared in view. It was soon 
discovered, however, that it was only a Russian 
caravan coming from the Caucasus. 

On reaching the summit of the pass, we were 
obliged to make a halt till most of the carts and 
arbas* came up, and finding that the cattle were 
much fatigued by the steepness of the ascent, 
it was deemed proper by our captain, that we 
should rest here about four hours. From this 
spot we commanded a most extensive prospect. 
Towards the north, we had a fine view of the 
Terek, both above and below Mozdok ; the Nogai, 

* Tatar waggons. 

. ^ 


and Kalmuk steppes, and the Sarmatian plains 
towards Georgievsk, and the sea of Azof. In 
front, a beautiful open valley stretched from east 
to west, bounded on the south by the second range 
of the Kabardian hills, and at the distance of 
ten or twelve versts, the fortress Constantinskoi, 
where we were to spend the following night. 
It was, however, truly melancholy to cast our 
eyes across this extensive country, and behold it 
lying entirely waste, owing to the daring and 
warlike dispositions of the Kabardians and Tchet- 
ehentzi in the adjacent mountains. The soil is 
excellent, and would yield in great abundance, 
if cultivated by the hand of man. We naturally 
thought of the period when, in consequence of 
the predominating influence of the religion of 
Jesus, the earth, even in a literal sense, shall yield 
her increase; when judgment shall dwell in the 
wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruit- 
ful field : when no lion or ravenous beast, or men 
more savage than either, shall annoy the peaceable 
traveller; but when it shall be intersected by the 
highway of holiness, in ^which the ransomed shall 
walk, and by which the redeemed of the Lord 
shall return, and come to Zion, with songs and 
everlasting joy upon their heads. 

Having partaken of such provisions as we had 
brought with us from Mozdok, we retired into a 
field of high grass, where we spent some time 
in religious exercises, and at the beating of the 
drum, repaired again to our company, and set 
forward on our journey. From the summit of the 
hill, on which we had stopped, we descended into 


a valley, and after a few halts, occasioDed by 
sometiiiDg going wrong with the carts, we reached 
the low country about four o'clock in the after- 
noon. We here pajssed the site of a large Kabar- 
dian village, which was so completely depopu- 
lated by the plague in 1 806, that scarcely any of 
its inhabitants survived. OuJr lodgings in the 
fi;>rt of Comtantinshm, where we arrived a little 
before dark, consisted of an outer room belonging 
to an officer! in which, on a sbake*dowu of hay, we 
enjoyed the soundest repose, till three in thq 
morning, when we were again sumnMood by the 
drum to proceed on our jouroey. 

.CoQstantinskoi Redoubt is situated, oo a rising 
ground^ close to a deep gulley^ by which it ia 
separated from a neighbouring hiU,. which pre- 
sents, on its northern projection^ a while stooe 
mdnument, erected over the ^ve of some of the 
native princes. 

The morning was mild» with little or no wind, 
and. the moon shone with unusual brightness, to 
light us on our way* For the first sevee Ter^ta 
we had a continued ascent^ for thje meat part 
across narrow ridges,^ on either side of which 
yawned prodigious gullays^ completely overgrown 
with wood, except within a few yards of the Toad» has recently been cut down by the 
Russiatfs, to prevent its fbrmjup^ a oowenient am^ 
budi £or the Kabardians, from which tibey might 
securely fire on the passing traveller. It is still 
reckoned a place of great danger, in consequence 
of which^ the guards which protect the caravans 
at e required to be exceedingly vigilanrt, and ready 


at a iBomeot'a wamiji^ to fire an th^ enemy. The 
fimt pturt of our company ceaefaed tbe summit 
of the second raage of kills by eight o'clock; but, 
aa> the ozsn and carts wece not all up till half-pMt 
Ihiree in die afternoon, we were oUiged to spend 
the whole of tiie intenaediate tkne. ia waiting. 
Aedor arriiral. The hills on which we nested ane 
ODiisiderably more . elevated than those we bad 
erossed tha preceding day. The spaoious plain 
towarda the south, is also higher tb^n that ow 
the north side of the range; extends fifty rears ts inr 
bceaddk,. and upwards of a hmadred in lengthy 
and besides a fine steppe watiered by tha Terok^ 
the Kuflibalei,, and several minor rivers, presentt 
to the view large fifelds of culthrated ground be* 
knging to the Ossetiniana and Inguahy subject to 
the Russian sceptre. 

We bed scarcely deseended imbo the plain, 
when we were overtaken by the darkness of night; 
and for some time, the only thing we could dis- 
cern, was the sparks falling from the match 
behind the cannon, while our ears were stunned 
by what the , Russians very expressively term, 
" Asiatic music,'' the squeaking noise of the dry- 
wheeled arbas, or carts of the Tatars, of which 
a number had been hired for the conveyance of 
the military stores. Our situation was now con- 
sidered the most dangerous of any on the whole 
road, being in the region which the predatory 
Kabardians cross when proceeding to their irrup- 
tions among the more peaceable inhabitants of 
the plain. 

We reached the Elizabetinskoi Redoubt about 


eleven o'clock, and the next morning at eight, 
pursued our course across the gently rising plain, 
and passed near an Ossetinian village, the inha* 
bitants of which appeared to have reaped an 
abundant harvest, their yards b^ing well filled with 
hay and com stacks. In a short time we came 
to the eastern bank of the Terek, the channel 
of which may measure about a quarter of a 
verst from brink to brink, though, at the time 
we passed, its waters were confined ^thin a 
very narrow bed, and followed a serpentine course 
among the numerous large stones which they 
make bare, and partly roll along in their pro- 
gress, when swelled by the melting of the snow* 
Passing a small ruined fort, bearing the name of 
Potemkin, we left the caravan, and riding forward 
with the Kozak officer who commanded the escort, 
we arrived at Vladikavkaz itbout two o'clock in 
the afternoon. 


Vmiio iheJngutk^Th^ Rev. Mr. Bfyihe^-OmeimianPhitgkmg 
^-^Nasram — The Jkguek — Avenging of Bkood — ReligUm* Uo^ 
*tian» — Habiiatians — Mausoleum — Ingush Burying Oround^^ 
fnguik Mienon — Rehtm to Viadihavhaz. 

TV^G had scarcely taken possession of the lodging 
proyided for us in the government bouse at Fladi^ 
kavkazj when we were honoured by a visit from the 
Craamandant, Colonel Skvartsof, who expressed 
his readiness to serve us in any way that we might 
find necessary during our stay in these parts, and 
bur passage over the Caucasus. Of this kind offer 
we immediately availed ourselves, and requested 
an escort to guard us the following day, as far 
as NasraUf the seat of the Ingush mission. Our 
valued friend, the Rev. Mr. Biythe, who had been 
appointed to that mission, had been waiting our 
arrival, -and felt traly happy at the opportunity 
of introducing us, for the first time, into that part of 
the heathen world, in which he, and his fellow- 
labourer, Mr. Galloway, "who now accompanied us, 
had, a few months before, endeavoured to plant 
the standard -of the cross. 

On the 4th of October, we set out for the 
country of the. Ingush, protected by forty soldiers, 

I I 


ten KozakSt and four artillerymen, with a three 
pounder. At a short distance from Vladikavkaz^ 
we fell in with several Ossetinians, who were 
busily employed in ploughing the ground . Their 
plough is nearly twice the size of those used 
in England, and is drawn by four yoke of oxen : 
the fore-part resting on the axle of two large 
wheels. To manage this unwieldy instrument, 
fbtitr pieople were required; Che held the plough, 
twb were guiding the oxen, while the fourth 
walked beside the ploughman, and cleared away 
the grass that might collect on the coulter. They 
had each a musket slung over his shoulder, 
exe^ the pereoii who held the plough; but hfe 
hdid his so placed on that instruiBent aa to reach 
it with ease. ThBy were afeo armed with dag^% 
j^trt round the waist The shephei'ds are accoutred 
in the Batte manner, and none of these tribeli 
leaves bis habitation u^rmed. 

To oikr right stretdied a raikge of fine wooded 
fasOmrtains, .atong the base of which iappearied a 
mimfaer xif delightful sp6ts» with old caatles, the 
white . amd stately af^pearance of which reminded 
xtB of the ancteht mansions 6f dur native land. 
After crossing the Kiunbalei, which fldws down 
ti valley between two of the mounthins ibmiBi^ 
the lower range to the eaM of Vladikatkaz, we 
<mat^ to ^a. strong red6ubt, built in thfe tiitie bf 
,Potemfci% but now abandoned, eta accfount of ids 
,pn>xiBBity to Vladikavkaz itMEid NiBtsran, the distance 
between which is only .thirty VeMa It might 
fikrm itn advantageous aiblMiSh Tor the Kiibafdians, 
,9» tvto or three fiuaadred mto, with tht^r liorsee. 




^ ■ 


NASaAZf.-*T^$ INGUSH. 4^ 

may lie ttopb8erye4 in the deep and extensive fosse 
by M^ich it is surrounded. Proceeding across 
the plain, where we observed several large tumuli^ 
we advanced towards the angle of land formed 
by the junction of the rivers Sundsha and Nm- 
ranka, ^n wbiph the fort of Nasran is built, 
and which we reached about dusk, after passing 
a number pf Ingush villages on both sides of the 

Ve were here conducted by Mr. Blythe to bis 
missionary habitation, formerly a Mobammedap 
mosqu^, erected when attempts were made, some 
tiiiifty or fo^y years ago, to convert ,the Ingush to 
Islaof^ism, It stands, or rather is supported by 
a nupiber of v^ooden ppsts, in a most perilous 
situa^ipn^ on ;the brow of a precipice, composed 
of c|ay and gravely which threatens shortly to 
^Ip^g^ the whole into the channel of the Sund- 
fba, which flows below. Yet, perilous as it ^as* 
we pr^Qferred it to the lodging kindly offered us 
by t^e commanding officer, in order that we might 
eoj^ -more of the company of our friends during 
the limited period of our stay. In fact, with the 
exception of its situation, the mission-bouse is 
neturly as good as any in the fqrt, which, altogether, 
preiseots a most wretched appearance* 

The Ingush, for whose benefit the mission was 
intended, forqn part of a numerpus tribe of that 
name,*inhabiting the deep valleys of the mountains 
behind Vladikavkaz, to the east of the road leading 
through the Caucasus to Georgia. Having, by some 
unknown cause, been obliged to leave their mountain 
recesses, they settled about fifty year<s ago at the 



foot of the mountains, in the great plain near the 
Kumbalei ; but this situation they again abandoned, 
and settled in this part of the country, in conse- 
quence of some advantageous proposals held out 
to them by the Tchitchians, a Mohammedan tribe 
in the vicinity, whose Effendies endeavoured to 
bring them over to the faith of the Arabian pro* 
phet. In this object they completely failed, apd 
80 exasperated were the Ingush at the haughty 
and violent conduct of the Effendies, that open 
hostilities broke out between them. The Tchit- 
chians, sure of victory, brought into the field a 
great number of waggons, in which to convey the 
female prisoners; but the Ingush, having called 
in the Russians to their assistance^ completely 
routed their faithless neighbours, and with the 
exception of some skirmishes, which occasionally 
take place between them and the Kabardians, 
who molest their flocks from the north side of 
the plain, they have not been since disturbed by 
any external foes. This exemption, however, from 
attacks from without, has been, and still is, nearly 
counterbalanced by intestine broils, and the bloody 
revenge of personal injuries. The Ingush are 
naturally of a high independent spirit, incapable 
of bearing an affront; and the most trivial cir- 
cumstance is often sufficient to produce quarrels, 
'wi^ch seldom terminate without murder. Ad- 
liering tei^Qiaciously to the oriental law of " blood 
for bloody" thjey never rest satisfied without aveng- 
ing the death of their relatives, and the principle 
is followed out in their generations, till it effects 
the death of the murderer, or one of his descend- 

4 - 

-•? ■* 


ants, on whom he is supposed to have entailed 
his guilt The Missionaries were acquainted with 
a young man of an amiable disposition, who was 
worn down almost to a skeleton, by the constant 
dread in which he lived, of having avenged upon 
him a murder committed by his father before he 
was bom* He can reckon up more than a hundred 
persons who consider themselves bound to take 
aviray his life, whenever a favourable opportunity 
shall present itself. There is scarcely a house 
in which there is not one implicated in something 
of this nature^ on which account they never appear 
virithout a loaded gun and sword. They also 
wear a shield, made of wood or strong leather, and 
surrounded on the outside with iron, in the use 
of which they are very expert. 

According to the investigations made by Mr. 
Blytbe, the Ingush believe in the existence of God, 
as a pure spirit, whom they call Dalle; a plurality 
of demons, who sometimes assume a visible shape, 
and appear as armed men, with their feet inverted ; 
the immortality of the soul; the resurrection of 
the body ; and the temporary punishment of the 
wicked in a future state. They have a daily form 
of prayer, and repeat benedictions at meals. That 
their ancestors, at some remote period, have made 
a profession of Christianity, most probably ac- 
cording to the forms of the Georgian or Greek 
church, may be concluded from the veneration 
in which they still hold the remains of churches 
and monasteries in the Caucasus, and their wor- 
shipping the images which are still visible on their 
walls. They keep fasts about the same time with 

486 BABYtASClOnS. 

fhe eitstem Cbristhnn, and rest both on tke firftt 
and third day of the week. 

Polygamy obtains among them, but the state 
of the f^omles is not so servile as among their 
Mohammedan neighbours, nor are they nnder any 
kmd of restraint in the way of ordinary inter* 
dourse. They pomish adultery with great se^ 
verity, both parties beiiig put to death. They 
are fond of dancing, but it is ah established cm* 
torn :am(tfig them, that the sexes never dance 

From the summit of the fort at Nasraa, an 
interesting view of the Ingush country is presented, 
consisting of hill and dale, with nearly seventy 
villages scattered about in every direction. Direct 
in front is a grassy mountain of considerable size, 
which we would fain have ascended, but the risk 
was considered too great. The prospect3 which 
it opens into the recesses of the Caacasus, are sasd 
to be in the highest degree picturesque and sub- 

Most of their houses are surrcMmded by a 
wattled inclosure, which forms a kind of court, 
asid contains the dwelling house, stables, corn- 
stacks, &c. The houses are built as near each 
other as the separate iaclosnres will allow, and at 
short distances, castles, or ^'towers of defeiK^ew'' 
have been erected, built partly of wood and partly 
of etone, into which they may repair in caae of 
a hostile attack. The entrance to these towers 
is near the summit, which they reach by meians Qf 
a ladder^ to be drawn up after them, so tfi to e^ off 
all farther commumcatbn. They hav^e these for- 

MAUSOldEUM. 487 

tresif s well itor^ iratk stones apd etkqr niissalet^ 
with whiofa they ammy the enemy below* 

The houses em buUt of wood^ plastered witk- 
clay, and teautrfoUy wiiite- washed with lime« 
The fire-place, in the wal) on one side of the mom^ 
we found well executed, and much resembliny 
what is eidiibited m neat country cottages in 
England. The roofr are fl^ after thq manner ^f 

thfi orientalfl 

The sorts of grain raised by the Ingush ase 
millet, wheat, and Indian corn, which they pre^- 
pare in various ways for household use. At one 
of their houses we were inyited to taste their 
inrandy^ but found it very weak, and posseted of 
a disagreeable taste. 

Observing a remarkable monument, on a rising 
ground some versts to the north-east of the fort, 
end having been informed that it was held in great 
sanctity by the Ingush, we obtained a guard 
firom the Commandant, the day after our andvsl, 
and went to visit it. On veaching the fisice^ we 
w^ere surprised to find it consisting of a regular 
heptagpnal edifice of twelve foet in height, «Hth a 
cupola rising six feet above it, and a portico, fieicipg 
the south, in which is a door four feet in height by 
^wo in width. In the interior we found four 
lamps of Oapecian workmanship, fixed in different 
cownetB of the ceiling ; and, in the floor, we dis- 
covered a large aperture, which narrowed as it 
descended, and, on exainining it by th€( light of a 
torch, wiQ fi>und it blocked up by a ^tone, yet evi- 
dently serving as an entrance to some subterrane- 
ous ^fodunent. I^ay^ng got imo of the soldiers to 


c\ezx the passage, and perceiving that the pave- 
ment of the gloomy vault was only about five 
or six feet from the aperture, we descended, one 
by one, the opening being only large enough to 
admit an ordinary sized person with some degree 
of difficulty. We now lighted two more torches, 
when we instantly discovered three dead bodies, 
lying in open coffins, side by side, with their 
feet towards the east. They appeared only par* 
tially decayed, and were hard to the touch, as if 
mummied by the subterraneous atmosphere. The 
silken shrouds by which they had been covered 
were all in tatters ; but the wood of the coffins 
was quite fresh. Two of them were female 
bodies, and the other was a male. On turning 
to the opposite side of this dormitory, we were 
not a little struck on finding a hare and a grey- 
hound lying beside one another, in the same shri^ 
veiled state with the human corpses. How they 
came here, it seems difficult to divine, except 
they may have been deposited by those who 
buried their dead in this mausoleum, as em- 
blematical of the extinction of that enmity in the 
grave, which so often leads man to hunt his fellow 
to its very brink. 

On the front of the building are three inscrip- 
tions in Arabic characters, but so ill-formed, and 
defoced, that we found it impossible to decipher 
them. From this spot we had a fine view down 
the valley of the Sundsha, in the direction of which 
appeared Ingush and Karabuluk villages as far 
as the eye could reach. 

In the afternoon, we proposed crossing the 


river, for the purpose of visiting a fine large In- 
gush village, on the rising ground opposite to the 
fort ; and, as we wished to see the natives, unac* 
companied by any guard whereby they might 
be intimidated, or by which our intercourse might 
be subject to some degree of restraint, we begged 
the Commandant to permit us to go alone, under 
the guidance of our friend Mr. Blythe^ who pos- 
sessed their entire confidence ; but our entreaties 
were in vain, on the ground that the risk was too 
great, and that he was answerable for our lives. 
Escorted, therefore, by a number of Kozaks, we 
forded the river, and, ascending the hill, rode 
directly to an extensive burying-ground behind 
the village. The graves are distingaished, partly 
by a kind of sepulchral monuments, consisting of a 
whitewashed stone wall, from four to six feet 
in height^ and partly by long wooden posts, indi- 
cating the graves of such as have fallen in battle, 
or in any of those frajrs which are so common 
among this people. Beside these posts, branches 
of trees, with a number of twigs, are stuck into the 
ground, to serve as an emblem by which intima- 
tion is given to th^ spectators that, though the 
deceased have no power to avenge their own 
death, it will be inflicted by the branches of their 
family. Conceiving that we had some hostile 
designs, or, at least, that we intended to commit 
some act derogatory to the honour of their fathers' 
sepulchres, the whole village rushed out upon us ; 
and, if our interpreter, who was a baptized Osse- 
tinian, had not satisfied them respecting our object, 
the consequences might have been of a very se- 

49D iHOuatimnioK. 

iriaus coin^exk)ii» m our guard of Koxalfs omH 
never liave withstood ao strong a body w that 
mustered from the village. Tbey wete comr 
ptetdy armed ; and had each a couple of small 
cenes, tied together near th^ middle, whieh Ibey 
stick in the ground, and on whidi they poise dieir 
muskets, so as to take a surer aim. 

The logush Mission was begun in the summer 
of 1821, and, during the short period of its cest- 
tmuance, presented as flattering prospects as 
could rationally be expeoted for the tiseie. Mt. 
Biythe succeeded in completely gaining the confi- 
dence of the people, and, on his part, formed a 
warm attachment to them. Having some know- 
ledge of medicine, he went among them, visiting 
their sick, and was very successful in adminis- 
tering to their bodily relief-^a circumstance which 
had a powerful effect in attaching them to him, 
and which shews the vast utility of pdissioparies 
being skilled in the healing art. One day, one 
of his patients, whose leg he. wfis rubbing with 
a liniment, exclaimed, '' Where is he from ? and 
what am I, that he should take so much eare 
of me V Snch is the effect of kindnesi;, in win- 
:ning the hearts even of savages and barbarians.* 

At the time we visited him, Mr. B. had made 
coBsiderable progress in acquiring a knowledge 
of the native iangaage, and* had h^ bpen per- 
mitted to stay, would, no doubt, in tb« course of e 
few years, have enriched it widi a tr9Mlation of 

• Browii''8 History of Missions, Vol. ii. p. 529« 


the divine oracles ; but, in the begimung ef 1822, 
he most nnes^ctccUy received crdeiv from the 
Giyvernor- General to qait the place, to the great 
yegret both of himself, and the pcmr benighted 
Ingush, who were thus once more abandoned 
)b> all the horrors of their pagan state. If we 
conceive snch an exalted idea of the man who 
is honoured to be the first herald of divine mercy 
to a heathen people, what aggravations of guilt 
must we attach to him who shall wilfully shut the 
door through which the Gospel was being intro- 
duced, to deliver them from the power of dark- 
ness, and turn them from the slavery of Satan 
to serve the living and true God ! 

The following morniog^ when about to return to 
Vladikavkaz, a messenger arrived, with the intelli- 
gence that the Kabardians had been seen collecting 
in considerable numbers in the vicinity of the moun- 
tains, and that it was conceived they designed to in- 
.tercept our passage. The Commandant was induced 
by this information to detain us till near eleven 
o'clock, and seemed, indeed, very unwilling, even 
then, to allow us to depart ; but the Captain who 
had the command of oar escort insisting on return- 
ing that day, we at last set off, and were accom- 
panied by several very intelligent Ingush, with 
whom we had much interesting conversation, 
carried on partly by signs, and partly through 
Mr. Blythe as interpreter. The questions they 
put to us, and the remarks they made relative 
to the common ties of humanity, proved them 
to be of a shrewd aud ready habit of mind. One 


of tbem, pointing first to us and then to them* 
selves, said, " You IngUsh, and we Ingush,^' and 
then, raising bis band first to heaven, and after- 
wards to themselves and us, added, ** Dalle made 
us both." 

By the protecting care of our heavenly Father, 
we arrived in perfect safety at Vladikavkaz about 
four o'clock in the afternoon. 


leave Vladikavkaz — Novimka — Balta — Maximka — Lan 

Porta Caucaiia — Dariel—Kaibek^KM-^Crou Mountain 
— 2%« Arofftm, cr Aragvi — Katkaur — PoMtanur — ilnontir— 

At an early hour in the roorming of the 8th of 
October, we began to prepare for our journey 
across the Caucasus. From Mozdok to Vladikav- 
kaz, we had had our baggage conveyed in a cart ; 
buty it being deemed preferable to employ horses 
for that purpose after leaving the latter fort, we 
availed ourselves of the order with which we had 
been kindly furnished by General Stahl, and 
bespoke three Kozak horses, for which we were 
to pay at the rate of twelve copecks per verpt. 
Our guard having been put in readiness to march, 
we left Fladihavkaz, about nine o'clock, in com- 
pany with an Abhasian Prince, and a Greek 
Archimandrite who accompanied him, whose mo- 
nastery lies in that part of Abhasia which belongs 
the family of the prince. His Highness was a 
young man of about twenty years of age, of a very 
prepossessing appearance, and was returning from 
Petersburgh, where, for eight years, he had been 


enjoying all the advantages pf an European educa- 

Having crossed the Terek, by a wooden bridge 
in front of the fortress, we proceeded southward^ 
across a level tract on the left bank of the river, 
which seems to have given it its present appear- 
ance by ancient inundations, in consequence of 
which the inequalities have been gradually carried 
away, till it has settled in the deep channel in 
which it now flows. On both sides rose three 
primary and lower ranges of mountains^ partly 
overgrown with wood, and partly with grass^ and 
gradually preparing the traveller for the more ele- 
vated and majestic scenes which they soon dis- 
idoae to Ms view. 

At the distance of seven versts we came tp 
Novmka, a small fortified place, chiefly inhabited 
by Qssetiniiuis ; and, a little further on, we airived 
at what may properly be called the key of the 
Caucasus — an Ossetinian castle, strongly built -of 
stone, scjuare ia form, with a tower at the south- 
east corner. The wall by which it is surrounded 
may be fifteen feet in he^ht. it belongs to a 
MirsxLy or Ossetiniau prince. Between this cattle 
and thQ boldly^terminating projection of the ,a4* 
jacent mountain, there is pnly space left fcr tjiia 
ifoadv )8o that the pass might be d^fpnded with the 
greatest ease. It is, most probably^ .|o this place 
Ihat Procopiiiis gives the name q^ Porta Ca^iq, 
beyond wh^eh^ towards the north, Jay the tract iar 
habited by the Hunnish tribes* whose country 
extended to the Pal us Msdotis. Entering this 
^rrow pass, w« were at once admitted to the 

BALTA. 495 

catitei&{>latito of some rabUme speciouens of the 
wildness and grandeur of Caucastaa scenery. Im- 
itiense beetling mountains overhung us, on the 
rigbt ; while cloBe below us^ to the left, flowed the 
Terek, with turbutent rapidity, towarda the plam. 
Againat its encroachmentB the road is frequently 
defended by strong embankments, consisting of 
lak*ge stones, interlaid with braaclies of trees, by 
means of which they are made to cohere with each 

Battiif the second little fortj. where it was ne* 
ceasary for um to diew our passports, and obtain a 
fresh supply of infantry, lies in a very pleasant 
Situation, on tlie brow of a ritsiug ground, occupy- 
ing the space between two high mountains^ and 
whieh, stretching a considerable way back, forms 
a fine fertile valley for the use of the flocks and 
herds belonging to the inhabitanta. A little fur- 
ther on, we came to a very narrow defile, where 
the road has been ctit entirely out of the solid 
rocks, which here rise to a great height overhead, 
while the waters of the Terek dash, with resistless 
fmrj, beneath the feet of the traveller. This place 
J¥as formerly defended by the Ossetinians, once 
tbe lords of these mountainous regions ; and, in 
eradieqaeiice'df the treaty made with them, when 
they, became subject to Russia, every merchant 
who passes with goods is still obliged to pay the 
iiuin of forty rubles in paper money. 
^ The road to Maximka, the third redoubt, lay, 
(far the most jpart, up the bed of the Terek ; and 
jbeing very stony, our horses made but slow pn>- 
(gresa. Opposite to the fort appeared a fine castle^ 

496 LARS. 

belonging to an Ossetinian tribe called the Te- 
ratshi; and the mountains on both sides of the 
river, though exhibiting little or no wood, abound 
in the richest grass to their very summits. Their 
sides are exceedingly steep ; yet we could descry 
hay-ricks at the height of more than two thousand 
feet above the Terek, where it seemed scarcely 
possible for any human being to maintain a foot- 
ing. Much of the hay is conveyed down on the 
backs of asses ; and from such places as are inac* 
cessible even to that animal, it is let down on 
a kind of sledge, with fopes, as soon as the winter 
snows begin to cover the mountains. 

We bad now a short ride to Lars, which con- 
sists of an old castle, with an Ossetinian village at 
the foot of it, and a Russian fort, with barracks, 
considerably up the face^ of the adjoining moun- 
tain. As we were admiring the ruins of an ancient 
tower, which has been built on the angle of a pro- 
jecting mountain, to oiir right, and just as we 
were turning the rocks below it, we were struck 
by Lars bursting upon our view, stretching so com* 
pletely into the Terek, and met by the nearly per- 
pendicular mountain on the opposite side, that 
our road seemed entirely blocked up. Turning 
the castle, however, and climbing by a circuitous 
and very acclivitous road, we reached the re- 
doubt, where we resolved to stay all night, and 
were kindly accommodated by the commanding 
officer with the use of his rooms. While tea was 
preparing, we went down to pdy a visit to Jan 
Koff Mirza, the proprietor of the castle ; but, on 
entering the gate, we surprised his wives, who 

^ " 


had been enjoying a little fresh air in the court, 
and who» the moment they discovered us, fled 
to some distant part of the edifice^ as if they had 
been pursued by a party of mountaineers* Two 
or three female slaves remained behind, the most 
aged of whom seemed quite to enjoy the surprise 
by which the ladies of the harem had been over- 
taken. We made signs to the old slave that 
we wanted to see the Mirza ; but, not understand- 
ing us, she sent for an Ossetinian, who spoke 
Russ, by whom we were informed that the pro- 
prietor was gone to Vladikavkaz. We then sent a 
message to his principal wife, asking leave to see 
the castle ; but she sent us back word that '' she 
was in fear;" on which we immediately retired, 
but were followed by the young Mirza, a lad of 
about twelve years of age, with a fine open face, 
and large expressive eyes, than which more beau- 
tiful never graced the human countenance. 

On the 9th, we passed the narrowest defile of 
the Caucasus — the Porta Caucasia of the ancients. 
The whole road from Lars to Dariel exhibits 
scarcely any thing but the most tremendous preci-^ 
pices on both sides, forming the termination of 
mountains between three and four thousand feet 
in height above the bed of the Terek ; and which, 
in many places, project so much forward, that 
all further progress seems impossible. About half 
way, the road led us through a long gallery, cut 
out of the solid rock, with here and there arched 
openings towards the Terek, which flowed imme- 
diately at the bottom of the precipice, up the face 
of which the half subterraneous passage has been 

K K 


cut out« . W6 were here detained a conaiderahie 
time by a number of carts with goods, that 
blocked up the passage; and it was not till a 
nupxber of soldiers, who were repairing the em- 
bankment of the riveri arrived to assist the horses^ 
that they proceeded up the defile. For upwards 
of two months the passage had been entirely stop- 
pedji in consequence of a large avalanche having 
been thrown down, from one of the adjacent snow-* 
mountains, into the Terek, by means of whiph. 
its waters were dammed up till they forced a new 
channel^ to the total destruction of many part^ 
of the road. Such travellers as ventured across 
th^ mountains, during this period, committed their 
horses and baggage in charge to the Ossetiaiass^ 
il^ho led them round by some circuitous and dan- 
gerous paths ; while the travellers themselves were 
conducted by a nearer route, yet at the^ gceat risk 
of their Uves* as they had often to be let down 
i^nowy precipices^ by means of ropes suspended 
from the sumvodt* 

paving cleared the carts, we rode forward to 
DarUl, deeply interested by the wild sublimity of 
the mountain scenery ; and still more by the dis- 
covery of the ruin^ of an ancient fort, on a pro* 
j[ecting rock qu the west side of the road, which 
we concluded 1y> be part of the wo^ constructed 
to d^foi^d the famous Iberian or Caucasian gate. 
A little further on, opposite to the small redoubt 
^ DarieU are the remains, of a fine castle, of 
superior worliLmanship, on a kind of half detached 
iiock, the only way to which has been hy a 
nearly perpendicular stair, hewn out of the. rock. 

KASBEK. 490 

tfie base of vrEich is at preseftt washed by 
the Terek. Where the iron gates, mentioned by 
ancient geographers, were fixed, cannot now be 
ascertained ; but it is most probable it was about 
this phce, and it is likely this very castle was 
that to which they gave the name of Cumana, or 
Cumania.* The whole of this narrow pass may 
be about six versts, exactly the distance of the 
fifty stadii specified by Procopius, in his descrip- 
tion of the place. 

At twenty minutes past twelve we entered 
Georgia, by crossing the Terek by means of an 
excellent bridge, and kept on the east side of the 
river all the way to Kobiy where it first approaches 
the road after its descent from the Alpine glaciers 
to the right. From Dariel to Kasbek, the road 
greatly improved ; only it lay at times across /im- 
mense hills of grit and debris, which have been 
washed down by some extraordinary exnndations 
from the mountains. Some of these beetled over 
our heads in the most horrific manner : 

duris cautibus horrens 


After ascending a considerable rise, almost en- 
tirely covered with debris, we reached the village 

* The account givea by FHiiy viost aptly applies to the 
above-mentioned place : " In the country of these people are the 
Caucasian gates, which by many are very erroneously called the 
Caspian— a prodigious work of nature, between abrupt preci- 
ptces> where are gates closed with iron- bars, under which runt' 
A^ river Diri {Terek 9) Coloris. On this side of it, upon a. 
rodk., stands a castle, which is called Cumania, and is so strong^ 
fortified, as to be capable of withstanding the passage of an it\^ 
Qamerable army." — Klaproth's Travels, p. S77« 

ic k2 

$00 KASBEK. 

of Kasbek, and, after some delay, obtained lodg- 
ings at the house of a late General of the same 
name. It more resembles a fort than a house, 
the court being surrounded by high and strong 
walls. Our apartment faced the Terek, and ap- 
peared to be the room allotted by the General for 
the reception of officers. Two large sofas, with a 
coverlet to each, a bed, and a table, was all the 
furniture it contained. The walls were white- 
washed ; and the ceiling, which was supported by 
massy beams, exhibited a very ludicrous appear- 
ance, being painted alternately with red, green, and 
Prussian blue. Our landlady, who was invisible, 
lived in the opposite corner of the court ; and ad- 
joining her apartments were those occupied by 
the relatives of the General, the slaves, &c. The 
roof of this part of the house is flat ; and, besides 
serving the purpose of drying fruit, &c., it is used 
by the family as a place for lounging, and observ- 
ing' what is going forward in the village. The 
walls, like those of all the houses in this quarter, 
the government-buildings excepted, are built of a 
kind of shistose stone, which easily splits into 
convenient pieces, and is piled up with small 
stones, filling up the interstices without any thing 
like oiortar. The village presents an odd appear- 
ance, abounding in fiat-roofed houses, which are 
nK)stly divided into two stories, the upper of which 
is occupied by the family, and the more do- 
mesticated animals, and the lower by the horses, 
buffaloes, &c. Several towers in the upper part 
of the village indicate the conviction some of the 
inhabitants entertain of the necessity of a place of 

KASBEK. 501 

refuge, in case of an attackTfrom the mountaineers ; 
though, we should suppose, the existence of a 
Russian garrison might remove all theii^fears.^ 

Close to the house of Kasbek stands a small 
neat church, erected at the GeneraFs expense, by 
workmen brought on purpose from Tiflis. It is 
built of argillaceous porphyry, found in a moun- 
tain on the opposite side of the Terek. The stones 
are hewn square, and properly joined with mortar. 
The roof consists of the same material. jj^The 
interior is very simple, and forms a striking con- 
trast to the gorgeous appearance of most of the 
churches in these parts. An inscription above the 
door intimates that it was begun to be built in 
1809, and finished in 1814. It is dedicated to the 
Sacred Trinity, and the Archangel Michael ; and 
exhibits inscriptions in Russ, Georgian, and Ar- 
menian. At the west end of the church is a 
steeple, standing by itself on six pillars, which we 
took for the belfry ; but the soldier who shewed 
us about, assured us it was raised over the mortal 
remains of the General. I'he whole is stated 
to have cost 50,000 rubles. 

Direct in front of the village, towards the west^ 
rises the majestic Kasbek, the snow-mountain next 
in point of height to the Elburz, and which, with 
its towering neighbour in the west, and the long 
intervening range, partly rocky, but mostly co- 
vered with perpetual snows, presents so noble and 
sublime a prospect, as seen from the plains be- 
tween Georgievsk and Mozdok. In the evening, 
we obtained only partial views of this immense 
Alp, owing to the clouds which were incessantly 

502 KASBEK. 

passing between; but the following morning aU 
was clear, and we had it full before us, robed 
in dazzling majesty. Its higher peak (for it ex- 
hibits two, as seen from the north,) has never yet 
been reached by any traveller. It was attempted 
by Engelhardt and Parrojt ; but they were obliged 
to desist, .after liaving nearly attained the goal 
of their wishes, by the dreadful storms, which 
threatened to dislodge them into some of the pro^ 
found gulleys below. According to their, baro- 
metrical observations, Kasbek is 14,400 feetsi>ove 
the level of the Black Sea. 

A very prominent object in the prospect b 
a church, built in honour of the Trinity, on 
the summit of a high mountain, apparently 
covered with grass, by which a part of Kas- 
bek is hid from the view. Service is only per- 
formed in it once a year, when a vast concourse 
of people ascend the mountain to perform their 
devotions, which are deemed the more sacred and 
meritorious, in consideration of the great toil oc- 
casioned by the ascent. 

We left Kasbek in company with two Kozak 
officers, who proceeded with us as far as Kohi^ 
which lies about sixteen versts further up the 
mountains. Fording a river which flows from 
the eastern mountains into the Terek, we came to 
an elevated plain, consisting almost entirely of 
cultivated fields. On the opposite side of the 
valley, a number of Georgian and Ossetinian vil- 
lages presented themselves to the view ; while to 
our left, on the bold summit of a rock, rose tke 
stately ruins of an ancient nunnery, defended 


KOBI. 503 

by a strobg castle^ and seeiningly communicating 
with a number of cells, in the front of a neigh- 
bouring rock. The place is called Zion. A little 
before reachihg Kobi, as we descended into the 
flat in which it is situated^ we descried, at the 
base of a perpendicular mountain to our left, a 
collection of mineral springs, which poUri^d their 
waters with great force into an adjoining meadow; 
They are strongly iibpregnated with iron, but 
are inferior to those of Kislovodsk. Close be- 
tween two of these acidulated springs is one per- 
fectly sweet, from which issued a quantity of 
water, neietrly as great as that propelled by any 
of the others. We were afterwards informed that 
there is a much stronger spring than any of thesie> 
in the bed of the Terek^ a few versts below Kobi. 
From this place, down to Kasbek, the Terek flows 
more gently, not meeting with any precipitous 
falls ; but beyond Kasbek, as far north as Lars, it 
forms almost a continued cascade. 

Kobi, the last station on the north side of the 
high pass of the Caucasus, consists merely of 
barracks for soldiers, Kozaks, &c. and a paltry 
room for the accommodation of travellers, and lies 
nearly in the centre, where four valleys meet— 
that of old Kobi, with a village of the same oame^ 
to the east; the valley, through which the Terek 
descends, from the west ; that^ divided by the same 
river, as it pursues its course nearly due north} 
and towards the south, the valley leading to Tiflis; 

Having beeh detained, first, by the want of 
horses, and afterwards by a heavy rain, from pro* 
secuting our joutney across the mountain, we 


were obliged to spend the night on the long hard 
bench at Kobi; but, on the morning of the 11th, 
after bidding an affectionate farewell to our kind 
friend, Mr. Galloway, we proceeded up the side 
of the rising valley, behind the fort, and fording 
the Tetri Dzgali, kept close to its eastern bank 
till we attained a considerable elevation, when we 
again crossed it on a bridge of snow, forming part 
of an avalanche which has been precipitated from 
the adjoining mountain. Numerous mineral springs 
presented themselves on the banks of the river, 
but the' water of such of them as we tasted, was 
not so strongly impregnated as those at Kobi. We 
had not long left the station when the rain again 
came on, and continued almost the whole way to 
Kashadr, and, as the atmosphere at this high ele- 
vation was keen, and the rain penetrated my 
boots, a cold, which the author had caught at 
Kasbek, brought on an ague, which rendered the 
remaining part of our Caucasian journey very 

About twelve o'clock we reached the Kresto^ 
vcda GorOy or ** Mountain of the Cross;'' so called, 
because on its summit, a little to the right of the 
road, is erected a large stone cross, commemora- 
tive of the conquest of the Caucasus by the Ru8«* 
sians; a conquest, however, which has never yet 
been more than partial, since so many tribes 
retain the whole of their ancient and natural in- 
dependence. Here the waters pursue their differ- 
ent courses, according as their origin is situated, 
to the south or north of the cross. To make a 
proportionate calculation from the observations of 


Engeihardt and Parrot, we should judge this point 
to be upwards of 7,000 feet above the level of the 
Black Sea. 

The Cross Mountain has rather a diminutive 
appearance from the north ; but, after you proceed 
down a most precipitous descent, into a low region 
of good meadow land, it assumes a more elevated 
appearance, though completely overtopped by the 
Alps, which tower to the sky in its immediate 
vicinity. We now came to a bulky mountain on 
the left, called Good Gora, and had to ascend to 
a considerable height along its western acclivity. 
Below us, at a great depth, we could hear the 
dashing of the Aragvi — the Aragon* of the an- 
cients — but a dense fog which enveloped us, pre- 
vented our enjoying the landscape. We had not 
proceeded far, however, when it began to clear 
away, and left some most interesting birds'-eye 
views of the grandeur of the surrounding scenery. 
We could descry the river pouring its waters down 
beautiful cascades through a valley on the oppo- 
site mountain, and presenting a fine white winding 
line towards the valley below us. We here turned 
round by one of the most horrific passes we ever 
beheld; the road being constructed along the 
brow of an almost perpendicular precipice, at 
the foot of which, several hundred feet below, 
stands an Ossethiian farm, diminished by the 
distance, into a mere speck. On the opposite 
side of the Aragvi, an Ossetinian village and castle 

• Ka2 ixcr& ravrtiy irora/iia irrev^ hrl roC 'APATOY iroro- 
/Mff, &c. Strabo^lib. xi. cap. 3.— Tov 'APAFON rdra roff Kav- 
xiL&ov fikovra. Ibid. 


present themselves y6rj romantically to tfafe Yiew,' 
situated en a hill of basaltic rock, and surrounded 
by fir-trees, which here appear for the first tiolie 
on the south «ide of the biountains. The summits 
of these mountains are entirely destitute of vege*' 
tation, but in the lower regions, on both sidea, 
though much more abundantly on the south, grow 
oak, pine» birch, walnut, and other trees, in some 
measure abswerifig to the description of the poet: 

Ipsae Caucaseo steriles in vertice silvas, 
Quas atiitnoBi Euri assidu^ frangutitque fbruntque, 
Dant alios alifle fetus; diint utile lignum 
Navigiia pinos, domibus cedrosque cupreasosque. 
Hinc radios trivere rotis, hinc tjmpana plaustris 
Agricolse, et pandas ratibus posuere cariDas. 

Georg. lib. ii. 440 — 445. 

On a certain night in the year, one of the adjacent 
mountains seetns to be entirely covered with fire. 
Were nothing more added^ the reader might 
find it difiicult to account for the phenomenon; 
but it is occasioned simply by an immense con- 
course of Georgians assembling from all parts of 
the country, and proceeding up the mountains 
with lighted torches, to pay their devotiobs at 
the midnight hour, in a celebrated church which 
is built on its summit. 

Our road now rat^ down the face of the i^ks, 
and at times across marshes abd meadows, till 
we came to the station of Kashailf, which we 
found situated in the midst of a number of Geor- 
gian farms and villages. His ague having greatly 
increased by the wsiy, the author was obliged to 
take to bed immediately on our arrival; but as 


k intermitted the foUowbg morning^, and our 
quarters were badly adapted for the reception 
of invalids, we set forward about eleven o'clock. 
After riding a few versts, which brought on a fresh 
attack of the complaint^ we came to the brink 
of the precipices to which, in all probabilityi Strabo 
refers^ where he speaks of ra M rf Apdyt» m-tyh, and 
dismounting from our horses, were glad to walk 
down the acclivitous road» which conducted us 
to the Aragvi. We here overtook the General's 
lady, with whom we had travelled from Mozdok. 
She had been detained by the difficulties attending 
the conveyance of her carriage, which was now 
being let down by the help of nearly half a regiment 
of soldiers, who had all been ordered up from 
their barracks in the valley. We now crossed 
the Aragvi, and rode along its right bank, amid 
the most sublime and romantic scenery, which, 
however, the author was but little capable of 
enjoying; and by the time we reached the fortress 
of Passandr, his pulse was beating at the rate 
of 130 in the minute. We were here accommo- 
dated with a better room than any we had been 
in since leaving Mozdok, and should have re- 
mained in it several days, had it not been deemed 
of importance to get forward to Tiflis, in order 
to obtain good medical advice. After a halt of 
two days, we rode on to AnanUr^ where there 
is a quarantine, in which we stopped till Monday 
morning, when we were glad to leave a place, the 
worst possible for an aguish subject It lies lotv 
on the bank' of the Aragvi, and the apartments are 
not only damp, but admit the wind in almost 

608 ^ DUSHETi 

every direction. Beyond the village^ on a fine 
healthful spot, a new quarantine establishment 
was erecting, which wore an interesting appear* 
ance, and will, when ready, furnish a very agree- 
able resting-place to the traveller who is oppressed 
with the fatigues of the mountain journey. Ex- 
cepting the church, which is dedicated to St 
Ahitophel^ and is surrounded by a fortification^ 
there is nothing worthy of notice about the village 
of Ananiir, though the situation is exceedingly ro- 
mantic, and must have possessed much interest 
previous to the destruction of the principal part of 
.the convent by the Lesgians, about the beginning 
of last century. 

Instead of proceeding further down the bank of 
the Aragvi, the road led us up the steep ascent 
of a considerable hill, which projects forward to 
its margin; having gained the summit of which, 
we descended into the fine cultivated district of 
Dushet, and spent the following day in a small 
town of the same name. A little to the west 
of the place is a fortified castle, towards which 
we advanced, expecting to obtain lodgings from 
the Commandant, but, for the first time since 
we set out on our journey, we were treated in 
the most cavalier style, and ordered back to 
the town, where the Master of Police, a gentleman 
with a wooden leg, billettedus on a Georgian 
family, which vacated the largest room in the 
house, but at the same time, left neither bed, 
table, nor chair for our accommodation. Having 
a quantity of hay brought in, we made a shake- 
down for each on the floor, and kindling a fire 

M'ZHET. 509 

in the middle of the apartment with a little wood, 
which we had some difficulty in procuring, we 
made ourselves as comfortable as possible during 
our stay. 

The ride from Dushet to the banks of the Kur, 
is s^ interesting as any about the Caucasus, the 
mountains in the distance, though not possessing 
those characters of the sublime which are exhibited 
a little further north, are sufficiently grand to 
excite admiration ; while the intervening land- 
scape is beautifully diversified by cultivated fields, 
farms, and small lakes, from which meandering 
streamlets flow in various directions into the 
valleys. Winding round the hills which separated 
us on the left from the Aragvi, we gradually 
descended into the fine open valley, which iff 
divided by that river, and called by its name. It 
exceeds, both in breadth and length, every other 
we saw in the Caucasus, and seems capable of the 
highest degree of cultivation. At the station of 
Kartishartj where we stopped the following night, 
we were greatly disturbed by the cries of the 
jackals, which abound in this part of the country. 

On the morning of the 20th, we prosecuted 
our journey towards Tiflis; and, after passing 
a fine old ruin, which hto another facing it on 
the opposite side of the river, and have both been 
of considerable importance in ancient times, we 
reached Mzhet, originally the capital of Georgia, 
and, in all probability, the Harmozike of Strabo;* 

• 'Airo ik rf c *Apftiyiac ra iiri rf Kiipf orera, Kulra M rf 
'Apdyf»* Uplr yap eig aXXi^Xovc irvfiire<r€tyy ^ovviy iiriKeifAivac 
ir6\etQ ipvfJLyag evl jrlrpaiQ, iwxp^irai^ dXX^Xwv 6froy iKKCuBeKa 

&10 TIFUS. 

the other town of Seusamara, described by him, 
having beea situated on the east side of the 
Aragvi, the site of which is still marked by the 
castle and convent of Sedatseni, towering to a 
considerable height above the river. It is situated 
in the angle formed by the confluence of the rivers 
Kur and Aragvi, and besides the noble cathedral, 
the ruins of the ancient palace of the kings of 
Gveorgia, and other monuments of fallen grandeur, 
presents to the view the chapel of Beata Nunna, by 
whom the Christian religion is reported to have 
been introduced into Georgia in the fourth century. 
The cathedral contains the tombs of several Geor- 
gian princes, and is the spot where the kings used 
to be crowned, and in which the dignitaries of 
the Georgian church are still consecrated. These 
noble relics of by-gone days are surrounded by 
a number of wretched looking hovels, and force 
on the mind a powerful conviction of the transient 
and unsatisfactory nature of all earthly enjoy- 

Proceeding about two versts up the left bank 
of the Kur, (o Kvpog^ the Q/rus of the ancients*), we 
came to the famous stone bridge^ constructed by 
order of Pompey, to facilitate the operations of 
the Roman soldiers in their expeditions into these 

fWfM. lib. si. cap. iii. 

* From this liver, the name ^•p. JTt'r, came to be appplied 
to the country through which it flows, whither the captive 
Damaaoflmsi were transported by the King of Assyria, 2 Rings 
xvL 9« Ancis i. 5. and from which the SyziacMi emigmted into 
Palestine Amos, ix. 7« 



regions. It consists of several arches, and is 
commanded by two square towers, raised on 
the rocks on either side, for its defence. We had 
scarcely passed it, when we met a large body of 
Kozaks, who had completed their time of service 
in the south; and turning round the projecting 
angle of the mountain opposite to M zhet, we 
entered the plain through which the Kur flows 
on towards Tiflls^ which city we reached about 
three o'clock in the afternoou. 


Narcutus, the Armenian ArMUhop — New Sect of AH^^Abdul- 
^hune — Catiphia, Ezra Tiii. 17 — Georgian Idieraiure^^ 
Georgian Bibie — 0$9eiinian GotpeU — German 
— Tijlis — Recrou the Cawcagus— -Return to Petertburgh. 

Being completely reduced by repeated attacks or 
the ague» the author was unable to leave the inn for 
nearly three weeks after our arrival in Tiflis« Our 
first visit was to General Vilieminof, the acting 
Commander-in-Chief of the forces in Georgia ; by 
whom we were kindly received, and at whose table 
we dined repeatedly during our stay. We also 
visited the Russian Archimandrite, who lives in 
a monastery, close to the castle, on the left bank 
of the Kur ; by whom we were referred to Narcis- 
sus, the Armenian Archbishop, as the only Vice- 
President of the Georgian Bible Society at that 
time in Tiflis. In our way to the monastery of 
his Grace, we passed an elegant row of shops and 
dwelling houses, which were being erected at his 
expense, for the accommodation of his country- 
men ; the profits to be derived from which, he 
intends devoting to the promotion of religion and 
science among . the Armenians resident in the 


south of Russia. According to the accounts we 
received, the clergy, both of the Armenian and 
Georgian churches, are, with few exceptions, in a 
state of the most desperate ignorance ; and in- 
stances have been found even of bishops who were 
unable to read the Bible. It is the object of the 
Archbishop to establish a school for the education 
of young men for the church ; and he intends not 
only to give them a complete course of instruction 
in their own language and literature, but also 
to make them familiar with the Greek, Latin, and 

We were received by his Grace in the kindest 
manner, and were repeatedly assured that he 
would do every thing that lay in his power to 
promote the object of our journey. We had 
scarcely returned from our visit, when he sent 
two of his servants with a rich present of wines, 
liqueurs, and various kinds of fruits, among which 
were some excellent pomegranates; and, in the 
evening, he came himself to the inn, where he took 
tea with us, and conversed in the irankest and 
most friendly manner imaginable. He gave us 
the greatest encouragement to proceed into Per- 
sia, as he assured us we should not only find the 
Armenians every where ready to receive us with 
open arms, but even the Persians themselves 
would be forward to listen to what we might 
advance on the subject of religion. He had ascer- 
tained it to be a fact, that there were upwards 
of 30,000 families, the members of which were 
convinced of the futility of the claims of Moham- 
med. They believe in Christ, whom they declare 



to be the trae God; but, in order not to be 
detected, they worship him under the name of 
j4U, by whom they nnderatand, the Powerful 
One. There are great numbers of them in Ma- 
zanderan, who meet among themselves, and con- 
verse about religion. The Archbishop^ was of 
opinioii that they would receive the New Testa- 
ment with avidity. r 

Narcissus was Bishop at Etchmiadxin when 
Henry Martyn was there, and is the individual 
spoken of, in his Memoir, by the name of Nestus. 
He could not express himself in terms sufficiently 
strong to convey an idea of the esteem he enter- 
tained for that devoted servant of Christ, or the 
general impression made on the Mohammedans 
an Persia by hb masterly attacks on the delusions 
of Islamism. 

About the year 1811, Abbas Mirza, the Prince 
Royal, ordered Mirza Mehdi to procure for him 
a Persic translation of the Pentateuch, done im- 
mediately from the Hebrew, and for this purpose to 
employ Abdulghune, a Jew, who had lately turned 
Mc^ammedan, and of whom mention is made in 
the Memoir of Henry Martyn. How £ur he pro- 
ceeded with the version, the Archbishop did not 
know ; but when in Tabriz, in the coarse of the 
same year, he waited on die Prinee, wlio almost 
immediately introduced the subject, and produced 
the translation. On turning it up, Gren. xvii. ^2. 
caught his eye, presenting the vrards mad, mad, to 
which he oould attach no meaning whatever. The 
Jew, being sent for to explain them, maintained 
that they were the identical words (iad wd) of the 


Hebrew text, and that they signified Mohammed, 
Mohammed. The Archbishop assured the Mirza 
that the interpretation was false, and, obtaining an 
Armenian Bible, read the passage as it ought to 
be rendered. '^ But/' said the Mirza, '* he is a 
Jew, and must know the Hebrew, which is his 
own language/* Narcissus told him not to take 
his word for it, but to compare the English, 
French, Russian, or any other version to be found 
in Tabriz, and to consult any Jew, who had not 
abandoned the faith of his ancestors, and he would 
find that the interpretation given in the Armenian 
Bible was right. The only way in which the Jew 
attempted to defend his translation was, by main* 
taining that the sense he had given was the hid^ 
deu, and not the zehir or obvious meaning of tb^ 

Two years afterwards, Abdulghune came to 
Etcbmiadzin, and, waiting on the Archbishop; 
confessed to him that he had been compelled to 
make an outward profession of Mohammedanism, 
but Ihat he was still a Jew in heart. When 
Narcissus began to prove to him, from the Old 
Testament Scriptures, that the Messiah was come, 
and, especially, when he pointed him to Isaiah 
vii. 14, which he begged him to read in Hebrew, 
the tears gushed from his eyes, and he was obliged 
to acknowledge the truth of the Christian mode 
of interpretation. Some time after, when he a^in 
visited the monastery, he seemed to have deep 
convictions of the absurdity of modern Judjtism, 
and told the Archbishop that he intended going to 
India, to be baptized, and make a public profes* 

L L 2 


sion of his fiadth- in Christ Since that time, he 
has not been heard of. 

The number of Jews inhabiting the Caucasus, 
especially its eastern regions, is very consider- 
able. They maintain that they belong to the 
tribe of Judah ; and it is extremely probable that 
they are part of those who remained, after the 
captivity, in the country bordering on the Caspian 
Sea, called in Scripture caipon H^fiod— -'' the place 
Casiphia." Ezra viii. 17. 

Although we found it impossible to transact 
any Biblical business during our stay in Tiflis, 
owing to its being deemed advisable to wait the 
arrival of the new Exarch, we effected a meeting 
of the leading persons in the town at the monas- 
tery of the Armenian Archbishop, with whom we 
conversed freely on the subject of the Bible So- 
ciety generally, and communicated to them the 
most recent intelligence of an interesting nature, 
in order to excite them to greater and more ex- 
tended operations in circulating the sacred Scrip- 
tures throughout the regions of the Caucasus. 

Previous to the fifth century, the Georgians, 
who were dependent on the Armenians, both in 
a political and ecclesiastical point of view, used, 
like them, not only the Greek ritual, but also the 
language and characters of the Greeks, in the 
services of the church, and the latter in every 
thing, even in their own language, which they 
wished to commit to writing. But after Miesrob 
had invented the Armenian letters, in the year 


430; they were also introduced among the Geor- 
gians, by the Armenian Patriarch Isaac; and 
since that period the Georgian alphabet has been 
formed from the Armenian. 

Soon after the invention of the Armenian cha- 
racters, literature beg^n to become indigenous 
to that country. It was not long before Isaac 
and Miesrob sent some young Armenians to 
Athens, for the purpose of learning Greek, that, 
on their return, they might translate the Bible^ 
and other books^ for the service of the church, from 
the Greek into the Armenian. From these mea- 
sures, the Georgians might naturally have ex- 
pected to reap important literary advantages; 
but ere it was possible for the Armenian Patri- 
archs to translate the Scriptures into their lan- 
guage, the Armenians were brought under the 
iron yoke of the Persians, in the year 46(1; on 
which occasion, numbers, both of the clergy and 
laity, were martyred, and the civilisation and lite- 
rature of that nation stifled in the very birth. It is 
also worthy of notice, that the influence of the 
Ught of science, as existing more plentifully among 
the Greeks, was withdrawn from the Armenians 
in the year 620, when, together with the Geor- 
gians, they separated from the communion of the 
Greek Church. 

This separation, however, in so far as the 
Georgians were concerned, only lasted about fifty 
years ; the Georgian Archbishop, Kyrion, renounc- 
ing his allegiance to the Armenian Patriarch, and 
submitting to the Patriarch of Antioch, returned 
into the bosom of the Greek Church. At this 


period Georg&aa literature properly commences^ 
Stimulated by the example of the Armenianst the 
Georgians sent young men of talent into Greece 
to learn the Greek language ; who, after their re- 
turn, furnished their countrymen with a translation 
of the Bible and books of the church. 

In Georgia th^re exists a two-fold dialect — 
that used in books> in the church, ot among the 
learned^ and the language of common life. The 
latter is a corruption of the former, and holds the 
same relation to it, that the Italian does to the 
Latin. The Georgian Bible is composed in the 
purer or more cultivated dialect. 

The Georgians have also two different alpha- 
bets ; the one called Kuzuri, i. e. the sacred, 
clerical, or ecclesiastical characters, in which all 
books are written that are designed for the use of 
the church. It consists of the letters invented by 
Miesrob, and transplanted from Armenia to Geior- 
gia. It is only acquired by the priests, and others 
who wish to cultivate literature^ and is that with 
which the Georgian Bible was originally written, 
and in which it was printed in the course of the 
liast century. The other alphabet is called Ked-^ 
vuli, and is supposed to have been invented by 
the Georgians themselves, when they fixed their 
chronology, known by the name of the Georgian^ 
and little more than five hundred years old. In 
these characters every thing is written that is 
purely of a civil, political, or mercantile nature. 

Agreeably to this statement, the Geoi^an 
version of the Scriptures must have been made 
from the Septuagint, and, as such, would have 


possessed considerable critical valne* if it had not 
greatly suffered in passing through so many cen^ 
turies, and, especially, if it had not been re* 
modelled and altered according to the Slavonic 
when brought through the press. 

The earlier fate of this version is unknown. 
Till last century it existed only iu MSS., and was 
probably only in the hands of a few of the clergy, 
the common people being altogether incapable of 
reading it. At length, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, the Psalms, the Prophets, and 
the New Testament, were printed at Tiflis, by 
order of the Prince Vaktangh. The entire Bible 
was printed at Moscow, 1743, in folio, after the 
flight of the last Kartelian princes into Russia. 
It was then collated and altered according to the 
Slavonic, by the Georgian Prince Arcil, by whom 
stlso it was divided into chapters ; and as his copy 
did not contain the book of Sirach, and the two 
books of the Maccabees, he translated them from 
the Slavonic version, and added them to the 
Gieorgian text. This prince dying before the work 
was put to the press, Joseph, the Archbishop of 
Greorgia, urged the princes who survived him to 
prosecute the work which had thus been inter«» 
nipted; and. Prince Vakuset, encouraged by his 
brother Bacchar, who defrayed the expenses of the 
edition, undertook to conduct it, revised the ver- 
sion afresh, according to the new edition of the 
Slavonic Bible printed in 1751, and introduced 
the use of verses, in imitation of the text of the 
same Bible. The edition was printed by permis- 
sion of the Holy Synod ; the types were cast by 


Andrew Johnson, Imperial printer in Moscow, by 
whom the first Georgian printing-office was esta- 
blished; the correction of the proofs was com- 
mitted to four native Georgians, under the direc- 
tion of Prince Vakuset ; and the edition left the 
press in 1743, in the 431st year of the Georgian 

As it may not be uninteresting to the lovers of 
Biblical literature, I shall here insert the account 
given by Prince Vakuset himself, in the Preface^ 
of the circumstances connected with the publica- 
tion of the Georgian Scriptures. ^^ These Bo(^s 
of the Old and New Testament were translated, 
by our old sacred translators, from the Greek lan- 
guage into the Georgian. But, in consequence 
of the great revolutions to which our country has 
been subject, the whole of this version of the 
Bible was reduced to such a state of confusion, 
that the books from Genesis to Kings fcurmed 
only one book. The remaining books were pro- 
perly divided; but Jesus Sirach and the books 
of the Maccabees were entirely lost. The New 
Testament had originally formed a part of the 
whole, but was separated from it. As Prince 
Arcil, who, on account of his faith, was obliged 
to leave Kartel, and repair to Russia, where he 
was honourably received by Peter the Great, 
was so £etvoured as to spend his days in that em- 
pire in peace, he formed the resolution of con- 
ferring a signal favour oh his nation, by causing 
the Holy Scriptures to be printed in their native 
tongue. With this view, he sent messengers to 
Prince Vaktangh, son of his younger brother Leo, 


;*eque8tiDg him to send him a copy of the Georgian 
version. His request was immediately granted; 
but the Biblical books were neither divided into 
chapters nor verses, and were, besides, corrupted 
by copyists. Arcil therefore compared the text, 
in the most careful manner, with the Russian 
translation ; translated from it the books of Jesus 
Sirach and the Maccabees; formed one book of 
all from Genesis to the Prophets; and divided 
the whole into chapters, like the Russian, but 
not into verses, the Russian version being then 
without them. Being overtaken, however, by 
death, he was not permitted to bring it through 
the press. . 

^' Some time ago, (in 1724,) in the last year of 
Peter the Great, Vaktangh, the son of Leo^ and 
nephew of Arcil, left Kartel, and proceeded to 
Russia, accompanied by his three sons, Baccbar, 
Yakuset, and George. Soon after, Vaktangh 
died ; and Prince Bacchar called on me Vakuset, 
his brodier, to undertake the printing of the Bible, 
which call I found it impossible to resist. On 
comparing the Georgian version with the Rus- 
sian, I found that entire verses, sentences, and 
words had been omitted ; and that it was divided 
into chapters, but not into verses; but these 
faults are not to be laid to the charge of Prince 
Arcil^ since he had only prepared it according 
to the defective Russian text, as it existed in his 
time, before Peter the Great ordered the most 
learned men in Russia to revise their Bible with 
the greatest diligence, and divide and correct it 


according to the HebreWi Greek/ Syriac, Latin, 
and Bulgarian texts. It^ has been my endeavcmc 
to render the present edition in these respects 
conformable to this new Russian Bible; and, on 
laying this business before my brother Bacchar, 
he summoned me, and all the Georgian clergy 
resident in Rjissia, to undertake this important 
work, and bring it to a conclusion. I therefore 
took it in hand, and, in the course of a year, pre- 
pared and arranged the text from Genesis to the 
Prophets. The Psalms, Prophets, and New Tes- 
tament had already been divided into chapters 
and verses by my father. Prince Vaktangh, and 
printed by him, while Prince of Kartel. Yet 
I also compared these books with the new and 
improved edition of the Russian . version, and di* 
vided the whole on the same plan» filling up what 
had been omitted; only I suffered some ex- 
pressions to remain, because they were more 
elegantly chosen in the Georgian language. All 
this I comprised in one volume. The types I 
caused to be founded in th^ metropolitan city of 
Moscow, and the printing was exeeuted in the 
suburb Svesenzcha."* 

From this edition^ the Moscow Bible Society, 
printed in the year 1816, an edition of the New 
Testament, consisting of 5,000 copies, in the Ked^ 
vuli, or church character; and in 1818, another 
edition of 2,000 copies, in the common charac- 
ter; both in quarto. 

* This accoant of the Georgian Bible is taken from Eich- 
librn's.Einleituiig, ii. Band. § 316. 


It is mach to be regretted^ that no racceilsfiil 
measures have been adopted to procure an accu- 
rate edition of the Greorgian Yersioii, done exclu* 
srilrely from MSS. as it is Well-known such MSS. 
still exist, both in the Iberian Monastery, at 
Mount Atbos, and in the Vatican at Rome. The 
late Gaiusy Greorgian Archbishop of Astrakhan, was 
long engaged in revising the Georgian Bible, and 
in consequence of a correspondence entered into 
with him by the Committee of the Russian Bible 
Society, he sent to Petersburgh two volumes of 
MSS. with his proposed emendations; but no use 
has hitherto been made of his learned labours. 
Having urged the importance of the natives of 
these parts, being furnished with a genuine edition 
of their own scriptures, we were informed, (hat 
there was a gentleman resident in Tiflis, who had 
m his possession a very anckut MS. copy of the 
Psalms, and on applying to him for confirmation 
of what we had heard, he not only produced the 
manuscript, but requested we would convey it as 
a present to the Russian Bible Society. We had 
an opportunity^ subsequently, of bringii^ the sub^ 
ject of printing an edition of the Psalms from it, 
before the Committee in Petersburgh, and measures 
have since been adopted for printing it in Moscow, 
under the care of tfa^ Georgian Archbishop* 

During our stay in Tiflis, we received a visit 
from an Ossetinian nobleman, of the name of 
lalgusidse, who, anxious to provide the means of 
Christian instruction for his countrymen, had 
- undertaken a translation of the four Gospels, 
and were presented with his MS. nearly ready 


for the press. At our request he translated parts 
of his version back again into Russ, to judge from 
which^ we had reason to believe, that it was eze- 
xcuted with a considerable degree of accuracy. It 
had been done chiefly from the Armenian. Con* 
ceiving it to be of the utmost importance that 
all first translations of the Scriptures should be 
as exact and faithful as possible, we begged him 
to revise the work once more, a proposition to 
which he willingly agreed, on our assuring him 
that we should then recommend the work to the 
Petersburgh Committee. His task has since been 
accomplished; and, after having been examined 
by competent judges, appointed on purpose by the 
Exarch Jonas, it has been put to the press at 
Moscow, under the care of the Bible Committee in 
that city. 

While the author was confined to his room, 
his travelling companion paid some visits to the 
German colonists in the vicinity of Tiflis. The 
following account of this people, extracted from 
the '* New Evangelical Magazine and Theological 
Review," for November, 1824, will furnish the 
reader vnth an accurate idea of their opinions and 

" The German settlers in Georgia consist prin- 
cipally of emigrants from Wiirtemburg, but there 
are likewise among them several families from 
Bad^n, and the country of the upper Rhine. They 
left Germany in the years 1816 and 1817, and 
came by the way of the Donau, and the Black 
Sea, to Odessa, where they were joinied by many 
Germans, who had been for many years settled 


ia the neighbourhood of that town, bat who now 
l^t their houses and lands, and went with the new 
colonists to Georgia, for the sake of enjoying their 
society, and with a view to the spiritual advantage 
of themselves and their children. 

" The principal cause of their emigration, was 
the prevalence of infidelity among the pastors, 
introduced by the modem systems of philosophy 
into the universities, schools, consistories, churches, 
and the books of religious instruction. On this 
account, many had, long before their emigration, 
separated from their churches, and held meetings 
for edification in private houses, where they^ to- 
gether with their children, were instructed accord- 
ing to their old system. But they suffered much 
persecution from the clergy; and fearing, that 
in time to come, their children might be ccmtami- 
nated by the prevalence of infidelity, they were 
anxious to remove to a land, where they could have 
liberty to worship God according to their con- 
science, and educate their children in evangelical 
principles. This liberty they were convinced they 
would enjoy in Russia, and it does not appear that 
they have been disappointed. 

'' But this was not the only cause of their 
emigration. They were much influenced to this 
step, by the conviction that the second coming 
of Christ and the millennium were near at hand. 
They had the idea that these would first be mani- 
fested in the neighbourhood of the Holy Land, 
and therefore they wished to be near these coun- 
tries, at the time when the first indications of the 


commencemeDt of the latter day glory should be 
given, in order that they might be partakers of the 
blessings attendant on the seeood eoming of our 
Lord. The origin of these ideas aniong them^ 
was owing to the circumstance that in Wiirten- 
berg, Bengel's Sermons on the Revelation, and 
several other works referring to the same subject, 
were much read by the pious : but nothing tended 
more to promote the spread of these ideas, than 
the works of Stilling, which were also much read 
in that part of the country. This author mentions 
the countries near the Caspian Sea, as the place 
where Chrisfs visible reign will begin ; but what 
he wrote figuratively, many of his readers appear 
to have understood literally, and were so com- 
pletely taken up with the subject, that in con- 
templating the glories of the millennium, many of 
them seem to have overlooked the necessity of 
being bom again, without which none can enter 
into the kingdom of God. But among these two 
classes of emigrants, there got in a third, con- 
sisting of a great number of men, who were either 
poor, and wished to better their worldly circum- 
stances, or who were not inclined to labour, and 
expected to find means of leading an easy life, 
without working. The two latter classes, although 
they had the exterior marks of piety, were mostly 
of depraved characters, and wholly set upon the 
world. Such were the characters and motives 
of the emigrants, when they left their country, and 
set out by the Donau, to Oallaz, and fix)m thence 
to Odessa. They had not proceeded far, before 


their union was broken by internal dissentions, 
and on reaching Odessa, Uie -whole congregation 
was in the greatest disorder, in regard to spiritual 
things. It may be mentioned here, that several 
of their leading men were so filled with the idea of 
the millennimn, and had soch a desire to setl^ 
as near as possible to Jerusalem, and the Holy 
Land, that they preferred settling in Georgia, 
rather than in the Cancasian district, where they 
night have settled more comfortably, and even 
ID Georgia, owing to their ignorance of the situ- 
ation of these countries, a number of them chose 
the most unhealthy situations, because they lie 
in the south of that province. 

** At their first outset, it is supposed they 
amounted to 1,500 families; but about 1,000 
families died on the Donau, and in the quarantines, 
before they reached Odessa, of a kind of ague, 
or rather plague. At present they amount to 
about 500 £aunilies ; as many, or nearly as many, 
having died since they left Odessa, as joined 
them in its neighbourhood* In Georgia, they 
are settled in seven villages or colonii^s. Five 
of these villages are in the vicinity of Tifiis, 
and two in the neighbourhood of Elisbethapole 
or Gansha. 

^'Having been long without proper teachers, 
many of them have imbibed opinions contrary to 
the pure doctrines of the Gospel. There are some 
among them who are guided much by the mys- 
tical books of Boebme and Gichtel, and other 
authors of the same description, and look for a 
peculiar degree of unscriptural holiness and illumi- 


nation by their own works, reject miairriage, &c. 
Others teach the forgiveness of sins without the 
renovation of the sinner; but these are errors (not 
formed into a system) that have crept in amongst 
them, in consequence of their not having had their 
attention properly directed to the word of God, 
as their only guide. In regard to the millennium, 
they suppose that Christ's visible reign on earth, 
will commence about the year 1836. But these 
ideas are not the belief of the whole, though of 
a great part of them ; and the more their attention 
is turned to the general truths of the Gospel, 
the more thesie opinions give way, though formerly 
they were firmly established in them. 

"At first they were very much opposed to 
regular pastors, on account of their having sufiered 
so much in their own country, from ungodly 
teachers. On their emigration, therefore, they 
chose for -their spiritual guides, those men who 
had conducted their edification meetings,, and had 
no doubt that they were also qualified for ad- 
ministering to them the ordinances of the Gospel, 
believing, that he only can be a true minister of 
the word of God, who is taught by the Holy 
Spirit. These ideas, however, which only arose 
out of their circumstances, they did not carry so 
&r, as to reject the preaching of pious clergymen, 
when they could get them. Last year, some 
German Missionaries, who went to Greorgia, 
preached among them without any resistance; 
but, on the contrary, there appeared a general 
desire to get such men to labour among them, 
as would preach the Gospel in its purity. They 

TIFLIS. 529 

have hitherto observed the ordinances of the Lord s 
supper and baptism, without regularly ordained 
pastors. These ordinances have been dispensed 
by the men chosen from among themselves for 
spiritual teachers. At present they observe the 
ordinance of tbe Lord's supper, six times a year, 
but according to their rules, they should have 
it monthly. 

"They generally choose their teachers by a 
Qiajority of votes, and that is all the appointment 
they have to the pastoral office; but since they 
have had their attention more directed to the 
Gospel, by the preaching of the Missionaries, 
many of their teachers or elders are anxious to 
be ordained, by the laying on of the hands of 
regularly ordained pastors.** 

Tiflis^ the capital of Georgia, lies on the right 
bank of the Kur, at the foot of a mountainous ridge, 
on part of which is constructed the fortress of 
Narekla, defended by thick and lofty .walls, and 
commanding tbe town, and the passage of the 
river immediately below. On the opposite bank 
is a high fort of considerable strength, past which 
the Kur flows with great rapidity through the 
narrow defile that lies between. The town con- 
sists of three parts; Tiflis proper, Kala, and the 
suburbs, Garediubana, Isni, and Avlabari, which 
are inhabited by Chaldeans and Kurds. ThQ 
streets are exceedingly irregular, and so very y 
narrow, that few of them admit a cart, and some 
of them scarcely a person on horseback. They 
are also, for the most part; very dirty, and the 
air and appearance of the place altogether, is 

M M 


calculated to repel the traveller, who is accus- 
tomed to European towns and manners. With 
the exception of the house of the Governor- 
General, and some others built by Russian officers, 
together with a new row of shops, not yet finished, 
every thing looked perfectly Asiatic. 

The covered Baz&r, through which we rode 
several times on horseback, presents a motley 
scene, being filled with shops of every description, 
upwards of seven hundred in number, and is fre- 
quented by Georgians, Armenians, Persians, Turks, 
Tatars, Kurds, Ossetinians, Jews, &c., all busily 
engaged in noisy barter, or preparing their wares 
for sale. The town is considered exceedingly 
unhealthy ; and we were informed, that the number 
of Russian soldiers who died about the time of 
our visit, was so great, that the priest was obliged 
to obtain assistance to enable him to bury them. 
Insalubrious, however, as the air is, and fatal as 
it too often proves to Europeans, its effects would 
be still more powerfully felt, if it were not for the 
excellent warm baths, to which the inhabitants 
frequently repair, and derive great benefit from 
the use they make of them. The population is 
supposed to amount to between ] 8,000 and 20,000 

Our projected journey into Persia having been 
entirely frustrated, we set out about the middle 
of November on our return to Petersburgb, not 
without some apprehensions, lest the lateness 
of the season should present serious difficulties 
to our crossing the Caucasus. As we approached 
the higher regions, however, these apprehensions 


were removed, by the discovery that the <ittaatity 
of snow that had fallen was much lass than was 
reported at Tiflis. The only serious obstacle which 
threatened us some inconvenience, wa« the steep 
ascent oil the road along the brink of the hideous 
precipice in front of Kashadr. Arriving at the 
baae of the hill a little after dusk, we began to 
asoend, but the snow on the super- adjacent moun- 
tain, having been melted during the day by tlie 
heat of the sun, the road, into which the water had 
run, was now converted into a glassy surface of 
ice, so that every step we attempted to take, 
exposed us to the most imminent danger. Finding 
it impossible to lead our horses, we suffered them 
to scramble up before us, while we ourselves 
endeavoured, as well as we could, to cUmb the 
ascent on our knees and hands, every now and 
then interrupted by the slipping of the horsey* 
wbich^ we had great reason to fear, might of a 
sudden precipitate us into the valley below. 

After we had made considerable progress, and 
just as we began to entertain the hope of speedily 
reaching the summit of the pass. Dr. Paterson's 
horse lost his footing, and sliding down past us, 
was hurled over the precipice into the yawning 
abyss on our left, where nothing was perceptible, 
but the deafening roar of the Aragvi flowing alcmg 
to the south. To attempt to descend the preci- 
pice, would have been the hdght of tem^ity, even 
in the day-time; we were, therefore^ under the 
necessity of reporting what had happened to the 
Hsfficer at the barracks in the valley, that the saddle 

M M 2 


and other articles attached to the horse, might 
be recovered the following morning. 

We now deemed it advisable to make a strong 
effort to reach KashaCkr^ with safety to our persons, 
whatever might become of our baggage*. Having 
cleared the pass, however, we soon found our- 
selves bewildered among the mountains, and 
should most likely have been under ttie necessity 
of spending a cold winter's night on the top of the 
Caucasus, had we not discovered a light, which, 
on approaching it, we found proceeded from a 
fire that some of the mountaineers had kindled 
upon their journey. The savageness of their looks, 
and our knowledge of their general character, 
proved no very agreeable relief from the horrors 
of the scene we had just quitted; however, as- 
suming a little courage, we accosted them with 
the word Kashailr, on which they instantly rose 
from the fire, and in the kindest manner possible, 
pointed us towards the station, which, by the kind 
Providence of God, we reached in safety, in the 
course of a quarter of an hour. 

The reader may judge of our surprise, when 
he is informed, that, on the arrival of our servants 
with the Kozaks and baggage horses, in less than 
two hours, we found Dr. Paterson's horse, scarce- 
ly, if at all, injured by the fall. A number of 
soldiers having been dispatched in quest of the 
animal, they found him stopped in his fall by a 
tree, and in the attitude of sliding down with his 
hind legs foremost. The only effect it appeared 
to have on him was, that afterwards, on approach- 


ing any steep place, he discovered an uncommon 
degree of timidity. 

The highest summit of the Caucasian pass, we 
found entirely covered Mrith snow; but the road 
having been cleared by Russian soldiers and 
Ossetinians, we surmounted it without any diffi- 
culty. On once more looking down towards 
Europe, we espied a regiment of young recruits 
approaching us on their way to the Persian fron- 
tiers. We soon descended upon them, when we 
found that they were accompanied by their wives, 
who were also climbing the snowy steeps of the 
Caucasus, some of them robust, and apparently 
able to stand the fatigue, bu^ others in a most 
pitiable state, either advanced in the last stage of 
pregnancy, or but just delivered, and carrying 
their new-bom infants on their breasts. 

We were here interrupted for some time by 
a train of artillery, part of which we had to pass 
close to a precipice, where the least jerk frpm 
any of the horses, which were rather restive, 
might have engulphed us in the snowy deeps be-^ 
neath us. 

At Kobi, the author was again seized with the 
ague, but succeeded in reaching Mosdok, where 
he was confined to his bed more than eight days, 
as he afterwards was for several weeks at Astra- 
kkati ; and, indeed, it was not till the iponth of 
June the following year, that he finally recovered. 
During the whole journey by way of Tzaritzin^ 
Saratof, Pensa, Arzamas, and Vladimir, to JUas- 
cow, we slept only once or twice in a bed ; the 
stations in general affording us no accommoda- 



tions, and indeed, we had now become so accus- 
tomed to lie on the floor, that we preferred our 
shake-down of hay to any other place of repose. 

By the good hand of our God upon us, we 
arrived in Petersburgh on the 11th of February, 
1 822, to the great joy of our families, from which 
we had been absent upwards of eleven months, 
and had, in the course of that time, performed a 
journey of nearly 9,000 versts. 


JLl. AViKo bad occasion, towards the close of the preceding work, 
to advert to some of the Caucasian tribes, it may prove acceptable 
to some of my readers, to be here presented with a tabular view 
of the different people inhabiiing the countries between the 
Black and Caspian Seas, with a probable estimate of their 


1. The Georgians proper, in the provinces of Kartelia, Ka*- 

chetia, Akhalcik, Imeretia, and Guria« 

2. The Mingrelians. 

S* The Ltfzi, or Lashes^ between Gnria and Trebisond. 
4. The Soanes, inhabiting the mountaina between Mingrelia 
and Mt. Elburs. 

II. ARMENIANS, in greater or less numbers in all the towns, 

and more especially in the provinces of Karabagh and 

III. JEWS, in the provinces along the western shores of the 

Caspian, and in scattcre<1 families in different parts of 
the mountains^. 



IV. TCHERKESSIANS, between the Kuban and the central 
mountains of tbe Caucasus^ and also in Great Kabardia 
and on the Terek. The following are the principal 


1. Bettenis. 
9. Mudoshet. 
S. Abasechs* 

4. Kemurquehs* 

5. Bese{fuch** 

6. Haiiiquehs. 

7. Shapthiks, 

8. Skanis* 

9* Shegahehsm 

V. ABHASIANS, along the coast of the Black Sea, between 
Mingrelia and the Kuban. 

1. Sads. 
S. Tchashes^ 

3. Aibgtui, 

4. Akshibses. 

5. Kirpiea* 

0. Beshilbays* 
?• Midaviei, 
8. Barrakuit. 
9' Kanlbeg*. 

10. Tekegrehs. 

11. Backs. 

12. Tuhis. 
IS. Ubuchs, 

14. Besubdeht. 

15. Abarechs. 

16. Nedquadshas, 
17* Laues. 

18. Bi^er^; 

19. EUlches. 

20. Dshanienirsm 
SI. Framkis, 

VI. BASSIANS, to the north of Mt. Elburz. 

1. TcA^^ffftf. . 2. Balkas, 3. Karalchais. 

yil. — ^LESGIANS, east of Georgia, along the eastern ridges 
of the Caucasus, and towards the Caspian. 

1. Avari, 

2. Unsokkls, 

3. HidaU. 

4. BakdalaU. 

5. Mukrats, 

6. Karaksm 

1, Takaseruks. 
8. Du/of. 
9* C/ruoff. 

10. Kdbuiches. 

11. Anizuks. 

12. 7%e/ie/>. 

13. 2Viftt«rgi«« 

14. TcAfTiib. 

15. Andes, 

16. Bogos. 
17* GumbetSm 
18. TiVm/m. 



19 Burtunns. 
SO. Soloia9. 
21. Gubars. 
S2. Akushat. 

85. Knbelckii. 
84. Zudakaras. 
85* Kanhtmuki. 

86. Kaidaki. 

VIIL— OSSETINIANS, in the central regions of the Caucasus. 

1. Duiorgy or KUtu 
8. Tchimii. 
5. Thagaurs. 

4. Kutihatds. 

5. WktagurSm 

6. TafioMitf. 

7. Naras. 

8. Saramagas. 

9. SegeUs. 

10. Sorogat, 

11. Kiusris'kevis, 
18. Sakas. 

IX.— MIDSHEGS, to the N. and N. E. of the Caucasian Chain. 

1. Ingush. 
8. Karabuluki* 

S. Tushes. 
4. TchelchenzL 

X.— TATARS, in the North and East 

K Nogais. 

. 8. XitfiniiA^. 

8. Truckmen 


1. Georgians, • 

, . 140,000 

8. Armenians . , 

. • 80,000 

9. Jews • • • 1 

, . 15,000 

4. Tcherkessians 

. . 800,000 

5. Abhasians • , 

. 48,000 

6. Bassians . . , 

, . 8,000 

?• Lesgians • . 

. . 150,000 

8. Ossetinians • . 

. . 16,000 

9* Midshegs • . . 

, • 48,000 

10. Tatars .... 

. . 70,000 


^1, 709>0OO 


Of these tribes, the Tchericessians, most of the Lesgians, the 
principal Abhasian tribes, the Tchetchenai, the Nogais, the 
Kumuksy and the Karatdiaii, are Mohammedans ; the Soanes, 
Tushes, and part of the Ossetinians, are Greek Christians ; the 
rest, with the exception of the Georgians, Armenians, and Jews, 
are in a state of heathenism. 


« « 

Dcnnetl, Priot«ri Lralber Lane»Holbonu 


Page 39, line 1, for exists rtad exist 

62, note, line 24, for Bohomia rtod Bohemia 
147, line ^yfor assembage rtod assemblage 
155, title, for Beilgorod rtad Bielgorod 
305, et passim, for Rabbinists rtad Rabbanists 
978, line 16, for object rtad objects 
352, line 26, for like rtad likely 
367, line 18,^ fool's rtad fools 


1. AN APPEAL to the MEMBERS of the BRITISH and 
FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY, oo the Subject of the Tqrkish 
New Testament^ printed at Paris in 1819; containing a View 
of its History, an Exposure of its Errors, and palpable Proofs 
of the Necessity of its Suppression. Price Ss. 1824. 

OF DEFENCE, and the True Principles of Biblical Transla- 
tion Vindicated: in answer to Professor Lee's *' Remarks on Dr. 
Henderson's Appeal to the Bible Society^ on the subject of the 
Turkish Version of the New Testament, printed at Paris in 1819." 

8. AN EXPOSITION of such of the PROPHECIES of 
DANIEL, as receive their Accompyshment under the New 
Testament; together with a Comparison between them and the 
Apocalypse, as explained by the late Dr. Bengelius. By the 
late Rev. Magnus Fred. Roos, A. M. Superintendent and Pre- 
late in Lustnau and Anhausen. Translated from the German. 
8yo. Edinburgh. 181 L 

first Danish) TRANSLATION of the NEW TESTAMENT. 

4to. Copenhagen. 1818. 


5. ICELAND; or the Journal of a Residence in that Island 
during the Years 1814 and 181#; containing Observations on 
the Natural Phenomena, History, Literature, and Antiquities of 
die Island; and the Religion, Character, Manners, and Cus- 
toms of its Inhabitants. With an Introduction and Appendix. 
Illustrated with a Map and Engravings, Second Edition. 
Price l6s. boards. I8I9. 


Threie Parts. Part I. On the Qualifications of Translators. 
Part IL Helps for facilitating the Translation of the Sacred 
Scriptures. Part III. Canons of Biblical Translation. The 
whole illustrated by numerous examples from the Ancient Ver- 
sions and Modem Translations, and interspersed with Remarks, 
Critical, Philological, and Bibliographical. 




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