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The University of Toronto 


Columbia College 

October 2isT, IB90 



^tm S^ooft^ in tJje dint^^^ Sancuage, 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrbsoft Corporation 






VOL. m 


DAVID G. FRANCIS 506 Broadway 









25i6Iio0m]3{)icaI Stccount 


Nash, Thomas. — The Anatomie of Absurditie : Contayn- 
ing a breefe confutation of the slender imputed prayses 
to feminine perfection, with a short description of the 
severall practises of youth, and sundry follies of our li- 
centious times. No lesse pleasant to be read, then prof- 
itable to be remembred, especially by those who live 
more licentiously, or addicted to a more nyce stoycall 
austeritie. Compiled by T. Nashe. Ita diligendi sunt 
homines, ut eorum non diligamus err ores. — At London, 
Printed by J. Charlewood for Thomas Racket, and are to 
be solde at his shop in Lumberd street, under the signe 
of the Popes heade. Anno Dom. 1589. 4to. B. L. 
23 leaves. 

Having been born in Nov. 1567, at Lowestoft, Nash,i when he 
wrote this work, one of the most interesting of the many he left 

1 We take the following entries regarding the family of the Eev. "Wil- 
liam Nash, the father of Thomas Nash, from the Baptismal Register of 
Lowestoft, Suffolk, as copied by Mr. Peter Cunningham, for Shaksp. Soc. 
Papers, III. 178- 

"Feb. 6. 1561-2. Mary, the daughter of Wyllyam Nayshe, minester. 

"June 12. 1563. Nathaniell ye sonn of Wyllyam Nayshe minester and Margaret 
his wj-fe. 

VOL. III. 1 

2 Dibliograpljtcal Account of 

behind him, was onlj-- in his twenty-second year ; but he began 
authorship two years earlier, when he supplied Robert Greene 
with an Epistle printed before that popular .novelist's " Mena- 
phon," 1587. He continued to live by his wits and by his pen 
after he quitted St. John's College, Cambridge, and we never hear 
of him but in his capacity of an author, and as the companion of 
the free-living young men of his day. When he wanted money, 
as was often the case, he usually resorted to his standish.i His 

"Aug. 17. 1567. Israeli, ye gonn of Wyllyam Nayshe mincster and Margret his 

" Nov. (no day) 1667. Thomas the sonn of Wyllam Nayshe minester and Marga- 
ret his W. 

'' May 26. 1570. Martha, the daughter of Wyllyam Nayshe preacher and Mar- 
garet his wife. 

•' April 13. 1572. Martha the daughter of Wyllyam Nayshe minister and Marga- 
ret his W. 

"Dec. 6. 1573. Rebeca the daughter of Wyllyam Nayshe minister and Margaret 
liis W." 

The father must have been twice married, each time to a lady named 
Margaret. The first Margaret died and was buried in 1561-2. Israel the 
second son was buried 7th December, 1565, and Martha the second daugh- 
ter on 27th April, 1571. A second Martha was buried on 14th August, 
1572. The Rev. William Nash came to Lowestoft in 1559, and we do not 
hear of him there after 1573, when William Bentlye became Vicar. Per- 
haps he then died, or had only executed the duties of the parish until 
Bentley was of sufficient age to be instituted to the vicarage. Thomas 
Nash, our author, having been bom in November, 1567, was about three 
years and a half younger than Shakspeare, to whom we do not recollect 
that he anywhere even alludes. 

1 When we say that Nash, when he wanted money, " usually resorted 
to his standish," we ought to bear in mind that he not only wrote upon 
his own account, but often furnished the young gallants of the day with 
verses, in which they addressed, flattered, and, of course, pleased their 
mistresses. He gives evidence to this fact himself, in his " Have with 
you to Saffron Walden," 1596, sign. E 3 b. "I am faiiie to let my plow 
stand still in the midst of a furrow, and follow some of these new-fangled 
Galiardos and Senior Fantasticos, to whose amorous villanellos and qui 
passas I prostitute my pen, in ;the hope of gaine." (See this Vol. p. 22.) 
That is to say, he had neglected his own business in answering Harvey's 
attacks upon him, in order to write for the young lovers of the day songs 
and poems for which they paid him. Some of Nash's villanellos and qui 

(Earhj (Englxal) £iterature. 3 

career was comparatively short, for he was dead in 1601 when 
Charles Fitzgeoffrey printed the Cenotaphia at the end of his 
AffanicB. As it has been asserted that Nash did not die until 
1604, (Dyce's Middleton, V. 562,) we may here quote Fitz- 
geofFrey's lines, which we have not seen extracted : — 

^^ThomcB Nasho. 
" Quum Mors dictum Jovis imperiale secuta 
Vitales Nashi extingueret atra faces; 
Armutam juveni linguam calamumq. tremendum 

(Fulmina bina) prius insidiosa rap it, 
Mox ilium aggreditur nudum atq. invadit inerme 

Atq. ita de victo vate trophaea refert. 
Cui si vel calamus prsestb vel lingua fuisset, 
Ipsa quidem metuit mors truculenta mori." 

The fact, therefore, of the death of Nash before the above was 
written cannot be disputed. 

Nash tells Sir Charles Blunt, afterwards Earl of Devonshire, in 
the dedication of the work before us, that it was " an embrion of 
his infancy," meaning, no doubt, that he had begun it some years 
before he published it. Here, too, we learn a point of his per- 
sonal history not hitherto touched upon, namely, that " two sum- 
mers " before he wrote he had been in love, and that he had been 
jilted by the lady he courted : hence, he avows, that " pensiveness 
had overtaken him " which he had never overcome, and led him 
to declare that " constancie will sooner inhabit the body of a Ca- 
melion, a Tyger, or a Wolfe than the hart of a Woman." Hence 
his animosity to the sex in general, displayed without much re- 

passas found their way into musical miscellanies, and one or more of them 
(though it may not be easy to point out which) were printed in Dowland's 
" Second Booke of Songs and Ayres," folio, 1600. What Nash had done 
in this way, had been done by others from the time of Gascoigne down- 
wards. The author of " The Forest of Fancy," 1579, tells us that some 
of the poems there published had been written for persons " who craved 
his help in that behalf." Marston, in 1598, imputed the same thing to 
"Roscio the tragedian"; Drayton was avowedly so employed; and Sir 
John Harington, in one of his epigrams, says that verses had become 
"such merchantable wares" that "sellers and buyers of sonnets" were 
then common. 

4 iSibUojrapljical ^Iccount of 

serve in his "Anatomy of Absurdity." At the close of the dedica- 
tion he very modestly prays Sir C. Blunt to censure of him " as 
one that dooth partake some parts of a scholar." 

The fact is, that he had taken his degree of B. A. in 1586, then 
travelled in Italy, perhaps to wipe out the impression of his 
boyish attachment, but had certainly returned to England before 
Greene produced his " Menaphon " in 1587. It is singular to find 
Nash in his "Anatomy " ridiculing Greene as the " Homer of 
Women " ; but not surprising that he should fall foul of Lyly's 
euphuism, and affected allusions, and that he should aim a severe 
blow at the Puritans, especially at Philip Stubbes and his "Anato- 
my of Abuses,** which had come out in 1583, while Nash was at 
the University. He says : — 

" I leave these in their follie, and hasten to other mens furie, who make 
the Presse the dunghill, whither they carry all the muck of their melan- 
cholicke imaginations, pretending, forsooth, to anatomize abuses, and stiib 
up sinne by the rootes, when as their waste paper, beeing well viewed, 
seemes fraught with nought els save dogge daies effects, who, wresting 
places of Scripture against pride, whoredome, covetousnes, gluttonie and 
drunkennesse, extend their invectives so farre against the abuse, that al- 
most the thing remaines not whereof they admitte anie lawful! use." 

He denounces Stubbes and all his adherents and supporters 
as " hypocrites," and declares that, however they may appear in 
public, " in their private chambers they are the expresse imitation 
of Howleglasse." (See Vol. II. p. 140.) 

He afterwards touches upon other points, and laughs at the 
" babbling ballads and new-found songs and sonnets, which every 
red-nosed fiddler hath at his fingers' ends," disowns them for 
poetry, and with excellent judgment adds : " I account of Poe- 
tne, as of a more hidden and divine kinde of Philosophy, en- 
wrapped in blinde Fables and darke stories, wherein the prin- 
ciples of more excellent arts and morall precepts of manners, 
illustrated with divers examples of other kingdomes and countries, 
are contained.'* 

At the same time he is hardly sufficiently tolerant of the ro- 
mance writers of his own and former days, and treats with little 
respect "Bevis of Hampton, Arthur of the Round Table, Arthur 
of little Brittaine, Sir Tristram, Huon of Bordeaux, the Squire of 

(!Earlj3 €nglisl) f iteratitre. 5 

Low Degree, the Four Sons of Aymon, with infinite other " simi- 
lar works of fiction. In conclusion, he makes a sort of apology to 
the learned, and even condescends to entreat the " patience of 
women " for the attacks he had made upon them. The attacks 
themselves have little noveltv. 

Nash, Thomas. — The Returne of the renowned Cava- 
liero Pasquill of England from the other side of the 
Seas, and his meeting with Marforius at London upon 
the Royal Exchange. Where they encounter with a 
little houshold talke of Martin and Martinisme &c. If 
my breath be so hote that I burne my mouth, suppose I 
was Printed by Pepper Allie. Anno Dom: 1589. 
B. L. 4to. 16 leaves, 

Thomas Nash obtained the appellation of " Pasquil of England,'* 
and, having travelled abroad, as we find by his "Almond for a 
Parrat " and some of his other works, this tract would seem to 
have been printed soon after his return to England, when he found 
the Martin Mar-prelate controversy in full activity. No printer's 
name was attached to it, because perhaps it was feared it might 
give ofience to persons in authority. Nash promises in it various 
other pamphlets on the same subject, such as " The Owls' Alma- 
nack," " The May-game of Martinisme," and the " Golden Le- 
gend of the Lives of the Saints," or the chief supporters of the 
Martinists, which never appeared, and were probably only threat- 
ened. He acknowledges the authorship of "A Counter-cufTe given 
to Martin Junior," printed in the same year as the tract before us, 
which is entirely prose. One of the sub-titles of Lyly's " Pappe 
with an Hatchet" is " a Countrie Cuflfe " for " the idiot Martin," 
but it is not to be confounded with Nash's *' Counter-cuffe," which 
was printed in the same year. 

6 j0ibltograpl}tcal 2lcconnt of 

Nash, Thomas. — The first parte of Pasquils Apologie. 
Wherein he renders a reason to his friends of his long 
silence : and gallops the fielde with the Treatise of Ref- 
ormation lately written by a fugitive John Penrie. — 
Printed where I was, and where I will bee readie, by 
the helpe of God and my Muse, to send you the May- 
game of Martinisme for an intermedium, betweene the 
first and seconde part of the Apologie. Anno Dom. 
1590. 4to. B. L. 16 leaves. 

It has been the custom to assign this tract to Nash, but we do 
not think it in any respect good enough for him, and in some 
places too serious and scriptural. On sign. B 2 b, we meet with 
the following mention of John Lyly's " Pap with a Hatchet," 
which had come out in the year preceding : '' I warrant you, the 
cunning Pap-maker knew what he did, when he made choyse of 
no other spoone than a hatchet for such a mouth, and no other 
lace then a halter for such a neck." 

On the first page the author speaks as follows : " It is now al- 
most a full yeere since I entered into the lystes against the Fac- 
tion, promising other Bookes, which I keepe in yet, because the 
opening of them is such an opening of waters, as will fill the 
eares of the world with afearefull roaring." This certainly agrees 
with Nash's commencement of his attack upon the Puritans sufli- 
ciently well, if the matter and manner of the present pamphlet 
had been more lively, bitter, and satirical. He adds afterwards 
another point of time in these words : " But seeing sobrietie will 
doe no good, let them be well assured, that if I catch such a 
brimse in my pen as I caught the last August, I will never leaue 
flynging about with them, so long as I finde anie ground to beare 
me." This and the rest seems written rather by a person who 
wished to be thought Nash, than by Nash himself. Two pages on- 
wards he mentions, " Percevall the plaine," l which has been sup- 
posed to be Nash's first tract on this subject, but which unques- 
tionably he did not write. (See the next article.) 

1 See Vol. I. p. 313, for the review of a tract, by Sir The. Elyot, called 
" Pasquyll the Playne." It was printed in 1540. 

(Earlj) QEnglisI) Citeratiin. 7 

Towards the close the author of " the first part of Pasquirs 
Apology " observes, In reference to his title-page : — "I have now 
gallopped the fielde to make choyse of the ground where my 
battle shall be planted. And when I have sent you the May- 
game of Martinisme, at the next setting my foote into the styr- 
roppe after it, the signet shall be given, and the field fought." 
He dates " From my Castell and Collours at London stone, the 
2nd of July. Anno 1590." 

Nash, Thomas. — Plaine Percevall the Peace-Maker of 
England. Sweetly indevoring with his blunt persuasions 
to botch up a reconciliation between Mar-ton and Mar- 
tother &c. — Printed in Broad-streete at the signe of 
the Packestafife. n. d. B. L. 4to. 18 leaves. 

The authorship of this tract has been assigned to Thomas Nash 
by Taylor the Water-poet, in his " Tom Nash's Ghost," but cer- 
tainly without suflicient authority, because in his " Strange 
Newes," 15')2, Nash expressly disowns it, and imputes it to 
Richard, the brother of Gabriel Harvey, charging that in it 
Richard Harvey had endeavored " to play the Jack o' both 
sides twixt Martin and himself." " Plaine Percevall " has no 
date, but was printed after 1589, as the " Counter-cuffe given 
to Martin Junior," published in that year, is mentioned in the 
prefatory matter. At the end are some mock-commendatory 
verses, one set of which runs thus : — 

" The gay bay Laurell bow that prancks my Cole, 
As speciall forehorse of my beanefed Teeme, 
Take, Percevall, and clap it on thy pole, 
Whose fortops such a branch doth well beseeme. 
If any aske why thou art clad so garish ? 
Say, thou art dubd the forehorse of the parish. 

Quoth A. N. Carter." 

Gabriel Harvey, in his " Four Letters and Certain Sonnets," 
1592, makes a clear allusion to, and nearly a quotation of, the 
closing couplet : — 

Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

" Here Bedlam is, and here a Poet garish, 
Gaily bedeck'd, like forehorse of the parish." 

A list of " faults escaped " forms the last leaf of the pamphlet. 

Nash, Thomas. — Pierce Penilesse his Supplication to the 
Divell. Describing the over-spreading of Vice, and the 
suppression of Vertue. Pleasantly interlac'd with vari- 
able delights, and pathetically intermixt with conceipted 
reproofes. Written by Thomas Nash Gentleman. — 
London, Imprinted by Richard Jhones, dwelling at the 
Signe of the Rose and Crowne, nere Holburne Bridge. 
1592. 4to. B. L. 42 leaves. 

Tiiis is the first edition of a very notorious tract, and it was 
published without the author's consent or knowledge. A second 
impression came out in the same year, which Nash authorized, 
and which must have appeared after the death of the famous 
Robert Greene in September, 1592, because that event is alluded to 
in an introductory " private Epistle of the Author to the Printer." 
Afterwards Nash speaks with reference to the " Groats worth of 
Wit," the tract published by Henry Chettle in 1592 as Greene's 
work, in which Shakspeare was disparagingly called " the only 
Shake-scene of a country." He says of it : — 

" Other newes I am advertised of, that a scald triviall lying Pamphlet, 
called Greens Groats worth of Wit is given out to be of my doing. God 
never have care of my soule, but utterly renounce me, if the least word 
or syllable in it proceeded from my penne, or if I were any way privie to 
the writing or printing of it." 

Nash seems to disbelieve that it was by Greene ; but the facts, 
as declared and maintained by Chettle, were, that Greene wrote 
the " Groatsworth of Wit " very illegibly in his illness, and that 
Chettle copied it out and procured it to be printed. It gave 
great offence to some of the poets and pamphleteers of the day, 
and among them to Shakspeare, and in the first instance Chettle 
was generally believed to be the author of it. We have only 

drarlji QEnglisI) Cltcratuve. 9 

his own testimony to the contrary, but we are not disposed to 
doubt it. 

The chief difference between the first surreptitious edition of 
" Pierce Peniless' Supplication," and the second impression, which 
Nash supervised, consists in the author's preliminary Epistle to 
the Printer, Abel Jeffes. It is highly interesting and important, 
occupying three pages, but the text of the body of the work is 
the same in both editions ; and it is yery clear, therefore, that, 
although Richard Jones had no right to print it, he had obtained 
a very correct manuscript. Nash mainly complains of the " long- 
tailed " title containing " a tedious Mountebanks oration to the 
Reader," and in his own edition he much simplified it, and short- 
ened it as follows : — 

" Pierce Pennilesse his Supplication to the Divell. Barharia grandis 
habere nihil. Written by Tho. Nash, Gent. — London, Printed by Abell 
JefTes for John Busbie. 1592." 4to. 

The third edition has the same date, and the imprint on the 
title-page is the only difference, for it there stands, " London, 
Printed by Abell Jeffes for I. B. 1592." Nash, in his prelimi- 
nary epistle, also denounced all those who went about offering to 
the trade in St. Paul's Churchyard a pretended " second part " 
to his " Pierce Peniless " ; but he adds, " I might haps (halfe a 
yeare hence) write the retourne of the Knight of the Post from 
Hell, with the Devils answer to the Supplication ; but as for a 
second part of Pierce Pennilesse, it is a most ridiculous rogery." 

Such a tract, and with that title, was published several years 
after the death of Nash, but it is very inferior to what the author 
of " Pierce Penniless' Supplication " would undoubtedly have 
made of it. 

The plague, or a putrid fever so called, was raging in London 
at the time, when three editions of the work before us were printed 
in 1592; and in his Epistle to Abel Jeffes, Nash states that he was 
" the plagues prisoner in the country." The fact was that he 
was then residing in the house of Sir George Carew at Bed- 
dington, near Croydon, where his (h-ama of " Summers last Will 
and Testament" was acted, most likely, as a private entertain- 
ment. When Nash printed his " Terrors of the Night " in 1594, 

10 33ibUograpl)kal 2laount of 

he acknowledged with jjratitude his obligations to the Carew 
family for the shelter and patronage afforded him. 

Nash's reputation was principally founded upon his prose com- 
positions, which are generally written in clear, vigorous, and un- 
affected English. He has left comparatively little verse behind 
him, but that little is good of its kind. In the tract before us are 
two pieces by him, one often quoted, (first in " The Yorkshire 
Tragedy," attributed to Shakspeare,) beginning " Why is't dam- 
nation to despair and die," and the other a sonnet, as may be 
presumed, upon the Earl of Derby, which expressly mentions 
Spenser, and has been rarely noticed. Nash objects that " heav- 
enly Spenser," (so he calls him,) in the sonnets appended to 
his " Fair)' Queen," 1590, had " passed unsaluted" one " special 
pillar of nobility " ; and Nash subjoins a sonnet he had himself 
written " long since." It runs thus : — 

" Perusing yesternight with idle eyes 

The Fairy Singers stately tuned verse, 
And viewing, after Chapmen's wonted guise, 

What strange contents the title did rehearse, 
I streight leapt over to the latter end, 

Where, like the quaint Comaedlans of our time 

That when the play is doone do fal to ryme, 
I found short lines to sundry Nobles pen'd ; 

Whom he as speciall Min-ours singled fourth 
To be the Patrons of his Poetry. 

I read them all, and reverenc't their worth, 
Yet wondred he left out thy memory. 

But therefore, gest I, he supprest thy name, 

Because few words might not comprise thy fame." 

We were formerly of opinion that the unnamed peer, here 
addressed, was the Earl of Southampton, Shakspeare's patron, 
■whose title is also omitted in the sonnets appended to the " Fairy 
Queen," but we are now satisfied that Nash alluded to the claims 
of the Earl of Derby, who died in 1594. Nash dedicated to Lord 
Southampton his "Life of Jack Wilton," 4to, 1594, where the 
following passage occurs, referring very modestly to Nash's own 
merits as a versifier : — "A dere lover and cherisher you are, as 
well of the lovers of Poetrie, as of Poets themselves. Amongst 

(Earlw (EnglisI) €\Uxainxt, 11 

their sacred number I dare not ascribe my self, though now and 
then I speak English : 1 that small braine I have, to no further 
use I convert, save to be kinde to my friends, and fatall to my 
enemies. A new braine, a new wit, a new stile, a new soule 
will I get mee to canonize your name to posteritie, if in this my 
first attempt I be not taxed of presumption." 

Whether this tender of service was accepted does not appear, 
but the Earl of Southampton well knew how to appreciate the 
extraordinary talents and learning of such a man as Thomas 

In connection with Nash's " Pierce Penniless," and the tracts 
that grew out of it, we may notice one of extraordinary rarity, 
under the title of " Piers Plainnes seaven yeres Prentiship. By 
H. C. Nuda Veritas. — Printed at London by J. Danter for 
Thomas Gosson, 1595." 2 4to. It is a disappointing production, 
for it turns out to be a mere novel, and may have been from the 
needy pen of Henry Chettle. 

Nash, Thomas. — Strange Newes of the intercepting cer- 
taine Letters, and a Convoy of Verses, as they were 
going Privilie to victual! the Low Countries. Unda im- 
pellitur unda. By Tho. Nashe Grentleman. — Printed 

1 It is difficult to reconcile Nash's assertion in this piece with the fact. 
He says to Gabriel Harvey, " I never printed rime in my life, but those 
verses in the beginning of * Pierce Pennilesse,' though you have set foorth 

' The stories quaint of many a doughtie file 
That read a lecture to the ventrous elfe.' " 

The verses of his own that Nash alludes to are, of course, those in 
"Pierce Penniless," 1592, which begin: — 

" Why is't damnation to dispaire and dye ; " 
but he quite forgot the sonnet at the end of " Pierce Penniless," where 
he blames Spenser for omitting the Earl of Derby among the noblemen, 
&c., to whom he addressed his " Faery Queene " in 1590. He forgot also 
his own abusive Sonnet to Harvey in 1592. 

2 See this Vol., article Pierce Plainness, where we have introduced 
a review of it, and perhaps said more than it is worth. 

12 Btbliograpljical :3lccotint of 

at London by John Danter, dwelling in Hosier Lane 
neere Holbume Conduit. 1592. 4to. 46 leaves. 

This tract is an answer by Nash to Gabriel Harvey's " Four 
Letters and Certain Sonnets,** (see Vol. H. p. 124,) printed in 
the same year. Other copies of Nash*s " Strange Newes " have 
the title of " The Apologie of Pierce Pennilesse," (that perhaps 
being considered a more attractive name,) and bear date in 1593. 
The preliminary matter only (including the dedication and ad- 
dress) was reprinted, the rest being from the identical types as the 
edition before us. 

The dedication is to a person whom Nash styles William Apis- 
lapis, probably Beestone, whom he calls, in derision, " the most 
copious Carminist of our time, and famous persecutor of Priscian." 
This person was perhaps the father of Christopher Beestone, or 
Beeston, an actor, and subsequently master of a company of 
players. On this title-page and others Nash is styled " Gentle- 
man," and to this circumstance he refers in the body of the work, 
claiming for his family an ancient and reputable origin. In the 
Shaksp. Soc. Papers, Vol. IH. p. 178, is an account of the family 
of Nash, by which it appears that Thomas was born at Lowestoft, 
in Suffolk, in 1567, and that he was the son of the Rev. William 
Nash, who then held the living. The previous history of the 
family is not known, but they had been resident in Hertfordshire, 
and came from thence : " my father sprang from the Nashes of 
Hertfordshire,'* are the poet's own words. 

On sign. L 3. b. Nash quotes (with some careless omissions) 
Spenser's Sonnet in praise of Harvey, and he ends his reply by 
one of his own in abuse of him : — 

" Were there no warres, poore men should have uo peace : 
Uncessant warres with waspes and droanes ! I crie. 
Hee that begins oft knows not how to cease: 

They have begun, Pie follow till I die. 
He heare no truce : wrong gets no grave in mee ; 

Abuse pell mell encounter with abuse: 
Write hee againe, He write eternally. 

Who feedes revenge hath found an endlesse Muse. 
If Death ere made his blacke dart of a pen. 
My penne his speciall Bally shall becum. 

(Earlj) (JEnglisI) Citerature. 13 

Somewhat I'le be reputed of mongst men 

By striking of this duns or dead or dum: 
Awaite, the world, the tragedy of wrath! 
What next 1 paint shall tread no common path. 

Ant nunquam tentes, autperfice. 

Tho. Nashe." 

This contest between Nash and Harvey was continued almost 
without cessation. After his " Christ's Tears," 1594, (see p. 16,) 
Nash vigorously renewed the war in 1596, by publishing his 
"Have with you to Saffron- Wal den," which he dedicated to 
Kichard Lichfield, the Barber of Cambridge. Harvey answered 
it in the name of Lichfield, in a tract called " The Trimming of 
Thomas Nashe," 4to, 1597 ; and in both of these productions we 
have not only coarse abuse, but personal caricatures. Nash first 
began this species of hostility by inserting in his " Have with 
you to Saffron- Walden " a woodcut, representing Dr. Gabriel 
Harvey, although he admits that he has " put him in round hose, 
that usually weares Venetians." 

Nash wrote a play called " The Isle of Dogs," for which he 
sustained a temporary imprisonment, and Harvey in his retort 
availed himself of this circumstance to represent Nash in fetters. 
The design is much inferior to that Nash had given of Harvey, but 
it is the only resemblance (if such it can be called) that has been 
preserved of our celebrated prose-satirist. Both were, probably, 
from pen-and-ink sketches by the authors, but Nash was the better 
artist. In the end it was ordered that the tracts on both sides 
should be burned. 

Nash, Thomas. — The Terrors of the night, or a Discourse 
of Apparitions. Post Tenehras Dies. Tho. Nashe. — 
London, Printed by John Danter for "William Jones, and 
are to be sold at the signe of the Gunne nere Holbume 
Conduit. 1594. dto. 31 leaves. 

If not one of the rarest, this is certainly one of the worst of 
Nash's productions. He admits himself that his " wits were not 
half awaked " while he wrote, and that he seemed to dip his 

14 33ibUograpljical ^laount of 

pen in a leaden standish. It is a rambling treatise, in which 
the writer makes an effort, every now and then, to be lively 
without success, and it is composed just as if he had been driven 
by his necessities to write, on the spur of the moment, as much 
as would make a pamphlet. It is dedicated to Elizabeth Carey, 
daughter of Sir George Carey, and the following passage deserves 
quotation from the allusion in it to Daniel's " Delia," (then two 
years before the world,) as well as from the lofty praise Nash be- 
stows on Lady Pembroke, and the information that she had em- 
ployed herself in translating Petrarch. He tells " Mistress Eliza- 
beth Carey,"— 

" Against your perfections no tnng can except : miraculous is your wit, 
and so is acknowledged by the wittiest Poets of our age, who have vowed 
to enshrine you as their second Delia. Temperance her selfe hath not 
teraperater behaviour then you: religious Pietie hath no humbler hand- 
maide that she delights in. A worthie daughter are you of so worthie a 
Mother, borrowing (as another Phoebe) from her bright sunne-like re- 
splendaunce the orient beames of your radiaunce. Into the Muses 
societie her selfe she hath lately adopted, and purchast divine Petrarch 
another monument in England. Ever honored may she be of the royallist 
breede of wits, whose purse is so open to her poore beadsmen's distresses. 
Well may I say it, because I have tride it: never liv'd a more magnifi- 
cent Ladie of her degree on this earth." 

To the family of Sir George Carey, or Carew, in particular, 
Nash avows his pecuniary and other obligations, and it was in 
their house and for their use that he wrote his drama already 
mentioned on page 9, and which was not printed until 1600. In 
the body of this tract he also willingly owns how much he had 
been indebted to the Governor of the Isle of Wight, the Earl of 
Southampton, the patron of Shakspeare ; and he writes nowhere 
with more fervor than in praise of the place, and its " illustrious 

" He that writes this can tell, for he hath never had good voyage in his 
life but one, and that was to a fortunate and blessed Island, nere those 
pinacle rockes called the Needles. 0! it is a purified continent and a 
fertil plot, fit to seat another Paradise, where, or in no place, the image 
of the ancient hospitalitie is to be found. While I live I will praise it for 
the true mao;nificence and continued honourable bountie that I saw there. 
Farre unworthie am I to spend the least breath of commendation in the 

Sarltt <2ngli0l) Citcrattire. 15 

extolling so delightful and pleasaunt a Terape, or once to consecrate my 
inke with the excellent mention of the thrice nohle and illustrious Chiefe- 
taine under whom it is flourishingly governed. * * ♦ Men that have 
never tasted that full spring of his liberalitie, wherwith (in my forsaken 
extremities) right graciously he hath deigned to receive and refresh mee, 
may rashly (at first sight) implead me of flatterie, and not esteeme these 
my fervent tearmes as the necessarie repaiment of a due debt." 

In an address to " Goodman Reader," Nash has an allusion to 
a publication called " Tarlton's Toys." A tract under this title, 
by Richard Tarlton, the famous actor, " in Enghsh verse," was 
licensed to R. Jones the bookseller, in 1576. It is more singular 
that, in the next year, this great comedian's " tragical treatises," 
in prose and verse, were licensed to Bynneman. Tarlton died on 
3d September, 1588. 

Nash, Thomas. — Nashes Lenten Stuffe, Containing the 
Description and first Procreation and Increase of the 
towne of Great Yarmouth in NorfFolke : With a new 
Play never played before, of the praise of the Red Her- 
ring. Fitte of all Clearkes of Noblemens Kitchins to 
be read : and not unnecessary by all Serving men that 
have short boord-wages to be remembered. Famam peto 
per undas. — London Printed for N. L. and C. B. &c. 
1599. 4to. B. L. 42 leaves. 

This highly humorous, learned, and very ingenious perform- 
ance (which must have been written when its author was in 
high health and spirits) is dedicated by Nash to Humfrey King, 
a tobacconist, and author of a poem called "An Halfe-penny 
worth of Wit in a Penny-worth of Paper, or a Hermit's Tale," 
which Nash mentions in the prefatory epistle to the tract before 
us, although no earlier edition of it than that of 1613 is known ; 
(see Vol. 11. p. 205.) Nash being a native of Lowestoft, on one 
occasion paid a visit to Yarmouth, and having obtained a loan of 
money there, he endeavored, as he admits in this tract, to make a 
due return by praising the herring, the great source of that town's 
prosperity. He speaks " to his Readers " of his performance in 

16 Sibliograpljical 2lccownt of 

a very confident vein: — ''Every man can say Bee to a Battle- 
dore, and write in prayse of Vertue and the Seven Liberall Sci- 
ences, thresh come out of full sheaves, and fetch water out of the 
Thames ; but out of drie stubble to make an after harvest, and a 
plentiful! croppe without sowing, and wring juice out of a flint, 
thats Pierce a Gods name^ and the right tricke of a workman.'* 
His pamphlet, however, deserves the character; and Taylor, the 
Water-poet, assigns that merit to it, nearly in the terms of Nash, 
in his poem called " The Thief.** It was probably his success 
in obtaining a loan of money, that inspired Nash with new 
life and energy when he was at Yarmouth. Yet it is to be re- 
membered that in 1599 he had not long to live. The cause of 
his death is unknown. 

Nash, Thomas. — Christs Teares over Jerusalem. Where- 
unto is annexed a comparative admonition to London. 
A Jove Musa. By Thos. Nash. — At London, Printed 
by James Roberts and are to be solde by Andre we 
Wise at his shop in Paules Church-yard at the signe 
of the Angel. Anno 1593. 4to. 99 leaves. 

This is the first edition of the only pious production Nash left 
behind him. In his fanciful piece of biography, called the " Life 
of Jack Wilton," 1594, he said that he had there employed his 
pen " in a clean different vein " from that in which he usually 
exercised it ; but he might certainly have made the same remark 
upon his " Christ's Tears over Jerusalem," published in the pre- 
ceding year. 

There was another impression of it in 1594, or, more properly 
speaking, some copies of the impression of 1593 are dated 1594, 
(without any printer's name,) and have introductory matter 
entirely different, the main body of the production being, how- 
ever, identically the same. A few words will explain the reason 
for the change. 

In the address " to the Reader " before his " Christ's Tears " 
of 1593, Nash made amends to Gabriel Harvey, his antagonist, 

(Karlji (Snglisl) Citeratuu. 17 

for expressions he had used in defending his friend Robert 
Greene : — " Nothing," said Nash, " is there so much in my vows 
as to be at peace with all men, and make submissive amends 
where I have most displeased." Gabriel Harvey, in his " New 
Letter of notable Contents," dated the 16th of September, 1593, 
scornfully rejected this apology, which appears to have been 
offered in all sincerity. Nash therefore recalled, as far as was in 
his power, the copies of " Christ's Tears " of 1593, to which his 
" amends " were prefixed ; and, reprinting the title-page with the 
date of 1594, added a long epistle "to the Reader," in which he 
complained of the unforgiving temper of Harvey, and treated him 
with that degree of severity which he had courted and merited. 
This " Epistle " has never been reprinted ; and, as it has also 
escaped the notice of bibliographers, a quotation or two, as far as 
they relate to the paper-pugnacity of Nash and Harvey, will be 
acceptable. Nash begins thus : — 

" Gentlemen, my former Epistle unto you in this place begun with Nil 
nisiflere libet: now must I, of necessitie, alter that posie, and transpose 
my complaint to a new tune of Flendus amor mens est. The love or pitie 
I shewed towards mine enemie, of all my ill fortunes, hath most con- 
founded me. The onely refuge which for my abused innocencie is left 
me is to take unto me the Academicks opinion, who absolutely conclude 
that nothing is to be affirmed. * * * Religion or conscience hath made 
me sacrifice my zealous wit to simplicitie, and my devout pen to reproch- 
fuU penitence. * * * Whereas I thought to make my foe a bridge of 
golde, or faire words, to flie by, he hath used it as a high way to invade 
me. Hocpia lingua dedit. This it is to deale plainly. An extreme gull 
he is in this age that believes a man for his swearing. Impious Gabriell 
Harvey, the vowed enemie of all vowes and protestations, plucking on 
with a slavish privat submission a generall publike reconciliation, hath 
with a cunning ambuscado of confiscated idle othes, welneare betrayed 
me to infamie etemall (his owne proper chaire of torment in hell.) I can 
say no more but the devill and he be no men of their words." 

A little farther on he continues : — 

" A proverb it is, as stale as sea-biefe, save a thief from the gallows and 
hee'le be the first to shew thee the way to Saint Gilesesse. Harvey I 
manifestly saved from the knot under the eare : Verily, he had hanged 
him selfe had I gone forwards in my vengeance; but, 1 know not how, 
upon his prostrate intreatie, I was content to give him a short Psalme of 

VOL. UI. 2 

18 Bibliograpljical ^aount of 

mercy. Now, for reprieving him when he was ripe for execution, thus 
he requites me. Sixe and thirty sheets of mustard-pot paper since that 
hath he published against me. * * * Some few crummes of my booke 
hath he confuted: all the rest of his invention is nothing but an oxe with 
a pudding in his bellie. * * * Maister Lillie, poore deceassed Kit Mar- 
low, reverent Doctor Perne, with a hundred other quiet senselesse carcasses 
before the Conquest departed, in the same worke he hath most notoriously 
and vilely dealt with; and, to conclude, he hath proved him selfe to be 
the only Gabriel Grave-digger under heaven." 

The pedantic though learned, and self-conceited though clever, 
Gabriel Harvey had foolishly drawn this flood of ridicule and bit- 
terness upon himself. Nash proceeds : — 

" Excuse me, Gentlemen, though I be obstinately bent in this qnarrell, 
for I have tried all wayes with mine adversary'. Heretofore I was like a 
tyrant, which knowes not whether it is better to be feared or loved of his 
subjects: first, I put my feare in practise, and that housed him for a 
while: next, into my love and favour I received him, and that puft him 
up with such arrogance, that he thought him selfe a better man then his 
maister, and was ready to justle me out of all the reputation I had. Let 
him trust to it, lie hamper him like a jade, as he is, for this geare, and 
ride him with a snafle up and downe the whole realme. * * * I have 
heard there are mad men whipt in Bedlam, and lazie vagabonds in Bride- 
well ; wherefore, me seemeth, there should be no more difference between 
the displing of this vaine Braggadochio, then the whipping of a mad man 
or a vagabond." 

The above is nearly all that is well worth quoting regarding 
Harvey and his rejection of the amends Nash was at one time 
willing to bestow upon his brain-sick, bombastical adversary ; and 
from thence he proceeds to a vindication of his " Life of Jack Wil- 
ton," which, being a new style of writing for Nash, was in some 
important respects a failure. His style was ill-calculated for narra- 
tive ; and he seems not to have had the faculty, which Deloney 
possessed in an eminent degree, of constructing a story, and draw- 
ing a character. He complains of those who had found fault with 
his " Jack Wilton," and had unfairly charged him with writing in 
a boisterous style, and with inventing new words ; and in the fol- 
lowing paragraph he mentions Spenser, for whom he had great 
admiration, by name : — 

" Madde heads, over a dish of stewed prunes, are terrible mockers : Oh ! 

(farlt) (ffngliel) Cittrature. 19 

but the other pint of wine cuts the throat of Spencer and everie body. 
To them I discend by the degrees of apologie, who condemne me all to 
vinegar for my bitternesse. I will be some of their destinies to carrie the 
vinegar bottle, ere they die, for being so desperate in prejudice. * * * 
Singular happie are those that are acquainted with the true mixture of 
Alchimists musicall gold, and can with Platoes Gorgias prove unright- 
eousnesse true godlinesse with a breath: they shall be provided for sumpt- 
uously, when sooth and verity may walke melancholy in Marke Lane. 
Wise was Saint Thomas, that chose rather to go preach to the Indians then 
to his owne countrey men. There he might be sure to have gold enough: 
here is none: some write he was slaine at Malaqua, a province of that 
country. It is better to be slaine abroad, then live at home without 

This, in fact, was Nash's excuse for writing " the Life of Jack 
Wilton " : he wanted money, and he was offered that for a tale 
which he could not get for a tract. 

All the three editions of " Christ's Tears," in 1593, 1594, and 
1613, were dedicated to the same lady to whom Nash addressed 
his " Terrors of the Night," Elizabeth Carey. She was authoress 
of a play under the title of " Mariam the Fair Queen of Jewry," 
publislied in the year when the last impression of" Christ's Tears" 
made its appearance. As an order from authority had been issued 
in 1599 " that copies of all works connected with the dispute be- 
tween Nash and Harvey should be taken wherever found, and 
none of them reprinted," Thomas Thorp, in 1613, did not reprint 
Nash's Epistle from that which we have above quoted, but prefixed 
his apology to Harvey, as it had originally appeared just twenty- 
years before. 

Such too was precisely the case with the reprint made by Sir 
Egerton Brydges in 1815. It is true, he mentions the edition of 
" Christ's Tears" in 1594, which contains Nash's caustic and crush- 
ing Epistle, but says no syllable about it, and, it seems, did not 
know of the existence of a still earlier copy dated 1593.1 

1 As a matter of personal interest we may quote what Nash there says 
of Churchyard, of whom, among others, Gabriel Harvey had fallen foul. 
Nash thus apostrophizes him: — " Mr. Churchyard, our old quarrel is re- 
newed, when nothing else can be fastened on mee: this letter-leapper up- 
braideth me with crying you mercie. I cannot tell, but I think you will 
have a saying to him for it. There's no reason that such a one as he 

20 Uibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

Nash, Thomas. — Have with you to Saffron-walden, or 
Gabriell Harueys Hunt is up. Containing a full An- 

should presume to intermeddle in your matters : it cannot be done with 
any intent but to stirre me up to write against you afresh, which nothing 
under heaven shall draw mee to doe. I love you unfainedly, and admire 
your aged Muse, that may well be grandmother to our grand-eloquentest 
Poets at this present. Sanctum et venerabile vetus omne Poema. Shore's 
Wife is yong, though you be stept in yeares : in her shall you live when 
you are dead." 

Churchyard's '* Tragedie of Shore's Wife" had been long before the 
world, but he "much augmented it with divers new additions" in 1593; 
and as that impression has recently come into our hands, and as we have 
said nothing of it elsewhere, we are tempted to make an extract or two 
from it. The whole is in the popular form adopted in " The Mirror for 
Magistrates," where every personage tells his own tale. After an intro- 
duction, Jane Shore thus proceeds : — 

" My Belfe for proofe, loe! here I now appeare 
In womans weede, with weeping watred eyes, 
That bought her youth and her delights full deare. 
Whose lewd reproach doth sound unto the skies, 
And bids my corse out of the ground to rise, 
As one that may no longer hide her foce, 
But needes must come and shewe her piteous case. 

" The sheete of shame wherein I shrowded was 
Did move me oft to plaine before this day, 
And in mine eares did ring the trompe of brasse 
Which is defame, that doth each thing bewray : 
Tea, though full dead and low in earth I lay, 
I heard the voyce, of mee what people saide ; 
But then to speake, alas, I was afraide." 

Churchyard's main defect is want of originality of thought, mistaking 
commonplace reflections on morals and men for novelties. He makes 
Jane Shore thus describe herself: — 

" The beaten snow, nor lily of the field 
No whiter, sure, then naked necke and hande : 
My lookes had force to make a lyon yeeld. 
And at my forme in gaze a world would stand. 
My body small, framd finelj' to be spand, 
As though dame Kind had swome, in solemne sort. 
To shrowd hereelfe in my faire forme and port. 


" No part amisse when nature tooke such care 
To set me out as nought should be awry. 

(ffarb (!rngli0l) CiUratitrt. 21 

swere to the eldest sonne of the Halter-maker. Or, 
Nashe his confutation of the sinfull Doctor. The Mott 
or Posie, instead of Omne tulit punctum: Pads jiducia 
nunquam. As much as to say, as I sayd I would speake 
with him. — Printed at London by John Danter. 1596. 
4to. 83 leaves. 

The course of the quarrel between Nash and Gabriel Harvey 
appears to have been this. In 1592, Greene, in his " Quip for an 
upstart Courtier," had called Harvey and his two brothers the 
sons of a rope-maker at Saffron Walden — as they unquestionably 
were. In the same year, after Greene's death, Harvey replied in 
his " Four Letters and certain Sonnets " ; and Nash took up 
the cudgels for his deceased friend in " Strange News," also 
bearing date in 1592. Harvey returned to the contest in his 
"Pierce's Supererrogation " of 1593. Nash, with apparent sin- 
cerity, offered amends and reconcilement in his " Christ's Tears " 
of 1593, which Harvey indignantly rejected in his " New Letter 
of Notable Contents," also of 1593. In 1594 Nash recalled his 
amends, and renewed the attack in an epistle preceding a reissue 
of his " Christ's Tears"; and thus matters rested until, in 1596, 
Harvey being still unforgiving and revengeful, Nash put forth the 
volume which gives title to the present article. He dedicated it 
in burlesque to Richard Litchfield, the barber of Trinity College, 
Cambridge; and in 1597 Harvey answered Nash under the as- 
sumed character of the same barber. We have stated these 
points and dates, in order to render what we are about to offer 
regarding Nash's " Have with you to Saffron Walden " more in- 
telligible. The reader will thus see in what order it came out, and 
to what it was meant by its author to be a reply. 

To furnish forth (in due proportion rare) 
A peece of worke should please a princes eie. 
0, would to God that boast might prove a lie I 
For pride youth tooke in beauties borrowd trash 
Gave age a whippe, and left me in the lash." 

In his " Mirror of Man," 1594, Churchyard tells us that he first took up 
the subject of "Shore's Wife," "almost 50 yeares ago." He ought to 
have said 30 years ago, in " The Mirror for Magistrates," 1563, fol. civ. 6. 

22 Bibliograpljical Account of 

It is written in Nash's usual off-hand and trenchant style, and 
the long rambling dedication to Litchfield contains the noted pas- 
sage showing that there was a Latin play upon the history of 
Richard IIL as early as 1596. There, too, we are told of Tarl- 
ton, the " Dick of all Dicks," who, coming into a church where 
the organ was out of repair, proposed to supply the deficiency with 
his pipe and tabor. 

In his address to the Reader, Nash excuses himself for not 
having answered Harvey earlier, and thus added length to " the 
lease of his adversary's life." He then explains that he had 
written his reply in the Italian style, by way of dialogue, the 
interlocutors being Importunio (grand Consiliadore), Bentivoli 
Carneades de boone Compagniola, and himself, of whom he gen- 
erally speaks as Pierce Penniless, though sometimes as Nash, 
and Tom Nash. Here it is that he charges Polidore Virgil, in 
the time of Henry VIII., with having " burned all the ancient 
records of the true beginning of our Isle after he had finished his 
Chronicle." Nash laughs at Harvey for the length of his prelim- 
inary matter, but he docs not arrive at the commencement of his 
own work until sign. D. 

Near the opening of the dialogue he accounts for his delay 
in replying to Harvey's " Pierce's Supererrogation," and " New 
Letter of notable Contents," by making his friend Importunio 
vouch that, during the greater part of the interval, "he hath 
been hatching of nothing but toies for private gentlemen, and 
neglected the peculiar business of his reputation, that so deeply 
concerned him, to follow vaine hopes, and had I wist humours 
about Court, that make him goe in a thredbare cloake, and 
scarce pay for boat hire." Nash afterwards confirms this state- 
ment in his own person, and from his own mouth : " I am faine,'* 
he says, " to let my plow stand still in the midst of a furrow, 
and follow some of these new-fangled Galiardos and Senior 
Fantasticos, to whose amorous Villanellas and Quipassas I pros- 
titute my pen in hope of gaine ; but otherwise there is no new 
fanglenes in mee but povertie, which alone maketh mee so un- 
constant to my determined studies; nor idlenesse, more then 
discontented trudging from place to place, too and fro, and pros- 
ecuting the meanes to keep me from idlenesse." 

(farln (EnglisI) Citeratnre. 23 

This is curious, if only that it affords one more proof, out of 
numbers that might be adduced, to show the manner in which the 
young Innamorati of that day not unfrequently employed better 
pens than their own to write their love-verses. 

Nash informs us that his " Pierce Penniless's Supplication " 
had been " maimedly translated into the French tongue," (sign. 
F,) and that in English " it had passed, at the least, through the 
pikes of sixe impressions." A page or two afterwards he inserts 
a woodcut of his antagonist, heading it " The picture of Gabriell 
Harvey, as he is ready to let fly upon Ajax." He thus drolly in- 
troduces it : — " Those that be disposed to take a view of him, 
ere hee bee come to the full Midsommer Moone, and raging 
Calentura of his wretchednes, here let them behold his lively 
counterfet and portraiture ; not in the pantofles of his prosperitie, 
as he was when he libeld against my Lord of Oxford, but in the 
single-soald pumpes of his adversitie, with his gowne cast off, un- 
trussing and ready to beray himselfe upon the newes of the going 
in hand of my booke." 

Harvey might be a match for Nash in abuse and argument, but 
he was by no means a match for him in ridicule, and it was such 
as would pierce the skin of the hardest pachyderm ; while thin- 
skinned Harvey, whose vanity was not less than his violence, 
smarted under it most severely. All he could do in revenge was, 
in the character of Litchfield, the barber, similarly to exhibit Nash 
in fetters, in reference to his imprisonment for a now lost drama 
called " The Isle of Dogs." The subsequent passage is important, 
since it shows that in 1596 the boys of St. Paul's School were 
again in disgrace, and prohibited from acting their usual plays. 
In connection with them Nash mentions one of Lyly's dramas by 
name, as if it had been the cause of silencing the young com- 
pany : — " Troth," says Carneades, " I would hee might for mee 
(that's all the harme I wish him) for then we neede never wish 
the Playes of Powles up againe; but if we were wearie with walk- 
ing, and loth to goe too farre to seeke sport, into the Arches 
we might step, and heare him plead, which would be a merrier 
Comedie then ever was old Mother Bomby." 

On signature I 2 begins a pretended biography of Harvey 

24 Bibllograpljical ^cconnt of 

under the title of " The Ufe and godly education, from his child- 
hood, of that thrice famous Clarke, and worthie Orator and Poet, 
Gabriell Harvey,** verj' provoking and ridiculous, but doubtless 
(to render it more biting) in many places founded on fact. Here, 
in reference to Richard Harvey, one of the brothers of Gabriel, 
Nash says : " This is that Dick of whom Kit Marloe was wont to 
say, that he was an asse good for nothing but to preach of the 
Iron Age.'* Some pages on Nash abuses Barnabe Barnes and 
Anthony Chute, and imputes to the latter a work called " Procris 
and Cephalus," which was entered by Wolfe on the books of the 
Stationers' Company in 1593, but, if printed, no copy of it is now 
known. If we may believe Nash, Chute was also author of a 
comedy on " the transformation of the King of Trinidadoes two 
Daughters Panachaea and Tobacco." This too has been lost, 
although an anonymous narrative poem, in couplets, on the 
" Metamorphosis of Tobacco," was printed in 1602. In 1596 
Chute was dead, and, as Nash asserts, " rotten." John Lyly, we 
learn on the same authority, was then at work on " the Paradoxe 
of the Ass," which we might think the very production called 
*' The Nobleness of the Ass," reviewed Vol. I. p. 40, but that 
it was printed with the date of 1595. It might be a mistake for 
1596, or the tract might be antedated. 

As Nash's " Have with you," &c. has not been hitherto duly 
noticed in any bibliographical work, we may here add a brief 
passage in which he speaks of his father, the clergyman of Lowes- 
toft, whom Harvey had very unfairly dragged into the compass 
of his attack." My father," he asserts, " put more good meate in 
poore mens mouthes, than all the ropes and living is worth his 
[Harvey's] Father left him, together with his mother and two 
brothers ; and (as another Seholler) he brought me up at S. 
Johns, where (it is well knowen) I might have been Fellow if 1 
had would.'* 

It must be acknowledged that Nash draws out his reply to 
Harvey to an unreasonable length, and some letters from Chettle 
and Thorius (who had been reconciled to Nash and withdrawn 
from Harvey) might have been omitted. We only add that 
Messrs. Cooper, in their generally accurate account of Nash (^Ath. 

©arlg (Englial) Citeraturc. 25 

Cantabr. II. 307), mistakenly assign to him Gabriel Harvey's 
"New Letter of Notable Contents," 1593. " Plaine Percival," 
in the same list of works, was, as we have shown, (ante, p. 7,) 
by Richard Harvey. The play of " the Isle of Dogs," which 
Nash was writing for Henslowe's company in May, 1597, may 
have been a comedy founded upon his earlier play, for which he 
had been imprisoned, and to which, on that account, public atten- 
tion was specially directed. Meres, in his Palladis Tamia, 1598, 
p. 286, laments Nash's misfortune, and terms him " gallant 
young Juvenal," as Greene had done in his "Groats worth of 
Wit," 1592, where he finally addressed several of his poetical 

Nastagio and Traversari. — A notable Historye of 
Nastagio and Traversari, no lesse pitiefull then pleas- 
aunt. Translated out of Italian into Englishe verse 
by C. T. 

S' Amor non puol a un cor ingrato & empio 

Giovanelli timore, e crudel scempio. 

Imprinted at Londo in Poules Churchy arde by Thomas 
Purfoote dwelling at the signe of the Lucrece. Anno 
1569. 8vo. B. L. 16 leaves. 

On page 44 of Vol. II. we have noticed a translation by T. C. 
from Boccaccio, and here we have another version of a different 
novel by C. T. This is upon the famous story which Dryden 
versified under the title of " Theodore and Honoria," here called, 
as in the original, Nastagio, while the cruel lady with whom he is 
hopelessly in love is named Traversari from her family appella- 
tion. The two poets T. C. and C. T. are not to be confounded, 
as they have been by some modern bibliographers, and the style 
of each is essentially different. T. C. may have more force and 
flourish, but C. T. has more grace and simplicity. 

After praying the impartial judgment of the reader, the story 
commences, Nastagio not being able to make the sHghtest favor- 
able impression upon Traversari : — 

26 Btbliograpljtcal ^cconnt of 

" Muche time in sute he daylie spent, 

But yet he could not spede: 
To gaine her love was all he cravde, 

He askde no other mede. 
But dayes and yeares were passde in vaine, 

His sute could take no place 
To DQOve that ladies stonie heart 

To graunt her lover grace." 

He retires in despair to Chiassi, but being rich he collected his 
cheerful friends about him : — 

" Nastagio, now well settled there, 

Began ne to kepe a porte 
More sumptuous farre then ever earate, 

And in more noble sorte ; 
And making many royall feastes 

His freindes he did invite, 
Now these to dine, now those somtime 

To suppe with him at night. 
And there he dailye spent the time 

In chase of grieslye beastes. 
Sometime in Hawking, and somtime 

At wittie playe of chestes." 

Near this place, in a forest, he has an interview with the spirit 
of a knight, who had been decreed to hunt, and tear to pieces 
with his dogs, the ghost of the lady who had rejected him so ob- 
stinately during life. This savage scene is repeated every Friday, 
and in order that his unrelenting mistress may witness this punish- 
ment of cruel resistance to love, Nastagio invites tlie lady Traver- 
sari, her father and friends, to dine with him on that day. They 
come, and the exhibition of the sufferings of the hunted and 
tortured ghost-lady make so deep an impression upon Traversari, 
that she at once relents, and sends a messenger to Nastagio that 
very night, — 

" Which prayde him, in her mistress name, 

if so his pleasure were, 
To come to her; and tould him that 

such tidinges he should heare 
As well might please his fantasie, 

for that she was content 
To do his pleasure, and to be 

at his commaundement." 

(Sarb (!Fnc(li0l) fiitcrattire. 27 

Nastagio is, of course, overjoyed, and the marriage between 
them takes place on the next Saturday. After a description of the 
ceremony, C. T. adds satirically, — 

" But all Ravennian dames, thenceforth, 
became so full of dreade. 
That alwayes, after that, they were 

More conformable then, 
And tractable, then ever earst 
to do the will of men. 


It is this poem that Warton (H. E. P. iv. 297, edit. 8vo) con- 
jecturally assigns to Christopher Tye, and not " Galesus Cymon 
and Iphigenia," (see Lowndes, B. M. 225, edit. 1857,) which was 
its translator's " first fruit." It is just possible that Tye should 
have Englished the first; but, although in the same measure, the 
versification has greater ease, if not grace, than any lines that 
can be selected from Tye's " Acts of the Apostles," which had 
come out in 1553. Neither is it the least likely that a divine, 
who had applied himself to a subject so sacred, would, just before 
his death, have sought a theme in the novels of Boccaccio. We 
do not therefore for a moment believe that Tye was the translator 
of either fable. We know of but a single copy of the one or of 
the other, and we apprehend that the exemplars we have used 
were the same that were seen by the historian of our early 

Newnham, John. — Newnams Nightcrowe. A Bird that 
breedeth braiiles in many Families and Housholdes. 
Wherein is remembred that kindely and provident re- 
gard which Fathers ought to have towards their Sonnes. 
Together with a disciphring of the injurious dealinges 
of some younger sorte of stepdames, &c. — London. 
Printed by John Wolfe. 1590. B. L. 4to. 32 leaves. 

The following lines are at the back of the title : — 

" TJie Bookes purpose. 
" For widdowes and elder brothers, 
For children that have lost their mothers, 

28 Bibliograpljkal Account of 

Or be injured by stepdames might; 
And Sonnes that lost their births right, 
With others needyng restitution, 
These finde in me some meete fruition." 

The dedication, signed John Newnham, to " Maister Thomas 
Owen Esquire, one of the Queenes Majesties learned Sergeants 
at the Lawe," shows that the author, having been severely treated 
and deprived of his inheritance by means of a stepmother, had 
written this tract against stepmothers in general. It is divided 
into two parts, one addressed to Fathers, and the other to Step- 
dames, and the work displays both anger and learning, but pos- 
sesses little interest. At the end are three pages of verses, one 
Latin, and two Latin and English. The Latin are by Ric. Par. 
and Henr. Serae, and the English by the author, whose work is 
so rare that he did not obtain a place in Ritson's Bibliographica 
Poetica. One page of English verses is headed "Momus his 
malignant objections," and the other " Aunsweres by the Auctor,** 
but they possess no merit of any kind. 

With regard to the singular title of the book, it appears from 
S. Rowland's " Night-raven," 4to, 1618, that that was a term of 
reproach then often applied by men to women. He says, — 

" Therefore kiude-harted men, that women loves, 
Tearm them no more Night-ravens : they are Doves, 
True harted turtles," &c. 

By Newnham 's production it seems that the word "Night- 
crow " was similarly employed, a little earlier, as a term of dislike 
and reproach. He intended it as a generic name for a step- 
mother, " long withering out a young man's revenue.'* 

News come from Hell. — Newes come from Hell of 
love unto all her welbeloved frendes, as Usurers, which 
with other usetli Extorsion, pety Brybry, false feloshyp, 
syr John makshyfte, the Devyls receyver, devouringe 
the Christian Common welth, makinge of a fewe and 
destroying of a multitude. Let every man be ware of 

(farlg (frncjlisl) Cikrature. 29 

these devyllyshe people. — Imprented at London by me 
wyllyam Copland. 1565. 8vo. 8 leaves. 

This singular but ill-printed relic has " Finis qd J. E." at the 
end of it, and it may have been by John Elder, who in 1555 
wrote to the Bishop of Caithness a letter " on the arrival, and 
landynge, and most noble marryage " of Philip and Mary ; but 
that was printed by Waylande, and has nothing, but language, in 
common with the tract before us. 

It is quite new in bibliography,! excepting that we find " Newes 
comme from Hell " entered at Stationers' Hall by AV. Copland in 
1565. From that day to the present it has never turned up, 
until the copy we have used was recently discovered. It would 
afford no information were we to enter into a particular examina- 
tion of the ill-written contents, but we give the whole of the con- 
clusion as a fair specimen of the rest : — 

"S[h]al I tell you the cause of scarsenes of money is? I wyll show 
you: it is these greate extorcioners, usurers that make it, who some of 
them have, as I do knowe, lyeng by them, i. e. ii C, iiii C. ye, ii or iii 
M. Ii. And wyll not put forth one peny, nother by se, nor yet by land, 
but to the devylles use of usery, and it is these theves that maketh money 
so scarse. 

" Loke on all partes on the other syde of the se, wher theyr quine is 
moche more baser then it was here, what do theyV they do use theyr 
quynes in byenge and sellyng after a godly use, one of them to heipe an- 

*' And we do use our quyne one of us to destroye an other therewith. 

'' This devylles use wyll never be left, onelest the queues grace, with 
her noble Counsayll, dothe set forth a commaundement upon payne of 
death it shal be lefte, for they feare not God. 

" To let oute fy ve hondred pounde in usury they be redy : but to give 
fyve pence unto the poore they be unredye. 

" Finis qd. J. E." 

The type used by William Copland for this tract, as well as for 
many others, was of the coarsest description ; and the style of au- 
thorship is throughout such as to adapt it to the humblest capacity 

1 We find an entry regarding it in Lowndes' Bibl. Man. edition 1863, 
p. 2746, where it is merely called "News from Hell to Usurers, Loud. W. 
Copland, 1565, 12mo." The size is 8vo. 

80 Bibliograpljical ^Icccmnt of 

in the middle of the sixteenth century. William Copland printed 
no other work with a date so late as the present. John Byddell 
had printed, as early as 1536, " News out of Hell, a Dialogue be- 
tween Charon and Zebul, a Devil ; ** but we only know of it from 
Ames, no copy being now, we believe, extant. The Rastall men- 
tioned in it as a " waterman " could hardly have been William 
Rastall the celebrated printer. (Dibdin, Typ. AnL III. 892.) 

News from Gravesend. — Newes from Graves-end : 
sent to Nobody. Nee Quidquam nee Cuiquam. — Lon- 
don Printed by T. C. for Thomas Archer, and are to be 
solde at the long Shop under S. Mildreds Church in the 
Poultry. 1604. 8vo. 

It has been suggested that this humorous, satirical, and eccen- 
tric publication might be by Thomas Nash ; but that is impossible, 
seeing that it was written during the Plague of 1602-3, and that 
Nash was then dead. We believe it likely to have been the 
production of Dekker, who, having put his name, or initials, to 
various pieces about the same period, might think it expedient to 
print " News from Gravesend " anonymously. It is much in his 
manner, and we know no writer of that day who could make so 
near an approach to the style of Nash, without its bitterness. All 
that is certain, however, is, that it could not be by the defunct 
author of " Pierce Penniless." 

" The Epistle Dedicatory " is to " Nicholas Nemo, alias Nobody " ; 
and from it we make the following extract, which those who are 
acquainted with Dekker's mode of composition will acknowledge 
to bear a strong resemblance to it : — 

" Being in this melancholy contemplation, and having wept a whole 
ynck-horne full of Verses in bewailing the miseries of the time, on the 
suddaine I started up, with my teeth bit my writings, because I would 
eate my words, condemned my penknife to the cutting of powder beefe 
and brewes, my paper to the drying and inflaming of Tobacco, and my 
retirements to a more gentlemanlike recreation, viz. Duke Humphries 
waike in Powles ; swearing five or sixe poeticall furious oathes, that the 

€arlt3 (£ngli0l) £iitxainxe, 81 

goosequill should never more gull me to make me shoote paper-bullets 
into any Stationers shop, or to serve under the weather-beaten col- 
ours of Apollo, seeing his pay was no better: yet remembring what a 
notable fellow thou wert — the onely Atlas that supports the Olympian 
honor of learning, ^nd (out of the home of Abundance) a continuall 
benefactor to all SchoUers (thou matchlesse Nobody!) I set up my rest, 
and vowde to consecrate all my blotting-papers onely to thee : And not 
content to dignifie thee with that love and honor of my selfe, I sommond 
all the Rymesters, Play-patchers, Jig-makers, Ballad-mongers, and Pam- 
phlet-stitchers (being the yeomanry of the Company) together with all 
those whom Theocrytus calls the Muses Byrds (being the Maisters and 
head-Wardens) and before them made an Encomiasticall Oration in praise 
of Nobody." 

All this is very like Dekker, though it may be, and is, inferior 
to what Nash might have written. It reminds us of the quiet but 
rather heavy humor displayed by Sir Edward Dyer (then still 
living in Winchester House, Southwark) in his prose essay upon 
" Nothing," which had been printed in 1585. (See post.) This 
rambling style is pursued by the author of " News from Graves- 
end " for fourteen closely printed pages. " Gravesend," in the 
title, means the end of the grave, in allusion to the Plague, which 
had caused the Term (as the writer tells us with humorous detail) 
to be kept at Winchester. The verse which immediately follows 
the prose is not equal to it ; it is in eight-syllable couplets ; and 
we only select a single specimen, where the author refers to the 
manner in which some careless persons miraculously escaped in- 
fection, while others were dying in heaps : — 

" Their nose 
Still smelling to the grave, their feete 
Still wrapt within a dead mans sheete, 
Yet (the sad execution don) 
Careless among their cauns they run, 
And there (in scorne of Death or Fate) 
Of the deceast they wildly prate, 
Yet snore untoucht, and next day rise 
To act in more new Tragedies : 
Or (like so many bullets flying) 
A thousand here and there being dying. 
Deaths Text-bill clapt on every dore. 
Crosses on sides, behinde, before, 
Yet he (i' th' midst) stands fast. From whence 

32 Bibliograpljical Account of 

Comes this? you'le say from Providence. 

Tis so; and that's the common Spell 

That leads our ignorance (blinde as hell) 

And serves but as excuse, to keepe 

The soule from search of things more deepe." 

The conclusion is not unlike some of the sentiments entertained 
and expressed by Nash and his early associates, Marlowe and 
Greene, a sort of infection from which Dekker had shown him- 
self free ; and much of the tract before us is of a pious and serious 
character, befitting the melancholy subject to which it principally 

Newes from the North. — Newes from the North. 
Otherwise called the Conference between Simon Cer- 
tain and Pierce Plowman. Faithfully collected and 
gathered by T. F. Student Aut bihe axU aU. — Printed 
at London &c. by Edward Allde. 1585. B. L. 4to. 
44 leaves. 

There is reason to believe that the writer of this clever and 
entertaining production was Francis Thynne, (see Thynne, 
post^) although he only puts his initials on the title-page, and those 
reversed. They are also reversed at the end of the dedication to 
Sir Henry Sidney, which is dated 1579, when indeed the tract 
first appeared, the present being the second edition. The dedi- 
cation is followed by two addresses, " to the godly and gentle 
Reader," and "the Printer to the Reader" ; and after these come 
four pages of commendatory^ verses by W. M., Anthony Munday, 
Thomas Procter, and John Peterhouse, with three stanzas headed 
" The Reporter to his Book." 

The body of the work consists mainly of a discussion between 
Simon Certain, an Innkeeper at Rippon, and Pierce Ploughman, 
a farmer; but the author (who visited Rippon on his way from 
Edinburgh to London) sometimes, and especially towards the 
close, bears his full share in the conversation. T. F. calls himself 
" Student " on the title-page, and Francis Thynne was a student 
of Lincoln's Inn, while the debate in " the first book " (for it is 


®arlj3 (Englisl) literature. 33 

divided into two) relates almost exclusively to proceedings at law, 
and to the advantages and disadvantages of the expense of suits 
in courts of justice. This is conducted with great shrewdness and 
good sense ; but the amusing portion of the production is " the 
second book," in which the author, Simon Certain, and Pierce 
Ploughman narrate a number of droll tales, and ask a number of 
strange questions, on the condition that he who acquitted himself 
best should give the others a breakfast. The Innkeeper's wife is 
made the judge, and she decides in favor of the author, one of 
whose tales runs as follows. It will be observed that it contains 
a very early notice (nowhere quoted) of the Curtain playhouse, 
and of the building designated as " The Theatre," both of which, 
in 1579, had been recently constructed. 

'* There is dwelling in Holbourne (quoth I) and that not very far from 
the place where I doo lye, a certain man whome I noted this long time to 
be a man of strange affection ; for beeing a man of great wealth, and 
therfore the meeter for company, yet if any freend or neighbour require 
him to goe with them to the Tavern, to the Ale house, to the Theater, to 
the Curtain as they tearm it, or to Paris garden, or any such place of ex- 
pence, he utterly refuseth, and after their return that willed his company, 
his maner is to go unto some one of them, desiring him to tel him truely 
what hee hath spent since his going foorth ? which having learned at him, 
whether it be a grote or sixpence, more or lesse, hee goeth straight unto a 
cofer that hee hath standing secretly in his Chamber, which hath a Til, in 
the which Til there is a Uttle clift, at the which clift hee putteth in as much 
mony as the partie said ye had spent: and this til hee never openeth untill 
the end of the yeer; so, often times hee findeth therin fortie shillings, oft 
times three or foure pound or more, and this he taketh and bestoweth 
upon his poore neighbours, and upon other godly busines imployeth it. 
And upon the lid of the Chest is written in great Romain letters, Take 
from thy kinde, and give to the blinde." 

Besides the tales, the book contains much that is illustrative of 
manners both in London and in the country, including the be- 
havior of people at dancing-schools and in gaming-houses, mis- 
called Ordinaries. The following is one of the questions put by 
Pierce Ploughman, who had lately come from the metropolis : — 

" What is the reason that some "Women doo so curie and lay forth their 
"The answere by our Hoste:— for that to be berdlesse is in a man 
VOL. m. 3 

34 Bibltograpljical !?lccottnt of 

monstrous, and to be bauld headed in a woman as in a tree never to have 
leaves, or ground grasse; and therfore, least for want of shewing their 
haires they might peradventure be suspected to be monsters, they make 
themselves very monsters in deed." 

The volume ends with ." the Apologie and Conclusion of the 
Author," in six six-line stanzas. One of these runs thus : — 

" And namely for the worthy Shire of Kent, 
Famous of olde time for humanitie. 
As is to finde in writing auncient. 
Besides what dayly proofs dooth testifie. 

Sith I was bonie in her, me thought, of right 

I ought to bring this matter into light." 

Francis Thynne was a Kentish man, educated at Tunbridge, 
under John Procter ; and it is to be remarked that one of the 
copies of commendatory verses is by Thomas Procter, perhaps son 
to the master. He was doubtless the same writer who was only 
coeditor of "the Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions," in 
1578, a point that has hitherto escaped the observation it merits. 

Newton, Thomas. — Atropoion Delion, or the Death of 
Delia. With the Teares of her Funerall. A poetical!, 
excusive Discourse of our late Eliza. T. N. G. Quis 
ejus ohlitus. — Imprinted at London for W. Johnes at 
the signe of the Gunne near Holborne Conduit. 1 603. 
8vo. B. L. 8 leaves. 

Not a very rare book, and we notice it chiefly to correct an 
error which, from the time of Anthony Wood downwards, has 
always prevailed regarding it. It certainly is not by the Thomas 
Newton who usually signed himself " of Cheshire," and who 
began writing as early as 1575, although it has been invariably 
assigned to him, last in the new edition of Lowndes' Bibl. Man. 
p. 1676. Our reason for denying this paternity is, that "Atro- 
poion Delion " was evidently written by a young poet ; and in 
an acrostic to Lady Frances Strange, (the dedication is to the 


(farljj ^nglbl) Cteatnre. 35 

Countess of Derby, who had married Sir Thomas Egerton,) New- 
ton begins, — 

" Fainting with sorrow, this my youngling Muse 
Requires as much of you," &c. 

No man who had commenced writing verses in 1575 would 
have pleaded on behalf of his "youngling Muse " in 1603. Thus 
we are often too apt to speak of books without reading them ; and 
bibliographers, one after another, have taken the word of their 
predecessors without examination. T. N. G. may unquestionably 
stand for Thomas Newton, Gentleman ; but the names could not 
be uncommon, and " Atropoion Delion " was probably the earliest 
eflfort of its author. It is a very dull performance, in which 
Castitas, Nymphae, Heroes, Mundus, Terra, Delos, Tempus, 
Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos, Natura, &c., make speeches in favor 
of the dead Queen. We quote the best sonnet in the volume, 
headed Vermes Medicis loquens, the title, however, being its only 
real novelty : — 

" For what's her body now, whereon such care 

Was still bestow'd in all humilitie? 
Where are her robes ? Is not her body bare, 

Respectles in the earth's obscuritie? 
Now, wheres her glory and her Majestic? 

Her triple crowne, her honour, and her traine? 
Are not her riches all in povertie, 

And all her earthly glories past and vaine V 
Now, where are all her cates, her glorious dishes, 

That were by deaths of sundry creatures spread ? 
Her fowles, her fat Quadrupidists and fishes. 

Are they not living now your Delia's dead? 
And we, in life too filthy for her tooth, 
Are now in death the next unto her mouth." 

Such commonplace rhymes ought not to have been palmed 
upon Thomas Newton, Chester shiriensis. Messrs. Cooper {Ath. 
Cantabr. II. 454), however, repeat erroneously that they are his. 

^^ Bibliograpljtcal 2laount of 

Newton, Thomas. — A Treatise touchyng Dyce-play and 
prophane Gaming. By Tho. Newton. — Imprinted at 
London for Abraham Veale. 1586. B. L. 8vo. 

We do not find that this tract is mentioned by bibliographers, 
nor is it in any list of the productions of Thomas Newton, unless 
it be the tract called by Wood (Ath. Oxon. I. 10, edit. Bliss) " Of 
Christian Friendship," &c.i It is not a work of any importance, 
nor does it give any novel information ; but in the subsequent 
passage the author, or translator, shows himself only a qualified 
enemy of theatrical performances : — 

"Augustine forbiddeth us to bestowe any money for the seeing of Stage 
Playes and Enterludes ; or to give anything unto the Players therin : and 
yet these kind of persons doe, after a sorte, let out their labour unto us, 
and their Industrie many times is laudable.'* 

His general enmity to profane amusements does not apply to 
innocent recreations, but he says : — 

" I call all those Games and Playes unhonest, unseemely and unlawful!, 
wherein there is any evill, unhonest, filthie, unchast or unseemely action, 
practise or pranke, as namely lascivious talke and wanton words, unchast 
groapings, and ribald handlings, unshamefast gestures and fancieful be- 
haviour. * * * All such Playes, Games and Sports, therefore, wherein 
there is any maner representation, counterfeiting, imitation, or pronun- 
ciation of filthinesse and unchastitie are, as lewd and lascivious, to be 
utterly condemned and worthily to be banished." 

Wood states that the work (if it be the same) was written in 
Latin by Lamb. Danaeus. We have not seen the original. 

Newton, Thomas. — The Olde mans Dietarie. A worke 
no lesse learned then necessary for the preservation of 
Olde persons in perfect health and soundnesse. Eng- 
lished out of Latine and now first published by Thomas 

1 This seems more than probable, because part of the title, as we find 
it in Lowndes' Bibl. Man. edit. 1858, p. 585, is " An Invective against 
Dice Play and other prophane Games." 


(Earljj (ffnglisi) Citeratitre. 37 

Newton. — Imprinted at London for Edward White &c. 
1586. B. L. 8vo. 24 leaves. 

This has been rightly enumerated among the works of Thomas 
Newton, who dedicates it to "Maister Thomas Egerton," then 
Solicitor-General, as a Cheshireman by birth and education. It 
is dated " at Little Ilford in Essex the viij of Januarie 1586," 
where Newton seems at that date to have practised medicine. 
He was an eminent Latin versifier, and perhaps owed to Lord 
Ellesmere his subsequent advancement as Master of the Requests. 
In three pages to the Reader, Newton mentions two other works 
by him, namely, "A Direction for the health of Magistrates and 
Studients, &c.," 1574, and "The Touchstone of Complexions," 
1576. At the end, after a new address to the Reader, are four 
pages entitled " Hippocrates his Oath," regarding the duty of a 
physician. It seems probable that Newton was a schoolmaster, as 
well as a physician, at Ilford. 

Newton, Thomas. — A notable Historie of the Saracens. 
Briefly and faithfully descry bing the originall beginning, 
continuance and successe aswell of the Saracens, as also 
of Turkes, Souldans, Mamalukes, Assassines, Tartarians 
and Sophians. With a discourse of their Affaires and 
Actes from the byrthe of Mahomet their first peevish 
Prophet and founder for 700 yeeres space. Whereunto 
is annexed a Compendious Chronycle of all their yeere- 
ley exploytes &c. Drawen out of Augustine Curio and 
sundry other good Authours by Thomas Newton. — Im- 
printed at London by William How, for Abraham Veale. 
1575. 4to. B. L. 153 leaves. 

This, Thomas Newton's chief production, is by no means a 
translation, though it may deserve no higher rank than a com- 
pilation. On the whole, the work has been well done, and it 
includes all the knowledge that was then possessed, or perhaps 
was to be procured, upon the subject of which it treats. 

38 Bibliograpljlcal Jlaount of 

The dedication to Lord Howard of Effingham is dated " At 
London the xii of May, 1575 "; and Newton had probably at this 
time fixed his abode in the metropolis, though born and educated 
in Cheshire. After residing both at Oxford and Cambridge, he 
kept a school at Macclesfield. Phillips (Theatr. Poet. 1675) in 
his loose way asserts that Newton was the . author of three trage- 
dies, naming " Thebais," and " the first and second parts of 
Tamerlane, the great Scythian Emperor," — a statement which, 
though manifestly incorrect, Sir Egerton Brydges did not con- 
tradict in the edition he printed at Canterbury in 1800. The 
two parts of " Tamburlaine the Great " were by Christopher 
Marlowe, and Phillips's confused notion on the point must have 
arisen from having been informed that Newton had written some- 
thing regarding that hero. What Newton wrote was the follow- 
ing ; and as, possibly, it was the source from which Marlowe drew 
part of his plot, it is the more interesting. 

" Tamburlane, Kyng of Scythia, a man of obscure byrthe and peda- 
grew, grew to such power that he nxaynteined in his Court, daily attend- 
ing on him, a thousand and C. C. Horsemen. This Prince invadyng the 
Turkes dominions in Asia with an innumerable multitude of armed 
Souldiours, in the confynes of Gallitia and Bithynia, neere to Mount 
Stella, gave the Turke a sore battaile in the which he slew of them two 
hundreth thousand. He tooke Bajazeth, the great Turke, prisoner, and 
kepte him in a Cage, tyed and bounde with golden Chaynes. When so 
ever he tooke horse he caused the sayde Bajazeth to be brought out of 
hys Cage, and used his necke as a Styrrope : and in this sorte caryed him 
throughout all Asia in mockage and derysion. He vanquished the Per- 
sians, overcame the Medians, subdued the Armenians, and spoiled all 
.figypt. He built a Citie and called it Marchantum, wherein he kept all 
his prisoners, and enriched the same with the spoyles of all such Cities as 
he conquered. It is reported in Histories, that in his hoast he had an in- 
credible number of thousands : he used commonly to have xv hundreth 
thousand under him in Campe. When he cam in sight of his enemies, 
his custom was to set up three sortes of Pavylions or Teutes : the first 
was white, signifying thereby to his enemyes, that if at that shew they 
would yelde, there was hope of grace and mercye at hys handes : the 
next was redde, whereby he signified blonde and flame : lastly blacke, 
which betokened utter subversion, and merciless havocke of all things 
for their contempt." Sign. M. m. iij. 

Those who have read Marlowe's two dramas will be aware of 

(Earlg (Englislj CiUratun. 39 

the use he makes of these historical circumstances. Sir Egerton 
Brydges had evidently not seen the work before us, or he would 
not have made it a question (page 93) whether the *' Summarie 
or breefe Chronicle of Saracens and Turkes," &c., from " their 
first peevish Prophet" to the year 1575, formed part of the 
" Notable Historic " ; there could be no doubt about it, for the 
folios and signatures are continued throughout, and the addition 
is announced on the title-page. Of course " peevish Prophet " 
means paltry, contemptible prophet. The rapid progress the 
Turks had made in Europe, previous to the battle of Lepanto in 
1571, gave great attraction to Newton's production. It is written 
generally in a plain unpretending style, sometimes even with a 
little admixture of familiar vulgarity, as where he says m one 
place, that Scanderbeg defeated the Turks at Croia, and " sent 
them away packing with a flea in the ear." 

There is but one piece of verse from beginning to end, and as 
it was most likely Newton's earliest attempt of the kind, at all 
events the first that has come down to us, we quote it. It is an 
Epitaph on Roderick, who was called " the last of the Goths," 
but the author does not speak very highly of him : — 

" Here lyes the Corps of Roderick, late King 
Of Gothes, accurst and fraught with furie dire : 
Whose sensuall raigne brought dule and deadly sting 
To Spanish soyle, because of Julians yre, 
Which would not be appeasde till he had wrought 
The Toyle of strife, and brought all thinges to nought. 

" All mad with rage and spightfull rancours moode, 
By devilish fate incensde, Gods heastes despisde, 
His faith renounced, religion eke withstoode, 
A foe to frindes, his countries wracke devisde: 
Unto his Lorde an arrant traytrous Elfe, 
A murthrous wight, and cruell toward hymselfe. 

" Embrued with guylt for sheading Christen bloud, 
Which by his driftes were brought to fatall end; 
An Horaycide, of mangling butchers broode, 
Did ruyne to his native soyle pretend. 

His memorie shall dye with men for aye ; 

His name shall rotte as doth his Corps in clay." 

40 Bibliograpljical Account of 

This prophecy cannot be said to have been fulfilled, when, in 
our own day, a great poet has immortalized that " memory/ 
which, according to Newton, was to " die with men for aye." 

Reverting to the question whether Thomas Newton of Chester 
were the author of " Atropoion Delion," printed on the death of 
Elizabeth, we may suggest the possibility that the younger Thomas 
Newton may have been the son of the elder Thomas Newton, 
who compiled the " History of the Saracens," and other works. 
It is easy to suppose, however, that there might be two Thomas 
Newtons living at the same time, and without any relationship 
between them. To the younger we, of course, would assign " A 
pleasant new History, or a fragrant Posie made of three Flowers, 
Rosa, Rosalynd and Rosemary," mentioned by Anthony Wood, 
and published in 1604. Wood, however, gives it to Thomas 
Newton of Chester, and all others have taken his word for it, 
although the elder Newton died in 1607. 

New Year's Gift. — A new yeres gift, or an Heavenly 
Acte of Parliament : Concerning how every true Chris- 
tian should lyve : made and enacted by our Soveraigne 
Lorde God, and all the whole Clergie of Heaven con- 
sentinge to the same. [Text from Eccles. 6, Make no 
tarrying, &c.] — Imprinted at London, in Fletestreete, 
by William How, for Richarde Johnes. Anno 1569. 

An anonymous piece of pious impiety, in which the forms of 
passing human laws are supposed to be introduced into " the 
Parliament of Heaven." The very " Names of the Lordes of this 
Parliament " sound like a gross mockery, namely : — 

" Christe Jesus Vicegerent 
James the Apostle, Archbishop of Galacia 
John the Evangelist, Lorde Secretarie 
Paule, Lorde Chaunceler 
Peter, Supervisor 
David, Ambasadour 
Moses, the Speaker of the Parliament." 


(farlg (Englialj literature. 41 

In " the Prologue," which is, in fact, a dedication to Sir William 
Garrat, Knight, Richard Jones, the publisher, says, that "the 
little booke had lately come to his hande by chaunce, without the' 
Auctors name, and seemed to be written longe agone." 

In the form of an Act of Parliament it passes the ten Command- 
ments, adding certain provisos ; and when they have been gone 
through, we read as follows : — 

" Further be it enacted, our Beatitude shalbe upon all men that shal 
with a willyng harte do, or consent to observe and do, all that we have 
commaunded: their catell, their come, with all other their substance 
shalbe multiplied and encreased. And contrary, every person or persons 
that with a grudgynge harte do not, or at the least unto all that wee have 
commaunded to the uttermost of theyr powers, that then let them be sure 
that our most godly encrease shalbe withdrawen from them : for cursed 
shall they be, their corne, their catell, with all other their substance." 

No doubt all this was written in pure simplicity. We only 
wonder that the public authorities allowed it to be printed. Per- 
haps it was not published, and we never saw nor heard of any 
other copy than that we have used. It was not entered at Sta- 
tioners* Hall. 

NiccoLs, Richard. — Expicedium. A Funeral Oration, 
upon the death of the late deceased Princesse of famous 
memorye, Elizabeth by the grace of God, Queen of Eng- 
land, France and Ireland. Written : by Infelice Aca- 
demico Ignoto. Wherunto is added, the true order of 
her Highnes Imperiall Funerall. — London Printed for 
E. White, dwelling neere the little north doore of Paules 
Church, at the signe of the Gun. 1603. 4to. 11 

We are here able to add another, and his earliest, work to 
those hitherto assigned to Richard Niccols. It has always been 
considered anonymous, nobody knowing to whom the description 
Infelice Academico Ignoto applied. We apply it to Niccols on 
the strength of a marginal note in an existing copy, dated 4th 
July, 1604, and subscribed J. B., which is placed opposite the 

42 Bibliograpljical :2lccottnt of 

words we have quoted from the title-page. The tract must have 
been written before Niccols left Magdalen College, Oxford. He 
was thus Academicus, but why he added infelice ignoto to it we can 
give no information. Perhaps he had been disappointed of some 
public employment after his return from the Cadiz expedition, 
and went to the University in despondency. That he was quite 
a young man when the piece in our hands was written, we can 
establish by the two following interesting stanzas, and a couplet, 
from a poem it contains under the title of " A true Subjects 
sorowe for the losse of her late Soveraigne." Niccols first men- 
tions Spenser, and then Drayton, by their known poetical and 
pastoral appellations : — 

" Wher's Collin Clout or Rowland now become, 

That wont to lead our Shepheards in a ring? 
Ah, me ! the first pale death hath strooken dombe. 

The latter none incourageth to sing. 
But I unskilful!, a poore Shepheard's lad. 

That the hye knowledge onely doe adore. 
Would ofier more, if I more plenty had, 

But comming short of their aboundaut store, 

" A willing heart, that on thy fame could dwell, 
Thus bids Eliza happily farewell." 

The above may partly explain how it happened that Drayton 
(as indeed he was reproached) congratulated James on his acces- 
sion, but wrote nothing in lamentation of Elizabeth on her de- 
cease. Niccols is known to have been an admirer and imitator 
of Spenser, both in his " Cuckow " and in his " Beggar's Ape," 
written some years subsequently, (see post, pp. 44, 48.) In the 
tract in our hands he calls himself " a poor Shepherd's lad," as 
Spenser and Drayton had done before him. 

" The Funeral Oration " on the death of the Queen, there 
headed EjAcedium, and not Expicedium, as on the title-page, 
begins immediately ; for the young Academicus was willing to 
display his skill in prose as well as in verse. It is a very studied, 
school-boyish production, full of classical allusions, and it dwells 
with apparent enthusiasm on the beauty, learning, and chastity of 
Elizabeth. We are told that 

" Her beauty was so great that it was rather envied then equalled, 

(Earls (fuglisi) Cikrature.* 43 

beloved then pray sed, admired then described: her poAver so great, that 
whole kingdomes were affrighted at her name, and many rich countries 
made happy by her protection: her learning so admirable that as from 
east and west many nations resorted to Rome, * * * so many from all 
parts repayred to her kingdome, where they were either inchaunted by 
her beauty, amazed at her greatnes, enriched by her bountie, confirmed 
by her wisdome, or confounded in their judgments: her chastitie was so 
great, that the question is whether the conquest of her enemies wrought 
her more fame, or the continence and government shee had in her selfe 
more merit." 

Such ridiculous extravagance of laudation defeats itself. " A 
true Subjects Sorowe " opens thus : — 

" I joine not handes with sorowe for a while, 

To soothe the time, or please the hungrie eares; 
Nor do inforce my mercinarie stile: 
No feigned livery my Invention weares." 

Not long afterwards he proceeds as follows, addressing the 
female mourners at the tomb : — 

" Uppon the Alter place your Virgin spoyles, 
And one by one with comelinesse bestowe 
Dianaes buskins and her hunting toyles, 
Her empty quiv^er and her stringles bow. 

" Let every Virgin offer up a teare, 

The richest Incence nature can alowe ; 
And at her tombe (for ever yeare by yeare) 
Pay the oblation of a mayden vowe. 

" And the tru'st vestal, the most sacred liver, 
That ever harbored an unspotted spirit, 
Retaine thy vertues and thy name for ever, 
To tell the world thy beautie and thy merrit." 

Here we see that Niccols, some years before he wrote what 
have hitherto been considered his earliest productions, had at- 
tained great ease and smoothness of versification. The last nine 
pages are filled with " The true Order and formall proceeding at 
the Funerall of the most high, renowned, famous and mightye 
Princesse, Elizabeth," &c., all which is, most unusually, inter- 
spersed with poetry in the midst of the details of the procession. 
It opens with three six-line stanzas, the first being this : — 

44 Bibliograpljiml Account of 

" Before thou reade, prepare thine eyes to weepe, 

If that thine eyes containe one liquid teare ; 

Or if thou canst not mourne, fall dead in sleepe, 

For naught but death such sorrow can out-weare. 
'Twill grieve heereafter soules as yet unbome, 
That one soules losse did make so many morne." 

It is worthy of remark, in reference to Samuel Daniel's earliest 
known collection of sonnets addressed to " Delia," and so named, 
that Niccols, like some others, gives it as the known appellation of 
Elizabeth. He says at the end : — 

" And since that Delia is from hence bereaven, 
We have another Sun ordein'd by heaven. 
God graunt his virtues may so glorious shine, 
That after death he may be crown'd divine ! 


At the close of the tract we have only a formal prayer for 
James I. — ^^Vivat Jacobus: Anglice, ScoticBy Francice et Hibernice 

Niccols, Richard. — The Beggers Ape. — London. 
Printed by B. A. and T. Fawcet for L. Chapman. 
1627. 4to. 18 leaves. 

This production reminds as much of Spenser's " Mother Hub- 
berds Tale," and, perhaps, but for that satirical apologue, " The 
Beggars Ape " might never have been written. The opening by 
Niccols is extremely like that of Spenser, and he fixes upon ex- 
actly the same season of the year, when, as Spenser says, — 

" the hot Syrian Dog on him awayting, 
After the chafed Lyons cruel! bayting," &c. ; 

and Niccols, — 

" When the fierce Dog of Heaven begun to rise 
To bait the Lyon in th' Olympian skies." 
Of course the merit of the two poems is not at all equal ; and 
Spenser's Tale, besides, was the original ; but Niccols was a con- 
siderable master of versification, and his thoughts, if not striking 
from their novelty, are natural, and happily expressed. 

(Earlg Cnngliel) Cittrature. 45 

There is no name on the title-page, nor in any other part of 
the poem, but we know it to have been by Niccols on his own 
confession. In 1610 he published his continuation of " The Mir- 
ror for Magistrates," under the title of a " Winter Nights Vis- 
ion " ; and the first lines of his " Introduction " to it are these : — 

" My Muse that mongst meane birds whilome did wave her flaggie wing, 
And CucJcow-Wke of Castaes wrongs in rustick tunes did sing. 
Now with the mornes cloud-climing Lark must mount a pitch more hie. 
And like Joves bird with stedfast lookes outbrave the Sunnes bright eie: 
Yea, she that whilome begger-like her beggers ape did sing, 
Which, injur'd by the guilt of time, to light she durst not bring. 
In stately stile, tragedian-like, with sacred furie fed. 
Must now record the tragicke deeds of great Heroes dead." 

Here we see not only his " Cuckow," but his " Beggars Ape " 
mentioned by name and avowed. The first was published in 1607 
as " by Richardus Niccols " ; and we may, we think, presume that 
his " Beggars Ape " had also been printed about that date, but 
withdrawn from circulation on account of the ofience it could 
.hardly fail to have given, owing to what the author above calls 
" the guilt of time " ; i. e., the vices of the period, and the personal 
and political application his courageous lines would unquestion- 
ably have received. We therefore only know it by the anonymous 
impression, or reprint, as we imagine, of 1627, when a new king 
was on the throne, who perhaps would not resent the character of 
the Lion-King given to his father. It certainly could not, with 
the Lion's hunting and other propensities, be easily mistaken, nor 
that of the Elephant for the aged and careful Lord Treasurer 
Dorset, who died in 1608. 

The measure and method adopted by Spenser were also em- 
ployed by Niccols, and he was further an imitator by a proneness 
to the introduction of antiquated words and forms. He com- 
mences with these couplets : — 

" About that Moneth whose name at first begun 
From great Augustus, that Romes empire wonne, 
Wheir the fierce Dog of Heaven begun to rise, 
To baite the Lyon in th' Olympian skies ; 
Whose hot fire-breathing influence did cracke 
With too much heate our aged Grandames backe. 

46 BibUograpljical 2lccotint of 

Lapping up rivers with his blaring tongue, 

T' allay the thirst which his proud stomacke stung : 

Then did each creature languish pant and beate 

Under the influence of this horrid heate ; 

And I, that oft in ray low seated cell 

Had felt the burning of his fury fell, 

Upon a time, Aurora shining faire, 

Went forth to take the solace of the aire." 

The construction of the fable is inartistic and defective; for 
while Niccols is walking in the neighborhoo<l of London, over- 
come by the heat, he takes shelter under some trees. He hears 
voices not far ofi", and discovers (without being discovered) that 
they proceed from a company of beggars, who are resting under 
the side of a small hill. He creeps quietly towards them, and, 
keeping a httle rising ground between himself and them, over- 
hears an old mendicant tell the tale of an Ape and a Fox, and 
the tricks and frauds they committed at the Court of the Lion. 
Now, it is very unlikely that a beggar should have been acquainted 
•with the practices and secrets of palaces, and still more unlikely 
that he should have been able to narrate them in such language 
as is put into his mouth. Moreover, the conduct of the characters 
is often violently inconsistent with their natural habits; and in 
one place the Ass, who plays a principal part in the commence- 
ment of the apologue, is represented as feeding upon 

" His Courtly dyet, fraught with many a dish 
Of divers kindes of dainty flesh and fish." 

Even in the license allowed to this species of writing, the more the 
habits of the creatures are represented as conformable to their real 
condition the better ; and this is a circumstance to which Niccols 
has not sufficiently attended. When hungry Bottom is trans- 
formed into an Ass (M. N. D., Act IV. sc. 1) he indulges in the 
gratifying prospect of a bundle of " sweet hay." One of the inci- 
dents, which could not have failed to excite the anger of King 
James, is, that the Lion-King is made to knight the Ass, with cor- 
responding remarks by the author on the facility with which that 
honor was obtained by fools and rogues. After the Ass has been 
thus dignified, we are told ; — 

(Sarlg (ffnglisi) iCtteratttre. 47 

" For when the doultish beast ycleped was 
Through all the Court by name of hight Sir Asse, 
Puft up with pride, he thought hiraselfe to bee 
The fairest beast that ever eye did see : 
He learned had to praunce with stately pace, 
To rayre his Asses head with lofty grace, 
And in each point himselfe so high to beare, 
As if that he some noble Palfray were: 
Which pride of his was laughed so to scorne 
Of every beast that knew him to be borne 
Of base descent; yet he through want of wit, 
Swolne proud by wealth, such folly did commit, 
That he their common Gull accounted was, 
And bore the title of the (/olden Asse." 

Such language would not have been very welcome to King 
James, who had made so many hundred " beggarly Knights," and 
who created the order of Baronets for the express purpose of fill- 
ing his pocket. 

The latter half of "The Beggars Ape" aims at higher game, 
and enters into the field of politics equally offensively ; for there 
we are shown how the poor were oppressed by the rich, and 
how the innocent, in the persons of the Ox and the Sheep, by 
the cunning of the Fox and the Ape, were accused of the most 
heinous crimes against state and government. Tl^e false accusa- 
tions were, however, in the end detected by the Elephant, (as 
we have said, in all probability meant for Lord Dorset,) who calls 
upon the Fox to substantiate his charges upon oath : — 

" The booke was brought ; but, loe ! etemall Jove, 
Who by his power protecteth from above 
The cause of innocence, with dreadfuU frowne 
From Heav'ns high Pallace cast his count'nance downe, 
And as the Fox his oath began to take. 
As Jove but stirr'd hee made Olympus shake, 
And thundring horribly above the skie. 
Through th' ayre he made a sulphurie flash to flie. 
Which fell upon the Foxe for his foule sinne." 

The Fox is, however, not deservedly destroyed, but his skin is 
merely singed to the rusty brown it still bears, while the sulphur- 
ous smell, living or dead, constantly adhered to it. The Ape was 

48 Sibliograpljical !2laount of 

only driven back to his native woods and wilds ; so that it cannot 
be said that any poetical justice is done to the criminals. The 
last lines are these : — 

" So did the Beggar bluntly end his Tale ; 
In which your pardon I crave, if ought I faile : 
And if in reading beggerly you hold it, 
Dislike it not because a Begger told it." 

We have gone the more at large into the contents of this clever, 
though somewhat inconsistent poem, because we are not aware 
that it has before been criticised. On the title-page is a large 
woodcut of a monkey, (not an ape, for it has a long tail,) which, 
very possibly, the publisher had by him, and thought it would 
here answer the purpose. It has generally been stated that the 
late Mr. Heber was the first to discover that " The Beggar's Ape " 
was by Niccols. It may be so ; but our information upon the point, 
it is only just to say, was derived from the late Thomas Rodd, the 
learned bookseller, at least forty years ago. We think that He- 
ber, like ourselves, was indebted to Rodd. » 

Niccols, Richard. — The Cuckow. At, etiam cuhat 
cuculus : surge amator, i domum. Richardus Niccols, 
in Artibus Bac. Oxon. Aulae Mag. — At London 
Printed by F. K. and are to be sold by W. C. 
1607. 4to. 28 leaves. 

As far as till now (see p. 41) has been known, this was the au- 
thor's first production ; but he was in his twenty-fourth year, and 
his work affords proof that he was then a practised versifier. His 
lines often run with great facility, if not beauty, as may be seen 
by the following, where he is speaking of the goddess Flora : — 

" Upon the ground, mantled in verdent hew, 
Out of her fruitful lap each day she threw 
The choicest flowers that any curious eye 
In natures garden ever did espie. 
The loftie trees, whose leavie lockes did shake, 
And with the wind did daliance seeme to make, 


Sarlg (Englialj Citerahtre. 49 

Shee with sweet breathing blossoraes did adorne, 
That seem'd to laugh the winter past to scorne; 
Who, when mild Zephirus did gently blow, 
Delightful odors round about did throw, 
While joyous birds beneath the leavie shade 
With pleasant singing sweet respondence made 
Unto the murmuring streames, that seem'd to play 
With silver shels that in their bosom lay." 

The couplet, " While joyous birds," &c., was caught from Spen- 

" The joyous birds shrowded in cheerful shade," &c. 

F. Q. Book II. C. 12. St. 71. 

In the course of the poem, Niccols has several allusions to 
Spenser, of whom he was a diligent reader. Malbecco and Heli- 
nore are two persons whose names he introduces, and near the 
end he speaks of " the Bower of Blisse." 

As " The Beggar's Ape " was an imitation of Spenser's " Mother 
Hubberds Tale," so " The Cuckow " was in some respects a more 
remote imitation of Drayton's " Owl," which had been published 
in 1604. Niccols was certainly not a poet of original genius; but 
he had generally good ta^te, and he understood the use of his 
mother-tongue. His scholastic attainments were also consider- 

Niccols, Richard. — Londons Artillery, briefly contain- 
ing the noble practise of that wo[r]thie Societie : 
With the moderne and ancient martiall exercises, na- 
tures of armes, vertue of Magistrates, Antiquitie, 
Glorie and Chronography of this honourable Cittie. 
Prcemia virtutis nostrce, non stirpis honores. By R. N. 
Oxon. — London, Printed by Thomas Creede, and 
Bernard Allsopp, for William Welby, and are to be 
sold at his shop in Paules Church-yard at the signe 
of the Swan. 1616. 4to. 56 leaves. 

This is a long and, in the present day, a dull poem, since it was 
VOL. m. 4 

r>0 Bibliograpljical ^crmtnt of 

calculated especially for the time when it was written, which ap- 
pears to have been after Prince Charles had reviewed the Volun- 
teers of the City of London in what was called the Artillery 
Ground. It is dedicated to the Lord Mayor for the year, and 
signed Richard Niccols. A preliminary sonnet to " the Captaines 
of the late Musters, and to the rest of the Society of London's 
hopefull Infantrie," is subscribed with the same name, while a 
second sonnet to " Captain Edmund Panton, the leader of Lon- 
don's hopefull Infantrie," has only the initials R. N. FoUowino; 
a prose address " to the Reader " we have an " Induction," longer 
than any of the ten " Cantos " into which the poem is divided. The 
whole of the verse, with the exception of the two sonnets above 
noticed, is in couplets. 

The opening fully confirms the belief that Niccols was also the 
writer of " The Beggar's Ape," because we there meet with a 
very similar description of the hot season of summer, the Dog- 
star pursuing Leo, with the same peculiar epithets applied to the 
*' blaring tongue " that lapped up the rivers, and to the " sky- 
climbing lark," which roused the author from his slumbers. In 
his " Beggar's Ape " Niccols imitated Spenser, and here he 
copied himself. 

He enters very tediously and at large into the antiquities, not 
only of the subject, but of London generally ; in his margins, and 
in his " Illustrations," which follow each Canto, quoting Stow, 
Camden, Fleming, Holinshed, &c., as they contributed to his pur- 
pose. With that purpose we have nothing to do : the time is past 
when people at all cared about the Artillery Company ; and even 
the ground where troops formerly met and exercised is now abol- 
ished. Niccols always writes with remarkable fluency ; and, with- 
out at all going into his details, we will quote what he ventured 
to say of the decay of the Navy of England in the middle of the 
reign of James I. He has been describing the defeat of the Ar- 
mada, and the spoils snatched from the Spaniards while Elizabeth 
was on the throne, and fancying himself on the bank of the 
Thames, near the palace at Greenwich, he asks, — 

" But -where are now those many barks become. 
That in this rivers roade could scarce find roome; 


(Earlji (Englislj CiUrature. 51 

Or where great Neptunes sonnes, of whom such store 

He did beget upon our fruitful! shore ? 

Brave wrastlers with the wind, whose skill can save 

Themselves from trip of every dangerous wave? 

Do they (as some do thinke) each yeare decay 

By desperate diving in the Indian sea? 

Or doth some greedy-minded Midas touch 

Turn them to gold? or doth th' industrious Dutch, 

Through our own sloth in this long time of peace, 

In naval strength grow out of our decrease ? 

If one or all of these such ill produce, 

Let London seeke redresse for such abuse, 

And study to uphold her navall fame 

From whence at first she did derive her name. 

That so each eye that envies at her good 

May feare her navies force on Thames great flood. 

That king of rivers, whose rich-arched ci'owne 

Begirts his temples like a stately towne." 

The allusion, of course, here is to London Bridge, with its tur- 
reted entrances and rows of edifices. As a specimen of Niccols's 
easy and not ungraceful sonnet-writing, we may extract that ad- 
dressed to Capt. Panton, who, with all his imputed courage and 
skill, would have been forgotten, if our poet had not remembered 
him : — 

" Conceit not (worthie Sir) that selfe conceit 
Did give my humble Muse aspiring Avings 
To mount your spheare of Mars : affection great 

To your great worth is cause of what she sings. 
To you, prime mover of this martiall spheare, 
Wherein so many sparkes of hope do shine, 
She first doth sing, in hope your gentle eare 

Will give free way to these Essayes of mine; 
Where, if you finde ought good, or ought amisse. 

Will to do well in either I have showne. 
If good or bad, or both, I crave but this. 

That as you find it, you will make it knowne. 
But (gentle Sir) first deigne to reade, then judge. 
And what your censure is, I will not grudge." 

Here " censure," as then was common, is to be taken in the 
sense of decision. Niccols's best sonnet is unquestionably that 
which precedes his " Winter Nights Vision," 1610, by which it 


Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

appears that, although entered at Oxford in 1602, being then only 
eighteen, he had already accompanied the Earl of Nottinjiham to 
the attack upon Cadiz in 1597. It would be out of place to insert 
it here, and it has been reprinted more than once. Niccols was 
born in London, and he more than once expresses his pride and 
satisfaction at it. 

Nicholas, Thomas. — The Discoverie and Conquest of 
the Prouinces of Peru, and the Navigation in the 
South Sea, along that Coast. And also of the ritche 
Mines of Potosi. — Imprinted at London by Richard 
Ihones. Febru. 6. 1581. 4to. B. L. 100 leaves. 

The above is the first title-page of the work, and upon it is a 
large woodcut of a mountain, a river at its foot, and a town on the 
banks of that river, with this inscription, " The riche Mines of 
Potossi." There is a second title-page, surrounded by a border 
of Moses, David, and satyrs, which runs as follows : — 

" The strange and delectable History of the discoverie and Conquest of 
the Provinces of Peru, in the South Sea. And the notable things which 
there are found: and also the bloudie civill warres which there happened 
for government. Written in foure bookes by Augustine Sarate, Auditor 
for the Emperour his Majestie in the same provinces and firme land. And 
also of the ritche Mines of Potosi. Translated out of the Spanish tongue 
by T. Nicholas. — Imprinted at London by Richard Jhones, dwelling over 
against the Fawlcon, by Holburne bridge. 1581." 

It will be seen that the first title-page gives a precise date of 
publication, viz. "Febru. 6, 1581," and the work had been en- 
tered at Stationers' Hall, by Richard Jones, on 23d Jan. 1580-1 ; 
the year 1582 would not at that date begin until 26th March. 
The woodcut on the first title-page, " The riche Mines of Potossi," 
is repeated at the head of a supplementary chapter — " The dis- 
covery of the ritche Mynes of Potosi, and how captaine Carava- 
jal toke it into his power." This chapter follows the body of 
the book, and is preceded by the word " Finis," repeated at 
the end of the separate chapter, which fills three more pages, 


(ffarlg (Englislj fiiteratitre. 58 

including " The Table of the Chapters contayned in this present 

This work, in four books, is, in fact, the foundation of all the 
subsequent histories of the events to which it refers, and the nar- 
rative is given with force and simplicity. The characters of the 
different heroes are clearly and strongly drawn, and there is a 
long, distinct chapter (9 of Book IV.) on the appearance, con- 
duct, and dispositions of Pizarro and Almagro. The accounts of 
the execution of Almagro, and of the assassination of Pizarro, 
are written with much spirit and picturesqueness ; and the story 
of the misfortunes and final death of Atabaliba, the young Peru- 
vian Inca, is very touching. Near the end of the chapter (7 of 
Book II.) we meet with a remarkable passage, in reference to 
the fears of the Spaniards, lest the subjects of Atabaliba should 
attempt his rescue, against the command of their own sovereign. 
It is of course in the original of Sarate, or Zarate, but Nicholas 
translated very becomingly. 

" I know not for what cause (says the Inca) yee doo judge me for a 
man of so small judgement, or to thinke that I would goe about to work 
treason, considering how I am your prisoner, and bound in iron chaines; 
and also if any of my people should but shew them selves for any such 
purpose, yee might then, with the least suspetion, strike my head from 
my shoulders. And if ye thinke that any of my subjectes shoulde come 
to rescue me against my wil, ye are also deceaved, and know not what 
obedience my people beareth unto me; for against my will the fowles of 
the ayre shall not flee, nor the leaves of the trees stii-re." 

This is surely a striking piece of hyperbole, to show the most im- 
plicit obedience of the Peruvians to their monarch. The whole 
work is rendered with the same care and excellence. 

Several woodcuts are inserted in the volume, but, according to 
the practice of the day, they had doubtless been used for other 
works. Such was also probably the case with a very spirited bat- 
tle-piece, stretching across the whole page (margins and all), which 
is placed on fol. 58 b, and is repeated on fol. 85 b. It is made 
applicable to the battle of Salinas, in the first instance, and to 
the battle of Chupas in the second. It looks very like a foreign 

The work is printed in two different types, perhaps for speed, 

54 Bibliograpljicat !^ccount of 

and may have been the result of two printers, although the name 
of Richard Jones only is at the bottom of the title-page. 

Nicholas, Thomas. — The Pleasant Historie of the 
Conquest of the West India, now called new Spaine. 
Atchieved by the most woorthie Prince Hernando Cor- 
tes, Marques of the Valley of Huaxacac, most delec- 
table to reade. Translated out of the Spanish tongue 
by T. N. Anno 1578. — London, Printed by Thomas 
Creede. 1596. 4to. B. L. 

This impression differs materially in the preliminary matter 
from the earlier edition, " Imprinted at London by Thomas Byn- 
neman," which has no date, excepting that on the title-page it is 
said, as above, to have been translated "by T. N. Anno 1578." 
In the copy before us the dedication to Sir Francis Walsingham, 
signed Thomas Nicholas, is followed by an address " To the 
Reader," which is not iu the older copy; and that is succeeded 
by six well-written stanzas headed " Stephan Gosson In praise of 
the Translator," which are also new here,l as well as twelve 
hexameter and pentameter Latin lines, In ThomcB Nicholai occi- 
dentalem Indiam Stephan Gosson. Then begins " The Conquest 
of the West India. The byrth and linage of Hernando Cortez," 
as in Bynneman's impression, for which we find no entry in the 
Register of the Stationers* Company. Perhaps it belonged to 
one of the years the record of which is missing. 

The dedication contains an interesting account of an accidental 
interview between Nicholas and Sarate, or Zarate, whose history 
of the discovery and conquest of Peru the former translated and 
printed in 1581. They met, as they were travelling in Spain, on 
the road from Toledo "toward high Castille," and it was of 

1 We apprehend (though we have not the book now at hand) that 
Stephen Gosson's verses preceded the earlier as well as the later edition 
of T. Nicholas's "Conquest of the West India, now called New Spaine." 
The conclusion, on the next page, founded upon the contrary position, is 
of course not borne out. 

^arlti (ffnglislj iCittrature. 55 

course anterior to 1578, which was the date when Nicholas trans- 
lated " The Pleasant Historic " before us, from the Spanish of 
Lopez de Gomara. Here, also, Nicholas tells us that he had been 
employed on the commercial affairs of " the worshipful Thomas 
Locke," who was probably related to Michael Locke, (also men- 
tioned by Nicholas,) as Michael was to Henry Locke, or Lok, the 
poet, (see Vol. IL p. 266.) Whether they were the ancestors of 
the famous John Locke, and of the present Lord King, is a point 
not yet, we believe, ascertained. 

The main object of Nicholas's address to the Reader is to in- 
form him that Cortes was not the original discoverer of Mexico, 
or rather of that part of the American continent, but John de 
Grijalva, who first visited it, not for conquest but for gold, and 
brought away great riches. The English and Latin applauses of 
Nicholas by Stephen Gosson are nowhere mentioned, notwith- 
standing his notoriety. The first stanza is not inapplicable to 
himself: — 

"The Poet which sometimes hath trod awry, 

And sung in verse the force of firie lone. 

When he beholds his lute with carefuU eye, 

Thinkes on the dumpes that he was wont to proue. 
His groning spright, yprickt with tender ruth, 
Calles then to minde the follies of his youth." 

It is most probable that in 1596, when this was written, Gosson 
had been for some time in holy orders, and " called to mind the 
follies of his youth," which in 1579 and 1580 he had publicly 
acknowledged. His lines are generally so good and appropriate, 
that we give place to a couple more stanzas : — 

" Loe ! here the trumpe of everlasting fame, 
That rendes the aire in sunder with his blast. 

And throwes abroad the praises of their name, 
Which oft in fight have made their foes agast: 

Though they be dead, their glory shall remaine 

To reare aloft the deeds of haughtie Spaine. 

" Loe ! here the traveller, whose painfull quill 
So lively paints the Spanish Indies out, 
That English Gentlemen may view at will 
The manly prowesse of that gallant rout, 

5Q Bibliograpljtcal Account of 

And when the Spaniard vaunteth of his gold, 
Their owne renowne in him they [may] behold." 

We need not wonder at the jjoodness of Gosson's lines, since 
Wood (Ath. Oxon. I. 675) and Meres tell us that he had been 
the rival of Sidney and Spenser in pastorals. None of them are 

The body of the work is a reprint of the older impression. Both 
are divided into chapters, of which " a table " is inserted at the 
end of the volume. The history is brought down to the death of 
Cortes, in 1547 ; the whole of it is extremely interesting, though, 
perhaps, not quite so much so as Zarate's narrative of the Con- 
quest of Peru, of which Nicholas, as already shown, published a 
translation in 1581, in consequence, perhaps, of the success of this 
*' History of the Conquest of the West India," by Lopez de 
Gomara. A new edition of the latter being called for in 1596, 
Creede printed it with some fresh introductory matter, in order to 
give it greater novelty. 

NiCHOLL, John. — An Houre Glasse of Indian Newes. 
Or a true and tragicall discourse, shewing the most 
lamentable miseries and distressed Calamities indured 
by 67 Englishmen, which were sent for a supply to 
the planting in Guiana in the yeare 1605. Who not 
finding the saide place, were for want of victuall, left 
a shore in Saint Lucia, an Island of Canniballs or 
Men-eaters in the West-Indyes, under the conduct of 
Captain Sen-Johns, of all which said number only a 
11 are supposed to be still living, whereof 4 are lately 
returned into England. Written by John Nicholl, one 
of the aforesaid Company. Homo es ? humani nil a 
me alienum puta. — London Printed for Nathaniell 
Butter, and are to bee solde at his Shop neere Saint 
Austens Gate. 1607. 4to. B. L. 22 leaves. 

This full title is preceded by a half-title, headed "An Hower- 

(farlg ^nglisl) Citerahtre. 67 

Glasse of Indian Newes," with a woodcut below it of a ship under 
sail, and the signature A. under it. 

There are but two copies of this tract known. One of them is 
in the King's Library of the British Museum, and the other now 
before us. 

Tt is dedicated by John NichoU " To the right WorshipfuU Sir 
Thomas Smith, Knight, Governour of the worshipfull companie of 
Marchants of London, trading the East Indies " ; next we have 
an address " To the Reader," and eight Latin verses signed I. C, 
and four English ones subscribed H. S. The last are these, though 
scarcely worth copying : — 

" Deare bought, far sought, they say, will Ladies please: 
They pleas'd, good manners will that meaner be. 
Feare no repulse, newes from Indian seas! 
For man he is not is not mannerly." 

After a brief introduction, and a description of the geographi- 
cal position of Guiana, as " being neare under the Equinoctial 
line," the writer proceeds in these terms respecting the various 
voyages thither, beginning with that of Raleigh : — 

" The saide Countrey of Guiana was first discovered, or made knowne 
to our English Nation, as farre as 1 can learne, about the yeare of our 
Lord 1594, at the charge and direction principally of Sir Walter Rawleigh: 
the same againe seconded by hiraselfe the yeare following: afterward, 
againe by Captaine Keymish and others, at the charges of the said Sir 
Walter Rawleigh ; it being reputed to bee the chiefest place for Golde 
Mines in all the West India: but the prosecution therof being left oflf for 
a time, by what occasion I know not, it so happened that in the yeare of 
our Lord 1602, Captaine Charles Leigh made a voyage thither, for the 
discoverie thereof; and finding fit place for habitation, determined to pro- 
cure the planting of a Colonic there in the River Wiapica: which said 
determination at his returne being put in practise, with the furtherance 
and special! charge of the worshipfull Knight Sir Olive Leigh, certaine 
men were sent thither, there to inhabite under the conduct of the afore- 
said Captaine Charles Leigh; who remayned there about a yerre and a 
halfe, where he with manie of his companie dyed. For a supplie unto 
which companie was another companie sent in the yeare 1605, at the 
charges of the sayde Sir Olive Leigh, and certaine other adventurers, of 
which companie my selfe was one, all under the conduct and leading of 
Captaine Sen-Johns, who being embarked in the Olive Branch of Sir 
Olive Leigh, whereof was captaine and master, under God, captaine Cat- 
lin and Arthur Chambers." 

^8 Bibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

It is useless to follow the author through the various adventures 
and hardships of himself and his shipmates, which were certainly- 
very great, and described with the vivacity of an eye-witness, 
especially when assailed by the treacherous Caribees, by whom so 
many were slain, and the number sixty-seven finally reduced to 

Nicholl returned by way of Spain to England on the 2d 
February', 1606, having originally sailed on 12th April, 1605. 

Nicholson, Samuel. — Acolastus his After-witte.^ By 
S. N. Semel insanavimus omnes. — At London Im- 
printed for John Baylie, and are to be sold at his shop, 
neere the little North doore of Paules Church. 1600. 
4to. 34 leaves. 

A very rare book in all senses of the word, for it is not only ex- 
tremely scarce, (we never heard of more than two copies of it,) 
but it is one of the rarest and most barefaced pieces of plagiarism 
in our language. The last edition of Lowndes' Bibl. Man. (p. 
1687) tells us simply, that it is "remarkable as containing some 
parallel passages to Shakspeare"; but the fact is that Samuel 
Nicholson, who put it forth in his own name, has been guilty of the 
most scandalous literary thefts and unacknowledged appropria- 
tions. He might well call it " after--wit" inasmuch as it con- 
tains the wit of many poets who had gone before him ; and the 
name of Acolastus seems to have been properly chosen, because 

1 It may seem that this production was meant by the author as an ex- 
periment to ascertain how much he might steal from contemporary authors 
with impunity. Among other plagiarisms and parodies we may here 
notice one that formerly escaped us. It is of the famous line in 3 Henry 
VI. Act I. sc. 4. 

" Oh, tiger's heart, wrapp'd in a woman's hide ; " 
which Greene parodied in his " Groatsworth of Wit," — 

" Oh tiger's heart, wrapp'd in a player's hide ; " 
and of which Nicholson furnishes the following variation, — 

" woolvish heart, wrapt in a woman's hyde." 

(SaxU) (ffuglialj Citcrature. 69 

he was unpunished for his delinquencies. He has robbed Shaks- 
peare most especially, and the passages Nicholson has inserted as 
his own are not so much parallel as identical. In many instances 
he has not attempted disguise, but has impudently claimed credit 
for what he had as impudently purloined. He may well, in the 
dedication "to his deare Achates Master Richard Warburton," 
call his poem " unblushing lines, the first borne of my barren in- 
vention," which had been " begotten in my anticke age.'* What 
shall we say of the following, but that they are almost the very 
words of Shakspeare's " Lucrece." 

" Guiltie thou art of murther, rape and theft, 
Guiltie of bribery and subornation, 
Guiltie of treason, perjurie and shift," &c.' 

What are Shakspeare's lines ? 

" Guilty thou art of murder and of theft, 
Guilt}'- of perjury and subornation, 
Guilty of treason, forgery and shift." 

All that Nicholson has here done is to use " bribery " for per- 
jury, and " perjurie" for forgery ; every other word in the three 
lines was stolen. Again he begins a stanza thus : — 

" Hence, idle words, servants to shallow braines 
Unfruitful sounds, wind- wasting arbitrators." 

What is this but what Shakspeare had written, when he makes 
Lucrece exclaim, — 

" Out, idle words, servants to shallow fools. 
Unprofitable sounds, weak arbitrators," &c. 

And so Nicholson treats many other notorious passages, making 
us wonder how he could imagine, in regard to a poem which in 
1600 had passed through at least three editions, that he should 
escape detection. We might easily select 'similar plagiarisms 
from " Venus and Adonis," as well as from more than one of 
Shakspeare's plays, though Nicholson did not make quite so free 
with the latter as he had done with his poems. We will take a 
single specimen from another poet, in the lines, — 

" If on the earth there may be found a Hell, 
Within my soule her severall torments dwell." 

60 Bibliograpljical !3laoimt of 

This is a couplet from so celebrated a production as T. Nash's 
" Pierce Penniless," 1592, where he exclaims, — 

" Divines and dying men may talke of hell, 
But in my heart her severall torments dwell." 

It is hardly worth while to pursue this part of the subject, or 
indeed to say much regarding a production which contains such 
proofs of literary dishonesty : it reads exactly as if the writer, for 
the sake of a joke, were trying an experiment on public cre- 
dulity ; and if we elsewhere find stanzas that run tolerably well, 
it is impossible to say from whence their excellence may not have 
been stolen. It is out of the question to give such an unconscion- 
able thief credit for any originality. There is, in fact, no design 
in Nicholson's "Acolastus " : if anything, it may be looked upon 
as a pastoral discussion between two shepherds, Acolastus and 
Eugenius, on the subject of love and the falsehood of the female 
heart. In the course of the debate we meet with the subsequent 
stanza, which is not amiss in itself, but, while copying it, we feel 
sure that the simile has been borrowed : — 

" Heart-slaine with lookes I fell upon the ground: 

Her meaning strooke me ere her words were done; 

As weapons meete before they make a sound. 

Or as the deadly bullet of a gunne: 
Yet all mj' passions had no power to move her, 
But thus she rates me that so much did love her." 

In the first five or six pages we detect no material plagiarism, 
but as the author proceeds he seems to come to the end of his 
own resources, and then his unavowed obligations begin. It is 
from near the commencement that we take the following : — 
" In the May moneth of my blooming yeares. 
Living in pleasures, ease and hearts content, 
Now am I forced to lament with teares 
Contempt of dutie, and my time mispent: 
thou from whom repentant humours grow. 
Raise in mine eyes an everlasting flow! " 

It is not easy to make out whether Nicholson, at the time he 
wrote, was an old or a young man : his subject is sufficiently juve- 
nile, but he more than once speaks of his " anticke age," and per- 
haps he wrote as an old man what he had felt when a young one. 

(ffarlg (EnglisI) CUcrature. 61 

Nixon, Anthony. — The Travels of Three English 


1 Sir Thomas Sherley 

2 Sir Anthony Sherley 

3 M. Robert Sherley. 

With Sir Thomas Sherley his returne into England this 
present yeare 1607. — London. 

The name and address of the publisher of this unique tract 
have unfortunately been cut away by a binder, but the date is 
obvious ; and it is not only in the same year, but in the same form 
as the title-page of Day, Rowley, and Wilkins's play on the same 
subject, also printed in 1607. It was one of numerous produc- 
tions on the adventures and return of the three Sherleys, and in 
truth formed the basis of the drama, which follows the story pretty 
exactly as Nixon related it. There is, however, one essential 
dilTerence that deserves to be pointed out, since it clearly evinces 
the then popular antipathy to Jews, as the representation of their 
characters had been taken from such performances as Marlowe's 
" Rich Jew of Malta," and Shakspeare's " Merchant of Venice." 

From Nixon's tract it appears, that, when Sir Thomas Sherley 
was at Constantinople, he was importantly, and most disinterest- 
edly, aided by a Jew. Day and his two coadjutors caught at the 
hint of introducing a .Tew into their play, but directly perverted 
the truth, and represented the Jew as full of malice and revenge. 
It better served the purpose of the dramatists to gratify the popu- 
lar prejudice than to employ the incidents precisely as they had 
historically occurred, by which Sir Thomas Sherley had been gen- 
erously laid under most serious obligations. 

Nixon dedicates his pamphlet, in his own name at length, to the 
Earl of Suffolk, who, as Lord Chamberlain, had materially ex- 
erted himself in favor of the three brothers Sherley. On the 
title-page is the woodcut of a ship in full sail. The play, by Day 
and others, was entered on the Stationers' Registers on 19th 
June, 1607, and we may feel confident that it had been preceded 
by the publication of the tract before us. The narrative was 
evidently not founded upon the play, but the play upon the nar- 

62 Bibliograpljical 3lccount of 

We have first the account of the journey, misfortunes, and im- 
prisonments of Sir Thomas Sherley, and of his final return to 
England. It is succeeded by the history of the adventures of the 
two other brothers, Sir Anthony travelling over Europe to excite 
Christian princes against the Turks, while Robert Sherley re- 
mained in Persia, was victorious over her enemies, and finally, as 
in the drama, married the niece of the Sophy. In all this Nixon 
speaks as from authority, and in one or more places states that 
he had been " solemnly instructed " with reference to particular 

Of the various publications regarding the Sherleys, or Shirleys, 
this was probably the third. First came out the " True Report 
of Sir Anthony Shierlies Journey," &c., 1600; secondly, W. 
Parry's " New and large Discourse," &c., 1601, (see post ;) thirdly, 
Nixon's Narrative, 1607 ; fourthly, Day, Rowley, and Wilkins's 
play, 1607 ; fifthly, an anonymous Relation, published by Hodgets 
in 1607; sixthly, "A true Historical Discourse," 1609; and, 
seventhly. Sir Anthony Sherley's own " Relation of his Travels 
into Persia," &c., which was published in 1613. Of this last also 
an account will be found on a subsequent page, under Sherley. 

Nixon, Anthony. — Great Brittaines Generall Joyes. — 
Londons Glorious Triumphes. Dedicated to the Im- 
mortall memorie of the joyfull Manage of the two 
famous and illustrious Princes, Fredericke and Eliza- 
beth. Celebrated the 14 of Februarie, being S. Val- 
entines day. With the Instalment of the sayd potent 
Prince Fredericke at Windsore, the 7 of Februarie 
aforesaid. — Imprinted at London for Henry Robertes, 
and are to be sold by T. P. 1613. 4to. 12 leaves. 

Of this production we find no mention in any list of Nixon's 
productions, and the present is the only copy of it we ever saw. 

The authorship is ascertained by the dedication, in two six-line 
stanzas, " To the most learned and compleat Gentleman William 


(Karlg (Snglislj Ixiaainxt, 63 

Redman, of great Shelford in the Countie of Cambridge, Esquire," 
which is subscribed A. N., doubtless the initials of Anthony Nixon, 
who was a pamphleteer and versifier of this period, and some of 
whose other tracts are subscribed in the same way : such for in- 
stance was the case with his " Dignitie of Man," published in the 
preceding year. He began writing in 1602, when his allegory 
" The Christian Navy " appeared, and to which a new and shorter 
title was prefixed in 1605 : it is the only production by Nixon 
mentioned by Ritson, (Bibl. Poet. 287.) His " Straunge Foot- 
post *' (see the next article) came out in the same year as the 
poem under notice, and his " Scourge of Corruption" in 1615, 
after which we hear no more of him. 

In the Poet. Decam. I. 302, a singular plagiarism by Nixon from 
Lodge is pointed out ; and in his " Blacke Yeare," 1606 (sign. D), 
he prints another passage from the same poet, with a few changes, 
as if it were his own composition. In his " Great Brittaines Gen- 
erall loyes " he seems to have relied on his own powers, but they 
were small and insufficient for the task he undertook, although he 
contrived to manufacture some not inharmonious lines, as where, 
in the first division of his subject, he thus speaks of the delight of 
all persons at the union between the Palgrave and the Princess 
Elizabeth : — 

" With flowers, therefore, each man strewes the way. 
For though this land were often blest of yore. 
Yet Hymen makes this his chiefe holy-day. 
For that it never was true prov'd before: 
Now th' ayre is sweeter farre then the sweet balme; 
The earth begins with verdure to be dight, 
The Satyrs now doe daunce about the Palme ; 
All things give perfect signe of their delight." 

Consistently with what is said above, the second part of the sub- 
ject is called " Hymens Holiday," and what is remarkable is, that 
it is in blank-verse, a style of composition never before, nor after- 
wards, essayed by this author, as far as we have the means of 
knowing. He breaks out as follows in one place : — 

" Set downe this day in characters of gold, 
And marke it with a stone as white as railke: 

64 Bibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

This cheerefuU Wedding day weare Eglantine, 
And wreaths of roses, red and white, put on 
la honour of this day, you lovely Nymphes; 
And Poeans sing, your sweet melodious songs. 
Along the chaulky clifts of Albion 
Lead all Great Brittaynes Shepheards in a daunce, 
Ore hill and dale, and downes, and daisey plottes: 
And be this day Great Brittaynes holy-day. 
That thus unites the royall hearts and hands 
Of these two Princes in Loves holy bandes." 

Though writing blank-verse, Nixon could not, every now and 
then, resist the temptation of a couplet. 

The third part of the poem relates to the creation of Prince 
Frederick Knight of the Garter, on the 7th February preceding 
his marriage ; and here Nixon feigns to have seen a vision while 
sleeping in the middle of winter in Windsor Park, — rather a cold 
lodging, it must be admitted. He denies that the Order was in- 
stituted by Edward IIL, in consequence of the finding of a gar- 
ter dropped by his Queen ; but he refers to this false tradition, 
and adds : — 

" But truer farre, that from the Holy Land 
This holy Order came; when as a garter high advanst, 
And served for an ensign, and was crownd 
With victory." 

Renown, who is personified, opens a book containing the names 
of the various Knights in former times ; and the author thus takes 
occasion to refer to the death of Prince Henry, which had oc- 
curred only in November preceding : — 

'* Within the characters of this same booke 
I saw a name rejoyced me to see, 
Henry, late Prince of Wales : I read it plaine, 
And glad I was, that in that Register 
That name I found: for now (me thought) I said 
Heere vertue doth out live th' arrest of death." 

This seems all that is necessary to show the character of the 
piece ; and, but for its rarity, it would hardly have claimed so long 
a notice. 

(ffarlg (Snglisl) €\itvainn, 65 

Nixon, Anthony. — A straunge Foot-Post with a Packet 
full of strange Petitions. After a long Vacation for a 
good Terme. — Printed at London by E. A. dwelling 
neare Christ-Church. 1613. 4to. B. L. 

In the preceding article we have briefly mentioned Nixon's 
" Christian Navy, wherein is playnely described the perfect course 
to sayle to the haven of Happinesse," 1602. It is rather a dull 
allegory of human life, but nevertheless it was republished in 
1605, when it only bore for title " The Christian Navy. By An- 
thony Nixon. Imprinted at London. 1605." We mention this 
circumstance because it has not been elsewhere recorded ; and the 
absence of printer's and publisher's names may show that it was 
reprinted at the author's risk : he may have been under the usual 
delusion of thinking such a good speculation. Before we pro- 
ceed to his " Straunge Foot-post," we may quote the two following 
stanzas as a fair specimen of his " Christian Navy " : they describe 
the abode of Lechery. 

" A gorgeous Isle, an earthly Paradise, 

Wherein there wants no kind of pleasant sight, 

No glistring show, no costly fine device, 

That may increase the travellers delight: 

The sight hereof revives the gazers sprite. 
Doth please the eye and doth allure the mind 
Of men that think safe harbour there to find. 

" Of compass large and full of beauty fair, 
The sightly shew doth lie before thy face. 
Which seems as Nature there had set her chaire. 
And chosen that her happy resting place : 
From whence there comes a sweete perfuming air 
With sundry musick, yielding heavenly sound 
That in this place may easily be found." 

The above, as far as we know, was Nixon's first work, while 
that, the title of which stands at the head of the present article, 
was probably his last but one, and certainly the most amusing 
production of his not over-scrupulous pen. His address " to the 
reader " of his " Strange Foot-post " contains nothing, but the 
body of the tract opens rather prettily : — 
VOL. ni. 5 

66 SJibliograpljical !3laottnt of 

" Just about that time of the yeare when the Spring begins to command 
her handmaide Flora to sticke the bosome of every watry meadow, and 
sedgie lake with nosegayes of party coloured flowers, having dulled my 
spirits with serious meditations, and plunged my senses in the quicksands 
of invention, as well to shake off a sullen melancholy that attended me, 
as to entertaine some quicke and more publicke recreation, I walked into 
a neighbouring meade, where it was my chance to light upon an arbor, so 
privately seated as if Nature had built it a cave or receptacle for solitude." 

We need hardly say that in this arbor the author fell asleep 
and had a dream, in which he fancied that he met with Opinion, 
'' whose cloathes were, for all the world, fashioned like a fantas- 
ticall Englishman's, a gallimawfry of most countrie cuts." Here, 
among others, he sees a variety of petitioners to Fortune, each 
petitioner having a follower : thus a harlot is followed by a bawd, 
a spendall by a sergeant, &c. The sixth, out of thirteen petition- 
ers, is a " forlorn Lover," part of whose representation is as fol- 
lows : — 

" Who would trust the wind — a woman's words ? who would rely upon 
a broken reed — a woman's oath? They sigh for them that hate them, 
and laugh at most that love them. They will have some that will not, 
and will have few that would faine. Some feeling of their folly had he 
which, when he beheld his neighbor's wife hang her selfe upon one of the 
trees in her husbands Orchard, requested a graft of the same tree, to see 
if it would beare any more of the like fruit. And no light burthen did 
that passenger account his wife, who, when the rest of the ship were 
willed to cast all the bag and baggage which did surcharge it overboord, 
was most willing to hurry his wife into the sea." 

This does not run exactly in the style of a petition ; but some 
others are more formal and lengthy, and hardly so amusing. In 
the end. Fortune makes her answer in six pages of six-line stan- 
zas, under the title of " Prosopopeia," and that part particularly 
addressed to the Lover is this : — 

" Yor are too hot, too eager, and too keene 
Gainst those who love so well, the female kind. 
Bolting outragious termes, oreclog'd with spleene 
From the distracted passions of your minde : 
Sincerely vertuous many may be found, 
Though some with many vices do abound. 

" If one have wrong' d you, wrong not all for one, 
Nor dote on her that hath forsaken you : 

<£arlj3 (ffnglisl) Cikraturr. 67 

One precious stone doth cut another stone ; 

There's plenty yet abroad : goe, get a new. 
Seeke with discretion, and doubt not to finde 
A constant mate that may content thy minde." 

A review of Nixon's " Black Yeare," 1606, may be seen in the 
Brit. Bibl. II. 553 ; it contains a mention of Marston's " Dutch 
Courtesan," which had been printed in the year preceding, and 
of Dekker and Webster's " Westward Ho ! " which did not come 
from the press until 1607. Neither of these curious allusions seem 
to have been understood by the reviewer. There, too, we meet 
with another instance in which Nixon has turned the thoughts of 
other writers to his own account. 

Nobility, Habits of the. — The Habits of the No- 
bility. 4to. 9 leaves. 

This is a series of nine engravings, unquestionably by Hollar, 
but without his name, and without title-page. The above desig- 
nation was given to them by the first Earl of Bridgewater, in his 
Lordship's handwriting upon his copy. The plates are without 
date, but probably all portraits, and executed in the artist's best 
manner. The first has beneath it " Charles, Prince of Great 
Britain," afterwards Charles II., and in a preceding line we are 
informed that the plate represents "the Creation Robe of the 
Prince of Wales." The second engraving is of the " Duke of 
Buckingham," in " the Creation Robe of a Duke." The two next 
in succession are without names, and give " the Creation Robe of 
a Marquesse," and " the Creation Robe of a Knight of the Gar- 
ter." Then follows the portrait of " the Lord of Arundell," in 
" the Creation Robe of an Earle." " The Creation Robe of a 
Viscount," " the Creation Robe of a Baron," " the Habit of a 
Judge," and " the Habit of a Bishop," complete the series. 

NoHTH, Sir Thomas. — The Morall Philosophie of 
Doni : drawne out of the ancient writers. A worke 

68 Bibliograpljkal ^Iccount of 

first compiled in the Indian tongue, and afterwards 
reduced into divers other languages : And now lastly 
englished out of Italian by Sir Thomas North, 
Knight. — Imprinted at London by Simon Stafford. 
1601. B. L. 4to. 98 leaves. 

There was an edition of this translation as early as 1570, but 
it does not appear that it underwent a reimpression until 1601. 
After a brief address " to the Reader," are inserted commenda- 
tory verses in Italian, by T. N., and in English, with the same 
initials, probably those of Thomas Newton. Ritson (Bibl. Poet. 
283) has not very charitably suggested that Sir Thomas North 
might be the author of his own praises. He would hardly have 
gone the length of the author of the Italian terza rima, — 
"II NoRTHO ^, che con suo sublime ingegno, 
Fa questo," &c. 

He was just as likely to be the writer of a third set of lines of the 
same kind by E. C, initials it is not easy to assign to any author 
of that time. The body of the work, consisting of Indian, Per- 
sian, and Arabian Apologues, is entirely prose. Sir Thomas North 
was the celebrated translator of the first English Plutarch, which 
appeared in 1579, of which Shakspeare made so much use. His 
version was avowedly from the French of Amyot. See Vol. I. 
p. 22. 

NoRTHBROOKE, JoHN. — SpiHtus cst vicarius Christi in 
terra. A Treatise wherein Dicing, Dauncing, Vaine 
playes or Enterluds with other idle pastimes, &c. com- 
monly used on the Sabboth day, are reproved by the 
Authoritie of the word of God and auncient writers. 
Made Dialoguewise by John Northbrooke Minister 
and Preacher of the word of God. Cicero de ofiicijs 
lib. 1, &c. — At London Imprinted by H. Bynneman, 
for George Byshop. 4to. B. L. 81 leaves. 

This " Treatise " was entered by G. Bishop at Stationers' Hall, 
for publication, on 2d December, 1577, and there is little doubt 

€arlj) (EnglisI) CiUratxtre. 69 

that it was published early in 1578, as we now calculate the year. 
It is therefore the first distinct attack upon theatrical representa- 
tions, preceding that by Gosson (see Vol. II. p. 67) by about six 
months. This impression, without date, must have been the ear- 
liest ; but the work, having become popular among the Puritans, 
was reprinted in 1579, by Thomas Dawson; and Ritson (Bibl. 
Poet. 288) seems not to have been aware of any previous edition. 
Northbrooke was a preacher at Bristol, (from whence he dates 
his dedication to Sir John Young, knight,) and the author of sev- 
eral productions of a religious character. 

We may infer that his '' Treatise," as far as regards plays 
and players, was provoked by the very recent construction of the 
Theatre and Curtain, both of which, on p. 59, he mentions by 
name, as White had done in his sermon preached in December 
preceding the registration of the production before us. 

Northbrooke was a versifier; and besides several translated 
scraps in the course of his work, he precedes it by " an admoni- 
tion to the reader," in which, among other things, he thus breaks 
out; — 

" And as for scorneful Sycophants, 

Or Dauncers mates, what so they say, 
He needes not care, although they rage: 

Let them go packe and trudge away. 
These paines he toke for all good men. 

For whom he made this little book. 
And for all such as mindeful are 
For Vertues cause therein to looke." 

The work commences with a long dissertation against idleness. 
It is a dialogue between Youth and Age ; and the latter quotes 
chapter and verse very punctually in the margin. They proceed 
to consider the effects of " vain plays and interludes," Youth, on 
p. 57, asking the opinion of Age " as touching playes and players, 
which are commonly used and much frequented in most places in 
these dayes, especially here in this noble and honourable citie of 
London." Age at once declares them " not tolerable nor suffer- 
able in any common weale," and from thence goes at large into 
the question, with many tedious references and quotations, but 
with no particular information on the subject, excepting that the 

70 Bibliograpljical Account of 

Theatre and Curtain were then both open, " with other such lyke 
places besides," — alluding, perhaps, among them to the playhouse 
which had certainly been constructed at that date in the liberty 
of Blackfriars. When these are mentioned. Age replies : " I am 
persuaded that Satan hath not a more speedie way, and fitter 
schoole, to work and teach his desire to bring men and women 
into his snare of concupiscence and filthie lustes of wicked whore- 
dome, than those places, and playes, and theatres are. And 
therefore it is necessarie that those places and players shoulde 
be forbidden, and dissolved, and put downe by authoritie, as the 
Brothell houses and Stewes are." 

This is followed by the ordinary artillery of citations from St. 
Chrysostom, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, &c. The manner in 
which theatres were then frequented is thus described : " Truly, 
you may see dayly what multitudes are gathered togither at those 
Playes, of all sortes, to the great displeasure of almightie God and 
daunger of their soules." Youth urges that " many times they 
play histories out of the Scriptures," which rouses the indignation 
of Age, especially against such people as on this account con- 
tended that " playes are as good as sermons." " Many," he adds, 
" can tarie at a vayne Playe two or three houres, when as they will 
not abide scarce one houre at a Sermon." 

This subject is persevered in as far as p. 76, when we come 
to " An invective against Dice playing," in the course of which 
Chaucer and Sebastian Brandt (the last in the English transla- 
tion) are quoted; and this continues as far as p. 113, when "• A 
treatise against Dauncing " commences and lasts until the end of 
the book on p. 148. Bynneman's colophon, with his device, two 
hands holding a cross with a serpent twined upon it, is on the last 

Norton, Thomas. — To the Quenes Majesties poore de- 
ceyved Subjectes of the North Countrey, drawen into 
rebellion by the Earles of Northumberland and West- 
merland. Written by Thomas Norton. Seen and al- 
lowed according to the Quenes Injunctions. [Colo- 

€arl2 (fnglielj Citcrature. 71 

phon] — Imprinted at London, by Henrie Bynneman,for 

Lucas Harrison. Anno Domini 1569. 8vo. 2S leaves. 

This is an important and well-written historical tract, but the 
general contents of it, and the events to which it relates, are so 
well known that it is not necessary to enter at all at large into its 
objects, or into the manner in which those objects are accom- 
plished. It does not so much dwell upon the facts of the case, as 
it exposes the manner in which the rebels had been deceived by 
their leaders, the Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, 
and Sir John Swinborne. The last is once mentioned, where 
Norton draws a sort of parallel between them and Catiline, Len- 
tulus, and Manlius : " Northumberland, Westmerland and Swin- 
born, like Catiline, Lentulus and Manlius, must erecte a new 
Triumvirate, to repaire, or new melte and fashion the decayed 
common weale of England ! Forsoth, disordered and ill disposed 
persons aboute the Queene have marred all ; " and so he proceeds 
with broad and sufficiently intelligible irony, — a dangerous figure 
sometimes, especially when addressed to the uneducated, who are 
naturally apt to take things literally. " O, impudent beastes," he 
goes on just afterwards in very unmistakable terms, " to beare 
you so in hande ! O, decey ved fooles you, to beleue it ; but, O mad 
doltes, so rashly to hazard your possessions, lives, good names, 
wives, chyldren, haviour, yea, soules and all, upon credit of so 
false reports ! " 

" Haviour" seems here an odd word, and possibly we ought to 
read Saviour, the long s having been mistaken for h, which in 
MS. was then, like s, carried below the line. The topics through- 
out are well chosen, and the language striking and forcible, such 
as was likely to produce its effect upon a crowd ; and recollecting 
the many hundreds, or thousands, of copies that must have been 
distributed, it is singular that so few are now extant, that for one 
only the sum of £20 was comparatively recently paid. 

Norton argues fiercely and forcibly against the Roman Catholics, 
and thus touches, not at all tenderly, the very sore place of the 
marriage of priests, which was one of the strong grounds of com- 
plaint against the Reformers : — 
" Many of your disordered and evill disposed wives are much agreeved 

72 BibliograpljUal ^Iccount of 

that Priestes, which were wont to be common, be now made severall : 
Hinc nice lacrimce : there is the griefe in deede. And truth it is, and so 
shall you finde it: fewe women storme against the mariage of Priestes, 
calling it unlawfull and incensing men against it, but such as have bene 
Priestes harlots, or faine would be. Content your wives your selves, and 
let Priestes have their owne. And for whole [holy?] religion, receive it as 
God hath taught it: rede his worde; and for the deliverie and explication 
of it, it behoveth you, being no better clerkes than you are, to credite the 
whole Parliament, the learned Clergie of the Realme, and those that 
teach you by the boke of God; & learne it in such sorte and places as it 
is to be taught. Your Camp is no good schole of Divinitie." 

At this date, 1569, Norton, having been bom in 1532, was 
thirty-seven years old, and a strong Puritan. He was a ready, 
meddling man, and later in his career was made much use of by 
Burghley, Walsingham, and Sir Christopher Hatton. A MS. 
before us, marked with Hatton's signature, contains various curi- 
ous pieces of that period, especially some by Norton, who in time, 
and as a barrister, became Counsel to the City of London. It is a 
fact also, not mentioned by Norton's biographers, that he filled 
the office of City Remembrancer, for one of the treatises in this 
MS. is thus entitled : " An Exhortation or Rule set downe by 
Mr. Norton, sometyme Remembrauncer of London, wherebie the 
Lord Maior of London is to order himselfe and the Cittie." Not 
far from the commencement of this document Norton thus warns 
the Lord Mayor against the Roman Catholics : — " That you do 
what in you lieth to suppresse the boldenes and growing of daun- 
gerous sectes, and especiallie the heresie of Papistrie, which hath 
[been] and is, not onelie the damnable perverter of soules, but 
also the universall enemye and supplanter of all just Crownes 
and Kingdomes, and of all lawful! and civill polities, states and 
jurisdictions ; and to this dale hath donne, and at this daie dothe 
moste lamentablie and manifestlie shewe yt selfe in imployinge 
Christians againste Christians in the servyce of the Papacy, to 
have bynne, and to be, the verie meanes of betraying Christians 
to the tyrannic of the Turke, * * * Although it maye be true 
that some Papistes are not Traytors, because some men are 
seduced of simplicitie, yet is it also true, that there is no Traytor 
to our Queene but he is a Papiste, yf he be of any religion at 

(Earlg (KnglisI) iCiteratur^. 78 

In this paper there are many matters that curiously illustrate 
the state of society at the time it was written, particularly as 
regards " the stealing of children " belonging to respectable or 
wealthy individuals, for the sake of reward on restoration. " It 
is goodcheape," says the Remembrancer, "yf the price ofstealinge 
an Alderman's or Citizen's childe be but xij*i in the pound ; so 
manie times xxs is a great rewarde for hym, for whome a rape is 
too lyttle." This is a very remarkable feature in the manners of 
the period; but one of the most noticeable parts of this " Exhor- 
tation " is what Norton says on the subject of the plague, and of 
the measures to be taken against the collection of crowds at plays 
and shows, (then only recently exhibited at regular theatres,) and 
at the tumbling of Italian women, of which we hear for the first 
time, and on no other authority : — 

" The present time requireth that you have good care, and use good 
meanes touchinge the contagion of sickenes ; that the sicke be kept from 
the whole; that the places and persons infected be made plaine to be 
knowen, and the more releeved ; that sweetenes and holsomnes of publique 
places be provided for; that uimecessarie, and scarcelie honeste, resortes 
to plaies and to shewes, to thoccasion of thronge and presse, except to 
the servyce of God; and especiallye to the assemblies of the unchaste, 
shamelesse and unnaturall tomblinge of the Italion weomen may be 
avoyded. To offend God and honestie is not to cease a plague." 

We knew that in 1578 a company of Italian players, one of 
whom was a tumbler, exhibited before the Queen, (Hist. Engl. 
Dram. Poetry and the Stage, I. 235,) but we did not know till 
now that they were women, or, at all events, that there were 
female tumblers among them. We can easily imagine that at a 
date when no actresses were allowed, the " unchaste shamelesse 
and unnatural tumbling " of Italian women would much offend 
and disgust the Puritans, among whom Norton was a leading man 
in the City. About that date the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
were especially offended at the intrusion of James Burbadge and 
his company of actors into the liberty of the Blackfriars, from 
which they were never afterwards able to remove them, until the 
final closing of all theatres after the Civil Wars. 

Norton's hostility to plays was precisely parallel to that of 
Bishop Still, not very long afterwards; for Norton was joint 

74 I3ibUograpl)ical !^ccount of 

author (with T. Sackville, Lord Buckhurst) of our earliest blank- 
verse tragedy, and Bishop Still was the writer of our second 
regular comedy, " Gammer Gurtons Needle." We give them 
both credit for sincere piety in the matter ; and neither of them 
ever afterwards, that we are aware, touched dramatic poetry, or 
in any other way gave encouragement to theatrical performances. 
Near the close of the MS. in our hands, Norton complains that 
the Lord Mayor and his brethren did not, as was the case in both 
houses of Parliament, pray by their chaplain before they entered 
upon public business. He urges them to reform in this respect 
without delay. 

The conclusion of this " Exhortation " of Norton to the Lord 
Mayor establishes two facts in his history with which we were not 
before acquainted : one being, that he had been born in London, 
and not at Sharpenhoe, Bedfordshire, as has been supposed ; and 
the other, that at the time he held the office of Remembrancer he 
was also one of the representatives of the City of London in 
Parliament We quote his own words upon both points : — 

" I am borne a Citizen and here brought upp: according to my right, I 
have accepted my freedome and bounde my selfe to this Citie by the 
oathe of a free man, and I have served, and do remaine at this present, in 
truste and in chardg to serve the Citie in Parliament. I have placed my 
dwellinge here, and do take my parte of the Cities good provision. I am 
the Cities officer and called to their Counsailes. I have the Cities fee and 
owe myne attendaunce. Thus manie thinges, besides the love of my 
countrey and the speciall requeaste made for this matter, and some par- 
ticular good will, which I thinke you make accompte that I do beare you, 
have moved me, not onelie to draw this booke, but also to add theis devises. 
I praie you to take them in good parte." 

In the year that this document was written, James Hawes was 
Lord Mayor, and for his use and at his instance it seems to have 
been prepared. 

We need hardly add that Thomas Norton, who wrote the " Ad- 
dress to the Queen's Majesties poor deceived Subjects of tlie 
North Country," was of quite a different family to that of the 
Thomas and Christopher Norton, who were executed in London 
in 1569 for their share in the Rebellion. 

(farlg (ffngtisi) €\Uxainxt, 75 

Nothing. — The prayse of Nothing. By E. D. — Im- 
printed at London, in Fleete-streate, beneath the Con- 
duite, at the signe of S. John Evangelist, by H. Jack- 
son. 1585. 4to. B. L. 15 leaves. 
This ingenious paradox ought perhaps to have been inserted 
earher under the name of Sir Edward Dyer, by whom there is 
good reason to suppose, though no positive proof, that it was 
written. It was entered in the Stationers' Registers on 27th 
June, 1585, in the following manner, which, at all events, supplies 
the Christian name of the author : — 

** 27 Janij. Hugh Jackson. Rd. of him for his license to printe a Book 
intituled the prayse of Nothinge, by Edward D. . . vj*^-" 

Only a single copy of it has reached our day, and it was once 
the property of Bishop Tanner.i We have mentioned its ex- 
istence in Vol. I. p. 292, with some particulars of the writer, and 
we propose here to say something regarding its contents. 

It consists of comparatively few pages, but still the joke of 
praising Nothing may be said to have been a little too long 
sustained, considering the paucity of the author's materials. He 
has evidently imitated the Encomium Morice of Erasmus, which 
was punningly dedicated to Sir Thomas More. E. D. however 
did net possess the various learning of Erasmus, and could not 
therefore illustrate his small, and apparently barren, subject with 
the variety and humor which his predecessor had displayed. 
Neither is Dyer's prose style sufficiently spirited and lively for the 
topic he undertook. Francisco Copetto, in his few verses called 
Capitolo nel quale si lodano le Noncovelle, has said more, and to 
better purpose, than all the prose in which Dyer has indulged. 
He mentions on his last page '* the macheronicall phantasies of 
Merlinus Cocaius, and sleepie Phantasmata of Francois Rabilois," 
who had " greatly traveled in this business " ; and we may feel 
some surprise that with such examples before him. Dyer was not 
more animated. He commences thus soberly : — 

"Divers of singular reputation, to recreate themselves from their graver 
studies, have, after the nature of their conceytes, written diversly, and 

1 For Bishop Tanner, read Malone, among whose marvellous books in the 
department of early English literature it went to the Bodleian Library. 

76 Bibliograpljkal 2lccottnt of 

that of such matter, which, in the opinion of the people, seeraeth not 
worthy the pen of a meane schoUer, in which, notwithstanding, they 
shewed no small argument of their great judgment, that erred at no time 
lesse, then when it appeared most idle and looselye given." 

And so he proceeds in the same reasoning strain throughout* 
forgetting, as far as we can judge, that a paradox of this kind 
should be maintained in opposition to the ordinary rules of logic ; 
at all events, logic in such cases should be made, by clever per- 
version, to subserve the purpose of the panegyrist. Of his illus- 
trations we will cite one of the best, but at the same time too 
gravely put : — 

" Cains Caesar, being of that magnanimitie that the world difficultly 
conteyned his greatnes, to sound the disposition of the Senat, preferred 
divers sutes to thera for himselfe and favorers: but they, as men jealous 
of the Romaiiie state, and muffeled with the over sight of their fatall des- 
tinie, graunted (not knowing what) nothing: a matter taken of Caesar in 
better part then if they had made him perpetuall Dictator: as by which 
being no way their debter, he tooke occasion to enter upon them and their 
liberties, and consequently to cease the large domains of their Empire 
into his hands: wheras, if they had in the beginning alaide the heate of 
his ambition with the ordinarie hope of other suters, he had given place 
to some other, who had chastised their gormandise that brought them in 
hatred of all men." 

There is in no part of the work that serious playfulness which 
induces the reader to believe that the writer is in earnest when 
he makes the most extravagant demands upon the imagination. 
However, the most curious, if not the most valuable part of the 
tract, is a blank-verse rendering of some Hues in Petrarch's 
" Triumph of Death," but it is not quite clear whether by the 
words " an unlearned translator " Dyer means himself The 
passage, as a specimen of blank-verse in a singular measure, (if 
measure at all,) is worth transcription : — 

" The Popes (saith he) the Kings, and who commanded have the worlde, 
Are naked now, misers, and needy persons all : 
Now treasures where ? now honors where ? and precious stones ? 
And Scepters where ? and Crownes, My ters, and purple shewes ? 
He wretched is that layes his hope in mortall things. 
But who doth not? and if he finde himselfe at length 
Deceived, tis reason great, and answereth well his act. 

(Earlg (fnglisl) CiUraturr. 77 

0, cenceles men ! so much to traveile what availes ? 

To the auncient Mother great all shall return at last, 

And hardly shall the mention of your names be found. 

Of a thousand labors not one a profite yeeldes, 

But each of them apparent vanities are knowne : 

Your studies who doth understand can tell me this. 

With mindes inflamde alwayes to domage of your selves, 

What profit ist ? so many countryes to subdue, 

And nations divers tributaries make unknown, 

And after enterprices perillous and vaine, 

With blood to conquer walled Townes and treasure get? 

A way more sweete is found with water and with bread, 

With glass and wood, then with ritch orient stone and gold." 

What measure the above was intended for, it is impossible to 
guess, but we know that Sir Edward Dyer was a man who was 
fond of metrical experiments. It reads as if he had merely ren- 
dered line for line, not venturing to imitate the charming grace 
and flow of the original. However, the version of this portion of 
Petrarch's " Triumph of Death," by Henry Parker, Lord Morley, 
is hardly more musical ; but then we are to bear in mind that it 
was made nearly half a century earlier, while Henry VHI. was 
still upon the throne. It was printed by John Cawood, without 
date, and no work from his press appeared after 1550. Lord 
Morley, however, employed rhyme, and thus, to a certain point, 
satisfied the ear, which Sir Edward Dyer certainly does not. 
Perhaps he would have quoted Lord Morley, had he known of 
his translation. It might be a scarce book even in 1585, and 
in our day only two copies of it have been preserved. 

Nugent, Richard. — Rich : Nugents Cynthia. Con- 
taining direful! Sonnets, Madrigalls and passionate 
intercourses, describing his affections expressed in 
Love's own Language. Non ad imitandum, sed ad 
precavendum. Disce ex me. — London, Printed by T. 
P. for Henrie Tomes, and are to be sould at his shop 
by Graies Inne new gate in Holbourne. 1604. 4to. 

78 Bibliograpljical !3lccount of 

This volume was considered unique thirty years ago, and no 
second copy has yet been discovered. The author was, in all 
probability, an Irishman, and in a most unusual way distinguished 
his " Cynthia" from any other that might be, or had been pub- 
lished. From the mode in which sold is spelt, " sould,** we may 
guess that his printer was Richard Nugent's countryman. In spite 
of what he says in the motto on the title-page, that he was not to 
be imitated, but to remain a warning to others, he was himself an 
imitator ; and as no imitator was ever a first-rate poet, he falls 
much below the object of his poetical admiration, Samuel Daniel. 
Nugent mentions him by name, and with extravagant applause, in 
the following sonnet, the ninth of his series. How far it is " dire- 
ful," as the author terms his sonnets on his title-page, and in what 
sense the word is to be understood, the reader must judge. It is 
certainly the first time we ever saw the epithet *' direful " so 
applied : — 

" Oft have I wished, in my zeales excesse, 

To make my Cynthia see proofes of my dutie, 
That in these lines I could as well expresse. 

As in my soule I do admire her beautie. 
Or that great Daniell, fit for such a taske, 

This wonder of our Isle had scene and heeded, 

Then should his glorious muse her worth unmaske, 

And he him selfe himselfe should have exceeded. 

Then England, France, Spaine, Greece and Italye, 

All, all that th' Ocean from our shores divideth, 

Would over-runne their bounds, and hether flye 

To find the treasure that our Ireland hideth : 
But best is that we never do disclose it. 
Since, knowne but of ourselves, we shall not lose it." 

This of itself is somewhat of a riddle, and it would make it no 
clearer, even if we supposed " Ireland " in the last line but two 
to be misprinted for Island. At all events we learn from another 
of Nugent's pieces that the lady whom he addressed resided upon 
"Albion's shores." He could hardly have meant Queen Elizabeth, 
because Daniel must have often " seen and heeded " her. This 
poet in 1604, when Nugent published his "Cynthia," may be 
said to have been in the full power of his reputation ; and his 
fame had been increasing ever since the appearance of his " De- 


(Earlg (SnglisI) CiUrature. 79 

lia," in 1592. One of Richard Nugent's separate poems is ad- 
dressed to his cousin, of the same name, residing at " Donower." 
His work is divided into three portions, and we extract another 
specimen of a sonnet from the first part. It is numbered 14, and 
we gather from it that Cynthia was a real object of, perhaps, his 
real passion : — 

" 0, be not cruell, since thou art so faire ! 

Let not disdaine my high deserts disgrace. 
Nor one foule fault thy beauties prize impaire ; 

Sweete thoughts do best beseeme so sweet a face. 

Behold the triple region of the aire, 
"Woods, valleys, mountaines, rocke and everie place. 

Are filled with Ecchoes of my plaints and prayer, 
Which at thy deaffened eares still sue for grace. 

All of them shew, each in his diverse kind. 
That of my wofuU case they have compassion: 

The rocks, my words repeating, seeme inclin'd 
To beare some burden of my hidden passion. 

Ah, Cynthia! heare at length my grievous mones. 

And be not harder than these senselesse stones." 

We consider this the best production in the volume ; but it must 
have been a peculiar Irish echo that could repeat the author's 
" hidden passion " : if hidden, how could the rocks have known 
anything about it ? At the end is a sonnet in Italian, " in com- 
mendation of the author, and perswading Cynthia to leave her 
sorrow : " the lady was therefore unhappy, as well as the gentle- 
man. We are not aware that Nugent wrote anything else, but 
many of his lines read as if he were not unpractised in poetry. 

Ottoman. — The offspring of the house of Ottomanno, 
and officers pertaining to the greate Turkes Court. 
Whereunto is added Bartholomeus Georgieviz Epitome 
of the customes, Rytes, Ceremonies and Religion of 
the Turkes &c. In the ende also is adjoyned the 
maner how Mustapha, eldest sonne of Soltan Soliman, 
twelfth Emperour of the Turkes, was murthered by 

80* J3ibUograpljical ^tccount of 

his father in the yere of our Lorde 1553. all Eng- 
lished by Hugh Goughe. — Imprinted at London in 
Fletestreate, neare unto saint Dunstones church by 
Thomas Marshe. 8vo. B. L. 92 leaves. 

This work probably contains the earliest specimens of the Turk- 
ish and Slavonic languages printed in English, — not indeed In 
native type, but in words and sentences expressed in Roman let- 
ter, with the translation in black-letter below them. They are 
chiefly in the shape of brief dialogues between Turks and Chris- 
tians, and relate to the ordinary occurrences and wants of travel. 

How long after 1553 (the figures on the title-page referring to 
the date when Sultan Sollman murdered his son) the work was 
published, we cannot fix precisely, but it is dedicated by Hugh 
Goughe to Sir Thomas Gressam, (so spelt,) and his new edifice of 
the Royal Exchange is mentioned as one of the great benefits en- 
titUng him to the gratitude of his country. Goughe says that he 
took the translation in hand for the purpose of informing people 
who were ignorant of the rise and origin of the Turks, although 
many were acquainted with the rapid and fatal progress they had 
made as conquerors In Europe since the capture of Constanti- 
nople. Goughe commences with " a brefe rehersall of the Emper- 
ours of Turkeye from Otthomannus to Solymannus," including 
Selimus in the year 1512, who became the subject of an English 
tragedy printed first in 1594 and again in 1638. Of him we are 
told by Goughe : — 

" Selimus eleventh Emperour of the Turkes was marvellous cruel. He 
poisoned his Father, and by that meanes obtained the turkish Empire in 
the yeare of our Lorde God a thousand five hundred and twelve. After- 
warde, when he had subdewed the great Sultan, he sacked the most pop- 
ulous citye Alkairum, and raigned but eight yeares, at what tyme he was 
justly punished for his crueltye." 

This statement does not include half the cruelties imputed to 
Selimus in the English drama, for there he not only kills his 
father, but his two brothers. No doubt additional atrocities were 
invented for the purpose of gratifying the audiences attending the 
theatres occupied by " the Queens Players " who acted the drama. 

(ffarlg (Englisl) Citerature. 81 

It only included a part of the career of Selimus, and in the epi- 
logue the author promised, — 

" If this first part, gentles, do like you well, 
The second part shall greater murthers tell." 

No " second part " has, however, come down to us. The most 
curious and amusing passage in the work before us is thus headed, 
" Of the inchauntementes used by the Turkes against Fugitives : " 

" They have a certaine kind of inchauntment, wherby they bringe them 
backe mauger their teeth. The name of the servant, written in a scroll 
of paper, is hanged up in his lodging or cabinne: after that, they conjure 
his heade with horrible wordes and incantations, which donne by poore of 
the devil, it commeth to passe that the servaunte flyinge shal thinke to 
chaunce in his jorneye amonge Lions or Dragons, either the sea and 
fluddes to breake oute againste him, or all thinges to seme blacke by 
reason of darkenes; and driven backe with these terrible sightes, he re- 
torneth unto his maister." 

This is not very clear, but there was no monstrosity imputed to 
the Turks which was at that time incredible. At the end are the 
dialogues in the Turkish and Slavonic languages, as well as a 
translation of the Lord's Prayer ; and the whole is wound up with 
a narrative of the murder of his son Mustapha by Sultan Soliman 
in 1553. The author's hope was to promote a union of Christian 
princes to drive the Turks out of Europe. 

OvERBURT, Sir Thomas. — A Wife. Now the Widdow 
of Sir Tho : Overburye. Being a most exquisite and 
singular Poem of the choice of a Wife. Whereunto 
are added many witty Characters and conceited Newes, 
written by himselfe and other learned Gentlemen his 
friends &c. The third Impression : with the addi- 
tion of sundry other new Characters. — London Printed 
by Edward Griffin for Lawrence Lisle, and are to be 
sold at his shop at the Tigers Head in Paules Church- 
yard. 1614. 4to. 34: leaves. 
VOL. III. 6 

82 Bibltograpljkal ^cconnt of 

This first edition of this well-known work i was printed in the 
same year as this " third impression," and the ninth impression, 
with the same printer and publisher, only bears date in 1616; it 
was also reprinted at least twice in 1617. The copy before us, 
besides.the poem, contains twenty-five "Characters" and eigh- 
teen pieces of " News." The number of " Characters " was sub- 
sequently increased to eighty-two, and the pieces of " News " to 
twenty. Most of the pieces of " News " have initials at the end 
of each : the first is marked T. O., and others A. S., Sr. T. R., 
J. D., W. S., Mri« D., &c., but in later impressions they were 
omitted. The preliminary praises in verse are many, introduced 
by a brief prose address from " the Printer to the Reader " ; and 
it is succeeded by "A Morning-sacrifice to the Author," in coup- 
lets, signed " J. S. Lincolniensis, Gentleman." " Briefe Panegyr- 
ickes in the Authors praise," by G. R., T. B., and X. Z., and an 
unclaimed poem of two pages, " Of the choice of a Wife," follow. 

Overbury was born in 1581, and before he had completed his 
twentieth year he had acquired celebrity. C. Fitzgeofirey, in his 
"Affaniae, sive Epigrammatum Libri tres," 8vo, 1601, has one Ad 
Thomam Overberium, beginning ex melle mero, meroq. amore, 
&c. Overbury was entered at Queen's College, Oxford, at the age 
of fourteen, and was therefore one of Fitzgeoffrey's contempora- 
ries. This, the earliest notice of him, has escaped his biographers. 

Of his famous poem, " The Wife," many manuscript copies 

1 We may here furnish a copy of the short title-page, precisely as it 
stands in the first edition. 

" A Wife, now a Widowe. — London, Imprinted for Laurence Lisle dwelling at 
the Tygres head in Pauls Church-yard. 1614." 8to. 

There is, as it seems to us, an undoubted misprint not far from the end 
of the poem, where it is argued that a wife should be so constantly em- 
ployed that her mind has not leisure to stray to " fancies." The text has 
been this, in every impression from 1614 to 1856 : — 
" Domestic charge doth best that sex befit, 
Contiguous business : so to fix the mind, 
That leisure space for fancies not admit : " &c. 
Here, surely, " contiguous " ought to be continuous. The misprint of 
"contiguous" reminds us of Mrs, Malaprop's "knowledge of geography 
and the contagious countries." 

(ffarlg (fnglisi) CiUrature. '83 

existed before it was printed, very soon after the author's lamen- 
table death. It may be said that they all more or less differ from 
the somewhat obscure and paradoxical, but ingenious original, 
which in various places was not understood by the old compositors. 
We are not about to quote any part of it, especially as it has been 
carefully reedited in our day, but to point out a few lines where 
ancient manuscripts (particularly one now before us) show that 
the printed copy is erroneous. For instance, where it is said, — 

" Beasts likenesse lies in shape, but ours in mind," 
the poet's meaning is lost, and we must read with our MS., — 

" Beasts' liking lies in shape, but ours in mind; " 
for Overbury intended to say that the liking of beasts for each 
other depended upon external appearances, whereas the more re- 
fined liking of men for women arose out of internal qualities. 
Again there is an evident blunder a little farther on, where the 
poet first refers to rank, and then to wealth : — 

" As for the oddes of ryches, portion," &c., 

which cannot be wrong, and thus the text stands in MS. and 
ought to stand in print ; but the old and modern printed copies 
have the line thus, — 

" As for (the oddes of sexes) portion," &c., 

when the odds of sexes has nothing to do with the question. 

Two stanzas beyond we meet with a more important change, 
which we give from the MS. before us, and is evidently right: — 

" Good is a fairer attribute then fayre; 
Tis the mind's beauty keeps the other sweeter 
That's not still one, not changd with age or ayre, 
Nor glosse nor painting can it counterfeit." 

Here we must refer to the ordinary reprints to show how superior 
the above is to the usual reading. Near the end we ought to sub- 
stitute " new spiritual harmony " for " meere spiritual harmony ; ** 
and in the last stanza but five, in the lines, — 

" When nature had fixt beauty perfect made. 
Something she left for motion to adde," — 

" fixt" has always been misread and misprinted for "/r«/," and 

84 i3ibliograpl)icttl !^cronnt of 

Jit Is omitted before " to adde." In the penultimate stanza, " fa- 
vours " ought probably to be labours : — 

" No man but favours his owne worth's effect " 
means nothing ; whereas, 

" No man but labours his owne worth's effect" 
clearly means that every man strives to give effect to his own 
worth. However, it would be tedious to carry the inquiry farther ; 
and we should not have said so much, had not Overbury's poem 
been of such real value and great celebrity. 

Its popularity produced many imitations ; and John Davies of 
Hereford did not lose the opportunity of attracting attention in 
1616, when he produced his "Select Second Husband" for Sir 
Thomas Overbury's " Wife," having, as we apprehend, two years 
earlier written anonymously her Jirst " Husband." Perhaps the 
most remarkable of the pieces that originated in " The Wife " 
was Patrick Hannay's " Happy Husband ; or Directions for a 
Maide to choose her Mate," i of which we subjoin one of the two 
excellent Arguments from the edition of 1622, 8vo, lying before 
us, sign. L 6 : — 

" To keepe him good his wife must be 

Obedient, milde ; her huswifery 

Within doores she must tend: her charge 

Is that at home ; his that at large. 

Shee must be carefull : idle wives 

Vice workes on, and to some ill drives. 

Not toying fond, nor yet unkinde; 

Not of a weake dejected minde, 

Nor yet insensible of losse, 

Which doth with care her husband crosse. 

Not jealous, but deserving well ; 

Not gadding newes to know, or tell: 

Her conversation with the best; 

In Husbands heart her thought must rest. 

Thus if shee chuse, thus use her mate, 

He promiseth her happy state." 

1 We ought, perhaps, to have mentioned that the late Mr. Utterson re- 
printed Hannay's " Songs and Sonnets," which form only a small part of 
tiie volume as it came out in 1622. They have a separate title-page, 
"London, Printed by John Haviland for Nathaniel Butter, &c. 1622;" 
and in the centre is a flaming heart surrounded with a wreath of laurel. 

(ffarlg (EnglisI) Cikrature. 85 

Hannay's " Happy Husband *' is in ten-syllable couplets, and in 
many other respects differs widely from Overbury's original. As it 
is very rare, we will extract a short specimen from an early part 
of the work, where the author speaks of the penance of Jane 
Shore. It is on sign. L 8 : — 

" Shee, when shee bare -foot with a taper light 
Did open penance in the peoples sight, 
Went so demure, with such a lovely face 
That beauty seem'd appareld in disgrace; 
But most when shame summon' d the blood too hie. 
With native staines her comely cheekes to die 
In scarlet tincture, shee did so exceed 
That e'en disgrace in her delight did breed. 
Firing beholders hearts that came to scorne her: 
So beauty cloath'd in basenesse did adorne her. 
That e'en the good, who else the vice did blame. 
Thought she deserved pitie more then shame." 

These are very pretty, natural, and graceful lines, but the au- 
thor was often careless, and sometimes affected. The latter por- 
tion (from sign. M 6 to N 3 b) is a new poem, headed " A Wives 
Behaviour," in which are to be found not a few needless classical 
allusions, — to Brutus and Portia, Penelope (who, Hannay tells 
us, was " Queen of Ithacke ") and Ulysses, &c. He principally 
directs his animosity against wives who, instead of doing their duty 
at home, spent their time in gossiping abroad, to the detraction 
and injury of their husbands. 

R. Brathwayte's " Good Wife " is a well-remembered piece of 
a similar character. Wye Saltonstall's " Poeme of a Mayd " 
(published in his Picturce Loquentes^ 1631) is in the same form 
as Overbury's " Wife," as may be seen from the two following 
stanzas : — 

" No, no cold walls or nunnery, no false spies 

That can secure a Mayd that's once inclind 

To ill: though watehd by jealous Argus eyes, 

To act her thoughts a time yet will she find : 

There is no way to keepe a Mayd at all, 

But when herselfe is like a brazen wall ; 

" That can repell mens flatteries, though a farre, 
And make her lookes her liking soon to show. 
Which, like a frost, such thoughts as lustfull are 

86 Bibliograpljical :3lc£0unt of 

Nips in the blossom, ere they ranker grow : 

Since, then, the eye and gesture speake the heart, 
A mayden carriage is a Maids chief art." 

Wye Saltonstall's volume is not of peculiar rarity, nor his poem 
of peculiar merit. Like Overbury, he wrote a number of " Char- 
acters " in prose, and printed them with his " Maid." He was son 
to Sir Samuel Saltonstall ; and Harl. MS. No. 509, contains an 
elegy by him on the death of his father. 

Ovid's Epistles. — The Heroycall Epistles of the 
Learned Poet Publius Ovidius Naso, in Englishe Verse : 
set out and translated by George Turbervile Gent. 
With Auliis Sabinus Aunsweres to certaine of the 
same. Anno Domini 1567. — Imprinted at London, 
by Henry Denham. 8vo. B. L. 171 leaves. 

This was the earliest date at which we hear of a poet, after- 
wards of considerable celebrity,! who seems to have been a young 
friend of Spenser, to whom, in 1569, he wrote at least one episde 
from Russia, while secretary to Sir Thomas Randalph, the British 
ambassador in Muscovy. Turbervile only addresses his letter " To 
Spenser," without any Christian name, and twice over he speaks 
of him merely as " Spenser." This was the very year when the 
author of " The Faerie Queene " was matriculated at Pembroke 
Hall, at the age of seventeen. It was the year also when Spen- 
ser's earliest poetical effort, viz., his blank-verse sonnets prefixed 
to Vander Noodt's " Theatre for Voluptuous Worldlings," made 
its appearance. We are to recollect that Turbervile, in the work 
in our hands, set an example of the same kind ; for six of the 
Epistles are translated into blank-verse. Perhaps he and Spenser 
became acquainted in consequence flf similarity of tastes and pur- 
suits, and there was no other known person of the name of Spen- 
ser to whom such productions could so properly have been di- 

1 See, however, what is said in Vol. IV., article George Turberville, 
respecting an earlier edition than any now known of Turbervile's " Epi- 
taphs, Epigrams, Songs and Sonnets," 1567. 

(Earlj) (Englisl) Cittrature. 87 

rected. Turbervile was also patronized by the Earl of Pembroke, 
(upon whose death he wrote an epitaph,) and in that nobleman's 
house, or in that of his successor, he and Spenser may have met. 

The work before us was published two years before the date of 
Turbervile's letters to Spenser, and, besides the date — "Anno 
Domini 1567 " on the title-page, there is a separate leaf at the end 
with the following colophon : — " Imprinted at London by Henry 
Denham, dwelling in Paternoster Rowe at the Starre. Anno 
Domini 1567, Mar. 19. Cum Privilegio." This 19th March, 1567, 
was, according to our present mode of calculating the year, 19th 
March, 1568 ; and the book was entered at Stationers' Hall three 
times in 1567-8 : first, as " the fyrste epestle of O vide," as if no more 
were then ready ; secondly, as " an epestle of Ovide, beynge the 
iiij*ii epestle " ; and finally, as " the reste of the Epistles of Ovide," 
but the months and days were not given at this period in the 
Registers. We shall show hereafter (see Turbervile, post) that 
in 1567 our poet printed a separate volume of original poems; at 
least that is the date of the earliest extant copy, though he himself 
tells us that they had appeared in print still earlier. This is a 
new point in Turbervile's history. 

It is needless to enumerate all the Epistles, beginning with 
Penelope to Ulysses, and ending with Paris to (Enone, which 
occupy signatures A i to X i. The subsequent may be selected 
because they are in ten-syllable blank-verse, such as, with some 
improvements, was afterwards ordinarily used. 

Canace to Machareus. 

Medea to Jason. 

Laodameia to Protesilaus. 

Hypermnestra to Lynceus. 

Acontius to Cydippe. 

Cydippe to Acontius. 

Here are only six out of twenty-four epistles ; so that if Turber- 
vile did not prefer rhyme himself, he probably thought that his 
readers would do so ; and as each is preceded by an " Argument," 
that Argument is always made to jingle. The rhymes are 
generally in long lines, divided in the middle for the convenience 
of the page. The epistle of Briseis to Achilles thus com- 
mences : — 

88 Bibliojrapljical Account of 

" The doleful! lynes you reade 
from captive Briseis came, 
Whose Trojan fist can scarcely yet 
with Greekish figures frame." 

Turbervile seems fond of using " fist " for hand, in the sense of 
handwriting, as if he thought it an elegance. In the opening of 
the reply of Ulysses to Penelope he wished to vary the word, in 
two following couplets, and therefore in the first instance used 
" hand," and in the second Jist^ thus : — 

" Unto Ulysses, miser wight, 

good hap at length hath brought 
The loving lines (Penelope) 
thy hand in tables wrought. 

" I knewe thy friendly fist at first, 
and tokens passing well : 
They were a comfort to my woes, 
and did my sorrowes quell." (Sign. T iiij.) 

The division of the long lines, for the sake of the 8vo page, 
sometimes occasions the division even of a word : — 

" Thinkst thou I am but as a May- 
den servant unto thee? " 

The principal curiosity of the volume is, however, its blank- 
verse ; and if we are not mistaken, Turbervile had only the Earl 
of Surrey, and some of Surrey's immediate friends, for predecessors 
and competitors. Their blank-verse was printed in 1557, and 
Turbervile's in 1567. We take a brief specimen from the epistle 
of " Canace to Machareus " : — 

" Then dolor I represt, and uttered wordes 
Revokte, and was enforst to drinke my teares. 
Death stood before my face; Lucina quite 
Denyde to helpe : and death it selfe had bene 
A monstrous cryme, if I as then had dyde. 
When thou, with garments rent and toren locks. 
Relieved with thy breste my dying llmmes. 
And saidst, sister live, live, sister deare, 
Ne in one corse destroy thou bodies twaine ! 
Let hope reduce thy force, that brothers spouse 
Shalt be, and wife to him by whome thou art 
A Mother made. In fayth, I was revivde, 

Carlg iSnglislj CiUratixre. 89 

At those thy cheerefuU words, that lay astraught, 

And was releast of griefe and gylt at once." (Sign. I iij.) 

Here, in the seventh line, Turbervile seems to use the verb 
"relieved," relived, which is a word in Spenser, (Vol. IV. p. 216, 
edit. 1862,) instead of revived. He has also "astraught" for 

We copy another specimen from the opening of the epistle of 
Acontius to Cydippe : — 

" Abandon dreade, for to thy lover thou 
Shalt frame no further hest, ne sweare again: 
Thy once ingaged faith I recke ynough. 
Read and survay my lines: so may this griefe 
And languor leave thy corps, which is my tene. 
When any limme of thine sustaineth smart. 
Why blush you ? and why with vermilion taint 
Beflecke 3''our cheekes ? in Dian's temple so 
I deeme thy face with scarlet hue infect. 
Marriage and plighted troth, no crime, I crave : 
I love not as a Letcher, but a spouse. 
Revoke to minde the wordes in Apple gravde, 
Which to thy guiltlesse handes I did project: 
There shalt thou finde confirmde my solemne oth. 
That I require ; unlesse both fixed faith, 
And wordes at once out of thy breast are fled." 

As a specimen of the Arguments Turbervile supplies to the 
various Epistles, we take that preceding Cydippe's reply to the 
above : — 

" When Cydip saw hir furious fits increase, 
And fretting Fever grow to worse disease. 
Then thought she verily that no release 
Was to be had, unlesse she mought appease 
Dianas wrath : wherefore she thought it best 
To stand unto hir former plighted hest. 

" Then tooke she pen in hande, then gan she write 
These following lines to Aconce, making showe 
That she would yeelde, and banish rigour quite, 
And pay the det to him that she did owe: 
Craving his helpe in peasing Goddesse yre. 
That she to health the sooner might aspyre." 

The dedication of the whole volume is to " Lord Thomas How- 

90 Bibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

ard, Viscount Byndon," and it contains nothing worthy of note. 
It is succeeded by — 

» The Translator to his Muse. 
" Go (slender Muse) and make report to men, 
That meere desire to pleasure them in deede, 
Made mee in hande to take the painefull pen: 
Which if I may, I have my hoped meede. 
I neyther gape for gaine, nor greedie fee; 
My Muse and I have done, if men in gree 
will take this trifling toye." 

This sort of coda,, (as the Italians call it,) to complete the sense, 
was unusual at that date in English. An address " To the 
Reader," which follows, leads to the belief that the work was 
ready some time before it was published. The declaration that 
the translator did not " gape for gaine," and that pleasure to the 
reader was all he aimed at, is hardly borne out by eleven six-line 
stanzas at the end, where Turbervile speaks of the profits accru- 
ing from other callings, while poets do not even obtain the poor 
reward of praise for all their toil up the " haughtie hill " of 

Ovid. — Ovid his invective against Ibis. Translated into 
English Meeter, whereunto is added by the Trans- 
lator a short draught of all the stories and tales con- 
tayned therein, very pleasant to be read. — Imprinted 
at London, by Thomas East and Henry Middleton. 
Anno Domini 1569. 8vo. B. L. 95 leaves. 

We meet with no review of this work, although it has been 
mentioned by nearly all bibliographers. It certainly is not of a 
character to be " very pleasant to be read," but it was neverthe- 
less twice printed : first, as we see above, by East and Middleton, 
and eight years afterwards by Bynneman. We apprehend that 
Thomas Underdowne had been set upon the task by Lord Buck- 
hurst, (created a peer two years before,) to whom he dedicates 
the little volume, and who, as we there learn, had shown "good 
affection to Steven Underdowne," the writer's " dear father." 

(Earb (fngliel) Citerature. 91 

They were, perhaps, both in his Lordship's service. Thomas 
Undcrdowne's reason for having translated the " Ibis " " into 
meeter " seems rather a strange one, namely, " because the sense 
is not easy otherwise to be understanded." If it could not be easily 
understood in plain prose, it would be less likely, we should think, 
to be understood in constrained verse. 

Three years earlier the translator had made a very severe, and 
apparently unjustifiable, attack upon the ladies of England. We 
allude to what he says in the preface to his version of the tale of 
" Theseus and Ariadne," which he printed in 1566 ; and it might 
be expected that he would have made the sex some amends in 
the work before us. Such, however, is not the case ; but how fit 
and necessary it was may be judged from the following severe 
poem addressed to English Mothers, when Queen Elizabeth had 
only been eight years on the throne, and when more gallantry 
might have been looked for. It is headed, — 

"^ Rule for Mothers to bring up their Daughters. 

" Ye Mothers, that your daughters wyll 
brynge up and nurture well, 
These rules do keepe, and them observe, 
which I shall here nowe tell. 

" If they will goe or gad abrode, 
their legges let broken bee : 
Put out their eyes if they wyll looke, 
or gaze undecentlye. 

" If they their eares wyll gyve to harke 
what other men do saye, 
Stoppe them up quyte: if geve or take, 
then, cut their handes awaye. 

" If they dare lyghtly use to talke, 
their lippes together sowe: 
If they wyll aught lyghtly entende, 
lette grasse upon them growe. 

" And, at a worde, if she be yll, 
let her yll aunswers have. 
And for her dower geve sharpe wordes, 
and for her house a grave. 

92 33tbtiograpl)ical ^ccoitnt of 

" Therefore, ye ^lothers, yf ye use, 
and kepe my rules in mynde, 
Daughters you shall have none at all, 
or those of Phoenix kynde." 

In the prose portion of his preface to " Theseus and Ariadne," 
Underdowne is still more abusive, for he there says : — "I can 
alledge no reason why such thynjjes shoulde come to passe now, 
rather then in tymes past ; but our women ly ve so ydellye, that 
they eschewe all honest laboure, and wholly addicte them selves 
to unhonest ydlenesse. For this is certaine, where the hande is 
oceupyed, there the harte must nedes do somewhat : and if I saye 
not true, let any man alledge whenever there were more ydell 
women in the whole worlde, then is nowe in the small circuit of 

Besides idleness, he accuses them of almost every kind of vice 
growing out of it ; and, as we before observed, it might be ex- 
pected that in the work in our hands, devoted to the abuse of a 
particular man, called " Ibis " (on account of the offensive and 
disgusting properties of that bird), he would have taken an 
opportunity to offer some compensation for his really uncalled-for 
disparagement of the ladies in 1566. However, we meet with 
nothing of the kind, and his translation from Ovid is as bald and 
dry as his enemies could desire. 

He thus explains why Ovid took the subject in hand : " The 
causes that moved him to write thus sharply were two : one for that 
after his banishment he [Ibis] whispered lyes, and untrue tales into 
Augustus the Emperor his eares, thereby to keepe him the longer 
in exile : the other for that he solicited his wife to be uncurtys." 
The meaning of " uncourteous" is here not very clear, and we 
are left to guess that more was intended. When adverting to 
these accusations of his unknown personal enemy by Ovid, 
Underdowne takes occasion to introduce, certainly not very rel- 
evantly, an enumeration of all the pairs of friends he could call 
to mind, the second pair being persons whom he had celebrated 
in verse in 1566, namely, " Orestes and Pilades, Theseus and 
Perithous, Achilles and Patroclus, Nisus and Eurialus, Castor and 
Pollux, Damon and Pithias, Achates and Aeneas, Alexander and 

€arly (Snglislj Citeraturt. 93 

Ephestio, Celius and Petronius, C. Lelius and Scipio Affricanus, 
Darius and Megabisus," and " a great number of payres of 
freendes mo." 

It is rather strange that he did not include David and Jonathan, 
at that date usually coupled with the friendships among profane 
heroes. It is needless to dwell upon this version of " Ibis," which 
offers no very peculiar feature ; but as a specimen we may quote 
the opening. We are to recollect that Ovid is speaking in his 
own person against his enemy, whether it were Corvinus, accord- 
ing to some, or Hyginus, according to other authorities: — 

" Whole fifty years be gone and past 

since I a lyve have been 
Yet of my Muse ere now there hath 

no armed verse be seen. 
Among so many thousand works, 

yet extant to be had, 
No bloody letter can be red 

that Naso ever made : 
Nor yet no man (set me aside) 

my bookes have caus'd to smart, 
Syth I my selfe am cast away 

by my invented Arte. 
One man there is that wyll not let 

(this is a grevous payne) 
The tytle of my curteyse verse 

for ever to remaine. 
What so he be, as yet his name 

shall not by me be wrayde, 
Who me constraynes to take in hand 

no weapons erst assayde." 

The words " by my invented Art " have reference, of course, to 
his Ars Amatona. Ovid proceeds to instance the example of 
Callimachus, who had first made use of the word " Ibis" to be- 
token a hated unknown enemy ; and whenever an explanation of 
any allusion is required, Underdovvne places it in immediate con- 
nection with the word or name to be illustrated, which, though 
convenient, makes the whole read without the slightest con- 
tinuity. We will only cite a single specimen. Ovid's curse upon 
Ibis here is, — 

94 Bibliograpljical ^Tlrcoitnt of 

" That headlong thou mayst come to hell, 
from toppe of rocke right hie, 
As he that Platos boke hath read 
of immortalitie." 

To which the translator subjoins this note : " Theombrotus, 
readyng Platoes booke of the immortality of the soule, was so 
moved with joyes of the same that presently he caste hymselfe 
from the toppe of a rocke, thereby the sooner to attayne to 

Precisely in the same spirit, or rather without any spirit at all, 
but with the display of considerable learning for the time, Under- 
downe goes through the six or seven hundred lines of Ovid's 
" Invective." He makes not the slightest approach to the grace 
of the original, — indeed he does not seem to have attempted it ; 
and the wonder is that such a production could ever have been 
so popular as to call for a second edition. Ovid, at the close, 
promises more on the same rhythm, and to reveal the real name of 
" Ibis," but nothing of the sort has ever been recovered. Under- 
downe's last lines are quite as clumsy as any of those that precede 

them : — 

" There are but few, I graunt, but God 

can give my prayers more. 
And with his favor my requestes 

can multiply with store. 
Hereafter thou much more shalt reade, 

wherein shalbe thy name; 
And in such verse as men are wont 

such cruell warres to frame." 

It does not appear that the same author's " History e of Theseus 
and Ariadne " was ever reprinted, though much more deserving. 
It is precisely in the same measure as his version of the " Ibis " ; 
but so superior in rhythm and animation, that it might well have 
obtained the distinction. We offer the following extract merely 
to show how Underdowne could write in 1566, when, perhaps, 
he liked his subject better. Ariadne thus exclaims, when aban- 
doned : — 

" 1 dyd repayre his erased shippes, 

I dyd him treasure gyve ; 
I dyd my selfe bequeathe to hym, 
styll with hym for to lyve. 

(Karlg (fnglial) Citeraturc. 95 

I banketted his traytours men, 

I vittayled them with store, 
I shewed them such pleasure as 

they never had before. 
I dyd my loved countrey lothe, 

my parentes I forsooke ; 
To go with hym unto his land 

all paynes I undertooke. 
And he, lykewyse, dyd swere to me 

by Goddes and heavens hye. 
That he alwayes wolde be my man, 

with me to lyve and dye." 

There is hardly a line to be compared with these in any part 
of the "Ibis," but the undertaking was less promising. What 
was Underdowne's employment, if any, in the family of Lord 
Buckhurst, is not stated, nor was it known that his father's 
name was Stephen, until it was found in the dedication of this 
" Invective." 

Ovid. — Ovidius Naso his Remedie of Love. Translated 
and Intituled to the Youth of England. Plautus in 
Trinummo. Mille modis Amor S^c. — London Printed 
by T. C. for John Browne, and are to be sold at his 
shop in Fleetstreet, at the signe of the Bible. 1600. 
4to. 31 leaves. 

There is no pretence whatever for assigning this work to Fran- 
cis Beaumont, as was done by Warton, (H. E. P. iv. 245, edit. 8vo.) 
Beaumont, at the date when it was published, was a mere boy. 
Besides, what are we to do with the initials F. L. at the end of 
the dedication ? That dedication is addressed " To his sometimes 
Tutor, at all times dearest friend, M. J." — initials that also want an 
owner. Neither is there so much merit in the performance as to 
render it a matter of importance who was the real translator, or 
more properly, free versifier, of Ovid's Remedium Amor is. The 
entry of it in the Stationers* Registers shows that it was ready for 
the press, if not printed, on Christmas-day, 1599, and we may be 

96 Dibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

sure that it was in fact published before the year 1599, as it was 
then usually calculated, had expired. It commences with this 
stanza, all being alike in form and measure : — 

" When first Love read the title of this booke, 
Wars, Avars, against me now are wag'd (q. he) 
! dayne thy Poet of a milder looke : 
Conderane him not that from offence is free; 
Who ever was Loves vowed Ancient, 
Bearing his cullers with a true intent" 

This is not very happy, yet it is far from being one of the 
worst stanzas in the version. The two best stanzas perhaps are 
these : — 

" Come then, sick youth, unto my sacred skill, 
Whose love hath fallen crosse unto your minde: 
Learne how to remedie that pleasing ill 
Of him, that taught you your owne harmes to finde; 
For in this selfsame hand j'our helpe is found 
Whence first ye did receive your careful wound. 

" So th' earth, which yeelds us herbs of soverain grace 
Doth nourish weeds of vertue pestilent ; 
The burning nettle chuseth oft her place 
Next to the Rose, that yeelds so sweete a sent. 
Achilles Speare that wounded his sterne foe 
Restord him health, and curde the greevous blow." 

The translator's besetting sin is extension and expansion ; and 
for the sake of closing his stanza he has, what better poets have 
often done, weakened what was well, if no addition had been 
made. Of the effects of idleness he thus writes : — 

" Languor and feeblenesse and slothful play. 
Time drownd in wine and lost in drowsie sleepe, 
Steales from the mind her wonted strength and stay, 
Whiles all her spirits dead no watch do keepe: 
Then, in slips traitor Love, her enemie, 
And doth deprive her of her libertie." 

Here the sense may be said to have been complete without the 
last feeble line, which is little better than repetition. The follow- 
ing stanza indicates bad taste, and gives a disagreeable and coarse 
impression of the original : — 

(£arla (Englisl) Cikrature. 97 

" Yet whiles with curious skill she paintes her face, 

Be not ashamed, but presse thou to her sight: 

Then shalt thou finde her boxes in the place, 

Wherein her beauty lyes and borrowed light; 

Then shalt thou see her body all begreas'd 

With ointments, that hath thee so greatly pleas'd." 

Here the inversion is faulty, since it was not the " ointments," 
but the lady's " body " that had " greatly pleased " the lover 
when he did not know it was so "begreas'd." Sir Thomas 
Overbury in his "Remedy of Love," printed in 1620, but 
written at least ten years earlier, puts it more delicately, as well 
as briefly : — 

"Yet venture in, for there is often found 
The stufle whereof their painting they compound. 
And boxes which unto their cheekes give colour. 
And water that doth wash their faces fouler." 

The main poem is succeeded by "An exposition of the poeticall 
examples mentioned in this first Booke of the Remedie of Love," 
which we may pass over in order to notice a sort of supplement, 
consisting of Ovid's Epistle from Dido to ^neas, and an answer 
to it, which last the translator informs us, in a preliminary note, 
was written by " the thrice renowned Sapho of our times." 
Whom he can mean, unless it were the Countess of Pembroke, it 
is not easy to guess ; and certainly her versification is more than 
ordinarily smooth and agreeable, — considerably better than that 
of the translator of the epistle to which the lady's efibrt is a reply. 
The Epistle of Dido is in long twelve and fourteen syllable lines 
divided, and begins thus : — 

" So at Meander's streames 
when fates bid life be gone. 
The snow white Swan on mossie grasse 

out-stretched tunes his mone. 
Not hoping thee to move, 

this sute I undertake : 
The heavens at the motion fround 

when first we did it make. 
But fame of due desert 

my body and my minde 
So lewdly lost, the losse is light 
to loose these words of winde. 
VOL. m. 7 

98 JSibliograpljical 3lccount of 

Resolvd thou art to goe 

and wofull Dido leave: 
Those windes shall blowe thy faith away 

that shall thy sailes upheave." 

The lady's argument in her "Answer " is weaker, but her verse 
is stronger, and yet very harmonious. We only quote two stanzas 
of the hypocritical reply of ^neas. He tells Dido, — 

" I both Oenone and the Spartan Queene, 
I, courtly dames and nymphs of woods and wels, 
I have Chryseis and Bryseis seene, 
Yea, Venus selfe, in whom perfection dwels : 
But if some god to chuse would me assigne, 
I all would prayse, but Dido should be mine. * « * 

" Let all that els can mind or body grieve 
Grieve without meane my body and mj'^ mind, 
Only to thee that only didst relieve 
My woes and wants, let me not prove unkind ; 

But thankfull still, that fame may so relate 

Me thankfull still, but stil infortunate." 

This epistle is subscribed Tout Seule, but the Countess of 
Pembroke did not become a widow until the year after the 
appearance of the volume. Who the authoress may have been 
must still remain doubtful ; and it would be singular that the 
poem should never yet have attracted attention, if we did not 
know that the volume in which it was inserted is excessively rare. 
We never saw more than a single exemplar of it, and a small 
fragment that, like many others, had been made the fly-leaf to a 
dull work of divinity. If more copies exist, they have not fallen 
in our way, nor have we heard of them. 

Owls Almanac. — The Owles Almanacke. Prognosti- 
cating many strange accidents which shall happen to 
this Kingdome of Great Britaine this yeare 1618. Cal- 
culated as well for the Meridian of London, as any other 
part of Great Britaine. Found in an Ivy-bush written 
in old Characters, and now published m English by 

®arlg (ffnglislj Citcrature. 99 

the painefull labours of Mr. Jocundary Merry-braines. 
— London, Printed by E. G. for Lawrence Lisle, and 
are to be sold at his shop in Pauls Church-yard at 
the signe of the Tygres head. 1618. 4to. 32 leaves. 

We have noticed this production (in Vol. I.) as in pari materia 
with Dekker's " Ravens Almanacke," printed in 1609. We have 
since seen a copy of " The Owles Almanacke," upon which an 
early possessor has noted that it was also " by Dekker " ; and as it 
certainly does no discredit to his humorous and inventive pen, we 
think it right to give here a separate and somewhat longer 
account of the tract, which is even fuller of temporary and in- 
teresting allusions than its predecessor of 1609. 

It opens (after the title-page) with " The Owle's Epistle to the 
Raven," recognizing " The Raven's Almanack " as if it were a 
publication by the same author ; although the Owl lays claim to 
superior information, derived from the Man in the Moon during 
a journey through the twelve celestial signs. " So will I," the 
Owl says, " in these my Ptolomaicall praedictions discover to the 
world such wonders from the planetary regions, that not onely 
thou, but all other birds (daring to pry into the privy-chamber of 
Heaven) shall plucke in their heads (as I doe untill twilight) with 
shame, and never more pester Pauls Church-yard with their 
trivial prognostications." Paul's Churchyard, we need hardly 
say, was then the chief seat of the shops of small pamphlet-sellers ; 
and the author just afterwards refers to other shops in Cheapside 
with their overhanging signs. 

This is subscribed " The Owle," and the body of the tract 
commences with a humorous description of the four law terms, 
Hilary, Easter, Trinity, and Michaelmas. For instance, of Easter 
Term he says : " Easter Terme comes in all in greene, with the 
Spring, like a puny clarke, waiting upon him, and would be as 
merry as Hilary, but that Puritans plucke downe prophane and 
high-pearching May-poles." We then arrive at certain " memo- 
rials of time " preceding " this yeere 1617," such as, — 

" Since the first h^e was told is (as I remember) 5566 years, and that 
was by all computation in Adams time; but now in these daies men and 
women lye dowue-right. 

100 Bibliogvapljkal ^ccoitnt of 

" Since the first making of noses chimneyes, with smoaking mens faces 
as if they were bacon, and baking dryed Neats tongues in their mouths 32 

" Since the horrible dance to Norwich. 14 [years.] 

" Since that old and loyal souldier George Stone of the Beare garden 
died. 8 [years.] 

" Since the dancing horse stood on the top of Powles, whilst a number 
of Asses stood braying below. 17 [years.] 

" Since yellow bands and saffroned Chaperoones came up is not above 
two yeeres past, but since Citizens wives fitted their' husbands with yel- 
low hose is not within the memory of man. 

" Since close Carochea were made running bawdy-houses, yesterday." 

For " horrible dance to Norwich " we ought perhaps to read 
honorable, since it was Kempe, the actor's, boasted feat. George 
Stone was the name of a brave bear often baited at Paris Garden. 
The " dancing horse " was of course Banks's celebrated pony, 
afterwards burned abroad for witchcraft. Mrs. Turner, executed 
in 1613, for the murder of Overbury, was the great employer of 
yellow starch for ruffs, &c. at that period ; but it had been in 
fashionable use long before. " Yellow hose " were considered 
tokens of jealousy, and citizens' wives notoriously gave their 
husbands good cause for it. 

We know from Shakspeare that Bucklersbury was famous 
about 1602 for the "simples " that were sold there, (M. W. of W. 
Act in. sc. 3,) but by the year 1617 it was changed, and most of 
the herb-shops were then converted into tobacconists. Therefore 
in " the Owle's Almanacke " a lady says, "If I walk the streets 
and chance to come downe Bucklersbury, oh ! how the whole 
orbe of aire is infected with this fume." There are many allusions 
of this local kind to different parts of London, as in the following, 
where Birchin Lane and its " fripperies," or shops in which cast- 
cloaks and other old clothes were sold, are mentioned : — " More 
plucking of men by the cloakes and elbowes in Birchin Lane, 
than clapping men a' the shoulder at the Counter gates." Some 
illustrations are also derived from the country, as when Dekker 
adverts to the profits, &c. derived from the trade of goldsmiths : — 
*' Negligent servants will cracke their masters plate; and a little 
fall will make a salt looke like Grantham's steeple, with his cap 

(garlg ^nglisl) Citcrahtre. 101 

to the ale-house." Salts, or salt-cellars, were at this date some- 
times made like the spires of churches, and of silver. 

Another note, if it were wanted, in illustration of Shakspeare's 
pronunciation of acTies, — " fill all thy bones with aches " (Temp. 
Act I. sc. 2), — occurs, where the writer before us speaks of the 
diseases likely to attack men during 1618 : — " Diseases that invest 
themselves in mens bodies are gluttonous surfets, up-hording of 
corne, raising of rents and arresting of debters : the eight letter 
in mens joynts," — against which last we read H in the margin, 
that being the eighth lelier. 

Dekker goes regularly through the trades of the metropolis, 
making merry with them all in a jocose, satirical vein, as the 
following may serve to show, where he is prophesying regarding 
brewers : — 

"Every Market towne shall be better furnished with houses for Ale 
than for Almes, and that village shall be counted a dunghill of Puritans 
where there is never a tapstering or bene house : small beere shall be for 
dyet-keepers, but strong twang shall prove as good as bagg-pudden (meat 
and drinke and cloth). The best medicine for the fleas will be a cup of 
merry-goe-downe, and the onely help to clap the doore upon sorrow, and 
shut him out, will be a draught of March beere. The merry Physition's 
counsell to an odd patient of his shall be the very pitch of Paracelsians 
dyet: the first draught will wash a mans liver, the second increase his 
bloud, and the third satisfy his thirst. And all the world knowes what 
the Country-mans bond is, 

A pot of Ale still the assurance doth hatch, 

And serves for the scrivener to binde up the match." 

An address to the Armorers connects this tract with one 
published by Dekker ten years afterwards, (see Vol. I. p. 257,) 
" Bellum Bellum, Warre Warre would fit the Armourers better 
than a paire of gloves of twenty pound." In 1609 he had printed 
a tract under the title of " Work for Armourers." 

On the title-page is a woodcut of an owl in a chair reading ; 
and the work is dedicated, in two pages, by L. L. (Lawrence 
Lisle the stationer), to Sir Timothy Thornhill, Knight. Two more 
pages are filled by " The Contents of this Worke." 

102 Bibliograpljical Account of 

Page of Plymouth. — Sundrye strange and inhumaine 
Murthers lately committed. The first of a Father that 
hired a man to kill three of his Children neere Ash- 
ford in Kent : The second of Master Page of Plymoth, 
murthered by the consent of his owne Wife: with the 
strange discoverie of sundrie other Murthers. Where- 
in is described the odiousnesse of Murther, with the 
vengeance which God inflicteth on murtherers. — 
Printed at London by Thomas Scarlet 1591. 4to. 
B. L. 8 leaves. 

We mention this unique tract principally because it contains 
the plot of a lost tragedy by no less poets than Ben Jonson and 
Dekker. That they had completed it, and were paid £8 for it, 
in two separate sums of 40s. and £6, we learn from Henslowe's 
Diary, (pp. 105, 155, 156.) The dates are August and Septem- 
ber, 1599, so that they did not take up the subject until about 
eight years after the event had occurred. In this respect it 
differed from *' the Yorkshire Tragedy," which, by whomsoever 
written, was only in one act, and was brought out immediately 
after the murder of his wife and children by Thomas Calverley. 
The murder of Page of Plymouth, by his wife and her paramour, 
was of a very different description, and, affording good scope for the 
conduct and development of the plot, was extended to five acts. 
It must have been a piece more of the character of the tragedy 
of "Arden of Faversham," which, having been first printed in 
1592, was reprinted in 1599 and 1633. It was perhaps the suc- 
cess of this drama, on its revival in 1599, that induced Jonson 
and Dekker to make use of the story of Page of Plymouth. That 
story is narrated without much skill or ornament in the tract in 
hand, but we may be tolerably sure that it is the publication of 
which the two poets availed themselves. On this account, and 
because it is the only known source of information, we have 
thought it worth a brief notice. By whom it was penned we have 
no tidings. 

Page of Plymouth, a rich old man, married the daughter of a 
person of the name of Glanfield of Tavistock; but before her 

(Paris (!Engli0() CiUrahtre. 103 

marriage Ulalia Glanfield had had a lover of the name of Strang- 
widge, and after her marriage the two agreed to get rid of the 
aged husband by poison or in some other way. Poison was, how- 
ever, not effectual, for, as the writer of the narrative states, — 
" God, who preserveth many persons from such perils and dan- 
gers, defended stil the said M. Padge from the secret snares and 
practises of present death, which his wife had laid for him ; yet 
not without great hurt unto his body, for still the poison wanted 
force to kil him." Strangwidge and Mrs. Page, therefore, hired 
two of their men-servants, Priddis and Stone, to smother Page in 
bed. They stole upon him, (for he slept apart from Ulalia,) and 
first strangled him with the kercher he had bound round his head, 
and then broke his neck upon the bed-stocks. Mrs. Page, pre- 
tending innocence, sent for her father and for a Mrs. Harris, a 
sister to Page, " willing her to make haste if ever she would see 
ber brother alive, for he was taken with a disease called the Pull 
[palsy], as they tearme it in that country. These persons being 
sent for, they came immediately," and they found marks of 
violence on the corpse. Priddis, being taken into custody, con- 
fessed his crime and implicated Stone, who had been married the 
very day after the murder, and was therefore arrested, and car- 
ried to prison, in the midst of his jollity. 

It is a remarkable circumstance that the examinations, as stated 
in the tract, were taken before the famous Sir Francis Drake ; 
and then it came out that Strangwidge and Mrs. Page were also 
guilty, the latter declaring boldly before the justices, that she 
would " rather dye with Strangwidge than live with Padge." She 
had her wish ; and, the murder having been committed on the 
11th February, they were all four executed at Barnstaple, on the 
20th February, 1591. 

Several ballads and broadsides were published on the occasion, 
and four of them are now before us, two by the same and two by 
different printers. The best of these has the initials T. D. (i. e. 
Thomas Deloney, see Vol. I. p. 259) at the end, and purports to 
have come from the press of Edward Allde. It has no date, but 
there can be no dispute that it was published while the dreadful 
events were attracting attention in London. It has for title, " The 

104 Bibliograpljical Account of 

Lamentation of George Strangwidge, who for consenting to the 
death of Master Page of Plimouth, suffered death at Barnstable 
on 20th Feb. 1591." As it has never been noticed, we quote a 
few stanzas from it, where it addresses itself to Glan field as the 
real occasion of the calamity, by giving his daughter, against her 
will, to rich old Page : — 

" Glanfield, cause of my committed crime, 
So wed to wealth as birds in bush of lime, 
What cause hadst thou to bear such wicked spight 
Against my love, and eke my heart's delight? 

" I would to God thy wisedome had beene more. 
Or that I had not entred at thy doore, 
Or that thou hadst a kinder father beene 
Unto thy child, whose yeares are yet but greene ! 

" The match unmeete which [only] thou didst make. 
When aged Page thy daughter home did take. 
Well maist thou rue with teares that cannot dry, 
Which is the cause that four of us must dye." 

Strangwidge then apostrophizes Mrs. Page as follows: — 

"It was for me, alas! thou didst the same; 
On me by right they ought to lay the blame: 
My worthless love hath brought thy life in scorne; 
Now, woe is me that ever I was born ! " 

Another ballad is headed " The Complaint of Ulalia Page, 
for the causing her Husband Page to be murdered for the love 
of George Strangwidge, who were executed together." It was 
printed by " J. R. for E. White," and also has no date. Here 
Mrs. Page also lays all the blame upon her father: — 

" Eternall God ! forgive my fathers deede. 
And grant all Maidens may take better heede : 
If I had been but constant to my frend, 
I had not raatchd to make so bad an end. 

"Farewell, sweet George, alwaj-s my loving frend! 
Needs must I laud and love thee to the ende; 
And all be it that Page possest thy due, 
In sight of God thou wast my husband true." 

The third broadside we may pass without further notice than 
that it has the date of 1591. It is remarkable that all are in 

Carltt (SnglisI) £itcratitre. 105 

the same metre, but not to the same tune, the fourth, printed by 
Thomas Scarlet, being to the favorite air of " Fortune my foe." 
It is called " The Lamentation of Mr. Page's Wife of Plymouth, 
who being forced to wed him, consented to his Murder." Here, 
again, the cruel father is made the real author of his daughter's 
crime : — 

" In blooming yeares my fathers greedy minde 
Against my will a match for me did finde," &c. 

And again afterwards : — 

" You Parents fond, that greedie minded be, 
And seeke to graff upon the golden tree. 
Consider well, and rightfull judges bee, 
And give your doorae twixt parents love and mee." 

She appeals to the " Devonshire dames and courteous Cornwall 
Knights," and then turns to her George : — 

" And thou, my dear, which for my fault must dye. 
Be not afraid the sting of death to try: 
Like as we liv'd and lov'd together true, 
So both at once let's bid the world adew." 

She concludes with a prayer for the Queen, who is not men- 
tioned in the other three ballads : — 

" Lord ! bless our Queene with long and happy life, 
And send true peace betwixt each man and wife ; 
And give all parents wisedome to foresee 
The match is marr'd where mindes doe not agree." 

It is not difficult to see how poets like Ben Jonson and Dekker 
would be able to make a very interesting and popular play out of 
the incidents, even eight years after the temporary interest in the 
subject had subsided. Considerable sums were laid out by Hens- 
lowe and his Company, in getting up the piece in a way wor- 
thy of its authors; and " Page's damask gown," and two " taffaty 
suits," one white and the other hare-colored, are mentioned in 
an Inventory appended to his Diary, (pp. 272, 274.) It may be 
added that, with the aid perhaps of the often-acted play, so long 
did curiosity survive upon the subject, three of the preceding bal- 
lads were reprinted, for song and sale in the streets, full a century 

106 Bibltograpljical ^Iccount of 

Painter, William. — The Palace of Pleasure, Beauti- 
fied, adorned and well furnished, with pleasaunt His- 
tories and excellent Novels, selected out of diuers good 
and commendable Authours. By William Painter 
Clarke of the Ordinaunce and Armarie. Eftsones pe- 
rused, corrected and augmented. 1575. — Imprinted 
at London by Thomas Marshe. 4to. B. L. 

The second Tome of the Palace of Pleasure contayning 
store of goodly e Histories, Tragical matters, and other 
Morall argumentes, very requisite for delight and profyte. 
Chose and selected out of diuers good and commend- 
able Authors, and now once agayn corrected and en- 
creased. By Wiliam Painter, Clerke of the Ordinance 
and Armarie. — Imprinted at London In Fleatstrete by 
Thomas Marshe. 4to. B. L. 

We do not find either of these title-pages to the two volumes of 
Painter's "Palace of Pleasure" anywhere quite correctly given, 
and we have, therefore, copied both above. 

The dedication to the Earl of Warwick is dated " Nere the 
Tower of London the first of Januarie 1566," and the earliest 
edition (printed by Henry Denham for Richard Tottell and AVil- 
liam Jones) came out with 1566 on the title-page ; but it is clearly 
to be taken as 1566-7. *'The second tome" (printed first by 
Henry Bynneman for Nicholas England) bears the date of 1567, 
and the dedication to Sir George Howard is dated "From my 
pore house besides the Towre of London, the iiij of November 
1567." The second volume of Marsh's impression, without date 
on the title-page, we may perhaps conclude, came out, like the 
first volume, in 1575. 

Before Painter was appointed Clerk of the Ordnance and Ar- 
mory, he was a schoolmaster at Sevenoaks, and in 1560 he had 
published a translation of W. Fulke's Antiprognoslicon contra 
inutiles Astrologorum Prcedictiones, which translation was re- 
printed in 1561. At a later date (but without the year) appeared 
a work of the same character, entitled " Four great dyers striving 

(Karlg (SnglisI) Citcratnre. 107 

who shall win the silver Whetstone," with the initials W. P. upon 
the title-page, and they most likely were those of William Painter. 
(See Vol. I. p. 21, art. Almanacks.) 

It is useless to enter into any description of these volumes, 
which furnished Shakspeare and our other dramatists with so 
many subjects for their plays ; and which are so amusing in them- 
selves, though not, perhaps, translated with the grace and free- 
dom which would have rendered them more attractive, and which 
might have been caught from many of the beautiful origin als.l It 
is to be lamented that Painter, for some reason, never published a 
third " tome," as he at one time certainly intended, and as we learn 
from "The Conclusion, with an Advertisement to the Reader,'* 
appended to the edition of 1575 before us. In it he says: " And 
bicause sodaynly (contrary to expectation) this Volume is risen to 
greater heape of leaves, I do omit for this present time sundry 
Novels of mery devise, reserving the same to be joyned with 
the rest of another part, wherein shall succeede the remnaunt of 
Bandello, specially sutch (suffrable) as the learned Frenche man 
Francois de Belleforrest hath selected, and the choysest done in 
the Italian. Some also out of Erizzo, Ser Giovanni Florentino, 
Parabosco, Cynthio, Straparole, Sansovino, and the best liked out 
of the Queene of Navarre, and other Authors. Take these in 

1 Several authors availed themselves of the title and popularity of 
Painter's " Palace of Pleasure." One of these we have noticed in the 
first volume of this work; and another is George Pettie, who, about 1576 
(the date of the entry at Stationers' Hall), produced what he entitled " A 
petite Pallace of Pettie his Pleasure," consisting of twelve tales or novels 
founded chiefly upon classical stories. It was printed by R. Watkins 
without date, and the favor with which it was received may be gathered 
from a fact, not hitherto remarked upon, that it was twice issued by the 
same typographer, and probably in the same year. An accurate compar- 
ison of two copies for which the same letter was used shows many dif- 
ferences, proving that the whole was set up a second time. Even the 
two title-pages vary, for in one the word " containing " is spelt conteyning, 
and in the other contayning. The book is a rare one, but it is prose from 
end to end, and the somewhat trite narratives are not given in a very 
attractive style. However, it was printed for the third time by James 
Eoberts, in 1598. George Pettie also translated the first three books of 
Guazzo's " Civil Conversation," of which Malone knew of no earlier copy 
than that of 1586, but it was, in fact, originally printed in 1581. 

108 Bibliograpljical ^^ccouiit of 

good part, with those that have, and shall, come forth, as I do 
offre them with good will." 

This edition, by Marsh, is more complete than the earlier one, 
and it is that which was reprinted in 3 vols. 4to, 1813. 

Palingenius. — The firste thre Bokes of the most christia 
Poet Marcellus Palingenius, called the Zodyake of 
lyfe : newly translated out of latin into English by 
Bamabe Googe. — Imprinted at London by John Tis- 
dale, for Rafe Newberye. An. Do. 1560. 8vo. B. L. 
64 leaves. 

This is one of the rarest poetical works in our language. We 
never had an opportunity of seeing more than the exemplar before 
us, and our belief is that only one other copy is in existence. 

Barnabe Googe was born in 1540, for he was only twenty when 
the book in our hands was published ; and he dates a Latin address 
of two pages to his friends William Cromer, Thomas Honiwood 
and Ra. Heimund, Ex musceo nostra, Decimo Martii Anno Christi 
1660, et cetaiis nostrce xx. He was of a good family, his father be- 
ing Recorder of London, and distantly related to Lord Burghley 
He was sent to Cambridge, where he became a member of two 
houses, Christ's and New College, but does not appear to have 
taken any degree. He then travelled ; and in our review of his 
" Eglogs, Epytaphes, and Sonnettes," 8vo, 1563, it appears that 
he had only returned from Spain while that work was still in the 
press. (See Vol. II. p. 65.) Messrs. Cooper state {Ath. Cantabr. 
II. 39) that "he resided at Staple Inn in 1570," but the fact is 
that he was living there ten years before, when he published these 
" First Three Books " of Palingenius, because he dates the dedi- 
cation of it to Lady Hales, " his right woorshipfull and his espe- 
ciall good Graundmother," "from Staple Inne at London the 
eighte and twenty of march." That he was proud of his family 
arms we may judge from the fact, that they follow the title on a 
separate page, at the bottom of which we read, — 

"Qmgb gerit hie clypeus Prohitatis fulgida signa 
Vendicat et celebrat Gogcea clara domus.** 

€arlB ©nglisl) liicxatnvt, 109 

The preliminary matter, before we come to the author's "Pref- 
ace," fills eight pages, the leist containing a Latin acrostic, by Gi. 
Duke, upon " Barnabas Gogeus." The Preface is of six pages, 
in the same measure as the body of the poem ; and it seems out 
of the question for Googe to affect, as he does, incompetence for 
his task, seeing that it was expressly imposed upon him by the 
Muse Calliope, who selected him for the purpose. He represents 
that he sat down among his books, " crouching for cold " in winter, 
when he was surprised by the entrance of " Fayre Ladyes nyne 
with stately steps " : — 

" In Mantels gyrte of comley grace, 

and bookes in hancle they bare. 
With Laurell leafe their heads were crownd, 

a syght to me but rare. 
I saw them come and up I rose, 

as dewty moved, to raeete 
These learned Niraphes, & down I fall 

before their comely feete." 

Googe had no great variety or choice of epithets, when he thus 
apphed "comely" first to the "grace," and secondly to the "feet" 
of the Muses. Three of them speak io him, all three being com- 
petitors to engage his services as a poet. Melpomene wishes him 
to translate Lucan ; but Urania interposes, and urges strongly 
that he should employ his skill 

" With Englishe rime to bring to light 
Aratus worthey bookes," 

enforcing his peculiar competence. He adds : — 

" These wordes declarde with pleapante voyce, 

this Lady helde her peace, 
And forth before them all I saw 

the loveliest Lady prease : 
Of stature tal, and Venus face 

she serade me thought to have, 
And Calliope she called was 

with verse that writes so grave. 
Sisters, quod she, and Ladies all, 

of Jove the mighty line. 
To whom no arte doth lye unhyd 

that hears we may defyne: 

110 iSibliograpljical ^Icconiit of 

Chiefe patrons of the Poets pore, 

and aiders of their verse, 
Without whose help their simple heds 

would nothyng well rehearse, 
I am become a suter here 

to you, my Ladyes all, 
For hym that heare before you standes, 

as unto learnyng thrall." 

Her suit is, that she should be permitted to employ Googe in 
translating Palingenius, who had " got bym selfe an everlastyng 
fame " by writing his Zodiacus Vitce. To this proposal the Muses 
at once agree, and then it becomes Googe's turn to protest his in- 
competence, in opposition to the verdict of the nine Muses in his 
favor. He says, — 

" In England here a hundred headdes 
more able now there be 
This same to doe: then, chose the beste 
and let the worste go free." 

They would take no denial, " and fast away from him thei flyng." 
Googe therefore has no choice but to obey the express command 
of the Muses, and his plea of incompetence, and his solicitation 
for indulgence from the reader, are in a manner thrown away and 

" The Preface " is followed by " The Booke to the reader" on 
two pages, still claiming a candid construction from the learned, 
while of others he says, — 

" The common sort I nought esteme, 
unskilfull though they grudge:" 

nevertheless, he humbly entreats "both sortes" to "beare the 
weaknes of his wyt." 

Aries, the first book, begins on a new signature, " A," but the 
second book, Taurus, commences on B iii, and the third book, 
Gemini, on D viii b, continuing as far as G viii, the last page be- 
ing occupied by " Faultes escaped in the printyng." 

As no fewer than sixteen pages 8vo of specimens have been 
given in Censura Literaria, Vol. I. p. 320, from the second edition 
of 1561, (see the next article,) and as the variations between the 
two impressions, as far as the first three books are concerned, are 

(Earlg (SnglisI) €\kxainxL 111 

only literal, we shall not think it necessary here to add more, espe- 
cially since the versification is precisely the same throughout, in 
form and manner entirely agreeing with the quotations we have 
already inserted. In his " Eglogs, Epytaphes and Sonettes," 
1563, Googe has a poem on his own translation of Palingenius, in 
which he speaks of it as still unfinished ; and it is singular that the 
writer of the criticism upon it in Restituta, IV. 362, considered it 
" blank-verse with occasional rhyme," when, in fact, the rhyme is 
as regular as possible, although the shortness of the lines, for the 
sake of the narrow page, gives it an apparent irregularity. This 
is the opening : — 

" The labour swete that I sustaynde in the[e] 
0, Pallingen, when I tooke pen in hande. 
Doth greve me now, as ofte as I the[e] se[e] 
But halfe hewd out before myne eyes to stande." &c. 

The person must have had a very strange ear who could mis- 
take it and the rest for blank-verse. Googe seems to have entered 
the army soon afterwards, and he was certainly employed, like 
Barnabe Kich, in Ireland. When the latter in 1578 published his 
" Alarme to England," Googe wrote an epistle to Rich, which was 
placed near the commencement of the book, and it contains a 
passage that well deserves to be extracted. It runs as follows : — 

" That noble gentleman, Syr William Drurie, a paragon of armes at 
this day, was wont to say that the souldiers of England had alwayes one 
of these three ends to looke for — to bo slaine, to begge, or to be hanged. 
No doubt a gentle recompence for such a merit. Yet want there not some 
that dare affirme it a vaine burden to a common wealth to maintaine 
souldiers, as the common disturbers and hinderers of publicke peace. 
Such a one was Syr Thomas More, who, having more skill in sealing of 
a writ then surveying of a campe, was not ashamed most unwisely to 
write (if I may so speake of so wise a man) that the common labourer of 
England, taken from the plowe, was he that, when it came to the matter, 
did the deede, whose goodly service in time of neede is better knowen 
then I neede to speake of. But what hath this realme gained by her small 
accompt of souldiers? She hath of barbarous people bene foure or five 
times invaded and overcome. I pray God the sixt be not neerer then men 
looke for. It is not money, nor multitude of men, that in extreamitie 
prevaileth, but skill and experience that safety maintaineth and pre- 

112 Bibliograpljical Jlaount of 

The last we hear of Googe, at least in connection with our 
literature, is in 1588, when he superintended a new impression of 
the 12 Books of Palingenius, which had first come out complete 
in 1576. Messrs. Cooper (Ath. Cantabr. II. 39) speak of the 
edition of 1588 as dedicated to Lord Burghley ; so it is, but, as 
will be seen in our next article, the first six books had been ad- 
dressed to his Lordship, by the title of Sir William Cecill, as early 
as 1561. 

Palingenius. — The firste syxe bokes of the mooste 
christian Poet Marcelliis Palingenius, called the zodi- 
ake of life. Newly translated out of Latin into Eng- 
lish by Barnabe Googe. — Imprinted at London by 
Jhon Tisdale, for Rafe Newbery. Anno 1561. 8vo. 
B. L. 170 leaves. 

The three additional books in this impression are Cancer, Leo, 
and Virgo, and the prefatory matter is also somewhat different. 
After the title-page follows the woodcut of Googe's arms, but in- 
stead of the two Latin lines we have merely B. G. under them. 
Then follows the Anagram by Gilbertus Duke, and nine Sapphics 
In lauclem Operis by the same, the blank portion of the page being 
filled by a woodcut of Adam and Eve expelled from Paradise. 
Two pages of Latin verses headed In conversionem Palengenii 
Barnabce Gogce carmen E. Deringe Caniiani, are subscribed E. D. 
They are followed by In Gogcei ceditionem, G. Chathertoni carmen 
Elegiacum Christi Collegii Cantabrigice socii ad lectorem. On 
the opposite leaf we read as follows, without any heading or sig- 
nature: — 

" If Chaucer nowe shoulde live. 
Whose Eloquence divine 
Hath paste y^ poets al that came 
Of auncient Brutus lyne: 

If Homere here might dwell, 
Whose praise the Grekes resounde, 
If Virgile might his yeares renewe, 
If Ovide myght be founde; 
All these myght well be sure 

®arlj3 (Englial) CiUrature. 113 

Theyr matches here to fynde, 

So muche dothe England florishe now 

With men of Muses kynde. 

Synce these might find theire mates, 
What shame shall this my ryme 
Receave, that thus I publishe here 
In such a perlous tyrae ? 

A Poete ones there lyved, 
And Cherill was hys name, 
Who thought of Alexanders actes 
To make immortal fame. 

Bredde up in Pegase house, 
Of Poetes aunciente bloude, 
A thousande verses yll he made 
And none but seven good. 

Sythe Homer, Virgile, and the rest 
Maye here theyr matches see, 
Lett Cherill not thereat disdayne; 
He shall be matched with me. ; 

For eche good verse he dyd receyve 
A peece of golde (I trowe); 
For eche yll verse the Kynge dyd bydde 
His eare shoulde have a blowe. 

Though I presume with him as mate 
Coequall to remaiue. 
Yet seake 1 not herein to be 
Coparcener of his gayne." 

This, which is wanting in the former impression, is hardly con- 
sistent with Googe's statement that he had been specially enjoined 
by Calliope and the other eight Muses to undertake the transla- 
tion. Next we have the dedication to Sir William Cecill, where 
Googe calls Cecill his master and Lady Mildred his mistress. It 
is followed by a brief prose address " to the Reader," and that by 
" The Preface " in verse, as in the former edition. " The booke to 
the reader " immediately precedes " The first Booke of Pallingen 
called Aries." 

It is remarkable that, although the errors are corrected, the hst 
of " Faultes escaped in the printyng," of the edition 1560, is re- 
peated at the back of the last leaf of Book III. of the edition 
1561. We need only quote a few lines from the opening of what 
is new in this impression : — 

VOL. III. 8 

114 Bibliograpljical 3laount of 

" The fourth booke entituled Cancer. 
" Sun! that with perpetual course 

about the worlde doest flye, 
The paret chiefe of every thing, 

and dyamonde of the skye : 
The Prince of all the staiTes, and springe 

of everlastyng lyght, 
Beholdyng every thinge abroade, 

whyle as with colour bright 
Of crimsyn hew, thou leavest aloofe 

the brinckes of Persean land 
With rising face, and passing forth 

doste hyde thy fyery brand 
Amydde the westerne fluddes, and last 

of all, dost burn the hyll 
Of Calpe great, and eke that course 

frequentest alwaj'es styll." &c. 

This apostrophe to the Sun, calling it " the diamond of the sky," 
and telling it of the exact course it has pursued since the creation, 
is not precisely in the same taste as Milton's address to the same 

One of the most noticeable parts of the work is the alphabeti- 
cal list, on the last 18 pages, giving an explanation regarding all 
the classical and mythological persons introduced into the poem. 

We may take this opportunity of correcting an error which has 
found its way into the Catalogue of the Bodleian Library, 5 vols, 
folio, where under " Googe " a work by Bernard Garter — "A new 
yeares Gifte, dedicated to the Pope's Holinesse," 1579 — is in- 
serted. The identity of the initials, no doubt, misled the compiler, 
as they had previously misled Ritson, Bibl. Poet. 222. A review 
of Garter's pamphlet will be found in Vol. II. p. 49 ; his " tragi- 
call and true Historic " of " two English lovers, 1563, written by 
Ber. Gar. 1565," was printed by R. Tottell, and is meritorious for 
the time. 

Parker, Martin. — A True Tale of Robbin Hood, or a 
briefe touch of the life and death of that Renowned 
Outlaw, Robert Earle of Huntingdon, vulgarly called 

(ffarltj (lfnc(li0lj Citerature. 115 

Robbin Hood, who lived and died in A.D. 1198, be- 
ing the 9 yeare of the reigne of King Richard the 
first, commonly called Richard Cuer de Lyon. Care- 
fully collected out of the truest Writers of our Eng- 
lish Chronicles. And published for the satisfaction of 
those who desire to see Truth purged from falsehood. 
By Martin Parker. — Printed at London for T. Cotes, 
and are to be sold by F. Grove dwelling upon Snow hill 
neare the Saracens head. 8vo. B. L. 11 leaves. 

We know nothing of Martin Parker, the author of the above 
production, as a verse-maker, before 1632, when he seems to have 
put forth his first experiment under the title of" The Nightingale 
warbling forth her owne Disaster, or the Rape of Philomela," 
which he dedicated to Henry Parker, Lord Morley and Mount- 
eagle. In his address to the Reader he pleads hard for an impar- 
tial hearing and judgment, and appears, without much desert, to 
have obtained his wishes. Excellence could hardly at any time 
be looked for from a man who could begin with such an exe- 
crable stanza as this : — 

" I Philomel, turn'd to a Nightingale 

Fled to the woods ; and 'gainst a bryer or thorne 
I sit and Avarble out my mournfuU tale 
To sleepe I alwaies have with heed forborne, 
But sweetly sing at evening noone and morne: 
No time yields rest unto my dulcide throat, 
But still I ply my lachrimable note." 
We have ventured to amend the passage by substituting note 
for " throat " in the last line ; and it must have been what the au- 
thor intended, though not what his compositor printed. No par- 
ticulars have reached us regarding Parker's private history, but 
from and after 1632 he seems to have continually employed his 
pen, like his predecessor Deloney, (see Vol I. p. 259,) upon nearly 
every public occasion, besides producing innumerable ballads 
upon miscellaneous topics. He had many rivals and imitators, 
such as Guy, Crouch, Climsell, Price, and others, but none of them 
possessed or attained the same readiness in rhyming, or appear to 
have been gifted with the same natural humor. Although in 

116 Bibliograpljical 2laonnt of 

his earliest known production Parker attempted a serious and 
sentimental strain, his talent was more for subjects of a comic de- 
scription, as will be seen in such pieces as " The King and the 
Northern Man," " The King enjoys his own again," &c.i The 
last was written during the Civil Wars, and, as may readily be 
supposed, was astonishingly popular among the Cavaliers both 
before and after the Restoration. He also employed himself upon 
romances. His " True Tale of Robin Hood," most likely, came 
out soon after his " Nightingale," and he followed it by his prose 
narratives of the story of King Arthur, Guy of Warwick, and Val- 
entine and Orson. Of his " King Arthur " an edition was printed 
in 1660, and we apprehend that he lived and continued to write 
for some time after the return of Charles H. When he ceased 
to produce his rhymes, or when or where he died, we cannot state. 
In 1646 it is probable that he was in high repute, for S. Sheppard, 
in his " Times Displayed," printed in that year, thus speaks of the 
sort of reputation as a poet which Parker then enjoyed : — 

" Each fellow now, that has but had a view 

Of the learnd Phrygian's Fables, groweth bold, 

1 We are inclined to think that one of his best, and certainly one of hia 
most entertaining, productions was his droll discursive satire, in which he 
supposes Robin Conscience to make a progress through town and country, 
and to inform the reader what kind of treatment and reception he met 
with, especially in different parts of the City. Mr. Burgon, in his " Life 
of Gresham," (II. 513,) quotes a small part of it, referring to the shops 
opened above the Royal Exchange, and he states that the verses " appeared 
in 1683," but the fact is that they came out in 1635. If they had first ap- 
peared in 1683, they would have proved nothing, because Gresham's Royal 
Exchange was bxxrned down in the great fire of London. As nobody has 
correctly given the title-page of Parker's poem, we subjoin it from the 
only known perfect copy of the original impression. It is in 12rao, B. L., 
and consists of only 10 rather widely printed leaves : — 

" Robin Conscience, or Conscionable Robin. His Progresse thorow Court, City 
and Countrey : with his bad entertainment at each several] place. Very pleasant 
and merry to bee read. Written in English meeter by M. P. 

Charitie''s cold^ mens hearts are hard., 

And most domes Against Conscience bard. 

London : Printed for F. Coles, at the upper end of the Old Baily, neare the Ses* 
sions-house, 1635." 

(ffarlg €ngli0l) Cttcrattirc. 117 

And name of Poet doth to himself accrew : 

That ballad maker, too, is now extold 
With the great name of Poet." 

In order that no mistake might be made as to the person in- 
tended, Sheppard inserted the initials of Martin Parker in his 
margin. It is impossible to give anything like a list of his various 
pieces. Many of them were merely broadside ballads, and con- 
tinued to be reprinted, in the same shape, until the commence- 
ment of the eighteenth century, almost invariably with the name 
or the initials of the writer at the end of them. One of the ear- 
liest and most remarkable of these was his account of the pro- 
cession of " The Inns of Court Gentlemen " to Whitehall in 1633, 
for the performance of Shirley's " Masque of Peace " ; it is orna- 
mented with a large woodcut of a cavalcade, which was evidently 
not designed for the occasion, because the King figures in it, pre- 
ceded by his heralds and accompanied by his nobility. It was 
written " to the tune of our noble King in his Progresse," and is, 
as usual, in two parts, with M. P. at the corner. As the only 
known broadside of it is now before us, we quote a couple of 

stanzas : — 

" These noble minded Gallants 

to shew their true love 

to our Royall King and Queene, 
Did largely spend their talents 
To make a faire shew, 

that the like was never seene. 
To set downe all exactly 

my skil comes far too short. 
To the honor of those Gentry 

that live at the Inns of Court. 

" The next day after Candlemas, 

betwixt the houres 

of seven and nine at night. 
This stately company did passe 
From Hatton-house in Holborue 

unto White-hall in sight. 
Of such a peerelesse object 

no age can make report. 
To the honor of those Gentry 

that live in the Inns of Court." 

118 Bibliograpljical Jlccount of 

This may have been Parker's first appearance as a mere ballad- 
writer, but he had previously issued several chap-books in verse, 
and possibly among them his " True Tale of Robin Hood," al- 
though the oldest copy Ritson could procure was as late as the 
year 1686, (Robin Hood, I. 127.) The impression we have used 
must be nearly half a century older, and cannot be more recent 
than about the period of the breaking out of the Civil Wars in 

On the title-page is a woodcut of three men, the centre one in 
a court-dress, hat and feather, sword and buckler ; on his right is 
an archer with bow and arrows, and on his left a soldier with cut- 
lass and halbert. It is very similar to that in some editions of 
"Adam Bell, Clim of the Clough, and William of Cloudeslie," but 
of an older style. Our reason for noticing " The True Tale of 
Robin Hood," as it appears in the old impression before us, is, that 
we may illustrate how superior some of the readings there are to 
the comparatively modern, and corrupted, text upon which Rit- 
son was obliged to rely, knowing, as he did, no more ancient copy 
than that of 1686, from which he printed. The precise date of 
the exemplar in our hands cannot be ascertained, because the 
year, if any were given, has unfortunately been cut away by an 
old binder; but it was entered at Stationers' Hall on 29th Febru- 
ary, 1631-2, and in all probability it was first printed soon after- 
wards. Besides the woodcut on the title-page, two others are in- 
serted as ornaments, both of them perhaps a century anterior to 
the appearance of the small volume, one representing three hu- 
man figures tormented in hell by flying dragons and serpents, and 
the other the Almighty conversing with Noah, axe in hand, and 
instructing him as to the building of the Ark. 

The better readings of the older copy commence on the very 
title-page, for whereas that used by Ritson states that the Tale 
was " published for the satisfaction of those who desire truth 
from falsehood," our exemplar completes the sentence, and states 
that it is " published for the satisfaction of those who desire to see 
truth purged from falsehood." The superiority of the old text is 
as remarkable as that just pointed out on the title-page, and in 
proof we subjoin a few specimens. 

Omitting minor discrepancies, such as '■'■his days" for "our 

€arl2 (!!tiglisl) Citerature. 119 

days," " tJiis Earl " for " the Earl," " bij their ways" for " in their 
ways," ^^ forced to be his guide" for " faine to be his guide," &c., 
we arrive at the following stanza, as Ritson gives it, Vol. I. 

p. 137: — 

" The bishop of Ely chancellor, 
Was left a vice-roy here, 
Who, like a potent emperor, 
Did proud domineer." 

The lines, as we find them in the older copy, run thus excel- 
lently : — 

" The bishop of Ely, chancellor. 
Was left as vice-roy here, 
W^ho, like a potent emperor, 
Did proudly domineer." 

Again, farther on, where Robin Hood's good deeds, with the 
money he took from the rich, are spoken of, Ritson's copy of 1686 

reads, — 

" With wealth that he by roguery got 
Eight alms-houses he built; " 

but the copy in our hands does not attribute mean and despicable 
"roguery" to the hero, but courageous, and almost justifiable, 
spoliation of cash for the poor, that the rich could well spare : — 

" With wealth which he by robbery got 
Eight alms-houses he built." 

Afterwards, when Robin Hood was unfortunately dead, we are 
told in Ritson's copy, — 

" His followers, when he was dead. 
Were some repriev'd to grace;" 

but, according to the exemplar before us, they were not " re- 
prieved to grace," an unprecedented expression, but " received to 


" His followers, when he was dead. 
Were some received to grace." 

Near the end, p. 146, is another stanza in which two important 
words were corrupted in 1686, for there we read, — 

" No waring guns were then in use. 
They dreamt of no such thing; 
Our Englishmen in fight did use 
The gallant gray-goose wing." 

120 iSibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

What, we may ask, are " waring guns"; and why did the third 
line end with the same word as the first line ? The corruptions 
are evident when we substitute the older text, which is this : — 

" No roaring guns were then in use, 
They dreamt of no such thing; 
Our Englishmen in fight did chuse 
The gallant gray -goose wing." 

Ritson accepted the text just as he found it, and, if he sus- 
pected misprints, he made no suggestions of emendations. From 
the copy before us we quote the Epitaph upon Robin Hood, as set 
up by the Prioress of Kirklay, which, although consisting of eight 
lines, differs in as many places from the Epitaph as Ritson prints 
it in Vol. I. p. 127: — 

" Robert earle of Huntington 
Lies under this little stone: 
No archer was like him so good; 
His wildnesse named him Robin Hood. 
Full therteene yeares, and something more. 
These northerne parts he vexed sore. 
Such out lawes as he, and his men. 
May England never know agen." 

The variations here are none of them material, but they serve 
to show the value of the older impression. Regarding the Epi- 
taph, see also Johnson's " Lives of Highwaymen," &c., fol. 1 734, 
p. 24. 

Parker, Martin. — A briefe dissection of Germaines 
Affliction : With Warre, Pestelence and Famine ; and 
other deducable miseries, Lachrimable to speak of^ 
more lamentable to paitake of. Sent as a friendly 
monitor to England, &c. Written from approv'd m- 
telligence, by M. Parker. Luk. 13, 3. — Printed at 
London by T. Cotes, for Francis Grove, dwelling on 
Snow hill, neere the Sarazen's head. 1638. 12mo. 
12 leaves. 
This small production is altogether unknown to bibliographers. 

(Earlg Qrnglisl) Citeratttre. 121 

Martin Parker signs the address " To the tender hearted Reader " 
with his name at length ; and his professed object was to warn 
England by the example of the miseries of all kinds, war, pesti- 
lence, and famine, under which Germany, and especially the Pa- 
latinate, was suffering in 1638. It opens with this stanza : — 

" This Paper (white before) hath reason just 

In Sable weeds (these lines) it selfe to dresse; 

For what may here be read (if we may trust 

Old Natures doctrine) shewes such heavinesse, 
That seneelesse things may raourne : why should not then, 
White Paper mourne, that beares black deeds of men?" 

There are sixty-eight stanzas of the same measure, written with 
some facility ; for Parker, as we know, was a practised penman, 
but full of the most painful and disgusting horrors described with 
all the exaggerations of style of which the writer was capable. 
He paints mothers killing and eating their own children, virgins 
ravished and slaughtered, and men mutilated and murdered. 
Sometimes, in the midst of his miseries, he is ridiculously 
prosaic : — 

"A Bushell of corne (with difficulty brought) 
Eighteene Rix dollers there will easly yeeld. 
And glad are they by whom the same is bought: 
Tis food (not money) that is hungers shield: 
It is in English coyne foure pounds, twelve pence. 
To save their lives they will not spare expence." 

In " The Epilogue or Postscript to the Reader," Parker warns 
England not to incur the merited wrath of the Almighty, as Ger- 
many had done : — 

" Let's all consider tis th' Almighties hand 
That striketh others, and doth spare our land. 
And that his love (not our desarts) is cause 
Why from our Nation he the stroke withdrawes. 
We are as wicked (if not more) then they 
On whom he doth his rod of anger lay." 

He proceeds to express gratitude that England has 

" A gracious King, under whose Government 
We live in peace, and for our more content, 
Are fortifi'd with a Royal off-spring, which 
Oar land with future blessings may inrich." 

122 Dibliograpljiral ^crount of 

Within a few years afterwards, the Civil Wars rendered vain 
all the author's anticipations of tranquillity and happiness. The 
style of this chap-book reminds us much of that in which the siege 
and destruction of Jerusalem are narrated in the pretentious (if 
we may use the word) poem called " Caanan's Calamitie " ; but 
we know that that production was originally published before 
Martin Parker was born. (See Vol. II. p. 166.) Both authors 
seem to have striven to represent all that was revolting in the 
most offensive language ; and both pieces were addressed precisely 
to the same class of readers. Parker's production appears to have 
been so popular as to have occasioned the destruction of every 
copy but the one in our hands. 

Parker, Martin. — A True and Terrible Narration of 
A horrible Earthquake, which happened in the Prov- 
ince of Calabria (in the Kingdome of Naples, under 
the dominion of the King of Spaine) in Italy, upon 
the 27 of March last past according to Forraigne ac- 
count, and by our English computation, the 17. and 
the Festivity of S. Patrick : to the devastation and 
depopulation (some totally, some in part) of 8 great 
Cities, and 24 Townes and Castles (in the compasse 
of some 612. miles English) and the death of some 
50000 persons, of all degrees, sexe, and age. The 
like never heard of in precedent times. From preg- 
nant atestation, written in English verse By Martin 
Parker. With a memorable List of some other Earth- 
quaks and horrible accidents, which have heretofore 
happened in England. — Printed at London by Tho. 
Cotes for Ralph Mabb, and Fr. Grove, and are to be 
sold at his Shop upon Snow hill, neere the Sarazins-head. 
1638. 8vo. 8 leaves. 

This is a very large and elaborate title to a very small book, 
but too long to be printed as a broadside, and therefore brought 

(farb (Snglisl) £iterahtre. 123 

out in thft shape of a cbap-book. It consists of fifty six-line stan- 
zas ; and on the last leaf but one begins " A memoriall or List of 
some Earthquakes and other horrible accidents which heretofore 
have hapned in England." It applies to the years a. m. 3907, 
A. D. 778, 1088, 1098, 1550, and 1579, the last on 6th April; but 
for 1579 we ought to read 1580, as given by earlier, as well as 
later authorities. Of the earthquake in Calabria Parker says, — 

" It is no newes brought from Duke Huraphryes tombe, 
Nor Graves-end Barge; nor any thing invented, 
But what from Venice did (to England) come, 
"Where in Italian 'twas (with Licence) printed. 

If any to gainesay it goes about, 

He may as well of any writings doubt." 

The Narrative is generally very prosaic, though written in verse ; 
as far as facility goes, not bad. It opens thus : — 

" A sable quill puld from a Ravens wing 

My muse would be accomodated with, 

An instrument fit for this mournful thing 

Of which I purpose to set down the pith. 
It is a subject which may teares extract 
From him who all his life compunction lackt." 

It ends with this stanza : — 

" Lastly, lets all invoke the Power Divine 

To keepe us from destruction and mishaps, 

And that his favours on us still may shine 

Defending us from all the snares and traps 

Which enemies may lay to this effect. 

Our King, Queene, and blest Issue, Lord protect ! 

This tract is mentioned in both editions of Lowndes' Bibl. 
Manual, but it is not stated where a copy is to be found. We 
never saw any other than the one to which we have resorted. 

Parker, Martin. — The Poet's Blind mans bough, or 
Have among you my blind Harpers : ^ being a pretty 

1 This expression had long been proverbial. We quote the followiDg 

124 I3ibUograpl)ical ^Iccount of 

medicine to cure the Dimme, Double, Envious, Partiall, 
and Diabolicall eyesight and Judgement of those Dog- 
maticall, Scismaticall, Aenigmaticall, and non Gra- 
maticall Authors who Lycentiously, without eyther 
Name, Lycence, Wit o[r] Charity, have raylingly, 
falsely, and foolishly written a numerous rable of pestef- 
erous Pamphelets in this present (and the precedent) 
yeare, justly observed and charitably censured, by Mar- 
tine Parker. — Printed at London by F. Leach, for 
Henry Marsh, and are to bee sold at his shop over 
against the golden Lyon Taverne in Princes street 
1641. 4to. 8 leaves, 

A very badly printed, and not well-penned tract, which the 
author could not have looked at while it was going through the 
press, or such gross blunders as it contains could never have 
escaped him. It certainly was by no means the common practice 
of our old authors to correct their own proofs, and hence the fre- 
quent and glaring mistakes. The following error, even in the 
name of the author, was not set right, although the rhyme detects 

it: — 

" In diverse pamphlets, what ere currish barker 
' The authour was, he snarl'd at Martin Parter.^* 

The object of Parker was to reply with severity to some anony- 
mous scribblers, who had assailed him, especially as one of the 
defenders of Laud, whose imprisonment is thus mentioned : — 

" But (as friends) I friendly them advise, 
That if hereafter they write any lyes, 
Let them more likely be then that which was 
Composed by some short hayr'd, long ear'd Ass, 
Of a strange plot (beyond imagination) 
To give the Arch Bishop his free relaxation 

from Gabriel Harvey's " Pierce's Supererrogation," which came out in 
1596 : — " But now there is no remedie : have amongst you, blind Harpers 
of the printing house, for I feare not six hundred Crowders, were all your 
wittes assembled in one capp of vanitie, or all your galles united in one 
bladder of choler." It is of the "blind harpers of the printing house," 
that Martin Parker in some sort complains. 

(ffarlg (Snglisl) iCittrature. 125 

Out of the Tower by Necromantick spells : 
Themselves did only know it, but none els." 

He asserts that he had never written anything anonymously : — 

" "What ever yet was published by mee 
Was knowne by Martin Parker, or M. P. ; " 

and he follows it up by stating that such had been the usual, and 
honest, course of his predecessors and contemporaries. He men- 
tions Chaucer, Spenser, and the Earl of Surrey, and then adds : — 

" Sydney and Shakspire, Drayton, Withers, and 
Renowned Jonson, glory of our land, 
Deker, learn'd Chapman, Haywood, althought good 
To have their names in publike understood," 

as well as Quarles and Taylor, the water-poet, which last he 
afterwards again introduces. It seems that all the attacks upon 
Parker had not been anonymous, since he places the name of 
John Thomas, in the margin, as the writer of at least some of 
them. In a " Postscript " Parker makes an evident allusion to 
" The Scourge for Paper Persecutors " by John Davies of Here- 
ford, (see Vol. I. p. 229,) which, having been originally printed 
about 1610, had been reprinted in 1625, and was composed in 
something like the same spirit, and not with a very difierent pur- 

All Parker's productions were more or less popular, and it can- 
not be said that he wrote beyond, or above, the period in which 
he lived. He used his pen to please the multitude, and not to 
elevate it. His " Robin Conscience or Conscionable Robin," " in 
English meeter," came out in 1635 as a chap-book, and for its 
satirical turn deserves praise ; but " Harry White, his Humour," 
in prose, has little to recommend it. It has no date, and we are 
disposed to place it late in the author's career. Both these have 
been reprinted. 

Parker, Martin. — The most admirable Historie of that 
most Renowned Christian Worthy Arthur King of the 
Britaines. 4to. B. L. 12 leaves. 
A large woodcut of a Turk, or Saracen, on horseback (used 

126 JBibUograpl)ical 2lccount of 

first, no doubt, for some other work to which it was more appro- 
priate) occupies so much of the title-page that there was no room 
for an imprint, and it is therefore found at the end. — " London, 
printed for Francis Coles at the Signe of the Lamb in the Old- 
Bailey, 1660." 

The dedication, the heading of which is singularly misprinted, 
is " To all all those noble spirits, who after antiquity joyned with 
truth." We must omit " all," and add some such word as "seek" 
before " after," in order to make it intelligible. This address is 
subscribed by the well-known initials of Martin Parker, and we 
need not hesitate in assigning the work to him. It has, however, 
never yet been included in any list of his productions, and we 
have heard of no other copy than the present, which, however, 
looks like a reprint. 

The back of the title-page is blank ; then follows the dedica- 
tion, and a list of the eleven chapters into which the tract is 
divided, headed " The Contents of the severall Chapters in this 
following History." 

In the dedication Parker insists on the genuineness of the story 
of King Arthur, " one of the three Christian Worthies," on the 
authority of Geoflfrey of Monmouth, maintaining that there is just 
as much reason to doubt the existence of William the Conqueror, 
as of renowned King Arthur. 

In order to bring the narrative into the compass of 12 leaves, 
the last two pages are printed in a smaller type than the rest, 
and the work ends thus, the word " they," which we have given 
in Italic, being surplusage ; and indeed the whole is a wretched 
specimen of typography : — " When he had thus victoriously raigned 
26 years, he rendered to death his interest, and his soule to his 
Redeemer in the year of Grace 543, and was buryed at Glasen- 
bury, they where in this present modern age (I meane within liv- 
ing men's memory) there hath been an old Epitaph, with some 
other memorials of him found : the Epitaph (so well as I can) 
I think it not impertinent to render in English : — 
King Arthur's Epitaph. 
" Here lyes great Arthur, Britahis King, 
'Mongst Christian worthies first of three: 
His fame throughout the world doth ring; 


daxix) (SnglisI] Citcratuu. 127 

None did such doughty deeds as he. 
Death all unto this passe doth bring: 
He can subdue the greatest King." 

A woodcut of Arthur, presiding over his Knights at the round 
table, is given on p. 14, together with an alphabetical list of the 
150 knights belonging to the Order. At the end of the enumera- 
tion we read, " These were the Names of those Princes and Noble 

It is stated in both impressions of Lowndes' Bibl. Manual, that 
Martin Parker also wrote the history of " Valentine and Orson," 
we presume in prose ; but we never had an opportunity of seeing 
it, and we apprehend that no copy now exists. His " Garland of 
withered Roses," 1656, is mentioned by Bishop Percy, but it has 
never been seen in our day. We infer that it was, (like T. Delo- 
ney's " Garland of Good Will," and R. Johnson's " Royal Gar- 
land of Golden Roses,") in the main, an assemblage of pieces 
which had previously appeared in broadsides, and which Parker, 
late in life, wished to preserve in a collected form. His " Guy 
Earl of Warwick " is, we believe, only known from the entry of 
it at Stationers' Hall in 1640. 

Parkes, W. — The Curtaine-Drawer of the Worlde : or 
the Chamberlaine of that great Inne of Iniquity. 
Where Vice in a rich embroidered Gowne of Velvet 
rides a horse-backe like a Judge, and Vertue, in a 
thrid-bare Cloke full of patches, goes on foote like 
a Drudge. Where he that hath most mony may be 
best merry, and he that hath none at all wants a 
friend, he shal daily have cause to remember to grieve 
for. By W. Parkes Gentleman, and sometimes Student 
in Barnards Inne. 

Trahit sua quemq, volupiaSj 

Attamen nocet empta dolore. 
London, Printed for Leonard Becket, and are to be 
sold at the Temple neere to the Church. 1612. 4to. 
35 leaves. 

128 Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

Douce considerably over-estimated this author when he said 
(Illustr. II. 75) that he was a man " of great ability and poetical 
talents." He had some strength as a satirist, but it often descends 
to abuse, and he was deficient in invention. His style is loose 
and desultory, and his work is put together without rule or sys- 
tem. His object was to write what would attract attention from 
all classes, and with all classes in turn he finds grievous fault. 
What he was, excepting that he tells us himself he was a " gen- 
tleman," and at one time a student of Barnard's Inn, we are 
altogether uninformed. He does not claim to have been of either 
University, and we meet with no record of him either in Anthony 
Wood, or in the valuable work of Messrs. Cooper. He gives no 
hint of his profession excepting on his title-page, but he assails 
lawyers most unmercifully, and, as well as we can judge from 
what he says, had sufiered much from them, from usurers, and 
from scriveners. We apprehend that he wrote his book because 
he could sell it, and because the price would aid him in his neces- 

There is little consistency in his production, for his Curtain- 
drawer is a person who sometimes exposes, and at others con- 
ceals the vices, vanities, and imperfections of mankind. It seems 
to have been written at intervals on separate sheets, containing 
prose and verse, and to have been combined afterwards with 
small regard to connection. Parkes is usually very self-confident, 
and does not scruple to say what comes into his head, and in the 
terms that first suggest themselves. The verse is generally satiri- 
cal, and the prose descriptive and objurgatory. Both are inter- 
mixed, without any reason being obvious, or stated by the author, 
for varying from the one to the other. Whether he had or had not 
suffered from the ladies, he shows them on all occasions very little 

Parkes's " Introduction " fills nearly six pages, but without 
much distinctness of purpose. He assails Usurers, Lawyers, Phy- 
sicians, Women, &c., observing, — 

" Ther's no man living that the world can free. 
But he's a Drawer in some one degree: 
The word is common therefore, and the use, 
But much more common is the vile abuse." 

(Saxk (fttglislj IxUrahxtt. 129 

Sometimes his Drawer is not only a drawer and withdrawer of 
curtains, but even a drawer of wine and beer. His verse is fol- 
lowed by several pages of prose, containing an address from "the 
World to her Children," where, among many others of a similar 
character, this sentence occurs : — 

** I see the rich oppresse the poore, the lender the borrower, the Court 
the Country: Justice oppressed by the Law, Conscience by Covetous- 
nesse: Deceit stretcheth out her hand, and every one is ready to joyne in 
familiarity with her: she comes with confidence, as your gallant Tearmer 
or Sojourner comes to your Citizen, to whom the very doores flye open, 
and entertainment willingly embraces, because he presageth a profitable 
guest : even so this Mistres of misteries promiseth no lesse, performeth no 
more, speedeth as easily." 

There is nothing new in this, and in much more written in the 
same spirit. One of his most distinct temporary allusions is to 
the famous dramatic piece called " England's Joy," which had 
been written by Vennard, (see post, under Vennard,) and per- 
formed at the Swan Theatre in 1603. Another, less distinct, is 
found at the close of the ensuing paragraph, which may also be 
taken as a specimen of Parkes's boldness in attacking all classes 

" Then the Stues was not heard of in Rome, nor the disease thought of 
in France, nor Turne-bull street situated in London. Then Noblemens 
chimneyes used to smoake, and not their noses: Englishmen without 
were not Blackamoores within, for then Tobacco was an Indian unpickt 
and unpiped, now made the common ivy-bush of luxury, the Curtaine of 
dishonesty, the proclaimer of vanity, the drunken colourer of Drabby 
salacy. Then purses of gold might have stood open by the high-way 
side, and no hand but the owners would have taken them up, which now 
scarce lye safe under ten lockes and keyes, at a Sermon in the Kings 

The last words relate to the famous pickpocket who had been 
recently hanged for robbing a man in the King's presence at the 
Chapel in Whitehall, regarding which transaction a separate pam- 
phlet was published. " The Curtaine Drawer of the World " is a 
new heading, but without much new matter ; and after the author 
has gone on in prose for some time, he breaks out in rhyme, almost 
as if his increasing indignation had compelled it. He thus treats 
landlords : — 

vou III. 9 

130 Bibliograpljical ^tcomi of 

" Exacting Land-lords, let your tenants rue 
That they have lost your fathers to have you ; 
When he that bids the smallest moyty more 
Shall turn you, aged weeping, out of dore. 
Spend on most prodigall, whilst they lament 
Your golden trappings in their doubled rent; 
And let them delve it with their endlesse paine 
From stones and earth to bring to you the gaine. 
Let their stiffe sinewes, by your damned racke, 
With care and labour meanly cloath the backe, 
And let their bellies cleave unto their sides 
To furnish forth your strange devised prides : 
Hang more at once upon your selves in wast 
Then Princes wore not many ages past; 
And when you are so compleate in this kinde, 
Then do you sort according to my minde." 

The escape of " a German out of Wood-street Counter," subse- 
quently mentioned, we cannot explain, nor is it of much conse- 
quence ; and after some unmeasured charges of incontinence and 
extravagance against the wives of citizens, and the mistresses of 
town-gallants, we arrive at a series of " Epitaphs " upon Usurers, 
Lawyers, Courtiers, Countrymen, Citizens, and Physicians. That 
upon a Usurer we give : — 

" Here lyes he underneath this stone 
That whilst he liv'd did good to none, 
And therefore at the point to dye 
More cause had some to laugh then cry. 
His eldest sonne thought he had wrong 
Because he lingred out so long ; 
But now he's dead, how ere he fares 
Ther's none that kuowes, nor none that cares." 

At this point the author seems to have gone to the length 
of his tether, and having exhausted his own materials, he resorts 
to some scraps he happened to have by him by other authors. Of 
these he inserts two, — one of them a riddle, to which the initials 
S. J. D. are affixed, meaning doubtless the witty Sir John Davys ; 
and as we do not recollect that it has been printed elsewhere, 
we may quote it here : — 

'• Upon a Coffin by S. J. D. 
" There was a man bespake a thing 


(ffarlg ffinglislj Citeratur^ 131 

Which when the owner home did bring, 
He that made it did refuse it, 
And he that brought it would not use it. 
And he that hath it doth not know 
Whether he hath it, ay or no." 

Trifling as this is, it is better than anything of the kind by 
Parkes ; and the same may be said of a short piece subscribed S. 
R., which we may attribute without much hesitation to Samuel 
Rowlands. It is not very clear, owing to its temporary applica- 
tion, but it refers, among other points, to the famous old satire 
called " Reynard the Fox," and to Ben Jonson's play " Volpone." 
It is entitled 

"In Vulponem. 
" The Fox is earthed now in ground 

Who living fear'd not home nor hound, 

That kept the huntsmen at a bay 

Before their faces ceaz'd his prey: 

Of whose successe-full thriving wit 

Bookes have been made, and playes beene writ: 

That prey'd on Mallard, Plover, Ducke, 

And ever scap'd by craft or lucke- 

Yet now hee's gone: what though? behinde 

Are Cubbes too many of his kinde. 

Who whilst by death hee's kept away 

Will make a purchase of his prey. 

And when the old he left is gone 

Will find out more to work upon. 

In Skinners shops though some appeare, 

Tis long before the last comes there. 

S. R." 

The last eight pages are a tedious " Meditation of the vanity 
of all vanity, shewing they are least wise that most use it," from 
which, as may be guessed from the title, we cannot find an extract 
possessing any real novelty. Just before the conclusion the 
author changes his measure from ten-syllable to eight-syllable 
verse, and his latest words in the person of Death are addressed 
to the female sex : — 

" You gallant dames, behold your doome : 
To me, at length, you all must come. 
Though ner'e so fine you are but dust, 

132 Bibltograpljtcal 2ltcount of 

Though ne're so loath away you must; 
Though all the world would tell you nay, 
If I say go, you must not stay. * * * 
No wealth, no strength no policy 
Can make resistance, all must dye. 
Therefore, let this be still your song, 
Dead shall I be e're it be long; 
Then woe to them ten thousand fold 
Whom death as prisoners still shall hold, 
But happy they whose life shall be 
By death more happy, made more free." 

The book is one of undoubted rarity, but we should not have 
bestowed so much space upon it, had we only taken its intrinsic 
merits into account. Douce was misled to praise it too highly by 
finding in it some real or fancied resemblances to Shakspeare. 

Parnassus, England's. — Englands Parnassus : or the 
choysest Flowers of our Moderne Poets, with their 
Poetical comparisons. Descriptions of. Bewties, Per- 
sonages, Castles, Pallaces, Mountaines, Groves, Seas, 
Springs, Rivers, &c. Whereunto are annexed other 
various discourses both pleasaunt and profitable. — Im- 
printed at London for N. L. C. B. and T. H. 1600. 

We should not have thought it necessary to speak of this 
popular, remarkable, but at the same time not very rare mis- 
cellany, if we had not wished to supply a deficiency in every 
account of its contents, namely, the number of times each dis- 
tinguished poet is quoted in it. It has required a good deal of 
labor and industry to calculate all and each ; but we have gone 
through the task, and in the outset we supply the list, since it will 
in some degree enable the reader to judge of the esteem in which 
the different poets, to whose works resort was had, were held near 
the close of the reign of Elizabeth. We place them alphabeti- 
cally, — a course not attempted in the original, where they are 
arranged, very loosely and irregularly, in subjects (sometimes 
repeated) under separate headings. 

(farlg (Snglial) £ittxaimt. 

Achelley, Thomas, is quoted 
Bastard, Thomas . 
Chapman, George 
Churchyard, Thomas 
Constable, Henry 
Daniel, Samuel . 
Davys, Sir John 
Dekker, Thomas . 
Drayton, Michael 
Fairfax, Edmund 
Fitzgeoffrey, Charles 
Fraunce, Abraham 
Gascoigne, George , 
Greene, Robert . 
Guilpin, Edward 
Harington, Sir John 
Higgins, John 
Hudson, Thomas 
Jonson, Ben 
Kyd, Thomas 
Lodge, Thomas 
Markham, Gervase 
Marlowe, Christopher 
Marston, John 
Middleton, Christopher 
Middleton, Thomas 
Nash, Thomas . 
Oxford, Earl of . 
Peele, George 
Roydon, Matthew 
Sackville, Thomas 
Shakspeare, William 
Sidney, Sir Philip 
Spenser, Edmund 
Storer, Thomas 
Surrey, Earl of '. 
Sylvester, Joshua 
Turberville, George 


12 times 











































































134 Bibliograpljkal ^rrottnt of 

Warner, William . . . . 117 times 

Watson 25 " 

Weever, John 13" 

Wyat, Sir Thomas .... 5 " 
We are not aware of any inaccuracy in the above enumeration, 
but those who know the trouble of going through a book of more 
than 500 pages, most of those pages containing from one to six or 
eight quotations, will be sensible that mistakes may be easily 
made. Some citations are placed under the name of the work, 
as for instance, " The Mirror for Magistrates," from which forty- 
two passages have been selected ; in other cases we find only 
initials used, such as B. S. T., C. H., G. F., G. S., &c., and two 
passages are assigned to Ignoto, and one to /. Author is, whoever 
he may have been. Some of the older poets seem to have been 
sparingly resorted to, while the then moderns, such as Daniel, 
Drayton, Lodge, Shakspeare, Spenser, Sylvester, and Warner, 
have been abundantly laid under contribution. A few of the 
poets had only just begun to write when " England's Parnassus" 
was compiled; and from others, such as Robert Greene and 
Thomas Nash, few specimens have been taken, because they had 
written much more prose than poetry. 

The great deficiency of the work is a total absence of informa- 
tion as to the titles of the volumes quoted ; and a few of the 
books are now so scarce, if not utterly unknown, that it is a 
hopeless labor to attempt to trace the passages. Shakspeare's 
*' Venus and Adonis," and " Lucrece," were frequently used ; 
but his plays were resorted to only in twenty-four places, and 
those such as had appeared in piint in or before 1598. Thus — 
Richard II. is quoted .... 4 times 

Henry IV. Part 1 2 " 

Richard III 5 « 

Love's Labors Lost ... 2 " 

Romeo and Juliet . . . .11" 
His property is indicated either by W. Shakespeare^ W. Sha.^ or 
W. Sh.f at the end of the quotations. We have gone over the 
whole in the course of the last fifty years, in order, where pos- 
sible, to detect the productions from which the compiler made his 
selections. In the cases of our most notorious poets the under- 

(ffarlg (Kngltal) Ctterature. 135 

taking was comparatively easy, but although we have marked 
hundreds of passages in our copy, hundreds more remain un- 

As to the name of the compiler, the collector and selecter of 
more than two thousand quotations, we can arrive at no very 
satisfactory conclusion. The task was in some respects an in- 
vidious one. Some versifiers might complain that they were 
omitted, while others might contend that undue prominence had 
been assigned to really inferior writers, like Hudson, Storer, or 
Sylvester. Popularity, however, may in some cases have directed 
and governed the choice. A few noted poets, such for instance 
as Whetstone, Hunnis, and Tofte, were entirely neglected; and 
if a man like Ben Jonson were not in favor with the editor, 
thirteen quotations, instead of fifty or a hundred, may have 
marked, not the difference of estimate so much as the difference 
of esteem. 

The name usually assigned to the editor has been Robert Allot, 
a distinguished publisher of the period ; 1 and we have the initials 
R. A. to two preliminary sonnets, one to Sir Thomas Mounson, 
and the other " to the Reader." The same two letters are sub- 
scribed to four six-line stanzas introductory of Robert Tofle's 
" Alba," 1598 ; but we find " Robert Allot " at the close of a 
sonnet in praise of Christopher Middleton's "Legend of Duke 
Humphrey," published in the same year as " England's Parnassus." 
There was, therefore, a versifier named Robert Allot in 1600, and 
he may have been the publisher. He may also have been in- 
terested as a tradesman in the sale of " England's Parnassus," 
together with N. L. (Nicholas Ling), C. B. (Cuthbert Burby), and 
T. H. (Thomas Hacket ?) whose initials, under Ling's device, are 
at the bottom of the title-page. R. A. may not have liked to 
appear connected with the volume in the double capacity of com- 

1 If Robert Allot were the compiler of " England's Parnassus," 1600, 
and if the initials R. A. introductory to Tofte's " Alba," 1598, mean Robert 
Allot, it is somewhat singular that no quotation from Tofte's poems is to 
be found in " England's Parnassus." Tofte, besides translations, pub- 
lished two collections of original sonnets, &c. before 1600, namely, his 
"Laura," in 1597, and his "Alba," in 1598. Christopher Middleton, 
whom Robert Allot also praised, is quoted at least twenty-five times. 

136 Bibliograpljiml t^Jlaount of 

piler and publisher. Until a better claimant be discovered, there- 
fore, we must allow to Robert Allot whatever merit belongs to the 
selection of authors and their works. 

Certainly, whoever superintended it, no work of the same 
importance was ever worse printed, and the errors have been 
unavoidably preserved in the ponderous reprint made in 1815, 
under the title of " Heliconia." Not only are the quotationa 
given in a most corrupted form, (let the reader only compare 
those from Spenser and Shakspeare,) but passages are ascribed to 
poets who never wrote them, and others deprived of admirable 
lines to which they were justly entitled. Fourteen lines, the 
undoubted property of Shakspeare, are handed over at once to 
Drayton, while Shakspeare is in turn compensated by several 
pieces really belonging to Spenser and Warner. Some identical 
quotations are inserted, at least, twice over. 

In spite of all its errors, " England's Parnassus " is a work of 
much interest and value; and among other advantages derived 
from it may be mentioned the manner in which it has enabled us, 
in modem times, to assign to their true authors several produc- 
tions of curiosity and popularity. We may specify two in par- 
ticular : one of them, " Skialetheia, or the Shadow of Truth,'* 
1598, thought to be anonymous until within the last ten or fifteen 
years, but which we now know was written by Edw. Guilpin ; the 
other, the drama of " The Battle of Alcazar," printed without an 
author's name in 1594, and properly assigned in the work before 
us to George Peele. 

Parrot, Henry. — Laquei ridiculosi: or Springes for 
Woodcocks. By H. P. — London : Printed for John 
Basby. 1613. 12mo. 123 leaves. 

This author began to write in 1606, (not 1608, as misprinted in 
Lowndes' B. M. edit. 1861, p. 1788,) when he published "The 
Mousetrap." His next work was called " Epigrams," dated 1608, 
and in the same year came out his " The More the Merrier." 
These three works furnished a small part of the materials for the 
publication now under consideration. The rest consists of epi- 


(ffarlg ^ngUsI) iCtkrature. 137 

grams subsequently composed, although the author, who signs a 
Latin epistle Lectori benigno, scienti, et ignoto, asserts that Duo 
propemodum anni elapsi sunt, ex quo primum Epigrammata hcec 
{qualiacunque) raptim et festinanter perficiebam ; and in an Eng- 
lish address " to the Reader " he informs him, that the work had 
been " brought to the press without his privity," which may 
account for some of the self- repetitions. 

The productions themselves are much more remarkable for 
their indehcacy and coarseness than for their wit or humor. 
These he had already excused, when he inserted the following in 
his " More the Merrier," 1608 : — 

" Be not agreeved my humorous lines afford 
Of looser language here and there a word: 
Who undertakes to sweepe a common sinke 
I cannot blame him, though his beesom stinke." 

Several others, like the following, touch pleasantly enough upon 
the manners of the time. It is numbered fifty-five, of the first 
book of Laquei Ridiculosi : — 

" Veniunt spectentur ut ipsi. 
" When yong Rogero goes to see a play, 
His pleasure is you place him on the Stage, 
The better to demonstrate his aray, 
And how he sits attended by his Page, 
That onely serves to fill those pipes with smoke 
For which he pawned hath his riding cloke." 

As the names given to the persons introduced are all fictitious, 
it is hardly possible to ascertain to whom the epigrams relate. 
The subsequent specimen (Eplgr. 45, of Book II.) has obviously 
a personal reference — possibly to Nathaniel Field, the celebrated 
juvenile actor and poet, who, in the year preceding, had published 
an excellent comedy, called "Woman is a Weathercock," re- 
printed in 1829 in a supplementary volume to "Dodsley's Old 
Plays": — 

"/n Histrionem. 
" Who braves it now as doth yong Histrio, 
Walking in Pauls like to some Potentate, 
Richly replenisht from the top to th' toe, 
As if he were deriv'd from high estate? 

138 Bibliograpljical Account of 

Alas there's not a man but may descry 
His begging trade, and bastard faculty." 

It has been said that the person represented undergoing flagel- 
lation on the title-page of Davies's " Scourge for Folly " (printed 
about 1610) was meant for Parrot ; but this conjecture seems suf- 
ficiently contradicted by the fact that Parrot, in the work before 
us, (Epigr. 107, Book I.,) pays Davies a high compliment for his 
wit. At all events, therelbre. Parrot in 1613 could not have been 
sensible of the intention of Davies about 1610, and there is noth- 
ing in the engraving itself to support the statement. 

The initials of the author are not usually on the title-page, 
though they are so in this copy, which has likewise a woodcut 
representing two woodcocks caught in springes, and one flying 

Parrot, Henry. — The Mastive, or Young-Whelpe of 
the Olde-Dogge. Epigrams and Satyrs. — Herat Verba 
decent iratum plena minarum. — London Printed by 
Thomas Creede for Richard Meighen and Thomas 
Jones &c. 1615. 4to. 35 leaves. 

The initials H. P. are appended to an address " to the univer- 
sal Reader," and they are doubtless those of Henry Parrot. The 
style of the Epigrams is exactly similar to that of Laquei Ridi- 
culosi. He says : — "I promised not long. since to busy my selfe 
no more with these bastard kinde of commodities," — an epithet 
they had perhaps acquired from Thomas Bastard, who, as we have 
seen, printed a large collection of epigrams in 1598 ; (see Vol. I. 
p. 73.) If Parrot entered into any such undertaking, it was not 
publicly in his works. A preliminary sonnet, Ad Bibliopolam, is 
at least as well worth quoting as any other production in the 
volume : — 

" Printer, or Stationer, or what ere thou proove, 
Shalt mee record to Times posteritie. 
He not enjoine thee, but request in love 
Thou so much deigne my Booke to dignifie, 
As first it bee not with your Ballads mixt; 
Next, not at Play-houses mongst Pippins solde ; 

(Sarlg (Knglisl) Citcrahtrc. 139 

Then that on Posts, by th' Eares it stand not fixt 
For every duU-Mechanicke to beholde; 
Last, that it come not brought in Pedlers packs 
To common Fayres of Countrey, Towne or Cittie, 
Sold at a Booth raongst Pinnes and Almanacks. 
Yet on thy hands to lye thou 'It say 't wer pittie: 
Let it be rather for Tobacco rent. 
Or Butchers Wives, next Clensing-weeke in Lent." 

In one of the Epigrams the author assures us, that they had 
been " long since compos'd." He printed his Laquei Ridiculosi 
in 1613, and those, he said, had been written about two years 

At the end of the volume are three Satires, and " a Paradox in 
praise of War." From a passage in the second Satire, it is not 
improbable that Parrot was an actor at the Fortune Theatre, al- 
though his name is included in no extant list of the members of 
the company. There is humor in his description of the different 
buyers of his book in Satire II. The following is part of it : — 

"The mending Poet takes it next in hand, 
Who having oft the verses over-scand, 
filching! straight doth to the Stationer say. 
Her 's foure lines stolne from forth my last New-play. 
And that hee'l swere, even by the Printer's stall. 
Although hee knowes 't is false hee speakes in all. 
Then comes my Innes-of-Court-Man, in his gowne, 
Cries, Mew ! what hackney brought this wit to towne ? 
But soone againe my gallant Youth is gon, 
Minding the kitchen more than Littleton. * * * 
Next comes by my Familiar, yet no Spirit, 
Who forceth me his friendship to inherit: 
He sees my Booke in print, and streight he knowes it, 
Then asketh for the booke, and the Boy shewes it; 
Then reades a while and sayes — I must commend it, 
But, sure, some friend of his for him hath pend it: 
He cannot write a booke in such a fashion, 
For, well I wote, 't was nere his occupation. * * * 
Next after him your Countrey-Farmer viewes it : 
It may be good (saith hee) for those can use it; 
Shewe me King Arthur, Bevis, or Syr Guye : 
Those are the bookes he onely loves to buye." 

The cutting off of the date by the binder in one or two extant 

140 Bibltograpljkal ^Iccount of 

copies of this rare production has led some to conclude that it was 
first printed without any, and that it came out in the year 1600 ; 
(Restituta^ III. 415.) If such were the fact, it would have been 
Parrot's first, instead of his last known work. At the end Is an 
apology for errors. 

In Vol n. p. 58, is mentioned a production of a similar kind, 
and with a somewhat corresponding title, " The Mastiff Whelp," 
by William Goddard. It is without date, but, from internal evi- 
dence, it may be stated that it preceded Parrot's " Mastive, or 
Young Whelpe of the Olde-Dogge." If so, it is clear that Parrot 
modelled his title-page, in some sort, upon that of Goddard. 

Parry, William. — A new and large discourse of the 
Travels of Sir Anthony Sherley, Knight, by Sea, and 
over Land, to the Persian Empire. WTierein are re- 
lated many straunge and wonderfull accidents: and 
also, the' Description and conditions of those Countries 
and People he passed by : with his returne into Chris- 
tendome. Written by William Parry, Gentleman, who 
accompanied Sir Anthony in his Travells. — London 
Printed by Valentine Simmes for Felix Norton. 1601. 
4to. B. L. 22 leaves. 

On a previous page of this volume (61) we have reviewed a rare 
tract upon this subject by Anthony Nixon. It is six years poste- 
rior in date, and was only intended to gratify the curiosity of the 
public, being made up from second-hand authorities. The pam- 
phlet before us (of which not more than three or four copies are 
extant, and some of those, as we shall show presently, imperfect) 
was written by a person who was an eye-witness of all he relates ; 
for he had accompanied Sir Anthony Sherley to Persia, had re- 
mained there with him, but had come back alone, because, as it 
seems. Sir Anthony Sherley considered that he himself had other 
duties to discharge before he revisited England. 

The imperfection to which we refer in some other copies is the 
absence of a sonnet by John Davies of Hereford, the more notice- 

(farlij (EnglisI) Citcrature. 141 

able as it is the earliest specimen of his rhyming propensity, for 
he never produced what can properly be deemed poetry. His 
first work bears date in 1602, but this sonnet in praise of Parry 
appeared in the preceding year. It is on a separate leaf, quite 
at the end, and after the close of the narrative by the word Finis ; 
so that the deficiency, where it occurs, is not easily detected. It is 
merely headed " J. D. of Hereford in praise of William Parry, 
Gentleman," and it runs as follows : — 

" To creepe like Ants about this earthie Round, 
And not to gather with the Ant, is vaine: 
Some finde out Countries which were never found. 

Yet scarcely get their labour for their paine: 
Whereby I gather, there they gather not, 

But rather scatter. Better lost than found 
Were all such Countries. Will, such is thy lot : 

Thou hast lost ground, to finde out other ground. 
Yet thou hast found much more than thou couldst lose, 

Thogh thou couldst lose more than the Seas confine. 
For thou hast found^that, none could finde, but those 
That seeke, as thou hast done, for Wisedomes eine. 
And thaVs Experience, no where to he seene, 
But evWy where, where thou {good Will) hast beene. 
Tarn Arte Qtiam Marte." 

The tract, to which the above may be considered a tail-piece, 
sets out with a preamble on proverbs against travellers' wonders ; 
it then proceeds with a plain narrative of incidents, from the first 
landing of Sir Anthony Sherley at Flushing until the end of his 
long journey. Parry landed at Dover in September, 1601, while 
Sir Anthony held on his course toward the Emperor of Germany, 
whom he was anxious to animate in his hostility to the Turks. It 
was on his Persian journey that he met with William Kemp, the fa- 
mous comedian, at Rome, (see " Memoirs of Shakespeare's Actors,'* 
p. 115,) but Parry does not in any way allude to the circumstance. 
He writes always in the first person, and early in his tract he re- 
lates a curious fact while Sir Anthony and his party were on board 
an Italian vessel, the captain of which had agreed to convey them 
from Venice to Aleppo. Parry tells us : — 

" In which time an Italian in that shippe, using some villainous and 
opprobrious speaches towardes our Queenes Majestie, and the same not 

142 Bibliograpljical Slaount of 

heard by Sir Anthony, nor any of his company, in two dayes after, but 
then made knowne by an Italian that attended maister Robert Sherly; 
whereof when Sir Anthony heard, he forthwith caused one of our com- 
pany so to beate him with a billet that it is impossible he should ever 
recover it. In the performance whereof he made a great outcry, where- 
upon all the Italians were up in armes, being in number some three score 
persons, and we but foure and twenty. Howbeit we were (with weapon* 
drawne) prest to defend and offend. The captaine of the ship thereupon 
demanded Sir Anthony, how any man durst intermeddle in that kind 
under his commaund ? Whereunto Sir Anthony replied, that it was an 
injurie tending to the reproach and indignitie of his Soveraigne, which 
hee neither could, nor would indure; and therewithall told him, if he 
would subborne or abet him therein, the one side should welter in their 
blood. And our side being rather desirous to prosecute this point with 
swordes then with wordes. Sir Anthonies brother gave the captaine a 
sound boxe, which was very hardly digested, and much mischiefe had 
like to have fallen thereon ; but by meanes of certaine Merchants in the 
ship, more fearefuU of their goods then of the losse of their bloods (and 
yet fearefull enough of either) pacified, with much adoe, both parties." 

We have dwelt on this incident because it was sure to be popu- 
larly employed by the dramatists of the day, who took up the 
whole story of the journey as a fit subject for the stage. We 
shall come hereafter, on the authority of Sir Anthony Sherley 
himself, to speak of other occurrences both on the way and at the 
court of Persia, and we shall not therefore think it necessary to 
follow Parry in his not very well digested narrative. We may, 
however, make a quotation which shows the manner in which the 
Turks then trained and employed carrier-pigeons (afterwards 
introduced into this country) for the speedy conveyance of in- 
telligence. Parry feared that his assertion would scarcely obtain 
credence among his " homebred countriemen," and all he ventures 
to say upon the subject is this : — 

" When they desire to heare news or intelligence out of any remote 
parts of their country, with all celeritie (as we say uppon the wings of 
the winde) they have pigeons that are so taught and brought to the hand, 
that they will flie with Letters (fastened with a string about their bodies 
under their wings) containing all the intelligence of occurrents, or what 
else is to be expected from those partes : from whence, if they shoulde 
send by camells (for so otherwise they must) they should not heare in a 
quarter of a yeare, for so long would they be in continuall travel." 

Parry enlarges on the singular manners of the Persians, as he 

(ffarlj) (Snglielj Citerature. 143 

saw them during the lengthened visit of Sir Anthony Sherley 
and his brothers, observing, — 

" They have not many Bookes, much lesse great Libraries amongst the 
best Clarkes. They, are no learned nation, but ignorant in all kinde of 
liberall or learned Sciences, and almost all other Arts and Faculties, ex- 
cept it be in certaine things pertaining to horses furniture, and some 
kindes of carpettings and silke workes, wherein they excell. They have 
neither golde nor silver from any mines of their owne, for they have none : 
howbeit they have money, made of both kindes, in great plenty, together 
with some small coyne made of copper, like our Bristow tokens." 

This, we apprehend, is an early mention of Bristol Tokens ; but 
we know of none issued by tradesmen of London of so early a 
date as the reign of Elizabeth, or even of James I. Speaking of 
the customs of the people, Parry states, that after banqueting and 
carousing, they drinke " a certaine liquor which they call Coffe, 
which is made of a seede much like our musterd seede, which will 
soone intoxicate the braine like our metheglin." This mention of 
coffee so long before the introduction of it into England is sin- 
gular, but Parry does not seem to have known much about it, or 
the berry from which it was made. Howell speaks of it as a 
Turkish drink in a letter to Lord Clifford in 1634. 

Partridge, John. — The worthie Hystorie of the most 
Noble and valiaunt Knight Plasidas, otherwise called 
Eustas, who was martyred for the Profession of Jesus 
Christ. Gathered in English verse by John Partridge, 
in the yere of our Lord. 1566. — Imprinted at London 
by Henrye Denham, for Thomas Hacket : and are to 
bee solde at his shoppe in Lumbarde streate. 8vo. 
B. L. 35 leaves. 
Bibliographers have erred much regarding Partridge : they 

have made two authors out of one, and one book out of twa 

(Lowndes' B. M. edit. 1834, p. 1412; edit. 1861, p. 1793.) His 

works are these : — 

1. The History of Plasidas, printed in . 1566 

2. The History of Astyanax and Polixena . 1566 

144 Bibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

3. The History of Lady Pendavola . . 1566 

4. The End and Confession of John Felton 1570 

5. The Treasury of commodious Conceits 1573 
Thus we see that in 1566 he published three separate poems, 

although the two first have been included under one title-page, as 
if they had come out together, and the two last, for no reason, 
given to a different John Partridge. At present our business is 
to speak only of the first, which forms ch. ex. of the Gesta Roma- 
norum, and is also found in Caxton's " Golden Legend." The story 
was evidently a great favorite, especially in the early stages of the 
Reformation, on which account Partridge wjis mainly induced to 
" gather it in English verse." He uses the same phrase on other 

In his dedication to Arthur Dwabene, " marchant venturer," 
he states that his attention having been directed to the sufferings 
of this famous man, Plasidas, by " a special friend," he hoped his 
dedicatee would defend him " against the ravenous Zoilistes, 
which, at all tvTnes from the beginning, have bene readie to 
breathe the fylth of their cancred stomackes upon those most 
famous works of the excellentest clearkes that ever were, whose 
bokes I am not worthye to beare." Next comes an address " to 
the Reader " in verse, exhorting him to patience, which, indeed, 
Partridge was about to put to rather a severe test ; and to this 
succeeds what he heads " The verdicte of the Booke," meaning 
more properly the subject and moral of the poem. The last of 
four stanzas is this : — 

" Farewell, my friendes, for for your sakes 
My author hath abrode me sent : 
I passe not for all crabbed crakes, 
That Zoilus to make is bent, 
For all for you my author meant, 
When that in hand his pen he toke, 
And at this storie first did looke." 

We are told in the outset that Plasidas was Captain of the 
G uards in the time of Trajan : — 

" This Knight to name had Plasidas, 
one whome the King did love 
For martiall feates, that in this knight 
did shine the rest above. 


(Earlj) (Englislj Citcraturc. 145 

A wife he had of glistering hew, 

of shape both faire and trim, 
Of loving minde, of gladsome heart, 

and trusty unto him. 
By her he had two children fayre, 

surmounting Phoebus bright. 
Who for their manly courage stout 

Compare with him they might." 

While Plasidas was hunting a buck, the Saviour appeared to 
him, and called upon him to renounce his idols, to convert his 
wife, and to be baptized. Plasidas convinces his wife at night, 
by narrating to her, tediously and inartistically, (for the reader 
knew all before,) what had passed between him and Christ. She, 
too, had had a preliminary and preparatory vision ; and on the 
strength of both they and their children are baptized, when he 
takes the name of Eustas. Satan next plays his part in revenge ; 
and Plasidas and his family, being reduced to beggary, are obliged 
to escape to Egypt. The captain of the ship falls in love with 
and deprives him of his wife, and his two boys are torn from him 
by a wolf and a lion. He becomes a shepherd, and remains so 
for fifteen years, when the Roman Empire being assailed, by invin- 
cible enemies, Trajan searches out Plasidas, finds him, and places 
him at the head of his army. He is victorious mainly by the aid 
of two young and brave soldiers, whom he discovers to be his 
sons, who had been saved from the wild beasts by peasants. He 
also miraculously recovers his wife. Meantime Trajan dies; and 
Adrian, enraged that Plasidas and his family had become Chris- 
tians, has them thrown to lions, who lick their feet, and cannot be 
induced to assail them. The Emperor next has all four cast into 
a furnace, but the fire will not burn them, and they joyfully sing 
to the glory of the Lord. Such is the outline of the wonderful 
tale, which was believed with the utmost simplicity by our an- 
cestors ; but the way in which it is treated by Partridge does no 
great credit to his skill as a narrator, or to his talents as a poet. 

The following is the description, when two knights, who had 
been dispatched by Trajan to find the retreat of Plasidas, dis- 
cover him in Egypt at his own poor dwelling : — 

VOL. III. 10 

146 Bibliograpljical Jlccount of 

" With -whom they went, with al their harts, 

and their repastes did take. 
With such small cheere as he, good man, 

at that time could them make. 
But when he did revolve in miude 

the state that he was in 
Sometime with them, good Lord ! therefore 

to weepe he doth begin. 
Then went he out from Chamber, where 

the Knightes did then remaine, 
To w ash his face,and afterwardes 

returne to them againe. 
But whilest he was from them a time, 

they thought that it was he, 
Whom they appoynted were to seeko ; 

and so agreed they be, 
At his returne for to demaund 

some licence and some leave 
To see a wound, which sometime he 

in battayle did receave. 
At length he comes, and thej'^ to him 

with gentle wordes doe speake : 
Good sir, sayd they, much like thou arte 

to him whome we doe seeke." 

They find the wound which they knew he had received in the 
head, and they carry him away with them to Rome, where he is 
welcomed with joy by Trajan and his court : — 

" From thence they goe to banketting, 
to revels and to play ; 
In dauncing and in minstrelsie 
they spend the lucky day." 

After Plasidas has conquered the enemy, Trajan, who was a 
Christian, leaves the empire to Adrian, a Pagan, who exposes Pla- 
sidas, his wife and sons, to a roaring lion, and subsequently to a 
smelting furnace ; and the last lines are the following : — 

" The Ore with flame was thorow bote, 
and they are put therein, 
And joyfully in Christ they all 
to sing do then beginne. 


(Earlg (ffn9li0lj Citerahtre. 147 

Thus ended they their mortall race, 

their file was at an ende. 
That we may [so] indure, good Lorde, 

to U8 thy mercy sende." 

We do not recollect any other instance in which " file " is used 
in this manner for the thread of life. This was certainly Par- 
tridge's best poem, and we take it to have been his first. It is 
rather a romance, or novel in verse, than anything else, and it 
possesses much variety of incident. The author is never partic- 
ular as to anachronisms, and several times speaks of the roaring 
guns used in war by the Romans. As to the pronunciation of 
names, he seems to prefer P/aiidas, with the emphasis on the 
first syllable, but he has nevertheless no objection to Plasidas, 
with the emphasis on the second syllable, when it better suits his 

Among the Cotton MSS. (Calig. A 2) is a metrical version of 
this story, which is said to be from the French ; and we may sus- 
pect that Partridge " gathered " his materials from some foreign 
original, independently of the Gesta Romanorum and Caxton's 
"Golden Legend." 

Partridge, John. — The notable hystorie of two famous 
Princes of the worlde Astianax and Polixena, wherin 
is set forth the cursed treason of Caulcas. Very pleas- 
aunt and delectable to reade. Gathered in English 
verse by John Partridge, in the yeare. 1566. — Im- 
printed at London by Henry Denham, for Thomas 
Hacket : and are to be solde at hys shop in Lumbard 
streate. Mensis Maij. 7. 8vo. B. L. 12 leaves. 

This is in every respect a separate publication, with separate 
signatures, and never formed part of the preceding article, to 
which it has no relation. It is decidedly inferior, and a com- 
paratively brief notice of it will be suflicient for our purpose. 
Partridge's " Plasidas " having been successful, he seems to have 
followed it up immediately by this " history " of Astyanax and 
Polixena. It relates to their deaths (the first having been thrown 

148 Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

from a tower, and the last sacrificed on the tomb of Achilles) after 
the fall of Troy. Of Astyanax, when seized by the Greeks, we 
are told, — 

" The manly boy with manly heart 
unto his death doth goe, 
And roUes about his seemely eyes 
his friendes and foes to knowe. 
Unto the top of Castle olde 

the Greekes and he doe wende. 
And from the hiest toppe thereof 
they downwarde do him sende. 
The tender corps of Princes bloude, 

and Illyons onely joy, 
In whome his hope did all consist 

for to repaire olde Troie, 
Doth nowe in midst of lUyon towne 

lie quite dissolved of life. 
The mourning now who can expresse 
of noble Hectors wife? " 

Agamemnon, in whom " did growe the braunch of faire pitie,' 
wept for the boy, but was unable to restrain his vengeful follow- 
ers, and Polixena is brought out for slaughter : — 

" Wyth bended browes she viewes the host 

of Gretians as she goes ; 
And yet for that with Tj-ndaris 

not one fote she doth lose, 
But is as lusty in her way 

as best of Gretians all ; 
No cruell dreade doth once assay 

within her bones to fall. * * * 
Her face as Roses fresh and sweete 

did seeme that they were plaste, 
Hir tender lips, hir body eke 

in kirtle being laste. 
Hir fingers long and lyllie white, 

yea, even as the snowe : 
Dame nature in Polixena 

hir power at once did showe. 
No parte of hir raisseshapen was, 

but all full well did agree, 
Which caused of the Greekes to weepe 

hir cruell chaimce to see." 

(ffarlg (EnglisI) Citeratun. 149 

If Agamemnon were so pitiful, and the Greeks shed tears, there 
seems no sufficient reason why the Princess should not have been 
spared. Even Pyrrhus at first cannot strike the fatal blow, but 
finally summons resolution, and " hides his sworde within her ten- 
der ribbes." The production is thus wound up : — 

" From thence they goe unto their ships 

and homeward thinke to wende: 
The ships be losde, and fate resolved, 

faire winde the Gods have sende. 
Then hoyse they sayle, away they goe 

to see once Greece agayne, 
And, leaving Troie, on foming seas 

they ride and sayle amayne." 

We have never had an opportunity of reading Partridge's his- 
tory of" Lady Pendavola," also printed with the date of 1566, but 
we apprehend that our loss is not considerable. His poem on the 
execution of Felton, 1570, may be seen reprinted in the "Phcenix 
Britannicus." His " Treasury of commodious Conceits," &c., hav- 
ing been originally printed in 1573, was reprinted in 1580 and 
1591. It is a collection of information upon all subjects, and it 
was published by R. Jones, in 4 to as well as in 8vo, although the 
4to impression has not hitherto been noticed. We may here sub- 
join the respective dates of the registrations of Partridge's three 
principal poems at Stationers' Hall : " Kynge Plasadas," so there 
called, was entered by Thomas Hacket in 1565-6; "Astionax 
and Polipena of Troy," as it is there written, in the same year ; 
and "Lady Pandavolay," so spelt, in 1566-7. See Extr. from 
the Stat. Reg. L pp. 136, 137, 152. 

Pasquil's Jests. — Pasquils Jests, Mixed with Mother 
Bunches Merriments. Whereunto is added a doozen 
of Guiles. Pretty and pleasant to drive away the tedi- 
ousnesse of a Winters Evening. — Imprinted at Lon- 
don for John Browne, and are to be sold at his shop 
in Saint Dunstones Churchyard, in Fleet-street. 1604. 
4to. 24 leaves. 

150 Bibltograpljkal ^croimt of 

It appears that a person, who was called Mother Bunch, kept 
an ale-house in Cornhill at the latter end of the reign of Eliza- 
beth. Thomas Nash mentions her and her "slimy ale" in his 
"Pierce Penniless's Supplication," 1592, (sign. D,) and Cap- 
tain Tucca celebrates her in Dekker's " Satiromastix," 1602; 
while in an anonymous play, " The Weakest goeth to the Wall," 
1600, the Clown exclaims, "Oh ! for one pot of Mother Bunch's 
ale to wash my throat this misty morning." There is no doubt 
that she was a real character, although Mother Bunch was only 
her nickname. 

There are many editions of the collection of Jests named after 
her. The earliest seems to be that the title of which stands at the 
head of the present article; but there were others in 1608, 1609, 
1612, 1625, 1629, 1635, 1637, and 1669, the last being the latest 
of which we have any information. No doubt there were inter- 
vening impressions now lost ; and it was a book peculiarly liable 
to destruction from the nature of its contents, and from the rough 
handling to which it must have been exposed. The copy before 
us of 1604, although perfect, has been very ill used; and we have 
seen two copies without title-pages, and otherwise incomplete, to 
which we can assign no dates. The popularity of the work is un- 

There are material differences in the extant editions; for in 
the later copies, that is to say, in those after 1612, to which we 
have had access, the "dozen of gulls," mentioned on the title- 
pages of 1604, 1608, 1609, and 1612, are wanting. This is a mate- 
rial deficiency, but at the same time the " gulls " are not so amus- 
ing as the "jests." The number and nature of the "jests" also 
vary considerably : in the later copies they are more numerous 
than in the earlier ; and it seems that, as the book was to be con- 
fined to three 4to sheets, the "gulls" were in time left out to 
make room for more "jests." 

No prefatory matter of any kind is found in the copy of 1604, 
but the jests begin immediately after the title-page. Subsequently, 
novelty was given by the insertion, at the commencement, of a 
pretended account of Mother Bunch. She might have been well 
remembered in 1604 and forgotten in 1625, and for this reason it 
may then have been deemed expedient to give some information 

(Earlti CEnglisI) Citcrature. 151 

as to the origin of the stories. Some of the matter inserted after, 
and even before 1612, appears to have been derived from foreign 
sources, although names and places have generally been substi- 
tuted, so as to communicate to the whole a native complexion. 
Thus on sign. A 4 b of the edition in our hands, we have a tale, 
" How one Kingston fayned himselfe dead to trye what his wife 
would do," which was a very common foreign jest, and is found in 
Domenichi's Facetie, Motti e Burle, 8vo, Venice, 1565, and often 
republished. So, again, we have an anecdote on sign. B 4, " How 
madde Coomes, when his wife was drowned, sought her against 
the streame." This is told in many foreign productions, begin- 
ning with Poggio's Facetice, edit. 1592, p. 41, derived, no doubt, 
from the old Latin fable, which may be read in Wright's " Stories 
of the Middle Ages," p. 13. It is also in Otto Melander's Joco- 
seria, edition 1604, p. 220, as well as in Domenichi's popular 
Italian collection. " How he served another that would have put 
him downe in his merry Sayings " is also in Domenichi, but in 
English it is related of a person called " Merry Andrew of Man- 
chester," (sign. B 3.) " The Hartfordshire mans answere to the 
Abbot of London " was employed in Latimer's Sermons ; whence 
the Bishop obtained it, half a century earlier, he does not inform 
us, but it is inserted on sign. C of" Pasquils Jests," 1604. 

In the same way it would not be difficult to trace several other 
" merriments " in this work, and to show how they were after- 
wards purloined (if, indeed, they were not the common property 
of jest-mongers) and made use of in more recent assemblages: 
for instance, " the rich Widow of Abingdon " is in " Coffee House 
Jests," 1677, and in numerous others; where, as in the work in 
our hands, we meet with Sir Thomas More's jest of " a young 
gentleman who would have kissed a mayd with a long nose," 
which also enlivens that very entertaining book, T. Heywood's 
" General History of Women," 1624. It likewise occurs in " Ox- 
ford Jests," 1684, p. 27, and in *' London Jests" of the same date, 
p. 92, where it is made to do double duty, for, with some trifling 
changes, it is met with again on p. 217. 

The " deceyt of the hope of the covetous man with a turnip," 
on sign. D 2 b of "Pasquils Jests," 1604, seems, in one form or 
another, to have run through nearly all modern languages, and it 

152 Bibliograpljical :2lccount of 

is one of Grimm's " German Popular Tales." We meet with it in 
English in' " Tales and Quicke Answeres," printed by Berthelet, 
as well as in " Old Hobsons Jests," 1607, in " Cambridge Jests," 
1680, p. Ill, where it is attributed to King James I., and in " Ox- 
ford Jests," 1684, p. 88, where a rape-root is injudiciously substi- 
tuted for a turnip. It would be easy to pursue this point further; 
the difficulty would be to know where to stop. We have many 
excellent jest-books,l and it would not be a matter of unenter- 
taining inquiry to ascertain how, and at what dates, and in what 
varieties and degrees, they were indebted to each other, as well 
as to Greek, Latin, and Oriental authorities. 

We will make a few quotations from the volume in our hands, 
beginning with the following, on sign. D, because it relates to the 
manners of the time, and because it seems to be one of the jests 
not reprinted in subsequent copies. A third reason is, that wp do 
not recollect to have encountered it elsewhere ; — 

"^ tale of a merry Christmas Carroll^ sung by women. 
" There was sometime an olde Knight, who, being disposed to make 
himselfe merry in a Christmas time, sent for many of his Tenants and 
poore neighbours with their wives to dinner: when having made meat to 
be set on the table, [he] would suflfer no man to drinke, till hee that was 
master over his wife should sing a Carroll to excuse all the company. 
Great nicenesse there was who should be the Musician, now the Cuckow 
time was so farre off. Yet with mucli adoe, looking one upon another, 
after a dry hemme or two, a dreaming companion drew out as much as 
hee durst towards an ill- fashioned ditty. When having made an end, to 
the great comfort of the beholders, at last it came to the womens table, 
where likewise commaundement was given that there should no drinke 
be touched, till shee that was master over her husband had sung a Christ- 

1 Most of those of Shakspeare's age have been reprinted very recently, 
by Mr. Carew Hazlitt. His collection includes those edited by the late 
Mr. Singer in 1814; — "A C. mery Talys," originally printed by Rastell; 
"Tales and quicke Answeres," printed by Berthelet; and " Mery Tales, 
Wittie Questions and Quicke Answeres," printed by Wykes; besides 
"Merrie Tales of Skelton," the " Widow Edith's Tales," ''Peele's Jests," 
and several others ; but not what, on some accounts, is better than all the 
rest, " Pasquil's Jests, mixed with Mother Bunch's Merriments." We 
hope that he will follow up the subject by an inquiry into the sources of 
these productions, and give some account of the course they have run in 
various languages of the world. 

(ffarl^ ©nglislj Citerature. 163 

mas Carrol: whereupon they fell all to such a singing, that there was 
never heard sach a catterwalling piece of musike. Whereat the Knight 
laughed so heartily, that it did him halfe as much good as a corner of his 
Christmas pye." 

The reader may like to see the way in which the tale from Lati- 
mer's Sermons is here related ; we therefore quote it : — 

" The Abbot, riding on a visitation, came to a place where they had 
newly builded their steeple, and put out their belles to be new cast. The 
Abbot, comming neere the townes end, and hearing no belles to ring, in a 
chafe sayd to one of the townsmen. Have you no bells in your steeple? 
No, my Lord, quoth he. Then, sayd the Abbot, sell away your steeple. 
Why so, and please your Lordship? Quoth he. — Because it standeth 
voyd. — Marry, sayd the man, we may well also sell away another thing 
in our Church, as well as that, and better too. What is that? (quoth the 
Abbot.) Mary, our pulpit (quoth he) for this seven yeare we have not 
had a Sermon in it, nor, I thinke, never shall; but belles I am sure we 
shall have shortly." 

The " dozen of Gulls" begin on sign. E 3, in the edition of 1604, 
under the heading " Here beginne the Guiles," but in the edition 
of 1609, if we recollect rightly, they are called " a Baker's dozen of 
Guiles." They all consist of anecdotes of persons who had been 
made fools of, often to the delight and profit of their companions, 
some of the tricks being the merest frauds and cheats imaginable. 
They stand thus in the edition of 1604. 

1. The first Gull, upon the wager of the Horse and the Cowe 
for good travell. 

2. The second Gull, upon the wager of leaping. 

3. The third Gull, upon a wager of going as fast as a horse, 
and go all one way. 

4. The fourth Gull, upon a wager to hang himselfe. 

5. The fift Gull, that lost the wager upon the great Hogge. 

6. The sixt Gull, upon a lifting Dogge. 

7. The seventh Gull, for the Pigges that were Hennes. 

8. The eyght Gull, upon the Gardens. 

9. The ninth Gull, that wisht for the Wood. 

10. The tenth Gull, that shooke his gloves. 

11. The eleventh Gull, upon the Cole-wort. 

12. The twelfth Gull, upon the cry of Hounds. 

None of these are in copies of the later editions (those after 

154 Bibliograpljical !3lccount of 

1612) that we have been able to inspect, excepting that the Gull 
numbered 11 is included in "Pasquils Jests," 1609 : it is the old 
story of the huge cabbage, and the huget* pot that was to boil it. 
The tenth Gull seems to be of foreign extraction, and is to be 
found in Domenichi's Collection before mentioned, but we have 
read it elsewhere. 

It is of a young man who, coming to a married woman's double- 
bedded room, (she sleeping separately from her old husband,) car- 
ried with him a pair of gloves that he might shake them, and the 
husband fancy it was only the spaniel flapping his ears. The gal- 
lant succeeded once, but on trying the experiment again, he ran 
his head against the husband's bedpost, and being challenged by 
the old man with " Who is there ? " unwarily and gullishly an- 
swered, " Only the dog." 

There are some curious traits of the manners of society in this 
part of the volume ; as in Gull 6, where a countryman comes to 
London, and goes two or three times to see plays acted. In an- 
other, (Gull 8,) some merry women visit the metropolis in order to 
see sights — namely, " Cheapside, the Exchange, Westminster, and 
London Bridge, had beene upon the toppe of Powles, beene at a 
Beare-garden, scene a play, and had made a Taverne banquet.** 

The edition of 1629, in the library at Bridgewater House, con- 
sists of 31, instead of 24 leaves. The editor of it prefixed an 
Epistle " to the merry Reader," but it is a mere piece of exag- 
gerated nonsense. Of Mother Bunch he says, that she was of huge 
dimensions, and that " she spent most of her time in telling tales, 
and when she laughed she was heard from Aldgate to the Monu- 
ments at Westminster, and all Southwarke stood in amazement." 
After this Epistle the subsequent lines introduce the Jests. 

" These harmelesse lines, that have no ill intent, 
I hope shall passe in mirth, as they were meant. 
What I intend is but to make you sport, 
By telling truth to please the wiser sort: 
And what it is that I have ayra'd at now 
The wise may judge — for Fooles I care not how." 

There are no fewer than forty-five jests which are not in the 
edition of 1604. One of them is entitled, — 


(£axlr) Qrnglislj Citcrature. 155 

"The Tanner and the Butcher'' $ dogge. 
" A country Tanner that was running hastily through Eastcheape, and 
having a long pilte-staffe on his shoulder, one of the Butchers dogs caught 
him by the breech. The fellow got loose, and ranne his pike into the dogs 
throat, and killed him. The Butcher, seeing that his dog was killed, 
tooke hold of the Tanner and carried him before the Deputy, who asked 
him, What reason he had to kill the dog? For mine owne defence (quoth 
the Tanner). Why, (quoth the Deputy) hadst thou no other defence but 
present death? Sir (quoth the Tanner) London fashions are not like the 
countries, for here the stones are fast in the streets, and the dogs are loose; 
but in the country the dogs are fast tied, and the stones are loose to throw 
at them ; and what should a man do in this extremity but use his staffe 
for his own defence? Marry (quoth the Deputy) if a man will needs use 
his staflfe, he might use his blunt end and not the sharpe pike. True, 
master Deputy, (quoth the Tanner) but you must consider, if the dog 
had used his blunt end, and run his taile at me, then had there beene 
good reason for mee to do the like: but I vow, master Deputy, the dog 
ranne sharpe at me, and fastened his teeth in my breech, and I againe 
ranne sharpe at him, and thrust my pike into his belly. By my faith, a 
crafty knave! (quoth the Deputy) if you will both stand to my verdict, 
send for a quart of wine, be friends, and so you are both discharged." 

Another of the forty-five is the celebrated story of Friar John 

and Friar Richard, which is well told in Thomas Heywood's 

" VvvaLKELov, or Nine Bookes of various History concerning Women,** 

fol. 1624, before mentioned. It is the old tale of the Monk of 

Leicester. Not a few others are of Italian origin, and are inserted 

in the collections of Domenichi and others. The following speaks 

for itself 

" The Fooles tricke to fatten the Popes horse. 

" I have heard it reported, that the Pope had a horse, who for many 
excellent qualities was by him highly esteemed, in so much that he made 
good the old proverbe — ' too free to be fat; ' for let his Groomes use the 
utmost of their skilj, yet would he not be fat: of which the Pope com- 
plaining daily to his Cardinals, Priests and Gentlemen, in a great fury 
threatned his Groomes to turne them away, if they could not finde a 
means to fatten this horse. May it please your Holinesse, (quoth his 
Foole or Jester standing amongst the rest) I will teach you how to fatten 
him quickly. Let me heare, thou Foole (quoth the Pope): it is good 
sometimes to heare a foole speake, for a fooles boult is soon shot. May it 
then please your Holinesse (quoth the Jester) to make him a Cardinal!; 
for so long as thej^ are inferior men, they looke thin and leane, but once 
a Cardinall and ever after as fat as fooles." 

156 33ibliograpljical ^cconnt of 

We have only to add that of all the extant impressions of" Pas- 
quils Jests, mixed with Mother Bunchs Merriments," that of 1609 
most nearly conforms, as regards the "jests," to the one with the 
title-page of which we have commenced. They vary as they lose 
their antiquity. 

Pasquil. — Pasquils Palinodia, and his progresse to the 
Taveme, Where after the survey of the Sellar, you are 
presented with a pleasant pynte of Poeticall Sherry. 
Nidla placere diu, &c. Horac : ad meccenatem. — London, 
Printed by T. H. for Thomas Snodham, and are to be 
sold by Francis Parke at his shop in Lincolnes-Inne 
gate in Chauncerie Lane, 1619. 4to. 16 leaves. 

It is not merely singular, but astonishing, that this very well writ- 
ten, pointed, and humorous poem should never have received any 
notice. The title, indeed, is given, though incorrectly, in Cens. 
Lit. VI. 195, with a wrong date, and without a word to explain 
the nature and object of the author. Who he may have been we 
can give no information, but it is quite certain that he was a very 
practised writer of verse ; and in his first stanzas he alludes to a 
previous production by him, apparently of a not very dissimilar 
character : — 

" Loe, I the man whose Muse whilome did play 
A home-pipe both to Country and the City, 
And now againe enjoyn'd to sing or say, 
And tune my crowde unto another ditty. 

To comfort Moone-fac'd Cuckolds that were sad 

My Muse before was all in homes yclad; 

But now she marcheth forth, and on her backe 

She weares a Corslet of old Sherry Sacke. 

" Therefore it is not, as in dayes of yore 
When bloud-shed and fierce battailes were her song, 
And when her Trumpets did taniara rore, 
Till all her murth'ring Souldiers lay along: 

A milder tune she now playes on her strings, 

And Carrols to good company she sings, 

To all good fellowes that are wise in season. 

Listen a while and you shall know the reason." 


€arlj] ©nglisi) Cikratuu. 157 

He goes on to tell us that his Muse having already sung " for 
the horned crew " without " reaping any praise," she became 
weary and ran away from him. He, however, compelled her to 
return, which she did, profanely cursing — 

" Of every Cuckold that cries What de'e lacke," 
who had been so ungrateful for her services. She declares that 
city husbands have to thank themselves for the inconstancy of 
their wives, since they pay them too little attention, and leave 
them alone, while they are spending the money of the family on 
their own pleasures. The author does his best to pacify his Muse, 
and resolves to try the effect of " a cup of Sack,' observing 
wittily, — 

" Betweene the Muses and the God of wine 
There is a league of kindenesse, peace and love: 
There consanguinity doth them combine. 
Being begotten both of lusty Jove; 

So that no Muse, well bred and truly borne, 
Her naturall brothers companie will scorne, 
And by their crownes their amity is seene, 
One wearing Lawrell, th' other Ivj'^e-greene." 

Here we encounter a sort of inconsistency, which is the only real 
blemish of the poem, because the author treats his Muse entirely 
as if she were a mortal person, and could walk with him unnoticed 
about the streets of London, visiting taverns and other places of 
resort. This he was required to do by the nature of his subject, 
but he should have induced her to put on some disguise before 
they started on their peregrinations. As it is, we must take the 
Muse only to be a personification of his own imaginative faculty, 
and all that she says and does must be viewed in this light. When 
they start, they avoid the city on account of its horned inhabit- 
ants, the shopkeepers with handsome wives, and proceed to West- 
minster, passing the place, near St. Clement's Church, where the 
Maypole had stood. He there exclaims, — 

" Alas, poor May poles ! what should be the cause 
That you were almost banish't from the earth? 
You never were rebellious to the lawes ; 
Your greatest crime was harmlesse, honest mirth." 

He apostrophizes his " native town," {Leeds^ in the margin,) and 

158 BibliograpljUal Slccount of 

calls upon the inhabitants, and indeed upon all trades and profes- 
sions in any part of the kingdom, to restore Maypoles with their 
innocent gambols. Then the author and his Muse pass Britain's 
Burse, (afterwards, and in our time, called Exeter Exchange,) 
and reach Charing Cross, where he laments over its decay, and 
rejoices that its sister, the Cross in Cheapslde, had been repaired. 
Here he turns back in haste, because his Muse began to find that 
there were as many Cornutos in Westminster as in the city ; and 
before long they enter a tavern, (he does not give the sign, ex- 
cepting that it had a " bush " at the door,) and he humorously 
enumerates all the various kinds of wine imprisoned in the vaults : 
these are, (as he spells them,) AUegant, Claret, Rhenish, Malligo, 
Canary, See me Peter, Bastard (of two sorts). Muscadine, Malm- 
sey, &c. He alludes, among other matters, to the siege of Troy 
and to the enchantments of Circe, observing, — 

" Tis not the virgin liquor of the grape 
That turnes a man into a filthy swine, 
A Goate, an Asse, a Lyon or an Ape : 
Such beastly fruits spring never from the Vyne : 
Brisk blushing Claret, and faire maiden Sherry 
Make men couragious, loving, wise and merry; 
It is adulterous wine that playes the Puncke 
And robs men of their reason, being drunke." 

The tavern they entered appears to have been a sort of 
*' drinking school"; and here, in a room up-stairs, they join what 
the author calls " a good company " of topers, where they are 
heartily welcomed. We ought to mention that the day was 
Shrove-Tuesday ; and we have a pleasant description of all the 
usual sports of the season, such as throwing at cocks, pulling down 
houses of ill fame by apprentices, &c., with the subsequent con- 
sumption of pancakes and fritters, washed down by plentiful liba- 
tions. All this is extremely vivaciously narrated, and the author's 
Muse becomes so exhilarated by the good wine, that she offers to 
sing the company a song. We are told, — 

" And from her sullen humour, which did raigne, 
She was transported to a better vaine. 
And gan to sing, like to a joviall drinker 
In praise of Sack, and tun'd it to the Tinker." 


€arlj3 Q5n9lislj f itcraturc. 159 

The tune of " The Tinker," or " The jovial Tinker," was then 
very popular, and many ballads were written to it, as well as the 
song of the Muse, which thus commences, with an invitation to the 
other eight Pierides to join in the festivity : — 

" Come hither, learned Sisters, 

and leave your forked Mountaine, 
I will you tell where is a Well 

doth far.exceed your Fountaine ; 
Of which if any Poet 

doe taste in some good measure 
It straight doth fill both his head and quill 

with ditties full of pleasure. 
And makes him sing, give me Sacke, old Sacke, boyes ! 

to make the Muses merry. 
The life of mirth, and the joy of the earth 

is a cup of good olde Sherry." 

Another stanza is as follows, still ringing the praises of Sherry ; 

" It is the river Lethe 

where men forget their crosses. 
And by this drinke they never thinke 

of poverty and losses : , . _, 

It gives a man fresh courage, 

if well he sup this Nectar, 
And cowards soft it lifts aloft, 

and makes them stout as Hector. 
Then let us drink old Sacke, old Sacke, boyes ! 

which makes us stout and merry, 
The life " &c. 

The virtues of burnt Sack are next celebrated : — 

" A quart of Sacke well burned 

and drunke to bed-ward wholly, 
I dare be bold doth cure the cold, 

and purgeth MelanchoUy. 
It comforts aged persons, 

and seemes their youth to render. 
It warmes the braynes, it fils the vaines, 

and fresh bloud doth ingender. 
Then let us drinke old Sack, old Sack, boyes I 

which makes us warme and merry. 
The life " &c. 
There are twelve stanzas, or verses, of this lively lyric ; and we 

160 I3ibliograpl)ical !7lccount of 

wish we had room for the whole of them, as a capital example to 
some of our dreamy drawlers of dull water-drinking doggerel. 
"We can only add the conclusion, which is just as " merry and 
wise " as the rest : — 

" No care comes neere this fountaine, 

where joy and mirth surpasses, 
And the God of drink stands up to the brink, 

all arm'd in Venice glasses. 
And calls upon good Fellowes 

that are both wise and merry 
That about this spring they wold dance and sing, 

and drinke a cup of Sherry. 
Then let us drinke old Sacke, old Sacke, boyes ! 

which makes us wise and merry, 
And about this spring, let us dance and sing, 

and drinke a cup of Sherry." 

The author then returns to his original subject in a single 
stanza ; and he was right to be brief, as he could not come up to 
the spirit and point of the Muse's song. We almost hear the 
bottles and glasses ringing, while the author ended his poem in 
these lines : — 

" Thus sung my Muse, and thus the stormes were laid. 
And she grew debonaire and fairely calme. 
When any Muse with rage is over-swaid. 
Let Poets learne it is a soveraigne balme 
To wet their pipes with good facetious Sherry, 
Which makes them jocond and most sweetly merry: 
And thus I brought her home, wher now she rests. 
The feast is done, tfare welcome all my guests. 

Aliquando insanire jucundissimun est. 

The song is illustrated by marginal notes especially appropriate 
to it, as Qui bene bibit bene dormit ; Sack sapit omnia ; Sine Ce- 
rere et Sacco friget virtus, &c. On the title-page is a woodcut 
representing the Muse standing by, while a Drawer fills a jug for 
her from a hogshead inscribed " Castalius, or Vinum Hispanense." 

Nobody has hinted at the existence of this first edition, which 
we have used. The poem was reprinted in 1634, but there was no 
impression in 1624, as guessed in Censura Literaria.^ 

1 We say "guessed," because the copy the writer used was imperfect 

(ffarlg (EngltsI) Citeraturr. 161 

Paulet, William. — The Lord Marques Jdlenes: Con- 
teining manifold matters of acceptable devise ; as sage 
sentences, prudent precepts, morall examples, sweete 
similitudes, proper comparisons, and other remembran- 
ces of speciall choise. No lesse pleasant to peruse, than 
profitable to practise : compiled by the right Honorable 
L. William Marques of Winchester that now is. Cicero 
ex Xenoph. Nee vero clariorum virorum^ ^c. Scipio. 
Nunquam minus solus, &c. — Imprinted at London, by 
Arnold Hatfield. 1586. 4to. 53 leaves. 
In Vol. I. p. 115, will have been seen an account of a poem by 
R. Broughton, upon the death of the old Marquis of Winchester, 
(so created in 1551,) which happened in 1571-72. This was the 
grandfather of the author or compiler of the small work now 
under consideration, his father having been John Paulet, who 
only enjoyed the title for about four years. His successor came 
to it in 1576 and died in 1598, therefore surviving this publica- 
tion about twelve years. The first notice we have of it belongs 
to the year 1596, or early in 1597, when Thomas Nash wrote a 
letter, still extant (MSS. Cotton Jul. C iii.), to his relative Sir 
Robert Cotton, in which he alluded to the attention the work had 
attracted.! (Hist. Engl. Dram. Poetry, L 304.) However abun- 

at the bottom of the title-page, so that whether the date were 1624, or 
any earlier or later year, was mere matter of conjecture. 

1 From the terms used by Nash, we may, perhaps, infer that the work, 
or compilation, by the Marquis had an addition to the title, but what 
that addition may have been it is not, from what is said, very easy to 
read. Nash certainly bears strong testimony to the demand for the book 
many years after it was first published in 1586. His words are these: — 

" In towne I stayd (being earnestly invited elsewhere) upon had-I-wist hopes of 
an after harvest I expected by writing for the Stage and for the Presse ; when now 
the Players, as if they had writ another Christs Tears, are piteously persecuted by 
the Lord Maior and the Aldermen ; and however in their old Lords time they 
thought their state settled, it is now so uncertayne, they cannot build upon it : and 
for the Printers there is such gaping amongst them for the coppy of my Lord of 
Essex last voyage, and the ballet of the three -score and foure Knights, that though 
my Lord Marquesse wrote a second parte of his " Fever Furder or Idlenesse, or 
Churchyard enlarged his Chips, saying they were the very same which Christ In 
Carpenters Hall is paynted gathering up, as Joseph, his father, strewes hewing a 
VOL. III. 11 

162 Biblioigrapljtcal :3lccount of 

dant the copies may have been formerly, they are exceedingly 
scarce now ; but the work is entirely prose, and does not require 
an extended review : the only interesting part may be said to be 
that which personally relates to the Marquis. Before we come to 
the dedication to Queen Elizabeth, as " the high, mighty and his 
right gracious Soveraigne," we have the following Latin lines of 
very remarkable construction, since the letters beginning them 
form ReginOf the letters concluding them Nostra, and the letters 
commencing each word of the last line spelling Anglice : they must 
have cost the writer immense ingenuity in the composition, with 
a result in no way commensurate with the labor. We give them 
exactly as they appear in the original, as we know of no similar 
instance, in any English book, of such painstaking, yet abortive, 
trifling. The lines are headed, — 

^^FlorecU alma diu Princeps precor Elizabetha. 

" Roscida solatur rutilans ut graraina Titan 

2 Et radio exhilarat cuncta elementa suo q 

Q Grata velut nutrix sic Anglis numina praebens co 

'-' Judith nostra (Deo praeside) clara viget "^ 

^ Nobilis haec valeat, in scena hac, foemina semper ^ 

Ac nectar gratum libet, in aetberea." 


Above the lines are the royal arms. In the dedication to the 
queen, after a few introductory observations, the Marquis of Win- 
chester thus speaks of himself: — 

" My selfe having passed the morning tide of my time (wherein I should 
have conversed with the learned for my better instruction) onely in the 
vaine disports and pleasures of the field, and now, at the Sunne setting, 
looking back to view the benefit received thereby, do finde the seed of 
pleasures to render no fruit, and so by defect of learning insueth the ef- 
fect of Idlenes, being meerly nothing. * * * As Idlenes is the mother of 
ignorance, so it is the nurse of aspiring and disloyall minds. Neither do 
I infer heereupon the unlearned to be ill affected, but onely the idle to be 
woorst disposed. And as the qualities of Idlenes are divers, so are the 

piece of timber, and Mary, his mother, sitts spinning by, yet would not they give 
for them the price of a Proclamation out of date, or, which is the contemptiblest 
summe that may be (worse than a scute or a dandiprat), the price of all Harvey's 
works bound up together." 

This must be admitted to be very interesting, and it is the only known 
specimen of Nash's handwriting. It was first discovered and pointed 
out by the present editor about forty years ago. 

(ffarig (gnglisl) Citcratnre. 163 

effects accordingly: some end in mischief, som others waste Time with- 
out profit; other some give good instruction of reformation: which last of 
the three is the whole summe of my travel." 

Afterwards he thus mentions his grandfather, the old Lord 
Treasurer, who had then been dead about fourteen years : — 

"My deceased grandfather (most gracious Soveraign), your Majesties 
late officer and servant, being a president unto his to shun Idlenes, and to 
performe their duties with all loialtie and obedience, passed many yeeres 
in Court, as well to manifest the humble desire of his dutifull mind to- 
wards his Princesse, as also for the instruction of his posteritie to hold 
nothing (next unto the true knowledge and feare of God) of like price, 
as the inestimable comfort of the good opinion and favour of their Sov- 

He informs his " friendly Readers," that he had diverted his 
*' idleness " by reading and noting down the wise sentences of 
older authors. He does not specify any one of them, but arranges 
their " dictes and sayings " under various heads. Thus, under 
" Princes and Governors," he writes as follows : — 

" I would to God that Princes did make an account with God in the 
things of their conscience, touching the commonwealth, as they do with 
men, touching their rents and revenues." 

Under " Women " he says, — 

*' I know not what justice this is, that they kill men for robbing and 
stealing money, and suffer women to live and steale mens harts." 

Among " Pretie sayings in common places " we have these : — 

'* Thou art such a one as never deserved that one should begin to love 
or ende to hate. 

"I am sorie to see thee cast away; and it greeveth me to see thee 
drowned in so small water. 

" A brother in words, and a cosen in works. 

" Men that reade much and worke little are as bels, which do sound to 
call others, and they themselves never enter into the church." 

We were mistaken in stating, near the commencement, that the 
■work is entirely prose. It contains one couplet, and only one ; 
and if he could do no better, the Marquis was quite right in put- 
ting the heaviest fetters on his Muse : e. g. — 

" Borgias Cleontine, borne in Cicill, had more concubines in his house 
than bookes in his studie — 

" All these were wise and knowen for no lesse, 
Yet in the end were overcome with the flesh." 

164 Bibliograpljical :3lcconnt of 

Pauls, St. — The burnynge of Paules church in London 
in the yeare of oure Lord 1561, and the iiii day of June 
by lyghtnynge, at three of the clocke, at after noone, 
which continued terrible and helplesse unto nyght. 
Were these greater sinners than tlie rest? No, &c. 
Luc. 13. — Imprinted at Loudon by Willyam Seres, 
dwellynge at the west ende of Powles, at the Sygne 
of the Hedgehog. 8vo. B. L. 138 leaves. 

St. Paul's Church having been struck by lightning, and the 
steeple burned down, on 4th June, 1561, on the 8th of the 
same month the Bishop of Durham, Dr. James Pilkington, who 
had only been elected in February preceding, was called upon to 
preach a sermon on the calamity, in which he directed attention 
to the vain and vicious uses to which the church had previously 
been applied, and spoke of the destruction of the steeple as a 
visitation from heaven. The Roman Catholics endeavored to 
improve the occasion, and in an "Addition " to the Bishop's 
sermon, (which "Addition " they circulated, among other places, 
" in the stretes of West Chester,") they attributed the fire to the 
anger of God, at the substitution of the Protestant for the Roman 
Catholic form of worship. This "Addition, with an Apologie to. 
the causes of brinninge of Paules," was reprinted by the Prot- 
estants, and to it was then appended " a Confutation of an 
Addicion with an Appologye," in which they quoted and answered 
the objectionable passages of the "Addition " seriatim. They 
followed it by certain questions and answers of a similar character; 
and such are the contents of the volume now before us. We do 
not propose to enter at all into the different topics discussed, but 
merely to extract a passage which contains some information, and 
at the same time shows the spirit in wbi(Ji the controversy was 
maintained. Near the commencement of the "Addition " we 
read as follows : — 

" As in Saint Paules Church in London, by the decrees of blessed 
fathers, every night at midnight they had Mattines, all the fore noone 
Masses in tlie Church, with other divine service and contynuall prayer; 
and in the steeple Autimes and prayers were hadde certayne tymes: but 
consider howe farre nowe contrarye the Churche hais bene used, and it is 

(farlg (£ngli0lj Citerature. 165 

no marvaile yf God have sende downe fire to brinne parte of the Churche 
as a signs of his wrath; and where a reverende Byshop at Paules crosse 
did exhort the people to take the brinninge of Paules to be a warninge of 
a greater plage to folowe to the Citye of London, if amendment of life be 
not had in all estates, it was well said: but we muste adde Accidentem ad 
deum oporlei credtre^ the Scripture sais, he that will come to God must 
first beleve." 

After going at some length into the subject, this "Addition " 
concludes with an exhortation to Protestants to reject heresy and 
follow the steps of the good fathers of the ancient faith. 

The answer to this production is much longer, and in it the 
author affirms, what was not denied, and what was indeed very 
plainly expressed, that the design of the "Addition " was to re- 
convert Protestants. He, therefore, goes over. all the points in 
tedious detail, replying to each as he proceeds, and ending with 
what the anonymous writer (it may have been Bishop Pilkington, 
though we have no proof of it) considered a most convincing con- 
demnation, arguing that the church had been burned because 
God was offended with the laxity of the Reformers. William 
Seres was employed to print the work, and he put his colophon to 
it, dated " 10 March, Anno 1563," which was in fact the spring 
of 1564, — ^^more than two years after the disaster. 

Paynell, Thomas. — This boke sheweth the maner of 
measiirynge of all maner of lande in the felde, and 
comptynge of the true nombre of acres of the same. 
Newlye invented and compyled by Syr Ryehard Benese, 
Chanon of Marton Abbay besyde London. — Printed 
in Soiithwarke in Saynt Thomas hospitall by me James 
Nicolson. n. d. B. L. 4to. 103 leaves. 

Bibliographers only mention an edition of this work printed by 
Nicolson in sextodecimo. As both that impression and the pres- 
ent in 4to are without date, it is impossible to decide which was 
the earliest. " The contentes of this boke " are at the back of the 
title-page, followed by an elaborate introduction, headed " The 

166 Bibliograpljical 2lccoitnt of 

preface of Thomay paynell, Chanon of Marton, to the gentle 
reader." 1 Nicolson printed no work with a date after 1538. 

Peacham, Henry. — Prince Henrie revived. Or a 
Poeme upon the Birth and in Honor of the Hopefull 
yong Prince Henrie Frederick, First Sonne and Heire 
apparant to the most Excellent Princes, Frederick 
Count Palatine of the Rhine, and the Mirrour of 
Ladies, Princesse Elizabeth, his Wife, only daughter 
to our Soveraigne James King of Great Brittaine, &c. 
By Henrie Peacham. — London, Printed by W. Stansby 
for John Helme, and are to bee sold at his shop in 
Saint Dunstans Churchyard, under the Diall. 1615. 
4to. 14 leaves. 

This is one of the rarest of Peacham's productions, and a 
copy of it has never been publicly sold .2 He tells the Princess 
Elizabeth in the Dedication, that he had written it in Latin as 
well as in English, although it only appears here in the latter 
language. He adds that it was composed " the most part in my 
travailes heere in the Low Countries upon the way, without other 
helpe then a bad memorie, and my Table booke, and now ended 
under that star of honour, and Honourer of your Grace and all 
vertuous Excellence, Sir John Ogle, Lord Gouernour of Utrecht, 
my noble friend." This epistle is dated " From Utrecht, the 
of ,*' and the author apologizes for the late ap- 

pearance of this tract after the birth of the Prince. He boasts 
in the outset of it, that the Princess had been pleased " heeretofore 
to take notice of him and his labours," but he does not mention 
to which of them she extended her patronage. 

At the back of the title-page is an extremely good engraving 
of the young Prince, without any engraver's name, surrounded 

1 For " Thomay paynell," read Thomas paynell. 

2 There is no record of such a circumstance, that we are aware of; and 
we have sought for it in vain in many sale-catalogues. 

Carlg (Englisl) Cikrature. 167 

by four shields, and this inscription, " Henricus Fred : Com : 
Palat: Rheni et Bavar D. Filivs et HaBres." Underneath are 
the following lines : — 

" Diva aniraa Augustos haud ementita parentes 
Frontis houore, decus Rheni, spes una Britaiiura 
Cresce per immensum, donee virtutibus annos 
CjESAR avos titulis, fama superaris Olyrapura. 

Henricus Peaciiamus." 

The title-page and dedication are succeeded by a poem in six 
Spenserian stanzas, excepting the fifth, which, by some accident 
is deficient of a line, although the sense seems complete. They 
are headed, " To the same most Excellent Princesse." The poem 
opens thus : — 

"Deare Henries losse, Elizas wedding day, 

The last, the first, I sorrowed and song. 
When laid my reedes for evermore away. 

To sleep in silence Isis' shades among; 
Dead to the Muse and many-headed throng. 

Through hard constraint of fruitlesse Hope compell'd. 
And Envie rife, that kills with canckred tongue 

The sacred Bay, so honoured of eld, 
Though left forlorne, ne now of Phoebus selfe upheld. 

" Where are the Summers when the righteous Maid 

With ev'nest hand the heavenly Scale did wield, 
And golden deed with golden meed repaid ? 

When Vertue was in price for Vertue held ? 
When Honours daintie but desert did guild. 

And Poesie, in graces goodly seeme, 
Rais'd her high thought with straines that Nectar still'd? 

They are ascended with that glorious Queene, 
And she, alas! forgot, as she had never beene.'* 

These stanzas (not very complimentary to the living) are 
better than any part of the body of the work, which is in some- 
what uncouth and harsh couplets, the author in the use of a few 
words aiming at an imitation of a more antique style. This may 
be seen in the very outset : — 

" Now, jocund Muses, to a hig[h] er string 
We tune our Lyre, a loftie Theame to sing, 
And leave a while the vale, to mounten up 
With bolder wing Parnassus heavenly top." 

168 Bibliograpljkal ^Icconnt of 

Again, just afterwards, we have these lines : — 

" I may not rash aread, but this I wot 
How Janivere his bitter rage forgot, 
For lustie greene y'chang'd his frostie gray, 
As if he weed the sweet and daintie May." 

And so on more or less throughout, though now and then the 
author seems to forget himself, and to mingle the modern style 
with the ancient. This remark will apply to the subsequent 
passage : — 

" But as ore Hsemus, when the morne hath drawne \ 
Her purple Curtaines, after early dawne, f 

To lay to view the goodly golden pawne, i 

Her new borne sonne y'wrapt in Rosie lawne; / 
Who now, awearie of his watrie bed, 
Oflf shakes the dew from his bright burnish'd head, 
And with Ambrosian smile, and gentle cheare, 
Revives the world that wanted him whileare. 
So us, thine owne, thou gladdest with thy birth, 
The welcome-welcomst stranger upon earth." 

The following is a pretty enumeration of the flowers which 
the earth is to produce for the young Prince : — 

, " Wood-Nymphes the shadie violets shall pull, 

And bring thee Lillies by whole baskets full ; 
Some crop the Rose, to shew thee how in graine 
That crimson Venus bleeding hand did staine; 
How from that daintie daughter of the morne. 
And silken leaves thy lovely selfe art borne ; 
Or Primrose, with the Kings enamell'd cup, 
(Whose Nectar Phoebus early quaffeth up) 
The Amaranth arraied in velvet still. 
Sweet Rhododaphne, and the Daffadill; 
Soft Marjoram, the yong Ascanius bed. 
When Cupid kist and courted in his sted ; 
The fraile Anemon, Hyacinthns soft. 
The Ladie-glove, Coronis weeping oft, 
And whatsoever else the pleasant spring 
Throwes from her bosome formost flourishing." 

A marginal note is inserted opposite the couplet " How from 
that daintie daughter," &c., in these terms, "As discended from 
the united Rose of Lancaster and Yorke." Opposite the mention 

€arl2 CKngltst) Citerature. 169 

of Ascanius we read " Virg. Aeneid 1," and these explanatory 
comments are everywhere freely supplied. 

The poem has no design, but is a rambling laudatory and em- 
blematical composition, far from discreditable to Peacham's taste, 
scholarship, and general knowledge, if we are to take literally 
what he says in the dedication respecting his want of helps and 
literary references. He has certainly left nothing better behind 

Peacham, Henry. — An Aprill Shower ; shed in abun- 
dance of Teares for the Death and incomparable losse 
of the right noble, truly religious and virtuous Rich- 
ard Sacvile, Baron Buckhurst and Earle of Dorset. 
Who departed this Life upon Easter day last, being 
the 28th of March, at Dorset House. By Henry 
Peacham. Suhlatum oculis qucerimus invidi. — Lon- 
don, Printed by Edw. Allde. 1624. 4to. 8 leaves. 

This, we apprehend, is also one of the scarcest of Peacham's 
works, as we never saw more than one copy of it. He was an in- 
dustrious compiler, and wrote prose in a correct and cheerful style, 
but he had less merit as a poet. The volume in hand has even 
fewer claims than usual, and as he was at that date a retainer in 
the family of Lord Dorset, it is probable that he manufactured the 
piece as a tribute to his patron. He tells the widowed Countess, 
in his dedication, that he had been " more obliged to the late Earl 
than any other of his rank " in the kingdom. After the dedication 
we have a Latin epitaph, followed by these lines, headed, — 

"i7M Monument to the Reader. 
"Who thinkes that Dorset lyes interred 
Here under, thinke that they have erred; 
For 'tis not hee, tis but the Case 
Wherein this precious Jewell was. 
Who seekes for him must ask of Fame, 
Who registers his honourd name ; 
Or search the hearts of friends, where hee 
Is lodg'd, and living like to bee. 

170 Bibliograpljical 2laount of 

And if not heere, to Heaven ascend, 
There sure he lives, world without end; 
For though with mee his dust doth lie, 
Beleeve it, Dorset cannot die." 

This is sufficiently forced and constrained, but still it is the best 
thing the author has here to offer. The " Elegy " is in couplets, 
and we quote the following lines, because they inform us that the 
Earl (the grandson of the joint-author of " Ferrex and Porrex") 
was himself a poet, and had written lines so charming that Peacham 
had never read sweeter. Of course, we must make full allowance 
for the enthusiasm of a dependant upon the Earl, who, as a "great 
Maecenas of all Poesie," had given encouragement to one of its least 
inspired professors. 

" Who bettor vers'd in Scripture and the Text, 
The ancient Fathers, and our writers next? 
Mine eyes, I heere a-vow, did never read 
Lines sweeter then did from his pen proceed. 
Kare Poet sure was Dorset : therefore hee 
Was great Maecenas of all Poesie. 
What state, what traine, what order, house kept hee 
At his faire Knowle, a Paradise to mee ! 
That seem'd for site a Court for greatest Prince, 
The Home of Honour and Magnificence, 
Where every day a Chistmasse seem'd, that fed 
The neighbour poore, that else had famished." 

Peacham afterwards has " a double vision," (he may have seen 
double when lauding the excellences of his patron,) in which he 
describes the Earl under the not very novel figure of a laurel, 
which being cut down, " the Muse lost her friend." The author 
seems to have been rather hard driven to produce the requisite 
quantity of verse, and the four subsequent lines, in large type, fill 
the last page : — 

" Noblest Dorset, dead and gone. 
My Muse, with Poesie have done, 
And in his grave now throw thy pen: 
Set downe, and never rise agen." 

When poets were buried of old, it was not unusual for their 
literary friends to throw their pens into the grave. Such was 
especially the case with Spenser; and in that instance not only the 

(ffarlg (KnglisI) CiUrature. 171 

pens, but the elegies themselves were interred. Camden, in his 
"Annals," tells us that Spenser's "hearse was attended by the 
gentlemen of his faculty, who cast into his tomb some funeral 
elegies, and the pens with which they had been written." If 
Peacham really " threw his pen " into the grave of Lord Dorset, 
he soon furnished himself with another, and in the later years of 
his long life (for he began authorship in 1577,1 and probably did 
not cease until near the Restoration) he must mainly have sup- 
ported himself by it. 

Pecke, Thomas. — Parnassi Puerperium : or some Well- 
wishes of Ingenuity, in the Translation of six hun- 
dred of Owens . Epigrams ; Martial de Spectaculis &c. 
and the most select in Sir Tho. More. To which is 
annext a Century of Heroick Epigrams, &c. By the 
Author of that celebrated Elegie upon Cleeveland, 
Tho. Pecke of the Inner Temple, Gent. &c. — Printed 
at London by J. Cottrel for Tho. Basset &c. 1659. 
8vo. 100 leaves. 

In his address "to the ingenious Reader," which follows the 
title, the author again takes credit to himself for his elegy upon 
Cleveland. Latin lines, signed P. Piscator, (Payne Fisher,) pre- 
cede the translations of Owen's Epigrams. The version of Mar- 
tial's " Liber de Spectaculis," selections from Sir Thomas More's 
Epigrams, and Pecke's "Heroic Epigrams," have distinct titles. 
The pagination ceases at page 184, and a Latin letter from the 
author to the Bishop of Exeter, some lines headed " The Printer 
to the Reader," and others " Upon Cottrel the printer," abusing 
him for the errala, (a list of which closes the volume,) fill the last 

1 Here, we are afraid that we have, like some others, confounded two 
Henry Peachams. It must have been the elder who, in 1577, produced 
" The Garden of Eloquence." The younger Peacham does not appear to 
have commenced authorship until about the commencement of the 17th 
century, for we do not attribute to him the sermon, on verses of Job, 
published in 1590. 

172 Bibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

three leaves. Pecke does not appear to have written any other 
production ; and his original epigrams show that he had not gained 
much point or spirit from the poets he translated. 

Peckham, George. — A true Reporte of the late dis- 
coveries, and possession, taken in the right of the 
Crowne of Englande, of the New-found Landes by that 
valiaunt and worthye Gentleman, Sir Humfrey Gilbert 
Knight, &c. Seene and allowed. — At London, Printed 
by J. C. for John Hinde, dwelling in Paules Church- 
yarde, at the signe of the golden Hinde. Anno 1583. 
4to. 35 leaves. 

It is not our intention to give an account of the body of this 
important work, because it is reprinted at large in Hakluyt's 
" Voyages." All we wish is to extract and notice some preliminary 
and laudatory verses by several of our famous old navigators, 
such as Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Martin Fro- 
bisher, (the two last not then knighted,) besides others by less 
distinguished commanders, viz., Capt. Bingham (afterwards Sir 
Richard), Capt. Chester, and Anthony Parkhurst; the last does 
not appear to have been connected with the sea. This was the 
undertaking in which Sir Humfrey Gilbert lost his life, and he is 
spoken of as dead in the course of the tract. 

The verses themselves have little merit, but great interest on 
account of the writers, and they are not known to have produced 
any others either of an earlier or subsequent date ; and their ob- 
ject was to attract attention to the undertaking, and to the laud- 
able exertions of a gallant sailor, who had perished soon after 
his discovery of Newfoundland. We may pass over four six-line 
stanzas by Sir William Pelham, and come to Drake's lines, which 
stand next, and are thus headed : — 

"(Sir Fraunces Drake Knight in commendation of this Treatise. 
" Who seekes by worthie deedes to gaine renowne for hire, 
Whose hart, whose had, whose purse is prest to purchase his desire, 
If anie such there bee that thirsteth after Fame, 

(Earlj (Englisl) Citeratnrr. 173 

Lo, heere a meane to winne himself an everlasting name ! 

Who seekes by gaine and wealth t' advaunce his house and blood, 

Whose care is great, whose toile no lesse, whose hope is all for good. 

If anie one there be that covettes such a trade, 

Lo, heere the plot for common wealth and private gaine is made ! 

He that for vertues sake will venture farre and neere, 

Whose zeale is strong, whose practize trueth, whose faith is void of 

If any such there bee inflamed with holie care, 
Heere may hee finde a readie meane his purpose to declare: 
So that for each degree this Treatise dooth unfolde 
The path to Fame, the proofe of zeale, and way to purchase golde. 

Feaunces Drake." 

The lines of Sir John Hawkins are called, — 

" Mr. John Hawkins, his opinion of this intended Voyage. 
'If zeale to God, or countries care, with private gaines accesse, 
Might serve for spurs unto th' attempt this pamflet doth expresse, 
One cost, one course, one toil might serve at ful to make declard 
A zeale to God, with countries good, and private gaines regarde. 
And for the first, this enterprise the name of God shall fouude 
Among a nation in whose eares the same did never sounde. 
Next, as an endles running streame her Channels doth discharge 
That swell above theyr boundes into an Occean wide and large. 
So England, that is pestered nowe, and choakt through want of groud, 
Shall finde a soile where roome inough and profit doth abounde. 
The Romains when the number of their people grewe so great. 
As neither warres could waste, nor Rome suffice them for a seate. 
They led the forth by swarming troupes to forraine lauds amaine. 
And founded divers Colonies unto the Romaine raigne. 
Th' Athenians us'de the like devise, the Argives thus have doone. 
And fierce Achilles Myrmidons when Troy was over ruune. 
But Rome nor Athens nor the rest were never pestered so 
As England, where no roome remaines her dwellers to bestow. 
But shuffled in such pinching bondes as very breath dooth lacke, 
And for the want of place they crawle on one anothers backe. 
How noblie then shall they provide that for redresse heerein. 
With ready hand and open purse this action dooth beginne : 
Whence glory to the name of God, and countries good shall spring, 
And unto all that further it a private gaine shall bring. 
Then, noble youthes, couragiously this enterprise discharge, 
And age that cannot manage Armes let them support the charge. 
The yssue of your good intent undoubted will appeare 
Both gratious in the sight of God, and full of honour heare. 

John Hawkins." 

174 BibliograpljUal Account of 

Frobisher's contribution was a small one, and it has been hith- 
erto unmentioned : l — 

" Maister Captaine Frobisher, in commendation of the voyage. 
" A pleasaunt ayre, a sweete and fertill soile, 
A certaine gaine, a never dying praise, 
An easie passage void of lothsome toile 

Found out by some, and knowen to mee the waies: 
All this is there, then who will refraine to trie. 
That loves to live abroade, or dreades to die ? 

Martin Frobisher." 

The word "Finis" is printed at the end of what is called, in 
the running title, " A Discourse of Westerne Discoveries ; " but 
the tract is not complete without three additional leaves of " The 
Contentes of the Articles of Assurance betweene the the Principall 
assignes of Sir Humfrey Gilbert, Knight, and the foure sortes of 
adventurers with them in the voyage for the AVesterne Discov- 
eries." George Peckham (afterwards Sir George Peckham) dedi- 
cated the work to Sir F. Walsingham, as the great promoter of 
undertakings of the kind, and dates from Oxford, calling himself 
♦' your Honours poore SchoUer." 

Peeke, Richard. — Three to One, being an English 
Spanish Combat performed by a Westerne Gentle- 
man of Tavystoke in Devonshire with an English 
quarter stafFe against three Spanish Rapiers and Pon- 
iards at Sherries in Spaine the fifteene day of No- 
vember, 1625. In the presence of Dukes, Condes, 
Marquisses and other great Dons of Spaine, being 
the Counsell of Warre. The Author of this Booke, 
and the Actor in this Encounter, R. Peecke. — Printed 

1 We here refer particularly to Ritson, Bibl. Poet., where, while he 
mentions Drake's and Hawkins's lines, he oniits all notice of those of 
Frobisher, Bingham, and Chester. Possibly, copies diflFer as to the intro- 
ductory matter to the " True Reporte of the late Discoveries," and some 
may have more commendatory verses than others. Such was the case 
with Fitzgefirey's "Drake" in 1596. 

(farlg ifnglisi) fikratitre. 175 

at London for I. T. and are to be sold at his Shoppe. 

4to. 18 leaves. 

We call attention to this rare tract principally on account of 
the verses by John Davies of Hereford, subscribed with his initials, 
at the end of it. They have hitherto been passed over, although, 
in some respects, as a mere unpretending narrative, better than 
much else that voluminous and tedious versifier left behind him. 
They occupy the last four pages, and are composed in an easy 
ballad measure. The prose portion professes to have been writ- 
ten by Richard Peeke, Peecke, or Pyke, and merely relates, in a 
very plain manner, how he went to Cadiz with the Earl of Essex, 
and a large armament, in the autumn of 1625, and how, having 
been surprised and taken prisoner, he fought first against a Span- 
ish champion, and afterwards against three soldiers, he being 
armed only with a quarter-staff. His life was promised him if he 
overcame his enemies ; and being successful, the Duke of Medina 
Sidonia nobly rewarded him for his courage and skill, and after- 
wards sent him to the King, at Madrid, from whence he was con- 
veyed to England. In London he was introduced to King Charles, 
to whom he dedicates his relation. After a prefatory stanza, as 
commonplace in thought as was usual with Davies, the old writ- 
ing-master of Hereford proceeds thus :■ — 

" I will not instance in the great, 
Placed in Honors higher seate, 
Though vertue in a Noble Line 
Commends it, and the more doth shine 
Yet this is proov'd by Sword and Pen 
Desert oft dwells in private Men. 

" My proofs is not farre hence to seeke : 
There is at hand brave Richard Peecke, 
Whose worth his foes cannot revoke, 
Born in the Towne of Tavystoke, 
In Devon, where Minerva sitts 
Shaping stout Hearts and Pregnant Witts." 

From thence Davies briefly goes over the main incidents of 
the prose portion of the tract. When Peeke was brought out of 
prison, in Spain, before the Duke and the Council of War, they 
asked him with whom he had to fight ? He answered, — 

176 BibUograpljtcal ^laount of 

" Of thousands whom in Warre you use 
Not one (quoth Peeke) doe I refuse. 
A chosen Champion then there came, 
Whose heeles he tript, as at a game, 
And from his hand his Rapier tooke. 
Presenting it unto the Duke." 

Next Peeke overcame three Spaniards at once with a quarter- 
staff, and the pedagogical poet concludes his ballad : — 

" If thus his very Foes him lov'd, 
And deedes against themselves approov'd, 
How should his friends his love embrace, 
And yield him countenance and grace ! 

The praise and worth how can we cloke 

Of manly Peeke of Tavystoke? " 

We are Informed that the tradition of his achievement was 
long preserved at Peeke's native place. 

Peele, George. — The Tale of Troy. By G. Peele, M. 
of Artes in Oxford. — Printed by A. H. 1604. 48mo. 

The size of this book is only one and a half inch high and one 
inch broad ; and as there was not room for more information on 
the title-page, some was added in this of colophon — " London, 
Printed by Arnold Hatfield, dwelling in Eliots court in the Little 
old Bay lie. And are to be sold by Nicholas Ling. 1604." The 
" Tale of Troy" was originally printed in 1589, as a supplement 
to Peele's " Farewell " to Sir John Norris and Sir Francis Drake ; 
and there is no doubt that it had appeared in the diminutive form 
of a thumb-book before 1696,1 because in that year it is expressly 
mentioned by Nash in his " Have with you to Saffron Walden," 
sign. L No copy of an earlier reimpression in this shape than 

1 It may be more than doubted whether Nash refers to Peele's *' Iliad 
in a Nutshell," or to the same diminutive production alluded to in " Albu- 
mazar," 1616, Act I. sc. 3, — 

" With this I'll read a leaf of that small Iliad 
That in a walnut shell was desk'd.-' 

Qrarlj) (SnglisI) Citcratttrc. 177 

that before us, of 1604, is known. The variations between it and 
the first edition, in 1589, 4to, are numerous and considerable, and 
we may presume that they were introduced by Peele not long 
anterior to his death, in or just before 1598. He was, there is 
little doubt, son to Stephen Peele, a bookselling ballad-writer, 
who became free of the Stationers' Company in November, 1570.1 
As a specimen of the changes George Peele made in his " Tale of 
Troy," we may quote the opening in 1604, which is very different 
from the commencement in 1589 : — 

" In that worlds wounded part, whose waves yet swell 
With everlasting showers of teares that fell, 
And bosom bleeds with great effuze of blood 
That long war shed, Troy, Neptunes city, stood, 
Gorgeously built, like to the house of Fame, 
Or court of Jove, as some describe the same, 
Under a prince, whom for his happy state 
That age surnam'd Priam the fortunate. 
So honour'd for his royal progeu}'. 
Blest in his queen, his offspring and his country." &c. 

Here, besides other noticeable changes, eight lines of the 
original impression of 1589 are extended to ten lines. Again 
a little farther on, we read thus in the diminutive edition of 
1604: — 

1 The following is the copy of the original entry in the Registers of the 
Stationers' Company, regarding the freedom of Stephen Peele: — 
" Making of Fremen. Rd. of Stephen Pele for bis admyttinge freman of this 
House, the xiij of novembre 1570 iijs iiijd." 

He must have continued in business for at least twenty-five years, as, 
under date of 17th February, 1595, we read in the same records that 28. 6cf. 
had been received of him " for the presentment of William James." The 
subsequent memorandum has no date in the books, but it must belong to 
1590, and it relates to his son, (as we suppose him,) George Peele's 
"Polyhymnia," on the Tilting before her Majesty on 17th November of 
that year; it has never been quoted, nor hitherto noticed that we are 
aware : — 

" Mr. Jones bath printed a booke called Polyhymnia of the late Triumph at the 
Courte ; Mr. Warden Cawood hath receaTed vjd but it is not entred." 

The poem was " printed at London, by Richard Jones, 1590," 4to. G. 
Peele's name is only found at the back of the title-page. 
VOL. III. 12 

178 Bibliograpljical 2laount of 

" His court presenting to our human eyes 
An earthly heaven or shining paradise, 
Where ladies troop'd in rich disguis'd attire 
Glist'ring like stars of pure immortal fire. 
Thus happy Priam." &c. , 

The two last lines are not found in the edition of 1589, and in 
many other places similar omissions are supplied, and words 
almost arbitrarily altered. Into the minor discrepancies we 
cannot enter, but in reference to the story of Troilus and Cres- 
sida, about the middle of the poem, we meet with this new tribute 
to Chaucer in 1604 : — 

" Read as fair England's Chaucer doth unfold, 
Would tears exhale from eyes of iron mould." 

It is to be remembered that Homer says nothing about the 
loves of Troilus and Cressida, so that Peele naturally referred to 

There can be no reasonable doubt that the tract purporting to 
consist of " The merry conceited Jests of George Peele " was 
first printed very soon after the death of the poet, but the earliest 
exemplar recorded of it, 1607, is precisely the same as all sub- 
sequent copies. It was printed by T. Creede, and the following 
lines were put upon the title-page and were continued ever after- 
wards : — 

" Buy, reade and judge; 
The price doe not grudge: 
It will doe thee more pleasure 
Then twice so much treasure." 

He is the only old poet (Skelton excepted) of whom a series of 
jests are recorded, some of which were worked up into the comedy 
of " The Puritan, or the Widow of Watling Street," printed in 
the same year that the first known impression of Peele's Jests 
bears date. The success of the play most likely occasioned a 
reprint of the Jests in 1607. 

Pembroke, Earl of, and Sir B. Rudterd. — Poems 
written by the Right Honorable William Earl of Pem- 

(Earlg (gnglisi) Citeratur^ 179 

broke, Lord Steward of his Majesties Plousehold. 
Whereof many of which are aimswered by way of 
Eepartee by S^ Benjamin Ruddier, Knight. With 
several distinct Poems, written by them occasionally 
and apart. — London Printed by Matthew Inman &c. 
1660. 8vo. 63 leaves. 

Nearly all the poets of the times in which William Herbert 
Earl of Pembroke lived, including Ben Jonson, Chapman, and 
Davies, addressed him in tributary and complimentary verses, but 
none of his own productions were printed until some time after 
his death, when this volume appeared, edited by John Donne, the 
son of the celebrated Dr. Donne, Dean of St. Paul's. Some of the 
pieces seem to have been addressed to the Countess of Devonshire, 
to whom the work is dedicated ; and, according to the editor's 
statement in a few lines " to the Reader," many were published 
from copies furnished by Henry Lawes and Nicholas Laniere, 
who had set them to music. Those poems of which the Earl of 
Pembroke was the author have the initial P. preceding them, 
while those of Sir Benjamin Rudyerd are distinguished by an R. 
That others by different hands are included, there can be no 
doubt, and among these, on p. 66, we find Ben Jonson 's celebrated 
epitaph on the Countess of Pembroke, sister to Sir P. Sidney. i 

1 The following letter from the Countess of Pembroke, referring to the 
propo-ed marriage of her son with Bridget, the daughter of Lord Burgh- 
ley, has never been printed. It has no date, but Lord Burghley indorsed it 
"16 Aug. 1597," and further noted that it came to his hands by Arthur 
Massynger, who was the father of Philip Massinger, the dramatist. "We 
copy it from the oi'iginal, with all its peculiarities. It is addressed " To 
the Right honorable my very good Lo. the Lo. Threasorer these." 

" My good Lo : what retorne to make for so many noble favors and kindnes, both 
to my Sonne and my selfe, I must needs bee to seeke, but I assuer your Lp what 
defect so ever may bee in my words is supplied in my hart ; and my thankfulnes 
is to bee conceved far other then I can any way expres. Your Lps fine token is to 
mee of infinight csteeme, and no less in regard of the sender then the vertu in it 
self. It is indeed a cordiall and precious present, not unlyke to proove a special! 
remedy of the sadd spleene, for of lyke effect do I alredy find what so ever is of 
lykely succes proseeding from the cause whence this proseeded : wherin I now 
may boldly promis to my selfe that hopefull comfort which, but thence, I protest I 
coold [not] expect so much to joy in as I do. So ferr foorth I find my sonns best lyke- 

180 . Bibliograjjljicat :3lccount of 

The following by Lord Pembroke is a good specimen of his 
ingenuity and grace of expression : — 

" Ladies, flee from Loves sweet tale ; 
Oaths steept in tears do oft prevail : 
Grief is infectious, and the air, 
Inflam'd with sighs, will blast the fair. 
Then stop your ears when lovers cry. 
Lest yourself weeping with soft eye 
Shall with a sorrowing tear repay 
That pitty which you cast away. 

" Young men, flee when Beauty darts 
Amorous glances at your hearts : 
A quick eye gives the surer aim, 
And ladies lips have power to maim. 
Now in her lips, now in her eyes, 
Lapt in a kiss or smile, Love lyes: 
Then flee betimes, for onely they 
Do conquer Love that run away." 

By far the greater number of poems are assigned to Lord Pem- 
broke, and those attributed to Sir Benjamin Rudyerd are gener- 
ally of inferior merit, and scarcely support the character for wit, 
as well as learning, which Ben Jonson assigned to the author in 
three epigrams upon him, printed in 1616, and with others 
dedicated' to the Earl of Pembroke. The subsequent lines by 

ing affection and resolution to answere my desire heerein, as, if the late interriew 
have mutually •wrought, it is sufficient : suer I am ther needes no more to your 
assurance and satisfaction hence ; wishing the same to your Lp there, accompaned 
with as many comforts and blessings of health and happines as this earth may 
yeeld you. God have you in his safe keeping according to my hartest praiers. I 
rest Yoiu: Lps affectionatly assured 

"M. Pembroke." 
To the above is appended a letter from the Earl (who seems to have 
left the matter much to his wife and Massinger) dated Fallerston, 16th 
August, 1597. At this period the young man was only seventeen years 
old, and the intended bride thirteen, but after the union the gentleman 
was to be sent on his travels for several years, while the lady was to con- 
tinue to reside with her parents. The offer seems to have proceeded from 
Lord Burghley, who was always anxious to ally his family with the most 
wealthy and powerful houses. 

(ffarlg (EngliBlj Citeratun. 181 

Rudyerd, " on the Countess of Pembroke's picture," refer of 
course to the sister of Sir Philip Sidney : — 

" Here (though the lustre of her youth be spent) 
Are curious steps to see where Beauty went; 
And for the wonders in her mind that dwell, 
It lyes not in the power of pens to tell. 
But could she but bequeath them when she dyes 
She might enrich her sex by legacies." 

The editor informs us that he had other poems in his hands, 
which "in the next impression" should supply the place of such 
as were " a little more wanton than the rest," but the volume was 
never reprinted. 

In some copies certain leaves are cancelled, and the paging is 
therefore irregular, bat the one we have used is quite perfect. 

Persiles and Sigismunda. — The Travels of Persiles 
and Sigismunda. A Northern History &c. The first 
Copie beeing written in Spanish ; translated afterward 
into French ; and now last into English. — London, 
Printed by H. L. for M. L. &c. 1619. 4to. 203 

The publisher informs Lord Stanhope, to whom he dedicates 
this translation from Cervantes, that he did not know by whom 
the version had been made. In a few lines to the Reader, the 
anonymous translator states that he undertook the task from im- 
portunity and idleness, and that prcestat nugas agere, quam nihil 
agere. The name of the original author is not mentioned, but it 
is merely said that " he is a Spaniard." Cervantes states in the 
introduction to Don Quixote, Part II., that it was then nearly 
ready for publication. 

Peters, Hugh. — The Tales and Jests of Mr. Hugh 
Peters, Collected into one Volume. Published by one 
that hath formerly been conversant with the Author 

182 Bibliograpljical Account of 

in his life time. And dedicated to Mr. John Good- 
win and Phillip Nye. Together with his Sentence, 
and the manner of his Execution. — London, Printed 
by S. D. and are to be sold by most of the Book- 
sellers in London. 1660. 4to. 22 leaves. 

This book must have been compiled very soon after the execu- 
tion of Peters, which took place on 16th August, 1660.1 It may 
be considered remarkable in one respect, for it says nothing of the 
imputation against him that he had been an actor, — " the Jester, 
(or rather a Fool) in Shakespear's Company of Players," which 
is found in the memoir of him under the tide of " England's 
Shame or the Unmasking of a Politick Atheist," by " William 
Yonge, Dr. Med.," printed in 1663, 12mo, p. 8, and where " his 
former employment in the Playhouse " is also mentioned. (See 
the next article.) The story may be wholly untrue ; for it seems 
unlikely that, if true, it should not have been made use of three 
years earlier by the collector of " The Tales and Jests of Mr. 
Hugh Peters," now in our hands, when it would so well have 
answered his purpose. 

Yonge's Memoir of 1663 is preceded by an engraving of Peters 
in a pulpit with three labels coming from his mouth, on one of 
which is " Blasphemy," on another " Rebellion," and on the third 
" Heresie," with the following inscription also, " I know you are 
good fellows, stay and take the other glass," referring to the 
action of the preacher, who is just turning his hour-glass. This 
incident is given as Jest 50 in the book before us : — 

^^How Mr. Peters^ preached three hours on a Fast-day. 

" Mr. Peters having on a Fast-day preached two long houres, and espy- 
ing his glasse to be out after the second turning up, takes it in his hand, 
and having again turned it, saith, * Come, my Beloved, we will have the 
other glasse, and so wee'le part.' " 

" The Epistle Dedicatory," to Goodman and Nye, speaks of 
them and Peters as " a triplicity of traitors," and calls Peters " a 

1 The date here given of the execution of Hugh Peters does not agree 
with the entry in Smyth's Obituary, published by the Camden Society 
in 1849, where the memorandum is this (p. 52): — 

" Octob. 16. Cook and Hugh Peters executed at Charing Cross." 

(farls (fngltsh txkxainxt, 183 

second Scoggin," whose jests, after the lapse of about a century, 
were still popular. We are told that "Archee was a fool to him,'* 
though both of them, by reason that " fortune favours fools," had 
secured " a good estate." It is subscribed by the publisher, S. D., 
and is succeeded by " The Contents of the Tales and Jests of 
Mr. Hugh Peters," sixty in number, some long, and others very 
short. The longest is the first, " How Mr. Peters, being belated 
on a Journey, lodged at a miller's house, and what passed between 
him and the Miller," which is nothing more than a re-serving up 
of the old story of " M. Patelin," which has been converted into 
our modern afterpiece " No Song no Supper." Not a few of the 
stories are mere repetitions of earlier jests, with a somewhat 
different application, as the subsequent, which is told in several 
other places, will establish : — 

^'■How Mr. Peters rode through the Strand. 
" Mr. Peters riding very fast through the Strand, a Gentleman coming 
by was minded to make him stop, and to that end called after him ; and 
coming to his speech, saith he — Sir, pray what Proclamation was that 
that was just now out? Mr. Peters (being angry to be stayed upon so 
frivolous a question) answered, he might see that on every post. — I cry 
your mercy, said the Gentleman, I took you for a post, you rode so fast." 

The original, where the inquiry relates to a play-bill and not 
to a proclamation, is in John Taylor's " Wit and Mirth," about 
1620, extracted in "Memoirs of the Actors in Shakespeare's 
Plays," p. 218, where other transmutations of the same jest are 
mentioned. Some of the stories of Hugh Peters are however 
new, and apply especially to the times when he lived, as the 
following : — 

^^Eow Mr. Peters visited the Earle of Pembroke. 

" M. Peters taking occasion to visit the E. of Pembroke, he salutes his 
honour in this manner: My Lord, I am come to see you, and intend to 
dine with you; and because you shall not want company, I have brought 
one of the seven deadly sins along with me, viz.. Col. Pride, and have 
brought the Devil too, Col. Dragon : at which jest they all laughed and 
were well pleased." 

The next must have run the gauntlet in other books of the 
same kind, but we do not recollect where, and it is worth quot- 
ing : — 

184 Bibliograpljical ^Iccoimt of 

"5(Mc Mr. Peters discoursed with a Tradesman. 
" Mr. Peters, coming into a Tradesman shop in London, observed the 
Master to be very bountiful of his complements and congees; whereupon 
quoth he, ' Well said, honest friend : it is a good sign that thou wilt never 
break, thou dost bend so much.' " 

The last we shall extract has true wit in it of another kind : — 
"jSouj Mr. Peters took an affront on the Exchange. 

" Mr. Peters walking at full Change time on the Royal Exchange, a 
certain person comes to him, and whispering in his ear, sayes to him — 
Mr. Peters you are a Knave, or else you had never gaind so much wealth 
as you have. Say you so? said he: Marry, if you were not a fool, you 
would be a Knave too." 

Some of his jests, and those the most profane and indecent, are 
alluded to in the mock-sermon on his death, first printed (accord- 
ing to Lowndes) in 1659, but our copy is dated 1680, (no doubt a 
reprint,) and must have come out after the execution of Hugh 
Peters. On p. 10 we read, — "As when our departed Brother 
told the story of his being in Heaven and Hell, and the tale of 
Puss in her Majesty." The first is Jest 45, and the last, Jest 7 
of the present collection. 

There must have been three distinct impressions of " The Tales 
and Jests of Hugh Peters." We have seen the beginning of one 
and the end of another, both editions differing materially from that 
above described. In the first, the Jests in the Contents are only 
69, instead of 60 ; and, excepting the first and second, they are 
not numbered. In the second imperfect copy the Jests are 
marked with Roman numerals. The typography is also different 
in several places. The copy before us contains two Jests (24 and 
25) not in either of the others, and the numbers are repeated 
afterwards, so that they do not disturb the general sequence up to 
60, where the tract ends. 

What is just said shows the extreme popularity of the book, and 
we do not find that the circumstance of three separate impres- 
sions has been elsewhere mentioned. 

Peters, Hugh. — England's Shame, or the unmasking 
of a Politick Atheist : Being a Full and Faithful Re- 

(£arla (Sngli0l) txUvaiixxt, 185 

lation of the Life and Death of that Grand Impostor 
Hugh Peters. Wherein is set forth his whole Com- 
portment, Policies and Principles, exercised from the 
Ingres, in the Progress, and to the Egress of his Un- 
happy Life. By William Yonge, Dr. Med. — London, 
Printed by Da. Maxwel, for Theodore Sadler, next 
Door to the Golden Dolphin, over against Exeter 
House in the Strand. 1663. 12mo. 60 leaves. 

Our reason for noticing this very abusive and catchpenny book 
is to quote from it the very terms of a passage which shows that 
the players at the Blackfriars and Globe Theatres were formerly 
known as " Shakespeare's Company " ; at least they are so called 
by Dr. Yonge. After stating that Hugh Peters was born and 
brought up near Foy, and from thence sent to Jesus College, 
Cambridge, from which he was " expulsed," the author proceeds 
thus : — 

" He as an exile hastens to London, in assurance to finde therein men 
of his temper, with whom he might associate and solace himself, and in 
a short time fitted him for the life of a Stage-player in a common society, 
from whence, after venting his frothy inventions, he had a greater call to 
a higher promotion ; to be the Jester (or rather a Fool) in Shakespears 
Company of Players : Omne simile est appeiibile sui similis, every like de- 
sires his like. There he so long sported himself with his own deceivings, 
till at last, like an Infidel Jew, he conceived preaching to be but foolish- 
ness, and time spent in Gods House to hear his Oracles was a means to 
destroy his, and his complices vain recreations." p. 7. 

The above shows also that " Shakespeare's Company " was not 
" a common society " of players, and that it was considered pro- 
motion to be engaged as a comedian in it. The incident, proba- 
bly, is a mere fabrication for the sake of stigmatizing Peters, whose 
" former employment in the Play-house " is again glanced at on 
p. 14. 

The substance of what we have just quoted is repeated in a 
tract called "Arbitrary Government displayed to the life, in the 
illegal Transactions of the late Times under the tyrannick Usur- 
pation of Oliver Cromwell," London, 1690. The company of 
players in which Peters is supposed to have enlisted is there called 

186 Bibltograpl)ical ^Icconnt of 

" Shakespeare's," and it is added that the parts in which Peters 
usually figured were those of " the Clowns." 

It appears that Dr. Yonge had resided at Milford Haven, and 
that Peters, being sickly, was quartered in his house on his return 
from Ireland. If we may believe the author, he " exhibited the 
charge of high treason against Peters for conspiring the death of 
our martyred King," in consequence of which Peters was executed 
at Charing Cross with other regicides. 

Ph4er, Thomas. — The seven first bookes of the Enei- 
dos of Virgin, converted in Englishe meter by Thomas 
Phaer Esquier, sollicitour to the king and quenes 
majesties, attending their honorable cousaile in the 
Marchies of Wales. — Anno 1558. xxviij Maij. 4to. 
B. L. 86 leaves. 

This is the second appearance of any part of Virgil in English, 
without taking into account Gawin Douglas's Scottish version of 
the ^neid, which came out in 1553. The Earl of Surrey's 
second and fourth Books were printed by Richard Tottell with 
the date of " xxi day of June, An. 1557." l Nevertheless, in 
obvious ignorance of this fact, Phaer claims in a postscript to have 
first " set the gate open," and he adds the date at the end of the 
7th book, as follows : " Per Thomam Phaer, in foresta Kilgerran, 
finitum iii Decembris. Anno 1557." He places the date, when 
he finished each book, at the end of it, together with the number 

1 In fact Tottel brought out the Virgil in the interval between the 
appearance of two editions of Surrey and Wyat's Poems, which are 
dated respectively 5th June and 31st July, 1557. As nobody, not even 
Bishop Percy, has ever yet given the title of the book they were reprint- 
ing, we subjoin it in the very words and letters of the original : — " Cer- 
tain Bokes of Virgiles Aenaeis turned into English meter by the right 
honorable lorde Henry Earle of Surrey. Apud Ricardum Tottel. Cum 
priuilegio ad imprimendum solum. 1557." The day of the month does 
not stand upon the title-page, but in the colophon, thus: — "Imprinted at 
London in flete strete within Temple barre, at the sygne of the hand and 
starre, by Richard Tottell the xxi day of June An. 1657." 

(garl^ (fnglisl) ftUrature. 187 

of days It had occupied him : thus we have " opus xil dierum " 
after the 7th book. The printer's colophon (there was no room 
for the information, owing to the architectural ornaments on the 
title-page) is as follows : — " Imprinted at London, by Jhon Kyngs- 
ton, for Richard Jugge, dwellyng at the North doore of Poules 
Churche, at the signeof the Bible. Anno 1558. Cum privilegio 
ad imprhnendum solum." 

The date at the end of Book 7 being 3d December, 1557, and 
that on the title-page 28th May, 1558, the interval was probably 
employed in the then slow operation of printing. 

No more of the work came out during Phaer's life : the nine 
first books and part of the tenth were published in 1562, which 
was after the translator's death ; and from the dedication by Wil- 
liam Wightman, " Receptour of Wales," dated 6th July, 1562, it 
appears that Phaer had died at his house in Kilgerran Forest, 
Pembrokeshire, of a hurt he received in his right hand, so that the 
last lines of his translation of Book 10 were signed with his left — 
" Thomas Phaer olim tuus, nunc dei." 

Barnaby Googe printed " An Epitaphe of Maister Thomas 
Phayre " among his " Eglogs, Epytaphes and Sonnettes " in 1563, 
(see Vol. II. p. 65,) and there he speaks of Nicholas Griraoald as 
having made some attempt at a translation of Virgil. He mentions 
also the Earl of Surrey and Douglas ; and the whole may be here 
quoted, as we are not aware that the Epitaph has ever been printed 
entire between 1563 and the present day. We have ourselves made 
a brief quotation from it on p. 66 of our second volume, but we 
here subjoin it : — 

" The hawtie verse that Maro wrote 

made Rome to wonder muche, 
And raervayle none, for why, the Style 

and waightynes was suche, 
That all men judged, Parnassus Mownt 

had clefte her selfe in twayne, 
And brought forth one that seemd to drop 

from out Mhiervaes brayne. 
But wonder more may Bryttayne great, 

wher Phayre dyd florysh late, 
And barreyne tong with swete accord ' 

reduced to suche estate, 

188 Bibliograpljical Jlcconnt of 

That Virgils verse had greater grace 

in forrayne foote obtaynde, 
Than in his own, who, whilst he lyved, 

eche other Poets staynde. 
The noble H. Hawarde once, 

that raught eternall fame. 
With mighty style did bryng a pece 

of Virgils worke in frame ; 
And Grimaold gave the lyke attempt, 

and Douglas wan the Ball 
For famouse wyt in Scottysh ryme, 

had made an ende of all. 
But all these same dyd Phayre excell, 

I dare presume to wryte, 
As muche as doth Apolloes Beames 

the d\'mraest Starre in light. 
The envious fates (0, pitye great) 

had great disdayne to se 
That us amongst there shuld remayne 

so fyne a wit as he ; 
And in the mydst of all his toyle 

dyd force him hence to wende, 
And leave a Worke unperfyt so, 

that never man shall ende." 

Googe was mistaken in bis last conjecture, for Thomas Twyne 
completed Phaer's imperfect undertaking, and " The whole xii 
bookes of the -Slneidos of Virgill," embracing Phaer's previously- 
translated portion, were published in 1573. Thirteen books, in- 
cluding (as Gawin Douglas had done) the Supplement of Maphas- 
us, were published in 1584, like the impression of 1573, printed 
" by William How for Abraham Veale," (see the next article.) 
At the end we read, " Per Thomam Twynum, 26. Octobris 1583. 
Lewesice apud Meridionales Saxones, opus furtivarum horarum 
plurium." Dr. Bliss by mistake states (Wood's Ath. Oxon. U. 
131, edit. 1815) that the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth books 
were published by Twyne in 1573 ; but that impression only in- 
cluded the twelve books of Virgil. 

There may be disputes whether Twyne's portion be better or 
worse than that of his predecessor, but it cannot be necessary to 
add specimens here from a work so well known. 

(garlg OFngUel) Citcrature. 189 

Phaer and Twyne. — The xiii Bookes of ^neidos. 
The first twelve beeinge the woorke of the divine 
Poet Virgil Maro, and the thirtenth the supplement 
of Maphaeus Vegius. Translated into English verse 
to the fyrst third part of the tenth Booke by Thomas 
Phaer Esquire : and the residue finished &c. by Thomas 
Twyne, Doctor in Physicke. — Imprinted at London by 
William How, for Abraham Veale, dwelling in Paules 
Church yeard, at the signe of the Lambe. 1584. 4to. 
B. L. 148 leaves. 

It is scarcely requisite to say more of this edition than that it is 
the impression adverted to in the preceding article, containing 
the supplementary thirteenth Book by Maphaeus. Thomas Twyne 
dedicates the whole " to the right worshipfull Maister Robert 
Sackevill Esquire," son and heir to Lord Buckhurst, from " my 
house at Lewis, this first of Januarie 1584." In an address " to 
the gentle and courteous Readers," he says that he had been 
" brought up in the Universitie," not stating which, (he was of C. 
C. Coll. Oxford,) and he mentions the addition of the Supplement, 
adding that he " had not done it upon occasion of any dreame, as 
Gawin Douglas did it into the Scottish, but mooved Avith the wor- 
thines of the worke, and the neerenes of the argument, verse, 
and stile unto Virgil." This is followed by the Life of Virgil and 
the usual matter preliminary to the text. 

A very complete list of Thomas Twyne's works may be seen in 
Wood's Ath, Oxon. (edit. 1815, II. 131,) including his translation 
in 1573 of H. Lhuyd's " Breviary of Britain," which is accompa- 
nied by eulogistic verses by his brothers, John and Lawrence 
Twyne. Lawrence Twyne is celebrated as the translator of the 
original story on which Shakspeare's " Pericles " was founded, un- 
der the title of " The Patterne of painefull Adventures " : the ear- 
liest impression we have seen of it was by W. Howe in 1576, 4to. 
Thomas Twyne practised as a Doctor of Medicine at Lewes, Sus- 
sex, and was patronized by Lord Buckhurst, afterwards Earl of 
Dorset. Hence the dedication of the translation of Virgil, 1584, 
to the Earl's eldest son. 

190 Bibltoigrapljical ^Iccount of 

Pheander. — The famous History of Pheander the 
Maiden Knight, how disguised under the habite and 
name of Armatius, a Marchant, he forsooke his King- 
dome of Carmania for the Love of Amoretta, the most 
incomparable Princesse of Trebisond. Together with 
a true Narration of the rare fidelity of his Tutor 
Machaon &c. Intermixed with many pleasant Dis- 
courses &c. — London, Printed by Thomas Fawcet, 
and are to bee sold by Fr. Coles &c. 166L B. L. 
4to. 93 leaves. 

No earlier edition of this romance has yet occurred, but there 
can be no doubt that it was printed prior to the year 1613, when 
it was referred to by Taylor the Water-poet in the dedication of 
his "Eighth Wonder of the World." Opposite the title is a 
coarse woodcut of a knight on horseback without a helmet, and 
preceding that a bastard title, " Pheander the Mayden-Knight, or 
Love's Heroick Champion," with a woodcut below it of two armies 
meeting in conflict. 

After these titles follow " The Contents of this Booke," in 
twenty-nine chapters ; and the body of the work (which is entirely 
prose, with the exception of ten lines at the conclusion of one 
letter) begins upon sign. A 4. It does not profess to be a transla- 
tion, but from the style there can be little doubt that it was taken 
from the French or Italian. In the first few chapters the hero is 
called Armatius, then Pheander, and subsequently " Love's heroic 

Phillips, John. — The Examination and Confession of 
certaine Wytches at Chensforde in the Countie of Es- 
sex, before the Queues majesties Judges, the xxvi 
daye of July, Anno 1566, at the Assise holden there 
as then, and one of them put to death for the same 
offence, as their examination declareth more at large. 
8vo. B. L. 12 leaves. 

(ffarlg (ffnglislj Ixkxainxt, 191 

It is not easy at this distance of time, and with the then prevail- 
ing uncertainty in the spelling of names, to decide between the 
works of John Phillips and of John Philip, who, as far as we can 
judge, was an author and a versifier about the same period. We 
feel pretty confident that they were distinct persons, although they 
have been sometimes confounded. The principal production 
by John Philip appears to be his " Life, Death, and Funeral of 
Sir Philip Sidney," which came out in 1587; but ten years ear- 
lier, he, or the other John Phillips, had printed the novel (as he 
calls it) of " Cleomenes and Juliet"; and in 1571 he had put 
forth a broadside on the demise of Sir William Garrat, " Chief 
Alderman of London," which was printed and published by Rich- 
ard Jones. 

John Phillips, the subject of the present notice, seems to have 
commenced authorship before John Philip, or Phillips, and the 
production now under consideration bears date in 1566, and was 
entered at Stationers' Hall in that year. (See Extr. L 148.) It 
is in prose and verse, and it relates to the trial and execution of 
certain old and young women for witchcraft, not before country 
magistrates at Quarter Sessions, but before the learned Judges of 
Assize, when the most absurd and incredible charges were made 
and proved against the unhappy prisoners, and one of them was 
accordingly punished with death by fire. On the title-page of this 
" Examination and Confession " is a woodcut representing the 
Saviour washing the feet of his disciples, as if to contrast an act 
of divine humility with others of most diabolical cruelty. This is 
the colophon of the tract : — 

" Imprynted at London by Willyam Powell for Wyllyam Pickeringe 
dwellinge at Sainte Magnus corner, and are there for to be soulde. Anno 
1566, the 13 August." 

What at the beginning is called " Preface," and at the end 
" Prolog," is in long verse, divided as usual to adapt it to the width 
of the page ; 'and here Phillips finds a new, and far from appli- 
cable, epithet for his pen, — "warbling." 

" The dolour now so douthfull is, 
that skante my warbling penne 
Can forth expresse the sence thereof 
unto the sonnes of men ; 

192 Bibliograpljical :2lccottnt of 

Agayne, the blubringe teares, which glide 

from my poore pincked eyes, 
Besmerde my face, that scarce I can 

my inwarde griefes surprise." 

If by "surprise " he means suppress, we must attribute the use 
of the word to the compulsion of the rhyme. He seems much more 
disposed to exult over the miserable victims than to pity them ; 
and then narrates, still in verse, that 

" Three feminine dames attached were " 
for sorcery, which they had practised by the enticements of Satan 
and " Belial's sprite." Phillips puts his name to it, as if he were 
a witness of their crime, and subsequently asks, in " an Exhorta- 
tion to all faithfull men," — 

" What durat harte, or selly brest 
could fynde Christe to repaye 
With such contempte as did these ymphes, 
which here beholde ye may ? " 

The first woman examined on the trial before Dr. Cole and 
Maister Foscue (Fortescue) was Elizabeth Frauncis, who con- 
fessed that she had been taught witchcraft by her grandmother, 
who provided her with a white spotted cat, which they called 
" Sathan." By Sathan's means she also procured a husband, 
whom she afterwards struck lame ; and finally gave her cat to 
Mother Waterhouse, who was thus enabled to kill a neighbor by 
a bloody flux. Mother Waterhouse ultimately turned the cat into 
a toad, of which a woodcut is given, as well as of the cat itself. 
Joan Waterhouse, daughter of Mother Waterhouse, was the third 
" feminine dame " tried : she was eighteen years old, and had 
given her body and soul to a great dog, furnished with horns, 
duly represented in another woodcut. 

There are two other tracts, dated respectively 13th and 23d 
August, by which it appears that Mother Waterhouse, whose 
name was Agnes, had been examined before Justice Southcote 
and Master Gerard, the Queen's Attorney-General, on 27th July, 
1566, and that she had been subsequently executed by fire. 
Among other questions put to her was one regarding the Lord's 
Prayer ; and she told them that " Sathan would at no tyme sufi*er 
her to say it in Englyshe, but at all tymes in Latin." What 

(garlg (EnglisI) Citerature. 193 

became of the two others, who had been instructed by Dame 
Waterhouse, is not mentioned. We find no notice of these 
curious pieces in any catalogue. 

Phillips, John. — A Commemoration of the Eight 
Noble and vertuous Ladye, Margrit Duglas is good 
grace, Countis of Lennox, Daughter to the renowmed 
and most excellent Princesse Margrit, Queen e of Scot- 
land, espowsed to King James the fourth of that name, 
in the dales of her most puissant and magnificent 
Father, Henry the seaventh of England, Fraunce and 
Ireland King: Wherin is rehearsed hir godly life, 
her constancy and perfit pacience in time of infortune, 
her godly end and last farewel taken of al Noble 
estates at the howre of her death. The ninth day of 
March, 1577. At her house of Hackney in the Coun- 
tie of Middlesex : And now lyeth enterred the thyrd 
of April in the Chappel of King Henry the seaventh 
her worthy Grandfather. 1578. And Anno 20 of 
our Soveraigne Lady Queene Elizabeth, by Gods per- 
mission of England, Fraunce and Irelande Queene 
&c. 4to. B. L. 16 leaves. 

We only know of a single copy of this poem, and, when men- 
tioned, the date of it has seldom been correctly stated. One au- 
thority says 1571, another 1577, and a third 1579. The true 
date is unquestionably 1578, and the 9th March, 1577, was, in 
fact, 1578, as we now reckon the year. The colophon supplies no 
date, but gives the name of the printer ; — " Imprinted at London 
by John Charlewood, dwelling in Barbycan, at the signe of the 
halfe Eagle and Key." 

The author, .John Phillip, Phyllips, or Phillippus, Reginii Can- 
tdbrigensis Collegii Alumnus^ (he appears never to have taken 
any degree,) dedicates his laudatory funereal poem " To all Right 
Noble Honorable Godlye and WorshipfuU Ladyes " ; and it 

VOL.. III. 13 

194 Uibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

forms a species of induction, in which we are told that, after a 
walk in the fields, the author fell asleep when he returned home, 
and in a vision saw the lady he commemorates: she appeared 
" compassed with care, pursued by dolour, shoared up with perfyte 
patience amidst her extremities, and lastly supported with truth." 
To Phillips, and to some ladies whom he also fancied present, the 
Lady Margaret Douglas relates the story of her life in tolerably 
smooth, but intolerably dull verse, beginning as follows : — 

" Good Ladies, at your listning I crave, 

Til time my tale be fully brought to end : 
Though that my corps be subject to the grave, 

Yet vouch awhile to heare your faythfuU freend. 

To you these lines for my farewell I sende: 
Accept them, then, and reade them for my sake, 
And of my name a new memoriall make." 

Unless the ghost be supposed to read her story from a MS., 
there can be no propriety in this commencement ; and it should 
seem that she had it all ready written, cut and dry, for the occa- 
sion. The originality of the author's conceptions may be judged 
of from another stanza, very well worded, but not very new in its 
reflections : — 

" No giftes of goulde, no houldes, nor yearely fee 

Can cause him stay when God commandes to strike : 

He feares no state, he spares no high degree, 
The ritch and poore to him are all alike. 
He doutes not he the Champions push of picke : 

The strong and weake he makes full soone to bende; 

Its vaine, alas ! with death for to contende." 

We only subjoin one more stanza, in which the author makes 
the Ghost pay tribute to Queen Elizabeth. It is the last of several, 
and all extravagantly laudatory : — 

" Her countryes weale to work her heart is bent ; 
Haute Hydraes head she hath cut oflf indeede : 
Each Minataure by skill she doth prevent, 
That in her soyle of strife would sow the seede : 
The woolfe she quailes, the lambe she seekes to feede 
With pleasant mylke and honey passing pure. 
God graunt on earth her grace may long indure ! " 

No doubt Phillips expected to be in some way rewarded for 

(ffarlg (Englisl) Cikrahtre. 195 

his adulation, and, perhaps that he might not be forgotten, he puts 
his name not only at the beginning, but at the end of his perform- 

"Yours at coramande (in the Lord) 

John Phillyps." 

Edward White, the stationer, published a broadside on the 
demise of the same Lady, and by the same author : the existence 
of it has never till now been stated : but it bears the followinsf 
title : " An Epitaph on the Death of Lady Margaret Douglas, 
Countess of Lennox, who died at Hackney on the 9th March, 
1577." Thus we see that John Phillips wrote two separate poems 
at the same date, on the same theme, and for two different sta- 
tioners ; 1 and it is just possible that this unusual circumstance 
may be accounted for by a confusion between the names of John 
Phillips and John Philip : John Phillips might be writer of the 
one, and John Philip of the other. To John Philip likewise we 
must attribute a broadside ballad, under the title of " A cold 
Pye for the Papists, wherein is contayned the Trust of true Sub- 
jectes for suppressing of sedicious Papistrie and Rebellion &c. 
Made to the song of Lassiamiza Noate." " Imprinted at London 
by William Howe for Richard Jones," without date. 

1 From the title " Phillippes Venus," it might be supposed that that 
prose tract was by a person of the name of Phillips ; but such is not the 
fact. The author signs the dedication "to Maister Henry Prannell," Jo. 
M. " Phillippes Venus " is a most rare, and we may almost say worth- 
less, production, of which only one perfect copy is known, but of which 
an exemplar, wanting both beginning and end, is now before us. We 
therefore give the title from the complete work in the Bodleian Library : — 
" Philippes Venus. Wherein is pleasantly discoursed sundrye fine and 
wittie Arguments in a senode of the Gods and Goddesses assembled for 
the expelling of wanton Venus from among their sacred societie. Enter- 
laced with many merrye and delightful! Questions and wittie answers : 
Wherin Gentlemen may finde matter to purge melanchollye and pleasant 
varietie to content fancye. — At London Printed for John Perrin and are 
to be solde in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Angell, 159L" 4to. 
B. L. The body of the work is hardly worth attention, the whole import 
being, that the gods and goddesses expel the "wanton Venus " from their 
society, in order to substitute a chaste Venus described by the author, — 
perhaps a compliment to some lady who is nowhere designated. Quite 
at the end the writer promises a continuation, which, not much to our 
surprise, never appeared. 

196 JSibliograpljical ^Tlccmmt of 

We cannot admit that Phillips's " History of Cleomenes and 
Sophonisba, surnamed Juliet," 8vo, 1577, is, as he asserts on the 
title-page, " very pleasant to reade ; " on the contrary, it is exces- 
sively wearisome, in such verse as the following : — 

" Aspyring myndes still toyle to clyme the top of Honours stall, 
But hasty chiming often tymes doth catch a sodayne fall : 
Yet leave I them with Prince in Court, as seeming friendes to stay, 
And to Claudestines agayne in Cell I must my way; 
Whose playntes surmounting seeme to show, his teares lyke ryvers 

And oft he blames the froward fates that so his fyle have sponne." 

We need not quote more ; but here also is a second instance, 
(see ante, p. 147,) which we did not then bear in mind, of the use 
of " file " for the thread of life. It is very possible that we, too, 
have confounded the two Philipses. 

Phcenix Nest. — The Phoenix Nest. Built up with the 
most rare and refined Workes of Noble men, woorthy 
Knights, gallant Gentlemen, Masters of Arts and brave 
SchoUers. Full of Varietie, excellent Invention and 
singular Delight. Never before this time published. 
Set foorth by R. S. of the Inner Temple, Gentleman. 
— Imprinted at London by John Jackson. 4to. 1593. 
55 leaves. 

It would hardly be expected^by those who possess " Heliconia," 
edited by Thomas Park, a " brave scholar " in English poetry, 
but a somewhat careless superintendent of reprints, that in one 
of the principal productions in that work there is contained a 
poem from which no fewer than six seven-line stanzas are, in dif- 
ferent places, entirely omitted, and that without the slightest hint 
of a reason for it. Yet such is the fact, and how it could have 
happened without Park's knowledge is inexplicable. It is not as 
if the six stanzas were left out, one immediately after the other, 
because in that case we might suppose that the copy used by Park 
was (like his exemplar of the " Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant In- 

(Earlg (£ngU0lj Citeratttre. 197 

ventions") deficient of a leaf, which deficiency he did not detect; 
but the six stanzas are left out in five distinct places, and the 
transcript from which the printer composed must have been inac- 
curate beyond all precedent. It is principally to note, and to 
make good, these deficiencies that we have placed the title of 
" The Phoenix Nest " at the head of the present article. We 
never saw more than two copies of the original impression, and 
from them we have obtained our materials. 

The production in which these strange omissions occur is enti- 
tled " A most rare and excellent Dreame, learnedly set downe by 
a woorthy Gentleman, a brave scholler, and M. of Artes in both 
Universities," which, of course, immediately carries our thoughts 
to Robert Greene, who usually placed upon his title-pages a state- 
ment of his double academic rank. We believe it to have been 
penned by him, and that his name or initials would have been 
annexed to it, had he not recently died under painful and degrad- 
ing circumstances. In its complete state it consists of 63 seven- 
line stanzas, but in Park's reprint it has no more than 57.1 ■\Y"e 
are not about to enter into any criticism of it, because " Helico- 
nia " is in most libraries which contain only a few specimens of 
Elizabethan poetry, but we propose to subjoin here the portions 
that are wanting, and which can only exist in the original edition 
preserved in one or at most two public libraries. 

Park does not number the stanzas, nor are they numbered in 
the " Phoenix Nest," but our readers will find that after the 18th, 
ending with the line " I finde all words inferior to their woorth," 
the following stanza ought to have been inserted : — 

" The garments wherewithal! she was attyrde 
But slender in account, and yet were more 
Than her perfections needfully requyrde, 
Whose every part hath of contentment store: 
But as it was, thanks to my dream therefore. 
Who causde the apparition to be wrought, 
As all lay open to mine eies or thought." 

We give the added stanzas in the form they bear in the edition 

' 1 The number of stanzas of R. G.'s " Most rare and excellent Dreame," 
as reprinted in " Heliconia," is only 54, instead of 60, as in the original 
edition of " The Phoenix Nest," 1593. 

198 Btbliograpljtcal ^Iccount of 

of 1593, and not as Park Indented the lines to his own fancy. 
The second omission occurs only two stanzas farther on, and it is 
not of one only, but of two stanzas in succession. The expres- 
sions are most felicitous, and if the description be a little warm, 
•we can well excuse it for the beauty of the verse : — 
" Next neighbor heerunto, in due discent, 
Her bellie plaine, the bed of namelesse blisse, 
Wherein all things appeere above content, 
And paradise is nothing more than this, 
In which Desire was mov'd to doe amisse; 
For when his eies upon this tree were cast, 
0, blame him not if he requirde to taste. 
"What followed this I cannot well report: 
The tawnie Cyprous that forehanging fell 
Restraind mine eies in most malitious sort, 
Which of themselves were else affected well. 
Although as witnes nought thereof I tell 
I doubt not those that fine conceited be. 
See somwhat further than mine eies might see." 

Here we have corrected two clear errors of the compositor, 
-who made false concords by printing " was cast " in the stanza 
first above quoted, and " Sees somewliat " in the last line of the 
second stanza. We now pass on to what, if the stanzas were 
numbered, would be the 26th, after which Park excluded the 
following. The sense is absolutely incomplete without it : — 

" As soone as sighes had overblowne ray teares, 
And teares allaid my sighings vehemence, 
Audacitie, expulser of those feares, 
Gave to desire, at last, preheminence, 
Who saw it now to be of consequence; 

Sauced his tale with dutie and respect, 

And thus began, or to the like effect." 

After stanza 35 we ought to read as follows, but do not ; and 
here again the sense is left imperfect in the reprint : — 
" An easie thing for you to overcome 
(Faire Ladie) him that is so deepe your thrall, 
For every syllable from your lips that come 
Beares wit and weight and vehemence withall. 
Under the which my subject spirits fall. 
If you do speake, or if you nought expresse, 
Your beauty of it selfe is Conqueresse." 

(Earlg (Englislj Citeratitre. 199 

If Park should have thought that he might, without all notice, 
exclude some of the former passages, on account of their amorous 
tendency and complexion, no such excuse can be offered for 
omitting what we have last cited. The penultimate stanza of the 
whole poem could surely in no way have given offence to the 
most sensitive editor; but we look for it in vain in the reprint in 
" Heliconia." It runs thus in the impression of 1593 ; and we 
consider it, perhaps, the worst stanza out of the whole poem : — 

" Why art thou not (0 Dreame) the same you seeme, 
Seeing thy visions our contentment brings? 
Or doe we of their woorthines raisdeeme, 
To call them shadowes that are reall things, 
And falslie attribute their due to wakings ? 
0, doe but then perpetuate thy sleight, 
And I will sweare thou workst not by deceit." 

The only consideration that, in our view, militates against the 
notion that this "Dream" is by Robert Greene, is, that it has 
more genuine passion and sentiment about it than usually belongs 
to his artificial, but still graceful compositions. It is too good for 
Lodge, who never succeeded so well in lengthened productions, 
although some of his shorter lyrics are quite as well worded. 
The mention of Lodge, many of whose productions are removed 
from his "Phillis" into the "Phoenix Nest," (published in the 
same year,) reminds us of a serious and confusing misprint in 
Park's repetition of the well-known poem by Lodge commencing 
"Muses, helpe me," &c., p. 64 of the reprint, in which we are 
told to read, — 

" Philips Sonne can with his finger 
Hide his fear, it is so little." 

This is nonsense : " fear " ought to be scar, and it is printed 
scarre in Phillis, 1593. The blunder arose from one of the most 
common sources of error with printers, a confusion between the 
letter f and the long s, then constantly used in MS. In general, 
however, the text of this poem is better in the " Phoenix Nest " 
than in " Phillis " as it was first published ; and we cannot help 
thinking that Lodge himself may have had some hand in intro- 
ducing corrections into the poems copied from his small volume. 
We may give a single instance from a lyric beginning " Now I 

200 JJibltograpljical 3lfcottnt of 

finde thy lookes were fained," p. 75. Lodge tells his false mis- 
tress inhis'Thillis," — 

" Of thine eies I made my myrror ; 
From thy beautie came mine error: 
All thy words I counted wittie; 
All tby smyles I deemed pretty." 

Of course he thought her smiles " pretty," but that was clearly 
not what Lodge intended, and accordingly in the " Phoenix Nest " 
we find the word " pretty " amended to pittiej — "All thy smyles 
I deemed pittie." We might easily quote other instances to the 
same effect. 

The question of the editorship of this in every sense valuable 
miscellany has been much discussed, and the opinion of bibliog- 
raphers seems to have settled most on the belief, that R. S. on 
the title-page means Robert Southwell, a Roman Catholic priest 
who died for his faith in 1596. We find no record that he was 
ever of the " Inner Temple," as R. S. asserts himself to have 
been ; and, on the authority of the Registers of the Stationers* 
Company, we are disposed to give the name of a new claimant to 
the distinction in question; for under date of 21st July, 1578, we 
find that a person of the name of Robert Smythe had written, 
and Hugh Jackson had entered " foure straunge lamentable, 
tragicall Histories," translated from the French. (Extr. from the 
Reg. of the Stat. Comp. 11. 46.) We consider it not improbable, 
therefore, that R. S., the initials on the title-page of the " Phoenix 
Nest," may have been those of Robert Smythe, and that he was 
the editor of the volume. 

Pierce Plainness. — Piers Plainnes seaven yeres Pren- 
tiship. By H. C. Mida Veritas. — Printed at London 
by J. Danter for Thomas Gosson, and are to be sold 
at his shop by Londonbridge Gate. 1595. 4to. B- 
L. 31 leaves. 

Henry Chettle has usually been the reputed author of this 
pastoral romance ; but, in spite of what we have said, ante, p. 11, 

(Karls ®n3li0l) Cikrahtre. 201 

it seems to us that it is doing some injustice to his abilities, and 
there is nothing but H. C. on the title to fix it upon him. We 
might almost as reasonably assign it to Henry Constable ; but we 
can hardly believe it was by either of them, but by some person 
who wished to avail himself of popular initials. Neither the 
verse (of which there is but little) nor the prose (of which there 
is too much) is good enough for Chettle, and it is not known that 
Constable printed anything that was not in measure. Malone 
seems to have been the first to lay " Piers Plainnes " at Chettle's 
door, (Ritson does not notice it,) but how little his judgment was 
to be relied upon in such a question may be seen from the fact 
that he assigned such a production as " The Nature of a Woman," 
1596, (Vol. II. p. 315,) to Marlowe. 

" Piers Plainnes " obviously arose out of the popularity of 
" Pierce Penniless," three years before, which had been often re- 
printed. The small merit of the verse may be judged of by the 
following madrigal, which the hero sings to his grazing flock : — 

" Feede on, my flocke, securely. 
Your shepheard watcheth surely ; 

Runne about, my little Lambs, 

Skipp and wanton with your Dams : 
Your loving Heard with care will tend yee. 

*' Sport on, faire flocke, at pleasure, 
Nip Vestaes flouring treasure ; 
I my selfe will duely harke 
When my watchfull Dogg doth barke : 
From Woolfe and Foxe wee will defende yee." 

The hero is a shepherd or herdman, (for the author confounded 
two employments which Spenser always kept distinct,) who had 
recently been hired by Menaleas ; and the substance of the story 
is what that hero relates to his master, and to his master's friend 
Cory don. It is a mere jumble of improbable, though not in 
themselves extravagant, incidents, during the seven years Pierce 
Plainness had spent in the service of as many masters, while 
residing in Thrace and Crete, where the scenes are laid. From 
the motto, nuda Veritas, we might expect that a good deal of 
satire and exposure of human vices would be met with ; but there 
is nothing of the sort, excepting when Pierce gets into the service 

202 I3ibUograpl)ical Slccouut of 

of an old usurer, Ulpian, whose apostrophe to his gold, which we 
here extract, will give a sufficient notion of the style in which the 
prose is written : — 

" Gold, adored Gold, my soule's cheefe soveraigne, my lives best 
genius, for whom the needy vassaile toyles, the Souldier fightes, the 
Scholler studieth ! how doth thy divine essence comfort my troubled spir- 
ite, against whose opulencie the envious beggars of the earth repine. 
bee thou resident with me in spite of all their rage ; for where thou art 
envie cannot hurt. Close up my senses from all other thoughts than of 
thy excellence. A little graramer learning I have, and were it no more 
than to hold thee fast it were sufficient: for what account are schoUers 
made of, or friendes, or Gods without golden oratorie, giving friendship 
and all-yeelding deitie. Then, my religion ; friend, art, all I have, to thee 
I sacrifice myselfe, without whose presence I am not my selfe : in thee 
alone remains beatitude : without thee I know no blessednes." 

This, it must be owned, is poor commonplace interjectional 
stuff. The story mainly relates to the history of male twins, of 
different dispositions, who are contending for a kingdom ; and we 
have more than the usual amount of battles, distresses, escapes, 
and discoveries, but told with considerable confusion, and much 
jumping about from Thrace to Crete and from Crete to Thrace, 
with such a multiplicity of persons, that if the author had had the 
power, he would not have had the space to delineate them. Some 
portion seems to have been intended for allegory, as where Pierce 
Plainness gets into the service of Flattery, Brokery, and Prodi- 
gality, but nothing comes of it. We transcribe the only other 
piece of verse, a song by a young lady against Cupid : — 
" Trust not his wanton teares, 
lest they beguile yee: 
Trust not his childish sight, 

he breatheth slilie. 
Trust not his tutch, 

his feeling may defile yee: 
Trust nothing that he doth, 

the Wagge is wilie. 
If you suffer him to prate 
You will rue it over late. 

Beware of him for hee is wittie 
Quickly strive the Boy to binde, 
Feare him not for hee is blinde : 
If he get loose, hee showes no pittie." 

(£ax[^ ®nglt0l) CiUrature. 203 

The only portion of any real interest is quite at the end, where 
H. C. mentions a production by Eichard Barnfield, and gives due 
praise to his " Shepherd's Content," a poem which had been 
printed in " The Affectionate Shepherd," 1594. We have already 
mentioned it as Barnfield's "first fruit," (Vol. I. p. 62,) and as 
H. C. has praised one piece in it, we may here be allowed to 
prove how far it merits eulogium by quoting a single stanza from 
it. It is where the author is adverting to the " content " which 
the employment of a " Shepherd " properly affords : — 

" Thus doth he frolicke it each day by day, 

And, when night comes, drawes homeward to his cote, 

Singing a jigge or merry roundelay; 

For who sings commonly so merry a note. 
As he that cannot chop or change a groate ? 

And in the winter nights his chiefe desire, 

He turnes a crabbe or cracknell in the fire." 

We take this opportunity of suggesting an emendation in a 
line of one of Barnfield's Sonnets, near the end of his "Affec- 
tionate Shepherd," addressed to a cruel lady, where he is made 
to say : — 

" Loe ! here the blossome of my youthful yeares, 
Nipt with the fresh of thy wrath winter, dies." 

Surely the last line ought to run : — 

" Nipt with the frost of thy rath winter dies." 

" Fresh " has been misprinted for frost, and " wrath" for rath : 
"rath winter" is early winter. Old printers were so careless, 
and authors apparently so indifferent, that every reprint of a 
piece of the time requires the utmost attention. Mr. Utterson's 
reprint of Barnfield's " Cynthia," 1595, has several mistakes.! 

1 Mr. Utterson's private printer's mistakes in the reproduction of Barn- 
field's " Cynthia," 1595, are some of them more serious than the mere mis- 
spelling of the author's name, which is never given as it stands in the 
original impression. We will only point out two or three errors in the pre- 
liminary matter. In the address " To the curteous gentlemen Readers " we 
have by for " for," and reed for " breed." In T. T-'s commendatory verses 
we have reave for " reare," and waiving for " waining." In the opening of 
"Cynthia" we have honour for "horror," glistning for "glistring," and 
that for " thus." The greatest fault of the reprint is, however, the omis- 

204 Bibliograpljiral Account of 

Piers Ploughman. 

" I playne Piers, which can not flatter, 
A plowe man men me call : 
My speche is fowlle, yet marke the matter, 
Howe thynges may hap to fall." 

8vo. B. L. 

Such is the whole of the title-page of a most biting and abusive 
satire upon the Roman Catholics. Only a single copy of it is 
known, which is thus mentioned in Maunsell's Catalogue : i 
" Pierce Plowman in prose. I did not see the beginning of this 
booke," but it ends thus : — 

" God save the kynge and speede the ploughe, 
And sende the prelates care ynoughe ; 
ynoughe, ynoughe, ynoughe." 

Neither Maunsell, nor anybody else since his time, took the 
trouble to read the curious volume, or they would have seen at 
once that it is not " in prose," though printed as such, and that 
the title-page is complete in the four lines at the head of this 
article. Dibdin only mentions it on the authority of Maunsell, 

sion of twenty sonnets, certainly of an ambiguous character, and the loss 
of which Mr. Utterson afterwards so much regretted that he finally had 
them also reprinted, and added to four copies, out of the sixteen to which 
his impression was limited. To one of the four we have resorted. 

1 We apprehend that the following memorandum, in one of the Sta- 
tioners' Registers, respecting Maunsell's Catalogue, published in 1595, la 
new: — 

" 19 Aprilis 1596. Whereas Andr. Mansell hath taken paines in collectinge and 
printinge a Catalogue of bookes, which he hath dedicated to the Companye, hav- 
inge also been a petitioner to them for some consideration towardes his paines and 
charges, Be yt remembered that thereupon the Companye, of their meer benevo- 
lence, have bestowed uppon him in money and bookes the summe of for 
whiche he yeildeth thankes, holdinge hym selfe fully contented without expectation 
of any further matter or benefit for the same, or any like thinge of or in the com- 
panye, or any particular parties of the same. The particulars of which money and 
bookes appere in the booke thereof made, conteyning the names of the particular 
persons that contributed the same." 

Only the two first parts of the Catalogue are now known, or perhaps 
ever were printed. T. Nash speaks of " Andrew Maunsell's English Cat- 
alogue" in his "Have with you to Saff'rou Walden," 1596, sign. T 2. 

CEarl^ (Englial) CiUrature. 205 

(IV. 547,) and puts it among works from the press of Owen 
Rogers, probably only on the ground that, in 1561, Rogers printed 
an edition of the " Vision and Creed of Pierce Ploughman." There 
can be no doubt that the book in our hands appeared in type ten, 
or even twenty years earlier, though, from the nature of the 
performance, no printer could be found to put his name, place, or 
date to it. In one part of his work the author refers to the 
sufferings of printers in his day : — 

"And the poore Prynter also, which laboreth but for his lyvynge is 
cast into prison and loseth all he hath, which seameth very sore." 

This sentence fully explains the absence of the name of any 
typographer, and there can be no doubt that the little book was sur- 
reptitiously printed and circulated, which will also account for its 
rarity. It seems strange that anybody could read the first lines, 
though looking like prose, without perceiving that they were really 
measure and rhyme : — 

" I Piers plowman, followyng ploughe on felde, 
My beastes blowing for heate, ray body requyrynge rest, 
Gapynge for the gayne my labours gan me yelde, 
Vpon the plowgh beame to syt me thought it beste." 

And thus it proceeds to discuss public affairs, especially the state 
of religion, and the prevailing contests between Protestants and 
Catholics. The following note of time is, like the rest, printed as 
prose, and we give it in that form : — 

"Aboute thre yeres paste when I, Piers, scripture myght reade, and 
render and reporte to my wj'fFe, and to my barnes, it seemed then a goodly 
lyflfe a household then to kepe and fede." 

Afterwards the deaths of Sir T. More, Fisher, and Forest are 
mentioned, the date of the latest event being the year 1538 : — 

" Our king sheweth to be the head : 
To stop this truth More lieth ded, 
Rochester, Forest and the obstynate nacyon, 
The chefe pyllors of the viperous generation." 

Here " head," referring to the head of the Church, is misprinted 
hard^ and various other errors of the same kind occur in the course 
of the work. The measure changes considerably as the author 

206 Bibliograpljical 2.aomi of 

proceeds, and sometimes it is not easy to make out the irregular 
lines. We extract a passage of a different character of versifica- 
tion, in which several well-known names are introduced : — 

" Trewe Tyndale was burned, 
Myles Coverdale banyshed 
By whose labors greate 
We have the hole byble, 
In dispyte of the devel, 
And trust to kepe it yet. * * * 

" But Lincolenshyre seythe full well, 
The truthe I do you tell, 

That ye shalbe fayn at the last, 
With donge hydynge your crownes, 
And castynge of your gownes, 

To stand ful agast. 

" And thou, Crome, 
Haste gotten a crowne 

Mete for thy dotynge yeres. 
If to thy furred hood 
A bel thou haddest sowed. 

And a payre of Asses eares. 

" Thou foole, Shaxton, 
Thy selfe thou hast undon. 

Thy byshoprike when thou forsoke : 
Thou myght have kepte it styll, 
And playd the lorde at thy wyll, 

And sayde what thou lyste in a noke.'* 

Here again, in the last line but two, " have," required by the 
sense, is misprinted home. In the following stanza old Gower 
finds himself in rather incongruous company : — 
" You allowe, they saye, 
Legenda aurea, 

Robin Hoode, Bevys and Gower, 
And all bagage besyd. 
But Gods word ye may not abyde : 
These lyese are your church dower." 

The author is here, of course, reproaching the Roman Catho- 
lics with the trash they permitted to be read, while they utterly 
refused to allow the reading of the Bible. The style sometimes 
reminds us of Roy and his " Rede me and be not wroth," but 
without the strength and bitterness of that famous personal satirist 

(Earlg (Snglislj CiUratnre. 207 

on Wolsey. Elsewhere it resembles rampant abuse by Bishop 
Bale, with much of his coarseness and vituperation. The work 
is unique. 

Pierce Ploughman's Vision. — The Vision of Pierce 
Plowman, now the seconde time imprinted by Roberto 
Crowley, dwellynge in Elye rentes in Holburne. 
Whereunto are added certayne notes and cotations 
in the mergyne, gevynge light to the Reader &c. — 
Imprinted at London by Roberte Crowley, dwellyng 
in Elye rentes in Holburne. The yere of our Lord. 
M.D. L. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum, B. L. 
4to. 125 leaves. 

It is believed that three editions of this poem were printed by 
Crowley in 1550. (See " Percy's Reliques," IL 262, edit. 1 765.) 
This is the second impression, and on the last leaf is the colophon, 
exactly similar to the imprint on the title-page. " The Printer to 
the Reader " follows the title, and preceding the poem is "A briefe 
summe of the principall poyntes that be spoken of in thys boke,'* 
filling six leaves. It is acknowledged that Crowley printed from 
a MS. containing a very incorrect text, but he deserves great 
commendation for being the first to rescue from oblivion this very 
valuable poem, the authorship of which is generally attributed to 
Robert Langland. The versification is often harsh and uncouth, 
depending much upon the recurrence of the same letter com- 
mencing three words in each line, but the expressions are usually 
full of force and character, with great originality of thought and 
severity of satire. 

Pierce Ploughman's Creed. — Pierce the Ploughmans 

Crede. 1553. B. L. 4to. 16 leaves. 

The colophon, which is on a separate leaf, D iiii, is this : — " Im- 
printed at London By Reynold wolfe. Anno Domini M. D. L. 
III." It is the earliest edition of the " Creede," which was re- 
printed, at the end of the " Vision of Pierce Ploughman," by Owen 
Rogers in 1561. 

The title of the first impression of this work, consisting merely 

208 Bibliograjjijical Account of 

of the words '* Pierce tlic riDUjihiunn's Crede," is upon a tablet in 
tho midst ot* a landseape. The design is obviously foreign, and 
the woodcut may also have been imported : both are certainly 
unlike anything of tho kind executed in this country about that 
date. It represents the deaths of Pyramus and Thisbe ; and it 
is also found upon the title-page of G. Fenton's " Monophylo," 
1572, 4to. 

On the reverse of sign. D iii, is a brief " interpretation of cor- 
tayne hard wordes used iu this booke, for the better unilerstand- 
yng of it," which is one of the earliest attempts at an English 
glossary. These words are only forty-eight in number, and after 
them wo read as follows : — " Tho residue the diligent reader 
shall (1 trust) well ynough perceive." These were repeated by 
Rogers when he reprinted the " Creed " with the '* Vision " iu 1661. 

PiOT, Lazarus. — The Orator: Handling a hundred 
severall Discourses, in forme of Declamations: Some 
of the Arguments being drawne from Titus Livius, 
and other ancient Writers, the rest of the Authors 
owne invention: Part of which are of matters hap- 
pened in our Age. Written in French by Alexander 
Silvayn, and Englished by L. P. — London Printed by 
Adam Islip. 151)6. 4to. 221 leaves. 

This translation has been assigned to Anthony Munday, (see 
Lowndes' Ribl. Man. edit. 1834, p. 1688 ; edit. 1863, p. 2398,) but 
without, at wo think, sulficient reason. If Munday had really been 
the translator, ho was not usually unwilling to put his name or 
initials to his works ; and as he was unquestionably a popular 
writer, it does not seem likely that a publisher would have pre- 
ferred the name of an unknown author. Ho was so unknown 
that Farmer and Warton (11. E. P. edit. 8vo, IV. 813) call him 
Pilot, and the only way in which we can connect him at all with 
Munday seems to be this. The first Book of "Amadisde Gaule" 
purports to have been rendered into English by Anthony Mun- 
day, while the second Book of tho same romance, which came out 
in 1595, purports to have been translated by L. P. When both 

OFarlii OFnglisI) Citcraturc. 209 

books wore reprinted in 1610, no notice whatever was taken of 
L. P. or Piot, and the whole was given to Munday. This evi- 
dence is far from conclusive ; and at the end of the dedication of 
the work before us, to Lord St. John of Bletso, the names stnnd 
at length, " Lazarus Piot," and he speaks of himself as a soldier, 
and of his work as " hewen out of his rough wit," " the first fruit 
of his oratory." This statement, however, would be hardly true, 
if Piot had put forth the second Book of " Amadis de Gaulo " in 
1595, unless the fact were, that, although "Amadis " was first pub- 
lished, " The Orator" had been first written. 

Wo were formerly disposed to adopt the statement of previous 
bibliographers, and to consider Piot and Muuday one person ; but 
on examination of the evidence upon the point, wo are more in- 
clined to think that Munday, in 1619, suppressed the name of Piot, 
as the translator of the second Book of "Amadis de Gaule," than 
that, without any apparent motive, he drojjpod his own name in 
1595, and substituted that of Piot. For a reason hereafter ad- 
duced, we think it possible, if not probable, that in " The Ora- 
tor," as it has reached us, some of the " Declamations " and 
" Answers" were in fiict originally rendered by Edward Aggas. 

The (question only assumes importance in connotation with the 
fact, that in " The Orator" (which consists of 100 Declamations 
and Answers) we meet with one which immediately calls to mind 
Shakspeare's " Merchant of Venice " ; it is the 95th "Declama- 
tion," " Of a Jew who would for his debt have a pound of the 
flesh of a Christian." Here we have first the Jew's speech, and 
afterwards the Christian's answer, neither of which we need tran- 
scribe, because they have already been often reprinted, and are 
well known. Shakspeare could not have availed himself of them, 
because his play was unquestionably of an anterior date, although 
only printed in 1600 ; but it is by no means certain that some of the 
Declamations in " The Orator," and perhaps that of the Jew, had 
not been printed as early as 1590. On the 25th August, in that 
year, we read the following entry in the Registers of the Station- 
ers' Company : — 

" Edward Aggas, John Wolf. Allowed for their copio Cortcii Trngicall 
cases couteynuigo Lv. histories with their sevorall Declamations, both 

VOL. III. 14 

210 Bibliograpljkal Qictoxxni of 

accusative and defensive, written in Frenche by Alexander Vandenbush, 
alias Sylvan, translated into English by E. A." 

Warton does not give the precise date, misquotes the entry, 
and attributes the translation to R. A. instead of E. A., going on 
to argue, upon his own mistake, that R. A. must have meant 
Robert Allot, the editor of " England's Parnassus," (H. E. P. edit. 
8vo, p. 314.) The question whether the translation had been 
made by Robert Allot or Edward Aggas is of little moment ; but 
it seems certain that, as early as the summer of 1590, there was 
an intention to publish fifty-five of the " Declamations " and "An- 
swers," and it is very possible that the speech of the Jew and the 
"Answer " of the Christian was among them. If so, the appear- 
ance of those harangues in 1590 would have preceded the play of 
our great dramatist, and he may have been led to the subject by 
their publication. 

Our notion is that Lazarus Piot may have added forty-five new 
" Declamations " to those which E. A. had previously rendered 
into English, and then published the entire collection, without any 
mention of a predecessor. At the same time it must be admitted 
that no copy, or fragment, of any earlier version than that which 
bears Plot's name in 1596, has ever been heard of. All we know 
is, that in the Registers at Stationers' Hall, *' Lv histories,*' trans- 
lated by E. A., are recorded as having obtained a license for pub- 
lication In 1590. 

No list of the 100 " Declamations " and "Answers " is appended 
to the volume in our hands ; and they are, in a manner, anglicized 
by calling in the aid of " the Attorney General," a well-known 
officer of our courts, and requiring him to reply to some of the 
speeches. Such is the case with " Declamation 23," which is thus 
entitled: " Of the part of a house which was to be pulled down 
for the ofience of one that dwelled therein, wherupon another, 
dwelling in the same house, was opposite." After the " Declama- 
tion is concluded " we are told, " The Attorney-Generall contra- 
dlcteth him thus." " The Answere of the Attorney-Generall " 
also follows "Declamation 81," which is " Of a Chirurgion who 
murthered a man to see the moving of a quicke heart." Some- 
times the judgment of a supposed court is added, but not fre- 

€arlB iSnglislj CiUratuve. 211 

There is another slight circumstance that has not been noticed, 
and that may favor the belief that the work, or at least some por- 
tion of it, had been printed before all the Declamations and An- 
swers came out together in 1596. It is, that the half-title, before 
the commencement of " Declamation 1," does not agree with the 
whole-title on the first leaf of the volume. In the half-title it is 
called, not " The Orator," but " The Mirrour of Eloquence." 
The last may have been the name it was intended to bear, or that 
it did bear, in 1590 ; but the stationer may have seen sufficient 
cause for making the change, if only for the sake of novelty, be- 
cause either so many books under the title of Mirror (from " The 
Mirror for Magistrates" downwards) had been published, or be- 
cause Henry Peacham, having originally published his " Garden 
of Eloquence" in 1577, had reprinted it in 1593.1 Xhe words 
" Mirror " and " Eloquence " might, therefore, both be considered 
objectionable, and " The Orator," in 1596, may have been adopted 
instead of them. 

Pitts, John. — A poore mannes benevolence to the af- 
flicted Church. Actes 3. Golde and silver have I 
none, such as I have geve I unto you. — Imprinted 
at London in little Britaine by Alexander Lacy. The 
29 of January. 1566. 8vo. B. L. 12 leaves. 

The name of Jhon Pits is subscribed to a prose address " to the 
afflicted Church," occupying the six earliest pages. The rest of 
the small volume is in verse ; and we first come to a poem headed 
thus, to the exclusion of England : — 

" To the afflicted Church in Scotland, Fraunce, Spayne or any other land. 
" Be of good chere, my brethen all, 
doe not now faint nor quayle, 
But to the Lord doe ye now call, 

lest that in truth ye fayle. 
For Sathans yre passe not a pin, 
though that he rule and rage: 

1 Of course we allude to Henry Peacham the elder. See a former note, 
ante, p. 171. 

212 i3ibUograpIjical ^Tlaount of 

His power is to small and thin 
the txTith for to asswage. 

" Though Kyngs be strong, and wine likewise, 

and women thought to be, 
Yet Truth (in any maner wyse) 

more stronger shall yee see. 
Kynges have fayled, and also wyne, 

and women have not stood : 
Truth hath remaind from time to time, 

as proofe we have full good. 

" Truth was good, and kept styl his place, 

when Woman had a fall : 
Truth was styl Truth, and had his grace, 

when Woman was in thrall. 
What Truth hath said performd it was, 

as in all states we see : 
Let Woman speake whats cum to pas, 

let her tel tale for mee." 

And so he continues for eleven more stanzas, after which we 
meet with a translation of the 67th Psalm, and a version of the 
Jubilate. The whole ends with three addresses thus headed : — 

" Christ speaketh to the people. 
God to the Prophet or Preacher. 
Moses or Preacher to the people." 

These are in smaller type, and all compressed into a little more 
than a page. John Pits, or Pitts, put his name again after the 
word Finis, and such, we have seen, was not an unusual course. 

"I Pit, minister," probably the same man, in 1577 printed, by 
the press of Christopher Barker, a broadside called " A prayer, 
and also a thankesgiving to God," for the preservation of the Queen 
to the 1 7th November in that year. The direction at the head 
of it is, " Sing this as the foure score and one Psalme." See, also, 
"a prayer" by John Pyttes, 1559, noticed in Ritson's Bibl. Poet 
p. 305.1 

Plats and Theatres. — A second and third Blast of 
Retrait from Plaies and Theaters : the one whereof 

1 It is the only work by Pvttes, Pits, or Pitts, of which Ritson had any 
•knowledge. See Bibl. Poet. p. 305. 

(Earls €n%M) Ixkxainxt. 213 

was sounded by a reverend Byshop dead long since: 
the other by a worshipful and zealous Gentleman now 
alive : one showing the filthines of Plaies in times past ; 
the other the abomination of Theaters in the time 
present : both expresly proving that that Common weale 
is nigh unto the cursse of God, wherein either Plaiers 
be made of, or Theaters maintained. Set forth by 
Anglo-phile Eutheo. Ephes. 5 verse 15. 16. &c. Al- 
lowed by auctoritie. 1580. 8vo. 70 leaves. 

The colophon states that the work was printed by Henry Den- 
ham, but who the author might be is not anywhere apparent. The 
latter point is the more interesting because Gosson, in his " Plays 
confuted in five Actions " (sign. G 3), asserts that the writer of the 
work in hand, after having been both a play-maker and a player, 
(the two capacities were then often united,) had first written vio- 
lently against theatres and their supporters, had then "turned 
like a dog to his vomit," and had " gone back to Babylon," by 
resuming his old profession. 

Anglo-phile-Eutheo, in his address "to the Reader," informs 
us that he considered Gosson's " School of Abuse," 1579, the first 
" blast " against plays and theatres. The second was the work of 
the dead Bishop Salvianus, and the third his own production, 
which in 1580 followed hard upon his predecessor, to whom he 
gives extraordinary praise. Nevertheless, Gosson's " Ephemerides 
of Phialo," which followed up his " School of Abuse," had inter^ 
vened ; and the true order in which the various pieces, pro and 
con theatres and plays, had been published, appears to have been 
the following : — 

1. John Northbrooke's " Treatise," which was entered at Sta- 
tioners' Hall in 1577, and must have been published in that year, 
or early in 1578 ; (see this volume, p. 68.) 

2. Gosson's " School of Abuse," which bears date in 1579. 

3. " Strange News from Africa," mentioned by Gosson in his 
"Ephemerides of Phialo," but not now known. 

4. Gosson's " Ephemerides of Phialo," also dated 1579, in apol- 
ogy for his " School of Abuse." 

214 Bibltograpljical ^Icconnt of 

5. Lodge's " Defence of Plays and Players," of which no copy 
with a title-page is known, and only two copies existing, and 
which must have appeared in 1580. 

6. The "second and third Blast of Retreat from Plays and 
Theatres," 1580, now under consideration. 

7. Gosson's " Plays confuted in five Actions," in answer to 
Lodge, for which see Vol. IL p. 67. 

8. Philip Stubbes's "Anatomy of Abuses," printed in 1583.1 
(See post.) 

9. Lodge's "Alarum against Usurers," 1584, in which he inci- 
dentally replied to Gosson. 

10. Rankin's " Mirror of Monsters," 1587, who also, about ten 

1 We ought, perhaps, to have added to this list of productions for and 
against the Stage, a tract by an author who has been mentioned in Vol. IL 
p. 20, as, probably, the father of Theophilus Field, and of a very pop- 
ular actor and author, Nathaniel Field. John Field, the puritan divine 
and Rector of Cripplegate, who died in 1587, had published in 1583 a 
tract called for by a fearful accident at a bear-baiting on a Sunday morn- 
ing, at Paris Garden. He entitled it " A godly exhortation by occasion 
of the late judgement of God shewed at Parris Garden, the thirteenth 
day of Januarie," when a crowded scaffold fell down, and many specta- 
tors were " killed, maimed, or hurt." From thence the author diverges 
to the representation of plays, and is very vehement in his denunciation 
of a practice that had prevailed, and continued more or less to prevail, for 
several years afterwards, — the performance of stage-plays on the Sab- 
bath. He himself bears witness (sign. Ciij) that plays on Sunday had at 
that time been forbidden, but this injunction was evaded, and John Field 
was for the total abolition of such " heathenish interludes." " For surely," 
he observes, " it is to be feared, besides the distruction bothe of bodye 
and soule that many are brought unto by frequenting the Theater, the 
Curtin, and such like, that one day those places will likewise be cast 
downe by God himselfe." Therefore he would not for a moment tolerate 
them, and he dates his tract 17th January, 1583, only four daj's after the 
calamity. It was " printed by Robert Waldegrave," by authoiHty ; but two 
other stationers, Richard Jones and William Bartlet, without authority, 
published a piece upon the same melancholy event, and we learn from 
the Registers of the Stationers' Company, that on 21st January, 1583, they 
were not only fined 10s. each for so doing, but were actually committed 
to prison. How long they were detained in custody does not appear. 
John Field dedicated his tract to the Lord Mayor and Recorder Fleetwood, 
and there he gives the date of his Epistle as 18th January, 1583, — of 
course meaning, at that period, 1584. 

(Sarlg SnglisI) iCiterature. 215 

years afterwards, appears to have returned to his occupation as a 
poet and play-wright. (See post.) 

Thus we find that the work before us comes only sixth in the 
series of productions on both sides of a question much agitated 
between the years 1577 and 1587, to which ten years they all 
belong. The anonymous author of " the third Blast of Retreat " 
admits that he had himself been a play-maker, if not a play-actor. 
He says : — 

" I confesse that ere this I have bene a great affecter of that vaine art 
of plaie-making, insomuch that I have thousrht no time so well bestowed, 
as when my wits were exercised in the invention of those follies. I might 
scarcelie with patience heare anie man speake, were he never so learned 
and godlie, that thought to perswade me from them. So far was I from re- 
ceaving their good and godlie admonitions, that I stopped mine eares and 
hardened mine harte against their counsel. * * * What I shall speake of 
the abuse by plaies of my owne knowledge, I know, male be affirmed by 
hiindreds to whom those matters are as wel knowen as to my selfe. Some 
Citizens wives, upon whom the Lorde, for ensample to others, hath laide 
his hands, have, even on their death beds, with teares confessed that they 
have received at those spectacles such filthy infections, as have turned 
their minds from chaste cogitations, and made them, of honest women, 
light huswives : by them they have dishonored the vessels of holines, and 
brought their husbandes into contempt, their children into question, their 
bodies into sicknes, and their soules to the state of everlasting damna- 

Yet this was a man who afterwards repented his repentance, 
and, according to Gosson, became once more both play-poet and 
actor. The enemies of theatres always took care to alarm the 
citizens of London, and for many years they resisted the perform- 
ance of plays within the boundaries of the corporation. We might 
quote much more to the same effect, but we will pass it over, in 
order to introduce what the author, who speaks upon his own 
knowledge and authority, says of the personage called "the 
Fool " in dramas of that period : — 

"And albe these pastimes were not (as they are) to be condemned sim- 
plie of their owne natxire, yet because they are so abused they are ab- 
hominable. For the Foole no sooner showeth him selfe in his colors to 
make men merrie, but straight waie lightlie there foloweth some vanitie, 
not onelie superfluous, but beastlie and wicked. Yet are we so carried 

216 Bibliograpljual !2lrfoiint of 

awaie with his unseemlie gesture and uureverend scorning, that we seeme 
onelie to be delighted in him, and are not content to sport our selves with 
modest mirth, as the matter gives occasion, unlesse it be intermixed with 
knaverie, dronken meriements, craftie coozenings, undecent jnglings, 
clownish conceites, and such other cursed mirth as is both odious in the 
sight God, and offensive to honest eares." 

The words "clownish conceits" immediately carries our 
thoughts to the prologue to Marlowe's " Tamhurlaine the Great," 
where he expressly speaks of weaning spectators from "such 
conceits as clownage keeps in pay " by the heroic matter of his 

The author in hand vehemently censures the application of 
stories from the Bible to the purpose of the Stage, as the Catho- 
lics had done in their old religious miracle-plays ; and referring to 
a drama from profane history that Gosson had spoken of, on the 
contest between Caesar and Pompey, he complains of the manner 
in which authentic annals were distorted and confused to serve 
the purpose of the drama. To such points we need not now ad- 
vert ; but we will make a short quotation from what this writer says 
upon rather a novel topic, the training up of lads as players ; not 
merely referring to juvenile companies, but to the " player's boys," 
as they were then called, who, at first taking female characters, 
at last advanced to the station of sharers, and sustained the parts 
of kings and heroes. He observes : — 

" As I have had a saieng to these versifieng Plaie-makers, so must I 
likewise deale with shameles actors. When I see these yong boies, in- 
clining of themselves unto wickednes, trained up in filthie speeches, un- 
natural and unseemlie gestures, to be brought up by these schoole-masters 
in bawdrie and in idlenes, I cannot chuse but with tears and griefe of 
hart lament. * * * And for those stagers themselves, are they not com- 
monlie such kind of men in their conversation as they are in profession? 
Are they not as variable in hart as they are in their partes? Are they not 
as good practisers of bawderie as in-actors ? Live they not in such sort 
themselves as they give precepts unto others ? Doth not their talke on 
he stage declare the nature of their disposition ? " 

We need not much wonder that such hyper-zeal, as this au- 
thor displays, caused him to over-leap his object, and that he was 
soon found on the other side again. His invectives are loud and 
long, but the real information he supplies is very scanty. He 

(Sarla (Kuglisl) literature. 217 

concludes with a devout prayer for " the Queen and her Council." 
It would be interesting to learn the sort of plays Anglo-phile- 
Eutheo produced when he returned to his occupation. His ab- 
sence from it must have been short, if we are to believe Gosson. 

Pleasant, Plain, and Pithy Pathway. — The pleas- 
aunt playne and pythye Pathewaye leadynge to a ver- 
tues and honest lyfe, no lesse profytable then delec- 
table. U. L. — Imprynted at London by Nicolas Hyll, 
for John Case, dwellynge at the sygne of the Baule, 
in Paules churche yarde. B. L. 4to. 23 leaves. 
Only two copies of this valuable poetical relic are known. 
Nicholas Hyll printed between 1546 and 1553; but the architect- 
ural frame in which the title is set was used by James Nicolson 
for the New Testament he printed in South wark in 1538. The 
two following lines, 

" It is good for such men to go over truelye 
As intende the hinges embassatours to be," 

show that the poem was written, at all events, before the reign of 
Mary, and probably the king there spoken of was Edward VI. 
As to the author, he says of himself on sign. A ii, — 

'•'• Nitnesaue truelye, most men call myne name," 
which may contain the letters of his name in some way transposed. 
One of the most celebrated poets of the reign of Edward VI. was 
Nicholas Udall, author of " Ralph Eoister Doister," and it will be 
seen that the initials on the title-page, supposing them those of 
the author, are the first and last letters of his surname. Certainly 
the production would do him or any other writer of that period 
great credit. In the commencement of it he meets an old man 
journeying the same way, and, entering into conversation, the au- 
thor gives the following account of himself, which may be merely 
fanciful : — 

" A servaunt I have bene aboute yeares five, 
And truely have served to my power, 

Since into service I entered the fyrst hower: 
Wherein there is so great travayle and payne 

218 33ibliograpljical :2laount of 

At moste tymes, and so very lytle gayne, 
And at other tymes also, ydlenes so greate, 

Doinge nothynge but jettinge in the feldes and streate; 
Wherin also there is muche great exercise 

Almoste of every maner and kinde of vice, 
Bothe pride, dronckennesse, and also swearynge. 

By abhominable othes God him selfe tearynge, 
Such quarrelynge, fighting, and other abhomination, 

Wherof I coulde make unto you true relation, 
Yf it were not odible for you to heare. 

As thexperience thereof playnlye doeth appeare, 
That I intende utterlye the same to refuse, 

And some other more godly state of lyvj^nge to chuse." 

He asks the old man's advice upon a proper course of life, 
and from thence we are led to a dissertation on the seven deadly 
sins, which rather heavily fills the first part of the poem. The 
second part is more lively and amusing, and mainly consists of a 
narrative, given by the old man as a warning to his young friend, 
how incautiously he had fallen in love in his youth with a farmer's 
daughter, who had rejected him for a suitor much his inferior. 
The sexagenarian gives this account of his early life and habits : — 

" Well said, sonne (quod he) then give diligente eare. 

When I was of thage of two and twentie yeare 
Veary lustie I was, and pleasaunte withall. 

To singe, daunce, and playe at the ball. 
To runne, to wrastle to caste the axeltre or barre. 

Either with hande or foote I could cast it as farre. 
And all other feates as nimblie doo 

As any in the towne I dwelled in thoo. 
Fyne, feate, neate, proper and small 

I was then, though I saye it, and faire withall. 
Yt appeareth no lesse (quod I) for you beare your age feare. 

Well, let passe (quod he) suche then was my cheare. 
And besides all this, I coulde then fynelie playe 

On the harpe, moche better then now farre a waye : 
By which my minstrelsie and my faire speache and sporte 

All the maydes in the paryshe to me did reasorte. 
Eche loved lustie Lewes, for so thej'- me named. 

And not one of them all my companie refrayned. 
Paryshe clercke I was then of the towne there, 

To helpe the priest to masse, and sing in the quere : 
With suche livinge as I had I lyved withoute care, 

Wyfe nor child had I none for whome I should spare." 

(£arl2 €ngli0l) Citeratitre. 219 

This description will bring to mind " Hend Nicholas " in Chau- 
cer's " Miller's Tale." The old man proceeds to show how he fell 
in love with a rich farmer's daughter ; what urgent suit he made ; 
how he was rejected notwithstanding his ballads sung to his harp 
under his mistress's window, (one of which is inserted ;) and how 
she subsequently married ill, and came to beggary, while he put 
up with another wife, lived happily, and was enabled to relieve 
the poverty of his first love. The whole tale is told with much 
pleasant simplicity, and in very agreeable verse. The author 
promises to follow the advice thus given by the old man, and the 
poem ends rather abruptly by the parting of the two friends, who, 
during their conversation, had slowly walked about eight or nine 
miles together. 

At the back of the title are some verses not worth quoting, and 
the poem is introduced by two pages of preface, which convey no 

PoLTBius. — The Hystories of the most famous and 
worthy Chronographer Polybius: Discoursing of the 
warres betwixt the Romanes and Carthaginenses, a 
ricbe and goodly Worke, conteining holsome counsels 
and wonderfull devises against the incombrances of 
fickle Fortune. Englished by C. W. Whereunto is 
annexed an Abstract compendiously coarcted out of 
the life and worthy acts, perpetrate by oure puis- 
saunt Prince king Henry the fift. — Imprinted at Lon- 
don by Henry Bynneman for Thomas Hacket. And 
are to be sold at his shoppe in Paules Churchyard at 
the signe of the key. 8vo. B. L. 138 leaves. 

This production has been mentioned by most bibhographers, 
but they have none of them noticed the most singular feature 
belonging to it, the curious verses by which it is accompanied. 
C. W. means Christopher Watson, who subscribes the dedication 
at length. He was a Durham man ; and, six years after the date 
of the work in our hands, he wrote a " History of Duresme," 

220 JJibliograpljical ^cconnt of 

preserved among the Cotton MSS. Vitell. cix. His " Hystories 
of Polybius" was entered at Stationers' Hall in 1565-6, but it was 
not printed until 1568, the date in the colophon. He tells us 
himself that he was of St. John's College, Cambridge, from 
whence he dates a portion of the work before us, which is divided 
into three parts. First comes the portion translated from Polyb- 
ius; next, an "Answer to Questioners," why he introduced an 
account of the life and victories of Henry V. ? which forms the 
third part, avowedly drawn from Hall's Chronicle. At the back 
of the title-page is a woodcut of a Roman head, and underneath 
it the following lines subscribed B. G., (Bernard Garter, or Bar- 
nabe Googe.) 

" Whome Nature, Birth, and Science lore 

have made the childe of fame. 
This portrature (through Gravers Arte) 

doth shewe to thee the same. 
A Greeke by birth, of noble bloud, 

Polybius eke he hight. 
His workes deserve immortall praise, 

and fame upholde his right. 
Keade with advise, doe judge with skill, 

and trouth will cause thee than 
To say, as thou of right maist say, 

he was a worthy man: 
Whome, though the Fates with cruell hande 

have cut his mortall breath. 
Yet we enjoy (through worthy Fame) 

his deedes in spight of death." 

These lines are commonplace enough, but Watson himself 
(after the dedication to Thomas Gaudy, Esq., dated from Gaudy 
Hall, Norfolk) begins his address " to the Reader " with some 
verses of a very unusual, and not very intelligible character. 

" Were it as perillous to deale Gardes at play, 
As it is quarellous to deale Bokes this day. 
One and fortie men amongst one and fiftie 
Would flee one and thirtie to flee one unthriftie: 
And yet Gardes so dealt should have in revealing 
Fordeale of Bokes in this hard time of dealing. 
Gardes be tooted on but on the one side, 
Bokes on both sides, in all places porde and pride. 
Not to content, but to contende upon spiall 
Of least tittle that can come in triall." 

(ffiarlg (KngltBl) Citerature. 221 

He concludes his prose with four additional lines ; and having 
quoted " our EngHsh Epigramme -which sayth, the plain fashion is 
best, that's truly exprest, or the plain fashion is best that's plain 
without plaites," he proceeds to the body of his work, which is 
very affectedly expressed and very dry reading. Of Henry V., 
near the end, he tells us, — 

"This King was the man which (according to the auncient proverbe) 
declared and shewed that honour ought to chaunge maners ; for incon- 
tinently after that he was inthronised in the siege royall, and had received 
the diadem and scepter of this famous and fortunate region, he determined 
with him selfe to put on the shape of a new man, and to use an other sort 
of living, turning insolency and wildenesse into gravitie and sobernesse, 
and wavering vice into constant virtue : and to the intent that he would 
so persiste without reflection, either least he should bee so allured by the 
sinister perswaslons of his familyer companions, with whome he had 
passed his adolescencie in wanton pastimes and ryotous rufflings, he ban- 
yshed and separated from him all his olde flatterers, and lighte bolde 
brainesicke playfeeres, but not unrewarded." 

Watson shows himself to have been a violent Puritan, and a 
bitter enemy of the Roman Catholics ; and after styling Henry 
" the Arabical Phoenix," he speaks of the Lollards and of the 
schism in religion, which had been produced " by the most wicked 
desire of a Sathanicall swarme of wicked worldlings, as con- 
temptuous Cardinals, bloudthirstie Bishops, pelting Priours, am- 
bitious Abbots, mischevous Menkes, filthie frierlike furies, and 
companie of cakling Canons, with a pestiferous plumpe of Popish 
Proctors, and a troupe of trouncing Tyrants, with other mon- 
strous monasticall mirroures of mischiefe." 

We know from the Stationers' Registers (H. 146) that Chris- 
topher Watson was a " Minister," and, no doubt, a popular 
preacher, for after his death there was entered, on 12th June, 
1581, a " Lamentation "/or his loss. Besides his own verses and 
those of B. G., a person whose initials are R. W. contributes some 
brief stanzas, the merit of which may be judged of from the first 
of them : — 

" If famous factes, 
or worth ie actes 
Eejoyce thy daunted minde, 
Polybius reede, 
wherein in deede 
Good Physike shalt thou finde." 

222 jBibliograpljical 3laount of 

We notice these and the other verses in the book, because, as 
we have said, they have hitherto been entirely neglected. 

Poor Knight. — A poore Knight his Pallace of private 
pleasures. Gallantly garnished with goodly Galleries 
of Strang inventios : and prudently polished with sundry 
pleasant Posies, and other fine fancies of dainty de- 
vices and rare delightes. Written by a student in 
Cabridge. And published by I. C. Gent. — Imprinted 
at London, by Richarde Jones, and are to bee solde 
at his shoppe over agaynst Sainct Sepulchers Churche. 
1579. 4to. B. L. 42 leaves. 

Of this very important and interesting contribution to our 
national poetry only a single copy remains to us; and it has 
never yet been examined or criticised in any bibliographical work. 
On this account, although it has been reprinted for the members 
of the Roxburghe Club, (from the exemplar discovered some 
years ago in the evidence-room of the Duke of Northumberland,) 
we do not think that we ought to pass it over without remark. 

Who the " poor Knight " may have been is a question which 
nobody can answer ; and it may be reasonably doubted whether 
J. C, who professes to be only the editor, did not mean in this 
way to evade the responsibility of authorship, when in fact the 
volume was the issue of his own brain. In an address "to the 
Reader " J. C. declares that " the feare of ignomynie and shame- 
full reproch hath caused the Author of these Posies to withholde 
his name from the same, whom, for this time, I have thought it 
not much amisse to collour and set forth in the name of the poore 
Knight ; and I do duly protest unto thee that, without my great 
intreaty these fewe Posies had not as yet come unto thy hand." 
In other places J. C. so often repeats and enforces the same 
anonymous independence, that we feel doubly inclined to doubt 
its truth. He maintains throughout, that in procuring the work 
to be printed at all, he was offending against the express com- 
mands of the '' poor Knight," who intended his MS. only for the 
perusal of J. C. and his brother. 

(Earlg (EnglisI) CiUratun. 223 

As to the title-page, we may be confident that Richard Jones, 
the printer and publisher, had a main hand in the composition of 
it ; and we see at once that it was borrowed in part from Paint- 
er's " Palace of Pleasure," in part from the " Gorgeous Gallery 
of Gallant Inventions," and in part from " The Paradise of 
Dainty Devices." Jones never put forth a work, however dull, 
(and he generally avoided such unsalable commodities,) without 
furbishing up for it an attractive forefront. " The Palace of 
Pleasure" had come out in 1566, and the two miscellanies, to 
which, as we have remarked, Jones was here indebted, had ap- 
peared respectively in 1576 and 1578. It may seem that J. C. 
lived in the Temple, and in an epistle in verse to him " the poor 
Knight " speaks of addressing him " hard by the Temple Bar." 

It is to be borne in mind that this is not a collection of produc- 
tions by a variety of hands, and therefore in different styles of 
writing and degrees of merit, but that it professes to be the work 
of only one individual ; and it was entered at Stationers' Hall 
(Extr. Reg. II. 88) on 3d July, 1579, in this form: — 

" Rio. Jones. Lycenced unto him the poore Knightes 

poesies viij*^." 

The usual price for entering a ballad was 4d., but the price for 
books was either 6d. or 8c?., according, we may presume, to their 
bulk. For the present, consisting of 84 pages, the larger sum was 
required and paid. The last price in it (excepting " The poore 
Knight his farewel to his Booke ") is a " Lamentation " on the 
fatal Assizes at Oxford in July, 1577, when Sir Robert Bell, Ser- 
geant Barham, and others lost their lives by the prevalence of the 
jail-fever. Jones had published, 6th August, 1577, (when it was 
entered,) " A brief and dolefull Lamentation " on the same event ; 
which may, in fact, have been the very same " Lamentation " im- 
puted to " the poor Knight " in the volume before us. 

But the main, and decidedly the best production begins with 
•what is headed " The Vale of Venus, with all the Wayes and 
Foot-pathes unto her Forte," which is an allegory regarding love, 
on the whole well sustained, and divided into three parts, each 
with its explanatory " Argument." The first, as we have stated, 
is " The Vale of Venus;" the second, " Of Cupid his Campe ; " 

224 Bibliograpljifttl !3lcccitint of 

and the third, " Justice and Judgement pleaded at Beauties 
Barre." The author feigns himself to fall asleep iu a wood, where 
he dreams that he sees Morpheus, who conducts him through his 
strange peregrinations. There is a great deal of variety iu the 
descriptions ; and an immense number of historical, poetical, and 
mythological persons are introduced, who have all, more or less, 
been sufferers in the conflicts of Love. On p. 287 of Vol. I. we 
have quoted from this poem a passage referring to Romeo and 
Juliet, and to Galfrido and Bernardo ; and we may here extract, 
from the third portion of the poem, another stanza, relating to 
the lovers whom Shakspeare, ten or fifteen years afterwards, ren- 
dered so famous : — 

'* Next to the gate faire Juliet did lye, 
And in the Court young Romeus did stay: 
Faire Cinthia gave leve to peke and pry, 
But shee oft sayd, when wilt thou come away? 
Windoowes (quoth hee) I would assend, faire May: 
I looke to see the place where erst I came, 
But Tibalt he hath closed up the same." 

In fact, no story could be more popular ; and even before 
Arthur Brooke published his " Tragical History " in 1562, it had 
been, as he himself states, represented on the stage so excellently, 
that he doubted the success of his poem on the same incidents.! 
In the subdivision headed " Of Cupid his Campe," (which in- 
cludes a battle in which the little god gains a victory over the 
troops of Diana,) the poor Knight thus mentions four English 
poets of great eminence : — 

" Then Morpheus sayd, loe ! where he stands that worthy Chauser hight, 
The cheefest of all Englishmen, and yet he was a knight. 
There Goure did stand with cap in hand, and Skelton did the same, 
And Edwards hee, who, while he livde, did sit in chaire of fame." 

1 Brooke's words upon this curious and important point are not doubtful 
and ambiguous, but clear and certain. He says, " Hereunto if you ap- 
plye it, ye shall deliver my dooing from offence, and profit your selves ; 
though I saw the same argument lately set foorth on Stage with more 
commendation then I can looke for (being there much better set forth 
then I have or can doote) yet the same matter, penned as it is, may serve 
to lyke good effect, if the readers do brynge with them lyke good myndes 
to consider it, which hath the more incouraged me to publishe it, such as 
it is." The above concludes the address "to the Reader," which is sub- 
scribed Ar. Br 

®arlg ^nglisl) Cikrature. 225 

Here we have another authority for tlie notion that Chaucer 
had been knighted. Edwards had not long been dead, and had 
left behind him a great reputation ; but there could be no pretext 
for placing Skelton on a level with Chaucer and Gower. Another 
English name is frequently introduced with high praise by the 
poor Knight, namely, Robinson, but whether he meant Clement or 
Richard does not appear. Clement Robinson we know chiefly as 
the editor of "A HandfuU of Pleasant Delights," printed in 1584 ; 
but Richard Robinson would seem to have been the older author, 
his " Vineyard of Virtue " having been entered on 26th August, 
1579. To which of them belongs " Robinson's Xmas Recreations 
of Histories and Moralizations," registered at Stationers' Hall on 
10th December, 1576, (Extr. H. 27,) we are in no condition to 
decide. We quote a curious passage about Pope Joan, regarding 
whom, it should appear, Robinson had written : — 

" Quoth Morpheus, this is sliee which all the Church beguilde. 
Whom all men thought to bee a man, till that shee had a childe: 
Pope Joane shee hath to name, whom once within the Lake 
I shewed unto Robinson, as our viage wee did make. 
Her tombe did crosse the path, because the passers bye, 
When as they saw her shamefuU fact, to her reproche shoulde crv. 
The young man it is hee which was her Minion ever, 
W^ith whom upon the Hill for aye with care they shall persever." 

This and many other topics are introduced for the sake of 
amusement ; and we think that the work before us must have 
been so popular, that the abundance of careless readers have 
only left this solitary copy to testify to the cause of their satis- 

The only point that gives us any real ground for doubting the 
authorship, as well as the editorship, of J. C. is, that in one of the 
smaller i)oems entitled " The poore Knight his Paramour," pro- 
fessedly written by another person called " M. John Com.,*' he is 
named Will. In other places " the poor Knight " speaks of him- 
self as a boy and a lad ; but it is admitted that he was then at 
the University of Cambridge, where he must have been contem- 
porary with Spenser, Kirke, and Gabriel Harvey. He especially 
regrets the loss of " Maister Sharpe," of Trinity College, amono- 
and he has " an Epitaph upon the death of P. 

226 ISlbliograpljical 3laciunt of 

Starling, sometime Schoolemaister of Bury Schoole," as if he had 
been educated there. AVe do not meet with any of the poor 
Knight's friends in the excellent work of Messrs. Cooper, Athence 

There can be little doubt, whatever J. C. may say to the 
contrary, that "the poor Knight" really intended his work for 
publication. He ends it with the two subsequent stanzas, forming 
part of what he calls the " Farewell to his booke " : — 

" And sith thou art in yeares my eldest Sonne, 
Disdaine thou not this viage to begin : 
From hand to hand addresse thy selfe to roune, 
And seeke good will of every man to win. 
If Momus barke and Zoylus gin to chat. 
Bee of good cheare and do not blush at that. 

" And if thou speede, ere many yeares be past 
Thy brethren shall insew thy former race: 
If thou speed not, then shalt thou bee the last. 
As thou wert first, which did begin this case. 
Speede well, speede y\\, herof shal be an ende. 
Adew, good Childe: commend me to my freend." 

Considering that "the poor Knight" was unquestionably a 
poet of no mean order for the time, and that he mentions so 
many Cambridge men, it is singular that he does not name one 
who attained eminence. There are not a few misprints in the 
volume, but the most remarkable is calling Cicero, in a poem on 
"his life and death/' "Maister T. Cicero,'* instead of Marcus T* 

Powell, Thomas. — Wheresoever you see mee, Trust 
unto your selfe. Or the Mysterie of Lending and 
Borrowing. Seria Jocis : or the Tickling Torture. 
Dum rideoj veh mihi risu. By Thomas Powel, Lon- 
don-Cambrian. — London Printed for Benjamin Fisher 
&c. 1623. 4to. ^4: leaves. 

This Thomas Powell is not to be confounded with his earlier 
namesake and countryman, author of "Love's Leprosie," 1598, 

(Earlg (ffnglisl) CUeraturc. 227 

and of " The Passionate Poet," 1601, works bearing not the most 
remote resemblance to the tract before us, which gives a humor- 
ous account of the artifices employed by lenders and borrowers, 
with a minute description of the various resorts and places of 
refuf^e for fraudulent and other debtors in and near the city of 
London. The work is inscribed " To the two famous Universities, 
the Seminaries of so many desperate Debtors, Ram-alley and 
Milford Lane," in the three following stanzas : — 

" Two questions in demurer seeme to staj' us, 
Which is the elder, and from whence ye came? 
Not all the learning in old Doctor Caius 
Was ever able to resolve the same. 
Your bookes and studies are the same and one: 
The blessing from your Creditor must come. 

" Y' are both as deepely learned (we doe know it) 
As to the very center of the cellar: 
For kitchen physicke, if ye list to shew it, 
Y' have stomaclis that can far out doe MontpelHer; 
And for the rest of all the sciences. 
We may send Doway bold defiances. 

" Y' are both so ancient, worthy, so alike. 
It were great pitty that you should contest. 
But rather let your wits best powex-s unite 
Against your equall enemy profest : 
To multiply your partizans apace 
The Temple Gods vouchsafe and give yee grace." 

This is followed by four lines " To the Reader," a short address 
from " The Students of Ram-ally to the Author," and " The 
Author's Invocation," all in verse. The rest of the tract is prin- 
cipally in prose. On p. 23 begins a description of the " noted 
places of refuge and retirement" for persons wishing to avoid 
bailiffs and creditors. These are Ram-alley, in Fleet Street ; Ful- 
wood's Rents, Gray's Inn Lane ; Milford Lane, in the Strand ; 
the Savoy ; Duke Humphrey ; Montague Close ; Ely Rents ; Cold 
Harbor; Black and Wh tefriars, also called Alsatia; and St. 
Bartholomews. The author, from acknowledged experience, 
dwells on the separate conveniences of each, but especially upon 
the facilities of escape and concealment afforded by Ram-alley. 

228 Bibliograpljical 3lccount of 

This part of the tract is very curious with reference to the then 
condition of some of the most populous and disreputable parts of 
the metropolis. 

Price, Laurence. — A new Disputation Betweene the 
two Lordly Bishops, Yorke and Canterbury. With a 
Discourse of many passages which have hapned since 
they were committed to the Tower of London, Being 
very necessary for observation, and well worth the 
Reading. The fifth Edition, corrected and enlarged. 
Written in English Prose by Laurence Price, Febru- 
ary the 15. 1642. 

The simple sort live most at rest, 
Whil'st Lordly Bishops are distrest. 

London Printed by E. P. for J. Wright. 1642. 8vo. 

7 leaves. 

Whether there be any truth in the statement that this is " the 
fifth edition " of the tract, and that it had been " corrected and 
enlarged," is very doubtful, and no other copy is known with 
which a comparison may be made. Laurence Price, who pro- 
fesses, with some singularity, to have written it in " English prose," 
was a very prolific writer of ballads and ephemeral tracts like the 
present. He specifies that the one before us is in " English 
prose," perhaps, for the novelty's sake, but still he could not re- 
frain from adding a humorous song at the end, which " a poore 
Musitioner" sings "to the tune of Banks his bill of Fare" allud- 
ing probably to some well-known air regarding Banks and the 
performances of his horse Maroceus. 

The prose portion consists of an angry recriminatory dialogue 
between the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, while they 
were both confined in the Tower, and it contains some points of 
interest : thus it mentions the execution of " two Romish priests " 
in the January preceding ; the death of " young Bensteed," who 
is called " Laud's watchman," by the hands (as it should seem on 
this authority) of the " London Prentices " ; the defacing of 

(Earb ^nglial) Citcrature. 229 

Cheapside Cross, &c. The following is what relates to the latter 
event : — 

^^Yorke. De'e heare me, Canterbury? since your mind runs so much 
upon crosses, I can tell such strange newes of a Crosse which I thinke 
will crosse your humour to heare it. It is for certaine spoken that Cheape- 
side Crosse is quite defunct, and stands like one forsaken of his former 

'* Cant. Why, what have they done to Cheape-side Crosse? I thought 
that had not offended any body. 

" Yor. It seemes it hath offended some body ; for I am sure they have 
tome downe part of the portraiture of the body of Christ, and the Car- 
dinals Crosier staffe, and the Crowne that was placed upon the Virgin 
Maries head. 

" Cant. Now, by my Holy-dame, I thinke that they were no Papists 
that did it," &c. 

The same circumstance is thus alluded to in the song at the 
end: — 

" I marvell what harme hath old Cheapside Crosse done 

That some meer mechanicks hath wrought it a spight, 
To disfigure the picture of Mary and her Son, 

And dare not shew forth their heads by day- light. 
They have also pul'd down the Crosier staffe. 

Which once was fast plac'd in the Cardinals claw: 
This sport cannot chuse but make Lucifer laugh; 

There's none hut offenders thatfeareth the Law." 

Each stanza ends with this burden ; and the first stanza seems 
imitated, in spirit at least, from the ballad of " Ragged and Torne 
and True," (Roxburghe Ballads, 1847, p. 26.) 

"I am a poore man, and scarce worth a shilling, 
As unto my neighbours is too well knowne, 
Yet to live upright in the world I am willing: 

I covet nothing but what is mine owne. 
And now in the first place to tell you my mind. 

For false-hearted people I care not a straw : 
This is my conceit; by experience I find 

There's none hut offenders thatfeareth the Law.'''' 

The " Fiddler " who sings this song is introduced just before 
Canterbury and Yorke go out of the room to dinner ; but how he 
contrived to get into the Tower to amuse them we are not in- 
formed. Price's initials are at the end of the tract, which seem, 
however, needless, as his names are at full length on the title- 

230 Bibliograpljical !7lcfOiint of 

Pricket, Robert. — Honors Fame in Triumph Riding. 
Or the Life and Death of the late Honorable Earle of 
Essex. — London Printed by R. B. for Roger Jackson 
&c. 1604. 4to. \1 leaves. 

The author signs the dedication to the Earls of Southampton 
and Devonshire, and the Lord Knowles, " R. P. ; " but in some 
stanzas at the end " upon the Author and his subject," subscribed 
" Ch. Best. Arm.," Pricket's name is given at length. Best was a 
writer in Davison's " Poetical Rhapsody," (Vol. I. p. 230.) 

Pricket tells the reader that this was " the third time " he had 
*' indured the press," having in fact previously printed his " Sol- 
dier's Resolution " and " Soldier's Wish," which both came out in 
1603. The dedication contains a remarkable passage, evidently 
referring to the fatal disgrace into which Lords Cobham, Grey, 
and Sir Walter Raleigh had fallen just before this tract was 
printed: — " God, with my soule, an uncontrowled witnes beare, 
I not desire to speake against the justice of the law, nor any 
honorable magistrate in place of Councel or of government : only 
my words may neerly glance at such whose proud demeanour and 
insulting violence made to the world an apparent demonstration 
that they were most joyfuU actors in a mournefull tragedy : but 
now the justice of the heavens decree hath most justly throwne 
themselves unto the stroke of the selfe same judgement." Ac- 
cording to Camden, Lord Southampton was liberated from the 
Tower on the 10th April, 1603, and on the 9th of November of 
the same year Lords Cobham, Grey, Sir Walter Raleigh, and 
others were convicted of high treason at Winchester. 

Lord Cobham's brother and two priests were executed ; and 
to this circumstance Pricket thus alludes in the body of his 
work : — 

" Because that Mercy not arightly knew 

His heart, whom she disloyal] did account, 
Report did feed her taste with gall and rue; 
For by his fall some other up must mount. 
And so they have the gallowes top unto. 
For ever so may such like mounters doe ! 
But God is just; so shall they finde, 
That lay their plots with bloudy minde." 

Saris (englisi) Citerature, 231 

In a previous stanza the special instrumentality of Raleigh is 
touched upon : — 

" Whilst noble honour, shut up in disgrace, 

Could not have leave to vertues Queene to goe, 
Before her throne to speake and pleade his case, 

And to her mercie tell his griefes sad woe ; 
Then in that time an undermining wit 
Did closly frame all actions jumply fit: 
Molehills were to mountaines raisde, 
Each little fault was much dispraisde." 

The following stanza obviously refers to Archbishop Whitgift, 
then dead, and to his exertions on behalf of Lord Essex : — 

" Yet in the rank of honour, honours Grace 

Reverend, renown'd, religious, vertuous, learn'd, 
Grave, sober, chaste, upheld a Primates place, 

Whose godly wisdome Englands eyes discearn'd. 
His soule divine was to that Earle a friend. 
Whom froward fate bequeath'd to fatall end: 

But now their soules in purest love 

Live with their Christ in heavens above." 

Pricket afterwards speaks more darkly of the grief of Sir 
Thomas Egerton for his young friend, as well as of the affection 
of Chief Justice Popham, who sat upon the trial. It is recorded 
by Camden that Lord Essex's head was not severed till the third 
blow, and this circumstance is mentioned with more particulars 
by Pricket : — 

" Base wretch ! whose hand true honors bloud should spill, 
Deaths axe did first into his shoulder strike: 

Upreard againe he strikes a blow as ill; 
Nor one nor other were directed right. 

Honor n'ere moov'd: a third blow did devide 

The body from the worlds admired pride- 
Was that the way to lose a head, 
To have an Earle so butchered ? " 

Camden states that the first blow deprived the victim of sense, 
"which could hardly be the case, if it only struck Essex's shoulder, 
which is Pricket's assertion. 

The Earl of Essex was a poet, and, though none of his verses 
"were printed of old, some are preserved in manuscripts of the 
time. The most interesting of these relates to himself, and ap- 

232 i3ibliograpl)ical ^Iccottnt of 

pears to have been written when he was banished by Queen 
Elizabeth from the Court. In the copy preserved among the 
Ashmole MSS. at Oxford it is called " The buzzing Bee's Com- 
plaint"; but in another more authentic copy, now before us, and 
subscribed " R. Devereux, Essex," it is headed " Honi soit quy 
mal y pense." It is in fifteen six-line stanzas, two of which run 
thus : Essex speaks of himself under the figure of a bee : — 

" Of all the griefes that most my patience grate 
There's one that fretteth in the high'st degree; 
To see some Catterpillers, bredd of late. 

Cropping the flowers that should sustaine the Bee. 
Yet smyled I, for that the wisest knowes 
That mothes will eat the cloath, cankers the rose. 

" Once did I see, by flying in the field, 

Fonle beasts to brouse upon the Lilly fayre. 
Beuty and vertue could no succor yield : 
All's provander to Asses but the aire. 
The partial world of this takes little heed, 
To give them flowers that should on thistles feed." 

In this and other parts of the poem Essex clearly refers to Sir 
Walter Raleigh and his other enemies, then about the person of 
the Queen, who contrived to inflame her mind against the conduct 
of the imprudent but generous Earl. 

In connection with his execution, and the events preceding it, 
we may here quote the following important documents, which can 
never be out of place, and which we copy from the originals, in 
some instances corrected in the handwriting of Lord Treasurer 
Burghley. The first is headed " The names of the Tray tors and 
the places of their imprisonment," and it shows in what way they 
were disposed of on February 8, immediately after the outbreak 
was at an end : — 

"/n the Toicer. — Therle of Essex, Therle of Rutland, Therle of South- 
ampton, Lo. Sands, Lo. Cromwell, Lo. Mountegle, Sr. Charles Davers, Sr 
Christopher Blunt." 

"In Newgate. — ;Sr. John Davies, Sr. Gilla Mericke, Tresham (Sr. 
Thomas Tresham's Sonne in the Gatehouse), Sr. Robert Vernon, Sr. Henry 
Gary, GosnoU (in the Marshalsey), Edw. Bushell, Mr. Downall." 

"/« the Fleete. — Sr. Charles Percy, Sr. Joslen Percie, Francis Manors, 
Sr. Edw. Baynham, Francis Smythe, Willm. Spratt, Tho. Blundell, Fran- 

©arlg ^nglislj CiUratitrc. 233 

CIS Kynersley, Edw. Harte, Willm. Grantham, Edw. Hanmer, Richard 
Chomley, Antho. Rowse, John Arden, John Tympe, Francis Lester, 
Thomas Condell, Tho. Typpinge, St. Willm. Constable, Peter Ryddall, 
Willm. Greenall, Willm. Greene, John Noaris, John Varnon, Robert Dob- 

"7n the Counter in the Poultry. — Francis Prednim, (stranger,) John 
Lymricke, Gregory SheflSeld, Richard Grayes, (for powder,) John Roberts, 
Sr. Thomas West, (Sonne and heire to the Lo. Leware), Stephen Mann, 
John Foster, Willm. Parkins, Bryan Dawson, Tho. Crompton." 

"/w the Counter in Woodstreet. — George Orrell, Ellis Jones, John Floyer, 
Symon Jassion, Richard Harford, Robert Catisby, John Littleton." 

"/n Ludgate. — Thomas Blundell, John Wheler, Thomas Medley." 

"7« the White Lyon. — John Wright, John Graunte, Xpofer Wright." 

'■^All these are suspected, and not knoioen yet whether they he committed. — 
Sr. John Heydon, Sr. Xpo. Heyden, Sr. Ferdinando Gorge, Sr. George 
Manors, Gray Bridges, (Sonne and heire to the Lo. Shandoys), Captaine 
Gilby, junior, Owen Salisbury, (slayn), John Salisbury, junior, John 
Vaughan, Tomkins, Saunders, Temple, Dorrington, Reynoldes, Cuffe, 
Tracy, (slayne), Fowkes, Charles Ogle, Yakesley, White, Wingfield, 
Francis Jobson, Pitchford, Thomas Warburton, Francis Burke, Bromley, 
Glastocke, Keymish, Willm. Lucas, Tresham, Yates, (that came from 
Fraunce with munition), Antho. Lawes." 

" The Ladie Ritche is with Mr. Sackforde." 

" The E. of Bedforde is with Sr. John Stanhope." 

The above lists were obviously made out in extreme haste 
(several names are repeated) for the information of the public 
authorities. The next document must have been considerably 
posterior, after examination into the comparative guilt of the 
different parties accused. It is indorsed " Fines of Offenders,'* 
and we must take it that the first column of figures contains the 
sums originally imposed, and the second the sums to which the 
fines were ultimately reduced. The account is headed, — 

^^Fynes imposed on the Noblemen and other Confederates in the late Rebellion. 

Erie of Rutland 

30,000 li 

20,000 li 

Erie of Bedford 



Baron Sandys 



Baron Cromwell 



Sr. Henry Parker, lo. Monteagle 



Sir Charles Percy . 

500 11 


BibUojrapljical ^Iccount of 

200 m 
100 li 
100 li 

200 li 

200 li 
100 ra 

Sir Josselin Percy 
Sir Henry Carey 
Sir Robert Vernon 
Sir William Constable 
Robert Catesbye 
Francis Tresham 
Francis Manners 
Sir George Manners 
Sir Thomas West 
Gray Bridges 
Sir Edward Michelburn 
Thomas Crompton 
Sir Edward Littleton 
Richard Chomely 
Captain Selby 
Robert Dallington 

Edward Bushell 
William Downehall 

Francis Buck 
Edward Wiseman 
Capt. Whitlock 
Christopher Wright 
John Wright . 
Charles Ogle . 
John Vernon . 
Ellys Jones . 
Arthur Bromefield 
John Salisbury 
Capt. William Norreys 

Owen Salisbury, mentioned in the list of " Traitors," was the 
father of John Salisbury, and an old soldier and follower of the 
Earl of Essex : he is stated to have been " slain," and such was 
his fate at Essex House very early in the affray. " Life of Spen- 
ser," 1862, p. xvi. 

We may add here that remarkable passage in Raleigh's " Dia- 
logue betweene a Counsellour of State and a Justice of Peace," 
where it is stated, without reserve, that Essex would never have 
lost his head but for his " undutiful words " regarding the Queen. 
They have often been alluded to, (Tytler's " Life of Raleigh," edit. 
1844, p. 195,) but never quoted correctly: — " Yea, the late Earle 

500 m 

400 m 

500 m 

300 m 

4000 m 

3000 ra 

400 m 

400 ra 

1000 m 

1000 m 

500 m 

400 li 

400 11 

600 m 

200 m 

100 li 

500 m 

800 m 

100 m 



100 m 

40 li 



40 li 

100 m 

40 11 

40 11 



(ffarlg (gnglislj CiUratitrc. 235 

of Essex told Queene Elizabeth that her conditions ivere as crooked 
as her carcasse : but it cost him his head, which his insurrection 
had not cost him, but for that speech." Tytler tells us that the 
expression was " reported to Elizabeth," but Raleigh asserts that 
Essex spoke it to the Queen herself, which seems highly improb- 

Pkicket, Robert. — Times Anotomie. Containing the 
poore mans plaint, Brittons trouble, and her triumph. 
The Popes pride, Romes treasons, and her destnic- 
tion : Affirming that Gog and Magog both shall 
perish, the Church of Chrish shall flourish &c. Made 
by Robert Pricket, a Souldier &c. — Imprinted at 
London by George Eld and are to be sold by John 
Hodgets. 1606. 4to. Z2 leaves. 

Bibliographers have been puzzled to explain the allusion, in 
the dedication of this production to the Lords and others of the 
Privy Council, to the imprisonment of the author for an offence 
given by a former work. (Restituta, IIL 445.) Had they met 
with Pricket's " Honor's Fame," 1604, they would have seen at 
once that he incurred the displeasure of the crown and court by 
the freedom with which he spoke in that piece of the crime, trial, 
and execution of the Earl of Essex. In the dedication to the 
poem before us he says : " The last untimely fruit, which by a 
publicke print I rashly published, gave just occasion to procure 
your dislike." This "last untimely fruit" was his "Honor's 
Fame." Pricket then proceeds to express his gratitude to the 
Earl of Salisbury (created in 1605), for procuring him his liberty, 
after relieving his wants while imprisoned. 

The author subsequently informs us that he had written the 
first part of his " Time's Anatomy " two years before it was 
printed, and speaking of its scope and object, he adds : " I doe with 
a religious anger chide the violent and presumptuous rage of 
unrul'd abuses, because I grieve to see the gross impieties which 
our time commits : briefely therefore I have anotomized those evils 

236 I3ibliograpl)kal ^Iccount of 

which do afflict the world, and in the processe of my booke's dis- 
course, my reprehentions may, peradventure, be accounted round 
and sharpe." '" Round and sharpe," in the modern acceptation of 
the word " round," reads like a contradiction in terms, but 
" round " was formerly taken in the sense of free and unrestrained. 

The dedication occupies four pages, and an address " to the 
Reader" six more, but the only point worth notice in it is a state- 
ment that Pricket, having dedicated his " Soldier's Resolution," 
1603, to the King, was allowed to deliver it himself to James I . 
" Time's Anatomy," as far as relates to the poem, commences on 
sign. B, and concludes on sign. H. In the opening the author 
mentions his two earlier printed works, " A Soldier's Wish," and 
*' A Soldier's Resolution," and a third, which probably was never 
printed, called " Love's Song," on the loss of Queen Elizabeth. 
We conclude that it was not printed, because we have seen that, 
in the introductory matter to " Honor's Fame," Pricket distinctly 
states that that was the third time he had " endured the press." 

Nothing can be more uninteresting than the whole of this pro- 
duction, the principal object of which is to vituperate the Pope 
and Papists, and to warn England against their machinations. At 
the end is " A Song rejoycing for our late deliverance from the 
gunpowder plot," in six stanzas. One stanza runs thus : — 

" Thy Queene, thy Prince, thy Peeres and princely state. 
Thy Lords, thy Bishopps, Knights and Burgesses, 
God hath preserv'd from Romes intestine hate: 
A suddaine flame should have consura'd all these. 
Romes traytors now so to the world are knowne, 
As treasons Mine hath Rome and them up blowne." 

The same author's "Jesuits Miracles," 4to, 1607, follows up the 
purpose of exposing the evils and dangers of popery. 

Prisoner and Prelate. — The Prisoner against the 
Prelate : or a Dialogue between the Common Goal and 
Cathedral of Lincoln. W^herein the true Faith and 
Church of Christ are briefly discovered and vindi- 
cated by authority of Scripture &c. Written by a 

(ffarlg (SnglisI) Citeratur^. 237 

Prisoner of the Baptised Churches in Lincolnshire. 

8vo. 45 leaves. 

This book has neither name of author, printer, pubhsher, or 
date upon the title-page, but we find " Thomas Grantham " sub- 
scribed to eight preliminary pages headed " A Probleme demon- 
strated," the object of which is to establish that a knowledge of 
Greek and Hebrew are needless to any Englishman who wishes 
to understand the Scriptures, provided he possesses the authorized 
translation perfected by so many learned and competent men. 
This problem is treated logically, and all the rest is in verse, 
beginning with eight pages entitled " The Author's Expostula- 
tion," &c. 

It appears that Grantham was in prison at Lincoln for non- 
compliance with prelatical injunctions ; and the main object of 
the supposed Dialogue between the Gaol and the Cathedral is to 
settle the superiority, and greater antiquity, of the first over the 
last. Much cleverness and considerable learning are displayed 
by the disputants, who take up the conversation alternately, 
usually for six lines each, as in the outset as follows : — 

" I greet thee well, thou great Cathederal, 
Now shining in thy form Prelatical, 
Whilst others lye within my Cells, because 
They can't conform to thy prelatick laws ; 
Whose case yet seemeth just and good to me, 
Although, 'tis true, they do dissent from thee. 


" Is this a Jayle-like greeting? what's the cause 
Thou thus declin'st thy work, to take a pause 
About Religion? and I further strange 
To hear the Jayle once intimate a change 
Twixt her and me, who wont, with one consent, 
All talk that's too religious to prevent." 

In this manner (by the way, it is the first time we ever saw the 
adjective " strange " used as a verb) they begin and continue the 
dialogue, touching upon all the points in dispute between the sup- 
porters of the Church and most classes of sectaries, but especially 
the Baptists. The discussion is by no means edifying in our day, 

238 Bibliograpljkal 2lccoixnt of 

and we cannot believe that Grantham's book had many readers 
even in that day, when the questions were most rife and impor- 
tant. From first to last personal matters are avoided, and " old 
Noll," as he is called by the Jail, is almost the only party particu- 
larized. We can only guess at the period when the little volume 
made its appearance, but it was of course after the Restoration. 

Thomas Grantham began to print in 1644, and from what 
he called his " Brainbreakers-Breaker, or Apologie of Thomas 
Grantham for his method in teaching," we find that he was then 
a schoolmaster " dwelling in Lothbury." The purpose of that 
tract, of only eight pages, is to prove the folly of teachers of 
Greek and Latin, when they compel boys to learn so minutely all 
the rules of Syntax. We need not enter into this question, but 
we may observe that his method is approved by many persons 
who subscribe their names, and among others by James Shirley, 
the dramatist, then also a schoolmaster, who subscribes J. S. to 
some Latin lines. Grantham, in 1642, was curate of East Neston, 
of which he was deprived ; but he continued long afterwards to 
instruct youth, and called himself " Thomas Grantham M. A. of 
Peter- House in Cambridge, Professor of a speedy way of teach- 
ing the Hebrew, Greek and Latine tongues in London, in White- 
Bear-Court, over against the golden Ball upon Adlin Hill." 

This description we find placed upon the title-page of a book 
which we have never seen anywhere mentioned, although a work 
of no less importance than a translation into English of three 
books of Homer's Iliad, as we apprehend, all printed separately. 
The second book has no new title, but a fresh pagination, while 
the first and third books are respectively dated 1660. The first is 
" London Printed by L. Lock for the Author " ; and the third, 
" London, Printed by M. J. for the Author." When Grantham 
printed the last he had removed his school to " Mermaid- Court 
in Gutter-lane, near Cheapside." 

Besides the translation of the first Iliad, Grantham inserted a 
few miscellaneous poems adapted to the time : one on the Procla- 
mation of Charles II. ; another, " a Collation of certain Worthies," 
where Monck is likened to Achilles. At this date Grantham was 
all for the Church, and exclaims, — 

" Hey! for our Tythes and Pulpits, Churches now. 
And Laws and Justice, if Monck keep his vow." 

(Karlg (Eucjlislj Citerature. 239 

At the end of the book are " Verses upon General Blake, his 
Funeral," where he compares Blake with Drake, and among other 
points says, — 

" The Vowels are the same in Drake and Blake: 
Some think these two should equal honour take." 

Passing these, we must speak briefly of Grantham's rendering 
of Homer into English, which is introduced by an address " to the 
Reader," where two lines are better translated from Ovid than, 
perhaps, any others from the Greek: — 

" Homer, with all the Muses grac'd, if poor 
He chance to come, they'l thrust him out of door." 

Few attempts at verse are inferior to Grantham's translation, 
which, however, begins better than it proceeds : — 

" Goddess, the wrath of great Achilles sing, 
Who griefs unnumbred to the Greeks did bring, 
And many valiant souls to hell did send, 
Their noble bodies fouls and dogs did rend: 
Jove will'd all this, from him the strife begun 
Of Agamemnon and great Pel'us son." 

Grantham was not himself well satisfied with this opening, and 
at the close of the book substituted the following: — 

" Achilles son of Pelus Goddess sing, 
His banefull wrath, which to the Greeks did bring 
Unnumbred griefs, brave souls to hell did send, 
Their noble bodies fowls and dogs did rend: 
Jove will'd all this, he these to strife did bring, 
God-like Achilles and Atrides King." 

Still discontented with the first couplet, he added a third ex- 
periment : — 

" Achilles, who from Peleus did spring, 
Goddess, his baneful wrath begin to sing." 

We might apply to each, and all, a homely and not very compli- 
mentary proverb, but we will make a short quotation from the 
speech of Ulysses in the second book. It begins with a strange 
false concord, which could hardly have been the mistake of the 
printer, because Grantham, though a pedagogue, seems never to 
have "been very particular in this respect : — 

240 Bibliojrapljical ^Iccount of 

" King! the Grecians does thee miich disgrace, 
And break the promise made unto thy face, 
That till Troy was destroy'd they all would stay 
But now, like boys and widows run away: 
Weeping with sorrows they do all return. 
I know that every month a man will burn, 
If that he want his wife, and storms him tosse: 
It grieves a man to suffer such a losse. 
But now nine years are past, I cannot blame 
The Grecians for returning home again; 
But now we've staid so long, its base to go: 
Stand to't, my friends, and let us endure woe 
Until! the time that Clmlchas prophesi'd: 
We'll know the truth, or whether Chalchas li'd." 

We do not suppose that the reader will require any further 
specimen of a translation which seems to deserve a j)lace midway 
between the familiarity of Ilobbes and the rough vigor of Chap- 
man. When Grantham arrived at the Catalogue of Ships he 
omitted it, after a vain trial of his rhyming powers, and pro- 
ceeded to the third book, which is separately dedicated to " his 
noble friend Mr. Thomas Turner, Gentleman of Graies-inn," and 
is separately paged. Grantham did not improve with practice, 
and the end of Book 3 is quite as harsh, bald, and uninviting as 
the rest. It ends thus : — 

" Then Agamemnon said, Trojans give ear, 

And Grecians too, for 1 shall make it clear 

That warlike Menelaus won the field: 

Kow Helen with her riches you must yield, 

And pay the fine that's due : hereafter fame 

Shal spread our acts and Greeks approve the same." 

We felt that we ought not to pass over a work of so much pre- 
tension, especially considering its extreme rarity, (for we believe 
that only two copies of it are known,) and it has never yet been 
included in any catalogue. Grantham's " Prisoner against the 
Prelate" has indeed been noticed, and the author (Lowndes, B. 
M. p. 928, edit. 1859) by mistake knighted. His earliest known 
work was "A Marriage Sermon," printed in 1641 ; but be him- 
self mentions, under the date of 1644, that he had already writ- 
ten and printed " Animadversions upon Cambden's Greeke Gram- 
mar," made for the use of Westminster School, showing that it 

(farlg €113110!) Hikxalnxt. 241 

was " false, obscure and imperfect." This production we have 
never seen. We do not believe that there were two Thomas 
Granthams, and the works we have examined were by the same 

Proctor, Thomas. — A gorgious Gallery of gallant In- 
ventions. Garnished and decked with divers dayn- 
tie divises, right delicate and delightful! to recreate 
eche modest minde withall. First framed and fash- 
ioned in sundrie formes, by divers worthy workemen 
of late dayes : and now, joyned tegether and builded 
up : by T. P. — Imprinted at London, for Richard Jones. 
1578. 4to. B. L. 60 leaves. 

This rare miscellany having been reprinted by Park, (though 
imperfectly, and with the omission, besides, of two pages,) we 
should not have noticed it, but that we are able to add something 
new regarding both the responsible editor and his work. 

First as to the responsible editor, Thomas Proctor, we learn 
that six years after the date of the publication of the " Gorgious 
Gallery " he was admitted a freeman of the Stationers' Company 
in the following form, and at the instance of John Allde, or 
Aldee, one of the most celebrated printers and booksellers of his 

day : — 

" 17 Augusti 1584 
" John Aldee. Thomas Proctor. Kd of him for his admission free- 
man of this Cumpanie iijs iiijd" 

We may presume, perhaps, that Proctor had been instructed 
in the " art and mystery " by John Allde, who had also been 
master to Anthony Munday, who contributed a copy of commend- 
atory verses to the work in our hands. The father of Thomas Proc- 
tor was, in all probability, the John Proctor, Master of Tunbridge 
School, who in 1549 published a religious tract called " The Fal 
of the late Arrian," (printed by W. Powell,) and who five years 
afterwards wrote, and Robert Caly printed, a " Historic of Wyates 
Rebellion with the Order and Maner of resisting the same," &c. 

VOL. III. 16 

242 BibUograpljical 2lccoxtnt of 

His son (as we suppose him to have been) gives us no information 
regarding his family or connections in such parts of the " Gorgious 
Gallery " as he contributed. Ritson (Bibl. Poet. p. 301) imagined 
him to be the same T. P. who inserted " Sentences in meeter 
tending to sundrie purposes " in his " Treatise of Heavenly Phi- 
losophy, 1578." There is little doubt about it, for he has similar 
" sentences " in the " Gorgious Gallery," although his initials are 
not appended to them. How little personal representations are 
to be depended upon may be seen from a poem headed " The 
fall of Folly, exampled by needy Age," subscribed T. P., as if he 
were speaking in his own person, and not in that of " needy Age," 
which ends with these lines : — 

" Let mee, your Mirror, learne you leave whats lewd. 
My fall forepassed let teach you to beware : 
My auncient yeres, with tryall tript, have vewd 
The vaunt of vice to be but carking care." 

Here it would be merely ridiculous for T. Proctor to talk of his 
own " ancient years," when we know that he became free of the 
Stationers' Company in 1584. He must have been quite a youth 
when he contributed the poems to the miscellany in our hands, and 
wrote the above in an assumed character. 

We have called Thomas Proctor the responsible editor of the 
" Gorgious Gallery," because his initials are placed upon the title- 
page, and his names are elsewhere found at length; but it is 
certain that he w£is assisted by Owen Roydon, who not only 
prefixes seven six-line stanzas " to the curious company of Syco- 
phantes," but writes and subscribes with his initials the earliest 
piece in the body of the work, addressed " To a Gentlewoman 
that sayd. All men be false, they thinke not what they say." 
Roydon is a peculiar and uncommon name, and we may speculate 
that he was the father of Matthew Roydon, a poet, subsequently 
of considerable eminence, the friend of Sidney, Spenser, Lodge, 
Chapman, and others, their contemporaries. Owen Roydon, the 
father, wrote easily, and was, in all probability, a practised ver- 
sifier in 1578, as will be sufficiently testified by the following rather 
peculiar stanza : — 

" I know not every mans devise, 
But commonly they stedfast are : 

(Earlg (Snglial) f iterature. 243 

Though you doo make them of no price, 
They breake their vowes but very rare. 

They will performe theyr prom is well, 

And specially where love doth dwell: 
Where freendship doth not justly frame, 
Then men (forsooth) must beare the blame." 

Ritson does not mention this poem by Owen Roydon, and 
erroneously gives the date of 1570 to the miscellany in our hands.l 
(Bibl. Poet. p. 320.) It is clear to us that Owen Roydon, or O. 
R., furnished all the materials preceding sign. K iiii ; and then 
we come to the following heading of the page : — 

" Pretie pamphlets by T. Proctor." 
If he had been concerned in the preceding matter, we should have 
been sure to find his name or initials at the ends of the pieces he 
contributed, as indeed we most commonly do after sign. K iiij. 
" Proctors Precepts " is the title given to his earliest effort. 
*' The History of Py ramus and Thisbe," however, the longest 
poem in the volume, has no token of authorship ; and the same 
remark applies to the last five pages, which are separately thus 
entitled, " The lamentacion of a Gentilwoman upon the death of 
her late deceased frend William Griffith, Gent." This perform- 
ance had been licensed by itself at Stationers' Hall to Richard 
Jones in 1577, and no doubt had then been separately pub- 
lished. Such had been the case with various other produc- 
tions contained in the volume. William Griffith, the printer, 
who began business in 1561, had put forth Sackville and Nor- 
ton's "Gorboduc" in 1565; he ceased to publish after 1571, 
and it is just possible that he was the " gent " lamented by the 
lady. It does not follow that it was her composition ; on the con- 
trary, it seems to have been written for her. 

T. Park, in his reprint, 4to, 1814, laments the loss of " a leaf" 
after his p. 102, but only a line is there wanting ; and the same 
js the case (though he does not observe upon it) on his p. 158. 
Neither of these lines can ever be restored, excepting by conject- 
ure, because the original copy is defective in both instances. 
Park does not advert in his preface to a still more important 

1 This is true as regards p. 320 of his Bibl. Poet; but it must there be 
a misprint, because on page 302 he assigns to it the right date, 1578. 

244 Bibliograpljiml !3lccottnt of 

hiatus in the copy of the " Gorgious Gallery " he employed, 
namely, that of two entire pages, containing a couple of Proctor's 
best pieces. This great deficiency we are happily able to supply 
from a perfect exemplar (the only other known) belonging to the 
Duke of Northumberland. The first poem on the missing leaf, 
sign. N iii, runs thus : — 

^'■Beauty is a pleasant paihe to distruction. 
" Through beauties sugered baites 
Our mindes seduced are 
To filthy lustes, to wicked vice, 
Whence issueth nought but care. 
" For having tride the troth, 
And seen the end of it, 
What wayle we more, with greater greefe, 
Then want of better wit. 
'• Because so lewd wee luld 
In that wee see is vayne, 
And follow that, the which to late 
Compels us to complayne. 
*' The boast of Beauties brags. 
And gloze of loving lookes 
Seduce mens mindes, as fishes are 
Intic'd with bayted hookes. 
" Who simply thinking too 
Obtayne the pleasant pray, 
Doth snatch at it, and witlesse so 
Devoures her owne decay. 
" Even like the mindes of men, 
Allurde with beauties bayt 
To heapes of harmes, to carking care 
Are brought by such decaite. 
"Lo thus by proofs it proov'd, 
Perforce I needes must say. 
That beauty unto ruinous end 
Is as a pleasant way. 

Finis T. P." 

On the reverse of the leaf we read as follows : — 
" T. P. his Farewell unto hisfaythfull and approovedfreend, F. S, 
" Farewell, my freend, whom fortune forste to fly, 
I greeve to here the lucklesse hap thou hast: 

(Karlg (ffnglial) Citeratitre. 245 

But what prevayles? if so it helpe might 1 
I would be prest: therof be bold thou maste. 

" Yet sith time past may not be calde agayne, 
Content thy selfe, let reason thee perswade, 
And hope for ease to countervayle thy payne : 
Thou art not first that hath a trespasse made. 

" Mourne not to much, but rather joy, because 
God hath cut of thy will ere greater crime ; 
Wherby thou might the more incur the lawes, 
And beare worse Brutes, seduc'd by wicked prime. 

" Take heede : my woordes let teach thee to be wise, 
And learne thee shun that leades thy minde to ill, 
Least, being warnd, when as experience tries, 
Thou waylst to late the woes of wicked will. 

Finis T. P." 

Several of the poems by Owen Eoydon are to then popular 
tunes ; such as, " Where is the life that late I led," {Tarn. Shrew^ 
Act IV. sc. 1,) " Lusty Gallant," " When Cupid scaled first the 
fort," " I lothe that I did love," &c. Proctor has an excellent 
song of the Willow Garland, of the same measure and import as 
Desdemona's lament in Othello, Act IV. sc. 3. In Park's reprint 
it is however disfigured by a woful error, held for " lull'd," which 
spoils a beautiful line ; but in general his reproduction of the 
" Gorgious Gallery " is more accurate than any other attempt of 
a similar kind in " Heliconia." 

Proud Wife's Paternoster. — The Proude Wyves 
Pater noster that wolde go gaye, and iindyd her Hus- 
bonde and went her waye. Anno Domini MDLX. 
[Colophon] — Imprinted at London in Paiiles Churche 
yearde at the Sygne of the Swane by John Kynge. 
4to. B. L. 

By means of this valuable impression of a rare and excellent 
satirical poem we are able to correct some important, and other 
less material errors in the reprint made by Mr. Utterson iu 1817 

246 Biblioigrapljkal ^Iccount of 

from Douce's copy. On the title-page of the Selden exemplar, in 
the Bodleian Library, are woodcuts of two women conversing, 
and not of a man with purses at his girdle. 

The errors begin early, for the Proud Wife, when reciting 
Panem nostrum coiidianum, is made to say, — 

" But of divers comes I have many a come," 
which is nonsense ; and, besides, " corne " does not rhyme with 
the last syllable of cotidianum. She ought to say, according to 
Kynge*8 impression and the sense, — 

" But of divers comes I have many a come,''^ — 
a comej or coom, being a well-known measure of grain. The 
next error, in the last line of the stanza devoted to Amen, is 
merely literal, but material to the sense. It is to read " Yf he 
fare amys," instead of " Yf he fore amys," as it stands in the 
modern reprint. Douce's copy is right in one place, Csix stanzas 
onward,) where that printed by Kynge is decidedly wrong. 

" And to go trym in lusty wede," 
must be the correct text, because gere, as Kynge gives it, does 
not rhyme with dede in the corresponding line. Five stanzas 
farther on we are able to supply a valuable omission, where a line 
rhyming with " in store " ends only with the word " encrease." It 
ought to run, — 

" And thus may ye dayly encrease more and more." 

If the reader refer to Mr. Utterson's " Early Popular Poetry," 
Vol. 11. p. 152, he will see that the words "more and more " are 
wanting. " Be not ratshe," three stanzas farther on, ought to be 
" Be not rasshe" perhaps from the error of the copyist. The 
sense of the second line of the next stanza is quite obscured by a 
serious mistake. The line, 

" For lefe nor locke why chulde ye not," 
ought to have been printed, 

" For lefe nor hike, why shulde ye not," — 
the meaning being, whether you are willing (lefe) or unwilling 
(lothe), the words "lefe" and "lothe" often thus occurring in 
opposition. For 

" I thynke not long to tary here," 

Carlg (fnglisi) Citerature. 247 

Kynge reads, 

" I thinke nothynge to tary here," 

and the sentence seems to support nothynge^ instead of " not long," 
but either will answer the purpose. In a subsequent stanza 
(Utterson, p. 159) the verb " were" is injuriously excluded, both 
as regards meaning and metre, for the line 

" As well for you as it for me," 
ought to be, according to Kynge, 

" As well for you as it were for me." 
In the last stanza but two, before we arrive at " The golden 
Pater noster of devocyon," we must read lenger for "legger," but 
that was probably a mere misprint in Utterson. " Shore Thurs- 
day," for " Shere " or Maundy Thursday, may also have been an 
error of the press, but it is important to set it right. 

It is always expedient, and sometimes very necessary, to collate 
one old copy with another, and to point out the differences. 
Where the reimpression is from a unique book, of course it is 
impossible to do so ; but here it would have been comparatively 
easy, because two editions of the " Proude Wyves Pater noster '» 
are known. 

Prujean, Thomas. — Aurorata. By Thomas Prujean, 
Student of Gonvile and Cains Colledge in Cambridge. 
&c. — London, Printed for Hugh Perry neere Ivy 
Bridge in the Strand. 1644. 8vo. 44 leaves. 

This work (dedicated to the Countess of Dorset) is chiefly re- 
markable for what may be looked upon as a second part, under a 
new title, " Love's Looking Glasse Divine and Humane. The 
Divine one in Christ's Birth and Passion faithfully showne : The 
Humane one in four Episdes of Juliets, Romeos, Lisanders, 
Calistas," &c. The continuation of the signatures at the foot of 
the pages shows that " Love's Looking Glasse " was part of what 
was published under the general title of " Aurorata." 

After two sacred poems on the Birth and Passion, we come to 
the Epistles from Juliet to Romeo, and from Romeo to Juliet ; 

248 Bibliograpljical 2lccount of 

from Lisander to Calista, and from Calista to Lisander. The two 
first are preceded by •' The Argument of Romeos and Juliets " : — 

" Romeo and Juliet issues of two enimies, Montegue and Capulet, Cit- 
izens of Verona, fell in love one with the other: hee going to give her a 
visit meetes Tybalt her kinsman, who urging a fight was slaine by him: 
for this Romeo was banished and resided at Mantua, where he received 
an Epistle from Juliet." 

Almost the only merit of these productions is, that they are 
founded upon the story of Shakspeare's play ; they are anything 
but such as he would have written. The two Epistles of Lisan- 
der and Calista are founded upon Beaumont and Fletcher's 
" Lover's Progress," and have as little to recommend them. 

" Aurorata " is a volume of extreme rarity. Its author was the 
nephew of William Prujean, M. D., and he was cousin to Marga- 
ret, Mary, and Katherine St. George, of Hatley St. George, whom 
he calls " true patterns of beauty and vertue," and the " quintes- 
sences of all perfection." The following deserves quoting, solely 
on account of the persons to whom it relates. It should be pre- 
mised that " the Fox " was at that time another term for intoxica- 
tion : — 

" Of Ben Johnson's death. 
" Here lyes the Fox : then what needs wee 
Fear 't in a glasse of sack V Be free; 
Drink 't off. By Jesus, Ben doth sweare, 
VtUpona ne'ere shall hurt us here." 

Vulpona is, of course, a misprint for Volpone, the name of Ben 
Jonson's celebrated comedy, which was, however, better known 
by its English title, " The Fox." This mention of Ben Jonson 
reminds us of a blunder by Gifford, which it may be well to set 
right, where he says that " Every Man in his Humour " was not 
printed until 1603. (Giff. B. J. L p. 2.) There is no such edition, 
and it first came from the press in 1601, 4to. It was mentioned 
by Chamberlain in 1597, and by B. Rich in 1606. Chamberlain 
(Letters pr. by Camd. Soc. in 1861, p. 4) speaks of it only as 
"Humours," but Rich ("Faults, and nothing but Faults") as 
" Everie Man in his Humour " 

. (Paris <£ngli0l) €xitxai\xxt, 249 

Ptgge, Oliver. — Meditatons concerning praiers to 
Almighty God for the safety of England, when the 
Spaniards were come into the narrow Seas. August 
1588. As also other Meditations &c. by O. Py gge. 
With a spirituall Song of praises by P. Turner Doctor 
of Phisicke — Psalme 145.18. Psalme 126. 2. 3.— 
Printed at London by R. R. for Thomas Man. 1589. 

This work was popular, and went through two editions in the 
same year, although only one of them is mentioned by bibliograph- 
ers, and that with the misprint of sceptre for " safety " on the title- 
page. (Bihl. Man. 1861, p. 1864.) The author appears to have 
been a puritanical divine, who took advantage of the providential 
defeat of the Spanish Armada in order to put forth these " Medi- 
tations " on the event.^ From them we shall not think it neces- 
sary to make any quotation ; but we take the opportunity of 
introducing, from the end of the second impression of the work, 
a new name in our poetical annals, — that of P. Turner, who was 
not only a " Doctor of Phisicke," but a musician, and composed 
the tune to which his " Song of Praises " was to be sung. It pre- 
cedes that song in score of the time. Dr. Turner seems to have 
entertained a very just notion of the danger to which the country 
had been exposed, and from which it had escaped as if by mir- 
acle ; and he begins his " spiritual song " thus : — 

"Hadst thou not watcht (0 Lord) our coasts to keep, 
And hadst thou not well warded all our hounds. 
Our cruell foes had caught us all asleep, 
And sonck our ships and sackt our haven towns." 

This is not a very happy, though a very true commencement, 

1 The name of Pygge sounds somcAvhat ridiculously in English, but we 
are to recollect that in 1552 the Pope had a Cardinal of a very similar 
name, namely, Pigghin, as Sir Richard Morysine, the ambassador to 
Charles V. writes it, and Pigghini, as it reads in Italian: — " II Cardinal di 
Monte is appointed to oversee the Bishop's revenues, and take order for 
things of his Holiness chamber. Cardinal Pigghin is appointed to mat- 
ters of judgment, to appoint consistories and the like." P. F. Tytler's 
" England under Edw. VI. and Mary," II. 139. Pope Sergius IV. was 
nicknamed Bocca di Porco. 

250 Bibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

for, most assuredly, the preparations to meet and defeat the 
Armada were most hasty and inefficient. Turner proceeds as 
follows : — 

" All laud therefore from heart we yeeld to thee, 
That hidest not thy face from thine at neede, 
But doest still stand by them, as now we see. 
When bloudy foes do think them oat to weede. 

" Hadst thou not bin, our Queene had bin no more, 
And slavish yoke had all our necks opprest; 
None should have taught or followed thy lore : 
Hadst thou not bin, who could have this redrest? " 

Every other stanza is made, in the music, a sort of burden to 
that which precedes it. He asks again, — 

" Hadst thou not made thy windes for us to fight, 
Hadst thou not stretched forth for us thy hand, 
Hadst thou not put our proud foes all to flight, 
O ! what should then have come to this our land ? 

" Hadst thou not overwhelmde our foes with flouds, 
Hadst thou not causde the seas to be their graves. 
Then had our streetes bin died with our blouds, 
And all our babes bin marked for their slaves." 

Dr. Turner writes like a man not by any means unused to ver- 
sifix3ation, though we are not aware that anything else from his 
pen was ever printed. His last stanza is, however, quite in the 
Sternhold and Hopkins vein. 

" But therefore, Lord, as at thy sonnes request 
Thou hast us kept and saved from all woe. 
So for his sake whom thou acceptest best, 
Accept the thankes which we doe yeelde also." 

Whether Dr. P. Turner were any relation to the hearty Protes- 
tant, Dr. William Turner, who wrote and printed abroad, in the 
reign of Mary, " The Hunting of the Foxe and the Wolfe," we 
know not. Ritson, on the authority of Herbert, (Bibl. Poet. 372,) 
gives it the date of 1561, but it must originally have come out 
earlier, because it com*mences (as Ritson was not aware) with an 
address in verse from "the Romish Fox to Bishop Gardener." 
Half a century later there was a Richard Turner, who wrote epi- 
grams, &c. under the title of Nosce Te, 1607. We never saw 

€av[^ (Englislj CiUratnre. 251 


more than a single copy of it ; and the following brace of stanzas 
will show the spirit in which the work is written : — 

" Shine, hollow caves, and thou celestiall round 

Droppe downe harmonious accents from thy sphears ; 
Let heaven and earth with merry noise resound. 

The Flagge hanges out, to day thei'l baite the beares. 
For how to spend my time I could not tell 
Cause all the whores in Lambeth be in Bridewell. 

" Thus idle Libertines consume their lives 
In some detested sinne, some horrid vice, 
Ravishing maides, dishonesting mens wives 

At tavernes, bawdy houses, playes, whores, dice: 
They that have libertie do thus abuse it, 
Cursed, nay, all most damb'd are they that use it." 

QuARLES, Francis. — Solomons Recantation, entituled 
Ecclesiastes, paraphrased. With a Soliloquie or Med- 
itation upon every Chapter &c. By Francis Quarles. 
Opus posthumum. Never before imprinted. With a 
short relation of his Life and Death &c. — London 
Printed by M. F. for Richard Royston &c. 1645. 
4to. 37 leaves. 

The Life of Quarles, which introduces the poem, purports to 
have been drawn up by Ursula Quarles, '* his sorrowfull Widow." 
It is succeeded by a letter, dated September the 12th, 1644, from 
Nehemiah Rogers, " a learned divine," to, a Mr. Hawkins, "upon 
the newes of the death of Mr. Quarles." The widow informs us, 
among other points, that her husband was " in his study late and 
early, usually by three a clock in the morning," in order to com- 
pose his different poems. These before us contain some good 
lines ; but the Soliloquies, in which the author addresses his own 
soul, consist in general of well-worded commonplaces. Quarles 
seems to have been happy in feeling no misgivings as to the merits 
of his Muse. At the end are two elegies on the death of Quarles: 
one in Latin, by the learned Jacobus Duport, Grcecoe Linguce 
Professor Cantab.; and the other in English, signed R. Staple. 

252 5ibUograpI)ical !3lccount of 

The works of Quarles are very voluminous, and nearly all of 
them of a pious turn. He was born in 1592, and printed his ear- 
liest production, " A Feast for Worms," in 1 6 20, after which date he 
was constantly writing and publishing till his death in 1 644. Be- 
sides that before us, he left several posthumous pieces, which, on 
account of the popularity of the author, were thought worth pub- 
lishing. One of the principal of these was his " Shepherd's Ora- 
cles," 4to, 1644, which is merely controversial divinity in the form 
of pastorals. The "Emblems" of Quarles, first printed in 1635, 
with plates, have gone through innumerable editions. His only 
works, not of a religious character, are a poem called " Argalus 
and Parthenia," printed in 1621, and founded upon Sir Philip 
Sidney's "Arcadia"; and a dramatic performance, never acted, 
called "The Virgin Widow," 4to, 1649. 

Besides his printed works, Francis Quarles was the author of 
no fewer than eighteen children, one of whom, John, wrote a 
continuation of Shakspeare's " Rape of Lucrece," under the title 
of " Tarquin banished," 8vo, 1655. He adopted many of his 
father's religious predilections, and, among other pieces, was the 
author of an Elegy on the death of Archbishop Usher in 1656. 

QuEEJj OF Scots. — A Defence of the Honorable sen- 
tence and execution of the Queene of Scots: exem- 
pled with Analogies and diverse presidents of Emper- 
ors, Kings and Popes : With the opinions of learned 
men in the point, and diverse reasons gathered foorth 
out of both Lawes Civill and Canon. Together with 
the answere to certaine objections made by the favour- 
ites of the late Scottish Queene. Ulpians Maxim, 
Juris executio nullam habet injuriam. The execution 
of Lawe is injurious to no man. — At London, Printed 
by John Windet. 4to. B. L. 

Herbert assigns this work to Maurice KyfEn (H. 1226), mis- 
takenly coupling it with " The Blessednes of Brytaine," 4to, 1587, 

®arlt) (Englislj Citeratitre. 253 

■which was unquestionably by that author. It was entered at 
Stationers' Hall in the following manner, which seems to show 
that only one portion of the title, which belongs in fact to the 
first chapter of the volume, was recorded by the Clerk : — 

" xi Feb. [1587] John Wyndett. Lycenced alsoe to him, under the B. 
of London hand and Mr. Denham, An Analogic or resemblance betweene 
Johane, Queene of Naples, and Marye, Queene of Scotland." 

The volume commences with the " Analogic or resemblance 
betweene Jone queene of Naples, and Marie queen of Scotland," 
so that it appears likely that the volume had not then prefixed to 
it the general title-page, such as it stands at the head of the pres- 
ent article. Lowndes also assigns it to Kyffin, (Bibl. Man. edit. 
1861, p. 1501,) but the work itself, in no part of it, proves that it 
was his authorship. 

The back of the title is blank, and then come " The contents 
of the booke," on two pages, containing an enumeration of seven 
chapters, and what is called " The conclusion upon the sum of 
the saide Chapters," which is numbered 8. The " Analogy or re- 
semblance " is composed of only six leaves, and the import of it 
may be seen in the statement of the first point of resemblance 
between Joan and Mary. 

" Jone, queene of Naples, being in love with duke of Tarent, caused 
hir husband Andrasius (or as som terme him) Andreas, King of Naples 
(whom she little favoured) to be strangled in the yeare of our Lord God 

"Marie Queene of Scotland being (as appeareth by the Chronicles of 
Scotlande and hir owne letters) in love with the earle of Bothwell, caused 
hir husband, Henrie Lorde Darley King of Scotland (whome shee made 
small account of long time before) to be strangled, and the house where 
he lodged called Kirke ofjielde to be blowen up with gun powder, the 
tenth of Februarie in the yeare of our Lord God 1567." 

As the work is one of rarity and historical importance, we will 
describe its contents with more minuteness than usual. First 
comes the title-page, followed by a leaf marked ^ 2. Next sheet 
A i in fours ; but sheet B consists of only two leaves, marked B 
and B 2. Sheet C follows, and so on regularly to K 4 ; but sheet 
L consists of a single leaf marked L i, and preceded by the word 
Finis. Next we have a list of Errata on a leaf without any sig- 

254 Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

nature, and bearing the catchword " Anthony." The back of 
that leaf is blank, but on the next page begins "Anthony Bab- 
ingtons letter to the Queene of Scots," bearing the signature D, 
and the signatures are regularly continued to F 3, which is the 

It seems not only very possible, but very probable, that the 
whole of the later portion of the book, consisting of 11 leaves, was 
an after-thought. It contains Babington's letter (without date) ; 
the Scottish Queen's letter to Babington of 12th July, 1586; the 
contents of the Queen's letter to Bernardin Mendoza of 20th May, 
1586; Points subscribed Gilbert Curie, dated 23d September, 1586; 
and Nawes Affirmation, dated 6th September, 1586. The word 
Finis is not found at the end of the whole, but the last words are 
these : " Nawe in effect is contest with Curie, with the concur- 
rency of Babington and Ballardes confession, and other of the 

We may reasonably doubt whether the book is complete in the 
shape in which we have had an opportunity of examining it, and 
Kyffin's name may be in some other copy. Mary was beheaded 
on the 8th February preceding the entry at Stationers' Hall, and 
it is probable that the work was put together in great haste. 

Questions, Quips upon. — Quips upon Questions, or a 
Clownes conceite on occasion offered, bewraying a 
morrallised metamorphoses of changes upon interrog- 
atories, shewing a little wit, with a great deale of will : 
or indeed more desirous to please in it, then to profite 
by it. Clapt up by a Clowne of the towne in this 
last restraint, having little else to doe to make a litle 
use of his fickle Muse, and carelesse of carping. By 
Clunnyco de Gurtaneo Snuffe. 

Like as you list, read on and spare not, 

Clownes judge like Clownes, therefore I care not. 

(ffarlg (Snglisl) CiUratur^. 255 

Or thus^ 
Floute me, He floute thee: it is my profession, 
To jest at a Jester, in his transgression. 

— Imprinted at London for W. Ferbrand, and are to 
be sold at the signe of the Crowne over against the 
Mayden head neare Yeldhall. 1600. 4to. 24 leaves. 

We beheve this to be as scarce a poetical tract as any in our 
language : we only know of a single copy of it, that now before 
us. Its contents are highly interesting, and the piece not only 
unique in itself, but unique in its kind. It is purely theatrical, 
but belongs to a department of which we have no other specimen : 
we can, therefore, hardly over-state its value and importance. 

It has no printed name on the title-page, nor in any other part; 
but if we may rely, as under the circumstances presently to be 
stated we think we may, upon a MS. note on the first leaf, it was 
by John Singer, a comic actor of the highest reputation in Shaks- 
peare's day, though not in the same association to which he be- 
longed. We have no information that Singer ever sustained any 
character in a play by our great dramatist ; although he may have 
done so, since he was a very frequently employed performer un- 
der Philip Henslowe, when the two companies of the Lord Cham- 
berlain and the Lord Admiral were in the joint occupation of the 
theatre at Newington Butts in June, 1594. In Henslowe's Diary 
we meet with notices of Singer in 1594, 1598, 1600, and 1602; 
and on 13th January, 1602-3, we hear of his "play" called 
" Singer's Voluntary." What the precise meaning of that title 
may be we do not pretend to be able to explain, but it was clearly 
not a mere "jig," or brief performance of singing and dancing, 
because it is distinctly denominated '' a play," and the then con- 
siderable sum of £5 was given for it by the experienced old man- 
ager. Our belief is that it was, as the name implies, a '' volun- 
tary," or extemporal, performance on the part of Singer, and the 
tract now under consideration itself possesses that character. 

To the Newington Theatre, wc apprehend, that the two com- 
panies of the Lord Chamberlain and the Lord Admiral had been 
driven by the plague, which had raged, especially in the metrop- 

256 J3iblioc(rapl)kal Account of 

olis, in the autumn of 1593 ; but the latter association had usually 
performed at the Rose on the Bankside, near to the Globe. Both 
associations not unfrequently migrated to the Curtain in Shore- 
ditch, and such was the case with Singer and his fellows ; who, 
when he published these " Quips upon Questions," and until what 
he terms " the last restraint," (meaning the forbidding of perform- 
ances on account of the last fatal epidemic,) was exhibiting his 
talents at the Curtain. The ludicrous words on his title-page, 
" by Clunnico de Curtaneo Snuffe," imply that the writer was at 
the time the Clown at the C urtain Theatre ; and we have some- 
thing like contemporaneous evidence that the word Clunnico, or 
Clownico, was used for a clown. A broadside ballad in black let- 
ter, entitled *' Times Abuses," printed without date for J. Wright, 
has the following lines in point : — 

" For, like a home-bred CUntmico^ 
good manners he knows none : 
Cannot he looke to his waggon, 
and let Muld-sacke alone? '* 

The addition by Singer of " Snuffe " seems to have relation to 
the two rhyming couplets of careless defiance which follow his 

The fact was, as we may safely infer, that during some period 
when plays were forbidden in London on account of the number 
of deaths from the plague, Singer profitably employed his leisure 
in putting together and printing the little work under review. 

We know from various sources that it was a usual amusement 
for auditors at our old theatres to fling upon the stage, or to sug- 
gest verbally, what were called '* themes," in order that the popu- 
lar and humorous actor, who sustained the part of Clown, might 
reply to them, or descant upon them, in extempore verse. Some 
of these exercises of ready talent (not perhaps the brightest speci- 
mens) have come down to us among what were called " Tarle- 
tons Jests " ; and Singer's tract before us consists chiefly of more 
labored displays of the same description. Some of these " Quips " 
must have been suggested to Singer by " Questions " put to him 
while acting; and when he had time, owing to the prevailing epi- 
demic, he collected them together and put them into shape, with 
such additions as might present themselves to him in a graver and 
more deliberative mood. 

(farljj (£ngli0lj Citerature. 257 

These " Quips upon Questions" are essentially such sallies of 
merriment and reflection as were expected from comic performers 
of Singer's class; and, viewed in this light, they form a very curi- 
ous and interesting addition to what may be considered, in a cer- 
tain sense, our dramatic literature. The author supposes various 
brief interrogatories propounded to him : these are followed by 
his replies, and closed by what he calls a " Quip " or a satirical 
observation, a moral, or a reflection upon both question and 

Of these we will insert a few specimens presently ; but, in the 
first place, it is necessary to state that a mock dedic^ation follows 
the title-page, " To the right worthy Sir Timothie Truncheon : 
alias Bastinado, ever my part-taking friende, Clunnico de Cur- 
tanio sendeth greeting; wishing his welfare, but not his meeting;" 
and it is subscribed Clunnico Snuffe. It is, as may be supposed, 
written in a humorous strain, and contains the subsequent allusion 
to a principal character in Ben Jonson's first comedy, which had 
been performed by the company to which Singer was attached, 
and in which it is very likely he had sustained that character : — 
" See what entertainement my booke hath, and who so disgraces 
it enviously, and not jesting at it gently, at the least so bastinado 
them, that Bobbadillo like, as they censure, so with him they may 
receive their reward." From the conclusion of this dedication it 
would seem that the author, like many others, had temporarily 
quitted London to avoid the infection. In the country, there- 
fore, he collected and digested his materials. 

His address " to the Reader " has no peculiar claim to notice ; 
and, to fill a blank page at the back of it, eight couplets are in- 
serted under the heading " Incouragement to the Booke," none of 
which are worth quoting. The next page is entitled " Quips upon 
Questions, or a Clownes conceite upon occasion offerd," — the 
occasion being when the comic performer was called upon, on the 
sudden, to answer questions put to him by auditors at theatres. 
The first interrogatory is thus printed : — 

" Who began to live in the worlde ? 

" Adam was he that first livde in the world, 
And Eve was next: who knowes not this is true? 
But at the last he was from all grace hurld, 
VOL. in. 17 

258 Bibliogvapljical Account of 

And she for companie the like did rue. 
Was he the first? I, and was thus disgrast: 
Better for him that he had been the last. 

" Quip I 

TTiou art afoole : Why ? for reasoning so , 
But not thejirst, nor last, by many tno." 

The general fault is that the questions, answers, and quips are 
too serious — they have not drollery enough about them. Tarle- 
ton's jests were often coarse buffoonery ; and Singer seems, in 
endeavoring to avoid that fault, to fall into the opposite error. 
Sometimes the answer extends over more than a page ; as when 
the question is, " Who's the Foole now ? " the reply fills more than 
a whole leaf, or ten stanzas, besides the Quip. One of the most 
interesting is the response to the inquiry " Where's Tarleton ? " 
whom Singer must have known, for he died in 1588, and Singer 
was, in all probability, then on the stage. We cannot give the 
whole, as it consists of nine stanzas, but we quote the three best, 
which probably contain a true anecdote : — 

" A Collier, after Tarleton's death, did talke 
And sayd, he heard some say that he was dead; 
A simple man that knew not cheese from chaulke. 
Yet simple men must toyle in wise mens stead. 
Unto the Play he came to see him there : 
When all was done, still was he not the nere. 

" He calles aloude, and sayd that he would see him, 

For well he knew it was but rumourd prate. 

The people laught a good, and wisht to free him, 

Because of further mirth, from this debate. 

The Collier sayd, the squint of Tarletons eie 

Was a sure marke that he should never die. 

" Within the Play past was his picture lasd, 
Which when the fellow saw, he laught aloud: 
A ha! quoth he; I knew we were abusde. 
That he was kept away from all this croude. 
The simple man was quiet and departed, 
And, having seene his picture was glad harted." 

Singer goes on to argue that Tarleton was so much admired, that 
he could never die, — " His name will live long after he is dead." 
It was true ; for tracts dated much after the Restoration are full 
of Tarleton's praises. In more than one play anterior to the year 

©arlg (Pnglisl) £itcrature. 259 

1600 Tarleton's picture was used, — in one as the sign of a public 
housej Tarleton was said to have been " hare-eyed " ; that is, the 
eye-ball projected, and gave hiin what is called a glare. With 
reference to Singer's own profession, and the place he filled in it, 
we will extract a couple of stanzas which contain his answer to a 
person who said he " played the Foole." 

" True it is, he playes the Foole indeed, 

Bat in the Play he playes it as he must; 
Yet when the Play is ended, then his speed 

Is better than the pleasure of thy trust. 
For he shall have what thou that time hast spent, 
Playing the Foole thy folly to content. * * * 

" Say, should I meete him and not know his name, 
What should I say, ' Yonder goes such a foole? ' 
I, fooles will say so; but the wise will aime 

At better thoughts, whom reason still doth rule : 
Yonders the merry man ! it joyes me much 
To see him civill when his part is such. 

' A merry man is often thought unwise, 

Yet mirth and modesty'' s lovde of the wise. 

Then say, should he for a foole goe, 

When he's a more foole that accountes him so. 

Many men descant on an others wit, 
, When they have lesse them selves in doing i<." 

We would fain quote, in conclusion, a very apposite illustration 
of a celebrated passage in " The Merchant of Venice," Act I. sc 
1, beginning " In my school-days, when I had lost one shaft," &c., 
but it is hardly necessary, because Singer's lines are quoted at 
length in a note upon the simile in " Shakspeare's Works,** edit. 
1858, Vol. II. p. 271. We find precisely the same thought in T. 
Ford's "Theatre of Wits," 8vo, 1661, p. 13. The whole of the 
excessively curious tract before us will speedily be reprinted, and 
our account of it is necessarily brief and imperfect. 


QuiN, Walter. — The Memorie of the most worthie 
and renowmed Bernard Stuart, Lord D'Aiibigni re- 
newed. Whereunto are added Wishes presented to 

260 Bibliograpljkal :2lccount of 

the Prince at his Creation. By Walter Qiiin, Servant 
to his Highnesse. Dignum laude viruyn Musa vetat 
mari. Hor. Od. — London, Printed by George Purs- 
low. 1619. 4to. 38 leaves. 

It would be a mistake to represent that a single line in this 
volume can properly come under the denomination of poetry. 
Probably the author was an Irishman, and he may have been 
related to the Walter Quin of Dublin, of whom Anthony Wood 
makes mention in his autobiography (Vol. I. p. xxxix. edit. 1813) ; 
but he was in Scotland prior to the accession of James I. to the 
English throne, and most likely came to London on that occasion 
as a retainer of the Lenox family. Afterwards he was taken into 
the service of Prince Charles, and in that capacity addressed to 
him the following sonnet, which immediately follows the title-page 
of the work before us. 

" To the Prince my most gracious Master. 
" I, yours in zealous love and due respect, 

Great Prince, to you present, as yours by right, 

This true Memoriall of a worthy Knight 
Whom as your owne you cannot but affect : 
Sith both your Roy all linage by him deckt 

As him it honour'd, and his vertues bright 

That early shew in you their orient light, 
Your rayes on him, and his on you reflect. 

Vouchsafe therefore to view with gracious eye 
These verses, though not worthy of your view, 
As mine, yet in respect that they renew 

His fame and yours, as his become thereby. 
So favour still may the Celestial! Pow'rs, 
And worthiest Muses honour You and Yours. 

" \V. Quin." 

He was friend to Sir W. Alexander, Earl of Stirling, who, 
after Quin's preface, contributes a sonnet ending with a high 
compliment to his powers of conferring immortality. Quin 
speaks of having already written a memorial of Bernard Stuart 
in French, and he certainly was an accomplished person for the 
time in which he lived. He observes, with reference to his 
present labor, — " The reason which induced me to write, rather 
in verse, then in prose, was because what I could gather beeing 

(Earls (EnglisI) Citeratnre. 261 

not sufficient for a competent relation of his life in prose, I might 
with more libertie enlarge the same in verse by digressions and 
other amplifications." He certainly avails himself of this privilege 
abundantly, and very near the commencement of his undertaking 
tells at length the fable of the choice of Hercules, without its 
having more connection with the subject than because he rep- 
resents his hero as coming to the same decision. It is impos- 
sible to follow Quin through his " digressions and amplifications " ; 
and we think that the opening of his poem, which we extract, 
will show that it would scarcely be worth while to make the 

" If after death to men whose vertues rare 
And worthy actions memorable are 
Posteritie immortall honour owe, 
Which from the Muses powerfull art doth flow, 
For their reward; and that provok'd thereby 
Brave minds apace in vertues race may hie 
To honors goale, such fame is due by right 
To Bernard, Lord of Aubigni, that bright, 
Like to a starre, did shine in Vertues sphere 
Among the worthiest Knights that ever were : 
Who yet hath not receiv'd his honour due, 
In prose or verse, from any of the crue 
Of all those learned Clerks that did adorne 
That ancient kingdom wherein he was borne." 

Having related the birth of his hero, as younger brother to the 
ancient Earl of Lenox, he proceeds to his services, especially in 
Italy and Spain ; but although Quin writes what he considered 
poetry, nothing can be more prosaic than his treatment of the 
subject. For instance, of the service of D' Aubigni, under the 
Duke of Nemours, at Naples, he says, — 

" The Duke of Nemours being thither sent 
As Vice-roy there the King to represent, 
Yet also then, though second in degree 
And place, himselfe he ever shew'd to be 
In great achievments the most eminent 
As by the sequell it is evident." 

The whole narrative is little else but dull insipidity, while every 
incident is drawn out to tedious length, as if to give the subject 
importance, and to swell the bulk of the book. After the main 

262 Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

body of the poem we arrive at two sonnets, one upon the hero's 
*' last retiring to Corstorfin," and the other 

" Of his buriall in the same place. 
" Brave Bernard, of a noble linage borne 
In Scotland, whom such vertues did adorne 
As did him more ennoble, and in France 
Deservedly to honour high advance. 
Who Englands parted Roses, and with them 
The Scottish Thistle and their Royall stemme, 
Help'd to unite; who of a ruler wise 
And valiant Warriour well deserv'd the prize 
In Italy, cheefe Theater of iiis worth 
And victories, whose fame from South to North 
From East to West did through all Europe flye 
Interr'd doth in obscure Corstorfin lie. 
But I mistake: his better part is past 
To Heav'n; on earth his fame shall ever last." 

The eleven prose pages of historical illustrations are not less 
wearisome, and scarcely less unpoetical, than the rest. The 
" Wishes presented to the Princes Highness at his Creation " are 
in rather a higher strain ; but having tried his hand at English, 
with what success the reader can determine, Quin closes his labors 
by verses in French and Latin, the last piece being headed "/n 
nomen Illustrissi7ni Principis Carolus Princeps Wallice Anagram- 
ma " Ingenious contrivances of this sort were at that date mak- 
ing a not very unsuccessful attempt to extinguish the nobler 
species of poetry. Quin had previously written an epitaph upon 
Prince Henry, which was published by Joshua Sylvester about 

QuiPPES. — Pleasant Quippes for upstart newfangled 
Gentlewomen : A Glasse to view the Pride of vain- 
glorious Women : containing a pleasant Invective 
against the fantastical forreigne Toyes daylie used in 
W^omens Apparell. — Imprinted at London by Richard 
Jhones, at the signe of the Rose and Crowne, neere 
S. Andre wes Church in Holborne. 1595. 4to. B. L. 
8 leaves. 

(Karlg ^ugliel) Citcrature. 263 

This is a remarkable production, the reprinting of which was 
once contemplated by the Percy Society, but it was suppressed in 
consequence of offensive coarseness of language. Such might be 
expected and allowed for in an author like Stephen Gosson, who 
claims it as his production by a MS. note in a copy of the edition 
of 1596. It was so popular, that, having been published In 1595, 
(the date of our exemplar,) it was reprinted in the next year, with 
a woodcut of a fine lady of the time upon the title-page. 

We have shown that Gosson was " parson of Great Wigborow," 
in Essex, in 1598, (Vol. II. p. 71,) and we apprehend that this 
invective was written just before he entered into holy orders. 
He had shown considerable skill in verse-making as early as 1578, 
the year before he published his " School of Abuse." In the 
interval he had penned pastorals (Meres's Pall. Tamia, 1598, p. 
284) and, no doubt, in other ways had kept his hand in poetical 
practice. This will account for the skill he displayed in 1595, in 
the tract before us, which is written with great freedom and 
satirical point, not always without what may, perhaps, come under 
the denomination of indecorous abuse. Let the following stanzas, 
near the beginning, bear witness : — 

•' And when sage parents breed in childe 
the greedy lust of hellish toyes. 
Whereby in manners they growe wilde, 
and lose the blisse of lasting joyes, 
1 pittie much to see the case. 
That we thus fails of better grace. 

" And when proud princoks, rascals bratte, 
in fashions will be princes mate; 
And every Gill that keeps a catte 
in rayment will be like a state; 
If any cause be to complaine, 
In such excesse who can refraine? " 

We might, however, easily select broader specimens ; but we 
wish to show how much the poem illustrates the manners of the 
time, and Gosson thus refers to the dress of ladies : — 

'* These Holland smockes, so white as snowe, 
and gorgets brave with drawn- work wrought, 
A tempting ware they are, you know, 
wherewith (as nets) vaine youths are caught. &c. 

264 Bibliograpljical ^laount of 

•' These flaming beads with staring haire, 
these wyers turnde like homes of ram; 
These painted faces which they weare, 
can any tell from whence they cam? 
Don Sathan, Lord of fayned lyes, 
All these new fangeles did devise. 

" These glittering cawles of golden plate, 
wherewith their heads are richlie dect, 
Make them to seome an angels mate 
in judgement of the simple sect. 
To peacockes I compare them right, 
That glorieth in their feathers bright. 

*' These perriwigges, ruffes armed with pinnes, 
these spangles, chaines and laces all; 
These naked paps, the Devils ginnes 
to worke vaine gazers painfull thrall : &c. 

" This starch, and these rebating props, 

as though ruffes were some rotton house, 
All this new pelfe, now sold in shops, 
in value true not worth a louse : &c. 

" This cloth of price, all cut in ragges, 

these monstrous bones that compasse armes; 
These buttons, pinches, fringes, jagges, 
with them he weaveth wofuU harmes: &c. 

" Were masks for vailes to hide and holde, 
as Christians did, as Turkes do use. 
To hide the face from wantons bolde, 
small cause were then at them to muse; 
But barring onely wind and sun. 
Of verie pride they were begun." 

And so we might go on quoting the whole of this singular 
production by a Puritan just taking holy orders, and enraged and 
disgusted at the extravagance and absurdity of the dress of ladies 
in his day. Gosson's severe spirit, which he had retained from 
the year 1579 downwards, afterwards shows itself thus: — 

'* The better sort that modest are, 

whom garish pompe doth not infect, 
Of them Dame Honour hath a care, 
with glorious fame that they be deckt. 

(ffarlg (EnglisI) IxitYainvt. 265 

Their praises will for aie remaine, 
When bodies rot shall vertue gaine." 

He concludes by a sort of apology for his attack, justifying it 
by the necessity of the case. 

'* Good men of skill doe know it well 

that these our dayes require such speech, 
Who oft are moved with threats of hell, 
whome preachers still in vaine beseech : 
Is any knife too sharpe for such, 
Or any word for them too much ? 

" Let fearfuU Poets pardon crave, 

that seeke for praise at everie lips; 
Do thou not favor, nor yet rave : 
the golden meane is free from trips. 
This lesson old was taught in schooles: 
It's praise to be dispraisde of fooles." 

We cannot avoid thinking that the Percy Society was some- 
what too squeamish, when they cancelled the reprint of this 
curious and rare production.! 

1 A still rarer poem met the same fate at the same time, namely, Charles 
Bausley's " Treatise shewing and declaring the pryde and abuse of 
Women, now a dayes." It was printed by Thomas Raynalde, and the 
last stanza shows that Edward VI. was then on the throne : — 
" God save kyng Edward, and his noble counsail al, 
and sende us peace and reste, 
And of thys pryde and devylyshe folye 
full scone to have redresse." 
Ritson tells us that it was printed about 1540, but he en-ed by at least 
ten years. We quote a brief specimen of the author's style: — 
" For lyke as thee jolye ale house 

is alwayes know«n by the good ale stake. 
So are proude Jelots sone perceaved to[o] 
by theyr proude foly and wanton gate. 
" Take no example by shyre townes, 
nor of the Cytie of London, 
For therin dwell prowde wycked ones, 
the poyson of all this region. 
" For a stewde strumpet can not so soone, 
gette up a lyght lewde fashyon, 
But everye wanton Jelot wyll lyke it well, 
And catche it up anon." 

266 Bibliograpljical :3lccount of 

Rainoldes, Joiix. — Th' overthrow of Stage-playes, by 
the way of controversie betwixt D. Gager and D. 
Rainoldes, wherein all the reasons that can be made 
for them are notably refuted ; th' objections aunswered 
&c. Wherein is manifestly proved, that it is not onely 
unlawfull to bee an Actor, but a beholder of those 
vanities. AVhereunto are added also and annexed in 
th' end certeine latine Letters betwixt the sayed 
Maister Rainoldes and D. Gentiles &c. Middelburgh, 
Imprinted by Richard Schilders. 1600. 4to. 99 

There are two points in which this copy of Dr. Rainoldes*, or 
Reynolds', " Overthrow of Sta*;e-playes " differs from others. 
The one is, that it purports to have been printed by R. Schilders 
at Middelburgh, (most impressions being without name or place,) 
and the other, that it bears date in 1600, instead of 1599. The 
literarj' contest between Dr. Rainoldes and Dr. Gager on the 
subject of theatrical performances took place in the years 1592 
and 1593, one of Dr. Rainoldes' English Letters being dated the 
10th of July, 1592, and the other the 30th of May, 1593. The 
first of his Latin Letters to Albericus Gentiles bears date the 
10th of July, 1593. The work affords but little insight into 

So that Bansley allowed himself considerable freedom with regard to 
rhymes, as well as with regard to expressions, in spite of his many refer- 
ences to Scripture. In the following stanza he mentions Gosenhyll's cel- 
ebrated " School-house of Women." 

" The scole house of women is no we well practysed, 
and to[o] moche put in ure, 
Whych maketh manye a mans hayre to growe 
thorowe hys hoode, you maye be verye sure. 

" For there are some prancked gosseps every where 
able to spyll a whole countrie, 
Whyche mayntayne pryde, ryot and wantonnes 
lyke mothers of all iniquitie." 

The author was a violent enemy of the Catholics, and among other 
things very seriously complains that foolish mothers made "Romische 
monsters " of their children. 

(Bavlx) (Engltal) f ttcratun. 267 

popular theatrical performances at that period, as it relates very 
much to academical plays. It was published in 1599, probably 
on account of the new interest attracted to the subject by the 
project of building the Fortune Theatre, (vide Hist. Engl. Dram. 
Poetry, III. 302 ;) and the printer, after mentioning the accident 
in Paris Garden sixteen years before, tells the reader in a pre- 
liminary epistle, — 

" Th' usuall flocking and gadding, that we see daily before our eies, to 
these Play-Houses and ydle places of entercourse (many leaving their 
houses and sundry necessarie dueties unperfourmed, yea, not sparing the 
very Sabath it selfe, nor fearing the prophanation thereof, so they may 
therein serve their unruly appetites and affections) doth sufficiently de- 
scry, a farre of, of what mettall we are made, and wherin the treasure of 
our hart consisteth." 

Nothing is given of Dr. Gager's side of the question ; but the 
printer mentions that he had been informed that Dr. Gager had 
himself been convinced by Dr. Rainoldes, and had admitted his 

On page 213 of this volume we have enumerated the various 
productions for and against theatres, which came out between 1577 
and 1587, (omitting, purposely. Field's narrative of the accident 
at Paris Garden in 1583,) and thus the matter seems to have 
rested, as far as the press was concerned, until 1599, when Dr. 
Rainoldes appeared in the field against them, and published his 
letters to Dr. Gager, of 1592 and 1593. In the Bodleian Library, 
however, is preserved (MSS. Tanner, No. 77) an Epistle from 
him to Dr. Thornton, dated from Queen's College, 6th February, 
1591, which summarily goes over nearly all the same grounds, the 
only material difference being a sentence in which Dr. Rainoldes 
inveighs against the performance of plays on Sunday, showing 
that, between the years 1583 and 1592, the practice in this 
respect had not generally been altered, although the public 
authorities had more than once interposed to remedy the abuse. 

The work before us remained unanswered until Thomas Hey- 
wood printed his " Apology for Actors" in 1612, 4to: this tract 
arose out of a play called " Histriomastix," printed in 1610. 
Heywood was replied to by J. Green in his " Refutation of the 
Apology for Actors," 1615, 4to, which concluded the contest until 

268 J3ibliograpI)tcal ^Jlcconnt of 

the appearance of Prynne's celebrated work — *' Histriomastix," 
ill 1633, 4to. The severe penalties that author incurred in conse- 
quence are matters of history. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter. — The Discoverie of the large, 
rich and bevvtiful Empire of Gviana, with a relation 
of the Great and Golden Citie of Manoa (which the 
Spaniards call El Dorado) And the prouinces of Emeria, 
Arromaia, Amapaia, and other Countries, with their 
riuers, adioyning Performed in the yeare 1595. by Sir 
W. Ralegh Knight, Captaine of her Maiesties Guard, 
Lo. Warden of the Stanneries, and her Highnesse 
Lieutenont generall of the Countie of Cornewall. — 
Imprinted at London by Robert Robinson. 1596. 
4to. 64 leaves. 

That there were two distinct impressions of the above work 
there can be no doubt, although the important circumstance has 
been passed over without notice by all Raleigh's biographers, and 
has only recently been touched upon, when " some trifling typo- 
graphical differences " were alluded to, but not pointed out. The 
fact is, that Raleigh's "Discovery of Guiana" was reprinted in 
1596, from the first page to the last, and the typographical dif- 
ferences are to be reckoned by thousands, many of them upon 
each page, and some of considerable interest. The title-pages of 
the two editions, to a cursory observer, look like the same ; but we 
have both before us while we write, and we find that there are at 
least a dozen variations in the fore-fronts only : on the third page 
of the Dedication nearly forty changes were made, and they 
extend even to the manner in which the initials of the author 
were appended in both instances. In the whole there are 
about 200 diff*erences of typography in those eight leaves. Of 
course we cannot go minutely over the whole work, but in the last 
sentence of the body of it we detect a proportionate number of 
changes, not indeed altering the sense, but proving that every line 
in the book was recomposed. The fact is important, because it 

(Earlg ^ngUsI) JCiterature. 269 

shows that the interest taken in the subject was so great, dire(;t1y 
after Raleigh's return, that whatever number of copies was struck 
off in the first instance (and we may well believe it to have been 
large) it was insufficient to satisfy public curiosity. The names, 
especially of the Spaniards and Peruvians, are differently spelt 
in the two impressions ; words are now and then omitted which 
are absolutely necessary to the sense, and the tenses of verbs in 
not a few cases amended. 

In both editions Robinson, the printer, may be said to have 
done his work well, considering the haste, and the nature and 
imperfectness of his materials in the first instance. The second 
impression shoAvs that comparatively few typographical errors 
were committed in it ; and we find that on the 2d May following 
Robinson was employed to print and publish copies of Sir AV. 
Raleigh's patent for granting licenses for the sale of wines. The 
date is important, since it proves how soon after Raleigh's return 
from Guiana he obtained this valuable concession. We quote the 
entry from the Registers of the Stationers' Company. 

"ijMaij [1596]. — Robert Robinson. Entred for Thindenture for S"*. 
Walter Raleigh for the license for Wines vj*^" 

It is known that on his voyage to Guiana Sir Walter sailed in 
the beginning of February, 1595, but nobody has yet given 
more than the most general notion of the terms, as regards the 
government of Queen Elizabeth, on which he undertook the 
expedition. These we are able to supply from the original draft 
of Raleigh's Patent, in the handwriting of Secretary Windebank, 
corrected in several places by Sir Robert Cecil, and thus indorsed 
by him : " Elizabeth &c To our servant Sr. W. Ralegh, Knight, 
warden of our Stannery and Liefetenant of our County of Corn- 
wall Greeting." It has no date, but it must have immediately 
preceded the departure of Raleigh with his five vessels. Only 
four, two ships and two pinnaces, are mentioned in the subse- 
quent instrument, but it is known that the Lord Admiral of Eng- 
land, before the fleet left Plymouth, added to it the Lion's 
Whelp on his own account, so anxious was he for a share. 

" Whereas uppon your humble sute unto us in regard of your hope to 
better your knowledge by further experience and your especial] desire to 
do us service in ofFendirg the K. of Spaine and his suhjectes in his do- 

270 Bibliograpljicat Account of 

minions or els where to your uttermost power, Wee haue been contented 
to give you leave to prepare and arme to the seas two shippes and two 
small pinnasses. Forasmuche as wee are informed that your owne abil- 
itie is not sufficient to furnishe out such vessells as you have made choise 
of, but that you are dryven to use the assistance of some other of your 
friendes to adventure with you some portion, wee do for the satisfaction 
and assurance of all suche persons further promise and assure that you 
and they shall enjoye and po"«sesse to your owne uses all such goods and 
merchandizes, treasure, gold silver and whatsoever else that shalbe by you 
or 3'our associates taken ether by sea or land from the subjectes of the K. of 
Spaine or anie his adherentes, paying to us or our officers suche customes 
and duties as appertaine. And for the better ruling of such and so manie 
of our loving subjectes as shall goe with you in this service, as also if any 
other shipping shall on anie occasion voluntarily joyne themselves with 
you at sea or at the Indies or in your passage thitherwardes, for the bet- 
ter effecting of any suche enterprise by sea or land, wee doe herebie 
charge and command all Captaines, Masters, Maryners and all other our 
subjectes so consorted to be whollie directed by you and not to departe 
the service after their consorting with you without your knowledge and 
consent but that both by land and sea they and everie of them do submit 
them selves and give you due obedience in what you shall thinke meet to 
direct or undertake for the prejudice of the said K. of Spaine or anie of 
our Enemies. And it anie shall resist or misdemeane them selves in this 
service wee doe further by these presents give you lull power and aucthor- 
itie to lay suche punishment on them or anie of them so offendinge as the 
qualitie of their offences shall deserve, according to the lawes usuallie ex- 
ecuted on the sea in lyke cases. And if anie of the shipping shall after 
consortshipp made with you departe from your company without your 
privitie and consent and returne hither to England or into anie of our do- 
minions with anie goods merchandises or other commodities whatsoever 
taken during the tyme of their sayd consortshipp, wee doe herebie give 
you full power and aucthoritie to make seasure of the same goods &c and 
every parcell thereof to the use of your selfe and other adventurers and 
consorts that shall joyne with you and be obedient to your directions on 
this service. Wee doe also straightlie charge and command all and sin- 
gular our officers mynisters and subjectes whatsoever to be ayding assist- 
ing and furthering to you and your deputies in any thing that may be for 
the better execution of this our service, and thereof not to faile as they 
and every of them will answere the contrarie at their uttermost perilles. 
And further our will and pleasure is that whatsoever you shall doe by 
vertue of this our Commission as well by sea as by land for the further- 
ance of this our service and enfeebling our Enemies the subjectes and 
adherentes of the K. of Spayne, you and all suche as serve under you in 
this voyage shalbe clearly acquitted and discharged against us our heires 
and successors in that behalfe &c." 

(Karlg ^nglisl) Citn*ature. 271 

At Bridgewater House is preserved a MS. of the time of 
James L, in which we meet with the following version of a bitter 
epitaph by Raleigh upon the Earl of Leicester, whom he never 
liked, and who certainly never liked him. 

" Here lyes the noble Warryor that never blunted sword ; 
Here lyes the noble Courtier that never kept his word ; 
Here lyes his Excellency that governd all the State; 
Here lyes the L. of Leicester that all the world did hate. 

Wa. Ka." 

We may take this opportunity of clearing up a point connected 
•with Raleigh's Poems. A beautiful little piece, usually called 
" the Silent Lover," has been assigned by Ritson (Bibl. Poet. 383) 
and by Park to "Lord Walden." It ends with these two 
stanzas : — 

" Silence in love bewrays more woe 
Than words, though ne'er so witty: 
A beggar that is dumb, you know, 
May challenge double pity. 

" Then, wrong not, dearest of my heart. 
My true, though secret, passion : 
He smarteth most that hides his smart. 
And sues for no compassion." 

It was printed among Lord Pembroke's poems in 1666, and In 
modern times among those of Sir Robert Ayton ; but it belongs 
to neither of them, nor to " Lord Walden," who, on the strength 
of one of the Ashmolean MSS. containing the above verses, was 
included among Park's " Royal and Noble Authors '* : he never 
wrote the song nor anything else that has come down to us, but 
the original ascription of it to Raleigh is correct. He was, as he 
is called in the patent for his voyage to Guiana, " Lord Warden 
of the Stanneries," and he was the Lord Warden, and not Lord 
Walden, who was the true owner of the poem we have cited only 
for the purpose of clearer identification. The transcriber of the 
Ashmolean iVlS. miswrote, having probably misread Lord Walden 
(subsequently raised to the earldom of Suffolk) instead of Lord 
Warden. Raleigh's fame as a poet does not require this trifling 
though gracelul addition, but we are glad on every account to 
restore it to hmi. 

272 Bibliograpljical Account of 

Raleigh, Sir Walter. — To day a man, To morrow 
none ; or Sir Walter Rawleighs Farewell to his Lady, 
the night before he was beheaded : Together with his 
advice concerning her and her Sonne. — London, 
Printed for R. H. 1644. 4to. 4 leaves. 

This little tract has been mentioned in bibliographical works 
under Raleigh, but no biographer appears to have seen it, and 
no account of the contents of it has been published. It only 
requires a few words, as no part of the matter is absolutely new. 
It tends to prove how long the popular interest regarding 
Raleigh survived his execution, when a chap-book (for such it is, 
though in 4to) like the present could be published for the gratifi- 
cation of buyers of such cheap literary commodities. 

First comes Raleigh's famous letter to his wife, concluding so 
pathetically and piously, — " My true wife Farewell : God blesse 
my poore boy ! Pray for me : my true God hold you both in his 
armes ! " Then we have his Epitaph, not materially differing 
from the ordinary copies. The chief interest arises from what 
appears on the last page, which, for the first time in print, ascribes 
the poem " Like Hermit poore " to Raleigh. It exists in MS. in 
various collections, and it is not unfrequently alluded to ; but it 
originally appeared in "The Phoenix Nest," 1593, without any 
name prefixed or appended. Here we see that in 1644, twenty- 
two years after the death of Raleigh, it was publicly ascribed to 
him. We quote this brief effusion from the printed copy before 
us, and on comparison it will be seen that it differs somewhat 
remarkably from the copy in " The Phoenix Nest " and elsewhere, 
besides that the two last stanzas are transposed. The following 
has the recommendation that the measure of the first line is com- 
plete, whereas it is imperfect in " The Phoenix Nest." 

" Like Hermite poore in pensive place obscure 
I meane to end my dayes with endlesse doubt, 

To waile such woes as time cannot recure, 
Where none but Love shall ever finde me out. 

And at my gates Despair shall linger still 

To let in death when Love and Fortune will. 

" A gowne of gray my body shall attire, 
My staffe of broken hope whereon 1 stay : 

(ffarls (£n9li0lj fikratitre. 273 

Of late repentance, linkt with long desire, 

The couch is fram'd whereon my limbs I lay: 
And at my gates, &c. 

" My food shall be of care and sorrow made, 

My drinke nought else but tears falne from mine eies. 
And for my light in this obscured shade 

The flames may serve which from ray heart arise. 
And at my gates, &c. 

Walter Rawleigh." 

We apprehend that, as in " The Phoenix Nest," we ought to 
read "my dayes of endlesse doubt," and not "with endlesse 
doubt." We have never had any complete edition of Raleigh's 
Poems, and some persons have hesitated whether to assign to him 
" The Lie," otherwise called " The Souls Errand " ; but we have 
a copy of it now before us, in a MS. of the time, which also 
contains unprinted pieces by many of Raleigh's contemporaries, 
where it is distinctly entitled " Sir Walter Raleigh his Lye," al- 
though the name is there spelt Wrawly, a form in which we 
have never elsewhere seen it. There too it is followed by what 
is called " Response," ending with the well-known lines applied 

to Raleigh,— 

" Such is the song, such is the author, 
Worthy to be rewarded with a halter." 

This is in a different handwriting in our MS. ; but it confirms 
us in the conviction that the poem of " The Lie," to which it pur- 
ports to be a " Response," is undoubtedly by Raleigh. As our 
copy of it varies materially from any other we have yet met with, 
and as it acquires additional interest now we can assert it posi- 
tively to have been written by Sir W. Raleigh, we subjoin it in 
the very terms and letters of the MS. in our hands : — 

" Sir Walter Wkawly his Lye. 

"Hence, soule, the bodies guest 

Upon a thanklesse arrant ; 
Feare not to touch the best; 

The truth shalbe thy warrant: 
Go, since I needes must die 
And give the world the lie. 

" Say to the Court it glowes. 
And shines like rotten wood : 

TOL. III. 18 

274 Bibliograpljical 2lccount of 

Say to the Church it showes 

Whats good, and doth not good. 
If Court or Church replie 
Give Court and Church the lie. 

" Tell Potentates they live 
But acting others actions; 

Not lov'd unlesse they give, 
Not strong but by their factions. 

If Potentates replye, 

Give Potentates the lye. 

" Tell men of high condition 
That tend affaires of state, 
Their purpose is ambition, 

Their practise onely hate ; 
And if they once replie, 
Then, give them all the lie. 

** Tell them that brave it most, 

They begg for more by spendinge, 

Who in their greatest cost 
Seeke nothing but commending: 

And if they make replie, 

Give each of them the lie. 

" Tell zeaJe it wants devotion, 

Tell love it is but lust : 
Tell time it meanes but motion. 

Tell flesh it is but dust. 
I wish them not reply 
For thou must give the ly. 

" Tell age it dayly wasteth, 
Tell honour how it alters ; 

Tell beauty how it blasteth, 
Tell favour how it falters ; 

And as they shall replye 

Give everj' one the lye. 

" Tell witt how much it wrangles 
In tickell pointes of wisenes, 
Tell wisdome she entangles 

Her selfe with over wiseues; 
And when they doe replye 
Streight give them both the lye. 

(ffarlg (gnglislj Citerature. 275 

" Tell Physicke of her boldnes; 

Tell skill it is prevention: 
Tell charity of coldnes ; 

Tell law it is contention ; 
And as they doe reply, 
So give them each the lie. 

" Tell fortune of her blindnes; 

Tell nature of decay : 
Tell friendshipp of unkindnes, 

Tell justice of delay; 
And if they will replie, 
Then, give them all the lie. 

" Tell artes they have no soundnes, 

But vary by esteeming: 
Tell schooles they lacke profoundnes, 

And stand too much on seeming: 
If artes and schooles reply. 
Give artes and schooles the lye. 

« Tell faith tis fledd the Citty, 

Tell how the country erreth ; 
Tell manhood shakes off pitty, 

Tell vertue least preferreth ; 
And if they dare reply, 
Spare not to give the l^^e. 

" And when thou hast, as I 

Comaunded thee, done blabbinge, 
Although to give the lye 

Deserve no lesse than stabbinge, 
Stabb at thee he that will ; 
No stabb the Soule can kill." 

Here it will be seen that the improvements thus afforded of the 
usually received text (which we find in the Rev. John Hannah's 
most careful edition of 1845) are many and valuable ; and surely 
he that can really amend a word in so fine a moral and didactic 
poem, confers no small benefit on our literature. " Court and 
Church," for them both, is a great addition of force and effect ; 
and the same may be said of " if they dare reply '* instead of if 
they do reply, while the words Mr. Hannah puts conjecturally be- 
tween brackets are in our MS. duly supplied. 

276 ijibliograpljical Account of 

The MSS. at Bridgewater House contain a good deal of bio- 
graphical information respecting Sir Walter Raleigh, particularly 
as to his dispute with Tobie Mathews, in 1603, for the possession 
of Durham House. There is also a very interesting letter from 
him to Sir Robert Carre, without date, but indorsed 1608, com- 
plaining that he had obtained from King James the inheritance 
of Sir Walter Raleigh's children and nephews, and remon- 
strating with him on the subject.^ It is subjoined, from Raleigh's 
original : — 

1 The following letter from Sir Robert Cecil to the Dean of Winchester ( ?) 
relates to some proceeding regarding Sherborne Castle which was pending 
in 1598, after Sir Walter Raleigh had been for years in possession of the 
estate. It both reproves and threatens the Dean, and Sir Robert Cecil 
was anxious that his letter should be returned to him for reasons which 
we can very well understand, although it is the onlj- matter quite clear 
in the transaction. The name of the person in whose favor the letter 
was written is studiously concealed, and the name of the writer carefully 
torn away. We only learn the names of the writer and the receiver from 
the indorsement — S[ir] R[obert] C[ecil] toD[eanof] W[inchester]. The 
original was formerly in the State Paper Ofl&ce, where we copied it many 
years ago : — 

" Mr. Dean. The matter for which you were moved concerning Sherborne is now 
like to be granted ; for the Q[ueen] resolying of Mr. Cotton, I conceave he will not 
find upon due examination the same scrupule which you did, and therefore, I hope, 
will yeald it. But Mr. Dean this is the cause of my letter to you. It is geven out 
that you are minded to scandalise him if he grant it and the Act, by all meanes 
you can ; yea, notwithstanding that it shall now no way concerne you. Suerly, as 
it was very just and honest in you (when your own mind was unsatisfied) to refuse 
it, and as he should deale very unjustly with you that should mislike your 
refusall upon lack of satisfistction, so must I freely tell you, as one with whom I 
would be loth to have cause of unkindness, that if his sute shall speed the worse 
by any course of yours in this, now when you are no wayes interessed on it, I will 
thinkc your refusal before was not of zeale, but of humor, and meddling in it now, 
rather opposition to him (and me that love him) then to the matter. Thus you see 
that out of the accompt I make of you, I yeald you accompt of what I heare, which 
I would not do thus if I did not believe it. I require therefore to this letter only 
such answer as I may trust to, which shalbe a defensative to all such suggestions, 
whereby you shall make me not repente my former good will towards you, but 
shall confirme hereafter my desire to do you further pleasure in any cause where 
your name shall come in question. I pray you returne me my letter againe for 
some respect? ; but upon your answer I will send you one that shall satisfy you in 
any proportion that you shall write to me. And so I commit you to Gods protec- 
tion. From the Court this 19th of September 1598. 

" Your very loving firend." 

(Parlri (Knglislj CUerattire. 277 

" After many great losses and many yeeres sorrowes, of both which I 
have cause to feare that I was mistaken in their ends, it is come to my 
knowledge that yourselfe (whom I knowe not but by an honorable fame) 
have bene perswaded to give me and myne onr last fatall blowe, by ob- 
teyninge from his Matie thinheritance of my Childeren and Nephewes, lost 
in the lawe for want of a word. This done there remaines with me noth- 
ing but the name of a lifle, dispoyled of all els but the title and sorrows 
thereof. His Mat>e whom I never offended (for I ever held it unnaturall 
and unmanlie to hate goodnesse) stayed me at the graves brinck, not (as 
I hope) that his Mat«e thought me worthy of many deathes, and to behold 
all myne cast out of the world with my selfe, but as a Kinge who, judging 
the poore in truth, hath receaved a promisse from God that his throwne 
shalbe e^ablished for ever. As for my selfe, Sir, seeinge your fayre day 
is but now in the dawne, and myne drawiuge to tlie evening, your owne 
vertue and the Kings grace assuring you of many good fortunes and much 
honour, I beseech yoxi not to begins your first buildings vpon the ruines 
of thinnocent, and that theirs and my sorrowes may not attend your first 

" I have bene ever bound to your nation, aswell for many other graces, 
as for their true report (of my triall) to the Kings Mati^^ against whom had 
I bene found malignant, the hearing of my cause could not have changed 
enemies into frendes, mallice into compassion, and the mynds of the 
greatest number present into the consideration of my estate. It is not in 
the nature of fouls treason to begett such fairs passions, neyther could 
ytt agree with the duetie of faythfuU subjects, especiallie of your na- 
tion, to bewayle his overthrowe that had conspired against their most 
liberall and naturall {sic in orig.) I therefore trust, Sir, that you will not 
be the first that shall kill us outright, cut downe the tree with the fruits, 
and vndergoe their curse that enter into the fildes of the fatherlesse, which 
(yflf yt please you to knowe the truth) are lesse fruitfall in value thsn in 
fame; but that soe worthy a gentleman as your selfe will rather bind us 
to your service, beings sixe gentlemen, not base in birth and alliance, 
which have interest therein, and my selfe with my uttsrmost thankfull- 
iissss will evsr remains rsady to obsy your comaundmsnts. 

W. Ralegh." 

The preceding remonstrance is given in Cayley's " Life of Sir 
W. Raleigh," II. 387, and in Birch's "Works of Raleigh," II. 
386, but, from imperfect copies, the existence of the original, 
signed by Raleigh, not being known. 

278 J3ibliograpl)*ual !2lccount of 

Raleigh, Sir Walter. — Newes of S*" Walter Rau- 
leigh. With the true Description of Guiana : As also 
a Relation of the excellent Government, and much 
hope of the prosperity of the Voyage &c. From the 
River Caliana, on the Coast of Guiana, Novemb. 17. 
1617. — London Printed for H. G. &c. 1618. 4to. 
24 leaves. 

The initials of the writer of this tract, R. M., are placed at the 
end of it. It seems a very catchpenny publication, relatinp: much 
more to the discoveries of previous navigators than to the last 
voyage of Sir Walter Raleigh, an account of which occupies only 
the three last pages. It probably answered the bookseller's pur- 
pose, as two editions of the tract were printed in the same year. 
On the title-page is a rude woodcut, meant for Sir Walter Raleigh. 

Rankins, W. — Seaven Satyres Applyed to the weeke, 
including the worlds ridiculous follyes. True faelicity 
described in the Phoenix. 3Iaulgre. Whereunto is 
annexed the wandring Satyre. — By W. Rankins, Gent. 
— Imprinted at London by Edw. Allde for William 
Ferbrand : and are to be sould at his shop in Loth- 
bury, at the hither end of Colman streete. 1598. 
8vo. 27 leaves. 

This production has only been noticed by Ritson {Bibl. Poet. p. 
309) as " Seven Satyres," and it is clear that he had never seen 
a copy of it, because he gives it the date of 1596. Steevens, with 
the right date, but like Ritson misspelling the title, adduces a 
line in illustration of a passage in " King John," Act II. sc. 1. 
We never had an opportunity of examining more than one copy 
of it, and we believe that only one is in existence ; it is not men- 
tioned in any list of Rankins's works, but in that of Lowndes 
(edit. 1861, p. 2046), and there the title is misquoted. 

In the years 1598, 1599, and 1600, a W. Rankins was a writer 
for Henslowe's Theatre ; but in 1587 a person of the same name 

(ffarlg (JFnglisI) Citcraturc. 27.) 

had put forth a tract in direct hostility to all dramatic perform- 
ances. Stephen Gosson had been guilty of the opposite incon- 
sistency, for he, after having written and acted in several plays, 
renounced and denounced his early occupation. He mentions 
another writer, who, like Rankins, as we apprehend, had "re- 
turned to his vomit," and had again become a playwright, after 
having abandoned the stage, and heaped upon it and its professors 
very gross abuse. Unless there were two W. Rankins, he must 
have pursued the same course ; and having published his " Mirror 
of Monsters " in 1587, about ten years afterwards was in Hens- 
lowe's employ, and was writing for him, in conjunction with Rich- 
ard Hathway, three plays under the title of " Hannibal and Sci- 
pio," " Scoggin and Skelton," and " Mulmutius Dunwallo." In 
Vol. I. p. 33, we have reviewed a tract called " The English 
Ape," in all probability by Rankins, and from that date, 1588, until 
1598 we do not hear of him : we next find him assisting Henslowe, 
and publishing the little work under consideration. 

The dedication is " to his noble minded friend John Salisbury 
of Llewenni, Esquire," perhaps related to the Owen Salisbury, 
the follower of the Earl of Essex, who was killed in the disturb- 
ance in 1599-1600, and who was not buried, but, in the words of 
the Register, " tumbled into the ground " at St. Clement Danes 
on 8th February. (" Life of Spenser," 1862, p. xvi.) John 
Salisbury, Rankins tells us in 1598, was " Esquire of the body of 
the Queenes most excellent Majesty." At the back of the dedi- 
cation is the following "Induction ": — 

" Of Love, of Courtships and of fancies force 
Some gilded Braggadochio may discourse : 
My shaggy Satyres doe forsake the woods, 
Their beddes of mosse, their unfrequented floodes, 
Their marble eels, their quiet forrest life, 
To view the manner of this humane strife. 
Whose skin is toucht, and will in gall revert, 
My Satyres vow to gall them at the heart." 

The seven satires succeed. 1, Contra Lunatistara. 2, Contra 
Martialistam. 8, Contra Mercurialistam. 4, Contra Jovialistam. 
6, Contra Venereum. 6, Contra Saturnistam. 7, Contra Sollis- 
tam. All are, unusually for productions of this class, in seven-line 

280 jSibliograpljtcal 3lfconnt of 

stanzas. We take a specimen where Rankins is speaking of an 
amorous gull ; and it will be seen that the character exactly fits 
Master Slender in " The Merry Wives of Windsor," not only as 
regards the " songs and sonnets," mentioned by both, but in the 
supposed marriage of the silly youth to a boy in disguise. It 
therefore affords both a new and a curious illustration of Shaks- 


" He is in love with every painted face 

Saluting common truls with ribauld lines, 

In songs and sonnets taking such a grace. 
As if he delv'd for gold in Indian mines; 
But see how fortune such great wit repines : 

In this sweet traffique his bargaines are so ill. 

That he is made a jade by every Jill. 

" And once He tell you how this gallant sped: 
He was inamour'd of a players boy, 
And certain sharkers that upon him fed 
Did soon instruct this stage boy to be coy, 
But that with him he had no other joy: 
• In womans queint attyre they drest the lad, 
That almost made the foole, my maister, mad. 

"They soone perswaded him she was an heyre. 
And onely daughter to a knight well knowne: 
He saw her young, rich, amorous and faire ; 
Have her he must, or dye he would with moane : 
In sleepy nights his very soule did groane. 
Then, had I not been stickler in this strife. 
The beast had had a male-kinde to his wife." 

While this cannot fail to remind us of " The Merry Wives of 
Windsor," of Slender and the postmaster's boy, we are to bear in 
mind that the comedy was not acted, as far as we know, until 
some years after Rankins had printed his Satires. The subse- 
quent stanza has also an obvious individual application, although 
■we may not now be able to decide at whom the satire was levelled : 

" Another artlesse mone, bewitcht with praise, 
Thrusts forth a patched pamphlet into print. 
When fooles on it, as on a pide coat, gaze ; 

His copper words come out of coxcombs mint: 

Fluent from arte as water from a flint. 
Foure bookes he makes foure elbowes to present : 
By his induction is his bawble meant." 

€ax[r) Ofnglislj Citcraturc. 281 

Professed fools were said to wear coats with four elbows in 
reference to their false sleeves, and the mention of the " bawble," 
in the next Hne, makes it apparent what Rankins intended to call 
the unknown author, who had put forth his "four books" of 

Serious and satirical pieces are rather incongruously intermixed, 
and what is headed Sola felicitas, Chrisius mihi Phcenix is fol- 
lowed by what the author terms Satyr us Peregrinus. Then again 
we come to other pious poems, so that Rankins's book appears not 
dissimilar to his life, a mixture of the sacred and profane. It is 
not unlikely that he here reproduced some of the compositions he 
had written when he was under the influence of a fierce puritan- 
ical spirit, and when he attacked plays and players with more ve- 
hemence and vigor than he afterwards displayed in their behalf. 
One of his holy ejaculations begins, — 

" Lay not my sinnes, Lord ! unto my charge," 

and may have had reference to his abandonment of his earlier 
opinions when he was a Puritan, and ere he had been induced, per- 
haps by want of money, to become a playwright. 

Rankins, William. — A Mirour of Monsters : Wherein 
is plainely described the manifold vices and spotted 
enormities that are caused by the infectious sight of 
Playes, with the description of the subtile slights of 
Sathan, making them his instruments. Compiled by 
Wil. Rankins. Magna spes est infemi. Scene and al- 
lowed. — At London Printed by I. C. for T. H. in Anno 
Do. 1587. B. L. 25 leaves} 

This is the work alluded to in "the last article, and which we 
presume to have been by the same William Rankins who after- 
wards figured as a dramatist and satirist. It seems not unlikely 
that in 1587 he wished to make money by availing himself of the 

1 The initials are those of John Charlewood as the printer, and of 
Thomas Hacket as the publisher of the tract. 

282 iSibliograpljical ^tcoiiut of 

puritanical zeal a<:ainst everythinfr and everybody connected with 
the stage. As we have shown on p. 214 of this volume, his 
" Mirror of Monsters " was the tenth production which had come 
out on the subject between the years 1577 and 1587, and subse- 
quently there was a long silence : during that period Rank ins ap- 
pears to have " changed his copy," and seeing that such attacks 
were not followed up, and that the topic had become less popular, 
while plays and theatres were encouraged by nearly all parties 
but the Puritans, he went over to the opposite side, and began 
writing productions which he had previously condemned. We 
have already enumerated the pieces upon which he was engaged 
for Henslowe's Theatre shortly previous to the demise of Queen 

Of the work before us we need speak only very briefly, for, 
from the first page to the last, it does not contain a scrap of in- 
formation as to the then condition of the stage, but is filled with 
violent, rabid, and indiscriminate abuse. It mainly proposes to 
give an account of a masque, on the marriage of Fastus and Lux- 
uria, in which the parts are filled by Idleness, Flattery, Ingrati- 
tude, Dissension, Blasphemy, Impudence, and other minor per- 
formers of the same description. This is all very tedious. But as 
the tract is a very rare one, only two or three copies of it being 
known, we extract the conclusion by way of specimen : — 

*' After these severall orations were ended, a suddaine joy was striken 
in the harts of the beholders, as well by reason of these speeches, as to 
view the manner of the Maske, wherein they receyved such contentation 
by how much more it came unlocked for, that they were almost dryven 
into an extasie, such was the joy they conceived thereof- When Fastus 
and Luxuria and the rest of the company hadde well recreated theyr 
minds with dauncing and disporting amongst these Maskers, beholding 
them at large (whose custome was not to speake) they commanded them 
to be ledde into the Hall of Misery, and there to be feasted with delicate 
dyshes of continual vexation, guilty conscience, worlds of woe, and never 
dying torments. Where drinking of the accursed wine of forgetfulnes 
they returned to Sathan from whence they came." 

The author's style is frequently obscure and involved, and he 
absurdly confounds the figurative with the real. Of his dramatic 
talents, displayed in 1598, 1599, and 1600, nothing remains to us. 

(£avh) ^nglisl) Citerature. 283 

Ratsey, Gamaliel. — The Life and Death of Gamaliel 
Ratsey, a famous thief of England, executed at Bed- 
ford the 26th of March last past. 1605. B. L. 4to. 
23 leaves. 

The only known copy of this tract was the property of Malone; 
it has no printed tide-page, but he wrote the above upon it, deriv- 
ing the information, as it should seem, from the Regisiters of the 
Stationers' Company, where it was entered by John Trundle, 2d 
May, 1605. No doubt Trundle's name was at the bottom of the 
original title-page, and Malone added the following on a fly-leaf, 
from which we gather that he bad heard of another copy of Rat- 
sey's " Life and Death," although none such is now extant in any 
public library, or in any private collection that we are aware of. 
Malone's words are these : " In the title-page of this pamphlet is 
an engraved portrait of Gamaliel Ratsey, as I have heard, for I 
never saw it." The next leaf to the title-page is headed, " The 
Life and Death of Gamaliell Ratsey, a famous theefe of England, 
executed at Bedford the 26th of March last past. 1605." Con- 
sequently, the interval between 26th March and 2d May, 1605, 
when Trundle entered the work, had been employed in preparing 
and printing it. The popularity of it was so great that, as will 
be seen presently, a second part was ready for publication on 31st 
May in the same year. 

It is by no means a trumpery or commonplace production, for 
most parts of it are well written, Avhile many of the incidents and 
adventures are novel and entertaining. We are informed in the 
first division of the work Tfor it is separated into various portions) 
that Gamaliel Ratsey was the son of Richard Ratsey, a respectable 
and wealthy inhabitant of Market- Deeping, in Lincolnshire, and 
that by his disorderly courses he disappointed the reasonable hopes 
of his family. He began his career by serving in Ireland as a soldier 
under the Earl of Devonshire, and, on his return to England, he 
robbed the landlady of an inn at Spalding of £40, intrusted to her 
by a farmer. Ratsey was taken, but made his escape from jail in 
his shirt. Having obtained a suit of clothes from a friend, he eluded 
pursuit; and seeing a serving-man on one fine horse, and leading 
another, he managed to obtain the best of the two. He goes from 

284 Bibliograpljical Account of 

thence into Northamptonshire, where he combines with two notori- 
ous thieves, named Snell and Shorthose, and with their aid he robbed 
no fewer than nine men at once. One of the drollest incidents 
is that of robbing a scholar of Cambridge, whom he compelled to 
make an oration to him ; while, about the same time, he stripped 
two dealers in wool, and humorously knighted them by the titles of 
Sir Samuel Sheepskin and Sir Walter Woolsack. Like some other 
highminded highwaymen, he scorned to deprive the poor of their 
earnings ; and by the mere force of his eloquence he persuaded a 
preacher to present him with £lO, while he kept only £3 for him- 
self, and out of that £3 paid for a night's entertainment of the two 
at a country town. In the end Ratsey was betrayed by his com- 
panions, Snell and Shorthose, and was hanged at Bedford. His 
course was a brief one, for he began as a soldier in 1599, and suf- 
fered at Bedford only six years afterwards. 

A poem of forty-one six-line stanzas concludes the tract. It 
is entitled " Ratsey's Repentance, which hee wrote with his owne 
hand when he was in Newgate," and the lines are not without 
merit and smoothness. We are not, perhaps, to suppose that they 
were really written by Ratsey, and the whole tract bears evidence 
of the employment of some not unpractised scribe. The " Repent- 
ance " opens thus : — 

" The silent night had shadowed everie tree. 

And Phcebus in the west was shrowded lowe; 

Each Hive had home her busie labouring bee. 
And birds their nightly harbour gan to knowe, 

And all things did from wearie labour linne, 

When I began to wa}' my state and sinne." 

The Spenserian, and somewhat obsolete, word lin, to cease, is 
hardly one that such a man as Ratsey would have been likely to 
use. He afterwards proceeds thus picturesquely : — 
" My head on hand, my elboe on my knee, 

And teares did trickle downe my count-nance than, 
My countenance as sad as mans might bee, 
My dumps befitting well a captive man; 
Fetter'd in prison, passionate, alone. 
My sighs wrought teares and thus I gan to moane. 

" I that of late did live a Souldiers life. 

And spent my service in my countries good, 

(Earlg (Englisl) CiUratur^. 285 

Now captive lie where nought but cares are rife, 

Where is no hope but losse of deerest blood : 
This is befall'n me, cause I did mispend 
That time which God to better use did lend." 

He enters into no particulars of his misdeeds, as they had be- 
fore been given in prose ; but his remorse, if we are to trust this 
representation, seems to have been bitter : — 

" I all confus'd, and in confusion wrapt, 

Implore God's mercy prostrate on ray face. 

Youngling I was, and novice-like intrapt; 
Repentance true away shall follies chase. 

Forgive, Oh heavens! th' iniquities of youth: 

Do not object the faults of my untruth." 

He ends with the following stanzas : — 

" This little remnant of my life so poore 

lie teach to shun all sinne and vices all : 
Giver of grace, graunt grace ! I sinne no rtiore. 

Establish me that I may never fall. 
To thee my heart, my life, and soule I give, 
Who after death eternally makes live. 

" Dyrect my pathes even for thy mercies sake: 
Guide thou my steps to keepe repentant wayes : 
Keepe me from sleepe, on thee still let me wake, 
To laude thy name during these erthly dales; 
And when from earth I shall dissolve to dust, 
Graunt that my soule may live among the just. 

Finis qd Gamaliel Ratsey." 

In the last line but one there is an obvious mi:5print of just for 
"dust"; the last cannot be wrong, and we have therefore substi- 
tuted it. The two lines did not end with the same word. 

We have already mentioned " the second part " of " the Life 
and Death " of Ratsey, and it was entered and came out under 
the title of " Ratsey's Ghoaste, or the second part of his Life/* 
with the same date, namely, 1605. It is as scarce as the first 
part, only a single copy having been preserved. Here, as in 
many other instances, the eagerness with which a work of the kind 
was devoured by the multitude occasioned the destruction of most 
of the copies. We cannot, on the present occasion, do more than 
quote a passage from it, in the earliest part of which that great 

286 Dibliograpljtral 5lccount of 

actor, Richard Burbadge, is clearly alluded to ; and near the close 
a still more important personage, the author of the great plays of 
which Burbadge personated the heroes, is unmistakably pointed 
at. Shakspeare's acquisition of property, in and near his native 
town, is spoken of distinctly in every respect but in the suppression 
of the name. We directed attention to the circumstance more 
tiian thirty years ago, (H. E. D. P., Vol. I. 333,) but we do not 
think it has been estimated at its real value. Ratsey has pre- 
sented an itinerant company of actors with the fee of 40s. for play- 
ing before him, and afterwards thus addresses the leader : — 

" And for you, sirrah (says he to the chiefest of them), thou hast a good 
presence upon a stage: methinks thou darkenst thy merit by playing in 
the countrey. Get thee to London; for if one man [Richard Burbadge] 
were dead, they will have much need of such as thou art: there would 
be none, in my opinion, fitter than thy selfe to play his parts; my conceit 
is such of thee, that I durst [lay] all the money in my purse on thy head 
to play Hamlet with him for a wager. There thou shalt learne to be 
frugal, (for players were never so thrifty as they are now about London) 
and to feed upon all men: to let none feed upon thee: to make thy hand 
a stranger to thy pocket, thj- heart slow to perform thy tongues promise; 
and when thou feelest thy purse well lined, buy thee someplace of lordship 
in the countrey^ that groxcing weary of playing^ thy money may bring thee 
to dignitie and reputation: then thou needest care for no man; no, not for 
them that before made thee proud with speaking their words on the 
stage." — " Sir, I thank you (quoth the player) for this good council: I 
promise you I will make use of it; for I have heard, indeed, of some that 
have gone to London very meanely, and have come in time to be exceeding 

Here the reference is surely sufficiently marked ; for Shaks- 
peare had recently purchased New Place, and other property in 
and near Stratford-on- Avon ; and, having " grown weary of play- 
ing," had just retired from the stage as an actor. We may add, 
that, after giving the players their reward of 40s., and dismissing 
them, Ratsey overtakes them on the road, and robs them of it, as 
well as of all the other money they had collected in the course of 
their theatrical peregrination. 

We may feel assured that this " second part " of the " Life and 
Death of Gamaliel Ratsey " was composed by some person who 
was not friendly to Shakspeare, whatever he may have been to 
Burbadge; we may fairly suspect some rival dramatist. 

(Srarl^ (Snglislj Citcrature. 287 

Recorde, Robert. — The Castle of Knowledge. — [Colo- 
phon] Imprinted at London by Reginalde Wolfe, 
Anno Domini 1556. 4to. B. L. 152 leaves. 

The principal part of the title-page is filled with the device of a 
castle; but on hanging tablets are two brief copies of explanatory- 
verses. An emblematical figure of Knowledge, and of persons 
taking the heights of certain stars, are also to be seen upon it. 
The title of the book, " The Castle of Knowledge," is on a scroll. 

The dedication is to Queen Mary in English, and to Reginald 
Pole in Latin ; but although the work is merely one of science, 
the author has interspersed verses, some of them of no ordinary- 
excellence. As no notice has ever been taken of an admirable 
Hymn contained in the "Preface," we shall extract it, calling upon 
the reader to bear in mind at what an early date it was composed. 
Recorde was a student at Oxford about 1525, but took his degree 
of M. D. at Cambridge in 1545. (Cooper's Ath. Cantabr. I. 1 75.) 
His learning was great and varied, and his fortunes as varied as 
his attainments. His talents, too, in many departments, were re- 
markable. There was perhaps nobody else living in the reign of 
Mary who was capable of writing what we are about to extract. 
The preface opens with the following striking quatrain : — 
" If reasons reache transcende the Skye, 

Why should it, then, to earth be bounde? 
The witte is wronged and leadde awrye, 
If mynde be maried to the grounde." 

The Hymn is in the same measure, and is precisely of the char- 
acter and length that would be wished, full of reverence and 
poetry : — 

" The worlde is wrought righte wonderouslye. 
Whose partes exceede mennes phantasies : 
His Maker yet, most marvailouslye, 
Suimouuteth more all mennes devise. 

" No eye hath scene, no eare hath hearde 
The leaste sparkes of his Majestic: 
All thoughtes of heartes are fuUyc barde 
To comprehend his Deitye. 

" Oh Lordei who may thy power knowe? 
What mynde can reache thee to beholde? 

288 Bibliograpljiral Jlccoxnit of 

In heaven above, in earth belowe, 

His presence is, for so he woulde. 
"His goodnes greate, so is his power, 

His wysedome equalle with them bothe: 
No want of will, sith everye hower 

His grace to shewe he is not lothe. 
" Beholde his power in the skye, 

His wisedome echewhere dooth appeare: 
His goodnes dooth grace raultipl3'e 

In heaven, in earthe, both farre and neare." 

Here we have force, brevity, grandeur, and simplicity, the es- 
sentials of good poetry, united with the truest and most compre- 
hensive piety. Yet this man, after having gained great profes- 
sional eminence, and filled important public offices in England 
and Ireland, died in the Fleet Prison only two years after the 
above Hymn was printed. Even Messrs. Cooper, whose knowl- 
edge and industry are so commendable, seem to have been unac- 
quainted with Recorde's poetical powers, although they do justice 
to his scientific attainments. They tell us that " he was the first 
in this country that adopted the Copernican system, the first 
writer on arithmetic and geometry in English, the first introducer 
of the knowledge of algebra into England, and the inventor 
of the present method of extracting the square root." He was 
also a proficient in music, but no hint is anywhere given of the 
cause of his imprisonment. His earliest dated production was 
his "Ground of Artes," 1549; and his "Castle of Knowledge" 
seems to have been followed by his "Gate of Knowledge" and 
his " Treasure of Knowledge," but we have not met with them, 
and the titles read as if they were intended to be parts of the 
*' Castle of Knowledge." 

Remedy against Love. — A speciall Remedie against 
the furious force of lawlesse Love. And also a true 
description of the same. With other delightfuU de- 
vices of daintie delightes to passe away idle time 
with pleasure and profit Newly compiled in English 
verse by W. A. — Imprinted at London by Richard 

€arlj) (Englislj Citcraturc. 289 

Jhones, and are to be sold at his shop over against 
S. Sepulchres Church without Newgate. 1579. 4to. 
B. L. 24 leaves. 

This is one of Richard Jones's attractive titles to a dull collec- 
tion of puritanical poems by a person who only gives his initials, 
but inserts them at the end of each separate poem. We cannot 
pretend to be able to assign them, even by conjecture. Only a 
single copy of the work is known, and that is the property of the 
Duke of Northumberland. 

In a dedication by W. A. to J. A. he admits that he had been 
the writer of " certain pamphlets," but they must have been all 
in prose, if we are to take his word when he tells " the friendly 
Reader," " I was never acquainted with the Muses, nor wsisshed 
my wittes at the waters of Helicon." Still, it is undeniable that 
his verse is that of a good practitioner ; and although there is not 
a spark of originality from beginning to end of his book, his lines 
are generally smooth and harmonious. His longest poem, " The 
Remedy against Love," fills sixteen closely printed pages. His 
cure is nothing but God's grace ; and the manner in which he en- 
larges on this single theme is very tiresome. His measure here is 
heroic ten-syllable lines rhyming alternately; but in the shorter 
poems, that follow the main subject, he uses considerable variety, 
and not without success. Thus, in his " Discription of Love," he 
says that Cupid is painted as 

" A Boye, because where Love dooth rest, 
Be it in youth or age. 
It makes a man whine like a childe, 

If once it catche his rage : 
With winges, for that the course of love 

Is so unconstant founde, 
As where it lightes no stedfastnesse, 

But lightnesse dooth abounde : 
Blindfielde for unequalitye. 

Regarding no degrees. 
But matching needy with the ritch, 

And therfore nothing sees : 
With Bowe and Arrowe bent to shoote, 

Because with turning eye 
He hath the hart unto his harme, 
And strikes it suddaiuly." 
VOL. in. 19 

290 Bibliograpljical ^cconnt of 

His descriptions of Love and of a Lover are to the same purpose, 
tending to convince the reader that only heavenly love and lovers 
are worthy of his thoughts. The same may be said of his " Vision 
of a rawe devise written to Fancies fellowes," where it may be 
doubted whether " fellowes " ought not to have been followers, as 
in " Cymbeline," Act IIL sc. 4, where " the suits of princely 
followers" has been misprinted " princely /e/Zowes." The only 
amusing part of the volume is nearly the last production it con- 
tains, entitled " Of the vanities [varieties ?] of Womens abuses," 
where the author's abuses, of another kind, are quite as obvious, 
and more ungallant. The whole tenor of the poem may be seen 
in this single stanza : — 

" Their odorous smelles of Muske so sweete, 
Their waters made of seemely sent, 
Are lures of Luste, and farre unmeete, 
Except where needes they must be spent." 

Here again we encounter an obvious error of the press, for the 
word "muske" is misprinted in the original musicke. The 
" Prayer of a repentant Sinner" very appropriately brings the 
work to an end. There is no personal, or particular, allusion 
throughout ; and even an " Epitaph " upon the death of a friend 
is not only without a name, but without any clue to tiie individual 

The writer's initials, W. A., might belong to William Alabaster, 
Spenser's friend, but he did not begin authorship quite so early, 
and had more ability than W. A. displays. 

Remedy for Sedition. — A Remedy for Sedition, where- 
in are conteyned many thynges concernyng the true 
and loyall obeysance that commes owe vnto their 
prince and soueraygne lorde the kynge. Anno M. D. 
xxxvi. B. L. 4to. 26 leaves. 

The colophon is, Londini in Aedibus Thomae Bertheleti regii 
impressoris Cum Privilegio. The tract was published on occasion 
of the rebellious movements in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire in the 

(ffarlg CEttglisI) £iterattire. 291 

year in which it bears date; and in a historical point of view it 
is of great interest, independently of the excellent and genuine 
idiomatic English in which it is written by some person of con- 
siderable ability. The author^ whoever he were, had travelled 
in France and Italy, and was well acquainted also with ancient 
and modern literature, (if modern we can now call it,) and 
applied his knowledge with good effect, and without pedantry. 
He even brings in Dante and Chaucer to his aid, observing : — 

" Dante, that good Italyane poet, sayth full truely of them, It is sel- 
dome sene that the people crie not Viva la mia morte, muoia la mia vita, 
That is, Let lyue my dethe, lette dye my lyfe; lette that go forthe that 
bryngeth my distraction, lette that be banyshed that is my welthe and 
safegarde. Geffrey Chauser sayeth also somewhat in theyr prayse, beare 
it well away, and lawde theym as ye fynde cause, 
Sterne people vnjuste and vntrewe. 
Ay vndiscrete and chaungynge as a fane, 
Delytynge euer in rumours that be newe ; 
For lyke the mone euer waxe ye and wane : 
Your reason halteth, your jugement is lame, 
Your dome is false, your Constance euyll preuith, 
A full great foole is he that on you leueth." 

The subsequent passage in praise of Cardinal Wolsey, affording 
an amiable trait in his character, under the circumstances is re- 
markable. It will be recollected that he died five years before 
this tract was printed : — 

" Who was lesse beloued in the northe than my lorde Cardynall, god 
haue his sowle, before he was amonges them? Who better be loued after 
he had ben there a whyle? we hate oft tymes whom we have good cause 
to loue. It is a wonder to see howe they were turned, howe of vtter en- 
nemyes they became his dere frendes. He gaue byshops a right good 
ensample howe they myght wyn mens hartis. There was fewe holy dayes 
but he wolde ride v or vj myle from his howse, nowe to this paryshe 
churche, nowe to that, and there cause one or other of his doctours to 
make a sermone vnto the people. He sat amonges them, and sayd masse 
before al the paryshe. He saw Avhy churches were made. He began to 
restore them to their ryght and propre vse. If our byshops had done so, 
we shuld have sene that preachyng of the gospell is not the cause of 
sedition, but rather lacke of preachyng it. He broughte his dinner with 
hym, and had dyuers of the parish to it. He enquired whether there was 
any debate or grudge betwene any of theym ; yf there were, after dinner 
he sente for the parties to the churche, and made them at one. Men say 
wel that do wel." 

292 Bibliocirapljical :7lccount of 

The great object of the author was to make people contented 
with their condition, and to recommend them, by banishing igno- 
rance, to promote general happiness. 

Reynard the Fox. — The pleasant and delightful His- 
toric of Reynard the Fox; with Morals and Exposi- 
tions on every Chapter. The whole illustrated with 
Cuts sutable to each Story — Printed by J. Blare on 
London Bridge. 4to. B. L. 16 leaves. 

This, we believe, is the only existing chap-book upon the con- 
tinuously popular subject of the adventures and frauds of Rey- 
nard the Fox. It first came into our printed literature, as is well 
known, by the instrumentality of Caxton in 1481, who put forth 
in English a version of the old Low-German narrative from the 
press of Gheraert de Leeu. It would seem that the earliest 
German impression was of 1498, and that it belongs to Lubeck. 
We are satisfied that the apologue, as a whole, was not known in 
our language until towards the end of the fifteenth century ; and 
although Chaucer mentions a Fox, who caught a cock by the 
gargat, or throat, he expressly calls him Russell, and not Reynard, 
the name he would be sure to have given him, had it then been 
his popular appellation from the general circulation of his history. 
Into its obscure continental origin we do not here pretend to 
enter. Pynson reprinted Caxton's text, but in what year is 
uncertain, the only known copy being imperfect and without 
colophon. We next hear of it from the press of Thomas Gaultier 
in 1550, and a period of thirty-six years elapsed without any 
intelligence regarding the work. We may feel assured, however, 
that it must have been republished in that interval, although the 
editions have been lost. In the ordinary accounts it is stated that 
the next impression to that of Gaultier was in 1638, which is 
probably an error for 1640; and the fact is (although it is new in 
bibliography) that it had been thus entered at Stationers' Hall in 
1586 : — 

" Edw. Aldee. Alowed unto him the old booke of Reignold the Foxe, 
to be printed to thuse of the cumpanie." 

(ffarlg (ffnglial) Citerature. 293 

No edition of that date has come down to us ; but such was the 
favor in which the subject was then held, that the reprint of " the 
old book" (perhaps Gaultier's impression of 1550) was to be made 
by Aldee, not for any private stationer, but for " the use of the 
company," the trade participating in the expected advantaj^es. 
This is important as regards the history and popularity of the 
work. Here too we may remark, that in W. Baldwin's singular 
production, " Beware the Cat," (reviewed in our first Vol. p. 54,) 
are some incidents which remind us forcibly of others in " Rey- 
nard the Fox," and which must have been introduced by some 
person well acquainted with that work. We do not believe in the 
existence of any impression of "Reynard the Fox" in 1638,^ 
but we have seen one of 1640, and it bore the following imprint: 
" London, Printed by Richard Oulton for John Wright the 
younger, and are to be sold at his shop in the Old-Baily, 1640.'* 
B. L. It consists of only " the first part " of the apologue, and 
we have no distinct tidings of any second part until 1681, when 
it was called " The most pleasant and delightful History of Rey- 
nard the Fox. The Second Part." That was " printed by A. M. 
and R. R. for Edward Brewster at the Sign of the Crane in St. 
Pauls Church-yard." 

In the same year (1681) came out the earliest translation of 

1 Since the text was written we have met with two other black-letter 
editions of "Reynard the Fox," one in 1620 and the other in 1629. The 
title-page of the former is, " The most delectable Historic of Reynard the 
Fox. Newly corrected and purged in phrase and matter. As also aug- 
mented and inlarged with sundrie excellent Morals and Expositions upon 
every several Chapter. Never before this time imprinted. — London, 
Printed by Edward All-de and are to be solde by Robert Aldred dwelling 
in Southwarke neere the Market-place. 1620." 4to. B. L. The words 
" Never before this time imprinted " can, of course, only refer to the 
"Morals and Expositions." The edition of 1629 omits those word?, but 
in all other particulars the titles conform, and it has the following im- 
print: "London, Printed by Elizabeth All-de, dwelling neere Christ- 
Church, 1629." 4to. B. L. Each of these editions is divided into 
twenty-four chapters, enumerated at the end. It deserves remark, that, 
when the copy of 1620 boasts that it is purged from all grossness of 
" phrase and matter," it is a misrepresentation, for the text there remains 
with all its real or supposed deformities. 

294 Bibliograpljual ^Jlaount of 

the subject into English "heroic verse," as it was called by the 
author, the epistle to the reader being subscribed John Shurley. 
" The Shifts of Reynardine, the Son of Reynard the Fox," was 
pubHshed in 1684, " printed by T. J. for Edward Brewster, &c. 
and Thomas Passenger at the three Bibles on London Bridge." 

We now come to the chap-book in our hands, which has no 
date, but several woodcuts, some the same as in the edition of 
1640, and others more elaborate. That on the title-page repre- 
sents the Lion holding his Court, not at " Stade," as in Caxton, 
nor at Sanden, as in some of the later reimpressions, but at a 
place called Menasten. The story opens as follows, which differs 
in some respects from any copy we have seen in our language : — 

" When Flora had drest up the Earth in her Holiday Apparel, to give 
entertainment unto the ever-welcome Spring, the princely Lion, the King 
of Beasts, intending to keep open Court at his royal Palace of Menasten, 
set forth a Proclamation commanrling all Beasts whatsoever to repair 
thither within a certain time prefixed, there and then to attend his royal 
will and pleasure: on the publication of which all sorts of Beasts, both 
great and small, came in infinite multitudes to Court, none disobeying, 
save only Reynard the Fox, who, conscious to himself of so many trans- 
gressions which he had committed, durst not appear before the face of 
Justice, knowing his life thereby to be in apparent hazard and danger." 

The above is the commencement of Chap. L, including various 
complaints against Reynard by Isegrim, Curtis, and Grimbart, 
after which we arrive at the charge made by Chanticleer respect- 
ing the death of Coppen (or Coppel, as she is called in the chap- 
book, but properly Capel), and instead of the prose epitaph of 
other copies, we have this new one in verse : — 

" Coppel lies here, stout Chantiolear's dear daughter: 
Mourn thou that readest, for wicked was her slaughter." 

It is needless to go over the contents of the different old 
editions, but the two quarto sheets before us conclude with 
Chap. VI., " Isgrim's Complaint of the Fox, with the Combat 
between them, wherein the Fox is Victor, and by the King's com- 
mand is honoured above all other Beasts." We cannot describe, 
with decorum, the manner in Avhich Reynard contrives to gain 
the victory ; but as each chapter is concluded by a " moral," we 

(Eartn Qrnglislj Citcraturc. 295 

may quote that which ends the tract iu the following significant 
manner: — 

" The Moral] By the continiied Complaint of the Wolf is shewed the 
ill will that one wicked man bears to another; and by the Fox's excuse is 
shewed how policy hath ever some evasion for any evil it doth, which it 
will maintain for truth, although with hazard of life &c. In the Combat 
betwixt the Wolf and the Fox is shewed that policy goes beyond strength 
for obtaining of victory ; and that a Conqueror shall ever be praised let 
his cause be never so bad." 

The incidents are carried no farther ; but one of the most re- 
markable points about this small tract is the " Catalogue of Books 
sold by J. Blare on London Bridge," at the end of it, which 
contains some productions of great interest, published at the 
apparently ridiculously low price of one penny. Among them 
are, — 

''The Garland of Delight, containing thirty excellent Songs, being 
Chronicles or Histories of Kings, Queens, Princes &c. together with sev- 
eral love Sonnets. Written by Thomas Delone, Gent. 8vo. 

" The Crown Garland of Golden Roses gathered out of Englands Royal 
Garden &c. Divided into two Parts. 8vo. 

" Robin Hood's Garland : being a compleat History of his merry Ex- 
ploits, and valiant Fights which he, Little John, and Will. Seadlock 
fought on divers Occasions. 8vo." 

The following are priced twopence : — 

" Doctor Merryman or Nothing but Mirth. Being a Posie of pleasant 
Poems and Witty Jests. Fitted for the recreation and pastime of youth. 
Written by S[amue}] R[ovvlands]. 4to. 

*' Britains Glory or the History of the Life and Death of K. Arthur and 
the Adventures of the Knights of the Round Table &c. Pleasant and 
Delightful; altogether worthy the perusal of the ingenious Reader. 4to. 

" The High Dutch German Fortune-teller, wherein all those Questions 
relating to the several States, Conditions and Occasions of human Life 
are fully resolved and answered &c. 4to. 

" The pleasant and delightful History of Tom of Lincoln, the most 
valiant and renowned Red-rose Knight, surnamed for his many wonderful 
Exploits the Glory and Pride of England &c. 4to. 

" The pleasant and delightful History of Montelion, the most valiant 
and renowned Knight of the Oracle, Son of Pericles, King of Assyria, 
and Constantia, daughter of the Emperor of Persia &c. 4to." 

The price of the following was a shilling, bound : — 

296 Bibliograpijical Account of 

" The comical and tragical History of Fortnnatus: Wherein is contained 
his Birth, Travels, Adventures, last Will and Testament to his two Sons, 
to whom he bequeathed his Purse, and his Wishing-cap, as also their lives 
and deaths. The third Edition with Additions. 4to. 

" The famous and pleasant History of Parismus, the valiant and re- 
nowned Prince of Bohemia. In three Parts. Containing his triumphant 
Battles fought against the Persians &c. 4to. 

"The most pleasing and delightful History of Reynard the Fox and 
Reynardine his Son: in two Parts. With the Morals to each Chapter, 
explaining what appears doubtfnll or Allegorical &c. 4to." 

Our penny " Reynard the Fox " was nothing; but a very con- 
tracted abridgment of the above larger work, sold for a shilling. 
It seems strange to find that the chap-book was then so cheap ; 
but what shall we say of editions of Deloney's " Garland of 
Delight," of Richard Johnson's " Crown Garland," and of 
" Robin Hood's Garland," for only the same price ? We do not 
hear of Deloney's " Garland of Good Will," unless it be under 
the alias of " The Garland of Delight." We have in our hands, 
while writing, an exemplar of " The Garland of Good Will," 
printed for G. Conyera, about the date when the chap-book of 
*' Reynard the Fox " ap[)eared ; and for that, some years ago, we 
willingly paid two hundred and forty times the publishing price 
announced in the above Catalogue. Pavier's original device, 
about a century old, is preserved on the title-page. 

Rich, Barnabe. — A right excelent and pleasaunt Dia- 
logue, betwene Mercury and an English Souldier: 
conteyning his Supplication to Mars : Bewtified with 
sundry worthy Histories, rare inventions and politike 
devises. Wrytten by B. Rich. Gen. 1574. — These 
bookes are to be sold at the corner Shop, at the 
South west doore of Paules Church. 8vo. B. L.^ 

1 The following we have not seen in any list of Barnabe Rich's numer- 
ous works : — "A Martiall Conference, pleasantly discoursed between two 
Souldiers o^ly practised in Finsbury Fields, in the modern Wars of the 
renowned Duke of Shoreditch, and the mighty Prince Arthur. Newly 
translated out of Essex into English by Barnaby Rich, gent., and servant 

(farlg (Snglis!) Citeratnre. 297 

This is the earliest, and perhaps the rarest production of a 
voluminous author, who did not cease to write industriously until 
near the close of the reign of James I. 

The Dedication is to Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, as " General 
of the Quccnes Majesties Ordinance;" and the author, though 
with great humility, speaks of himself as a soldier of some experi- 
ence. In his address "to the gentle and friendly Reader" he 
apologizes for his insufficiency with the pen. 

This little book brings us acquainted with two new versifiers 
to be added to Ritson's list ; namely, G. Argal and John Bettes, 
Gent., who furnish commendatory poems, of little merit we must 
own. The first ends thus: — 

" Let Lanpcius lye, and Machavel go make his mone; 
Mars and Bellona bids thee reade but Rich alone." 

Then follows a dialogue between the author and his book, in 
five stanzas, which would (if he had written nothing else) have 
entitled him also to a place in Ritson's Bihl. Poet., from which he 
has been strangely altogether excluded. It is worth quoting for 
its novelty : — 

" The Author to his BooTce. 
" Why sbouldst thou make such hast abroad to be, 
a meane wherby to purchace me defame? 
Yet migbtest thou still abyde and stay with me, 

and I therby remayne devoyd of blame: 
But if I once permit tbee scope to trudge 
I know not, I, what every man will judge." 

" The Booh to the Auth&r. 
" What doubts be these that thus doth dul thy braine, 
or what conceiptes doth yet thy mjmd pursue? 
I know no cause thou sbouldst me thus restraine, 

but geve me scope to such as list to vew: 
Then they, no doubt, will thank thee for thy payne, 
As I suppose thou seekest no greater gayne. 

to the Queenes most Excellent Matie. — Printed for Jo. Oxenbridge, 
dwelling in St. Pauls Church Yard at the sign of the Parrot. 1598." 
4to. See Bagford's MSS. (Harl. 5900, p. 38.) We may add, that in a list 
of Captains who had served in the Low Countries, and now without 
charge, i. e. in 1593, we read the name of Captain Barnaby Riche. He 
afterwards obtained employment. 

298 iSibliograpljical :2lccount of 

" The Author. I crave no more, iu deed, but the good will 

of such as shall thy simple sence behold ; 
But this, I doubt, my rude and slender skil 

may geve them cause to judge me over bold: 
So I, in steed of thanks, may purchace blame, 
So vayne a toy to set forth in my name. 

" The Booke. And who so redy ever fault to fynde 
as witlesse head that least of all doth know? 
For none so bold, they say, as bayerd blynd, 

and none more riefe their doultish domes to shewe ; 
Wher wyse men yet will deeme thy doings right: 
What carst thou then for Zoylus cankerd spight? 

" The Author. Well, yet me booke I geve thee this in charge : 
the maners marke of such as thee peruse : 
If thou perceivest their tonges do run at large 

in fynding fault the Author to accuse, 
Tell thou them, then, I ment not to offend : 
What they mislike desire them they wold mend." 

The discussion between Mercury and the English Soldier is pre- 
ceded by a sort of induction, in which the writer feigns himself 
to have fallen asleep, and to have had a strange dream or vision. 
The burden of Rich's song is that " Soldiers in England are had 
in small account," and he maintains their worthiness and excel- 
lence. He also treats somewhat of naval affairs and prepara- 
tions, and gives it as his decided opinion " that one thousand good 
Archers would wronge two thousand shot, yea, and would drive 
them out of the feeld ; and there be a great many of my opin- 
ion beside my selfe." Nevertheless, he admits that the art of 
shooting with fire-arms had much improved, especially owing to 
the substitution of the " caliver or musquet " for the " halfehaake 
or a hagbus." Sign. H 8. His defence of archery (like Ascham's, 
thirty years earlier) is, however, earnest and singular. 

He gives, not very appositely, a description of the Court of 
Venus, and translates some inscriptions upon the hangings of her 
palace, which showed the various triumphs of the goddess. In a 
beautiful hall lie saw " lusty gentlemen and gallant dames " using 
" many amorous exercises : some were reciting of tales, and tell- 
yng lovinge historyes : some were singyng to the lute and vir- 
ginalles many amorous ballades : some were in the Pavyans and 

(Eaihj €n(|lislj Citcraturc. 299 

jralliardes ; and happye was he that before his ladye could do the 
lustiest tricke." Here he listens to the story of the Lady of Cha- 
bry, which he tells us he derived from Bandello, but which had 
been previously told by Geoffrey Fenton in his " Tragical Dis- 
courses." See Vol. II. p. 15. 

It is in this part of his book that Rich makes mention of Romeo 
and Juliet ; for he says that he saw in the arras " the pitifull his- 
tory of Romeus and Juletta, Gismondo and Guistardo, Piramus 
and Thisbe, Livio and Camilla, and of many other loving wightes." 
Livio and Camilla is another of the stories which had been related 
by Fenton about seven years before. 

It is evident that the latter part of the book was intended to 
relieve the dry discussions of the earlier part ; but the only roman- 
tic narrative, told in detail, is that of the Lady of Chabry. 

RiCHE, Barnaby. — The straunge and wonderfull ad- 
ventures of Don Simonides, a gentilman Spaniarde : 
Conteinyng verie pleasaiinte discourse: Gathered for 
the recreation aswell of our noble yong gentilmen, as 
our honourable courtly Ladies : by Barnabe Riche, 
getilman &c. — Imprinted at London by Robert Wal- 
ley &c. 1581. B. L. 4to. 71 leaves. 

This seems to have been Barnaby Rich's third or fourth extant 
•work, his "Dialogue between Mercury and an English Souldier," 
1574, and his " Allarme to England," 1578, if not his "Farewell 
to Military Profession," 1581, having preceded it. He tells Sir 
Christopher Hatton, in the dedication, that he had " betaken him- 
self to his pen, since he had no employment for his pike." In 
this instance be had so little confidence in his own literary skill, 
that he employed the celebrated Thomas Lodge to correct his 
style. In some verses, which follow " the Preface," Lodge says : — 

" Good Riche, a wiseman hardly can denye 
But that your booke by me ill mended is; " 

and then Lodge adds for himself, — < 

300 Bibliograpljtcal Account of 

" Whose long distresse hath laied his Muse to rest, 
Or duld his sprightes, or senses at the lest." 

At this date Lodge had just published his answer to Stephen 
Gosson's attack upon theatrical performances in the " School of 
Abuse." Lodge was then probably a player. Some stanzas, 
headed "the Printer to the courteous Reader," subscribed R. W., 
which were most likely written for Walley, also precede the body 
of the work. It is a prose romance, or novel, with a good deal 
of poetry interspersed, and some of it was possibly contributed by 
Lodge. In general, however, the pieces are inferior to his pro- 
ductions. Most of them are in the seven-line ballad measure, but 
here and there variety is attempted, and not without reasonable 

There is no doubt that Rich was a popular pamphleteer, and, 
although Thomas Nash speaks of him disparagingly in 1596, when 
he printed his attack upon Gabriel Harvey, called " Have with 
you to Saffron- Walden," the mere mention of him there shows 
that he was much in the hands of readers of a certain class. In 
" the Epistle Dedicatorie," Nash asserts that Lichfield, the Cam- 
bridge Barber, is well read " in nothing but in Barnabe Riche's 

Wart on (Hist. Eng. Poetry, IV. 313, edit. 8vo) states that "he 
thought he had seen the original of Simonides in Italian," which 
is not impossible, although Rich does not profess that it was a 
translation, and some parts of it must have been original. 

Rich, Bakxaby. — The Second Tome of the Travailes 
and adventures of Don Simonides, enterlaced with va- 
rietie of Historie, wherein the curteous and not curi- 
ous Reader male finde matters so leveled as maie 
suffice to please all humours. &c. Written by Barnabe 
Rich, Gentleman &c. — Imprinted at London for Robert 
Walley, &c. 1584. B. L. 4to. 75 leaves. 

This, like the first volume of the same romance, is dedicated to 
Sir Christopher Hatton ; and to the epistle succeeds an address 

(Earlp iKnglisI) literature. COl 

" to the gentlemen Readers," which conveys no information. 
There are no conimendatory verses ; and perhaps llieh, relying 
upon the success of the commencement of the story, did not again 
ask the aid of Lodge. In the division of the work headed " How 
Simonides commyng to London was friendly entertained by Phi- 
lautus," some interesting particulars of the state of society in the 
metropolis might be expected, but none such are given, the au- 
thor, excepting in a panegyric upon Queen Elizabeth, dealing 
entirely in general description. 

The verses in this portion of the work are much fewer, which 
may also lead to the conclusion that Lodge had nothing to do 
with it ; but there is a remarkable peculiarity about one of the 
poetical insertions, namely, that it is in blank- verse, and it is to be 
taken as an early specimen of this kind of writing, which, as far 
as we now know, in 1584 had not been employed upon the stage. 
Blank-verse was first used as the vehicle for dramatic dialogue 
about 1586 or 1587, the date when Shakspeare is supposed to 
have come to London and joined a company of players, although 
he was not the poet who originally introduced it at our theatres. 
A short extract from Rich's performance of this kind will serve 
to show that his lines are only distinguished from couplets by the 
absence of rhyme : — 

" Forsaking flood, to whiche with bootelesse hope 
1 whilorae did my bodie recommend, 
I come to Athens for to claime my due. 
Who here deservde a royall tombe to have. 
Ne bootes it not myne ashes to revive. 
Since in these livelesse lines myne image is: 
Erst in this state, by dome of power divine, 
Licurgus poynted was by deepe conceipt 
To fashion raines unto your wandering willes. 
Whose tongue, inspir'd with secrete rules of right, 
Made Athens Greece, and Grecia Athens towne." 

There are about one hundred and seventy lines in this poem, 
but none of them have that variety of pause and inflection which 
Marlow earliest employed upon the stage in his " Tamberlaine the 
Great," and which Shakspeare subsequently so much improved. 

302 Bibliograpljical ^cronnt of 

RiCHE, Barnabe. — Riche his Farewell to Militarie 
profession: conteining verie pleasaunt discourses fit 
for a peaceable tyme. Gathered together for the onely 
delight of the courteous Gentlewomen bothe of Eng- 
land and Irelande, for whose onely pleasure thei were 
collected together, and unto whom thei are directed 
and dedicated by Barnabe Riche, Gentleman. Mcdui 
me dlintem esse qua vocari. — Imprinted at London by 
Robert Walley. 1581. 4to. 

Considering how much verse was written by Barnabe Riche, 
and interspersed in his many prose compositions, (he never pub- 
lished any separate work in verse,) it is surprising that he never 
found his way into Ritson's Bibl. Poetica. We are not about here 
to remedy that deficiency, but to call attention briefly to a volume 
which, in modern times, has attracted a good deal of notice, be- 
cause it contains the stories upon which several old plays were 
founded, and which, above all, includes a novel to which, there 
is little doubt, that Shakspeare resorted in the composition of his 
" Twelfth Night." It comes second in the book, and bears the 
title of "Apolonius and Silla." 

It may admit of doubt whether between 1681, when this story 
was first printed in English, and 1601, when there is reason to 
suppose that Shakspeare wrote his comedy, some play had not 
been produced upon the subject of which our great dramatist may 
have availed himself. Nay, it is not at all impossible that the sub- 
ject had been dramatized even before 1581, and that Riche used 
it, and inserted the main incidents. 

It must have been popular, and may, in some respects, be con- 
sidered a second " Palace of Pleasure," consisting, for the most 
part, of histories derived from foreign originals, although some of 
them may have been upon the stage before 1581; in the same 
way that some of the novels in " The Palace of Pleasure " had 
bqen dramatized before they appeared in that favorite receptacle 
of fiction. " Romeo and Juliet" is an instance directly in point, 
for it had certainly been brought upon the stage, even before the 
publication of Arthur Brookes' rhyming version of the story in 
1562. (Shakspeare, 1858, Vol. V. p. 93.) 

(Earlj) Cnglisl) Citcraturc. 303 

Other plays, of mucli repute, unquestionably treat of the same 
events as are narrated by Riche in the work under consideration. 
One of these is the Scottish comedy of Philotus, which we here 
find under the title of " Philotus and Emelia." The same remark 
will apply to the English anonymous comedy called " The Weak- 
ist goeth to the Wall," first printed in 1600. There are, as Riche 
tells " the Readers in general," eight " histories " in the volume, 
of which he admits that he borrowed three from the Italian, while 
the other five, as he professes, were " forged only for delight." 
How far these were, in fact, derived from foreign sources, cannot 
now be conclusively asserted. The titles of them are : 1. " Sappho 
Duke of Mantona." 2. "Apolonius and Silla." 3. "Nicander 
and Lucilla." 4. " Fineo and Fiamma." 5. " Two Brethren and 
their Wives.'* 6. " Gonzales and his virtuous Wife Agatha." 7. 
" Arimanthus born a Leper : "and, 8. " Philotus and Emelia." To 
these may be added a ninth story, which Riche does not enumer- 
ate, and which he obviously inserts that his book may end merrily, 
a variation of Machiavelli's famous story of " Belphegor." Riche, 
however, transfers the scene to England, with some other varia- 
tions, all without improvement. 

As his verses have hitherto been entirely neglected, we may 
insert a specimen from the tale of " Sappho Duke of Mantona," 
where a young lover thus sings to his lute : — 

" No shame, I trust, to cease from former ill, 

Nor to revert the leudnesse of the myude, 
Whiche hath bin trainde, and so misled by will, 

To breake the boundes whiche reason had assygnde: 
I now forsake the former tyme I spent, 
And sorry am for that I was miswent. 

" But blynde forecast was he that made me swerve. 

Affection fond was lurer of my lust: 
My fancie fixt, desire did make me serve ; 

Vaine hope was he that trained all my trust. 
Good liking then so daseled my sight, 
And dimnde myne eyes, that reason gave no light. 

" sugred sweete, that trainde me to this trap ! 
I sawe the buite where hooke laie hidden fast: 
I well perceivde the drift of my mishap ; 
I knew the bit woulde breede my bane at last. 

8S1 Sibliograjjijical Account of 

But what of this? for sweete I swallowed all, 
Whose taste I finde more bitter now then gall. 

" But loe, the fruites that grewe by fonde desire ! 

I seeke to shunne that pleased best my mynde: 
I sterve for colde, yet faine would quenche the fire, 

And glad to loose that fainest I would finde. 
In one selfe thyng I finde both baall and blisse: 
But this is strange, I like no life but this." 

We certainly never before saw the common word " bale " so 
uncommonly spelt as in the last line but one. The book has vari- 
ous misprints, some of them sufficiently obvious, as the following ; 
" true it was that he wanted no secrete compassions to make folke 
dye with poison." Here *' compassions " ought to be confections. 
Another instance is where " stormes " is misprinted for formes^ 
when it is said that Fineo " under diverse and sundrie stormes 
and shapes " had death before his eyes. We have seen that in 
*' Simonides," 1581, Lodge had assisted Riche in point of style, 
and for aught we know he may have contributed, or at least cor- 
rected, the verses in the work in our hands, dated in the same 
year. " Simonides " was entered at Stationers' Hall on 23d 
October, 1581; probably posterior to the appearance of Riche's 
" Farewell to Military Profession," for which we find no license in 
the Registers. We believe that only one perfect exemplar of the 
latter is in existence: it was reprinted in 1606; and of that re- 
impression we never saw more than two copies. Baptist Starre 
and W. J., both omitted by Ritson, gave commendatory poems. 

Rich, Barnabe. — The Adventures of Brusanus, Prince 
of Hungaria, Pleasant for all to read, and profitable 
for some to follow. Written by Barnaby Rich seaven 
or eight yeares sithence, and now published by the 
great intreaty of divers of his freendes. — Imprinted 
at London for Thomas Adames. 1592. 4to. B. L. 

This is the first time that we recollect to have seen it placed 
on the title-page of a book, that it was published at the earnest 

(ffarlg ^nglisl) Citeraturt. 305 

solicitation of friends. The doubtful statement is, of course, often 
met with in dedications, and deprecatory addresses to readers. 

Only 6ne perfect and one imperfect copy of this romance re- 
mains to us. We have used both, and are sorry that, on the 
whole, it is not better worth reading ; but, amid considerable te- 
diousness, there certainly are parts that show it to have been 
written by one who was not merely an imitator of other writers 
in this department of letters. It is entirely prose. 

The dedication is subscribed by Rich, and it proves that he 
was in some way related to Sir Edward Aston, for he calls that 
knight's daughter, Miss Jayes Aston, " his loving cousin," and 
terms her " a woorshipfull and vertuous young gentlewoman"; 
there is also a passage in the body of the work which applies per- 
sonally to the author, whom he styles Martianus, and where he 
says of himself, " It is now thirty yeares sith I became a souldier, 
from which time I have served the King in all occasions against 
his enemies in the fielde : the rest of the time I have continued in 
his garrisons : in this meane space I have spent what my friends left 
me, which was some thing ; I have lost part of my bloud, which 
was more ; and I have consumed my prime of youth and florish- 
ing yeares, which was most." If this were written, as Rich states 
on his title-page, seven or eight years before 1592, it would carry 
us back to 1585, and if he were in the army thirty years anterior 
to that date, he began life as a soldier before Elizabeth came to 
the throne. His earliest known published work bears date sixteen 
years after that event. 

In Percy's Reliques, if we recollect rightly, is a ballad where, 
speaking of an aged man, it is said, — 

" And on his hoary temples grew 
The blossoms of the grave; " 

and in the work before us, Myletto, the father of Brusanus, tells 
his son, " My white heaires are blossomes for the grave." He 
gives the ensuing character of a person he names Gloriosus, a 
courtier of Epyrus, which not only in the general description re- 
minds us of Shakspeare's Armado, but applies to him the very 
word which Boyet (" Love's Labours Lost," Act IV. sc. 1) gave 
to Armado : — 

306 Bibliograpljtcal ^Iccount of 

" The loftines of his lookes was much to be marveld at, but the manner 
of his attire was more to be laughed at. On his head he woare a hatte 
without a band like a Mallcontent, his haire hanging downe to both his 
shoulders, as they used to figure a hagge of hell; his beard cut peecke a 
devaunt, turnde uppe a little, like a Vice of a playe ; his countenance 
strained as farre as it would stretch, like a great Monarcho: his coUer 
turnde down round about his necke, that his throat might be scene, as one 
that were going to hanging should make way for the halter: his dublet 
bolstered with bumbast, as if he had beene diseased with the dropsie: 
upon this he wore a loose mandilyon, like a counterfeit souldiour; in his 
hande a fanne of fethers, like a demye harlot." 

The whole character of this man has a mixture of Armado and 
Pistoll in it ; and the allusion to the turned-up beard of the Vice 
of a play is highly curious in relation to our early dramatic per- 
formances ; elsewhere Rich speaks of the performance of " come- 
dies and histories " as matters of common occurrence, as they of 
course were in 1592, when " Brusanus" was published, but hardly 
so in 1585, when it is said to have been written. 

Rich was not without humor, as will appear from the recipe to 
cure love, which is given in the course of the narrative with a re- 
markable, but most inappropriate, reference by an Italian to Dun- 
mow and its renowned flitch : — 

" Take two ounces of the sound of a bell when it is roong for a mans 
soule that died for love; as much of the neighing of a horse that hath 
brought his maister from Dunmo with the Flitche of Bacon : then, take 
the parings of any mans nailes that is ful foure and twentie 3'eares olde 
and never flattered woman: grinde all these to fine ponder in a winde- 
raill in the bottome of a fish-poole: then, take halfe a pinte of the water 
that is wiped from a mans eies at the buriall of his wife: put a handfull 
of Lovers protestations made to his Lady without dissimulation: boyle all 
these together on a few coales, then strain it through the lining of any 
mans gowne that hath beene married full out a yeare, and never quar- 
relled with his wife; put to but one dram of good conscience drawne 
from him that married his wife more for love for her vertue then for the 
lucre of her dowrie. Use this plaister wise, laide warme to your left 
heele at night when you go to bed, and my life for yours, it shall both 
bring you into quiet sleepe, and rid you of this incumbraunce that doth so 
trouble your head with love." 

The work is divided into three books, the first containing 22, the 
second 13, and the third 20 chapters, and the last page is num- 
bered 172, ending thus : "All parties thus pleased and every one 

(farlg (SiiglisI) Citeraturc. 307 

remaining in most happy contentment, I hold it best even to leave 
them, for in fitter time it is not possible to end. Finis. Barnaby 
Rich." To which he added his accustomed motto, Malui me 
dioitem esse quam vocari. 

Rich, Barnabe. — Greenes Newes both from Heaven 
and Hell. Prohibited the first for writing of Bookes, 
and banished out of the last for displaying of Conny- 
catchers. Commended to the Presse by B. R — At 
London, Printed, Anno Domini. 1593. 4to. B. L. 
31 leaves. 

This is a very rare tract of which, although it is mentioned in 
several places, we nowhere find any account. Besides the ini- 
tials on the title-page, there are good reasons for believing that it 
was by Barnabe Rich. It purports to have been printed in Lon- 
don, and such was very likely the fact, but it deserves remark, 
that no name of printer or publisher is found either at the begin- 
ning or end. It is dedicated by his " assured freend B. R." " to 
the renowned Gregory Coolie, chiefe Burgermaister of the Castle 
of Clonarde, Marquesse of merry conceits, and grand Cavalier 
amongst boune companions, and all good fellowship, at his chaste 
Chambers at Dublyne in Irelande, B. R. sendeth greeting," which 
is an imitation of Nash's humorous style of dedication. Rich was 
long in Ireland, and a portion of the tract before us relates to that 
country, where we take it, it was written. 

It avowedly grew out of the death of Robert Greene, whose 
peculiar mode of writing is in part adopted ; and, besides alluding 
to the "Supplication of Pierce Penniless" by Thomas Nash, it 
mentions various productions by Greene, the whole tract being 
composed as if it had been the work of Greene's Ghost returning 
to earth after he had seen Heaven and Hell. This singular fancy 
is thus opened by Rich in his dedication : — 

" It was my fortune (Sir) not long since to travaile between Pancredge 
Churcli and Pye-corner, beeing somewhat late in the evening, about an 
houre after the setting of the Sunne ; and casting up mine eyes towardes 

308 BibUograpljkal Account of 

the sk)''es, to behold the twinckliug starres that had then but newly dis- 
covered themselves, I might see how the Man in the Moon was beating of 
his dogge. Thys fearefuU aspect did wonderfullie daunt me, with doubt 
of some angry accident that might shortly betide me ; and I had not paced 
many steppes, but directly in the path before me, there appeared a most 
grislie ghost wrapt up in a sheete, his face onely discovered, with a penne 
under his eare, and holding a scrowle of written paper in his hande. I 
crossed the way of purpose to shunne him, but crosse as I could, he was 
ever-more before mee, that passe I might not, unlesse I should runne over 
him. I remembred my selfe how old Fathers were wont to say, that 
spirits in such cases had no powre to speake to any man untill they were 
spoken unto; and therefore, taking unto me a constrained courage, I 
asked him what he was, and what was his meaning to trouble me in my 
passage? who aunswered thus: I am (said he) a Spirite; yet feare thou 
nothing, for my comming is not to doe thee any manner of harme, but to 
request a matter at thy handes which thou must not denay me ; for thou 
must understand I am the spirite of Robert Greene, not unknowne unto 
thee (I am sure) by my name, when my wrytings, lately priviledged on 
every post, hath given notice of my name unto infinite numbers of peo- 
ple, that never knewe me by the view of my person." 

Greene's Ghost " popped the papers " into the writer's hand, and 
vanished he could hardly tell how. On examining them, B. R. found 
that they were intended by Greene for publication, and made up 
bis mind to address them to Gregory Coolie of Dublin. The dedi- 
cation occupies four pages, and then begins the body of the book 
under the heading " Greenes newes both from Heaven and Hell," 
as follows : — 

" Be not dismaied (my good freends) that a deade man shoulde acquaint 
you with newes; for it is I, I per se I, Robert Greene, in Artibus Magistei; 
he that was wont to solicite your mindes with many pleasant conceits, and 
to fit your fancies, at the least every quarter of the yere, with strange 
and quaint devises, best beseeming the season, and most answerable to 
your pleasures." 

Here we ought perhaps to read solace for " solicite " ; but, on 
the whole, the tract is quite as well printed as was usual at that 
period, and " solicite " may have been the writer's word. It is not 
easy to make a guess of this kind, but if it went through the press 
in London, the types seem most like those of Edward Allde. We 
very early meet with a mention of Greene's disputation between 
Velvet Breeches and Cloth Breeches, and throughout much is 
borrowed or imitated from that popular production : they are in- 

(ffarltj (Jnglial) Ctteraturc. 309 

troduccd as interlocutors, and as companions of Greene's Ghost, 
and before the end we get rather tired of them and of their collo- 
quy. Other pieces by Greene are only slightly noticed, such as 
his " Farewell to Folly," his " Groatsworth of Wit," his " Never 
too Late," &e. His tracts against Conycatchers are thus men- 
tioned by St. Peter, when Greene has made his way to Heaven's 
Gate in hopes of being allowed to enter : — 

" Our turnes being now come to say for our selves, I was the first of the 
three that was called for. S. Peter demaunded of me, what might be my 
name, and what trade I had used ? I tolde him my name was Robert 
Greene, by profession a SchoUer, and commenced Master of Artes. — 1 
(quoth S. Peter) I haue heard of you; you haue beene a busie fellowe 
with your penne: it was you that writ the Bookes of Coiiycatching." 

This may serve to show that the tracts exposing cheats and 
rogues (called a little farther on " Crosby ters, Lyfters, Nyppers 
and Foysters ") were not fraudulently imputed to Greene in or- 
der that his popularity as an author might secure them a sale, but 
that most of them really came from his pen. 

The question of the relative antiquity of Cloth Breeches and 
Velvet Breeches is afterwards revived ; and Rich introduces a 
story of the manner in which a mercer of the name of White 
had been cozened, which contains the following allusion to the 
then mode of posting bills in St. Paul's and obtaining answers to 
them. " Theyr lodgings being provided, Maister White, walking 
into Poules and seeing many bills sette upon the West doore by 
such as wanted Maisters, perusing the bylles, and finding one that 
he thought might be fitte for his purpose (and in truth was as cos- 
oning a knave as hee himselfe) gave notice under the bill, that he 
should repaire into Graties streete, and at such a signe inquire for 
Maister White." 

Afterwards we have a long, and not very delicate story of the 
marriage of " ruffling Richard " and " mannerly Margery," (the 
last is the title of a song in Ritson's Collection,) with matrimonial 
anecdotes that not very amusingly occupy many pages. The sub- 
sequent passage, representing what a young woman was carrying 
to Hell for the approbation of Proserpina, illustrates somewhat 
curiously the female dresses of the time. " Syr, sayde shee, I have 
heere Perewigs of the new curie, Roules, and other attyres for the 

310 Bibliograpljicat 2lccount of 

heade of the new fashion, Ruffes in the newe sette, newe Cuttes, 
newe Stitches, newe Gardes, newe imbroyders, newe devised 
French Verdingales, newe French bodyes, newe bumbasting, newe 
bolstering, newe underlayings, and twentie newe devises more 
than I have nowe spoken of, which I am carryng to hell amongest 
the Ladyes and Gentlewomen that are there, who, when they 
lined in the worlde, woulde let alippe no fashion ; and I am sure, 
nowe they bee there, would bee right glad of the fashions nowe 
in use, both to see them, and to have them.** 

The following affords a useful note in favor of Malone's mode 
of printing " wittol-cuckold " in " The Merry Wives of Windsor," 
Act II. sc. 2. — " But alas for pitty ! what shall become of a num- 
ber of kind harted Wittoles, that will not onely be contented to 
hoode-winke themselves from theyr Wives adulteries, but also to 
become Bawdes and Brokers ; yea, and sometimes will not sticke 
to keepe the doores, whilst their Wives shall bee within playing 
the harlots wyth theyr customers." 

Towards the close a good deal is said upon the popular topic of 
Roman Catholic Priests and Seminaries ; and here it is that B. R., 
t. e. Rich, adverts to the condition of Ireland in this respect : — 

" Nowe lastly for Ireland : if that Countrey might still bee continued 
in that state as it now standeth, there were many hopes to be expected, 
not necessary in this place to bee openly revealed: for although the nat- 
urall people of that Countrey (3'ea, even in the most barbarous places) be 
of themselves very zealously inclyned, and without all peradventure, 
would easily be drawn to the true knowledge and worship of God, if 
they had such a Minister amongst them as might instruct them as well in 
wholesome doctrine, as in good example of life, but the Pope hath so well 
provided for the place, that the whole Country doth swarme with Jesuits, 
Seminaries and massing Priests, yea, and Fryers, that have recourse into 
Dublyne it selfe, and these doo keepe such a continuall and daylie buzing 
in the poore peoples eares, that they are not onely ledde from all duety 
and obedience to theyr Prince, but also drawne from God to superstitious 
Idolatrie, and so brought headlong by heapes into hell." 

The subsequent is a mention of Tarlton, the famous actor, about 
five years after his death, and it is one of not a few allusions of 
the kind. " The Legat had no sooner made an end of these latter 
words, but in comes Dick Tarlton, apparelled like a Clowne, and 
singing this peece of an olde song, — 

«arlj) SnglisI) CiUratiin. 311 

" If this be trewe, as true it is, 
Ladie, Ladie, 
God send her life may mend the misse, 
Most deere Ladie." 
This " old song " was probably Elderton's ballad, " The Panges 
of Love, and Lovers Fittes," printed by Richard Lant in 1559, 
as a broadside, which contains these lines : — 

" If this be true, as trewe it was, 
Lady, Lady, 
Why should not 1 serve you, alas. 
My deare Lady V " 
Near the close of the tract a conflict takes place between Vel- 
vet Breeches and Commens, a Sergeant of London, who wished 
to arrest him in Hell, in which row the devils take part " with 
flesh-hookes, with Coale rakes, wyth Fyre-forckes " : the Cony- 
catchers also join in it, and Greene's Ghost is driven out of Luci- 
fer's dominions, and compelled to wander on earth. There he 
says that he will sometimes be " a spirite of the buttery," some- 
times Robin Goodfellow, and sometimes in other shapes " will 
walke through all trades and sciences, and all occupations." In 
the last paragraph of the book, Rich especially blames and threat- 
ens the non-resident clergy. 

On the whole, the tract is disappointing, since there are few 
allusions in it to any writer of the time but to Greene : it promises 
considerably more than it performs, and the whole is prose. The 
desicjn is better than its execution. 

Rich, Barnaby. — The Fruites of long Experience. A 
pleasing view for Peace. A Looking- Glasse for Warre. 
Or Call it what you list. Discoursed betweene two 
Captaines. By Barnabie Rich, Gentleman. Malui me 
divitem esse guam vocari. — Imprinted at London by 
Thomas Creede for Jeffrey Chorlton &c. 1604. 4to. 
B. L. 
This forms the continuation of the same author's " Souldiers 

Wish," 1604, which is a dull professional Dialogue between 

312 I3ibUograpl)ical ^Iccount of 

Captains Pill and Skill : the second part is even less readable than 
the first. We only notice it for the subsequent passage, which 
refers,' in a rather singular manner, to the fame some command- 
ers had obtained through the medium of historical plays : — 

" But I cannot altogether blame the carelessnesse of the world in that 
it is become so sparing of good indevours, when there is neither reward 
for welldoing, nor recompence for good desert ; nor so much as a mem- 
orandum for the most honourable enterprises, how worthily so ever per- 
formed; unless, perhaps, a little commendation in a Ballad, or, if a man 
be favoured by a Play maker, he may sometimes be canonized on the 

Towards the conclusion. Rich derives two illustrations from the 
Jests of Scoggin : they were doubtless printed at a very early 
date, but we now know of no edition of them prior to 161S. The 
older copies (none of which were entered at Stationers' Hall at 
any date between 1560 and 1587) must have been destroyed by 
wear and tear. 

Rich, Barnabt. — Faultes Faults, and nothing else but 
Faultes. — At London Printed by Jeffrey Chorleton 
&c. 1606. 4to. 66 leaves. 

It is dedicated by the author to Prince Henry, subscribing it, 
" Your Graces most humble and dutifull souldier, Barnaby Rich." 
At this date he had been a writer for more than thirty years. 
The production itself is of little value, consisting merely of prose 
satirical reflections, of a very general kind, upon the vices and 
peculiarities of the age. On sign. B. 4, Rich mentions Ben Jon- 
son's " Every Man in his Humour," and on sign. L 4 he finds 
great fault with those writers who gave deceitful and enticing 
titles to their fooUsh pamphlets ; but he truly adds, " I never met 
with so vaine a booke but that I could gather something out of it 
for mine owne instruction, if it were but to blesse my selfe from 
his humour that writ it." Attractive titles were then often the 
composition of publishers. 

Carlg ffinglisi] Citcrature. 313 

Rich, Barnaby. — Roome for a Gentleman, or the 
second part of Faultes, collected and gathered for the 
true Meridian of Dublin in Ireland, and may serve 
fitly else where about London &c. By Barnabe Rych, 
Souldier &c. — London Printed by J. W. for Jeffrey 
Chorlton &c. 1609. 4to. 33 leaves. 

This tract was probably written in Ireland, though published in 
London, and it is dedicated to " Sir Thomas Ridgeway, Knight, 
Treasurer and Vice-Treasurer at Warres in his Majesties Realme 
of Ireland." The author further states that it was " collected and 
gathered for the true Meridian of Dublin," but there is little in it 
that relates peculiarly to that capital. The following refers to 
Sir John Davys, where the author is speaking of the multiplicity 
of laws, and the accumulation of fees : — " But, as I have heard, 
there hath beene some reformation of these things in England, 
and I hope there will be the like in Ireland, where this extorting 
by Clarks is in such use and custome, that some of the discreet 
Judges themselves have found faulte at it ; and I my selfe have 
heard no worse man then the Kinges Atturney Generall of that 
realm, that did both mislike, and promise to be a meane to 
redresse it, as likely a man to performe his promise as that realme 
doth afford." 

The subsequent passage was calculated to give offence, but 
Rich was of an independent spirit, and scorned, as he says, " to 
duck, crouch, deject, and prostrate himself at men's feet," and 
therefore deUvered himself plainly : — "I am sorry now at last to 
speake of those that are a stayne to that honourable order of 
Knighthood, that knowing themselves to be of no desert, nor anie 
waies able to merite, will buy the dignity and purchase their 
Knighthood with money — a silly humour that loveth admiration 
and procureth laughter." About this period, as is well known. 
King James was raising a revenue by the sale of knighthoods, &c. 

Rich, Barnabe. — The Excellency of good women. The 
honour and estimation that belongeth unto them. The 

B14 JJibliograpljkal Jlccount of 

infallible markes whereby to know them. By Barnabe 
Rych, souldier, Servant to the King's most excellent 
Majestie. Malui me divitem esse, quam vocari. — Lon- 
don Printed by Thomas Dawson, dwelling neere the 
three Cranes in the Vinetree, and are there to be solde. 
1613. 4to. 20 leaves. 

We never heard of more than two copies of this very curious 
production : i it is so rare that even the tide-page has not found 
its way into any bibliographical catalogue : it has been merely 
called " The Excellency of good Women," with the date, — all the 
rest, including the imprint, being omitted. 

The dedication is to the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James 
I. ; and Rich there apologizes for his " untutored pen " : it might 
be "untutored,** but it was far from unpractised. After an 
address " To the numberles number of honorable Ladies," &c., 
which contains nothing but a general tribute, the author enters 
upon his subject, observing in the outset that he will not ask the 
" aid of Apollo, Pallas or the Muses," but will " beseech the help 
of the living God." He commences and proceeds in this spirit; 

1 It has been usixal to attribute to Barnabe Rich an early translation of 
the two first Books of Herodotus, which came out under the following 
title: — " The Famous Hystory of Herodotus, Conteyning the Discourse 
of dyvers Countreys, the succession of theyr Kyngs : the actes and ex- 
ploytes atchieved by them: the Lawes and customes of every Nation; 
with the true Description and Antiquitie of the same. Devided into nine 
Bookes, and intituled with the names of the nine Muses. — At London, 
printed by Thomas Marshe, 1584." 4to. With his usual title-page orna- 

It was entered at Stationers' Hall on 13th June, 1581, but not published 
till three years afterwards. We are convinced that it was not translated 
by Barnabe Rich, but by some person who had the same initials, or who 
borrowed those of Rich on account of his popularity. Rich nowhere 
speaks of it as his work, and he was not sufficient scholar (as his other 
productions show) for such an undertaking. The translation is of only 
two Books of Herodotus, Clio and Euterpe, although " nine Books " are 
mentioned on the title-page; and it is dedicated to " Mayster Robert Dor- 
mer, son to Sir William Dormer," by B. R. The same initials are at the 
end of an address "to the Gentlemen Readers," but there is no other 
mark of authorship. 

(Karlg ®ngllsl) Ctterature. 315 

and after Informing us that women were created last, and " there- 
fore the perfectest handy worke of the Creator," he gives the 
following as the cause of that event. " The cause why they 
were created was to be a comfortable assistant to man, that man 
by marriage of a good woman might passe through the laborsome 
toyles and turmoyles of this life with the more ease ; " which is not 
saying much for the female sex in regard to their own especial 
claims. Besides, as he advances, although Rich does full justice 
to " good women," he never spares, or even excuses the bad, say- 
ing nothing of the mode in which they were frequently seduced 
to vice by men. He quotes, and admits the truth of Solomon's 
proverb, (ch. 31,) that a good woman is "like the merchant's 
ships," but he goes on to say that not a few turn pirates : like a 
pirate she procures all " by cosening, by cheating, by gaming and 
by shiftinge ; not by painfullnes but by idlenes, not by godlines 
but by devellishnes : so she spcndes it againe as shamfully in 
dyssolution, in prodigalitie, in pride, in vanitie ; just like the 
Pirate, who when she hath scoured the coast, and committed a 
number of spoiles with as many passengers as she meetes, she con- 
sumes It againe In the next harbour In ryot, in drunkennes, in 
voluptuousnes, and In al manner of extraordinary beastllnes." 

So that, in spite of his title-page, it cannot be said that the 
female sex is much elevated in our estimation by the author's 
applauses. Besides pirates, he terms the lighter sort " Ladies of 
the Lake," and thus curiously illustrates the early use of coaches 
for the purpose of conveying dainty dames : — " And there is no 
remedy but my Lady must be coacht : she can not go to church 
to serve God without a coach : shee that, herselfe and her mother 
before her, have travailed many a myle a foote, can not now 
crosse the breadth of a streete, but shee must have a coach." 

He freely quotes scripture in women's favor, but he generally 
counterbalances it by more than broad hints of their weaknesses 
and failings. He concludes the whole in verse ; which, as our 
readers will see, is of a peculiar construction, the first six lines 
being blank-verse, and the last six rhyme. We quote them, not 
for any great merit they possess, but because we cannot call to 
mind any similar specimen by other authors. Rich heads it — 

316 I3ibltograpl)tcal Account of 

" Epilogus. 
" These harmelesse lynes that never did conspire 

In any sort to slaunder or detect, 
I hope shall not be tortured on the racke, 

Nor wrested to a misconceived sense. 
I strike at Sinne, yet sing bright Vertues prayse. 

If gauld backe jade, with selfe misdeeming eye, 
Will search so neare to rubbe his festred sore 

The faultes not mine, his errour is the more. 
What songe so sweete if Saintes themselves woulde sing, 

But Currs would barke, and Snakes are apt to sting. 
The summe is this : I little force the spight 
• That scrues awry what I have forged right." 

We have already shown {ante, p. 301) that Rich was one of 
our earliest experimenters in blank-verse, not intended for the 
stage; and while upon this point we may cite two peculiar 
stanzas prefixed to his " Faults, Faults and nothing but Faults," 
4to, 1606, where he makes only the closing couplet rhyme, leaving 
the introductory quatrain to depend upon its mere harmony of 
numbers : — 

" A figge for all that Envie can invent ; 

On fearefuU steps true honour never treades : 

I come not to implore Lucinas helpe 

To bring myselfe a bed with fantasies; 
Nor steale I jests in cloudes to make you game, 
Nor do I seeke by gawdes to purchase fame. 

" I wade into the world as one unknowne, 
Yong in disguise, and yet in yeares more ripe: 
I can discerne an Ape, though clad in silke, 
And temper wit sometimes to serve a turne. 
To what impresion I have wrought it now 
The wise may judge ; for fooles feare not how." 

In this last line both sense and measure detect a misprint : for 
" feare not how " we must read " / care not how " ; and when 
we recollect that in manuscript of the time the pronoun / was 
constantly carried below the line, it is easy to understand how / 
care became misprinted " feare." This mode of detecting errors 
of the press in old books has never been sufficiently attended to ; 
and editors of Shakspeare have often preserved blunders, because 
they did not consider, or perhaps did not know, how words would 
look in writing of that period. 

OEarls (Kuglial) Citeratuu. 817 

Rich, Barnabe. — My Ladies Looking Glasse. Where- 
in may be discerned a wise man from a foole, a good 
woman from a bad, and the true resemblance of vice 
masked under the vizard of vertue. By Barnabe Rich 
Gentleman, servant to the Kings most excellent Maj- 
estie. Malui me divitem esse quam vocari. — London, 
Printed for Thomas Adams. 1616. 4to. 40 leaves. 

This is a rambling production, directed against some of the 
prevailing vices, with more coarseness than severity in its style ; 
and, considering that it is dedicated to a lady, " the wife of Sir 
Oliver St. Jones, Knight, Lord Deputy of Ireland," we might 
wonder at the nature of some of the expressions and details, did 
we not know the very different habits of society then prevailing. 
After the dedication is an address " to all Readers, either cur- 
teous or captious, I care not," and that is followed by two six-line 
stanzas " to the wide World." All the rest is prose, and in one 
place (sign. A 2) Rich acknowledges that he had given offence 
in some former work (probably his "• Honesty of this Age," which 
he afterwards names) by the boldness of his attacks, especially 
upon popery. Nevertheless, he proceeds with equal freedom, 
and perhaps spares the Roman Catholic priesthood less than any 
other class. On sign. H 2 he mentions the rare dramatic dialogue 
called " Robin Conscience," as having been shown to him in St. 
Paul's Churchyard, when he went " amongst the Stationers and 
those that sold books." A fragment of it only is now in existence. 
Martin Parker, in 1635, printed a tract with a similar title, but 
in a different form. 

In " My Lady's Looking Glass " Rich repeats many things that 
he had previously said in his " Faults, Faults, and nothing else 
but Faults," 1606. (See ante, p. 312.) 

Richard the Third. — Licia, or Poemes of Love, in 
Honour of the admirable and singular vertues of his 
Lady, to the imitation of the best Latin Poets and 
others. Whereunto is added, the Rising to the Crowne 
of Richard the third. 

318 Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

Auxit musarum numerum Sappho addita musis, 
Foelix si saevus sic voluisset Amor. 

4to. 48 leaves. 

The above is the whole of the title-page, without date, name of 
author, printer, or stationer. Hence it has been supposed that it 
was a private speculation by the anonymous writer, who dates the 
preliminary matter " From my chamber, Sept. 4, 1593." We 
conclude that he put it into circulation about that date. At the 
back of the title-page £ire two copies of Latin lines, Ad Amorem 
and Ad Lectorem. 

A review of the work may be found in Restituta, IV. 15 ; and 
on this account we should, probably, not have noticed it, if it did 
not materially assist us in deciding as to the precise period when 
one of Shakspeare's most popular dramas was originally acted. 
This is an interesting point which did not at all strike the writer 
of the review, who dwells mainly upon the artificial nature of the 
author's love-passion ; but some of his thoughts are original, and 
gracefully expressed, and we take his first sonnet as a favorable 
sample : — 

*' Sadde, all alone, not long I musing satte. 
But that my thoughtes compell'd me to aspire: 
A Laurell garland in my hande I gatte, 
So to the Muses I approch'd the nyer. 
My sute was this, a Poet to become, 
To drinke with them, and from the heavens be fedde: 
Phoebus denyed, and sware there was no roome 
Such to be Poets as fonde fancie ledde. 
With that I mournd, and sat me downe to weepe : 
Venus she smil'd, and smyling to me saide 
Come drinke with me, and sitt thee still and sleepe. 
The voyce I heard, and Venus I obaj^de. 
That poyson (sweete) hath done me all this wrong. 
For nowe of love must needes be all my song." 

The fact is, that the author of " Licia " was an imitator of 
Daniel and Lodge ; but our purpose is not to illustrate that por- 
tion of his claim to notice, but to advert to the other feature to 
which we have referred, which is more important, and has been 
passed over without remark. It is for this reason that we have 


(ffarlg (Englislj fiteratnre. 319 

placed the name of " Richard the Third " at the head of our 
present article ; because we think it can be shown, by a part of 
the contents of the volume, that at the time it was written and 
printed, in the year 1593, Shakspeare's "Richard the Third" 
could not have been upon the stage. 

At the end of the small volume is a separate poem headed 
" The Rising to the Crowne of Richard the third, written by him 
selfe," i. e. written, as it were, in his own person. We will first 
make our quotation, and then show the inference we draw from 
it. It begins by referring to the Stage, and to the preparations 
at that date usually made for the performance of a play. 

" The Stage is set, for stately matter fitte : 
Three partes are past, which prince-like acted were : 
To play the fourth requires a kingly witte, 
Els shall my muse their muses not come nere. 
Sorrow, sit downe and helpe my muse to sing, 
For weepe he may not that was cal'd a King. 

" Shores wife, a subject though a Princesse mate. 
Had little cause her fortune to lament. 
Her birth was meane, and yet she liv'd with state: 
The King was dead before her honour went. 

Shores wife might fall, and none can justly wonder 

To see her fall that useth to lye under. 

" Rosamond was fayre, and farre more fayre then she. 

Her fall was great, and but a womans fall. 

Tryfles are these, compare them but with me; 

My fortunes farre were higher then they all. 
I left this land possest with civill strife, 
And lost a Crowne, mine honour and my life. 

" Elstred I pitie, for she was a Queene ; 
But for my selfe to sigh I sorrow want. 
Her fall was great, but greater falles have beene : 
Some falles they have that use the Court to haunt. 
A toye did happen and this Queene dismayd. 
But yet I see not why she was afrayd." 

Here Richard clearly refers to three dramas which had been 
well received by public audiences, upon the stories of Shore's 
Wife, Fair Rosamond, and Elstred; and he complains that the 
poets had ill spent their time and toil upon the stories of women. 
He adds, — 

320 Bibliograpljical 3lccount of 

" Nor weepe I nowe as children that have lost, 

But smyle to see the Poets of this age, 
Like silly boates in shallow rivers tost, 

Loosing their paynes and lacking still their wage, 
To write of women, and of womens falles, 
Who are too light for to be fortunes balles." 

We know that there was an old play upon the story of Shore's 
Wife, and that in 1598 the old manager of the Rose Theatre, 
Henslowe, paid 40s. that it might be newly torilten for the Earl of 
Worcester's Players (Diary, p. 214) ; and we hear of it again 
afterwards, when Henry Chettle and Day were paid 40.s. more 
*' in earnest of a play wherein Shore's Wife is written." This 
last was in 1603, when it is probable that the old tragedy received 
new additions. As for Fair Rosamond, no memorandum of any 
kind, beyond what the author of " Licia " states, has come down 
to us to prove that her character was ever brought upon our early 
stage. On the contrary, as to Elstred, or Elstrild, as the name 
was also spelt, we know that before 1593 her story had been 
performed under the name of " Locrine," that such a play was 
entered for publication in July, 1594, and that it was printed in 
1595. These three ladies, therefore, had had justice done to them, 
as Richard states, on the stage, while he complains, in no equivo- 
cal terms, that the incidents of his reign had been neglected. 

Still, it is somewhat extraordinary that the author of " Licia " 
should not have been acquainted with the old drama of " The 
True Tragedie of Richard the Third," which was published in 
1594, and had certainly been acted several years earlier. Possibly, 
in 1593 it had gone out of vogue; and it is not unhkely that it 
was printed in 1594, not on account of its own merit, but because 
at that very time Shakspeare's new historical play on the same 
subject was in course of daily performance. The publisher may 
have hoped that buyers would be deceived by the title, and would 
purchase the old play thinking that it was the new one, in which 
Burbadge was supporting the character of Richard the Third 
with the highest applause. This might show that Shakspeare's 
" Richard the Third " was in course of performance in 1594 ; but 
we are to recollect that the only date in "Licia" is 1593, and it 
seems to us conclusive, that in September of that year Shaks- 

(Sarlg (EnglisI) Citerature. 321 

peare's play was not in existence, or the author of " Licia" would 
not have made Richard reproach the world with having neglected 
his history, while those of Jane Shore, Rosamond, and Elstrild 
had been repeatedly exhibited. Of himself the writer of " Licia " 
makes Richard speak thus : — 

" A King I was, and Richard was ray name, 
Borne to a Crowne when first my life began: 
My thoughts ambitious venter'd for the same, 

And from my Nephewes I the Kingdom wan ; 
Nor do I thinke that this my honour stayn'd : 
A Crowne 1 sought, and I a kingdome gayn'd." 

There is nothing else in the piece that deserves much notice, 
and the events of the time are somewhat summarily dismissed. 
Three, if not four, copies of " Licia " are known, and that cir- 
cumstance militates against the notion that it was not originally 
published, but intended merely for private circulation. There is 
comparatively little high excellence in the volume, and, if in- 
tended for sale in 1593, it could hardly have become popular. 
We do not find any part of it quoted in the miscellanies of the 
time, nor is it, we believe, anywhere alluded to by contempora- 
ries. We have patiently gone over the unassigned quotations in 
" England's Parnassus," 1600, but we meet with no trace of it. 

RiCRAFT, JosiAH. — A Survey of Englands Champions, 

and Truths faithful! Patriots. Or a Chronolojricall 

Recitement of the principal! proceedings of the most 

worthy Commanders of the prosperous Armies raised 

for the preservation of Religion &c. By Josiah Ricraft. 

Published by Authority &c. — London : Printed by R. 

Austin &c. 1647. 8vo. 71 leaves. 

The author calls himself at the bottom of his portrait, which 

faces the title, Mercator ; and in the dedication, (to the Lords and 

Commons, to the Lord Mayor of London, and to the Assembly of 

Divines,) as well as in the Address to the Reader, he promises to 

do more, if duly encouraged in his present undertaking. Then 

VOL. 111. 21 


322 Bibliograpljical ^Icconnt of 

follow notices, accompanied by portraits, of twenty-one of " Eng- 
land's Champions." These are in prose, with verses prefixed to 
each ; and to them are added, after a sort of preface, "a perfect 
list of the many Victories obtained (through the blessing of (jod) 
by the Parliaments forces," &c. from July, 1642, to August, 1646* 
The volume ends with lists of killed on both sides, and an enu- 
meration " of those that had fled out of the kingdom." 

Riddles. — The Booke of mery Riddles. Together 
with proper Questions, and wittie Proverbs to make 
pleasant Pastime. No lesse useful! then behoovefuU 
for any yong man or child to know if he be quicke- 
witted or no. — London Printed by Edward Allde, 
dwelling in Little Saint Bartholemewes, neere Christ- 
church. 1600. 8vo. B. L. 24: leaves. 

We can very well believe that this was not only " the book of 
riddles " which Master Slender had lent to Alice Shortcake, but 
that it was the edition which Shakspeare had in his mind when 
he wrote " The Merry Wives of Windsor,*' about the date when 
the reprint before us (for such it no doubt was) was brought out. 
We take it also, that it was a recent edition of the same " book 
of riddels " which Langham in his Letter from Kenilworth men- 
tions in 1575 as in the library of Captain Cox. (See Vol. II. p. 

How many times it may have been reprinted between 1575 
and 1600 it is impossible to state ; but we never find it entered in 
the Stationers' Registers, and the oldest impression hitherto 
known, until the discovery of the present copy, was of the year 
1629, when it was " printed by T. C. for Michael Sparke, dwell- 
ing in Greene Arbor at the signe of the blue Bible." We may 
be sure that such a collection was in great popular demand, but 
between 1631 and 1660 we are aware of no reproduction of it.i 

1 It may be worth while to give the exact wording of the title-page of 
the edition of 1631. It is : — 


(Earlg (ffnglisi) CtUrattire. 323 

In 1660 it was "printed for John Stafford and W. G. and are 
to^ be sold at the George near Fleetbridg." All copies are in 
black-letter, and the intermediate edition of 1631 was printed by 
Robert Bird in Cheapside. 

The wording of the title-page is nearly the same in all the copies 
we have been able to examine, but it is to be observed that the 
impression of 1660, although it announces " proper questions and 
witty proverbs," contains nothing of the kind. Nevertheless, it is 
obviously complete, with the word FiniSj and the initials of the 
publishers, in a chaplet, at the end. The " proper questions and 
witty proverbs " was therefore a false pretence, and the book con- 
sists of only 12 leaves. All editions have the following lines oppo- 
site the title-page, but they are sometimes differently divided : — 

" Is the wit quicke ? 

Then do not sticke 
To reade these Riddles darke : 

Which if thou doo, 

And rightly too, 
Thou art a witty sparke." 

" A Booke of Merrie Riddles. Very meete and delightful! for youth to try their 
wits. — London. Printed for Robert Bird and are to bee solde at his shoppe in 
Cheapeside at the signe of the Bible. 1631." 12mo. B. L. 11 leaves. 

We quote the following from the edition of 1630, the more curious be- 
cause it contains the words of a very old Catch, then usually sung by 
" Ale- Knights," and which has come down to our day. 
" Q. I am foule to be looked unto, 

Yet many seeke me for to win, 

Not for my beauty, nor my skin, 

But for my wealth and force to know. 

Hard is my meate whereby I live, 

Yet I bring men to dainty fare : 

If I were not, then Ale-Knights should 

To sing this song not be so bold, 

Nutmegs, Ginger, Cinamon and Cloves, 

They gave us this jolly red nose. 

The foure parts of the world I show. 

The time and bowers as they doe goe : 

As needfull am I to mankind 

As any thing that they can find. 

Many doe take me for their guide, 

Who otherwise would runne aside. 
^^Sol[ution]. It [is] a Loadestone, for without it no Pilot were able to guide a 
ship in the Ocean Seas." 

324 Biblioigrapljkal Account of 

Later copies than the one we have used read, " Is thy wit quicke," 
and it is perhaps right. The antiquity of some of the riddles is 
thus established, carrying us back fourteen years anterior to the 
date of Langham's Letter from Kenilworth : — 

" What is that round as a ball, 
Longer then Pauls steeple, weather-cock and all? " 

The answer, called " solution," is, " It is a round bottome of 
thread when it is unwound." Now, we know that the steeple of 
St. Paul's, with its weathercock, was consumed by fire, occasioned 
by lightning, in June, 1561. (Stow's Annates, p. 1055, edit. 1605 ; 
edit. 1631, p. 647; and this volume, p. 164.) The riddle was 
therefore older than 1561. 

Some of the best riddles are in " The Demaundes Joyous," 
printed by Wynken de Worde in 1511, (reviewed in Vol. I. 
p. 267,) the first of which is, "Who bare the best burden that 
ever was borne ? " and the answer, " That bare the asse whan 
our lady fled with our lorde into egypte." It stands thus in our 
"Booke of Merry Riddles," 1660 : " Who bare the best burthen 
that ever was bore at any time since, or at any time before ? " with 
the following " solution " : " It was the Asse that bare both our Lady 
and her son into Egypt." Again, in " The Demaundes Joyous," 
we have, just afterwards, " What space is from ye hyest space of 
the se to the depest?" — " But a stones cast." In our more mod- 
ern form it is given as follows : " What space is from the high- 
est of the sea to the bottom ? — Soliit. A stones cast, for a stone 
throwne in, be it never so deepe, will go to the bottome." A 
third instance from " The Demaundes Joyous " is this : " How 
many calves tayles behoveth to reche from the erthe to the skye ? 
— No more but one, if it be longe enough." The Riddle-book 
of 1600 has it in nearly the same terms : " How manie Calves tailes 
will reach to the sky ? — Solut. One, if it bee long enough." 
The last two are precisely the same in the impressions of 1629, 
1631, and 1660. 

The following was, no doubt, invented and printed before the 
Reformation, but it is not in the " Demaundes Joyous," for obvi- 
ous reasons : " Of what faculty be they that everie night turn the 
skins of dead beastes ? — Solution. Those be Fryars, for everie 

(f arlg (ffngltsl) Ixitxaixxxt, 325 

night at Mattins [Vespers ?] tliey turn the leaves of their parch- 
ment bookes, that be made of sheep skins, or calfes skins." The 
following is of a different character to the riddles we have already- 
noticed, but it is not at first very intelligible : — 

" L and V and C and I, 
So bight my Lady at the Font stone." 

The " solution," so to call it, is thus given : " Her name is Lucy, 
for in the first line is L V C I, which is Lucy ; but the Riddle must 
be put and read thus ; fifty and five a hundred and one : then is 
the riddle very proper, for L standeth for fifty, and V for five, C 
for an hundred and I for one." 

Some are in rhyme, as the following, which is, in substance and 
in prose, also in the " Demaundes Joyous " : — 

" A water there is which I must passe ; 
A broader water never there was, 
And yet of all waters that ever I see 
To pass it over is lest jeopardie." 

The solution in 1600 is, "It is the due [dew] for that lyeth 
over all the world." " Demaundes Joyous " adds, " Which is 
the broadest water and the leest jeopardye to passe over." 

The most curious and interesting part of this little volume con- 
sists of a list of " witty Proverbs," which, as we have stated, are 
altogether omitted in the reprint of 1660. They are entirely 
miscellaneous, and we select only a few of the most pointed and 

" There is no vertue that povertie destroyeth not. 
All weapons of warre cannot arme feare. 
Chuse not a woman, nor linnen cloth by a candle. 
He helps little that helpeth not himselfe. 
He knoweth enough that knoweth nothing, if so bee hee know how to 

holde his peace. 
He daunceth well enough to whom Fortune pipeth. 
He that liveth in Court dyeth upon straw. 
That is well done is done soon enough. 
Marvell is the daughter of ignorance. 
The deeds are manly, and the words womanly. 
He that soweth vertue shall reape fame. 
The hearts mirth doth make the face fayre. 
He that is in poverty is still in suspitioa. 

326 Btbltograpljical ^Icronnt of 

He that goeth to bed with dogs riseth with fleas. 

Fryars observants spare their owne, and eate other mens. 

All draw water to their owne mill." 

In the whole there are 131 of these proverbs. 
The following shows that some of the proverbs are of foreign 
origin : — 

" Venice, bee that doth not see thee doth not esteeme thee." 
This is, of course, Shakspeare's ^^Venegia, Venegia, chi non te vede 
non te pregia" (L. L. L. Act IV. sc. 2,) which, perhaps, he had 
from Florio's " Second Fruits," 1591, but without the sequel ; which, 
among other places, we meet with in Howel's " Lettei-s," p. 53, edit. 

" Venetia, Venetia, chi non ie vede non tepregia, 
Ma che Vha troppo veduto te dispregia : " 
which has been thus translated : — 

"He who ne'er saw thee, Venice, cannot prize thee; 
He who too much has seen thee must despise thee." 

Thus we see that our great dramatist may be illustrated from 
the most unlikely sources, for there was nothing too vast for his 
intellect, nor too insignificant for his observation. The small 
book of riddles in our hands throws light upon two of his noble 

Robin Good-Fellow. — Robin Good-Fellow, his Mad 
Prankes and merry Jests, Full of honest Mirth, and 
is a fit Medicine for Melancholy. — London, Printed 
for F. Grove dwelling on Snow-hill &c. 1628. B. L. 
4to. 22 leaves. 

Richard Tarlton, in his " News out of Purgatory,*' printed with- 
out date, but certainly before 1590, (see Tarlton, joos/,) mentions 
Robin Good-fellow as " famosed in everie old wives chronicle for 
his mad merrie prankes"; and much hesitation cannot be felt in 
deciding that this tract was in print before the death of that most 
applauded actor. Francis Grove, who (as we see) published it in 
1628, brought out and reprinted a variety of productions of a sim- 
ilar character, popular prose and poetry. This is both prose and 
poetry. Owing, doubtless, to the destruction of such perform- 

€arl2 OEnglial) Citerattire. 327 

ances in passing through so many hands, no other copy of this 
edition is known; and of a subsequent impression in 1639, 4to, 
by Thomas Cotes, only one copy is beUeved to be in existence. 
It also was reprinted in 1648, but of that only a fragment has 
reached our day. 

On the title-page is a coarse woodcut of Robin Good-fellow, like 
a Satyr, dancing in a ring of black sprites. On the opposite fly- 
leaf is another figure of a sort of wild hunter, with a staff on his 
arm, and a horn at his side. A similar woodcut was subsequently 
placed at the head of a broadside song, called " The New Mad 
Tom of Bedlam." This last figure, which is very rudely executed, 
is repeated on the title-page of " The second Part of Robin Good- 
Fellow," for the production is divided into two portions, the first 
included in eight, and the second in fourteen leaves. The follow- 
ing are the titles of the different chapters, if they may be so called, 
into which the tract is divided. The first is introductory. 

" Robm Good Fellow, his made Prankes and merry Jests. 

The Hoastesse Tale of the birth of Robin Good-fellow. 

Of Robin Good-fellowes behaviour when he was young. 

How Robin Good-fellow dwelt with a Taylor. 

What hapned to Robin Good-fellow after he went from the Taylor. 

How Robin Good-fellow served a Clownish fellow. 

How Robin Good-fellow helpt two lovers, and deceived an old man. 

How Robin Good-fellow helped a Mayde to worke. 

How Robin Good-fellow led a company of fellowes out of their way. 

How Robin Good-fellow served a Leacherous Gallant. 

How Robin Good-fellow turned a miserable Usurer to a good house- 

How Robin Good-fellow loved a Weaver's wife, and how the Weaver 
would have drowned him. 

How Robin Good- fellow went in the shape of a Fidler to a wedding, 
and of the sport that he had there. 

How Robin Good-fellow served a Tapster for nicking his pots. 

How King Oberon called Robin Good-fellow to dance. 

How Robin Good-fellow was wont to walke in the night. 

How the Fairyes called Robin Good-fellow to dance with them, and how 
they showed him their severall conditions. 

The Trickes of the Fayry called Pinch. 

The trickes of the Fayry called Pach. 

The trickes of the Fairy called Gull. 

The trickes of the women Fayries told by Sib." 

328 I3ibUograpl)kaI !3lccottnt of 

The whole story purports to be related by a hostess, at an ale- 
house in Kent, to one of her guests ; but it is preceded by an 
introduction, in which a question being mooted as to the origin 
of " Kentish Longtails," the hostess asserts that the phrase arose 
out of the long tales told in that county to make people merry. 
Some of the principal incidents, which are here narrated in prose, 
were also put into verse, and sold as a chap-book, but the only 
known copy of it is without a title, and is otherwise imperfect. 
It is there divided into five chapters, headed : " Shewing his birth 
and whose son he was ; " " Shewing how Robin Good-fellow car- 
ried himselfe, and how he run away from his mother ; " " How 
Robin Good-fellow lost his Master, and how Oberon told him 
he should be turned into what shape he could wish or desire ; ** 
" How Robin Good-fellow was merry at a Bridehouse ; " " De- 
claring how Robin Good-fellow serv'd an old lecherous man." 
We insert the first stanza for identification in case any other 
copy should be met with hereafter : — 

" Here doe begin the merry jests 

of Robin Good- fellow: 
I'de wish you for to reade this booke, 

if you his Pranks would know. 
But first I will declare his birth, 

and what his Mother was, 
And then how Robin merrily 

did bring his knacks to passe." 

In the whole there are thirty-seven such stanzas, and in sev- 
eral places the woodcut of Robin Good-fellow with a broom on 
his shoulder (see Mids. N. Dreamy Act V. sc. 2, edit. 1858, Vol. H. 
p. 253) is inserted. 

The following song by Robin Good-fellow is one of the best of 
these compositions in the tract before us of 1628, but they are not 
remarkable for their excellence. 

" To (he tune of Rejoyce Bag-pipes. 
" Why should my Love now waxe 
Unconstant, wavering, fickle, unstay'd? 
With nought can she me taxe : 
I ne'er recanted what I once said. 
I now doe see, as Nature fades, 
And all her workes decay, 

(Earlg ^nglielj Citerature. 329 

So women all, Wives, Widdowes, Maydes, 
From bad to worse doe stray. 

" As hearbs, trees, rootes, and plants 
In strength and growth are daily lesse, 
So all things have their wants : 
The heavenly signes moove and digresse ; 
And honesty in womens hearts 
Hath not her former being : 
Their thoughts are ill, like other parts, 
Nought else in them 's agreeing. 

'* I sooner thought [the] Thunder 
Had power o're the Laurell Wreath, 
Then shee, Avomens wonder, 
Such perjurd thoughts should live to breathe. 
They all Hyena hke will weepe, 
When that they would deceive : 
Deceit in them doth lurke and sleepe, 
Which makes me thus to grieve. 

" Young mans delight farwell, 
Wine, women, game, pleasure, adieu: 
Content with me shall dwell ; 
I 'le nothing trust but what is true. 
Though she were false, for her I 'le pray; 
Her false-hood made me blest. 
I will renew from this good day 
My life by sinne opprest." 

At the time he sings this song, Robin Good-fellow is paying hi& 
court to a Weaver's wife, who afterwards is not unwilling, and the 
Weaver would have drowned him, but Robin put a sack of yarn 
into the bed, while he escaped. The Weaver seized the sack and 
carried it to a pond, saying, " Now, I will cool your hot blood, 
Master Robert, and if you cannot swimme the better, you shall 
sincke and drowne," and with that he hurled the sack in, think- 
ing that it had been Robin Good-fellow. Robin, standing behind 
him, said, — 

" For this your kindnesse. Master, I you thanke : 
Gro swimme your selfe, I'le stay upon the banke." 

Robin thereupon pushed him in, and went laughing away, " ho, 
ho, hoh ! " 

330 Btbliograpl)kal :3lccount of 

This was his usual exclamation, as in the ballad in Vol. III. 
p. 201, of Percy's Reliques, edit. 1765, which, however, has no 
connection with the incidents of this tract. 

Other popular tunes here mentioned are, — "Watton Townes 
end;" "I have beene a Fiddler these fifteene years ; " "What 
care I how faire she be ; " " the Spanish pavin ; " " the Coranto;'* 
the " joviall Tinker ; " " Broome ; " and " To him Bun." The third 
is, of course, the celebrated song by George Wither. 

One of the earliest notices of Robin Good-fellow is contained 
in a letter to Sir Christopher Hatton, written by Thomas Nor- 
ton, dated 30th December, 1580, and inserted in Sir H. Nicolas's 
" Life of Hatton." He is speaking of a French book which had 
been printed against Queen Elizabeth : " And yet, in truth, it is 
written by an Englishman, as by Robin Good-fellow and Good- 
man Gose, and an overslipped title, and as otherwise I am able to 

We will close with the following, hitherto unquoted, lines from 
Thomas Heywood's excellent comedy, in two parts, on the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, called, " If you know not me, you know No- 
body," printed forN. Butter, 1605 : — 

'* Now I remember, my old grandmother 
Would talk of Fayrles and Hobgoblins, 
That would lead milkmaides over hedge and ditch, 
Make them milke their master's neighbours' kine; 
And ten to one this Robin Good-fellow 
Hath led me up and downe this madmans maze." 

Robinson, Richard. — The rewarde of Wickednesse. 
Discoursing the sundrye monstrous abuses of wicked 
and ungodlye worldlinges : in such sort set downe and 
written as the same have beene dyversely practised 
in the persones of Popes, Harlots, Proude Princes, 
Tyrauntes, Romish Byshoppes and others. With a 
lively description of their severall falles and finall 
destruction. Verye profitable for all sorte of estates 

(Earlj) (SnglisI) Citcrature. 331 

to reade and looke upon. Newly compiled by Rich- 
ard Robinson, Servaimt in housholde to the right 
Honorable Earle of Shrowsbury. A dreame most 
pitiful, and to be dreaded 

Of thinges that be straunge, 

Who loveth to reade : 
In this Booke let him raunge, 
His fancie to feede. 
4to. B. L. 

Nobody has given any satisfactory account of this very rare 
book ; and in Censura Literarla, VI. 40, where it is noticed, there 
are no fewer than six mistakes in the title-page, including the 
omission of two important words. 

There is no imprint at the bottom of the title-page, but at the 
end we are told that it was " imprinted in Paules Churchyard by 
William Williamson " : the date, however, is not given, and we 
meet with no entry of it at Stationers' Hall. It has usually been 
assigned to the year 1574 — perhaps correctly, as Robinson dates 
his address to the Reader " From my chamber in Sheffield Castle 
1 9 May " in that year : in fact, he was then employed to watch 
over Mary Queen of Scots during her confinement.^ We know, 

1 On the subject of the confinement of the Queen of Scots we make 
the following quotation from an unpublished letter from Thomas Stringer 
to the Earl of Shrewsbury, at a later period than when Robinson was en- 
gaged to watch over her. It is from MS. Lambeth, 699, and it bears date 
from Wrakefield, 13th November, 1584. The particulars are as curious 
as they are novel : — 

" Apon the queanes [Mary's] eeacknes here Mr. Chanslar advertised Mr. Secre- 
tory, and when thay weare detarmyned to hare gone to Tutbury the last of thys 
month, or the fyrst of the next, so now I parsave that Mr. Secretory hayth wryt to 
Mr. Chanslar that her Mayjesties [Elizabeth's] plessur ys that she be not raymoved 
befor she be wel able ; so that now Mr. Chanslar hayth no warrant to ramouflfe her 
befor he hath further word. I fear thys detracksyon gretly, for Mr. Secretory wryt 
to Mr. Chanslar to confer with your offysures yf she wear not able to travell, but 
shold stay longer, what wear reson for her highnes to alow your honar abowff your 
thyrty pound a weeke ; and I told hym that I wear not so sawsy to en tar into any 
such asksyon, but as I rasaved your derecsyon so to obay it ; and that no longer 
then thys week here wear no provysyon, and that I wold not mayke ane anew with- 
owt your specyal commandement. And yf your Lordshypp shal be moved for any 
further provysyon yow must gyve derecksyon for the same, for our wyne is gone 

332 Btbliograpljical 2laount of 

however, that Richard Robinson, as early as 1569-70, had entered 
at Stationers' Hall " the ruefull tragedy of Hemidos and Thelay," 
"whoever may have been intended by those strange names. His 
productions usually found their way into the Registers, and as 
those records are wanting for 1572, 1573, 1574, and 1575, we may 
place the work under consideration in one of the latest of those 
years. In some extravagantly laudatory lines prefixed by " Rich- 
ard Smith, Clarke," it is stated that Robinson " lately did indite 
with sacred silver quill " ; but whether the passage alludes to 
" Hemidos and Thelay " we cannot well determine : most likely 
not, as Hemithea and Thenes (slain by Achilles) was anything 
but a " sacred " subject, and Robinson's " Part of the Harmony 
of King David's Harp" was not printed until 1582: possibly, 
there was an earlier edition. The work before us was ill printed, 
and in the third stanza of the " Prologue " we meet with a very 
obvious error, " ardent " for verdant : — 

" When everie tree the ardent coulors lost" 
cannot be right, when the subject is trees in winter, deprived of 
their green leaves. The same word is again misprinted after- 

No sort of justice has hitherto been done to this " dull rhymer," 
as he has been styled, but his work is far from being wearisome ; 
and a contemporary who introduces such poets as Skelton, Wager, 
Heywood, Googe, Studley, Hake, and Fulwood, cannot write with- 
out exciting some interest. Moreover, not far from the end is a 
most amusing and furious attack upon Bishop Bonner, as the 
Devil's agent on earth, by whom, as Robinson expressly states, he 
was personally known and hated : — 

" Whose face I frayde, least he shoulde have spide me. 
For when he was living he might not abide me." 

Warton had never seen the " Reward of Wickedness " ; and 
although Park, in Cens. Lit, professes to give a list of its contents, 

almost, and wheat and malt in lyck caes. Here is gret expensys of fewell by reson 
this howsse ys large and cold : yf you wear dyscharged, and your howswold setled 
at ShefiFeld, yt wylbe small, but now your chargys ys so gret, that I am wearry to 
se yt withowt you had double allowances.*' 

The above is addressed thus : — "To the Ryght Honorable and my verry 
good Lord and M. the earle of Shrewsbury, earle marshall of Yngland." 

(Karls (ffngltel) Cttcratitre. 333 

he omits altogether the mention of Bonner and his sufferings in 
hell. It is very clear that if Park had looked it over, he had not 
read it ; and, even in copying the title-page, as we have already 
stated, he committed a remarkable error, besides inserting varia- 
tions, which he could not have done had he not been in haste. 

Robinson calls it " a dream," and he imagines himself, not in 
the fields, sleeping under the shade of trees in the heat of the day, 
but among a set of good fellows at an inn or alehouse, where they 
all get tipsy and are put to bed. His dream is, that Morpheus 
guides him down to the infernal regions, described as separate 
wards, and there he sees Helen, Pope Alexander VI., Tarquin, 
Medea, Tantalus, Vitronius Turinus, Heliogabalus, the Slander- 
ers of Susannah, Pope Joan, Midas, and Rosamond who mur- 
dered her husband Albonius. All these tell the author their his- 
tories, and explain the nature of the punishments they endure for 
their crimes. We are almost afraid of mentioning Dante, lest it 
should be supposed, for a moment, that we meant to institute a 
comparison ; and although Robinson had the Inferno in his mind, 
it is evident that he makes a much nearer approach to the then 
popular " Mirror for Magistrates," which had come out some ten 
or twelve years before. What Robinson wrote is, in many re- 
spects, not inferior to several of the narrations in that work, while 
his style is superior to that of some of them. His fault is that his 
versification is too often irregular ; and this irregularity is per- 
haps more obvious from the variety of forms of stanzas, couplets, 
and ballad metres he introduces. Tantalus he thus describes : — 
" With face deforrade, al quaking standeth hee. 

Ten times worse then death the caitife lookes ; 

Nought else uppon his legges but skinne and bones to see : 

Eache finger of his hande as bare as angling hookes; 

His bellye as out of season flowkes : 
Muche like a shadowe of the Moons he standes, 
With rewfuU cheare doth wring his careful handes." 

He makes Rosamond speak thus : — 

" You lustie bloodes, possest with hawtie hartes, 
Your loftie lookes correct with uieaner state : 
Refuse to playe these wanton wilfull partes ; 
From follye flee, least you repent to late. 
Sometime I lookte as hye, as hexte as you, 
Which is the onelye cause I bid all joyes adewe. 

334 13ibliograpl)ical ^Iccoimt of 

" Seeme not to swell a hastye worde to heare ; 
No vauntage seeke, nor quarrels frame to breede : 
An honest womans parte is ever to forbeare 
The sayinges of her husband, if wel she thinke to speede. 
Where love is linkte wordes cannot brewe the bate, 
But where dissemblers are fewe wordes then causeth hate." 

These lines, with one exception, the fourth of the second stanza, 
(which is one of Robinson's irregularities, perhaps from defect of 
ear,) run as well as most in the famous " Mirror for Magistrates " : 
the word " hexte,** in the preceding stanza, gives us an opportu- 
nity of remarking that the author is obviously fond of it, and fre- 
quently uses it in the sense of high or haughty. AVhat country- 
man he was may be doubtful, but elsewhere we find him speaking 
of the devil as the " D'eyle," and he makes it rhyme with " weele," 
in the sense of well. This peculiarity may show a northern ex- 
traction ; but he liked to coin new words and to employ old ones 
in an unusual meaning. On the introduction of " bloodie Bon- 
ner** (as Robinson calls him) into hell, the rejoicing of the demons' 
is uncontrollable, and a procession is made to receive him with re- 
spect due to the services he had rendered on earth to his infernal 
majesty : — 

" Mary, what they sayd, that we did not know, 
But there was for joye such colling and kissing! 
Some laught that teeth a foote long they did show, 
And clawde eache other by the pate without missing. 
To see the triumph made with fleshhookes and spits 
Had bene able to have brought from his wits." 

The author appears to have been animated with a peculiar 
spite against Bonner ; and although he does not in terms so inform 
us, we may safely infer that he had suffered at his hands. It is at 
the close, under the heading " Retourning from Plutos Kingdome 
to Noble Helicon, the place of infinite Joye," that Robinson, not 
unnaturally, mentions some of the chief poets of his time. 

He long continued the " practice of his pen," and in 1602 we 
find him assisting old Churchyard in translating and collecting 
materials for his "True Discourse Historicall" regarding the 
Netherlands. Robinson had published translations from the Gesta 
Romanorum in 1577, and between that date and 1602 it went 
through at least six reimpressions. We have an edition of it, 
"Glasgow, 1713.' 

(garlg (Knglisl) CiUratuu. 335 

Robinson, Thomas. — The Anatomie of the English 
Nunnery at Lisbon in Portugall: Dissected and laid 
open by one that was sometime a yonger Brother of 
the Covent &c. Published by Authority. — Printed 
for Philemon Stephens and Christopher Meredith. 
1630. 4to. 21 leaves. 

On the title-page is an engraving of practices in the convent 
at Lisbon, and of the author, Thomas Robinson, discovering 
them. Opposite to it are verses containing *' the explanation of the 
Picture in the title." The work is of no authority, but it has a 
passage containing an unquoted notice of two remarkable pub- 
lications, — Shakspeare's " Venus and Adonis," and " Peele's 
Jests," — both of which the author accuses the confessor of the 
nunnery of reading. Shakspeare's exquisite poem is spoken of as 
an " idle pamphlet " : — 

"And when be is merrily disposed (as that is not seldom) then must 
his darling Kate Knightly, play him a merry fit, and sister Mary Brooke, 
or some other of his late-come wags, must sing him one baudy song or 
other to digest his meat. Then after supper it is usual for him to reade a 
little of ' Venus and Adonis,' the ' Jests of George Peele,' or some such 
scurrilous booke; for there are few idle pamphlets printed in England 
which he hath not in the house." 

Farther on, (sign. D,) Robinson quotes a coarse anecdote from 
the well-known Jests of Scoggin, or Scogan. The tract is dedi- 
cated to " Mr. Thomas Gurlin, Mayor of Kings Lynn," and con- 
cludes with a list of the male and female inhabitants of the Eng- 
lish nunnery at Lisbon. 

RouLAND, David. — The Pleasaunt Historie of Lazarillo 
de Tormes a] Spaniarde, wherein is conteined his mar- 
vellous deedes and life. With the straunge advent- 
ures happened to him in the service of sundrie Mas- 
ters. Drawen out of Spanish by David Rouland of 
Anglesey. Accuerdo Olvid. — Imprinted at London by 
Abell Jeflfes &c. 1586. 8vo. 64 leaves. 

336 Bibliogra})l)ical ^ccotint of 

David Rouland, the translator of this work, seems to have been 
a linguist, and in 1578 published "A comfortable Aid for Schol- 
ars " from the Italian. This is the earliest known edition of his 
version of " Lazarillo de Tormes," but at the end are commenda- 
tory lines by " G. Turbevile, Gent.," and, if he were the George 
Turberville who was murdered by his man Morgan l in 1579, 
(vide Hist. Engl. Dram. Poetry, III. p. 1,) there was probably an 
edition prior to the present of 1586. This supposition is rendered 
more probable by what appears in our 2d volume, p. 142, namely, 
that Gabriel Harvey gave Spenser in 1578 a book, which the for- 
mer calls " Lazarillo," obviously meaning a translation of it into 

This edition of " Lazarillo de Tormes " consists of only the first 
part. A second part, translated by W. P., came out in 1596, and 
what is called " The Pursuit of the Historic of Lazarillo de 
Tormes " in 1622. A second part of " The Pui-suit," containing 
" The death and Testament of Lazarillo," was then promised, but 
it is not known to have made its appearance. 

An edition of both parts, called " the third," was printed in Svo, 
1639. The variations are merely typographical. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — A terrible Battell betweene the 
two consumers of the whole AVorld Time and Death. 
By Samuell Rowlands. — Printed at London for John 
Deane and are to be sold at his shop at Temple barre. 
4:to. 22 leaves. 

We know of no piece by Rowlands more scarce than this : we 
have only heard of one copy, and the precise date of that cannot 
be ascertained, as the figures have been cut off by the binder. 
There is a large woodcut on the title-page, and it occupies so much 
space that the imprint, followed by the date, is driven out of its 

1 For reasons assigned subsequently, (article Turberville, George,) it 
is impossible that it should have been the poet. It is a mistake to say 
that Harvey gave to Spenser a copy of " Lazarillo." It was Spenser who 
pledged it in a wager with Harvey. See Vol. II., article Howlkglas. 

place. We may guess that it came out late in 1602 ; but there is 
nothing in the contents of the poem to show at what precise period 
it was written, beyond the mention of the plague which began in 
London in the autumn : we are sure, therefore, that the tract did 
not appear before that year, although Rowlands had commenced 
author in 1598, if he really wrote " The Betraying of Christ." 

It professes to relate to " a terrible battle " between Time and 
Death ; but although there is here and there some asperity and 
objurgation, they never come to blows, and there is therefore no 
" battle " at all : that word was inserted in order to attract atten- 
tion to what, in fact, is a mere discussion between the two wor- 
thies upon their own respective claims, and upon various topics 
divine and human, among others the then prevailing fever which 
was carrying off so many persons of all ranks in the metropolis. 
Death speaks of it as follows : — 

" Deadly destruction was in every street, 
A daily mourning, and a daily dying ; 
Great use of Coffin and of winding sheet. 
From empty houses many hundred flying; 
Each faculty, profession and degree 
Tooke counsell with their legs to run from me." 

The dedication presents a novel point, for Rowlands tells Mr. 
George Gaywood, that he does not know him, and does not expect 
any reward, — " my pen never was and never shall be mercenary," 
— but that he has inscribed the work to him, because Gaywood 
had been kind to a friend of his. This forms a sort of unprece- 
dented claim to a dedication. The next leaf commences with the 
supposed " terrible battle," but Time addresses his antagonist in 
very complimentary and deferential language : — 

" Dread potent Monster, mighty from thy birth, 
Gyant of strength against al mortal power ; 
God's great Earle Marshall over al the earth, 
Taking account of each mans dying houre. 
Landlord of Graves and Toombs of marble stones, 
Lord Treasurer of rotten dead-mens bones. 

" Victorious consort, slautering Cavalier, 
Mated with me to combat all alive, 
Know, worthy Champion, I have met thee here 
Only to understand how matters thrive : 
VOL. III. 22 

338 33ibltograpljical :3lcconnt of 

As our affayres alike in nature be, 

So let us love, conferre and kind agree." 

This does not look like the commencement of a mortal combat ; 
and Death, on his part, replies very politely : — 

" Let me entreat thee pardon me a while, 
Because my businesse now is very great: 
I must go travayle many a thousand mile 
To looke with care that Wormes do lacke no meat. 
Theres many crawling feeders I maintaine ; 
I may not let those Cannibals complaine. 

" I must send murtherers with speed to Hell, 
That there with horror they may make abode : 
I must shew Atheysts where the Devils dwell, 
To let them feele there is a powerfull God : 
I must invyte the Glutton and the Lyer 
Unto a banquet made of flambes of fire." 

Time at once allows "this lawful business*'; and the discussion 
thus opened, the two interlocutors talk over their several duties 
and adventures, narrating various scenes they had witnessed 
together, — for the information of the reader, because, of course, 
they could not need it themselves. The names of the speakers, 
as they take up the discourse, are placed in the margin : — 

'■'■Death. Where went we then ? Dost thou Remember, Time ? 

" Time. Yes, very Well : we visited a Poet, 

That tyr'd invention, day and night, with rime. 
And still on Venus service did bestow it. 

'^'■Death. Tis true, indeed; a Poet was the next, 
With foolish idle love extreamely vext. 

" Time. All that he did endeavour to devise 
Was onely Venus pi-aise and Cupids power. 
Within his head he had a mint of lyes ; 
On truth he never spent in 's life an houre. 
His fictions were to feed those in their pride. 
Who take delight to heare themselves belide. * * * 

" This poet thus a sonneting we found. 
Riming himselfe even almost out of breath. 
Cupid (quoth he) thy cruel Dart doth wound: 
Oh graunt me love, or else come, gentle Death ! 

(Sarlg ^nglisl) Citeratur^ 339 

I heard him say Come gentle Death, in jest, 
And in good earnest granted his request." 

The Dialogue soon assumes a religious character, and continues 
for some time in the same strain ; but at last Death is nettled 
because Time arrogates too much power, and exclaims, — 

" Why, what a bragging and a coile dost keepe ! 
Best take my dart — be Time be Death and al ! 
He into graves, and there go lie and sleepe, 
And answer thou when God's affaires do cal. 
Be Lord of Coffin, Pickaxe, Sheet and Spade, 
And do my worke with those in ground are laid." 

Henceforward Death boldly asserts his importance, and, begin- 
ning to treat Time with some slight, the latter grows angry, calls 
Death "a whoreson uglie prating slave," while Death retorts 
upon Time hs " a bragging fool." Here matters bear a very hos- 
tile aspect, but neither party comes to blows, and at length dis- 
cover that they have consumed hours, that ought to have been 
employed upon their special duties. Then we suddenly come to 
an italic heading, — 

^'■Harke, a monstrous rich fellow of a Citizen!^'* 
but why it is interposed does not appear. Time describes such a 
person, but without much distinctness and little novelty, and 
Death, out of patience, as he might reasonably be, exclaims, — 

" No more ! away ! look here, my glasse is out. 
Thou art too tedious, Time in telling tales : 
Our bloody businesse let us go about. 
Thousands are now at point of death ; breath failes. 
To worke ! to worke ! and lay about thee, man. 
Let's kill as fast as for our lives we can." 

The words " my glass is out " refer to part of the woodcut on 
the title-page, where a winged hour-glass is placed between the 
figures of Time and Death, who stand fronting each other as if 
about to commence the " terrible battle," — an encounter that is 
indefinitely postponed, for Death rushes away to his duties with 
this couplet : — 

*' Harke ! listen Time: I pray give eare: 
What bell is that a towling there? " 

There is no great originality, but a good deal of cleverness, in 

340 JJibUograpljkal ^Icrount of 

the poem, and, as in point of date, so in point of subject, it may 
be said to hold a middle place between Rowlands's serious and 
comic productions. In Vol. I. p. 204, we have spoken of a 
Samuel Rowland, who in 1628 published a piece called " Heaven's 
Glory, seeke it," &c. : he is, we think, not to be confounded with 
Samuel Rowlands, who always spelt his name with a final n. 
The compilers of the two editions of Lowndes' Bibl. Man. have 
not perceived that " Time well improved," &c., 1657, was sub- 
stantially the same work, first published in 1628, under the title 
of " Heaven's Glory, seeke it," &c. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — Tis Merrie when Grossips meete. 
At London, Printed by W. W. and are to be sold by 
George Loflus at the Golden Ball in Popes-head Al- 
ley. 1602. 4to. 23 leaves. 

This tract has been reprinted in modem times, but from the 
third edition of 1609. There was a second edition of 1605, of 
which no bibliographer has taken notice : like the third edition it 
was printed for John Deane ; but it does not contain what only 
appears in the first edition, " a conference " between a book- 
buyer and a stationer's apprentice, containing a good deal of 
curious information regarding the popular literature current in 
1602. We extract it because it never afterwards appeared in 
print: the reason for its omission was, probably, that in 1605 the 
prevaiUng interest regarding the tracts, even of 1602, had some- 
what subsided. On this very account it possesses the more attrac- 
tion for modem readers. We subjoin it, and shall follow it by 
a few remarks upon the disputed question of authorship. 

"A Conference betweene a Gentleman and a Prentice. 

^^ Prentice. What lacke you, Gentleman ? See a new Booke new come 
forth, Sir ? buy a new Booke, Sir ? 

^'■Gentleman. ^New Booke say'st? Faith, I can see no prettie thing come 
foorth to my humours liking. There are some old that I have more de- 
light in then your new, if thou couldst helpe me to them. 

^'■Prentice. Troth Sir, I thinke I can shew you as many of all sorts as 
any in London, Su:. 

®arlB (Englisl) Citcrature. 341 

*^ Gentleman. Can'st helpe me to all Greenes Bookes in one Volume? 
But I will have them every one, not any wanting. 

'''■Prentice. Sir, I have most part of them; but I lack Conny-catching, 
and some halfe dozen more, but I thinke I could procure them. There 
be in the Towne, I am sure, can fit you : have you all the Parts of Pas- 
quill, Sir? 

•* Gentleman. All the Parts ! why I know but two, and those lye there 
upon thy stalle: them I have, but no other am I yet acquainted with. 

^'Prentice. Oh, Sir! then you have but his Mad-cajjpe and. his Fooles- 
cappe : there are others besides those. Looke you heere, a prettie Booke 
lie assure you, Sir. Tis his Melancholy, Sir; and there's another and you 
please. Sir: beer's Morall Philosophy of the last edition. 

^^ Gentleman. What's that with Nashes name to it, there? 

"Prentice. Marry Sir t'is Pierce Pennilesse, Sir: I am sure you know 
it: it hath beene a broad a great while, Sir. 

^^ Gentleman. Oh! thou say'st true, I know't passing well: is that it? 
But Where's the new Booke thou telst me of, which is it? 

''^Prentice. Marry, looke you Sir, this is a prettie odd conceit of a Mer- 
rie meeting, heere .in London, betweene a Wife, a Widdow and a Mayde. 

"Gentleman. Merrie meeting ! why that Title is stale. There's a Booke 
cald Tis merry when knaves meete, and there's a Ballad Tis merry when 
Malt-men meete ; and, besides, theres an olde Proverbe The more the mer- 
rier. And therefore I thinke sure I have scene it. 

"Prentice. You are deceived. Sir, He assure you; for I will bee deposed 
upon all the Bookes in my Shoppe, that you have not scene it: tis another 
manner of thing then you take it to bee Sir ; for I am sure you are in 
love, or at least soon will bee, with one of these three : or say you deale 
but with two, the Widdow and the Mayde, because the Wife is another 
mans commoditie. Is [it] not a prettie thing to carry Wife Mayde and 
Widdow in your pocket, when you may, as it were, conferre and heare 
them talke togither when you will ? nay more, drinke togither : yea, and 
that which is further matter, utter their mindes, chuse Husbands and 
censure Complections, and all this in a quiet and friendly sort, betweene 
themselves and the pinte-pot, or the quart quantitie, without any swag- 
gering or squabbling till the Vintners pewter-bearer, in a Boyes humour, 
gave out the laugh at them. 

"Gentleman. Thou say'st well: belike thy Booke is a conjuring kinde 
of Booke for the feminine Spirits, when a man may rayse three at once 
out of his pocket. 

"Prentice. Truely Sir, He assure you, you may make vertious use of 
this Booke divers wayes, if you have the grace to use it kindly. As for 
ensample: set alone privately in your Chamber reading of it, and perad- 
venture the time you bestow in viewing it will keepe you from Dice, 
Taverne, Bawdy-house and so foorth. 

342 Bibliograpljical Jlaount of 

"Gentleman. Nay, if your Booke be of such excellent qualitie and rare 
operation, we must needes have some traffique together. Heere, take 
your money — ist six-pence? 

"Prentice. I, certaine no lesse, Sir: I thanke yee, Sir. 

"Gentleman. What is this, an Epistle to it? 

"Prentice. Yes forsooth: yes tis dedicated 'To all the Pleasant con- 
ceited London Grentle-women, that are friends to mirth and enemie[8] to 
dull Melancholy.' " 

This pleasant subject may be still further illustrated by a cita- 
tion from Henry Parrot's " Mastive or Young Whelp of the Olde 
Dogge," which must have appeared about two years earlier than 
Rowland's " Conference," above given. The author in one of his 
satires supposes persons of various classes entering a stationer's 
shop, and inquiring regarding new books : — 

" Next comes my gallant Dycer, 
His ordinarie stomache is more nicer. 
Who asks for new Books: this the Stationer showes him, 
Streight sweares tis naught unless the Poet knowes him; 
Nor will he reade a line: this Fortunes Mynion 
Likes forsooth nothing, but his owne opinion. — 
The mending Poet takes it next in hand. 
Who having oft the verses over-scand 
filching! streight doth to the Stationer say: 
Here's foure lines stolen from forth my last new play; 
And that hee'l sweare even by the Printers stall, 
Although he knowes tis false he speakes in all. 
Then comes my Innes-of-Court-Man in his gowne, 
Cryes Meto ! what Hackney brought this wit to towne? " &c. 

A further quotation, forming the sequel to the above, may be 
seen in this volume, p. 139 ; and taking both authorities together, 
they form a lively picture of the manners of the time, as regards 
new publications, and the buyers and sellers of such commodities. 

A discussion in verse between a Wife, a Widow, and a Maid, 
forms the body of Rowlands's " Tis merry when Gossips meet." 
It is clever and humorous, but certainly not so clever, though 
more broad and droll, than the debate between a Wife, a Widow, 
and a Maid by Sir John Davys in " The Poetical Rhapsody," 
which came out in the same year, 1602, and which, perhaps, gave 
the author of " Tis merry when Gossips meet " the first hint for 
his more familiar and less refined production. The authorship 

(£arl2 Snglisl) iiiterature. 343 

of the last has been giveii to three writers : — 1. Simon Robson, 
a clergyman, who began his career as early as 1585, whose style 
is altogether different ; 2. Nicholas Breton, whose initials do not 
correspond with those of, 3. Samuel Rowlands, which are attached 
to the tract, and to whom, we feel confident, it belongs. It is very 
true that at least three of Breton's pamphlets are mentioned 
above by the Apprentice, under the titles of Pasquil's " Mad- 
cap," " Fools-cap," and " Melancholy," to say nothing of " Moral 
Philosophy," of which, under that name, as a work by Breton, 
we know nothing. If Breton had written *' 'Tis merry when 
Gossips meet," he would hardly have thus puffed his own 
pieces. On the other hand, S. R. are the initials of Samuel Row- 
lands ; and although he published several humorous and satirical 
tracts relating to Knaves, we are not aware of the existence of 
any one called " 'Tis merry when Knaves meet," or " 'Tis merrj' 
when Maltmen meet." i Besides, " 'Tis merry when Gossips 
meet " is much more in the style of Rowlands than of Breton ; 
80 that, on the whole, we feel no difficulty whatever in assigning 
the production to him. It enjoyed great popularity, went through 
several impressions, and all but the first have the name of Deane 
on the title-page, who was the publisher of several other pam- 
phlets by Rowlands. This circumstance in favor of his author- 

1 We find the following singular memorandum in the Kegisters of the 
Stationers' Company, which mentions the subject of the next article, as 
well as " Tis merry when Knaves meet," with other books which were 
ordered to be burned : — 

" 29 Oct. 1600. Yt is ordered that the next Court-day two bookes lately printed, 
thone called the letting of humours blood in the head vayne, thother a mery met- 
ing, or tis mery when Knaves mete, shall be publiquely burnt, the whole impres- 
sions of them, for that they contayne matters unfytt to be pubhshed. They to be 
burnt in the Hall kytchen, with other popishe bookes and thinges that were lately 
taken. And also Mr. Barrels booke lately printed concerning the casting out of 

Afterwards, in another part of the Register, we read as follows : — 
" 4to. Die Marcij 1600. Received of these persons folowinge the sommes insuinge 
for theyr disorders in buyinge of the bookes of humours letting blood in the head 
vayne, beinge newe printed after yt was first forbydden and burnt." 

The above is succeeded by the names of twenty-nine stationers, each 
of whom was fined 2s. 66?., excepting Fisher, who, for some unstated 
reason, was let off for 12c?. Perhaps he had fewer copies than others. 

344 Dibliograpljical Account of 

ship seems never to have been taken into account. In so much 
general favor was " 'Tis merry when Gossips meet" even in 1625, 
that Ben Jonson mentions it in the Induction to his " Staple of 
News" : " They say its merry when Gossips meet: I hope our Play 
will be a merry one." It had been reprinted in 1619, and to 
that edition various songs were added by the author to increase its 
novelty. It may be worth while to note that the impression of 
1602 contains almost the proverbial words of Shakspeare, Two 
Genu of Verona, Act V. so. 2 : — 

" The old saying is, 
Black men are pearls in beauteous ladies' eyes." 

The variations between the earlier and later copies of " Tis 
merry," &c., until we come to that of 1619, are trifling and chiefly 
verbal: thus in 1602 the Vintner says, " Forsooth, and please 
you, Will," and in 1609, " Forsooth, my name is Will," &c. 

In 1619 a novelty was introduced into the title-page, and very 
likely the intention of the pubHsher was to induce buyers to 
believe that it was substantially a new work : it ran thus, " Well 
met, Gossips : or 'Tis merrie when Gossips meete. Newly 
enlarged with divers merrie songs. — London, Printed by J. W. 
for John Deane, and are to be sold at his shop just under Temple 
barre. 1619." 4to. It was illustrated by a woodcut representing 
the three interlocutors enjoying their liquor, while a musician 
enters, and offers to entertain them with a specimen of his skill. 
In the editions of 1602, 1605, and 1609 a Fiddler is represented 
as entering the room with the words, — 

" Wilt please you. Gentlewomen, to heare a song? " 

which the Wife, Widow, and Maid decline ; but in the edition 
of 1619 they at once consent, and they listen to two songs. The 
first is the best, and we quote it : — 

" What's a womans chiefe delight? 
To give a man his hearts content. 
How dothe hee the same requite ? 
Love her till the sport be spent. 
You that doubt it, doe but try : 
Men will flatter, cogge and lye. 

''• With bewitching words they sue, 
Vowing constant faith and love : 

(Earlj} (Euglislj £itcrature. 345 

Women thinke their oathes be true, 

Till (poore soules) they trie and proove: 
Then they finde, when helpe is past, 
For a night their love doth last. 

" Their owne stories tell their lives, 

How unconstant they have dealt : 
Honest Widdowes, Maydes and Wives 

Have their double dealing felt. 
All will say that are not blinde, 
Men are false, and Women kinde. 

" When they vow trust not their swearing; 

When they smile thinke they will frow[n]e; 
Give their flattering but the hearing, 
If they can, thei'le put you downe. 
Since they seeke your overthrow, 
Keepe them from the thing you know. 

" For, to be in great request, 

Make your love exceeding strange ; 
Trie good earnest out in jest; 

Deale with flatterers by change : 
As they come, so let them passe; 
Turne dissemblers out to grasse." 

The other song, new in the edition of 1619, is called " The 
Maydes Choyce " ; it is of a London damsel who was deceived 
by a young man, and speaking of her own accomplishments she 


" The Art I have in Needle-worke, 
Imbrod'ry rich in gold, 
With Lace and Stich, and every thing. 
That may or can be told : 

" For Dauncing, and my skill in Song 
I must and will be mute. 
My playing on the Virginals, 
And tickling of the Lute : 

" He burie all mine owne good parts. 
And of a youth will speake. 
Whose moste unkinde bad qualities 
Doth make my heart to breake." 

The whole song consists of thirteen such stanzas, and at the end 
of it the three ladies present the singer with sixpence, with which 
he retires apparently well contented. 

346 Bibliograpljical 2lccount of 

The dialogue is then continued as in other impressions, but at 
the end, in the copy of 1619, several fresh stanzas are introduced, 
of about the average merit, the object being, no doubt, to give 
the production an appearance of originality at the close. We 
may fairly presume that like the others, and the two songs, they 
were by Samuel Rowlands, who was, probably, paid by the 
stationer a small sum for the novel contribution. Rowlands puts 
his initials to the impression of 1619 as well as to that of 1602; 
and we may observe that when Manninghara quotes it in his 
" Diary " (MS. Harl. 5353) he also states, under date of October, 
1602, that it was "out of a poem" by S. R., i. e. Samuel Row- 

Rowlands, Samuel. — The Letting of Humors Blood 
in the Head-vaine. With a new Morissco daunced 
by seven Satyres upon the bottome of Diogenes 
Tubbe. Imprinted at London by W. W. 1613. 8vo. 
30 leaves. 

This is the volume of Epigrams and Satires attributed to 
Samuel Rowlands (the introductory lines *' To the Gentlemen 
Readers " being subscribed R. S., his initials reversed) which Sir 
Walter Scott procured to be reprinted in 1814, from the edition 
of 1611. That edition was precisely the same as the present, 
with the exception only of the date. 

The above was doubtless the original title, but, when the work 
was first published in 1600, " Printed by W. White," it gave 
such ofi*ence, on account of the severity of its satire, and the 
obviousness of its allusions, that an order was made that it should 
be burned, first *' publicly," and afterwards in the " Hall-kitchen " 
of the Stationers' Company. The bookseller therefore changed 
its title to " Humours Ordinarie," and published an edition of it 
without date ; but, after the feeling against the work had subsided 
in 1613, it again appeared as " The Letting of Humors Blood in 
the Head-vaine," although the printer, as we see, thought it 
prudent not to put his name at length upon the title-page. 

The Epigrams are thirty-seven in number, with six lines to in- 

(Sarlg (£ngli0l) ZxUxainxt, 347 

troduce the "seven Satires" mentioned on the title-page. The 
temporary and pereonal allusions are extremely numerous and 
often curious ; but sometimes feigned Latin names were employed 
to designate private individuals, who seem otherwise to have been 
pretty clearly pointed out. Public characters are not treated 
with the same reserve : thus Pope and Singer, the comic actors, 
are spoken of by name, and as living when the first edition 
appeared in 1600; but, as they were both dead when that of 
1611 came out, an alteration was made according with that cir- 
cumstance. (See " Shakespeare's Actors," p. 124.) 

Rowlands, Samuel. — Looke to it : For He Stabbe ye. 
— Imprinted at London by E. Allde for W. Fer- 
brand and George Loftes &c. 1604. 4to. 24 leaves. 

The author's name, as was most common with him, is not to 
this satirical and moral production, only his well-known initials 
S. R. appended to an introduction, which is here subjoined as 
explanatory of his avowed object : — 

" There is a Humour us'd of late 
By ev'ry rascall swagg'ring mate 
To give the Stabbe: He stabbe (sayes hee) 
Him that dares take the wall of me. 
If you to pledge a health denie, 
Out comes his poniard — there you lie. 
If his Tobacco you dispraise, 
He sweares a stabbe shal end your dales. 
If you demaund the debt he owes 
Into your guts his dagger goes. 
Death, seeing this, doth take his dart. 
And he perform es the stabbing part. 
He spareth none, be who it will: 
His lisence is the World to kill." 

This is followed by "Deaths great and generall Challenge," 
and " Deaths Prologue to his Tragicall Stabbe," which introduce 
the main portion of the tract, consisting of Death's declaration 
of the various sorts and ranks of men whom he designs to slay, 
namely, " Tyrant Kings," " Wicked Magistrates," " Curious 

348 Bibliograpljical !2lccount of 

Divines," " Covetous Lawyers," &c. Each of these, (thirty-four 
in number) is in two six-line stanzas. The subsequent may be 
taken as a fair specimen, and it is amusingly descriptive of female 
habiliments at that period. It is addressed to 

"Proud Gentletoomen. 
" You gentle-puppets of the proudest size, 
That are like horses troubled with the fashions, 
Not caring how you do your selves disguise 
In sinful, sharaeles, Hel's abhominations; 
You whom the Devill (Pride's father) doth perswade 
To paint your face, and mende the worke God made : 

" You with the hood, the falling-band, the ruffe. 
The Moncky-wast, the breeching like a beare, 
The periwig, the maske, the fanne, the muffe, 
The bodkin and the buzzard in your heare : 
You velvet-cambrick-silken-feather'd toy, 
That which you pride do all the world annoy. 
He stabbe ye." 

After these thirty-four addresses by Death comes a poem of six 
pages, headed by this couplet : — 

"Have at you all to stabbe and kill: 
There flies my dart, light where it will." 

It is a general warning from Death to mankind, and the tract 
terminates with " Deathes Epitaph upon every mans grave," in 
eight lines, with a repetition of the initials of the author. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — Democritus, or Doctor Merry- 
man his Medicines, against Melancholy humors. Writ- 
ten by S. R. — Printed for John Deane, and are to be 
sold at his shop at Temple-barre, under the gate. 1607. 
4to. 23 leaves. 

This is the first edition (and essentially different from those 
which followed it) of an extremely popular work of drollery, and 
no other copy of so early a year is known. The subsequent 
editions of 1609, 1618, 1623, 1631, and 1637, together with one 
reprint, if not more, without date, are all called on the title-page 

(garhj (fnglisl) Cteature. 349 

*' Doctor Merry-man, or Nothing but Mirth." They also omit 
five pages of preliminary humorous and satirical verses ; and 
the tale which in the first edition is last in the volume, is placed 
second in the other impressions. 

After the title the author addresses " Honest Gentlemen " in 
verse, recommending the infallible prescriptions of three phy- 
sicians, Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet, and Dr. Merryman. Next, Rowlands 
inserts a short poem, entitled " Flatteries Fawne," followed by 
the usual heading of " Doctor Merryman," and a satirical pro- 
duction of two pages. None of these are in the copies of 1609, 
1618, &c., and the last may be quoted as a fair sample of the 
author's vein : — 

" Hypocrisie was kind, and us'd me well 
So long a3 I had any land to sell. 
Many a ' God save you, loving Sir,' I had 
* For your good health I am exceeding glad. 
What is the cause you are a stranger growne? 
The meate doth me no good I eate alone 
Without your company : pray, let me have it : 
Of all the kindnesse in the world I crave it. 
When will you ride ? My gelding's yours to use. 
The choysest chamber that I have come chuse, 
And lodge with me. Commaund what ere is mine. 
Shall we two part without a quart of wine? 
That were a wonder: give it, sure, I will: 
Your presence glads me, I do wish it still.' 
This usage I had daylie at his hand, 
Till he had got an intrest in my land ; 
And then I try'd his welcomes in my want 
To be, ' Sir, I assure you coyne is scant. 
I would do somewhat for acquaintance sake. 
If you but some security could make; 
But, sure, to wast my wealth I know not how 
Were folly. What you have bin is not now. 
I wish you were the man I knew you late: 
Faith, I am sory y'are in this estate. 
You should have thought upon this thing before 
Patience is all; and I can say no more. 
My business now doth hasten me away ; 
I would fain drink with you but cannot stay. 
Urgent occasions force me take ray leave. 
I wish you well, and so I pray conceive.' " 

350 !3ibliograpl)ical ^Icconnt of 

The body of the tract consists of a medley of droll tales and 
satirical observations. Few of the stories are original, and some 
of them have gone through most of the languages of Europe ; 
as that where one man gave advice to another how to avoid 
falling when climbing, by not making more haste down than up. 
This forms the point of an epigram in French, Spanish, and 

Rowlands, Samuel. — Humors Looking Glasse. — Lon- 
don Imprinted by Ed. AUde for William Ferebrand 
and are to be sold at his Shop in the popes-head 
Pallace, right over against the Taverne-dore. 1608. 
4to. 16 leaves. 

Only two, or at most three, copies of this comic production are 
extant, and little or nothing has been said of it in any of our 
bibliographical miscellanies. It is dedicated by Samuel Rowlands, 
in his own name at length, " to his verie loving Friend Master 
George Lee," and consists of what the author denominates Epi- 
grams. The following adverts in some detail to the then lions of 
London, and is headed, — 


" An honest country foole, being gentle bred, 
Was by an odde conceited humor led 
To travell, and some English fashions see, 
With such strange sights as heere at London be. 
Stuffing his purse with a good golden some, 
This wandring knight did to the Cittie come, 
And there a servingman he entertaines ; 
An honester in Newgate not remaines. 
He shew'd his Maister sights, to him most strange, 
Great tall Pauls steeple, and the royall Exchange ; 
The Bosse at Billings-gate, and London stone, 
And at White-hall the monstrous great Whalesbone : 
Brought him to the banck-side, where Beares do dwell. 
And unto Shoreditch where the whores keepe hell: 
Shew'd him the Lyons, Gyants in Guild-hall, 
King Lud at Ludgate, the Babounes and all. 
At length his man on all he had did pray, 

(Sarljj (Englislj Citcrahtrc. 851 

Shew'd him a theevish trick and ran away. 
The Traveller turnd home, exceeding civill, 
And swore in London he had scene the Devill." 

These writers, in multiplying their publications for the sake of 
the small sums produced, often repeated themselves. Thus, in 
Rowland's » Good and Bad News," 4to, 1620, (not 1622, as 
the date has usually but erroneously been given, and as if that 
were the first edition,) has a very similar enumeration of the 
objects of interest in the metropolis, when visited by Hodge, a 
countryman : — 

" And tell him other sights where he hath bin. 
As of the Tower and the lyons there, 
Of Paris Garden and the Bull and Beare. 
Of Westminster what monuments there be, 
And what two mighty Gyants Hodge did see 
With peacefull countenances in Guild-hall; 
The Old Exchange, the New Exchange, and all : 
The water-workes, huge Pauls, old Charing-crosse, 
Strong London Bridge, at Billingsgate the Bosse- 
Nay, Hodge hath scene ships, boats and barges, which 
Swim about London in a great large ditch; 
And he hath vowd he will not jogge away 
Till he hath scene some pretty puppet play." 

Here we have also a piece of local history in the mention of 
the Old and New Exchanges ; for in the interval between 1608, 
when "Humors Looking Glasse " was printed, and 1620, when 
" Good and Bad Newes " was published, the New Exchange in 
the Strand had been built. The first stone was laid in 1608, and 
it was completed in 1609, when the King and Queen were pres- 
ent at the opening. From " Humors Looking Glasse " we select 
another specimen, where, in an " Epigram," a gay lady of the 
town is described : — 

" What feather'd fowle is this that doth approach, 
As if it were an Estridge in a Coach? 
Three yards of feather round about her hat, 
And in her hand a bable like to that ! 
As full of Birdes attire as Owle or Goose, 
And like unto her gowne her selfe seemes loose. 
Cri ye mercie, Ladle Lewdnesl are you there? 
Light feather'd stufFe befits you best to weare." 

352 Bibltograpljiml ^aottut of 

Some of the short productions are, of course, not so good as 
others, but there is scarcely one that does not supply some curious 
information regarding places, opinions, fashions, and manners. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — A whole crew of kind Gossips, 
all met to be merry. — London, Printed for John 
Deane and are to be sold at his shop under Temple 
Barre. 1609. 4to. 18 leaves. 

Bibliographers take notice of no edition of this remarkable tract 
anterior to 1663, when the author was dead. We have before us, 
besides the impression the title-page of which is inserted above, a 
copy dated 1613, the title-page of which runs as follows: — 

" A Crew of kind Gossips, all met to be merrie : Complayning of their 
Husbands, with their Husbands answeres in their owne defence. Written, 
and newly inlarged by S. R. — London, Printed by W. W. for John Deane, 
and are to be sold at his shoppe at Temple-barre. 1613." 

Thus we see that in 1613 the earlier edition of 1609 had been 
" newly enlarged by Samuel Rowlands." Ritson has omitted the 
work altogether, and it is not mentioned in Cens. Lit. or Restituta^ 
and merely^ incidentally in the " British Bibliographer." The 
title-page of the reimpression of 1663, the only one noticed in 
either edition of Lowndes' Bibl. Man. 1863, (p. 2137,) is worded 
still more at large : — 

" A Crew of kind Loudon Gossips all met to be Merry. Complaining 
of their Husbands. With their Husbands Answer in their own Defence. 
To which is added Ingenious Poems, or Wit and Drollery. Written and 
newly enlarged by S. R. — Imprinted at London, and are to be sold at the 
Grey-hound in St. Pauls Church- Yard, and in Westminster Hall. 1663." 

For the sake of distinctness we will briefly describe the three 
impressions we have used, noticing the differences between them. 
At the back of the title-page of the copy of 1609 is an address 
" To the Maids of London," signed S. R., followed by 

" Their Husbands Resolution. 
" With patience we will heare your owne disgraces, 
Then prove them lying huswives to their faces: 
Proceed, good tathng Gossips; do not spare; 
And, Maids, beare witnesse what kind wives they are." 

(Sarlg Snglisl) €\kxa\xxvz. 353 

On the next page begins an address to men, beginning, — 
"My Maisters, that are married, looke about; " 
and which ought to end, — 

" And turne her to her tale, which thus goes on: " 
however, it does not so conclude, because, by a gross blunder, the 
speech of " the first Gossip " is made part of the address to men. 
This error only exists in the first impression of 1609, for in that 
of 1613 the speech of the first Gossip (so headed) begins at the 
lines, — 

** Kind Gentlewomen, though I sport and jest, 
I have small cause to do it, I protest." 

The accusations of the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth Gos- 
sip come in regular succession, and after them we have what is 

headed, — 

" Sixe Husbands. 

'* Pray, Maisters, give us leave a while. 
Now you have heard our wives: 
Wee'le overthrow them, horse and foote. 
Or else wee'le loose our lives." 

" Six honest Husbands give their wives the lye," as we are po- 
litely told, in the subsequent order : — 

" The first accused by his wife to bee miserable. 
The second charged by his wife to crosse her in her humour. 
The third charged by his wife to bee hard and cruell. 
The fourth complained on by his wife to be a common Gamester. 
The fift complained on by his wife to be a common Drunkard. 
The sixt complained on by his wife to be unconstant to her and haunt 

With these speeches by the Husbands in reply, (how they over- 
hear the accusations, and to whom they address their answers, 
does not distinctly appear,) the tract in the 4to of 1609 terminates. 

The copy of 1613 is also in 4to, and, as we have stated, pro- 
fesses, and not untruly, to have been " newly enlarged," Row- 
lands having added to it to give it novelty. We are told, — 

" Sixe Gossips that of late togeather met, 
Besprinckled finely well with Claret wet, 
Apt to discourse of all that ere they knew, 
As tis the humor of the gossip-crew, 
VOL. HI. 23 

354 BibUograpljical 2laount of 

Did finde themselves greatly aggrieved all, 
And each her Husband into question call." 

The wives proceed, as in the earlier copy, the first to charge 
her husband with being a niggard ; the second, that her husband 
would not let her have her own way ; the third, that her husband 
was a drunkard ; the fourth, that her husband was a gambler ; the 
fifth, that her husband always stunk of tobacco ; and the sixth, 
that her husband was unfaithful. Part of the speech of the last is 
this: — 

" And let me aske, what's such a one, or shee 
With fanne and maske? His Cozens all they bee! 
What's she that hath the jewell in her haire. 
And on her backe the cobweb-laAvne most rare, 
Having a vintner's bush upon her head, 
All trimmd with shoe strings, tawney, greene and red, 
Whose fanne weighs more, tride only by the feather, 
Then all her honest trickes being joyn'd together? 
Forsooth, his Cozen! " 

Afterwards we have this highly curious enumeration of the im- 
proper songs (all popular at the time, and some of them known in 
our own day) which her faithless husband was accustomed to sing 
to, or hear from, his pretended " cousins " : — 

" He hath a song cal'd Mistris will you doef 

And My man Thomas did me promise, too : 

He hath the Pinnace rig^d vnth silken suile. 

And pretty Birdes, with Garden Nightingale : 

lie tie my Mare in thy ground, a new way. 

Worse then the Players sing it in the Play: 

Bessefor abuses ; and a number more 

That you and I have never heard before ; 

And these among those wenches he doth learne." 

Here, among other points, we see that the song " I'll tie my 
Mare in thy ground" was a theatrical tune, probably by some 
comic performer in a ''jig," and that the husband gave it "a new 
•way," which was worse than as it was originally sung.l " The 
Pinnace rigg'd with silken sail " is also mentioned in Massinger's 
" Believe as you List," printed from the original MS. by the Percy 

1 Very possibly it had some relation to the still older tune, " Tye thy 
Mare, Tom boy," upon which W. Kethe wrote a parody. See Vol. \\. 
p. 196. 

(Sarlg (Englial) Citcratun. 355 

Society, p. 65 ; and as the song is a curiosity, and a copy of it 
now lying before us, we are tempted to transcribe it, making its 
extreme rarity counterpoise some of the double meanings that 
prevail throughout : — 

"The Pinnace. 
" A pinnace rigg'd with silken saile 
What is more lovely then to see ? 
But still to see is small availe; 

I must it board, as thinketh mee. 
To see is well, but more to tell 
Lackes more then sight, you will agree. 

" I must a board to note each parte, 

And then go downe into her holde: 
Her outside can not me divert, 

Albe it be of silke and golde. 
To see without keepeth in doubt : 

She must be felt, and He be bolde. 

" Her timbers I must eke survay, 

To know if they be strong and sound: 
That I must doe without delay, 

And all her frame examine round. 

Her ribbes of oke, they may be broke, 

And in her other partes unsound. 

" A pinnace may be rig'd with silke. 
And all may be but outward showe : 

Her bottome must be white as milke 
And all her tackling gere below. 

She may be stale with silken saile : 
That at the first I faine wolde knowe. 

*' In such a case you can not make 

To[o] sure of what you enter thus: 
Some pinnaces such loading take. 

As oft times is most dangerous. 
To board a prize to please your eies; 

then, far better not untrusse." 

The six wives having finished their charges against their six 
husbands, the replies commence ; and, as a specimen, we will quote 
what one of them says to his wife's complaint of incontinence. It 
is a curious illustration of the manners of the time. We are here 
quoting from the impression of 1613 : — 

356 I3ibltograpl)ical Account of 

"I never was in a bawdy house but twice, 
And there, indeed, a friend did me entice 
To see some fashions : onely there we dranke, 
And saw a gallant Queane, her name was Franke, 
In a silke gowne, loose bodyed, so was she : 
Not that I tride her, but as they told me. 
She gave us good Tobacco, sweet and strong. 
And of meere kindnesse sung a bawdy song. 
This, I protest, was even all we did." 
We are not told whether, and bow far, the wives were satisfied, 
as they are not supposed to hear the answers of the husbands. 
The production is wound up by " The Censure of the Batchelor 
and the Mayde upon the former Complaints," who, in spite of all 
the warnings they are represented as having overheard, speedily 
determine to marry. They make their exit, as in a play, with the 
subsequent lines spoken by the Bachelor: — 

"Thanks, gentle Sister, thou hast taught me wit; 
He nere have widdow : heer's my hand on it. 
Lets get good will of Father and of Mother, 
And then wee'le marry, and go try each other." 

We may dismiss the impression of 1663 very summarily, because, 
although there is a fresh attempt at novelty, the matter as regards 
Rowlands, with a few verbal changes, is the same as in the edition 
of 1613. Some prose stories of Fools are subjoined, as well as a 
few miscellaneous poems, (called " ingenious " on the title-page,) 
the object clearly being to swell the small volume (it is in 8vo) 
by the insertion of scattered jneces by other poets of note. Here 
we have T. Randolph's "Petition of the Townsmen of Cambridge," 
and his " Ben, leave the loathed Stage," in which Jonson is made 
to speak thus disparagingly of Shakspeare's " Ptricles": — 

" No doubt, a mouldy tale, 
Like Pericles, and stale," 

which we do not recollect to have seen quoted. We may here 
mention that George Wilkins, who in 1608 published the story 
of " Pericles," made up from the play, is not to be confounded 
with George Wilkins, the author of " The Miseries of inforced 
Marriage," who was buried in 1603. It seems probable that they 
were father and son.i 

I See this point further illustrated. Vol. I. p. 247. See likewise Vol. 
IV., article Wilkins, George. 


(Earls (Kngltsl) Citeratur^. 357 

Rowlands, Samuel. — Diogenes Lanthome. 
In Athens I seeke for honest men, 
But I shall find them God knowes when. 
He search the City, where if I can see 
One honest man, he shall goe with mee. 

— London, Printed for Robert Bird &c. 1631. B. L. 
4to. 20 leaves. 

At the back of the title (which has a woodcut of Diogenes with 
a lantern standing near his tub) is a " Prologue " in verse, signed 
Samuel Rowlands, which states the nature of the work. The au- 
thor says that Diogenes was — 

" Full of reproofes where he abuses found, 
And bold to speak his mind who ever f[r]ound. 
He spake as free to Alexander's face, 
As if the meanest Plow-man were in place. 
Twas no mans person that he did respect, 
Nor any calling: Vice he durst detect. 
Imagine you doe see him walke the streets, 
And every one's a knave with whom he meets. 
Note their description, which good censure craves; 
Then judge if he have cause to count them knaves." 

Athens here, as in Lodge's tract, " Catharos, Diogenes in his 
Singularity," (see Vol. II. p. 251,) is of course London ; and the 
cynic is represented walking about and remarking upon all he 
sees. This occupies the first six leaves, and all the rest of the 
tract is in verse, beginning with some reflections on " Diogenes 
lost labour," and followed by a number of fables, with " Morals " 
appended, supposed to be told by Diogenes. The subsequent 
venerable apologue will serve to show the style in which they are 
versified : — 

" A great assembly met of Mice, 
Who with themselves did take advice, 
"What plot by policie to shape 
How they the bloudy Cats might scape. 
At length a grave and ancient Mouse 
(Belike the wisest in the house) 
Gave counsell (which they all lik'd well) 
That every Cat should beare a bell: 
For so (quoth he) we shall them heare, 

358 Bibliograpljicd Account of 

And flie the danger which we feare: 
If we but heare a bell to ting, 
At eating cheese or any thing, 
When we are busie with the nip, 
Into a hole we straight may skip. 
This above all they liked best; 
But, quoth one Mouse unto the rest. 
Which of us all dare be so stout 
To hang the bell Cats necks about ? 
If here be any, let him speake. 
Then all replide, We are too weake: 
The stoutest Mouse and tallest Rat 
Doe tremble at a grim-fac'd Cat." 

In the end Diogenes gives a lecture to Alexander, and puts a 
number of proverbs into verse for his use and improvement ; such 


" I have observed divers times, 
Of all sorts, old and young, 
That he which hath the lesser heart, 
Hath still the bigger tongue. 

" Watch over words, for from thy mouth 
There hath much evil sprung: 
It 's better stumble with thy feet. 
Than stumble with thy tongue." 

This production was once popular. It first appeared in 1607, 
and was reprinted in 1608, 1617, 1628, 1631, and 1634. It is one 
of the best of the many pieces Samuel Rowlands left behind him. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — The Night-Raven. By S. R. 
All those whose deeds doe shun the Light 
Are my companions in the Night. 

— London, Printed by G. Eld for John Deane and 
Thomas Baily. 1620. 4to. 18 leaves. 
The author calls this tract "The Night Raven," because he 
professes to disclose scenes, and to describe characters, chiefly 
observed in London after dark, — 

" Those evil actions that avoyde the Sunne 
And by the light of day are never done," — 

(ffarlg (Snglisl) Citcrature. 369 

but he does not keep strictly to his purpose.^ It was popular, 
and, having been first published, as far as we know, in 1618, it 
was reprinted in 1620 and 1634, each time with a woodcut of a 
raven on the title-page. The present is, therefore, the second 
edition. Some of the humorous pieces of which it is composed 
must have been written long before they were published, as where 
the author makes a young " Night Swaggerer" say : — 

" Then third degree of Gentleman I clayme 
Is my profession of a Souldiers name. 
Looke but your Chronicle for eighty eight, 
And turn to Tilbury you have me straight." 

Referring of course to the camp at Tilbury in 1588, which was 
thirty years before the tract was first printed. On the other 
hand, some poems are of considerably later date, as Mrs. Turner's 
yellow starch is spoken of in one of them. Others are mere 
jests, and one or two of them, such as " the Tragedy of Smug 
the Smith," from the Italian. On sign. D 4 b, Chaucer furnishes 
a short production. The following couplet may apply to Shaks- 
peare's " Hamlet," but more probably to the older tragedy upon 
the same story : — 

" I will not cry, Hamlet Revenge my greeves, 
But I will call. Hangman revenge on theeves." 
The following is one of the briefest pieces, and one of the 
best : — 

"JSTee hath little to care for that hath little to lose. 
" Villains by night into a kytchin brake. 
Supposing brasse and pewter thence to take. 
The good- wife heard them and her husband calls, 
Telling him theeves were breaking through the walls, 
And therefore to prevent them will'd him rise. 
Quoth he (kind wife) I am not so unwise 
To put my selfe in danger causelesse so. 
The night is darke as any pitch, you know. 
And if they there can find out goods by night, 
When thou and I see nothing by day light. 
He say they conjure, or do use some charme 
For there is nought to lose can doe us harme. 
Wife, let us both laugh at them in our sleeves. 
That with our empty kitchin we gull theeves." 

1 The edition we have used is the second, as far as is known. The 
tract seems to have been first published in 1618. 

360 libliograpljical Account of 

This is an old joke in many languages. The last piece is 
headed " Conclusion." The tract seems to have been hastily got 
up and published, to supply some temporary necessity on the part 
of the writer. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — Good and Bad Newes. By S. R. 
— London, Printed for Henry Bell &c. 1622. 4to. 
23 leaves. 

This is little more than a jest-book in verse, and it is one of the 
rarest of Rowlands's later pieces, who acknowledges it by his 
initials on the title-page, and at the end of an address of sixteen 
lines " to the Reader." On the title-page is a woodcut of a Lon- 
doner and a countryman (from Robert Greene's tract) in con- 
versation. The subsequent " Epigram upon a jest of Will Som- 
mers," who was the favorite jester of Henry VHI., is the first 
in the volume : — 

" Will Sommers once unto King Harry came, 
And in a serious shew himselfe did frame 
To goe to London, taking of his leave. 
Stay, William: (quoth the King) I doe perceive 
You are in haste; but tell me your occasion: 
Let me prevail thus by a friend's perswasion. — 
Quoth he, if thou wilt know. He tell thee: Marry, 
I goe to London for Court-newes, old Harry. 
Goest thither from the Court to heare Court-newes? 
i This is a tricke, Sommers, that makes me muse. 

Oh, yes (quoth William) Citizens can show 
What's done in Court ere thou or I doe know. 
If an Embassador be comming over, 
Before he doe arrive and land at Dover, 
They know his Masters message and intent, 
Ere thou canst tell the cause why he is sent. 
If of a Parliament they doe but heare, 
They know what lawes shall be enacted there. 
And, therefore, for a while adue Whitehall. 
Harry, He bring thee newes home, lyes and all." 

The words " Good Newes " and " Bad Newes " are placed at 
the heads of different pages, without much application to the 

(Earlj) (Englislj Citcrature. 361 

story related ; and this is carried throup:h seventeen leaves, when 
we arrive at nine pages of Epigrams, as they are called, rather 
for variety of appellation than for any marked difference in the 
style or subjects. The enumeration of the sights of London in 
1622, which Hodge comes to town to visit, is amusing; but we 
have already quoted it on p. 350, in illustration of a somewhat 
similar production in Rowlands's " Humours Looking Glasse," 
which was published fourteen years before the production in our 
hands. We are not to wonder that so voluminous an author 
should repeat himself. 

No earlier nor later impression of this tract is known, nor did 
we ever meet with any other copy than that at Bridgewater 
House. We have our doubts whether Rowlands was the author 
of " The Betraying of Christ," 1598, 4to, but many of his pam- 
phlets have a considerable tinge of piety. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — A Payre of Spy- Knaves. 4to. 

This is the sequel to Rowlands's " Knave of Clubs," " Knave of 
Hearts," and " Knaves of Spades and Diamonds." Unfortunately 
it is only a fragment, beginning with an address " To the World's 
Blinde Judgement" on sign. A 3, and ending with an " Epigram " 
on sign. D 3, — in the whole 12 leaves. No other copy, perfect 
or imperfect, has ever been heard of, the initials of the writer, 
Samuel Rowlands, (who in the same way claimed the authorship 
of the rest of the knavish pieces,) being at the end of the subse- 
quent lines to the Reader. 

"This Crystall sight is not for all mens Eyes, 
But onely serves for the judicious wise: 
Fooles, they may gaze as long as ere they will. 
And be as blind as any Beetle still. 
A Purblinde Momus fleeringly will looke 
To spie no knave but 's selfe in all the Booke. 
A Sicophant, that slaves himselfe to all, 
Will his owne Knave-Companions honest call, 
And wilfuU winke, because he will not see. 
With divers sorts of Buzzards else that be : 
But these we leave to their defective sight, 
With Bats and Owles that blinded are by light. 

S. R." 

362 Bibliograplfual !3lcconnt of 

The epistle that precedes " To the Worlds blinde Judgement, 
that wants a paire of Spectacles, with a true sight," is also in 
easy couplets, and on the whole the "Payre of Spy-knaves" 
(such is the running title, in default of a title-page) may be held 
superior to any of the other three productions by the same author 
under corresponding names. We apprehend that it was the 4ast 
of the series, but the prolific author, far from having run himself 
dry, is here even pleasanter, more lively, more satirical, and even 
more informing, as to manners and opinions in his day, than in 
his earlier performances. 

The oldest exemplar known of his " Knave of Clubbs," is in 1609 ; 
but it is certain that it had appeared in or before 1600, under 
the title of" Tis merry when Knaves meet," (see p. 341,) because 
in that year a public order was issued for burning that book, the 
name of which forms the second title to the " Knave of Clubbs." 
Being forbidden as *' Tis merry when Knaves meet," Rowlands 
altered the title, and printed the tract as " The Knave of Clubbs." 
This, as far as existing evidence goes, was in 1609, and the series 
was completed (if it can be called complete without the " Payre 
of Spy-Knaves," to which we would assign the date of 1613) by 
1612, in which year both the " Knave of Hearts " and " Knaves 
of Spades and Diamonds" made their appearance. However, 
each of them was popular and often reprinted, and it is impossible, 
at this distance of time, to speak with certainty as to the numbers 
or dates of editions. 

The unique fragment before us commences with "A Drunkards 
Duello," which is one of the longest, but by no means one of the 
best pieces in the volume. The following, headed "A Fantastical 
Knave," aflTords a good specimen of the way in which prevailing 
fashions are illustrated by Rowlands : — 

" Sirra, come hither: I must send you straight 

To divers places about things of waight. 

First to my Barber at his Bason signe; 

Bid him be here to morrow about nine. 

Next, to my Taylor, and will him be heere 

About eleven, and his Bill He cleere. 

My Shoomaker by twelve : haste bid him make 

About the Russet Bootes that I bespake. 

Stay! harke; I had forgot: at any hand 

®arl2 Suglislj £itcvature. 863 

First to my Laundresse for a yellow band: 

And point the Feather-maker not to faile 

To plume my head with his best Estridge tayle. 

Speake to the Sadler: no; let him alone; 

Hee'le looke for money : I can spare him none. 

Step to the Cutler for my fighting blade, 

And know if that my riding sword be made: 

Bid him trim up my walking Rapier neat: 

My dancing Rapiers pummell is too great. — 

Stay, stay ! forbeare ; some other time weele borrow : 

I must take Physicke and lie in to morrow. 

The Doctor, I remember, will come hether, 

And hee 'le both purge me and my purse together." 

Some of the poems arc a little coarse but highly humorous, 
particularly one entitled "As wise as John of Goteham's Calfe ; 
or This fellow brought his Hogges to a faire Market." Not a few 
of the titles are droll and descriptive, as " Courteous comple- 
ments betweene a Traveller and a Hangman," "A Roaring Boyes 
Description," "A Marriage Merchant," &c. Several of them are 
in flowing, pleasant rhyme, as for instance : — 

" The boording of the Alehouse Ship, fought so 
Till Smug, the Smith, could neither stand nor goe." 

" Instructions given to a Countrey Clowne 
To take Tobacco when he comes to Towne." 

" Such Oast such ghest, the Proverbe sayes : 
111 Servants chuse bad Masters wayes." 

Our copy of this curiosity seems to have been rescued (pos- 
sibly from the flames) in sheets, which are uncut and only three 
in number. 

Rowlands, Samuel. — The Famous History of Guy 
Earle of Warwick. By Samuel Rowlands. — London, 
Printed by J. Bell, and are to be sold at the East- 
end of Christ Church. 1654. 4to. B. L. 64 leaves. 

This romance, which is in six-line stanzas, originally appeared 
in 1607, — at least no earlier dated edition of it is known, although 

364 Bibliograpljiml Account of 

an impression by Edward AUde, without date, may possibly have 
preceded it. It was frequently reprinted down to as late a date 
as 1682, and it was so popular, and so many copies of it were 
destroyed by frequent reading, that all are of rare occurrence. 
Of the edition before us in 1654 we have seen no other copy. 

The greater part of the title-page is covered by a woodcut 
representing Sir Guy on horseback fully armed, with a boar's 
head on his spear, and a lion pacing like a dog by his side. It is 
dedicated to the Earl of Montgomery, so created in 1605, who 
became Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery in 1630. The print- 
ing is in all respects most corrupt and careless ; and in the first 
sheet a gross error is committed by making Rowlands's address 
" To the noble English Nation " commence on the second page, 
which is continued on the fourth page, the first and third being 
filled by the prose dedication. In his address, Rowlands has 
these lines, very applicable to the literature of the time when this 
romance first appeared : — 

" Most Strang in this same Poet plenty age. 
Where Epigrams and Saiyres biting rage, 
Where paper is imployed every day 
To carry verse about the town for pay, 
That stories should intomb'd with worthies lie. 
And fame, through age extinct, obscurelie die." 

Epigrams and satires were the fashionable mode of writing 
from about 1595 to 1615, and Rowlands himself, as we have 
already shown, had given specimens of his talents in both. Time 
and negligent printers in about fifty years introduced many cor- 
ruptions into this poem, but it must originally have been very 
hastily scribbled by the author, who introduces the strangest in- 
congruities, not at all warranted by the ancient versions. Thus 
in Canto vi (for he divides his work into twelve Cantos) he 
makes Guy kill Colbron, or Colbrand, — 

" Forthwith he made him shorter by the head; " 
and yet in the last Canto he represents him as fighting with, and 
conquering the same giant. The reverse of sign. F 4 seems 
utterly without connection, as far as regards the story, with the 
rest of the production ; and the probability is, that the printer 
here made some egregious blunder. As a poem, many of the 

(Earlg ©nglislj Citerature. 866 

stanzas have considerable power. A dragon is thus described 
contending with the hero : — 

" His blazing eyes did burn like living fire, 
And forth his smoaking gorge came sulphur smoke: 
Aloft his speckled brest he lifted higher 
Then Guy could reach at length of weapon's stroke. 
Thus in most irefull mood himself he bore, 
And gave a cry as seas are wont to roare." 

Although in general careless, some of Rowlands's stanzas run 
very smoothly and harmoniously. He thus describes Guy peti- 
tioning King Athelstan to be permitted to retire from the world, 
in order to complete his repentance : — 

" And so intreats that he may passe unknown. 
To live where poverty regards not wealth. 
And be beholden to the help of none, 
Seeing the world but now and then by stealth. 
For true content doth such a treasure bring, 
It makes the beggar richer then the king. 

" With true content (saith he) I will abide 
In homely cottage, free from all resort : 
But I have found content cannot be spide 
To make abode within a Monarchs court. 
No — theres ambition, pride and envie seen. 
And fawning flattery stepping still between." 

The earliest printed copy of a romance on this story was, we 
believe, by W. Copland, without date, (we have heard of a frao-- 
ment by Wynkyn de Worde, but never saw it,^) and it was again 

1 Our authority is the late Thomas Rodd, who knew more about books 
than any other man in the trade that we ever met with. With reference 
to the romance of " Guy of Warwick," we may here add, that among the 
Roxburghe Ballads, in the British Museum, is one printed upon what 
appears to have been part of a book, bearing this title: — 

" The heroick History of Guy Earle of Warwick. Written by Humphrey Crouch. 
— London, Printed for Jane Bell at the east end of Christ-church. 1666." 

This is the more singular, because the date is the very year after S. 
Rowlands's version of the story had been " Printed by J. Bell and are to 
be sold at the East-end of Christ Church." Could there have been two 
versions in two following years, one by Rowlands, and the other by Crouch, 
who was a known ballad-writer and versifier of the day V (See Vol. I. 
p. 207.) Humphrey Crouch is not introduced by Lowndes, who gives the 
date of 1607 as that of the first publication of Rowlands's " Guy of War- 

366 Bibliograpljical ^Iccount of 

printed by John Cawood, also without date. This version by 
Rowlands, in its main features, follows the old copies, but con- 
cludes with the death of Sir Guy in the arms of Phelice. 

Besides the woodcut on the title-page, six others, ill designed 
and coarsely executed, relating to the principal events, are dis- 
persed through the volume. 

Rowley, William. — A Search for Money. Or the lam- 
entable Complaint for the losse of the wandering 
Knight, Mounsieiir I'Argent Or Come along with 
me, I know thou lovest Money. Dedicated to all those 
that lack Money. Frange nuct's tegmen, si cvpis esse 
nucem. By William Rowley. — Imprinted at London 
for Joseph Hunt, and are to be solde at Newgate 
Market, neere Christ Church gate. 1609. B. L. 

Although this tract has been reprinted of late years,i we notice 
it because we believe the original to be absolutely unique, and 
because it is the only extant production by the author not in- 
tended for theatrical representation. It was at one time thought 
that two exemplars of it had come down to us, one formerly 
belonging to Reed, and the other to Heber ; but the fact is that 
Heber's copy was the same as that which had been the property 
of Reed. Heber parted with it for a rai'ity he more valued, and 
it is now before us. The dedication is to Thomas Hobbs, who 
had been a fellow-actor with Rowley, probably in Henslowe's 
company, if not in other associations ; but the address of it " to 
all those that lack money " is, of course, of a most general 
character. Besides having been reprinted in 1840, there is a 
review of the " Search for Money" in Brit. Bihl. IV. 329, so that 
it cannot be necessary for us to examine it in any detail. In one 
passage the author refers to William Kemp, the famous actor's 
" travel to Rome with the return in certain days," which nobody 

wick." We never saw a copy so early, but we have no doubt of its ex- 

1 By the Percy Society in 1840. See a droll story regarding W. Rowley, 
in Vol. IV., article Shakspeabe, William. 

(ffarlj) Snglislj Citcraturi:. 867 

has understood. It was a wager by Kemp for the performance of 
this journey, as he had before wagered to dance a morris from 
London to Norwich ; or, with more similarity, as he had pre- 
viously undertaken to visit France with his bells, pipe and tabor. 
In the same way he betted money that he would proceed to Italy 
and be back by a particular date. The fact is, that Kemp was 
met with in Rome by Sir Anthony Sherley in 1601 : and in the 
play of "the Travels of the Three English Brothers," by Thomas 
Day, George Wilkins, and William Rowley (the author whose 
work we are considering), which was written about 1602 and 
printed in 1607, a dialogue takes place in Rome between Sir 
Anthony Sherley and Kemp. A servant enters and announces 
that an Englishuian wishes to see Sir Anthony : — 

"5iV Ant. An Englishman! what's his name? 
Serv. He calls himself Kemp. 
/Sir Ant. Kemp ! bid him come in. 

Enter Kemp. 

Sir Ant. "Welcome, honest Will ! And how do all thy fellows in Eng- 

Kemp. Why, like good fellows, when they have no money [they] live 
upon credit." 

Of course, Kemp appeared in his own person before the audi- 
ence, and the conversation turned upon theatrical affairs in Lon- 
don, from whence Kemp had just come on his " travel to Rome 
with the return in certain days." Of course he had not much 
time to spend with Sir Anthony Sherley ; but we adduce the pre- 
ceding quotation only to establish what the editor of the reprint 
of Rowley's " Search for Money " did not know, that Kemp had, 
as a matter of fact, " danced a morris across the Alps," as well as 
to Norwich and into France. 

We have said that William Rowley's *' Search for Money " is 
his only undramatic production ; but that is hardly correct, inas- 
much as he printed a broadside, at the end of 1621, upon the 
death of one of his fellow-actors, Hugh Atwell ; which, although 
of no great merit, is a great rarity, and deserves preservation. 
We therefore transcribe it. It is mentioned in no account of 
Rowley's productions. 

368 Bibliograpljiml Jlaount of 

" A Funerall Elegie on the death of Hugh Atwell, Servant to Prince 
Charles, this fellow-feeling Farewell: who died the 2oth Sept. 1621. 
" So, now hee's downe, the other side may shout. 
But did he not play faire ? Held he not out 
With courage beyond his bone ? Full sixe yeares 
To wrastle and tugge with Death ! the strong'st feares 
To meete at such a match. They that have seene 
How doubtfull Victorie hath stood betweene 
Might wonder at it. Sometimes cunningly 
Death gets advantage : by his cheeke and eye 
We thought that ours had beene the weaker part, 
And straight agen the little mans great heart 
Would rouse fresh strength and shake him off a while : 
Death would retire, but never reconcile. 
They too't agen, agen ! they pull, they tugge. 
At last Death gets within, and with a hugge 
The faint soule crushes. This thou mayst boast, Death, 
Th'hast throwne him faire, but he was out of breath. 
Refresh thee, then (sweet Hugh): on the ground rest: 
The worst is past, and now thou hast the best! 
Rise with fresh breath, and be assured before, 
That Death shall never wrastle with thee more. 
0! hadst thou, Death, (as warres and battles may 
Present thee so) a field of noble clay 
To entertaine into thy rhewmie cell, 
And thou would'st have it be presented well, 
Speake thy oration by this mans toung: 
Mongst living Princes it hath sweetly sung, 
(While they have sung his praise): but if thy Court 
Be silence-tyde, and there dwells no report, 
Lend it to life to store another flesh. 
We misse it here: wee'l entertain't afresh." 

This is not very well worded, nor very intelligible, and what 
follows is in worse taste : — 

" Epitaph. 
" Here lyes the man (and let no lyars tell) 
His heart a Saints, his toung a silver bell. 
Friend to his friend he stood: by Death he fell. 
He chang'd his Hugh, yet he remains At- well." 

William Rowley never attained any great eminence, whether 
as author or actor. The subject of his elegy played in Ben Jon- 
son's Epiccene, and was principally celebrated for female charac- 


(ffarlg (ffngltsi) f itcrature. 869 

ters. William Rowley^ best play is " A Shoemaker's a Gentleman," 
founded upon the same subject as Dekker, Wilson, and Day's 
"Gentle Craft," printed in 1 GOO, and absurdly assigned to Barten 
Holyday.i Samuel Rowley, another dramatist, was brother to 
William Rowley, and wrote " When you see me, you know me,** 
1605, &c., containing humorous incidents in the reign of Henry 


Rush, Friar. — The Historic of Frier Rush : how he 
came to a house of Religion to seeke service, and 
being entertained by the Priour was first made under 
Cooke. Being full of pleasant mirth and delight for 
young people. — Imprinted at London by Edw. All-de, 
and are to be solde by Francis Grove dwelling on 
Snow hill. 1626. B. L. 4to. 20 leaves. 
There was a previous edition of this singular and amusing work 
in 1620, but differing in no material respect from the present, ex- 
cepting that the imprint was " at London by Edw. All-de dwell- 
ing neere Christ-Church." A third impression made its appear- 
ance in 1629, which was printed by Elizabeth All-de, the widow 
of Edward All-de. On the' title-page of all three editions is the 
s£ime woodcut of Friar Rush, cap in hand, seeking service of 
the Prior of a house of Religion. The " pleasant history " com- 
mences on the next leaf. 

There seems httle doubt that the story was originally German, 
and a very early copy in that language is among the books of the 
late Mr. Douce, at Oxford. There he is called not Friar Rush, 
but Bruder Rausch, and by that name he is mentioned by Bruno 
Seidelius in his Parcemice Ethicce, Francf, 1589, as quoted by 
Mr. Thoms, (Early Prose Romances, L p. 260) : — 

" Quia non legLt quid Frater Rauschius egit? " 
It bears internal evidence of having been composed about the 

1 Because he was not ten years old at the time of its publication in 
1600. See Bio(/r. Dram, under " Shoemakers Holiday." " The Gchtle 
Craft " is the second title of the comedy. See also Lowndes. 

VOL. III. 24 

370 BibUograpljual ^aottnt of 

time of the Reformation, but it was very possibly then founded 
upon more ancient traditions. After narrating the gross vices of 
a certain convent of monks near a forest, the author tells us : — 
" Belphegor who was Prince of gluttony, Asmodeus Prince of lech- 
ery, and Belzebub Prince of envie, with many other Divels assem- 
bled together, which rejoyced in the misorder of these religious 
men. And as they were all assembled together, with one accord 
they chose a Divell to goe and dwell among these religious men 
for to maintaine them the longer in their ungratious living; which 
Divell was put in rayment like an earthly creature, and went to 
the religious house." After his transformation, Friar Rush's horns 
are always visible in the woodcuts, which nearly correspond in the 
impressions of 1620, 1626, and 1629, and he is usually furnished 
with feet having claws like a bird rather than cloven. Such, bow- 
ever, is not always the case. 

From the execution and appearance of the woodcuts we may 
perhaps infer, either that some of them were copied from old for- 
eign originals, or that they had been employed for some English 
edition of the story much anterior to any at present known. The 
last seems most probable, from the worm-holes in some of the wood- 
cuts, but both suppositions are by no means impossible. Several 
seem to be by different artists. As the tract is of the greatest 
rarity, it may be worth while to give the heads of the various 
divisions of the story, which will show the mode in which it pro- 
ceeds : — 

"A pleasant History, how a Devill (named Rush) came to a Religious 
house to seeke a service. 

" How a Divell named Rush came unto a Gentlewomans house, and how 
he brought her privily unto his Masters chamber. 

" How Frier Rush threw the maister Cooke into a kettell of water seeth- 
ing upon the fire, wherein he died. 

" How Frier Rush made Truncheons for the Friers to fight withall. 

" How Frier Rush grymed the Waggon with Tarre, and what cheare he 
made in the Country. 

"How the Priour made Frier Rush Sexton among the Friers, and 
charged him to give him knowledge how many Friers were absent from 
Mattins at midnight, and what they were. 

"How Rush went forth a sporting, and was late forth, and how in his 
way comming home he found a Cowe, which Cowe he divided into two 
parts, the one halfe hee tooke on his necke and caned it with him, and 



(Earls (EnglisI) Citcrature. 371 

the other halfe he left still: and how soone he bad made it ready for the 
Friers suppers. 

" How a Farmer of the Priors sought his Cowe, and how he was deso- 
lated by the way homeward, and was faine to lye in a hollow Tree: and 
of the vision that he had. 

" How the Farmer which lay in the Tree came unto the Prionr on the 
morowe after, and tolde him the wordes that he had heard, and the wordes 
of Frier Rush, and that hee was a very Devill. 

" The Lamentation that Rush made when he was departed out of the 
House of Religion. 

"How Rush came to a Husband-man (labouring in the Field) and de- 
sired to be entertayned into his service. 

" How Rush came home to make cleane the Stable, and how hee found 
the Pi-iest under the Maunger covered with Straw. 

" How Rush came home and found the Priest in the Cheese-basket, and 
how he trayled him about the Towne. 

" How Rush became Servant to a Gentleman, and how the Devill was 
conjured out of the Gentleman's Daughter." 

Another reason for supposing that this production had appeared 
in our language much earlier than any extant edition, is the fact 
that there was an old play called " Friar Hush, or the Proud 
Woman of Antwerp," which Henry Chettle was employed to 
" mend," (that is, to improve, modernize, or enlarge by additions,) 
in August, 1601. (See Hist. Engl. Dram. Poetry, IH. 91.) It 
was usual for our old dramatists to adopt subjects for their pens 
from the popular tales of the day, aud such probably was the case 
with "The History of Friar Rush," a considerable time before 
Chettle "mended" the play. 

END OF VOL. ni. 






Collier, John Payne 

A bibliographical and 
critical account of the 
rarest books in the English 




\mm ONLY