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SMITHSONIAN 

MISCELLMEOUS COUECTMS. 



VOL. XXIII. 




^eparimeni of ihe ^nievior 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



BULLETINS 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOLUME II 

( Nos. 11-16. ) 



PrBIISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



WASHINGTON: 

OOTEBNMENT PBINTINa OFFICE. 

1882. 



(' L-IBRARY ^ 
6F TMt 
LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR 
^ UNIVERSITY. f 



/^..5^V-^ 




ADVERTISEMENT. 



The present series, entitled << Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections," 
is intended to embraoe afl the publications issued directly by the Smith- 
sonian Institution in octavo form; those in quarto constituting the 
*< Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge." The quarto series in- 
elades memoirs, embracing the records of extended original investiga- 
tions and researches, resulting in what are believed to be new truths, and 
constituting i>ositive additions to the sum of human knowledge. The 
<)ctavo series is designed to contain re]>orts on the present state of our 
knowledge of particular branches of science ; instructions for collecting 
and digesting facts and materials for research ; lists and synopses of 
species of the organic and inorganic worid ; museum catalogues; reports 
of explorations; aids to bibliographical investigations, etc., generally 
prepare^I at the express request of the Institution, and at its expense. 

The assignment of a work to one or the other of the two series will 
sometimes depend upon whether the reiiuired illustrations can be pre- 
sented more conveniently in the quarto or the octavo form. 

In the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, as well as in the 
present series, ea(;h article is separately paged and indexed, and the 
aotoal date of its publication is that given on its special title page, and 
not that of the volume in which it. is placetl. In many (^ases works 
have lieen published, and largely distributed, years before their combi 
nation into volumes. 

While due care is taken on the part of the Smithsonian Institution to 
insure a proper standard of excellence in its puWications, it will be 
readily understood that it cannot hold itself responsible for the facts 
and conclusions of the authors, as it is impossible in most cases to verify 
their statements. 

S. F. BAIRD, 

Seo'etary S. I. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



I. — Bibliography of the Fishes of the Pacific Coast of the United States to 
the end of 1879. By Theodore Gill. 1882. 8vo., pp. 78. Bulletin of the Ka- 
tional Museum, No,. 11. 

IL — Contribntions to North American Ichthyology , based primarily on the 
collections of the United States National Museum. (Part III. ) A. — On the DIh- 
tribntion of the Fishes of the Alleghany Region of South Carolina,' Georgia, and 
Tennessee, with descriptions of new or little known species. By David S. 
Jordan and Albmbert W. Brayton. B. — ^A Synopsis of the Family Catosto- 
midie. By David S. Jordan. 1878. 8vo., pp. 337. Bulletin of the National 
Museum, No. 12. 

TTT — The Flora of St. Croix and the Virgin Islands. By Baron H. F. A. 
Eggkrs. 1879. 8vo., pp. 136. Bulletin of the National Museumf No, 13. 
Article IV. — Catalogue of the Collection to Illustrate the Animal Resources and the 
Fisheries of the United States, exhibited at Philadelphia in 1876 by the Smith- 
sonian Institution and the United States Fish Commission, and forming apart 
of the United States National Museum. Prepared under the direction of G. 
Brown Goods. 1879. 8vo., pp. 367. Bulletin of the National Museum, No, 14. 
Article V. — Contributions to the Natural History of Arctic America, made in con- 
nection with the Howgate Polar Expedition, 1877-78. By Ludwig Kumlien. 
li?79. tlvo., pp. 179. Bulletin of the National Museum, No. 15. 

coNTiirrs. 

KuMUKX, L. Ethnology, mammals, and birds. 
Bkax, T. H. Fishes. 

Vkrrill, a. E. Annelides, moUoscoids, and radiates. 
Dalu W. H. Mollusks. 

IXSKCTB: 

EuwABDft, W. H. Diurnal lepidoptera. 

ScuDDBB, S. H., and others. Hymenoptera, noctarnal lepidoptera, diptera, cole- 
optera, nearoptera, and arachnida. 
Gray, a. Plants. 
TucKKHX AX, E. Lichens. 
Farlow, W. G. Alga?. 

• ■ 

Vll 



^eparivneni of ihc 3Snfcrior: 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEIBI. 

— 11 — 



BULLETIN 



OP TIIK 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



No. 11. 



PUBLISHED UNDBR THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



WASHI 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Thin work is the eleveath of a series of papers iDtended to illas- 
tiittc tbo collections of natural history' and etltnology belonging to the , 
ITiiitcd States, and constituting the National Moseom, of which the 
Hriiithsonian Institution was placed jn charge by the act of Congress of 
August 10, 1846. 

It liiiH been prcparMi at the request of the Institution, and printed by 
aiitlionly of the honorable Secretary- of the Interior. 

8. F. BAIED, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian InstitMtion. 




BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF THB 



ISHES OF THE PACIFIC COAST 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 



TJ 



THE END OF 1879. 



BY 



THEODORE GILL. 



I tm^t I 



WASHINGTON: 

TESNUENT PBINTINO OFFICE. 

1882. 



I '' 




BIBLIOGRAPHY 



OF 



THE FISHES OF THE PACIFIC UNITED STATES. 



■i._j 



PREFATORY. 



The scientific literatare relative to the fishes of the western coast of 
North America is of unusaally recent, as well as rapid, growth. Noth- 
ing exact was known till the present century had far advanced, for the 
accounts of tbe earlier writers, such as Venegas, intead of enlightening 
the reader, convey absolutely false ideas respecting the character of 
the iclithyic fauna. Exclusive of incidental notices, the beginnings of 
an ichthyography of the northwest coast were first published in 1831 
(but printed in 1811) in the ^*Zoographia Rosso- Asiatica '' of Pallas; 
a few species from British Columbia were described by Richardson in 
1836, while the fishes of California remained absolutely unknown till 1839, 
when a glimpse, but an entirely inadequate one, was furnished by Lay 
and Bennett in their notes and account of species collected during the 
voyage of the English vessel Blossom. A long silence then supervened, 
and, with the exceptions thus signalized, and the addition by Storer 
of a single species of Syngnathiat in 184G, west-coast ichthyography 
commenced in 1854 with the announcement, by Professor Agassiz, of 
tb«» <liscovery of the remarkable family of Embiotocoids. This was 
spee<lily followed by numerous communications, by Dr. Gibbons, Dr. 
Giranl, and Dr. Ay res, on new species of fishes, mostly from the Cali- 
forniau waters, but partly from the Oregon i an ones. As early as 1838, 
nearly 200 species had been made known, and the descriptions of most 
wert* ex)llected in a general report by Dr. Girard. The main features 
of tW ichthyology of the Pacific slope were then already known; but 
more recent laborers have not only extended largely our knowledge 
of species, but added a number of entirely new forms, and thrown much 
iiglit on the relations of the fish-fauna of that region to others. 

The following bibliography is a nearly complete enumeration, in 
chronological order, of the memoirs and articles of all kinds that have 
**^ published on the fishes of the region in question. The chrono- 

^been determined by the date of reading of the articles 



> 



eommooicated to learned societiea la cases of «qaestioD of priority, 
the rigbt depeoda, of coarse, oa the period of pablicatiOD ; but this 
is sometimes vitli great difliciiity ascertainable, and motives of cod- 
venieoce have dictated tbe seqaeace adopted. 

Perbaps some will be disposed to believe that the compiler has siimed 
io redoodaDcy rather thao deficiency Iq this bibliographf. The evils 
of the fonoer are;, however, easily reiue<!ied, while those of the latter 
mast leave the consulter ia more or less doabt. Many popular works 
hare been catalt^oed where original iaformation of even slight valoe 
was coataiD«d, and when sncli works were among tbe earliest pablished 
oa tbe regions in qnestion. Besides those eunmerated, works on Cali- 
fornia, too nnmerons to mention, contain iacideutal iaformation (very 
rarely of any original valne, however) re8|>ectiog tbe fishes and fisheries 
of that State; and a onmber on tbe British possessions belong to the 
same category. Among tbose relative to British Ctdnmbia and Van- 
couver's Island worthy to be mentioned, but not to be particularized, 
are the volomes of Wm. Carew llazlitt (l&M), J. Desford Pemberton 
(ISCO), Duncan George Forbes Macdouuld (ISGi>), CapL C- E. Barrett 
Lennanl (1862), Alexander Kaltray (IS&J), Com. K. C. Mayue (1862), 
G. M. Sproat (ISOS), Francis Poole (1S72). and CapL W. F. Botler 
(1373). 

The titles of the Government publications are taken from a mnnn- 
script compilation embracing notices of all the reports published by 
the General and State governments on scientific explorations, and 
iniendetl to be more |tarticular than the present wwk. They are 
retained with the bars ( | ), indicating the disiribnlioa oa tbe title- 
pag^s of the lines, etc. 




lowing preceded l^y an asterisk (•) are selected from the remarks pre- 

&tory to the paper in the proceedings, and those preceded by » 

dagger (f ) have been composed by the present writer, since nothinfj 

intelligible precedes the papers themselves. It is to be hoped that the 

senseless and canseless sin in qnestion may speedily be discontinued. 

There is no reason why any one should be compelled to read the whole 

of an article (as is sometimes necessary) to obtain an idea of what the 

paper relates to; and the '< Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1800-1863) 

m 

compiled and published by the Royal Society of London" shows how a 
Wbliography edited under the best auspices may be involved in grave 
enors by the negligence adverted to. 



TITLES OF WORKS. 



iY5Y — Noticia do la California, y do sa conqaista temporal y espiritual hasta el 
tiempo prescDte. Sacada de la historia maDuscripta, formada en Mexico 
afio de 1739. por el Padre Migael Venegas, do la Coiupaiiia de Jesas ; y de 
otras NoticiaH, y Bolaciones aatignas, y modernas. Afiadida de algnnos mapas 
particnlares, y uno general de la America Septentrional, Asia Oriental, y 
Mar del Siir iutermedio, formados sobre las Memoriae mas recientes, y exactas, 
qae se piibUcan jnntamente. Dedicada al Rey N.^^ Seflor por la Provincia 
de Naeva-Espafia, de la Compafiia de Jesns. Tomo primero [ — Tomo ter- 
cero]. — Con licencia. En Madrid: En la Imprenta de la Viuda de Manuel 
Fernandez, y del Snpremo Consejo de la Inqnisicion. Afio de M.D.CCLVII. 
[80, 3 vols.] 

[TmoaUued as follows:— J 

1 Natural and Civil History of California: containing an accurate descrip- 
tion oC that country, its soil, mountains,- harbours, lakes, rivers, and seast 
its animaln, vegetables, minerals, and famous fishery for pearls. The cus> 
toms of the inhabitants, their religion, government, and manner of living, 
before their conversion to the Christian religion by the missionary Jesu- 
its. Together with accounts of the several voyages and attempts made for 
settling California, and taking actual surveys of that country, its gulf, and 
coast of the South-Sea. Illustrated with copperplates, and an accurate 
map of the country and adjacent seas. Translated from the original Span- 
isb of Miguel Venegas, a Mexican Jesuit, published at Madrid 175^.— In 
two volumes. — Vol. I[ — II]. = London : printed for James Rivington and 
Jame.H FK-tclier, at the Oxford Theatre, in Pater-Noster-Row. 1750. [8^, 
vol. i, 10 1., 455 pp., 1 pi. ; vol. ii.] 

[The only rofercncrs to fishes are as follows (v. i, pp. 47-48) :— " Knt if the soil of Cali- 
fornia b© in f^eneral barren, the scarcity of provisions is snpplicd hy tho adjacent sea; for 
both in the Pacifick ocean and tho Gulf of California, tho niiiltitndo and variety of fishes 
art) incredible. Father Antonio do la Ascencion, speaking of tho bay of San Lucaa 
(rx>wer California), .nays*, ' With the nets which every ship carried, they caiUKht a great 
quantity of fish of different kinds, and all wbolesomo and palatable: particularly holy- 
basm salmon, tnrbots, skates, pilchards, large oysters, thorn backs, mackerel, barbels, 
booetos. soals, lobsters, and pearl oysters.' And, speaking of tho bay of Bau Francisco, 
on the western coast, he adds: * Here arc such mnltitndes of fish, that with a net, which 
the commoilore ha^l on board, more was canght every day than tho ship's company could 
make use of: and of these a great variety, as crabs, oysters, breams, mackerel, cod, bar- 
bels. thornbackH. &c.' And in other parts ho makes mention of tho infinite number of 
sardines, which are left on the sand at the ebb, and so exquisite that those of Laredo in 
Spain, then famous for this fl&h, do not exceed them. Xor oro fish less plentiful along the 
gulf [of California], where to tho above mentioned species Father IMcolo adds, tunnies, 
aocboTies, and others. Even in the rivulets gf this peninsula are found barbels and cray- 
fiah: but the most diBtinguishod fish of both seas are tho whales; which induced the 
•Bdeot coMDOjpraphera to call California, Pnnta de Balenaa, or Capo Whale : and these fish 
biiagftNUid io amltitiidet along both coasts, give name to a channel in tho gulf, and a 
•^"ftr.i. pp. 47-48)1 



8 

1772— Voyage en Califoniie pour I'observation du passage de VSnussur le disqne do 
solcil, le 3 juin 1769; conteDant los observations de ce ph6nom^ne et la dis- 
cription historique de la roate de Tanteur ^ travers le Mexiqae. Par fen M. 
Chappe d'Auteroche, . . . R^ig6 et pnbli^ par M. do Cassini fils . . . 
1 Paris: chez Charles- Antoine Jombeit. MDCCLXXII. [4°, half-title, 
title, 170 [2] pp., plan, and 2 pi. — Sabio.] 

[TraDslated aa follows:—] 
A Voyage to California, to observe the Transit of Venus. By Mous. Chappe 
d'Auteroche. With an historical description of the author^s route 
through Mexico, and the natural history of that province. Also, a voyage 
to Newfoundland and Sallce, to make experiments on Mr. Le Roy's time 
keepers. By Monsieur de Cassini. London: printed for Edward and Charles 
Dilly, In The Poultry. MDCCLXXVIII. [g<^, 4 p. 1., 315 pp., with "plan 
of City of Mexico".] 

Extract of a letter from Mexico addressed to the Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences at Paris, by Don Joseph Anthony de Alzate y Ramyrez, now 
a correspondent of the said academy, containing some curious particu- 
lars relative to the natural history of the country adjacent to the City 
of Mexico, pp. 77-105. 

[It is nndoabtedly this work ibat is meant in the statement that has so largely gone the 
rounds of the periodical press, to the effect th^t the Califoniian viviparoas fishes \rere ob. 
served dnring ihe voyage for the obsurvation of the transit of Venus to Lower California, 
1769. A perusal of the accounts given, however, renders it evident that the fishes in ques- 
tion were not Erabiotocids but rather Cyprinodontids, probably of the genus MoUienuia, 
The account by Don Alzate (pp. 89-91) is as follows: — 

*' I send you some viviparous scaly fishes, of which I had formerly given you an account. 
What I have observed in them this year is—' If you press the belly with your fingers, you 
force out the fry before their time, and upon Inspecting them through the microscope you 
may discern the circulation of the blood, such as it is to be when the fish is grown up.' If 
you throw these little fishes into water, they will swim as well as if they had been long 
accustomed to live in that element. The fins and tail of the males are larger and blacker 
^ than those of the females, so that the s*^x is easily distinguished at first sight. These fish 
have a singular manner of swimming ; the mole and the female swim together on two par- 
allel lines, the female always uppermost and the male undermost ; they thus always keep 
at a constant uniform distance from each other, and preserve a perfect parallelism. The 
female never makes the least motion, either sideways or towards the bottom, but directly 
the male does the same." 

To this account is added a foot-note (p. 90) containing the following additional informa- 
tion :— 

" Don Alzate has sent those fishes preserved in spirits; their skin is covere<l with very 
small scales ; they vary in length ftx>m an inch to eighteen lines, and they are seldom above 
five, six. or seven lines in the broadest pan. They have a fin on each side near the gills, 
two small ones under the belly, a single one behind the anus, which lies between the fin 
and the single one; the tail is not fuiked ; lastly, this fish has a long fin on the back, a 
little above the fin, which is under the belly. 

"We know of some viviparous fishes in our seas, such as loach, &c. most of these have 
a smooth skin without any scales. The needle of Aristotle is viviparous, and yet covered 
with broad and hard scales, I have caught some that had young ones still in their womb. 
Aa to these viviparous fishes, it is a particular and new sort, and we are obliged to Don 
Alzate for making us acquainted with it. It breeds in a lake of fresh water near the City 
of Mexico." 

This is, so far as known, the earliest notice of the viviparity of Cynrinodontids. The 
mode of consorting together (exaggerated in the account) is common to a number of rep- 
resentatives of the family, and is alluded to by Prof. Agassiz in a name {Zygonectes, i. e. 
swimming in pairs) conferred on one of the genera of the family.] 

180§— Piscium Camtschaticorum [TerpuA;] et IWachnja'], Descriptiones et i cones 
auctore [W. Q.] Tileaio. D. 26 Octobri 1808. Conventui exhib. die 2 Nor. 
1808. < M6m. Acad. Sci. Pdtersb., v. 2, pp. 335-^5, 1810, viz :— 
I. Hexagrammos Stelleri, Rossis Terpao dictas novam genns piscium 
Camtscbatioorum. pp. 335-340, tab. 15. 



n. DimenBiones piBois, beato Stellero Hexagraminos asper dicti, Rossis 
Teerpnk ITerpukl i. e. lima (captas d. 20 Maij 1741 iu portn Divi Petri 
et Paoli poDdtobat poDdero medicinali daas nsqne ad sex uncias). pp. 
340-341. 

III. Hezagraminos Stelleri, qaaanam genera sit interponcndns cuiDam 
olaasi ordiDiqne sysietuatico sit iDserendns. Labrax Pallassii (rid. ej. 
MoDOgraph.). pp. 34*2-343. 

IV. DeBcriptio Stelleri anno 1741 concepta. pp. 343-347 

V. Observationes anatomiccc. pp. 347-349. 

VI. Wacbnja Camtscbatica est Gadus dor^^o tripterygio, Callariis spc- 
eiaiim Lnsco affinis. pp. 350-353, tab. 16, 17. 

VII. WacbnisB Camtsobatica) altera species, (Gadus gracilis niihi,) qno^ ab 
indigenisCamtscbaticis acqne Cactjal, Rossis Wacbnja [ JVachvja'] dicitnr, 
diroensionibas illnstrata. pp. 354-356, tab. 18. 

VIII. Stelleri Descriptio piscis ovo<r sive asini antiquorniu. Turneri ad 
GesDerum aselli 3 sivi ^glefini Rondelet et Gesneri. JEglefini Bellonii, 
Anglornm Hadok, Russia Wacbnja [ JVachnjal diet! corrupt a voce Itael- 
maDnica, in qua Uakal audit, pp. :i56-359. 

IX. Observationes anatomicie. pp. 360-36:). 

X. Observationes ex aliornm individnornm ejusdeni speciei dissectionibus, 
pp. 363-364. 

XI. Ad bistoriam Gadi dorse tripterys^io ore cirrato caudo a^qnali fere cam 
radio primo spinoso (Kabeljau vel Cabiljau Belgarum) (Gadus morrbna 
L. Blocb. tub. 64), adhnc annotata sequent ia. pp. 364-370. 

XII. Annotationes anatomicie. pp. 370-371. 

XIII. Tabularum explicatio. pp. 372-375. 

l^^t— Labracea, novum genus piscium, oceani oriental is, anctore P. 8. PallaB. 
CoDventni exbib. die 5 Julii 1809. <M6m. Acad. Sci. St. Pdtersb., v. 2, 
pp. 3J-2-398, 1810. 
[^T. ap. L. deeagramintu, L. srtpereiliosuji, L. monopterygius.\ 

IVscription de quelquen poissoiis observes pendant son voyaj;e an tour du 
luonde. Par "W. O. Tilesius. < M^m. Soc. Imp. des Naturalistes d<* Moscon. 
t. 2, pp. 212-249, with 5 pi., 1809. 

■•ll— Iconnmet Descriptionum piscinra Canitschaticornm continuatio tcrtia lonta- 
men monograpbias generis Agoni Blocbiani sistens. Anctoro [W. G.] Tile- 
aio. Cum tabulis vi aineis. — Conventui exbibita die 11 DocenibrJH IHll. 
<M6m. Acad. Sci. Pdtersb., v. 4, pp. 406-478, 1813, viz:— 

De Dovis piscium generibus, Agono Blocbii et Phalangiste eel. Pallasii, 
propter synonym iara conjugendis. pp. 406-454. 

Appendix de Cyprino rostrato et cultrato, Trachino tricbodonto i;t Epene- 
phelo ciliato. pp. 454-457. 

Descriptio Cyprini rostrati Tungusis ad Covymam fluv. Tschukutscbam et 
Jucagiris Onatscha dicti. pp. 457-474, tab. xv, fig. 1-5. 

Epinepbelns ciliatus Camtscbaticus et Americanns. pp. 474-478, tab. xvi, 
fig. 1-6. 

^ BoflBO-Asiatica, sistens Omnium Animaliom in extenso imporio 

^iacentibus maribus '^observatorura Recensionem, Domicilia, 

Dtioncs, anatomen atqne IconeB plurimorum. Anctore 



Pfttra Pallas, Eq. Anr. Academico-Pettopolitauo. — Tolnmeii tertinm.— 
poll in OSIcina Caen. Academim SciDDtinrum Impreu. M.DCC.CXI. 
MDCCCXXXI. [4S vii, 42H, ciiv pp., C pi.] 

(Ai IndtuUilDn iho tiilo-pagv, tbo ■' Zovgrnphia fiouo-AiiiBtica'' was ixit n 
piMiiludMl Igil, Iwt wu priDled In IBll, and nu only ilvlalDtd b] Ibalouof i 
p«-p]ilea. Tbo lotUiT-preu ww, hawaver, U ■ Bligbt exlent, dlatribnlcd befon 
alar publication of Iho oJlllon. nnd a copy ^aa poBBCd^pd by Cuvler, wbo haa 






D bid b- 



1 obtained from the Rnai 



DrLca. Tbo fuUowlog an pabllshed aa ir new. tlthoaRh savi 

■ilH«l:— 



puTloiuLy 
F/ialangUlci nnpciiHTtniu (p. 110, pi. 17). 
Cotiui piiliiacaMiluieepltti\a (p. lU, pl-iQ)- 
Ooaai platyapluihu <|i. IM. pi. SI). 
OoUiu Iraehiinu (p. 13H, pi. 93). 
OMutpittaUntr (p HI, p!. 20. 1 3, *i. 
nioiniui ddticAo^ubr (p. 1)3, pL 43, f. a). 
Btmnitu an<7u>IIaHf (p. 176. pi. 4-J. f. 3). 
'fiodiu tsocAna (ii. IDS, pi, 4-1). 
Oodu pv.Tmmu tp. I DO). 
Oadui ^llll>ria (p. SCO). 
.il niniDifnr« htxapUrvi {p. tnS). 
Jmtniiftrtfv irpKpinnif (p.!tn, pL <i4.r. 3). 
IVoeMiittf IrldtHlan (p 333. pL SO, C 1), 
IViuMiiBi «irrAgnu (p. a3T. pL sn, f, 3). 
iVr«a Mrfabt/if (p.S<l). 
ii*6nur (((HiiTriimmiii (p. ms, pi. 6il, f. 9). 
i>B&iiiXRip>reUia«u|i>, 978, pl.CJ, f. I). 
Loliroi iimnapUrvjTicu (p. If 1. pi. C3, r. *). 
Labrax aelogranmtu (ji, 9>°;), pi. 01. f. 1). 
Salmo tagottplialai (p. ^79. pi. 77. f. ai. 
Batmopnlnu (p.37<V pi. 7ti. f. 9. p'. TOj. 
rlmtimrclaqnadrilabrratUitui (p. tK). 
I^fumntcUt eiaitrleonii (p. Kt). 
Tlie plMii* rKforml In were never pabllaked. 
Tlio only olbrr i>pi>clri algnallied m luIinblUoU of ibr 




f 

11 

(Tnuialated m fonowt:—] 

Narrative of a voyage to the northwest coast of America in the years 1811, 
1612, 1813, and 1814, | or the first American settlemeot on the Pacific | By 
Oabziel Franchere | Translated and 4 dited by J. V. Huntington | — | Red- 
field I 110 and 1 12 Nassau street, Now York | 1854. [12°, 37G pp., 3 pi.] 

[Tbe calmoD is noticed in chapter 18.1 

ISM— Voyage pittoresqae aatoar dn monde, avec des portraits de sauvages d'Am6- 
riqne, d'Asie, d'Afriqne, et des lies da grand oc^an ; des paysages, des vues 
maritimett, et plnsienrs objets d'bistoiro natnrelle; accompagn<^ de descrip- 
tions par M. le Baron Cavier, et M. A. de Cbamisso, et d'obser vat ions snr les 
cr&nes hnmains par M. le DoCtenr Gall. Par M. Louis Choris, Peintre. — 
Paris, de Vimprimerie de Firmin Didot, . . . 1822. [Fol., 2 p. 1., vi pp.4-[*]» 
12 pi., 17 pp.-f[ii], 10 pi., 20 pp.-fliii], 14 pi., 10,3 pp.-f [iv], 18 pi., 24 pp.-f 
[v], 19 pi., 22 pp. -f [vi], 23 pi., 28 pp. -f [vii], 7 pi., 19 pp.] 
[Partie vi.] Cbapean do bois, snr lequel sont peintes divers animaux ma- 
rina. Plancbe v. Par G. Cuvier. pp. 21-22. 

[Cnvier coosiders that one of the fij;are8 (h) represents a Diodon^ And such seem» to be 
the coAe; hut no npeciea of that type hae been found so far northward as Unalashka, 
where the bat was ohtained. (" £u A. est an JHodon oa orhe 6pincux. qui est pris k la 
ligno tandis que les grands c6tac6s du reste de co tableau sont poursnivis avec des lances*' 
(p.i«).l 

I8S8— Account | of | an expedition | from | Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, | 
pcrforme<l in the yeara 1819 and *20, | by order of | the Hon. J.C.Calhoun, 
Sec'y of War : | under the command of | Major Stephen 11. Long. | From 
the notes (if Major Long, Mr, T. Say, and other gen- | tlcuien of the exploring 
party. | — | Compiled | by Ed'win James, | botanist and geologiHt for the 
expedition. | — | In two vols.— With an atlas. | Vol.11. | — j Phiiadelphia: | 
H. C. Cart»y and J. Lea, Chesnnt st. | 1823. [2 v., 8°. Vol. i, 2 p. 1., 003 pp. ; 
vol. ii,3 p. l.,442 pp.] 

I8JI§— Histoirr Natun-llc desPoissous, par M. leB"" Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tomo premier. A Paris, chez F. G. Levranlt, . . . , 
1"?^!^. [KJ e.l. xvi, 574 pp., 1 1. ; 4^ cd. xiv, 422 pp., 1 1.— pi. l-^ (double).] 
Livre premier. — Tableau historiquo des progics de ric:hthyolo'^i«*, deimis 

sou orij^inc jusqu'ii nos jours. 
Livre deuxiome. — Idee g<Sudralc de la nature et de I'orgauisation des pois- 

SOUH. 

(Pullas* **Zo«;iraphia R«>«80-A8iatica" noticed at. pp. 200-201.] 

Histoire Natiin-lle des Poissons, j)ar M. le li^" Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes Tome denxicme. A Paris, chez F. G. Levranlt, . . . 

lrJ2-<. (.>* ('m1. xxi, (I 1.), 490 pp. ; 4^^ ed. xvii, (1 1.), :.7l pp.— pi. 9-10.] 
Livre troisi««ine. — Des poissons do la fainille des Perthes, on des Percoi- 
des. [Par Cuvier.] 

[Xo wostcuast npt'clos Hpocifled.] 

•■^•— Histoire NaturcUe (U*8 Poisaons, par M. k* !)<»" Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
oiennea, .... Tome troisieme. A Paris, chez F. G. Levranlt, . . . , 
1829. [8^ cd. xxviii, 500 pp., 1 1. ; 4^ ed. xxii, (1 1.), 3G8 pp.— pi. 41-71.] 
Livro troisieme. — Des poissons de la famille des Perches, on dvs PercoTdcs. 
'^•rier.] 

Aon StelUri, based on Traehinut triehodon Pallas. 1 



12 

1829 — Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. le B°" Cuvier, . . . ; et parM. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome qiiatri^me. A PariB, cbez F. G. Levraalt, . . . , 
U329. [8P e<l xxvi, (1 1.), 518 pp. ; 4^ ed. xx, (1 1.), 379 pp.—pl. 72-99, 97 bis.] 
Livro qnatribuic. — Dea Acantbopt^rygieuH ^ jonecnirass^. [Par Cuvier.] 

[N. 8p. Oottus ventraHt, Hemilepidotut TUetii.] 

Zoolof^iscbcr AMns, eDtbal tend Abbildungen nod Bescbreibungen nouerTbier- 
arten, wubrend des Flotteapi tains von Kotzebue zweiter Reisc urn die 
Welt, auf der Hussiscb-Kaiserlicben Kriegsscblnpp Predpriatie in den 
Jabreu 1823-182G beobacbtet von Dr. Friedr. Eschscholtz, Professor und 
Director des zoologiscbcn Museums an der Universitiit zu Dorpat, Mitglied 
mebrercr gelebrten Gesellscbaften, Russ. Kais. Hofratbo und Ritter des 
Ordons doa beil. Wladiuiir. Drittes Heft. — Berlin, 1829. Gedruckt und 
verlegt bei G. Reimer. [Fol., title, 18 pp., pi. 11-15.] 

[X. sp. Blepsiat vttUrietmis (p. 4, pi. 13), on which was subsequently based the genus 
Temnittia of Richardson. J 

1830 — Histoire Naturelle des Poiseous, par M. le B^** Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome cinquibme. A P^jris, cbez F. G. LevrauU, . . . , 
1830. [8P ed. xxviii, 499 pp., 2 1. ; 4^ ed. xx, 374 pp., 2 1.— pi. 100-140.] 
Livre cinqui^me. — Des Sci^^Qoides. [Par Cuvier.] 
[No west-coast species noticed.] 

Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. le B°" Cuvier, . . : ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome sixibme. A Paris, cbez F. G. LeTrauIt< . . . , 

1830. [8^ ed. xxiv, 559 pp., 3 I. ; 4° ed. xviii, (3 1.), 470 pp.—pl. 14l-l()9, 162 
bis, 162 ter, 162 quarer,.167 bis, 168 bis.] 

Livre sixieme. — (Partie I. — Des Bparoidee. Partie II.— Des Mdnides.) 

[Par Cuvier et Valenciennes.] 
[No west-coast species noticed.] 

1831 — Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. le B^"* Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes Tome septibme. A Paris, cbez F. G. Levrault, . . . , 

1831. [8^ ed. xxix, 531 pp., 3 1. ; 4° ed. xxii, (3 1.), 399 pp.—pl. 170-208.] 
Livre septi^me. — Des Squamipennetf. [Par Cuvier?] 

Livre buiti^me. — Des poissons & pbaryngieus labyrintbi formes. [Par 

Cuvier f] 
[No west-coast species noticed.] 

Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. le B°^ Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome buiti^me. A Paris, cbez F. G. Levrault, . . . , 
1831. [8^ ed. xix, (2 1.), 509 pp. ; 4'^ ed. xv, (2 1.), 375 pp.— pL 209-245.] 

Livre neuvi^me. — Des Scomb^roides. [Par Cuvier ot Valenciennes.] 

[No west-coast species noticed.] 

Zoograpbia Rosso- Asiatica. See 1811. 

1833— Histoire Naturelle des Poissous, par M. le B°° Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome neuvidme. A Paris, cbez F. G. Levrault, . . . , 
1833. [8o ed. xxix, 512 pp., 11.; 4° ed. xxiv, (1 1.), .379 pp.—pl. 246-279.] 

Livre neuvidme. — Des Scomb^roides. [Par Cuvier et Valenciennes.] 

fNo wost-ooMt speoiet noticed.] 



13 

lISft-Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. le B^^ Cnvler, . . . ; ot par M. Valen- 
demieSy .... Tome dixi^me. A Paris, cbez F. G. Levrault, • • • i 
1835. L8° cd. xxiv, 482 pp., 1 1. ; 4° ed. xix, (1 1.), 358 pp.— pi. 280-306.] 
8oito da liyre Denvi^me — Des Scombdroides. [Par Cuvier ct Valen- 

eiennesT] 
Livredizt^xe. — De lafamille des Teuthies. [Par Cuvier et Valenciennes f] 
Livre onzi^me. — De la famille des Ttenioides. [Par Cuvier et Valen- 

cieDoeaT] 
Liyre doazi^me. — Des Atherinea. [Par Cuvier et Valenciennes T] 
[No weat-ooMt species noticed.] 

Ilti— Faana Boreali-Amerioana; or the Zoology of the Northern Parts of British 
America : containing descriptions of the objects of Natural History collected 
on the late northern land expeditious under command of Captain Sir John 
Franklin, B. N. Part third. The Fish. By John Richardaon, M. D., F. R. 
S.,F. L. S., Member of the Geographical Society of London, and Werneriau 
Natural History Society of Edinburgh ; Hcmorary Member of the Natural 
History Society of Montreal, and Literary and Philosophical Society of Que- 
bec; Foreign Member of the Geographical Society of Paris; and Correspond- 
ing mt^mber of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ; Surgeon 
and Naturalist to the Expeditions.— IlluHtrated by numerous plates. — Pub- 
lished under the authority of the Right Honourable the Secretary of State 
for Colon ipi Affairs. — London : Richard Bentley, New Burlington street, 
MDCCCXXXVI. [4°, pp. XV, 3i7 (-f 1) pp., 24 pi. (numbered 74-97).] 

[S. g. and o. up. Temnittia (n. g.,59), Oyprinut {LetieUetu) ffraeUis (12U), ScUmo Scouleti 
ll5ei,'j£l). Salmo quinna* (219), ScUmo Qairdneri (221), Salmo paucident (-222), Salmo imp- 
pitch {'i-i4), Salino Ctarkii (225,307), Salmo (Mallottuf) paeifieiu (22G). Aeiperwer traTutmon- 
tat%ut {'276), Petromyzon tridentatwt (21>3) ; (Adde.'CDA:) OoUwt cutper (295.313), CyprinuH 
[AbramU) haUtaltug (301), Oyprintu (Leueuteus) caurirus ( )04), Cyprinxu (LexuUcus) crego- 
nentit CJ05).] 

Report on North American Zoology. By John Richardson, M. D.. F. R. S. 
< Rep. 6th meeting Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Aug. 1830, ==v. :>, pp. 121-224, 1837. 

Pisces, pp. 202-22.3. 

ABtoria, or. anecdotes of an enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains. By 
Washington Irving. [Ist ed.] In two volumes. Vol.1 [—11]. Phil- 
adelphia: Carey, Lea &. Bluuchard. 18:}G. [2 vols., 8^. Vol. i,285 pp.; 
vol. ii,279 pp., I map fohled.] 
[The fiHht»H aud fisheries, especially Rnlmuu, are noticed in vol. 2, cliapt<ra 9 and 14. j 

Ilistoire Naturelle des Poissons, par M. le B°" Cuvier ; ot par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome ouzieiiie. A Paris, chez F. G. Levrault, . . . , 
16:W>. [8^ cd. IX, 506 pp., 11.: 4^ ed. xv, (11.), 37^ pp.— pi. 307-343.] 

Livre troisi^me. — Des MiigiIoi<les. 

Livre (|uatorzi6nie. — De la famille des Gobioides. 

[Xo weftt-coaMt 8pecics noticed.] 

1§87— Hi>t<)ire Naturoilo des Poissous, par M. le B"" Cuvier, . . . ; ot par M. Valen- 
ciennea, . . . Tome d nizieim'. A Paris, cbez F. G. Levrault, . . . , 1837. 
[li'" ed. xxiv, r>()7 H- 1 pp. ; 4^ ed. xx, 377 pp., 1 1.— pi. 344-35^.] 
Snite du livre quatorzieme.— Gobioi'des. 
Livre <juinziemc. — Des Acanthopterygiens a pectoralea pddiculdes. 

»Wi— Histoire Naturell** dos Poissons, par M. le B**^ Cuvier, . . . ; et p:ir M. Valen- 
Qlannes, . . *. Tome troisitime. A Paris, cbez Pitois-Levranlr et C*, • . . i 
reo ed. xix, :>05 pp., 1 1. : 40 od. xyii, .370 pp.— pi. 369-.^d8.] 
^vi^me — Labroides. 
~t fpeoie* noticed.] 



14 

1839 — Histoiro Naturelle des Poissons, par M. \e B^"* Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, . . . Tomo quatorzi^me. A Paris, cbez Pitois-LevraaltetC®, • • • » 
1839. [8° ed. xxii, 464 pp., 3 1. ; 4° ed. xx, 344 pp., 3 1.— pi. :J89-420.] 
Suite da livro sdizi^me. — Labroidos. 
Livre dix-Hcpti^me. — Des Mabvcoptc^rygiens. Des Silaroides. 

[No wc8t-coa8t species noticed.] 

The Zoology of Captaia Beecbey's Voyage; compiled from the collections and 
notes made by Captain Beechey, tbe officers and naturalist of the Expe- 
dition, daring a Voyage to tbe Pacific and Bebring's straits performed in 
his MijcHty's Sbip Blossom, audor the command of Captain F. W. Beechey, 
R. N., F. K. S., «fcc., &c. in tbe years 1825, 26, 27, and 28. By J. Hiobardson, 
M. D., F. 11. S., &c. ; N. A. Vigors, Esq., A. M., F. R. S., &c. ; G. T. Lay, Esq. ; 
E.T. Bennett, Esq., F. L. S., &c.; tbe Rev. W. Buckland, D. D., F. R. S., 
F. L. S., F. G. S., &c. and G. B. Sowerby, Esq. — Illustrated with nx^wards of 
fifty finely coloured plates, by Sowerby. — Published under tbe authority of 
the Lonls Commissioners of the Admiralty. = London : Henry G. Bohn, 4, 
York Street, Covent Garden.— MDCCCXXXIX. 

Fishes ; by G. T. Lay, Esq., and E. T. Bennett, Esq., F. L. S., &,c. pp. 

41-75, pi. 15-23. 
[N. sp. Ohimctra coUiei (p. 71, pi. 23). 

This volume is interestiag as being the fir^t publication in which any attempt has been 
made to acioDtilically indicate the fishes of the coast. The "naturalist" uf the expedition 
was, however, incompetent for the task, and the notes taken evince that he was not 
sufficiently versed in the rudiments of ichthyoloj^y to know what to observe. Neverthe- 
less, the notes have an interest, if not of importance, enough to transcribe what relates 
to the regions in question : — 

"Off Saint Lawrence Island was caught, in the dredge a fish apparently allied to the 
genus Liparig, Art. It had the 'ventral fins placed before the pectorals, but united and 
coutiouons with them; aflat, raisetl, and rough tubercle, of nearly the diameter of an 
Englinh sixpence, was seated forward between the pectorals, its anterior part reaching as 
far as the vontrala; this may be of use in copulation : its cceea were pretty numerous.' — C. 
The roughness of this tubercle renders it difiicult to refer the fish to any known species; 
but it in probably nearly related to the Cycloptenu gelatiiUHtus, Pali., a Xipam which is 
known to inhabit the se^is in which this was obtained. The existence uf ectca removes it 
from LcpadogasUr, Gouan. 

"Kotzebue Sound afforded a specimen of a new species of Ophidium, L., the Oph. stigfna. 

" On the coast of California, a little to the northwards of the hsrboor of San Francisco, 
an Orihagoriscus was met with, apparently the Ortk. mola., Bl. They swam about the 
ship with the dorsal flu frequently elevated above the surface." (p. 50.) 

"On the coast of California, at Monterey, Mr. Collie's notes mention the occurrence of 
[1] a species of Sparus, of two Scombri, and of a Clupea. [H] The flrst of the JScombridce is 
apparently a Scotnber, Cnv.; it was 'smaller than the macken'l; it was marked on the 
back with cros3 waved narrow bands of black and greenish blue; its flrst dorsal fin had 
nine spines, and there were four small pinnules behind the second dorsal and the anal : it 
had a simple air-bladder of moderate size, and an immense number of cceoa, with a stomach 
extending the whole length of the abdomen, narrow, tapering to the posterior part, and 
covered throughout nearly its whole length with the milt. ? Its internal membrane forms 
longitudinal folds; the intestines have three convolutions.' — C. This fish occurred in 
shoals. [:)J The second species was met with but once. It is a Camnx, Cuv., of which 
' the teeth in the upper maxillary are scarcely to be felt: the pectorals reach nearly to op- 
posite the an\L8: a double narrow stripe of deeper blue than the general surface runs back- 
wards on each side of the first dorsal fin to opposite its termination, iho two parts being 
separated by a broad line of dirty white, which has a narrow, dark-coloured lino along it« 
middle: there are no distinct divisions in the anal and second dorsal iins: tbe air-bladder 
is simple, and small, and extends from the /aucM to the anu»; the stomach is much shorter 
than in the preceding species; the eccca, although numerous, are less so than in it, and the 
Inteatine is foldtnl in the same manner.' — C From the nature of the colouring of this flsh, 
as deacribed by Mr. Collie, there can be little doubt of its constituting a distinct species. 



15 

[4] Alouj; wiUi tbo firStf apecies of Scomber, there occorreil in shoals a small species of 
CtigMO. L.. *withoat teeth; with the dorsal fin a little before the vontral ; and with the baok 
dark fcreenifth blae, and having one line and {Uirt of another of rounded blnck spots on 
Mfh side nearly on a lerel with the eye: the gill membranes contain six rayn, and overlap 
each other at their lower part ; the stomach resembles that of the tlrst Scomber,- it has also 
DomeFoaa ea«a ; the air-bladder is small and tapering.*— C. The other fishes observed at 
Monterey were [5] a new species of Ohimceni, Ciiv., differing esBf^ntialJy from the Chimeera 
of the Atlantic, and approaching somewhat in the position of its second dorsal fln to the 
OsOorAyndkut, Cav.; [6J a species of Torpedo, Dam.; and [7J a Kaia '* (pp. 54^5).] 

lltt-Nairativo of a Jourooy across the Rocky Monntalns, to tho Columbia River^ 
aad a Visit t^ the Sandwich Ihlaudn, Chili, &c. With a Scientiilc Appendix. 
By John K. To^wnsend, Member of the Academy of Nataral Sciences of 
Pbila«lelphia. Philadelphia : Henry Perkins, 134 Chrstnut street. Boston : 
Perkins A, Marvin.— 1«39. [hP, 352 pp.] 
[A few incidental popular noiices of salmon and treat are given.] 

[Reprinted in England under tho following title :— ] 

Sporting Excursions in the Rocky Mountains, including; a Journey to the 
Columbia River, and a Visit to the Sandwich IslandH, Chili, &:c. By J. K. 
Towshend [«ic/], Esq. In two volumes. Vol. I [ — II]. London: Henry 
Colburn, Publisher, Great Marlborough Street. Id40. [8^. Vol. i, xii [-f i], 
312 pp., 1 pi.; vol. ii, xii, 310 pp., 1 pi.] 

(In vol. i, chap. 7. are given details respecting salmon and tho modo of catching them, 
and the fruutispiece illustrates a native woman " Mi>o;iring tho salmon ".] 

iMO-HiKtoire Naturelle des Pois-sons, par M. le B®" Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. ValoD- 
ciennes, . . . Tume quiuzieme. A Paris, chez Ch. Pitois, ^diteur, . . . , 
1«40. [tP ed. xxxi, 540 pp., 1 1. ; 4^'^ ed. xxiv, 397 pp.— pi. 421-455.] 
Suite da livre dix-septi^me.— Siluroides. 
[No weet-ooMt species noticed.] 

Narrative of a whaling voyage round tho globe, from the year 1H33 to 18iU), 
comprising sketch*'* of Polynesia, California, the Indian Aicliipt'la;;o, etc. 
with an account of Southern Whales, th(^ Sp«^nn Whah' Fish* rv, and the 
Natural History of the climates visired. By Frederick Debell Bennett, 
Esq., F. R. G. S., Fellow of the Royal College of Surg«M»us, London. In 
two volumes. Vol. I [ — Ii]. Loudon: Kichard Ht'iitN'y, Xiw IJuiling- 
tou htreet, publisher in ordinary to her Majesty. — 18 10. [^^, vol. i, xv, 402 
pp., I pi., I map; vol. ii, vii, 396 pp., 1 id.] 

IW^Histoire Naturelle des Pois-^ons, par M. le B*'^ Cuvier, . . . , tt par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome seizitime. A Paris, chez P. Bertrand, . . . , 184*2. 
l^i^ ed. XX, 472 i»p , 1 1. ; 4^ ed. xviii, 363 pp., 1 1.— pi. 456-487.] 
Livre dix-huitieme. — Cyprinoides. 

Zoology of New- York, or tho New-York Fauna; comprising detailed descrip- 
tions of all the animals hitherto observed within tlu^ Stair of New-Yorl\, 
with brief notices of those occasionally found near its borders, and .iccoui- 
panied by appropriate illustrations. — By James E. DeKay. — Part IV. — 
Fishes. Albany : Printed by VV. &. A. Wliite and I. Visscher. 184J. [4^, 
xiv [1, errata], 415 pp.; atlas, 1 p. 1., 71) pi.] 

[Tlie letterpress of tho Heptiles and Fishes, each Hoparately paijed. forms one volume, 
ndth« plates, each SHparateiy namben'd, auothor. Ei^ht cf the DortbwoHt-cuaHt Malnco- 
•peoies {AbramiM lalteatus, Leucutcus caurinus, Lfucifcug oregoncnaU, Salmo 
lolflio (Jairdnrrii, Salmo Scx)ulcri, Salmo tguppitch, aud Salmo nitidus) and the 
traTumontamiJt) cnanaerated by Kichardsou (1^36) are briefly iDdicate<l 



16 

1§44— Histoire Natarelle des Poissons, par M. le B<>b Cuvler, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome dix-septi^me. A Paris, cbez P. Bertrand, . . . , 1844. 
[8° ed. xxiii, 497 pp., 1 1. ; 4° ed. xx, 370 pp. 1 I.— pi. 487 (bi8)-519.] 
Saitedu livre dix-huitidme. — Cyprinoides. 

184L5 — Descriptiou of a new species of SyngnathuSf broagbt from the western coast of 
CaliforDia by Capt. Phelps. By Dr. D. H. Storer. <^ Proo. Boston Soo. 
Nat. Hist., V. 2, p. 73, December, 1845. 
[X. sp. SyngnathuM cal\fomientis.] 

1846 — A Synopsis of the Fished of North America. By David Humphreys Storer, 
M. D., A. A. S., .... <^Mem. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., new series, vol. 
ii, pp. 253-550, Cambridge, 1846. 

[739 nominal apecies from all North America, inclading the West Indiea, arc deaoribad. 
The descriptions, however, are most inaptly compiled and entirely insnfficient.] 

A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. By David Humphreys Storer, 
M. D., A. A. S., .... Cambridge: Metcalf and Company, Printers to the 
University. 1840. [4©, 1 p. 1. (= title), 298 pp.] 

[A rep.intf with separate pagination, title-page, and index, of the preceding. 

According to Dr. Storer (Mem. Acad., p. SCO; Syn.p. 8), " the following species inhabit 
the northwestern coast of America :— 

Trichodon stelUri. Salmo solar. 

Cottus pistilliger. Salmo quinnaL 

CoUiu polyacanthocephaltu. Salmo Gairdnerii. 

Cottua oiper. Salmo pau:iidens, 

Agpidophortu acipewierintu. Salmo ScoiUeri. 

HemiUpidottu TUeiii. Salmo tsuppitch. 

Blepiias trUobua. Scdm/o nitidug. 

SebaaUs variabilis. McUlotut pacifieua. 

CffprinuH balteatus. Cyelopterits ventricoaud. 

Leaciacua caurinua. Acipenaer traihsmontaniu."\ 
Ijtuciacua orcgonenaia. 

Histoire Natarelle des Poissons.par M. le B<»" Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome dix-huiti^me. A Paris, chez P. Bertrand, . . . , 
184G. [8^ ed. xix, 505 pp., 21.; 4° ed. xviii, 375 pp., 2 1.— pi. 520-^V>3.] 

Suite da livre dix-huiti6me. — Cyprinoides. 

Livre dix-neuvifeme. — Des Esoces on Lacioides. 

Histoire Natarelle des Poissons, par M. lo B°° Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome dix-neavidme. A Paris, chez P. Bertrand, . . . , 1846. 
ItP ed. xix, 544 pp., 3 1.; 4^ ed. xv, 391 pp.. 2 1.— pi. .^>54-590.] 
Saitc du livre dix-neavit>me. — Brocbets oa Lacioides. 
Livre vingti^me. — De quelques families* de Mai ;copt6rygiens, interm^- 

diaires eutre les Brocbets et les Cliipes. 
[Xo west-coast species described.] 

Histoire Natarelle des Poissons, par M. lo B°" Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
ciennes, .... Tome vingti^me. A Paris, chez P. Bertrand, . . . ; 1846. 
[8° ed. xviii, 472 pp., 11.; 4^ ed. xiv, 340 pp. I 1.— pi. 591-603.] 
Livre vingt et uni^me. — De la famille des Clupdoides. 

1848— Historia Fisica y Politica de Chile segun documeutos adquiridos en esta re- 
pdblica durante doce aQos de residencia en ella y publicada bajo los aus- 
pieios del Snpremo Gobierno. Por Claudio Gay, cindadano Chileno, indi- 

* The families refe^rrod to are:— Chirocentres (with tbo genas Chirocentrua) ; AIepoc6phale8 (with Ale- 
poeephalua) ; Lntodeir^tH (with Ohanoa And Qonorhynchua) ; Mormyres (with Mormyma) ; Ilyodontt^s (with 
Oaieoglotaum. Uchnohoma, and Byodon)-, Batirios (with Albuia = Btttirinu9) ; ^lopiens (with Elopa and 
Megalopa); Arnica (with Afiua) ; Vastres on Amies f (FottinM); famillepartiouUtofk, on Amies t {H€t9rotia)i 
ErythroMcs (with Erylkrinua, Maerodon, Ltbiaaina, and PyrrhuHna) ; and Ombrea (with Umbra), 



17 

vidao de varias socitMlades oientificas Dacionalcs y etrangeras. Zoologia. 
Tomo segando. Paria, en casa del antor. Chile, en el Museo de Historia 
Nataral de Santiago. MDCCCXLVIII. [Text, S° ; atlas, fol.] 

(Peeas, pp. 137-370 and in^ex.— In this work are described several species afterward 
dbeovered along the coMt of California.] 

1MS-Thirti0ih Coogresa— first session. | = | Ex. Doo. No. 41. | — | Notes of a mili- 
tary reoonnoissance, | from | Fort Leavenworth, in Missonri, | to | San Di- 
ego, in California, | including part of the | Arkansas, Del Norte, and Gila 
Rivera. ) — | By Lieut. Col. "W. H. Emory. | Made in 184G>7, with the 
advanced guard of the "Army of the West." | — | February 9, 1848.-— Or- 
dered to be {Minted. | February 17, 1848.— Ordered, That 10,000 extra copies 
of each of the Reports of Lieu- | tenant Emory, Captain Cuoke, iind Lieu- 
tenant Abort, be printed for the use of the House; | and that of said num- 
ber, 250 copies be furnished for the use of Lieutenant Emory, Captain | 
Cooke, and Lieutenant Abort, respectively. | Washington : | Wendell and 
Van Beuthuysen, printers. | : : : : | 1848. [ho^ g14 pp., 50 lith. pi. not num- 
bered, 14 numbered, 2 sketch-maps, and 3 maps folded.] 

(This work bat been so badly edited that the following analysis may prove usefal» and 
will faeiliute the understanding of the work :— ] 

CONTENTS. 

Notes I of I a military reoonnoissance, | from | Fort Leavenworth, in Mis- 
souri, to San Diego, | in California, | including | part of the Arkansas, 
Del Norte, and Gila Rivers. | pp. 5-126, 26 lith. pi., 2 sketch-maps. 
Appi*ndix No. 1. [Letter on Indians by Albert Gallatin, and reply by 

W. H. Emory.] pp. 127-134., 1 pi. 
Appendix No. 2. [Report on botany.] 
[1. Phanerogams and ferns. By John Torrey. pp. 135-155, pi. 1-12.] 
[2. Cactacea. By G. Engelmann. pp. 155-159, 14 lith. pi., 2 not 
numbered.] 
Appendix No. 3. Table of meteorological observations, pp. lGO-174. 
Appendix No. 4. Table of geographical positions, pp. 175-178. 
Appendix No. 5. Table of astronomical observations, pp. 179-385.* 
Appendix No. 6. [Report on natural history. By J. W. Al)ort.] 

pp. 3^6-414. 
Appendix No. 7. [Itinerary of Sonora, Mexico. By P. St. Geo. Cooke. ] 
pp. 415-416. 
Report of Lieut. J. W. Abort, | of his | examination of New Mexico, | i.i 
the years 1846-'47. pp. 417-546, 22 lith. pi., 1 map folded. 
Notes concerning the minerals and fossils, collected by Lieutenant J. 
W. Abert, while engaged in the geographical examination of New- 
Mexico, by J. W. Bailey, professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and 
geology, at the United States Military Academy, pp. 517-548, *J 
lith. pis. 
Report of Lient. Col. P. St. George Cooke | of | his march from | Santa ¥<', 
New Mexico, | to | San Diego, Upper California, pp. 549-563, 2 mapH 
folded. 
Journal | of | Captain A. R. Johnston, | First Dragoons, pp. 565-614. 

[A. species of Oila is noticed at p. G2, and illastrated by a poor plate opi>Ohite the text. 
It Is said: — ** We beard the fish playing in the water, and soon those who wero dis4>n- 
Rifed were after them. At first it was supposed they were the moantain trout, bat, bcinc; 
Qoaparatively fresh from the hills of Maine, I soon saw the difference."] 

Biitoire Natnrelle des Pois/ons, par M. le B°^ Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valen- 
• • . Tomo vingt et unii^me. A Paris, chcz P. Bertrand, . . . , l8Ai^. 
^ pp.; 40 ed. xiii (+ iii), 391 pp.— pi. (i07-()33.1 

"^ages 389-^04 misnambered S09-2S4. 



18 

Sat to da livre viDgt et anidme et des Clop^ides.* 
Livro vingtrdeoxi^e. — Do la famille des Salmonoldeo. 
f No west-ooMt species described.) 

1 849^Frank Forrester's Fish andFisbing of the United States and British ProTinoes 
of North America. Illustratetl from nature by the author. By Etenrj 
'William Herbert, author of *' Field Sports,^ '* Warwick Woodlands," etc. 
New York, Stringer & Townsend, 222 Broadway, 1849. tP, 

Histoire NaturoUe des PoissoDS, par M. le B°^ Cuvier, . . . ; et par M. Valea- 
ciennea, . . . Tome vingt-deuxi^tne. A Paris, chez P. Bertraud, • . . , 1849. 
[6o ed. XX, 532, (index) 91 ( -hi) pp.; 4° ed.xvi,395,(index)81 (+ l)pp.— pi. 
634-650.] 

Suite du livre vingt-denxi^me.— Suite de la famille des SalmonoSdes. 

[No west-coast species described.] 

A Monograph of tbe Fresh water Cottns of North Ameiica. By Charles Gi- 
rard. Aug. 1849. < Proo. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., v. 2, pp. 409-411, 1850. 

On the genns Cottus Auct. By Charles Girard. Oct. 17, 1849. < Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hisl., v. 3, pp. 180-190, 1849. 

1850 — Some additional observations on the nomenclature and classification of the 
genus Cottns. By Charles Oirard. June 19, 1^50. < Proc. Bust. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., v. 3, pp. 302-305, 1850. 

1851— On a new genus of American Cottoids. By Charles Giiard. Feb. 5, 1851. 
< Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., v. 4, pp. 18-19, 1851. 

Rdvision du genre Cottus des auteurs. Par Charles Girard, de TAssociation 
am^ricaine pour Pavancemeut des sciences, niembre de la Sooi^t<S d'histoin> 
naturelle de Boston. [1851. 4°, 2S pp ] •^ N. Deuksclir. allg. Schweizer. 
Gesell. gesammt. Naturw., B. 12, 1852. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. = Contributions to the Natural His- 
tory of tbe Fresh Water Fidbes of North America. By Charles Girard. I. 
A Monograph of the Cottoids. Accepted for publication by tbe Smithson- 
ian Institution, December, 1850. [Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,] 
vol. iii, art. 3. [4^, 80 pp , 3 pi.] 

Dencriptiou of a now form of Lamprey from Australia, with a Synopsis of the 
Family. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F. II, S., V. P. Z. S., etc. < Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, part xix, pp. 235-241, plates, Pisces, iv, v, li^bl. 

List of the specimens of Fish iu tbe collection of the British Mu-^eum. — Part 
I. — Cbondropterygii. — Printed by order of tbe trustees. Loudon, 1851. [12^, 
X, [IJ, U>0pp.,2pl.J 

[Tbe uaiue of tbe cumpiler in not pablisbed on tbo title-pnge. Iu tbo aaiial iutruductiun, 
Mr. Gray states: — *'Tbe eharacUsra of tbe geueru of Sbarks and Kays, witb tbeir sy- 
oon>m!». have priocipully been derived from iho work of Pruft-ssors Miiller and Henle. 
Tbe bpeciiiious wbicb were not named by tbose authors wben eu;;agrd in their work, or 
by Dr. Audrew Smith, liave been detormiued by Mr. Edward Gerr.trd.'' The responst- 
bility of the compilation, however, apparently devolves on JOUX EDWaKD GRAY. 
The diagnoses of tbe groups, and, for the most part, the synonymy of the species, are, in 
fact, translated or transcr.bed from Miiller and llenle's great work ou the Pla;;iostonies. 
•entitled iS follows:— Syr-teraatiacho Ueschreibuug der PIa;;io«tomen von Dr. J. MCLLER, 
o. .o. Professor der Auatomie iind Pbys.ohigio, und Director des auatomischen Theaters 
und MuHeoms in Berlin, und Dr. J. UENLE, o. 6. Professor der Auatomie und Director 
des anatomischen Theaters uud V.aseums iu Ziirich. Mit seuLzi^ Sleindrucktmfeln. 
ilerllu, Verlag von Veit und Comp— 1841. [Fulio, xxii. 200 pp., 'i 1.. GO pi., mostly colored, 
uxmumbered.] Anepoch-murkim^work, but witb uonoticoa of Western A nioi icon species.] 



'The Notopi^rcs ai« differentiated from the Clupeoi'iej us a very uiatiuvi. family (auofamiiio trte> 
4iatinote). 



19 

Ml — RopplemeDt to Frank Forrester'B Fish and Fishiug of the United States and 
British ProTinces of North America. . Dy 'William Henry Herbert, author 
of the '* Field Sports of North Amorica/' '* Frank Forrester and bis Friends/' 
etc. New York, Stringer A, Towusend, 222 Broadway, 1851. pp. 1-86. 

IMS—Descriptious of some new Fishes from the River Zofii. By &, F. Baird and 
Charles Oirard. Jnne 28, 1853. < Proc Acad. Nat; Sci., yol. 6, pp. 368-369, 
Jane, 1853. 
(ST. s. sad ip. OUa (n. j^ 36d), Cila ro^utta (389). GUa eUgam (309), OUa graeau (369).J 

Descriptions of Now Species of Fishes collected by Mr. John H. Clark, on the 

U. S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, under Lt. Col. Jas. D. Graham. By 

Spencer P. Baird and Charles Girard. August 30, 1853. < Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 6, pp. 387-390, August, 1853. 

(N. mp. OWMfonutf UOifimnLt (388). Oil% Emoryi (388). QHm Grahami (389), Cjfprinodan 

(389), Hetnwndria oJLnU (380). Heteromdria oeeideniaU* (390).] 



32d Congress, | 2d session. | Senate. | Executive | No. 59. | — | Report of an Ex- 
pedition I down the | ZuQi and Colorado Rivers, | by | Captain Ii. Sit- 
Sree^refl^ | Corps Topographical Engineers. | — | Accompanied by mapA, 
sketches, views, and illustratioos. | — | Washington: | Robert Armstrong^ 
pnblio printer. | 1853. [8^, 190 pp., 1 1., 24 pi. of scenery (pL 1 folded), 6 pi. of 
mammals, G pL of birds, 2 pL of reptiles, 3 pL of fishes, 21 pL of botany, 1 
folded map, all at end.] 
Title, p. 1. 

Report of the Secretary of War, cummunicating, [etc] p. 3. 
[Sitgieaves's report. ] pp. 4-29. 

Report I on | the natural history | of the | country passed over by the 
exploring expedition | under the command of Brevet Captain L. Sit- 
greaves, | U. S. Topographical Engineers, during the year 1851. | By 8. 
"W. Woodhonee^ M. D., | surgeon and naturalist to the expedition. | pp. 
31-40. 
Zoology. I — I Mammuln and BinU, by 8. W. Woodboose, M. D. I Reptiles, 
by Edwerd Hallowell, M. D. | FislK^s, by Profl a F. Baird and Charles 
Girard. | pp. 41-152. 
Mammals. By S. W. Woodhouse, ^L D. pp. 43-57, C pi. ( 1-G). 
Birds. By S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. pp. 58-105, 6 pL (1-G). 
Reptiles. By Edwaid Hallowell, M. D. pp. 106-147, 21 pi. (l-20-t- 

10 o>. 
Fishes. By Spencer F. Baird and Charlea Girard. pp. 148-152, 
3 pi. (1-3). 
Botany. I — | By Professor John Torrey. pp. 153-178, 21 pis. (1-21). 
Medical Report | — | By S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. pp. 179-ia'>. 
List of illustrations, pp. 187-190. 
Table of contents. [I 1.] 

Extraordinary Fishes from Ca1iforni«n, constituting a new family, described by 
L. Agaiii* < Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, (2), v. 16, pp. 380-390, Nov. 1853 ; 
also reprinted in Edinburgh New Phil. Journ., v. 57, pp. 214-227; translated 
in Archiv filr Xaturgeschichte (Berlin), Jab:g. 20, B. 1, pp. 149-162, 1853. 

(Family named " F.UQiIy Holconoti or Embiotucoido)" (p. 383). N. g. and d. sp. Umbiotoca 
(D. g., 3c«) :— i. Endfiotoca JaektotU (387) ; Si. Embiotoca Caryi (389).] 

[This article was trazMlat^d into German as follows:—] 
Ceber eine neue Familie von Fischen au.s Californien. Von L. Agaaaiz. 
Silliman's Amer. Journ. voL xvi. p. 380 Ubersetzt. Vom Heraosgeber 
^ TfVMohel]. < Archiv fUr Naturgeschicbte, 20. Jdhrg., B. 1, pp. 14t^- 



r«a 



20 

[This UuDslatiou was followed by the following: origioal commauicatitw, in wbicb tbe 
systematio relations of tbe family were definitely determined:—] 

Uober die system atiscbe Stellung der Gattnng Eiiibiotoca. BeinerkoDg znr 
Yorigea AbbaDdlaog. Voni Heraupgeber [Dr. F. H. Troflchel]. <Arcbiv 
rur Natargescbichte, 20. Jabrg., B. 1, pp. 163-168, 1B54. 

1854— Tbe Zoolocy of tbe Voyage of H. M. 8. Herald, auder tbe command of Cap- 
tain Henry Kellett, R. N., C. B., dar.ng tbe years 1845-51. — Pablisbed under 
tbe Authofity of tbe Lorcis CoiumissioDers of tbe Admiralty. — Edited by 
Professor Edward Forbes, F. R. S. Vcrtebrals, iDclnaiog Fossil Mammals. 
By Sir John Richardson, Kut.,C. B., M. D., F. R. S.— London: LoycU 
Reeve, 5, Henrietta streer, Covent Garden.— 1854. [4^, xi, vi, [1], 171 [+1] 
Pf ., 32 pi.] 
Fisb. pp.. 156-171, and pi. xxviii, pi. xxxiii. 

[Describes PUUetta attXUUa^ mouth of Coppcrmino River (164, pi. 3S, f. 1-3); PfotetM 
glaeiaUi, Batbnrst's lulei (166, pi. 32): Silmo eomuetu*, Yokou River (167, pi. 32); Salmo 
dermatinut, Ynkon River (169, pL 33, f. 3-5).) 

Notice of a collection of Fisbes from tbe sonthern bend of tbe Tennessee 
River, in tbe State of Alabam.'v. By la. Agassiz. <[ Am. Jonrn. Sci. and 
Arts, (2), V. 17, pp. 297-308, Mar. 1854 ; v. 17, pp. 353-369, May, 1854. 
Appendix. — Additional notes on tbe Holconoti. pp. 365-369, May, 1854. 

[N. g. and n. sp. Embiotoea laUralU (366). Rhaeoehilus (n. g.) toxotet (367), AmfhitMaiM 
(n. g.) argenteus (367), Holeonohu (n. g., 367) rhodotents (368).] 

[Translated as follows :— ] 

Nacbtriiglicbe Bemerkangen Uber die Holconoti. Yon Prof. L. Agassiz. Ans 
Sillimun Amer. Journ. xvii. p. 365. Uebersetzt vom Heransgeber [J. H. 
Troscbel]. < Arcbiv fur Naturgescbicbte, 21. Jabrg., B. 1, pp. 30-34, 1855. 

Description of fonr new species'of Viviparous Fisbes from Sacramento River 
and tbe Bay of San Francisco. Read before tbe California Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, May 15, ia'>4. By W. P. Gibbons, M. D. June 27, 1854. 
<Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila., v. 7, pp. 105-106, 1854. 

[X. sp. Hysteroearptii TraskU (105), Hyperprosopon argentevjm (105) and var. a.punUatum 
(10G>, Oymatogcuter aggregatut (106), CytnatogouiUr minimut (iOG).] 

Description of new Species of Viviparous Marine and Fresb-water Fisbes, from 
tbe Bay of San Francisco, and from tbe River and Lagoons of tbe Sacramento. 
By W. P. Gibbons, M. D. [Read before tbe California Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, Jan. 9tb and May 15tb, 22d, and 29tb, 1854.] July 25, 1854. 
<Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila., v. 7, pp. 122-126, Jnly, 1854. 

[N. g. and n. sp. Ilolconotus (132), H. Ageuntizii (12*7), II. Gibbfmsii, " Cal. Acad, of N. S." (18-2). 
H./idiginoaut (123), Cymatogatter (n. g), 0. Larkinsii (12.1), O. pulekeUu* (123). C. ellipHau 
(124), Hysterocarpus (n. g.), H. Traskii (124), Hyperproscpon (n. g ), H. argenleua (125), H. 
aretuUtu (125), Mierometrut (n. g.), 21. aggregatua (125), M. minitnua {\ab),MyiUophagu9 (n 
g.). M.ffudatut (125), radiylahnu (n. g.), P. variegatus (126).] 

[Translated as follows:—) 
Bescbreibnng nener Fiscbe aus der Familie Holconoti ans dem Busen von 
San Francisco, ans dem Sacramento- Fluss und dessen Lagunen. Von T77. 
P. Gibbons. Aus den Proceedings of tbe Acad, of nat. .sc. of Pbiladelphia 
vol. vii. 1854. p. 122. Ubersetzt vom Heransgeber [F.H. Troscbel]. < Ar- 
cbiv rUr Naturgescbicbte, 21. Jabrg., B. 1, pp. 331-341, 1855. 

Descriptions of new Fisbes, collected by Dr. A. L. Heermann, Naturalist at- 
tacbed to the survey of tbe Pacific Railroad Route, under Lieut. R. S. Wil- 
liamson, U. S. A. By Charles Girard. Aug. 29, 1854. < Proc Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Pbila., v. 7, pp. 129-140, 1854. 

(N. g. and n. sp. :— 1. Ogntrarehw irUemtptvs (199), S. OoUcptis gulotut (139), 3. Atpioottut 
(n. g.) buon (130), 4. Leptoeottua (n. g., 130) armatuM (131), 5. Soorptmiehthyt (n. g.) mormo- 
ratua (131). 6. Sebaatea awieukttna (131). 7. Ckirua pieeiu (13S), 8. Okiirua gutUOua (138). 0. 



21 

OpIAodom (o g.) tlongaUu (133). 10. Otuteroittut WUliamMoni (133), 11. OatUrostetu micro* 
MfhalnM (t33X 12. AtherinopM <iLg.) cali/omierms (134). 13. GobwtgraeiUt (lU), 14. JSmM- 
0l9caUneata{i:HU 15. ilmpAwt»e&ttf«»mtfw(135),16. Atnp&weicAtM ffMrmanni (135), 17. Oita 
CBMoaphala (135), 18. Pogo»ickthif$uuBquilohua (130), 19. Pogonichthyt Kymntetnewt (136), 20. 
ZiiWHua {Q. R.) exUieauda (137), 81. Xarinia crtusicauda (137), 22. ikioinia con/ormw (137), 
23. Leuetomut oecidetUaUt (137), 24. Olupea mirabiUa (138), 25. MHetta cmndea (138}, 26. 
AigAuilte in^nlax <138), 27. Piatiehtkjft (u. f;.) rugonu (139), 28. PUuroniehthyt (n. g.) eceno- 
fiiff (130), 29. Pantpkryt (n. g., 139) t»eu2itf (140), 30. Ptettichthys (n. g.) nulauohticlus (140).] 

IM4— EnaiiMratioD of the species of .marioti Fishes, cullecf«d at Sau Francisco, Cali- 

foniia, by Dr. C. B. B. Keonerly, Daturalist attucbed to the survey of the 

Paeific R. R. Koate, aoder Lient. A. \V. Whipple. By Charles Girard. Ait;;. 

29, 1654. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Puila., v. 7, pp. 141-142, Aii«. 1854. 

(N.^-aod n. sp.:— 1. Ohinu eomteUatut (141). 3. PorichUiyt (n. g.) rwtatut (141), 8. Gadu* 

(141), 10. PteUiehtkys sordidtu (142). J 



OlMervatioQs iipou a collection of Fishes made on the Pacific coast of tho 
U. States, by Lieuf. W. P. Trowbridge, U. S. A., for the Masenni of the 
Smithsonian Institution. By Charles Girard. Aug. 29, 1854. <] Proc. 
Aca(L Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 7, pp. 142-15(i, 1H54. 

[X. g. and n. sp.:— 1. Labraxnetmli/er {li-ii, 2. Labrax tlathraUu (143), 3. Ileterottickus (d. g ) 
rMtmtiif (143), 4. Sphyrixna argentea (\AA) , 5. Cottop«<«jMxrrtur (144), 8. iScorpoTitcAfA '» tote- 
ra(4«(145), 9. Seorjxxna guWUa (lA^) , U. Sditutegroaacevit {\¥j), 12. &6a«te«/a«(;ia(U4r( 140), 15. 
QoMterotieutpUktimM (147), 16. Gattero$teus inopimatus (147), 17. Va.brina undulata (I4P), 18. 
OlffikiModon rulncundn* (14^). 19. BelonetxilU (149), 20. Dlenniu« gentiUs (149), 21. (TunneUtcir 
«nM<«« (149). 23. Apodiekthyt (n. g.)Jlavidu* (150), 23. Apodiclithyn vUlaceut (150), 24. Anar- 
r&irA<u/rii« (150), -^G. Voiu modeteiM (151), 29. EmbiotocalineaUi (151), 30. EmMofoca C<M- 
nd!yi (t51|, 33. XTofe^ntfrw Trombridoii (152). 33. HoUoiiotuM megalopt (152), 31. Phanerodoni 
in.%,\ /urtatMM (153), 36. PoganichUiys argyreiotua (1C3), 37. i\(ndtdi/« jMxrrtpuint« (154), 42. 
JPapnudit ddicdUtmnuu (I54>, 43. Argentina pretioha (150), 44. PZeuron0cte««ia<;uIr/«««(155), 
48. LtpiMdogatUr retitvlatuM (155), 49. ^.ynsraiaeAtM breviroUru <156), 50. Syngnathut Icpto- 
rJkyacAttf<l56).J 

t Descriptions of two species of fish, believed to be new. Sept. 4, 1854. By 
Wm. O. Ayras. < Proc. Gal. Acad. ScL, v. 1, pp. 3-4, 1854; 2d ed., pp. ^-4, 
187:J. 

(N. tp. Lcibm» pmleher, HtmUripUrut niarmoralu».\ 

^Descriptions of two new species of Sebastes. Sept. 11, 1854. By Wm. O. 
Ajreo. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 5-6, 1854; 2d ed., pp. S-T), 187:^. 
(N. sp. B. n^nd/otuM, S. paweitpimt,\ 

f Descriptions of new species of fish. /Sept. 18, 1854. By T?7m. O. Ayrea, 
M. D. < Proc. Cal. AcrnL Sci., v. 1, pp. 7-8, 1854 ; 2d ed., pp. 7-8, IH73. 

f X. up. S«battei ruber, Sebaet^a r%d>er var. parvus. Sebaete$ variabilis, Centrarehus maai- 
hmt.\ 

tOhsenrations on the development of Anablcps Gronovii, a viviparous linh 
from Snrinam. By Prof. Jefibies "Wyman. Sept. 20, 1854. < Proc. Boston 
8oc. Nat. Hist, v. 5, pp. 60-81, Dec. 1854.* 

"Remarks in relation to the Mode of Development of EmbiotocoidsB. By 
Charles Girard. Sept. 20, 1854. <Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., v. 5, pp. 
«l-^2, Dec. 1854. 

*Two new fishes, Morrbna callforuica and Grystes liueatns. By Wm. O. 
Ayrea. Oct. % 1854. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 9-10, \^A ; 2d cd., 
pp. 8-10, 187.3. 

(N. sp. Morrhua eaUfnmiea, Gryttet lineatus.] 



•yClLMnstioDscD the develofiiueiitof Anabh p»Grou(>vii (Cav. oimI Val.). By Jeffries Wynmn 
^ MM. < Boston Jonro. Kat. Hist., r. 6, pp. 4.12-443, pi. 17. Nov. te54. 



22 

* 

1§M — t DesoriptioDs of a new species of cottoid fish, aud remarks oq the American 
Acanthocotti. By 'Wbl O. Ayres, M; D. Oct. 9, 1854. <^ Proc. CaU. Acad. 
Sci., V. 1, p. 11, ltf54; 2d ed., p. 11, lrJ73. 

[N. sp. Clup^oeoUuB rotnutut (= Atpieottua Uiton Grd).] 

t DescriptioDS of two new species of lJ8h. By Wm. O. Ayres^ M. D. Oct. 
23, 1854. < Proc. CaL Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 13-14, 1854 ; 2d. ed., pp. 12-13, 
187.3. 

New species of Californian Fishes, by TTVUliam O. Ayrea, M. D. Nov. 1, 1854. 
<Proo. Boston Sjc. Nat. Hist., v. 5, pp. 94-103, Dec. 1654, aid Feb. 1855. 

(N*. sp. Sebtutst puueitpinis (94), Sebattei nelmlotns (06), SebasU^ Ttib§r (97), SebastM ni^er 
v&r. parvus (98), CentrarchusmaeuloMut (99), JforrAiMi eaii/ormea (100), Labnuptdcher {101).] 

* Descriptions of the Stargeons [Acipenser] found in our [Californian] waters. 
By "Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Nov. 27, 18.'>4. < Proc. Cul. Acad. Sci., v. 1, ji. 
15, Deo. 1854 ; 2d ed., pp. 14-15 1873. 

[N. sp. A. aeutiroUrig, A, medirottru^ A. brachyrhynchtu.] 

Characteristics of some Cartilaginous Fishes of the Pacific coast of North Am- 
erica. By Charles Girard. Nov. 28, 1854. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
V. 7, pp. 19G-197, 1854. 

[N. sp.:— I. Oe§tracionfraiui»ei (196). S. TriatU aemifeueiatum <19G), 3. SpiiuufiAemUkiat) 
SuckUyi (196), S. Raja binoculata (t90) ] 

Abstract of a Report to Lieut. Jas. M. Gilliss, U. S.N., upon the Fishes col- 
lected during the U. S. N. Astrououiical Expedition to Chili. By Charles 
Oirard. Nov. 28, 1854. < Proc. Acad. Na>. Sci. Phila., v. 7, pp. 197-199, 1854. 
[Gtonns Athtrinoptis noticed, aod tbo MeUUa carulta of Aug. 29, ltC4, t. 7, p. 138, rede- 
scribed as a ne«r speoies, nader tiie nanits Aloea mtuiez. ] 

t Descriptions of two new npeces of tish. By Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Dec. 4, 
1854. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. I, pf. 17-18, 18.34 ; 2d ed., pp. 16-17, 1873. 
[N. f«p. 0$menu dimgahAa, MugtHus /eli» "[ ■ 

• tDesoriptioDH of two new s.iecies of Cypriuoid '. By 'Wm. O. Ayrea^ M. D. 
Dec. II, 1854. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 18-19, 1H54 ; 2d ed., pp. 17-18, 
1873. 

[S. sp. Cato»tmnu« oeci^entalis, (JtUa ffrandis.] 

^ Descriptions of two new Cyprinoid fish. By Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Dec. 18, 
1854. < Proc. Cal. Acad. 8ci., v. 1, pp. 20-21, 1854 ; 2d ed., pp. 19-*:0, 1873, 
[K. sp. Lavinia ffibbo»a, L. compregsa. ] 

''Description of a new Cyprino d fish. By Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Dec. 25, 
la'M. < Proc. Cal. Acad, Sci., v. 1, pp. 21-22, 1854 ; 2d ed., pp. 20-21, 1873. 
[S. pp. Giia fnierolepidota.] 

A list of the Fishes collected in California, by Mr. £. Saranels, with descri)*- 
tions of the new species. By Charles Oirard, M. D. [1854.] < Boston 
Jouro. Nat. Hist., v. 6, pp. 533-544, pi. 24-26, 1857. 

i 855— Synopsis of the Ichthyological Fauna of the Pacific Slope of North America, 
cbiefly from the collections made by the U. S. Exp. Exped. under the com- 
mand of Capt. C. Wilkes, with recent addit.-ons and comparis.ns with east- 
ern types. By Louis Agassiz. <^ Am. Jonm. Sci. and. Arts, v, 19, pp. 71-99, 
Jan., 1855 ; v. 19, pp. 2l5-2;n, March, 1855. 

fN. g. aud n. sp. Catostomtui ocddentaUt (94), Aeroeheihu (d. g., 96) alutaeetu (99), Ptyeh^ 
cheUus (o. g., S97), PtycJiooheiluM graeUia (S29), Ptythocheihu mmj^r (S29), MylatheiUu (xk g. 
itS0){aerraZM231).] 



23 

f 9^^— *Oa two flpeo^ee of Lipark. By Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Jan. 8, 1855. < Proo 
Oal. Acad. 8ci., t. 1, pp. 23-24, Feb. 1, 1855; 8d ed., pp. 21-23, 1873. 
(K. ^». Xr. pmUkettMt^ L. nmeomu.l 

t Description of a now geuns (Leptogiin» lias) aod two new species of iishes. 
By Wm. O. Ayraa, M. D. Jan. 22, 1855. < Pioc. CaL Acad. Sci.^ v. 1, pp. 
25-27, 1855; 2d ed.,pp. 24-25, 1873. 

f l>fS8criptioD of a Lamprey, from the vicinity of Ban Francisco. By "Wm. O. 
AjTM^ M. D. Feb. 5, 1855. <Proc. CaL Acad. Soi., v. 1, p. *.:8, Feb. 19, 
1855; 2d ed., p. 27, 1873. 

* Remarks on the festal Zyg»na (Hammer-headed Shark). By Jeffries Wy- 
man. Feb. 21, 1855. "^Proc Boston Soc Nat. Hist., v. 5, p. 157, March, 
1855. 

\ D^riptioa of a new generic type among fishes. By T77m. O. Ayrea, M. 
D. Fehc 2e, 1855. < Proc. CaL Acad. ScL, v. 1, pp. 31-32, 1855; 2d e<L, pp. 
30-31, 1873. 
(N. sp. Amtkrrhiektky oetliMUu.\ 

rDeseriptioa of a new species of Catastomas. By 'Wtbl O. Ayre% M. D. 
Maroh 5, 1855. < Proc. CaL Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 32-33, 1855; 2d ed., pp. 31- 
32, 1873. 
(N. «p. Ostofto mu » lakiatmi. \ 

'Description of a new ichthyic type. By ^Vm. O. Ayves, M. D. March 12, 
1855. < Proc. CaL Acad, fici., v. 1, pp. 33-35, 1855 ; 2(1 ed., pp. 32-34, 1873. 
(N. %. tkmi. u. ap. Myitfikarmdon (n. g > rdkmgbu.\ 

* Descriptioa of a new Trout. By "W. P. Oibbooa. March 19, 1855. < Proc. 
CaL Acad. Sci., v. t, pp. 36-37, 1855; 2d ed.. pp. 35-36, 1^3. 

(N.«p.telm«irtfiea.J 

*0u specimens of Gasteroatt^us plebeinH, Oir., brought from San Jos^ by the 
Rev. Mr. Doaglas. By 'Wm. O. Ayre^ M. D. April 2, 1^^. < Proc. CaL 
Aca<L Sci., v. 1, p. 40, 1855; 2d ed., p. 39, 187:L 

t Description of a new Platesna, and remarks on the Flatfish of the San Fran- 
cisco marlMts. By Wm. O. Ayrea, &L D. April 2, 1855. < Proc CaL 
Acad. ScL, v. I, pp. 39-40, 1855; 2d ed., pp. 39-40, 1873. 
(N. sp. Plate9aaMLuieata.\ 

t Description of a new Salmo and a new Petromyzon. By ^Vm. O. Ayrea. 
April 16, 18.'»5. <] Proc CaL Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 43-45, 1855; 2d ed., pp. 
42-44, 1873. 
(X. 8p. JMiHi0 rivtUarit^ Petromgnn <iliatu8.l 

Notice upon the Viviparous Fishes inhabiting the Pacific coast of North Amer- 
ica, with an euunieratiou of the epecies observed. By Charles Girard. 
April 24, 1855. < Proc. Aca<L Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 7, pp. 318-32:^ 1-55. 

(N. f^. and n. up. :— :i. Bmbiotoea WeMi (:)20). 5 Embwtoeaornata (321 ), G. Emhiotoeapertpiea- 
ktHu (3il), 7. D^mmliektMy$ (u. g.) racnc (331). 9. Abmna{ix. g ) Trowbridgii (3-J2), 11. Ennich- 
tkfi <&. g., 3:22). EnnUslUhyi megaUtpg (323), 12. EnniehtAys Heermarmi (323).] 

ITntsM^ated into G^raan by Dr. Truachel as follows:— J 
Ueber die h^bendi^ gebiirenden Fisclio an der Westkiiste von Nordainerika. 
Von Charles Girard. (Procee<ling8 of the Aca^rlemy of nat. 8c. of Phila- 
delphia April 1855.) Uebersetzt voin llerauHgeber [Prof. Dr. Troschel]. 
<'Aiebav iiir Natuigeachichte, 21. Juhrg , B. 1, pp. 342-354 [numb. 344], 



24 

1855— t Description of a Gasterostens believed to be new, and on the American ape- 

cies of the gonna. By TTVm. O. Ayres. April 30, 1855. •^Proc. Cal. Acad. 

Sci., V. 1, pp. 47-4rt, 1855; 2d ed., pp. 46-47, 1873. 

f N. tp. Ckuteroiteut terratut ; name Oatterouteut tMoayi proposed for Qmtt§ntUu» hiaeu- 
letUru DeKay.] 

t Description of "a new species of Apodichtbys. By "William O. AyrM^ M. D. 
May 21, iaT5. < Proo. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 55-5C, 1855 ; 2d ed., pp. 54- 
55, 1873. 

[N. ap. Apodichthyt vire$ceru.\ 

t Description of a new generic tyi>e of Blennoids. By 17711110111 0. Ayrea, M. D 
June 4, 1855. < Proc. Cul. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 5&-59, 1855 ; 2d ed., pp. 58-59, 
1873. 

[N. sp. Cebtdichtbyt crigtagalU.] 

t Description of a new Carangoid fish. By William O. Ayres, M. D. Jaly 
2, 1855. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 62-63, 1865; 2d ed., p. 64, 1873. 
[N. tp. Ckiranx symmetrieut.] 

t Description of a new species of Whiting. By William O. Ayras, M. D. 
July 16, 1855. <Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, p. 64, 1855; 2d ed., pp. 65-66, 
1873. 

[N. ftp. Jferlangtu produehu.] 

* Description of a finh, representing a type entirely now to our waters. By 
"Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Aug. 6, 1855. < Proc. Cal. Acad. ScL, v. 1, pp. 66-67, 
1855; 2ded., p. 61), 1873. 

[N. sp. Saunu lueUycept.] 

* Description of a uew species of Crauip fish. By William O. A3rrei^ M. D. 

Sept. 10, 1855. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1 , pp. 70-7 1, 1855 ; 2d ed., pp. 74-75, 
1873. 

[N. ap. Ibrpedo oal\fomiea.] 

tOn a viviparous fisb from Japan. By lK>uis Agassiz^ Sept. 11, 1855. 
<^Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sei., v. 3, p. 204, 1855. 

^'A Flying Fish, Exoccoius fawiatm Le Sueur, from the Pacific Ocean, lat. 30^ 
06' N.,long. 1130 02'W. [Gulfof Califoruial, preseuted by Dr. Lanszweert." 
Sept. 24, 1855. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 71-73, 1855. 

t Description of a Shark of new generic type. By Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. 

Oct. 8, 1855. <Proc. -Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 72-73, 1855; 2d ed., pp. 
76-77, 1873. 

[N. ap. NotorhynehiMs maculatua.'i ^ 

* Remarks concerning a collection of fishes made by Lieut. W. P. Trowbridge 

at or near Cape Flattei-y, W. T. By 'Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Oct. 22, 1855, 
< Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, p. 74, 1855; 2d ed., p. 79, 1873. 

[10 apeciee enomerated.) 

t On a supposed new genus of Cottoids. By ^Vm. O. Ayres, M. D. Dec. 24, 
1855. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 1, pp. 75-77, 1855 ; 2d ed., pp. 81-82, 1873. 
fN. ap. OalyeHepidotuM tpinontM^ ScorpcmUhthya UiUrdli§ GTd.=CQlyeiUpiiotutlatmrtitia», 



25 

IIM-Contribations to the Ichthyology of the Western Coast of the United States, 
from specimeDB in the Musenm of Smithsonian Institution. By Charles 
GlFurd, M. D. Jane 24, 1856. < Proc. Acad. Kat. Sci. Pbila., v. 8, pp. 
131-i;{7, ISSTk 

[N. g. and ii.sp. Petraldbrax (d. g., 131), Homalopomus (d. g.) Trovsbridgii (133), Gtigo- 
coUmi (n. g., 133) maeukmu (133), Leioeottut (d. g.) hirundo (1^3), ArUd^us (m. g., 134), ilrfr. 
Mut nUotfihtut (134), Sebtute* mela7U>ps (13A), Oplopoma (n. c.) panrherina (135), Ga«fr- 
fMfMtfiiiteniMduM (133), Gatterotteut pugetti (135), GoMttf Ntuberryi (136), i^'mbiotcca ar^^y. 
roMma (136), Gtrrv^onitf Vr<2Iui»iMon< (13G), Platichthys umbronts (13()), Pleurcnichthyt guttu- 
'lotet (137), ilmnMNlyCM^MVOiuKitf (137), ShinopUra vegpertilo (137).] 

Eesearches upon the Cyprinoids inhabiting tho fresh wat«r Fisbi'S of the United 
States of America, west of the Mississippi Valley, from Hpt>citnens in the 
Moseani of the Smithsonian Instil nt ion. By Charles Girard, M. D. Sept. 
30, 1856. < Pit)c. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 8, pp. 165- .;13, 1^56. 

[S. g. sad n. sp. MyloeKeilut fratereulut (1G9), Catoitomus (Acomtw, n. 8. g.) gencrotms 
(1741, OatoHomuM macroekeiluM (175), Catobtomu* bemardini (175). Algannea (o. g), Algaw 
MS bieolor (183), Algansea obeua (183), Algmuea /otmatta (183), Lavinia hareugtu (lr4), 
Aiyyreta nudtfiw (186), Argyreua oneuZta (1(56), Argi/reu* notabUu (186), ^l/^ia (d. g), Agoxia 
dktyitogtuter (187), ilj|K>«ia m«tal2iea (187), ifeda (u. g.) fulgida (19*2), liichardsoniuti (u. g.) 
faitercrfM (202), Tiaroga (d. g.) eoM^ (*J04), Tigoma (n. g). 7>>oma 6ico2or (-JOG), Tigoinapur- 
puTM (-206), THfoma »iitorm«dta (306). lYyoma o6e«a (306), 2Yy(mia Iluniboldti C»OG), Tigoma 
Umtaia (306), l^^oina graeilit (206), Tigoina nigre*cens (307), IV<70}/<a croMra (307), Chconda 
(ii.g.), CnUomia Oooptfri (307), Oheonda ecerulea (307), £i6oma (a. g.) atraria (308), Vtyehockei- 
UiM rapax (209), P(yeAocA«iIu« luciitf (209), Ptyehoeheilus vorax (309).] 

Kotic^ npon the Species of the Genus Salmo of authors, observed chiefly in 
Oregon and California. By Charles Girard, M. D. Oct. iiS, 1856. < Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 8, pp. 217-220, 1856. 

« 

[S. sp. Salmo Mpeetabilit (31<^), Fario aurora (318), Fario argyreuM (31h), Fario ktcUaUt^ 
(SIV), Saiar LewiH (319), Skitor i;i. gina,%a (230).l 

33d Congress, | 2d Session. | House of Representatives. | Ex. Doc. | No. 97. | = | 
Narrative | of | the Ez(.edition of an American Squadi-on | to | the China 
Seas and Japan, | performed in the years 1852, 1853 and 1854, | under the 
command of | Commodore M.C. Perry, United States Navy, | by | order of the 
Government of the United States. | — j Volume II. With illustrations. | — 
I Washington: | A. O. P. Nicholson, printer. | 1856. [4"^, 4 p. 1., 414 pp.; 
[Treaty,] 2 p. 1., 14 pp.; [Index,] iii-xi pp., 1 1.] 

Notes on some figures of Jupauese Fish, taken from recent specimens by 
tho artists of the U. 8. Japan Expedition. By Jcimes Carson Bre- 
voort. (pp. 253-256, pi. iii-xii.) 

(CoDtalna notice of Ditrema aod first notico of the recognition of tho affinity between 
the Embiotoooids of CuhforLia and tho Japanese genns.] 

33d ConRTrtiS, 2d Session. J Senate, j Ex. Doc. No. 78. | = ] Reports | of | Explo- 
rations and Surveys, I to I ascertain the most practicable inid economical route 
forarailroad | from the | Mississippi River to the Pacilic Ocean | made under 
the direction of the Secretary of War, | in 185!M, | according to actsof Con- 
gress of March.*?, 1853, May :U,1H54, and August 5, 1S54. | — | Volume V. | — | 
Washington: | Beverley Tucker, Printer. | 1850. 
Explorations and Surveys for a railroad route from the Mississippi Rivor 
to the Pacific Ocean. | War Department. | = \ Routcsin California, tocon- 
nect with the routes near the thirty-filth and thirty-second | parallels, 
explored by Lieut. R. S. Williamson, Corps Topographical Engineers, in 
1853. I — I Geological report, | by | William P. Blake, | Geologist and 
Mineralogist of the Expedition. | [With appendix.] | — | Washington, 
D. C. I 1857. = 

^wpMBndix. — ^Article L Notice of tho fossil fishes.— By Professor Louis 
^ivp. SlMie, and 1 plate (<' Fossils plate 1") ) 



26 

I85e— 3^ Congress, | fid Session, j Senate. [ £s. Doc. | No. 78. =^ Reports | of | Ezplo- 
rationsandSarveys, | to | ascertain the most practicable and econoniicalroute 
for a railroad | from the | Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean | made ander 
the direction of the Secretary of War, in | 1853-4, | according to acts of Con- 
gress of March 3, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. | — | Volume 
IV. j — I Washington : | Beverley Tucker, Printer. | 1856. 
Explorations and surveys for a railroad route from the Mississippi Biver 
to the Pacific Ocean. | War Department. | = | Route near the thirty-fifth 
parallel, explored by Lieut. A. W. Wbipple, To} ographical | Engineers, 
in 1853 and 1854. | — | Report on the zoology of the expedition. | — | 
Washington, D. C. | 1856. =L17 pp., 1 l.J 
No. 1. — Field notes and explanations.— By C. B. R. Kennerly, M. D., 
Physician and Naturalist to the Expedition. — pp. 5-17. 

1857— The Northwest Coast ; or, Three Years' Residence in Washington Territory. 
By James G. Swan. [Figure of terr. seal.] With numerous illustrations. 
New York: Harper & Brotbers, Publishers, Fiaukliu Siiuare. 1857. [12^, 

435 pp. (incl. 26 tigs, and pi.), frontispiece, 1 map.] 

[Popular notioes of fluhes — especially s^mon and fluhing for salmon— «re given in chap- 
ters 3, 7, 9, and 14.] 

* Account of some observations on tbe development of Auableps Grooovfl, as 
compared with tbat of tbe Embiotocas of California. By Jeffries VTyman. 
Nov. 18, 1857. < Proo. Boston S. c. Nat. Hist., v. 6, p. 294, Jan. 1858. 

Notice upon now Genera and new Species of Marine and Fresh-water Fishes 
fh)m Western North America. By Charles Girard, M. D. Nov. 24, 1857. 
<Proc. Acad. Nat. Soi. Phila., v. 9, pp. 200-202, Nov. 1857. 

[N. g. OLd n. sp. ChiropHt (n. g., 201), OUgoeoUua analis (*^1), (XigoeoUtu gMrie^ipt (901). 
Zaniolepit (o. r.) latipinnis (iOi), BUp»ia* oculofancuUus (*.X)2).] 

33dCongn86, | 2d Session. | Senate. | Ex. Doc. | No. 78. | = | Reports | of | Ex- 
. plorations and Surveys, | to | ascertain tbe most practicable and economical 
route for a railroad | from ihe | Mississippi River to tbe Pacific Ocean. | 
Made under tbe direction of the Secretary of War, in | 1H54-5, | according to 
Acts of Congress of March 3, 18.33, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. | — | 
Volume VI. | — | Washington : | Beverley Tucker, Printer. | 1857. 
Exploiations au<l Surveys for a Railroad Route from tbo Mississippi River 
to tbe Paciiic Ocean. | War Department. | = | Routes in Californiti and 
Oregon explored by Lieut. R. S. Williaiosoo, Corps of Topo^>raphical | 
Eugioeerc*, and Lieut. Henry L. Abbo*, Corps of Topographical Engin- 
eern, in 1855. | — | Zoological Report. — | Washington, D. C. | 1857. | = 
No. 1. Report upon Fishes collected on the Survey. — By Charles 
Girard, M. D.— pp. 9-34, witb plates xxii a, xxii 6, xxv a, xxv 5, xi 
a, xlvi, Ixii, Ixvi, Ixviii, Ixx, Ixxiv. 

Report on the fauna and medical topograpby of Washington Territory. By 
Geo. Suckley, M. D. May, 1857. < Trans. Am. Med. Assoc., v. 10, pp. 181- 
217, 1857. 

[FiHhes noliooi at pp. 903-203. ] 

1858 — Description of several new species of Salmouidas from tbe north-west coast 
of America. By George Suckley, M. D. Read December 6, 1858. <^ Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, v. 7, pp. 1-10, 1862. 

[X. sp. Salmo Oibbsii (1), ScUmo truneatu* (3), Salmo gibber (G), Salmo eot^luenttu (8), 
Saltno eanis (9).] 

Ichthyological Notices, by Chas. Girard, M. D. Dec. 28, 1858. < Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philtt., vol. 10, pp. 223-225, Dec. 1858. 

[$ 1-4, D. ap. " Fario Xewberrii, or else Salmo Newberrii ' (3*2ri).] 



27 

MS-^DeokwilrdigkeltoD eioer Reiso nacb dem rnssiscbcn Amcrika, imcli Mikro- 
DQsien and durcb Kamtscbatko. You F. H. v. Kittlitz. — Erstcr DudcI 
[ — Z welter Baud]. — Gotba. Verlag von Justus PertLes. 1858. [^°, vol.i, 
XYi, 383 pp., 2 pi. ; vol. ii, 2 p. 1., 463 pp., 2 pi.] 

84t-^8d CoDgrefls, | 2d Session. | Senate. | Ex. Doo. | No. 78. | = | Reports | of j Ex- 
ploralioiui and Surveys, | to | ascertain tbo most practicable and ecoT^omical 
route for a railroad | from tbe | Mississippi River to tbo PaciAc Ocean. | 
Made under tbe dirt^tion of tbe Secretary of War, in | 18C3-6, | according to 
Acta of Congress of Marcb 3, lai:!, May 31, 1H54, and August 5,1854. | — | 
Volaiue X. I — | Washington : [ Beverley Tucker, Printer. | 18C9. 
Explorations and Surveys for a railroad route from tbo Mississippi River 
to the PaciGc Ocean. | War Department. | = | Fisbes: by Charles Gi- 
raid, M. D. i — I Washington, D. C. | 1858.* = [xiv, 400 pp., with plaies 
vii-viii, xiii-xiv, xvii, xviii, xxii c, xxv, xxix, xxx, xxxiv, xxxvii, 
xl, xli, xlviii, liii, lix, ixi, Isiv, Ixv, Ixxi.] 

[S. g. mad n. sp. (HipceoUut glohicepn (56), Nautichthytt (d. g., 74), Amblodon saturnnn (9^), 
Pdamp* Unedata (lOfi), Traehurtu boopt (108). Epkipprm zonatus (110). XcoelinuM (:i '/., 1 14). 
iVdoeimitf Blanchardi (114), Xiphidion (n. g.. 119), Xiphidion mucosum (110), Ophidian Tay- 
• leri (1%), Paraliehthfn (d. g., 14G), Tigoma egrejia (-^l). Thakichthys (ta f^., 3r>), ThcUichthys 

Strmutt (3*^), /; graulin naM«« (335), Enffrauli» con prenstu (33G), Tctraodon politu* (340). 
Hippoeampu* inffetu (34*^), Syngnathus Abboti (31G), Syntpiathus arundinaeetts (34G), Raja 
Oooperi (37*2), Petroinyzon lindu* (37U), re:iomyzon aatori (3f0), Ammocattcj eibariits (38.1). t 

Aa this repurt brings np our kuowlcdge of tbo AhL fauna of tbo Pacific coast alope of 
tbo Uuitcd States to tbo time of it8 p iblicat.on, and lua ks a . epocb in tbo icb: hvogrnpby 
of tbe region in qufsiioc, tbo Rpocieii dcacribcd aro btrelLbelow ennmt rated. Of tlm 
MTeral columnp, (1) tbs first contains tbo family name, (2) tbe •• cond tbo generic, (3) the 
tbir4 tbe specific, and (4) tbo rigbt band one, ibo page wbero tbe npecies are described :— 

Order I.— ACANTHOPTERI. 



Percldn 



Trachinide 
SpbyrenidsD 



Cottidi 



Ambloplites 


intermptns 


10 


Paralabrax 


nebniifer 


33 




clatbratns 


34 


neteroflticbns 


roetratns 


30 


Spbynena 


ar;;entea 


39 


Cbiropsis 


COII8t('llntU8 


42 




pictus 


43 




guttatut) 


44 




nebnlosuB 


45 


OplopoTna 


pantborinr. 


40 


Opbiodon 


elnngatuH 


48 


Cottopsis 


a«per 


51 




gulosus 


W 




parvus 


i'4 


Olfgocottns 


niacolosuH 


5(> 




aualis 


57 




;;lobiocp9 


cm 


Leptocottas 


arniatos 


00 


Leioonttus 


birundo 


62 


Scorpficnichthys 


marrooTatns 


G4 


Aspicottos 


biKou 


CO 


Hemiiepidotas 


spinosuH 


fi8 


Anedias 


latoi-ala 


■lO 



. i*|^ lUport apon tbe Zoology of the several Pacific IUiIn>ad Roates. Part IV. 
^^ffrtMB (j30), "from twenty miles west of Chcctaw agency", i^ tbe only otber now >'pcci(-8 



Order I.-ACANTBOPTBRI-CoDtinaed. 
Dotoapilotm 




29 



Order IH.— PHARYNOOGNATHI. 

Saborder I.— MAUicoFTBUTon. 
SoomberMocids Belone exilis 

Saborder IT.— ACAXTUOPTtRTon. 



158 



Pomaoontridft 


Glypbisodoa 


mbicanduB 


161 


LabidA 


Labrue 


palcber 


169 




Jali» 


modoMtas 


16^ 


XublotocoldA 


Embiotoca 


' Jaoksoni 


IC«> 






CaAsidii 


171 






Webbi 


1T3 






lineata 


174 






omata 


176 






ponpicabilis 


178 







argyrofloma 


180 




Damalicbtbys 


vacca 


189 




Pbftnerodon 


fDroatos 


184 




Abeona 


Trowbridgii 


186 




Bhaoochilus 


toxotea 


188 


1 


Hyeteiooarpas 


Trasldi 


190 




Holoonotas 


rbodotema 


193 




Ennicthys 


megalopa 


197 






Heermnnui 


199 




Amphisticbne 


arsenteaa 


901 






aimilia 


903 



Order IV.— PHYSOSTOMI or MALACOPTBRL 
Saborder II.— Abdominalks. 
uTpriuide Tribt (^ Cyprini. 





lateral ia 


S14 




fratercnlas 


215 


MylopbarodoD 


coDocephaloa 


216 


• 


robaatns 


216 


Tribe of Cato«(omt. 




Acomua 


generosoa 


221 


Catostomoa 


occideDtalia 


224 




lablutua 


224 




maorocheilaH 


2-J5 


3W6« of Ohoudrostomi, 




Ortbodon 


microlopidotua 


237 


AlgaDsea 


bloolor 


238 




obesa 


239 




forrooaa 


239 


Lavinia 


exilicanda 


241 




barengna 


242 


Tribe qf Pogoniehthi, 




Argyreaa 


dalcia 


243 




nnbilaa 


244 


Pogonichtbys 


inffiqnilobaa 


245 




ayniTDetricaa 


946 




argyreioaoa 


246 




eommania 


247 



Ordtr 17.— PBTSOSTOUI or UAI^COFTXRI-CaDtiniwd. 



tBd.banili 




31 



Order VII.-GAXOIDEI. 

BtiiTkHiJdA Acipenaer brachyrhjnchns 355 

transmoDtiiaaa 356 

acntlitwtris 355 

medirostris 356 

Order VHI.— HOLOCBPHALT. 
Chimsrida CbimaDra Co!1iei MO 

Order IX.— PLAGIOSTOMI. 
Suborder I.— Hquali. 



Seylliodootidn 


Triakie 




■emlfasoiatiM 


3«3 


Hoetelids 


Mufttelaa 




felis 


364 


C«etreeiootid« 


Cestnicloa 




fraDcisci 


385 


NotidABiflie 


Heptanchas 




macalatua 


367 


BpinMida 


Acantbins 




Sacklil 


368 




Saborder II.- 


-Rajjb. 




Rbinobotidn 


Rbioobatias 




prodnctns 


370 


Torpedioidn 


Narcioe 




califomioa 


371 


Raiidn 


RiOo 




oooperi 


379 




Uniptera 




biooculata 


373 


MyliobeUds 


Rbinoptera 




vcspertillo 


375 




Order X— DERMOPTERL 




Saborder If absipobbancbii 


«. CTCLOeTOKI. 




Pe(roinysontid» 


Petromyzon 




tridentatas 

ciliatna 

lividas 


377 
378 
3:0 






• 


plarabeaa 
aatori 


380 




AmmoccDtes 




cibarina 


3t» 



Explorations and Snrveys for a Railroad roate from the MiMissippi River 
to the Pacific Ocean. | War Deparrment. | ^^ | Rome near the 38. h and 
39th parallels, explored by Captain J. W. GunniHon, and near the 4l6t | 
parallel, explored by Lieutenant E. G. B ckwiLh. | — | Zoological Re- 
porr.» I — I Washington, D.C. | 1857. | = | ' The re|)ort to which the pres- 
ent article belongs will bo found in Vol. II of ibe series. 
No. 4. Report on Fishes collected on the Survey. — By Charles 
Girard,M. D. — (pp. 21-27, with pi. xxiii, xlix, liv, Ivi, Ixxiii, Ixxv.) 
Explorations and surveys for a railroad route from the MiHsissippi River 
to th« Pacific Ocean. | War Department. | = | Route near the thirty- 
fifth parallel, explored by Lieutenant A. W. Whipple, Topographical | 
Engineers, in 1653 and 1854. | — | Zoological HciK)rt. | — | Washington, 
D. C. I 1859. I = , 

No. 5. Report upon Fishes collected on the Survey. — By C. Girard, 
M. D.—pp. (47-C9, with pi. iii-vi, ix, x, xxi, xxiv, xxv, xxxv, 
xlfr, lii, Ivii, Iviii.) 

Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River 
to the Pacific Ocean. | War Department. | = | Routes in California, to 
connect with the routes near the thirty-fifth and thirty-second | parallels, 
explored by Lieut. R. R. Williamson, Corps of Top. Eng., in 1853. | — | 
Zoological Report. | — | Washington, D. C. | 1S59. = 

No. 4. Report on Fishes collected on the Survey.— By Charles Girard, 
]LD.--<pp. 83-91, with pi. ii, xii, xxii, xxvii, xxviii, Txxi, xxxvi^ 
iM «*«w xivii.) 



32 

1859— Od some unusaal modes of geetation in BatrachiaDs and Fishes. By Jeffiles 
Toyman. < Am. Jonrn. Sci. and Arts, (2), v. 27, pp. 5-13, Jan., IB.VJ; re- 
printed <CaD. Nat., V. f), pp. 42-49, 1860; Zoologist, v. IW, pp. 7173-7179, 

18tt0. 

lohthyological Notices. By Charles Girard, M. D. < Proc. Acad. Nat. ScL 
Phila., 1859. 

$ 5-27, Feb. 23, 1859. ▼. 10, pp. 56-58, 1850. 
§ '^8-40, March 29, 1859, ▼. 10, pp. 100-104, 1859. 
§ 41-59, April 'ie, 1-59, V. 10, pp. 113-122, 1659. 
i tiO-77, May 31, 1859, v. 10, pp. 157-161, 1859. 

[K. sp. Xeodinua satiricui (§ 5, p. 56), Myrichthyt tigrinut ($ 6, p. 58).] 

t On new fishes of the Californian coast. By VTm O. Ayrea, M. D. Oct. 
17, 1859. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, pp. 25-^2, 1859. 

[N. sp. Sebattetnigroeinctut, Sebattei helvomaculatut, Sebastet dongattu, Anophpoma (D.g.)' 
merlangiu, SVtreoUpis (n. g ) gigaa, SquAUna ecU^fomiea, Hippoglottut Mli/ortiieia, Muraena 
mcrdaXt OrthagorvieuH analis, Jxdia •emicinctu».\ 

Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. By Albert Giinther, .... 
Volume first. London: priuted by order of the trustees. 18o9. [August] 

At first only entitled: — Catalogue of the Acaiithopterygian Fibhes in the 
collection of the British Museum. By Dr. Albert Giinther. Volume first. 
GasterosteidfiB, Berycidss, Percidss, AphredodoridsB, Pristipomutida), Mullidffi, 
Sparidtis. London : printed by order of the Trustees. 18ri9. [Genui-al title 
4- xxxix, 524 pp.— 10«.] 

1 860 — Salmon Fishery on the Sarraruento River. By C. A Kirkpatrlck. <^ Hatch- 
iugs's California Magazine, v. 4, pp. 529-534, June, 1860. 

t Notes on Finhes previously described in the Proceedings, with figures of seven. 
By "Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. July 2, 1860. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, pp. 
52-59, 1860. 

[X. g. HalioM for Brotmiiu marffinatus.] 

Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Gobioiden. Von Franz Steindachner. (Mit 1 
Tafel.) <[Sitzungsb. niathem.-naturw. Classe [K. Akad. Wisseusch.] vom 
.12. Juli 1860, xlii. Band, No. 23, Sltzung vom 18. October 1860, pp. 283-292. 

* Description of new fishes. By Wm. O. Ayrea, M. D. Aug. 6, 18C0. <Proc. 
Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, pp. 60-64, 1860. 

[N. ip. Triehodon lineatut, Otmenia thaleichthys^ with fignres.] 

Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. By Albert Giinther, .... 
Volume second. London : printed by order of the trustees. 1860. [Sept.] 
At first only entitled : — Catalogue of the Acanthopterygian Fishes iu the 
collection of the British Museum. By Dr. Albert Giinther, .... Volume 
second. Squamipiunes, Cirrhitidse, TriglidsB, Trachinidse, ScijenidaD, Polyne- 
midffi, SphyrienidsQ, Trichiuridee, Scombridie, Carangidse, Xiphiidse. Lon- 
don : printed by order of the Trustees. 1860. [General title -(- xxi, 548 pp. 

— &». GcLI 

[Nov. loc. Xaucratea duetor (374), Eeheneit remoia (378), Eeheneis nauerates (384). N. sp. 
CoUut criniger (5S3), Atpidophoroidea inermit (524).] 

Reports of Explorations and Surveys to ascertain the most practicable and 
economical route for a Railroad from t|ie Mississippi River to the Pacific 
Ocean, made under the direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853-6, &c. 
Vol. X. Washington, 1859. Fishes ; by Ch^iies Girard, M. D. Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1858. [Review, by Theodore QUL] < Am. Jonrn. Sci. and 
Arts, 2d series, Yol. 30, pp. 277-281, Sept. 1860. 



33 

1M#— 96th Coogreas, 1st Sessioo. ] Sooate. i Ex. Doc. | = | Reports | of | Explorations 

and Sarveys | to | oscertaia the most practicable and ecooomical route for a 
railroad | from | the | Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Made under 
the direcrion of tht% Secretary of War, in 1853>5, accordinf; to act of Congress 
of M!irch 3, 1853, May 31, 1854, and August 5, 1854. | —Volume XII. | Book 
IL I Washington: | Thomas H. Ford, Printer. 1860. 
Explorations and Surveys for a Riilroad route from the Mississippi River 
to the Pacific Ocean. | War Department. | = | Route near the forty- 
seventh and forty-n nth parallels, explored by 1. 1. Stevens, | Governor 
of Washington Territory, in 185:J-'55. [pp. 9-353, 70 pi.] Zoiilogicsl 
report.— Washington, D. C, 1800. [viii, (1), 399 pp., 47 pi.] 
No. 5. — Rc*port upon the fishes collected on the survey. — By Dr. G. 
Snpkley, U. 8. A. (pp. 307-368, with pi. i, xl, xv, xvi, xix, xx, xxxii, 
xxxiii, xlii, xliii, xliv, 1, li, Iv, Ix, Ixiii, Ixvii, Ixix, Ixxii, Ixxv, viz : 
Chapter I. R6X>ort upon the Salmon id®, pp. 307-349.) 
Chapter II. Report upon the Fishes ex^nsivo of tho Salroonidn. 
pp. ;{50-368. 
(N. sp. Salmo Matoni (343).] 

[This volame slao appeared wi h the following title«page and modifications:—] 

The Natural History of Washington Territory, with much relating to Minne- 
sota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oregon and California, between the thirty-sixth and 
forty-ninth parallels of Latitude, being those parts of the final Reports on 
the Survey of the Northern Pacific Railroad Route, containing the Climate 
and Physical G^graphy, with full Catalogues and Descriptions of the Plants 
and Animals collected from 1853 to 1857. By J. G. Cooper, M. D., and Dr. 
O. Suckley, U. S. A., Naturalists to the Expedition. This edition contains a 
new preface, giving a sketch of the explorations, a classified table of con- 
tents, and the latest additions by tho authors. With fifty-five new plates 
of scenery, botany, and zoology, and an isothermal chart of the route. — New 
York: Bai I li^ro Brothers, 440 Broadway, [etc.] 1859. [4°. xvii,26-|-7'2^^ 
viii, 399 pp. ( -|-l-4 pp. betw. 368 and 369), 61 pi., 1 map.] 

tDe^riptions of tho Califoniian Atherini(1;B, with figures of the species. By 
'WuL O. Ayres, M. D. Oct. 1, 1860. < Pioc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, pp. 73- 
77. I860. 

[Ni. sp. Atherinop»iM ajflnii, Atherinoptii Unuit, with flgores.] 

t Descriptions of two new Scia^noids, with fij^nres. By Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. 
Nov. 5, 1H60. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, pp. 77-81, 1860. 

f N. g. and sp. Johnixu nobilis, Scriphus (n. g.) politug.] 

t Description of new Californian fishes, with figures. By Wm. O. Ayrea, M. 
D. Dec. 3, 1860. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, pp. 82-86, April, 1862. 
[N. g. and sp. Camarina (n. g.) nigricant, Poronotut titniUimuM.] 

IMl — Observa:ion8 on tho genus Cottus, and description of two new species 
(abridged from tho forthcoming report of Capt. J. H. Sinipsou), by Theo- 
dore OilL March 20, 1861. < Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., v. 8, pp. 40-42. 
April, lH(il. 

[N. g. aad d. sp. Potamoeothu (n. g. 40), rotamoeiUuM punetulatut.] 

Description of a now species of the genus Tigoma of Girard (abridged from 
tho forthcoming report of Capt. J. H. Simpson), by Theodore Gill. March 
20, 18G1. < Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., v. 8, p. 42, April, 1861. 
f N. sp. Tigoma 9qxiamat(i,\ 

BolL N. M. No. 11- — 3 



34 

tSGl—Notes on tbe described species of Holconoti, found on the western coast of 
North America. By Alexander Agassiz. March 20, 1H61. <[Proc. Bos- 
ton Soc. Nat. His t, v. 8, pp. 122-134, 1801. 

[The namber of specios is reduced to 15, which are grouped under 9 genera. X. g. 
Tceniotoea > Embiotoca lateraUs; n. sp. Hyperprotopcn ana{{«,— neither described.] 

t Commnnication on several new generic types of fishes, i. e., PodotheoaS| 
Hoplopagras, and Stophanolepis. By Theodore Gill. April 16, 1861. 
< Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 13J, pp. 77-78, 1861. 
(N. g. and sp. Podotheciu (n. g.).] 

Revision of the genera of North American Sciaeninse. By Theodore Oill 

April 30, 1861. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 13], pp. 79-89, 1861. 

[N. g. Bhinotoion (85) for AmUodon tcUumtu Grd., 6eniyimmnu9 (87) for Leiottomui KfM- 
atut Ayres.] 

On the Liostominc. By Theodore GilL April 30, 1861. <[Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., [v. 13 J, pp. 89-93, 1861. 
[Remarks on Leiattomut lineatut (93).] 

Salmonidffi of Frazer River, British Columbia. By C. Brew. <[ Edinburgh 
New Philos. Jonm., v. 13, p. 164, 1861. ' 

On the HaploidonotinsB. By Theodore Gill. May 28, 1861. < Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., [v. 13], pp. 100-105, 1861. 

[Remarks on Afnblodon titumus (105).] 

Notices of Certain New Species of North American Salmonidae, chiefly in the 
Collection of tbe N. W. Boundary Commission, in charge of Archibald 
Campbell, Esq., Commissioner of I he United States, by Dr. C. B. R. Kennerly, 
Naturalist to the Commission. By George Suckley, M. D., late Assistant 
Surgeon, U. S. Army. Read before the Now York Lyceum of Natural Historjs 
Jnne, 1861. < Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, v. 7, pp. 306-313, 1862. 

[N. g. and sp. Salmo Kennerlyi (307), Salmo brevicauda (303). Salmo Warreni (308). Salmo 
Bairdii (309), Salmo Parkei (30D), Oncorhynehttt (n. p., 312), Snlro Campbeili (313).] 

Notes on some genera of fishes of the western coast of North America. By 
Theodore Gill. July 30, 1861. <Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 13], pp. 
164-168, 1861. 

[N. g. Atraetoperca (164), ArchopUtet (\^) , Parephipptu (IGo), Uypsypcpt (165), Sebastode* 
(165), Aeantholebiitg (166), Pleurofframmut (166), Grammatopleunu (166), MegaVcottus (166). 
Olinocottus (166), Blennicottut (166), Anoplagonut (167), Broitnophyeis (168), Hyptagimua. 
(167), *P:^ragonu» (167).] 

On new types of Aulostomatoids, found in Washington Territory. By Theo- 
dore GilL July 30, 1861. < Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 13], pp. 168-170, 
1861. 
[N. g. and sp. Autorkynehut (n. g., 160) JUividu* (169).] 

On the genus Podothecus. By Theodore Gill. Sept. 24, 1861. < Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 13], pp. 258-261, Sept. 1861. 

Description of a new generic type of Blennoids. By Theodore Gill. Sept. 
24, 1861. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 13], pp. 261-263, Sept 1861. 
[N. g. ondsp. AnopHarehw (n. g., 361) pwrpuruoena (963).] 



35 

IMl— Cfttalogae of the Fishes in the British Maseum. By Albert Guntbei 
Volume third. London: printed by order of the trustees. 1861. [Oct.] 

At first only entitled:— Catalogue of the Acanthopterygian Fishes in the 
Collection of the British Museum. By Dr. Albert Giinther. Volume 
third. Oohiidffij Discoboli, Oxudercidse, Batrachidce, Pediculati, Blenniida*, 
AcanthocIinidiB, Comophorida), Trachy pterid£e/Lophotid£e,Tenthidida), Acro- 
Durids, Hoplognathidffi, Malacuuthidie, Naudido), Polycentrida;, Labyrin- 
thiei, Laciocephalidffiy AtherinidsB, Mugilid^e, Ophiocephalido^, Trichonntid:e, 
CeptdidfiD, Gobiesocidse, Psych rolutidie, CbutriscicUe, Fistulariido;, Masta- 
oembelidsDy Notacaothi. London : printed by order of the Trustees. 181)1. 
[Pablishod in Oct. 8P, General title -f- xxv, 586 + x* pp.— 10«. Cd.] 

IS. g. and n. B^ Oytlopteru* orbit (158), Ltparit eyelopus (1G3), Centronotus criata-gmlli 
(KO) = Anoplairdnu cri»ta-gdUi (564), PtychroluUt (n. g.) paradoxus (516).] 

* Description of a new ichthyic form from the coast of Lower California. By 
Wm. O. Ayrea, M. D. Dec 1, 1861. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 
156-158, 186:2. 
[N. sp. Oifnotdon parvipinnit.] 

Analytical synopsis of the order Sqnali and revision of the nomenclature of 
the genera. By Theodore Gill. Dec. 16, 1861. <^Ann. Lye. Nat Hist., 
N. Y., V. 7, pp. 368«-370*-|-;J71-408, 1862. 

Sqnalornm generum novorum descriptiones diagnosticie. Theodore Gill, anc- 
tore. Dec. 16, 1861. < Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., v. 8, pp. 4(XM13, 1862. 

MS^Description of a new species of Hemilepidotus, and remarks on the group 
(Temnistia) of which it is a member. By Theodore Gill. Jan. 28, 1862* 

< Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 13-14. 1862. 
[N. sp. JTemUepidotui OibMi (13).] 

Co the subfamily of ArgentiniosB. By Theodore Gill. Jan. 28, 1862. 

< Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 14-15, 18(»2. 
[N. g. Meioptu (14) or Hypomenu (15).] 

Note on the Scismofds of California. By Theodore GUI. Jan. 28, 1862. 

< Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 16-18, 1862. 
[5 speoiet enamerated.] 

t Notice of fresh water Fishes taken in the Bay of San Francisco. By Wm. 
0. Ayres, M. D. Feb. 3, 1862. <Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 2, p. IfJ:;, 
Sept. 1862. 
[8 sp. Bpecifled.] 

On the limits and arrangement of the family of Scombroids. By Theodore 
OilL March 25, 1862. <Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 124-127, 
1862. 

Description of new species of Alepidosauroit's. By Theodore Gill. March 
25, 1862. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 127-132, 1862. 
[S. sp. Alepidotaurut {Catdoptu) borealU (128), Alepidosaurui (CatUoptu) serra (129).] 

Catalogue of the fishes of Lower California in the Smithsonian Institution, 
collected by Mr. J. Xantus. By Theodore Gill. Part I. March 25, 1862. 
<Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 140-151, 1862. 

Oft m new genus of fishes alBed to Aulorhynchus, and on the affinities of the 
V AalofbyoehoidflB ^ II belongs. By Theodore Gill. April 29, 

Ni k, [▼. 14], pp. 233-261, 1862. 



36 

I§69— Catslogne of the Fishes of Lower California, in the Smithsonian Institatioii, 
collected by Mr. J. Xantns. By Theodore GiU. Part II. April 29, 1862. 
<Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 242-246, 1862. 

Catalogue of the Fishes of Lower California, in the Smithsonian Institution, 
collected by Mr. J. Xantns. By Theodore GUL Part IIL May 27, 1862. 
<Proc. Acad. Nat.* Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 249-262, 1862. 

Notice of a collection of the Fishes of California presented to the Smithsonian 
Institution by' Mr. Samael Hubbard. By Theodore QUI. June 24, 1862. 
< Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 274-282, 1862. 

[N. g. andsp. HjfpoeriHehtkyt (n. g., 375) anaUs (375), *BrachyiiHut (n. g., 375) //matiu (375), 
Hyperpro9oponAgas9izU (876), Oiylebiut (n. g., 377) piehu (378). Apodiehtfutt tanguineut (379), 
•ApodUcktkyt inornatu§ (379), Parophrys HubbardU (381), AIomm <Ml(A»miaa (381), ItoploQ' 
iodon sp. (888).] 

Synopsis of the species of Lophobranchiate Fishes of Western North America. 

By Theodore Gill. June 24, 1862. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [▼. 14], 

pp. 282-284, 1862. 

[N.g.Mid 9p. DemuUwtethut (n. g^2e3) pwieUpinnia (883), Syngnaihut dimidioHu (883 
884).! 

Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. By Albert GUnther, .... 
Volume fourth. London : printed by order of the trustees. 1862. 

Also entitled :— Catalogue of the Acanthopterygii pharyngognathi and 
Anacanthini in the collection of the British Mnseum. . . . London : printed 
by order of the Trustees. 1862. [8°. General title 4- xxi, 534 pp.— 8». 6d.] 

[X. sp. Ditnma brev^'pinne (348). Pteuroneetei PrarUdinii (443), Pleurtmeetei digrammut 
(415), Parophryt Ayretii (456).] 

Notes on the family of Scombroids. By Theodore Gill. July 29, 1862. <[ Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 328-329, l»62. 

Note on some genera of Fishes of Western North America. By Theodore GilL 
July 29, 1862. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], pp. 329-332, 1862. 

[N. g. and sp. Eucydogobiua (n. g., 330), Caularehus (n. g., 330), Eumierotremu* (n. g , 330) 
Hyptifario (d. g., 330), Lepidoptetta (n. g., 330), Hyptoptetta (u. g., 330), OrtKopMtta (n. g., 
330), Umpsetta {jl g., 330), Hydrdagut (n. g., 331), Qyroplewrodut (n.g.,331), Holorhinut 
(D. g., 331), Entotpheniu (n. g., 331). 43 genera are Btated to have been added to the Call- 
fomian faana, either as entirely new or in substiintion for others erroneoaaly identified, 
•laoe the pablioation of G irard*a work. ] 

On the classification of the families and genera of the Squali of California. 
By Theodore GilL Oct. 28, 1862. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 14], 
pp. 48:V-501, 1862. 

IN. g. and ap. ShinottUeU (n. g., 486) Hmlei (466).] 

i Statement in regard to Sebastes rosacens and S. ruber. By VTm. O. Ayrea, 
M. D. Not. 3, 1862. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, p. 207, January, 1863. 

* Description of Fishes believed to be new. By "Wm. O. Ayres. M. D. 
Nov. 3, 1862. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 2, pp. 209-211, January, 1863. 

[N. sp. Seboitodet Jlavidus, Seboitodet ovalit.] 

* Remarks in relation to the fishes of California which are included in Cuvier's 

genus Sebastes. By Wm. O. Ayreoi M. D. Nov. 3, 1862. < Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sol., Y. 8, pp. 211-218, January, 1863. 



37 

INi— NoitoM of oerUtin new species of North American Salmooidis, chiefly in the 
ooilection of the N. W. Boundary Cotnmissloo. By Gkeorge Saokley, M. D. 
See 1861, June. 

iifS— The Beeonrces of Cftlifomia, comprising Agricultare, Mining, Geography, Cli- 
nkate. Commerce, etc., etc and the past and fa tare development of the State. 
By John 8. HitteL — San Francisco : A. Roman & Company. New York : 
W. J. Middleton. 1863. [12^, xvi, 464 pp.] 

(aootogy, oksp. vi (pp. 140-146) ; fishing (pp. 313-317).] 

List of the Fishes sent by the Museum [of Comparative Zoology] to different 
InstitotioDS, io exchange for other specimens, with Annotations. By F. VT. 
Pntnam. < BalL Mas. Comp. Zool., No. 1, = v. 1, pp. 2-16, March 1, 1863. 

* Remarks in relation to the genus Notorhynchas. By Wm. O. Ayreo, M. D. 
March 2, 1863. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 3, p. 15, April, 1863. 

Citalogoe of the Fishes of Lower California, in the Smithsonian Institution, 
collected by Mr. J. Xantus. By Theodore Gill. Part IV. March 31, 1863. 

< Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 15], pp. 80-68, 1863. 

Descriptions of some new spocies.of Pediculati, and on the classification of 
the group. By Theodore OiU. March 31, 1863. <Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., [v. 15], pp. 88-d2, 1863. 

Od an unnamed generic type allied to Sebastes [Sebastoplus, Gill]. By 
Theodore Gill. August 25, 1863. <Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila., [v. 15], 
pp. Sda7-909. 1863. 
[Contsins refereaes to Ajtm'* views on thu CsUforniMi Sebtutoidt.] 

'Remarks on ichthyic types new to the California Coast. By Wm. O. Ayrea, 
M. D. Sept. 7, 1863. < Pruc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 3, p. 66, ^ov. 1863. 
[N. sp. (imdMeribed) Seomberttox n. sp., Atopio* n. sp.] 

Synopsis of the Pomacentroids of the Western Coast of North and Central 
America. By Theodore GilL Sept 29, 1863. <Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. 
Phila., [v. 15], pp. 213-221, 1803. 

Notes on the Labroids of the Western Coast of North America. By Theodore 
OilL Sept 29, 1863. <Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Pbila., [v. 15], pp. 221-224. 
1863. 

Synopsis of the North American Gadoid Fishes. By Theodore GilL Sept. 29, 
1863. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v, 15], pp. 229-242, 1863. 

Descriptions of the genera of Gadoid and Brotuloid Fishes of Western Nurth 
America. By Theodore Gill. Sept 29, 1863. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philu. 
[v. 15], pp. 242-254, 1863. 

Synopsis of the family of the Lycodoidie. By Theodore Gill. Sept. 29, 1863. 

< Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila., [v. 15], pp. 254-262, 1863. 

Descriptions of the Gobioid genera of the Western Cosst of Temperate North 
America. By Theodore Gill. Sept. 29, 186.3. <Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., [V, 15], pp. 262-267, 186.3. 
[N. g. snd sp. CofypkopieruM (d. g., 903) (fiauco/ranum (363).] 

On New Genera and Species of California Fishes. — No. I. By J. G. Cooper, 

M. D. Nov. 3, 1863. < Proc Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., v. 3, pp. 70-77, Nov. 1863. 

t^ tad a. qp. Dekaya (n. g.) aasi slg, Aifruia (n. g. ) punetipinnU, Oreyntu paeifi^ua. \ 



38 

1868 — Notes on the Sebastoid Fishes oocarring in the Coast of California. By Wm. 
O. Ayres, M. D., C. M. D. S. Nov. 10, 1H63. < Proc. Zool. Soo. London — , 
pp. 390-402, 1863. 

On New Genera and Species of California Fishes. — ^No. II. By J. G. Cooper, M. 
D. Nov. 16, 1863. < Proc. Cal.Acad. Nat. Sci., v. 3, pp. 93-lW, Dec. 1863. 
[N*. ap. Exoccstut cal\f(>rnieuSt Urohphiu HaUerL] ' 

Description of the genus Htereolepis Ayres. By Theodore GiU. Nov. 24, 
1863. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 15], pp. 329-330, 1863. 

• 

Description of the genus Osyjulis Qill. By Thoodore OilL Nov. 24, 1863. 
< Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 15], pp. 330-331, 1863. 

1864 -Catalogue of the Fishes ^n the British Museum. By Albert Giinther, . . . 
Volume fifth. London : printed by order of the trustees. 1864. 

Also entitled :->Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families 
Siluridffi, CharacinidiB, llaplochitonidss, Steruoptyohidsd, Scopelide, Sto- 
miatidas, in the collection of the British Museum. . . . London : published 
by order of the Trustees. 1864. [8^. (IncludiDg general title) xxii, 455 pp. ] 

Beschreibung des Heterodontus Phillipii Bl. (Cestracion Phillipii Cuv.) mit 
Riicksicht auf seine fossilen Verwandten. Yon Johaimes Striiver (Got- 
tingen). Dresden, 1864. [4^. 32 pp, 2 pi.] <Verhaudl. K. Leopold-Carol. 
Akad. der Naturf., v. 31. 

On new Genera and Species of Californian Fishes. — No. III. By J. G. Cooper, 
M. D. Jan. 4, 1864. <Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., v. 3, pp. 108-114, 1864. 

[N. g. and sp. Myxodu (or Gibhontia^ n. g.) eilegwM^ CHlUchthyt (D.g.) mirabiUg, PUroplO' 
fM marmorata.] 

Description of a new Labroid genus allied to Trochocopns, Gthr. By Theo- 
dore Gill. Mar. 29, 1H64. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 16], pp. 57-59, 
1864. 

[N. g. Pim^om§topon (58), Sebcuiomu* (AO), Sebcutotomui (5&).] 

Note on the nomenclature of Genera and Species of the family Echeneidoidie. 
By Theodose Oill. Mar. 29, 1864. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 16], 
pp. 59-61, 1864. 

Critical remarks on the genera Sebastes and Sebastodes of Ayres. By Theo- 
dore OilL May 31, 1864. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 16], pp. 145-147 
1864. 

[N. sp. Sebattotomut pinniger (147), Sebcutotomtu timulatu (147).] 

Second contribution to the Selacbology of California. By Theodore GilL 
May 31, 1864. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 16], pp. 147-151, 1864. 
[N*. sp. Mu»ielu» eal\fornicu» (148), Natorhynehut boreaH* (150). J 

t Several points in Ichthyology and Co nchology, viz: Percopsis Hammoudii, 
n.sp., Paralepidoids and Alepidosanroids, Gymnotoids, and Campeloma vice 
Melantho. By Theodore Gill. June 7, 1864. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., [v. 16], pp. 151-152, 1864. 

tAyresia punctipinnis named Chromis punctipinnis fide Gill. By J. O. 
Cooper, M. D. July 18, 1864. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 3, p. 160, 1864. 



39 

ISM—Noteon the Paralepidoids Aod MicrostoDiatoids, and on some peoaliarit!<» of 
Arotio Ichthyology. By Theodore GilL Sept. 27, 1864. <^ Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sd. Phila., [▼. 16], pp. 187-189, 1864. 

Synopsis of the Cyclopteroids of Eiistorn North America. By Theodore Gill. 
Sept. 27, 1864. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 16], pp. 189-194, 1864. 

Synopsis of the Plenronectoids of Californian and NortV western America. By 
Theodore OilL Sept 27, 1864. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [▼. 16], pp. 
194-198, 1864. 

Bescriptioo of a new generic type of Plenronectoids in the Collection of tho 
Geological Sorvey of California. By Theodore GilL Sept. 6, 1864. <Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phihv., [v. 16], pp. .198-199, 1864. 
[N. g, sod ap. UetoponapM (o. r., 198) Cooperi (199).] 

Note on the family of Stichseoids. By Theodore GilL Sept. 7, 18C4. 

< Proc.- Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 16], pp. 208-211, 1864. 

Ili4— Note on the family of Myliobatoids, and on a New species of iBtobatis. By 
Theodore Gill. April 3, 1865. <^ Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, v. 8, pp. 
135-138, May, 1865. 
[N. sp. 2iyUobatit ealifomUu* (137). ^tobaUs laUceps (137).l 

Oo the Genns Canlolatilns. By Theodore GilL April 25, 1865. < Proc. Acad. 
Nat Sci. Phila., [v. 17 J, pp.6J-68, 1865. 

On the Cranial Characteristics of Gadas [Microgadus] proximns, Grd. By 
Theodore Gill. April 25, 1855. < Proc. Acsul. Nat Sci. Phila,, [v. 17], p. 
69,1865. 
[N. ff. MierogaduB.] 

Note on several Genera of Cyprinoids. By Theodore Gill. April 25, 1865. 

< Proc. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila., [v. 17], pp. 69-70, 1805. 

Some remarks on Labrus pulcher ( Ayres). By Albert GUather, M.A., M. D.,. 
Ph. D. May 30, 1865. < Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., [v. 17 J, p. 77, 1H65. 

On a new Generic type of Sharks. By Theodore GilL Sept. 26, 1865. < Proc. 
Acad. Nat Sci. Phila., [v. 17 J, p. 177, 18o5. 
(N. g. nod sp. Micristoduf (a. g., 177) punetattu (177).] 

Histoire natnrelle des Poissons on Ichthyologie g<5n^ra1e par Aug. Dum^ril 
Professeur-administrateur au Museum d'Histoire Natnrellode Paris.— Ou- 
vragi) accompagn6 de planches. — Tome premier [.] ^lasmobrannhes [i. c] 
Plagiostomes et HoIoc<^phales on Chimdres. — Premiere partie [-Secondo 
partie]. . . . Paris. Librairie EncycIop<Silique de Roret, .... 1865, 
[Text, 2 p. 1., pp. 1-352; seconde partie, 2 p. 1., pp. 353-720.] [8°; atlas 
larger 8^, pi. 1-14, pp. 1-8.] 

Vanconver Island and British Colombia. Their History, Resonrcos, and Pros- 
pects. Hy Matthew Macfie, F. R. G. S., five years resident in Victoria, T. 
L London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1805. [8°, xk 
pp. (iuclndiog blank leaf and frontispiece), 1 1., 574 pp., 2 maps.] 
Chapter Y. General Resonrcesof Yanconver's Liland. pp. 131-171. 
VlibeiiflB. pp. 163-171. 



40 

IMII— Catalogae of the Fishee in the British Museum. By Albert aiinther, .... 
Yolame sixth. Loodoo : printed by order of the trustees. 1866. 

Also entitled: — Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Sal- 
monidse, Percopsidse, Galaxidse, Mormyridse, Gymnarchidss, Esocidie, Urn- 
bridflBy ScombresocidsD, Cyprinodontida, in the collection of the British 
Museum. . . . London : printed by order of the Trustees. 1866. [8^ xv, 
368 pp.] 

(K. tp. Sdlmo lordU (148).] 

The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British Columbia. By John Keast 
Lord, F. Z. S., Naturalist to the British North American Boundary Com- 
mission. [Vignettes.] In two volumes. Vol. I [—II]. London: Richard 
Bentley, New Burlington Street, publisher in ordinary to Her Mujesty. 1866. 
[2 vols., 12°. Vol. i, xiv (incl. frontisp.), 2, 368 pp., 8 pi.; voL ii, vii (incl. 
frontisp.), 2, 375 pp., 5 pi.] 

Volume i. 

Chapter n. — ^Victoria— The Salmon : its haunts and haliits. pp. 36-61. 

Chapter III.— Fish Harvesting, pp. 62-96. 

Chapter IV.— The Round-fish, Herrings, and Viviparous Fish. pp. 97-120 

Chapter V.— Sticklebacks and their Nests— The Bullhead— The Rock- 
.ood— The Chirus— Flatfish, pp. 121-141. 

Chapter VI. — Halibut Fishing— Dogfiiih— A trip to Fort Rupert— Ransom- 
ing a Slave — A promenade with a Red skin — Bagging a Chiers head — 
Queen Charlotte's Islanders at Naniamo. pp. 142-174. 

Chapter VII.— Sturgeon-spearing — Man-sucker — Clams, pp. 175-198. 

Volume ii. 
Appendix. 

Li^t of Fishes collected in the Salt and Fresh Waters of Vancouver 

Island and British Columbia, pp. 351-356. 

[In the list are ennmorated apeoles which almost certaioly were Dot "collected " in the 
waters in question.] 

Hr. W. PeteiB machte eine Mlttheiluug iiber Fische {Protopierus^ Aulidoops, 
LdbraXf LahraoogloBBa^ NefM.tooeniriB, Serranus, Scorpia, Opisthoffnathus, Scom- 
hreaoXf Aoharnes, Anguilla, Gymnomurcena, ChilorMnuSf Ophichthys^ Helmick- 
ihys), <^ Monatsberichte der Kooigl. Akademie der Wissenscbafben zu 
Berlin, 1866, pp. 509-526, 1 pi. 

[N. g. %nd sp. AulxKopt (d. g., 510) tpinetoeni (510), Scon.bn90x hrevirattrii (521).] 

1867 — On the identity of the genus Alepisaurus Lowe with Plagyoc^us Steller. B^" 
Dr. Albert GKinther. < Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), v. 19, pp. 185-187. 

On the nourishment of the foetus in the Embiotocoid Fishes. By James 
Blake, M. D., F. R. C. S. Jan. 21, 1867. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., v. 3, 
pp. 314-317, Sept. 1867. 

On the organs of Copulation in the Male of the Embiotocoid Fishes. By 
James Blake, M. D., F. R. C. S. Nov. 4, lb67. < Proc Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
T. 3, pp. 371-4J72, May, 1868. 

1868 — Some Recent Additions to the Fauna of California. By J. G. Cooper, M. D. 
Jan. 13, 186a <Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 4, pp. 3-13, Nov. 1868. 

[The namber of flsbea is stated (p. 3) to be 196 in 1868, against 133 known in 1862.] 

Nourishment of the Foetus in Embiotocoid Fishes. By James Blake, M. D., 
Loud., F. R. C. S. < Joum. Anat. and Physiol., v. 2, pp. 280-282. 



41 



Ml-On the anal fin appendage of Embiotocoid Fishes. By Jamea Blake, M. D. , F. 
R. C. 8., Piofeesor of Obstetrics in Tolard Medical CoUege, St. Francisco, 
California. < Jonrn. Anat. and Physiol., v. 3, pp. 30-32, pi. 2, figs. 1 and 2, 

Nov.iaea 

The Vatnral Wealth of California. Comprising early history ; geography, 
topofi^phy, and (oenery; climate; agricnltnre and commercial prodnots ; 
geology, aoology, and botany ; mineralogy, mines, and mining processes ; 
maaofiictnTes ; steamship lines, railroads, and commerce; immigration, 
population and society ; edncational institations and literature ; together 
witii a detailed description of each county ; its topography, scenery, cities 
md towns, agriealtnral advantages, mineral resoarces, and varied prodiic- 
tiona. By Titoa Fey Croniae. San Francisco : H. H. Bancroft &> Com- 
pany. 1966, [8°, xvi, 696 pp.] 
Chapter VII. Zoology, pp. 434-501. 

Fishes. [By J. a. Cooper. M. D.] pp. 487-498. 
Chapter XIII. Miscellaneous Subjects, pp. 668-684. 
Fisheries, p. 680. 

(The Uiit of fUhtu wm eTidently prepared by Dr. J. 6. Cooper, althoagh only gec^ral 
oeknowledgiDeDt for MsieUooe w%e rendered in the prefaoe. It wm acknowledged by 
Dr. Cooper, ae anthor, in the commnnioation to the California Academy of Scienoee, indi- 
cated above. Inaamuch aa thia was intended to be aoomplete ennmeration of the flsbet of 
Gillibmla, the names are reproduced here.] 

BONY FISHES. 



Pwoid» 


Stereolepia 


gigaa 


487 


1 






Paralabrax 


nebolifer 


487 


3 






▲traotopcrca 


olathrata 


487 


3* 






ArchoplitM 


intermptas 


487 


3* 




T^Vy<#|ff^ 


CanlolatUns 


aoomalna 


487 


4 




Swl^nfalm 


Rhinoeolon 


aatarnns 


488 


5 






Leioatonras 


lineatOB 


488 


6 






UmbriBa 


nndolata 


488 


7 






▲imotoeolon 


DobUe 


488 


8 






Serlphns 


politos 


488 







Cbatodonida 


Parephippna 


sonatas 


488 


10 






Girella 


nigricans 


488 


11 




Pomaoentrids 


Glyphidodon 


mbicandos 


488 


IS 






Chromls 


panotipinnis 


488 


13 




BmbiotoooidiD 


HjsttTOoarpas 


Traskil 


489 


14 






Smbiotoca 


Jaoksoni 


489 


15 








argyroeoma 


489 


16 






Tflsniotoaik 


lateralia 


489 


17 






Hypeoma 


Caryl 


489 


18 






Dmnalichthys 


vaoca 


489 


19 






Phanerodon 


fiiroata^ 


489 


90 






Cymatogaster 


aggregatas 


489 


31 






Bhaohooheiloa 


toxotes 


489 


33 






▲mphistiohos 


argeniens 


489 


33 


« 




Holoonotos 


ihodotems 


489 


24 








pulcbellas 


489 


25 






Hyperproeopon 


argentenm 


489 


36 








aronatnm 


489 


37 








panctatara 


489 


38 






Hypocritichthys 


analis 


489 


89 






Bpiohyiatias 


frenatns 


489 


3D 






Abeona 


minima 


489 


31 




labrids 


Trochooopos 


poloher 


489 


33 






OzyJaliM 


modustas 


489 


33 




OHyphMddA 


Poroootns 


simillimns 


489 


34 






Scomber 


diego 


469 


35 





Bepeated. 





42 




B0H7 FISHES— CanUnuid. 


Piduij. 




UOMUtB 






piellloa. 


HaUtnctai 




ikrvlU 


■timehan. 










boop. 








Boltma 




am 






■iltratH 


CUzntoDU 








43 



«^ 



BONY FlSHSS-ConUnaed. 





Encyclogobios 


Dowberrii 


492 


99 




GilHohthys 


mirabllis 


493 


100 


Q|oiopteri<UD 


Canlarohas 


retioalatua 


493 


101 




Liparis 


palobellus 


493 


109 






mncosus 


493 


103 


PlsaroBeoUdiD 


Hippogloasos 


californioas 


493 


104 






vaJgaria 


493 


105 




PUticbthys 


stellatoa 


493 


106 




Paropbys 


yetalaa 


493 


107 




Parophrys t 


AyroaU 


493 


108 




Plateasaf 


bilineata 


493 


100 




Paralichthys 


macoloaoa 


493 


110 




Plearonicbtby* 


coenosus 


493 


111 






Habbardli 


493 


113 




HypaopMtU 


gottaUta 


493 


113 




Paetticbtbys 


melaoostiotut 


493 


114 






aordldua 


493 


115 




MetopoDopa 


oooperi 


493 


116 


OftdidA 


Merlucias 


prodactaa 


493 


117 


, 


Brosmopbycis 


marginatoa 


493 


118 




Gadus 


proximas 


493 


119 




Ammodytes 


peraonaiua 


493 


120 


OpbidUd» 


Ophidion 


Taylori 


493 


131 


8«linoDid«» 


Salmo 


quinnat 


494 


133 






Scoaleii 


494 


133 






Masoni 


494 


134 






•tollaftia 


494 


135 






iridea 


494 


136 




Coregoona 


WilliamaonU 


491 


137 




nypomesoa 


pratlofios 


494 


138 




Osmcms 


thalficbthys 


494 


139 


S«opelid» 


Synodos 


lucioceps 


495 


130 


Olopeids 


Alaaaa 


califomica 


495 


131 




Clapea 


mirabills 


495 


133 




Meletta 


csDmlea 


495 


133 




EograulU 


mnrdax 


495 


134 






delicaliMliuus 


495 


135 






compreasan 


495 


136 






nanus 


495 


137 


OyprinodsntidoD 


Cyprioodou 


californionHiA 


495 


138 




Fandalan 


parvipionis 


495 


139 






? 


495 


140 


^aranidn 


Maraeoa 


roordax 


493 


141 




Ophi'lianis 


califoruiennis 


495 


14-3 


Cyprinldjo 


Catostomns 


occidentalifl 


495 


143 






Ubiatus 


495 


144 




Aa)mu8 


generosua? 


495 


145 




Mylophnrodon 


rubustiis 


496 


146 






conocepbiluH 


496 


147 




Mylocbeilus 


fratercaliis 


49€ 


148 




Ptycbocheilns 


grandis 


496 


149 






luciu'9 


496 


150 






rapax 


496 


151 




Gila 


robust a 


496 


153 






elegans 


496 


153 




Laxilua 


occidontalis 


496 


154 




Tigoma 


conformis 


496 


155 






croa^a 


496 


156 




Siboma 


crasaicanda 


496 


157 




Orthwlou 


microlepidotua 


496 


158 




Algangea 


formoaa 


496 


159 


• 


Larinia 


cxilicaada 


496 


160 






barengaa 


496 


161 



UABTILAOINOUS FlSaSS.* 

OrUuioidioiu uuUa 

OaMropbyna polltna 

Hlppoommpni lujIMU 

Hjfi£iintiliiii oftllftmitoaala 

EtImoUdhUii* 
laptOTbjDcba* 



pODDllplnoll 

bncliyrbynohn* ' 

•ODtinMbi* 

m'adiraatrli 

ColUal 




45 

1ST#— Maokerel-catohing. [By John C. Cremony.] < Overland Monthly, y. 4, 
pp. 161-168, Feb. 1870. 

The Fftoifio Coast Cod-ftsfaery. [By Capt. C. M. Boammon.] < Overland 
Monthly, ▼. 4, pp. 436-440, May, 1870. 

Catalogue of Fithee in the British Mnsenm. By Albert GHinther, . . . 
Volome eighth. London : printed by order of the trnstees. 1870. 

Also entitled:— Catalogne of the Physostomi, containing the tamilies Gym- 
DOtids, 8yinbraQchid», Mnnenidfo, Pegasidss, and of the [orders] Lopho- 
branchii, Plectognathi, [aud subclasses] Dipnoi, Ganoidei, Chondropterygii, 
Cyclostomata, Leptooardii, in the British Mnseam. . . . London : printed 
by order of the Trnstees. 1)^0. iffi, xxv, 549 pp.] 

(Sp. new to ooMt:— Ootetf canii (379). K. g. lehth^omynn (506).] 

Ober einige Plenronectideo, Salmoniden, Gadoiden nnd Blenniiden ans der 
Decastris-Bay and voa Viti-Levn. Von Franz Steindachner nnd weil. 
Pro! Dr. Rudolph Kner. < Sitzb. K. Alcad. Wissensch., B. 61, Abth. i, 
pp. 421-447, pi. 1, 1870. 

(7 ipeoiet ideotifled m oommon to DecMtri* Bay and the AmerlcMi ooost.] 

Histoire natnrelle dee Poissoos on lohthyologie g^n^rale par Aug. Dumteil [,] 
Membre de riostitnt [,] professenr-admioistratenr an Mns^iim d'Histoire Na- 
tnrelle de Paris. — Oovrage accompagn^ de planches. — ^Tome second [.] Ga- 

noldee, Dipo^, Lophobranches 1870. — ^Paris [,] Librairie Enoy- 

elopMiqne de Roret, .... 1870. [4 Jnin. — ^Text, 8^, 2 p. L, 624 pp. ; Atlas, 
Uiger fi^, pi. 15-26, pp. 9-12, with half title.] 

18V1— The Food Fishee of Alaska. By 'William Healy Dall. < Bep. Comm. Agric, 
1870, pp. 37&-392, 1871. 

[14 species specified : no new species described-] 

^ Remarks on the mode of attack of the Thrasher Shark. By George David- 
Joly 11, 1870. <^ Free. Cal. Acad. Set., v. 4, p. 127, April, 1871 



1 liT9— Notice of an apparently new marine auimal from the Northera Pacific. By 
P. L. Solater, M. A., Ph. D., F. R. 8., Secretary of the Zoological Society of 
LoodoQ. <^ Rep. 42d meeting Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sc, Aug. 1872, Tr. Sec, pp. 
140-141. 

Notice of a supposed new marine animal from Washington Territory, north- 
west America. [By P. L. Sclater.] < Nature, v. i, p. 43r), Sept. 26, 1872. 

IThe suppoeed new animal was reprcMntcd by "several specimens which at first sight 
app**ared to resemble long thin peeled white willow-wand more than anything else." Mr. 
Sclater. in the first instance, " was inclined to regard them as possibly bones of one of the 
fifantio rays," and afterwards <when he had been told what they wcr» t) "as the hardened 
Botochord of a low organised fish." They were, in truth, the axial skeletons of Pennatnlld 
loophytes! !! 

Cber eioe neo9 Gattung von Fischen ans der Familie der Cataphracti Cuv., 
Scombrocottus salmonens, von der Vancou vers-Insel. Von "W. C. H. Peters. 
< Monatsb. K. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, pp. 568-570, 1872. 

(K. g. and sp. SeombraoUtut (n. g., 56^) taltn<meut (569).] 

Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of the State of California for the 
years 1S70 and 1871. Sacramento: T. A. Springer, State printer. 1872. 
[8^, col. title, 24 pp.1 



46 

18Y9 — Arrangement of the families of Fishes, or classes Pisces, Mar8ix>obraDchii, and 
Leptocardii. Prepared for the Smithsonian Institntion. By Theodore 
Gill, M. D., Ph. D. Washington : pablished by the Smithsonian Institn- 
tion. November, 1872. (Smithsonian MiscellaneoasColleotionB. 247.) [8^, 
xlvi, 49 pp.] 

42d Congress, 2d session. | Senate. | Ex. Doc. No. 34. | Messago | from the | 
President of the United States, | commnnioating, | in complianee with a 
resolution of the 19th of January, 18G9, information | in relation to the 
resonrces and extent of the fishing-grounds of the North | Pacific Ooeao, 
opened to the United States by the treaty of Alaska. [Washington : Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. 1872. — 8°, H5 pp.] 

On p. 2 entitled " The Fisheries and Fishermen of the North Pacific.** By 
Richard D. Cutte. 

Preliminary lieport of the United States Geological Sarvey of Wyoming, and 
portions of contiguous Territories, (being a second [really fourth] annual 
report of progress,) conducted under authority of the Secretary of the In- 
terior, by F. v. Ilayden, United States Geologist. — Washington: Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 1872. [8°, 511 pp.] 
Part IV. Special Reports. 
Yll. On the Fishes of the Tertiary Shales of Green River, Wyoming 

Territory. By Prof. B. D. Cope. pp. 425-431. 
VIII. Recent Reptiles and Fishes. Report on the Reptiles and Fishes, 
obtained by the Naturalists of the Expedition. By E. D. Cope, A. K. 
pp. 432-442. 

Prelimiuary Report of the United States Geological Survey of MontAna, and 
port'ious of adjacent Territories; being a fifth annual report of progresv. 
By F. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. — Conducted under anihority of 
the Secn*tary of the Interior. — ^Washington : Government Printing Office. 
1872. [8'J, i-vi, 3-538 pp. (with C4 fig.), 2 pi., 5 maps folded.] 
Part IV. Zoology and Botany. 

VI. Report on the Recent Reptiles and Fishes of the Survey, collected 
by Campbell Carrington and C. M. Dawes. By B. D. Cope, A. M. 
pp. 467-47(5. 

1§73— A contribution to the Ichthyology of Alaska. By E. D. Cope. Jan. 17, 1873. 

< Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. Phila., v. 13, pp. 24-32, 1873. [Extras, Maroh 11, 

1873.] 

[17 Hi>eciei) ^nnmerated : n. sp. Salmo tuds$, SprcUeUoides bryoponu, Xiphidium eruortum, 
O&ntronottuketus, (jhirtubalku, OMrtuor<UruUiu,Ohirtutrigrammiu,AmmodiftstdUucanus, 
OiMduM periseopiu, Oadui auratus, Bathymaster signattu, FUuronectei areu€Uxut.\ 

Note on the Scombrocotttis salmoneus of Peters, and its identity with Anoplo- 
poma fimbria. By Theodore Gill, M. D. March 17, 1873. < Proc. Cal. 
Acad. Sci., v. 5. pp. 56-57,1873 (April); reprinted. <Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., (4), V. 12, pp 74-75, Sept. 1873, 

* The first shad (Alausa prsestabilis DeEay) caught in the waters of Califor- 
nia. By S. R. Throckmorton. May 5, 1873. <^ Proc. Cal. Acad. Soi., v. 5, 
p. 85, May, 1873. 

* On the introduction of exotic Food Fishes into the wliters of California. By 
S. R. Throckmorton. May 5, 1873. ^ Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 5, pp. 86- 
88, May, lh73. 

Unite<l States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. — Part I. — Report on the 
condition of the sea-fisheries of the south coast of New England in 1871 and 
1872. By Spencer F. Baird, Commissioner. — With supplementary papers. — 
Washington : Government Printing Office. 1873. [8^, xlvii, 852 pp., 40 pi., 
with 38 1. explaivatory (to pi. 1-38), 1 folded map.] 



47 

Notes on Liparis and Cyclopteras. By F. W. Putnam. Aagast, 1873. < Pro- 
eeedlngs of the American Association for the Advanccraent of Science, vol. 
23, B, pp. 335-340, Jane, 1874. 

87t~Annaal Record of Science and Industry' for 1872. Edited by Spencer F. 
Baird, with the assistance of eminent men of science. — New York: Har- 
per & Brothers, Publishers, Fpnklin Square. 1873. [12^.] 
I. Piscicnlture and the Fisheries. 

Fish Culture in California, pp. 407, 408. 

Report of California Fish Commissioners, p. 408, 409. 

Stocking California waters with Trout, p. 409. 

Transporting Black Bass to Califoruia, p. 409. 

Transferring Shad to the Sacramento River, p. 430. 

Stocking California with Shad, p. 430. 

Oil-works on Unalaschka, p. 436. 

Spawning of Cod-fish in Alaska, p, 4;^. '' 

Cod-fishing in the Shumagin Islands, p. 436. 

Salmon Fisheries in the Columbia River, p. 440. 

Capture of Sacramento Salmon with the Hook, p. 441. 

Fisheries of the Shumagin Islands, p. 444. 

Peculiarities of Reproduction of Califoruia Salmon, pp. 445, 446. 

Alleged Discovery of Young Shad in the Sacramento River, p. 447. 

Ksport on the Prybilov Group or Seal, Islands of Alaska. By Henry W. 
BUiott, Assistant Ageut Treasury Department. Washington: Goveruraent 
Printing Office. 1873. [4to, 16^ folios, nor. paged, with text parallel with 
1>ack, and extending from bottom to top, 50 phot, pi.] 

Chapter VIII. Fish and Fisheries. 

See. also. 1875. 

7l~*Xote on Subterianean Fishes in California. By A. W. Chase. <Ani., 
Jonm. Sc. and Arts (3), v. 7, p. 74, Jan., 1^74 ; Forest and Stream, v. 2, 
p. 70, March 12, 1874. 

*0o the edible qualities of the Sacramento Salmon. By Livingston Stone. 
^Forest and Stream, v. 1, p. :i31, Jan. 1, 1874. 

l^reparing Salmon on the Columbia River. By Charles Nordhoff. < For- 
est and Stream, v. 1, p. 397, Jan. 29, 1874. (From Harper^s New Monthly 
Magazine.) 

Salmon-fi.shing on the Novarro. [By Thomas Bennett.] <Ovcrhind Monthly. 
V. 12, pp. 119-1:24, Feb., 1874 ; Forest and Stream, v. 2, p. 29, Feb. 19, ltt74. 

h the Yellow 'P<:tc)i (Pcrca Jiaresccns) a good fish to introduce into California? 
[By lavingBton Stone ] < Forest and Stream, v. 2, p. 84, March 19, 1874. 

On the Plagopterina? and the Iclithyolojjy of Utah. By Edward D. Cope, 
.V.M. Rcail before the American Philosophical Society, March 20,1874. 
<Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. Phila., v. 14, pp. 129-139, 1874. 

[N. g. and D. «p. Plagopttrvs (n. g., 130), argentUnmui (130), Ltpidoweda (n. p., 131), 
Lefidonuda tiUata (131), Lepidomtda jarrovii (132), ClinoMtomus tcgnia (133), Rhinich- 
ttyt hetuhatii (133), Hybopsit timpanogciuU (134), Minomtu platyrhynehtu (134), Mino- 
mu§ jarrorU (133), Cerafichthyt ventrieotut (13C), Mt/loleuatt parovanus (136), Clinostomvi 
pUe^thontia (137), Uranidea vheeleri (138).] 

<»eographical and Geological Explorations and surveys west of the 100th 
Meridian. First Lieutenant G. M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., in 

nPl^i^opterina) and the Ichthyology of Utah. By Edward D. Cope, 
^oted from the Proceedings of American Philosophical 8o- 
Philadelphia: McCalla &, Stavely, Prs., 237-9 Dock 
^14pp.] 



48 

1 874— Tbe lotrodactlon of Eastern Fish into the waters of the Pacific Slope, togeUioi 
with an account of operations at the United States Salmon breeding Es- 
tablishment on* the McCloiid River, California. [By Livingston Stona] 
< Forest and Stream, v. 2, pp. 100-102, March 26, 1874 (5i c.). 

On the Speckled Troat of Utah Lake. — Salmo virginalis, Girard. By Dr. H. C. 
Yarrow, U. 8. A. < Am. Sportsman, v. 4, pp. 68, 69, May 2, 1874, 

Shad in California. [By S. R Thro<9kmortOD.] < Forest and Stream, v. 3, 
p. 229, May 21, 1874. 

California Salmon [: its rapidity of growth. By Livingston Stone.] 
<^ Forest and Stream, v. 2, p. 260, June 4, 1874. 

Sports in California.— No. II.— Trout fishing at Humboldt Bay. [By Mon- 
mouth.] < Forest and Stream, v. 2, pp. 27:^, 274 (5 c), June 11, 1874. 

Will the Columbia Salmon take the flyf [Anon.] <Am. Sportsman, v. 
4, p. 166, June 13, 1874. 

The Salmon Fisheries of Oregon. [By A. ] < Forest and Stream, t. 2, p. 290, 
June 18. 1874. 

Sacramento Salmon vs. Eastern Salmon. [By Livingston Stone.] ^Am. 
Sportsman, v. 14, p. 198, June 27, 1874. 

On the use of Giant Powder (Dynamite) for obtaining Specimens of Fiah at 
Sea. By A.'W. Chase, U,. S. Coast Survey. July 6, 1874. <Proo.Cal. 
Acad. Sci., v. 5, pp. 334-337, Dec., 1874. 

lohthyic Fauna of Northwestern America. [By Mortimer Kerry, paemdom, 
J. M. Murphy.] < Forest and Stream, v. 2, pp. 356, 357 (i col.), July 16, 
1874. 

The Salmonidae of the Pacific. [By Mortimer Kerry, paeudon, J. M. Mur- 
phy.] < Forest and Stream, v. 2, pp. 369, 370 (6 c), July 23, 1874. 

Salmo Q.uinnat and Salmo Salar. [By Charles G. Atkins.] < Forest and 
Stream, v. 2, pp. 388, 389 (2 c), July 30, 1874. 

Eastern Fish in California. What, they are and what was done with them. 
I From '^Sacramento Record."] < Am. Sportsman, v. 4, p. 358, Sept. 5, 1874. 

Oregon Salmon Fisheries. [From ** Portland Oregonian."] <^Am. SiK>rtsman, 
V. 4. p. :r/8, Sept. 12, 1874. 

United Stutes Fish Hatching in California. [Editorial.] < Forest and 
Stream, v. 3, p. 84 (3 col.), Sept. 17, 1874. 

Salmon Fisheries on the Columbia. <^Am. Sportsman, v. 4, p. 412, Sept. 26, 
lb74. 

The Salmon Fisheries of Oregon. <[ Forest and Stream, v. 3, pp. 155, 172, 
Oct. 15, 22, 1874. 

Annual Reconl of Science and Industry for 1873. Edited by Spencer P. 
Baird, with the assistance of eminent men of science. — New York: Harper 
& Brothers, Publishers, Franklin Square. 1874. [12°.] 
Shipments eastward of California Salmon, p. 433. 
Shall in the Sacramento River, p. 449. 
Shad in California waters, p. 449. 
Pacific Cod-fisheries of 1873, p. 458. 
Taking California Salmon with the Hook^ p. 464. 

R^viHion des espies du groupo des Hpinoches. Par M. B. B. Sftavagis. 
< Nouv. Arch. Mas. d'Hist. Nat., 1. 10, pp. 5-32, pi. 1, 1874. 



49 

1ft-*Report of the Commiasioners of Fisheries of the State of Califoniia for the 
jeaiB 1872 and 1873. — San Francisco : Francis & Valentine, printers and 
engnven, 517 Clay street ; 1874. [8°, 28 pp.] 

United Stxites Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part 11. — Report of the 
CommiBidoner for 1872 and 1873. A — Inquiry into the decrease of the Food- 
Fishes. B — The propagation of Food-Fishes in the waters of the United 
States. With supplementary papers. Washini^on: Government Printing 
Office. 1874. [80, 5 p. 1., cif; (1), 808 pp., 38 pL, 3 maps folded.] 
Report of the Commissioner, pp. i-xcii. 

Appendix B. — ^The Salmon and the Trout, (species of Salmo). pp. 89-384. 
III.* — On the North American species of Salmon and Trout. By Qeorge 
Snokley, Surgeon, United States Army. (Written in 1861.) pp. 
91-160. 
Tl. — Report of operations during 1872 at the United St-ates Salmon- 
Hatching Establishment on the M'Cloud River, and on the California 
SalmonidsB generally ; with a list of specimens collected. By I«iv- 
Ingston Stone, pp. 168-*il5. 
XII.— On the Speckled Trout of Utah Lake, Salmo virginalis, Girard. 

By Dr. H. C. Yarrow, U. S. A. Lete.]. pp. 363-368. 
XIII. — Miscellaneous notes and correspondence relative to Salmon and 
Trout, (pp. 369-379), viz:— 
D — On the edible quiflities of the Sacramento Salmon. [By 8. R. 

Throckmorton.] pp. 373-374. 
£ — On the Salmon-Fisheries of the Sacramento River. By Living- 
ston Stone.] pp. 374-379. 

ITS-Salmon-hatchinx on McCloud River. [By Wm. M. Tomer.] <Overland 
Monthly, v. 14, pp. 79-85, Jan. 1875. 

Korte Bidrng til nordisk Ichthyographie. — I. Forolobige Meddelelser om nor- 
diske UlkeiBke. Af Dr. Chr. Liitken. (Meddelt den 31te Marts og 19de 
Maj 1875. ) ^^Videnakabelige fra den Naturhistoriske Forening Kjobenhavn, 
1876, pp. 355-388; Fr. trans., pp. 72-98, 1876. 

Ichtbyologische Beitriige (II). Von Franz Steindachner. 29. April 1875. 
<Sitzb. K. Akad. Wisseusch., B. 71, Abth. i, pp. 443-4«0, 1875. 
(4 CalifurBian species mentioned.] 

Ichthyologische Beitriige (III). Von Franz Steindachner. 17. Jnni 1875. 
<Sitzb. K. Akad. Wissensch., B. 72, Abth. i, pp. 29-iH), 1875. 

[13 Califumian npecies p.irticuLirizotl: n. sp. Xenichthyt eaU/omientis, Scorpis ealifor- 
niennt, CorcitM tteartuii^ Otolithits cali/ornientU, Atherinopt u. g. or u. s. g. >Atherinop^xa 
ajtnit Ayres-J 

Description of a New Species of Trout from Mendocino County. [Typical 
specimen in the collection of California Academy of Natural Sciences.] By 
W. R. Gibbona» Alameda. June 22, 187.5. <Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 6, 
pp. 142-144. 

[a. sp. Salmo nundoeinentu.] 

California Fishplanting. [Signed R J. Hooper.] <Forest and Stream, v. 
5, pp. 19.20, Aug. 19, 1875. 

Tronting in Colorado. [Signed " Warren."] < Forest and Stream, v. 5, 
p. :V5, Aug. 2(5, 1875. 

Edihle Fish of the Pacific. [Signed E. J. Hooper.] < Forest and Stream, 
V. 5, p. 3(5, Aug. 26, 1^75. 

KilauMi Fishing east and west — How they take them in California. [Signed 
]>. I>wm.] < Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 38, Aug. 2(5, 1875. 

•oas through the volume and not subordinated to the parts. 

11 4 



50 

18Y5— Califoraia Salmon. When to take them with a fly. [Signed "Podgers."] 
. < Forest and Stream, v. 5, pp. 53, 54, Sept. 2, 1875. 

Salmon Scores from the McClond River. [By Sir Rose Price.] < Forest and 
* Stream, v. 5, p. 54, Sept. 2, 1875. 

Fishing in Montana. [Signed A. B. Keeler.] ^ Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 
54, Sept. 2, 1^75. 

The Speckled Beauties ISalmo fantinalis'] in Colorado. [From "Denver 
News."] <Rod and Gnn, v. 6, p. 348, Sept. 4, 1875. 

Fishing in the McCloud Kiver. [By Sir Rose Prioe.] ^RodandGon, v. 
6, p. 362, Sept. 11, 1875. 

Carp in California. [By E. J. Hooper.] ^Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 115, 
Sept. 30, 1875. 

California Angling. [By B. J. Hooper.] <^ Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 133, 
Oct. 7, 1875. 

Flora and Fanna of California. [ By "W, M, Hinckley. ] < Forest and Stream, 
V. 5, p. 146, Oct. 14, 1875. 

Lake Tahoe, Cal. Its Scenery and Trent Fishing. [By E. J. Hooper.] 

< Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 151, Oct. 14, 1875. 

Shipment's of California Salmon eggs. [By Iiivingston Stone.] < Forest 
and Stream, v. 5, p. 179, Oct. 28, 1875. 

Sea and Bay Fishing in California. — Wonders of the deep. [By E. J. Hooper.] 

< Forest and Stix^am, v. 5, pp. 197, 198, Nov. 4, 1875. 

Illegal traffic in Salmon. < Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 217, Nov. 11, 1875. 
[From San F^aneiteo Daily Evening Post.] 

Progress of Fish-cnlture in California. [By E. J. Hooper.] < Forest and 
Stream, v. 5, pp. 19. — ^227, Nov. 18, 1875. 

The Oregon Salmon Fisheries. lAnon,'] < Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 230, 
Nov. 18, 1875. 

•Comparative size of Trent in Europe and America. [By 8. C. C. i. e. 
Clarke.] < Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 230, Nov. 18, 1875. 

On what do Salmon Feed? [Editorial from E. J. Hooper's ohservations. ] 

< Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 280, Dec. 9, 1875. 

Distribution of California Ova. <^ Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 291, Dec. 16, 
1875. 

Ichthyologischo Beitnlge (IV). Von Pranz Bteindachner. 16. December, 
1875. <Sitbz. K. Akad. Wissonsch., B 72, Abth. i, pp. 551-616, 1875. 
[2 west-coast species described.] 

Tmckee River Trout. I Anon,'] <Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 308, Dec. 23, 1875. 

What do Salmon eat? [By R. Tallant.] <^ Forest and Stream, v. 5, p. 308, 
Dec. 2.3, 1875. 

Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1874. Edited by Bpenoer F. 
Baird, with the assistance of eminent men of science. — New York : Harper 
& Brothers, Publishers, Franklin Square. 1875. [12^.] 
J. Pisciculture and the Fisheries, pp. 419-428. 
Alaska Cod-fisheries in 1873. j). 424. 
Stocking a pond in Utah with Eels. p. 428. 
' Destruction of Fish on the Oregon coast with nitro-glycerine, p. 428L 



51 

>A report on the condition of affairs in the Territory of Ala9ka. By Henzy W. 
Xniiott, special agent of the Treasury Department. — Washington : Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 1875. [8o, 277 pp.] 

Chapter VIII. — Fish and Fisheries. The Fisheries of Alaska, pp. 165-167. 
[ThSa iseaaentially a second edition of the report of Mr. Elliott, published in 1873.] 

Deportment of the Interior. — Bulletin of the United States Greological and 
Geographical Survey of the Territories. F. V. Uayden, United State's 
0eologi8t-in>Charge. 1874 and 1875. Vol 1. — Washington: Government 
Printing Office. 1875. [8°, xiii pp.-|-28 pp. +77 pp.-|-499 pp. +19 11. un- 

pagedy 26 pi., 3 maps, 1 woodcut.] 

[Consisting of the separately paged Bulletins Xos. 1, 2, " First Series,*' and of the con- 
tinuonsly paged Bulletins Kos. I to 6 inclusive, " Socond Series," furnished with xiii pp. 
extra (title, table of contents, etc.). The uistinct.on "Series" is not maintained after 
No. 8, which completes vol. 1.] 

rirat Series, 1874. 
No. 2. [SO, 77 pp., 1.] 
Review of the Vertehrata of the Cretaceous Period, found west of the 

Mississippi River. By Edward D. Cope, A. M. pp. 5-48. 
Supplementary Notices of Fishes from the Freshwater Tertiaries of the 
Rocky Mountains. [By Edward D. Cope, A. M.] pp. 49-51. 

Second Series, 1875-1876. 
No. 1. [8°, 47 pp.] 
On the Fishes of the Tertiary Shales of the South Park [Colorado]. 
B> B. D. Cope, A. M. pp. 3-5. 

La Chasse aux animaux marins ct les p^cheries chez les Indigenes de la cdte 
nord-onest d'Am<Snque, par m. Alph. Pinart.— Bunlogne-sur-mer, Imp. de 
Charles Aigre, 4, Rue des Vieillards. 1875. [8°, 15 pp.] 

Engineer Department, United States Army. — Report upon Geographical and 
Geological Explorations and Surveys west of the One Hundredth Meridian, 
in charge of First Lieut. G. M. Wlieeler, Corps of Knginecrs, U. S. Army, 
under the direction of Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers, 
U. S. Army. Published by authority of Hon. Wm. W. Belknap, Secret^iry 
of War, in accordance with acts of Congress of June 23, 1874, and Febru- 
nry l.'>, 1875. In six volumes, accompanied by one topographical and one 
geological atlas. — Vol. V. — Zoology. — Washington: Government Printing 
Office. 1875. [4°.] 
Chapter VI. — Report | upon | the collections of Fishes | made in portions 
of I Neva<la, Utah, Califoniin, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, | 
during I the years 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. | By | Prof. E. D. Cope 
and Dr. H. C. Yarrow.=pp. 6:^''w03, pi. 2r>-32. 
Appendix. — Description of a Mugiloid Fish from the Mesozoic Strata 

of Colorado [SylUemns latiirons, Copo], pp. 701-703. 

[N. up. Apocope eouesiL Ynrrow (p. 048. pi. 27. f. 2), Gila nigra. Cope (p. W3, pi. 30,f. 3), 
OilaHcminuda, Cope and Tarniw (p. COG, pi. 31, f. 1). Ilt/borftynchxa xideriut. Cope (p. C70, 
pi 31. f. «,) OUa ardegiaea (p. COO, pi 30. f. 1), Oila Mcminnda (p. 066, pi. 31, f. 1), Pantoateiuf, 
Copo (n. g., p. 673). Catoitomiu /ecundu* (p. 078, pi. 32, f. 1). 

"The most extended list is that of the Colorado basin " (p. 699) :— 



CyprinidiB 


PLtgoptems 


ar(;entimimii8 


640 




Moda 


ful;;ida 


642 




Lcpidomeda 


vittita 


642 






jarrovii 


643 




Coratichthys 


squamilo'.ntns 


000 






oscula 


647 




Apocope 


coacsii 


648 






▼entricosa 


048 



Bybotbyncbai 




no 


Put4)Meu 


baidun 


«3 






473 




JDllCDB 


«T8 






«n 






aw 


Cortgonn. 




ta 


Bnhna 


plcuritlcui 




Glnrdlnm 




MS 


1IniilJ» 


vtwleril 


Ma 


ire tho» of Ih« l».h, gf UMh, whrth 


er flvm brfbn 


,700):- 






Apwop. 


arrinponU 


MS 




heubBTil 
Tnlwr»U 


MS 


Cemllcbthj. 


lllSllIUlDl 


an 


Hjboprf. 


Ilmpnnogenil* 


aS4 






apo 


Qlte 




•ST 






•SI 




b;(ln)|>bloi 






m™i» 


sss 




»»t"gl« 


S8> 




53 

-The FiBheriee and Sea Lions of California. [Anon.] ^ Forest and Stream, 
V. 6, p. 387, Feb. 24, 1876. 

The Natural and Economic History of the Salmonidie — ^geographical distribu- 
tion and artificial cnltnre. By Philo-Iohthyoa. < Forest and Stream, pp. 
fi8-e9 (No. 3), 106 (No. 4), 116 (No. 5), 131 (No. G), 147 (No. 7), 164 (No. 8), 
179 (No. 9). " 

Check List of the Fishes of the B^sh Waters of North America. By David 
8. Jordan, M. S., M. D., and Herbert E. Copeland, M. S. March 3, 1876. 
<^Balletiu of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, v. 2, pp. 133-1G4, 
1876. 

• 

Yiyiparona Perch: [their abundance at Santa Barbara. By H. C. Tarro'^.] 
< Forest and Stream, v. 6, p. 132, April 6, 1876. 

Angling for Smelts in California. [By E. J. Hooper.] <^ Forest and Stream, 
▼. 6, p. 166, April 20, 1876. 

A Viviparous Perch. [Editorial.] <^ Forest and Stream, t. 6, p. 180, with 
fig., April 27, 1876. 

Noget om Shegten Soulv ( JiunrAicAa^) og dens nordiske Arter. Af Proffessor 
Japetna Steenatmp. Med en Tavle. < Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
den Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 1876, pp. 159-202, tav. 3. 

Salmon Fisheries on the Columbia River. [ JitoN. By Bamet Phillipa. — 
From Appleton's Journal.] < Rod and Gun, v. 8, pp. 131-132 (5 col.). May 
27, 1876, with 2 figs. 

Bemarks od the Various Fishes [of the family of Scorpffinidas] known as Rock 
Cod. By "Wr W. LochdngtoiL July 17, 1876. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 7, 
pp. 79-82. 

[K. ipw A6a«lef iLyrvti* proposed as a sabstitate for 8. rosaetut of Ayres, Imt not of 
Oirard. 

Notes on Some California Marine Pishes, with description of a new species. 
By W. N. Lockington. July 17, 1876. < Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v. 7, pp. 
83-88. 

(N. sp. Arff)fr€iomu Paeifieui, MAgdalena Bay. J 

Ichthyologischo Bcitriige (V.) Vou Franz Stelndaohner. 20. Juli 1876. 
<8it2b. K. Akad. Wissensch., B.74, Abth. i, pp.— ,1876. 

[13 west-coast species elucidated: n. sp. ArtedUu pugetentia^ Siphagonus barbatutt 
Hjfp§agonu§ SuKtnii, Btakea n. g. < Myxodea eltgant Cuoper.] 

Lake Fishing in California. [By E. J. Hooper. J <[ Forest and Stream, v. 7, 
p. 5, Aug. 10,1876. 

Fishing this Season [summer of 1876] in California. [By E. J. Hooper.] 
<^ Forest and Stream, v. 7, p. 21, Aug. 17, 1876. 

Notes on Califomian Fishes. By W. N. Lockington. September 4, 1876. 
< Proc. CaL Acad. Sci., v. 7, pp. 108-110. 

(K. up. CentropomMM viridis (provisionally named on p. 100) from Asoncion Island, Lower 
CaUfomiA.1 

Connecticut River Shad for California. [By 8. F. Baird.] <^ Forest and 
Stream, v. 7, pp. 6d-67, Sept. 7, 1876. 

California Shad. [Anon.] •<^ Forest and Stream, v. 7, p. 83, Sept. 14, 1876. 

^ Big Fkh [Salmon weighing 100 pounds] of Alaska. [Anon. ] < Forest 
▼•7«iip»813 yy. 9, 1876. , 



54 

18 Y6— Annual Becord of Science and Industry for 1875. Edited by Spenoer P. 
Baird, with the assistance of eminent men of science. New York : Harper 
Sl Brothers, Publishers, Franklin Square. 1876. [12o.] 

J. Pisciculture and the Fisheries, pp. 405-440. 
Salmon in the San Joaquin, pp. 4:)0-431. 
Salmon Trade pf the Columbia River, pp. 431-432. 
Salmon in the Sacramento River, p. 432. 
United States Salmon-hatching Establishment, pp. 434-435. 

Engineer Department, U. S. Army. = Report of explorations across the Great 
Basin of the Territory of Utah for a direct wagon-route from Camp Floyd 
to Genoa, in Carson Valley, in 1859. By Captain J. H. Simpson, Corps of 
Topographical Engineers, U. S. Army [now colonel of engineers, bvt. brig, 
gen., U. S. A. ]. Made by authority of the Secretary of War, and under in- 
structions from Bvt. BrijjT. Gen. A. S. Johnston, U. S. Army, commanding the 
Department of Utah. Washington : Government Printing Office. 1876. 

Explorations across the Great Basin of Utah. = Appendix L. — Report on 
ichthyology. By Prof. Theo. GilL pp. 383-431, 8 pL, with 8 1. explan- 
atory. 

[This chapter was written in 1861, and not subseqaently revised.] 

United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part III. — Report of the 
Commissioner for 1873-4 and 1874-5. A— Inquiry into the decrease of the 
Food-Fishes. B — ^The propagation of Food-Fishes in t]ie waters of the 
United States. Washington : Government Printing Office. 1876. [8^, 1i, 
777 pp.] 
Report of the Commissioner, pp. vii-xlvi. 

Appendix A. — Sea fisheries and the fishes and invertebrates used as food, 
pp. 1-319. 

V. — Account of the fisheries and seal-hunting in the White Sea, the 
Arctic Ocean, and the Caspian Sea. By Alexander Schultz. i>i). 
35-96. 

Api>endix B. — ^The river fisheries, pp. 321-540. 

XX. — Report of operations in California in 1873. By Livingston 
Stone, pp. 377-429. 

A— Clear Lake. pp. 377-381. 

B — Sacramento River, pp. 382-385. 

C — California aquarium-car. pp. 385-390. 

D — Overland journey with live shad. pp. 390-402. 

E— The McCloud River station, pp. 402-423. 

F — Catalogue of collections sent to the Smithsonian Institution 
in 1873. pp. 424-427. 

G — A list of McCloud Indian words supplementary to a list con- 
tained in the report of 1872. pp. 428-429. 

XXI. — Hatching and distribution of California salmon. 

A — Report on California salmon-spawn hatche<l and distributed. 

By J. H. Slack, M. D. pp. 431^34. 
B — Hatching and distribution of California salmon in tributaries 

of Great Salt Lake. By A. P. Rockwood, Superintendent of 

Fisheries in Utah Territory, pp. 434-435. 

XXII. — Report of operations during 1874 at the United States salmon- 
hatching establishment on the McCloud River, California. By Liv- 
ingston Stone, pp. 437^78. 

XXIII. — Correspondence relating to the San Joaquin River and its 
fishes, pp. 479-483. 



55 

^— t1i6 Troat of Washington Territoiy. < Foiest and Stream, v. 7, p. 413, Feb, 
1,1877. 

Canned Salmon. lAnan. ] < Forest and Stream, v, 8, p. 32, Feb. 22, 1877. 

On the Genera of North American Fresh-water Fi^es. [By David 8. Jor- 
dan and Charles H. Gilbert. Feb. 27, 1877. <Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
PMa-, ▼. —I pp. 83-104, April 17, 1877. 

• 

Tlie Oregon Fisheries. I Anon, From ''Pacific Life."] < Forest and Stream, 
T. 8, p. 49, March 1,1877. 

Fish Culture in California. < Forest and Stream, v. 8, pp. 16, 81, 207, 224. 
1877. 

Annnal Record of Science and Industry for 1876. Edited by Spenoer F. 
Baird, with the assist>ance of eminent men of science. -.-New York: Harper 
A, Brothers, Publishers, Franklin Square. 1877. [12°.] 

I. Pisciculture and the Fisheries, pp. 385-410. 

Biennial Beport of the California Fish Commission [abstract], pp, 

401-403. 
Cultivation of Carp in California, p. 403. 

Department of the Interior: U. S. National Museum.— Bulletin of the United 
States National Museum. — No. 7. — Published under the direction of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Oovemment Printing Ofilce. 
1877. [8o.] 

No. 7. — Contributions to the Natural History of the Hawaiian and Fan- 
ning Islands aud Lower California. By Thos. H. Streets, M. D. 

Trout Fishing in Southwestern Colorado. ^ Forest and Stream, v. 8, pp. 189, 
190, May 3, 1877. 

California Salmon Spawn for Shipment. <^ Forest and Stream, t. 8, p. 191, 
May 3, 1877. 

Kishiiig in Lakes San Andreas and Pilercitas, California. [By E. J. Hooper.] 
< Forest and Stream, v. 8, p. 270, May 31, 1877. 

Contributions to North American Ichthyology. Based Primarily on the Col- 
lections of the United States National Museum. 

A. Notes on the Cottidie, EtheostomatidsB, PercidaB, Centrarchid'.e, 
Aphododeridsp, Dorysomatidte, and CyprinidaB. With Revisions of 
the Genera and Descriptions of New or Little-known Species. — B. Sj'- 
nopsis of the Siliiridie of the Fresh Waters of North America. By Da- 
vid 8. Jordan. Washington : Government Printing Office. 1877. [d^, 
2 title-pages, 120 pp., 45 plates.] 

( Bulletin of the U. S. National Museum, No. 10. ) 

M'CIoud and Sacramento River Trout. [From "San Fnincisco Pacific Life."] 
< Foiest and Stream, v. 8, p. 299, Juno 14, 1677. 

Stocking the Barren Waters of the Great Divide. [By J. W. B.] < Forest 
and Stream, v. 8, p. 400, July 19, 1877. 

California Salmon in Lake Ontario. [By Sam. Wilmot.] <^ Forest and 
Stream, v. 8, p. 419, July 26, 1877. 

tdlifomUi Salmon in the James River, Va. <[ Forest and Stream, v. 8, p, 

^ Imbr 19,1877. 

lia. < Forosi and Stream, v. 8, p. 420^ July 26, 1877. 



56 

1877— The Long- Jawed Gob;?. By ^^. N. Lookington. <The Ameriean Na^n- 

alist, V. 11, pp. 474-478, Aug., 1877. 
(An interesting aoconnt of soiDe pecaliarities in the habits of 6i0i«kthp§ mimKZif. J 

The Coregoni — ^Thoir natural history, native waters, economic value, and 
implements connected with their production. [Juan.] < Forest and 
Stream, v. 8, pp. 439, 440. 1877. 

The Coregoui. No. Part 2. <C Forest and Stream, v. 9, pp. 3, 4, Aug. 3, 1877. 

A Contribution to the knowledge of Ichthyological Fauna of the Green River 
Shales. By B. D. Cope. < Bull. I J. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terrs., y. 3, 
pp. 807-819, Aug. 15, 1H77. 

California Salmon. [By Emery D. Potter.] < Forest and Stream, Y.9,p. 
63, Aug. 30, 1879. 

Notice of the Utah Trout in Provo rising to the fly. By W. V.8. < Forest 
and Stream, v. 9, p. 88, Sept. 6, 1877. 

Canning Salmon. ^ Forest and Stream, v. 9, p. 88, Sept. 6, 1877. 

Operations of the McCloud River (Cal.) Fish Hatching Establishment. 

< Forest and Stream, v. 9, p. 20H, Oct. 13, 1877. 

The Salmon Fisheries of California. < Forest and Stream, y. 9, p. 5^, Oct. 
25, 1877. 

Salmon Trout on the Pacific Coast. "^Forest and Stream, v. 9, p. 247, Nov. 
1, 1877. 

More about McLeod River Trout. < Forest and Stream, v. 9, p. 247, Nov. 1,1877. 

The Sportsman's Gazetteer and General Guide. The Game Animals, Birds 
and Fishes of North America: their habits and various methods of capture. 
Copious Instructions in Shooting, Fishing, Taxidermy, Woodcraft, etc. To- 
gether with A Directory to the Principal Game Resorts of the Country; il- 
lustrated with maps. By Charles Hallock, Editor of '* Forest and 
Stream"; Author of the "Fishing Tourist"; "Camp Life in Florida," etc. 
New York: "Forest and Stream" Publishing Company, American News 
Company, agents. 1877. [12°, 668 pp., -f- 208 pp., 3 maps, 1 portrait. 
Part I. — Game Animals of North America. Fishes of the Northwest, pp. 
339-353. Pacific Coast Fishes, pp. 354-369. 

1 878 — Beneficial Results of Salmon Hatching on the Sacramento River. [Editorial. ] 

< Forest and Stream, v. 10, p. 18, Feb. 14, 1878. 

Trout Fishing at Lake Biglcr, California. I Anon.] < Forest and Stream, v. 
10, p. 28, Feb. 14, 1878. 

California Salmon Fishing and the Game Laws. [Signed E. J. Hooper.] 

< Forest and Stream, v. 10, p. 47, Feb. 21, 1878. 

[Price of first four Shad of the season in San Francisco =.$10 each.] < Forest 
and Stream, v. 10, p. 67, Feb. 28, 1878. 

Birds and Salmon in California. I Anon.'] < Forest and Stream, v. 10, p. 
95, March 14, 1&78. 

Spawning of California Salmon. [Signed B. B. Redding.] <^ Forest and 
Stream, v. 10, p. 155, April 4, 1878. 

Red Trout, or Redfish of Oregon and Idaho. [By Charles Bendire, U. S. A. ] 

< Forest and Stream, v. 10, p. 156, April 4, 1878. 

Carp in San Francisco. [From "Pacific Life."] -^Forest and Stream, v. 
10,p.l74, April 11,1878. 



57 

IfTi-The Norway Trout of the Yellowstone. I Anon."] < Forest and Stream, y. 
10, p. 175 [195], April 11, 1876. 

Prof. Jordan on Chirac teristics of Trout. [Signed D. 8. Jordan. ] ^ Forests 
and Stream, y. 10, p. 196, April 11, 1878. 
[Coatfdaa mggwiioin that the original Redflsh is Hyptifario kennerlyi.] 

Xanoal of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States, including the Dis- 
triot east of the Miasiiisippi River and north of North Carolina and Tenn- ^ o 
easee, exclnsive of marine species. By David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., M. ^ 
D., Professor of Natural History in Bntler University. Second Edition, re- 
vised and enlarged. — Chicago: Jansen, McClurg & Comjiany, 1878. [12^. 
407 pp., pnb. May 16. ] 
[Cootaiiw tynopaii of the Americnn Sal^Aomnm and Coregoninai.] 

CaHfomia Fishing Prospects. [ Signed B. J. Hooper. ] < Forest and Stream, 
V. 10, p. 939, Mays, 1878. 

Notes on a Collection of Fishes from the Rio Grande, at Brownsville, Texas. 
By DftTid 8. Jordan, M. D. <Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr. v. 
4, [pp. 397-406, May 3;] v. 4, pp. C63-C.b7, July 29, 1879. 

[Specimcna of Hf/^Uroearptu Tratkii indioato<l as an unlcnown Labroid form at p. 309, 
aad described as the type of a new genus and sp. at p. 667. The specimeus had been 
probably miaplaoed.J 

A Catalogue of the Fishes of the Fresh Waters of North America. By David 
8. Jordan, M. D. <^Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v. 4, pp. 
407-442, May 3, 1878. 

[A simple nominal liat of the flreah- water species nortrh of the Mexican region.] 

Spawning of California Brook Trout in New York. [By Jamea Annin, jr., 
Caledonia, N. Y.]. <Chicago Field, v. 9, p. 182, May 4, 1878. [F. M.] 

Califomia Salmon on Long Island, success of. By a member of the South 
Side Club. <Chicago Field, v. 9, p. 182, Mrty 4, 1878. [F. M.] 

Trout Hybrids. [Possibility of intercrossing Eastern and Califomian Trouts. 
Editorial.] <Fore8t and Stream, v. 10, p. 255, May 9, 1878- 

California. [Notice of distribution of land-locked Salmon and Eastern Trout 
by Fish Commissioners.] <Fore8t and Stream, v. 10, p. 255, May 9, 1878. 

The heaviest American Salmon. [Notice of one weighinfj 82 pounds caught 
at the mouth of the Columbia River. By John Qoudy.] <Forest and 
Stream, v. 10, p. 265, May 9, 1878. 

Salmon canning on Frazcr River. [By Fred. Mather.] <^Chicago Field, 
V. 9, p. 196, May 1.5, 1878. [F. M.] 

2J. — A. On the Distribution of the FiHhes of th(^ Allegheny Region of South 
Carolina, Greorgia, aud Tennessee. With Descriptions of New or Little- 
known Species. 9y David 8. .Ionian and Alembort- W. Brayton. — B. 
Synopsis of the Family Catostomida). By David S. Jordan. Washington : 
Gk>vernment Printing Office. 1878. (8vo, 237. ) 

Ran of Salmon in Califomia. Note by A. R. <Chicago Field, v. 9, p. 229, 
May 25, 1878. [F.M.] 

Shad in Califomia. Announcement of two taken in San Francisco Bay May 1. 
Note by B. B. Porter. <Cliicago Field, v. 6, p. 229, May 25, 1873. [F.M.] 

Otlilbniia Salmon. [Notice of their ascent up the McCloud and Sacranento 
HMay.] <Foreflt and Stream, v. 10, p. 350, June 6, 1878. 

Oregon and Califomia. [Editorial. With three wood- 
» Stream, v. 10, p. 398, June 27, 1878. 



58 

1878~Another shipment of Shod to California. Notice by Fred. Mather. <Clil* 
cago Field, v. 9, p. 306, July 6, 1878. [F. M.] 

California Salmon in Lake Ontario. [By John J. Robson.] <Forest and 
Stream, v. 10, p. 482, July 25, 1878. 

Salmon canning in Alaska. An account of the objections of the Indians to 
the landing of a lot of Chinese fish canners. From Alaska Cor. '' N. Y. 
Sun." <Chicago Field, v. 9, p. 371, July 27, 1878. [F. M.] 

Notes on a Collection of Fishes from Clackamas River, Oregon. By Da^d 
8. Jordan, M. D. <Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, v. 1, pp. 69-85, Ang.r, 1878. 

The Labrador and Columbia River Fisheries. [From the ''New York Sun."] 
< Forest and Stream, v. 10, p. 507, Aug. 1, 1878. 

The Mysterious Salmon. A quotation from the '*Astorian" on the subject of 
the salmon taking the artificial fly, with editorial comment by Fred. Ma- 
ther. < Chicago Field, v. 9, p. 387, Aug. 3, 1878. [F. M. ] 

The McCloud River Hatchery. [By K. B. Pratt.] "(^ Forest and Stream, v. 
11, p. 2, Aug. 8, 1878. 

Fish Gossip: Abundance of Salmon in the McCloud River, and their annoy- 
ance to anglers when fishing for Trout. [Item from ''San Francisco Chron- 
icle,'' with editorial comment by Fred. Mather. <[ Chicago Field, v. 9, 
p. 403, Aug. 10, 1878. [F. M. ] 

Gameness of the Quinuat Salmon. [By Tarleton EL Bean.] <^ Chicago 
Field, V. 1 0, p. 4, Aug. 17, 1878. [F. M. ] 

The Fraser River Salmon Season. [From the "Now York World."] -< For- 
est and Stream, v. 11, p. 50, Aug. 22, 1878. 

Fishing in Northern California. [By B. J. Hooker.] ^Forest |uid Scream, 
V. 11, p. 51, April 22, 1878. 

Trout Fishing in Truckee River. Correspondent of the " Sacramento Union." 
<Chicago Field, v. 10, p. 20, Aug. 24, 1878. [F. M. ] 

Trouting in Nevada. Catching them in the water-works at Gold Hill and 
Virginia City. [From "Virginia City Chronicle."] < Chicago Field, v. 

10, p. — . Sept. 14, 1878. [F. M. ] 

Good News from California. [An account of fish-ladders in the Truckee River, 
from the "Truckee Republican."] < Chicago Field, v. 10, p. 84, Sept. 21, 

1878. 

Salmon One Cent Each. [Item from Frazer River, from California paper, with 
editorial comment by F. Mather.] <^ Chicago Field, v. 10, p. 101, Sept. 28, 
1878. [F.M.] 

Salmon Canning on Columbia River. An acco#it of the process, with statis- 
tics. By Fred. Mather. <CbicagoField,v.lO,p. 101,Sept. 28,1878. [F.M.] 

Note on the Sanriis Inciocepa of Ayros. [By W. N. Lockington.] < Ann. 
&, Mag. Nat. Hist. (;'>), v. 2, pp. 348, 349, Oct., 1878. 

McCloud River Hatching Station. Daily Record of Salmon taken. [Signed 
LivingBton Stone. ] < Forest and Stream, v. 11, p. 203, Oct. 10, 1878. 

California Trout in New York. [By Seth Oreen.] < Forest and Stream, v. 

11, p. 20.3, Oct. 10, 1878. 

McClond River Hatchery. [Table of Distribution of Salmon Eggs during 
1878. ] < Forest and Stream, v. 11, p. 222, Oct. 17. 1878. 



59 

llTS-Laod-looking tlie Qninnat Salmon. Experiment of H. O. Parker, Commis- 
sioner on Fisheries for Nevada, in Pyramid and Walker Lukes. < Chicago 
Fifcld,v.l0,p.l65,Oct.26,1878. [F.M.] 

Ths Yellowstone as a Trout stream. [ Jnoft.] < Forest and Stream, y. 11, p. 
S63, Oct. 31, 1878. 

Another Devil Fish Story. Accoont of devil-ilsh (Ccrataptera) intorfering 
with a submnrine diver, from California paper. < Chicago Field, v. 10, 
p. 181, Nov. 2, 1878. [F. M. ] 

Walks around San Francisco. By W. N. Lockington. No- III.—Lake 
Honda and Real Bock. <Am. Nat., v. 12, pp. 786-793, Dec, 1878. 
[K. Sp. BdMoHoma Stovtii, p. 703.] 

^Tote.— "No. L— The Ocean Beach" (v. 12, pp. 347-354) and [No. II.—] 
''The Bay Shore" (v. 12, pp. 505-512) have nothing relative to lishes. 

Salmo quinnat in France. [By IVed. Mather.] < Forest and Stream, v. 11, 
p. 360, Dec. 5, 1878. [See, also, pp. 339, 340, Nov. 28, 1878.] 

On the occurrence of Stichffius panotatns,(Fabr.) Kruyer, at St. MichaerH, 
Alaska. By Tarleton H. Bean. < Pioc. U. S. Nat. Museum, v. 1, pp. 279- 
281, Dec. 17, 1878. 

Beport on the collection of Fish'^s made by Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A., in Da- 
kota and Montana during the seasons of 1873 and 1874. By David 8. 
Jordan, M. D. <Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v. 4. pp. 777-799, 
Dec. 11, 1878. . 

KoU. — [ConUdiM an "Analydsof the genera of American Cypxinidae, and reference of 
Pacifio slope genera to European typee, at pp. 785-700. J 

California Salmon in Holland. [Editorial.] ^Forest and Stream, v. 11, p. 
420, Dec. 2:: 1878. 

• 

45th Congress, 3d session. I House of Representatives. J Ex. Doc. 1, pt. 2. Vol. ^ c 
II. I = I Annual Report | of the | Chief of Engineers | to the | Secretary 
of War I for the | year 1878. | — | In three parts. | — | Part III. | — | Wash- 
ington : I Government Printing Office. | ltJ78. | 

Appendix NN. | — | Annual Report of Lieutcnaut Oeorge M. "Wheeler, | 
Corps of Engineers, for the fiscal year ending | June 30, 1878. [i)p. 
1421— 

Appendix K. | Report upon the Fishes collected during the years 1875, 1^70, 
sud 1877, in | California and Nevada, by Prof. David 8. Jordan and H. 
W. Henshaw. [pp. 1600-1622, pll. 1-4.] 

appendix K 1. | List of Marine Fishes collected on the coast of California 
near Santa j Barbara in 1H75, with notes by Dr. H. C. Yarrow, Acting 
distant Surgeon | U. S. A., and H. "W. Henshaw. [pp. 162;J-1627.] 

^- 1610, pL 1. 2, Catattomiu tahoensu Gill and Jordan. 

^' ICIO, pi. 3, (kUastomut arceopun Jordan. 

^. 1619, pi. 4, Salmo Heruhatoi Gill and Jordan. 

*'* Sportsman's Gazetteer and General Guide. The Game Animals, Birds, 
and Fishes of North America: Their Habits and Various Methods of Cap- 
"^*'^. Copious Instructions in Shooting, Fishing, Taxidermy, Woodcraft, 
^tci^ Together with maps. By Charles Hallock, Edifx)r of "Forest aud 
^t»^nm'»; Author of the " Fishing Tourist," '* Camp Life in Florida," etc. 
^<*«*»th Edition. New York : Forest and Stream Publishing Co. 1878. 






M' 



60 

1878 — Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States, Inclnding the Dis- 
trict East of the Mississippi River, and North of North Carolina and Ten- 
nessee, exclusive of Marine Species. By David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., M. 
D., Professor of Natural History in^Butler University. Second Edition, Re- 
\ vised and Enlarged. Chicago: Jansen, McClurg &, Co. 1878. (l2mo, 

407 pp.) 

The Califomian Salmon. With an Account of its Introduction into Victoria. 
By Sir Samuel Wilson, Member of the Legislative Council of Victoria. 
Melbourne : Sands & McDougall, Printers, Collins street West. 1878. 

1879. — The Nevada Fish-hatchery. [From Carson City "Appeal."] ^Chicago 
Field, V. 10, p. 332, Jan. 4, 1879. [F. M.] 

Capture of a Devil-fish [Ceratoptera]. From California paper. ^Chicago 
Field, V. 10, p. :»5, Feb. 1, 1879. [F. M.] 

The Fisheries and Other Resources of Alaska. B^ EL A. R. <^Cbicago Field, 
V. 10, p. 395, Feb. 1, 1879. [F. M.] 

Viviparous Perch [Em biotocidiB. By Charles Hallock. From ''Sportsman's 
Gazetteer."] < Forest and Stream, v. 11, p. 519, Jon. 23, 1879. 

Fish and Fishing of Oregon. [By Wm. Lang.] < Forest and Streani, v. 13,. 
p. 35, Feb. 13, 1879. 

Report of the Nevada Fish Commission. [Notice by Fred. Mather.] <Chi- 
cago Field, v. 11, p. 3, Feb. 15, 1879. 

Rapid growth of the Califomian Salmon. lAnon,"] <^Fore6t and Stream, v. 
12, p. 55, Feb. 20, 1879. 

[An abfltract from tho '^Germao Fiahing Gazette."] 

Eastern Trout on the Pacific Slojie. [By H. H. Holt, Kaloma, W. T. <For- 
est and Stream, v. 12, p. 105, March 13, 1879. 

Rearing Whitefish in confinement. [By B. B. Redding.] <^Chicago Field, 
V. 11, pp. 67,68, March 15, 1879. 

Interesting Facts from Washington Territorj*. [By Cha. Bendire.] < For- 
est and Stream, v. 12, p. 154, March 27, 1879. 
[Refers to ''Salmo Kennerlyi'\ Sec] 

The Flounders of our Markets. Read by W. M. Lockington before the San 
Francisco Aead. of Sciences, March 17, 1879. ^Scientific Press Supple- 
ment, April, 1879; Mining and Scientific Press, April 12 and 19, 1679. 

Salmon Fishing in Oregon. [By H. B.] < Forest and Stream, v. 12, p. 174, 
April 3, 1879. 

Traits of Rocky Mountain Trout. [By W. N. Bjera. ] < Forest and Stream, 
V. 12, p. 174, April 3, 1879. 

[Notice of a " * Devil Fish* recently taken on the Pacific coast whose body 
was four feet long, with a spear-shaped tail and tentacles seven feet long," 
t. e., a species of Ceratoptera. From the *• Santa Barbara Press."] <Chi- 
cago Field, v. 11, p. 148, April 19, 1879. 

Description of a species of Lycodes {L. Tumeri) from Alaska, believed to be 
undescrilwd. By Tarleton H. Bean. <Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, v. 1, 
pp. 463-466, April 25, 1879. ' 

The Fishes and Birds of the P^fcific Coast. [By Calamink, p$evdon of John 
L. "Wilson. <Chicago Field, v. 11, p. 163, April 26, 1879. 

[Note relative to the Fisheries of British Columbia. Notice of Report to 
House of Commons.] <Chicago Field, v. 11, p. 165, April 26, 1979. 



61 

lYt-Kotea on Bome Fishes of the Coast of California. No. I. By "W. N. Look- 
InCton. < Am« Nat, v. 13, pp. 399-308, May, 1879. 

California Mountain Trout in Eastern Waters. [By Seth Green.] < Forest 
and Stream, v. U, p. 364, May 8, 1879. 
(8e^ •lao, T. 12, p. 288.] 

Tiont and Salmon Season in California. I Anon,'] -^^ Forest and Stream, v. 
1% p. Sn, May 8, 1»79. 

Angling in California. [Abstract from ** Pacific Life.^'] ^ Chicago Field, v. 11, 
pp. 1^, 196, May 10, 1879. 

[Catfish in California.] < Chicago Field, v. 11, p. 196, May 10, 1879. 

Pacific Tront [Salmo iridea] in Eastern Waters. [Note signed H. "W. De Long; 
with description appended from Hallock's Sportsman's Gazetteer. ] <^ For- 
est and Stream, v. 13, p. 388, May I.'), 1879. 

Does tJie Western Salmon die after spawning f [By Major, pseudan. ] < Chi- 
cago Field, V. 11, p. 331, May 17, 1879. 

California Salmon do not all die after spawning. [By B. B. Redding.] 

< Chicago Field, v. 11, p. 33C, May 34, lt579. 

The Roe of the Salmon the Indian's Bait. [By Jonas C, Portland, Oregon.] 

< Chicago Field, v. 11, p. 337, May 34, 1879. 

California News. [Notice of expected consignment of eggn from U. S. Com- 
mission Fish and Fisheries. Anon, From Sacramento '^Record-Union.''] 

< Chicago Field, v. 11, p. 344, May 31, 1879. 

On a new Genns of Scombridte. By ^^. N. Lockington. "^Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. — ], pp. 133-1:^5. 

[S. %. and sp. Chriomitra (p. Ib3) coneolor, p. 184.] 

Who branded the Salmon f [Notice of capture of four salmon branded with 
W. at West port, Oregon. By Geo. H. Heather.] <^ Chicago Field, v. 11, 
p. 3li0, June 7, 1879. 

Lake Tahoe. [Jnon. From *^ Philadelphia Press."] < Chicago Field, v. 11, 
p. 3G0, June 7, 1879. 

Grand Success of Shod and Salmon Culture. [By B. B. Redding.] < Chi- 
cago Field, V. 11, p. 377, Juno 14, 1879. 

Salmon at the Antipo<les, being an account of the successful introduction of 
Salmon and Trout into Australian waters. By Sir Samuel Wilson, Mem- 
ber of the Legislative Council of Victoria, [etc.] ; author of a work on the 
Angora Goat, and papers on the Ostrich, the Chinese Yam, etc. London : 
Edward Stanford, r>5, Charing Cross, S. W., 1879. [3d ed., 13<^, viii, 353 pp., 
Iphot. pi., 1 map folded.] 

Partial Contents. 
Chap. V. The first introduction of Califomian Salmon Ova. pp. 34-35. 
Chap. VIL The second^importation of Californian Salmon Ova. pp. 39-38. 
Chap. VIIL The Californian Salmon, pp. 39-58. 
Chap. IX. Is tjie Californian Salmon suitable to the Murray River T pp. 

59-456. 
Chap. XIX. The Growth and Development of the Salmonidie. pp. lGO-173. 
Chap. XXII. The Distribution and Liberation of the Californian Salmon 
Fry. pp. 193-344. 

dated Jnne 16, 1879. 
'•Huioe of this work, in a sli.f^htly different form, nnder the title of 'The 
"V,* woA originally poblishcil in the Transactions of the Zoological and 
elsty of Melbourne for the year 1878, and a second small edition 
V"— From ''Pretaee to the third edition."— See 1878] 



62 

1879— The Chinese and other Fishermen of California. [Condensed from 8an Fnub- 
Cisco "Chronicle " by Fred. Mather. ] < Chicago Field, v. 11, p. 291, Jnne 
21, 1879. 

On the Occurrence of Hippop^lossns vulgaris, Flem., at Unalashka and St. 
MichoePs, Alaska. By Tarleton H. Bean. < Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, v. 
2, pp. 63-66, July 1, ld79. 

Pacific Coast Shad. [Dy William Lang.] < Forest and Stream, v. 12, p. 
487, July 24, 1879. 

Notes on New and Rare Fishes. Read before the California Acad. Science 
by "W. N. Lockington.] < Scientific Press Supplement, July, 1879; Mining 
and Scientific Press, Aug. 2 aud 16, 1879. 

Fish Notes from the Pacific doast. [By Robt. B. C. Steams.] < Chicago 
Field, V. 11, p. 389, Aug. 2, 1879. 
[Extract from "American Naturalist."] 

Curious Facts about Trout [i. c, jumping from flume into water below. By 
]|. B. R., t. e. B. B. Redding. ] < Cb icago Field, v. 1 1, p. 404, Aug. 9, 1879. 

Alaska iu Summer. — Second Paper. [By ^*PiSBCO,'^ t. e. Lester Beardslee.] 

< Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. f>53, Aug. 14, lr<79, 

[R(>fcr8, inter alias, to capture imd curin ; of salmon at Port Hunter. 1 

Largest Salmon on Record. [ Jnon. ] <^ Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. 557, Aug. 
14. 1879. 

[" Victoria, Juno 20.— A salmon that weighed 98 pounds when canght has been received 
here from the Skecna Rlx'cr Fishery by Mr. Turner, Mayor of Victoria. Its length is 5 
feet 11 inches from nose to tail.*'] 

Sbad iu tbe Columbia. [By **S."] < Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. 585, Aug. 28, 
1879. 

[Refers probably to Pomdtobu*.] 

Trolling for Salmon. [ A non. ] <[ Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. 588, Aug. 28, 1879. 
[Relates to Columbia River.] 

Oregon. [Record of a trout-fisbing expedition. By William Lang.] 

< Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. 5d9, Aug. 28, 1879. 

The McCloud River Fishery. [.4«o«.] <^ Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. 604, 
Sept. 4, 1879. 

Salmon a Nuisance to Trout Fishers. [ Anon. By Fred. Mather. ] <[ Chicago 
Field, V. 12, p. 52, Sept. G, 1879. 

The North Pacific Ccdlisbery. [By W. N. Lockington. Reprinted from 
*' Pacific Life. "] < Chicai^o Field, v. 12, p. 53, Sept. 6, 1879. 

[Notice of Trout passing through flnme under pressure of 376 pounds to the 
square inch. Anon. ] <^ Chicago Field, v. 12, p. 53, Sept. 6, 1879. 

[Notice of Catfish — Aniinrus nlbidua? — 5 to 15 inches long, taken in Sausal 
Lagoon, where planted three years before. Anon,'\ < Chicago Field, v. 
12, p. 53, Sept. 6, 1879. 

The Pacific Salmon Fisheries. I Anon. ] < Chicappp Field, v. 12, p. 69, Sept. 13, 
1879. 

[Notice of Catfish — Aminrus albidus? — taken in McCloud's Lake, Stockton. 
Anon, ] < Chicago Field, v. 12, p. C9, Sept. 13, 1879. 

The Trans-Continental Expedition of the California Fish Commissioners. 
[By H. A. L. ] < Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. 645 (3 col. ), Sept. 18, 1879. 



63 

lUf-EeYiew of the Plcarognectidie of San Francisco. By W. N. Looldngtoiu 
< Proc. U. 8. Nat. Museum, v. 2, pp. 69-96, July 2— Sept. 19, 1879. 
[K. sp. H^ppogfoMcidt$Jordani,p,73i Olyptocephalus Paei/lcutt p. 80; OlffptoesphalusiMehu ' 
nM,pw8& 

[Notice of Catfish for Susan River and Eel Lake. AwmS^ <[ Chicago Field, 
T. 12, p. 85, Sept. 20, 1879. 

The first biennial report of the Nevada Commission. [Notice by Fred. Ma- 
ther. ] < Chicago Field, v. 12, p. 85, Sept. 20, 1879. 

Habits of California River Salmon. [Anon, Extract from '^Sacramento 
Bee."] < Chicago Field, v. 12, p. 100, Sept. 27, 1879. 

Fish Culture Operations in California. [By Livingston Stone. 1 < Forest 
and Stream, v. 13, p. 685, Oct. 2, 1p79. 
[Refien to Salmon.l 

Why Salmo Quinnat does not take the Fly. \^An(m. by Charles Hallockt 
<Foro8t and Stream, v. 13, p. 685, Oct. 2, 1879. 

Washington Terri tory . [ By " Multnomah, " jMOMfon. ] <Forest and Stream, 
V. 13, p. 687, Oct. 2, 1879. 

[B«l»te« to flAhing in " the great Spokane country.'*] 

Salmon Fishing on the Pacific. [Incomplete. By C. R.] <^Forest and 
Stream, v. 13, p. 089, Oct. 2, 1879. 

The Fishery- of Mr. A. P. Rockwood [near Salt Lake City. Anon, From "The 
Juvenile Instructor."] <Chicago Field, v. 12, p. 115, Oct. 4, 1879. 

Do Fish hear T [By W. N. Locklngton. From " Pacific Life.'*] <Chicago 
Field, V. 12, p. 116, Oct. 4, 1879. 

Trout in the Tmckee. [Amoiu From " Sacramento Bee.''] <^Chicago Field, 
V. 12, p. 117, Oct. 4, 1879. , 

California. [ Record of good Grilse-fishing in September. ] By B. B. Redding 
<Fore8t and Stream, V4«13, p. 715, Oct. 9, 1878. 

Tbe Game and Fish of Alaska. [By ^' Piseco," i. «. Lester Beardslee, U. S. 
N.] <Forc8t and Stream, v. 13, pp. 723-724, Oct. 16, 1879. 

Salmon Eggs from the Pacific. [By Livingston Stone.] <^Fore8t ard 
Stream, v. 13, p. 725, Oct. 1(>, 1879. 

California Fishing. [By E. J. Hooper.] <Fore8t and Stream, v. 13, p. 7?8 
Oct. le, 1879. 

Wyoming Territory. [Note on Trout-fishing. By "Multnomah," j>«etu{oii.] 
<Fore8t and Stream, v. 13, p. 728, Oct. 16, 1879. 

8pawn in off" season [of Califoniian Trout. By E. C. Tallant. With edito- 
rial note] <Forettt and Stream, v. 13, p. 744, Oct. 23, 1879. 

The Redfish of the Northwest. [By Ch. Bendire. With editorial note.] 
<Forest and Stream, v. 13, p. 745, Oct. 23, 1879. 

Rocky Mountain Trout. [By Flyfisher, pseudon.j J. J. Stranahan, Chagrin 
Falls, O. ] <Chicago Field, v. 12, p. 164, Oct. 25, 1879. 

"Mountain Trout". — (Salrao virginalis). [By Oordon Lamb.] <Cbicago 
Field, v. 12, p. 164, Oct. 25, 1879. 

Fishing in Gray^s Harbor [t. e, Salmon-fishery. Anon. From " Olympia 
fWMhlngton Terr.) Transcript.'' <Chicago Field, v. 12, pp. 164, 165, Oct. 



64 

18T9— Codfishing in the Paclflo. [Jnon.] From "San FnnciaooAItA.") <Chia«o 
Field, T. m, p. 16a, Oct. 2S, 1879. 
CaJifomia Trout in Kew York Stitte. [By Claranoa A. Funiiin.] < FoimC 

and Struou, v. 13, p. T65, Oct. 30, lisn. 
Salmon Fiahiag on the Pacific. [By C. R.] <FoTMt and Btream, t. 13, p. 

7OT, Oct. 30, 1879. 
,Wby SiUmo QoiDDat does not tnke the Fly. [EditoriaL] <^FDre«c tad 
Stroam, v. 13, p. 770, Oct. 30, 1879. 

Notes OD Pacific Coast Fishes and Fiiberiea. By W. IT. LooUnttoo- <Am. 

Sat., V. 13, pp. 684-687, Nov., 18:9. 
Notes on some nndescribcd Flnhts of the Pacific Coast. By 'W. IT. Iiodkia§- 

ton. <Scientiiic Press Supiilement, v. — , p. 76,.Nov., 1879. 
Carp Breeding in California. lAnon. From ''Sooonta Index."] ^Cliiap 

Field, V. 12, p. 180, Kov. 1, IWJ. 

TrontCiiltureiDKeTndB. [Aimit. From"VirKiiuaCityEiitBipriM.''] <Ott 

cago Field, t. 12, p. 180, Nov. 1. 1879. 
Fiab in Washington Territory. [Jmmi. From the "Ezperimeat,"] <^Cb[ci|* 

Field, V. la, p. IHO, Nov. 1, 1879, 

WftshiiiKtoD Tiiixitorj-. [Abuiidnocw of Trout. B.v Mcltsomah, fMnidat.] 

< Forest and Slreenj, v. 13, I'y. illS-T-.W. Nov. 6, 1879. 
The Kcdflah of Iilitho. By Cbarlea Bendlre. < forust anil Strvutn, t, U, 
p. 80fi, with fig., Nov. 13, 16711. 

ITho flgnre op|*iini to reprrnMit fiyif/ririo Ivnxrlyt.) 
California Notes. (From the '' l-iai FTfinciH-'o Bee."} <[ Chicago Field, v. U^ i 
p. ai3, Nov, I.% 1879. I 

< Fmvst and Stream, v. 13, p> 

The Tront of Utah. [Notice of irs risiiig to a fly.] Fy C. B. Westem 




EnlotphcDiu eplhexodoD M 

Ephlppn* lODMa* 77. 23 

Bplof ph«lii> clUMu , a 

EtythriDOB in 

KKhKbolU. Dr, Frladr 13 

Bnoycloiabliu M 

uavberril 43 

Bnmiciotnmiu U 

BxoecBlu* eBlUbrDtcu 38, <a 

fucUtu. Zt 

F. 

Fsrlo irgyrviu 85.30 

wiron. 3t,»l 

CUrkil ID 

OmtnlDOTi 80 

Hewberrii Zt 

(tellstu* a.at 

UopplUh SO 

fuimtii. CbtrgoM A M 

Jlih, extern, inCslifomU « 

Fli1ieri«a or Nortb Pikciflo 4t 

PluUvrki, Uii-gon SS 

FlahM of WfomlDK M 

■nbtcnu 

7Ut-a>b 

.FtoDDdfis «f Sun FraooUoo N 

JForbcB. Eilniinl M 

Trancliitr, Osbrld. , Ifcll 

Fnndulua 1 ti 

patiiptnnli 3). 90,1) 

G. 

Gtdoid flshea, sfoapaii ol 37 

gener* 87 

Osdiu anntUB M 

donotrlpterjglft S 

flmbrU 10 

motrbiui s 

pertH»pu« .,,.^. ,.. 40 

pntibDiu 21, tj 

prgniBui 10 

Calem euil* (G 

Oallatin, Albort IT 

OuUroileua bluuleMu 24 

inleimedlui 28,28 

micriKUpbuluB 31, !E^ 42 

plebdus. Zi,13,W,il 

liugBttl 2S,M 

MmWm 24,38,42 

WUliamuui .21,28,42 

OMtnipby«u pollLiu 44 

G»y, CUuiJiUB ' 10 

GeDfoumui jl 

Glbbniu, I>r g 

aibbons, W.P ao,!3 

Qibboiu, W, R 40 

3S 

n* 38,42 



GUa.. 



P»8 
.. 17, 



CODOcepboU , ..,.. 

CRTegi* 

tinana 1S.W.A 

Emorjl !». 

Jfmrilii i».3». 

Gnhanil «. 

hydrcipbloi _.^,.^, 

DucnilepldatB 

nlfT* BI, 

phlcgethontli 

robuit* »,Mt4l^ 

■rminadB «, 

Gilbert. Cbarln a 

Gill. Tb«odoT« 3I,SB,«^ 

GiUicblhra 

mlimbUl. 38,4* 

GilllH, Lleat. Ju U 

Ginrd, Ur. Chartea . .3, 181 IS, 30, 31, 22, 91, IS, M. 

Girard, Edward 

GlritnliDn* HiuorlpQili 

GiroUn nturlttuii 

GljpblwidOT] niblDondiii ^ W 

Gt.vpbtocFphntDi paclflinia 

ucblnu 

Gobiold t*npr». 

Goblns unclllB 

li^fduB 

Nowbeiryl 9S,28 

QoBOrbyocbuB 

Gaudy. Jobn 

OnUDiuatiiplr uniB 

Gray, J. E 

Gnt'D, Setb U 

r,rjiL,'« llin.ii(i.B 

GUDOrlluB oniatua 21,28 

Gunnlaon, Capt J. 7 

lilititUn AHim S2,3S,a«.a»,3»,40,44 

Uvniniiniunthft 

GyniDololdi 

GyropltfUroduB 

ftanclBcl 

B. 

nalBlnctiiB rloraolbi 

HbILm 

lIulLbot fl-blDg 

HoJloek. ClmrleB... C4G9,«I1 

Hallow, II, Eilward 

H. A. L 

n, A. It 

H»id.-n, F. V 48 

Haililt.\yilliam Carey..., 

II. D 

H«KbiT, GeoFRoH 

ncermnnn, A. L. 

Helniiihtbji 

lIciDib-pldoliuuibtBU.... K 



INDEX. 



69 



• Page. 

fitnikpidotiu apinosoB 27,42 

TUesU 12,16 

marmoratos 21 

Heaahaw, H. W 50 

BepCancbiu maculatua 31 

Bicbert, William Henry 18,19 

Hnxinga 40 

Heteiandria aflinls 19 

occidentalis 19 

Hcterodontua philipU 38 

Heteroatkhoa 21 

Toatratua 21,27,42 

MtUftotim 16 

Baxactwnmiia 9 

aaper 

atelleri 8 

HiBoUej, W.M 50 

Hippocampna ingena 27, 30, 44 

Hippogioaaoidea Jordani ' 63 

Hippogloaaoa oalifomicus 32,43 

vnlgaria 43,62 

Hittel, John S 37 

Bolcoiioti 20 

HokoAotoaAgaaaizii 20 

fiiliginoBua 20 

GibbonaU 20 

mogalopa 21 

polchelluB 41 

rhodoterua 20,29,41 

Trowbridgii 21 

Eokvhinoa 36 

Hfilt,aH 60 

HoBuJopoinaa 25 

Tniwbridgii 25,28 

Hooper, E. J 49, 50, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63 

Eoplopagrus 34 

Hnbbard, Samuel 36 

Huruphrt'yg, A. A 51 

Hunlingtoii, J. V 11 

Hybopeb bivittatus 52 

timpanogoDHiB 47, 52 

Hyborhyiichus Hiderius 51, 52 

fljdrolagua 36 

CoUUi 44 

HyoJon 16 

flyptrprosopou 20 

Aga«t<izii 36 

nnaliH 3 J 

arcuatum 41 

arcuatus 20 

argenteum 20, 41 

arj:c-nleiim var. cpunctatura 20 

argeDU'Ua 20 

puDCtatum 41 

fl.rpocritlchthy 8 36 

analis 31,41 

^^pwnesus 1J5 

pretiosus 43 

Hrinagunuu 34 

Swanii 53 

flyp«ifiu-lo 30 

Ki-nnerly i 57, 64 

HyPfpsetto 30 

guttulata 43 

HjrpMiruji Caxyi 41 



Pa£e. 

Hypaypopa 84 

Hyaterocarpoa 20 

Traakii 20,29,41,57 

I. 

Icbthyoroyzon 45 

Irving. Waahington 13 

iHcbnoaoma 16 

Isoplagiodon 36 

Henlei 44 

J. 

James, Edwin 11 

Jobnioa nobilis 33 

Johuaton, Capt A. R 17 

Jonas, G 61 

Jordan, D.S 58, 55, 57, 68, 60, 60 

Julia modestos 21,29 

scmicinctua 82 

J. W. B 55 

K. 

Eeeler, A.B 50 

Kennerly, Dr.C.B,B 21,26,84 

Kerry, Mortimer 48 

Klrkpatrlok, C. A 82 

KittliU, F. H. V 2t 

Encr, Dr. Rudolph 45 

L. 

Labraces 

Labracoglosaa 40 

Labrax 9,40 

clathratus 21 

decagrammuB 9, 10 

monopterygius 9,10 

nebulifcr 21 

octogrammus 10 

HuptTciliosus 9, 10 

Laltroids 37 

Labrus pnlcher 21, 22, 29, 39 

Lamb, Gordon 03,64 

Lanipctra ]ilumbea 44 

Lan^, William 60,62 

Laiit*7. weiTt, Dr 24 

Lavinia 21 

( ()n)])re88a 22 

contomiis 21 

(M-aMMicauda 21 

oxilicauda 2 1 , 29, 43 

bareugus 25,20,43 

gibbosa 22 

Lay, G. T 14 

LebiaMina 16 

Lelocottua 25 

liirundo 25, 27, 42 

linwttus 23. 28, 34, 41 

LrucisoiiH canriniiH 15,16 

orogononsia 1 5, 16 

Louco.HomiiH occidentalis 21 

Lcunard, Capt. C. E. Barratt 4 

Lopudogastcr 14 

incandriciis 28 

r«'ticulatus 21 

Lcjudogobiua gracilis 42 



70 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Lepidomeda 47 

Jarrovii 47,51 

vittata 47,51 

Lepidopaetta 36 

Lt^ptocottus 20 

armatiu 20, 27, 42 

Leptognnnellaa gracilis 23 

Lewia, Captain 10 

Liparis 14,47 

Liparis cyclopoa 35 

macosoB 23, 43 

pulchcllus 23,43 

Lookington, W. N 53, Se, 58, 59, 80, 61, 62. 03, 64 

Long, IC^J. Stephen H 11 

Lord, John Eeast 40 

Lompenoa anguillaria 28, 42 

Ltttken, Dr. Chr 49 

LqzUqb ocdden talis 30, 43 

Lyoodes Tumerii 60 

Lycodoids 37 

M. 

McDonald, Dancan George Forbes 4 

Maofle, Matthew 39 

Mackerel catching 45 

Macrodon 16 

MnJor 61 

Mallotas padflcos 16 

Mon-sncker 40 

Mather, Fred 57,68,59.60,62,63 

Mayne, Com. B. C 4 

Meda 25 

fulgida 25,51 

Megalocottns 34 

Megalopa 16 

Meletta ccerulea 21,22,30,43 

Merlangus prodactna 24, 28, 43 

Mesopus 35 

Metoponops 39 

Cooperi 89,43 

MicristoduB 39 

punctatus 39 

Microgadus 39 

proximus 39 

MicrometruB 20 

aggregatus 20 

mmimoB 20 

Microetomatoids, note on 39 

MinomuBJarroTii 47 

platyrbynchuB 47 

MoUienesia 8 

Monmouth 48 

Morm^Tos 16 

Morrhua califomica 21,22 

proxima 28 

Miiller & Henle 18 

Multnomah 63,64 

MursBua mordax 32,43 

Murphy, J.M 48 

MuBteluB califomions 38 

fella 22,31 

MyliobatiB colifomicua 39 

Mylocheilus 22 

caurinuB 29 

fraterculuB 25, 29, 43 



rajj€c 

I Mylocheilus lateralis 22,29 

Mylolencus parovanus '. 47,52 

pulverulentus 52 

Mylopharodon 23,64 

conocephalns 28,43 

robustuB 28,28,43 

Myrichthys tigrinuB *S2 

My tilophaguB 20^ 

fasciatuB 20 

Myxodes Clegans 88,59 

N. 



Karcine califomica 

Nancrates ductor 

Nautichthys 

oculo*£Mciatus 

Nematocentris 

NeoclinuA 



81 

8? 

27 

2» 

40 

27 

Blanchardi 27,28,42 

satiricuB 82 

Nevada fish hatchery 00 

Nordhoff, Charles 47 

Notorhynchus 87 

borealls 88 

maculatns 24, 44 

O. 

Oligocottus 25 

analis 86.27,42 

globiceps 26,27,42 

maculoBus ^27,42 

Oncorhyncbus 84 

Opbicbthvs 40 

Ophidion Taylori 27,28,43 

Ophidium 14 

stigma 14 

Ophidiarus califoniiensis 43 

Opbiodon 21 

elongatuB 21,27 

Ophistbognathus 40 

Opiopoma 25 

pnnthcrina 25, 27, 42 

Orc3'nua pacificus 87,42 

OrtbagoriscuB 14 

analis 32,44 

mola 14 

Orthodon microlepidotuB 29,43 

Orthopsctta : 3G 

Osmerus elongatus 22 

pretioBUS 30 

thaleichthys 32, 43 

OsteoglosBum 16 

Otolithus califomiensis 49 

OxylebiuB 30 

pictuB 86 

Oxyjulis 38 

modest us 41 



P. 



PuchylabruB 



ynriegatuB 



20 

28 

Pallas 8 

Pallas, Potro • lO 

Pallas, P.S 9 

Pantostens 51 



INDBX. 



69 



• Page. 

BaflepldotiM tpiBMiit 27,42 

TilesU 12,16 

inarmorataa 21 

Bwfetw,H.W 50 

liplpadubi BMculatii* 31 

Mot, WffliJUB Henry 18.19 

Imin|i 40 

fiiiciiBdrift affini* 19 

occid«nt«li8 19 

Jbterodootu pbUipU 38 

BitemtkbiM 21 

rMtratua ,21,27,42 

Btfcntk 16 

Imgnauniu 9 

Mper 9 

•telleri 8 

BheU^.W. M 60 

lippoeamp«u ingeiM 27,30,44 

BinogloMoidM Jordani ' 63 

Hippo|lowiu californicuB 32,43 

mlgaria 43,62 

Btttel.JobB8 37 

UeoMti 20 

BikMotnaAxaaaizii 20 

ftiUgixioaus 20 

Gibbonaii 20 

megalopa 21 

pnlcbellns 41 

rbodotorua 20,29,41 

TrowbridgU 21 

BdorUiraa 36 

BBk.EII 60 

HnMlapomiia 25 

TrowbridgU 25,28 

SMper,E.J 49, 50, 53, 5^ 56, 57, 58, 63 

Hiplopagroa 34 

Bnbbud, Samuel 36 

BiiMphrtys, A. A 51 

Hntinxton, J. V 11 

HybopeU blvittatua 52 

timpaoogenaU 47, 52 

Bjborbyiicbas aiderius 51, 52 

HydtoUgna 36 

CoUiei 44 

^jodoa 16 

BjperprotopoQ 20 

Agaasizli 36 

asalia 34 

arcuatum 41 

arcoatua 20 

argenteam 20, 41 

argeuieam var. a ponctatum 20 

argenteua 20 

ponctatum 41 

fiypocritlclithys 36 

analia 31,41 

^.^*^ne«aa 35 

pretiosoa 43 

Hypugonua 34 

Swanii 53 

^riiiftrio 36 

Komerlyi 57,64 

4te 36 

41 



Page. 

Hypaypopa 84 

Hyaterocarpna 20 

Traakil 20,29,41,57 

I. 

Icbtbyomyzon 45 

Irving. Waahington 13 

IttcbnoBoma 16 

laoplagiodon 36 

Hcnlei 44 

J. 

Jamca, Edwin 11 

Jobnioa nobilia 33 

Jobnston, Capt A. R 17 

Jona8,C 61 

Jordan, D.S ....58,55,67,68,69,60 

Julia modeatna 21,29 

acmicinctuB 82 

J. W. B 66 

K. 

Eeeler, A.B 60 

Kennerly, Dr.C.B,B 21,26,84 

Kerry, Mortimer 48 

Eirkpatriok, C. A 82 

KlttlltE, F. H. V 27 

Encr, Dr. Rndolph 46 

L. 

Labraces 

Labracogloaaa 40 

Labraz 9, 40 

cUtbratua 21 

decagrammoa 9,10 

moDopterygiuB 9,10 

nebullfer 21 

octogrammus 10 

Hupcrciliosua 9, 10 

Labroida 37 

LabruA piilcbcr 21,22,29,30 

Lamb, Gordon 03,64 

Lonipctra plombea 44 

I.«iig, William 60,62 

LanHzwecrt, Dr 24 

Lavinia 21 

conipresaa 22 

conformis 21 

craasicauda 21 

exilicauda 21, 29, 43 

barengus 25,29,43 

gibboaa 22 

Lay, G. T 14 

Lebioitina 16 

Leiocottus 26 

hirundo 25,27,42 

liueatus 23.28,34,41 

Leuciscus caurinna 15,16 

orogonensia 15, 16 

Lraco8omu8 occidentalis 21 

Lennanl, Capt. C. E. Barratt 4 

Lcpadogaater 14 

meandricus 28 

reticulatua 21 

Lepidogobins gracilia 42 



70 



LeptDgaDD»Ua> gntciUa 

LiKniii, Ctpuln 

Liparta 

Llpori* ojclopiu 



lAiklnston. W. K SS, H, 98, N, W. SI, fli sa, M 

Long. Mai. Stephen ? 




^eparimcni of ihc ^niexxox 

U. & NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



12 



BULLETIN 



OP THB 



JNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



ISTo. 12 



PUBLISHED DNDEU THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



WASHINGTON: 

aOTEBNMENT PRINTING OFFIOB. 

1878. 

1 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



This work is tbe twelfth of a seiios of papers iateii<Iei] to itiastrate 
tbe collectioDs of ?^:itiiral History iiu<l Etliuolugy bi-Iongiiiglo ttie United 
States ami constitutiug the Nationnl Museum, of which tho Smithsouiaii 
iDstitution WAS placed in charge by the act of Congress of Auguitt 1(1,, 
1840. 

It has been prepared at tbe request of tbe InsUtntiott, and printed llf 
aathorit; of the hoaornble Sccretarj- of tbe luterior. 

JOSEPU BEXEr, 
Si.i:retary oj Xl%t Smitlitfmiati Insttt 

SKITHSOKTA^C iNSTirrTlON, 




CONTRIBUTIONS 



ro 



NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY. 



BASED PRIMARILY ON THE 



COLLECTIONS OF THK UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



III. 



A. — On the Distribotion of the Fishes of the Alleghany Region of l^oath Caiolinai 
Georgia, and Tenoeasee, with Descriptions of New or Little Known Species. 

BY 

DAVID S. .JORDAN 

AND 

ALEMBERT W. BRAYTON. 

B. — A Synopsis of the Family Catostomid». 

BY 

DAVID S. JORDAN, 



-4^^*"^ 



WASHINGTON: 

OOVBBNMENT PSINTINO OFFIOE. 

1878. 



rot 

V as 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Pago. 
A.— On the distribution of the fishes of the Alleghany Region of South Carolina, 
Georgia, and Tennessee, with descriptions of new or little known 

species 7 

List of streams examined 8 

Ssntee Basin 11 

Savannah Basin 29 

Altamaha Basin i 34 

Chattahoochee Basin ^ 39 

Alabama Basin 44 

Tennessee Basin 56 

Camberland Basin 71 

Rwapitnlation 82 

Table show in{( the diHtributiou of species 82 

Distribntion of genera 88 

Conclusions 91 

"•-^ynopKis of the family Catostomidse 97 

Catwtoinina) .* 98 

Cycleptina^ 98 

BobalicUlhyinre 99 

Li*t of nominal species 100 

Analysih of genera 103 

G«nu8 Quassilabia 104 

Qna>8ilabia laccra lUfi 

^"DQsPlacopharynx 107 

I'lacopharynx carinutuH 108 

^nns Myxostoma 110 

%xostoma carpio 118 

%X08tDma euryops 119 

%X(KHU»tna luacrolepidotiim 120 

%xo8toma anreoliim 124 

^bxobtoma craHsilubre 126 

^^yxojjtoiua ronus 126 

%xo8toma anisara 126 

%Xo8tonBa pcBcilura 128 

%xoeU)ma ulbidum 129 

^^^xostoma cerviuuni 12^> 

%xo8toma albnm 130 

%Xo!jtoma thalassioum 131 

^^JXostoma velatum 132 

**yxo8toiua congestnin ^ 133 

%X08t«mapidien8O....*. 133 

V %xoHtoina coregonus 134 

^Jv^nstonia papillosum 134 

^^Hfaiytiwiia 13('» 

138 

5 



TABLE OP C0:NTENT8. 

Page. 

Genus Erimyzon 140 

Erimyzon sucetta - 144 

Erimyzon goodei 148 

Q«nn8 Cbasmistes ^ 149 

Cbasmistes fecandns 150 

Genus Catostomus* 151 

Catostonins nigricans 162 

Catostomns clarki 165 

Catostomns insignis 165 

Catostomns teres 166 

Catostomns macrocbilua .^ 171 

Catostomns oceidentalis 172 

Catostomns labiatns 173 

Catostomns araiopns - 173 

Catostomns taboensis 173 

Catostomns rostratns 174 

Catostomns longirostris 175 

Catostomns retropinnis 178 

Catostomns latipinnis 178 

Catostomns discobolus *. 179 

Genus Pantostens 180 

Pantostens virescens 182 

Pantostens platyrbynchns 183 

Pantostens generoens 183 

Pantostens plebein% 184 

Genus Cycleptus 186 

Cycleptns clougatus 189 

Genus Carpiodes 190 

Carpiodes diffonuis 195 

Carpiodes cntisanserinus 195 

Carpiodes velifer 196 

Carpiodes bison T 197 

Carpiodes tbompsoni 198 

Cairpio<]cs cyprinus 193 

Carpiodes carpio 200 

Genus Bubalichthys i>01 

Bnbalicbtbys bnbalns HOG 

Bubalicbtbys urns 209 

Bubalicht bys racridioniilis 210 

Genus Icbtbyobns 211 

Icbtbyobns bubahis 214 

Genus Myxocy prinus 217 

Myxocyprinns asiaticus - 217 

Addendum SJig 

Cbasmistes liorus 219 

Catostomns fecundus 219 

Bibliograpby 221 

Index ; 231 



/ 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO 

NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY. 

No. 3. 



A.. 

STHE DISTRIBUTION OF THE FISHES OF THE • ALLEGHANY 
REGION OF SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, AND TENNESSEE, 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW OR LITTLE KNOWN SPECIES. 



By David S. Jordan and Alembert W. Brayton. 



This paper is based primarily on the collections made by the present 
^tera, assisted by Mr. C. II. Gilbert, and a party of students from 
Batler University, daring the past summer (1877), in various streams of 
Sooth Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. For the purpose of a more 
oomplete discussion of questions of geographical distribution, the au- 
thors have brought together, with their own observations, those previ- 
ously made on the fishfaunsB of the same streams by other writers, 
specially the observations on the fishes of the Tennessee Basin by 
Professor Agassiz ;• those on the fishes of the basins of the Santeet 
(Catawba), Tennessee,} and Cumberland, || by Professor Cope, and on 
the fishes of the Cumberlaud, Tennessee, Alabama, and Altamaha 

'Notice of a Collectioti of Fishes from the Soathero Hend of the TeuDcssee Rivor, in 
t^ State of Alabama. By L. Agassiz. < American Journal Sci. Arts, 1^54, pp. 207- 

♦Partial Synopsis of the Fishes of North Carolina. By E.D.Cope. < Proc.Am.Philos. 
^ Phila. 1870. pp. 44S-495. 

♦On the distribation of Fresh- water Fishes in the Alleghany Region of Sonth-western 
^Bginia. By E. D. Cope, A. M. < Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. new series, vol. vi, 
t ia, Jumary, 1S69, pp. 207-247. 

'«M EUMMtomine Perch irom Tennessee and North Carolina. By £. D. Cope. 

'O.iR *70. 



8 CONTBIBUTIOSS TO NOBTH 4IfBBICAN ICnTHTOLOOY — m. 

basins by Professor Jordan.* Tbe purpose of tbia papecistogix 
r^umi of all that is certainly known in regard to tbe icbtbyolog; 
the seven bydrograpbic basins embraced in its scope, viz, tbe Sao: 
Savannah, Altamaba, Cliattahoochef , Alabama, Tennessee, and Ci 
bcrland. For purposes of comparison, a table of distribution of spei 
is added, which includes, in addition, what is known of the flah-fiu: 
of the James, Roanoke, Nense, Great Pedee, Aid Ohio. 

The following is a clasaifled list of the streams which have been 
amined in each water-basin included in Ibis paper, with a word or I 
suggestive of the character of each. stream. The collections in ev 
case were made by one or both of the present writers, nnless otberv 

LIST OF STEEAMS EXAMINED. 
I. — SANTEB BASIH. 

1. OatAwba River and tributaries in North Carolina. (Cope, 18C9,) 

2. Ennoree Giver, near Chick Springs, S.C. {Deep, mnddy, andrap 

3. Reedy River, at Greenville Court-House, S. C. (Muddy.) 

4. Saluda River, at Fair's Mills, west of Greenville. {Clear and ra[ 

a fine seining-ground.) 

It. — SATANKAH BASIN. 

1. Tugaloo River, Ilabersham County, Qn., just below month of PantI 

(Clear, broad rapids.) 

2. Panther Creek, north of Toccoa City, Ga. (Clear mooutaio-strea 




ON THE FI8HES OF THE ALLEGHANY REGION. 9 

4. OeuiQlgeo Biver, Macon, Ga. (Collectiou of Dr. T. H. Bean and 
other members of the United States Fish Commission.) 

IV. — CHATTAHOOCnEE BASIN. 

L Chattaboochee Biver at Shallow Ford, northwest of Gainesville, Ga. 

(Broody shallow^ rapid ; water moderately clear.) 
1 SawaDoee Creek, near Suwannee, Gwinnett County, Ga. (Deep, 

maddy^ and very cold. Contains chiefly Codoma eurystoma.) 
3. Peach Tree Creek, just north of Atlanta. (Deep and muddy.) 
i Nancy's Creek, northwest of Atlanta. (Clear and rapid.) 

5. Flint Eiver, in Taylor County. (Collection of Dr. Hugh M. Neisler 
in United States National Museum.) 

V. — ALABAMA BASIN. 

A. — Etotcah River. 

1. Pettis Creek, near Cartersville, Ga. (Clear, rocky.) 

2. Silver Creek, near Bome, Ga. (Clear, rapid ; a fine stream for col- 
lecting.) 

3. Dyke's Creek and Pond, near Rome, Ga. (Cle^r and cold.) 

B, — Oostanaula River, 

4. Rocky Creek, near Floyd Springs, Ga. (A fine, clear stream.) 

5. John's Creek, near Floyd Springs. (Clear.) 

6. Lovejoy's Creek, near Floyd Springs. (A small sandy Ptreanc, full 
of fishes.) 

7. Big Annuchee Creek, above Rome. (Clear.) 
^- BigDrj* Creek, near Rome. (A succession of weedy rock-pools.) 
^' Liitle Dry Creek, near Rome. (Like the preceding.) 

10. Waterb's Creek, above Rome. (Muddy and rocky.) 

11. Lavender Creek, in Texas Valley, Ga. (A small clear stream.) 

C. — Coosa River. 

^ Beecb Creek, near Rome. (Muddy.) 

15- Horseieg Creek, near Rome. (Rocky, clear.) 

1^- Little Cedar Creek, at Cave Spring, Ga. (A fine-, clear, cold streani. 
One of the best for the collection of fishes. Abounds in Xenisma 
Mliferum^ Hydrophlox chrosomuHy Codoma callistia^ and other 
beautiful species.) 

9er, near Montgomery^ Ala. (Collection of Dr. Bean and 



10 CONTBIBOTIONB TO NOETH AMKEICAN ICHTHYOLOGT — ^IIL 
TI.— TENNESSEE BASIN. 

A.—.Ujpper Course. 

1. OliiioU River, tribntartes in Soutliwestern Yirglnia. (Oope, IfK 

2. PowoH'8 River, near Cumberlnud Gnp. (Clear.) 

3. ludian Creek, neiir Ciimberlunil Gap. (Clear.) * 

4. Station Greet, near Cumberland Gap. (Clear.) 

5. Uolstou River, various tributaries \a Sonthwcatem Virt 

(Cope, 1868.) 
It. Frvtivli Braid River, at Newport, Teno. (Rather deep and ma 
7. Frviich Broad Eiver, about Warm Spriogs, N. C, ABheville, - 

nnd elsewhere.) (Cope, 18C9.) (Rapid, rocky, aod gew 

dear.) 
S. U\e I'igeon River, at Cliffton, TeoD. (Rather clear.) 
9. Svrnnnumxi River, at foo; of Black Mountaiu. (Clear, cold m 

aiu stream, with tront.) 

B.—lAnrcr Courte. 

ItV OhickdinanfEa River, at Rtuggold, Ga. (Ratber clear aad 
iwky.) 

1 1. Tirilwtarii's of Tennessee Kiver, abool Hnntsville, Ala. {Agi 

NewmanV ci>llwtion, ISill.) 

12. Tribn;ariei> of Tennessee River, nltoDt Florence, Ala. (Storer, 1 




FI8HB8 OF THE 6 ANTES BASIN. 11 

The Banteei SaTannah, Altamaba, and Ghattahoocheo have been 
ezuBined only in that part of their coorse which flows over metainor- 
phie rocks. The three western streams have been studied chiefly in the 
Kimtooe regions. The litbological cbaracter of the bed of a stream 
hu fi oertain influence on its fish-fauna, as will be seen hereafter. Gen* 
enQy limestone streams are richer in si>ecies than those with granitic 
bottoms. 

The types of the new species described below are deposited in the 
Doited States National Museum at Washington, and in the Mnsenm of 
Bitto Univendtyi Indianapolis, Indio^^a. 

I.— SANTBE BASIN. 

Thirty-nine species are ascertaioed to occur in the headwaters of the 
Santee River, thirty-three having been obtained by Professor Oope in 
the Catawba Biverin North Oarolina, and tbirty by the present writers 
it the Saluda and Ennoree in South Carolina. Of these thirty nine 
ipedes, ten are not as yet known irom any other hydrographio 
besin. These are : Alvardivs craamsy iTothanotua thalasHnuSj Ceratickthys 
hhroMUij Ceratichikys zanemua^ Codoma pyrrhomelaa^ Codoma chlorUtla^ 
fhiftogeais niveus^ Albumops chlorocephaXus^ Alburnopa saludanvSy and 
M^iBtoma album. The appiirent absence of Luxilus comutus in the 
Great Pedee, Sautee, Savannali, Altamaha, and Chattahoochee Ba^iusis 
remarkable, as that species is abiiodant in the tributaries of the Neuse on 
the east and the Alabama on the west, as in all streams northward to 
Minnesota and New England. 

Tke8{)ecies most abundant as to individuals, in the Saluda at least, 
i* probably KotropU photogenia. Next to this come Codoma pyrrhome- 
'fliaud Ccratichthys bigtittatus. Of the Catosiomidw^ Myxostoma cervinum' 
•eems to be the predominant species; of the SlluridaSj Amiurufi brun- 
WKi, and of the Centrarchidcdj Lepiopomun auritus. The chief food- 
flsiies at Greenville, S. C, are the "Mud Cats" {Amiurus brunneua and 
ptoti/cephalus)y the '* Fine-scaled Sucker'' {Catostomus commerHoni)^ the 
Eel (Anguilla milgaris)^ the "Spotted Sucker" (Minytreviamelanaps), the 
^l^^Tch'" {Lepiopomus auritus)^ the "War-mouth Perch" (Cft(cwo&ry«M« 
wVWiir), the "Jack" (Esox reticulatus)^ and the "Jump Bocks" (Myxo- 
i^a cervinum). 



12 CONTBIBUTIONS TO NORTH AXERICJLS ICHTHYOLOOT — ^UI 

ETHEOSTOMATID^. 

Gemis ALVORDIUS Girard, 
I. Altobdids cbassds, sp, nor. 
Klhtetloma uamlalum vor. Copk, Proc. Am. Philoa. Soo. 1870, 261, 262, and »S. (Set 
ttadnpttru* tnanlain* (iirard.) 

A Hiieciea bvnniig considerable resemblance to A. aspro, but lea 
diHtliivtly iiinrkei) iiiid more licavily built, tbe form being less gracernl 
tbut) tl)At of tbe oUier members of tho genus. Bod; considerably com- 
pifawtl, tbe ilt'pth 4j times in length to origin of caudal (as in all cmh 
ill this [Ht|H>r). ileud comiiuratively sbort, 3^- in lengtb ; the BDOOt 
nuHlium, nut ncumimUe as iu A. phoxLcephalua, jior especially obtaw. 
Kyt> iiKHlentto, h8 long us snout, 4 in head. Mouth rather small for tit 
gi'nus, uearly liorizuntiil, the upper jatr but little the longer: nppa 
j«w not im>jei'tiU> : mnxtllury reaching anterior margin of eye. 

Cl)(H.'kti naked: oiK>ix:les with a fe\r scales above: back and bnnit 
uaketl : middle line of belly iu some specimens naked : in otben nith 
eiilarj^M i>lalr&. Seales on the botly nither larger than osaal, about 

Fin» modomtely develo|KHl: dorsal XII-I. 10, \-nr\ing to XI-1, 11; 
ail iiH^misp in tho uuwt>er of the spines, as osaal, accompanying * 
dM'Tvas«> ill the nnuilter of soft rays, a rule apparently not hitherto 
tKtik'vd. and ix'fhaps nut of gouenil applicatioo. Tbe two donal flu 




^8H£S OF THE SANTEE BASIN. 13 

Genus BOLEOSOMA DeKay. 

2. BOLEOSOMA MAGULATICEPS Copc. 

Mmma maetilaticepa Cope (1870), Proc. Am.Pbilos. Soc. 269 and 450. (Catawba 
B.)— Jordan Sl Copklamd (1^76), Check List (Bull. Baffalo Soc. Nat. Hist.), 
lea. (Name only.) 
Mh maaUaHorp9 Jordan (1877), Ball. U. S. Nat. Mus. s, 15. (Name only.) 
^fkmma olmstedi Jordan (1877), Add. N. Y. Lye Nat. Hist. 368. (Ocmulgee River.) 

A single specimen taken in the Saluda Biver at Farr's Mills answers 
doselj to Professor Cope's description. The npper part of the cheeks 
kaTe, however, a few scattering scales. This species is a true Boleosoma, 
Altboagh the type of Bolcosoma has but a single anal spine and B. effuh 
^maod B. maculaticeps have two anal spines, the essential character of 
those spines is the same in both cases, and the genus Arlina^ based on 
B^efulgens^ is a synonym of Boleoaoma. In Boleosoma, the spines are 
ill weak and flexible, and those of the anal especially so. In most or 
an of the other genera of Etheoatomatidce^ the anal spines are stiff and 
loug, and, with scarcely an exception, the first spiite is the longer of the 
two. In the species of Boleosoma, with two anal spines, the two spines 
ireoDeqnal, the second the longer, both extremely slender and flexible; 
iK)t at all ^' spinel-like, except that they are not inarticulate. This 
feeble condition of the spines seems to constitute the chief generic 
character of Boleosoma, 

Two of the species provisionally referred by Professor Jordan (Bull, 
U.S. Nat. Mns. x) to ^^Arlina^\ viz, Arlina stigmcea Jor. and A, airipin- 
»« Jor., have the anal spines well developed, as usual in Etheostomatidce. 
These two species and their congeners apparently constitute a distinct 
genas, differing from Diplesium in the toothed vomer and from Notho- 
w/w ia the protractile npper jaw. For this genus, the name of 
Vhcentra (Jordan) has been suggested (Man. Vert. ed. 2d, p. 223), in 
allQgiou to the development of the spines. 

Genus NOTHONOTUS Agassiz 

3. NoTUONOTUS thalassinus, «/?. nov. 

A handsome species, differing from the others now referred to this 
L 8«DUjiin the entire nakedness of the head. 

^T rather, stout, the depth about 5 times in the length, com- 

the back somewhat arched. Head large, 4 in length, 
and convex in profile; a pretty decided angle 



14 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMEBICAN ICHT^OLOQT — HI. 
opposite the e;e. Eyes larfi^o, ),jgi] ap^ longer tban the mozzlc, 3 
ia bead : ioterorbital space ratber narrow, the eye having some opwat 
raDge. Moutb mixlerate, sbghtly obliqae, the maxillary n-achiug 1 
orbit. Upper ji(\r eligiitly longer than the lower, not protractile, ties 
eotirely naki-d, both ubeeliB and opercles being destitute of scaler 

Scales large, 5-il!-5. Uelly scaled: throat naked: ucck anterior 
naked, but scaly io front of the dorsal : lateral line complete. 

Flus all large : U, X-1, 10, or lX-1, II, the oiembraoe of the first dc 
sat continued to the base of the second: longest dorsal spinealitl 
over balf the length of the bead, scarcely shorter tbati the solt ray 
the base of the spinous dorsal a little lunger thaa that of the soft ilc 
sat. Anal IT, 8, rather smaller thaa set^oud dorsal, the first spiue longi 
and larger than the second. Caudal tin deeply Innate, almost forhe 
Pectoral and ventral fins large; the former reaching nearly to the veui 
the latter somewhat shorter. 

Color, in spirits: Olive, closely mottled and tessellated above witl 
dark green ; this color extending down the sider*, forming fix or eigbl 
irregular dark green bars. Head daik green ; a dark green line dom 
word from eye and another forward. Fins in males nearly plain, Ibc 
spinous dorsal with a black edge ; females with all tbu tins except tbi 
ventrals closely barred or speckled with dark green. Two paleoru>e( 
spots at the base of the caudal. 

Lite-colors : The colors of a male specimen in life are as follows: Bodj 
dark olive and blotched above: sides with nine dark blue-green veitiMl 




nSHES OF THE' SANTEE BASIN. 1 5 

Genus ETHEOSTOMA Eafinesque. 
4. Etheostoma flabellare Kaf. 

(CaUmoius flabellatua Aact.) 

Three specimens doabtfuUy referred to this species were obtained by 
Ffoteoer Cope in tbe Catawba River. 

CENTRARCHIDJ]. 

Genus MICROPTERUS LacepMe. 

5. MiOROPTEBUS PALLiDUS {Rafinesque) QUI d; Jordan. 

Professor Cope obtained this species in the Catawba. We collected 
iKKiein the Saluda or Euuoree, bat we were told that ^^ Trout '\ as the 
species of Micrapteruit are universally called in the South, are frequently 
tikeo there. 

Genus CHiENOBRYTTUS Gill 4 

6. Ch^nobryttus viridis {Guv. & Vol,) Jordan. 

The War-mouth Perch occurs in abundance in the Saluda, and appar- 
tttly ID all the South Atlantic streams. Cope says that it is exceedingly 
conmoD in all the streams of Eastern North Carolina, and that it is 
known as the Red eyed Bream on the Catawba. This species is very 
Ately related to C. gulosusy dififering chiedy in the color and in the 
•wnewhat less robust form. It may be only a variety. 

Genus LEPIOPOMUS Rafinesque. 

7. LEPIOPOMUS AURiTUS (LinncBus) Raf. 

^ my specimens of this sp^ies from the Saluda have a dusky blotch 
^bar at the base of the soft dorsal, a feature of coloration not shown by 
^y Northern s|)ecimens. This is a widely diffused species, and, like most 
**ch| is quite variable. 

Genus EUPOMOTIS Gill & Jordan. 

8. EuPOMOTis AUREUS {Walbaum) Gill & Jordan. 

^*^ies8or Cope obtained this species in Catawba River. We have 
it in the fe! m States. It is probably chiefly con- 



16 COHTRIBUTIOKS TO KOBTH AUEBICAN ICHTHYOLOOT — HI. 
ESOCID^. 

Genus ESOX Linneeus. 

g. Esox BET1CULA.TC8 Le Sueur. 

Very common. We are unable to distJDguisb tbe Sonthern foi 
[jgiuiUratm Say, a^n'u Holbrook} as even rarietally distiuct from tl 
Nortliern reticulatua. 

10. ESOX EAVENELI Holbrook. 

Obt^ned by Professor Cope in tbe Catawba. Its specific distinctit 
from E. americanus timeliii api>earH questionable. 

salmonidj:. 

Genus SALVJ:L1NUS Itkhardson. 

II. Salveliiv'Ds FONT1NAL1S (JlfJtc/iifO GUI A Jordan. 

Tbis s[>eciea was found by Professor Cope iu the headnatera of t 
Catawba Jiiver. 

CYPRINID^. 

Genus CAMPOSTOMA Agassis. 

12. CAMPOSTOMA ANUHALUX {R"/-) ^3- 




FISHES OF THE SANTEE BASIN. 17 

talent to the sobgenerio section of Albumops or ^^ Hybopsia^^ called 
EndioniuB by Oiranl. 

Body elon^te, but compared with its immediate relatives, hudsoninsj 
onanu, aod 8torerianu8j short and thick ; moderately compressed, the 
depth 4| in length : caadal pedancle shortened, 4f in length : head large, 
4 times in length, relatively heavy and gibbous forward, the snout 
roonded in profile, as in A. hudsonius. Eye large, rather wider than 
interorbital space, about equal to snout, 3^ in head. 

Hooth moderate, snbinferior, the maxillary not reaching to eye. 

Scales large, thin, and loose, 5-39-3, about twelve in front of the dor-* 
Ml fin. Lateral line somewhat decurved in front. 

Fio8 moderately developed. Dorsal beginning in advance of ventrals, 
If 8; its first ray nearer snout than caudal. Anal I, 8, rather small. 
Pectorals not reaching to ventrals, the latter not to vent. 

Color clear olivaceous, nearly white, like the rest of the group, some 
H>eciineDS showing a faint plumbeous lateral line. 

Teeth 1, 4-4, 1, two or three of the principal row obtuse, not hooked ; 
ooijone or two of the teeth usually showing a masticatory face. 

Habitat — Abundant in Saluda River, where it reaches a length of 
sboQt foar inches. Also obtained by Professor Cope from the Catawba* 

The peculiar characters of this species have been noticed by Pro- 
fcwor Cope, who, however, was disposed to consider it a variety of 
B. amarus. It differs from our specimens of what we consider to be 
tbe latter species (from Ocmulgee liiver) in the smaller eye, the thicker 
kead, shorter, deeper bodj-, more decurved front, and shorter caudal 
i^oncle. In amarusj the eye is 3 in head, the head 4f in length, and 
tbe caadal i)eduncle 3|. 

^e have been disposed to unite, under the generic name LuxilvSy a 
^ge uamber of species forming a series the extremes of which bear 
Kttle resemblance to each othc^r or to the means, but which form a chain 
"ttonbroken that it is difficult to draw any generic lines among them. 

ITbat this group may ultimately be broken up into natural genera is very 
Probable, but the groups thus far proposed have not received very 
•»ti«factory definition. 
These species agree (a) in the absence of any special modification, 
^ther of mouth, fins, or alimentary canal ; {b) in the dentition, the 
"^h being in one or two rows, always four in the principal row of 
"*iiriftl type, and some or aU of them provided with a grinding 
And io Bomet p afli iviysi one edge of the masticatory 



18 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — lU. 

surface is more or less creuate, especially in yoang individaals ; (o) the 
aual fin is always short, containing from seven to nine rays; (d) the 
dorsal fin is never inserted very far behind the ventrals ; (e) the lateral 
line is developed and continuous. 

The species dififer much among themselves in size, nuptial dress, and 
general appearance, notably in the squamation, the scales of the typical 
species of Luxilua being closely imbricated and much hight^r than long, 
while in the gronp called Hudsonius the two dimensions of the scales are 
»early equal. The scales themselves, in Hudsonius^ are thin and loosely 
imbricated. Within certain limits, the position of the dorsal varies also. 
In HudsonitiSy its first ray is in advance of the insertion of the ventrals; 
in LtuciliM and AlburtiopSy usually directly opposite ; in Photogenis and 
HydrophloXj distinctly posterior. The form of the mouth varies largely : 
in L.ooccogeni8y it is wide and ojblique, the lower jaw projecting. In 
the typical species of Alburnops and HudsoniuSy the mouth is small and 
more or less inferior. 

The species may be provisionally grouped as follows, under five groups, 
four of which may be considered as distinct genera. Those species 
whose position is doubtful are indicated by a mark of interrogation : — 
A. — LuxiLUS Rafinesque. (Scales very closely imbricated, much deep- 
er than long: teeth2, 4-4, 2, entire: dorsal fin inserted directly op- 
posite ventrals: month terminal: size large: nuptial dress 
peculiar ; type Gyprinus cornutua Mit.) 
eomutus Mit. coccogenis Cope. 

seUne Jor. 
B. — Photogenis Cope. (Scales pretty closely imbricated, deeper than 
long: teeth 1, 4-4, 1, more or less crenate (rarely one-rowed 1) : 
dorsal fin behind ventrals, always with a black spot on the last 
rays behind : males in spring tuberculate, the lower fins and the 
tips of the vertical fins filled with satin-white pigment in spring: 
mouth terminal, the upper jaw longest : size medium ; type P. 
spilopterus Cope = Cyprinella analostana), 
analoatnnus Girard. nivetts Cope. 

galacturus Cope. iris Cope (!). 

Icucopus J. & B. 
C. — Hydrophlox Jordan. (Scales less closely imbricated, somewhat 
deeper than long; teeth usually 2, 4-4, 2, often more or less 
crenate : dorsal fin distinctly behind ventrals, unspotted : breed- 
ing dress pecnliar, thema'es almost always red : mouth terminal, 



I 



FISHES OF THE SANTEE BASIN. 19 

obliqae, the apper jaw nsaall}^ slightly the longer : size ver} 
small; type Eybopsis rubricroceus Coi^i^.) 

roBeus Jordan. chrosomus Jor. 

rubrioroeeus Cope. xamocephalus Jor. 

l^fpinnis J. & B. plumheolu8 Gope. 

chUitiev$ Goiie. bivittatus Cope. 

ekalifbcBfis Cope. lacertosus Cope. 

D.«-ALBnBNOPs Girard. (Scales rather loosely imbricated: teeth 
4-4, or ly 4-4, 1 : dorsal fin inserted over ventrals, unspotted : 
sexes alike: mouth more or less inferior, horizontal or oblique: 
size small ; type Alhumops blennius Grd.) 

microsta^Hus Raf. timpanogenais Cope. 

volueellus Co[>e. cliloracephalu8 Cope. 

9peetrunculus Cope. fretensis Cope. 

procne Coi>e. nuMlus Forbes. 

tiramineus Cope. blcnn%U8 Ord. 

iuditanus Cope (t). shumardi Grd. 

miMurienn^ Cope. illecebrosus Grd. 

sc^Zia Cope. 

^^HuDSONius Girard. (Scales thin and loosely imbricated : teeth 1, 
4-4, 1 or 2, the grinding surface often distorted : dorsal inserted 
in advance of ventrals: colors silvery : sexes alike: mouth in- 
ferior: body elongate, the head comparatively short: size 
medium ; type Clupea hudsonia Clinton.) 
taludanus J. & B. amarua Girard* 

hudsonius Clinton. storerianus Kirtland. 

We have substituted the name Albumops Grd. for the earlier name 
^iiopna^ as we think that the latter genus was founded on a species of 

15. Alburnops chloeocephalus (Cope) J. & B. 

^9^>9ptis chlorooephaluB CoPE (1870), Proc. Am. F»hilo8. Soc. 461. 

'Hiis beautiful little fish is abundant in the clear rapid waters of the 

Salada. It resembles H. rubricroccua, but is smaller and stouter- bodied, 

^th smaller' mouth. The scales in front of the dorsal are fewer (about 

It) in number. The teeth are 1, 4-4, 1 (2, 4-4, 2, in rubricroceua). The 

meebnens are profusely tuberculate on the snout and ante-dorsal 

^"^nefoond this species abundant in the clear waters 



20 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — lU. 

Genus PHOTOGENIS Cope. 

16. PHOTOGENIS NIVEUS {Gope) J. &. B. 
Eyhop9ia niveu9 Cope (1870), Proc. Am. Pbilos. Soo. 4G1. 

A very pale species, related to Photogenia analostanus and P. galacturus^ 
rather than to the species of ^^Hyhopsis^^ to which genus Professor Coi^e 
referred it. My specimens are all very white, with a narrow bluish 
stripe along the caudal peduncle, which sometimes forms a faint spot 
at base of caudal. In male specimens, the snout and ante-dorsal region 
are covered with small tubercles. In males, the dorsal An is considerably 
elevated. In color, the dorsal fin is largely dusky on the last rays, the 
most of the fin somewhat creamy-tiuted. The tip of the dorsal fin and 
the tips of the caudal are filled with milk-white pigment, as in the 
related species. The anal fin is entirely milky. The teeth are 1, 4-4, I, 
provided with a narrow masticatory surface. 

Fhotogenis niveu8 is abundant in the Saluda Eiver. It was first dis- 
covered by Professor Gope in the Catawba Kiver. 

17. PHOTOGENIS ANALOSTANUS (Otrard) Jordan. 

We did not find this species in the Saluda, although Professor Cope 
states that it is abundant in the Catawba. It is perhai)S possible that 
Professor Cope mistook our Codoma cliloristia^ a species which resem- 
bles it very much, except in dentition, for the true analostanus. The 
^*Cyprinella analostana^^ has been a stumbling-block in the classification 
of these fishes, as to the masticatory surface of Lnxilus it adds the cre- 
nations of Cyprinella. We are inclined to think that Cyprinella should 
be restricted to those species whose teeth are without grinding surfaces 
and are permanently crenate. The relations of Luxilus analostanus^ 
spilopteru^j galacturusj leucopus, and nireus are much more intimately with 
the species of ^Codoma than with Luxilus, but the development of grind- 
ing surfaces on the teeth renders it necessary to refer them to the latter 
genus, unless Fhotogenis be admitted as a distinct genus. 

Genus CODOMA Girard. 

(Subgenus EROGALA Jordan.) 

Fhotogenis Jordan (1877), Ann. Lye. Nat. Ilist. N. Y. 335. (Not of Cope, whose type, 
P. apiloptems, proves to be a species closely related to L. analostanus, if not 
identical with it.) 

Examination of a large number of specimens supposed to be Fhotogenis 
9pilopterus^ from Saint Joseph's Biver, in Northern Indiana, Professor 



FISHES OF THE SANTEE BASIN. 21 

'^[>e'tforigioal locality, has convioced ns that the spilopteriiSy the type of 
the genos PhotogeniSj does uot belong to the group of colored species for 
which Professor Jordan lately adopted the latter name. The genus PhO' 
tof^tf (Jordan) being thus left without a name, that of Erogala has beea 
BQggested (}>, spring-time; ydXay milk, in allusion to the milk-white pig- 
ment with which the male fishes are ornamented in the nuptial season)* 
Codoma Ord. differs from Erogala in the form of the head, which is 
Bhortj blunt, and rounded, as in Phnephales. We do not now think that 
the two are distinct as genera, and prefer to consider Erogala as a sub- 
genos of Codoma. 

The type of Erogala is Photogenis stigtnaturua Jordan. This subgenus 
is remarkable for its geographical distribution. All of the species thus 
far kuown belong to the Southern States, and each of the Southern 
river-basins probably has from two to four species of the genus; not a 
single apecics, so far as known, being common to two different river- 



The distribution of the species of Erogala is as follows :— - 

Santee Basin : pyrrhomelas Cope. 

chloristia J. & B. 
Savannah Basin : none known. 
Altamaha Basin : xcenura Jor. 

calliaema Jor. 
Chattahoochee Basin : euryntoma Jor. 
Flint River : formosa Putn. 
Alabama Basin : callistia Jor. 

trichroiatia J. & G. 
ccerulea Jor. 
stigmatura Jor. 
I^^er west their place is taken by the species of Gyprinella having 
•^f^ated teeth, and farther north by the species of Luxilm^ section Pho- 
^^0^, having teeth with developed grinding surfaces. 

'Hie species of Codoma are remarkable for their exquisite coloration, 
^ostof them being adorned with bright red in addition to the milky 
pigment The black dorsal spot is present in all the species. 

18. Codoma ghlobistia, sp, nov. 

^tijf sIm^ and deep, strongly compressed, the form elliptical, 

# /I, purrhomelas^ but rather deeper, the depth of adults 
' BCeBd rather small and pointed, 4^ in length. 



22 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY HI. 

Eye moderate, less than snout, 4 iu head. Mouth rather small, quite 
oblique, the maxillary not attaining the line of the orbit, the upper jaw 
projecting beyond the lower, especially in spring males. The head and 
mouth considerably resemble those parts in P. analo8tanu8. 

Scales*much deeper than long, very closely and smoothly imbricated, 
more or less dark-edged above. 5-37-3. Lateral line decurved. 

Fins moderately develoi>ed : dorsal distinctly behind ventrals, its first 
ray about midway between nostrils and the base of the caudaL Dorsal 
1, 8. Anal 1, 8. 

Nuptial tubercles iu the male greatly developed, covering rather 
sparsely the top of the head and the region anterior to the dorsal. Iu 
addition, similar tubercles cover the caudal peduncle and the whole sides 
of the body« except the space below the lateral line and in front of the 
ventrals. The tubercles on t^e body are considerably smaller than 
those on the head, and smaller than in xcenura or pyrrhomelaSj but they 
cover a much larger area than iu any of the latter species of the genas. 
Chin tuberculate. 

Teeth 1, 4-4, 1, entire, without masticatory surface. 

Coloration, in life : General color a dark steel-blue, a very distinct 
blue stripe along each side of the caudal peduncle, as in (7. ccerulea^ bat 
fainter : sides of body with fine steely-purple lustre : back clear green : 
head clear browjiish : iris white: cheeks of a pale violet color: lower 
part of sides becoming rather abruptly milky-white: dorsal fin with 
the usual large black spot on the last rays well developed, and the 
usual milk-white pigment in the tips: lower part of the dorsal fin with 
))igment of a tine clear green color, somewhat as in analostanus, but 
unusually bright: caudal fin chiefly dusky, its tips milky and the base 
somewhat so; the middle of the fin has a slight reddish tinge: aual 
fin entirely milky, a faint dusky spot on its last rays, resembling that 
on the dorsal : ventral fins milky. 

Female and young specimens are more slender, and the bright colors 
are usually wanting or obscured. 

Size small ; length of largest specimens less than three inches. 

In form, this species resembles C. pyrrhomelasj but the short anal 
(eight rays instead of ten) will always distinguish the species. Tho 
coloration of the male is different, being much less brilliant, although 
))erhaps more delicate. 0. chloristia resembles in color 0. ccerulea most, 
but the latter species has a much more slender form. 

Habitat — Abundant iu the clear waters of Saluda Biver, with C. 



[ 



FI8HE8 OF THE SANTEE BASIN. 28 

ff^^^i'^ukij Phoiogenia niveusj Alburnaps chlorocephaluSy and other hand* 

19. GODOMA PYBBHOMELAS (Cope) J Of. 
f^f*tHitkpfrrhameUi9 Copb (1870), Proo. Am. Philos. Soc. Phila. 463. 

This species, the most ornate of the genns, and one of the most bril- 
liut <tf Oyprinida, is extremely abundant in the clear rapid waters of 
the Saloda and its tribntaries. The general color of the males is dark 
iM-Uoe above, with the scales darker-edged, the bi lly abrnptly milky- 
whitSi The bead is pale reddish ; the snout, the tip of lower jaw, and 
tke iris above and below are scarlet; the dorsal fin is dusky at base, 
hn a large black spot on the last rays, is red in front, and broadly milk- 
white at tip. The tii>sof the caudal fin are milk-white; next to this 
ootoee adnsky crescent ; a wide bright scarlet crescent lies inside of the 
hliekaad extends into the two lobes of the fin. The base of the fin is 
pele. 

The top of the head and the region in front of the dorsal are covered 
vlth small pale tubercles. The sides of the caudal peduncle are pro- 
vided with rather larger tubercles, arranged in rows along the series of 
Miles. 

This is the most abundant fish iu the waters of Catawba River, accord- 
ing to Professor Cope. 

Genus NOTROPIS Rqfinesque. 

(MinniluB Rafioesqae; Albumellus Girard.) 

20. NoTROPis PHOTOGENis {Cope) Jordan. 

k''^ pkoiogfniM Cora (1864) Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 280. 

^'^•fifaiu Umeof Copk (1860), Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 379, and elsewhere. 

Hj specimens differ considerably from the typical forms of this spe- 

• 

^ Imt correspond to Professor Cope's '* var. a aa a a^^ from the Ca- 
^^ha. It is the most abundant species in the Saluda waters, especially 
^iiQiore sluggish tributaries. Two forms, perhaps varieties, perhaps 
^iffijTent sexes, occur, the one pale, with deep, compressed body ; the 
other darker, with the scales dark -edged and the body much more elon- 
K^ It is difficult to distinguish the latter form from N. ielescopus 
* (^le). The pale form has the head above and under jaw covered with 
"^ pointed tubercles. 



24 CONTRIBDTrpXS TO NOHTU AUttKlCAM ICHTHTOLOQT — ^Dl. 

Genus GILA Baird <£ Girard. 

(Sabgeiius CLINOSTOMDS Oimrd.) 

21. Gila vasdoisula {Cue. di Val.) Jar, 

XwGiwvi MndouHltM C. &. V. (1844), Hint. Nat. Poiaa. xvii, 317. 
CKi>04t(initt(ajf!MiiGiRAiiD(lR5ti), Ptoc. Ac. Nat. Sc.212. 

This Bpctiies is cotamon in tbe Saluda waters, as in the Cotawb 
TadkiD, and otber Soutborn streamn. It seems to prefer still, or eve 
muddy waters, as wo foand it more abuudaiit in the Beedy Biver tbi 
iu either Saluda or Enuoree. Our specimena were greenUb orblnii 
in color, the back mottled with scales of a diSereut hue, as Dsnal in tli 
{;eDu8. Id the mules, the region behind the head aod above the pc 
torals and extending backward to tbe nual arc of a brigfat rosy-n 
brightest just behind the bead. Tbore is no distinct dark lateral ban 
None of oar specimens were noticed to be tnbeicalate. The oharacte 
distinguish ing this species from the more northerly Q^ia (G'/jiuwt<Mi 
/undutoides have been well given by Professor Cope (Joam. Ao. Ni 
Sci. Philft. 1868, 228). 

Genua NOTEMIGONUS BqSnesque. 

22. NoTKMiGONUS AMERICAHU8 (ttn«.) Jordan. 
Notamigonui mcAohui Jordan (1077), Add. Lyo. Nat. Hist. p. 364. 




F18HE8 OF THE 8ANTEE BASIN. 25 

talUer Bhorter thaa the long mazzle, placed nearly midway in head, 
tboot 3^ in head. 
Month rather large, inferior, the lips mnch thickened, Sucker-like ; 
upper jaw extremely protractile; the lower with a conspicuous internal 
^Dge of papilise. 

Barbels extremely long, probably longer than in any other of our 
Cyprinoids; their length § to | the diameter of the eye. 

Scales tiioderatey pretty closely imbricated, 5-40-3; 15 or IG in front 
of doraiil. Lateral line continuous, slightly deflected forward. 

FiDS rather small, high, and short. Dorsal 1, 8, originating slightly 
behind the base of the ventrals, as in C labrosus and C- monachus. Anal 
1)7. Caudal deeply forked, its peduncle long and slender. 

Coloration, in spirits, quite pale ; a small, round, black spot at base 
ofcaadal: dorsal scales dark-edged: some dark points along caudal 
pedonde, forming a dark st.eak: muzzle punctate. Largo s|)ecimeus 
vitha large dark patch on the last rays of dorsal, as in C7. monacUus 
tod the species of Codama : base of dorsal fin with dark points. Cheeks 
tnd opercles silvery. 

In the spring, the male fishes are profusely tnberculate on the head 
indDeck,and the flus arc flushed with crimson. Teeth 1, 4-4, 1, hooked, 
vithoat masticatory surface. 

Tbe largest specimens taken were nearly three inches long, but most 
»ere less than two. 

Ibis species is abundant in SaUula River. It appears to be distiuct 
from C. labro8U8j that species having larger scales and some other points 
of difference. C, lahrusus^ monachusj aiul zanemus differ from their con- 
poers in the backward position of the dorsal and in the greater devel- 
opment of the lips. 

24. Ceratichtuys labrosus Cope. 

^^^^•iiehtky$ Jalnro$M8 CoPK (1870), Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 458. 

Professor Cope found this species not uncommon in the upper waters 
of tbe Catawba. We did not fiud it in the Saluda or the Ennoree. 



I 



25. Ceratichthys hypsinotus Cope. 

^''•ttei/Ajff kffp»inotu$ CoPK (1870), Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 458. 

Ais species is not uncommon in the Saluda. Breeding males are 
^tilled, and the fins are quite re<l. The head is more or less rosy 
dale al)ove. This species has a very small barbel, and might 
to a EydropUox of the mirjoroeeicf type. 



26 C0KTBIBUTI0S8 TO SOBTH AMBBtCAS ICHTHTOLOOT U 

20. Ceratiohthts biguttatds (Eirt.) BairA, 

The commoD Horned Chub is very abandaDt id all the tribota 
the StUnilH. 

Genus SEMOTILUS Bqfinessue. 

27. Sbhotilus coBpoBAua (Hit.) Putn. 

This commoD species occurs ia the tribntariea of tbe Salada. 

CATOSTOMTDJE. 
Genua MYXOSTOMA Mafinesque. 

( Jfoznloma bdiI TWwfxIu Baf. ; Ptgehoatowuit Ag.) 
28. Mtxostoxa CEBTmuM Cape. 

ThwfaliM wrriiiN* CoPB (1868), Jonni. Ao. Nat. So. Fhilo. 235. 
ItjrdtMlamu oerrtmu COTB (lti70), Pn>o. Am. PbUoa. Soo. 4T8. 

This little Sucker is exceedingly abaDdnnt ia the Salnda, Beed; 
BuDoree. It abounils in rapida and rooky shoals, and is popolarly i 
as •* Jnmp-rockB", from its habitof leaping (torn tbe vater. It ia not 
valued, except by Dcgroes, small boys, ami aataralists. The black 
margiu of the dorsal is a characteristic color-mark. 



29. BIyxobtoma papuxosdm (Cope) Jor, 




FISHES OF THE 8AHTEE BABOt. 27 

32. Myxostoma album {Cope) J. db B. 

PtydMMmrt aVb^ Cops (1870), Proc Am. Phil. Soc. 472. 

The species — the " White Mnllef — was found by Professor Cope in 
tbe Catawba Biver only. We obtained no specimens from the Saluda, 
which is perhaps due to tbe fact that our collections were not made 
during the season of the migrations. 

Genus ERIMYZON Jordan. 

{M7X09ioma Agassiz, but Dot of Raf.) 

33. Ebimtzon suoetta (Lac,) Jordan. 

CfpriMM raceUa LAC^piDS. 
C^pritM obUm^pu MiTCHlLU 

This species is moderately abundant in the Saluda Elver. Professor 
Cope foand neither this species, nor tbe next, in the Catawba. 

Genus MINYTREMA Jordan. 

34. MlNYTBEMA MELANOPS [Raf) Jor. 

Catottmua melanops IZafixesquu, Kirtland, etc. 
i/AiMfonki victoria Gikakd. 
Erimjfzon wulanopa Jordan. 

This widely diffused species is abundant in tlie mill-ponds, etc., of tbe 
Saluda River, and is known as the Striped Sucker. It is considerably 
valued as a food-fish. Many specimens were taken at Bannister's Mills, 
on the Eunoree, tbe proprietor of tbe mill, Mr. Bannister, having 
kindly drawn oft' tbe water from his pond, in order to enable us better 
to examine its flsbe^. Our specimens seem to be precisely like the ordi- 
nary melanops from tbe Ohio lliver and tbe Great Lakes. 

• Genus CATOSTOMUS Le Sueur. 

35. CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI {Lac.) JoT. 

The Fine-scaled Sucker is common in tbe Saluda, as in nearly every 
stream east of the Bocky Mountains. It is especially abundant in mill- 
pouds. 



28 CONTBIBUTIONS TO MOBTH AMERICAN ICBTBTOLOGY — ^tH 
SILUUID^. 

Genus AMIURUS Rafitmgm. 

30. AuiUBus BBCNNBUS Jordan. 

JmiKrkt plaigetphalia Cope (li70), Pcoc Am. Philoa. Sdc. 485. (Not PtmOadn, 

ctjiiiatiui Qnl.) 
AntUraa brumieui Juhdah (1870), Ann. Lye. Nat Hilt. 366. 

Tbi» U tlie coiuiDou cat-flsb of tbe Sutada, aud is known as tlie 
Cat. Adult specioiens roach u length of abont 18 inches, and bear 
reaemblunee to the yoiitif;, from which the spcisies was first dcsci 
The adidts are extremely elongate, nearly terete behind, with fiai, 
bi-oad heads. In color, they iir» of a more or less clear yellotrish-ji 
more ditttiiicCly greeu than is any other species. The nHine " brum 
ouly a|iplies well bo the young. The species may be known frui 
relateil A. platycephalui by the more elongate form, tiie shorter an 
(10 to 18 rays instead of 20), and by the month, which is some 
inferior, tbe lower jaw being much the shorter, while in A.platyeep 
the Jaws are equal. Tbe color is also different in the two species 
platycepluilHS is yellowish, dark above, aod more or less marbled oi 
sides with darker, resembling, iu that respect, A. marmorattu. J 
bi-UHtiei'D, the caudal fin is nsaally nneqaal, the upper lobe beioj 
longer, and the rudimentary csndal rays are nnasnally nnmeroai 
siHJcitiien nearly a foot long had the alimenbiry caual fuar timn 




trSHES OF THE SAVANNAH BASIN. 29 

Genus NOTURUS Bafinesque. 

38. NoTUBUS INSIGNIS {Richardson) QUI & Jor. 

SStfmw wuurginaim9 Baud. 

This species is abandaDt in the rock-pools of Keedy River. It prob- 
blf Occam Iq all the Atlantic streams as far north as Peunsylvania. 

ANGUILLID^. 

Genus ANGUILLA Thunlerg, 

39. ANGUILLA VULGARIS Fleming. 

The commoQ Eel is abundant in all the streams of the Southern States 
08 far explored. 

LEPIDOSTEIDiE. 

Genus LEPIDOSTEUS Lacepede. 

40. LEPIDOSTEUS OSSEUS (L.) Ag. 

This Ash is said to occur in the Saluda, but we obtained no specimens. 

II. — WATEEBASIN OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER. 

Fifteen species are ascertained to occur in the water-basin of the 
ItvaoDah. Of thcHe, two species are recorded from npocimens in the 
Tnited States National Museum ; one on the authority of Profesj^or 
Igissiz, the others from our collections in the Tugaloo Hirer and in Toe- 
M Greek. None of these species are peculiar to the Savannah Basin. 
the common Cgprinidw are all of Tennessee River types ; the others are 
4tber sf^ecies of general distribution, or else are shared with other 
iootbem streams. ^ 

Id seining the Tugaloo Eiver, two rather unexpected features were 
iade manifest: first, the very small number of small fishes, both Cypri- 
iMr and EtheostomatidcB inhabiting the river. There seem to be very 
bv species present, and these few are represented by very few individ- 
Ids. Although the islands below the mouth of Panther Creek fcrnish 
QSt excellent seining-ground, yet our fishing was a series of '^ water- 
▲ fliuBle draw of the seine in the Saluda or the Etowah would 

cues and more individuals than were secured in 



30 CONTBISnTIONS TO NORTH AUEEICAIT ICHTHTOLOGy — n 

The second )>ecnliarity of tbe Tagaloo faaua is that its oband 
flbhes are all of ty|>ea abuodant ia the Teuaessee Rirer, but Dot 
from aay otltor of tbe Atlaatic streams. Of tbese may be men 
Photogenic gnlaeturvi, Luxilus coccogatu, Hydrophlox mbrieroen 
Catogtomua nigricans. The close proximity of the sources of the T 
and tbe Little Tennessee, War Woman Crrek and Little TenneMe< 
rising on opposite sides of _ Rabun Gap, and of the Tallnlah ai 
HiaWHS»ei>, may perbups help to explain this auonialy of distribn 

ETHKOSTOMATIDiE. 
Genus HADEOPTERUS Affossb. 

1. DA.DB0PTSBU8 NiaROFASOtATUS ^ff. 

A single large specimen was taken in Toccoa Creek, near ' 
Falls. ' 

CENTRARCHID^. 
Genus MICROPTERUS Lac^p^. 

2. MiCROPTERUS SALMOIDES (LtfC.) OitL 
(Var. MbaoUet.) 
Tbe small-montbed Black Bass or " Trout '^ of Ibe Sontlieni at 

liiliooflu-c. Al;ili;niKi) differs f 




i 



FI8BGB8 OF TtiE SAVANNAH BASIN. 31 

bntrked by pretty regalar lines of dark olive-green spots along the 
aerieiof scales. The lower fins are asnally more or less red, and the 
khek, yellow, and white coloration of the caudal fin, so conspicnoos iu 
joiogq)ecimeos of the Northern form — in the Western States, at least — 
k not Dodceable in the Soathern variety. 

Ibis species is abundant in the tribataries of the Savannah, where it 
ii known as the <' Trent ''• 

• Genus XENOTIS Jordan. 
3. Xenotis sanguinolentus {Agassiz) Jordan, 

kiV>AK (1S77), Add. Lyo. Nat. Hist. 318. 

A single 8i>ecimen of this beautiful fish is in the National Museum 
from Augusta, Oa. It is identical with my specimens from the Etowah, 
aeotioned in the paper above cited, but it is possibly not the species 
to which Agassiz gave the name of sanguinolentus. The species of the 
(eous Xenotis are extremely difilcult either to define or to recognize. 

CYPRINODONTIDJE. 

'Genus ZYGONECTES Agassiz. 
4. Ztgonegtbs nottii Agassiz. 

A ^^ Zifgonect^s guitatus^ is recorded by Professor Agassiz from the 
BaTaonah near Augusta. Professor Putnam informs me, from the ex- 
imination of the type-specimens, that the species is identical with Z. 
sottti Ag. 

SALMONID^.. 
Genus SALVELINUS Richardson. 

5. ^^ILTELINUS FONTINALIS {Mitch.) QUI & Jor. 

The common Brook Trout is very abundant in the clear tributaries of 
tte Chatuga and Toxaway Kivers, at the foot of the Blue Ridge. This 
i*T'ery near the southern limit of the species, although it is said to occur 
in certain tributaries of the Upper Chattahoochee, farther west. 

CYPRINID^. 

Genus LUXILUS Rafinesqiie. 
6. LuxiLUB coccoGENis (Cope) Jordan. 

beAQtifol species is common in the Tugaloo. The numerous 
'\ pale, and showed only traces of the distibctive red 



32 CONTEIBOTIOSS TO KOETH AHEBICAH ICBTHYOLOGT — ^m. 

Genus PHOTOGENIS Cope. 

7. PHOTOGKKIS GALACTUnUS (Ccpe) J. «£ B. 
BaptUepi* galaclurut CoPB (1870), Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. IGO 

Tbe most aliuDdatit fish iu the Tiigitloo. Our specimens were verf 
|)ale Hud-diill colored, but tbey nre not otberwiiie differeat from ^cd' 
mens of F. galactuma t'roDi the Tenuessee aud Cumberland Biven. 

Genus HYDROPHLOX Jordan. 

8. HVDBOPQLOX BUBRICBOCBUS (Cope) J. <£ 8. 
Hyhoptii rtibrierooeva Cope (1663), Joarn. Ac. Nur. Sc £11. 

ThU Burpaasiiigly beautiful little fish abounds in the rock-pools of tbe 
smaller tributaries of tbe Tugaloo. lu Toecoa Creek, it is very abniH 
dunt, far otitnumbcring all otber speeies. We obtained many stieoi- 
nieua ft-om tliu |iool at tbe loot of Toceoa I'alla. 

Tbe lile-coloi'H are as follows: Dark steel blue; a dark lateral band of 
c<>Hly punctuliitiuna, whicb is usually distinct on tbe anterior half vi 
body, and passes tbrough tbe eye aiouiid tbe snont. All the Bus of a 
ricli clear red ; the dorsal ratbcr crimson, the eandal pfuk, the lower Bus 
full bright scarlet. Uend all pale scarlet -iL-d, the lower jaw fluked, M 
if bloody, a lustrous streak alung the sides, below which ia a distiuefe 
(•ilvery lustre. Eyes silvery, sumenbat flashed with re<1. In hick 
coloration, the entire body becomes more or leas red. This red piff- 
ment becomes more evident when a flsb is Brst placed in alcohol. Ffnl 




FISHES OF THE SAVANNAH BASIN. 33 

^U species is related to C7. hypsinotus (Gopo)^ bat has a less elevated 
^^1 regioD and longer barbels. 

10. Cbbatighthts biguttatus (Kirtland) Oirard. 

Tbe ** Horny Head'' is abundant iu all the small streams falling into 
ibe Tngaloo. It famishes much harmless sport for the amateur anglers 
rbo yearly visit the beautiful Tallulah region. 

CATOSTOMIDJl. 

Genus MYXOSTOMA Bafinesque. 

11. Myxostoma cbrvinum {Cope) Jor. 

lie little " Jump Rocks" occurs in some abundance in the Tugaloo 
t its tributaries. 

Genus CATOSTOMUS Le Suem. 

{Hylomyson Agassiz.) 
12. CATOSTOMUS NIGETCANS Le S. 

*be Hog-sucker occurs in rapid waters of the Tugaloo and Toccoa. 
B cot known to occur iu any other of the Atlantic streams south of 
Potomac. 

SILURID^. 

Genus AMIURUS Rafinesque. 

13. Amiuuus platycephalus (Oirard) Gill, 
The original types of this species in the Smithsonian Institution were 



a tributary of the Savannah at Anderson, S. C. 

Genus ICHTII^LURUS Bafinesque. 

14. ICHTH^LURUS PUNCTATUS (Raf.) Jor, 

fbe common '^Channel Cat" is found in some abundance in the T« 
oo River. 

ANGUILLIDiE. 

Genus ANGUILLA Tlmnberg. 

16. ANGUILLA VULGARIS Fleming. 

'^van inhabitant of tbe waters of the Tugaloo. 
3 



34 COKTRIBUllpSS TO NORTH AWEeiCAN ICHTHTOLOQY — in. 

III.— WA TEE- BASIN OP THE ALTAMAHA BITEB. 

Ttventy-tbrce Species are known tn occar in tbe water-ba«Q of tl 
Altamaba, exclasive of tbe Sbad {Ahsa sapidisntna), wbicb afcendsa 
tbeSoatberD rivers until preventeil by ttiedaios Of these twenty-tbiw 
four nro known only from tbe Oconee and Ocmulgee, viz, yothtmotu 
inscriptug, Egdrophlox luUpinnU, Codoma callisema,&ad Codoma xantra 
Tbo otbers are cbicfly species of general tlistribation. Five species <rer 
obtained by tbe writers in the headwaters of Ifae Oconee Biver, Tii 
yotlumotvs inscriptun, HHcroptertis salmoides. Hgdropblox lutiptnnia, CeW 
iciilhyg rubri/rons, and Ceraticktkys Mguttatus. The otber Hpeciea nwo 
tioned below are from the Ocinulcee. 

ETHEOSTOMATID^. 

Genus HADROPTERUS Agwisu. 
1. Uadeoptekus nigbofasciatus Agas»is. 
Taken at tbe Flat Shoals in tbn South Fork of the Ocmnlgee. 

Genus BOLEOSOMA DeKay. 

2. BOLEOSOMA MACCLATICEPS Cope. 

A s[ieciniL>u, apparently of tbis siiecies, from the Ocmnlgee Biver i 
Macon, Qa. 




FISHES OF THE ALTAMAHA BASIN. 35 

wbieh is somewhat larger than the anal ; the two dorsal (Ids coDDected 
bjmembniDe. Dorsal XI-1, 11. Anal II, 8. 

Dorsal spines a little more than half the length of head. Pectorals 
and rentrals well developed. 

Color, in spirits : Olive, with an orange spot on on each scale, these 
fonDJog eontinaoas lines along the rows of scales. These lines are quite 
ooQspicoous, as in Xenisma catenatum. Three dark blotches across tbe 
back: one in front of dorsal, forming a black spot on the anterior dor- 
ulspiDes; one between the two dorsal fins, forming a similar black 
ipoton the last part of the spinous dorsal ; and one on the caudal pedun- 
cle, behind the second dorsal. 

Sides with about six irregular dark olive blotches just below the 
bteral line. Second dorsal, caudal, and pectoral extensively dusky- 
sbaded. Anal unicolor. Head dusky above, a dark line downward, and 
one forward from eye. 

A female specimen taken lacked the lines of orange spots, and it was 
oiore distinctly blotched on the sides. In life, the male specimen had 
tbe entire anal fin, the cheeks, opercles, and a bar below the eye bright 
blue. The extreme edge of the spinous dorsal was blackish ; below this 
bright orange red, and a dusky bar at the base. The colored lines of 
spots were ferruginous, or scarlet-red, rather than orange. 

Length 2^ inches. 

Two specimens only were taken, in the upper waters of the Oconee 
Kiver, at Sulphur Springs, in Hall County, Georgia. 

This is one of the most beautiful of this interesting genus. In the 
«Dooth head, it resembles K. thalassinvsj and differs from the others 
known. The entirely dissimilar coloration separates it at once from If, 

CENTRARCHIDiE. 

Genus MICROPTERUS Lacepede, 

4. MiCROPTERUS SALMOIDES (Lac.) QUI. 

Var. salmoides, 
-^bnndant in the Oconee and Ocmulgee. 

Genus CHJENOBRYTTUS Gill 

\ GHiENOBRTTTUS vmiDis (C. <fc V.) Jordan. 
^^mtA^' mkt in the Ocmulgee. 



36 COHTBIBUTIOKS TO NOBTH AHEBICAN ICHTBTOLOQY — IIL 

Genue LEPIOPOJrUS Mafinesque. 

C. LEPIOPOMUe AUEITUS (L.) Raf. 
Common in the Ocmolgee River. 

Genus CENTRA.RCHUS Cuvier & Valmcietines. 

7. Cehtrabchus macuoptekus [tadpide) Jordan. 

Several BpccimeoR of the large-fitnied Centrarckus tire in tbe {JdIK 
States National Musootn, from the Ocmnlgec River, near Macon, 0< 
Tbe characters distinguistiiiig this species from (7. frideu are giveo i 
Bulletin No. 10 of the National Museum, p. 31. 

ESOCID^. 
Genus ESOX Liiinmus. 
S. Esox itETicuLATHs Le Sueur. 
Found iu tbe Ocmnlgce Kiver. 

CyPKINID^. 
Genus ALBUENOPS Oirard. 




yjBHES OP THK ALTAMAUA BA8IN. 37 

l^ove, the rnnuBle moderately rouuded. Eye rather large, nearly as 
:>iiS as the massle, 3} to 3f in bead. 

Month large, qaite oblique, the maxillary reaching to orbit, the man- 
iible indaded. 

Scales mediam, 6-40-^, rather closely imbricated, about 21 in front 

of the dorsaL Dorsal nearer caudal than muzzle, distinctly behind the 

ventrals. Dorsal 1, 8. Anal 1, 8. Pectorals not reaching nearly to ven* 

Uals, the latter not to vent. 

Color, in spirits: Clear olive; a dark, burnished, plumbeous lateral 

' bmd, which extends through the eye and up the caudal fin : whole 

body bright crimson : fins yellow. 

. Colors, in life: Clear olive above, with very intense green dorsal 
and vertebral lines; an intense metallic blackish band along sides; 
bdow this the sides bright silvery, in the males bright, clear red, the 
color of red 'berries ; the whole body more or less flushed with red, the 
bdly especially bright : iris crimson. 

Fins all bright golden-yellow: silvery space below ^-e strongly 
ninkei : tip of lower jaw black. 
T^h 2, 4-4, 2, with masticatory surface developed. 
Length 2} to 3 inches. 

Tliis species is extremely abundant in the headwaters of the Oconee, 
in clear rapid streams. It is one of the most brilliant of the genus. 

Eydrophlox lutipinnia is deeper-bodied than H. rubricroceus. It has 
alsoasQialler mouth and different coloration, especially of the fins. From 
A, eUorocephaluSj \\ differs in the larger mouth, larger size, and smaller 
scales: the pectoral and ventral fins are also usually shorter. The 
teeth, also, are 2, 4, instead of I, 4. 

Genus CODOMA Girard. 
11. CoDOMA XiENURA Jordan. 

J'JwKiM (Pkotoffeni8) xcenuru8 JordanX1877), Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 79. 

This beautiful fish is the most abundant species in the rapids of the 
Ocmolgee at Flat Shoals. 

12. CoDOMA CALLISEMA Jordan. 

^S/kmacaUitema Jordan (1877), Ado. Lyo. Nat. Hist. 3G3. 

This species, one of the most elegant of the genus, is very abundant 
ii the South Fork of the Ocmulgce. It differs from the other species of 



38 CONTB1BDTIOH8 TO NOKTH AMBBICAK ICHTHYOLOGT — lit. 

tbe genas in the presence of a single row of teeth and ia the more ac 
rior position of tbe dorsal, which is scarcely at all posterior to tbe ^ 
trals. It is, however, rather a Codoma tbau an Epiaema. 

Genus KOTEMIGONUS Bafinesque. 

13. KOTGUISONUS auebiganhs (£.} Jor. 
A'olnttffoMHt itdtaaiu Jordan (1677), Ado. Lj-c. Nst. HUL 364. 

Very abundant everywhere in the Ucmulgec in still or deep wat4 
Adnit specimens have tbe lower flns jellow, tipped with scarlet. 

Genus CERATICHTHYS Batrd. 

14. Cebatichthys BUBBiPBONs Jordan. 

Xteomi* rubrifron* JoitD-U<' (1^77), Add. Lfc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 330. 

This handsome little fish was first describetl from the Ocmnlgee Bive 
where it is abundiinL It is also common in the Oconee. 

15. Cebaticbthts biguttatcs (Kirt.) tjirard. 
Abaadaat in the Oconee; not noticed in the Ocmnlgee. 

Genus SEMOTILUS Rafinesque. 

16. SEMOTILrS COIIPOEALIS {Slit) PutMtm. 
From a small brook, tributHry to the Ocmnlgee. In the Sooth, tl 




FISHES OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE BASIN. 39 

SILURIDJ). 

Genus ICHTH^LURUS Bafinesque. 

20. loHTHJiLUKUS PUNCTATUS {Rofinesque) Jordan. 
Very common in tbe Ocmulgee. 

Genus AMIURUS Bafinesque. 

21. Amiubus mabmoratus (Holbrook) Jordan. 

A single specimen is in tbe National Maseum, collected by Dr. Hol- 
bn)okiD tbe Altamaba Hiver. Tbe species occurs in abundance in tbe 
^ams aud slougbs of Soutbern lliiuois. 

22. Amiubus bbunneus Jordan, 

Very abundant in tbe Ocmulgee, from whicb river it was first de- 
scribed. 

ANGUILLID^. 

Genus ANGUILLA Thunberg. 

23. ANGUILLA VULGARIS Fleming. 
Eels occur in all tbe larger tributaries of tbe Oconee and Ocmulgee. 

IV. — WATER BASIN OF THE CUATTAHOOCHEE RIVER. 

Oar collections in tbe Cbattabooebee Basin bave been ratber unsatis- 
factory, as only twenty-one spt'cies bave been obtained. Of ibcse, tbrce 
*<^Di to be cbaracteristic of tbe river, and bave not yet been obtained else- 
'^here; Setnotilus thoreauianu^, Photogenis leucopus, and Codoma eury- 
*U>ma, Tbe otber species taken are found also eitber in tbe Altamaba 
or Alabama, or botb. 

The Chattaboochee is notewortby as being, so far as is at present 

^novrn^ tbe easternmost limit in tbe Soutbern States of tbe Rock Bass 

[^iHhhpUteH rupestris) and tbe Red Horse {Myxostoma duquesnii)^ as tbe 

i 'ejjterninost limit of tbe range of tbe *' Green Cat " {Amiurus hrnnneus)^ 

*te War-moutb Percb {Chwnobrytius viridis), and tbe "Jump Rocks" 

UMpma cervinum). It is also tbe westernmost of tbe series of riv- 

Baot/ee, Savannab, Altamaba, and Gbattaboocbee — 
loes not occur. 



40 C0MTHIBUTION8 TO NOKTH AMERICAS ICHTHTOLOOY — 111. 

Four of tbe Bpeck-s here ineiilioDed wen collected sevenil yfr 
ago by Dr. Hugh M. Neitiler at some point in Georgia, Cfae record of 
locality not ciTtaiuly prtservfd, but supi>08td to be Fliut Biver, and 
DOW iu the Museum of tbe SmithHoniun lustitotion. Tbese are Coin 
ttoma anomalum, SemotUva tlioreauianus, Codoma formoaa ("■ ffrandifi 
nw"), aud' Apkododerus sayanus [^'Aalernotremia meaotrema "}. 

ETHEOSTOMATID^. 

Genus HADROPTERUS AgassU. 

1. Hadeopiebds niobofasciatus Agtuaiz. 

Abandant at the Shallow Ford of the Chattaboochee near GuSae 
Tille, Oa. 

CENTRARCHIDiE. 

Genus MICROPTERUS Lucepede. 

2. MiCEOPTEBUS PALLIDUS {Bof.) Q. <£ J. 
Not very abandant. 

3. MiCROPTEBUS SALMOIDES (Lac.) QilL 
Very codhdod. 

Genus A^IBLOPLITEB Itajfncsmic. 




FISHES OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE BlSIN. 41 

APHODODERIDJL. 

Genus APHODODERUS Le Sueur. 

7. APHODODBBUS SATANT7S (OiU) DeK. 

The Bpecimen described in Balletin No. 10, U. S. Nut. Mus., as Aster- 
wf^nmitLmemiitrema Jor., doabtless belongs to this species. Tlio ^^ genas ^ 
kfkmoirtmia is probably an immature stage of Aphododerus. 

CYPEINIDJ;. 

Genus PHOTOGENIS Cope. 

8. PHOTOGENIS LEUOOPUSy irp. nOV. 

Adender, rather plain speciesi closely resembling Photogenis niveus 
fron tbe Saluda. 

Body elougate, compressed, tapering toward tbe snoot and tbe long 
caodal peduncle. Depth 4} in length. Head moderate, 4^ in length, 
IttXer than in P. niveuSy rather pointed, wide on top. Snout rather 
loBgaml somewhat i>ointed. Mouth large, qnite oblique, the intermax- 
lUaries on the level •£ the pupil : upper jaw slightly longest. Eye 
■oderate, rather less than snout, 3^ io head. Scales moderate, rather 
closely imbricated, but less so than in P. analostanus, G-39-3. 

Fins moderate, D. I, 8, A. I, 8, tbe dorsal evidently bebiud the veu- 
tnls. Pectorals not reaching nearly to ventrals, tbe latter not quite to 
^'cnt. Neither dorsal nor anal si>ecially elevated. 

Teeth 1, 4-4, 1, hooked, with narrow grinding surfaces and usually 
MDowhat crenate. 

Color olivaceous, the sides bright silvery: a rather ineonapicnous 
dark blotch on last rays of dorsal, as in rehited species. A round black 
HH)t, Dearly as large as eye, at base of caudal, precisely as in Codoma 
^9towa. In life, the coloration is pale ; the dorsal fin is chiefly of a 
dear yellowish-green color, as though yellowish pigment were mixed 
with wbite ; tbe upper part is of a pale ferrugineousred and tbe extreme 
tip milky-white. The caudal fin is ferrugineous, with milk-white tips. 
The lower fins, especially the ventrals, are milk-white. Tbe snout in 
oales is tnberculate, and very minute prickles occur on tbe sides of tbe 
Mdal peduncle. Length 3^ to 4 inches. 

Very abundant in the Chattahoochee Eiver at the Shallow Ford ; not 
notieed elsewhere. 



42 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — III. 

Compared with P. niveusj P. leucoptLS Las a different form, the dorsal 
region is less elevated, and the uuchai region less depressed. The month 
is larger, the maxillary extending to nearly opposite the eye, instead of 
falling short. The eye is larger and the mouth is less inferior in P. 2ev- 
capus. The coloration is somewhat different. 

Photogenis leucopms also resembles Codoma eurystoma^ but that species 
has a heavier head, larger eye, stouter body, and different dentition and 
coloration. 

Genus CODOMA Girard. 
9. CoDOMA EURYSTOMA Jordan, 

rhotogenis eurystoviua Jordan (1^77), Aun. Lye. Nat. Hist. 356. 

This is the most abundant Cypriuoid in the tributaries of the Chat- 
tahoochee liiver. It frequents especially the cold streams, but does not 
seem to be adverse to mud. In Suwannee Creek, a deep, cold, muddy 
stream flowing through the >voods. this was almost the only species 
obtained. 

Its life-colors are as foIli)Ws : General color of Luxilus comutus on body, 
but the sides with considerable coppery lustre. Dorsal fin with a sharp, 
black, horizontal bar nbout half-way up. In young fishes, this bar is 
red. The tin above is somewhat milky ; below, it is pale. There is a 
small, but distinct, round, black, caudal spot. The caudal fin is chiefly 
ot a rather dull feirugiuous red. The base of the fin is pale, the tips 
rather milUy. The anstl fin is unniarked. There are gilt Hues along the 
back and sides. A dark humeral bar is usually present, and the upper 
edge of the pectoral fin is largely black. 

The teeth of this species are usually 1, 4-4, 1, as at first described, 
but we have found several individuals 1, 4-4, 2. This species resembles 
somewhat Phoiogcnis Icucopus^ but it is stouter every way, with deeper 
body, larger head, and much larger eye. 

10. Codo:ma FOR3IOSA {Putnam) Jordan. 

(Alburnus fomw8U8 Putnam, Lcuchcus hijpsdopierus GUutber, Photogenia grandipinnis 

Jordau.) 

The typical specimens of P. grandipinniH are suppose<l to have beer 
collected in Flint liiver. Leuciscvs hypacloptcrns of Glinther is doubtless 
the same species. We follow Giiuther in identifying Alburnus formosus 
Putnam as the same, although there is little in the very imperfect orig- 
inal description to warrant it. 



FI8UES OF THE CHATTAUOOCHEE BASIN. 43 

Genus CAMPOSTOMA AgassU 

11. CAMPOSTOMA ANOMALUM {Raf.) Ag. 

Specimens in Dr. Neislcr's collection, supposed to have been taken in 
the Flint Biver^ in Taylor County, Georgia. 

V 

Genus SEMOTILUS Bqfinesque. 
12. Skmotilus thoreauianus Jordan. 
The types are in Dr. Neibler's collection, probably from Flint Siver. 

Genus CERATICHTHYS Baird. 

13. CERATICHTHYS BiGUTTATUS {Kirlland) Oirard. 
Very abundant in the Chattahoochee. 

CATOSTOMID^. 

Genus MYXOSTOMA Rafinesque. 
14. Myxostoma duquesnii [Le Sueur) Jordan. 

V species which we are unable to distinguish from the common "Red 
Iloree'^of the Ohio is abundant in the Chattahoochee. 

15. Myxostoma cervinum Cope. 

A few specimens taken in the Shallow Ford. 

Genus ERIMYZON Jordan. 

IG. Erimyzon sucktta (Lac ) Jor. 
From Peach Tree Creek near Atlanta. 

SILURID^. 

Genus ICHTITiELURUS Bafinesque. 

17. ICHTniELURUS PUNCTATUS (Raf.) Jor. 

is exceedingly abundant in tbe Chattahoochee. 



44 CONTBIBUTIONS TO KOUTU AMERICAN ICH*rHYOLOQY — 111. 

Genus AMIUHUS Rqfinesque. 

IS. Amiurus BGUNNEUS Jordan. 

Tbis iH tlio most abuoilimt edible fisb iit the Chattabuocbee. V 
K(ii:un>il iijiwtinlii of lotty laige specimens in tno bours' seioing at Ili> 
Klmllow Ford. It grow^ to tbe leugtb of about IS iiiclies, atid is idikI 
valued uu food. It is UHually bnowo as the Mud OaL 

Genus NOTURUS Rafinesq^- 

19. >'OTUBUS LEPTACANTHUS JortJaa. 
.ViilNiNa Ifplafanthut Juhhan (1c<>7), Ai>u. Lj c. Nat. HUl. N. Y. Si2. 

Tbi.s siH'di'M wiDt originally described from a single speciuit-u takiiii 
SilviT UiVfk, a tributary of ibe Etowub. A second H[>ecimeii. Kiinilc 
rn the Ural, wits taki'U by us at tlic Shallow Ford duviug the [mstsun 
uivr, and siiu'u lUfii a third, at the same locality as tbt; first. lu i-olu 
thJH sptTit's is of a rich pale triiii»piin>nt brown, very slightly nintllc 
with dnrktT. 

LEPIDOSTEID^. 
Gmius LEPIDOSTEUS Lacifede. 

tM. LElMDUSTErS OSSECS (£.} Aff, 




FISHES OF THE ALABAMA BASIN. 45 

Alabama Basin. These are: Xcnisma steWferunu Zygonecies guttatus^ 

Zjig(miete$ kieroglyphicusy Hydrophlox xamoccphalusy Hfjdrophlox chroso- 

ait, Codoma callistia^ Codoma trickroistia^ Codoma coerulea^ Codoma 

tUpnatura^ yotrapis stilbiuSj Phenacobius catostomus^ Catostomus nigri- 

mMietovanuSj and Myxostoma euryops. 1 exclude from ibis enumeration 

OM or two species recorded from the Black Warrior Eiver, as it is 

likely that the faana of that stream will prove, iu part at least, dififerent. 
Certain common Northern or Western types, apparently absent in the 

ttreams hitherto noticed, make their appearance in the waters of the 

Alalnmai Among these are I/uxilus comutvs^ Notemigonns chrysoleueusj 

Ckambryttu8 gulosuSj Hyodouj Phenacobius, etc. 

ETHEOSTOMATID^. 

Genus PERCINA Haldeman. 
1. Pbecina caprodes {Eaf,) Ord. 
Abondaut: precisely like Northern specimens. 

Genus HADROPTERUS Agassiz. 
2. Hadroptebus NiGROFASCiATUS Agasniz. 
Abondaut: first described from near Mobile. 

Genus ULOCENTRA Jordan. 
3. Ulocentra stigmjea Jordan. 

Boldnma ftigmcta Jordan (1877), Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 311. 

Coinraon in clear water. This species also occurs in the streams of 

IiOaisiaD,a. 

Genus BOLEICHTHYS Girard. 

4. BoLEiCHTHYS ELEGANS Girard. 

Abnndant in clear, weedy ponds. This may not be identical with 
Girard's species, which was originally described from Texas. 

PERCID^. 

I Genus STIZOSTETHIUM Rafinesque. 

5. STIZOSTETHIUM SALMONEUM Rafinesque. 

^ liyer-channels of the Oostanaula. We have had no opportu- 
^ specimens, and we are not sare that the Alabama fish 



46 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOU>OT-r-IU. 

CENTRARCHID^. 
Genus MICROPTERUS Laci^da. 

6. MlCBOPTEBUS PALLIDUS {Baf.) Q. A J. 

Abaodant. 

7. MiCBOPTERUS SALHOIDES [Lac) QUI. 
(Var. aalmoidea.) 
Abandant, bat less so than the preceding. The two species 
known indiscriminately aa "Tront". 

Genus CH^NOBRYTTUS GUI. 

8. Ch^nobeyttub gulosus {C. & V.) QUI. 
From the Alabama Biver at Montgomery. 

Genus AMBLOPLITES Rafinesque. 

9. AMBLOPLITES BUPESTBIS {Raf.) GUI. 
From tbc Etowah and Oostanaola; ratber common. 

Genus LEPIOPOMUS Rafinesque. 

10. LEPIOPOMUS PALLIDCS (Mit.) 0. * J. 
Abtindnnt in tbc Etowah aod Oostanaala. 




FISHES OF THE ALABAMA BASIN. 

Genus CENTRARCHUS Cuvier <& Valendennes. 
IS. Cbntbaecuus raiDBus {Lac.) 0. (ft V. 
Specimens &^m Alabama lliver, at Montgomery, similar to others 
ftom tbt! Neuse and from about Cliarlrston. Tljts species bns been 
fooDd by Prof. S. A. Forbes in Soatbern Illinois. 

G«nus POMOXYS Rafinesque. 
16, PoMOXTs HiGitoMACuLATUS {Le S-) Qtrard. 
Spfpimens from the Atabikmii Jliver nt Sloulgomery. 

17. I'OMOXYS ANMULARia Et^. 
FmiD Bound Lake near Mootgomery. 

Genua HAPLOIDONOTUS Rajifiesque. 
18. IlAPLOlDONOTUS GBUSNTENS Rafinesque. 
Abundant in the Ooatananla. 

COTTID^. 
GenuB P0TAM0C0TTU8 Om. 

19. POTAMOCOTTUB MERIDIONALIS (Qirard) Oill 
'MiMMIu canlintt Otu. {1H61), Proc. Boat. Soo. Nat. Hist. 
fItaeaiUMt toplurut JORDiH (1877), Add. Lyo. Kat. Hist. N. T. 320. 

Bictedingly abandant in all the clear and cold tribotaries of the 
Ethvah, Oostananla, and Coosa. Many opecimens from the cold waters 
of the Cave Spring Creek. We are anable to satisfactorily distingDish 
tho fomiB called zophema, caroUncE, and meridionalU, and, believing them 
■IwciQcall; identical, we anite tbem under the oldest name. 

APHODODERIDJ!. 

Genus APHODODEEUS Le Sueur. 

[iphrtdodenu Le 6. ; Stemoiremia Nelson.) 

20. APHODODERns 8AYANUS (QilUams) DeKay. 
SpeefmeDS from Alabama Biver near Mootgomery. Tbe fisb de- 
Vibed by Professor Jordan from Flint Biver, nndcr the name of A»- 
VMto mnoPrema^ is andoabtedly a variation of this spedes. 



48 CONTBIBDTIONS TO KOBTH AMEBICAIT ICHTBTOLOGT — ^IIL 

CTPRINODONTID^. 

Genua XENISMA Jordan. 

21. Xenisma STBLLiFBBnM JortUm. 

Xenitma ilelli/era Jordan (ItOT), Add. Ly o. Nat. Hist. N. T. 322. 

TbiH inoet exqaisitely colored fish is very abundant in all tbe eh 
tributaries of thu Etowah, Oostanaula, and Cooaa. It prefers a 
Haters, and ascends the " spring-runs" to tbeir fouDtuin-headB. 

Genus ZYGONECTES Affossis. • 
23. ZYGONECTES MOTTil Agognz. 
Many speciaieus iu tbe MuBenm of tbe Academy of Natnral Seienec 
of Phihidelphia, from near Mobile. This and tbe nest belong to tb 
group of short-bodied species called Micrittius by Profesiior Gill. 

23. Ztqokecteb guttatdb Agastiz. 
Recorded by Professor Agassiz from near Mobile. 

24. ZYGONECTES HIEBOGLTPHIOUS Agostiz. 
Recorded by Protessor Agassiz from near Mobile. We havenen 
seen either this or tbe preceding, and donbt if any one will over reoO| 
uizetbetn from the published descriptious. 



F.SOCID.E. 




FISHES OF THE ALABAMA BASIN. 49 

DOROSOMATIDiB. 

Genus DOROSOMA Rafinesque. 

28. DOBOSOMA OEPEDIANUM (Lac.) OiU. 

(Var. heterurum Raf.) 

Specimens in the United States National Maseam from Eoaud Lake 
itMoDtgomery, Ala. 

OYPRlNIDiB. 

Genus CAMPOSTOMA Agassiz. 

29. Oampostoma anomalum {Raf.) Ag. 
Var. prolixwn (Storer). 
Abandant in tbe* Etowah and Oostananla. 

Genus LUXILUS Rafinesque. 

30. LUXILUS CORNUTUS (Mit.) Jor. 

Very abundant in all the tributaries of the Etowah, Oostananla, and 
Com Bivers. 

Hy specimens do not obvioasly differ from those from New York and 
the Northwest. 

Genus HYDROPHLOX Jordan 
31. Hydeophlox chbosomus Jordan. 

Sj^tpfit ckroBomus Jordan (1877), Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 333. 

Very abundant in the clear tribataries of the Oostananla, Coosa, aud 
fitowab. In Cedar Creek, at Cave Spring, it is the commonest species 
tocorring in the clear, cold waters, with Codoma callistia and Xenisma 
tktti/erum. None of our Cyprinidce excel Hydrophlox chrosomus in deli- 
Mey of coloration. It is of a clear hyaline-green above; clear silvery 
Mow: a scarlet band straight from upper edge of opercle to caudal : 
lorsal, anal, and caudal each with a scarlet bar. In this species, the 
Booth is rather less terminal than is usual in tbe group called Hydrophloa. 

32. Hydrophlox xjbnocephalus Jordan. 

iti» stwmoeepkaliM Jordan (1877), Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 334. 

M preceding, but rather less common. This species bears some 
B Toong of Codoma callistia. 



60 COHTRIBnTIONS TO NOBTH AMEBICAN ICHTHYOLOOT — IH. 

Genus CODOMA Girard. 
33. CoDoau. BTIGHATUBA Jordan. 
Photogenii ftigmatuni$ Jordan (1817), Ann. L;c. Nat. Rist. N. Y.337. 

This elegnnt species is vt-ry'^HbaiidaDt in the tribataries of the) 
wah, Oostauaulft, and Cooan. In tbose streams which are oeitlier i 
clear Hnd cold nor very muddy, it is Dsaally the most abnndant spei 

34. CoDOMA OALLiSTiA Jordan. 

Phologtuii cuffiMiM JORDAN (1877). Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 337. 

A large, ornate species, more brilliantly colored than the preced 
hub U'HH graceful in form. Female specimens are dull dark olive, i 
Ibo dorsal fln brick-red. This species occars with the preceding, hi 
rather less abundant. 

35. CODOMA TBICHBOISTIA Jordan & Gilbert, »p. not. 

A smiill, slender species, grnceful in form and elegant in coloral 
It is most nearly related to C. caltiatia, but may lie readily distinguis 

Body mthcF slender, considerably compressed, the depth 4J in leo 
Head rather sktnder and jrainted, 4| in length. Eye of modentei 
:H in bead. Month quite large, very oblique, the maxillary ezten 
to opiK>site the anterior margin of the eye, and the premaxilb 
being on » level with the middle of the pupil, the mouth thus fa< 
nf .V- 




HBHES OF THE ALABAMA BASIN. • 61 

eitUy the anterior pait| is of a bright pale vermiUion-red. The caadal 
fio to chiefly rosyi the tips millL- white. The anal is miUsy, with a decided 
flush of Tose-eolor. The yentrale are milky. 

Female spedmene are daller, bat the black fln-marklDgs and the caa- 
dal spot are similar in all. In the female of C. calliatiaj the dorsal mark- 
iop are obliterated. 

In the males, in spring, the head and anterior dorsal region are rather 
ipusdy taberenlate. The caadal pednncle and the space below the 
literal line as far forward ns the ventrals are covered with similar 
tobendes. 

TMh 1, 4-4, 1, of the nsnal ty|)e, hooked and sharp-edged. Maxi- 
■om length 2| inches. C. callistia reaches a length of 4 inches. 

Ooioma trickroiatia is very abundant in the clear tribataries of the 
Etowah and Oostanaala. Specimens were taken by Messrs. Jordan and 
Gilbert in 187d. bat the species was at first confoanded by as with C. 
mUiitiaj which it mach rambles in coloration. The entirely different 
Boath will distingaish the two species at once. 

36. Ebogala OiBBULEA Jordan. 

Jordan (1877), Add. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. T. 338. 

This most delicate and gracefal fish has thas far been only fonnd in 
the Oostanaala River and its tributary, Rocky Creek.- It prefers clear 
vatere. 

37. CODOMA FOBMOSA (Putnam) Jordan. 

The typical specimens of Alburnua formosvs Putnam and of Leuciscus 
^n^dopterus GUnther were obtained from near Mobile. The species 
tberefore belongs to the fauna of the Alabama Basin. Giiuther's 
description applies well to ^^Photogenis grandipinnis Jor.", and Alburnns 
fifno9U9 is probably the same. 

The following is an analysis of the characters of the species of the 
Mihgeoas Erogala at present known : — 

^Ktion I. ADal fin elongate, iU rays 1, 10, or 1, 11 : teeth 1, 4-4, 1. 
*• 0OIM1 fio entirely posterior to ventrals, its rays, in males, longer than head, reach- 
ing nearly to the base of the oandal : body short, mach compressed : back 
elevated; depth 4 in length: head 4^: mouth large, very oblique, the 
Jaws eqnal : black dorsal blotch very distinct : a distinct black caudal 
spot : coloration and tubercles nnknown : size small ; length 2^ in- 
ches FORMOSA, 1. 

ii* Doffsal fin slightly posterior to ventrals, its longest rays, in males, shorter than 
the head, and not reaching nearly to base of caudal : caudal peduncle 
taberculate : fins with much red : sice medium ; length 3^ inches. 



92 90NTBIBDTION8 TO NOBTH AHEBICAN ICHTHVOLOOT — ni. 

t. Body deep, compTeeeed ; depth 3) to 3f in leugtb : floa ftll grektly e1e?ktcdi(be 
height oftbe dorsal five^ixtbs the len|[ttaof the head: iiiaule,ut«titr 
part of dotsal fin, and « broad cresceat in the middla of the eandil b 
bright scarlet: poaterior niar)[iD of caudal blackish; no black «pM it 

base of caudal prKBBOnLU,! 

bb. Body more eloagate, leas compresaed, ita depth 4 lo 4^- iu length: finaallnte 
low, the loageet doraal ra; scarcely | length of head : donal, anal, Hd 
cantlal fins chiefly bright crimson : no definite daik margin to eaad>l: 

a faint black caadal spot x.aKtnu,). 

Section II. Anal fin short, ita rays I.S, or 1,9. 
'Teeth one-rowed, 4-4. Dorsal fin ecarcely at alt poaterior to ventrala, Itafinti^ 
nearer anont than base of oandal: body elongate, compreaaed: omA 
Bmalliab, obliqae, rather inferior : dorsal fin ijreutly elevated, the laii|Mf 
ray, io males, longer than the head: black dorsal blotch well oiarlud: 
dorsal, anal, and caadal fins chiefly of a brjgbt ferraginmu-anafsi 
a bine streak along alilea : size small ; length 31- inches. . .caixiseu,! 
■■ Teeth two-rowed, 1, 4-4, 1 (often 1, 4-4, 3, in C. exrytfcMMi). 
0. Black markings of the dorsal fin not in tbe form of a horimntal bat aenal tbi 
fin. 
d. Adult males without red markings on tbe floe, 
e. Nodiatioot black ordark blaeepot at baeeof eandal: body abort and daift 
strongly coDipreesed : floe uot greatly elevated, tbe doiMtl largelyoft 
bright luetrons pale green : black donal mariiiogs distinct : a bloiri 
streak along sides : males with the whole body tnbercatate, except tbi 
space anterior to tbe ventrala and below the latersl line : bead poiolad 
month oblique, the upper jaw projectiug: siie anjall; length 3 is 

chee cHu>Ki«n*,B 

«. A rather faint dark blue caudal spot, preceded by a very dininot latat* 
band of clear blue : aides chiefly blue and silvery: flns dear yelIo*,lh< 
black markings obscnre : body tiknder : month email : Bna not gnatf} 

elevatt'd : size Rniall ; length 3( inches cxMCLUft 

em. A large, very conspicuous jet-black spot at base of candal : body elaofsM) 
moderately compressed : color pale olivaceona or bluish : sides silTcty: 




FI8HE8 OF THE ALABAMA BASIN. 53 

R 

Genus NOTROPIS Bafinesque. 

.38. NoTBOPiS LIBUS Jordan. 
St WnpiM Unu Jordan (1877), Add. Lyo. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 342. 

Common in tributaries of the Etowah, Oostaoaula, and Ooosa in still, 
deep waters. This species is not, by any means, a typical member of 
the genus. In form, coloration, squamation, and nuptial tubercles, it 
BBMoibles the species of Lythrurus^ from which it is technically separated 
If the wont of masticatory surface on the teeth. Notropis matutinus 
ipptoaches it in the small size of its scales. 

39. NoTBOPis STiLBius Jordan. 

StMnpii 9HUrims Jordan (1877), Ann. Lyo. Nat. Hist. N. T. 343. 

Abundant in the water-basin of the Alabama. The species of this 
IMrns greatly need revision. 

Genus NOTEMIGONUS Bafinesque. 

\ 40. NOTEMIGK>NUS CHBYSOLEUOUS {Mit.) Jor. 

i 

[ {Kkmerieana of moet writers ; Dot CyprinMS americanus Linuftus, which is a SoatheaMt- 

era species— ^otomi^oitiM ischanus Jor.) 

This familiar species is very abundant in bayous and weedy streams 
- in the basin of the Alabama. 

Genus PHENACOBIUS Cope. 

41. PHENACOBIUS CATOSTOMUS Jordan. 

'UMc^iM cato$tomu9 Jobdan (1877), Add. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 332. 

This Strongly marked species was found in abundance in two clear 
^eams. Silver Creek and Cedar Creek, tributaries respectively to the 
^wah and the Coosa. This is a much stouter species than P. uranops 
Oope; it has less developed lips and is in various other ways dissimilar. 

Genus CERATICHTHYS Baird, 

42. Cebatiohthys winchelli {Oirard) Jordan. 



n$ wimeMli Girakd (1856), Proc. Ao. Nat. So. Phila. 1856, 211. 
IVifiolCftyf kpalinus Cope (1868), JourD. Ao. Nat. So. Phila. 1868, 236. 

vy eommoD in the Alabama Basin. 0. higuttatug was not obtained 

uiy of the tributaries of the Alabama. It seems, however, to 

I bj Gkardaftom the Black Warrior, under the name 



54 C0KTBIBUTI0K8 TO HOHTH AMERICAN ICHTHTOLOGY — IIL 



Genus SEMOTILUS Bqfineaque. 

43. Semotiltjs conpoBALiB (Mit) PtUnam. 
Commou in the SDinlleretreams. 

Genus RHINICHTHYS Agassiz. 
44. EHiHtCHTavB oBiusus Agtusis. 
Very common in tbe Bpring-ruus tributary to the Etowob andOottt 
iiaula. 

CATOSTOMID^. 

Genus MYXOSTOMA Bafinesque. 
45. Mtxostoma iviAcBoLEpmoitJM DUQUBsmi (Le S.) JardaM. 

Tbe " Bed Horsu " i» common in tbe Etonab aoU Oostanaala. TU 
Utchryinale (Cope) also occur i. 

40. MisosTOMA ETJEYOPS Jordan. 

lasaatoma rurgopa Joiidan (IdTT), Alq. Lju. Nat. HiBt. N. T. 3M. 

From Lovejoy's Creek, a tributiiryof theOoataoaula. The type-tpM' 
men of this singular si>ecies still remaios unique. 

Genus CATOSTOMUS U Sueur. 







1 *'#;ii#^'' J- , 



§^ r f f f ,:^ifiili fl^ #» tag AXdiBiiiyL BAsm. il6 

0611118 OABPIODES Bafinesque. 

QO. Oa^piobbs OYPBmus (£0 8.) Ag. 
A 8iD|^ q[)edincai firoin Bound Lake near Montgomery, Ala«, appa- 
iCD^ iiiMitieal with PennsylvaDia examples. 

Genus BUBALICHTHYS Agassiz. 

61. BUBALIOHTHTS (TAUBUS) Agossiz. 

Bwidid by Professor Agassiz from the Alabama. Other species of 
''BoflUo Pish'' doubtless oocor in the Alabama, bnt the species have 
new teen stadied. 

SILURIDiE. 

Genus ICHTHiELURUS liqfinesque. 

62. lOHTHJEELUBUS PUNOTATUS (Baf.) JoT. 

Alxmdant in the basin of the Alabama. 

G^nus AMIURUS Bqfinesque. 

63. AHIUBnB NATALIS ANTONIBNBIS (Grd.) JOT. 

Aboudaut in muddy tribataries of the Etowah and Ooosa. 

Genus NOTURUS Bafinesque. 

54. NOTUBUB LEPTAOANTHUS Jordan. 

Two specimens, taken in Silver Creek, and a third specimen, from the 
CiiaUahoocbee, are all that are at present known of this carioas little 
"pedes. 

ANGDILLID^. 

Genus ANGUILLA Thunberg. 

65. ANGUILLA VULGARIS Fleming. 
Abundant. 

LEPIDOSTEID^. 

Genus LEPIDOSTEUS Lacepede. 
06. Lepidostbus osseus (L.) Ag. 
^^Wk the Ck>stanaQla; probably common. 



56 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY ^IIL 



VI.— WATER-BASIN OF THE TENNESSEE RIYEB. 

The fish-faana of the Tennessee Hiver has been pretty fully studied, 
especially as to its Cyprinidod, Thirty-seven species were obtained by 
Professor Cope in the French Broad, thirty-four in the Holston, and 
twenty- five by Professor Jordan in tribntaries of the Clinch and French 
Broad, making in all some sixty different species known to inhabit the 
upper waters of the Tennessee. In the lower course of the river, thirty- 
four species are recorded by Professor Agassiz from the Tennesaee 
River at Huntsville, Ala. ; twenty species were obtained by the writers 
from the Chickamauga Hiver at Einggold, Oa., and seventeen species 
from Elk River at Estill Springs in Tennessee. About sixty-eight spe- 
cies are therefore known to occur in the lower course of the river. In 
all, eighty-two different species are known to inhabit the waters of the 
Tennessee. To this number many species of large fishes inhabiting the 
Ohio at the mouth of the Tennessee might, with certainty, be added; 
but it is not the province of this paper to record guesses. Forty-six 
species are therefore certainly common to the upper and .lower coarses 
of the Tennessee River. 

The species at present known in the Tennessee Basin, only from the 
upper course, — the Clinch, Holston, and French Broad Rivers, — are the 
following .'7— 



Hadropterus uurantiacus. 
Diplesium simoterum. 
Notbouotus zonalis. 
Nothonotus vulneratus. 
Notbonotus rufilineatus. 
Etheostoma flabellare. 
Salvelinus fontinalis. 
Alburnops spectrunculus. 



Ilydrophlox rubricroceus. 
Hydrophlox lacertosua 
Episema leucioda. 
Notropis micropteryx. 
Notropis atheriuoides. 
Hemitremia vittata. 
Placopharynx carinatus. 



Noturus eleutherus. 

In all, sixteen species. 

From the lower course of the river only, the following are known: — 



("Etheostoma") cinerea. 
("Etheostoma") tessellata. 
PoBcilichthys jessiae. 
GbsBUobryttus gulosus. 
Lepiopomus obscurus. 
(Lepiopomus) bombifrons. 
Eupomotis pallidus. 



Xeuotis inscriptus. 

Esox (crassus). 

nyodon seleuops. 

Pomolobus cbrysochloris. 

Dorosomacepedianum heterurum. 

Notropis lirus. 

Phoxinus flam mens. 



nBHBS OF THE TENNX68EE BA81K. 57 



Qflftflitor. 

QoMrilttda laoenu 
Oupiodes biaon. 



Babaliohthys onis. 
Amia calva. 
Acipenser maoolosns. 

In all, twenty spedea. 

laonaaed knowledge will considerably modify these lists. It is 
fnbaUe that the sixteen species in the first list, with the probable 
OMpCkniB of Noturus eleuthems and Salvelmus JmHnalUj will be fonnd 
lo inhabit the lower part of the river-basin, if sought for in suitable 
loeilitiac. It is likely that the tribataries of the Tennessee having their 
aome in the Oumberland Mountains in Alabama have the same fish- 
tens as similar streams rising in the Oumberland Mountains in Virginia. 

About twelve species are at present known only from the Tennessee 
Bfcr and its tributaries. These are : — 



Hadioptems aurantiacus. 
(Btheottoma) cinerea. 
(BUieoBtoma) tessellata. 
loOonotas vulneratus. 
Hbtbonotus rufllineatus. 
Foeiliohthys jessi». 



(Lepiopomus) bombifrons. 
Albumops spectrunculus. 
Hydrophlox lacertosus. 
Phozinus flammeus. 
Bpisema leucioda. 
Oeratichthys monachus. 



I 



As we go from the Alabama to the Tennessee, we note an increased 
iMemblance in the fish-fauna to that of the Ohio and Upper Mississippi 
legioD. The following are some of the Northern or Western types 
added :^ 

Diplesiumj Etheostamaj PcBoilichthys^ Zabidesthes, Zygonectes (proper), 
f^nifma, Hemitremia^ OhrosomuSj Phoxinua, Placapharynx^ Quassilabia. 

COTTID^. 

Genus POTAMOCOTTUS Gill 

1. POTAMOCOTTUS MEEiDiONALis (Oirard) Oill. 

From Ohickamauga River. Also a single specimen from the Oave 
Spring at Oumberland Gap. Abundant in the French Broad Biver 
(Cop0) and in the Holston. 

ETHEOSTOMATID^. 

Genus PERCINA Hddeman. 
2. Pbboina capbodes (Eaf.) Ord. 
Generally abundant in clear streams. 



00 CONTBIBUTION8 TO NOBTH AMBEICAN ICHTHTOLOQT — m. 

Genus ALVORDIUS Girard. 

3. Alvobditjs MAcni^TUS Girard. 

(f Altordiui tnaciiUtiut Grcl.; Uadropterim maculaiu* Ord.; EliieMtoma UMnioidn Aguu 
etc.; AirOTCliiu atpro Cope & Jor.) 

Frotn the Oliucb and French Broad Bivers. Alao abaudant in tb 
ChickamaQga at Biuggold. 

Genus HADROPTERUS Affoasu. 
i. Hadboptebus AUBANTiAOUs (Copc) Jordao. 
French Broad River {Cope). 

Genus DIPLESIUM Mafineague. 

5. DJPLESIUM BLENNIOIDES {Rof.) JoT. 

HolstOQ and French Broad Bivers. AIho from Cbiekamaaga Bive 
I>escnbcd by Professor Agassiz from Huiitsville, Alabama, andff Qi 
name of Jlgostoma ncKmani. 

Q. DiPLESiUM siuoTBBDM (Cope) CopeloMd. 

From the Clioch and Ilolston Bivera. 



Genus BOLEOSOMA DeKay. 




FI8HE8 OF THE TENNESSEE BASIN. 59 

Genus PCECILICHTHYS Agassiz. 

11. PCECILICHTHYS JESSIE Jor. & Brayt. 

JordiD,HMi. Vert. £. U. 8. ed. 2d, 1878, 237. 

fiodj fasiforui, rather deep and compressed, the depth 5 to 5 J in leugth, 
the form of the body similar to that of P. spectahilis. 

Head rather large, moderately pointed, 4 in length. Mouth rather 
large, terminal, the upper jaw slightly longest, not protractile. Eye 
preltj large, high up, 3^ in head, about equal to snout. 

Cheeks naked, scaly above: opercles scaly: throat naked: neck 
above scaly : scales medium, 6-45 to 50-7. Lateral Hoe incomplete, but 
extendiug farther than in P. varialns and P. spectdlnlia^ on about 35 
scales, or nearly to the end of the secoud dorsal. 

FJDs moderate. Dorsal, Xll—^about 12. Anal II, 9. 

Color, in spirits, olivaceous, with about nine squarish, bar-like blotches 
aloDg the sides, and about five dark cross-blotches on the back. Dorsal 
andcaodal fins faintly barred. 

Id life, the fish is chestnut-colored above, and the squares on the sides 
are bright dark blue : the fius are mottled with chestnut. A dark yel- 
low or orange band across the dorsal. Second dorsal and anal with dark 
aiKi golden speckliugs. 
! Several specimens, each about two inches long, taken in Chickamauga 
Kiver at Ringgold. The specimens are certainly not fully grown, and 
the coloration of the adult male is doubtless much more brilliant. It 
vill be at once distinguished from P. varialus and P. fspectabilis by the 
ftcaliness of th<* upi)er pari of the cheeks, by the greater development 
of the lateral line, the more numerous dorsal spines, and the coloration. 
This species is named for Mrs. Jessie D. Brayton. 

Genus ETHEOSTOMA llafmesque. 
12. ETHEOSTOMA flabeLlare Eofijiesque. 

Abundant in the upper waters of the Tennessee in clear rapid 

8trvam8. 

Genus ? . 

13. (ETnEOSTOMA) ciNEiiEA Storer. 

Described from Florence, Ala. The description has reference chiefly 
^ to the coloration. Neither this species nor the next have been rec- 
*Qd by any author subsequent to their description. 

'"'"'IIBOSTOMA) TESSELLATA IStorer, 

^t at Florence, Ala. 



6U C0NTBIBUTI0N8 TO NOBTH AUEBICAN ICHTHTOLOQT — ^m. 
PERCID^. 

Genus STIZOSTETHIUM Bafinesgue. 
IS. SrizosTKTinuM vitbedh {Cuv. A Jal.) Jor. & Copel. 
FoQiid by Professor Cope in the French Broad. 

16. SlIZOSTETQIUM SALHONEUH Baf. 

Species of this geons occar throagbout the Tenueasee Basin. I 
fenaor. Oop» ascribes this species and the preceding to the Fi«i 
Brand. As we have seen no specimeD, we follow his identificatiMu. 

CENTEARCHID^. 
Genus MICROPTERUS Laciphde. 

17. MlCROPTBBUS PALLIDCS (Ad/.) 0(7 j (£ JordOH. 
Not QDOOiuiuou in (he Tennessee Basin. 

IS. MiCROPTKRVS SALKOIDES (tOC) ffilt 

Very wnimoii it) (fae Tennessee River. 

G^nus AMBLOPLTTES Eajmesque. 

XSt. AHBLOPUTES BrPESTKlS (St/.) OiU. 




nSBBS OF THE TEHNS88BB BASIN. 61 

fron HaDteville, Ala. We are UDable to decidei from the description 
and a MS. drawing kindly forwarded by Professor Bliss, whether this 
ipedes is a Lepicpamus or a XenotU. 

Genus XENOTIS Jordan. 

24. Xenotis aANeuooLENTUS {AgoMiz) Jordan. 

Originally described from the Tennessee Biver at Hontsville. We 
bive seen no specimens from that locaUty, and are onable to decide 
vketber Agassix's species is the one to which we have applied the name 
tngtilMolmituBt or whether it be one of the forms of the S'orthem JT. 

25. Xbnotis insobiptxjs (Agaasiz) Jor. 

Originally described from the Tennessee Biver at Hontsville. Also 
fimnd by Professor Cope in the apper waters of the same river. 

Genus EUPOMOTIS GiU A Jordan. 

26. BUPOMOTIS PALLIDUS {Agossiz) O.dbJ. 
Originally described from Htrntsville, Ala. 

Genus XYSTROPLITES Jordan. 

27. Xtstboplites notatus {Agassiz). 

Originally described from Hantsville, and later foand by Professor 
Cope in the upper waters of the Tennessee. This species may be 
a Eupomotis instead of a Xystroplitea. It much resembles the Texan 
IflitropUtes heros B. & C. 

SCIiENID^. 

Genus HAPLOIDONOTUS Bafinesque. 

28. HAPLOmONOTUS GEUNNIENS Rof. 

Abandant in the Tennessee Basin. The form called by Professor 
^imiz Amblodon concinntia needs re-examination before it can be admit- 
M a8 a species. 

ATHERINID^. 
Genus LABIDESTHES Cope. 

29. LABIDESTHES STOOULUS Cope. 

Poond by Professor Cope in Goal Greek, a tribntary of the Olinch 
ttver. 



62 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — IIL 

CYPRINODONTIDJE. 

Genus XENISMA Jordan. 

30. Xenisma oatenatum {Storer) Jordan. 

Originally described from Florence, Ala. It is abundant in the E 
Glincli, and Holston in clear waters. 

Genus ZYGONECTES Agassiz. 
31. Zygonectes notatus {Baf.) Jor. 

DcbCiibed by Dr. Storer from Florence, Ala., under the name of Poaei 
olivacea. This species prefers still, deep waters. 

ESOCIDJE. 

Genus ESOX Linnets. 

32. Esox (ciJASSUS Agassiz). 

A species is recorded by Professor Agassiz under the name of jB^ 
erassus. The description is insufficient and the species is at presf 
unrecognized. 

HYODONTID^. 

Genus HYODON Le Sueur. 

33. Hyodon selenops Jordan & Bean. 

The original type of this species came from the Tennessee River 
Chattanooga. Hyodon tergisus doubtless also occurs in the lower com 
of the river. 

CLUPEID^. 

Genus POMOLOBUS Rqfinesque. 

34. POHOLOBUS OHBYSOOULOBIS Rof. 

Abandanc in the channel of the Lower Tennessee. 



FISHES OP THE TENNESSEE BASIN. SS 

DOROSOMATID^. 

^enua DOROSOMA Rajinesque. 

3S. DOBOSOUA OEPEDIANDM UBTBRUBTTM (Baf.) Jof. 
Tlte "OizZEinl Shud " is abuudunt id the Lotrer Teuiifssee. 

8ALM0NIDJE. 

Genus SALVELINU8 Richardson. 
36. Saltklintts P0iNtijjai-I3 {Mitchill) Gill ifi Jor. 
TbU Hpccieii occiirH in abuitdiince in SwaDnanoa River, at tUL> foot of 
Bliutk Monutain, and iu all clear tributaries of tbo Freucb Broad in West- 
M North Carolina. In Southwestern Virfriuist, it occurs iu certain trlb- 
atariesof the Holston. In Rabun Oount.y, iu yortlieasteru Georgia, it; 
iboaods in the headwaters of the Little Teuneascc. Professor Copo 
Sales, OD the authority of Dr. Uardy, of Asheville, that it "ocenrainthe 
bMdtralem of the Oliattafaoochee, on the south ^loiie of the AllegbaDies, 
ii Umrgia". 

CYPlUNIDiE. 

Genus CAMPOSTOMA Agassiz. 

37. Cabtpostoma anomalum {Raf.) Ag. 

Var. prolixum Storer. 

Everywhere abundant. In the clear pools of the Swannanoa Biver, 
■ttbefoot of Black Mountain, tliis fish is extremely abundant, and the 
tvge specimens are brilliantly colored, so tbat they appear to be Inmi- 
■ou or phosphorescent as one looks down on tbem tbrongb the crystal 
nter. 

Genus HYBORHYNCHUS Agassu. 

38. Htboehynchus MOTATtJs (Maf.) Agiuaiz. 

^amerous specimens from the Chlckamauga River. These are nar- 
'o*er-headed than the common Western form (S. aapereiliotua Cope) 
Ud want the barbel, which is usually distinct on the latter. It is not 
^nti»Ue tbat we have two distinct speciea. 



64 CONTKIBUnOtlS TO NORTH AHEBICAN lOBTBTOLOOT — DL 

Genus LUXILUS Re^nesgue. 

39. LuxiLUS COBNUTDS {MibA.) Jor. 
AbandaDt in every stream cxamiDed. 

40. LuziLDs cooooaasia (Cope) J&r. 
AbDQdaot in every stream examined. 

Genus PHOTOGENIS Cope. 

41. PhOTOGBNIS aALAOTURUS {Copt) Jor. 
AbundaDt ID every stream exnmined. 

G«nu8 HYDROPHLOX Jordan. 
42. Htdrophlox bubbtoboobus (Cope) Jor. 

Described by Professor Cope from tribataries of tbe HolstoD. It ] 
fers boisteroas tnouutaia-streams. 

43. Hydbophlox LACBBTOstrs (Cope) Jor. 
Described from the Holston. 

Genus ALBURNOPS Girard. 

44. ALBUBNOPS HICB08T<1M17S (Bof.) Jor. 




FISHES OF THE TENNESSEE BASIN. 65 

48. NOTBOPIS MICBOPTEBTX (Cope) JoT. 

From tribotaries of the Holston and GliDch. 

49. NoTBOFis PHOTOGENis (Cope) Jor. 

(^Igvolftft pkotogetni9 Cope ; PhoiogetUi leuoops Cope.) 

AboDdant in the French Broad Biver. 

60. NoTBOPis TELESGOPUS {Cope) Jor. 

Holgton and French Broad Bivers (Cope). Also abundant in Elk 
itirer. If oar specimens are correctly identified, this is a trae Notropis. 
f^e dod it not easily distingoishable from N, photogenis. 

61. NoTEOPis LiBUS Jordan. 

This little species abounds in both the Elk and the Ghickamanga. 

Genus HEMITREMIA Cope. 

62. Hemitbemia viTTATA Cope. 
Described from the Holston River near Knoxville. 

Genus CHROSOMUS Itafinesque. 
63. Ohbosomus ebttubogast^b Raf. 

Recorded by Professor Agassiz from Huntsville, Ala. We have seen 
DO specimens fi-om the Tennessee Kiver. 

Genus PHOXINUS Itafinesque. 
54. PnoxiNUS plammeus Jordan & Oilbert. 

JofdaD, Man. Vert. E. U. S. ed. 2d, p. 303. 

A very distinct species, resembling " Oila^ margarita (Cope).bot with 
the short lateral line of P. neogceus Oope. 

Body stout, rather more slender and more compressed than in P. 
meogtrvs^ the form being nearly that of 0. margarita. Depth 4 in length, 
about equal to the length of the head. 

Ilfad short and deep, smaller than in n€og<mt8, the upper outline 

lOfindeil, the muzzle quite blunt and rather short. Eye rather large, 

3} iu head, longer than snout. Mouth small, oblique, the lower jaw 

•jectiDg, the intermaxillary in front on the level of the pupil, and the 

Uary extending to opposite the front of tbe orbit. 

ih larger than 'm^ but still quite small, iu appear- 

.12- 



66 C0KTBIBUTI0S8 TO NOETH AMEBICAl? ICHTHTOLOOT — in. 

nncft 8'milar to those of the species of Qila ; doraal and ventnl legio 
dcaleit ; 7-43-6. Lateral line short, decorred, not reachiog to base 
veutrals, on only 14 scales. 

Teeth 2, 4-5, 2, as in P. neogaus, witboat masticatory snrface. 

Pins small : dorsal \vell bebiod Teotrals : pectorals reaching nea 
to ventrnl8,tbe latter to vent. B.I, 8, A. I, 8; the latter fin rather hi| 
^ Coloration that of the species of CUnoatomua, especially C. margn 
(which species, having the lateral line wanting on tbe last three to eij 
scales, might perhaps with propriety be referred to Phoxinvs). 

Back dark, the scales profosely punctate: a dusky band fonne^ 
dark specks along the sides: cheeks pearly: space below lateral 1 
silvery ; Id tbe type-specimen flushed ^ilh rich scarlet-red. 

Length of type 2j inches. 

A single specimen taken in Elk Biver, at Estill Springs, in ccMDp: 
with Oila cstor, which species it mnch resembles in color. Pkoxi 
llammeuB bears the same relation to P. neoga-ua that Qila mtor doe 
tbe small-scaled Gila elongata. 

Genus GILA Baird dt Girard. 
(Subgeuns CLINOSTOMUS Girard.) 
55. Qila ebtob Jordan & BrayUm. 
Jordan, Han. Vort. ed. 3d, p. UOO. 

A large and handsome 8|>ecies, related to Q. elongata and O.pron 




FI8HE8 OF THB TENNESSEE BA8IN. 67 

Odor d«ik olive above, with a bluish lastre, many scales darker, as 
toonal In this genos. Sides somewhat silvery. No dark lateral band. 
A broad shade of deep rose color along the sides, below which most of 
the bdly is bright crimson, the red colors brightest anteriorly. 

Length of largest specimens aboot 4 inches. Nnmerons specimens 
fpOB tlie Blk Biver at Estill Springs, and from Stone Biver at Mnr- 
ti m b anf. This striking species resembles most O. eUmgata and O.pro- 
fi§tr. Both those species have much smaller scales (70 to 75 in tbe 
litnil line in dangatOj 60 to 65 in proriger). The coloration is likewise 

■ 

dilBMit, the two latter species having a dnsky band along the sides, 
the anterior half of which in elongata is red in spring. O. cUmgaia is 
much more dongate, as is also Q. proriger. The month appears largest 
ii 6. e$Mr. Tbe distinction between O. proriger and O. elongata is per- 
kapa questionable. 

Genus NOTEMIGONUS Rafinesque. 

56. NOTEMIGONUS CHBT8L0LEU0U8 (ilftt) Jor. 

Common in still waters in the Tennessee Basin. 

Genus PHENACOBIUS Cope. 

57. PHENAGOBIU8 IJEANOPS Copc. 

Bather common in tbe Elk and Ohickamaaga Bivers. A few speci- 
loeDs from the French Broad. Originally described from the Holston 
in Virginia. 

Genus RIIINICHTHYS Agassiz. 
58. Ehiniohthys obtusus Agassiz. 

(Rhinichthys lunatus Cope.) 

This species is aboudant in all clear rocky brooks and in outlets of 
•PriDgs. 

Genus CERATICHTHYS Baird. 

59. CERATICHTHYS MONACHUS CopC. 

Abandant in Cbickaraauga Biver. Originally described from the 
DoktOQ. 

60. Oeratichthys DissiMiLis {Kirt) Cope. 

Obtained in Elk Biver. 



68 CONTBIBCnONS TO NOBTH AMEBICAN ICHTHTOLOOT — QL 

61. Oeoatiohtqys winohblli (Qirardy Jordam. 

{Ceratichthj/a kyalimu Cope.) 

Everywhere abnndant in TeoneSBee River. Tbia is probably Rybopnr 

gracilis Ag., the original type of tbe genus SybopHs. Id that cue, it 

will be necessary to substitute the specific name graeilia for miuMIi. 

62. Cebatiohthts BiauTTATus {Kirtland) Qirard. 
Everywhere very abunOaot. 

Genus SEMOTILUS«Ba^nes}«e. 
63. Semotiltjs cobporalis (Mit.) Putn. 
Tributaries of tbe Clinch and French Broad j chiefly in flmall mount- 
aiu -streams. 

CATOSTOMID^. 

Genus QUASSILABIA Jordan dt Brayton. 
64. Ql'ASSILABiA LACEBA Jordan & Brayttni. 
IjifoeliiU hfcra JonDAX & Braitok (ItfTT), Proo. Ae. Nat. Se. Phita. 

Two specimens of this singular fish were taken in the Cbickamansa 
Itiver ut Ringgold and one 8i>ecimen in Elk Biver at Esdll Springs. lo 
llio Cliickamauga, we were told that it is quite common, and that it ■■ 




FISHES OF THE TENNESSEE BASIK. 69 

Genus PLACOPHARYNX Co^e. 
67. Plaoophaeynx carinatus Co^e. 

This large species is the common ^' Red Horse " of the French Broad. 
It Oioch resembles the preceding, but has a much larger mouth and 
Jipsy besides the different dentition. 

Genus ERIMYZON Jordan. 

68. Ebehyzon sucETTA {Lac.) Jor. 
Obtained in Glinch Hiver. 

Genus MINYTREMA Jordan. 

09. MiNYTBEMA MELANOPS (-Ba/.) Jw. 

Obtained by Professor Agassiz at Huntsville, Ala. 

Genus CATOSTOMUS Le Sueur. 
70. Catostomus nigricans Le 8. 
Very abundant throughout the Tennessee Basin. 

71. Gatostomus gommebsoni (Lac.) Jar. 
Gtroerally abundant. 

Genus CARPIODES Rafinesque. 

» 

72. Oabpiodes bison Agassiz. 

fiower Tennessee Biver (Cope.) The Buhalichthyince of the Tennessee 
River are as yet unstudied. 

Genus BUBALICHTHYS Agassij^. 
73. Bubaliohthys ubus Agassiz, 
Recorded by Professor Agassiz from the Tennessee River, 

SILURIDiE. 

Genus ICHTH^LURUS Rafinesque. 

74. IOHTH.SLUBUS PUNCTATUS (Baf.) Jor. 

fat the TenneMee Birar. 



70 coNTEiBimoNa to nobth amebicak icHmTOLoav — ^ra. 

Genus AMIURUS Rofinesque. 

75. Amueus natalis [Le 8.) QUI. 

Yar. cupreua (Raf.). 

Bather abnodant ia Teouessee Biver. Other species of this geoos 
are doabtless common ; bat they have not been distiugaisbed. 

Genus PELODICHTHYS Hafinesque. 

76. PELODICHTHrS OLtTABIS (Saf.) Bill & Jor. 

Abnndnnt in the chacaels of the larger streams. Severul spccimcD* 
from the Frepch Broad. 

Tliia species probably occurs in the cbaonels of all the streams men- 
tioned in this paper ; but, from its habits, it it) iiot easily taken with a 
small net. 

Genus N0TURU8 Rafinesque, 

11. JJoTDBUS ELEUTHEBOS Jordan. 

SolHrus cleniheriH Jordan {IUTI), Add. Lyo. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 372. 

The type-specimen of this sitecies was from Big Pigeon Rirei-, m 
Cocke (.'ounty, Tennessee, near its jmictiou with the French Brond. 
Many other specimens bave since been obtained in Tar River, l!<orUi 




FiBSEB CP THE CUMBERLAND BASIN. 71 

LEPIDOSTEID^. 

Genus LEPIDOSTEUS Lac^pede. 

80. LEPIDOSTEUS OSSEUS (L.) Ag. 

Generally abandant. 

81. LEPIDOSTEUS PLATYSTOMUS Baf. 

From Hantaville, Ala. {Agassis). 

ACIPENSERIDiE. 

Genus ACIPENSER Agassis. 

82. AcrpENSEB MACULOSUS Le Sueur. 
HuDtsville^ Ala. (Agaasiz). 

83. AciPENSEB BUBiGUNDUS Le Sueur. 
From Ilaiitsvillo, Ala. (Agassiz). 

POLYODONTIDJE. 

Genus POLYODON Lacephde. 

84. POLYODON FOLIUM ^^ Lac.^ 

Abundant in the river-channels. 

VII. — WATEE-BASIN OP CUMBERLAND RIVER. 

Sixty-five species are known to occur in the waters of the Gnmberlnnd 
Biver. Of these, forty-seven have been obtained in the lower course of 
the river, t. e.j in the vicinity of Nashville, by Professor Winchell, and 
ID Stime River, at Murfreesboro', by the present writers. In the upper 
coorseof thestream,thirty-threespecies have been obtained by Professor 
Cope iu the South Fork of the Cumberland in Tennessee and by Professor 
JafUan at the Falls and in the Bock Castle, Round Stone, Big Laurel, and 
other tributaries in Kentucky. Only fifteen species are, therefore, known 
to be common to both the upper and lower courses of the stream. The 
actual differences between the upper and lower faunae are, however, 
probably very small, if similar streams are compared. The differences 
fieallj existing are iirobably chiefiy due to the fact that the large fishes 

HriMting the lower part of the river are unable to ascend above the 

t) vet with the Tennessee, the disappear- 



72 CONTBIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHTOLOGT ^HI. 

aDce of one or two Soatbern types will be Doticed, as will be the sppciir- 
nnceofcertaiD forma abuodant in the basin of the Ohio. Of these latter 
may be noticed Pamliohthsa variatva, Apomotit, Lstkrurta, atKl Pimepka- 
lea. But two species, both Darters, are at present known only from the 
Cumberland River. Tbese are Ulocentra atripinnit asd N&tkonotKa mh- 
guijluva, 

Tbo Xfltional Museam is indebted to the kindness of Professor Win- 
chell for the following interesting — 

List of Fiskca o/NaahviUe, at given by a FMierman, Daniel A. Birchett, to 
A. Winekat. 



"PEKCn TRIBt:."' 


Nigger lip Cat. 


Suu Pi^rcb. 


Chisel.head Car. 


Coon Perch. 


Kerkiu Cat. 


Wbite Pereh. 


Shovel-bil) Cat. 


Itlaok Perch. 


"snSKOW TRIBK." 


Ked IVrch. 


Silver Side. 


Speoklwl IVreh. 


Stone Toter. 


Brama Percli. 


Horny Head. 


BnsH or Uock Bass. 


White Koacli. 


•'TROUT TRIBE." 


Cre«k Mullet. 




Steel B^ck. 


White Trout. 




Bl;»ok Tniiit. 


MISCKLiANBOUB. 


^M 



FI8HE8 OF THE CUMBCBLAND BASIN. 73 

COTTID-^. 

Genus POTAMOCOTTUS Gill 

1. POTAMOCOTTUS MEEIDIONALIS (Ord,) QUI. 

From Gomberland Biver at Nashville. 

ETHEOSTOMATID^. 

Genus PERCINA Haldeman. 
2. Pebcina capeodes (Raf.) Ord. 
Abuudant. 

Genus ALVORDIUS Girard. 

3. Alyoedius maculatus {Girard) Cope A Jordan. 

From the Bock Castle and Camberland at various ]>oiDt8. 

4. Altordius pnoxocEpnALUS {kelson) Cope & Jordan. 

From the Camberland Biver at Nashville. SpecimeDS of this inter- 
e:«tiog species are iu the National Maseum from Marais du Cygne, 
Kansaa. I bave otbers from the Wabash Biver. Nelson's types were 
from IlliDois Biver. 

Genus DIPLESIUM Bafinesqtie. 

5. DlPLESIUM BLENNIOIDES {Raf.) J or. 

Sooth Fork of the Cumberland Biver {Cope). Also from Cumberland 
and Stoue Blvers. 

C. DlPLESIUM siMOTERUM {Cope) Copeland. 

From the Bock Castle Biver at Livingston, Ky. 

Genus ULOCENTRA Jordan. 

7. Dlocentra ATRiPiNNis Jordan. 

mlr1§immi$ Jordan (1877), BaUetin X, U. S. Nat. MaBeom, 10. 

if this Bp Tas collected in the Cumberland Biver at 

iIL 



7d COHTBIBUTIOira TO HOSTH AUEBICAH ICHTHTffljOaT— UI. 

Genus NOTHONOTUS Agassis. 

« 6. STOTHONUTDB CAUTJBDS {Cope) Jor. 

Professor Cope's types were fhim the Sontb Fork of tbo ComberiiitiA - 
Wo have seen others from White Biver ia IndiAoa, sod from Haboiiio^ 
UlveruDd other strenuiB in Ohio. This species is not identical witt* 
yotkonotut maeulatiu Ag. [Etheottoma maculata Eirt), as has beco tsap- 

1>0I<L>(1. 

Xothonotiis maculatua tia» a poiDted instead of rooDded snout; lis 
JuvTB ore (■<iii>il ; its mouth is larger, tlie bod; is more compressed, aDd 
its dormtl Qu moiu devated, the soft rajs wheu depressed reaching to ; 
the eiiudnl. 

Hpocimeus in the National Museum, collected in Mahoning River bj 
I ' 10 lessors Baird and Kirtland, show the following characters : — 

Body modvriiti'ty elongated, very deep, strongly compressed, the 
ili'pth i% iu length. Head 4 in length, the jaws equal, the month large. 
Eye 4| iu head. Spinous dorsal with a long base, larger titan soft dor- 
sal, the spines high, tint two fins slightly connected. Soft ilorsu I ele- 
vated, the longest niys when depressed reaching base of citudal, the 
eiimla! peduucle very short and deep. Caudal fiu short and rounded. 
Anul somewhat smaller than second dorsal. Pi-ctorals aud ventrals 
mudunitt'. 

Hi'ali'K not lar;-i>, 58 to 00 in the lateral line, which is continaons: 




FISHES OF TH£ CU5fB£RLAND BASIN. 75 

9. NoTHONOTUS SAW GUIFLUUS ( Cope) Jor. 
IVom the Sooth Fork of the Oumberlaud in Tenuessee (Cope). 

Genus BOLEOSOMA DeKay. 

10. BOLEOSOMA MAGULATUM Ag. 

From the Bock Castle Biver. 

Genus POECILICHTHYS Agassiz. 

11. PCECILIOHTHYS VARIATUS (Kirt.) Ag. 

FroiD the Sonth Fork of the CumberlaDd Biver {Cope). 

Genus ETHEOSTOMA Rafinesque. 

12. ETHEOSTOMA FLABELLARE Rof. 

Abaudant iu the mountain tributaries of the Camberland. 

PERCIDJl. 

Genus STIZOSTETHIUM Rafinesque. 
13. Stizostethicu salmon euh Raf. 
Ooo or two small specimens from the Bock Castle liirer. 

CENTKARCHID^. 

Genus MICROPTERUS Lacefede. 

14. MiCEOPTEEUS PALLIDUS {Raf.) O. cfc J. 

The ** White Trout'', as this species is often called, is commou in the 
Camberland. It is said that this species and the next were not found 
above the falls uutil introduced. 

15. MiCEOPTEEUS SALMOIDES (Lac.) QUI. 

The " Black Trout'' occurs with the preceding, and is still more abuii- 
laut. 

Genus AMBLOPLITES Rafinesque. 

16. AMBLOPLITES EUPESTRIS {Raf.) QUI. 

■mdant. 



76 CONTEIBUTIONS TO NORTH AHBEICAN ICHTHYOI-OGY — HI. 

Genus APOMOTIS Mafinesqm. 

17. APOMOTIS CYANELLDS (Bfl/.) Jor. 

Abundaut iu the Cuatberland Itirer at Naebville. 

Genus LEPIOPOMUS Rafinesque. 
18. Lepiopouus PALLlDUB {MiU) Gill & Jordan. 
Very abiindaut ia tbe Cumberlaod. 

19. LEPIOPOMUS OBSCUnus (AgaBsiz) Jor. 
Collected by Professor Wincbell in tbe Cumberland Bivt^r at "Sax 
Ttlle. 

Genus XENOTIS Jordan. 

20. XENOTTS MEQM.OIIS {Bof.) JOT. 
AbuodaDt in tbo Camberlaud River. 

Genus POMOXYS Rafinesque. 
21. POMOXTS niQROMAOCLATUS {Ls 8.) Grd. 
Collected by Professor Wincbell at Nasbville. 

22. POUOXYS ANI4UI.AJIIS Bqf. 

Fruui tbe Cumberlaud at Sashvitle. 




FISHES OF THE CUMBERLAND BASIN. 77 

CYPRINODONTIDiE. 

Genus XENISMA Jordan. 
25. Xbnisma oatenatitm {Storer) Jordan. 
Collected by Professor Winchell in streams about Nashville 

Genus ZYGONECTES Agassiz. 
26. Zygoneotes notatus [Raf.) Jor. 

From Gamberland and Stone Bivers. Bafiuesque's original speci- 
mens were from the Cumberland at Williamsburg. 

HYODONTIDiE. 

Genus HYODON Le Sueur. 

27. Hyodon tebgisus Le Sueur. 

Abandant in the Gamberland. 

28. Hyodon selenops Jordan db Bean. 

Two or three specimens in the National Museum from Cumberland 
River. 

CLDPEIDJ], 

Genus POMOLOBUS Rafinesque. 

29. PoMOLOBUS OHUYSOCHLOBis Rafinesque. 
Abundant in the Lower Cumberland. 

DOROSOMATID^. 

Genus DOROSOMA Rafinesque. 

30. DOBOSOMA CEPEDIANUM HETERURUM [Raf.) Jor. 

Abundant in the Lower Cumberland. 

cyprinidj:. 

Genus CAMPOSTOBIA Agassiz. 

31. GAMPOSTOMA AM03IALUM {Rof.) Ag. 



78 C0NTBIBUT10H8 TO »OETH AMERICAN ICHTHTOLOOT m. 

Genus PIMEPHALES Bqfinesque. 

32. PlMEPDALES FROMBLAS Rafinesque. 

Collected by Professor WiqcLbH in tributaries of tLe CatuberloniL 
Genu3 HYBORHYNCHUS Agassiz. 

33. HYBonHYNCHUS WOTATD8 (fl«/.}4»?. 
Abandant everjwbi^re iu tbe CtitnberlaDd. 

Genus LUXILUS Rafinesque. 
34. LuxiLUS CORNTJTUS iMH.) Jordan. 
Exceedingly abundant everywhere. 

Genus PHOTOGENIS Cope. 

35, PHOTOGENIS GALAOTUBUS {Cope) Jor. 

Veryabnndaiit every wuereiu tbe Cumberland. Some specimeaRfrom 
Niitthville Lave tbe eaudal flu palu red. Tliis species does Dot seem tu 
occur iu tbe Obio. The quotalions from tliat river were I'otinded c 
orroneoDS ideutificntioos. 

3fi. PnOTOGKNIS ANALOSTANUS {Ord.) JoV. 

From the Cumberlaud at Nashville. 




riSnEB OF THE CUMBERLAND BASIN. 79 

40. NoTBOPis miceoptery:k {Cope) Jor. 
AboDilant in the Bock Castle. 

41. NoTROPis TELESCOPUS (Cope) Jor. 
Stone Biver at Morfreesboro'. 

Genus HEMITREMIA Cope. 

42. HEMITREMIA VITTATA CopC. 

Abandant in Big Laurel Biver in Laurel Couuty, Kentucky. 

Genus GILA Baird <& Girard. 
41 OiLA ESTOR Jordan & Brayton. 
SeT^eral specimens from Stone Biver at Murfreesboro'. 

Genus CHROSOMUS Agassiz. 

44. CHROSOMUS ERTTHROGASTER Ag. 

From the tributaries of the Bock Castle. 

Genus NOTEMIGONUS Bqfinesgue 

45. !NOTEMIGONUS CHRYSOUEUCUS (Mif.) JoT. 

Common in sluggisli waters. 

Genus PHENACOBIUS Cope. 
46. Phenacodius uranops Cope. 
Taken in Bock Castle Biver. 

Genus CERATICHTHYS Baird. 

47. CERATICHTHYS DissiMiLis (Kirtland) Cope. 
From Cumberland Biver at Nashville. 

48. CERATICHTHYS AMBLOPS {Raf.) Ord. 

From Cumbi»rland Biver at Nashville. 

49. CERATICHTHYS BIOUTTATUS [Kirt.) Ord. 

I f U'j rwhefe abundant. 



80 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHrOLOOr — UI. 

Genua SEMOTILUS Rafinesqm. 

50. SeHOTILTIS COBPOBALIS {Mil.) Put. 
From Bock Castle River. 

CATOSTOMID^. 

Genus MYXOSTOMA Eafinesque. 
51. Mtxostoma macbolepidotum duquesnii {Le 8.) Jor. 
Comiuon in the Cumberlauil. 

Genus ERIMYZON Jordan. 

52. Ebimyzon bccbtta {Lac.) Jor. 
From the Cumberland at Xaehville and from the Uock Castle. 
Genus MINYTREMA Jordan. 

53. MiNYTBBMA UELANOPS (i?«/.) Jor. 

From the Cumberland at Nashville. 

Genus CATOSTOMUS Le Sueur. 
54. Catostomus nigbicans Le S. 




FI8RB6 OF THE CUMBERLAND BASIN. 81 

SILURID^. 

Genus ICHTH^LURUS Rafinesque. 
58. Ighth.s:lubus punctatus (Raf.) Jor. 
Very aboDdant 

Genus AMIURUS Rafinesque. 
59. AanuEUS natalis (Le S,) GUI. 
CoIIectecl at Nashville by Professor Wincbell. 

60. Amiurus nigricans (Le S,) Oill 
From the Falls of the Cumberland. 

Genus PELODICHTHYS Rafinesque. 

01. PELODICnTHYS OLIVARIS [Eof.) QUI & Jor. 

om the Bock Castle at LiviDgston, and from the Camberland below 
^alls. 

ANGUILLID^. 

Genus ANGUILLA Thunberg. 

62. ANGUILLA VULGARIS Fleming. 

nroon in the Cumberland. A very large specimen 'taken in the 
Castle at the mouth of Round Stone River. 

LEPIDOSTEIDiE. 

Genus LEPIDOSTEUS LacepMe. 

63. LEPIDOSTEUS OSSEUS (Z.) Ag. 

m the Cumberland at Nashville. 

POLYODONTID^. 

Genus POLYODON LacepMe. 

64. PoLYODON FOLIUM '■'^ LaoP 
"Vlaod Biver. 



82 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH A^HKBICAN 1CHTBT0UM3T — UL 



EECAPITULATIO:*. 

Tlie folloffiug tattle sbon-g the distribution of tlie species io the ser 
riverbasius especially treated in tbiit paper. For ;)urpoae8 of compai 
son, I have iutrodaced the resnits of Professor Cope's explorations i 
the Eoanoke, James, Neuse, and Great Pedee, of Prof. Forbes an 
Hr. NelsoD in the Illinois, und of mjself and others in the Obia j 
tuv uareriflcd species bave becD introduced, but uU doubtful qnolatira 
and, in general, all "guesswork" bave been exclnded. 



Toble showing the Distrib«tioH of the Spec 


■es it 


the Different RiterS«m 


r < 


i 


1 


i 

1 


1 


1 




1 


1 
1 = 


f 
1 




1 

X 


i 

+ 


1 

J 

J_ 

a. 

K. 

n. 

HT. 
W. 

1 
















* 
















+ 
























































+ 








+ 












"*' 


+ 


eeroiBOCuptmjM, (Unf.)Gril 


+ 


















































+ 




+ 


































+ 




];lj,-.,.T>„|.,,-..,„.|„,„ii ^„r ' 




















■ 



DISTBIBUnON OF fiPECIEa. S3 





1 


II 


ill 






5 


4- 
4- 


■* 

+ 

+ 
+ 
4- 
+ 

4- 
+ 

+ 
+ 
4- 
4- 
4- 
+ 


4 

■3 






















































+ 


+ 








+ 




























■«■ 














+ . 
































+ 

4- 
+ 
4- 
+ 
4- 
+ 
















+ 






















+ i 


















































+ 


■ •■■i 


+ +..^ 


+ + 


+ 
+ H 


+ 
+ 




















+ 






4- ^ 


+ 


+ 


4 










* 












+ H 


* 


■* 


4- 




lV«^H,aTlrWl»,(C. fc7.)JiiT 1 + 

l^n«i.IyaB.Ul■^(Baf,H;.*,I ■. ' . 


+ ^ 


+ +].. 






-. + 

t 4 


+ H 

+ H 


- + 

+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


4- 
4- 

* 


W. 


lWmu"l»»iiraii,(AB.lJDr ' - 

tTilofwiiHlKhyni^J.tS ■ .. 


+ 
■ 

- 4 

- - 


. j ,, , 




'ftoimni.ni.rm'liln.a, lUf 








* 

+ 
-t 

+ 


+ 
+ 

+ 

f 


W. 




I^«.M™.lB^Jnr 

I*tl,liil,r«hl.«l«.Jor 

't^I'lBiKrtlrtna, (AcMor 

'IianTllinliiaMiBKAi: ' - 

'■>»lhll.ll«Il«.|A|!.MI.*J 

b»«iMhuinv|iu<.ila,Ulll&Jar 1- 

fcrn-Hllmiiiiralan-. rep* + 

<^>nRhsalrl>nf>. (I^ntC. &r | . 

Cnir4h'hu»iuiicm[ilttnn, (!-»&» Jnr | 

'w»y<iiien<niai'iiliitaa. |L«S)Gnl !-» 

''~BJ.«liBiilflr,..Rar ',. 

Bfli-.,««a,Enu.Di™..Har - 

■»lW«lrni. ..5ai.i». iCilllaniD I>eK«j ' - . 

UHI-tlw„rMlu«,Cup. ! . 


+ 


4 H 




s. 

Vtl. 


+ ■ 

+ -t 

4 


. + 

+ 
* 


4- 

4- 
4- 
4- 
+ 


+ 

4- 
+ 

+ 


K. 
s. 



84 CONTEtliUTlOSS TO NORTH AMEKICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — III. 
Talrle ihoving the DUtrihution nf the Specia in Ihe Differail Eirer-Baiimt—CoatioKi. 





1 


i 
J 


1 


1 
1 


i 

1 


^ 
l 

s 


1 


1 
j 


! 


1 


L 


1 






































+ 


+ 


+ 


















































+ 












+ 




+ 










+ 


sw. 

HI. 

S, 

ft 
K. 

»■ 










































































+ 


+ 


+ 
+ 

+ . 

+ . 

+ 






















+ 




+ 
































































+ 




[ 




+ 




+ - 




__ 
* 


z 

... 




E™ (cr»t..^ Ai) 






EwiOfpba, Cope 




+ 














.. 


... 


rrnup>iiE''t^*o*' ^E ■ 

Sj|r.ltnB« fuDitnnll., (Mlt.) Gill « Jor 


« 






+ 








; 




; 






















+ 
+ 


Uoravimno'pcdtaBnTii Mcruram, (Itaf.) .Tor . 










■■ 






. + 


* 








■ 



DISTBIBUriOH OF SPECIES. 85 

AMtkHvlif (b DUMbtlUm «f tie Sprciu U the Diffirail Rtetr-Batint—CoaUiiaed. 





1 


1 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


* 


1 


1 

J! 


1 


1 

i 


1 


1 


1 

1 


(Com) Jor 






+ 


+ 










;.. .J« 

i;jdr.ffUMlu[,i,.m,..,,J /.LI 

Bf4njUeichllklurniCi.|.L)Jii(... 

M»»bl«>4!;,.,t..[,b.,kl...Iut 


'i. 


- + 


.: 


+ 




■■■' --r-." ■■:i'.:i-ii)JiT 

i't— !■■■'-...: -.Cn|„.,J^r 


- 






■" 










+' 


+ 






' 
















i 


+ 






■t 




■* 




+ 








^Mmw :. ,,,.„: ,.',.|„,,Jor 












+ 


+ 


+ 
+ 


+ 

+ 


X. 


N«nfU ,^.1 .U,r 
























+ 




j 




















1 








+ 




* 




















+ 
+ 






"1 
■"1 


V, 




... 
+ 










■Wupii lUtntinn*. (i;>>p.-» Jir 

»*^i*'liri^Jor 


■■■'■■ 




■ 


■' 




'■•Wwn.™ J.» 

<:-*«ipyrTb<.BH.t»(rop..)Jor 

'^*«Bif„ni,««, (Putii.)Jur 

'■-*«i»wltiK.nw.J.ff 

'■■•■*m,EhL>r«tl».J.&B 


■4 
+1 


,|.., 


ZC- 
....... 




'"««-na«lll.lb..I.,r 

-■'««« ■ iMr 

J."^«=^> ' 

^'l*mWi«U.O.p.- 

^»^-™....i,_, „..C.p. 

-"••TMWtaiumal^im ... 

•*»WImol,THto:a.<;,fl«. 

5*'nulrRuia hi'itiii Ion. Copf 

^'*«»UlM«ll->C*rH,t."r>(»' 

'"■«ii.t..llaniin<-ufcJur.&a;lllK-n 

_*'adiH.KJmKlit.)Jor 

-;i=Sr.::::::::::;::;:::;::;:;:;:; 

'>U«TiBj,4™l-,. (C. i V.lJor 

'^<««l»«a.cUr™Jcueu*(Mlt.)Jor 


.1 '. 

:i: 


■ 
+ 


■ 




1 


- 
+ 

+ 


- 


1 

■f- 


+ 
+ 

+ 


X. 



86 COSTRIBUTIONS TO NOETH AMEBICAN ICnTnYOLOOT — III, 



Table slioains Ihe DUtribalion of the Species in 






1 


! 


1 


1 
1 


i 

1 


1 

■2 


1 


" 


< 




1 




fi 1 ri (L(J 








"li t 1 I Co 












+ 






















h + 






: 


+ 




'.'. 




".. 






+ 


f- 




t + 


+ - 
+ 

+ ■> 

+- 






Y ». 

. I. 






































■■ 




















'*' 


















1 

+ 


+ 
+ 


+ 


t- + 


+ H 




Cunult>bthj»liJTi»Un>tu».Copo 


+ 

4- 
+ 

+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


n 




+ 


+ 


4 


* 




*■ 


: 


. 

".'. 




+ ■ 




SiaDmh\,m\lu>n^\au<nJor -,- 


M 








+ 


■; 


+ 
+ 








■ ■ 


i 






















■ 



UISTSIBUTIOK OF SPECIES 87 

ff »» iNtMfadiM ^Ike aptdm to tiie DiffertxU fiiMr-Outo*— CoDtinaed. 





i 

1 


1 


g 

?5 


i 


i 
1 


1 

1 


1 


1 


i 

H 
+ 


1 


+ 

+ 


! 






. RW. 
































■+ 


+ ^ 


+ 


t 


- 


+ ■* 






+ 




+ 
+ 
















































+ ^ 

-i- -4 

+ ^ 
+ ^ 

+ 










+ 










. + 


+ 


+ 






+ 


+ 






























A«in»i»l«.|IUr)J.&C 






















W. 












4 


+■ 




















+ 


* ■( 




















■t 


■♦■ 


+ ^ 

+ H 
+ . 

+ H 


























+ 


'". 




+ 


+ 














)(iUii.«llUN<'l- 




... 


1- + 






NW. 






















+ -i 


































+ 
+ 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


y + 


+ 
+ 

+ 
■t- 








t 


+ 


+ 
+ 


+ 

+ 
+ 
4- 












+ 


+ 








"<«lJd>hyo[hu|iiitlU:[rhyu'biu,(['^f|Glll.... 
W!-l.™...liu»..Wt 










iniMiMc«,ir^outi-u«. (Kirt.) 

Anfc.«[«,,lser.(ll-r) 

*'n>»nM™hfiaa.i,(GrJ.( - 


3j 














-1- 






IS 


*■ 


J^ 


* 


' 


11 


^. 


w 

















From tb« above table, it will bo sfeu that tliu namber of specicH 
'Bliabitiu^ iiiiy ono riverbasiit rapidly iiicreasen as we lutivu tlie 
■itlauticstreiiais for tlioso of tho Giiir. Tlie following table sliows tUo 
*"iin({emeiit of tbe species froiu aiiotlier point of view — ouiittiuf; rt-fer- 
*w to the raiiRe of tbe npiHjies outside of the thirteen rivera includeil 
"I tbis table : 



Kdovu only from the- 

Ohio 

ilibama 



Spucies. 



Known only from the- 

Tennesaee 

llliuois 



Spucics. 



C0KTBIBUTI0K8 TO NOBTH AUEBICAK ICHTHYOLOQT — DL 



Kuown only from the— 

Santee 

Altuumlia 

(Ireut PeUeo 

Neuse 

Chattulioochee 



Known only from the — 



James 

CumberlaQtl . 
Roanoake ... 
SaraQiiah ... 



Common to — 

Ohio and lUiuois 

Ciiuiboi'lanil and Tennessee 

Tennessee, Cmubcrlaud, OLio, and Illinois 

Cumberland, Oliio, and Illinois 

-Vlabama, Tennessee, Cumboitaiid, Ohio, and Illinois. . 

.lames uud Nonso 

TenucssiH', Ohio, and Illinois 

Ahtbauia and Tennessee 

&ivannah and Tcnni'ssee 

Alabama, Tennessee, and Cumberland 

(Irt'ftt Pedee and Santeo 

Cumberland and Ohio 



J^inlrilmtioH of Oeuerti. 




DISTEIBUTION OS 
Dixtributum of Qenera- 



GEKEBA. 
1 — (/Uiitiiiiivil. 





1 

3 


^ 


1 1 


111 


ii: 


!:l; 


5 5 S 1 


ItfaaMk 


+ 

+ 

+ 


+ 


+ + 


f ... + 

Y + ... 


+ 4 


::::;,:: r 


+ 44 


MtaMIM 

»«»*tt)n 


4 4 4 T- 




+ 


+ ... 


' 


4 + 4 








+ 













4 








+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 


+ 


+ + 
+ ... 


. ... + 

•f + 4- 




. !,. 






4 + 


— + + ■ 

"1; r ;- 














+ 

+ + + 


4 +. 


.4--.. + 4 -1 




■ftiiliijun. 


+ 

+ 

+ 


■" 






. 




+ + 


* + 4- 


4- + . 


. 4 4- + 4- H 
r 4- + 4 






, 
















+ 


+ 


+ + 


+ - 4- 


+ + 


.. ..[,..+ 4. 




WttrmwiM 






+ + 


4- .. 4- 




















+ 
+ 
+ 




+ ■- 










a«w*ii. 


4- 

4 ... + 




. -f- ...4-.... 


. 4 4- 






, 


+ 4 f 4 


l|b*lHW. 






+ 




+ + ... 








hwf^ 












"*" 


l-X^tM 










"" 




h<U. 


+ 


+ 4 








+ 44 


INIM 












+ 










, 4 4 4 


* "^ 


a«Nk 




lUk-i. 



















>UMn.. . 


+ 


+ 


+ -+ 


4 ... 4 
4 --. 4 








S^iEEEE: 





■ + -.+ + -1 


■ 4 

- + --. 




''"''' 


'^■»M> . . 


-f 


+ 












«•*.« 


V + 


4 +... 


... 


- + ■ 


. 4 - y ■-■ 








■ 








B»-«^";.:;!;;"";;;r:"";:; 




""" 




^.".. 


4 4 -1 


* t 4 I ' + 



Ivliluiluntb* uppar Jaw pnilnntlks anil tb* aoul ■plan Torjr f»nliU. ftiim AvInWMft, wllb 
"t'fiwo la |lii«i TMpMt*. I( li dliMuffilUViI hj Itin lucoioplnln luMnJ lino. 1l la namwl tnr 

■1Luit...fl>»fto,»lliwi Cb.iiv.iiiUly BxiwllMtTOunnuiFpLioftb.-r " 



90 C0NTBIBUTI0N8 TO HOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHTOLOOY — III. 
Dutribution of Genera — CoDtintied. 





1 
1 


ji 


i 

li: 


1 


1 




i 
i 


1 
< 


1 


1 


! 

1 


^ -i 

liil 




+ 






+ 


+ + + ■ 

T + t » 




















+ 






-. + i 


.+ 




* 






+ 


















+ 


+ *■ * + 
+ + t t 

+ + * T 

. +.. . 

+ -t- + t 

+ 1- * » 

+ + t T 




+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 




















LniUua^niDetl 


+ + 
... + 
... + 

... + 
... + 


+ + - 


+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


+ 


+ 

+ 


+ 


- 


+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 


+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 








+ ... . 






. + 


+ 


+ 


... 


+ 
+ 


+ 










CodoiM... 


+ 


::;.: 




Kptoenw 




+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 


+ + 

... + 

+ + 
+ + 


+ ■ ■ 
+ + ■* 








... 








■; 


+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 














■*■ 


+ 


+ 


+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 




































H 



CONCLUSIONS. • 91 

CONCLUSIONS.* 

lu the course of the iuvcstigations detailed iii this paper, some light 
basbcen throwu on the laws wliich goveru the distribution of fresh- 
vater fishes in general. The writer has collate<l the kuowu facts into a 
series of general propositions, which, without any pretense to exhaust* 
iveness or to originality, are here briefly stated. It may be premised 
that some of these propositions are only half truths, to be more com- 
pletely stated when our knowledge of the subject shall be increased. 
Most of the statements also refi^r chiefly to the smaller and non-migratory 
fishes, es|>ecia11y the Htheostomatidcej Gentrarchidm^ and Ct/prinidce, Our 
knowledge of the range of the larger Catostomidce and Siluridce is still 
very meagre. 

For the flrst statement of several of the following propositions, we are 
indebted to Professor Cope, who has ably discussed the subject of the 
ilistributiou of flshes in his paper on the Fishes of the Alleghany Kegion 
of Soutbwest Virginia, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. 1868, pp. 239-247. 

I. lu the case of rivers flowing into the ocean^ the character ot the 
fiuiu® of the upper waters, compared one with another, bears no, or 
very little, relation with the places of discbarge. In illustration of this 
ve may note {a) the similarity of the fannsB of the Chattahoochee and 
AlUmaha, as compared with the Chattahoochee and Ahibama. The 
launaj of Wisconsin lUver and of lied lliver of the North arc vrry similar. 

II. Itiver-basins having a similar discharge into some largrr river or 
l-Jke bave a Mmilarity of fauna, due to this fact, and, in general, other 
'liinps being equal, the nearer together the places of discharge, if in 
fn-ih water, the greater the similarity. The almost identical faunae of 
the Catawba and the Saluda will illustrato this. 

III. Parallel rivers tributary to the same stream have, other things 
'^'iiifj equal, more in common than streams coming from opposite direc- 
lioiis. The Wabash and Miami have more in common than either has 
^itlj the Kentuckv. 

IV. The higher or the older the water-shed between two streams, the 
^**^er specii*s are common to both. (This matter needs lurther investi- 

V. Certain species, not including "species of general distribution", 
i ^wurou opposite sides of even the highest watersheds. This fact was 

^tuoticed by Professor Cope. The occurrence of Luxilus coccogeni^^ 

qI the remaining part of this paper uppoarecl in the American Natnruiiat 
*i VSn (pp. 607-613). For this part, Professor Jordan is uloue rospon.sible. 



92 CONTEIBUTIONS TO SOUTH AMERICAS ICHTHYOLOGY — HL 

Uijdiophlox rubrieroeeus, PImtogeais gataclurua, and Catostomtti iiigrka\ 
botti iu tlie Teiiuessee aDtlBavatinah, will illustrate tbis. Ndtbcroft 
two fiF»t-iiaiiicd Ni>ccifs are as yet known from anyottier river-bositii 

VI. H'lien tlio water-bed between two streams is a swamjiy npla 
iiiHteail (tf ti mountain -range, tbe same species may be found in tbe be 
waters uf botb, altbougb tbe Ni>ecies inbabiting tbe lower conrses ma; 
different. In case tbe cue stream Hows nortbward and tbo other son 
ward, tbe common fauna will be nearetit like tbat of Ibe nortbern Btrei 

In Xoitbern Indiana, tbe same species arc found in tbe waters of Su 
Jusepb's, Maiimec, VVubasb, and Illinois Hi vers, altliough tbese strei 
di:jcbarge tbeir waters in widely different directions. Tbe swampy wa 
sbed between tbem is often overflowed iu tbe spring, afionliDg to 
smaller lisbes au easy means of mi^iatiou. 

VII. In any river-basin, many of tbe sjwcies inbabiting small strei 
are diflerent from tbose oeourring in tbe river-ebaunela. Among 
brook species may be mentioned J]ucalia inconxlann, Ptecilickthg» apt 
bilix, Xenotia lyihrochlorin, Xenitma stelli/erum, Saltvlinus fuutini 
Ericymha hiiccata, Semoti(u)i corjmratis, Ckronomus eri/throgaster, 
species of EhinitlUltys, etc. Of cbaniiel spe<!ieK, HaploutonoU'S, Ilyoi 
Dofogoiua, Pomolobus, Eoccvs chrysopn, all the "Butl'alo-fishes", aud 
larger Sihirida, Ichlkcclurm pvnctalvs, Pttiidiclilkya olivaris, Antin 
nigiicans, and tbe like, will serve as esainples. 

VIII. JltLiny species inbabiting tbe upper course of a stream are tlil 
rnt Irorii tliose of tbe lower. Tbis sulijcet bas been abty discussed 




CONCLUSIONS. 93 

pared with the range of Ltunlus cornutus. Id tbe genns Ceratwhthy/i^ C, 
biguttaius probabl^"^ occars in every stream fr.>m the Sasquehanna to tbe 
Great Skilt Lake, while foar other species of the same genus, G. micro- 
pot/OH, C. monachus^ C, sanemus^ and C labrontt^, are each, so far as is 
known, contlned to a single river-basin. 

Xn. In any river-basin, the most abundant species (of small fishes) 
are asnally (a) those peculiar to it, or {b) those of the widest distribution. 
In illustration of this, we may notice the abundance of Godoma pyrrho-. 
mdns and Notrapis photogenis in tbe San toe; of Godoma atigmatura and 
Luxilvs cornutus in the Alabama; of Godoma eurystoma and Geratichthya 
higuttatua in the Chattahoochee; of Godoma xcenura and Notemigonua 
mmcanua in the Ocmulgee. To this rule, however, there are many 
excqitions and modifications. 

XIII. In general, the further south any river-basin lies, the more 
sptHjies are i)eculiar to i^, and the greater the difierences betwc*en its 
tAQDiiand that of the neighboring streams. In illustration of this, the 
diftorences existing between the faun® of the Alabama and Chatta- 
hoochee may be compared with those between the faunoe of the Susque- 
l^mnaand Delaware. Twelve genera are known to be common to the 
I'battahoochee and Alabama, and twenty-three to the Susquehanna and 
belaware. In the Southern streams, tbe process of evolution of specific 
toiin« seems to have gone on more rapidly. Tbis matter, however, 
UHjnires further investigation. 

XIV. Sj>ecies of tbe widest distribution often have breaks in their 
range wbich cannot be accounted for by any facts now in our posses- 
»*Jon. LuxUua cormitua^ so a!)undant in all tbe waters of tbe North and 
^Vi'st, does not occur, so far as is known, in any of the rivers between 
ibeXeuse and the Alabama, in both of which streams it is a))nndant. 
Various species range over several river basins and then ceas(» abruptly. 
Amiunts brunnena is abundant from tbe Santee to tbe Cbattaboocbee, in 
tbv hxwv river tbe most abundant food-fish, while in the very nrxt river- 
'»y«n, tbe Alabama, it is unknown. 

XV. Many species of wide distribution which are absent in certain 
'''ivums are there represente<l by certain other related 8i>eci<»s, which 
^v W regarded as modified descendants. Thus, in the South Atlan- 
^•cstreaiiis, Gh(vnobryttus gitlosus is represented by Ghwnobryttus viridiaj 
'9tmigonua chryaoleucwt by Notemigonua amcricanua, Jn tbe South- 

i%Eupomotia aureua is represented by Eupomotia paUidua ; in the 
iJMiinii gjfrinus by Koturua aialtaj Noturua inaignia by Noturtia 



04 COKTHEBUTIONS TO NOETIl AMEBICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — HI. 
'■xilin, NoturuH eleutherits by Notitrus wii'uriw, iltlanurii pijgmaahy Mt- 
lantira limi. 

XVI. Other 8i>ecie8 under similar ciicmusUDcea have no sncli repw- 
seutativea. Thu case of Luxilua comutim will again Ulastrate, 

XVII. Certain species have been known to extend their geogiapbicil 
range Kioce the opening of the ciiuals. Siu-b are more esi>eciiill,v ttu* 
migratory s[)ecies of probably marine origin, as Dorosoma /idemn, 
Pomolobus ohrysochloris, and AnguUla vuhjariit. These species sreaon 
abundant in Liike Michigan and Luliu l^iie. allhoitgh rormerly nuknoirD 
there. The range of certain Percitla: and Ccntrarchitlw has undouUnlljr 
been extended by the same meaus. 

XVIII. The cliaracterisliually American forms of fishes arc, gencrtil; 
speaking, rare or absent iu the waters of Nvw England and of tttf 
Pacific sloi>e. This fact has been well stated by Professor Agioisiz, vbo 
called New England "a zoological isUtnd". 

About 105 genera of freshwater fishes occur in the waters of lb 
United Stateci east of the Mississippi Utver. Of th<.<se, about 7(1 iloi 

in New Eugl.iud {escUisive of I>nU<i Champlain, the fuui 
which is nearly identical with that of Luke Ontario.) Of these 
lewer genem occurring id ^^ew Englaod, all but Salvctinus, CwrtgotM, 
Esox, Semotilus, lihinichihyK, and po-ssibly Atniurun, are reprejpuietl bj 
a single species each. From 30 to 35 genera occur in the waters tii dW; 
Pacific slope. 

XIX. The larger the river-basin, the greater it« variety of forms, 




CONCLUSIONS. 95 

iiessee, and OomberlaQd, and Albumops miorostomus in the James, Boa- 
DOke, KeiitQcky, Gamberlaod, and Clinch. 

XXIV. Certain species have a wide east and west range, without 
apparent regard to the courses of the rivers, but are bounded on either 
the north or the south by parallels of latitude. 

Emoalia inoonatanB occurs from Western New York to Kansas and 
nonhwai-d, bat it is never found southward of a line passing about fifty 
miles south of Lake Erie. Percapais guttatus has a like range, but its 
vcmtbeni boundary is in the Potomac and Ohio. Lota lacustris is simi- 
larly circumscribed, but ranges farther to the east. The three species 
{AL^krums have each a belt of latitude: L. cyanocephalus belonging 
, to the Great Lakes and Upper Missibsippi ) L. diplamius to the Ohio 
iDd the Potomac; L. ardena to the Eoauoke, James, and Cumberland. 
The thi-ee species of Hyodon are similarly arranged. 

XXV. Certain species have a peculiar northern and eastern range, 
occarriiig in the waters of the Upper Mississippi, in the headwaters of 
the Illinois, Wabash, and Scioto, thence through the Great Lakes to 
New Eii;»land, thence to South Carolina on the eastern slope of the 
Alleghaiiies. Such species are Eupomotis aureuSj Perca americaiuij and 
Amiums catus. 

XXVI. Certain species have a peculiar northern and western range, 
oecurihij^ in the Middle States and in the Great takes, and usually 
8oothw;jid in the east to some point in Virginia or iNorth Carolina, 
ceasiii^r in the same latitude on both sides of the Alleghauies, but ex- 
U^mliiijr s(»uthwest\vard through the Mississippi Valley to the Gulf of 
Mexin). Among these may be m(»utioued Luxilus cornutuSj Xotemigonus 
cArifWcMriw, AviblopUtes rupcatris^ Apomotis cyaneUus, The last-named 
5*l»n*hs, however, scarcely ranj^es east of the Alleghanies. 

XXVII. Certain species have a wide range north and south, either 
wwtor west of the Alleglianies, but do not cross that chain. Of these 
niaybt' mentioned Lepiopomvs imritus^ EnneaeanihuH olesusj Esox rctmi- 
/afif*, «.|(;., on the east, and IlaploiConoiuH grunniem^ Hyodon terglsm^ 
Sotyrw, iniurus^ NoturuH slaliSj etc., on the west. 

XXVill. The distribution of fresh-water fishes is dependent (a) on 
iresb-waier communication ; (b) on character of stream, i, c, of water — as 
to pun V, depth, rapidity, vegetable growth, etc.; (c) on the character of 
the riverbed ; (d) on climate, as determined by latitude and by elevation 
aboTe the sea; and (e) finally on various unknown factors arising from 
(he u.nure or past history of the species in question, and from the geo- 
logiuiil history of the rivers. 



B. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE FAMILY CATOSTOMIDiE. 



Bv David 8. Jordan. 



Class PISCES. 

Subclass TELEOSTEI. 



Order TELEOCEPHALI. 
Suborder EVENTOGNATHL 

Family CATOSTOMID^. 

9§iomoida Gii.k. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pbila. v. 13, p. 8, 1661. 

mtmuida Copk. Prcc. Am. Aseoc. Adv. Sci. v. 20, p. 333, 1872. 

ninmidff Joudan, Man. Vert. £. U. 8. p. 292, 1876. 

rimidce ^eD. Kafinesque, Risso, Cuvirr, Bonaparte, Girakd, Bi.kkker. 

rimid€t anbfnm. Hrckel, Agassiz, Blkeker, GDntiier. 

rhe family of CatostomidcB, or tbe ''Suckers", may be briefly defiued 
follows: — Evenfogiiathous hshes^ baviug tbe pharyngeal teetb pecti- 
orm, in a single row, closely approximated, very numerous, and 
opresseil at riglit angles to tbe direction of tbe bone, and tbe intermax- 
tries forming bnt a small part: of tbe upper arcb of tbe moutb, tbe 
xillaries entering into it largely on each side.* 



following more elaborate diagnosis is given by Professor Gill (Johnson's Uni- 
■1 Qje]o|MDdia, vol. iv, p. 1574) : — '* The body varies between an elongated subcylin- 
att oblcmg more or less compressed contour; the scales are of niedinm or 

» 

^ • Ibe lateral line is genefally pretent and decorved, bnt some- 
T »7 



98 CONTBIB0TION8 TO NORTH AUBSICAN ICBTaTOLOOT — 111 ' 

Jslarly writiirH on fisbes, as veil »s most foreign ichtbyolopsta, hm 
considered tlie Suckerd us fonuiiig a mere tribe or sabfamily of tlSt 
OypHniAtB, which gionp bas been vaHoQHly denomioated CaUntam, 
Catoatomina, and Catottomintc, but tSe cburactem above noted, of tMlfc . 
and mouth, seem to the nriti-r to fally jnstii; their separatiou aaadii- j 
tiDct Tamil; Tin dorsal fln iu CMfosfumt'cia! is more developed thu it i 
asoal in American CjpHnidte^ although' varions Old World geaera ibow ; 
similar characters. The devt'Iopmenl of the lips and the great proliM- ' 
tility of tbe month aie Icntuies nsuallj' diagnostic, but in thegeanr 
Qttosiii'abia tbe mouth is scarcely piotractile, tind amoDg oar Qf^ ' 
Ht(f(7 certain species of Pkmacobiva nnd Ceratiehthy» have tbirkerlipl 
than iiavo some of llie (Jutnstomidte. 

The CatoHtomidcB fall at ouce into thiee nell-niarhed subfamilies, &m| 
indioited by Professor Gill, aud termed by him Catattomince, CyeteptiMl, 1 
and Biibalickthi/inw. These umy be eharacterji^ed iia follows: — 

CatoslomincE. — Body ol>loii(; or elongate, snbterete or more or ImN 
nom pressed : dorsal fln nciirly median, short and snbquadrste, irilkj 
from nine to eighteen developed rnys: ventral fins under the dorsal, on 
nine or ten rays : anal fln hiph and short, normally of seven rays, ni 
the base of the eaudal lb:m ihntof (hi- vrnimt Sii»: lips well develope 
usually papillose or plicate: gill-riikcrs little developed. Genera^ 
iahia. Placopliari/Ttx, Myxoatoma, Ermyzon, Minytrema, 
Calostomu», Pantosteus. 

Ciic!epfinrr.^V,w}y elongate, slender ; dorsal fin fnlcifnrm,of abootM 




CATOSTOMID^. 99 

ated by ibe nnioa of the parietal bones : mouth inferior, with thick 
pipinoee lips : gill-rakers moderate, soft. Genus Cycleptus, 

ButaKdUAytfue. — Body stout, oblong-oval, and compressed. Dorsal 
fin eloDf^te, beginning more or less in front of the ventral fins, and ex- 
tending at least as far as the commencement of the anal, its rays 20 to 
50 in number, the anterior ones more or less elongate : ventral rays 
onully 10: anal rays 8 to 12: b.ead stout and heavy : mouth moderate 
or smally with thin lips: fontanelle open: gill-rakers of anterior arch 
long, slender, and stiff above, growing smaller downwards. Genera 
Carj^eSj BnbaliekthySj Ichthyobu§, Myxocyprinua. 

As the chief purpose of this paper is to ascycrtain and make known 
the proper nomenclature of the valid genera and species of GatostomidcBy 
I shall omit further discussion of family and subfamily characters, and 
proceed at once to a catalogue of described species, arranged in chrono- 
logical order, with the date and my identification of each species oppo- 
site its name. As is the case in nearly every group of American fishes, 
the nnmber of nominal species is about three times the number really 
existing. It will be noticed that the number of species which I h:ive 
admitted is in most of the Catostomoid genera fewer than has been 
recognized by previous writers. This seems to me to result not from any 
pecoliar theories as to what constitutes a species, but from the fact that T 
havehada greater range of specimens of most forms than any previous 
writer has bad. I am confident that in the presence of a still greater 
amount of material, the characters of several other species will be found 
to melt away. To indicate which these vspecies are, in default of such 
material, would, however, be an unprofitable task. In this group, as in 
so many others, the truth well stated b\ Dr. Cones* becomes apparent: — 
*• We can only predicate and define species at all from the mere cir- 
cumstance of missing links. * Species ' are the twigs of a tree separated 
from the parent stems. Wo name and arrange them arbitrarily, in de- 
faoltof a means of reconstructing the whole tree according to Nature's 
famifications.'' 



* Birds of the Northwest, p. 327' 



100 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHTOLOOT — III. 
List of Ifominal SpeoUa of Cotostomida, tvith Idemt^ficatioiu. 



nominal Bpccit-s. 


Dale. 


Ideiitiliciilioii. 




1773 

IHO;! 
IH03 
IBW 
IBH 
l«14 
1817 

IS it' 

Ifll7 

1817 
1H17 
1H17 
lfi|7 

1-^17 

iyi7 

IP17 
1M17 
IB17 
IHI7 
IMIT 

ma 
\t>iii 


Erimyeoii HUuettu. 
(CutostouiUB) roMtrataa. 
CatOHtuuius teren. 
EriDi>zon sacetla. 
Curi"'*'!^ cyprino*. 
Erimjzon sucbtta. 
Erimyzoii auoetto. 

Mjxostonia aureolum. 
Catostomos t«reB. 
Cntmiomos longirmtris. 

CaIo».omn»oiKricans. 
Cjcluptnu eloDgatus. 
Enruyzonsucetia. 
MyxoHtoum macnjlspidoinu. doqa. 
CalostomaB teten. 

lubtlifoliua bubal D8. 
MysoBtotua maerolepidotDm JiwiBi 

Calostonina nigricaii'*. 
Riiljniii-Iitbvssp.! 


C;priuus sui-oLtu Luci^p&ile 










CutnstnniiiH uif^rioanH Li' Sueur 

CaloHtoDiuHuiacnliwiisLe Sueur 


CiilDBtonmsduquesDiil.fSlR-nr 

CiiliiatuiiiaB bosloiiicDBla Lo Saenr 


■ 



U8T OF NOMINAL 6PKCIE8. 101 

LU ^ Samkuil Sjfeeies of CatosicKiidc^ with IdenUficaHons^^omtinuei. 



Nominal wwtMk 


Date. 


Identiflcation. 


Py|riBM(Catoatoniiia)aQ6arii Rich 

PrpriBM(Catoatomaa) retiealatiia Rich . 
OilQitcMBaB oracilla Klrtlaod 


1836 
1836 
1838 
1842 
1842 
1H42 
1842 
1842 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1844 
1850 
1860 
1853 
1864 
1864 
1854 
1854 
1854 
1854 
1854 
1854 
1854 

ia-i4 

1854 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1856 
1856 
1856 
1856 
1856 

1H.'',6 

1896 


• 

Myxoatoma aureola m T 
Catoatomas terea. 
CatostoDins teres. 


''^ flflgaitt DeKay .....^ ...... .... 


Erimyson aaoetta. 
Erimysoa snoetta. 


lateofliopiia DeKay...... 


^^nMnniia mi^a DeKay 


Myxoatoma maorolepidotQiii. 
CatoatODioa terea. 


Cttaftoniia mdlidna DoKav x . x . a ^ . 


LakeoflloDgatos BeKayi • 


• 
ErimvzoQ aacetta. 


GMoitomiia fiiaoiotoa Le 8oear, M4S . . . . 
CttoMoama planlaepa YateoGieDnea. .. 

CttoMonna earpio YalaDoianiiea 

CitoitoBiia tileaii YalandeDiiea 

BdBiopiathaa eyprinella YalanoleiiDea. 

Gtetoona ibntariaonB Agaatis 

CttoMoama aurora AgaaHia... ......... 


Miaytrema melanopa. 
Catoatomoa nigrieana. 
Myxoatoma oarpio. 
(Catoatomoa) roatratna. 

Catoatomoa tarea. 
Catoatomoa longiroatHa. 
Catoatomoa latipionia. 
Babaliobthya oraa. 
Bobaliohthya ap. 
Carpiodea biaon. 
Bnbalichtbys sp. 
Carpiodes cy prions. 
Myxostoma ooogestnm. 
Catostomns clarki. 
Catostomus insigais 
Pantoflteiis plebcins. 
Carpiodes cyprinns. 
Cutostomus occidentalis. 


OMoMmbob latipinnia Baird & Girard . . 
^^■vpiote Drna Agaatia 


CvpMft tannia Agaatia 


CvyMaa biaon Agaaaia 


Cirpiod«a Titnloa Amasiz 


Cirpiodee Tacca Agaasiz 


CMwtoinoa ooDgestns Baird & Girard . . 

CUoitomiia clarki Baird & Girard 

Catoitomos ioMgnis Baird & Girard . . . 
CitQitoinas plebeias Bainl &, Girard. .. 

Ciipiodes tmuidos Baird &, Girard 

Citoitomas oooidentalis Ay res 


Idithvobos rancbii Airassiz 


Ichthyobns bnbalns. 


lebthyobos stolley i Agaasiz 


• 

Ichthyobns bubalns. 
Erimyzon oblongus. 
Carpiodes thompsoni. 
Bnbalichtbys nrns. 
Bubalichtbys bnbalns. 
Bnbalicbthvs nrns. 


virpiodes thoiiiDsoni Asassiz 


BvUIiobthys oiger Agaasiz 

BsUIiohthya bnbalas Agaasiz 

^baliehthvs bonasns Acraasiz 


^^stoitomas occidentalis Agassiz 

^^^tottomiis bkbiatus Avres 


Catostomns occidentalis. 
Catostomus labiatns. 


^^ttpiodesdainalis Girard 

^'^ntottoina clayiformis Girard 

'"*BQitaina konnorl vi Girard ...... 


Carpio<les cyprinns. 
Erimyzon sucetta. 
Erimvzon sucetta. 


^IwMoisa yictoris Girard 


Minytrema melanops. 
Erimyzon sncotta. 


^IkMoow campbelli Girard 


hychostomus albidna Girard 

I^ycboatooma hajdeni Qiraid 


Myxostoma albidum. 
Minytrema melanopa. 



102 CONTRIBUTIONS TO KOBTH AUBSICAN ICHTHTOU>QT — IIL 
List of Ifominal species of Calottomida, witk Identifioationg — OoDtin 



Noiumal biwci^h. 


Date. 


Identifieation. 


; CatoHtDoius ( AeouiUB) generosiia GitarH 
Catoatomus (Aoomus) grieuus Girurd . . 
CutOBtomue (Aeomiis) Iftctariua Girard. 
CaloatoniDaioacrocheilusGirard 


1856 
1B56 
1856 
ieo6 

leoe 
itce 

1856 

1800 
IttOO 
IW4 
1868 
1808 
18T0 
1870 
1«70 
1870 
IrtO 

laro 

1870 
IWO 
1870 
1870 
1670 
1870 


CatoBtomua lon^inutris. 
Catoatomna nacrocbilan. 










CatoslomDH chloropteron Ahbolt 


Bubalichlhya meridioaillB. 
PlacophsryuncariiiBtDB. 

Uyiostoma veo-tam. 

MyxoatoDia pidU'Uae. 
MynoBtomHi cortgono*. 
Myioatonia albain. 
MyxoBtoma tliiiluBaiDuiii. 
Mysoatoma DiaciulopidotatL 
Myx. macro lupidu turn lacbrfDa 
MyxoHtoma cra^HiUbre. 
Myxosloma. nnitinra. 




ScloroRnathas me rid ion alia GUather ... 


Ptychoetoniii8 pappilloans Cope 










PtjcbostoiDus tlialaaoiiiuaCope 


PtyoboHtomua lachrjmalis Cope 

PlychwtomnsbrcvipKiiB Cnjw 


■ 



ANALT8I8 OF GENERA. 103 

iMt of Nominal Speoies of CatostomidcB^ with Identifications — Continued. 



NomiDal species. i Date. 



MjxoBtoma enryops Jordan ! 1877 

Bobilicbtbys babalioas Jordan ; 1877 

Uyxostoma pcDcilnra Jordan 1877 

Ugocbila lacera Jordan A Brayton 1877 

ErimyaoD goodei Jordan 1878 

CttMtomas arsDopos Jordan | 1878 

Cilostomas retropinnis Jordan 1878 



Identification 



My xOBtoma euryopn. 
Bubalicbtbys bnbalus. 
Myxotttoma poBcilura. 
Qoassilabia lacora. 
Erimyzon goodei. 
CatoHtomns arseopas. 
CatOHtomns retropiDnis. 



ANALYSIS OF GENERA OF CAT08T0M1DJS. 

'Doreal fin abort, snbqnadrate, witb ten to eigbteen developed rays: body oblong or 

elongate : gill-rakers feeblo. {Catostomincs.) 

a. Moatn HiDgnlar, tbe npper ]ip not protractile, greatly enlarged, tbe lower lip 

developed as two separate lobes : opercalam very Hhort : air-bladder 

in tbree parts: scales large : fontaoelle well developed: laU-ral lioe 

present: pharyngeal bones and teeth ordinary Quabsilabia, 1. 

aa. Mooth normal, tbe lower lip entire or merely lobed, either tubercular or plicate. 

b. Air-bladder in tbree parts: lateral line continuous: fontanelle present : scales 

large, sobequal. 

& Pharyngeal bones very strong, with the lower teeth much enlarged, subcy- 

lindrical aud truncate, the teeth of the upper part of the bene small 

and compressed: mouth large, somewhat oblique, witb very thick 

lips Placopiiaryjsx, 2. 

cc. Pharyngeal bones moderato, the teeth compressed^ gradually larger down- 

wardH: mouth moderate or soiall, tbe lips usually plicate. 

Myxostoma, 3. 
bh. Air-bladder iu two parts. 

d. Lateral line interrupted or wanting : ecales large (40 to r.O in tbe cuurue of 

the lateral lii.c) : lips plicate. 

e. Lateral line incomplete, obsolete in the young, becoming developed in the 

adult, but always more or less iuternipted: mouth Bmall, inferior. 

MiNYTRKMA, 4. 

«e. Lateral line entirely wanting : mouth somewhat oblique.. Erimyzon, 5. 
dd. Lateral line complete and continuous : scales small, 55 to 115 in tbe course 
of the lateral line. 
/. Fontanelle present. 

g. Mouth very large, terminal, oblique : lips thin, nearly smooth. 

CHASMIHTES, 6. 

gg. Mouth inferior, moderate or t«mall, with thick, papillose lips. 

Catojjtomus, 7. 

ff, Fontanelle obliterated by the union of the parietal bones: mouth small, 

inferior, with thick, papillose lips, the lower jaw provided with a 

cartilaginous sheath Pantostkus, 8. 



104 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMEHICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — IIL 

■• Domnl fin elongate, more or lens plf vntoil in front, of »l>oat K or more dcidop"* 
rays : air bladder in ttro parts. 
I KnotaDnlle obliterated by the □niou of thir parietal bones: head short stidiiiiill: 
body elongat*. (Cjcftpfina.) 
k. Mouth small, inferior, with very thick, papillose lips : tcales small. Ii3 lo 60 id 

the coorae of the lateral line CvcLEFiti.* 

HFonlanello well dovelopeil : Lead Inrjfe : body oblon); or ovate : scalen larga, 33 1» 
4G in the coarse of the lateral line. (Dubalicktkgino!.) 
f. Dorsal raya in moderate number {^4 to 33). 
j. Moatb coDiparutively small, inferior, protractile downirards. 

t. PboryDgoal bones uurrow, irith the teeth comparatively thin and weak. 

Carpiodu, I& 
kk. Pharyngeal bones strong, the leetb oompiuativel; coarse and huge, '» 

creosing in size down wnrda BtiBAUCHTHT^ II' 

jj. Month qnite large, terminal, protractile forwards: pharyngeal bone* sad 

hmoderate: lips thin, nearly smooth IcuTuruBL's, 11 

U. Dorsftl fln very long, ofnbuat 50 developed rays MvxocyyiUKt;^ It 

Genus QUASSILABIA Jordan d Brayton. 

lasodtila Jord.i.v iIi, Biuvtun. Piuo. Ac. Nat. Sc. Fhila. 280. 1877. (Pieoccopisd ii 

concbulogy OS Lagtxhilm.) 
IJuMiilabia ( JoiiDAN &. BRavton) JoxD-tN, Man. VerC E. U. S. ed. 20, 401. 1>478. 
TyiNJ, Lagoekila loftra Jordan & Bniyton. 
Etymulugy, guantui, broken or turn; labia, lip. 

Sucker.-* like Mi/xontima iu every respect exceptiog the structan i 
mill 1111(1 oiRTciilit. Heai) sliortisb, conical, with lfiit;tiieuedeiK 




OINUB QUASBILABIA. 106 

Bedn burge, predaelj as in MgroitomOj the lateral line well developed 
nd iMtilj Btraigfat, with about 46 scales in its coorse. 

AirUadder in three parts. 

tanal peoaliarities anknowo ; probably little marked. 

But a riugle species of this gcDus is Icnown. It is a sort of offehoot 
ftooi the genus MfxoBtama^ bat its uoo -protractile mouth and singular 
krwtf lip would* seem to indicate some real affinity with the genus Exo- 

The Dame LagodMua bad been previously applied to a genus of Gas- 
Jmpods by Blanford, and to a genus of Insects by Loe w. As Lagoehila is 
lalMCwitially the same word, with the same etymology, and as, if written 
4i iMst correctness, it would be LagoiAilua also, its authors have seen 
IttOMbstitaie the name QuoiSikMa^ and thus to forestall' all discus- 
ioitt to whether the name Lagotkila should be retained. As this sub- 
Hitation was made soon after the original description of the genus, and 
teftn the name LagoehUa had come into any general use, it is to be 
boped that it will be accepted by succeeding ichthyologists. 

La80CB1Ia JordttD & BraytoD, 1877.— ** Similar to JffJB0«/ama(Pr^M(omaMAca88iz) 
«DMpt te tbe strootiiro of ibm noath pnrtB. Dorsal fin short ; lateral Hdo well devel- 
ii^ ipci; Mtlea large, eubeqoal ; air-bladder in three parte ; foDtaoelle between parietal 
knei well developed ; pharyngeal bonus weak, with nnmerons small teeth ; upper lip 
MA aU protractile, greatly enlarged, bnt attmnated, and sirgular in form. It consists 
of tvo elongated and narrow lobes, separated by a narrow, deep fissure, which extends 
isvaid to the edge of the mandible proper, which seems to be armed with a rather 
"M or almost homy plate, about as in the genus PantoateM. Tbe two lubes of the 
^ii« weakly papillose. The lower Hp is entirely separated from the upper at the 
»g^ by a deep fissure. Over this fissure the skin of the cheek lies as a sort of cloak ; 
t^cresae separating this skin from the mouth, exteuding up on the sides of the muzzle, 
^fiwire between the lips extends down on tbe skin of tbe nnd«r side of the head, 
^opercle is extremely short and the eye is eutirely in the posterior part of the bead.^ — 
(JoiDAjf & Brayton, Proc. Ac Nat So. Phila, p. 280, 1877.) 

QviauLABiA Jordan A Brayton, 1878. — '' When tbe name Lagoehila was firHt pro- 
R^fbr this genus, its authois were not aware that tbe masculine form, LagochUuH, 
^ been already given to two different genera, to one of OasteroiK>dB by Blanford, aLd 
1* cue of Insects by Loew. The words Lagoehila and Lagoohiltis are identical in ety- 
'><^' and in all except terminations, and many writers would consider them innufii- 
cKBtly distinct, and would hold that the name Lagoehila should be cbanj^ed. At 
P^'BiBn^Iam inclined to the contrary opinion ; nevertheless, as tbe matter standn, and 
M the Dame LagoekUa ht^ not yet come into general use, less confusion porha|)s will 
'*'^ ^toin renaming tbe genus, than from any other oourso. The nani« Quaaailabia 
(loniaa 4 Bray too) ia aooordingly suggested as a substitute for Lagoehila, considered 
^ ^ pnoocnpied in oonobclogy. The etymology is qwunu, broken or torn ; labial lip. 



1^ 



L 



106 CONTBIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMBBICAM ICHTHTOLOGT— OL 

Tbe CMS is preciself like that of th« Kenng of Dotm, Xtptqpitia 8wiuDM>n, Utdf •*■ 
.XAmaplila b; Dr. Cooes, on uccoDDt of thepreviooaXipfoplUMof LeMOD."— (JOU' 
Bull. U. S. Geol. Sun. Terr, vol iv. No. *, p. 4la, 1878.) 

AMALVeiS OF SFRCIB8 OF QUASaiLABIA. 

'Head short, conical, with lengtbeoed aaout, the reftion between tbe Vl» flitU 
Kod with promioeDt mncoDS ridgot : cheeks and lonoi port of head rather s<ml 
opercle moch reduced, its greatest lenftth scoicelf greater than tbe diameter ol 
eye: bead about 4}iD length : eye li-iDleDgtb of bead, about Sin leofctb of llWM 
iu iitnutioD thus quite posterior ; length of the top of tbe bead If- iu the diib 
from the snoot to the base of the dorsal. Body mther slender, tbe fsm b 
between that of ^yEMtmaaogreiNaw and if. XMeroIqftdalsw, thedepth4{ in tteki 
Dorsal fin rather low ; ito rajs I, U; A. I, 7; V. 9. 8cal«a &-46-&. Color elb 
blaisb-browD s.bove; sides and belly nlvery ; lower fica faiuUy orange.. .L4Cn 

I. QUASSILABIA LAOBRA Jordan & Brayton. 
Bare-lip Sacker. Split-tKoulk Sucker. Mag Sucktro/ Ike ScMo. Cat-Iys. 
1^77— iMgachila laeera Jordan & Bravton, Proc. Ac Nat. 8c Phila. 980, 1877. 
Lagochila lactra JoftDAK, Miui. Vert. ed.3d, 311, 1876. 
Qaaetihibia laeera Jordan, Han. Tert. ed. 2d, 406, l^S. 
QuataiUbla lattra Jordan, Bui). U. S. Oeol. Surv. Terr. 418, 187a 
Haditat. — Teuuesseo Biver. Scioto Biver. 

Only three specimeas of ttiis singular Sucker are yet known. Tv 
tUeae were taken by Professor Brayton and myself in tbe Chiekuu 
Hiver at Ring^ld, Catooaa Coanty, Georgia, and the other ia BlkB 
near Estill Springs, Tennessee. In both these streams, the apedei 
well known to the fishermeu, who sHid that it is one of tbe most t' 




GENUS PLACOPHARYNX. 107 

Genus PLACOPHARYNX Cope. 

lUMfkmrpa Cops, Proo. Am. Philos. Soo. Pbila. 467, 1870. 
T^pe, PlmeopktUTfna mrinaUu Cope. 
E^mology, irAii^, a broad surface ; ^pvy^f pharynx. 

Backers like MyoDoatoma Id all respects, except that the pharyngeal 
bonee are mnch more developed, and the teeth reduced in number, those 
00 the lower half of the bone very large, 6 to 10 in number, nearly cylin- 
diic in form, being but little compressed, and with a broad, rounded 
or flattened grinding surface. The forms and positions of these en- 
larged teeth vary greatly. In a specimen before me, the first tooth is 
the highest and most compressed, its summit Xmng rounded and then 
abrnptly truncate. The second- tooth is notably shorter and thicker, 
mnch larger, and rounded on top, the body of the tooth serving as a pe- 
donde for the swollen grinding surface. The third tooth is still shorter 
and similar in form. The fourth tooth is similar to the first, being much 
higher than the second and third, and flat on top. The others seem to 
be irregularly alternated or arranged in pairs, a long one and a short 
ooe, the long teeth in all cases being the most truncated, as if their sur- 
fiMsea had been most worn off. 

As I have at present no perfect specimens of this genus, nothing but 
▼^ young specimens, and pharyngeal jaws of adults, I caiiuot do better 
thaa to copy Professor Cope's original description, which seeuis to be 
M accurate one. I substitute the generic names used in this paper 
\)^xo%ioma^ etc.) for those used by Professor Cope {Ptychostomusy etc.), 
whenever a difference occurs : — 

** Allied to MyxoHioma, The pharyngeal teeth much reduced in num- 
ber, only seven on the proximal iialf of the bone, cylindric in lorm, with 
• broad, truncate triturating suiiace. These play against a broad, ores- 
centic, chitin-like shield on the posterior root* of the pharyngeal cavity- 
Three divisions of the vesica natatoria, 

"With a great superficial resemblance to Myxontoma^ the masticatory 
apparatus is different from that of any Catostoaioiil form known to me, 
^dcooibines peculiarities observed in some forms of true Cyprinidce, 
The chitin-like shield is found in some of the latter; it is represented in 
Cflto«tomu«, Myxostomaj and CarpiodesAyy a narrow and very thin pel- 
licle of the same material, frequently interrupted in the middle line.'' 

But one species of the genus is known. It is app.irently widely dis- 
Abated through the Mississippi Valley and the Great Lakes, but its 



108 CONTBIBUTIONB TO NOBTH AMEBICAH ICHTHTOLOOT — UL 

pecaliarities lire rarely noticed anleBS the pbaiyogeal teeth ai-e expowiL 
Tbe writer hn^ obtained four setd of tbu pharyngeal jawB and one eotin 
skeleton, but has seen only two small specimens, collected by FrofeMir 
Brayton in the Illinois Biver, and hns obtained uooe ia life. 

Stuce the foregoing wus written, I have collected nsmeioiM larp 
specimens in the Freuuh Broad River, North Carolina, when it ulka 
most nbundaot member of tbe family, known to all Oshermeu as the "Bd 
Horse". With a great suiierficial resemblunce to tbe fioitbero Bed 
Horse {ifyxostoma macroleptdotum), PlacitpKaryttx canttatnt difiera fha 
all the 8i>ecies of Myxoatoma in its larger and more oblique mooth Hd 
extremely thick lips. 

2. PLACOPHABYNX CABINATU3 Cope. 

Big-jaictd Smeter. 
taO—Platophatynx earinaiiit COPe, Proc. Aiu. Phikw. Soc Philk. 467, 1870. 

FlaeopJtaiTttx earimalvi Joktiax, Fisbea at lod. 221, IH75. (Name odIj.} 
/■loMptarjrM eariaiuiu Jordak, Msd. Vort. 296, lH7fi. 
Pladtpkarym earinatui Neuwn, Boll. No. I, IIU. Hns. Nat. Hiat. 49, 1876. 
Placophatyaz carinaitu Jordan & Copelind, Checlc iJat, IbS, IB7S. (Him 

only.) 
PUcopliartiiix cari»aia$ Jordan, Proc. Ac. Nat. So. Pbila. 72, ttfTT, 
Plaeopkargwz oariKatiai JanUAS & Oilskkt, id Klipparfa Bept. 53, loTT. (bw 

P(acopkargmr cariKalu* KuPPART, FiraC Heport Ohio F^tfa CoiuiDinu>D,SG,tiffT. 
Placvphari)iix cariaatMi Jordan, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mdb. ix, 50, Ign. (Name oolf.) 




FLACOPHARYNX CARINATU8. 109 

tbe posterior extremity of this ridgo appears in some Pti/chostomi. Orbit 
bogitodinalty oval, 4.5 times in length of head, twice in interorbital 
vidth. Type, fourteen inches in length. 

^ Color in alcohol like that of other species, nnifoim straw or whitish 
•Birery. 

'^Tbe pharyngeal bones of this species are mnch stouter than those of 
oCber species of its own and greater size, e, </., Pt. aureolus of eighteen 
tacbes, where they are comparatively slight. The exteroposterior ala is 
tvlce as wide as the body inside the teeth is deep, and but for its short 
hue and narrowed tip would do for that of a Semotilus. But while there 
are seven broad teeth without heel or cusp on the basal half, there are 
at least forty on the distal half, they becoming more compressed and 
Doally like those of other allied genera. There are fourteen with trun- 
cate extremities. The pharyngeal plate has narrow horns directed up- 
wards and forwards, and is thickened medially. It is placed immedi- 
ately in a<lvance of the opening of tbe (Bsopliagus. I have but one 
specimen of this curious species, which I obtained at Lafayette, on the 
Wabash Biver, in Indiana." 

Tlie writer has in his collection two young specimens obtained in Illi- 
nois River by Prof. Brayton, a skeleton of a very large individual 
toand in Scioto Biver by Dr. J. W. Wheaton, and a pair of pharyngeal 
bones taken by Dr. G. M. Levette from a fish taken in the Wabash at 
Terre Haute. I have also seen a pair of pharyngeals and an air-bladder 
of one taken in Detroit Biver by Professor Baird, and now in the United 
States National Museum, ami a jaw from '* Post-pliocene ^ deposits near 
tbe Falls of the Ohio, found by Dr. John Sloan. The jaws and air- 
bladder above noticed are the only specimens of this species preserved 
io tbe National Museum. 

Siace the foregoing was written, the writer has obtained numerous 
living specimens of Placopharynx carinatus from the French Broad at 
Wolt Creek and other localities in Nortli Carolina. From one of these, 
tbe following description was taken : — 

Boily oblong, moderately compressed, heav^ at the shoulders : head 

very large, 3§ in length of the boily : eye small, behind the middle of the 

bead: mouth extremely l<irge, the lower jaw oblique when the mouth is 

dosed, the mouth, therefore, protractile forwards as well as downwards : 

veiy thick, coarsely plicate, the lower lip full and heavj', truncjite 

: head above evenly rounded, in my specimens not showing the 

wribed by Professor Goi>e : scales G-15-6 : dorsal rays 13 ; 

^<»v-gi!aen above; lower fins red. 



110 CONTBlBUnOKS TO SOfiTH AMEBICAH ICHTHTOLOOT-^L 

GenuB MYXOSTOMA (Rqfineaque) Jordan. 

CMMfomn up. Lp. SUBUR, »d(1 of nil irrit«n tilt 1855. 

Moxetloitia RaI'I.nesquk, Ichtbyologin Obivnsia, 1820, 54. (PrupoMd Bsftral^NQt 
ilioHBHiieciM of Caioeiomu* with eight ventral raya And the e«id>l kilM 
eqnni : typo C. aniiitrtti Raf.) 

Ttreltiliit RAFiNEe<)UE, Iclitbyologia Obieoais, 1S90, &7. (As a enbgeDDa,to lad 
tliiwu speciea of Caloiloniut with nine veotral rays: no type daaguted— i 
<>[ tliu species recorded belong to tbe present geons. C. amrtoltu Le Sao 
lliu Hjiecies first oientioaed, nod to this species nnd its relatives the ■ 
TcrcdtJtKf w»i8 B^rirardB restrioted by Professor Cope.) 

PlfdnMlomHn Aoassiz, Amoricuo Jonninl of Science and Arts, I1IS&, p. 203. (Ko 
(leBifjnnlMl : tbe species men tioned nre F. anrwliu, P. muieral^idotm*, P, d« 
nfi, and P. mtlanopi. P. aureolui haa been conaidered the type of tbe gem 

Ttntulut CtirK, Juaro. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pbila. 1S68, 236. 

Uoxoiloma Jiikdan, Haonnl of Tertebrntes, It{7t), 295. 

Uj/t«*tima Jdmdih, Add. Lye. Nat. HUt. 1H17, 348. (Correeted orthognfdiy.) 
Etynioliit-y./ibfu. to sack ; vrbfia, nioatb. 
Type, Latmiomat anitunm RafiDeeqao. 

Bo<l.v iiion- or Il>i^s elongate, sometimes nearly terete, asnally mon 
leiwc-ompreMscHl. 

IIoHtl viu-ioimly long or short, its length rangiDg from 3} to 5} in I 
or thi> IxHly : eye nsnally rather hirge, varying from 3 to 6 times in 
lcnt;th i>i' the side of the bead, its position high ap and medial 
rtirliiT )ift.'j:i'rln!': sLi1iiirlilt;i1 buiio^ ft^ry nftrrow. fihvnys much \(n 




GENUS MTX08TOMA. Ill 

the teeth rather coarser, stroogly compressed, the lower five or six mach 
Btiooger than the others, which are rapidly diminished in size upwards, 
each with a prominent internal casp. 

Scales large, more or less quadrate in form, nearly equal in size over 
the body, and not specially crowded anywhere, usually about 44 in the 
lateral line (41 to 56), and about twelve series between dorsal and veu- 
tiala. Lateral line well developed, straight or anteriorly decurved. 

Pins well developed, the dorsal inserted about midway of the 
body, its first rnys usually rather nearer snout than the caudal, the 
Domber of developed rays usually about 13, but varying in difi'erent 
species from 11 to 17 : anal flu short and high, usually emarginate in 
the male fish, probably always with seven developed rays : ventrals in- 
serted nearly under the middle of the dorsal; their number of rays nor- 
mally 9, occasionally varying to 10 ; the occurrence of ten ventral rays 
is probably an accidental individual character, and not a permanent 
specific one : caudal fin deeply forked, the lobes about equal, except in 
two 8i)ecies. 

Airbladdermth three chambers: skeleton essentially as in Catostomus^ 
tbe vertebrsB in M. carpio 27-14 (Oiinther). 

Sexual pcHSuliarities little marked, the males in the spawning season 
^th tbe lower fins reddened, and the anal rays swollen and somewhat 
tabercalate. 

This genus is widely diffused, some of its species occurring in all the 
Wers of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, excei)ting 
those of the New England States. Some of the more aberrant species 
seem to be quite local ; other species are of the widest distribution. Tbe 
principal species in the genus, although not the technical type, M. ma- 
f^^idotumy is very widely* diflused, and is subject to much variation. 

This genua is one readily recognizable by external appearance, its 
species being known to the fishermen as ^' Red Horse ^ am\ '^ Mullet ^^; 
tbose of other genera being called rather '* Suckers". Its proper nomen- 
clature has, however, been a subject of considerable uncertainty. 

The subgenus Moxostoma was originally proposed by Ratinesque to 
inclmle C. anisurus Eaf., with the following diagnosis: — *'Body oblong, 
wniprepsed; head compressed, eight abdominal rays; doisal fm com- 
nwnly longitudinal ; tail commonly unequally forked." 

The characters here noticed are either common to several genera, 
^ else merely 8i)ecific, and the use of the generic name must de- 
P^ CD oar identification of the original typical species. By some 



1 

[co»-1 



112 COHTRIBUTIOKS TO NORTH AMERICAS ICHTHTOLOOY — HI. 

piocess of reaHoniog Dot uow explaiuable. Professor AgaKsiz ideobM 
ihis with Ibe couidiud Clinb Sucker of the West, a fpecies wliirh 1 
BJiler iileatical wirli C^fprinm oblougus Mituhili. Ho thus trauslmt^ 
muni' Moxonioma frwm the '■ Uetl Horse" lo tbe "Cbab Sucker" jtnwp ': 
Rafluesqiiti'a description, however, renders it evident tha! his flsb tu\ 
one of the Ited Horse kind; and n* Moxoatoma ia the first generic 
iipplied to speoies of th»t group, it muxt be retained iu spite of Ikl 
incoiiipleteuess-of the original diagnosis. 

Teretulua Rufinesque was proposed three pages later for "aui-xteiwiw 
sabgenus, to which belong all the following species of Le Sueur: C.iti 
reolut, C. niacrolepidotus, C. lougiroitrum, C. nigricans, C. v'-itatut, It 
niOCuIoAUS, C nucetta, besides tliu C. teret and C. oblongVK of Mitvbi&il 
To these he adds his own spi'uica. C melamtpn, V. tnelanotws {= Camit' 
atQiHU), C. fa«c!olaria, C. erytbrurva, noil C. Jlcxuotus. This '■mniUNnffr 
themm" receives the following diagnosis: — "Body elongate e>liDilhal 
or somewhat quadrangular, 9 alMlominal mjs, dorsal tin coumioiily si 
tail equally forked." 

A niime proposed for a group of this kind, in Ihe opinion of Ibe [m» 
ent vrriter, should not be set aBide, but should be retuined for 
o: more of the species originally rcferreil to it, and when any niM 
adopts snch a geuns, be shall liave the right to select any of the 
as its type, nnd the name should be considered thereafter as npptji^ 
to such typical species only, not to be revived in cime sncb rypictd 
be afterwards lound to have had a prior genei ic name. 




GENUS MTX08T0MA. 113 

and lipa, althoogh the species of Minytrema was iDadvertently ioolnded 
JDit. The most important generic featare, the tricellalar air bladder, 
WM flret notice<l by Professor Cope. 

I have seen fit to change the orthography of the name from Moxofttoma 
to Mifxostomay in accordance with its apparent etymology. This change 
is rather desirable from the fact that it tends to avoid confnsion, the 
name Moxostoma having been commonly used in connection with a 
diSerent genns. 

The genus Myxostoma contains two well marked sections, typified 
rwpectively by M. velatum and M. macrolepidotum^ and characterized by 
the form of the month and lower lip : that of M. velata being as in the 
^Q8 Erimyzon; that of M, mactvlepidotum being of the character most 
oommoD in this genns. 

Generio Characterizations, 

MoxoeroMA Rafiuesque, 1820. — '' Body obloDg, compressed ; bead compressed, eight 
abdoniiDtl rayfl, dorsal fin commo-kly loDgitadinal ; tail commonly unequally forked.'' — 
{IMgologia Ohienaia^ p. 54.) 

Tkkitulus Rafinesque, 1820. — *' Body elongate cylindrical or somewhat quadrangu- 
lsr,9alNlo.ninal niys, dorsal fics commonly small; tail eqnally forked. An exten- 
iiTeiDb(i;enuH, to which belong all the following species of Le Sueur: Caureolus^ C. 
^^ttnlepidotun^ C. hnniroatrum, C, nigricans^ C. rittatua, C, fnaculo8U8f C, aucetta, besides 
the ('. teret and C. oblongns of Dr. Mitcbill.^'— (/eft. Oh, p. 57.) 

PTTcmwTOMi's Agassiz, 1855.^—" In resin ct to form of body an<l the strncture and 
position of the tins, this genus does not diliVr from Catostonins proper, but may be 
♦i'Stingniphfd by tli«» following striictnral ])«'cnliaritieB. The lips an^ marked by trans- 
TfTJie ricljjes or folds, and hardly bilobed bt-low ; they are not ]»apilluti>d as in Cdtosto- 
■w proper. Th«^ g«*neric name of this type is derived fiom this character of the lips 
Tbehetd is Hborter and stouter. The dorsal is longer than it is high, bnt hi the mules, 
UiRlon;»er in proportitm than in the females. The anal of the male is alto broader 
tbuitbat of the female, and its lower margin lobed, while in the female it is trape- 
zoidil und narrow. 

"The tcaU's urv as large on the anterior as en the posterior region of the bo<ly ; their 
▼Wiicil dianiet<*r about as great as the longitudinal, so that the scales are nearly quad- 
f^Bgnlar, with rounded edges ; the ornamental concentric ridges not longer nor broader 
'^pon the i>o>terior than upon the lateral and anterior fields ; the radiating furrows few, 
^lyoneor two in the i>08terior field and one on each side limiting that field Ironi the 
**^n\ fields; tho^e t»f the anterior field are more numerous, and yet not crowded. 
ToUfof the lateral line arising in the centre of radiation or farther back upon the 
P'Wterior fiehl. 

"The pharyngeals are strong, their entire edge spreading like a wing, and that 

• ^pl^iog margin is separated from the symphysis by a deep omargination. The 

twth increasing rather rapidly in size from above downwards, are more apart from one 

Ball. N. M. No. 12—8 



114 CONTBIBUnOSB TO KOBTH AHEBICAH ICHTHTOLOOr — OL 

anotberthBD in the preoediDgK^Dera, and >rcbed inward ■■ in HoxMtonuktlMiDHi 
edge of tbe lower ones aqnare, its inaet maripti rlaiog into « broad cdbp in (fa« uU 
Mid upper tcetb."~( JiwricoM Joam. Sci. Arlt, xii, p. 803.) 

TERETt-Li-s Cope, 1868.— "Tbe euentiitl cbaracter (rf thia gfiaaa is tbe dividw 
the nstatOT}- bladder into Ibreechambera, wbileCatOitomnsBtid allCypKoidAeili'l 
bat tiro. Tbis fe«tnre ii aceompsuied bj plicate lipe, aa AfiaMiz baa indicatfd,i 
ulnenja to tbe veotral fin, already pointed out bf BafineaqaB. Tbe apecie* »n 1 
largsat acaled of tbe tjpical sDCkera. Le fiuear and Vatenciennn bave poinled i 
tba KMWric featnreH in the P. niacrottpidotiu ; Prof. Baird infonnB me that it dm 
In PL jlorealiiRd., and I fiud it iu Ft. onYimu and Pi. duqueaiiL It no donbtu 
^ao in tbe PI. atriDlai. Other species ilescrilitd by Baird and Ginird from tbeSw 
weal probably posaees it. 

"It is diBlcnIt to amlKn a name to this eenns. Ralinesqno propoaea it npon qbi 
able cbaracteta, and ioclndea with it species of Mozoatiima and Catoatomns. kp 
pnrRedit of tbeaec]emeutii,but did not exprcxa its ceeential cbaivcter, apparently c 
Ing oa the plicate lips. 1 have lalten the older name, leaving for otbera Ibe 1 
deoiaioD."— (Journal Acad. \al. Sci. Phila. tSW, p. '/36.) 

PrrcHosTouuB Cope, tSiO. — '* Tlie development of the lips furniab important J 
noatio indications in this genns. !□ tbo^ mcst urarly allied loMoxoatonia, tbe iDh 
lip reaembles that of tbat genua in bein<; narrower and devply incised, euiai;^: 
poateriorly forming a bgnre V ivith tbe apex forwards, at tbe same time the sapt 
lip is very thin and often narrow. Such species are nhorter, and tend to a i^al 
velopment of doTsal fin. Otbeisof tbi^ t,vpe are more elongate. Somespeoiesofl 
are distingoisbed by their rerj' prominent conic muzzle and miunte, inferior nw 
reminding one of the Ciu-piodes. In oneBpeciesthelipsarepapilloaeiDeteadof plii 
Id some species, the month is very projectile, in others scarcely so at »ll. 

" Bafinesqiie proposed a genus Tcretului on tbe characteristic pecaliaritj' of nine 




ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OF MTXOSTOMA. 115 

ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OF MYX06T0MA. 

«dittiDetIy plicate. 

mrer lip foil, its posterior edge trancate) not infolded and '' /^-shaped ''. 
t. Species with the body distinctly compressed, the depth 3} to nearly 5 in length. 
h. Dorsal fin largely developed, its rays 15 to 18 in number : head rather large, 
3} to 4^ in length, broad above : month large, with fall lips : eye rather 
large : body deep, strongly compressed, the back somewhat elevated, the 
depth abont 3} in length : dorsal fin high and large, larger than in anj 
other species of tho genus, the first ray about as long as the base of th& 
fin : scales 5-43-4, quite large : coloration very pale and silvery, the lower 

ilns white carpio, 3. 

M« Dorsal fin moderate, its rays 12 to 14 in number. 
c. Scales large, 41 to 50 in the course of the lateral line. 
d. Caudal fin normal, the two lobes about equal and similarly colored, 
e. Head singular in form, much shortened, the muzzle very abruptly de- 
curved, descending almost perpendicularly in front of the eye : the 
head wedge-shaped from behind forwards, and less so from below 
upwards, its sides subvertical and the lower cross-diameter of the 
head greater than the upper. 
/. Eye very large, more than one-third tho length of the side of the 
head (in an individual of sis inches in length): lips thin, very 
faintly plicate : width of head through the oporcles greater than 
the thickness ot the body : head 4^ in length ; depth abont the 
same : dorsal rays 13 : scales 6-43-5 : body shortish, closely com- 
pressed, the back somewhat elevated, and the caudal peduncle 
unusually long in proportion : color smoky-blue ; lower fins white : 

size probably small euryops, 4. 

««. Head normal in form, not as above. 

g. Mouth moderate or larp^e, not very small, nor very much overpassed 
by tho muzzle : lips thick, strongly plicate : body stoutish, vary- 
ing to moderately elongate: dorsal fin medium, its developed 
rays 12 to 14, usually 13 in number : scales large, about G-45-5 : 
lower fins in the adult red or orange. 
K Head comparatively elongate, 4 to 5 in length : mouth large : 

size very large, reaching a length of two feet 

or more mackolepidotum, 5. 

X. Head quite elongate, 4 to 4f in length : back little 
elevated: body rather elongate, not greatly 
compressed : scales pretty large, 6-42 to 49-5: 
back bluish or olive ; sides brilliantly silvery, 
with bright reflections ; dorsal fin dusky above ; 

lower fins bright red duquesnii, 

XX. Head a little shorter, 4^ to 4i in length : form 
of the preceding: scales distinctly smaller, 
7 or 8-48 to 50-6: back with much smoky 
■hading lackrynuile. 



1 1 6 CONTEIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — IlL 

*Ll|i»<U»tiDctlr plicate — Continnod. 

xet. Heail still sbortor and deeper, 4} to & in l«i[il 
its upper profile conomrent vith tlw ctT< 
of tlie bock, nhich U conaidfrkbl; clcvitd, 
the forni lieing thus soiuewh&t elliplioil; ttte 
compressed : dorHBl ra;a nsii&ll]' 13: mlontiw 
little silvery, the aidos refieoting broKDUb mi 
golden; back Boioky, dome of tbe8calt*<liui; 

at bose : scales 6-43 to 50-5 naemUpiilok*. 

kh. Head oomparativelj' short. Ion aod amall, 5 to 5^ iu Itagii; 
book elevated and coinpre&ged ; depth 8^ io leagtti: nuuuk 
rather Boinll, more or leas overjiiuaed by the soeni; colw- 
atioD bright yelluniiib-broivD, etc., not silver; ; Inirei iv 
bright red : dorsal rays IS : scalw li-i'i to 48-5 ; aiM liugt. 

AURXOLim,! 

fg. MoDth vet7 small, uiDch overpnaaiHl bf the oouic mozele ^ bol 

BtDDll, about 5 ID leogth, 

i. Body llattLah, the back elevated and compremeU; dri>[h 3(: 

muzzle coDiracted : scales large, i>--14s) ; dorwl rayii oBolg 

Vd : <lorHBl liD elevated in front, it« 5t»t soft r^y Iodk*'' '^ 

■ thfi base of the fiu : color silvery, nith nmaky ktiadii| 

above. suDit of tlie acnlea blnrkiab at tbuir Insea : lovrtiM 

white; top of bead, humernl bar, aad dorsal &□ dusk;. 

Ciusnti-iBUiT. 

ii. tkxly Outtish, the donal outliDe elevated, the form brlnfSk* 

that of 21. (oregonMs : bead email aod conic ; montfa rxmi- 

iDgl)' email, tbe suoat fnr overpaseiug it, the iduzi1» I 

maeb longer than iu Jf. rrnMtilabn : dotMj lsf> 14: 

largv: eoloralion smoky above, some scales diwfcj M 



^ 




AHAL78I8 OF SPECIES OF HYX08T0MA. 117 

itinoily plicate — CootiDaed. 

i& Seales Teiy small for the genos, about 9-^6-8 in DDmber : body moderately 
elongate, the depth about 4 in the length. 
M. Head shortish, conic, the snout not much projecting, about 4 in length : 
eye large : dorsal fin bmall, with about eleven rays, the last rapidly 
shortened (characters of month unknown, but probably similar to 
maerdlepidotum and ptBcUmra; it is said to be '* much larger thau in 

F. congestut") albidum, 11. 

peoiea with the body elongate, little compressed, broad, the depth about 5 

in length, not very much greater than the thickness. 
j. Head very short, roundish above, rather pointed forwards, 
about 5 in length : cheeks subvertical : mouth rather large, 
with thick lips, which are strongly plicate, the folds some- 
what broken up : eye small : fins very small, the dorsal 
rays 10 to 12 : scales rather large, 6-44 to 49-5 : color green- 
ish-brown, a pale blotch on each scale, these forming con- 
tinuous streaks along the rows of scales : back with more 
or lees distinct brownish cross-blotches ; fins brownish, not 
much red ; the dorsal blackish at tip : size smallest : length 

less than afoot cervinum, 12. 

r Up thin, not infolded and ^^A'^^^P^ ''» forming a narrow, crescent-shaped 

^rder around the mandible. 

k* Head small, 5 times in length: muzzle prominent, but 
less so thau in M, evregonvs : mouth moderate : back a 

little elevated: depth about 3^ in length : dorsal rays 12 
to 14, its free border often incised : scales 6-45-5 : colora- 
tion very pale ; lower fins white : sizo large ; reaches a 

weight of four pounds or more album, 13. 

kk. Head stout, as in M. velatumy rather long, 4 in length, 
flattish above, muzzle truncate, not very prominent: 
mouth moderate : back elevated : dorsal fin long, of 14 
or 15 rays : sea-green above ; white below ; lower fins 

white THALA88INUM, 14. 

: lip infolded, A'^<^P^ when viewed from below, with a distinct median 

crease, in which the two halves of the lip meet, forming 

an acute angle : mouth smalL 

2. l>orsal large, with IG (15 to 17) developed rays. 

m. Body stout, deep, compressed, the back elevated, the 

depth 3 to 4 in length : head short, heavy, flattish 

and broad above, thick throngh the cheeks, 3f to 4^ 

in length : eye rather large, midway in head, 4 to 

5 in its length : mnzzle rather prominent, bluntish, 

overhanging the very small mouth : fins very large : 

dorsal long and high, its height five-sixths the length 

of the head: pectorals nearly reaching ventrals* 

color silvery^ Hnoky above; lower fins red: size 

laqpa... velatum, 15. 



118 C0NTE1BCTI0N8 TO KOETH A3IERICAN ICHTHYOLOGT — lit. 

•Lip« dirtinctly plicate — Cootinned. 

II. Dorsal modersb;, tritb \2 w 14 ilevuloped n;«. 

n. Head compuutively latKe, aboat4 in leogtb: dnul 
rays aaually 12. 
0. Head sbon anil very wide tbrongb tbeopcrtiA 
Oat aboTe: body Htoat, ibe back tumeibt 
elevaUid, deplb 4 in leogtb : muzzlv tciblniS' 
Gftle, sliKbtly iirojeutlng : acalw &-40-5 : olln- 
ceous, silver; l>elon-; dorsftt Sndnsky. 



^" oo. Head rolber long, 44 in leDgth, flivlti«ll •h«l 

iMidy elouitate, more nearly cyhnilricat, til 
com pressed: luaizlc tmucatu: olivaceuiu,Ni 
limes wilb roHs of faiDt spot* aluug ibean 
of ii'4ile.i t dorsal uatl caudal fiiia bUck-«d(i4:J 
Bii« qnite small: resembles If. ccrctHiix. bntttl 

moDtb entirely different PCDlEN^li, IT. 

NH. Head very amall, about 5 in leogtb : muizle t 
moch projecting beyoDil the vvrj small nu 
bod; broadly tusirorm, niDch compressM, lb* 
bsck eletithsd and orcbed : dorsal rajs 14 : oIm 
silvery, nitb plumbeous slindes aboi'c; 
fliiH while: bIzobdiuH coRKOHXtA, U 

* Lips fall, HtroDgty papUloee, mnch as in Ibe sobgeDae Bjipailttiaai. 

p. Body comparalively stoat, Ibe dorskl ngM 
Bomeivbat elevateil and rouoded, tlie dlfi 
being aboat 4 in lengtb, tbe bead aboot Nl 




MTXOBTOICA KUBYOP8. 



119 



JTiMiiMM Mnyte Jordam, Mao. Yert. 896, 1876. 

Amfiiliw cnyfo Nklboh, BoU. No. 1, Ilia. Has. Nat. Hist 49, 1876. 

nrfteiM ocfyfo JosDiir 4b Copbland, Cheok List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 

JfaMlMM mrfh JORDAK 4b GiLBKRT, Id Klippan'tt Bept. Fish Comm. Ohio, 53, 

1W7. (Kama only.) 
Mpem Umm evpio Jobdait, Man. Yert. £. U. 8. ed. 8d, 312, 1878. 

HabitaTw— Qieaft Lake Beglon and northward. Also in the Ohio Btver. 

Tbia s|)eoieB is apparentiy not very common, and its distribution is 
frobsbly diiefly northward. I bave obtained but one living specimen, 
i Im large one, from Lac des Buttes des Mort8, in Northeastern Wis- 
ooMiii. This speoimen in life was extremely pale and silvery, its fins 
kiTing none of the orange coloration common to most of the species. 
1. Mtpjo is related to If. fnaorolepidotumj bnt the much greater develop- 
■ent of the dorsal will always distinguish it. 

Spedwieif in VMM Siaiet NatUmal Miuemm. 




lOnO CIneinnati, Ohio J. W. Miliier. 

Ilil4 Alpena, Mich. (Lake HuroD) J. W. M liner. 

19170 Cincinnati, Ohio J. W. Mihicr. 

IWl Cincinnati, Ohio J. W. Milner. 

1»I3 Cincinnati, Ohio } J. W. Miluer. 

Marietta, Ohio i Prof. Andrews. 



4. MYXOSTOMA EURYOPS Jord^tn. 

SnuthnoBed Sucker. 

^^TerttmlM evryops Jordan & Copkland, Check LiHt, 157. (Nauio only.) 
}ijfjo*toma euryops Jordan, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hint. N. Y. xi. 348, 1877. 
Mjfiimioma euryops Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 312, lt;78. 

Habitat. — Alabama River. 

^18 Bpecies is still known only from the type 8|)eci men obtained in 
I^^fjo.v's Creek, a small tributary of Oostanaula Kiver, a few miles 
oorth of Rome, Ga. The species is most nearly related to M. macroJepi- 
^otumy and it is barely possible that the type specimen is a monstrosity 
^ that species. The peculiarities of the mouth, and the fact that the 
^es of the head seem to be normally develoi)ed, lead me to consider it 
A distiuct species. 



120 CONTEIBIJTIOHS TO NORTH AMEEICAH ICHTHTOLOGI-^n. 

5. MYXOSTOIIA MAOEOLEPIDOTDM {Le Sueur) JprAm. ! 

Common Eed Borse MuUet. WhiU Sucker. Largt-toaled Suelur. 

,a. Sabspt'ciLB maerolepidotut. 

1617— C'afMfomiu macrolepidotug Le Suecr, Judhi. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pbila. i, 94. 

Caloetomiu macroJrpidolus DeKay, Nen Yoik Faaoa, part iv, Fishei,SOII;lili 
Catoitoati»macrotrpidotatC\:vicn & VAi.BKCiKXNEB,Hiiit. Nat. desPoiiH>u,iTii, 

447, 1844. 
Caioetomu* macrolepidolut STOitER, Synopsis, 4ti0, 1846. 
Ptuchottomm macrolfpidotm AOASKiZ, Am. Jonrn. Sci. Arts, 8d Berics, lii, W, 

1835. 
Ptychotlomvt nacroJrpidoluM CoPK, Proc. Am. Philoa. 8oc. Pbili. 47ri, IHTO. 
PtychoitomHt nuuTolepidotai Jokdan, Fiahes of Jnd. 221, 1^75. (Nitne nnljr.] 
Mozottoma maa-alepidotuni JoitDAN, Uan. Vert. 39C, 1676. 
Teretalut macroltpidolum Nki.8on, Bait. No. I, Ills. Hus. Nat. Hist. 4'J, 1476. 
Catoslomue macrolepidotut Uiilku & LVGOKit, Fishes of Marj'Iand, 140, 1W6. 
Tirctului macralepidotue JouD\!i &, Copkland, CbeokLlat; z, 157, 1(576. (Sib 

ODly.) 
Moxoatoma macrolfpldota JoituAK&GiLBEHT, iDKIipparl'aBept.&3,lri7ti. (Nw 

MnioilOttia nuKToUpidola Jouvas, Mau. Tert. E. U. S. ed. 2d, 313, 1678. 
l6i2—Catoito lu oneida DeKat, Kiw York Fann», part iv, Fiahea, 196. 

Caloelon a onrida Stokku, Sj'iiupsiH, 425, 1M6. 

Fl eloslomus ojteida CoFR, Fnic. Am. Pbiloa. Soc. Philo. 476, 1670. 
IfiiO— / tj ftojfomim rohugtmi CoFE, Froc. Am. Pbiloa. Soc Pbilu. 473. 

TrreiuUt robuilnt JoKbtN &. Cupeu.nd, Check Ltat, 1!>7, 1»T6. (Name 011I7.} 
Ip7G— Pi iichottomus eongeitue Cope & Yark(iw, LieDlOQADt Wheek-r'a Espl. W. lOO 




HTXOSTOlfA MACBOLEPIDOTUM. 121 

Miw dmqwnU Cuvdbr & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, xvii, 

L844. 

mtu duqunnil Kirtland, Boston Joarn. Nat. Hist, v, 268, 1645. 

mus duquesnii 8tobbr, Synopsis, 423, 1840. 

itomtu duquitnii Aga^siz, Am. Jonm. Sc. Arts, 2d series, xix, 204, 1855. 

MM duqiieaMi Gt)NTHER, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, 18, 18G8. 

M duquetnei Cope, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pbila. 23G, 1868. 

itoflMM duqueani Cops, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Pbila. 476, 1870. 

iomus duque$nei Jordan, Ball. Bnfialo Soc. Nat. Hist. 95, 1876. 

7Ma duqueanii Jordan, Man. Vert. 295, 1876. 

mu8 duquunu Uuler & Lugger, Fishes of Maryland, 139, 1876. 

M duqueanii Nelson, Ball. No. 1, Ills. Mas. Nat. Hist. 49, 1876. 

K« duqueanii Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 

oma duqueanei Jordan & Gilbert, in Klippart's Rept. 53, 1876. (Name 

) 

oma duqueanii Jordan, Ann. Lyo. Nat. Hist. N. Y. xi, 349, 1877. 

oma duqueanii Jordan, Ball. U. S. Nat. Mus. ix, 37, 1877. * 

7ma maerolepidota var. duqueani Jordan, Man. Vert. cd. 2d, p. 313, 1878. 

mua erythruruSj R\finesque, Am. Month. Mag. and Crit. Bev. 354. 

mua erylhrurus Rafinesque, Icb. Ob. 59, 1820. 

mua erytkrurua Kirtland, Rept. Zool. Ohio, 168, 1838. 

Uomua eryihrurua Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Pbila. 474, 1870. 

\tamua eryihrurua Jordan, Fishes of Ind. 221, 1875. (Name only.) 

M eryihrurua Jordan &, Copeland, Check List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 

melanurua Rafinesque, Ich. Oh. 51. 

-Ohio Valley. Upper Mississippi River and southward; most abundant 
liu to Georgia. 

tiou of a very large series of "Mullet" and "Red Horse'' 
J8 parts of tlie country has led me to tbe couclusiou, at first 
xpected, that all the various forms iiicluded iu the above 
belong to one widely diffused and somewhat variable species, 
illef of the lakes and of Eastern Pennsylvania appears gen- 
lififer iu the more elevated and compressed body, shorter, 
id, and brownish or brassy rather than silvery coloration, 
sents the general tendency of ^^xaT. macrolepidotum^ } but 
of ^^duquesnei^ can be found which will match the average 
7tum in each of these respects. The form which I have iden- 
Professor Cope's lachrymale is to some extent intermediate, 
e additional peculiarity of smaller scales. In this respect, 
K^asional individuals, both of duqucsnei and of macrolepidotumy 
*^ which approach it. 

the waters of the eastern and northern parts of the 
wrolqndotum. It is a^^ AAmnionly as a food- 



122 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMEBICAN ICHTHTOLOGT— m. 

Hsb in tbe winter and Hpring in the marlietB of WaBbingUm and PtdltM 
[)liia,aB ivell us in tbe markets of those oities in tbe W>.-8t which an a^ 
plied by tlie flsheriea of the Great Lalies. It ia iirobahly mooh man 
nbiiiiduiit ill Lake Erie tbao M, aureolum is, and it baa been freqoeittj j 
coufouiideil with the latter Hpeci(.'s. I unce obtained two apecinM, ' 
rnuh of neitrty twelve pouuds weight, in tbe Fox BAver in WiscooHL 

lu ibe Ohio Uiver and its tribatariea, and hi the riven of tbe Sooth- 
west geuendly, the var. duqtKsnii is tbe prevailing form. This I'uirti 
is more di'liuately colored than tbe other, tbe silvery laMre of tbe sella 
in mure otroiigly marked, and tbe red of the fins is rutlu'r iooie virii 
This form, too, is valued somewhat as a food-flsb, although tbeflok,; 
likH that of all tbe Suckers, is comitaratively coarse, tattteless, and falltf' 
boiivs. The variety duqueenei is everywhere known by tho cariolltn^■ 
uncnliir iiimie of "Ked Uorse'', a name possibly to be accounted Corby 
the eolor of the fins and the form of the head. This variety also gtta 
tou large size. 

Tbe variety lackrymale I otily know from specimens obtaiued iu iiM- 
wall River, Gettrgia, iu company with the variety duquetnei, NotbliV 
distiurtive wiis noticed in regard to its habits. 

Tbe Hed lloi-se prefer nitber deep, clear water, seldom asceDdiDgfOf 
small streams, and then ebiedy iu tbe spawning season — in Mitf— A 
wbieb time (bey may be found iu gr«it aboodance in any rapid rf ft 
river or a erei'k, or below a miUitond. They are generally caagUiV 
nets, traps, or suaiva, bnt will freqiieutly bite at a book baited vitkft 




MTZOBTOMA MACSOLBPIDOTUM; 123 

thlMMgi and I am uiAble to distingaiah it from typical maerokpidotumj 
ihhoigh the moath is rather emalli more like tbat of aureolum. 

I hate identified certaiD apecimens with Professor Cope's P. laekrynuUe 
with a little donbti as the points of differentiation which I notice are not 
thoie emphaaised by Professor Cope. The original types, which I believe 
US DOW lost, were Item the Neose Biver in North Oarolina. In describ- 
iif this ^Moiea, Professor Oope remarks, ** This species is qnite near the 
ImI (P. erffikrwruM) and may at some fhture time be shown to be a local 
Tviety of it, bnt in this case P. maorolepidotus mnst follow also.'' 

Ihs ayoonyms of var. duquesnei may now be noticed. Of thesCi 
the ODly one of importance is that of Catostamus erythrurus Bafinesqnei 
neoitly reoogoiaed by Professor Cope as a species distinct from P. 

Ihe presence of ten ventral rays in duquesniij us contrasted with nine 
vntnd raya in erytirunu^ is the chief point on which Professor Oope 
reli« to distingnish the two species. He also finds the mouth rather 
■ore inferior in duqueanii^ and the scales rather smaller, 7-48-7, instead 

In regard to the number of ventral rays, my experience is that in every 
Vedeti of the genus the normal number is nine^ but that ten-rayed 
iadividnals occur in the proportion of about one in twenty in any of the 
Wttm. I have seen specimens of duqueanii with nine rays on one side 
wi ten on the other. I have therefore discarded all consideration of 
the Aomber of ventral rays as a specific character. In regard to the 
nomber of scales in the lateral line, the usual number in most of the 
ipeeies is 43 to 44; but of every species in which I have been enabled 
toeiamine a large series of individuals, I have found a range extend- 
ing firoin 42 to 49. I have seen ten-rayed specimens of duquesnei with 
Ivge scales, and nine-rayed erythruri with small ones. Within the limit 
<>f i3 to 50 I therefore do not consider the number of scales as a perma- 
i^t specific character. The greater prominence of the muzzle in duqttes- 
^ss observed by Professor Oope, is perhaps accidental or individual. 
At all events, it is too uncertain a feature to base a species on. 

The Ri^tiliis melanurua of Bafinesque is, as I have elsewhere shown, 
Probably a young Bed Horse, with a dusky-shaded dorsal and caudal, 
vhieh that acute, but superficial, observer mistook for a species of Dace. 



124 CONTBIBUTIONS TO ffOBTH AHEBICAH ICHTHYOUMT— OL 

^cctmau i» Vtiied SUtU* A'climal MammwL. 



• HtautM. 


L.«:Oil>-. 


CodMM. 




Tsr. tKocrolepUatiii. 






















\ofa\ 


Potouu Hiver 


J. W. UilM. 








llMOfl) 


Potoinno Rivur 


J.W.MilM. 


liioti 


PoUiiDttoKivur 


J.W.UilDK. 


vmt\ 


PoUimiiD River 


J, W. Milur. 


isaiT 


I'ulunino River 


J. W. MilDtf. 








13:111) 


I'ctomM BivtT 


J, W. Milnec. 










































a. B. OoodB. 
J.W, Mib« 


IMAI 


I'lilimiaoBirrr 


909-JO 


Bliick Itivpr, New York 


8. F. B«ird. 








aoips 


'■nrooklyu- 


J. C. Bwi-oort. 


■ 



MTX08T01CA AUREOLUM. 125 

CsiotiMtM aureoiui Btorxr, Synopeis, 420, 1846. 

(k a ottomui OMrtohiB Aoassiz, Lake Soperior, 357, 1850. 

P^fdUftto m uM amrfolm9 Aoassiz, Am. Joofd. Sc. Ar's, 2d series, xix, 204, 1855. 

PtfelMfoMM aMreolu9 Putnam, Ball. Mas. Comp. Zool. 10, 1863. 

PifdtO€Umm» aureolus Cope, Proc. Ac. Nat. 8c. Pbila. 285, 1864. 

C«toffomi(« aureoluB GCntheb, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mas. vii, 16, 1868. (In part; 
deMriptioD apparently copied acd confased.) 

Ptjfek0st4mM8 aweolua Cops, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Phila. 476, 187C 

Moxo§tama awreolum Jordan, Man. y<;rt. 295, 1876. 

Ttnimltu aureolum Nelson, Ball. No. 1, Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist. 49, 1876. 

TattuluB aurtolusJoKDASf & Copeland, Cbeck List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 

Mc9o»fcma aareola Jordan & Gilbert, in Klippart's Kept. 53, 1876. (Name only.> 

Mfxottoma aurtola Jordan, Man. Vert. £. U. 8. ed. 2d, 314, 1878. 
3-C«lo0'oHMw Unfwrii Richardson, Franklin's Joamal,772, 1823. 
^CfprimmB {Catottomua) Bueurii Bichardson, Faan. Bor.*Am. Fisbes, pp. 118,303, 
1836. 

Cfftot/OMiM tueurii Cuv. &. Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, xvii, 465, 1844. 

CatoBtomuM aueuri DbKay, New^York Fanna, part iv, Fishes, 203, 1842. 

C^iotrlomnu Buturii Storbr, Synopsis, '125, 1846. 

PtfdMiomuB ButuHi CoPE, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Phila. 477, 1870. 

TtrttulmB Btieurii Jordan Sl Copeland, Cbeck List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 
ti^CatoftomM macrolepidotus GCnther, Cat. Fisbes Brit. Mas. vii, 18, 1868. (Exol. 
•yn. part. Not of Le Saenr.) 

Habttat. — Great Lake Region, Upper Missouri and Ohio Valleys, and northward. 

This species is very closely related to the last, and m*ny possibly be a 
iriety of it, as specimens of var. macrolepidotum often occur which are 
ilh difficulty distinguished from it. lu general, however, the smaller 
?ad, smaller month, and deeper body of aureolum sufficiently distin- 
lish them. This species is less abundant than macrolepidotum^ and is 
j)arently more northerly in its distribution. It has been well figured 
DeKay. 

Ihe synoDymy of this species needs no special remark. It seems 
>bable that (7. lesueurU belongs here, although the statement that 
he muzzle projects an inch beyond the mouth" in a specimen 19 
hes long, if correct, would indicate difference. The name " le sueurii^ 
5 first given, and afterwards changed to ^^sueurii^ on the ground that 
article ^' le^ is not an integral part of Le Sueur's name. 



126 CONTBrBDTIONS TO NOETH AMEBICAS ICHTHYOLOQY— lU. 
Speoimrva in United Siatee Sational ifunnn. 



11074 
111(^1 

12207 



Carlisk-,Pa 

Sandusky, Obi o 

Saodusk;, Oliio 

CLDcinnntt, Oblo 

CmclDDati.Obio 

Ecorf*.Mieli 

Boot River, WiHcoDsiii-. 



8.P.Bwri. 
. J.W.UibK. 
. J.W.Ullw. 

. J.W. llJlMt. 

J. W. UilMt. 
. J.W. HilM. 



7. MYXOSTOMA CRASSILABRE {Cope) Jordan. 

Thii^k-lippcd Mallet. 

1870— /'/.i/c*<wIora«fl crastilabrii Cope, Proc. Ara. Pbilos. 8oc. Phila. 477. 1370. 

r«Te(«/ns (Ta«8i(nftn> Jordan & CoPEL.isn, Cbeck List, 157, 1976, (Kaoif odj.f 
Mgioaloma cnaiUabHii Jordan, Man. Vert, e«I. M, 314, 1H78. 

Hahitat.— Nenne BJver, North Carolina. 

Thin R|iecies ia kuown only from Professor Cope's de^criplioti. B 
Bppenrs to be distinct from M. aureolum. which is probably its 
relntirp. Nothing has been noted in regard to its habits. 

8. MYXOSTOMA CONCS (Cope) Jordan. 




. imOSTOMA ANI8UBA. 127 

XBTO— fljyciwtowin Irwiapg Copb, Proo. Am. Philos. Soc. Phil*. 47a 

ft wh i to Inrtimw JoRDiir A Copblamd, Cbeok List, 157, 1876. (N«iiie only.) 
Jfawiipw Irgpfoyt JosDAK & GiLBBBT, in Klippftrt's Rept. 53, 1876. rName 
onlj.) 

Jordan, Boll. U. S. Nat. Mob. 9, 50, 1677. (Name only.) 



B AinAT.--Ohio Valley and Great Lakes. 

This species, first described by Bi^nesqae Id 1820, has been entirely 
loBt ligbt of by succeeding writers, and I, doubting the existence in the 
Ohio Biver of a species characterized by the marked inequality of the 
csadal lobes, have hitherto followed Dr. Kirtland in using the name 
mbum for the fish recently named ooUapnu by Professor Cope. Some 
Vedmens lately examined by me from the Ohio Biver have shown the 
oiiteDoe of a fish corresponding very closely to Baflnesqne's account, 
aid which really has the inequality of the caudal fin, on which he lays 
mh emphasis, and which suggested the name anisurus (unequal-tail). 
This llsh appears to be the same as that to which Professor Cope has 
gifm the name of breviceps. Professor Cope had, however, but a single 
ipedmeny in poor condition, and did not notice the fsloatiou of the 
Mdal, or, more likely, that fin was not preserved intact. I have, some 
tiae since, examined Professor Cope's type, preserved in the Museum 
of flie Academy of Natural Sciences, at Philadelphia, and believe it to 
be identical with M, emisura Eaf. The form of the head and body and 
of the mouth are similar in the two, and the dorsal in both is simi* 
lady falcate. 

This species resembles aureolum in every respect, except that the 
dorsal fin is shorter, and elevated or falcate in front, the free border 
being deeply incised, and that the caudal fin is similarly elongated, the 
upper lobe being much the longer and greatly attenuated. 

The following are the measurements of three specimens: 10,788, from 
Sftndnsky, and 12,267 and 12,294 from Cincinnati. The fractions iudi- 
eate percentage of the length to the base of the caudal : — 



128 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOOT-— m, 

MeaMremmti of (Ar«» qwdnen* of Myxotloma aa{«¥nt. 

10766. VSSl. UX 



Lenjrtb, inoliee 'ii 

Depth ■ .sa 

LenKtbofliPiul.. ■ IS 

Width nf intcroTbltal area OB 

Length of snout 07-^ 

Era (B 

Lengtb of baseof domat l&i 

Heiglit oflongi'St ray of dorsal 23 

Height of la«t ray of dorsal 10 

Length of upper caadal lobo 31 

LeDgth of loner caudal lobu S8 

Length of middle caadal rays 13 

Donal rayfl 2,13 

ScalM G-4tW. 



£.li 



It in perhups barely possible tliiit this flsli is Ibc iduIp of own 
at a certain ago, but it seems to ine dL'citledly improbable. Ttio tvM| 
blance between tbe two is, however, very strong, and, except for tt 
fins, tbey could hardly be disliognished. 

Specimme in Tnif-fd Stale* Nalionnl Muipum. 




MYXOSTOMA CERVINUM. 129 

Specimen9 in United States National Museum, 



limber. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


nms 


Taniripaboa River. Loaisiaiia - 


Fred. Mather. 









11. MYXOSTOMA ALBIDUM (Oirard) Jordan. 

Small'Scdled Bed Horse. 

B^PtpekasUmus albidus Gikard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Pbila. 172. 

PrjfcAottoMMt albidus Girard, U. S. Mex. Bound. Sarv. Ichth. 36, pi. xix, f. 5-8, 

1659. 
Tvretulus albidus Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 
Mfiostoma alhidum Jordan, Man. Vert. E. U. S. 315, 1878. 

HiBiTAT. — ^Rio San Jaan, near Monterey, New Leon, in Mexico. 

Tbi0 species is kDowu only from Girard's figure and description. No 
oeoant of the lips is given, bat the month is said to be a " great deal 
vger" than in M. congestum. The description is trivial, but tbe figure, 
Stan correct, represents a species quite unlike our other members of 
16 genus ; the chief character being tbe much smaller size of the scales, 
kkh in the description are merely stated to be '^ smaller than in con- 
tfvt". The species may possibly belong to some section of the genus 
lier*than the one in which it is here placed. The original types. No. 
0, U. S. Nat. Museum, from Rio San Juan, near Monterey, New Leon, 
i DO longer to be found. 

12. MYXOSTOMA CERVINUM {Cope) Jordan. 

Jump-rocks, Jumping MuUeU 

^■^Teretulus cervinus Cope, Jonrn. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 236. 

Ptjfchostomus cervinus Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Phila. 47^, 1870. 

yioxosicma oerdnum Jordan, Man. Vert. 296, 1870. 

Teretulus cervinus Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 

2fpxostowui cervinum Jordan, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. xi, 365, 1877. 

Myxostema cervinum Jordan, Man. Vert. E. U. S. ed. 2d, 315, 1878. 
i — CaUmiomus duquesnii GCntiier, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, 483. (Not of Le 
Soenr, nor ot p. 18.) 

UUTAT. — Rivers of the Soath Atlantic States, from the James to the Chattahoochee. 



is a strongly marked and very abundant species, tbe smallest of 
pmns, and one of the smallest of the Catostomidw. It occurs in tbe 

*Two specimens, types of the species. 

. H. M. No. 12—9 



130 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOETH AMEEICAN ICHTHTOLOGY — ^m. 

greatest abiiudance ia tlie swift streams of tlie South, freqaeatug I 
especially tlie rapids or "shoals", and olten throwing itself from tbt 1 
water in its eudeavora to reach some higher rouk-pool. It ia too ei 
and the flesh spoils too quickly to bo much viilued for food, hat gnat 
numbers are caught for "fun" by negroes and boys. The largest sped- 
nieua which 1 have seen were taken in the Chattahoochee, andarcalioal 
ten inches iu length ; ordinary individuals are four to six inches long. 

Spedmeni ill United Stalo' Xational Mu'ciim. 



„„„^,. 


Loo all tf. 


CoUertM. 






1 






1 






E.D.Cop^ T 














CliallaliMOheo Rlv 


J. 











13. MYXOSTOIIA ALBUM [Cope) Jordan. 

WkUe ilulUL 
ISrO^PISclioitamvg albm Cope, Proc. Am. Pbiloa. Soo. Pbila. 472. 

Tifrelu!ui athua JuitiiiiK & CopeljIn*i>, Check List, 13^, ISTG. (N»d 
Msimtoma alba Jurdan, Man. Vert. eii. 2(1, 31G, ISTB. 
HiWTAT. — Catawba and other rivers, of Eftstcru North Cnrulintt. 




lfn08T0MA THALASSimniL 



If ^ hM tpMlmaw ^ Myxatioma aXbuM. 



181 



Lngtbiliioliis 

IkpCk (paccentoge of lenitth to baae of e«ndal) 

IuBctli tf bMd 

WUth of Interarbital area 

LeBgih of mont 

DiiMter of orbit 

LeBgih of baae of docsal 

BM^ht of doml.....« •••• •••••• «••.•••.....•. 

Hri^oriMtny of dorMa....f: 

Lngihof OQteroaadalrftysJ , 

Lngih of middlo oaadal rays 

Lngthof peotonli 

laibir of doiHd nyt 

SealM. 




The form is elliptical, not maoh compressed, bat rather elevated, 
MMDewhat as in EHmyzon sueetta. Head short and stoat, blautish^ broad, 
vA roanded above; moatb somewhat inferior ; the plicsB of the lips few 
and rather broken ; dorsal fln high, its free border somewhat concave; 
Mdal strongly forked ; color lastroos white, with greenish reflections. 

This is one of the largest species, reaching the weight of fonr ponnds 
or more. Professor Cope states that it is mnch valued as a food-flsh by 
pecple living in the neighborhood of Catawba Biver, where it is known 
fls the White Mullet. 

• Specimens in UniUd States National Museum. 



Kamber. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


10632 


North Carolina 


G. B. Goode. 


14943 


KiostoD, N.C 


G. B. Goode. 


14990 


North Carolina 


G. B. Goode. 


18535 


KioBton, N.C 


J. W. Milner. 


19450 


North Carolina '- 


G. B. Goode. 









14. MYXOSTOMA THALASSINUM (Cope) Jordan. 

Green MuUet, 

ie70^J*tyekostomus thalassinus Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Phila. 472, 1870. 

Tsr^ulms thalassinus Jordan & Copbland, Check List, 158, 1876. (Name only.) 
Jff jDotfona thalassina Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 316, 1878. 
HASrrAT.^Yadkin Uiver. 



1 32 C0NTBIDUTI0N8 TO NORTH AMEBICAN ICHTHYOLOOT— IIL 

I hove not Been tbis species. From Professor Cope's descriptioti, it 
woaki fippear to bo allied to M. album, but distingnishable l>j tli 
longer head. It is a large species, ubuudant in the Yadkin Biver, vhen 
it is used for food. 

16. MYXOSTOMA VELATUM (Cope) Jordan. 

Smalt-moulhed Bed Horse. 
1645— CatMtOMM ofiJiww KutTLAin), BohIou Joaru. Nat. Uist. v, 2fi9 (villi iilitr^ 

(Nut of EaSneaqne.) 
Calottomut aaisura* Storkr, Sj'nopais, 421, 1640. 
Ptsvhaioittui unituntt Jokdxs, Bull. BufTub Boo. Nat. Hist. 94, 1^6. (Nhu 

ouly.) 
Moxontatna animmu JuitUAN, Man. Vert. S95, 1S76. 
Terel<ilui anUuruf KiiLSDN, Bull. No. 1, Ills. Mnti. Nat. Hist. 49, 1876. 
TerdHfumiNisHnifJoiEDAN Sl CoFEUidi, Check Lis!, 158, 18T6. (Nameonl]'.) 
JdoxotUma amKunim Jobdaj), Proo. Ac. Kat So. Phila. 72, 1877. 
^laoftoma auievrtm Sov.um, Froc. Ac. Nat. So. Tbila. 80, ieT7. 
itoxosloma anisuTa Jordak & Gilbert, id Klippart'a Rept. &3, ld77. (KlW 

if^oafonta mtitura JnnoAK, Ball. U. B. Nat. Mns. ix, 33, 1677. 
I8T0— PljrfMfoniiis wlu(us Cope, Proc, Am. Pbilos. Soo- PLlla. 47L 
jrawdiodin xdalum Juiid\k, Mnn. Vert. 296, ISTfi. 
TVrcfufNf velalant Nelson, Bnll. No. I, IIU. Mas. Nat. Hist. 49, 1S7G, 
Trrflulan i-elalue JoitDAN & Copkland, Check List, IbS, 1B76. (Name « 
Moxottoma vrtala Joitu.t» & GlLBEltT,iii Klipparl'a Rept. ij3, la76. (Nu 
Myi.o*to«\a retala Juhdan'^ Uau. Vert. ed. Sd, 317, \iQd. 




MTXOSTOMA PIDIEN8E. 133 

I did not find any apecimenB of this species in the Fnited States 
Halioiud Mnaenm. The ^pes of velatus and coUapauSj preserved in the 
MnaeQin of the Academy of Natoral Sciences, at Philadelphia, I have 

16. MTXOSTOMA OONOESTUM [Baird & Girard) Jordan. 

Oihbaut Suoker. 

M5I CWwfwiMi WKgethu Baird A Guubd, Proo. Aa Nat. So. Phila. *^7. 
Ftgekotimmu eom^mitu QtRASD, Proo. Ao. Nat So. Phila. 172, 1856. 
Fl§ckmUmM§ etm§f$lM§ Girabd, U. S. Hex. Bound. Sorv. Ichth. 36, pL xxi, 1 5-8,. 

1869. 
(ki1m9omM9 eongwhu GOirnnBR, Cat. Hahes Brit. Mas. vii, 19, 1668. 
l imlm lM CMjfeilM Jobdah A Copklani>, Cbeok List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 
JffBDMfOMtf eomgmia Jobdax, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 317, 187& 
IfiT^PyrelotfosiM hueeo Cofb, Hayden's Geol. Sanr. Wyoming, 1870, 437. 

llr0lMim§ ht€» Jordan A Copblakd, Chcok List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 

Habhat.— Kansas to Texas. 

The original type of congeHuM^ No. 171, fi*om Bio Salado, Texas, col- 
lected in 1851 by John H. Clark, seems to have disappeared from the 
HnaeQin. No description of the month has been given, except that it is 
"^ery smalP. The species, therefore, probably has a month similar to 
that of ffelatum^ and, if so, is probably identical with the species since 
dttcribed as P. huceo by Professor Cope. I have not seen the type of 
f. hueOf and, therefore, can only suggest the probable identity of the 
two; bat, as the matter is likely to remain long nusettled, it seems best 
Pfovidonally to nnite them. "P. congestm " Cope & Yarrow is certainly 
iM>t this species ; more likely a form of M. macrokpidotum. 

17. MYXOSTOMA PIDIENSE {Cope) Jordan. 

Mullet qfthe Great Pedee. 

^^l^Pt9eko$tomu9 pidiennB Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Pbila. 471. 

TeretuluM pidieiuis Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 158, 1876. (Name only.) 
MfpBotUma pidim$i» Jordan, Man. Vert ed. 2d, 317, 1878. 

Habitat.— Great Pedee River, North Carolina. 

This appears to be a slender species, resembling '^P. cervinus in color, 
Ann, and size''. Professor Cope obtained it in the Yadkin Biver. I 
lave not seen it. No specimens are in the National Museum. 



134 CONTBIBUTIOHS TO NOBTH ABCEBICAN ICHTHTOLOQT— m. 
18. MYX03TOMA COBEOONUS (C<^) Jordan. 

IWO—PtydiMUmw coregtmut Cofb, Proo. Am. Philaa. Boo. PhiU. 472. 

Terttulu* cortgoniu Jobdan A. Copbland, Cheok List, 158, 1S76. (Nmim enl] 
JfifXMfoma eoregonu* Jokdan, Mao. Tert. ed. 3d, 317, 18TS. 
Habitat. — C&tawba aod Yadkin Biven, North Carolina. 

I have not seen tbis species. Professor Cope states that "it u 
exceeds a foot id lengtb, and is very abandant in the Catawbi i 
TadkiD Bivers. It is caagbt vitb tbe preceding two Bi>ecie8 ani 
used Tor food, bat is tbe least valued of all tbe species. It ia eailo 
Morgaoton, Blae Mallet" There are no specimeoa in the Katie 
Museam. 

19. MTXOSTOilA PAPILLOSUM [Ct^) Jordan. 
PapilloM MMlltU 

ISnO—PtgdioelomiupappiUotn* Cops, Proo. Am. Pbiloa. Soo. Pbila. 470. 

TeraiilaapappHlo»¥» Jordan &, Copbuank, Check Liit, l&O, 1876. (Kams* 
itgxoaUma papiUotnm Jordan, Add. Lyo. NaL Hist. N. T. xi, 366^ 1877. (Oa 

gee Biver.) 
Jfyxoitinwi popUlMH Jordak, Han. TerL ed. Xd, 318, 187eL 
Habitat.— North Cuolina to Georgia. 




MTSOBTOMA PAPILLOSUM. 135 

convex, Bometinies concave. The following are tlio meaaiiremeDts of 
Iwo specioieus: — 





»oe9. 


18S36. 




J6i 
.29 
.26 
.10 
.13 
.05 
.19 
.»( 
.10 
2,1* 
6-46-5 








































iNlo.. . 









Id color, this species is smoky above, tbe sides silverj', the lower flas 
Vhite. 

Proreasor Cope says that "they attaia oue foot in length, aod do not 
Uceed one ponud in weight". I have specimeus a foot and a half loog 
ud of three pounds or more^ weight. 

In the Ocmulgoe, tbe species is next to M. cervinum the most abundant. 
Mil is ciitk-d the White Mullet, or Sucker. Professor Cope found it 
qniW abnudant in the Catawba anil the Yadkin Rivers, where it "is 
lii|;bly vnlned by the inhubitants as an article of food. It is regarded 
wtlie best of the Catostomi for that purpose. It is less frequently 
taagbt on tbe hook tban some other species, but in the autumn, they 
nme upon the weirs in considerable numbers. The fishermen call it 
tiie 'Shiner'." 

Spectmeiu in Iht United Slaltt Ifalional Muanim. 



»Wb«. 


Looalitf. 


CoIlMtor. 


nam 

\&36 


Kinstoii, N.C 


J.W.Milner. 


mQ 


Kiiuton.N.C 


J. W. MilDBr. 


ISWO 


KinatoD, N.C 


J.W.Milner. 




OoiniilK«eBiver, qa. 













136 COSTEIBUnOSS to KOETH AMESICAH ICHTHTOLOOI— «l 

Genus MINYTREMA Jordan. 

Mingtrema Jokdak, M*n.Tert. ed.3d, 31S, 1378. 

Calonomut, J'ludKMtmniu, JUoxoitoMa, and Erimi/ioii »p., AUTHORS. 

Tyiw, CalottomaM vutaiupi Bafineaqne. 

Etymology, iiivvc, redocetl ; Tp!//ia, &pertiire, ia allaeioa to the ImpetliMtioiM of 
luMnil line, 

SpccJea with the form, sqaamatioD, and geDeral appearance of Jf 
stoma, but with the air-bladder Id two parts, as io Erimyutn, and 
lateral line imperfect — in the very youog eotirel; obBolete, in half gr 
Npceimuns ahuwing as a soccesBioD of deepened fnrrovs, in the a 
with perfect tubes, bat iuterrupted, these tubes being wanting on b 
t>r llio Hcnlea, eripocially posteriorly. 

Head moderate, rather broad above; mouth moderate, inferior, 
Izontal, the upper lip well developed, freely protractile, the lower ra 
Kmull, infolded, A-sbiiped in ontline, plicate, with 12 to 20 plicse on i 
aide; lower jaw withont cartilaginous aheath ; eye moderate, ra 
high Dp, plueed abont midway of the bead. Suborbital bones coi 
eiitbly develi)i>ed, not very much narrower than the fleshy portic 
(lie check Iwlow them, the posterior suborbital coucavo-coovez, a 
twlei> ns loMK us deep, sometimes divided, the anterior somewbatde 
than lunfT, otteu divided into two, sometimes nniled with the preorli 
whieh ia well developed and much longer than broad. The Dumber 




GENUS MIKTTREBiA. 137 

iiely 8 or 10. Anal fin high and short, often more or less emarginate 
I males. Gaodal fin moderately forked, the lobes about equal. 

Air-bladder with two chambers. 

Hales iu spring with the head covered with many small tubercles. 

Bat one species of this genus seems to bo known. It is widely dis- 
ributed in the waters of the Western and Southern States. 

This genus has been recently separated from Erimyzon^ on account of 
be peculiarities of the lateral line. The form of the body, the form of 
beooath, and the character of the squamation differ considerably in the 
10 genera. 

Gtfnerio CharacterizaiionB, 

IbHTTRRMA Jordao, m78.->'* YooDg specimeDS of this epeoies (melanops) have no 
rMeof a lateral line, as in Erimyzom. Older ones (6 to 8 incbee) show a deepening of 
keforrows along the median series of scales. Adults of 12 to 18 inches f>how a serien 
f eonpletely developed tubes, which, however, are wanting on some of the scales, espe- 
liDy behind. As Erimyzon never shows any traces of the tubes of the lateral lino, these 
•etnUahties may be held to indicate generic distinction, and the name Minyirana is 
ivs proposed for E, melanopt," — (Jordan, Man, Vert. ed. 2d, 318, 1878.) 

ANALYSIS OF 6PKCIK8 OF MINYTKEMA. 

*Btdy obloog, little compressed; the young nearly terete ; the adults deeper-bodied ; 
tbe dorsal region not elevated : depth about 4 in length, varying from about 3 in 
idolui to 4| in the young : head not very large, 4^ iu length of body (4^ to 4f), 
not specially depressed: mucous poiea rather strong: eye sninll.G to Gin head: 
BBoath qaito inferior, horizontal, rather small : scales large, firm, regularly and 
MBoothly imbricated, iu 46 (44-47) longitadinal Beries aud 13 (12 to 14) transverse 
Mries, tbe scales net crowded forwards: fin-rays usually, dorsal 12,* aual 7, veu- 
tnl8 9. 

Coloration dusky above, with usually a black blotch behind the dorsal fin : each 
Ktle along the sides with a small, more or less distinct blackish spot at i's base, 
tlMw spots forming interrupted longitudinal lines along the rows of scales. 
Tbeae lines are usually very distinct, < specially in the adult, bat yonug specimens 
often show them faintly: sides and belly silvery, with a coppery lustre: scxaal 
peculiarities moderately marked; very old males with the head covered with small 
tubercles in spring : no great changes with age, either in form or coloration : size 

large; maximum leugth about 18 inches mklanops, 20. 

K__ . . 

*Ab in all cases in the present paper, the number of developed raya is here understood, 
leooe, two, or three rudimentary rays not being counted, and the last or double ray 
'the dorsal and anal being counted as one. 



]38 CONTBIBDTIOHS TO NOBTH AUERICAH ICHTBTOLOOT-^n. 

20. MINTTEEMA MELANOPS (Eaftnaque) Jordan. 
Striped SHektr. StmdSMiier. 

VSSO—Caletlomvt melanopt Rafinesqck, leb, Ob. 57. 

CafojfoniMt wuJanoprit Eirtlakd, Zool. Ohio, 168, 1636. 

Caloalomut melanopt ElBTUND, Boaton Jonm. Nat. Hiat. v, 271, 1B4S. 

Catoatomiu nelanopt STORED, Synopali, 424, 1846. 

P(ycAMlomtumel(iiuip«AaAasiz,Aiii. Jonm. 8c. Arte, 9d ■eriM,xix,904,lKS> 

Pti/ehottimtu metanopt Copb, Pioc. Am. Pbilos. SocPhUa. 478, 1870. 

Erimsioa ncfanops Jordan, Bull. Buffalo Soo. Nat Biat. 95, 1876. 

Erittii/zon mflanojM Jordan, Mail, 7011.294,1876. 

EriMsiim mtlanopi Nel-w.s-, Boll. No. 1, Ills. Mdb. Not. Hist. 48, 1876. 

Erimseon melanopf Jordan & Copelan-d, Cbeck LUt, 157, 1676. 

Erintt/zon niclanqpa Jordan, Aqd. Lye Nat HUt. N. Y. xi, 347, 1677. 

Minytrema vtelawopt Jordan, Uao. Vert. ed. Sd, 316, 1678. 
ie44--Cato(fomiu /aicialui (Le 8UEim M8S.) Cuvieb &. Vaixncikxkis, Hilt, M*t.i 
PoissoDs, xvii, 449. 

Caloitomiufaidaliu Storer, S.VDOpaU, 426, 1646. 

CeloiUHKiu/tXKiaiu* OUnther, Cat Fiabee Brit. Utu. vh, 19, 1668. 
1856 — Uoxoatoma ridoria Girard, Proc. Ac Kat. Sc. Pblla. 171. 

31oiotU>ma viclorinGiaARV, V. S. Mex. BoddiI. Sarv. Icbtfa, 3§,pL xx,f. 1-3,1S! 
1856— Pf^Mlomu* haydni Girard, Pioc Ac. Nat. Re. Pbila. 172. 

Ptschaatomua hagdeni Girakd, U. 8. Pac. R. B. Expl. x, 220, pl.zliz, 1 1-4, US& 

Trretul«» liagdeni Jordan &. Copeland, Cbeck LUt, 157, 187G. 
ISn—Tererulttt tiicctia Jordan &. Gilbert, in Klippart'e Bept. Fiah Commr. Obw, 
(Supposed to bo C. fuceifa Lacfpfede, as it was perbaps In part the Cn 




MINTTBEMA MELANOPS. 139 

lir-bladder in all cases was bicellalar, as in the geuas Erimyzon. At 
;hat time he had never seen any specimens with a developed lateral line 
uid then nnqnestionini^ly referred the species to Erimyzon. Later, Mr. 
I^elsoQ noticed the occasional partial development of the lateral line, 
uid lecentlyi by the examination of a fnll series of specimens, the 
vrriter has been enabled to trace the stages in its growth. 

This fish inhabits all the Western streams and lakes, usually in com- 
pany with Erimyzon sucetta. It is fond of clear sluggish waters, and 
ibonnds in ponds and bayous. It is used for food, and is pretty gooil 
for a ''Sucker", which is not saying much. This species is more than 
Qsoally tenacious of life, and young specimens are rather interesting as 
aqoariam fishes. 

The synonymy of this species needs a few words. It was originally 
described by Bafinesque as a species with a lateral line. This first 
description is quite indifferent, but the account of the coloration, and the 
name. Striped Sucker, enabled Dr. Kirtland readily to identify it, but 
the latter writer found the " lateral line obsolete ^, Later, Valenciennes 
described it under Le Sueur's MSS. name of fasdatuSj and found a lateral 
Hoe. As Le Sueur's specimens were from the Wabash, there can be no 
doobt of their identity with mclanopa. Later, Dr. Girard described and 
figured Texan specimens without the lateral line under the name of 
Jfoxoatoma Victoria:^ and specimens with the lateral line from the Upx>er 
Missouri Begion as Ptychostomus haydeni. The types of neither of these 
species are preserved, but no distinctions from melanops are noticed in 
either case by the describer, and the range of melanqps certainly includes 
the Missouri river and the waters of Texas. 

The name sucetta has been once or twice employed by me for this 
^^ies, erroneously, as I am now convinced. I found this species in 
abandance in South Carolina; and Le Sueur, apparently quoting from 
Lac^pMe, says : — " Sides silvery, with brown spots at the base of the 
Kales," Nevertheless, on inspection of Lacdpfede's description, and 
especially of the colored figure which he gives from a drawing by Bosc, 
it becomes evident that the Cyprinus sucetta Lacdp5de is the same as 
(^fprinus ohlongus of Mitch ill, a species equally abundant in the same 
•aters. Bosc's drawing, although not giving the details of structure 
■inately, represents the general form and coloration of the body and 
*■• ^nd ibis figure can only represent the Cyprinus oblongus. As the 
mtMta Lae^p^de is based entirely on information derived from 

be retained for the species which Bosc had fig- 



] 40 COKTBIBUTIOXS TO NOBTH AHEBICAN ICHTHTOLOaT — UL 

ured. As for tbe espression, " brown spots at the base of the tak 
if really originatiiig wit!) Bosc, as appears to be the case, it may bi 
ari^Q from the coufasion of aucetta with melanopi, which species iob 
its the same waters, or it may simply refer to the obscare doskinen 
tb(« bases of tbe scales, commoo to both species. 

I bare examiued many specimens of Minytrema weUnu^ from i 
Great Lakes, from rarioas places in tlie Mississippi Yulley , and from 1 
Teunessee, Alabama, Santee, aud other Soatbern rirers, and can t 
DO differences of any importance. Indeed, the species seems to be ti 
little variable for one so widely distributed. 

Spfeimttn i* ike United Slatet A'aftoKal 



7694 
TiGd 
8134 
11030 
1 1 144 
1U4S 

17tai 

3fti75 



Sandunky, OLio 

Sandusky, Oliio 

S.in(1iieky, Oh [o 

Rauduaky, Ohio 

Round Lakp, MoDtgoiuery, Ala . 
Henitwtead, Tei 

VrbiteSivur 



J, W, Jlilncr. 
J.W.Milner. 
J.W.Milncr, 
J.W.Milnw, 
KmnliMi&Br) 
Kutolien dc £• 
Dr. Kenrten. 
D. 8. Jordan. 




GENUS ERIMTZON. 141 

obUqae In podtJon when the month is closed, the month thns similar 
to that of JeAttfotei. Eye moderatOi rather high np, placed abont mid- 
way of the head : raborbital bones considerably developed, not very 
mnoh nanower than the fleshy portion of the cheek below tbem, the 
poaterior suborbital ooneavo-eonvezi abont tmte as long as deep, some- 
times dividedi the anterior somewhat deeper than long, sometimes 
divided into two, sometimes nnited with the preorbital bone^ which is 
well developed and mnoh longer than broad. Opercular bones moder- 
atdy developed^ scarcely or not ragose. Fontanelle evident, rather 
large. Gill-rakers rather long, abont half the diameter of the eye in 
leDgth. Isthmob moderateljr developed, atK>nt the width of the eye. 

Pharyngeal bones weak, the teeth quite small, slender, and weak, 
rapidly diminishing in length upwards, each tooth narrowly compressed, 
witk a cusp on the inner margin of the cutting surface, and some ine- 
qtulities besides. 

Body oblong, rather shortened, heavy forwards and considerably com- 
presMd. 

Bodes rather large, more or less crowded forwards, sometimes showing 

tnegalarities of arrangement, the longitudinal radiating furrows much 

ttnmger than usual, the scales rather longer than deep, but so imbri- 

tated in the adult that the exposed surfaces appear deeper than long. 

Lateral line entirely wanting. Scales in the longitudinal series from 

1^ to base of caudal 35 to 45 in number ; scales in transverse row from 

Inw of ventral to dorsal 12 to 18. 

Dorsal fin rather short and high, with from 10 to 14 developed rays, 
the namber usually 11 or 12. 

Beginning of dorsal fin rather nearer snout than base of caudal. Pec- 
toral fins moderate, not reaching ventrals ; the latter not to vent. 

Ventrals under a point rather in advance of the middle of dorsal ; 
^irrays normally 9, but occasionally 8 or JO. 

Anal fin high and short, more or less emarginate or bilobed in adult 
JDales; caudal fiu moderately forked or merely lunate, its two lobes 
•bout equal. 
Air-bladder with two chambers. 

^is genus has a very wide range, one of its two known species 
I^^bly occurring in all the streams of the United States east of the 
Boeky Mountains. 

^ existence of this genus seems to have been first noticed by DeKay, 
wIk^ however, erroneously supposed it to be identical with the Afri- 



142 CONTBIBUnONS TO NOBTH AMEBICAN ICHTBTOLOaT — ^m. 

can gcnns Zabeo of Cavler and Valenciennes. Its essential cbu-aeter 
tbe absence of tbe lateral line — was first noticed by Professor Aj^ 
vbo identified its typical species vitb CaU>stom%» {Moxottoma) ommt 
Uaflnesqae, and tberefore erroneously called tbe genns Moxoilom 
Tbe application of tbe name Moxoitoma to tbe Bed Horse gronp vi 
pointed out by tbo present writer in 1876 ; tbe name ErimjpoM \tai 
tben suggested for the group now under consideration. 

Tbe ase of tbe name Teretulua for tbis genus bag been lately an 
gested by Professor Cope, its species being among those ennmented t 
Itafiue^que as composing bis " omnium mthenan " to wbicb tiie dib 
Teretu/uswns applied. If we subtract from tbe original group Terttalt 
the ditferviit component genera in order of time of proposal, the li 
one left would be Erimyzon, or rather Minytrema. But tbe name Ta 
tulua bas already been restricted by Professor Cope to tbe Bed Hor 
group, the principal component of Itaflnesque's Teretulw. In my opi 
ion, it should remain there, altbongb tbe earlier name Mgxoatoma rende 
it but a synonym. We cannot afford to reconsider our use of theseo 
collective generic nomes whenever a new genas is proposed. Tbe **n 
of excliiHiou", if stiffly adhered to, would require the substitolioB < 
Acomva fur Pantosteus, inasmuch as a species of tlie latter genoa «i 
referred by Uirard to the former. This qoestion is further disooN 
under Myxostoma. 

Gmrric ChamcUrisaliotu. 

Larro Di-Kn^, I84S, — "Doraal long. No spines nor barbels. IJp« flMlif, Hdft 




GENUS EBIMTZON. 143 

eld are also much broader and farther apart than those of the lateral and 
tlda. The acalee are smaller upon the anterior portion of the body than 
Idea. Another remarkable pecnliarity of this genns consists ii\ the great 
there is among the adolte in the form of their fins in the several sexes. The 
• differ strikingly from the adalte both in form and coloration. . • . • 
of Moxoetoma is elongated and somewhat compressed, though stouter 
of Ptjfdko$tamu8 and CatoaUmiu9 proper. The greatest depth Is over the 

ad is small ; the small month opens obliqnely forwards and downwards ; 
I the lower Jaw is qnite prominent. The lips are small and transversely 
e lower one is slightly bilobed. The dorsal is over the ventrals ; its length 
ly exceeds its height in the males ; in the females its dimensions are more 
al. The pectorals and ventrals are more pointed and longer in the males 
) females. The lower margin of the anal fin is bilobed in the males, while 
ales it is simply emarginated ; in both sexes, the anal when bent bRkwards 
Bcandal. 

laryngeal bones have- a greater resemblance to those of the genns IchthyobuB 
ly other of the tribe of Catostomi ; the symphysis however is shorter, and 
ire neither so miunte nor so nuraerous; they increase also more rapidly in 
above downwards, and are more strongly carved inwards, the innermost 
I into an acnte point, which is more prominent in the middle and npper 
1 in the lower ones.^' — (Aoassiz, Am, Joum, Sd, Arts, 1855, p. 200.) 
DMA Girard, 1656. — " May be circnmscribed by characters more natural than 
ing ones. And the most striking of these, it must be conceded, is the ab- 
lat lateral line possessed by almost all fishes. The body is elongated and 
i ;,tbe head small; the mouth small also, opening obliquely forwards and 
s. The lips being small and transversally ridged ; the inferior one being 
lobed. The anterior margin of the dorsal is situated in advance of the inser- 
I ventrals. The dorsal fin is either higher than long or else its length is 
ts height, varying somewhat according to the sexes, as well as the anal, 
towever, always deeper than long. The shaft of the pharyngeal bones con- 
rery open curve, the convex margin of which is regular and entire. The 
iselves are very much compressed, strongly carved inwardly, and much 
riorly than superiorly." — (Girard, Proc, Ac, Ifat Sc, Phila. 1856, p. 171.) 
DMA GQnther, 1868. — '^ Scales of moderate size; lateral line none; fins, 
Is and pharyngeal teeth, identical with those of Catostomua in all essential 
5UNTHER, Cat. Fishes Brit, Mu8, vii, p. 20.) 

>N Jordan, 1676. — [Name suggested as a substitute for Moxoetoma Ag., the 
*xostama Raf. (Catostomus anisurus Raf.) not being a member of this genus.] — 
Bull Buff, Soc. Kat. Hist, p. 95.) 

3H Jordan, 1876.^^^ Dorsal moderate ; air-bladder in two parts ; no lateral 
osnally plicate.^' — (Jordan, Man, Vert, ed. Ist, p. 292.) 

ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OF ERIMYZON. 



becoming gibbous with age, the ante-dorsal region more 
ilMadiiUs; the depth 3^ in length, ranging from 2f in adults 



144 CONTBIBUnOKS TO NOBTH AHEBICAN ICHTHTOLOGT— 

to 4 ia yonng: head stent, short, aboat 4} tn length (4 to l^itbe h 
apace wide nod deprcBsed, Ibo lower porta narrower, eo that it isBomewl 
■haped downwards : eye not large, 4) in bead (4} to5|) : montli protrac 
wards and forwards, tbo mandible oliliqae : scales nsnoUy closely Imbrl 
more or less crowded forwards, bat often showing Toriossirregnlaritiesi 
incut, aboDt 43 (39-45; in a loneitudinal series and 15 (14 to 16) in a trai 
ries between the ventrala and tbe dorsal. Fin-rays somewhat varfablek 
with 11 (10 to 13) developed rays, the anal with 7, and the ventn 
(rarely 8). 

Coloration varying witb age ; Devet distinct serlee of black spota olonf 
of scales; young witb a broad black lateral band bordered above by 
some spucimenit l>oni dear water, this hand is of a Jet-black color onj 
tinot; In others, it is dnller; later this band becomes broken Into a 
■ blotcbes, wbicb often assnme the form of broad transverse bars ; in ad 
mens, these bars disappear, and the color ie nearly nniform brown, dos 
pater below, every where with a coppery or brassy, never silver?, lastre 
are dnaky or smoky brown, rarely reddish-tinged : sexnal difFerenees at 
males in spring with nsnally three large tubercles on each side of the i 
Willi the onal fln more or less swollen and emarginate : adnlt speclmene 
b'ack gibbons and the body strongly compressed, in appearance quite t 

yonng. Maslninm length about 10 inches sr< 

"Body oblong, the back more elevated, the body deeper and more com prcMi 
the preceding, tbe greatest depth in advance of the dorsal fin being 
abont 3| times in tbo length ; nape less gibbons than In meetla; head q 
and short, tbe large eye l}cing almost exactly midway in its length, its 
in that of the body; eyo41^1n head; interorbitalspoco rather narrow, atrot 
versely convex, less than half the length of the head: month small, proti 




ERIMTZON SUCETTA. 145 

Erimffzon Buottta Jordan, Man. Yert. 295, 1876. 

Erimyzan woeita Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 157. 1876. 

Erimjfsou suceUOf Jordan, Man. Verfc. ed. 2d, 319, 1878. 
14-Cjfpriiiaw obhnguB Mitchill, Lit. & Phil. Trans. New York, 1, 459. 

Cafoftomif ob!<mgui Ls Sueur, Jonrn. Ao. Nat. Sc. 108, 1817. 

Cato9tamu$ chl<nign9 Thompson, Hist. Yt. 184, 1642. (Synonymy, but cot dcscrix)- 
tion, which applies to M. macrolqndotum.) 

Labto obl(mgu9 DeKay, New York Fauna, part iv, Fishes, 193, 1842. 

CaUmtamuM oblongus CuviEU &, Yajlencienxes, Hist. Nat. des Poissous, xvii, 441, 
1844. 

Cat09tamus oblongn» Storbr, Synopsis, 423, 184G. 

MoxosUmug obUmgum Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sc. Arts, 2d series, xix, 203, 1835. 

Maxo$Uma oblangum Putnam, Ball. Mus. Comp. Zool. 10, 1863. 

2iI<MC09lama ohlangum Gill, Canadian Nat. p. 19, Aug. 1865. 

2i<tt09toma oblongum GCntiier, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mas. vii, 21, 1868. 

ifoxoffoma oblongum Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Phila. 468, 1870. 

lioxoiioma oblongum Jordan, Fishes of lud. 221, 1875. (Name only.) 

Erimgzou oblongus Jordan, Ball. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist. 95, 1876. (Name only ; 
generic diagnosis of JSrimyzon,) 

Erimgson oblongua Jordan, Man. Yert. 294, 1876. 

MoxoBUma oblongum Uhler & Lugger, Fishes of Maryland, 140, 1876. 

Enmjfxon ollongus Nelson, Bull. No. 1, Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist. 48, 1876. 

Erimgzou oblonguB Jordan &, Copeland, Check List, 157, 1876. (Name only.) 

Ttnlmlu9 oblongus Jordan & Gilbert, in Klippart's Rept. 5.3, 1876. (Name only.) 

Ikretulus oblongun Jordan &, Gilbert, in KlipparVs First Kcport, Ohio Fish Com- 
mission, &% pi. xii, f. 20, 1877. 

Erimyzon oblongua Jordan, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. xi, 346, 1877. 
Erimjfzon oblongus Jordan, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. xi, 365, 1877. 
Erimyzon oblongus Jordan, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. ix, 36, 1877. 
IBn— CotottoMiff gibbosus Le Sueur, Jourr. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. i, 92. 
Cslof<omar« gibbo9U8 Storer, Rept. Ichthy. Mass. 183, 18.38. 
Ubto gibbo$M$ DeKay, Now York Fauna, part iv. Fishes, 194, 1842. 
Cutottomus gibbosus Storer, Synopsis, 420, 1846. 
CatoetomiM gibboma Kirtland, Hamilton Smith's Annals of Science. 
C^Aottmtu gibbo8U9 Storer, Hist. Fishes Mass. 291, pi. xxii, f. 4, lri67, 
1817— C«tortomM« tubcrculaiua Le Sueur, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. i, 93. 

CaloifawM tuberculatus DeKav, New York Fauna, part iv. Fishes, 199, 1842. 
CaiotUmua inberculatua CuviER & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, xvii, 

■«44,1844. 
Catontonus tubcrcuUitua Tno^EAU, Week on Concord and Merrimack, 38, 18G3. 
^'^"CatoifmM rittatus Li: SuEUU, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 104. 
I Cai09hnu9 vitlatu8 DeKay, New York Fauna, part iv, Fishes, 203, 1842. 

f^^^omw viitatus Cuvier & Yalenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, xvii, 459, 
IBM. 

Stoker, Synopsis, 422, 1846. 
tfii)iny Ich. Oh. 58. 



146 COBTBIBDTIOHS TO NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHTOLOGY IIL 

18-12— tnifo elegana DkK.iv, New York Fauoft, paA iv, Fisboa, Ida. 

Caloilomun clegani Stoker, Synopflis, 435, 1846. 
1842— iaft™ caoput DeKav, New York Fapna, part iv, FUhes, 195. 

Catoalomui esopui Storer, 8yDopEtB, 425, 1B46. 
I8i2—Labm dongalut DeEay, New York Fnuno, part ir, Fishee, 394. 
1U5Q — ifoiostoma utiisiiriu AOABSIZ, Am. JoDrn. So. Arts, Sd aeries, xii, Uti. [Notrf 

EaGaeBqae.) 
ISiiTi—itoxastoma tmof Agasbiz, Am, Jonm. 6c. Art8,2<IaoriM, six, 203. 

AtoXMtoma (en»e Pctkam, Bull. Mas. Comp. Zool. 10, 1H63. 

3IoxoKloma teaat GUkther, Cat. Fisbes Brit. Miii. vii, 21, 1«)8. 

Erinnj:an tenaii Jordan & Copkland, Check List, 157, IHTS. 
ISTjG— -UoKUftma claviformit Girabd, Proc. Ac. Nat. So. Pblla. 171. 

itoiiHiloma clar\/brmU OiitAKD, U. 8. Poc. K. E. Expl. x,219,p].x)viii,r.S-a, 

Erimyton clariformU Jordan & Copbland, Cbuck Liat, 157, 1^76. 
IP-'ifi — Jfcjaietoiml kesnerls't GfRAUP, Ptoc. Ac. Nat. Be. Pbiln. 171. 

itorotloma keana-lffi GlRAits, U. S. Mer. Bound. Snrv. Icbth. 34, pi. ii, 17-9, 
1£&6 — Moxmloma campbelti Girard, Proo. Ac. Nat. So. Pbilo. 172. 

3loxot(oina fampbcUi Girard, U. &. Mex. Bonud. Sarv. Ichtb. 35, pi. ix, C 4-6, USl 

Erimi/ioti campbelli Jokdan &. Cupeland, Cl)eck List, 157,- 1S76. 
Habitat. — All waters of the United States east of tlie Eocky Mouotaina. 
Tliis protean species is, next to Cafostomue teres, the most abanduC 
nnci tbe most widely diffused of our species of Suckers. It occore in 
every stream from Maine to Texiis, and thrives iu all sorts ^f «nm, 
from the Great Lakes to the Broallest ponds and hrooks. Ita rariatioM 
iu color and form are remarkable; but after tbe elimination of IhoM 
nhii-b are known to be due to dilToreoces of set, age, and surrouudinpi 




EHIMYZON SOCETTA. l'4t 

XVofessor Agassiz's anisurvs, conBidered by Lim as tbe Western rep- 
eeiitative of oMongus, mnat Wloug liere. ProR-ssor Agnssiz^;; tanut 
otu Mobile is uot described ; but na succtia occurs abuiidautly in AJa- 
Moa, it is safe to jiresume their ideality. Tbe type of Moxostoma tia- 
ifitrmU Oirard is uow lost. Both figure nud description poiot to tbe 
[ODug of sucetta. Tho figure represents tlie scales rather smalldr than 
BWial, but it may not be correct. The types of Moxosioma lemurlgi 
(Hnid and of Mateotloma eantpdellt Girard, from Texas, have also ilisap- 
pmi i bat they too seem to have been based on tbe ytmog of tbe 
inwit spedes, and as aueetta certainly ocoara in Texaa, these D<HniDal 
tfKita oast taXl loto tbe Bynoaymy. 

Ibe Chob Backer ia one of tbe Bmallest species, rarely reacbisff a 
hiffii of mora than a foot. It is tenacious of life, and bites readily at 
tmll hook, bat ia not miicb valued for food. Tbe yonng are rather 
kndnaie, tbe black lateral band being sometimes very distinct. In 
tbaaquriam, they- act as scavetagers. Tbe adnlt fishes, especially the 
■ilH,an very dnsky in color, and tbe males in spring are provided 
«tt ttne large tobercles arranged in a triangle on each side of tbe bnd. 
Belu of tbe adolta are nsnally black, sometimes tinged with red. 
SptBimai* fa UmiUfSUam NaHwU M 



X«ber. 


Localit;.' 


Collector. 




BDgH Lmf Creek 
























7771 


mverheBd.L. I 


8. F. Baird. 


8880 




8. F. Baird. 


MS9 












8700 


























ZMaware Coonty 
























mi 


JMkni>,I». 





148 C0KTBIBDTI0N8 TO HOBTH AHEBICAN ICHTHYOLOOT — lit 

Spectmciit in UnUrd Slain yaHoadl VKKan— Continued. 



Number. 


Locality. 


CoUwU*. 
































lOfiai 


Potomac River 


J. W. MUncr. 








IIOM 


<"> 


Do. 




do 




nras 


do 


Do. 


niw 


do 


Do. 






Do. 






HB77 


Potoman Kiver 


0. B.Goad0. 


imo 


do 


J. W. MUoet. 


\tmi 


do 


Do. 


xmn 


do 


Do. 






Do. 
Do. 


1«M4 


do 


17!<l(i 


Clour Crock, TexM 


Kaoilico &, EmU. 


iim 


do 


Do. 


l^rm 


Now Bedford, Maw 








K. Kennicott. 
S. F. Baird. 


atwi 


Ci-dot Svrnmp, Now Jersey* 


■ 



GENUS CHASBOSTES. 149 

The type is a fine specimen, 10^ incbes loDg, collected by Professor G. 
kovn Ooode in the Saint Johu'8 River, Florida. It is numbered 19071 
m the Haseam Begister. I have named the species for my friend, Pro- 
httor Goode, one of the best of American ichthyologists, to whom we 
ive indebted for the discovery of the species. 

SpedmeM in United States National Museum. 



Kamber. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


19071 


Saint John's River, Fla 


G. Browu GK)ode« 









Genus CHASMISTES Jordan. 

Chtmrittei JoRDAV, BuU. Hayden Geol. Sarv. Terr. 417, 187a 
Tfpe, Ca:o$taMu$ fecmndui Cope & Yarrow. 
Btjmology, x*^f*^t ^^ y&wn or gape. 

Fishes related to Catostomtts^ having the teeth, scales, and air- 
Irtadder as in that genns, bat distingaished by the size and position 
Df tbe month, the great development of the mandible, and by the small, 
NNK)th lips. 

Head disproportionally large, forming more than one-fonrth of the 
l^gth, broad and flattish above; sides of head vertical, slightly directed 
tiirards, the breadth through the cheeks less than the breadth above the 
!ye8 ; eyes small, high up, rather posterior : mouth exceedingly large, 
^rmioal, the lower jaw in the closed mouth being very oblique, placed 
4 an angle of about 45 degrees ; the lower jaw very long and strong, 
U length more than one-third the length of the head, nearly half the 
tejTth of the head in the adult, its tip when the mouth is closed about 
m a level with the eye ; upper jaw very protractile ; upi)er lip very 
bio (for a Sucker), and nearly smooth ; snout elevated above the rest 
(f the head, notably so when the mouth is closed ; lower lip moderate, 
ODsisting of a broad flap on each side of the mandible, in front reduced 
a narrow rim, the surface of the lip nearly smooth, without evident 
•pillte: nostrils large; suborbital bones narrow, but rather broader 
hao in Catostomus ; preorbital unusually large: mucous channels mod- 
ptelj developed; fontanelle very large; isthmus rather narrow: 
ngeal bones and teeth essentially as in Catostomus, 

k^ier slender, tapering pretty regularly from the shoulders to 
'ompressed : caudal peduncle rather stout. 



150 COHTBIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AUEBICAH ICHTHYOLOOT — m. 

Fins moderate, the dorsal raye aboat 12, tbe anal 7 : pedanl 
rather loDg, not qnite reacbiug rentraU: rentrals reachiag veotiui 
tin high, reaching candal : caudal fin rather long, its lobes eqaaL 

Scales moderate, large oa the caudal pedaucle, macb sniBUtr iw 
crowded anteriorly, 60 to 65 in the lateral liDe, aboot 18 in a tranareiti 
series from dorsal to ventrals. 

Sexual peculiarities nuknoffn. 

Coloration nsual. 

Air-bladder in two parts. 

Size moderate or rather large. 

The single species now included in this genua is known only fM 
Utah Lake. Its describers referred it to the genos Calostomiu,]A 
made no mentioD of its singular mouth and lips. The original tfpea 
the species is in very bad condition, the mouth being shrunken and £l 
torted, and the bones of tbe head protruding through the skin, so tltf 
tbe peculiarities of the species are hardly recognizable.* 

Genirio CliaracteriiiUunu. 
CBASMiSTEa JordaD, 1878. — "Tbis gecns ia diatiDgalBhed from Catiutotat bf tt 
veTj large, termiDBl mooth, the lower Jaw being very atroDR, obUqne,italcaftbiiM 
one-tbird tbat of tbe bead. Tbe lips aro little developed, and ore very nearly «M<t 
Tbe typeof tbegennsia C./teundutCope & YarroR."— (JonitAM, Bull. U.S. OwLM 
Terr. vol. iv, No. 2, p. 417, 1878.) 



* Daptb about 




GSHTUB CATOBTOMUa 151 

Ij tke inbabitants. They run up the rivers to spawn in Jone | feed on 
tie bottom and eat the spawn of better fish | spawning beds on gravel ; 
Uts at hook sometimes ; are extremely nnmeroos, and are considered 
iBoiBStiee by the fishermen, bnt they meet with a ready sale in wiutcr 
il in average price of 2} cents per iionnd." 

8pedmmi9 im UmUed States Naiicmal Mwtewm. 



Hmbttr* 


Locality. 


Collector. 


mM 


Utah Lake. Utah 




20837 


Utah Lake. Utah 


Dr. H. C. Tarrow. (Many specimeDS ) 
Dr. H. C. Yanow. (Type Ckaami$tPB.) 
Dr. H. C.Tarrow. (Typesoftbespeciee.) 


10898 


Utah Lake. Utah 




Utah Lake, Utah 







Genus CATOSTOMUS Le Sueur. 

Lb Suxua, Jonni. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pbila. i, 1H17, 69. (Eqaivalent to family Co- 
tMiomida,) 
BgmUHnm Rafikssque, Joom. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pbila. i, 1818, 421. (As subgeDiu of Exo- 

§909SU!M») 

A w Ktlh i Rapcwsqux, Ichtbyologia Obiensis, 1820, 60. (As sabgenas of GaiO0fMitf«, 

Indoding the 10-rayed species.) 
QpimisRMi AOASSiz, Am. Jooni. Sc. Arts, 1855, 203. 
Mimmu GiHARD, Proc. Ac. Nat. So. Pbila. 1856, 173. 
^mm QiRARD, Proc. Ac Nat. Sc. Pbila. 1856, 173. 
^^^ttitomui Gill, Canadian Nataralist, 1865, August. 
'^MHketjfZiM JOKD.VN, Man. Vert. 2d ed. 1878, 319. (As sabgenas.) 

1^, Cyprinu9 catoatomus Forster, = Catoatomus hudaonius Le Saear, := Catostomus Jon- 
fi'^atnm Le Sueur. 
Etymology, /caro, low ; arbfia^ moatb. 

Etymology of Synonyms, 

^fpentelium: probably v^b^ below; irivTCt five; ^,5oc, lobe, as tbo name is said to 
'^ to tbe 5-lobed lower lip, supposed to distingnisb it from tbo 3-lobed subgenus 
J'ttWijipia; possibly, bo we vor, from iirbf below; cvrcXf/f, perfect. 

^^^fotiifluM: dcKuCt ten; duKTv?.ogf too, i'. «., 10 ventral rays, bence properly Dcca- 

^t^ysoM : t-Ae, mud ; itv!^(iu^ to suck. 

^oniw and MinomuB are probably meaningless words, witbout etymology. 

Bead more or less elongate, its length rangiug from 3^ to 5 times iu 
tbitof the bod}'^ its form varying considerably iu the different snbgen- 
n. £ye asaally rather small, high ap and median or more or less pos- 



152 coirrBiBnnoNS to nobth amsricak icHTHroLocnr— 401 

tenor in portion : saborbital bones narroW| longer than biottdi MMh m 
ill MjpDOitoma : fontanelle always present, asnally widely opesi in t«t 
species reduced to a narrow slit, bat never wholly obUbemfeed. 

Month rather large, always inferior, and sometimes notaUy ss | the 
upper lip thick, protractile, papillose ; the lower lip gieody developsd, 
with a broad free margin, deeply incised behind| so that it fbrms two 
lobes, which are often more or less separated ; mandible horiMotali 
Hhort, not one-third the len^rth of the head and not reaching to opporita 
the eye : lower jaw usually without distinct cartilaginous sheath : op«* 
cular apparatus moderately developed, not rugose : pharyngeal boais 
moderately strong, the teeth shortish, vertically eomprossod, rapidly 
diminishing in size npwards, the upper surface of the teeth nearly 6MI| 
or somewhat cuspidate. 

Body oblong or elongate, more or less fusifonui subteretOi more or 
less compressed. 

Scales comparatively small, topically much smaller and crowded aOf 
teriorly, the number in the lateral line ranging from about BO to llAi 
the number in a transverse series between dorsal and ventrals 
3 5 to 40 : lateral line well developed, straightish, somewhat 
anteriorly. 

Fins variously developed : dorsal with its first ray nearly midway of 
the body, with from 9 to 14 developed rays; anal fin short and higbf 
with probably always 7 developed rays 5 ventrals inserted under tb^ 
middle or posterior part of the dorsal, typically with 10 rays, in one sab* 
genas usually 9, the number often subject to variation of one ; caud^ 
fin usually deeply forked, the lobes nearly equal. 

Sexual peculiarities not much marked, the fins higher in the mial^ 
and the anal somewhat swollen and tuberculate in the spring : breed' 
ing males in some species with a rosy or orange lateral band. 

Air-bladder with two chambers. Vertebrae in C. teres and 0. nigri' 
cans 45 to 47. 

^< The skeleton in Catostomus has been well described by Yalencienne^ 
(XYII. p. 433). It is distinguished by the comparative want of solidly* 
certain bones consisting merely of a network of osseous matter. Tbero 
is a large and broad fontanelle on the upper surface of the head, separ- 
ating the parietal bones, and leading directly into the cerebral cavity- 
The occipital process is, below the anterior vertebrse, enlarged into B 
bladder-like swelling, which is not solid, but consists of a delicate net- 
work only. The prefrontal is advanced to the anterior part of the orbife 




QENUB CATOSTOMUS. 153 

Tbe jaw-bones are very feeble, the intermaxillary being redaced to a 
tbiD lamella, which does not descend to the middle of the maxillary. 
The anterior part of the mandible is horizontal, thin and i^lightly dilated. 
Tbe apophyses of the four aiiterior vertebrsB are very strong and long." — 
(GCntheb, CaU Fishes Brit. Mus. \ ii, 13.) 

This genas as at present restricted comprises three well-marked 
groofis, which may be accepted as subgenera, under tbe names Catosto- 
mns^ Decttdactylusy and Bypenielium, Oue of these groups, Hypentelium^ 
has been Qsnally considered as a distinct genus, on account of the dif- 
ferences in the form of the head and in the squamation. These differ- 
eiioes are, however, individually of subordinate value, and should 
probably be held to designate a subgeneric section, rather than a 
distinct genos. 

The group Decadactylus as here given is nearly equivalent to Minomus 
and Catostomus of Girard, while our Catostomus is Girard's Acomns. 
The type of Catostomus^ as restricted by Agassiz, prior to Girard being 
CjprijiiM catostomus Forster, oi:e of the small-scaled group, the name 
beloDgs properly to that group, and Acomus is a simple synonym. 
Jknelylus Bafinesque was not originally defined in any very tangible 
^ay, inasmuch as its author included in it species of Jfj/xosfoma and 
QfcfeptiM. As, however, it was intended for 10-rayed species, and as one 
among those originally placed in it was C. teres (as (7. bostoniensis)^ the 
the name Decactylus {Decadactfjlus) may be used instead of Minomus as 
adesigaation for the subgenus to which (7. teres belongs. 

The genus Catostomus is, next to Myxosioma^ the most rich in species. 
It is much the most widely distributed of tbe genera of Suckers, some of 
'^8 members abounding in every river of North America, and one of them 
*^''og found in Asia. 

Generic Characterizations, 

'Catostomus LeSaeur, 1817. 
^ct with a siaglo tin. 

^^Ihmemhrane tbree-rayed. 

^'eoii and apcrcula smooth. 

''^•w toothless and retractile. 

*^o«iiA benea'.h the soont ; lips plaited, lobed, or caruDculated, suitable for sucking, 

*^roat with pectinated teeth. 

* h© species which are here described are all possessed of the following general 

^^^f^ters:— 

**^<*rfjf.— The body in general is elongated and varied in its form. 

**^ctitt. — ^Tbe scales in almost all tbe species are marked with radiated lines, and 

ftmbriated on their edges ; their form more or less rbomboidal or roundish. 



I 



154 COHTBIBUTIONB TO NORTH AUEBICAS ICHTEYOLOOT- 

"OUt-eontrt. — The giU-covers are large, and composed of tliree pieoM; t1 
plecfl Bmall in aome, hb ia exemplified id the C. macro f^idotat, and in otben 
the C. eomniimli; opening or eipansion wide. 

"yoitril: — The nostrtla ore doable ou each side, and separated by a mem 
largest aperture near the eyes. 

"Est*. — The eyea in general are pretty large, a little obl»iig, wlthoat 
membrane : popil black and rooadlah : Iridea yellowiah, sometimea browi 
C, gibhotu: 

"Tetth.—Ho feeU in thojawa, bnt those of the throat, on each aide, ancoi 
range nf bones, generally bloat and thick at their summits, placed Id a 
form, on an oaseous, arcaated base, of which they are a cnapoaeDt part 
time* terminate in a hooked point, as ia the C. naetloatu; these teeth M«ei 
a thick maas of whitish substance, which covers the throat, and snppliea i 
ft tongue. 

"ifoNtA.^Tbe moKtA is generally Innated ; to the palate is attached a m« 

"Titoera. — The intatinal oanal is very ninob developed, and it has ita (ai{ 
throat ; tbe ttotkodt, which is simple, and without plaits and cnrratarea, 1 
tlnuntiuD of this canal, and appears to be coDfonnded with it. The inteali 
nnmber of cironmvolntions ; in a specimen of the C. ButcnUepidatiu ol 
in length, they were 3 feet 5 inohea in length. The lir«r is deliqnewen 
paates into oil after eipoanre to the atmosphere. ThoaJr-bloiiilcr issnbeylii 
dlvldetl, in most species, into two parts ; in the C. maerokpidDdM, it is sepaiat 
|uut«. I have remarked in tbe intestines of these fishes river-ahella of 
ZynniM, IMimut*, etc., which dwell on aquatic plants and on tbe rock at tb 
the rivrrs; these shells the CaUtttouti are onaljlefl to take with their lips 
protruded forwards by mDani of their Jaws. 

"It Is necessary to remark that in all the species which I have examine 
line which runs from the napr, beneath the eym, and another along the I 




GENUS CATOSTOMUS. 155 

xmys ; tail eqaally forked. Besides the two following species (C duqueanu; C. elongaiua) 

the C. boitonUnns and C. hudaoniua must be enumerated here/' — (Rafixesque, Ich. Oh. 
p. 60.) 

Hypbnteuum Rafinesqae, 1820. — " Body pyramidal slightly compressed, with very 
nuQate soales. Vent posterior. Head scaleless, nearly eqiiare, month terminal pro- 
tmded beneath toothless, jaw shorter with five lobes, the middle one larger, lips very 
■audi. Abdominal fins anterior removed from the vent, dorsal fin anterior, opposed to 
them. 

^'This genus belongs to the family of the Cyprinidia, and is next to my gecns Exoglos- 
mns, with which I had nnittd it; but this last differs from it by an oblong body, fiat 
bead, lower lip trilobe not protruded, abdominal fins and dorsal fin medial, &c. The 
same expresses the character of the lower lip.'' — (Rafucesque, Ich. Oh. p. 68.) 

Cjltostomcs DeKay, 1842.—" Both lips thick, fiesby, and crenated or plaited ; the 
lower lip pendant. Dorsal placed above the ventrals and usually short."— (DeKay, 
Xeuf York Fauna, Fishes, p. 19(5.) 

Catostomus Heckel, 1843. — *'0s infernni; labia camea, lata, rngosa, suctni apta; 
clrrhi nolli ; prseoperculum ante occiput. Pinna dorsalis brevis, rarius elongata ; analis 
biwior, utraque radio osseo nullo. Dentes pharyngei pectiniformes. 



D : 



8-13-29 



A : 2 5 - 7 
(Characters of Tribus IV, including Catostomus^ Rhytidostomus, and 9 Ezoglossum.) 
^ Deotes pectiniformes 40 — 40. Os inferum ; labia carnea ; lata, rugosa ad snctnm 

apta; cirrhi nuUi. Pinna dorsalis et analis brevis, ilia ante pinnas ventrales incipiens ; 

radios psseus nuUus. — Tractus intestinalis 2^—3 long, corp." — (Heckel, Fische 
53fivii«,p.33.) 

Catostomus Valenciennes, 1844. — " lis different Oes ables ILeuciscusI, avec losqnels 
ils ne sent pas sans affinity, par la position do leur boucbe et par la forme des I^vres 
qai la bordent. Ces organes sont assez distincts do ceux des Chondrostomes. 

"L'absence desbarbillonslesdloigne aussi des Labdous [Lahiv']t avec lesquels ils out 
d'ailleura moius de rapports que M. Cuvier ne lo supposait quand il a r6dig6 le Regno 
Animal. Eufin ils different de tous ces geures par leurs dents pbaryngieuues. 

"Par la forme g6n6rale de leur corps, ils ressemblent b. nos barbeaux [7>ar6M«], dont 
^ ont presqne tous la t6te alougde, lisso et nue, et le museau uu peu produiiuent, 
n^isila n'ont pas leurs barbillous, et la dofbalc manque de raj'ons <$pineux et dentelds. 
Lj^boucho est situde sous le museau ; ello est sans deuts, et les I^atcs, dlargies, lobdes, 
caronculdes, niais sans prolongueiueuts fili formes, serveut in, constituer uue sorto do 
▼entonse au moyen de laquelle ces poissons peuveut adherer ou sucer. Les pbaryngieus 
•ontgrauds et arquds, presque en demi-cerclo ; tout lo bord iuterue est garui do dents 
coinpriindes, ^ couronue stride, un peu plus largo que la base; toutes ces deuts dd- 
CToissent regulitireraont depuis les iuferidures jusqu'aux sujjdiieu resale nombro eu varie 
Belon les esp^ces ; elles forment un peigue sur le corps I'os. Les opercules sont grauds ; 
^^ Darines ont cbacune, couimo h rordinaire, deux ouvertures rapprocbdes; les yeux 
**^z Urges, sont ellipticiues, et ont I'iris ordinairenient jaune ; les dcailles sont eu 
g*D^ral petites sur la nuque et pros de la tote, et elles vout eusuito en augmentaut a 
™^re qu'on s'en approcbo de la queue; elles sont' plus ou moius rhomboldalcs et 
•tri^ ou frang6es. 



156 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — ni. 

'* Les viscbres rappellcDt ceax dcs cyprino!de8 en g^n^ral, mais I'mtestin, ik caiue d» 
868 Qombroax replis, a eccore plas d^iStendae. . . . Le foie se rdsoat bientOt en 
huile; la vessie adr^onne est commun^ment divisd en denx et commnniqne avec le 
Laot de TcBSophage comme dans no8 cyprins." — (Valenciennes, HisLNoL dea PatstoMi 
xvil, pp. 423-424.) 

Uylomtzon Agassiz, 1855. — "The name of this genns is a mere translation of the 
Ternacular name of its type, the Mud-Sncker of the West, framed in imitation o^ 
PetromyzoD, but expressing its habits of living in the mud. The body is stoat and 
heavy in front, and tapers off rapidly from the shoulders towards the tail; behind th» 
dorsal it is nearly cylindrical in form. 

" The short quadrangular head is broad and flat above, its sides are vertioal. Th» 
eyes are of moderate size and elliptical in form ; the snperorbital ridges are eXevated 
above the general level of the bead. The mouth is inferior, and encircled by broad. 
fleshy lips which are covered with small grains or papillod. The lower lip is bilobed. 
The dorsal is over the ventrals, and nearer the head than the tail ,* its height and 
length are nearly equal. The pectorals and ventrals are broad and rounded, the anal 
fin is slender and reaches the caudal. The scales are largest on the anterior portion of 
the body. They are slightly longer than high, the ornamental concentrio ridges of 
the posterior field are broader and farther apart than those of the lateral and anterior 
fields; those of the auterior and i)Osterior fields rather remote, abont equal in number. 
Tubes of the lateral line arising froui the centre of radiation. 

*' The teeth are compressed, so that their sharp edge pn>}ects inwards ; at the same 
time they are slightly arched inwards and inserted obliquely upon the pharyngeal 
bones. They increase gradually in size and thickness from above downwards. The 
masticating ridge of the teeth in transverse, compreHsed iu the middle and sharp; its 
upper aud lower edges are rounded and more projecting, the inner point, however, mora 
projecting than the outer one." — (Agassiz, Am. Jouni. Sci. Arts, 1855, p. 205.) 

Catostomus Agassiz, 1^55. — *'I Lave retained the name of Catostomus for the typo 
to which it was originallj' aiiplied by Forster. The body is elongated, fusiform and 
slightly compressed. The snout is short and blunt, and projects but little beyond tho 
mouth, which is inferior. The lower jaw is short and broad. The lips are fleshy and 
strongly bilobed below ; their surface is conspicuously granulated or papillated. The 
head is considerably longer than high. The dorsal is large and mostly in advance of 
the ventrals; its length is greiAr than its height. The anal fin is long aud slender, 
and reaches the caudal. The sexnal diti'erences, so conspicuous in the genus Moxostoma 
and Prychostouius, are hardly to be noticed in this genus. The other fins are of moder- 
ate size, and more or less pointed. 

" The scales are much smaller on tho anterior than on the posterior portion of tho 
body ; nearly quadrangular, with rounded angles, but somewhat longer than high ; 
the ornamental concentric ridges of the posterior field broader than those of the lateral 
and anterior fields; the radiating furrows more numerous than in Hylomyzon and 
Ptychostomus, and encroaches ui)on the lateral tioUlH, where, iu some species, they are 
nearly as numerous as upon the anterior and posterior fields. Tubes of the lateral line 
wider than in Hylomyzon aud Ptychostomus, extending from the centre of radiation 
to the posterior margin. 

''The pharyngeals are stout and compact, the outer margin not so spreading as 



GBVnS 0AT08T0MU& 157 

in Tt^tibatUmnmi the teeth ere blunter and laiiger compftratiyely than iu any 
otftMT gjmoM of the tiibt^ inoreadDg more rapidly in sixe from above downwards, so 
tbanfc thoee of the middle of the aroh are already of the same cast as those of the lower 
part of the eomb; their oiown is blont and the inner edge rises into a blnnt cusp."— 
(AO^AMZ, Awl Jmrm. 8e. Art$, 1655, p. 807.) 

MnoMUS Girard, 1866.— " We propoee to include under the head of Minamui, such 

apaoies aa aie ohaiaoteriaed by an elongated and fusiform body, a head longer than 

deep; a donal fin eiUier higher than long, or with both dimensions eqnal. The lipe 

beUnff Inberoolated, moderately bilobed. The pharyngeals not expanded laterally, but 

semaideraWy bent Inwardly. The teeth compressed, decidedly bicuspid, but the inner 

frqfeetiea more developed than the outer. The scales being nearly of the same size, 

bat alightly smaller anteriorly than posteriorly.'' (Includes C. kuignii, C, pUMuM^ and 

C. el«r«i)— (GiRABD^ PhM. Ao. NaU So. Fhiia. 1856, p. 173.) 

■ 

AooHua Giracd, 1656^— ^And then giving the name of Acomua to those species in 
trbioh the head is very elongated, the dorsal higher than long, and the scales much 
nuUlsr upon the anterior region of the body than upon the posterior. The lips being 
jsplllsted and veiy deeply deft. The pharyngeals are gently arched and not expanded ; 
the tssth compressed and bituberoulated, the inner projection conspicuous; the outer 

obsolete, though existing." (Includes C./ortleriaaiff, C. aurora, C. 2a<tpiN«i«, C. pair- 
C. geturf9UB, C. gru0u$, and C. laotariua.) — (Gibabd, Proo. Ac XaL 8c Pkila. 
lBG6,p.l74.) 

Gatostomus Girard, 1856. — ''The genus Caia»iamu$, Le Sueur, would then be rc- 
Msted to such species In which the head is moderately elongated, the dorsal fin gen- 
nOy toofsr than high, and the sice of the scales less disproportionate anteriorly and 
POiteriorly than in Aeomus. The lips are papillated aud deeply cleft. The pharyngeals 
piOTided with a little expansioQ iDferiorly. The teeth are compressed, with the inner 
P*4ection of the crown alone developed.'* (Inclodeii C. hudaaniua, C communis f C. ood- 
^(•Uf, C. lahiatua, C. macracheiluaf C, aucklH, snd C, bemardini,) — (Girard, Proo. Ac. 
AttAtPWa. 1856, p. 174.) 

Catastomus Gill, 1865.— "Snoot long. Lateral line presei't, nearly straight. Lips 
P^l^lUted."— (Gill, Canadian Naturalist, Aag. 1865, p. 19, reprint.) 

Catostomus GUnther, 1868. — ** Scales of small, moderate or largo size. Lateral line 
P^^^i^t, running along the middle of the tail. Dorsal fin of moderate extent, with not 
'^'^ tbsn abunt seventeen rays, opposite to the velitri#l, wit boat epine. Anal iiu very 
'^^ hot deep. Fins of the males generally more prodoced than those of the females, 
Md frequently with homy tubercles. Month inferior, with the lips more or less thick- 
^^ snd papillose, the lower frequently 'bilol^'d. Barbels none. Gill-rukers well 
"**^^Md, soft, the upper lanceolate, the lower quite membranaceous, low folds croso- 
^H ths bone. Pseudobranchio). Pharyngeal bones sickle-shaped, armed with a comb- 
'>^ teries of numerous compressed teeth, the teeth becoming larger and broader 
**^Mds the lower end of the series."— (GCnther, Cat. rtbhea BHU Mua. vii, p. 12.) 

Caiostomus Jordan, 1876.— "Air bladder in two parts ; lateral line well develoi)ed; 
^Pl pspillose ; scales much smaller anteriorly than posteriorly ; interorbital space 
••▼«; body sub-terete.''— (Jordan, Man. Vert. 1876, p. 292.) 

RTTiirnBLiUM Jordan, 1876. — '*Air bladder in two parts ; lateral line well devel- 
1*ii lipe papiUoee ; scales about as large on front part of body as on tail; body 



168 CONTBIBUTIONS TO NOBTH AlCESIOAV ICHTHTOliOGT-— m. 

tapering npidly from Bhoalden to tail; Interorbital spaoa oimoavo; kngthof 
ffraater thaa depth of body.''~( Jorbak, Man. VerL 1876^ p. 902.) 

Oatostomus Cope A Jordan, 1677.—^ Body oblong or elongate, with m ahorty 
qnadrate donal fin ; air bladder in two parts ; lateral line weU developed ; ftnl 
diatinci."— (JoRDAK, Fne, Ac NoU So. PkOa. 1877, p. 81.) 

Hypm w tmj um Jordan, 187^^** Body oblong or elongate, with a ahort aabqnadiai^^i 
donal ; anal rayt nniformly 7 ; month normal, the lower lip nndlTided or deeply lobecJB. 
lips tnberonlate ; lateral line well developed ; fontanelle dittinet ; no maadlbnlar^ 
aheath ; aealca moderate, not crowded forwards, abont eqnalover the body ; body loo^^ 
and little oompressed ; head transversely concave between orbits^ long and flaftteoody 
the physiognomy being therefore peculiar; ventral rays 9."— (JosDtjar, Jfin. Fsrl ed. 
9d, 1878, pp. 900-310.) 

Catostomcs Jordan, 1878.— [As in the preceding ezoept] ^Sealea smaBf aaMller 
anteriorly and much crowded; head transversely convex between orbits; ventnl 
rays normally 10."— (Jordan, Man. Vtrt. ed. Sd, 1878, pp. 900-310.) 

Dboadacttlus Jordan, 1878 (as subgenus).— <' Lateral line with 00 to 65 aealei; 
snoot comparatively short"— (Jordan, Man. Veri. ed. 9d, p. 310.) 

CATOflTOMUS Jordan, 1878 (as subgenus).—" Lateral line with abont 100 aeales; 
snout much produced."— (Jordan, Ifoa, Vmri. ed. Sd, p. 880.) 

The three sabgenera here recognized are characterised below. The 
single species of Hf/pentelium is foond only eastward of the Booky 
Moantains. Catostomas and Decadach/lus each have representatives on 
both sides of the mountains. It is a carioas fact that the Sonthwestem 
representatives of each, as a rnle, have the npper lip more developed, 
and with more namerons series of papillse, than the Eastern ones. In 
this respect as in others, these Western species approach the genus Pan- 
tosteuSy a group exclusively Western in its distribution. 

ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OF CAT08T0MU8. 

* Scales moderate ; not crowded anteriorly, nearly equal over the body ; 48 to 55 In the 

lateral line ; 12 to 15 in a transyerse aeries from dorsal to 
ventrals : bead flattened above, transversely concave between 
tbe oi^te,*tbe frontal bone thick, broad, and short, the phy- 
siognomy being therefore peculiar: ventral rays normally 
9: upper lip very thick, strongly papillose, with a broad, 
free margin, which has upwards of 8 to 10 series of papillie 
upon it. Lower lip greatly developed, strongly papilloee, 
oonsiderally incised behind, bnt less so than in Catdetomm 
proper : f ontanelle shorter and smaller than in DeoadadyluB : 
pectoral fins unusually large. {Hypentelium,) 
X. Depth 4i to 5 in length ; head 4 to 4^ ; eye rather small, 4i to 5 in head : color 

olivaceous; sides with brassy lustre; belly white; back 
brown, with several dark cross-blotches, irregularly arranged, 
these becoming obsolete in old individuals ; lower fins doll 
red, with some dasky shading : sise large ; maTimnm length 
about two feet niobxoaii8| 94. 



GENUS CATOSTOMUS. 159 

Dorsal with 11 developed rays : scales 7-50-5 : head rather longer, 4 to 4i in 

length : pectoral fins rather longer : colors relatively dnll ; 
no distinct whitish stripes along the rows of scales. 

niffricana, 

Donal with 10 developed rays: scales 6-48-5: head rather shorter, 4^ in 

length : pectoral fins rather shorter : colors hright«r ; black- 
ish above; belly abruptly white; a pale spot at the base of 
each scale, these forming conspicnons whitish streaks along 
the rows of scales etotoanua, 

fS smally rednced, and crowded anteriorly more or less ; 58 to 72 in the lateral 

line and about 20 to 25 in a transverse series from the ven- 
trals to the dorsal : snout moderate or rather short. (Deca' 
dactylus,) 

*er lip comparatively thin, with but few (2 or 3) rows of papill®. 

3oTBal fin with but 10 or 11 developed rays ; scales but little reduced in size 

forwards. 
Body moderately stout ; depth 4} in length ; head very small and short, about 

5 in length; eye moderate; fins all notably small: scales 
small, subequal, 9-70-9, larger on the middle of the body than 
on the caudal peduncle : body with scattered, dusky, nebu* 

loUS spots CLARKI, 25. 

^, Body rather elongate, subterete, heavy at the shoulders and tapering back- 
wards, the depth about 5 in length ; head moderate, about 4^ 
in length ; mouth comparatively small ; lips moderate, the 
upper narrow, with about two rows of large tubercles : scales 
little crowded forwards, 58 to 63 in the lateral line, 19 in a 
cross-series : a series of dusky spots along each row of scales, 
as in Jdinytrema melanopa ; the sxK>t8 sometimes obscure. 

INSIONIS, 26. 

. Dorsal with 11 to 13 developed rays : scales much reduced and crowded ante- 
riorly, 
c Body moderately stout, varying with age, subterete, heavy at the shoul- 
ders, the depth 4 to 4} in length : head rather large and stout, 
conical, flattish above, its length 4 to 4| in body (3^ to 4^ in 
young) ; snout modera'tely prominent, scarcely overpassing 
the month ; mouth rather large, the lips strongly papillose, 
the upper moderate, with two or three rows of papillte: 
scales crowded anteriorly, much larger on the sides than be- 
low ; scales 10-64 to 70-9 : coloration olivaceous ; moles in 
spring with a faint rosy lateral band ; young brownish, more 
or less mottled, often with about three large confluent lateral 
blotches, which sometimes form an obscure lateral band. 

TERES, 27. 

^ ftlck and full, with several (5 to 8) rows of papills : scales crowded 
flMTwards* 



160 C0STEIBUTI0N8 TO NOBTH AMEBICAM ICHTHTOLOOT HI. 

t Fnntanelle well developed x lips withont evident ovtilaginoiu -TimHi 
d. Donal fin comparatively long, of 12 to 14 nfa. 
e. HoDtb qaite large, with very large lip*, tbe Dpper Itall acd pendent, 
with 6 to 8 rowB of Mtodh papiDn : head Iwge, 4} in lenctb, 
rather narrow, qaadrangnlar, tbe aooat pr^Jectiiif: cje 
large: dorsal fin moch looger than high, its t%ja klmot 14: 
acolea 12-72-10: coloration rather dark; > diuky latoal 

stripe MACROCHILCS,^ 

w. Hoath eomparatlvelf HmaJl, aioaller than in C. Urtt; tbe npper Lp 
thick, with 5 or G rows of papllltB, which are moderatdj 

large : heitd mnndeil nbove, 4^ ip 1«nEtb, tbe pro61e MWI** 

thao in C. tirres, tlio SDOut more poiultd, tli» two siAes of Itw 
bead more coDvergent forwards: eye small : dorsal fie locgef 
Iban high, its rn.;B 12 to 14 : scalcB 13-72-10. 



dd. DoTBul Qd abort, higher Ihao loDg, of abant II developed rays : head 4 

Id length, rather bluntish: moath moderate, the labinl paptD* 

. largely developed, tbe upper lip full, wilb aboot 5 ranxf 

large but rather Bparsa papillu^: scales 12-74~1^: color dark 

aborc; siilcs cloodcd with black aud yellow. ..LABiATca,X 

tt Fontanelle very small and narrow: bctb jawB with a weakcartitagiaotis slit 

body elougate, fusiform, subterete, the greatest depth 4^ Ia 4{ 
in len^ ; head email, couical, 4} ia leD»tb; month quits 
large, with fiill, tbiek lips, tbe npp«T very wide and pentlest, 
with about 6 rows of very strong papilts : tower lip I 
lobed, Blmilarly papillose: interorbital space wide, cod t< 
eye elevated, pcielerior, qoite small: lias moderate; dUMl 




OENUS CAT08TOMU8. 161 

the course of the lateral line and about 28 in a cross-Bories 
from dorsal to ventrals: coloration very dark; fins dasky; 
scales everywhere finely punctate. Size large. . tahoensis, 32. 
gg. Body elongate, snbterete, the depth 4^ to 4f in length : head quite 
long and slender, 4^ to 4} in length, depressed and flattened 
above, broad at base, but tapering into a long snout, which 
considerably overhangs the large mouth : lips thick, coarsely 
tuberculate, the upper lip narrow, with 2 or 3 rows of 
tubercles: eye rather small, behind the middle of the head: 
scales very small, much crowded forwards, 95 to 114 in the 
course of the lateral line, and about 29 (26 to 31) in a cross 
row from dorsal to ventrals : dorsal rays 10 or 11 : males in 
spring with the head and anal fin profasely tuberculate, the 
tubercles on the head small ; the sides at that season with a 
broa<l rosy band: size large; the largest species in the 

gecns LONGiuosTRis, 34. 

ff. Upper lip very broad, with several (5 or 6) rows of large papillie. 
L Body long and slender, snbterete, compressed behind, the form 
essentially that of C. longirostris, the depth contained 5| times 
in the length : head large, 4 in length of body, the interorbital 
space broad and flat,2| in length of head : eye small, high up 
and rather posterior: preorbital bone very long and blender, 
its length about three times its depth : mouth large, precisely 
as in C latipinnia^ the upper lip pendent, very largo, with 5 to 
8 ceries of tubercles : dorsal iiu not t longated or especially 
elevated, its rays 11, the beginning of the dorsal much 
nearer base of caudal than pnout : caudal liii long and strongly 
forked : anal fin long and high, reaching base of candul : ven- 
trals not reaching vent : candal ped ancle stout and deep, its 
least depth more than one-third length of head, its length 
about two-thirds that of head : scales quite small, about as in 
longirostriSj the exyiosed portion not notably lengthened: 
chest with well-developed scales ; scales lG-100-14 : coloration 
dusky brown, a dusky lateral band, pale below, the dark colors 
extending low; snout quite dark: size large.. i:kti{<)pi:<nis, 35. 
iL Body slender and elongate, the caudal peduncle especially long and 
very slender, the depth 3^ in the length: bead motierato, 41 
in length, rather slender, with prominent snout and rather 
contracted, inferior mouth ; outline of the mouth triangular, 
the apex forwards; the lips very thick, greatly developed,, 
lower lip incised to the base, its posterior margin extending 
backwards to opposite the eye : jaws with a slight cartila- 
ginons pellicle : eye small, high u\} : preorbital bone broad, 
scarcely twice as long as deep: scales long and low, posteri- 
f roooded, their horizontal diameter greater than the vor- 



IH2 C0NTBIBUTI0K8 TO NOKTH AH2BICAN ICHTHTOLOQT — ID. 

tical, 17-96 to 105-17 : fins aetmtnJj aerelopvd, mmk 

moto elevated in the nialee tbao in the female, Ihe free 
bonli^r nf the dorsal, in tbe males at leiOBt, deeply inditn)- io 
tbo mnles, tb« lieight of eacb of tbe three verliral 6m » . 
greater (ban tbe leuglb of Ibe bead: dorsal ntj» 1.% iV 
begintiLii^ r&tber oeorer soont Ibao base of dorsal: cindalli 
especially etroDg, tbu mdimeDtarf Tay» at its base DOBeaiUf 
developed : least depth of caudal pedaacle le^a than ooe-Uiiii 
length of bead: colorfttion ratbet si Ivory, the tniOea prohiblf 

rosy aodtnbercnlatc In spring,. tJ.Tirtinta.3L 

4t Footnnulle iilnioat obliterated, reduced to » narrow slit: each jaw with i«l 
developed cartlluginous ebeath (as in Fanlotieui). 
j. Body subterete, compresseil behind, tbe dtplb 5 in lenelb: < 
terorbilnl Kpat^e 2 in head: head qnile short, broad tuk 
rounded tibovo, 41 in length : eye small, far back and higb vf 
li in head : manth very large, inferior, beneath the ptvjirii^ 
snout: npper lip very full, pendent, irith about 5Toirsi/l 
berries n^iouit: lover lip very full, mmlertitely inoi«ed,«l 
nbont 10 rona, a noteh separating tbe npper lip frootl 
lower, ejcb Jaw \Tith a slightly curved cartlltiginoDs abeathM 
Sis eilg)', tbe tivo parRllel with each other and 6lling cl 
together: (Ids small: dorsal rays 11; caoilal little la 
scutoa Ifi-OO-ll.very wncb reiluwd forwards and sitbJMtll 
luuiiy im'gularilics: colors dnsky : 8izetn>alI..DLSCUBOLnifl 

:'4. t'ATOSTOMUS MGKICANS Lc Sueur, 
ll-j Smtrr. Hog .Vulltl. Ilof Mal'g. Crt,a-l^.tolum, .S(ob« BoHer. Slon 




OAT08TOHU8 KIQRICAK8. 163 

WjfMttiimm ui§flmM Irmnun il rciriT iTm. Phnrlr Tilnt. Ififi. IfTTn 

Cu l M l$mw9 «%riMM Jobdjji, Ann. Lye Nfti. HUt. N. Y. zi, 345, 1877. 

Bn^midimm wigrkmi JoRiUN A Oilbsrt, Id Klippart'f Bept. 63, 1876. 

^ffmMUm «%riMM Jordav, Boll. U. 8. Nat. Hna. iz, 34, 1877. 

Jj y wUH Mw M§rkmm9 Jordan, Mui. Vert. ed. Sd, 319, 1878. 
lOff-CMtiHMif w aen lo gi it Zis Bdsur, Joarn. Ac Nat. So. Phila. 103. 

Cri tt l i Mi naoalotiit DsKat, New York Faana, part i^, Fishes, 203, 1842. 

Csi ts l i M t wwrfotm Cuvna & VALEKCiKimEs, Hist Nat dee Poles. zvii,454, 
1814. 

Ort s sf ee mt mmimlanu Storbr, Synopsis, 422, 1840. 

CtOatUmnu wumUonu Uhlbb db Lugger, Fishes of Maryland, 139, 1870. 
lOf-finDfflostiMi WMonpterum Rafinssquk, Jonm. Ao. Nat 8c. Phila. 420. 

BffmUUmm m€enpt&rum Rafinrsqub, loh. Oh. 68, 1820. 

Sj gf mi § Um m mmenpUrum Eirtland, Bept Zool. Ohio, 168, 1838. 

JBs d f i e ss nw wuteropterum Cu vier Sl Valbncixkkes, zvii, 480, 1844. 

Aif loetiMi maenptemm Storer, Synopsis, 488, 1846. 
UBMSttotlMiiit xanlkopua Bafikesque, Ich. Oh. 57. 

WM GilfftoMiis f wkegaitomma Bafinesqub, loh. Ob. 59. (Most likely mythical. ) 
IMi-*Gi«otfMHis jifanloppf CtrviER A Valekcixmneb, Hist. Nat. desPoissons, zyU, 450, 
pL5ia 

GtlMloaisfp/aaioqM Storbr, Synopsis, 426^ 1846. 

aa, Sabepeeies efowaNM. 

ttn-Crt ti e ma s nigrioana var. etowmnu Jordan, Ann. Lyo. Nat Hist N. Y. zi, 345. 

HABfTAT.— New York and Maryland to North Carolina ; west to the Great Plains, 
▼tr. etemniM in the Alabama Bi ver. Most common in the Central Mississippi Basin ; not 
^Mwn ftom the streams of the Sooth Atlantic States, ezcepting the Ssyannah Biver. 

This specie^ is one of the most abundant and widely distributed of 
oorSackers. It abounds in rapids and sboals, especially in tbe larger 
streams, and its singular, almost comical form is familiar to every 
icbool-boy in tbe West. Its powerful pectoral fins render it a swifter 
^ in the water tban any others of its family. Its habit is to rest 
BOtioolesson tbe bottom, where its mottled colors render it difiScult to 
^Df^sh from the stones among which it lies. When disturbed, it 
darts away very quickly, after tbe manner of the Etheostomoids. They 
0^ go in flocks of eight to ten. I have never yet found tl^s species 
m really niuddy water, and when placed in the aquarium it is one of 
tkc very first fishes to feel the influence of impure water. In my expe- 
^^oe, it is a fish as peculiar to the clear streams as the species of 
^^^^Mama or Uranidea are. Professor Agassiz speaks of it as the 
Und Sucker, and has named it Rylomyzonjin allusion to its mnd-loving 
Mta. It is fortunate that that name has become a synonym, for it is 
ctttainly a misnomer. 

^hk Booker reaohes a length of abont 18 inches. It is not mncb valued 



164 CONTEIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMEEICAN ICHTHYOLOGY HI. 

as food, bat is often oaagbt by boys with a spear or snaie. In companj 
with other species of Catotowus and itgxostoma, it aaccnAa allonr WeM- 
em atrciims in April for the. purposo of dpjiositing its spaivo. 

The Soiitliern form, wbicb I have dosiguated as viir. etowatim. Is nioR 
inteusely coUired and differs in some minor resiiects. It fregiienli 
great abundance, tbe clear tributaries of tlie Etowah, Oostanuiil», and 
Coosa Rivers, ia company with Potamocottus meridlonatia (jopAcriM), i 
species to which the young of the Catostomvs bears much rcseiublauce 
as seen iu the water. 

The synonymy of this species has been well worlied out by PiofraM 
Agassiz. The variations iu age and appearauw have given ri«e toli 
number of nomiual species, most of which have, however, already \m 
disposed of. The oldest Fpecific name, niffricam, has beeu the one dm 
generally employed. The generic name used de]>endB ou whether 1 
cousiOer this si)ecies geneiically distinct from tlie ty|)e of Catoalomtn 
not. It would seem — if we umy tto spealt — as if Mature bad iulradl 
Hypentelium for n distinct genus, but not being an expert in geucff 
ehanicters, had failed to provide it with any which can Btaud our 
The name Rylomyzon, being a simple synonym of Ht/pcntelium, o\ 
caunot be used. Baflnesque^s accouut is much inferior to that of P> 
fessor Agassiz, and the figure given by him i.s one of the vnnl 
published, still his typical species is readily identifiable, and hia i 
for it cannot be set aside. 




CAT08T01CU8 INSIGNI& 165 

2S. OATOBTOMUS OLABEI Baird & Girard. 

CUurV§ Swsktr. 

ttSMMflMMt olmrkH Baiiid Sl Girard, Proo. Pbila. Ao. Nat. 80. 27. 

Ca»Mtmmu$' aUarkU Aoassiz, Am. Jonni. 8c ArU, 2d eeries, xix, S06, 1656. 
Mkimmm»0larm Girard, Proo. Ao. Nat. 80. Phila. 173, 1856. 
Jfia— Mi olmrkU Girard, U. 8. Hex. Bound. 8arv. lohtb. 38, pi. xxii, f. 5-8, 1859. 
Ct«00foMtit oUarJM Jordan Sl Cofblamd, Cbeok List, 166, 1876. 

Habttat.— Bio Saota Cmz in Arizona. 

Hothiog is known of this speoies except fh>m the figure given by 
Oinrd and the descriptions published by Baird and Girard. The 
ttigiusl lupes of the. species are not to be found in the Museum, and 
there are no specimens of recent collection which appear to belong to 
it It seemsi however, to be a valid species, related to 0. itrngnis. 
Bi Hps have not been figured, hence I can only infer that it belongs to 
tke gioop with a narrow upper lip. 

226. OATOSTOMUS INBIGNIS Baird & Girard. 

S^tM Shaker, 

UM-CilofftoimM inHgnii Baikd & Girard, Proo. Philn. Ao. Nat 8c. 28, 1854. 
Minomu9 inHgnU Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. 8c. Pbila. 173, 1856. 
Mimmua iniignia Girard, U. 8. Mex. Bound. 8nrv. lobtb. 37, pi. xxi, f. 1-4, 1859. 
Cal09tcmu9 inMgne Cope & Yarrow, Wbeeler's Expl. W. lOOtb Mer. v, Zool. 

676, 1876. 
CalotfoMiftf intignia Jordan &, Copelamd, Check List, 1.56, 1876. 

Habitat.— Tribntaries of the Rio Gila. 

The original types of this species, from the Eio San Pedro, are now 
lost The specimens collected by Dr. Rotbrock in Ash Greek, Arizona, 
•Dd referred to this species by Professor Cope, undoubtedly belong 
1^^ The species is a well-marked one, both as to form and coloration. 
The genas Minomusj of which it was made the type, appears, however, 
to have no tangible existence. 

Spedmena in United Statei National Muaeum. 



Jtumber. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


ie:s6 


Aab Creek. Arizona 


Dr. J. T. Rotbrock. 









166 CONTBIBUTION8 TO NOETH AHEBfCAlT ICHTHTOLOGT — ^IIL 
27. CATOSTOMUS TERES {MUekitt) Le 8umr. 

Comaio* Swka: fFhit« Sudcer. Brook Saclxr. Fime-tealtd Satlm: 

16IB— X4 Cgprin ooniiurMMicii LActp^Dis, HiaL Nat. des Foim. v, 503, GOSL 

Caimtamiu wmmcrwBff Jokdak, Maa. Vert. ed. 2A, 380, 1878. 

18 Csprina* ealMimua Pbck, Hem. Am. Acad, ii, pt. 2, p. 55, pi. S, t*. (Rot I 

FoTster.) 
IBU— CjipHnM (ere* Hircmu., Lit. and PhiL Tniu. New York, i, 45& 

CataaUmut tera Lk Sukdr, Joam. Ac. Nat 8c. Phila. 108, 1817. 

CobMfaMH* («nM Thompson, Hiat. Vt. 134, liNZ 

CatoalimiM (n-n Covibr & Tai.ekcieknes, xii, 468, 1844. 

Catoitonuu lera SroRKR, Synopsis, 493, 194C. 

Catotlonua tern Aqabsiz, Am. Jonm, So. Art*, 3d wries, xix, SO^ I8BE. 

Caio*iom*t lert* GUmthbk, Cat. llshee Brit. Mdb. vH, IS, 1868. 

CatMUmuu Utm Cope. Pioe. Am. Pbiloi. Soc Phila. 468, 18T0. 

Cotoilonx tern Jordan, Fiahea ui lad. 221, 1875. 

Catotiomua lera Jobdaji. Man. Veit. 293, 1876. 

Cnhxtoniw leva Nelson, Bull. No. 1, Ills. Kan. Nat. Hist 48, 1876. ' 

Catottomiu tera Jordan St, Copeland, Check List, 156, 1878. 

Cato»tomtu Itret Jordan & Gilbert, in Elippart's Bept. 53, 1876. 

CatotfomM tertt Jordan Sl Gh^BERT, 1q Klippart'a Firet Beport Ohio Flth Oi 
niesiOD, 84, pL xii, f. 18-19, 1877. 

Calottomut tera Jordak, Bull. U. 6. Nat. Mas. ii, 37, 1877. 
1817— CafostoaiM comniHiiu Le Sueur, Joarn. Ac. Nat. So. Phila. i, 95. 

CaCottimiiM wmniatti* DkKay, New York Funoa, part iv, FisfaM, 196, ISM. 

Calottonmt comanati» CuviER St Valencibnnks, Hist. Nat. dca I 
4S6. 1844. 

LAXIi, Rii^lriji Jiiurn. N'at. Hial. v,2C5, 1315. 




CATOSTOMUS TERES. 167 

XS3l^-'Cato$Uimu9 prsdAt Kirti«and, Bept. ZocL Ohio, 168. 

183H— CfUoftoMiM nigriooM Storrr, Rept. Ich. Mass. 86. (Not of Le Snear.; 

Catoatamua nigrioaii8 Thompson, Hisf. Vermout, 135, 1642. 
lBi»-Cat08tomtt$ paUidiu DkKay, Now York Faaoa, part i v, Fisho >, 200. 

Cat09iamus pal1idu9 Storbr, Synopsis, 426, 1646. 
Wi—Caio$tamm8 aureolua Cuvier & Valknciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poiss. xvii, 439. 
(Notof LeSaear.) 
CatmUmus anreolms Gt^NTHER, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mas. vii, 16, 1868. 
l^Sf^—CatoBtamus /or$Urianu8 AoA88iz,Luke Superior, 358. 
\^S&-Cato$tamuafar8terianu8 Aoassiz, Am. Jouro. Sc. Arts, 2d series, xix, 208. 

Awmu$for8teriaRU8 Giilard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phi la. 173, 1856. 
\956-Cato8tamH9 mcklU Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. So. Phila. 175. 

CotottoHUM tueklH Girard, U. S. P^. R. R. Expl. x, pi. li, 226, 1858. 
Cato8tomu9 $ucklU Cope, Uayden's Geo]. Surv. Wyomiog, 1870, 434, 1872. 
CatoatamuB suckUjfi Jordan & Copeiand, Check List, 156, 1876. 
\XfO-f C€io9tomua texanus Abbott, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 473. 

f CatostamuB texanut Jordan &, Copeland, Check List, 156, 1876. 
I960— CaiMfamiM cklaropteron Abbott, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 473. 
Ca^OftomaM chJoropierum Cope, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 85, 1865. 
CQto8tamus ohloropterua Jordan & Coprland, Check List, 156, 1876. 
\^Si^--Cata9iamM alticolui Cope & Yarrow, Wheeler's Expl. W. 100th Mer. v« Zool. 677. 

OUostomus aliioolus Jordan &, Copeland, Check List, 156, 1876. 
ld76-ifozMfoma triBiffnatum (Cope) Cop£& Yarrow, Wheeler's Expl. W. 100th Mer. v, 
ZooL679. 
ErimjfMon trisignaius Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 157, 1876. 
Uabitat. — All streams from Labrador to Florida and westward to the Rocky Moaot- 
MM. Everywhere abundaot. The most widely distributed of the Catostamidce. 

This species is the commonest of all tbe Suckers in nearly every 
8ti««u east of the Rocky Mountains. In Canada, in New England, in 
the Great Lakes, in tbe Mi8sissii)|>i Valley, in South Carolina, in Georgia, 
»n Alabama, it is everywhere tbe commonest Sucker, and it certainly 
occurs in Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, and Texas, tbougb bow 
abundantly I am unable to say. 

Thi8 species is everywhere tbe one to wbicb the name of "Sucker" 
primarily belongs, the other species, tbougb often called '* Sucker", as 
asort of general term, receiving tbe special names of Red Horse, Buffalo, 
Mallet, Chub Sucker, etc. 

This species is subject to considerable variations in different waters. 
'd Bhaded brooks, it is dark-colored and rather slender. In open or 
niaddy waters, it becomes pale. In tbe Great Lakes, it often reaches a 
wnsiderable size and a proportional stoutness of body. The adult is 
Mttally uniformly colored above. Young fishes IJ to3 inches in length 
^ often variegated, and sometimes show three or four lateral dark 

f 



168 CONTBIBUTIONS TO NOBTH UfEJUCAM ICHTRYOLOOT— 

blotches, wbicb are fwrnetimes couflaeDt into an irregular doal 
Such little fitihes asuully have the lateral tine im[»errect. Od 8 
noQiinal species Maxoatoma trMgnatum was based. 

The male fishes in the spring show a more or less diatinct pi 
roe; lateral baod. The males and femalea asceod the small sti 
the spring for the purpose of depositiug tbeir spawn. The coii 
of their times of migration with that of sooae of the early settlet 
Dots, who used to come up from New Orleans in the spring, n 
in the fall, has K'^en to the natives of that State the slang 
"Suckers", as aatives of Michigan were called " Wolverenes"; o 
sota, "Uophers"; of Wisconsin, "Badgers'^; of Indiana, "Hoosi 
Ohio, "Buckeyes"; and of Missouri, "Pukes". 

I have elsewhere adopted the name '• eommtmoni" for this 
inasmuch aa there ia little doulit that it is the "Cgprin eommeri 
of Lac^pede, as has long since been noticed by Yalenoienues. 

Dr. Giiitther quotes, in the syuoDymy of Catoib)mut teres, "< 
co»iffl£rj<rtn/ii) Liic^pede"; but, ou examination of Lnc^ipMe's wo 
unable to find that he uses the uiime commeraoni, urJn facC any 
name whatever for the species, :tnd as priority of date can h 
claimed for a French name like ^'Cyprin commersonien", I am a 
to fall bnek on Mitcbill's very appropriate name teres for the 
The identity of C. tere* of Mitchill, C. communis and C. bostonien. 
Sueur, C. reliculatun uf Kichiirdiion, C gracilis of Kirtlaud, and C. 
of DeRiiy bus been loni; since shown, and has been generally i 




?-^ 



OAT08TOMU8 TEBKS. 169 

iSfes of C, sueklii are loBt, bat C. teres occurs in tbe Upper Mluooti 
ngiun, auil Girnrd's desciiptioD Liutaiituo eiieciBc difllBretice. CatotUh 
HI cMornptemn, Abbott is evidently tbe eaoie. €aU>»tomut texaina 
AbtwtU deacribed from a dried specimen, is leas clear, botwhat there is 
flf ii;»ecifl(; cbsiracterizalioD iii tlie deacription points to C.terea. The 
4trwil cariuutiou is frequently observed iu stuffed fittbes id vbioh some 
1bbI] is Ifft iti tlje back to sbriuk in drying, tenvingtbeback "carinated". 
I have examined several of tbe types of Catostomua altioobuGoye. 
Aey are all mr&II fishea, not oue-fourth ^romi, and, as usnal in yoang 
lAcs, tbe bond appenrs proportiounlly large. I see, however, no rea- 
n for considering Ibem different from Valostomus terea. Moaoatoma 
lrifvii'ir«iN I have already referred to. The aliaeuce of the lateral line 
lldQe to tlioir youth, not to tbeir belonging to a different gena& 
Ute three largo tatenil spots, " not seeu in any other of the order," are 
j-lmiid on young spovimens of Catostomim generitlly. I have examined 
.Iketjpea of ^^Moxottoma trmijuaium^, itnd bave foaod apecimeDS of 
'irinllar size, Kltuilarly colored and without lateral line, from Hichigau and 
, (rhb other Western States. I would nndertnke to mutch them from any 
l^ttnamin the West. Tbe reference of these speoiuens to 'Moxoatama 
Wf^tipnti,) wad probably tbe result of a, very hasty examiaatioD. 



^W 


Loc(Uit7. 


CollMtor. 












Dr. Eennerlr. 












•»m 


HBri«tta,Obio 




"awtt 






7706 






*707 












■aTTT 












aaie 
















• 


B«l 




BM 












tm 


fonHito.C«iwl» 





1 70 CONTBIBUTIONS TO HOBTH AHBBICAN ICHTHTOLCK 

SpeemaiM in Unilei BlaUt NalUMal Mutemm — Coationed. 



Number. 


Locatity. 
















8689 




B 


e:-2a 


Huron Hlvof, MicbigM 


S 


m&9 






8834 


Oswego, N. T -.... 




H870 


Alabamii 




&m 






mei 








Miaaouri {!) 


B 




































B 












C, 














1M!46 








Bluck River .... 








J. 
J. 


1114^ 


Saiirtiinky, Ohio 


■ 



CAT08T0MUS HACBOCHILUS. 



171 



ill United States T(aUonal iftf«eiim— ContiDued. 



Kunber. 



S0241 

wm 

a02S6 

99266 
20267 
20260 
20316 
20344 
20377 
20382 
20454 



wm 



Locality. 






PiermoDty N. T 

Ifailiaon, Wis 

QaeUec, Canada 

Fox River, Wisconsin 

Sing Sing 

Boot RiTer, Wisconsin 

Potomac River 

Potomac River , 

Platte Valley I Nebraska 

Wilkesbarre, Pa 

Etowah River, Qeorgia 

Salada River, Sonth Carolina 
Fort Bridger, Wyoming 



Collector. 



S. F. Baird. 
S. F. Baird. 

S. F. Baird. 
S. F. Baird. 
8. F. Baird. 
S. F. Baird. 

Goode & Bean. 
Hoose. 

L. H.Taylor. 
D. S. Jordan. 
D. S. Jordan. 



28,* CAT08T0MUS MACROCHILUS Oirard. 

Large-lipped Suo'er, 

^^^^Cat0»tomu$ macrocheilu8 Girakd, Proc. Ac. Nut. Sc. Phila. 175. 

ColottamuB macrocheilua Girakd, U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl. x, 225, 1858. 
(ktoitomus macrochilHS GCntukr, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, 20, 1868. 
(ktottamuB macrockilu8 Jordan & Cofeland, Chvck List, 156, 1876. 

Hamiat. — Columbia River. 

Only the original type of this species is known. It is an adult spe- 
tttteo, well preserved. Althongli this species seems closely related to 
^* (occidentalism I am disposed to consider it distinct, as tbe mouth is 
^<^bly larger than in any occidentalis which I have seen. Tbe exami- 
Ution of a large series of specimens may, however, render it necessary 
to QDite them. 



Spedmena in United States National Museum, 



Haber. 



Locality. 



•^ Oregon (type macrockilus) 



Collector. 



Lieut. Trowbridge. 



s/ecundus Cope & Yarrow, see Addenda, p. 219. 



172 C0NTR1BDTI0N8 TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHTOLOOT ffl 

29. OATOSTOMDS OCCIDENTALIS Ayres. 

' If'ailerH Sacker. 

1B£4— CnlMlonua ocddmtalit Avrbs, Proo. CaL Ac, Mat- Sc. i, 18. 

CaloalomiM oceideHtalU AOASSIZ, Am. JoaTa. So. Ails. 2d avnet, lii, W. W- 

(CuHcribed OS uqiiit B|>ecioB.) 
CtKoaloRiiu occidrnialit Gikajid, Prcw. Ac. tinl. Sc. PhiU. 114, 1856. 
Caluatonni iKxideiitalit GlKSJlt), U. S. Pac. R. R Eiiil. i, -224, IffiS. 
Cafoaioniiu occiilenfalii' GD.ntqer, Cat FUhos Brit. Mus. vi:, IT, 1S6S. 
' Catoatomaa otxidmlalU JORDAN A CopsuiHD, Cbeck Ltat, 150, ISTri (Xu' 
OQly.) 
185(i— f t'aiiMlmiiH bimardiHi Gibahp, Ptae. Ao. Nat. So. Phila. 175. 

t Caioalontua btvitardini GlltARU, U. S. &Iex. Bonod. Ichth. 40, pi. 23, t. \-i, Oi- 
t CaKaloniig bernar^ni GCktiibic, Cat. FiHiies Brit. Mas. v. 7, 17, Ir/EH. 

Habitat. — Stri^nms went of tbo Rockj Mountains, [inibatily gponrallj' distnlin"^ 
TtiU species was ili'scribed almost MmultaoeouHly uodiT ilic fion 
uame by Dr. Ayrea and Profossor Agassiz. Sioee then it baa bv#u litilt 
noticed by iulittiyologistH, ani) its distributiou bus rcmainetl uiioerUtii' 
The few specimens in the National Museum indicate, bowerer, 
distribuliuD. I bave here united Calontomus bemardini Gir.inl loC. 
occidcntalin. The single specimen made rbe type of C, beraardi 
so that we can probably never know exactly for what the author *!!■ 
tended the name. The size of the dorsal and the form of the moathw 
given in Girard's figure indicate a species of Catostomuit iatli«r ttui 




GATOeTOMUS TAH0EN8IS. 



173 



90. OATOSTOMUS LABIATUS Ayrw. 

Tktdt'Vpped Sadler. 

I 

1865--GilMlMMit IMmiM Aybxs, Proo. Cal. Ao. Nat So. i, 32. 

CffOftoMttt UMtam$ QiRAKD, Proo. Ao. Nat. So. Phila. 175, 1856. 
CUottoanif IMaiiu Qirard, U. S. Pao. B. B. Expl. x, 224, 1858. 
dtottomif loUatHf Jobdak A Cofbland, Cheok List, 156, 1876. 

Habitat.— StreMM of Ora^n (Klamath Lake). 

I have seeu only the specimeii from which -Girard's description was 
takeo. Like nuteroehilus^ this species afipears distinct from occidentaliiy 
but the examiDation of a larger series of specimens is uecessaiy to 
proTe it At present, it appears to differ from maorochilus and ocoiden- 
teKf in the Bmaller size of the dorsal fin. 

S^eohmwa in United SUkUb yatUmal Mueenm. 



Hnabv. 



Looality. 



S39 KUmath Lako, Oregon , 



Collector. 



Dr. John S. Newberry. 



31. 0AT0STOMU8 ARfflOPUS Jardaiij sp. nov. 

Hard'keaded Sucker. 
^^^^--CotetUmme ontopue Jordan, MSS., Wbeeler'n Report Sarv. W. 100th Mer. (ined,). 

This species represents C. discobolus in the section Deccbdactylus, Its 
^^ narrow fontanelle and sheathed lips indicate its close relation to 
^aatoaf^eux. The specific name is from apaioq^ small, thin ; o;r^, hole or 
•pertore. The typical specimens were from Kern River, California. 



Spedmene in United States National Mhaeum, 



Knabrr. 



mo7 

17103 



Locality. 



Collector. 



Kern River, Cal. (type) H. W. Hooshaw 



Careon River, Nevada 



H. W. Henshaw. 



32. CATOSTOMUS TADOENSIS Gill & Jordan. 

Sucker of Lake Tahof. 

^^^^Acomue generoeun Cooper, CroiiiBe^H Nut. Wt-alth Cal. 495. (Not of Girard.) 
l^T^CaftMfomM tahoensis Gill Sl Jordan, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus. xi, p. — . 

HABiTAT.—Lake Tahoe, Nevada. 

^e Suc;ker of Lake Tahoe is closely related to Catost&mus longirostris^ 
bataeems to differ constantly in the shorter head and moro contracted 



174 CONTHIBITTIONS TO NOETH AMERICAN ICHXnYOLOQY — 111. 

bmly. It it^said to be very abundant in LakoTaboe. "Tbeyarctuigbt 
it) uelH and souietimea witb tbe book, but like all this family are tatte 
poor as tooil" {Cooper). Acomus generosun of Giianl, with which thii 
species bas bueu ideutilled, ia a very diflfereut spec.k-s, l>eli>ui;iiig la I 
diffurcDt g«^nus. 

Spticiineiu in UtiUfd Stale* Natto-Mt JfuMum. 






Locality. 



5240 Luke Taboo (typi-s C. tahtmatii) .. 
17109 LakaTohou 



Collrfltor. 



J. G. CouiM. 
H. W. HniilMw. 



33. CATOSTOMUg ROSTUATUS {TUesiits) Jordan. 

Siberian SHclxr. 

1&13—" CgpHnat roatraitu TiLBSius, M^m. Ar. Sc. St. F^t«rBboiin;> >*■ p-464, Ub.1^ 

flgB. 1-2, leij," 

Cspriniia roalmtiu PAI.1.A8, Zoofir, Bo«MvAHiat. iii, 308. 
Cspnu$ rmfrotiM GOntbkr, Cut. Flshea Brit. Mns. sii, 13, 1668. (AndoaWU 
RpecLPH of Calostomu.) 
im—CaloiKmai tileaii CuviHR &. Talkncikniiks, Hist. Nat.dM PoisaoiM,S<rii,Ml 
KM4. 
Habitat. — Enetern Siburia. 

No writer wince Tilesius Hcema to have observed this fish. It is, Im 
ever, unquestionably n species of Valostomv*, ullieil to and perbaiM ei 
identical with C. longirostris. Tbe following is Tilesius's deKcript 




OATOSTOlfUS L0VGIB0STRI8. 175 

I AnuDii OTbta* pUea itihino Jngoli adnftto, oarne tegitnr Miborbitalt Xoniiui 

pMm iittxiina kthnfma omm oo&oha ftdinstar fornioatft, anteriaB oum obitiD mar- 

giat poitoriori JudoIa. JiMilriciMi ftrmioMoftflipo trindiata inter operoali laminam 

M iwkig BiB mlitiia Qtrinqiie appioadmatam coarota et in isthmo gal» ooi^anota. 

Gpiyw dUongom ereoiiim miorolepidotain, aqnamis lAvibiu sabtilissime radiato- 

Ariatit obloDgidy ad caput minoribos Tanot anam et oandam nujoribus imbrioatom 

cmriiBCDlQm leTiter com pii e M mni yentre-doTBnaqae coiiTexiim. Litita toieraUt reota 

medinm corporis panlolom deeoendeoB per eeriein eqnamaniiKi poetioe incUamm 

Tcmu caadam mtgis ooospioaa. Color in dorso atro codmleoB Ditidoa, yersiM 

hNm MibaigeDteiia, enbtos albens. PKmui peotomlet qaatnordecim xadiatsB, radii 

Miii loDgiiaiiDi, vaUtmlm deoemradiats, radia primo oeeeo aoaminato, dwtaUi decern- 

ntiita el daodecimmdiata, radio primo cnm admiDicnlo xadioali, ultimo breviasimo 

id btain asqoe fieso, omnibus ad apices qnadrifidis, dorsalis pinna Tcntralibos oppo- 

riti, anslis p. septemiadiata, radio primo simplici com adminicnlo radicali, reliquis 

fiadrifidis, tertio longissimo feptimo brevissimo. CamdaU$ pinna bifuroa lacinia 

iftferiorpaalomi^ornndecimradiata, saperior noTemradiata tota pinna viginti radiis 

nftilta extremis lateralibns cnm adminicnlo radicali oonnatis. Radii pennamm ad 

cxtranitatis qnsdrifidi et eztremi ad radices dnplicati vel ex binis tmncis connati, 

Vm sb rem primns dorsalis longitndioaliter ad basin snlcatns est, quod etiam in 

|riBK> SDslis et candalibns extremis fere ex tribns compositis cemitor. In doraali et 

nail pinna radii valde distant, peotorales ventrales et analis pinnie anreo-mbescentes. 

rt ad baain prominentea, pectorales adeo tnberose, yentralinm radices per mem- 

^■aaoiam laminam triangnlarem sqnamatam obtegnntnr. Anna oanfls propior. In- 

taa Don exploraftvi. Characteribns cietemm generia cyprinacei ore nimimm edentnlo, 

doDtibotpost branchial iboB, nienibrnua branchiostega triradiata utiinqne instmotns 

«t A c«leberrimo Mtrck plnra speciroa ex siccata ex CovymeD fluvio allata Hunt, 

|iaiM>inin» Tsebokutschan debignata sunt. Annotavit simal idem, 'piscem in Lena 

^ Indigirca ejavqne collaterali lapidoso Dogdo flaviis copioBam essu sed propter 

tttiooisvelocitatem captn difflcilem eese et non nisi in cosois flaininnm ranjis hamo 

^ ftragatim et Telocissime natare, sapidissimum cssterom, exceptu vere, cum, ova 

■ptfgDDl nee aristis impeditam pisoem esse, attamen ab accolis Covynio) et lodigircA 

(qnictpot tantem in deliciis habet, reliqna canibns cedunt) non multnm SBstimari."' — 

ffuia, Zooffraphia Bomio-Jgiaiioa, pp. 308-310.) 

34. 0ATOSTOMU8 LONGIROSTRT8 Xc Sueur. 

Long-noted Sucker. Northern Sucktr, Red'Sided Sucker, 

I^T^^CipKNiM caio$iomu$ Forsier, Philos. Trans. Ixiii, 155, tab. (>, 1773.'' 

C|fpHiitr« cata»UmM$ Schneidku, ed. Blocb, 444, 1802. 
l^--CBltofOfliM« longiroBirum Lk Sukur, Jonm. Ac. Nat. So. Phila. 102. 

CatoitomuB longiro$trum Thompson, Hist. Vt. 135, 1842. 

(kOottamus langiroeirU DrKay, New York Fauna, part iv, Fishes, 203, 1848. 

Catoetomus longiroitrum Cuvier Sl Valenciennes, xvii, 453, 1844. 

GalMlomiM langiroitrum Storrr, Synopsis, 421, 1846. 

Gifatfomss lomgirostrum Jordan & Copei^and, Check List, 150, 1876. 

GrtPfftaitts Umgiroitrit Jordan & Oilubrt, in Klippart'a Ropt. 53, 1877. 
^-Caliildaiaa Mimmlm Lb Subur, Jonm. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 107. 



L 



1 76 CONTBIBUTIONS TQ NOBTH AMERICAN ICHTBTOLOGT — UL 

Caloitomut budioniui CuviRR &. ViLKKCiKHNKa, HlBt.Tfat.de«PoiM(nw,XTS,' 
1644. 

CalMtoniat hudtiyniui gTOREn, S;DopsiB, 419, lti46. 

Catoatonui hudmmiva Agabbie, Aid. Joam. 8o. ArU,Sd uriea, xiz, 908, 166& 

CaloilomaK hadiofiat GOnthkh, Cat. FUbes Brit. Htu. vil, 13, 186tl 

Caloftnmui hadminiai JuMixtN, Man. Vert. 293, 1874 

Caloetomun haiiaoniui Nblson. Bull. No. 1, I[1b. Mds. Nut. Hint. 46, 1876. 
Iel23— rodwfonnj forsUrianut Hicn*ui)aos, Kranklin'i Jonrasl, 720. 

Catoitomii' /onlerianus Richardson, Fanna Bor.-Amer.lii, Fishes, 116, IB3& 

Caloilamut /ortlerianui DeKay, New York f'aaiM, part Iv, Fiahee, 303, 144!. 

CaMtomut fortteriantu CnviRR &. VALENCiENMca, Hist. yst. dM Poimxir, x 
i(a, 1444. 

Caloilontue forelcrianva Sturkh, Synopsis, 419, 1H46. 

Acomna foratiria»ii> Giiiarh, Proc. Ac. Nut. Sc. Pbila. 172, 1856. 

Caloilamua fontrrianat Pctnam, Bull. Miis. Cotnp. Zuol. 10, 1H63. 

Calottomua fonlerianaa Jordan &. Copei.and, Check List, 106, 1676. 
1^,0— Catoatoama aurora Agabsiz, Lube Superior, MjO, |il. 3, f. 3-4. 

Jcomiu aurora OinAIU>,Pnjc.Ac.Nal.S<-. PLila.lTS, IH^A. 

Catoalemua auroi'a Putn'am. Bull. Mns. Cutnp. Zuol. 10, 1863. 
1856— dcomuf griaena Girari>, Proc. Ac. Nal. Sc. Pbiln. 1T4. 

Jeomuii gritrna QiRAiti>, U. 8. Poc. R. R. Ezpl. 1,32-2, pi. xlis, ISSa 

CaloatomHa griami GONTtlBR,Cnt. Fishes Brit. Mns. vii, 14, 1868. 

Catoatomaa griaeum Copr, Hu.vdcci's Gcol. Snrv. W.vomiQK, 1(170, 434, l>iii. 

Caio'iomua griama Jordan & Copklani>, CIifcIi List, 150, 1676. 
Ifm—Caloflomiia laclariwa GiRAftn, Proc. Ac. Nut. 8c. Pbila. 174. 

Aromat lactariua GlRAltD, U. S. Pac. R. R. Eipl. x, 923, It^. 

Catoatomna lac'ariaa JoBDAN & Copeland, Clicck List, 156, 1676. 




CAT0ST0MU8 L0NGIR08TBIS. 



177 



e to this species the name of aurora, in allusion to the red breeding 
DTs of the male. Western specimens were still later described by 
«rd as two distinct species, griseus and lactariuSj apparently witboat 
Dparison with the Eastern forms. 

riie examination of the large series of specimens noticed below, to- 
her with others from the Great Lakes and Upper Mississipin, has 
iriDced me that all belong to one species, variable to some degree, 
\, not more so than is Catostomus teres and less so than Erimyzon 
tUa. Some of the Upper Missouri specimens referable to C. griseus 
d« have on an average rather smaller scales (95 in the lateral line 
itead of 100 to 110) ; but I am unable to distinguish a t^mgible variery. 
« original types of C. lacf^rius Girard are not now to be found, but 
« description indicates no difference from C. longirostris. 

Sptdmens in Unitid States Xational Museum. 



SvBibcr. 



1054 

c:o9 

T04: 
7640 
7993 
813G 

8437 

8305 
SOlO 
9116 
9175 

mi2 

11213 
12910 
»G75 
20191 

»m 

SttSS 
SQ»7 



LociJity. 



Lake Superior • .. 

Pagct's Soood 

Platte River, Nebraska 
Yougbiogbeny River . . 
Lake Winnipeg 



Xalato, Yoncon River, Alaska. 



Essex Connty, New York 

Qoebeo 

Great Slave Lake 

Pole Creek, Nebraska ... 



Saint Micbael's, Alaska 

An Sable River, Michigan 

An Sable River, Michigan 

An Sable River, Michigan 

Racine, Wis 

Xorthem Bonndary Sar vey, Dakota 

Rocioe, Wis 

Lake Saperior 

(Probably original types of griseus; the old nnrnber 
and locality obliterated.) 

• Wtct, Nebraska 



Collector. 



J. W. Milner. 
R. Kenuicott. 
Capt. Simpson. 
Prof. Andrews. 
R. Kenuicott. 

W. IL Dan. 



S. F. Baird. 
R. Kcnnicott. 
Lieut. Wood. 



Dr. Bannister. 
J. W. Milner. 
J. W. Milner. 
J. W, Milner. 

Dr. Elliott Coues. 
S. F. Baird. 
J. W. Milner. 
Bowman. 



178 COKTBIBUTIOKS TO SOBTH AUEBICAK ICHTHTOLOOT — m. 

35. CATOSTOMDS EETBOPINNIS Jordan, ep. nov. 
1878— CalottomiM retropinni» Jordan, BqII. Hayden'a Oeol. Sarr. Terr, lined.). 

This fine species combioea tbe moDth of C. latipinnia with tbeSm 
nnd genera! characters of C. hngiroxtria. The type is No. 21,197, « 
lected by Dr. E))iott Gooes in Millt Biver, Montana. It is a male spei 
men 16J inches in length. A specimen previoaaly examined fh>mPltt 
Valley was identified as probably the female of C. latipinnii, bnt 8 
discovery of this large mate specimeo forbids such a suppoaitioo. 

A?wim«n« in Iht United Stattt Kational Miutam. 



Nnuiber. 


Locality. 


CollMtor. 





















36. OATOSTOMUS LATIPIEfliriS Batrd (6 Oirard. 

Grtal-finned Swdxr. 

IKiS— CalMfomii* lalipiKwiM Baued &. Girard, in Proc. Ac. Ifat 8c. Phil*, vi, S 
.iamia Jatipimnit Girakd, Proc. Ac Nat. 6c PhiU. 173, 1S5G. 
JtvmH* Utipinnit Girard, U. B. Ucx. Boand. Surv. Ichth. 39, pL ixii 




CAT08TOMU8 DISCOBOLUS. 179 

tkm also is pecaliar, and the form of the moath is aulike that of any 
other species. These featares are all well shown in Girard's figare of 
tiie^eeiea in the Ichthyology of the Mexican Bonndary. 

The distribation of the species has not been well made oat. I have 
MO bat one specimen, an adalt male from the Gila region, apparently 
fee one from which Girard's figare was made. 

Ihe tyiie of Cataatomua ffuzmaniensis cannot be found. The figare was 
Mde from a yoang fish, and the distinctions between it and latipinnis 
issQch as often distingaish a yoang fish from an old one. It is better, 
berefore, to anite the two than to admit an insafficiently characterized 
KNDioal species. 

8pedmen$ in United States National Museum. 



fomber. 


Locality. 


Collector. 


SOOTS 


(Type of latipinnis nndonbtedly, bat the locality, Rio San 
Pedro, tributary of Bio Gilo, and old number, 254 7, oblit- 
erated.) 


J. H. Clark. 



37. CATOSTOMUS DISCOBOLUS Cope. 

Large-lipped Sucker, 

f^—Catastomus discobolus Cope, Hayden's Geol. Surv. Wyo. 1870, 435. 

CatostoMus discobolus Cope & Taiirow, Wheelcr^s Expl. W. lOOth Mer. v, Zool. 

677,1876. 
Caiostomns discobolus Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 15G, 1876. 

BABrTAT.-^Idaho to Arizona. 

This iDteresting species is a Pantosteus in all but the techuical char- 
ter of the open fontanelle, and in this respect it is really intermediate, 
the foDtanelle, in the adalt at least, is reduced to a narrow slit. The 
aracters given in the analysis were taken from the Snake River spe- 
oeD, 20|475, larger and in better condition than most or all of those 
amined by Professor Cope. Professor Cope's original types came from 
eeo Eiver in Wyoming. 



180 CONTBIDUTIOKS TO NOBTH AHEBICAH ICHTHTOLOOT— IH 

Spcdinen* in Uniltd Sialet Xalionat li 



laTltl 



ZuDi.N.Mex 

Arlzooa 

Snake Bivur, Idaho 



NewbeiTj. 
TuTow &■ HensbM- 
C. O. Newbeny. 
F.V.Hard«n. 



Genus PANTOSTEUS Cope. 

iUnomuB Cope, U.S. Oeol.Surv.WyoraiDg. 1870, 414 (1872). (Not of Oitmrd.) 
ranlmtem Cupk, Lioiit. Wtieulur's Espl. W. lOOtb U«r. t, 673, 1876. 
Catonloniit, Juamu« el Minamut sp. Girard. 

Tyi«', Hinomaa ;iIafyrfti/inAin Cope. 

HtyuuiloKy, iritr, all ; oaTiov, booo (rrom tho closing of the footaoelle b; bone). 

riviKl iiuHlcmtP or nitlier suiall, 4 tD 5 tiiDes in len^ of body, fi4tti 
mid nitber brond nbitve, anteriorly somcwbut pointed ; fje rather bid: 
iiauully boliind tbu iiiiddlu of tlic liead : suborbital bones Darrov, ai 
Cattmtomm ; l>ones of bond mtber thivl:, tbe tivo parietal bones fin 
tiuihHl, eutin'ly oblitcratiiig tbe foutanelle. 

Month ratbor l»r{>n>, entirol.r inferior; each juiv with a morewli 
develoitod cArtiloiiiiioiia sbeutb, separable in alcohol, eBseotially u 
CKondrostoma, Acrochitu«, and related ^euera ; upper lip broad, papillo 




GENUS PANT08TEUS. 181 

cliate between that of Catostomus proper and that of the sabgenns 
Decadaeiylua, 

Tho genus was first indicated by Professor Cope iu 1874^ nnder the 
name of JIf tnomutf, he supposing at the time that Catostomus insignis, the 
type of Girard^s MinomuSj was a species with closed fontanelle. On 
obtaiDing specimens of C. insigniSj it became evident that such was not 
the case, and the new name Pantosteus was proposed for the genus. 
TantoHteus runs very close to Catostomus^ two species referred to the 
latter genus (C. discobolus and C. arceopus) being almost intermediate. 

Generic Characterizations. 

MiNOXCS Cope, 1872. — "I have proposed to adopt as valid (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc 
lB70,4dO) seven genera of this family. I will now add an eighth, which embraces 
8{Mcie8 which combine with the characters of Catostomus proper, a complete union 
of tbe parietal bones, which obliterates the fontanelle so universal among the 
tocken. The only other exception is seen iu CycleptuSy Raf., as I have already mcn- 
tioDed. In all the members of the family where I have examiued it, this fontauello is 
quite open and of no doubtful proportions, and nowhere reduced to*the slit so often 
wen ia SiXurida. In searching for the characters of Girard's so-called genera Minomus 
udioofliM, I find that the type of the former, MAnsignis^ B. G., presents the character 
above mentioned. I therefore adopt his name for the new genus, and add two new 
species, Jf. ddplunus and M, tardus. Whether bis two other species, M. plebeius and M. 
rftrtti, belong to it is uncertain as yet, but they have the same physiognomy." — (Cope, 
Baiiaes Qeol. 8urv. Wyoming for 1870, p. 434, 1872.) 

Paktosteus (Cope) Yarrow, 1876.— " Professor Cope, in 1870, purposed to adopt as 
vilid seven genera of this family; but in 1872, be stated bis belief that an eighth 
^boQld be added, wkich should embrace species combining the characters of Catostomus 
pn»per, u complete nuiou of the parietal bones, which obliterates the fontanelle, so uni- 
versal among the suckers ; the only other exception being seen iu Cycleptus, Raf., as ho has 
already observed. In all the members of the family that he has examined iu this re- 
Rard the foatanelle has been found quite open and of no doubtful proportions, and is 
Nowhere reduced to the slit often seen in the Silurida?, unless it be in tho Catostomus 
^i»coboltu. In searching for the characters of Girard's so-called genera Minomus 
*<id Acomusy he expressed the view that the type of the former, M. insignis^ Baird &, 
'^irard, presents the character in question. This conclusion was based on a si)ecimen 
*^tto the Academy of Natural Sciences from Washington, bearing that name. Hav- 
'^Swnce examined five specimens of tho M. i««f/ni«, obtained by the geologists of this 
^'^'vey, be finds them to be true Catostorai as determined by tho presence of the fon- 
^wlle. It therefore requires a name, and he proposes for it that of Pantostevs. It 
^oibrices P. platyrhynchuSy P.jarrovii and P. mrescens Cope of the present essay and P. 
^fknusaud P. &ardii«, Cope, ITayden's Report, /.c."—(YAiU{OW,XieM<. Wheeler's ExpL 
^'. 10O/» Mer. vol. 5, p. G73, 1870.) 

Paktosteus Cope & Jordan, 1877. — "Body oblong or elongate, with a short, sub- 
I'^idrate dorsal fin ; air bladder in two parts ; lateral line \vell developed ; fontanelle 
•^^wated by tho nnion of tho parietal bones." — (Jordan, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila, 
^,^81.) 



182 CONTBIBUTIOKS TO NOBTH AUEBICAN ICHTHYOLOOT HL 

ANALYSIS OF sPKCiEs or PAXToerxcA. 

* Scales very small, 100 to lOQ in the lateral line ; 18 above and 16 betow, in » ei 
Belies: body eloDgate,compreBse(l, the caadal pedaQclecoDtracted: beadd 
nide, & in leogth: muzzle obtuse, little projecting; niipec lip wide; lown 
full, emarginiite ; jaws ^itb -n-ellduYHlopedcarlilaginoiuabeatba: Bcslesm 
reduced in size forwaida : dorsal rays 10 ; venttal 9 : color bUvu ; lower tar. 
yellow J TiBXSCKis, 

** Scales 8mall,60 to 65 in the coqtss of tbe lateral line. 
t Scales very mncb redncod and croirded anteriorly : npper lip full, pendant ; osrt 
ginoaa ebeatbs on Jaws well developed, the commiBSitie trausverae and 
ruptly angnlat* at the corners of the monlb. 
a. Body extremely elongate, the depth &1 to 7 in length : head 4{ in l«ngth,iki 
and wide, with (lepTtiased and eipmidedninzzle, which considerably otcAh 
the month : isthmns very u-ide : dorsal rays 11; ventral rays 9 :Kaleal5~6t~l 

belly and lower fins yellowish, probably red io life plat vrh t AUiiU^ 1 

oa. Body moderately elongate, the depth 4^ to 5 in the lengtb : bead ratba ikM 
41^ iu length, not specially broadened; mazzle not greatly overbuigia( ll 
month* iIoiBalrays9(raielylO); ventral rays 10 (rarely 9): KolealltoM 
to 67-13 to 15 : light brown above, with dnsky spots and clonds ; males >il 

the chin and fins red, and acrtnieon lateral band QXitEBu0a,A 

tt Scales subeqnal over the body, not mncb reduced forwardB : tipper lip rslkcta* 
lovnot pendent ; cartilagiuons sheath on jaws obsolete (f). 
b. Body comparatively stout, the caudal peduncle short and thick, tbe hackM*^ 
what arched, the depth 4} to 5 in length ; head bhort and wlde,l)attiskaMl 
4| to in length : scales 14-64-15: dorsal rays 9 toll; Teotralr^alOiUMk 
isb alMve, with one or two dark lateral shades ....PLKBim.tti 



38. PANTOSTKl'^S yiRESCENg Cope 




PAHTOBTEUS GENEBOSUa 183 

SO. PANTOSTEUS PLATYRHTNOHUS Cope. 

Flai'headcd Sucker, 

]ff4-JffiMMift plaljfHIjfiieftM Copk, Proc. Am. Philos 800. Pbila. 134. 

JlnfoifeiM jplafjrrftjffiekM Cops A Yakrow, Wheeler's Expl. W. 100th Mer. y, 

2ooL e73, pL zzix, £3, 3a, 1876. 
FnUmieui platyrhpuikut Jobdan & Copkland, Check List, 156, 1876. 
PMlMfeM j>2aljfrA]nic)^« Joadan, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mas. xi, p. ^, IBTS. 

Habrat^— Utnh Lake and tribntariee. 

The specimens which I have seeu of this species are all small and in 
poor coiiditioD. Their remarkable slenderness is doubtless in part due 
to their flabbioess. The species as noted by Professor Cope much 
ravmbles Catostom^M discobolus. It is also very similar to PaiUosteus 
fwrotiMy bat at present I consider it distinct. 

Bpeoimmu in United States IfatUmal Mu$ekm. 



iuber. 



1S906 
16103 



Locality. 



Collector. 



Utah Lake 
Utah Lake 



Yarrow &, Henshaw. 
Yarrow &, Henshaw. 



40- PASTOSTEU8 GENEROSUS (Girard) Jordan. 

Tarr(np*8 Sucker, 

^f^B^CatoBtomus (iifoomtw) generoaua Girakd, Proo. Ac. Nat. 8c. Phlla. 174. 

Aoowute genero»M8 Girard, U. S. Pac. R. £. Expl. x, 221, lti5ti. 

Cai09Ufmv8 generosus Jordan & CorKLAND, Check List, ir>6, 1676. 
1874— iftiKMRtitf ^'arrovii Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Pbila. 35. 

PanlasUua jarrovU Copk Sl YAJtROW, Wheelei's Expl. W. 100th Mer. y,Zool. 674, 
pi. xxix, 2, 2 a, 1876. 

Pamtotteua yairotci Jordan &, Coprland, Check List, 156, 1S7G. 

Habitat. — Rio GrandA, Colorado Basin, and Great Basin of Utah ; very abundant. 

This species is the most cbarncteristic and most widely diffused of 
tbo Suckers of the Great BaBiii. It was first* described by Girard in 
1S56, under the name of Catostomus gc7icro8us. Girard's description, 
unaccompanied by a figure, was so very loose and irrelevant that it has 
liitberto remained unidentified. I have, however, had the opportunity 
of examining Girard's original types, and of comparing them with the 
^irpttof Pantosteus jarroviL They seem to me to belong to the same 
ipeeies, and I am therefore compelled to substitute the name generosus 



184 CONTHIBUIIOSS TO NOETH AUBBICAN ICHTHYOLOOT — ^IIL 

for tbat of jarrovU. If I Jiat) not been uble to compare getterotia « 
jarrovii, I should never Lave saspected tbeir identity. 
Sptmi»e«> in UiMtd Statt* Katiotial A 



Nnmbcr. 


Locality. 


CollMtM. 














15802 


Zuni Eiver, Now Moxico (types ot JarrovU) 


H. W. Heulww. 
Torrow JtCops. 

























41. PANT0STEU9 PLEBEIU9 (Batrd & Girard) Jordan. 
Plain Stitker. 

1854— Catoffomuf j>Ieinu» Baird & Oikard, Ptoc Ao. Nst. Sc Phila. 3& 

CaloftoMui plebiiig Agkssiz, Aid. Joam. Sc. Arts.'id serlM, xix,S09, IfSS. 

XinoniHt pUbdua Girahd, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pbila. 173, 1^6. 

ilinoMut ph-beiua Girakd, U. 6. Mqx. Bound. Sarv. Ichtb. 38, pi. xxii, 1 1-4, U6 

Catotlomua phJHJui GCkther, Cat. Fisbea Brit. Jlns. vii, 15, 1868. 

Calottomua plthrjui Jordan & Copbland, Check List, 156, 1H76. 

Pantoalfiu iilebciiu JonoMi, Bull. U. 8. Sat. Mna. xi, p.—, 1878. 
lr«;3— JliNoma* drlpAJmu CoPi:, Hayden'a Oeol. Siitv. Wyoming, 1870, 435, 1S73. 

Fantwfeii* delphinia CuPK &. Yarrow, Lieut. Wheeler's Bepb ExpL W. UN 




PANTOSTEUS PLEBEIUS. 185 

and form of body, Panto«fei£« plebeius seems to resemble Catosto- 
tignit and O. elarhiiy and to diverge from the type of discobolus^ 
i», and platyrhynchus,^ 

988or Cope (in lit) dissents from the ideotification above made, maintaiDing 
klpkimu and P. hardw8 are at least specifically distinct from each other, ^'hat- 
7 be the relation of either to P. pJeheiua, As I have seen none of the three 
qiestioD, I let the above stand as I had written it, and quote the original de- 
is of the three nominal species: — 

f us PLSBEiUB Grd.^" Body snb-f asifonn, compressed. Head elongate, snbcon- 
ning the fifth of the entire length. Mouth of medinm size. Eyes large, sub- 
\, their longitudinal diameter being contained about five times in the length of 
lead. Dorsal fin subquadrangular, its anterior margin being equidistant be- 
le tip of the snout and the first ludimentary rays of the upper lobe of the 
The latter is slightly concave posteriorly, and the lobes rounded off. The 
he anal is contained nearly three times in its height, and when brought back- 
s tip extends to the mdimentary rays at f ho inferior lobe of the caudal fin. The 
are inserted under the posterior third of the dorsal ; bent backwards, their tip 
; reach as far as the anus. The pectorals are of medium development, sub* 
Mteriorly acute. 

scales are of medium size, considerably largest on the peduncle of the tail, 
eight to thirty rows from the base of the ventrals to the dorsal fin. About 
1 the lateral line, which is not discernible as far back as the base of the caudal 

color as preserved in alcohol, is dark brown on the upper regions, faintly mot- 
ti blackish patches. The sides and belly exhibit traces of orange in some of 
imens, in others it is pale yellowish. Tbe fins are unicolor ; the dorsal, caudal, 
orals, blackish brown ; the anals and ventrals yellowish." — (GiitAKi), Ich, U, 8. 

, Bcundarjf 8urv, , p. 38, figs. 1-4, plate xxii.) 

IU8 DELPHINUS Cope. — "The subequal size of the scales of this species would 
indifferently to the true group Catustonius of Girard, or his group Mioomus, 
e did not distinguish clearly, Tbe preceding species would enter bis Acomus, 
, however, only an undefined group of species, to which, by tbe way, the tyjie 
tomns, C. teres, belongs. This species is especially distinguished from those 
re described by the shortening of the caudal part of tbo vertebral column, and 
eqaent posterior position of the dorsal fin. Add to this a short, wide head, and 
dy, and its physiognomy is expressed. 

dorsal outline is arched, tbe head flat above, but elevated behind^ and much dn- 
on the muzzle. The muzzle is wide and does not project beyond tbe upper lip, 
i appressed to its lower face and bears four rows of warts ; its smooth com- 
1 part is narrow. On the lower lip the tubercles advance nearlj' to tbo cora- 
; this lip is deeply emargiuato posteriorly ; the eye enters the length of the 
• timea, two and one-half times measuring tbe muzzle, and twice tbe inter- 
■«> Head four and two-thirds times in length to end of caudal basal scales. 
ritndinal series, between dorsal and ventral fins ; ventrals remark- 



186 CONTBIBOTIONS TO KOBTH AHEBICAN ICHTIITOLOOT— DL 

GenuB CYCLEPTUS Bqfinesque. 

Cj/clrpluiTtAgiSEaQVB, JouTDal d« Phj-siqae, de Cbimie et d'HiBtoireN4tiireUa,Fiii^ 

18l9,p. 421. 
IlhgtUoitomvi Heckel, Fisobo Syriens, Bnsuegger's EeiRen, 1842, p. 1023. 
Cetotlomtu el Stlerosnathu* Bp, AucT. 

T;po, Cgclcplat nigretoeM Bafloesque,^ CalotComm elongalaa Le SneuT. 
Etyniolugy, nfrirAof, roDDil ; Afirr^, small. "The Dame meanfl Bmall, loODd ttotA' 

^llajinetque). 

Head very Bmall, short and Blender, its length contained 6 to 7 tinM I 
in that of the body, its upper anrface ronnded ; eye quite amoU, iwiitf ; 
median, not very high np, its length C to 8 in that of the eide of tka ' 
head ; suborbital bones rather small and quite narrow; foutauelle (*- 
tirely obliterated by the union of the parietal boues. 

Moutli small, entirely inferior, overlapped by the projecting toaO, 
tho upper lip thick, pendent, covered with 3 to 5 rows of tubercles, tfc» 
outer quite large, the inner small; lower lip moderate, formed km- 

nbly oliuTt, «xt«Dding little more tban half way to vent, origiDUiug under porinV 
third of dorsal. Pootorals veil srparated. Istbmae nido. 

"Color iibove blQckisb, nitb aetroDg iDfenormargioal shade on tb« lower part rftl* 
sides, iiud tlie ligbter tiot above; abrovn spot jnst above axilla, is cut off fraaitV 
a band of the yellow color which covers the belly aod head below. 

"Tbuoiily s|)ccies coDcemiDg which any doubt can arise in thenomeiiclatnncf tUa 
one isCirrnardiNt of Girord. That writer states that tho latter pooMssea 15 IXnMS 
tbis, n-ilh the ascription of a slender form and other pecnliaritiec, will alwajl w^ 




GENUB CYCLEFTU8. 187 

irluik u in CaUmiamM8f bat leas fall, incised behind ; jaws without card- 

lAsinooa abeath ; maciferoas system not greatly developed ; opercular 

apparatas not greatly developed, the opercalum smooth and narrow. 

Latimins moderate; gill-rakers moderately long, soft ; pharyngeal bones 

ft^rong, the teeth stoat, inci^easiug in size downwards, rather wide apart. 

Body elongate, moderately compressed, not much elevated, the caudal 

pedande long, the greatest depth contained 4 to 6 times in length. 

Scales moderate, about equal over the body, not closely imbricated, 
with wide exposed surfaces, the number in the lateral Hue from 55 to 
00, and about 17 in a transverse series from dorsal to ventrnls ; edges 
of acales serrate; lateral line well developed, nearly straight. 

Fins rather largo ; dorsal fin beginning in front of ventrals and ending 
jut before anal, of about 30 rays, strongly falcate in fh>nt, the first and 
Mamd developed rays in length more than half the length of the base 
of the fin, the rays rapidly shortened to about the eighth, the length of 
tis remaining rays being nearly uniform land all short ; caudal flu large, 
vldely forked, the lobes about equal; anal fin quite small, low, of 7 or 
8 developed rays, scaly at base ; ventrals moderate, with 10 rays; pec- 
toiftls elongate, somewhat falcate. 

Sexual peculiarities somewhat marked; the males in spring with black 
pigment ; the head then covered with small tubercles. 

Air-bladder with two chambers, the anterior short, the posterior 
riongate. 

Bat a single species of this singular genus is as yet known. It is 
fooDd in the waters of the Mississippi Valley, and, although not a rare 
fldi, it is by no means as generally abundant as are many others of its 
fcmily. 

Oenerio Charaoterizaiions, 

Ctclkptus RafineBqae, 1819.—^' Cycleptus, (abdominal). DifTdrent dn gonro Catos- 
^01. Denx nageoires dorsales, bouche petite, roude, aa bout da maseau; 15vro8 
c^Kcolaires. Famille Cyprioidiaf C, nigrescetis, noirfttre; ventre blancb&tre, bouche 
>BtRma»de ; queao fourcbiSe. Parvient ii deux i)ied8 de long; ti^s bon j!i manger, raro 
^ rObio et le Missouri.*'— (Rafixksquk, Joum, de Phya. etc 1819, p. 421.) 

Ctcleptus Bafinesixae, 1820.— '* DilFerence from the foregoing genus [Ca/o«tomiM]~ 
^donal fins, month round and terminal.''— (Rafinesque, Ich, Oh. p. 6.) * 

BHrriDOSTOMUS Heckel, 1842.— '^ Dentes pectiniformes CO-GO. Pinna dorsalis basi 
^Ssta; radio tertio vel quarto longissimo. In reliqnis cum genere Catostomo con- 
Wt"— (Heckkl, Fische SyrienSj p. 33, or Russeger's i?et«en, p. 1023.— Species referred to 
^tCBQiis, Cjfprinua catoaiamus Forster and Catodtomua elongatus Le Suenr.) 

CrcterTUS Agaaalz, 18&5. — **As in many other instances, Railnesque has named, bat 
^h» defined nor oharaoterised the genus to which I now call attention. He has not 



188 C6NTBIBUTI0K8 TO KOBTH AUEBICAN ICHTHTOLOOY 1 

hiiniclf even wen tbe flab npon irhicli tbe g«nDS is founded, uid nfen to 
f{eiiiiB B BpecieB nblcb caniiut be separated frooi tbia. UoToaver, the cbaracte: 
tbe KeniiB, as given bj- RaSaesqae, are Dot trne to natare. Y«t, natwitb«t«ndi 
objoctions, I do oot feel at liberty to reject his generlo uamr, since it fa poi 
IdoDtif)' tbe flub be meant by tbe vemacuUr nanie nnder wbicb it U know 
Weat. Tbere is nootber leason why Ba6nesqDe's description of oot weatei 
ontibt to bo careruUf considered and ever; possible effort made to identify bii 
nnd spcelee, tbe fact that be waa tbe first to ioTcstigate tbe fishes of the Ohio 
tribntarlea upon a large scale, and that notwithstanding the loaeeneaa iritb whid 
formed tbe task aiid tbe lameolable iDoccnraciea of his tooafaort desci)ptionB,bJ 
boar almost upon every page the imprint of bis keen perception of the natural ■ 
of B)>eoIes, aud Ibcir intlmnte Telationa to one another ; ao mncb so, that even i 
haa failed to assign liia generu any characters by wbicb they may be recognii 
vhen the species upon which Ibey were fonnded can be identified, we Dsaally 6 
there ale f[ood reasons fur considering them aa fonniog disUnct generk. 

"Tlie tronblo with lUQneBque is, that be too often int rod need in hia worlu 
which be had not olwuys seen himself, and which be referred almost at mndoir 
bis genera, thns defacing his well characterised groups, or that be went so f 
foiiDd geuura npon siieciea which he had never seen, overlooking perhapa that 
already described sucb types under other names. 

"Tbe genua CfclepUt affords a striking example of all tbeae mtat«kes ec 
logrlhcr. In bis rvniarkabio paper upon the genns Catattomiu, Lesoenr deacri 
IIrutvs one specie* from the Ohio River, snder (be name of C. tlomtalat, pea 
its elongated cyliadrleol body, and fur its long dorsal fin beginning half way 1 
tbe pivturala and ventrala, and extending as far back as tbe ioseitiou of t 
The Biiri-ieB Katlni«qne introduct's in his SQbgenas Drmelyliu among the geoi 
iMlMii. wilhiiat itVTceiving that it belongs to bis own genus Cgd^u*. This 
arlaea nndouhtnlly (h>mbis Iwlief that in Cyclrptiu there are twodona]s,wl>iet 




OTCLEPTUB SL0NQATU8. 189 

''ThepliftKyiigeal bones an rtrong, their aoterior surface being flattened anil the 
gwtsst diameter being the transvene one, as in BuhalickikyM, and not laterally com- 
piesaerl and thin as in Carpiodm and IdUkffobuM. 

^Tbib sjrmphyisls ia short and its pednnole flat and sqnare, separated from the cnrved 
anh bjT Adoep ssmieirealar emargination* The teeth are also stronger and stooter 
thsa ia Cmjfiwki and Iehikjfobu$f as is also the ease in Bubalichthjftf and they are grad- 
isUj inereasing in rise, and relative thickness from the upiier part of the arch to the 
«jBphyriS| bnt they are mnch fewer and farther spart than in the latter genns. Their 
loitf edge is transveiM^ rather blnut, though the middle ridgo is somewhat project- 
iqg; the lower teeth are so shaped that their inner hngle is hardly higher than the 
mtatf while in the middle and npper teeth it is gradaally more projecting, and from 
theaiddle of the arch upwards forms a prominent point arched outwards. 

''Tbesoalesareeonsideralily longer than high, with a rather prominent posterior msr- 
gta; nnmerons radiating furrows upon the anterior and posterior fieldSi some across 
tke lateral fielda; the concentric ridges of the posterior field are not only broader than 
tkn of the other fieldsy but instead of running parallel to the margin of the scales 
^ sie enryed in concentric gothic arches between each two radiating furrows. 
BmkA mentions this genns under the name of BkjfUdoBtomua, but Rafinesqne's name 
QMvtet baa the priority. Froiierly it ought to be called XfptofltyelM, according to its 
H|Mlogy, (see my Nomenclator Zoologicus ; Index Universalis, p. 109,) but under thii 
taiBobody would recognise it as Baflnesque's name. I shall therefore not urge the 
cksp."— (AoAsaiz, Am. Joum. ScL ArU, 1B55, p. 197.) 

CtCLBFrcs Copo 6l Jordan, 1877. — " Body mnch elongated, snbcylindrical forwards : 
tall elongate, falciform, of 30 or more rays ; fontanelle obliterated by the union of 
tke ptrietal bones ; mouth small, inferior, with papillose lips." — (Jordan, Proo, Ac 
M&.PM(a.l877,p.81.) 

ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OF CYCLEPTUS. 

*D^th 4 to 5 in length : head 6 to 6^: eye small, 6 to 7 in length of head: longest 
donol rays a little longer than head : pectorals rather longer than head : dorsal 
nys 10 ; anal 7 or 8 : scales 9-r»6-7 : coloration very dark, the males almost black ; 
nie large; length of adalt H to 2ifeet eix>ngatu8, 42. 

43. CYCLEPTUS ELONGATUS (Le Sueur) Agassiz. 

Black Horse. Gourd-seed Sucker, Missouri Sucker, SuckereL 

lS17-.Ca(Mtomtf« elongatus Lr Sueur, Joum. Ac. Nat. So. Pbila. 103. 
Catostomus elongatus Rafinf^que. Ich. Oh. 60, 1820. 
Coiostomus elongatus Kiktland, Rcpt. Zool. Ohio, 16S, 183S. 
Catostomus elongatus DeKay, Now York Faana, part iv, Fishes, 203, 1842. 
Catostomus elongaius Cuvikr &, Valenciennks, Hist Nat. des Poiss. xvii, 455, 

1844. 
Catostomus elongatus Kirtland, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist, v, 267, 1845. 
CalMomus elongatus Storer, Syn'}psi8, 422, 184G. 
Cgdefius eUmgalus Aqassiz, Am. Jonro. So. Arts,2J series, six, 197, 1855. 
Mriyna/Aaif tlonffOiuB QCnther, Cat. Fishes Brit Mus. vii, 23, 18C8. 



] 90 CONTBIOUTIONS TO KOBTH AHBSICAN ICHTHTOLOOT-^IL 

CgeUpUi tlottgatut Jordak, Fisbes of lad. 232, 1875. 

Cgclrplui ilongalui Jordan, Bull. BnfFiilo Sac. Nat. HiaL 65, 1876. (Huwa^>] 
Cuclfpiua elotiQalat Joudan, Mod. Vurt.298, 1876. 
Cgetrplat tlongatui Kelson, Boll. No. 1, IIU. Has. Nnt. HistSO, 187& 
Cpdeptas dongatua Jordan &. Copeumd, Cboelc List, 158, 1B76. (Naow oalj.) 
Cgeleplut floagalaa Jordan A Oilbkbt, Id Ellpparfs Espt. 63, 1876. (Nsm<4r.) 
Csoleptiu tlongeta» Jordak, Ball. U. S. Nat Hos. tx, 38, 1877. 
CgeltpM* tJongatiu Joiidak, Mna. Tert. ed. 3d, 1878. 
1818— CjwItpfM nigreicen* Rafinbsql'K, Joanial de Pb7riqDS,4Sl. 
Ciclrpln* nigrttamt Rafihbs<)ce, Icb. Oh. 61, 1820. 

II aditat.— Mississippi Valley, in alt the lorf^r streams. 

Tbia 8[)eoiea is found Id some abundaDce in tbe larger streams, il 
tho Falls of the Obio, it U taken in nets, and meets a ready sale. It 1^ 
however, muob less abundant than the Buffalo fishes are. Fron ttl 
freneral use of the name " Missonri Sacker ", its abandaooe in the SUM 
uf Missouri may bo inferred ; but, as to tbe facts in the case, I am nri 
informed. This flsb is as sharply distinguished from tiie other Sackoiii 
ita appearance as in its anatomy. Tbe dasky colors and the small da 
of the head attract attention at once. 

Uut one siHH;ies is yet kuonu. That being the case, the ayDonynif el 
tbe siteeies i)c»ds DO discussion, its oldest name being the one in ootf 
mon use. 




GENUS CARPIODES. 191 

the fleshy portion of the cheek below; fontanelle always present, well 
developed. 

Month always small, horizontal and inferior, the mandible less than 

one-third the length of the head, the lips thin, the upper protractile, 

narroWy the lower quite narrow, /y-shaped, or rather Q-sbaped, behind; 

both lips feebly plicate or nearly smooth, the plicsB often more or less 

broken up; jaws without cartilaginous sheath; muciferous system 

moderately developed; opercular apparatus well developed, the sub- 

operele broad, the operculum in the adult more or less rugose ; isthmus 

moderate ; pharyngeal bones remarkably thin and laterally compressed, 

vithashallowfurrowalongthe anterior margin on the inside, and another 

more central one on the outline of the enlarged surfaces; teeth very 

small, compressed, nearly equally thin along the whole inner edge of 

the bone, forming a fine comb-like crest of minute serratures; their 

cottiug edge rises above the inner margin into a prominent point. 

Gillrakers of anterior arch slender and stiff above, becoming reduced 

downwards. 

Body ovate or oblong, the dorsal outline more or less arched, the 
ventral outline more nearly straighti the depth from half to one-third 
the length, the sides compressed ; the back notably so, forming a sort of 
carina; caudal peduncle short and deep; scales large, about equal over 
the body, their posterior margins slightly serrate ; lateral line well 
<leveloi)ed, nearly straight, with 34 to 41 scales, 12 to 15 scales in a 
cross-row from dorsal to ventrals ; dorsal fin beginning near the middle 
of the body, somewhat in advance of ventrals, falcate, its anterior rays 
Very much elevated and usually filamentous, their height ranging from 
} to H the length of the base of the fin, the number of developed rays 
ranging from 23 to 30; caudal fin well forked, the lobes equal ; anal fin 
comparatively long and low, emarginate (in males?), its number of 
dt?vcloi)ed rays usually 8; ventrals shortish, with usually 10 rays ; pec- 
torals short. 

Sexoal peculiarities little marked ; in some species, at least, the males 

• 

^D spring have the snout minutely tuberculate. 

i^loration always plain; pale olivaceous above, white below, but 
hardly silvery, the fins all partaking of the color of the region to which 
% belong. 

Air-bladder with two chambers. 

Bixe medium or rather large. 

^ goios was first recognized and defined by Professor Agassiz in 



192 C0NTEIBUTI0N8 TO NORTH AUBBICAH ICHTHYOLOOT — m. 

1855. Since tbeD it bas been generally reoeired by oatbora node 
same natiio and with tbe same limits. It waa first briefly ontliM 
Baduesque \a 1830 under the name of Carpiodes, tbeo aftorvaH 
Valencieuues defined more fully uuderthe name of Sderoffnatkti*. 
Carpiodes and Sclerognathus having tbe same typical species (Cntotl 
eijpriitm Le 3uuur), tbe older aud preferable name, OafTiode*, is Uk 
to lie iidoptvd. 

Tliu recognition of species in this genas is a matter of extreme 
culty, from their great resemblance to each other in color, use, : 
and gi.'neral appearance. Unr knowledge of tbe species Chns & 
been nimost entirely dno t« tbe labors of Professor Cope (A Partial 
opsia uf tbe Fishes of Korth Carolina", Proc Am. Philos, Soc I 
1870). I have myself examined specimens agreeing with each of 
llessor Cope'tj descriptions, and, with two exception {Carpiodea idm 
Carpiodes grayi), I am disposed to admit all his species. It is tme, 
ever, that in every large collection of Carpiodea there are sped 
disagreeing more or loss from tbe typical forms of each species 
which should, in consistency, be described as distinct species, oi 
the speoies which they appear to connect shoald be nnited. I han 
however, examined a sufficiently full scries of Carpiodes to be 
pared to accept either of these alternatives. I have, therefore, t 
Professor Cope's analysis of the species, and added to it snch 
tional features as I have been able to observe, aud 1 give the wbt 
onr beet knowledge at present on the subject, leaving for future i 




QENUS CABPIODES. 193 

00 Carp of the Great Lakes. C carpio is tlio most abundant spe- 
Q the Ohio Biver, where C. veli/er and C. cutisanserinus also occur 
DeDse iinmbers. 

Q coDviDced that neither the number of scales nor the number of 
:s can be relied on to distinguish ttpecies in this genus, t]ie entire 
of variation being probably found in every species. The height 
anterior rays of the dorsal, although subject to considerable varia- 
ith age and wear, seems to be sufficiently constant to divide the 
8 into two groups. 

Gentric Characierizaiion$, 

lODKS Rafinesqne, 18*20. — " Body oblonp;, somewhat compressed ; head com- 
, nine ubdom'mal rays, dorsal fiu commonly elongate, tail equallj forked.'' — 
csQUE, IcK, Oh, p. 56.) 

tooxATUUS Storer, 1846. — " Suont slightly advanced boyound the month ; the 
ty of the month is snpported, as in the Caiostomi, by the intermaxillary, which 
shed in front with a well developed, projecting, cartilaginous ethmoid. The 
branch is long, and of a styloid form, while the horizontal is shortened, and is 
keel, tho inferior edge of which serves merely to support the superior angle cf 
itb. The remainder of tho maxillary arch is forme<l by a Obrous ligament cov- 
a thin, nndilated lip, reduced to a thin and fleshy protuberance. Tho upper 
wide, very solid bony piece, under which tho upper lip is partly drawn ; this 
ooDcealed by the first two suborbitals, beiug wider and no less advanced than 
the Catostomi, As to its lips, it is a Leuciscus; but the osteology of its mouth 
es that of the Catostomi. The dorsal is long, like that of the Curi)s. The head 
i, marked by lines of mucous i>ores. Pharyngeal teeth comb-like, iiner and 
|oal than those of the Catoatomi. The air-bladder is divided into two large 
be anterior is large and rounded, with a slight depression at its superior fuce : 
•nd conica], twice as long as the iirst and followed by two small lubes; the sec- 
amnnicates with the oesophagus by an air-pipe." — (Storku, .1/cm. J;;j. Jc. *1»7« 
lc^6, p. 427 ; essentially a translation from Valcncienues's account.) 
roDES Agassiz, 1855. — ** Tho bod^- is very high and strcjngly compressed, the 
ridge on the back forming tho outline in front of the dorsal in very niucli arched, 
alarlv continuous downwards with tho rather steep piolilo ef iLo head. 
head is short, its height and length diiler but little. The snout is short and 
The small mouth is entirely inferior, and surrounded by narrow thin lips, 
re more or loss transversely folded. The lower jaw is short and broad. Tho 
eal bones of Carpiodcs are remarkably thin, compressed laterally, with a shal- 
low along tho anterior margin on the side, and another more central one on tho 
flC the arched surfaces ; the teeth arc very small, compressed, equally tliin aloDg 
tw inner edgo of the bone, forming a line comb-like crest of minute serraturcs ; 
Ming edge rises above the inner margin into a prominent X)oint. 

lobe of the long dorsal is slender, its third and fourth rays being pro- 
ba faUovring ones into long iilaments. The lower (ins aro all pointed, 

. IL Ko. 12—13 



1 



194 COSTBIBUTIOSS TO NOBTH AHBBICAN ICHTHTOLOOT— 41L 

rather small, and hence diffurent from one another. The Tenlial ridge of the Wii* 
flat. The scales have maaj uarrow, radiatlog tanowo apon tbe iuit«tioc field, Mid u* 
mote deeply marked, !□ a straight liDe, across the lateral Qelila, or limiting tbe bKtil 
and posterior fields, bardl; any upon the BDteiior field, the waviDg of tbe bnU« 
ooncentrio ridges prodociD^ □□!; a radiated apiieorance npon that field. Tube of lit 
lateral line stiaigbt and simple, arising in advance of tbe centre of ndiation, nbiekii 
seated in tbe centre of form of the scales."— (AoAsaiz, Am. Johtu. So. AtIm, 18j&, p. 13.) 

CABnoPBS Otlntbor, 1868.—" DistiDgaished from SulrTCgnaihiu (i. e. BtbaiiAlkft vk 
Ichthpobiu) by its very thin, compressed pharyngeal hone«, which are armed with tj 
comb-lilie eetiee of nearly eqaally aiuat« compTessed leetb."— (QOnthkb, CaL FtAa' 
JJ.(I. Mm. vii, p.21.) ' 

Caiipiodes Cope & Jordan, 1877. — "Body oblong oval, compressed; doraal elottfri^ 
elevutcd in front, of SO or more rays ; fantaneile present ; pharyngeal booea naini*, 
with tbo teeth relatively thin and weak; month siuall, iofeiior, protnetUe dew» 
■wards." — (Jordati, Proc Ac. Kal. Sc. Phila. 1677, p. &S.) 



? SfECIES op CARPIODSS. 

* Dorsal fin with the anterior rays yery mnch elevated and attenaated, eqaalling M 
more nsnaliy exceeding tho length of tbe base of tbe fln. 
i Mnzzle very abrap.tly obtose, almost vertically truncate in froot. 
a. Mnzzle exceedingly blunt, bo that the anterior edge of the mandible is In llH 

with tilt anterior rim nf tliu nrliit, aiul Ibo maxillary rencliMS tn tbe antoW 
eilgo of the pupil : auterior euborbital dcopt^r Chun long: hcud 4^ in Icactti 
eye quite large, ^i to 4 in bend : body nrcbed, tbe depth ^Dmewbat iett tbn 
half tbe length : first my of dorsal nearer muzzle than l>ase of canddl 

sealea 6-35-1 : D. a4. A. 8, V. 9 DtPVonMM. 4 

■an. Muzzle notably blunt, bnt less so than in the proceiling: anl-erior edgfof iM 
ninndible in advance of the orbit, and tbe maxillary jost rescbing lbs lit! 




CABPI0DE8 CUTISANSEBINUS. 195 

U, Hemd intermediate, its length contained abont 4 times (3f to 4^) in that of 
body: anterior n^ of dorsal not thickened at base. 
& Body stonti short, the back mnch arched, the depth 2i in length : head 4 to 
H in length, the mnzzle moderately xK)inted : dorsal rays considerably ele- 
Tated, two-thirds as long as base of fin : eye small, 5^ in head : tip of lower 
Jaw mach in advance of nostrils ; maxillary reaching line of orbit : anterior 
suborbital large, deep, roundish : origin of dorsal abont midway of body : 
■eales rather closely imbricated, 8-39 to 41-6 : D. 27, A. 7, Y. 10. 

THOMPSONI, 47. 

eo. Body elongate, not mnch elevated, the depth 2| in length : head 3f to 4, 
the muzzle prominent but rather bluntish : front scarcely concave above 
eyes, the profile forming a somewhat uniform curve: eye small, nearly G iu 
head : anterior rays of dorsal moderately elevated, nearly three-fonrths the 
length of the fin, the first ray nearly midway between snout and base of 

caudal: scales 6-37-5 : D. 24 to 27, A. 8, V. 10 cyprixus, 48. 

hbh. Head comparatively short, its length contained 4^ to 5 times in the length 
of the body : body more fusiform than in the others, compressed, but not 

• 

much arched, the depth 2} to 3 times in the length: anterior rays of dorsal 
short, notably thickened and osseous at base, the first ray nearer the end of 
the muzzle than the base of the caudal fin : eye small, anterior, 4^ iu head : 
muzzle short, but projecting much beyond mouth : size largest of the genus. 

CARPIO, 49. 

43. CARPIODES DIFFORMIS Cope. 

Deformed Carp Sucker. 

\0-'Carpiode$ difformis Cope, Proc. Am. Pbilos. Soc. Phila. 480. 
Carpiodes difformis Jordan, Man. Vert. 297, 187G. 
Carpiodet difformU Jordan & Copkland, Check List, 158, 1876. 
Carpiodes difformis Jordan, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 72, 1877. 
Carpiodea difformis Jordan & Gilbert, in Klippart'a First Report Ohio Fish 

Commission, 86, pi. xiii, f. 21, ldi7. 
C^urpiodes difformis Jordan, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 9,50, 1877. 
Carpiodes difformis Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 321, 187H. 

Habitat. — Ohio Valley ; less common than the other species. 

The only speciraeQ which I have seen of this species was from the 
Tabash Eiver, iu which stream Professor Cope's original types were 
Elected. No specimens are in the United States National Museum, 
hich, indeed, at present contains very few of the Carp Suckers or 
lafialo-fisb. 

44. CARPIODES CUTISANSERINUS Cope. 

L 

Long-finncd Carp Sucker* QuiUback, 

Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. Phila. 481. 
Jordan & CopslanDi Check List, IftS, 1876. 



196 CONTBIBUTIOMS TO NO&TH AHBSICAN ICHTHTOLOOT— 10. 

Carpiode$ cut'uaiiterlnu$ Jordak, Bnll. U. S. Not. Has. B, SO, 1877. 

Carpiodct calieantcriaaa Jordan Jt Gilbert, iu EHppBrl'ii It«pt. S3, UK. 

Carpiodtt eatieanterinat Jotinks, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 321, 1978. 
IBiO—Carpiodr* Hlene Cope, Proc. Am. Pbilos. Soc. Phila. 491. 

Carpiodet teiene Joudan Si Copbland, Cbeok List, 158, 1876. 

Carpioda teUne Joudam &, QiLBBnT, in Klippoil'e Bept. 63, 1870. 

Corrode* ttUitt Jordan, Man. Vurt. ed. 3d, 321, 1978. 
l&Q—mOisobM iijformia Nblso.n-, Bull. No. 1, U. S. Nat. Moi. 49. 
Habitat. — MisBisBippi Valloy ; generally abandont. 

This Species is closely related to C. cel'/er, but differs io the abni| 
truncate snout, that of velifer being conic. I am unable to recogi 
C. actene as a distinct species at prei^eut, the form of the anterior i 
orbital being the only (listtnguisbiog I'eatare of much importauGc, 
that probably not a constant one. C. cutisanscriHus is as abaudao 
the Ohio as C. veli/er, and I have seen many spcciiaeng from the Illi 
Eiver. 

Sptelment in United Stattt national Maiaan. 



Number. 


Locality. 


CoUm 








SO033 












45. CAPPIOr)KS VT:LlFER [Rnfinenqvc) Aginsl::. 




CABPIODES BISON. 197 

'^^^-—SeUrognaihMt cyp^inus KirtlanDi Boat. Jonra. Nat. Hist. vol. y, 275. (In part; 
DofeofC. d&y.) 

Habitat. — Wettem streams and lakes (Caynga Lake, New York, to MiBsissippi 
Biver). 

This species is qnite abandant in the Obio Biver, and I bave seen 
specimens not evidently distingnisbable, from Lake Erie and from otber 
waters tribatary to the Oreat Lakes. Indiscrimiuutely with C. cutis- 
anserinuSy it is known to the fishermen as Quillback, Skimback, etc., 
the lower-finned species being called ratber ''Carp". Most of the 
RyDODjmy above qnoted includes several species, the true veVfcr being 
fir8tdi8tingoished by Professor Cope. Kafinesque's anisopterus I bring 
iDto the synonymy of this species, simply to refer to it somewhere. It 
18 really nnidentiflable. Kirtland's Sclerognathtis cyprinus refers most to 
this species, but his figure represents no known fisb. The head is too 
small, and the form, etc., incorrect. 

Specimens in United States Xational Museum* 



Namber. 



»277 



LfOcality. 



Cayuga Lake, New York 



Collector. 






There are also several otber specimens in the collection, but without 

locality. 

46. C^UiPIODES BISON Agassiz. 

Long-headed Carp Sucker, 

^^^^Carpiodes bison Agassiz, Am. Jouni. Sci. Arts, 356. 

Carpiodes bison Agassiz, Am. Joarn. Sci. Arts, 190, 1855. 
Carpiodes bison Copk, Proc. Am. Pliilos Soc. Phila, 463, 1870. 
Carpiodes bison Joi:dax, Man. Vert. 297, 1876. 
Carpiodes bison Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 158, 1876. 
Ickthifobus bison Nklson, Bull. No. 1, Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist. 49, 1876. 
Carpiodes bison Jordan &, Gilukrt, in Klippart's Rept. 53, 1876. 
Carpiodes bison Jordan, Bnll. U. S. Nat. Mns. ix, 50, 1877. 
Carpiodes bison Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 322, 1878. 

"ABiTAT.—Missisftippi Valley (Osage River, Agassiz; Mississippi River, Wabash 
**^*^ TeDoeesee River, Cope). 

^hat the fish is to wbicb Professor Agassiz gave tbe pame ^^buon^ 
cannot be ascertained from tbe publisbed descriptions. Professor Coi)0 
lias described tbe present species under tbat name, and we accept tbe 



198 CONTBIBUTIONS TO NORTH AHEBICAK ICnTnrOLOQY — IH 

name bison on bis authority. Tliis species is not geaerallycoiniiioiii 
so far as my cxperieDce goes. I liaro, however, Beeu ooe or two (aa 
the Ohio Itiver. I found uo specimcDS iu the Nutional Maaeam. 

47. CABPIODES THOMFSONI Agauiz. 
LoIk Carp. 
184Jt— Catottomu* cypriRui Tiiompsom, Hint. Vt. 133. 
18S — CitTpiode* Ihomptonl Agassiz, Am. Joarn. Sc. Arts, Sd series, xix, 19L 

Carpiodet Ihompaoni Copb, Proc. Au. Nat. So. Pbilo. 385, ISM. 

Carpiodtt thompmHii Coeis, Proc. Am. Fhilos. iSod. Philo. 483, ltS70. 

Carpioda tkompioiii Jukdan, Mao. Vert. 397, 1876. 

Ichthyobiu Ihompaoni Nelson, Ball. No. 1, lite. Mas. Nftt KM. 49, ia». 

Carpiodea tkotaptoiii Jordan & COfSLUtv, Check List, 158, 1B76. 

Carpiodta thomptonil JORDAN & OU.BERT, ia Klippact's Bept. 03, ISA. 

Carpiodet Ihomptoai Jobdam, Mao. Vert, ed. Ud, 322, 1678. 

. IIabitat.— Orent Lake region ; abundant. 

This Species occurs in more or less abnodauce throughout the CM 
Lake region. It is Ihe shortest and most arched of all the specio. & 
dorsal fin is about intermediate betn'een that of velijer and tbitl 
earpio. 1 have examined very many specimeus of this species, ul< 
fiud little variation among them. This fish reaches a length of mM 
thing over a foot, and is Bold by the Lake fiahermcn as ** Carp". 

SpcdmcTu fn Pnitrrf Slaitt ?>'nli'07ifll Mnmm. 




CARPIODES CTPBINUS. 199 

CwfMim egpHwu GOmthkr, Cat Fiahes Brit Mas. vii, 24, 1868. 

C§rpi$ i m qtspHu m Ck>PB, Pioo. Am. Fhilos. 8oo. PbiU. 484, 1870. 

CSnyMn cjipHiMt Jobdak, Kitthes of Ind. 202, 1875. 

GsrpMn ^lEprtavt Jordan, Man. Vert 297, 187C. 

CupMe$ egprimwB Uhlbr A, Lugobr, Fisbes of Maryland, 140, 1876. 

Gtrjiiocln egprinmi Jordan & Copkland, Check List, 158, 1876. 

Carpiodea egprinMi Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 323, 1878. 
1IIS4— Csrpioclei vaeoa Aoassiz, Am. Jonrn. Bci. Arts, 356. 
18&4— OMpMat UmidM9 Baird & Girard, Proo. Philo. Ao. Nat 8c. 2& 

Idhbiu Umidm$ Oirard, U. 8. Mex. Bound. Sorv. Icb. 34, pi. xiuc, 1 1-4, 1859. 

JefttftyodM fwaidift Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 158, 1876. 
ISoS^CnpiMlft damallM Girard, Proc. Ao. Nat. 8c. Phila. 170. 

CtarpiodM damalit Giraicd, U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl. x, 218, pi. xlviii, f . 1-4, 1858. 

(krpiodea damalii Cofk, Proo. Ac. Nat. Sc Phila. 85, 1865. 

(krpiodta damalU Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 155, 1876. 
ISfO-GBrpiodcw gragi Copk, Proc. Am. Pbilos. 8oc. Phila. 482, 1870. 

CvpiodiB ffrajfi .Jordan «Sl Copeland, Check List, 158, 1876. 

GtipjodM gragl Cope A Yarrow, Wheeler'tt £spl. W. 100th Mer. v, Zool. C8l, 
1876. 

HabitaT^ — New Englazd to Alabama ; thenco to Mexico and north to the Upper 

I have elsewhere already united the Dominal species grayi and tnmi- 
fa) for the following reasons: — Giranl's ^'Ictiobus tumdna^ is eortainly 
^Carpiodea, as is plainly shown by the published ii^^mv, the mouth be- 
ing represented as small and inferior, beneath the projecting siiout. I 
have nnmeroQs young specimens of a Carpiodcs from the Kio Grande, 
at Brownsville, Texas, the original loculit v of Ictiobiis tumiduit. But my 
specimens do not disagree in any important respect Iroui Carpiodcs grayi^ 
from the same river, nor am I able, on examination of authentic speci- 
QteDsof the latter species, to point out any differences between them and 
^y Brownsville specimens. Therefore, if tumidua and grayi are really 
*liffereut, the differences have escaped my notice. It is of course possi- 
'^lothat my Brownsville specimens, although from the original locality 
of tumidua^ ma}* not be that species; but, as the types of tumidua have 
^Kieu lost, I do not see how the question can ever be settled. 

I am furthermore unable to separate tumidua as thus characterized 
from damalia Grd., and the close relationship existing between damalia 
and c^rinua has already been noticed by Professor Cope. As 1 now 
'^dievo that cyprinua^ tumidua^ damalia^ aud grayi were all based on mem- 
1^ of a single widely diffused species, I unite them in the above 
•ynonymy, 

^Riia species is the common Carp Sucker of Pennsylvania and the 



2U0 C0NTBIBUTI0N8 TO NOBTH AHEBICAM ICHTHTOLOGT — m. 

Middle States. I have no specimens referable to this species from tbt 
Great Lakes, nor from the Miwisaiiipi or the Ohio. If ej/priHia, tn» 
dua, and damalk are identical, however, one of tno thiogs must be tnn 
Either C. cyprinjig really inhabits the whole Mississippi Valley, bnt bu 
beeD overlooked or confoaiided with otbeit, or else we have a ver}' curi- 
ous auotnaly in the distribution of the 8[>ecie8, it beiof; aa iohabitani 
of waters of two widely separated areas, havinj; little in common. Ths 
former supposition tteemii the most probable, and I accordingly looktir 
BpecimcDS of C. cyprinus in the Miattissippi Valley. 
Spedaitti* in Vnittd Siatt* Saiional 



:»550 
13012 

iseai 

90109 



Locality. 



Kuund Lake. Montgomery, Alabama . . 

Fort Pierre, Nelir. (typea of Cdamalit) 

BepablicuD Biver 

Rio Grimdo. Now Mexico (Vrratrj) 

Nebriwku 

" U. S. Mi'z. Doaodftry SurTcy" (typea of rnnJdjHf}, 
Bronoanllo, Tex 



Knmliei) ft '. 
Dt. Evmiu. 
Wood& 
Dr. O. Loot. 



49. OAKPIODES CARPIO {Rajinetque) Jordan. 



i 



1690 — CotcMironiis earpi 



Big Carp Sucktr. Olirt Carp Smitr. 
I ILlKlNESIjCE. Ith. Ob. ^. 




GENUS BUBALICHTHTS. 201 

doubt that Bafinesqae had the same fish \n miDd as his C. carpioj and I 
have accordingly adopted the latter Qame. 

Spedmena in United States National Museum. 



Komber. 



Locality. 



12291 
12292 



Obio River, Cinoinnati 
do 



Collector. 



J. W. Milnor. 
Do. 



Genus BUBALICHTHYS Agassiz. 

AMdkfAyt Agassiz, Am. Jonra. Scu Arts, 1855, 11^2. 
SdengiMi3iUB Gf mthbr, Oat. Fishes Brit. Mas. vii, p. 22, 188a 
CvMiamwi et Carpiode$ sp. of authors. 

Type, Carpiodea urus Agassiz. 

£tyiiiolo|(y, ^ipUXoCt bnffalo ; Ixf^C* fisb. 

Head moderate or rather large, deep and thick, its superior oatliac 
rapidly rising, its length a'bout 4 in tbat of the body : eye moderate, 
median or rather anterior in position ] suborbital bones comparatively 
iiaiTowj fontanelle always present and widely open. 

Mouth moderate or small, more or less inferior, the mandible short, 
Mttleoblique,ortypieallyquiteborizontal, the mandible less than one-third 
^^ length of the head, the premaxillaries in the closed mouth below 
tbe level of the lower part of the orbit ; lips rather thin, thicker than in 
^<^hthyohuSj the upper protractile, narrow, plicate, the i)lica) j^ouietimes 
broken up into granules; lower lip comparatively full (for a Buffalo- 
^!*b), faintly plicate, the plica', biolten up into granules, the lower lip 
*^aviDg the general n- shaped form seen in Cai'inodes; jaws without car- 
tilaginous sheath ; muciferous system well developed ; opercular appa- 
^tu8 well developed, but less so than in IchtJnjobus, the operculum 
^^rongly rugose; isthmus moderate; pharyngeal bones triangular, with 
'^'"ge teeth, which increase in size from above downwards; teeth com- 
l^J'essed, their grinding edge blunt, slightly arched in the middle, and 
Provided with a little cusp along the inner margin, which ir liardly 
^^tached from the crown, and does not rise above the surfaces : gill-rakers 
^^ anterior arch slender and stiff above, growing shorter downwards. 
Body ovate or oblong, the dorsal outline more or less arched, the sides 
^^ the body compressed, the ventral outline curved also, but to a less 
^^gree: scales very large, about equal over the body, their posterior 



202 COMTBIBDTIONS TO NOSTH AMEBICAN ICHTHTOLOaY — ^UI. 

outlines soiuewbat nerrate; lateral line veil dcveloi>ed, nearly stniig; 
n-ilh 3i> tu i'J scales, 12 to 14 in a crobs-serieti froiu vcotrata to lionu 
doiiitil tiu bcginoiug Dear tbe DiidOIe of tiie body, somewfaut in adtiiu 
of the rotitnita, its nateiior rajs elevated, tlieir bvigbt aboat equal t 
half tbe base of tbe fin, tbe number of -rays iu tbe dorsal fia raogin 
from 25 to 32; caudal &u well lorked, the lobes about equal, not la 
cato ; anal flu comparatively long and rather low, of 8 or 9 develoi* 
rays; veutrals moderate, lOrayed ; pectorals ratbcr sbort: sexual peci 
liaritios, if auy, unknowu : cotonttiou dull dark brown, nearly plaiu, h 
silvery i flus olivaceous or more or less dusky. 

Air-bladder with two chambers. 

Size quite large. 

lu general appeftrauce, the species of Bi^lichtkya bear a considerab' 
resembhiuee to those of Cai-piodea. Tbe form is, however, coarser thi 
that of any Carpiodes, tbe dorsal fin is lower, and tbe coloration 
darker and duller. The species reach a larger size than dotboni 
Carpiodea, but whether larger or oot than tbe sjtecies of Icktkifobiu 1 1 
ouable to say. In exterual appearance, BtdMlichtlii/9 is ioternieilii 
between Carpioda and Icktkyobitt, tbe oue species, btibaltu, resemblii 
Carpiodtg most, the other, vrui, being most like Icktigobiu. 

Ourkuowledgeof the species of this genus is very incomplete. Uai 
species were uamed and indicated by Professor Agnsdiz, but witb ra 
fragmeutiiry descriptions that not a single one of tbem is oeitaia 
known t>y any one. I have, however, been able to identify in spediM 




GEErrS BUBAUCHTHYS. 203 

deaeriptions poblUhed by Professor Agassiz are olinost worthless for the 
distioetioii of species. It has accordingly seemed best to me, as a tem- 
porary arraogemeut, at least antil more than two species are shown to 
oeeor in cor waters* or antil some one is able to show from examination 
of Professor Agassiz's types what he really had in mind, to disiribnte 
Us nominal species in the synonymy of the two which w^ know. I 
havo accordingly considered each of Agassiz's species and made it 
identical with either the small-monthed or the large-monthed species, as 
the description seemed to indicate. A third species, from Central 

America, which I suppose belongs to this genns, is added from Dr. 

O&Dther's description. 

QtneHo Charaoierlg€Uioii$. 

BmuLiCBTHTS Agaasiz, 1855. — ^'At the time I viDdioated the propriety of restoring 
MM of the genera eetaUiehed by Bafinesqne among Cyprinoide, I did not snepecfe that 
aigBnos CoiyMefy as I then represented it, still contained two distinct type«, tbongb 
Ibtd Botioed that some of the species had tbe anterior margin of their dorsal greatly 
pNtengsd, whilst in others it hardly rises above the middle and posterior of tbat fin. 
Bifing sinee examined tHe pharyngeals of all tbe species of this tribe wbich 2 havo 
Im sble to secure ih>m diffiurent parts of tbe country, I find tbat those witb a bigb 
tall wbich constitute tbe genus Carpiodei, bavo, in addition, very tbin flat pbaryn- 
|nli with extremely minute teeth, wbilst those witb a low dorsal have triangular 
ikayiigBala with larger teeth, increasing gradually in sixe and tbickness, from tbe 
>9pir Baigin of tbe bones towards tbe symphysis. Tbe difference in form of these 
^osfli arises ftom tbe circumstance tbat tbe slight ridge upon tbe outer surface of tbe 
veh io Carpiodet is transformed in this second type into a prominent edge, dividing 
tbe cater surface of tbe arcb into a posterior aod anterior plane, meeting under an 
Mote Angle, Tbis structural bomology is satisfactorily traced by the difference of tlie 
external appearance of these two planes, the posterior one being fall as the posterior 
half of tbe flat outer surface of tbe arch in Carpiodea^ whilst the anterior plane is 
^Miaely porous, indeed studded with deep pits unalogoas to the porous character of 
theoDterior half of tbe enter surface of that bono in Carpiodes. The teeth themselves 
^oompressed ; their grinding edge is rather blnnt, slightly raised in the middle, and 
pvorided witb a little cnsp along the inner margin, wbich is hardly detached from the 
cioviiy and docs not rise above its surface, as in CarpiodeSf Ichlhyobu8 and Cycleptus, 

"In tbis genus tbe bnlk of the body is not placed so far forwards as in CarpiodeSj tbe 
fcttest height being between head and tail. The upper outline of the body is less 
*^gly arched in advance of the dorsal ; the head is longer than high, and the snout 
^ more prominent than tbe mouth. The mouth opens obliquely downwards and 
Awards, tbe lower Jaw being nearly as long as tbe upper. The lips are small and 
fivialated. Tbe anterior rays of the dorsal are not separately prolonged beyond tbe 
'vtof tbe fin, though its anterior margin is higher than its middle and posterior por- 
^^ Tbe lower fins are as in Carpioda, 

'*Tbe scales have many narrow radiating farrows upon tbe anterior field, none across 
^ Itteral fields, and few upon tbe posterior fields, converging to the centre of radio* 



- .,.J, 



204 CONTRIBUnONS TO NORTH AMSRICAN ICUTHTOLOCFT — IIL 




tioD, to which tho tabes of the lateral line extend alio. For this new gmm I 
the name of Bkbalichtk!f§, intending to reoall the name of Bofiilo flahv eoni 
applied to thia species. To this genus belong the species I haw deasribad aa i 
una fiom the Tennesaed River, C ttuurua from Mobile River, and C* wUmUu from 
Wabash, and also the Caio9tomu$ niger of Raftoesque and Ca l dsloa i a t kiMat <tf 0r, 
land from the Ohio, bat not C. bubaUa Raflnesqne, which is the type of the geniia 
thjf€i^ descMbed in the following paragraph. I have another new spedaa from 
Osage River, sent me by Mr. George Stolley. This shows this type to be widely 
tribnted in oar western waters, bat thas far It haa not been Ibond In the Aittaati 
states. I have some doabts respecting the nomenclatare of these apealea wUoh 
rather difflpalt to solve. It will be seen npon reference to Raflnesgoe^a lehthyokulM 
Ohiensis, p. 55 and 56, that he mentions two species of his sabgenos J b i tty a ia Syene 
which he calls C. bubalua, and the other C. niger; the second he has not see 
bat describes it on the aathority of Mr. Aadabon as ' entirely similar to the eomi 
Boffolo fish,' his C, hubdlue, bat ' larger, weighing npwaids of fifty poands.' Dr. KIrt* 
land, on the other hand, describes the C hMbalm$ as the largest speelea firand In 
western waters, ond odds that the yonng is nearly elliptical in ita ontllne and ia 
sold in the market as a distinct species nnder the name of Bnftilo Foreh. If there 
only one species of Baffiilo in those waters the case woald be very simple^ nod the 
UmUmuB hubaJus and niger of Rofinesqne, and C. hnhaiue of l5r. Klrtland, shonld aimpl^' 
be considered as synonymons, bat Dr. Raach of Barlington has sent me fine apeelAieo^ 
of this Bnffalo Perch, to which the remark of Dr. Klrtland, ' elliptloa! In Its ontlioo^* 
perfectly applies, and I find that it not only differs specifically bat even genericall3p 
from the broader, high backed, common Baffalo, and being the smaller species, I tak.^ 
it to be Raflnesque's C. hubalua, tho type of his geuus IchihyobuBf which is more foil 
charaotjrisod below, whiUt the larger species, Kafinesqne'tt C. niger, can be no othc 
than Dr. Eirtland's C buhalusj * tho largest species of the western waters.' It seeoc: 
therefore hardly avoidable to retain the name uf C. niger or rather BuhaUckikge niy> 
for the common Baffalo, tboagb Rafinesqne, who tint named the fish, never saw it, 
if he saw it mistook it for his own bubaluSf aod though Dr. Kirtland, who correct 
describee and figures it, names it C. bubalua, for such is the natural result to which 
history of the successive steps in our investigation of these fishes lead. Bot oar dil 
culties here ore not yet at an end. Among the splendid collections I received fh>m 
Ranch, I found two perfectly distinct species of BubalichthpSy one with a large monc ^^ 
and the other with a small months and ono of IchthyobuSf living together in the Miss ^S^^ 
sippl River, in the neighborhood of Burlington, Iowa ; and the next question, prol 
biy never to be solved, will be, if they all three occur also in the Ohio, whether 
nesque*s C. niger was the big mouthed or tho small mouthed Bubalichihge, Judgii 
from the figure given by Dr. Kirtland in the Boston Journal of Natural History, voL 
pi. fig. 2, 1 believe his C. bubalus to be the small mouthed species. I myself have,ho! 
ever, seen only one specimen of the big mouthed species from the Ohio, and that 
rather an indifferent state of preservation; for which I am indebted to Prof. Baird, 
lione of the small mouthed species. Should, however, all three, as is possible, occur 
the Ohio as well as the Mississippi, to avoid introducing new names, I will call 
big mouthed species B, niger, preserving for it Rafinesqne's specific name,-^he 




k 



GENUS BUBALICHTHYS. 205 

moathed, B. hiihalu$f retaining for it the name which Dr. Kirtland has given it, oven 
lliODxh the speoies oflchthifobM most bear tho samo specific name, being that origin- 
mlly applied by Bafinesque. It may be that either my B. vitulus or my B. urua is iden- 
tical with Dr. Kirtland's C huhalus, but until I can obtain original specimens of this 
vpeeieey this point most remain undecided, as it is impossible for mere descriptions to 
inatitote a sniBctently minate comparison. The specimens from Osage Hiver I sbuU 
call B, hma9u$. 

"Compared with one another, these species differ as follows: B. niger^ (the big- 
moathed Boffalo) differs from B, bubalua (the small-monthcd Bufialu) by its larger 
BKmth, opening more forwards; its more elongated body, tho first rays of the dorsiil 
riMDg immediately above the base of the ventrals, and its anterior lobe being broader, 
mod the anal fin not emarginated ; B. bon^isua differs from B. bubalua and from B. niger 
iia having the month larger than the first and smaller than the second, and from B, 
h m ba l uM by its less emarginated dorsal, which renders its larger lobe broader, anal fin 
ii<9t emarginated, opercle larger. A farther comparison with the Southern species could 
only be satisfactory, if accompanied by accurate figures.^'— (Agassiz, Am, Journ.Sc. ArtSy 
1365, p. 192.) 

8CLEROGNATHC8 GUuther, 1869.—'* Scales of moderate or rather large nize. Lateral 

IxDe ronoing along the middle of the tail. Dorsal fin much elongate, with about 30 or 

SKicre rays, none of which xfre spinous. Anal fin short. Mouth small, inferior {Buba- 

Wi^Ukjfs) or snbterminal {Sclerognathu8)f with the lips more or less thickened. Barbels 

Qill-rakers long, stiff in tho upper two-thirds of the first branchial arch, niodi- 

into low membranaceous transverse folds in the lower third. Psendobranchiie. 

rngeal bones sickle-shaped^ armed with a comb-like series of numerous, compressed 

increasing in size downwards.^— (Gt^NTnER, Cat Fishes BHL Mus. vii, 22, 1^.) 

BuBALiCHTHYS Copo Sl Jordan, 1877. — ** Body oblong oval, compressed ; dorsal elon- 

l^iftte, elevated in front, of 20 or more rays ; fontanello present ; pharyngeal bones 

s^v^Dg, the teeth comparatively coarse and large, increasing iu size downwards; mouth 

inferior.'^— (Jordan, Froc, Ac. Kat So. Phila. 1877, p. 82.) 

ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OK BUBALICHTHYS. 

•fiody considerably elevated and compreksod above ; the dorsal region siibcarinatt^ : 
belly thicker; depth 2^ to 2} in length ; axis of body above the ventraU below 
the lateral line and nearly twice as far from the back as from the belly: head 
moderate, triangular in outline when viewed from the side, 4 in length: eye 
eqnal to snout, 4 to 5 in length of head, much larger than in Z/. nrus : mouth quite 
small, notably smaller and more inferior than iu B, urus : maudible about equal 
to eye: dorsal fin elevated in front and rapidly declined, the highest ray rench- 
ing much beyond the middle of the fio, the seventh ray about half the length of 
the third or longest; anal rays rapidly shortened behind, tho micdle rays much 
shorter than the first long ones: scalis 8-39-G; dorsal, 29; anal, 10; ventral.s, 
10 : coloration paler, tho lower tins slightly dusky bl'Balcs, 00. 

^ody much less elevated and less compressed than intheprecediug.thebackuotat all 
carinated ; axis of body above ventrals about at the lateral line, and but very lit- 
tle farther from tho dorsal outline than from the ventral ; depth 3 to 3^ in length : 
head very stoat, strongly transversely convex, thicker, larger, and lees pointed 



206 COSTBIBOnONS TO SORTH ASIERICAN ICHTUYOLOGY— in, 

Ibftn In tho next, aliuiit 4 in Icnglli : iifc nboiil eqaal to anont, S} In bfnd.nQck 
amaller Ibnn in B. hubalui: nidnlb largo, conalilerably oblitiae,apotiing wvllfM- 
warilR : niatKiiblu louf^er tbau ejc : dorsal Gd lower ami less ropidl; di 
tban in tbo uvit. Cbe longeBt ray ecarcelf half tbe longtli of tbo base of theSoi 
anal Jin rnauilcKl, its tnys cot ra|)iil]y Bhorteiied, th^ middle ones not macb «bonet 
tban Ibo louRcat: coIotb very dark; &aa all block: eeaXn* B-H-7; donil.JIt; 

anal, 10 crcs, 

*** MoQib Hinall. idfurior, Blifjbtly carrugatrd: depth 3( to 3^ in lengtli » bead 4 la 
□ot luaoh longer than biffh : eye rather amall, one-liftb of the leocth of ibebo^ 
und i thntot ibo mioiit : anlwrbitnls narrow. Anterior raya not tnnth prodnred, 
ahorler than ihv bead; caudal foikod. Origin of TCntral vertically belavtta 
fonrth dorsal ray. Pectoral Ha not extendiog to venttali- There * 
lon);[itudinal attrica of Bcalee botweou the latcrn! liue and tbo root of the venD*!- 
Coloration nnifoiQi, Scales 7-3i*-3 ; doraalSO; anal 10 MEitiDiONAU-sX 

50. BrTBALICHTHYS BUBALQS Agassiz. 

D-<ffalo-fii,h. Small-moulhed Buffalo. High-hacked Baffalo. 
\Sa6—Catotlom»> bubaUa Kuitland, Rept. Zool. Obio, 1G3. (Not of Haaneaqle.1 

Calottomut bahalat Kirtlaku, Boiton Jouro. Nut. Uist v, 266, lt)45. 

Caiattomaa biibalat Storbr, Synopsin, 424. lS4li. 

Buhallchthga bHbalus Acarsiz, Am. Joain. Sc. Artn, 3d serios, xiK, 195, ISSow 

Bubalidtlhga bubalue Jordan, Fisbea of Ind., 33S, Wb. 

Bubalichlhsa babalus JiinDAX & Copelaxd, Chock List, 108, 1976. 

Babalidiths* babaUi JonDAN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila.74, 1ST7. 

Biibal'ultttsi bahalut 3otcD\s Si. Gilbert, in KlLppaTt'aBept.53, 1ST7. 
1^4~r f CarpSodmi laumt Agassiz, Am. Jonrn. Soi. Arts, 355. { Not idt-ntifiable.) 




BUBALICIITHYS BUBALUS. 207 

Ibis 18 probably the most generally distribated of the various species 
owD popularly as Buffalo-fish. The question as to its proper nomen- 
itore is even more complicated than that of the next species. It 
\j be that this is the true Imbalus of Bafinesque, as supposed by Dr. 
rtland. But as that species was the type of the genus Ictiobusy the 
ntiflcatioD of Rafinesqne's species with the present one would lead 
changes in nomenclature far from desirable. The name IcMliyohus 
lid then belong to Bubalichthys and the genus Ichthyolym would 
Hve a new name. As this can never be proveu, it is best to consider 
issis's identification as correct and that of Dr. Kirtland wrong. The 
t mention of this species was that of Dr. Kirtland as Cato8tamti8 bu- 
tf. The name buhdlm, however, was given through an erroneous 
itification, and must be passed over. Next come Agassiz's names 
fH9 and vitidus^ both possibly belonging here, but just as likely be- 
;iug to tcrtM. Both of them, from the exasperating insufficiency and 
levance of the descriptions, are practically unidentifiable. Next is 
issiz's huhaluSy noticed below. The next name in order is that of 
hyobus cyanellus NeKson, wl^ich was based on this species, as I have 
TUiined by examination of his type. This is the first tenable name 
jin!y belonging to this species, unless we adopt the name bubalus. 
t comes Nelson's altus. A specimen answering Nelson's description 
til respects, and as evidently belonging to the species now under 
iideration, is at present before me. It is a fine adult example, 
tly comes my own bubalintis, intended merely as a substitute for the 
le ^'' bubaliiH^^ not then considered tenable as the specific name of 
species, having been given to it originally by an error in identifica- 
. The adoption of the name bubalus by Agassiz after the knowledge 
his error may, however, be considered as a proposal of a new name, 
original descriptions of iaurusj vitulusj cyaneUuSj and alius are hete 
joined. 

arpiodes taurua Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1855, p. 355. — '* From 
)ile River, Alabama. The form of the body is intermediate between 
t of C Cyprinus and 0. Urns. The gill-cover has the same form as 
?. UruSy but it is larger and more strongly arched behind. The hind 
'gin of the scales is waving, owing to a somewhat prominent mid- 
aoglo. The anterior rays of the dorsal equal in length two-thirds 
tkal of the base of the fin. Anal not lunate behind. The ventrals 
'^eh to the anal opening. Caudal not so deeply furcate as in 



208 CONTBIBin-IOXS TO KOBTU AMEBtCAN lOHTnTOLOOT — ^HI. 

Carpiodea Titulus Agaseiz, Am. Journ. Sc. Arts, 1865, p. 356, — "Fna 
tlio WnbiisL Kiver, ludiaDa, Tbis seems to tw a smaller species ibu 
the preceding ones. The form of the body resembles that of C Tiam, 
bat the eyes iiru smaller ; the operule U more broadly rouDded bebiad} 
the Riiboperelo has its posterior and free border regalarly arched aban 
and below, aod oot emarginate as in C. Taurus. Tbe directioa of At 
uamiTotit) water-tabes on tbe bead and cheeks also differ. Tbe nppv 
and lower bonier of the scales are nearly straight. The dorsal doetnol 
exti'nd quite so fur forward. I am indebted to Uol. Btchard Oveaof 
New Uiirmouy for this species." 

Ickthjobus cganellvs 'SelsoJt, Bnll.Ills. Mas. Nat. Oist i, 1877, p. 49.- 
" BIno BuQ'iilo. A number of specimens of this spL-cies aro in theibti 
collcciioD, from tlio Illiooia liver, and in Prof. Jordan's collection, fn» 
the Mississippi at 8t. Louis. The following is the description, (stei 
from several specimens, measuring from S to 9^ inches is length :— 

" Head about 3^ in length. Depth 2^ to 5-6. Bye 4^ to 5^ in hetd. 
Dorsal I, 30. Anal 1, 8. YentniU 10. Lat I. 38. Longitodinal nrni 
7-5 to l-G. Body compressed, high. Anteriorly broad, oomptenti 
behind. Longest ray reaching 18th ray. Pectorals shorter than n» 
tmis, both shorter than head. Anal scarcely reaching caadal; bead 
Yery short, high and thick ; its thickness ^ length, depth 1} in lenfA 
Uonth quite small, oblique, and overlapped by a slightly projeetiK 
SDont. Mandible short, 4 in head. Opercle becoming wrinkled rttt 
lU-,ii\ ^;il.l]!, sliort .iml tliic!; ; mazzli.' oliliiso, conic, not tw 




BUBALICHTHTS URU8. 209 

^ Lateral line perfectly straiji^bt from upper edp^o of opercle to caudal. 

^ Scales, 8-35-5. Dorsal 1. 25 ; A. 1. 9. 

^^Golor in spirits, dull yellowish olive; fins dusky. 

'* Type specimen 12 inches long, iu Ills. State Museum, from Cairo, 

ioois.'' 

61. BUBALICHTHYS URUS Agassiz. 

Big-moutked Bvffalo, Black Buffalo, Mongrel Buffalo, 

8— f f Amblodom niger Bafinesqiie, Jonrnal do Physique Phila. 421. (Entirely uo- 
recognizable.) 

f t CiUostomua niger Bafinesque, Icbth. Oli. 56, 18*20. (Unrocoj^nizablc ; more 
likely Cycleptua elongatua.) 

BahaUchthga niger Agassiz, Am. Jonru. 8c. Arts, 2d series, xix, 195, 1655. 

BMbalickthga niger Jordan, Fishes of lud. 222, 1875. 

Bubaliehthgit niger Joudan, Bull. Buffalo Soe. Nat. Hist. 95, 187G. 

Bmbalickthgii niger Jordan, Man. Vert. 29d, 1870. 

Btihalichthga niger Nki:kon, Bull. No. 1, Ills. Mns. Nat. Hist. 50, 1876. 

Bnbalickthga niger Jordan &, Copeland, Check List, 158, 1876. 

BmhaUckthgs niger Jordan, Pruc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 75, 1877. 

Bnbalichtkga niger Jordan & Gilbert, in Klippart's Rept. 53, 1876. 

Buhalickthga niger Jordan, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. is, .34, 1877. 

Buftalichthgn niger Jordan, Man. Vort. cd. 2d, :^i 
4 — Carpiodea uruB Agassiz, Am. Journ. So. Art^, 355. 

Bmhaliehtkg$ nrus AOASSiz, Am. Jonrn. Sc. Arts, 2d sor'es, xix, 193, 1855. 

Bnhalichthgs urus Putnam, Bull. Mus. Conip. Zuol. 10. 1863. 

Bmbaiickthgn nrua Jordan, Fishes of Ind. 222, 1875. 

Bwbaliekthyn urun Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 158, 1876. 
h—Bulfalithtkyii honaaus Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sc. Arts, 2d seiie^^, xix, 195. 

BmbalitkthgB bonanuM Jordan 6l Copeland, Check List, l.')8, 1876. 

Ubitat. — Mississippi Valley, in the larger streams. 

rbis is an abundant species in the Mississippi and its larger tributa- 
8. It is very distinct from the preceding, almost intermediate between 
AalichthyH huhalm and Ichthyobm bubalus. It may indeed be necessary 
unite these two genera on account of this species. 
fhe question of the name which elionld be borne by this species is a 
7 difficult one. Inasmuch as Rafinesque's C. niger was known to him 
ly through the accounts of Mr. Audubon, a gentleman known to have 
ijed. several practical jokes on the too credulous naturalist, and to 
led bim thereby to describe and name several impossible animals, 
lamoch as no real description whatever is given by Riifinesque, 
that the name niger can be used only on the authority of 
that of Ba '^bat being the case, the name 



210 CONTBIBUTIOKS TO NORTH AHEBICAM ICHTHTOLOGT — m. 

uriM of AgasBiz, which nnquestioDably belongs to this species, hu 
year's priority over niger, and is really the first tenable name applied I 
any species of BubalickViys. Tbeoriginol accontit giveii by Bafloesqiwi 
his Catostomu* niger auA that by Professor Agassiz of his BubalidA 
urva I bere append. Agassiz'd descriiitious of B. niger and B. boun 
have been previously given nnder the head of the genos. 

Catostomiu [Ictiobug] nigar Raf. Ich. Ob. p. 56. — "Eutirely black; Ii 
era! line straight; 1 have not seen this flsb. Mr. Andabon describea 
as a pecniiar species foun<l in the Misaissippi and the lower part of fl 
Obio, being entirely similar to the cooimort Buffaloflsb, bat large 
weighing upwards of fifty poundtt, and living in separate schools." 

Carpiodes urtu Agassis, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, 1854, p. 355. — "Fm 
the Teuuesitee Uiver. It grows very large, weighing occasionally Iroi 
30 to 40 pounds. The body in this species is not so high as in C. e|^ 
naa, nor is it so compressed above; the scales are also not so bigb, In 
more angular behind, and the anterior portion of the dorsal is not i 
elongated. The gill-cover is larger, nod the distance from the hind ba 
der of Ihe eye to the inferior angle of the subopercle near the b«ei 
the pectorals and the distance from the same point to the saperiorii 
posterior angle of the opercle, are nearly equal. In 'C. csprinuM the dl 
tances iliffer by nearly one third. The tmboitersle is not triangnlir, N 
its bind border is nearly regularly arched fmm tbe npt>erangletolk 
posterior angle of the interopercle. The anal has its iMmterior Bir|l 




QEHUS lOHinTOBUS. 211 

Ughtly oonrogated. The height of the body is contained thrloe and 
M third or thrice and one fourth in tlie total length (without caudal), 

• 

he length of the head four times or four times and a half; head not 
iteh longer than high. Bye rather small, one fifth of the length of the 
Mid and two thirds of that of the snont; suborbitals narrow. The 
mturior dorsal rays* are not much produced, being shorter than the 
^Md. Oaadal fln forked. The origin of the ventral fin is vertically 
Mow the fourth dorsal ray. Pectoral fln not extending to the ventral, 
there are five longitudinal series of scales between the lateral line and 
fte root of the ventral. Coloration uniform. Pharyngeal teeth very 
Domerous and small, increasing somewhat in size downwards. 
^'BioUsamaointa (Guatemala)." 

Genus IGRTBY OB\J 8 Bqfinesque. 

RAinnuQUX, Joarnal de Physiqae. de Chymie et d'Histoire NAtaielle, Pwrii^ 
481,1819. (Part.) 
hMu Hafikbsqub, Icb. Ob. 1880, p. 55'. (As sabgenoB of CaUMtamum,) 
Mi§tkM A0A8SIZ, Am. Joani. Sol. Arta, 1855, p. 195. 
Trpe, AmJUodon NMm Rafineeqae. 
^^TBology, IjfiiKf fisl^ ; /Sovf , boll or bnffalo ; i. e., baffalo-fish. 

Head very large and strong, wide and deep, its length 3^ to 3| in that 
efthe body, its upper surface broad and depressed; eye moderate, 
vbolly anterior in position, the middle of the head being entirely behind 
it;8Qborbital bones proportionately narrow; fontanelle large, well o[)en; 
<^percQlar apparatus largely developed, the subopercaium broad, the 
<lKrcatum broad, strongly furrowed. 

Moath very large for a Sucker, terminal, protractile forwards, the 
Diddle of the premaxillariea rather above the line of the middle of the 
^ye, the posterior edge of the maxillary extending about to the line of 
^ oostrils; mandible very strong, oblique, placed at an angle of 45 
degrees or more when the mouth is closed, its posterior end extending 
^beyond op[K)site the front of the eye, its length a little less than one- 
*ird that of the head. Lips very little developed, the up[)er narrow 
M smooth, scarcely appreciable, the lower narrow, rather full on the 
Mee, but reduced to a narrow rim in front, entirely destitute both of 
fSpDbeand plic®; jaws without cartilaginous sheath; muciferous sys- 
(^ of head well developed ; isthmus narrow ; pharyngeal bones in form 
'itenediate between those of Carpiodes and those of Bubdlichthy8j the 
^te surlkoe of the arch standing outwards/ and presenting a porous 



212 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — IH. 

outer margin. The peduncle of the symphysis is mnch longer propor- 
tionally, and more pointed than in Carpiodea and Bub€Lli4Aihgs, The 
teeth are very nnmerous, small, thin and compressed in Carpiodei,hvX 
the lower ones are gradually larger than the upper ones. Their inner 
edge is slanting outwards, and not uniformly arched as in BubaUcktkfi, 
or truncate as in Cycleptus, the innermost margin rising somewhat in the 
shape of a projecting cusp. Gill-rakers of anterior arch long and slender 
above, becoming shorter downwards. 

Body heavy, robust, not especially arched above nor greatly com- 
pressed, the form somewhat elliptical, the depth 2^ to 3} in the length 
of the body. 

S(!ales large, thick, nearly equal over the body, their posterior edges 
somewhat serrate, the lateral line well developed, but not as distinct as 
in CiirpioileSy slightly decurved anteriorly, the number of scales in its 
course 30 to 42; 13 to 15 in a transverse series from dorsal to ventrals. 

Dorsal iin with an elongate basis, its number of rays 25 to 30, the 
anterior rays somewhat elevated, their length about half that of the 
base of the fin ; caudal not much forked ; anal fin not much elevated, 
its rays about in number; pectorals and ventrals moderate, tho latter 
with about 10 rays. 

Sexual peculiarities, if any, unknown. Coloration dark, not silvery, 
above dusky olive; lower tins more or less black. 

Air- bladder with two chambers. 

Size very large. 

The claim of this group to generic rank has been questioned by Pro- 
fessor Cope and others. The difierences in the pharyngeal teeth are 
perhaps liardly suflicient to distinguish it from CarpiodeSj but at pre^nt 
I am iiK-lined to think that the great development of the mandible, 
which forms a large and terminal mouth, am[)ly sufficient for generic 
distinction. The relations of the group to Bubalichthys are doubtless, 
in reality, closer. Ichthyobtis bears much the same relation to Buba- 
lichthi/s that (Jhasimstcs does to Catostomus, and, so far as the mouth is 
concerned, but in a greater degree, that Erimyzon bears to Minytrenia 
and Placophanjnx to Myrostoma. The head of Ichthyohm is much larger 
and stouter, and the whole body more robnst and less compressed than 
in Carpiodes, I know from autopsy but a single species of Ichthych^^* 
It has, however, been described under several dififerent names. So f*^ 
as is known, the genus is confined to the valley of the Mississippi, ^^ 
species having been recorded from the Great Lakes, or from any strcftt^s 



GENUS ICHTHYOBUS. 213 

the Alleghanies. No members of the suborders Cycleptinm and 
ktkyina are knowo from the United States west of the basin of 
Graade. 

Srpical species was first described under the name of Amhlodon. 
imAmblodonoi Bafinesque, 1819, is based on the same species 
Ictwbus of 1820. The name Amblodonj however, was given in 
to the pharyngeal teeth of Haploidonotus grunniena^ popularly 
d to be the teeth of the BufiTalo tish, the presence of which teeth 
posed to distingaish Amblodon from Catostomtut. This error was 
rds discovered by liaiinesque, and the name Amblodon trans- 

the Scisenoid fish. As Amblodon of Kafinesque included the 
genera Haploidonotua and IchthyobuSj erroneously confounded, 

on the discovery of this error its author restricted the name to 
onotusy I think that we are justified in retaining Ichthyobus 
of Amblodon for the genus of Catostomoids. 

Generic Characterizatiotie. 

X>N Rafinesqae, 181'J.— " 16. Ambix)i>on. (Abdominal,) Diff<6reDtda genro 
«. Macboire iDf^ricare pavde de dents osseuHes serr^es arrondies, h cooronne 
gales. — Lea poiasons de ce genre, qui abondent dans VObio, le Missoari et le 
>i, BODt distingu^Ses par le nom vulgaire de Boffaloe-Fish (Poisson boaffle) 
n^oia de la Louisiane les nomment Piconeau. II y en a plusieurs esp^ces qui 
nt soQvent 4 nne tr^ grosse taille. Les deux suivants habitent dans TObio. 
i/iM. Brnn oliv&tre p&le dessous, joncs blancbfttres. D. 2d, A. 12, P. 16, A. 9, 
A, niger est enti^renient noir; tous deux ont la li^^ne lat^rale droite, queue 
*te tronqu^, etc. lis sout tr^s-bons h manger." — (Rafinesqur, Journal de 
flc p. 421.) 

'S Rafinesque, 1820. — *' Body nearly cylindrical. Dorsal fin elongated, abdom- 
Brith nine rays, tail bilobed, commonly eqnal."^RAFiXE8QUE, Ichthyologia 
». 55.) 

OBVS Agasaiz, 1855. — ^* In tbe form and position of tbe fins, as well as in tbe 
itline of tbe body, tbis genus is very nearly related t<> Buhalichihya, bnt in the 
9f the p:irts of the head, it is quite dissimilar. The mouth opens directly 
aod is large and ronnd. Tbe lips are small, smooth and thin ; the upper one 
cker than the intermaxillary itself, and tapers to a narrow edge. At the 

1 of the lower jaw, which is larger than in any other genus of this group, the 
is hardly more than a thin membrane connecting its small lateral lobes. 

e is small, and the o{)ercul iv pieces very large. 

smies have many narrow radiating furrows upon the anterior field ; none 
lateral fields, few upon the margin of the posterior field and these not ex- 
» tlie centre of radiation. Tubes of the lateral line straight and simple, 
vfy ttt tke middle of tbe posterior field. 

ll taMi anneither flat as in Carpiodea nor triangular as in BubalUhthya, 



I * 



214 COSTBIBUTJONS TO NOBTH AMEEICAH ICHTHYOLOGY — lU. 

but prcseDt an iotecmediale form ; Ibc outer suiface of Ilia tktcb sttmdiog oiilvirii 
and pregeutiug a porous outer margiu. Tbtt peduncle of Ibe Bympbj'His ia marli Joi 
proporliooaltj and [uori> poiuted tbun iu Carjiiod^t and Dabalichthgt. The Uelb in 
vBcj Dumeroun, bhiqII, thin aud couipressed bb in Carpiodti, but tbe loner anet an 
gradiiall; larger tbnn tbe upper oues. Their inner edge is slautinu outwards, UdM 
uniforuil; arcbed ae iu Bubalichlhi/ii or trunciit« as iu Cfdeptiu, tbe innernicBt ] 
riainK sompwbat in tbe shape of a piojecting cDsp."^ — (Agassik. Am. Joan. ScMy 
1855, p. I960 

IcHTRVOBUS CupeA, Jordan, li^.— "Body oklongOTitliCompruMed ; donalcdcnkl 
JD front, of 20 or more rays ; fontanelle present ; pharyngeal bones narrow, wi 
leetb relatively thin and weak; mootb laige, Bubtertuiual, protractilo foiwai^'- 
(JoRDA-v. Proo. Jo. ATflt-ScPiila. 1877,p.lfi) 



* Body Tobnst, uioderalelj comptesned, tbe ontliue Bomewbat elliptical, bat tbe iai 
rather more curved tbau the belly ; depth 21 to 3^ in length : head very Urgs U 
thick, ^1} in leugtb of body : opvrcniur uppiiratUH very atroog, the oporculDm iImI 
forming nearly half tbe leiigib of tbe bead : scales very large: developed nj*' 
thedonml 27 to 29; anal riiys U; ventrals 10: scales 7-37 to 41-6: coloraliondri 
browniHb-olive, not silvery ; fiiiit dneky : size very large, rescbt-s a length ofuMt 
three feet awl a weight of 20 to 30 pounds Bi'MIWifl 

63. ICHTHYOBUS BCBALCTS {Rafitte»que) Agtutiz. 

Aeil-mOHik Buffalo Fiii. Largt-moulkci Buffalo. 

1818— JmiWon bubatiia BAFt!lES<ll'E, Journiil de Physique, 421. 

Calm ofliKi Aubaliio Rafikesqur, Am. Houtb. Mag. Hud Cril. Bev.351. 191S. 

Cofoi-om..- fc«f"i(«. Ravinrsqitb. m,. Oli. fi!>, 1820, 




ICHTHT0BU8 BUBALUS 215 

leikj/obtu rmuekU Putnam, Ball. Mas. Comp. Zool. 10, 1863. 

IcAjfO^MM rauckU JoEDAJS & COPELAXD, Cbeok List, 158, 1876. 

Iethjfohu9 rautMi Jokdan & Gilbekt, ia Klippart's Ri*pt. 53, 1876. 

idklAyo6iM rmuokii Johdan, Mod. Vort. ed. 2d, :^, 187^. 
B&— /cfAfofrM ttoUejfi Aqassiz, Am. Journ. Sc Arte, 2d serios, xix, 196. 

letkpohmB ttolUjfi Jordan & Copeland, Check List, 158, 1876. 
V7^Ieikjfobms itchyrtu Nrlson, MSS.— Jobdan, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Pbila. 72. 

Ictkjfobut itekifruB Jobdan Sl CoPkland, Check List, 158, 1876. 

Ictkgobma UckgruB Jordan Sl Gilbert, ia Klippart's Bept. 53, 1876. 

IdUkifabHt itKkgrua Jordan, Moo. Vert. ed. 2d, 323, 1878. 

HABiT^r. — Mississippi Volley ; geoerally abaadant ia the larger streams. 

Au exaiDiDation of a large series of wide-mouthed Buffalo fishes 
XHD the Ohio, Wabash, IlIiDois, and Mississippi Bivers has conviDced 
le, ooutrary to my previous impressious, that all belong to a siugle 
pedes. It is do^ absolutely certain what Bafinesqae's Caiostomua 
lAalus was. It is perhaps as likely to have been a species of Bttba- 
ifiUkjftf, as supposed by Dr. Kirtland, as an Ichthyobus, I however 
dlow Professor Agassiz in identifying it with the present species, 
rhick is, at the Falls of the Ohio, where Kafinesque's collections were 
lade, probably the most abundant of the Buffalo-fishes. Neithei' 
Ufiaesque nor Professor Agassiz has, however, recognizably described 
he K()ecie8. In my Manual of Vertebrates, in 1876, 1 gave a short 
ceoant of Ichthyobus 2»K5a2u«, drawn from two large specimens taken in 
•Vabash River at Lafayette. Besides these, I have numerous smaller 
peciiueus, obtained in the Mississippi at Saint Louis. As these differed 
the greater compression of the body and higher flus, I have identi- 
4^1 them as belonging to IchthyobuH rauchii Agassiz, an identification 
•bich I still think correct. In 1877, Mr. Nelson described an Ichthyobus 
tkyruSj Irom Mackinaw Creek, a tributary of the Illinois Itiver, near 
'eoria. His typical specimen was very stout and deep, and at the time I 
lought with him that it was probably distinct from I. bubalus. Lately I 
i\e been enabled to reexamine the type of J. 2«o/t^rt//f in the State Museum 
' Illinois, and to compare it with a numerous series from the same 
cality. I found it possible to establish au unbroken series among 
em, connecting the nominal species which I had termed bubalun^ 
uchiij and iachyrus, the differences separating them being, in my opin- 
I, due either to difi'erences of age or to individual peculiarities. iVe 
deticription of any importance has been published of I. stollcyi^ J 
lode it as a synonym of 7. btibalus. I know nothing whatever con- 
)g ik IditkjfobuM cyane'lus Nelson, as below stated, is a species of 



216 CONTBIBHTIONS TO NOBTH AMEBICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — HL 

Buhaliclifhjs. The description of SckroijiialUM cyprineUa ValeiicieDnM 
rofera principally to the peueric features of these fishes. It agr*t«fn!lj 
with /. bubulus, except in the uaniber of scales above the UterBlline, 
A (liSerente doubtless due to ti diSereiice in the place or the oidtiuec of 
making The count. AsnospeciUcchaructera are known, and aa the Jdk 
ihiob:ij< bubaliut doubtless abounds in the Loiver as in the Upper Mim- 
sippi, [ lei^tT I.cyprineHa to ibenvnonymyoi*/. &u6a jus. ilio original tm 
having; probably been a young siicuimeii of that sjiecies. This (tt>«ci»l 
perhaps Ihe largest of the CatoHtmnida, ivaeliiug a weight of liOwSI 
pounds iiiidaleDgth of more than two leel. Tbeyouiig(-'McA$^'')*K 
sold in the Illinois markets uixler ifae naoie oC Ited-uioulh BafialA 
the adult l^eiDg called simply BufiiLlo. A species which I supixMc tote 
the pi-esent one [ have seen lukeu in immense niimlH-is, by uieau*/ 
Hemes, in ihn Mississippi River at Bmlinglmi, Iuw;i. The tlesh in cood, 
although not first-rate. It is lalher (Kiarse, and is lull of small bun(«. 

For purposes of comparison 1 here add the oiigiiial deseripliouii offt 
egprinella, I. ravchii, I. utolieyi, anil /. iscAyrux : — 

ScLKMOCKA-l uus CVPIIIMCU^ ValuuoieiiDcs.--" Riva ce me semble. ne JaoLADOM 
imi^paratiou deitBolrirogDalbeadii ^eiire d«t Catostonii^s i]qh I'ltpiice doni Jb val*ildM 
Mi Ift d*<»ci liitioD. Aveu QQi- bonubc, fomi^o comme ccUc du Scirrogmallm* efpnmM,!lll 
yojoaa I'ouvei luce purt^o aa bout dii museau, la Idvre inr6rieare plGa longm qM' 
Mlp£nt>iiie, ul pur couiifqiit-Qt il n'j' a pluH je poBail)ilil^ d'emplojiBr la buueba J» 







MTXOCTPRINUS A8IATICUS. 217 

rroBUS 8TOLLXTI Agftssiz.^'* Body higher than in Ichthfobus rauchii, profile 
And hence anont blnnter, opercnUr bones larger ; fins proportionally of the 
xe. From Osage Biver, Missouri.'' 

ITOBU8 I6CBTBC8 Nelson. — '*This is a very stont and heavily bnilt species: 
I in length ; head extremely broad between the eyes and but slightly convex ; 
th 3( times in length of body ; snoot short and rounded, opercular apparatus 
lepih of head 1^ in its length ; width of head H ; eye 6| iu head. If in suout, 4 
orbital space ; caudal peduncle a little deeper thdh long ; scales 7-37-7, nearly 
t, a little crowded anteriorly, finely punctate ; fins all small ; dorsal 1, 27 ; anal 
iah olive above; yellowish below ; fins blackish.'' 

SpeeUnetu in United Sialea XtUional Museittn. 



BT. I Locality. 



74 Illinois Biver at Peoria (very large ; typical of hubtUus) 



Collector. 



8. A. Forbes. 



Genus MYXOCYPRINUS Gill. 

piiatitf Gill, Johnson's Cyclopaedia, p. ir)74, 1878. 
m ef Sderognathiu sp. Blbkkkr, GDniuer. 
, Carpiode$ oHatUms Blocker, 
lology, ftviaUf to suck ; tcOirpivoCi a carp. 

\ gcnas i8 known to me only l-oin Dr. Bleeker's descriptioa of ita 
1 species. Whether it diflfers from its relatives, IcJithyobus, Buba- 
», etc., in any other character than the obvious one of the great 
se in the number of its dorsal rays and the smaller scales, I do 
low. In any event, however, its right to independent generic rank 
aestionable. 

Generic Characterizations. 

>CYPRIIIU8 Gill, 187{^. — *'' Mjfxocyprinus is a name proposed for the Carpiode$ 
t of Bleeker, which is dibtingnisbed by the multiradiate doimil and anal fins 
52; A. 13)." — (Gill, Johnson's Cyclopadiay Appendix, p. 1574.) 

W. MYXOCYPKIXUS ASIATICUS (Bleeker) Jordan. 

'arpiodcs asiaticus Blkeker, Nederl. Tydt»chr. Dierk. ii, 19. 
clrroffnathus asiaticus GUntiiuk, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, 23, 1868. 

FAT.— China. 

only knowledge of this species is from Dr. Bleeker's original de- 
DD, which I here subjoin : — 

BV Attanccs BIkr. — Carpiod. corpore oblongo compresso, altitudine H^ 
■a absque, 3^ circiter in longitudine corporis cum piuua caudali, 



2J8 C0NTBIBUTI0N8 TO NOBTH AHBBICAM ICHTHTOLOOT— m. 

done vulde elevato maiime compreBao ; latitadiae corporis 3^ oiiciter in cjoa illilt- 
diue; capitis obtaao 5 feroia loDftitodiiie coiporis abeqneiaintiler in loDgilsdiDecor 
poria com pinna cBuduti J ocalis in media capitis longitadine sitiB,dittinelro 5 droto 
in lougiiudine capitis, diametria 2| circLter diEtantibDa; linea roatio^onali vettinet 
ADDtedeclivl roctiu8cu]a,roetTO voldeconvexa; oftribtu oibitfs appnutimatis, poM*- 
Tioribos valvula clandendis ; roatio obtnao tmncatinacnlo rald« oorooan aatt ricWi 
pTomineDte ; lablis vald« caraoais papillatia, inferioi^lolii* pamiu prodnctia; oMeub- 
orbitali nnteriore aat longe >nte orbitam sito, aoaphBafbiini, duplo circitar knipoia 
quam alto apice acato aDbiaranin apectante; oeae saboibitali i^ obliqne tetngoaa 
sqae alto circiter ao longo; OBsib!>s Baborbitalibna ceteria (^cilibns ocoli lHamrtW 
quadrDpla circiter bnmilioribna; opeicnlo duplo citx:iter aItioraqn4xni lato laaTgiaibai 
poateriore et ioferiora coovexo ; oene acapulari valde brevi et obi nao ; oaubna phura- 
gealiboa couiprcaaia sat vaiidia attioribna quam latin, dentibiia 30 ad 50 o 
corona vultjo uuitubercutalis; squstnis dimidio libeto et ditoidio ba 
•triatta, TiO in liuca lalerali, 24 in aerie (ranaveieali abbqae ventroliliua inSmia qavu 
12 lineam lattraluDi ioter et ioitiam piptia! dorsalia; sqnamm linea laterali pwtiM 
medio emargiuatis ; linea iateralia aiugulis isquauiia tubulo simplioe marKlnam mpai 
manim liberiini attingente sotata ; pinuis dorsuli ct anali basis vagina atioaomalB' 
olusa, dorsali baHi uou didUo plua cjno 2 iu longitudiuu totina coiporia, loDge aoH 
pionoa TCDtrales incipientc, antico valdo elevata corporo vix hmsiliore, acuta, nUl 
emarginata, lutdio et poatice co: poro qnadruplo circiter bumiliore radio pwtico ndk 
anali poslicosubop|H>ailo; pinuia pecU)ralibns tomuilak-a capita loogiotibaa, vMtM 
lea noDattinK^utibnai venlralibua acute rotouilatiB pectucalibua non mnlto bravioiibM 
mnateui uon atiingeulibua; atiali corpore minaa duplo bumiliore, duplo altionqnM 
baai tonga, acutiusculu rotundata uou emargiuata ; caudali prolnude emarginata M* 
acutia 4} corciter iu lODgitudiud corporis ; colore corporo [n»c«8ceDt»-oHvaceo, piDK 
fuaco vel fuKcu-violaceo. 
"B. 3. D.4-49. P.I-17. V.2-I1. A. 3-11 vel 4-10. C. 1-16-1 et Utbrev. 




Big-mouUied Sucker of Ulah Lake. 

• 

'Jkan»i9te$ feeundua Ji>rdan. Ball. Hayden^H Qeol. Snrv. Terr. \y, No. 2, 417. (Not 

Cai&^omu$ fecundua Cope &, Yarrow.) 
TkanUeUs fecwndue Jordan, p. 150 of the present work. 

06 pages 149-151 of the present work were in press, I bave care- 
recompared Cope and Yarrow^s description and figareof their Cato- 
ifecundusj and my notes on their typical specimens, with the speci- 
on which the genas ChamnisUs was based, and I have come to the 
tsion, hinted at in the text, that the Chasmistes is a species distinct 
G. fecunduBy and thus far undescribed. The specific name liortis 
smooth; Spo^^ border) is therefore proposed for it, in allusion to 
looth lips. 

28(6). OATOSTOMUS FE0UNDU8 Capedk Yarrow. 

• Sucker of Utah Lake, 

Momomme fecuMdue Cope & Yarkow, Zool. Lioat. Wheeler's Exp'. W. lOOtb Mer. 

678, plate xxxii, fig8. 1,1a. 
Oaioeiomnefecundue J oliDAV & Copelakd, Cbeck List, 156, 1-76. (Name only. 

Not CetloaUmuefeeundua Jordan, Ball. U. S. Nat. Mus. xi ; nor Chaemistesfeoundua 

JordAD, Ball. Hayden's Geol. Sarv. Terr, iv. No. 2, 417.) 

rrAT.— Utah Lake. 

Stated above, I at first identified Chasmistes liorua from Utah 
with this Bi^ies from the same waters, the two being very sim- 
I to scales and fins, and the form of the month and snout in the 



220 COKTBIBDTIOirS TO KORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOQX— 

If tioal key to the spedee of the geuus. IT tlie upper lip is narroir, vS tlb 
few rows of taberdes, it will uot be eass to separate /Mtintf us fiuiu fef-^«- 
If the lip is broad, with man)' series of tubercles, it n ill be approximat ^e*i 
to C oCtffdmCalWf differing, buwever, iu the larger senles (nbout 00 in 
the lateral line, instead of 72). 1 therefore quolc the original ilescrft lo- 
tion, and leave the relations of the species to be BDally settled at soi^ue 
fiitnre time : — 

"It Ua tca«CI«tottoaiiM haTiog tlie parietal foDtanelle veil nmrkinlaud K-idelyop^n. 
Tbobewleiitenlii enUra length 5 Mmes, tbe diaaietorof Iba ocliit 6 tinjus in greule^C 
l^tifHl of tide ol bMd. Tbe InMrtiun of t lie dorsal fin ante riocly is nearer I u flierx*<A 
of the miuale tbui inMrtloii of CKUdal ; Ibe ventraln origioatiug below middle of dor-— 
mL Tbe width of the donal to Ttottnl euti:is tliHintire Icogdi toiiievMiuD of cauil**^ 
etimee. 

" Badli : D. 19-13. A.1-8. P.7. V. 11. Scalca ere in SOloDKitudiuiiI rowsfruui Cb^ 
fDMrtioQ of tbe flrgt donal to pectoral, and io 60 transvetHe ruws (rom Lnmofaiie t«> 
IneartltHi of eaad^ : tbe^ on elo&gaio hdiI wtagoDal, BDiallcr on dorsal region, bx>«3 
Iwgw on Tentntl. Bodrelongmted, tmbfuuifoTm. It differs from C. {Janaus) amena^M^, 
Otl^ In tnwiy pftrtiODlW*, M KIB7 bi.^ seen fivm the (oIluwiDg uompariwins. 

"Ginrd'eqteateahaeiio fimtanellL'; ia shorter and carroner; tliediametur of url>lt 
•atere g tea te at length of ride of bead 5 limts iuatead of 6. Tbo atitertor Insertioa of 
doiMtl fin U eqnldUbuit betweeo tbi.- end of the suout aod the insertion of tho cuniM aa-l . 
while in C.fecundui, it is nearer the olid of ihc scioiit than iiiecrliiiii of .■umlnl, X*He 
veatrala in Cgraerosas originate nnder tbe poaleijor third of tbe donel; in C. >!»•»*■■»• 
under the a iii die tbird of the doraal. Tbe redii in C. poMnmuare: D. 10, A 2,7^ F- 
1G,V.10,C.27; in C./ecandtu; U. 12-13, A. 1,8,P. 17. V. II. 

"Thie ei)«ci*iH ie aliundaut in Utah Lake, and ia called 'Sacker' by tbe settl^**^ 
They run well up the rivers to spawn in June ; feed on the bottom and eat «paiM» ^^ 
better fish ; spawning beds on gravel ; bite at hook sometimee ; are extremely niiu***^ 
one, and are considered a nuisance by tbe fisbermen, bat tbey meet with a z«ady W ^* * 
in winter, at on average price of 2} cents a ponnd."— (Cofi &, Yarbuw, L o.) 

Bpadmm* in Unilei Staiei yalional Unteum. 



Number. 


Locality. 


CoUeolor. 





















BIBLIOGRAPHY 



ThefollowiDg list comprises all tbe works known to the writer iu which 
Dew si)ecie8 or genera of Catostomidcc are indicated, or in which original 
dMcriptioDS are given of genera or species previously known. In general, 
I Imve endeavored to include all papers in which anything of importance 
VI8 added to or wbtracied from the sum of our knowledge of these 
hhes:— 

PORSTBR (John Reinhold). [Descriptiou of Cyprinua catostomw Foroter. ) < Philo- 
Mpbical TrannactioDB, vol. 63, London, 1773. 

LACfiPtDB (Bernard Germain ^tlenne de la ViUe-sur-Illon, Comtede). Hietoiro 
Natarvlle des Poissons par lo Citoyen La C(^p^e, membre de I'Institnt national, 
«t Prof(f8i>ear du Museum de biHtoire nnturelle. Tome premier ^ cinqai^me. 
A Paris, cbez Platuian, imprirreur libraire, Rne d(i Cimetibre Andrd-des-Arc^, No. 
10. Uan VI do la Rdpublique, — ITUrf [— L'au XI de la R6publique, i. e. Ie03]. 

• IDMcriptioiis of Le Cjprin catostooie, Cj/prinus eatostomus Forster, Le Cyprin coiumersonien, 
Md LeCjprin sacet, Oyprinus sucetta Ldc6p6de.J 

BLOCB (Mark Elieser) and SCHNEIDER (Johann Oottiob). M. E. Blocbii 
l^orisMedtcintB Berolinen8i8, et societatiboH literariis multis adscript i, Systema 
IcbthyologisD iconibatt CX illustratum.— Post obitum aactoris cpui* incboatum 
abtolvit, correxit, int«rpolavit Jo. Gottiob Schneider, Saxo.-Berolini, samtibas 
Aoctoris impresanm et bibliopolio Sanderiano commiejsum, 1801. 
(Dfaeription of Cyprinus caio^tomu9 Forster.] 

"I«B8n78( — ). '*Pi8ciiim Camtscbatcicornm descriptiones et icones. <M6m. Ac. 
8c- St, P^tereb. I and III, 1810-1811." 

IlWription and flf(ar« of Cyprinua rostratua, pp. uov., from EoBtem Siberia.] 

PALLAS (Petro). Zoograpbia Kohso Asisitica sisttns Omnium Aninialium iu cxter.so 
lniiH?rio Kossico et adjacfntibus maiibus obstrvatoruni, recensionfin, doniicilia, 
^^J^s et descriptioues, anatomon atqiie icnni's [Inrimorem anctore PcJro Pallas, 
M* Aor. Academico Petropolitaiio. Volnnien tertiuni. Petrop<»li. iu otliciua 
Caw. Academiae Scieutiarum Impress. MDCCCXI. Edit. MDCCCXXXI. 
[l)»«cription of Cifprinun rostratva quoted from TilosiuH.] 

^^^^LL (Samuel Latham). The Fishes of Now York Described and Arranged. 
<TraD8aftion8of tbe Literary and Philosophical Society, Now York, 1814. 
iH'pruitt* Urea and Cyprinua (jblongua, »p. nov.] 

^"BUR (Charles A.) A neu- {;enii8 of Fishes, of the Order Abdominales, ^ro- 
'^*^. HLder the name of Cafofttomus ; and the characters of this f^enns, with those 
°^Jt8 species, indicated. By C. A. Le Suenr. Read September U>, 1817. < Journal 
^^^^*i Ac-demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. i, 1817, pp. 88-90 and 
l^^Ul. 

_|*^tCTihe8 Catcttomw, pjen. nov., and thr follnwin;: new species, most of which are fipureU :— C 

id pMotiur, O. tuberculatum, C. macrolepidottui, C.aurcolua, O.eominunui, iWongirontrum, 

C. eUmgatua, C. vittatuJt,C. duquetmii, C. boktonienaia, and O. hud*oniya. C. 

(Mitch.), and O. aucetta ( Lac. ) .ire also d< ncrilMxl. Thin paper ia no ezcel- 

^ with most that has tince beeu written on tbld groap.] 

221 



222 CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ICHTHYOLOGY — ^UI. 

RAFINESQUE rConstantlne Samuel). Discoveries in Natural History maAn 
during a Jonrney thron;;h the Western Region of the United States by Constantine 
Samuel Rafinesque Esq. Addressed to Samnel L. Mitchill, President, and otiier 
members of ilie Lyc«>nm of Natural History in a letter dated at LonisTiile, Falls 
of the Ohio, 20th July IdlS. < Amei ican Monthly Magazine and Critical Reviow, 
New York, September, 1818. 

(Description of Catostomtu bitbalus and Catostomui erythrurtu, ^p. nov., md notloe of the dlMor. 
ory of the "Carp'* " Gatoitomus maeroptertu'' and the "Sacker" CatoHomtu dugumnri,] 

Description of three new genera of fluviatilo Fish, PomoxU, Sarckirut and Buh 

gloBHum. By C. S. Rafinesque. Read December 1st &, 8th. <Jonmal of the 
Academy of Natnral Sciences of Philadelphia, i, 1818, pp. 417-4JJ2. 

(DeacTiptioD oX ExoglMtum {Hypentdiwn) inaeropterum ; sabgenos and speoiet sew.] 



Prodrome do 70 nouveanx Genres d'Animaux d^couverts dans I'iut^riear des 

]6tats-Uui.s d'Amdrique dnrant Tunnde 181H. < Journal de Chymie, de Pbynqae 
et d'Histoire Nifcturollc, Paris, June' 1819. 

[Deacription of Amblod<m, gen. nov., baaed on the pharyngeala of Haploidonotut grmmiMt, 
erroneously ascribed to a Bnffulo-flsh, with the species A, bubalut and A. niger, ap. nov., and of 
OycUptuB nigrenoens, gen. ct sp. nov.] 

LAC^PiSDE (Bernard Oermaln £tlenne). Histoire Nature! le des Poissons, par M. 
le Comte Lac6p^e, suite et complement des CBuvres de Bnffon. Tome cinqaitoe, 
avec vingt-trois nouvelles planches en taille-douce. Paris, Rapet, Rne Saint* 
Andr^-des-Arcs, No. 10,£diteur du Temple de la Gloire on les Pastes Militaires | 
de la France, ouvrage in-folio, avec figures. 1819. 
[A reprint of Lac^pdde's work.] 

RAFINESQXTXj (Constantlne Samuel). Ichthyologia Ohiensis or Natural History 
of the Fislies Inhabiting the River Ohio and its tributary streams. Preceded by 
a pljysical description of the Ohio and its branches by C. S. Rafinesque, Professor 
of Botany and Natural Hist^iry in Transylvania University, Author of the An i*^ 
lysis of Nature &c. &.C., member of tbe IJtorary and Pbilosophical Society o* 
New York, the Historical Society of New York, tbe Lyceum of Natural History o* 
New York, tbe Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia, the American AntiquariJ^** 
Society, the Royal Institute of Natural Sciences o£ Naples, the Italian Soci©*^ 
of Arts tfc Sciences, the Medical Societies of Lexington and Cincinnati &c., &-^* 
The art of seeing well, or of distinguishing witli accuracy the objects which "^^^ 
perceive is a high faculty of tbe mind, unfolded in few individuals, and despi^^ 
by those who can neither acquire it, nor appreciate its results. Lexington, Iv^*-** 
tucky, printed for the Author by W. G. Hunt, (price one dollar), — 18^. (1 -^ro** 
8vo. 90 pp.) 

[Originally [)riniii«l in tho Western lieviow and MlHCiNlaDeoas Magazine, Lexington, Kenta^^^' 
1810-'J0. It cDntainH ilescriptiouH of tho genera and speciej* of Catostomi found in the O^^ 
River, they bcmg referred to tbree fumorti, CatogtomiiK, Cydeptus, and Ilyprntelium, the — •-^^'■-■' 



CaUmtowtm b«'in;; divided into live new Huhgenera, Moxostoma, IcUobus, Carpiodfs, TtrettS^'^^^ 
EuryntomMS, aiid Deoactyliu. 

The foUowinjj is the arrangement of the speciea described: — 



GenuH Catc»siomls. 

Subgenus MnxttHtoma. 

aniHunia, sp. nov. 

anieoptoruH, Hp. nov. 
Sub{;enuH letiobtis. 

bubahiH. 

i:jger. 
Subj^enuH Carpioden. 

carpio, sp. nov. 

velifer, sp. nov. 

xanthopns, sp. nov. 
Sabgenus Teretulut. 

melanops, sp. nor. 



luelanotiKH, sp. nov. 

fa8cin!ari.<i, sp. oov. 

erythrnrns. 

floxnosus, sp. nov. 
Sub^nus Eury^UrfHU*. 

megastomna, sp. nor. 
Sabgenus Lkcactylus. 

daquesni. 
Genus Cycleptus. 

nigr<»cen8L 
Oeous Htpkntklium. 

macTopteram.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. . " 223 

RICHARDSON (John). [Franklin's Joarnal.] 1823. 

[DeteriptHmt of €fat09tomui fontnianvs^ ip. hot., and CaUaimnut U weurii, ap. nov., and notes 
other apeclaa.] 



— — FaoDa-BoreiiU-Aniericana ; or the Zoology of the Northern Parts of British 
AfflericA, containing descriptions of the objects of Natnral History collected on 
tbe late Northern Land Expeditions ander command of Capta.'u John Franklin, 
R. N. Part thirtl. The Fish. By John Richardson M. D. F. R. S. F. L. S. member 
of the Qeograpbical Society of London, and the Wernerian Natural History 
Society of Edinburgh; Honorary Member of the Natural History Society of Munt- 
ntl, and Literary and Philosophical Society of Qnebec, Foreign Member of the 
Geographical Society of Paris ; and Corresponding Member of the Academy of 
Nataral Sciences of Philadelphia ; Surgeon and Naturalist to the Expeditious. — 
Hlostrated by unmerous plates. — Published under the authority of the Right 
Honorable the Secretary of State for Colonial Affairs. London : Richard Bentiey, 
New Barlington St. MDCCCXXXVI. 
[CoouUis Dotioes or doecriptioDs of Oatostotntit hud$oniut, C./oreteriantu, O. aureolut^ O. nigri- 

UtTLAND (Jared Potter). Report on the Zoology of Ohio, by Prof. J. P. Kirt- 
land, M. D. < Second Annnal Rei)ort on the Geological Survey of the State of 
Ohio, by W. W. Mather, Principal Geologist, and the several assistants. Colum- 
bos: Saniuel Medary, PrinUT to the State. 1838. 

lC«talo|;iMt of Fisbee, pp. IGS-I'O. Notes on species mentioned, pp. 190-197. Nino species 
''^^NTeil to Caio$toinu» are included, as follows: — vtlifer Raf., aureolus Le S., elongattu Le 8., 
D*^[U0tii Le 8., erythruruM Raf., buhalus itaf , gracUin Kirt., metanopgiu Raf., nigrana Le S., and 
^Ift^tMnan macropttrum Raf. * C. gracUu Kirt. [sp. nov.] is briefly characterizcil as distinguished 
^tbe ■linuteiH'fls of the scales on the anterior port of the body, and ns the scales approach the 
nadal flo tbey iDcreose to a medium size " (2. c. p. 19'.i).] 

8TQRER (David Hnmpbreys). A Report on the Fishes of Mnssuchusetts. By D. 
Hamphn'VH Storer, M. D. < B<:ston Journal of Natural History, vol. ii, 1839, pp. 

[Dvicriptions of Catottomui gibb<nnts, C. tuberculatus, O. nigricans, and C. bo»ionifn*i«.] 

DRTLAND (Jared Potter). Description of the Fishes of the Ohio River and its 
Tributaries. By Jared P. Kiitland, Professor of the Theory and Practice of 
Medicine in the Medical College of Ohio, at Cincinnati. < Boston Joni-nal of 
Kstoral History, vols, iii-v, 1^40-1844. 

(IWeribes and flpires CcUottomus aureolut, C. communis, C. bubalus, C. elongattut, C. dvqttesni, 
Cssintna, c. mdanops, C. nigricans, and JSclerognathtu cyprinus.] 

' ^ [Papers on tho Fishes of Ohio — in Family Visitor and in Annals of Science. 
CWteland, 1840-1840.] 

n^^icrlpttona of the species found in the vicinity of Cleveland, with fl;inres, most of them from 
^ ■•aie plat«» as in his "Fishes of t]>o Ohio". Catotitomvs gracilis, sp. nuv., also Catostomus 
*****»•«. not deeciibed in tho previous paper, here described and flpurecl.] 

^0ia>8ON(Zadcck). Fishes of Vermont. =Chapter V, (pp. 127-ir>l). <Natural 
History of Vermont, in History of Vt rmont, Natural, Civil, & StutiHticul, by Rev. 
^«ck Thompson, Burlington, Vermont, 1842. 

lOmripiions of (kUostomus cyprinxa, C. oblangus (— If. macrolepidotum), C. teres, C nigricans 
'*C.tcr«j), and C Umgirostrvm.] 






(Georges Chretien Leopold Dagobert) and VALENCIENNE9 

if^nie), Histoire Naturellc des Poissons par M. le B.**" Cuvier, Pair de France, 

(MMer de la L^ion d'honnenr, Conseillenr de F^tat et an Conseil royal 



224 C0NTBIBUTI0N8 TO NOBTH AUEBICAN ICHTHYOLOGT— U. 

CUVIBR (Q. C. Ii. D.)in(I VALENCIENKBSC^)— CoDtlnned. 

du lIuBtTDctioD pabliqao, I'dd dcs qaaraote de rAcad^mit) fnwTAite, Amo^ 
da I'AcuiMiiiie des Bellea-LettreB, SecnSuira perpetaelle de oelle iIm Seii 
Mi'mUru dcs Soci6tfo et Acaddmiee royales de Loodrcs, de Berlin, de TUetA 
de StockbolQi, de Turin, ile Gcettiugno, dus Paye-Baa, deUDnich.deMddteei 
HlparU. A. ValeDcieaaeB, ProfeHsenr de ZooIo}{ieaQ Miisiamd'HiWi>lreiutti 
Meiobre de I'Acodrimte royal» dus SciuDces de Berlin, de la ScxiUti Zootaxiq 
Loodrvs, etc, Tonm ilil-HBptiiSme. 1842. (Cr/pritio'ida.) 

[DoKrIpIlaDS of Coliiitiiniui Autlnmiut, O. /ortleriantit. O.nuM, O.gltbamiM, a tiik'Mli 
tKOcTatrpiaUat, O. autmlat. O. awimunit, O. timijirotlnim, Cnigriant, O.f 
C. riimiui. 0. 4uqutmii, O. ioitonieaiit, O. lent, 0. eUm^ui. C. fatcialv* <*p-M 



cypriiuUa (ap, our.). uJ fzsirlomTii tnacraptomm. Tb» Tolanis wu irriUes aftat tb* 4[ 

tuvicr by VuleucieoBM.] 

DBKAT (Jamea B.) Zoulog; of Neix Tork, or the Sov T»rk Faitii»; Minp 
detaili^i! dtscripcionsof all the animaU bilberto absvrv»d nithin the State at 
York, Willi Doticea uf Lboae occBHionallj- fonnd near its borders, and mmodii 
b; a|ipro[iriatH illimtraliuDH. By Jauiea E. Dakay. Part IV. Fiolim. Al 
printBd by W. & A. Wbited: J. Visscb«r. ld«. 

{D«orLplioiiB of Labto AfQan, (ap. iiot,>« Labeo Mttngat. Labto effprinat. Labet ^Mw 
Aopuf {ap. iiov ), CatiMomiu comtitunui^ Qt/«(oinu imtida lap. nur.), CitOklomtu Itdtn 
Cata-toiHtu paUidas (up. iiov.l, Cataitemut annelut. Calottamtu nijriaitu. C.U>ttaii.ai ma 
dotiu, villi Dutjct's of olber apicitn. In Ibe Apprudii. Ibo numo Labto clonyatai in n^fM 



(Johaun Jakob). AbbilduDgHU uud Bescbrdbuugen der Fisvhe S; 
nebKt ekur iiuuua ClaimiQ cation and CbaracterJBlik Etiniratlichcr Gatlaagt 
Cyprii un von Johaini Jakob Heckel, iDBjM-ctor am K. K. Hof-Natamlienb 
in Wieii, melir. eelt-brt. GeHellscb. Mit];lied. Stuttgart, E. ScbweiteiUt 
VerlaK»lmndluDt;. 184:1. pp. lOD. (=pp. ■191-lUUU, RDBw-gguHa BeiseD.) 




BIBLIOGRAPHY. 225 

3RBR (David HninphreyB). A History of tbe Fishes of Mossachasetts. By 
Dftvid Homphreys Storer. < Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sdaoees (Boetoo), new series, ( 1853 to 1H67). 
[DeiilpthiiM sad ezoellent flgnres of Catottomtu boiionieruU aod C. fphbowt.] 



(Louis). Notice of a collection of Fishes from the southern bend of the 
Tenn es s ee River, in the State of Alabama; by L. Agassiz. < American Journal 
of Seieooe and Arts, second series, xviii, 1854, pp. 297-<U)8, 35'J-3G5. 

[RflTlTes tba Rafinesqaian Kenera Carpiodei, Ictiohus, Cj/eleptua, and MoxotUtma; descTibos sp. 
BOT. Carpiod$$ vruty CkirpioJet taunu^ Carpiodet bison, Carpiodes vittUus, and Oarpiodet vaeea, and 
VMorda CJblMlomtw eommunit, O. nigriearu, 0. duquesnii, and O. melanopn from Hunts ville, Ala. 
TIm apeeifle daacriiitioDa are comparative only, and arc not readily identitlabio.] 

IRD (Sponcer Fnllerton) and OIRARD (Charles). Description of New Species 
of Fishes collected in Texas, New Mexico aud Sonora by Mr. John H. Clark on 
the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey aud in Texas by Capt. Stewart 
Van Vliet, U. 8. A., by S. F. Baird and Charles Girard. < Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. vii, 1854, pp. 24-*29. 

(Deecriptlons of Catottomut congutiu, C. clarki, O. ituifftii*, and C. tuthidwi, ap. nov.] 

fRBS (William O.) Descriptions of two new species of Cypriuoids. By Wm. O. 
Ayrea, M. D. Dec. 11, 1854. < Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 
Tol. i, pp. 18-19, 1854; 2d ed., pp. 17-18, 1873. 

[Cuiutamut oecideniaUi, sp. nov.] 

— Description of a new species of Catostomus. By Wm. O. Ayres, M. D. Feb. 26, 
ItiiKK < Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, vol. i, pp. 31-32, 1855 ; 
U ed., pp. 30-32, 1873. 
[CUoitamtu labiatui, sp. nov.] 

AA83IZ (LoniB). Synopsis of tbe Ichthyological Fanna of the Pacific Slope of 
Xorth America, chiefly from the collectioos made by the U. S. Expl. Exped., uuder 
tbe cooimand of Capt. C. Wilken, with recent Additions and Comparisons with 
EskterQ type.H ; by L. Agat^siz. < American Journal of Science and Arts, 2d series, 
voLxix, 1855, pp. 186-231. 

[Uhftracteriz4« very fully tbe genera, viz : — Carpiodes Raf. ; Bubalichthys Ag., gen. nov. ; lehthy- 
*^ Raf.; CyeUptus Kaf. ; Iloxosttnna Raf.; J'tyehostomuM A^., gen. nuv. ; Uylowyzon Ag., gen. 
MT-; ind Catostomus Lo Sueur. The »pecics of cacb genus aro noticed, and the following new 
'P'tic* are vtry briefly aud in most cases unMitibfactorily described:— CV/rpiod^^ Uiompsoiii, 
A>MieA/Ay» bonasus, lehthyobus rauchii^ Ichthyobus stoUcyi, Moxostoma tenuc, and Catostomus 
MBMoOotu.] 

•^^ARD (Charles). Researches upon the Cyprinoid Fishes inhabiting the fresh 

^»Ufr««f the United States of Araericu, west of tbe Mississippi Valh-y, from speci- 

B>«D« in the Mufc^cum of the Suiithsouiau Institution. By Charles Girard, M. D. 

<I*roceeding8 of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1856, pp. 165- 
213. 

[Twenty-six spates ennmerated — most of tbem brieflj* described. Two new f^cnera are pro* 
f^ Uiwnnus and Acomits, and the following new species are cbaractorized :— Carpiodes damalis. 
■■••oMonia elavi/ormis, Moxostoma lenneriii, Moxostoma victorice, Moxostoma eampbelli, Ptycho- 
"■VNu aUndus, Ptyehostomus haydeni, Acomus guzmanienhis, Acoinus generosus, Aoomus griseus, 
*99mus laetarius, Catostomus maerochilus, Catostomus sueklii, and Catostomus bemardini. Tbeso 
^CKnptioQs are mostly short and insufficient.] 

•0«aeral Eex)ort upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes. 

^Qfts of Explorations and Surveys to Ascertain the most practicable and 

^ Boote for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, 

HAdireetioo of the Secretary of War, in 185:M), according to Acts of 

5 



226 COKTBIBDTIOMS TO KOBTH AUEEICAN ICHTHTOLC 

OIRASD (Charlei}— CoQtinaed. 

CoDgTtMS of Untcb 3, I6uJ, May 31, L8&4, aod AngDst 5, 18&4. Voln 

tOD, A. O. P. KicholBoa, Fiiater, le59. (Part 4, Fiabes, by Dr. Cbi 

[DCKTiptiODt of CarpiaUt danuiit, Mmatloma tilavi/iimiit, Ft^ntimui kt 

rwiu, Acomui griieut, Aaamt lactariat, CalcitoMut atculaiiidU, CtoMMMMW 
macnxJieiiut, uid Catmtamut mstiu ,- ill of tha tpeoiu except Aauau giKB 
O. latialui, ud O macroduitiu being aocompwiled b; flgait*.] 

United 8tat«s and Mezicaa Boandar; Sarvey, nnder the on 

W. H. £iDory, Major First Cavalry and United States ConimisMaii 
of theBonndar;, bj Cbarles Girard, M. D. < United State* and 
ary Survey, voL ii, i)art i, ld59. 

[DeKriptloD* mid Sgnm of JMolrut tumidui. Uextilama tanerUi. Moat 
itoma tampbMi. FlgekBttinnu amgatvt, Ptychnilanau oBiiiiu, Minomui Iw 
tmu, lltiwmiu darki, Sanuu latifiraiit, Scoaau gianitivtitti*, ud Gblodoii 

BZiEE^SRCFletervan). "ConapectuasystemaliBCypriDOTUui. < 

Kedetl. iDd. XXI, Hm." 

[SjiMiiiatio ■mugBmeat of ttw eeaenk) 
ABBOTT (Cliarl»a Coiuad). Descriptions of Fonr New Species of 

Cf prinidiB, by Chatles C. Abbott. < Proceedings of tbe Academ 

ences of Fhiladelphia, 1660, pp. 473-174. 

[Deseribea OsfoitoiiHU loanw ud CMsMomuj (Atorvpfnvn-l 

OnJi (Thvodore Nloholaa). On tbe clasRificalion of tbe ErB.sroON 
asoborderof Tklrockpiiali, byTbendore Gill. <Pn>ceedingaa 
Natural Sciences of PhiladHlphia, 18GI, pp. 6-U. 

[Cbancleriua (be idlwRler ErtntogittMi, eqainleDtto " tbe tn» Cyprlno 
ODtIaeUilDtbejaira.ud«llb lanEcrikiritrni lnvcr pbarjrneHl buHs". Ilil 
into foor bmillet.— fioaMlspUrvidii. Cobitaiite. (^ipiwwidK ud Ctafu<nt*M 
being Intnra divided inlo three ialjrwDUies,'-aua((i>iniHi. Cgdtptau*, uU J 

FUTZTAM (Frederick Ward). List of the Fiahci sent by tbo Mo! 
iDStitatioas, in Bxchaii);e for other Specimens, with Annotations 
= BalIeliii of the Mnsenm of Comparative Zoology, Caniti 




BIBLIOGRAPHY. 227 

(Albert). Catalogue of the Physoetomi, containiDg the families Hetero- 
pygiiy CjrprioidiBy GonorhyDchid», Hyodootids, Osteoglossidoe, Clnpeidss, Chi- 
roeeoiridn, AlepocephalidsB, NotopteriJ®, Haloaanridse, in the collection of the 
British Museum, by Dr. Albert Oiinther. London : Printed by order of the trnst- 
eea. Id6d. = Catalogue of the Fishes of the Biitish MoHeni by Albert Giiother, 
M. A^ M. D., Ph. D., F. B. S., F. Z. S., etc., etc. Volume seveoth. 

[CoBtaina deacriptions of twentj^four spcciea, besides twenty-one doabtfol species merely 
wniDcnted, mrrmngwl in tout genera, OatoUomui^ Moxottoma, SeUrognathut, and Carpiodes.] 

IPB (HdwBTd Drinker). On the Distribution of Fresh Water Fishes in the Alle- 
ghany Regioo of South- Western Virginia. By E. D. Cope, A. M. < Journal of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, new series, vol. vi, part iii, 
Jtnaary, 1869, pp. S07-247. 

[DesoriptioD and fl^nre of Tentuhu eervintu, sp. nov., with notes on T. duqtumei^ Oatostomua 
wi§noami^ and <7. communit. 

flnUUR (Albert). An Account of the Fishes of the States of Central America 
tnaed on Collections made by Capt. J. M. Dow, F. Godman, E^q., and O. Salvia, 
Esq. By Albert GUnther, M. A., M. D., Ph. D., F. R. S., F. Z. S. < Transactions 
cf the Zoological Society of London, vol. vi, 1869, pp. 377-494. 
IDMcripiion of BubaUcKthyt msridionalit, sp. nov.] 

MPB (Edward Drinker). Partial Synopsis of the Fishes of the Fresh Waters of 
Konh Carolina, by Edw. D. Cope, A. M. < Proceedings of the American Philo- 
wpbical Society of Philadelphia, 1870, pp. 448-^95. 

[BncripUons of riaeopharyfuc cariTuUug (gen. et sp. nov.), Ptyehottomtu papiUonu (sp. noT.)f P. 
wtaflH (qk nor.). P.eoUapnu (sp.nov.). P.pidientit {»i>.nor.),P.coreg<mu9 (sp. nov.), P.aUnu («p. 
itf.), P. fJkaloMiaiM (sp. nov.), P. robusttu (sp. nov.), P. erythrurugt P. laehrymalU (sp. nov.), P. 
■satfcpidoCiM, P. dvgvunei^ P. carpio^ P. oneida, P. aureolut, P. aueurii, P. ertusilabrit (sp. nov.), 
'• ymkept (sp. nov.),P.eonia (sp. nov.), P.eerviniu, Oarpiodes diformii (sp. nov.), C euHsaiuerinuM 
lip^soT.). OLscIam (sp. nov.), C M^er, O.grayi (sp. nov.). 01 fAonfjptoni, C bUoti, C.eypriwut^ and 
Ci«fliii^4ir (ap^nov.), with notes on other species, and a very usefnl analysis of the species of 
'Vebatomiu and Carpiodet.] 

^ - Report on the Kc^tiles aud Fishes obtained by the Naturalists of the Expedi* 
^) by £. D. Cope, A. M. < Preliminary Report of the United States Geological 
Swey of Wyoming, and contiguous territories, (being a second annual report of 
Piogfets,) conducted under the authority of the Secretary of the Interior by F. V. 
Htyden, United States Geologist. Washington: Government Printing Office. 

.[C^ottomuM diieoMus^ Mkiomtu delphinut, MinomuB bardus, and Ptychostomut buceo, sp. nov.] 

On the PlagopterinsD and the Ichthyology of Utah. By Edward D. Cope, A. 
^ Bead before the American Philosophical Society, March 20th, 1874. < Pro- 
c^iDgs of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, vol. 14, pp. 129-139, 
1874. 

[^^i^amiiu pUaJtyrhynehuM and Minoiniu jarrovii described as nov species.] 

)AH (David Starr). Synopsis of the Genera of Fishes to be looked for in 
^iana, by Prof. David S. Jordan, M. D. < Sixth Annual Report of the Geologi- 
cal Sorvey of Indiana, made during the year 1874, by E. T. Cox, State Geologist; 
••isted by Prof. John Collett, Prof. W. W. Borden, and Dr. G. IVI. Levette. Indi- 
***Poli8. Sentinel Company, Printers. 1875. pp. 197-228. 

i^^ genera characterised snd one or two species mentioned under each.] 

^^'Qiioeming the Fishes of the Ichthyologia Ohiensis, by David S. Jordan, M. S., 
^ <P)roeeeding8 of the BuiTalo Society of Natural History, 1676, pp. 91-97. 

of the species described by Raflnesque ; a new genos, Erimyzan^ being 
HitchilL] 



228 CONTEIBUnONS TO NORTH AUEBICAK ICHTHTOLOOT^IIL 

JORCAM (David Starr). HaoDBlof the VertebraUsof theNorthern Unitodgli 
iiicliitliug Ihe iliBiriut eoM of tbe Misatwippi Biver, and north of Kortb Cml 
and TuQQPjiSM, exclusive orniariue Bpecies. Uy David Starr Jordan, H. tt^H. 
ProfoMorvf Nutural History ia N. W. C. Uuiversiry and la Indiana State Mtd 
College. Cliicugo: Jansen, McCturg A-Companj. 1876. 
[Twcnly-lbrw apooks brlcflj' dsMillwd. and nfeired to nini gCDsia.] 

miLaOn (Edward W.) A Partial Catologae of tbe Fishea of IlIiDoU, b; E. 
Nuleoii. < liiillulia uf tlie Illiaols Museum of Katural HiEtory, ^, IBiG. 

[Niili!SDn 31 epeclc4; IcIiOn/iibuicyiimlliudBicilbeii aa u neVBiwclH, tadtbspBOi Cur 
nnlUHl 10 lehlkytbia] 

UHLBR (P. R) antf LUOOBR (Otto). List of Fishes of Maryland, b; P. It. U 
anil Of.a Lti;:gt)r. < Report ot Itie CommiMiouers of Pisbetieaof Uatjlaod, 

67-17(i. (IWe). 

(SoTCD stiecln doscHbed.) 

COPB (Bdwatd Drinker) nnil HARROW (Benry C.) Beport npon the collect 
of FiHliex muilo i[i portions of Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado, New He 
and Ari70[in during tbe years IttTl, 1672, 1873 and 1874, by Prof. E. D. Cope 
Dr. H. C. Yarrow, =:Cbapler VI, < Report apon Oeograpbical and Geak) 
Explorations and Surveys Wfst of the O^e Hundredth Meridian, in cbart;eof 1 
Lient^ Geo. M. WbeeW, Corps of Eiiginifers, U. B. Army, nnder tbe diraclio 
Brig.Oun.A. A. Ilumplireya, Chiefof EngiDber8,U. S.Army, pnhlisbed bysolbi 
of Hon. Wm. W. Belknap, Secrelary of War, in accordance with acts of Cuaj 
of Jmicas, lW4,Bnd Febrnary 15,187G. In six volumes. Accompanied byonal 
graphical untl one s^oloe'cal atlas. Vol. V. — Zoology. Washington: GoranD 
Printing Oftice. lS7u. (laanetl io 187&} 

(Cnn'alB* di-wTlpllanB of ranAxMu (em. dit.), Panr«teu jriafyHkynckiu, Pautcilmujm 
i^nlHfnu FinKru (op. dot.), OttotUniui imignt. Cbbwdmw alticnhnii. Oalittuuu 4i0* 
Oilatlomur /r^ndum i<p. dot.'. Catmlomat tvimaKittue, XtoBibrmm triiigiimttim {■p.loM 
thoktamuji nm!fe*tita. and Otrpiodci 'jrQjfi. nkb fl^urTaormovt ot tbe*prcfea.| 

JORDAIT (David Starr) auri COPELAITO (Harbert Sdwu). ChMkLUrf 
Fishes of Ihe Fresli Waters of North America, by David S. Jordan, U. S.,H 




BIBLIOGRAPHY. 229 

^RbAH (David Starr) and BRA7TON ( Alembert TVinthrop). On Lagochila, 
s Dew genan of Catostomoid fishes. < Prueeedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, 1877, pp. ^fiO-^.^). 

[Description And flgnre of LagoehUa laccra (gen. et ftp. dov.), vrilh an analynis of tho genera of 
Calotiomida admitted, \\%:— LagoehUa, Placopharjirur. Myxoa'.oma Erimyzon, Uypentelium, Cato- 
ttouitu, Pantottetu, CycUphu, Carpiodea, Jchthyobus, Bab2lichUiy8, udU Myxoeypnnitis.] 

.HILLOCK (Charlea). The Sportsman'd Gazetteer and GcDcral Guide. The Game 
Aaimals, BirdB and FiMhes of North America : their Habits and Various Methods 
of Capture. Copious Instructions in Shoot iufj, Fishiug, Taxidermy, Woodcraff, 
etc. Together with a Directory to the Principal Game Resorts of the Country: 
illustrated with maps. By Chailes Hallock, Editor of *' Forest and Stream", 
Aotbor of the " Fishing Tourist", "Camp Life in Florida", etc. New Yorit : Forest 
and Stream Publishing Company. 1)^77. 

[Contains descriptions and notices of nunieroas npecirs; the Ked Horse, If. mo/crolepidotum^ 
being on p. 3:i8 inadvertently called " Oatohtomxu ecpedianum ''.J 

ORDAN (David Starr). Contributions to North American Ichthyology, based 
priuiarily on the Collections of the United bt:?tes National MuRcnm. I. Rt^view 
of Rafioesque's Memoirs on North American Fishes, by David S. Jordan. Washing- 
ton : Government Printing Office. 1877. = Bulletin of the United States National 
Ifuiieam, No. 9. pp. 53. 
[Contains idestiflcations of the Tarioas nominal species described by Raflnesqne.] 

— Contributions to North American Ichthyology, based primarily cm the Collections 
of the United States National Museum. II. A. — Notes on CoUidfTy EtheoHlomatidaSy 
I'emda:, Centrarchidcey AphododeridcPt Dorysomatidw, and Cyprinidw^ with revisions of 
tbe genera and desrriptions of new or little known species. B. — Synopsis of the 
SHwida of the fresh waters of North America. By David S. Jordan. Washington : 
Government Printing Office. 1877. = Bulletin of the United States National 
Moseum, No. 10. pp. 11(>. 
[Description of Myxostoma paecilura, up. nov.] 

GILL (Theodore Nicholas). Johnson's Now Universal Cyclopaedia; a scientific and 
iwpular treasury of useful knowledge. Illustrated with maps, plans and engrav- 
ings. Editors in chi«-f, Frederick A. P. Barnard, S. T. 1)., LL. D., L. IT. D., M. N. 
A. S., President of Columbia Cc)llei;e, New York; Arnold Guy^it, Ph. D., LL. D., 
M.N. A. S., Professor of Geology and Physical Geograi)hy, College of New Jersey. 
Aswciute Editors — [29 persons, among thi m Theo<lore Gill, A. M., M. 1)., Ph. D., 
M'N. A. S., Late Senior Assistant Libraiian of the Library of Congress]. With 
Dnnierons contributions from writers of distiiiguislied eminence in every depart- 
^^nt of letters and science in tho United States and in Europe. Complete in four 
Volume}*, including appendix. Volume IV, S — Apx>endix. (Testimonials at the 
^odofthe volume.) Alvin J. Johnson *SL Son, 11 Great Jones Street, New York. 
^DCCCLXXVIII. 

[CoDtaics a dcRcription of tho family Cutastoinidn', .i Ust of tho genera, and a diagnosiH of Myxo- 
'yprinut, gen. nov.] 

''ORD^jy (David Starr). Mannal of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States, 
•aciuding tho district East of the Mississippi River, and North of North Carolina 
•od Tennessee, exclusive of Marine Speoies, by David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., M. D., 
'•^feMor of Natural History in Butler University. Second Edition Revised an<l 
'^Qlarged. Chiv,*ago: Jansen, McClnrg <fc Company. 1?^7H. 

[Descriptions of forty specioH, referred to eleven peuera : — Lrtz/ooAi/o, Placopharynx, Myx-o- 
*^^a, Ifmytrewo (gen. nov.), IJnmi/zon, llypcntelium, Catohtomuji, Cyclrptiu, Carpioden. Ichthyobim, 
*^ BubaUehlhyt. In the Addenda, the uamo Qucu^ilabia is suggested as a sulMtituto tor 



230 CONTKIBimOHS TO NOKTH AHEBICAS ICHTHYOLOGY— lit. 

JORDAIT (David Stair), A Cata1oj{ue of tbe Fisbus of tie FVub Wat«tB of Nnnlt 
America. ByUavid S. Jordan, M. D. < Bnlliitln IV, Hayden's G«ologi<sJ&omj 

of tlio TcrriloripB, No. 2, pp. 407-1=13. Waabington, Mny 3, le*7a 

(Pirtj'-oiui «pm1m BnutOPPOleO i nmuiBBa In iblrtMo Ecnns, vts ■.—BabaliclM^. ItUlf4M 
Carpiodfjt, Cftctepttu, Pautowtau, CitroMTamu*^ CAdnnuidi (c^^u- dov.), Erin^an, liingtftiiA Mpt 
ilonut, PUlCppluiTiinz, and Qiuutilal 

Notes 00 a Ciillfttion of Fisbt-a from tbe Rio Grnoile, nt Brownsville, T»iu 

By DnvlU S. Joriluo, M. D. <Bullelia Hujileii's Uuilod Stute« Geoluglol ad 
OM)gra.iMc>il Survey, vol. iv, No. 2. WadhingtoD, May 3, ItCH. 
[Hj-aonj-m; mid Date on Carpiodri (unii'dui.} 

A Cnfnliigne of tbo Fisbes of lUinoiH, liy Prof. David S. Jordan. <!lBMli 

8latu Luboralory of Nnlural Hintcry. Tbo Nutnral HIsInry of IHInoit. B 
No. 'J. BlnomiiigtiiD, 111., June, IBTt^. 

[TiTCOly-llireD spcides ooDioerateil. with nateB i thcw org amuEed la sine KeiHink] 
FORBHB (3. A.) Tbo Food of Illiaoia Pisbcs by S. A.Fofbes. < Bollctin ol Ai 
Illinois Slato Laborntory of Nutnral History, No. 2, lS7d. 
[Vuliublii ootea on Ibc food of Ckiliii:<imi(ta.\ 

JORDAN (David Stair), Notes on a Collection of Fisbcs from tbe Rio Oruft 
at BrowDsvitlo, Texas, coDtiDUcil. By D. S. Jordan M. D. <I]a}i1cD'*I 
of the GenloKival and Geogtnphicnl Survey of tbe TtTritoiirs, rul. iv, Ko. 3. Vt/^ 
<ii)r|on, July £), ItiTri. 

[ItDDisrks oD Uie probible idnillT; of Carpleda gnvi and JM-jbiu Riinidw with CbijMl 

Cofalogne of tbe Fisbes of Indiana, in Article Piai^icoltnro (by Aleutl* 

noroa). -^TwRoly-wvenlh Annonl Iti^pgrt of tbo ladiaoa Slatu Bjanl «f Ag"> 
Giiltuiv, li<77. Volume XIX. IndLaDapolts. lS7a 
(Twertjtwo iptcji?* »BQin*niipd. ri-ferred in ten gfntn.] 

JORDAN (David Stan) and BRATTON (Alembert 'Wlntbrop). On tb*n 
ITlbntiou of tbe Fisbes in tbf Alle^-bnoy Region of Soulb Caroliua, Gwrsill^ 
Twinfiw™, wilb IVwripli"!!" of Kew nr l.itllp Known Sp<cie». Ry PitHI 




INDEX. 



Paget 

Aeantharohus 89 

Aopeww 71,90 

idpeoaeridiD 71 

iflomoa 151, 157 

Mopos (Boleoeoma) 82 

•ffiuB (Clinmtomus) 24 

igwiti (Chologaster) 84 

alba(Myxostoma) 130 

albidii8(AaiiuraB) b7 

albklos (PtychoBtomus) 129 

tlbklosCTeretulua) 129 

altiidQm (Myxoetonio) 101, 117, 129 

albam (My xoatomd) . . .27, 86, 102, 117, 130 

Allmmi»iw 16,19,36,04,78,90 

ilboB (PtychoBtomas) 130 

iIlwi!i(Ttoretnliip) 206 

iltieolos (Catostomus) 102, 167 

aHipinois (Notropis) 85 

tltos (Babalicbtbys) 102, 206 

AlTotdim* 12, 58, 73, 88 

»maro8(Albarnop8) 36,85 

»flttnia(Hybop8i8) 16 

>nArD8(Hybop8Uhu(l80Dia8) 36 

Ambloilon 211,213 

Ambloplites 40,46,60,75,89 

amblops (Ceratichtbys) 79 

AmblyopsU 89 

•nericaDa (Perca) 83 

*»Dericana (Stilbe) 53 

*niericaDu» (Noteuiigonns) 24, 38 

A*nia 70, 90 

•^ttiula 70 

^^uitua 28, 33, 39, 44, 55, 70, 81, 90 

AmiiiocceteH 90 

AiDiDocrypta 88 

•*>*loatanu8 (Photogeuis) 20, 78, 84 

•^^ffiilla 29, .33, 39, 44, 55, 70, 81, 90 

'^'^gUillidiD 29, :W, 39, 44, 55, 70, 81 

**^»^pteni8 (Cato8tomu8) 100, 196 

•**««ura (Myxo8toma) m, 100, 102, 116, 

126, 128, 132 
•^Utmi8(Cato8tomu8)...100, 110, 126, 132 

^*»iaiiru8 (Moxo8toma) 132, 146 

•^imras (Ptycbostoraus) 132 

nrna (Teretnlu8) 132 

uroni (Moxostoma) 132 



Page. 

aDDularis (Pomoxys) 47, 76, 83 

anomalom (Campo8toma).. .16, 43, 49, 63, 

77,84 

antonieDsis (Amiaras Datalis) 55 

ApbododeridsB 41, 47 

ApbododeroB 41, 47, 89 

Apomotis 76, 89 

ars&opus (Cato8toma8) 160, 173 

ardeUB (Ly thmrus) 78, 85 

argenteus (Ainuiucastes) 87 

argyritis (Hybognatbaa) 16, 84 

asiaticos (CarpiodeB) 102, 217 

asiaticuB (My xocypriuuB) 102, 217 

aapro (Alvordius) 58 

Atberinidae Qly 76 

atberiDoides (Notropib) 64, 78 

atrilatus (ZygoDectes) 84 

atripinni8 ( ArliDa) 73 

atripiDnis (Ulocentra) 73, 8i 

atroDabas (Rbiaicbtby8) 86 

aurantiacu8(Hadropterii8) 58, 82 

aureola (Moxostoma) 125 

aurcolum (Moxostoma) 125 

auroolum (Myxo8toma)..100, 101, 116, 124 
aureoluB(Cato8tomus).. .100, 124, 125, 167 

aiireoluB (Ptychostomus) 1:25 

aureus (Eupomotis) 15 

auritus (Lepiopomus) 15, 36, 40, 83 

aurora ( Aconius) 176 

aurora (Catostomus) 101, 17R 

bairdii (Potamocottus) 8d 

bardus (Mioomus) 184, 185 

bardu8(PaDto8teub). 184 

beroardiui (Catostomus) 102, 17«2 

biguttatus (Ceruticbth^s).. 26,3:^,38,43, 

68, 79, 86 

bison (Carpiodes) 69, 86, 101, 194, 197 

blenniuides (Diplesium) 58, 73, t^ 

blenuioides (Etbeostoma) 58 

Bolbicbtbys 45,89 

Boleosoraa 13, 34, 58,75, 89 

bombifrons (Lcpiopomus) 60, 83 

bouasus (Bubalicbtbys) . . 1 . . . 101, 209, 214 

bostoDiensis (Catostomus) 100, 160 

breviceps ( Moxostoma) 127 

breviceps (My xostoma) 127 

231 



232 INI 

btericepfl (PtycbaatomiiH) 109, 137 

brevicepN (Turutulim) Vit 

bruvipinue (Boleosomn} 58 

braoiK^iiB (AmiuraH) r>B, '^H, 44, 87 

BubuliobtbfmiD IS 

l)ubulli:bthrH..55, C9, 90, 104, 201, 203, ?05 

bubollDUH (DnbalioblbjB) lOJ, SOG 

Ijubolus {AmblodoD) 211,214 

bubalHs (BiibiUieht.by«)..101, 102,aff5, 20(i 

bubnluR (CiLtOHtomuH} 100, U)(}, m4 

biibalii8(Ii;htbyobiiH).sn, 100, 101, 102,214 

biicca;a(Erlcyi>ibtt) 84 

buovo (Ftyoboatomui)} 103, IffJ 

buuou (Turetalua) I3J 

UulluriH (SeinotiluB) m 

onlliBOiim (CcHiomiil ...'JT.SS 

ciJIiBOinn (Eiilnemii) a? 

cnIlislitt(Co<loiim) 50,f(5 

o«lli»tiDs(Pbolo;{eDiii) 50 

calv»<Aniift) 70,87 

uaniplwlli (Erlmyiou} *. 146 

vftDiplrrlli (MoxoHUiiDa} 101,146 

CiuiilHWtoma 16, 4:1, 41), Kl, 77, «0 

i!DUitira{Vull1uDtlB) 89 

oninurufl (Noibonotns) 74,82 

oiiniuli'nso{Slizosteth(nin) f^t 

Ga|irDdu(Pt>rciiia) 45,57,i:),ea 

cnrinftlni. {PlacophRryni). .69, 8li, 102, 107, 

106,109 

carplcT (CurpiiHles) .... Mi, 100, 103, 19&. SOD 

oarpio (CsKwtoniUB) 100, t0t,ItF<,UUO 

oiiipi» (lubLbyobiiBj VOO 



{PtycboBtomos) 1 

(Teretiilus) lOll 

CbiBQobrjttnB 15, 35. 4(i,i% 

CbiutmiHtea 103,140,150,1 

cbirLllcua(Bydroiibloz) 

fhloiiatia (Codaai&) fl, 

cbloTOOcpbolos (Albarnopa) 19, 

cblarocepbalaa (Hybopsis) 

cbloropUroD (CaiiMt«iaas) ta£, 

Chotogiuitur . 

CbriwotuuB ISfi,T9 

cbrusomiia (Hybopsia). 

obroaomoK (Uydrupblox) 49 

chrymicliliiriH (PifuiulubiiB} ut, 77 

cbrysoIeuciiB (Notciuigonus} K),U9. 

cbryBopB (Ruocua) 

ciuerea (Etbeoeloma) SO 

ctiuki (CuloBtoiaas) luO, 

clatki (Miuouiua) 

c lav i form ia (Ecim; SOD > 

clavU'onula (UoioatoDia) 101, 

ClinoBtamaB 'H 

ClapuiUra (B 

ouvcogeuia (Laiilus) 3t, M 

Codoma SO, 37, l^se 

Of Tulea (Codona) ...... 

ciBraliia (Erog^lla) 

oollapauH (Ptjoboatoiiiila) 101, 

(Cahiatouiub). ..fU, 1X1,9, 
lOB, 

(LoCypriu) IM 

comuiDtiU (CaluaMntua) SO, lU^ 

eougdstu (Myxosloiiiii) 




INDEX. 



233 



TtLgt. 

I (Amiaras DaUils) 70 

wrinos (Carpiodes) 80, 86, 102, 

194, 195, 196 

iM(Apomati8) 76,83 

BsCBabalichtbys) 86 

OB (lohthyoboa) 102, '^06 

IDID 98 

UB 80,90, 104, 186, 187, 189 

E«)x) 84 

Blla 90 

lUCIchthyobos) 214 

lla (SclerognatJias) 214, 215 

ids 16, 31, 36, 41, 49. 63, 77 

odootidoD 31,48,6-3,77 

ne 140 

t9 (Carpiodes) 55, 86, 101, 102, 

195, 198 

18 (Catoetonin8) 100 

is(Labeo) 193 

w (Sclerogoathas) 197, 198 

»(Caipiode8) 199 

^lo8 151,154 

Mstylos 151, 15i, 159 

108 (MioomuH) 102, 184 

108 (PantostoQs) 184 

Doa (Fnudnlas) 84 

18 (Carpiodes) 86, 102, 194, 195 

118 (IcbtbyoboH) 196 

8(Notropi8) 85 

18 (Notropis) 85 

am 58,73,88 

»ln8 (CatoetomnH) 102, 162, 179 

ma 49, C.J,77, 90 

fnalldffi 49, 6i,77 

(Zygooecfes) 84 

His (Ceraticb thys) 67, 79, 86 

mii (Catoetomos), 100, ICO, 121, 129 

mil (Moxostoma) 121 

iDii (Myxostoma maorolupido- 

) .../. 80, 100,121 

mil (Myxostoma), 43, 54, 6?, 80, 115, 

120, 124 

mil (Ptychostomas) 121 

mil (Teretalos) 121 

ma 89 

• (BoleichtbyB) 45,83 

t8 (CatostomoB) 146 

» (Labeo) 101, 145 

eras (Not uroB) 70,87 

lU(Gila) 85 

(CatoetomuB)..: 100, 189 

(Cyeleptoa), 80, 86, 100, 189, 190 

'%•©> 101, 146 

-•••• •« • 189 
89 



Page. 

ebs (Boleicbthys) 83 

Episema 64, 90 

EricoBiua 88 

Ericymba 90 

Erimyzon, 27, 38, 43, 54, 69, 80, 90, 103, 136, 

140, 143 

Erogala 20 

erytbroga8tor(Cli;*o8omus) 65, 79, 8'> 

erythruroB (CatoBtomus) 100, 121 

erythmruB (Ptycbostonins) 121 

erytbruras (Terotnlus) — ' 121 

Esocidffi 16, :16, 48, 63 

esopas (CatoBtomns) 146 

CBopns (Labeo) 101, 146 

eBtor(Gila) 66,79 

Esox 16,38,48,62,89 

EtbeoBtoma 15, 40,59, 75, 89 

E theoBtoinatidtD .... 12, 30, 34, 40, 45, 57, 73 

etowanam (Hypenteliiim) 86 

etowanoB (Catostonnis uigricauB), 54, 159, 

163 

Eacalia 89 

Eapomotifl 15,46,61,89 

enryopB (Myxostoma), 54, 86, 10;i, 115, 119 

euryops (TeretaliiB) 1 19 

enryBtoma (Codoma) 42, 85 

eurystomua (PbotogeDiH) 42 

evides (Ericoema) 82 

exilis (NoturuB) 87 

ExogloBsnm 90 

fasciatUB (CatoBtomus) 101, 138 

fasciolariB (CatOBtomus) 100, 145 

fecauduB (Catostooius) 102, 150,219 

fecQDduB (Cbasmistes) 102, 150 

flabellare (Etheostoma) 15» 59, 75, 8il 

flabellatas (Catonotns) 15 

flammeuB (Phoxinus) 65, 85 

flexuoBTiR (Catostomus) 100, 166 

folium (Polyodon) 71, 81, 87 

fontinalis (Salveliuus) 16, 31, 63, 84 

formosa (Codoma) 42, 51 

formosus (Alburuns) 42 

forsterianns ( Acomus) 107, 176 

forsterianus (Catoatomus). ..100, 101, 167, 

176 

freteusiB ( Albnrnops) 85 

FnnduUiB 89 

furcatu8(Icbtb{elunia) 87 

galacturuB (HypsilepiH) 32 

galaetnrus (Photogeuis) 32, 64, 78 

Gambusia 89 

generosns T Acomus) 183 

generoBUB (Catoatomus) 102, 173, 183 

generoens (PautoBteus) 102, 182, 183 

gibbosos (Catostomus) 100, 145 



g!!)boniB(L»l»M> 145 

Oils 24,60,79.90 

Qirardluna 80 

goodei (ErlmyzoD) 103, 144, 14» 

gracilis (CatootoinuH) 101,167 

i;raDd)plDDi8 (Pbolugeuia) 4'2 

Bvayi (Curpiodea) 102,199 

BrisenB (Aconian) 176 

grannienB ( llaploidonotna) 47, Gl , 7Q 

golosOB (ChienobryUas) 46.80,83 

galtalna (PeicapHis] 84 

gnttfttnn (Zygonectat) 4*j, ^4 

iafAcoians) 17S 

is (CaUMtonmi) 102, ITH 

Hadropteras. . . . i 30, 34, 40, 45, 5tj, 68 

Haploidonotiifl 47,01.76,69 

lisydeni (Pryabostooiua) 101, 138 

tftydeni <TeretuIna) 138 

Heiuioplitea S9 

lloraitremln 65, 70, 90 

heteroilon(HBniittemiii) &i 

heto^u^llIU(Do^osonlal)e(lt^Jianllm). 49, 77 

hieroglypbkUH (ZygoiiMtiH) 48, 81 

hintilo (AmiiioctoUs) 87 

HndBonina 19,30,l»0 

hadBoniaa (CatostomaaJ.lOQ, 166, 175, ITG 

liyalinos (Ceratichthys) 53, 6 i 

Hjbognathns 16,90 

HyborbyDOhaa 6:), 78, 90 

Hydrophloi 18, 32. 36, 49, 04. 90 

Hylomjum - 151, 156 

Hyodon 48,62,77,80 

Hyodontide 4i*,63, 77 

Hypenteliiim 151,154,155, 157, 156 

liypseloptsniH {Z«Dois«aii) ii 

bypsiootas (Ceraiicblbyn) 85 

Johtbnlumt 33, 39, 43, 55, 69, B1,D0 

lohthyobna 90. 101, 211, 'il3, 914 

loHohaa 211,213 

Lnoatoma S8 

tncDDBtaDH (Eaoalin) 83 

inBCTiptnsfNorbanulaa) 34, 83 

inwriptDS (XenotiB) 46,01,(0 

ioaigae (Catoal«niua) IKt 

iniigois (Catostomns) 101, 169, 165 

iDBigniit (HinomuB) 165 

Insigois (NoturDB) S9, 87 

inleiTupta (MoroDe) 83 

loa 88 

irideos (Centrarcbiis) 47, 83 

iscbannB(NoteiiiigotiaO S4, 38 

IscbyniB (Icbtbyobas) 102, 215, 217 

iscbymB (LepiupomaB) 83 

Jarrovii (MiuomuB) 103, lf« 

jMTOVii (PaotocWDSj 183 



Jewite (PfcoilSchthyi) .....H.US 

keouerlyi (UosoMoma) 101, 1« 

Labco UO,m 

[abialus (Catoetomas) IK.tli 

LaUldeathes 01,7^M 

labroflDi (Ceralicblhyu) ... .... &J.M 

lacera (Lagoohila) 68. 10:1. IM, IM 

lacera (QuaBBilabia) G8,W,iK 

locertosas (Hydrgphloi). Si 

laolirymala (Myioatoma) 103. US, 19) 

lBobrymaliB(IIyxiwtoiiiadn<iueimi). IV 
lacbrymalie (Myxoatonia inaoral«- 

pidotn) HO 

lachrvmaliH (PtyehOBtoiunB) lOS.liKI 

laclirymalis (Teretulns) ItO 

lactarlas (Acomtiii) 1TB 

lactarfus (CatosUmuB) IIN,1T6 

lacustna (Lota). 9 

LagocbilB IM,M5 

latipinula (Aooinus) .. lH 

iMipiniiiB (CatostonniB) ..101,102.1(Rtt8 

Lepidmiteuln 20, 44, 55, 71, SI 

Lopidoatens 29, 44, 65, 71,BI,» 

U'piopomna 15, :W, 40, 46,60,76,89 

icplncanthuB (Noturas) 44,rnj,87 

Icsiiunrii (Calostomna] 100,13$ 

leucioda (Episema) (H, 85 

leucopB (PhotogeniB) S^ 

leiicupuH (PboloBenis) 41, fl 

liiDi(U«laDiirft) « 

JiaeolntiiDi (Etbeostoma) R 

lioma (CbasDiitttcs] W 

liroH (NotropiB) !£l,S|f& 

Litholepis. W 

longiceps (Hybopsis) *• 

longirostria (Catoatonius), 86, 100, 109, I6ti 
176 

long TOStrom (Cntostomus) IM.IIS I 

Lota * 

lunatns (Rbinicbthys) P , 

lQtipinDU<Hydrophl(Hc) 3C* 

Lniilna 18,31,49,64,78,8" 

lytbrochloria (XoDotis) * 

Ljthnims ffi,* 

ipbatas (Alvordiaa) ^ I 

(Cato8toiiinB)....10a,lflDtl'J^ 

macrocbirDB {LepioponiDB) ^^ 

iiiacrolBpidot.1 (Myxoatoma) 

mncrolepidotum (Moxostorou) " 

Diucculupidotum (Myinstoma). 54,0^ 
86. 101, 103, 115. 116, llK 

iDacrolepidotiim (Teretolua) 

iDacrolepiilotiis (Catoatomna). 100, 
macrolf pidotn a (Ptycboatomc 
maciopterum (Exi^loMum) , 



IKDEX. 



235 






Paget 

■•eiopteraiD (HypeDteliam) 1G3 

■•ooptenis (Gentnrohiis) 36,83 

Mealmticepe (Arlina) 13 

■Mnbtioeps (Boleoeoma) 13,34 

aKnUtain (Boleoioma) 58,82 

■ieaUtam (Etbeostoma) 12 

Meobtatt (Alvoidios) 58, 73, 82 

tttiltM (Hadroptenis) 58 

■tteolaUis (Nothonotns) 82 

■ieiilotiu»(Acipeiiser) 71,87 

MealMiis (CaUMrtomus) 100, ia'3 

■nium (Percioa) 82 

■Hfuotis (EnneaoaDthuH) 83 

■uginatos (Notaras) 29 

■ttBoratus (Amiuros) 39, 87 

■ttotinas (Notropis) 85 

auiilingaa (ExogloHeaui) 8G 

a^plotu (XenotiB) 76,83 

a^pstomns (CatobtouiUB) 100,103 

MlaiiO|Ni(Cato8tonia8)...27, 100, 136, 138 

Mluwiia (ErimyzoD) 27, 1*38 

■daaopa (Minytretna), 27, 54, 69, dO, 86, 

lyO, 101, 137, 138 

Mhoope (Ptyohostomus) 138 

■ilinops (Zygoneotes) 84 

MlmopsiB (Catoatonias) 138 

IMaoiira 89 

BilaDonia (RutiluB) 100, 121 

ariM (Amiuras) 87 

MtetgriB (Rbioicbthys) 86 

wndionaliB (BubalichtbyH) . . lOi, 206, 210 
■eridioDaliB (PotamocottUB) . .47, 57, 73, 82 

wrkliooaliB (SclerogDatbas) 210 

VaogooiBtitu 89 

Xieioperca 89 

Mieroptcros .... 15, 30, 35, 40, 4'J, 60, 75, b9 

■icRipteryx (Notropis) 65, 79, 85 

aktOBtomuB (AlbarnopB) 64, 78, 85 

■iaostomuB (MiDDiluB) 64 

Miaooiiis 151, 157, 180, 181 

lliaytreaia..27,54, 69, e^O, 90, 103, 130, 137 

ttforos (NoluruB) 87 

lMlJeDe«ia 89 

MoacbaB (CeraticbtbyB) 67,86 

HoxoBtOiua, 110, 113, 114, i:^, 140, 142, 143 

JlyxocypriuoB 104, 217 

JtyxoBtoma, 26, 33, 38, 43, 54, 68, 80, 90, 103, 

110, 113 

itQB (RbiDicbthys) 86 

lis (Amiurns) 55, 70, 81, 87 

peaa (PboxinoB) 85 

aeDiia(Alvordias) 82 

HAmModou) 209 

mmtenUM) 87 

WMIflhlliya) 2u9 



Page. 

niger (GatostoQiDs) 2C9 

nigrescenB (Cycleptus) 100, 186, 190 

Digricans (Ainiurus) 81, 87 

nii;ricaQB (Catostomiis), 'Si, 54, 69, 80, 100, 

101, 158, 159, 162, 163, 167 

Digricans ( Hylomyzon ) 162 

Digricans (Hypent^liuni). 86, 162, 163 

nigrofasciatuB (Hadroptems) ...30, 34, 40, 

45,82 

uigromaculatos (Pomoxys) 47, 76 

ui vei ventris ( Aniiarus) 87 

ni vena (Pbotogenis) 20, 85 

notatns (Uyborhy ncbus) 63, 78, 84 

notatns (Xystroplites) 61, 83 

notains (Zygonectcs) 62, 77, 84 

Notemigonus 24, 38, 53, 67, 79, 90 

NotbonotUB 13,34,58,74,89 

Notropis 23, 53, 64, 78, 90 

nottii (Zygonectes) 31, 48, 84 

Notunis 29,44,55,70,90 

uncbaliB (Hybognathns) 84 

nummifer (Carpiodtni) 102,200 

occidentalis (CatoBtomiiB) .. .101, 160, 172 

oblongos (CypriuoB) 27, 100, 140, 145 

obloDgas (Erimyzon) 100, 145 

obloDgUB (Labeo) 145 

obloDgas (MoxoBtoma) 145 

oblongus (Terotulas) 145 

obscnrus (Lepiopomus) 46, 60, 76, 83 

obtQBUS (Rbinicbtbys) 54, 07, 86 

oblongus (CatoBtomus) 145 

olivaris (Pelodicbtbys) 70, 81, 87 

olmstedi (Boleosomu) 13, 82 

oneida(Cato8tomu8) 101, 1*^0 

oneida (PtycboBtomiis) 120 

osseus (Lepidostcus) . . 29, 44, 55, 71, 81, 87 

pallidas (Cat OBtoujus) 101, 167 

pallidas (EuponiotiH) 46, 01, 83 

pallidas (Lepiopomus) .. .40, 46, 60, 76, 83 
pallidas (Micropterus), 15, 40, 46, 60, 75, 83 

Pantosteus 103, It'O, 181 

papillosa (Myxostoma) 1^34 

Iiapillosuiu (Myxostouiu).. .26, 38, 86, 102, 

118, 134 

papillosum (Ptycbostomus) 102, 134 

papillosum (Tcretulus) 134 

pcllucidus (Pleurolepis) 82 

Pelodicbtbys. . 70, 81, 90 

peltastes (Xonotis) 83 

Perca 89 

PercidcB 45, 60, 75 

Percina 45,57,73,88 

Percopsis 89 

Pbenacobius 53,67,79,90 

Pbotogenis 18.20,32,41,64,78,90 



236 lift 

Pig*. 

pbotogeoTH (Sotropia) 23, (i5, ffi 

pbotogcQis (SqualiUB) S3 

PhoxiuuB 0j,90 

phoxocepbaIa« (Alvordius) 73, 82 

pidiuoBi(i(Myx<MtoD]a} 60, ll», 133 

pidjeiisia (PtychuBtomuo) - 133 

piilieiiU8('ri:retula>t) 133 

Pimupbalra 7rt,t)0 

pinoiger (Euueacantlius) Si 

PlaaupUur;iiK liU, 90, 103, 107 

pluaicepe (Cuuetomua) l&t 

plUfcepbaliu (Aminrua} ^, 33, tiJ 

platycephiklaii (Fimuludas) Sd 

plikt)TbjrncbQS(,Uinouiaa) 102, l&t 

platytbfDcbua(I>iiutaHteDB}..IHO, 162, 183 
plulyrbjDcU«B(Si;Bpbirbyaohopa).. 87 

plutyBtoumH (LBpiilottleiis) 71,87 

plebeiUB (C.auMtumiia) 101,184 

plubeiuaCMiuomUD) 184 

p]«b<^iii»(PiiuLusteiia} 103, lH-2, 184 

jiJebtJaa (.CittusUiiiias) .- 184 

I'tBCiliubtbja 59, 75, 89 

tHBciluTU (Myxuatoma) 103, 110, 1^ 

Polyodou 71, SI, 90 

PulyodaDtidn) 71,81 

Pumolobns &i,^^,90 

puiuotia (Acautburcboa) 83 

Pumoxya 47,78,88 

PoMmocottuu 47, Si, 73, Ba 

prolixum iCjinpiiatoiiia auumiilum ) IG, 

41), C3 

promelaa (Piinephales) 78.84 



rubellna (Xolropia) 

rubiouudua (Acipenser) 71, 

Tubricroeeua (Hybopaia) 

rabrici-uceua Ulyiliupbloit) 32, M, 

rabiifroua (Ceraliobthys) -t^ 30, 

robrifroHB (NooomiB) X., 

rabrifroDB (Notropia).. . ,. 

rufilioeatuH (NotboaotuB) tS 

mpeattiB (AmbloplitM) .. .40, AS, ao, iS 
Bulmuidtti (Uict()ptiTaB)..30,;lG, 40, M, 



n 



Balm. 



(giimMtoibium)...45,G0,7S 

Balnaoueus (EanK) 

Sat noil id ai 16,31 

anlailMiaa (AlbarDopa) U 

SftlveliDna 16,31,63 

Bangaifluua (NoiboDotOB) To 

BanguiuuloDtns (Xi;aoliB) 31,40,61 

suyauua (Apbododenu) 41,47 

scabHcepB(EplB?mu).. ............ 

ScapbirbyDtbopa 

8citeoid» 47,19 

Soleroguatbua 190, 193, :i01, SOii, 

scopiferus (PbeDacobiim) 

seltiiie (CarpiodeaJ KM; 

BcluDopa (Iljodouj 48, Si, 77 

Semot.lnB 2»,38,43,54,(itl,ri 

abauiBnlii (linoaCuina) 

aicculai (Labideathea) SI 

Silurulai is, SI, 39, 43, RS, « 

eimoterum (Diplcsium) S6,ti 

aiiuutaus (HeiuiopliteB) .... 

ihijUHiolepi:*).. 




INDEX. 



237 



)ii8 (Alboraope) 85 

CatMtomos) 125 

[CyprtDos) 101 

CypriDos (Catoetomas)) . . . 1^ 

Ptyohostomus) 125 

TeretoloB) 1 125 

8 (GsioatomaB) 161, 173 

h 88 

Bolialiohthys) 55, 206 

Carpiodes) 101,206 

M (Notropis) 65,79,85 

lozostoma) 101, 146 

Grimyson) 146 

ito6toiuo8)..100, 101, 102, 159, 166 

18 110. 113, 114, 140 

1 (Phenacoblns) 86 

(Hy«KloD) 77,84 

a (Etbeostomu) 59,83 

Dopferas 89 

(Catofttomus) 102,167 

la (Myxoetonia) 131 

mm (Myzoatoma) ....86, 117, 131 

inn (NothonotuH) 13, 82 

iQB (Ptychoatomus) 102, 131 

iM (Teretnlas) 131 

nl (Carpiodes) 101, 195, 198 

Di (Icbtbyobns) 198 

aims (Setnotil uh) 43 

loR 89 

ratoHtomug) 101, 174,218 

^tia (Codoma) 50, a") 

i* 8rt 

:um (Eriiuyzon) 163, 167 

tnin (Moxofttonia) 102, 107 

atu8 (CatoacoinuH) 100, 145 

(CurpicKlfB) 101,199 

(IcbtbyobaB) 199 

itbys 89 

■a 45,73,88 

* 88 

(Ph«nacobiu8) 6r, 79, 86 

ibalichthys) ..69, 87, 101, 206, 209 

rpiodea) 101, 201, 209 

erogDatbuB) 206 



Page. 

vacca (Carpiodes) 101, 199 

Vaillantia b9 

vandoiBula (Gila) 24,85 

vandoisnluB (Leaciscas) 24 

variatuB (PoecilicbtbyB) 75,82 

velata (Moxostoma) 132 

velata (MyxoBtoma) •. 132 

velatutu (MozoBtoma) 132 

velatam (MyxoBtoma) 26, 68, 86, 102, 

117, 132 

velatnm (Teretnlus) 132 

velatuB (PtycboBtoniiiB) 102, 132 

velatUB (TeretulQB) 1«J2 

velifer (Carpiodea) 86, 194, li;6 

velifer (CatoBtomiw) 100,196 

velifor (Ictbyobas) 196 

victoriiB (MozoBtoina) 27, 138 

viresceDB (PantOBteDB) 102, 182 

viridis (CbteoobryttUB) 15, 35, 83 

vitrea (loa) 82 

vitrenm (Stizostetbiani) 60,83 

vittata (Hemitreaiia) 65, 79, 85 

vittatuB (CatOBtomoB) 100, 145 

vituliis (Bubalicbtbya) 206 

vitulQB (CarpiodeB) 101 

vulgariB (Anguilla), 29, 33, 39, 44, 55, 70, 

81, 87 

vulDerntuB (Notbonotos) 58, 82 

wincbelli (Centrarcbus) 53, 68, 86 

wiDchelli (Hybopsis) 53 

xtenocepbalus (Hydropblox) 49 

xoiUoctipbaluB (HybopsiB) 49 

xwiinra (Codoiua) 37, 85 

xiCDuruB (MiDiiiliiB) '<i^ 

xautbocepbaluB (Amiurus) 87 

xaDtbopuB (CatOBtomus) 163 

XeDidDia 48, 62, 77, 89 

XenotiB 31, 46, 61, 76, 89 

Xystroplites 61, 89 

yarrow i (PantosteiiB) 183 

zanemus (CeraticbtbyB) 24,86 

zoDaliB (NotbouotuB) 58, 82 

Zygonectes 31, 48, 62, 77, 89 



^eparimeni of i\ie S^nicrior 

V. S. NATIONAL MUSEOTL 



13 



BULLETIN 



OF TUB 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



ISTo. 13. 



PUBLISHED UNDEE THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONI.VN INSTITmON. 



WASHINGTON: 

OOYEBNHENT PBINTINO OFFICE. 

1879. 



fil 



' I 




THJL FLOEA 



OF 



, f 



r. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS, 



BY 



B^RON H. F. A.. EOGERS. 






WASHINGTON: 

aOTEBNHENT PBINTINa OFFTOB. 

1879. 



i r 







ADVEETISEMENT. 



Tbis work is the thirteenth of a series of papers intended to illustrate 
tbo collections of natural historj'^ and ethnology belonging to the 
United States, and constituting the National Museum, of which the 
Bmitlu^ouian Institution was placed in charge by the act of Congress of 
Ane^Ht 10, 184G. 

It hafi been prepared at the I'equest of the Institution, and printed by 
aothority of the honorable Secretary of the Interior. 

SPENCER F. BAIRD, 
Secretary <»fi\e Smithsoinian Institution. 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington^ May^ 1879. 



>RA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS, 

WEST INDIES. 



By Baron H. F. A. Egoers. 



i the east of the island of Porto Eico, between 18^ 5' and 18o 45' K 
and 640 5' and 65° 35' W. long., stretches a dense cluster of some 
er and numerous smaller islands for a distance of about 85 miles, 
!h are known by the name of the Virgin Islands. The principal 
ids are Vieques and Culebra, belonging to Spain, St. Thomas and St. 
, belonging to Denmark, and Tortola, Virgin Gorda, and Anegada, 
Dging to England. The superficial area of the larger islands is only 
1 10 to 40 square miles, whilst the smaller ones are mostly uninhabited 
8, or even rocks, some of which are nearly devoid of vegetation, the 
It-line of them all being sinuous, and forming numerous small bays 
creeks. The whole group is evidently a submarine prolongation ot 
mountains of Porto Eico, showing its tops and higher ridges above 
level of the sea, the depth of which between the various islands and 
^o Rico is only from 6 to 20 fathoms. The declivities to the north 
the south of the ridge on the reverse are very steep, no bottom hav- 
lMH»n found 25 miles to the south in 2000 fathoms, and 80 miles to the 
h the Challenger Expedition found a depth of about 3850 fathoms, 
g:reatest ever measured in the northern Atlantic Ocean, 
le greatest height in the Arcliipeiago is attained in its central part, 
Clioraas reaching up to 1550', Tortola even to 1780', St. Jan and 
:in Gorda teing a little lower, whilst the hills in Vieques and Ciile- 
to the west, are only 500'-G00'high, and Anegada, the northeastern- 
t, is, as its Spanish name, the inundated, implies, merely alow or half- 
oerged island, elevated but a few feet over the level of the sea. The 
ral islands, therefore, present the appearance of a steep ridge, pre- 
ously sloping to the north and the south, and cut up by numerous 
DCS, which during heavy rains are the beds of small torrents, but 
jh generally are without running water, and which at their lower end 
91 into small level tracts on the sea-coast, often forming a lagoon on 
modf ohore. Between these level tracts the coast is usually very 
BidL Vftt Mos. No. 13 1 t 



2 FLOfiA. OF ST. CHOIX AND THE TntOm ISLABM. 

Iwld and rocky, forming abrupt promoDtories of consideroble bei|^ 
and picturesque appearance, the hills aod ridges on the other bud 
being more rounded and of a softer oatUne. 

The wbole group of islands, vith the exception of Auegada, wliidii 
built up of a tertiary limestone of very recent and probably pliocM 
date, belongs to the cretaceous period,*8howi»g as the principal iwi » 
breccia of felsite and scoriaceous stones, the cementing part of idnA 
probably consists of decomposed hornblende, and having ita cantiH 
conmionly filled with quartz or calcareous spar. Besides this prindpil' 
rock, which is often fouud distinctly stratified, and which is called 
Uluebit by the inhabitants, who generally employ the stone for buiI<liB{ 
materials, limestone, dioritc, clay-slate, and other less frequent minenb 
also occur in the islands, forming, however, only a poor substratum kt 
vegetation everywhere. For the product of the decomposed roct U 
generally a red heavy clay. Only Vieques shows a more fertile soil, pio- 
duced by the alteration of a syenite-like diorite, its more level 8urC)reit> 
the same time allowing the fertile strata to i-emain on the surface ; wUK. 
in the other islands the heavy rains as a nile will wash the Ioowcotw. 
ing of the ground down to the sea. i 

From viuious facts observed in Anegada and Virgin Gorda bj Sif fc' 
Schoinburgk,* a« well as by Mr. Scott, in Vieques, at Porto Fi-rro Bi|d 
it appears that at the present period the whole chain of islands i 
rising, so that perhaps in a geologically speaking not verj' distiuit ti 
most of the islands may becnn>e connected reciproenlly and wilh I 




i 



FLORA OP ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 3 

the idand, reaching in some places as high as 1150' (Mount Eagle), but 
avenging 60(y-S0(y only. 

The rock of these hills is nearly the same as in the above-named 
gnwp, although the Bluebit of this latter occurs more rarely, and is sub- 
stitated by a fine, greyish, stratified clay-slate, without vestiges of any 
ofganic remains. Tlie strata of tliis slate are often very much disturbed, 
80 as to present an exceedingly broken and overturned appearance. The 
greater, western part of the island forms a large, slightly inclined plain, 
dopbg towards the south, and interrupted in^a few places by low, short, 
isolated ridges only 200'-30(y high, and formed of a tertiary lime- 
stODe of the miocene period. This limestone is covered by a layer of 
detritus and marls some feet thick, but shows itself at the surface in 
nnoQs places, and contains several fossils, partly of still existing species 
of moUusca. 

Along the coasts are found some new alluvial formations, often enclos- 
ing lagoons, some of which are of considerable size. These lagoons are 
bring gradually filled up by vegetable matter, as well as by sand and 
stones washed down by the rains from the hills; but whilst in the Virgin 
Idands many similar lagoons have been raised already several feet above 
the level of the sea, and laid completely dry, no such thing has been 
observed in St Croix. This seems to indicate that no rising of the ground 
is taking place in the latter, as is the case in the former, as mentioned 
above. From its whole structure and formation it mav be inferred that 
the soil is more fertile in St. Croix than in most of the Virgin Islands, 
Vieques excepted, the sugar-cane being cultivated to a considerable ex- 
tent on the island. 

TMiilst thus the geology of St. Croix and the Virgin Islands presents 
some not unimportant dift'erenees, the climate may, on account of their 
similar geographical position, as well as elevation above the sea-level, be 
^d to be materially the same in both. 

Inacconlance with the geographical position of theislands, the tempera- 
ture is very constant and high, the yearly mean average being 27.2° C, 
^vided nearly equally over all the months, the coldest, February, show- 
ing 25.60, the warmest, September, 28.9o, a diflerence of :i.3o only. The 
*^e uniformity is observed in the daily variation, which scarcely ever 
''^'passes 50, the thermometer rising gnidually from 6 a. m. till 2 i). m., 
^d falling Just as gradually during the rest of the 24 hours. 

lus tlie difference of temperature at the various seasons of the year 
* too Bmall to aflfect the life of vegetation to any very i)erceptible ex 



4 FLORA OP ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISUIID8. 

tent, and it is tberefore the variable degree of moistaie at difleient timn 
whicb chiefly pnxlnces any variation in the development of vegetabfe 
life at the difTerent seasons. 

The lowest temperature observed at the sea-level, in the ahade, isl8J°; 
the highest, 35.5°. In the sun, the mercury will Boinetimes rise as hi^ 
as 51°, but as a rule does not surpass 40°. Obsen'ationB made in St 
Thomas by Knox* and myself show a decrease of alwnt S^fOTuielen- 
tioD of every SOO', which gives to the highest ridges la St. Thomas tai 
Tortola an annual mean teiuperature 3 j°— 1° lower than that of the coait, 
a difference sufficient to produce some variation in the flora of thea 
piirt». The northern sloiie of the hilts, from being the greater part rf 
the year, viz, from August to May, less exposed to the rays of the m, 
are generally also somewhat cooler and more moist than Hie soatbm 
ones, the consequences whereof are also felt in the life of plants toaoo*- 
siderable extent. 

An equal regularity, as obser\-ed in the temperature, manifests itadf 
with regard to the pressure of the atmosphere, the daily variations rf 
the barometer being only about O-ftV, and the maximum yearly dilfir- 
ence only 0.'2". It is only during strong gales and horricanes that fli 
barometer is more seriously aSected, it then falling sometimes as noA 
as 2". Tlicse hurricanes, as a nde, occur only daring the mnnthn bM 
August to Octolier, at whirh jieriod the trade-winds from fhe uortluMt, 
■ which otherwise blow most i)art of the year, generally become nnst 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 5 

nin, fidling chiefly in the form of short, rapid showers of only a few 
mmntea^ dnrationy and it is not till the warmer part of the year that 
htAYj and general rains become possible in these regions. During this 
litter time, the trade- winds become irregolar and slight, or are even 
entirely saspended, as stated before; hence the moisture generated by 
tte daily evaporation from the ocean is not carried off as soon as formed, 
Imt iB allowed to gather into rain-clouds, and finally to precipitate itself 
■gain as rain nearly on the same spot where it was formed. 

From observations made in various islands for a period of more than 
kventy-five years, the annual mean quantity of rain seems to be about 
tte BBone in all the islands, averaging 42''-44''; the eastern parts of all, 
M being more exposed to the direct action of the winds, always show- 
Eig a considerably smaller quantity than the central and western ones. 

Although no month of the year is without rain, yet from the above it 
■tH be easily concluded that there is a remarkable difference between 
fte various months in this respect: the driest, February, having only an 
irerage of 1.5"; the wettest, October, of 7.0"; and to this difference, at 
ike various periods of the year, it is chiefly due, that notwithstanding 
k uniform temperature all the year round, yet some variations in the 
■pect and intensity of vegetable life are observed in the various sea- 



Both the annual and the monthly quantity of rain are subject to vary 
aoBsiderably, one year showing 23", or in some places 18" only, another 
Igun 70" or 78". A still greater difference may be obsen- ed between 
Bfe eame months of different years: thus, February having had one year 
Iil9" only, another, on the contrary, 3.75"; May 0.47" the one year and 
UiW" the other. These excessive variations must, no doubt, materially 
Iftct vegetable life, indicating at the same time a considerable degree 
Ifbardiness in respect to drought in the perennial plants indigenous to 
&e islands, and as alluded to above, acting upon them in a similar Avay 
fei the variations in temperature in colder climates. 

The number of days on which rain falls averages for the period from 
185^73, 161 a year, giving a mean fall of rain of 0.27" p(»r diem : April 
ftowing the lowest nunber, 9 ; October the highest, 16. From what has 
heea said before, it is evident, however, that the small monthly quantity 
"in during the dry i)art of the year, viz, January to April, divided 
over a great number of days (so as to amount to 0.14" or 0.18" 
9\m CBia be of no great importance, as it is precipitated in a short 
Bk for penetrating into the soil, and so is very soon 



6 FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN I8LAND8» 

evaporated again by the action of the snn and the trade-wind oombined. 
It is not till May, when the iucreased quantity of rain is snfficieiit to 
penetrate the parched soil, that its influence and effect upon vegetation 
makes itself felt by renewed life and activity in ail the various branches 
of the vegetable kingdom in general. 

Looking at the vegetation of St. Croix and the Virgin Islands in its 
generality, and without entering into details, we may consider it to be 
identical, as a whole, showing the same main features, and natoiaDy 
divided into four distinct formations, as in most other West India 
Islands, viz. the littoral, the shrubby, the sylvan, and the region of 
cultivation, connected, of coui*se, here and there by intermediate forma- 
tions, but on the whole \irtually distinct from different biological con- 
ditions. 

Beginning with the littoral flora, we find along the coast in shallow 
water a multitude of Alga3, among which are found some marine Phane- 
rogamse, especially the common Thalassia testudinum and Cfpnodocea 
manatorumy and in less quantity the beautiful little HcUophUa BaiUonUj 
a recently discovered Potamea, with oval delicate leaves, and growing 
gregariously on the bottom of the sea in coai'se gravel. The vegetation 
of tropical seashores is of ii very uniform character all over the world, 
the physical conditions being similar on them all, and the niigratiou 
from one shore to another l)eing exceedingly facilitated by the sea as 
well as by birds, storms, and the action and intercourse of the inhab- 
itants. Thus, the same species of littoral i)lants are found on nccorly all 
the West India islands, many of them also inhabitants of far dLstnnt 
shores on the African and Asiatic continents, — belonging to the cosui*>' 
politan and transoceanic si)eei(^s, a list of which was first prepared by 
liobei'l l>rown, and afterwards angmented by A. DeCandoUe, and whicli 
seem to i)ossess an extraordinary faculty for migration. According ^^ 
the different character of the c*oast, as sandy, rocky, or swampy, tl^^ 
vegetation on it also assumes a ditlerent aspect. 

On th(^, sandy shore, which is composed of a fine white gi-avel, co^' 
sisting principally of iiniumerable pieces of broken shells and coni-^J 
and thus forming a thick hiyer of carbonate of lime, we see a luxmio"*^ 
flora of trees, shrubs, and minor x^l^'its, which all, on account of 1>^^ 
underground water collecting from the hills above, generally havc^ ^ 
gi^een ai>pearance all the year round, even when the hills of the iuter^^^ 
present a withered aspect from want of rain. Among the trees grc^^ 
ing here the most prominent are the Hippaniane Maywinella, the CoC?^ 



FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIHQIN ISLANDS. 7 

loba uvifer4iy ChrygobaJanus IcacOy and Canella alba^ besides the Cocoa 

nwcifera^ which is planted and naturalized, especially on the low sandy 

seashore. Under these taller forms appear many kinds of shrubs, such 

as EooMtcphyUum Browneij Toumefortia gnaphdlodeSy Borrichia arbores- 

ocMy Emodea UtoraliSj Suriana maritima^ Erithalis fruticosa^ Colubrina 

fermgnuMOy OuUandina Bonduc and BonduceUa^ and several others. 

Still lower shrubs and sufiOmtesceut herbs are Sccevola Plumieriy Tourne- 

forUa gnaphdlodeSy Sesuvium portulacdstrunij Heliotrqpium curasaavicumj 

Pkilaxcrua vermiculatusj CaJcile wqualia, as well as several grasses and 

sedges, as Sporobulus UtoraliSj Stenotaphrum americanum^ and Cyperus 

hrunneusy as also some remarkable creepers or climbers, such as 

IponuEa peS'Oaprw and Lablah vulgaris. 

Most of these species disappear on the rocky cliffs, where they give 
room for others, mostly shrubs of a low growth, and with thicker or 
more coriaceous leaves, that are able to resist the force of the wind, 
which often bends the whole plant into a dwarfish individual, the 
branches of which are cut off at the top in a western direction. The 
most common of these shrubs are Jacquinia armillariSy EUcodendron 
^locarputHj Plumieria albay and Coccoloba punctata^ as well as some 
nKmocotyledonous plants, such as Fitcaimin angmti/oliay Agave ameri- 
WM, and a few Cacti, principally the stout Mehcactus communis. 

Still more different forms apx)ear where the coast becomes swampy 
from the presence of lagoons. Here predominates the Mangrove fonna- 
tion, comi>o.sed chiefly of lAigun<mlaria racemosaj Conocarpus erectuSy Avi- 
ccnnia nltida^ and lihizophora Mangle^ which all grow more or less in the 
vater itself. In less moist i)lace8 we find some others, such as Budda 
BuceraSy Anona palustris^ AnfheryUum Bohrli, and the curious Batis ma- 
^imaj which recalls to the mind the halophytes of the steppes. 

However different these various forms of littoral plants may appear, 
comimred to each other, yet tliey all have in common the predilection 
for the sea, the saline exhalation of which seems indispensable to their 
growth. Some have even, like Ai^icennia, their leaves always covered 
^th small salt crystals; others, like Bat is maritima, are true halophj'tes, 
^donly very few of the plants of the coast in generality are found in the 
ulterior even of these small islands. An ex(*(»ption is nuule by the cocoa- 
^Qt palm, which is found growmg all about on the islands, even on the 
^Pof the highest hills, as also by Coccoloba uviferoy found in similar 
localities. 
In passing from the cosist into the interior we find on the eastern, and 



I 



8 FLOBA. OF ST. CBOIX AKD THB TIBGnr IBLAalML 

partly also on the sontiieni paii; of all fhe idaadB, m dry dmbby vege- 
tation of a greyish or yeUowish aspect^ whieh, fhna the piedinidnaHiK 
genus composing its elements, I have called tUe Oroton vegetatioiL lUi 
peonliar kind of diy shmb also occurs here and there in other partoof 
the islands, where the soil, through recddess cultiTation, has beoome too 
exhausted to produce a growth of taller trees, and it cannot be estlmatBd 
to cover less than one third part of the whole surfboe of the islandi, pni 
dominating in some, as Tortola, St. Thomas, and Oulelna^ less oonspioi- 
ous in others, as St. Jan, Yieques, and St. Croix. , 

The ravines as well as the northern and western parts of the idaadi 
are often covered with a growth of taller trees, fomung a kind of fozert^ 
composed of species partly eVtogreen and partly with dedduous foliage^ 
and which, from one of the most prominent forms, I have called theEEie- 
dendron vegetation. The area covered by this formation may be tata 
to be about one fifth of the whcde surfiace, the best wooded islands betaf 
St. Jan and Yieques, the least wooded ones St. Thomas and Yirgia 
Gorda. 

The remainder of the surface is either used for i>astnre or cnltivaliei 
with sugar-cane or provisions, the former On a large scale in St Croix 
and Vieques only, the latter everywhere on the islands where the BcSi 
seems i)roper for the purpose. This last section I tenn Ihe culti\^ted 
region. 

Considering first the Croton vegetation, we find here a number of plants 
which in various ways have become enabled to resist the deteriorating 
effects of the dry climate, and to exist on the barren rocky soil alway* 
found where the moisture is not sufficient for decomi)08ing -the natur^ 
rock of the surface. Thus, some of these plants, as the whole of tb^^ 
genus Croton, already mentioned above, have small leaves, which, lil^* 
the stem, ai'e covered with scales and tomentose hair, cx)ntaiuiug besid^ 
aromatic oil, all which contrivances tend to diminish evaporation as mu< 
as possible. The most common species of this remarkable genus are 
flavuH^ astroitca^ bicolor^ and hetulinu.H: Other fonns obtain the 
object by having \evy small, partly deciduons leaves and their stipu^^ 
transformed into prickles, especially the Acacias, such as A. FametiiM ^ 
macracnntJWj tortuosaj and samientma. Others, again, are rich in milt-^ 
juice, as Euphorbia petiolarisj Bauwolfixi LamarcJciij and the naturaliz^^ 
CaJotropis procera^ or merely in aqueous sap, as the Oacteie, the comm 
est forms of which are Melocactus commnni^j Cereufi floccomis^ and 
Species of Opuntia. Others, such as Bromeliaceae, on the contrary, 



FLORA OF BT. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS, 9 

f diy straGtare, and a dense cover of scales for protection, whilst 
s again, Buch as Anona squamosa^ whicli are apparently without 
teans to resist the efit&cts of dry weather, have no other remedy left 
to shed their leaves daring a part of the year, and thus preserve 
existence at the temi)orary sacrifice of their vegetative organs, 
the forms mentioned above are of very slow growth, and, with the 
tion of a few that are used for burning charcoal, of scarcely any 
tance either to man or animals, for which reason the districts oc- 
1 by them as a rule present a very desolate and uninviting appear- 

ere the climate becomes sufficiently moist, and the soil in conse- 
© thereof more decomiK)sed and fertile, the forest appears in place 
Croton vegetation, on the uncultivated lands, especially in ravines 
m steep declivities, which do not allow of cultivation or grass- 
ig. As nearly everywhere in the tropics, the forest here is com- 
of many different species of trees mixed together, a gregarious 
h being very rare. From the forests of moister tropical countrieSy 
rer, the woods in these islands are distinguished by possessing a 
ity of forms with thin, herbaceous leaves, which for this reason 
here foliage during a part of the year, thus combining the appear- 
tf the woods of colder climates with the dark evergreen forms of 
itertropical countries. Some of these species with deciduous 
& have two periods for flowering: one precocious in the first 
IS of the year, when the small quantity of rain seems iusufiicient 
duce both leaves and flowers at a time, and another later in the 
when both foliage and blossoms are vigorously developed by the 
ijed moisture of the summer. The evergreens for the same reason 
a less fixed and more unlimited time for flowering, and seem to 
their reproductive organs whenever the quantity of rain becomes 
ent for producing them besides maintaining the already existing 
3. Among the great variety of evergreen forms of trees and 
3, I shall here only mention as the most common several species 
ona; of Guttifene, such as CalophyUum Calaba and Clmia rosea; 
potace;e, such as Sideroxylon, Chrysopliyllum, Lucuma, and Di- 
; of Rutaceaj, as Zanthoxylum and Tobinia ; of Lauracete, as Nec- 
I and Oi-eodoxylon, as well as many others, for the details of which 
to refer to the systematical part of my treatise. Others are pos- 
ttf aSriid roots by which to a£&x themselves to the stems of trees 
MtMnrenil species of Ficus; others again are vines, such as 
. Goaani% and Gissus. 



10 FLOBA, OF ST. CSOIX AND THE TIBGIB ffiI.AHD8. 

Interspersed between these evergieens are seen varioas spedeatf 
arboreous plants with decidaous leaves, the miiuber ofwhidi, hovem, 
seldom is large enough to seriously change the general aspect of tt« 
forest as being uniformly greeu all the year round. The time for ghed- 
(liiig their foliage iu these forms is generally from January to Apil, 
most of tliem, as stated before, Suweriog precocioosly st this tiiiie,ii 
the moisture iu the ground is uot suflicieut to allow thwn to retWD tbrir 
foliage together with the producing of the flowers. It appears evidtnt 
that this is the reasou for the shedding of the leaves, ttom the fiict ab- 
sen'ed by me Id several species (such as Fucidia Erytkrina and othoijr 
that individuals which, from being too young or for some other reaM* 
do uot dower, do uot shed their foliage, but evidently find moistim 
euongh iu the soil to i-esist the drought, not having to spend thor 
resourees uu the production of dowers and fruits, as others of their kind. 

The most pronuuent among the trees and shrubs with a deddDoa 
foliage are ^poudia^i lutea, SchmideUa occidentals, the enormous Irit- 
dcttdrott an/ractuosum, Hura crepitans, Casearia ramiftora, Sabinea^rUt, 
aud si'voral othera, which uU more than the evergreens contribute tl«r 
slinrc to the fonuiugof a layer of leaf-mould under the taller forms. IK 
this layer is but scanty in most places, and from the want of it, asnO 
as from the dense shade produced by the evergreen trees and sbnH 
the minor tonus covering the ground arc comparatively scarce, n' 
chiefly conttm-d to some i*iperaeese, Acanthaces, and Graminec, « 

■■■H as !i fi.y f.-riis and mo...Srs. ^iiumi- wliivl, n,:>n<„.;i:. ;»;J..„ir,i. fr/rii 




FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 11 

The part of the island inhabited and cultivated by man of course rep- 
resents the least of interest in a phyto-geographical sense, as nature here 
has been modified and modelled according to the wishes and necessity 
of society to such an extent as to almost entirely obliterate its original 
efaaracter. As stated already, the principal object of cultivation is the 
sugar-cane, which, however, is cultivated on a large scale only in the 
two largest and most level of the isLands, Vieques and St. Croix, the 
others, viz. St Thomas, St. Jan, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda, having, 
with a few exceptions, long ago abandoned the cultivation of the cane 
as nnreniunerative, the two remaining of the larger islands, Culebra 
and Auegada, never having been appropriated to that purpose. 

Besides the cane, some Sorghum vulgare is also cidtivated in fields for 
herbage, the rest of the tilled soil being used for the planting of the 
common tropical vegetables, generally in small quantities, on patches 
of soil selected here and there. The commonest of these plants are Yam 
{Dio90orea alata and altis9ima\ Sweet Potato (Ipomcea Batatas), Okro 
(AMmoHcItus €8cul^nttut)j Tanier {Xanthosoma sagitUe/olium), Pigeon-pea 
(Cptkus Cajan)y Tomato, and Pepper {Capsicum), as well as some Cucur- 
bitacese, as Pumi)kin, Melon, and others. 

Along with these useful plants follow a great number of herbaceous 
aonuals, mostly cosmopolitan weeds, introduced after the settlement of 
the islands, and dependent on the continuous cultivation of the land, as 
without the clearing of the soil from shrubs and trees their existence 
would soon be terminated by the stronger arboreous species, which 
would deprive them of the necessary light and air. 

Thus, much against his wish, man favours the propagation of innu- 
neruble weeds, which in their short period of vegetation produce seeds 
Miough to secure their continuance on the land notwithstanding the 
efforts to exterminate them by frequent weeding. Among the com- 
inontjst of these forms are some Labiatoe (Leonurus sibiricus, Lconotis 
^tpetvfolUiy and Leucas martinicensis), Argemone mexicana, Trihulus max- 
waw, Boerhaavia erecta and paniculata, and especially many grasses 
and 8e<lges, such as Panicum, Paspalum, Chloris, Digitaria, Cyperus, 
and others. The most troublesome of these, from an agricultural point 
rfview, is the Bay-grass {Cynodon Daciylon), said to be introduced, but 
oow found ever> where, and, on account of its long creeping rhizoma, 
Nieitenniiiable. 

iQar fozitiS to these are seen growing along roads and ditches, espe- 
^Lagomiiiossdy as Grotalaria, Desmodium, Phaseolus, Clitoria, 



12 FLOIU OF ST. CBOIX AND TBE VtBOtK IBLAHD8. 

Centrosema,TeramDiiB,Tigna,BbyDcho8ia,aiKl others; glasses, as !#■ 
pago, Aristida, Sporobolus, Eleusine, DactyloGteiiinm, and Eiagnwti*; 
or Synan tberese, as ElepLaotopus, DistreptUB, Bidens^aud Pectis. Wliiltt 
all tliese latter forms flower during the greater part of tlie year, tbe btaa- 
tifiil Convolvulaceie, such as Ipomosa faatigiata, NU, umftellata, ^itttcla, 
violacea, aud others, are in blossom ouly during tbe winter months, tttm 
December to February. 

lu some places that are moist enough, sedges and semi-aquatic plantf 
will be seen growing ; in a few rivulets which contain water all the jeai 
round, and which are limited to Vieques and St. Oroix, a few aqaadi 
forms occur, such as Eckinodorus cordi/oliua, Lemna minor, TjipAa an 
gualifolia, and Xymphtca ampla. 

The pastures, which occupy a considerable extent of tbe laud, an 
either artificial, — planted with Guineargrasa {Pantcum maxintHM), i 
perennial plant, and, like most of the cultivated W«;st India plants, io 
troduced from the Old World, — or natural, covered with various fonnsa 
indigenous Gramineae as well as low shrubs and trees, that have eon 
tinually to bo cleared away to prevent the land becoming overrun hj 
them. The artificial pastures as a rule are fenced in, and often protect^ 
against the dry season by the plautingofTbibet-trees{jic(u»aX«^ir),iM)ii 
commonly naturalized everywhere; the natural ones, on the contrai^', an 
generally opeu and abandoned to the cattle, whilst the artificial cues art 
cut regularly, and the stock is not allowed to enter them. 

Tbe grasses composing the natural pastures are several species offa 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIROIN ISLANDS. 13 

muniSj Datura Metel and Stravianium, Euphorbia pilulifera^ heterophylla^ 
and kt/perici/oliay Mirabilis jalapa, Jatropka curms^ Cassia occidenialiSy 
and especially several kinds of Sida and Abutilon as well as some other 
Malvacese. 

The four formations mentioned above are usually found only on the 
larger islands, the smaller ones, from their limited size, generally pos- 
mm^ chiefly the littoral and shrubbj' only. The island of Anegada, 
although being one of the larger ones, yet from its structure and the 
nature of its soil, seems to be chiefly covered by a vegetation composed 
of the plants of the sandy shore, besides some of the trees and shrubs 
following the settlement of man in these regions. Sir E. Schomburgk, 
who has given a description of the island in the Journal of the Royal 
Geographical Society, 1832, asserts that the island possesses several in- 
teresting s|)ecies of plants, among others a peculiar kind of Croton. As, 
however, I have not been able to procure the work referred to above, I 
am not prepared to say which those species are, and they arc not men- 
tioned by Prof. Grisebach in his Flora of the British West India Islands. 

Although, as stated above, the general character of the flora both in 
St Croix and the Virgin Islands, considered as a whole, is essentially 
the same and distinctly West Indian, yet, in looking more closely into 
det^tils, we are soon struck by finding Ji great many species in the one 
^hich are not fi)und in the other. This is thef more remarkable, as 
from a geographical and eliniatical i)oint of view the physical condi- 
tions must l>e said to be niatoriallv identical. 

In referring to the list of i)lants given at the end of my treatise it will 
^ seen that out of a number of 881 indigenous phanerogamous species 
noWss than 215, or c. i,are found in the Virgin Islands only, whilst 1)8, 
oral)out ^, occur only in St. Croix, thus leaving only 508, or less than 
J» in common to both. 

As may be expected from the general character of littoral vegetation, 
thm» ait> vevy few species which are not found on both sides of the d(»ep 
^•hanncl s(»parating St. Croix from its northern neighbours, the i)riiiclpal 
^'xception being Baceharis dioka^ which only occurs in St. Croix, and 
^fjletCM DonunrjensiJt, found by me only in the Virgin Islands. 

Some greater difference is found in tbe dry shrubby formation, where 
•■*«»] very common plants, such as Euphorhiu peiiolaris^ Acacia sar 
MamWaria nitosay and others, are to be seen in the Virgin Isl- 
ninrix having to itself a few less common species, such as 



14 FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIBeiir ISLAMINI 



It is, however, in fhe fbrest vegetation, whioh beifc 
original flora of the islands, that the greatest and most Tuied 
ences are observed, showing especially the great variBtgr of q^eeisB 
the Virgin Islands which are not all foond in St. Cioix, and 
which are many of the commonest and most generally distribotod 
Belonging to St. Croix alone are comparatively taw and ran 
chiefly some Bhamnaceae, viz, Maytenus dasodendrotdes and IBisjgfim 
reticulatusj Catealneaparvifhra^ Beloperone nemcraBOy JRsfilJei DomvuttMk^ 
Buxus VahUij and XTrera elata. All these fbrms occor only in a flMr 
localities, and are of no importance to the general character of vq^ 
tion, as is the case on the Virgin Islands with many of the toXknriaig' 
species that are fonnd on them, bnt not in St. Croix. It wonld be too 
mnch to mention all the different species here, for which I b^ to idkr 
to the appended list and tabular statement. I shall only ennmeratat 
few of the most interesting, especially If alpighiaoesD (as Bgn a n imM 
Iticidaj Maipighia Cnida and angu9tffolia)j Bntacesa {Pilooarpm$ rac m^ 
8USj Tobinia ^ptfuwo, Xanthoxylum ockrowjflum)^ Legominoses (AiMMi 
fiaridoy Pictetia aristatOj Sesbania sericeaj and Aeaeia nnd^fhra)^ apA 
SapotacesB {Sapota Sideroxylan). Among Monocotyledones are to b^ 
mentioned Arthrostylidivm capillifolium^ Rhynchospora pusUUij Dioicor^ 
pilosimciilaj Catopm nutanSj and several Orchids. Several of these 
plants grow more or less gregariously, thus becoming cbaracteristksi^ 
to the formation. Among these are Maipighia Cniday Reynosia latifof-i-^ 
Acacia midijlora, Sabinea Jlorida, and several species of Pilea, most ?' 
them being very common, and even generally used for domestic 
poses. • 

Besides these species, entirely wanting in St Croix, the 
Islands possess several that are very common, or at least not uncomm- 
on them, but which occur but very rarely in St. Croix, such as Thrin 
argenteaj RondeUtia pilosa, Faramea odoratissima^ Miconia angustifol' ^^^ 
Mimosa Ceratoniaj and others, and most of which I have not found ir'^^' 
self in the latter island, but only found labelled with St. Croix as habi^:^*^ 
in the Copenhagen herbarium, so that an error in some cases at lec^*^ 
may be not at all impossible. 

However great are the differences in the flora on the two groups ^^ 
islands, yet this interesting fact is not due to their possessing endeirr^^i^ 
species, as all the plants known as growing on them are also found '^ 
other West India islands, especiUly Porto Hico, whence the vegetati^*^* 
of both the Virgin Islands and St^ Croix seems to be derived. Thus * 



FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 1«5 

ily to different periods of immigration under varied physical 
ons that we must ascribe the remarkable discrepancies in the 
those apparently homogeneous islands. Some few si)ecies, it is 
■e indeed given in my list as having been found only in the Vir- 
mds, such as a few Cacteae, Vemonia ThamcBj and the new species 
ed by me on the present occasion. But as long as Porto Rico, 
and even Cuba, ar6 still insufficiently explored, it may very well 
doubtfid whether those species do not also occur in one or sev- 
them, just as several Cuban plants, described as endemical in 
land by Prof. Grisebach, have been found by me to occur not at 
•equently in the Virgin Islands and St. Croix, such as Arthrosty- 
capiUifoliunij Reynosia laUfoliay and R, mucronata, 
ly thus be confidently asserted that both the groups in question 
^rived their stock of plants from the neighbouring larger island of 
Rico. The question that remains to be solved is merely why 
ley not all received the same species, and particularly why is it 
^ Croix, although the largest of all, has received a comparatively 
•solutely much less number of species than for instance the far 
St. Thomas f 

be explanation of these interesting facts we have no doubt to 

the geological history of the islands, as the conditions for immi- 

over sea, even if possible to all the species, are essentially the 

i both groups, and therefore give no solution of the problem in 

D. 

thus led to think that at a former period all the West India 
have been connected mutually, and perhaps with a part of the 
an continent also, during which time the plants in common to 
islands, as well as to the West Indies and the continent, have 
ed themselves over their present geographical areas, at least as 
hey are not possessed of i)articular faculties for emigration over 
• By a subsequent volcanic revolution, St. Croix, as well as 
f the other islands, has thereafter been separated from Porto 
d the Virgin Islands, and put into its present isolated position, 
t seems to have retained ever since, whilst the latter group of 
has either still for a long period remained in connection with 
Hco, or, if separated at the same time from it as St. Croix, has, 
Jier revolution, been again connected with the former. 

N now found in the Virgin Group, but not occurring in St. 
h«V6 immigrated into the former from Porto Bico 



16 



FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIBQIN JSLiAHDS. 



after tlie Keparatiou of St. Croix from tbe latter, and immigration wonH 
finally have ceased liy the sf-paration between tliem, as it exiats at tbe 
present i)eriod. Thns, the plants found in the Virgin Islands, hnt nx 
in St. Croix, would seem to have been more recently created in tht 
probable centre of vegetation, Porto Rico, or some other of the larger As- 
tilles ; tbe endemic ones, as iu the other islands also, being the yonngot 
of all, not having been formeil till after the complete separation between 
the islands had been effected. This latter suggestion, which perit^V' 
seems contradictoi'y to the general accepted theoiy of consideriog tibe 
endemic forms on oceanic islea as the remnants of the oldest originil 
vegetation,' appears to be conflnucd bj- tbe fact that even on soA' 
recent formations as the Bahamas, which have as yet been but i^lpe^< 
fectly explored, already no leas than eighteen endemic species bavt- bea 
discovered.) 

The supposition that the islands may have been separated fVoin ' 
beginning, and have received their floras through immigration ova' 
sea, is sufficiently confuted, partly by the great number of species a 
men to them all, ivhich clearly indicates the connection in foniier til 
with a larger eoniitiy, partly by the eircumstance that most of the tfH 
oies common to the islands are in do wiiy better adapted for migntil 
6ver tbe water than those peculiar to the Virgin Islands only ; in 
but few of them apparently possess the faculty of crossing salt-v 
even for a limited distance. 

SiqipiisiTLi,^ tbe tlipnry of a ]irfiloiip'ed or nftencr repented connei 




FLORA OF 8T. CBOIX AND THE VIRGIN IRLANDS. 17 

Others being only imprtfect. Without expecting too nmcli froin tliia 
cireomstanoe, yet I feel eonfldent tliat not few of the St. Croix plants, 
apparently wanting in the Vii'giu group, may, by closer research, still 
ht discovered growing there on some of them, whilst, on the other hand, 
I am eipially confident that none, or scarcely any, of the Virgin Islands' 
qiecies wanting in St. Croix will be found in the latter island. 

It may furthermore be observed that scaix^ely an^- of the St. Croix 
species which I have given as being absent from the Virgin group ar<^ 
common or widely distributed over the island, and so are not possessed 
of any great faculty for conquering ground in the struggle for exist- 
ence, for which reason some of them may not have been able to gain 
admmsion on the much smaller surface of the Virgin Islands, or, having 
obtaiiicil a footing, they may have lost it again by the later immigra- 
tt)ii of other species, now peculiar to the group compared \Wth St^ Croix, 
ttnny of which, as will be remembered, are gn^garious, and gifted with 
Bieat facility- for exf^anding themselves. 

A very few si>ecies form an exception as to the limited distribution in 
Bt Croix, Bttchariis Yahliij Cordia albaj and ^(jipJdla marimicenMs^ oc- 
mning rather frequently in the island, but having as yet not been found 
Mall in the Virgin group, although they occur in si^veral others of the 
^est India islands. I am not prepared to give a satisfactoiy explana- 
kion of this fact at the i)resent moment; but such isolated exc^i)tions will 
Oo doubt always be met with in the explanation of gcMieral phenomena, 
fcal mast i)robably a more thorough investigation of vegetable biology 
•ill at a future day afibnl a satisfactory explanation of such appai-- 
^Btly inconsistent facts. 

In drawing the necessary consequen<;es of the above stated theory for 
Explaining the geogi*apliical <listribution of vegetable s])ecies in St. Croix 
the Virgin Islands, it would thus appear necessary to c^mclude, for 
nee, from the occurrence of tkihinea florida both in Porto Rico, the 
^ilfgiu LsUikuds, and Dominica, but not in St. Croix, that the first-name<l 
Mamls were still all connected, when the latter had already been sep- 
•nted from them and put into its prc»sent isolated position. A similar 
%feren<*e might be drawn from the distribution of Malpighta Cnida^ 
the occurrence of Acacia nndijhra would seem to prove a sinii- 
thing for Hayti, Porto Rico, and Antigua. 

i can, therefore, scarcely be presumed, as done by Pi-of. Griseba<*li 

"» Geogr. Verbreitung der Pfl. Westiiidiens, that the distribution 

is regulated chiefly by geographical disbmces. A closer in- 

of the flora of the various islands no doubt will confirm the 



18 FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 

theory drawn from the facts observed in regard to the mutual reMoa 
between St. Croix and the Virgin Islands, that geological revolatioos 
have been eqnally or perhaps even more powerfully influential in aiTang- 
ing the distribution of species than the greater or smaller distance, mi 
the similarity of physical conditions. 

A full knowledge of these interesting facts can, however, not he ex- 
pected till a more thorough exploration of all the West India islands 
has taken place. Few of them are as yet tolerably well known, and it is 
therefore em^nestly to be hoped that such an exploration of all the Wert 
Indies may soon be effected, the result of which will no doubt be of 
the highest importance both to botany and to all other branches of 
natural science. 

It generally requires tlie accunudated study and knowledge of gener- 
ations before the less palpable and more delicate, but often most impor- 
tant, fact^ in natural history can be explained: the West Indies have 
been comparatively well studied since th6 middle of the last ceutniyj 
and it would seem well now to follow up the work in order to complete 
a thorough investigation, which might be used as a basis for the ex- 
planation of similar facts observed in other and less well known parte 
of the world. 

The flora of the Virgin Islands and St. Croix has been stu(he(l by 
several botanists, some of whom have j)ublislied the results of their it'- 
search, which has, however, amon^ the former group, been chietly con- 
lined to llie Danish islands, tlie English and i)articularly the JSpanisli 
ones having as yet been onl^' imperiectly explored. 

I'ublications on the flora of these islands are given by West in liis 
Description of St. Croix (Coj)enliagen, 170.'^); Schlechtendal, FloruU 
Ins. St. Thonne, in Linniea, 1828-31 and 18345 and Eggers, Flora of St. 
Croix, HI the Vidensk. Medd. fra Naturliist. Forenuig (Coi)enhageii,1876) 
besides minor contribut ions in Vahl's Ech)gie Americana^, Symbol® Bo- 
tanicie, and Enumeratio Plantanun, Krebs in Xaturh. Tidsskrift, 1847, 
on the flora of St. Thomas, De Candolle's Prodromus, and Grisebacli's 
Eh)ra of the British West India Islands. This latter work, no doubt 
from want of material, scarcely ever mentions tlie British Virgiu Islands. 

Collectiims of ))lants from the islands in question are found chiefly i^^ 
the Museum of the Botanical Garden in Copenhagen, as well as scat- 
tered in other Euroi)ean herbaria, collected principally by v. Kohr, West, 
Dr. Ryan, Ledru, Bledle, L'llerminier in the past century, by Benzon, 
Wahlmann, Ehrenberg, Dr. Bavn, Dr. Hornl>eck, Duchassaing, Si'lioD*' 
burgk, riee, Wydler, Orsted, Krebs, and Eggers in the i)resent 






FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 19 

e following list of plants from St. Croix and the Virgin Islands 
3d on my own collections and the publications or collections of other 
iistS| comprises 1013* species of phanerogamous and vascular cryp- 
Qons plants, of which 881 are indigenous and 132 naturalized, those 
ly cultivated being added in brackets after each family, 
determining the species I have, besides consulting the more im- 
nt general systematical works on botany, as much as possible fol- 
L Pro£ Orisebach's standard work on the Flora of the British West 
Islands, to which I therefore beg to refer when no other authority 
en. Synonymes and references to other authors are given only 
) it was thought desirable to supplement the Flora of Grisebach in 
espect. 

the specific names of plants I have added only such statements as 
>t given in Grisebach's work, — as local name, time for flowering, 
ical use, as well as descriptive remarks, where my own observation 
) a difference from* the description given in the flora mentioned 
•>• 

referring to Schlechtendal, or the herbarium of the Copenhagen 
am, I have used the abbreviations SchL and Hb. Havn. ; in quoting 
or Schlechtendal, their respective works on St. Croix and St. 
AS, mentioned above, are understood to be referred to. 
«ial localities for habitats are given only where a plant is rare, or 
events uncommon ; otherwise the island alone is mentioned. 
) expression, '^All islands,'' is meant to imply that the species is 
. both in St. Croix and the Virgin group, without necessarily mean- 
> say that it occurs in every island of the latter. 
somming up the statistical results from my list of species, nearly 
ame conclusions with regard to the most numerous families are 
id at as those given in Prof. Grisebach's Geogr. Verbr. der Pflanzen 
indiens, p. 73, for the Caribbean Islands. 

) proportion between Mono- and Dicotyledonous plants indigenous 
Aturalized is 1:5.8, in the indigenous ones alone 1:4.9, thus show- 
le plurality of the recently introduced plants to have been Dicoty- 
oas. The proportion mentioned in the plants indigenous to the 
la is somewhat lower than stated by Grisebach, as cited above, to 
3 role in the West Indies, where it is given as 1:4, indicating, no 
^Uiat the climate of St Croix and the Virgin Islands is less moist 
i of tiie West Indies in general. 

Boi. p. 1274) gives to St. Thomas as the probable irambor of 
* "«7 litl shows aboat 900. 



20 FLOEU. OF dT. CBOIX AMD THE TIBQUT I8LAHD8. 

Tahk tiotting the dUMhution of Iht Indigemnu Spedei oj Pkantr^ffamtt aai Crj/lt, 
ViuenlaTt* in St. Croix a»d the Firgin Itlatida. 





b 


h 


s 


A.— UlCOITI-EDOSBS. 


















' 
























Craclf<» 












■ 






































































































; 










1 




































1 





rLOBA. OF ST. CBOIZ AND THE YIROm ISLAND& 



21 



ing ike dUinbrntian of the Indigenous Species of Phanerogamof and Cryptogamm 
Vaeemlaree in St. Croix and Hm Virgin Islands — Contiuued. 






<ce«D 



B.—M0K0C0TTLED05B8. 



laOMD 



» 



C. — CBTPTOGAMiB VABCULARE8. 






1 

8 



8 
1 
2 
1 
8 



1 
5 



1 

4 
2 



3 
4 

1 



4 

5 
1 
1 



08 
17 



Is 



1 
1 



2 
8 
7 



4 
8 
1 
2 
2 



2 
2 



2 



1 
8 
1 
5 
7 



1 
8 



3 
6 



o 

14 
15 



1 
3 
8 



12 

1 
15 

215 
6 



if 



2 
9 
8 

24 
1 

17 

12 
8 
6 

10 
1 
• 

13 
1 
1 
4 
3 

13 
5 
8 
4 



80 

10 

1 



1 
2 
8 
1 
2 
8 
85 
13 
7 



6 
1 
2 

1 
15 

568 
109 



& 



1 
1 

2 

11 

7 

84 

1 
24 
21 

e 

9 

15 

1 

12 

20 

1 

1 

5 

8 

15 

6 

8 

9 

1 

88 

21 

2 

1 

12 

1 
1 
5 
9 
1 
2 
5 
53 
83 
8 
2 
8 
8 
1 
15 

2 

34 

"liT 

132 
1018 



lA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 

WEST INDIES. 



L PHANEROGAMJE. 
A. dicotyleDones. 

DlIJUBIVIACi:^ . 

Ola mgosa, Poir. 

rhoinas (Griseb. Fl. p. 3). 

ANOIVACEJE. 

na moricata, L. (v. Soorsop, Susakka). 

Feb.-May. Leaves with a peculiar strong scent, used against 
ind vermin. Fruit edible^ pulp resembling curdled milk, acidu- 
In forests and thickets, common. — ^All islands. 

ftorifolla, Dnn. (v. Wild Sonrsop). 

Feb.-May. Resembling the former species in the foliage, , but 
of a quite different smell. Kot uncommon in forests. — St. Croix ; 
omas. 

ahiatris, L. (▼. Monkey-apple, Banya). 

tfay-June. Fruit not edible ; used as bait for fishes. Common in 
y soiL — ^All islands. 

qnamoaa, L. (v. Sagar-apple). 

A.pril-June. Foliage partly deciduous in March and April. Fruit 

^ sweet, soft. Common in thickets. — All islands. 

eticiilata, L. (v. Custard-apple). 

April-May. Fruit edible. In woods, not uncommon ; also planted 
wellings. — All islands. — The enlarged top of the connective in all 
s of Aliona is siliceous. Konc of the species enumerated above 
ns narcotic principles, as is the ca^e with A, Cherimolia^ MilL, and 

• 

tteria Ouregou, Dim. 

rhomas (Griseb. Fl. p. 7). 

adm lanrifolia, Rich. ( Uvaria exceUay Vahl in Hb. Joss.). 

Qmiz (Caledonia Gut, West, p. 292). 

23 



24 FLOBA OF 3T. CBOIX AKD THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 

znENIiiPEHinACEf . 

9. Cccciilus domlagensis, DC. 

I'l. Jiiue-Aug. Stem wootlj", a& iniicli as two iuvbes in diameter. 
Iiifloreacences often 3 or 4 uuis«rial in the same axlL (See Dclfswtl, 
Icoiics, t. 96.) In forests, not common. — 8t. Thomas (near St. Peter, 
1000'). 

10. Ciasampeloa Farelra, L. (v. VclTft-lPoO- ") Parelra aiiil 3) microoipa. W\ 
Fl. Nov.-Hlarfh. la foresta and thickets, common. — AH i»lauds. 

11. Nympliaaa ampla. DC. (v. Wiiter-lily). (?) parviOnra. 

Fl. Apiil-Iuly. In ri\'ulet.s.— St. Croix (KingshiU Got); Vi«n» 
(Port Royal). 

PAPATEBACES. 

13. Argemone mexlcaiia, L, (v. TUistlo). 
Fl. the whole yesir. A very common weed in dry places. — All ialindi 
CRUCIFEBJE. ^ 

13. ITaBtiirtliiiii officinale, B. Br. (v. Wcter-creaa)- 
Never seen flowering. Naturalized along ri^Tilets. — St Croii; SI 

Tlioiuas. 

14. Slnapla brBaaloata, 1.. (v. Wild Mnatanl). 
Fl. .Tan.—Tune. Around dwellings and iu vaste places, not n 

moil. — AH islands. 




FL0S4 OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 25 

^. C. paogeaa* W. (▼. Wild Moss^beo). c) and P) Swartsiana. 

FL the whole year. Common along road8 and ditches. — ^All islands. 

K C ▼iacosa, L. 

FL May-Dec Naturalized here and there. — St. Croix j St. Thomas. 

. Iforinga pterygosperma, G. (v. Horso-radish-treo). 

11. the whole year. Boot with a flavour of horse-radish. Naturalized 
d common near dwellings. — All islands. 

. Cappaxis amygdalina, Lam. 

PL March-June. Leaves on young radical shoots linear in this and 
) two following species. Not uncommon in thickets. — ^All islands. 

. C. Jamaioeziaia, Jacq. (v. Black Willio). u) marglnata and /i) aUiquosa. 

FL April- Aug. a) not uncommon; yS) less common along the shore 
d in thickets. — All islands. 

C. oynophallophora, L. (v. Lingaan-tree). o) and /?) salig^na. 

FL Feb.-Aug. — Glands 2-4, uniserial in the axils, exuding nectar 
len young before tno time of flowering, and are to be considered as 
laced branches or inflorescences. 

. C. ▼erraooaa, Jacq. 

Fl. Ax>ril-May. A middle-sized tree. Not uncommon in forests on 
B Virgin Islands. 

. C. frocdosa, Jacq. (v. Bat-bean). 

FL Feb.-May. Seeds very poisonous. Common in forests. — ^All 
ands. 

. Itfcrisonia americana, L. n) and 13) subpeltata, Oris, in litt. 

FL May-Oct A considerable-sized tree, a) all islands; /?) leaves 
bpeltate St. Croix (Spring Gut). 

BIXACEiE. 

. Bixa OreUana, L. (v. Boucon). 

Fl. June-July. The red i)igment of the fruit was generally used by 
e Caribs for anointing the whole bodj^ (Du Tertre). Naturalized in 
rests. — St. Croix (Crequis, Wills Bay); St. Thomas (Crown). 

. TriUz cracis, Griseb. 

FL April-June. Stipules very variable. Petals always abortive in 

fjOMcimens. A low tree or shrub. Uncommon in forests. — St. Croix 

IfliTy Mt Eagle); St. Thomas (Flag Hill); St Jan (Cinnamon 



26 PLOEA OF HT. CROIX AND THE VIBGIK ISLANDS. 

30. Oaseaiia sylveatiia, Sw. 

Fl. Jau^Feb. aod May-July. Seed corered by a rod arillus. Co» 
mou in forests and tbickets. — AH ialanda. 

31. C. patrifolia, VT. u) anil ^) microoarpa. Egg. 

Fl. JIarcb-July. Flowers odorous. Stamens alternately of equal 
lengtb. Not uncommon in forests. A low tree. — a) Virgin Mandf; 
^) fmit small, 2'" diam., St. Croix. 

32. C. ramiflora, Yulil. i:). 

Fl. Jan.-Feb, and July-Aug. Pedicel articulate below the midiUfc 
AriUus fibrous. Common in forests. — All islands. 

33. Samyda glabtata. Sw. 

Fl. June. Puire, iu thieketaon liigbest hill-tops.— St. Thomas (Ciomi, 

uo(y). 

34. S. BCrmlata, L. 

Fl. Feb,-3Iay. Flowers odorous, precocious. Pedicels articuluted il 
tbo middle. Leaves of young radical shoots linear. Conunon in tlwti' 
ets. — All islands. 

VIOLACCS. 

35. lonidiom atrlctum. Vent. 

Fl. all tho year rounil. Flower matuUne. Rather uncommon in il- 
suixjs of rocks iu thickets. — St. Ci'ois ; Water Island. 



. TAinARICACE.C 




FLORA OF 8T. CBOIX AND THE VIROIN ISLANDS. 27 

and covered on the outer side with fleshy papillse. Fruit l-seeded by 
aboTtion. Oregarious along roadsides in dry localities, but uncom- 
mon. — St Thomas (Bovoni). 

CAB¥0PH¥I.I.ACEJE:. 

L PAROXYCmACEiE. 

4X Drymazia oordata, W. /3) diandra. 

FL May-June. In moist localities in the shade. Bare. — St. Croix 
(Spring Garden). 

42. Cyx)«elea hmniftiaa, Tarp. 

FL July. Gregarious around a small fresh- water lagoon. Bare. — 
T^ater Island. 

IL MOLLUGIXEiE. 

491 MoUngo vertioUlata, L. 

FL Aug. Leaves often fleshy. On ro(?ky shores. Bare. — Buck Isl • 
and, near St. Thomas. 

44. IC. ondioatiUfly Lam. 

Fl. Sept.-Dec Not uncommon in moist localities. — St. Croix; Buck 
Island near St Croix; St. Thomas. 

in. PORTULACE^. 

45. TaUnum triangulare, W. 

PL all the year round. Flower open till 11 A. M. Sepals of unequal 
^e. The large one l-ribbed, the smaller one 3-ribbed. Petals often 
Xellow (as represented in* Jacq. Stirp. Americ. 1. 135). Bather uncom- 
mon. On rocks near the seashore. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

*^- T. patena, W. 

Pi. all the year round. Flower open from 3 P. M. till sunset Petals 
P^e red or yellow (Bot. Mag. 1. 1543). Boot tuberous. Here and there 
^ rocky situations. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

^^- Portnlaca oleracea, L. (v. Purslane), a) macrantha, ,3) micrantha, Egg. 

1^1. the whole year. Flower open till 10 A. M. a) brownish, 6 petals, 
^^ Uiany as 25 stamens, corolla G"' diam. p) green, 4 petals, 10-12 sta- 
^^lis, corolla 3"' diam. Both varieties common along roadsides and in 
^iKMi spots. — All islands. 

9. qoadrifida, L. (Mant. 78). 

St. all the year round. Petals 4, yellow, 2'" long. Flower open from 
"*- -«\. M. till 3 P. M. Leaves opposite, clasping together towards even- 
^C* A common weed in gardens and along roads. — ^All islands. 



28 FLOEA, OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIBQIN ISLANC8. 

49. P. pUoaa, L. 

n. all tlie year roand. Ofttti iiearly glabrous. Boots tubewus. 
Petals led or yellow, large. Corollii up to IC" diaiu., open ouly liU 9 
!!. m. Seeds dark brouu. Leaves adpressing themsches doimward lo 
the stein towards eveiiiug. ^ot uncommon. Along ditcbes and in 
grass-fields. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

50. P. baUmoldes, L. 

Fl. .Tnu(-Dee, Common along roadside.s and among rockSr-St. 
Croix; St. Thomas. 

51. SeBuvium poitulaoastmm, L. (v- liay-flonor). 

Fl. all the year round. Sepals rosy inside. Common on eandf 
shores. — All islands. 

03. Tiianttieina monoeTiiuni, L. 

Fl. all the year round. Bitmchea always originating iu the aril rf 
the smaller leaf, SiameJis 7-17. Sepals and stamens rosy or wbilt 
Coinmoo on roeky shoies. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

S3. Malvastrum splcatnm, Oris. (v. Hullo w-atock). 

Fl. all the year round. Flower expanding in the afternoon. Vaj 
variable. A common weed aloug roads and in fields. — All islands. 




7L0RA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 29 

M. fllda Jamaioeniiit L. 

FL Dec^Mareh. Flower expanded till 9 A. M. Calyx shorter than 
the ooiolla. In grass-fields and thickets. Often suffiratescenfc, (y high. 
Common^ — ^AIl islands. 

19. & Bplnofla, L. a), P) angnsttfoUa, Lam., and y) polycaipa, Egg. 

FL Sept-March, j') sufBrutescent, 4' high. Pedicel as long as the 
irhole leaf. Pistils, ovaries, and carpids always 12. a) and fi) common 
tn grass-fields and pastures, y) near rivulets. — All islands. 

60. 8. rbombiibUa, L. (▼. Swart Mar^n). y) retusa. 

FL Dec-March. Petals showing a purple blot at the base. Com- 
Dum in waste places. — ^All islands. 

61 B. tristii, Schlecht. (Linntea, iii, 271). 

St. Thomas (Schl.). 

62. 8. aiiplna, L'Her. a) glabra and /3) piloaa, Egg. 

FL Nov.-March. Two very distinct forms : a) in shady, moist places ; 
^ in dry localities. Not uncommon in thickets and forests. — All islands. 

63. 8. argnta, Cav. (not S. arguta^ Sw., as stated in Grisob. Syst. Unters. p. 31) 

St Croix (West, 297); St Thomas (SchL). 

N. 8. nexToaa, DC. a) and P) vlacoaa, Egg. 

FL Dec.-April. P) viscous and glandular pilose. Petals reddish; 
i^istils red. Not imcommon along roads and ditches. — All islands. 

te. 8. acuminata, DC. a) macrophyUa and P) microphylla. 
St Thomas (Schl.). " In locis siccis.'' 

^. 8. cordilblia, L. p) althasfolia, Sw. 

FL March. Here and there along roads. — St. Croix (West, 207); St. 
taa (Bethania). 

(7. 8. hnmilia, W. (T) Cav. 
St. Thomas (SchL). " In locis umbrosis.'^ 

^ Abatflon i>exiplccifoUnxn, G. Don. a) and /?) albicans, carpids S-ovnlate. 

Fl. all the year round. Seeds dimorphous. The two seeds in the 
mperior cell glabrous^ the one in the inferior silky, a) not uncommon 
■obg roads. P) uncommon. — St. Croix (a and /?); St. Jan (/^). 

• umbeUatiun, 8w. 

*Ofaielu Seeds cordate^ brown. Not very common in open, 



30 FLORA. OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 

70. A. indlcum, G. Don (t. Malioe). □) nnd jl) asiatJcnm. 

Fl. all tlie year rouml. Flower espaMdi.id after 3 P. M. only. Both 
forms common along loads and on waste jtlitcea. — St. Crois ; St. TbwniB. 

71. A. UEnOBtua, Rli-h. (v. Munb-uiulloir). 

Fl, Nov.-3Iay. Flower expanded during the afternoon only, 8(«d< 
intgulurly triangular, vcrrucoae, grey. — St, Croix. 

72. BaBtardia xdacoia, Ktli. a). 
]■'!. all the year round. Flower expanded during the afternoon onlj. 

Onmmoit along roa^ls and iu dry localities. — All islands. 

73. Malaobra capitata, L. a) and ji) aloeffoUa, Jaoq. 
Fl. Dec.-Alareb. Flower expanded only till 2 P. M. Along ditdta 

luid ill nioJBt places. a)rathercominoD; ^)lesscommou, — Allislandi. 

74. M. nreiu, Foit 

FL April. Petals yellow, puberuloua externally. Seeds smootU, si* 
brous. Uucouimon ou Wiisle places. — St, TUomafi (western aiiore of tlm 
liorboiir). , 

75. Urepn lobata, L, a) ameiicaoa. 
n. Nov.-Juiie. Flower expanded till 10 A. M. In foreata.— St Cnil 

(mre; Prosperity on tlie north coast); St. Thomas; St. Jan (not » 
common). 

76. PnTonla splolfex, Cnv, 
1'!. Oiit.-Dec. liatlier common in thickets and forests, — All 




FLOBA OF ST. CROIX AND THE YIRGIN ISLANDS. 31 

12. S. Sabdaiiffii, L. (v. Red Sorrel). 

FL Oct-NoT. Leaves used as a vegetable. Calyx at length fleshy, 
ised for lemonade. Cultivated and naturalized here and there. — St 
!/ioix; St. Thomas. 

13. H.phoBiiioeiU| Jacq. 

FL Sept-March. Bather common in thickets, especially near dwell- 
Qgs. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

t4. H.braaUleiisia, L. 

St Croix (West, p. 298) 

15. Goflsyplam barbadense, L. (v. Cotton-tree), a) and /3). 

FL all the year round. Down stellate. Common in dry localities, 
formerly cultivated. — ^All islands. 

16. O. vltifolinm, Lam. 

Naturalized in St. Thomas (Sclil.), perhaps from having been cultivated 
n former times. 

^7. Paxitiiim tUiaoeum, A. Jobs. (v. Muhoc). 

FL Oct-3Iarch. Bark employed as rope. Along coasts, but rare. — 
It Croix (West, p. 297) ; St Thomas (Sehl.) ; St Jan (Fish Bay). 

tB. ThespoBia popnlnea, Corr. (v. Otabeite Tree). 

FL all the year round. Yery easily pnipagated by cuttings. A shady 
fee with verj' hard wood. Naturalized and cultivated everywhere, espe- 
ially in moist localities. All islands. 

All Malvaceae are protandrous. 

[Cultivated species: Althce rosea, L. (v. Hollyhock); Hibiscus rosa- 
inensiSy L. (v. Chinese rose); and H. imUahiliSj L. (v. Changeable Hibis- 

OS).] 

BOMBACEiE. 

9. AdaDSonia digitata, L. (v. Guinea Tamarind). 

PL June-July. Leaves deciduous in March-April. The acid pidp of 
lie fruit used for lemonade. Naturalized in wooded valleys. — St Croix 
E^posperity; Crequis); St. Thomas. 

O. Briodendron anfraotaosum, DC. (v. Silk-cotton-tree). 

FL Feb.-April. Leaves deciduous March-ApriL Stem growing to 
Imense size. Common in forests. All islands. 

atmliiiMta, Sw. 

: GaidoD, Werty p. 298). 



32 PLOBA. OP BT. CROIX AND THE VIEOIN ISLANDS. 

92. Helloteras jamaloeaBis, Jnc:<[. 

Fl. March-Aag. Siiiral of caqiids 2J. Common iu thickets.— All 

islands. 

BiiTTNEBIACEJE. 

93. Ouazama ulmlfolla, Livin. (v. Jnc-hoss CaUln}. 
Fl. April-June. Wooii used for oars. Not nucommoD in pasbm*— 

St-Crois; St. Thomas. 

94. Tboobroma Cacao, L. (v. Coroa-tTOc). 

n. Jiiuo. Xatiuulized in sliady valleys. — St Croix (Prosperi^i 
Mount Stewart). 

95. Ayenia pusUIa, L. 
n. all the year round. FIowbtb often transformed into a bollov 

monstrosity by the larva of a wasp. Fruit muricate. In thickets, ct 
nion. — All ii^IaudK. 

96. Melochria pyramldata, L. 
Fl. all the year round. Common iu postnies. — St. Croix. 

97. M. totnentosa, L. (v. Brouni-woocl). 

FL AH the year round. Calyx toinentoee, greyiali white. 
)itt6rsi>erse<l with glandutons hairs. Used for brooms. Commoa ini 
thickets. — Ail islauds. 
93. H. nodiflora, Sw. 

I'l. >'o\'.-.Iuly, Common in pastuies and along roads. — All isliii 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 33 

505. Griseb. Fl. p. 97, does not mention them, as he does in C. oUto- 
119, neither does the figure in Wight's Icoiies, iii, t. 739, show them in 
lis species. From observations made by me on C. acutangulxis^ as well 
s on C. hirtuSj such bristles on the lower serratures of the leaves are ot 
10 specific value in this genus, being a variable feature. In gardens 
and near dwellings, not uncommon. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

105. C. sUiquosnti L. (v. Papa-lolo). 

Fl. Nov.-July. Leaves used as a vegetable (Calalu). Along roads 
and in pastures, common. — All islands. 

106. C. hirtu8» L. 

R. June-Sept. Two lowest serratures of the leaves sometimes show- 
ing one or two setaceous bristles. In gardens and along roads, not 
uncommon. — St. Croix; St Thomas. 

107. C. hinatu8» L. 

Fl. all the year round. Hairs of the stem scabrous. On sandy shores, 
common. — ^^\11 islands. 

TEBNSTBOMlACEiE. 

108. T«rD8trdmia eUiptica, Sw. 

FL Feb.-April. Tlie two bracts at the base of the persistent calyx 
^ to be considered as such (Swartz, Flora Ind. Occ. p. 9G1; DC. Prodr. 
'iP.o23; and Ilook. & Benth. Genera Plant, i, p. 182), and not as sepals 
(^^riseb. Fl. p. 10.3) on account of their being deciduous, but the sepals 
^^t. Tlie number of ovules in my specimens are about twenty' in each 
^^l (Hook, and Benth. 1. c. ascribe to the genus only two, rarely three 
^^ six, in each cell ; Grisebach 1. c. only two to four. In the Catal. Plant, 
^^b. p. 36, Griseb. mentions, however, a variety of T. ohovaliSy Ricli., 
^'th ten to thirteen ovules in each cell.) Sepals rosy, flowers fragrant 
^ forests on high hills, rare. — St. Croix (Mai-oon ITill, 900'); St. Jan 
^oideaux Hill, 1200'). 

OIJTTIFEB^. 

^- Clnsia rosea, L. (v. Chiggt^r-applcO. 

^1. May-Sept. Aerial roots as much as 20' hmg, supporting the 
*«3g trees on rocks or other trees. In forests. — St. Croix (rare. Wills 
N' ); Virgin I.slands (not uncommon). 

^- C. alba, L. (v. Wild Mamoy). 

"'^ Croix (West, i). 312). Probably a mistake for the first named 

B. 

BnlL Nat Mus. Ko. 13 3 



34 FLORA. OF ST. CEOIZ AND THE TISOIN Z8LAHD0. 

111. Mammea amerlcaiia, L. (v. Mamey). 

FI. Feb. and later in Aug. Frait geaerally ODe-seeded, eatsA 
Common in forests and planted along roads.— All islands. 
113. Calopbyllum Calaba. Jocq. (t. Santo Uaria). 

Fl. May-July. In forests along rivulets. — St. Croix (common in t 
nortbeni part of the island); St. Thomas (rare). 

CANELLACEiC. 

113. CaoeUa alba. Murr. (v. Whito-bark). 

Fl. Jan.-April. Berry dark crintaou. Leaves used in warm batlis : 
rbcumatism. On sandy sliores and in forests. — All islands. 

EBTTHIU>K¥LACE.S:. 

114. EiytbToxylam ovatam, Cav. (v. Wild Chen;, Brisselet). 

Fl. April-Sept. Precocious. Branches, as a rule, transformed b 
brachy blasts. Common in thickets. — All islands. 

{E. areolatum, West, p. 280, and E. brevipcs, Bert«ro in Sclilecbi F 
rula, are, no doubt, mistakes for the species mentioned above.) 

n A LPIGHI ACE.X. 

lis. BTTSonlma sploata, Bich. 

FJ. July-Aug. In forests, rare.— St. Croix (Parasol HUl); St Hon 
^Signal nUl); St. Jan (Bordeaux). 
116. B.laclda, Rich. 




FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE YIEOIN ISLANDS. 35 

II. M. Colda, Spreng. (Nene Entdeck. iii, 51). 

FL Jane-Sept. Along roads and in thickets, not uncommon. — St. 
an; Water Island; Yieqnes. 

i2. IC. ancnstlfolia, L. 
FL June-Oct. In thickets, not uncommon. — ^Water Island; Vieques. 

L23. BtigmaphyUon periplooifoUum, Joss. 

R all the year round. Samarse red. In thickets, common. — ^All 
Blands. 

124. Hetexopterla purpurea, Kth. 

R all the year round. Common in hed^^es and thickets. — ^AU islands. 

J5. a parvifolia, DC. (v. Bnn Vis). 

R all the year round. As common as the preceding species. — ^AU 
diiDds. 

SAPINDACEJC. 

2€i Cardiospermiim HaUcacabum, L. (v. BaUoon-vino). 
R Scpt.-March. Rather common in thickets and near dwellings.*— 
it Croix; St. Thomas. 

21. C. microoarpum, Kth. 

R Jan.-March. In thickets, rare. — St. Croix (Spring-gut); St Jan 
Euigheit). m 

28. Seijanla Inclda, Schum. (v. White Vis, Cabiite rotting). 

R. Dec-June. Stem used as rope. Common in thickets. — All isl- 
nds. — (Paullinia curassavica. West, p. 281, is no doubt a mistake for 
his species.) 

29. Capania folva. Mart. 

R January. In forests, not uncommon. — ^Virgin Islands. 

•30. Sapicdtui inaBqualia^ DC. (v. Soap-seed). 

R Dec-Jan. Seeds used for ornaments. In forests along ri\nilet8. 
^ot uncommon. — St. Croix. 

41. ScbmideUa occidentaU;;, Sw. 

R May-Sei)t. Not uncommon in forests, especially in St. Croix. — 
Ui islands. 



bijaga, L. (v. Keneppy tree). 

■<icft-llf»r. Leafless during flowering. Flowers fragrant. Fruit 
IMe* Katurahzed and now very common everywhere, 



I 



1 



36 FLOHA Of ST. CKOIX AND THE VIHDIN ISLANDS. 

oi'tfii ioroiiuK ^ Wi'oudiiry {ji-(}Wlh iu t-lcarcd wttodJiiinl. IiitriMllt' 
from the SpauisL uiuJii. — All isluml^). 

133. Dodoneea TiBcoaa, L. 
Fl. jVpriL On sandy sijiishoifs, i-aro. — St. Ci-oix (Sandy Point). 

nELIACEC 

134. Mella aempetvlieui, Sir. (v. Lilitc?, Hngbiisli). 

FI. all tlK' yaw I'otmd. Cummon in forests and iit-ar dwellings.— AM 1 
ielandd. ' 

135. Trichilla hirta, L. 

FL Jim(>-.Iuly. Common iu tliickets. — All islands. 
{Guarea trkbUioidev, Jacq., said to ucciir in St. Croix (West, p. 281 )t 
eeems toioio rather doubtful.) 

136. Swieteola MahagOQi, L. (t. Mahngan^^), 

Fl. April-June. In wooded valleys and'nlong roa4ls and dwelliuff"^' 
Hot unL'ommon. — St, Croi.t ; St. Thomive. 

GEBANIACE^. 

[OultivatiKl occur several spei-ics of Gei-anium, L'Her., and Pelarg*^^ 
niiun, JVHer.j 

BALSAiniNACE.<«. 

137. Balaamina bortansls, Desp. (v. Lndy-alippers). 

Fl. all the year round. Naturalized everywiiere in §anlen|. Seed-* 
often germinating in the capsule. — All islands. 
AVBANTIACE^. 

138. Cltnu medlca, L. a) (v. Citruu). 0) UmoDum, Risso (r. Lime). 

Fl. April-May. a) naturalized, but rare, in gardens. H) natoraliwdj 
common in gardens and near dwellings, altwi in forests. — All IslandB. 

139. C. AataDtintii, L. u) (v. Orange}. /}) Blgaiadia, Diih. (v. Seville Orange). 
Fl. May-July, Both fonns oaturalized iu gardens, especiaOy «^- 

Common iu St, Croix ; rare in St, Thomas and St. Jan, where the spe**** 
is said to have died out nearly, Irom disease. — (Mentioned also ^^ 
Breutel, London Journal of Botany, ii,) 

140. C. bnxlfolla, Padr. (v. Forbiddeo Fruit), 

Fl. July. Naturalized iu a few i)lace8, — St. Croix; St Thomas. 

141. C. decnmana, L. (v. Shaddock). 

FL Jaly-Aug. Fruit used for preserves, jratiirn.li?:ed in 
St. Croix ; St Thomas. 




FL0S4 OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIEGIN ISLANDS. 87 

%a. Tripharia trilbUata, DC. (v. Sweet Lime). 

PL April-June. Katuralized in thickets and near dwellings. Com- 
mon in all the islands. 

[Cultivated species: Murraya exotica^ L. (v. Cyprian), and Cookia 
ptrnctoto, B^tz.] 

OXAJLIDACEJB. 

143. Oxalis Martiana, Zncc. 

R May-Aug. Naturalized in gardens on all the islands. 

144. 0. oomictilata, L. /?) microphyUa, Poir. 

Fl. all the year round. Gregarious in fields. — St. Croix ( Annally) j 
8t Thomas. 

Z¥OOPH¥I.I.A€EJE:. 

145. TribaluB clatoides, L. 

Fl. all the year round. Along roads and in open spots, gregarious. — 
8t Croix (in the easternmost part of the island only). 

146. T. maximtui, L. (v. Ccutlpee-root, Loiiglo). 

FL all the year round. Stamens alternately of equal length. The 
thole plant is used in baths against boils. A very common weed along 
iwds and in waste places. — All islands. 

147. Gaajacam officinale, L. (v. Lignum vitte, PockcDliolt). 

n. March-April. Common in former times, but now nearly exter- 
iiinated. On the seashore and in forests, rare. — All islands. 

BUTACEiE. 

148. PUocarpus racemosus, Vali]. 

Fl. Feb.-March. Leaves undivided, 3-foliate or impari-pinnate in 
the same si)ecimen (as st.ated in Hook. & Benth. Genera, i, 299, and Fl. 
BrasiL lasc. 65). Inflorescence terminal and axillary. A low tree. In 
Swests, rare. — St. Jan (KingsLill, 1000') ; Vieques (Eavn in Hb. Havn.). 
iSpecimen from Montserrat in Hb. Ha\Ti. also named P. laurifolius^ 
rahL) 

MS. Tofaiiiia punctata, 6r. 

PL Sept. Leaves often pinnate. Dots on the leaves i)ellucid. In 
hickets, not uncommon. — St. Croix. 

50. T. spinosa, Desv. 

FL May-June. Leaflets prickly on i\i(t principal nerves on both sides, 
BttiDg 2 stipular prickles at the base. Cari>ids 3 (2-1) globose, with a 
Mk, black, vemicose, 3'" long. Seeds black, shining. Rare in 
L TBomas (Flag IIUl, 600"). 



38 FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AKD THE TIBQIH I8USD8. 

151. Fagaxa miorqAylla, Deat (t. Bungoftt-baib) (F. tragtdm, Jaaq.bi'WtlL.'Ji 

~Fi. June-Dec. Dots of the leaves iiellucid. The whole plant Lus 
strong smell. Not imcommon in thickets. — St. Croix ; Buck Islaiid, 
near St. Croix. 

133. Santtiozyliiin ClaTa-Heroalia, L. (t. Wbite Pritklc). 

Fl. April-Jiiue, Aculei corky, 6'" long, gi-eyish, with a narrow brom 
point. In forests, not anconiinon. — All islands. 

153. Z. Oanm, Valil (Nuturh. Sclsk. Skrift. vl, l;H, 1810) (v. Yellow SanAvr). 
Kot seen flowering. A fine timber-tree, used for furniture. Sot ni' 

eommoD iu foreata in fonner times, bat now nearly extinct. — St. Jan 
(Bordeaux Hills) (StCroixl St. Thomas?) (Blontserrut, Byan in ffi>. 
Havn.) ; Martiniquo (West in Hb. Havn.). 

154. Z. Oohroxylum. DC (v. Tcllow PrickJe) l,Z. tinplki/oUtim, Vnhl in Hb. Hn«.l 
Fl. June-Sov. 9 Panicle 1" long ; pedicels J'" long, braft^wlt; H 

the base deeiduoos. Calyx 5-partite, J'" diam. Petals 5, imbricalf, 
white, 5'" long, pellucid-dotted. Style thick, |"' high ; stigmas am- 
gular. Ovaries 3 on a short gynophore. Cari>ids 3 (1-2) globose, th- 
ruc«se, partly dehiscent, IJ'" diam. Seed shining black. Stem anw 
with large corky aculei, often connected and forming long ridgea dofl 
tlie stem. Wood yellow. Tlie whole iilant is posses8e<l of tlie 
strong smell as Fagara. Not iincommou in foresis. — St. Thomas (FliJ 
Hill 600'); St. Jan (Eogiers) (Montserrat, Ryan in Hb. Ha%Ti.; Jtofr 
uique, South America, Hb. Uavii.). (A branch without flowers, martoi 
mhyUuvi St. Croix, Kviin in Hb. Havn.. seems to belong lo thit 




FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AND THB VIRGIN ISLANDS. 39 



AMPEI^IDEJC. 

fr9. CUtiia sloyoides, L. (v. Lambrali, Pinna koop). 

FL all the year round. Flowers purple or yellow. ASrial roots loDg, 
filiform. Common in forests. — All islands. 

LCD. C; trilbliata, L. 

FL all the year round. On rocks and trees^ not common. — St Croix ; 
.Thoman. 

^L C. aoida, L. 
Fl. June-Aug. In thickets near the coast, common. — ^All islands. 



C2. Yitis caxibasa, DC. 

Fl. June.^ In dense forests, rare. — St Croix (Caledonia Gut) ; St 
nTlioinas (Crown). 

CEI.ASTBACEJE:. 

2.^. Maytaniia elasodendroideB, Gris. (Cat. Plant. Cnb. p. 54). {BhamnuB polif- 
gamui, Vahl in Hb. Havn., and in We«t| p. 276.) 

FLDec. Flower brownish, small. Calyx 5-partite, 3'^' diam. Petals 

S, (md, V" long. Stamens 5, often all or part of them transformed into 

petals and more or less sterile. Stigma subsessile, 2-lobed. Ovary 2- 

locular, 2-ovnlate. Disc brown, undulate, J''^ high. Seed black with a 

^^ arillus. Rare in dry thickets. — St. Croix (Fair Plain). 

^64. IL laevigatus, Oris, in litt. {llhamnus lcpviyatu8, Yalil 'in Symb. Bot. iii, 41 ; 
Ceanothus, DC). 

Fl. May-Oct. Capsule tanlily dehiscent, 1-3-seeded, 6^'^ long. Seeds 
^>iown, reticulate with red veins, 2'^^ diam. Arillus tougli, white. A 
**hrub or middle-sized tree. Not uncommon in forests. — All islands. 

^€5. ElaBodendron xylocarpum, DC. (v. Spoon-tree, Nnt Muscat). 

PL Sept.-Dec. Stamens often transformed, as in Maytenm eUcoden- 
^i^es. Drupe orange-coloured, 8'" long. Common on rocky shores; 
^ore uncommon in St. Croix. — All islands. 

^66. Myginda paUens, Sw. 

Fl Oct.-May. Common in thickets, principally in marshy soil. — All 
'elands. 

^^^. M. latfroUa, Sw. 

St Croix (Pflug, sec Vahl Symb. Bot. ii, 32) ; St. Thomas (Schl.). 

- Sohaeffexla £nite8oen8» Jacq. 
^X Sept-Dec. Common in thickets. — All islands. 



40 FLOBA OF ST. CKOIX AND TH£ TIBOIH ISI.AXZ». 

RHAMNACEf . 

169. HeyncMla latlfoUa, Griv. (Cut. PI. Cnb. 34) (v. Guama). Emend, in Sfpa, 
VidcUBkab, Mudil. fru Naturhist, Foreuing, Copenhagen, 187B, mm iEow,;. HI 

FI. June-July. Commou iu dry tliickets. — Yirgiu Islanda. 

170. R. mocionata, Gris. (1. t.) (Eggcre, 1. c). 

Not seen flowering. liare in dry thickets near the cfOBi. — St Ciwi 
(easternmost part of the island, near Ta^e Bay). 

171. OondaUa ferrea, GriH. (v. EddcD-wnod). 

FI. Sept.-Jan. Keel of the calyx -lobes foliaceons. Drupe otbI, %" 
long. Kot uncommon in thickets and forests. — All islaads. 
173. Colubiiua fermgliioaa, Brongn. 

FI. Jon. and May-Julj'. A lev shrub. Common on saudy 8bore&- 
All islauds. 

173. C. recllaata, Brongu. (v. Snakr-root, Wnliep-liark). j 
FI. Nov.-M[iith. Style 2-3-iiartite. Leaves used for the prepantillj 

)if stomachic tbiiiks. Not iinconinion in tliicketis. — All islands. 

174. Zizypbus reticulata, DC. (Proilr. ii,90) (Pofivmi, Volil, E«l. Am. ui, Cl). J 
FI. July. Disc brownish. Capsule 3-locular, one aeed in each te^ ' 

B'" long, glabrous. Seeds purple j pulp reddish brown. !n ilij 
thickets, i-aic. — 9t, Croix (Fiiir Plain). 

175. Gonania domiugecBlB, L. (y. Sc>ai)-Blii'){, SJlvi). 

FI. Oct,-.Tan, Stem used as rope. Common in thickets. — Ailislandi. 




FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 41 

M. S. pmpAiaa, L. (y. Jamaica Plum). 

PL Feb.-March, precocious. Naturalized in gardens and wooded val- 
?!y&— All islands. 

JSL Rhus antillana, Egg. (u.sp.)* 

Sect. Sumach. Leaves impari- pinnate ; leaflets 4-5-jugal, petiolulate, 
biDceolate, acuminate, obtuse at the base, entire, glabrous, ehartaceous ; 
veins prouiinulous beneath. Cyme ramose; branclilets bracteolate, 
equaUing the leaves. Flower pedicellate, small, green, 5-raerous, mostly 
^, the rest hermaphrodite. Calyx and petals persistent in the fertile 
flower. Stamens erect, a little longer than the petals, inserted into a 
lenhy central disc ; filaments villous at the base. Ovary inserted upon 
a short fleshy gynophore. Drupe globose, glabrous, 1-seeded by abor- 
tion, A low tree. Approaching E. metopiunij L. Fl. Jan. In forests, 
rare.-^t. Thomas (Signal Hill, 14000 ; St. Jan (lib. Ilavn. as Xanthox- 
Fhm). (St. Croix, Stony-ground f ) 

182. Comocladia ilicifoUa, Sw. (v. Prapra). 

FLMarch-May. Root containing a lasting red dye. Common on lime- 
stone. — All islands. 

> 

183. Mangtfera indica, L. (▼. Mango- tree). 

R Feb.-April. Fruit edible. Introduced towards the close of last 
centwy, and now cultivated and naturalized everywhere. — ^All islands. 

184. Anacardium cccldentale, L. (v. Casliow, Cherry). 

R Dec.-Ai)ril. Pedicel becoming fleshy, and cont^aining in abund- 
ance a slightly astringent juice. Seeds used as almonds. Common in 
forests and along roa<ls. — All islands. 

l.i:qu]?ii]vos3e:. 

185. Crotalazia verrucosa, L. 

FI. all the year round. Naturalized along roads. Very common. — ^^VJl 
islauds. 

186. C. retaaa, L. 

FI. alPthe year round. Common along roads and in waste places. 
N'atoralized. — All islands. 

187. C. latifolic, L. 

Fl. Nov. Leaves golden sericeous beneath. Corolla greenish. Xot 
lOComRKm in thickets. — W\ islands. 

|BL C.incana, L. (v. Rattle-buHh). 

lU the year round. Stipules deciduous, the scar exuding nectar 
well as th(d base of the bracteoles. Common along roads 
Crc as. 



42 FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AK1> THE TIBQIN ISLANDS. 

1S9. ludigofera tlnctoiia, L. 

Ft Apiil-Aug. Cultivated in former times, bat nov only finnd wild 
or Dataralized. Common in dry localities. — All islands. 
190. I. Anil. L. 

Fl all the year roond. The irliole plant is much attacked liy insecti 
Very common in dry thickets. — ^All islands. 
19X. Tepbroala clserea, Pers. a) and /3) Utoralla, Pers. 

Fl. Feb.-June. Both fonns here and there in thickets.— All idaitdi. 

192. Ctaoca oaxlbiea, Benth. 

St. Croix (Schl.)i St. Thomas (Gris. FL p. 183). 

193. Cooraetia aiboiMi, Gris. 
St. Jan (Gris. Fl. p. 183). 

194. Sabfsea flciriaa, DC. (v. Watorpanna). 

Fl. March-July. Precocious. Wood used for fisbpots. Gregariou 
Common in thickets and forests. — Tirgin Islands. (Cultivated in ft 
CrOLs.) 

195. Plotetia eqaamaU, DC. (Prodr. ii, 314) (v. Fustic ). 

Fl. Juno. Flowering i>eriod only Q or C days. Branches in tiuHaJ 
tlie following species commonly transformed idto bracbyblasts. Cm 
mon in forests and thickets. — Virgin Islands. 

196. P.arlstata, DC.(l.c.)(v.Fustic). 

Fl. Feb., March, and June-Aug. Bather common in thickets.— fir 




FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIBGIN ISLAND& 43 

202. Alysioaxpns vaginally DC. 

FL Nov.-Dec. Leaves very variable. Along roads, common. — All 
islands. 

S03. Desmodiam txiflomin, DC. 

FL Dec-Feb. Common near ditches and in moist localities. — All 
islands. 

204. D. inoanom, DC. 

FL Oct-Jan. Common in pastures. — ^All islands. 

205. D. scoxpianu, Desv. 

Fl. Dec.-Jan. In pastures, not very common. — St. Croix; St. Thomas 
(Duchass). 

206. Desmodiiiin tortnosom, DC. 

FL Oct.-Jan. Common in pastures. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

207. D. spirale, DC. * 

FL Kov.-Jan. Kot uncommon in pastures and along roads. — ^All 
idands. 

20e. D. moUa DC. 

Fl Dec.-Jan. Lomentum often 3-4-jointed. Rather common in pas- 
tures.— St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

209. Stylosanthes procuxnbens, Sv/. 

Fl Oct.-Dec Lomentum in uiy specimeua always 3-jointed. Com- 
DiOB along roads. — All islands. 

210. 8. visoosa, 8w. 

St. Croix (West, p. 301). (Perhaps a mistake for the former species.) 

^11, Araohia hypogsea, L. (v. Pindars, Ground-nuts). 

Fl. May- Aug. Seeds used for making cakes or eaten roiisted. Culti- 
vated and naturalized. — All islands. 



t, Abms prsecatoriofl, L. (v. Jumboe-l)ead, Scni]>ber, Wild Liquorice). 

II. Oct.-Feb. Leaves used for washing clothes. Common in thick- 
^^B and on hedges. — All islands. 



Rhynchoaia zninima, DC. a) and ft) lutea. Egg. 

B*L all the year round. Seeds black, with small grey spots. «) Stand- 
^ixl veined with purple; a low climber, ft) Standard uniformly yellow ; 
^liuabing up to C Both forms common in pastures and thickets. — ^All 
^^lajnds. 



44 FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE TIBOIN ISLAHD8. 

214. R. phaaeololdtM, DC. 

Fl. Marv)i. Stem laterally comprossccl. Bare in forests. — St Than 
{Signal Hill, 1200'). 

215. R. reUcnlata, DC. 

Fl. all the year round. Leaflets as long as 1^". Common on few 
and along roads. — All islands. 
316. CajaDiia Indtcus, Sprcng. (v. Pigeoii-pea, Veada boimlje). 

Fl. all the year rauud. Seeds used as a commou vegetable for eo 
Cultivated and naturalized. — All islands. 
217. CUtoila Ternatea, L. (v. Blue Vine), 

Fl. all tlie year round. Common in tbiekets. — All islands. 
21B. Centrosema Tirglniannin, Bi'Otb. a) and /?) augnatifolitixn. 

Fl. all tlie 3~ear round. Veiy common in ditches and on fences.— 
islands. 

219. ToramnoB oncluatae, Sw., var. albiflomB, Egg. 

Fl. Sept.-Mareh. Corolln 1^'" long, constantly white. Legome 
long, bliioI>, x>>Io^- Common in pastures and along roads.— St. C'i< 
St Thomas. 

220. Oalactia filiformls, Bc-ntli. 

F], Oct.-tTiin. Koots often bearing small tubei«. Common in ttu 
ets. — All islands. 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 45 

. Pb. alatns, L. 

t Croix (West, p. 299). 

. Ph. aemiereotiiB, L. 

I all the year round. Flower expanded only in the sun. Common 
ig roads and in pastures. — All islands. 

. CaiuiTmlia panriflora, Bentli. (Flor. Bras, xv, i, 177). 

I Feb. Inflorescence extm-axillary (as in C. honariens^isj Lindl. Bot. 
;. 1199). Legume broad on the back, without ^ominent ridges, 3^' 
J, ly broad. Seeds crimson, shining, J'' long. In forests, rare. — St. 
mas (Signal Hill, 1300'). 

C. gladiata, DC. /3) ensiformis, DC. (v. Sour-eyes, Overlook) (DoUchos adna- 
ci/ormis, Jacq. Icon. Rar. t. 559). Bot. Mag. 4027. 

I. Aug.-Dec. Naturali2e<l in provision grounds. — St. Thomas (Signal 
,1200^). 

C. obtnsifolia, DC. {DoUvhas rotundifolius, Yahl). 

1. all the year round. Common along the seashore. — ^All islands. 

. Hacima pmxlens, DC. (v. Cow-itch). 

L Oct.-Xov. In shady valleys. Rare. — All islands. 

Erythxlzui CoraUodendroD, L. (v. Flamboyant). 

L Feb.- April. Precocious. Stamens all of unequal length. Rather 
mon, e8i)ecially along roads and near dwellings. — All islands. 

. B. horrida. Egg. (n. sp.). 

L Feb.-March. Very prickly. Approaching to the preceding, but 
D, branches, petiole, and leaf-ribs on both sides armed with stout 
straight prickles ; legume terete, long- beaked. A low tree, branches 
cumbent. In forests, not uncommon. — All islands. 

. Piacldia Erythrlna, L. (v. Dog-woo<l^ Stink-tree). 

1. March-April. Precocious. Only those individuals that flower drop 
leaves. Common in thickets. — All islands 

. DrepanocarpUB Innatns, Moy. 

t. Croix (Isert, 1787, in Hb. Havn ; West, p. 298). 

. HecaBtopbyUuxn Brownei, Pcrs. 

L June-Dec. Not uncommon on sandy shores. — All islands. 

ioemiis, Sw. (v. Dog Almond, Bastard Mahogany, Hon Kloot). 

tA]iir.,and Dec. Not uncommon in forests and along rivu- 



46 FLOBA, OF ST. CBOIX AND THE YIBOIN UUKIW. 

238. Sophora tomentoBa, L. • 

ri. Jii]y-.Jan. Aloiig sandy shores, rare. — St. Croix (Wliite'B Bar, 

Tiu-ner's Hole). 

339. UyToapemmm fmteaceas, Jacq. 
Fl, May-fluiK*. Legume rt'siuotis. Naturalized near dwellings— St 

Croix. 

240. Heematoxyloii campecblaDuiD] L. (v. Lof^ood). 
I'l. Feb.-JIay. The young plants prickly on the stem. Ilere ai 

lliero oa simdy shores. More common in former times. — All islands. 

241. FarklDSonla aculeata, I', (v. Horse-bean). 
n. all tho year round. Common iu dry localities. — All islands. 

242. OuilandiuB Bonduc, L. (v.Yulloir Nickara). 
Fl. Jfay-Oet. Common along sandy shores. — All ishuids. 

343. a. melauouperma, 1^gg.(ii.s]i.) (v. Btnck Mckars). 

Fl. June-Oct. Resembling the preceding, but leaflets smaller, gU- 
bruus, sbiuing, pricble^s red ajid seeds shining- black. Seeds iiwd IV 
oniumeuts. In dry tliiekots near thesbore, rare. — St. Croix (Sandy Poiii^ 
Orapo-treo Bay). 

244. O. Bonclaoella, L. (v. Grey Nickan}. 

FJ. idl the yejir roimd. Anthers successively debi8C4?'nt. FloirBi 
polygamous. Very common along sjindy shores. — AU islands. 

243. Caaaalpliiia palcherrlma, Sn'. (v. Dudeldu). 
PL.Tunc-IVf', llracteoles large, subulate, but deeidno«s,l)eforp tta 




FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE YIBQIN ISLANDS. 47 

a iMUsOliula, L. 

FI. NoY.-May. Common in thickets and woods on high hills. — St 
TEliomas. 

S5X. C. bioapcolaxia, L. (v. Stiverbush, Styver bla). 

FL all the year round. Veiy common in waste places. — ^All islands. 

252. a florlda, Yahl. 

FL Dec Katoralized near towns. — St. Thomas. 

253. C. biflora, L. /?) angustisiUqua, Lam. 

FL Kov.-May. In thickets, rare. — St. Croix (Longford). 

254. C. alata, L. (v. Golden Candlestick, Flciti). 

• 

FL May-Nov. Along rivulets, not uncommon.-^Virgin Islands (nat* 
nralized in St. Croix). 

255. C. occidentaUs, L. (v. Stinking-weed). 

Fl. all the year round. Root used against fever. A very common 
weed near dwellings and in waste places. — All islands. 

256. C. obtusilblia. L. 

Fl. June-Nov. Common in dry localities. — St. Croix 5 St. Thomas. 

(C. triflora^ Yahl (Eclog. Am. iii, p. 11) (West, St. Croix), is a doubt- 
fid species. I have not been able to ftnd the original si)ecimen of Yahl 
in Hb. Havn.) 

257. C. glandulosa, L. a)8tricta, Sclil., and /?) raznosa. 

Pi. all the year round. Both forms common in pastures and along 
loads- — ^All islands. 

258. C. zi^ctioanBi L. 

FL all the year round. In the same localities as the preceding. — St. 
Croix; St- Thomas. 

259. Tamarindtui indica, L. (v. Tamarind-tree). 

Fl. March-June. ^Naturalized everywhere, especially near dwell- 
^gs.— iVll islands. 

^^O. Hymenaea Courbaril, L, (v. Locust-tree). 

^ Jan. and July- Aug. Bracts large, early deciduous. The wood is 
*** excellent timber on account of its lx»ing very hard and close-grained. 
"*^^ Ibrests, here and there. — 2VII islands. 

^^ Banhinla tomentosa, L. 
5*L May-June. Leaves partly deciduous in March. Katuralized in 
^^^^tlens and near dwellings. — St, Croix ; St Thomas. 



48 FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AKD THE TIBGIH ISL&KIie. 

263. 8. ongula, Jacq 

St. Thomas {Gris. Fl. 214). 

263. Adenantbera piTonloa, L. (v. Coqiivlicot). 

Fl. July-Otf. Naturalized near dwellings and in shady valley! 
All islands. 

264. Heptunia pubescens, IVntli. 

Fl. Aug. Legume containing as many as seeds. Itnre. — Buck lalc 
near St. Thomas, 

265. DeemanthiiB Tlrgatus, W. u) and S) stilctiu, Bert. 

Fl. all the year round. Both forms common ia pastures and al 
roads. — All islands. 

266. D. depreaaiia, Kth. 
St. Thomas (Schl.). 

267. Mimosa pudica, L. a) (v. Gritchpc). 

Fl. all the year round. Jn pastures and along roads. — St. Croii (' 
rai%, Mt. Stewart); Virgin Islands (common). 



St. Thoraa«{Gri8. Fi. 21!>). 
269. M. Ceratonta, L. (v. Bliiok Amiin't, Aionri'tHttckt^l). 

Fl. June-Dec. On high hill.'*.— St. Crois (West, p. 312 ; his epecin 
are found in lib. Haru.) ; Virgin Islands (common). 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 49 

^4. A. macraoantha, HB. p) glabrena (y. Stink Cash^). 
FL Dec.- April. A shrub or low tree. Wood exhaling a very dis- 
Le odour. Common in thickets on dry hills. — All islands. 

275. A. tortnoaa, W. (v. CashiS). 

PI. all the year round. Flowers fragrant. Bracteoles rhomboid, ciliate. 
Often gregarious. Common on dry hills. — ^All islands. 

276. A. Famasiana, W. (v. Cashii). 

FL all the year round. Flowers fragrant ; bracteoles spathulate, ciliate. 
Foliage of this and the two former species eaten by goats, and their wood 
generally u«ed for making charcoal. Common in dry localities. — ^All 
lalands. 

277. A. arabioa, W. 

♦ 

Fl. Nov.-Jan. Naturalized near dwellings. — St. Croix; St Thomas. 

27a A. Lebbek, W. (v. Thibet-tree). 

Fl. April-Sept. Leaves deciduous Nov.-March. Flowers fragrant, 
foliage eaten by cattle. The tree is often overgrown by Loranthus emar- 
i^natus. ^Naturalized in pastures and elsewhere. — St. Croix (very com- 
*>icn); Virgin Islands (common, except St. Jan, where the tree seems not 
^o thrive). 

(A. frandosaj W., var. eglandulosaj St. Thomas, is mentioned by 
^cshlechtendal as sx>ontaneous, but, being an East Indian species, is most 
l^^^)bably only cultivated or at most naturalized. I have not seen the 
^l^ecies in the island.) 

^ 79. CaUiandra portoricensU, Bentli. 

FL Feb. Climbing by the aid of young branches that twine themselves 
^^^und the branches of other trees. In forests, rare. — St. Jan (King's 
ill); Vieques. 

). C. purpurea, Bentli. (v. Soldier-wood, West). 

St. Croix (Gris. Fl. p. 224, probably on the authority of AVest. This 
5^uthor, however, says, p. 312, that the tree is only cultivated in the isl- 
s^^id. His specimens are in existence in lib. Havn. I have not seen the 
on the island). 

H C. Saman, Gris. (v. Giant Thibet-tree). 

n. May-Aug. A very large tree of quick growth. ^Naturalized near 
^l^w-ellings and planted along roads.—St. Croix; St. Thomas. 



Pithecolobium nnguia-cati, Bentli. a) and /3) forfez, Kth. (v. Crab-prickle). 

R. 8ept.-fTan. Gynophore V" long. Seeds black, shining; ariUus 
'^^ Wood used for fishpots. Both forms common on limestone and 
^ "J^arshy soiL— All islands. 

BulL Nat Mus. No. 13 4 



60 FLORA. OF ST. CBOIX AND THB TIBQIH ZSLAHIM. 

283. Inga laniliia, W. (v. LEkdy-flnger-tiee). 

Fl. July-^pt. and Jaa.~March. Petiole bearing a mamv wli 
each side. Corolla greenish. (Jacqnin's drawing does not ahoi 
wing on the petiole. In the lettertiress, however, of his Stiip. At 
expresses a doubt whether the petiole is winged or not.) Wood 
for fences, etc. Common in forests. — All islands. 

[Cnltivated species: PMuntsatifum, L. (v.GreenPea); Dolichotq 
«permu«, DC. (v. Black -eye Pea); D. sesquipedalUfli.; PoincianaOi 
Hook.; and a Caeparea.] 

CHBrSOBALANACEJB. 

284. Chrysobalantu Zcacr, L, (v. Cocoa^plnm, Cncos). 

Fl. Dec.-Feb. and Jiily-Aug. Fruit black orwbite; osedforpree 
On sandy shores or in forests on high hills. Common. — All islam 
ROSACEA. 

ptlany varieties of Rosa galltca, L., and R. centi/olia, L., are cnlb 

in gardens on all the islands, and are flowering abimdantly all tb 

round. In the time of West {c, 1790), roees were rare, audflowen 

seldom, so that we here seem to have an instance of gradotd aod 

sation.] 

BITBTACejB. 

283. OalyptTuitlieB Ttiomaatana, Berg (Linuno, xxvii, S6). 
St. Thomas (Yentenat and Bavn in Hb. Havn.). 

286. C. CtiTtraculla, Sir. 0) ovalls, Berg, and t) Zjwy^xaa, Berg (L c.p.9 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 51 

293. B. Polmtii, DC. 

St Thoma« (Oris. Fl. 236). 

293. & monttooUy DC. 

H July-Sept. Leaves variable, distichous. Flowers strongly fra- 
grant. When not flowering, the shrub emits a foetid smell. Eather 
ecmmon in forests. — ^All islands. 

394. B. aadUazli, Poir. 

R Aug.-Oct. Leaves variable. Petiole reddish. In thickets; 
TMe^-St Croix (Lebanon Hill, Fair Plain). 

295. E. lateriflora, W. {E, cordaia, DC. Prodr. iii, 272, aud probably E, goanlifloray ib. 
273). 

FL Sept-Nov. Leaves very variable, ovate, cuneate, or oblong. 
Flowops sessile or subsessile, crowded in the axils. Beny globose, 
porple, 2'" diam. Common in thickets and forests. — All islands. 

296. B. Maailiflora, Vahl (Symb. Bot. iii, 64). 

FL July-Oct. Fruit large, rosy, f -1'' diam. Flowers sessile, large, 
tkite, 6^" diam. In thickets, not uncommon. — St. Croix; St. Thomas 
(CoweU's Hill). 

(Both DC. and Gris. seem to confound these two very distinct species, 
the flowers and fruits of which are highly different in most resi)e<5ts. 
DC. Prodr. iii, 273, says of his U. sessiliflora : Fructus dimidio minor 
Quam E. ItUeriflorce, yet immediately above he says of this latter species: 
^ctu8 et sem. iguoti. Vahl's description is very correct, also, of the 
fruit, of which he says: Pruni magnitudine, globosus.) 

^97. XL flavovirens, Berg (1. c). 

St, Jan (Ravn in Hb. Havn.). 

^9a B. glabrata. DC. (Prodr. iii, 274). 

St. Croix (Berg). 

B 
'. R paUena, DC. (E. nitida, Vahl in Hb. Havn.) (v. Cromberry). 

Fl. Sept.-Nov. Leaves shining. In forests, uncommon. — All islands. 

. B. acetOBana, Poir. (DC. Prodr. 1. c. 283). 

8t Jan (in forests. Berg in Linnsea, xxx, 662) ; St. Croix (Mount Eagle, 
icbanl). 

^L R vireialtoaa, DC. 

FL April-July. Leaves variable. Common along the seashore and 
forests. — ^All islands. 



52 FLORA OP ST. CBDIX AND THE TIRGIN ISUHDB. 

302. B,proo«ra.Foir.(v.BlAckCheri7,Bock-iii7TUe)(iryrl««c«nH(aa,TaklliiWMl, i 

p. iM). 

Fl. Feb. and Aug.-Nov. Flowers fragrant j fruit edible; a fiivcwritt 1 
food for wild pigeons. In Ibrests, common. — All islandtu 

303. E. pMndopBldlam, Jac^. (£. Thomatiana, Berg} (v. Bastard Guata, CluHtMi 

Cherry). 
Fl. April-Dec. Flowers fragrant; fruit ovaL Asbmborlowtne. !■ 
forests, not uncommon. — All ifilands. 

304. E. ItgUBtrina. W. 

Fk April and Sept. In tliicketa and woods, common. — All ftlaBd& 

305. B. poitorloeiulB, DC. (Prod. Hi, 366) IStauxMlfx, Berg^ - 
St. Croix (ox Hb. Vahlii in Hb. Berol.). 

30fi. B. nnUIara, L. (v. !4urinani Cherry). 

FI. MiU'ch-Aiig. Fi-oit edible, acidulous. A middle-sized tree. Kit^ 
uralizcd and planted iu gardens— St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

J 

307. B. fioribunda, West (v. Gilnva-btury). 

Fl. June-Aug. Berry black, globose, sLiiiiug, i'" diam., aromaliejj 
used for preserves or put iu rum. Iti forests, not uncommon. — .Ul bt-j 
ands. 

(J?, margiuata and E. micrantha. West, p. 200, ore not meotinned 
Valil's Syuib. Bot. pars iii, as stated, and are probably included in 
of the species enuniei-iited above.) 

308. Anamomia punctata. Cri-i. 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 53 

X3. Pniiioa gnuuituniy L. (v. Pomegranate). 

"FL April-Oct. Flowers crimson or yellow Fruit the same. Nator- 
Bktised in valleys and near dwellings. — ^All islands. 

314. Moozlria dominswiala, Walp. {Petalama Mouririf Sw.). 

St. Croix (Baadonios Out, West, p. 285, and specimens in Hb. Havn.). 
[Cultivated si>ecies : Myrtus communiSj L. (v. Myrtle), and Couroupita 
fmmenris, AnbL (v. Nutmeg).] 

MEIiASTOMACEJE:. 

315. CUdemia hirta, Don. 

St. Thomas (Biedl^ sec. Kaudin, Ann. des sc. nat. 1853, xviii, p. 532). 

316. C. tpioata, DC. • 

FL June-July. In forests, not uncommon. — ^All islands. 

317. C. rabra. Mart. 

St. Thomas (Gris. Fl. p. 248 ; Finlay sec. Kaudin, 1. c.). 

3ia Diplooliita sermlata, DC. 

FLFeb.-May. Not uncommon in wooded vallRys. — St. Croix; St, 
Tbomas. 

319. Ttoazygia elasagnoldea, DC. 

FL April- Aug. Common in forests and on high hills. — ^All islands. 

320. Miconia argyrophyUa, DC. 

St Thomas (Fiulay sec. Naudin, Gris. Fl. p. 2ii6). 

321 M. impetiolaris, Don. 

leaves as long as 1^'. — St. Croix (West in Hb. Havn.) ; St. Thomas 
(Griii. FL p. 256; Bonpland §ec. Naudin. Montserrat (Ryan in Hb. 
flavn.). 

^2. M. praaina, DC. 

St Thomas (Riedl6 sec. Naudin). 

^^3. IC laevigata, DC. 

FL March-July. In forests, not uncommon. — All islands. 

^^4. hL angnatifolia, Gris. 

Fl. March. A good-sized shrub, often gregarious on limestone. — St 
^loix (Benzou in Hb. Havn.); Virgin Islands (not uncommon. Mont- 
^^rrat (Ryan in Hb. Havn.). 

[Several of the species mentioned by Naudin as having been coUected 
^St Thomas I omit as being a rather doubtful habitat. These are: 
^^kudya berbiceatuiy Gris. {Micania^ Naud.); Cremanium amygdalinumy 
^^^"rig. (Omoxi, DC), and Nepsera aquatica^ Naud.] 



54 FLORA OP ST. UBOIX AMD THE TIBQIN I8LAHDB. 

LrTHRABIEJB. 

323. Amm.nla UtUoUS, L, 

Fl. Dec-Jane. Here and there in moist localitiea. — Bt. Croix (L 
Cove, Auna'8 Hope) ; St Tbomas (Flag HiU). 

326. ABtbeirUnm Rolull, Tahl (Symb.Bot.iiJ, 6S)(T.Piiokl«-irood). 

Fl. Oct.-March. Precocious. Petiole bibracteato above the mi 
Id marBhy soil oear the coast. — St. Croix (rare; Fair Plain, i 
Ground) ; Virgin Islands (common). 

[Cultivated species: Lawsonia iiiermU, L. (v. Mignonette), and J 
stromia indica, L. (v. Queen of Flowers)^] 

OFTAGBACEX. • 

327. TawUua ■nXniticoaa, L. a) UEoatrtfolla, Kth. 

FL all the year round. Here and there in moist places.^ — St 
(Crequis, Golden Bock); St Thomas (Caret Bay). 

BHIZOFHOBACE.S. 

336. RblBOpboia Maugl*, L. (v. Mangrove, MaagolbootD). 

FL all the year round. Gregarious uloug the shore of lagoons, 
islands. (See Botanisks Kotiser, 1877, Limd, and Yidensk. Hed 
fTatorhist. Foreuing in Copenhagen, 1877-78.) 

COIOBBETACEf . 

329. TermtiuJlK Oatappa, L. (v. Almood-tree). 
nil and .'^'■iit. Viituralizi'i) ir 




flora of 8t. croix and the virgin islands. 55 

cvcitbbitaceje:. 

(Griaeb. Flora, and Nandin: Annales des sc. nat. 1859, '62, '63, and '66.) 
3S3. Momordioa Charantia, L. a) and /3) psendobalsamina (y. Maid-apple). 

^FL Dec and April-Aag. Common on fences and near ditches. — ^All 
isisi^nds. 

334. Lnlla oyllndiica, Roem. (Syn. Mon. ii, 63) (X. Petola, Sor. Wight Icon, ii, t. 49&> 
(v. Strainer-vine). 

KL Oct.-Dec Tendril 5-fid. Fruit brown, 4" long. Naturalized on 
fences. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

335. Cuourbita Pepo, L. u) (v. Pumpkin) and /?) Melopepo (v. Squaali). 

Fl. May .-Nov. and Feb. Fruit used extensively as a vegetable. 
liTatoralized and cultivated. — All islands. 



Lagenarla imlgarlat Ser. a) (v. Gobio) and 0) viscosa. Egg. (v. Bitter Gobie). 

FL Sept.-Jan. The whole plant has a strong smell. Tendril 2-fid. 
^) leaves viscous, petiole biglandular near the top. Used as a blister. 
IJot uncommon in waste places, a) on fences. Fruit used for goblets. — 
St. Croix J St. Thomaa. 

337. Melothria pervaga, Gris. 

FL Dec- April. In thickets, not uncommon. — ^AU islands. 

338. Cactixnia Anguria, L. (v. Cucumber). 

Fl. Jaii.-March. Anthers glabrous in the bud, pilose after dehiscence, 
collecting the i>ollen. Berry used for soup and pickles. Common in 
pastures and on fences. — All islands. 

339. Cephalandra indlca, Naud. (1. c. 1866, p. 14) {Cooclnia, W. & A.). 

Fl. Dec-June. Naturalized near dwellings and in shady valleys. — 
8t Croix. 

^. Trianoaperma graoUiflonun, Gris. (T. Belangcriiy Naud.). 

PL Xov.-Jan. Leaf 3-5-lobed. Tendril often bifid. In forests, not 
'incommon. — All islands. 

^L T. ficifoUom, Mart. (Syst. nat. med. veg. Bras. 79) {Bryonia^ Lam. ). 

Pi. March. In forests, not uncommon. — St. Thomas (Soldier Bay) ; 
St Jan (West, p. 301). 

^^^. Angaria trilobata, L. 

St Croix (Ham's Bluff, West, p. 305). 



A. glomerata. Egg. (n. sp.). 

^. Feb.-March and May- Aug. Eoot tuberous. Stem suffruticose, 
^^i'k greyish. Leaves alternate, ovate-triangulate or 3-lobed, some- 



56 FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AlfD THE TIBGIN ISI.Un>8. 

times 3-partite, narrowly cordate at the base, dentioolate^ aomniu 
scabrous above, whitish pubescent beoeath. Tendril simple. ! floi 
glomerate, sessile or subsessile, S-20 in the glomenile. Calyx urceol 
cylindrical, small. Petals 5, orange-colonred or red, lanceolate, erect 
long. Style bifid; stigmas thick, globose, obsoletely 2-lobed. Orat 
locular; ovules 3-8 in each celL Berries densely glomerate, sessil 
subsessile, oval, glabrous, striate, red, 8'" long. Seeds 3-8, niceo 
globose, vermcose, brownish, 2'" long. J unknown. A high din 
Stem often y diam. at the base, succulent. In forests, not na 
mon. — St Croix (Jacob's Peak, Claremont,) ; St Thomaa (Picarn P< 
Bula). 

All Cucurbitaceae are protogjuous. 

[Cultivated Bi>ecies: Sechium edule, Sw. {v. Choco); Cueumis tativt 
(v. Mutton-encumber) ; C. Melo, L. {v. Muskmelon), and CUmlUu 
fforiSf Schrader (v. Watermelon).] 

PAPATACEX. 

344. Cailoa Papaya, L. C<r. Papan). 

Fl. March-Aug. Stem often branched. Fruit used as a veget 
Common near dweUings and in waste places. All islands. 

PASSIF1.0RACEiE. 

345. Paaaiflom ■nbaroaa, L. (v. Pup, ludigo-betty). 

FL Sept-Dec. Common on rocks and fences. — All i wlftn dtt. 




FLOBA OF ST. CHOIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 57 

3SS. P. foMiim, L. (v. Love in the mUt). 

B*l- 8ept.-Jan. Protandrous. Ou fences and near ditches, common. — 
St Croix ; St. Thomas. 

[Cultivated species : P. quadrangularisy L. (v. Grenadilla), the berry of 
which is edible.] 

TrRIfERACE^. 

353. T ur ii a r a nlmlfoUa, L. 

FL March-Oct. In waste places, common. — ^All islands. 

354. T. parriflora, Benth. 

FL Sept-Dec and Jan.-May. • Leaves always eglandular ; calyx not 
lomentose. Gregarious on rocky seashores, rare. — St. Thomas (Cowell's 
Hill); Buck Island, near St. Thomas. 

CACTACE^. 

W, ICamlUarla nivosa, Link (Pfeiffer £num. Cact. 1837, p. 11) (if. toriolmnBf 
Hort. Berol.). 

FLall the year round. Flower pale yellow; berry clavate, purple. 
Seeds brownish. On rocks near the seashore. — ^Buck Island and Flat 
Cays, near St. Thomas ; Tortola (Pf.). 

356. Melooactus oommnnia, DC. (v. Pope's Head). 

H all the y^r round. Berry clavate, i^urple, ^" long. Seeds black, 
verrucose. Up to four feet high. On dry hills and rocks, especially 
Dear the shore. — All islands. 

^57. M. atroaangnineua, Hoi-t. Berol. • 

St. Thomas (Pf. 1. c. p. 44). 

•58. Cerena floccoaus. Hort. Berol. (v. Dildo). 

Pi. Oct.-July. Berry depressed globose, dark cnmson, 1^'^ diam. 
l*ulp red; seeds small, black. On dry hills in thickets, common. — All 
'^^laads. 

359. c. azmatua, Otto. 
St. Thomas (Pf. 1. c. p. 81). 

^. C. triangularia, Haw. (v. Cliigger-applo). 

^ July. Berry large, crimson, edible, 5'' long, oval. On trees and 
'^ks in forests, not uncommon. — All islands. 



C graodifloroa, Haw. (v. Nightblooming Cereus). 

^fX iiay-July. Naturalized in gardens and near dwellings. — St. Croix ; 
^^ Thomas, 



68 FLOBA OF ST. CROIX AKD THE TIBOIN ISIiAHIM. 

363. Opnotia onrawaTlOs, Mill. (t. Bncliem). 

Fl. all the year round. Berry pcrple, |" long, davate. Qngn 
in dry localities, which are ol^ten i-endered imjieDetrable by its pne 
Very commoD. — ^All ialandii. 

363. O. Tuna, Mill. (v. Prickly Pear). 

Fl. all the year round. Berry ovate, crimson, edible. Seeds t 
black. Used for fencing pnipoBea. In dry lociditiea, very como) 
All islands. 

364. O. honlda, Salm. (v. Bull-auckeis). 

Fl.all the year round. Flower reddish-yellow. In dry localities 
mou. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

369. O. ■plnoMlsBlma, HilL 

Fl. all the year round. Spines white, 5-8 in each cluster, deci 
on the stem. Flower J" diameter. Plant reaching 20'— 25' high, 
thickets, common. — All islands. 

366. O. taberonlBta, Haw. (v. Fmicb Prickly Pear). 

Fl. the whole year. Flower small, yellow. Branches used foi 
tices. Plant lO'-W high. Naturalized and planted near dwelli 
St Croix; St. Thomas. 

367. O. ccocicelUfeiB, Mill. 

Fl. all the year round: Plant I6'-20' high. On limestooe, n 
mon. — St. Cmix : St. Thomas. 




FLOB^ OF 8T CBOIX AND THE YIBGIN ISLANDS. 59 

ABAI.IACEJB. 

372. Panaac speoicMum, Willd. (Spec. Plant. It, p. 1126). 

ISot seen flowering. Leaflets 8, of unequal size, the central ones lar- 
gest. Margin slightly undulate and denticulate. Upper surfacQ covered 
▼ith distant and deciduous muricate hairs j tomentura on the lower sur- 
fiM^ deciduous. A low tree. In forests, very rare. St. Jan (King's 
I, KKKK, on the northern slope of the hills). (Cuba, I*orto Rico, Ca- 

URIBEIililFER^. 

373. Brynsium fotidam, L. 

FL Sept.-Ma3\ Biennial. Along rivulets and in moist places, rare. 
—St Thomas (Caret Bay). 

374. Anethum graveolens, L. (v. Dill). 

FL March-Oct. Naturalized along roads and near dwellings. — All 
islaiids. 

[Caltivated species: Petroselinum sativum^ Hoffm. (v. Parsley); Baueus 
CarotOj L. (v. Carrot) ; Pimpinella Ani4tumj L. (v. Anise) ; Fcmiculum vnh 
9^ Gsertn. (v. Fennel); Anthriscus ccrefolium^ L. (v. Chervil), and 
-^piiwi graveolemty L. (v. Celery).] 

liORAIVTHACi:^ 

375. Loranthua emarginatnr, Sw. (v. Haas-fram-booni). 

PI. all the year round. Inflorescences uniserial. On trees, especially 
Acacia Lebhek and PUtonia subcordatu. Commou. — All islands. 

376. Phoradendron flavena, Gris. 

Pi. April-June. Seed compressed, green, with white bauds. On Pi- 
^ia 9ub€ordatUy rare. — St. Croix (Stony Groimd). 

CAPRIFOIilACEJE:. 

(Cultivated occur: Sambuctis nigra j L. (FL April-July), and Lonicera 
^^prifoUumj L. (v. Iloney-suckle).] 

RUBIACE^. 

^7. Oenlpa amerioana, L. 
n. July. In forests on high hills, rare. — St. Thomas (Crown) ; St. Jan 

cHogiers). 



L Cateabasa parviflora, Sw. 

^L Sept.-Dec. Fruit black, shining. In dry thickets, uncommon. — 
^^ Croix (Fair Phiin). 



60 FLOHA OP 8T CEOIX AND THE VTBQIN ISLANDS. 

379. Kandla aculeata, L, a) nod d) initlB. 

Fl. April-.Jiily, a) in tli-y tbickets, ^) in shady valleys. Common.— 
All islands. 

380. Hamelfa patensi Jai'q. 

Fl. iiU tbo ye;ir roimd, C'-15' high. lu shady valleySj not ihitoiii- 
luuu. — Alt iiiliuicls. 

381. H. latea, Robr. 

Fl. Jill th^-yearronnd. In forests, nncommon. — St. Croix; SuThomin. 

3B2. Qonz^ea spioata, DC. 

Fl. May -Oct. hi pastures od h igh hills, above lOOC, not tmcommon.— 
Virgin Isliinds. 

383. Exoatemma oailbteam, K. S.(v. Black Torch). 

Fl. Juue-Di'o. Goramon in thickets. — All islands. 

384. Portlandia giandiSora, L. 

FL June- Dec— St. Thomas (DC. Prodr. iv, p. 405; Oris. Fl. p. 3_'4); a. 
Croix (cultivated). 

385. Roudelatia pUoaa, Sw. 

Fl all the yoar round. In thickets.— St. Croix (rare, near CaneB*.T)i 
Virgin Islands ((Miuimoo). 

386. Oldenlandla coiymboHi. L. 

I'l. Feb.~M;ircli. Seeds brown, minutely vemicose. In waste plJM% 
t lU'iise vi>i\l 




FUMLi OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 61 

^ CMaob glabra, DC. 

liTot seen flowering. In forests^ rare. — St Croix (Fair Plain) ; St. 
binnas (Soldier Bay). 

^ Sooloaapthtta ▼eraioolor, Valil. 

FL Oct-Dec. Pedicels often transfoimed into spines, as mentioned 
y lie. (Prodr. iv, 484). Leaves 2"'-3'^' long.— St. Croix (West and Ryan 
aHb. Havn.); St. 13iomas (rather common in thickets); Water Island. 

IM. Brlthalia frntlooaa, L. a) and ^) odorlfera, Jacq. 

FL Oct.-March. Along the coast, not uncommon. — All islands. 

895. Ghloooooa racemoaa, Jacq. 

FL March-Dec In forests, common. — All islands. 

896. Izora ferrea, Benth. 

FL Feb.-May and Nov.-Dec. Among rocks on high hiUs over 120(K, 
not uncommon. — St. Thomas (Crown). 

197. CoOea arabioa, L. (y. Coffee-tree). 

PL May-July. Berry ripe Nov.-Dec. Naturalized in shady localities. 
Poraierly cultivated on most estates on a small scale, principally in St. 
Ian.— AU islands. 

198. Ftoamaa odoratiaaima, DC. (v. Wild Coffee). 

FL June. In thickets on high hills. — St. Croix (West and Benzon in 
Hb. Havn.); Virgin Islands (not uncommon). 

899. Psjchotxia glabrata, Sw. 

PI. June-Sept. Here and there in shady valleys. — ^All islands. 

M. P. tennifolla, Sw. 
PI. May. In thickets on high hills, rare. — St. Thomas (Crown, 150(y). 

iOl. p. Brownei, Sprg. 

PL June-Sept. In woods, common. — ^All islands. 

402. p. horizontaUs, Sw. 

PL May-Dec. Along roads and in thickets, common. — All islands. 

103. Paliocmrea Pavetta. DC. o) and 0) var. rosea, Egg. 

FL Feb. and Aug. P) corolla-lobes rosy, anthers bluish, and stem 
irownish. In forests, not imcommon. — fi) all islands, a) St. Thomas 
fignal Hill). 

Di. Mdrinda citriibUa, L. (v. Painkiller). 

iMKAiig. Leaves used against headache. Naturalized in gar- 
«<Z} St Thomas. 



62 FLORA OF BT. CSOIX AHD THK TIBODI I8I.inM. 

405. Oeophlla renUbimlB, Chun. & Solil. 

Fl. Dec.-.TaD. and Aug. On the gioiuid in dense woodB| nnr-i 
Thomas (Signal Hill, St. Feter) ; Tieques (Hb. Havn.). 

40e. Bmodea Utonlla, Sw. 
Fl. Bee-May. Along sandy coasts, not onconunon. — ^AU islaod*. 

407. Dtodla riElcU,Cham. & Schl. (LUhum, iii, 34t). 
St. Thomas (Schl.). 

408. D. MmiMitMa, Sw. 
St. Thomas (Schl.). 

409. 8p«imacoo« tenoior, Lam. (v. Iron-grass), a) and ^) an^iutlfolU. I^ 

Fl. all the yeai' round. P) leaves linear-lanceolate. In pastures 
dlong roada. Both formB common. — All islands. 

410. Boirerla vertlclllata. Me;. 

Fl. May-Oct Suffruticose. In pastures on hills. — St, Creix ( 
HavQ.) ; St. Thomas (not uncommon on Crown). 

411. B. atriota, Mej. [Primit. PI. Euequib. p. 83). 

Fl. I>ec.-March, In pastures, here and there. — St. Croix (Pm 
Gronnd). 

{B. vaginata, Ch. & Schl. (St. Thomas, Schl.), is a doubtfiil tf» 
(DC. Prod, iv, 551).) 



412. B. parvlfloTa, Mey. 




FLOBA OF 8T. CBOIX AND THE VISGIN ISLANDS. 63 

4^X7. Btephantppos mollis, Kth. 

FL March-May. Head 4-flowered. In pastnres^ here and there. — 
All islands. 

4ljS. Dittreptiui spioatus, Cass. 

FL Jan.-March. In pastures and along roads^ common. — All islands. 

419. AgeratQin conysoidas, L. 

Fl. Dec.-Jane. Acheninm usually 4-gouoas. Along roads and ditches, 
commoD. — ^AU islands. 

ttO. Hebeolinium maorophyUum, DC. 

H. June-Sept. Achenium black, 3-gonous. In forests. — St. Croix 
(nro; Caledonia, Wills Bay) ; St. Thomas (not uncommon). 

421 Bapatorium odoratum, L. (v. Christmas-bash). 

FL Nov .-March. Along roads and in thickets, common. — All islands. 

M2. B. repandiun, W. 
FL Dec-July. On hills, not common. — ^All islands. 

♦23. B. atrlpUoifoUom, Vahl (Sjinb. Bot. iii, 96). 

FL Dec.-May. Leaves coriaceous, glabrous ; glandular impressions 
wunerous on the upper surface. Flower odorous. On sandy shores, 
wmmon. — All islands. 

^24. B. canescens, Vahl. 

FL Oct.-Nov. In thickets, uncommon. St. Croix (Spring-gut) ; St. 
Thomas (DC. Prod, v, 155). 

^25. B. Ayapana, Vent. 

St Cn>ix (naturalized sec. Vahl, who received it from Pflug; probably 
<>% cultivated). 

*26. B. cuneifoUum, Willd. 

St Thomas (DC. Prod, v, 177). 

^27. BCikania gonoolada, DC. 

PL Dec.-March. In forests. — St. Croix (rare ; Caledonia) ; Virgin 
*«IandR (not uncommon). 

*28, Erlgeron coneifolius, DC. (Prod, v, 288). 

Fl. Dec.-tTuly. — Rhizome perennial, for which reason this species must 

*^ considered sufficiently distinct from the annual E. JamaicenMs^ Sw. 

-^he two species are united into one by Prof. Grisebacli in his Fl. p. 365. 

"^^ l)a.stures on high hills, not uncommon above 120(y. — ^Virgin Islands. 

. B. spatholattis, Vahl. 

^. April-July. Along roads and ditches, rather common. — All islands. 



64 ITLOUA OF ST. CBOIX AHD nU VIBOOr ISLISM. 

430. S. canadftiula, L. 

FLJune-lTov. Bay-flowers often ligalate. Along roads, ommoB 
All islands. 

431. Baoohula VablU, DC. (Prod, v, 411) (S. dioiai, Tahl). 

FL all the year round. As inacli as SCK bigh. On rocky seaeha 
gregarious, not uncommon. (The specific name of DC. is to be 
ferred to tliat of Vahl, notwithstanding tlie priority of the l&ttet 
the reasons stated in the Prodromus.) — St Croix (northwestern coa 

432. Fluoliea odorata, Cass. (v. Sneet Scent, Ovra bla). 

Fl. Feb.-April. Leaves used as tea against colds and as din 
medicine. In moist localities, not uncommon. — All ialanda. 

433. P. pntpnrasoaiis, DC. 

FL aU the year round. Along rivulets, not uncommon. — St C 
(GaUows Bay, KlngsMU Gut). 

434. Ftarocaulon virgatam, DC. 

Fl. ail the year round. On dry hills, cooimon. — All islands. 

435. BlalBinpoaiDindlvailcatain.DC.(Prod. V, 520)(if.jMU(fonM, Ktb.). 
Fl. Oct.-Feb. Along ditches, gregarious, rare. — St Croix (Jolly I 

436. Ogieia ntderalla, Grici. 

Virgin Islands (Oris. Fl. p. 369). 

437. Aoanthoaponnum hamlle, DC. 

Fl. all tlio yi'Jir i-ound. Leaves not glandular beneath. A cMni 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE YIROIK ISLANDS. 65 

i, Bonlobia arboresoens, DC. 
FI. all the year round. On sandy shores^ gregarious. — St Croix (com- 
moD); St Thomas (Smith's Bay). 

445. Wedelia oaniosa, Rich. 

FL June-Jan. Along ditches, gregarious. — St. Croix (western part 
of the island, not uncommon). 

M€w W. baphthalmoldes, Gris. (v. Wild Tobacco), a), 0) antigneiuda, Nichols, 
and y) dominicenala. 

R all the year round. Leaves delicately fitigrant. a) rare; fi) and r) 
eonunon along roads and in thickets. — All islands. 

447. W. affiniii^ DC. (Prod, v, 541) ( W. calycina, Rich.). 

• 8t Thomas ( Wydler). 

Ma W. aoapnlensis, HB. K. 
8t Thomas (SchL in Linnaea, 1831, 727). 

(Grisebach, FL 372, thinks these two species to be included probiibly 
in W.frutescens^ Jacq.) 

M9. W. omoiana, Rich. 
8t Croix (DC. Prodr. v, 542). 

^^ W. dlK^oidaa, Less. (Linniea, 1831, 728). 

St. Thomas (Less. 1. c). 

iSl. Melanthera deltoidea, Rich. 

8t Thomas (Less.). 

^^2. Sderooaipna afrlcanus, Jacq. (Icon.Kar. i, 1. 176). 

Fl. Nov.-Doc. Along roads and in thickets, mre. (Naturalized t) — 
St Thomas (Parade ground). 

^^ Bidena leuoanthna, W. 

PL Sept-Dec. Under tree«, on high hills. — St. Croix (West, p. 303) ; 
Virgin Islands (common). 

^M. B. blpinnatQa, Ij. 

Fl. Sept-March. Achenium often 5-aiistate. In pastures and along 
Pitches, common. — All islands. 

^55. Coamoa oaudatua, Kth. 

^1. Dec.-March. Along roads and in fields, not uncommon. — All 
^hnds. 

^^ Verbeaina alata, L. 
^*1. Feb.- Aug. Naturalized in gardens. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 
BulL Nat Mus. No. 13 5 



66 FLORA, or ST. CBOIX AKD TDK VISGDr ISUBDS. 

«S7, Synedralla tlodifloia, G. (t, Fatten barrow). 

FL all tlie year roond. A common weed everywhere. — ^All idi 

458. Peotls punctata, Jacq. 

FL Oct-March. In pastures and along ditches, conuno 
islands. 

459. p. llnUblls, Leu. 

St Thomas (Less. Oris. FL p. 378). 

460. p. homlfasa, Sw. 

Fl. all the year round. Oregarioos on rocks and between sto 
ttncommon. — All islanda 

461. BKletoBaomlnKeiMlB,CaBB. a)gUbnta,DC.; ^) cardnlfoUa, DC.; )) 
Fl. all the year round. On the sandy seashore, a) and ;-) rati 

moil, p) found by Oersted (Vld. Medd. 1852, p. 106).— St Thwi 

463. Breohtliltea bleraolfoUa, Raf. a) and 7) oaoaloldaa, Lesa. 

Fl. all the year round. In moist locaUties, not oncommoD. — E 
{r); St Thomas (a). 

463. Emlllft Mmotalfidla, DC. 

Fl. Jan.-Oct la shady localities. STatnraUzed, oommc 
islands. 

464. B. Mgittata, DC. (Prodr. vi, 302) (Caralla omvinen, Sims.). 

Fl. all the year round. Naturalized in gardens. — St Croix ; St 1 
{Ccuialiacoccinea, Sims., is, according to DC. Prodr. Ti,332,»q 




FLORA OP ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 67 

and as no 8i)ecimcns are to be found in Hb. Havn.^ I have not been able 

to identify the species.) 

[Cultivated species: Helianthus annutiSj L. (v. Sunflower); Pyrethrum 
indicumy Cass.; Aster chinermsyh.] Tagetea patula^ L.; Tithonia spedosa^ 
Uook.; Oeorgina variabilis^ Willd., and Lactuca sativa^ L. (v. Salad).] 

rOBELIACEJE:. 

9 

468. IfloComa lougiflora, Prsl. 

Fl. all the year round. The whole plant is poisonous. In shady locali- 
ties and in pastures on high hills. St. Croix (rare, Mount Pleasant, 
Wills Bay) ; Virgin Islands (rather common on the hills). 

OOODE NOTIACJE JS. 

469. Sofwola Plnmlerl, L. 
FL Jan.- April. On sandy shores. — St. Croix (not uncommon) ] St. 

Thomas (Smith's Bay). 

470. Ardiala ooriacea, Sw. 

PI. June-Aug. Leaves minutely spotted beneath. In forests and on 
high bills, not imcommon. — All islands. 

471. Jaoquinia armiUarlB, L. u) and p) arborea, V. (v. Bay Sallie). 

Fl. Sept.-Feb. On the rocky shore, not uncommon. — All islands. 

sapotackje:. 

^72. ChrysophyUum Cainito, L. (v. Star-applo). 

PL May-July. Fruit edible. In forests, rare. — St. Croix (Springfield) ; 
St Thomas (Signal Hill). 

^73. C. pauciflonim, Lam. 

PI. June. In forests, uncommon. — St. Thomas (Flag Hill). 

474. C. oUviforme. Sw. (i) monopyrenum. 
Fl. July. In forests, not very common. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

♦75. C. microphyUom, Jacq. (v. Pabn6r). 

Fl. Sept.-Jan. In wooded valleys, rare. — St Croix (Bugby Hole) ; St. 
Tliomas (Santa Maria Gut). 

^76. C. glabmm, Jacq. 

Fl. Sept.-Dec. and March-July. In woods and thickets, common. — 
All islands. 

^77. Sapota Achraa, Mill. (v. MeHpel). 

Fl. Sept.-Oct. and March. Fruit sweet, edible. In forests and culti- 
'^ated, common. — All islands. 



G8 FLOBA OF ST. CSOIX AND THE VIBOIH ISLAKDS. 

478. a Blderoxylcn. Gris. (v. Bully wood). 

Kot seen in flower. A tall tree, affording a splendid paiple, ve 
hard timber. In forests, rare. — St. Jan (Baas Out). 

479. Slderozylon MssUcIiodendron, Jacq. (t. Haatic). 

Fl. Aug.-Scpt. An excellent timber tree. In forests, raie. — St. Ck 
(Lebanon Hill) ; St. Thomns (Korthside Bay) ; St Jan (Baas G 
(Montserrat, Eyan in Hb. Hara.). 

480. DIpludU aallclfoUa, DC. 

FL Feb.-March. In thickets and forests. — St. Croix (not nncomi 
in the western part of the island) ; St. Jan (Klein Cancel Bay). 

481. Bomalla conoata, 6w. (v. Break-bill). 

FL Feb.-April. Brauches often transformed into long spines. 1 
good timber tree. Along the coast principally in marshy soil, not 
common. — All islands. 

482. Lnoutna mnltifiora, DC. (Achrai nacrophglJa, V&lil iu Hb. Havn.). 

FL June-July and Dec.-Jan. Leaves as much as 1 J' long. — St. C 
(Hb. Havn. from Wills Bay) ; St. Thomas (here and there in foie 
Signal Hill, ISOO'). 

STTBACEJB. 

483. Symploooa taaittnlceuBlA, Jacq. 

FL March-Aug. In forests on high hills. Flowers fragrant- 
Thomas (Signal Hill above 1200', not uncommon). 




FLOBA OF ST. CROIX AND THE YIBOm ISLANDS. 69 

APOCTNACE^. 

^ Tliefvetia nexiifoUa, Jnss. (v. Milk-bash). 

^ all the year round. Wood employed for building boats. In thick- 
^ on dry hills, common. — ^All islands. 

M. Ran^rotfia nltida, L. (y. Milk-tree). 

FL all the year round. In forests and thickets, common. — All islands. 

190. R. TtwmarckH, A. DC. (y. Bitter-busli). 

FL all the year round. On dry hills, common. — All islands. 

91 Narium Oleander, L. (y. Neiiom). 

FL all the year round. Naturalized in gardens and near dwellings, 
ommon. — ^All islands. 

^ TabemaDmontana (citrifolla, Jacq. f ). 

Fl. June-Aug. In thickets, here and there^ — St. Thomas (French- 

tfi's Bay). 

^ Visoa roaea, L. (y. Church-flower). 

FL all the year round. Near houses -and on waste places, very com- 
Mm. — ^AIl islands. 

M. Plomieria mbra, L. (y. Red Franchipani). 

FL all the year round. Naturalized near dwellings. — ^All islands. 

95. P. obtnaifolla, L. (y. White Franchipani). 

Fl. all the year round. Naturalized in gardens. — All islands. 

96. P. alba, L. (y. Snake-root, Klang hont). 

FL all the year round. On rocks near the shore and in dry thickets, 
OQunon. — All islands. 

97. Echitea agg^lntinata, Jacq. 

FL July-Aug. In thickets, rare. — St. Croix (Cane Bay) ; St. Thomas 
PTagHiU). 

9a B. ciroiiialia, Sw. 

FL Dec In forests, rare.— St.Thomas (Flag Hill). 

19. R nerlandra, Gris. 

FL Oct.-Jan. Here and there in thickets, not uncommon. — AH 
lands. 

0. B. aaberecta, Jacq. 

]|a3r*Aiig. In thickets, uncommon. — St. Thomas (Cowell's Hill) ; 
(WeBt, p. 277). 



70 



FLORA OF ST. CEOIX AND THE TIKOIN ISLAyOB. 



501. E. baibata. Dcsr. 

St Croix; St. Thomas (DC. Prodr. viii, 453). 

[Cultivated species : AUamanda catltartUxif L., and TaiernamoKtm 

capeiisis, L. (v. Cape Jessamiae).] 

ASC LEPIADACEiE. 

502. Hetas^lma parviftorum. R. I)r. 
St. Thomas (Duclum). 

503. U. ScUecIitenaalil, D.ce, (Jf. albifiomm, Gris.). 

Fl. all the year rouLd. In diy thickets, very common. — All itilaiidL . 

(The specific distinction of Grisehach's species does not seem tD ■ 

sufficiently pennftnent to justify a separation into two.) 

504. Aacleplas cnrauaTlcB, L. (v. Wild I[iecncuana). ^ 
Fl. all the year round. Root used as an emetic. Along roads and 

ditches, cooimon. — All islands. > 

505. A. nivea, L. 
St. Tliomas (Oris. FL 419). 

506. SuAdatemuu BiowaAl, M^f. 
St. Thomaa (West, p. 278, as Asclepiae i-iminalia, 8w.), 

507. Calotropia procera, R. Br. (v. Silk Ciittdn). 
Fl. all the year round. Natundized in dry loCi^tieB, commoiL— AI 




WLORk OF 8T. CBOIX AND THE VIBOIK ISLANDS. 71 

1 1. tabcroM, L. 

Bl Feb.-MarclL In forests, rare. — St Croix (Bngby Hole) ; St. 
MHoag (SohL). 

3. 1 dteeota, Pnrsh (v. Noyaa Vine). 

PL Nor.-May. Gorolla-tabe purple inside. The whole plant has a 
{te of pmssic acid, and is used for the preparation of a liqubr called 
>jan. On fences and along roads, common. — ^AU islands. 

1 1 pentaphyUa, Jacq. 

^ Dec-March. In thickets and along ditches. — St. Croix; St 
)iiia8. 

;. L quinqnefolia, Gris. 

1 Dec.-Jan. Corolla expanded from 8 A. M. to 3 P. M. In pastures 
1 low thickets, common. — St. Thomas. 

«. L Batatafl» Lam. (v. Sweet Potato), a), P) leuoorrhisa, and y) porpbyrorhisa. 

1 all the ye&r round. Propagated by cuttings. A common vege- 
le. Cultivated and naturalized everywhere. — ^AU islands. 

. L fiMtisiata, Swt. a). 

1 Oct- Jan. In thickets, not uncommon. — St Thomas. 

L L Tiolaoaa, L. (▼. Oranni Vine). 

T. Dec.-Feb. Coralla expanded towards evenj/ig. In forests and 
Qg rivulets, not uncommon. — All islands. 

K L camaa, Jacq. 

it. Croix (Wills Bay sec. West, p. 272). 

K L lencanthw, Jaoq. (Icon.Rar. ii, t. 318). 

il March-May. Capsule pilose; roots tuberous. On dry hills, not 
9ommon — St Jan (near Klein Kanelbay). 

>. L triloba, L. a) and /?) EoBtachiana, Juca[. 

1. Sept-March. Corolla expanded till 10 A. M. Both forms in moist 
dities, not uncommon. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 

. L nmbeUata, Mey. 

L Jan^-March. Along rivulets and ditches, common* — ^AU islands. 

» X, pti oain'W, Sw. (▼. Bay Vine). 

ttie year round. Corolla sometimes white. On sandy sea- 
islands. 



7*2 FLORA OF ST. CROIX AMD THB TIRQIH 

524. L aurifbUa, R. S. 
Danish islands (Gris. Fl. p. 471). 
(As this species is a native of Senegal, I donbt the 

above habitat) 

525. L qnlnqneparUta, U.S. (Coav. OMl^oIia*, Weat(iMra T*hl)Ma DCPr 

367). 
St Crdix (West, p. 271). 

526. L trlqnetra, R. S. {Cobv. triqwltr, Tahl, S;mb. Bot. ill, 32). 
St Croix (West, p. 271); St Thomas (Schl.). 

927. I. rApanda, Jacq. 

FI. Feb.-March. Leaves het«romorphoii8, often 2-4-lobed. ' 
large, a favourite footi for wild hogs. In forests, uncommon. — Stl 
(Flag Hill); St Jan (Macmnbi). 

928. I. filUbrmla, Jacq. 

FL Oct-Apiil. In thickets, often near the shore, not uuxHnmo 
Croix; St l^omas. * 

529. I. aroiMria, Stead. 

Fl. Dec-April. Stem woody, as much as i" diam. Boot 
tuberous. Flowering partly precocious. On dry hills, in thicbt 
uncommon. — All islands. 

530. I. QnamooUt, L. («r. Sweet William). 




FLOBA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE YIBQIN ISLANDS. 73 

oqnamoiitia tmnnlfoHa, Gris. 

)ec.-Feb. Seeds glabrous^ greyish. lu thickets, common. — ^All 



mvolTiiliis pentanthns, Jacq. (Jaoquemontia violacea, Cbois.). 

ing^-Dec. In thickets, on hilLs, common. — All islands. 

jamaloeiMla, Jacq. 

)ec«-Feb. In thickets, on the sandy seashore, rare. — St. Croix 
Point); St Thomas (CowelFs); Water Island. 

nodifloiniB, Deer. (C MiJloruSy West) (v. Closhi-mulat). 

^t-March. Common in thickets. — All islands. 

malanaitictiis, ScliL (LinnfiDa, vi, 737). 

homas (Schl.). 

■agittifer, HB. Kth. 

homas (Schl.). 

'olTuloa HnifhHna, L. 

^ec-ApriL In moist localities, here and there. — All islands. 

macronatna, Sw. 

kH^-March. In marshy soil, not uncommon. — All islands. 

munmularlua, L. 

'ov.-March. Among rocks in shady localities, not uncommon. — 

nds. 

acuta americana, L. (v. Love- weed). 

11 the year round. In dry thickets, covering shrubs and trees, 
illing them. Very common. — All islands. 

it, p. 271, mentions two species. Convolvulus matutinus and C.vetie- 
IS occurring in St. Croix, and refers for their description to VahFs 
Bot. pars 3, as spec. nov. As, however, they are not described in 
Vahl's publications, and no specimeus are in existence in Hb. 
I am unable to say whether they are old specie^} or new ones.) 
ivated species: Ipomcca Leariiy Aunal. Fl. et Pom. 1840, p. 381, 
Horsfallicej Hook.] 

iiydroleaceje:. 

laa Jamaioenaia, L. 

jMbnAog. Among stones and rocks, a common weed. — St. Croix ; 



74 FLOBA OF ST. CROIX ASD THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 

547. Cordia QeraHCaDthuB, Jncq. ji) BubcaiieBoeiu{v. Rose wood, Cappar). 

FI, Oct, An excelleut timber tree. In forests, not very cointnon.— 
"N'irgin I»liin<l, 

548. C. alba, R. S. (v. \VTute Manjack). * 
Fl. Slarcli-Sopt. In thickets and along roads, not uncommoa— 9L 

Croix (eastern part of the island). 

549. C. Sebeatena, Jac'i- u) (Bot. Hug. t, 794). 0) rubra, Egg. (v. Srarlet C<jrii«, 

FliiytB boom). 

Fl. all the year round. P) leaf-iibs red; calyx scarlet as tlie coruOs. 
Both forms Mmuion in forests and planted near dwellings, — All islaoik 
590. C, Collococca, L. (v. Mnnjack). 

PI. March-ApriL I*reeocions. lu forests, common. — All islands. 

551. C. altida, Val.l. 

Fl. Jau.-Feb. and Sept.-Oct. Flowers slightly odorons. lu fore«U, 
not uncommon. — AH islands. 

552. C. Invlsate, Lam. •■ ^ - 
St. Thomas (ScLl.). 

553. C. sulcata, DC. 
Fl. Juno. Leaves up to 1}' long. In forests, not ( 

Islands; St. Croix {West, p. 275). 




FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE YIKGIN ISLANDS. 75 

^^ TdniXMfiBrtla gn«pha1oda% R. Br. (v. Sea-lavender). 

FL aU fhe year round. On sandy shores, common. — All islands. 

'^ T. hInatlMlma, L. (y. Chichery grape). 

ti Sept-ApriL Along roads and in thickets^ especially on lime- 
tone, common. — ^All islands. 

ia. T. tetidiMlma, L. 

St Croix (West, p. 270). 

H. T. bicolor, Sw. fi) tevigata, Lam. 

FL May. Berry globose, white. Among rocks on high hills, rare. — 
L Thomas (Grown, 150(K}. 

(i. T. lAotlloUa, Vent. 

St Thomas (DC). 

i5. T. volntailifl, L. 

FL May-Ang. Inflorescence extra-axillary, often transformed into a 
Uow, globose, moricate, green monstrosity, in which lives the larva of 
dipterons insect. Common in thickets. — ^AU islands. 

i6L T. mlorophylla, Desv. 

FL May-Sept. In the same localities as the former, common. — ^All 

lands. 

^7. HeUotropium Indioum, L. 

FL all the year round. Along roads and in waste places, common. — 

Qishmds. 

t^ R. parviflonun, L. (v. Eye-bright). 

FL all the year round. A common weed everj'where. — All islands. 

>9. H. onraaaavloiini, L. 

FL the whole year. On the sandy seashore, common. — All islands. 

^ R. frnttooaimi, L. 

FL all the year round. Up to 6' high. On di y hills. — St. Croix (com- 
tm in the eaBtem part); Virgin Islands (not nncommon). 
[Cultivated species: H. pervtmnumj L. (v. Heliotrope.)] 

poLEmoNiACEii:. 

[Cultivated in gardens: Phlox Ih'tnnmondiiy Hook.] 

solanaceje:. 

'tamfUffla amaricana, Sw. a) aud /I) pubescenB (v. Kain-tree). 

Flowers odorous before rain. In thickets and woods, 
^ Idands (cultivated in gardens in St. Croix). 



76 >XOSA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE TIBQIH iaUXOL 

572. Datura Motal, L. (v. Fire-woe<l). 

Fl. all the year roaud. Flowers nocturnal. Along roads and iun 
places, naturalized weiywliere. — All islands. 

573. D. faatnon, L. 

FL all the year round. Naturalized in gaidena and near dweUingi 
All islands. 

574. D. TatolB, L. 

Fl. May-Dee. Along roadB, naturalized, bnt rare. — St. Cioix (Ho 

575. D. attamouitun, L. (t. fHre-Treed). 

FL Sept.-Feb. i^aturalized in waste places, common. — ^AU ialandi 

576. IHootlaiia Tabactun, L. 

FL May-Xov. Used as a medicine, but not for smoking. Natanii 
near dwellings. — All islands. 

577. Pbyaalla pMHTiana, L. 

FL May-Nov. In fields, nncommon. — St. Tbomas (Bapoon). 

578. p. pabeaoena, L. 

Fl. March-May. In shady valleys, uncommon. — St. Croix (Creqn 
St Thomas. 

579. P. Unkiana, Ns. 

FL Dec. In cultivated fields, not uncommon. — St Thomas. 




FLOBA. OF 8T. CROIX AND THE* VIHGIN ISLANDS. 77 

15. Ljoopenloiuii oerasifbnne, Dan. (Solan, p. 113) (v. Small Ttoto). 

FL May-Sept. Berry globose, small, yellow. Not uncommon near 
ireDings (perhaps only naturalized). Used as a vegetable. — St. Croix j 
:. Thomas. 

16. Xi. asonlentiun. Mill. (v. Tomato, Trovo). 

FL all the year round. Berry used as a vegetable. Cultivated and 
ituralized everywhere. — ^All islands. 

17. Bolannm nodiflonmi, Jocq. a) and fi) oleraceum, Dun. (v. Lumbash). 

FL May-Dec Stem often prickly. In fields and in waste places, corn- 
on. — ^AU islands. 

18. 8. ▼erbaoolfoliqin, L. (y. Turkey-berry). 

FL June-Oct. In waste places, not uncommon. — Virgin Islands; St. 
roix (West, p. 274). 

19. 8. raoemosum, L. (v. Canker-berry). 

FL an the year round. Proterandrous. In waste places, very com- 
lOQ. — ^An islands. 

Ml. 8. Ignanm, L. (y. Conker-berry). 

PL all the year round. Habitat of the preceding. Very common. — 
Jl islands. 

iX, 8. hahaiwmaa, L. {8, persicttfoliumf Dan.) 

FL Jan.- Aug. Along coasts, not uncommon. — ^Virgin Islands. 

^ 8. lanoeifoUnm, Jocq. 

Xot seen flowering. Leaves and stem very prickly. In forests, rare. — 
L Jan (King's Hill, 100(K). 

^ 8. tomnun, Sw. (y. Plate-bosh). 

Fl. aU the year round. A shrub or small tree. In forests and near 
ireOings, common. — ^All islands. 

H. 8. inoliisam, Oris., yar. albiflomm, Egg. 

FL all the year round. Corolla white, ^''-l'' diam. Stigma 3-5- 
^anched, stellate. Berry globose, somewhat depressed, hirsute^ orange • 
^loared, 1" diam. The excrescent calyx prickly. In drj^ thickets, not 

locmimon. — ^Virgin Islands. 

I 

vs. 8. acnleatiasimani, Jacq. 

n. Aprilr-May. Naturalized by mules from Montevideo. — St. Croix 
Sffiksted). 



73 EXOSA OF ST. CBOK AND THE TIBGIN ISLAHD8. 

597. a. potTBUnimi, TaU (v. EakkerlalLka-beiry}. 

FL all the year Tonod. In dry thickets, common. — ^yii^;m Isla 
(111 DC. Prodr. ziii, i, 197, it is stated that this species has been 

in St. Croix by Wydler, -which, however, appears doabtfdl to me. 

1>. 275, only gives St Jan as habitat, yet Vahl in his Symb. Bot i 

and after him probably Griseb. Fl. p. 443, refer to West as the antl 

for St. Croix as habitat.) 

598. Cestram laurlfolimn, L'Her. 

FL Jaii.-April, Petiole black j berry dark pnrple. In fowsti 
nncommoQ. — All islands. 

599. C. dlanram, L. 

Fl. Feb.-June. In forests, nDcommon. — Virgin Islands; St. 
(West, p. 276). 

600. C. noatormim, L. 

Fl. March. In forests, rare.^St. Jan (Bogiers, Joshee Gnt). 

jOultivated species: Datura snaveoleiu, RBK.; Petunia nyetagi* 
Juss., and P. violacea^ Liudl.; Solantim Seaforthianum, Andr., 8. t 
sum, L. (v. Irish potato), and 8. Melongena, L. (v. Egg-plant, Benu 
SCROPHrLARIACE £. 

601. Booparla dulcla, L. 

Fl. all the year round. A common weed along loads and in 
localities. — AH islands. 



602. Capraila blflora, L. 




FLORA. OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 79 

Itivat^ species: Maurandia Barclayana, Lindl. (v. Fairy Ivy), 
lusseliajuncea^ Zucc. (v. Madeira Plant).] 

BIOHrOlflACEJB. 

Tresoantia Cojete, L. (v. Calabash-tree). 

all the year round. Leaves deciduous in Dec. The fruit is used 
)8sel8. Near dwellings and in forests, common. — All islands. 

;. cucuxbitina, L. (v. Black Calabash). 

March-Nov. Wood used for boat-building. In dense forests near 
its, not uncommon. — ^All islands. 

*atalpa lonsisiliqaa, Cham. 
Thomas (Oris. Fl. 446). 

reooma Berterii, DC. 

March-July. Leaves deciduous Feb.-April. In dry thickets, 
lon. — ^Virgin Islands. 

r. laaoozylon, Mart. (v. White Cedar). 

March-April, precocious, and later coetanous in Sept.-Oct. Wood 

for building boats. In forests and on dry hills, common. — All 

Is. 

P. stans, J ass. (v. Yellow Cedar). 

all the year round. Anthers pilose beneath. In thickets, com- 
often gregarious, especially in St. Croix. — All islands. 

Slgnonia SDqaiDOOtialia, L. 

April-Sept. Anthers pilose or glabrous (hence VahPs distinction 
is account between his B. spectahilh (Symb. Bot. iii, p. 80) and this 
»s not justified). Here and there in marshy forests. — St. Thomas 
hside Bay, Sta. Maria); St. Croix (Salomon's estate, West, p. 294). 

3. unguis, L. (v. Cat-claw). 

April-May, precocious, later ogaiii coetanous in Nov. Stem 1^" 
y showing the irregular structure peculiar to all climbing Bignoni- 
Fruit as much as 26'' long. In forests, not uncommon. — All 
Ls. 

Oistictis lactillora, DC. (Prodr. ix, 191) {Bignonia, Vahl). 

all the year round. On fences and in dry thickets, here and 
— St Croix (Cotton Grove, Southgate Farm) (cultivated in St. 

IM). 

Mvwtld/vecies: Tecoma capcnsisy Lindl.] 



80 FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE TISOIN ISLAHM. 

ACANTHACE^. 

616. Rnellia tnberosa, L. (r. Cbriatmas-pride). 

Fl. all the year ronud ; moot abandaotly towarda Christmaa. Akw) 
roads and ditches, commou. — All islands. 

617. S. BtiApeiia, L. 

St. Croix (Isert sec DC. Prodr. xi, 121). 

618. atemaaacantbae ooodneoa, Oris. 

Fl. Jan.-April. Cleistogamons dowers in July ; also an intennediai 
form between cleistogamons and normal dowers. In sliody fonst 
rare. — St. Croix (Caledonia, Wills Bay) ; St. Jan (Bordeaox Bills); S 
Thomas (Wydl. pec. DC. Prodr. xi, 217). 

619. Blecturam Biownel, Jaee. (v. Feoguiii BalHain). 

Fl. Dec.- April. Used against cough. lu pastures and along diti^ 
common. — All islands. 

630. BailerU InpnUna, Lindl (Hot. Ret;- 1. 1483). 

Fl. Dec-April. Naturalized near dwellings and in gardens.— f 
Thomas; St. Jan. 

621. Thyraaoanthtu tiltldtu, H*. 

St. Croix {V. Bohr sec. Synib. Bot. li, 5, and Isert see. DC. Prodr. ; 
327); St. Thomas (Nees). 

622. DUnthera pectoralla, Mutt. (v. Oanleu Balsam). 

Fl. Dec-March. Used against coughs. Katnralizetl near dvellii{ 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 81 

!8l CkoHondra SnftmdibnlifomiiB, N«e8. 

K. Maich-Jime. Naturalized in gardens. — St Cro&. 

(9. Bteoandriiim ropestre, Ks. (DC. Prodr. xi, 283) {RutlUafy Sw. Fl. lud. Doe. 
p. 1071 ; Plnm. Icon. ed. Burm. t. 75^ as Gerardia). a) glabrous, P) pilose. 

FL Dec-May, cleistogamous. ^Normal flowers June- Aug. CoroHa 
panded till 9 A. M. Ehizome perennial ; roots fusiform, tuberous, 
^^arious on the ground in forests, rare. — a) St. Thomas (Flag Hill, 
I'-OOCK) ; fi) St Jan (Bass Gut). 

X Antbaoanthns ■pinosus, Nees. 

n. all the year round. Flowers heterostylous. On rocks and in for- 
8, common, especially in St. Croix. — All islands. 

L A. jamaioensis, Oris. 

fL June-July. GoroUa-lobes glandular inside. On limestone, rare. — 
Croix, in stony ground. 

I. A. miorophyUtui, Ns. 

«1. May- Aug. In forests, here and there. — All islands. 

I. JMoliptera adsurgens, J ass. 

?L Jan.-Feb., cleistogamous; normal, March- April. In thickets 

1 near ditches. — St Croix (common) ; St Jan (less common). 

k tennbergia TolubUla, Pers. 

n. all the year round. Naturalized along ditches and rivulets. — St. 
Hx (Caledonia, Mt. Stewart); St Thomas (Tutu). 
Cultivated species: Oraptophyllum hortense^ Nees, Jmticia bicolovy 
idr., Tkunhergia alata, Boj., Th.fragrans^ Eoxb., and Sesamum orien- 
?, L. (v. Benye).] 

GESNERIACE^. 

I. ICaxtynia diandra, Glox. (v. Cocks). 

?1. Sept.-Bec Three rudimentary filaments; VS' high. Along 

tds and in waste places, not uncommon. — St Croix ; St Thomas. 

LABIATiE. 

L Oolnram BaaUicum, L. 

?L May-xVug. Naturalized in gardens. — All islands. 

r. O. micraiithiim, W. (v. Passia Balsam). 

?L Aug.-Nov. Corolla expanded during the morning. Used against 
ighs. Along ditches and in pastures, gregarious. — All islands. 

L CSolena amboinicna, L. (v. East India Thyme). 

« 

Apnt-May. Naturalized in dry localities, gregarioas. — AU 
Una. Ko. 13 6 ~ 



82 FLOBA OP ST. CBOIX AHD THE TIBaiX XSUXDB. 

639. Hyptia capltata, Jocq. (v. WUd Hope). 

Fl. Nor.-Marc]i. Along rivolets, common. — St. Croix; St-llia 

640. H. snavooleiM, Poit. 

, Fl. Oct.-Feb. 3'-4' high. In dry locaUties, commbii St Cra 

Thomas. 

641. H. pcotlnata, Poit. (t. French Te»). 

Fl. Kov.-April. As mach as 8' high. In dry localitieB, not t 
mon. — All islands. 
643. H. vertlcUlata, Jacq. 

St. Thomas (Oris. Fl. p. 489). 

643. Salvia ocoldantaUs, Sn. 

Fl. Dec-March. Rhizome thick. Along roads, common — ^ADi 

644. S. teneUa, 8w. 

St. Thomas (Oris. FL p. 490 ; Schl.). 
649. EL BorotiiM, L. 

Fl. Sept.-April. Ijeayes very bitter. Corolla white. In diy 
ties, greg^ons, common. — ^All islands. 
646. B. cocclnea, L. <t) luid P) cillata, Benth. 

Fl. all the year round. Along ditches and roads, commoi 
islands. 



647. Leonoma BlblilcuB, L. 




rLORL OF 8T. CROIX AND THE YIKOIN ISLANDS. 83 

TEBBENACEJB. 

Piim aoliiBata, Joss. 

I. an tho year round. Corolla expanded till 10 A. M. A common 
1 along roads and in gardens. — ^All islands. 

Bonchaa Bhranbergii, Cham. 

L Dec-May. Gregarious along roads and in dry localities, com- 

4 — St Croix; St. Thomas. 

Stachytarpha jamaioenais, Y. (v. Vervain). 

. all the year round. Flower expanded till noon. Pollen 3-4- 
iched, stellate. Leaves used against fever. Very common along 
8 and ditches. — ^AU islands. 

8. stilgoaa, Vahl. 

. Thomas (Ehrenb. sec. DC. Prodr. xi, 564 ; Gris. Fl. p. 494). 

Xitppia Dodlfloxa, Rich. 

. an the year round. Gregarioud in moist localities, not uncom- 
. — St. Croix (La Reine, Fair Plain). 

Lantana Camara, L. (v. Sage). 

. aU the year round. Berry considered to be poisonous. On dry 
f very common. — ^All islands. 

L. polyaoantha, Schaner (DC. Prodr. xi, 597) (L. sodbridaf Ait.). 

. all the year round. In dry localities, here and there. — St Croix 
Greorge) ; St. Thomas (Solberg). 

L. iziTolncrata, L. 

. aU the year round. Corolla and berry violet. In thickets, com- 
^ especially on limestone. — ^AU islands. 

It. reticulata. Pers. 

. all the year round. On limestone, rare. — St. Croix, in stony ground 
g's Hill). 

dtharezylum quadrangftlare, Jacq. (v. Fiddlewood, Snaanna). 

. July-Sept. In forests, not uncommon. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

C oinerenni, L. (▼. Snsanna). 

► July-Dec Leaves of both these species becoming red in Feb., and 
ping off at the same time that the new ones make their appear- 
On young radical shoots the leaves are linear and deeply serrate, 
s q;aite useless, even for firewood. In dry thickets and for- 
« gregarious. — ^AU islands. 



84 FLOBA OF ST. CROIX AND THE TIBQIN ISLABDB. 

662. C. TlIlOBiun, Jacq. (Icon. Tor. t. IIH). 

Qt. Tliomas (Schlecht., Bertero, Duchass. eec. Grin. Syst UuLj. 

663. Danata Flumierl, Jacq. 

Ft. May-Dec. Along roads and in thickets, commoii. — All idaitd 

664. CaUlcaipa reUcnlata, Sw. 
St. Croix (West, p. 269). 

665. JEelpblla mBrtlnloeaal*, Jacq. 

FI. Angr.-Jan. Floorers often heterostylons. In forests, comim 
St. Croix. 

666. Clerodendron acaleatnm, L. (v. Cbnc-cbnc). 

Fl. all the year round. Common on dry hills and iu marshy I 
All Islands. 

667. C. fragnuiB, W. 

Fl. all the year roond. Long ereeping rhizome. Gregarious oi 
hills in shady places, naturalized.^St. Thomas (Dorothea, Lilienc 

668. PeUtia dominseiul*, Jacq. a). 

FI. May-Sept. Leaves often temute. Drupe commonly 4-lo< 
A tree np to 50* high. In forests, not nneommon. — St. Croix (C 
nio, Punch, Wills Bay), 

669. Vlteac dlvarioata, Sw. 

Fl. May-July. Filaments glandular-pilose. A low tree, ha 

I. Cvn\K lC:i\i-<\ou\:i. -Wills V.^y]-. St. TllOUlito :Cl 




FLOBIl of ST. CBOIX AND THE YIBGIN I8LAI*D8. 85 

PliAIVTAGIIVACEJB. 

1ant«y> major, L. fi) tropica (v. Kngliah Plantain). 

JaiL-March. Proterog^'nous. Leaves used against inflammation 
eyes. 

P JLimiB AGIN A€ E JB. 

^lomlMigo floandens, Thnnb. (v. Blister-leaf). 

all the year round. Leaves used as blisters. In thickets and 

s, common. — ^All islands. 

Itivated species : P. cdpensiSj Tliunb.] 

PH¥TeL.A€CACi:JE. * 

ImlaiiA Dmritima, L. 

June-Dec. Stamens mostly 10. Filaments pilose. On sandy 
ij not uncommon. — ^All islands. 

Cicrotea debUia, Sw. 

July-Sept. In sha<ly places, rare. — St. Croix (Spring Garden, 
Bay). 

Uvioa larvia, L. (v. Snake-bush, Stark mahart). a) and p) pubeacena. 

all the year round. A common weed everywhere, both forms. — 
lands. 

L octandra, L. 

Feb.-Aug. Pedicel and calyx becoming reddish-brown as well 
e fruit. Stamens in two whorls, mostly 12. In thickets and 
s, common. — All islands. 

'ettveria alliacea, L. (v. Gully-root). 

all the year round. A very common weed everywhere. — ^All 

Is. 

CHENePODIACEiE. 

nienopodinin ambroaioidea. L. 

March. In waste places and on walls, here and there. — St. Croix 
riksted) ; St. Jan (Cruz Bay). 

Hl mnrale, L. 

Jan.-May. On walls, uncommon, naturalized. — St. Croix; St. 

as. 

ciiatata, Moq. (DC. I*ro<lr. xiii, ii, p. 110). 

«di-Aag. On sandy shores, uncommon. — St. Thomas (Water 
8bOioix(Schl.). 



86 FLOBl OF ST. CBOIX AND THE TIBOIN I8LAHD8. 

683. BotualnKsnltU baseUoldes, Ktb. (Bot. Hag. t. 3690). 

FL All the year round. I^aturalized in gardens and onltivateri 
Croix; St-Thoman. 

684. BKtU DuulUma, L. 

FL all the year round. Gregarious along the coaat of lagoons, 
mon. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 
[OoltiTated species : Beta vulgarie, L. (v. Bed Beet).] 

AIIIABAIVTACE^. 

6B5. Celovia argentea, L. (C, manjaritacta, L.), 

Fl. all the year lt>and. Naturalized around dwellings. — St. Tbt 
St. Croix (West, p. 277). 

686. C. nittaa, VaM. 

FL all the year round. In forests and thickets, not uncmnmon 
Croix; St. Thomas. 

687. CbamlsBoa altUoima, Eth. 

Fl. Dec-March. In forests, here and there. — St. Croix (Lei 
HiU) ; St Thomas (Signal HUl). 

688. Aob7TaDtb«s a^mre, L. a) ugentoa, Lam. .4) abtaaUoUa, Lam. 
FL Dec.-March. In thickets and on waste places, commoa 

islands. 

689. Oompbrena Eloboaa, L. (v. Bocholor'it Bntton). 

FI. all rln' yoar round, Xatunilizod in jjiirdeDS and ncArdwellii 




FLOBA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE YIBGIN ISLANDa 87 

C99. Amblogsrne polygonoides, Baf. 

"FL aU the year round: $ flowers very few. In sandy places near 
theooast^ common. — St Croix; St. Thomas. 

€96. Boleropiui amarantoldeB, SchracL 

PL all the year round. Leaves often discoloured with white cross- 
stripes. In sandy localities, common. — ^AU islands. 

€97. Enzolns caudatoB, Moq. 

FL all the year round. In waste places, common. — ^All islands. 

696. B. oleraceuB, Moq. (v. Lumbo). 

FL all the year round. Fear dwellings, common. — All islands. 

€99. Amarantus spinosuB, L. 

FL Jan^April. Kear rivulets and ditches, uncommon. — St. Croix; 
St Thomas. 

TOO. A. triatia, L. 

St Thomas (Wydler sec. DC. Prodr. xiii, ii, 260). 

70L A. paiiiciilatii% L. (v. Bowor). 

FL all the year round. A troublesome weed on account of its long 
tap-root Common everywhere. — All islands. 

NTCTAGINACE^. 

W. Mirabma Jalapa, L. (v. Four-o^clock). 

H. all the year round. Flower expanded from 4 P. M., purple, yellow, 
^f piuk. Around dwellings, common. — All islands. 

'^> Boerhaavia erecta, L. 

fl. Dec-Feb. Along ditches and in pastures, uncommon. — St. Croix 
Oit Stewart). 

'Oi. B. paxiioulata, Rich. (v. Batta-batta). 

n. all the year round. Calyx often ti*ansformed into a hollow mon- 
^^sity by the larva of a wasp. A very common w^eed. — All islands. 

0$. Pisonia aouleata, L. 
Jl. Feb.- April. In forests, common. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

'^, P. aabcordata, Sw. (v. Manipoo, Loblolly). 

tl. April-June. Leaves partly deciduous. Wood useless for timber 
^Ud fuel. Along coasts, common, growing to a large tree. — All islands. 

^7. P. InenxilB, Jacq. 

FL April-May. Leaves on the young branches whorled. In forest-s, 

^^^^Uimon. — All islands. 

[Gultivated species: Bougainvillea spectabiliSj Willd.] 



88 FLORA OF ST. CSOIX AND THB TIBOIH 

POK.TaONACES. 

708. Coocoloba nvlfera, Jaeq. (v. Son-griipe}. 

Fl. Julj-Dfc. Wood baxil, dark piui)h'. used for sbip building, 
the saudjr seashore, conunou. Sometimes iu tbe iuterior a« bighnpa 
1200'.— AU islBDds. 

709. C. leogEwenBls, Jnnq. 

Fl. May—July. Flowers in fascicles of 3-4, of which, however, <m 
only bears fruit. Ilrupe oval, violet, i'" long. On sandy shores, ram- 
St. Croix (Sandy Point). 

710. C. rn§o*8. Deaf. (DC. Proilr. xiv, IM; Uot. Mag. t. 4536). 
St, Tliomiis (DC. Prodr. 1. cX 

711. C. laurlfolia, Jeucii. (Hort. SfbcBUlir. iii, p. 9, t. 26T). 
Fl. Marcli-July. Leaves decidnons Apiil to Slay. Fruit puipIU^ 

]>ointed at both ends. In thickets, here and there. — St. Cruix {Snaif 
Point, Hard Labour). 

712. C. dJvorslfolla, Jatq. 
Fl. May-July. 6'-8' high. Along the coast, uncommon.— ^t.CtoI 

(La Yallt^c, Claremont). 

713. C. obtoaifoUa, Jacig. 
St. Croix (West, p. 281). 

714. C. punctata, Jarq. ») Jacquioli, ji) barbadenaU, Jacq,, 6) parrlfolla {r.Sd I 

wnorl, RiD'hoiitl, J-) mlcroBtichya, W. 




FLORA OF ST CBOIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 89 

1.7. PlKBbe antiUana, Meisso. (DC. Prodr. xv, i, p. 31). y) cubensls. 

St. Croix (West in Hb. Petrop. sec. DC. 1. c). 

{Ph. mantanay Gris., said by Meissn. (DC. Prodr. 1. e. p. 236) to bo 

synonymous with Xauni« longifolia, Vahl, mentioned by West, p. 2 '2, as 

a new species firom St. Croix, ought perhaps to be added to this list ; but 

as tiie specimens seen by me in Hb. Havn. as Lavrus longifolia^ Yahl, 

do not agree with Grisebach's, I prefer to omit the species here, as being 

donbtfol.) 

VIB. Penaa gratiaalma, Oaertn. (v. Alligator Pear). 

FL March^May. Stamens, 9 perfect, 3 less perfect and sterile, G rudi- 
mentar}'. The fiiiit is a favourite vegetable. In gardens. — ^AU islands. 

719. BulUaiidia pendola, Ns. {H, Thcmaaj Nees). 

St Thomas (sec DC. Prodr. 1. c. p. 65, Hb. KunthI). 

M. AcrodioUdium aalioifolitlm, Gris. 

FL May-Aug. In forests, here and there. — St. Croix (Wills' Bay, 
Spring.gat). 

721. Kectandra ooilaoea, GriB. 

FL May-Aug. In forests, rare. — St. Thomas (Soldier Bay) ; St Jan 
(Hb.Havn.). 

722. If. membranacea, Gris. 

PI. Jime. In dense, forests, uncommon. — St. Croix (Wills Bay) 5 St. 
Thomas (Signal Hill). 

^23. H. anUUana, Meiasn. (DC. Prodr. 1. c. 15:^) (X. leucanthoy Gris.). 

Pi. May-June. In forests, not uncommon. Fragrant. — ^All islands. 

'^^- Oraodaphne leuoozylon, Nees. 

Pi. July. In dense forests on high hills, uncommon. — St. Thomas 
(Signal Hill) (Montserrat, Ryan in Hb. Havn.). 

'^S. Caaayta amerioana, L. 

Pi. March-April. Inflorescence often branched. On Mauchineel and 
"^cacia trees along the seashore, here and there. — St. Croix (Cotton 
^'t>ve); St. Thomas (Water Bay); Vieques (Ub. Havn.). 

^6. Daphoopaia caribaDa, Gris. 

Jl. July and Dec-March. In forests, not uncommon. — St. Thomas 
^I^g Hill, Signal Hill). 



90 FLOBA OF ST. CBOIZ ASD THE TIROIH ISLAHIM 

EUFHOBBIACEJE. 

727. Bnxiu Vnhlll, Baill. (DC. Prodr. xvi, i, p. 16} (Tricera lav^la, 8w., Tar.An 

Ontdi, £ggeT8 in FL St. Crncis, p. 111). 
Fl. Jane-Oct. On limestone, rare. — SL Croix (Stony Oroimd). 

728. Savla MuUlfloia, W. (Spec. Float, iv, p. 771). 

Fl. June-Dec. In thickete on dry hillfi, not uncommoo. — ^All iabu 

729. PIiyllaiittaiiB acomlnattu^ Vahl (Ryuib. Bot. ii, 95). 

St. Thomas (Herb. DC. sec. DC. Prodr. xv, ii, 381). V^l, bowen 
gives only Cayenae (Bohr) aa habitat. 
73a Pfc. WlTttri, L. (v. Creole Chinine). 

Fl. all the year round. Yery common in gardens and along roHb.- 
All islands. 

731. Ph. dlsUohna, UUU. (DC. Ptodr. 1. c. 413) {Oeoa, L.) (v. Gooaoben?). 

Fl. June-Sept. Fruit used for preserves. Naturalized near dwd 
iugs. — ^All islands. 

732. Pb. nobUU, MUU. (L c. 415}. ij) ABtUlana {Cieoa, Jiub.) (v. GaDgoi»JMl}. 
FL July, and aftervards precocious in Dec-Jan. In foiestB, i»tB 

common. — All islands. 

733. PlLlUoataa,8w. (v. Boxwood). 

Fl. all (he year round. In marshy soil, not unoommoa^— Yieqnea. 



734. SecnilDega BCldothBiniiiu, Mill!. (1. c. 451) (Flfiy^ai, Oris.). 




FLORA. OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIBQIN ISLANDS. 91 

Y3a. C betolimuK Vahl (Symb. Bot. ii, p. 98). 

¥L all the year round. A low shrab, brownish. Common in thick- 
(^&— All islands. 

789. C. flavenfli L. (y. Maribi). 

FL all the year round. Gregarious on dry hills, also as secondary 
growth ; very common, and a troublesome shrubby weed. — ^All islands. 

HO. C. discolor, WiUd. (Spec. Plant, iv, 352) (C. balaamifer, L.). 

FL all the year round. Along roads in dry localities, common. — St. 
Groix (eastern part of the island) ; St. Thomas (Hb. Thunb. sec. DC. # 
Ppodr.Lc. p. 615). 

HL C. oTal'foUiiii» West. 

FL all the year round. Along roads and in waste places, very com- 
Mi.— All islands. 

Ht c. lobatii% L. 

FL March-Dec* In the same places as the preceding, very common.— 
AD islands. 

Ha. c. ]iiimili% L. 

8t Thomas (Bertero sec. DC. Prodr. 1. c. 670). 

(An arboreous as yet undetermined Crotonea^ not found in blossom, 
^^Qeors in a few specimens on Flag Hill in St. Thomas.) 

^^. Alenrites Molucoana, Willd. (Spec. Plant, iv, 590) (J. trilohay Foret.) (v. 
Walnut). 

FL all the year round. Naturalized near dwellings and in gardens. — 
St Croix; St. Thomas. 

^iS. Hicrfnella pednnonlosa, Mlill. (Linnaea, xxxiv, 153) {Adelia Ricinclla, L.). 

FL March-May, precocious. Always very spiny. In dry thickets, 
^Qt uncommon. — ^All islands. 

'^tCw Azgyxothamnla fascicnlata, MUll. (Linnffia, 1. c. 14C) (DitaxiSy Schl.). 
FL Jan.-May and Sept. In thickets, not uncommon. — ^All islands. 

^7. A. candioazifl, Miill. (DC. Prodr. 1. c. 741) (Argythamniaf Sw.). 

PL Sept.-ApriL Capsule dark blue ; seeds verrucose. In thickets, 
Common. — ^All islands. 

^Wl Aoalypha ohamaedrlfolia, MUIL (1. c. 879). /?) genuina (A, reptans, Sw.), 
/) brevipes. 

1* an the year round; female flowers developing gradually. Bracts 
■Mi after dissemination. On rocks and in crevices, not uncom- 
^ l$\\ St Thomas (r). 



92 FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AMD THR TIBGIN ISLAHDS. 

749. TraglB Tolnbllia, L. (t. Nettle, Bran-nettle). 

FI. Feb., Sept. Male flowers often tnuisfonned into a globose n 
strosity. The plant is believed by the negroes to give them Ind 
marketing. In thickets and along roads, common. — All islands. 

750. Riolmu oommnula, L. a) (v. Castoi-oil tree). 

Fl. all the year round. Seeds used for pressing castor-oil. Nata 
ized on waste places, common. — All islands. 

751. Manlbot utUlskima, Folil (PUiut. Bras, i, ^2) (v. CoBsaTB). 

Fl. March-May. Root used for manufacturing starch and flom^, nl 
is made up into flat, thin cakes (bambam). Naturalized and ct 
rated. — All islands. 

752. Jatjopba Curcaa, L. (v. French Physic-nat, Skitnetcfai). 

Fl. all the year round. Seeds very drastic. A low tree, often plan 
on graves. Naturalized near dwellings, common. — All islands. 

753. J. soujpUfoUa, L. <v. PhyHii>uiit ). a) •tapbysasrlnfoUa. j)) •tosana. 
Fl. all the year round. The whole plant has a disagreeable bid 

Sufi^utescent, l'-4' high. A troublesome weed near dwellings Bod 
fields. Very common everjTvhere. — All islands. 

754. J. mnltlflda, L. (v. Co»l-buBli). 

Fl. all the year round. Naturalized in gardens. — St. Croix } 
Thomas. 




FLORA OF 8T. CBOIX AND THE YIBOIS ISLANDS. 98 

799. IMechampia loaiidenB, L. 

H. Feb.-Jime. Male inflorescence bearing at the base two re^^inous 
oorposcola, deciduous together with the male flowers. Baillon considers 
them to be sterile bracts; Miiller takes them for monstrous anthers. 
Central female flower pedicellate. In thickets, common. — All islands. 

760. Bnphorbia bozifoUa, Lam. 

FL all the year round. On the sandy shore, common. — ^All islands. 

761 B. artioQlata, Barm. 

FI. all the year round. Along the seacoast, common. — ^All islands. 

762. B. pUoUfera, L. 

Fl. all the year round. In waste places and along roads, very com- 
mou.— All islands. 

763. B. hyperioifolia, L. o) and /?) hyasopifoUa, L. 

FL all the year round. Lea^'es distichous. Used against dysentery. 
Same places as the preceding. A common weed. — ^All islands. 

764. B. thymifoUa, Bnrm. 

FL all the year round. The whole plant reddish. Leaves folding 
together during night and in rainy weather. Among stones and along 
wads, very common. — All islands. 

765. B. prostrata, Ait. 

Fl. the whole year. Together with the preceding, common. — All 
idandjs. 

^66. B. petiolarUi, SimH (Dot. Mag. t. 883) (v. Mjinrhiiieel). 

R the whole year. Partly i)recociou.s in the spring. On dry hills 
^<1 in thickets. — Virgin Islands (common) ; St. Croix (West, p. 288?). 

(West's E. cotinifolia^ said to occur in St. Croix, is evidently meant for 
this species. I doubt, however, the eorrec^tness of the habitat, and am 
^opinion that it is a mistake for St. Thomas, where the si)eeies is ex- 
ceedingly common.) 

^67. B. genicnlata, Ortega (D«'caa. p. 16; DC. Prodr. x\», ii, 72). (K. pruuifoUa, 
Jacq. Hort. Seliocnbr. iii, t. 277, a form witli lar^r, Hcrratc hsives.) 

FL De<'.-^Iarch. In forests and near dwellings, not uncommon, often 
Sfejrarious. — St. Croix (Government House) ; St. Tliomas (Signal Hill). 

^68. E. heterophyUa, L. ft) cyathophora, Jacr|. 

Fl. all the year round. Gregarious in dry places, common. — All 
idands. 

L B. noriifolia, L. (DC. Plant. Grat^es, i, t. 4()). 

JL Mardh-Jiine. A large tree, stem 2^-3' diam. j^atnralized near 
Mnfnfi, eommon. — ^All islands. 



94 FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE TIBOIN IBUMDB 

770 PedUanthiu UthTUuloIdu, Poit. a), p) padlfblfau, Poit., Mid r) 
follna, Poit. 

Fl. all the year itnmd. In thickets and gardena, aDeonmu 
isloDde. 

All EuphorbiacecE are proterogynoos. 

ICultivated Bpecies: Jatropka pandurt^olia, Andr^' Codietmm 
turn, Miill. a) pict«m, Euphorbia jmIoA«miiui, W., E. tplendetu, i 
E. omttgnorum, L.] 

VBTICACEJB. 
771. CsltlB tilnvrvia, Lnm. 

Fl. June-Dec. lu forests and thickets, not tmcommoo. — All 



772. C. aonleata, Sw. a) and ji 
Fl. March-Sept, rroterogynous. Both forms not uncon 

tbickete. — AH islands. 

773. Sponla mloronthB, Decs. 

Fl. April-Sept. In forests, here and there. — All islands. 

774. Fiona craaaineTvla, Desf. 

Fl. Jan. In forests, not uncommon, — St. Croix (Creqnis, Wil 

775. F. Mgonata, L. 

Fl. May-Ang. In forests. — St. Croix (rare, Creqnis); Virgin 
(not uncommon). 

776. P. Iwvigata, Vahl. 

PI. Jan.-March. In foresta and on rocks, not uncommon. — i 
(Crequis, Jacob's Peak). 




FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 95 

781 Miotiini tinotoxia, Don (y. Fustic). 

FL Jone-Oct. Young shoots with deeply serrate leaves. Wood 
afinding an excellent timber, but now very scarce. In forests, here 
and fliere. — ^All islands. 

TB8. Ftoorya SBStuanB, Grand. 

FL June-Dec. On rocks in shady forests, here and there. — St. Croix 
(%xrmg Oarden) ; St. Thomas (Crown). 

TBI TTren elata, Gris. 

8t Croix (Spring Oarden, West, p. 306 ; his specimen in Hb. Havn.). 

US. XT. iMOoilera, Gand. 

8t Thomas (Wedd. in DC. Prodr. xvi, i, 93). 

(WcRt's Urtica ehmgata^ Yahl, said, p. 306, to occur in St. Croix, and 
probably intended for an Ureraj 1 have not been able to identify, jfrom 
want of description and si>ecimens.) 

1B6L Pflaa miorophylla, Liebm. a), p) trianthemoides^ Lindl., and y) succnlenta 
(v. Dnck-weed). 

FL all the year round. On rocks and stones in shady situations, a) 
aacommon ; p) and y) common. — ^All islands. 

ViV. p. semidentata, Wtddd. 

FL March-July. Gregarious among rocks on high hills, not uncom- 
*oiL— St. Thomas (St. Peter). 

'te P. grandia, Wodd. 

PI. June. In leaf-mould on high hills, gregarious, uncommon. — St. 
Ibomas (Crown, 1500'). 

'to. p. munmnlarifoUa, Wodd. 

8t Tliomas (Hombeck in Hb. Havn.); Vieques (near Campo Asilo). 

^ P. inseqnalla. Wedd. 

FL July-Aug. Gregarious on rocks in forests, uncommon. — St. 
Itiomas (Signal Hill, Crown). 

^2. P. SanctaD-Cniola, Liebm. (Vid. Selsk. Skrift., v. R«ekke, ii, 301). 

St Croix (Orsled, 1. c). 

^2. Rcmaaelia lappnlaoea, Gand. 

St Thomas (DC. Prodr. xvi, i, 235 ; Oris. Fl. p. 160). 
[Cultivated si)ecies: Ficus Carica^ L. (v. Fig-tree), and jP. elasticay L.] 

ARISTe%eCHIACE^. 

Ml Aiistoloeliia trilobata, L. (v. Tobacco-pipe). 

MaiT-Aiig. On fences and in forests on high hills. — St Croix 
W)} l^rgin Islands (not uncommon). 



06 FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AHU THE TISOIN ISLAXOS. 

794. A. anguiolda, L. (DC.Piodr. zv,i,464; Bot. Hag. USl; DMOOvtOi, ILIW. 

des AnHUea, Ui, 902) (v. Cnme's Neck), 
Fl. Oct-Dec. A nomber of dipteions insects are osnally fMudn- 
prisoned in the lower part of theperigonal tube, whence esc^>einin^ot 
sible on nccoimt of the downward-bent hairs on the inner suitace. Ite 
hairs dropping off after fertiUzation, the imprisoned insects are set it 
libertj' again. la thickets, rare. — St. Ctoix (Recovery Hill). 
BEOONIACES. 

795. aegonla hmnlUB. Hort. Ketr. (ed. i, vol. iii, Xi3). 

St^ Thomas (Finlay in Hb. Mns. Paris, see. DC. Prodr. iv, i, 297; 
[Cultivated occur several species of Begonia.] 

ARIENTACEA. 
[Cultivated in gardens and near dwelUugs: Ca^varina e^iaetifoH 
Forat. (Fl. June-Aug.) Of very quicli growth.] 

PIPEBACES. 

796. Piper aebori, Cas. DC. (Euekoo, Mit).). 

Fl. all the year round. In forests; often gregahoas and fonning 
dense underwood, commoQ. Used for walking-sticbs. — All islands. 

797. F. Bredemeyeri, Jocq. (Artaulhe, MJq.). 

Fl. Sept. lu shady vaDeys, not nncoramon. — St. Croix (Oaledwi 
Creqnis). 

798. P. anrltuiii. Kth. 

St. Thomas (DC. Prod. 1. c. 321). 




FLOR4 OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIBQIN ISLANDS. 97 

^. P. obtmilblia, Cas. DC., Dietr., Miq. a) and P) olusiaBfoUa. 

FL Ajiril-July. On rocks and under shady trees in leaf-mould. Gre- 
gariooSy not uncommon, a) all islands ; fi) St. Thomas (Crown). 

B0& p. ■oandena, Ruiz et Pav. 
8t Thomas (DO. Prod. 1. c. 434). 

807. P. polystaohya, Miq. 

FL Dec-Jan. Stem and lower surface of the leaves reddish. Among 
t)ck8 in forests, not uncommon, gregarious. — ^All islands. 

B. GYMNOSPERMJE. 

CTCADACEiE. 

[Cultivated in gardens occurs Cycas revoluta^ Thunb. (v. Sago Palm).] 

CONIFERS. 

[Cultivated in gardens occur several species of Thuja.] 

C. MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

AL.ISinA€EJE. 

08l Bchinodoms cordifoliuB, Grin. 

Fl. April-Aug. Flower expanded only till 10 A. M. Leaves hetero- 
norphous, the primordial ones submerged, linear-lanceolate, passing 
by degrees into the ordinary emersed ones. In rivulets, here and there. — 
8t Croix (King's Hill Gut, Armas Hope Gut). 

HTDROCHARIBACE^, L. C. Rich. 

Ml Thala—la teatudlnmn, Solander (Kocnig). 

^ot seen flowering. Gregarious in shallow seii- water, very common. — 
AD islands. 

POTAlVIEiE, Jiiss. 

^lO. Cymodocea manatonim, Ascherson (Naturf. Frenudo in Berlin, Jun. — Oct., 
1668). 

Sot seen flowering, gregarious on the bottom of the sea ; mostly iu 
•fcallow water. — All islands. 

LBidoAllto 'Wiightiiy Ascbers. (1. c, nml Neumayors Auleit. zur wiss. Boob. 
anf Beiaen). 

TKiebs sec. Aschers.). 
■'^ . 13 7 



1)8 FLOEA, OF ST. CBOIX AND THE TIBQIN ISLAJfDS. 

012. Halophila BalUonil. AscLere. (in Neumnyer, 1. c. p. 307). J 

Ghizomo creeping, tliin. Leaves ovsil, di-iitii-iilate, wborIe<l or oiipo- 
site, 3'" long, 1^'" broad. Monoecious. 

FI. J : 3 locmbRiiiaceoiis wLite bracta; 1-3 stamens; flliuacnt ]^' 
long; aiithiT t.vlinUrical, yellowish, glabrous, 1-celled. I'olkii' 
grains fusiforu. 
Fl. 9 : 3 persistent bracts, as in i? . Ovary sessile, ovate, y" toog, 
-loculate. Style bifid, 2 J'" long; branches point«<l, often o( 
unequal length. Capsule oviJ, glabrous, 2'" long ; see<U ibcni 
20, globose, baid, tcssellat* ou the surface. Starch-grains tri«ft- 
gular. 
Male flowers very rare compared to the number of female ones, 
Fl. all the year round. Gregarious on the bottom of the seami coaM 
eoral sand in a depth of from two to four fathoms, here and therft— 8t 
Thomas (harbour). 
813. Rnppla lo&tellata, Koch. 

Fl. all the year round. Gregarious in shallow rivulets, not nDcoB' 
mon. — St. Croix (King's Hill Gut, in company with a species of Chaia); 
St. Thomas (Tutu Gut, Krebs in Hb. Havn.). 

[Another Potamea, possessing^ a creeping rhizonic and delicate liiiW 
leaves, has been found by me in the harbour of St. Thomas at a depth •*' 
from 3 to C fathoms, but on account of only sterile dpecimens having bees 
obtained it remains a« yet uudet*rmined. 




FLORA OP ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 99 

L8. Philodendron hederaoenm, Sch. 

FL Ang. On trees in dense forests, rare. — St. Thomas (Crown, 140(y). 

19. Ph. glganteuin, Sch. (Prod. Syst. Aroid. p. 261). 

PL March-July. Petiole 2'-.25' long; lamina 2J'-3' long, 2' broad. 

^micle li''-3J'' long; spathe ll''-12" long, opening itself only during 

■o nights. Spadix white, giving out a strong odour and considerable 

gh temperature during antliesis. Numerous aerial roots, stem l'-2' 

ag. Among rocks in dense forests on liigl^ hills, gregarious on trees. — 

. Thomas (Signal Hill and Crown, 15000- 

[Hie picture in Bot. Mag. t. 3314, of the much smaller Ph. fragrantissi- 

nHj Kth. {Caladiuniy Hook.), gives a good representation of the habit 

this species.) 

D. Caladimn emaragdlnnm, C. Kocb (Scbott,!. c. 165) (v. Guinea Guiger). 

PI. May-July. Khizome tuberous, yellow. In pastures on high hills, 
t uncommon. — St. Thomas (Signal Hill, above St. Peter, 1400'). 

L Zanthoeoma atrovirens, C. Koch (v. Soratcb-throat). 

J^ot seen flowering, llhizome large, tuberous, used as a vegetable, 
aves pungent when eaten as spinach. Cultivated and naturalized on 
>Yision grounds. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 



I. X. BagittSBfoliiim, Sch. (v. Tanier). 

FL July. Lamina of the spathe white, with a delicate rosy tinge. 
atlie disclosing itself during two nights from 7 to 10 o'clock; spadix 
anwhile giving forth a strong fragnmcc and showing a tempenitnro 
12^ C. above that of the air. Leaves used as spinach and the tuberous 
2ome as a common vegetable. Cultivated and naturalized on pro- 
ion grounds. — All islands. 

1 Z.? hastattim. Egg. (Anim, Vahl.) (v. Indian Kale). 

^Cot seen flowering. Leaves hastate, with long pointed oblique basilar 
>es; used for spinach. (Natm-alized ?) Cultivated and spontaneous 
forests. — All islands. 

%. Piatia occidentalis, Bl. 

PL all tlie year round. Cultivated and naturalized in gardens. — St. 

omas. 

%, I>eiiina minor, L. 

Sfot seetf'flcm'ering. In rivulets, not uncommon. — St. Croix (Jealousy 
^?Ur Plain Gut). 

^ tpedes: Caladium bicolovj Yent., C. picUim, DC, and C 



100 KL0R4 OF 8T. CEOIX AND THE VIKGIN ISLANDS. 

TVPIIACEiE. 

826. Trpha anBUBtUolia, L., var. domliigeiitla, Ptra. 

I'l. Sppt.-March. Used for making inats. In rivulets mid arouod 
laguous, not uncommon. — St. Croix; St. Jan. 

PANDANACEX. 

[Uultivatud in gai'dens occurs Pandanux odoraiUisimua, L fil. (r. 

Screw Pine).) 

PALfll.E. 

827. T&riiiax BTgeutea, Lc)iliL(v. Tttyur-tree). 

FI. May-June. Stem lO'-20' high. Leaves used for making roprt, 
thatching roofis, and other domestic pnrx)oses. On thtMiorthem dopccf 
tile. hilU iu forests and tickets. — St. Croix (very rare, only one spwamffl 
seen, near Bellevne Mill) ; Virgin Islands (common). 
S28. Oreodoza regia, Kth. (t. Monntam Cabbage). 

Fl. April-Aug. The young leaf-hnd used as cabbage. Berries eat« 
by hogs. In forests and along roads, common. — AU islands. 
839. CoooB nuclfera, L. (v, Cocon-uut Trep}. 

Fl. Feb.-Mareh. Leaves nsed for thatching roofs. The ripe fruit 

although occurring in abundance, is scarcely nsed, and of no ecouomicil 

iinijortaiu'e. Natumlized aloii^j the aeaahore and along roadn.— .Ill 

islands. 

COminELVNACE.E. 

830. Tradeacantia geoiculata, Jsct). ,'j) efloaa, Mart. 

Fl. .March. Seeiln bluish, verruculose. — Vie<iues (near Campo Asib^ 




tUORk OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIBGIN ISLANDS. 101 

16. C. elegana, Kth. (v. French Grass). 

PL all the year round. Flower ephemeral. In moist localities, very 

>iDiDon. — ^All islands. 

OBAiniNACEJE. 

37. Bamboaa TulgariB, Schrad. (v. Bamboo Cane). 

Not seen flowering. ^Naturalized along rivulets and in gardens. — 
k. Croix; St. Thomas. 

B38. Aithroatylidiuxn oapiUifolium, Oris. (Plant. Wright, in Mem. Amer. Acad. Tiii, 
531, 1862). 

Not seen flowering. In forests, climbing among trees and shrubs to 
i eoDsiderable height, rare.— St. Thomas (Flag Hill, TOO"); St. Jan 
(Hombeck in Hb. Havn., from "a large cataract, called Battery''); 
Tieqnes (flowering specimens from Hombeck in Hb. Havn. ; others re- 
wived from Campo Asilo by me). 

139. Bragrostis poa»oidea, P. Br. 

FL June-Dec. Stigmas white. Along roads and in dry localities^ 
often gregarious, common. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

MO. B. ciliaxla, Lk. 
VL March-Dec. Anthers black. In dry localities, common. — All 

idands. 

NL Bporobdas virginioas, Kth. (v. Shandcr). 

¥1 May-Oct. Anthers and stigmas yellow. Used in baths for 
children. Along the coast and lagoons, common. — All islands. 

Ha. 8. litoralis, K^.h. (v. Shandcr). 

n. May-Dec. In the same places as the preceding, common. — All 
idands. 

Ma. 8. indicna, R. Br. (v. Hair-grass). 

FL May-Oct. Anthers purple; stigmas yellow. Along roads and 
Btcfaes. — All islands. 

M4. Axistida stxlota, Mich. 

Fl. March-Dec. Anthers yellow. Awns of unequal length, always 
6nger than the glumes. Along ditches and in thickets, here and 
lere. — St. Croix (Crequis, Fair Plain); St. Thomas (Schl.); Stt Jan 
Adrian Estate). 

Us. Olyra latifoUa, L. ft) amndlnaoea. 

• FL Dec.-flan. In forests, rare. — St. Jan (Cinnamon Bay); Vieques 
Ckmpo Asilo). 

glaber, Eth. 

"•Dee. Anthers yellow; stigmas white. In forests, not un- 



102 FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AKD THE VIKOIN IBLAHDS. 

Q47. PappMsplioium alopocuxoides, VuUI. 

Fl, I'el).-Marcb. l'-3' high. Among rocks near the coast, rar^ 
Buck Island, iiear St. Thomas; Virgio Gor(Ia(Vabiiu Sjiuh.Botui,H'). 

848. Bonteloua litlglosa. Lug. 
n.Oct-Jaji, .i\jithers red; stigmas white. lu thickets ainl»M» 

]>]sices, not uncommou. — St. Thomas {Cowell's Hill — Town). 

849. Leptochtoa mucrouata, Ktli. 

Fl. May-Oet. Spikelets often 1-flowered, Along ilitches, not ob- 
commou. — St.Crois. 
B50. L. virgata. r. Br. a), H) gracilia, Ns., and y) moltlSoia, Eg^- 

Fl. May-Dec. Anthers white ; stigmas imqile. r) spikelels frflw- 
ered. Awns very short; fertile glumes not ciliate. Along roadii,cfflfr 
nion. — a) and /i) all islands ; ;■) St. Croix (Work and Best). 

851. Cblotis eleuslnoldes, Grin. 
Fl. May-Nov. Along ditches, here and there. — St. ( 

HUl, Mount Welcome). 

852. Ch. radlata, Sw. 

Fl. May-Oct. Stigmas brown. Gregarions along roads, coiuiiwa»- 
AII islands. 

853. Ch. oillata, 8w, 

Fl. Feb.-Sept. Anthers rosy. My specimens show only one sta 
flower in each epikelet besides the fertile one (see Swartz's Flora I 
J roads, not iinrommoiL. — Ail ishmils. 




FLORA OF 8T. CBOIX AND TUB VIBGIN ISLANDS. 103 

■pahuii oomprewmiD, Ns. (v. Flat Oross). 

me-Oct. Anthers light yellow; stigmas white. Kear ditches 

ahady localities, not uncommon. — ^AU islands. 

coi^Jiigattim, Berg. 

ine-Dec Anthers yellow ; stigmas white. In moist localities, 
1. — ^All islands. 

pnailliim, Vent. 

tiomas (Fliigge sec. Gris. Syst. Unt, p. 114). 

distichum, L. a) and /?) Taginatiim, Sw. 

me- Aug. Proterandrous. Authera light yellow ; stigmas black, 
rivulets, not uncommon. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

QOtatmn, Fltigge. 

iiomas (Fliigge sec. Gris. Syst. Unt., p. 114). 

casapitoaum, Fliigge. 

lay-Sept. Anthers orange-coloured. In moist localities, not 
Qon. — All islands. 

Slabmni, Poir. 

ay-July, Here and there along ditches. — St. Thomas (Schl.) j 
(RiflfBay). 

plloatulmii, Michx. 

arch-Sept. Along the seacoast, not uncommon. — ^AU islands. 

virgatmxi, L. u). 

lay-Oct. Anthers straw-coloured j stigmas white. In moist 
^s, not uncommon. — All islands. 

panicalatum, Ci. 

liomas (Schlechtendal). 

apathaoeum, HB. K. 
lomas (Schlechtendal). 

Slitaria filifbrmia, Mtihl. 

>ec. In diy thickets, here and there. — St. Thomas (CowelPs 

mtgtnata, Lk. (v. Rnnning Grass). 

ind^-Sept. Anthers purple with white stripes; stigmas purple. 
pMtiii6-gni88. Along ditches and roads, common. — All islands. 



104 FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 

870. D. Mtieera, Eoutb. 

Fl. .Tune-Oct Aiitliera and stigmas purple. Along roads, cwiunoa.- 
All islands. 
B71. Erlocbloa ptmctata, Hninilt. 

fl. March-Sept. Anthers brownish ; stigmas black. In moiHt locill' 
ties, here and there. — St. Croix (Creqnis, La Grange); St. Thomii 
(SohL). 
072. Btenotaphiam ameiicamun, S^jhrank (v. Horse Graas). 

Fl. May-All g. Anthers orange-coloured; stigmas purple. AloDgM 
eoast and in moist localities, gregarious, common. — All islands. 
873. Ortbopogon aelailns, Sprcng. 

Fl. JIarcb-Dec. Anthera light purple ; stigmas purjile. In foresbj 
common. — All islands. 

871, Pauicum paapaloldea, Pen. 
n. llarch-Sept. Anthers reddish; stigmas straw-coluiired. 

hermaphrodite flower in this and all other species of Pauieum is pi 
undrous, the stamens dropping off liefore the stigmas appear. Thai 
liitter are then fertilized by the agency of the wind from other indind- 
nals before the stamens of the male flower make their appearanoe, M 
fertilization being thus evidently impossible. Aloug HvnleU and 
moi.st localities, not uncommon. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 



875. P. briBoidea, 




FLORA. OF ST. CBOIX AND THE VIBOIN ISLANDS. 105 

tO. P. dilRisiiiii, Sw. 

WL May-Oct. Anthers orange-coloured; stigmas dark purple. In 

oist localities, uncommon. — ^AU islands. 

^Ih. p. maxImnTn, Jacq. (y. Guinea Grass) (P. polygamum, Sw.). 

FL June-Sept Anthers brownish ; stigmas light purple. A splendid 
lasture-grass, growing to the height of 12' j forming dense tufts and 
leing propagated by the rhizome. Naturalized and cultivated every- 
vrhere. — ^All islands. 

882. p. diTaxioatnm, L. a) and /3) pnbemluin. 

FL May-Dec Anthers light yellow; stigmas white. Eesembling a 
thin Bamboo Cane. 8^-16' high. Both forms not uncommon in forests, 
climbing over trees and shrubs. — All islands. 

063. p. glntinomun, Sw. 
St Croix (West, p. 267). 

884. P. brevlfolium, L. 

FL AQg.-Dec. Anthers and stigmas white. In gardens and along 
roads, here and there. — St. Thomas (Barracks). 

885. p. oayennense, Lam. 

St Thomas (Schlechtendal). 

886. Setaria glauoa, P. Br. a). 

FL May-Oct. In forests, common. — All islands. 

887. 8. tetoaa, P. Br. a) and ^) caudata, R. S. (v. Soar Grass). 

FL April-Dec. Anthers orange-coloured; stigmas purple, a) 3'-7' 
"^^h; iu forests and along ditches, common. — All islands. /?) in dry 
^^'ckets, uncommon.— St. Thomas (CowelPs Hill). 

^^. Cenchrua echinatus, L. /?) viridia, Spreng. (v. Burr Grass). 

I'L April-Dec. Anthers light yellow; stigmas white, with a puri)le 
*tH)t in the middle. The ripe farinaceous seeds eaten by the cattle, 
^long the coast, very common. — All islands. 

^9. Anthephora elegana, Schreb. * 

fl. Jan.-Oct. Anthers brownish. In thickets, here and there. — St. 
^'oix ; St. Thomas. 

^O. Tricholaena insularls, Gris. (v. Bitter Grass, Long Gross). 

Fl. March-Dec. Anthers brownish ; stigmas white. Never touched 
y cattle w hilst green, on account of its bitter taste. Spikelets easily 
^tached and carried far away by the wind. Ver>' common along roads 
^d in dry places. — All islands. 



106 



FLOEA OP ST. CROIX AND THS TIBGIH ISUBD8. 



891. Lappago aliena, Spreiig. 

Fl. May-Dec. Stigmas white. Generally both Bpikdete h&i 
Near ditcbei) and in thickets, common. — All islands. 

892. AndTopogon aaocbaroidea, L. 

F\. Aiig.-Oct. Anthers light yellow; stigmas dark pnipie. AwkboI 
twist^^d. Along roads, here and there. — St. Croix (Beeston Hill Gwog^l 

893. Aaathemm blcoine, P. Br, (v. Jolly Grass). 

Fl. Jnly-Oct. 2'~i' high. Used for thatching roofs. Xot falenby 
the cattk'. Gregarious on high hills, where it is difficult to cwmUWl 
its spreading, even by burning it now and then. — St. Thomas (iiorUwn 
elope of the highest ritlgc), 

894. Sorghum vulgare, Peru. (v. Guinea Corii>. 
Fl. Dee. 8'-10' high. Katoralized and cultivated for herhapp iri 

for making flour of the grain. — All islands, prinoipally St. Cwii lal 

Vieques. 

B95. Sacohaium offlciuarttm, L. (v. Sugor-cnnu). 

Vi. Dec-May. Niituralized and cultivated. Sugar-growing i*l 
arc now only two, viz., St. Croix and Vieques, wliilst the other V 
Islands have only a very few cauo estates, principally for sel 

V cane in the markets. The average produce of sugar from 
above-mentioned islands is about 25 miUion pounds. The plant 
gated by cuttings that are laid entirely under ground. 

{Tlie genus Panicum excepted, all Oramhmppre are proterog^T 




FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 107 

OC C. ocbraoeiis, Vahl. 
m, May-Oct. In moist localities^ uncommon. — St. Croix (Crequis). 

lOI. C -wiaoomm, Ait. 

FL April-Nov. Stamens always 3 (see Swartz^s Fl. Ind. Oce. p. 113). 
lieeds germinating in moist weather on the parent, and often growing 
out into young plants an inch or two in length. Along rivulets and 
ditches, not uncommon. — St Croix; St. Thomas. 

902. C. wnlimineiiBiB, Roltb. 

8t Thomas (SchL). 

903. C. axtionlatYUik L. (y. Stiug Bisom). 

FL March-Sept. In ditches, not uncommon. — St. Croix ; St. Thomas. 

901 C. rotaiida% L. (v. Nut Grass). 

FL all the year round. Tubers sweet, eaten by hogs. A troublesome 
▼eed, very common in fields and along roads.— -All islands. 

905. C. bnumeus, Sw. (C. planif alius, Rich.). 

FL May. On the coast and near lagoons, not uncommon. — All islands. 

901 C aphacelatofl, Rottb. 
FL Feb. On high hills in pastures, uncommon. — St. Thomas (Signal 

xm). 

907. C. dintJiiis, L. 

FL Aug. In pastures on high hills, common. — St. lliomas (Signal 

An). 

900u C. nnifoUa% Boecklcr (LinnsBa, Neue Folge, ii, 374). 

8t Croix (Bavn in Eeliq. Lehm.). 

909. C. fflifonnlB, Sw. 

FL all the year round. In moist localities, not uncommon. — St. 
tlhomas. 

WlO. C. odoratTia, L. 

Fl. April-Oct. Near rivulets and ditches, here and there. — St. Croix 
[Mount Pleasant, Annas Hope). 

Hi. C. pennatos, Lam. (Bcpcklcr, 1. c. 404) (C. Ehrenhergiif Kth., C. JlexuosuSyYiitil). 

FL all the year round. Along the coast, not uncommon. — St. Thomas. 

r. Along rivulets, not uncommon. — All islands. 



108 



FLOBl. OF ST. CBOIZ AND THE TIBGra ISLiHIIB. 



913. C. fiaTomarlaoiu, Gris. {C.Jtavit*, B<DcUer). 

PI. Aog. In pastvireH ou hills, lierc aiid there, — St. Thomas (Spa^ j 
Hill); Buck Island {oear St. Thomas). 

914. EyUiuea ailformlB, Sw. a) and }) caplllarlB, Gris. 

Fl. Juiii?-Deo. IiivolmTal It-aves of varions lengllis. Both fonnsrwl 
imcoinmoii iu ioreals. — St. Croix (The William, Eliza'H Betreat). 

915. K. trioeps, Rottb. 

Fl. March. In ehatly moist localities. — St. Jan (Baas Gut). 

916. K. monocephala, Kottb. 

n. all the year round. In moUt places iu forests, common^-AD 
islands. 

917. E. ttrerlfolla, Ifottb. (Kmciiil. in BiBckJiT, Linmen, 1@.~, *•£>). *)) loa^USt. 
St. Thomaa {Ehrenberg sec. Bceekler). , 

918. ScirpnB capltntiu, L. 

Fl. all till' juar round. Acheninm black. Along rivulets, 
All islands. 

919. S. nodnlosua, Kih. 
Fl. March-Dec. Along rivulets and in ditches, uncomoion. — St. Cntx 

(Adventure). 

920. S. snbdlstlcbus. IVn^klcr (Liumra, mO-'O, 490). 
St. Th(.m:is (Bcklr.). 




FLORA OF ST. CBOIX AKD THE VIBGIN ISLANDS. 109 

^6* Bolaila pratentis, LindT. (v. Cutting Gross). 

^ April-Nov. In forests and pastures on high bills, uncommon. — 
^t Cioix (Springfield, Mount Eagle); St. Thomas (Signal Hill). 

^. 8l sdndeiis, Nb. (v. Razor-grass). 

FL Aug^-Sept. In forests, rare.— St. Thomas (Signal Hill, 1500'). 

3a a fllll6nni% Sw. (S. Uthottperma, W.). 

FL May-Kov. In thickets, not uncommon. — St Croix (Eang's Hill); 
it Thomas (Gowell's Hill). 

[All CyperacecB are proterog^^nous, with white stigmas and light ycl- 
m anthers.] 

l.il.ia€eje:. 

29. Aloe viilgarii, L. (v. Sempervivie). 

R March-April. Gregarious on limestone (naturalized f ), common. — 
Jl islands. 

BOl Tnooa glorioMi, L. 

R Jone-Aug. Naturalized in gardens and near dwellings. — St. 
roix; St. Thomas. 

XL Agave amexloana, L. (v. Karatl^). 

FL Feb.-May. On dry hilLs, common. — ^All islands. 

12. A. ■oboUfera, Salm-Dyck. (v. Karat(t). 

Very seldom or never bearing flowers. Propagated by bulblets in 
tne^uly, growing out to a considerable size whilst still on the x>arent. 
\ hills and in tiiickets, not uncommon. — All islands. 

9. Fc m rcr o y a oubensla, Haw. (v. Female Karatit). 

FL March and July-Aug. In dry thickets, not uncommon. — St. 
mx; St. Thomas. 

4. Pancrattnm oaiibeemii, L. (v. White Lily^ Ladybus). 

FL May-Nov. Flowers nocturnal; fragrant. On rocky coasts, not 
ioommon. — ^All islands. 

5. Crimun embeacensi Ait. 

FL all the year round. Flowers nocturnal; fragrant. Along rivu- 
Mj here and there. — St, Croix (H6gensborg). 

% Aiiuuryllia eqaestxla, Ait. (v. Red Lily). 

iMPdi-Oct. On rocky shores, gregarious, not uncommon. — ^AU 



110 VhORL OF ST. CBOIX AVD THE TIBQIN JSLARDB. 

937. A. tnblapatha, Ker. (t. SDOw-drop). 

FI. April-Oct., especially after beavy rains. In fields and near < 
ings, not tincommon. — ^All islands. 

[Cultivated species : Allium Jistuloavm, L. (v. GibotUe), Polj/antiut 
rqm, I. (v. Tuberose), and Crinum giganteum, Andr.J 

ASPABAOMAC e JE. 

938. Saaaevlera gnlneeneU, W. (Spec, ii, 159) (Bot. Hog. t 1179) (v. Goani 
Fl. Nov.-Dec Fibres of the leaves yield a good material for i 

Katuralized here and tbere ou dry hills, gregarions.— St, Croix 
densfeld); St. Thomas (around town). 

SniLACEJE. 

939. Snllox havaneiMli, Jacq, 

Not seen flowering. In forests, here and there. — St. Croix 
donia, Wills Bay, Bohr's Mindc). 
940- B. popalOM, Kth. (Enum. Plant, v, 192). 

FL Jane-July (.?). Unarmed. Leaves 4"-5" long, Z"~i" broai 
foi-ests, a high climber, rare.— St. Thomas (Flag HiU, 9C0'). 

DIOSCOREACEJE. 

941. Dioscorea piloalnscula, Bert. 
Fl. Dec, but rarely. Older leaves purple beneath, broad whites 




112 PLOEA OF ST, CROIX AND THE VIEOIN ISLANDS, 

Inug, wbite; silky. Oa ti-ei-s and rocks on liiglt bills, uot ancommour- 
St. Thomas (Sigual HilJ, Crowii, IIOC-ISOO'). 
[Cultivated species: Ananassa sativa, LiiidJ. (r, Fiiie-aiiple). 

955. Musa patadisiaca. Ij, (r. Planluiii). 

Fl. Ma,y-A«g. Fniit eaten only boiled or fried. Xatundii^d sal 
cultivated, but rare. — All islands. 

956. M. aaplentium, L. (v. Bunana). 

FL May-Nov. Fruit eaten raw or fried. Naturalized and cnltivaw) 
everywhere, occurring in several varieties (Bacuba, Fig, Lady-f 
St. Vincent Banana, et«.). — All islands. 

SCITAniNE^K. 

957. Renealmla sylveatils, Grin. 
FI. Au};, In foi'esfa in shady and moist Ioi-alitie», rare. — St. CiWi 

(Golden Rock}; St. Thomas (Signal Hill, 1400'). 
9SB. Zingiber offlclnalle. Kohc (v. Giugcr). 

PI. Sept. Xatiiralized and cultivated in forest districts, bon- lal 
there. — St. Croix; St. Thomas. 
959. CaanK lodloa, L. (v. Inilinn Shot). 

Fl. all the year round. In moist places and near dwellings, d 
H. — All islands. 




FLORA OF 8T. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. 113 

I high hills, here and there. — St. Thomas (Liliendal^ Bonne Reso- 

Idandnun subeequale, Eggers, n. sp. 

eb.-March. Tubers cylindrical, small, several-leaved. Leaves 
tar, channelled, pointed, much shorter than the scai>e; sterile 
hort, distant, pointed, floral ones smaller ; flowers in a simple 
3-4. Perigonial divisions lanceolate, pointed, nearly conform, 
titly adnate to the column, 3-lobed; lobes rounded, the two lat- 
8 a little shorter than the middle one. Column auricled below 
ler; auricles small, purple. Ovary linear, striate, \" long. Al- 
?. iwieularej Batem., but leaves several, much shorter than the 
nd lip broadly 3-lobed. Leaves 6''-6'' long, 2'" broad j scape 
high, straight. Peduncles i" long ; i>erigonial divisions green- 
1 brown spots, i" long ; lip purple, with darker stripes and a 
rest in the middle, ^^ long. The whole plant of a sometimes 
sometimes lighter hue, flowers even sometimes quite white. On 
id the roots of trees in dry thickets, here and there. — St. Thomas 
s Hill, Solberg). 

bifiduin, Aubl. 

tiy-Dec. On trees and rocks, not uncommon.^-All islands. 

sUiare, L. 

ine-Feb. Flowers fragrant. Gregarious on rocks and old tree- 
common. — All islands. 

sochleatnin, L. (Bot. Mag. t. 151, bad). 

3ril-May. On trees in forests, rare. — St. Croix (Mount Eagle, 
acob^s Peak, 95(K). 

patens, Sw. 

ily-Aug. Leaves distichous ; scape compressed, V-2' high. On 
leaf-mould, rare, on high hills. — St. Thomas (Signal Hill, ISOC). 



▼ola cucnllata, R. Br. 

ne-Octb. Gregarious on rocks, rare. — St. Thomas (John Bruce 
ystachya Inteola, Hook. 

arch-Nov. Flowers often cleistogamous and n6rmal on the 
anch and at the same time. Both forms yielding good seeds. 
n and old tree-trunks, not uncommon on hiUs. — St. Thomas 
BOD, 120(K-150(y). 
IdLHat Kiis. Ko. 13 8 



114 FLOBA OF ST. CBOIX AND THE TIKGIR ISLAITDS. 

971. Ouclditun Lomoulaiimii, Liuill. 

Fl. Miij-July. Never giviug Quit, but propagatiog itoelf Iff jm* 
ducing young plaiits from buds in the axils of the sterile bracis Mi* 
the dowers, which remaiu in cODuection with the parent plant, nnil thm 
often forming long colonies of plant* from one ti-ee to another. In (it 
ests and thickets, gregariouH, but rare. — St. Thomas (Picaru Puniiitiulm 
Fortuna), 

(The lateral sepals iu my specimens being distinct, I am incliiivd I" 
retain Lindley's specific name instead of uniting mj- plant with 0. tun- 
petalum, W., as done by (jrisebaeh.) 
973. O. vailegBtnm, 8<n-. 

Fl. July-Ootb. On rocks and fi'ees in sha^ly ])lacfK, not imcoiumtpn^ 
Virgin Islands. 

973. Pr«BCottia myoauiua, G. Rchb. 

Fl. March. In grass-flelds on hi{th hills, uncommon. — St. Thora» 
(Signal Hill, 1400'). 

974. BplrantheB alata, Rivb. 
n. Mareh. I,eaves deciduous during anthesis. In Icafmoald on lii|fc 

hills, not uncommon, — Virgin Islands. 

975. StenonhynchuB lanceolatua, Huh. 

Fl. May. leaves deciduous durjog anthesis. Only ^'-1' higli 
ohiypy soil iimong rocks on high hills, rare. — St. Tliomaa (Signid Hit 




cai&ivruo aixxyjixf^ x\/va,o vru rti^rt ujuiao* am.%^±\j cruvi. Kuvxv^^^KJtta o-uviuicio 

, Signal HUl). 

Uotmn tziquatnixii, 8w. 

ady places among rocks, not uncommon. — St. Croix (Creqiiis) ; 
tmas (Signal Hill). 

FIJLICES. 

>lil08lo«iiim retiOQlattun, L. 

astures under rocks on high hills, not uncommon. — St. Thomas 

). 

irallUi aculeata, 8w. (v. Prickly Fern). 

astnres on high hills, here and there. — St. Thomas (Signal Hill, 
3t Peter, 130(K). 

Uantum ▼illoaum, L. 

Dg rocks in forests, uncommon. — St. Croix (Crequis, Vieques). 

intennedium, 8w. 
ligh hills, not uncommon. — St. Thomas (Signal Hill). 

mlorophyUum, Kaulfl 

rant in the morning. In dense forests, uncommon. — St. Thomas 

taneram. 8w. (v. Maiden-hair). 
tickets, not uncommon. — All islands. 



I 



116 FLORA. OF ST. CBOIX ANa THE TIEOIH ISLAIIM. 

909. P. padata, L. 

Oregorioua id forests, here and tbere. — St. Thomas (Signal Wi, n 
St. Peter). 

990. Toanltia lanooolata, R. Br. 

In leaf-mould on rocks, not ODCOmmon. — ^AU islands. 

991. ADtropbyum llneatmn, Kaolf. 

In forests, rare. — St. Thomas (St. Peter). 

992. Blecbsnm oocldratale, L. 

Gregaiioos m pastures and forests, very common. — All islaDdB. 

993. Chryaodlnm vulgar^ F^. 

In marshy soil, gregarious; up to 15' high. !Not nncommon^ 
islands. 

994. HemlonltU palmata, L. (v. Strawberry Fern). 

Propagating itself by buds from the serratures of the frond. Gi 
riooB in shady forests, here and there. — St. Croix (Eliza's Betieat) 
Jan (Eogiers, King's Hill). 

995. Ojnmognmm* calomvlano^ Kanlf. (v. Silvery Fern). 

On hills and among stones, not uncommon. — All islands. 

Var. pnmlla, E|^. 

Dwarfy, cartilaginous. On old walls, here and there. — St ( 




FLORA OF ST. CROIX AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS. JL17 

L pfttensy Sw. 

crests, here and tliere. — St. Croix (Crequis); St. Thomas (Crown). 

L molle, Sw. 

le same localities as the preceding, not uncommon. — St. Thomas 
IHill). 

L invimm, Sw. a). 

lady localities, rare. — St. Croix (Crequis). 
'dypodinm tetracfonnm, Sw, 

rests, not uncommon. — ^AIl islands 

^ oroiuitiixii, Sw. 

3roix (West, p. 313, Benzon in Hb. Havn.)} St. Thomas (Hb. 

^ ftmvuiii, L. 

ead trees and rocks, not uncommon. — All islands. 

K areolatimi, Thunb. 

e same places as the preceding, but rare. — St. Thomas (Crown). 

'. inolram, Sw. 

roix (West, p. 313). 

*. inoanum, Sw. 

ng roots of large trees, gregarious, not uncommon. All islands. 

^ piloflalloides, L. 

rests and pastures among rocks on high hills, here and there. — 

imas (Signal Hill, 1300"). 

'. serpensi Sw. 

*ees and rocks on high hills, rare. — St. Croix (top of Mount Ea- 
C). 

. PhyllitidiB, L. a) and /9) repens. 

rests on rocks and trees, not uncommon. — ^AU islands. 

yathea aiborea, Sw. 

12'-15^ high, 3" diam. In forests on high hills, rare. — St. Thomas 

, western slope, HOCj Caret Bay Gut). 



CORKECTIOXS AKD ADDITIOSS. 

Page 19. Fourteeutli line from above, after "local naine" read — which bb » tnltii 
derived ottberfrom the English or theDutuh langnagp, exc^ipt in VieqaesandCnlriin, 

Page 84. To Ariomnia nitida. — The gronnd undei the tree in sometinieB covmi] wttk 
a pecnliBT kind of aerial roots, proceeding from tho underground roots erect inta Ibt 
air to B lioiglit of four to his Intlits. 

Pago 99. To JroWea'.— A supposed Aroidca with an iniioeuBo, nearly »phylloo«,clink- 
iug, ii^rete, green st«m, about ICKK long, 1" diam., with scaly, early dccidnoos Inin 
and oorial roots resembling those of Yanilla, iamet with in a few places in Si. T 
(among rocks ou FlagMli in tho forest). As, however, neither fruit nor floirrr k* 
as jet been found, it is Btill doubtful even to which family this inlnvsting ap» 
may belong. 

Page 100, No. 827. Cancel the lines, "Leaves used for making ropea, thatcbingto 
and other domestic purposes." 




INDEX. 



b tUMa an tboM at the eultlnted ploots of (he lilukd*. 



ph» 




rt^ 








N 




lis 














































JnanoiMKiiro 




















IN 


























































H 


microphiu™ 


81 
U 










AntberyUum Bohril 


H 










BaeEeOJl 


W 




















110 


APOCTNACEJ; 


» 


« 


Chlwer 


33. N 






































« 


JRALIACKE 


SO 




















48 


Art»ti<la«ricttt 


un 



120 



ArMoliKhi* aDEOkildk .. 



M ' BION0MIA.C£X... 



Alb, Bitter 

ASFARAGIHACBA . . 
Aapldinm isvinuu 



lis I Tonh 

IM ■ Wilbe 

US Bluk-eje Pe* 

IIS Bl«biiiim Browsd... 



Atl*r MntntU 87 Bliaterle^ . 

AUEASriACBS W , Bloodmot.. 

i»Ii]tid» 81,118 , BliMVlne.. 




- BOMBAC££ 

Bonoy Via. 

; BontlA dAptmoIdn - 

BOKAGlNACKi 

BonrriB p«r»ifloni 

«WoU 



I Borrtcbto 
I Bonobea Ebnnbergii. 
BougainviUea 

III TulpiHj Id I ll<iuM5ue»iillli 

112 8onlplou» UliKlM* 




BthMCbjtneulik .. 

>^*dlMk 

■MoMfoli* 

lek.Gold«i 

■)H» 

mb 

I" 

lb* 

UlCSS 

•«7 

alia 

dlea 

■Dbacti 

UDACEX 

•aj(d>Uiw 

ejDOptuUDpbMa . . 

X>LUCE« 



CuMia 93 

OHltalaU IT 

■ngiutiolUqUk 47 

bKllkria n 

biupaulkrU 47 

blflon « 

Filial* W 

8orid« *7 

gbndulo** 47 

smtdi* 4< 

nictieUw 47 

obtiuifoUft 47 

. oooldenMU* <T 

UiiBujluaiui'iii-ana B» 

CwtiUenota SB 

CHt«r-oU tnt K 

CHuariiia eqniHllfollk M 

C»Wd*w 7B 

CiUliut luiiguilliiini 7> 

Gitcli-aiid-kfDp 41 

CatMbea parviQoia W 

C»Mp«lR nnUu Ill 

CUlQa TO 

CrtruplBiKillHli. B4 

Criu T» 

CELASTEACE^ S» 

Crlvry » 

Celoala ugenlea M 

Dltids M 

CeltUKiilnU M 

trlucrrla »4 

Cenchrai echinaiui lOS 

Ccntlpepiroot ST 

C«DtroKma Tlrguiiuiani 44 

L'cphiluidra InilicN. — U 

CiTOua, Nii:li1-b1oun]liij( ST 

Cereiu unutui (7 

flOCCMDl E7 

grudlflornt ST 

flumiMlaiut S8 

jMruvAonu ->--<-- SB 

rh}fUanaita S8 

tricnculBri* ST 

Cwtrnm diunmm 78 

UurifDUom ,. 7B 

Ch]iiulM»ii alliuima. M 

CbanEi'alili- Hiblwus 81 

<;b<'ibnlli..8 mkrophjUi US 

rUKSUl'OIHACEiE 8S 

Chenopodlum unbroaloldei 8S 

Diunile 83 

Chettj- H41 

Black 62 

ChrintniM 62 

SnrinaiD 52 

Wild J4 

<:bprvil S8 

< hvvullicni llnsiOMta Ill 

Cliirbrry Gnipo To 

Cblgger-applo 33,57 

Chinese Rose — 31 

CliioccKcsii nwemvka <1 




1 





« 








« 


































■ " . 






















OoojH»p«twUW 


. K 










hlraatu. 








Crflooecwi 


'"".'.'. 71 


































. a 




















u 








.. » 




n 




.. • 




, rt 




n 




... * 




, !• 












a 




« 




















(tareBS 





DnXBNIACEJB.. 



11» 



■lllBalmft 

pil(»ln«nU... 110 

D10SC0KEACE« IIO 

Di [)hnl is Halle ifolU M 

Diplochito »pmiUl». W 

DiMlDltalooliflor* TO 

l)iiitmpn« BiteHtuB. 83 

DiTl.dfTf W 

Dodoiuw vtsooia 3S 

DogAlmDud U 

Dogwood 



« 



Drvpsnocariiuiliiiutiu U 

DrjTnttiluconliila !T 

Drypetci eIaium H> 

IcTlgat* W 

Ihick.weed K 

IhideldQ 4fl 

IMmbCam M 

Darantn Planilflri H 

EMtlndU Thymo 81 

EliENACKS « 

Eahlnudarua irordtfollus VJ 

Schib'sAgglutlnst*. « 

burbiiU TO 

clrelialii « 

Deriflndra 49 

■ubeteota W 

EclipUdb* M 

Edrttn wood *) 

Egjj-plnnt 78 

I)Kli>te» ilomlDgfiulj flft 

Jtii'iKlundraQ ijIncirpaiD 8B 

Eli'iihoDtopD* molllg. 01 

Elcusluolndicn llli 

EmillA wgltttiM «9 

■uBdhlfuU*. M 

Eogliah FUoUin 8S 

EpideDdrambifldun.. ...... ■'-....- 113 



GDchlMtam.. 



■ubcqiule.— 

EisgrostlB ciliaria 

poiBOldei 

EroohthitM hlerocifoUk .. 
Erieeron cuudeosii 



80 SrithalUfrntlcow... 




S3 GEEiNIACEi... 

OT Ofmnfun 

93 GlutTliibcI-live.. 






P««. 


Bt teri. 


P^ 


























































HollDwitock 


a.te 












BooKIoot 


» 


















Gi«» 






3T 












tlufi'luvUa pen.Ula 












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Ilyniraicii Conrbaril 

tlyplii capltata 

psctiiiaM 


































































































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BfttaU* 

Bona-ODX 




— 88 


70 












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pcntaphjll. 

P»"P™ 
















Q^^iit 










quinqufpHliU 

triloba 


li 

































126 



IpotnacB nmbelktB 

TkilueA 

Ireslno flatior 

IKIDACKE .. 

IsaloQia longlflon 

Ixora Banihsta 

JkIuhCbUId 

Jicqacmoatia UnmlfoU* ■ ■ 

JmbbIu Plum 

Jjmtboaa ouditcccaaiA- - ^^ - - 

JASMISACE* . , 

^almifiuni offldnaU 

piibuo«iu ...... 

TTPokttum ...... 

JatrophaCurcaa .- 

goAAjpilfotia 

pandtiTB^oUa 

Doable 

Job'a Teon 

JoUj-Gnu 

Jambee-bead 

Juniper 

JuHiroa (offlrDllDoaa 

JujMela Weolor 

perlplaciel 

Eaklurlakki-beTT;... 



LebldlU>«iiuia.. 



S , Lemiui'Uented VerbfOA- - . 

3 I Lwmati* nepelsfoli* 

^ LeODanu dbiTlciu 

2 XipMilllHHtUWIl/ 

1 virglalnuD 

2 I Lpplooblok miicninato — . 
1 I Tlfitta 






Leacii 
Ligniuu-viLB ■ . 

Lilag 

LILIACK* -. 
LOf.Red 

White., ., 






LlDaciera compocto .. 

LlpwUelata 

Lippla nodiaon 

liquDTlcc Wild 

Uqncrke-tnie 



LobluU;.. 



Lognrood 

LoDe&nwa 

Longlo 




p~»'*«» 


















PhylUIidli 




LACOACB* 


as 






















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'V^ 

■^pbyiJ* 


M 


Pop 


M 








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mcriM 


M 


quadriada 


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INDEX. 



133 



Page. 

•• -.-. 109 

CkKvs-Herciilis 38 

flftnim 38 

macrophylliim 38 

Ochfozj^om 38 

106 



Page. 

Zingiber officinalis 113 

Zixmia elegans 64 

multiflora 04 

Zizypbus reticulata 40 

Zomiadipbylla 43 

ZYGOPHYLLACB^ 87 



^eparitncnf of fhc ^nievxovt 

V. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



14 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



No. 14. 



PUBLISHED UNDEE THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTIOIf. 



WASHINGTON: 

OOVEENMKNT PEINTINO OFFICE. 

1879. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

Tltis work is the fourteeutb of a series of papers intended to iDostrat 
tlie collections of Satural Iliatoiy aud Etliuologj- belonging to ih 
United Estates and constituting tbe National Museum, of 'n-liicli tb 
Siiiitlisoniau Institution was placed ia charge by the act of Coiigre^ o 
August 10, 1841i. 

It lias been pi-ei)aiXHl at the I'equcst of the Inatitation, and printed tr 
authority of the honorable Secretarj' of the Interior. 

SPEKOER F. BAIKD, 
Secretary SmitbsoniaH IiulitHtion. 
Skitssoniak Institution, 

Washington, April 3, 1870. 




INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



COLLECTION TO ILLUSTRATE 



THE 



Animal Resources and m Fisheries 



OF THE 



TJNITED STATES, 



EXHIBITED AT PHILADELPIIIA IN 1876 BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

AND THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION, AND FORMING A 

PAST OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



PBXPABBD UNDSB TIIE DIRECTION OF 



G. BROWN GOODE 



I 1^1 



WASHINGTON: 

'^yBENMENT PRINTING OFFICE- 

1879. 



LIST OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE PREPARATION OF THE 

COLLECTION. 



JOSEPH HENRY, 
Secretary Smithsonian Institution. 

SPENCER F. BAIRD. 
Director of the Exhibition. 

G. BROWN GOODE, 
In charge of Collection, 



CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES. 

t 

m 

Committee on Economical Invertebrates. — ^William H. Dall, Washington, D. C. 

Committee on Fresh and Preserved Fish, — Eugene G. Blackford, New York. 

Committee on Fishing Boats and Fittings. — A. R. Crittenden, Middletown, Conn. 

Committee on Hunting Apparatus and Sportsman^s Equipment. — Forest and Stream Pub- 
lishing Company, New York. 

Committee on Fishing ^ete.— American Net and Twine Company, Boston and New 
York. 

Committee on Anglers* Equipments and Apparatus. — Bradford & Anthony, Boston. 

Comvtittee on Alcoholic Collections^ ^c — Dr. T. H. Bean, W^ashington, D. C. 

Committee on Furs, — C. A. Herpich &, Co., New York. 

Committee on Fish Culture and its Apparatus. — J. W. Miln'ER, Wasliington. 

Committee on Whaling Apparatus. — E. B. & F. Macy, Now Bedford, Mass. 

Committee on Whale and Fish Oils. — Capt. N. E. Atwood, Provincetown, Moss. 

Committee on Chemical Products. — E. R. Squibb, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Artists. — J. H. Richard and A. Zeno Shindler. 
ModkUr, — Joseph Palmer. 
Taxidermist, — Julius Stoerzer. 
Photographer. — ^T. W. Smillie. 

V 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

NOTE XV 

1ST OF ANIMALS OF NORTH AMERICA BENEFICIAL OR 
INJURIOUS TO MAN. 

1 

amivores) 1 

edia (laud carnivores) 1 

u'dia (seals, &c.) 5 

ta (hoofed animals) 7 

(sea-cows, &c.) 9 

•hales) 10 

jet<5 (sperm whales and dolphins) 10 

?ete (baleen whales) 12 

i'ora (moles, &c.) 13 

gnawers) -^- 14 

ialia (marsupiates) 20 

20 

21 

lia (crocodiles) 21 

nata (tortoises) 21 

23 

lati (anglers) 23 

nathi (globe, trunk, and file fishes) 23 

•rancliii (i)ii)e-fi8hc8, &c.) 25 

phali 26 

osomata (flat fishes) 26 

mthiui (cods, &c.) 28 

hoptori (spiny-finned fishes) 31 

soces (mullets, &c. ) 53 

itognathi (gar-finhes und flying-fishes) ' 54 

>rai (pikes, &c.) 55 

mdyli (salmon, herring, &c.) 5G 

ognathi (caq)s) CI 

)gnathi (cat-fishes) 62 

(eels) (33 

anoidci (aniias) 03 

oganoidei (gar-i>ikes) (54 

)8tomi (paddle-fiBh) 64 

wstei (sturgeons) 64 

ANCUIATKS (>5 

phali (chimopras) ()5 

ikates and rays) 66 

(sharks) 67 

vu 1 



Tin AKIMAL KESOrnCES OF THE UKITED STATES. 

VII. MABSIPOBIUNl'rilATKS , 11^ 

23. Hj-peroartift (lonipreys) . . . . "K 

24. HfperotrDti (bags) TU 

Tin. Leptocabdianb Ti) 

25. CiiToatorai (laneclots).,..,, . 70 

Section B.— MEAK8 OF PURSUIT AND CAPTUEE. 

\ Apjiaratm of direct applieation. 

1. Hand-implemests [sraPLE tools) Tl 

• For striking. 

1. Clubs Ji 

2. Slung weiglit '1 

" For eutlinff. 

3. Kmvca "I 

4. Aies K 

"'For Ihrtuting. 

5. Spears and prodg... TrI 

n. Implements for sbizuri: op object ^ 

* Soaoping-inefrumenls. 

6. Scoops 7J 

" Grouping-hooka, 

7. Booked implemeDta (nsed witb Bingle motion, that of hooking}...... ^ 

8. BarbedinipleineDta(ui«od with twomoUons, the first that of tbmstiiig). ® 

9. Tongs, &c 8J 

'•* Graa^ng-linee. 

10. Nooses (lariata and snores) .. ... .. 

11. Loaded lines (tolas) , * 

""' EHlangUng-linai. 

12. Tangles * 

\\ Apparaiat of indirect applioation. 
III. Missiles 

* Simple miasHeg (those propelled bg the unaided arm). 

13. Hurled wcigbta ., 

14. Hurled sticks .......... ..,-,. ....... 

15. Hurled spears, lances.. . .,.. 

" Centrifugal mi»aile» (propelling potcer augmented bi/ arHJiaal lengthening o/liearvt . 

16. Slings, and spears thrown by straps ... . ............. 

17. Missiles thrown by "throwing-Bticks" 



•** Mi»»ilet propelled bg a sprivg. 
t Spriog coQsistiug of hent rod. 



18. Bows and oi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

Page. 
Continued. 

U Spring consisting of elastic cord, 
ibberslings 89 

ttt Spring consisting of metallic helix, 
^ons 89 

•••• Mi89ile8 propelled hy oompreaeed air or water, ,\ 

8 89 

pns 90 



•*•** JIfisailea propelled hy comhuation of gunpowder, 

Ds 90 

Dry.) Ammunition and its preparation 91 

3ry.) Accessories of loading, repairing, and testing fire-arms .. 93 

)ry.) Accessories for carrying tire-arms. (Accoutrements) 94 

OKa— Angung-tackle 95 

v^ith movable lines. — Hand-tackle 95 

rith stationary lines. — Set-tackle 97 

Dry. ) Parts and accessories to angling-apparatus 97 

ttt Apparatua to a greater or leas extent automatic, 

122 

ling (meshing) nets 122 

ingnets 126 

i\ii Apparatua entirely automatic 

131 

ps 131 

ng-traps 134 

^ps 135 

traps 135 

re preparations 1 135 

18 FOR WHOLESALE DESTRUCTION 136 

136 

iating apparatus 136 

yes 136 

iiiii Acceaaories to tlie chaae andfiahing, 

-ANIMALS 136 

g-mammals 136 

ries to hunting-mammals 138 

g-birds 137 

ries to hunting-birds 137 

g-fishes 137 

sl> DISGUISES 137 

137 

133 

141 

IB METHODS AND APPLIANCES 142 

inAftmiBportation 142 

162 

164 



X ANIMAL EESOUECES OP THE UNITED STATES. 

SEcnox C— METHODS OF PEEPAEATION. 

I. Pbepaiutton anb prbsektation of foods 

1. PreaervatioD of the livjug animgla (seeE, 3) ........ 

2. Preservation of fresh meats 

3. Drying . . . .... .... .... 

4. Canaing ami pickling 

fi. Preparation of baits . 

II. Manufacturk of textile FABtacs, felts, asd stcffixob 

6. From hair of mammala ... ■ .. 

7. From 'wh^lebuue 

B. From feathers '. 

9. From Bilk of iusects . . . ............ t 

10. Prom soft parts of other iuvettebrates J 

III. Preparation of the been and its appendages T 

11. Cnrrying C 

12. Tanning n 

13. Fur-dressing ., . 1' 

14. Feather-dressing 17- 

15. Manufacture of qnill articles 1^ 

16. Hair and wool work ,.,,.......,., If 

TV. Preparation of the hard tissues W 

17. iTory cutting and carving W 

18. Preparation of horn and hoofs El 

19. Pie2>aratioa of whalebone... ,, ,,, , , lU 

20. Preparatiou of tortoise-shell W 

21. Preparation of fish-scalo work, &,e .................. ^t 

22. PTvpnmtion of nnrrn „,..., Kl 

23. Preparation of floral '•*] 

24. Preparation of other hard tissnes 

V. Preparation of oils and gei^atines 

ST). Extraction of whale-oils 

26. Extruetion of other manmial oila , 

27, F-xtrtiftionofliinl and reptilfi oils 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI 

Page. 

nON OF THB ANIMAL FOR SCIENTIFIC USES 176 

ation of wet preparations 176 

in-making 177 

ag 177 

rmy 178 

lory. ) Photographic and other delineating apparatus 178 

N D.— ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS. 

179 

n a fresh condition 179 

Iried and smoked 182 

taltedy canned, and pickled 184 

ie8(6ee24) ., 187 

nd foods for animals 187 

188 

188 

r8(see20) 195 

I fabrics 195 

9 EMPLOYED IN THE ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 197 

* Hard materials, 

mdbone 197 

201 

md claws 202 

203 

e-8hell 205 

205 

206 

206 

207 

•ial earth 207 

natcrials derived from invertebrates • 208 

** Flexible materials, 

r 208 

id wool (sec also 8). 217 

219 

rs 219 

icand isinglass 220 

Ic materials from insects and mollusks 222 

?8 223 

*** Fluids and soft materials, 

id fats 223 

108 227 

ig materials 228 

3al products and agents cmjiloyed in the arts and medicine 229 

zcrs 231 

(see under 30) 232 

materials 232 

E.— PROTECTION AND CULTURE OF USEFUL ANIMALS. 

233 

■Iiiitod fitates Fish Commission 233 



XII AHIMAL BESOVBCES OF THE DNTTED STATES. 

IL Pkotectios 

2. Preservation of game and fiah 2(1 

4. (Accesaory.) Eucmies of usctiil antmalB 

111. Pbopagatiox - , m 

5. Fropagation of manunalB . ...... . ill 

6. Propagation of birds Ml 

7. Propagation of reptiles . , , 

8. Propagation of nnipliibiuna . 

9. Propagation of fishoB ,"„ . 

10. Pioptigutiou of insect* , 

11. Propngaliou of Iccchoa SU 

12. PropBgatioa of moUiisks W 

13. Pnipagiition of corals M^ 

14. Propagation of apODges . SW 



CATALOGUE OF ILLUSTEATI0N8 OF THE ECONOMICAL INVEHTEBEiTEfi 
OF THE AMERICAN COASTS. BY W. H. DALL. 

MOLLUSCA ciCFHAi^PODA.— Sqnida and Cuttles iSI 

MoLLUBCA aASTEitoptiDA. — Sea-Snttils, &c., 

A. UBoful 

1, UbwI for food or bait , 

i. Useful by produeing poorl-ehuU, &c . 851 

3. Affording camoo and poicelain slock 

4. Used in Indian tradu -- 

5. Affording djes!iiffs 

6. Affording bird- lime 

B. Injurioiu 

1. By destroying food-producing moUusba or abell-flah, ■neh as clama 

niTissels, oysters, cind razor-flsh ... .... .... 

9. I^jnrioue by destroying vegetable Bubstancea and garden ptanta.. 
MoiACPCA ACEPUAI.A.— Bivalvo SholMah , 




TABLE OP CONTENTS. XIH 

Pace. 

A PHTLLOPODA 259 

efol. Conyerted into fertilizers. Carapax used as a scoop or boat- 
jailer 259 

A I80P0DA 260 

efol; by removing wrecks or snags 1 260 

iorions; by destroying submerged timber 260 

A 8TOMATOPODA 260 

A DECAPODA. — ^LobsterS; Shrimp; Crawfisb, Crabs 260 

eful; food-supplying 260 

mmensal with other food supplies 261 

jnrious by burrowing into and weakening levees and dams 261 

epared foods 261 

LA (injurious) 262 

ly dulling the edge of knives and spades employed in ^'cutting in" 

whale blubber 262 

)y obstructing the progression of vessels upon which they affix them- 
selves 262 

.. — Worms and Leeches 262 

<?fnl 262 

In surgery and medicine 262 

For bait in fishing 262 

For food 262 

jurious 262 

By boring into and destroying oyster-shells 262 

. — Sea-Urchins, Starfish, Corals, Medusae, etc 262 

«ful 262 

Food-producing 262 

jurious 263 

. Destroying oysters, clams, &c 263 

. By their urticatiug powers annoying bathers and ''fouling" nets 

and fishiug lines with slime — various acalephs 263 

C8. — Sponges, etc 263 

1 263 

. For conveyance of fluids requiring an elastic and temporary men- 
struum, and as a detergent • 263 

. Useful as an elastic medium or absorbent 264 

ioas 264 

. By destroying oysters 264 

>8 264 

:.ANEOUS PRODUCTS OF SEA OR SHORE, NOT OF AN ANIMAL 

NATURE. 

Lichens 264 

UgjB 265 

. Having economical applications 265 

. Ornamental algas 265 

C MATERIALS 271 



AKIMAL EE80UHCES OF THE UMTED STATES. 



COMMEECIAL STATISTICS OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES. 
A REVIEW OF A PORTION OF THE REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE 
BUREAU OF STATISTICS FOE THE FISCAL YEAH EXDIXG JL-NT :ai, lOT. 
BY 0. BROWN GOODE. 



Living auimalB 

Food prodneU, escept fl 
FJsU 



Ivory 

Wliolebone „ 
ShBll 



Coral 

Leather 

Hides and Bl(iu9 

Briatles 

Quills 

Feilthers 

Glue ftnd gelatiue 

Sponges 

Oils, fote, and soaps 

Perfmnety materials 

Coloring materials 

Cbemical preparations, inedicinee, &c. 

Guano nod other fertilizers 

Si>cdineuB of natural Iiistor; 

Alpbalietical index 




INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 



Q the occaBion of the International Exhibition, in 1876, certain appro- 
tions were made by Congress to the Smithsonian Institution and 
United States Fish Commission. The former was called upon to 
)are an exhibition to illustrate the economical value of the mineral 
animal products of the country, while the latter was to perform a 
lar task for the national fisheries. It was subsequently found desir- 
j for the Smithsonian Institution to unite with the Indian Bureau in 
claying the condition of the aboriginal tribes of the United States in 
listoric and modem times. Four distinct departments of work were 
J provided for, (1) an ethnological exhibition, (2) an exhibition of 
erals, (3) an exhibition of animal resources, and (4) a fishery exhib:- 
. The first and second were arranged on opposite sides of the nave 
be Government building, at Philadelphia, and at its north end. The 
er, it was found, could not be separated, since the character of the 
mens and the methods of arrangement required were the same, 
y were arranged in one series on the north side of the east transept 
to the east of the nave extending north to the beginning of the 
eral series. 

he following catalogue is a simple enumeration of the objects exhib- 
in this series, and illustrative of the animal resources and the fish- 
s of the United States. It is essentially a reproduction of the card- 
ilogue prepared in 187G and still in use in the administration of the 
action, which, having been greatly augmented by systematic efforts 
lie United States and by donations from foreign governments, now 
IS an important section of the United States National Museum. The 
ilogue has been as far as practicable made complete up to the present 
?, in so far as it relates to North America. No effort has, however, 
1 made to include the collateral series of specimens from foreign 
itries. 

be plan of arrangement is fully shown in the Table of Contents. 

inning with the Useful and Injurious Animals, it next takes up the 

0X3 OF Pursuit and Capture, then, successively, the Methods 

CTW0 THEM for Use, The Useful Products, and, finally, 

XV 



XVI INTEODUCTOET NOTE. 

tlie ^Ieass of Puotection and Culture. The preliniluaiy plan 
classification is given in full, whether specimens were obtained toiUiu- 
trate it or not, auil indicates wherein the collection isstill imperfect. 

It seema appropriate to remark that a very large niunber of the sped- 
mens included in this catalogue and exhibited in Philadelphia wan 
borrowed troni the permanent collections of the National Museum, and 
have for many years been on exhibition in the Sutithsouian building. 
G. BROWN GOODE. 

Washinqton, April 11, 1879. 



* Fur u fnller cxpoHJtiun of this plan see the following; pamphlet : 
Inltruutioniil Exhibition 187G. | Bonnlin Behulf of Uuited Stales Esepntive Drpait- 
mentH. | -■ ■ - - | Clasaiflcatinu | of Ibo j Cull(u;tioa to Illuslrato | the Animkl 
Bonres of the United States. | A List of SubHtaneea derived trom llio Animal l[lii|,il*<t 
with SynopsiH of tho Uwful and Injurious Auitualu | and a Clansificstjuu of the 

ods I of Capturu and UtUiiatiou. | | By G. Brown Goode, M. A., | A« 

Curator | U. S. Natioual Mnseuuj. | | Wnshingtwn: | Go>'enuneiil ft 

Office. I 1876. I Svo. pp. xiii (I) 1S6. Also pnbUehnl as Bnllctin No. C, 

the Interior, United States National Museniu; and aa Article VI in VoLXJlaf ' 

Umitheonian MiacelluucoUB Colluctions, ^ya8lliugtou, 167d. 




SEOTIOlSr Jk.. 



BT OF ANIMALS OF NORTH AMERICA BENEFICIAL 

OR INJURIOUS TO MAN. 



*I. MAMMALS. 

Oedeb FER a 

SUBOEDEE FISSIPEDIA. 

FEIiIDiE. 

mfkis, (GuIdenstSdt,) Baf.— Bay Lynx or Wild Gat.— Forth 
America. 

12176. liounted. Denver, Col. C. £. Aiken. Deo. 14, 1875. 
1SI77. Moonted. (Young.) Denver, CoL C. E. Aiken. ' 

ITBX canadensis, (Geoff. & Desm.,) Baf.— Canada Lynx.— Korfh- 
em Korth America. 

1S47&. Mounted. Honlton, Me. Bev. B. B. McLeod. Dec. 15, 1875. 

His eyra, Desm. — ^Eyba Gat. — Southwestern IN'orth America. 

9SSL Mounted. Tehnantepec, Mox. F. Somichrast. 

elte yaffuarandi, De8m.-^YAGUABXJNDi Gat. — Southwestern 
Korth America. 

8480. Moonted. Tabasco, Mex. CoL Sarto. 

riis concolor, Linn. — ^Pxtma or Goxjgae. — ^America generally. 

11813. Moonted. Central Colorado. James Stevenson. 1874. 

elto onca, Linn. — Jaodab. — Southwestern States, Central and 
South America. 

10390 -f- 12296. Moonted. Died in captivity at Government Insane Asylum, 
Washington.* 

*Tlie nombera prefixed to the enumeration of specimens are Smithsonian cataloguo 
■iben. When two numbers are given, separated by the mark of division (-r), the 
plaMotioned nfm to the particular preparation of the animal in question ; the second, 
cither ralMed part entered in a different series. For example, in 10390 -r 12296, 
4 innphig belongs to the skin and the second to the skeleton of a specimen of 



2 AKIUAL BE80UBCE8 AND FISHEBIES OP DHITED STATXB. 

Felis pardalis, Linn. — Ocelot or Tioeb Ca.t. — SontfaweBtem 

liTorth AmertoA. 

13179+14179. Honnted. Tn1amaiH»,CcwUBica. TaUnuneaaxpedltlaiL TMI 

W. M. Gabb. 
12187. Honnted. TakmAnca, Coet» Bica. TaUmanca to^effithw. Pib£ V. 

H..Gabb. 

CAIVID.K. 

Cania lapD§, Liim., mr. grt8CO-albii«,— Gcay Wolf.— NmA 
America generally. 
3573 + 3520. Mounted. (Wiiitcr pelage.) Plnttc River, Neb. C. Dnalw. 

Tiilpes nilTDS, (Desm.,) mr, fiilviis,{Desm.)— Bed Fos.— Xortli- 
em North America. 

7124. Alonutod. (Male.) La Piene'a Hoiue, Bocky Mis. B. Kennicott D«i 

isei. 

6403. Mounted. (Fomole.) Viitton Biver. B. Ecmiicott. Oct. 31, 1660. 

Tulpes fiilrus, (Desm.,) var. decussntas. — Cross Fox. 

G407. Mouuiod. (Female). Ft, McPLcrson, Peols Elver, BndsciD's Ba.T Tmi- 
tory. E. Kennicott, Nov. 29, 1861. 

"A vary fine cross fos, ncarlj silver, small and apparently j-oiiiig. I^ 
Indians told mo she ^To□ld ho a silver fox next y ear."— KennicoU. 
ewa Mounted. (Female.) Ft. Mcl'liei^in, Peels Biver, H. B. T. B. & 
cott. Nov. 30, 1801. 
"A good typical cross fox ; tail rather small." — Kennicott. 

6404. Honntfld. (Male.) Yukon Biver. B. Ivenuicott. Oct. 3S, 180). 

"A ratber flno cross fos, oppruaching rooro nearly tbo oilver fni 
the rc<L" — Kennicott. 
12166. Sloonted. Houll^n, Maine. Bev. B. B. McLeod. Dec 31, IS:* 




ANHCAL BE80URCE8 AND FI8HEBIES OF UNITED STATES. 3 

▼IririiiiAirafl, (Sehieber,) Gray.— Gray Fox.— XJnited 
States generally. ' 

. Mounted. Yiigiiiia. 

rocyoii Tir^riiiianas, (Schreber,) var. littoralis,— Coast Gray 
Fox. — ^Islands of the Galifomia coast 

1^140. Mounted. Santa Cruz, CaL H. W. Henshaw. U. 8. Sorvey W. of 100 M. 

[nstela Pennanti, £rxl.—FiSHEB.— Northern North America. 

1S472. Mounted. Honlton, Maine. Rev. R. R. McLeod. Jan. 15, 1876. 
3S79. Mounted. Olympia, W. T. Geo. Gibbes. 

astela americana, Torton. — ^Pine Martin or American Sable. 
Northern United States. 

152544. Mounted. Hudson's Bay Territory. R. Kennicott. 
379. Mounted. Hudson's Bay Territory. R. Kennicott 

Mounted. Hudson's Bay Territory. R. Kennicott. 

1015b Mounted. Hudson's Bay Territory. R. Kennicott. 

6414. Mounted. Yukon River, mouth of Porcupine, Hudson's Bay Territory. 

R. Kennicott. 
6189. Mounted. Yukon River, mouth of Porcupine, Hudson's Bay Territory. 
R. Kennicott. 

■torins eriniuea, (Linn.,) Cavier.— White Weasel : Ermine. — 
Northern United States. 

9355. Mounted. Kodiak. F. Bischoff. 1868. 

6498 -r 1029. Mounted. (Male.) Yukon River, mouth of Porcuiune R. R, 

Kennicott. 
1427. Mounted. (Male.) Middleboro, Mass. J. W. P. Jenks. 

itorias loni^ieauda, Bonaparte.--LoN6-TAiLED Weasel.— 
Western United States. 

9350. Mounted. Wyoming Territory. Dr. F. V. Haydeu. 

itoriUB Tisoii, Bich. — Mink. — North America generally. 

12432. Mounted. (Male.) Moore's Lake, Miuu. J. H. Batty. 
4396. Mounted. Liard River. R. Kemiicott. 
1653 -r 12309. Mounted. United States. 
2392. Mounted. Cape Flattery, W. T. Dr. Siickley. 

itorias nigripes. And. & Bach. — ^Blagk-footed Ferret. — 
Western States (in holes of Prairie dogs). 

12409. Mounted. Spotted Tail Agency, Neb. Col. A. Chamben^ U. S. A. Oct 
1,1875. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming. Capt. Jas. Gilliss, U. S. A. Dec. 27, 



4 ANIMAL RESOURCES AKD FI8HEK1ES OF DNITED STATES. 

Oulo lUHcus, Sabine.— Wolverene or Glutton. — Northern 5ar4 
America. 

3717. Mounted. Grant Salt Lake, Utah. Capt. Stansbar;. 
4361. Mounted. Ft. SimpBOQ, H. B. T. B. E. Roes. 

Taxidea ainericann, Waterli. — Amesican Badgeb.— ^Vedten 
United States and Pacific Slope. 

12471. Moontod. Colorado. Cluis. E. Aibeu. Jon. l^, lE^R. 

Mephitis mepiiiticaf (Sbaw) Baird. — Comxon Ssxtnk. — Eaeto 
United States. 

4348. Mounted. Washington, D. C. C. DrexlM. 

12523. Mounted. Ooldeu, Col. C. E. Aiken. 

1071. Mounted. Middloboro, Maaa. J. W. P. Jenka. 

4127. Mouutod. Lynn, Maes. Georgo Welth. 

1070. Mounted. (Male.) Middtcboro. Moss. J. W. P. J<>nks. Dm. S. US. 

niephiti!« niexicaoa, Gray. — Mexican Skunk. — Mexico. 

8566. Mounted. Orizaba, Mei. Mr. Botteni. 

Spilogale zorilla, (Linu.) Coues.— Little Stkifbd Sktsx- 

Westem United States and Pacific Slope. 

1188. Moonted. 8ant« Clnca, Cnl. Dr. J. S. Newberry. Nov., isio. 

Conepatu§ mapnrito, (Gmelin) Cones. — White - BjICE:-< 
Skunk. — Southwestern United Statea. ' 

790 — IfleC. Skin. ■WeBloni Tesaa. Capl. J. Pope, U. 8. A- 




AHDCJLL BE80UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 5 

nmM amerieaniifl, Pallas.— Black Beab.— United States gen- 
erally. 

12380. Mounted. Northem Michigan. John Wallace. 

halarctos maritimas, (Linn.) Gray.— White or Polab Beab. 
— ^Northern America, Euroi>e and Asia. y 

12379. Mounted. Greenland. John Wallace. 

roeyon lotor^ (Linn.) Storr. — ^Raccoon. — ^United States generally. 

5148. Mounted. National Institntion. 
5147. Mounted. National Institution. 
26789. Mounted. Wyoming, N. T. H. A. Ward. Rochester, N. T. 

itoa Aisca, .—GoATrMUNDi.— Texas. 

12757. Mounted. BrownsviUe, Texas. Dr. J. C. Merrill, U. S. A. 

PINNIPEDIA. 

OTARIIDJB. 

lUirhiiiOS ursinns, (Schreber) Gray.— Fub Seal.— North Pa- 
ciflc Ocean and Bering's Sea. 

[291S-34. Mounted. (Group of 17.) Pry bilov Islands, Alaska. Alaska Commercial 
Company, San Francisco. 

12935. Mounted. Alaska. H. W. Elliott. 

uaetopias Stelleri, (Fischer) Gray. — Sea Lion.— Pacific Coast. 

12489. Mounted. (Female.) Prybilov Islands, Alaska. Alaska Commercial 

Company, San Francisco. 
15M88. Mounted. (Male.) Prybilov Islands, Alaska. Alaska Commercial Co., 

San Francisco. 

12936. Mounted. (Young.) North Pacific. 

ilophus Crilliespii, (Macbain) Gill. — ^The Sea Dog.— Pacific 
Coast. 

12937. Mounted. Southern California. Capt. Baker. 

PHOCIDJB. 

Titolina, Linn.— The Common Seal; Habbob Seal.— 
North Atlantic 

iSa. Cast PtOTincetown, Mass. 1875. 

^°lMil(ogniph. (Toung.) U. S. Fish Commission. 
tnilL U. S. Fish Commission. 



6 ANIMAL BB80CBCBS AND FISHEBUE6 OF DNITED STATBB. 

Phoca Bichardsiit (Gray) GilL— IiBOPABD Seai.v— STtxtti P«il 



Pagophilns graenlaadicDii, (MiiU.,) Gray. — Hasp Seal^-Aic 
-y Seas. 

5853. Mounted. Sablo lalnnd, N. 8. P. W. Dodd. 

6122. Honnted. Fianklin H&tbor, Arctic Seas. B. HoFMlaite. 

5851. Mounted. Sable iHland, If. a P. W. Dodd. 

12040. Mounted. St John's, N. F. Eov. M. Harvey. 

585£ Uoonted. Sable mand, N. & P. W. Dodd. 

12039. Moimtod. St. John's, N. F. Eev. M. Harrey. 

1S038. Honnted. St John's, H. F. Bev. H. Harvey. 

Erignathas barbatns, (O. Fabricios) GilL— Sqcabe-fliff 
Seal.— Arctic Seas. 
13422, Skin. Nowfoundlaod. Govenmient of Nevfoundland. 

Histriopfaoca eqaestris, (Pallas) GilL— Bakded Seal.— Pm 
Coast, Arctic Seas. 
7680. Skin (in collection of Furs). Cape Bomauzoff. W. H. Dall. 
Pnsa gryphns, (O. Fabricins) GilL — Gbay Seal. — ^Atlantio Cot 

8694, Uoonted. Seeland. Zoological Moaenm, Copenhagen. 
C rSTOPHOBINiB. 

Cy«tophora eristata, (Brxl) Kilsson. — Hooded Sbai-— Atbi 




INIMAL BE80UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 7 

Obdeb, ungulata. 

BOTIDJB. 

BOVINJE. 

Isoii amerieanns, (Gmelin) Gray. — ^Ahebigan Buffalo. — 
Plains between Bocky Mountains and Missouri Biver. 

1S919. Mounted. Coloiodo. C. E. Aiken. 

ribos mosehatns, Blalnville. 

lSS9a Mounted. (Female.) Arctic Coast, H. B. T. W. L. Hardestie. Jan. 

23, 1875. Also skeleton of same animal. 
1S897. Mounted. (Male.) Arctic Coast, H. B. T. W. L. Hardestie. Jan. 23, 

1875. Also skeleton of same animal. 
6255. Mounted. (Male.) Ft. Good Hope, H. B. T. J. S. Onion. 

▲NTILOPINJB. 

i«ama montana, (Ord) Gill. — ^Mountain Goat. — Northern 
Bocky Mountains of the United States and British America. 

11894. Mounted. (Male.) Montana. W. F. Wheeler and J. Armitage. 
11893. Mounted. Washington Territory. U. S. Northern Boundary Survey. 

OTINJB. 

la montana, Guvier. — ^Biohobn; Mountain Sheep. — ^Bocky 
Mountain regions. 

11891. Mounted. (Male.) Ft. Fetterman, Dakota. James Stevenson, U. 8. 
C^L Survey. 
160a Horns. H. B. Mollhausen. 

AIVTILOCAPRIDJB* 

itilocapra amerieana, Ord. — ^Pbonohobn Antelope or 
Cabbee. — ^Plains west of Missouri from Lower Bio Grande 
to Saskatchewan. 

5X)34. Mounted. (Male.) Yellowstone River. Dr. F. Y. Hay den. 
3471. Horns. Ft. Chadboume, Texas. Dr. Swift, U. 8. A. 
6914. Horns. Ft. Whipple, Arizona Ty. Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. 
5084. Horns. Upper Missouri. T 

CERTIDJB. 

ce« maehlis, (Linn.) Gray. — Moose. — ^Northwestern United 
States. 

11868. Mounted. (Adult male.) Nova Scotia. Geo. A. Boardman. 
1S548. Mounted. (Adult male.) Nova Scotia. Mr. Jack. 
"WL Moanied. (Toungcalf.) Nova Scotia. Dr. Bernard Gilpin. 

Kftine. General S. Churchill, U. 8. A. 
m. AdiiQiidaGkBy N. T. Henry J. Biddle. 



H ANIUAL BE80UBCES AIH) FISHEBIE8 OF DSTTBD SUm 

TarandoB rangiftr, J. Brookes, snbepecios caiikoa, iai. > 
Ba4^-~WooDLAin} GAxmon. — NwOieastem TSvQi Anw 
ica. 

13473. Mounted. Houlton, Me. Bev. B. B. McLeod. 
12407. Uonnted. Honlton, Me. Rev. B. B. HoLeod. 
1186^. Mounted. Lake Superior. J. Bonuton. 

3289. Antlers. (Female.) Nelson Biver. 

3290. Antlera. (Female.) Nelson Birer. 

Tarandns ran^ftr, (Br.) sabsp. 9r<enIandiciM,Br^-BlBil 

Gbound Cabibou. — Arctic America. 

6255. Mounted. Anstio America. 

905. Antlen. North Qieenlaud. S. Sternberg. 

90G. Antlera. North Qceenland. B. Sternberg. 
6762. Antlers. Plover Day. Capt C. M. Scunmon, U. S. B. K. 
7539. Antlen. Yukon Bivel. W. H. DolL 
4635. Antlers. Port Fonlke, N. Greenland. Dr. I. L Hayeik 

Cerrus canadensis^ End. — Amebioan Elk. — ^Northern Sa 
America. 

13474. Moonted. Ft Sanders, Wyoming. Col. A. G. Brackett^ U. B. A. 
4457. Autlerft. Elk Co., Peuno. FioL S. & Holdeman. 

£911. Antlers. Ft. Berthold, MiBwniri Biver. Lt. Warrau, U. 8. A., Oi. F 
Hoyden. 

8G7. Antlers. Utah. Col. O. Ciow, U. 6. A. 

8579. AntlBre. Platte Biver. Lt. Biyan, U. S. A. 

3552, Antlers.^ Ft. Tejon, Lower Gal. John Xaotoa. 

3551. Antlers. Ft. Tcjon, Cat. John Xantns. 

SIO. Antlera. Ft. Union, Mo. A. CnlbertMia. 

761. AnUeta. Ft. Union, Mo. A. Cnlbertaon. 

760. Antlers. Ft Union, Mo. A. Cnlbertaon. 




AHDCJLL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATED 9 

CariaciM Tii^rinianiM, (BodcUert) Gray— Gontmned. 

3383. Antlen. (Hale.) Ft. Mason, Tex. M%f. G. H. Thomas. 

3387. Antlers. (Male.) Ft. Mason, Tex. M^J. G. H. Thomas. 
8D6. Antlers. St. Lonis, Mo. J. S. Bowman. 

3388. Antlers. (Male.) Ft. Mason, Tex. M^J. G. H. Thomas. 
GG7. Antlers. (Male.) Cumberland, Md. 

3088. Antlers. (Male.) Essex Co., N. T. 

896. Antlers. (Ifale.) St. Louis, Mo. J. S. Bowman. 

9843. Antlers. Near Denver, Colo. E. Palmer. 

5077. Antlers. (Male.) Washington, D. C. 

{)063. Antlers. Upper Missouri T 

6 siAriacas Tirgrinianns, (Bodd.) Gray, var. mexieanuii.— Vir- 
ginia Deer. 

11869. Mounted. Talamanca, Costa Rica. Prof. W. M. Gabb. 

Cauiacas maerotis, (Say) Gray.— Mule Deeb.— Central North 

America. 

11864. Mounted. 

1^83. Mounted. Cheyenne, Wyo. Capt. J. M. Oilliss, U. S. A. 

6615. Antlers. Prescott, Ariz. Dr. £. Cones. 
831. Antlers. Big Sioux, f T. Culbertson. 

4175. Antlers. 

6918. Antlers. Ft. Laramie. Col. W. 0. Collins. 

9682. Antlers. Mountains of New Mexico. Dr. J. S. Newberry. 

C3 ^uriacus eolumbianns, (Bich.) Gray. — Columbia Black-tailed 

Deeb. — ^Pacific Slope. 

8154. Antlers. Puget Sound. J. G. Swan. 

3203. Antlers. Whidby's Island, Pugot Sound, W. T. Dr. Geo. Suckley. 
5080. Antlers. Puget Sound. Dr. C. B. Konnerly. 

3204. Antlers. Wliidby's Maud, Paget Sound. Dr. Geo. Suckley. 

Cirrus dama, Linn. — ^Fallow Deeb (introduced). 

1200. Antlers. Park, Clarke Co., Va. Col. J. Fuloy. 
2257. Antlers. Clarke Co., Va. Col. J. Fuley. 

DICOTYLIDJB. 

I^icotyles torqnatus, Cuv. — ^Peccaby. — ^Bed Biver, Arkansas, 

and South. 

1234d. Mounted. Talamanca, Costa Bica. Talamanca Espod. Prof. W. M. 
Gabb. 

Obdeb, sirenia. 

TRICHECHIDiE. 

*^ Mcheehns manatus, Linn. — MANAXEE.^Florida, West Indies, 

and K. E. South America. 

12295. Mounted. Florida. P. T. Bamum. 
10037. Skeleton. Florida. H. A. Ward. 



10 AHI M*r- BE80UB0BS AND FI8EBBIES OF DNITED BTUHL 

Oedee, CETE. 

DELPHOriDA. 

DE1.PHINAPTEKI1V.S. 

DelpUnaptems catodon, (Linn.) GilL — White-fish or Wh 

Whaxe.— Arctio and Sabarctdc Seas (asceoding li 
rivers). 

1S490. CuHt. Gnlf of St. Lawienoo. O. B. Bentew & C«., Qneboe. 
16038. Bkelaton. Golf of St LAwrenae. G. B. Benfrew & Co. 
389. Photograph. U. & Fiah CommiMioD. 

Monodon monoceros, lioiL — Naewhai..— Arctic Seas. 

16304. Task. Greenland. Pnrchaaed from George T. Nicketaou. 
DELPHINIlfS. 

I^eDCorhamphus borealis, (Peale) GilL— Bight-whale 1 
POISE. — Pacific Coast 

. Skeleton. 

Delphinus Bairdii, DalL— Baibd's Pobfoisb.— C^ifbraia 

16042. SkeletOD. Culifomift. W. H. DoU. 

1M03. Skoll. San Gabiiel Biver, CaL- lieat. BergLmd, U. & A. 

Delphiniis bombiflrons. Cope. — Pobfoise.— Atlaatic Cout. 
12481. T Caat. New York Harbor. John Wallace. 



Tnrsiops erebenaas, (Cope) Gill. — Fobpoise. — Atlantio 




AHDCAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES^ 11 

afCHorliyiiclias thieolea, Gray.— Porpoise.— West coast of 
North America. 

^rca mtra. Cope.— Killer.— Pacific Coast. 

19018. Jaw. California. Capt. C. M. Scammon. 

rca glmMmtoTf (Bonnaterre) Gray.— Killer.— Atlantic Coast. 

1191& SkulL South Atlantic. 8. F. Baird. 

hoc«ena Tomeriiia, Gill.— Bay Porpoise.— Pacific Coast. 

16044. Skeleton. Califomia. W. H. Dall. 

hocAita lineata, Cope. — Striped Porpoise.— Atlantic Coast. 

621. Photograph. U. 8. F. C. 

hecaeHa braehyeion. Cope.— The Snuffing Pio or Herring 
Hog. — ^Atlantic Coast. 

18302. Cast Cape Cod. Yinal N. Edwards. 

OLOBICEPHAJLINJB. 

loblceplialas Scanunoni, Cope.— Black-fish. — Pacific Coast. 

9076. SknlL Califomia. Capt. C. M. Scammon. 

lobieeplialas intermedius, (Harlan) Gray.- Black-fish.— 
Atlantic Coast. 

12479. Cast. (Fcdtos.) Cape Cod. U. S. Fish Commission. 

12480. Plaster cast, (7 feet.) Cape Cod. Edwards. Nov. 14, 1874. 
18480. Cast. 

12840. Cast 351. Cast of head. South Dennis, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

1875. 

12841. Cast 352. Cast of head. South Dennis, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

1875. 

frampus irriseas, (Cuv.) Gray. — Obampus; Cow-fish.— Kortli 
Atlantic. 

15771 H- 12759, 508. Cast. Dec. 2, 1875. 

15772 -f- 127e)0, 503. SkuUs. Nov. 29, 1875. 

15773 -f- 12761, 506. Cast of head and cast of whole. Nov. 30, 1875. 
506 A. Cast. (Over entrance.) 

622. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

12940. Cast of head. Cape Cod, Mass.. Y. N. Edwards. 

12941. Cast of head. Cape Cod, Mass. Y. N. Edwards. 

12942. Cast of head. Cape Cod, Mass. Y. N. Edwards. 

iNunpiis Stearnsii, Dall. — White-headed or Mottled 
Obampus. — ^Pacific Coast. 

Cftlilomia. W. H. DaU. 



12 ANIUAL SES0URCU3 AND PI&H&BIB8 OF CSIIXD STATES. 

ZIPHIID^. 

ZIPBllNf. 

iHesoplodoii SowerbiensU, (Blainv.,) Oervais. — Sow£BSY% 
Whale. — Atlantic Coasts 

ANARNACINJB. 

Anarnacns semijunctus, (Cope) GUL— BoTTLB-SEADWHAiA- 
Atlantic Coast. 

PHYSETERIDJG. 

PMTSETEBINf. ^, 

Physeter macrocephalus, Linn. — Sperm Whale.— Tropko- 

poll tan Seas. 

2!)0.V2. Irou inoclol. Mrvlu liy captaia of whaling ship. J. H. Thoinptoiu Xn 

I)c(lfor>l, Mass. 
1004G. JaWB, U. H. Fieh ConuniwioD. 
1G047. JawB. National Inatitutc. 
25004. WoiHlon model. Capt. Beqj. Bnss^U. Nen Bcdfonl, Maaa. 

KOGIIN^. 

Kogia Floweri, Gill. — Poepoisb Speem Whale. — Pacific Coart 



80IC. Lower ja 



. Lower Califomio, 

BAI,.a:i\'OPTERID^. 

AGAFHELINf . 




r 



AHIMAL BB80U80E8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 18 

SlMmldiiis taberosiis, Cope.— Finback Whale.— Atlantic Ocean. 

Slblmldlas borealls, (Fischer) Geoffiroy. — Sijlphub-bottom 

Whale. — ^Atlantic Ocean. 

16039. Skeleton. Cape Cod. U. S. Fish Commission. 

SlblMddias salAireas, Cope. — Sulphitb-bottom Whale.— 

Padflo Ocean. 

BateHoptera rostrata, (Miiller) Gray.— Obampus.— Atlantic 

Coast. 

Babenoptera Tellftra, Cope. — ^Finback Whale ; Oregon Fin- 

NER. — Pacific Ocean. 

BalaBnoptera Davldsoiiii, Scammon. — Sharp-headed Finner 

Whale.— Pacific Coast 

ie040. SkeletcHDL Califomia. Capt C. H. Scammon. 

haIjJenidje. 

Batena mysticetus, Linn. — ^Bowhead Whale. — Arctic Seas. 

12938. Model in plaster. From drawings and measorements of Capt. C. M. 

Scammon. 
16041. Jaws. Arctic Ocean. U. 8. Fish Commission^ 

Gubatena Cullamach, (Chamisso) Cope. — Pacific Bioht 

Whale.— North Pacific. 

1S968. Model in plaster. From drawings and measurements of Capt. C. M. 
Scammon. 

Kubalaena cisarctica. Cope. — Eight Whale. — Atlantic Coast. 

Order, INSECTIVORA. 
TAIiPIDiE. 

^^alops aquaticus, (Linn.) Cut. — Eastern United States. 

3965. Mounted. (Male.) Washington, D. C. G. Exall. 

5830. Mounted. (Female.) Washington, D. C. G. Exall. 

3866. Mounted. District of Columbia, 1658. C. Drexler. 

3864. Mounted. (Albino.) Virginia, October 30, 1846. D. F. Kent. 

^^alops arffentatus, Aud. & Bach. — Silvery Mole.— Western 

United States. 

11351. AlcohoUc. Mt. Carmel, HI. R. Ridgway. 
783. Moonted. Tremont, IlL W. J. Shaw. 



14 XSatAL K180UB0B8 AHD FI8HSSIBS OTDHITBD BTUEkH. 

Scapanns TownsendU, (Bachman) PomeL — Obbooit Kou 

Pacific Slope. 

3963. Mounted. Oragoo. T. R. F«ale. C. S. Exploring Expedttkn. 
1963. Honuted. Ft. SteiUcMnn, Waah. Ter. Dr. 0«orge Baekkj, U. S. i 

Scapanas Brevreri, (Bachinan) Pomd. — Haibt-tiii.ed Hou 

Eastern United States. 
ES3. Uonnted. Clerelamd. Ohio. I>t. J. P. Kirtland. 

CoBdylara cri8tata,(Luui.) niiger. — SiAs-vossD Moia^-Ko 

em cismontane States. 
396B. Uonnted. WaeUngton, D. C. 

Order, GLIRES. 
SCnjRIB.£. 

Sciarus cinereas, Linn.— Fox Squibsel. — Eaatem United Sti 

4143. Moonted. IMstrict of ColmnbiA. C. Diexler. 
321 — 1240. Mounted. Wrateni Uisaomi. Dr. P. R. Hoy. IBM. 
4044. Honuted. (Male.) District of ColombiA. A. B. Jonkhia. 

Sclums carolineaaia, Omelin^— Obat Sqitibbei- — United Sb 

4043. Uonnted. District of Columbia. S. F. Balid. 

334-^1352. Moimt«d. Racine, Wis. Rev. A. C. Buir. 

333-^ 1250. Mounted. Baeine, Wis. Dr. P. R. B07. 
11071. Uonnted. New Tork. J. G. Bell. 
6844. Mounted. WaaMngton, D. C. J. K. 1 




ANIMAL RGS0DBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UKITED SPATES. 



qnadriTittatas, (Say) 

Squireel. — Pacific Slope, i 



Eich. — MissouKi Stuiped 



STamias lateralis, (Say) Alleo. — Sat's Stbiped 8qcibk: 
Bocky Mountains, from Mexico norttiwanL 



9310. Mounted. Canon City, Neradn. 
Bobwt Bidgway. March, 1668. 



i. Snn-cy of Fortielli Purnllel. 



^S^ermophiliis grninniurii§, (Say) Bacli.— California Groxind 
Squirrel. — Western Texas and Sifw Mexico ireat to 

Sierra Nevada IMountains. 
1046—2315. Monnleri. Lob Nogales, Sonom. Maj. W. H. Emory, U. S. A. 

^ ^Vermophilus ^rammurnB, (Say) Bach., rar. Beechyi. — 
_ California Grounb Squieeel. — Gala, and Lower Cal^, , 

^k west of Sierra Nevadas. 



469. Mounted. Tejo' 

470. Monuted. Ttyoi 



VaUey, Cal. 
VaUey, Cal. 



^ ^enuophilus Hnrrisi, And. & Bach. — Harris' Groithd Squir- 
rel. — The Great Interior Basin and Lower California. 

471-HJOO. Mounted. Moliave Desert. Lien t. R. 8. Willi nmsoi 

^Vermophiliis'Frankllni, (Sabine) Bich. — Gray Goph: 
Northern Illinois, northward to the Saskatchewan. 

985. Skin. Eacine, Wia. Dr. P. R. Hoy. 

^■lerinophilas tereticaudis. And. & Bach. — Round- tailed 
Ground Squirrel. — Arizona. 
1584. Sktn. Fort Ynmo, Cal. Mi^j. G, H. Thomas. 

^■icrmophilus tridecem-lineatus, (Mitchell) Audi & Bach.— 
Striped Gopher ; Prairie Squierfx. — The prairic-s ot 
the United States. 

437— 130J. Mounted. Head of Arkansas Eivor, Capt, E. O. Beckwith. 

^BMmiophilus mexicanns, (Erxleben) Wagner. — Mexican 
Ground Squirrel. — Southwestern Texas and Southern 
New Mexico, southeastward into Mexico. 
aaflB. Monnted, Engle Fobs, Te^os. Dr. W. B. King, U. 8. A. 

^.Permophilas Parryl, Rich. — Pasby's Marmot. — Northern 
parts of the Continent, from Hndson's Bay to Behring's 
Strait. 



8730. Mountod. Felly Lake. H. H. MocFarlane. Juno 21, 1864. 
ST89. Mounted. Lockhart Eivor, H. U. T. B. R. Roes. July 4, If 
Saeo. Moun(«d. Kodiak. F. Bis«hoff. Sept. 13, lelGS. 



a 



16 AmUAL SBS0UBCE8 AMU FI8BEBIB8 OF DHTTBD 8TAn& 

Spermophilas spUosotna, Bennett — Soitora. Ohouhd SqcH' 
BEL — Extern base of tlie Booby Moantanu north to WeH> 

em Wyoining. ■ i 

2620. Fort Thorn, N. Jlos. Dr. T. C. Henry. 

Spermophiliis Richartlsoni, (Sabine) Baird.— Teuot 

GoPHBE. — Plains of the Saskatchewan soathward lo the 

Upper Missouri. 

12360. Skin. Fort Saunders, Wjo. Col. A. O. Brockott. 

Spertnophilus Townsendi, Baeh. — TowNSBni>'8 Gbocsd 
Squierbl, — Plains of Colombia. 
3775. Ciunp Lloyd, Utuli. Capt. J. H. Simpson, U. 8. A, 

Mpermophilns annulatii§, And. & Bach. — RmGExt GEOun 
Squieekl. — Plains of Colima, Mexico. 

. Skins. 

Cynomys ladovicianus, (Ord) Baird.— Pbairie Doo.-~Gitit 
plains east of the Rocky Monntains. 

4057. Mounted. (Female.} Plotto KiTer, Ark. Dr. WoodLoiue. 
7770-f-345. Moimtod. (Male.) Ft. Lamed. Dr. E. Coaes. Uaj 31. 1«l 
11458. Monnted. Colorado. J. H. Batty. 
^559. Mounted- Soda Springs, Colo. Jos. Storenson. 

Cynoniy§ coliunbianu«, (Ord) Allen. — Shobt-tail&d PeaoiI 

Dog. — The parks and plains within and west of the Body 

Mountains to the plains of Colnmbia. 

5849. Mounted. Kort Bridger, Utiih. C. Dreilor. 




ANIICAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 17 

CASTORIDJE. 

itor canadensis, Kuhl. — American Beaver. — United States 
generally. 

9734. Monnted. (Yonng.) Henry Fork, G. R. Dr. F. V. Hayden. Oct., 1870. 

9 

GEOmYIDJE. 

imys bnrsarius, Rich. — Pouched or Pocket Gopher.— Mis- 
soiiri to Minnesota and Nebraska. 

91. Moaxited. Columbia River, Oregon. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila. 

imys tiiza, (Ord,) Cones. — Florida Salamander. — Southeast- 
em States. 

11905. Skins. Jacksonville, Fla. G. Brown Goodc. 

imys castanofis, Baird. — ^Texas Pouched Gopher.— Texas 
and New Mexico. 

4007. Mounted. Bent's Fork. Lt. Abert. 

^momys talpoides, (Bich) Baird.— California Gopher.— 
Korthem and Western North America. 

366-H1280. Monnted. Monterey, California. Lt. W. P. Trowbridge. 

^momys clusius, Cones.- Smai^l-foOted Pouched Gopher. 
— Rocky Mountains. 

. Skins. Ft. Bridger, Utah. 

iTHJRIDJB. 

s decumanus, Pallas.— Brown IIat.— United States generally. 
(Introduced.) 

5847. Monnted. Washington, D. C. 

» rattus, Linn. — Black Rat. — United States generally, but rare. 
(Introduced.) 

12H-921. Skin. Foxburg, Pa. S. F. Baird. 

« mnsculus. — Common Mouse. — United States generally. (In- 
troduced.) 

4051. Monnted. (Albino.) District of Columbia. 

jp cro mys leucopuiit, Wagner. — ^^Vhite-footed ^Iouse. — 
Northern United States west of the Mississippi River. 

Halifax. N. S. A. DowncH. 
»4 2 



la AKIUAL RE80UBCB8 AND KISHBRIBS OF nHlTED STATES. 

nreotoma floridana. Bay & Ord. — Flobida Uat; Wood It^j 
Atlantic SIoiMJ nortlnvartl to Kcw York. 
4334. Mounted. Hillsbimi, Vn. K. Jouucy. 

IVeotouia cinerea, (Oiil) Baird. — Bocky Mountain Bat. — Piu-iiir 
SloiMJ imil Uptwr Missouri. 
5G63. Mounted. Fort Liard, Hudooo's Uuy Terr, llvaa itnd Hard««t,v. 
Fiber zibethiciiK, Cuv.— Musx Bat.— United States generallj. 

'HXiO. Mouutcd. (Fuiuiile.) District uf Coluiiibin. U. O. Pollard. 

HYSTRICID.K. 

Eireltaizon dorsatUM, (Liirn.) Flem., rar. dorftalns.— ^'Dirt 
haieed Poecupine. — Xortliei-n United States. 

11066. Moiiuted. Maine. Juhu WallHci-. 
■ l-«02. Mounted. (Female.) Mt. WaBliiugtou, N. U. C.J. King. July3.l<i 

Ercthizon donatas, (Liun.) I'. Ouv., rar. ei^xanthni*.— Vel 

LOW-HAIEED PORCUPiSE. — I'liciflc Slope and Upper Jfc 
aoiiri region. 

9H&. Hoimted. Fort Bridgcr, Wyrauing. Dr. F. Y. Hayden, U. 8. GeolopA 
Sept. 20, lew, 

SuBOEDBB DUPLICIDENTATA. 
LEPORID.£. 




ABIMAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 19 

epos americanus, Erxl., var. l^ashingrtonii.— Bed Hare.— 
West of Eocky Mountains fix)m Columbia Kivor into British 
Columbia. 

3817. Moanted. Chiloweyuck Depot, Oregon. Dr. C. H. Kcnuerly, V. 8. A. 
June, 1859. 

'pun americanus, Erxl., var. Bairdii.— Baird'b Hare.— 
Higher parts of Kocky Mountains. 

4265. Mounted. (Female.) Wind River Mountains. Dr. F. V. Ilayden. 
5882. Mounted. Head of Flathead River, Washington Ty. Dr. C. H. Kennerly , 

N. W\ Boundary Survey. Winter 1860. 
3791. Mounted. Ft. Bridger, Utah. J. H. Simpson. 
303. Mounted. Shoalwater Bay. Dr. J. G. Cooper,- Pacific R. I?. Suney. 

March 5, 1854. 

pnn campe8tri»9 Bach. — Prairie Hare. — Central plains of 
North America. 

1552. Mounted. Upper Missouri. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

4240. Mounted. (Male.) Deer Creek. Dr. F.V. Hayden. Doc. 18, 1859. 

69^972. Mounted. Ft. Union, Neb. T. Culbertaon. 
12013. Mounted. (Male.) Frenchman's Creek, Montana. Dr. E. Coucs, U. S. A., 
Northern Boundary Survey. July 5, 1874. 

ipiis callotis, Wagler Jackass Hare ; Jack Babbit. — South- 
western United States. 

1170. Mounted. Klamath Lake. Dr. J. S. Newberry. 

8477. Mounted. (Female.) Ft. Whipple, Arizona. Dr. E. Cones, U. S. A. 
May 17, 1865. 
450. Mounted. Red River, Ark. Capt. Marcy. 

pus califbmicus, Gray. — ^California Hare. — California. 

11070. Mounted. California. J. 0. BeU. 

1980. Mounted. Petaluma, California. E. Samuels. 
12586. Mounted. Cape St. Lucas. John Xantus. 

pus sylTaticus, Bach. — Gray Rabbit. — Eastern United States. 

12483. Mounted. Fairfax Co., Va. G. Brown Goode. 

11069. Mounted: New York! J.G.Bell. 

11068. Mounted. New York! J.G.Bell. 

4017. Mounted. New York. J. G. Bell. 

pu» Bachmani, Waterhouse. — Bachman's Hare. — Texas. 

234 ; 243. Skins. Brownsville, Texas. Couch and Vau Vliet. 

pun sylTaticus, Bach., var. Audubonii.— Audubon's Hare. 
— Southern Arizona and California. 

1506L Mounted. San Diego, Cal. Dr. J. F. Hammond. Dec, ia'>5. 

Ifdmited. (Female.) San Diego, Cal. Dr. J. F. Hammond. Dec. 28, 
IflBflL 



UO ANIMAL RE80UHCKS AND FISHEEIES uF t'MTKU STATES. 

EfCpiifi sylvatieus, BacL., zar. IWullalli. — Sage Kabbit.— Unittd 
States west of 97th meridian. 

iS-^JO. Monntwl. (Frnialp.) Camp Graut, Arii. Edwaitl Pftlmer. Krh. '», 

Eiepits Trowbridgii, Bniid, — Troavbrldge's Hare. — Califomii. 

IISI. Moiinlc.]. Satita Cliirii, Cal. Dr. J. !*. Newbcrrj. Nov., 1S.V.. 
■JOT4-^K1. Mountwl. PotfilmnH, Cul. E. Samiiols. 

Ijepiis aquatlcui*, Bacli. — ^^''ATBR Rabbit. — GiUf States. 



Iiepii!« palu«)lri«, Bacli.— >lABsn Rabbit. — Sontlieastem Failed 
States, on lowlands. 

4018. Mounted. St. SimoD's jHlanil, Go. Dr. Wilson. ISOO, 
i856.f Monntwl. Society Hill, B. C. M. A. Curtis. 1856. 
leSI. Moniiteil, St. Bimnn'M IbIeukI, Ga. Dr. S. U. WlUon. 



OnDKR, EDEXTATA. 

]»A»i»VPO»ID.C. 

TatiiMJa »tepteiii-cinrtu<s, (Linn.,) Gray.— arm adillo.- 
ivfstt'rn United States anil South. 

10197. Motiiile.1. Tolinwn. Mesifo. C. 11. Laszla. 




IHIMAL RK80UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 21 



III. REPTILES. 
Obder, crocodilia. 

CROCODILID^. 

'oeodilas americanas* Scba.— Florida Crocodile. — South- 
ern Florida. 

6364. Honnted. Biscayne Bay, Fla. Purchased fh>m U. A. Ward. 

liffator mississippicnsiii, Daudiu. — Alligator. — Southeast- 
ern North America. 

9960. Cast. JacksonTille, Fla. F. C. Goodo. 
8543. Cast. Jacksonville, Fla. G. Brown Goode. 

Order, TESTUDINATA. 

TESTVDI]¥ID£. 

stvdo Carolina, Linn. — Florida Gopher-Tortoise. — South- 
eastern Korth America. 

9627. Cast. Florida. G. Brown Goode. 

studo Berlandieri, Agassiz. — Southwestern United States. 

8926. Brownsville, Tex. Dr. J. C. Merrill, U. 8. A. 

EIHYDID^. 

Jacoclemmys palustris, Gmelin. — Diamond-back Terrapin. 
— Qoast from New York to Texas. 

8709. Washington Market. J. W. Milner. 
90^. Cast. Mandeville, La. G. Kohn. 

eodemys rag^osa, Shaw. — ^Eed-bellied Terrapin. — ^New 
Jersey to Virginia. 

eOV\ Cast. Kinston, N. C. J. W. Milner. 

eodemys concinna, Leconte. — ^Florida Terrapin. — South- 
eastern United States. 

8907--8. Cast. Florida. Professor Baird. 

blliensis, 

U]e.La. G.K 



22 ANIMAL BE80URCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 

Id: 

■ 



CBELTDRID^. 

nacrochelys lacertina, Sclnv.— Alligatok Titetle. 

Cast. OreenvLUc, Miss. S. W. Fergusou. 

Chelydra serpentina, Lion. — Snapping Tortoise. — Canada 
Ecuador. 



iiijj^on, D, (.'. Josejili Piilmtr. 

TBIOUVCHIDjE. 



I 



Aspidonectes l^rox, Schw. — Soft-shell Tijbtli;.- 
Wcstfni Loiii.siauM. 



1 

4 



Aspidonectes spinil^r, Les.— Soft-siiell Turtle. — MiddU- ^;n« 
nortlicrn tritnitaries of the Mississipiii and the Saint lium 
[■ence. 

S309. Monnteil. RiniiiK 'Sun, Incl. 

9614. Alcoholic. M). Cannel. 111. 11. Ridgway. 

Chelonia mydas, Schw. — Gbeen Tubtle.— AUantic Coast 8oiitIIL.-b 
of Long Island. 
83^-^15367. Cost iu papier-macb6. New York market. E. O. Blockfonl. 

Chelonia virgata, Schw.— Paoifio Green Tobtlk,— Pacifi^Bc 
Coast. 

9639. Cost. San Diego, Cal. O. N. Hitchcock. 

Thalassochelys caonana, Linn. — Logoebhead Tubtle. 

8386-^15259. Cast. Now York market E. G. Blackford. 

Eretmochelys Imbricata, Linu. — Hawk's bill Turtle. 

Southern Atlantic Coast. 

. Cast. Now York market. E. G. Blackford. 

Eretmochelys sqnaniata, Linii. — Paoifio Hat^k's bill Tubtl^^^^ 
— Pacific Coast. 
12388. Shells. Fiji Island. U. S. ExpL Expedition. 
SPHARCiIDIB.£. 

Sphargis coriacea, Eondelet — Leatheebaok Tuetle. — ^Atlanti- ^^^ ■* 
Coast to Massachusetts. 
S3e9T-1526S. Cast. New York market E. G. Blackford. 



4SIMAL REROLRCES AND FI8HEEIES OF UNITED STATES. 



V. FISHES. 



Okdeb, pediculati. 

nAI.TUEID.£. 

cnbilfrons, Iticb.— Sea Bat. — West ludiau Fanna. 

Xer-ir. Caat. St. Augnstlne, Fla. Dr. J. M. Laing, U. S. A. 
800. Photograpli. U. S. Fish Commisaiuu. 

vespertilio, (Linn.) Cuv. — Sea Bat. — ^West Indian Fanna. 

1£5T5. AJcohollc Bperimen. AmiuoDa. Criti^li Mustuiu. 

LOPHIID^. 

,iU8 piscatorius, Linn. — Goose Fisn; Angler. — Nova Scotia 
to Cape Hatteras. 

Jfi06C. Alcoholic specimen. TotupkiniviUe, H. Y. Copley. 

14910. Caat. Woad'n Holl, Maaa. U. 6. Fish CommisBion. June 23, 1973. 

B57. Cart. Wood's Holl, Ma«8. U. S. Fish CommiflBion. 
IS, 13, 14, ir>. Pbolngrapliit. U. S. Fish Commission. 

AIVTEMIV ARIID^ . 
iphryne histrio, (Liuu.) Gill. — JIouse-fish. — Pelagic. 

Alcoholic Bi)ecimens, Wood's Hull, Mass. V. N. Eilnarda. 

Order, PLECTOONATHI. 

rotunda, Cnv. — SuN-Pisn. — yewfoundlaml to Cape Hatteras. ' 



,'. Cast. Noank, Conn. U. 8. Fish Commission. Sept. IC, 1974, 

IB833. Cufit. Noank, Conu. U. S. Fish Commisalou. Scpi. 16, 1B74. 
. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
764. Color Kketrli. {Ri.lianl.) U. S. Fish Coraroissiou. 

DIODOIVTIDjE. 

omycteriiN geomelricus, (Linn.) Kaup. — Bun -fish. — 
South of Capi' L'ad ; West Indian Fauna, &c. 

sea. Cnat. New Totk market, E. (i, Blackford, Oct. 7, IS?.'.. 

L CMt. Wood's Holl, SIuso. U. S. Fish CommisaioD. Ang. 1, 1973. 
e83-4-G. Colorsketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 



34 ANIMAL RESOUBCES AND FI8HEBIIS OP UHITEO 8X13X1. 
Chllomycterus ftdiffinosaB, (De Eay,) GUL 

13938. Alcoholic epocimen. Watcb Hill, R. 1. U. 8. Fiah CominiMinL i 
18, 1874. 

Trichodiodon pilOBOs, (Mitch.) Bleeker. — Haibt Box-nai 
Cape Cod to Cape HatteraB. 
. Alcoholic ipocimon. Beosly'a Point, N. J. ProC 6. F. Baiid. 1^. 

TETRODOMTID.£. 

Tetrodon laeTii:afD8, (Liim.) Gill.— Rabbit-fish. — Cape Cod 
Florida. 

148b7. Cust. Viuoj-ard Suund, Maw. U. S. Fish Conunisaian. Jnlj 13^ IS 
3,3. Pbotographa. U. fi. Fish CommiaBiou. 

Chllichf hys targidaei, (Mitob.) GiU. — Swell-fisb.— Cape C« 
Florida. 

10740. CuBt. Wood'8 Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
499. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fieh CommiBBion. 
615-16. Color sketch. Prof. Alox. Agasaiz. 

OSTRACIID.X. 

Ostraclum qnadricome. Lion.— Cow-fibh.— West bi 
Fatma. 

lOOOe. Cast. Bermadas. G. Brown Goode. Uaroh, 1872. 
664. Color sketch. (Burkhatdt.) Florida. Prof. Alex. Asasaii. Atit 
Boston Aqoarial Gardon June, 1860. 




UnifAL BB80URCES AND FISHERIES OF UKITED STATES. 25 

laltotes capriscus, 

L1S33. AlcohoUc Bpecimen. East Coast. John Sutherland. 

leplianolepis setiftr, (Bennet) Gill. — Stobeb's File-fisel — 
Kova Scotia to Florida. 

16519. Alcoholic specimen. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
Sept., 1875. 
617. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Capo Cod. Prof. Alox. Agassiz. Aug., 1859. 
496. Color sketch. (Bichard.) Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

Aug., 1875. 

« 

mthorhiiius occidentalism— West Indian Fauna, &c. 

16746. Alcoholic specimen. Chesapeake Bay. Capt. John Evans. Oct., 1875w 

latera cuspicauda, Bo Kay. — ^LoNa-xAiLED File-fish. — Gape 
Odd to Florida. 

16341. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 13, 1875. 

15569. Cast. New York. £. G. Blackford. 

15827. Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. 

15839. Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackford. Oct. 9, 1875. 

41^1'V-14. Color sketches. U. S. Fish Commission. 

tacanthus aurantiacus, (Mit^h.) Gill.— Obange File- 
fish. — Cape Cod to Florida. 

14914. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Aug. 14, 1873. 
15870. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Aug. 14, 1873. 
14916. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Aug. 14, 1873. 
5y 6, 7, 8, and 9. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
500. Color sketch. 



Order, LOPHOBRANCHII. 

hippocaiupidje:. 

ppocampns antiqaoriim, Lcacb. — Sea-horse ; Horse-fish. 
— Cape Cod to Cai>e Hatteras. 

21044. Alcoholic specimen. St. Gcorge^s Banks. G. Brown Goode. 

u» Peckianus, Storer.— Pipe-fish.— K^ew-foundland to 
Oape Hatteras. 

Wood's Holl« Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 



26 ANIMAL RE80UBCBS AND FISHEBIE8 OF DNITED STATES. 

Oedeb, teleocephali. 

heterosomata, 

SOLEID^. 

Achirui lineatus, (Limi.) Guv. — Asierican Sole ; Hoo Choke 
— Cape Cod to Florida. 

ir743. Cust, (upper ^idi-.) ^?lM>d'il Holt, Mqbh. U. 9. F1^ Coiciiimikiii. }'< 

21, 1874. 
15743. Cost, (ander Hide.) Wood's Holl, Msm. U. B. Fish CommiiMmi. Fi 
SI, 1S74. 
380. Photograpli. U. S. Fish Coiiimi»ioii. 
44B. Photograph, (upper Bide.) 
449. Photograph, (under Bide.) 
561. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agasaiz. 

Solea Tulgaris, QaenBel. — Sole. — Coast of Europe. 

1^13. CoBt. England. 

16. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

PIiE1JBO]lfECTID.£. 

Euchalarodas Patnami, Gill.— Putnau's Flat-fish.— Fom 
only in Salem Harbor. 

5368. AlcohoUo specimen. Salem, Mass. P. W. Pntnun. 

PseudopleuroDectes americanus, (Walb.) GilL — Flat-fib 




ANIMAL BESOUECES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 27 

flyptocephalutf cynoglossus, (Linn.) Gill.— Pole Floundeb. 
— ^^laine. 

'M. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
126^ Alcoholic specimen. Treat^s Island, Eastport, Mc. U. S. Fisli Commis- 
sion. Aug., 1872. 

lOphopsetta maculata, (Mitch.) Gill. — Wateby Floundeb; 
Spotted Tubbot. — Cape Cod tx) Cape Hatteras. 

15693. Cast. Wood-s Holl, Mass. U. S.*-^iBh Commission. 
10662. Cast. WooiVs Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 
25, 26. Photographs. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 
780-1. Color sketch. (Richanl.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

hiNiopsetta ocellaris, (De Kay) Gill. — Common FLouin)EB.— 
Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. 

15177. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. 8. Fish Commission. 

10721. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Conunlssion. 

14899. Cast. Block Island, R. I. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 24, lr^4. 

10664. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

15176. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Commission. 

27, 28. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

.'k£(-4. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. FiHh Commission. 

basnopsetta oblong^a, (Miteh.) Gill.— Foub-spotted Floundeb. 
— Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. 

10716. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
10661. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
29, 30. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

ka^nopsetta dentata, (Linn.) Gill. — Southebn Floundeb. — 
Cape Hatteras to Florida. 

18048. Alcholic specimen. St. John's River, Fla. Professor Bainl. 

ippoi^lossus americanus, Gill. — Ualibut.— Xewfoundliind to 
Cape Hatteras. 

15698. Cast. Eastern Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Feb. 28, 1874. 
15705. Cast. Eastern Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Feb. 28, 1874. 
16587. Cast. Boston, Mass. F. II. Johnson. Sept. 24, 1875. 
15732. Cast. 
31, 32. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

767. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

ippogrlossoides limandoidei§^, Guntlier.— Sand Dab. 

21037. Alcoholic specimen. Halifax, N. S. TT. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 11, 

1877. 
21616. Alcoholic specimen. Gloucester, Ma«s. U. 8. Fish Commission. .Inly 

29, 1878. 
UfKOk CML Wood's Holl, Mass. Y. N. Edwards. Feb. 2, 1874. 



28 ANIMAL BE80UBCE8 AND FISHrJUES OF UHITKD STATES. 

ReinhardtinB hippo^lossoldes, (Walb.) GilL— Obeenlui 

ToHBOi. — Greenland. 

14«iy. Cast, (n|>piT Hidu.) Nowfouufllaiid. E. G. Blackford. Feb., 1874. 
14^^69. fast. MonfuuiuUuna. E. G. Blaekibnl. Feb., X8T4. 

Xi. I'hotograpli. U. S. FisL CoiiiniigaioD. 
21564. Cast. Lu Have Bonk. U. S. Fisli Coimuisaion. 

Psettichthya melanostlctDBf Girard.— Galifobnia " Spotte 
Sole."— Coast of California. 

16701. Cast. San Francinco, Cal. L. Stone. Jan. 27, 1876. 

1G699. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. Jon. 27, 187a 

16700. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. Jon. Z7, 187U. 

16699, 16700, 16701. Alcoholic BpecimenB. 8au lYancisco. U.S. Fish Cumnuw 

36, 39. Photogrophs. U. 8. Fi«h Conmuasion. 

777. Color sketch. U. S. Fish Conunisslon. 

7M. Color aketcb. (Agassiz.) Prof. Alex. Agaaaiz. 

Platichthys stellatus, (Pall.) Gill. — Itouau Floutideb.— Coa 
of California. 

16696. Caxt. Sail Fraui:iiu.'o, Cal. L. gtouc. 
3S. Photograpli. U. S. Fish Comniisiuon. 
531-2. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Couuuisaiuu. 
657. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Fmiicisco. Prof. Aleic. Agassiz. X' 
1S5&. 

Parophrys vetalus. — " Sole." — Coast of California. 

17064. Alcoholic spocimcn. Sou Francisco, Cat. C. S. Fish Commiaoion. 
776. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish CommtMioa. 

Ancylopsetta qnadrocellata, GilL 




ANIMAL RB80URCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 29 

acmms Bairdii, Ooode & Bean. — Spike-Tatl. 

21014. Alcoholic specimen. (Type. ) Gulf of Maine. U. S. Fish Commission. 
Aug. 19, 1877. 

ollachias carbonarias, (Linn.) Bon. — Pollaok. — Greenland to 
Gape Hatteraa. 

15971. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
16B254. Cast. Martha's Vineyard. U. S. Fish Commission. July 30, 1875. 
41, 42, 43. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
787. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

Rdii9 morrhua, Linn. — God-fish.— Polar Begions to Gape Hat- 
teras. 

16770. Cast. Irish Sea. Liverpool Free Public Museum. 
14902. Cast. New York market. E. 0. Blackford. April 3, 1874. 
15923. Cast. Portland, Me. U. S. Fish Commission. 
44, 45, 381, 392. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
610. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

icn^i^adus proximus, (Girard) Gill. — ^Tom God. — Goast of Gall- 
fomia. 

16696. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. June 27, 1876. 
47. Photograph. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 
616. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 
1859. 

icroffadns tomcodus, (Walb.) Gill. — Tom God ; Frost-fish.— 
Newfoundland to Gape Hatteras. 

14634. Cast. Wood^s Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. June 11, 1873. 
14885. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. June 11, 1873. 
16608. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 27, 1875. 
46. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
602. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

elanoiTaninius aeglefinus, (Linn.) Gill.— Haddock.— New- 
foundland to Gape Hatteras. 

14897. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. June 18, 1873. 
14896. Cast. Portland, Me. U. S. Yiah Commission. Aug. 2, 1873. 
48, 49, 50. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
427. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

hycis chuss, (Walb.) Gill. — Hake. — ^Newfoundland to Cape Hat- 
teras. 

IGZ^. Cast. Boston, Mass. F. H. Johnson. 

hjCM tenuin, (Mitch.) De Kay. — Squirrel Hake. — ^Xewfound- 
^ land to Gape Hatteras. 

Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. June 18, 1873. 
ttoh^ U. 8. Fish Commission. 



30 ANIMAL BE8DTTBCES AND FI3HEG1ES OF UNITED STATES. 
Phrcie Chester!, Goodc & Bviiii. — Lonu-finned Hake. 

21*10. AIooliolJu BlietilDOn. (Tyi«'-) Gulf (if Maiiii-. U. S. Fisb Cuiiiiuu 
Aug. 27, 1W8. 

l^rophyci^ regius, (Wiilb.) Gill. — Spotted Codlixg.— fajw 
tu Ciipe Ilatterae. 
7(W. Cnliu- Hkiltli. (Emertou.) U. 8. Fiah CuoiniissioD. 
ili84,j-(i. Ciifts uiiil alcoholic sputimODB. New York. Fred. Mather. 

MolTa Tulgaris, Fleming. — Ling. — Polar Seas. 

11)775. CiiKt. Coiut of EDgUnil. Livcrgimil Freo Public Mnseum. 
aSKJ. I'!i<.ti.gniph. U. S. FUli Coniiuissiou. 

Rbinonemus caadacuta, (Storer) GUI. — Foub-beabded lioci' 
LING. — NoviV Scotia to Cape Cod. 
KHiSG. Ati'oliolii; apecimtii. Wood's UoU, Mum. V. N. Ednanlt 

Ciliala argentata, (Beiuli.) GUI. — Mackebrl Midob.— Greetibnl 

to Ciij>e natteras. 
ilili'.i. Ali'iihLilir.' Hjifcimeu. Vineyard Sounil, Mima. U. >*. Fish 

Hypslptera ar^entea, Giinthei'. 

■Jiatl. Ak.>li..li.' siHviin.ii, OffCiiix- Mny, K. J. 

Brottmius americnniit*, GilL- 



Cnpt, It. H. Uurlbcrt. 
-CusK. — Nova Scotia to Cape Oa 



106O.i. CjisI. l!.im.,ii, M»», Wiu. Prior, jr., a Co. Sept. K, 1875. 
I'>^<8G. Ciwt. Wood's Hull. Moiw. U. 8. Fiab Camiusdou. Feb. SI, 1^4. 
52. Photo}^])!). U. 8, Fisli Commiwiou. 
420. Color sketch, (ttiuhurd.) V. S. Fish Commiuiou. 




ANIMAL BE80URCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 31 

OPHIDIIDJB. 

p hldinwi marglnatiiiii, Mitch. — Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. 

10762. Alooholic specimen. Tompkiusville, N. Y. C. Copley. 

liYGODIDJB. 

(larces anguUlaris, (Peck) Storer.— Eel Pout.— Newfoundland 
to Cape Hatteras. 

14888. Cast. New York market. £. 6. Blackford. March, 1874. 
15694. Casl. Kantackot Shoals. U. S. Fish Commissioii. 
651. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

CRYPTACA]¥THID^. 

rjrptacanthodes maculatus, Storer.— Spotted Wby-mouth. 
— ^Nova Scotia to Cape Cod. 

16621. Proviucetown, Mass. U. 8. Fish Commissiou. 
1.5889. Cast. Portland, Me. U. S. Fish Commission. 
15890. Cast. Portland, Me. U. S. Fish Commission. 

423. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commissiou. 

613. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Boston. Prof. Alex. Agnssiz. Dec., 1861. 

ryi^tacanthodes inornatus, Gill. — Ghost-fish. •<— Coast of 
Massachusetts. 

1761. Alcoholic specimen. Maine. W. Stimpson. 

AmnoDYTiDJE:. 

liioodytes americanun.— Sa>d Eel. 

382. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commissiou. 

422. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commissiou. 

STI€H^ID^. 

ichJeus punctatns, (Fabr.) KeiuL. — Xorth Atlantic Coast. 

590. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 
21068. Alcoholic specimen. Halifax, N. S. U. S. Fisli Commissiou. Sept. 4, 
1877. 

■■it iioii mmniiii subbiAircatut^, (Storer) Gill. — Nova 
Scotia to Cape Cod. 

i^mm. I**^*^ N. S. U. S. Fish Commissiou. Aug. 25, 



ASIMAL RE80DKCKS AND FISHERIES OF TTNTTED STATES. 



XIPHIDIO^TID^. 

nunenoides mucronatus, (Mitch.,) Oill. — Bock Eel.— Kora 
Scotia to Cape Hatteras. 

I3S47. AJcoholio »iM>';i""'Q- Eastiiort, Jle, U, 8 
4^§. Color skotoL, I'rtif. Atcx. Agnssiz. 

nurienoide!« oraalii)*, (Gii-aiil) Gill. — Pacific liocK V.n^ 
Pacific (,'oa.st. 

630. Color akotfb. (Agiuwi/.) Ft. R.ii«^it«, Gulf of (iiwgiu, Wa-li.Trrr. Pni 
Alos. AgasRi/.. .Inly, lUS. 

AiVARRHlCHAJDID^. 

AnarrhichaH Tomerinus, (Ag.) Storer. — AVolf-fiso.— tinro- 
land to Cai)e Ilattcius. 

IIH3S. Cast. Uc>st«n, ilaaa. F. H. JolinBon. Sept. 8, 1^75. 
14900. CiMt. CoxBwnin'B Lntgo, K. I. IT. S. Full CommiMion. Jul; £, )9L 
37. Photograph. 11. S. Fi«li CouimiBsion. 
770. Colnt shctrJi. (Riphard.) V. S. FibU Commiiisioo. 

Anarrhichas lapns, Linn. 

■^li^ir,. Speuiuinn hi lirinc. Cl.miTHt.T. U. S. Fish C 

BATRACHIB^. 

Bntrachus tau, Limi.— Toad-fi«ii; Oyster-fish. — Nova 8cotJit» 
(Jnlf of Mexico. 




ANIMAL RE80UBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 33 

€Y€IiOPTERIDJE:. 

Cydopteras Imnpus, Liim.— Lump-fish.— North Atlantic. 

15688. Cast New York. E. G. Blackford. May 15, 1874. 
15730. Cast New York. E. 0. Blackford. April 18, 1874. 
16660. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

58. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

788. Color sketch. (Emerton.) Yonng specimen. Fisher's Island Sound. 
U. S. Fish Commission. Aug., 1874. 

liparididje:. 

Etfiparte lineata, (Lepechin) Kroyer. — Striped Lipabis.— North 

Atlantic. 

13960. Alcoholic. Watch HiU Reef, R. I. U. S. Fish Commission. Aug., 1874. 
788. Color sketch. (Emerton.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

Etfftliarifl Rlontagrni, Don. — Sea Snail.— North Atlantic. 

20433. Alcoholic. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

triolidje:. 

I^i^ctylopterus ToUtans, (Linn.) Lacep.— Flying Gurnard.— 

Temi>erate and Tropical Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

15673. Cast Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Aug. 8, 1873. 
. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

^■^lonotns carolinus, (Linn.) Cuv. & Yal. — ^BROAD-FmaERED 

Sea Eobin. — Cape Cod to Florida. 

59. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

443. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 
566. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

^■^onotns eTolans, (Linn.) Oill. — Striped Sea Bobin. — Cape 

Cod to Florida. 

15735. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

15727. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

16411. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commissiou. Sept. 25, 1875. 

60, 61, 62. Photographs. JJ. S. Fish Commission. 

401,402. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

AGONIDM. 

Idophoroides monopterygrius, (Bloch.) Storer.— Polar 
Seas and soath to Connecticnt. 

21700. Alcoholic. Massachusetts Bay. U. S. Fish CommissioiL 
Ball. N. M. No. 14 3 




L 



34 ANIMAL RBSOUBCES AND FIBHBRIB8 OF UNITED BTATB8. 



Cottiis octodecinispinosus, Klitch. — Sculpin. — Hova Scotia a 
Cape Hatteras. 

16*37. Caat. Boston, Moas. F. H. Jolmson. Sept. B, 1875. 

63. Photogiapli. U. S. Fbli Conimtasion. 
537-8. Color akotch. Prof. Alex. Agasalz. 

Cottns grcenlandicns, Cuv. & Val.— Geeenland Scultb.- 
Polar Eegions to Capo Cod. 

164:)6. Cast. BostuD, .Moss. V. U. Johnsou. 
GTi. Pliotograph. U. S. Fiuh Commiasion. 
.M-'i. Color eketcb. Prof. Ales. Agasaiz. 

Cotliis ITlitchilli, Cur. & Val. — Pigsty Sculpin. — New Eugiuni 
Coast. 

14806. Alcoholic HpccimiMia. Wood's Holl, Masa. U. S. Fish Commiaiion. 
62. Photograph. U. S. Fish Coininisstoii. 
!i46. Color Bket4:h. Prof. Alex. Agae^x, 

Uranidea riscosa, (Qald.) DeXay. — American Milleb^s Thixl 

6W. Color Bkctch. (Roetlcr.) Plymouth, Mobb. Prof. Alex. Agaosiz. Mint 
1860, 

nEmiTRIPTERIDJE). 

Hemitripterus aniericauus, (Giuel.) Cuvier.— Sea Kates.- 
Nowfomidlarid to Sew York ; Seas of Japan. 

1J736. Cast. WdoiI's Holl, Mas*. U. S. Fish Conn 




ANIMAL KL80UKCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 35 

liastonias anricalatus, (Oirard) Gill.— Blaok-eabed Book- 
fish. — Coast of Galifomia. 

612. Color aketoh. (Agaasiz.) San Francisco, CaL Prof. Alex. Agaasiz. Nov., 
1859. 

t^astomus flisciatus, (Oirard) Oill.— Banded Book-fish.— 
Coast of Califomia. 

483. Color sketch. (Richard.) San Francisco. Livingston Stone. L^. S. Fish 

Commission. March, 1876. 
614. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) Deep Bay, Mayne Id., W. T. Prof. Alex. 

Agassiz. May 20, 1859. 

lastomus elong^atus^ (Girard) Oill. — ^Pacific Coast. 

643. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 
1859. 

lastosomus melanops, (Girard) Oill. — ^Black-headed Bock- 
fish. — Coast of California. 

653. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 
1859. 
16689. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. 
482. Color sketch. (Richard.) ' U. S. Fish Commission. 

^astodes pancispinis, (Ayres) Gill.— Coast of Califomia. 

637. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 

1859. 

irns constellatus, (Oirard) Gill.— ^< Bock Trout."— Coast of 
Califomia. 

16697. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. 

69. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

455. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

iTun pictns, Girard. — Pacific Coast. 

642. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 
1859. 

ira9 g^uttatus, Girard. — Coast of Califomia. 

638. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 

1859. 

SCARIDJB. 

iFUs 9qualidii8, Poey.— Tawny Parrot-fish. — West Indian 
Fanna. 

973. Staffed skin. Havana market. Prof. F. Poey. 

Abildg^aardii. — Parrot-fish. — West Indian Fauna. 

Stafied skin. Havana market. Prof. F. Poey. 



36 ANIMAL BE80TJBCB8 AKD FISHBBIB8 OP DKITED BTATH. 

Scarus radians, VbA. — Spanish Pobot.— West Indian Fmou. 

550. Color sketch. (Burkhnrdt.) New PrOTidence. Pni£ AIbx. AgMi 
F. 8. Shaw. April, 1861. 

Pseiidoscarus c«Braleui.— Blue Pabsot-fish; Kiliuoobe. 
West Indian Fauna. 

9733. stuffed akin. Havana market. Prot F. Foey. 

IiABRID.£. 

Tantoga onitiSf (Linn.) Oiintlier. — Tautoq; BLAOK-FiSH^-B^y 

Fundy to Sonth Carolina. 

10598. Caat Wood's HoU, Hobs. U. S. Fish Conuniasion. 
15022. Cast. Wood'8 Holl, Hose. U. S. Fiah ConuniBeion. 

14893. Caat. Cbeaapeake Bay. U. 8. Fi«h Comminion. May 13. 

10599. Cast. Wood's Holl, Haas. U. B. Fish CommiMion. Hay 12. 
10643. Caat. Wood's Holl, Uass. U. S. Fiah Commiarttm. 

15959. Caat. Wood's HoU, Maae. U. S. Fiah Conmuasion. 
10599. Caat. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fisli CommiBtion. 
70, 71. Photographs. U. S. Fish ConunissioD. 

450. Color sketch. (Adult.) (Bichard.) U. 8. Fish CommiMion. 

451. Color sketch. (Young.) U. S. Fish Conuniasion. 
S54. Color sketch. (Bnrkhardt.) Piof. Alex. Agaani*. 
661. Color sketch. Pio£ Alex. Agassis. 

Tautogolabras adspersns, (Walb.) Gill.— Cdnkeb; GhoosiI' 

KewfonndlaDd to Gape Hattcras. 

14894. Caat. Wood's Holl, Maas. U. 8. Fiah Commiadon. 
10746. Caat. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. 8. Fiah Commiaalon. 

381. Photograph. U. S. Fish Comndsaion. 




ASJUAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 37 



po]iia€E]%tridje:. 

lyphidodon saxatiUs, (Lmn.) Ciiv.— Seboeant-majgr.— West 
Indian Fauna. 

589. Color aketch. (Borkhardt.) Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 
591. Color aketch. (DaU.) Bermndas. Alive in Bamuiu's Aqnarium. Prof. 
Alex. Agaasiz. Dec., 1862. 

omacentrns leucostictus, M. & T.— West Indian Fauna. 

81703. Alcoholic. Ft Jefferson, Fla. Thos. Moore. 

eliaiite« insolatus, G. & Y.— West Indian Fauna. 

21704. Alcoholic. Ft. Jefferson, Fla. Thos. Moore. 

ElfIBIOTO€ID^. 

mblotoea l¥ebbl, Girard.— Coast of Galifomia.' 

G26. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 
1859. 

nbiotoca Jacksoni, Agassiz. — Coast of California. 

€25. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Nov., 
1859. 

Kntotoea lateralis, (Ag.) A. Ag.— Striped Peboh.— Coast 
of California. 

10691. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. 
72. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
456. Photograph. U. 8. Fish Commission. 
658. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) Crescent City, Cal. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

May, 1859. • 

669. Color sketch. (Female.) (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

Nov., 1859. 
660. Color sketch. San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. April, 1860. 

imaliclithys Tacca, Giiard. — Coast of California. 

627. Color sketch. (Agassiz.) San Francisco. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. April, 
1860. 

etrograster aggregatus, Ag.— Pacific Coast. 

641. Color sketch. (Female.) (Agassiz.) San Francisco, Cal. Prof. Alex. 
Agassiz. Dec, 1859. 

jrpsurus Caryl, Agass. — Perch. — Pacific Coast. 

606. Color sketch. San Francisco, Cal. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. April 1, 1860. 

iMUierodon Aircatui^, Girard. — Coast of California. 

080L Colar sketch. (Female.) (Agassiz.) San l^^ncisco. Prof. Alex. Agassis. 
Hot., 1659. 



38 ANIMAL BEB0UBCE8 AND FIBHEBIB8 OF UMTTED STATBI. 

AmphisUchus ar^nteos, Ag. — Coast of Califinnia. 

635. Colorsketch. (AgasEdz.) (Mole.) Son Frtuiciaco. Prof: Ahz. A|M 
AprU, tS60. 

Amphlstichas similis, Girard.— Coast of California. 

634. Colorsketch. (Agassiz.) San Pronciaco. Prot Alox. A^aMii. Ko 
1859. 

Rbachochilu8 toxotes, Agaasiz.— Coast of C^ifornia. 

633. Color Bkotcli. (Agosaiz.) San FronciBco. Prof. Alex, rtgilwii Uu 

1860. 

Holconotus pnlchellus, A. Ag. — Coast of California. 

633. Color sketch. (Male.) (Agossiz.) Son Fnuicisco. Prot Alex. Agw 
April, 1860. 

Bolconotns rhodotems, Oirard. — Coast of California. 

641. Colorsketch. (Femolo.) (Agasaiz.) San FnmcUco. Prof. Alex. A^ 
Dec., 1859. 

Hyperprosopon argenteaa. Gibbon. — Coast of California. 

630. Coloriketoh. (ycmalo.) (Agaasiz.) San FTandBoo. Pn>£Akx.Apa 

March, 19G0. 

62S. Colorsketch. (Fonutle.) (Agaasiz.) SanFranciaco. Prot Alex. AgM 

April, 1860. 

Abeona Trowbridgii* Girard.— Coast of California. 

WS. Color sketch. (Female.) (Agasaiz.] California. Pro£ Alex. Jkgm 

teivthididj:. 




▲HIMAL RESOURCES AMD FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 39 

ATOtlurodiis maculocinctus, Oill. 

10956. Alcoholic specimens. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 1876. 

oUicanthus tricolor, (Bl.) Lac.— Black Angel-fish.— West 
Indian Fauna. 

593. Color sketch. (Borkhardt.) Santa Cmz. Prof. Alex. Agassiz; Dr. 

Jefiies. 
5d4. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Sombrero Id., W. I. Prof. Alex. Agassiz;. 

8. R. Knox. 

olacanthus clliaris, (Linn.) Lac. — ^Anoel-fish. — West Indian 
Fauna. 

575. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Florida. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Alive in 

Boston Aquarial Gardens. June, 1860. 

576. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Florida. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Alive in 

Boston Aquarial Gardens. June, 1860. 

577. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Florida. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Alive in 

Boston Aquarial Gardens. June, 1860. 
21876. Alcoholic. Bermudas. G. Brown Goode. 

583. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Bermudas. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Alive in 
Bamum's Aquarium. 186^ 

Noacantlius arcuatns, (Linn.) Cuv. — ^Palometta. — ^West In- 
dian Fauna. 

602. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Florida. Prof Alex. Agassiz. Alive in 
Boston Aquarial Garden. June, 1860. 

XIPHIID^. 

ipliias g^ladiusy Sword-fish. — ^Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

10126. Cast in papter-mach^. Off Nomau's Laud, Mass. U. 8. Fish Commission. 
Aug., 1875. 

21699. Sword If inches long. Taken from nostril of Lamna oomvUoa. Glouces- 
ter, Moss. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 26, 1878. 

rtrapturus albidns, Poey. — Spike-fish.— Gape Cod to West 
Indies. 

15834. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. July 23, 1873. 

73. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

411. Water-color sketch. U. S. Fish Commission. 

btiophorus americanus, Cuv. & Yal.— Sail-fish.— Atlantic 
Coast of America. 

16664. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Aug., 187*2. 

74. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

TRICHIVRID^. 

iPicUums lepturus, Linn.— Hair-tail; Soabbardfish. — 
Temperate and Tropical Atlantic. 

RA. CMt Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
"fllolu (Burkhardt.) Prof Alex. Agassiz. 



40 ANQUL BESOUBCEB AND FISHESIEa OF UHITRD ST&im. 

Scomber scombrus, Linn. — mackbbel.— Korthem Adantie. 

1644% Cast. Ncn' York market. E. O. Blackford. Bept. 10, 181^ 
10604. Cast. (Male.) Washington market. & F. Baird. 
10650. Caat. Wood's Holl, Maas. U. 8. FIbIi Commudon. 
10650. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fisli Commiauon. 
76, 77, 7S, 393, 395. Fhotograptu. U. S. Fiat CommiMioii. 
755-6-7. Color sketchea. U. S. Fish Commisaion. 
654. Color sketcli. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

Sarda pelamys, (Linn.) Ciiv. — Bonito. — ^AUa&tic and U«dite 



16325. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. V. S. Fish Commiaaion. 
1574a Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. 
79, 80, 81. Photographs. U. 8. Fiab Commission. 

4e7-a Color sketehue. {Richard.) Wood's HolL U. 8. Fish Ccmmk 
1875. 
558. Color sketch. New York. Prof. Alex. Agaasit. Oct-. 20, 1817. 

Orcynas flecnndi-dorsalis, (Storer) GiU.—TumrT; Hoi 
MACKEBEL. — Newfoundland to Florida. 

16509. Cast. Now York market. E. G. Blackford. 

aa, 83, m. photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

436, 37, 96, 513. Color sketches. (Bichard.) U. S. Fish CommlnioiL I 

Orcynns alliteratns, (Baf.) Gill.— Litti^ Tuinnr; Albioob 
Pelagic. 




AHIMAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 41 

fMain maciilatuin, (Mitcb.) Cuv. — Spanish Mackerel. — ^At- 
lantic shores of Tropical and Temperate America. 

15367. Cast Norfolk, Ya. U. S. Fish Commission. 
16407. Cast Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
15750. Cast. New York. E. 0. Blackford. 
86. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

514. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

663. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

rMain regalef (El) Cuv. — Spotted CERO.^West Indian Fauna 
and north to Cape Cod. 

16688. Cast. Key West, Ha. £. G. Blackford. 
87, 88, 89. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
406-515. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 
21612. Stuffed. Cuba. Prof. Felipe Poey. 

'Mum caballa, Cuv. & Yal. — Cebo. — Atlantic Shores of Tropi- 
cal and Temperate America. 

1647& Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackfonl. Sept. 14, 1875. 
90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
405-486-7. Color-sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 
21611. Staffed. Cuba. Prof. Felipe Poey. 

■ler setipinnis, (Mitch.) Ayres. — Silyeb-fish. — Maine to 
Florida. West Indian Fauna. 

ie915. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. V. N. Edwards. Sept. 7, 1873. 
16615. Cast. New York. E. G. Blackford. 

l^relo«us Tomer, Lac. — Silveb-fish. — Gape Cod to Florida, 
and West Indian Fauna. 

16175. Cast. New Yprk. E. G. Blackford. 
15905. Cast. Wood's Roll, Mass. V. N. Edwards. 

96. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
440, 495. Color sketches. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

irmtraetus pisquetus, (Cuv. & Yal.) Gill.— Yellow Cue- 
vall6. — ^Cape Cod to Florida. 

16471. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mikss. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 14, 1875. 

15S43. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

1588S. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 

15887. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 

98, 99, 100. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

778-9. Color sketches. (Richanl.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

"mchitrops crumenophthalmus, (Bloch.) Gill.— Bigeteo 
Scab ; Goggle-eye. — Pelagic. 

ilaoholio. New York market. E. G. Blackford. 
U. 8. Fish Commission. 



42 ANIHAL BBS0UBCB8 AND FI8HBRIE8 OP UHITBD BTATB& 

Decapterns puDCtatus, (Mitch.) GUL — ^BoTJim Bosnia 

Indian Fauna and north to MassaohTiaettB. 



Decapterua macarellus, (C. & Y.) Gill. — Maoeesel S 
West Indian Faona and north to Maaaachnaetts. 

16239. Alcoholic specimen. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. 8. Fish CommiMio 
21630. Alcoholic. Newport, R. I. Bamuel Powel. 

Carangns hippos, (Linn.) Gill. — Hobse Cbetall£.— A 

Coasts of Temperate and Tropical America, East '. 

and Australian Seas. 
14359. Cut. Florida. E. O. BlBckford. 

101. Photograph. U. B. Fish CommiBHion. 
21654. Alcoholic. Newpo», R. I. Samuel Puwel. 

Carang^Ds chrysos, (Mitch.) Gill. — Yellow Macebhbl.- 
Indian Fauna and north to Cape Cod. 

15708. Cast. Wood's Holl, Moss. U. S. Fish Commiaaiou. Sept. 15, It 
15746. Cast Wood's Hull, Moss. U. 8. Fish Commission. Oct.B, 1873 
15696. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. 8. Fish CommiMion. 
102, 103. Fbotogrnphs. U. 8. Fish Commiuioii. 

Blepharichthys crinitua, (Akerly) GiU.--THBEAi>-FigH.- 
Indian Fauna and uotih to Capo Cod. 

IB520. Cast. Wood's Holl, Maas. U. 8. Fish CommiaBlon. Sept. 16, ISTi 
105-105. Photographs. U. S. Fish CommiasioD. 




ANDIAL SE80UBCES AKD FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 43 

tolatmctus sonatas, (Mitch.) Gill.— BAia)ED Buddeb-fish.— 
Cape Cod to Florida. 

16172. Cast Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 14, 1875. 
16638. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
106-9. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

477. Color sketch. U. S. Fish Commission. 

478. Color sketch. U. S. Fish Commission. 

479. Color sketch. U. S. Fish Commii»ion. 

eriola Lalandii, 0. & Y. t — ^Ambeb-fish. — Atlantic Ocean ; Japan. 

16709. Cast Florida. £. 0. Blackford. 

110. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

IflffopUtes occidentalis, (linn.) Gill.— Leatheb Jacket.— 
West Indies } occasional on coast. 

16354. Cast. New York market. £. Q. Blackford. Ang. 13, 1875. 

111. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

489. Color sketch. (Bichard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

CORYPHJBlVIDii:. 

irjrplittna Suenri, Cuv. & Yal. — ^Dolphin. — ^Pelagic; occa- 
sional on coast. 

16441« Cast New York market. E. Q. Blackford. 

. Color sketch. (Bichard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

16480. Cast. New York. E. Q. Blackford. 
16488. Cast. New York. £. Q. Blackford. 

iry^hiena punctulata, (Cuv. & Yal.) Gthr.— Small-spotted 
Dolphin. — ^Pelagic ; occasional on coast. 

16406. Cast Noank, Conn. J. H. Latham. Aug. 25, 1875. 
112, 113, and 114. Photographs. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 

STROnATEIDiE. 

ilinuriehthys perciformis, (IVIitch.) Gill. — Black Euddbs- 
FISH. — ^Newfoundland to Cape Hatteras. 

16616. Cast. Martha's Vineyard. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 25, 1875. 
15935. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
544. Color sketch. (Bichard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

^ronotus triacanthus, (Peck.) Gill.— Habyest-fish ; Butteh- 
FiSH. — ^Maine to Cape Hatteras. 

16691. Cast Wood's HoH, Mass. U. S. Fiah Commission. 
116. Fliotograph. U. S. I'ish Commission. 
6fr-6L Color aketches. (Bichard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 



44 AHIHAL BLSODRCBS AND FISHEBIBS OP UlTITSD STATH 

PepriluB Ciardenil, (BL, Schn.) QilL— Shobt Hastzst- 
West Indian Fauna and nortli to K'ev Y<fflc 



LATILID^. 

Caiilolatilns microps, Goode & Bean. — Gnlf of Hexico. 

S097I. Aloobolic. PeuBacolo, Fla. Silas Slenms. 

BEBYCID^. 

HoloceDtrum sogo, Bloch.— Squibbkl.— West lodiaD 1 
accidental on coast ; found at Sowport, B. L 

rra Color Bketch. (BntkhaMt.) Bemindaa. Prof. Alex. AfcavU. 

Id Bamimt's Aquarium. Dec., 1863. 
&95. Color dkelcli. (BnrUuirdt.) Kew Provideace. Pro£ Alex. Af 

S. Shaw. April, 1861. 
21^33. Alcoholic. Bermudiw. J. M. Jones. 

SCIAEIVID.X. 

Cynoscion rcgalis, (Bl.) Gill — Squeteague; Weak-fish.- 
Ann to Florida. 

16316. Caat. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Viah Conuuiaaioii. Jnlj S7, U 
12216. Caat. Wood's Holl, Hobs. tl. 8. Fish CommiMrion. Joly S7. IB 
116, 117, lie, 119. Pbotograiihs. U. 8. Fieb CoouoiMioit. 
469-70. Color sketches. (Eichaiil.} U. S. Fish Commisaioii. 




AKIIIAL RESOURCKS AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 45 

iploldonotus gri^nnniens, Baf.— Fbesh-wateb Drum.— Great 
Lakes and Mississippi Valley. 

15701. Caet. Sandusky, Ohio. J. W. Milner. 1873. 
126-127. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

ostomns obliquus, (Mitch.) De Kay. — Spot.— Cape Cod to 
Florida. 

15616. Cast. Norfolk, Ya. U. S. Fish Commission. 
15817. Cast. Juno 10, 1873. 

141. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

567. Color sketch. New York. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Oct. 26, 1847. 

bstomiM xanthurus, Lacep.— Tellow-tailed Spot. — Sonth- 
em Atlantic States. 

142. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

airdlella punctata, (Linn.) Gill.— Silyt:r-fish ; Yellow 
Tail.— Cape Cod to Florida. 

143. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

19060. Alcoholic. St. John's River, Florida. Q. Biown Goode. 

riaenops oeellatusi, (Linn.) Oill.— Bed Bass ; Spotted Bass. — 
Cape Cod to Florida ; Gulf of Mexico. 

16463. Cast Washington market. J. W. Milner. 
16730. Cast. New York. E. 0. Blackford. 
tn, 129, 130. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
. Oil painting. (J. H. Richard.) 

Mitlelrms albunius, (Linn.) Oill. — Southern Eino-fish. — 
Cape Hatteras to Florida. 

137. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
19081. Alcoholic. St. John's River, Fla. Q. Brown Ooode. 

cntieirrus nebulosus, (Mitch.) Oill.— Kino-fish.— Cape Cod 
to Florida. 

16219. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. July 27, 1875. 
15579. Cast New York market. E. G. Blackford. October 14, 1875. 
15579. Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackford. October 14, 1875, 
131, 132, 133, 134, 135, and 136. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
508-9-10-11-12. Color sketches. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 



L 



ropogon undulatus, (Linn.) Cuv. & yal.—CROAK£R.— At- 
lantic Coasts of America south of Cape Cod. 

15645. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Commission. Jnne 19, 1873. 
168101 Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Commission. Jnly 18, 1873. 
. U9, 140. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

^l^thoHHa. 81. John's River, F\a. G. Brown Goode. 



46 ANIMAL BESODBCES AHD FIBHBBIE8 OP DHTTBD flTATBa. 



Eiicinostomns arffeateus, B. & G. — Cape Cod and. ooatliv 

16960. Alcoholic. Wood's Roll, Maos. U. S. Pish CcHumiirioii. 

Encinostonms Iieflroyif Goode. — Bebmui>a Shad. — ^Weetlo 

Fanna. 

21358. Alcoholic. BonnudAa. O. Brown Goods. 

PIRIEIiEPTERKD^. 

Pimelepteras Boscii, Lacep. — Bbrail— West Indian Faosa 

north to Capo Cod. 
20B44. Alcoholic. Newport, B. I. 8. Powell. 
30635. Alcoholio. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish ConunioBion. 
S136& Alcoholic. -BenondaB. 0. Blown Good«. 

SPARID.£. 

Laffodon rhoiuboides* (Linu.) Holbrook.— Sailob^ Ohod 
West Indian Fanna and north to Cai>e Cod. 
21280. Alcoholic. St. John's Biver, Fht. G. Biowu Goode. 

Archosargus probatocephalu«,(Walb.}GilI. — Shbxpshk 

Gape Cod to Florida ; Golf of Mezioo. 
10685. Cast. WMhington muket-. J. W. Milnot. 
15825. Cast. New Toik market. £. 6. Blackfoid. October SO, IBTS. 
16826. Cast. New Tork market. E. O. Blackford. October 1^ 1B7&. 




AMIHAL RE80UBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 47 



PRISTIPOnATIDiB. 

emsrliun arcuatumyGuY.&Yal.— Blue-ohegked Bed-mouth. 
— South Atlantic Coast of United States. 

14907. Cast. Florida. E. G. Blackford. 

lenijrliiiii fbrmosum, (Linn.) Cuv. — Squibbel Bed-mouth. — 
South Atlantic Coast of United States. 

15S4e. Cast. Florida. £. Q. Blackford. 

Binjrliim, sp. — South Atlantic Coast of United States. 

15840. Cast Florida. £. 0. Blackford. 

Mmylum chrysopterum, (Linn.) Cuv.t — Yellow -finned . 
Gbunt. — South Atlantic Coast of United States. 

15918. Cast. Florida. £. Q. Blackford. 

Mmylum elegans, Cuv. & Yal.— Blue-stbifed Bed-mouth.— 
South Atlantic Coast of United States. 

15815w Cast. Florida. £. G. Blackford. 

573. Color sketch. (Dall.) Florida. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Alive in Boston 

Aqnarial Garden. Juno, 1860. 

574. Color sketch. (Bnrkhardt.) Bermudas. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Alive in 

Bamnm's Aqnarinm. Nov. 1862. 

ftmylmii arara, Poey!— Ababa Bed-mouth.— West Indian 
Fauna. 

502. Water-color sketch. (Borkhardt.) Horida. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. Alive 
in Boston Aqnarial Garden. June, 1860. 

rtliopristis AilTomaculatus, (Mitch.) Gill.— Speckled 
Gbunt. — South Atlantic Coast of United States, 

15812. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Commission. 
15814. Cast. Norfolk) Va. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 
1590a Cast. 

■itotremiM Tirginicus, (Linn.) Gill. — South Atlantic Coast of 
United States. 

15003. Cast. Florida. E. O. Blackford. April 16, 1874. 
148. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

551. Color sketch. (Bnrkhardt.) New Providence. Prof. Alex. Agassiz ; F. 
S. Shaw. April, 1861. 



^ 



anus Blackfordii, Goode & Bean.— Bed Snappeb.— We^t 
Indian Fauna and north to Savannah Bank. 

BQ. Cast New York market. E. 0. Blackford. May 7, 1874. 
Waahington market. J. W. Milner. 
••qVlL U. S. Fish Cfflmniiwion. 



48 ANIHAL BESOUSCEa AND FISBEBIEg OF UHITED STATB 

Lu^anus, ep. — Snapper. — ^Wost Indian Fanna and Sonlii 

lautic States. 

15917. Cast. Florida. E. G. BlAckford. 

IiUtjanus, sp. — South Atlantic Coast of United States. 
in641. Cut. Kej West, llo. E. O. Btackfonl. 

Lu^anns caxis^ (Bl., Scbn.) Gill.— Obat Snappes.— West 

Fauna and Soathem Atlantic Statea. 

18101. Alcobolic. Bennn^i. Q. Brows Ooode. 

IiU^anus Steamsli, Qoode & Bean. — Gulf Snappeb.— < 
Mexico. 
21330. Ca«t. PensMola, FIa. Silu Steams. 

Rhomboplites, aurombeus, (Gut. & Yal.) G-ilL — 3fAK 
SsAPPEK.— West Indian Fauna. 

21S24. Alcoholic. Charleeton, S. C. C. C. Leslie. 
21338. Alcoholic. PenMtcols, >1a. Silaa Steviu. 

Ocynrns chrysurns, (Bl.) GilL— Golden Tail.— West 
Fauna. 
14B0^ Cut. New Tork maA^L Fbrida. E. Q. BUckfonL April 1& 
150. Fhob^nph. U. 8. Fish Commuaioa. 

G65. Color sketch. (Bnrkhardt.) New Proridenoe. Piot Akx. Ap 
8. Shaw. Ap^l, 1661. 

CEIVTRARCIUn».£. 




AKIMAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 49 

Icropterus pallidas, (Eaf.) Gill & Jordan.— LARaE-MOUTH 
Black Bass. — Great Lakes, Mississippi Eiver and tribu- 
taries; Southern States; introduced northward. 

10380. Caat. Norfolk, Va. Dr. H. C. Yarrow. 

1066a Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. 8. Fish Commission. Nov. 5, 1873. 

10381. Cast. Norfolk, Va. Dr. H. C. Yarrow. 
15880. Cast. CarroUton, Ky. J. W. Milner. 
10880. Cast. Norfolk, Va. Dr. H. C. Yarrow. 
155, 156. Photographs. U. 8. Fish Commission. 

teropterus salmoides, (Lac.) Gill.— Small-mouthed Black 
Bass. — Great Lakes and Mississippi Valley; introduced 
eastward. 

15fi97. Cast. Potomac River. M%j. Hobbs. 

PERCIDiE. 

^rca fluTiatUis, L.— Yellow Perch.— Fresh waters of East- 
em United States and Western Europe. 

14976. Cast. Washington market. G. Brown Goode. Feb. 27, 1875. 
167, 168, 169. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

792. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

Ixostedium Titreum, (Mitch.) Jordan & Gopeland, (Yal.) Gope. 
— ^Yellow Pike-perch.- Fresh waters of Central United 
States. 

15668. Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackford. 
14862. Cast. Sandosky, Ohio. J. W. Milner. Oct., 1873. 
611. Color sketch. (Roetter.) Sackett's Harbor, N. Y. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 
Nov., 1868. 
1566a Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. Not. 5, 1875. 
ITO, 171, 172, 173, 174. Photographs. U. 8. Fish Commission. 

793. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

isostedium canadense, (Smith) Jordan. — Canada Pike- 
perch. — St. Lawrence River to the Upper Missouri, 

178. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
15732. Cast. Ohio River. J. \7. Milner. 
15837. Cast. 
175, 176, 177. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

SERRAlVIDiE. 

linephelus morio, (Cuv.) Gill. — ^Eed-bellied Snapper. — ^West 
Indian Fauna and Southern Atlantic States. 

12516. Cast. Washington market. J. W. Milner. 
166. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

Iteeplielas, sp.- Snapper.— West Indian Fauna and Southern 
^ Atlantic States. 

OmI. IteidA^ £. G. Blackford. 



50 AFDUL RBS0TTKCE8 ASD FISHBRIBS OP UNITBD STATU. 

Eplnephelns DrammoMd-Hayi, Goode & Bean.— Stib € 

PER; Hno); John PAW.— West Indian Fauna. 
16795. Cast. South Florida. E. G. Blackford. 
S1355. Alcoholic. Fousacola, FIa. Silas Steama. 
• '. Color sketch. Bennnda. CoL H. Dnmunond-Hay. 

Epinephelus niffritaa, Holbrook.— Black Obodfeil—Com 

Florida. 
21339. Cast. Pcnsacola, Fla. Silas Steatiu. 

Epinephelus striatns, (Bloch.) Oil]. — Haiii^bt; Qrovtsl 

West Indian Fauna. 
16088. Alcoholic. Beimndas. G. Bromi Ooode. 
562. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Bennndas. ProfL Alax. Aga«dt. AliT< 
Bamnm's Aquarium. Sov., 1863. 

Epinephelus gnttutnn, (OmeL) Goode.— Bebitoda Hind.— ^ 
Indian Fauna. 

16118. Alcoholic Bermndaa. G. Brown Ooode. 
587. Color sketch. (Burkhardt.) Bennndaa. Pio£ Alex. Agaans. Alit 
Banium's Aqiiariimi. Nov., 1663. 

Tri»otropis nndalosnSf (Cut.) Oill.f— Book Gboufbs.— Ci 

Hattera« to Florida; West Indian Fauna. 

15462. Cast. New York market. £. O. Blackford. June 14, 1873. 

l&esi. Cast. New York market. £. O. Blackford. Juoe 14, 1S75. 

704. Color sketch. (Bichard.) U. S. Fish C 



Promlcrops ^uasa, (Poey) Gill. — Jew-fish; Guasa. — West : 




AHIMAL BB80URCE8 AND FI8HEBIE8 OF UNITED STATES. 51 

LABRACIDJS. 

K^ciis llneatus, (Sclrn.) Gill.— Stbiped Bass; Eook-fish. — St. 
Lawrence to Florida. 

10G64. Cast. (Female.) Potomac River. Dr. H. C. Yarrow. 

15737. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. May 27, 1873. 

15725. Cast Washington market. G. Brown Gk>ode. 

15706. Cast. New York. E. G. Blackford. Nov. 28, 1874. 

185-186, 187. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

782-3. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

ecus clury8op§9 (Bafl) 6111. — ^White Bass. — Great Lakes and 
Mississippi Valley. 

15807. Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. Oct. 7, 1875. 
188. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
503. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

rone americana, (Gmel.) Gill.— White Peboh.— Nova Scotia 
to Florida. 

10748. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

10729. Cast. (Female.) Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

10730. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
166ia Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
766. Color sketch. (Richard. ) U. S. Fish Commission. 

EPHIPPIIDiE. 

rephippus quadratus, (Gun.) Gill.— Moon-fish. — Gape Cod 
to Florida ; West Indian Fauna. 

14886. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Conmiission. July, 1873. 

14887. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Commission. July, 1873. 
15820. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Commission. 

196, 197. Photographs. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 

LOBOTID^. 

botes surinamensis, Guv. — Triple-tail Flasher.— Gai)e 
Cod to Florida ; West and East Indies. 

15702. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. August 28, 1873. 
16202. Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackford. July 20, 1875. 
201, 202. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

POmATOIfllD^. 

matomus saltatriiL, (Linn.) Gill.— Blue-fish.- Pelagie. 

15871. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. V. N. Edwards. Juno 11, 1873. 
1X106. CmI. Norfolk, Va. G. Brown Goodo. 
Cmst 

«i- 198, 193, 194, 195, 386. Photographs. U. 8. Fish Commission. 
bIim. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 



ANIMAL EES0UECE8 AND FISHEBIKS OF UNITED STATKIL 



EliACATID^. 

Elacate canadu§, (Limi.) Gill. — Cobia; Cbab-baxeb. — Cape Cod 
to West Indies. 

16060. Cost. Now Yurk market. E. 0. Blackford. July 30, 18TS. 
14922. Cast. Point Lootont, Va. J. H. Skidmore. July 9, 1874. 
196, 199, 200. Pholographa. U. S. Fisb Comniisaiou. 

PRIACAIVTHID^. 

Pseudopriacanthns altu§, (Gill) Blevker. — SnoBT Biq-£'\x- 
Cupe Cod to Cape Hiitterae. 

203. Pbotograph. U. S. Fiali Commisaion. 

441. Color Bkotcb. (Giohard.) U. S. I'lah Conuniesioii. 
1!>583. Alcoholic. Wood's Doll, Muss. U. S. Flsti ComiuUeiou. S«pt, ISn. 
mte4. Alcoholic. Wood's Hoi], Ma«s. U. S. Fisli ConunUsion. 1876. 

ECHEIVEIDID.^. 

LeptecheneiH naiierateoide«t, (Zuiew.) Gill.— Bemora ; Srcos- 

Fisn. — Coast geuerally. 

16071. Cast. Wood's HoU, Muss. U. S. Fisb ComnuBsiou. July 10, Iffli 
IflfilT. Caet. Wood's Holl, Moss. U. S. Viih CommissioD. gept. IS, ISTS. 
16344. Cast. Wood'a Uoll, Maaa. U. S. Fish Conuuissioii. Aug. 10. l«Ji 

206, 207, 20a. Pboiograplia. U. S. Fish Conunission. 
541-2-3. Color ekeU-h. (Riplianl.) U. S. Fiah CommiBaion. 



RenioropMis bracliyptern, (Lnwe) Gill. — Swohd-fish Succel 




ANIMAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 53 

^hynena picuda. — Southern Babraouda. — West Indian 
Fauna, &c. 

81886. Alcoholic. Bermndas. G. Brown Goode. 



PERCESOCES. 

MfCGVLmM. 

lofil llneatufl, Mitch. — Striped Muulet.— Cape God to Florida; 
Gulf of Mexico. 

1S723. Cast. 

212, 213, 214, 215, 216. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
421. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

ugil albula, linn.— White Mullet.— Gax>e God to Florida 
(probably young of the preceding species). 

420. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 
21302. Alcoholic. Florida. 6. Brown Goode. 

atheriividje:. 

lirostoma notatum, (Mitch.) Gill.— Silver-sides; Friar.— 
Maine to Florida. 

14930. Cast. 
16612. Cast. 

16620. Cast. Wood^R Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
380, 382. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
518. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

Urostoma californiensis, (Girard) Gill.— << Smelt."— Goast 
of Galifomia. 

606. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 
16603. Alooholic. San Francisco. Livingston Stone. 
16603. Cast San Francisco. U. S. Fish Commission. 

HEMIBRANCHII. 

«ASTEROSTEIDiB. 

rgantenn occidentalism (Cuv. & Yal.) Brevoort.— Ten-spined 
Stickle-back. — ^Newfoundland to Cape Hatteras. 

384. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

644. Color sketch. • (Burkhardt.) Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

laterosteus noTCboracensis, Cuv. & Yal.- New York 
SnOKLE-BACK. — 'Sgw Bmnswick to Cape Hatteras. 

'vtoli. (Bnrkhardt.) Prof: Alex. Agassiz. 



54 ANIMAL BBSOURCBS AND PlfiHERieS OP DlttTliU STATn. 

Apeltes qaadracus, (Kitch.) Brev.— FoDB-sPinxD SnasLB-Bu 
— New Brunswick to Florida. 

361. Ptaotograpk. U. 8. Fish Commissioa. 

644. Color sketch. (Burkhiirdt.) Prof. Alex. AguaJE. 

Uanf other species of Gaateroatcus ara inclnded in th« aeriea, wUeh i 
not of Bufiicieut iinportanc« to bo oniUDerstML 

AiriiO$TOIHID.£. 

Aulostoma maculatum, Yiil.— Tbuupet-fish. — West Indi 
Fauna. 

568. Color akuteli. (Burkhardt.) Prof Ales. Agassis. 

FISTVLARUȣ. 

Fistularia serrata, Cuv.— ToBACCO-prPB-PisH.— Oape Cod 
Florida; West Indian Faiuta. 

16907. Alcoholic. Wood's Roll, Maes. U. S. Fish Commlasioii. 1876. 

SYNENTOGNATHI. 
BEL01VID.S. 

BelODe ionglrostris, (Mit«ii.)_ Gill— Siltrb Oab-pish.— C« 

Cod to Florida. 

16555. Cast. Wood's Holl, Haas. U. S. Fish Commudon. Sept. 21, Vm. 
16423. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mam. U. 8. Fish CoinmJasion. Stipt. 6, 1815. 

S17. Photograph. U. S. Fish Cominission. 
1363. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agossiz. 




ANIMAL BESOURCES AND FISHEKIE8 OF UNITED STATES. 55 

BxoccBtas noTeboracensis, Mitch.!— Black- winged Flying- 
fish.— Gape God to Florida. 

— . Alcoholio. Block Island, R. I. U. S. Fish Commission. Aug., 1874. 

ExocoDtas Rondeletii^ Guv. & Yal. — ^IVIediterranean and Atlantic. 

21409. Alcoholic. Bermudas. G. Brown Goode. 

Cjrptelarus Aircatns, (Mitch.) Weinland.— Bearded Flying^ 

FISH. — ^AtlaDtic. 

21412. Alcoholic. Bermudas. G. Brown Goode. 

Buleptorhamphas longrirostris, (Guv. & Yal.) Oill.— Gape God 

to Florida. 

15648. Alcoholic. Newport, R. I. Bir. Brown. 

Seomberesox scutellatns, Les. — Half-beak; Skipper. — ^Kova 

Scotia to Florida. 

13164. Cast. 

410y 539. Color sketches. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

HAPLOMI. 

ESOCIDJB. 

X amerlcanas, Gmelin. — ^Brook Pickerel. — ^Massachnsetts to 
Maryland. 

17766. Alcoholic. Koeseville, N. Y. II. N. Hewitt. 
796. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fi^h Commission. 

493. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

X reticnlatus, Lesuenr. — Pickerel. — ^Atlantic slope^ New Eng- 
land to Alabama. 

15012. Cast. Washington, D. C. G. Brown Goode. 
222. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
756. Color sketch. U. S. Fish Commission. 

619. Color sketch. (Roetter.) East Wareham, Mass. Museum of Comp. 
Zoology. Feb., 1869. 

^SOX lucius, Linn. — Pike. — ^Northern America, Asia, and Europe. 

• 14876. Cast. Sandusky, Ohio. J. W. Milner. Oct. 25, 1873. 
14875. Cast. Sandusky, Ohio. J. W. MUnor. Nov. 3, 1873. 
219. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

618. Color sketch. (Roetter.) Museum of Comp. Zoology. Saokett's Har- 
bor. Nov., 1869. 

494. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

KflOX nobilior, Thompson.— Muskellunge (weight 37 pounds).- 

Great Lakes and Southern British Provinces east of Eocky 
Mountains. 

14895. Cost. Sandusky, Ohio. J. W. MUner. Oct., 1873. 
290, 221. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 



ANIMAL RE8UURCKS AND FlSUERlBa OF UNI ll-D STATES. 



CYPRIMODOIVTID^. 

Cyprinodon Tariegatus, Luc.— Siiobt Cvpbinodon.— Cape Cod 
to Florida. 

13986. Akoliulit. Nonuk, Conn. U. 8. Pisli Oouuniasion. 

Funduluspisculentus, (Mitch.) Yal. — Muhmichoq. — NoraScotu 
to Florida. 

13970. Alcoholic. Noaok, Conn. U. S. Fish CommiBHion. 
434,797. Color BketehoB. (HioliacaO U, 8. Fiijh Commisaion. 

Hydrargyra majalis, {Walb.) Val.— May-fish.— Brackish watm; 
Cape Aiiii to Cape Hatteras. 



434. Color skotcli. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

ISOSPONDYLI. 
sYivononiTiD^. 

Syuodus fflBtenSf (Linn.) Gill. — Snake-fish. — Cape Cod to Floridi 

1C583. CB«t. Nen- York market. E. G. Blackford. Sept. 24, 1875. 
424. Color akstdi. (Eichnrd.) U. 8. Fiah Commiaeioti. 




ANIMAL BE80UBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 57 



COREGOnriDJB. 

oregonus clupeifbrmis^ (Mitch.) Milner. — White-fish. — 
Great Lakes and British America. 

16741. ' Cast. Michigan. 

11^73. Cast. Ecorse, Biich. Goorgo Clark. 

15741. Cast.. EcoTse, Mich. George Clark. 

14864. Cooperstown, N. T. Elihu Phinney. > 

224,225,223,227,228,229,230. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

oref^onns labradoricus, Eich. — Lattr Whiting. — ^Northern 
Lakes. 

• I 

832. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
16868. Alcoholic. Lake Winnepisoogoe, Me. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 

ro9opimii qnadrilaterale^ (Rich.) Milner. — ^^ Shad-waiteb." 
— Great Lakes and northward. 

233. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
12360. Alcoholic. Grand Lake, Mo. U. S. Fish Commission. 

rosopinm Couesii, Milner. — Chief Mountain TjAttr White- 
fish. — Upper Missouri Region. 

14146. Alcoholic. Chief Mountain Lake. Dr. Elliott Cones, U. S. A. 

rgryrosomus Artedi, (Les.) Hoy.— Herring White-fish.— 
Great Lakes, etc. 

235. Photograph. U. 8. Fish Conmiission. 
752. Color sketch. (Richarcl.) U. S. Fish Commission. 
11195. Alcoholic. An Sable, Michigan. U. S. Fish Commission. 

SALIIIOJVIDJB. 
ilmo salar, Linn. — Salmon. — Northern America and Europe. 

14896. Cast. Bncksporf., Me. .Joseph Palmer. July 1, 1873. 
16744. Cast. Bncksport, Mc. C. G. Atkins. Nov., 1873. 
16743. Cast. Bncksport, Me. C. G. Atkins. Nov., 1873. 
10814. Cast. Bncksport, Me. C. G. Atkins. July 1, 1873. 
239, 240, 241, 242. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
415. Water-color sketch. U. S. Fish Commission. 

Jmo salar, var. sebago, Girard. — Sebago Salmon (land-locked.) 
— St. Croix Eiver and Sebago Lake. Introdnced into other 
lakes. 

15467. Cast. Sysladohsis Lake, Me. **Dobsis Club," through Judge Harvey 

JeweU. June, 1875. 
t€O07. CMt. 

L (Bioluad.) U. S. Fish Commission. 



58 ANIMAL BBSOURCES AND FI8HBBIE8 OF DNITBD STATRR. 
Salmo fiirio, Liim. — Eivsb Tbout. — Bivers of Burope. 

252. Photogi'npli. U. S. Fish Commission. 

Oncorhynchus quinnat, (Bich.) Oilutlier.^ — Quinnat or SiCBt 
MENTO Salmon. — Northwest Coast of America; Bonthn 
California. , 

10340. Cost. Kow York market E. O. Blackford. 
10347. Cast. Socramcuto River, Col. L. Stone. March, 1873. 
248, 249, 2oO, 201. Photographs. U. S. ViOi ConuDisaiou. 
416. Culor sketch. (Bivkanl.) U. 8. Fish Commission. 

CristiTomer namaycntfh, (Peun.) Gill & Jordan.— Namatcts 
Tkout; Lake Teout.— Nortbcra Lakes. 

246, 247. Photographs. U. 8. Fish Commission. 
10312. Cost. Mooeehead Lake, Mn. E. M. SttUm-ll. 
IGOTO-Tl. Caets. Lake Wiunepiseogee. U. S. Fish ConimiMioo- 
463,&2&-T. Color skotchM. (Blchanl.) U. 8. Fish Commiesioii. 

Salvelinus A»ntinalis, (Mitch.)Gill & Jordan.— Bbook Tbovt. 
BiverB and Lakes of British North America and of tl 
Dorthem parts of the United States and Appabrfaii 
Kauge. 

IGOae. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. V. N. Edwards. 

159G1. Cost. Byiladobsis Lake, Me. "Doluis Club," throii)(b Jndgc Bin 

Jewell. Juno, 1875. 
15728. Cast. New York market. B. Q. Blackford. Hareh », ISTZ). 
10311. Cost. Nuw York market. E. G. Blackford. March 22, IBTS. 
15470. Cast. Syslodobsis Lake, Mu. "Dubsis Club," throngh Judge RiK 




▲NIMAL RB80URCB6 AND F18HERIE8 OK UNITED STATES. bd 



AliBriilDiE. 

Ibula Tiilpes, (Linn.) Goode. — Lady-fish. — Pelagic; Tropical and 
Subtropical Seas. 

255. Photograph. U. 8. Fish Commission. 

21859. Alcoholic. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

HYODOnrTIDJS. 

[yodon tergnisus, Les. — ^Moon-ete. — Great Lakes and Mississippi 
VaUey. 

15661. Cast. New York market. Z. G. Blackford. Nov. 15, 1875. 
14863. Casi. Cincinnati, Ohio. J. W. Milner. Nov., 1873. * 
253, 264. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
753. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. 8. Fish Commission. 

ELOPID^. 

lop« Miorus, Linn. — Big-eted Hebbing.— Tropical and Snbtropi- 
cal^Seas. 

15824. Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackford. Oct. 11, 1875. 

15821. Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. Oct. 11, 1875. 
15883. Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. Oct. 11, 1875. 

15822. Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackford. Oct. 14, 1675. 
15744. Cast. New York market. £. G. Blackford. Oct. 14, 1875. 
15824. Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. Oct. 11, 1875. 

256. Photograph. U. 8. Fish Commission. 

772. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

ei^alops thrissoides, (Schn.) Glintlier. — ^Tabpum. — Gape Cod 
to Florida. 

14924. Cast. New Jersey. E. G. Blackford. July 9, 1874. 
398. Photograph. Newx>ort, R. I. 8. Powell. Aug., 1874. § 

DVSSVJIIIERID^. 

tnimeus teres, (DeKay) Brevoort. — Eound Herring. — Cape Cod 
to Cape Hatteras. 

2021G. Alcoholic. Newport, R. I. S. Powel. 

CLIJPEIDJS. 

reTOortia tyrannus, (Latr.) Goode. — Menhaden; Moss- 
BUNKER ; Pogie. — Newfoundland to Gulf of Mexico. 

CMt. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. 8. Fish Commission. 
(' Gaok Wood's Holl, Mass. U. 8. Fish Commission. Aug., 1875. 
^. 900^ 886^ 387. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
fkoH AbBOL A|pMBis. 



60 ANnUL RB80UBCB8 AND FI8HBBIE6 OF DNITBD 8TATBB. 

BreToortia patronus, Goode.— Gulp Menhadeh.— G«: 

Mexico. 

892. Alcoholic. Brazos Santiago, TesRS. 

Alma aapldissimat (Wilson) Stopfer. — Shad. — ^Newfonndlaod 
Florida. 

10641. Cast. Potomac River. J. W. Hilner. 1873. 

10625. Cast. Potomac River, D. C. J. W. Hilner. 

14878. Cut. Connecticut Biver. £. O. Blackford. Hay 7, 1974. 

861, 86S, 363, 264, 26G. Photograpbs. U. R. Fish ComnuMioii. 

Opisthonema thrisga, Gill. — Thbgas HEBBrao.— West I&d 
Fanna and north to Cape God. 

20218. AlcoboUo. Newport, R. I. U. S. I'lsh Commiwion. 

PoniolobiispBeudoharengrus,(Wil8on)Gill. — Alkwipe; Fhi 

WATER Hbrrino; Gaspebsatt. — Newfonndland 
Florida. 

10622. Cost. (Female.) Wood's Boll, Haas. U. S. Fish CommiMicm. 
266; 067, 268, 269, 386. Photographs. U. 8. Fish CommiMion. 
457. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commiasiou. 

Pomolobas mediocris, (Mitch.) Gill. — Mattawocmu.; Tai 
Hbrring ; Sea Shad. — Kewfonndland to Florida. 

10657, Cast. Potomac River. J. W. Hilner. 1873. 
269, 270, 271. Photographs. U. S. l^isb ConunismoD. 
458, 771. Color sketches. (Bicbaid.) U. 6. Fiali CommiMioD. 



Cliipea harenffus, Liun.— HERBmaj Ssa HEBBora.— H( 




ANIMAL BESOUBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 6 1 

Enr»RA1JIiIDID^. 

iftgraulis Tittata, (Mitch.) B. & G.— Anchovy.— Cape Cod to 
Gape Hatteras. 

382. Photograph*. U. S. Fish Commission. 
14066. AlcohoUc. Watch HIU, R. I., <&c. U. S. Fish Commission. 

EVENTOGNATHI. 

CATOSTOJHIDJB. 

fttostomns teres, (Mitchill) Les. — Common Sucker. ^Eastern 
Northern America. 

279. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

18258. Alcoholic. Potomac River. U. S. Fish Commission. 

fxostoma maerolepidotuin, (Les.) Jordan.— Striped 
SucKER.^Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes. 

15930. Cast. Washington market. J. W. Mihicr. 

16786. Cast. Washington market. J. W. Milner. 

16785. Cast. Washington market. J. W. Milner. 

278. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

rcleptns elongatns, (Les.) Ag. — Black Sucker. — ^Mississippi 
Valley. 

16781. Cast. Ohio River. J. W. Milner. Nov. 5, 1875. 

280. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

rimyaEon sucetta, (Lac.) Jordan. — Chub Sucker. — Eastern 
United States. 

281. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

rimysEon Goodei, Jordan. — Goode's Sucker. — Florida. 

19071. Alcoholic. St. John's River, Fla. G. Brown Goode. 

nbalichthys bubalus, Ag. — Buffalo-fish. — Mississippi Val- 
ley. 

14883. Cast. Cincinnati, Ohio. J. W. Milner. Nov. 5, 1873. 

ftrpiodes cyprinu§, (Les.) Ag.— Carp.— Eastern Ui.ited States. 

10735. Cast. Potomac River, D. C. J. W. Milner. 

16780. Cast. Sandubky, Ohio. J. W. Milner. Nov. 3, 1875. 

'» Jl #cheiIU8 gnrandis, (Ayres) Girard.— << Pike."— Pacific Slope. 

i^otognph. U. S. Fish Commission. 



62 ANIUAIi KEBODBCES AND FISHERIES OP UlUTBD STATBL 

JVotemisonuB americanus, (Linn.) Jordan. — SmNEE^-Srat 
era Bivers. 

19063. Alooholio. St. John's River, Fla. O. Brown Qoodtt. 

IVoteniigonns chl^soleucus, (Mitoh.) Jordan. — Bhineb.— S» 
em Atlaatic States. 
435. Color sketch. (Biclianl.) U. S. Fish Commisdon. 

Xeadsciis pulchelliis, Storer. 



Carassiiis auralus, (Linn.) Sleeker. — Gold-fish. — Domeeticab 
native of China and Japan. 

16667. Cast. WftaUineton, D. C. J. H. Richard. 

I8S90. Alcoholic. Pouds of MarylaDd. U. S. Fiah CommiaBioa. 



Order NEMATOGNATHI. 



.durlchthys mariniii, (Miteh.) B. & G. — ^Fork-tailed C 
FISH.— Cape Cod to Florida; Gull" of Mexico. 

15575. Cast. New Bedford, Mass. U. S. Fish Commiasion. Oct. II, 18^ 
'J83, 284, 285. Photographs. U. S. Fish CommiBsion. 
632. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Comi 




▲BDfAL BE80URCB8 AKD FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 63 



Order APODES. 

COnr«RIDJB. 

^B|^er oceanica^ (Mitch.) GilL — GoNasR Eel. — ^Newfoundland 
to West Indies. 

14873. Cast. Weight 11 lbs. Block Id., R. I. U. 8. Fiah CommiBsion. Sept. 

26, 1874. 
14872. Cast. Block Island, R. I. U. 8. Fish CommisBion. Sept. 26, 1874. 
287. Photograph. U. 8. Fiah Commission. 



Bfuilla rostrata, (Les.) DeEay.— Common Eel. — Eastern United 
States. 

15731. Cast. New York. E. G. Blackford. Aug. 26, 1874. 
16392. Cast. New York. E. G. Blackford. Aug. 26, 1874. 
16729. Cast. Potomac River. J. W. Milner. 
16416. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. Wm. Pahner. Sept. 6, 1875. 
10749. Cast. Wood's HoD, Mass. V. N. Edwards. 

286. Photograph. U. 8. Fish Commission. 
480-81. Color sketches. (Richard.) U. 8. Fish Commission. 
773. Color sketch. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 

nrEmiCHTHYID^. 

^michthys scolopaceus? Eich. — Snipe Eel. — Deep waters 
of the Atlantic. 

21195. Alcoholic. George's Bojak. U. S. Fish Commission. 

SiriVAPHOBRAlVCHID^ . 

rMaphobranchus pinnatus, (Gronow) Gunther. — Madeira 
Eel. — Deep waters of the Atlantic. 

21848. Alcoholic Sable Island Bank. U. 8. Fish Conmiission. 



Order CYCLOGANOIDEI. 

nia calva, Linn. — Mud-fish. — Central and Southeastern United 
States. 

11134. Cast. Sandusky, Ohio. J. W. Milner. 

16634. Cast. New York market. E. G. Blackford. Sept. 24, 1875. 

i. Photograph. U. 8. Fish Commission. 

CkikMr aketoh. (Bnrkhardt.) Charleston, 8. C. Prof. Alex. Agaasiz. 



64 ANIMAL BESOUBCES AND I-I8HBRIE8 OP CHTTED 8TATB. 

Obdek rhomboganoidei. 

I.EPIDOSTEIDJ:. 

Lepldosteas osseus, Linn.— Gab Pike.— Mississippi ya% > 

Atlantic States south of Delaware Biver. 

10736. Cast. Sandusky, Ohio. J. W. Milner. 
miT. Cast. Sandtuk;, OMo. J. W. Milner. 
15366. Cast. FotoniBo Kiver. J. W. MUner. 
290, 391. PbotOKTsphs. U. S. Pish Comnuasion. 

LepidosteuB platystomns, Baf.— Shobi'-hosbd Gab Pm 
Great Lakes and streams south and west to tba Bo 
Mountains. 

3341. Alcoholic. Cleveland, Ohio. Prof. Boird. 

Obder selachostomi. 

POLYODOIVTID.X. 

Polyodon fitlium, Lac. — Paddle-fish.— Fresh waters of Mi 
sippi Valley. 

14671. Cast. Cincinnati, Ohio. J. W. Milner. Nov. 5, 1873. 
15475. Cast. Madison, lud. Qeorge Spnngler. Jnne, 187t>. 
993. Photograph. U. S. Fist) Cnnuiiissiun. 



Ohdm CHONDROSTEI. 




ANIMAL BEBOUBCES AND FISHEBIES OF UNITED STATES. 65 

penser maealosus, Les. — ^Lono-nosed Stubgeon. — Great 
Lakes and Western Elvers. 

607--8. Color sketch. Hanteville, Ala. Prof. Alex. Agassiz. 1853. 

phyrhynchops platyrhynchus, (Bafl) Gill. — Shovel- 
nosed Stueoeon. — Mississippi Valley. 

15939^. Cart. Ohio River. J. W. Milner. 

15939. Cart. Ohio River. J. W. Milner. 

15476. Cast. Madison, Ind. George Spangler. June, 1875. 

302, 303. Photographs. U. S. Fish Conunission. 



VL ELASMOBRANCHIATES. 

Order HOLOCEPHALI. 

CHIJHJBRIDJB. 

maera plumbea, Gill. — Brown Chim^ba. — ^Deep waters of 
Western Atlantic. 

21904. Cast. Banqnereau. Capt. Joseph W. Collins. 

jTOla^nns Colliei, (Bennett) Gill.— Paoifig Chimera.— North- 
west coast of North America. 

993. Alcoholic. Pnget Sound. Dr. George Snckley. 

Order RAI^. 

IHYIilOBATID^. 

iobatis FremenTillei, (Ijcs.) Storer. — Eagle Eat. — Cape 
Cod to Florida. 

16603. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. Sept. 23, 1875. 
14417. Cart. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
306-319. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
760. Color sketch. U. 8. Fish Commission. 



iobatis californicus, Gill.— California Sting Eat. — ^Coast 
of California. 

16687. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. 
320. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 
959. Color sketch. U. S. Fish Commission. 

»ptera quadriloba, (Les.) Cuv. — Cow-nosed Eat. — Cape 
Cod to Florida. 

vmgltm. U. S. Flab CommiBsioii. 



66 ANIMAL BGSOaRCES AND FI8HEBIE8 OF UNTTBD 8TATB8. 

TRYCIOIVID^. 

Trjgon centrura, (Mitcb.) Gill. — Sting Bat. — GapeCodtoFlnidi. 

149-JO. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fidi CoDanuanoii. Jniw, lEffl 

148H2. Cast. Portland, Mo. Skillings. 

324, 325, 336, 327, 326, 329. Photographs. U. S. Fish ConuniMion. 

Tryffon Sabina, Lcsnenr.— Biver Stino Bay. — Soatbem C<ntt 
entering rivers. 
18068. Alcoholic. Lake Monroe, Fla. Prof. Boicd. 

' Tryffon haatata, (De Eay) Storer. — Smooth Stino BAT^-Sontk 
om Coasts 

21G26. Skin. West Florida. Dr. J. W. Velie. 

Pteroplatea maclara. Mall. & Heiil& — ^Bdttebplt Bat.— Caj 
Cod to Florida. 

16319. Cast. Wood's HoU, 1 
321, 322, 3J3. Photographs. 

torpedinidjf:. 

Torp^o occidentalls, Storer. — Torpedo; Cbamp-fish.— Cs 

Cod to Florida. 
14912. Cast. Wood's Holl, Moss. U. S. Fish Commisston. July aS, 1871 
14919. Cost. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish CommiMion. July 5, 18n. 
16G&^>. CoHt. Wood's HoU, Ha«s. U. 8. Fish Commiaaion. July 5, 1873. 
330, 331, 3:t2, 333, 334, 3:15. Photographs. U. 8. Fish ComtniHaon. 

RAIIBJi. 




ANIMAL BB80UBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 67 

Kaia tevls, Mitch. — Shabp-nosed Skate.— Kova Scotia to Florida. 

14904. Cast. (Young male.) Montauk Point, N. Y. U. S. Fish Commission. 
Aog. 1, 1874. 
403. Color sketch. U. S. Fish Commission. 
15704. Cast. (Yonng.) Noank, Conn. U. S. Fish Commission. Ang. 1, 1874. 
15703. Cast. Noank, Conn. U. S. Fish Commission. 
1665a Cast. (Young male.) 
15707. Cast 
16659. Cast. 
347, 348, 349, 350, 351. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

RHIIVOBATIDJB. 

Unobatns prodnctns, Oirard.— Long>nosed Skate.— Coast of 
Califomia. 

16704. Cast. San Francisco, Cal. L. Stone. 
352. Photograph. U. S. Fish Commission. 

PRISTIDJB. 

istis antlquorum, (Linn.) Lath.— Saw-fish.— Cajio Cod to 
Florida; Tropical Seas. 

19463. Stuffed skin. Florida. H. A. Ward. 

S<|VATinriDJB. 

BJitina DmnerlUy Les.— Monk-fish; Fiddle-fish.— Gape Cod 
to Florida; Temi)erate and Tropical Seas. 

• 

14B90. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. V. N. Edwards. Sept. 1, 1873. 
16410. Cast. Menemsha Bight, Mass. Jason Lace. Sept. 1, 1875. 
353, 354| 355. Photographs. U. 8. Fish Commission. 



Order SQUALI, 

IjASKNinJE. 

comnbica, (Gmel.) Fleming. — ^Porbeagle Shark. — 
Atlantic, Mediterranean, Japan. 

21856. Alcoholic. Gloucester, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

uropnis Dekayi, Gill. (d. s.) — ^Mackerel SHARK.^Newfoiind- 
land to Florida. 

15049. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. V. N. Edwards. Sept. 20, 1873. 
15973. Cast. Wood^s Holl, Mass. V. N. Edwards. Dec, 1875. 
446. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 



Atwoodi, (Storer) GilL— Atwood's Shark; Man- 
XAXSR. — ^Newfoundland to Florida. 



69 ANIMAL CESOUUCES AV!D F18HBBIE8 OF mTITED STATEC 

Cynocephalas glancus, (Liim.) Gill.— Bi.d:b-b]U2>sd Sb 

Atlantic. 

199-29. AlcohoUc. WooiI'd HoU, Mosa. V. K. Edwards 

ODOIVTASPIDIDf. 

Enffomphodas littoralls. Gill.— Saitd Shabe. — ^PeUigio. 

1G64T. Cost. Wuutl'u Holl, Moss. U. 8. Fish Commisuon. 

16648. Cost. Wood's HoU, Mqbb. U. S. Fiali Comniwion. 

419. Color skctcli. (Sichord.) U. S. Fiali Commumon. 

44S>. Color ekotcli. (Richard.) U. 8. Fish Cummiaeion. 

AI.OPECID.S. 

Alopias TUlpes, (Linii.) Bod. — Thbbsheb; STlNai^-TAli 

lantic and Mediterranean. 

I62I3G. Coat. Menemaba Bight, Mass. U. S. Pish Commiasion. July 
15T33. Cost. Wood's HoU, Moss. U. S. Fisb CommUaiuu. 
417. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish ConunisBiou. 

sphtrividje:. 

Spb^rna zystena, (Linn.) Mail. & Henle.— HAaocBB-HEAD i 
— TropicaJ and Subtropical Seas, 

lti8Xi. Citst. Nounk, Conn. U. S. Fisb CommiBaion. 
:t(iO, tmi, 3G2, 363, 364. Photographs. U. S. I'lsh Conmiiitsion. 
163. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Coiumisrioo. 

Reniceps tibnro, (Linn.) Gill. — Shotel-hbab Shark. — A 
and Western Pacific. 




AMIMAL BE80URCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 69 

klcocerdo tigrmus^ MuU. & Henle. — Tiger Shark. — ^Atlantic ; 
Indian Ocean. 

15740. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. V. N. Edwards. July 22, 1873. 
16069. Cast. Buzzard's Bay, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 1875. 
370y 371. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

■Atelus eanis, (Mitch.) De Kay. — Smooth Dog-fish. — Cape Cod 
to Cape Hatteras. 

14908. Cast. Norfolk, Va. U. S. Fish Commission. June 25, 1873. 
149S25. Cast. Wood's HoU, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
107U4. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
10733. Cast. Wood's Holl, Mass. 'U. S. Fish Commission. 
16649. Cast. (Male.) Wood's Holl, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
372y 373, 374, 375. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 
. Color sketches. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

infflymastoma cirratnm, (GmeL) M. & H. — Nurse Shark. — 
Tropical Atlantic. 

16909. Alcoholic. Chesapeake Bay. Maryland Academy of Science. 

SPinrACIDJB. 

ivjiliis amerlcaiius, (Storer) Gill. — Spined Dog-fish.— Few- 
foondland to Cape Hatteras. 



>5. Cast. Martha's Vineyard. U. S. Fish Commission. July 30, 1875. 
376, 377. Photographs. U. S. -Fish Commission. 
426. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

troscylUain Fabricii, (Eeinh.) M. & H.— Greenland Dog- 
fish. — ^Deep waters of Western Atlantic 

216^2. Cast Lat. 42^ b2f N., Lon. 630 50' W. 220 to 260 fathoms. U. S. Fish 
Commission. 

HBiiftiosas mlcrocephalus, (Bloch.) GUI. — Sleeper Shark. — 
North Atlantic. 

378, 379. Photographs. U. S. Fish Commission. 

447. Color sketch. (Richard.) U. S. Fish Commission. 

16630. Cast. Gulf of St. Lawrence. Renfrew & Co. Nov. 20, 1875. 

jliUMirjinniiri ccBlolepis, Bocage & Capello. — ^Black Dog- 
fish. — ^Deep waters of jN'orth Atlantic. 

«. CMt. hiHL 439 i(y N., Lon 63° 50' W. 220 to 260 fathoms. U. S. Fish 



70 ANIH&L BE80UBCE8 AND PI8HEBIBS OF 



EchinorhinDs spinosui, (OmeL) DelamoiUe. — SPiHr Shasi 
North Atlantic. 

21913. Cast. ProvJDcutonn, Mass. ' £. I;. StnoU. 



VII. MARSIPOBRANCHIATES. 
Oedeh hyperoartia. 

PETKOJIYZONTIDiE. 

Petromyzon americanas. — Laupbgy Eel. 

4e9-90. Color sketcbes. Prof. Ales. Agussiz. 

Ordee hyperotreti. 

IHyxine glatinosa, Linn.— Hag-fish ; Slime-pish. — ^Nocth . 

lantic. 

21679. AIcolioUc. Lo Envo Dank, N. B. U. 8. Fish Conuninioa. 

VIII. LEPTOCARDIANS. 




SECTION" B. 



(THE CHASE AND THE FISHERIES.) 

EANS OF PURSUIT AND CAPTURE. 

I. HAND IMPLEMENTS OR TOOLS. 

^For striking. 

1. Clubs. 
ft&nned clubs.' 

Salmon-clubs used by the Indians of the Northwest coast. 
Hunting-cl abs.' 
Fishermen's clubs. 

32717. '' Halibat killer and gob-stick." Philip Mercbaut, Gloucester, Mass. 
A heavy clnb with which the fisherman kUls the halibut by a blow 
upon the head. One end is sharpened for use in detaching hooks 
from the gullets of fish which have swallowed them. 

ed clubs.' 

Stone-headed dubs.' 

GlabSi armed with teeth or bone points.' 

GlabS| armed with metal points.' 



lomgr-^toncs.' 
laiiir-sbot.' 



2. SLUNG-WElaHTS. 



Hunters' knives. 



^^ For cutting. 
3. Knives. 



26152. Hunter's knife. 5^1nch blade. John Russell Cutlery Co., Turner's 

[Falls, Mass. 

26153. Hunter's knife. 6-inch blade. 

26154. Hunter's knife. 7-inch blade. 

26155. Hunter's knife. 8-inch blade. 

26172. Hunter's knife. 5^-inch blade. . 

26173. Hunter's knife. 6-inch blade. 

26174. Hunter's knife. G^-inch blade. 

26175. Hunter's knife. 8-inch blade. 
2S191. Hunter's knife. 5-inch blade. 

26192. Hunter's knife. 6-inch blade. 

26193. Hunter's knife. 7-inch blade. 
25194. Hunter's knife. 8-inch blade. 



* Displayed in the Ethnological division. 



71 



72 ANIMAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OP UNITED STATES. 1 


Straight knives. 






Htintcjs' knivoa. 






aem. Hunter's kcifo. 


G-inoh blade. 


Jului RuBSvll Cutlety Cu., Tuniai 


263UI. Hnntci'B knife. 


6-incli lilade. 




HeSeiL Hnnter'B knife. 


7-incIi blade. 


" 


26233. HiuLter's knife. 


B-iiioli bliule. 


< 


2Gii4. Himter'ftfciiift. 


lO-inch bliido. 


" 


S61«. Himter'a knife. 


5i-uicfi blade. 


" 


2fll4e. Hantcr'a knife. 


6-intli blade. 


•• 


iBUT. mmter'a knife. 


T-incIi blade. 


" 


I!6149. Hunter's knifo. 


B-incli blade. 


« 


261fi0. Hunter's knife. 


tinch blade. 


" 


26161. Huntor'B knife. 


frinch blftdi'. 


« 


aCI6i. Hunter-, knife. 


7-iuch blade. 


« 


26163. Hunterli knife. 


B4ncli blade. 


" 


26161. Hunter's knifo. 


9-incb blftde. 


" 


86165. Hnntei'B knife. 


lO-iudl bllKfc. 


« 


26160. Hunt«r'8lcnife. 


11-iiicU blade. 




201G7. Huntet'B knife. 


12-ini'li blade. 


" 


26IS6. Hunter's knife. 


54acL blade. 




em57. Huntei'H knife. 


Si-inch blade. 


" 




7-iDch blade. 


" 


26202. Houlei'B knifa. 


5-inch blade. 


" 


2IS03. Hunter's knife. 


6-inch blade. 


:: 


B6J04. HuntPT^ft knifo. 


7-iiicl. blade. 



64nch blade. 

2C20o. Huntart knife. 9-inch blade. 
2G207. Hunter's knife. 10-incli blnde. 
23203. Huntfli'a kuifov 12-iuch bli«io. 

Duilley hunters' knives. 

2ol97. Hunter's knife. 5-incIi blade. 

2f>193. Hunffii'B knife. G-int-h blade. 

20199. Huntcr'B knife. 7-inch blade. 

26200. Hunter's knife. 9-inch blade. 

Hunters' dirk-knives. 

26225. Hnnter'B knife (metal guard). 5-iuch blade. 

26226. Huuter'B knifo (metal guard). 6-ineh blade. 

26227. Hunter's knife (metal guard). 7-iueb blade. 

26228. Hunter's knife (molal guard). 8-iuch blade. 
2iJH3. Huuter'B knife (inetal guard). 7-inch blade. 
26168. Hunter's knife (solid guani). 7-iucb blade. 

Splitting and ripping knives. 

29401. Double-edged throating aud ripping knife. A. llcCurdy, Glonai-»^* 

29403. Donblu-edgcd tbroatiug-kuifo (old etyle). G. B. Poator, Bei"^*' 

S9109. Throating or ripping knife. A. McOurdy, Gloucester, Mass. 
39411. Throating or rippiog knife. Capt. E. L. Howe, GlonceBter, U 



ANIMAL RBSOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 73 

Ight kniTes. ' 

plittiiig and ripping knives. 

2941^ Doable-edged ripping-kiiife (peculiar to coast of Maine). Wilcox, 

Crittenden & Co., Middle town. Conn. 
29402. Mackerel-splitting knife. A. McCurdy, Gloucester, Mass. 
29408. Mackerel-splitting knife. Capl. Sam. Elwell, Gloucester, Mass. 
29404. Codfish-splitting knife. A. McCurdy, Gloucester, Mass. 

29413. Cod or haddock ripping knife (old style). G. P. Foster, Beverly, 

Mass. 

29414. Hoke or haddock splitting knife. A. McCurdy, Gloucester, Mass. 

29415. Haddock-ripping knife. '' ** 

aying-knives, aboriginal and recent.^ 

26169. Flaying-knife. 5-inch blade. John EusseU Cutlery Co., Tumer^s 

[Falls, Mass. 

26170. Flaying-knife. 6-inch blade. 

26171. Flaying-knife. 7-inch blade. 

26179. Flaying-knife. 5-iuch blade. 

26180. Flaying-knife. 6-inch bhide. 

26181. Flaying-knife. O^inch blade. 

26185. Flaying-knife. C-inch blade. 

26186. Flaying-knife. 6-inch blade. 
26187^ Flaying-knife. 7-inch blade. 

26188. Flaying-knife. 5-inch blade. 

26189. Flaying-knife. 6-inch blade. 

26190. Flaying-knife. 7-inch blade. 

26211. Flaying-knife. 5-inch blade. 

26212. Flaying-knife. 6-inch blade. 

26213. Flaying-knife. G^-inch blade. 

cibber-knives, Eskimos.* 
^arding-knives used by whalemen. 

XJsed in cutting the blubber into sections from the "blanket piece" or long 
strip which is peeled from the sides of the whale ; for illustration of the 
manner of use see the model of whaler "cutting in the blubber.'' 

25676. Boarding-knife. \V. U. Cook & Co., New Bedford, Mass. 
"This knife has seen many years of service." — A. R. C. 
26608. Boarding-knife, with sheath. A. R. Crittenden, Middlctown, Conn. 

flialemen's boat-knives. 

Used to cut the harpoon-line when it gets tangled in paying out. 

. Boat-knife (model). Capt. L. Rowland, New Bedford. 

This model in its sheath on the bulkhead of tlu^ whale-boat, ready 
for use, is shown in the model of a whale-boat (No. 24860). 

eading-knives. 

32689. Halibut-hciidiiig Iir.ifc Adolph Voss, GlouccsttT, Mass. 
"^of Eskimo and Indian llayin^j-knivos h displayed in the Ethuol(r-ic::l 

ift exhibited in the Etlmological division. 



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74 ANIMU. BE80UBCES AND FI8HEEIE8 OF UNITED STAIBat 

Straight knlr«s. 

Finiimg-kiuTes. 

29400. Halibut-finning knife. Alex. McCnrdy, OlonoMter.Uaaa. 
39412. Halibat-finning knife. Cftpt. E. L. Howe, Glonceatcr, Hm*. 

Chopping-knives. 

3940S. Bait-cleaver (nsed in balibnt fishing). Alex. HcCnrdy, Glonn 

32G65. Cod-bait knife. Gloucester, Mass. U. 8. Fisk Commiouon. 
32664. Bait-cleaver. " " 

Cheek-knives. 

39438. Codfish cbeek-knife. Alex. HcCunly, Gloucester, Hah. 
Tliroatiag-kiuves. 

33669. Cod-throater(wngleedge). Gloucester, Hiwa. U. S. Fish Coaunj 
22670. Cod-throatcr(doubleedge). " " 

l/^h-knives (for general use). 

2Q159. Fish-knife. Heavy. 12-inch blado. John Rosaell Cnlleri 

Turner's Falls, Mass. 
SjIOB. Fish-kuife. Hook htinalc. 13-iacb blade. Jobn Rnwell Ci 

Co., Tiimer'a Falls, Mass. 

Scaling-knives. 

Jobn Bnssell Catlery Co., To 

Sailors' and fisbermen's sheath-knives. 




ANIMAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 75 

SiveaJiig-kiuveB, nsed by fishermeii. 

29407. SliveriDg-knife. (Pattern first used by Cape Aim fishenneu.) Geo. 
B. Foster, Beverly, Mmhs. 

29399. Slivering-kiiife. (Cape Auu pattern.) Alex. McCurdy. 

29405. Slivering-knifo. (Nantucket pattern.) Samuel Elwell, jr., Glouces- 
ter, Mass. 

25764. Slivering-knife. Samuel El well, jr., Gloucester, Mass. 

32668. Slivering-blade. Gloucester, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 

Flitching-knives. 

Used in slicing halibut into steaks or '* flitches" in preparation for salting 
and smoking. 

62726. Shore flitching-knife. Gloucester, Mass. U. S. Fish Commission. 
32690. Bank flitching-knife. Adolph Voss, Gloucester, Mass. 
29410. Flitching-knife. Gloucester, Mass. A. £. Crittenden. 

Clam and oyster knives. 

26209. Clam-knife. John Russell Cutlery Co., Turner's Falls, Mass. 

. Oyster-knife (model). See model of Chesapeake oyster-canoe (No. 

25003). 

Hfet-makers' knives. 

These knives are without handles, and the heel of the short (2 inches long) 
round-point«d blade is curled so as to fit the finger like a ring. 

29439. Net-mending knives (right-hand). Alex., McCurdy, Gloucester, Mass. 

29440. Net-mending knives (left-hand). Alex. McCurdy, Gloucester, Mass. 

Mackerel-riinmers' fatting-knives or ploughs. 

Used in creasing the sides of lean mackerel (Nos. 2 and 3) to cause them to 
resemble fat (No. 1) mackerel. 

25768. Mackerel-plough. Edwin Blatchford. 

25769. Mackerel-plough. S. Elwell,jr.,Glouce8t<ir, Mass. 

25770. Mackerel-plough. S. Elwell, jr., Gloucester, Mass. 

25771. Mackerel-plough. S. Elwell, jr., Gloucester, Mjwss. 
25773. Mackerel-plough. Edward Davis. 

525774. Mackerel-plough. Edward Davis. 

25775. Mackerel-plough. (Used in 1860.) Mi-s. Hannah M. Burt. 

25720. Mackerel-plough. Central AVharf Co., Pro vincetown, Mass. 

Spbtting-knives. 

Used in cleaning fish before salting. 

32673. Mackerel-splitting knife. Gloucester, Mass. U. S. Fish Conmiisiyiou. 

22667. Cod-splitting knife (curved). •* " 

22668. Cod-splitting knife (straight). " " 

^ and bone knives used by Indians and Eskimos. 

AndccBon River Eskimos, Fort Anderson, H. B. T. R. 



76 ANIMAL BESOUBCES AND FISHERIES OF USTFED BTATB8. 

Straigfht kniTes. 

Stone and bone knives nsed by IndiaiiB and iSakimoe. 

IGllO. Bone knife. Magemnt EskimOB, Nuuivak Mamto, Abukn. V- * 

Dall, 

2178. Bone knife. Eakimoa. 

1328. Bone knifo. Eskimos. 

Harpooa-kuives. 

16348. Horpoon-knife, with sheath. Magemnt Eskimos, Nnnivak Islai 
[Ahuka. W. U. E 
IGllO. Harpoon-knifo, with aheath. " " 

16105. Harpoon-knife, with sheath- " " 

1G103. Earpoon-kmfe, with sheath. " " 

19382. Harpoon-knife, with slate blade. " " 

Honey-kniTes. 

The thin blade bent at an angle to the handle. 
26145. Hoiief-knifc. John Bnssell Cutleiy Co., Tnrner'H Falls. MaM. 

Skin scrapers and parers, osed in preparing leather. 

2G144. Tanner's knife. r2-inch blade. John Russell Cutler; Co., Tnni 

[Falli,lL 
SI3195. Tanner's knife. 14-inch blade. " " 

4. Axes. 
Axes, proper. 

Head-axes for whalemen. 

Used in cutting off head of whale. 




^ .»r.oonBC£S AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STAl 

ThroalrSpadeSy flat and ronnd shank. 

Used in catting off tlie head of tho whale. 
259^. Throat-spade. £. B. & F. Macy, New Bedford, Moiis. 

Wide spades. 

Used in "blubber-room'* for cutting blubber before mincing. 
25629. Wide spado. £. B. & F. Macy, New Bedford, Mass. 

Half-round spades. 

For cutting " blanket*' piece, to allov.' blubber-book to enter. 
25937. Half-round spade. E. B. & F. Macy, Now Bedford, Mass. 

Head-spades. 

Used in cutting off the head of the whale. 
259*^2. Head-spade. E. B. & F. Macy, New Bedford, Mass. 

Blubber-mincing spades. 

For mincing blubber before trj'ing out. 
25912. Hand mince-knife. E. B. &, F. Macy, New Bedford, Mass. 

Ghopping-knives. 

Used to chop clams for bait. 

29489. Clam-chopper. William II. Hesbolt, l^oviucetown, Mass. 
32076. Clam-chopper. Atlolph Voss, Gloucester, Mass. 

Bait-mill knives. 

Used on the rollers of bait-nniucinj^ macliiues; for mills see section C. 5. 

1^417. Bait-mill kuifr. rrovincctov. u patteni. Williaui H. Hesbolt, 

I^roviiicotown, ilass. 
20715. Bait-mill kuife. :M. W. Grant, Welllleet, Mass. 

ce-choppcrs. 

Used in choppiu^ ice fi)r i^iicliiu^; lirh or bait. 
32685. Icc-choi)i)er. Adolpli Voss, Gloucester, Mass. 

-chisels. 

'"se<l in cutting holes in tin? ice for lijhing. 
25888. Ice-chittcl (nickel-plated). Bnulford <& iVuthony, Boston, Mass. 



78 



AHIBCAL BESODRCES AND FISHERIES Of VSTTBD 8TATBB. 



5. ThEUSTIMG SPRAJtS AM> PKOD8. 

Fishing- lances. 

Whale-lanoes. 

Used by whalers to give the denth-blow to the whale. 

3S678. Whalc-lanco with handle, ready for use. E. B. & F. Mac; 

Bedford, Mass. 
25007. Whale-lance with handle, ready for nan. J. H. Thonuon, Ne 

ford, Haas. 



25611. Whalu-lance. (Primitive model) need by New Bedford v 
W. H. Cook & Co., New Bedford, Mass. 



10140. Head of lanco (bone and irou). Eskimos of Northeast coa«t, 
west of King William's Land. Capt. C. F. Hall. 
1117. Sool-Iauee. Eskimos of Arctic coast, Anderson River, H. B. 
MoFarlano. 



39453. Sword-fish lance. Saml. Elwcll, jr., Gloucester, Alaas. 
33703. Swoid-fish lance. Vinald McCalcb. Gloucester, Mass. 
25232. Sword-flsh lance (with screw to Ct folding handles). U. t 

Commission. 
36519. Lance. Indians of the Northwest const. J. G. Swan. 

The tip of this lance is made from the bom of the mounta 
(Manama montana). 




80 ANnUL BESOUBCES AND FISHERIES OF DHTTBD STATSa. 

HFor vse icitli gounding-HtUB.' 
Armed leads. 

CommoQ "deep-sea lead." 
Deep-sea-soiindin^ appamttis. 

Cap-leads. 

Scoop sounding-macliine. 

a« Ora^ng-hooka. 

7. Hooked htstbuhents. (Those ased with a sinfrle motioii, tii 

liookiag.) 
Single-pointed hooks. 

Gaff-books. 

2540.'). Snlmon'gnff book and et.iff. Bradford &. A;:lboii}-, Boston, M« 
3GG8. GalT-hook. U. S. Fisb Conuuisuioii. 

29388. Halibut-guff. M. \7. Grant, Wcliflcet, Maes. 

32G78. Hnlibat liaml-galT. Gloucester, Maw. G. Brown Goode. 

33363. Halibnt deck-gaff. " " 

2593!). Haddock hand-gaff. A. MtCurdy, Gloocestcr, Moua. 

2939a. Haddock-gair. M. ^V. Grant, WeUfleet, MsBs. 

aag-Ta. Cod(iBb-gaff. TJKeiliuGioTgc'sBankflshetiea. A. McCmdjr, Gk 

tcr, MoBB. 
25939. Dor>- cod-gaff. Usid in sbure fiaberics. A. UcCunlf, GkiM 

2r034. Haud-goff. Usediukolibut fieUmcs. A-McCnrdy, GloocesUr,: 

29389. Cod-gnff. M. W. Grnut, Wcllfleet, Mas*. 

2G18T. Gnff-houk. Indians of Kortbwcst coast. J. G. Swan. 
aSSdO. Gaff-book. Property of J. H. Nichols, Syracuse, N. T. Cootnl 
by I'orest ii. Htreoni Publishing Co. 




'a resources and fisheries of united states. 81 



Aiffle-polnted hooks. 

^Forks used in handling salted and dried flsh. 

^ludemen's hooks. 
Blubber-hooks. 

5251130. Blabber-hook. For hauling small pieces of blubber. E. B. & F. 

Macy. New Bedford, Mass. 
26133. Blabber-hook. Alieat Eskimo. Naniyak Island, Alaska. W. H. 

Dall. 

Blnbber forks and pikes. 

25615. Blubber-pike. Used for tossing blabber into try-kettle. Humphrey 

S. Kirby, New Bedford, Mass. 
25617. Blubber-pike. From the storeroom of a returned whaler. Humphrey 
S. Kirby, New Bedford^ Mass. 

Junk-hooks, etc. 

For hauling heavy pieces of blubber. 

25616. Gaff-hook. Used to haul blubber across the deck from chopper to 

try-kettle. Humphrey S. Kirby, New Bedford, Mass. 
25016. Junk-hook. E. B. & F. Macy, New Bedford, Mass. 

'Xianoe-hooks. 
y-polnted hooks. 

>Gan-hooks. 

* Gxappling-irons. 

liip-hooks or grapnels, nsed by whalers. 

25018. Whaler's grapnel. Used for towing whale to ship. E. B. & F. Macy, 
New Bedford, Mass. 

Une-hooks, used by whalers, 

25024. Whaler's line-hook for catching line, &c. E. B. & F. Macy, New 
Bedford, Mass. 

Olam-rakes. 

20466. Clam-hoe. Provincetown style. Wm. H. Hcsbolt, Provincetown, 
Mass. 

20437. Hand-claw. Used for gathering ''hon-clams'' and** scallopH.'* Well- 
fleet, Cape Cod, and coast of Maine. M. W. Grant, Wellflcot, Mass. 

. Clam-rake (model). Used in collecting the sea-clam {Macira solidis- 

9ima) on Nantucket Shoals. These clams are salted down and used 
as bait for cod, halibut, &c. See with model of Nantucket dory 
(26257). 

>ll Is thooKht unnecessary to exhibit these familiar implements. 
with boat fittings. 
heanohoxB. 



S2 ANIUAL BE80UBCB8 AND FI8HEBIES OF HIIITBD STAntS. 

many-pointed hooks. 

Many-pointed flsli-jigs. 

29436. Macfcetel-gaff. Used when the mackerel awim cloae iu lat]ge ab" 

M. W. GroDt, WelMeet, Usm. 
:29441. Mackerelbob. Used when the nuokerel are elooe to tbe tcokI 

in large BcbDola. Wm. H. Heabolt, ProTincetown, Ha—. 

Oiilaflhftn rakes or spears. 

Used by Indians of tbe Nortbtteet coast in the captuie of the onlscha: 
candle-fish ( Oamenu padficm). 
. Oulachan rake or comb. I'lttthead Indiana. J. O. Swan. 



35846. Squid-jig. George P. Steel, Provincelown, Hose. 

25714. Squiil-jis. " " 

S57T6. Sqvid-jig. Gloucester style. A. K. CiittendeD, Hiddletown, C 

2M43. Squid-jig. Over fifty years old. Lemuel CooV, 2d, PrarinMtt 

32721. Squid-jig. Copt. R. H. Hnrlbert, Gloucester, Moss. 

32722. Squid-jig. " " 

25663. Squid-line andjig. Used in catching squid for bait. Bndfw 

Antbony,. Boston, Mass. 
^29447. Molds used in forming squid-Jigs. John B. Pataons, Rockport, 31 

Twisting-rods (used in drawing small mammals from tbeir honor 

. Twisting-rod. Virgiuio. 

8. Barbed Implements. (Those used vrith trro modous, the first ll 
of thrusting.) 




ANIMAL BESOUBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 83 

^ars with fixed heads. 

Aboriginal flsh-spears. 

7420. Head of fish-spear. Eskimos. Fort Anderson, Arctio coast. R. 

McFarlane. 
;)675. Heads of fish-darts. Eskimos. Mackenzie's River district. R. 

McFarlane. 
7514. Head of fish-spear, made of elk-horn. Eskimos. Northwest coast. 

Geo. Gibbs. 
2322. Head of salmon-spear. Indians. Fort Crook, Grog. Lient. John 

Feimer, U. S. A. 
2628. Fish-dart heads. Indians. Columbia River. U. S. Exploring Ex- 
pedition. Capt. C. Wilkes, U. S. N. 
1439. Lance-head of bone. Indians. New Mexico. Lieut. A. W, Whip- 
ple, U. S. A. 
18933. Fish-spears. Sitka Indians. Sitka. J. G. Swan. 
11429. Salmon-spears. Passamaqnoddy Indians. -Eastport, Me. E. Palmer. 
10283. Salmon-spear. Eskimos. Igloolik. Capt. C. F. Hall. 
2543. Fish-spear. Tschutschi Indians. South Pacific Exploring Expedi- 
tion. Capt. John Rodgers, U. S. N. 
23518. Three-pronged spear. Northwest coast. J. G. Swan. 

Aboriginal bird and fish spears. 

19517. Bird-spear. Eskimos. Greenland. Geo. Y. Nickerson. 

10267. Bird-spear with throwing-stick. Aictio America. Smithsonian In- 
stitution. 

15950. Fish-spear. Magemut Eskimos. Nunivak, Alaska. W. H. Dall. 

11358. Fish or bird spear. Eskimos. Bristol Bay, Alaska. Viu :cnt Colyer. 

15689-90-91-93-94-95-96. Bird-spears. Eskimos. Nunivak Islands, Alaska, 

W. H. DaU. 
7973-7997. Fish and bird spears. Mushegay Indians. Alaska. Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

^ars irith detachable heads. 

lily-irons. 

25230. Sword-fish lily-iron. Capt. John B. Smith. U. S. Fish Commission. 
25645. Sword-fish dart and socket, peculiar to New Bedford. A. R. Crit- 
tenden, Middletown, Conn. 

32714. Sword-fish lily-iron. Adolph Voss, Gloucester, Mass. 

32715. Sword-fish lUy-iron. <* " 

25208. Swordfish-<lart head. Wilcox, Crittenden & Co., Middletown, Conn. 
. "Turtle-peg" harpoon. Key West, Fla. Dr. J. W. Velie, Chicago, 

ni. 

Elskimo harpoons of stone, bone, and ii'on. 

14255. Iron harpoon-head, with line of walrus hide. Eskimos. Smith 

Sound. Capt. C. F. HaU. 
10120. HarxK)on-head, brass and iron. Eskimos. Victoria Harbor. Capt. 

C. P. HaU. 
Harpoon-heads of bone and iron. Eskimos. Northeast coast. S. F. 

Baizd. 



84 ANIMAL RBSOOBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED 8TATBS. 

Spears with detachable heads. 

Eskimo harpoons of stooe, bone, aud iron. 

19r>23. Harpoou-lieiMl of atone and bonp. Eskimos. Greenltuiil GfO. f 

Nickerson. 
10136. Head of walrus-harpoon. Eskimoe. IglooUk. Capt. C. F. Hill. 
10400. Head of seal-barpoon. Eskimos. IglooUk. Cftpt. C. T. llslL 
10407. Bone haipoon-ltcad. Eskimos. King William's Sound. Cipl.C.I 

Hall. 
10404. Part of ancient Inuoilharpoon-head. BepnlsoBay. Capt.C.F.Hal 
10Z73. Handle of wbaling-barpoou made of bone and vood. E*kiiiH> 

Greenland, Siuitbaonian lustitntioD. 
19519. Handle of wbaling-haipoon made of wood and bone. Eakiib 

Greenland. Geo. T. Nickerson. 
lOilGi>. Wfaaling-barpoou. Eskimos. Northwest coast. Smithiwiuui lo! 

tution. 
19Q18. Whaling-borpoon of recent mannfacture, with he»d uf buo« amlip 

handle of wood and iron, and seal-skin line. Eskimos. Gneuh 

Geo. T. NickeiBon. 
565. Haipoon-bead of bone and iron with walrus-bide line. Etkin 

Port Fonlke. Dr. I. I. Hayes, 
21B6. Seol-baipoou bead of bone and iron. Eskimos. Anderaon Bi' 

E, McFarlane. 
13140. Walrus-harpoon head of bono and iron, hide line. Innnit Eakin 

Greenland. S. F. Baiid. 
19776. Boue harpoon-liead with hide line. Eskimos. Alaskk. Bev. J» 

11618. 8eal-hari>oon head of bone. Eskimos. NuiuTok Islauibi, -Uc 

W. H. Ball. 
16631. Miniature model of seal-barpoon. Eskimos. AIaafc«. H. W. EUi 
1678. Miniature model of eeal-barpoou. Eskimos. Alaska. W. H. P 
16120-31-23-25, 5606-7631. Seal-haipoon beads of bone and iron. Eskii 




ANIMAL BESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 85 

^ars irith detachable heads. 

Eskimo harpoons of stone, bone, and iron. 

18G8. Uead of whaling-harpoon with line. Makuh Indiaus. Neab Bay, 
Wash. Ter. J. G. Swan. 
2667&-26825. Handles of whaling-harpoons. Makah Indians. J. G. Swan. 
2530. Harpoon-dart«. Eskimos. Alaska. North Pacific Exploring Expe- 
dition. Capt. John Rodgers. 
1^675. Harpoon-dart. Kotzebne Sonnd. W. H. Dall. 
5775-&-7-9-80. Harpoon-darts. Sitka, Alaska. W. H. Howard. U. S. R. M. 

Barpoon-spears. 

6364. Head of barbed fish-dart, made of native copper. Eskimos. Sitka, 

Alaska. Dr. T. T. Minor. 
9063. Head of barbed fish-dart, made of native copper. Alaska. Lieut. 
F. W. Ring, U. S. N. 
20653. Head of barbed fish-dart of native copper with line of twisted sinew. 

Alaska. Smithsonian Institution. 
21413. Fish-spear with detachable barb. Hoochuou Indians. South Eel 
River, California. Stephen Powers. 

Double-pronged sx>ear8 with detachable heads. MeCloud River 
Indians, Shasta Co., Cal. Livingston Stone. These spears are 
used in the capture of the Salmo quinnat The handles are thirty 
feet in length. The barbs are made from the splint bones of deer. 
See No. 13743, below. 
19046. Fish-spear with detachable barbs. Cooyunu Pi-Ute Indians. Pyra- 
mid Lake, Nevada. Stephen Powers. 
235S2. Two-pronged spear with detachable barbs. Indians of Northwest 

coast. J. G. Swan. 
26826. Handle of spear similar to 23522, but longer. J. G. Swan. 
S3520. Spear with many-barbed detachable head and kelp line. Indians of 

Northwest coast. J. G. Swan. 
13743. Points for salmon-spear made of the splint bones of the deer. Me- 
Cloud River Indians. Shasta Co. , Cal. Livingston Stone. 
650. Harpoon-arrows with iron tips. Indians. Cape Flattery, Wash. 
Ter. Geo. Gibbs. 
21306. Wooden barbs for fish-harpoon. Indians. Hoopah Valley, Cal. 
Stephen Powers. 
2249. Head of fish-harjioon. Eskimos. Anderson River. R. McFarlane. 
11356. Harpoon-dart with bladder-float. Nashegay Indians. Alaska. Dr. 
T. T. Minor. 

9. TONGS, &0. 

\For hand-tise, 
1^9 (with two handles). 
>y8ter-tongs and oyster-rakes. 

96110. Oyster-tongs. S. Salisbuiy, Providence, R. I. 
9fa09. Oyster-tongs. '' << 

<S^ Qyater-tongs. Wilcox, Crittenden & Co., Middlotown, Conn. 
■tertuj^pen. S. Salisbmy, Providence, R. I. 



8<i ANIMAL SE80UBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATEtL 
*' IVippers *' {vnth cord aiid handle). 

Snake-tonga. 
Sponge-tongs. 
Coral-tonga 

tt fW use with 80unding-Unes. 

" Clamms '* for deep-sea soundings (forceps dosed by a weight).' 

(Boss' " deep-sea clamms.") 
(Boll-dog Boimding-macliine.) 

,,, Gra^ing-linea. 

10. : 



t Stationary fiooses. 
Jerk-snares. 

Bird-snares. 

Fiuh-anorea of wire, gut, btur, &c 

tf Thrown nootes. 
I^ariats and lassos. 

11344. Lariat of hide. Apache IndiaDS. Ocncral &I. C. U^gs, U. S. A 
8534. Lariat of hide. Sioux Indians. NubniBka. Dr. S.U.HoTt4>D,r.5.i 
1912. Lnriat of hide. Sioox Indiana. Upper Missouri RiTrr. Li«nt G 

K. Warren. 
0920. Lariat of hide. Comanche Indians. Tort Cobb, Ind. T. E. Tiimt. 
G921. Lariat of hide. Couiancbo Indians. Llano Estaciido, T<-xu. C 




ANDCAL SES0UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 87 

^^^^ntangling-lines. 
12. Tangles. 

The tangles are employed by naturalists for tho purpose of gathering small 
spiny animals, such as sea-urchins and star-fishes, from the bottom at con- 
siderable depths. They adhere to the fibers of the spun-yam in great num- 
bers. It hJEW been thought that this instrument might advantageously be 
employed in freeing oyster-beds from their worst enemies, the star-fish. 

iwab-tanirles. 

Swab-tangles. 

26844. Swab-tangle. U. S. Fish Conunission. 

(Diedge-tangleSy used by English collectors.) 
larro^r-tan^les. 

Harrow-tangles. 

26845. Models of harrow-tangles. U. S. Fish Commission. Formerly used 

by the Fish Conunission, now replaced by the wheel-tangles. 

Fheel-tan^les. 

Wheel-tangles. 

26846. Model of wheel-tangle. U. S. Fish Conunission. 
26848. Wheel-tangles. U. S. Fish Conmiission. 



III. MISSILES. 

^Simple missiles {those propelled by the unaided arm). 

13. Hurled weights. 

M^nes and disks (thrown by the hand). 

Weights (dropped from an elevation, dead-falls, not automatic). 

14. HUBLED STICKS. 

»trmiffht sticks. 

Clnbs used as missiles. 
Barred sticks. 

Throw-sticks, used by the Moqui Indians of New Mexico in hunting 
rabbits. 

-4. Throw-fiticks. Used in rahhit-hunting by Moqiii Indians. New Mex- 
ico. Br. Edward Palmer. 



88 ANIMAL RESOUBCES AND FI8UEBIB8 OP UNITBD STATBft. 
15. HUBUBD BPEHRA 

Darts and lances. 

S«e under "Lsnccs and gpean," Above enumoiatcd, muiy of whkk may 

used aa niiBaile^. 

a « Centrifugal mianles. {Propelling power augmented bg an artifieial 
crease of the length of the arm.) 

16. Slings and sfeabs thrown by straps. 

SUn^s. 

9532. Sling. Nav^o IndianB. Sinitbacmian Inatitutioo. 
17234. Sling. Indians. " " 

Spears (vith strapa). 

17. Missiles propelled by "THEOWiNG-sxiCKa'* 

Spears (with throwing-sticks, nsed by Eskimos). 

Se« above under "Bird and fiah epenn," paiiicnlarly No. lOSCr, %wptu ' 
tluowing-atick attached. 

7899. Tbnwing-etick. EHkiinoa. Alenlian lalanda. Dr. T. T. ICmi 
7933. Throwing-etlck. EakimoB. Kodiak. " 

16076. Throwing-Btiok. Eskimos. Unalaahka. W. H. DalL 
2S33. Tbrowing-atick. Eskimos. Alaska. North Faciflo ExpkciBf 

pedition. Capt. John Bodgeis. 
11346-47. Throwing-eticks. Yukon Eiver, Alaska. Vincent Coljs. 
15643. 1642-16243. Throwing'^ticke. Eakimoa. Nunirak laland*. W. 
Dall. 




ANIHAL BESOUBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 89 

Huntmg-arrows. 

8827-28-29-30. Bird-arrows. Eskimos. Alaska? Smithsonian Institution. 
5602. Bird-arrows. Ynkon River, Alaska. W. H. Dall. 
15654. Hunting-arrows. Kodiak Indians. Alaska. W. H. Dall. 
1641^14-15. Hunting-arrows with heads of bone and iron. Eskimos. Nu- 
nivak Islands, Alaska. W. H. Dall. 

. Hunting-arrows with bono heads. Eskimos. Nunivak Islands, 

Alaska. Vincent Colyer. 

Harpoon-arrows, used in fishing. 

11348-^. Harpoon-arrows. Eskimos. Bristol Bay, Alaska. Viueciit 

Colyer. 
1.5677-15681-82. Harpoon-arrows. Eskimos. Nunivak Islands, Alaska. \V. 

H. DaU. 
19379. Harpoon-arrow. Eskimos. Alaska. Rey. J. Curley. 
8005-6-9. Harpoon-aiTows. Eskimos. Nushegay Indians. Dr. T. T. Minor. 

.eecMories of bo^rs and arro^rs. 

Holders.* 
Quivers.* 
Arrow-head pouches.* 

Mplements of maniiAictHre. 

Flintrchipping apparatus.* 

Anow-head sharpeners.* 

Shaft-gauges.* 

Cord-twisting apparatus.* 

Shaft-polishers.* 

Glue-sticks, used in fastening head of arrow.* 

Arranged with the Ethnological scries. 

II Spring comisting of elastic card. 

19. India-rubber slings. 
^a-shooters (used in killing birds). 

in Spring consiitting of metallic lielix. 
20. Spring-guns. 

^^^^ Missiles propelled by the compression of air or water. 

21. Air-guns. 

W^grmis (missile propelled by the breath). 

-gOBS carrj'ing an-ows. 
inns carrying balls. 



UO ANIUAL RESOURCES AKD FISHBBIBS OF UHITBD STATES. 

Piston air-guns. 
Reservoir air-guns. 

AiC'gans. 

2^35. Bedford Eureka air-pistol, with daTta,aliig8, and gnn-nsL (I 
Dec. SI, 1^5.} Enreka Uann&ctniing Compuiy, Boaton, 

Air-gun canes. 

Syringe-gnns. 

Humming-bird gnus. 



. Water-gums. 



Smif hsonian Iiu 



23. GUN8 AND PISTOLS. 

IWuzzle-loading arms. 

26714. Flint-lock gun (single banel)old fushiou 
SOD. Single-barrel shot (t) gun. 

Oiven bj Lord Melville to Sir Jolm Franklin, who nted 1 
onfortuuate e^qxiditions in 1820, 1831, and 18SS, then | 
Sir Jobu to liis interpreter, St. Oennain, who sold it 
Factor Smitli, of the Hndaon Bay Co., who gav« it to hi 
law, Chief Factor HcPheraon, ttoax whom it was obtaiL 
B, RosB, of the Hndaon Bay Co. 

Breech-loading arms. 

358D4. Six-shooting Bhot-giin. Colt's Fire-AnuR Manufacturing C< 

Hartford, Conn. 
25695. Double -barreled brcecb-loailiuK fowling-piece. £. Bt^uii 




ANIMAL RESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 9 1 

Breech-loading arms. 

5S9299. Shot-barrel for Maynard's rifle ; 3*2 inches, .64 calibre. MassachiiBotts 

Arms Company, Chicopee Falls, Mass. 
25873. Six-shooting rifle; 44-inch calibre. Colt's Hre- Arms Manufacturing 

Company, Hartford, Conn. 
26889. Carbine. King's improvement. (Patented March 29, 186G; October 

16, 1860. Model 1873. Calibre .44.) Winchester Repeatiu;: 

Anns, New Haven, Conn. 

25248. Breech-loading sporting-rifle. (Patented October 17, 1866. Reissued 

June 25, 1872 ; Dec. 26, 1865. Reissued Oct. 1, 1867 ; May 15, im\ ; 
July 16, 1872.) Whitney Arms Company, Whitneyville, Couu. 

25249. Breech-loading sporting-rifle. PhoDnix calibre, 44. Whitney AnuR 

Company, Whitneyville, Conn. 
25892. Six-flhooting revolver. 45 calibre. (Patented Sept. 19, 1871 ; July 2, 
1872.) Colt's Fire- Arms Manufacturing Company, Hartford, Ccmu. 

24986. C. C. Brand's improved whaling-gun. Patented June 22, 1852. For 
use with C. C. Brand's improved bomb-lance. 24987. Powder-flask 
with charger. 24988. Wad-cntter. 24989. Wad-cutter (inside). 
24992. Prepared wads. 24990,24991. Screw-tlrivers. C.C. Brand. 
Norwich, Conn. 

24993-97. C. C. Brand's improved bomb-lance. Patented June 22. 1859. For 
use with C. C. Brand's improved whaling-gun. 24997. Kxplo<l(Ml 
lance. 24998. Lance-hook (for drawing charge). C. C. Brnnd^ 
Norwich, Conn. 

25251. E. Pierce's harpoon-gun. Patented 1865. U. S. Fish Commission. 

26697. Cunningham & Hogan's breech-loading bomb-gun, with explosivo 
lances. William Lewis, New Bedford, Mass. 

24. (ACCESSORY.) Ammunition and its preparation. 
bLplosiTes. 

Gunpowder. 
Oim-cotton. 
Percussion powder: 
Gaps. 

Needle percussion. 
Primers. 
Wood powder. 
Dynamite or giant-powder. 
^ Nitroglycerine. 
^ Bualine. 
^ Litiiiofiractear. 
Golonia powder. 
Hiber ei^losives. 

"ui xraMOfi thia series oonld not be exhibited. 



if2 AMIUAL RESOURCES AKD FI8HBRISS OF DHITED 8TA1 

missiles. 

Bullets. 

(Accessory.) BoUet-molds. 

39300. Put of molds for conical And crlmdiical bull«ta. Ml 
Arms Company, Chicopee Falls, Mass. 



-. Series of Bamples of shot, sizM from No. 000 to So. U 
Sparks, Pbiladelpliia, Pa. 



Explosive bullets, sheila, &c. : 
Bomh-lance. 



Ift'addiog. 



Bulk waddiog. 
Prepared wads. 
(Accessory.) Wad-cutters. 

Tbo articles of this class may be seen in oonneotioii irlth tli« i 

Ammunition-measures. 

Measures. 

Shot-measures. > , , , 

Powder.meaaures. } -^ttoebed to pouches and separate. 

16190. Powdor-chorger. Nimivak Islands, Aloak*. W. H. DbH 




^.filMAL BE80URCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 93 

ods of preparing cartridges. 

taderSi Grinix>ers, and cappers. 

2D3Q2. Roaewood loader for shot-cartridge. Massaclmfietts Arnid Company, 
Chicopee Falls, Mass. 

29908. Two rosewood loading-blocks. Massachusetts Arms Company, Chic- 
opee Fallsj Mass. 

25897. Cartridge-loading machine. £. Remington & Sons, Ilion, N. Y. 

29306. Cartridge-capper. Massachusetts Arms Company, Chicopee FallH, 
Mass. 

:C£SSORIES OP LOADING, CLEANINa, AND REPAIRING, SIGHTING, 

AND TESTING FIRE-ARMS. 

*iiment8 tor cleaning, loading, Sk>c. 

unmers. 

large-drawers — "worms^ — and other loading tools. 

These may be seen attached to the various wrappers. 

529307. Wrench and cap-picker. Massachusetts Arms Company, Chicopee 
Falls, Mass. 

29311. Rod and tip for cloth, plain. Massachusetts Arms Company, Chico- 
pee Falls, Mass. 

29310. Jointed rod and brush, ^(assachusetts Arms Company, Chicopee 
Falls, Mass. 

29309. Screw-driyer. Massachusetts Arms Company, Chicoi>ee Falls, Mass. 
7525. Gnn-screw-driyer. Apache Indians. Arizona. E. Palmer. 

26695. Loading-tools. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Con- 

tributed by Forest & Stream Publishing Company. 

26696. Closer. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contributed by 

Forest &, Stream Publishing Company. 

29251. Oil-bottle, nickel (No. 1). Edwin W. Judge, New Haven, Conn. 

29252. Oil-bottle, nickel (No. 2). " " 

26696. Oil-can. Proi>erty of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contributed by 
Forest & Stream Publishing Company. 

its, &;ۥ 

(azzle-sights. 
ilit-mghts. 
^lobe-sights, 
^eep-sights. 
breech-sights. 
^Iain-sights, 
^adnating-sights. 
Blftsoope-sights. 
B^dSy attached to gons. 
i^gaages. 

"m^ be Meii attached to the gnna. 



94 ANIUAL RBSOUBCES AND FISHERIES OF TWrTED STATES. 

Recoil-checks. 

35700. William D. Miller's pntent reooil-oheok for shcpt^raw and t. 
(Patented Nov. S, 1875, No. 52. ) A. J. NomiAU, Naw Yotk, 
Advantages claimed for this arrangemeiit aia Uiat It npeb 

neutralizea the recoil, permitB steadiet aim, and innrea incn 

range and greater penetration. 

26. Fob oasbydig abmb and ahhunition. 
Ammunition-holders. 

Powder-horns : 
Horns. 
Flaska. 

Canisters. 
1910. Powdor-hom. Sioux Indiaos. Upper Uiaeonri Eiver, Lieat, < 

Warren, U. 8. A. 
1478. Powdor-lioni. Comftncho Indians. General D. N. Coach, U. 8. 
16309. Poirder-hom. Sitka, AIbbIib. W. H. Dall. 
1909. Powder-bom and ponoh. (ContAining bnllet^, gnn-fllota, and u 
pointB.) Sioox Indians. Upper Missooil Biver. Uent. G 
Warren, U. 8. A. 
55S0. Powder-horn. Papago aod Apaebe Indians. E. Palmer. 
S1673. Poirder-bom and pouch. Yankton Sioux. Dakota. Aimy Ht 

Moseom. Dr. J. T. Boagbter. 
26706. Cartridge-box. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syraense, K. T. 

tributed by Forest &, Stream Pablisbing Company. 
26703. Cartridge-flaak. Pi'operty of J. A. Nichols, Syracnae, N. Y. 
tribnted by Forest & Stream Publishing Company. 
7313. Powder-flask. Apache Indians. M^Jor Mills, U. S. A. 
13035. Powder-flask. Alient Eskimos. Onnalaebka.. W. H. DalL 
16099. Powder-flask. Hagemut Eskimos. Knoivak Islands, Vii*" 




ANIMAL BE80UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 95 

aad bullet holders. 

iX>-holder8. 

5525. Cap-case. Apache Indians. Arizona. £. Palmer. 
26697. Cap-box. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contribated 
by Forest & Stream Publishing Compiuiy. 

Pouches. 

Boxes. 

Gap-strapSj used by Indians. 

artridge-holders : 
Pouches. 
Boxes. 
Belts. 
Vesta. 

poH-holders. 

ings for arms: 

Shoulder-slings. 

Saddle-slings. 

Holsters, 
sits; 

Pistol-belts. 
acks and cases: 

6un-racks. 

Gun-cases. 

8546. Gun-case. Indians. Ogalalla, Nebr. Dr. S. M. Horton, U. S. A. 
14849. Gun-case. Indian. Colorado. Maj. J. W. Powell. 
26705. Gun-case. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contributed 

by Forest and Stream Publishing Company. 
26704. Gun-case. Proi)erty of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contributed 

by Forest and Stream Publishing Company. 



IV. BAITED HOOKS. ANGLING-TACKLE. 

27. Hooks with movable lines. 
kle tor 9urf)iee-fi§liinff. 

?ly-fishing tackle, 
ialmon-tackle. 
hoQt-tackle. 
L*bas8 tackle. 
•eUe. 



96 ANIUAL BESOTTBCES AND FISHERIES OP UlflTED 8UTBS. 

Tackle for sarfltce-flshin;. 

Trolling-tackle : 
TroUing-tackle. 
WliiffiDg-tackle. 
Drailing-tackle. 
Gangs of books for minnow-bait. 

The parts of tbc«« gears may be seen in their proper plAce^ with bn 
lines, &c. 

26683. Minnow-gang. Property of J. A. Nichols, S7r«ciue, H. T. ( 
tTil}Dt«d by Forest and Stream Pnblishing Compmnj. 

Surf-tackle for throwing and hauling. 
Striped-bass tackle. 
Bed-fish or bass tackle. 
Blue-fish tackle. 
Tide-drailing tackle. 
Pasqae and Outtyhunk bass-tackle. 

24606-9. Blue-figh lino. Bigged with eel-ekin sqnida. J. M. K. Soath< 

Newport, K. I. 
24602-7. Blue-fiah lines. Rigged with cloth squid. Bloclclidand. J.t 

Sontbwiok, Newport, R. I. 

Tackle fbr fishing below the sarftoce. 

Short hand-gear. 

85684. Mackerel-lines and cleats. Bradford &. Anthony, Boston, Him 
SS840. Mackerel hook snd line. A. McCnrdy. 




AHIMAL BE80nBC£8 AND FIBHEBIES OF IGNITED STATES. 97 

Tackle fbr flshln; below the sar Aice. 

Deep-sea gear: 

Flannder-gear. 

Shark-gear. 

Other bottom-gear. 
Bobs: 

Eel-bobs. 

28. Hooks, with stationabt lines. — Set taoklb. 
tarfkee lines. 

Spilliards, or floating-trawl lines. 

{•ttom-aet lines. 

Trawl-lines, or bull-tows. 

25688. Model of codfish-trawl, naod by American fiahennen on Western and 

Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Buoys, scale of ono-sixtli : an- 

chois, scale of one-fifteenth. Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 
S9469. Section (one-fifth) of trawl-line. Used in George's Banks codfisli- 

eries. A. R. Crittenden, Middletown, Conn. 
6560. Trawl-line and hooks. Indians of Vancouver's Island. Dr. T. T. 

Minor. 
32705. One section or << skate" of a halibut trawl-line with (No. 3270C) inner 

buoy with flag, (No. 32707) outer buoy with "black-ball," (No. 

32708) buoy-line, and (No. 32709) anchor. Capt. Jos. W. Collins 

and Philip Merchant, Gloucester, Mass. 

Set-traps. 

85662. Pickerel-traps. With lines and flags for fishing through the ice. 

Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

85663. Set of implements for smelt-fishing through the ice. 
85667. Fishing-bows. W. M. Young, Philadelphia, Pa. 

. (ACCESSOBT.) PAETS AND ACCESSORIES OF ANGLING- APPARATUS 

AND OF HARPOON AND SEINE LINES. 

^•ka (including a ftiU series of unmounted hooks, of recent and 

aboriginal manufacture). 

Plain hooks. 

25662. The ten processes through which American hand-made fish-hooks 
pass from the wire to the finished hook. Made entirely by hand- 
labor in the factory of J. W. Court, Brookljrn, N. Y. Bradford & 
Anthony, Boston, Mass. 
88684. Double-refined, cast-steel, tai>ered ][>oint; Virginia hooks, flatted, 
Nob. 10 to 1 and 1-0 to 3-0. American Needle and Ush-Hook Com- 
pany, New Haven, Conn. 
VMb Si^ttftQe cast-steel blackfish-hooks, japanned, flatted, Noe. 1 to 8. 

Needle and Fiah-Hook Company, New Hayen, Conn. 

11.14 7 



98 ANIMAL BE80UBCK8 AND FISHEBIB8 OP UKmtD 8TATBL 

Hooks (including a fall series of munonnted lAoka, of recent 

aboriginal manu&ctnre). 
Plain books. 

SSSSS. Ed-hooka, No. 6. Ameriaan Needle and FUtL-Hook Ctnfaj, 

HaTes, Conn. 
iS640. HalibnMiooke, Tinged ; Nos. 1 to 3. AmeiicHi Needle and fWt-'. 

Company, New Haven, Conn. 
SSSaa Caat-eteel Kirbj eea Bah-hooks, flatted; Noa. 1 to IS. Am* 

Needle and Fiah-Hook Company, New Haven, Conn. 
S5530. CaatrSteel Eiiby sea fieh-hooka, ringed; Noe. 1 to IS. 
S5S39. Saperior cost-eteel Kirby eea fiah-hooke, galTaniwtd, flatted; 

1 to 6. American- Needle and Fisb-Hook Company, New Hi 

STiE^. Donble-ieflned oaat-ateel Kitby river and tront flah-boob^ rii 

Noa. 1 to 12 and 1-00 to 10-0. American Needle and FmIi- 

Company, New Haven, Conn. 
25523. Eirby river and trout flsb-hooks, flatted, Wtt» mtperflae; B 

to 12 and 1-0 to 10-0. American Needle and Rah-HookCtaa 

New Haven, Conn, 
3S519. Snperfine spring steel Kirby salmon, flatted; No*. IS to 3-0. i 

lean Needle and Fiah-Hook Company, New Haven, Conn. 
9S&S0. Carlisle tront-hooka, flatted; Nos. IS-SO. American Necdl> 

Fish-Hook Company, New Haven, Conn, 
25&S1. Carlisle trout-hooks, ringed; Nos. 8 to 3-0. American Ncedl 

Fiah-Hook Company, New Haven, Conn. 
2S&16. Soperfine caet^teel Limerick ealmon, flatted ; Noa. 1-0 to li 

3-0 to 10-0. American Needle and Fiah-Hook Ca«npany, 

Haven, Conn. 
S5517. Superfine cast^eel Limerick salmon, ringed ; Noa. 1-0 1« 9 «i 

to 10-0. American Needle and Fish-Hook Company, New S 

2551'!. Donble-reflned cast-steel Limerick river and tront flah-booki(i 
points, flatted) ; Nos. 1-0 to 12 atad 2-0 to 10-0. AmericaaS 




ANIMAL RES00RCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 99 

Ics (indading a ftill series of unmonnted hooks, of recent and 

aboriginal manu&ctore). 
'lain hooks. 

85631. Double-refined cast-eteel, original, central-draught cod or mackerel 
hooks, fl%tted. American Needle and Fish-Hook Company, New 
Haven, Conn. 
25601. Cod-hooks. Used when fish rise to the sorface. J. M. K. Sonthwick, 

Newport, R. I. 
25538. Shark-hooks. Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 
2d465. Shark-hooks. M. W. Grant, Wellfleet, Mass. 

25648. Shark-hook. (Extraordinary.) A. R. Crittenden, Middletown, Conn. 
2d464. Ground-shark hook. Stylo nked forty years ago. Elisha Cook, 

ProYincetown, Mass. 
85602. Dog-fish hook with chain. Used at Newport, R. I. J. M. K. South- 
wick, Newport, R. I. 
25641. Dog-fish hooks, ringed. American Needle and Fish-Hook Company, 

New Haven, Conn. 
29467. Horse-mackerel hook. John Thomas, Bel&st, Me. 
29505. Hooks, probably lost by a French fishing-vesseL Found on St. 
George's Banks on a piece of trawl; fished up by Geo. H. Lewis, 
Ftovincetown, Mass. 
3S732. French cod-hooks; taken from codfish on Jeffiries Ledge. Capt. 

James Tarr, Gloucester, Mass. 
38731. French cod-hook; taken from codfish in Salvages' Shoals, Cape 

Ann, in 1856. Capt. James Tarr, Gloucester, Mass. 
20654. Wooden fish-hooks. Indians of Northwest coast. Bella Bella, B. C. 
J. G. Swan. 

. Fish-hooks. Indians of Northwest coast of America. Straits of 

Fnca, Pnget Sound. U. S. Exploring Expedition. 
1051. Fish-hooks. Pnget Sound. George Gibbs. 
9765. Fish-hook. Wallapai Indians. E. Palmer. 
5583. ilsh-hook of wood and bone. Gens des Fous Indians. Yukon River, 

Alaska. W. H. Dall. 
9807. ilsh-hook and line. Chilkaht Indians. Alaska. Lieut. F. W. Ring, 

U. S. A. 
5590. Fish-hooks and sinkers. Premorska Indians. St. Michaers, Alaska. 
W. H. Dall. 
19064. Fish-hooks. CooyuwecPi-Ute Indians. Pyramid Lake, Nev. Stephen 

Powers. 
20651. Fish-hook. Bella Bella, B. C. J. G. Swan. Indian make. 
9270. HaUbut-hook. Alaska. Dr. Hoff, U. S. A. '* " 

. Halibut-hook. • Sitka, Alaska, J. G. Swan. " " 

9103-4. Halibu^hook8. Alaska. Lieut. F. W. Ring, U. S. A. " '' 

1141. Butt-end of hemlock limb for making halibut-hook. Makah Indians. 
Puget Sound, W. T. J. G Swan. 
16346. Halibut-hooks. Yakutat Eskimo. W. H. Dall. 
2630. Fish-hook. Northwest coast of America. Capt. Chas. Wilkes, U. S. N. 

U. 8. Exploring Expedition. 
1324. Hooks and lines. Eskimo. Anderson River. C. P. Gaudet. 
1989. Fish-hook. Arctic America. B. R. Ross. 
5118. Fish-hook. Anderson River Eskimos. Mackenzie's River district. 

R. Kennicott. 
6116. Rsh-hook. Fort Anderson Eskimos. Mackenzie's River district. 
Tt, MacFarlanc. 

^ hf kelp {Kereoqf»tis)f fish-hook, and bladder buoy. Makah 
Heah Bay. J. G. Swan. 



100 ANIMAL BES0UBCE8 AND FISHEBIES OF UHITaD SUIU. 

Hooks (including a full series of tmmonnted books, of reeent i 
aborigiiu^ numo&ctnre). 
Plain books. 

9607. Fiahing line and hook. Chilkaht Indimi. AUika. lieoL 1'. 

Bing, U. S. A. • 

15G30. Bone fi«h-hook with whalebone snood. AlMit*. IL W. Elliott. 
16315. Fioh-hook. Sitka. W. H. DalL 
653. Ealibat-hookB. Indiane of Northweat coaat of America. Gt 

Oibb*. 
20656. Halibat-hooks. Indiani of Fort Simpson, B. C^ J. O. Svao. 
156%. Fiah-hookB. Eskimos Poonook, Alaska. H. W. Elliott 
10142. Fish-hooks. Eskimos. Victoria Harbor. Capt C. F. Hall. 
14280. Fish-hooks. Neoh Bay, W. T. James O. Swan. 
10116. Bone hook. Magemnt Eskimos. Nnnivak, Alaska. W. B. Di 
16311. Fish-hooks. Nunivak Islands, Alaska. W. H. Dall. 
1051. Fish-hooks. Capt. Chas. Wilkes, U. S. K. U. 8- Exploring 1 

dition. 
10Q19. Codfish-hook. Eskimos. Coast of Oinenland. Capt C. F. B 
3191-92. Fish-hooks of stone, bone, and iron. Fort Auderaou Eat 

Hackende'a Biver district. B. Kunntcott 
2093, 2248. Fish-hooks of bone and iron. Aaderaon KiTor FrT^'"*"* 

MaoFarlane. 
16311-13. Bone hoolu and line apreadera. Thlinket Eakimoa. Sitka.Al 

W. H. DalL 
5118-7441. Hooks of bone and iron. Moclcensle'B Biver Eakimoa. B. 

32660. Smelt^preader and hooks. 01onceet«T, Uasa. O. Brown Good 

Jigs and drails. 

29448. BBSS and bluefish draiL Elisha Cook, ProTinoetown, Uan. 
294S&. BlaefiBh-drail. Piovincetown style. Lemael Cook, Sd, Pnr 
town, Mass. 




AinOCAL B£80tJRCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 101 

km (inclnding a ftill series of unmounted hooks, of recent and 

aboriginal manufacture), 
igs and drails. 

25669. Blaeiish-draiL Peculiar to Hyannis, Mass. Freeman Hallett, 
HyanniSy Mass. Wlien used, covered with an eel-skin. 

25600. Weak-fish Jigs. Used in Newport, R. L J. M. K. Southwick, New- 

port, R. I. 
9078. Metallic squid. Indians. Ahisko. Lieut. F. W. Ring, U. S. A. 

32657. Cahoon's improved trolling-hooks. (Patented March 24, 1874.) 

Thomas J. Gifford & Co., New Bedford, Mass. 
12496. Mackerel-Jigs. Cape Ann. J. P. Nason, Rockport, Mass. 

32658. Mackerel-Jig. Gloucester, Mass. G. Brown Goode. 
29479. Mackerel-jig. John B. Parsons, Rockport, Mass. 

32734. Mackerel-Jigs. Used thirty years ago. A. McCurdy, Gloucester, Mass. 

25599. Mackerel-Jigs. J. M. K. Southwick, New]K>rt, R. I. 

2594L Mackerel-Jigs. Used about the year 1840. Capt. Edward L. Rowe, 

Gloucester, Mass. 
12495. Soapstone ''Jig" molds, No. 1. (Patented March 15, 1870.) Cape 

Ann. J. P. Nason, Rockport, Mass. 
25780. Soapstone mackerel-Jig mold. Capt. £. L. Rowe, Gloucester, Mass. 
5^781-^ Wooden, lead-lined, mackerel-Jig molds. ** 

25721. Mackerel-Jig mold. (Patented March 15, 1870; J. P. Nason, No. 2.) 

Central Wharf Company, Provincetown, Mass. 
32666. Mackerel-Jig mold. Gloucester, Mass. G. Brown Goode. 
32654. Mackerel-Jig ladle. << <' 

32661. Mackerel-Jig rasp. " *' 

32662. Mackeiel-Jig file. << " 

32663. Pewter for use in manufacture of jigs. Gloucester, Mass. G. Brown 

Goode. 
29461. Codfish <<trip" and "fly-Jig." Styles used fifty years ago. Lemuel 
Cook, 2d, Provincetown, Mass. 

25601. Codfish Jig-hook. Used when the fish rise from the bottom. Mas- 

sachusetts. A. R. Critteli^en, Middletown, Conn. 

poon-baits, plain and fluted. 

25550. Fluted spoons for pickerel, bass, and trout. Manufactured by G. M. 
Skinner, Gananoqne, Ontario. Patented United States and Can- 
ada, 1874. Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

25550. Trolling-spoons. For bass and pickerel. Bradford & Anthony, 

Boston, Mass. 

525555. Bluefish-spoons. Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

2555P. Spinners. For pickerel, trout, and bass fishing. Bradford &, An- 
thony, Boston, Mass. 

5^549. Spoon-baits. For bass, pickerel, pike, and trout fishing (nickel- 
plated). John H. Mann, Syracuse, N. T. 

25551. Spoon-baits. For bass, pike, pickerel, and trout (silver-plated). J. 

T. Buel, WhitehaU, N. Y. 

25552. Spoon-baits. For pike, pickerel, bass, trout, and bluefish. Wm. H. 

James, Brooklyn, N. T. 

25553. Spoon-baits. For pike, bass, pickerel, and trout fishing. Wm. H. 

James, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
20993. Series of fluted trolling-spoons. D. M. Skinner, Gananoque, Onta- 
zfOy Canadft. 
fliNKxn-liooks. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Con- 
Med hj IVxMSt A fltmaiii Publishing Company. 



102 ANIUA.L BE80UBCJ£8 iSD FXSHESDBS OF nVITBD 8X1118. 

Books (indadiug a fbll series of nnmoauted hookB, of zeoat i 
aboriginal manofoctare). 
SpooD-baits, plain and fluted. 

S8680. Troat-spoon. Property of J. A. Nichola, Sjmwaae, H. Y. ( 

tribatod by Fonst and Stream Publulung Company. 
25654. Spoon-biuts. For piko, pickerel, baas, and trout. W. D. Cli^ 

&. Son, Theresa, N. Y. 
SS666. Pearl miimowB. W. M. Young, Philadelphia, Pa. 
25550. MocHorg's peail Bpoons. For pickerel, tioat, Bod baia. Bndfti 
Anthony, Boston, Maw. 

Artificial flies on hooks. 

32735. Baw-flies. Sara J. McBride, Mnmfbid, S. Y. 

32736. Tront-flioa. " " 
26105. Salm^D-fliea. " " 

32737. Artificial files for salmon, tront, and bass. Bradford & 
thoDy, Boston, Mass. 

Note. — For convenience this entire collection ia pntvioianaUy en 
nndec a single catalogue nomber. 

a. Peacock, with water-color sketch of original. 

b. Moreh Brown, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Fur of the fox-sqairrel's face ribbed over with olive sUk. Tail- 
strands of brown foather of the wild mallard. Winga — Fnnn the 
feather of the shoveller duck approaching the toil ; the light yeaet-co 
feather is the best, and if nicely tied mnst be an excellent fly. htf 
grizzled cock's hackle, wound twice or thrice at the ahoolder. Fm I 
Bylvania, hooks Nos. € to 8 ; for New York, hooks Nos. 5 aud 6 ; Vtrw i 
land, hooka Nos. 4 and 5. 



c Great Bed Spinner, with water-color sketch of orlginaL 




ANIMAL BES0URCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 1 03 

ooks (induding a foil series of unmounted hooks^ of recent and 

aboriginal manufacture). 

32737. Artificial flies for salmon, trout, and bass— Continued. 

i. Bed Spinner, with water-color sketch of originaL 

Body — ^Bright bro^vn silk ribbed, with fine gold twist. Tail — ^Two fibers of 
red cock's hackle. Wings — Upright from a mottled gray feather of the 
mallard stained a pale blue, the brighter in color the better. Legs — Plain 
red cock's hackle. For Pennsylvania, hook No. 6; for New York, hook No. 
5; for New England, hook No. 4. 

j. Nicholson. 

h. Black Dog. 

2. Atkinson. 

M. Policeman. 

II. Claret Wasp. 

o. Blue Wasp. 

p. Wren-tail, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Ginger-colored for ribbed with gold twist. Wings— Feathers from a 
wren's tail; if these cannot be procured a smaU scapular feather of the 
woodcock makes a good imitation, and may be hackled with the same kind 
of feather. For Pemisylvania, hook Na 10; for New York, hook No. 8; for 
New England, hook No. 6. 

q. Bed Ant, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — ^Peacock's herl tied with rod-brown silk. Wings — From the quill- 
feather of the blue-Jay. Legs — A small rod cock's hackle. 

r. SOver Horns, with water-color sketch of original. 

«. Golden-dun Midge, with wiater-color sketch of original. 

U Sand-fly, with water-color sketch of originaL 

Body — Of the sandy-colored fur from the rabbit's neck or from the fox-squirrel 
spun on silk of tho same color. Wings — From the whimbrel wing made 
foil. Legs — From a light-ginger feather from the neck of a hen. For 
Pennsylvania, hooks Nos. 6 to 8 ; for New York, hooks Nos. 5 and 6; for Now 
England, hooks Nos. 4 and 5. 

«• Stone-fly, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Fur of the gray squirrel, when it is shortest is best, mixed with a little 
yeUow mohair, leaving yellow about the tail. Tail — A strand or two of 
brown mottled feathers, say of mallard. Wings — From the soft inside 
feather of the pea-hen's wing. Legs — Bluo-dun cock's hackle. For Penii- 
fyivania, hooks Nos. G to 8; for New York, hooks Nos. 5 and 6; for New Eng- 
land, hooks Nos. 4 and 5. 

r. Gravel-bed, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Dark dun or lead-colored silk floss dressed very fine. Wings — ^From a 

Mrrwi-leaiher of the woodcock's wing. Legs — ^A black cock's hackle, rather 

•c wound twice only round the body. For Pennsylvania^ hooks Nos. 8 to 

~ % hooks Noa. 6 to 8; for New Engkuidy hooka Nos. 5 and 6. 



104 ANIMAL BESOUECISS ADD PI8H£aiE8 OF UHITEU 

Hooks (iiicladiag a fiill Beriea of aninoouted hooks, of leecnt i 

aboriginal mapofitctnre). 

32737. Artificial fliea for st^on, troat, and bass — Contiaiied. 

a, Orannnm, vitli water-color BkotcL of origiuAL 

Body — Fnrof a r^bit'a face with > little flue greeninohAir woriudloit' 
tail. Wings— From the inude wlng-fMtlieT of a graaat. Lag^-i i 
gingBr hen's hackle. For Peniisf Ivanift, hooks Noo. 8 to 10; fix K«* Xt 
hooks Nos. 6 1« 8; for Now England, hooks Noa. fi and 0. 

X, Yellow Don, with vater-color sketch of ori^dL 

Body — Yellow mohair mixed with a little pale blae ttotu a manse at yd 
flosa Bilk with the least blae rabbit for spun npou it. Wings— Upnj 
from the iuflide wing-feather of a mallard or summer dock. For Fma 
vania, hook No. 10; for Now York, hook No. 6; for New England, ho«ki) 
6 and 6. 

y. Iron-bine Dnn, with wateiMMtlor sketch of original. 
I, Hawtjtorn, with water-color sketch of origintd. 

Body— Black ostrich's herl. Wings— From the qaiU-fe*ther of the Ei^ 
snipe. Legs — A black cock's hackle. FDrFennaylvaaiA,ho(^}lai.Si* 
for New York, hooks Noa. to 8 ; for New England, hooks Noa. & ud i- 



Body— Oreen floss silk ribbed with silvertwiat Tail— Orange-tlroad fin 
tippet, wood-dock, ibia, and green parrot. Legs — A golden yelknr hsd 
Wings — Of the following kinds : wood-dack, tippet, brown mallaid,bsib 
green parrot, blue and yellow macaw, with a few atranda ot nd ■■(■ 
black ostrich head. Hooks Noa. 1, 2, and 3. 




AHIMAL BB80UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 105 

•oks (indnding a fall series of umnoiinted hooks, of recent and 

aboriginal mannfiBMstore). 

32737. Artificial flies for salmon, tront, and bass — Continued. 

00, Lake George. 

Body — Gold twist ribbed with silver twist. Tail — ^A small Cluiia topping. 
Legs— A bright orange hackle with a shoolder of bright claret. Wiugs — 
Two tippet feathers mixed with argns pheasant| brown mallonl ; black ostrich 
head. Hooks Noe. 1, 2, and 3. 

oJL Chateaugay. 

Body — ^Lemon-yellow floes ribbed with gold twist. Tail — ^A few flbres of 
brown mallard. Legs — A ginger-colored cock's hackle. Wings— Strips of 
ahoveUer dnck mixed with fibres of argos pheasant. 

ai. YeUow Drake. 

Body— TeUow mohair ribbed with silver twist. Tail — ^Three fibres of yellow 
macaw. Legs — ^Yellow hackle with two tarns of ibis on shoulder. Wings — 
Strips of gray mallard; black ostrich head. Hook No. 3. 

tff, Richardson. 

Body— A light-blue floes silk ribbed with silver twist. Tail— Three strands 
of brown mallard. Lega— Black cock's hackle. Wings — Strips of English 
blue-Jay mixed with brown mallard. Hooks Nos. 3 and 4. 

dk. Anthony, 
al. Snow-fly. 
flR. Captain, 
as. Combination. 

Body — ^First half, yoUow seal's fur; second half, rcd-cloret seal ribbed with 
ailver tinsel (the fur to be picked out). Tail — A few fibres of gray mallard 
mixed with ibis. Legs — ^A natural red hackle dipped in yellow dye. Wrings 
— A piece of the same kind of hackle with pale ibis strips. On each side a 
piece of gray mallard sufficiently large to make the wing full ; black ostrich 
head. Hooks Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

aa. Silver Doctor. 

Body — Silver tinsel ribbed with gold twist. Tail — China pheasant topping. 
Lega— A pale-blue hackle with a small teal or guinca-hcii nt the ^boulder. 
Wings — ^Mixed fibres of wood-duck, brown mallard, guinea-hen, green parrot, 
blue macaw, teal, and bustard; black ostrich head. Hooks Xos. 2 and 3. 

tip, Prouty. 

Body — First joint, silver twist; second, black ostrich with three turns of tho 
twist over it. Tail — Orange floss with a turn or two of twist, a topping 
mixed with fibres of English blue-jay. Legs — A yellow dyed list hacklo 
wound over the ostrich. Wings — Strips of whit<^ swan dyed yellow. Ono 
each aide a rib of teal-feather, red macaw feelers ; black ostrich head. Heoka 
Boa. Sand 3. 



106 ANIMAL BES0UBCE8 AND FISHBKtES OP UNITED STATES. 

Hooks (inGlnding a fall series of nniDOimted hooks, of reoa 
aboriginal mannfiictaie). 

32737. Artificial flies for salmon, tioat, and baaa — Oontinned. 

M. Great Blow. ' 

at. Cadis. 
OK. Uonay. 

BlMk silk floss ribbed with diver twist. Tail— A small feather froml 
of the scarlet ibis. Legs — A golden yellow hackle. Wings— Dtut 
turkey; bUck ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1 and 2. 

ae. Bound Lake. 



Body — Brown ostrich Iierl, ribbed with gold twisty tog ormnge Scm. 
Two or three short sprigs of yoUow macaw. Legs — A small soot; 
hackle, wonud fit>m tag to shoulder. Wiuga — Alternate strips d 
peacock'WlDg feather and shoveller daok, with a sprig or two of «<» 
peacock herl bead. Hooks Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 



Ismadoin two joints of bla«k orange mohair with gold tinseh Lep- 
blaok hackle wound fiom tail to head. Tail — Bright yellow lonesn. 
— A mixture of gold pheasant tall, argoa, and teiiL Hooks Mm. 1, 1 

ay. Priest. 
ax. Francis Sykes. 
ba. Duke. 
U. Dhoou. 
bf. DuBtiu. 
Id. Lascollcs. 
. Snitching Sfindy. 




ANIMAL BES0UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 107 

ooks (indading a fall series of unmounted hooks, of recent and 

aboriginal manufiacture). 

32737. Artificial flies for salmon, trout, and bass — Continued. 
hL wmow. 

Ul, Proaty. 
h9* Notion. 

Body — Firat lialf gold twist, remaiuder brown mohair, with three turns of 
the twist over it. Tail — ^A topping mixed with blue kingfisher. Legs — 
Brown hackle. Wings — Two tippet feathers mixed with arp:ns pheasant, 
brown mallard, teal, China pheasant-tail feathers, blue and yeUow macaw, 
with a blue kingfisher on each side of the wing ; black ostrich head. Hooks 
Nos. 2 and 3. 

hw, Louise. 

Body — ^Brown mohair ribbed with gold twist. Tail — China feather topping. 
Leg9— Reddish brown hackle, blue-Jay on shoulder. Wings — Pheasant 
tippet feather and tail mixed with sprigs of green parrot, blue macaw, and 
kingfisher. Head — Orange mohair. Hooks Nos. 1 and 2. 

ke. Bound Lake. 

Body — Orange and red claret merging into each other, silver tinselled. Tail — 
Sprigs of gold pheasant tippet, blue macaw, and green parrakeet. Legs— 
A claret hackle with a turn or two of orange on the shoulder. Wings — 
Two strips of brown turkey, with a small Jungle-cock's feather on each side. 
Hooks Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

fty. KicholBon. 
ht. Our Pattern. 
00. Saranac. 

Body — Claret floss silk ribbed with gold tinsel, backed with silver twist. 
Tail — China pheasant crest-feather. Legs — ^A claret hackle. Wings — ^Two 
China pheasant tippet feathers on either side, a strip or two of brown mallard 
and argus pheasant; black ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1-0, 2, and 3. 

eb. Long Tom of Long Lake. 

• Body — Gray squirrel mixed with a little green mohair ribbed with silver tinsel. 
Tail — China pheasant crest-feather. Legs — A blue dun cock's hackle; at 
shoulder two or three turns of bright claret hackle. Wings — Strips of brown 
mallard mixed with strands of summer duck, peacock-wing, and upper 
coverts of the wild turkey, red macaw feelers; black plush head. Hooks 
Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

00. St. Begis. 

Body — Cinnamon mohair ribbed vrith double gold twist. Tail — ^A strip of 
China pheasant tippet mixed with a few strands of bustard. Legs — A 
chestnut hackle with three turns or so of orange-dyed guinea-hen, small 
short in the fibres. Wings — Strips of brown mallard, brown turkey, 
icrliili pheasant tail, and China tippet ; black ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1 



108 ANIMAL BESOUBCES AND FI8HEK1ES OF UHITED 8T1TS8. 

Hooks (incladiug a fnll series of onmoantod hoc^ oi lecad ai 
aboriginal maiinfbctnie). 

32737. Aitiflcial flies for salmon, troat, and bass — Gontinaed. 

cd. No. 8. I 

Body — Three or four turns of moluiir, rest of black mohair rilibed willi (tlw 
ttnsel and backed with gold twisl. THil— A, biubII tojipiuj;. Legs— 4dji< 
black h.-wklo and a BlionJderof rcl tlarpt. Winga — Misodfllirr»of miHiA 
gaiDoa-licn tail-feather over wing, tivo Btri]ia of dark tiukey Uppril ^ 
v1li^e. Hooks Nos. S and 3. 

tt. mghlaader. 

if, Ladf of Mertoan. 

Bmly — Water-rats fur ribbed witt silver twist. Tail — A tip of canma t» 
trith or miiliair and a gold plieasant topping. L«gs — Two or threr wnt* 
a small rod Iiacklo Qnished off with a black hackle. Wings— Striin of fbl 
gray niallnriL H«ail — Crinisonoetrich or mohair. Hooka Nua. l-0.l,uit- 

eg. Topiiy. 

Body — Black mohair ribbed with nilver tiu8eL Tail — A topping lip <m^ 
Lege — A turn or two of tvd hackle, the rest black baokle. Wiap-Bi* 
<a brown tnikey tipped with white. Head — CrimBon. Hooka Sob. iA\ 
and 2. 

(*. Sapper. 

Boiiy — Orotigo raoliair ribbtd with gold tinsel. Tail — Fibrei of green )i«n* 
guiniML-heo, tippet feather, and ibia. Legs — Orange hackle. sboulJf^i'M 
black hackle. Wiiigs— Strips of [icacock-wing fcalbnr, brown bu1!»* 
green parrot, guincn-hon, gold pheasant tail, blue macaw feekrs; bbc*^ 
trich head. Hooka Noa. 1^ and 1. 




ANIMAL RE80UBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES* 109 

olui (incladinff a fall series of unmounted hooks^ of recent and 

aboriginal manufacture). 

(2737. Aitifip^i^^l flies for salmon, trout, and bass— Continued. 

€l, Nidiolsoii. 

Body— Blood-red mohair ribbed with gold tinsel. Tail — Sprigs of mallard 
and pheasant tippet feather. Legs — ^A blood-red and a dark-blno hackle 
wonnd on together. Wings — ^Brown mallard and blue macaw fbelers ; black 
ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1 .and 2. 

Ml. Caribou. 

Body— Tip gold tinsel, tag golden-yeyow silk, next a black silk Joint, the 
rest of gray caribou. Legs — Gray hackle with a claret on the shoulder. 
Tail— Gold pheasant topping. Wings — ^Turkey and mallard with sprigs of 
macaw and pheasant tippet feather; black ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1-^, 
and 1. 

cm. Moose. 

Body — ^Yellow floss ribbed with silver tinsel. Tail — ^A China pheasant top- 
ping. Legs — ^A yellow hackle ; shoulder hackle a guinea-hen. Wings — ^Two 
tippet feathers of the China pheasant with fibres of mallard wood-duck on 
each side; black ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

eo. Moosehead. 

Body — Deep claret mdhair ribbed with gold twist. Tail— A topping. Legs— 
A claret hackle with three turns of orange hackle at the shoulder. Wings — 
Strips of brown mallard and tippet feather with red macaw feelers; black 
ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

g^ Fiery-brown. 

Body — ^Fiery brown mohair ribbed with gold tinsel. Tail — ^A small topping 
mixed with wood-duck. Legs — A brown-red hackle. Wings — Brown mal- 
lard with a little wood-duck and golden pheasant neck-feather mixed; black 
head. Hooks Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

eg. Parson. 

ST. Gold Wing. 

Of. Gold Mallard. 

ef. Kircudbrightshire. 

CM, Eagle. 

or. Tartan. 

MP. Last Fly. 

er. Atkinson. 

ef. Stfftchan. 

Of. Parson. 

Body— Black mohair tipped with orange and ribbed with silver twist. Tail— 
A small topping. Legs— A black hackle. Wings— Brown turkey-tail ; black 
head. Hooks Nos. 2 and 3. 

ia. Ross. 

»4v— Cliimnnon'colored floss ribbed with gold twist. Tail— Sprigs of green 
1 l4g»— A fhmace hackle. Wingch— Brown mallard mixed with pea* 
I* Iriack Oiftiioh head. Hooks Kos. 1^0 and 1. 



110 ANIMAL BESOtTBCES AND 7TSHEK1ES OF UIOTED STATES. 

Boobs (indadiBg a fbU series of mmionnted hooks, of leoeit 

aboriginal manafactcire). 

32737. Artificial flies for saliBon, trout, and baas — Cootiimed. 

db. Forayth. 
Se, ChAmberlin. 

de. WbitohM', 

df. Ltrngrin. 

dg. EDuneL 
dh. Captain. 

di. M^or. , 

4'. Darling. 
dk. Ihu-luun Bangn. 
dl. Goldflncb. 
dm. Britannia. 
d». Fopbam. 
do, Whit* Tip. 
dp, Whit* Wing, 
dq. Drake Wing, 
dr. Don Wing. 
dt. Black and Tellow, 
dt Bias Doctor, 
da. Kate. 
dv. Buggies. 

Ad, LltUe yeUow Ha; Don, with wat«t-«olor aketeh of origlnaL 
tc Oak Fly, with watei-oolor sketch of original. 

Body — Orange floM silk ribbed witti aab-colored litk thread or a Bttle 1 
the aah-oolor to be ahown well at the tail and ahonldera. fnngt— Rm 
■oapnlar feather of the woodcock, l^egs — A fnmace haeUe ik nd «■ 
baokle with a bhwk list op the middle. For PennBylvania, hooki K<a i 

10: fiirXi'vv Yoi-k. h..i.k-N.>.. ' 




jUnOCAL BESOURCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. Ill 



(inclading a fall series of unmoanted hooks, of recent and 

aboriginal manu&ctare). 

^737. Artificial flies for salmon, trout, and bass — Continued. 

c6. Alder Fly, with water-color sketch of origiual. 

Body— Peacock's herl. Wings— From a feather of a brown lien's wing. 
Legs — ^A red cock's hackle or a black cock's hackle will answer tolerably 
welL For Pennsylvania, hooks Nos. 8 to 10 ; for New York, hooks Nos. 5 
and 6; for New England, hooks Nos. 4 and 5. 

06. Sky Bine, with wateiMX>lor sketch of original. • 

«i. Little dark Spinner, with water-color sketch of original. 
96. Turkey Brown, with water-color sketch of original. 
tf, MagaUoway. 

Body — ^Half black ostrich and half brown mohair ribbed with gold twist. 
Tail — Short fibers of yeUow macaw. Legs — A fdmace hackle of the 
shonlder. Wings — Strips of brown qnill-feathers of the peacock ; black 
ostrich head. Hoqjc No.. 3. 

eg. Bemis Stream. 

Body — Chestnut mohair ribbed with gold tinsel. Tail — China pheasant top- 
ping. Legs — ^A chestnut hackle. Wings — Strips of brown peacock mixed 
with bustard. Hooks Nos. 1 and 2. 

eh. Mooselocmaguntick. 

Body— About equal parts mixed of gray squirrel's fur and pea-green mohair 
ribbed with gold twist. Tail— Four strands of argus feathers. Legs— A 

* brown bittern hackle. Wings — Gray speckled turkey, white tipped (dye 
yeUow), with a strip of argus feather on each side ; green ostrich head. 
Hook No. 1. 

•i. Molechunkemunk. 

Body — Orange floss silk ribbed with gold tinsel, backed with silver twist. 
Tail — China pheasant topping. Legs — A furnace hackle. Wings — Brown 
mallard ; black ostrich head. * 

f^. WiUow Finch. 

Body — YeUow seal's fur ribbed with silver twist. Tail— Sprigs of tippet 
feathers mixed with yellow macaw. Legs — ^A yellow hackle, at the shoul- 
der a smaU guinea-hen stained yellow. Wings — Strips of swan feather dyed 
yeUow with a spray of guinea-hen (tail-feather) dyed yellow; black ostrich 
bead. Hooks Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

dk. Oqnassac. 

Body — Red claret mohair ribbed vrith pink floss. Tail— Yellow tag with 
pieces of argus and tippet feathers. X/egs — A claret hackle. Wings — Strips 
from the quiU-feather of the argus pheasant; black ostrich head. Hooks 
Nos. 1-0 and 1. 

A Welokennebago. 

Ho^— 2ed pig's hair ribbed with broad gold tinsel, backed with silver twist. 
"■Wl— A mixture of black turkey tipped with white and scarlet ibis. Legs — 
'•^liiekle. Wings— Fibers of red macaw mixed with strips of black 
■Hgr ti^n?^ ^^ ^hito ; hiaok ostrich head. 



112 ANIMAL RESOrCCKS AND FIS1IEBIE8 OP UKirED StAttS 

Boobs (inclnding a fiiU series of unmonnted liooks, of na 

aboriginal mannfitctme). 

32737. Artificial flies for trout, sahiion, and 



Body-— Silver tinsel ribbed with gold twist. Tall— FIben of CUs* ; 
t^ mixed with gaiiiea-hen and red maoftw. Lega — A briinut 
hackle. Wings— Mixed and to be mode ftill. Two atrlpa of browi 
tipped with wbit«-browi) maHard, China pheasant t^ m>A gait 
black ostrich head. Hooks Nos. 1-0, 1, and S. 

en. Orange Qroose. 

w, Tbnnder and Lightning. 

tp. Longh OilL 

eq. Lillle. 

ST. Black Ant. 

m. Bine Blow. 

mt. Hare's Ear. • 

ee. Ibis. 
eir. Scth Green, 
ex. Bed Creeper. 
ty. Turkey Brown. 
«r. Qoeen of the Watew. 

fa. Governor. % 

/b. White Miller. 
fa. Lion, 
/a. Watei^witoh. 
/«. Atkinson. 
ff. Onr Own Pattern. 
fff. Oreen Drake, with water-color sketch of original. 




AKIHAL BES0URCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 113 

»ks (inelading a full series of unmounted hooks, of recent and 

aboriginal manufacture). 

J737. Artificial flies for trout, salmon, and bass— Continued. 

r«. Pale Evening Dun, with water-color sketch of original. 
fn. July Dun, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body— Mole's fur and pale-yellow mohair mixed and spun on yeUow silU. 
Tail— Two or three whiskers of a dark dun hackle. Wings— From the 
quiU-feather of a hlue-Jay. Legs— Dark dun hackle. For Pennsylvania, 
hooks Nos. 8 to 10; for New York, hooks Nos. 6 to 8; for New England, 
hooks Nos. 5 and 6. ^ 

/o. Gold-eyed Gauge-wing, with water-color sketch of original. 
fp. Butcher, No. 1. 
fq. Blue Ranger, 
/r. Black Ranger, 
/i. Colonel. 
ft. Children's Farlow. 
/m. Candlestick Maker. 
fr. Baker, 
/if. Butcher, 
/r. Namscn. 
fif, BhickandTeaL 
fz. Guinea Hen. 
go. Claret. 
gh. Inquichin. 
gt. Maxwell Ranger. 
gd, August Dun, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body— Brown floss silk ribhed with yellow silk thread. Tail— Two rabbit's 
whiskers. Wings — Feather of a brown hen's wing. Legs — ^A dark red 
hackle. For Pennsylvania, hook No. 8 ; for New York, hook No. 6 ; for 
New England, hook J^o. 5. 

gt. Orange, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Orange floss silk ribbed with black sillc. W^ings— Dark part of the 
blue-jay's wing. Legs — A very dark furnace hackle. For Pennsylvania, 
hooks Nos. 8 to 10 ; for Now York, hooks Nos. 6 to 8 ; for New England, 
hook No. 6. 

gff. Cinnamon, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Fawn-colored floss silk ribbed with red silk thread. Wings — Feathor 
of a yellow-brown hen's wing. Legs — A ginger hackle, ^or Pennsylvania, 
hook No. 8 ; for New York, hook No. 6 ; for New England, hook No. 6. 

1^. Blue-bottle, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Bright blue floss silk with a few turns of brown floss at the shoulder. 
Wings — From the quill-feather of a water-hen. Legs — Black hackle from 
a cock wrapped down the principal part of the body. For Pennsylvania, 
hook No. 8 ; for New York, hook No. 6 ; for New England, hook No. 5. 

^ Whirling-blue Dun, with water-color sketch of original. 

Body — Squirrel's red-brown fur mixed with yellow mohair. Tail — One or 
two whisks of a pale ginger hackle. Wings— From the quill-feather of a 
Bittliacd. For Pennsylvania, hook No. 8; for New York, hook No. 6; for 
Wtm Kngland, hook No. 6. 

1 ^lLHal4— 8 



i 



114 ANIHAL BE80DBCE8 AKD FISBESrBS OF UMIT ED BTATXfl. 

Hooks (iDclndiug a fbll series of nnmoanted hooks, of noeot t 
aboriginal manafiustnre). 

32737. Artiflcial flies for troat, salmon, and bass — Contiimed. 

gi. Willow, witb water-color Bketch of originaL 

Body— Hold's fiir mixed with a Uttl« fine yellow moluir. Wing*— IW 
qalll-£aatlier of a wnter-ben OT coot. Legs— A dark don ben^ bacUc I 
PemuylvanJo, hooks Nos. 8 to 10; for New Torfc, hook No. 8; lit S 
EDgUod, hooks Mos. 6 and & 

gk. Bcftnty Snow. 

gl. B«d Palmer, with wnter^olor sketch of origiDsL 

Body — Bed mohair ribbed with gold twiat or tinsel. Legs— A Mood- 
cock's (saddle) hackle wrapped nicely OTcr it, working the hackle t\» 
together at the shonlder. For Pennsylvniiia, hooksNos. 6, 8, and IB; 
New York, hooks Nos. 4, 5, and 6 ; for New England, hooks Ncs. % 4, lu 

gm. Black and Red Palmer, with wat«r-color sketch of originaL 
gtt. Brown Palmer, with water-color sketch of original. 
go. Furnace. 
gp. Griizle. 
gq. Ginger. 

gt. Soldier. 
gt. White. 
gtt. Grizzle Peacock, 

ga. Block Peacock. 

gx. Black. 

gy. Brown Peacock. 




I 

AKIlfAL RESOUKCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 115 

« (twisted and plaited). 

inen lines. 

25626. Hard-braid linen lines. (1 to 5; 50 yards eacli.) G. H. Mansfield &, 

Co., Canton, Mass. 
25631. Series of braided linen fish-linea (50 yards.) G. H. Mansfield Si, 

Co., Canton, Mass. 

25612. Linen fish-lines. J. &. S. Allen, Walpole, Mass. 

25613. Linen fish-lines. << 
256ia Linen fish-lines. '< 

25637. Linen bass-line. (600 feet.) Bradford &, Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

otton lines. 

25619. Cotton fish-lines. (20 feet hank.) L. Crandall &, Co., Ashaway, R. I. 

25620. Cotton fish-lines. (50 feet shroud, laid.) '^ 

25621. Cotton fish-lines. (28-fathom hawser.) '^ 

25622. Cotton fish-lines. (14-fathom hawser.) << 

26738. Fishing-line, No. 3. (Sea-Island fly-line. ) J. W. Dresser, Castine, Me. 

26733. Fishing-line, No. 5. " " 

26743. Fishing-line, No. 5. (Grolden mackerel, oiled.) '^ '^ 

26741. Fishing-line, No. 6. (Golden mackerel, oiled.) ** '' 

26735. Fishing-Une, No. 6. " " 

26744. Fishing-line, No. 7. (Groldon mackerel, white.) ** " 

26739. Fishing-line, No. 7. (White.) ** ** 

26742. Fishing-line, No. 8. (Golden mackerel, oiled.) " " 

26740. Fishing-line, No. 9. (Golden mackerel, oiled.) << '< 

26734. Fishing-line,. No. 9. *' " 

26745. Fishing-lines, No. 7, 8, and 9. (Sea-side cotton chalk-line, white.) 

J. W. Dresser, Castine, Me. 

26736. Fishing-line, No. 10. (14 fathoms, hawser-laid.) J. W. Dresser, 

Castine, Me^ 
26732. Fishing-line, No. 11. (Blnefish.) (24 fathoms long, hawser-laid.) 
J. W. Dresser, Castine, Me. 

25624. Tarred cotton fishing-lines. (25-fathom shroud.) L. Crandall & 

Co., Ashaway, R. I. 

25623. Cotton fishing-lines. (50 feet shroud, laid.) L. Crandall &, Co., 

Ashaway, R. I. 
26016. Golden mackerel lines of assorted sizes. Made from pure Sea-Isloixl 
cotton. J. W. Dresser, Castine, Me. 

25625. Braided cotton fishing-lines. G. H. Mansfield &, Co., Canton, Mass. 
25636. Sea-Island cotton mackerel-lines. Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 
25627. Water-proof braided fish-lines. (B to G.) G. H. Mansfield & Co., 

Canton, Mass. 
660. Fishing-line. Northwest coast of America. G. Gibbs. 

Vlialebone lines. 

2193. Whalebone fish-line. Anderson River Indians. Anderson River. 

R. MacFarlane. 
S197. Whalebone line with hooks. Eskimo. Anderson River. R. Mao 

Farlane. 
20ifti WliAl^bone line. Arctic coast. B. R. Ross. 



116 AlOHAL BB80UBCES ASD FI8BEBIE8 OF DHITBD BTAin. 

liines (twisted and plaited). 

Hide ]ines. 

8787. Fishing-line made of Heal-sldii. Mshlemut EabiiDo. 'V. H. Dt! 
87SG. Fietuag-lino made of seal-Bkin. Kaviokemat Eakimo. Ont 

Harbor, AlasliB. W. H. DaU. 
8780. Fishing-lino made of seal-skin. Una]e«t Eskinw. St. Hkb 

Alaskft. W. H. DaU. 
16314. Horpooa-line. Nonivak Island, Alaska. W. H. Dall. 
156IT. Harpooa-line. Hade of skin of yonug walnu. Alaska. E 

Elliott. 
1937fi. Harpoon-line made of seal-skin. Eev. James Cnrly. 
Bark lines. 

S065&. Fishing-line made of cedar bark. Bella Bella, B. C. J. 0. Sot 
20S89. FishiQg-line made of spruce root-fibera. Humegan Indians. Pi 

of Wales Islands, Alaska. J. O. Swan. 
SC831. Harpoon-line, cedar bark. Makah Indians. J. 0. Swan. 

Kelp lines. 

666. Fishing-lines of sea-woed. (Kertoogitit Inlkeana.) Northnnt - 

of America. 0. Oibbs. 
6561. Fish-line of kelp. (NtreoeytlU Ivtkeana.) With halibnt-bookB. 

dah Indians. Prince of Wales Archipelago. Dr. T. T. Mino 
105S. Fish-line. {NercocgtlU lutkrana.) Sorlhwest coast. Lieot. J 
White. 
26618. Halibnt-line of kelp. (_Xereocy»tU Ivtha^a.) Uakah Indian!. 

Bay, W. T. J. O. Swan. 
26810. Fish-lioe of kelp with halibnt-hooks. Clyoqnot Indian*. T« 
tot's Isliind. J. G. Swan. 

(ACCESSOET.) APPABATUS foe TWISriMG UNES 

Snoods, leaders, and traces. 




ANIMAL BESOURCES AND FISHERIES OP UNITED STATES. 117 

:cr§. 

'Sinkers and swivels. 



vivclB. Forfishing-Hnes. Bradford &. Anthem y, Boslon, 1 
uiltaulog. NfinportDiixluls. | 



, Siali^ranndav 

25G05. Scries of siukcrsaBedinfiiiliiBgrcrcoda] 

J. M. K. Sotithwkk, Newport, H. I. 
25607. Huod-line aiukera. Bhodo laland >iod £uet<<cu Connectiuut. A. R. ^ 

C'rittunden. 
3371S. Cod-line sinker. Cenlrol Wlarf Company, Provincetown, Hub. 
S94&6. Cod-U>ad mold. Used to uiuku funo in muldiDg. Jubu D. ForiHiiis, , 

Hockport, Mobs. 
15501. Sinker made of nalnu Ivoiy. Poriioo^ Kaklmos, Alaska. U. W. 

ElUott. 



. Net-»iuker8. Wilcox, Critt«nden &. Co., Hiddletown, Conu. 

39393. Nrt-rings or sinkers. Wilcox, Critteuden is. Co., Middlctowu, Coidl. 
39474. I'liiuitive uot-ainkciB. Used iu Wcllflcct, Maw. Newell B. Kicli, 

Wetllleot, Maes. 
2G800. McnLailen-DPt siDkers (old stylo). Formerly usod about Boyerlj ouit J 

Salpn], MuBS. Georgo B. Foster, Bcvprly, Maiffi. 
25603. StiuL'-aiukerB. Newport model, J. U. K. SoiHliwift, Nen-port, R. I. 



Chopsticks. 

(hte-armed chopsticks or "revolving booms." 

Is. 

Liae-doatfl of wooil, cork, and quill. 

25601. Egg-shaped HontH. Wm. M. Yonng, Philadelphia, Pram. 

25<it!2. Barrel-aba|H!d Uoats. ■' 

05663. Saake-hend floats. " '* 

25(i&4. QiiUl floats. 

fieine-floate of cork, wood, glass, and niblier tubing, 

25597, fieine-corka. Used at Newport, li. 1. J. 31. K. Ijoiitliwirk, Neivport, 
K. I. 

Harpoon-floats of bladder, inflat«d skin, and woo«l. 

dOaoe. Seal-ekin bnoy. Sitka Alaska. J. G. Swan. 
1035. Beal-ekin bnoy. Makoli Indiana. Pnget Sound. J. G. Swiin. 
19515. Seal-akiu buoy. North Greenland. G. Y. Nickcraon. 
S68S4. Bcal-nkin buoy. (Used in wlmle finberica.) Clyoquut IndionK, Vui^ J 

oouver's Isliind. J. G, Swan. 
SGSiS. Seal-skin buoy. (U»cd In wbale Dhberies.) Clymiuot Indians, Van> ' 

oonvei'i Island, J. O. Swiin. 
VXm. Seal's bladder buoy. Bella Bella, B. C. J. G. Swiui. 
837, 4970. Seal-akin buoy with rope. Makah Indians. NiM?ah Bay, Puget I 
Sound. W. T. J. G. Swan. 

^g anil other floats lor lobater-pots, gill-nets, &c. 
nioIe-Une drag. 



118 AMIMAli BE80UHCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED BTITSB. 

29. (ACCEBBOBT.) AnGLING-APPABATUB. 

Reels. 

Simple reels for fly-flshiug, with and withont che^ 

2G590. BnkSB iishing-rtcl. Plain, sluglc, with Tiug. Bmdford 8c. inhnT, 

BoetuD, MiisH. 
25589. BrasB lishiug-reel. Plain, single, uith plate.. Bradford Ic inOnaj, 

Boston, Mobs. 
2S^S7. Brass flabiug-rcc^l. PUin, single, with atop and ring. Bndbtj i 

Anthouy, Buatcin, Moss. 
S5588. Braes fishing-reel. Plain, single, witli slop and plale. BndM t 

Anthony, Boston, Moss. 
25577. Hard-rublMT lisliiog-recl, Gerraan-silvcr liand. Rim vrrj' ni 

with IcMithtr case. Bradford & Anthony, BobIol, Hum. 
255fi8. Hiird-rubber suliuon-Dshlng reel, Gcrmau^ilvt'r rim. BradforJl 

Authonj, Boston, 3tass. 
25581. Rubber trout-reel. (Fowlcr'spatent.) Bradford A. Antlionr, Beam. 

25592, Oriiu' patent Gshing-ri'el. Germnu silver, nickeled and pi'rfo 

Bradford 6c. Anthony, Boston, Moss. 
25567. Fine click bruss fishing-reeL (25 yards.) Bradford &. An'lmr. 

Boston, Mass. 
S55S6. Brass fiahiug-reoL Cticb, with plate. Bradford &.Aiitlu<ii}-,Bnktii>. 

25585. Brass fisluog-rct'l. Click, with ring. Bradford Sc^ Aulhony, B 

25575. German-silver troul-Qshing reel. Click, with rua. BrodfoidlAi- 

thony, Boston, Mass. 
25565. Germon-eilver trout click fishing-reel, {iro yarda.1 Bradfind* J>» 

thooy, Boston, Moos. 
2554i9. Hard-rubber troul-fisJiiug reel. Click, German-silver rim. 
25571. Huni-rubber trout-fishing rwl. Clii^k, plain rim. BradfnRl i 




ikHUAL BBSOUBCES AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STATES. 119 

:eel8« 

Multiplying reels for bass fishing, with or without check. 

25574. Gennan-flilTer fishing-reel. Multiplying; 25 yards. Bradford & 
Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

25570. Hard rubber troat-fishing reel. Multiplying ; 60 yards. Bradford 
&, Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

25584. Brass fishing-reel. Multiplying stop and plate. Bradford & An- 
thony, Boston, Mass. 

25573. Brass fidiing-reel. Multiplying drag ; 60 yards. Bradford & An- 
thony, Boston, Mass. 

25572L German-sUyer fishing-reel. Steel pivot, multiplying drag, 300 yardK. 
Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

25578. CeUulold fishing-reel. With multiplying click and extra spool. 
Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 

Gunwale-winches. 
Trawl-line rollers. 

29432. Trawl-roller or hauler. ProTincetown style. Andrew Kemicdy, 
Proyincetown, Mass. 

29434. Trawl-roller or hauler. Cape Ann style. Samuel Elwell, jr., Glou- 
cester, Mass. 

29488. Trawl-roller and eye-plat«. First used by Provincetown fishermen. 
Amasa Taylor, Proyincetown, Moss. 

29445. Improyed trawl-roller and socket. Amasa Taylor, Proyincetown, 
Mass. 

25767. Trawl-roller. Used to haul in trawls oyer the sides of dory. Allen 

L. McDonald, Gloucester, Mass. 
. Trawl-winch. Gloucester, Mass. G. Brown Goods. 

Dredge-line rollers. 
Seine- windlasses. 

[ftne-holders. 

Whaleman's line-tub. 

88 F. C. Sounding-liue reel. XT. S. Fish Commission. 

25009. Harpoon-line and tub. Used in whale-boat. J. H. Thomson, New 
Bedford, Mass. 

Tub for trawl-line. (See under Trawl.) 

Winders. 

Spools. 

25592. Crab-line reel. Used in Newport, R. I. J. M. K. Southwick, New- 
port, R. L 

Seine-reels. 
tods. 

- 96611. Common rod. Three pieces; ash and hornbeam; brass mounting. 
Bradford &, Anthony, Boston, Mass. 



120 ANIIUL BESOUBCES AND FISHEBIICB OF UBITeD STAIU, 



25501. General fisbing-rod. Nine piecei ; Gemuui-ailTer n 

ford Sl AntboD;, Boston, If bm. 
SSSOO. Qenerol fiihiug-iod. Six pieces; Mh uidlanc«wood; GciibimIti 

mounting. Bradford & Anthony, BoBton, If aw. 
S0890. Tmok-rod of greeDhcart, ; five-jointed, wilb extra fourth pirn u 

tip, seven pieces in all ; weight, 8 oi. ; length, II fret 6 iiclit 

TliiKldens NorriB, Philadelphia, Pa, 
3&51S. Gudgpon-rod. Three pieces; asb and borabeMn; bran aioiinliii 

common. Bradford &, Anthony, Boston, Mast. 
85510. Common piekerel-rod. Four pieces. Bradlunl &. Antbopj, Ban 

25509. Bait-rod for trout. Four pieces; common. Bndfoid &. AntbM 

Boston, Mass. 
S5513. Jointed rod. Fonr Joints, extra tips, tie guides; made of Cilnr 

bamboo; fnll mounted in brass. Bradford Sc Anthony, BhU 

25508. Common bass-rod. Four pieces ; brass moonted. BradfbTU t i 
thonj-, Boston, Mass. 

25498. Light bana-rod. Fonr pieces; extra top; ash aiud laucvvood; li 

man-silver mounting. Bradford &, Anthony, Boetnu, UaM. 
25497. Basa-riML Fonr pieces and extra top for sca-flshiug; ash and Ui 

wood; Oeruiau-silver monnting; jeweled tip, Bcodfurd i . 

thony, Boston, Mass. 
25496. gen-bass rod. Ash butt joint, bamlioo middle Joint, lanoewondHo 

double guides, jeweled; German-silTer monnting; Jeweird I: 

Bradford &, Antbonf, Boston, Mass. 

25499. BInck-bass rod. Four pieces and two exttA tops; split b 

boo; German-silver mounting. Bradford &. Antbouy, BM 

31^02. Fly-rod. Three pieces and extra t«p; oedjw and ^tlil ban! 
Bradford & Anthony, Boston, Mass. 




ANIIUL BESOUBCES AND FI8HEEIES OF UNITED STATES. 121 

da. 

The following are the advantages claimed by Mr. Graves for his new 
rods: 

" 1. The line is concealed and cannot be caught in underbrash or branches. 

2. The strain on the rod is equalized through the entire length. 

3. There is no friction through rings or guides except on the tip. 

4. The strength of ^he rod is greatly increased. 

5. The weight of the rod is diminished. 

6. The wet line is not reeled up to decay. 

7. The rod goes under the brush whore the big trout lie. 

8. It adds greatly to the comfort and pleasure of 'the gentle art."' 
8666L Plain fly-rod. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Con- 
tributed by Forest &. Stream Publishing Company. 

26662. Bait-rod. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contributed 
by Forest &, Stream Publishing Company. 

aM663. Bait-rod. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contributed 
by Forest & Stream Publishing Company. 

2(712. English fly-rods. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Con- 
tributed by Forest &, Stream Piiblishing Company. 

26707. Rod-case. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Contributed 
by Forest & Stream Publishing Company. 

25682. Split bamboo trout-rod. 11^ feet. H. L. Leonard, Bangor, Me. 

26660. Split bamboo rod. Property of J. A. Nichols, Syracuse, N. Y. Con- 
tributed by Forest &. Stream* Publishing Company. 

26888. Extra greenheart trout-rod ; cedar case ; three-Jointed, with one extra 

middle and two extra tips, six pieces in all ; weight, 8 oz. ; length, 
12 feet. Thaddeus Norris, Philadelphia, Pa. 

26889. Rent and glued bamboo trout-rod in cedar case, with one extra mid- 

dle and two extra tips, six pieces in all ; weight, 8 oz. ; length, 

12 feet. Thaddeus Norris, Philadelphia, Pa. 
96883. Plain trout-rod of greenheart ; three-jointed, with extra middle and 

tip, five pieces; weight, 8 oz. ; length, . Thaddeus Norris, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
25881. Split bamboo grilse-rod. 14 feet. H. L. Leonard, Bangor, Me. 

25883. Split bamboo salmon-rod. 16 feet. ** '< 

25884. Piece of bamboo. Showing spUting process in construction of rods. 

H. L. Leonard, Biuigor, Me. 

25885. Piece of bamboo. Showing gluing process in construction of rods. 

H. L. Leonard, Bangor, Me. 
25401. Chapman's combination troUing-pole. Hnrpoon-line holder and cane. 
W. D. Chapman, Theresa, N. Y. 

25796. Horn cod-line swivel. Much used in olden time by Grand and 
George*8 Banks fishermen. George B. Foster, Beverly, Mass. 

25945. Cod-line swivel. Central Wharf Company, Gloucester, Mass. 

26017. Cod-line gange-swivcl. A. R. Crittemlen, Middlctown, Conn. 

25944-6. Patent gauge-swivel. Used iu cml-fishing. Central Wharf Com- 
pany, Gloucester, Moss. 

29486. Cod-gange swivel. Showiug mode of fastening. Lemuel Cook, 2d, 
Provincetowu, Mass. 

8M87, Haddook-gange swivel. Showing mode of fastennig. Lemuel Cook, 
ftAf Provincetowu, Mass. 
Woodkione-swivel. Used en cod-line. Cap*:. E. L. Rowe, Gloucester, 



122 ANIUAL BE80UBCE8 AND FISHERIES OF UNITED STIOBL 



S5IM2. Halibat-gange. Showing mode of fastening on the bo^ A. I 

Cilttenden. 
29457. Sboik-hook awivol. Wilcox, Crittenden A Co., HldOetowmCtn 
29395. Primitive ttttwl-baoy gwivela. George B. FiMtW, BeTcrif.llHL 
39476. Halibut trawl-bnoy swireL Used by the Geoige'a Banb lUiaM 

Auuua Taylor, ProTincetown, Mast. 
39498. Trawi-buoy snivels. Alex. McCnrdy, Eut GloiH:««ter, Him. 
2&187. Trawl-bnoyropeHwiTBl. Wilcox,Critteiiden&Co.,lIiddletovmCw 
25946. Trawl-buoy inpe awiveL Central Wtuuf Company, FiDTiDnlm 

Maas. 



Clearing-rings. 
IHngorgen. 



394^ Trawl-eheave bnshing. Samuel Elwell, jr., OloooMter, IUk 
. Halibut "gob^stick." Philip Meickant, OkmceAtar, Hhl 



V. KETS. 

Entangling-hets. 

9Ie8bing-ne(« (eutangling in meshes). 

J Barrier-neU, 

Babbit-nets, used by Indians of the SouthweHt. 

14405-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21. SmaU i»bWI-»* 
Pi-Ute Indiana, Southern Utah. Mfij. J. W. Powell. 
00. Small rabliil-net. Pi-Ute ludians, Soa them Utah. Utj-J.^I^ 




BE80DHCE8 AND FISnBBIES OF UNITED STATES. 123 

IT-neCtt (eutaiigling iu meslios). 
ets aaed in th» Great Lakes. 

two tm^Hluw in ili-plh, 31 to 5 inoli mesh. The nels viiivn liung (it uiounUil 
lornBis contain t^-om uuo to ibri'n piiiiuilaiir noliliing, and mage in Icn^li 
from m t« 1^ yanln, and is ilcptli fnmi 4^ ti> 6 fevt. Tlicy aiv let iu 
gangH of i)x>ni tluvu lu tWv unts, and tliivo to live Bangs ore laid mit in 
Ann setting nanally hy alilof oaillioatAorstoaiuars, (t^uHUiiHlnlHof Mfuki- 
uaw boat auil laku gill-uci st^uuiur, ) 

For Uoaltng Ibp iipiHV liuu, round or octagonal DuiUnfliark or wooden 
piukuta about two uud onf<-liuir fevt iu k>ogtL nr ow 1 b nk m ai« <i( 
load or HtunK. Tlic- nets are set in tniat 20 to 1011 fulL n » f nator, tbi< 
liHid-iiiie nesting ujiou tliu bottom. They uru taken out o u. u iveok and 

They oro n»ed principally for the cnptiire of tlii- wh t flsl {Coregoniu 
olbtM, >rf.), and tbv Inku front (.SnlmanunKi^cuiiA) tli u t inotit of tliu coni- 
mon lakn tiabca an> tAki'n Li thiiM meahea. Sso-Iitlaiid ootton (3, 4. h, aiul 
€ thread] in Iwing largely aubstitntrd for Unnu iu their mauuAiuturo. 

Thn Weight of the twinl^ pTtsferrvd by Kalicrmcu varies in dilTotunt locnli* 
tl««, thot nmA in Oiveu Day l>ciiig tiko flnl:^sT, that In Lnko Erio nrxt. 
theu I^kw Michigan and &u|t«i'Ior, and hpavi<wt iu Luke Hnrao. Lake 
Onrorio ruiisuniuH about G.UOO pounds of ui>ttiug aiinuHlly, Eriu 7,51X1, 
Huron 6.00(1, Miuhigim 20,000, Oreun Day 2,500. aud Liika Superior 5,0(W. 
The uggregDie length uf this netting b probably about 1,37^000 yitrdfl. 

o und Lcrring ^ll-nuta. 

IvmI in tbv Greiit Lukes in tlio euptnre of Iho siiu'O {Salmo niiumeet) and the 

' Tl)csu ut>in arp hung and ant like th<^ vhiteflsh-neta prerioiisly doKribcd. 
Tb><y am kiiit from linen Ihreiul (:{5-C(>,'.Vcord} 30 to 40 ine«hes in depth, 
nod 3) (a 3 iucli inenli. About S.i^OO poitudx arc unniiully consuiupd. rhiolly 
obout Eackel'B Harbor, N. Y., and Laki-a Huron luid Mitliigun. (E, I(. 

Frondi.) 

JioroU gUl-uets. 

liN.ll on Ihe rnaxl fn.u] Cnpe Cml lo Cupe Ilaltcnis iu Ibc caplnrt'of thi-bluc- 
■h {I'omatmniiii naltalrij^). 

*Th(WD