Environment de I'environnement
The Long- Range Transport of Air Pollutants
Z A bibliography : the long-range
5862.2 transport of air pollutants and
C36 acidic precipitation /
The Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants
The preparation of this bibliography was jointly sponsored by the
Ontario Ministry of the Environment and the
Federal Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada.
LRTAP Program Office
Atmospheric Environment Service
4905 Dufferin Street
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EMISSIONS 1
1.1 Emissions and Sources 1
1.2 Emissions Control and Abatement 7
2. ATMOSPHERIC 11
2.1 Transport 11
2.2 Chemistry 17
2.3 Deposition - Dry 35
2.4 Deposition - Wet 37
3. NETWORKS 49
4. MODELLING 52
5. AQUATIC EFFECTS 58
5.1 Chemistry 58
5.2 Marine Life 65
6. TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS 71
6.1 Soils and Geology 71
6.2 Vegetation and Forests 76
6.3 Wildlife and Biological Indicators 88
7. HEALTH EFFECTS 89
8. MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES EFFECTS 91
9. VISIBILITY AND ARCTIC HAZE 92
10. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY 93
11. MISCELLANEOUS 95
1.1 Emissions and Sources
Adams, D. et al., 1979. Assessment of biogenic sulfur emissions within SURE area.
Final report, research project .856-1 Electric Power Research Institute,
Washington State University, Pullman, Wash.
Adams, D.F. et al., 1979 • Preliminary measurements of biogenic sulphur-containing
gas emissions from soil. J. Air Pollution Control Association, 29: 38O-383.
Aneja, R.V. et al., 1979. Direct measurement of emission rates of some atmospheric
biogenic sulphur compounds. Tellus, 31: 174-178.
Ball, D.J., and S.W. Radclyfe, 1977. Inventory of sulphur dioxide emissions to
London's atmosphere. Clean Air, 9 (5): 156-164.
Bangay, C, 1973. The dragon's breath. Alternatives, 2:37-47.
Barrie, L.A., 1979. The fate of particulate emissions from an isolated power plant
in the oil sands area of western Canada. Annals of the New York Academy of
Science, Vol. 14, 1979.
Bertine, K.K., and E.D. Goldberg, 1971. Fossil fuel combustion and the major sedi-
mentary cycle. Science, 173: 233-235.
Bogdanov, S., P. Videnov, and E. Savov, 1979. Fluctuations of the abundance of
carbon monoxide. WMO symposium on LRTAP, 135-139.
Brosset, C. et al., 1975. The nature and possible origin of acid particles observed
at the Swedish west coast. Atmospheric Environment, 9 (6-7): 631-643.
Canada. Department of the Environment, 1973. A nationwide inventory of air pol-
lutant emmissions - 1970. Report EPS 3-AP-73-2, Environmental Protection
Service, 123 p. Ottawa.
Canada. Department of the Environment, 1979. A nationwide inventory of air cont-
aminant emission - 1974. Report Environmental Protection Service, 3-AP-78-2,
Air Pollution Control Directorate, December, 1978.
Hocking, D. and D. Reiter, eds., 1973* Canada. Proceedings of a Workshop on
Sulphur Gas Research in Alberta, Information Report N0R-X-72. Northern Forest
Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. December 1973- 196 p.
Carter, Luther J., 1979. Uncontrolled SO2 emissions bring acid rain. Science,
204, (4398): 119, 1181-1182.
Clarke, T.L., 1979. Gridded annual air pollutant emissions east of Rocky Mountains.
U.S. EPA, EP -6004/4-79-030, May 1979.
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Cullus, C.F., M.M. Hirschler, 1979. Emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere. Pro-
ceedings Int. Symp. Sulphur Emission and the Environment. London 8-10 May 1979,
pp. 1-24. The Chemical Society, London.
Dietz, R.N., 1978. Report of the working group on measurement of gaseous sulfur
oxides emissions. Workshop proceedings on Primary Sulfate Emissions from
Combustion Sources, EPA-600/9-78-020a, August, pp. 137-141.
Dovland, H. and J. Saltbones, 1979. Emissions of sulphur dioxide in Europe in 1978.
EMEP/CCC - Report 2/79. Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Lillestrom, May.
Elam, Nils and Trichem Consultants Ltd., 1979. Present and future levels of sulphur
dioxide emissions in Northern Europe. An investigation prepared for the
Swedish Ministry of Agriculture, June.
Environmental Science and Technology, ( Ed.), 1977. Exporting, Importing SO2
Emissions. Environmental Science and Technology, 11, 1154.
Fennelly, P.F., 1976. The origin and influence of airborne particulates. American
Scientist, vol. 64, pp. 46-56.
Flyger, H. et al., 1978. Airborne investigations of SO2 oxidation in the plumes
from power stations. Atmos. Envir., 12, 295-296.
Forrest, J., R. Garber, and L. Newman, 1979. Formation of sulfate, ammonium and
nitrate in an oil-fired plume. Atmos. Envir., 13:1287-1297.
Galbally, I.E., 1975. Emission of oxides of nitrogen (N0 X ) an d ammonia from the
earth's surface. Tellus 27:67-70.
Galloway, James N. and D.M. Whelpdale, 198O. An atmospheric sulfur budget for east-
ern North America. Atmos. Environ. 14:409-417.
Gartrell, F.E., F.W. Thomas, and S.B. Carpenter, 1973. Atmospheric oxidation of
SO2 in coal-burning power plant plumes. Am. Ind. Hyg., Vol. 24, pp. 113-120.
Granat, L., H. Rodhe, and R.O. Hallberg, 1976. The global sulfur cycle. In nitro-
gen, phosphorus and sulfur-global cycles, (Edited by B.H. Svensson and R.
Soderlund), pp. 89-134, Scope Report 7.
Gravenhurst, G., 1975. The sulphate component in aerosol samples over the North
Atlantic. Meteor Forsch-Ergebnisse, Reihe B. , No. 10, August, pp. 22-31.
Greeley, R.S. et al., 1975. Sulfates and the environment: a revue. Mitre Corp.,
NTIS PB-248 122.
Hales, J.M., 1976. Tall stacks and the atmospheric environment. EPA, 450/3 -
Hall, Stephen K., 1972. Sulfur compounds in the atmosphere. Chemistry, 45 (3):
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Harward, M.E. and H.M. Reisenaur, 1966. Reactions and movement of inorganic sulfur.
Soil Science, 101: 326-335.
Hitchcock, D., 1976. Atmospheric sulfates from biological sources. J. Air Pollut.
Control Ass. 26, 210-215.
Hitchcock, D.R., 1975. Dimethyl sulfide emissions to the global atmosphere. Chemo-
sphere, 3, 127-138.
Hogstrom, U., 1975. Confirming the local sources of observed air pollution in com-
munities. Atmospheric Environment, 9: 923-929.
Husar, R., et al., 1978. Sulfur budget of a power plant plume. Atmospheric En-
vironment, v.12, pp. 549-568.
Husar, R.B., J. P. Lodge, Jr., and D.J. Moore, Eds., 1978. Sulfur in the atmos-
phere, special issue. Atmospheric Environment, V. 12, No. 1-3 » pp. 1-976.
(Sulfur in the atmosphere, proceedings of the International Symposium held in
Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 7-1 1 * September, 1977* Atmospheric Environment, 12,
Ingelstom, L., 1972. The systems structure and the evaluation of future trends in
a study of sulphur as an environmental pollutant, Research Group for Planning
Theory, (NFAO/KTH), PT 1972: 1 4lp. Mathematics Dept., Royal Inst, of Tech.,
Junge, C.E., I960. Sulfur in the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 65: 227-237.
Kalma, J.D., M. Johnson and K.J. Newcombe. Energy use and the atmospheric environ-
ment in Hong Kong: Part I. Inventory of air pollutant emissions and prediction
of ground-level concentrations of SO2 and CO. Urban Ecology, 3: 29-57.
Katz, M. , 1977. The Canadian sulphur problem. Sulphur and its inorganic derivat-
ives in the Canadian environment, pp. 21-67. NRCC No. 15015. National
Research Council Canada, Ottawa.
Kellogg, W.W., 1972. The sulfur cycle. Science 175, 587-596.
Klemm H. and N. Surprenant, 1978. Emissions inventory in SURE region. Annual
report for 23 Aug. 1977-31 Aug. 1978. Prepared for EPRI by GCA Technology
Div., Bedford, Mass.
Koide, M., and E.D. Goldberg, 1971. Atmospheric sulfur and fossil fuel combus-
tion. J. of Geophys. Res., 76: 6589-6595.
Labastille, Anne, 1979. Death from the sky. Outdoor Life, Feb. 1979, pp. 76-77,
Lee, Robert E. and F. Vandiver Duffield, 1977. EPA's catalyst research program:
environmental impact of sulfuric acid emissions. Jour, of Air Pollut. Control
Assoc, 17 (7): 631-635.
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Lovelock, J.E., R.J. Maggs, and R.A. Rasmussen, 1972. Atmospheric dimethyl sulfide
and the natural sulphur cycle. Nature, London, 237: 452-453.
Lowry, W.P. and F. Probald, 1978. An attempt to detect the effects of a steelworks
on precipitation amounts in central Hungary. J. Applied Met., 17: 964-975.
Meszaros, E., G. Varhelyi, and L. Haszpra, 1978. On the atmospheric sulfur budget
over Europe. Atmos. Environ., 12, 2273-2278.
Millan, M.M. and Y.S. Chung, 1977. Detection of a plume 400 km from the source.
Atmos. Environ., 11, 939-944.
Miller, D.F., et al., 1978. Ozone formation related to power plant emissions.
Science, 202, pp. 1186-1189 .
Nader, John S., 1978. Workshop on primary sulfate emissions. J. of Air Pollut.
Control Ass., 18 (10): 1002-1005.
National Academy of Sciences, 1978. Sulfur oxides in the atmosphere. Committee on
Sulfur Oxides, National Research Council.
Negus de Wys, J., A.C. Hill and E. Robinson, 1978. Assessment of the fate of sulfur
dioxide from a point source. Atmos. Environ., 12, 633-639.
Nicholl, C.S. and P.J. Choquette, eds., 1977. Ambient air quality, 1970-74: A
statistical analysis. Surveillance report EPS-5-AP-76- 14. Air Pollution
Control Directorate, Environment Canada, Feb.
Nishet, I., 1975. Sulfates and acidity in precipitation: their relationship to
emissions and regional transport of sulfur oxides. In: Commission on Natural
Resources, NH Academy of Sciences, NH Academy of Engineering, NH Research
Council, Air Quality and Stationary Source Emission Control, prepared for the
C'tee. on Public Works, U.S. Senate.
Nochumson, D., 1979. Commentation on gaseous sulfur pollutants from urban and
natural sources. J. of APCA, 29 (2): 164-165.
Nriagu, J.0. (Ed.)., 1978. Sulfur in the environment. Part II - Ecological
impacts. John Wiley and Sons (Interscience) . (Up-to-date review with a
comprehensive collection of papers by specialists.)
Nyberg, A., 1972. The effects of local and distant sources of sulfur on the precip-
itation contents of sulfur in Scandinavia. Geophysica, 12, 33-^2.
OECD Environment Directorate, 1973. Survey on regional sulphur dioxide emission.
Air management sector group, Org. for Economic Cooperation and Development,
Paris. 79 p.
Ontario. Ministry of the Environment, Air Resources Branch, 1979. Airborne invest-
igations of the Inco and Falconbridge stack plumes, 1976- 77. Report No.
ARB-TDA 60-79, May.
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Ontario Hydro, Environmental Protection Dept., 1979* Acid precipitation: an
emission perspective. CTS-07165-1.
Rasmussen, K.H. et al., 1975. Global emissions and natural processes for removal of
gaseous pollutants. Water, Air, Soil Pollution, 4, pp. 33-64.
Reeves, J. A., 1979. Estimates of atmospheric emissions from fossil-fuel-fired
thermal generating stations, 1978. CTS-07120-1 Report. Ont. Hydro, 21 pp.
Robinson, E. and R.C. Robbins, 1972. Emission, concentrations and rate of gaseous
atmospheric pollutants. In Air Pollution Control, Part II (edited by W.
Strauss), Wiley-Interscience, Toronto.
Robinson, E. and R.C. Robbins, 1970. Gaseous sulfur pollutants from urban and
natural sources. J. Air Pollut. Control Ass., 20, 303-306.
Rodhe, H., 1978. Budgets and turn-over times of stmospheric sulfur compounds.
Atmospheric Environment, 12, 671-680.
Rodhe, H., 1972. A study of the sulfur budget for the atmosphere over Northern
Europe. Tellus XXIV, 128-138.
Ross, F. Fraser, 1971. What sulphur dioxide problem? Combustion, Aug., pp. 6-11.
Sandberg, J.S. et al., 1976. Sulfate and nitrate particulates as related to SO2
and N0 X gases and emissions. Jour, of Air Poll. Control Ass., 26 (6):
Sandhu, H.S., ed., 1979. Industrial sulphur emissions for Alberta 1974-1978.
Alberta Environment Research Secretariat, April.
Santroch, Jaroslav and Dusan Zarodsky, 1979. Sulphur compounds in background air-
pollution in Czechoslovakia. WMO Symposium on LRTAP, 45-51.
Sawyer, James W., 1978. The sulfur we breathe. Environment 20 (2): 25-30.
Sawyer, J.W., 1977. A skeptical evaluation of the sulphate problem. J. Metals.
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Semb, Arne, 1979. Emission of gaseous and particulate matter in relation to long
range transport of air pollutants. WMO Symposium on the long range transport
of pollutants and its relation to general circulation including stratospheric/
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Semb, A., 1978. Sulphur emissions in Europe. Atm. Env. 12, 455-460.
Shelfentook, W. , 1978. An inventory system for atmospheric emissions in the AOSERP
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Shinn, J.H. and S. Lynn, 1979. Do man-made sources affect the sulphur cycle of
northeastern states? Environ. Sci. and Technology, 13: 1062-1067.
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Soderlund, R., 1977. N0 X pollutants and ammonia emissions. A mass balance for
the atmosphere over NW Europe. Ambio, 6, 118-122.
Spencer, W.F., 1975. Movements of DDT and its derivatives into the atmosphere.
Residue Reviews 59: 91-117.
Stanford Research Institute, 1975. Emssions, concentrations and fate of particulate
atmospheric pollutants. Final report API, Pub. No. 4076.
Stoiber, R.B., 1973. Sulphur dioxide contributions to the atmosphere by volcanoes.
Science 182, 577-78.
Sulphur and its inorganic derivatives in the Canadian environment, 1977. NRCC No.
15015, National Research Council of Canada. NRC Associate Committee on
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Tong, Eugene Y., Michael T. Mills, Brand L. Niemann, 1979. Characterization of
regional episodes of particulate sulfates and ozone over the Eastern United
States and Canada. WMO Symposium on LRTAP, 85-93.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1976. 1973 National Emissions Report, EPA-
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Voldner, E.C., Y. Shah, and D.M. Whelpdale, 1980. A preliminary Canadian emissions
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Whelpdale, D.M., 1978. Large scale atmospheric sulfur studies in Canada. Atmos-
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Whelpdale, Douglas M. and James N. Galloway, 1979. An atmospheric sulfur budget for
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White, W.H. et al., 1976. Foundation and transport of secondary air pollutants:
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Wiltshire, J.F., 1979* The long-range transport of atmospheric acids: a sulfur
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large-scale dispersion and fallout patterns. Adv. in Geophysics, 18B, Academic
Shannon, J.D., 1979. The advanced statistical trajectory regional air pollution
model. Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Turbulence, Diffusion and Air
Pollution, American Meteorological Society, Boston.
Sheih, J., 1977. Application of a statistical trajectory model to the simulation
of sulfur pollution over northeastern United States. Atmos. Environ., 11, pp.
Sheih, J., 1976. Application of a Lagrangian statistical trajectory model to the
simulation of sulphur pollution over northeastern United States. Proceedings
of the Third Symposium on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality,
Sykes, R.I., and L. Hatton, 1976. Computation of horizontal trajectories based on
the surface geostropic wind. Atmos. Env., 10.
Tong, E.Y., and R.B. Batchelder, 1978. Aerometric data compilation and analysis for
regional sulfate modeling. Report prepared under EPA contract No. 68-01-1921
by Teknekron, Inc. (August).
Turner, D. Bruce, 1979. Atmospheric dispersion modelling: a critical review. J.
of Air Pollut. Control Assoc, 29 (5): 502-519.
Veltischera, N.S., 1979. A model for evaluation of transboundary sulphur dioxide
flux with the inolusion of vertical motions. WMO Symposium on LRTAP, 289-295.
Weisman, Boris, 1979. Long range transport model for sulphur. Meteorological and
Environmental Planning Ltd., Downsview, Ontario.
Wendell, L.L., D.C. Powell, and R. L. Drake, 1976. A regional scale model for com-
puting deposition and ground level air concentration of SO2 and SOij from an
elevated source. PNL Annual Report for 1975 to ERDA Division of Biomedical and
Environmental Research, Part 3, Atmospheric Sciences, BNWL-2000, PT-3, UC-11,
Wendell, L.L., 1972. Mesoscale wind fields and transport estimates determined from
a network of wind towers. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 565-578, July.
Wrigley, J. f H.M. ApSimon, A.J.H. Goddard, 1979. Meteorological data and the MESOS
model for the long range transport of atmospheric pollutants. WMO Symposium on
Ziu Mei-Kao, and J.H. Seinfeld, 1975. On the validity of grid and trajectory models
of urban air pollution. Atmos. Environ., V. 9i No. 6-7, pp. 555-57H.
- 58 -
5. AQUATIC EFFECTS
Acres Consulting Services Ltd., 1975. Atmospheric loading of the upper Great Lakes
Vols. 1,2,3. Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario
Acres Consulting Services Ltd., 1977. Atmospheric loading of the lower Great Lakes
and the Great Lakes Drainage Basin. C.C.I.W., Burlington, Ontario.
Aimer, B., et al., 1974. Effects of acidification on Swedish Lakes. AMBIO, 3:
Armstrong, F.A.J. , and D. W. Schindler, 1971. Preliminary chemical characterization
of waters in the experimental lakes area, northwestern Ontario. J. Fish Res.
Bd. Can., 28: 171-187.
Aston, S.R. et al., 1973. Mercury in lake sediments: a possible indicator of tech-
nical growth. Nature, 241: 450-451.
Barica, J., and F.A. Armstrong, 1971. Contribution by snow to the nutrient budget
of some small northwest Ontario lakes. Limnol. Oceanog. , 16: 891-899.
Barton, P., and T. Vatanatham, 1976. Kinetics of limestone neutralization of acid
waters. Environmental Science and Technology, 10: 262-266.
Beamish, R.J., and J.C. VanLoon, 1977. Precipitation loading of acid and heavy
metals to a small acid lake near Sudbury, Ontario. J. Fish. Res. Board Can.,
Buller, W., 1976. Reassessment of mercury in surface water in the Adirondack region
New York. J. Res. U.S. Geological Survey, 4: 223-26.
Coker, W.B., and W.W. Shilts, 1979. Lacustrine geochemistry around the north shore
of Lake Superior: implications for evaluation of the effects of acid precipita-
tion. In: Current Research, Part C, Geo. Survey of Canada, Paper 79-1G, p.
Conroy, N., K. Hawley, and W. Keller, 1978. Sudbury environmental study report.
Extensive monitoring of lakes in the greater Sudbury area, 1974-76. Ont. Min.
of Environment, Water Resources Assessment, NE region.
Conroy, N. , K. Hawley, and C. LaFrance, 1976. Influence of the atmosphere on lakes
in the Sudbury area. J. Great Lakes Res., 2 (Suppl. 1): 146-165.
Conroy, N., D.S. Jeffries, and J.R. Kramer, 1974. Acid shield lakes in the Sudbury,
Ontario region. Proc. of 9th Canadian Symp. on Water Pollution Research in
Canada, No. 9, p. 45-61.
Conroy, N., and L. Maki, 1974. Extensive and intensive lake studies in the Sudbury
area, p. 138-143. In: Ontario Industrial Wastes Conferences.
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Dickson, W. , 1978. Some effects of the acidification of Swedish lakes. Verh.
Internat. Verein Liranol., 20, pp. 851-856.
Dickson, W. , 1975. The acidification of Swedish lakes. Inst. Freshwater Res.,
Drottningholm, Sweden, No. 54. Pp. 8-20.
Dillon, P.J. et al., 1979. Determination of the susceptibility to acidification of
poorly buffered surface waters. Limnology and Toxicity Section, Water
Resources Branch. Ont. Min. of Environment,
Dillon, P.J. et al., 1977. Acidic lakes in Ontario: characterization, extent and
responses to base and nutrient additions. Ont. Min. of Environment, Sept.
Emmelin, L, 1977. Environmental planning in Sweden. The state of Sweden's lakes.
Current Sweden ENV #79, March. Published by the Swedish Inst., Svenska
Institutat, Box 7072, S-703 82 Stockholm, Sweden. (Deals with acid precipita-
tion and the recovery of lakes.)
European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC), 1968. Water quality criteria
for European freshwater fish. Report on extreme pH values and inland fish-
eries. EIFAC Technical Paper No. 4, 18 pp.
Ficke, J.F., 1977. Air pollution: impact on water. Presented at Soils Cons. Soc.
Amer. Mtg. , Richmond Va., August.
Fisher, D.W., et al., 1968. Atmospheric contributions to water quality of streams
in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, Water Resources
Research 4, p. 1119.
Galloway, J.N., et al., 1976. Influences of acid precipitation on the water and
sediment geochemistry of Adirondack mountain lakes. Abstracts of Papers
submitted for the 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Limnology and
Oceanography. Savannah, Georgia.
Garret, W.D.,and V.M. Smagin, 1976. Determination of the atmospheric contribution
of petroleum hydrocarbons to the oceans. Special Environment Report N 6, 1976,
WMO - N440.
G jessing, E.T., 1974. Effects of polluted precipitation on water quality. In:
Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Water Poll. Research, Paris. 5 p.
Gjessing, E.T., et al., 1976. Effects of acid precipitation on freshwater chem-
istry, p. 64-85. In: F.H. Braekke (ed.) Impact of acid precipitation on
forest and freshwater ecosystems in Norway. Res. Rep., Aas, Norway.
Gorham, E., 1976. Acid precipitation and its influence upon aquatic ecosystems — an
overview. Water, Air, Soil, Pollut., 6: 457-481.
Gorham, E., 1967. Some chemical aspects of wetland ecology. Nat. Res. Council
Canada, Assoc. Comra. on Geotech. Res., Tech. Memo No. 90, 20-38.
- 60 -
Gorham, E., 1961. Factors Influencing supply of major ions to inland waters with
special reference to the atmosphere. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 72: 795-840.
Gorham, E., and D.J. Swaine, 1965. The influence of oxidizing and reducing condi-
tions upon the distribution of some elements in lake sediments. Limnol
Oceanog., 10: 268-279.
Gorham, E., and A.G. Gordon, I960. The influence of smelter fumes upon the chemical
composition of lake waters near Sudbury, Ontario, and upon the surrounding
vegetation. Can. J. Bot., 38: 477-H87.
Gorham, E., 1957. The chemical composition of lake waters in Halifax country, Nova
Scotia. Limnol. Oceanogr., 2: 12-21.
Grahn, 0., 1976. Macrophyte succession in Swedish lakes caused by deposition of
airborne acid substances, pp. 519-530. In: Proceedings of the First
International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and Forest Ecosystem. USDA
Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rpt. NE-23, 1074 pp.
Grahn, 0., and Hans Hultberg, 1975- The neutralizing capacity of 12 different lime
products used for pH — adjustment of acid water. Vatten, 2, 1975, pp. 120-132.
Grahn, 0., H. Hultberg, and L. Lander, 1974. Oligotrophication— a self-accelerating
process in lakes subjected to excessive supply of acid substances. AMBI0, V. 3,
Haapla, H., P. Sepponen, and E. Meskus, 1975. Effects of spring floods on water
acidity in the Kiiminkijoki area, Finland. Oikos, 26: 26-31.
Hagen, A., and A. Langeland, 1973. Polluted snow in southern Norway and the effects
of meltwater on freshwater and aquatic organisms. Envir. Poll., 5: 45-57.
Harrison, A.D., 1958. The effects of sulphuric acid pollution on the biology of
streams in the Transvaal, South Africa. Verh. internat. Ver. Lirano., 13:
Henriksen, A, 1979. A simple approach for identifying and measuring acidification
of freshwater. Nature, 278 (5704) p. 542-545.
Henriksen, A., and R.F. Wright, 1977. Concentrations of heavy metals in small Nor-
wegian lakes. Internal Report, SNSF Project, IR 33/77, Part 3, 29 p., Oslo.
Herricks, E.E., and J. Cairns, Jr., 1977. The effects of lime neutralization of
acid mine drainage on stream ecology. 32nd Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conf .
Herricks, E.E., and J. Cairns, Jr., 1973. Rehabilitation of streams receiving acid
mine drainage. Virginia Water Resources Research Center. OWRR-WRRC-Bull. ,
66. 284 pp.
Hoffman, E.J., and R. H. Duce, 1974. The organic carbon content of marine aerosols
collected on Bermuda. J.G.R. V. 79, N. 30, p. 4474-4477.
- 61 -
Hornbeck, J.W., and G.E. Likens, 1974. The ecosystem concept for determining the
importance of chemical composition of snow. Advanced Concepts and Techniques
in the Study of Snow and Ice Resources. National Academy of Sciences,
Hultberg, H., 1976. Thermally stratified acid water in late winter — a key factor
inducing self-accelerating processes which increase acidification. U.S.D.A.
Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23, p. 503-516.
Hutchinson, T.C., et al., 1976. Movement and compartmentation of nickel and copper
in an aquatic ecosystem. P. 565-585 in Environmental Biogeochemistry, V. 2,
ed., J.O. Nriagu, Ann Arbor Science Publishers.
International Conference on the Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation, Sandefjord,
Norway, Mar. 11-14, 1980. Vol. 1: Abstracts of voluntary contributions,
transport and deposition, vegetation and soil.
International Conference on the Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation, Sandefjord,
Norway, Mar 11-14, 1980. Vol. II: Abstracts of voluntary contributions, water
quality and aquatic biota.
Jeffries, D.S., CM. Cox, and P.J. Dillon, 1979. The depression of pH in lakes and
streams in central Ontario during snowmelt. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 36:
Johnson, Arthur H., 1979. Acidification of headwater streams in the New Jersey Pine
Barrens. J. Environ. Qual., 8(3): 383-386.
Kerekes, J., 1973. Aquatic resource inventory Kejirakujik National Park. Part 5.
Chemical composition of lake and river waters. Report for Parks Canada by
Canadian Wildlife Service, Eastern Region.
Kerekes, J., 1972. Comparative limnological study of five lakes in Terra Nova Nat-
ional Park, Nfld. PhD. Thesis. Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. 388 p.
Likens, G.E., and F.H. Bormann, 1974. Linkages between terrestrial and aquatic eco-
systems. BioScience, 24: 447-456.
Maimer, N., 1974. On the effects on water, soil and vegetation of an increasing at-
mospheric supply of sulphur. National Swedish Environment Protection Board,
SNV-PM-402E, 98 p., Stockholm.
Mastin, Mary, 1974. La Cloche, past, present and future. Ontario Naturalist.
Matheson, D.H., and F.C. Elder, (eds.), 1976. Atmospheric contribution to the chem-
istry of lake waters. First Specialty Symposium of the International Associa-
tion for Great Lakes Research. J. Great Lakes Res. 2 (suppl. l) Interntl.
Assoc. Great Lakes Res.
- 62 - '
Matheson, D.H., 197^. Measurements of atmospheric inputs to the Great Lakes.
Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ont.
Michelski, M.F.P., and J. Adamski, 197^. Restoration of acidified lakes Middle and
Lohi in the Sudbury area, p. 163-175. In: Ontario Industrial Wastes
Murphy, T.J., and P.V.Doskey, 1976. Inputs of phosphorus from precipitation to Lake
Michigan. J. Great Lakes Res., 2(1): 60-70.
Nas, 1975. Petroleum in marine environment. Report of US National Academy of
Sciences workshop on inputs, fates and the effects of petroleum in the marine
environment, Washington, D.C.
Nas, 1971. Marine environmental Quality, Washington, D.C.
Nicholls, Kenneth H., and Charles M. Cox, 1978. Atmospheric nitrogen and phosphorus
loading to Harp Lake, Ontario, Canada. Water Res. Research, 14(M): 589-592.
Oden, S., and T. Ahl, 197^. The longterm changes in the pH of lakes and rivers in
Sweden. Unpubl. report, 13 p.
Oden, S., and T. Ahl, 1973. The acidification of Scandinavian waters. Fisheries
Research Board of Can. Translation Series No. 2535.
Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 1979. Determination of the susceptibility to
acidification of poorly buffered surface waters. March.
Pearson, F.H., and A.J. McDonnell, 1975. Limestone barriers to neutralize acidic
streams. J. of the Environment Engineering Division EE3 M25-M0. (deals pri-
marily with acid mine drainage but has relevance to acid precipitation.)
Pearson, F.H., and A.J. McDonnell, 1975. Use of crushed limestone to neutralize
acid wastes. J. of the Environ. Eng. Division, EE1 139-158.
Proc. First specialty symposium on atmospheric contribution to the chemistry of lake
waters, 1976. Internat. Assoc. Great Lake Res. Sept. 28 - Oct. l. Supplement 1
to Vol. 2, Journal of Great Lakes Research.
Rosenqvist, I.T., 1978. Alternative sources for acidification of river water in
Norway. The Science of the Total Environment, 10: 39-^9.
Schneider, W.A., D.S. Jeffries, and P.J. Dillon, 1979. Effects of acidic precipita-
tion on precambrian freshwaters in southern Ontario. J. Great Lakes Resources,
Schneider, W. and P.J. Dillon, 1976. Neutralization and fertilization of acidified
lakes near Sudbury, Ontario. Proc. 11th Can. Symp. Water Poll. Res. Canada,
11: 93-100. (fairly detailed report)
- 63 -
Schneider, W.A., B. Cave and J. Jones, 1976. Reclamation of acidified lakes near
Sudbury, Ontario by neutralization and fertilization. Limnology and Toxicity
Section, Water Resources Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 19 pp.
(detailed with extensive bibliography)
Schneider, W., I. Adamski, M. Pay lor, 1975. Reclamation of acidified lakes near
Sudbury, Ontario. Ont. Ministry of the Environment, 129 pp.
Schindler, D.W., R. Wagemann and R.H. Hesslein, 1977. The acidification of lake 223
Experimental Lakes Area, I. Background data, the first year of acidification,
1976. Sub-project AF 2.3. 1«, Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program,
Schindler, D.W., 1971* A hypothesis to explain differences and similarities among
lakes in the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. J. Fish. Res.
Board Canada, 28: 295-301.
Schofield, C.L., 1976. Lake acidification in the Adirondack Mountains of New York:
causes and consequences. Proc. 1st Int. Symp. on Acid Precipitation and the
Forest Ecosystem, USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23, 477.
Seip, H.M., and A. Tollan, 1978. Acid precipitation and other possible sources for
acidification of rivers and lakes. The Science of the Total Environment, 10:
253-270. (a technical report)
Skartveit, A., and Y.T. Gjessing, 1979. Chemical budgets and chemical quality of
snow and runoff during spring snowmelt. Nordic Hydrology, 10: 141-154. (also
deals with water acidification in meltwater)
Swedish Anglers' Association, 1979* Acidification Conference, Sept. 24-26.
Szalados, J.E., T.M. Rosenthal and D.J. Lyew, 1979. Lake acidification in Quebec:
recent observations. Unpublished report, Limnology section, McGill Biology
Dept., McGill University, Montreal, Que.
Thompson, M.E., 1979. Acidic atmospheric precipitation: evalutation of its impact
on Canada's surface waters, submitted for publication in Science.
Thornton, K., and J. Wilhelm, 1974. The effects of pH, phenol, and sodium chloride
on survival and caloric, lipid and nitrogen content of a laboratory population
of Chironomus attenuatus (Walk). Hydrobiologia, 45: 261-280.
Tollan, A., and B. Hagerhall, 1977. Deterioration of water quality due to long
range transport of air pollution. Norwegian and Swedish thematic paper to UN
Water Conference, Oslo, Norway.
Watt, W.D., D. Scott, and S. Ray, 1978. Acidification and other chemical changes in
Halifax County Lakes after 21 years. Fisheries and Marine Service, Halifax,
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Wiederholm, T., and L. Eriksson, 1977. Benthos of an acid lake. Oikos, 29:
Wilber, T., 1972. The gradual destruction of Sweden's lakes. AMBIO, 1: 6-14.
Wright, Richard F., and Arne Henricksen, 1978. Chemistry of small Norwegian lakes,
with special reference to acid precipitation. Limnology and Oceanography, V.
23, No. 3, pp. 487-498.
Wright, R.F., and A. Henriksen, 1977. Chemistry of small Norwegian lakes, with
special reference to acid precipitation. Internal Report, SNSF Project, IR
33/77, Part 1, Oslo., 40 p.
Wright, R.F., and C. Lysholm, 1975. Regional survey of lakes in southern Norway,
fall 1974. Preliminary analysis of water-chemistry data. SNSF-project. IR
6/75. 24 p.
Wright, R. F., and E. Snekvik, 1977. Acid precipitation: chemistry and fish popu-
lations in 700 lakes in southernmost Norway. Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol, 20:
Wright, R.F., and E.T. Gjessing, 1976. Acid precipitation: changes in the chemical
composition of lakes. AMBIO, V. 5, No. 5-6, pp. 219-223.
Wright, R.F., et al., 1976. Impact of acid precipitation on freshwater ecosystems
in Norway. Water, Air & Soil Poll., 6: 483-499.
Yan, N.D., W. Schelder, and P.J. Dillon, 1977. Chemical and biological changes in
Nelson Lake, Ontario, following experimental elevation of lake pH. Water Poll.
Res. Canada, 12: 213-231.
Yan, N.D., and P.M. Stokes, 1976. The effects of pH on lake water chemistry and
phytoplankton in a La Cloche Mountain Lake. Water Poll. Res. Canada, 11:
Zimmerman, A. P., and H. Harvey, 1979. Sensitivity to acidification of waters of
Ontario and neighboring States, prepared for Ontario Hydro, University of
Toronto, 48 pages.
- 65 -
5.2 Marine Life
Aimer, B., 1978. Sulphur pollution and the aquatic ecosystem, pp. 273-311 IN:
Nriagu, J. (Ed.), Sulphur in the Environment, Part II. Ecological Impacts. J.
Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
Avery, Michael, and R. Kent Schreiber, 1979. The clean air act: its relation to
fish and wildlife resources. Fish & Wildlife Resources and Electric Power
Generation, No. 8. FWS/OBS-76-20.8
Beamish, R.J., 1976. Acidification of lakes in Canada by acid precipitation and the
resulting effects on fishes, pp. 479-498. In: Proc The First Internat.
Symp. on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. L.S. Dochinger and T.A.
Selling, eds. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Gen. Tech. Report NE-23- (Also in
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, V. 6, p. 501-514, 1976.)
Beamish, R.J., et al., 1975. Long-term acidification of a lake and resulting
effects on fishes. AMBIO, 4: 98-102.
Beamish, R.J., 197^. Loss of fish populations from unexploited remote lakes in
Ontario, Canada as a consequence of atmospheric fallout of acid. Water
Research, 8: 85-95.
Beamish, R.J., 197^. Growth and survival of white suckers (Catastomus commersoni)
in an acidified lake. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 31: 49, 54.
Beamish, R.J., 1972. Lethal pH for the white sucker, Castastomus commersoni
(Lacepede). T. Am. Fish. S. , 101: 355-358.
Beamish, R.J., and H.H. Harvey, 1972. Acidification of the La Cloche Mountain
Lakes, Ontario and resulting effects on fishes. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 29,
Bell, H.L., 1971. Effect of low pH on the survival and emergence of aquatic in-
sects. Water Res., 5: 313-319.
Bell, H.L., and A.V. Nebeker, 1969. Preliminary studies on the tolerance of aquatic
insects to low pH. J. of Kansas Entomol. Soc, 42: 230-237.
Bengtsson, Bo, William Dickson, and Per Nyberg, 1980. Liming acid lakes in Sweden.
AMBIO, 9(1): 3^-36.
Biesinger, K.E., and G.M. Christensen, 1972. Effects of various metals on survival
growth, reproduction and metabolism of Daphnia magna. Jour, of the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada, 29: 1691-1700.
Brosset, C, and I. Svedung. Preliminary study of the possibility of a relationship
between high acidity of lakes and high mercury content in their fish popula-
tions. Report B 378. Swedish Water and Air Pollution Research Laboratory,
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Brouzes, R.J. P., R.A.N. McLean, and G.H. Tomlinson, 1977. The link between pH of
natural waters and the mercury content of fish. Domtar Research Centre,
Carrick, T.R., 1979. The effect of acid water on the hatching of salraonid eggs.
J. Fish. Biol., 14: 165-172.
Carter, L., 1964. Effects of acidic and alkaline effluents on fish in seawater.
Effl. & Wat. T. Journ., 484-486.
Cook, J.R., 1971. Influence of culture pH and phosphate on synchrony of Euglerea
gracilis. Experimental Cell Research, 69: 207-211.
Craig, G.R., and W.F. Baksi, 1977. The effects of depressed pH on flagfish repro-
duction, growth and survival. Water Research, 11: 621-626.
Dahl, K., 1927. The effects of acid water on trout fry. Salmon and Trout Maga-
zine, 46: 35-43.
Daye, P.G., and E.J. Garside, 1979. Development and survival of embryos and alevins
of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. , continuously exposed to acidic levels
of pH from fertilization. Can. J. Zool. (in press)
Daye, P.G., and E.T. Garside, 1975. Lethal levels of pH for brook trout, Salvelinus
fontinalis (Mitchill). Can. J. Zool., 53: 639-641.
Dills, G., and D.T. Rogers, Jr., 1974. Macroinvertebrate community structure as an
indicator of acid mine pollution. Environ. Pollut., 6: 239-262.
Dunson, W.A., and R.R. Martin, 1973* Survival of brook trout in a bog-derived
acidity gradient. Ecology, 54: 1370-1376.
Dvorak, A.J., B.G. Lewis, et al., 1978. Impacts of coal-fired power plants on fish
wildlife, and their habitats. FWS/OBS-78/29. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Ofc.
Biol. Serv. t Wash., D.C., 26l pp.
EIFAC Working Party on Water Quality, 1968. Water quality criteria for European
freshwater fish. Report on extreme pH values and inland fisheries. European
Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission. EIFAC Tech. Pap. 4: 24. FAO, Italy.
Address: Department of Fisheries, FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100,
Eddy, F.B., 1976. Acid-base balance in rainbow trout (Salmo graidneri), subjected
to acid stress. Jour. Exp. Biol., 64: 159-171.
France, S.B., 1978. Effects of pH on the biology and distribution of Ephemerella
funeralis (Ephemeroptera). Oikos, 31: 332-339.
Gorham, E. f 1976. Acid precipitation and its influence upon aquatic ecosystems: an
overview. Water, Air, Soil Pollution, 6: 457-481.
- 67 -
Gorham, E. , and A.G. Gordon, 1963* Some effects of smelter pollution upon aquatic
vegetation near Sudbury, Ontario. Can. J. Bot., HI: 371-378.
Grande, M. , and S. Sanderson, 1979- Toxicity of acid snowmelt water to brown trout
(Salmo trutta L.) Vatten, 1: 27-32.
Groterund, 0., 1972. Zooplankton and fish in relation to acid meltwater and anaero-
bic deep water in a lake. Vatten, 28: 329-332.
Hagen, A., and A. Langeland, 1973. Polluted snow in southern Norway and the effect
of the meltwater on freshwater and aquatic organisms. Environ. Pollut., 5:
Harvey, H.H., 1979. The acid deposition problem and emerging research needs in the
toxicology of fishes. Proc. Fifth Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, Hamilton,
Ont., Nov. 7-9, 1978. Fish. Mar. Serv. Tech. Rep., 862, pp. 115-128.
Harvey, H.H., 1979 • Fish populations in a large group of acid-stressed lakes.
Verh. Int. Verein. Liranol., 19, pp. 2406-2416.
Harvey, H.H., 1977. Aquatic environmental quality: problems and proposals. Jour,
of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 34(1): 2225-2229.
Hendrey, G., J. Galloway, S. Norton, et al., 1980. Identification of sensitive re-
gions and determination of the consequences of changing acidity, due to precipi-
tation, on aquatic systems in the eastern U.S. EPA Ecological Research Series,
Hendrey, G.R., and R.F. Wright, 1976. Acid precipitation in Norway: effects on
aquatic fauna. J. Great Lakes Res., 2 (Suppl. 1): 192-207.
Hendrey, G.R., et al., 1976. Acid precipitation: some hydrobiological changes.
AMBIO, V. 5, No. 5-6, pp. 224-227.
Hultberg, H., and 0. Grahn, 1975. Effects of acid precipitation on macrophytes in
oligotrophic Swedish lakes. J. Great Lakes Res., 2 (Suppl. 1): 208-221.
Jensen, K.W., and E. Snekvik, 1972. Low pH levels wipe out salmon and trout popula-
tions in southernmost Norway. AMBIO, 1: 223-225.
Jernelov, A., 1979. Effect of acidity on uptake of mercury in fish. Presented at
the 12th Int. Conf. on Environmental Toxicity. Dept. of Radiology &
Biophysics, University of Rochester, New York, May.
Johannson, N. , P. Runn, G. Milbrink, 1977. Early development of three salmonid
species in acidified water. Zoon. , 5: 127-132.
Johannson, N., and G. Milbrink, 1976. Some effects of acidified water on the early
development of roach. Wat. Res. Bull., 12: 39-^8.
- 68 -
Jordan, D.H.M., and R. Lloyd, 1964. The resistance of rainbow trout (Salmo gaird-
nerii Richardson) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) to alkaline solutions. Int.
J. Air Wat. Poll., 8: 405-409.
Kinne, C, and H. Rosentahl, 1967. Effects of sulphuric water pollutants on fertil-
ization, embryonic development and larvae of the herring, Clupea harengus.
Marine Biology. Int. J. Life Oceans Coastal Waters, Is 65-83.
Kwiatowski, R.E., and J.C. Roff, 1976. Effects of acidity on the phytoplankton and
primary productivity of selected northern Ontario lakes. Can. J. Bot., 54:
Landner, L., and P.O. Larson, 1972. Biological effects of mercury fallout into
lakes from the atmosphere. IVL Rep. B115, Swedish Institute for Water and Air
Pollution Research, Stockholm.
Laube, V., S. Ramamoorthy, and D.J. Kusher, 1979. Mobilization and accumulation of
sediment bound heavy metals by algae. Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol., 21:
Leivestad, H., et al., 1976. Effects of acid precipitation on freshwater organ-
isms. Pp. 87-111. In: F.H. Braekke (ed.) Impact of acid precipitation on
forest and freshwater ecosystems in Norway. Res. REp., Aas, Norway.
Leivestad, H., and I. P. Muniz, 1976. Fish kill at low pH in a Norwegian river.
Nature, 259: 391-392.
Lewis, B.G., et al., 1978. A biologist's manual for the evaluation of impacts of
coal-fired power plants on fish, wildlife, and their habitats. FWS/OBS-78/75.
U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Ofc. Biol. Serv., Wash., D.C., 206 pp.
Lloyd, R., and D.H.M. Jordan, 1964. Some factors affecting the resistance of rain-
bow trout (Salmo gairdnerii Richardson) to acid water. Int. J. Air Wat. Poll.,
Lockhart, W.L., and A. Lutz, 1975. Preliminary biochemical observations of fishes
inhabiting an acidified lake in Ontario, Canada, pp. 545-569. In: Proc of
the First International Symp. on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem,
L.S. Dollinger and T.A. Seling, eds. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Gen. Tech.
McKim, J.M., et al., 1973. Effects of pollution on freshwater fish. J. Water
Poll. Cont. Fed., 45: 1370-1407.
Merendez, R., 1976. Chronic effects of reduced pH on brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis). J. Fish Bd. Can., 33: 118-123.
Moore, S.F., and R.L. Dwyev, 1974. Effects of oil on marine organisms: a critical
assessment of published data. Water Research, V. 8, p. 819-847.
- 69 -
Mount, D.C., 1973- Chronic effect of low pH on fathead minnow survival, growth and
reproduction. Water Res., 7: 987-993.
Neville, CM., 1979. Sublethal effects of environmental acidification on rainbow
trout, (Salmo gairdnerii). J. Fish. Res. Board. Can., 36: 84-87.
Okland, J., 1969a. Distribution and ecology of the freshwater snails (Gastropoda)
of Norway. Malacologia, 9: 143-151.
Packer, R.K., and W.A. Dunson, 1972. Anoxia and sodium loss associated with the
death of brook trout at low pH. Comp. Biochem Physiol., MIA: 17-26.
(detailed and scientific)
Packer, R.K., and W.A. Dunson, 1970. Effects of low environmental pH on blood pH
and sodium balance of brook trout. J. Exp. Zool., 174: 65-72.
Parions, J.D., 1968. The effects of acid strip-mine effluents in the ecology of a
stream. Archs Hydrobiol., 65: 25-50.
Pickering, Q.H., 1974. Chronic toxicity of nickel to the fathead minnow (Pimephaleo
promelas) Rafinisque. J. Water Poll. Control. Fed., 46: 760-765.
Pough, R.H., 1976. Acid precipitation and embryonic mortality of spotted salaman-
ders Ambystoma maculatum. Science, 192: 68-70.
Powell, J.J., 1976. Preliminary report on the effects of neutralization on the fish
community of Nelson Lake, near Sudbury, Ontario. Min. Nat. Res., Sudbury, Ont.
(analysis of reproduction, growth and populations of various fish species)
Preston, E.M., and R.A. Lewis (eds.), 1978. The bioenvironmental impact of a coal-
fired plant, third interim report. Colstrip, Montana. EPA-600/3-78-021.
USEPA, Corvallis Environ. Res. Lab., Corvallis, Oreg. , 521 pp.
Robinson, G.D. et al., 1976. Differences in low pH tolerance among strains of brook
trout (Salrelinus fontinelis). J. Fish. Biol., 8: 5-17.
Roff, J.C., and Kwiatkowski, 1977. Zooplankton and zoobenthos communities of
selected Northern Ontario lakes of different acidities. J. Fish. Res. Board
Can., 55: 899-911.
Schofield, C.L., 1976. Acid precipitation: effects on fish. AMBIO, 5 (5-6):
Schofield, C.L., 1976. Effects of acid precipitation on fish. Int. Conf. on the
Effects of Acid Precipitation. Telemark, Norway, 20 pp.
Sprules, G.W., 1975. Midsummer crustacean zooplankton communities in acid-stressed
lakes. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 32: 389-395.
- 70 -
Stassen, G.M., 197*4. Aspects of Sudbury environmental degradation problems as re-
lates to the aquatic communities. Report for the Ont. Ministry of Natural
Resources, 70 pp. (detailed and comprehensive)
Stokes, P.M., T.C. Hutchinson, and K. Krauter, 1973. Heavy metal tolerance in algae
isolated from polluted lakes near the Sudbury, Ontario smelters. Water Pollut.
Res. Can., 8: 178-201.
Stroud, R.H., 1976. Acid rain impacts. Sport Fishing Inst. Bull., 271: 2-4.
Swarts, F.A., W.A. Dunson, and J.E. Wright, 1978. Genetic and environmental factors
involved in increased resistance of brook trout to sulfuric acid solutions and
mine acid polluted waters. Trans, of the American Fisheries Society, 107:
651-677. (fairly detailed, good bibliography)
Swynnerton, G.H., and E.B. Worthington, 1939. Brown-trout growth in the Lake Dis-
trict. A study of the conditions in "acid" lakes and tarns. Salmon and Trout
Mag., 97: 337-35**.
Trojnar, J., 1977. Eggs and larvae survival of white suckers (catostomus
commersoni) at low pH. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 3*4: 262-266.
Trojnar, J.R., 1977. Egg hatchability and tolerance of brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis) fry at low pH. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 34: pp. 57*4-579.
Van Loon, J.C., and R.J. Beamish, 1977. Heavy metal contamination by atmospheric
fall-out of several Flin Flon area lakes and the relation to fish populations.
J. of Fisheries Research Board, 34 (7): 899-906.
Ware, D.M., and R.F. Addison, 1973. PCB residues in plankton from the Gulf of St.
Lawrence. Nature, 264 (5434): 519-521.
Wodzniski, R.S., and M. Alexander, 1978. Effects of sulfur dioxide on algae. J.
Environ. Qual., 7: 358-360.
Wright, Richard F., 1975. Acid precipitation and its effects on freshwater eco-
systems: an annotated bibliography. The SNSF project, Norway FA 3/75.
Yan, N.D., R.E. Gerard, and C.J. LaFrance, 1979. Survival of rainbow trout, Salmo
garidneri, in submerged enclosures in lakes treated with neutralizing agents
near Sudbury, Ontario. Ont. Min. Envir. Tech. Rpt. LTS 79-2.
Yan, N.D., and P. Stokes, 1978. Phytoplankton of an acidic lake and its responses
to experimental alterations of pH. Environ. Conserv., 5: 93-100.
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6. TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS
6.1 Soils and Geology
Abrahamesen, G., K. Bjorad, 0. Teigen, 1976. Field experiments with simulated acid
precipitation in forest ecosystems. In: Soil and Vegetation characteristics,
experimental design and equipment. SNSI project FR 4/76, 15 pp.
Baker, J., D. Hocking, and M. Nyborg, 1976. Acidity of open and intercepted pre-
precipitation in forests and effects on forest soils in Alberta, Canada, pp.
779-790. In: Proc. of the First International Symp. on Acid Precipitation and
the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service General Tech. Rpt. NE-23. 1074
Barrow, N.J., K. Spencer, and W.M. McArthur, 1969. Effects of rainfall and parent
material on the ability of soils to absorb sulfate. Soil Sci., 108: 120-126.
Bolt, G.H., 1967. Cation exchange equations used in soil-science — a review. Neth.
J. Agric. Sci., 15: 81-103.
Bond, H. t et al., 1976. Some effects of cadmium on coniferous soil and litter
microcosms. Soil So., 121 (5): 278-287.
Borhemisza, E., and R. Llanos, 1967. Sulfate movement, adsorption, and desorption
in three Costa Rican soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 31: 356-360.
Carroll, D., 1962. Rainwater as a chemical agent of geologic processes — a review.
U.S. Geologic Survey Water — Supply Paper, 1535 — G, 18 pp.
Chao, T.T., M.E. Harward, and S.C. Fang, 1962. Adsorption and desorption phenomena
of sulfate ions in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Proc, 26: 234-237.
Clark, J.S., and R.G. Hill, I960. The pH-percent base saturation relationships of
soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 28: 490-492.
Clayton, J.S. et al., 1977. Soils of Canada. Vol. I, Soil Report; Vol. 2, Soil
Inventory (with maps). Can. Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa.
Cole, D.W., and D.W. Johnson, 1977. Atmospheric sulfate additions and cation leach-
ing in a Dougas Fir ecosystem. Water Resources Research, 13: 313-317.
Cronan, C.S., and C.L. Schofield, 1979. Aluminum leaching response to acid precip-
itation: effects on high-elevation watersheds in the northeast. Science,
Cronan, C.S., et al., 1978. Forest floor leaching: contributions from mineral,
organic, and carbonic acids in New Hampshire sub-alpine forests. Science,
Dahl, E., and 0. Skre, 1971. An investigation of the effect of acid precipitation
on land productivity. Konferens om Avsvavling, Stockholm, M.I.,
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Dobrzanski, B. f and J. Wondrausch, 1953. Soluble aluminum in soils of the Plish
area. Ann. Univ. M. Curie Sklodowska, 8E, 263-281.
Frink, C.R., and G.K. Voight, 1976. Potential effects of acid precipitation on
soils in the humid temperate zone. Pp. 685-710. In: L.S. Dochinger and T.A.
Seliga (eds.) Proc. First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the
Forest Ecosystem. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. Upper Darby, Pa.
(also in Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 7: 371-388.)
Goodman, Gordon T. , and T.M. Roberts, 1971. Plants and soils as indicators of
metals in the air. Nature, 231: 287-292.
Graham, E., 1958. Free acid in British soils. Nature, 181: 106.
Haines, B., and R.G. Best, 1976. The influence of an endomycorrhizal symbiosis of
nitrogen movement through soil columns under regimes of artificial throughfall
and artificial acid rain. pp. 951-962. In: L.S. Dochinger and T.A. Seliga
(eds.) Proc. First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest
Ecosystem. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. Upper Darby, Pa.
Halstead, R.L., and P.J. Rennie, 1977. The effects of sulphur on soils in Canada,
p. 181-219. In: Sulphur and Its Inorganic Derivatives in the Canadian
Environment. National Research Council, Environmental Secretariat, Publication
No. NRCC 15015. Ottawa.
Hanawalt, R.B., 1969. Environmental factors influencing the sorption of atmospheric
ammonia by soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, 33: 231-234.
Heck, W.W., A.S. Heagle, and E.B. Cowling, 1977. Impact of air pollutants on soil,
water, flora and fauna. Impact on plants. Proc. Soil Conservation Soc. Amer.
Hocking, D., et al., 1978. The impact of gold smelter emissions on vegetation and
soils of a sub-Arctic forest-tundra transition ecosystem. Air Pollution
Control Association Journal, 28: 133-137.
Hsu, P.H., and W.L. Jackson, I960. Inorganic phosphate transformations by chemical
weathering in soils as influenced by pH. Soil Sci., 90: 16-33.
Hutchinson, T.C., ed., 1979. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Institute
on Effects of Acid Precipitation on Vegetation, Soil and Soil Biota. Toronto,
Hutchinson, T.C., and L.M. Whitby, 197^. Heavy metal pollution in the Sudbury min-
ing and smelting region of Canada. I. Soil and vegetation contamination by
nickel, copper, and other metals. Envir. Conservation, 1: 123-132.
Johnson, Dale W., and Dale W. Cole, 1977. Anion mobility in soils: Relevance to
nutrient transport from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. U.S. EPA-600/3-
- 73 -
Johnson, N.M., R.C. Reynolds, and G.E. Likens, 1972. Atmospheric sulfur: its ef-
fects on the chemical weathering of New England. Science, 177: 514-516.
Jonsson, B., 1977. Soil acidification by atmospheric pollution and forest growth.
Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 7: 497-501.
Jordan, M.J., and M.P. Lechevalier, 1975. Effects of zinc smelter emissions on
forest soil microflora. Can. J. Microbiol., 21: 1855-65.
Kramer, J.R., 1979- Geochemical factors and terrain response to environmental
contaminants, Unpublished Report, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.
Lag, J., 1968. Relationships between the chemical composition of the precipitation
and the contents of exchangeable ions in the humus layer of natural soils.
Acta. Agra. Scand., 18: 148-153.
McBride, M.B., and Blasiak, J.J., 1979. Zinc and copper solubility as a function of
pH in an acid soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 43*. 866-870.
McFee, W.W., and J.M. Kelly, 1977. Air pollution: impacts on soils, in new direc-
tions in century three: strategies for land use. Proc. of Soil Conser. Soc.
Amer., Mtg. , Pp. 203-207, S.C.S.A. Ankeny, Iowa.
McFee, W.W. , J.M. Kelly, and R.H. Beck, 1977- Acid precipitation effects on soil
pH and base saturation of exchange sites. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 7: 401-
McFee, W.W., J.M. Kelly, and R.H. Beck, 1976. Acid precipitation effects on soil
pH and base saturation of exchange sites. Proc. Inst. Int. Symp. on Acid
Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep.
Maimer, Nils, 1976. Acid precipitation: chemical changes in the soil. Ambio, 5:
Malo, B.A., and E.R. Purvis, 1964. Soil absorption of atmospheric ammonia. Soil
Science, 97: 242-247.
Mehlich, A, 1964. Influence of sorbed hydroxyl and sulphate on neutralization of
soil acidity. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 28: 492-496.
Middleton, J.T., L.D. Emik, and O.C. Taylor, 1956. Air quality criteria and stand-
ards for agriculture. J. Air Pollution Control Assoc, 15: 476-480.
NATO Advanced Reserach Institute, 1978. The effect of acid precipitation on vegeta-
tion, soil and soil biota. Toronto, Canada. (In press)
Norton, S.A., 1976. Changes in chemical processes in soils caused by acid precipi-
tation. In: Proc. First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the
Forest Ecosystem. United States Forest Service Tech. Rept. NE-23, Upper Darby,
Pennsylvania, Pp 711-724.
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Nyborg, M., et al., 1977. Effect of sulphur dioxide on precipitation and on the
suphur content and acidity of soils in Alberta, Canada. Water, Air, Soil,
Pollution, 7(4): 439-448.
Nyborg, M., and McKinnon, Allen Associates, 1973. Atmospheric sulfur dioxide: ef-
fects on the pH and sulfur content of rain and snow; addition of sulfur to
surface water, soil, and crops; acidification of soils. In: Proceedings of a
Workshop on Sulphur Gas Research in Alberta (D. Hocking and D. Reiter, eds.).
Information Report NOR-X-72, Northern Forest Research Centre, Edmonton,
Alberta, Pp. 79-97.
Oden, S., 1972. The extent and effects of atmospheric pollution on soils. FAO
Soils Bull., 16: 179-194.
Oden, S., and R. Anderson, 1972. The long-term changes in the chemistry of soils in
Scandinavia due to acid precipitation. Supporting Studies to Sweden's Case
Study, 20 pp.
Overrein, L.N., 1972. Sulphur pollution patterns observed; leaching of calcium in
forest soil determined. AMBIO, 1: 145-147.
Poelstra, P., et al., 1974. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soils, accumulation
and evaporation,. Proceedings of a Symposium on food, environment,
contamination, p. 281-92, IAEA, Vienna.
Reiniger, P., and G.H. Bolt, 1972. Theory of chromatography and its application to
cation exchange in soils. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. , 20: 301-313.
Reuss, John 0., 1978. Simulation of nutrient loss from soils, due to rainfall aci-
dity. U.S. EPA 600-3-78-053.
Reuss, J.O., 1976. Chemical and biological relationships relevant to the effect of
acid rainfall on the soil-plant system. In: Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. Columbus, Ohio, May
Reuss, J.O., 1975. Sulfur in the soil system. In: Sulfur in the environment.
St. Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden, pp. 51-61.
Rogers, R.D., 1977. A biological methylation of mercury in soil. US Env. Prot.
Russell, E.J., 1950. Soil conditions and plant growth, 8th ed. London, New York
and Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co.
Schofield, R.K., and A.W. Taylor, 1955. The measurement of soil pH. Soil Sci. Soc.
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Stevenson, F.J., 1965. Origin and distribution of nitrogen in soil. In: soil
Nitrogen (W.V. Bartholomew and F.E. Clark, eds.). Amer. Soc. Agron. Mon. No.
10. Madison, Wisconsin, p. 1-42.
- 75 -
Tamm, CO., 1977. Acid precipitation and forest soils. Water, Air, and Soil
Pollution, 7(3): 367-369.
Tamm, CO., 1976. Acid precipitation: Biological effects in soil and on forest
vegetation. AMBIO, 5: 235-238.
Tamm, CO., and T. Troedsson, 1957. A new method for the study of water movement in
soil. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar, 79: 581-587.
Turner, R.C, and J.S. Clark, 1964. Lime potential and degree of base saturation
of soils. Soil Sci., 99: 194-199.
Turner, R.C, W.E. Nichol, and S.E. Brydon, 1963. A study of the lime potentials:
3. Soil. Sci., 95: 186-191.
Tyler, G., 1972. Heavy metals pollute nature, may reduce productivity. AMBIO, 1:
Walker, D.A., and P.J. Webber, 1979. Relationships of soil acidity and air tempera-
ture to the wind and vegetation at Prudhoc Bay, Alaska. Arctic 32(3): 224-236.
Warcup, J.H., 1951. The ecology of soil fungi. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc, 34:
Weber, D.E., and J.J. Lee, 1977. The effects of acid precipitation on plants and
soils. EPA Staff Presentation given at Portland, OR and Research Triangle,
Pk., NC, 1977.
Weiss, H.V., M. Kiode, and E.D. Goldberg, 1971. Mercury in the Greenland ice sheet:
evidence of recent input by man. Science, 174: 692-94.
Wiklander, L. 1978. Leaching and acidification of soils. In: Electric Power Re-
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Workshop on Effects of Acid Precipitation. Gatehouse-of-fleet, Scotland, Sept.
Wiklander, L., 1975. The role of neutral salts in the ion exchange between acid
precipitation and the soil. Geoderraa, 14, p. 93.
Wiklander, L., 1974. Leaching of plant nutrients in soils. 1. General Principles.
Acto Agriculturae Scandinavica, 24: 349-356.
Wiklander, L., 1973. The acidification of soil by acid precipitation. Grundfor-
battring, 26: 155-164.
- 76 -
6.2 Vegetation and Forests
Abrahamsen, G., R. Hornvedt, and G. Tveite, 1975. Impact of acid precipitation on
coniferous forest ecosystems. Research Report 2, Acid Precipitation — Effects
on Forests and Fish. Norwegian Forest Research Institute, Aas, Norway.
Abrahamsen, G., et al., 1976. Effects of acid precipitation on coniferous forest.
Pp. 37-63. In: F.H. Braekke (ed.), Research Report FR-6. SNSF Project, NISK,
Alberta. Environment Conservation Authority, 1972. Environmental effects of the
operation of sulphur extraction gas plants in Alberta: report and recommenda-
Alberta. Environment Conservation Authority, 1972. Part II. Proceedings of the
Beckerson, D.W., and G. Hofstra, 1979. Response of leaf diffusive resistance of
radish, cucumber and soybean to O3 and SO2 or in combination. Atmos.
Enyir., 13: 1263-1268.
Bell, J.N.B., and W.S. Clough, 1973. Depression of yield in ryegrass exposed to
S0 2 . Nature (London), 241: 47.
Benedict, H.M., C.J. Miller, and R.E. Olson, 1971. Economic impact of air pollut-
ants on plants in the United States. Final Report on Project LSD-1056.
Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Ca. 77 pp.
Bennett, J.H., and A.C. Hill, 1973« Inhibition of apparent photosynthesis by air
pollution. J. Environ. Qual., 2: 4.
Berry, C.R., and L.A. Ripperton, 1963. Ozone, a possible cause of white pine emer-
gence tipburn. Phytopathology, 53: 552-557.
Blauel, R.A., and D. Hocking, 1974. Air pollution and forest decline near a nickel
smelter, the Thompson, Manitoba, smoke easement survey, 1972-74. Info. Rep.
NOR-X-115. North For. Res. Center., 39 pp.
Bleasdale, J.K.A., 1972. Effects of coal-smoke pollution gases on the growth of
ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Environ. Pollut., 5: 275.
Bormann, F.H., and G.E. Likens, 1979* Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem.
New York: Springer-Verlag. 253 pp.
Braekke, F.H., 1976. Impact of acid precipitation on forest and freshwater eco-
systems in Norway. Research Report No. 6. Summary Report on SNSF Project.
Aas, Norway, 111 p.
Central Electricity Research Laboratories, 1978. Ecological effects of acid preci-
pitation. Report of a workshop held at Gatehouse-of-Fleet, Galloway, Sept.
4-7. EPRI SOA 77-403, July.
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Charles, D., R. Booth, R. Craigh et al., 1975. Acid rain in the Adirondacks — posi-
tion of the Adirondack Park Agency on acid precipitation and its effects on the
Adirondack Park. A. P. A. Ray brook, New York, 59 PP»
Chiba, 0., and K. Tanaka, 1968. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the development of
pine needle blight caused by Rhizosphaera (1). J. Jap. Forestry Soc, 50:
Chilcote, D.O., 1975. The role of plant in removal of air pollutants. In: The
Role of Plants in Environmental Purification, Environmental Health Sciences
Center, OSU, Corvallis, Oregon. 23-29.
Cogbill, C.V., 1977. The effect of acid precipitation on tree growth in eastern
North America. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 8: 89-93.
Cogbill, C.V., 1975. Acid precipitation and forest growth in the eastern United
States. M.S. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N,Y., 62 p.
Cole, D.W., and D.W. Johnson, 1974. The effect of pollution-induced acidic precipi-
tation on cation leaching in a Douglas fir ecosystem. Presented at the 55th
Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union.
Cormis, L., 1973. Effects of sulphurous air pollution of the vegetation. Ann.
Mines, 1*4: 23.
Costones, A.C., 1970. Acute foliar injury of eastern white pine induced by SO2
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Cowling, E.B., and L.S. Dochinger, 1979. Effects of acid rain on crops and trees.
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Crowther, C, and H.G. Rustan, 1911. The nature, distribution and effects upon
vegetation of atmospheric inpurities in and near an industrial town. J. Agric.
Sci., 4: 25-55.
Davidson, Walter H., 1979. Results of tree and shrub plantings on low pH strip-
mine banks. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service Research Note NE-285.
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atmosphere containing SO2. (Translated from French) APTIC Ref. No. TR-0916.
Denison, R., et al., 1976. The effects of acid rain on nitrogen fixation in
western Washington coniferous forests, p. 933. In: proc. 1st Int. Symp. on
Acid Rain Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem. U.S.D.A. Forest Service.
Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23. 107 1 * pp.
Dept. of the Environment and the National Environment Research Council, U.K., 1976.
Effects of airborne sulphur compounds in forests and freshwaters. Pollution
Paper #7, Central Unit on Environmental Pollution, United Kingdom.
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Dochinger, L.S., and T.A. Seliga, eds., 1976. Proceedings First International Sym-
posium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem. USDA Forest Service,
Gen. Tech. Rept., NE-23. 1079 pp.
Dochinger, L.S., and T.A. Seliga, 1976b. Workshop report on acid precipitation and
the forest ecosystem. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rept. NE-26 Northeast.
For. Exp. Sta., Upper Darby, Pa., 18 pp.
Dreisinger, B.R., and P.C. McGovern, 1970. Monitoring atmospheric sulphur dioxide
and correlating its effects on crops and forests in the Sudbury area. In:
Proc. Impact of Air Pollution on Vegetation conference, Toronto, Ontario. 23 pp.
Dreisinger, B.R., and P.C. McGovern, 1971. Sulphur dioxide levels and vegetation
injury in the Sudbury area during the 1970 season. Dept. Energy Resour.
Manage., Sudbury, Ont. 38 pp.
Eaton, J.S., 1977. The input of gaseous and particulate sulfur to a forest ecosys-
tem. Contribution to Workshop Meeting to Consider Methods Involved in Studies
of Acid Precipitation to Forest Ecosystems. Edinburgh, U.K. Sept. 19-23, 13 pp.
Evans, L.S., 1979. A plant developmental system to measure the impact of pollutants
in rain water. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc, 29: 1145-1148.
Evans, L.S., and D. Bozzone, 1978. Effects of solutions to simulate acid precipita-
tion on sexual development of the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). p.
164-182. In: Kitchings, J.T. and N.E. Tarr (eds.), National Environmental
Research Park Symposium: National Resource Inventory, Characterization and
Analysis, ORNL-5304. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Evans, L.S., and D. Bozzone, 1978. Effect of buffered solutions and various anions
on vegetative and sexual development in gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum.
Canadian J. Bot., 56: 779-785.
Evans, L.S., and T.M. Curry, 1979. Differential response of plant foliage to simu-
lated acid rain. American Journal of Botany, 66: 953-962.
Evans, L.S., N.F. Gmur, and F. DaCosta, 1977. Leaf surface and histological pertur-
bations of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Helianthus annuus after exposure to
simulated acid rain. Amer. J. Bot., 64: 903-913.
Evans, L.S., N.F. Gmur, and F. DaCosta, 1978. Foliar response of six clones of hy-
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Evans, L.S., N.F. Gmur, and J.J. Kelsch, 1977. Perturbations of upper leaf surface
structures by simulated acid rain. Environ, and Exper. Botany, 17: 145-149.
Fairfax, J.A.W., and N.W. Lepp, 1976. The effect of simulated acid precipitation
on cation losses from a range of tree litters, pp. 123-5. In: Karenlampi, L.
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Fairfax, J.A.W., and N.W. Lepp, 1975. Effects of simulated 'acid rain' on cation
loss from leaves. Nature, 255: 324-325.
Faller, N., 1972. Absorption of sulphur dioxide by tobacco plants differently sup-
plied with sulphate. IAEA Proc. Set 292, 51-58.
Ferenbaugh, R.W., 1974. Effects of simulated acid rain on vegetation. Ph.D.
thesis, University of Montana, Bozeman, 74-24.009.
Ferenbaugh, R.W., 1976. Effects of simulated acid rain on phaseolus vulgaris 1.
(Fabaceae). Amer. J. Bot., 63(3): 283-288.
Freedman, B., and T.C. Hutchinson, 1980. Smelter pollution near Sudbury, Ontario,
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6.3 Wildlife and Biological Indicators
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7. HEALTH EFFECTS
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emphasis on urban centres such as New York.)
Spengler, John D., 1979. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels inside and
outside homes and the implications on health effects research. Envir. Sci. &
Technology, 13: (10): 1276-1280.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1974. Health consequences of sulfur oxides.
A report from CHESS 1970-1971. EPA-650/1-74-004, Research Triangle Pk. , NC.
Wallace, R.A., et al., 1971. Mercury in the environment — the human element. Oak
Ridges Nat. Lab. EP1.
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8. MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES EFFECTS
Gillette, Donald G. f 1975. Sulfur dioxide and material damage. J. Air Poll.
Control Assoc, Vol. 25 (12): 1238-1243.
Kucera, V., 1976. Effects of sulfur dioxide and acid precipitation on metals and
anti-rust painted steel. AMBIO, 5 (5-6): 243-2M8.
Nriagu, J.O., 1978. Deteriorative effects of sulfur pollution on materials. In:
Nriagu, J.O., ed., Sulfur in the Environment, Part II. Ecological Impacts.
New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Tapper, L., and V. Kucera, 1975. Effects of atmospheric sulfur pollutants on his-
torical buildings of sandstone and limestone in Sweden. In: Sweden's case
study: Air pollution across national boundaries, B. Boolin, ed.
Walsh, M., A. Black, and A. Morgan, 1977. Sorption of SO2 by typical indoor sur-
faces including wool carpets, wallpaper and paint. Atmos. Envir. , 11:
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9. VISIBILITY AND ARCTIC HAZE
Barnes, R.A., and D.O. Lee, 1978. Visibility in London and the long distance
transport of atmospheric sulphur. Atm. Env., 12: 791.
Garland, J. A., J.R. Branson, and L.C. Cox, 1973. Study of the contribution of pol-
lution to visibility in a radiation fog. Atm. Env., 7: 1079-1092.
Kerr, Richard A., 1979. Global pollution: is the Arctic haze actually industrial
smog? Science, 205 (4403): 290-293.
Leaderer, Brian, P., et al., 1979. Relationship between sulfate aerosol and visi-
bility. J. of APCA, 29 (2): 154-156.
Mitchell, M. , 1956. Visual range in the polar regions with particular reference to
the Alaskan Arctic. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., Special Supplement, pp. 195-211.
Munn, R.E., 1973. Secular increases in summer haziness in the Atlantic provinces.
Atmosphere, 11: 156-161.
Rahn, Kenneth, A., and Richard J. MacCaffrey, 1979. Long range transport of pollu-
tion aerosol to the Arctic: a problem without borders. Proceedings, WMO
Symposium on the long range transport of pollutants, Bulgaria, Oct. 1-5, p.
Rahn, K.A., and R.J. MacCaffrey, 1979. On the origin and transport of the winter
Arctic aerosol. Presented at the conference on Aerosols: Anthropogenic and
Natural — Sources and Transport, Jan. 9-12. New York Academy of Sciences, N.Y.
Rahn, K.A., R.D. Borys, and G.E. Shaw, 1978. Arctic air-sampling network. Arctic
Bull., 2, 342-346.
Rahn, K.A., R.D. Borys, and G.E. Shaw, 1977. The Asian source of Arctic haze bands.
Nature, 268, 713-715.
Samson, P.J., and K.W. Ragland, 1977. Ozone and visibility reduction in the mid
west: evidence for large-scale transport. J. of Appl. Meteorology, 16:
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Nature, 254: 735.
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10. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGY
Bronin, B.N., 1979. The principle of siting the control stations in long range
transport of air pollutants. WMO Symposium on LRTAP, 79-84.
Cheney, Jim L., and James B. Homolya, 1979. Sampling parameters for sulfates
measurement and characterization. Envir. Sci. & Tech. 13 (5): 584-588.
Evans, L.S., 1979. A plant developmental system to measure the impact of pollu-
tants in rain water. Jour, of Air Pollut. Control Assoc, 29 (11): 1145-1148.
Hansen, L.D., et al. f 1979. Determination of arsenic and sulfur species in environ-
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Hazrati, A.M., 1979. The use of metal films in studying sulfuric acid droplets in
the atmosphere. J. of Air Pollut. Control 29 (4): 372-377.
Klockow, D., et al., 1979. Possible artifacts in filter sampling of atmospheric
sulfuric acid and acidic sulfates. Atmos. Envir., 13: 1665-1676.
Laird, A., and Rachel and Richard w. Miksad, 1979. An application of a pseudo-
second order SO2 reaction algorithm to urban air pollution modeling. J. of
Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 29 (2): 147-152.
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methods for precipitation acidity. Tellus, 31: 421-431.
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on the formation of acid precipitation. Electric Power Research Institute,
EA-1074, Special Study Project, WS-78-98. Workshop Report, May.
Proceedings of the Symposium on Ion Chromatographic analysis of environmental
pollutants, 1977. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park,
N.C., April 28.
Salmon, L., et al., 1978. Retrospective trend analysis of the content of U.K. air
particulate material, 1957-1974. Sci. Total Environ., 9: 161.
Sanderson, Marie, and P.D. LaValle, 1979. Surface loading from pollutants in preci-
pitation in southern Ontario: some climatic and statistical aspects. J. Great
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Sisterson, D.L., and J.D. Shannon, 1979. The diagnostic atmospheric cross-section
experiment (DACSE-1) of MAP3S:1-10, August, 1977. Part II: Regional transport
of pollutants. ANL/RER-78-2, Argonne National Laboratory, April.
Tanner, R.L., et al . , 1980. Determination of ambient aerosol sulfur using a con-
tinuous flame photometric detection system. I. Sampling system for aerosol
sulfate and sulfuric acid. Atmos. Envir. 14: 121-127.
Wetzel, Roy, 1979* Ion chromatography: further applications. Envir. Sci. & Tech.,
13 (10): 1214-17.
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Report of the International Conference on the effects of acid precipitation in
Telemark, Norway, 1976. AMBIO, 5: 200-252.
Canada. Dept. of Fisheries and Environment, 1978. An annotated bibliography of
Canadian air pollution literature. Supplement, EPS-3-AP-77-1. May.
Fowle, C. David and Ralph K. Baehre, 1979. A bibliography on acid rain. Federation
of Ontario Naturalists, 335 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Ont. , October, 27 pp.
Smith, S.B., ed., et al., 1979. Alberta oil sands environmental research program
interim report covering the period April 1975 to November 1978. 101 pp.
U.S. Institute of Ecology, 1979. Programs to examine ecological effects (Federal
acid rain assessment program) , from a report prepared by the National
Atmospheric Deposition Program.
Proceedings of the Air Pollution Meteorology and Environmental Assessment,
Workshop, 1979. Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, May 7-10.
Proceedings of the air quality criteria workshop, 1978. Atmospheric Environment
Service, Downsview, Ontario, Jan. 17-19.
2 A bibliography : the long-range
5862.2 transport of air pollutants and
C36 ac| dic precipitation /