Skip to main content

Full text of "Bibliography of the mythical-heroic sagas"

See other formats














Issued by Corneli, University Library 

Ithaca, New York y% 



CoPYRfGHT 1912 



*' I give and bequeath to the Cornell University at Ithaca, 

New York, all my books relating to Iceland and the old Scandi- 
navian literature and history. ..." 

" I give and bequeath to the said Cornell University . . . 

the sum of Five Thousand (5000) Dollars, to have and to hold 
forever, in trust, nevertheless, to receive the income thereof, and 
to use and expend the said income for the purposes of the publi- 
cation of an annual volume relating to Iceland and the said 
Icelandic Collection in the library of the said University." 

In pursuance of these provisions the following volumes have 
been issued : 

ISLANDiCA, I. Bibliography of the Icelandic Sagas, by 
Halldor Hermannsson. 1908. 

ISLANDiCA, II. The Northmen in America, by Halld6r Her- 
mannsson. 1909. 

ISLANDICA, III. Bibliography of the Sagas of the Kings of 
Norway and related Sagas and Tales, by 
Halld6r Hermannsson. 19 10. 

ISLANDICA, IV. The Ancient Laws of Norway and Iceland^ 
by Halld6r Hermannsson. 1911. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 









This volume, forming a continuation of the two earlier saga 
bibliographies published in ' ' Islandica ' ' , contains a bibliography 
of the sagas which, since their publication by Rafn, have generally 
been known as the Fornaldarsogur. This name, from our 
point of view, is perhaps not altogether appropriate or distinguish- 
ing, but nevertheless expresses the notion of their writers of 
presenting sagas dealing with what to them was a distant age or 
"fornold", that is, the times before the foundation of the 
kingdom of Norway and the colonization of Iceland, which in 
the earlier and more critical saga literature had not been ex- 
tensively treated. These sagas, the subjects of which in many 
cases must have been household tales in early Iceland, were 
written in the latter half of the 13th and the earlier half of the 
14th century. Thus they represent the period of decadence in 
saga writing, the age when foreign influences became marked, 
when copying and recasting of the earlier sagas was much in 
vogue, when tales and stories, omitted by the earlier writers, 
were found worthy of record, often freely elaborated or extended, 
and when new stories also were invented. Many unhistorical 
sagas and tales which have been included in the preceding 
bibliographies date likewise from this period, and have therefore 
much in common with those treated here. Unhistorical all these 
Fornaldarsogur are, even those which treat of historical persons 
(Hrolfs saga kraka, Ragnars saga, etc.). The subject of others 
is derived from non-Scandinavian peoples, but has, so to say, been 
nationalized (Asmundar saga kappabana, Hervarar saga, Vols- 
unga saga, etc.); others are purely fictitious (lygisogur; stjup- 
mae9ra sogur), similar in structure, but varying greatly as to 
quality. The PiQreks saga occupies a place by itself, containing 
as it does foreign traditions and tales in their original form, and 
probably to a large extent in a close translation, but its connec- 
tion with the Volsung and Volund legends made it desirable to 
include it here. The whole Volsung or Niblung literature is, of 
course, not covered in these pages, but only those titles have 
been included which treat directly of, or are of importance to. 

the Norwegian-Icelandic version as found in the Volsunga saga 
and the Low German version as represented in the PiQreks saga. 
Articles on the heroic poems of the Edda, excepting those deal- 
ing with textual criticism, as a rule have been included. For 
other works on the Niblungs, many of which devote more or less 
space to these two versions, it is well to consult Abeling's bibli- 
ography of the Nibelungenlied. 

In order to make the bibliography of the subject of the 
Fornaldarsogur more complete, a list of editions and translations 
of Saxo Grammaticus' Danish history has been given in an 
appendix, as well as commentaries on the first nine books of it> 
and works on the history in general and its author ; the seven 
later books are of no interest to us here. The appendix comprises 
also the Chronicle of Hven, and three spurious Icelandic sagas. 

As to the method followed in compiling this bibliography, 
not much needs be said here, as it has been worked out in about 
the same way as the two preceding ones. It may seem unneces- 
sary to have enumerated abstracts of these sagas, and I have 
done so only within certain limits ; the list might easily have been 
made considerably longer. But these abstracts, especially the 
earlier ones, may sometimes be of interest for the history of con- 
temporary literature, since these sagas have supplied many a 
writer with subjects for works of fiction, drama, and the like. I 
should have liked to include a list of such works, but space did not 
permit ; to indicate the importance of some of these sagas in this 
respect, one needs only to mention the names of Esaias Tegner, 
Adam Oehlenschlager, Richard Wagner, William Morris, and last 
but not least, the author of '* Hamlet." I hope, however, that 
at some later date I shall be able to publish such a list, not only 
covering the sagas included in the present volume, but the other 
sagas as well, thus completing and extending the list given at 
the end of vol. i. of " Islandica." 

The titles not to be found in the Fiske Collection or in the 
University Library are not specially marked in this bibliography. 

H. H. 
CoRNELi, University Library, 
June, 1912. 



Collections : pagb 

Texts I 

Translations 3 

General Works 7 

Individual Sagas 9 

Appendix : 

Saxo Grammatici Gesta Danorum 62 

Hvenske Kronike 70 

Spurious Sagas 71 

Errata and Addenda 73 




A. Texts. 

NORDiSKA KXmpa Dater, i en Sagoflock samlade om forna 

Kongar och Hjaltar. For hwilken, forutan et standigt 

Attartahl pa alia befintliga Swenska Kongar och Drottningar, 

afwen et Foretal finnes, angaende orsaken til detta wark, Gota 

sprakets forman, gamla sakers nogje, Sagors trowardighet och 

de har trycktas tidatahl, jamte forteckning pa dem, som til- 

forende warit tryckte &c. Volumen historicum, continens 

variorum in orbe Hyperboreo antiquo Regum, Heroum et 

Pugilum res prseclare & mirabiliter gestas. Accessit, prseter 

conspectum genealogicum Svethicorum Regum & Reginarum 

accuratissimum, etiam prsefatio de caussis editi hujus operis, 

linguae Gothicse praerogativa, rerum antiquarum jucunditate, 

historiarum Hyperb. fide, earumque heic editarum chronotaxi ; 

addito etiam ante evulgatarum catalago [!] &c. Stockholmiae, 

typis Joh. L. Horrn, 1737. fol. 

Ed. by Erik Julius Bjorner. — Contents : dedicatory letters, pp. (2}-(7); 

poem to the editor by O. Rudbeck jr., etc. p. (8); preface (Latin and 

Swedish), pp. 36 ; Conspectus Svecise regum et reginarum genealogicus, 

(by G. Bonde ; Latin and Swedish), pp. 19; Fundinn Noregur, pp. 16 ; 

Rimur af Karl og Grym Suia kongum, og af Hialmar Hareks suni a 

Biarmalande, pp. 18 ; Konung Hrolf Krakes i Danmark, samt Adils 

Upsala Konungs Saga. Hwarwid folgjer et utdrag af Bodwar Bjarkes 

Saga (with Gjodrik Bjornsson's Foretal), pp. 8+139; Sagann af 

FriJ)piofe Frsekna, pp. 44 ; Sogu Thattur af Alfe Konge og Reckum 

hanns, pp. 42 ; Sagann af Hromunde Greipssyne, pp. 19 ; Saga af 

Halfdane Bronufostra, pp. 30 ; Saga af Sorla Sterka, pp. 57 ; Sagann af 

Halfdane Eysteinssyne, pp. 59 ; Sagann af Samsone fagra, pp. 39 ; 

Volsunga Saga, ej)ur Sagann aff Sigurpe Fafnis Bana, pp. 115 ; Sagan af 

Ragnari Lojjbrok og Sonum hanns, pp. 65 (o : 67); Saga Ans Bogsweig- 

ers, pp. 35 ; vSogu pattur af Noma-Gesti, pp. 1-27 ; I>attur Helga 

J>orissonar, pp. 28-34 ; Saga af I>orsteini Baear-Magni, pp. 29. At the 

end a short postscriptum, a leaf with errata and Latin quotations, and 

a leaf with Joh. Helin's letter regarding the suppressed leaf (pp. 7-8) of 


the preface. The Fiske copy has both the original and the reprinted 
leaf of the preface. All the saga texts are accompanied by Swedish and 
Latin versions. — As an introduction to this collection was planned the 
author's "Inledning til de yfwerborna Goters gamla hafder, sardeles 
gotiska sprakets forman och sagornas kannedom", Stockh. 1738, (fol., 
pp. 12 + 219), but it was found to be too extensive and was publ. as a 
separate work. — Cf. Warmholtz, Bibl. S.-G. no. 2604. 
Altnordische Sagen und LiEder, welche zum Fabelkreis des 
Heldenbuchs und der Nibelungen gehoren. Herausgegeben 
durch Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen. Breslau [1814]. 8^ 
pp. (4) + vi + 16 + 186 + 26 + 45 + (8). 
Contents : Vorrede ; Aus der jiingeren oder Snorri'schen Edda, pp. 16 ; 
Volsunga- oder Sigurthar Fafnisbana-Saga, pp. 1-118 ; Ragnar Ivod- 
broks Saga, pp. 1 19-186; Nornagests Saga, pp. 26; B16msturvalla 
Saga, pp. 45 ; errata. 
FoRNALDAR soGUR N0RDRI.ANDA eptir gomlum handritum 
titgefnar af C. C. Rafn. I. -III. bindi. Kaupmannahofn 1829- 
30. 3 vols. 8°. pp. xxviii + 533, i facsim.\ pp. xiv + 559 ; 
xvi + 779. 
Contents : Vol. i.: Formali ; Saga af Hr61fi kontingi kraka ok koppum 
hans, pp. 1-109 ; Brot Bjarkamdla enna fornu, pp. 110-112 ; Volsunga 
saga, pp. 113-234 ; Saga af Ragnari konungi lo9br6k ok sonum hans, 
pp. 235-299; Krdkumdl, pp. 300-310; Soguljdttr af Norna-Gesti, pp. 
311-342 ; f»dttr af Ragnars sonum, pp. 343-360 ; Sogubrot af nokkrum 
fornkonungum 1 Dana ok Svia veldi, pp. 361-388 ; Sorla pdttr, pp. 389- 
407 ; Hervarar saga ok HeiQreks konungs, pp. 409-512 ; Saga Hei9reks 
koniings ens vitra, pp. 513-533.— ^c>^. H.: Formdli ; Frd Fornj6ti ok 
hans aettmonnum (Hversu Noregr bygSist ; Fundinn Noregr), pp. i- 
21 ; Saga af Hdlfi ok Halfsrekkum, pp. 23-60 ; Fri5j)j6fs saga ens 
fraekna, pp. 61-100; Af Upplendinga kontingum, pp. 101-106 ; Saga 
Ketils hsengs, pp. 107-139 ; Saga Grims loQinkinna, pp. 141-157 ; Orvar- 
Odds saga, pp. 159-322 ; Ans saga bogsveigis, pp. 323-362 ; Saga af 
Hr6mundi Greipssyni, pp. 363-380 ; Saga |>orsteins Vikingssonar, pp. 
381-459 ; Asmundar saga kappabana, pp. 461-487 ; Fri5l)j6fs saga 
fraekna, pp. 488-503 ; Orvar-Odds saga, pp. 504-559— ^<^^- ^'^'^"••* Formdli ; 
Saga Gautreks koniings, er sumir kalla Gjafa-Refs sogu, pp. 1-53 ; Saga 
af Hr61fi kontingi Gautrekssyni, pp. 55-190 ; Saga Herrau3s ok B6sa, 
pp. 191-234 ; Gaungu-Hr61fs saga, pp. 235-364 ; Sagan af Bigli einhenda 
ok Asmundi berserk jabana, pp. 365-407 ; Sorla saga sterka, pp. 408- 
452 ; Sagan af Hjdlmt^r ok Olver, pp. 453-5 18 ; Sagan af Hdlfddni 
Eysteinssyni, pp. 519-558; Hdlfdanar saga Br6nuf6stra, pp. 559-59^^5 
Sagan af Sturlaugi starfsama Ing61fssyni, pp. 592-647 ; Sagan af Illuga 
Griaarf6stra, pp. 648-660 ; Saga Ereks vidforla, 661-674 ; Registr yfir 
mannanofn, pp. 675-722 ; Registr yfir landa-, sta9a-, J)j69a- og flj6ta- 
nofn, pp. 723-739 ; Registr yfir hluti og efni, pp. 740-769 ; list of sub- 
scribers, pp. 771-779. 


Fornaldar sogur NorQrlanda. I. -III. bindi. Valdimar Asmund- 

arson hefir bui9 undir prentun. Texta-titgafa. Reykjavik 

' 1885, 1886, 1889. 3 '^ols. 8°. pp. xi + 92 -f 95 + 136 + 56 ; 

vii + 356; iv + 527. — 2. edition, I. bindi. Reykjavik 1891. 

8^ pp. (4) + 360. 

Most of the sagas in this ed. are reprinted from Rafn's ed. and they are 

printed in the same order as there. Only one recension is given of the 

Fri9j)j6fs saga, Hervarar saga, and Orvar-Odds saga. Bugge's text of 

the sagas, printed in "Norrone Skrifter", is followed here. In a few 

cases paper-MSS. have been used for comparison, but that and other 

changes will be mentioned below under each saga. 

NORRONE Skrifter af sagnhistorisk Indhold, udgivne af 

Sophus Bugge. I. -III. Hefte. Christiania 1864, 1865, 1873. 

(Det norske Oldskriftselskabs Samlinger. VI., VIII., XVII). 

8". pp. 370. 

This ed. was never completed, as the MS. of the introduction was lost. 

Contents: Saga af Hdlfi ok Hdlfsrekkum, pp. 1-44 ; Sogupdttr af Noma- 

Gesti, pp. 45-80 ; Volsunga saga, pp. 81-199 I Hervarar saga ok Heid- 

reks I.-II., pp. 201-370. 
Eddica minora. Dichtungen eddischer Art aus den Fornaldar- 
sogur und anderen Prosawerken zusammengestellt und ein- 
geleitet von Andreas Heusler und Wilhelm Ranisch. Dortmund 
1903. 8°. pp. ex + 160. 

Reviews: Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XX. 1904. pp. 207-210, by Finnur 

J6nsson ; — Modern Language Notes. XIX. 1903, pp. 183-187, by C. 

Lotspeich ;— Nord. Tidsskr. f. Filol. XII. 1903. pp. 84-86, by A. Olrik ;— 

Deut. Lit. zeit. XXIV. 1903. coll. 2819-21, by G. Neckel ;— Archiv. f. 

das Stud. d. neueren Spr. u. Lit. CXII. 1904. pp. 398-401, by R. 

Nordenstreng ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XXVII. 1906. 

coll. 49-51, by W. Golther ;— Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. XXXVI. 1904. 

pp. 521-525, by B. Kahle. 

B. Translations. 

NoRDiSKE K^MPE-HiSTORiER [eller mythiske og romantiske 
Sagaer] efter islandske Haandskrifter fordanskede ved Carl 
Christian Rafn. I. -III. Bind. Kjobenhavn 1821-26. 3 w/j. 8®. 
/., pp. (4) + X 4- 192 ; (4) + 166 ; (4) + 260 ;— zV., pp. (6) + 
iv + 652 + (2);— m., pp. (10) 4- 162 ; (4) + 280 ; (4) + 183. 
Bach of the three sections of vols. i. and iii. has a special t.-p. Con- 
tents: vol. i.: (A). Hrolf Krakes Saga; (B). Volsunga-Saga ; (C). 
Ragnar Lodbroks Saga, pp. 1-81 ; Krakemaal, pp. 82-96 ; Fortaellingen 
om Noma Gest, pp. 97-132 ; Brudstykke om Dansk-Norske Konger fra 


Ivar Vidfadme til Harald Blaatand, pp. 133-154 ; Anmaerkninger, pp. 
155-176 ; Gamle Danske Viser henhorende til Ragnar Ivodbroks og hans 
Sonners Saga i Fornsproget udgivne, pp. 177-252; variants etc., pp. 
252-260 ; — vol. ii.: Saga om Kong Didrik af Bern og hans Ksemper ; — 
vol. Hi.: Det fundne Norge, pp. 1-22 ; Sagaom Half og Halfs Ksemper, 
pp. 23-70 ; Fridthjof hin Frseknes Saga, pp. 71-120 ; Sogubrot (Saga- 
Brudstykke om nogle gamle Konger i Danmark og Sverige), pp. 121- 
157 ; table of contents, pp. 158-159 ; Literatur, pp. 160-162 ;— Ketil 
Haengs og Grim Lodinkins Sagaer, pp. 1-56; Orvarodds Saga, pp. 57- 
206 (Orvarodds Levnetskvad, pp. 182-206) ; An Buesvingers Saga, pp. 
207-256; Romund Grejpssons Saga, pp. 257-279; L/iteratur, p. 280; — 
Hervors og Kong Hejdreks Saga, pp. 1-124 ; Register til Nord. Ksempe- 
Hist. trende Bind, pp. 125-183; Trykfeil og Rettelser. — Reviews: 
Dansk Litteratur-Tid. 1821. pp. 395-400 ; 1822. pp. 753-756 ; 1824. pp. 
337-347, by P. E. Miiller ; — Literatur- og Kunstblad. 1821. Nos. 1-4, by 
Finnur Magn<isson ; — Politik og Historie. IV. 1821. pp. 110-114, by J. 
K. Host ;— Tilskueren. 1820. pp. 681-694, by K. L. Rahbek ;— Gott. 
gel. Anz. 1826. pp. 1540-44 ; — Brganzungsbl. zu Allgem. Hall. Zeit. 
1823. pp. 301-306 ; — Revue Encyclop^dique. 1827. pp. 424-426. 

NORDISKE FoRTiDS Sagakr, efter den udgivne islandske eller 
gamle nordiske Grundskrift oversatte af C. C. Rafn. I. -III. 
Bind. Kjobenhavn 1829-30. 3 vols. 8". pp. xxviii + 470 ; 

(4) + 402 ; (4) + 516. 
Contents : vol. i. : Til Lseseren ; Saga om Kong Rolf Krake og hans 
Ksemper, pp. T-106 (Brudstykker af det gamle Bjarkemaal, pp. 103- 
106); Volsunga Saga eller Saga om Sigurd Fafnersbane, pp. 107-217; 
Kong Ragnar Lodbroks og hans Sonners Saga, pp. 219-276 ; Krakas 
Maal, pp. 277-288 ; Fortselling om Norna-Gest, pp. 289-316 ; Fortaelling 
om Ragnars Sonner, pp. 317-332 ; Saga-Brudstykke om nogle Oldtids 
Konger i Danmark og Sverrig, pp. 333-359 ; Fortselling om Sorle eller 
Hedins og Hognes Saga, pp. 361-376 ; Hervors og Kong Heidreks Saga, 
pp. 377-470 ; — vol. ii.: Om Fornjot og hans Slsegt, pp. 1-19; Saga om 
Half og Halfs Ksemper, pp. 21-58 ; Fridthjof hin Frseknes Saga, pp. 
59-96 ; Om Oplsendingernes Konger, pp. 97-100 ; Ketil Hsengs og Grim 
Lodinkins Saga, pp. 101-142 ; Orvar-Odds Saga, pp. 143-235 ; Orvar- 
Odds Levnetskvad, pp. 236-254 ; An Bueboiers Saga, pp. 255-290 ; 
Romund Greipsons Saga, pp. 291-307 ; Thorstein Vikingsons Saga, pp. 
308-377 ; Asmund Ksempebanes Saga, pp. 379-402 ; — vol. Hi. : Sagaen 
om Kong Didrik af Bern og hans Ksemper, pp. 1-446 ; indices, pp. 447- 
499 ; Subscribenter, pp. 501-516. — Review: Berlin. Jahrb. f. wissensch. 
Kritik. 1830. II. pp. 692-699, by G. Mohnike. 

NoRDiSKK Oldsagn, bearbeidede til Almeenlaesning af [A. G.] 
Oehlenschlager. Kiobenhavn 1840. 8®. pp. (4) -f 247. — New 
ed. Kiobenhavn 1853. 8^ pp. (2) 4- 181 + (2). 


Among the stories included are the sagas of Hr61fr kraki, Ragnar 
lo9br6k, Hervor, the Volsungar, Velent and Vidga, and Fri9pj6fr ; the 
others are from Saxo's history. 

NoRDiSKK HeIvTESAGAER. Paa Dansk ved Fr. Winkel Horn. 
Kjobenhavn 1876. 8". pp. xiv + 305 + (i). 
Contents: Indledning ; Saga om Volsungeme, pp. 1-91 ; Fortaelling om 
Norne-Gest, pp. 93-116; Hervor og Hejdreks Saga, pp. 1 17-184; 
Fortaelling om Sorle, pp. 185-199 ; Aasmund Ksempebanes Saga, pp. 
201-221 ; Kong Hrolv Krakes og hans Kaempers Saga, pp. 223-305 ; 

Oi,D Norse Sagas [^fifiV^^djj' Emily S. Cappel]. London [1882]. 8°. pp. 
viii + 213, illustr. 

The sagas of Ragnar lodbr6k, Fri9pj6fr, Hr61fr kraki, Brdvallarbardagi, 
Volundr etc. are retold in this vol. — These are repr. in The Volsunga 
saga, publ. by the Norroena Society. 1906. pp. 256-340. 

NORDISCHE Heldenromane. Uebersetzt durch Friedrich Hein- 
rich von der Hagen. I. -IV. Bandchen. Breslau 1814-15. 5 
vols. 12". 
Vols, i.-iii. contain the I>i5reks saga ; vol. iv. the Volsunga saga ; vol. 
V. Ragnars saga and Norna-Gests pdttr. 

Altdeutsche und Altnordische Helden-Sagen. Uebersetzt 

von F. H. V. d. H. 2. verbesserte Auflage. I. -II. Band. Breslau 
1855. — III. Band. Vollig umgearbeitet von Anton Edzardi. 
Stuttgart 1880. 3 vols. 8°. 
Vols, i.-ii. contain the I>i9reks saga ; vol. iii. has the following title : 
Volsunga- und Ragnars- Saga nebst der Geschichte von Nornagest. 
Uebersetzt von F. H. v. d. H. 2. Auflage. Vollig umgearbeitet von A. E. 
Stuttgart 1880. 8^ pp. (12) + Ixxx -|- 438. — The preface, the long intro- 
duction, the notes and the indices are all by Edzardi. Review of vol. 
Hi.: Zschr. f. deut. Philol. XIII. 1882. pp. 381-384, by E. Mogk ;— Litera- 
turbl. f . germ. u. rom. Philol. II. 1881. coll. 313-316, by B. Symons ; — 
Lit. Cbl. XXXII. 1881. coll. 1145-47, by B. Symons ;— Deut. Lit. zeit. 
I. 1881. col. 440, by O. Brenner ; — Magaz. f. d. Literat. d. In- u. Ausland. 
1881. No. 10, by J. C. Poestion. 

There is a so-called 3. ed. (title-ed. : 3. wohlfeile Ausgabe) of the first 
two vols. Breslau 1872 (Abeling, no. 642); there is also 3. ed. of vol. III. 
Leipzig 1897 (Abeling, no. 11 28). 

Die Deutsche Heldensage und ihre Heimat von August 
Raszmann. I.-II. Band. Hannover 1857-58. 2 vols. 8°. pp. 
XX -f 423 ; xlvi + 704. — 2. Ausgabe. { Title- edition) . Hann- 
over 1863. 2 vols. 8". 
Vol. i. contains the Volsunga story as represented in the Volsunga saga 
and the Edda, vol. ii. contains the I>i9reks saga. — Reviews: Lit. Cbl. 
VIII. 1857. coll. 317-318 ; X. 1859. coll. 315-317. 


Altnordischer Sagenschatz in neun Biicher. tjbersetzt und 
erlautert von Ludwig Ettmiiller. I^eipzig 1870. S*'. pp. viii + 
Books i.-vi. are from Saxo's Danish Chronicle ; bk. vii. : Die Sage von 
Konig Hr61f Kraki und seinen Kampen, pp. 317-382 ; bk. viii.: Gauti, 
Konig von Gautland, etc. (Gautreks saga), pp. 383-416; Konig 
Gautrek's Brautfahrt, etc. (Hr61fs saga Gautrekssonar), pp. 416-443; 
bk. ix. : Sage von Herraud und B6si, pp. 444-474. 

NORDISCHE HEI.DENSAGEN. Aus dem Altislandischen libersetzt 
und bearbeitet von Carl Kiichler. Bremen, 1892. 8°. pp. 

(4) + 264. 
Contents : Einleitung ; Die Saga von Gunnlaug Schlangenzunge, pp. 
11-75; Die Saga von Fridthjof dem Gewaltigen, pp. 77-127; Die 
Wolsun gen-Saga, pp. 129-259 ; Berichtigungen, pp. 260-264. — For re- 
views, see Islandica. I. p. 41. 

Skandinaviska FornaIvDERns Hjeltesagor ; till lasning for 
Sveriges ungdom efter islandska handskrifter utgifna med 
historiska upplysningar af Joh. G. Liljegren. I. delen. Gange 
Rolfs Saga. II. delen. Orvar Odds samt Jarlmans och Hermans 
Sagor. Stockholm 18 18-19. 2 vols. 8". 
Bach saga has a special t.-p. and separate pagination. 

NoRDiSKT Sago Bibliothek, eller mythiska och romantiska 
Forntids-Sagor utgifne af C. G. Kroningssvard. I. bandets 
1-5 hafte. Fahlun 1834. 8°. pp. (2) + 85 + (3); 100 + (4); 

93 + (3); 94+ (2); 90 4- (2). 
Contents: preface; Om Fornjoter och hans attlingar, pp. 9-60 ; Om 
Upplandernas konungar, pp. 61-77 ; Fragmenter af det gamle Bjarka- 
mal, pp. 79-85 ; — Saga om Half och Halfs kampar, pp. 3-63 ; Berattelse 
om Sorle eller Hedins och Hognes saga, pp. 65-100 ; — Saga om konung 
Ragnar Lodbrok och hans soner, pp. 3-93 ; — Saga om Ketil Hang, pp. 
3-50 ; Sago-fragment om nagra forntids-konungar i Danmark och 
Sverige, pp. 51-94;— Saga om An Bagbojaren, pp. 3-60 ; Saga om Grim 
Lodinkinn, pp. 61-90. The unnumbered leaves at the end of each part 
contain a list of subscribers. No more publ. 

NoRDiSKA Kampadater fran tiden fore Islands upptackt. 
Forra bandet. Sagor om Volsungar och Gjukungar. Stock- 
holm 1858. 8^ pp. (4) -f 266, \pls. 
Transl. and ed. by W. O. A. Backman. Was publ. in parts with the 
cover-title : ' ' Skandinaviska f orntids-minnen. ' ' No more publ. Con- 
tents : Wolsunga-sagan, pp. 1-45; Norna-Gest, pp. 47-62 (Sagan om 
Helge Thoresson, pp. 59-62); Wilkina- eller Didriks af Bern saga, pp. 


Fran Nordkns forntid. Fornnordiska sagor bearbetade pa 
svenska af A. Ekerman. Med originalteckningar af Jenny 

■ Nystrom-Stoopendaal. Stockholm 1895. 8". pp. (6) -f 348, 
Contents : Volsungames saga, pp. 1-33 ; Hervors och Heidreks saga, 
PP- 34-74 ; Fritjof den djarfves saga, pp. 75-101 ; Rolf Krakes och bans 
kampers saga, pp. 102-153 ; Noma Gasts saga, pp. 154-171 ; Jomsviking- 
arnes saga, pp. 172-217 ; Ragnar Lodbroks og bans soners saga, pp. 
218-259; Styrbjoms saga, pp. 260-264; Nials saga, pp. 266-339; 
Upplysningar, pp. 339-348. 

C. General Works. 

Esp61in, J6n. Nogle Bemserkninger ved P. B. Miillers Saga-Bibliotbek. 

In Tidsskr. f. nord. Oldk. II. 1829. pp. 65-99. — ^^^o sep. repr. 

Kiobenbavn 1829. 8". pp. (2)4-35- 
Udkast til kort Syncbronisme over Nordens Sagaer. Ibid. pp. 349- 

Faraday, Winifred. Tbe Edda. II. Tbe beroic mytbology of tbe North. 

I/Ondon 1902. (Popular studies in mytbology, romance and folklore. 13). 

80. pp. 60. 

Review: Zscbr. d. Vereins f . Volksk. XIII. 1903. pp. 251-252, by A. 

Grimm, Wilbelm. Die deutsche Heldensage. Gottingen 1829. 8", pp. 

vi 4- (2) 4- 425. — 2. verm. u. verbess. Aufl. Berlin 1868. 8°. pp. x 4- 

428. — 3. Aufl. von Reinbold Steig. Giiterslob 1889. 8°. pp. xxix + (2) 

+ 536. 

Review : Gott. gel. Anz. 1889. pp. 593-597, by E. Scbroder. 
Grundtvig, Svend. Udsigt over den nordiske oldtids beroiske digtning, 

tre forelsesninger. In Nordisk Universitets-Tidskrift. IX. 4. 1863. 

pp. 41-126. — New ed. Kobenhavn 1867. 8". pp. (4) 4- 105. 
Heusler, Andreas. Gescbicbtlicbes und Mythiscbes in der germaniscben 

Heldensage. In Sitzungsber. der kgl. preuss. Akad. der Wissensch. 

Jahrg. 1909. Berlin 1909. pp. 920-945. 
Jiriczek, O. L. Die deutsche Heldensage. I^eipzig 1894. (Sammlung 

Goscben. 32. ) — 2. verm. u. verb. Aufl. 1897. — 3. umgearb. Aufl. 1906. 

sm. 8". pp. 208. — Engl. ed. Nortbem hero legends. Transl. by M. 

Bentinck Smitb. London 1902. (The Temple primers), sm. 8*^. pp. 

vii 4- 146. 

Deutsche Heldensage. I. 1898 (see under "^i^reks saga). 

j6nsson, Finnur. Den oldnorske og oldislandske Litteraturs Historie. II. 

2. Kobenhavn 1901. pp. 789-863 ; III. 1902. pp. 91-94. 
Kralik, R. V. Zur nordgermaniscben Sagengeschichte. Wien 1908. (Quellen 

u. Forschungen zur deutschen Volkskunde brsgg. v. E. K. Bliimml. 

IV). 8». pp. (4) + 120 4- (2). 


Rev.: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXXIV. 19 lo. pp. 178-179, by W. Ranisch ;— 

Deut. Lit. zeit. XXX. 1909. coll. 2075-76, by G. Neckel. 
Mogk, Eugen. Geschicbte der norwegisch-islandischen Literatur. 2. Aufl. 

Strassburg 1904. pp. 276-298, 307-310. {Sep. repr. fr. Paul's Grundr. 

der germ. Philol. II. ) 
Miiller, P. E. Sagabibliothek med Anmserkninger og indledende Afhand- 

linger. II. Bind. Kjobenhavn 1818. 8''. pp. xii + 675. 

Review: Dansk Litteratur-Tid. 1820. pp. 673-685, 689-699. — See 

above : Esp61in, J. 

Untersuchungen iiber die Geschichte und das Verhaltniss der 

nordischen und deutschen Heldensage aus Miiller's Sagabibliothek II. 
Band, mit Hinzufiigung erklarender, bericbtigender und erganzender 
Anmerkungen und Excurse iibersetzt und kritisch bearbeitet von Georg 
Lange. Frankfurt a. M. 1832. 8''. pp. Ixiii -}- (6) + 482. 

Miiller, Wilh. Mythologie der deutschen Heldensage. Heilbronn 1886. 8*^. 
pp. vii -f- 260. 

Rev.: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XIII. 1887. pp. 19-41, by E. H. Meyer;— 
Gott. gel. Anz. 1886. pp. 463-476, by the author himself. 

Zur Mythologie der griechischen und deutschen Heldensage. 

Heilbronn 1889. 8". pp. (6) + 177. 

Rev.: lyiteraturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XI. 1890. coll. 89-91, by 

W. Gother ;— Anz. f. deut. Altert. XII. 1891. pp. 86-91, by E. H. 

Meyer ;— Zschr. f. deut. Philol. XXIV. 1892. pp. 403-405, by Fr. 

Munch, P. A. Det norske Folks Historie. I. Deel. i. Bd. Christiania 1852. 

8°. pp. (4) 4- xii + (2) + 804 + (2), map. 
Das heroische Zeitalter der nordisch-germanischen Volker und die 

Wikinger-Ziige. Eine Ubersetzung von Georg Friedrich Claussen. 

Iviibeck 1854. 8^ pp. vi + 252 + (2). 
Schoning, . Gerhard. Norges Riiges Historie. I. Deel, indeholdende Riigets 

seldste Historie fra dets Begyndelse til Harald Haarfagers Tiider. 

Soroe 1771. 4°. pp. (14) + 524 + (38), 2 tbl. 
Schiitte, Gudmund. Oldsagn om Godtjod. Bidrag til etnisk kildeforsknings 

metode med saerligt henblik pa folke-stamsagn. Kjobenhavn 1907. 

{Inaug.-diss.). 8». pp. xi + 204 + (2). 

Reviews : Folklore. XIX. 1908. pp. 353-359. by A. Olrik ;— Arkiv f . 

nord. Filol. XXVI. 1910. pp. 83-87, by Finnur j6nsson ; — Danske 

Studier. 1907. pp. 193-201, by A. Olrik. 
Symons, Barend. Heldensage. In Paul's Grundriss der germ. Philol. II. 

1893. pp. 1-64. — 2. verb. u. verm. Aufl. III. 1900. pp. 606-734. — Also 

sep. repr. Strassburg 1898. 8°. pp. vi + 138. 
Tiander, K. Poiezdki skandinavov v Bieloe more. S.-Peterburg 1906. 

(Zapiski istoriko- filologicheskago fakulteta imperatorskago S.-Peter- 

burgskago universiteta. lyXXIX.) %^. pp. (2) + vi + 350. 

On the voyages to the White Sea, mentioned in the Fomaldarsogur and 

Saxo, see pp. 106-384. 


Torfason (Torfseus), f>orm63ur. Historiae rerum Norvegicarum pars prima 
continens res gentis ante monarchiam institutam gestas. Hafniae 171 1. 
fol. pp. (46) +504+ (18). 

Uhland, J. ly. Schriften zur Geschichte der Dichtung und Sage. VII. Bd- 
(Sagengeschichte der germanischen und romanischen Volker). Stutt- 
gart 1868. 8». pp. iv 4- 680. 


ASils l)^ttr Uppsalakonungs, or Uppsalafor. See Hr61fs saga 

Ans saga bogsveigis. 

MSS.: AM. 343 A, 4*^. (15th cent.) and many on paper. Dates from c. 
1300. — ^The rimur are from the latter half of the 15th cent. 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. XIII. pp. 35. 

In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 323-362. — II. 1886. pp. 291-321. 

For the verses of the saga, see Edd. min. 1903. p. 97, 104. 
Danish. — In Rafn's Nord. Kaempe-Hist. III. 1826. pp. 207- 

256. — Rafn's Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 255-290. 
lyATiN. — Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. IX. pp. 60. 

Kolbing, B. Die Ans- rimur und die Anssaga bogsveigis. In his Beitrage 
zur vergleich. gesch. der romant. poesie u. prosa des mittelalters. 
Breslau 1876. pp. 187-197. 

Asmundar saga berserkjabana. See Egils saga einhenda og 
Asmundar berserkjabana. 

Asmundar saga kappabana. 

MSS.: Cod. Holm. perg. 7, 4" (c. 1350); AM. 586, 4". (15th cent. 

fragm.). Norse form of the Hildebrand legend. 
Saugu [!] Asmundar, er kalladur er Kappabani. EUerAsmunds 
Kappabanes Saga, hoc est : Narratio historica rerum prseclare 
gestarum, ab Asmundo, cui strenua dextra cognomen, pugilum 
interfectoris peperit ; exhibens insuper acta regum, uti sunt : 
Budlii Svioniae, Alfiique Daniae ; nee non Hildibrandorum, 
Hunalandise olim ducum ac heroum, martia facinora com- 
memorans. Hanc e Cod. MSCto membranaceo, linguae priscse 
Scandicae, descriptam, cum gemina versione edidit Johann. 
Fred. Peringskiold. Stockholmiae, Uteris Job. Laur. Horrn, 
MDCCXXII. fol. pp. (2) + 42. 


Text with Swedish and lyatin versions, pp. 1-23 ; Observanda (on gold 
rings of the ancients, and catalogue of Icel, MSS. in the Archives of 
Antiquities, supplemental to Joh. Peringskiold's catalogue, publ. in 
Hickes's Thesaurus), pp. 24-42. (Warmholtz, no. 2560). — Review : Acta 
literaria Sveciae. I. 1723. pp. 415-417. 

In Fornaldars. II. 1828. pp. 461-487. — II. 1886. pp 337-354. 
Extract (from Cod. Holm. 7, 4°), in Th. Mobius's Analecta norrsena. 
2. Ausg. 1877. pp. 264-270. 

Zwei Fornaldarsogur (Hrolfssaga Gautrekssonar ok Asmundar- 

saga kappabana) nach Cod. Holm. 7, 4to hrsgg. von Ferdinand 

Better. Halle a. S. 1891. pp. xxxii-xxxiii, xliii-lv, 79-103. 

Includes also the text of the fragment AM. 586, 4*'. For reviews see 

Hr61fs saga Gautrekssonar. — For the Hildebrand lay, etc., see Corp. 

poet, boreale. I. pp. 190-192 ; Kdd. min. 1903. pp. 53-54, 87. 

Danish. — In Rafn's Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 379-402. 

In Horn's Nord. Heltesag. 1876. pp. 201-221. 

Latin. — In the edition of 1722. 

Swedish. — In the edition of 1722. 

Boer, R. C. Zur danischen heldensage. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. 

Spr. u. Lit. XXII. 1897. pp. 342-390. 
Busse, B. Sagengeschichtliches zum Hildebrandsliede. Ibid. XXVI. 1900. 

pp. 1-92. (38ff.) 
Jiriczek, O. L. Deutsche Heldensage. I. 1898. p. 284ff. 
B69vars Ijdttr bjarka. See Hrolfs saga kraka. 
B6sa saga, or Herrau5s saga ok Bosa, or Bogu-Bosa saga, (^or 
Kvenna-Bosa saga). 
MSS.: AM. 577, 4"; 343, 4°. fragm.; 510, 4° (all of the 15th cent.), etc. 
The saga was written in the first half of the 14th cent., the rimur 
following the existing recension closely. 
Herrauds och Bosa Saga med en ny vttolkning iampte Gambia 
Gotskan. Hoc est Herraudi et Bosae historia cum nova inter- 
pretatione iuxta Antiquum Textum Gothicum e veteri M. s. 
edita & notis illvstrata ab Olao Verelio, Antiq. Patr. Prof. 
Upsalise, excudit Henricus Curio, 1666. 8^ pp. (6) + 122. 
Contents: dedicatory letter to Magnus de la Gardie, pp. (2)-(6); text 
with Swedish version, pp. 1-69; Index verborum et notae, pp. 70-111 ; 
list of proper names in Runic inscriptions, pp. 1 12-122 ; list of Rune- 
carvers' names, p. 122 ; errata. (Warmholtz, no. 2589). 
In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 191-234. — III. 1889. pp. 241- 
Text of AM. 577, 4"., expurgated ed. — ^The edition of 1889 has variants 
from AM. 340, 4°. 


Extr. in Antiquit^s Russes. I. 1850. pp. 225-229. 

Die Bosa-Saga in zwei Fassungen nebst Proben aus den Bosa- 

• rimur herausgegeben von Otto Luitpold Jiriczek. Strassburg 

1893. 8°. pp. Ixxx + 164. 

Critical edition of the older saga (pp. 1-63), based on AM. 586, 4°. (isth 
cent.); the younger saga (written in the 17th cent., pp. 65-138), based 
upon AM. 360B, 4°. (from 1663) ; Ein apokryphe Buslubaen, pp. 141- 
144. — Reviews: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XX. 1894. pp. 245-248, by Ludvig 
Larsson ; — Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XI. 1895. pp. 305-308, by B. Kahle ; — 
lyit. Cbl. XIvIV. 1893. col. 1714, by E. Mogk ;— Museum. I. 1893, by 
R. C. Boer ;— Revue critique. N. S. XXXVI. 1893. p. 505, by A. C.;- 
Iviteraturbl. f germ. u. rom. Philol. XVI. 1895. coll. 2-3, by W. 

The Buslubaen : Edd. min. pp. 126-128 ; Corp. poet, boreale. II. p. 
555 ; in Danish, Nyerup : Udsigt over Nordens aeldste Poesie. 1798. pp. 
Die Bosa-Rimur herausgegeben von Otto L. Jiriczek. Breslau 

1894. (Germanistische Abhandlungen begriindet von Karl 
Weinhold hrsgg. von Friedrich Vogt. X. Heft.) 8°. pp. 
xxxvi + 100. 

Ed. from Cod. Holm. perg. 23, 4". (i6th cent.) and AM. 146A, 8*^. (17th 
cent.). Reviews: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXIII. 1897. pp. 106-107, by 
L. Larsson ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XVI. 1895. col. 226, 
by W. Golther ;— Gott. gel. Anz. 1895. pp. 908-915, by B. Kahle ;— 
Revue critique. N. S. XL. 1895. pp. 365-366, by A. C; — Museum. III. 
by R. C. Boer ;— Osterr. Literaturbl. 1896, by F. Better. 

German. — /;^ Ettmiiller's Altnord. Sagenschatz. 1870. pp. 444- 

Swedish. — In the edition of 1666. 

Jiriczek, O. L. Zur Geschichte der B6sa-Saga. Habilitationsschrift. Breslau 
1893. 8®. pp. (2)4-38. (The third section of his introduction to the 
ed. of 1893 sep. printed). 

Egils saga einhenda ok Asmundar berserkjabana. 

MSS.: AM. 343, 4"; 577, 40; 589E, 4° (all of the 15th cent). Written 

c. 1300. 

Fostbrodernas Eigils och Asmunds Saga. Af Gamla Gothiskan 

uttolkad og med nodige anmarkningar forklarad, af Petter 

Salan. Tryckt i Upsala Ahr 1693. 4^- PP- (^4) + 162 + (12). 

Also with an engraved Latin title : " Fortissimorum pugilum Egilli & 

Asmundi historiam Antiqvo Gothico sermone exaratam transl. notis & 

indice vocum illustravit Petrus Salanus." — Contents : dedicatory poems, 

pp. (4)-(i2); preface, pp. (i3)-(i4); text with Swedish and Latin 


versions, pp. 1-77 ; a poem in Icel., Swed. and Lat., p. 78; Notse, pp. 

79-162; Antechning pa dhe ofgamble Orden, pp. (i)-(i2). (Warm- 

holtz, no. 25611. The book was printed at the expense of 01. Rudbeck. 

Hier biriar Soguna af Eigle og Asinunde Fosbradrum [!]. — Hie 

incipit historia Egilli & Asmundi fratrum foederatorum. 

[Upsalae 1697]. ^ol. pp. 64. 

No t.-p. One of the Rudbeck editions. Contents: text with Latin 

translation, pp. 1-22; poem (Icel., Swed., Ivat.), p. 22; Notse (by 

Salan), pp. 22-58; Index verborum antiquorum, pp. 58-64. — Copy in 

Yale University Library. 

(AM. 343, 4"). In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 365-407. — III. 

1889. pp. 273-307. 
lyATiN. — In the editions of 1693 ^^^ 1697. 
Swedish. — In the edition of 1693. 

Nyrop, Kristofer. Sagnet om Odysseus og Polyphem. In Nord. Tidsskr. f. 
Filol. N. R. V. 1881. pp. 216-255, (^<?<? pp. 226-229). — Also sep. repr. 
Kjobenhavn 1881. 8°. pp. 44. 

Review : Literaturbl. f. germ, u, rom. Philol. III. 1882. coll. 29-30, 
by F. Liebrecht. 

Eiriks saga vibforla. 

MSS.: AM. 657C, 4" (14th cent); Gl. kgl. Sml. 2845, 4" (15th cent.); 
Flateyjarb6k. A religious legend of the 14th cent, 

(AM. 657C, 4^) In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 661-674. 

In Flateyjarbok. I. i860, pp. 29-36. — i?^/r. /« Fornaldars. III. 

1889. pp. 515-527- 

Fornj6ti ok bans aettmonnum, Frd. 

This exists in two recensions, entitled: "Hversu Noregr byggQisk" 
(I. ) and " Fundinn Noregr " (II.), and is chiefly genealogical ; written 
c. 1300 and known only from the Flateyjarb6k or MSS. derived there- 
In Saga Olafs Tryggvasonar. Skalholti 1689. 4°. I. pp. 214- 

216; II. pp. 331-336. 
(I.) In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. pp. 16. 
In Snorra-Edda utg. af R. Kr. Rask. Stockholm 1818. pp. 357- 

In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 1-21. — Flateyjarb6k. I. i860, pp. 

21-24, 219-221. — Fornaldars. II. 1886. pp. 1-20. 
In Antiquites Russes. I. 1850. fol. pp. 213-223. 
Danish. — 7;^ Rafn's Nord. Ksempe Hist. III. 1826. pp. 1-22. — 
Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 1-19. 


I/ATIN. — (I.) In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
(II.) /« Orkneyinga saga. 1780. 4°. pp. 554-557- 
In Antiquites Russes. I. 1850. 

Swedish. — (I.) /^ Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. I- PP- 60. 

Hellquist, Blof. Om Fornj6tr. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XIX. 1903. pp. 

j6nsson, Rev. J6n. Skilfingar e9a Skjoldungar vestan f jails j Noregi. In 

Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XIX. 1903. pp. 181-190. 
Keyser, Rudolf. Om Nordmaendenes Herkomst og Folke-Slaegtskab. In 

Samlinger til det norske Folks Sprog og Hist. IV. 1839. pp. 259-462. — 

Also Sep. repr. Christiania 1843. 4°. i^see pp. 289-304). 
Kock, Axel. Etymologisch-mythologische Untersuchungen. In Indo- 

germanische Forschungen. X. Strassburg 1899. pp. 90-1 11. {See: 

Fornj6tr und seine Nachkommen, pp. 103-107). 

Fri9t)j6fs saga hins fraekna. 

In two principal recensions: a longer and younger (Cod. Holm, 
chart. 7, 4"), and a shorter and older (AM. 510, 4°. 15th cent.; AM. 
568, 4°) . The rimur, based on the older recension, have been used by 
the writer of the younger one. The original saga was probably written 
shortly before or about 1300. The titles below refer to the longer 
recension unless otherwise stated. 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. IV. pp. 44. 

(AM. 173 fol.) In Fornaldars. II. 1829, pp. 61-100. 

(AM. 510, 4".) In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 488-503. 

In Altnordisches Lesebuch. Von F. K. C. Dietrich. Leipzig 

1843. pp. 1 16-130. — 2. Ausgabe. 1864. coll. 231-260. 
In Altnordische Texte. Von Hermann lyiining. Ziirich 1859. 4**- 

pp. 6-21. — j5';«^^fl?zV^ m Altnordisches lycsebuch. VonLudwig 

Ettmiiller. Ziirich 1861. 4". pp. 46-61. 

In Fornaldars. II. 1886. pp. 1 13-135. 

From J6n Sig. MSS. coll. no. 27 (17th cent.) Nat. Libr., Reykjavik. 

Sagan ock rimorna om Fri5J)i6fr hinn fraekni. Utjivna for ' ' Sam- 
fund til udgivelse af gammel nordisk literatur" av Ludvig 
Larsson. Kobenhavn (Lund) 1893. S"- PP- (2) + li + 158. 

The longer recension, Cod. Holm, chart. 17, 4® (17th cent.), pp. 1-37 ; 

the shorter recension, AM. 510, 4", pp. 38-61 ; AM. 568, 4'* (paper- 

MS.) and fragm. Cod. Holm. perg. 2ovi, 40 (c. 1500), pp. 62-91; 

Fri9j)i6fs rimur (AM. 604C, 4®; i6th cent.), pp. 92-158 (with notes, 


etc.).— Reviews: Lit. Cbl. XLV. 1894. coll. 1635-36, by E. Mogk ;— 
Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XVI. 1895. col. 342, by W. 

Fri5J)j6fs saga ins fraekna herausgegeben von Ludvig Larsson. 
Halle a. S. 1901. (Altnordische Saga-Bibliothek. Heft 9). 8^ 
pp. (4) + xxiv + 56. 

Annotated edition of Cod. Holm, chart. 17, 4®. Reviews: Lit. Cbl. 

LIII. 1902. coll. 634-635, by A. Gebhardt ;— Revue critique. N. S. LIV. 

1902. p. 212, by L. Pineau ;— Journ. of Engl. a. Germ. Philol. IV. 1902. 

pp. 382-384, by G. T. Flom ;— Anz. f . deut. Altert. XXIX. 1904. pp. 

322-324, by W. Ranisch. 

The verses of the saga also in Corp. poet, boreale. II. pp. 355-356 ; 

Edd. min. 1903. pp. 97-103. 

Fri5J)j6fsrimur (AM. 604C, 4"). In Rimnasafn udg. ved Finnur 

Jonsson. 5. haefte. Kobenhavn 1910. p. 41 iff. 
Danish.— /« Rafn's Nord. Ksempe-Hist. III. 1826. pp. 71- 

120. — Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 59-96. 
Sagaen om Fridtjov den frokne oversat af Alexander Bugge. 
Kristiania 1901. (Udvalgte sagaer oversatte af A. B.) 8°. pp. 
xi + 38. 
"Vedprosaen har jeg sammenholdt alle tre haandskrifter og sogt af 
dem af finde den bedste text " {preface). 
Paraphrases : Oehlenschlager's Nord. Oldsagn. 1840. pp. 230-247 ; 1853. 
pp. 169- 18 1. — Sagaer fortalte af Br. Snorrason og Kr, Arentzen. II. 
1849. pp. 65-107 ; — H. H. Lefolii's Fortsellinger og Sagaer fortalte for 
Born I. Saml. 3. Udg. 1869. pp. 232-252. — A free rendering of the saga 
by E. H., is said to have appeared in " Dansk Folkelsesning, " 1865. 

English.— The Saga of Frithiof the Bold. Translated from the 
original Icelandic. By G[eorge] S[tephens]. In his version of 
Tegner's Frithiof's Saga. Stockholm 1839. pp. 1-39. 

The story of Frithiof the Bold. (Transl. by William Morris). 
In Dark Blue. I. London 1871. pp. 42ff., i76ff, — Reprinted in 
Three Northern Love Stories. Transl. from the Icelandic by 
E. Magntisson and W. Morris. London 1875. pp. 65-114. — 
New ed. London 1901. pp. 69-121. — {Another ed. of the same 
year from the Kelmscott Press, see ls\2in6.iQ2L. I. p. 40). — Also 
repr. in Poet-Lore. IV. Boston 1900. 4". pp. 353-384. 

Viking Tales of the North. The Sagas of Thorstein, Viking's 
Son, and Fridthjof the Bold. Translated from the Icelandic 
by Rasmus B. Anderson and Jon Bjarnason. Chicago 1877. 
pp. 75-1 II. 


A translation of the Saga of Frithiof the Fearless. A paper read 

before the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool, 

March 19th, 1894. By Rev. John Sephton. [Liverpool 1894]. 

8^ pp. 29. 

Paraphrase in G. W. Cox and B. H. Jones's Tales of Teutonic Lands. 

London 1872. pp. 210-246, 
French. — La saga de Fridthjof le fort. Traduite de I'ancien 
islandais precddee d'une etude sur la saga de Fridthjof et 
accompagnee d'un commentaire et d'une notice sur les rimur 
par Felix Wagner. Dessin de Nestor Outer. Louvain 1904. 8°. 
PP- ^Z^.frontisp. 
Follows the text of the ed. of 1901. Reviews: Revue critique. N. S. 
LIX. 1905. pp. iio-iii, by B. Beauvois ; — Saga-Book of the Viking 
Club. IV. 1906. pp. 253-254, by W. G. Collingwood, 
German. — Die Saga von Fridthjof dem Starken. Aus dem 
Islandischen von Gottl. Christ. Friedr. Mohnike. Stralsund 
1830. 8°. pp. vi + 97 ; map. 
Text, pp. 1-42 ; Anmerkungen, pp. 43-97. — Chap. 1-6, 11-15, repr. in 
Die National-Literatur der Skandinavier. Hrsgg. von A. E. WoUheim 
da Fonseca. I. Berlin 1875. pp. 162-171. 
Die Sage von Frithjof dem Starken. Nach der alten Volkssage 
iibersetzt (von W. Calaminus). In Archiv f . das Studium der 
neueren Spr. u. Lit. XXXIV. 1863. pp. 1-28. 
Die Sage von Frithjof dem Starken. Nach der altnordischen 
Volkssage aus dem 13. Jahrhundert frei erzahlt von W. 
Calaminus. Ibidem. XLVII. 1882. pp. 369-416. 
Die Sage von FriQthjofr dem Verwegnen. Aus dem altislan- 
dischen Urtexte iibersetzt von Willibald Leo. Heilbronn 1879. 
sm. 8°. pp. xxii + 93. 
Reviews: Zeitschr. f. die osterr. Gymn. XXXL 1880. pp. 268-273, by 
R. Heinzel ; repr. in his Kleine Schriften. 1907. pp. 343-350 ; — Gott. 
gel. Anz. 1880. pp. 447-448, by B. Wilken.— There is a "Neue 
Ausgabe," Heilbronn 1883 (Germania. XIX. p. 505), doubtless a 
Fridthjofs Saga. Aus dem Alt-Islandischen von Jos. Cal. 
Poestion. Wien 1879. sm. 8". pp. xvii + 97 + (2). 
Review : Magaz. f. die I^it. des Ausl. 1879. no. 51. 
Die Frithjof sage aus dem Altnordischen iibersetzt. Programm 
der k. Studienanstalt Straubing fur das Studienjahr 1881-82 
von Anton Jacklein. Straubing 1882. 8^ pp. 43. 
Review : Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. V. 1884. coll. 51-52, by 
E. Mogk. 


In Kiichler's Nordische Heldensagen. 1892. pp. 77-127. 

Die Fridhthjofssaga iibersetzt von L. Freytag. In Central-Organ 
f. die Interessen des Realschulwesens. XII. 1884. pp. 601-622. 

Latin. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Norwegian. — Fridtjofs Saga. I Omskrift i det nyere Lands- 
maal ved Ivar Aasen. Udg. af Selskabet for Folkeoplysnings 
Fremme. 3. Tillsegshefte til " Folkevennen " VII. Aarg. 
Kristiania 1858. 8". pp. \/^.—Repr. in Aasen's Udvalgte 
Skrifter. Udg. af Vetle Vislie. Kristiania 1896. pp. 411-451. 

Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Sagan om Frithiof den fracke eller modige ; ur Bjorners Kampa- 
dater aftryckt med forandringar. Stockholm 1829. 8°. pp. 

(6) + 54. 
Edited and revised by Per Adam Wallmark. 
Frithiof den djerfves saga. Ofversattning fran Islandskan af 
Adolf Iwar Arwidsson. Stockholm 1839. 8". pp. 40. 
Also with the title : * ' Bihang till Frithiof s saga, episk dikt af Ksaias 
Tegn^r. Stockholm 1839." 8°. pp. vi + 89, with 6 pis., map, etc., which 
are the same as in the Stephens version of the poem of the same year ; 
the preface is by Stephens ; pp. 65-82 contain an essay by B. E. Hilde- 
brand on " Ingeborgs armring." 
Frithjof den djerfves saga. Ofversattning fran islandskan. Af 
Adolf Iwar Arwidsson. [Stockholm 1 841]. 8°. pp. 46, 13//^., 
I map^ 6 music pieces. 
This, according to Linnstrom's Svenskt boklexikon, is the 2. ed. 
Frithiofs saga. En berattelse ifran forntiden. Xmnet till biskop 
Tegners poetiska arbete. Samt Sanger ur Frithiofs saga af B. 
Tegner. Westerwik 1849. 12°. pp. 48. 
Historisk berattelse om Frithiof den tappre. Ofversatt fran 
islandskan [af O. Westin]. . . folja utdrag ur "Frithiofs 
saga " af Es. Tegner. Med plancher. [Kalmar 1856]. 8". 
Fridthjofs saga, fran islandskan ofversatt och belyst. Akademisk 
af handling af Frans Gudmund Nystrom. Uppsala 1867. 8®. 

PP- (4) + 55 + (2). 
Paraphrase in A. Ekermann's Fran Nord. Fornt. 1895. PP- 75-ioi> illustr. 

Bugge, Sophus. Bidrag til nordiske Navnes Historie. i. Mandsnavne paa 
-J)j6fr. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. VI. 1890. pp. 225-236. 

Calaminus, Wilhelm. Zur Kritik und Erklarung der altnordischen Frithjofs- 
sage. Inauguraldissertation. Jena 1887. 8°. pp. (4) + 77. 

Falk, Hjalmar S. Om Fri3j)j6fs saga. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. VI. 1890. 
pp. 60-102. 



Kolbing, E. Ueber die verschiedenen bearbeitungen der Fri5pj6fssage. 
In his Beitrage zur vergleich. gesch. der romant. poesie und prosa des 
niittelalters. Breslau 1876. pp. 207-217. 

Palmqvist, L. G. Genealogia Frithiofiana. Londini Gothorum 183 1. 4". 
pp. (6) -h 24. (Inaug.-diss. in 3 pts. No more publ. ). 

Sperber, Hans. Anmerkungen zu einigen islandischen Rimur. Fri9j)j6fs- 
rimur. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXV. 1910. pp. 261-268. 

FroSa t^^ttr. See Hrolfs saga kraka. 

Fundinn Noregr. See Fornjoti ok settmonnum bans, Frd. 

Gauta l)dttr. See Gautreks saga. 

Gautreks saga, or Gjafa-Refs saga. 

Two recensions : the longer and younger (AM. 590, 4"; 152 fol., 15th 
cent.; Cod. Holm, chart. 11, 8°); the shorter and older (AM. 194C fol.; 
363, 4" ; 567, XIV7, 4" ; 164H fol.; Cod. Holm, chart, i fol.). Is found 
in the MSS. with Hr61fs saga Gautrekssonar (q.v.) The shorter re- 
cension has the titles of " Sogupdttr af Gjafa-Ref og Dala-Fiflum " and 
' ' Gauta f>dttr. ' ' In the longer recension has been embodied the 
Vikars saga. The original saga dates from the 13th cent. 

Gothrici & Rolfi Westrogothiae regum historia lingua antiqua 

Gothica conscripta ; quam e M. s. vetustissimo edidit, & 

versione notisq2/<? illustravit Olavs Verelivs Antiq. Patr. Prof. 

Accedunt V. CI. Joannis Schefferi Argentoratensis notae 

politicae. Upsalise, Excud. Henricus Curio, 1664. 8". pp. (8) + 

240 + 128 -f (44) + 48. 

Contents: dedicatory letter to King Charles XI. from Verelius, pp. 

(2)-(6); Latin poem to Verelius by Joh. Loccenius, pp. (7)-(8); text 

with Swedish version (chap, i-xlvii), pp. 1-240 (Gautreks saga, chap. 

i-xi, pp. 1-66); Verelii notae, pp. 1-105 ; Schefferi notee, pp. 105-228 + 

(i); index of rare words, pp. (2)- (33); errata, p. (34); Monumenta 

lapidum aliquot runicorum (by Joh. Buraeus, with prefatory note by H. 

Curio), pp. (35)-(42); Drottkvsedt (a poem by J6n Rugmann), pp. 

(43)-(44); wdcts. of Runic stones, pp. 1-48. This is the first printed 

ed. of Icelandic sagas in the original. (Warmholtz, no. 2566). 

In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 1-53. — III. 1889. pp. 1-38. 

AM. 590B, C. fol.; the edition of 1889 has variants from the Vigrarb6k, 
a 17th cent. MS. close to AM. 152 fol. 

Die Gautrekssaga in zwei Fassungen herausgegeben von Wilhelm 
Ranisch. Berlin 1900. (Palaestra. XI.) 8°. pp. (8) + cxii + 
Critical ed. of the longer saga (AM. 590B-C, 4"), pp. 1-49, and of the 
shorter saga (AM. 194C, fol.; AM. 164H, fol.; Cod. Holm, chart, i fol.), 
PP- 50-73- Reviews : Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XVIII. 1902. pp. 286-289, 
by H. Bertelsen ; — Museum. VIII. pp. 330-333, by R. C. Roer ; — Revue 
critique. N. S. LH. 1901. pp. 269-270, by L. Pineau ;— Lit. Cbl. 1,11. 


J901. coll. 1346-47, by — tz— ;— Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXVIII. 1903. pp. 
214-216, by F. Better ;— Deut. Lit. zeit. XXXIII. 1902. coll. 1827-28, 
by G. Neckel ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XXIII. 1902. 
coll. 214-216, by E. Mogk ; — Bulletin d. mus. beige. VI. no. 6. 

For the verses see Kdd. min. pp. 38-43, 96, 121-122 ; Bjorner's Nord. 
Kampadat. 1737. IV. p. 44 (fragm. of Vikarsbdlkr); Olrik's ed. of the 
Vikarsbdlkr, see below ; Corp. poet. bor. II. pp. 547-548 ; Engl, version 
of a portion of it by W. Herbert in his "Select Icelandic poetry." 
II. 1806. pp. 67-74, and in his "Works." I. 1842. pp. 304-305; 
(repr. in Longfellow's The poets and poetry of Europe. 1882 and 
1893. p. 58). 

GERMAN. — In Ettmiiller's Altnord. Sagenschatz. 1870. pp. 383- 

Swedish. — In the editio7i of 1664. 

Gotha Konungarne Gotriks och Rolofs Historia. Ofversatt fran 
aldsta Gothiska spraket af J. E. R. Stockholm 1806. 8°. pp. 

(4) + 34- 
A paraphrase of the two sagas in 16 chapters, omitting both the Vikars- 
saga and the Gjafarefssaga. 

A paraphrase of the Vikarssaga in Hedda Anderson's Nordiska sagor 
berattade for barn. i. Saml. Stockholm 1896. pp. .66-81 (Sagan om 
Starkad den gamle). 

Miillenhoff, K. Deutsche altertumskunde. V. band. i. abteil. Berlin 1883. 

pp. 300-356. (Excurs liber die Starka9sdichtung ) . 
Olrik, Axel. Danmarks heltedigtning. II. del. 1910. pp. 178-219 (Starkad 

i Norge), 317-322 (Vikarsbalken, tekst). 
Powell, F. Y. The cliff of the dead among Teutons. In The Academy. 

XXXIV. 1888. p. 257. (Cf. also pp. 274-75, 291, 306, 322, 355, 372 ; 

XXXV. pp. 43, 59-60, 168). 

Tomer, Fabian. Exercitium academicum de rupe gentilitia. (Respond. 

Georg Wallman). Upsalise 1716. 8". pp. (6) -f- 35 + (3). 
Gjafa-Refs saga, or Gjafa-Refs t)attr og Dala-fifla. See Gautreks 

G6ngu-Hr61fs saga. 

MSS.: AM. 152 fol.; 589F, 4« ; Gl. kgl. Sml. 2845, 4^— all of the 15th 
cent. Written probably c. 1300. 
In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 235-364. — III. 1889. pp. 143- 

Extracts in Antiquit^s Russes. I. 1850. fol. pp. 230-233. 

Swedish. — Rolf Sturlogssons eller Gange Rolfs Saga ; efter 

Islandska Handskrifter utgifven med upplysande Anmarkn- 

ingar af Joh. G. lyiljegren. Stockholm 1818, (Skandinaviska 


Fornalderns Hjeltesagor. I. delen). 8". pp. (8) + Iviii + 338, 

The introduction is followed by ' ' Forteckning ofver de islandska hand- 
skrifter, hvilka pa Kongl. Bibliotheket i Stockholm forvaras," pp. 
xxxiv-lviii. Review: Svensk Litteraturtid. 1819. No. 14, by R. Rask, 
repr. in his " Samlede Afhandlinger. " III. 1838. pp. 94-117; Liljegren 
replied in the following number of the periodical. 

Grims saga lobinkinna. 

A continuation of the Ketils saga haengs (q.v.) and is found in the 
same MSS. ; written about 1300. 

Ketilli Hsengi et Grimonis Hirsutigenae patris et filii historia 
seu res gestae ex antiqva lingva Norvagica in Latinum translatse 
per Islefum Thorlevium Islandum. Opera et studio Olavi 
Rudbeckii . . . Upsalae, M. D. XCVII. fol. pp. 12-17. 

(AM. 343, 4°). /;? Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 141-157. — II. 1886. 
pp. 161-173. 

Extracts in Antiquit^s Russes. I. 1850, fol. pp. 89-93. — ^^"^ the verses, see 
Edd. min. pp. 85-86 ; Corp. poet, boreale. II. p. 559. 

Danish. — /« Rafn'sNord. KaempeHist. II. 1826. pp. 39-56. — 
Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 131-142. 

lyATiN. — In the edition of 1697. 

Swedish. — In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. X. pp. 

Grims saga ok Hjdlmars. 

A lost saga the subject of which is known from the rimur composed in 
the 15th cent. 

Rimur af Karl og Grym Suia kongum, og af Hialmar Hareks 
suni [!] a Biarmalandi. In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
II. pp. 18. 
With Swedish and Latin prose versions. — Translation of the 2d rfma 
into English verse by W. Herbert, in his "Select Icelandic poetry." 
II. 1806. pp. 75-89, and in his "Works." Vol. I. London 1842. 
pp. 308-311 ; repr. in Longfellow's "The poets and poetry of 
Europe." Boston 1882 and 1893, p. 58. Prose version in Mallet's 
Introduction a I'historie de Dannemare. 1755. 4°. pp. 161-178 ; 2. ed. 
1763. II. pp. 281-305 ; Mallet-Percy's Northern Antiquities. 1770. II. 
pp. 245-268 ; 2. ed. 1809. II. pp. 186-202. — Cf. Sv. Grundtvig's Dan- 
marks gl. Folkeviser. I. pp. 352-358 ; IV. pp. 762-763. 

H^fdanar saga Bronufdstra. 

MSS.: AM. 152 fol.; 571, 4"; 589E, 4" (15th cent.). Probably written 
about 1300, but in its present form is extended by later hands. 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. VII. pp. 30. 


In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 559-591. — III. 1889. pp. 433- 

lyATiN. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Hdlfdanar saga Eysteinssonar. 

MSS.: AM. 34.^, 40 (istli cent); 586, 40 (fragment, c. 1400). Written in 
the 14th cent. ; some MSS. omit the last chapter, the Vals J)dttr. 
In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. I^- PP- 59- 
In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 519-558. — III. 1889. pp. 399- 

lyATiN. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

J6nsson, Rev. Jon. Raknasl65i = Ragnarssl69i. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. 
XVII. 1901. pp. 53-66. 

Hdlfs saga ok H^lfsrekka. 

MSS.: Gml. kgl. Saml. 2845, 4" (15th cent); AM. 202B, fol. (17th 
cent, paper MS. ) etc. — Probably written in the second half of the 13th 
cent. The first 4 chapters form the Vikars pdttr. 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. V. pp. 42. 
In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 23-60. 

Chap. 16. (Hr6kr hinn svarti), in H. Liiiiing's Altnordische Texte. 

Ziirich 1859. 4°, pp. 21-22 ; also in L. Ettmiiller's Altnord. Lesebuch. 

Ziirich 1861. 4°. pp. 61-62. — Extract in Antiquitds Russes. I. 1850. p. 86. 

In Bugge's Norr. Skrifter. 1863. pp. 1-44. — Text repr. in 

Fornaldars. II. 1886. pp. 21-46. 
Halfs saga ok Halfsrekka herausgegeben von A. LeRoy Andrews. 
Halle a. S. 1909. (Altnordische Sagabibliothek. Heft 14.) 8". 
pp. viii + 141. 
Annotated ed. of Bugge's text. Review : Modern Lang. Notes. XXVI. 
191 1, pp 58-60, by Lee M. Hollander. 

Danish. — In Rafn's Nord, Ksempe-Hist. III. 1826. pp. 23- 

70. — Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 21-58. 
Paraphrases : in Sagaer fortalte af Br. Snorrason og Kr. Arentzen. IV. 1850. 

pp. 1-32 ; in Fortaelling af Rolv Krake og hans kjaemper, gjenfortalt 

for ungdommen af Alex. Bugge. 191 1. pp. 1 15-137. 
IvATiN. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. IV. pp. 63. 
The poems of the saga : Edd. min. 1903. pp. 33-37, 71-73. 89-92, 93, 94;— 

Corp. poet, boreale. II. pp. 553-555. — Engl, version of the lay of Hr6kr, 


by W. Herbert, in his "Select Icelandic poetry". Lond. 1804. pp. 
98-108; repr. in his "Works." I. 1842. pp. 272-278, and in H. W. 
Longfellow's "The poets and poetry of Europe." Boston 1882 and 1893. 
p. 57. 

Andrews, A. LeRoy. Hdlfs saga ok Hdlfsrekka. Teildruck : Einleitung. 

Inaugural-Dissertation (Kiel). Halle a. S. 1908. 8^ pp. (4) + 68-f (2). 

The introduction to the ed, of 1909. — Cf. Modern Lang. Notes. XXVI. 

191 1, pp. 46-47; XXVII. 1912. pp. 71-73. 
Bugge, Sophus. Nogle Bemaerkninger om den paa Island optegnede Saga 

om Kong Halv og hans Kj semper. In Forhandl. i Vidensk.-Selsk. 

i Christiania 1862. pp. 40-41. 

Norsk Sagaskrivning og Sagafortaelling i Irland. Kristiania 1908. 

pp. 199-206. 

Fritzner, Johan. Kvetttonnum. /« Arkiv f . nord. Filol. II. 1885. pp. i6i- 

163 ; 283-286. 
Gislason, Konrd9. Kuett, et Forklaringsforsog. In Aarboger f . nord. Oldk. 

og Hist. 1866. pp. 377-382 ; 1867. pp. 170-171. 

Kvett. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. II. 1885. pp. 275-283. 

Magnlisson, Eirikur. Kvett. Ibid. XI. 1895. pp. 93-95. 

Haralds saga Hringsbana. 

The contents of this saga are only known from the rimur of the 15th 
cent. The saga now found in MSS. is probably based on the rimur. 
Cf. Kolbing, B.: Beitrage. 1876. pp. 227-228. 

He9ins saga ok Hogna. See Sorla l)attr. 

Hei9reks saga vitra. See Hervarar saga. 

Helga t)dttr ok Hroars. See Hrolfs saga kraka. 

Helga Jjdttr P>6rissonar. 

In the Flateyjarb6k. (I. i860, pp. 359-362). 
In Saga Olafs Tryggvasonar. Skalholt 1689. II. 4®. pp. 146- 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. XIV. pp. 28-34. 
In Fornmanna sogur. III. 1828. pp. 135-141. 
Danish. — Rafn's version in Oldnordiske Sagaer. III. 1827. pp. 

In Sagaer fortalte af Brynjolf Snorrason og Kristian Arentzen. 

IV. Kjobenhavn 1850. pp. 189-197. 
I^ATiN. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Svb. Egilsson's version i7i Scripta historica Islandorum, III. pp. 

Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampedat. 1737. 
In [Backman's] Nord. Kampadat. 1858. pp. 59-62. 
Herburts l)dttr. See Piareks saga. 


Herraubs saga ok Bosa. See Bosa saga. 
Hervarar saga ok Hei9reks konungs. 

Two recensions: Hauksb6k, AM. 544, 4° (incomplete); — Gml. kgl. 

Saml. 2845, 4° (Cod. reg. ; 15th cent., incomplete; the rest supplied in 

paper-MSS. ). Written in the 13th cent, (earlier half). 

Hervarar saga pa Gamtnal Gotska med Olai Verelii uttolkning 

ock notis. Upsalse. Kxcudit Henricus Curio, 1672. fol. pp. 

(8) + 194 4- (6). 

Contents: dedicatory letter to King Charles XI. and others, pp. (3)- 

(8); text, the longer recension with Swedish translation and Latin 

notes, pp. 1-194 ; Ordstafa-rad, eller ABC-rad pa the merkeligaste 

ord^n, pp. (i)-(6). The map of Malaren mentioned by Warmholtz 

(no. 2555) and Mobius is not in the Fiske Library copy. — This ed. 

gave rise to a controversy between Verelius and Joh. Schefferus, whose 

work " Upsalia " (1666) Verelius had criticized in the notes. Schefferus 

replied in the notes to his ed. of ' ' Chronicon de Archiepiscopis, etc. 

Ecclesiae Uppsalensis ", 1673, which called forth: "Olai Verelii Auc- 

tarium notarum in Hervarar saga Olao Rudbeckio inscriptum. Anno 

1674." fol. pp. 35. Schefferus's rejoinder came in 1677 (De situ et 

vocabulo Upsaliae), the same year in which according to Warmholtz (n©. 

348) the " Auctarium " was printed. Verelius's reply to Schefferus was 

ready in 1677, but was not printed until 1681 (Notae in epistolam 

defensoriam Schefferi de situ et vocabulo Upsaliae), two years after 

Schefferus's death. About the controversy, see Warmholtz, nos. 348- 

352 ; K. Stromberg : Gamla Uppsala. 1866. pp. 343-355. 

Hervarar saga ok Heidreks kongs. Hoc est historia Hervorae et 

regis Heidreki, quam ex manuscriptis Legati Arna-Magnaeani 

versione Latina, lectionibus variantibus, indicibus vocabulorum 

rariorum, nominum propriorum et rerum illustravit Stephanus 

Biornonis, Isl. Additus est brevis commentarius de .situ geo- 

graphico regionum, marium, insularum et moutium, in hac 

historia occurrentium ex mente Pet. Frid. Suhm ex ejus 

operibus transcriptus et latine redditus. Hafnise, (sumtibus 

P. F. de Suhm), 1785. fol. pp. viii -f 275 + (i). 

Contents : preface, pp. v-viii ; text (the longer) with Latin version, pp. 

1-229; Index vocabul., pp. 230-248; Index nom. propr., pp. 249-252 ; 

Suhm, De situ geograph. etc., pp. 253-261 ; Index rer. gest., pp. 262- 

275; errata, p. (i). Reviews: Gott. gel. Anz. 1787. pp. 553-556;— 

Lserde Bfterretn. 1785. no. 25, by B. C. Sandvig. 

In Fornaldars. I. 1829. (Cod. reg. recension from AM. 345, 

4") pp. 409-512 ; (AM. 544, 4") pp. 513-533- 
Hervarar saga ok HeiQreks konungs, besorget af N. M. Petersen, 
oversat af G. Thorarensen, udgivet af det nordiske Literatur- 


Samfund. Kjobenhavn 1847. (Nordiske Oldskrifter. III.) 8". 
pp. (6) -f 66 + 60. 
The Hauksb6k recension with additions from Cod. reg. 
In Antiquites Russes. I. 1850. fol. (AM. 544, 4") pp. 1 15-137; 
(Cod. reg.) pp. 137-21 1. 
With a Latin version. 
In Bugge's Norr. Skrifter. 1873. (AM. 544, 4°) pp. 201-298, 

350-368; (Cod. reg.) pp. 299-349, 368-370. 

Extracts : in Th. Mobius's Analecta norrsena. 2. Ausg. 1877. pp. 33-42 

(Um Tyrfing. Hervararkvida ) ; in L. F. A. Wimmer's Oldnordisk 

Ivsesebog. 1870. pp. 26-33 (Svaerdet Tyrving ogholmgangen p&Samso) 

and the subsequent editions. 

Hervarar saga ok HeiQreks. Valdimar Asmundarson hefir bui9 

undir prentun. Texta-utgafa. Reykjavik 1885. (Fornaldar- 

sogur NorSrlanda. I. 4). 8°. pp. 56. — New ed. I. 1891. pp. 

PP- 307-360. 
Reprint of the Cod. reg. text of Bugge's ed. 
Saga Hei9reks konungs ens vitra. In Hauksb6k udg. efter de 
Arnamagngeanske handskrifter No. 371, 544, og 675, 4", samt 
forskellige papir-handskrifter [ved Finnur Jonsson og Eirikur 
j6nsson]. Kobenhavn 1892-96. pp. xciii-xcvii, 350-369. 
Skazanie o mechie Tiurfmg (Hervarar saga ok HeiSreks). I. 
Staro-islandskii tekst s vvedeniem. III. Istorico-literaturnoe 
izsliedovanie. I. Scharovolskazo. Kiev 1906. 2 vols. 8°. pp. 4 + 
(4) + Ixxviii + (2) + %\,facsim.\ pp. vi + 250. 
Vol. ii. of this ed. by I. Scharovolskii has not appeared. Contents : 
introduction, pp. i-lxxviii ; text : Hauksb6k, pp. 1-29, Cod. reg. pp. 
30-60; corrupted recension, pp. 61-79; index ; errata; vol. in.: historical- 
literary investigations (i-viii ) , pp. 1-247; corrections, pp. 249-251. 
Danish. — Hervors og Kong Hejdreks Saga, efter den islandske 
Grundskrift fordansket med oplysende Anmserkninger ved 
Carl Christian Rafn. Kjobenhavn 1826. (Nordiske Ksempe- 
Historier. III. 3). 8". pp. (6) + 125. 
Follows the text of the edition of 1785. 
(AM. 345, 4**). In Rafn's Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 377- 

Gisli Thorarensen's version in the edition of 1847. 
In Horn's Nord. Heltesag. 1876. pp. 117-184. 
Paraphrases : Oehlenschlager's Nord. Oldsagn. 1840. pp. 140-165 ; 1853. 
pp. 102-122. — Sagaer fortalte af Br. Snorrason og Kr. Arentzen. II. 
1849. I'P- 1-64- — H. H. Ivcfolii's Fortsellinger og Sagaer fortalte for 
Born. I. Saml. 3. Udg. 1869. pp. 199-214. 



An adaptation of the saga by N. F. S Grundtvig in his " Idunna, en 
Ny taarsgave for 1 8 1 1 . " Kiobenhavn , 
French.—^ version in Magazine Encyclop6dique. 1786. (</. M. Stephen- 
sen's Island i det i8de Aarh. p. 207. ) 
Bxtrait d'un roman islandais intitule Hervora. In J. P. G. Catteau- 
Calleville's Voyage en Allemagne et en Su^de. II. Paris 1810. pp. 316- 
German. — Tyrfing oder das Zwergengeschmeide. Kin nordischer 
Kampferroman. \_A paraphrase by F, D. Grater] . In Bragur. 
I. 1791. pp. 161-192 ; II. 1792. pp. 103-131. 
Covers only the saga down to the death of Hjdlmar. 
Das Zauberschwert Tyrfing. Eine Episode aus der altnordischen 
Hervarar saga des vierzehnten Jahrhunderts frei iibersetzt von 
W. Calaminus. In Archiv f. das Studium der neueren Spr. 
u. Litt. LXVIII. 1882. pp. 241-254. 
This is a revision of the translation which appeared in the same 
periodical. XXXIV. 1863. pp. 47-60. 

Die Hervarar-Saga. Von L. Freytag. In Archiv f. das Studium 

der neueren Spr. und I^itt. LXIX. 1883. pp. 1-36, 129-162. 
Das Tyrfingschwert. Eine altnordische Waffensage. Deutsch 
von Jos. Cal. Poestion. Hagen i. W. und Leipzig 1883. 8^ pp. 
(2) + xxvii 4- (2) + 145. 
Follows Bugge's longer text primarily. Appended are two essays " tjber 
das 'Nid' ", and "tJber die Vikinger." Reviews : Lit. Cbl. XXXIV. 
1883. coll. 1421-22, by E. Mogk ; — Magazin f. die Lit. des In- u, Aus- 
landes. LII. Jahrg. 1883. p. 668, by Robert Schneider. 
lyATiN. — In the editions of 1672 and 1785, and in Antiq. Russes. 

Swedish. — In the edition of 1672. 

Herwara-Saga. Ofwersattning fran gamla Islandskan. Stock- 
holm 181 1. 8°. pp. 120. 
Transl. by A. A. Afzelius. With a preface and notes (pp. 85-120). 
Follows the text of 1672. 
In Fran vikingatiden. Ny foljd fornnordiska sagor i svensk 
bearbetning af A. U. Baath. Med originalillustrationer af 
Jenny Nystrom-Stoopendahl. Stockholm 1888. pp. 111-187, 
Paraphrase in Bkermann's Fran Nord. Fomt. 1895. pp. 34-74, illustr. 
For the poems of the saga, see Corp. poet, boreale. I. 1883. pp. 86-92, 163- 
168, 348-352 ; Edd. min. 1903. pp. 1-20, 64, 88-89, 106-120 ; Bttmiiller's 
Altnord. Lesebuch. 1861. 4". pp. 31-33, 35-40 ; [Th. Wis^n's] Urval <m 


norraenum fornkvaedum. 1870, pp. 1-14. — Hervararkvi9a. Danish 
version: [B. C. Sandvig's] Danske Sange. 1779. pp. 61-71. English 
versions and imitations : Hickes's Lingv. Vett. Septentr. Thesaurus. I. 
1705. fol. pp. 193-195 (Icel. and Engl.); Dryden's Miscellany Poems. 
1716. VI. p. a^yff.; [Th. Percy's] Five pieces of Runic poetry, 1763. 
pp. 1-20 ; in Wm. Bagshaw Stevens's Poems. Oxford 1775 ; T. J. 
Mathias's Runic odes from the Norse tongue, 1781 ; new ed. 1790. pp. 
19-27 (repr. in his "Odes English and Latin", 1798. pp. 19-31); W. 
Williams's "The Hervarar saga, a Gothic Ode " , in The Gentleman's 
Magazine. LX. 2. 1790. p. 344; in Rev. Richard Polwhele's " Poemes 
chiefly by Gentlemen of Devonshire and Cornwall." I. Bath 1792 (the 
poem is signed K.); in Anna Seward's " Uangollen Vale with other 
poems." I/ondon 1796 (also in the Edinburgh ed. of her works. III. p. 
3ioff.); in M. G. I^ewis's "Tales of wonder ", London 1801. pp. 35-47; 
in B. H. Barmby's "Gisli Sdrsson ", Westminster 1900. pp. 176-181 ; — 
German version: in [Herder's] Volkslieder. I. 1778. pp. 156-165 
(repr. in Wollheim da Fonseca's Die National-Literatur der Skan- 
dinavier. I. 1875. pp. 338-345).— English version of the death-song of 
Hjalmar, by Wm. Herbert, in his "Select Icelandic poetry." I. 1804. 
pp. 71-97 (repr. in his Works. I. 1842. pp. 260-272 ; also in Longfel- 
low's "Poets and poetry of Europe", 1882 and 1893, p. 56). — The 
Heidreks gdtur were transl. into Danish by B. C. Sandvig, in his "Forsog 
til en Oversaettelse af Ssemunds Edda." II, 1785. pp. 102-127; into 
German W. C. Grimm translated a few of them, in the Berliner Abend- 
blatter. No. 19. 1811. pp. 75-76 (repr. in his Kleinere Schriften. I. 
1881. pp. 171-172); also a German version by J. C. Poestion in Magazin 
f. d. Iviteratur des In u. Ausl. LI. 1882. 4^ pp. 314-318, 326-329 (Eine 
altnordische Rathseldichtung. — Repr. in his "Aus Hellas, Rom und 
Thule." Leipzig 1882. pp. 149-182). 

Boer, R. C. Om Hervarar saga. In Aarb. f. nord. Oldk. og Hist. 191 1. 

pp. 1-80. 
Gervais, Eduard. Die Tyrfingschwertsage. In Literar. Merkur. 1883-84. 

Nr. 2. 
Heinzel, Richard. Ueber die Hervararsaga. In Sitzungsber. d. kaiserl. 

Akad. der Wiss. zu Wien. Philol.-hist. CI. CXIV. Bd. 1887. pp. 417- 

519. — Also sep. repr. Wien 1887. 8°. pp. 105. 

Review : Archiv f . slav. Philol. XI. pp. 305-308, by V. Jagid. 
Heusler, Andreas. Die altnordischen Ratsel. In Zeitschr. d. Ver. f . Volksk. 

XI. 1901. pp. 1 17-149. 
j6nsson, Finnur. Um pulur og gdtur. In Germanistische Abhandlungen 

zum LXX. Geburtstag K. v. Maurers. Gottingen 1893. pp. 489-520. 
j6nsson. Rev. J6n. Um Sviakonungatal i Hervarar-sogu. In Arkiv f. nord. 

Filol. XVIII. 1902. pp. 172-179. 
Leffler, L. Fr. Till forsta gatan i " Getspeki HeiQreks konungs." In Arkiv 

f. nord. Filol. XXVIII. 191 1. pp. 121-127. 
Neckel, Gustav. Zu den HeiQreksgdtur. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. L. 

1908. p. 288. 


Miillenlioff, Karl. Nordische, englische und deutsche ratsel. In Zeitschr, 

f. deut. Mythol. III. 1855. pp. 1-20. 
Much, Rudolf. KffKi^oi/pyiov 6po$. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. XXXIII. 

1889. pp. 1-13. 
Scharovolskii, I. Drevne-skandinavskoe skazanie o bitvie Gotov s Gun- 

nami i ego istoricheskaia osnova. Kiev 1904. 8°. pp. (2) 4-37. 
Schiick, Henrik. Smarre bidrag till nordisk litteraturhistoria. i. Den 

svenska kronikan i Hervararsagan. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XII. 1896. 

pp. 217-222. 
Sveriges forkristna konungalangd. Upsala 1910. 8°. pp. 37. ( Univ. 

Schiitte, Gudmund. Anganty-Kvadets Geografi. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. 

XXI. 1905. pp. 30-44. 
W[allnia]n, [J. H.] Om striden pa Samso ; ett historiskt och geografiskt 

bidrag till Nordens fornkunskap, i anledning af Herwara Sagan. In 

Iduna. IX. haftet. Stockholm 1822. pp. 38-118, i tbl. 
WeibuU, Lauritz. Konungakronikan i Hervararsagan. In his Under- 

sokningar i Nordens historia omkr, ar 1000. Kobenhavn 191 1. pp. 171- 


Hj^mters saga ok Olvis. 

MSS. : Cod. Holm, chart. 30, 4 ; 63 fol. This is a recension of an earlier 
saga (probably from c. 1300) which is now lost, and is based on the 
rimur (of the 15th cent. ). 
Hialmters och Olvers saga, handlande om trenne Konungar i 
Mannahem eller Swerige, Inge, Hialmter, och Inge, samt Olver 
Jarl, och om theras vthresor til Grekeland och Arabien ; wid 
pasz i the forsta hundrade ahren efter Christi fodelse. Af Gamla 
Nordiska Spraket pa Swensko vthtolkad af Johan Fredrich 
Peringskiold. Tryckt i Stockholm, hos Joh. Laur. Horrn^ 
1720. 4°. pp. (12) + 79. 
Contents: preface, pp. (3)-(i2); text with Swedish version, pp. 1-79. 
(Warmholtz, no. 2551), iP^z/^Vo/ .• Acta literaria Sveciae. I. 1721. pp. 
163-164 ; repr. in Oelrich's Daniae et Sveciae litteratse opuscula. I. 1774. 
pp. 263-265. 
In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 453-518. 
In Fornaldars. III. 1889. pp. 345-308. 

Text from Vigrarb6k, a paper MS. in the Icel. Lit. Soc. MSS. Coll. B 
16 fol. (Nat. Ivibr., Reykjavik) from c. 1680. 
Swedish. — In the edition of 1720. 

Nordisk mythologi. Gullveig eller Hjalmters och Olvers saga i 
of versattning f ran islandskan med f orklaring af Fredrik Sander. 
Med nagra Eddaillustrationer af svenska konstnarar. Stock- 
holm 1887. 8°. pp. (4) + 250 + (2), illustr. 
Hjdlmters och Olvers saga, pp. 1-44 ; Forklaring af sagan, pp. 169-207. 


Gould, Chester Nathan, The source of an interpolation in the Hjdlmt^rs 
saga ok Olvis. In Modern Philology. VII. 1909. pp. 207-216. 

Kolbing, E. Die Hjdlmters-rimurok Olvers in ihrem verhaltniss zur saga 
gleichen namens. In his Beitrage zur vergleich. gesch. der roman- 
tischen poesie u. prosa des mittelalters. 1876. pp. 200-207. 

Hjalta iDdttr. See Hrolfs saga kraka. 

Hr6ars l^^ttr ok Helga. See Hrolfs saga kraka. 

Hrdlfs saga Gautrekssonar. 

MSS.: Cod. Holm. perg. 7, 4" (c. 1350); fragments AM. 567, XIV. {14th 
cent.), etc. Written in the 14th cent. Cf. Gautreks saga. 

Gothrici & Rolfi Westrogothiae regum historia . . . illustravit 
Olavs Verelivs . . . Upsalise 1664. pp. 66-240. 
For description, see Gautreks saga. 

(AM. 590B-C, 4°). In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 55-190.— III. 
1889. pp. 39-141- 

Zwei Fornaldarsogur (Hrolfssaga Gautrekssonar und Asmundar- 
saga kappabana) nach Cod. Holm. 7, 4'*" herausgegeben von 
Ferdinand Better. Halle a. S. 1891. 8°. pp. Ivi + 106 -f (2). 
The Hr61fs saga fills pp. i-'j^.— Reviews : Anz. f. deut. Altert. XVIII. 
1892. pp. 242-244, by B. Kahle ;— Gott. gel. Anz. 1892. pp. 709-723, by 
G. Cederschiold ;— Lit. Cbl. XLHI. 1892. col. 292, by E. Mogk ;— 
Iviteraturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Phil. XIV. 1893. coll. 159-160, by W. 
Golther ;— Deut. Lit. zeit. XIV. 1893. coll. 457-459, by W. Ranisch. 

German. — In Httmiiller's Altnord. Sagenschatz. 1870. pp. 416- 

Danish. — Paraphrase in H. H. Lefolii's Fortaellinger og Sagaer fortalte for 

Born I. Saml. 3. Udg. 1869. pp. 215-231. 
Swedish. — Verelius's version in the edition of 1664. 
J. E. ^.' s paraphrase of 1806 {see Gautreks saga). 

Bugge, Sophus. Bemaerkninger til norrone Digter. I. Hyndlulj63. In 
Arkiv f. nord. Filol. I. 1883. pp. 249-265. 

Hollander, Lee M. The Gautland cycle of sagas. I. The source of the 
Polyphemos episode of the Hr61fssaga Gautrekssonar. In The Journal 
of Engl, and Germ. Philol. XI. 1912. pp. 61-81. ( To be continued.) 

Torner, Fabian. Exercitium academicum de rege Rolfone, quod praeside 
F. T. publ. exam, modeste submittit Martinus A. Lidgren. Upsalise 
1718. 8». pp. (6) +41. 

Hr61fs saga kraka ok kappa hans. 

MSS.: AM. 9 fol. (17th cent.) and other paper-MSS. The saga consists 
of several paettir (Fr6aa pdttr ;— Helga pdttr ok Hr6ars ;— Svipdags 
pdttr ;— BoQvars pdttr bjarka ;— Hjalta pdttr ;—Af A9ils Uppsalakon- 
ungi; — I>dttr af Skuldarbardaga) and was penned about 1400 or later. 
Therimur of Bjarki (Bjarkarimur) date also from c. 1400.— Cf. also the 
account of King Hr61fr in the Snorra Edda. 


In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. III. pp. 8 + 139. 
In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 1-109. 

Hrolfs saga kraka ok kappa hans. Valdimar Asmundarson hefir 
bui5 undir prentun. Texta-utgafa. Reykjavik 1884. (Forn- 
aldarsogur NorQrlanda. I. i). 8°. pp. 92. — New ed.inVomdX'^' 
ars. I. 1 89 1, pp. 1-84. 
Hrolfs saga kraka og Bjarkarimur udgivne for Samfund til 
udgivelse af gammel nordisk litteratur ved Finnur Jonsson. 
Kobenhavn 1904. 8°. pp. (2) -f xxx 4-175. 
Critical edition based on AM. 9 fol. ; the rimur based upon AM. 147A, 
30. Review: Lit. Cbl. lyVI. 1905. coll. 1067-68, by A. Gebhardt. 
Danish. — Konning Hrolf Krakes Saga, efter islandske Haand- 
skrifter fordansket, med Anmaerkninger og militser-antikvariske 
Afhandlinger ved Carl Christian Rafn. Kjobenhavn 1821. 
(Nord. Ksempe-Hist. I. A.) 8®. pp. x + 192. — Version repr, 
in Rafn's Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 1-102. 
In Horn's Nord. Heltesag. 1876. pp. 223-305. 
Fortsellingen om Rolv Krake og hans kj semper. Norrone helte- 
sagn og eventyr gjenfortalte for ungdommen af Alexander 
Bugge. Kristiania og Kjobenhavn 191 1. 8". pp. (4) + 187. 
The paraphrase of Hr61fs saga fills pp. 1-60. 
Other paraphrases : Oehlenschlager's Nord. Oldsagn. 1840. pp. 10-43 J 
1853. pp. 7-26. — Sagaer fortalte af B. Snorrason og Kr. Arentzen. III. 
1850. pp. i-ioo. 
German. — /« Ettmiiller's Altnord. Sagenschatz. 1870. pp. 317- 

Die Geschichte von Hrolf Kraki. Aus dem Islandischen iiber- 
setzt, erlautert und mit sagengeschichtlichen Parallelen versehen 
von Paul Hermann. Torgau 1905. 8". pp. 135. 
Reviews : Lit. Cbl. LVI. 1905. coll. 1359-60, by -tz-; — Revue critique. 
N. S. LX. 1905. p. 491, by L. Pineau ;— Deut. Lit. zeit. XXVI. 1905. 
coll. 2934-36, by W. Paetzel. 
Latin. — In Bjorner's Kampadat. 1737. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Kampadat. 1737. 

Paraphrase in A. Kkermann's Fran Nord. Fornt. 1895. pp. 102-153, illustr. 
The fragments of Bjarkamdl hin fornu are printed with the editions of the 
Hr61fs saga of 1829 and 1884 (1891), and with the translations of 1821, 
1829 and 1904. These fragments are to be found in the Heimskringla, 
Olafs saga helga, and Snorra Edda. They were first printed with Latin 
translation in Stephanius's Notse uberiores in Histor. Saxonis. 1644. 
fol. p. 82 ; in Th. Bartholin's Antiquit. Danic. de causis contemptae 



mortis. 1689. 4°. pp. 178-182 ; the text is printed in [Th. Wis^n's] 
Urval af norraenum fornkvaeQum. 1870. p. 38, and his Carmina norraena. 

1. 1886, p. I, as well as in [Finnur J6nsson's] Cannina norraena. 1893. 
pp. 3-4; Corp. poet, boreale. I. pp. 188-189; Edd. min. 1903. pp. 21- 
32 ; Danish version by B. C. Sandvig, in his Danske Sange. 1779. pp. 
11-13 ; English by W. Herbert, in his Select Icelandic poetry. I 1806. 
pp. 125-128, repr. in his Works. I. 1842. pp. 286-287 (repr. in H. W. 
Longfellow's The poets and poetry of Europe. 1882 and 1893. p. 51); 
German by J. G. von Herder in his Volkslieder. I. 1778. pp. 175-176; 
Swedish by C. G. Kroningssvard, in his Nord. Sago Bibl. III. 1834. 
pp. 79-85. — Andersen, Vilh. and Olrik, A. : Den forste strofe i Bjarka- 
mM, /« Danske Studier. 1905. pp. 170-171; — Flo, R.: Bjarkemaal, «« 
Syn og Segn. X. 1904. pp. 177-192 ; — J6nsson, Finnur : Bjarkemals 
alder, j« Arkiv f . nord. Filol. XV. 1899. pp. 267-268. — For the Bjarka- 
mdl (or H6skarlahv6t) of Saxo's work, see Appendix. 

Boer, R. C. Finnsage und Nibelungensage. In Zeitschr. f. deut Altert. 

XLVII. 1904. pp. 125-160. {See : Das verhaltniss der Finnsage zu dem 

erzahlung vom tode des Hrolf kraki, pp. 157-159). 
Heusler, Andreas. Zur Skioldungendichtung. In Zeitschr. f . deut. Altert. 

XIvVIII. 1906. pp. 57-87. (i. Saxos Rolvgeschichte ; — 2 Die Vater- 

rache der Halfdanssohne ; — 3, Viggi vor dem Konig ; — 4. Hrolfs 

Kluge, Friedrich. Der Beowulf und Hr61fs saga Kraka. In Englische 

Studien. XXII. 1896. pp. 144-145 
Miiller, P. E. Hrolf Krages Saga. Om Begivenheder fra siette og syvende 

Aarhundrede. Et Fragment af Saga-Bibliothek, II. Deel. /« Athene. 

VIII. 1817. pp. 535-560. 

Neckel, Gustav. Studien iiber Fr63i. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. XLVIII. 
1906. pp. 163-186. (i. Die quelle des Fr69a pdtt und der Grottasong ; — 

2. Litterar-historisches zum Grottasong ; — 3. Rolf krake als racher ; — 
4. Zur geschichte der rachedichtung ; — 5. Weiteres zur composition des 
Grottasong ! — 6. Die Eirikssaga mdlspaka ; — 7. Der brudermord ; — 8. 
Der Hadubarde Froda). 

Olrik, Axel. Rolf Krake og den aeldre Skjoldungraekke. Kobenhavn 1903. 

( Danmarks heltedigtning. En oldtidsstudie. I. del). 8°. pp. (8)-f352. 

For reviews, see Appendix. 
Panzer, Friedrich. Studien zur germanischen Sagengeschichte. I. Beowulf. 

Miinchen 1910. 8°. pp. ix + 409. {See : Bjarki, pp. 364-382). 

Reviews: Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. XLIH. 191 1. pp. 383-394, by B. 

Kahle ;— Anz. f . deut. Altert. XXV. 191 1. pp. 123-131, by C. W. v. 

Sarrazin, Gregor. Rolf Krake und sein Vetter im Beowulfliede. In Englische 

Studien. XXIV. 1898. pp. 144-145. 
Sperber, Hans. Anmerkungen zu einigen islandischen Rimur. Bjarka- 

rimur. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXVI. 1910. p. 269. 
Torfason, I>orm63ur. Historia Hrolfi Krakii inter potentissimos in ethni- 

cismo Daniae reges celeberrimi, ab avo ejus Halfdano II. & patre Helgio, 


hujusqz^<? fratre Hroare, secundum monumentorum Islandicorum manu- 
ductionem deducta, & a fabulis, in qvantum fieri potuit, vindicata, 
cumqz/<? aliis historicis, inprimis Saxone Grammatico, diligenter coUata, 
& magnam partem conciliata. Cum indice rerum memorabilium per 
Th. Torfaeum. Havnise 1705. 8». pp. (48) + y-]^-^ {^i).— Title-edition. 
Havniae 1715. S". pp. (48) + i79 + (i3)- 

Hr6mundar saga Gripssonar. 

Paper- MSS. The original saga (mentioned in the Sturlunga) is lost, 
and its contents known only from the rimur, called Griplur, probably 
by Sigur9r blindi (c. 1470-c. 1540). The present saga is based on the 
rimur. The subject is also treated in Scandinavian ballads. 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. VI. pp. 19. 

(AM. 587, 4®). In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 363-380. — II. 1886. 
pp. 323-336. 

Griplur. In Fernir fornislenskir rimnaflokkar, er Finnur Jonsson 
gaf ut. Kaupmannahofn 1896. pp. 17-42. — Repr. /;^ Rimnasafn 
udg. ved Finnur Jonsson. 4.-5. haefte. Kobenhavn 1909-10. 

pp. 351-410- 
Critical edition (AM. 610 C, 4" ; 146 A, 8" ; 387 fol.) 
Danish. — /^ Rafn'sNord. Kaempe-Hist. III. B. 1826. pp. 257- 

279. — Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 291-307. 
I^ATiN. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Andrews, A. L. Studies in Fornaldarsogur Nor9rlanda. I. The Hr6mundar 
saga Gripssonar. In Modern Philology. VIII. 191 1. pp. 527-544 ; IX. 
1912. pp. 371-397. {To be cont.) — Also sep. repr. Chicago 191 1-12. 8". 

pp. 45. 
Boer, R. C. Zur danischen heldensage. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. 

Spr. u. Lit. XXII. 1897. pp. 342-390. 
Kolbing, B. Die Hr6mundarsaga Greipssonar und die Griplur. In his 

Beitrage zur vergleich. gesch. der romantischen poesie und prosa des 

mittelalters. 1876. pp. 150-187, 
Hversu Noregr bygSist. See Fornjoti ok settmonnum bans, Frd. 

niuga saga GriSarfostra. 

MSS.: AM. 123, 8" (c. 1600), and many on paper. A 14th cent, com- 
Sagan af Illuga Grydar fostra. EUer lUuge Grydar fostres 
bistoria. Fordom pa gammal Gotbiska skrifwen, ocb nu pa 
Swenska uttalkad af Gudmund Olofsson Reg : Translatore 
Lingvse Antiquae. Tryckt i Vpsala, Abr 1695. 4°. pp. 19. 
(Warmboltz, no. 2562). 
(AM. 123, 8°). In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 648-660.— III. 
1889. pp. 503-514. 


Swedish. — In the edition of 1695. 

Ingvars saga viaforla. See Yngvars saga vi9f6rla. 

Ketils saga haengs. 

MSS.: AM. 343, 4° (iSthcent); AM. 471, 4° (istli cent.). The saga 
dates probably from c. 1300. Cf. Grims saga loQinkinna. 
Ketilli Haengii et Grimonis Hirsutigenae patris et filii historia 
seu res gestae ex antiqva lingva Norvagica in Latinum trans- 
latae per Islefum Thorlevium Islandum. Opera et studio 01. 
Rudbeckii Publici Juris factae. Upsalae Anno M. DC. XCVII. 
fol. pp. (2) -f 17. 
Latin preface by the translator (fsleifur I>orleifsson) dated at MoSru- 
vellir, Iceland, May 4, 1683. The text is divided in 9 chapters, the first 
six being the Ketils saga, pp. 1-12. (Warmholtz, no. 2587).— Copy in 
Yale University Library. 
(AM. 343, 4°). In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 107-139.— II. 
1886. pp. 137-160. 
The verses of the saga, in Corp. poet, boreale. II. pp. 556-559 I Hdd. 
min. 1903. pp. 77-85, 95. 
Danish. — In Rafn's Nord. Kaempe-Hist. III. B. 1826. pp. i- 

39.— Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 101-130. 
lyATiN. — In the edition of 1697. 
Swedish. — /« Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago- Bibl. 1834. VII. pp. 

A paraphrase of the saga, in "Natur-, konst- och werlds-historisk portfcilj, 
samlad fran fosterlandets och den ofriga jordens forn- och nutid, for 
svenska ungdomen. Stockholm 1845." 4^ pp. 39-42. 

Better, F. Der Finnenkonig Gusi. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. XXXII. 

1888. pp. 449-454- 

Vetustissima regum Septentrionis series, Langfedgatal dicta, 
a Japheto ad Haraldum Harfager Norvegiae et Horda-Knutum 
Daniae reges. In J. Langebek's Scriptoresrerum Danicarum. 
I. 1772. fol. pp. 1-6, ifacsim. (AM. 415, 4°). 
Sievers, Eduard. Sceaf in den nordischen genealogien. In Beitrage zur 

Gesch. d. deut. Spr. u. Lit. XVI. 1891. pp. 361-363. 
Torfason (Torfaeus), I>omi65ur. Series dynastarum et regum Daniae, k 
primo eorum Skioldo Odini filio, ad Gormum Grandaevum, Haraldi 
Caerulidentis patrem : Antea anno Christi MDCLXIV. Hafniae 1702. 4®. 
pp. (18) -I- 514 -h {4).— Title ed. 1705. {See p-p. 211S.). 

Niflunga saga. See PiQreks saga. 


Noma-Gests t>^ttr {^or saga). 

MSS.: Gl. kgl. Saml. 2845, 4° (15th cent); Flateyjarb6k ; AM. 62 fol. 

(15th cent. ), etc. The tale was written about 1300 or somewhat earlier. 

For commentaries, see Volsunga saga and I>i9reks saga. 
In Saga Olafs Tryggvasonar. II. 1689. 4^ pp. 132-146. 
In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. XIV. pp. 27. 
In Hagen's Altnord. Sagen u. Lieder. 1814. pp. 26. 
Die prosaische Edda im Auszuge nebst Volsunga-saga und 
Nornagests-thattr. Mit ausfiihrlichem Glossar hrsgg. von 
Ernst Wilken. I. Paderborn 1877. pp. Ixxxv-ciii, 335-362. 

Based on the Flateyjarb6k text. — For reviews, see Volsunga saga. 
(Gl. kgl. vSaml. 2845, 4".) In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 311- 

Extract in Antiquit^s Russes. I. 1850. fol. pp. 21 1-2 12. 
In Flateyjarb6k. I. i860, pp. 346-359. 
(AM. 62fol.). /« Bugge'sNorr.Skrifter. 1863. pp. 45-80. — 7>;r/ 

repr. in Fornaldars. I. 3. 1885. pp. 73-95 ; new ed. I. 1891. 

pp. 2^5-266. 
Danish. — Transl. by N. F. S. Grundtvig, in Heimdal, en Nytaars- 

gave for 1816. Kiobenhavn. pp. 22-59. 
In Rafn's Nord. Kaempe-Hist. I. C. 1822. pp. 97-132. — Nord. 

Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 289-316. 
In Horn's Nord. Heltesag. 1876. pp. 93-116. 
Paraphrase in Sagaer fortalte af Br. Snorrason og Kr. Arentzen. III. 1850. 

pp 101-112. 
Gkrman. — In Hagen's Nord. Heldenrom. V. 1828. pp. 115- 

171. — Edzardi's rev. version. III. 1880. pp. 343-397. 
Extract from this version in WoUheim da Fonseca's Die National- Lit. der 
Skand. I. 1875. pp. 204-208. 
In Raszmann's Die deut. Heldeusag. I. 1857 (1863). 
Latin. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Norna-Gests saga. Ofversatt ifran Islandskan. [Stockholm ?] 

Tryckt hos J. C. Frenckell & Son, 1821. 4^ pp. (2) + 18. 
Paraphrase in [Backman's] Nord. Kampadat. 1858. pp. 47-59 ; and in A. 
Ekermann's Fran Nord. Fornt. 1895. pp. 154-171, illustr. 

Orvar-Odds saga. 

Various recensions represented by the MSS.: Cod. Holm. perg. 7, 4® (c. 
1350); AM. 344A, 40 (c. 1400); 567IV. 4" (15th cent., fragment ; paper- 
MSS.); 343, 4® (15th cent.); 471, 4" (iStli cent.); 173, fol. (on paper, c, 
1700). — The original saga dates from the 13th cent. 


Sagan af Orfuar Odde syne Grims Lodinkinn. — Historia Orvari 

Odde filii Grimonis Hirsuta facie. [Upsalae 1697]. fol. pp. 51. 

Text (the longer recension) with Latin version by fsleifur J»orleifsson 

(cf. Ketils saga haengs). No t.-p., no date or imprint. This is one of 

the saga editions of Olaf Rudbeck (Warmholtz, no. 2588). — Copy in 

Yale University Library. 

(Cod. Holm. perg. 7, 4"). hi Rask's Synishorn af fornum eg 

nyjum norrsenum ritum 1 sundurlausri og samfastri rseQu. 

Stockholm 1819. pp. 33-123. — Repr. in Fornaldars. II. 1829. 

pp. 504-559. 

(AM. 343, 4"). In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 159-322. — II. 

1886. pp. 175-289. 
Extracts in Antiquit^s Russes I. 1850. fol. pp. 93-109 ; in Ettmiiller's 

Altnord. Lesebuch. 1861. 4°. pp. 27-31, 34. 
Orvar-Odds saga herausgegeben von R. C. Boer. Leiden 1888. 
8°. pp. (4) 4- lii + 218 -h (2). 
Critical edition of the two principal recensions, the longer based on 
AM. 344A, 4°, the shorter on Cod. Holm. 7, 4° ; also the interpolations 
and additions of other MSS , especially AM. 343, 4°. — Reviews : Arkiv 
f. nord. Filol. VII. 1891. pp. 198-204, by G. Cederschiold ; — Anz. f. 
deut. Altert. XVI. 1890. pp. 124-131, by R. Heinzel ; — Deut. Lit. zeit. 
XL 1890. coll. 271-272, by F. Better. 
Orvar-Odds saga herausgegeben von R. C. Boer. Halle a. S. 
1892. (Altnordische Saga-Bibliothek. Heft 2.) 8**. pp. xxiv + 
Annotated edition of the text of Cod. Holm. 7, 4°. — Reviews : Anz. f. 
deut. Altert. XX. 1894. pp. 87-88, by Ferd. Better ;—Zeitschr. f. deut. 
Philol. XXIX. 1897. pp. 228-235, by O. L. Jiriczek.— Lit. Cbl. XLIV. 
1893. col. 985. 
The poems of the saga also in Corp. poet, boreale. II. pp. 549-552 ; Edd- 
min. 1903. pp. 49-51, 55-58, 62-63, 65-70, 74-76, 105; [Th. Wis^n's] 
Urval af norrsenum fornkvaedum. 1870. pp. 14-29. — The ".^vidrdpa" 
was printed with Swedish metrical version and Latin prose rendering 
in E. J. Bjorner's Schediasma de Varegis. 1743. 4°, pp. 153-179, repr. 
in Oelrich's Banise et Svecise litteratae opuscula. II. 1776. pp. 623-660. 
Danish. — (Cod. Holm.) In Rafn's Nord. Kaempe-Hist. III. 
B. 1826. pp. 57-206. — Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 143- 

Paraphrase in Sagaer fortalte af Br. Snorrason og Kr. Arentzen. IV. 1850. 

pp. 33-112. 
lyATiN. — In the edition of 1697. 
Swedish.— Orvar Odds Saga ; efter Islandska Handskrifter ut- 

gifven med upplysande Anmarkningar af Joh. G. Liljegren. 


Stockholm i8 19. (SkandinaviskaFornaldernsHjeltesagor. II. 
I.) 8^ pp. (2) + xxxvi + 314, I pL 
Follows the text of Rask's edition. 
Paraphrase in Hedda Anderson's Nordiska sagor berattade for barn, i Saml. 
Stockh. 1896. pp. 82-132 ; also in her Fran Nordens, Greklands och 
Roms sagotid. i. Saml. Stockh. 1905. pp. 42-63, illustr. 

Aubert, Karl. Navnet "Alfi Odderskser" i folkevisen om holmgangen 
paa Samso. In Sprogl. og hist, afhandlinger viede Sophus Bugges 
minde. Kristiania 1908. pp. 20-25. 

Boer, R. C. tJber die Orvar-Odds saga. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. VIII. 
1892. pp. 97-139. (i. Die elemente der saga. — 2. Der kampf auf 
Sdmsey. — 3. Die verse der saga ; ihr verhaltniss zur saga und unter 
einander ; ihr alter). 

Weiteres zur Orvar-Odds saga. Ibid. pp. 246-255. (i. Zu Odds 

reise nach dem riesenland. — 2. Zu Odds siidlandsreise. — 3. Das ver- 
haltniss der saga zur Magus saga). 

Noch einmal Orvar-Odds saga und Magus saga. Ibid. IX. 1893. pp. 

304-308. (Followed by a "Slutanmarkning " by G. Cederschiold, pp. 

Cederschiold, Gustav. Har Orvar-Odds saga lanat fran Magus saga. Ibid' 

IX. 1893. pp. 22-30. 
Tiander, K. Poiezdki skandinavov v Bieloe more. 1906. pp. 106-278. 

Ragnars saga lo9br6kar ok sona bans. 

MSS.: Ny kgl. Saml. 1824B, 4" (c. 1400); AM. 147, 4° (15th cent.), and 
paper-MSS. AM. 6-7, fol,, etc. The original saga was probably written 
in the latter half of the 13th cent. , the recension which in complete 
form has been preserved, is from the 14th cent. 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. XII. pp. 67. 

In Hagen's Altnord. Sagen u. Lieder. 1814. pp. 1 19-186. 

In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 235-299. 

Extract in Antiquit^s Russes. I. 1850. pp. 87-88. 

Ragnars saga lo5br6kar ok sona bans. Valdimar Asmundarson 

befir bui9 undir prentun. Texta-utgafa. Reykjavik 1885. 

(Fornaldarsogur Nor9rlanda. I. 3). 8". pp. 136 (^see pp. 3- 

52). — New ed. I. 1891. pp. 175-224. 
Volsunga saga ok Ragnars saga loQbrokar udg. ved Magnus 

Olsen. Kobenbavn 1906-08. pp. 11 1-222. 
The text of Ny kgl. saml. 1824B, 4°, pp. 111-175 ; Brudstykker af 
Ragnars saga i AM. 147, 4", pp. 176-194 ; Versene, pp. 195-222. 

Danish.—/^ Rafn's Nord. Ksempe-Hist. I. C. 1822. pp. i- 
96. — Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 219-276. 



Paraphrases : Oehlenschlager's Nord. Oldsagn. 1840. pp. 120-139 ; 1853. 
pp. 87-ior. — Sagaer fortalte af Br, Snorrason og Kr. Arentzen. I. 1849. 
pp. 1-48 ;— H. H. Lefolii's Fortaellinger og Sagaer fortalte for Born. I. 
Saml. 2. Udg. 1869. pp. 177-198 ;— Alex. Bugge's Fortaellingen om 
Sigurd Favnesbane. Norrone heltesagn og eventyr gjenfortalte for 
ungdommen. 1910. pp. 74-110. 

Sagan om Ragnar Lodbrog og bans Sonner. Fortalt af P. A. 
Godecke. Paa Dansk ved Fr. Winkel-Horn. Med Billeder af 
A. Malmstrom. Kjobenhavn 1880. fol. pp. 116, illustr. 
German. — In K. V. v. Bonstetten's Neue Schriften. II. Theil. 

Kopenhagen 1800. p. 2oiff. 
In Hagen's Nord. Heldenrom. V. 1828. pp. 1-114. — Edzardi's 
rev. vers. III. 1880. pp. 221-342. 
Extracts in Wollheim da Fonseca's Die National-L,it. d. Skand. I. 1875. 
pp. 194-342. 
Latin. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. VI. pp. 93. 
Sagan om Ragnar Lodbrok och bans soner. Beratted af P. A. 
Godecke. Med teckningar af A. Malmstrom. Stockholm 1880. 
fol. pp. (4) 4- 112, illustr. 
Paraphrase in Hedda Anderson's Nordiskasagorberattade for barn. i. saml. 
1896. pp. 133-168 ; also in her Fran Nordens, Grekl. och Roms sagotid. 
I. saml. 1905. pp. 64-92 ; a longer paraphrase in A. Ekermann's Fr&n 
Nord. Fornt. 1895. pp. 218-259, illustr. 

Bredsdorff, J. H. Saetninger angaaende Regner Lodbrogs Levetid. In 

Tidsskr. f. nord. Oldk. II. 1829. pp. 54-58. 
Naar levede Sivard Orm i Oje, Regner Lodbrogs Son ? En Under- 

sogelse. In Det skandinaviske Literaturselsk. Skrifter. XXIII. 1832. 

pp. 278-308, tbl. 
Bugge, Sophus. Bidrag til den seldste Skaldedigtnings Historic. Christi- 

ania 1894. p. 76ff. — Cf. F. j6nsson's article in Arkiv f. nord. Filol. 

VI. 1890. pp. 141-155. 
Better, Ferd. Zur Ragnarsdrdpa ( " F. j6nsson : De aeldste skjalde og deres 

kvad"). In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XIII. 1897. pp. 363-369. 
Georgii, Carl Fredrik. Dissertatio gradualis, hypothesin historicam de 

pluribus Ragnaris Lodbrokiis, quam praeside C. F. G. publico examini 

subjicit Olavus Tibelius. Upsaliae 1764. 4°. pp. 21. 
Jessen, C. A. E. Undersogelser til nordisk oldhistorie. Kobenhavn 1862. 

8°. pp. (4) 4-84 {See: Om Lodbrok-aetten, pp. 1-37). 
J6nsson, Finnur. De aeldste skjalde og deres kvad. In Aarb. f. nord. 

Oldk. og Hist. 1895. pp. 271-359. 



j6nsson, Rev. J6n. ^ttartolur frd Ragnari lo5br6k. In Timarit h. isl. 
B6kmentaf61. XXV. 1904. pp. 198-202. 

Ragnar lodbr6k og sett bans. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXIII. 1907. 

pp. 264-279. 

Merki " Lodbr6karsona. " Ibid. XXVI. 1910. pp. 371-376. 

Liebrecbt, Felix. Die Ragnar Lodbrokssage in Persien. In (Benfey's) 

Orient und Occident. I. Bd. Gottingen 1861. pp. 561-567. — Repr. in 

his Zur Volkskunde. Heilbronn 1879. pp. 65-73. 
Mawer, Allen. Ragnar Lothbr6k and his sons. In Saga-Book of the Viking 

Club. VI. 1909. pp. 68-89. 
Puschnig, A. O. Die Ragnar-Lodbruckssage in der deutschen Literatur. 

Laibach 1910. 8". pp. 44. {Program). 
Schiern, Fred. Om Navnet Lodbrog hos Angelsaxerne. In Annaler f. 

nord. Oldk. 1858. pp. 8-11. 
Schiick, Henrik. Till Lodbrok-sagan. In Svensk Fornminnesfor. tidskr. 

XI. 1900. pp. 131-140. 
Schroter, Joh. Rud. De Ragnaro Lodbrokio. Dissertatio critico-historica. 

Rostochii 1820. (Curarum in vetustiorem Scandinaviae historiam 

particula I. ) 4°. pp. 37. 
Steenstrup, Joh. C. H. R. Indledning i Normannertiden. Kjobenhavn 1878. 

pp. 81-127 (Regner Lodbrok og bans Sonner). — French version by B. 

de Beaurepaire : Etudes pr^liminaires pour servir a I'histoire des Nor- 

mands et leur invasions. Paris 1881. pp. 50-74. 
Storm, Gustav. Ragnar Lodbrok og Lodbrokssonnerne. Studie i dansk 

Oldhistorie og nordisk Sagnhistorie. In (Norsk) Historisk Tidsskr. 

2. R. I. Bd. 1877. pp. 371-491.-^/5^ sep. repr. Kristiania 1877. 8°. pp. 

(4) -\- 121. — Repr. in his Kritiske Bidrag til Vikingetidens Historic. 

(I. Ragnar Lodbrok og Gange-Rolv). Kristiania 1878. pp. 34-129, 193- 


Reviews: Nord. tidskr. (Ivctterstedska). 1879. PP- 288-302, by Nils 

Hojer ; — Revue historique. XI. pp. 432-35, by E. Beauvois ; — Lit. Cbl. 

XXIX. 1878. coll. 845-846, by A. Edzardi. 
Wechsler, Adolf. Die Sage von Aslog, der Tochter Sigurds, und Versuch 

ihrer Deutung. In Verhandl. des Vereins f. Kunst u. Alterthum von 

Ulm. N. R. 7. Heft. 1875. 
Wlislocki, Heinrich v. Die Ragnar Lodbrokssage in Siebenbiirgen. In 

Germania. XXXII. 1887. pp. 362-366. 

Kr^um^ or LobbrdkarkviSa. 

The death-song of Ragnar lo5br6k, a poem composed in Iceland in the 
latter half of the 12th cent, or about 1200. (MS. : Ny kgl. saml. 1824B, 

In Olai Wormii Danica literatura antiquissima. Amsterdam! 1636. 4°. pp. 
197-227. — New ed. Hafniae 1651. fol. pp. 182-207. 

The original text in Runic characters with Latin version by Magntis 
Olafsson. — The text and Latin version reprinted with a Dutch prose 
version added, in Lambert ten Kate's Anleiding tot de Kennisse van het 
verhevene Deel der Nederduitsche Sprake. Amsterdam 1723. 4". pp. 


In Bjomer's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. XII. fol. pp. 182-207. 

With Swedish and Latin prose versions ; the latter was later embodied 
in C. A. Klotzius's T\j(n<nov ra ffw^ofxtva. Altenburgi 1767. pp. 211-221. 

Ivodbrokar-quida ; or the Death-Song of Lodbroc ; now first correctly printed 
from various manuscripts, with a free English translation. To which 
are added, the various readings ; a literal Latin version ; an Islando- 
Latino glossary ; and explanatory notes. By James Johnstone. N. p. 
[Copenhagen] 1782. 8°. pp. (4) -\- iii. 

There is a title-ed. with the imprint of Copenhagen 1813 {cf. Dansk 
Litteratur-Tid. 1816. p. 498). It is stated at the end that "a very 
learned native of Iceland prepared both the text and the glossary for 
the press" (Grimur Thorkelin). — Text and English version repr. in 
E. Henderson's Iceland. II. Edinburgh 1818. pp. 345-352 ; 2d ed. 
Edinburgh 1819. pp. 528-535. 

Lodbrokar-quida, carmen Gothicum, famam regis Ragnari Lodbrochi cele- 
brans. Lundae 1802. 4°. pp. (6) + 77- 

Publ. as inaug.-diss. in 6 pts. under the presidency of N. H. Sjoborg 
and with different respondents. Icelandic text with Latin version and 

In Hagen's Altnord. Sagen u. Lieder. 1814. pp. 161-171. 

Krakas Maal eller Kvad om Kong Ragnar Lodbroks Krigsbedrifter og 
Heltedod efter en gammel Skindbog og flere hidtil ubenyttede Haand- 
skrifter med dansk, latinsk og fransk Overs£ettelse, forskjellige Laese- 
maader, samt kritiske og philologiske Anmserkninger udgivet af C. C. 
Rafn. Kjobenhavn 1826. 8°. pp. (8) -|- 152 + (2), 1 pis. {music and 
facsim. ) 

The French version is by L. S. Borring. A bibliography of the poem, 
PP- 75-83. — Reviews: Hermod. 1825-26. pp. 1 14-126, by R. Rask ; 
reply by Rafn, ibid. pp. 129-136; — Dansk Litteratur-Tid. 1827. pp. 
241-253, by P. E. Miiller. 

In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 300-310; I. 1885. pp. 52-56; I. 1891. pp. 225- 
228. — Fr. Pfeiffer's Altnord. Lesebuch. i860, pp. 124-127. — Corpus 
poet, boreale. II. 1883. pp. 339-343 {with Engl, prose version . — [Th. 
Wis^n's] Urval af norrsenum fornkvsedum. 1870. pp. 32-36, and his 
Carmina norraena. I. 1886. pp. 62-66. — [F. j6nsson's] Carmina nor- 
rsena. 1893. pp. 86-91. 

Krdkumdl af Finnur j6nsson. In Oversigt over det kgl. danske Vidensk. 
Selsk. Forhandl. 1905. No. 2. Kobenhavn 1905. pp. 151-183. 
A critical study including the text of the poem (pp. 153-157). 

Danish. — Krakes Maal eller Regner Lodbrogs Dodssang. Oversat paa 
Dansk af Christen Berntszon 1652. Ny Udgave. Kjobenhavn 1877. 4**. 
ff. (8). 

Ed. by Chr. Bruun/r^w the unique copy in the Royal Library, Copen- 
hagen, q/'^Bildur Danskum . . . Prentet Aar, 1652." — Also reproduced 
in P. Syv's Danske Kaempeviser. 1695. p. 431 ff. — Nyerup, R. : Bildur 
Danskur, en Bogruin, eller Regner Lodbrogs Dodssang. En Forelaesn- 
ing. In Dansk Minerva. 1819. pp. 481-524. 

/«*[B. C. Sandvig's] Danske Sange af det aeldste Tidsrum. Kiobenhavn 
1779. pp. 34-56. ( With verses from the Ragnars saga). 



Rafn's version of 1826, also in his Nord. Ksempe-Hist. I. C. 1822. pp. 82- 
96 ; Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 277-288. 

N. M. Petersen's version in his Danmarks Historie i Hedenold. I. Del. 
1834. pp. 292-304 ;— 2 ed. 1854. pp. 297-308. 

Dutch. — In J. H. van Bolhuis's De Noormannen in Nederland. II. stuk. 
Utrecht 1835. pp. 4-30. 

Engi^ish. — Prose version by Thos. Percy in his Five pieces of Runic poetry. 
London 1763. pp. 21-42, {Icel. text) 88-92. — Repr, in Mallet-Percy's 
Northern Antiquities. 2 ed. London 1809. II. pp. 309-316. 

The death-song of Ragnar Lodbrach, or Lodbrog, king of Denmark : 
Translated from the Latin of Olaus Wormius. By Hugh Downman. 
London 1781. 4°. — Repr. in Thomas Evans's Old Ballads. III. London 
1784. pp. 108-123. — Repr. with alterations in Downman' s Poems. 
Exeter 1790. pp. 144-163. {Reviews: The Monthly Review. LXVI. 
1782. pp. 441-442 ; — The Critical Review. Oct. 1782 and 1790). 

Johnstone's version of 1782 {see above). 

In W. Herbert's Select Icelandic poetry translated. Pt. II. London 1806. 
pp. 35-49. — Repr. in his Wor^s. Vol.1. London 1842. pp. 286297. — 
Repr. in H. W. Longfellow's The poets and poetry of Europe. Boston 
1882 and 1893. pp. 51-53- 

In P. C. Headley 's The island of fire ; or, a thousand years of the old North- 
men's home 874-1874. Boston 1875. pp. 12-17. 

French. — Borring's version in the edition of 1826. 

German. — In F. D. Grater's Nordische Blumen. Leipzig 1789. pp. 4-40. — 
2. ed. 1812. — Repr. in his Sch.r\itQn. I. Theil. Heidelberg 1809. pp. 291- 


Prose version in K. V. Bonstetten's Neue Schriften. II. Theil. Kopenhagen 
t8oo. pp. 267-280. 

Geschichte Alfreds des Grossen, iibertragen . . . nebst der Lodbrokar- 
Quida in dem Urtext und einer metrischen Uebersetzung von Friedrich 
Lorentz. Hamburg 1828. 8^. pp. xii 4- 283 {see pp. 255-283). 

Metrical version with an essay ' ' Ueber Aechtheit, Alter und Verfasser des 
Schwanensanges Ragnar Lodbroks", in G. F. Legis's (Gliickselig's) 
Die Runen und ihre Denkmaler. Leipzig 1829. pp. 147-174. 

In P. J. Willatzen's Alt-islandische Volks-Balladen. Bremen 1865. pp. 121- 
125, 136-137.— 2. Aufl. 1897. pp. 73-77. {Cf. also Bremer Sonntagsblatt. 
1863. No. I2ff. ). — Repr. in Wollheim da Fonseca's Die National-Lit- 
eratur der Skandinavier. I. Berlin 1875. pp. 460-462. 

It AW AN. — Prose version in J. Graberg di Hemso's Saggio istorico su gli 
scaldi. Pisa 181 1. pp. 65-68. 

Latin. — Versions in the editions of 1637, 1737, 1782 and 1826. 

Norwegian. — In R. J. Flo's Gamle skaldar ogkvad. Oslo 1902. pp. 91-95. 

Russian. — Prose version by A. N. Chudinoff, in Drevne-sievernyia sagi i 
piesni skaldov v perevodakh pisatelei. Izdanie I. Glazunova. St. Peters- 
burg 1903. pp. 169-174. 

Swedish. — Bjorner's version in the edition of 1737. 


Kr&kum&l eller Ragnars kvade i ormagropen, fritt itergifvet p& svenska af 
P. Aug. Godecke. In Fria Ord. En samling uppsatser utg. af Publicist- 
klubben. Stockholm 1878. 8°. pp. 267-272. {Also in Godecke' aversion 
of the Ragnars saga). 
Ragnars sona t)^ttr. 

MSS. : Hauksb6k, etc. Based upon the original recension of the Ragnars 

saga ; dates from c. 1300. 

Fragmentura Islandicum de regibus Dano-Norvegicis ab Ivaro 

Vidfadme ad Haraldum Blaatand. In Langebek's Scriptores 

renira Danicarum. II. 1773. fol. pp. 270-286. 

In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 343-360. — I. 3. 1885. pp. 57-71 ; 

new ed. I. 1891. pp. 229-243. 
In Hauksbok iidg. efter de arnamagnseanske handskrifter no. 
371, 544 og 675, 4° samt forskellige papirshandskrifter [ved 
Finnur Jonsson og Eirikur Jonsson]. Kobenhavn 1892-96. 
pp. xci-xciii, 458-467. 
Danish. — In Rafn's Nord. Ksempe-Hist. I. C. 1822. pp. 137- 

154. — Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 317-332. 
Latin. — J6n Olafsson's version with the edition of 1773. 
Swedish. — Pattr af Ragnars sonum. Sagostycke om Ragnars 
soner, fran islandskan ofversatt och belyst. Akademisk af- 
handling (Uppsala) af Otto Gustaf Victor Soderstrom. Orebro 
1872. 8°. pp. 34 + (2). 
Sigurbar saga F^fnisbana. See Volsunga saga. 
Skjoldunga saga. For bibliography, see Islandica. III. p. 63. 
Skuldarbardaga t)dttr. See Hrolfs saga kraka. 
Sogubrot af nokkrum fornkonungum i Dana og Svia veldi. 

MS.: AM. lE jS I fol, (c. 1300 ; facsim. K^lunds Paleograf. Atlas. 1907. 
no- 33). and paper MSS. A fragment of a recension of the Skjoldunga 
saga, probably from the latter half of the 13th cent. 
Sogubrot af Nockorum Fornkongum i Dana oc Svia velldi. Eller 
Sagobrott Handlande om Nogra forna Konungar i Swerige och 
Danmark. Samt om Brawalle Slaget, Emellan Kong Harald 
Hillditan och Sigurd Ring. Vtaf gamla Nordiska spraket 
forswenskat Af Johan Fredrich Peringskiold. Tryckt i Stock- 
holm, hos Joh. Laur. Horrn, 1719. 4". pp. (12) + 32. 
Contents: dedication, pp. (2)-(3); preface, pp. (4)-(i2); text with 
Swedish version, pp. 1-32. (Warmholtz, no. 2590). Review: Acta 
literaria Svecise. I. 1720. pp. 37-40. 
De pugna Bravalliensi Fragmentum Gothicum, cujus partem 
priorem Latine versam et observationibus quibusdam historicis 


illustratam . . . moderante Ludov. Gotth. Kosegarten . . . pro 
gradu philosophico . . . modestedefert CarolusEricusNorrman. 
Gryphiae 1815. 4^ pp. 17, tbl. 

Text of chap. 7-8 edited by Norrman with Latin version. Greifswald 

inaug.-diss. No more publ. 

In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 361-388. — I. 3. 1885. pp. 1 13-136; 

new ed. I. 1891. pp. 283-305. 
In Antiquit^s Russes. I. 1852. fol. pp. 66-86. 
Danish. — Saga om Haldans Sonner og Harald Hyldetan. (Af 

Sogubrot). In Danne-Virke, et Tidsskrift af N. F. S. 

Grundtvig. I. Bd. Kjobenhavn 1816. pp. 350-392. 
An adaptation by Grundtvig. 
In Rafn's Nord. Ksempe-Hist. III. A. 1826. pp. 121-157. — 

Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 333-359- 
Latin. — In Antiquites Russes. I. 1850. 
Swedish. — In the editio7i of 17 19. 
In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. VIII. pp. 51-94. 

BredsdorfF, J. H. Naar holdtes Braavallaslaget ? In Nord. Tidsskr. f . Oldk. 

II. 1833. pp. 359-363- 

Bugge, Sophus. Braavalla-Slaget. In his Populser-videnskabelige Fore- 
drag. Kristiania 1907. pp. 24-64. 

Norsk Sagaskrivning og Sagafortaelling i Irland. Kristiania 1908. 

8°. pp. (4) -h 236, [See : Braavalla-Slaget og Brian-Slaget, pp. 78- 
164, etc.) 

Jessen, C. A. E. Undersogelser til nordisk oldhistorie. Kobenhavn 1862. 

PP- 35-37. 
j6nsson, Rev. J6n. Um naf ni5 ' ' Hringr. ' ' In Arkiv f . nord. Filol. X. 

1894. pp. 130-148. 
Miillenhoff, Karl. Deutsche altertumskunde. V. band. Berlin 1883-91. 8°. 

(Excurs iiber die Starkadsdichtung, pp. 300-356). 
Olrik, Axel. Bravallakvadets kaempersekke. Tekst og oplysninger. In 

Arkiv f. nord. Filol. X. 1894. pp. 223-287. (Tekstaftryk ; — Kritisk 

tekst ; — Sprogform og hjemsted ; — Bravallakvadets alder ; — Forbilleder 

i samtiden. Kaemperne pa Ormen lange ; — Kvadets sagnhistoriske 

kilder ; — Tillaeg : Kristjern Pedersens oversee ttelse). 

Norske Oldkvad og Sagnkonger. In (Norsk) Hist. Tidsskr. 3. R. 

III. Bd. 1895. pp. 168-190. 

Storm, Gustav. Kritiske Bidrag til Vikingetidens Historic. Kristiania 1878. 
pp. 200-210 (Starkadsvisen om Braavold-Slaget). 

Sorla saga sterka. 

A story of the hero of the Sorla J)dttr, probably of the 15th cent. ; pre- 
served in paper-MSS. 


In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. VIII. pp. 57. 

In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 408-452. — III. 1889. pp. 308-343. 

Latin. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Sorla t>^ttr, or HeQins saga ok Hogna. 

MS. : Flateyjarb6k, etc. A version of the Hilde legend (cf. also Snorra 

Edda : the HjaQningavig), probably written shortly after 1300, being a 

compilation from an earlier work. 
In Saga Olafs Tryggvasonar. 1689. H- 4*'- PP- 49-58. 
Sagan af Hiedine og Hogna. — Historia duorum regum Hedini 
et Hugonis, ex antiqua Lingua Norvegica. Per Dn. lonam 
Gudmundi in Latinum translata. [Upsalae 1697]. fo^- PP- 8. 

Has no t. -p. or imprint; publ. at the expense of Olof Rudbeck ; has 

signatures (G3, H) continuous from the Orvar Odds saga. — Copy in the 

Yale University Library. 
The first two chapters in Snorra Edda, ed by R. K. Rask, Stockholm 1818. 

PP- 354-357 ' Um Brisinga-men 1. 
In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 589-407. — Flateyjarbok. I. i860, 
pp. 275-283. — Fornaldars. I. 3. 1885. pp. 97-112; new ed. I. 
1891. pp. 267-281. 
Extract in Antiquites Russes. I. 1850. p. 234. 

Danish. — In Rafn's Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 363-376. 
In Horn's Nord. Heltesag. 1876. pp. 185-199. 
Paraphrase in Sagaer fortalte af Br. Snorrason og Kr. Arentzen, IV. 1850. 

pp. 1 13-129. 

English. — The tale of Hogni and Hedinn. In Three Northern 
love stories, and other tales. Transl. from the Icelandic by 
Eirikr Magnusson and William Morris. London 1875. pp. 187- 
210, (245-246). — New ed. London 1901. pp. 201-225, (265- 
266). — For another ed., ^<f^ Islandica. I. p. 40. 

Latin. — In the edition of 1697. 

Swedish. — In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. V. pp. 

Beer, Ludwig. Zur Hildensage. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. u. 

Lit. XIV. 1889. pp. 522-572. 
Boer, R. C. Untersuchungen iiber die Hildesage. In Zeitschr. f. deut. 

Philol. XL. 1908. pp. 1-66, 184-218, 292-346. 
Fecamp, Albert. Le po^me de Gudrun, ses origines, sa formation et son 

histoire. Paris 1892. ( Biblioth^que de I'lfecole des hautes Etudes. 90.) 

8°. pp. xxxvii -f- 288. {Inaug.-diss.) 


Bibliographic chronologique, pp. 237-260. Reviews: Literaturbl. f. 

germ. u. rom. Philol. XVI. 1895. coll. 302-305, by Hermann Fischer ; — 

Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXII. 1896. pp. 392-394, by E. Martin ; — Revue 

critique N. S. XXXIX. 1895. pp. 186-191, by H. Lichtenberger. 
Klee, Gotthold I^udwig. Zur Hildesage. Leipzig 1873. 8^. pp. 58 + (2). 

Kolbing, E. Die Sorla-rimur in ihrem verhaltniss zu dem Sorla-J)dttr und 

zur Sorla-saga hins sterka. In his Beitrage zur vergleich. gesch. der 

romantischen poesie und prosa des mittelalters. 1876. pp. 197-200. 
Meyer, Wolfgang. Zur Hildensage. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. 

u. Lit. XVL 1891. pp. 516-532. 
Miillenhoff, Karl. Frija und der halsbandmythus. In Zeitschr. f. deut. 

Altert. XXX. 1886. pp. 217-260. (Bd. by F. Niedner). 
Panzer, Friedrich. Hilde-Gudrun. Eine sagen- u. literargeschichtliche 

Untersuchung. Halle 1901. 8°. pp. 452 (5^^ pp. 155-182). 

Reviews: Archiv f. d. Stud. d. neueren Spr. u. Litt. CVIII. 1902. pp. 

395-416, by R. Much ; — Deut. Lit. zeit. XXII. 1901. coll. 2327-30, by E. 

Martin ; — Philologiai kozlony. XXVI. 1902. pp. 912-917, by G. Hein- 

rich ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XXIII. 1902. coll. 321-328, 

by B. Symons ;— Gott. gel. Anz. 1902. pp. 767-785, by W. Wilmanns ; — 

Revue critique. N. S. LIV. 1902. pp. 210-212, by F. Piquet ;— The 

Athenaeum. 1901. I. pp. 152-153 ;—Beil. zur Allgem. Zeit. 1901. No. 159. 

pp. 1-4, by W. Golther ;— Zeitschr. f . deut. Philol. XXXVII. 1905. pp. 

515-527, by G. Ehrismann. 
Schatz, J. Ein zeugniss zur Hildesage. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. L. 

1908. pp. 341-345- 
Sturlaugs saga starfsama. 

MSS.: AM. 335, 4° (c 1400); 589F, 4° (i5tb cent.), 173 fol., 171 A foL 

Originally written about 1300. 
Sagann Af Sturlauge hinum starfsama. Eller Sturlog then 
Arbetsammes historia Fordom pa gamtnal Gothiska skrifwen 
och nu pa Swenska uthalkad aff Gudmund Olofz-Son Reg. 
Trauslatore Lingvae Antiqvse. Tryckt i Upsala Ahr 1694. 4°- 
pp. (4) -h 76. 

Contents: preface, pp. (3)-(4); text with ySwedish version, pp. 1-76. — 

( Warmholtz, no. 2557. ) Mobius on the authority of Klemming mentions 

a later edition by Rudbeck, but does it exist ? 

(AM. 173 fol.). In Fornaldars. III. 1830. pp. 592-647. — III. 

1889. pp. 459-502. 
Swedish. — In the edition of 1694. 
Detter, Ferd. Der Siegfriedmythus. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. 

u. Lit. XVIII. 1893. pp. 194-202. 
Svipdags t>dttr. See Hr61fs saga kraka. 



T6ka l)dttr T6kasonar. 

A 14th cent, compilation (similar to the Norna-Gests pdttr) in the 6lafs 
saga helga of the Flateyjarb6k (II. 1862. pp. 135-138). 

In Fornmanna sogur. V. 1830. pp. 299-303. 

Danish. — In Oldnordiske Sagaer. V. 1831. pp. 270-274. 

Latin. — Svb. Egilsson's version in Scripta historica Islandorum. 
V. 1833. pp. 282-286. 

Upplendinga konungum, Af. 

A genealogical tale of the 1 3th cent. , probably abstract of older works ; 
found only in the Hauksb6k-MSS. 
In Langebek's Scriptores rerum Danicarum. II. 1773. fol. pp. 

266-2'ji,facsim., tbl. 
In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 101-106. — II. 1886. pp. 47-51. 
In Hauksbok udg. efter de arnamagnseanske handskrifter No. 

371, 544 og 675, 4° samt forskellige papirshandskrifter [ved 

Finnur Jonsson og Eirikur Jonsson]. Kobenhavn 1892-96. 

pp. Ixxxviii, 456-457. 
Danish. — In Rafn's Nord. Ksempe-Hist. I. C. 1822. pp. 133- 

137. — Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 97-100. 
Latin. — J6n Olafsson's version with the edition of 1773. 
Swedish. — In Kroningssvard's Nord. Sago-Bibl. 1834. II. pp. 

Vals l)^ttr. See Hdlfdanar saga Eysteinssonar. 

Velents saga. 

Forms a part of the I>i9reks saga (q.v.) representing the North German 
version of this tale. The Norse form is to be found in the V61undarkvi9a 
of the Ssemundar Edda. 
Danish. — Velents saga. Oversat af det Islandske ved A. 
Oehlenschlaeger. In Det skandinaviske Litteraturselskabs 
Skrifter. V. 1809. pp. 355-403. — Also sep. repr. Kiobenhavn 
1810. 8". pp. 51. 
Paraphrase (Velent Smed og bans Son Vidga) by Oehenschlager, in his 
Nord. Oldsagn. 1840. pp. 204-229 ; 1853. pp. 151-168. 

Boer, R. C. VolundarkviQa. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXIII. 1907. pp. 

I 13-142. 
Brate, Erik. Die Name Wielant. In Zeitschr. f. deutsche Wortforschung. 

X. 1908. pp. 173-181. {^cf. W. van Helten : Noch einmal zum Namen 

Wielant. Ibid. XII. 1910. pp. 131-133). 
Bugge, Sophus. The Norse lay of Way land ( " VolundarkviSa " ) and its 

relation to English tradition. In Saga-Book of the Viking Club. II. 

1901. pp. 271-312, \ pi. 



Det oldnordiske Kvad om Volund ( V61undarkvi9a) og dets Forhold 

til engelske Sagn. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXVI. 1910. pp. 33-77. 

Depping, G. B. aud Michel, F. Veland le forgeron. Dissertation sur una 
tradition du moyen age, avec les textes islandais, anglo-saxons, anglais, 
allemands et fran5ais-romans qui la concernent. Paris 1833. 8". pp. viii + 
97 -|- {1).— English ed.: Wayland Smith. A dissertation on a tradition 
of the middle ages. With additions by S. W. Singer, And the amplified 
legend by Oehlenschlager. London 1847. 8°. pp. (8) + xci +(4)4- 64. 

Detter, Ferd. Zur Volundarkvida. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. III. 1886. 

pp. 309-319- 
Forster, Max. "Stummer Handel" und Wielandsage. In Archiv f. das 

Stud. d. neuer. Spr. u. Lit. CXIX. 1907. pp. 303-308. 
Golther, W. Die Wielandsage und die Wanderung der f rankischen Helden- 

sage. In Germania. XXXIII. 1888 pp. 449-480. 

Reviews: Dania. I. 1890-92. pp. 293-294, by A. Olrik ;— Nord. tidskr. 

(Letterstedtska). 1889. pp. 304-311, by R. Steffen. 
Klockhoff, Oscar, De nordiska framstallningarna af Tellsagan. i. Sagan 

om Egil bagskytten, Velents broder. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XII. 

1896. pp. 171-177- 
Krause, Ernst iC. Sterne). Wieland der Schmied. Eine germanische 

Ursage aus Pfahlbauzeiten. In Der Sonntagsbeilag zu " Vossische 

Zeitung" 1892. (25). 
Maurus, P. Die Wielandsage in der Literatur. Erlangen & Leipzig 1902 

(Miinchener Beitr. zur rom. u, engl, Philol, hrsgg, v, H. Breymann u 

J. Schick. XXV. ) 8". pp. xxv + 226, 
Meyer, Karl. Die Wielandssage. In Germania. XIV. 1868, pp. 283-300 
Niedner, Felix. V61undarkvil)a, In Zschr, f, deut, Altert, XXXIII, 1889 

pp, 24-46. {Cf. also his Zut Liederedda. Berlin 1896. 4". pp. 17-25). 
Schiick, Henrik. Volundsagan. In Arkiv. f. nord. Filol. IX. 1893. pp 

Szczspauski, G. v. Wieland der Schmied. In Am Urquell. I. 1890. pp, 

149-151, i62f., 177-179. 200-203. 
Veckenstedt, Edm. Wieland der Schmied und die Feuersagen der Arier, 

In Zschr. f. Volksk. I. 1889. pp. 263-270, 289-309, 329-344, 371-381. 
Wis^n, Th. Hjeltesangerne i Samunds Edda forklarade. Lund 1866. pp 

Vikars saga. See Gautreks saga. 
Vikars t>dttr. See Halfs saga ok Hdlfsrekka. 
Vilkina saga. See PiSreks saga af Bern. 

Volsunga saga. 

MSS.: Ny kgl. Saml. 1824B, 4" (c. 1400); AM. 6-7, fol. (17th cent, on 
paper) etc. Was written in the second half of the 13th cent., and based 
on a lost saga of SigurQr Fdfnisbani and the heroic poems of the 
Saemundar Edda ; it was written as an introductory saga to the Ragnars 
saga lo5br6kar (q.v. ), together with which it is found in the MSS. 
The rimur are probably from the first half of the 15th cent. 


In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. XI. pp. 115. 
In Hagen's Altnord. Sagen u. lyieder. 1814. pp. 17-118. 
In Fornaldars. I. 1829. pp. 1(3-234. 
In Bugge's Norr. Skrifter. 1865. pp. 81-199. 
Volsunga saga. Valdimar Asmundarson hefir bui9 undir prentun. 
Texta-utgdfa. Reykjavik 1884. (Fornaldarsogur NorQrlanda. 
I. 2). 8°. pp. 95. — New ed. I. 1891. pp. 85-173. 
Reprint of Bugge's text. 
Die prosaische Edda im Auszuge nebst Volsunga-saga und Norna- 
gests-thdttr, Mit ausfuhrlichem Glossar herausgegeben von 
Ernst Wilken. Theil I : Text. Theil II : Glossar. Paderborn 
1877-83. (Bibliothek der altesten deutschen Litteratur- 
Denkmaler. XI. -XII. Bd.) 2 vols. 8°. pp. cviii + 264, vi + 
Volsunga saga, pp. vi-lxxxv, 147-234. Reviews: Zeitschr. f. deut. 
Philol. XII. 1881. pp. 83-113, 368, by B. Symons ;— Anz. f. deut. 
Altert. X. 1884. pp. 350-356, by E. Mogk ;— Deut. Lit.-zeit. IV. 1883. 
coll. 1224-25, by H. Gering ; — Nordisk revy. 1883. no. 4, by R. Arpi; — 
Germania. XXIV. 1879. pp. 352-363, by A. Edzardi ;— Lit. Cbl. XXIX. 
1878. coll. 1448-50, by A. Edzardi ; XXXIV. 1883. coll. 1642-43, by E. 
Mogk ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. V. 1884. coll. 172-174, by 
B. Symons. 
Die Volsungasaga. Nach Bugges Text mit Einleitung und 
Glossar herausgegeben von Wilhelm Ranisch. Berlin 1891. 8°. 
pp. xviii + 216. — 2. unveranderte Auflage. Berlin 1908. 8°. 
pp. xviii + 216 -f (2). 
Reviews: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XVIII. 1892 pp. 219-241, by F. 
Niedner ;— Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. XXV. 1893. pp. 394-399, by B. 
Symons ; — Arkiv f. nord. Filol. VIII. 1892. pp. 93-96, by G. Ceder- 
schiold ; — Literaturbl. f. germ, u rom. Philol. XII. 1891. coll. 264- 
265, by W. Golther ;— Lit. Cbl. XLIII. 1892. coll. 59-60, by E. Mogk ;— 
Deut. Lit.-zeit. XII. 1891. col. 1533, by E. Kolbing ;— Revue de I'in- 
struction publique en Belgique. XXXV. 1893, by A. Bley. 
Volsunga saga ok Ragnars saga loQbrokar udgivet for Samfund 
til udgivelse af gammel nordisk litteratur ved Magnus Olsen. 
Kobenhavn 1906-08. 8°. pp. (4) + cii + (2) -h 231. 
The text of Ny kgl. saml. 1824B, 4". Volsunga saga, pp. i-iio. 
Volsungsrimur (Rimur af Volsungi hinum 6borna. AM. 604G, 
4°). In Edda Ssemundar hrsgg. von Theodor Mobius. Leipzig 
i860, pp. 240-254. — In Fernir fornislenskir rimnaflokkar, er 
Finnur j6nsson gaf ut. Kaupmannahofn 1896. pp. 43-59 ; 


repr. in Rimnasafn udg. ved Finnur j6nsson. 4. haefte. 
Kobenhavn 1909. pp. 310-350. 
Danish. — Volsunga-Saga eller Historien cm Sigurd Fafnersbane, 
efter islandske Haandskrifter fordansket, med oplysende An- 
mserkninger ved Carl Christian Rafn. Kjobenhavn 1822. 
(Nordiske Kaempe-Historier. I. 2). 8^ pp. x -f 166. — Repr. 
in Nord. Fort. Sag. I. 1829. pp. 106-217. 
Review : Dansk Litteratur-Tid. 1822, pp. 753-756. 
In Horn's Nord. Heltesagaer. 1876. pp. 1-9 1. 
Sagaen om Volsungerne oversat efter det Islandske af V. Ullman. 

Kjobenhavn 1873. 8°. pp. (4) + 107. 
Volsungernes saga. Oversat fra Oldnorsk af P. Ulleland. Fager- 
strand pr. Hovik [1887]. (Bibliothek for de tusen hjem. No. 
49-51)- 8". pp. 112. — New ed. Kristiania 1903. 8^ pp. 112. 
Paraphrase : Oehlenschlagers Nord. Oldsagn. 1840. pp. 166-203 I 1853. pp. 

BNGiyiSH. — Volsunga saga. The story of the Volsungs and 
Niblungs with certain songs from the Elder Edda. Translated 
from the Icelandic by Eirikr Magntisson and William Morris. 
I^ondon 1870. 8°. pp. xx + 275. — New ed. Ed. with intro- 
duction and notes by H. Halliday Sparling. London 1888. 
(Camelot Series, ed. by Ernest Rhys). 8°. pp. Hi + 276. — 
New ed. Supplemented with legends of the Wagner trilogy by 
Jessie ly. Weston. Rasmus B. Anderson, editor in chief, J. 
W. Buel, managing editor. Publ. by the Norroena Society, 
London, Stockholm, New York, etc. 1906. 8°. pp. (4) + vi + 
340, a,pls. (^<?<?pp. 1-158, I />/.). 
Review: The Academy. Aug. 13, 1870. pp. 278-279, by G. A. Simcox 
(with assistance of GuSbr. Vigfiisson); — The Athenaeum. I. 1870. pp. 
Paraphrase in G. W. Cox and E. H. Jones's Tales of the Teutonic Ivands. 

London 1872. pp. 31-78. 

Sagas from Norse antiquity. Re-told from Old-Norse by Jno. B. Miller. 

Volsunga saga. In Scandinavia. Vol. I. Chicago 1884. 4'. pp. 308- 


French. — Histoire legendaire des Francs et des Burgondes aux 

Iir et IV' siecles par E. Beauvois. Paris 1867. 8^ pp. viii -f 

La saga des Voelsungs et des Niflungs, pp. 3-108, 241-267. — Reviews : 
Lit. Cbl. XVIIL 1867. coll. 1238-40 ;— Revue critique. III. i. 1868. pp. 
18-23, by Karl Bartsch. 


German.— Volsunga-Saga oder Sigurd der Fafnirstodter und die 
Niflungen. Uebersetzt von Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen. 
Breslau 1815. (Nord. Heldenrom. IV.) 8°. pp. (6) -f- xxvi 4- 
216. — 2. Auflage. VoUig umgearbeitet von A. Edzardi. 1880. 
pp. 3-220. 
Extracts from v. d. Hagen's version in WoUheim da Fonseca's Die 
National-Ivit. der Skandinavier. I. 1875. pp. 180-194. 
Die Sage von den Wolsungen und Niflungen in der Edda und 
Wolsunga-saga von August Raszmann. Hannover 1857. (^^^ 
deutsche Heldensage und ihre Heimat. I. Bd.) 8°. pp. xxx -|- 
423. — 2. Ausgabe {Title-ed.). Hannover 1863. 
Die Saga von den Volsungen und Nibelungen. Aus der altnor- 
dischen Volsunga-Saga frei iibertragen von Anton Edzardi. 
Stuttgart 1881. 8". pp. xvi + 123. 
Reviews: IM. Cbl. XXXII. 1881. coll. 1 145-47, by B. Symons ;— 
Magaz. f. die Ivit. des In- u. Ausl. 188 1, by J. C. Poestion ;— Deut. Lit. 
zeit. II. 1881. col. 440, by O. Brenner. 
In Kiichler's Nord. Heldensag. 1892. pp. 129-259. 
Die Sage von den Wolsungen und Niflungen. Der Jugend erzahlt von E. 

Falch. Leipzig 1904. 8*^. pp. 40. 
Das Nibelungenlied im Auszuge nach dem Urtext mil den entsprechenden 
Abschnitten der Wolsungensage erlautert und mit den notigen Hilfs- 
mitteln versehen von G. Botticher und K. Hinzel. Halle a. S. 1892 
(Denkmaler der alteren deutschen Litteratur. I. 3). 8^ pp. viii + 115 
{see■g^^. 6-28). — 12. Aufl. 1911. 8*^. pp. viii + i79- 
Latin. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Norwegian. — Soga um Volsungarne. Gamalnorsk grunntext 
og nynorsk umsetjing ved T. Hanaas. Oslo 1907. (Gamal- 
norske bokverk utg. af det norske Samlaget. I.) 8". pp. 181. 
Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 
Historia Volsungorum svetice reddita, cujus partem I-III sub- 
jiciunt Adolphus Ivarus Arvidsson et A. A. Laurell (S. J. 
Backman) (Job. von Becker). Abose 1820-21. 8°. pp. (6) -j- 
xix 4- 32 + viii. 
Contents: proemium, pp. i-xix ; text (chap. 1-20), pp. 1-32; Adno- 
tanda, pp. i-viii. No more publ. Abo inaug.-diss. 
Volsungarne. Forn-nordisk hjeltesaga. Julklapp tilegnad Hist- 
oriens Unga Vanner af C. G. K [roningssvard] . Stockholm 
1842. 12". pp. vii + 93. 
A paraphrase. 
In [Backman' s] Nord. Kampadat. 1858. pp. 1-45. 


Paraphrases : Ekermann's Fran Nord. Fornt. 1895. pp. 1-33, illustr. — 
Hedda Andersson's Nord. sagor berattade for barn. 2. saml. 1896. pp. 
1-28, 2 pis. 

The Faroish ballads about the Volsungs : Fseroiske Qvseder om Sigurd 
Fofnersbane og bans ^t. Med et Anhang. Samlede og oversatte af 
Hans Christian Lyngby. Med en Indledning af P. E. Miiller. Randers 
1822. 8°. pp. xxii+ (2) 4- 592, tbl. {Rev.: Dansk Litteratur-Tid. 
1824. No. 50. pp. 785-800, by Chr. Molbech ;— Svensk Litteraturtidn. 
1824. Nos. 7-9, by G. W. Gumaelius ;— Gott. gel. Anz. 1824. pp. 1417- 
28, by W. Grimm,. repr. in Kleinere Schriften. II. 1882. pp. 338-347). 
Sj6r5ar kvsedi, samlede og besorgede ved V. U. Hammershaimb udgivne 
af det nordiske Literatur-Samfund. Kobenhavn 1851. (Faeroiske 
Kvseder. I.) 8". pp. iv -f (2) -\- 242. 

Sjlardar kvseSi. Die faroischen Lieder von Sigurd. Zum erstenmal mit 
Einleitungen, Anmerkungen und ausfiihrlichem Glossar hrsgg. von 
Max Vogler. I. Regin smiQur. Paderborn 1877. 8°. pp. vi-f-(2)4" 
106 4- (2). {Rev.: Anz. f. deut. Altert. IV. 1878. pp. 113-125, by K. 
Miillenhoff ; — Germania. XXII. 1877. pp. 440-446, by B. Symons ; — 
Lit. Cbl. XXVIII. 1877. coll. 1447-48, by A. Edzardi). 
Altislandische Volks-Balladen und Heldenlieder der Faringer, iibersetzt 
von P. J. Willatzen. Bremen 1865. pp. 237-354. — 2. Aufi Bremen 1897. 
pp. 85-178. 

For other Scandinavian ballads, cf. S. Grundtvig's Danmarks gamle 
Folkeviser. I. 1853. pp. 7-55 ; IV. 1875. PP- 586-595 ;— M. B. Land- 
stad's Norske Folkeviser. I. 1853. pp. 111-138. 

Abeling, Theodor. Das Nibelungenlied und seine Literatur. Eine Bibli- 
ographie und vier Abhandlungen. Leipzig 1907. (Teutonia. 7.) 8°. pp. 
vi -f- (2) + 257. — Supplement. 1909. 8^ pp. xx -f 76. {Reviews: Zschr. 
d. Vereins f. Volksk. XVIII. 1908. pp. 117-118; XX. 1910. pp. 337- 
338, by Herm. Michel ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XXIX. 
1910. coll. 90-92, by W. Braune). 

Becker, John. Die Atli-lieder der Edda. Halle a. S. 1907. 8". pp. (4) -f 
93 + (2). (Inaug.-diss.) 

Berger, Wilhelm. Die altnordische Attilasage. Fragment einer doctor- 
dissertation. Klausenburg 1886. 8'*. pp. 40. 

Boer, R. C. Uber die quellen von c. 26-29 der VcUsunga saga. In Zeitschr. 
f. deut. Philol. XXXV. 1903. pp. 464-483. 

Untersuchung iiber den ursprung und die entwicklung der Nibel- 

ungensage. I. -III. band. Halle a. S. 1906-09. 3 vols. 8". pp. x4- (2) + 

280; vi+ (2) + 224; (8) -f 191. 

Vol. i., pp. 1-187 were first printed in the Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. 

XXXVII. 1905. pp. 289-348, 438-505; XXXVIII. 1906. pp. 39-109. 

Contents: vol.i.: i. Abteil. Abhandlungen, pp. 1-197 (Einleitung; — 
Hagen u. Sigfrid ; — Die Brynhildsage ; — Die lieder der liicke im Codex 
regius ; — Der drachenkampf u. die Nibelunge ; — Die frauennamen der 
Nibelungensage ; — Sigfrids abkunft ; — Die sogenannte Sigfridsmar- 
chen ; — Schematische iibersicht der entwicklung der Sigfridsage ; — 
Die localisierung der Nibelungensage ; — Die |>i5rekssaga u. das Nibe- 
lungenlied ; — Die heimat der sage); 2. Abteil. Texte, pp. 199-280 (Die 


Sigur9arkvi9a yngri nach der Volsungasaga und Brot ; — Niederdeutsche 
gedichte in der I>i9rekssaga); vol. it.: 3. Abteil. Das Nibelungenlied, 
pp. 1-193 ; 4. Abteil. Nachtrage zu Abteil. I. III. und fortsetzung zu 
Abteil II pp. 195-208 ; Grimilds hsevn, pp. 209-224 ; vol. in.: 5. Abteil. 
Die entwicklung der Nibelungendichtung in der Edda, pp. 1-175 ; 6. 
Abteil. Fortsetzung von Abteil. II. IV. pp. 177-191 (Die Sigur5arkvi9a 
meiri nach der Yb\&ungSiS2igdi).— Reviews : Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXXI. 
1908. pp. 77-102, by W. Wilmanns; XXXIV. 1910. pp. 135-139, by G. 
Neckel ;— Lit. Cbl. LVII. 1906. coll. 792-793; LVIII. 1907. coll. 865- 
866; LX. 1909. coll. 330-331, by W. Golther ;— Zeitschr. d. Vereins f- 
Volksk. XIX. 1909. pp. 114-116, 333-335. by H. Lohre ;— Literaturbl. 
f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XXIX. 1908. coll. 3-5 ; XXX. 1909. coll. 97- 
98, by W. Golther ; — by G. Cederschiold in his ' ' Ordlekar och andra 
uppsatser", Stockholm 1910. pp. 204-210 (Sigrid Storr^da och Bryn- 
Bugge, Sophus. Helge-Digtene i den seldre Edda, deres Hjem og For- 
bindelser. Kjobenhavn 1896. (Studier over de nordiske Gude- og 
Heltesagns Oprindelse). 8". pp. (6) + 355 — Engl, ed.: The Home of 
the Eddie Poems with especial reference to the Helgi-lays. Revised 
edition. With a new introduction concerning Old Norse mythology. 
Translated from the Norwegian by William Henry Schofield. London 
1899. (Grimm Library. No. 11). 8°. pp. Ixxix + 408. 
Reviews: Nord. tidskr. (Letterst.) 1896. p. 425^, by S-x ; — Arkiv f. 
nord. Filol. XIV. 1898. pp. 279-287, by H. Schuck ;— Anz. f. deut. 
Altert. XXIV. 1898. pp. 136-145 ; XXVII. 1901. pp. 146-149, by F. 
Detter ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XX. 1899. coll. 58-63, by 
B. Kahle ; — Revue critique. XLVIII. 1899. pp. 125-127, by L. Pineau ; — 
Journal des Savants. 1899. pp. 695-710, by L. Duvau ; — Jahresber. der 
germ. Philol. 1896. pp. 198-200, by E. Mogk ;— Lit. Cbl. XLVIII. 1897. 
coll. 878-880, by E. Mogk ;— Zschr. d. Vereins f. Volksk. IX. 1899. 
pp. 452-455, by O. L. Jiriczek ;— Folklore. X. 1899. pp. 450-456, by F. 
Y. Powell ; — Journal of American Folklore. XII. 1899. pp. 301-303, by 
F. N. Robinson ; — Engl. Hist. Review. XIV. 1899. pp. 233-234, by W. 
A. Craigie ; — M^lusine. IX. 1899. coll. 233-234, by H. Gaidoz. 

Erpr og Eitill. Et lidet Bidrag til den nordiske Heltedigt- 

nings Historie. Videnskabsselsk. Skr. II. Hist.-filos. Kl. 1898. No. 5. 
Kristiania 1898. 8°. pp. 12. 

Bidrag til den germanske Heltedigtnings Historie. I. Begyndelsen 

af Volsunga saga. In Arkiv. f. nord. Filol. XVII. 1901. pp. 41-53. 

Die heimat der altnordischen lieder von den Welsungen und den 

Nibelungen. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. u. Lit. XXII. 1897. 

pp. 115-134 ; XXXV. 1909. pp. 240-271, 465-493- 

Cramer, W. Kriemhild. Eine sagengeschichtliche Untersuchung. i. Teil. 
Kriemhild-Gudrun nach den Quellen zur Heldensage, mit Ausschluss 
des Nibelungenliedes. Colmar 1897. 4°. pp. 44. {School-program). 

Fritzner, Johan. Bevise Navnene i de nordiske Volsungasagn, at disse ere 
laante fra Tydskerne. In (Norsk) Hist. Tidsskr. I. 1871. pp. 179-186. 



Gildersleeve, Virginia C. Brynhild in legend and literature. In Modern 

Philology. VI. 1909. pp. 343-374. 
Golther, Wolfgang. Studien zur germanischen Sagengeschichte. I. Der 

Valkyrjenmythus. II. tJber das Verbal tniss der nordischen und 

deutschen Form der Nibelungensaga. (Abhandl. der kgl. bayer. Akad. 

der Wiss. 2 Abth. B. XVIII). Miinchen 1889. 4". pp. 106. 

Reviews : Deut. Lit. zeit. XI. 1890. coll. 226-229, by R. Henning ; 

reply by Golther, ibid. coll. 333-334 ;—Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. 

Philol. XI. 1890. coll. 213-218, by B. Symons ;— Ivit. Cbl. XL. 1889. 

coll. 763-764, by A. Schullerus ;— Nord. tidskr. (Letterst.) 1889. pp. 

291-31 1, by R. Steffen ; — Dania. I. 1890-92. pp. 290-297, by A. Olrik ; — 

Cf. Beil. zur Allgem. Zeit. 1890. No. 60. pp. 1-3 (Golther : Die 

Bntstehung der Nibelungen-Sage). 
Die nordischen Volkslieder von Sigurd. In Zeitschr. f . vergleich. 

Litteraturgesch. N. F. II. 1889. pp. 205-212, 269-297. 

Ueber die Sage von Siegfried und den Nibelungen. Ibid. N. F. 

XII. 1898. pp. 186-208, 289-316. 
Grimm, Jacob. J6nakr und seine sohne. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. III. 

1843. PP- 151-158. 
Grimm, Wilhelm. Bntstehung der altdeutschen Poesie und ihr Verhaltniss 

zu der nordischen. In Studien, hrsgg. v. C. Daub u. F. Creuzer. IV. 

Heidelberg 1808. pp. 75-121, 216-288. — Repr. in his Kleinere Schriften. 

I. 1881. pp. 93-170. 
Heinzel, Richard. Ueber die Nibelungensage. In Sitzungsber. der philos.- 

hist. CI. der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissensch. zu Wien. CIX. 1885. 

pp. 671-718. — Also Sep. repr. Wien 1885. 8°. pp. 50. 

Reviews: Deut. Lit. -zeit. VII. 1886. coll. 669-670, by A. F. Schon- 

bach;— Lit. Cbl. XXXVII. 1886. coll. 449-454, by B. Symons ;— Anz. 

f. deut. Altert. XIII. 1887. pp. 138-146, by S. Singer ;— Zeitschr. f. das 

Realschulwesen. III. 3, by S. Singer. 
Heusler, Andreas. Die Lieder der Liicke im Codex Regius der Edda. In 

Germanistische Abhandlungen Herm. Paul dargebracht. 1902. pp. i- 

98. — Also sep. repr. Strassburg 1902. 8°. pp. 98. 

Reviews: Journ. of Engl, and Germ. Philol. V. 1903-05. pp. 209-213, 

by Finnur J6nsson ; — Deut. Lit. -zeit. XXIII. 1902. coll. 1894-95, by R. 

M. Meyer. 
Hungerland, Heinz. Zeugnisse der Volsungen- u. Niflungensage aus der 

skaldendichtung (8-16 jahrh.) In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XX. 1904. 

pp. 1-43, 105-142. — The first pari also sep. repr. as inaug.-diss. (Kiel). 

Lund 1903. 8». pp. (4) + 43 + (4)- 
Jaeger, Franz. Ueber einige wesentliche Unterschiede zwischen dem 

Nibelungen-Liede und den Liedern der Edda. In XXV. Programm 

des k. k. Staats-Gymnasium zu Klagenfurt. 1875. pp. 13-33. 
Jiriczek, O. L. Der Vergessenheitstrank in der Nibelungensage. In 

Zeitschr. f. vergleich. Litteraturgesch. N. F. VII. 1894. pp. 49-59. 
Kauffmann, Friedrich. Zur geschichte der Sigfridsage. In Zeitschr. f. 

deut. Philol. XXXI. 1898. pp. 5-23. 


Kermode, P. M. C. Saga illustrations of early Manx monuments. In Saga- 
Book of the Viking Club. I. 1897. pp. 350-369, illustr. 

Koch, Ernst. Ueber die Sage von den Nibelungen. In Jahresbericht iiber 
die konigl. Landesschule zu Grimma. 1868. 4°. pp. 3-35. — The same : 
Die Nibelungensage nach ihren altesten Ueberliefungen erzahlt und 
kritisch untersucht. 2. Auflage. Grimma 1872. 8^ pp. (2) -|- 78. 

Landmann, Karl. Die nordische Gestalt der Nibelungensage und die 
neueren Nibelungendichtung. Program des Realgymnasium zu Darm- 
stadt 1887. 4*^. pp. 54. {Review : Archiv f. das Studium d. neueren 
Spr. u. Litt. IvXXX. 1888. pp. 464-465). 

Mayer, Chr. Aug. Briinhilde. Bine Untersuchung zur deutschen Helden- 
sage. In Zeitschr. f. vergleich. Litteraturgesch. N. F. XVI. 1906. 8". 
pp. 119-171. (Die nordische Uberlieferung, pp. 125-159 ; — Die nieder- 
deutsche Uberlieferung, pp. 160-164). 

Mogk, Eugen. Die alteste Wanderung der deutschen Heldensage nach dem 
Norden. In Forschungen zur deutschen Philologie. Festgabe fiir R. 
Hildebrand. Leipzig 1894. pp. i-io. 

Reviews: Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom.. Philol. XVI. 1895. col. 73, by 
W. Golther ;— Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. XXVII. 1895. p. 404, by L. 

Die germanische Heldendichtung mit besonderer Riicksicht auf die 

Sage von Siegfried und Brunhild. In Neue Jahrbiicher fiir das klass. 
Altert., Gesch. u. deut. Litt. I. 1898. 8^ pp. 68-80. 

Miillenhoff, Karl. Zur geschichte der Nibelungensage. In Zeitschr. f. 
deut. Altert. X. 1856. pp. 146-181. 

Die alte dichtung von den Nibelungen. i. Von Sigfrids ahnen. Ibid. 

XXIII. 1879. pp. 113-173. {Review: Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. 
Philol. I. 1880. coll. 49-53, by B. Symons). 

Deutsche altertumskunde. V. band. 2. abteil. Berlin 1891. pp. 359- 

400. (Die eddischen Nibelungenlieder). 
Reviews : Zschr. f . die osterreich. Gymnasien. XLII. 1892. pp. 44-55, 
by R. Heinzel, repr. in his Kleine Schriften. 1907. pp. 398-314 ; — 
Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XII. 1891. coll. 393-395, by W. 
Golther; — Anz. f. deut. Altert. XVIII. 1892. pp. 221-241, by F. Nied- 
ner;— Deut. Lit.-zeit. XIII. 1892. coll. 946-948, by A. Heusler ; — 
Indogerm. Forsch. I. Anz. 1892. pp. 140-145, by F. Kauffmann. 

Miiller, Wilhelm. Versuch einer mythologischen erklarung der Nibelungen- 
sage. Berlin 1841. 8**. pp. vi -f- 148. 

Neckel, Gustav. Zur Volsunga saga und die Eddaliedern der liicke. In 
Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. XXXVII. 1905. pp. 19-29. 

Zu den Eddaliedern der liicke. Ibid. XXXIX. 1907. pp. 293-330 ; 

XL. 1908. pp. 219-220, 372-373. 

Aus der nordischen Nibelungendichtung. In Germ. -rom. Monats- 

schrift. I. 1909. pp. 349-356. 
Nicolaysen, Nicolay. Norske Bygninger fra Fortiden. 10. Heft. Christiania 
1879. fol. 

Contains plates showing ancient carvings in Norwegian churches repre- 
senting episodes of the Volsunga saga. 



Nover, Jakob. Ursprung und alteste Gestalt der Nibelungen-Sage. Mainz 

1880. 8". pp. 34. 

Pag^, Emil. Uber zwei prosaische Darstellungen der Nibelungensage in 
der nordischen Litteratur. Chemnitz 188 1. 4". pp.22. {School-program). 

Patzig, Hermann. Zur Geschichte des Sigfridsmythus. Berlin 1898. 4". pp. 
31. (Programm der Friedrichs-Gymnasium). 
Review : Deut. Lit. zeit. XX. 1899. coll. 221-223, by E. Mogk. 

Pestalozzi, Rudolf. Siegmunds schwert. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. LH. 
1910. pp. 259-269. 

Pineau, Leon. Les vieux chants populaires scandinaves. II. ::fepoque 
barbare. Paris 1901. pp. 183-329 (Le cycle de Sigurdr). 

Polak, L^on. Untersuchungen iiber die Sigfridsagen. Inaugural-Disser- 
tation. Berlin 19 10. 8°. pp. 146 + (2). 

Review :lMi^r2XVir\i\. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XXXII. 191 1. coll. 395- 
397, by W. Golther. 

Raszmann, August. Wodan und die Nibelunge. In Germania. XXVI. 

1881. pp. 279-316, 376-379- 

Reden, Franz v. Versuch einer kritischen Entwicklung der Geschichte des 

hornenen Siegfrieds, oder Sigurds des Schlangentodters, und der 

Bestimmung der Epoche seines thatenreichen Lebens und schmahlichen 

Todes, und des Unterganges der Giukungen. Karlsruhe u. Baden 1818. 

8". pp. ix + 156 + (2), I tbl. 
Rieger, Max. Die Nibelungensage. In Germania. III. 1858. pp. 163-198. 
Roediger, Max. Die Sage von Ermenrich und Schwanhild. In Zeitschr. 

d. Vereins f. Volksk. I. 1891. pp. 241-250. 
Rost, Olaf. Sigurd Faavnersbane. Folkelsesning. Odense 1876. 8''. pp. 96. 
Sander, [Nils] Fredrik. Hvem Sigurd Faf nersbane ? Ett bidrag till fragans 

besvarande hemtadt fran runskriften a Rokstenen i Ostergotland. 

Stockholm 1883. 80. pp. iv -f- 248, \ph. 
Sarrazin, G. Der Ursprung der Siegfried-Sage. In Zeitschr. f. vergleich. 

Litteraturgesch. N. F. XI. 1897. pp. 1 13-124. 
Save, Carl. Sigurd-ristningarna a Ramsunds-berget och Gok-stenen 

beskrifna. In Kgl. vitterh., hist. o. antiqv. akademiens handlingar. 

XXVI. Stockholm 1869. pp. 321-364, 2 pis. — German version: Zur 

Nibelungensage. Siegfriedbilder beschrieben und erklart. tJbersetzt 

und mit Nachtragen versehen von J. Mestorf. Hamburg 1870. 8°. pp. 

88, ^pls. 
Schierenberg, G. A. B. Die Gnitaheide. Wo liegt es ? und welches sind die 

Dorfer Horus und Kiliandr? In Zeitschr. f. vaterland. Gesch. u. 

Altertumskunde. XLVI. 1889. pp. 123-131. 
Schofield, W. H. Signy's lament. In Publications of the Mod. Lang. 

Association of America. XVII. 1902. pp. 262-295 (cf.W. W. Lawrence's 

article, pp. 247-261). 
Schiick, Henrik. Sigurdsristningar. In Nord. tidskr. (Letterstedtska). 

1903. pp. 193-225. — Repr. in his Studier i nordisk litteratur- och reli- 

gionshistoria. I. Stockholm 1904. pp. 172-214. 



Schiitt, J. K. G. Die nordische Sage von den Volsungen und Giukungen. 

Husum 1845. 4°. pp. 32. {School-program^. 
Schiitte, Gudmund. En historisk Parallel til Nibelung-Sagnet. In Arkiv 

f. nord. Filol. XXIV. 1908. pp. 1-41. (i. Sigismund, Svaberkongen, 

Sigmund.— 2. Sigeberht, Sigvard, Sigfred). 
Steiger, Karl. Die verschiedenen Gestaltungen der Siegfriedsage in der 

germanischen Literatur. Uebersicht ihrer Entwicklung und ihres 

Verhaltnisses zu einander. Hersfeld 1873. 8°. pp. 123 + (2). 
Stephens, George. Volsunga-sagan paa en Runsten. In Illustreret Tidende. 

13. Mai 1877. fol. pp. 327-328. — Swedish version in Upplands Fornmin- 

nesfor. tidskr. II. 1877-90. pp. xxxvi-xxxviii, illustr. 
Strieker, Bugen. Floovant und Nibelungensage. In Zeitschr. f. deut. 

Philol. XLI. 1909. pp. 31-58. 
Symons, Barend. Untersuchungen iiber die sogenannte Volsunga saga. 

In Beitrage zur Gesch. der deut. Spr. u. Lit. III. 1876. pp. 199-303. — 

Also sep. repr. as Leipzig inaug.-diss. Halle 1876. 8°. pp. (2) + 55 -|- 

{1), being chap. I-II. (pp. 199-253 ?» Beitr.). 
Zur Helgisage. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. u. Lit. IV. 

1877. pp. 166-203 ; V. 1878. p. 192. 

Sigfrid und Brunhild. Kin beitrag zur geschichte der Nibelungen- 

sage. I. Die nordische iiberlieferung. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. 

XXIV. 1892. pp. 1-32. 

Review: Dania. I. 1890-92. pp. 298-299, by A. Olrik. 
For other commentaries, cf. I>i3reks saga. 
Ynglinga saga. For bibliography^ see Islandica. III. pp. 68-70. 

Yngvars saga vi9forla. 

MSS. : AM. 343A, 4^* (15th cent. ) and paper-MSS. A tale written in the 
14th cent, about a Swedish chieftain, known from Runic inscriptions. 
Sagan om Ingwar Widtfarne och bans Son Swen, fran gamla 
Islandskan ofwersatt, och Undersokning om ware Runstenars 
Alder, i Anledning af samma Saga, samt Foretal om Sagans 
Trowardighet ; hwaruti de forr hos osz utgifna Sagors Warde 
tillika stadfastes. Altsammans, til Nordiska Historiens och 
Sprakets Forbattring, utgifwet af Nils Reinhold Brocman. 
Stockholm 1762. 4°. pp. (2) + xliv + 280 + (6). 
The text of the saga with Swedish version fills pp. 1-48. 
In Antiquites Russes. II. 1852. fol. pp. 141-169. 
Ingvars saga vi5forla. Reykjavik 1886. (^vintyra-sogur. I. 
bindi. i. hefti). 8°. pp. 42. 
Repr. of the text of "Antiquites Russes." 
Latin. — In Antiquites Russes. 1852. 
Swedish. — In the edition of i'] 62. 



Braun, Fedor. Hvem var Yngvarr enn vi9f6rli ? Ett bidrag till Sveriges 
historia under XI ^rhundradets forsta halft. In Fomvannen. V. 
Stockholm 1810. pp. 99-118. 
Friesen, Otto von. Hvem var Yngvarr enn viSforli. Ibid. V. 1910. pp. 

I>i5reks saga af Bern, or Vilkina saga. 

MSS.: Cod. Holm. perg. 4 fol. (isthcent., second half); AM. 177, 178 
fol. (both from the 17th cent., copies of vellum-codices). This saga, 
a compilation and translation of Low German traditions, legends and 
lays, was written in Norway in the 12th and the 13th cent., getting its 
present form about the middle of the 13th cent. The writer was accord- 
ing to some critics (P. E. Miiller, Raszmann, Finnur j6nsson) an 
Icelander, while others think he was a Norwegian. The saga contains 
many more or less independent tales such as those about Velent and 
Vidga (Velents saga; q.v.), Herburt (Herburts pdttr), the Niblungs 
(Niflungasaga), Walter, Iron and Apollonius, etc. 
Wilkina saga, eller Historien om Konung Thiderich af Bern och 
hans Kampar ; samt Niflunga Sagan ; innehallandes nagra 
Gothiska Konungars och Hieltars forna Bedrifter i Ryssland, 
Polen, Ungern, Italien, Burgundien och Spanien, &c. Sive 
Historia Wilkinensium, Theoderici Veronensis, ac Niflungo- 
rum ; continens regum 2X(\ve heroum quorundam Gothicorum 
res gestas, per Russiam, Poloniam, Hungarian!, Italiam, Bur- 
gundiam, atque Hispaniam, &c. Ex MSS. codicibus lingvse 
veteris Scandicse, in hodiernam Svecicam atque lyatinam 
translata, opera Johannis Peringskiold. Stockholmis A. Dn. 
M. DCC. XV. fol. pp. (14) + 522 + (42). 
Contents: editor's preface, pp. (3)-(6) ; Formale, (7)- (14) ; text (Ice- 
landic with Swedish and Latin versions), pp. 1-522 ; Nogre slachtlinier, 
tbls. i-viii, pp. (i)-(24); Register, pp. (25)-(42). The text was pre- 
pared by Gu9m. Olafsson, and is based on Cod. Holm. 4 fol. and chart. 
100 fol. and in places retranslated from the Didrikskronike. The Swedish 
version of the Vilkina saga is by Joh. Burseus, Joh. Axelhielm and Joh. 
Hadorph jr., revised by Peringskiold; the Latin version of the whole 
work and the Swedish version of the Niflungasaga are by the editor. 
(Warmholtz, no. 1352). 
Saga Didriks konungs af Bern. Fortselling om Kong Thidrik af 
Bern og hans Kaemper, i norsk Bearbeidelse fra det trettende 
Aarhundrede efter tydske Kilder. Udgivet af C. R. Unger. 
Christiania 1853. 8". pp. xl + 381 + (2), 2facsims. 
Text of Cod. Holm. perg. 4 fol. with differing chapters from AM. 177 
fol. and variants. 
Chap. 356-394 (Grimhildar hefnd), in Th. Mobius's Analecta norraena. 
1859. pp. 204-234.— 2. Ausg. 1877. pp. 147-178. 


PiQriks saga af Bern udgivet for Samfund til udgivelse af gam- 
mel nordisk litteratur ved Henrik Bertelsen. I. -II. Kobenhavn 
1905-11. 2 vols. 8°. pp. (4) 4- xcv + 370 ; (4) + 415. 
Critical ed. based upon Cod. Holm. perg. 4, fol. with variants of the 
other MSS.—i^^z/?>z«/5.- Deut. Ut.-zeit. XXVII. 1906. coll. 1252-53, by 
W. Ranisch ; XXX. 1909. coll. 2146-47, by R. C. Boer. 
Herburts rimureSa Herburts pdttr [I>idrekss. chap. 231-239]. In Riddara 
rimur utg. af Th. Wis^n. Kopenhamn 188 1. pp. xviii-xix, 63-88. 
(AM. 604 A, 4°). 
Danish. — Saga om Kong Didrik af Bern og bans Ksemper, efter 
islandske Haandskrifter fordansket, med oplysende Anmaerk- 
ninger af C. C. Rafn. Kjobenbavn 1823. (Nord. Kaempe- 
Hist. II.) 8^ pp. (6) 4- iv + 652 + (2).— ^^j/^;-. /;2 Nord. 
Fort. Sag. III. 1830. 8". pp. (4) + 516. 
Translated from AM. 178 fol. 
French. — Histoire legendaire des Francs et des Burgondes aux 
III^ et IV^ siecles par E. Beauvois. Paris 1867. 8°. pp. viii + 


Sigurd et les Niflungs dans la saga de Thidrik de Bern, pp. 109-198, 

267-278. — For reviews, see Volsunga saga. 
German. — Wilkina- und Niflunga-Saga oder Dietrich von Bern 
und die Nibelungen. Uebersetzt von Friedrich Heinrich von 
der Hagen. I. -I II. Bd. Breslau 18 14. (Nord. Heldenrom. I.- 
III.) 3 vols. 8". pp. (4) + xii + 592 ; (6) 4- 426 ; (6) + xi + 
175. — 2. verbesserte Aufl. I. -II. Bd. Breslau 1855. 2 vols, 
8". pp. xxxiv + 351 ; (4) + 504- 

Based primarily on the Peringskiold text. — Extracts from this version 

in Wollheim da Fonseca's Die National- Litt. der Skandinavier. I. 1875. 

pp. 208-287. 

Die Sagen von den Wolsungen und Niflungen, den Wilchinen 
und Konig Thidrek von Bern in der Thidrekssaga von August 
Raszmann. Hannover 1858. (Die deutscben Heldensage u. 
ihre Heimat. II.) 8^ pp. xlvi 4- (2) + 704. — 2. Ausgabe. 
{Title-ed.). Hannover 1863. 8". 

Chapters from the saga trl. by W. Calaminus in Archiv f. das Stud. d. 

neueren Spr. u. Lit. XXXIV. 1863. pp. 37-45. 
Konig Dietrich von Bern und seine Genossen. Nach der Thidrek- 
saga erzablt von Ernst Martin. Halle 1867. 8". pp. xii + 
174 + (2). 

A paraphrase. Reviews : Blatter f. literar. Unterh. 1868. No. 12 ; — 

Magaz. f. die. Lit. des Ausl. 1867. No. 19 ;— AUgem. Lit.-zeit. 1867. No. 

19 ;— Zeitschr. f. die osterreich. Gymn. XVIII. 1867. pp. 381-382 ; — 


Zeitschr. f. das Gymnasialwesen. XXI. 1867. pp. 717-718, by W. 

Hollenberg. (cf. Germania. XIII. 363). 
I/ATIN. — In the edition of 17 15. 

Swedish. — Sagan om Didrik af Bern. Bfter svenska handskrifter 
utgifven af Gunnar Olof Hylten-Cavallius. Stockholm 1850- 
54. (Samlingar utg. af Svenska Fornskrift-Sallskapet. V. 
delen). 8^ pp. (6) + xlv + 487. 

This version was made c. 1454 from a MS. now lost of the Norwegian 

saga ; it is generally known as the Didrikskronika. This ed. is based 

on Cod. Skoklost. no. 115, 116, 4°. (i6th cent.) with variants from Cod. 

Holm. K45 ( 1 6th cent). 

G\umcBliu\s, \^G. W.\ Om en gammal swensk handskrift af Wilkina 

Saga. In Iduna. X. haftet. Stockholm 1824. pp. 243-281. (With an 

appendix, pp. 282-287, signed at end : H-r. ) 

Schuck, H. Medeltidsstudier. i . Nar of versattes Didrikskronikan ? /« 

vSamlaren. VI. 1885. pp. 60-62. 

In the edition of I'ji^. 

Konung Thidreks af Bern, och hans Kampars Historia, som af sombliga 
kallas Wilkina Saga. At end : Stockholm 1827. 8°. pp. 25. (Transla- 
tion of the first 13 chapters of the saga. No more publ. ). 

Fabula Theoderici Veronensis svecica. B codice vetusto Bibl. Reg. Holm, 
nunc primum edita. {Inaug.-diss., presses B. G. Geijer ; resp. A. Ham- 
marskiold). Upsaliae 1833. 4^ pp. (4) + 16 -f- (2). No more publ. 

In [Backman's] Nord. Kampadat. 1848. pp. 63-266. 

Bertelsen, Henrik. Om Didrik af Berns sagas oprindelige skikkelse, omar- 
bejdelseog handskrifter. Kobenhavn 1902. 8". pp. viii + 195. {Inaug.- 

Reviews: Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. XXXVII. 1905. pp. 126-143, by R. 
C. Boer ;— Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXI. 1905. pp. 81-86, by B. Mogk ;— 
Mod. Lang. Notes. XIX. 1904. pp. 53-54, by C. M. Lotspeich. 

Boer, R. C. Uber die handschriften und redactionen der I>i9reks saga. In 
Arkiv f. nord. Filol. VII. 189 1. pp. 205-343. 

I>i5reks saga und Niflunga saga. In Zeitschr. f . deut. Philol. XXV. 

1893. pp. 433-475- 

War der verfasser der f>i9reks saga ein gedankenloser kompilator? 

In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XVII. 1901. pp. 339-354. {Cf.^.VeiViVs essay). 

Das Hognilied und seine verwandten. Ibid. XX. 1904. pp. 142-184. 

Hognis sohn und racher. Ibid. pp. 185-198. 

Die urspriingliche darstellung von Hognis tod in der |>i9reks saga. 

Ibid. pp. 198-201. 

Die dichtungen von dem kampfe im Rosengarten. Ibid. XXIV. 

1908. pp. 103-155, 260-291. (Die redactionen des Rosengartens ; — Die 
I>i9rekssaga u. der Rosengarten ; — Die skand. volkslieder von Dietrich 
und seinen kampen. Ihr verhaltniss zu der deutschen tradition u. zu 
der pidrekssaga ; — Das verhaltniss der redactionen des volksliedes zu 



einander u. zu der schwed. uebersetz. der I>i9reks saga ; — Andere 
bearbeitungen des stoffes). 

— Attilas tod in deutschen iiberlieferung und die Hvenische Chronik. 
In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. u. Lit. XXXIV. 1909. pp. 195- 
266 {see pp. 207-215). 

— Die sagen von Ermanarich und Dietrich von Bern. Halle a. S. 1910. 
( Germanistische Handbibliotbek begr. v. J. Zacher. X.) 8''. pp. viii -j- 


Reviews: Lit. Cbl. LXI. 1910. coll. 1449-50, by [W.] G[oltlier];— 
Deut. Lit.-zeit. XXXI. 1910. coll. 3108-11, by A. Heusler; a reply to 
which is Boer's * ' Methodologische bemerkungen iiber die untersuchung 
der heldensage. Eine auseinandersetzung mit Andreas Heusler." 
Amsterdam 191 1. 8". pp. 28. 

— Untersuchungen iiber den ursprung und die entwicklung der Nibel- 

ungensage. I. -III. 1906-09. 

For contents, reviews, etc., see Volsunga saga. 
Busch, Hugo. Die urspriinglichen Lieder vom Ende der Nibelungen. Ein 

Beitrag zur Nibelungenfrage. Halle 1882. 8°. pp. 73. 
Doring, Bernhard. Die quellen der Niflungasaga in der darstellung der 

Thidrekssaga und den von dieser abhangigen fassungen. In Zeitschr. 

f. deut. Philol. II. 1870. pp. 1-79, 265-292. — A portion (pp. 1-72) also 

sep. repr. as Leipziger inaug.-diss.: tJber die quellen der Niflungasaga 

in der altnordischen Thidrekssaga. Halle a. S. 1869. 8". pp. (2) + 72. 

Review: Lit. Cbl. XX. 1869. coll. 1330-31. 
Dorsch, W. Zur Herbortssage. Halle 1902. {Inaug.-diss.) 8". pp.56. 
Edzardi, Anton. Zur I>i5rekssaga. I.-IV. In Germania. XXV. 1880. pp. 

47-67, 142-161, 257-272, 384. 
Flom, G. T. The noun stems in the Di3rekssaga, MB^., hand II. In The 

Journal of English and Germanic Philology. IX. 1910. pp. 27-42. 
Golther, Wolfgang. Norddeutsche und siiddeutsche Heldensage und die 

altesten Gestalt der Nibelungensage. In Germania. XXXIV. 1889. 

pp. 265-297. — Review: Dania. I. 1890-92. pp. 294-297, by A. Olrik. 
Grupp, R. Der Wilkinasaga Jarl Iron von Brandinaborg. In IV., V., VI. 

Jahresbericht iiber den historischen Verein zu Brandenburg a. H. 

Brandenburg [1875]. pp. 35-48. 
Heiberg, J. L. Theodorich som den vilde Jaeger. In Dania. IX. 1902. pp. 

239-240. ( Cf. Illustr. Deutsche Monatshefte. 1866. no. 22. p. 443, by 

W. v. Metzerich). 
Heinzel, Richard. Ueber die Walthersage. In Sitzungsber. der philos.- 

hist. CI. der kaiserl. Akad. der Wissensch. zu Wien. CXVII. Bd. 2. 

1888. 8°. pp. 100. 
Ueber die ostgothische Heldensage. Ibid. CXIX. Bd. 3. 1889. pp. 

Helm, Karl. Zur kritik der sage von Hertnits kampf mit den Isungen. In 

Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. u. Lit. XXXII. 1907. pp. 113-119. 


Holthausen, Ferdinand. Studien zur Thidrekssaga. In Beitrage zur Gescli» 

d. deut. Spr. u. Lit. IX. 1884. pp. 451-503. — Also sep. repr. as Leipziger 

inaug.-diss. Halle a. S. 1884. 8°. pp. (2) + 53 -J- (i). (i. Soest in der 

IHdrekssaga ; — 2. Die geographie der J>i5rekssaga ; — 3. Namen der 

heldensage in westfalischen urkunden). 

Reviews: Nd. Korrespondenzblatt. 1884. p. 44f.; — Nordisk revy. 1884- 

85. 18. col. 48, by O. Klockhoff. 
Jiriczek, O. L. Deutsche Heldensage. I. Band. Strassburg 1898. 8°. pp. 

xii + 331. 

Contents: Die Wielandsage, pp. 1-54 ; Die Brmanariclisage, pp. 55-118 ; 

Dietrich von Bern u. sein Sagenkreis, pp. 119-326; Nachtrage u. 

Berichtigungen, pp. 327-331. Reviews: Zeitschr. d. Vereinsf. Volksk. 

VIII. 1898. pp. 101-103, by A. Heusler ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom, 

Philol. XIX. 1898. coll. 369-71, by W. Golther ;— Museum. VI. pp. 

328-330, by R. C. Boer ; — Gott. gel. Anz. 1900. pp. 331-352, by B. 

Symons ; — Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. XXXII. 1900. pp. 371-375, by Fr. 

Kauffmann ; reply by the author issued sep. Miinster i. W. 1900. 8'', 

pp. 14 ; — Engl. Studien. XXX. 1902. p. 137, by H. Jantzen. 
Klockhoff, Oskar. Studier ofver I>i5reks saga af Bern. Upsala 1880. 

(Upsala Univ. Arsskr. 1880. Filos., sprakvetensk. och. hist, vetensk. 

VI). 80. pp. (2) + 26. 

Review: Germania. XXVI. 1881. pp. 242-248, by, A. Edzardi. 
Folkvisan om konung Didrik och hans kampar. In Arkiv f . nord. 

Filol. XVI. 1900. pp. 37-95, 103-135. (i. Grundformen ; — 2. Visans 

kalla). Cf. Forhandl. paa det femte nord. Filologmode. Kristiania 

1899. pp. 41-43. 

Grimhildsvisan. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXIII. 1907. pp. 143-189. 

(i. Forhallandet til Nibelungenlied ; — 2. Forhallandet til aldre tyska 
dikter ; — 3. Forhallandet mellem G. och I>i9reks saga samt Svenska og 
Hvenska Kronikorna). 

Krahmer, A. W. Die Urheimath der Russen in Buropa und die wirkliche 
Localitat und Bedeutung der Vorfalle in der Thidreksaga. Bin Gra- 
tulationsschreiben zu dem tausendjahrigen Bestehen des russischen 
Staates an Feodor Iwanowitsch Buszlajew gerichtet. Moskwa 1862. 8°. 
pp. 144. 

Learned, M. D. The Saga of Walter of Aquitaine. Baltimore 1892. (Publi- 
cations of the Mod. Lang. Assoc, of Arqerica. VII. i.) 8". pp. (8) -|- 
208 {see pp. 93-101). 

Meyer, Karl. Die Dietrichssage in ihrer geschichtlichen Bntwicklung. 
Basel 1868. 8°. pp. (4) + 54 -f (2). 

Reviews : Zschr. f. deut. Philol. I. 1869. pp. 375-376, by B. H. Meyer ; — 
Heidelb. Jahrbiicher. 1868. pp. 149- 151, by B. Martin. 

Miiller, Wilh. Die geschichtliche Grundlage der Dietrichssage. In Jahrb. 
f. deutsche Literaturgesch. hrsgg. von Henneberg. I. 1855. pp. 159- 

Neumann, Friedrich. Iron und Apollonius. (ThiQrekssaga Cap. 245-275). 
In Germania. XXVII. 1882. pp. 1-22. 



Pag6, Emil. tjber zwei prosaische Darstellungen der Nibelungensage in 
der nordischen Litteratur. In Programm der stadtischen Realschule 
I. O. zu Chemnitz. Chemnitz 1881. 4°. pp. 1-23. 

Panzer, Friedrich. Hilde-Gudrun. Eine sagen- u. literargeschichtliche 
Untersuchung. Halle a. S. 1901. pp. 411-430 (Die Herbortsage). 
For reviews, see Sorla pdttr. 

Paul, Hermann. Die I>i5rekssaga und das Nibelungenlied. In Sitzungsber. 
d. kgl. bayer. Akad. d. Wiss. Phil. -hist. CI. 1900. pp. 297-338. — Also 
sep. repr. Miinchen 1900. 8". — For criticism, 5<?<? Boer's article of 1901. 

Pineau, L6on. Les vieux chants populaires scandinaves. II. Epoque 
barbare. Paris 190 1. pp. 331-385 (Le cycle de Diderik von Bern). 
Reviews: Tilskueren. 1902. pp. 919-924, by Fr. de Fontenay; — Deut. 
Lit.-zeit. XXIII. 1902. coll. 2397-99, by A. Heusler ; — Mod. Lang. 
Notes. XIX. coll. 91-96, by A. Remy ;— Lit. Cbl. LIV. 1903. coll. 

Raszmann, August. Die Niflungasaga und das Nibelungenlied. Ein Beitrag 
zur Geschichte der deutschen Heldensage. Heilbronn 1877. 8°. pp. vi -f- 

Reviews : Anz. f . deut. Altert. IV. 1878. pp. 70-73, by R. Henning ; — 
Nord. Tidsskr. f. Filol. N. R. IV. 1879-80. pp. 71-72, by G. Storm ;— 
Gott. gel. Anz. 1878. pp. 77-89, by E. Wilken ;— Germania. XXIIL 
1878. pp. 73-104, by A. Edzardi ;— Lit. Cbl. XXVIII. 1877. coll. 1185- 
86, by B. Doring ;— Jenaer Lit.-zeit. 1378. pp. 538-541, by B. Symons ;— 
Revue critique. N. S. V. 1878. pp. 221-225, by A. Chuquet \—for other 
reviews, see Abeling, no. 763. 

Sandbach, F. E. The heroic saga-cycle of Dietrich of Bern. London 1906. 
(Popular studies in mythology, romance and folklore. 15). 8*'. pp. 68. 

Schonbach, A. E Ueber die Sage von Biterolf und Dietleip. In Sitzungs- 
ber. der philos.-hist. CI. der kaiserl. Akad. der Wissensch. zu Wien. 
CXXXVI. Bd. 9. 1897. 8". pp. 39. 

Reviews: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXIV. 1898. pp. 363-369, by O. L. 
Jiriczek ;— Deut. Lit.-zeit. XIX. 1898. coll. 553-554, by S. Singer. 

Scharowolskij, J. Zur Thidrekssaga. Kiew 1908. 8". (2) -j- 16. 

Storm, Gustav. Sagnkredsene om Karl den Store og Didrik af Bern hos de 
nordiske Folk. Et Bidrag til Middelalderens littersere Historic. Udg. 
af den norske historiske Forening. Kristiania 1874. 8". pp. iv -\- 245 + 

Contents : Indledning ; — Karlamagnus-saga ; — Thidreks-saga ; — De 
svensk-danske Kroniker; — De danske Folkeviser; — Folkeviserne fra 
Norge, Island og Fseroerne ; — Tillaeg, Rettelser. Reviews : Germania. 
XX. 1875. pp. 226-249, by E. Kolbing ;— Gott. gel. Anz. 1875. pp. 1468- 
72, by E. Wilken ; — Naer og Fjern (Kjobenhavn). No. 148. p. I2ff., by 
S. Grundtvig. {cf. Danm. gamle Folkev. IV. pp. 586-624), 

Nye Studier over Thidreks saga. In Aarboger for nord. Oldk. 

og Hist. 1877. pp. 297-346. (i. Haandskrifteme ;— 2. Sagaens Kom- 
position ; — 3. Sagaens Stedsforhold ; — 4. De tyske Kilder). 
Reviews: Germania. XXV. 1880. pp. 240-252, by H. Treutler ;— Jenaer 
Lit.-zeit. 1878. pp. 351-352, by A. Edzardi. 


Treutler, Hugo. Zur Thi9rekssaga. In Germania, XX. 1875. pp. 151- 

189. — Also sep. repr. as Leipziger inaug.-diss. Wien 1875. 8°. pp. 43. 
Wilmanns, Wilhelm. Die Untergang der Nibelungen in alter Sage und 

Dichtung. Berlin 1903. (Abhandl. der kgl. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. zu 

Gottingen, phil.-hist. CI. N. F. VII. 2). 4°. pp. 44. 

Reviews: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XLVIII. 1906, pp. 5-26, by Joseph 

Seemiiller ; — Zschr. f. deut. Philol. XXXVI. 1904. pp. 526-531, by E. 

Kettner ;— Lit. Cbl. LV. 1904. coll. 236-237, by R. Spiller ;— Deut. Lit. 

zeit. XXVII. 1906. coll. 801-803, by R. Henning. 
Wolfskehl, Karl Germanische Werbungssagen. I. Hugdietrich. Jarl Ap- 

pollonius. Darmstadt 1893. 8°. pp. v + 33- {Rev.: Zschr. d. Vereins 

f. Volksk. IV. 1894. p. 220, by Max Roediger). 
For other commentaries, of. Volsunga saga. 

f*6ris saga hdleggs. 

A lost saga which was connected with the Ans saga bogsveigis. The 
subject is known from the f>6ris rimur of the 15th cent. — E. Kolbing : 
Beitrage. 1876. pp. 217-220. 

I^orsteins t)dttr bsejarmagns ( * ' bsejarbarns ") . 

A 14th cent, tale ; events laid in the reign of (3lafur Tryggvason (end 
of the loth cent.) MSS.: AM. 510, 40 (end of 15th cent.); 343A, 4<' 
(15th cent.). 

In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. XV. fol. pp. 29. 

In Fornmanna sogur. III. 1827. pp. 175-198. 

Danish. — C. C. Rafn's versiori in Oldnordiske Sagaer. III. 
1827. pp. 155-175- 

German. — Version by C. Ruszwurm in Zschr. f. deut. Mythol. 
u. Sittenk. I. 1853. PP- 410-432. 

Latin. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

Svb. Egilsson's version in Scripta historica Islandorum. III. 
1829. pp. 175-196. 

Swedish. — In Bjorner's Nord. Kampadat. 1737. 

P>orsteins saga Vikingssonar. 

MSS.: AM. 152 fol. (15th cent.), 579, 4° (15th cent.), 556B, 4" (15th 

cent. ), etc. Penned in the 14th cent. 

Thorstens Viikings-sons saga pa Gammal Gothska af ett aldrigt 

Manuscripto afskrefwen och vthsatt pa wart nu wanlige sprak 

sampt medh nagra nodige anteckningar forbettrad af regni 

Sveoniae antiqvario Jacobo J. Reenhielm. Upsalse. Excudit 

Henricus Curio, M. DC. LXXX. 8^ pp. (4) + 140 + (20) + 

130 -h (2). 

Contents: dedicatory letter to King Charles XI. of Sweden, pp. (2)- 

(3) ; preface, p. (4) ; text with Swedish version, pp. 1-140 ; index of 

words (The gambla orden), pp. (i)-(i8) ; I^atin poems and letters to 


the editor, pp. (i9)-(2o) ; Notae, pp. 1-130 ; Auctores citati, pp. (i)- 
(2). (Wannholtz, no. 2564). 
Sagan af Porsteine Wij kings Syne : hsec est Torstani, Wiikingi 
filii historia. 5. tit., I. et a. [Upsalse 1697]. ^ol- PP- 95 + (i)- 
One of the Rudbeck saga editions, with J. N. Salanus's L,atin version. 
(Warmholtz, no. 2564 ; Mobius, Cat. p. 155). The issue was destroyed 
by fire. 
In Fornaldars. II. 1829. pp. 381-459. — II. 1886. pp. 53-112. 
Danish.— />^ Rafn's Nord. Fort. Sag. II. 1829. pp. 309-377. 
ENGI.ISH.— Viking Tales of the North. The Sagas of Thorstein, 
Viking's son, and Fridthjof the Bold. Translated from the 
Icelandic by Rasmus B. Anderson and Jon Bjarnason. Also, 
Tegner's Fridthjof s Saga transl. into English by George 
Stephens. Chicago 1877. 8°. pp. xviii + 370 {see pp. 1-73). 
Latin. — In the edition of 1697. 
Swedish. — In the edition of 1680. 


I. Saxonis Grammatici Gesta Danorum. 

Danorum Reguw hevoumqve Historie stilo elega^etia Saxone 

Grammatico natione Sialandico necno;? Roskildensis ecclesie 

preposito. abhinc supra trecentos annos co?2Scripte et nunc 

primu?;^ literaria serie illustrate tersissimeqz;^ impresse. Colophon 

f . Aa ii a : E chalcographia nostra [d : lodoci Badii Ascensu'] 

apud Parrhisios ad Idus Martias M. D. XIIII. luxta Romanae 

suppotationew Curiae, /ol. pp. (16) + cxcviii ; st£-s. Aa, a-z, 


Ed. by Christiern Pedersen. Title in red and with Italian renaissance 

border, vign., initials. Last leaf wrongly numbered, ought to be cxcix. 

For description of this ed. see " Aarsberetninger og Meddelelser fra det 

store Kongelige Bibliothek udg. af Chr. Bruun. I. Bd. Kjobenhavn 

1870." pp. 200-207. Cf, also Holder's ed. pp. xvii-xx. 

Saxonis Grammatici Danorum Historiae libri XVI, trecentis 

abhinc annis conscripti, tanta dictionis elegantia, rerumqw^ 

gestarum uarietate, ut cum omni uetustate contendere Optimo 

iure uidere possint. Accessit rerum memorabilium Index 

completissimus . . . Basileae apud Jo. Bebelium, M. D. 

XXXIIII. /oL pp. (32) + 190. 

Ed. by Joh. Oporinus. Reprint of the ed. of 15 14. For description 

see " Aarsberetn. og Meddel. fra det store kgl, Bibl." II. pp. 108-110. 

Danica historia libris XVI, annis ab hinc trecentis qvinqvaginta, 

svmma verborum elegantia, magna sententiarum grauitate 

rerum denique admiranda varietate, intermixtis aliarum quoque 

Gentium historijs, conscripta. Auctore Saxone Grammatico 

Sialandico Dano, historico lavdatissimo : & quod ea aetate 

omnino mirandum, tam verbis quam rebus politissimo. Cum 

indice rerum memorabilium locupletissimo. Francofvrti ad 

Moenum. Ex ofScina Typopraphica And. Wecheli. M. D. 

I.XXVI. /ol. pp. (8) + 342 + (24). 

Preface by Philippus Ivonicerus, Reprint of the ed. of 15 14. 

Saxonis Grammatici Historiae Danicae libri XVI. Stephanvs 

lohannis Stephanivs summo studio recognovit, Notisqz/^ 

uberioribus illustravit. Sorae. Typis et sumptibus loachmi 

Moltkenii Reg. Acad. Hafn. Bibliop. M. D. CXLIV. /ol. pp. 


(8) + 384 + (22) ; engr. t.-p. — Stephani Johannis Stepanii 
notae vberiores in Historiam Danicam Saxonis Grammatici. 
Una cum prolegomenis ad easdem notas. Sorae. Typis Henrici 
Crusii, Acad, typogr. Anno Messiae M. D. C. XLV. fol, pp. 
60 + 252 + (22.) 
Saxonis Grammatici Historiae Danicae libri XVI. E recensione 
Stephani Joannis Stephanii, cum prolegomenis et lectionis 
varietate edidit Chr. Adolphus Klotzius. Lipsiae 1771. 4°. pp. 
(8) 4- 600 + (26). 
Cf. Holder's ed. p. xxi. Reviews: Klotzius 's Acta litteraria. VI. 1771. 
pp. 434-438 ; — Nova acta eruditorum anno 1771 publ. Lipsiae. pp. 64- 
75 ;— Allgem. deut. Bibliothek. XXIV. 1775. pp. 484-485. 
Thomae Geysmeri Compendium Historiae Danicae ab initio ad 
Waldemarum IV. conscriptum Anno 1431. In Langebek's 
Scriptores rerum Danicarum. II. 1773. fol. pp. 286-400, 
I facsim. 
Saxonis Grammatici Historia Danica. Recensuit et commentariis 
illustravit Petrus Erasmus Miiller. Opus morte Miilleri inter- 
ruptum absolvit Joannes Matthias Velschow. Partis prioris, 
textum et notas breviores complectentis, volumen I. -II. Pars 
posterior, prolegomena et notas uberiores complectens. Havniae 
1839-58. 2 vols. 8". pp. xii + 1033; (4) + xcix + 387, 5 

Reviews: Tidsskr. f. Litt. og Kritik. III. pp. 133-142, by H. Estnip ;— 
Neue Jahrb. f. Philol. XXXI. 1841. p. iii, by J. 
Angers-Fragmentet af et Haandskrift af Saxo Grammaticus. Med en 
Indledning udg. af Chr. Bruun. Kjobenhavn 1879. 4°. pp. xxviii -f 
(2) -j- 10. — Publ. as * * Lykonskningsskrif t til Kjobenhavn Universitet 
ved dets firehundredaars Stiftelsesfest fra det store kongelige Biblio- 
Det i Angers fundne Brudstykke af et Haandskrift af Saxo Grammaticus. 
Udg. i fotolithografisk Facsimile af det kongelige danske Videnska- 
bernes Selskab [z'^fl? Chr. Bruun]. Kjobenhavn 1879. 4". pp. 6 -f- (2), 
Saxonis Grammatici Gesta Danorum herausgegeben von Alfred 
Holder. Strassburg 1886. 8°. pp. Ixxxviii + 724. 
Bibliography, pp. xi-xxv. Reviews: Nord. Tidsskr. f. Filol. N. R. 
VII. 1885-87. pp. 254-255, by A. Olrik ;— Lit. Cbl. XXXVII. 1886. 
col. 951, by W. A. ;— Deut. Lit. zeit. VII. 1886. coll. 887-888, by K. E. 
H. Krause ; — Iviteraturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. VII. 1886. coll. 356- 
357, by W. Martens. 


Danish. — Den Danske Kronicke som Saxo Grammaticus screff, 

halfffjerde hundrede Aar forleden : Nu forst af Latinen vdsset, 

flittelige off uerseet og forbedret : Aif Anders Soffrinsson Vedel. 

{Ki'dbenhav7{\ Anno M. D. LXXV. fol. pp. 547, excl. preface 

and index. — New ed, Kjobenhavn 16 10. fol. pp. 547, excl. 

preface and index. — New ed. . . . trykt paa ny og tilligemed 

Vedels Levnet af C. F. Wegener udg. ved Samfundet til den 

danske lyiteraturs Fremme. Kjobenhavn 185 1. 1.8°. pp. (6) + 

34 -}- dxlvii + (30) -+ 291 + (2) 4- xxxiii + (2). 

The ed. of 1851 is an exact reprint of the first ed. 

Den danske Kronikes forste Bog som Saxo Grammaticus paa Latin haver 

sammenskrevet . . . fordansket af Mag. Anders Sovringson Vedel . . . og 

nu flitteligen overseet, og med tilfojede Antegnelser og Kobberstykker 

forbedred af den salige Mands Datter-Datter-S6n [Joh, Laverentzen]. 

Kjobenhavn 1713. 4**. pp. 60. 

Molbech, Chr. Om Udgivelsen af Anders Vedels danske Saxo, etc. 
Kiobenhavn 1846. 8°. pp. 46. 
Saxonis Grammatici Historia Danica, paa Dansk. EUer Danske 
Historic, som Saxo Grammaticus cfter den store Erke-Biskop 
Absalons Ordre, udi Kong Valdmar den Andens Tid paa Latin 
haver sammenskrevet, indeholdendc det danske Folks Bcdrifter 
og Kongernes Bcskrivelsc fra Kong Dan I. indtil Kong Knud, 
Waldemars Son. Og nu med Flid paa ny udi det danske Sprog 
oversat, samt med Anmserkninger af andre historiskc Skriftcr 
oplyst og forklarct. Kjobenhavn 1752. 4°. pp. (6) + 29 + 
(8) +607, portr. 
Translated by Sejer Schousbolle. The version of the poems is by 
Laurids Thura, and was first printed in his "Adskillige poetiske 
Sager, tilligemed med Vers som findes hos Saxo Grammaticus. ' ' Kioben- 
havn 1 72 1. 4". — Rendering of a few prov-erbs of Saxo's into Danish by 
A. J. Bredkiaer, in " Luxdorphiana " 1791. pp. 115-118. 
Danmarks Kronike af Saxo Grammaticus fordansket ved Nik. 
Fred. Sev. Grundtvig. I. -III. Deel. Kiobenhavn 1818-22. 3 
vols. 4". xliv -f 300 + (2) ; (12) + 338 ; (10) + 460.— 2. 
Udgave. Kjobenhavn 1855. 8°. pp. (10) + 818. — 3. Udgave. 
Kjobenhavn 1873. 8°. pp. 826. — 4. Udgave. Kjobenhavn 1886. 
For a specimen of this version publ. in 1815, see Islandica. III. pp. 
23-24. — Reviews: Dansk Litteratur-Tid. 1820. no. 19-20. pp. 289-302,^ 
311-319 ; — Kjobenhavns Skilderi. 1820. Nos. 20-23, by G. L. Baden ; — 
Erganzungsbl. zur AUgem. Hall. Zeit. 1822. Nos. 91-92. pp. 721-726, 
729-732; 1829. No. 14. pp. 111-112. 


Saxo Grammaticus Danmarks Kronike. Oversat af Fr. Winkel 

Horn med Illustrationer af Louis Moe. I. -II. Del. Kjoben- 

havn, Kristiania 1898. 2 vols. 4". pp. xvi + 427 ; (4) 4- 331 + 

(18), illustr. 

Review: Lit. Cbl. ly. 1899. coll. 686-687, by A. L. 

Sakses Danesaga, fra Dan til Ingeld. Oversat af Jorgen Olrik. 

Med Indledning om Sakses Oldhistorie. Kobenhavn 191 1. 8". 

Bjarkemal gengivet efter Sakse i olddansk versem&l af Axel Olrik. Saertryk 

af Historisk m^nedsskrift [VI. pp. 244-256). Odense 1886. pp. 15. 
Danske oldkvad i Sakses historic gengivne af Axel Olrik. Udg. af Selskabet 
for historiske kildeskrifters oversaettelse. Kobenhavn 1898, 8". pp. 32. 
{Contents: Bjarkemal ; — Ingjaldskvadet ; — Hagbard og Signe ;— Hilde- 
brands dodskvad). 

Olrik' s version of the Bjarkamdl is rendered into German by W. Ranisch 
in his translation of Olrik's Nordisches Geistesleben. 1908. pp. 181- 

EngIvISH. — The first nine books of the Danish History of Saxo 
Grammaticus translated by Oliver Elton. With some considera- 
tions on Saxo's sources, historical methods, and folk-lore by 
Frederick York Powell. London 1894. (Publications of the 
Folk-lore Society. XXXIII. 1893). 8°. pp. cxxvii + 435 + 

The appendices consist of : i. Passages from later books of Saxo, pp. 
391-397 ; — 2. Saxo's Hamlet, pp. 398-413 ; — 3. Genealogies, pp. 414- 
417 ; — 4. Last news of Starkad [I>orsteins J)dttr skelks], pp. 418-421. — 
Reviews: Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XII. 1896. pp. 76-81, by A. Olrik;— 
Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXII. 1896. pp. 343-351, by O. L. Jiriczek ;— Zschr. 
d. Vereins f. Volksk. VI. 1896. p. 452, by Max Roediger. 
A reprint of this version under the editorship of R. B. Anderson was 
publ. by the so-called Norrsena Society. London, New York, etc. 1906. 
2 vols. 8°. pp. (16) + xxiv -h 618, 8 pis. 
German. — Saxo Grammaticus. Die ersten neun Biicher der dan- 

ischen Geschichte. Uebersetzt und erlautert von Hermann 

Jantzen. Berlin 1900. 8°. pp. xix -f 533. 
Reviews: Tidsskr. f. Filol. 3. R. IX. pp. 178-180, by A. Olrik;— 
Studien zur vergleich. Litteraturgesch. I. 1901. pp. 268-269, by W. 
Golther ;— Hist. Zschr. LXXXVIII. 1902. pp. 74-77, by E. Mogk ;— 
Lit. Cbl. LII. 1901. col. 1 186;— Museum. IX. pp. 251-253, by R. C. 
Boer ; — Zschr. f. Kulturgesch. IX. pp. 474-475. by G. Steinhausen. 
Erlauterung zu den ersten neun Biichern der danischen 

Geschichte des Saxo Grammaticus von Paul Hermann. I. Teil. 

tjbersetzung. Leipzig 1901. 8°. pp. (10) + 508, map. 
Reviews: Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXIX. 1904. pp. 265-267, by W. 
Ranisch ;— Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XVIII. 1902. pp. 384-385, by R. C. 


Boer ;— Tidsskr. f. Filol. 3. R. X. pp. 158-162, by A. Olrik ;— Deut. 

Lit. zeit. XXIII. 1902. coll. 544-549, by A. Heusler ; — Revue critique. 

N. S. LIV. 1902. pp. 366-368, by L. Pineau ; — Zschr. d. Vereins f. 

Volksk. XIII. 1903. pp. 106-107, by Max Roediger ;— Lit. Cbl. LV. 

1904. coll. 375-377, by E. Mogk;— Studien zur vergleich. Litteraturgesch. 

III. 1903. pp. 249-256, by H. Jantzen ;— Hist. Zschr. LXXXVIII. 1902. 

p. 530 ; — Museum. X. 15, by R. C. Boer. 
►S^/^^r/zt^w^ 2?2 Ettmiiller's Altnord. Sagenschatz 1870. (v. a.) 
Low German. — Dyt is de denscke kroneke de Saxo grammaticus 
de poeta ersten gheschreeff in dat latine vnde daer na in dat 
dudesck ghesettet, ^/^. s.l.eta. [Liibeck? c. 1490]. 8°. ff. 152. 

A translation of the abstract of Saxo, which has been ascribed to Thomas 

Gheysmer, but which is of an earlier date. For description see 

" Aarberetn.og Meddel. fra det store kgl. Bibliothek ved Chr. Bruun." 

I. 1870. pp. 39-43. 

Alan, Hans Jensen. Ad criminationes Jobs. Goropii Becani, et aliorum 
similium, objectas Saxoni Grammatico, responsio brevis. Hafniae 1627. 
4". {Inaugural-dissertation). 

The work of Becanus referred to is his Origines Antwerpianae, 
Antuerpise 1569. fol. 

Baden, G. L- Til F. v. Moltke om vor danske Histories Fader Saxo Gram- 
maticus og Trangen til en ny Udgave og Oversaettelse af Saxos paa 
Latin skrevne Danske Historic. Odense 1809. 8". pp. (2) +64. 

Boer, R. C. Zur danischen heldensage. In Beitrage zur Gesch. d. deut. 
Spr. u. Lit. XXII. 1897. pp. 342-390. 

Bruun, Chr. Om det nylig fundne Fragment af en Codex af Saxo Gram- 
maticus. In Tidsskr. f. Philol. og Paedag. II. 1861. pp. 41-51 ; cf- I- 
i860, p. 369. 

Daae, Ludvig. Nogle Studier i Saxo Grammaticus. In (Norsk) Hist. 
Tidsskr. 4. R. IV. 1907. pp. 129-160. 

Dahlmann, F. C. Einleitung in die Kritik der Geschichte von Alt-Dane- 
mark. In his Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der Geschichte. I. Altona 
1822. pp. 149-402. 

Elze, K. Zu Saxo Grammaticus (Miiller-Velschow I. 139). In Zeitschr. 
f. deut. Philol. XXI. 1889. p. 200. 

Ervallius, Joh. J. Exercitium academicum de Starkatero. (Prseses : Joh. 
Hermansson). Upsaliae 1724. 8^ pp. (10) -|- 51 -f (9). 

Foss, Anders (1543-1607). Censura de Saxone Grammatico eiusqve inter- 
pretibus, scoliastis et recapitulatoribus. In H. F. Rordam's Monu- 
menta historiae Danicae. II. Kjobenhavn 1874. 

Fries, G. Bemaerkninger til nogle Punkter i Kong Frodes Love for Haeren. 
In Aarb. f. nord. Oldk. og Hist. 1882. pp. 233-238. 

Goldschmidt, M. J. Et Par Textrettelser til Saxo. In Nord. Tidsskr. f. 
Filol. 3. R. V. 1897. p. 185. 


Helveg, Fr. Om Sakse og Snorro, navnlig den sidstes syn pa de hedenske 
frasagn. In Nord. minedsskr. II. halvirg. Odense 1872. pp. 417-443. 

Hjerrild, Henr. Nielsen. Saxo Grammaticus vindicatus, sive diss, philol.- 
hist.-critica de puritate lingvae I^atinae et castitate historiae Danicae in 
Saxone contra Joh. Gorop. Becanum, etc. Hafniae 1702. 4". 

J6nsson, Rev. J6n. Lriserus.-Beow. In Arkiv. f. nord. Filol. XV. 1899. 
pp. 255-261. 

Haddingjasaga Saxa. In Arkiv. f. nord. Filol. XXII. 1906. pp. 


Kahle, Bemhard. Nordische kleinigkeiten. i. Die ehernen rosse bei Saxo 
grammaticus. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XX. 1904. pp. 284-287. 

Knabe, C. Pemerkungen zu Saxo. Ibid. XX. 1904. pp. 94-96. (i. Wer 
ist der "avus" der Vorrede? — 2. Regulus). 

Textkritische bemerkungen zu Saxo. Ibid. XXVII. 191 1. pp. 76- 


Langebek, Jacob. Udkast til Saxonis Grammatici Forsvar. In Langebe- 

kiana. Kiobenhavn 1794. pp. 299-305. 
Latham, R. G. Two dissertations on the Hamlet of Saxo Grammaticus and 

of Shakespeare. London 1872. 8°. pp. (2) + 149. 
Leyen, F. v. d. Das marchen in der gottersagen der Edda. Berlin 1899. 

pp. 71-79 (Die marchenepisode in der Amlethsage. Saxo, Buch III.). 
Lysholm, Friederich. Certamen pro virgine Thora Borgarhjortur susc. ab 

augustiss. Danorum rege Regnero Lodbrog. Diss, antiq. -herald. -crit. 

qvam pro Saxone Grammatico contra Meursium, Loccenium, Joh. 

Magnum aliosque defendere conatur. Hafniae 171 1. 4". 

EJxercitium historicum sive theses apologeticae pro Saxone Gram- 
matico. Hafniae 1712. 4". 

Mathiadis, Joh. Historica praecipua libri primi Saxonis, qui regum Dani- 
corum et nominis Danici originem, ac regum aliquot primorum res gesta 
continet carmine scripta. Addita est series et genealogia regum Dani- 
corum, qui ante natum Christum regnarunt. Witebergae 1568. 4". 

Molbech, Chr. Saxo Grammaticus, bans Historie og Charakter, og bans 
laerde Samtidige i Danmark, under Valdemarernes Tidsalder. Kioben- 
havn 1853. 8". pp. (4) 4- 124. 

Much, Rudolf. Undensakre-Untersberg. In Zeitschr. f. deut, Altert. 
XLVII. 1903. pp. 67-72. 

Miillenhoff, Karl. Deutsche altertumskunde. V. Berlin 1891. pp. 300-356 
(Excurs iiber die Starka9sdichtung). — Neue vermehrte abdruck besorgt 
durch Max Roediger. Berlin 1908. 8°. 

Miiller, P. B. Critisk Undersogelse af Danmarks og Norges Sagnhistorie 
eller om Trovaerdigheden af Saxos og Snorros Kilder. Saersk. aftr. af 
det kgl. danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. Kiobenhavn 1823. 4". pp. (4) 4- 
314. (kSV^ pp. I-I74)- 
For reviews, see Islandica. III. p. 29. 

Miiller, Wilh. Siegfried und Freyr. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. III. 
1843. pp. 43-53. 


Nehnnann, Jonas. Disputatio hist.-literaria de Saxone Grammatico 

historico. Londini Gothorum 1772. 4°. pp. 18. 
Olrik, Axel. Kilderne til Sakses oldhistorie. En literatur-historisk under- 

sogelse. I. Forsog p& en tvedeling af Sakses oldhistorie. II. Sakses 

oldhistorie. Norrone sagaer og danske sagn. Kobenhavn 1892-1894. 

2 vols. 8°. pp. (6) 4- 175 ; X + 316. 

Vol. i., pp. 1-129, 171-175 were first publ. in Aarb. f. nord. Oldk. og 

Hist. 1892. pp. \-\2i/^.— Reviews : Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXIII. 1897. 

pp. 137-143, by F. Kauffmann ; — Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. 

XV. 1894. coll. 75-76; XVI. 1895. col. 225, by W. Golther ;— Zschr. d. 

Vereins f. Volkskunde. V. 1895. p. 112, by E. Mogk ; — Museum. III. 

by C. De la Saussaye ;— Finsk tidskr. II. 135, by A. O. Freudenthal ;— 

Lit Cbl. XIvVI. 1895. col. 340.— Cf. also Steenstrup's article given 


Tvedelingen af Sakses kilder, et genmaele [til Joh. Steenstrup]. In 

Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XIV. 1898. pp. 47-93. 

Marchen in Saxo Grammaticus. In Zeitschr. d. Vereins f. Volks- 
kunde. II. 1892. pp. 1 1 7-1 23, 252-258, 367-374. 

Er Uffesagnet indvandret fra England ? Bemserkninger til Miillen- 

hoff's Beowulf. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. VIII. 1892. pp. 368-375. 

Nogle personnavne i Starkaddigtningen. Sma bidrag til oplysning 

om Nordboernes forbindelse med Osteuropa. In Festskrift til Vilhelm 
Thomsen. Kobenhavn 1894. pp. 1 16-130. 

Review: Nord. Tidsskr. f. Filol. 3. R. III. 1894. p. 95, by G. Ceder- 
Ingjaldskvadet. In Dansk Tidsskr. 1898. pp. 164-177. 

Bjarkemaal, Danmarks aeldste digt. Ibid. 1900. pp. 1-8. 

Danske heltesagn. Tegninger af Lorenz Frolich. Folkeudgave. 

Kobenhavn 1901. 4°. pp. 96. {Review: Lit. Cbl. LHI. 1902. col. 
1466, by A. L. ). 

Danmarks heltedigtning. En oldtidsstudie. I. del. Rolf krake og 

den seldre Skjoldungarsekke. Kobenhavn 1903. II. del. Starkad den 
gamle og den yngre Skjoldungarsekke. Kobenhavn 1910. 2 vols. 8°. 
PP- (8) + 353; 322. In progress. 

Reviews: of vol. i.: Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XXI. 1905. pp. 276-280, by 
W. Ranisch ;— Anz. f. deut. Altert. XXX. 1906. pp. 26-36, by A. 
Heusler ;— Zschr. d. Vereins f. Volksk. XIV. 1904. pp. 250-252, by E. 
Mogk; — Nord. tidsskr. (Letterst. ) 1903. pp. 410-414, by Karl Morten- 
sen ; — Samtiden. XVII. pp. 46-49, by Alf Larsen ; — Literaturbl. f. germ, 
u. rom. Philol. XXVIII. 1907. coll. 8-9, by W. Golther ;— Revue 
critique. N. S. LVI. 1903. p. 487, by L. Pineau ; — Hojskolebladet. 
1903. coll. 1075-78, by M. Kristensen ;— Gotlandsk Budstikke. V. 1904. 
pp. 22-23, by E. Rordam ; — of vol. ii.: Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. 
Philol. XXXII. 1911. coll. 393-395, by W. Golther. 

Svinefylking og "hamalt." Et par bemserkninger til Sakses sagn - 

verden. In Danske Studier. 1907. pp. 214-220. 

Starkadsdigtningens udspring. In Sprogl. og hist, afhandlinger 

viede Sophus Bugges minde. Kristiania 1908. pp. 268-277. 
— Arnald Islaending. In Nordisk tidskrift (Letterstedtska). 1911. 
pp. 250-262. 


Olrik, Jorgen. Studier over Tilblivelsen af Sakses Vaerk. In (Dansk) Hist. 
Tidsskr. 8. R. II. 1909. pp. 211-263. 

"Avnebag." Forklaring til en Gaade i Amled-Sagnet [Miiller- 

Velschow. I. 141-142]. In Maal og Minde. 191 1. pp. 98-100. 

Paludan-Miiller, Caspar. Hvad var Saxo Grammaticus ? og hvor er hans 

Grav. Kt historisk-kritisk Stridsskrift, Nykjobing 1861. 8". pp. 112. 

( School-program ) . 
Paullini, C. F, Dissertatio curiosa de Starcatero, famosissimo gigante 

boreali. Florentise 1677. 4®. (Warmholtz, no. 2570). 
Petersen, N. M. Danmarks Historie i Hedenold. I. Del. Sagnhistorie. 

Kobenhavn 1834. 8®. pp. (4) + 429.-2. Oplag. 1854. 8°. pp. 10 -f 416. 
Pineau, L^on. Saxo Grammaticus quid et quo modo ad gesta Danorum 

conficienda ex carminibus patrio sermone traditis hauserit. Turonibus 

1901. 4^ pp. 115. {Paris Univ. inaug.-diss). 
Plesner, C. U. A. Et Brudstykke af en hidtil ukjendt Codex af Saxo. In 

Aarsberetn. fra det kgl. Geheime-Archiv. VI. Kjobenhavn 1877. 4°. pp. 

1-8 (Tillseg), ifacsim. 
Rasmussen, M. N. C. Kail. Om to nylig fundne Fragmenter af en Codex 

af Saxo. Kjobenhavn 1855. 4°. pp. 17, i facsim. 

"Saersk. Aftr. af Aarsberetn. fra det kgl. Geheime-Archiv. I." Review : 

Nyt hist. Tidsskr. VI. 1856. pp. 597-599, by E. C. Werlauff. 
Reimer, Geo. Dissertatio hist.-literaria de vita, eruditione et scriptis Saxonis 

Grammatici. Holmstadii 1762. 4". pp. 54. 
Schroder, Ludvig. Haddings Saga efter Axel Olriks Tydning. In Hojskole- 

bladet. 1904. 4°. coll. 681-90. 
Schiick, Henrik. Smarre bidrag till nordisk litteraturhistoria. 2. Var 

Saxo praepositus i Roeskilde ? In Arkiv f . nord. Filol. XII. 1896. pp. 


Studier i nordisk litteratur- och religionshistoria. II. Stockholm 

1904. pp. 31-105 (Saxos Balderssaga). 

Sievers, Eduard. Beowulf und Saxo. In Berichte iiber Verhandl. der 

kgl. sachs. Gesellsch. der Wissensch. Philol.-hist. CI. XLVII. Leipzig 

1895. pp. i75-ig2.— Also sep. repr. 8". pp. 20. (i. Heremod;— 2. 

Beowulfs Drachenkampf ; — 3. Scyld-Skyoldus). 
Steenstrup, Johannes. Saxo Grammaticus og den danske og. svenske 

Oldtidshistorie. (I Anledning af A. Olriks Skrift " Kilderne til Sakses 

Oldhistorie"). In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XIII. 1897. pp. 101-161. 
[Stephanius, S. H.] Breves notae ac emendationes in Saxonem Gram- 

maticum. Lugduni Batavorum 1627. 12®. 
[ ] Florilegium sententiarum ex Saxone Grammatico. Lugduni 

Batavorum 1627. 12°. 
Stjerna, Knut. Skolds hadanfard. In Studier tillagnade Henrik Schiick. 

Stockholm 1905. pp. 1 10-134. 
Suhm, P. F. Critisk Historie af Danmark i den hedenske Tid fra Odin til 

Gorm den gamle. I. -IV. Bind. Kiobenhavn 1774-81. 4^ 4 vols, and a 

fol. vol. with genealog. tbls. 

Reviews: Nye Kritisk Journal. 1775. coll. 41-44, 275-278; 1777. coll. 

89-96, by Jakob Baden. 


Historische Darstellung der nordischen Fabelzeit. Aus dem Dani- 

schen iibertragen von F. D. Grater. I. -II. Abtheil. Leipzig 1803-04. 
(Geschichte der Danen. I. Bd.) 2 vols. 8". pp. liv + 442 ; (4) + 472 + 
(i). Translation of vol. i. ^Suhm's Historie af Danmark. 1782. 

Tiander, K. Poiezdki skaninavov v Bieloe more. S.-Peterburg 1906. pp. 

Torfason, I>orm69ur. Series dynastarum et regum Danise, a primo eorum 
Skioldo Odini filio ad Gormum Grandsevum . . . secundum monument- 
orum Islandicorum harmoniam deducta & concinnata . . . Hafniae 1702. 
4". pp. (22) + 514- — Title-ed.: Universi Septentrionis Antiqvitates 
seriem dynastarum et regum Daniae . . . exhibientes . . . Hafnise 1705. 
4«. pp. (16) 4- 514 + (4). 

Torfseana. Sive Thormodi Torfsei notse posteriores in Seriem regum 

Danise, epistolse latinse, & index in Seriem regum Daniae. Hafniae 1777. 
4®. pp. xxxviii -h (2) + 185 4- (48), portr. 

Reviews : Nye Kritisk Journal. 1777. coll. 172-174, by Jacob Baden ; — 
Gott. Anz. 1777. p. 979£f. 
Westhovius, Willichius. Illustres sententiarum flores ex Saxonis Gram- 
matici sedecim historiarum libris lecti. Lipsiae 1617, 4". 

II. Hvenske Kronike. 

This chronicle of the death of the Niblungs was written in Latin in the 16th 
cent, on the island of Hven in the Sound between Zeeland and Sweden, 
and was based on popular tradition, which however was of German 
origin. Its author was, it is supposed, Jakob Jonsen, a clergyman. 
The Latin original is lost and only a Danish version of it exists. 

Om Hueen imellem Sielandt og Skaane. In Danmarks gamle 
Folkeviser. udg. af S. Grundtvig. I. 1853. 4^ pp. 38-44; cf. 
III. 1862. pp. 769-770. 
Ed. from the Copenhagen MSS. (Univ. Bibl. Add. 107, fol.) 

Die Hvenische Chronik in diplomatischem Abdruck nach der 
Stockholmer Handschrift nebst den Zeugnissen Vedels und 
Stephanius und den Hvenischen Volkstiberlieferungen hrsgg. 
von Otto lyuitpold Jiriczek. Berlin 1892. (Acta Germanica. 
III. Bd. 2. H.) 8°. pp. (2) + xvii + 39- 

Reviews: Nord. Tidsskr. f. Filol. 3. R. I. Bd. 1893. p. 193, by A. 

Olrik ;— Literaturbl. f. germ. u. rom. Philol. XV. 1894. col. 76, by 

W. Golther ; — Archiv f. das Studium d. neueren Spr. u. Lit. XCI. 1893. 

pp. 297-298, by M. Roediger. 

German. — Die hvensche Chronik. In A. Raszmann's Die 
deutschen Heldensage und ihre Heimat. II. 1858 {title-ed, 
1866). pp. I 16-130. 


Boer, R. C. Attilas tod in deutschen iiberlieferung und die Hvenische 
chronik. In Beitr. zur Gesch. d. deut. Spr. u. Lit. XXXIV. 1909. pp. 
195-266 {see pp. 216-266). 

Brockstedt, Gustav. Uber entstehungszeit und verfasser der Hvenschen 
chronik. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. LI. 1909. pp. 287-290. 

III. Spurious sagas. 

Ambdles saga. 

The story of Aml65i ( Hamlet) was known in ancient Iceland, as is shown 
by a verse ascribed to Snsebjorn galti H61msteinsson (loth cent), but 
that saga was never committed to writing. It is, however, likely that 
it lived among the people and was changed and modified as time went 
on, and that its final form is the story of Brjdm, printed in J6n Arna- 
son's fslenzkar pj69s6gur og aefintyri. II. pp. 505-508. In the 17th 
century the Ambdles saga was written, dealing with the same story, but 
its subject is probably to be traced ultimately to Saxo's Danish history, 
although Zenker considers it to be independent of that work. 

Sagan af Ambales kongi. Reykjavik, (Einar PorQarson), 1886. 

sm. 8". pp. 87. 
Hamlet in Iceland. Being the Icelandic romantic Ambales saga, 
edited and translated, with extracts from five Ambales rimur 
and other illustrative texts, for the most part now first printed, 
and an introductory essay by Israel Gollancz. London 1898. 
(Northern Library. Vol. III.). 8°. pp. xcviii -f 284, i tbl. 
Reviews : Jahrb. d. deut. Shakespeare Gesellsch. XXXV. 1899. pp. 335- 
336, by A. Brandl ;— Lit. Cbl. LII. 1901. coll. 1149-50 ;—Nord. Tidsskr. 
f. Filol. 3. R. VII. 1898. pp. 132-137, by Finnur j6nsson ;— Englische 
Studien. XXVII. 1900. pp. I27-I3i,by H. Jantzen ;— Anz. f. deut. Altert. 
XXVI. 1900. pp. 274-277, by F. Better ; — Le moyen age. 1899. pp. 190- 
192, by L. Duvau ; — Anglia. Beiblatt. IX. 1899. pp. 224-226, by E. 
Mogk ;— The Academy. LIV. 1898. pp. 187-188 ;— Literature. III. 1898. 
p. 102. 

Better, Ferd. Bie Hamletsage. In Zeitschr. f. deut. Altert. XXXVI. 

1892. pp. 1-25. 
Gollancz, Israel. The saga of Hamlet, with special reference to the Icelandic 

saga of Ambales. In Transactions of the New Shakspere Society. 

1887-92. Part III. (Proceedings) pp. 52-55. 
Jiriczek, O. L. Bie Amlethsage auf Island. In Beitrage zur Volkskunde. 

Festschrift Karl Weinhold dargebracht. Breslau 1896. ( Germanistische 

Abhandlungen hrsgg. von F. Vogt. XII. ) pp. 59-108.-^/^0 sep. repr. 8°. 
Hamlet in Iran. In Zeitschr. d. Vereins f. Volksk. X. 1900. pp. 

Olrik, Axel. Amledsagnet p& Island. In Arkiv f. nord. Filol. XV. 1898. 

pp. 360-376. 

Chiefly a review of GoUancz's edition. 


Setala, E. N. KuUervo-Hamlet. Bin sagenvergleichender Versuch. 

Helsingfors 1911. 8°. pp. v + 198. Sep. repr. frotn Finnisch-ugrische 

Forschungen {of which vol. III. 1904 contained, pp. 61-97 : I. Die 

nordischen Hamletfassung ; II. Angenommene vereinzelt dastehende 

Fassung der Hamletsage). 
Save, Carl. Om Hamlets namn ocli betydelsen deraf. Undersokning. In 

Nordisk Universitets Tidskrift. X. arg. 4. h. Uppsala 1866. pp. 87- 

102. — Also sep. repr. 8°. pp. (2) + 16. 
Zenker, Rudolf. Boeve-Amlethus. Das altfranzosische Epos von Boeve de 

Hamptone und der Ursprung der Hamletsage. Berlin 1904. (Literarhist. 

Forsch. hrsgg. von Schick u. Waldberg. XXII. ) 8*'. pp. xx + 418, 

{^see : Die Ambalessage, pp. 127-192). 

Reviews: Anglia. Beiblatt. XVII. 1906. pp. 332-334, by Konrad 

Meier ; — Jahrb. d. deut. Shakespeare Gesellsch. XLII. 1906. pp. 285- 

295, by H. Anders. 
Wetz, W. J. Schick's Corpus Hamleticum. In Zeitschr. f. vergleich. 

Litteraturgesch. N. F. XVII. 1909. pp. 286-298. 

Andra saga jarls. 

There is no evidence of an old written saga of Andri jarl, but the story 
was made the subject of rimur in the 15th cent, (by Sigur9r blindi?) 
and these were long ill-famed for profanity (Ondrur or Andra rimur 
hinar fornu). In the 19th cent, the subject was again treated by two 
rimur-poets (Hannes Bjarnason and Gisli KonrdQsson : Rimur af Andra 
jalli. 1834 and 1905), and they based their work on a written saga, a 
prose rendering of the old rimur ; it was possibly written in the i8th 

Saga af Andra jarli, Helga hinum pru9a og Hogna Hjarandasyni. 
Gefin ut eptir einu handriti. Reykjavik 1895. 8". pp. (2) + 
86+ (2). 

Kolbing, E. Andra-rimur. In his Beitrage zur vergleich gesch. d. romant. 
poesie u. prosa des mittelalters. 1876. pp. 230-234. 

porkelsson, J6n. Om digtningen pa Island i det 15. og 16. arhundrede. 
Kobenhavn 1888. pp. 284-291. 

Huldar saga. 

Huldar saga is mentioned in the Sturlunga saga (Vigf^sson's ed. II. p. 
270), but it has not been preserved in writing. There exists, however, 
a Huldar saga in three recensions, all of which date from the i8th 
century, but it probably has no connection with the old saga. One of 
these recensions has been printed in Icelandic (recension II ; ascribed 
to J6n Esp61in), and another in Danish version (recension I; a late 
i8th cent. MS. of this recension is in the Fiske Icelandic collection). 

Sagan af Huld hinni miklu og fjolkunnugu trolldrotningu. 

Akureyri, (Oddur Bjornsson), 1911. 8°. pp. 60. 
Danish. — Hulde. Fragment af en romantisk Fortaelling, hidtil 

udtrykt [!], oversat af det gamle Skandinaviske ved W. H. 

F. Abrahamson. In Det Skandinaviske Literatur-Selskabs 

Skrifter. 1805. I. Bd. pp. 262-334. 


Maurer, Konrad. Die Huldar saga. Aus den Abhandlungen der k. bayer. 
Akademie der Wiss. I. CI. XX. Bd. II. Abth. [pp. 223-321]. Miinchen 
1894. 4°- pp. 99. 
Review: Lit. Cbl. XLV. 1894. coll. 1774-75, by E. Mogk. 

Errata and Addenda. 

p. 3. 1. 19. Add: Review: Zeitschr. f. deut. Philol. I. 1869. pp. 416- 

418, by Th. Mobius. 
p. 5. 1. 17. I.-IV. Bandchen. Breslau 1814-15. Read: I.-V. Bandchen. 

Breslau 1814-28. 
p. 5. 1. 43. Add: Review: Germania. II. 1857. pp. 507-508, by I. V. 

p. 12. After \. 2,'^ add: (II.) In Orkneyinga saga ed. by G. Vigftisson. 

1887. pp. 1-4 ; English version in Orkneyingers' Saga trl. by G. W. 

Dasent. 1894. pp. 1-4. 
p. 25. After 1. 33 add : Hammershaimb, V. U. ed. Faeroiske Kvaeder 

benhorende til Hervarar saga. In Antiquarisk Tidsskrift. 1849-51. 

pp. 57-78. 











Issued by Cornei^i. University Library 








Issued by^Cornei<i< University Library 





" I give and bequeath to the Cornell University at Ithaca, 

New York, all my books relating to Iceland and the old Scandi- 
navian literature and history. ..." 

" I give and bequeath to the said Cornell University . . . 

the sum of Five Thousand (5000) Dollars, to have and to hold 
for ever, in trust, nevertheless, to receive the income thereof, and 
to use and expend the said income for the purposes of the publi- 
cation of an annual volume relating to Iceland and the said 
Icelandic Collection in the library of the said University." 

In pursuance of these provisions the following volumes have 

been issued : 



I. Bibliography of the Icelandic Sagas, by 
Halld6r Hermannsson. 1908. 
II. The Northmen in America, by Halldor 
Hermannsson. 1909. 
III. Bibliography of the Sagas of the Kings of 
Norway and related Sagas and Tales, by 
Halldor Hermannsson. 19 10. 
VI. The Ancient L,aws of Norway and Iceland, 

by Halldor Hermannsson . 1 9 11 . 

V. Bibliography of the Mythical- Heroic Sagas, 

by Halldor Hermannsson. 191 2. 


Perhaps few nations could more properly be called a literary 
people than the Icelanders, not only because in proportion to 
their numbers they have made a larger contribution to literature 
than any other people, but also because of the interest the Ice- 
landic nation as a whole has taken in literature from the earliest 
times dowm to the present day. Many foreigners on visiting 
Iceland have been astonished to find so much culture and literary 
interest in all classes of the population, and have wondered how 
such an interest could have been kept alive through centuries of 
political humiliation and of great sufferings from natural causes 
as well as from maladministration. The explanation of this 
doubtless lies in the fact that, once having obtained a firm hold 
upon the mind of the people, the ancient Icelandic literature, in 
spite of many vicissitudes, never entirely lost its grasp. The 
language itself bears witness to the persistence of this early 
influence. Large as the island is, and difl&cult as is communica- 
tion between its various parts, it may be said almost without 
qualification that no dialects have developed there, and this must 
be due to the unifying influence of the early literature, and to a 
continuous literary activity on the part of the people. 

The history of Icelandic literature begins with the settlement 
of the country by the Norwegians. Among the settlers there 
were many poets, and these were held in high esteem by their 
countrymen, who were as fond of good poetry as they were of 
good saga-telling. And soon it came about that among the 
Scandinavian nations the Icelanders had a monopoly, as it were, 
of the art of poetry, and became the main authorities on Scandi- 
navian history and traditions. In the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries most of these oral traditions were recorded in writing ; 
it is needless here to dwell upon the importance of the record for 
Iceland as well as the whole Teutonic race. Following the loss 
of political independence in the latter half of the thirteenth 
century, the literary production of Iceland declined — yet it never 
entirely ceased ; even in the dark and dreary fifteenth century 
there were a few poets of some note. From the beginning of 


that century we find such poems as the satirical ' ' SkiQarima ' ' , 
although poems on religious subjects were much more common. 
Of the religious poets, one of the best was the sturdy patriot Jon 
Arason, the last Roman Catholic bishop of Iceland, who, about 
the year 1530 brought the first printing-press to Iceland. 

It is customary to date the beginnings of modern Icelandic 
literature from the middle of the sixteenth century ; that is, from 
the introduction of the Reformation. The changes from the 
poetry of the preceding period, however, were at first not very 
marked ; but with the translation into Icelandic of the New 
Testament (1540), of the whole Bible (1584), and of other re- 
ligious works, the foundations were laid for a new prose literature. 
Before the close of the century an interest was also re-awakened 
in historical and antiquarian studies such as Icelandic scholars 
ever since have so diligently pursued, which have always met 
with appreciation and understanding from the people at large. 
Many of the earlier works of the sort, however, were written in 
Latin, and were printed outside of Iceland. Nor would it be fair 
to judge the literature of the two following centuries solely by 
the printed books of the time. The only printing-press in the 
country was under the direction of the bishops of Holar, and 
was almost exclusively given over to the publication of religious 
works in prose and verse. Other productions remained in 
manuscript, and circulated thus among the people ; some of these 
have since been printed, but many still continue unpublished. 
During all that time there was a marked preponderance of poetry 
over prose. Of hymn-writers there were many, and the 
"rimur "-poets were equally numerous. Many (one might, 
perhaps, say most) of them are now forgotten ; but two poets 
of the seventeenth century hold a permanent place in the 
literature of their country : Hallgrimur Petursson, the author of 
the Passion- Hymns, and Stefan Olafsson, lyrical poet and satirist. 
The foreign influence, which was considerable, did much injury to 
the written language, and especially to the prose literature. About 
the middle of the eighteenth century the evil had gone so far 
that there were persons who actually, and in all seriousness, 
advocated the introduction of Danish as the the official written 
language for Iceland. The brilliant and versatile Eggert 
Olafsson, poet and naturalist, sounded a warning, and instituted 


a movement to purify the language and to arouse the national 
spirit. Circumstances in part, and in part the method he adopted 
in his attempted reform, brought it about that he did not himself 
meet with much success ; yet his warning was not uttered in 

The latter part of the eighteenth century in Iceland, as 
elsewhere, became imbued with the spirit of enlightenment, and 
took, as it was called, a more practical view of things, but lacked 
an understanding for national traditions and their importance ; 
nevertheless the leaders of that movement did much for the 
education of the people. Particularly active was Magnus 
Stephensen, who for a long time was the most conspicuous 
figure among them. A more organized literary activity also 
became noticeable. In 1768 a literary society, the first one 
among Icelanders, was founded, called ' Hi9 osynilega felag.' 
This, however, accomplished very little. In 1780 " Hi9 islenzka 
Lserdomslistafelag " was founded by Icelanders in Copenhagen, 
and for fifteen years thereafter published an annual. Its im- 
mediate successor was *' Hi9 islenzka LandsuppfraeQingarfelag ", 
which was organized in Iceland in 1796, and which, under various 
names, issued many useful books during a period of about thirty 
years. In 1816 " Hi9 islenzka Bokmentafelag " was founded, 
and, having continued up to the present, it can now look back 
upon nearly a hundred years of eminent usefulness. But in spite 
of the great good which all these societies accomplished, they 
could not bring about any essential change in the literature, or 
infuse into it new life and spirit. They merely prepared the way 
for change and new life. It must not be forgotten that the 
Royal Society of Northern Antiquities rendered a great service 
in making accessible to the reading public the old prose texts — 
which were welcomed by all Icelanders. The popularity in Ice- 
land of the publications of that Society is clearly shown in the 
list of subscribers to the ''Fornmanna sogur", and by the 
friendly reception accorded to the two volumes of Icelandic sagas 
proper (fslendinga sogur). 

A renewed and more active interest in the saga literature was 
thus aroused at a time when there was great political unrest all 
over Europe, and when various nations were clamoring for 
liberty and a recognition of their nationality. The Icelandic 

students in Copenhagen seized the opportunity, and became the 
leaders in a movement for reform in their native country. Their 
organ, the annual '* Fjolnir" (1835-46), is now among the most 
highly regarded works in the modern literature of Iceland, 
although it met with considerable opposition at the time. Only 
the linguistic and literary side of this movement concerns us 
here. Then, of course, the chief stress, was laid upon the 
question of nationality. The Icelanders were a nation in them- 
selves, and were right in demanding to be treated as such. Their 
claim to recognition was mainly based upon their possession of a 
separate language and literature of their own, and hence it 
would be of paramount importance to keep the language pure. 
This language, the reformers felt, had been corrupted through 
the admixture of foreign elements, and, so far, little had been done 
to prevent the injurious process from continuing. Were nothing 
done, they feared that the language would ultimately lose its 
native characteristics. A careful study of the ancient national 
literature, they believed, would afford a standard to follow in re- 
forming and preserving the language. It was, however, no indis- 
criminate re-establishment of Old Icelandic as a literary medium 
that these men advocated, no rehabilitation of the archaic, such 
as Eggert Olafsson had attempted in the preceding century. On 
the contrary, there was a full recognition of the changes to which 
the language had been subject ; and where these changes were 
seen to be a natural development they were to be respected. It 
was the foreign importations or imitations that were to be 
banished. The literature of the day also came in for severe 
criticism. The " rimur "-poets still flourished, and enjoyed 
great popularity ; in the pages of the "Fjolnir" their works 
were analyzed, and their insipidity and shallowness exposed 
without mercy. For a time this attack rendered the periodical 
an object of dislike in Iceland, but it gave a hard blow to the 
* * rimur. ' ' The devotional literature, still constituted the larger 
portion of printed books, and that found little favor with the re- 
formers, who made a plea for a more generous output of secular 
literature. As one of them said— himself a theologian : ' 'Although 
our ultimate goal be Heaven, we must not forget that the road 
thereto leads over the earth, and therefore earthly things must 
not be neglected." But they did not rest in mere analysis and 


censure ; they were as competent to build up as to tear down. 
Tomas Saemundsson's patriotic enthusiasm for progress has 
since found an echo in every Icelandic heart ; Konra9 Gislason's 
prose gave the best possible example of a clear and correct style ; 
and Jonas Hallgrimsson's poetry was as perfect in outward form 
as it was lofty in sentiment. It was upon the foundations laid 
by such men as these that the literature of the nineteenth century 
was built ; and the linguistic reforms they inaugurated have 
made Icelandic one of the purest of written languages. 

Space does not permit even a brief outline of the literature sub- 
sequent to the beginnings of this renaissance, and we must resist 
the temptation even to mention the chief points in the development 
that followed it. This development was somewhat slow at first, 
but the results have been satisfactory. Never in modern times 
has Icelandic literature been more flourishing than it is at 
present. Never before, since the settlement of the country, has 
such an earnest effort been made by this small nation to assert 
its independence both intellectually and politically. Considering 
the size of the population, the literary output is very large ; and 
in quality as well as variety it is, I believe, worthy of all respect. 
The poets are as numerous as ever, but they do not now hold 
such a dominant position as formerly ; novelists and writers of 
short stories have increased in numbers, and claim more attention 
even than the poets. Until recently, the drama had been but a 
small element in Icelandic literature, conditions having been un- 
favorable to its growth ; but now there are Icelandic dramatists 
who have won recognition even outside of their native land. 
Historical and philological studies, for which the Icelanders have 
always had a predilection, are pursued with as much zeal as ever, 
yet in a more critical and scholarly way ; and research in the 
natural and physical sciences is being carried on by a number of 
able students, the investigation of natural phenomena in Iceland 
itself being, of course, their special field. It is to be hoped that 
an added stimulus to scientific research has been given by the 
recent establishment of a national university. 

Foreign writers have frequently and justly pointed out the 
great discrepancy between the intellectual and the material 
culture of Iceland, and have commented upon the Icelanders' 
customary indifference to practical affairs. They have usually 


been unable to account for this indifference, but it has its ex- 
planation, of course, in Icelandic history. For centuries the 
island was governed from the Danish capital, far away across the 
sea, and the inhabitants were seldom consulted about the affairs 
of their land ; or their counsels, when solicited, were often dis- 
regarded. Furthermore, the commercial monopoly under which 
the country suffered for two centuries paralysed all enterprise, 
and stifled the initiative of the people. Accordingly, an indif- 
ference to practical affairs became habitual, and the nation found 
a solace in literary pursuits. A change of attitude was first 
noticeable when, after a long and weary struggle, in which Jon 
SigurSsson, the eminent scholar and one of Iceland's greatest men, 
took the leading part, a partial autonomy was granted to the island 
in 1874 ; but the change is more easily marked since 1904, when 
the seat of government was transferred from Copenhagen to 
Reykjavik. To-day the national spirit is at length fully awake, 
and the Icelanders are determined to work with might and main 
for the material welfare of their country. The progress that has 
been made even in this short period is in many respects most re- 
markable. The government has done everything in its power to 
promote industries, farming, and commercial enterprises, and to 
improve the means of communication ; in a word, it has done all 
that it could to better the condition of the people. Nor has the 
matter of education been neglected. The Icelanders are a nation 
of some 90,000 people, occupying a vast, rugged, and infertile 
country, yet maintaining a university with four faculties, a 
college, two popular high-schools ( ' 'realskolar' ' ), four agricultural 
schools, one nautical school, and contributing freely to the sup- 
port of other more elementary educational institutions. Such a 
people can scarcely be deemed neglectful of public instruction, or 
bereft of national courage in the face of difi&culties. I doubt 
whether anywhere else in the world there is a group of men of 
an equal number with so much fortitude and vitality as the 
Icelandic nation. 

And now let us turn to the present volume. And first as to 
the method of presentation : I have chosen the bio-bibliograph- 
ical form for two reasons. For one, this kind of book at present 
seems to be popular. Almost every country now has its " Who's 
Who", and some have several, covering different fields. As for 


the second reason, I think that by this method, perhaps, it is 
easier within a limited space to display the literary activity of a 
nation in its various phases than by a summary sketch in the 
form of a literary history. I have included only living authors, 
and of these only such as are of some consequence. If all who 
have published a work or works of some bulk had been included, 
the list would have been greatly extended, and the number of 
entries doubled, or more than doubled. Such an extension would 
hardly have added much to the value of the book ; — and I was 
also restricted as to space. In the case of each author listed the 
principal biographical data have here been recorded, and particu- 
larly such facts as have a bearing upon his literary work ; and 
at the end of the paragraph (under the heading Biogr. ) references 
are given to books or articles in periodicals on the author in 
question, where further information about him and his work can 
be had. As to academical degrees, I may add that when no 
other college is mentioned the degree of A.B. is from the College 
of Iceland, while the higher degrees unless otherwise specified 
are from the University of Copenhagen ; the Theological and 
Medical Schools, often referred to, now represent faculties in the 
University of Iceland. The candidate's degree {candidatus juris, 
medicines, magisterii, theologicB^, most nearly corresponds to the 
doctoral degree in American universities. Titles of books in 
Icelandic are usually accompanied by an English translation, 
while titles of articles in periodicals, as a rule, are given only in 
English ; titles in other languages, whether of books or articles, 
are ordinarily given in those languages. For the sake of clear- 
ness it would have been desirable to quote titles in a font differ- 
ing from the type for the rest of the material, but the lack of 
Icelandic characters in other types than ordinary roman made 
this impossible. 

The Appendix contains a list of principal works on Icelandic 
literature subsequent to the middle of the sixteenth century. 
The list is not exhaustive, but I trust it may be helpful to any 
who desire information on the subject. Of late, more has been 
written about Iceland in German than in any other language, 
and for the most part the German writers, such as Maurer, 
Schweitzer, Poestion, Kiichler, and Herrmann, have shown 
adequate knowledge and a sympathy with their subject. The 


Icelanders are under special obligation to Herr Poestion for his 
excellent works and his unflagging interest in their country. 

Many of the authors mentioned in the following pages have 
been kind enough at my request to furnish information about 
themselves and their works. For this I desire here publicly to 
thank them. I wish also to record my indebtedness to Mr. 
J6hann Kristjansson, the genealogist, for various items of 
information with which he has supplied me. 

H. H. 

CoRNELi. University Library, 
Junk, 1913. 


Amason, GuSmundur, theologian ; 
b. Muna3arnes, Myrasysla, April 4, 1881 ; grad. of the Meadville Theologi- 
cal School, 1908 ; studied in Berlin, 1908-09 ; minister of the First Unitarian 
(Icelandic) Church, Winnipeg, Man. — Author: Many articles on religion, 
philosophy, and literature in the monthly "Heimir," organ of the Icelandic 
Unitarian Association, of which he has been the editor since 1910. 

Am6rsson, Einar, jurist ; 
b. Minna-Mosfell, Arnessysla, Feb. 24, 1880 ; A. B., 1901 ; Cand. Juris, 1906 ; 
editor of the weekly "Fjallkonan" 1907; assistant in the third Government 
Bureau, Reykjavik, 1907-08; docent in the Law School, 1908-11 ; since 
Sept. 22, 191 1 professor in the University of Iceland, Reykjavik. — Author: 
Ny logfrseOisleg formdlab6k (New juridical formulary. 191 1) ; fslenzkur 
kirkjur^ttur (Icelandic ecclesiastical law. 1912); Rikisr^ttindi Islands (The 
rights of the Icelandic state. 1908 ; with Dr. J6n I>orkfclsson ) . Treatises in 
the "Andvari": on the position of Iceland toward other states until the 
introduction of the Reformation (1910; with Dr. J6n I>orkelsson), on the 
union between Iceland and Denmark since the Reformation (1911), on the 
highest judicial power in Icelandic cases (1912), on the Norwegian and 
Danish Council of State in its attitude toward Iceland (1912 ; a criticism of 
Dr. Knud Berlin's work on the subject). 

Baldwinson, Baldwin L^rus, journalist ; 
b. Akureyri, Oct. 26, 1856 ; emigrated to Canada 1873 ; immigration agent 
for the Canadian government, 1886-96, member of the Manitoba Legislature 
for Gimli district, 1899- 1906. Kdited the immigration-paper ' * Landneminn ", 
Reykjavik (1893-94), and since 1898 has been the editor of the Icelandic 
weekly " Heimskringla ", Winnipeg, Man. Canada. — Author: Hagskyrslur 
frd fslendingabyggdum i Canada (Statistical reports from the Icelandic 
settlements in Canada. 1892) ; Manitoba um aldam6tin (M. at the beginning 
of the 2oth cent. 1900). — Translator : Robert Manton, by J. M. Jelly (1904); 
Hvammverjarnir, by Jos. Hatton (1905). 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari X. p. 65, portr. — Bimrei9in. XIV. pp. 129-133, portr. 

BdrQarson, GuSmundur Gu5mundsson, geologist ; 
b. Borg in Ogurhreppur, fsaf jarQarsysla, Jan. 3, 1880 ; student in College of 
Iceland, 1897-1901 ; since 1902 has been a farmer (Kjorseyri, Borgarhreppur, 
Strandasysla); 1907 he was granted a stipend of the Japetus Steenstrup 
Fund (Copenhagen) to carry on geological researches in Iceland, and has 
for several years received a stipend from the Carlsberg Fund for the same 
purpose ; spent the winter 1909-10 in Copenhagen and Stockholm, where 
with the aid of the Icelandic government he pursued geological studies. — 
Author: Purpura lapillus L. i hsevede Lag paa Nordkysten af Island (in 


* * Videnskabel. Meddel. fra den naturhist. Forening," Copenhagen 1906); 
Mserker efter Klima- og Niveauforandringer ved Htinafl6i i Island (in the 
same periodical, 19 10), an abstract of which in English (Traces of changes 
of climate and level at Hdnafl6i) was included in " Die Veranderungen des 
Klimas seit der Maximum der letzten Eiszeit. Eine Samml. von Berichten 
hrsgg. von dem Exekutiv-Kommittee des 11. internat. Geologen-Kongress, 
Stockholm 1910"; also articles in periodicals, on carnivorous plants 
(Timarit B6kmf^l., 1907), on the enemies of the eider-duck ( Andvari, 1904), 
on construction of houses (BdnaQarrit, 1904), and on ballooning and flying 
(Eimreidin, 1910). 

Benedictsson, Margret J6nsd6ttir, journalist, reformer ; 
b. in Iceland, March 16, 1866 ; emigrated to Canada 1886, and received her 
education in the public schools of Dakota ; moved afterwards to Manitoba, 
where in 1893 she married S. B. Benedictsson (see below) ; became Unitarian 
and woman suffrage worker, delivered lectures on the cause, and organized 
Icelandic woman suffrage societies in Winnipeg, Argyle, Gimli, and 
Mountain N. D. Founded in Selkirk, Man. 1898 the Icelandic monthly 
" Freyja ", the first woman suffrage paper in Canada ; from 1902-10 it was 
publ. in Winnipeg. — Author: Numerous articles and poems in "Freyja", 
"The Maple I^eaf Almanak", and other Icelandic-Canadian papers. — 
Translator: Dora Thorne, by C. M. Braeme (1900); Karmel nj6snari, by 
Sylv. Cobb jr. (1901); Ei9ur Helenar Harlow, by L. Waisbrooker (1902); 
Heimili Hildu, by R. Graul (1906); f biskupskerrunni, by M. Michelson 
(1907); and many articles, tales, and poems in "Freyja" and other 

Benedictsson, Sigfiis Benedict, poet, journalist ; 
b. Heidarsel, Nor5ur-M<ilasysla, April 28, 1865 ; studied one year at the 
Agricultural School of Ei9ar ; emigrated to America 1888 ; with his wife, 
Mrs. M. J. B. (see above), he founded the periodical "Freyja", and after 
its transfer to Winnipeg was the manager of " Freyja Printing and Publish- 
ing Co."; editor of the weekly " Selkirkingur " 1900-02, of "The Maple 
Leaf Almanak " 1900-05, and of the " Tuttugasta oldin " 1909-10. Lives 
at present in Winnipeg, Man. — Author : Lj69m3eli (Poems. 1905); numerous 
articles and poems in the Icelandic-Canadian periodicals. 

Benediktsd6ttir, Unnur, poet ; pseudonym : Hulda ; 
b. Au9nar, Su9ur-f>ingeyjarsysla, Aug. 6, 1881 ; married 1905 Sig. Sigfdsson, 
Hfisavik. — Author: KvaeQi (Poems. 1909). 

Benediktsson, Einar, poet ; 
b. Elli9avatn, Oct. 31, 1864, son of Benedikt Sveinsson {d. 1899), the 
politician and leader of the liberal party; A. B., 1884 ; Cand. Juris, 1892; 
1896 founded the paper " Dagskrd " and was editor of it until 1898 ; it was 
originally planned as a daily paper, and as such it was published from June 
to Aug. 1896 only. Superior Court attorney 1898-1904 ; 1903 organized the 
so-called ' ' Landvarnarflokkur ' ' which opposed the amendment to the 
constitution proposed by the government ; prefect (syslumaQur) of Rangdr- 


vallasysla 1904-07. Since his retirement lives outside of Iceland, usually 
in England. — Author: Sogur og kvae3i (Stories and poems. 1897 ; one of 
these stories, Falkeredet, appeared in Norwegian translation in the fort- 
nightly " Kringsjaa ", 1899) ; Aldam6talj65 (Songs at the commencement of 
the century. 1900); Ny valtyskan og landsr^ttindin (1902; a political 
pamphlet); Hafblik, kvseSi og songvar (Seagleams, poems and songs. 
1906). An essay on Henrik Ibsen (Skirnir, 1906) ; many articles and 
poems in periodicals, and many of those he wrote for the " Dagskrd " are 
of particular interest ; he also wrote a play, Hjd hofninni (Near the harbor), 
which was staged in Reykjavik in 1895 but was never printed. — Editor: 
Urvalsrit (Selected works) of Sigurdur Brei5fjor3 (1894); Utsyn (The out- 
look 1892 ; with f>orl. J. Bjarnason), a publication which was to contain 
selections from the world's literature, translated into Icelandic, but only one 
number appeared, containing translations from American authors. — Trans- 
lator : P^tur Gautur, by Henrik Ibsen (1901); Hrafninn, by E. A. Poe 
(Utsyn, 1892). 
Biogr.: Breidablik. II. pp. 22-25.— Skirnir. IvXXIX. pp. 340-356, portr. 

Benediktsson, Kristjdn Asgeir, novelist ; pseudonym : Snaer 
Snseland ; 
b. As in Kelduhverfi, Nor5ur-I>ingeyjarsysla, Aug. 23, i860 ; grad. of M63ru- 
vellir High-School 1885 ; teacher for some years in various places in NorQur- 
pingeyjarsysla and Nor9ur-Mtilasysla ; went to Canada in 1894, and has 
since been engaged in journalism (on the " Heimskringla " ), and employed 
in government offices. — Author: Valid (The choice. 1898; a novel); in 
periodicals have appeared the following stories : Cskin ( Heimskringla, 
1895), Lj6si3 i hriSinni (Oldin, 1895), and Holdsveikin (Eimrei9in, 1897); 
many other contributions to periodicals. — Translator : Mr. Potter frd Texas, 
by A. C. Gunter (1903). 

Bergmann, Fribrik Jdnsson, theologian ; 
b. Gar9svik, Eyjafjardarsysla, April 15, 1858; cameto America 1875 ; A.B., 
Norwegian Lutheran College, Decorah, Iowa, 1881 ; studied theology in the 
University of Christiania 1883-85, and in the Lutheran Seminary, Phila- 
delphia, 1886 ; ordained, 1886; minister of Icelandic parishes in North Dakota 
1 886- 1 903, of the Icelandic Southern parish in Winnipeg 1903-09 ; vice- 
president of the Icelandic Lutheran Synod in America 1886-99, and edited 
one of its periodicals, the annual "Aldam6t" 1891-1903 ; severed his con- 
nections with the Synod in 1909 and has since lived in Winnipeg, where he 
has edited the monthly " Breidablik " since 1906, and was for some time 
teacher of Icelandic in Wesley College, Winnipeg. — Author: Eina lifid 
(1899 ; five sermons); Island um aldam6tin (Iceland at the end of the 19th 
cent., sketches from a journey. 1901); Vafurlogar (1906; a collection of 
essays); ViSreisnarvon kirkjunnar (The hope of the restoration of the 
church. 1911); several papers in the "Aldam6t": on views of life (1891), 
on the value of the Old Testament (1893), on pains of life (1894), on the 
signs of the times (1895), on ideals (1896), on Philip Melanchthon (1897), 
Quo vadis (1898), on the letter and the spirit (1901), what demands should 


our nation make of its poets (1902), on the vocation of the disciple (1902)^ 
and other articles and sermons. Articles in the * ' Breidablik ' ' and 
" Sameiningin." In 0. S. Thorgeirsson's " Almanak" several biographical 
sketches, and articles on the history of the Icelandic settlements in North 
Dakota (1902) and in Winnipeg (1903-07). Contributor to Jacobs' and 
Haas' IvUtheran Cyclopedia (1911). 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. VIII. pp. 33-34, portr.— 09inn. VIII. p. 10, portr. 

Bjarnarson, I>6rhallur, theologian ; 
b. Laufds, Su3ur-I>ingeyjarsysla, Dec. 2, 1855; A. B., 1877; Cand. Theol., 
1883 ; minister of Reykholt 1884 ; docent in the Theol. School, 1885-94, 
director (Lector Theol. ), 1894-1908 ; since 1908 Bishop of Iceland ; Knight of 
Danebrog 1902, etc. Member of Althing for Borgarfjardarsysla 1894-99, 
1902-07, and speaker of the Lower House 1897-99 ; president of the Icelandic 
Agricultural Society 1901-07, and as such edited its publication, " BdnaQar. 
rit", to which he has contributed several articles; chairman of the inter- 
parliamentary committee on agricultural affairs 1904-05. — Author: Many 
contributions in *'Kirkjubla9i9 " (1891-97) which he founded and edited, 
also in "Nytt kirkjublad" since 1906, chiefly articles on theological 
and educational subjects; lecture on the papacy (Timarit B6kmf., 1897) ; 
biography of Rev. f><5rarinn Bodvarsson (Andvari, 1897); article on Konrd5 
Gislason (Skirnir, 1907). — Editor: Sk61alj69 (Poems for schools. 1901, 3d 
ed. 1909). ^/<7/«/ editor: Fornsogupsettir (1899-1901); Lesb6k handa 
bornum og unglingum (Reader for children and young people. 3 vols. 
1907-10). — Translator: Kristilegur barnalaerd6mur, by Th. Klaveness 
(1899, 4th ed. 1 9 10); the first half of Um uppeldi, by Herbert Spencer 

Biogr.: Odinn. II. pp. 9-10, portr. — BreiQablik. IV. p. 17, portr.— Gu9- 
fraeQingatal. pp. 293-296. 

Bjaraason, Agiist [H^onarson] , philosopher ; 
h. Bildudalur, Aug. 20, 1875 ; A. B., Bfterslaegtens Skole in Copenhagen, 
1894; A. M. (philosophy), 1901 ; Ph. D., 1911 ; Hannes Arnason stipen- 
diary 1901-05, and pursued philosophical studies in the universities of 
Copenhagen, Berlin and Strassburg ; during the winter 1904-05 gave 
popular lectures on the history of religions in Reykjavik ; teacher in the 
College of Iceland 1905-11 ; since Sept. 22, 191 1 professor of philosophy. 
University of Iceland, Reykjavik. — Author: Upphaf kristninnar og 
hofundur hennar Jestis Kristur (The origin of Christianity and its founder 
Jesus Christ. 1904); Andatrtiin krufin (Spiritualism analyzed. 1906); Yfir- 
lit yfir sogu mannsandans (Survey of the intellectual history of man- 
kind), a history of philosophy from earliest times down to the present, of 
which four vols, have appeared : Andatrtiin og frampr6un triiarbragQanna 
(Animism and the evolution of religions. 1905), Austurlond (The Orient, 
covering the oriental religions including Christianity. 1908), Hellas (1910), 
and Nitjdnda oldin (The nineteenth century. 1906); Jean Marie Guyau, en 
Fremstilling og en Kritik af hans Filosofi (1911, doctor's dissertation). 
Also numerous contributions to periodicals, such as articles and essays on 


university extension (Arny, 1901), and in the "Skirnir": on the moral 
teachings of Epictetus ( 1910), on the new materialism ( 1910), and on Guyau 
(1912); also poems original and translated from English and German 
(Goethe, Heine, Poe, Ivongfellow). 

Biogr.: Kobenhavns Universitets Festskrift, Nov. 191 1. pp. 80-81. — (39inn. 
II. pp. 69-70, portr. 

Bjamason, Bjom, philologist ; 
b, Vi5fj6r5ur, July 3, 1873 ; A. B., 1895 ; A. M. (Scandinavian philology), 
190 1 ; Ph. D., 1905; teacher in public schools in fsafj6r9ur, 1905-08; 
since Oct. i, 1908 teacher in the Teachers' School, Reykjavik. — Author: 
Sagnakver (Folk-tales. 2 vols. 1900-03); Nordboernes legemlige Uddannelse 
i Oldtiden (1905, doctor's dissertation), an Icelandic edition of which, with 
alterations, appeared under the title : fprdttir fornmanna d Nordurlondum 
(The sports and pastimes of the ancient Scandinavians. 1908); also an 
article on the same subject (Tim. B6kmf. 1904); reviews in the quarterly 
' ' Skirnir, ' ' of which he has been editor since 1910. Contributor to Johannes 
Hoops' Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde. — Translator : 
IJrania, by C. Flammarion (1898); Ur dagb6k Siberiufara, by Korolenko 
(1897); .^fintyri handa bornum og unglingum (Fairy tales for children and 
young people. 1903); H. Ussing's treatise on the^modern literature of 
Denmark (Eimrei9in, 1898). 
Biogr.: 65inn. I. pp. 92-93, portr. 

Bjarnason, J6hann Magnus, novelist ; 
b. Medalnes, NorQur-Mtilasysla, May 24, 1866 ; emigrated to Canada (Nova 
Scotia) 1875, and was educated in the public schools there ; since 1889 has 
been a public school teacher in Marshland, Manitoba. — Author: Sogur og 
kvaeSi (Stories and poems. 1892), containing five stories ; Lj69mseli (Poems. 
1898); Eirikur Hansson, skdldsaga frd Nyja Skotlandi (E. H., a novel from 
Nova Scotia. 3 vols. 1899-1903); Braziliufararnir, skdldsaga ( The emigrants 
to Brazil, a novel. 2 vols. 1905-08); Vornsetur d Elgsheiclum, sogur frd 
Nyja Skotlandi (Spring nights on Moose heaths, stories from Nova Scotia. 
1910) containing seven stories, some of which had been published before ; 
a few other stories in various papers: Hj6nadj6fullinn ( Heimskringla, 
1895), J6n Vesturfari (Logberg, 1896), SofnuQurinn j I>istilhverfi (lyogberg, 
1897), Ari litli kemur i skola (BreiQablik, 1907); also Bessabref (Heims- 
kringla, 1893-94). A biographical sketch of Magntis Brynj61fsson 
(Eimreidin, 1912). Has also written several plays, but they have not been 
Biogr.: BreiQablik. I. pp. 106-110, portr. 

Bjarnason, J6n, theologian ; 
b. pvottd, Su3ur-Mtilasysla, Nov. 15, 1845; A. B., 1866; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1869 ; ordained, 1869 ; teacher in Reykjavik, 1870-73 ; 
went to America in 1873, and was professor in Luther College, Deborah, 
Iowa, 1873-75; editor of the Norwegian weekly paper "Budstikken ", 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1875-77 ; minister of the Icelandic congregation 


of New Iceland, Manitoba, 1877-80 ; minister of Dvergasteinn, Iceland, 
1880-84; went back to Canada 1884, and became minister of the First 
IvUtheran Church, Winnipeg, Manitoba, which position he still holds; 
principal leader in the organisation of the Icelandic Evangelic-Lutheran 
Synod of America in 1885, was its president 1885-1908, and has been the 
editor of its organ, the monthly " Sameiningin ", since its foundation, 
1886. — Author: GuQspjallamdl, pr^dikanir d sunnudogmn og hdtiQum 
kirkjudrsins (Gospel talks, sermons on Sundays and church feasts. 1900); 
many sermons on special occasions, such as the millenary of the colonization 
of Iceland (1874), the three hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the transla- 
tion of the New Testament into Icelandic (1891), and the nine hundreth 
anniversary of the introduction of Christianity in Iceland (1900); Nau3- 
synleg hugvekja (A necessary admonition. 1879), a censure of some 
doctrines of the Norwegian Lutheran Synod ; Island a9 bldsa upp ( Iceland 
is being laid bare. 1888), a criticism of Icelandic conditions, which was 
supplemented by his paper on Icelandic nihilism (1889), causing consider- 
able controversy. In " Aldam6t " and " Aram6t ", the two annual publica- 
tions of the Evang.-Luth. Synod are printed sixteen of his sermons 
and other papers, among which is especially to be mentioned Apologia pro 
vita sua (1909). In the twenty- seven vols, of "Sameiningin " there are, of 
course, a very great number of contributions from his pen on religious and 
other subjects, as well as translations ; many articles in " Logberg ", one of 
which, at least, was separately issued, Um vatnsveitingar (On irrigation. 
1890), a paper of controversial character. Contributor to Jacobs' and Haas* 
The Lutheran Encyclopedia (1911). — Translator: Ur heimi baenarinnar, 
by D. G. Monrad (1888); Hva3 er bibliu-kritik, by C. Asschenfeldt- 
Hansen (1904); Ben Htir, by Lew Wallace (i9o8ff. ); Dina Morris (from 
Adam Bede), by George Eliot (Aldam6t, 1903). Translated into English 
(with R. B. Anderson) Fri9j)j6fs saga and I>orsteins saga Vikingssonar, 
publ. in Viking Tales (1877). 

Biogr.: Sunnanfari. I. pp. 93-96, portr. — Ver9i lj6s. IV. pp. 102-107, 
portr. — Bjarmi. II. pp. 25-28, portr. — OSinn. VII. p. 9, portr. — Aram6L 
1909. pp. 18-56. 

Bjamason, Ldra [Mikaelina] , musician ; 
(born Gu9johnsen) wife of the preceding ; has edited two musical works i 
Laufbl69 (Leaves. 1900), and Songb6k bandalaganna og sunnudaga- 
sk61anna (1912). 

Bjarnason, Ldrus [Kristjdn Ingvaldur H^onarson], jurist ; 
b. Flatey in Brei9ifj6r9ur, March 27, 1866 ; A. B., 1885 ; Cand. Juris, 1891 ; 
acting Superior Court attorney, 1891-92 ; acting prefect of fsafjar9arsysla, 
1892-94 ; prefect of Snsefellsnes- og Hnappadalssysla, 1894-1908 ; appointed 
first dean of the Law School, Reykjavik, May 30, 1908 ; since Sept. 22, 19JI, 
professor of law, University of Iceland, Reykjavik. Member of Althing for 
Snaefellsnessysla, 1901-07, member chosen by the Crown, 1909-11, since 
191 1 member for Reykjavik ; member of the Council of Iceland Bank since 
1902 ; member of the interparliamentary committee on church affairs 1904^ 


member of the interparliamentary committee on the Danish-Icelandic union 
1907; Knight of Danebrog, 1904. — Author: Treatise on loss of debts by 
lapse of time ( Logf raedingur, 1901); two articles on the revision of the 
Icelandic constitution (Andvari, 1902 and 1903); Forelobige Bemaerkninger 
om Islands statsretlige Stilling (in : Betaenking afgiven af den dansk- 
islandske Kommission, 1908); numerous articles in periodicals, especially 
in "I>j6961fur" and "Reykjavik." 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari, IV. p. 65, portr. — (39inn. V. pp. 9-11, portr. 

Bjarnason, Torfi, agriculturist ; 
h. Skard on Skardstrond, Aug. 28, 1838 ; 1866-67 was in Scotland studying 
agricultural conditions ; about 1870 invented and introduced into Iceland 
a new mowing scythe which has been used there since ; 1873 travelled in 
United States ; 1870 bought the farm Olafsdalur in Dalasysla, and in 1880 
founded there the first agricultural school in Iceland with some support 
partly from the districts of the Western Quarter, partly from the government, 
and still receives from the latter an appropriation for giving instruction 
in agriculture. — Author : Treatise on what could be done to avert the great 
mortality in Iceland (1867), awarded the prize of Isaac Sharp, the philan- 
thropist ; letters from Scotland (Ny f^lagsrit, 1867); on draining (Timarit 
Bmf., 1881); on popular education, on fermented hay, etc. (Andvari, 1884); 
on cooperative societies (Andvari, 1893); on cultivation of the homefield 
(Andvari, 1912); in the " Bdnadarrit " there are many contributions from 
his pen : on fermented hay (1888), on the trade of farmers (1893), on 
agricultural instruction (1892), on weaning (1908), on store-houses of hay, 
(1909 and 1911), etc. 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. IX. pp. 9-12, portr. — 69inn. VIII. pp. 17-21, portr. 

Bjarnason, P>orleifur [Jon H^onarson] , educator ; 
b. Flatey in Brei9ifj6r9ur, Nov. 7, 1863 ; A. B., 1884 ; Cand. Mag. (classical 
and Scandinavian philology), 1892 ; teacher (Latin and history) in College 
of Iceland, Reykjavik, since 1896 ; travelled in Germany 1897-98 study- 
ing educational methods ; took the initiative in the founding of the Public 
Library in Reykjavik, 1900, and has since been its treasurer; has been 
member of the central committee of the Home Rule party. — Author: 
Mannkynssaga handa unglingum (Universal history for young people. 
1905, 2d ed. 1908); paper on Switzerland (Timarit Bmf., 1902); essays 
in the "Skirnir": on Jonas Lie (1908), on Abraham Lincoln (1909), on 
the youth of J6n SigurQsson and his first dealings with public affairs 
(1911); also reviews and shorter articles in other periodicals. Donsk 
lestrarb6k (Danish reader. 1895, 2d ed. 1905, with Bjarni j6nsson). — Editor: 
Utsyn (1892, with Binar Benetiktsson ) ; Br^f J6ns Sigur9ssonar (191 1, 
with J6n Jensson); J6n Sigur9sson's letters to the representatives of the 
Icelandic Patriotic Society (Andvari, 191 1). 

Bjamh68insd6ttir, Briet, journalist ; 
b. Haukagil, Hiinavatnssysla, Sept. 27, 1856; was student in the Laugaland 
School for girls ; married 1888 Valdimar Asmundsson (a?. 1902), the editor 


of "Fjallkonan"; founded " Kvennabla9i9 " 1895 and has been its editor 
since; editor of " Barnabla9i9 " 1898-1903 ; has taken active part in the 
suffrage movement, and was one of the first women' elected to the City 
Council, Reykjavik ; president of the Society for the Rights of Women 
(Kvennr^ttindaf^lagid), founded in i^^ .—Author : Fyrirlestur um hagi og 
r^ttindi kvenna (Lecture on the conditions and rights of women. 1888); 
Sveitalifi9 og Reykjavikurlifi9 (Country life and the life in R. 1894); Livet 
p& Island i det nittende Arhundrede (Nordisk tidskrift, 1905); a series of 
articles on the history of the movement for the emancipation of women 
(Skirnir, 1907-09). The papers she has edited have been largely written by 
Biogr.: 69inn. IV. pp. 12-13, portr. 

Bjarnhebinsson, Ssemundur, physician ; 
b. Bo9varsh61ar, Hdnavatnssysla, Aug. 26, 1863; A. B., 1890; Cand. Med. 
& Chir., 1897; district physician of SkagafjarSarsysla, 1897-1898 ; since 
Oct. I, 1898, physician and director of the Odd Fellows' hospital for the 
leprous, Laugarnes near Reykjavik ; extraordinary docent, University of 
Iceland, since 19 11 ; received the title of honorary professor, 1912. — Author; 
Beretning om Oddfellow-Ordenens Spedalskhedshospital i Laugarnes 
(Ugeskr. for Laeger, 1900); Kystes hydatiques et les lepreux en Islande, 
and Contribution a la question des localisations dites rares de la lepre 
tubereuse (Lepra, V. 1895; also in Danish: Bibliotek for Lseger, 1906); 
Leprosy in Iceland (Der zweite Leprakonferenz. Mittheil. u. Verhandl. I. 
1909); history of leprosy in Iceland (Skirnir, 1910). — Translator: Holds- 
veikismdliQ, serstaklega a9 pvi er fsland snertir, by Edv. Ehlers (1895). 

Bjornsson, Benedikt, novelist ; pseudonym : Bjorn Austraeni ; 

b, Febr. 8, 1879 ; grad. of Modruvellir High School, 1899; teacher in Husavik, 
SuSur-I^ingeyjarsysla. — Author: Milli fjalls og fjoru (Between mountain 
and beach, eight stories of Icelandic country life. 1910); two other stories : 
Kviksyndi (Nyjar kvoldvokur, 1910), and Veidifor (Skirnir, 1912); an article 
on modern Icelandic literature (Skirnir, 1906). — Editor: KvaeQi og sogur, 
by J6hann Gunnar SigurQsson (1909), with a biography of the poet. 

Bjornsson, Gubmundur, physician ; 
b. Grof in ViQidalur, Hiinavatnssysla, Oct. 12, 1864; A. B., 1887; Cand. 
Med. & Chir., 1894; acting docent, 1894-95, docent in the Medical School 
and district physician of Reykjavik, 1895-1906 ; surgeon-general of Iceland 
since Oct. i, 1906; 1896 was sent by the government to Norway to study 
the treatment of leprosy ; 1905-06 studied in hospitals in Berlin and Paris ; 
member of the City Council, Reykjavik, 1900-06 ; member of the Althing for 
Reykjavik, 1905-08 ; has been an active Good Templar for many years. — 
Author : Um matvseli og munaSarvoru (On victuals and articles of luxury. 
1895); Indberetning til Ministeriet for Island om Spedalskheden i Norge 
samt Forslag til Foranstaltninger imod Spedalskheden paa Island (1897); 
Skyrslur um heilsufar og heilbrig9ismdlefni d fslandi 1905-06 (Rapport sur 
r^tat sanitaire et medicale pour 1905-06); Mannska9ar d fslandi (Loss of 


lives due to accidents in Iceland. 1912); Um dfenga drykki (On alcoholic 
drinks. 1899); Um dfengisnautn sem pjo^armein og rd5 til a3 titryma henni 
(On consumption of alcohol as national evil and measures for its extirpation. 
1910); several articles in 'Skirnir" on hygiene and related subjects, as on 
boarding schools for children (1905), on septic tanks (1908), on typhoid 
fever (1908), on insurance for sickness (1909); on reform of the sanitary 
organization' in Iceland (Andvari, 1896); also contributions to the hygienic 
journal "Kir" (1899-1900), of which he was one of the editors; a few 
articles on language reform in periodicals.— Trawj/a/or.- Um berklaveiki, 
by S. A Knopf (1903), and another pamphlet on the same subject (1898). 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. VIII. pp. 65-66, portr.— 63inn. II. pp. 65-66, portr. 

Bjomsson, Simon, called DalaskMd, poet ; 
b. Akrar, SkagafjarQarsysla, 1844 ; a prolific writer of rimur, a form of 
poetry now almost extinct in Iceland, but which flourished there for 
centuries down to the middle of the nineteenth century ; he has travelled 
all over Iceland, selling his works and writing poems on persons he met, and 
for special occasions ; lives now in his home district.— A uiAor: Collections 
of poems under various titles : Smamunir (3 pts. j 872-73), Freyja (1874), 
Bragi (1876), Starkadur (1877), Sneglu-Halli (1883), K6rmakur (1886), 
Stfifur (1892), Sighvatur (1905), PlallfreQur (1909); the following rimur: 
of Kjartan (3lafsson (1871; 2d ed. 1890), of Bui AndriQarson (1872), of 
Gunnlaugur ormstunga (1878; id ed. 1906); of H6r3ur H61mverjakappi 
(1879), of Geirar3ur and Klinborg (1884), of Armann and Helga (1891), of 
Hdvardur fsfirQingur (1891), of Hrafn Hrutfirdingur (1911), of Ing61fur 
Arnarson (1912). Collected much of the material for the biography of the 
poet Hjdlmar J6nsson (called B61u-Hjalmar, d. 1871), by Brynj61fur 
J6nsson ( 191 1). 
Biogr.: 63inn. II. p. 14, portr. 

Bjornsson, Stefdn, journalist ; 
b. Kolfreyjustadur, Su9ur-M61asysla, March 14, 1876; A. B., 1900; Cand. 
Theol., Theological School, 1903 ; went to Canada 1904, and since 1905 has 
been editor of the Icelandic weekly "Logberg", Winnipeg, Man., Canada. 
— Translator: 6likir erfingjar, by G. Boothby (1910); Lifs e3a li9inn, by 
H. Conway (1907 ) ; ErfSaskrd Lormes, by Chas. Garvice ( 1909) ; Kjord6ttirin, 
by A. C. Gunter (1909;; Fanginn 1 Zenda, and Rupert Hentzau, by Anthony 
Hope (1908 ) ; Denver og Helga, by A. W. Marchmont ( 1906 ) ; Hefnd Mari6ns, 
by E. P. Oppenheim (1911). 

Bjornsson, f*orsteinn, theologian ; 
b. Baer in Borgarfjordur, July 2, 1876; A. B., 1898; Cand. Theol., Theo- 
logical School, 1902 ; engaged for some time in temperance work and 
journalism ; went to America 1909, and lives in Winnipeg, Man., Canada. — 
Author: Skuggamyndir, alpydlegar frdsagnir {ir sogu pdvad6msins 
(Shadows, popular tales from the history of the papacy. 1908); fslenzkir 
hofu91aerd6mar (1912), an exposition of the doctrines of Lutheranism, 
Uuitarianism, and the new theology. Several contributions to periodical 
literature, chiefly on temperance, a few poems and biographical sketches. 



Blondal, Bjorg [Caritas l^orldksddttir] , 

b. Vesturh6psli61ar, Hiinavatnssysla, Jan. 30, 1874; A. B., Copenhagen, 
1901 ; Cand. Phil., 1902; wife of Sigfus Blondal (see below). — Author: 
Contributions to periodicals, e. g., treatise on mothers (Skirnir, 1907). — 
Translator: Matur og drykkur, by Chr. Jiirgensen (1906-08); on the 
position and conditions of women, by H. Hoffding (Skirnir, 1910); in 
* ' BimreiQin " : a story by Kipling (1903), and several stories by Selma 
Lagerlof (1903-09). 

Blondal, Hannes Stephensen, poet ; 
b. Oct. 25, 1863 ; grad. of the Modruvellir High School, 1882 ; engaged in 
business for a time, and lived a few years in Canada, but returned to Iceland 
1907, and is now bank clerk in Reykjavik. — Author: Three collections of 
poems: Nokkur kvaedi (1887), Kvaedi (1891), Kvae9i (1901). 

Blondal, Sigfus [Benedikt Bjornsson], philologist, poet; 
b. Hjallaland, Htinavatnssysla, Oct. 2, 1874 ; A. B., 1892 ; Cand. Mag. 
(classical philology and English), 1898 ; acting vice-inspecteur in Regensen 
1899 ; in England and France, 1900-01 ; assistant in the Royal Library, 
Copenhagen, 1901-07, since 1907 sub-librarian ; secretary of the Icelandic 
Literary Society, Copenhagen, 1905-11, and since 1912 secretary of the 
Icelandic Literature Society (HiQislenzka FrseQaf^lag). — Author: Algierske 
Soroveres Tog til Island Aar 1627 (Nord og Syd, 1896); Alfred Tennyson 
(Timarit Bmf., 1903); Katalogisering og Opstilling af Boger (1912; sep. 
repr. from Dahl's Haandbog i Bibliotekskundskab ) ; contributor to the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica on modern Icelandic literature ; many poems, 
articles, and reviews in various periodicals ; for some years has been engaged 
upon an Icelandic-Danish dictionary, for the completion of which he has 
received government support. — Editor: ^fisaga J6ns Olafssonar Indiafara, 
samin af honum sjdlfum 1661 (Autobiography of J. 6. 1908-09); Odysseifs- 
kvi9a H6mers, an Icelandic prose version, by Sveinbjorn Egilsson (1912); 
Katalog over Erhvervelser af nyere udenlandsk Litteratur ved Statens 
offentlige Biblioteker ii9ii(i9i2); Katalog over Erhvervelser af udenlandsk 
teknisk Litteratur ved Kobenhavns kommunale og Foreningsbiblioteker i 
191 1 (1912). — Translator: Nokkur forngrisk kvseQi (A few poems from the 
ancient Greek of Theocritus and Aristophanes. "Arny", 1901); Jon 
Olafssons Oplevelser som Bosseskytte under Christian IV., nedskrevne 
af ham selv (1905); Jon Olafssons Oplevelser som Ostindiefarer under 
Christian IV., nedskrevne af ham selv (1907); Draumur Makars, by V. 
Korolenko (1897). 

Borgfirbingur, Sighvatur Grimsson, historian, genealogist ; 
b. Nyibser, BorgarfjarQarsysla, Dec. 20, 1840; received no education in hi» 
youth, but taught himself to read and write ; has been a farmer and lived 
in different places, longest at H6f9i in Dyrafj6r9ur, devoting all spare 
moments to literary work, copying manuscripts, translating, and writing ; 
lives at present in Reykjavik. — Author : Sagan af Natani Ketilssyni (1892); 
Sigurdur Brei5fjor9 (1912); Um verzlun (1910), a brief outline of the 


history of the Icelandic trade ; of his unprinted works there are especially 
to be mentioned the lives of the Icelandic clergy (in 15 vols. ), which together 
with other of his MSS. have been secured by the National Library in 
Reykjavik. — Editor: Fjdrdrdpsmdli9 i Htinapingi, by Gisli Konrddsson 
(1898), also the same author's autobiography (Timarit B6kmf^l., 1897). — 
Translator : Cyprianus (1904). 
Biogr.: (35inn. II. pp. 30-31, portr. 

Briem, Eirikur [Eggertsson] , educator ; 
b. Melgraseyri, July 17, 1846; A. B., 1864; Cand. Theol., Theological 
School, 1867 ; secretary to the bishop of Iceland, 1867-74 ; minister of 
I>ingeyrar, 1874-80; dean of Hiinavatnssysla, 1877-80; docent in the 
Theological School, 1880-1911; professor honoris causa, 1911 ; Commander 
of Danebrog, 1906, etc. Member of Althing for H6navatnssysla 1881-91, 
member chosen by the Crown since 1901, speaker of the united Althing 1901- 
07 ; inspector of the National Bank of Iceland, 1885-1910; member of the 
interparliamentary committee on church affairs, 1904-05 ; founded the 
Reykjavik Trust Bank (S6fnunarsj65ur) 1885. and has been its president 
since ; president of the Icelandic Archeological Society since 1893. — 
Author: Reikningsb6k (Arithmetic. 1869, 9th ed. 1906); Hugsunarfraedi 
i |)rongri merkingu (Text-book of logic. 1897); Stafrofskver (Abecedary. 
1893, 5th ed. 1908); biographical sketch of Jon Sigur9sson (Andvari, 1880), 
and two articles on economy (Andvari, 1884 and 1888); biography of Sae- 
mundur Eyj61fsson (B6na9arrit, 1897); on the introduction of Christianity 
into Iceland and its influence on the people (Ver5i ]j6s, 1900), and various 
other articles. — Translator: Hin postullega trtiarjdtning, by G. Lisco 
(1873); the latter half of Um uppeldi, by Herbert Spencer (I884). 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. III. pp. 25-26, portr.— Cainn. II. pp. 33-35, portr. — 
Bjarmi. V. p. 153, portr. 

Briem, Halldor [Eggertsson] , educator ; 
b. Bspih611, Sept. 5, 1852 ; A. B., 1871 ; Cand. Theol., Theological School, 
1875 ; went to America, 1876, was ordained there 1880, and did ministerial 
work among the Icelanders in New Iceland and Winnipeg until 1882, when 
he returned to Iceland ; teacher in the Moclruvellir High School, 1882-1907 ; 
since 1908 second assistant librarian, National Library, Reykjavik. — Author: 
Kennslub6k i ensku (English primer. 1873, 2d ed. 1875); Ny kennslub6ki 
ensku (A new English primer. 1889); Kennslub6k i flatamdlsfrse9i (Text- 
book of plane geometry. 1889, 2d ed. 1904); Kennslub6k i pykkvamdlsfrsedi 
(Text-book of stereometry. 1892, 2d ed. 1912); Yfirlit yfir goSafrseQi 
NorQurlanda (A view of Scandinavian mythology. 1886); Stutt dgrip af 
islenzkri mdllysingu handa alpy3usk61um (Short Icelandic grammar for 
common schools. 1891, 2d ed. 1910); Agrip af Islands sogu (Epitome of 
Icelandic history. 1903); two plays: Herra S61skj61d (1892), Ingimundur 
gamli (1901). — Editor: " Framfari " (1877-80), the first Icelandic newspaper 
to be published in America, printed at Lund, Keewatin, Man., Canada. — 
Translator: Hr6i Hottur (Robin Hood. 1900). 

Biogr,: 69inn. VI. p. 50, portr. — Minningarrit hins ev.-liit. kirkjufdl. 
fslend. i Vesturheimi. pp. 65-67, portr. 


Briem, Valdimar [Olafsson] , hymnologist ; 
b. Grund, EyjafjarQarsysla, Feb. i, 1848; A. B., 1869; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1872 ; minister of Hrepph61ar and St6ri Ntipur, 
Arnessysla, since 1873; dean of Arnessysla since 1897; vice-bishop of 
Skdlholt diocese since 1909 ; member of the committees on the hymn-book, 
and on the ritual of the Icelandic church ; Knight of Danebrog, 1897. — 
Author: Barnasdlmar (Hymns for children. 1893); Bibl]ulj69 (Poems on 
Biblical subjects. 2 vols. 1896-97); Davi3 sdlmar i islenzkum sdlmabuningi 
(The Psalter rendered into Icelandic hymns. 1898); Kristin barnafrae9i i 
lj69um (Catechism in verse. 1906); LJ69 6r Jobsb6k (Songs from the book 
of Job. 1908); a great number of hymns and religious poems, original and 
translated in various periodicals, chiefly in " Sameiningin " , "Kirkjubla9 ", 
"VerQi Ijos", and " Nytt kirk j ublad " ; in the "Aldam6t" were published 
some of his longer poems (Kirkjan, 1892; Landskjdlftalj69, 1898; Island 
og fsrael, 1899; Gu9 veit l)a9, 1901 ; Tibrd, and Undir feldi, 1902); in the 
hymn-book now used in the Icelandic church there are about 30 hymns 
by him ; to periodicals he has also contributed numerous articles on religious 
and church affairs. He wrote the annual "Frettirfrd fslandi", publ. by 
the Icelandic Literary Society, for the years 1871-78. To Dr. Thoroddsen's 
biography of Bishop P^tur Petursson he contributed an appreciation of the 
bishop as a writer of religious works (pp. 258-267). 

Biogr.: Sameiningin. V. pp. 161-165, portr ; VII. pp. 5-8. — Ver9i lj6s. 
III. pp. 67-78, portr. — CSinn. III. pp. 29-31, portr. — Bjarmi. II, pp. 5-6, 

Danielsson, Olafur [Dan] , mathematician ; 
b. ViQvik, Skagafjar9arsysla, Oct. 30, 1877 ; A. B., 1897 ; awarded the gold 
medal of the University of Copenhagen, 1902, for an essay on a mathematical 
prize-question ; Cand. Mag., 1904 ; Ph. D., 1909 ; since 1908 has been teacher 
in the Teachers' School, Reykjavik. — Author: Nogle Bemaerkninger om 
en Gruppe algebraiske Flader, der kunne biinges til at svare entydig til en 
Plan Punkt for Punkt (1909; doctor's dissertation); Reikningsb6k (Text- 
book of arithmetic. 1906); an article on the average age of Icelanders 
during the latter half of the 19th century (Skirnir, 1905). 
Biogr.: Kobenhavns Universitets Festskrift. Nov., 1911. p. 72. — 69inn. V. 
p. 76, portr. 

DaviQsson, GuQmundur, forester ; 
b. Kdradalstunga in Vatnsdalur, Nov. 8, 1874 ; grad. of Flensborg High 
School, 1900; teacher in Reykjavik. — Author: Sk6graektarrit (Book of 
forestry. 1912). 

Einarsson, IndriSi, dramatist, statistician ; 
b. Hiisabakki, SkagafjarQarsysla, April 30, 1851, grandson of Gisli KonrdQs- 
son {d. 1877), the historian ; A. B., 1872; Cand. Polit, 1877; studied in the 
Univ. of Edinburgh, 1877-78 ; auditor of the official accounts of Iceland 
1880-1904, and as such was the editor of the " Landshagsskyrslur " 
(Statistical reports of Iceland), and the principal contributor ; commissary 



in the Department of Finance and Statistics, Reykjavik, 1904-09, since 1909 
chief of department. Member of Althing for Vestmanneyjasysla, 1891. — 
Author: Nyjdrsn6ttin (The new year's night, a fairy play in 3 acts. 1872, 
2d revised ed. 1907), written 1869, and played by the students in College of 
Icel. 1 87 1, and in Reykjavik 1907-08, translated into German by Paul 
Herrmann: Die Neujahrsnacht (1910); Hellismenn (The Cave-dwellers, 
a historical drama in 5 acts. 1897), written in 1871-72, played in 1873 and 
1895 in Reykjavik ; Skipid sekkur (The ship sinks, a modern drama in 4 
acts. 1902), written 1891-97, played in 1904; Sver5 og bagall (Sword and 
crozier, a historical drama in 5 acts, from the Sturlunga age. 1899), written 
1897-98, translated into Danish by Henrik Ussing : Svaerd og Krumstav 
( 1901), into German by Carl Kiichler : Schwert und Krummstab( 1900), into 
English by L. M. Hollander: Sword and crozier (Poet-lore, 1912); a play 
in 2 acts entitled : Systkinin i Fremstadal, written 1881-82, was staged in 
Reykjavik 1894, but has never been printed. In addition to his numerous 
contributions to the statistical reports mentioned above, he has written 
articles for other periodicals, chiefly on statistical and economical topics ; 
thus he contributed to the "Timarit B6kmf61." three treatises : on personal 
property in Iceland 1878 ( 1880), on Icelandic parliamentary elections ( 1884), 
and on money (1890); three articles in "Skirnir": on national theaters 
( 1907), on money value in Iceland ( 1907), and personal reminiscences of J6n 
SigurQsson (1911). On temperance there are many articles from his pen, 
and he edited the "Good-Templar" for 1888, and the proceedings of the 
Grand Lodge of Iceland of the Order of Good-Templars for 1886 and 1891. — 
Translator: Meginatri9i J)j69megunarfraec)innar, by Maurice Block (1879); 
Vikingarnir d Hdlogalandi, by Henrik Ibsen (1892, with Eggert 6. Brim ; 
played in Reykjavik during two theater seasons). 

Biogr.: Sunnanfari. X. pp. 73-74, portr. — OSinn. III. pp. 79-80, portr. — 
Templar. XXVIII. pp. 1-2, portr.— Poet- Lore. XXIV. pp. 284-289. 

Einarsson, Magniis, veterinarian ; 
b. HoskuldsstaSir, Nordur Miilasysla, April 16, 1870; A. B., 1891 ; Cand. 
Phil., 1892; afterwards turned to veterinary surgery, and graduated from 
the Danish Veterinary College, 1896 ; since 1896 veterinary surgeon for the 
South and West Quarters of Iceland, residing in Reykjavik. — Author: Um 
fjdrkldQa (Scab in sheep. 1897); FjdrkldSinn (1911); numerous articles on 
veterinary surgery and on diseases of domestic animals in various periodicals, 
principally in " BAnadarrit " and " Freyr ", the latter of which he has 
edited with two others since 1904 ; he has also written for periodicals 
(Andvari, 1909, etc.) articles against introducing prohibition in Iceland. 

Einarsson, Sigfiis, musician ; 
b, Eyrarbakki, Jan. 30, 1877; A. B., 1898; Cand. Phil., 1899; studied for 
some time law, but afterwards studied music under Vald. Lince and August 
Enna; was the founder and director of the Musical Club of Icelandic 
students in Copenhagen, and gave public concerts there ; 1904 gave concerts 
in Iceland with Brynj61fur I>orldksson, and in the following years in Iceland 
and Norway with his wife Valborg Einarsson (bom Hellemann). Since 



1907 has received a stipend from the government for furthering musical 
knowledge and instruction in music in Iceland ; organist of the Reykjavik 
Cathedral since 1913. — Author: Stutt kenslub6k i hlj6mfr3e5i (Short text- 
book of music. 1910) ; essay on the teaching of music in schools (EimreiQin, 
1903 ) ; several reviews and articles in periodicals. Compositions : f slenzk 
songlog fyrir fj6rar karlmannaraddir (Icelandic songs for four male voices. 
1903); LofgjorQ iax Davidssdlmum (Praise from the Psalter, for male and 
female voices with accompaniment. 1904); All)y9u-s6ngl6g (Popular songs. 
1911); Tvo songlog, Zwei Lieder (1911); Till natten (1903); Til fdnans 
(1906); j6nasHallgrimsson(i907); A5 Logbergi (1907); Pjetur Gu9johnsen 
(1912). — Editor: Bdra bid (1905); H6rpuhlj6mar (15 Icelandic songs for 
four male voices. 1905); Sk61a-s6ngvar (School songs. 3 parts. 1906-11); 
Kirkjus6iigsb6k J6nasar Helgasonar (Book of church music by J. H. 1906); 
popular songs forming vol. 3. of Barnab6k Unga Islands (1907); All)y9u- 
songlog II. ( 17 Icelandic popular songs. 1912). 
Biogr.: 6dinn. IV. pp. 21-22, portr. 

Erlingsson, l^orsteinn, poet ; 
b. St6ramork, Rangdrvallasysla, Sept. 27, 1858; A, B., 1883; Cand. Phil., 
1884 ; studied law for some time, but later pursued studies in philology and 
literature, especially Old Norse ; 1895 made an archeological trip through 
the southern and western districts of Iceland, and 1896 visited United States 
at the invitation of Miss Cornelia Horsford for investigating ruins in 
Massachusetts, supposed to be of Norse origin ; 1896- 1900 editor of the 
weekly paper " Bjarki " at Sey9isfj6r9ur ; 1901-02 editor of " Arnfir9ingur " 
at Bildudalur ; since 1902 has resided in Reykjavik. Has for some years 
received a stipend from the government for literary work. — Author : I>yrnar 
(Thorns, a collection of poems. 1897, 2d ed. enlarged 1905); Ruins of the 
Saga Time : being an account of travels and explorations in Iceland in the 
summer of 1895 (1899); Me9an um semur (1908), a political pamphlet. 
Among his numerous contributions to periodicals are especially to be 
mentioned a review of foreign books on Iceland and Icelandic literature 
publ. in 1892 (Timarit B6kmf^l., 1894), and articles in * ' Sunnanfari " and 
" Dyravinurinn "; an essay on Benedikt Grondal (in the book dedicated to 
Grondal on his eightieth birth-day, 1906), and one on Sey9isfjor9ur 
(Bimrei9in, 1903-04). — Editor: f slenzkar sogur og sagnir (Icelandic tales 
and traditions. 1906). — Translator : Hei9rtin (1901-02 ; collection of trans- 
lations of minor works by Marcel Prevost, Turgenef, and others, repr. from 
the " Arnfir9ingur "). 

Biogr.: Eimrei9in. I. pp. 121-125 ; XIII. pp. 42-60. — Sunnanfari. IV. pp. 
92-93, portr. — 69inn. I. pp. 41-42, portr. — Heimir. IV. pp. 122-140. — 
Buterpe (a Finnish-Swedish weekly). Sept. 27, 1902 (by Rolf Norden- 

Finnbogason, GuSmundur, philosopher, essayist ; 
b. Arnarstapi, pingeyjarsysla, June 6, 1873 ; A. B., 1896 ; Mag. Art., 
(philosophy; major: psychology), 1901 ; Dr. Phil., 1911 ; received a 
stipend from the government for four years (1901-04) to study schools and 


methods of instruction in Scandinavian countries and to work out plans 
for school reform in Iceland; editor of " Skirnir " 1905-07; Hannes 
Arnason stipendiary, 1907-11, and pursued philosophical studies in Copen- 
hagen, Berlin, and Paris, 1907-10, during the winter 1910-11 giving popular 
lectures on philosophy in Reykjavik ; since 191 1 assistant librarian in the 
National Library, Reykjavik. — Author: LyOmentun, hugleidingar og 
■tillogur (Popular education, reflections and suggestions. 1903); ftaliuferQ 
(Trip to Italy. 1908); Bannmdlid (Prohibition. 1911); Den sympatiske 
Forstaaelse (1911, doctor's dissertation); Hugur og heimur (Mind and 
world. 1912 ; popular lectures on philosophy) ; several essays in •' Skirnir " : 
on boarding schools (1905), on Egill Skallagrimsson (1905), on Einar 
Benediktsson (1905), on William James (1905), on small and great nations 
(1906), on K6rmakur and Steinger9ur (1907), on Jonas Hallgrimsson 
(1907), on T6mas Saemundsson (1907), on energy and civilization (1910), 
on belief in verbosity and obscurity ( 1912). An essay on Matthias Jochums- 
son as author of obituary poems (in the M. J. memorial volume, 1905), and 
on the poetry of Benedikt Grondal (in the B. G. memorial volume, 1906); 
a great number of articles in various periodicals on educational and other 
subjects. — Editor : Afmselisdagar (Birthday-book with selections from Ice. 
landic poets. 1907); Lesb6k handa bornum og unglingum (Reader for 
children and young people. 3 vols. 1907-10). — Translator: Cdaudleiki 
mannsins, by William James (1905); f>ytur i sk6ginum, a story by V. 
Korolenko (1897); essay on modem Norwegian literature, by Bjomstj. 
Bjornson (Eimrei9in, 1898), on art, by Henri Bergson (Skirnir, 1906), on 
pragmatism, by William James (Skirnir, 1912), and many other articles 
and stories by various authors (J. Lie, Herm. Bang, S. Lagerlof, L. Tolstoy, 
G. Simmel, etc. ) 
Biogr.: Kobenhavns Universitets Festskrift, Nov., 191 1. pp. 77-78. 

FriQfinnsson, J6n, musician ; 
b. f>or\'aldssta9ir, Su9ur-Mtilasysla, Aug. 16, 1865; came to Canada 1876; 
organist of the Argyle Church, 1897-1905 ; real estate agent in Winnipeg, 
Man., Canada. — Author: T61f songlog (Twelve musical compositions. 
1904); Vor (Spring, barytone solo with piano accompaniment. 1913); 
V6ggulj69 (Cradle-song. 1913); also a few compositions publ. in periodicals 
(Eimrei5in, 1902, etc.). 

Fribjonsson, Gubmundur, poet ; 
b. Silalsekur, Su9ur-I>ingeyjarsysla, Oct. 24, 1869 ; grad. of MoQruvellir High 
School, 1893; farmer at Sandur, Su9ur-I>ingeyjarsysla.— ^«/A£>r.- Einir 
(Juniper, four stories. 1898); Ur heimahogum (From the home pastures, a 
collection of poems. 1902); Undir beru lopti (In the open air, six stories. 
1904); 6l6f i Asi (1907), a story claimed to be confessions of a married 
woman. Has been a prolific contributor to periodicals, his articles covering 
a variety of subjects, and there scarcely is an Icelandic periodical which has 
not at one time or another published something from his pen ; his principal 
•contributions are, however, poems and stories. In the "EimreiQin" have 
appeared: Konan kemur i mannheim (1897), D6ttir min (1900), Afi og 


amma (1901), essay on the poets of I>ingeyjarsysla with selections from 
their poems (1902), Systir min (1902), Ami i Urclarbdsi (1902, a poem), 
description of life in I>ingeyjarsysla at the beginning of the 20th century 
(1906), on dreams (1907), essay on J6nas Hallgrimsson and T6mas 
Saemundsson (1907), on independance with special reference to Iceland 
(1909 and 1910), on women in ancient Iceland (1912), on patriotism (1912), 
and others. In "Skirnir ": an article on dreams (1909), and two essays on 
Stephen G. Stephdnsson (1907 and 1912). In the Norwegian fortnightly 
"Kringsjaa" a sketch of life in Iceland (1899). 

Biogr.: Sunnanfari. X. pp. 33-34, portr. — (39inn. III. pp. 40-41, portr. — 
BreiQablik. III. p. 11, portr. 

FriSjonsson, Sigurjon, poet ; 
b. Silalaekur, Su9ur-f>ingeyjarsysla, Sept. 22, 1867 ; brother of the preced- 
ing ; grad. of Ei9ar Agricultural School, 1887 ; farmer at Einarsstadir, SuQur 
I>ingeyjarsysla. — Author : Two stories in ' ' Bimreidin ' ' ( Hinn prongi vegur, 
poems in prose. 1903; Hridarbylur. 1904), three stories in " Skirnir " 
(Hvi hefur pti yfirgefiQ mig. 1907 ; Ur hlidinni yfir m6num. 191 1 ; Ur austri 
og vestri. 1911); many poems in these and other periodicals, especially in 
'* OcJinn " ; articles, chiefly on literary subjects, in " Stefnir " and " NorQri." 
Biogr.: Bimreidin. VIII. pp. 95-100 ; XII. pp. 123-125. — 65inn. III. pp. 
40-41, portr. 

FriQriksson, Fribrik, poet, clergyman ; 
h. Hdls in Svarfadardalur, May 25, 1868; A. B., 1893; Cand. Phil., 1894, 
and studied for some time philology; Cand. Theol., Theol. School, 1900; 
ordained 1900 as chaplain to the Laugarnes Hospital for the leprous ; since 
1898 has been the director of the Reykjavik branch of Y. M. C. A. — 
Author: S6nglj69 (Songs. 1909); Nokkrir songvar handa bornum (Some 
songs for children. 1909); Morm6na-villan (The Mormon heresy. 1901); 
several sermons and other pamphlets on religious subjects. Many of his 
earlier poems in "Sunnanfari" and other papers. — Editor: ^skan, a 
fortnightly paper for children (1904-09); the monthly bulletins of Y. M. C. 
A. (1898, 1909-10). — Translator: Nokkrir sdlmar (1909). 
Biogr.: Bjarmi. III. p. 161, portr. 

Fribriksson, J>6ra, teacher ; 
b. Reykjavik; daughter of Halld6r Kr. Fri9riksson, the philologist. 
Educated in Reykjavik and Copenhagen. Teacher in public schools in 
Reykjavik. — Author: Stutt landafrae9i fyrir byrjendur (Short text-book of 
geography for beginners. 1897); Litil kennslub6k i donsku handa barna- 
sk61um (Short Danish primer for elementary schools. 2 vols. 1900-01); two 
essays in ''Skirnir", on Rembrandt (1907), and on the Maid of Orleans 
(1908); several articles in " Kvennabla5i9 " and other papers. 

Gislason, Sigurbjom Astvaldur, pamphleteer ; 
b. Glaesibaer, Skagafjar9arsysla, Jan. i, 1876 ; A. B., 1897 ; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1900; visited Denmark and Norway 1900-01, and has 
since been in the service of the Danish Home Mission, residing in 



Reykjavik. — Author : Smdsaga 6r Reykjavikurlifinu (A story from the R. 
life. 1902); George Miiller (1911); Reikningsb6k (A text-book of arithe- 
metic. 5 parts. 1911-12); numerous tracts, partly issued separately, partly in 
the two series "Vekjarinn" (1903-06), and " Heimilisvinurinn " (1904-06), 
both of which he edited. — Translator : Tracts and pamphlets, by B. Blume 
(1902), Fr. E. Clark (1903), O. Funcke (1902), C. V. Bondo (1908), and 
many others. 

Gfslason, J^orsteinn Vilhjdlmur, poet, journalist ; 
b. St8erri-Ar8k6gur, EyjafjarSarsysla, Jan. 26, 1867 ; A. B., 1892 ; Cand. 
Phil., 1893 ; studied Scandinavian philology and literature until he returned 
to Iceland, 1896; editor of the monthly "Sunnanfari ", 1896-98; editor of 
"Island", 1897-99; editor of "Bjarki", Sey5isfj6r3ur, 1899-1903; editor 
of the monthly illustrated paper "CQinn", since 1905, and the weekly 
paper "I^ogretta", Reykjavik, since 1906. — Author: Kvae9i (Poems. 
1893); Nokkur kvaeQi ( A f ew poems. 1904); Riss (Sketches. 1905); J6nas 
Hallgrimsson (1903, a lecture). Wrote the foreign news in "Skirnir" 1904 
and since 1910 ; two essays on Matthias Jochumsson, his life and poetry (in 
the M. J. memorial volume, 1905); biography of Benedikt Grondal ( Andvari, 
1909); poems for the visit of King Frederick VIII. to Iceland (1908). — 
Translator: Arni, by Bjornstj. Bjornson (1897); ^fintyriS af P6tri 
Pislarkrdk, by A. v. Chamisso (1902); Nylendupresturinn, by Kristofer 
Janson (1902); Spdnskar ngetur, by Borge Janssen (1900); Sj6mannalif, by 
R. Kipling (1907); Nasreddin (1904); fvar hKijdrn (Ivanhoe), by W. Scott 
(1910); Quo vadis?, by H. Sienkiewicz (1905); I>rjdr sogur, by C. Ewald 
and Bertha v. Suttner (1909); Orustan vi9 mylluna, by E. Zola (1903). 

Grondal, Benedikt l^orvaldsson, poet ; 
b. Hvammur, in Nor9urdrdalur, Aug. 9, 1870; A. B., 1893; at present 
secretary to the prefect (baejarf6geti) of Reykjavik. — Author: Many poems 
in periodicals ; a story (Sidasti r69urinn) in "Skirnir" (1912). 

Gronfeldt, l^ora P>orleifsd6ttir, writer on domestic science ; 
daughter of Rev. I>orleifur J6nsson, philologist and clergyman of Skinna- 
sta9ur {d. 1911 ) ; wife of H. J. Gronfeldt, Hvitdrvellirin BorgarfjarQarsysla. — 
Author: Stutt matrei9slub6k fyrir sveitaheimili (Short cook-book for 
country homes. 1906). 

Gublaugsson, Jonas, poet ; 
b. Stadarhraun, Myrasysla, Sept. 27, 1887 ; student in College of Iceland, 
1901-05 ; engaged in newspaper work in Reykjavik, 1905-06 ; editor of 
"Valurinn", fsafjorQur, 1906-07; travelled in England, Germany, and 
Scandinavia, and for some time was connected with the Danish ' ' Social- 
Demokraten"; editor of "Reykjavik", 1909 ; since 1909 has lived in Den- 
mark and Norway, engaged in journalism (on "Riget" and other papers) 
and literary work. — Author: Vorbl6m (Spring flowers, a collection of 
poems. 1905); Dagsbriin (Dawn, songs and poems. 1909); Tvistimid 
(Double stars, 1906 ; a collection of poems to which Sig. SigurQsson also 
contributed); Sange fra Nordhavet, islandske Digte (1911); Viddemes 


Poesi (1912), the last two written in Danish; a story (DauSinn) in 
"Skirnir" (1910); many poems in periodicals, — Translator: Maria Grubbe, 
ty J. P. Jakobsen (1910); F61ki9 vi5 hafi9, by Harry Soiberg (1909). 
Biogr.: 63inn. V. pp. 61-62, portr. — Unga Island. III. pp. 12-13, portr. — 
Bogvennen. Sept., 1912. p. 6, portr. 

Gubmundsson, Gu9mundur, poet ; 
b. Hr61fsta9ahellir, Rangdrvallasysla, Sept. 6, 1874; A. B., 1897; Cand. 
Phil., Reykjavik, 1898 ; studied for some time medicine ; associate editor of 
" Valurinn ", fsafjorQur, 1906-07 ; founder and editor of the paper " Dagur ", 
1909. — Author: Ivj69m8eli (Poems. 1900); GuSbjorg i Dal (1902, a poem); 
Strengleikar (Lays. 1903); Gigjan (The fiddle, a collection of poems. 1906); 
Fri9ur d jor9u (Peace on earth, poems. 1911); Kristjdn j6nsson skdld 
(1908, a lecture); a story, Tota (fsland, 1897); OrgeliQ (The organ. 1902; 
a story publ. under the pseudonym : Asmundur Vikingur) ; numerous poems 
and articles in periodicals ; great number of poems written for special 
occasions separately printed. — Translator: Nihilistinn undir fossinum 
(1907, an anonymous story); Bifreidin, utlendar sogur (1909); Blindi 
t6nsnillingurinn, by V. Korolenko (1912); many poems and stories in 
various periodicals. 
Biogr.: (39inn. I. p. 84, portr. 

Gubmundsson, Sigurbur, philologist ; 
b. ^sustaQir, Hdnavatnssysla, Sept. 3, 1876; A. B., 1901 ; A. M., 
(Scandinavian philology and literature), 1910 ; granted a stipend by the 
government during the years 1912-13 for researches in Icelandic literature ; 
lives in Reykjavik. — Author: Essay on f>orsteinn Brlingsson (EimreiSin, 
1907); essay on references to Danes in modern Icelandic poetry (Eimrei9in, 
1909); many articles and reviews in various periodicals (Nor9urland, 
Ing61fur, etc.). — Translator: J. L. Heiberg's essay on ancient controversies 
about Christianity (Eimrei9in, 1904). 

Gubmundsson, Valtyr, philologist ; 
b. Arbakki, Htinavatnssysla, March 11, i860; A. B., 1883; A. M., 
(Scandinavian philology), 1887; Ph. D., 1889; decent of Icelandic history 
and literature. University of Copenhagen, since 1890 ; visited United States 
1896 at the invitation of Miss Cornelia Horsford to investigate ruins in 
Massachusetts supposed to be of Norse origin. Member of the board 
of directors of the Icelandic Literary Society (Copenhagen branch) 
1885-1905, of the Royal Society for Northern Antiquaries since 1892, and of 
the society called "De danske Atlanterhavsoer " since 1903. Member of 
Althing for Vestmanneyjasysla 1894-1901, for Gullbringu- og Kj6sarsysla 
1903-09, for Sey9isfj6r9ur since 191 1. Knight of Danebrog, 1904. Founded 
the periodical "Eimrei9in" 1895, and has since been its editor. — Author: 
Um merki Islands (The flag of Iceland. 1885, a lecture); Privatboligen paa 
Island i Sagatiden samt delvis i det ovrige Norden (1889, doctor's disserta- 
tion); Den islandske Bolig i Fristatstiden (1894); Nordboernes Skibe i 
Vikinge- og Sagatiden (1900); Die Fortschritte Islands im 19. Jahrhundert, 


iibersetzt von R. Palleske (1902); Islands Kultur ved Aarhundredskiftet 
1900 (1902), translated into German by R. Palleske : Island am Beginn des 
20. Jahrhunderts (1904); F6stbrse3ralag (p>rjdr ritgerdir tileinkaSar Pdli 
Melste9, 1892); Manngjold-hundraQ ( Germanistische Abhandlungen zum 
LXX. Geburtstag Konrad v. Maurers, 1893); Solvkursen ved Aar 1000 
(Festskrift til L. F. A. Wimmer, 1909); LitklaeQi (Arkiv f. nord. Filol., 
1892); reviews of foreign books on Iceland and Icelandic literature (Timarit 
Bmf61., 1892 and 1893); Skandinavische Verhaltnisse : Kleidung, Wirtschaft 
(Paul's Grundriss der german. Philologie. III. 2d ed. 1900); contributor 
to Johannes Hoop's Reallexikon der german. Altertumskunde. Of the 
numerous articles and reviews published in "Eimreidin", the following 
may especially be mentioned : on the national rights of Iceland and the 
constitutional changes (1896), on the organization of the Althing (1897), on 
the poor laws and municipal government in the old Icelandic Republic 
(1898), on amendments to the Icelandic constitution (1890), on progress in 
Iceland during the 19th century (1900, transl. into German by Palleske), 
on the platforms of the Icelandic political parties (1903), on the old 
Icelandic horse fights (1903), on salaries of public officials (1905 and 1906), 
on J6n Sigur9sson (1911), on Steingrimur Thorsteinsson (1911), etc.; many 
articles in other periodicals, both Icelandic and Danish. — Editor: C. 
Rosenberg's Traek af L/ivet paa Island i Fristatstiden (1894); Fr. Winkel 
Horn's Danish version of Snorri Sturlusons (3lafs saga Tryggvasonar ( 1900), 
G. Storm's Danish version of (3lafs saga helga, by Snorri (1906); Kvaedi og 
pyQingar, by GuQmundur Einarsson (1908). — Translator: Fornislenzk 
mdlmyndalysing, by L. F. A. Wimmer (1885), etc. 

Biogr.: Indbydelsesskrift til Kjobenhavns Universitets Reformation sf est, 
1889. — Bricka, Dansk biograf. Lexikon. VI. pp. 283-284. — Sunnanfari. VII. 
p. 32, portr. 

Gunnarsson, Gunnar, poet, novelist ; 
b. ValJ)j6fssta9ur, Su5ur-Miilasysla, May 18, 1889 ; student in Askov High 
School, Denmark, 1907-09, otherwise self-taught. Lives at present in 
Copenhagen, engaged in journalism and literary work. — Author: Vorlj6d 
(Spring songs. 1906); M69urminuing (In memory of mother, poems. 1906); 
Digte (1911); Ormarr Orlygsson, af Borgslaegtens Historic, Roman (1912); 
Den danske Frue paa Hof, af Borgslaegtens Historic (1912); poems and 
stories in "Bimreidin" (1910), *'65inn " (1907), and "Logr^tta" (Augu 
dauSans, Sdttin, and many other stories. 1912-13). Contributor to many 
Danish periodicals and dailies, also to Norwegian, Swedish, German, and 
French papers. 
Biogr.: Bogvennen, Aug. 19 12, p. 10, portr. 

Guttormsson, Guttormur J6nsson, poet ; 

h. Icelandic River, Man., Canada, Dec. 15, 1878, of Icelandic parents. 
Farmer at Icelandic River. He is the only native of America who has 
written a book in Icelandic. — Author: J6n Austfirdingur og nokkur 
smdkvae9i (John from the Eastfjords, and a few short poems. 1909). 


Hafstein, Hannes [l^drbur], poet, jurist ; 
b. M69ruvellir, Eyjafjar3arsysla, Dec. 4, 1861 ; A. B., 1880; Cand. Juris, 
1886 ; acting prefect of Dalasysla, 1886 ; Superior Court attorney, 1887-89 ; 
chief of the governor-general's bureau (landritari), 1889-95 ; prefect of 
fsafjarQarsysla and fsafj6r9ur, 1895-1904 ; minister (rdQherra) for Iceland, 
Febr. i, 1904 to March 31, 1909, and since July 25, 1912 ; third director of the 
Bank of Iceland, 1909-12. Member of Althing for fsafjardarsysla 1900, for 
Eyjafjaraarsysla since 1903. Commander of Danebrog, 1907, etc. Grand 
Officer of the French L,egion of Honor, 1908. — Author: Ymisleg lj6dmaeli 
(Various poems. 1893); was one of the editors of " Verdandi " ( 1882) to which 
he contributed several poems ; biography of J6nas Hallgrimsson in his Poems 
(1884) of which he was one of the editors ; treatise on the Icelandic National 
Assembly of 185 1 (Andvari, 1902); poems in various periodicals. — Editor: 
Kvae9i og kvicilingar, by Hjdlmar j6nsson (B61u-Hjdlmar, 1888), with 
biography of the author. — Translator: Poems from the Danish, German 
(Heine's Buch der Lieder), and English have appeared in periodicals 
(Timarit Bmfa., 1896; I>j6561fur, 1896; and others). 

Biogr.: Sunnanfari. III. p. 49, portr. — Illustreret Tidende. XI^V. pp. 145- 
146, portr.— Verdens.Speilet. II. pp. 565-567, portr.— Det nye Aarhundrede. 
I. pp. 306-310, portr.— 63inn. I. pp. 9, 12-14, portr.; II. pp. 41-42, portr. — 
Heimir. V. pp. 75-92, portr. — Ing61fur. IX. pp. 198-200. 

Hallddrsson, Olafur, jurist ; 
b. Hof in Vopnafjor9ur, May 15, 1855; A. B., 1877; Cand. Juris, 1882; 
assistant in the Icelandic government bureau, Copenhagen, 1883-89, chief, 
1889-1909. Councillor of Conference, 1904 ; Knight of Danebrog, 1894, etc. — 
Author: Treatise on modern Icelandic legislation (Jahrbuch der internat. 
Vereinung fiir vergleich. Rechtswissenschaft u. Volkwirtschaftslehre zu 
Berlin, 1899). — Editor: J6nsb6k, Kong Magnus Hakonssons Lovbog (1904); 
Ivovsamling for Island, vols. XX. -XXI. (1887-89, with H. Stephensen). 

Hannesson, Gubmundur, physician, pamphleteer ; 
b, Gu91augssta9ir, H6navatnssysla, Sept. 9, 1865 ; A. B., 1887 ; Cand. Med, 
& Chir., 1894 ; district physician of Skagafjardarsysla 1894-96, of Eyjafjar9- 
arsysla 1896-1907, of Reykjavik 1907-11 ; since Sept. 22, 191 1 professor of 
medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik. — Author: 1 apturelding, 
nokkrar greinar um landsmdl (Dawn, a few articles on politics, 1906 ; transl. 
into Danish, in " Tilskueren " ) ; an article on Japan (Skirnir, 1906); 
contributions to various periodicals. — Translator : Opi9 br^f til klerka og 
kennimanna, by Leo Tolstoy (1903). 
Biogr,: 69inn. III. pp. 13-15, portr. —Sunnanfari. IX. pp. 37-38, portr. 

Hansen, [Rasmus] Morten, educator ; 
b. Hafnarfjordur, Oct. 20, 1855; A. B., 1877; Cand. Theol,, Theological 
School, 1879 ; teacher in the Reykjavik primary school 1883, since 1890 its 
director. Member of the board of directors of the Icelandic I^iterary Society 
1886-1909, and of the Icelandic Teachers' Association. — Author : Reiknings- 
b6k handa alj)y9usk61um (Text-book of arithmetic for common schools. 



1890, 6th ed. 191 1); Landafrae9i handa bamask61um (Text-book of 
geography for primary schools. 1894, 4th ed. 1907). 
Biogr.: Unga Island. IX. pp. 9-12, portr. 

Helgason, Einar, horticulturist ; 
b. Kristsnes, Eyjafjar3arsysla, June 25, 1867 ; grad. of EiOar Agricultural 
School, 1887 ; grad. of Horticultural High School, Vilvorde, Denmark, 1897 ; 
since 1898 horticultural adviser of the Icelandic Agricultural Society ; since 
1900 director of the Horticultural Experimental Station, Reykjavik. — 
Author: Many articles on horticulture and agriculture in "Timarit 
Bmf^l." (1898), '• Btina9arrit " (since 1899), and "Freyr" of which he has 
been one of the editors since its foundation, 1903 ; article on agriculture in 
Iceland, in " Berattelse ofver andra nordiska Landbrukskongressen i 
Stockholm, 1897"; on horticulture in Iceland, in "Nordisk illustreret 
Havebrugslexikon " (1902); on the Experimental Station, Reykjavik, in 
*' Aarsberetning om det kgl. danske Landhusholdningsselskabs Virksomhed 
Biogr.: 69inn. V. pp. 17-20, portr. 

Helgason, Helgi, musician ; 
b. Reykjavik, Jan. 23, 1848 ; learned the trade of a carpenter, but studied 
music besides, was in Copenhagen 1875-76 and 1878-79 for that purpose ; 
organized the first Icelandic brass band 1876, and was its leader until 1902, 
when he left Iceland and went to America ; in his new home Wynyard 
P. O., Sask., Canada, has organized a brass band of Icelanders, called the 
Wikingband ; decorated with the order of Danebrog, 1890. — Compositions : 
Hundra9dra afmseli Reykjavikur (1886); Bruardrdpa (1891); fslenzk 
songl 6g (20 musical compositions. 1892), and many others. 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. VII. pp. 93-95, portr. — Hojskolebladet. 190 1. No. 30. 
<;oll. 949-956, portr. 

Helgason, J6n, theologian ; 
b. Gar9ar on Alptanes, June 21, 1866; A. B., 1886; Cand. Theol., 1892; 
studied at the Universities of Greifswald and Erlangen, 1894 ; docent in the 
Theological School, Reykjavik, 1894-1908, director (lector theol.), 1908-11 ; 
since Sept. 22, 191 1, professor of theology, University of Iceland ; ordained, 
1895 ; assistant minister of the Reykjavik Cathedral, 1894-1908 ; member of 
the interparliamentary committee on church affairs, 1904-05. Knight of 
Danebrog, 1905. — Author: SoguleguruppruniNyjaTestamentisins, einstak- 
ra rita pess og safnsins i heild sinni (Historical origin of the New Testa- 
ment, of its individual parts and of the whole collection. 1904); Almenn 
kristnisaga (History of Christianity. I. 1912); several sermons published 
separately ; numerous contributions to religious periodicals, especially to 
be found in the monthly "Ver3i lj6s" (1896-1904), of which he was the 
founder and editor, and in the "Nytt kirkjublaQ" (since 1904), of which 
he was associate editor in 1906-07 ; essays on the books of Moses (Timarit 
Bmf^l., 1900), on the origin of the Old Testament (Timarit Bmf^l., 1901), 
on the ministers and the creeds (Skirnir, 1909). List of graduates from the 


College of Iceland 1846-96 (in the memorial volume of the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the College, 1896); list of graduates from the Theological School 
1847-97 (in the memorial volume of the fiftieth anniversary of the School, 
1897); four biographies in Bricka's Dansk biografisk Leksikon ; a few 
articles in Danish periodicals. — Editor: Sdlmar og andleglj6cl til notkunar 
i barnask61um og vi9 barnagudsj)j6nustur ( 1902, 2d ed. 1908) ; the following 
works of his father, Helgi Hdlfddnarson {d. 1894) : Sannleikur kristind6msins 
(1894), Kristileg siQfrseQi (1895), Saga fornkirkjunnar (3d pt. 1896), Stutt 
dgrip af pr^dikunarfraeQi (1896), Pr^dikanir d ollum sunnu- og helgidogum 
kirkjudrsins (1896); Br^f T6masar Saemundssonar (1907, selections from 
these letters he had previously edited in "TimaritBmf61.", 1896); Bibliusogur, 
by Tang (1898, augmented and rewritten). — Translator : In the new trans- 
lation of the New Testament (1906), the following writings: The gospels 
of Mathew and John, the epistle to the Romans, and the epistles to the 
Corinthians; TakiQ sinnaskipti, by Skovgaard-Petersen (1900, a sermon). 
Biogr.: Cdinn. VI. pp 73-74, portr.— Hannes |>orsteinsson, GuafrseSinga- 
tal, pp. 164-167. 

Hinriksson, J6n, poet ; 
b. St6ru Reykir, Su9ur-J>ingeyjarsysla, Oct. 24, 1829 ; was a farmer until 
1899 ; lives at HelluvaQ, Su5ur-I>ingeyjarsysla. — Author: Lj63maeli (Poems. 
Biogr.: Bimrei9in. XII. pp. 118-121. — 65inn. VII. p. 36, portr. 

Hjaltason, Gubmundur, story- writer, journalist ; 
b. Asbjarnarsta9ir, Myrasysla, 1853 ; student in Gausdal High School, 
Norway, 1875-77, in Askov High School, Denmark, 1877-80 ; lectured in 
Denmark and Norway, on Iceland and Icelandic literature ; returned to 
Iceland in 188 1, and during the winter taught school in various places in 
North Iceland until 1903, in the summer he worked at farming ; in Norway, 
1903-09, lecturing; returned to Iceland in 1909 and has since lived in 
Hafnarfjor9ur ; associate editor of the "Skinfaxi", the organ of the 
Icelandic Young Peoples' Societies ; for the years 191 2-13 receives an ap- 
propriation from the government for popular lectures in country districts. — 
Author: Fj61udalur (1875, an epic and other poems); Melabl6m (1882, a 
collection of stories and tales); J6kulr6s (1883, two stories); Dalar6sir 
(1885, two stories). To Icelandic papers he has contributed a great number 
of articles on a variety of subjects, but principally on popular high schools, 
education, religion, and poetry ; he has likewise written much in Danish, 
Norwegian, and Swedish periodicals on Iceland, its people, literature and 

Biogr.: Sk61abla9i9. I. pp. 11-12 ; II. p. 13, portr. — 09inn. V. pp. 27-28, 
portr. — Unga Island. V. pp. 4-5, portr. 

Hjorleifsson, Einar [Gisli], novelist, journalist ; 
^. GoSdalir, SkagafjarQarsysla, Dec. 6, 1859; A. B., 1881 ; Cand. Phil., 
1882 ; studied for some time political economy ; went to America, 1885 ; 
1886-88 associate editor of the weekly "Heimskringla", Winnipeg, Man., 
Canada ; 1888-95 editor of the weekly "Logberg"; returned to Iceland in 


1895, and was associate editor of " fsafold " 1895-1901, and of " Sunnanfari " 
1900-GI ; editor of " Nordurland ", Akureyri, 1901-04, of "Fjallkonan" 
1904-06, of "Skirnir" 1908-09. Since 1910 has received from the govern- 
ment a stipend for literary work ; lives in Reykjavik. — Author: Hvom 
eiQinn d jeg ad rjiifa (Which of the two oaths shall I break ? 1880); Upp og 
niSur (Up and down. 1882), a story in letters publ. in "VerQandi" of 
which he was one of the editors ; Vonir ( Hopes, a story from America. 
1890), was translated into German, by M. Lehmann-Filh^s, in ** Die Frau '* 
(1894); the last two stories were translated into Danish, by Holger Wiehe 
under the title : To Fortsellinger fra Island ( 1900) ; Lj63maeli ( Poems. 1893) ; 
Vestan hafs og austan (On the West and East side of the Ocean. 1901, 2d 
ed. 1908), containing the novels : Vonir, Litli Hvammur, and Ordugasti 
hjallinn, the last two of which were translated into German, by Franz 
Kuntze : Klein-Hvammur (1909), and Die steilste Hohe (Westermanns 
Monatshefte, 1911); Smselingjar (1908, five short stories); Ofurefli 
(Superior force, 1908), translated into Danish, by Olaf Hansen: Overmagt 
(1909), into German, by Erich von Mendelsohn: Die Ubermacht (1912); 
Gull (Gold. 1911) a continuation of the Ofurefli ; Briiin (Eimreidin, 1896), 
translated into Bohemian (Most) by Al. Koudelka (O. S. Vetti) in the 
paper "Hlas"; G69 bo9 (EimreiSin, 1900); in "Skimir" have appeared 
the following stories (not included in any of his collections) : A 
vegam6tum (1908), Marjas (1908), and Vistaskipti (1908-09); biography 
of Bjarni Th6rarensen, in the edition of his Poems (1884); Vestur-fslend- 
ingar (Icelanders in America. 1895); Vesturfor (Trip to America. 1909); 
Tildrog stj6rnarb6tarinnar (The events leading to the constitutional 
amendment. 1902); Frjdlst sambandsland (1907), a survey of the political 
struggle between Iceland and Denmark, also published in Danish : Danmark 
og Island, en historisk Redegorelse (1907); a few other political pamphlets 
and articles; Samband vi5 framli9na (Communicating with the dead. 
1905), a spiritualistic pamphlet, and an essay on the same subject (Skirnir, 
1905). Papers on reading (Timarit Bmf^l., 1896), on popular education in 
Iceland (1899), on the government by an earl in Iceland (Andvari, 1912), 
on some women of the Icelandic sagas (Skirnir, 1909), etc.; numerous 
essays, reviews, and articles in periodicals. — Translator: Allan Quatermain, 
(1891, 2d ed. 1906), Ndmar Sal6m6ns (1888, 2d ed. 1906), I>okuly3urinn 
(1894), all by H. Rider Haggard ; Kongurinn i GuM, by J. Ruskin (1891); 
Eptir dauQann, by W. T. Stead (1907) ; Warren Hastings, by Lord Macaulay 
(1912), etc. 

Biogr.: Sunnanfari. III. pp. 49-50, portr.— BreiQablik. II. pp. 25-26, 
portr. — Almanak 6lafs S. Thorgeirssonar. 1906. pp. 59-61. 

Holm, Torfhildur I>orsteinsd6ttir, novelist ; 
h. Kdlfafellsstadur, Austur-Skaptafellssysla, Feb. 2, 1845 ; was educated in 
Reykjavik and Copenhagen ; 1874 married Jakob Holm {d. 1875); lived in 
Canada, 1877-90 ; lives at present in Reykjavik ; has received for some 
years a stipend from the government for literary work. — Author: 
Brynj61fur Sveinsson biskup (1882, 2d ed. 1912, a historical novel of the 
17th cent); Sogur og aefintyri (Stories and fairy tales. 1884); Smdsogur 


handa bornum og unglingum (Stories for children and young people. 
1886); Kjartan og Gudriin (1886, a novel); Elding (Lightning, a historical 
novel of the loth cent. 1889); Hogni og Ingibjorg (1889, a novel); 
Barnasogur (Stories for children, 1890); Tibrd (2 pts. 1892-93, an 
annual for children). In the periodical "Draupnir" which she founded 
and edited for seventeen years (1891-1908. 12 vols.), are the following 
original writings : Seint firnist forn dst (1891), a story; J6n biskup Vidalm 
(1892-93), a historical novel of the i8th cent; Alfasveinninn og dlfamaerin 
(1893), a story ; J6n biskup Arason (1902-08), a historical novel of the 16th 
cent. Since 1901 has edited the weekly paper 'Dvol", chiefly devoted to 
literature, in which have appeared some original stories from her pen, and 
many translations from other languages (Plato's Apology of Socrates, etc. ) — 
Editor: Gizur J^orvaldsson, a drama by Eggert 6. Brim (Draupnir, 1895- 


Biogr.: CSinn. III. pp. 61-62, portr. 

Jakobsson, J6n, librarian ; 
b. Hjaltastadur, Nor3ur Miilasysla, Dec. 6, i860 ; A. B., 1880 ; Cand. Phil., 
1881 ; studied for some time classical philology ; director of the Icelandic 
Archeological Museum, 1897-1907 ; assistant librarian 1895-1906, and 
librarian of the National Library, Reykjavik, since 1906. Member of 
Althing for SkagafjarQarsysla 1893-99, for Hunavatnssysla 1903-07. Knight 
•of Danebrog, 1907. — Author: A few articles in "Arb6k hins islenzka 
Fornleifaf flags''. Compiler of the accessions catalogues of the National 
Library, 1904-11. — Translator: Einfalt Hf, by Charles Wagner (1912). 
Biogr.: CSinn. VI. pp. 49-50, portr. 

Jensson, J6n, jurist ; 
b. Reykjavik, Nov. 23, 1855; A. B., 1876; Cand. Juris, 1882; assistant in 
the Icelandic government bureau, Copenhagen, 1882-83 ; chief of governor- 
general's bureau (landritari), 1883-89; since 1889 associate justice of the 
Superior Court of Iceland. Member of Althing for Reykjavik, 1894-99. 
Knight of Danebrog, 1907. — Author: Several political pamphlets (1903-08). 
— Editor : (with Magntis Stephensen, and afterwards with J6n Magnusson) 
Lagasafn handa alpySu (Collection of laws for the general public. 4 vols. 
1888-1900); (with I>orleifur Bjarnason) Br^f J6ns SigurSssonar (1911). 

Jochumsson, Matthias, poet, dramatist ; 
b. Sk6gar, Bardastrandarsysla, Nov. 11, 1835; A. B., 1863; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1865 ; minister of the Kjalarnesping, 1866-73 I spent a 
year in foreign travel; editor of "I>j6361fur ", 1875-80; minister of Oddi 
1880-86, of Akureyri, 1886-1900 ; receives an honorary pension from the 
government for his literary services. Member of the committee on the hymn- 
book, 1878. Knight of Danebrog, 1899, etc. Honorary member of the Ice- 
landic Literary Society, and the Viking Club, London. Lives in Akureyri. — 
Author: Lj69maeli (Poems. 1884); Lj69m8eli (Poems, original and trans- 
lated. 5 vols. 1902-06); Vig Snorra Sturlusonar (The slaying of S. S. 1879); 
Grettislj63 (Poems from the Grettis saga. 1897). Utilegumennirnir (The 



liighwaymen, a play. 1864, 2d ed. revised, with the title : Skugga-Sveinn. 
1898); Helgi hint! magri (1890, a historical play); Hinn sanni {)j63vilji 
(The true public opinion. 1898, a comedy); Vesturfararnir (The emigrants, 
a play. 1898; was written 1875); J6n Arason (1900, a tragedy); Aldam6t 
(The meeting of the centuries. 1901, a play). Chicag6for 1893 (1893, an 
account of his trip to the Chicago World's Fair); Frd Danmorku (From 
Denmark. 1905; papers on Danish history, literature, etc., and poems). 
To periodicals he has been a prolific contributor, and his first articles 
which were printed date from about i860 ; his articles have been chiefly on 
literature and religious questions ; his religious opinions always have been 
advanced, and he has therefore frequently been involved in controversies ; 
the greatest number of his articles have appeared in " I>j6961fur ", 
"LyQur", a fortnightly paper he edited 1889-91, "Nordurland", and in 
**Nor9ri". Of his later essays may be mentioned: the outlook for the 
church and Christianity in Iceland (Skirnir, 1906), religion and church in 
Denmark (KimreiSin, 1902), the church in Iceland from 1000 to 1150 
(Skirnir, 1907), the church and Christianity (Eimreidin, 1907), Bishop 
J6n Arason (Eimreidin, 1912), etc. — Translator: Manfred, by Lord Byron 
(1875); Gisli S6rsson, a drama by Miss H. B. Barmby (1902); B6ndinn, a 
poem by A. Hovden (1907); Brandur, by Henrik Ibsen (1898); Hamlet 
(1878), Macbeth (1874), 6tell6 (1882), R6meo og Jiilia (1887), by W. 
Shakespeare; Fri9j)j6fssaga, by Esaias Tegn^r (1866, 3d ed. 1906); in the 
collection Svanhvit (1877), many poems from various tongues; selected 
Swedish poems of the 19th cent. (Eimreiclin, 1910-11); most of his other 
poetical translations have been included in the collected poems mentioned 
above ; Sogur herlseknisins, novels by Z. Topelius (4 vols. 1904-09 ; one 
vol. 1898; the first portions of this version were publ. in "Oldin" 1893- 

Biogr.: 11. n6v. 1835-11. n6v. 1905. Matthias Jochumsson. f tilefni af 70 
dra afmaeli hans. Reykjavik, 1905. 8". p. 112, illustr. — Bricka, Dansk 
biograf. Lexikon. VIII. pp. 493-494. — Sunnanfari. VI. pp. 17-19, portr. — 
(39inii. I. pp. 57-58, 77, 61, portr.— Nytt kirkjubla3. VII. pp. 193-194, 
portr. — Sameiningin. IV. pp. 113-116; VI. pp. 46-48. 

Johannesson, Jdhannes L^rus Lynge, essayist ; 
b. Hestur, Borgarfjardarsysla, Nov. 14, 1859; A. B., 1886; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1886 ; since 1890 minister of SuQurdalaping, Dala- 
sysla. — Author : Treatise on modern Icelandic metrical art (Timarit Bmf^l. 
1895); an essay on family names (Skirnir, 1909); various articles in 
•*I>j6a61fur", "Sk61abla9ia", etc. 

Jdhannesson, SigurSur J6n, poet ; 
b. Marbseli, Skagaf jardarsysla, Nov. 25, 1841 ; was a farmer in Iceland, and 
emigrated to Canada, 1873 ; was one of the founders of the weekly paper 
" Logberg ", 1888. Lives in Winnipeg, Man., Canada. — Author: Lj6amaeli 
(Poems. 1897); Nokkur lj63maeli og pyddar sogur (A few poems and 
translated stories. 1899); Kvae9i (Poems. 1905); Fommenjar (Antiquities, 
a poem. 1907). — Translator: Nokkrar skemtisogur (1907). 


Jdhannesson, SigurSur Julius, poet ; 
b. Laekur, Olves, Jan. 9, 1868; A. B., 1897; Cand. Phil., Reykjavik, 1898; 
studied for some time medicine in the Medical School, Reykjavik ; went to 
America, 1899; M. D., National Medical University, Chicago, 111., 1907; 
practising physician since 1908, at present in Wynyard, Sask., Canada. — 
Author: Sogur og kvseQi (Stories and poems. 2 pts. 1900-03); Kvistir 
(Twigs, a collection of poems. 1910); numerous articles in periodicals, 
chiefly in those papers he edited : * ' JBskan " , a fortnightly for children, 
1897-99, "Dagskrd", a weekly, 1898-99, and "Dagskrd II" (Winnipeg), 
1901-03. — Editor (with Arn6r Arnason).- Ritverk Gests Pdlssonar (vol. i. 
1902). — Translator: Vatnsf)r6in, by B. Bellamy (1902); Logreglu- 
spsejarinn, by A. C. Gunter (1901); Fiskimaerin, by Bjornstj. Bjornson 
(Dagskrd, 1898); Si9b6k og songvar fyrir Independent Order of Foresters 

Biogr.: 69inn. VI. pp. 5-6, portr.— lyogberg. Dec. 21., 1911, portr.— 
Heimir. IV. pp. 82-84, portr. 

J6hannsd6ttir, Maria, novelist ; 

b. ViQidalsd, Strandasysla, June 4, 1886 ; nurse in the Hospital for 
lepers, Laugarnes. — Author: Systurnar frd Graenadal (The sisters from 
Greendale, a novel. 1908); two short stories: Bndurminningar (Skirnir, 
1909), and Helgi (Skirnir, 1911); a few poems in "Kvennabla5i5." 

Johannsdottir, Olafia, journalist ; 
b. Mosfell, GuUbringusysla, Oct. 22, 1868 ; was the first woman to get a 
degree from the College of Iceland, 1891 ; founder of the Icelandic Women's 
Society, a suffrage organization, 1894 ; editor of the juvenile paper 
**^skan" 1899, joint editor of the monthly "Frams6kn " 1 899-1 901 ; lives 
at present in Norway. — Author: Articles in the "Arsrit hins islenzka 
kvennf flags'' (1894-99), and other papers, on woman suffrage, temperance, 
etc. — Editor: Daglegt lj6s (1908, selections of Biblical passages). 
Biogr.: ^skan. XIII. pp. 81-82, portr. — Bjarmi. IV. pp. 186-187, portr. 

J6hannsson, Eggert, journalist ; 
b. Vindheimar, SkagafjarQarsysla, Nov. i, i860; came to America, 1876; 
associate editor of "Ivcifur", Winnipeg, 1883-86; one of the founders of 
the weekly "Heimskringla", 1886, and was associate editor or editor of it 
until 1897 ; editor of the monthly " Oldin ", a literary paper, 1894-97 ; clerk 
in the Land Titles Office, Winnipeg, Man., Canada. — Author: Numerous 
articles in the periodicals he edited. — Translator: Kotungurinn e9a Fall 
Bastilar, by A. Dumas (1896); Valdimar munkur, by S. Cobb, jr. (1894, 2d 
ed. 1905); On to Richmond, by A. F. Grant (1887); Bldraunin, by Chas. 
Read (1888, 2d ed. 1911); Vladimir nihilisti, by A. Rochefort (1889); 
Kapitola, by B. D. B. N. Southworth (1896, 2d ed. 1905); Jipi, by Carmen 
Sylva (1889), — all publ. originally in the " Heimskringla. " 
Biogr.: Almanak Olafs S. Thorgeirssonar. 1906. pp. 74-78. 


J6hannsson, Gestur, poet ; 
b. Sy9ri Vellir, H6navatnssysla, Aug. 24, 1850 ; came to America, 1887 ; 
postmaster at Poplar Park, Man., Canada, since 1903. — Author: Lj69maeli 
(Poems. 1900); a few articles in periodicals. 
Biogr.: Heimskringla. XIX. no, 11. 

J6nasson, Hermann, agriculturist ; 
b. V]9iker, Sudiir I>ingeyjarsysla, Oct. 22, 1858; grad. of H61ar Agricul- 
tural School 1884, and afterwards studied agriculture in Denmark ; director 
of the H61ar Agricultural School, 1888-96; farmer, 1 890-1 905 ; manager of 
the Laugarnes Hospital for lepers, 1905-10. Member of Althing for 
H<inavatnssysla, 1901-08 ; member of the interparliamentary committee on 
agricultural affairs, 1904-05. — Author: Several treatises on agriculture in 
the annual "B^nadarrit ", which he founded in 1887 and edited until 1899 
(13 vols. ) ; among these are one on the feeding of domestic animals (1887), 
and on soils (1890); f>egnskylduvinna (Andvari, 1908, sep. repr., also 2d 
ed. 1909 ; a proposal to introduce in Iceland compulsory service for men 
on public works, corresponding to military service in other countries, 
and similar to what was suggested by William James in his essay on the 
moral equivalent of war); Draumar (Dreams. 1912 ; personal experiences). 
Biogr.: 65inn. VI. pp. 57-58, portr. 

Jdnasson, Jonas, novelist ; 
b. Ulfd, Eyjafjar3arsysla, Aug. 7, 1856 ; A. B., 1880 ; Cand. Theol., Theolog- 
ical School, 1883 ; minister of St6ruvellir 1883-85, since 1885 minister of 
Grundarping, Byjafjardarsysla, and since 1905 also teacher in the Akureyri 
High School ; dean of Byjafjardarsysla, 1897-1905. Lives in Akureyri. — 
Author: Stories in the "I9unn": Gletni lifsins (1885), Brot tir aevisogu 
(1885), Yfirmenn og undirgefnir (1885), Bjorn i Gerdum (1886), OffriQ 
(1887), and Frelsisherinn (1888); Randidur i Hvassafelli (1892, a historical 
novel of the 15th cent. ) ; the following stories which appeared in " I>j6961f- 
ur": I>riggja pela flaskan (1888), AbtiQarr^tturinn (1890), Kdlfager9- 
isbraedur (1891), Magn6sar pdttr og GuQriinar (1893), and Hungurvofan 
(1895), the last three being historical novels of the i8th cent., the last one 
translated into Danish by J. R. Zerlang : Hungersnod (lUustreret Tidende, 
1898), and into German by H. Erkes : Das Hungergespenst (Rheinischer 
Hausfreund, 1907); two stories in "Nor9urlj6sid": Jed6k (1891), and 
Fr^ttimar i selinu (1891-92, a fragment); EiQurinn (EimreiQin, 1897), 
translated into Danish by J. R. Zerlang: En Ed (Illustreret Tidende, 
1899), into German by M. Lehmann-Filh€s : Die Bid (Berliner evangel. 
Sonntagsblatt, 1898); in the monthly "Nyjar kvoldvokur", a literary 
magazine which he has edited since 1907, have appeared : j61asongur (a 
Christmas story, 1911), and Ur bloQum J6ns halta (191 1). Four of his novels 
were translated into German by Carl Kiichler under the title : Lebensliigen 
(1903), and the same four (Brot <xx aevisogu, Hungurvofan, Eidurinn, and 
Gletni lifsins) into Danish by Margrethe Lobner Jorgensen under the title : 
Sagamennesker, Skildringer fra islandsk Folkeliv (1912). Ny donsk or9a- 


b6k (Danish-Icelandic dictionary. 1896); Stafrofskver (Abecedary. 1899, 
2d ed. 1908); Reikningsb6k (Text-book of arithmetic, 1906-07, and another 
for children, 1911); Opinberun gu9s (Divine revelation. 1904, a lecture); 
fslenzk mdlfraeQi fyrir byrjendur (Icelandic grammar for beginners. 1909). 
Wrote the " Fr^ttir frd fslandi ", 1878-84. An essay on Icelandic literature 
in the 19th cent. (Timarit Bmf^l., 1881), and many reviews in "Nyjar 
kvoldvokur"; an article on the religious instruction of children (Timarit 
um uppeldi, 1892); an essay on popular superstitions in Iceland regarding 
birth and death (Maal og Minne, 1911). — Editor: I>j69trti og J)j69sagnir 
(Popular superstitions and folk tales. 1908). — Translator : Many articles 
and stories in "I5unn", and "Nyjar kvoldvokur"; in the latter : Viking- 
urinn, by F. Marryat (1907), and Ben H<ir, by ly. Wallace (1908), etc. 
Biogr.: Bogvennen. May, 1912. p. 9, portr. 

Jdnasson, Sigtryggur, journalist ; 
b. Bakki in Oxnadalur, Febr. 8, 1852 ; came to America, 1872 ; one of the 
founders of ** Framfari ", the first Icelandic paper in Canada and its editor 
for a short time (1880), also one of the founders of the weekly " Logberg " 
(1888), and was its editor 1895-1901 ; was for some time immigration agent 
for the Canadian government ; liberal member of the Manitoba legislature 
for Gimli district 1896-99, and 1907-11. Lives at present in Winnipeg, 
Man. — Translator: f leiQslu, by H. Conway (1895); Phroso, by Anthony 
Hope (1899); Rau9ir demantar, by J. McCarthy (1897); Sddmennirnir, by 
H, S. Merriman (1898); HofuQglaepurinn (1901), and Leikinn glaepamadur 
(1900), by R. Ottolengui. 

Biogr.: Sunnanfari. VIII. pp. 57-58, portr.— Brei9ablik. I. p. 158, portr.— 
Almanak 6. S. Th. 1907. pp. 21-43, portr.— Odinn. VIII. pp. 57-58, portr. 

Jonsson, Bjami, miscellaneous writer ; 
b. Sept. II, 1862; grad. of the MoSruvellir High School, 1884; has since 
been engaged in teaching and newspaper work, at present in Reykjavik. — 
Author: Sveitalifi9 d fslandi (Country -life in Iceland. 1890, a lecture); Um 
Eggert 6lafsson (1892, a lecture); Lei9arvisir vi5 islenzkukennslu i bama- 
sk61um ( Guide to the teaching of Icelandic in children's schools. 1892 ) ; and 
a few other pamphlets. Since 1907 he has been the editor of " Bjarmi ", a 
religious fortnightly paper, in which he has published several articles on 
Icelandic divines and hymn-writers ; his early contributions to the periodical 
literature are especially to be found in the " fsafold ". — Editor : fslenzkir 
textar vi9 fj6rr6ddu9 log i "de tusen Hjems Sange " (1891). — Translator: 
Kvoldmdlti9arb6rnin, a poem by Esaias Tegn^r (1890); I>y9ing tr^arinnar 
fyrir J)ann sem vill komast dfram i heiminum, by C. Skovgaard-Petersen 

J6nsson, Bjami, poet, journalist ; 
b. Mi9mork, Rangdrvallasysla, Oct. 13, 1863; A. B., 1888; Cand. Mag., 
(Classical philology and German), 1894 ; instructor (German) in the College 
of Iceland, 1894-1904 ; since 1910 so-called adviser on trade and commerce 
( vi9skiptard9anautur) to the government, which position he will hold to the 
end of 19 13. Member of Althing for Dalasysla since 1908. — Author: 


Daudastundin (The hour of death, a poem. 1893); Bjorn og GuQrfin (1897, 
a novel); Baldursbrd (Daisy, a collection of poems. 1898); Taekifaeri og 
tiningur (1906, a collection of poems); Kolbrtin (1910, a poem); various 
pamphlets and writings on political and other questions, such as the 
collection : Ekki veldur sd er varir ( 1908), made up of papers and addresses ; 
Om islandsk Kunst og Politik, Foredrag (1910). Many contributions to 
periodicals, particularly to those of which he has been the editor or 
associate editor : the weekly "Ing61fur" (1903-04), "Huginn" (1907-08), 
"Sumargjof" (1905-08), a literary annual, "^ringi" (1908), a short-lived 
humorous publication probably chiefly written by him, and other papers ; 
Donsk lestrarb6k (Danish reader. 1895, 3d ed. 1909, with I>orl. J. 
Bjarnason).— ^rfiV<?r.- Lj6dm3eli, by Gisli Brynjtilfsson (1888, with Halld6r 
Bjarnason). — Translator: Two collections of poems under the titles: 
Misvindi (Changeable winds. 1907), and BH3vindi (Balmy winds. 1909); 
Brii9kaupslagi9 (1897), and A gu9s vegum (1910), novels by Bjornstj. 
Bjornson ; f pri3ja og fj6r5a lid, a novel by Hall Caine (1909); Ingvi 
konungur, historical novel by G. Freytag (1906); Hulidsheimar, poem 
by Arne Garborg (1906); Nadescha, an epic (1898), and Sogur (1907), by J. 
L. Runeberg. 
Biogr.: 69inn, V. pp. 29-30, portr. 

J6nsson, Bjorn B [ jomsson] , theologian ; 
b. As, Kelduhverfi, June 19, 1870, a nephew of the poet Kristjdn j6nsson 
(fl?. 1869); came to America, 1876; educated in public schools in Manitoba 
and North Dakota, and later in Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minn. ; 
grad. of the Theolog. Seminary of the Evang. -Lutheran Church at Chicago, 
1893, B. D., 1905 ; ordained 1893, and has been minister of the Icelandic 
Lutheran church in Minneota since 1894 ; secretary of the Icelandic Evang.- 
Lutheran Synod of America 1898- 1906, president since 1908 ; for some years 
chairman of the Board of Education, Minneota ; since 1908 chaplain of the 
Senate of the Minnesota legislature. Lives in Minneota, Minn., U. S. — 
Author ; Meiri elsku hefir enginn ( 1906, a tale), publ. under the pseudonym 
Grimur Grimsson, under which he has publ. other tales and poems in 
periodicals. Numerous contributions to periodicals; was the editor of 
"Kennarinn " (1897-1901), a Sunday school paper, of the annual "Aram6t" 
(1906-09), the organ of the Icelandic Synod, and contributed several papers 
to it (on the apostolic confession, 1907 ; on the Augsburg confession, 1908, 
etc.); in the "Aldam6t" there are two articles by him (1899 and 1903); 
associate editor of the " Sameiningin ", the monthly of the Icelandic Synod, 
since 1907; editor of the "Vinland" (1902-04), a monthly, the first Ice- 
landic paper to be published in United States, in which are to be found 
many articles from his yen.— Editor: Lj69maeli, by Kristjdn j6nsson 
Biogr.: Sameiningin. VIII. pp. iio-iii.— Breidablik, III. p. i, portr. 

J6nsson, Brynj61fur, poet, archseologist ; 
d. Minni-N6pur, Amessysla, Sept. 26, 1838 ; autodidact ; since about 1870 
has supported himself chiefly by teaching ; in the summers of 1 892-1909, 



travelled through Iceland for the Icelandic Archaeological Society with the 
purpose of registering old monuments, excavating and investigating ruins 
and historical places. Lives at present in Ger9iskot, Arnessysla. — Author : 
Skuggsjd og rddgdta (Mirror and enigma, a philosophical poem. 1875); 
Kvaedi (Poems. 1889); Gu5rdn 6svifsd6ttir (1892, an epic); Saga af |>uriai 
formanni og Kambsrdnsmonnum (History of I>uri9ur the helmsman and the 
robbers of Kambur. 1893-97); B61u-Hjdlmarssaga (Biography of the poet 
Hjdlmar j6nsson of B61a. 1911); Saga Natans Ketilssonar og Skdld-R6su 
(History of N. K. and Sk.-R. 1912) ; a treatise on the so-called pri9jungam6t 
in Rangdrvallasysla and Arnessysla (Timarit J6ns P^turssonar, 1869-70); an 
essay on the true foundation of orthography (Timarit Bmf^l., 1885); an 
article on life and conditions in his home district (EimreiQin, 1907). In 
the **Arb6k hins islenzka Fornleifafelags " there are annual reports of his 
archaeological travels for the Society, and many others articles on archaeolog- 
ical, topographical, and historical subjects, of which one on the so-called 
hofSaletur (1900) was translated into German by M. Lehmann-Filh^s 
(Zeitschr. des Vereins f. Volkskunde, 1899); he has also compiled an index 
to the first 25 vols. (1880-1904) of the "Arbok" (1906); many articles in 
other periodicals. — Editor: Dulraenar smdsogur (Mysterious tales. 1907). 
— Translator: Saga J6seps Garibalda, by W. Ostergaard (1909). 
Biogr.: Skirnir. LXXXII. pp. 351-360.— 63inn. IV. pp. 50-52, portr. 

J6nsson, Elin [Rannveig Eggertsdottir] , born Briem ; 
b. Espih611, Eyjafjar9arsysla, Oct. 19, 1856 ; director of the Women's 
School at Hjaltasta9ir 1878-80, of the Women's School at Laekjarm6t 1880- 
81. and at Ytriey 1883-95; married Saemundur Byj61fsson {d. 1896), and 
again Stefdn J6nsson {d. 1910); at present director of the Women's School, 
B16ndu6s, Hiinavatnssysla. — Author: Kvennafrae9arinn (The woman's 
instructor. 1889, 3d ed. 1904), a book on cooking, etc. 
Biogr.: Kvennabla9i9. II. pp. 9-10, portr. 

Jdnsson, Finnur, philologist ; 
b. Akureyri, May 29, 1858, son of J6n Borgfir9ingur {d. 1912), the 
bibliographer; A. B., 1878; Cand. Philol., 1883, Ph. D., 1884; private 
docent of Old Norse philology and literature in the University of Copen- 
hagen 1885-87, docent 1887-98, professor extraordinarius 1898-1911, since 
191 1 professor ordinarius. Member of the board of directors of the Copen- 
hagen branch of the Icelandic Literary Society 1879-1904, of the Samfund 
til Udgivelse af gammel nordisk Litteratur since 1895, of the Arna- 
magnaean Legacy since 1906, of the Society of Icelandic Letters (Hi9 islenzka 
fraeQaf^lag), Copenhagen, since 1912. Honorary member of the Icelandic 
Literary Society ; member of the Danish Royal Academy, the Norwegian 
Academy of Christiania, the Royal Academies of Gothenburg, Stockholm, 
and Gottingen. Knight of Danebrog, 1905. Has received stipends from the 
Carlsberg Fund for philological researches, and in 1907-09 for archaeological 
expeditions to Iceland (with Daniel Bruun); also from the Danish govern- 
ment for a new edition of Lexicon poeticum antiquae linguae Septentrionalis, 
the plan of which he recently laid before the Danish Royal Academy. — 


Author : Kritiske Studier over eu Del af de aeldste norske og islandske 
Skjaldekvad (1884, doctor's dissertation); Skyrsla urn handritasafn bins 
islenzka B6kmentaf^lags (Catalogue of the manuscript collection of the 
Icel. Lit. Society. II. 1885); Nokkur varnarordfyrirdr. Sveinbjorn Egilsson 
m6ti ofs6knum Gisla Brynj61fssonar (A defence for S, E. against G. B.'s 
attacks. 1886); completed the Arnamagnaean edition of Snorri's Edda 
(1887); Agrip af b6kmentasogu Islands 900-1890 (Short view of the history 
of Icelandic literature. 1891-92); Stutt islenzk bragfrsedi (Short Icelandic 
prosody. 1892); Den oldnorske og oldislandske Litteraturs Historic (1894- 
1902, 3 vols. ); Register til Njdla andet Bind og K. Gislason's andre Afhand- 
linger ( 1896) ; Graenlendinga saga e3a saga fslendinga d Graenlandi (History 
of the Icelandic colony in Greenland. 1899); Oldnorsk og islandsk Littera- 
tur (in Julius Clausen's lUustr. Verdens L/itteratur Historic. 1899); Knytlinga 
saga, dens Kilder og historiske Vaerd (1900); Det norsk-islandske Skjalde- 
sprog omtr. 800-1300 (1901); Sigvat Skjald Tordsson, et Livsbillede (1901); 
B6kmentasaga fslendinga fram a3 si3ab6t (History of Icelandic literature 
down to the Reformation. 1904-05); Omrids af det islandske Sprogs Form- 
laere i Nutiden (1905); Den islandske Litteraturs Historic tilligemed den 
oldnorske (1907); Mdlfrsedi Islenzkrar tungu og helstu atri9i sogu hennar i 
dgripi (Grammar of the Icelandic language and a survey of its history. 
1908); Islenzk r^ttritun (Icelandic orthography. 1909); Voluspd, Volvens 
Spadom tolket (1911). Um baejanofn d fslandi (Safn til sogu Islands, 
1911); Um galdra, sei9, seidmenn og volur (I>rjdr ritgjorQir tileinkadar 
Pdli Melsteci, 1892); Um l)ulur og gdtur (Germanistische Abhandl. zum 70. 
Geburtstag K. v. Maurers, 1892); Fremmede Ords Behandling i oldnordisk 
Digtning (Festskrift til Vilh. Thomsen, 1894); essay on the word horgr 
(Festschrift zu Karl Weinhold, 1896); Versene i Hdvardar saga (Festskrift 
til L. F. A. Wimmer, 1909); Voluspd (Nordisk tidskrift, 1890, a criticism 
of E. H. Meyer's theory); En kort Udsigt over den islandsk- gronlandske 
Kolonis Historic (Nordisk tidskrift, 1893); Gronlands gamle Topografi 
•efter Kilderne ( Meddelelser om Gronland, 1899); Lidt om Islands Nutids- 
kultur (Den danske Turistforenings Aarbog, 1901); an essay on the home 
of the Eddie poems (Timarit Bmf^l., 1897, a reply to Dr. (5lsen's criticism); 
a biographical sketch of Gudmundur Andr^sson (Sogusafn Stefnis, 1895); 
biography of Wimmer (Bricka's Dansk biograf. Leksikon, 1904); Das 
Harfenspiel des Nordens in alter Zeit (Sammelbande der internationalen 
Musikgesellschaft, 1908); an essay on Benedikt Grondal and his writingjs 
on archaeology and Old Norse literature (in the B. G. memorial vol., 1906); 
Erik den Rodes Saga og Vinland (Norsk Historisk Tidsskrift, 191 1, a 
criticism of Nansen's In Northern mists). In "Skirnir": Voluspd (1907), 
on J6n SigurQsson as a scholar (1911), on Icelandic locutions (1912). In 
*• Arb6k bins islenzka Fornleif af ^lag " : on description of heathen temples in 
the sagas |and images of the gods (1898), on preservation of antiquities 
(1901), on the old market-place at Gdsum (1908). In " EimreiQin " several 
articles, such as on the belief in elves in Iceland (1895), biographical 
sketches of Wimmer (1896), of Maurer (1896), of Aasen (1897), of Unger 



(1898), on the introduction of Christianity in Iceland (1901, a criticism of 
Dr. 6lsen's book), and other articles, and many reviews. In " Aarboger for 
nordisk Oldkynkighed og Historic": Om Svarfdaela saga (1884), Bidrag til 
en rigtigere Forstaaelse af Tindr Hallkelssons Vers (1886), Hdrbar5slj69, 
en Undersogelse (1888), Fornyrdadrdpa (1890), Vellekla, tekstkritiske 
Bemserkninger (1891), De aeldste Skjalde og deres Kvad (1895, a criticism 
of S. Bugge's theories), Sigurdar kvi9a en skamma eller det sakaldte tredje 
Sigurdskvad (1897), Edda Snorra Sturlusonar, dens oprindelige Form og 
Sammensaetning (1898), Om Njdla (1904), Tilnavne i den oldislandske 
Litteratur 1^1907), Om Hove og Hovudgravninger paa Island (1909; an 
abridgement also in the Saga Book of the Viking Club), Dalvik-Fundet en 
Gravplads fra Hedenskabets Tid pa Island (1910, these last two in collabora- 
tion with Daniel Bruun), Runerne i den norsk-islandske Digtning og 
Litteratur (1910), and Sagaernes lausavisur (1912). In " Arkiv for nordisk 
filologi ' ' : Um SkiQarimu ( 1885 ), Leidrettingar a ymsum stoQum i Saemund- 
ar-Eddu (1888), Vengi (1889), Om Skjaldepoesien og de aeldste Skjalde 
(1890), Vingolf (1890), Nekrolog over Konrad Gislason (1891), Ulige Linjer 
i drotkvaedede Skjaldekvad (i89r), Navnet Lj69ahdttr og andre Versarters 
Navne, samt Rettelser i Texten til Codex Regius af Snorres Edda (1892), 
Mytiske Forestillinger i de aeldste Skjaldekvad (1893), lingers Kristiania- 
handskrift af Heimskringla (1893), Et Far Bemaerkninger om Manglen af 
i-Omlyd i kortstavede Ordstammer (1897), Sagnet om Harald Harfagre som 
Dovrefostre (1899), Nekrolog over Eirikur j6nsson (1900), Odin og Tor i 
Norge og pa Island i det 9. og 10. Arhundrede (1901), Versene i Halfreds- 
saga (1902), Vers i gamle nordiske Indskrifter og Love (1904), Om Over- 
leveringsdubletter (1905), io : io i Norsk-Islandsk (1905), Staerke Nutids- 
former i Oldsproget (1905), Nogle oldislandske Aksentforhold (1907), 
Nekrolog over J6n f>orkelsson (1907), Stedord i gamle Vers (1911), 
Dyrenavne (1912), and numerous reviews. In "Oversigt over det kgl. 
danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger " : I>6rsdrdpa Eilifs Go9- 
rtinarsonar (1900), Egil Skallagrimsson og Erik Blodokse, HofuSlausn 
(1903), Krdkumdl (1905), Det gamle Handelssted Gasar ved Ofjord, Under- 
sogelser foretagne i Sommeren 1907 (1908, with Daniel Bruun), Kort 
Oversigt over de islandske Gardnavne (1911), Atlakvi9a (1912). In 
"Nordisk Tidsskrift for Filologi": Nordens Fremmedforbindelser i 
Vikingertiden (1906, a criticism of A. Bugge's Vikingerne), Nekrolog over 
Sophus Bugge (1908). Several reviews in "Zeitschrift fiir deutsche 
Philologie ", and other German periodicals. Many contributions to Danish- 
Icelandic papers on politics and other subjects, poems, etc. Contributor to 
Salmonsen's illustr. Konversations-Leksikon. — Editor: fslendingab6c, by 
Ari f>orgilsson fr65i (1887); Carmina norraena, rettet Tekst (1893); Edda- 
lieder (1888-89); Hdndskriftet Nr. 2365 4to gl. kgl. Samling, Codex Regius 
af den aeldre Edda (1891, with L. F. A. Wimmer); Handskritet Nr. 748, 4ta 
i den Arnamagnaeanske Samling, Brudstykke af den aeldre Edda (1896); 
Saemundar-Edda ( 1905, popular edition) ; Den forste og anden grammatiske 
Af handling i Snorres Edda (1886, with V. Dahlerup); Edda Snorra Sturlu- 
sonar, critical edition (1900), and popular edition (1907); Egils saga Skalla- 


grimssonar, critical edition (1886-88), annotated edition (1894); Fagrskinna 
(1902-03); Fernir fornislenskir rimnaflokkar (1896); Gisla saga Sdrssonar 
(1903, annotated edition); Hauksb6k (1892-96, with Eirikur j6nsson); 
Hr61fs saga kraka og Bjarkarimur (1904); fslenzkar fornsogur II. -III. 
(1881-83); Landn4mab6k (1900, all three recensions); Brennu-Njdls saga 
(1908, annotated edition); Placitusdrdpa (Opuscula academica, 1887); 
Heimskringla, by Snorri Sturluson, critical edition (1893-1901), and text 
edition (1911); De bevarede Brudstykker af Kringla og Jofraskinna (1895); 
Ynglinga saga, by Snorri Sturluson, critical edition (1893), and text edition 
(1912); Den norsk-islandske Skjaldedigtning (from the earliest times down 
to c. 1400, each vol. in two sections, the first containing a critical edition of 
the poems, the second normalized text and Danish prose version ; only one 
vol. is out. 1912); Udvalg af oldnordiske Skjaldekvad, by Konrdd Gislason 
( 1892 ) ; Historiske Fortaellinger om Islsendernes Fserd ude og hjemme, ved N. 
M. Petersen (1901, with V. Dahlerup). In " Smastykker udg. af Samfundet 
til Udg. af gl. nord. Litteratur": Nogle Skjaldevers om Olaf Tryggveson 
(1885), Lonskrift og Lejlighedsoptegnelser fra et Par islandske H&ndskrifter 
(1886), Mdlshdttakvaeai eller Fornyrdadrdpa (1889). Salth61msferd, by 
J6nas Hallgrimsson (EimreiQin, 1897); Anndll Magntisar syslumanns Mag- 
ntissonar (Safn til sogu Islands, 1908); Lilja, by Eysteinn Asgrimsson 
(1913) ; Ex historiis Islandicis (Monumenta Germaniae historica. Script, 
torn. XXIX., \'^^2).— Translator : Smdsoguval, by J. P. Hebel (1880); (into 
Danish) Gylfaginning, by Snorri Sturluson (1902). 

Biogr,: Indbydelsesskrift til Kjobenhavns Universitets Reformationsfest. 
1885. pp. 163-166. — Bricka, Dansk biograf. Lexikon. VIII. p. 546. — 
Eimreidin. IV. pp. 140-143, portr. — OSinn. II. pp. 81-85, portr. ; VIII. p. 
81, portr. 

Jdnsson, Hallgrimur, poet ; 

b. 6spakseyri, Strandasysla, June 24, 1875 ; grad. of the Flensborg High 
School, Hafnarfjordur, 1901 ; teacher in Reykjavik since 1904. — Author : 
Bldklukkur (Bluebells, a few poems. 1906); Barnasogur (Stories for 
children. 1910); Stafrofskver (Abecedary. 1907). — Translator: Alfred 
Dreyfus, by V, v. Falk (1905); Villir6sa, by Kristofer Jansen (1906). 

Jdnsson, Helgi, botanist ; 
b. Midmork, Rangdrvallasysla, April ji, 1867; A. B., 1890; Mag. Scient. 
(specialty: marine algae and subarctic vegetation), 1896; Ph.D., 1910. 
With the support of the Danish and Icelandic governments, of the Carlsberg 
Fund and others funds, he has made many botanical expeditions in various 
parts of Iceland, and he receives at present a stipend from the Icelandic 
government to continue his botanical researches ; lives at present in 
Reykjavik. — Author : Bygging og lif plantna, grasafraedi (Structural and 
physiological botany. 1906-07); Om Algevegetationen ved Islands Kyster 
(1910, doctor's dissertation); The marine algae vegetation of Iceland (1912); 
Nyjasta barnagulUQ (1899, book for children); The marine algae of East 
Greenland (Meddelelser om Gronland, 1907); The distribution of the 
marine algae of the Arctic Sea and of the northernmost part of the Atlantic 


(Botany of the Faeroes. III. 1908, with F. Borgesen). In "Botanisk 
Tidsskrift " : Optegnelser fra Vaar- og Vinterexkursioner i Ost- Island ( 1895), 
Bidrag til 6st-Islands Flora (1896), Studier over Ost-Islands Vegetation 
(1896), Vaar- og Hostexkursioner i Island 1897 (1898), Floraen paa 
Snaefellsnes og Omegn (1899), The marinse algae of Iceland (1901-03), 
Vegetationen i Syd-Island (1905). Vegetationen paa Snaefellsnaes (Viden- 
skabel. Meddel. fra Naturhist. Forening, 1900). Articles on forests and 
their influence on the climate (Timarit Bmf^l., 1898), on the winter garb of 
plants (ibid., 1899), on the vegetation of the lavafields in Iceland (Skirnir, 
1906), and on the marine vegetation of Iceland (ibid,, 1911); several articles 
on Icelandic vegetation in the * * Btina9arrit " (1906-09); articles in various 
other periodicals. — Translator: ^ttgengi og kynbaetur, by F. Kolpin 
Ravn (1905). 

Biogr.: Kjobenhavns Universitets Festskrift. Nov., 1910. — Cdinn. VI. pp. 
84-85, portr. 

Jdnsson, Janus, philologist ; 
b. Kirkjub61, fsafjarQarsysla, Dec. 24, 1857; A.B., 1874; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1876 ; minister of Hestping 1876-84, of Holt in Onund- 
arfjordur, 1884-1908 ; dean of Vestur-fsafjar9arsysla, 1884-1908 ; teacher in 
the Flensborg High School, Haf narf j or9ur, since 1908. — Author: Treatises 
in the "Timarit Bmfel.": on a verse in the Gltima (1882), on the 1875 
edition of the Njala (1882), history of the cloisters in Iceland (1887), on the 
verses of the HarSar saga (1892), history of the Latin Schools in Iceland 
until 1846 (1893), biographical sketches of J. Fritzner (1902), and of 
J>orm69ur Torfason (1903). In the " Arkiv for nordisk filologi": on the 
word viggr (1889), on the verses of the Byrbyggja saga (1898), notes on 
ancient poetry (1899), on the verses of the Grettis saga (1901). Notes on a 
verse in Heidarviga saga (Njdla II. 1889, pp. 959-963). — Translator: 
Gegnum brim og bo9a, by Carl Andersen (1898). 

Jonsson, Jon, historian, philologist ; 
b. Melar in HriitafjorQur, Aug. 12, 1849; A. B., 1869; studied one year at 
the University of Copenhagen; Cand. Theol., Theological School, 1874; 
minister of Bjarnanes 1874-91, of Stafafell since 1891. Member of Althing 
for Austur-Skaptafellssysla, 1892-99, Has twice received a prize of the J6n 
Sigur9sson Fund for historical works. — Author : fslenzk mannanofn (Safn 
til sogu Islands, 1899). Articles in "Timarit Bmf^l.": on Flj6tsdaela hin 
meiri (1884), studies in the history of ancient North (1889-90), on Eirikr 
bl69ox (1895), a few notes to the Icelandic sagas (1897-98), on explorations 
of ancient Norsemen in the Northern seas (1902), on the world's quern and 
the sea's whirlpool in the belief of the ancient Norsemen (1904), and on 
genealogies from Ragnar lo5br6k (1904). In "Skirnir": on Icelandic 
terms for the metric system (1908), on Gongu-Hr61fur (1912). Biography of 
Sigurdur Gunnarsson (Andvari, 1887). In "Arkiv for nordisk filologi": 
on the name Hringr (1894), a few remarks on old family names (1895-96), 
Lota Knut:=Kn1itr fundni (1899), Liserus-Beow (1899), Raknasl69i = 
Ragnarssl69i (1901), on the list of Swedish kings in Hervarar saga (1902), 



Skilfingar or Skjoldungar in Western Norway ( 1903), the Haddingjasaga of 
Saxo (1906), Ragnar lo9br6k and his family (1907), on Sigurflar pdttr slefu 
(1910-11), on the standard of the Lodbr6karsynir (1910), and Uinaed = 
VinheiQur (1911). Om Ynglingerne i Norge og de vestlige Lande (Norsk 
historisk Tidsskrift, 191 1). 

Jdnsson, J6n, historian ; 
b. Myrarhiis on Seltjarnarnes, April 25, 1869; A. B., 1889; Cand. Phil., 
1890; studied medicine for some time in Copenhagen, and afterwards 
history; taught in the Vallekilde People's High School, 1892-93 and 1895- 
96 ; received stipend from the Icelandic government for historical researches, 
1897-98, and since 1901 ; editor of the weekly "Elding", 1901 ; assistant 
librarian of the National Library, Reykjavik, 1908-11 ; since Sept. 22, 191 1, 
docent in Icelandic history. University of Iceland. Member of Althing for 
Reykjavik, since 191 1. — Author : Skdli landf6geti Magnusson og Island um 
hans daga (Safn til sogu Islands, 1896), a new altered ed. of which was 
publ. on the 200th anniversary of S. M.'s birth : 1711-1911 Sktili Magniisson 
landf6geti (1911); Oddur Sigurdsson logmaclur, 1682-1741, aefi- og aldar- 
lysing (1902); Islenzkt J)j65erni (Icelandic nationality, popular lectures on 
the history of the Icelandic nation. 1903); GuUold Islendinga, menning og 
lifshaettir fedra vorra a soguoldinni, alj)ydufyrirlestrar (The golden age of 
Iceland, popular lectures on the life and civilization of the Saga age. 1906); 
Dagrenning, fimm alpyduerindi (Dawn, five popular lectures on the history 
of Iceland from c. 1750-1874. 1910); several political pamphlets. Fseste- 
bondens K^r pa Island i det 18. Arhundrede (Dansk historisk Tidsskrift, 
1893); Den danske Regering og den islandske Monopolhandel, naermest i 
det 18. Arhundrede (ibid., 1897); Rejsebreve fra Island (Hojskolebladet, 
1895); Fra Island (Danskeren, 1894). Two articles on Oddur SigurQsson 
and his dealings with Bishop J6n Vidalin and J6hann Gottrup (Timarit 
Bmf61., 1898-99). In " Eimreiclin " : essay on industrial experiments in 
Iceland in the i8th cent. (1895), series of articles on Copenhagen (1895-97), 
and extracts from the letters of Bishop Harboe (1897). In " Skirnir ": two 
essays, on Leo Tolotoy (1908 and 191 1), essays on Bjomstjerne Bjornson 
(1910), on Jorgen Petur Havstein (1912), and on J6n Borgfirdingur (1913). 
Biography of Benedikt Grondal (in the B. G. memorial volume, 1906). 
Biogr.: (39inn. II. p. 68, portr. 

Jonsson, Jdnas, humorist, musician ; pseudonyms : Plausor, 
Mdni, etc.; 
b. Horgsholt, Arnessysla, Feb. 2, 1850 ; student in the College of Iceland, 
1873-77; editor of the monthly "Mdni" 1872-82, and of "GarQar" 1894; 
has been in various occupations, and is at present janitor of the House of 
the Althing and since 191 1 of the University of Iceland. For the years 
1912-13 receives a stipend from the government to make studies in Icelandic 
hymn-music since the Reformation. — Author: IJr kaupsta9alifinu (Sketches 
of the city life. 1893, a story); Ti9avisur (Poems on time topics. 2 vols. 
1902); Agrip af sogu Islands (Epitome of Icelandic history, humorous. 


1906); many humorous poems published on various occasions (Kjorfundar- 
psaltari, 1908; Pii9urkerlingar, 1908, etc.). — Editor: Hallgrimur P^turs- 
son's Passiusdlmar me9 fj6rum roddum fyrir orgel og harmonium ( 1906-07); 
J61aharpa (selections of hymn-music. 2 parts. 1910-11). Since Nov., 191 1, 
has been the editor of a new musical monthly ** Hlj6mlistin." 

Jdnsson, Klemens, jurist ; 
h. Akureyri, Aug. 27, 1862, son of J6n Borgfirdingur {^d. 191 2), the 
bibliographer; A. B., 1883; Cand. Juris, 1888; assistant in the Icelandic 
government bureau, Copenhagen, 1889-91 ; prefect of Eyjafjar9arsysla and 
Akureyri, 1891-1904; since 1904 chief secretary (landritari) of Iceland. 
Member of Althing for EyjafjarQarsysla, 1893-1903, speaker of the Lower 
House, 1901-03 ; chairman of the interparliamentary committee on taxation, 
1907-11. Knight of Danebrog, 1904, etc.; Officier de legion d'honneur, 
1<)12.— Author : Um f6getagjor9ir (On distress and injunction. 1903); 
Handb6k fyrir hreppsnefndarmenn (A manual for municipal councillors. 
LogfrseSingur, 1897-98); D6mst61ar og r^ttarfar (Courts and procedure. 
Logfraedingur, 1900-01); LogfraeSingatal (Biographical dictionary of Ice- 
landers, who have passed the examination in jurisprudence and political 
economy at the University of Copenhagen 1883-19 10, with a list of all Ice- 
landers who have passed these examinations 1734-1910. 1910); Embaettis- 
mannatal d fslandi 1910 (List of state officials in Iceland. 1910); history of 
the Thorchilli Fund, in the biography of J6n f>orkelsson ( 1910); biography 
of Pdll Briem (Andvari, 1907); two articles on the Icelandic National 
Assembly of 1851 (Andvari, 1906-07) ; essay on J6n Sigurdsson as a politician 
(Skirnir, 1911), on Eggert 6lafsson as lawman (Skirnir, 1911); on document 
concerning Icelandic trade in 1753 (Eimreidin, 1896); Islands Forfatningog 
Fremtid (Tilskueren, 1902); many articles in periodicals, especially in 
'• Stefnir " and " Nordurland. " 
Biogr.: 69inn. II. pp. 73-74, portr. 

Jonsson, P^l, poet, naturalist ; 
h. Helgastadir, Eyjafjar9arsysla, Feb. 2, 1857 ; grad. of the Mo9ruvellir 
High School, 1882; editor of the fortnightly "Nordurlj6sia" 1886-89, and 
of "Stefnir" 1893-97; since his graduation has been engaged in teaching 
in Akureyri. — Author: Skin og skuggi (Shine and shadow, a story. 1880); 
StrykiQ (The stroke, a comedy. 1892); Vetur og vor (Winter and spring, a 
poem. 1902 ) ; Lj6dm8eli (Poems. 1905 ) ; Agrip af natttirusogu handa alpydu 
(Popular manual of natural history. 1884 ; parts of it re-issued, 1896-1903). 

Jonsson, Sigur9ur, teacher ; 
b. Lsekjarkot, Kj6sarsysla, May 6, 1872. Since 1887 has been teacher in 
various places, at present in Reykjavik ; student in the Jonstrup Teachers 
School, 1895-98. — Author: Reikningsb6k (Text-book of arithmetic. 1906). — 
Editor: KennarablaQid (1899-1900); Good-Templar (1901-03); .^skan 
{^i(^i-<i2,).— Translator : Bibliusogur, by Th. Kleaveness (1899); Tiu kvold 
i veitingahtisi, by T. S. Arthur (1903). 



Kamban, GuSmundur, story-writer ; 
b. June 8, 1888; A. B., 1910; lives in Copenhagen. — Author: Ur dular- 
heimum (From the worlds of mystery. 1906), five tales, claimed to be of 
spiritualistic origin ; an article on family names (Skirnir, 1908); a drama, 
Haddapadda, not yet printed, but accepted by the Royal Theatre, 

Kristjdnsson, Bjom, musician, politician ; 
b. HreiSurborg, Arnessysla, Feb. 26, 1858; merchant, 1887-1909; since 
19T0 director of the National Bank of Iceland, Reykjavik. Member of 
Althing for GuUbringusysla since 1901. — Author : Stafrof songfraedinnar 
(The elements of music. 1888) ; an anonymous pamphlet about the National 
Bank (1899); an article on the secret ballot (Timarit B6kmf^l., 1901). — 
Editor : Nokkur fj6rr6ddu5 sdlmalog. (1891 ; with Stefan Thorarensen). 

Kristj^sson, J6hann, genealogist ; 
b. Leirhofn, Nor3ur-I>ingeyjarsysla, May 26, 1884 ; superintendant of 
Reykjavik Census Bureau ; librarian of the Reykjavik Public Library. — 
Author: Alpingismannatal (Dictionary of members of the Althing 1845- 
1905- 1906); Prestask61amenn (Lives of the graduates of the Theological 
School. 1910). Numerous articles in various periodicals; a list of annual 
events in Iceland in the " Almanak J>j69vinaf^l.", since 1908. Has assisted 
in editing many of the publications of the Icelandic Historical Society. 
Biogr.: OSinn. V. p. 75, portr. 

Kristjdnsson, J6n, jurist ; 
b. HafnarfjorQur, April 22, 1885; A. B., 1904; Cand. Juris, 1909; docentin 
the Icelandic Law School, 1909-11 ; since Sept. 22, 191 1, professor of law in 
the University of Iceland, Reykjavik. — Author: fslenzkur sj6r6ttur 
(Icelandic maritime law. 19 10). 

Ldrusdottir, Gubriin, story- writer ; 
wife of S. A. Gislason (see above). — Author: Lj6s og skuggar (Lights and 
shadows. 3 pts. 1903-05), and other stories of a tractarian character, some 
of which were published in the " Heimilisvinurinn " (S61argeislinn hans. 
1905 ; Fermingargjofin. 1906). — Translator: T6mas fraendi, by Harriet 
Beecher Stowe (1901); Spdd6mar frelsarans, by J. G. Matteson (1900). 

Levi, Eggert, story-wTiter ; 
b. March 30, 1875 ; farmer at 6sar, Vatnsnes, Hdnavatnssysla. — Author: 
Timam6t, a story (EimreiQin, 1901), translated into Bohemian by Al. 
Koudelka : Na rozhrani veku (in the paper *' Hlas "). 

Magnusson, Gu9mundur, surgeon ; 
b. Asar, Hdnavatnssysla, Sept. 25, 1863; A. B., 1883; Cand. Med. & Chir., 
1890 ; studied in hospitals in Copenhagen 1890-91, in Berlin and Edinburgh 
1891-92, in Edinburgh, Glasgow, London, Berlin, and Breslau, 1901-02 ; 
district-physician of Skagafj6r3ur, 1892-94; docent in the Medical School, 
Reykjavik, 1894-1911 ; since Sept. 22, 1911, professor of surgery. University 
of Iceland, Reykjavik. Knight of Danebrog, 1904. — Author: Articles 



in the " Hospitalstidende " : Nogle Bemserkninger i Anledning af 7 Tilf selde 
af Underlivsekinokokker opererede efter Volkmann's Methode (1895), 
Tuberculosa paa Island (1895), Tuberculosis humeri Fjernelse af humerus 
og scapula Helbredelse (1897), Ekinokokker fjernede gennem transpleural 
Incision (1899). An article on tuberculosis in Iceland (Eimrei9in, 1895); 
an essay on Niels R. Finsen (Skimir, 1905), and a paper on the vital power 
(Skirnir, 1905). Several articles in the "Eir" (1899-1900), an Icelandic 
journal of hygiene, of which he was one of the editors. — Translator: Hvers 
vegna — vegna pess, by Henry de Parville (1891-93). 

Biogr.: Sunnanfari. VIII. pp. 65-66, portr.; XI. pp. 33-35, portr. — CSinn. 
V. pp. 81-82, portr. 

Magniisson, GuSmundur, poet, novelist ; pseudonym : J6n 
Trausti ; 
b. Rif, Nor9ur-J>ingeyjarsysla (the northernmost farm in Iceland), Feb. 12, 
1873, of poor parents ; received but little education and was a farm hand 
and fisherman until 1893 when he became typographer first in Sey5isfj6r9ur 
and then in Reykjavik ; went to Copenhagen 1896 to pursue his profession, 
and devoted all spare moments to reading and studying ; was granted a 
stipend from the Classen Fund to study dramatic art ; returned to Reykjavik 
in 1898 ; travelled through Germany, Switzerland, Holland and England 
in 1903 with support from the Icelandic government; has since 1910 
received an annual stipend from the government in recognition of his 
writings. One of the owners of the Gutenberg Press, Reykjavik. — Author : 
Heima og erlendis (At home and abroad, a few poems. 1899); Teitur, 
lj691eikur i fimm syningum (Teitur, a metrical drama in 5 acts. 1903); 
fslandsvisur (Iceland-lays. 1903, with illustrations by I>6rarinn B. 
J>orldksson ) ; FerQaminningar fra I>yzkalandi, Sviss og Englandi (Reminis- 
cences from a journey through Germany, Switzerland and England. 1905); 
Halla, sogupdttur iir sveitalifinu (Halla, a novel of country life. 1906), 
translated into Danish by Mrs. Helga Gad : Halla, en islandsk Bonde- 
fortselling (1909); the continuation of this novel is a series of 4 vols., with 
the title : Hei9arbyli9 (The Heath-farm. 1908-11); Ley sing, kaupstadarsaga 
frd siQustu dratugum nitjandu aldar (Thawing, a novel of life in a market- 
town during the last decades of the 19th cent. 1907); Borgir, gamansaga iir 
GrundarfirQi (Castles, a humorous story from Grundarfjordur. 1909 ; 2d ed. 
revised, 191 1), translated into Danish by Margrethe Lobner Jorgensen : Imod 
Str6mmen(i9i2). Smdsogur (A collection of eleven short stories. 2 vols. 
1909-12), nine of which had appeared before in various periodicals, and of 
them three were translated into Danish by Mrs. Helga Gad (Tvaer systur, 
StrandiQ d Kolli, and Sigurbjorn sleggja) in the daily " Riget " (1911), and 
two (StrandiQ d Kolli, and Sigurbjorn sleggja) into German by Heinrich 
Erkes in the "Rheinischer Hausfreund" (1909 and 1910); Sogur frdSkaptdr- 
eldi d seinni hluta 18. addar (Stories from the days of the eruption of 
Skaptd, in the latter half of the i8th cent.), a series of historical novels, of 
which only the first volume has appeared (Holt ogSkdl. 1912). Other tales 
and stories have appeared in " Cdinn " : Einyrkinn (1909); in "Skirnir": 


Steinbiturinn (1912); in "Fanney": J61asaga 6r sveitinni (1905), Keldan 
(1906), Lambasetan (1907), SpiliQ pi9 kindur (1908), all juvenile tales; in 
•' Huginn " : Peningabuddan ( 1908). To periodicals he has also contributed 
numerous poems and articles, chiefly reviews of books and sketches of his 
travels in Iceland, and an essay on the ancient Icelandic see of Skdlholt 
(Skirnir, 1905). — Translator : Finnur jotunn, a poem by Esaias Tegn^r 

Biogr.: Odinn. III. pp. 8-9, portr.; VII. pp. 1-3, portr. — Bogvennen, Aug* 
1912. p. II, portr. 

Magniisson, J6n, jurist ; 
b. Mtili, Suaur-fdngeyjarsysla, Jan. 16, 1859; A. B., 1882; Cand. Juris^ 
1891 ; prefect of Vestmanneyjasysla, 1891-96 ; chief of the governor-general's 
bureau (landritari), 1 896-1 904 ; chief of the department of justice, church 
and education, 1904-08 ; since 1908 prefect of Reykjavik. Member of 
Althing for Vestmanneyjasysla since 1902 ; member of the interparliamentary 
committee on municipal affairs 1901-04, and of the Danish-Icelandic inter- 
parliamentary commission on the union 1907-08. Knight of Danebrog, 
1904, etc.; Commander of the legion d'honneur, 1912. — Author: On the 
poor-laws of other countries (Andvari, 1897); Interpretation of law no. 12 
of Aug. 12, 1889, etc. (Timarit B6kmentaf^l., 1897). — Editor: Lagasafn 
handa alpy9u (IV. 1900; with J6n Jensen). 

Biogr.: Cdinn. VI. pp. 1-2, portr. — Kl. j6nsson, Logfrsedingatal. pp. 46- 

Markiisson, Magnus, poet ; 
b. in Iceland, Nov. 27, 1868, has for many years lived in Winnipeg, Man. — 
Author: Lj69m8eli (Poems. 1907); and other poems published in various 

Matthiasson, Steingrimur, physician ; 
b. Reykjavik, March 31, 1876, son of Matthias Jochumsson ; A. B., 1896; 
Cand. Med. & Chir., 1902 ; assistant district-physician of Akureyri, 1902-03 ; 
surgeon on the Danish East- Asiatic Co.'s S.S. Prins Valdemar, 1903-04; 
assistant physician, Fredericksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, 1904-05 ; acting 
district-physician of Reykjavik 1905-07, since 1907 district-physician of 
Akureyri. — Author: Articles in "Eimrei9in", on the metamorphosis of the 
embryo ( 1901 ), on the mortality of children in Iceland ( 1904, also in Danish 
in "Bibliothek for Lseger," 1905: Om Bornedodeligheden paa Island), 
on Niels R. Finsen (1905), on the Black Death (1906), on cleanliness (1906), 
on the Pestilence or the English Sweat (1907), on tuberculosis (1909), on 
the self -protection of the human body ( 1 9 1 1 ) . In " Skirnir " : on cremation 
(1905), on gluttony (1908), on being lost in a snow storm ( 1909), on the art 
of longevity (1911-12). A paper on the effect of alchohol on the human 
body (separately printed. 1908). Et Tilfaeldeaf vagitusuterinus (Hospitals- 
tidende, 1909). Many articles in various Icelandic papers. — Translator: 
Utaf dau9a hundsins mins, by M. Maeterlinck (Eimreidin, 1912). 
Biogr.: 69inn. III. p. 16, portr. 


MelsteS, Bogi Thorarensen, historian ; 
b. Klausturh61ar, Arnessysla, May 4, i860, grandson of Bjarni Thorarensen 
(of. 1841), the poet; A. B., 1882; A. M. (history), 1890; assistant in the 
Danish National Archives 1893-1903; Arnamagnaean stipendiary, 1896-1912 ; 
has received stipends from the Icelandic and Danish governments to pursue 
historical studies and collect materials for Icelandic history. Vice-president 
of the Icelandic Literary Society, Copenhagen branch, 1894-1911 ; one of 
the founders of the Society of Icelandic Letters (Hi9 islenzka fraeQaf^lag) 
in Copenhagen 1912, and its president. Member of Althing for Arnessysla 
1893. Lives in Copenhagen, Denmark. — Author: Um menningarsk61a e5a 
um laerda sk61ann i Reykjavik og samband hinna laegri sk61a vi9 hann 
(On the College of Iceland and its connection with the lower schools. 
1888); Framtidarmdl (Future affairs. 189 1, dealing chiefly with the trade of 
Iceland); Onnur uppgjof fslendinga e9a hva3 (The second surrender of the 
Icelanders or what? 1898, a political pamphlet); Ny a9fer5 i stj6rnarskrdr- 
mdlinu (A new method in the constitutional struggle. 1900); |>3ettir iir 
fslendinga sogu (Chapters from the history of Iceland. 1900-09 ; a popular 
work covering the age of the Republic); fslendinga saga (History of Ice- 
land. 1903-10, 2 vols, have been published covering the saga-period ; in 
progress); Stutt kenslub6k 1 fslendinga sogu (Short text-book of Icelandic 
history. 1904, 2d. ed. augmented 1907); Willard Fiske (1907, a biography); 
Islands kulturelle Fremskridt i den nyeste Tid (1907); Sogukver handa 
bornum dsamt nokkrum aettjar3arlj6dum og kvsedum (Brief history of 
Iceland for children, together some patriotic poems, 1910); R^ttur 
fslendinga i Noregi og Nor9manna d fslandi d dogum pj65veldisins (The 
rights of the Icelanders in Norway and the Norwegians in Iceland in the 
days of the Icelandic Republic. 1913). Um alpingi (I^jdr ritgjordirsendar 
Pdli Melsted, 1892); historical survey of the Icelandic constitutional 
struggle in the 19th cent. (Arny, 1901); a historical treatise on communica- 
tion and travel between Iceland and other countries during the Republic 
(Safn til sogu fslands, 1911-13). In the * ' Btina9arrit " : on insurance of 
houses and cattle in the Icelandic Republic (1895), on the trade between 
Iceland and other countries during the Republic (1895), and several other 
articles on Icelandic trade and co-operation, and an article on the same in 
"Skirnir" (1905). In "Timarit Bmf^l.": treatise on summons of Ice- 
landers to Norway and of agents of foreign rulers in Iceland during the 
Sturlunga period (1899-1900), essay on Baldvin Einarsson (1904). In 
" Andvari " : biography of Vilhjdlmur F'insen (1896), of Pdll Melsted (1911 ), 
several political articles (1902-03, 1905) and one on peoples' high schools 
(1907). A few articles and reviews in "EimreiQrn" (1895-96), and very 
many contributions to other periodicals on historical, political, economical, 
and educational matters. Biographical sketch of Vilhjdlmur Finsen and a 
review of his still unpublished history of Icelandic law (Tidsskrift for 
Retsvidenskab, 1893 and 1898); annual lists of Icelandic publications and 
books, 1878-83 (Nordisk tidskrift, 1884-88), and since 1897 (Nordisk 
Boghandler-Tidende); many articles in Danish periodicals and newspapers. 


Contributor to Salmonsens Konversations-Leksikon (about 250 articles, 
chiefly on Icelandic law and history). — Editor: Synisb6k islenzkra 
b6kmenta d 19. old (An anthology of Icelandic literature of the 19th cent. 
1891); fslenzk smdrit handa alpydu (2 vols. 1913). — Translator: Madvig- 
skan, by V. Pingel (1884); J6hanna, by Carl Andersen (I3unn, 1887). 
Biogr.: 69inn. III. pp. 93-94, 102, portr. 

Nielsson, Haraldur, theologian ; 
b. GrimsstaOir, Myrasysla, Nov. 30, 1868; A. B., 1890; Cand. Theol., 1897; 
returned to Iceland 1897 and was the same year engaged by the Icelandic 
Bible Society to make a new Icelandic translation of the Old Testament ; 
1899-1900 pursued Hebraic studies in Halle and Cambridge ; second minister 
of the Cathedral, Reykjavik, 1909-10; since Sept. 22, 1911, professor of 
theology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik. — Author: Essays on the 
Ecclesiastes and its pessimism (Skirnir, 1908), and on the creeds and clerical 
conformity (Skirnir, 1908); Vorn og vi9reisn (1909, two sermons); many 
articles in the church monthly "VerSi lj6s", of which he was associate 
editor 1898-1904, likewise contributions to "Nytt Kirkublad" and "Tem- 
plar." — Editor : Bamabiblia (Childrens' Bible. 191 2, with Magntis Helga- 
son). — Translator: Biblia (1908), a new translation from the originals 
(some books of the New Testament transl. by J6n Helgason); Kristin fraeSi, 
by Gustav Jensen (1904). 
Biogr.: 6dinn. IV. pp. 89-90, portr. 

Ofeigsson, J6n, philologist ; 
b. St6ri-Ntipur, Arnessysla, April 22, 1881 ; A. B., 1901 ; Cand. Mag. 
(German), 1908; teacher in Reykjavik. — Author: Kenslub6k 1 pyzku 
(Text-book of German. 1906); Kenslub6k i donsku fyrir byrjendur 
(Beginners' text-book of Danish. 2 vols., 1909-11, with j6hannesSigf6sson). 

Olafsson, Jon, journalist, poet ; 
b. KolfreyjustaQur, Sudur-Mulasysla, March 20, 1850, son of Rev. (3lafur 
IndriQason {d. 1861), hymnologist, and brother of Pdll Olafsson {d. 1905), 
the poet ; student in College of Iceland, 1863-68 ; founder and editor of 
"Baldur", a monthly, 1868-70; spent the winter 1870-71 in Norway, and 
taught Old Norse in the Bergen Cathedral School ; edited the ' * Gongu- 
Hr61fur" 1872-73, and for political reasons went to America, 1873 ; together 
with two other Icelanders was sent by President Grant to Alaska 1874 to 
investigate the possibility of an Icelandic colony there ; translator in the 
Hydrographic Ofl&ce, Washington, D. C, 1874-75 ; returned to Iceland in 
the spring 1875 and settled in Eskif j6r3ur, where he founded the fortnightly 
"Skuld" 1877, which he edited until 1882 ; editor of "f»j6a61fur" (Reykja- 
vik) 1883-85, and taught for some time in the College of Iceland ; with a 
publishing firm, 1886-90 ; went to Canada, and was engaged in newspaper 
work in Winnipeg until 1894, when he became cataloguer in the library of 
Field-Columbian Museum, Chicago, and assistant in the Newberry Library ; 
returned to Iceland, 1897; editor of Nyja Oldin ", 1897-1900 ; cataloguer 
and classifier in the National Library, Reykjavik, since 1901, and editor of 



the weekly "Reykjavik", 1903-07; one of the founders of the Icelandic 
Commercial School 1905, and chairman of the board of directors. Has 
received a government stipend for literary work (1897-98) and since 1908 to 
write an Icelandic dictionary, the publication of which has just begun (to 
be published in 16 parts of 200 pp. ). Member of Althing for Su9ur Mdlasysla 
1880-90, and since 1908 ; member appointed by the King, 1905. Lives in 
Reykjavik. — Author: Hefndin (The revenge, a story and a few poems. 
1867); Alaska (1875); Songvar og kvaeQi (Songs and poems. 1877, 3d ed. 
1896) ; JafnrseQi og pekking (Equality and knowledge. 1880) ; Nytt stafr6fs- 
kver (New abecedary. 1879), and Spdnnytt stafrofskver (Bran-new abecedary. 
1887, 7th ed. 1905); English made easy (1882); Vesturfara-tiilkur (Inter- 
preter for emigrants. 1888, 2d ed. 1890); Aldam6ta-69ur (Song on the two 
centuries. 1900); J6nas Hallgrimsson (1900, a memorial address); Litli 
barnavinurinn (The small childrens' friend. 1902-05); fslenzk verzlunar- 
loggjof (Icelandic mercantile laws, a text-book. 1908); Stafrof vi9skipta- 
frseSinnar (The first rudiments of political economy. 1909) ; M69urmdlsb6kin 
(A text-book of the Icelandic language. 1911); many political pamphlets 
and a few on other questions of the day. In the " Andvari " : a treatise on 
banking (1887), on free trade and protection (1899), biography of Dr. J6n 
porkelsson (1904), and of Markiis F. Bjarnason (1905), on the Icelandic 
telegraph ( 1905). An essay on small libraries (Timarit Bmf^l., 1902) ; wrote 
the foreign news in Skirnir, 1896-1902 ; a great quantity of other contribu- 
tions to periodical literature. — Editor: Lj69m8eli, by Kristjan j6nsson 
(1872, 3ded. 1912): Nanna (3 pts. 1878-81); Daegrastytting (1879); Lj65- 
mseli, by Pdll Olafsson (2 vols. 1899- 1900); Bragi (1904), an anthology of 
Icelandic 19th cent, poetry; Fj6rar sogur, by Bjornstj. Bjornson (1904). 
Besides the periodicals mentioned above he has been editor or associate 
editor of the following ones : Smdvegis (1872); Almanak fyrir hvern mann 
(1885); launn (1884-89); Logberg (Winnipeg, Apr.^ 1890- Feb. 1891); 
Oldin (Oct. 1891-March 1892), and Heimskringla (og Oldin. March 1892- 
Apr. 1894); Western Good Templar (I. Nos. 2-3, 1892); Norden (Chicago, 
1894-95); Dannevirke (1894-95); I ledige Timer (Jan.-March 1895); 
Sonderjydsk Tidende (1895); Skandinaven (1895); Wisconsin Nordmanden 
(Madison, Sept. 1895-March 1896); Sunnanfari (Reykjavik, 1898); DagblaO- 
i9 (1906-07). — Translator: P^tur og Berglj6t, by Kr. Janson (1868); Kdtr 
piltr, by Bjornstj. Bjornson (1879, 2d ed. 1904); Sigriin d Sunnuhvoli, by 
the same (I9unn, 1884); Vestrfarinn, by H. H. Boyesen (Logberg, 1892); 
Er J)etta sonr y9ar? by Helen H. Gardener (Logberg, 1892); Mon bijou, by 
Aug. Blanche (Logberg, 1892); Jafet i f69urleit, by Fr. Marryat (Logberg, 
1893); Sagan af Hr6a hetti (Robin Hood. 1900); Fer9in d heimsenda, by 
H. Bergh (1903). 

Biogr.: Bricka, Dansk biograf. Lexikon. XII. pp. 388-389. — Sunnanfari. 
IV. pp. 17-18, portr. — 09inn. IV. pp. 41-42, portr. — Reykjavik. IX. pp. 
1-2, portr. 

Olafsson, Olafur, clergyman ; 
b. Vi9ey, Sept. 24, 1855; A. B., 1877; Cand. Theol., Theological School, 
1880 ; minister of Selvogsping 1880-84, of Holtaping 1884-93, o^ Arnarbaeli 


1 893- 1902 ; editor of the weekly " Fjallkonan ", 1902-04; minister of the 
Reykjavik Free Church since 1903. Member of Althing for Rangdr- 
vallasysla 1891, for Austur-Skaptafellssysla 1901, for Arnessysla 1903-07. 
Knight of Danebrog, K^oy.— Author : Several lectures on religious and social 
questions, such as Heimilislifid (1889), Hvernig er farid me9 Jjarfasta 
pj6ninn (1891), Ver3i lj6s (1892), Hvernig liflur trtiar- og kirkjulifinu d 
fslandi (1892), 01nbogabarni3 (1892 ; on the position of women), Presturinn 
og s6knarbornin (1893), Hva3 leggja prestamir i gudskistuna (1899), Meira 
lj6s (1899), and a few sermons and temperance lectnr^.— Translator : 
Hjdlpadu J)6r sjdlfur, by Samuel Smiles (1892); Foreldrar og born (1894), 
and FuUorOinsdrin (1898), by P. H. Ritter ; I>j63menningar saga Nordur- 
dlfunnar (1900), by Gustav Bang. 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. IX. pp. 25-26, portr. 

Olsen, Bjom Magnusson, philologist ; 
b. I>ingeyrar, H6navatnssysla, July 14, 1850; A. B., 1869; Cand. Philol., 
1877 ; Ph.D., 1883 ; travelled in Greece and Italy, 1878 ; teacher in 
College of Iceland 1879-95, rector of the College, 1895-1904 ; titular professor 
1904 ; since Sept. 22, 1911, professor of Old Norse philology and literature. 
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, and the first rector of the University. 
Honorary member of the Icelandic Literary Society (1901); member of the 
Christiania Academy of Science (1902), of the Royal Danish Academy 
(1909), and of the Royal Academy of Gothenburg (1912). President of the 
Icelandic Literary Society 1894-1901, and since 1909. Knight of Danebrog, 
1902, etc. Member of Althing appointed by the King, 1905-08. — Author: 
Runerne i den oldislandske Litteratur (1883, doctor's dissertation); Zur 
neuislandischen Grammatik (Germania, 1882); Rasmus Kristjdn Rask 
1787-1887 (1888); Urn Sturlungu (Safn til sogu Islands, 1897); Um kristni- 
tokuna dri9 1000 og tildrog hennar (On the introduction of Christianity in 
the year 1000 and its causes. 1900 ; also an article on the same subject in 
"Andvari", 1901); Kystreisen, udgivet i Anledning af hans Majestaet 
Kongens og de danske Rigsdagsmaends Besog i Aaret 1907 (1907), and a 
Forer (1907) published for the same occasion ; Um upphaf konungsvalds a 
fslandi (1908), and Enn um upphaf konungsvalds d fslandi (1909), two 
treatises on the rise of royal authority in Iceland, both reprinted from the 
"Andvari"; Um skattbaendatal 1311 og manntal d fslandi fram a9 peim 
tima (On taxpayers 131 1 and census in Iceland down to that time ; Safn til 
sogu fslands, 1910); Om den sdkaldte Sturlungaprolog og dens formodede 
Vidnesbyrd om de islandske Slaegtsagaers Alder (1910); Om Gunnlaugs 
saga ormstungu, en kritisk Undersogelse (1911). Treatises in "Aarboger 
for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic ' ' : Kronologiske Bemaerkninger til 
Olaf Tryggvasons Regeringshistorie (1878), Bt islandsk Stedsnavn Un- 
dornfell (1881), Om Forholdet mellem de to Bearbeidelser af Ares 
Islsendingebog (1885), Bemaerkninger til to Vers af Guthormr sindre (1886), 
Om Versene i Kormaks saga (1888), Om Are Frode (1893), Landndma og 
Egils saga (1904), Landndma og H8ensa-|>6ris saga (1905), Landndma og 
Eyrbyggja saga (1905), Landndma og Laxdaela saga (1908), Om Ordet 


seyclir (1909), and Landndma og Gull-I>6ris saga (1910). In "Arkiv for 
nordisk filologi": Til Gragasen (1883), Om Overgangen e-je i Islandsk 
(1886), Nogle Bemserkninger til et Vers i Haustlong (1889), Vigsl69i (1890), 
Sma Bidrag til Tolkuing af Edda-Sangene (1893), Strobemaerkninger til 
norske og islandske Skjaldedigte (1902), Til Versene i Egils saga (1903), 
Om nogle Vers af Arn6rr jarlaskdld (1909), and a review of Meissner's edi- 
tion of the R6mverja saga (1912). Sundurlausar hugleidingar um stj6rnarfar 
fslendinga d J)j65veldistimanum ( Germanistische Abhandlungen zu K. 
Maurer, 1893); Et Bidrag til Sporgsmalet om Jurisprudensen i Njdla 
(Tidsskrift for Retsvidenskab, 1906); Strobemaerkninger til Eddakvadene 
(Festskrift til L. F. A. Wimmer, 1909). In "Arbok bins islenzka 
Fornleifaf^lags " : Borgarvirki ( 1880-81 ), explanation of a stanza in Vellekla 
(1882), account of archaeological explorations in the Westfjords 1884 (1885), 
on the door of ValJ)j6fssta9ur church (1885), on Icelandic tombstones 
with inscriptions in Latin and Runic characters ( 1897 and 1899), o^ the finds 
at Horgsdalur (1903, with D. Bruun), on the old Icelandic measure 'alin ' 
(1910). In "Timarit hins islenzka B6kmentafelags " : Avellingago9or9 
(1881), Rask (1888, see above), Ari f>orgilsson hinn fr65i (1889), biography 
of KonrdQ Gislason ( 1891 ), on the home of the Eddie poems ( 1894 and 1896 ; 
a criticism of Finnur J6nsson's theory), on the poems of EgiH Skallagrims- 
son and their relation to the Egils saga (1897), and various other critical 
notices and several reviews. In the * 'Skirnir' ' : an essay on Snorri Sturluson's 
authorship of Egils saga (1905), an explanation of a verse in Sonatorrek 
( 1905 ), paper on the value of silver and wadmal especially during the period 
of the settlement of Iceland (1909), on J6n Sigur9sson and his services to 
the Icelandic I^iterary Society (1911), also personal reminiscenses of J6n 
SigurQsson (1911), and many reviews of books. In the "Andvari", in 
addition to the treatises mentioned above : biographies of Bergur (3. 
Thorberg (1898) and of Arnlj6tur (3lafsson (1906), and two articles on the 
salaries of Icelandic government officials (1905 and 1907). Treatise on the 
raising of corn in Iceland in early times (BfinaQarrit, 1910). Biographical 
sketches of teachers in the College of Iceland 1846-96 ( Minningarrit fimtiu 
dra afmaelis hins laer5a sk61a, 1896). A paper on Icelandic orthography 
(Timarit um uppeldi og mentamdl, 1889), another on the same subject 
(UmraeQur um islenzka stafsetning, 1899), and several articles on spelling 
reform in "fsafold" (1889-90) and "t>j6561fur" (1900-01, criticism of the 
spelling adopted by the Society of Journalists). Many contributions to 
other periodicals. — Editor: Den tredje og fjserde grammatiske Af handling 
i Snorres Edda tilligemed de grammatiske Af handlingers Prolog og andre 
Tillaeg (1884); Uddrag af Magnus Stephensens Dagbog for 1808 (Museum, 
1882); Efterladte Skrifter, by KonrdQ Gislason (2 vols. 1895-97); Stiifs 
saga (1912). 

Biogr.: Indbydelsesskrift til Kjobenhavns Universetets Reformations 1883. 
pp. 100-102. — Bricka, Dansk biograf. Leixkon. XII. pp. 411-412. — Sunn- 
anfari. V. pp. 9-10, portr. — 65inn. VI. pp. 25-27, portr. 

Pdlsson, P^mi, philologist ; 
h. Tjarnir, EyjafjarSarsysla, Nov. 21, 1857; A. B., 1881 ; A. M. (Old 
Norse philology), 1885 ; teacher in College of Iceland, Reykjavik, since 


1895, but had been acting teacher since 1885 ; assistant librarian in the 
National Library, 1888-95 ; director of the Archaeological Museum, 1892-96. 
Officier d'Academie, 1902. — Author: Essay on the coat-of-arms of Iceland 
(Andvari, 1883 and 1898); biography of J6n Arnason, the folklorist ( Andvari, 
1891); on G6runargaldur (Arkiv f. nord. Filol., 1907); Fr^ttir frd Islandi 
1889-92. — Editor: Kr6karefssaga (1883); fslenzk fornkvaeOi (1885, the last 
part of the ballad collection begun by J6n Sigurdsson and Svend Grundtvig), 
and also a few Icelandic ballads in the " I3unn " (1886) ; B16msturvallasaga 

Peturss (P^tursson), Helgi, geologist ; 
b. Reykjavik, March 31, 1872 ; A. B., 1^91 ; Cand. Mag. (natural history), 
1897; Ph. D., 1905; went with Frode Petersen's expedition to Greenland 
as geologist, 1897 ; began in the year 1899 geological explorations in Iceland 
and has since continued them with support from the Danish Carlsberg Fund 
and the Icelandic government. Lives in Reykjavik. — Author: Geologiske 
Optegnelser fra Opmaalings-Expeditionen til Egedesminde-District 1897 
(Meddelelser om Gronland, XIV. 1898) ; Graenlandsfor 1897 (Trip to Green- 
land. 1899); Om Islands Geologi (1905, doctor's dissertation); Island 
(Steinmann and Wilcken's Handbuch der regionalen Geologi, IV. i. 1910); 
Geologiske Rejseskitser fra Island (Naturen og Mennesket, 1895); En 
Bestigning af Fjaeldet Baula (Geograf. Tidsskrift, 1897). In "Oversigt 
over det kgl. danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger ' ' : Moraener 
i den islandske Palagonitformation (1901), Om Forekomsten af skalforende 
Skurstenslcr i B<ilandsh6f5i (1904), Om nogle glaciale og interglaciale 
Vulkaner paa Island (1904). The glacial palagonite- formation of Iceland 
(The Scottish Geograph. Magazine, 1900), and Fortsatte Bidrag til Kundskab 
om Islands glaciale Palagonit-formation ( Geolog. Foreningens i Stockholm 
Forhandlingar, 1902). In " Quarterly Journal of the Geolog. Society of 
London ' ' : On a shelly boulder-clay in the so-called palagonite-f ormation of 
Iceland (1903), The crag of Iceland, an intercalation in the basalt-formation 
( 1906) . In ' ' Centralblatt fiir Mineral. , Geol. u. Palaontol. ' ' : Das Pleistocan 
Islands ( 1905), and Zur Forschungsgeschichte Islands ( 1906). In " Zeitschr. 
der Gesellsch. f. Erdkunde zu Berlin": Einige Ergebnisse seiner Reise in 
Slid Island im Sommer 1906 (1907), and Einige Hauptziige der Geologie 
und Morphologie Islands ( 1908). Uber marines Interglazial in der Umgeb- 
ung von Reykjavik (Zeitschr. der deut. geol. Gesellsch., 1909); also 
reports in " Geologisches Centralblatt" since 1905. In "Eimrei5in'> 
articles on peat and coal (1895), on new discoveries in the geology of. 
Iceland (1900), on EiriksjokuU (1904), and others. In the "Timarit 
B6kmentaf^l": articles on mountains (1899), on the Yoldia stratum in 
B61andsh6f5i (1903), on movement and growth (1904), and on geological 
strata in the Fossvogur (1904). In the " Skirnir " articles and essays on 
religious history of the ancient Icelanders (1906), on the origin of man 
(1907-08), on travels in Europe (1909-12), and others. An article on 
climatic changes in Iceland, in the "Andvari " (1906). To other Icelandic 
papers he has contributed a great number of articles on a variety of subjects, 


cliiefly on religious and literary matters. — Translator: Darvinskenningin, 
by Armauer Hansen (1904); Hviti selurinn, by Rudyard Kipling (Timarit 
Bmf61., 1902). 

Biogr.: Indbydelsesskrift til Kjobenhavns Universitets Reformations Fest. 
1905- — C35inn. I. pp. 92-93, portr. 

Petursson, Hafsteinn, theologian ; 
b. Geithamrar, Hiinavatnssysla, Nov. 4, 1858 ; A. B., 1882 ; studied theology 
in the University of Copenhagen, 1882-85 and 1886-89 ; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1886 ; ordained in Winnipeg, 1890 ; minister of the 
Icelandic parishes in Argyle, Man., 1890-93, and in Winnipeg, 1893-94; 
secretary of the Icelandic Lutheran Synod, 1890-94 ; withdrew from the 
Synod, 1895 ; founded the Winnipeg Tabernacle 1894, and was its minister 
until 1899. Since 1899 has lived in Copenhagen, Denmark. — Author : 
Tjaldbiidin (The Tabernacle, 10 parts. 1898-1905), containing communica- 
tions relating to the Winnipeg Tabernacle, papers and articles concerning 
Icelandic- American affairs, etc.; N. F. S. Grundtvig (1886, a lecture); 
Magniis Biriksson (Timarit B6kmf^l., 1887 ; transl. into Danish : Theologisk 
Tidsskrift, 1902); essays on C. H. Spurgeon and H. W. Beecher (Kinirei9in, 
1901-02); an article on Icelanders in America (Arny, 1901). Papers in the 
*'Aldam6t": on the church in Iceland (189 1), on C. H. Spurgeon (1892), 
and on eternal punishment (1893, transl. into Danish: Annexet til den 
indre Missions Tidende, 1901). Numerous articles in Icelandic- American 
periodicals, also in Icelandic and Danish papers ; many reviews in 
"EimreiSin". — Translator: fslenzkir kvennbuningar, by Daniel Bruun 
(Eimrei9in, 1904). 
Biogr.: Sameiningin. V. pp. 15-16. 

Petursson, Rognvaldur, theologian ; 
b. Ripur, SkagafjarQarsysla, Aug. 14, 1877 ; came to America in 1883 ; 
student in the University of Manitoba, 1898 ; B. D., Meadville Theological 
Seminary, 1902 ; studied theology and Germanics in Harvard University, 
1902-03 ; minister of the First Icelandic Unitarian Church, Winnipeg, 1903- 
09 ; since 1909 field-missionary of the American Unitarian Association in 
Manitoba and the North- West. — Author : Numerous articles in *' Heimir ", 
the organ of the Icelandic Unitarian Association in America, of which he 
was editor from 1904-10 ; these articles deal chiefly with religion and 
literature, such as papers on forsteinn Erlingsson (1907), on Hannes 
Hafstein (1908), on Tolstoy (1910), etc., also a few biographical sketches 
(Nokkrir fornmenn). A few articles in the "Freyja", and "Heims- 
kringla". — Translator: Several stories (by Bjornstj. Bjomson, and others) 
and articles in the "Heimir ". 

Saemundsson, Bjami, zoologist ; 
b. JdrngerdarstaQir in Grindavik, April 15, 1867; A. B., 1889; Cand. Mag. 
(natural history and geography), 1894; teacher in College of Iceland, 
Reykjavik, since 1894 ; since 1896 has carried on ichthyological investigations 
with an annual stipend from the government ; president of the Icelandic 


Naturalists' Society since 1905, and superintendent of its museum. — Author: 
Agrip af ndtt6rus6gu fyrir barnask61a (Compendium of natural history for 
elementary schools. 1896, 4th ed. 1909); Agrip af steinafraeQi (Compendium 
of mineralogy. 1900); Oversigt over Islands Fiske med Oplysninger om 
deres Forekomst, vigtigste biologiske Forhold og okonomiske Betydning 
(1912); Lysing Islands (Description of Iceland, text-book. 1912). In the 
' * And vari ' ' : annual reports to the government on his investigations regard- 
ing Icelandic fishes and fisheries during the years 1896-1902, 1904-10 (1897- 
1912), and other articles on fisheries ( 1895-96). In " Skirnir " : on disguis- 
ing colors of animals (1905), on the habits of the eel (1911). Many notes 
on Icelandic birds and fishes in the "Skyrsla" of the Icel. Naturalists' 
Society ; also articles on fisheries in various Icelandic papers, especially in 
**^gir". In "Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den naturhistoriske Forening 
i Kobenhavn ' ' a series of articles under the title " Zoologiske Meddelelser fra 
Island": Raja fullonica L., and Om Hvalrossens Forekomst ved Island i 
aeldre og nyere Tider (1897), Tre Fiske nye for Island, Om Brugdens 
Forekomst ved Island i senere Tid, and Auliscus pulcher en ny Goplepolyp 
med frie Meduser (1899), Sex Fiske nye for Island, and To Skadedyr ved 
Islands Kyster (Ivimnoria lignorum og Tereda norvegica) (1903), Tre Fiske 
nye for Island, and Nogle ornithologiske lagttagelser og Bemaerkninger 
(1905), Fem Fiske nye for Island, and Optegnelser vedrorende Fuglelivet 
paa Ha vet omkring Island om Sommeren ( 1907), also Bidrag til Kundskaben 
om de islandske Hydroider (1902). In "Dansk Fiskeritidende " : De 
islandske Saltvandsfiskerier i det I9de Aarhundrede (1903), and since 1903 
annual reports on Icelandic fisheries. In "Norsk Fiskeritidende": 
Oplysninger om Phoca groenlandica's Optraeden ved Island i aeldre og 
nyere Tider (1903), and Hvalfangstsporgsmaalet (1903). The Herring 
fishery of Iceland (The Fish Trades Gazette, 1907). An article on the 
Thingvalla Lake (Geografisk Tidsskrift, \^^) .—Editor : Skyrslur hins 
islenzka Ndtttirufraedisf^lags, 1903-10. 
Biogr.: Odinn. VII. pp. 89-90, portr. 

Sigfusson, Johannes, educator ; 
b. Niipufell, Eyjafjaraarsysla, Aug. 10, 1853; A. B., 1881 ; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1883 ; teacher in the Flensborg High School, Hafnar- 
fjorSur, 1 883-1904 ; since 1904 teacher in College of Iceland, Reykjavik. — 
Author: Kenslub6k i donsku (Text-book of Danish. 1868, 2d ed. 1893; 
with J6n J>6rarinsson) ; Kenslub6k i donsku fyrir byrjendur (Beginners' 
text-book of Danish. 1909, with J6n 6feigsson); Lesb6k handa bornum 
(Reader for children and young people. 3 vols. 1907-10, with Gu3m. 
Finnbogason and f>6rh. Bjarnarson); Samtiningur handa bornum (Com- 
pilations for children. 3 vols. 1890-1903). One of the editors of "Timarit 
um uppeldi og mentamdl " (1888-92), to which he contributed a paper on 
the teachers' influence in the education of children (1888), an essay on Joh. 
A. Comenius (1892), and an article on public schools in the United States 
(1889, compiled from an article by Paul Passy). 



Sigurbsddttir, Olof, poet ; 
b. April 9, 1857 ; mid- wife at Hla9ir in Eyjafjar9arsysla ; m. Halld6r 
Gudmundsson {h. Nov. 9, 1850, also author of two brief stories in 
" Eimrei9in ", 1901 : Dansinn og dau9inn, and Bleikdla). — Author: 
Nokkur smdkvseQi (A few short poems. 1888 ; includes also a story trans- 
lated from the Danish); poems in " Eimreidin " (1901 and 1906), also 
some reminiscences (The home of my child-hood. 1906). 

SigurSsson, Ogmundur, educator ; 
b. July 7, 1859 ; grad. of M69ruvellir High School, 1882 ; teacher in the 
Flensborg High School, HafnarfjorSur, and since 1908 its director, — 
Author: Reikningsb6k handa bornum (Arithmetic for children. 1900). 
Three articles in "Timarit um uppeldi og mentamdl " (1888-92), of which 
he was one of the editors ; of these one is on teachers' schools in Finland 
(1888), another on the teaching of geography (1889). 

SigurSsson, Sigurbur, agriculturist ; 
b. Langholt in F16i, Oct. 21, 1864 ; grad. of the H61ar Agricultural School, 
1890 ; studied agriculture in Denmark, 1897-99 ; adviser to the Icelandic 
Agricultural Society since 1900. Member of Althing for Arnessysla 1901, 
and since 1908. — Author: Many articles on agricultural subjects in various 
periodicals, some of which have been issued separately, such as on the 
breeding of horses (Fjallkonan, 1903), on co-operative dairies (Bunadarrit, 
1912 ; Fjallkonan, 1900; Nordurland, 1904); many contributions to the 
monthly " Freyr " of which he has been one of the editors since 1909. 
Biogr.: 69inn. III. pp. lo-ii, portr. — Templar. XVIII. p. 25, portr. 

Sigurbsson, Sigurbur, agriculturist, forester ; 
b. Draflastadir in Fnj6skadalur, Aug. 5, 1872 ; grad. of the Stend Agri- 
cultural School, Norway, 1898, and in the same year studied for some time 
in Stenkiaer Forestry School; Cand. Agron., Royal Agricultural College, 
Copenhagen, 1902 ; since 1902, director of the H61ar Agricultural School. 
Founder of the Agricultural Society of North Iceland (Raektunarfdlag 
NorSurlands) 1903, and has been its president since. — Author : The forests 
in Fnj6skadalur (Andvari, 1900), and an article on agriculture in Northern 
part of Sweden (Andvari, 1903). 
Biogr.: Minningarrit H61ask61a, 1909. p. 59, portr. 

Sigurbsson, Sigurbur, poet ; 
b. Copenhagen, Sept. 15, 1879 ; student in the College of Iceland, 1894-98 ; 
Cand. Pharm., Pharmaceutic Institute, 1906 ; secretary to the prefect of 
Borgarfjar9arsysla, Arnarholt. — Author: Tvistirni (The double-stars. 1906; 
a collection of poems by him and J6nas Gu91augsson ) ; Lj69 (Poems. 1912). 

Sigurj6nsson, J6hann, dramatist ; 
b. Laxamyri, J>ingeyjarsysla, June 19, 1880 ; student in the College of Ice- 
land, 1896-99 ; studied veterinary surgery for some time in the Royal 
Veterinary School, Copenhagen ; has for several years lived in Copenhagen, 
engaged in literary work. — Author: Dr. Rung, Drama i fire Akter (1905, 


written in Danish); B6ndinn k Hrauni (The farmer of Hraun, a play in 
three acts. 1908), also in Danish : Gaarden Hraun (1912), and staged in the 
Royal Theatre, Copenhagen ; Fjalla-Eyvindur (1912), originally written in 
Danish : Bjaerg-Ejvind og hans Hustru, Skuespil i fire Optrin (1911), and 
was first staged in the Dagmar Theatre, Copenhagen, afterwards presented 
in Norway, Sweden, and Germany, also in Reykjavik and Winnipeg. A 
story (G69ur fengur) and a few poems in "Skirnir" (1910). 
Biogr.: 6ainn. V. p. 60, portr ; VII. p. i, portr. — Sunnanfari. XI. p. 42, 

¥Drtr. — Bogvennen. Nov. 1911, p. 5, portr.; May 1912, pp. 9-10. — Berlingske 
idende. April 13, 1913. 

Skaptason, Magnus [Olafur] J6sefsson, theologian ; 
b. Hnausar, Htinavatnss^sla, Feb. 4, 1850; A. B., 1870; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 1874; minister successively of Lundarbrekka (1874), 
Kviabekkur (1878), and Hvammur in Laxdrdalur (1883); went to America, 
and became minister of 7 parishes in New Iceland, Manitoba ; severed his 
connections with the Icelandic Lutheran S\nod and became Unitarian 
minister first in Winnipeg, and later in North Dakota. — Author : Rae9a 
(Sermon. 1891); LiticI um b6kstaflegan innbldstur heilagrar ritningar (A 
little about the inspiration of the Holy Scriptures. 1893); many articles in 
the Unitarian papers "Dagsbrlin" (1893-96), and "Lising" (1898-99), 
both of which he edited ; was also the editor of the weekly ' ' Baldur ' ' for 
some time (1905), and has since 191 1 edited the monthly "Fr69i", in 
Winnipeg, to which he is the principal contributor. — Translator : Trdin 
d gu5, by M. J. Savage (1894); Ranns6knaroldin, by Th. Paine (1899); and 
a number of stories and articles in the papers he edited. 

Stefitosson, J6n, novelist ; pseudonym : P>orgils gjallandi; 

b. SktitustaQir, Jnngeyjarsysla, June 2, 185 1 ; has lived as a farmer at Litla- 
Strond, pingeyjarsysla, since 1877. In 1912 he received from the govern- 
ment a stipend in recognition of his writings. — Author : Of an lir sveitum 
(Down from the country districts, four stories. 1892), two of these stories 
were translated into German by Carl Kiichler : Der Kirchgang (Leipziger 
Litteraturberichte, 1894), and Pastor Solvi (Kiichler's Nordische Novellen, 
1896); Upp vi5 fossa (Up near the waterfalls, a novel. 1902), translated into 
German by Heinrich Erkes : Oben bei den Wasserfallen, ein islandische 
Bauerngeschichte (Rheinische Zeitung, 1908); Dyrasogur (Stories of 
animals. 1910), many of which had previously appeared in " * Dyravinurinn " 
and other periodicals. Two stories in the "Sumargjof ": Naeturhugsanir d 
Oraefunum (1907), and Gisli hlismaQur (1908). Several contributions to 
other periodicals, chiefly " Gjallarhorn " and "Nor5ri." — Translator: 
I>rjdr smdsogur, by Jonas Lie (1904); Tobias sldtrari, by the same 
(Eimreiain, 1897); OSalsbaendur, by Edv. Knudsen (1905, with Steinp6r 
Bjornsson), etc. 
Biogr.: EimreiSin. XV. pp. 99-108. 

Stefdnsson, J6n, journalist ; 
b. GrundarfjorQur, Snsefellsnessysla, Nov. 4, 1863; A. B., 1882; A. M. 
(English language and literature), 1889; Ph. D., 1891 ; received the gold 


medal of the University of Copenhagen for an essay on dialects in Wy cliff e's 
Bible translation ; assistant librarian, Royal Library, Copenhagen, 1891-93 ; 
since 1893, has lived mostly in London, engaged in newspaper work and 
lecturing. — Author: Robert Browning, et Literaturbillede fra det moderne 
England (1891, doctor's dissertation); Svar til Dr. O. Jespersen (1892); A 
pilgrimage to the saga-steads of Iceland (1899, with W. G. Collingwood); 
Oldnordisk Indflydelse " paa engelsk Literatur i det attende og nittende 
Aarhundrede (Nordisk tidskrift, 1891 ; also in Icelandic, in Timarit 
B6kmf61., 1891); Robert Browning (Nordisk tidskrift, 1890); Shakespeare 
at Elsinore (Contemporary Review, 1896); Iceland and its inhabitants 
(Transactions of the Victoria Institute, 1902 and 1906 ; reprinted in the 
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute, 1906); How Browning strikes 
a Scandinavian (The Browning Society's Papers, 1891); an article on the 
attempts of the Danish kings to sell Iceland (Timarit B6kmf€l., 1898). In 
the ' ' Saga-Book of the Viking Club ' ' : The oldest known list of Scandinavian 
names (1906), Western influence on the earliest Viking settlers (1908), 
The Vikings in Spain (1909), and other minor articles and reviews. Con- 
tributor to various Icelandic (EimreiSin, etc. ), English, French, German, 
and Scandinavian periodicals. — Translator: The life and death of Cormac 
the Skald (1902 ; into English, with W. G. Collingwood), 

Stefdnsson, Kristinn, poet ; 
h. Egilsd, SkagafjarQarsysla, 1856 ; emigrated to America 1873, and has 
lived in Winnipeg since 1884. — Author: Vestan hafs, ymisleg lj69maeli 
(West of the Ocean, various poems. 1900); but since the appearance of that 
collection many poems from his pen have been printed in the Icelandic- 
Canadian press, especially in the " Heimir." 
Biogr.: Oldin. IV. pp. 17-20, portr. — Nyja Oldin. III. pp. 220-221, portr. 

Stefdnsson, Sigurbur, political writer ; 
b. Rip, Skagafjar9arsysla, Aug. 30, 1854; A. B., 1879; Cand. Theol., 
Theological School, 188 1 ; since 1881 minister of the Ogurjjing, residing in 
Vigur, fsafjarSarsysla, Member of Althing for f saf j arSarsysla 1886-99 ^^d 
1902, for the town of fsafjorQur since 1905. — Author : Three articles in the 
"Andvari": on the twentieth anniversary of the Icelandic constitution 
(1895), on the demands of the Icelanders for more independence (1896), 
and on the amendments to the constitution (1898). To other periodicals he 
has contributed many articles on Icelandic politics, and other questions of 
the day. 
Biogr.: 65inn. VII. pp. 65-66, portr. 

Stef^nsson, Stefdn [ Johann] , botanist ; 
b. Heiai in Gonguskora, Aug. i, 1863; A. B., 1884; Cand. Phil., 1885, 
and studied botany in the Copenhagen University until 1887, when he was 
appointed teacher in the Modruvellir High School, which was transferred 
to Akureyri in 1905, and of which he has been the director since Sept. 10, 
1908. With the aid of the Icelandic government and the Carlsberg Fund 
he has made botanical expeditions in various parts of Iceland and carried 


on investigations of forage plants. Member of Althing for Skagaf jar3arsy8la 
1900-08, member appointed by the king since 1908 ; member of the Danish- 
Icelandic interparliamentary commission, i<)o^.— Author : F16ra Islands 
(The Flora of Iceland. 1901); Fra Islands Vaextrige (Videnskabelige 
Meddelelser fra naturhist. Forening i Kobenhavn, 1890, 1894, 1896 : Nogle 
nye og sjaeldne Karplanter samlede i Aarene 1888-89, Vatnsdalens Vegeta- 
tion, and Floristiske Nyheder); Bemaerkninger til Chr. Gronlund's Tillaeg 
til Islands Kryptogamflora (Botanisk Tidsskrift, 1896); a brief survey of 
botanical investigations in Iceland and of works on Icelandic plants (Skyrsla 
hins Isl. ndtttirufraeSisf^lags, 1891); two articles on botanical expeditions 
in Iceland, in " Andvari " ( 1893, 1895); an essay on the reproduction of the 
phanerogamous plants (Timarit Bmf^l., 1891); in the " Biina3arrit " : an 
article on potatoes and their cultivation in Iceland (1888), three articles on 
Icelandic grazing and forage plants (1902-03, 1910), and a few others; in 
"EimreiQin": an article on school reform (1895), a story (I>i9 sjdist aldrei 
framar. 1899', and a paper on J6nas Hallgrimsson's descriptions of nature 
(1909). Islandska foder- och betesvaxter (wdth H. G. Soderbaum, publ. in : 
Meddelanden fr^n kongl. Landtbruks-Akademiens Experimentalfalt, no. 
74, 1902, and no. 83, 1904). Numerous articles in Icelandic papers, chiefly 
in the "NorQurland", on educational, agricultural, and political matters, 
and on natural history. — Editor : Sk61asongvar (1909). 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. IX. pp. 25-26, portr. 

Stephansson, Stephan Gubmundsson, poet ; 
b. Kirkjuh611, Skagaf jardarsysla, Oct. 3, 1853; self-taught ;| emigrated to 
America 1873, and settled in Wisconsin, moved in 1880 to North Dakota, 
and in 1890 to Marckerville, Alberta, Canada, where he has since lived as a 
farmer. — Author : Ut' d viSavangi, flokkur af tiu smdkvaedum (In the 
open air, ten poems. 1894); A fer9 og flugi, kvaedabdlkur (Faring and 
fljdng, a poem in 18 cantos. 1900); Andvokur (Lying awake. 3 vols. 1909- 
10), a complete collection of his poems up to that time, but since its publica- 
tion many new poems by him have been printed in Icelandic-Canadian 
periodicals, and also in periodicals printed in Iceland. 

Biogr.,: Skirnir. LXXXI. pp. 193-209, 289-314, portr.; LXXXVI. pp. 44- 
63.— Oldin. IV. pp. 17-20, portr.— Nyja Oldin. III. pp. 218-220, portr.— 
Sunnanfari. IX. pp. 57-58, portr.; X. pp. 19-23, 26-30.— Cdinn. VI. pp. 
65-66, portr. — Almanak(5. S. Thorgeirssonar. 191 1. pp. 59-63. — BreiQablik. 
I. pp. 68-70, portr.; III. p. 90; IV. pp. 68-78, 88-93, portr.; V. pp. 4-8.— 
EimreiQin. X. pp. 32-33. 

Stephensen, Magnus, jurist ; 
b. HofQabrekka in Myrdalur, Oct. 18, 1836 ; A. B., 1855 ; Cand. Juris, 1862 ; 
associate judge of the Superior Court, 1871-86 ; acting governor of the 
South and West Quarters, 1883-86 ; governor-general of Iceland, 1886-1904. 
Member of Althing, chosen by the crown, 1877-86, for Rangdrvallasysla, 
1903-07 ; chairman of the interparliamentary commission on taxation of 
1875. Grand Cross of Datiebrog, 1904, etc. ; Officer of the French Legion of 
Honor, \^oi.— Author : Logfraedisleg formdlab6k (Juridical formulary. 
1886, with L. E. Sveinbiornsson). Contributions to the "Timarit 

52 ISLAM Die A 

B6kmf61.": on public taxes and fees (1880), biographical sketches of Ice- 
landic jurists (1882), on Gu9brandur Vigfiisson's new chronology (1884), and 
chronological list of royal appointments and granting of titles in Iceland, etc. , 
1800-53 ( 1884). An article on the election of presidents in the United States 
(Andvari, 1905). Compiled the indexes (efnisyfirlit) to "Stj6rnarti5indi 
fyrir Island", 1874-1903 (1906), and to " AlpingistiSindi ", 1845-1907 
(1908). — Editor: TiQindi um stj6rnmdlefni Islands (2 vols. 1870); Alpingis- 
tiQindi, 1875-81 and 1905-07 (one of two editors); Lagasafn handa alpydu 
(3 vols. 1887-90, with J6n Jensson) — Translator : On double-stars (Skirnir, 


Biogr.: Bricka, Dansk biogr. Lexikon. XVI. p. 417. — Sunnanfari. III. 

pp. 41-42, portr. 

Sveinbjomsson, Sveinbjom, musician ; 
b. Nes, Seltjarnarnes, June 28, 1847 ; A. B., 1866 ; Cand. Theol., Theological 
School, 1868 ; studied music in Copenhagen under A. Ravn, and in Leipsic 
under Reinecke. Has lived in Edinburgh since 1871. Knight of Danebrog, 
1907. — Author : A paper on Northern folksongs (Saga-Book of the Viking 
Club, 1907). Compositions : The Icelandic national anthem (1874, text by 
Matth. Jochumsson); Ivandndmssongur Islands (1899, text by the same); 
Island (1903, text by Valtyr GuQmundsson); Berceuse for violin and piano- 
forte ; The challenge of Thor (words by H. W. Ivongfellow); Duet in A on 
Scottish national dances; Echo (words by Thos. Moore); The fairies 
(words by Wm. AUingham); Humoreske in G minor for violin and piano- 
forte ; King Sverre (words by Grimur Thomsen); The lover's lament 
(founded on an Icelandic folksong); Now is the month of Maying (lyric of 
the Elizabethan age) ; Serenade, Stars of the summer night (by Longfellow) ; 
The troubadour (words transl. from the French by Sir Walter Scott); 
Trysting (words by D. Fraser); Two songs from "Psaltery and harps" 
(words by C. J. P. Spitta); Up in the North (words by Sir Walter Scott); 
The Viking's grave (words by John Reid); War (words by P. Macgillivray); 
When the boats come sailing in (words by M. Wheeler ) ; The willow song 
(words by Mrs. Hemans); a cantata on the occasion of King Frederik 
VIII. 's visit to Iceland (1901), etc. Wrote the incidental music for Hall 
Caine's play. The prodigal son. 

Biogr.: BreiSablik. VI. pp. 53-55, portr. — Eimrei9in. V. pp. 197-199, 
portr. — OSinn. IV. pp. 1-2, portr. 

Sveinbjomsson, Sveinbjom Gestur, philologist ; 
b. Glaesibaer, Eyjafjar9arsysla, Dec. 17, 1861 ; A. B., 1882; Cand. Phil., 
1883 ; studied Romance philology, 1882-87 ; teacher in Aarhus Cathedral 
School, Denmark, 1887-1907, since 1907 second master. Has made many 
trips to England, France, and Germany to study educational institutions, 
and also carried on phonetic studies. — Author: Essay on changes in the 
regulations for the College of Iceland (Eimrei9in, 1895); two phonetic 
specimens of modern Icelandic (Maitre phon^tique, 1894 and 1905); various 
articles, especially reviews, in Aarhus papers (Aarhus Stiftstidende, 
Amtstidende, and Jyllandsposten). 



Sveinsson, Sveinbjorn, story- writer ; 
b. K6ngsgar9ur, Htinavatnss^sla, Oct. 19, 1878; self-taught; shoemaker 
by occupation; lives in Reykjarik. — Author: Sdlmar (Hymns. 1903); 
Nokkur kvae3i (A few poems. 1906); I>rj{i aefintyri (Three fairy tales. 
1909); Engilbornin (The little angels, a fairy tale. 1910); Margfoldunartaflan 
(The multiplication table, a fairy tale. 191 1); Beruskan (Childhood. 
2 vols. 1907-08; 2d ed of vol. i., 1912). — Translator: Eirlkur litli, by A. 
L. Feuvre (1909). 

Svensson J6n [Stefdn], educator, theologian ; 
b. MoQruvellir in Horgardalur, Nov. 16, 1857 ; left Iceland 1870, and joined 
the Catholic church ; studied in College de la Providence of the Jesuit Fathers, 
Amiens, 1871-78 ; joined the Order of Jesuits in St. Acheul, near Amiens, 
and remained there two years ; studied philosophy in the University of 
I^uvain, 1880-82, and in a German College in Blijenbeck, Holland, 1882- 
83 ; teacher in Denmark, 1883-88 ; studied theology in Ditton Hall, Liver- 
pool, 1888-92 ; ordained as priest, and teacher in St.' Andreas College, 
Charlottenlund, Denmark, since 1892. — Author: Islandsblomster (1906, 
series of articles on the Icelandic saga literature, which appeared first in the 
Danish Catholic paper " Varden", 1905), transl. into German by Johannes 
Mayrhofer : Aus Islands alten Schatzen (1909-10); Et Ridt gennem Island, 
Oplevelser (r9o6), transl. into German by Joh. Mayrhafer : Zwischen Eis 
und Feuer (1911), also into Icelandic by Mrs. T. f>. Holm, in "Dvol" 
(1906-08), but the first draught of the book was publ. in the Danish 
** Museum" (1895), and afterwards appeared in English, German, and 
French in various Catholic papers. Several contributions to "Varden", 
chiefly articles and stories about Iceland or reminiscenses ( 1906-10 : Levende 
begravet ; Den lille Kjartans Syn ; Volven ; En Barndomserindring ; 
Litteratur ; Vaeddemaalet ; Det lille Lam, etc.), some of which have been 
translated into German. Biographical sketch of Alex. Baumgartner 
(EimreiQin, 1911); an essay in French on Henrik Ibsen (in the Parisian 
periodical "Etudes", 1906). 

Sverrisson, Eirikur E., poet ; 
b. Hvammur in Myrdalur, Sept. 7, 1876 ; has been for some time teacher in 
Grimsnes, Arnessysla. — Author: Two collections of poems, publ. under 
the titles : Lj65 (1902), and SveitarbarniQ (1911). 

Thorl^sson, Niels Steingrimur, theologian ; 
b. St6ru-Tjarnir, Lj6savatnsskar5, Jan. 20, 1857 ; emigrated to America, 
1873 ; A. B., Luther College, Deborah, Iowa, 1876 ; studied theology in the 
University of Christiania, 1883-87 ; ordained, 1887 ; has been minister of 
various Norwegian and Icelandic congregations, at present in Selkirk, Man., 
Canada. Secretary of the Icelandic Lutheran Synod, 1888-90 and 1891-93, 
since 1899 its vice-president. — Author: Several papers in the periodical 
"Aldam6t": on the divinity of Jesus Christ (1891), Christ and the Old 
Testament (1893), what is truth? (1894), why are there so many infidels? 
(1896), and four others ; in the " Aram6t", two papers (1905 and 1909) on 


religious themes. — Editor: "Kennarinn", a Sunday school paper (1902- 
05); "Bornin" (1905-08); " Framti9in " (1908-10), all publ. by the 
IvUtheran Synod. 

Thoroddsen, Mrs. I^^ra [Petursddttir] , 

b. Reykjavik, Oct. 10, 1847 ; daughter of Bishop Pdtur Petursson {d. 1891), 
wife of Dr. I^orvaldur Thoroddsen (see below). — Author: Leidarvisir til a3 
nema ymsar kvennlegar hannyrQir (Guide to needle work. 1886, with |>6ra 
J6nsd6ttir and Jar9pru9ur J6nsd6ttir); Guldbroderi (with Nina Ring); and 
several articles in Danish periodicals. 

Thoroddsen, I^orvaldur, geologist, geographer ; 
b. Flatey in Brei9ifjor5ur, June 6, 1855, son of J6n Thoroddsen {d. 1868), 
the novelist ; A. B., 1875; Cand. Phil., 1876, and studied natural sciences, 
especially zoology and geology, at the University of Copenhagen until 1880, 
and later geology and physical geography at the University of Leipsic, 
1884-85 ; accompanied F. Johnstrup on his geological expedition to the 
volcanos in North Iceland, 1876 ; teacher in the M69ruvellir High School, 
1880-84, in College of Iceland (natural history and geography), 1885-99, 
but was on leave of absence, 1895-99 ; travelled in Iceland to explore the 
geography and geology of the country during the summers 1881-91 and 
1893-98, partly with government support, partly with support from other 
sources, and has made a geological survey of the entire island, and for the 
first time mapped parts of the deserts and plateaus in the interior. Since 
1899 he has received an annual stipend from the Icelandic government to 
enable him to devote his time exclusively to scientific researches and 
literary work. Honorary Ph. D., University of Copenhagen, 1896; 
titular professor, 1902 ; member of the Royal Academy, Copenhagen, 1909. 
Gold medallist of the Geographical Societies of Paris (La Roquette medal) 
1895, of Copenhagen 1899, and of New York (Daly medal) 1907, of the 
Royal Academies of Stockholm (Linn^ medal) 1886, and of Copenhagen 
1902 ; received the Cuthbert Peek Grant of the Royal Geographical Society 
of London, 1897. Honorary member : the Danish Geological Society 1893, 
the Geographical Society of Bern 1898, the Royal Geographical Society of 
London 1898, the Icelandic Literary Society 1902, and the Belgian Geological 
Society 1907. Corresponding member : the Danish Geographical Society 
1884, the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography 1886, Gesell- 
schaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin 1893, Commission internationale des Glaciers 
1897, the Geological Society of London 1902. Received the J6n SigurQsson 
historical prize, 1889. President of the Icelandic Literary Society, Copen- 
hagen branch, 1 905-11. Knight of Danebrog, 1899. Lives at present in 
Copenhagen, Denmark. — Author: Lysing Island (Text-book of Icelandic 
geography. 1881, 2d ed. 1900), translated into Norwegian by Amund 
Helland : Islands Beskrivelse (1883); Oversigt over de islandske Vulkaners 
Historic (1882), condensed and translated into English by George H. 
Bohmer : Observations on volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in Iceland 
within historic times (1886); Vulkaner i det nordostlige Island (1888); 
Jar9fr3e9i (Text-book of geology. 1889); Geologiske lagttagelser paa 


Snaefellsnes og i Omegnen af Faxabugten i Island (1891); Landfraeflissaga 
fslands, hugmyndir manna um Island, ndtt(iruskoOun og ranns6knir fyr 
og si9ar ( History of Icelandic geography, treating of popular ideas about 
the country, its nature and its exploration from the earliest times down to 
1880. 4 vols. 1892-1904), the first two vols, of which, covering the time 
down to c. 1750, were translated into German by August Gebhardt : 
Geschichte der islandischen Geographic (2 vols. 1897-98); Vulkaner og 
Jordskjaelv paa Island (1897); Landskjdlfar d fslandi (History of earth- 
quakes in Iceland. 1890-1905); Uppdrdttur Islands ( Physico-geographical 
map of Iceland. 1900); Geological map of Iceland, surveyed in the years 
1881-98 (1901); Island, Grundriss der Geographic und Geologic (1906, 
Krganzungsband zu Petermanns Mitteilungen ) ; Foredrag holdt ved Geysir 
1907 (1907); Zur islandischen Geographic und Geologi '(1908, articles on 
Grimsey and Myvatn, transl. by R. Pallcske); ^fisaga P^turs P^turssonar 
(Biography of Bishop P. P. 1908); Lysing Island (Description of Iceland. 
2 vols. 1908-11). To the "Andvari" he contributed accounts of his ex- 
plorations in Iceland (1883-91, 1893-99), and several popular articles: on 
the Gulfstrcam (1876), on geology, and on the Swedish Arctic expeditions 
(1880), on Swedish schools (1881), on the sun, and on earthquakes ( 1882), 
on the geology of Iceland (1887, 1902, 1904), some reflections at the be- 
ginning of the new century (1901), etc. In the "Timarit B6kmentaf 61. " 
popular essays on natural history : on fossils (1882), on comets (1883), on 
the origin of the species ( 1887-89), and others. In the ' ' EimreiQin " articles 
on the Icelandic tufa (1900), on maps of Iceland (1902), on scientific dis- 
coveries and modern tendencies (1910), and several book reviews. Numer- 
ous other contributions to Icelandic periodicals, such as "Idunn" (1885, 
1888), "Noraanfari" (1875-78), "Fr63i" (1881-84), "Austri" (1884), 
" Isafold" (1879-80, 1884-85, 1887-88), "Su3ri" (1883, 1886), "t>j63viljinn" 
(1894-95, 1899), "Skirnir" (1876, 1878, 1906), and various others. In the 
Danish ' ' Geografisk Tidsskrift ' ' there are accounts of his explorations in 
Iceland and other articles : Et Besog 1876 ved Myvatn ( 1878), De vulkanske 
Udbrud paa Island i 1783 (1879), Om de ubeboede Straekninger paa Island 
(1882), En Udflugt i det sydvestlige Island (1882), En Undersogelse 1882 i 
det ostlige Island (1884, transl. into German by H. Zeise, in "Die Natur", 
1885), Fra Islands nordvestlige Halvo (1887), Fra Vestfjordene i Island 
(1888), En Rejse gjennem det indre Island (1889), Fra Islands indre 
Hojland (1890), Oversigt over de geografiske Kundskaber om Island for 
Reformationen (1890), Postglaciale marine Aflejringer, Kystterrasser og 
Strandlinjer i Island (1892), Islands Jokler i Fortid og Nutid (1892), Om 
Islands geografiske og geologiske Undersogelse (1893), Rejse i Vester- 
Skaptafells Syssel (1894), Et to Hundrede Aar gammelt Skrift om Islands 
Jokler (1895), Fra det sydostlige Island (1895), Fra det nordostlige Island 
(1896), Nogle almindelige Bemaerkninger om islandske Vulkaner og 
Lavastromme (1896), Fra det nordlige Island (1897), Hojlandet ved 
Langjokull paa Island (1899), Jordskaelv i Islands sydlige Lavland, deres 
geologiske Forhold og Historic (1898-1900), Islands Fjorde og Bugter 
(1901), Et Besog paa Grimso (1902), Geografiske og geologiske Under- 


sogelser ved den sydlige Del af Faxafl6i paa Island (1903), En Udflugt til 
Vulkanen Skjaldbred paa Island (1904), Ivavaorkener og Vulkaner paa 
Islands Hojland, geografiske og geologiske Undersogelser (1905-06, 4 
articles), and a few reviews. Description of Iceland in " Atlanten " ( 1904- 
05). De varme Kilder paa Island, deres fysisk-geologiske Forhold og 
geografiske Udbredelse (Oversigt over det kgl. danske Vidensk. Selsk. 
Forh., 1910); Island som Touristland (Dansk Touristforenings Medlems- 
blad. 1893); Islandske Forhold i Nutiden (Det norske geograf. Selskabs 
Aarbog, 1897 ), and various other articles in the Danish press. Contributor 
to the Salmonsens Konversations-Leksikon. In " Geologiska Foreningens i 
Stockholm Forhandlingar ": Vulkanerne paa Reykjanes i Island (1884), 
Nogle Bemserkninger om de islandske Findesteder f or Dobbelspath (1890), 
Om nogle postglaciale Lavastromme i Island (1891), Nogle lagttagelser 
over Surtarbrandens geologiske Forhold i det nordvestlige Island (1896), 
etc. In the "Ymer": Den gronlandska drifisen vid Island (1884), De 
varme Kilder paa Hveravellir ( 1889), Snaefellsnes i Island ( 1890), Hypotesen 
om en postglacial Landbro over Island og Faeroerne set fra et geologisk 
Standpunkt (1904, 1906). In the " Petermanns Mitteilungen " several 
articles on the explorations in Iceland, many of which are translated by K. 
Keilhack or H. Wichmann : Eine Lavawiiste im Innern Islands (1885), 
Eine Reise nach dem Nordkap in Island (1888), Zwei Reisen in Innere von 
Island (1892), Aus dem nordostlichen Island (1896), Aus dem nordlichen 
Island (1898), Das Erdbeben in Island 1896 (1901), Die Bruchlinien Islands 
und ihre Beziehungen zu den Vulkanen (1905), and others; in the " Geo- 
graphische I^iteraturberichte ' ' of the same magazine, many reviews of 
books on Iceland. In the ' ' Globus ' ' several articles on explorations in 
Iceland (mostly in abridgement by M. Lehmann-Filhes): Islandischer 
Hexenspuk im 17 Jahrhundert (1895), Eine 200 Jahre alte Schrift iiber 
island. Gletscher (1897), etc. In " Die Ausland " : Die Hornkiiste (1887), 
Wie ist Island entstanden (1887), Neue Solfataren und Schlammvulkane in 
Island (1889), Die grosste Vulkanausbruch auf Island in historischen Zeit 
(1889). In "Himmel und Erde": Die Fundstatte des islandischen 
Kalkspates (1890), and Einige Bemerkungen iiber die Fundorte des 
islandischen Doppelspats (1891). Die vulkanischen Eruptionen und Erd- 
beben auf Island wahrend der geschichtlichen Zeit (Gaea, 1883); Vulkane 
im nordostlichen Island (Mitteil. der kaiserl. konigl. geograph. Gesellsch. 
in Wien, 1891). In "Verhandl. der Gesellsch. f. Erdkunde zu Berlin": 
Reisen in Island (1893-95), and in the " Zeitschrift " of same Society: 
Untersuchungen in Island in den Jahren 1895-98 (1898). In the "Geo- 
graphical Journal" (London) accounts of explorations (1893-94, 1898-99); 
in the " Geological Magazine " an article on eruptions and earthquakes in 
Iceland (1880), and a few articles in "Nature". Contributor to the 
"Encyclopaedia Britannica". — Editor: Skyrslur um Skaptargosin 1783, 
Frdsagnir um sk61alif k fslandi um aldam6t 18. og. 19. aldar, and Skyrslur 
um Kotlugos (Safn tilsogu Islands, 1907-10). 

Biogr.: Skyrsla til alpingis fra f>. Th. 1885. — Kobenhavns Universitets 
Indbydelsesskrift 1894.— The Nation (N. Y.). XLII. pp. 132-133.— Sunnan- 


fari. IV. pp. 9-10, portr. — Bricka's Dansk biograf. Lexikon. XVII. pp. 
283-285.— Globus. LXXIV. pp. 161-163, portr.— DeuUche Rundschau f. 
Geogr. u. Statistik. XXI. pp. 133-135, portr.— Mitteil. der k. k. geograph. 
Gesellsch. in Wien. 1898. pp. 714-716. — lUustrirte Zeitung. LXIII. p. 450, 
portr, — Alex. Baumgartner, Island u. die Faroer. 1902. pp. 539-548, portr. — 
Paul Herrmann, Island in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. I. 1907. pp. 94- 

Thorsteinsson, Arni [Amason], musician ; 
b. Reykjavik, Oct. 15, 1870; A. B,, 1890; Cand. Phil., 1891. Photographer 
in Reykjavik. — Author (composer).- T61f songlog fyrir einsong me3 
undirspili (Twelve compositions for solo with accompaniments. 1907); Nyr 
hdticlasongur (1902); KveQja til J6us I^orkelssonar (1904); HeyrQu yfir 
hofin gjalla ( 1906) ; I>ar sem hdir h61ar ( 1907) ; a few compositions published 
in periodicals, etc. 
Biogr.: (39inn. IV. pp. 20-21, portr. 

Thorsteinsson, Steingrimur, poet, philologist ; 
b. Arnarstapi, Snsefellsnessysla, May 19, 183 1, son of Bjarni Thorsteinsson, 
sub-governor of the Western Quarter [^d. 1876); A. B., 185 1 ; Cand. Philol., 
1863; Arnamagnsean stipendiary, 1868-72; teacher (classics) in College of 
Iceland, Reykjavik, 1872-95, second master, 1895-1904, since 1904 rector of 
the College. Knight of Danebrog 1 899, etc. Vice-president of the Icelandic 
Literary Society since 1895, and elected honorary member, 1901 ; member 
of the committee on the Icelandic hymn-book since 1898 ; member of the 
committee superintending the translation of the Bible into Icelandic. 
President of the Reykjavik Forestry Society, 1903-09. — Author : Gilsbakka- 
lj69 (a poem. 1874); Lj69mseli (Collection of poems. 1881, 2d ed. enlarged 
1893, 3d ed. enlarged 1910); Donsk lestrab6k (Danish reader. 1880, 4th ed. 
1908); f>yzklestrarb6k (German reader. 1886); the annual "Ny sumargj of " 
(1859-62, 1865) was edited and chiefly written by him ; poems in "Svava" 
( i860) which he edited with Gisli Brynjiilfsson and Ben. Grondal, but these 
and other original poems (in "Ny f^lagsrit", "IQunn", and other 
periodicals) of his are all included in his collection of poems. Essays : on 
Goethe and Schiller (EimreiQin, 1896-97), on A. P. Berggren (Eimrei9in, 
1906), on F. de la Motte Fouqu6 and Iceland (Skirnir, 1905), on Alexander 
Petofi (Skirnir, 1907) ; biographical sketch of T6mas Saemundsson (Andvari, 
1888). Nordisk Mytologi efter Kilderne (1859, 6th ed. 1904, with Kr. Arent- 
zen). — Editor: Islandische Volkslieder mit Ubersetzungen und Erlauter- 
ungen (1879); f>rjii sefintyri, by J. Iv. Tieck (1905); ^fisaga amtmanns 
Bjarna Thorsteinssonar (Timarit Bmf61., 1903^; Almanak fyrir hvern 
mann (1885, with J6n Olafsson). — Translator: ^fintyri og sogur, by 
H. C. Andersen (2 vols. 1904-08); Daemisogur, by ^sop and others (2 
vols. 1895-1904); Bandinginn i Chillon og Draumurinn, by Lord Byron 
(1866), afterwards included in the Nokkur kvseSi, by Lord Byron (1903) 
which also contains the poems Parisina, Mazeppa, and others ; Robinson 
Kriis6e, by Daniel Defoe (1886); Tvaer smdsogur : Undina by F. de la 
Motte Fouqud and I^oglar dstir by J. K. A. Musaeus (1861, 2d ed. 1907); 
Pilagrimur dstarinnar e9a sagan af Ahmed al Kamel, by Washington Irving 


(i860) ; Saklintala e9a tyndi hringurinn, by Kalidasa (1879); Sawitri ( 1878) ; 
Nal og Damajanti (1895); Lear konungur, by W. Shakespeare (1878), 
Kennslub6k i go5afrae9i Grikkja og R6mverja, by H. W. Stoll (1871-73); 
Axel, by Esaias Tegn^r (1857, 2d ed. 1902); ptisund og ein n6tt (Arabian 
nights. 1857-64, 2d ed. in progress); Saga hinna tin rd9gjafa (Ten viziers, 
1876). With Matth. Jochumsson he published : Svanhvit, nokkur 6tlend 
skdldmaeli i islenzkum pyQingum (1877), in which the poems translated by 
him are chiefly by German poets ( Goethe, Schiller, Heine, etc. ) . He was 
one of the editors of the periodical " IQunn " (1884-89) and contributed to 
it mainly translations (stories by Mark Twain, F. Spielhagen, Leo Tolstoy, 
A. Poushkin, and several poems). Timon e9a Mannhatarinn, by Lucianus 
(EimreiQin, 1903), and Draumurinn, by the same (EimreiSin, 1904). In 
various periodicals (Ny f^lagsrit, Andvari, Timarit Bmf^l., EimreiSin, 
Skirnir, I5j6961fur, etc.) are to be found numerous poems translated from 
German, Greek, English, Scandinavian, and other languages. Into Danish 
he translated the Gisla saga Sdrssonar (Nord og Syd., 1859). 
Biogr.: J. C. Poestion, Steingrimur Thorsteinsson, ein islandischer Dichter 
und Kulturbringer. Mit sechzig iibersetzten Proben seiner Lyrik und seinem 
jiingstem Portrait. Eine Freundesgabe zum achtzigsten Geburtstage des 
Meisters. Miinchen 1912. 8°. pp.152. — Erslew, Forfatter-Lexikon, Supplem. 
III. pp. 420-421. — Bricka, Dansk biograf . Lexikon. XVIII. pp. 292-293. — 
Eimrei9in. I. pp. 113-117; XVII. pp. 223-233, portr. — 65inn. I. pp. 
17-18 ; VII. pp. 9-14, portr. — Brei9ablik. V. pp. 97-99, portr. — ^skan. 
VIII. pp. 66-68, portr. — Wiener Abendpost, May 20. 191 1. — Das literarisches 
Echo. XV. 1913. coll. 963-967. 

Torfason, Asgeir, chemist ; 
b. Varmalaekur, BorgarfjarQarsysla, May 8, 1871 ; grad. of Olafsdalur Agri- 
cultural School, 1890; A. B., 1897; Cand. Polyt., Polytechnic Institute, 
Copenhagen, 1905 ; director of the Reykjavik Chemical Laboratory since 
1906. — Author: Several articles and reports in the " BiinaQarrit " : on flour 
(1909), chemical analysis of some marine algae (1910), etc.; a treatise on 
peat, in "Eimreidin" (1910). 

Valtysson, Helgi, poet, journalist ; 
b. Nes in Lo5mundarfjor9ur, Oct. 25, 1877 ; when 15 years old went to Nor- 
way, grad. from the Teachers' School, Volden, 1899, and was engaged in 
journalism and teaching ; teacher in Seydisf jordur, Iceland, for some years ; 
on lecturing trip through Norway, 1901-02 ; teacher in Reykjavik, 1906-07, 
and since 1907 teacher in the Flensborg High School, HafnarfjorSur. 
President of the Young Peoples Society of Iceland since 1908. For many 
years correspondent of various Norwegian papers. Editor of the educational 
monthly " Sk61abla9i9 " 1907-09, of the monthly papers "Skinfaxi", 1909- 
II, and "Unga Island", 1911-12. — Author: Blyantsmyndir (Pencil 
sketches, a collection of poems. 1907); Likamsmentun (Physical culture. 
1908); Litill leidarvisir 1 sk6gr£ekt (Short guide to forestry. 1909). 
Numerous articles in the papers " Bjarki ", '* Logr^tta", and " Fjallkonan", 
and the papers mentioned above ; also many contributions on Iceland and 
Icelandic literature to various Norwegian papers (Den 17. Mai, 1901-02; 



Morgenbladet, Christiania, 1903-04 ; Norsk Folkeblad, 1903-04 ; Frie 
Presse, 1907, ^tc.).— Translator : Svartfjallasynir, by H. Angell (1903); 
Sella siSstakkur, by H. Aanrud (1911). Into vernacular Norwegian several 
Icelandic poems and stories : Randidur i Hvassafelli, by J6nas j6nas8on ; 
Vonir, and Litli Hvammur, by Einar Hjorleifsson, etc. 
Biogr.: Odinn. IV. p. 3, portr. — Unga fsland. IV. p. 21, portr. 

Zoega, Geir T6masson, philologist, lexicographer ; 
b. Akranes, March 28, 1857 ; A. B., 1878; Cand. Philol., 1883, and visited 
England the same year ; teacher of English and French in College of Ice- 
land, Reykjavik, 1884-1906, since 1906 second master. — Author: Ensk- 
undmsb6k (English primer. 1889, 3d ed. 1906); English-Icelandic 
dictionary (1896, 2d ed. 1911); Icelandic-English dictionary (1904 ; contains 
modern Icelandic only); A concise dictionary of Old Icelandic (1910). — 
Translator (with W. G. S. Paterson): J6n Sigur9sson, the Icelandic 
patriot (1887). 

f>6rarinsson, J6n, educator ; 
b. Melstadur, Htinavatnssysla, Feb. 24, 1854 ; A. B., 1877 ; Cand. Phil., 
1878, and studied theology for three years ; in 1880 went to Germany with 
the support of the government to study educational affairs ; director of the 
Flensborg High School, Hafnarfjordur, 1882-1907 ; since 1908 state super- 
intendent of education. Member of Althing for Gullbringu and Kj6sarsysla, 
1886-1899. Member of the interparliamentary committee on educational 
affairs, 1886-87. One of the founders of the Icelandic Teachers' Association 
(KennarafelagiQ), 1889, and was for some time its president. Knight of 
Danebrog, 1907. — Author: Kenslub6k i donsku me9 orQasafni (Text-book 
of Danish, with glossary. 1888, with J6h. Sigf6sson). In "Timarit um 
uppeldi og mentamdl" 1888-92), of which he was one of the editors, 
appeared the following articles from his pen: on reading (1888), on Ice- 
landic educational legislation (1888), on the four temperaments of children 
(1890), on instruction in manual training (1891), on school-hygiene (1891), 
etc. Many contributions to the monthly " Sk61abla5i9 " of which he was 
one of the founders (1907), and editor since 1908. — Translator: B6k 
aeskunnar, by C. Skovgaard-Petersen (1910). 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. X. pp. 49-52, portr. 

I^6rbarson, Matthias, writer on nautical affairs ; 
b. M6ar, Kjalarnes, July i, 1872 ; student in the Nautical School, Reykjavik, 
1889-90 ; captain of j&shing vessels and traders, 1891-99 ; during the sum- 
mers of 1 899- 1 908 he acted as pilot for Danish warships on police duty or 
surveying expeditions round the coasts of Iceland. Went to Spain and 
Italy in 1909, sent by the Icelandic government to investigate the fish 
market. Founded in 1905 the monthly "-^Egir ", a paper devoted to fisheries 
and navigation, and was its editor 1905-08, and since 191 2. Has also been 
lecturer in the Nautical School. Director of the fishing station at Sandgerdi 
on Faxafl6i since 1910. Decorated with the Order of Danebrog, 1908. — 
Author: Account of a trip through Northern Norway 1904-05 (Andvari, 


1905); numerous articles on fisheries, the fish market, and other related 
subjects in various papers (Logr^tta, fsafold, I>j6361fur, and NorQurland), 
but chiefly in "^gir," 
Biogr.: 69inn. VI. pp. 59-61, portr. 

l^6rSarson, Matthias [Septimus] , archaeologist ; 
b. Fiskilsekur, Melasveit, Oct. 30, 1877; A. B., 1898; Cand. Phil., 1899; 
studied philology and archaeology in the University of Copenhagen, 1899- 
1906 ; assistant in the Archaeological Museum in Reykjavik, 1907, since 
1908 director of the Icelandic National Museum, Reykjavik, and state 
antiquarian of Iceland. — Author : An essay on preservation of antiquities 
(Skirnir, 1905), and numerous articles in the "Arb6k hins islenzka 
Fornleif af^lags " on historical and archaeological subjects, of which are 
especially to be mentioned a treatise on the Althing during the Republic 
(1911), and historical sketch of the Icelandic National Museum (formerly 
called the Archaeological Museum) during the first fifty years of its existence 
(1913; also publ. separately under the title: I>j69menjasafni5 1863-1903, 
voxtur pess og hagur fyrstu 50 drin). Contributions to other periodicals 
on similar subjects. 
Biogr.: Sunnanfari. XI. pp. 16-17, portr. 

P>orgrimsson, Adam, educator ; 
b. Nes in A9alreykjadalur, July 8, 1879 ; grad. of the Mo5ruvellir High 
School, 1902 ; teacher in Akureyri. — Author : Safn f)eirra or9a i islenzku, 
sem rituS eru me9 y, y, ey og z (List of words in Icelandic written with y, 
y, ey and z. 1910); several articles on literary and educational matters in 
the " Nordurland ". — Translator : ^fintyri frd ymsum londum (1909). 

I^orkelsson, Jon, historian, archivist ; 
b. Asar in Skaptdrtunga, April 16, 1859; A. B., 1882; M. A., (Old Norse 
history and literature) 1886; Ph. D., 1888; the Icelandic Literary Society 
selected him to edit the Diplomatarium Islandicum, which was begun by 
J6n Sigurdsson {d. 1879), and since 1886 he has received from the Icelandic 
government support in collecting material for this work and editing it ; 
with support from the Danish government and the Carlsberg Fund he has 
prepared other works for the press, and examined Icelandic manuscripts in 
Engish libraries, 1890 ; lived in Copenhagen until 1898, when he returned 
to Iceland ; director of the National Archives, Reykjavik, since Dec. 8, 
1899. One of the founders of the Icelandic Historical Society (Soguf^lag) 
1902, and has since been its president. Member of Althing for Snaefells- 
nessysla 1893, for Reykjavik, 1908-11. — Author: Om Digtningen paa Island 
i det 15. og 16. Aarhundrede (1888, doctor's dissertation); Saga Jorundur 
Hundadagakongs (History of Jorgen Jorgensen, king of the dogdays. 1892); 
Saga Magntisar prii9a (History of Magnus j6nsson, the Gentle. 1895); 
Skyrsla um skjol og handrit i safni Arna Magniissonar, sem komin eru iir 
opinberum skjalasofnum d fslandi (Report on documents and manuscripts 
in the Arnamagnaean Collection which have come from public archives in 
Iceland. 1908); ^fisaga J6ns |>orkelssonar sk61ameistara i Skdlholti 


(Biography of J. !>., rector of Skdlholt Cathedral School. 2 vols. 1910); 
Skrd um skjol eg baekur i Landskjalasafninu 1 Reykjavik (Catalogue of 
documents and books in the National Archives in R. 3 vols. 1903-10); 
Rikisr^ttindi Islands (The rights of the Icelandic state. 1908, with Einar 
Arn6rsson); Httur af Birni J6nssyni d Skar3sd (Timarit Bmf^l., 1887). In 
the "Andvari": biographies of Gudbr. Vigfiisson (1894), of Grimur 
Thomsen (1898), of Halld6r Kr. FriQriksson (1903), of Arni Thorsteinsson 
(1908), and of Einar Asmundsson (1912), on Iceland's position towards 
other states before the introduction of the Reformation (1910, with E. 
Arn6rsson), etc. In the "Arkiv for nordisk filologi": obituaries of J6n 
Arnason (1889) and Gu9br. Vigfiisson (1889), Islandske Haandskrifter i 
England og Skotland (1891), S^ra Gottskdlk j6nsson i Glaumbae og syrpa 
bans (1896), Svartr d Hofst63um(i898). Haandskrifterne af Njdla (Njdla. 
II. 1889). Die Annalen des Bischof Gisli Oddsson von 1637 (Zeitschr. des 
Vereins f. Volksk., 1891). Numerous articles in Icelandic periodicals, and 
also several in Danish papers. — Editor: Kvaedi, by Stefdn 6lafsson (1885- 
86); Diplomatarium Islandicum (1893-1912); fslenzkar drtiflaskrdr e3a 
Obituaria Islandica (1893-96); Saga J6ns Esp61ins (1895); Visnakver, by 
Pdll Vidalin (1897), and Aldarfarsb6k, by the same (1904); I>j65s6gur og 
munnmaeli (1899); MorQbr^fabseklingar, by Bishop Gu9br. I>orldksson 
(1902-06); Tyrkjardnia d fslandi 1627 (1906-09); Biskupasogur, by J6n 
Halld6rsson (1903-10); Lj69maeli, by Grimur Thomsen (1906), and Rimur 
af Biia Andri9arsyni, by the same (1906); Rimur af Bern6tus Borneyjar- 
kappa, by Magntis j6nsson (1907); Hdttalykill hinn minni and hinn meiri 
by Loptur Guttormsson, Erfidrdpa hrynhend um Magnus lagabaeti, 
Nikaldsvisur, and Hdttalykill by I>6raur Magnusson (all these in Smastyk- 
ker udg. af Samfund til Udg. af gl. nord. Litt., 1884-91 ); fslenzk kappakvse9i 
( Arkiv for nord. filol., 1886-88). One of the editors of the folk-lore magazine 
" Huld " ( 1890-98). Editor of the illustrated monthly '* Sunnanfari " 1891- 
97, and since 1912. 

Biogr.: Indbydelsesskrift til Kjobenhavns Universitets Reformationfest. 
1888.— Bricka, Dansk biograf. Leksikon. XVII. p. 263.— Oainn. V. pp. 65- 
67, portr. 

f>orkelsson, Pdll, linguist ; 
b. Asar in Skaptartunga, Jtdy 9, 1850, brother of J6n I>orkelsson, the 
archivist (see above); jeweller by occupation, and has invented a method of 
coloring metals. Also invented an international sign-language.— y^w/A^r.- 
Samtalsb6k islenzk-fronsk handa fslendingum og iitlendum ferdamonnum, 
me9 framburQi d bd9um mdlunum (Guide islandais-fran9ais d I'usage des 
Islandais et des voyageurs Strangers, avec la prononciation figur^e pour les 
deux langues. 1893; 2d ed., revised 1913); Beygingarreglur i islenzku me9 
fronskum skyringum (Syst^me grammatical pour tous les mots islandais 
avec des explanations fran9aises. 1894); Dictionnaire islandais-fran^ais 
(1888, only one part was published, covering the words : a — alblindur). 
Biogr.: CSinn. III. pp. 17-18, portr. — lUustreret Familie- Journal. March 
16 and 23, 1902. 


I>orkelsson, I^orkell, physicist ; 
b. Frostastadir, SkagafjarSarsysla, Nov. 6, 1876; A. B., 1898; Cand. Mag. 
(major: physics; minors: mathematics, chemistry, and astronomy), 1903; 
during the summers of 1904 and 1906 traveled in Iceland with the support 
of the Carlsberg Fund (Copenhagen) to investigate hot springs with special 
reference to their radio-activity ; assistant in the physical laboratory of the 
Polytechnic Institute, Copenhagen, 1907-08 ; teacher in the Akureyri 
High School since igoS.— Author : The hot springs of Iceland (1910, a 
volume of the Danish Royal Academy's publications) ; Undersogelse af nogle 
islandske varme Kilders Radioaktivitet og af Kildeluftarternes Indhold af 
Argon og Helium (Oversigt over det kgl. danske Videnskabernes Selskabs 
Forhandlinger, 1905, with K. Prytz); Die lonisation in Gasen vermittels 
eines ungeeichten Elektroskops bestimmt ( Physikalische Zeitschrift, 1906); 
Nyere Undersogelser over Radioaktivitet (Fysisk Tidsskrift, 1907). 

f^orl^sson, Brynj61fur, musician ; 
d. Nyibaer, Seltjarnarnes, May 22, 1867 ; for many years clerk in the 
governor-general's ofl&ce, but studied music besides, under music teachers 
in Reykjavik ; 1898-99 he studied in Copenhagen ; teacher of music in the 
College of Iceland since 1900 ; organist of the Reykjavik Cathedral, 1902- 
12. — Editor: Svanurinn (The swan, a collection of songs for one voice. 
1906); Organt6nar (Collection of musical pieces for harmonium. 2 vols. 
Biogr.: 69inn. VI. pp. 77-78, portr. 

l^orldksson, J6n, civil engineer ; 
b. Vesturh6psh61ar, Hiinavatnssysla, March 3, 1877; A. B., 1897; Cand. 
Polyt., Polytechnic Institute, Copenhagen, 1903 ; with government support 
made investigations concerning building materials in Iceland, and con- 
struction of houses, 1903-05 ; state engineer since 1905 ; director of the 
Industrial School, Reykjavik, since 1904. Member of Althing for Reykjavik 
since 1911. — Author: BurQarpolfraeSi (Statics. 1909). Two articles in 
"KimreiSin" (1899) on the progress of the natural [sciences and on the 
telegraph ; in the ' ' BdnaSarrit ' ' , four articles on construction of houses 
and other things connected therewith (1903-04, 191 1), and one on water- 
supply for country homes (1908); two articles in " Andvari ", on roads and 
means of conveyance (1906), and on surveying of roads (1908); numerous 
smaller contributions to periodicals. 
Biogr.: 69inn. VII. pp. 41-43, portr. 

I^6r61fsson, SigurSur, agriculturist, educator ; 
b. Holt, BarQastrond, July 11, 1869; grad. of (3lafsdal Agricultural School, 
1892 ; student in the Flensborg High School, and passed the examination 
for teachers, 1898 ; was then engaged in teaching and agricultural work for 
some years ; student in the Askov Popular High School, 1901-02. In Oct. 
1902, founded a popular high school in Reykjavik, which he transferred to 
Hvitarbakki, BorgarfjarQarsysla, and the director of which he still is. — 
Author: Frumatri9i jar9raektarfrae9innar handa baendum (Elements of the 
science of agriculture for farmers. 1901); Minningar fe9ra vorra (The 


remembrances of our ancestors. 2 vols. 1909-10 ; a popular history of 
Iceland); a few pamphlets, and an article on instruction in agriculture and 
agricultural schools ( BfinaSarrit, 1898). — Editor: The agricultural monthly 
- *' P16gur " ( 1899-1908), which was chiefly written by himself ; L^3sk61alj63 
(2 parts. 1902-05). 
Biogr.: 65inn. II. p. 86, portr. — Hojskolebladet. 191 2. No. 42, portr. 

J^orsteinsson, Bjami, musician ; 
b. Melur, Myrasysla, Oct. 14, 1861 ; A. B., 1883; Cand. Theol., Theological 
School, 1888 ; minister of Hvanneyri, SiglufjorQur, since 1888. Has received 
stipends from the Icelandic and Danish governments, and from the Carls- 
berg Fund for collecting and editing Icelandic popular music. — Author 
(composer).- fslenzkur hdtiQasongur (Icelandic festival church music. 
1899); Sex songlog (Six songs, 1899); Tin songlog (Ten songs. 1904); a 
few compositions have also appeared in periodicals (EimreiSin, Skirnir). 
A treatise on Icelandic popular tunes (Skirnir, 1907), and a few other 
articles in periodicals on Icelandic music. — Editor: fslenzk pj6516g (Ice- 
landic popular airs, collected with introductory essays and commentaries. 
1906-09); fslenzk sdlmasongsb6k me9 fj6rum roddum (Icelandic church 
music for four voices. 1903, with a supplement, 1912). 
Biogr.: Eimreidin. VI. pp. 63-65, portr. — Svensk Musiktidning. Sept. 
1903, portr. — Unga Island. IV. pp. 25-26, portr. 

I^orsteinsson, Hannes, genealogist, journalist ; 
b. Brti in Biskupstungur, Aug. 30, i860; A. B., 1886; Cand. Theol., Theo- 
logical School, 1888; editor of the weekly "I>j6561fur", 1892-1909, since 
191 1 assistant archivist in the National Archives, Reykjavik. Member of 
Althing for Arnessysla, 1901-11, and speaker of the Lower House, 1909-11 ; 
auditor of the public accounts, 1905-09 ; member of the board of directors 
of the Historical Society, and of the Archaeological Society. Corresponding 
member of the Danish Genealogical Institute (elected 1905). Awarded the 
historical prize of the J6n SigurQsson Fund, 1891. — Author: Gu9fr3e5ingatal 
( Lives of Icelandic theologians, who have taken their degrees at the Copen- 
hagen University from 1707 to 1907. 1910); Grosserer Jens Benedictsens 
Stamtavle (1890); Alpingismannaforin 1906 (The visit of the members of 
Althing to Denmark. 1906, with Jtilius Havstein). Criticism of Bricka's 
Dansk biographisk Lexikon (Timarit B6kmf41., 1891); biography of 
Benedikt Sveinsson (Andvari, 1900); a few notes on Icelandic literature in 
the 1 2th and 13th cent. (Skirnir, 1912); RaeQa d gamldrskveld (A sermon 
on New Year's eve. 1886). Among his contributions to "|>j6961fur" may 
be mentioned the history of the first fifty years of the paper (1898). — 
Editor : Syslumannasefir (Lives of Icelandic prefects), by Bogi Benedikts- 
son (vols, ii.-iv., 1904-12 ; brought down to date); Fj61a (1904, an modem 
Icelandic anthology of poems); fslenzkir sagnapsettir (I-III. 1901-10, 
a collection of minor writings, chiefly on the biography of Icelanders of the 
17th, i8th, and 19th cent.); J6n Gu3mundsson's treatise on families and 
genealogy (Safn til sogu Islands, 1902). One of the editors of the folk- 
lore magazine "Huld " (1890-98). 
Biogr.: (39inn. IV. pp. 44-45, portr. 


List of books and essays relating to modern 
Icelandic literature (since ca. 1550).* 

Arpi, Roi^f. Islands yngre literatur och sprak. hi Sprakvetenskapliga 

sallskapets i Upsala forhandlingar. 1882-85. Upsala, 1886. 8". pp. 41- 


(Chiefly philological.) 
Baumgartner, Ai^exandkr. Island und die Faroer. Freiburg i. Br,, 1889. 

8°. pp. xiv -f- 462, illustr. — 3. vermehrte Aufl. 1902. 8^. pp. xix + 571, 


(This is a book of travels, but it contains a good deal about Icelandic 

literature and a few translations from modern Icelandic poets. ) 
BORGFIRDINGUR, J6n. Stutt rithof undatal d fslandi 1400-1882. Reykjavik, 

1884. 8°. pp. iv 4- 141 4- (3)- 

{Review: Revue critique. XXII. 1886. pp. 88-90, by E. Beauvois). 
Soguagrip um prentsmi5jur og prentara d fslandi. Reykjavik, 1867. 

80. pp. 68. 
Brandes, Georg. Moderae islandsk Lyrik. In his Samlede Skrifter. 

III. Bd. Kobenhavn, 1900. pp. 723-725. 

(A review of Olaf Hansen's " Ny ivSlandsk Poesi ". ) 
Bricka's Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Kjobenhavn 1887-1905. 19 vols. 8''. 

Includes biographies of many Icelandic authors after 1537, almost all 

written by Kr. Kilund. Cf. Timarit bins isl. Bokmentaf^l. XII. 

1891. pp. 241-261, by Hannes f>orsteinsson (review of vols, i.-iv. ). 
CederschioIvD, Gustaf. Nyislandska epigram. In Pro Novitate. Fest- 

skrift utg. af Svenska bokhandels-medhjalpare-foreningen. Stockholm, 

1898. pp. 65-74. 
Coi.i<iN, Edvard. Anonymer og Pseudonymer i den danske, norske og 

islandske Literatur samt i fremmede Literaturer, forsaavidt disse 

omhandle nordiske Forhold, fra de aeldste Tider indtil Aaret i860. 

Kjobenhavn 1869. 8°. pp. (6) + 209. 
EiNARSSON, Hai^fdan. Sciagraphia historise literarise Islandicae autorum 

et scriptorum turn editorum tum ineditorum exhibens. Havnise, 1777. 

8". pp. (30) + 251 -|- (20). — The same, title-edition: Historia literaria 

Islandise. Havniae et Lipsiae, 1786. 8°. 
Erslew, Thomas Hansen. Almindeligt Forfatter-Lexicon for Kongeriget 

Danmark med tilhorende Bilande, fra 1814 til 1840. Kjobenhavn, 1843- 

53. 3 vols. 8*^. — Supplement indtil Udgangen af Aaret 1853, Kjobenhavn, 

1858-68. 3 vols.. 8°. 
FiSKE, WiivLARD. The living authors of Iceland. In Bulletin of the 

Cornell University Library. I. Ithaca, N. Y., 1882. 8<'. pp. 78-82, iio- 


* Monographs on individual authors are, as a rule, not included in this list. 


— On recent Icelandic literature. In The Berkeley Quarterly. II. San 
Francisco, 1881. pp. 72-79. 

Bibliographical notices. I., IV.-VI. Books printed in Iceland 1578- 

1844. ist-4th supplement to the British Museum catalogue. Florence 

awflf Ithaca, N. Y., 1886-1907. ^pts. 8°. pp. 29, 28, 29, 47. 
[ ] Mfmir. Icelandic institutions with addresses. Copenhagen, 1903. 

8°. pp. viii 4- 80 -f 8. 
GUDMUNDSSON, Vai^tyr. Islands Kultur ved Aarhundredskiftet 1900. 

Kobenhavn, 1902. 8*'. pp. viii -f 160, illustr. 

[See Litteratur og Kunst, pp. 47-85. ) 
Island am Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts. Aus dem Danischen von 

Richard Palleske. Kattowitz in Schlesien, 1904. 8". pp. xv -|- 233, 


{See Schrifttum und Kunst, pp. 61-111.) 
Hansen, Oi^af. Ny-islandsk Poesi. Nogle Bemaerkninger om Islands 

(lyriske) Digtning ved Begyndelsen og Slutningen af det 19. Aar- 

hundrede. In Vagten. Tidsskrift for Litteratur, Kunst, etc. Aarg. 

1899. Kobenhavn. pp. 326-343. 

{Review: Politiken. 1900, by G. Brandes. ) 
' Ny-islandsk Lyrik. Overssettelser og Studier. Kobenhavn, 1901. 

(Sm&skrifter udg. af Selskab for germansk Filologi. Nr. 4. ) 8*'. pp. 

(8) 4- 183. 

{Review: Eimrei9in. VII. 1901. pp. 154-156, by ValtyrGuQmundsson.) 
Islandsk Renaessance. I Hundredaaret for J6nas Hallgrimssons 

Fodsel. Et Stykke Ivitteraturhistorie. Kobenhavn, 1907. 8°. pp. (2) -f- 


{Reviews : Skirnir. LXXXI. 1907. pp. 373-374, by Gu3m. Finnboga- 

son. — BimreiSin. XIV. 1908. p. 70, by Valtyr GuQmundsson. ) 
Herrmann, Paui.. Island in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. I. -III. Teil. 

I^eipzig, 1907-10. 8". 3 vols. 

(This work is a narrative of two journeys in Iceland, but contains much 

information about the literature and the history of the country. ) 
[HjORivEiFSSON, EiNAR.] Blo9 langafa vorra, afa og feQra. In fsafold. 

XXV. arg. Reykjavik, 1898. fol. pp. 53, 69-70, 73-74, 81, 97-98, no- 

III, 125-126. 
Hoi,i,ANDER, Lee M. The drama in Iceland, a sketch. In Proceedings 

of the Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study. Vol. I. 

Urbana, 111., 1912. pp. 99-106. 
Horn, Fredrik Winkei.. Geschichte der Literatur des skandinavischen 

Nordens von den aeltesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. Leipzig, 1880. 

8®. pp. viii -f (2) + 404. 

{See Neuislandische Literatur, pp. 68-85. ) 
History of the Scandinavian literature of the North from the most 

ancient times to the present. Revised by the author, and translated by 

Rasmus B. Anderson. With a bibliography of the important books in 

the English language relating to Scandinavian countries, by Thorvald 

Solberg. Chicago, 1884. 8". pp. ix + 507. {See 1^^. 74-90-) 


JOCHUMSSON, Matthias. AlJ)y3ukve3skapur a Nordurlandi d 19. oldinni. 

In EimreiQin. XIX. drg. Kaupmannahofn, 19 13. pp. 195-210. 
JONASSON, Jonas. Yfirlit yfir b6kmentir fslendinga d 19. old. In Timarit 

bins isl. B6kmentaf^lags. II. Reykjavik, 1881. pp. 164-200. 
JONSSON, BjARNi. Bokavlen paa Island i vaare dagar. Oslo, 1903. (Norske 

folkeskrifter. 9.) 8". pp. 16. 
JONSSON, FiNNUR (1704-89). Historia ecclesiastica Islandise. Tom. III. - 

IV. Havniae, 1775-78. 4^ 

(Contains much about the secular literature as well as the religious. ) 
JoNSSON, FiNNUR (1858-). Agrip af b6kmentas6gu Islands. II. 1400- 

1890. Reykjavik, 1892. (Fylgikver I>j6361fs 1892.) 8°. pp.88. 
Oldnorsk og islandsk Litteratur. In Jul. Clausen's Illustreret 

Verdens Litteratur Historie. III. Bd. Kobenhavn, 1899. 8''. pp. 514- 

563, illustr. {See pp. 553-563.) 

Den islandske I^itteraturs Historie tilligemed den oldnorske. 

Kobenhavn, 1907. 8°. pp. (S) -(- 453. 

{See Kord Udsigt over den islandske Litteratur efter 1400. pp. 407-437.) 
JONSSON, Vii.HjAi,MUR. Nyere islandsk Litteratur. In Nordisk tidskrift 

utg. af Letterstedtska foreningen. 1896. Stockholm, pp. 635-653. 
[Krohg, G. A.] Den nyere islandske Literatur. /« Nordisk Universitets- 

Tidsskrift. V. Aarg. 3. H. Christiania, i860, pp. 1-9. 
KUCHI.ER, Cari,. Gesehichte der islandischen Dichtung der Neuzeit ( 1800- 

1900). I. Heft. Novellistik. — II. Heft. Dramatik. Leipzig, 1896-1902. 

2 vols. 8°. pp. vi + (2) 4- 85 ; vi + (2) + 79. 

{Reviews: Bimrei9in. II. 1896. pp. 234-236, by Finnur J6nsson. — 

Archiv fiir das Studium d. neueren Sprachen. XCVII. 1896. pp. 392- 

393, by A. Heusler.— fsafold. XXIII. 1896. p. 169.— Journal of Engl. 

and Germ. Philology. V. 1904. pp. 222-224, by Charles Allyn Williams. 

— Literar. Centralbl. XL VIII. 1894. col. 240, by E. Mogk ; LIV. 1904. 

col. 1442.) 

Islands neuere und neueste Novellistik. In Moderne Rundschau. 

IV. Bd. Wien, 189 1. 8°. pp. 159-165. 

Die drei Heroen der neuislandischen Novellistik. In Das zwanzigste 

Jahrhundert. VI. Jahrg. 2. Bd. Ziirich u. Leipzig, 1896. pp. 462-474, 

Zur Gesehichte der islandischen Dramatik. In Zeitschrift fiir 

vergleichende Litteraturgeschichte. N. F. XII. Bd. Weimar, 1898. pp. 
1-2 1. 

(There also is by this author a series of articles on Icelandic novelists, 
in Internationale Literaturberichte. I. 1894. nos. 27-31 ; cf. Eimreidin. 
L 1894. p. 76. ) 

LEhmann-Fii^hes, Margarete. Proben islandischer Lyrik verdeutsch 

von M. Lehmann-Filh6s. Berlin, 1894. 8°. pp. (6) + 54- 
LiDDERDAi^E, Thomas Wii,i.iam. Catalogue of books printed in Iceland 

from A. D. 1578 to 1880, in the Library of the British Museum. London, 

1885. fol. coll. 30 + (2), ff. (2), coll. Ivi. 
[Magnusson, Finnur.] Literature and literary societies of Iceland. In 

The Foreign Quarterly Review. Vol. IX. London, 1832. pp. 41-77. 


Marmier, Xavikr. Litt^rature islandaise. Paris, 1843. 8°. pp. (4) -f 
280 +(2). 

(Deals almost exclusivelywith the ancient literature, and the chapter 
on the modern literature is of no importance. ) 

Maurer, Konrad. Die Programme der gelehrten Schule Islands. In 
Germania. XVI. Bd. Wien, 1871. pp. 442-449. 

Melsted, Bogi Th. Synisb6k islenzkra b6kmennta 4 19. old. Kaupmann- 
ahofn, 1891. 8°. pp. xx + 348. 

{Reviews: Nordisk tidskrift (I^etterstedtska). 1892. pp. 453-456, by 
J6n Stef^nsson.— The Saturday Review. Aug. 8, 1891. pp. 173-174. — 
Timarit bins isl. B6kmentaf^l. XII. 1891. pp. 261-277, by Valt^r 
Gudmundsson. — Sunnanfari. I. 1891. pp. 20-22, by SigurSur Hjorleifs- 

Islandske Boger 1878-1887. In Nordisk tidskrift utg. af Letter- 

stedtska foreningen. 1883-87. Stockholm.— ^/jf? sep. repr. 8°. 

Islandsk Bogfortegnelse 1897-1911. In Nordisk Boghandlertidende. 

XXXIIff. Kjobenhavn, i898ff.— ^/jc? sep. repr. 8°. 

(Icelandic books and periodicals are also included in "Dansk Bog- 
fortegnelse", 1841-1908, by F. Fabricius, Toh. Vahl, andH. Ehrencron- 
Miiller. ) 

MoGK, KuGEN. Island und seine Litteratur. In Blatter fiir litterarische 

Unterhaltung. 1898. Leipzig. 4*^. pp. 721-725. 

(A review of J. C. Poestion's "Islandische Dichter.") 
Moi^i^ER, Arne. Nyislandsk Prosadigtning. In Nordisk tidskrift utg. af 

Letterstedtska foreningen. 191 1. Stockholm, pp. 503-515. 
Nyislandsk Digtning paa Dansk. Islandske Stemninger og Tilstande. 

Ibid. 1912. pp. 591-599. 

Det nye Islands Drama og Dramatikere. In Samtiden. XXIII. 

Aarg. Kristiania, 19 12. pp. 241-255. 
Nyerup, Rasmus, and Kraft, J. E. Almindeligt Forfatterlexicon for 

Danmark, Norge, og Island. Kjobenhavn, 1820. 4°. pp. 692. 
P:^URSSON, Petur. Historia ecclesiastica Islandise ab a. 1740, ad a. 1840. 

Havniae, 1841. 4^*. i^See pp. 384-447.) 
PoESTiON, Joseph Cai^asanz. Islandische Dichter der Neuzeit in Charak- 

teristiken und iibersetzten Proben ihrer Dichtung. Mit einer Ubersicht 

des Geisteslebens auf Island zeit der Reformation. Leipzig, 1897. 8®. 

pp. (4) + vi + (2) + 527. 

(An excellent yiot)s..— Reviews : Eimreidin. IV. 1898. pp. 70-75, by 

Valtyr Gudmundsson. — Blatter f. litterar. Unterhaltung. 1898. pp. 

721-725, by E. Mogk.— Osterreich. Literaturblatt. 1898. p. i3fiF., by 

BjornM. Olsen.— Das litterarische Echo. I. 1898. pp. 35-39, by Camillo 

V. Susan. — Der Bote fiir deutsche Litteratur. 1898. pp. 7, by C. 

Kiichler. — Stimmen aus Maria Laach. 1898. pp. 84-87, by A. Baum- 

gartner. — Wiener neue freie Presse. Nov. 11, 1897, Abendblatt, by H. 

V. Lenk.— Isafold. XXIV. 1897. p. 265.— I>j6361fur. XLIX. 1897. pp. 

179-180. — Die neue Zeit. 1900. no. 311 (Eineneuentdecktegermanische 

Litteratur), by Erich Holm. ) 
Eislandsbliiten. Ein Sammelbuch neu-islandischer Lyrik. Mit einer 

kultur- und literarhistorischen Einleitung und erlautemden Glossen. 

Leipzig u. Miinchen, 1904. 8°. pp. xliv -|- 229. 


{Reviews: EimreiQin. XI. 1905. pp. 154-155, by Matth. Jochumsson.— 
Skfrnir. LXXIX. 1905. pp. 87-89, by Steingr. Thorsteinsson. — 
Deutsche Literaturzeit. XXVI. 1905. coll. 346-349, by Bernh. Kahle. ) 

Zur Geschichte des islandischen Dramas und Theaterwesens. Wien, 

1903. ( Vortrage u. Abhandlungen hrsgg. von der Leo-Gesellschaft. 20. ) 
8°. pp. 76. 

{Review: Deutsche Literaturzeit. XXV. 1904. coll. 1628-30, by B. 
Kahle. — Isafold. XXX. 1903. p. 290. — Bimrei9in. X. 1904, p. 236. — 
Iviterar. Centralbl. LVI. 1905. col. 171 1, by A. Gebhardt.) 

Drama und Theater auf Island. In Biihne und Welt. V. Jahrg. 

Berlin, 1902. 8°. pp. 190-197. 

Neueste islandische Litteratur. In Das Magazin fiir die Litteratur 

In- u. Auslandes. 4°. XCVII. Bd. 1880. p. 312 ; XCVIII. Bd. p. 581 ; 

CI. Bd. 1882. pp. 204-205 ; CII. Bd. 1882. pp. 727-730 ; CV. Bd. 1884. 

p. 77 ; CVII. Bd. 1885. pp. 355-357 ; CXVI. Bd. 1889. pp. 806-812, 


(Reviews of various Icelandic publications.) 
Rosenberg, Cari,. Nordboernes Aandsliv fra Oldtiden til vore Dage. 

III. Bind. Den gammel-lutherske Tidsalder. I. Af deling. Religiost Liv. 

Kjobenhavn, 1885. 8". pp. (4) + 587 + (7). 
Savi-Lopez, Maria. Letteratura islandese. In his Donne-Spiriti-Poeti. 

Firenze, 1895. pp. 89-129. 
Su^MUNDSSON, ToMAS. B6kmentirnar islendsku. In Fjolnir. V. ar. 

Kaupmannahofn, 1839. pp. 73-145. 
Schweitzer, Phii^ip. Geschichte der skandinavischen Litteratur von der 

Reformation bis auf die skandinavische Renaissance im 18. Jahrhundert. 

Leipzig, 1887. (Geschichte der Weltlitteratur in Einzeldarstellungen. 

Bd. VIII. 2.) 8°. pp. x + 272. 

Geschichte der skandinavischen Litteratur im 19. Jahrhundert. 

Leipzig. 1888. (Geschichte der Weltlitteratur in Einzeldarstellungen. 
Bd. VIII. 3. ) 8». pp. xxii -f 420. 

Island. Land und Leute. Geschichte, Litteratur und Sprache. 

Leipzig u. Berlin, 1885. 8". pp. viii + (2) -f 203. {See pp. 112- 

SiBBERN, NiEi/S Peter, idea historiae literarise Islandorum, breviter 
delineata. In J. C. H. Dreyer's Monumenta anecdota virorum post 
fata illustrium et clarorum, etc. Lubecae et Altonse, 1760. 4''. pp. 175- 
( Probably written chiefly by J6n 5>orkelsson Thorkillii. ) 

Stefansson, Vilhjai<mur. The newer literature of Iceland. In Poet- 
Lore. XV. I. Boston, 1904. 4°. pp. 62-76. 

Present-day literature of Iceland. Ibid. XV. 2. 1904. pp. 126-138. 

Stephensen, Magnus. Island i det attende Aarhundrede. Kjobenhavn, 

1808. 8°. pp. xxi 4-451- 

{See Island i videnskabelig Henslende, pp. 143-265. — There are two 

Icelandic editions of this work, both of 1806 : "Eptirmseli 18. aldar.") 


Thomsen, Grimur f>. Om Islands Stilling i det ovrige Skandinavien, 
fornemmelig i literaer Henseende. Et Foredrag. Kjobenhavn, 1846. 8°. 
pp. 35- 

Thoroddsbn, |>orvai;dur. Landfrsedissaga Islands, Hugmyndir manna 
um Island, ndttiiruskoflun og ranns6knir, fyrr og si9ar. Reykjavik 
and Kaupmannahofn, 1892-1904. 4 vols. 8". — German edition of vols, 
i.'ii.: Geschichte der islandischen Geographie. Autorisirte Ubersetzung 
von August Gebhardt. Leipzig, 1897-98. 2 vols. 8®. 
(Gives much information about certain phases of Icelandic literature, 
especially during the i6th, 17th, and i8th centuries.) 

Worm, Jens. Forsog til et Lexikon over danske, norske og islandske 
laerde Maend. Helsingoer and Kiobenhavn, 1771-84. 3 vols. 8®. 

I>ORKEi,ssoN, Jon. Digtningen p& Island i det 15. og 16. Arhundrede. 
Kjobenhavn, 1888. 8°. pp. (2) + ii + 516 4- (2). 

{Review: ( Dansk ) Historisk Tidsskrif t. 6. R. I. Bd. 1888. pp. 752-765, 
by Bogi Th. MelsteQ. — Stimmen aus Maria Laach 1889. pp. 95-98, by 
A. Baumgartner. — Literaturbl. f. german. u. roman. Philol. X. 1889. 
coll. 50-52, by W. Golther. — Magazin f. die Lit. des In- u. Auslandes. 
IvII. 1889. pp. 827-828, by J. C. Poestion.— Revue critique. XXVII. 
1889. pp. 269-271, by E. Beauvois.) 

Z Hermannsson, Halldor 

2604. Bibliography of the 

S3H4. mythical-heroic sagas